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Hon '" Horace AValt-oi.f, . 


\mm an O'ri^intil Heture.Jia'ifret fyXcharJt 



iaopal anD il^oble 2int\^oxsi 










" TfiCM chccu an calruUitvil for the cUmcU of the Ukr and inqiiiiUive ; they do not 
look up to the ahelvci.of whht Voltaire liapplly calb — la Dibnothcmcdu Monde. " 

See Vol II. i>.7D. 








The Editor takes the liberty of announcing 
to his readersj that the several Appendices 
of Lord Orfordj which could not legally be 
included in the previous impression^ are 
incorporated with the present. He has 
likewise introduced such corrections^ emend- 
ationSf and additions of his own^ as have 
occurred in the desultory reading of sixteen 
years ; and further this deponent sayeth 
not. Vale^ iterum vale. 

a 3 




Relying more on the liberal attentions 
experienced from my literary friends, in 
editing Harington's Nugce Antiquse, than 
on any presumed qualifications of my 
own, I undertook the arduous charge of 
preparing an extended edition of lord 
Orford's Royal and Noble Authors, 
which was to accompany a series of por- 
traits suitably engraven for the decoration 
of such a work. The extent of assist- 
ance from private libraries, communi- 
cated or proffered, having exceeded my 
previous expectations, an idea suggested 
itself, that I might, with advantage to the 
a 4 


book, enlarge upon lord Orford's plan of 
giving a Catalogue only of titled authors, 
by adding short Specimens of their per- 
formances, somewhat after the manner of 
Gibber's Lives of the Poets. This task 
of critical delicacy I have been wishful to 
perform, with a view to the reader's profit 
as well as the writer's fame ; not unaware 
that it may prove a thankless toil to cater 
for a multitude of palates : 

" since lie who writes 

Or makes a feast, more certainly invites 
His judges than his friends ; and not a guest 
But will find something wanting or ill drest." 

As lord Orford's Appendix to the post- 
humous edition of his Noble Authors, 
could not be transferred to the present, 
on account of purchased copyright; with 
the second impression printed forDodsley 
1 have little interfered, except by the cor- 
rection of inadvertences, or the insertion 
of casual omissions ; and except, that I 



have intermixed the peers and peeresses, 
as lord Orford had disposed the royal 
writers, in chronological succession. This 
seemed to promise a more agreeable di- 
versity in the iiyes and in the portraits. 
Such additional Viatter as my own re- 
searches or the kindness of others have 
enabled me to supply, is marked by the 
enclosure of brackets, and printed in a 
smaller type than the original text 
Mine, therefore, has become the ventur- 
ous essay of annexing an irregular colon- 
nade, in a |)lainer style of architecture, 
to lord Orford's glittering temple of pa- 
trician fame. 

Among tliose coadjutors who have af- 
forded most material aid to my sedulous 
endeavours, I have the satisfaction to 
name Isaac Reed, esq. whose biographical 
accuracy and bibliographical knowledge 
are rendered almost proverbial ; George 
Kills, esq., who has introduced the bards 
of elder time to courtly halls and ladies' 


bowers ; Sir Egerton Brydges, bart, who 
has imparted the animation of historic 
portraiture to his Memoirs of the Peerage; 
and Richard Gough, esq., the Camden of 
modern Britain. By the observant and 
retentive mind of Mr. Reed, and by the 
free communication of his lettered stores, 
essential services have been contributed. 
The recondite lore and poetic taste of 
JMr. Ellis have conferred upon the book 
its brightest ornament For much valu- 
able information in the latter portion of 
the work, I am indebted to the friend- 
ship of Sir E. Brydges ; and to Mr. 
Gough's obliging favour I owe the de- 
sirable introduction of various notes by 
Dr. Lort, Mr. Cole, Mr. Gyll, and the 
earl of Hardwicke. But there are many 
other friendly contributors to the con- 
tents of these volumes, whose names are 
incidentally noticed, and whose occasional 
aid I have been zealous to point out, 
wherever it may have occurred ; an act 


not only of grateful reminiscence, but of 
self-congratulation : to those numerous 
well-wishers I beg respectfully to offer 
this general acknowledgment. For the 
ready access which has been granted to 
the manuscript and printed treasures in 
the British Museum, my thanks are also 
publicly due to the reverend friends who 
presided over those departments. 

What personal health has permitted 
and family cares have allowed, what a 
love of literature partly incited to at- 
tempt, and what plodding perseverance 
has enabled me to accomplish, is sub- 
mitted with deference to the award of 
candour ; not without some apprehension 
of being blamed both for deficiencies and 
redundances, for having done too little 
or too much, according to individual bias 
for particular characters. To use the 
words of Harington, however, " If I 
have omitted any thing of note, or noted 
any thing superfluous," let either error 


be ascribed to human fallibility ; and let 
both be extenuated by a consideration of 
the multifarious reading it required, to 
do more for such a publication after lord 
Orford had done so much. Let doctor 
Johnson's sage remark serve also to 
relax the brow of hypercritical austerity, 
when he tells us, that even " Care will 
sometimes betray to the appearance of 
negligence ; since he who is searching 
for rare and remote things, is likely to 
neglect those which are obvious and 
fiimiliar ; while what is obvious is not 
always known, and what is known is not 
always present." The future suggestions 
of the intelligent will therefore be ac- 
ceptable, and may conduce toward the 
formation of an intended supplementary 


May 26. 1806. 




The compiler of the following list flatters 
himself^ that he offers to the public a pre- 
sent of some curiosity^ though perhaps of 
no great value. This singular Catalogue * 
contains an account of no fewer than ten 

3 [<< The author of this work (say the Critical Reviewers) 
is modest enough to call it a Catalogue; but we apprehend 
it might with more propriety be styled Characters : for we 
not only find a list of the works, but also a peremptory 
and decisive judgment passed upon the merit or demerit of 
each performance: nay, the same liberty is generally 
taken with the moral character of the author." — An 
anonymous writer of observations on the above Critical 
Review, remarked that ** Mr. Walpole had promised to 
give the world a Catalogue, and he gives them something 
more : he is better therefore than his word." Lord Orford, 
in his preface, announces that part of his design was to 
scrutinize Characters, and that he had allowed himself a 
sort of license for such a purpose. See p. xx.] 


English princes, and of above fourscore 
peers ^ who, at different periods, have 
thrown their mite into the treasury of 
literature. The number much exceeds 
what is generally known. — Perhaps the 
obscurity of some will not at first sight 
make a favourable impression on the 
mind of the reader, nor incline him to 
think that it was worth while to preserve 
the names of authors whose works have 
not seemed worth preserving. But when 
it is observed, that it has been impossible 
to recover even the titles of many pieces 
written by so masterly a genius as lord 
Somers, it may not be too favour- 

^ [So many princes and peers, as Mallet says, " have 
dipt at times their pens in ink," that this list is now aug- 
mented to seventeen royal and two hundred noble authors, 
or authoresses, in the English series ; while the Scotish 
includes of both ranks nearly fil^y, and the Irish about the . 
same number. Additional names have since occurred, 
and others will continue to be superadded by thuse whose 
connexions with the great, or whose associations with the 
learned, may be more extensive than ihe present editor 
can boast.] 



able a judgment to presume, that other 
able authors have met as unmerited 
a fate. As lord Somers's pieces were 
anonymous, we no longer know what to 
ascribe to him ; and one cannot help 
making an inference a little serere ; that 
the world is apt to esteem works more 
from the reputation of the author, than 
from their intrinsic merit. Another cause 
that has drawn oblivion over some of our 
catalogue, was the unfortunate age in 
which they appeared, when learning was 
but in its dawn, when our language was 
barbarous. How brightly would earl 
Rivers have shined, had he flourished in 
the polished £era of queen Anne ! How 
would the thoughts of Bolingbroke 
twinkle, had he written during the wars 
of Yoyk and Lancaster ! 

Be this as it may ; yet are there such 
great names to be found in this catalogue, 
as will excuse erecting a peculiar class for 


them ; Bacon, Clarendon, VilHers, duke 
of Buckingham, tlie latter lord Shaftes- 
bury, lord Herbert, lord Dorset, and 
others, are sufficient founders of a new 
order. Some years ago, nothing was more 
common than such divisions of writers. 
How many German, Dutch, and other 
heralds, have marshalled authors in this 
manner ! Balthazar Bonifacius made a 
collection of such as had been in love with 
statues* ; Ravisius Textor, of such as have 
died laughing* ; Vossius, of chronologers ; 
Bartholinus, of physicians who have been 
poets. There are catalogues of modern 
Greek poets ; of illustrious bastards ; of 
translators; ofFrenctimen who have stu- 
died Hebrew*; of all the authors bred at 
Oxford, by Anthony Wood ; and of Bri- 
tish writers in general, by Bale, Pitts, and 
bishop. Tanner. But if this collection, 

* Gen. Diet, vol.x. p.360. 
s Theatr. Hist. lib. ii. chap. 87. 
' In a book called Gallia Orientalit. 


fortified with such grave authorities, 
should still be reckoned trifling hy the ge- 
nerality ; it cannot, I would hope, but be 
acceptable to the noble families descended 
from tliese authors. Considering what trash 
is thought worthy to be hoarded by genea- 
logists, the following list may not be a 
despicable addition to those repositories. 
Of one use it certainly may be j— to assist 
future editors in publishing the works of 
any of tliese illustrious personages. 

In compiling this catalogue, I have not 
inserted persons as authors, of whom tliere 
is nothing extant but letters or speeches. 
Such pieces show no intention in the 
writers to have been authors, and would 
swell this treatise to an immense mag- 
nitude. Bishop Tanner has erected many 
kings and queens into authors on these 
and still slenderer pretensions, in which 
he surpasses even his bountiful prede- 
voi,. I. a 


cesser Bale.' According to the former, 
even queen Eleanor was an author, for 
letters whicli she is said to have writ- 
ten * ; and Edward the third, for his writs 
and precepts to sheriffs : but this is ridi- 

I have chosen to begin no higher than 
the Conquest, though the venerable name 
of Alfred did tempt me to add so great an 
ornament to my work : but as I should 
then not have known on what tera to fix ; 
and being terrified at finding I must have 
to do with another Alfred, king of Nor- 
thumberland, with Arviragus, Canute, 
nay, with that virago Boadicia, and king 
Bladud, a magician, who discovered the 

; [It was remarked with some truth by the Jate Mr. Rit- 
aon, that " lord Orford, both here and elsewhere, is very 
unjust to bishop Tanner ; whose extensive erudition and 
minute accuracy merited difieient treatment." MS. note.] 

« [See vol.i. p.l68.] 


Bath waters, and the art of flying', to all 
whom the bishop very gravely allots their 
niches ; I contented myself with a later 
period, whose commencement, however, 
as the reader will Hnd, is uncertain enough 
to satis ty any admirer of historic paradoxes 
and fables. 

■ One liberty I have taken, which is call- 
ing up by KTit, if I may say so, some eldest 
sons of peers, who never attained the title, 
as the earl of Surrey, and the lord Roche- 
ford, &c. In ranging the whole series, I 
have generally gone by the years of their 
deaths, except where they long outlived 
their significance, or the period in which 
they chiefly shone. 

" It seems he hatl a mind to pass for a god. luvltmg 
hia)ieo|ile to the cnpital to see aproof of bis divinity, after 
a few evolutions ii) the air, hie wings failed him, and he 
tuinblod upon the temple of Apollo, and brolce his neck ; 
which Iceland mciitioiis as a judgmenl ; allowing an ini- 
possibility, in order to get at a miracle. Vol. I. p. 1 1. 


I will not detain tlie reader any longer 
from what little entertainment he may find 
in the work itself, but to make an apology 
for freedoms I have taken of two sorts ; 
the one, with some historic names, whose 
descendants still exist. There are families 
mentioned in this work, whose first ho- 
nours were the wages of servility ; their 
latter, the rewards or ornaments of the 
most amiable virtues. It were an affront 
to the latter, to suppose that one is not at 
liberty to treat theformer as they deserved. 
No man who is conscious of the one can 
be solicitous about the other. Another 
sort of license I have allowed myself, is 
in scrutinizing some favourite characters; 
yet I never mean to offer my opinion but 
with submission to better judgments ; 
which I choose to say here, rather than 
repeat it tiresomely on every occasion. 
lliis fi-eedom of discussion on the dead of 
any rank, or however consecrated by the 


authority of great names, or even by the 
esteem of ages, every man ought to be at 
liberty to exercise. The greatest men cer- 
tainly may be mistaken ; so may even the 
judgment of ages, which often takes opi- 
nions upon trust. No authority, under 
DIVINE, is too great to be called in ques- 
tion ; and however venerable monarchy 
may be in a state, no man ever wished to 
see the government of letters under any 
form but that of a republic. As a citizen 
of that commonwealth, I propose my sen- 
timents for the revision of any decree, of 
any honorary sentence, as I think rit : my 
fellow- citizens, equally free, will vote ac- 
cording to their opinions. 

Thus much with regard to great names. 
As to any other notions which may clash 
with those ecMnmonly received or better 
established, let it be understood that I pro- 
pose my own with the same delcrence and 









I SHOULD be afraid to offer you the fol- 
lowing Work, if it was not written with 
the utmost impartiality towards all persons 
and parties*: it would be unpardonable 
to have a bias in a mere literary narrative. 

'^ [This earl of Hertford died June 14. 1794 ; and was 
succeeded by his eldest son, the late marquis. Hie 
family descent is traced from the dukes of Somerset, as 
may be seen in sir Egerton Brydges' edition of Collins's 
Peerage, vol. i.] 

3 [Notwithstanding this declaration, the Critical Re- 
viewers expressed themselves free enough to declare, that 

Yet some may think that I ought to be 
apprehensive of offering it to you from 
this very impartiality ; I mean, from the 
freedom with which I speak of your great 
ancestor, the protector Somerset. But 
whoever suspects you of unwillingness to 
hear truth, is little acquainted with you j 
— and, indeed, when you need not fear 
what truth can say of yourself, it would 
be too nice to feel for a remote proge- 
nitor ; especially as your virtues reflect 
back more honour to him than his splen- 
dour has transmitted to you. Whatever 
blemishes he had, he amply atoned, not 
only by his unhappy death, but by that 
beautiful humanity which prompted him 
to erect a court of requests in his own 
house to hear the suits, the complaints of 



ID their opinion the work abounded with the roost flagrant 
prejudices of education and party. Crit. Rev. for Dec. 
1 75 8.] 

* [Seeart. of Edward, duke of SomerBct, vol.i, p. 285.1 


If there were no other evident pro- 
priety, my lord, in my presenting you with 
any thing that I should wish were valu- 
able, the poor would bear testimony that 
an encomium on the Protector's benevo- 
lence can be no where so properly ad- 
dressed as to the heir of his goodness. 

I am, my Lord, 

Your Lordship's 

Most affectionate 

Humble Servant, 






lUn/al Authors of England, 

Died Pa^ 

xliCHARD the first •••••-••..••••••••••••••••••••••••••— 1199 1 

Edward the second 1S27 16 

Richard the second 1S99 19 

Henry the sixth ^..m.... ^.•....^•... 1461 21 

Henry the eighth ..•..•.•......••...•^•...•.....•..•.•..•., 1547 24 

Queen Anne Boleyn • 1536 38 

Queen Catherine Parr — a^... 1548 46 

Edward the sixth ..-.•••...^ 1553 56 

Queen Mary • 1558 70 

Queen Elizabeth ;. ^ 1603 84 

James the first - 1625 113 

Charles the first 1648 134 

Princess Elizabeth (queen of Bohemia) 1662 146 

Charles the second 1685 154 

James the second 1701 158 

Queen Mary the second 16d4 168 

Frederick, prince of Wales 1751 171 

Charles, duke of Orleans and Milan ............ 1399 174 

Nohk Authors of Ettgland. 

Died Pi 

Henry Plantagenet, first duke of Lancaster... 1361 18T 

Sir John Montacute, earl of SaliBbury «. 1399 191 

Edward Plantagenet, duke of York 1415 209 

Sir John OldcaBtle, lord Cobham 1417 212 

Humprey Plantagenet, duke of GlouccEtcr... 1447 223 

John Uptoft, earl of Worcester 1470 225 

Antony Widville, earl Rivers 1483 233 

Margaret Beaufort, countess of Richmond and 

Derby 1S09 2OT 

Nicholas Vqux, lord Vaux 153* S61 

JohQ Bourchier, lord Berners 1532 26i 

George Boleyn, viscount Hocheford 1536 272 

John Lumley, lord Lumley 153C 278 

Henry Howard, earl of Surrey .- 1547 2S1 

Edmund Sheffield, lord Sheffield 1548 305 

Sir Thomas Seymour, lord Seymour of Sudley 1549 306 

Edward Seymour, duke of Somerset „.... 1552 312 

Joanna [Frances], lady Bergavenny „.». ' 324 

Lady Jane Grey [Dudley] 1554 328 

Thomas Vaux, lord Vaux of Harwedon 1555 339 

Henry Parker, lord Morley 1556 34S 

Mary Fitzalian, dacheM of Norfolk 1557 35+ 





Richard the first ••••, 1 

Edward the second ••••- 16 

Richard the second 19 

Henry the sixth • 21 

Henry the eighth 24< 

Queen Anne Boleyn •.•••• 58 

Queen Catherine Parr -« 46 

King Edward the sixth ^ 56 

Queen Mary • •*.. 70 

Queen Elizabeth- —••••• 84 

James the first. • 113 

Charles the first......— «••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••— 134< 

Queen of Bohemia................................*.......*............ 146 

Charles the second................................................... 154 

James the second...................................................... 158 

Queen Mary the second.. 168 

Frederick) prince of Wales....................................... 171 

Charles, duke of Orleans.......................................... 174 

Henryi first duke of Lanca8ter...M 187 

• • 


Sir John Oldcastle, lord Cobham ..^ 212 

Humphrey, duke of Gloucester ••••«•••••••••••••••••••••••-• 223 

Antony Widville, earl Rivers.................... 233 

Margaret) countess of Richmond.............. 250 

Nicholas, lord Vaux ••.•••.«••• 261 

Henry Howard, earl of Surrey •..•••••••...« 281 

Edward Seymour, duke of Somerset •.••••••••••••••••••••.. 312 

Joanna, lady Bergavenny 324 

Xjady «iane \jrey ff...ff.t.....t.*«..t...*«M.M......*«.« %jJto 







Though Henry the first obtained the fair ap- 
pellation of BeauclerCi or the Learned, yet has 
no author, I think, ascribed any composition to 
him. ^ Considering the state of literature in 
tliat age, one may conjecture what was the erudi- 
tion of a prince to whom the monks (the doc- 
tors of his time!) imparted a title so confined to 
their own brotherhood. One is more surprised 
to be obliged to attribute the first place in 
this catalogue to his fierce great-grandson, 
Cocur do Lion ! It is asserted, that towards 

Q Bishop Tanner, in hut " Dibliothcca Britounica," has ranked 
Henry among hb authors ; but I cannot so lightly call him one, 
as the bishop does after Leland, on the latter haying discovered 
in St. Austin's church at Dover a book composed from laws or 
decrees elucidated and enacted by that king, vide p.'95.; aor is it 
sufficient that bisliop Bale says lie wrote epistles to Anselm. » 

VOL. I. B 


the end of his father*s reign, which his rebel 
temper disturbed, he lived much in the courts 
of tlie princes of Provence, learned their lan- 
guage, and practised their poetry, then called 
the gay science \ and the standard of politeness 
of that age. The English, who had a turn to 
numbers, are particularly said to have culti- 
vated that dialect, finding their own tongue 
too stubborn and inflexible. 

Mr. Rymer, in his Short View of Tragedy^ 
is earnest to assert the pretensions of this mo- 
narch as a poet, against Roger Hoveden the 
monk, who, he supposes, was angry at the king's 
patronizing the Provencal bards, reckoned of 
the party of the Albigenses, then warring on 
the pope and France. Hoveden says positively, 
that Richard, to raise himself a name, bought 
and begged verses and flattering rhymes, and 
drew over singers and jesters from France, to 

' {Cinthio Giraldi suppoiicd that the 
commonl; callml the gay t^enee, 
Prance to the Italians and sflerword 
»aj9 Mr.Warton, may perhapi be true 
03 the Spaniards bad their juglaret, ' 
early, as from long connexion thej 


of the troubadoim, 
communicated from 
a the Spaniards. This, 
but at the same time, 
r convivial bords, very 
immediately acquainted 


with the fictions of the Arabians, and as they were naturally 
fond of chivalry, it is highly probable that the troubadours 

Hist, of Eng. Poetry, vol. i. p. I 


cliant panegyrics on him about the streets*, and 
it was every where said, that the world con- 
tained nothing like him. Tliis account seems 
more agreeable to the character of that am- 
bitious, restless monarch, whose vagrantpassion 
for fame* let him, in a reign of ten years, 
reside but eight months in his own kingdom, 
than Mr. Hymer's", who would metamorphose 
him into the soft lute-loving hero of poesy, and 
at the same time ascribes to liim connexion.s 
with a faction at variance with the king ol' 
France, his ally, against his father. ' 

However, since this article was written, I 
Iiave ibund great reason to believe that Richard 
was actually an author. Crescimbeni, in his 

• [Whet Lord Urfcfril ha» liere uiiplicil 19 Iticbortl, will l)c 
round a|iplii'ii in Hnvedeii to William Longchamp, bii)liii|i of 
Kly, who fi>r liii cruelly an<l tyranny in England, inya Fnbinn, 
WW by tCrength of the lords put out o( llie land. Hia lonlshlp'i 
haUuci^tion may pouiblyhuvuari&cnlroni glancing at the ruDuing 
title of the book inateiul of the title to the letter, where the posjagc 
he bu cited occum. Vid. Riiruin Anglic. Script, p. 703,) 

^ [The laint-emtDtr)' of Richard, aayi Mr. Granger, wu pro* 
ductive of much misery to huubelf aad bis subjects i and is an 
instance, among a thousand othera, that olleiiuve and enter- 
priung valour may be a wane quality than cowardice it^lf. 
Biog. Hist. vol. i. p. 8.] 

" Not to mention how much nenrer to the time the niouL 
lived than Mr. Rymi 

II. Dii't. vol. i: 

p. -JDX. 


Commentary on the Lives of the Provencal 
Poets, says, that Richard being struck with 
the sweetness of that tongue, set himself to 
compose a sonnet in it, which he sent to the 
princess Stephanetta, wife of Hugh de Baux, 
and daughter of Gisbert the second count of 
Provence. * He says afterwards, in a chapter 
expressly written on this king, that residing in 
the court of Raimond Berlinghieri, count of 
Provence, he fell in love witli the princess 
Leonora ^ one of that prince's four daughters, 
whom Richard afterwards married : that he 
employed himself in rhyming in that language, 
and when he was prisoner, composed some 
sonnets which he sent to Beatrix countess of 
Provence, sister of Leonora, and in which he 
complains of his barons for letting him lie 
in captivity. Crescimbeni quotes four lines, 
which are nearly the same with a part of the 
sonnet itself, as it still exists ; and which is so 
poor a composition, as far as 1 can decipher it. 

• Gen. IKct. vol. u, p. lo. 

' [This princeu m reported by <lu Verdier to have sent the 
king, ' un beau romant, en rime Provenfalle, ties anioiin de 
Blandin de Corneille et de Guilhen da Myremss, des beaux 
faicts d'armes qu'JIs fireiit Tun pour la belle Bryande, et I'autre 
pour la belle Irlaode, dames d'icconi parable beauts." Bibli- 
oibeque, p. laai,] 


that it weighs \vitli me more thanCrescimbeni's 
authority, or Rymer's arguments, to believe it 
of his majesty's own fabric. Otlierwise, Cre- 
scimbeni's account is a heap of blunders. 
Richard married Berengaria, daughter of San- 
cho king of Navarre ; and no princess of Pro- 
vence." In the lite of the very Raimond here 
mentioned, p. 76.,Crescimbeni makes the same 
Eleanor, wife of Edward III. and Sanchia, the 
third daughter, wife of Richard I., to whom this 
author had before allotted her sister Eleanor, 
and which king was great uncle of Edward III. 
whom this miserable historian mistakes for Ed- 
ward I. as he certainly does Richard I. for his 
nephew Richard king of the Romans. Cre- 
scimbeni informs us that there are poems of 
oiir king Richard in the library of St. Lorenzo 
at Florence, " in uno de' codici Provenzali ;" 
and others " nel No. 3204., della Vaticana." 
I have had both repositories carefully searched. 

■J [Some love-nfliiir, olitcrvw l{ilM>n, lictwcun him unJ one of 
the princwsw of Provence, tiwy, nercrthckii, have taken place. 
Il may be tu\iled at tile !iame time, lliut Itichord carl of Corn- 
wall, king oT the Romani, brotiier to lli'iiry III. aciunlly marriL-d 
Kuni'hia, ilwighlcr of RaLnoncf earl of Provence, and that he 
il nerMionalty confoundcil by foreign writen with Rtchitrd I. 
Another ilnughtcr at [taitnonil wtu mnrrioil to Henry III. ]}i>- 
KTtntiim on Koniiuicc niiil Minstrel.y, p. Ixxxiv.j 


The reference to the Vatican proves a new in- 
accuracy of this author : there is no work of 
king Richard. In page 71., of No. Saoi-., there 
is a poem by Richauts tie Verbeil ; and, page 
108., another by Richauts de Terascon ; with 
short accounts of each author pre6xed to their 
sonnets, but without the least mention of any 
royalty belonging to them. 

In the Laurentine library is the king's son- 
net mentioned above, which I have twice had 
transcribed with the greatest exactness ; and 
as it has never been printed', so ancient and 
singular a curiosity will probably be accept- 
able to the reader. I do not pretend to give 
him my interpretation, as I am sensible it is 
very imperfect j and yet I think I understand 
the drift of every stanza but the last, which 
has proved totally unintelligible to every per- 
son that has hitherto seen it. 

" ^Biblioth. Laura. Plut. XLI. cod. 42. 

> [Mr. Douce, whose accurate observation enabteil him to detect 
the mistake of Lord Orford in p. 3^ has shewn me that king 
Richard's song wns published by madaine L'Heritier de Villandet), 
in " LaTour t^iii;breu«," 1705. The book is particularly curioui 
as conlmning two pieces of poetry by Richard I. which hod not 
belbre l)een printed. A specimen of one of these is inserted in 
Inshi^ Percy's erudite Essay on the ancient Minstrels, prefixed 
10 his Rcliquc!! of Engliiih Poetrj', vol. j. p. xxxv.] 

sent from Klurence with the sonnet. 


membran. in folio, p. 184.| ben conservato : 
fine aUa pagina 73* sono poesie Provenzali/' 


Ja nii8 horn pris non dira sa rabon 
Adreitament) se com hom dolent non ; 
Mas, per confort, pot il faire chanson. 
Pro ai d'amis, mas povre son H don ! 
Onta i avron, se, por ma r^zon 
Soi fai do6 yver pris* 

^ Or sachon ben mi hom, & mi baron, 
Engles, Norman, Pettavin, et Guascon, 
Qe ge n'avoie si povre compagnon,' 
Q*en laissasse, por aver, en preison. 
Ge n*el di pas por nulla retruson ; 
Mas anquar soi ge pris ! 

J'ansaien^ de ver, certahament, 
Com mort| ne pris, n'a amie ne parent ; 

» [N. B. The s throughout thit song hat frequently the power 
ofdk. G.Ellit.] 

Thb it the stanza quoted by Cresdmbeni. [Du Verdier printt 
it thus: 

Or aachan ben mo« horns, e mos barons, 
Angles, Normans, Feytavins, e Gascons, 
Qu'yeu non ay ja si pavre compagnon. 
Que per aver loulaiss en preson. 

Bibliotheque, ubi sup.] 

7 [A more modernised copy of this song was printed in ** €•• 

talogtts CocBcum MS6. Bibliothecs Bemensis, ^ J. R. Sinner,** 

from a manuscript of the thirteenth century, in which this 

verse begins — "Or sai je bien'*— and this reading, says Mr. EUis^ 

B 4 


tutto fedele, secondo il parere anco del caoo- j 
nico Bandiul bibliotecario." 

[Of king Richard's celebrated song on imperfect j 
French translation, in prose, appeared in " Histoire , 
litteraire des Troubadours," 1774, compiled from the 
manuscripts of M. de St. Palnye ; and an English 
version was attempted by the learned Dr. Bumey, 
and printed in his History of Music, vol, ii. But a 
more faithhil, and at the same time a more poetical* 
translation has been made at my particular request, by 
the accomplished editor of Mr. Way's Fabliaux and 
English Specimens, &c. which I have the pleasure 
of placing before the curious in poetic lore, who may 
soon look for more extended gratification from his 
analyses of early metrical romances. 


If captive wight attempt the tuneful strain, 
Hifl voice, belike, full dolefully will ^ound ; 

Yet, to the sad, tis comfort to complain. 
Friends have I store, and promises abound ; 

Shame on the niggards ! since, these winters twain 

Unransom'd, still I bear a tyrant's chain. 

Full well they know, my lords and nobles all, 
Of England, Normandy, Guienne, FoJctoUi 

Ne'er did I slight my poorest vassal's call, 

But all, whom wealth could buy, from chains withdrew. 

Not in reproach I speak, nor Idly vain, 

But 1 alone unpitied btar the cliaJn. 


My fate will show, " the dungeon and the grave 
Alike repel our kindred and our friends," 

Here am I left their paltry gold to save I 

Sad fate is mine ; but worse their crime attendi. 

Their lord will die; their conscience shall remain, 

And tell how long I wore this galling chtun. 

No wonder though my heart with grief boil o'er, 
When he, my perjur'd lord, invades my lands ; 

Forgets he then the oaths he lately swore. 

When both, in treaty, join'd our plighted hands? 

Else, sure I ween, I should not long remain, 

Unpitied here to wear a tyrant's chain. 

To those my friends, long lov'd, and ever dear, 
To gentle Chai'll, and kind Persarain, 

Go forth my song, and say, whale'cr they hear, 
To them my heart was never false or vain. 

Should they rebel — but no ; their souls disdain 

With added weight to load a captive's chain. 

Know then the youths of Anjou and Tourainc, 

Those lusty bachelors, those airy lords. 
That these vile walls their captive king restrain 7 

Sure they in aid will draw their loyal sworde ! 
Alas ! nor faith, nor valour, now remain ; 
Sighs are but wind, and I must bear my chain. 

The last litanzo, in its present state, has so little 
meaning, that Mr. Ellis has not attempted to versify 
it. His conjectural emendation, however, is highly 
itigeiiious nnil estimable. 




Mr. Warton ^ has recorded from Rymer'', that 
Savarie de Mauleon, an English gentleman who lived 
in the service of St. Loitis, king of France, and one 
of the Provencal poets, smd of Richard, 

Coblas a teira faire adroitcment 
Pou vos oillez enten dompna gentilz. 

*' He could make stanzas on tlie eyes of gentle ladies." 
Proof of this seems to be afforded by the ancient 
fragment of a song, composed by himself and the 
minstrel Blondell de Nesle, which led to the discovery 
of the former, when held in secret custody by Leopold 
duke of Austria.* 

Richard was killed by the French at Chaluz, from 
the shot of a cross-bow *, a machine which he often 
worked skilfully with his own hands ; and Guillaume 
le Breton, in his Latin poem called Phiilippeis, intro- 
duces Alropos making a decree, that Richard should 
die by no other means than by a wound from this . 
destructive instrument ; the use of which, after it had 
been interdicted by the pope in 1 1 39, he revivetl, and 
is supposed to have shown the French in the crusades.^ 

i Hist, of Eng. Poetrj', vol.i. p. 115. 

' Short View of Tragedy, p. 75. 

* See Percy's Essay on the ancient Miustrds, p. xxxv., and 
note to WHiton't poein of ibc Crusade. 

> It it highly honourable to the menior]' of this r^al hero, 
that he had the generosity to pardon the ari'lier who winged (he 
mortiJ shaft, and ordered him lo rccdvc a hunilred shillings, 
See Strutt's Reg. and Ectles. Antiq. p. ao. 

^ War 

's Reg. a 

in's HiM. uhi sup. p. isc. 



When pronounced pasl recovery of his woHiiti, he be- 
(jueathed to hu rebelliuus brotlier John his kingdom of 
England, and all his other territories, and made those 
who were present take the oath of allegiance to him. 
He directed that his brains, his blood, and his en- 
trails, should be buried at Chaluz, his heart at Rouen, 
and his body at Font Evrand, at the feet of his father.' 
HediedatGizors, Aprils, 1199, attlieogeof 42; and 
his body and his heart were buried as directed. See 
his monument in Sandtbrd, and in Mont&ucon, wliere 
also is the monument of his second wife Elizabeth, 
which has been copied in Ducarel's Anglo-Norman An- 
tiquities, with the effigies of his wile Berengera, taken 
from her tomb in the abbey of I'Espaii near Mans.^ 

This gallant monarch, says Ititson, himself a cele- 
brated poet, as well in Norman as in Provencal, wa> 
the subject of several romances. Leland found the 
" Historia de Bicardo Rege, Carmine scripta," in the 
library of Croyland abbey ; and in that of the abb^ 
of Glastonbury, were the " Gesla Ricardi" regislerei. 
Both these, no doubt, were a romance, or two different 
romances, in the French language. A copy of the 
same poem, or some other on tlie same subject, is n 
the hbrary of Turin.® In sir John Paston's inven- 
tory of his English books, temp. Edv. IV., " Kyig 
Ri. Cur de Lyon'"' is entered. This was printed by 

I Hoveilcn, Annal. p.450. 

" Nichols's CoIIcctioii or Royal and Noble Willt, p. I 

RitMn'i Disscrtution, ubi sup. p.lxxxv. 

'' Puioii Letters, vol. ii. p. 300. 



Wynken ile Woitle, in 1 S2S, and is largely extracted 
from by our poetical historian in the first volume of 
Vis valuable work. 

RichaiiJ, says Mr. Warton, is the last of our mo- 
narchs whose achievements were adorned with (iction 
and fable." Du Cange recites an old French manu- 
script prose romance, entitled " Histoire de la Mort 
■de Richard Roy d'Angleterre." There was one, per- 
liaps the same, among the manuscripts of die late 
Mr. T. Martin, of Palgrave, in Suffolk : and in the 
library of Caius college, Cambridge, is a manuscript 
romance in English rhyme, endtled " Richard Cuer 
di Lyon'," which accords with the copy printed by 
de Worde, Warton adds *, that the victorious achieve- 
ments of Richard I. were so famous in the reign of 
Hairy III. as to be made the subject of a picture in the 
rojal palace of Clarendon, near Salisburj'; Duellum 
regis Ricardi. Richard performed great feats at the 
siege of Antioch, in the crusade ; and lord Orford, in 
his Anecdotes of Painting^ notices a certain great 
book, borrowed for queen Eleanor, written in French, 
cortmning " Gesta Antioch^ et Regum aliorum, &c. :" 
this, he concludes, comprised an account of the cni- 
sa^g exploits ; the history of which was ordered by 

) In the royal library at Paris, v 

m " Hkto 

re dc Richard Aot 


en rime." This 

Maquemore, according to Rit:>oii, 

was Denuo 

111 Mac Moroiigh, 

king of Lcinster. 

• Hist, ubi su|i. p. 119. 

* Pagi;li4. 


Henry III. to be painted in the Tow^r, and in a low 
chamber in the old palace of Westminster, which 
room was to be thenceforward called the Antioch 

Among the Cotton manusicripts^ is preserved ** Id- 
nerarhmiy sive Oesta Ricardi L Regis Anglias in 
JudsHt; per Ricardum Canonicum S. Trinitatis, 
London." To this Itmerary is prefixed, 



** Scrftitur hoc auro rex auree : laus tua tota: 

Anrea materiem conveniente nota. 
Laus lua prima fiiit ; Sicuii Cypres altera dromo ; 

Tertia carvanna; quarta ftuprema lope. 
Retrusi Sicuii Cypros petsimdata dromo, 

Mbrsus canranna capta recenta lope." 

The capture of Ja£h, olim Joppa, was one of the 
feats achieved by this romantic monarch, whose ex- 
ploits in Pidestine are briefly enumerated by our his- 
torian of the Roman empire.® Chatterton also made 
them the subject of Rowley's second edogue, and de-. 
picted his hero 

Kynge Rycharde, lyche a lyoncel of warre, 

Inne sheenynge goulde, lyke feerie gronfers dyghte.^ 

7 Faustina, A. Tii. 

« VoI.xL p.M6. 

» Sonthey's edit, vol.ii. p. is. 


liiSHOi' Tanneb says', that in the Heralds' 
Office is extant, in manuscript, a Latin poem, 
written by this unhappy prince, while a 
prisoner, the title of which is, 

" Lamentatio gloriosi Regis Edwardi de 
Carnarvon, quam edidit Tempore suae Incar- 

As this king never showed any symptoms of 
affection to literature, as one never heard of his 

^having the least turn to poetry, I should believe 

Jiat this melody of a dying monarch is about as 

Authentic as that of the old poetic warbler, the 

wan, and no better founded than the title of 

^Gloriosi. His majesty scarcely bestowed this 
epithet on himself in his affliction ; and who- 
ever conferred it, probably made him a present 

Lof the verses too. If they are genuine, it is 

'. extraordinary that so great a curiosity should 
never have been published. However, while 
there was this authority, he was not to be omitted. 

[What lord Orford considered as very dubiuble, 
Fabian seems to have ascertained, !n the tbliowing ex- 
tract ^m his Chronicle^ : 

« P.a53. ' Edit. 1559. voI.ii.p.l35. 


*^ Then Edward remaining in prison, as first in the 
castel of KenelwArth, and after in the castel of Barkle, 
took greate repentaunce of hys former lifis, and made a 
lamentable complainte for that he had so grevously 
ofiended God ; whereof a part I have set out, but not 
all, lest it shoulde bee tedious to the readers or hearers. 

** Damnum mihi contulit ^ tempore brumali 
Fortuna^ satis aspera vehementis mali. 
Nullus est tarn sapiens, mitis, aut formosus, 
Tarn prudens virtutibus ceterisque ^ famosus, 
Quin stultus reputabitur, et satis despectus, 
Si fortiina prosperos avertat effectus.*' 

" These, wjrth manye other after the same ma- 
kynge," adds the chronicler, " I have seene, whyche 
are reported to bee of hys owne makynge, in the tyme 
of hys emprysonment" 

Through the liberal kindness of Edmund Lodge» 
esq. Lancaster herald, I have had an opportunity of 
inspecting the Latin poem referred to by bishop Tan- 
ner, among the manuscripts in the college of arms, 
and I find it to be a copy of the same production 
which Fabian has cited ; and which, as Mr. Barring- 
ton remarks, if it do not prove the monarch a poet, 
yet places his scholarship out of doubt. The speci- 
men, however, selected by Fabian, promises to be 
more creditable to the writer, and satisfactory to the 
reader, than the entire monkish original would prove, 

♦ Condgit, MS. ^ Forma, iH. «* Ceteris, ib. 

VOL. I. C 



which extends to 118 line«. Mr. Andrews, in his 
entertaining History, has offered tlte following imi- 
tatioD of the preceding extract: 

On my devoted head 

Her bitterest showers, 
All from a wintry cloud. 

Stem fortune pours. 
View but her favourite, 

Sage and discerning, 
Grac'd with fieur comeliness, 

Fam'd for his learning. 
Should she withdraw her smile, 

Each grace she banishes, 
Wisdom and wit are flown. 

And beauty vanishes.^ 

Mr. Douce has pointed out the following article, 
apparently by this prince, in a manuscript that had 
belonged -to sir Henry Spelman, and was sold with the 
rest of his collection in 1709. 

« De la Roi Edward le Fiz Roi Edward, le Chan- 
Son qe il fist mesmes.''] 

7 Hist.ofG.B. vol. i. p. 346. 



[Seems to claim insertion a^ongtbe kingty atuthofs 
for having ^^ made ballads and songs, rondeaus and 
poems.'' ^ This information is derived from a most 
curious and splendidly illuminated manuscript, in 
Bibl. Harl. 1SI9, of which great use was made by 
Mr. Strutt in his Regal and Ecclesiastical Antiquities. 
The manuscript is thus described, ^' Histoire du Roy 
d'Angleterre Richard: traictant partictdierement la 
Rebellion de ses Subjectz et Prinse de sa Personne, Sec 
Compost parun GentiUiommePran^ois de marque, 
qui ftit a la Suite du diet Roy, avec permission du Roy 
de France," 1399. It contains the history of the 
latter part of the reign of Richard the second, and 
closes with the delivering up of Isabel, the young 
queen of England, to the commissioners of her father, 
Charles the sixth of France. ^ In sect. vi. fol. 1 7., after 
describing, with high eulogium, the amiable qualities 
and polite accomplishments of this unfortunate mo* 
narch \ the writer proceeds to inform us, 

% Another tiighc iataiMitioa that our tecood Richard was a 
venifier, occurs in archlnshop Usher's letters, where sir Robert 
Cotton requests his grace to procure for him a poem bj Richard 
the second, which that prelate had pointed out. 

» Reg. and EocL Antiq. vol. L p. 6$. 

* A short poem in Had. MS. SS51., ascribed to Lydgyite, ha# 
the following descriptive representation of Richard the second : 

C 2 


' Et e'l faisoit balades & chansons, 
Roodeaulx &]tdz, 
Tres bien & bel : si n'eatoit il que horns li 

It will be matter of regret to the poetic antiquary, 
that none of these lays have descended to us. 

In the *' Ladies' Dictionary," compiled by N. H. 
1694, we meet with intelligence which, if chronology 
permitted us to credit, would be highly interesting. 
*' Henry the fifth," it is said, " whilst prince of 
Wales, admiring the courage and conduct of a famous 
virago, named Elphletda, (sister to Edward, a Saxon 
king, and wife to Etheldred, duke of Mercia,) is re- 
ported to have made certain Latin verses in commend- 
ation of her." Lord Orford seems disposed to think 
that these verses might have been a collegiate exer- 

Se how Hichanl, of Albyoun the kyng, 

Whiche in his lyme riche end glorious was. 

Sacred with abyte, with corowne, and witti ryng; 

Yet felle his fortune so, and eke his cas. 

That ivil counaoile rewlyd hym so, elas [ 

For niystretyng lordis ofhio monarchic. 

He fayne was to resigne, and in prisoun dye. 
Ferrers has a poem in the Mirror for Magistrates, which re- 
counts " How king Richard tlie second was for hi» evill govem- 
BDce deposed, in tlie yeare 1399, and murdered in prison the 
jeare following." The authors who lived nearest to his own 
tune, says Granger, inrorm us that he was starved to deatb- 
FUdan, Walsinghani, and Hector Boethiiu, it may be observed, 
give a different t( ' ' 

1 See Works, 

.. p. 255, 


AifJUr/ ^.Si-it*ti .0-.. 



[Came to the crown in 1422, encountered the con- 
spiracy of the house of York in 1450, was deposed in 
1460, restored in 1470, deposed again, and murdered 
in 1471, at the age of fifty. 

Lord Orfbrd gave a curious plate in his Anecdotes 
of Painting, representing the marriage of Henry the 
sixth ; and sir John Fenn has ornamented vol. i. of 
the Paston Letters with a whole-length portrait of this 
prince, at a later period of his calamitous reign, firom 
a drawing in his own possession. Several other repre- 
sentations occur in Strutt's Regal and Ecclesiastical 
Antiquities, firom illuminations in the royal library. 

The following ^^ prettie versse" attributed to this 
reiral martyr, in an old manuscript, was transcribed 

fiither's hand-writing, and imparted to prince Henry, 
in a letter dated 1609. ^* The verse, says sir John, I 
did mean to presente your highnesse with, is as now 
doth foUowe, and well suteth the temper and condition 
of him who made it : 

Kingdomes are but cares. 
State ys devoid of staie, 
. Ryches are redy snares, 
And hastene to dccaic. 

C 3 


Plesure ys a pryvie prycke 

Wieii vyce doth stjll provoke ; 
Pompe, unprompt ; and fame, a flame ; 

Powre, a smouldrjing Btnoke. 

Who meenethe to remooie the rocke 

Owtc of the slymie »mdde. 
Shall myre hymselfe, and hardjie scapt: . 

The awellynge oi' the flodde."- , 

These lines are remarked by lord Orfbrd to be *' me- 
lancholy and simple, its we should expect, and not 
Ijetter than a saint might compose,"' They are fol- 
lowed, however, by two mora! sentences in prose* 
which merit a less equivocal commendation. 

" Patyence ys the armore and conqueste of the 

' These stanzas, I have IhIeIj discovered, form part of a po«- 
ticsl legend in the Mirror for Ua^strstcs, 1559, which n 
" How king Henry the Byxt, a vratuous prince, > 
uther miseries, cruelly murdered in the lower of LoikioD." 
I'ar they ore likely to have been the composition of the ir 
himself, may, therefore, become a ilispiitable point. In an 
stanza, Henry is made to exclaim, 

" Would God the rufull toumbe had bene my rojidl trone, 
So should no kingly charge have made me make my n 
O ! that my soule hod Aowen to heaven with the joy. 
When one sort cryed, God save the king! another, ViveleroyP' 
The pious resignation of this prince was so retnarkahle, that 
when in the most distressful state, reft of his crown, and a 
prisoner to his worst enemies, he would offer up his thanki to 
Heaven for these miafortones, since he was led to hope by nich 
Icmporal sufferings he might escape the punishment due to fail 
sin^ in another world. Sec Andrews' Hbt. vol.ii. p. 88. 
' Works, loLi. p. 526. 


godlie: thys merytythe merde, when cawdesse ys 
sofiered sorrowe." 

" Noughte els ys warre bote fiirie and madnesse, 
whereyn ys not advyse, bote rashnesse; not ryghte, 
bote rage, rulethe and raignethe." Henrie.^ 

In a nianu8crq)t manual which was in the posses- 
sion of the late Dr, Pegge, that learned antiquary has 
pointed out 

" A Prayer by Henry VI. of England."* 

A monk's cowl, says Granger, would have fitted this 
prince's head much better than a crown. ® Though he 
might have made an amiable prelate, adds Mr. An- 
drews, he appeared completely misplaced when on a 
r^;al throne : yet whatever cruelties were acted in his 
reign, must be charged to the account of his masculine 
consort, Margaret; Henry would not have hurt the 
meanest reptile.^] 

« Nuge Antiquai, toI.L p. 586. edit. 1804. 
» See Gent Mag. vol. zliz. p. 25. 
« Biog. Hilt. ¥01.1. p. 19. 
7 Hitt.of G.B.ubiiiip. 

C 4 


As all the successors of this prince owe their 
unchangeable title of Defender OF theFaith' 
to iiis piety and learning, we do not presume'to 
question his pretensions to a place in this cata- 
logue. Otiierwise, a little scepticism on his 
majesty's talents tor such a performance, mean 
as it is, might make us question whether he did 
not write the Defence of the Sacraments against 
Lutlier, as onc^ of his successors is supposed to 
have written the Encm BwriAixij ; that is, with 
the pen of some court prelate.^ It happened 
unfortunately, that the champion of the church 
neither convinced his antagonist nor himself. 
Luther died a heretic ; his majesty would have 
been one, if he had not erected himself into the 
headof that very church which he had received 
so glorious a compUment for opposing. But by 
a singular felicity in the wording of the title, it 

' [This title was given to Henry by Leo the tenth. Clement 
ihc Bcvcntb added to it, Ltberalor Urbit Rotnanie.'] 

' Saundere and Bellannine ascribed it to bishop Fisher, other* 
to sir Thomas More. Vide Ld. Herbert's Life of Hen. VIll. 

p. <i.'0. [Vide ariidc of Cha. l] 




suited Henry equally well, when he burtled 
papists or protestants ; it suited each of his 
daughters, Mary and Elizabeth ; it fitted the 
martyr Charles, and the profligate Charles; 
the Romish James, and the calvinist William : 
and at last seemed peculiarly adapted to the 
weak head of high-church Anne. 

The work I have mentioned was printed in 
quarto by Richard Pinson, with this title : 

« Assertio septem Sacramentonim adversus 
Martyn Lutherum, edita ab invictissimo An- 
glise & Franciffi Rege & Do. Hybemias Hen- 
rico ejus Nominis octavo." It ends, " Apud 
inclytam urbem Londinum, in asdibus Fyhsoni* 
anis, anno m.d.xxi. quarto idus Julii. Cum 
j)rivilegio a rege indulto. Editio prima." * 4to. 

Luther not only treated this piece of royal 
theology in a very cavijier manner**, but (which 
seems to have given the most offence) ascribed 
it to others. The king, in the year 1535, re- 
plied iif a second piece, entitled, 

^ Ames's Typogr. Antiq. p. 1S8. 

^ [Luther possessed great tilents, with an unconquerable spirit 
of disputation, which sometimes led him into vulgar scurrility. 
His answer to the royal polemic was gross, even to brutality : 
** Ego, sine hurva et opertd dico, r^gem Angiias Henricum istiim 
plane mentiri, et scurram levissimum suis mendadis magu referre 
quafn regem. Cum mendace scurra loquor, regib titulis velato.^ 
Op. Lutheri ap. Andrews.] 


" Literarum, quibus invictissimus Prineeps 
Heni'icua octavus, &c. respondit ad quandam 
Epistolam Martini Lutheri ad se missain, & 
ipsius Lutherans quoque Epistolae Exem- 

It is remarkable, that the Emperor's arms 
were affixed to the title-page.* 

In the *' Sylloge Epistolarum" at the end 
of Hearne's edition of T. Livius's History of 
Henry the 6fth, is a wretched controversial 
letter written by this king to the bishop of 
Durham, on auricular confession, in which he 
professes not being apt to consult learned meu 
for his writings.* 

Critics have ways of discoveruig the genuine- 
ness of a book by comparing it witli other works 
of the same author : we have" little of his nia- 

? Ames, p. \30., and Strype's Memorials, vol, i. p. 59. 

* [Thu u not the case with Mr. Brand's copy, in 1527, which 
hat the following colophon : " Londini in ledibus Pyntonianis, 
anno Domini milleBimo quingenteaimo viceairao septimo, ilenms 
Febniniii. Cum piivilegio a rcge indulto." A pani^ric on the 
royal author is subjoined, in Latin verfe.] 

« Ames, p. 103, • 

3 Strype, upon the authority of Beutherua, ascribes U> king 
Henry s book on the tyranny and usu^tation of the bishop of 
Rome : but 1 am of opinion with lord Herbert, that il was ■ 
niuake for one written by Fox, bishop of Hereford, which was 
triui>]atud by lord StaBbrU, and of which oti account will be 
given hereafter, ^irypa'^ Memorials, vol. L p. US. 



jeaty's composition to help us to judge whether 
the tracts against Luther be really his, but his 
love-letters to Anne Boleyn : the style of them 
has certainlyno analogy to his polemic divinity- 
Slrype^ gives an account of a book which the 
king wrote and sent to Rome during the pro- 
ceedings on hit) first divorce, in which he had 
set down the reasons lor dissolving his mar- 
riage, and the scruples of his conscience i but 
I cannot tind that it exists, or was ever print- 
ed.* It was probably nothing more than a me- 
morial, as many pieces in bishop Tanner's Hat 
wei'e only state-papers. What may be properly 
reckoned his works (for it is absurd to call in- 
structions and proclamations so*), are the fol- 
lowing^ though not existing as I can find: 

' Strjpc'i Mem. p. 9S, sz. 

' IHoUniheil hu tmnsmittcil b very curioui addmt on thu 
uccaaiun, dcliTcrcil by the king la hii npiritual court at Black 
Fryen, in vol. ii. p. ISSl. The ungry ilecrpc, however, which 
ic|iiiratctl England ftaai Ronie for ever, wni occasioned, tayt 
Mr, Anilrewi, by an acciilcntul dcliiy of the mctscnger vhom 
Henry hod tent with a conciliatory propoaal: on ut mul] gn 
axis may the greuc^t movement dq>end. Hist, of G. B. vol. ii. 

^ [In Davics'i Athens Britannica', vol. ii. p. IB., it U uLd, that 
Henry had a modeliiing, or correcting, or finithing, or an 1^ 
proving hand, in all hit royal letten, coismiujont, speeches, 
acts of pttrliomcni, and coovocatiou regulationt, prodaiiM- 

" Strype'i Mem. p. 305. 


" An Introduction to Gramraar." 

'* A Book of Prayers." 

" Preface by tlie King to his Primer." 

Besides many of his speeches and letters', 
and the following, mentioned too by Holland^; 

" De Potestate regia contra Papam." 

" De Christiani Hominis Institutione, 
lib. ]."» 

" De instituenda Pube, Hb. 1." 
- " Sententiam de Mantuano Consilio, hb. 1." 

" De justo in Scotos Bello." 

7 Some of which are in the library of C, C. C. Cambridge. 

X Heroologia, |i. 5. 

» This work is aclually extanl, but scarct: correspoiuls with 
iti title, not coQtBining directionE for the practice, but for the 
feith of a Christian, and such Christianity as Heurj choK to 
compound out of his old religion and his new, when he found 
thai his people did not stop at throwing olT obedience to the 
pope, but were disposed to reteive a more real reformation than 
his majesty's revenge had prompted, or his superstition or his 
power could digest. The work in question is probably not of 
his own composition, being, ai the preface asserts, drawn up with 
advice of his clergy, and the approbation of his parliament. It 
b an exposition of the creed, us he chose it should be believed; 
of the seven sacnunents (all which he was pleased to retain); 
of the ten commandments; of the pater noster; of the angel'i 
■alutation to Mary; and of the doctrines of free-will, justtfiO' 
tton, and good works ; and concludes with an authorized prayer 
for departed souls. I think the contents of this medley justify 
- the curiosity I had expressed in the text to sec the Ins 
Hich a reformer. 



And sonie^ moat eloquent epistles to the 
dukes of Saxony, to Erasmus, and other famous 
men. ' But in that age, when the severity of cri- 
ticism did not lay such restraint on the inven- 
tion of authors as it does at present, it was 
common for them to multiply titles of treatises 
at the expense of their accuracy. It is notorious 
how Bale splits the performances of his authors 
into distinct books. Holland seems to have been 
as little exact. Historians tell us, that Henry, 
duringtiie life of prince Artluir, was designed 
by his father for archbishop of Canterbury. 
How far his education was carried with that 

' A sppi-imen of his majesty's eloquence iiioy be seen Ja h'u 
lut ipeech to parliament, the chief flower of which ia couched in 
these words : " I hear daily, that you of the clergy preach one 
■^nHt another, without charity or discretion: some be too 
ttiW in their old mumpsimUB, others be too busy and curtout in 
their new snmpaimus." Ld, Herbert's Life of Henry VTll. 
p. 598. [Henry borrowed this trope, says Mr. Andrews, from a 
tale told of an obstinate prietl. who, although ndmoiushed of 
his mistake, would always rend in the Latin service of the mass, 
munpiimui fur lumpiimiu ; and refused to alter it, hanng, as he 
obserred, no liking to new fashions. Hist, of G. B. vol. ii. 

' One of these [ take to hnvc been the following; " An 
Epistle of Henry the eighth, supreme Head of the Churche of 
England, to the Emperor, to sll Christen Princes, and to nil 
those who truly and sjucerely professe Christe's Reli^on." 
ISmo. block letter, Lond. in adibus T. Benlieleti Impr. Reg. 
1 559. Vide Harl. Catol. vol.i. p. tsc. and Ames, p. ITI. 

30 UE^fRy the ErcHTH. 

view, I know not*: the catholics have reason to 
lament that the destination did not take place. 
A man whose passions made him overturn a 
church, was likely to have carried its interests 
high, if his own had coincided with them. 

If the pieces above-mentioned ever existed, 
it would be curious to see what rules for the 
education of youth, or for the institution of a 
Christian, were laid down by a man wlio con- 
founded every idea of government and reli- 
gion'; who burned martyrs of opposite sects at 
the same stake ; bastai-dized his own children, 
and then entailed his crown on them^j and 

* [Mr.WBTton remarks, that the ediicaticin of Henry seenw 
to have been altogether theological; and, although a scholar, 
he had Ultle taste for the classical elegancies which then began 
to be known in England. He was a patron of learned men, 
adda our historian, when they humoured his vanities, and were 
wise enough not to interrupt his pleasures, hi» convenience, or 
his ambition. Hist, vol.iii. p. 59.] 

s [" Henry VIII. the worse than Vandal of our English story, 
deitroyed the habitations and the memorials which belonged to 
our ancient characters, and exerted himself to the best of his 
power to make us forget we ever had ancestors." Qodwin'i 
Life of Chaucer, vol.i. p.46.] 

^ [Jordan, the city-pageant writer, who was a time-serving 
poet, may here be fitly cited as a fmthful chronicler: 
" Harry the eighth, as story saith. 
Was a king so unjust, 
He ne'er did spare man in his wrath. 
Nor woman in^is lust." 



who seems to have provided for nothing but a 
succession of civil wars, by the unwarrantable 
disposition he made of his dominions. ' 


[The tide to king Harry's " Assertlo .Sacrnmento- 
rum"" has been rendered more accurate from Her- 
bert's improved edition of Ames 3, in whitli the editor 
remarks, that " although this book was set forth in 
die king's name, and the king avouched the same in 
his Answer to Luther's Epistle, yet the compilers of 
bishop Fisher's works have inserted the same at the 
begiiming thereof with this IJtIe : 

" Assertio — Angha: Rege, Rqffensis tamen nostri 
Hortatu et Studio fdita." They inserted also th« 

His character wa« never better dctcribcd, tay% Mr. Scwwtl, 
than in the dying words of Wolscy; " Me is a prince who 
rather than he will natt or want any piart of hia will, he would 
endan^r the one half of hit kingdom." Anecdote*, vol.i. 


1 Beddca his literary talents, he waa well skilled in inuuc, 
could aing his part, and used to compose icrvice* for hii own 
chapel. Vide Englisli Worthiei, p. Itt. A service composed by 
this king is atill performed in some cathedrals. In the Sritish 
MuMUm is preKrved a miaaal, which belonged to hii tnqett^ 
after his breach with the (ec of Rome; In the kalendar he bat 
blotted out all the laints tliat had been pope*. 

" See an account of the book, and tti contents, in Collier** 

Ecclei. Hilt, vol.i 
* Vol.i. 0.368. 



King's Answer to LuUier's Epistle-, but without any 
similar declaration; by which, however, they intimate 
his having some hand in it at least. Erasmus tells 
us^ that, in Germany, he was thought to be the author 
of it; perhaps on accomitof his publishing an edition 
of it at Bruges, Some supposed him to liave been 
assisted in composing it by cardinal Wolsey, his 
prime minister, and bishop Langland, Jiis confessor. 

Henry having been intended for the church whilst 
his eldest brother, prince Arthur, lived, was of course 
brought up to study music and Latin. Erasmus 
attests, that he composed some church services ; and 

^ An English translation of the controversial epistles which 
passed between the King and Luther, was in the cosily fibrary 
of Mr. Woodhouie, and conl^ned the following title, table, 
■nd coition : 

** A Copy of the Letters wherin the most redouled and 
mighty Prince our Sorerayne Lords Kyng Henry the Eight, 
Kyng of Englande and of Fraiuice, Defensor of the Faith, and 
Lorde of hlande, made anaweru unto a cenaync Letter 
of Martyn Luther, sent unto hym by the same; and also th« 
Copy of the foresayd Luthers Letter, in such order as here 
after foloweth : 

" First; a Preface of our Soveraygne Lorde the Kynge, unto 
all his faithfull and entcrdy beloved Subjecles. 

" Copyc o( the Letter wbiche Martyne Luther bad sent unto 
our tayd Soveraygne Lorde the Kyng. 

" The Copye of the Answere of ou 
unto the same Letter of Martyn Luther," 

" Imprinted at London, in Fletcstre 
printer to the kynges most noble grace, 

) B|uat. Jo. Glapioni. 

sayd Soverayne Lorde 

, by Richarde f^son. 
Cum privilegio a r^e 


one of his anthems still continues to be performed in 
the choir of Christ Church, Oxford.* Mr. Warton 
reports it to be set in an admirable style^ ; but Dr.. 
Henry says, from Hawkins and Bumey, ^^ of two pro- 
ductions (a motet and an anthem) ascribed to the 
finger of this monarch, the one from its mediocrity is 
admitted to be genuine, the other is supposed to exceed 
the capacity of a royal musician." His name, adds 
the historian, is forgotten among poets.^ 

In the ** Nugae Antiquae^," however, a letter from sir 
John Harington to prince Henry, encloses *^ a special 
verse**of kingHenry the eighth, when he conceived love 
for Anna Bulleign ; " and hereof," says sir John, " I 
entertain no doubt of the author ; for if I had no better 
reason than the rhyme, it were sufficient to think tliat 
no other than suche a king could write suche a son- 
net : but of this my father ofl gave me good assurance, 
who was in his houshold. This sonnet was sunge to 
the lady at his conmiaundment, and here followeth : 

<* Tlie eagle's force subdues eache byrd that flycs, 
What metal can resyst the flamingc fyre ? 

Dothe not the sunnc dazle the cleareste eyes, 
And melte the ice, and make the froste retyre ? 

Tlie hardest stones are peirccde thro wyth tools ; 

The wysest are, with princes, made but fools." ^ 

« Seward's Anecdotes of distinguished Persons, vol. i. p. 4S. 
f> Hist, of E. P. vol. iii. p. 59. 
*^ llist. of Britain, vol. xii. p. SCO. 
7 Vol. i. p. 388. edit. 1 804. 

fi These lines were set to music by Bird, and printed in ht$ 
Pitalms Songs, and Sonnets, 1 6 1 1 . 

VOL. I. D 


This " ensample of royal poetrie," as it is tenned by 
Harington, was made as free widi by that old court 
poei, Thomas Churchyard, as if it had been his own; 
for it makes up a stanza, with the addition of a so- 
Tcnth line, in his legend of Jane Shore, which fomiK 
a part of the Mirror for Magistrates, and was after- 
wards printed with much enhtrgement in the scarce 
volume called Churchyard's Challenge. 

Mr. Warton says he had been told, that the late 
lord Eglbitoun had " a genuine book of manuscript 
sonnets" written by king Henry the eighth^: and 
quotes the beginning of an old madrigal supposed to be 
penned when he first fell in love with Anne Boleyn, 
which agrees with the sonnet-specimen already (ut«d. 

In a collection of church services, hymns, carols, 
and songs, in score, made (as is supposed) in the 
time of king Henry the eighth, and presented to the 
British Museum by Mr. Ritson, the following is called 


and whether wTitten by ihe king, or sung to him, as 
his favourite ditty, must be considered as a curiosity 
not unworthy of insertion here. 

* Hist, af Eng. Poetry, vol. iii. p. SB- 

1 Mr. Ellis observes, that Henry it known to have been ■ pro- 

icient in music, and waa perhiipa an occasional writer of poetiy; 
•nd though bit Gkill in the art be rather problematical, hia taite 
for it b fully evinced by the aUnoet universal pratticc of his cour» 
tier(- HUtorica) Sbetchj &t. vol. ii. p. a. 

H£N4¥ THi RfOHTll. S9 

^' Pu^e^fmp with goo4 eninjuui^^ 
( lovei aq4 9hiUl uqta ^ I c)ye» 
Gr^che sq ^ wylle, but non^ 40ny> 
So God be plecyd, $o lyf woll I. 

For my pastaunce * 

Hunte, «yng, & daunce, 

My hert ys sett : 
All godely sport 
To my comfort. 

Who shall roe lett ? 

<* Yowtfc woll have neds daiyaunce 
Offood oryll some pastaunce* 
Coiqpany vfte (hynkytli thoBi best 
AU thofts and fiMityaee to dyge«t ; 

For idelnes 

Ys cheff mastres 

Of vice^ all : — 
Than who can say 
But passe the day 

Is best of all. 

** Company with honest^ 

Ys rertu^ and vyce to flee ; 

Company ys gode or yll, 

But every man hath hys fr» vyll. 

The be9t inseir, 

The worst eschevr. 

My mynd shall be : — 
Vertu to use, 
Vyce to refuse, 

I ^hall use me/' 

9 i. •. Until, i i. t. Gnidfa sirhofio. * I a. PSfso-temt, pattiflM. 

D S 


A more undoubted sample of his majesty's style i 
epistolary composition may be produced from Cotton 
MS. Vespasian, F. xiii., an original letter addressed to 
"Wolsey, while in the plenitude of courtly power : 

" Myne awne good CardinsU, 

" I recomande me unto you with ail my hart, and 
thanke you for the grette payne and labour tliat yow do 
dayly take in my bysynes and maters ; desyryng yow 
(that wen yow have well establyssyd them) to take 
summe pastyme and comfort, to the intente yow may 
the lenger endure to serve us : for aUways payne can 
nott be induryd. Surly yow have so substancyally 
orderyd oure maters, bothe off thys syde the see and 
byonde, that in myne oppynion lityl! or no thyng can 
be addyd. Nevertheles, accordyng to your desyre, I 
do send you myne oppynyou by thys berare: the 
relfonnacion wherofF I do remyte to you and the 
remnante of our trusty consellors, whyche I am sure 
wyll substantially loke on hyt. As tochyng the mater 
that syr Wyllyam Sanys ^ broght answar off, I am well 
contentyd with what order so ever you do take in itt. 

" The quene, my wyff, hathe desyryd me to make 
har most harty reccommendations to you, as to 
hym that she lovethe very well ; and bothe she and I 
wolde knowe feyne when yow wyll repayre to us, ^ 


fl Qu. Sandys? 

'' Mr. Andrews remarka, that Wolsey could be " all thing* to 
■U men," and to Henry he wns a facetious pleSEant companion. 
According to Polidore Virgil, he anal have lied a singular art 


<< No more to yow att thys tyme ; but that, with 
Gods helpe, I trust we shall dysapoynte oure enymys 
o£P theyre mtendyd purpose. 

** Wrjrtten with the hand o£Pyour lovyng master, 

«« Henhy R." 

(To my Lorde Cardinall.) 

in reconciling studies of very dissonant natures; for while he 
rendered his house vohiptatum ommum ioerariumy yet he perpe- 
tually counselled the monarch to apply himself to school-divi- 
nity; hence the woiiu of Thomas Aquinas became the study of 
the inconsistent Henry, who was blinded by the artifices of his 
&vourite. Cardinal Wolsey, says Nash, first gave others a lig^it 
to his own overthrow. How it prospered with him and his in- 
struments, that after wrought for themselves, chronicles largely 
report, though not apply. Life of J. Wilton, 1 594. 

B S 


' [A I.ADY of distinguished breeding, beauty, and 
modtsty^, was descended, on the lather's side, eays 
lord Herbert*', from one of tlie heires of the earies of 
(Ormonde, and, on the mother's, from a daughter of 
the house of Norfolke; of thai singular towardnesse, 
ihal lier parents took «11 care possible for her good 
education. Therefore, besides the ordinary parts of 
virt lions instructions where witli she was liberally 
brought up, they gave her teachers in playing on mu- 
sical instruments, singing, and dancing; insomuch, 
that when she composed her hands to play, and voice 
to sing, it was joined with that sweetness of counte* 
nance that three harmonies concurred ; likewise, when 
she danced, her rare proportions varied themselves 
into all the graces that belong cither to rest or mo- 
tion.* Tliese falal attractions are known to have 
drawn the affection of Henry the eighth from Catharine ' 
of Arragon, after a marriage of eighteen yeajs, andi 

" Stc AppeniUx to HearaeN Avesbury, p, 334. 

' I'roin Cnveiiduh's Life of CariUnal Wolsey. 

* Tlie bi'Diity and gnicci nt Anne Boleyn hiid been ailmired 
from her icndcrcat yews. .She had RitcndeJ on queen Claiule, 
wife to Fnmcu I, of F>8nec and afiei' her death had beea pro- 
tected fay the duchess d'Alenfon, a Igdy o( an iinblenjiahfd cha- 
raitw. Andrews' Hist. vol. ii- p. il52. 


ri.*fn*njtit bv/^ffim-yttji' 



eventually excited the jealousy of the monarch, whose 
brutal fury or blind passion for a new object made 
him consign this short-lived favourite to the block, as 
well as her hapless brother.^ 

^ Vide article of viscount Rocheford. The Harleian MS. 
2252. contains " A Ditty setting forth the Inconstancy of For- 
tune, from a Fable of a Falcon who flew from the other Birds to 
the Top of a Mountain adorned with a fine Rose-tree, where a 
loving Liion chose her a nest." — ** By the falcon,*' says Mr. 
Wanley, " is meant queen Anne Boleyn, it being her device ; by 
the mountain, England ; and by the lion, kiof Henry Mil." This 
allegorical poem is so ingenious and interesting, that it seems to 
authorize a copious extract : 

In a fresshe momypge amonge the flowrys, 

My service sayinge at certayne owrys, 

Swetly the byrds were syngynge amonge the shewrys 

For that joye of good fortune : 
To walke alone I dyd me aplye. 
Among the hylls that were so hye 
I sawe a syghte afor myne eie 

That came by good fortune. 
I mervaylyd whate hyt sholde be : — 
At laste I espyed a company 
That dyd abyde all on a tree. 

To seke for ibrtune. 
There came a fawcon, fayre of flyghte, 
And set hyr downe presente in syghte. 
So lykc a byrde comlye and bryghte 

Whyche tboughte hyt good fortune. 
All that were abyll to flee vnith wynge, 
They were ryghte joyitill of hyr comynge 
That swetly they begane to syiig 
For joye of gpod ibrtune. 

D 4 


The king^ji overtures of marriage to Anne Boleyily 
and the &vours he conferred on her friends, aiegmte- 

In the next stanza, which is not very I^ble, the £Ucon ta|^ 
her flight to an adjacent mountain to seek her fortune. 
Alone on the toppe ther growde a brere, 
That bare welJ, I wotte, the rose so clere 
Whyche fadyd no tyme of the yere — 

There fownde she fortune. 
In the mydds of the busshe downe dyd she lyghte, 
Amonge the rosys of golde so bryghte, 
Sayinge that pleasantly I am plyghtc 

In the prime of my fortune. 
Ther cam a lyon full lovmgHc, 
1'hat all the snialle byrds ther myght se, 
Syngynge ** Fayre fawcon, well do to me, 

Here ye your fortune." 
The knot of love in hym was fastc 
And so farre entryd into hys brystc 
That ther he chose the byrde a neste : 

Sochc was hyr fortune. 
She spake these words presumatlyc,. 
And sayd— " Ye byrds beholde & sc,. 
Do not gruge for thus wyll yt be, 

Suchc ys my fortune." 
A mavys meke, movyd in mynde 
And sayd — " Whoo wyll seke shall fynde. 
Beware a myste make you not biynd, 

Truste not in fortune.'* 
A storm soon follows, which excites the wonderment of her 
feathered mates, while it exposes the flattery of fortune, and the 
writer exclaims — 

To derely bowghte, so frendly sowghte. 

And so sone made a quene. 

So sone lowe browghte hath not ben sene — 

O! whate is fortune? 


(iilly and delicately acknowledged in tlie following 
original letter, indorsed-—^* From Mrs. Anne Bullen, 
befor hir marriadg to the king." ^ 

** My lord, 

^* After my most hmnble recommendacions, this 
shall be to gyve unto your grace, as I am most 
bownd, my humble thanks for the great payn and 
travell that your grace doth take in stewdyeng by youf 
wysdome and great dylygens howe to bryng to pas 
honerably the gretyst welth that is possyble to com to 

They dyd hyr preaente to a tower of stone, 
Wher as she shoid lament hyr selfe alone 
And be consell — for helpe ther was none, 
Suche was hyr fortune ! 
The queen then looks forward to exchange her imperial crown 
for a crovm immortal, and commends her soul into the hands 
of her Sariour; but she previously laments that those of her 
own household and lineage should feel the effects of her 
disastrous fortune, and qpeaks of an early attachment in the 
following stanza, which has a reference probably to lord Percy 
See Andrews* Hist. vol. ii. p. 273. 

I had a lover, stedfi&ste and trewe, 
Alase ! that ever I chaunged for new, 
I cowlde not remembyr, full sore 1 rew 
To have this fortune. 
The very curious folio MS. of which this relique makes a 
part, was formed by John Colyns, citizen and mercer of Lon- 
don, dwelling in the parish of Wolchurch, in the reign of 
• Copied from Cotton MS. Vespanan, F. xiii. 


any creatour lyvyng', and in especyali remembryng 
howe wrecchyd and unworthy I am in comparying to 
his hyghnes, and for you I do knowe my self never to 
liave deseiryd by my desertys, that you shuld take 
this gret payii for me, yet day!y of your goodnes I do 
percey^e by all my frends, and though tliat I liade nott 
knowi«ge by them, the dayly profTe of your deds doth 
declare your words and wrytyng toward me to be 
trewe. Nowe, good my lord, your dyscressyon may 
consyder as yet, howe i^tle it is in my power to r©- 
conipencc you, but all onely with my gootl wyl, the 
whiche I assewer you, that after this matter is brought 
to pas, you shall find me as I am bownd : in the 
meane tym to owe you my servyse and then looke what 
thyng in this world I can imniagen to do you plea- 
sor in, you shall ^T'' me the gladdyst woman in the 
woreld to do j-t. And next unto the kyngs grace, of 
one thyng I make you ful promes, to be ast>ewryd to 
have yt, and that is my harty love unfaynydly dew^ 
ryng my lyf. And beyng fiilly determj*nd, with 
Godds grace, never to change thys porpos ; I make 
an end of thys my reude and trewe meanyd letter ; 
prayngowre Lord to send youmoche increse of boner, 
with long lyfe. Wrytten with tlie hand of her that 

' Ljking MS. In o 
innocence which Anne e^ 
[]i>cardc(t for Jane Seytai 
i priTHtc SI 

of ihoec afibctiiig prolestatioi 
I to her unfeeling persecutor, 
r, she expreiEed herself ihuE : " '. 


) that of B CQuntets; 

j'ou have niaile me a queen ; you can now onlj' 

« me one step btghei' — to be a 

<lt;£&N ANNE B0L£T1^« 45 

besychys your grace to except this letter, as prosydyng 
from one that is moist bowhd to be 

** Your hmnble and obedyent servaunt, 

** Anne Boleyn." 

For more than two years, says Mr. Lodge, Anne 
seems to have possessed not only the tender affection 
but the confidence of her husband. He occasionally 
conferred with her on important matters of state, and 
even consulted her judgment. The reformation was 
undoubtedly modi forwarded by her means, and per- 
haps the origin of her miseries tnay be traced to the 
resentment of the Roman <:atiholics. ' 

This very unfoitunate but interesting personage is 
introduced in the present work on the slight grounds 
of critical conjecture, it being die opinion of an ano- 
nymous, but, as sir John Hawkins affirms, *^ judicious 
antiquary," that the following poems were ^' written 
either by or in the person of Amie Boleyn ;'^ which 
opinion sir John thinks her history renders very 
probable. ^ 

» Vide article of Anne Boleyn in Holbein portraits. 

n Mr. Warton, it may be observed, does not accord with 
sir John as to the probflbiHty of this o[nnion ; and Mr. Ritson is 
willing to refer the composition of the second piece to viscount 
Rocheford. See Andenft Bohg^ p. ISO. Htdi, the historian, 
has given to Anne Boleyn's t^fined taste the credk of forming a 
masque for the ei^tartidiim^t *which t«<A pface when Henry 
visited Francis the first. 



Defiled is my name full sore. 

Through cruel spjte and &iBe report. 
That I may say for evermore^ 

Farewell, my joy ! adewe, comfort ! 
For wrongfully ye judge of me. 

Unto my fame a mortall wounde» 
Say what ye lysty it will not be. 

Ye seek for that can not be found. 

O death I rocke me on sleepe. 

Bring me on quiet reste ; 
Let passe my verye guiltless goste. 

Out of my careful] brest : 
Toll on the passinge bell, 
Ringe out the dolefull knell. 
Let the sounde my dethe teU, 
For I must dye. 
There is no remedy, 
For now I dye. 

My paynes who can expres ? 

Alas ! they are so stronge, 
My dolor will not suffer strength 

My lyfe for to prolonge ; 

Toll on the passinge bell, &c. 

Alone, in prison stronge, 

I wayle my destenye ; 
Wo worth this cruel hap that I 

Should taste this miserye* 
Toll on the passinge bell, &c. 


Farewell my pleasures past, 

Welcum my present payne ; 
I fele my torments so increse* 
That Ijrfe cannot remayne. 
Cease now the passing bell, 
Rong b my dolefull knell. 
For the sound my deth doth tell. 
Death doth draw nye, 
Sound my end dolefully. 
For now I dye. *] 

• Hawkins* Hist, of Muiic, voLiii. p. 59. 



Whose beauty raised her to a throne, and 
whose merit deserved a better fate, than to be 
linked to two^ men, one of whom was near 
putting her to death for iier attaclniient to a 
religion which he himself had introduced ; and 1 
the latter^ of whom is suspected of removiiig - 
her, to promote his marriage with the lady 1 
Elizabetli. The king indeed was so bounteoua 4 
as to leave her a legacy of about 4000/. besidesJ 
her jointure ! Each of his children, even after { 
his death, showed her the greatest respect, as is ' 
evident from their letters to her still extant. 

! [Catharine, the daughter of air Thomas Parr, had two hu*- 
baiiiis b«rorc her marrit^ with the kiDg, though she was du- 
luiguished by her rndden-name. She Erst married Edward 
Burghe, aild secondly, John Neville, Lord Latimer. Though 
neither young, nor exquisitely handsome, Miys Mr. Andrewi, 
when called to the perilous partnership of Henry's throne and 
bed, she was a prudent tuuiable woman, and found means to 
gain more inftuence with her ci^rictous mate, than either of the 
young beauties who had preceded her. Hist, of G. B. vol.ii. 
p. 2 90. J 

1 (Sir Thomas Seymour, brother to llie protector: crest«d 
baron Seymourc, and constituleU lord high admiral, by king 
Edward the sixth. Sec his article in the present work,] 

QiTEEN Catharine Parr. 

/>vm rt fine Miniature In- llofbfin at 
Sfrawh' rry UUl . 



She was, not only learned \ but a patroness of 
learning, interceding for, and saving the uni- 
Tersity of Cambridge, when an act had passed 
to throw all colleges, &c. into the king's 
^ disposal. ^ 

Nicholas Udal, master of Eton school (whom 
Bale calls the most elegant master of all good 
letters)^ and who was employed by this princess 
in translating and publishing Erasmus's para* 
phrase on the four gospels, gives this simple 
and natural account of the learning of the wo- 
men of quality in that age. In his dedication to 
her majesty, he observes, '* the great number 
of noble women at that time in England, given 
to the studie of human sciences, and of strange 
tongues." And he adds, ** It was a common 
thyng to see young virgins so nouzled and 
trained in the studie of letters, that thei wiU 
lyngly set all other vain pastymes at naught for 
learnynge's sake. It was now no news at all to 
see queens and ladies of most high estate and 
progenie, instede of courtly daliaunce, to em- 
brace vertuous exercises, readyng and wryting, 

« [Burnet inferred that she understood Latin, because Ed- 
ward the nxth wrote to her in that language. Hist, of Reform, 
▼ol. ii. p. 9. But Strype printed an epistle in Latin, firom her 
to the princess Mary. Ballard points out many of her English 

* Vide Ballard's Memoirs of celebrated ladies, p. 88. 4to. 



and with most erneste studie, both eriye and 
late, to apply themselves to the acquiryng of 
knowledge, as well in all other liberal arts and 
disciplines, as also most specially of God and 
his most holy word. And in this behalf," says 
he, "lykeas to your highnesse,as well for com- 
posyngand settyng forth many godly psalmes 
and divers other contemplative meditations, as 
also for causyng these paraphrases to be trans- 
lated into our vulgare language, England can 
never be able to render tliankes sufficient." ^ 

Her majesty wrote, 

" Queen Catherine Parr's Lamentation of 
a Sinner bewailing the Ignorance of her blind 
Life." ' 

This was a contrite meditation on the years 
she had passed in popery, in fasts and pilgrim- 
ages J and being found among her papers after 

* Vide Lewis's History of the Translutions of the Rible, pp. 1 59. 

IG3, IG4. 

7 [This was twice printed, in 1548 and 1563, with ihe fol- 
lowing title : " The Ijunentation of a Sinner : mnde liy the 
moat vertuous lady, queen Katherin ; bewailing the ignorance 
of her bliiidc life. Set foorth and put in print, nt the instaunt 
desire of the right gratiouB lady Katherin. duchci of Suflblke, 
and the ernest request of the right honourable lord William 
Parre, marquesiie of Northatnton." Part of this work, and of 
queen Kathcrine'a prayers, or methtacionE, appear to have been 
transferred into Benlley's .Second l.nmpe of V'irginitie, isaa.] 


her death, was published, with a preface, by 
secretary Cecill (afterwards lord Burleigh), 
Lond. 8vo. 1548, and 1563.® 

In her life-time, she published many psalms, 
prayers, and pious discourses, of which this 
was the title, 

•* Prayers or Meditations, wherein the mynd 
is stirred patiently to suffie all aflUctions here, 
to set at nought the vaine prosperitee of this 
worlde, and always to long for the everlastynge 
felicitee. Collected out of (certayne) holy 
woorke^ by the most vertuous and gracious 
princesse Katharine, queene of Englande, 
France, and Irelande. Printed by John Way- 
land, 12mo. l'545."» 

To this was sometimes prefixed a set of fif- 
teen psalms, which she composed in imitation 
of David's : the titles of them may be seen in 
Strype.* To them were subjoined, 

* Bale de Script. Britan. p. 106. 

Ames, p. 81 1. [A copy in the British Museum bears the dote 
of 1546| and has no printer's name» or place of publication. Mr. 
Douce has a copy without date ; but it contains a prayer forking 
Edward the sbcth, which makes it ulterior to that in th6 Museum. 
Herbert speaks of two other editions printed by Berthelette in 
1545, and mentions a copy in the rev. Mr. Ashby's possession, 
which was bound in covers of solid gold. Mr. Woodhouse*s 
library produced another edition by the same printer, in 1547.] 

« Vol.ii. p. 131. 

VOL. I. K 

" The xxi. Psalm, another of Thanksgiving, 
and two Prayers, for the King, and for Men 
to say entering into Battail." 

*' A godly Exposition, after the Manner of 
a Contemplation, upon the li. Psalm, which 
Hierom of Ferrary made at tlie latter End of 
his Days. Translated by the Queen, with other 
Meditations, and a Prayer."^ 

" A pious Prayer in short Ejaculations."* 

" A Latin Epistle to the Lady Mary, en- 
treating her to let the Translation of Eras- 
mus's Paraphrase on the New Testament 
(which her Majesty had procured) be pub- 
lished in her Highness's Name.'" 

Several of. her letters are extant, viz. 

*' To King Henry, then on an Expedition 
against France."* 

" To the University of Cambridge," 
on the occasion above mentioned. It is a 
piece of artful duty to the king.^ 

** To the Lady Wriothesly, on the Death 
her only Son." 

From the orthography of this letter ap- 
pears the ancient manner of pronouncing the 

» Strype, vol. ii. p. 138. 
• Ballard, p. 91. 


* Ames, in Append, p. ns, 
9 SlTvpc, vol. ii. H. 


name Wrioiheskyj which her majiesty writes 

" To the College of Stoke ; that Edward 
Walgrave may have a Lease of their Manour 
of Chipley in Suffolk."* 

" To her Husband, the Lord Admiral."* 

" Two Letters to ditto.'" 

" Another curious one to ditto, before their 
Marriage was owned." ^ 

Vossius, in his Treatise de Fhiiologi&S 
ascribes by mistake to Katharine of Arragon 
the Lamentations of a Sinner, and the Medi- 
tations on the Psalms. 

[In Coxeter's list of such copies of books as be- 
longed to James Roberts, the printer, was entered, 

^^ Prayers collected by the Lady Katherine Parre, 
Queene, called ^ The sweet Song of a Sinner.' " ^ 

Quere, whether this might not be the queen's La- 
mentation ? The following adulatory extract from an 

• Strype, toI. ii L. 

» In the library of C. C. C. CitnliHdge. 

« In Heame*f Sylloge Epift. p. 909. 

) In- the oollaction of Stata-papen, publithad by H«3met. 

4 Ballturdy p. 94, from the Ashmoleen coUilbtion. 

• P. 36. ^ Amety p. 349. 


introduction lo this pious work, in whicli Henry is 
compared with Moses, must be attributed to the in- 
fluence of terror rather than of truth.'^ 

" Thanks," snys the female theologue, " bee given 
unto the Lorde that hath now sent us suche a godly and 
learned king in these latter dayes to reign over us, that 
with tlie vertue and force of God's worde, hath taken 
away the vailes and mists of errors, and brougt us to 
the knowledge of the truetli, by the lighte of God's 
wiird, whiclie was so long hid and kept under, that the 
pco))le were nigh famished and hungred for lacke of 
spiriluall foode, suche was the charity of the spiritual 
curates and shepherdes. But our Mm/scs, and most 
go<lly, wise governor and king, hath delivered us out 
of the captivitie and lx»ndage of Pharao. I meane by 
this Mayses, kyiig Henry tlie eight ! my moste sove- 
myne favourable loni and husband : one (if Moyses 
had figured any mo than Christ) through tlie excel- 
lent grace of God, mete to be anotlier expressed \-erytie 
of Moises' conquest over Pharao. And I mene by ihb 
Pharao, the byshop of Rome, who hatli ben and is a 
greater persecutor of all true Christians, than ever 
was Pharao, of the children of Israel."* 

Our historians have recorded an instance, which 

; It may lie notlped, liowever, thnt jusi before her death she 
wrote ail aSectionatc letter to Hcnrjr, in which she tenneil him 
her " mo^t dear lord, king, and husband," and cxprcsaed a deaire 
lo see him above all things. Sec Id. Herbert's ilcii. VIK. 

" Obligingiy tran»eribeil by [he rev. Mr. Brand, from a topy of 
ihc book in hb possession. 


very much agrees with the present, of queen Catha- 
rine's politic submission to her sovereign lord and 
husband in theological concerns^ ; without which well- 
timed device, her life had probably become the sacri- 
fice of her zeal for the reformation. 


At the end of queen Catharine's Meditations ap 
peared tlie following well-composed " Prayer for Men 
to saye entring into Battayle." 

*^ O almightie Kingeand Lorde of hostesi whiche 
by thy angek thereunto appointed, doest minister 
' bothe warre and peace ; and which diddest give unto 
David both courage and strength, bdng but a little 
one, unarmed, and unexpert in feats of warr, with his 
slinge to sette upon and overthrowe the great hug^ 
Groliath ; our cause now being just, and being enforsed 
to entre into warre and battaile, we most humbly 
beseche thee, (O Lorde God of hostes !) sooe to tume 
the hearts of oure enemyes to the desire of peace, that 
no Christian bloud be spilt ; or els graunt (O Lorde) 
that with small effusion of bloud, and to tlie little 
hurte and domoge of innocentes, we may to diy glory 
obtayne victory: and that the warrcs beeing soone 
ended, we may all witli one heart and mind, knitte 
together in concord and unitie, laud and prayse 
thee, which livest and reignest^ world without end. 

Prefixed to the " Seventh Lrmipc of Virginitie," itl 
Bendey's Monument of Matrones, 1582, is an epistle 
to the Christian reader by the celebrated lord Bur- 

9 iSfiG Uapin, vol. i. p. 816. 
K 3 


leigti {when secretary Cecill), which exhibits the fol- 
lowing character oi' this queen : 

" Here maist dtoo see one, if the kind may moove 
thee, a woman j if degree may provoke thee, a woman 
of high estate ; by birtli, made noble ; by marriage, 
most nuble ; by wisdome, godlie ; by a mightie king, 
an excellent queene; by a famous Hekrie, a re- 
nowned Katherine; a wife to him that was a king to 
realmes : reftising the world, wherein she was lost, to 
obtaine heaven, wherein she may be saved : abhorring 
sinne, which made hir bound, to receive grace, where- 
by she may be free : despising flesh, tlie cause of cor- 
ruption, to put on the spirit, the cause of sanctifi cation : 
forsaking ignorance, wherein she was blind, to come 
to knowledge, whereby she may see : remooving su- 
perstition, wlierewith she was smothered, to imbroce 
true religion, wherewitJi she may revive." 

The ingenious continuator of Dr. Henrj-'s History 
observes, that Catharine Parr was remarkably learned, 
and published, during her life, many works which did 
credit to her piety and abilities ; but the accomplish- 
ments and arts of admiral Seymour seduced her into 
an injudicious marriage, and she paid dearly for that 
imprudence which alone disgraced a life of virtue 
and diKcretion. She fell by poison, as is believed, 
given by her profligate husband, who had again formed 
criminal projects on the English throne, by an alliance 
with the princess Elizabeth ; having gained over Ed- 
ward the sixtli to request, tliat the lord admiral should 
be appointed his governor. Queen Catharine, it seems, 
had been made mieasy some time before her death by 


the freedoms which her husband took with the prin* 
Ctss, and even became a spy upon their conduct^. 

The queen dowager lived a few months only after 
her second marriage, and dying in childbed, was 
buried in the chapel of Sudley casde. Her leaden 
cofBn having been explored by female curiosity in the 
year 1782, her features, and particularly her eyes, are 
said to have appeared in a state of perfect preservation* 
Her stature must have been very low, as the lead 
which enclosed her corpse was <»ily five feet feut 
inches long^. A portrait of thb princess, in oil cor 
lours, is in the archiepiscopal palace of Lambeth. An 
epitaph in Latin verse was written by her chi^lain Dn 
Parkhurst, and printed in his Ludicra, sive Epigram- 
mata Juvenilia, 1573; whence it appears that she 
lived only seven days afl;er the birth of her daughter. 

Hulc peperit natam; k partu cum septimus orbeni 
Sol illustrasseti Mors truculenta necat. 

Another short inscription follows, in the same rare 


Catharina in hac uraa jacet, 
Regina nuper Anglie, 
Decus mulierum maximum. 
Pariendo perit puerpera. 
In&ntem enim postqudm edidit, 
(Fulgente luce septima) 
En ilia spiritum edidit.)] 

s See Burghley papers, published by Haynes. 
s Vide Archaeologisy vol. ix. p. 2. 

£ 4l 


[ AI.VNY authora have preseiTed accounts of this 
' prince's writings. Cardan talks mitcli ot" Iiis 
parts and learning. His own diary gave the still 
better liopes of his proving a good king, as in 
50 green an age he seemed resolved to be ac- 
quainted with his subjects and his kingdom. 
I Holland affirms', that he not only wrote notes 
I ifrom the lectures or sermons he heard, but 
L composed a most elegant comedy, the title of 
l;>rhicU was, " The Wliore of Babylon." 

Precious as such a reHque would be in tlie 
eyes of zealots or antiquarians, I cannot much 

lament that it is perished, or never existed. 

What an education for a great prince, to be 
taught to scribble controversial ribaldry^ As 

a P. 27. [Mr. Warton suspects, and with reosoii, thut HoUaiiJ 
hud never seen the drama whitli he pronountes to be an elegant 
pcrfunnonce. Hut. of E. P. Tol.iii. p. 105. Mr. Rccd, however, 
remurks, that Tunner (from Bole) mentions it, and quotet a single 
line from it, by which it is shown to have been written in Latin. 
Biog, Drani. voLi. p. 145.] 

' [It is candidly observed by our poetical historian, that the 
genius, habits, and situation of the age shoidd be considereil, 
when it eeeuis strange that controvcrekl ribaldry should have 
been iuHered to enter iiito the eduriilion of a great monarch. 
'I'he new sclllcniciit of religion, bv eountcrattiti^ iiiTelerale 


elegant as it is said to have been, I question 
whether it surpassed the other buffooneries, 
which engrossed the theatres of Europe in that 
and the preceding century. All the subjects 
were religious; all the conduct farcical. Bishop 
Bale, whom I have mentioned, composed above 
twenty of these ridiculous interludes. 

King Edward wrote besides, 

*« The Sum of a Conference with the Lord 

written with his own hand, and extant among 
the Ashmolean manuscripts^ 

" A Method for the Proceedings in the 
Council ;'* 
in his own hand, in the Cotton library*. 

" King Edward the Sixth's own Arguments 
against the Pope's Supremacy, &c." 
translated out of the original, written with the 
king's own hand in French, and still preserved. 
To which are subjoined some remarks upon his 

prejudices of the most interesting nature, by throwing the clergy 
into a state of contention, and by disseminating theological opi- 
nions among the people, excited so general a ferment, that even 
the popular ballads and the stage were made the vehicles of the 
controversy between the -papal and protestant commimions. 
Hist, of Eng. Poetry, vol. iii. p. 196.] 

« Tanner, p. 255. * Ibid. 


life and reign, in vindication of his memory 
from Dr. Heylin's severe and unjust censure. 
Lend. 1682. 

He drew himself the rough cbaught of a 
sumptuary law, which is preserved by Strype ; 
and an account of a progress he made, which 
he sent to one of his particular favourites, called 
Barnaby Fitzpatrick, then in France.* The 
same author has given some specimens of his 
Latin Epistles and Orations, and an account of 
two hooks written by him ; the first before he 
was twelve years of age, called, 

" L'encontre les Abus du Monde ;" 
atract of thirty-seven leaves in French, against 
the abuses of popery : it is dedicated to the 
protector, his uncle ; is corrected by his French 
tutor, and attested by him to be of the kuig's 
own composition". Tlie other, preserved in 
the library of Trinity-college, Cambridge, is 

» Vol,ii.p.319, 

'' {An original copy of thU tract, which paMcd Irom Mr. 
West's libraiy into that of Mr, John Jatkiion, F.S.A. wu 
purchased Tor the Britisli Museum at the price of nineteen 
guineas. It is dated at thcbt^mng, 13 De. 1548; and at the 
end, 14 Mars, 1549. A note prefixed by Mr. West sayg, "Thi* 
book is all of the original hand-writing of king Edward the 
sixth, aud evidences his own opinion of hii right tu the title of 
taprevw AfoiJof the churcli, which he asserted ot 



*< A Translation into French of several 
Passages of Scripture^** 

In Tanner may be seen a list of what letters 
of this king are extant^. 

[Among the G)ttonianmanuscriptsnumerous papers 
by Edward the sbcth are extant, beside what Lord Qr- 
fordhaspointedout Mr. Seward^ has described a large 
folio volume in manuscript in the British Museum, 
which contains the exercises of this promising prince, 
in Greek, Latin, and English, with his signature to 
each of them, as king of England, in the three differ- 
ent languages. The same industrious compiler re- 
marks, that Edward's abilities, acquirements, and dis- 
position, were so transcendant, they extorted an eulo- 
g^um upon them from the cynic Cardan himself who 
in his once-celebrated work De GenituriSf thus de- 
scribes the young prince, with whom he had several 
conversations upon the subjects of some of his books, 
particularly on that de Return Varietate. " The child 
was so wonderiul in tliis respect," says Cardan, ^^ that 
at the age of fifteen he had learned, as I was told, seven 

medal, though thii book was wrote tliree yean after hit com* 
ing to the crown.'* The dedicatioo» ** A son tres cher et bien 
ayme onde Edouard, due de Somenet," is incomplete.] 

* [** Which forbid idolatry, or worshipping of false gods." 
Inscribed to his dear uncle, £d. D. of Somerset] 

9 P. 255 

t Anecdotes, &c. ubi sup. 



different languages. In tliut of liis own cuuuCry, of 
France, and the Latin language, lie was pcrlect. In the 
conversations tJiat I had witli him (when he was only 
fifteen years of age) he spoke Latin witli as much 
readiness and elegance as myself. He was a pretty 
good logician ; be understood natural philosophy and 
music, and played upon the lute. The good and the 
learned had formed the highest expectations of him, 
fi-om the sweetness of his disposition, and the excel- 
lence of his talents. He had begun to favour learn- 
ing before be was a great scholar himself, and to V»e 
acquainted wltli it before he could make use of it. 
Alas ! how prophetically did he once repeat to me, 

Immodins brevis est tetai, et ram sencclus,' 

Bishop Burnet adds to this high character the fol- 
lowing pleasing anecdote. King Edward the sixth 
gave very early indications of a good disposition to 
learning, and of n most wondertid probity of mind, 
and above all, of great respect to religion, and every 
thing relating to it ; so that when he was once in one 
of his childish diversions, somewhat being to be 
reached at that he and his companions were too low 
for, one of them laid on the floor a great Bible that 
was in the room, to step on, which he beholding with 
indignation, took up the Bible himselli and gave over 
his play for that time,^ The same historian of tlie 
reformation has printed a new service*, which was 



X - ^ 


translated by the jroiing monarch from English mto 
Latm, and devised to abolish certain superstitious ce- 
remonies used at the installation of knights of the 
garter. A diary or journal of passing events, which 
displays a clear proof of his sense, knowledge, and 
goodness, is printed in the same work ; and the ori- 
ginal is preserved among the Cotton manuscripts^. So 
is the following paper, in the king's hand-writing^, 
which was delivered by this juvenile politician to his 
privy council, on Monday, Jan. 19, 1551. 


'^ Ceirtein Pointes of waighty Matters to be imme- 
diately concluded on by my G)uncill. 18 Januarii 

^^ 1. The conclusion for the payment of our dettis 
in February next comming. 

^' 2. The matter for the stiliard to be so considerid 
that it may be to our profit, and wealth of our sub- 

'' 3. The matter for the duke of Somersete and his 
confederates to be considered as aparteineth to our 
surety and quietnes of our realme, that by their pu- 
nishement and execution, according to the lawes, ex- 
ample may be shewed to others. 

^' 4. The resolution for the bishops that be nomi- 

^^ 5. Mony for our ambassadours diettes, to be sent 
them forthwith. 

^ Nero, C.x. 8. « Vo«pa«an, F. xiii. 171. 


*' 6. Dispaching our cotninissionars to Guisnes^ to 
see the state thereof. 

*' 7. Taking some order with the Londoners, that 
tliey that come to .our parliement msy not be holly 
discouragid, empovrished, or werled witli their attend- 
aunce, »ich order cannot be well token (as me think- 
eth) without punishing th' offendours. 

" 8. Tiie matter for thexchaung, to be well wayed 
and coiisiderid. 

" 9. " The bishop of Durham's matters to be execu- 
tid according to our lawes." 

Notwithstanding the attainments and excellent dis- 
position of Edward, it must have been observed, says- 
Mr. Andrews, that the people were unhappy, oppres- 
sed, and in consequence turbulent, during the whole 
of his short reign. Yet to the sovereign himself none 
of these evils should be imputed. His affectionate 
duty to his maternal uncles, and lits attachment to the 
plausible Warwick, blinded his eyes to their successive 
failings ; while the narrowness of thinking as to reli- 
gious matters, which in the sixteenth century every 
party hod adopted, had clouded his mind with a shade 
of bigotrj- ; which, however, had Providence granted 
him a longer life, must have soon cleared away by the 
benignity of his disposition, and the brightness of his 
intellects.'' It may be added, from Mr. Warton, 
that *' an ostentation of zeal and example in the young 
Edward, as it was natural, so it was necessary, while 

^ Hilt. orn.B. voi.i.p.3 


the reformation was yet immature* It was the duty 
of his preceptors to impress on his t^ider years, an 
abhorrence of the principles of Rome, and a predilec- 
tion to that happy system which now seemed likely to 
prevaiL His early diligence, his inclination to letters^ 
and his seriousness of disposition, seconded their active 
endeavours to cultivate and to bias his mind in &vour 
of the new theology, which was now become the 
fiishionable knowledge. The reformation was the 
great political topic of Edward's court*'^ Hence it 
is remarked by Mr. Warton's ablest commentator, that 
^^ the poetical annals of this reiim are almost entirely 
fiUed ^ metrical translations^m various parts rf 
the holy scriptures."^ I^ing Edward himself indeed, 
is ranked by Warton among the religious poets of his 
own reign, on account of the following metrical in- 
structions respecting the eucharist, which were 
*^ given to sir Anthony Seynt Leger, knight of his 
privy chamber, being of a corrupt judgment," and 
printed by Foxe in his Martyrology. 

** Upon this Saying of an ancient Doctor of the Catholike 
Church:— ** DfCfrnttf Euchariitiam Panem vocari in 
Scripturis, Panis in quo Gratia acta sunt" &c. 

In Eucharist then there is bread, 

Whereto I do consent : 
Then with bread are our bodies fed; 

And further what is meant ? 

« Hbt. of E. P. Tol.iii. p. 195. 

9 FiUb*i Spectment of E.P. voLii. p. I II. 


St. Austen saith, the word doth come 

Unto the element; 
And there is made, he saith, in summe, 

A perfect sacrament. 

The element doth then remaine ; 

Or else must needes ensue—- 
St. Austens words be nothing plaine. 

Nor cannot be found true. 

For if the word, as he doth saj. 

Come to the element; 
Then is not the element away. 

But bides there verament. 

Yet whoso eateth that lively foode, 

And hath a perfect faith, 
Receiveth Christes flesh and blood ; 

For Christ himselfe so saith. 

Not with our teeth his flesh to teare. 
Nor take blood for our drinke ;'— 

Too great an absurdity it were 
So grosly for to thinke. 

For we must eat him spiritually, 

If we be spirituall : 
And whoso eates him carnally, 

Thereby shall have a fall. 

For he is now a spirituall mcate, 

And spiritually we must 
That spirituall meat spiritually eat, 

And leave our camall lust. 


Thus by the Spirit, I spiritually 

Beleeve, — say what men list ; 
None other transubstantiation I 

Beleeve of the Eucharist: 

But that there is both bread and wine 

Which we see with our eye ; 
Yet Christ is there by power divine^ 

To those that spiritually 

Do eate that bread and drink that cup» 

Esteeming it but light 
As Judas did, which eate that sop 

Not judging it aright. 

For I was taught, not long agone^ 

I should leane to the Spirit, 
And let the camall flesh alone. 

For [that] it doth not profit. 

God save him that teaching me taught, 

For I thereby did winne 
To put from me that camall thought 

That I before was in. 

For I beleeve Christ corporally 

In heaven doth keep his place ; 
And yet Christ sacramentally 

Is here with us by grace. 

So that in his high mystery 

We must eate spirituall meat, 
To keep his death in memorie, 

Lest we should it forget. 



This Joe 1 say, this have I said, 

This saying say will I, 
This saying, though I once denaid, 

I wil! no more to die."* 

Bishop Montague attests that king Edward wrote 
several episdes and orations, both in Greek and Ladn, 
and a treatise, 

" De Fide," 
addressed to the Duke of Somerset.^ With great en- 
dowments, says Mr. Lodge, we find Edward mild, 
patient, beneficent, sincere, and affable ; free from all 
the faults, and uniting all the perfections of tlie royal 
persons of his family who preceded or followed 
him: courageous and steady, but humane and just ; 
bountiful without prohision; pious without bigotry ; 
graced with a dignified simplicity of conduct in com- 
mon affiiirs, which suited his rank as well as his 
years, and artlessly obeying the impulses of his per- 
fect mind, in assuming, as occasions required, the 
majesty of the monarch, the gravity of the statesman, 
and the familiarity of the gentleman.^ 

Fuller, in his Worthies of Middlesex, has trea- 
sured four letters by this iirince which were addressed 
to Bamaby Fitqiatrick, a gentleman of his bed- 

" Acta and Monuments, vol. iii, p, lOOG. A note snya, " This 
[nece is worthy or perpetual memory to the immorLil Tame unit 
glor; of this young prince." Far such critical couiincndalioa 
Mr. Ellii seems to have formed the most rutionol apolc^, in his 
brier view of the poetical annals of Edward VI. See Specimens 
of English Poetry, vol. ii p. 1 16. 

B Prel'. to the Works of James 1. 

' Accounts of the Hollicin Portmiti. 



chamber, who had been brought up with hhn ; and 
they evince no less sweetness of temper than excel- 
lence of understanding.^ 

The fbllowiiig short epistles, addressed at an earlier 
period to his step*mother, and sister, convey pleasing 
denotations of an amiable mind : the originals are 
preserved in Harl. MS. 6086. 

<^ A la tres noble et tres excellente Roine. 

** Je vous mercie, tres noble et tres excellente 
Roine, de voz lettres lesquelles vous m'envoiasfes 
demierement non seulement pour la beaute de voz 
lettres, mais aussy pour ^invention des mesmes let- 
tres. Car quand je vous* vostre belle escriture et 
Texcellence de vostre en^ grandement precedant 
mon invention je nausois, vous escrire. Mais quand 
je pensois que votre nature estoit si bonne, que toute 
chose procedant d'un bon esprit et vouloir s[oit] ac- 
ceptable, je vous ay escrit ceste lettre cy. 

" De ma maison de Hampton-court. 

" Edward." 

'' Charissimffi me® Sorori Maiise. 

^^ Una haec epistola ad duas res valet, charissima 
soror, turn ad agendas tibi pro strena tua gratias, tum 
ad explendum studium meum scribendi ad te. Strena 
tua talis est, ut mihi necessd sit earn plurimi fiu^ere 
ob dignitatem rei, et multifim probare ob donantis 

^ These letters were reprinted at Strawberry Hill, in 177S. 
« Voiois, MS. 

F 2 



" Studium nieiim ad te scribendi t&ntum est, lit 
quanquam me te brevi visuruni sperem, tameii cum 
mihi sit otium vix queain mlhi ipsi satis facere nisi ad 
te scripseram.* Non i>ossuni enim te non vehementer 
amare a qua sentio me plurimiim diligi. Dominus 
Jesus te serret incolumem. 

" Hartfordia;, decimo Januarii. 

" Amantissimus tui Frater 

" Edouahdus Princepf 

Concerning the person of this prince, sir John 
Hayward informs us that he was in body beautifiil 
of a sweet aspect, and especially in his eyes, which 
seemed to Have a starry liveliness, and lustre in them. 
This description, Mr. Lodge thinks, is fully justi- 
fied by the sketch of his portrait in the Holbein 

Baldwin, the original editor of the Mirror for Ma- 
gistrates, closes his elegiac poem entitled " The 
Funeralles of King Edward VI." with the following 
" Death-playnt or Life-prayse of this most noble and 
yertuous Prince."* 

The noble hart which feare might never moove, 

Wherin a minde with vertue Traught did rest, 

A face, whose chere allured unto loove 

All hartee, through tyes which pity whole poBsest: 

The brayne, which wit and wisedome made their chest, 

Fulfyld with alt good gifles that man may have. 

Rest with a princely carkaa here in grave : 

s Scripsero, MS. 

« Transcribed from a cop}' of thiii rare tract in the pout 
of my friend Williani Fillingham, Esq. of the Inner Temple. 




Whose vertuous giftes immixed with the minde„ 

As godly feare> with constant zeale to truths 

Such skill of tounges, and artes of every kinde» 

Such manhode, prudens^ justice joynd with ruth, 

As age sedd hath, though here they greed with youth. 

Are ftom their wemles undefiled hoast 

Goen hence to heaven with their godly *goast. 

Of which two partes, belinkt in lace of life. 

It pleased the Lord to lend us late a kmg : 

But out, alas ! our sins they wer so rife. 

And we, so unworthy of so good a thing. 

That Atropos did knap in two the string, 

Before her sisters sixtene whurles had spun. 

Or we the gayne of seven yeres rajme through wun. 

Another printed epitaph on this prince is recorded 
by Herbert, which begins — 

Adewe, pleasure ! 
Gone is our treasure. 

Morning^ maie be our mirth : 
For Edward our king, 
That rose did spring. 

Is vaded and lyeth in earth.^] 

7 i.e. Moumiag. < Typog. Antiquities, vol.ii. p. 1102. 

F 3 


A FEW devout pieces of her composition arc 
preserved. At the desire of queen Catharine 
Parr -, she began to translate Erasmus's Para- 
phrase on St. John ; " but being cast into sick- 
ness, partly by over much study in this work, 
arter she had made some progress therein, she 
left the doing of the rest to Dr. Mallet," her 
chaplain.* This was in the reign of her bro- 
ther. The good queen dowager was at the ex- 
pence of procuring a translation and edition of 
Erasmus's Paraphrase upon the Four Gospels 
and the Acts, for the helping of the ignorant 
multitude towards more knowledge of the holy 
scriptures ; and probably had an eye to the con- 
version of the princess Mary ; — sufficient rea- 
son for her'* to relinquish it.^ She would not so 

9 Vide Lewis's Hist, of theTnuiBlBtioiu of the Bible, p. 164. 
^ Strypc, vol. ii. p. 38. 

'< Soon afler her accession, a proclBmatioD was issued ior 
calling in, and suppressing this very book. Vide Fox's AcU and 

Monuni. p. 1450, liSl, 

5 [A letter from queen Katharine to the princesi Mary, in 
Cotton MS. Vesp. F. xiii. recommends the latter to persevere 
in eidtivating her Latin and iicr callign^ihy; and semm to inti- 
mate that liulliarine liud been her earlier inntruttrcs*. " Ai 

Vrora a Kar* Trint ■ 



easily have been " cast into sickness," had she 
been employed on the legends of St Teresa, 
or St. Catharine of Sienna. 

Strype has preserved three prayers or medi- 
tations of hers ; the first, 

" Against the Assaults of Vice j*' 
at the end of which she wrote these words : 
** Good Francis, (meaning probably her chap* 
lain Dr. Francis Mallet), pray that I may have 
grace to obtain the petitions contained in this 
prayer before written : your assured loving mis- 
tress, during my life, Marie." The second, 

«• A Meditation touching Adversity," 
made by her in the year 154^: at the end are 
these words, ** Good cousin Capel, I pray you» 
as often as you be disposed to read this former 
writing, to remember me, and to pray for me, 
your loving friend, Marie." Who this cousin 
Capel was, does not appear, but probably sir 

for 3rour writing iii Lsttine,*^ says the queen, * I am glad that ye 
shall chaungefromeme to maiiter Federston, for that shall dooyou 
moche good, to leme by hym to write right But yet some tymes 
I wold be glad when ye doo write to maister Federston of your 
owne enditing, when he hathe rede it, that I may se it For it 
shalbe a grete comfort to me to see you kepe your Latten and fiiyer 
writing and all. And soo I prajyou to recommaunde me to my lady 
of Salbbury. Your loving mother, Katherina the qwene."] 

F 4 


Henry Capel, or his wife Anne*, daughter of 
George Manners, lord Roos, whose wife Anne 
was daughter of the duchess of Exeter, sister 
of Edward the fourth. The third, 

" A Prayer to be read at the Hour of Deatli," 
is doubtful whether of her composition.' 

Erasmus says % that she " scripsit bene La- 
tinas epistolas." Whatever her Latin letters 
were, her French ones are miserable. Strype 
has piinted one from the Cotton library, in 
answer to a haughty mandate from herhusband, 
when he had a mind to marry the lady Elizabeth 
to the duke of Savoy, against the queen's and 
princess's inclination, in which he bids the for- 
mer examine her conscience, whether her re- 
pugnance does not proceedfrom obstinacy ; and 
insolently tells her, that if any parliament went 
contrary to this request of his, he should Jay 

« [From Mr. Cole's MSa in the Museum, vol.vii. p. 178, 
where a reference U made to this passage, it spears (hat the 
tnife of Henry Cspel was iaiiy Catherine Moimcn, daughter of 
Thomas Manners, lord Hosse and earl of Rutland, and great- 
grand-daughter to lady Anne Plontagenet, sister to Edward the 
fourth and Richard the third. Mr. Cole had probably suggetted 
this to lord a correction partly to this effect, occurs in 
the quarto edition of Royal and Noble Author^,] 

' Strype, vol.iii. p,H68. 

■ IJh.xix. Ep..11. 

aU££N MARY. 73 

the fault on hen The mortified queen^ in a 
most abject manner and wretched style, sub- 
mitting entirely to his will, professes to be 
more bounden to him than any other wife to 
a husband, notwithstanding his ill usage of 
her : — " Dont," says she, «* jdy commence 
desja d'en taster trop k mon grand regret }'' 
and mentions some fryars whom he had sent 
to make her conformable, but who proposed 
to her *< questions si obscures, que mon 
simple entendement ne les pourroit com- 
prehendre." • 

In Fox's Acts and Monuments are printed — 

<< Eight of her Letters to King Edward and 
the Lords of the Council ;'' on her non-con- 
formity, and on the imprisonment of her 
chaplain, Dn Mallet. 

In the Sylloge Epistolarum are several more 
of her letters, extremely curious ; one of her 
delicacy in never having written but to three 
men ; one of affection for her sister ; one after 
the death of Anne Boleyn; and one very 
remarkable of Cromwell to her. 

In Haynes's State-papers are two in Spanish, 
to the emperor Charles V. 

9 Strype» vol.iiL p.318.j and Append. 190. 


Among the Harleian MSS. one to her 
father - : another to her sister. ■ 

In the Bodleian librarj- is a curious missal, 
which, by a passage in her own hand at the 
beginning of the psalms, seems to have been 
a present to one of her ladies. 

Bishop Tanner is so absurd as to ascribe 
to her 

" A History of her own Life and Death, 
and an Account of Marh/rs in her reign."* 

« No. 283. 

> No. T04T. [The ibort and •anguinaiy rngn of thu female 
faratic, sayi Mr. GUIs, does not Kciii Co have letl any traces of 
ita malignant inliueDce oo our literary history. The narrow- 
ness of the quecn'5 temper, the gloom of her court, and her fre- 
quent proscriptions, were not likely to excite a taste, or to funitah 
suhjccts for poetry; nevertheleu they did not materially check 
the impul&e already given. Indeed, if Mr. Warton's mode of 
snvngement be admitted, it is to this reign that we are indebted 
for the first regular tragedy, and the first attempt at epic poetry 
in the English language. These were Gorboduc and the Mirror 
for Magistrates. Hist. Sketch, vol. ii. p. 155.] 

t P. 510. I" Absurd, indeed !" says Dr. Lort ; " but the true 
cane i«,lbiit bishop Tanner not only pves jou the woi^ of these 
writers, but an account of such lives as have been wrote of them 
by others." Manuscript note in Mr. Gough's copy of Royal and 
Noble Authon.] 



[If Camden's testimony^ is to be relied on, the lady 
Elizabeth made no scruple to conduct herself as a 
catholic, during the reign of her bigotted sister ; and 
it appears from the foUowing papers in the Cottonian 
library ^ that Mary did not hesitate to proceed much 
farther in her dissimulation, for the purpose of ingra- 
tiating herself in the favour of Henry the eighth. 

** To the kings most gratious highnes my &ther. 

♦• Most humbly prostrate before the fieete of your 
most excellent majestic, your most humble faithfiill 
and obedient subject, which hath soe extremely offended 
your most gratious highnes that myne heavye and fear- 
full heart dare not presume to call you father; tie your 
majestic hath any cause by my deserts, saving the 
benignitie of your blessed niktute doth surmount all 
eviUs, offences and trespaces, and is ever mettdfull and 
ready to accept the penitent calling for grace in any 
convenient time. 

^ Having recejrved this Thursday at nyght certayne 
letters from Mr. tiecretarye ^, aswell advising me to 
make mine humble submission immediatly to your 
sdfe, which because I durst not without your gratious 
lioienoe presume to doe before I lately sent unto him, 
as signifieng that your most mercifbll heart and fi^ 
therly pittie had grannted me your blessing, with con- 

^ Pref. to htt Arnniki. « TtUu, C. vH* foU 176. 

7 Cromwcil. 


liicion thai I should persevere In that I hatl commenced 
and begun, and that I should not eflsones offend your 
niojestie by the denial or refiiiiall of any such articles 
and commandments as it may please your highnes to 
addresse unto me, for the perfit tryall of myne harte 
and inwarde affection, for the perfect decleration of the 
bottom of my harte and stomacke. 

*' First, I knowledge my selfe to have most unkindly 
and unnaturally offended your most excellent highnes 
in that I have not submytted my selfe to your most 
just and vertuous lawes. And for myne offences 
therein, which I must confesse weare in me a thou- 
sand folde more grevoiis, then they could be in any 
other living creature, I put my selfe wholly and en- 
tirely to your gratious mercye, at whose hand I cannot 
receive that punishment for the same tliat I have de- 

" Secondly, to open myne harte to your grace in 
these things which I have heretofore refused to con- 
discend unto, and have now written with myne owne 
hand, sending the same to your highnes herewith ' : — 
I shall never beseach your grace to have pittie and 
compassion of me, yf ever you shall perceyve that I 
shall privilie or apertly* vary or alter from onepeeceof 
that I have written and subscribed, or refuse to con- 
fimie ratyfie or declare the same, where your majesUe 
shall apjxiynte me, 

" Thirdly, as I have and shall, knowing your ex.- 

• cellent learning, vertue, wisedome, and knowledge, put 

my soiUe into your direction, and by the same hath 

c the Conlcsiii 

» Openly. 


and will in all things from hensforth direct my con- 
science : soe my bodie I doe wholly committ to your 
mercye and fiitherly pitde, desiring noe state, noe 
condidon, nor manner [nor] degree of living, but such 
as your grace shall apoynte unto me, knowledging and 
confessing that my state cannot be soe vile as eythar 
th' extreamitie of justice would appoynt unto me, or 
as mjme offences have required and deserved. And 
whatsoever your grace shall oTmand me to doe touch- 
ing anie of these pojmts, either for things passed, pre- 
sent, or to come, I shall as gladly doe the same as 
your majestie cm commande me. 

^^ Most humbly therefore beseching your mercy, 
most gratious soveraigne lord and benigne &ther, to 
have pittie and compassion of your miserable and 
sorrowfidl child, and with the aboundance of your in- 
estimable goodnes, soe to overcome myne iniquitie to- 
wards God, your grace, and your wholle realme, as I 
may feale some sensible token of reconsiliation, which 
God is my judg, I only desire without other respect. 
To whome I shall dayly pray for the preservacion of 
your highnes, with the queenes grace, and that it may 
please him to send you yssue. 

*^ From Hownsdon, this Thursdaye at xi of the 
docke at night, [1536].^ 

'^ Your graces most humble and obedient 
<^ Daughter and handmayde, 

" Maeye." 

9 A copy of this letter was inserted in Burnet's Collection of 

Records, with the above date ; but the ** Confession" does not 

appear: it was printed, however, by Heame in Sylloge Epis- 


78 QUEEN MAliy. 

" The Confession of me, the lady Maryi^ made upon 
ceitayiie poynts and articles undre written, ui the 
wliich as I doe nowe plainely and with all myne harte 
confesse and declare myne inward sentence, beleiie, 
and judgment, with a dew conformitie of obedience 
to the lawes of the realme: soe minding for ever to 
persist and continue in tliis determination williout 
change, alteration, or voryance, I doe most humblie 
heseach the kings highnes my ^her, wliome I have 
obstinatly and inobediently ofTendid in the denioll of 
the same heretofore, to foigive myne offences therin 
and to take me to his most gratious mercye. 

" First, I confesse and knowledge tlie kings majes- 
lie to be my soveraigne lord and king, in tlie imperiall 
crowne of this realme of England, and doe submitt my 
selfe to his highnes, and to all and singular lawes and 
statutes of tliis realme, as becoiimieth a true and faith- 
full subject to doe, which 1 shall also obey, keepe, 
observe, advance, and maynteyne, according to my 
bounden duety, witli all the power, force, and tjualy- 
ties, that God hath indued me, during my life. 

" Item, I doe recognyse, accept, take, repute^ and 
knowledge the king's highnes to be supreame head iii 
earth under Christ, of the chirch of England : and doe 
utterly refuse the bishop of Romes pretendetl autho- 
ritie, power, and jurisdiction, within this realme here- 
tofore usurped, according to the lawes and statutes 
made in that behalfe ; and of all the king's true sub- 
jects hmnbly receyved, admitted, obeyed, kept and 
observeil. And also doc utterly renounce and forsake 



all manner of remedye, interest, and adviuitagc, wliicli 
I may by any meanes claynie by the bishop of Rome!, 
lawes, processe, jurisdiction, or sentence, at this pre- 
sent time or in onie wise hereafter, by any manneri 
title, colour, meone, or coce, that is, shaJl, or can be 
devised for that purpose. 

" Marye. 
" Item:— I do freely, frankely, and for tlie discharge 
of my dutie towards God, the kings luglines, and his 
lawes, without other respect, rccognyse and knowledge 
that the mariage hertofore had betweene his majestic 
an<l my mother, the late princesse dowager^, was by 
Gods law and mans law, incestuous and unlawful], 
" Maeye." 

Another letter, written by Mary to secretary Crom- 
well, and inserted in bishop Burnet's Ck)llection of 
Records, contains a full submission to the king's plea- 
sure ill all the points of religion, and promises that she 
will never call the princess (Elizabeth) by any oilier 
name than sister. It concludes with this [taragraph : 

" For mine opinion touching piJgrinuiges, purga- 
tory, reliques, and such like, I assure you I have none 
at all, but such as I shall receive from him that hath 
mine whole heart in keeping, that is, the kings most 
gracious liighness, my most benign &tlier, who shall 

1 Adcr arcbbi^np Criuinier luul nullified lienrj'i marringB 
with Kecharinc of ArTrBgon, in IJI.IS, tbe king orJcrul her to bo 
styled only " princeu dowBgcr of Wale*," as the widow of prince 
Arthur ; but she refused to be served by any (hiU wuiilil not Irent 
lier M queen. St* Rajun, 20 Hen.VIII. 





imprint in tlie same touching these matters and bU 
other, what his ineslimable vertue, high visdom, and 
excellent learning, shall tliink convenient, and limit 
unto me, to whose presence I pray God I may once 
come ere I die, for every day is a year till I may have 
the fruition of it. Beseeching you, good Mr. Secre- 
tarj', to continue mine humble suit for the same, and 
for all other things whatsoever they be, to repute my 
heart so firmly knit to his pleasure, that I can by no 
means vary fi-om the direction and appointment of the 
same ; and thus most heartily fare you well." 

The melancholy complexion of this princess, says 
Granger^, her narrow capacity, obstinate and unre- 
lenting temper, and blind attachment to her religion, 
contributed to caiTy her to the extremes of bigotry and 
persecution'' : and the horrid cruelties of this reign fa- 

' Biog. Hist. vo1.i.p.l52. 

* The coarse humour, or the courtly adulation of Heywood 
the epigrammatist, could however sometimes enliven the gloomy 
mind of Mary ; and her sullen solemnity, says Warton, was not 
proof against his songs, his rhymes, and his jests.* The follow- 
ing instance of his poetic policy at least is curious:^ 

Btlvewed by John Hcywoode, presently; who advertisinge her 
yeares, as face, saith of her thus, in much eloquent phrase: 
Geve place, ye ladyes all, bee gone, 

Shewe iiol your selves all all ; 
For why? — bchoulde, there cometh one 
Whose fitce yours all blanke shall. 

I. of E.P, vol.iii, p,87. 

• From Harl. MS, 170.1. 


cilitated the progress of the reformation in the next 
Yet to do justice to queen Mary, observes Blackstone, 

The vertue of her looks 

Exodls the precious ston, 
Yee neede none other books 

To reade, or looke upon. 

In each of her twoe eyes 

Ther smiles a naked boye. 
It woulde you all suffice 

Too see those lampes of joye. 

If 3 all the worlde were sought full farre, 

Who coulde finde such a wyght ? 
Her beutye twinkleth like a starre, 

Within the frostye nights 

Her couler conies and goes 

With such a goodly grace» 
More ruddye then the rose. 

Within her lively &ce. 

Amongs her youthfull yeares, 

Shee tryumphes over age. 
And yeat shee still appeares, 

Boath wyttye, grave, and sage. 

I thinke nature hath lost her moulde 

Wher shee her forme dyd take. 
Or ells I doubt that nature coulde 

So fiure a creature make. 

Shee maye bee well comparde 

Unto the phenix kinde. 
Whose like hath not byn harde 

Hiat anye nowe can finde. 

3 Of. MS 
VOL. !• O 



' In the earlier part of her life, when her situ- ■ 
ation was precarious, and adversity her lot or 
her prospect ; in the days when, as Camden ^ 
says, king Edward was wont to call her bis 
sweet sister Temperajice, this great princess 
applied much to literature, and, under the 
celebrated Roger Ascliam, made great progress \ 
in several languages.^ Her ready responses in ' 
Latin to the compliments of the university of J 
Cambridge, many years after she had ceased i 
to have learned leisure, are weil known : and 1 
her ingenious evasion of a captious theologic \ 
question is still more and deservedly ap- 

" Christ was the Word that spake it ; 
He took the bread aad brake it; ' 

^ And what that Word did make it| 

That I believe and take it." * 

" In the Preface to his Histor}>. 

^ {It can M^nrcc be credited, i»yi Ascham, to what degree of 
ikillin the Latin and Greek she might arrive, if she ihall proceed 
in that course of studj whcr^ she halh iKgim by the guidance 
of Grindal. Epist. to sir J. Chccke, p. 79.J 

• She excelled even ui things of a much more trifUng nature. 
There cannot be a sillier species of poetry than rebuses ; yet of 


This is the list of her writings : 

" A Comment on Plato.** 

<* Two of the Orations of Isocrates, trans- 
lated into Latin/* 

<< A Flay of Euripides, likewise translated 
into Latin.** 

that kind there are few better than the follomigy which queen 
Elizabeth made on Mr.Nod : 

*^ The word of denkU and letter of JSfty, 

Is that gentleman's name that will never be thrifty.'* 

Collinsy in Gainsborough. 

The same author, in his account of the house of Stanhope, 
mentions this distich, in which her majesty gave the characters of 
four knights of Notdnghamshire : 

Gervase the gentle. Stanhope the sttfut, 
Markham the lion, and Sutton the lout 

Vide Chesterfield. 

Fuller records an English hexameter^ composed by tins 
queen, in imitation of Sir Philip Sidney. Coming into a gram- 
mar^chool, she thus expressed her Ofunion of three classic 

Persius, a crab-stafie; bawdy Martial ; Ovid, a fine wag. 

Worthies in Warw. p. 126. 

The same author relates, that Sir Walter Raleigh having 
written on a window, obvious to the queen's eye, 

Fain would I climb, yet fear I to fidl : 

She immediately wrote under it. 

If thy heart fail thee, climb not at all. 

Worthies in Devon, p. 961 
G 3 


" A Translation oi Boetliius tie Coiisol- 
atione Philosophic,'" 

" A Translation of the Meditations of the 
Queen of Navarre." 

The latter work was printed at London in 

" One of her Orations at Cambridge," 
is preserved in the king's library." 

" Another, at Oxford."" 

" Another, on a second Visit to that Uni- 

" A Translation of a Dialogue out of Xeno- 
phon in Greek, between Hiero, a King, yet 
some tyme a private Person, and Simonides a 
Poet, as touching the Liffe of the Prince and 
privat Man." 

This was first printed in the year 1743, in 

' Vide Ballard's Memoirs, p.S35. 

" Vide Slrjpe, vol. ii. p.i46. and Aniw, [Herbert seems to 
record a Latin veruon of thcie Meditations, (iriuteil by Den- 
faain, without date, and entitled " Meditationcs Margarcta: 
Regime Navarne, translat. per Rcginam Elizabetham." Tjpogr. 

Antiq. p. 963.] 

7 Coaley'sCBtBl. p.i99. and Hollingshed's Chron. p. iao6. 

' Wood's Athene, vol.i. p. 1S9. This Oration waa to ex- 
press her eatidaction at her entertiuiunent On tlic same ocea- 
sioD, «he answered a Greek oration in Greek. Her orations ore 
printed too in PcL-k'i Desk). Cur. vol. ii. 

3 lb. p. 306. 


No. II. of Miscellaneous Correspondence.' A 
specimen of her hand-writing was engraved 
with it : she sometimes took the pains to write 
exceedingly fair. 

** Her Speech to her last Parliament.'*' 

" A Prayer composed by her.*** 

<< Another for the Use of her Fleet in the 
great Expedition in 1596.**^ 

In the king's library is a volume of prayers 
in French, Italian, and Spanish, written with 
her own hand. Hentznerus mentions such an 
one only in French, written on vellum, and 
dedicated to her father, in these words: 

<< A tres haut & tres' puissant & redoubt6 
Prince Henry VIII. de ce nom, Roy d* Angle- 

terre, de France & d'Irelande, Defenseur de la 
Foy.**« ^ 

« [Containkig BssayBy Disiertationsy ftc. on nurkras mbjectt, 
sent to the audior of the Gent. Mag. Oct. Lond. 1745. The 
manufcrq>t copy was said to contitt of tofjbty pages in quarto 
m the fim of which the title ran thus; ^ A short Treadse» 
IMalogue about the Difierence between the Lyfle of the Pkynoe 
and privat Person, don out of Xenophon in Greek into Eng 

9 In^ Lord Somefs^sG>lL of 1>acta, published by Cogan,?ol.iy. 

p. ISO. 

4 In AntBaoon'sFBpers,vd.ii«p.l8. [And in HarL MSa) 

ft nnd. 

EngU e£t p*90. 

o 4 


Camden says, that she either read or wrote 
something every day ; that she translated 

" Sallust de Bello JugurthUio:" 
and, as late as the year 1598, turned into Eng- 
lish the greater part of 

'* Horace de Arte Poetica,** 
and a little treatise of 

" Plutarch de Curiositate."'' 

" A godly Meditation of the Soule, con- 
cerning a Love towardes Christe our Lorde, 
translated out of French into English by the 
right highe and most vertuous Princesse, 
Elizabeth Queen of England." 

Black-letter, printed by H. Denham.^ Tliis 

. ' It appears by a letter from the earl of Essex to sir Fronns 
Bacon, that her majesty waa not quite indifftrcnt to fume, even 
as an author. Sir Francis beiri^in disgrace with her on having 
opposetl three subsiilies in the last parliament, and the earl, ai 
he constantly did, enileavouring to recommend hitii again to 
favour, artfully told the queen that his suit was not so much 
for the good of Bacon as for her own honour, that those ex- 
cellent trantlatumi of hers might be known to tlieni who could 
bett judge of them. Here we see this great woman with all her 
weaknesses about her, and in the hands of a man who knew how 
to humour them. Ant. Bacon'ti Papers, vol.i. p. 121, 

" Vide Herl. Catal. vol. i. p. 115. [Mr. Malone has a copy 
of this rare book, apparently printed abroad, with the follow* 
ing title and colophon : " A godly Meditacyon of the ChriMen 
Sowie, concerning a Love towardes God and hys Christe, com- 
pyled in Frenthe by Lady Margarete Quene of Naverre, and 
iqitcly translated into Englysh by the ryght vertuouse Ledy 


is only a various edition of the Meditations of 
the Queen of Navarre. 

<< A Century of Sentences, dedicated to her 
father.*' » 

In the Sylloge Epistolarum are several of 
her Latin letters, one in Italian, and one in 
English to the queen dowager^ sending her a 
prose translation from a French poem, which 
she calls 

<< The Mirrour, or the Glass of the sinfbll 
SouL" » 

This letter is followed by her preface to 
the same book, and that by a prayer composed 
by her. • 

** A curious letter to lord Burleigh,^ 
in Strype's Annals. ^ 


Elyzabeth, Doughter to our late SoTerayne Kynge Henri the 
Vin.'* Beneath a wood-cut of the princess ofi^ng her book 
to our Saviour, is added, ** Indita filia, serenissimi olim An- 
glorum regis Henrici octavi Eliiabeta, tam Greece quam Latine 
fceliciter in Christo erudita." Colophon : ^ Imprented in the 
yeare of our Lorde 1548, in Apryll."] 

[See Bishop Montague's Prefiice to the Works of Kbg 

« [Mr. Ballard points out this translation as dedicated to 
queen Catharine Parr, in an epistle dated from Asherige, Dec. 31 
1544, when Elizabeth was eleven years of age : but he knew 
not whether the performance was ever printed. Herbert does 
not record it.] • 

5 P. 161. 

* Vol. ill. p. 166. 


" Another of humour, to divert him from 
retiring from business.'"^ 

" A very genteel letter written by her 
when princess, to king Edward, on his desiring 
her picture.'"^ 

" Another to him, upon his recovery from 

" Six letters to different persons." 
Printed in Peck's Desiderata Curiosa.^ 

" A letter to Peregrine lord Willoughby."' 

*' Her letter to the king of Scots, disavowing 
her knowledge of tlie death of his mother."'' 

" A letter to lady Norris, on the death of 
her son." 

It begins, " My owne Crowe," a term of fa- 
miliarity which -her majesty used to this lady, 
whose father suffered with Anne Boleyn. * 

" A short letter to Henry lord Hunsdon," 
added by way of postscript to a solemn letter 
of thanks sent to his lordship by the secretary 

^> p. 77. It U re-printed in the Life of Burleigh in the 

« Printed in Strype's Memorials, vol. ii. p. S54. 

7 Qickerton's Coll. of Letters, \}. 53. 

1 Vol.i.anJii. 

Printed in Fuller'a Worthies of Lincolnshire, p. 163. 

' Pre&ervetl in the Cotton library, and printed in difierent 
book), pnrticulHTly in Howard'^ Coll. p. 346. 

J Fuller's Worthier of Oxfordahirc, |>. 336. 


of state, on the suppression of some dts< 
turbances in the north. ' 

" A letter to George Carew," 
aflerwards earl of Totness, ttianking him for 
ills services in Ireland."* 

" A letter to lady Paget on the death of her 
daughter, lady Cronipton." MS. In the pos- 
session of Dr. Cha. Lyttelton, dean of Exeter. 

" Two letters" among the Burleigh papers 
published by Murdin, in I'JSQ. 

" Nine letters," of which one was entirely 
written with her own hanil, in Moryson's 

" A letter to Heaton, bishop of Ely;" 
printed in the Annual Register for IJiSl. 

A few more of her letters are preseiTed in 
the library of C. C. C. Camb., and several 
among the Harleian manuscripts. 

But she did not only shine in prose. The 
author* of a very scarce book, intituled. The 
Arte of English Poesic, says, " But last in 
recitall, and first in degree, is the quenc, our 
sovereigne lady, whose learned, delicate, noble 
muse, easily surmounteth all the rest that have 
written before her time or since, ibr sence. 


> Fuller't Worthka in HcrtTonlshire, p. 34. 

> Printe's Worthk'h in Dcvun, p.Sos. 

* Putluihiuii i prinlud lit London. IS89, 4ta 


sweetnesse, and subtillitie, be it in ode, 
epigram, or any other kinde of poeme, wherein 
it shall please her majestie to employ her 
penne, even by as much oddes, as her owne 
excellent estate and degree exceedeth all the 
rest of her most humble vassalls." In that 
collection is one little poem of hers ', as there 
is another in Hentznerus.* A greater instance 
of genius, and that too in Latin, was her ex- 
tempore reply to an insolent prohibition deli- 
vered to her from Philip the second, by his 
embassador, in this tetrastic : 

" Te veto ne pergas bello defendere Belgas: 
Qute DracuB eripuit, nunc restiluantur oportet ; 
Qmbb Pater evertJt, jubeo te condere cellaa; 
Religio Papec fac reetituatur ad unguem." ^ 

She instantly answered, with as much spirit 
as she used to return his invasions ', 

' [Several \iaot and short passages by ijucen Elizabeth, are 
cited by Puttenhani among hia examples! where, as Dr. Percy 
observes, arc many sly addresses to the queen's foible of sbiniog 
as a poetees.} 
" Eng. edit. p.6G. 

3 [ThuB imitated by Mr. James Pettit Andrews: 
" No longer, queen, the Belgic root befnend: 
What Drake has plunder'd, back to India teod : 
Thy iinpbus father's aacrilegc rep^r ; 
And bow thy scqitre to St. Peter's chair."] 
- Ballard, p, S27, 

■j elegie, ^^B 
wherein I 


** Ad GriecaSy bone rex, iient inandata Calcndas.**^ 

An instance of the same spirit, and a proof 
that her compositions, even in the learned 
tongues, were her own, is that rapid piece of 
eloquence with which she interrupted an inso- 
lent embassador from Poland. ** Having ended 
her oration, she, lion-like^ rising,'' saith Speed, 
<< daunted the malapert orator no less with her 
stately port and majestic departure, than with 
the tartness of her princely checks ; and turn- 
ing to the train of her attendants, said, God^s 
death! my lords^ I have been forced this day to 
scour up my old Latin^ that hath long lain rust" 
ingJ*^ Another time being asked if she prefer- 
red the learning of Buchanan, or of Walter 
Haddon? she replied, ** Buchananum omnibus 
antepono, Haddonum nemini postpono."^ 

It is known that scarce a church in London 
but had an epitaph on this illustrious woman, of 

9 [Imitated by the same — 

^ Believe me, prince, Til do thy high behest. 
When in one week two Sundays stand confest." 

Hist, of O. B. vol. i. p. 104.] 
^ This draught has been lately work^ up into a noble 

" A lion-port, an awe-commanding face, 

Attemper'd sweet to virgin grace." Gra/s Odes. 

» Vide Speed and Ballard. 

« 0. S. Worthies of England, p. 77. 


which manj are still extant ' ; bat Camden ^ 
has preserved one, which he calls doleful, but 
with which, as a most perfect example of the 
bathos, I shall conclude this article : 

TTie qaeen was brou^t by water to Whhdiill ; 
At ewerj stroake the ovs did tears let fidi : 
More clung about the barge ; fish under water 
W^ out their eyes of pearl, and swome blind after. 
I think the barge-men might with easier thighs 
Have row'd her thither in her people's eyes : 
For how so-ere, thus rnadi my thou^ts hare scan'd, 
Sh*ad GOOM by water, had die come by land.' 

7 [Four of these lapidsiy lauds are inserted in Webb's Col- 
lection of Epitaphs, toI. E, with a short one, translated from the 
Spanish bj James Howell, which forms a siiigular contrast: 

^ Here lies Jezabd, 

Here lies the new Athalia; 

The harpy of the western world. 

The cruel firdirand of the sea. 

Here lies a wH the most worthy of feme 

which the earth had. 

If to arrire in heaven she had not miss'd her way.'^ 

*^' Remains, p. 388. 

9 [Mr. Andrews thinks these lines are not without true aflec- 
tion, although they will probably cause more smiles than tears. 
Hist of G. B. vol. i. p. 201.] 


[Lord Orford has not cited, nor perhi^s was aware 
oi^ the publication whence his instance of the bathos 
was first derived. But its title, as inserted below ^, 
will give no higher promise of its heterogeneous con- 
tents, which fonn a medley of quips, and cranks, 
and jocular conceits. The following extracts precede 
and follow the verses cited by Lord Orford. 


** The queene's remov'de, in solenme sort, 
Yet this was strange, and seldome seene ; 

The queene usde to remove the court. 
But now the court remov'de the queene.*' 


<' The queene lyes now at White Hall dead, 

And now at White Hall living ; 
To make this rough objection even,— 

Dead at White Hall at Westminster, 
But living at White Hall in Heaven." 

Ascham, in hb Schoolemaster, 1570, has thus cele- 
brated the literary attainments of this maiden mo- 

< ** The wonderfiill Yeare, 1603; wherein is shewed the PSc- 
ture of London, lying sicke of the Plague. At the Ende of all, 
like a mery Epilogue to a dull Play, certaine Tales are cut out 
in sundry Fashions, of purpose to shorten the Lives of long 
Meters I^hts, that lye watching in the darke for us. £t me 
rigidi l«gant Gatones." 4to. 



nareh : " It is lo your shame, you young gentlemen 
of England, that one mayd should go beyond you oil 
in exceilencie of leamyng, and knowledge of divers 
tonges. Pointe forth six of the best given gentlemen 
of this court, and all they together spend not so much 
tyme, bestow not so many houres dayly, orderly, and 
constantly, for the increase of leamyng and know- 
ledge, as doth the queene's majestic herselfe. Yea, 
I believe, that beside her perfect readiness in Latin, 
Italian, French, and Spanish, she readeth here now 
at Windsore more Greeke every day than some pre- 
bendarie of this church doth read Latin in a whole 
weeke.^ And that which is most praise-worthy of all, 
within the walls of her privie-chamber she hath ob- 
teyned that exceilencie of learning, to understand, 
speak, and write both wittily with head, and faire 
with hfuid, as scarce one or two rare wittes in botJi 
the universities have in many yeares reached imto." 

Wlien she was but twelve years old, says Mr. Bal- 
lard, she translated from the English tongue into 
Latin, French, and Italian'', " Prayers or Medita- 
tions, by which the soul may be encouraged to bear 

^ Although a princess looking out words in a Lexicon, tayi 
Warton, and writing ijown hard phrases from Plutarch's Idves, 
may be thought at present a more incompatible character, than 
n conon of Windsor understanding no Greek and but little 
Latin; yet Elizabeth's passion for these acquisitions was then 
natural, and resulted from the genius and habitudes of her age. 
Hist, of E. P. vol. iii. p. 492. 

* This translatian liad been mentioned by bishop Montague 
to early ns 1616, in his preface lo the Works of King James. 


with patience all the miseries of this life, to despise 
the vain happiness of this world, and assiduously 
provide for eternal felicity. Collected out of certain 
pious writers by the most noble and religious Catha- 
rine queen of England." Dedicated by the princess 
Elizabeth to Henry the eighth, and dated at Hatfield, 
SO Dec. 15^5. 

Bizari, speaking of queen Elizabeth, says, she is a 
perfect mistress of our Italian tdhgue, in the learning 
of which signior Castiglioni was her principal master.^ 
Scaliger tells us, that she spoke five languages, 
and knew more than all the great men then living. 
Savile, in the dedication of his Tacitus^, panegyrizes 
her talents in a more exaggerated strain. ^^ The prin* 
cipall cause," says he, ^^ of undertaking my translation^ 
was to incite your majestic by this as by a foile, to 
communicate to the world, if not those admirable 
compositions of your owne, yet at the least those most 
rare and excellent translations of histories, if I may 
call them translations, which have so infinitely exceeded 
the originals'^ y making evident demonstration to all 

^ Hist, of the Wars of Hungary, 1568, cited by Ballard. 

« Third edit. 1604. 

7 Vandernoodt, a Flemish nobleman, and a writer of English 
sonnets in bkmk verse, says in a dedication to queen Eliiabeth, 
** Your grace is so instructed by Apollo and his nine sisters in 
the divine arte of poetrie, that you may worthily be called tha 
seconde Sappho," ' Edmund Bolton, an early English critic, 
whose judgment Warton ^yer-rates, declare^ that queen Eliza- 

• Theatre for Worldings, 1569. 
VOL. I. H 


who have seene them, that as the great actions of 
princes are the subject, so stories composed or amended 
by princes, are not onely the best patlerne and rule 
of great actions, but also the most natiirall registers 
thereof, the writers being persons of Uke degree and 
of proportionable conceits witJi die doers, &c." 

Such inflated adulation as this might have a power- 
ful effect in imbuing our virgin queen with a spirit of 
literary competition, and in stimulating her to labo- 
rious study. Hence we hear of her translati<m <rf' 
Sallust^; ofXenophon's Hiero, in the public library. 

bcth's Tcrsci, which he had seen and read, were princely as her 
prose. Hypercritica, sect. iii. Yet this stately coquel, the 
guardian of the Protsstant faith, the terror of the sen, the me- 
diatrix of the factions of France, and the scourge of Spain, was 
infinitely mortified, if an embassador at the first audience did 
not tell her she wa» the finest woman in Europe. No negoti- 
ations succeeded unless she was addressed as a goddess. War. 
ton's Iliiit. vol. iii. p.493. The parasitical bombast, however, 
to which the ear of Elizabeth had so long been accustomed, 
must have polled on her closing j ears, as the following anecdote 
seems to certify. 

The archbishop of Canterbury attended queen Ehzabeth 
in the last moments of her life. lie endeavoured to console her 
by saying, she had every thing to hope from the mercy of the 
Almighty, for her piety, her zeal, and the admirable work of the 
reformation, which she bad so ba[ipily established. The queen, 
who had turned to tlie other side of the bed, interrupted the 
archbishop by saying, " My lard, the crown which I wore lor 
many years made me sufficiently vain while I lived; I beg you 
will not now increase that vanity -4hen 1 am so near death." 
A need. Hist, and Literary. 

• See preface to King James's Works. 

aU££N 6LIZAB£TH. 99 

Cambridge^; of a long chorus from the Hercules 
CEtcBus of Seneca, among Hatton's manuscripts in 
the Bodleian library ^ ; with one oi Cicero's epistles, 
and another of Seneca's in the Harrington manu- 
scripts. ^ ^^ The pedantry of the present age^" says 
Warton, ^^ was the politeness of the last" Of such 
pedantry he adduces a curious instance in the occu- 
pations of queen Elizabeth, whose marvellous progress 
in the Greek nouns is recorded with rapture by her 
preceptor Rog^r Ascham ; and he might have noticed 
similar examples in other distinguished characters 
of that period. But, as Mr. Ellis ingeniously adds, 
^^ these efforts of patience and industry in the great, 
were perhaps necessary to encourage and preserve 
the general emulation of the learned. In a short 
time, all the treasures of Greek, Latin, and Italian 
literature were laid c^n to the public, through the 
medium of translation." ^ The exercitations of Eliza- 
beth, however, were not altogether confined to the 
heathen learning of Greece or Rome. In Sorocold's 
Supplications of Saints, of which a tw<3nty-scventh 
edition appeared in 164*2, the following precatory 
forms are said to have been made by queen Eliza- 

" A Prayer of Thanksgiving, for the Overthrow of 
the Spanish Navy, sent to invade England, an. 1588." 


Monthly Mag. July ISOJ, p. 557. 

« Hist, of Eng. Poetry, vol. iii. p. 394. Vide transcr. infra. 

s Vid. Nugae Antiqua;, vol. i. pp. 109. 140. 

* Specimens of early English Poetry, vol. ii. p. )3I. 

II 2 



" A Prayer for the Successes of liev Navy ; A. D. 

" A Prayer for her Navy : A. D. 1597." 

Bishop Tanner mentions a book of prayers, in the 
Norwich hbrory, formerly believed to have been queen 
Elizabeth's, which hag in tlie beginning " A Prayer 
to be said in tyme of extream Sickness," written 
with the queen's own hand, * 

The specimens of queen Elizabeth's prose indeed 
are numerous, and most of her poetical efTuf^ions have 
been carefully handed down to posterity. The verses 
preserved by Hentzner, are to be found in bishop 
Percy's elegant selection " ; those transmitted by 
Puttenham, are in Mr. Ellis's '^ ; and an epitaph from 
Sootheme's Diana has been reprinted by Mr. Kitson. * 
But a metrical effort of her majesty's pen, hltle less 
rare perhaps thmi the preceding, since it is not ad- 
verted to by lord Orford, occurs at the end of the 
" Godly Meditation," translated from the queen of 
Navarre, and is here subjoined, by favour of Mr. 
Malone, who possesses a perfect copy ofrfie book. 

" THE XtllJ FSALME OF DAVID, CALLED Dixit tHliptent : 

Fooles, that true fayth yet nev 
Sayth, in their hartes, There i 

110 God ! 

'Bibliotheca, p.360. 

« ReliquCB of E.P. vol.ii. p. 127. 

T Specimens, vol. ii. p. tea. 

"" ffibliographia Poetica, p.364. 

Probably Aad, but ipelled as above for the nke of the 
fhjine ! B1I orthojrraphic license liwqiipnrty taken liy oar dUer 


Fylthy they are in their practy^se. 
Of them not one is godly wyse. 
From heaven the Lorde on man ded loke. 
The ^knowe what wayes he undertoke: 
All they were vayne» and went a 8traye» 
Not one he founde in the ryght waye; 
In harte and tongue have they deceyte. 
Their lyppes throwe fourth a poysened bey te ; 
Their myndes are mad» their mouthes are wode^ 
And swyft they be in 8hed3mge Mode : 
So bl3mde they are, no truth they knowe, 
No feare of God in them wyll growe. 
' How can that cniell sort be good ? 

Of Gods dere folcke whych sucke the blood ! 
On hym ryghtly shall they not call : 
Dyspajnre wyll so their hartes appall. 
At all tymes God is with the iu8t> 
Bycause they put in hym their trust, 
Who shall therefor from Syon gevc 
lliat helthe whych hangeth in our beleve ? 
Whan Grod shall take from hys the smart, 
Tlian wyll Jacob reioyce in hart. 

Prayse to God.** 

Jt is not improbable that this version may be one of 
the ^^ two little anthemes, or things in meeter of hir 
majestic ;'' licensed to her printer, Chr. Barker, Nov. 

Since the above curiosity was obtained from die 
choice library of Mr. Malone, I have had an oppor- 
tunity of acquiring a still greater rarity from the Bod- 

2 ForsM To? i Vid. Diblogr. Poet. p. 565. 

H 3 



leian repository" by tlie kindnesis of Ricliard Heber, 
Esq. of Brazen Nose college, Oxford, who has tran- 
scribed the entu-e and hitherto unpublished *'Transla- 
tion, by Queen Elizabeth, of the Speech of the Chorus 
in the second Act of the Hercules Qiltceus of Seneca." 
Its only poetic merit seems to consist in having re- 
jected the bondage of rhyme for blank verse; a 
measure which Warton tliinks her majesty perhaps 
adopted from Gorboduc, and which therefore argues 
it to have been produced after the year 1561.* 

" What harming hurle of fortune's armc thou tlreades, 
Let fraught of fayth the burthen of care relieve; 
And take tlioa such, to feare approv'd by proofe, 
The unpickt lockes of certaine trust to hould. 

" For geason is the fayth, and rarely kept is trust, 
Wliere puffed sailes from best fore windes be falne. 

^ The wayght of scepters sway if choice must bear, 

" Albeit the vulgare crew fill full thy gates, 
And hundred threshouldea with iheire feete be 

amoothed : 
Though with thy gleaves and axes thou be armed, 

< MSS. Mu5. Bodl. 5S. 12. 
* History ofE.P. vol. iii.p.394. 

" In order to render the pedantic jargon of this paniphraslic 
vt'nion a little more intelligible, the ori|,<inal Latin i^ here annexed, 
I'll the judicious rccomnicndatioB of Mr. llehcr. 

P'atum quodciinquc times 

Fidiu comitcs accipe fatis. 
' Nam rora fides, ubi jam melior 

' Tu, i[uit;iiniiiic a, ijui sccptra U 
> Licet omne tuii vulitus in aula 


And root full great doe glory give thy name: 
3 Amid the viewe of all these sundrie sorte 

One faultles fayth her roome even franke may daime. 
^ The golden ledge full wrathfull spites beset, 
^ And where the gates theire postes draw forth by breadth, 
^ More easie way to guiles and passed safe : 
Speed then the clerkes of warned harmes with good. 
And let the hidden blade noe wrong thee worke : 
For when most shewe by gazers eyen is spide. 
And presence great thy honour most advance, 
This gill retaine as fellowe to thy roome, 
Disdaine may frowne, but Envy thrust thee through. 
^ No ofter doeth the east the nights carre release 

And makes the shady darke with light abashe, 
"^ Then kinges be made in instant short and mar'd, 

So isie is this joy, and hoopless woe* 
^ The love of kingdoms rule observed with care. 

But for himself a king but fewe regard. 
^ The courtcs luster a state guest made for mee. 
Delighted with the shine, noe woe forthought. 

Centum pariter liinina puiset ; 

• Cum tot populis stipatus eas 
In tot populis vix una fides. 

9 Tenet auratum limen Erinnys, 
< Et cum magnae patucre fores, 
^ Intrant fraudes, cautique doli, 

Ferrumque latens : cumque in populos 

Prodire parant, comes invidia est. 
^ Noctem quoties summovet Eoti, 
7 Regem toties credite nasci. 

• Pauci reges, non regna, colunt ; 
9 Plures fulgor convocat aula:. 

H 4 ^ 




^ And this man seekcs the nearCEt roome to prince. 

To glitterii^ view amid the streetes he comes : 
■ Wliile broyled is with carke the misers breast, 

* 1q search of gainfull graspe his name to spred, 
In compasse of the hoorded heapes to finde 
One bit to slake desires waves he seekes : 

* Not all the coast where Istras trade doeth haunt, 
With gemmes bedect through hew of divers kinde, 

* Nor Lydia faire, with sweetest gtreames, suffice, 
To quench ne answere all such thurgt by half: 

^ Ne yet the soyle that bides Zephy'rus" slave 
Abasht at golden shining Tagus' beames; 

* Nor Hebrus' service may content at full ; 

* Ricli though Hydaspes' sedge his feildes throwe out 
' Though Ganges' course his confines all doe grase 

Witli filled force to water all his landcs. 
^ To greedy grating wightes inough not all 
That nature well doeth please his lack not so, 

'^ Cnpit hie te^ proximus ipsi 
ClaruG datas ire per urbes ; 
' Urit niiserimi gloria pectus. 
* Cupit hie gazis implere (amem: 

> Nee lumen omnis plaga geromiferi 
Sufiicit Ibtri.— 

8 . Nectotasitim 

Lydia vinciti— 
: nee qus, ZeplijTO 

Subdita tellus, stupct auralo 

Flumioe claniin radiarc Tagum ; 
' Ncc ^ totui serviat Hebnia, 
Ruraque (lives cingat Hydaspes; 
' Inlfaquc suos currcre fines 

Spectet tolo fluniine Gangcm. 

> Avidif, avidis natura paruni c^t. 


^ This man doeth homage owe unto kingly force, 
And harbrowe Rome adores where last he hauntes ; 

* Not meaning that his ploughshare should advance, 
Like crooked hinde, his masters gaine with clottes 
By murdering oft the ground, noe ease of toyle. 
Though thousand leas his husbandmen turne up : 

^ Well pleased rests his hearth with goods, even such 

^ As pleasure may by gift another neede. 

® A badder part the princes court regard. 
With foyled foote, that stumble gives at all,. 
And each to lose, with no avayle to one. 

^ That might may equall harme, they power atchieve. 

2 Wtiose livings thred drawne out, is of such lenght, 
Whom hap ne takes ere Nature calls away ? 

3 The homed newed moone them blessed call 
Whose wayne them misers judg when dey doeth falK 

* A man full rarely happye is and olde. 

^ Moe surer sleepes thee downie turfes procure : 

* Colit hie regem, regumque lares, 
» Non^ ut presso vomere semper 

Nunquam cosset curvus arator, 

Vel inille secent arva coloni ; 
f" Solas optaty quas donet, opes. 
7 i.e. As may give pleasure by supplying another's 

B Colit hie rcges, ealcet ut omncs, 

Perdatque aliquos, nullumque levet : 
9 Tantum ut noceat, cupit esse potens, 
< Quota pars moritur tempore fiiti? 
^ Quos fdiees Cynthia vidit, 

Vidlt miseros abitura dies. 
4 Rarum est felix idemque senex. 

* Cespcs, Tyrio mollior ostro, 
Solet impavidos ducerc somnc»». 

All Tyre, where purple woven is and made. 
Not El) Gounde slumber doth his owner yeelde. 

* The gilted ronfes the quiet rest bereaves. 

And waking nights the purple drawes from ease. 
' O that the breasts of rich men naked were, 
The Bmothed dreades of lofly luckes that hide, 

* The Brutian streame more milder course doeth hould 
When easty winde him strikes with forces strobe. 

f In franched minde from care the sillie soule possest, 
A pot of becchy tree full sure he keepes, 
With stedy hand, that fcares no snatch from hold ; 
No suddaine fright afirayes, no thcefe he dreds : 

' With ease y-got, and single shewe he feedes. 
And reakes not far the girded blades to thygh. 

' The golden cuppe of bloody mixture keepca. 

* The wife that y-tied is to man of meane estate, 
No carking hatli in order faire to set, 

Nor shining gifl of reddy sea she weares: 

' Aurea rumpunt tecCa quletem, 

Vigllesquc trahit purpura noctes. 
' si pateont pectora ditum, 

Quantos intus tublimis agit 

8 Brutio, Coro 

PuUante fretuiu, milior undii I'll, 
n Pcctora pauper &ccura gcrit. 

Tenet i petulA pocuta fago, 

Scd non trepida tenet ipsa mauu. 
'' Corpit facilet vilcwjue ciboe, 

Sed non slrictoi reitpicit cuks. 
^ Aurea miBcet pocula sanguis. 
1 Conjux modico nupta marito, 

Non dispmito clora monili, 

(irsLat pelagi dun a rubentit ; 


^ Her cares free from the pluck of gemmy weight. 

No stone of Eoas waves her cumber makes : 
^ Soft wool ingraiade with Sidon's purple faire 

Drinkes not the red for use that her befalles : 
^ Noe Maeon needle filleth she with skeanes 

By parted hewes that give the shade with art ; 

The silky land that lies to sunny east 

Neades not the fhtte from easteme tree to pluck : 
^ Everie hearbe the coulors die may mix 

That distaff fills with yeame that skille ne sponne. 
* Shee nurses not the doubtes of wedlock bed, 

Of lewde suspect, of wearie workes shee shunnes. 
^ The wrathfull lampe Erinnys lighteth up, 

The feastfull day adomes by pestring rowt. 
[ ^ The pore man deemeth not his happie state, 

Till wealthy ruined folk by fall it showe. 
4 Whoso therefore the middle way eschewes, 

The wry and crooked walkes most sure to tread* 

^ Nee gemmiferas detrahit aures 

Iiapis Eoa lectus in undA; 
'^ Ncc Sidonio mollis aheno 

Repetita bibit lana rubores ; 
7 Nee MoeonU distinguit acu. 

Quae Phoebeii subditis EurU 

Legit Eois Ser arboribuB : 
Quselibet herbae tinxere eoloi, 

Quas indocte nerere manus : 
9 Sed non dubios foret ilia tonw. 
3 Sequitur duk lampade Erinnys 

Quorum populi coluere diem. 

3 Nee sibi felix pauper habetur, 
Nisi felieet ceddisse yidet. 

4 Quisquis loedium defugit iter, 
Stabili nunquam tramite curcct. 



^ Wliilc Ph&tou boy one day of fatiier golL 
To rule the raines, and eke his wayoe to guide, 

* In leaving wounted walke, and worned wayes. 
With by slide while the uncouthde skies he ah[ear]ea 
Such place as heate of Phcebus flame nc [kouth] ^ 
His ruine was the world, his fellowe plaine. 

8 Dsdalus yet more larger scope and broader tookc, 
Wlio never yet a sea by name did grace, 

' Tliough Icarus sought the true and living birdes 
By guile to passe, and winne the tryers right, 
His fathers feathered winges despised with skorne, 
To Phcebus neare with swifiy gate he hies, 
And christned by his slippe the sea was sure. 

^ Evell bought the great where ill exceedcB the good. 

3 Let one full happy bee and highly flee ; 

'' God sheild that mighly mee the vulgerc call : 

i Dum petit unum pnebere diem, 

Patriosque puer concitaC axes, 
■ Nee per solitum percurrit iter, 

Sed Phisbcis ignota Meat 

Sidcra flam mis, curruote rotu 

Secuni pariter perdidic orbeiu. 
T Thin word is conjectural, [he manuscript being illegi- 
ble at the close of this and tlie preceding line. R. U. 
' Tenuit Latias Dsdalus oras, 

NulUque dedit nomiaa poiito. 
s Sed dum volucres vincere veras 

Icarus audet, patriasque pucr 

Despicit alas, Phteboque volat 

Proximus ipsi, dedit ignoto 

Nomina ponto. 
- Male pensantur magna ruinia. 
> Felix alius, mi^usquc volet; 
* Me nullii voiet tLU'ba potentem : 




^ The lee of shore my silly boate shall loath, 
Let Doe full winde to depth my barkc bequeath. 

^ From safest creekes doeth Fortune glide, and shunne 
With search in middest sea for tallest shippe. 
And takes it dearest pray the near to clowde* 

On the whole, as Mr. Heber has intimated, this 
royal translation is certainly a curious piece of pedan- 
try ; albeit, if we could raise maister Puttenham and 
the other court critics of Elizabeth's age, from their 
tombs, they would be driven to a nonplus to defend 
this Euphuistic labour of their virgin queen from the 
charge of vying with the Aistian of ancient Pistol. 

Not less vain, it has been said, of her person than 
her accomplishments, encomiastic harangues drawn 
from the topics of youth or beauty, were ofiered and 
received with an equal impropriety.^ Hence did 
John Rainolds, the grave president of C. C. C. Oxon, 
close a manuscript dedication full of learned flattery, 
with this distich ; 

Princeps Elisabet, lux, decus, Anglise, 
Sternum vigeat, floreat, imperet : 

while other panegyrical pens assigned to her all the 
attributes of Juno, Minerv^a, and Venus.® 

^ Stringat tenuis littora puppis; 

Nee magna meos aura phaselos 

Jubeat medium sdndere pontum. 
^ Transit tutos Fortuna sinus, 

Medioque rates qusrit in alto, 

Quarum feriunt suppara nubes. 

7 Histk of E. P. vol. iii. p. 403. 

« Reg. MSS. 15 A. iii. and isA.xlvii. 



Richard Mulcaster, the early master of merchant 
taylors' school, thus complimented her msijesty's at- 
tainments in vocal and instrumental music ; 

Regia majestas, tetatia gloria nostne, 
Hanc in deliciis semper habere solet ; 

Nee contenta graves aliorum oudire labores, 
Ipsa etiam cgre^'ic voce manuque canit." 

But among the numberless tributes of the muses to 
the i>erfections of Eiizabeih, the following, says Mr. 
Andrews, is not the least elegant : 

Juno potens sceptrie et mentis acumine Pallas, 
Et roseo Veneris fulget in ore decor; 

Ailfuit Elizabeth — Juno perculsa refugit, 
Obstupuit Pallas, erubuitquc Venus.* 

Moreri assures us, tltat she was skilled in mathe- 
matics ; but what authority, says Ballard, there may 
be for such an assertion 1 know not ; however, this is 
certain, that she was not wanting in her affection to 
the studies of astronomy and mathematics, as is suf- 
ficiently demonstratetf by her countenance and protec- 
tion of Dr. Dee, whom she frequently conversed with, 
visited, and rewarded. From one of the Cotton ma- 
nuscripts' it would seem, tliat a petition was drawn 
up, in 1589, for incorporating " An Academy for the 

Prefixed to a liook cntilleJ, Ditcaiitua O 

&C. IS7S, 

^ Hist, or G, Q. continued, i 


Study of Antiquities and History, to be called the 
Library of Queen Elizabeth." The following testi- 
mony to this queen's abilities as a statist, was given 
by her treasurer lord Burleigh: — " No one of her 
counsellors could tell her what she knew not ; and 
when her council had said all they could, she could 
find out a wise counsel beyond theirs: and there 
never was anie great consultation about the country, 
at which she was not present, to her great profit and 
prayse." ^ Lord Bolingbroke's able delineation of her 
political character may conclude these brief notices. 
^* Our Elizabetli was queen in a limited monarchy, 
and reigned over a people at all times more easily led 
than driven; and at that time capable of being at- 
tached to their prince and their country by a more 
generous principle than any of those which prevail in 
our days — by affection. Tliere was a strong preroga- 
tive then in being, and the crown was in possessicm of 
greater legal power. Popularity was however then, as 
it is now, and as it must be always in mixed govern- 
ment, the sole true foundation of tliat sufficient au- 
tliority and influence which other constitutions give 
the prince gratis, and independently of the people, but 
which a king of this nation must acquire. Tlie wise 
queen saw it, and she saw too, how much popularity 
depends on those appearances that depend on the de- 
corum, the decency, the grace, and the propriety of 
behaviour of which we are speaking. A warm con- 
cern for the interest and honour of the nation, a ten- 

* Kcnialc Bioj^aphy, vol. iv. p. 294 



clemess for her people, nnd a confidence in their af- 
ftctions, were appeamnces that ran through her whole 
public conduct, and gave life and colour to it. She 
did great things ; and she knew how to set them off 
according to their full value, by her manner of doing 
them. In her private behaviour she shewed great 
affability, she descended even to familiarity : but her 
familiarity was such as could not be imputed to her 
weakness, and was therefore most justly ascribed to 
her goodness. Though a woman, she hid all that 
was womanish about her ; and if a few equivocal 
marks of coquetry appeared on some occasions, they 
passed like flashes of lightning, vanished as soon as 
they were discerned, and imprinted no blot on her 
character. She had private friendships, she had 
favourites*, but she never suffered her friends to for- 
get she was their queen : and when her favourites did, 
she made them feel that she was so." *] 

^ Collins well obiicrves, in his Memoirs of the Sijueys, " it 
was certainly to the glory of queen Elizabeth's reign, that the 
had the wisdom to distinguish anil employ persons of eminent 
abilities, integrity, and honour:" and it was the shrewd inter' 
rogation of Waller to James II. who imputed all the splendour 
of Elizabeth's government to the sapience of her coimEellors — 
" But pray, eire, did you ever know a weak prince make clioiec 
of wise counsellors ?" 

'^ Idemtf a Patriot King, p.ai4 



If there arc doubts on the genuineness of 
the works of tliose two champions of the 
church, Henry the eightli and Charles the 
first ; if some critics have discovered that the 
latter royal author stole a prayer from the 
Arcadia ' ; and if the very existence of king 

< [This discovery was first announced in Milton's Iconoclastes. 
But Dr. Gill affirms, that his patient, Henry Hill, the printer, 
said this prayer was put in by a contrivance of Milton, who 
catching his friend, Mr. Du Gard, printing an edition of Icon 
Basilike, got his pardon by Bradshaw's interest, on condition ho 
would insert Pamela's prayer from the Arcadia, to bring discredit 
on the book, and the author of it. I wonder, says Toland, at 
the easiness of Dr. Gill, to believe so gross a fable; when it does 
not appear that Du Gard, who was printer to the parliament, 
ever printed this book, and that the prayer is in the second 
edition, published by R. Royston. And if the king's friends 
thought it not his own, what made them print it in the first 
impression of his works in folio, by Royston, in 1662; when 
Milton could not tamper with the press? Or why did they let 
it pass in the last impression in folio by Chiswell, in the year 
] 686, when all the world knew it was long before exposed in 
Iconoclastes? Henry llill turned papist in king James's time, 
to become his printer, as he was Oliver's before. Amyntor, 
pp. 1 53~5. NotwithKtanding this cogent rcnsonuig, Dr. Francis 
Hemard confirmed Dr. GilPs testimony, declaring that he rp- 
meml>ered very well, Mr. Henry Hill, the printer, told him lie 
had heard Bradshaw and Milton laugh nt their inserting a (^rayrr 
out of sir Philip Sidney's Arcadia, at the end of kuig (liarUs's 

VOL. I. 1 


Richard's sonnets has been questioned ; yet 
there is not the least suspicion that the folio 
under tlic respectable name of James tiie first, 
is not of his own composition. " 

Roger Ascham may have corrected or as< 
sisted periods of his inustrious pupil ; but 
nobody can imagine that Buchanan dictated 
a word of the " Daeraonologia *," or of the 

book. WagstoS'i Xlndicuuon of King Chnrlei, p. Si. For 
more urgiunents in cxoacruuon of this charge, see Viodicia 
CHTolinx, p. SB.] 

> [Dr. Lure suggciti a doubt, whether the Basilicon Doron, 
printed soon after his acces^on lo the Cnglibh throne, be the 
composition of Juiiies the hraC. At least, he sajs, the style miut 
have been snioothed and polithod, to accomniodate ic to Eaglish 
taitei. ComJcn alio speaks of its having been conreeled; bul 
I have not been able to ascertain whether in matter or »tf le, tha 
Scotish edition being a book of such rare occurrence. The 
Enghsh one was reprinted in 1681, by order of James the secontl. 
The learned Mr. Beloe bag pointed out a ludicrous mistake re- 
tpecting it by Moreri, the celebrated compiler of the Historical 
Dictionary, who having occasion to mention the Doron Baiilicoa, 
tpeaks of Dorut BiuUietit, oa the name of an author. Deloe'ii 
Miscellanies, vol. ii. p.96.] 

* [" Diemoiiologie; inFonneofaDittlogMe, dividcUinto three 
Bookcs," was printed at Edinburgh in 1 j9T, anil at London in 
1603, 4to. : the preface i^^ signral James R, It has been said 
that the prosecution of one Agues Wilson di^overcd the whole 
mystery of witchcraft, and from those discoveries king Jatn« 
compiled his Dirmonologia, See Cent. Mag. vol. vii. p. SSS. 
The royal penman protests that his treatise was undertaken, 


polite treatisei intituled, ** A Counterblast to 
Tobacco/' ^ Quotations, puns, scripture, wit- 
ticisms, superstition, oaths, vanity, prerogative, 
and pedantry, the ingredients of all his sacred 
majesty's performances, were the pure produce 
of his own capacity, aqd deserving all the in* 
cense offered to such immense erudition, by 
the divines of his age, and the flatterers of his 
court. One remark I cannot avoid making ; 
the king's speech is always supposed by par- 
liament to be the speech of the minister : how 


^ not in any wiieto Mtve for a ihew of lemmg and mgnie^ 
but ondy to roioWe the doubtiag harti of many, that toch »• 
laiiltaf of Satlian are molt certainly practized, and that tho in* 
ttrumenti thereof merit moft teverly to be puiaiiied: againsa 
the daomableofuniontof bvo prindpally; ^Rdiereof the one called 
Stoi, an Engiiihman,ii not ashamed in publike print to deny that 
there can be tuch a thing: aa witchcraft; and the other called 
Wkruif a German phyntioHi aeta onta publick apologie for all 
theM crailei*folfce».'' Pre& to die reader. A rindioation of 
Scot and Wierut against tiie- imputation of king James^ was pub* 
Ibhed by Webiten m his "^ Displaying of supposed Witchcraft.** 
Bat as the ready way, obsenrea Dr. Johnson, to gala kii^ James's 
fofour, was to flatter Ins 8pecolatlons,the system of diemonologie 
was inunediately adopted by all who desved either to gain pr»* 
ferment or not to lose it. latrodnction to the tragedy of Mao^ 

i [By the Dssmonologia, and Counterblast, says Granger, James 
the first lost as much reputation as he had gained by his Basilicon 
Doron. Biog. Hist, vol.ii. p. 1.] 

I 2 



cruel would it have been on king James's 
ministers, if that interpretation had prevailed 
in his reign ! * 

Besides his majesty's prose works, printed 
in folio, we have a small collection of his 
poetry, under this title, 

It ii observable, that notwit}i»toiidiiig hii boasted learning, 
iia BO ignorant of a countrj' which hnJ such strong con- 
ms witb his own, that when queen Elizabeth wanted to 
t Iiinder liim from malehing with a daughter of Denmurk, Wotton, 
her embassador, persuaded him that the king of Denmark wai 
descended but of merchante, and that few made account of him 
or his country but such as spoke the Dutch tongue. Harris's 
Life of King James, p. 31, quoted from Melvil. Historians seem 
IJLtIc more acquunted with the queen, than his majesty woe with 
her country. Her gallantries are slightly mentioned; yet it is 
recorded, that James being jealous of her partiality to the earl 
of Murray, then esteemed the handsomest man ia Scotland, per- 
fUEtded his great enemy, the marquis of Huntley, to murder him, 
and by a writing under his own hand promised to save him 
barmlcM. lb. p. H, taken from Bumel. Queen Anne's am- 
bitious intrigues are developed in the Bacon papers, among which 
u one most extraordinary passage, entirely overlooked, and yet 
of great consequence to explain the misfortunes into which ber 
C dElcendnnta afterwards fell. The pope sends her beads and re- 
r Uquei, " and thanks her for not communicating with heretics at 
oronntion." Vol. ii. p. 503, 504. And this evidence of her 
P bdng a papist is confirmed by a letter from sir Ch, Comwallis to 
^ the carl of Salisbury, m which he tells him, " that the Spanish 
■ embassador had advertised that the queen should bay unto him, 
might one day peradventurc sec the prince on a pilgrimage aC 
rStJago." Harris's Life of James, p. 33, in a quotation from 
I TiVinwoorf. 


** His Majesty's Poeticall Exercises^ at 
vacant Houres. Edinb." ® 

In the preface he condescends to make an 
excuse for th^r incorrectness, as having been 
written in his youth, and from his having no 
time to revise them afterwards ; so that, *^ when 
his ingyne and age could, his affaires and fash- 
erie would not permit him to correct them, — 
scarslie but' at stollen moments he having the 
leisure to blenk upon any paper. However, he 
bribes the readers' approbation, by promising 
if these are well received, to present them with 
his Apocalyps and Psalms. This little tract 
contains, " The Furies S and the Lepanto ^*' 

7 lEdmund Bolton, in his Hypercridca, sect. iii. says^ ** he 
dare not presume to speak of hb majesty's exercises in this 
heroick kind ; because he saw them all left out of that volume 
which Montague, lord bishop of Winchester, hath given us of 
his royal writings." This was the fact : whence it may be in- 
ferred, that the poetry of king James was omitted by royal 

8 [A thin small-sized quarto, handsomely printed at Edin- 
burgh, in 1591, by Rob. Waldegrave, printer to the king's 

9 [Translated from the French of Du Bartas ; and particu- 
larly referred to in Sylvester's subsequent version of the sam« 

« [A poem of the king's own enditing, which Du Bartas 
turned into French. His translation was printed at Edinburgh, 
1591, 4to.1 

1 3 




His majesty wrote other poetical pieces, par- 

" An Encomium on Sir Philip Sydney." * 

" Two Sonnets."'' 

" Some verses prefixed to Tycho Brahe's 
works." '^ 

And lie began " a translation of the 
Psalms." <■ 

Another of his poems is preserved in Drum- 
mond of Hawthornden'a works' ; and a poem 
by lord Stirling upon that poem. The original 
of the king's sonnet is in the Advocates' 
library at Edinburgh^ ; as I have been obli- 
gingly informed, among other communications, 
by a gentleman of great knowledge and merit. 
By this sketch, king James appears to have 
been a pains-taking writer ; for there are 

1 Printed in Horris's Life of K. James, p. 138. 

* Printed in liib Works, p. 89, 137. 

> Vide Biograph. Brit. vol. iv, p. 3306. 

" Harris, p. 137. [In Reg. MS. 18 B. xvi. in the king's hand- 
writing, occur his verwin of twenty-6i> pMlins, with the Lord's 
prayer, and the song of Moses. Uii cntiri: translation of the 
Psalter was printed at Oxford, with a licence from Charles I. in 
1631. It is rctnnrkable, says Grai^r, for its flat sioipticit}', and 
the abundance of unntcaning expletives.] 

' [Reprinted in Percy's Reliques, vol. ii. p. 313.) 

B [From the wUege library ut the ^anie place, a more suc- 
cessful dTuidoii has been recently communicateil to Mr. Ellis, and 
iii.iy be seen in the last edition of tu^. SpcblmenD of the early 
English Poett, vol, iii. p. 6.] 


alterations and amendments in every line. It 
is followed by a fair copy, in the handwriting 
of lord Stirling ; in so worthy an office did his 
majesty employ his secretary of state ! 

Many of his letters are extant ; several in 
the Cabala ; others among the Harleian MSS. 
in the British Museum * ; others in Howard's 
collection^; and one among the Burleigh 
papers, published by Murdin. 

Two other pieces I find ascribed to him^ but 
I doubt if they are genuine ; they are called, 

" The Prince's Cabala, or Mysteries of 
State ;" 
written by king James I. printed in 1715. 

« The Duty of a King in his Royal Office/'* 

8 [One of these, exposing the preposterous passion of this 
monarch for dogs and horses, is printed in Nuga Antiquae, 
vol. i. p. 394.] 

7 P. 241, 523. 

» Somers* Tracts, 2d Coll. p. 188. I am obliged for the 
notice of some of these pieces to Mr. Harris's judidous Life of 
this monarch, which I had not seen when this work was writ- 
ten, as the life of Charles I. by the same author, has been pub- 
lished since the first edition of this Catalogue went to the press. 
Whoever desires to see a compendious account of the enormitifls 
of those reigns, will find them exactly detailed in Mr. Harris's 
accurate compilations. [Mr. O. Herbert, being praelector of 
the rhetorical school at Cambridge, 1618, passed by those fluent 
orators that domineered in the pulpits of Athens and Rome ; and 
intjiittcd to read an oration of king James, which he analysed ; 

F 4 * 



Bishop Montague translated all his majesty's 
works into Latin : a man of so much piitience 
was well worthy of favour. 

[The earliest piiblicniion of king James has escaped 

the observation of lord Orford. It was entitled, 
" The Essayes of a Pr«itise ^ in the divine Art of 

Poesie," and imprinted at Edinburgh by T. Vautrol- 

lier, 1584, +to. 

The following are its principal contents : 

" Ane Quadrain of Alexandria Verse." 

" Twelf ScHinets of Invocations to the Goddis." 

" The Uranie, or heavenly Muse." Translated 

from Du Bartas. 

" Ane nietaphoricall Invention of a Tragedie callit 


" A paraphrasticall Translation out of the Poete 


" Ane schort Treatise conteining some Reulis and 

Cautelis to be observit and eschewit in Scottis Poesie." 

shewetl the concinnity of the parts, the propriety of the phrase^ 
the hdght and power of it to move affections, the stjle aflerly 
uninotm to the ancu-tils, who could not conceive what kingly 
eloquence was, in respect of which those noleil demagogi were 
I11LI hirelings and triobulary rhetoricians, llackcl's Life of 
Williams, p. 175.] 

Francii Joneii, in an address to the reoiler, before " Thiile, 
or Vertucs Historic," 1598, says, in probable allmion to this 
iiiodeft title, " Fly forre the name of prenlite-porlric." It nia_v 
be dc!iervin); of notice, that the nionaruh wus only eighteen year* 
of age when he put forth his miscellany. 


" Sonnet of the Authour to the Reader,*' prefixed. 

" Another, decifring the perfyte Poete." 

" The ciiii. Psahne, translated out of Tremellius." 

" Ane schort Poeme of Tyme." 

" A Table of some obscure Wordis with their Sig- 
nifications, after the Ordour of the Alphabet." 

" Sonnet of the Authour." 

The only portion of this miscellaneous volume 
which can interest a modem critic, or recompense a 
poetical amateur for the trouble of perusal, is the 
treatise containing rules and cautions to be observed in 
prosecuting an art which the royal author essayed to 
teach, during his own apprenticeship to the Muses. 
The performance is ** curious though stupid," says 
Pinkerton, by whom the heads of the several chapters 
are enumerated in his list of Scottish poets, p. cxix. 

This regal lawgiver of Parnassus professes to have 
composed his work ** for twa caussis. The ane is; 
as for them that wrait of auld, lyke as the tyme is 
changeit sens}me, so is the ordour of poesie changeit. 
The tUher cause is : that as for thame that hes written 
in it of late, there hes never ane of thame written in 
our [Scottish] language. For albeit sindrie hes 
written of it in English, quhilk is lykest to our lan- 
guage, zit we differ from thame in sindrie reulis of 
poesie, as ze will find be experience." 

Who were the sundry English writers that had 
framed rules for poetic composition, anterior to king 
James, the researches of tlie present editor have not 
enabled him to ascertain. Goscoigne, indeed, had 
printed " Certayne Notcb of Inbtruction concerning 




the making of Verse or Rj-nie," at the end of his Po- 
sies, in 1575; antl Warton^ mentions an old book on 
tlie some subject by " one Fenton," tlie existence 
of which is extremely doubtfiil : but Webbe's Dis- 
course of English Poetry, in 1586, is the earliest 
publication of the kiiwl, that has descended to us, 
which can be regarded as a didactic treatise.^ Put- 
tenham's more methodical ■work, which is justly re- 
marked, by Mr. Neve*, to contain a treasure of poe- 
tical and historical anecdotes, did not make its ap- 
pearance in print till 1569. 

"- lUst. of Eag. Poetry, iii. 481. It u probable, [hat Warton 
derived his suggestion fcotn the Catalogue of Capell's Shake- 
Bperiann, which imputes an " Art of Engliflh Poeay" to Fenltm 
that must have been Puttcnhain's. Our historian notice* a 
French " Art Poetique" so early as 1 S48. Ut sup. p. 350. 

'I Wcbbc proposed to effect a reformation in English poetry 
" by having some peifect platfomi or prosodia of veriufying 
ratified, in imitation of the Greets and LaUns." See an ana- 
lysis of his scarce book in Oldys's British Librarian. The same 
romantic attempt to " fetter English verse in Roman manacles," 
was made by Harvey and Spenser, by Sidney anil Stanihurst, by 
Fraunce and Uameiielil, &c., but without procurin' sufficient 
admirers to convert such novel modes into standard measuret. 
Miltou, or his nephew Phillips, truly says, they neither become 
the English, nor any other modem language; and Warton has 
forcibly sCigmatiseJ the short-Uved fashion as an " unnatural 
and impracticable mode of versification." Old Chapman, how- 
ever, had long before scouted the exotic form of English poesy 
in those " strange garments, Rome's hexameters;" and so had 
satiric Nash, in his pen-combat with Gabriel Harvey. 

■• Sec Cursory Remarks on sonie of the ancient English 
Poets, patticL'larly Miltoo, p. lo. 


As a specimen of king James's pnxfickncy in an art 
which he instructed others to cultivate, the following 
sonnet, directed to the ** docile bairns of knawledge,'* 
may to some readers be acceptable. 

Sen for zour saik I wryte upon zour airt, 
Apollo, P&Dy and se, 6 Muses nine. 
And thou 6 Mercure, for to help thy pairt 
I do implore ; sen thou be thy ingyne 
Nixt efler Pan had found the quhissill, syne 
Thou did perfy te, that quhilk he hot cspyit : 
And after that made Argus for to tyne 
(Quha kepit lo) al his windois by iu 
Concurre, ze gods, it can not be denyit ; 
Sea in your Airt of Poesie I wryte. 
Auld birds to leame by teiching it is tryit, 
Sic docens dUcamf gif ze help to dy te. 
Then, reidar, sic of nature thou have pairt, 
Synelaikis thou nocht, botheir to reid the airt. 

Another quatorzan by this " refractory genius,'* as 
Mr. Ellis has humorously termed king James, will 
prove sufficient exemplars of his style. It concludes 
his volume of Prentice-Poetry. 


« The facound Greke, Demosthenes by name. 
His toung was ones into his youth so slow. 
As evin that airt^, which floorish made his fame. 
He scarce could name it for a tyme, ze know* 

^ Khctoriquu. 



So of small sekVis the Liban cedres grow : 

So of an egg the egte doeLh proceid : 

From fountains small great Nilus' Sood doetti flow : 

Evin so of rawnis do miglitie fishes breid. 

Therefore, good reader, when as thow docs reid 

These my hrst fruictis, dispysc them not at all : 

Who waits bot these may able be indeid 

Of fyner poemis the beginning small? 

ThcD, rather loave my meaning and my pains, 

Then lak my dull iiigyne and blunted branis." "^ 

Three moral stanzas by kbg James, in Scolish or- 
thography, were printed in vol. i, of the Moitland 
Poems, with the title of " Sonet ;" a term of uidefi- 
nite application among onr early makers. In the folio 
edition of his works' was inserted. 

" His Majesties owne Sonet," 
which chancellor Tliirlstane, a man of genins and a 
scholar, was so courteous as to render into Latin verse. 
The king repaid him with an epitaph in his veiy best 
style.* Another sonnet of/iis crj>n, written at New- 
market, January I6I6, in consequence of being pre- 
vented from hunting by a fall of snow, is contemptible 
for its childish peevishness. Bagford mentions an 

B There it no (jiiestion, Bays Granger, but James laboured 
hnril to outdo Stcmhold and Hopkins; but he has TrDijuently 
fallen short of them. He is indeed n sin^or inatsnce that 
there is no more a royal wny to poclry ihun there a to geometry. 
Diog. Hist. vol. iL p. 30. 

TpBgeS9; but first printed in I5sg. 

X See Spoiswood's llist. of the Chiuxh of Scotland, 1668, 


instance of lamentation still more unmanly, in Harl. 
MS. 5979^. In the " Muses Welcome to King 
James," printed at Edinburgh, in 1618, foUo, the 
royal visitor greeted his Scotish subjects with a string 
of punning rhymes on the names of certain learned 
professors, which some of them were sagacious enough 
to turn into Latin.^ Lord Hardwicke remarks, that 
some verses by king James on sir P. Sidney's death are 

^ See Pinkerton's Hist, of the Scottish Poets, p. cxix. 

^ As a sample of the literary taste which prevailed at this 
academic visitation, these quibbling verses on the names of the 
college disputants, are here subjoined : — 
As Jdam was the first of men, whence all beginning tak : 
So Adam^on was president, and first man in this act. 
The theses Fmr-Ue did defend, which thogh they lies contain ; 
Yet were fair liety and he the same right fairlit did maintein. 
The field first entered master Sands, and there he made me see 
That not all tands are barren sands, but that some fertile bee. 
Then master Young most subtilie the theses did impugne. 
And kythed old in Aristotle, although his name be Young. 
To him succeeded master Reid, who thogh reid be his name, 
Neids neither for his disput blush, nor of his speech think 

Last entered master Xing the lists, and dispute like a king, 
How reason reigning as a queene shuld anger underbring. 
To their deserved praise have I thus playd upon their names ; 
And wils their coUcdge hence be cald the colledgc of King 

These lines serve to verify the remark of Mr. Bramston in his 
Art of Politics: 

** When James the first, at great Britannia's helm, 
Rul*d thu word-clipping and word-coining realm ; 
No word to royal favour made pretence. 
But what agreed in sound and clash*d in $ensc." 




rather elegnnt, nitd one of his speeclies aboul the 
union has some masterly touches in it." 

Other elegiac verses on Uie deutli of his queen oc- 
cur in Sloan MS. 1766, and were pubUshed in letters 
on the collections of the Britbh Museum, 

But )}erhaps the most dignified specimen of king 
James's fioetic capability was prefixed to his BASIAI- 
KON AQPON^, and addressed to his promising son, 
Henry Frederick, prince of Wales. Bishop Percy has 
reprinted it in his Reliques *, and declares that it would 
not dishonour any writer of tliat time. 

Having mentioned die kingly gifl of this monarch 
to his eldest son, it will be but justice to its merits, and 
to its reputation, to cite a few of diose passages which 
have been penned in its praise. 

In this book, says Camden, is most elegantly pour- 
trayed and set forUi the pattern of a most excellent, 
every way accomplished king. Incredible it is how 
many hearts and alFecdons he won imto him by his 
correcting of it, and what an expectation of himself 
he raised amongst all men even to admiration. Arch- 
bishop Spotswoo<I also regards it as Iiaving contributed 
more to &cilitate the accession of James to the throne 
of England, than all the discourses published by other 

3 ManuKript note in Mr. Gough's copy of Royal and Noble 

' Printed at Edinburgh by R. Waldesrave, in 1 599 i end »• 
printed at London by Norton, Kingttoii, &c. on the writer's 
accession to the English throne in IflOJ. A I.atin translation 
appenrcd in the (allowing year, and a French one soon after, 

> Vol.ii.p.312. 


writers in his &vour. I^ofA Bacon considered it as 
excellently written ; and Mr. Locke pronounced its 
author, ^' that learned king^ who well understood the 
notions of tilings." Hume $ays» ^' whoever will 
read the Basilicon Doron^ particularly the two last 
books, will confess James tp have possessed no mean 
genius ; and Mr. Andrews terms it ** a well-written 
treatise on the arts of government, clothed in as pure a 
style as the age would admit, and not more chargeable 
with pedantiy, than contemporary books of a serious 

As the book is sufficiently common, a very short 
extract ^^iU suffice. It is taken from the third section, 
entitled^ ^^ Of a King's Behavior in indifferent things.'* 

<< It b a true olde sayingi that a king is as one set 
on a stage, whose smallest actions and gestm'es, all 
the people gazinglie doe beholde; and therefore al- 
though a king be never so praecise in the discharging 
of his office, the people who Seeth but the outward 
part, will ever judge of the substance by the drcum- 
stonces ; and according to the outward appearance, if 
his behaviour be light or dissolute, will conceive prae- 
occupied conceits of the king's inward intention: 
which, although with time, the trier of all trueth, it 
will evanish by the evidence of the contrarie efiects, 
yet interim paiitm* Justus ; and pras-judged conceits 
will, in the mean time, breed conten^t, the mother 
of rebellion and disorder. And besides that, it is 
certaine that all tlie indifferent actions and behaviour 
of a man, have a certaine holding and dependence 
eitlier upon vertue or vice ; according as they ore used 


or niM : for there is not a raiildes betwixt them, no 
more than betwixt th«r rewards, heaven anil helL 

•* Be careiiilJ then, my ionne, so to frame all ycmr 
indifferent actions and outward behaviour, as they may 
«erve for the furtherance and forthsetting of your in- 
warxl tenuous disposition. 

" The wfiole iadifferent actions of a man I divide in 
two som : in his behaviour in tlibigs necessarie, as 
food, sleeping, raiment, speaking, writing, and ges- 
ture ; and in things not nece^^e though convenient 
antf lawful!, as pastimes or exercises, and using of 
compante for recreation. 

" As to the indifferent things necessary, although 
that of themselves they cannot be wanted, and so in 
that case are not indifferent; as likewaies in case they 
be not osed with moderation, declining so to the at- 
tremitie, which is 4-ice ; yet the (jualitie and forme of 
using them, may smell vertue or vice; and be great 
furtherers to any of them.'* 

" The " Basilicon Doron" was turned into Latin 
quadrains by Peacham, and ornamented widi emble- 
matical figures. The manuscript copy presented to 
prince Henry, is in Reg. MS. 12 A. Ixvi. It was 
|Mirtly translated into Latin and English verse also by 
William Willymat, under the title of " Speculum 
Principis; a Princes Looking Glasse, or a Princes 
Direction ; very requisite and necessarie for a Chris- 
tian Prince, to view and behold himselfe in, contain- 
ing simxlric wise, learned, godly, and princely Precepts 
and Instnictions,excerplctl and chosen out of tliat most 
ChriNtiiui and vertuous BAZIAIKON AQFON, his 


Majesties G>nsent and Approbation being first had 
and obtained thereunto." It was printed at Cam- 
bridge in 1603, 4to. 

John Ferrour has a poem among the royal manu- 
scripts*, entitled, " The Portrait of a Prince," but 
which the author forbore to finish afler he had seen the 
admirable work of king James addressed to his ^mJ 

Besides the poetical essajrs and prose pieces men- 
tioned by lord Orford, the following productions are 
attributed to this monarch : 

** The true Lawe of free Monarchies, or the reci- 
prock and mutuall Dutie betwixt a free King and his 
naturall Subjects." Edinb. without date. 

^^ A Declaration of the Kings Majesties Inten* 
tioun and Meaning toward the last Actes of Parlia- 
ment." Edinb. 1585. 

« 18 A. xxiv. 

7 Wither says, in his Verses on the Obsequies of Prince 
Henry, 1615, addressing king James : 
I grieve thelesse, 
Thy kingfy gift so well prevaild to make him 
Fit for a crowne of endlesse happinesse, 
And that it was th' Almightie's hand did take him, 
Who was himself a book for kings to pore on. 
And might have bin thy Basilikon DoaoN. 
The harsh and forced close of this stanza, calls to mind a 
similar termination in the opening of Milton's 1 1th sonnet : 
** A book was writ of late call'd Tetrachordon^ &c. 
Numbering good intellects ; now seldom por'd on.'* 
Strange 1 that such a specimen of the sonnet should have 
been selected by Dr. Johnson ; and little less strange, that this 
popular species of composition should not have been particula- 
rized as an order of verse, in the Encyclopaedia Britannica. 

VOL. I. K 



*' Ane fruitful Meditation, conteining ane plains 
and fecill Expositioun of the 7, 8, 9, and 10 Verses 
of the XX Chapt. of the Revelatioun, in Forme of 
ane Serraone.* Set doiin by the moist Christiane 
King, and synceir Professour and cheif Defender of 
the Treuth, James the 6 King of Scottb." Edinb., 
1588, 4to. 

" Ane Meditatioun upon the 25, 26, 27, and 29 
Verses of the xv ChapL of the first Buke of the 
Chronicles of the Kingis. Set doun be the maist 
Christiane King, &c. James the sext, King of Scottis." 
Edinb. 1S89, 4to. To this tract was subjoined his 
Majesties atim Sonnet, which seems to have been 
composed on the dispersion of the Spanish armada. 

" A Discourse of the Powder Treason." 

" An Apologie for the Oath of Alle^ance," first 
set out anonymous, and afterwards pubhshed with the 
premonition, under his majesty's owne name. 

" A Prasmonition to all Christian Monarches, free 
Princes, and States, written both in English and La- 
tine by his Majestic," 

" A Declaration against Vorstius, written by his 
Majestie first in French, after translated into £jiglish 
by liis Majesties leave." 

'* A Defence of the Right of Kings, against Car- 
dinal Perron, wTitten by his Majestie in French, and 

« In R^, MS, isB.xiv. is king James's autogrnph copy of 1 
his Paraphnue upon the Revelations, extending to the whole S 
chapters, with an epistle adJresced " To the quhole ChristiaBt I 

Kirkc militani, iu quhat suinevir pairte of the earth," 


thereafter translated into English by his Majesties 

** Five Speeches : — 

^^ First, in parliament, anno 1603. 

^^ Second, in ditto, 1606. 

« Third, at Whitehall, 1607- 

<< Fourth, at ditto, 1609. 

^ FifUi, m die starre chamber, 1616.'' 

Mr. Brand has a small volume entitled, ^^ Regales 
Aphorismi ; a royal Chain of golden Sentences, di- 
vine, morall, and politicall, as at severall Times and on 
several Occasions they were delivered by King James. 
Collected by certain reverend and honourable Person- 
ages attending on his Majesty." Lond. 1650. An 
advertisement to the reader says, ^' This book hath a 
preheminence above any other which as yet hath ever 
been published in king James hb name. For though 
the other books were dictated by him, and some 
passed more immediately under his own hand, yet 
these apothegms proceeded immediately from his own 
voice." The book contains 386 sentences. 

The portraiture of king James as a monarch and 
a man, has been strikingly exhibited by Wilson and 
Osbom, by sir Edward Peyton and sir Anthony 
Weldon, but with more apparent candour of dis- 
crimination in Harrington's Nugae Antiquae, and the 
Appendix to Fragments of Scotish History. In the 
latter work, it is said, ^' he was werey witty, and had 
als maney redey vitty jests, as aney man livinge, at 
vich he wold not smyle himselffe, bot deliver them in 
a grave and serious maner. He was werey crafty 

K 2 



and cunning in pettey tlunges, as the circumven tinge 
aney grate man, the change of a fiivorite, 8(C. in so 
much as a werey wise man was wuunt to say, lie 
beheved him ' the wisest foole in Christen dome,' 
- meaning him wise in small thinges, but a foole in 
weighty affaires.' He was infinitely inclined to peace, 
hot more out of fcare than conscience, and this was 
the gratest biemishe this king had through all his 
reign. In a word he was, take him altogether, anil 
not in pceces, suche a king, I wishe this kingdome 
have never aney worsse, on the conditione not aney 
better; for he lived in peace, dyed in peace, and lefte 
all his kingdomes in a peaceable conditione, with his 
awen motto — Beati pactfici" 

Fleming thus heightens this commendation in his 
Monogramma Regiun Anglorum ; " Pacificus doctus 
Jacobus, Solomonque secundus^:" and it may be 

B Mr. Seward observes, that he was sttlcd maximui m folio, 
wmimiu in ib&o. Hunting anJ school divinity, he adils, seem 
to have been his favourite pursuits ; pursuits, of whii;h the 
chate U painful and itangerous, antl the end of no importance. 
Biographinna, vol.ii. p, 433. 

' Slemnia Sacrum, 1660. Granger remarks, that James wm 
sarcastically called Solomon the son of David, by Henry the 
fourth of France; but the title was al&o gravely applied to him 
by his own subjects, as again appears from tlie following in- 
troduction to a pan^yrical poem of WiUiam Vener's, b Reg. 
MS. 18A.xui. 

Heroickc Ceser, and most puissant kinge. 
Monarch of mighiie Briiiaine, Europi mirror, 
A wcond SoBqiuoji, whose ore spreddinge winge 
Doth safelie sheeld us from ail forreine terror, &c. 


added from Granger, that the love of peace seems 
to have been the ruling passion in James the first To 
this he sacrificed ahnost every principle of somid 
policy. He was eminently learned, especially in divi- 
nity ; and was better qualified to fill a professor's chair 
than a throne.^ His speculative notions of regal 
power were as absolute as those of an eastern mo- 
narch; but he wanted that vigour and firmness of 
mind which was necessary to reduce them to practice. 
His consciousness of his own weakness in the exerticm 
of his prerogative, drew from him this confession : 
'^ that though a king in abstractor had all power, a 
king in concretOj was bound to observe the laws qf the 
country which he governed." But if all restraints on 
his prerogative had been taken off, and he could have 
been in reality that abstracted kmg which he had 
formed in his imagination, he possessed too much 
good nature to have been a tyrant] ^ 

3 His majesty (James I.) our soveraigne, says Peacham^ would 
dispute altogether in points and profound questions of divinity. 
Compleat Gent. 162S, p. 195. 

4 Biog. Hist. vol. 1. p. 319. Richard Taileboys has an ** EI- 
legiack Encomium/* in lamentable verse, on James the first, 
who ** dyed at his most deUghtiull and princely house att Theo- 
bolds, on the Lords day, about twelve a docke at noone, being 
the xxvij® day of March, A. D. 16S5," &c. Reg. MS. 18 A. 

K 3 



The works of this prince were soon after his 
death collected and published together in a 
volume, intituled, 

" Reliquise sacra; Carolina ; or the Works 
of that great Monarch anj glorious Martyr, 
King Charles the Fii'st, both civil and sacred," 
printed by Sam. Brown at the Hagu6, without 
date. After the restoration, a fine edition 
was published in folio -', containing, besides 
the famous Eixtm Bao-.xixij ^ several of his 

" Speeches, Letters, Declarations, and 
Messages for Peace * i" his 

" Answer to a Declaration of the Com- 
mons *i" the 

" [In 1663, by James Ficthcr, for R.Royston, anil forms it 
handaoiue piece of typography. A copious life of tim royal 
author ia preluceil by Richard Pcrrinchiefe.] 

^ Which has gone tlirough forty-seven impreBMons: the num- 
ber of copies arc said to have been 18,000. Harris's Life of 
Charles I. p. 115. [VindiciiE CaroUnic: or a Defence of £■«*■ 
Boir^AiKii, wiu published in 1692, and is written with much 

• [Mr. Reed, with his Bccui>tomed critical correctness, has 
pointed out these letters, decloralioni, rind meisages, to be 
the compoution of lord Clarendon, lord Falkland, and mi John 

- [This uitiule it not f^pareot in tbe tuble of uonteots.J 



Five Papers which passed between his 
Majesty and Mr. Alex. Henderson at New- 
castle, concerning the Alteration of Church- 
government • j" the 

** Papers on the same Subject exchanged 
between the King and the Ministers at New- 
port;'* and the 

^ Prayers which he used in his Sufferings, 
and delivered immediately before his Deatli 
to Bishop Juxon." ^ 

I shall not enter into the controversy whe- 
ther the EdKoa¥ BcurtXixifi was coipposed by king 
Charles or not ; a fiill account of that dilute 
may be found in the Qeneral Dictionary.^ For 

[Lord Clarendon declares Uiat the king va9 so much too 
hard for Mr. Henderson in thb ai^gumentation, and the old pan 
himself was so for convinced and converted, that he had a very 
deep sense of the mischief he had himself been the author of, or 
too much contributed to, and lamented it to his nearest firiends 
and confidents $ and died of grief, and heart-broken, within a 
very short time after he departed firom his majesty. Hist, of 
Rebellion, vol. iiL p. S4.] 

7 Some letters and instructions, not much to his honour, were 
omitted in this collection, particularly his letters to two popes, 
and some of those taken in his cabinet at Nasel^. Harris, p. 98. 
117. Surely it was at least as allowable for his friends to sink 
what did not tend to his glory, and what were never intended 
for publication, as it was for his enemies to print his most private 
correspondences with his wife. 

s Vol. ill. p. 359. and vol. x. p. 76. 

K 4 


the rest of the papers mentioned above, there 
is no doubt but the greater part were of his 
own enditing. His style was peculiar and the 
same : it was formed between a certain portion 
of sense, adversity, dignity, and perhaps a 
little insincerity. * He had studied the points 
disputed between the protestants, papists, and 
sectaries ; and the troubles of his reign dipped 
him so deep in those discussions, that be- 
tween leisure and necessity, he may well be 
believed to have thrown together the chief 
papers included in this volume; to which may 
be added, that his enemies did not often 
indulge him in the assistance of many or able 
clergymen of his own. 

Besides these pieces, we have 

** His Majesty's Reasons against the pre- 
tended Jurisdiction of the High Court of Jus- 
tice, which he intended to deliver in Writing 
on Monday, Jan. 22. 1 648, faithfully transcribed 

i [Some kistoriaiu, says Hume, have rashly questiooed tbe 
good ruith of Charles j but for tlib reproach the jnost malignant 
scrutiny of his couduct, which in every circumstance is now 
thoroughly known, alTords not aiiy rcasonahic foundation: on 
the contrary, if we consider the extreme difficulties to which 
he was so frequently reduced, and compare the sincerity of his 
professions and declarations, we shall avow that probity and 
honour ought justly to be placed among his most shining qnor 
lilies. Hirt, of England, vol. i. p. 463.] 


out of the original Copy undev the King's own 
Hand." ' 

" A Letter to his Queen."^ 

" A Letter to tlie Marquis of Newcastle."* 

Several of his manuscript letters are extant, 
in private hands i and some among the Harleian 

This prince, like his father, did not confine 
himself to prose : bishop Burnet, and from him 
Mr. Harris, p. 125., has given us a pathetic 
elegy said to be written by Charles in Caris- 
brook castle. The poetry is most uncouth 
and unharmonious ; but there are strong 
ttioughts in it, some good sense, and a strain 
of majestic piety. 

His majesty likewise translated* 
" Bishop Saunderson's Lectures de ,Iura- 
monti promissorii Obligatione," 
which he desired bishop Juxon, Dr. Hammond, 
and Mr. Thomas Herbert, to compare with the 
original. This translation was printed in 8vo, 
at London, ItiSS. A man who studies cases of 
conscience so intimately, is probably an iionest 


* Gcnerei DlctionRry, *ol.u. p.6-2. 

^ Printed in the Appendix lo Caite'i Life of the Duke of 

• Vide Somera'B Tracti, vol.iv. p. Kid. 

-> PccL'b Dciid. Curiob. vol.ii. lib-nu. p. I. 



man ; but at least he studies them in hopes of 
lindiiig that lie need not be so very honest as 
he thought.^ OHver Cromwell, who was not 
quite so scrupulous, knew, that casuistry is 
never wanted for the observance of an oath j 
it may to the breach of it: had he trusted the 
king, his majesty would probably not have 
contented himself with Dr. Saunderson, but 
would have sought some casuist who teaches, 
that faith is not to be kept with rebels. 

[Ill 1659, 6vo. vios printed at London, 
*' Bibliotheca Regia; or the royal Library, contain- 
ing a Collection of such of the Pajiers of Iiis late 
Majesty King Charles, the second Monarch of Great 
Britain, as have escaped the Wrack and Ruines of 

« [Lord Qarendon's estimate of the king'? morality was very 
(liBercnt from what lord Orford hw fornicd, ond might be fitly 
cited by way of juxtn^osition, if ita length were Dot an im- 
pcdiiocnt. The conclusion, however, shall be given. King 
Charles " was the worthiest gcntleinan, the best matter, the 
best friend, the best husband, the best father, and the best 
Christian that the age in which be lived produced: and if he 
were not the greatest king, if he were without some parts and 
qualities which have made tome kings great and happy; nu 
other prince was ever unhappy who wag poMCMcd of half his 
virtues and endowments, and so much without any kind of 
vice." Hist, of Rebellion, vol.iii. p. iss.] 


these Times; mn extant in the Rcli 



(lie exnct Collection of Edward Husbands. In two 
Books : the first relating to the Concernment of the 
Church; the second, unto tliose of the civil State: 
with some occasional Observations for the better Un- 
derstanding and Coherence of some Parts thereof." 

Tliese pnpcrs had probably appeared in detached 
*to. pamphlets as they were occasionally produced. 

An epitome of the controversy respecting the real 
author of Eikwv Bairi^txi] was drawn up by Mr, Nichols 
in liis Appenthx to the Anecdotes of Bowycr, and 
seems to leave a preponderance of leslimoiiy infiivour 
of king Charles, rather than of Dr. Gauden. Nash, 
in his History of Worcestershire', has hkewise 
drawn together the principal arguments on each side 
of this curious inquiry, and finds reason to conclude, 
from some observations of bishop Warburton, and 
the whole of the evidence, both extemnl ajid internal, 
that Gauden was not the authoi' of the book in cjucs- 
lion. The only similitude he could fin<l between this 
and Gniiden's otlier works, consisted in the quaint 
Greek title, wliich, aa he observes, might not be given 
Lu the former by the king, but by the publisher, to 
humour the false taste of the times. Granger adds, 
that whoever examines the writings of the king and 
the divine, will find diem specifically different; and 
must fiom taste and sentiment conclude king Charles 
could no more descend to write like Gauden, than 
Gauden could rise to the purity and dignity of 


' Vol.ii. |i.civii 



Charles.* A more forcible testimony has been aRbrtled 
by Mr. Gough, from the affirmation of lord Winchel- 
sea, tliat archbishop Juxon said, " to his certain 
knowledge the Icon Basilike was al] composed and 
written by king Charles the first."^ Hume considers 
it as the best prose composition, which at the time of 
its publication was to be found in the English lan- 
guage.- Dr. Smollett says, it abounds with such 
manly sentiments of piety and good sense, as reflect 
imfading honour upon the memory of the royal 
author''; and the late excellent bishop Home recom- 
mended it as a book inferior only to the sacred writ- 
ings, and which it were much to be wished was the 
companion of every son and daughter of the chiu-ch 
of England.* Mr. D'Israeli has farther remarked, 
t}iat the ])oHtical reflections it contains will be found 
not unworthy of Tacitus.* 

The pious and sensible meditations adjoined to each 
section of this work were metrically paraphrased by 
Dr. Richard Watson, chapliun fo the duke of York, 
and printed at Caen in Normandy, 1660*, with this 

B Biog.Hlst. vol.iii. p. £]. 

9 See also sir Wm. Dugdalc's Short View of (he late Trouble* 
in England, p. 7S0. 

» Hist, of England, vol.vii, p. 160. 

s Hist. vol.™. 

* Sermon preached at St. Mary't, Oxon, Jaa. SO. 1T6I. 

' Cur. of Lit, vol.i. p.39. 

> Wood describes this book ai printed at London in 1661 ; 
but if there wu such an cditJon, it niutt have been reprinted 


" Tlie royall Votarie laying dowiie Sword and 
Shield, to take up Prayer and Patience : llie devout 
Practice of his sacred Majesty, King Chai'les I. ill his 
Solitudes and Sufferings." 

This metrical paraphrase is very inferior to the 
prose original, from wliich a short extract only shall 
be offered, as the book itself is so common ; having 
passed, as Bui-net says, through more impressions 
than any book in his age. 

" To the Prince of Wales. 

*' Sir, this advantage of wisdome you have above 
most princes, that you have begun and now spent 
some years of discretion, in tlie experience of trou- 
bles and exercise of patience, wherein piely and all 
vertues, both moral! and politicall, are commonly 
better planted to a thriving, {as trees set in winter,) 
then in the warmth and serenity of times, or amidst 
those delights which usually attend princes' courts in 
times of peace and plenty; which are prone either to 
root up all plants of true vertue and honour, or to be 
contented only with some leaves and withering form- 
alities of them, without any reall fruits, such as tend 
to the pubUc good ; for which princes should alwayes 
remember they are born, and by Providence de- 

" I had rather you should be Charles le boii than Ir 
grand % good than great. I hope God hath designed 

from that above specified. Dr. WROon \i laiil to have iiiffercd 
much from his \oytl aii<l reli^ioux xl-oI. Viilu Ftttti Oxo:i. 
vol.ii. col. ISO. 
' Lord Orrery sccnis to hove had this s 



you to both ; having so early put you unto tlial exer- 
cise of his graces and gifts bestoweil upon you, which 
may best weed out all vicious inclinations, and dispose 
you to tliose pruicely endowments and employments, 
which will most gain Uie love and intend the wel&re 
of those over whom God shall place you. 

" With God I would have you begin and end, who 
is KING of Kings ! the sovereign disposer of king- 
doms of the world ; who puUeth down one and sfittetb 
up another. 

" The best government sad highest soveraignly 
you can attain to, is to be subject to him ; that th« 
sceptre of his word and spirit may rule in your heart 

" The true glory of princes consists in advancing 
God's glory, in the maintenance of true religion and 
the church's good ; also, in the dispensation of civill 
power, with justice and honour to the publick peace. 

" Piety will make you prosperous; at least, it will 
keep you from being miserable: nor is he much a 
loser, that losetb all, yet saveth his own eoul at 

Dr. prat's report of this produc^on, and Granger's 
candid character of the royal autlior, may with pro- 
priety conclude the present article. " Tliey tell us," 
says the former, " that when Ciesar swam for his life 

when he wtbhed hii ion might riie a. righl honeil preferably to a 
fight hafuuratle man. Ewuy on the Life of Pliny, p.lxxiii. 

■ Wc may «aj with a writer in VaUcinitunVottvim), 1C48, wbo 
roniposed a copy of vcnes in praise of king Charles's work, 
" I lis parts are here 


II the best diuraiter." 


•amidst his enemies, he had such presence of mind as to 
swim with onehand^ and in the other to hold up his 
book, and save it firom perishing. But when Charies 
was encompassed with fiur greater dangers, he not only 
preserved, but wrote that book, to which amongst all 
the writings of princes, I know none equal, but 
Caesar's, if his; none superior, but David's and 
Solomon's." « 

^^ If we consider Charles as a monarch, says Gran- 
ger, we must in some instances give him up to cen- 
sure; if as an accomplished person, we admire him; 
if as a master, a fistther, and a husband, we esteem 
and love him ; if as a man who bore his misfortunes 
with magnanimity, we pity and respect hun. He 
would have made a much better figure in private life, 
than he did upon a throne."^ 

The elegy printed in Thompson's ^^ Loyal Poems,** 
1685, being ascribed to Charles the First in the life of 
his son. Lord Orford thinks a strong presumption of 
its authenticity.^ The following may serve as a spe- 
cimen. It is entitled, 

9 Sprat's Sermonsy p. 72. Bishop Warburton has ably de- 
lineatad the character of Charies in his sermon preached on the 
30th of January. See Seward's Anecd. vol. i. p. 314. 

A Biog. Hist. vol. ii. p. 93. 

^ See article of Lord Arundel of Wardour. It was reprinted 
ip Bumef 8 Memoirs of the two Duket of Hamilton, p. 381 . 


nSboj; qr m lap f ■■ tfiiiii ta tfaeKio^oC 
Kings: wmtea bj his late Bii^csCj Cmg Qurics the 
fim, in Us Dorance at Carisbroke Caade, IMS.** 

Great Mooardk of die World! firom wiiose arm springs 
TW poteaej and power of kings ; 
Seeord dbe royal woe, oij snSenngs. 

Ustare and bw, bj dij dmne decree, 
(The onlj work of rigfateoas lojahj) 
With dus Urn diadem inrested me : 

Widi it the sacred sceptre, purple robe, 
Tbjr hoi J miction, and die royal globe ; 
Tet I am krdl'd widi die life of Job. 

The fiercest fm^ that do dafl j tread 
Upon my gnef, my gnj discrowned head. 
Are those that owe my boonty for their bread. 

Tyranny bears the title of taxation. 
Revenge and robbery are reformation, 
Oppresaion gains the name of sequestratioD. 

Great Britain's heir is forced into France, 
Whilst on his father's head his foes advance ; 
Poor child! he weeps out his inheritance. 

With my own power my majesty they wound, 
In the king's name the Icing himseirs uncrown 'd. 
Ho doth the dust destroy the diamond. 

My life they prize at such a slender rate, 
lliat in my absence they draw bills of hate, 
To prove the king a traitor to the state. 

Felons attain more privilcdgc tlmn I, 
Tliey are allow'd to answer ere they dye ; 
"Hb deatli to inc to ask the reason why. 
But, sacred Saviour ! with thy words I woo 
Thee lojorgive, and not be bitter to 
Sucli as thou know'at do not know vihal they do. 
Augment my patience, nuUifie my hate, 
Preserve my issue and inspire my mate ; 
Vet, though we perish, blesa tliis church and state ! ^ 
Vota dahtint quee be/la negarunl. 
Ml'. Seward relates two additional anecdotes : 
Charles the first wrote the following lines on llie 
Itlank leaf of a book in the Treaty-housii nt New- 
port in tlie Isle of Wight: 

A coward 'e still unsafe ; but courage knows 
No other foe but him who doth oppose. 
When prince of Wales, he was matriculated of Hw 
university of Oxford, and wrote under his nnine in the 
matriculation book : 

Si vis omnia subjiccre, subjlce te rationi.' 
' Hume hiu rcmarkctl of iheie «tan«BB, that tlie tj-ulh of the 
scntimunt nitlicr than the el^anee of the expression, renders 
them very pathetic. Sir E. Drydgcn stylri them " noble linci." 
fli^op Percy aays, they are olmoR the only Tcrsci known of 
Charles's composition: but his lordship hits nt the eaine time 
])oi»tcd out a little poem " On a qiiiel Conscience," printed in 
Fawkes" nnd Woty't Poetical Colcadar, vol. viii., anil attributed 
Id Clinrlcs the tint ; being reprinted from a thin Svo. published 
by Nahiiin Tate, called MiKcllancs Sucm, or Tuems on divine 
nnd moral Subjects. Sec Reliques of G. P. vol.ii. p.33B, 

' Bio^^phiana, vol.ii. p. 441. In ITSQwns published " The 
piout Politician, or Remains of the Royal Martyr : being apoph- 
th^ns and lelect maiJuiB, divine, moral, and political, leA to 
posterity by that Incomparable prince, our Inte sovereign King 
Charles I., fuithfulty collected." These remains are motlly to be 
foiinil in the folio edition orChnrlci't worki. 
VOL. I. L 


(queen of BOHEMIA,) 

£ I HE amiable daughter of James I. to whom lord 
I Hatingtoii was preceptor, and whose marriage with 
the prince palatine, afterwards king of Boliemia, wuK 
Bolemnized with a profliseness of expense and page- 
antry, that materially contributed to drmn her father's 
exchequer." But this match, as Hume observes. 

* Rapin dtei a book <« the state of the revenue, wluch mekei 
Ae total of expense on this occasion ss,27Bf. Hi«, of Eng. 
vol. ii. p. as6. Arthur Wilson ditales with dowerj lancf ia bs 
description of the feastings, maskings, aud niatriraonial solemni- 
ties; though he acknowledges that such splendour and gaie^ 
are litter to appear in princes' courts than histories. Hist, of 
James I. p, 64. Among the roj-al manuscripts, (IS A. xxiL} 
William Vcner baa a poem written at this period, and inicribed 
to Janiet the first, which cootuns the following metrical fare- 
well and replication : 


Place of thie birth and breedinge, royall dame. 
Most loth to leave thee, taketh leave of thee: ' 

Springe to the highest of etemall fame. 
That I thie princelye issue eooue may see, 
Indeared in thie stocke, as deare to me: 

Id Berricc for thie love my liffe 1 'le spende. 

That thou mayert knowe thou art Create Britt^oes fiinii& 

From n T.-niijUH" !Priai1. 

In the I'itUvftirrt .'/'. Uex'/ftHjrvi Su^*riand ^<y.' 


tlKMigh odiebtttted with greitt joy and festivity, proved 
itself a very unhappy ev^it to the king, as ^^11 as to 
his son-in-law, and had ill consequeneei^ on the ire^ 
putation and fi>rtunes of both, llie eliectof, trusting 
to so great an aUiance, engaged in enterprises beyond 
his strength : and the king, not being able to support 
him in his distress, lost entirely in the end of his 
life, what remained of the afiections aiid iesteem of 
his subjects. In 1619, the dector pakdne was made 
king of Bohemia. He received his crown firom 
a brave people, but they were oppressed and over- 
whelmed by the superior power of the house of Aus- 
tria, and James had too little zeal for the protestant 
cAuse, or was too much blinded by the projected 
marriage of his son with the infanta of Spain, to take 
4ny timely or eiiective measures in his behalf. James, 
instead of supporting Frederick, and the Bohemian 
protestants by whom he was elected, suffered him not 
only to be deprived of his new kingdom, but even of 
his hereditary domitiions. After enduring a variety 
of difficulties and ha)rdshit>s, he died in exile, on the 


Yf love may possiblie devided bee 

Into three partes, then thus I will dcvide it; — 
My chosen prince hath greatest share in me, 

My royall parents nexte, they both have tryed it ; 
The last, my countrie, by whose love Fame guided 

No saye, farwell ! and mayst thou constant proove 
To thie dreade souenge*, as I to my deare love. 

• Sovereign. 
L 2 


29th of Nov. 1632.^ Much of his correspondence 
with the electress has been prhited in sir George 
Bromley's collection of " Original Royal Letters," 
and expresses a very strong and tender attachment 
to his admirable wife. In one place he says, most 
fondly and affectingly, " Croyez, mon cher cceur, 
que je me souhaite bieii aupres de vous. Je vous at 
d^js mande ce qui m'en retient : plut a Dieu qu'eus- 
sions un petit coin an monde, pour y vivre contents 
ensemble ! c'est tout le bonheur que je me souhiute."* 
So engo^ng was the behaviour of the princess, 
that, according to Granger, she was called, in the 
Low Countries, the queen of hearts. The same 
writer remarks, that when she enjoyed only a phan- 
tom of royalty, and had nothing more than the empty 
title of queen, she bore her misfortunes with decency 
and even magnanimity; for poverty and distress 
seemed to have no otlier elfect upon her, but to 
render her more an object of admiration than she was 
before.* This admiration did not however extend 
itself to vitiated minds or vulgar understandings, since 
Arthur Wilson relates, that in Antwerp they pictured 
the queen of Bohemia like a poor Irish mander, with 
her hair hanging about her ears, a child at her back, 
and the king, her father, carrying the cradle after 
her/ She died in 1662, aged 66.' 

) Sir Cieo. Bromley's IntroductioD, p. ix. 
* Royal LetteTE, p. 1 6. 
> Blag. Hist, of Eiig. vol.i. p.SIT. 
' Hilt, of James I, The three daughten of this occoin- 
pliihed priaccM were singularly illustrious for their leanung 


The following letter by this queen is extracted Srom 
sir George Bromley's curious volume, and must have 
been addressed to her eldest surviving son, Qiarles 
Lewis, who was restored to the Lower Palatinate in 
1648, upon condition of quitting all right and title 
to the Upper. 
« Son, 

" I thought to have written to you by Floer. I 
thought [he] was but gone to Amsterdam : because 
he did not tell me of his going, I staid till now^ 
believing he would have come to me before he went; 
but now I see he is at Heidelberg, I send this by the 
post, to let you know that the States have given me 
for my kitchen one thousand guilders a month, till I 
shall be able to go from hence, which Grod knows how 

and talents. Elizabeth, the eldest, made such progress in sden- 
tific studies^ that Descartes, in the dedication of his ** Prindpia,** 
tells her she was the only person he had met with, by whom hb 
works were perfectly comprehended. Penn, the legislator of 
Pennsylvania, held several conferences with her on the prindplea 
of his sect, and published some of her letters to him in his 
" Travels.*' Her sisters, Louisa and Sophia, were not less dis- 
tinguished for their skill and taste in the arts. The paintings of 
the former are highly esteemed by the curious, not only fbr their 
rarity, but their merit ; and are preserved in foreign cabinets with 
the works of the greatest masters. It has been observed of these 
three sisters, that ** the first was the most learned, the second the 
greatest artist, and the third the most accomplished lady in Eu- 
rope.*' Biog. Hist. vol. ii. p. 1 08. Prince Rupert was one of her 
accomplished children. Mr. Seward has printed a letter from 
Elizabeth to lord Clarendon, in the second volume of his Anec-. 
dotes ; but it contains little of importance or interest. 
7 See Bromley's Catalogue of engraved Portraits, p. 67. 

L 3 


fls entitled to have his name inscribed on the 
muster-roll of royal authors, accorduig to the affirm- 
tion of sir John Hawkins, and even on the negative 
testimony of lord Orford'' himself, who thought there 
was nothing in the following amatory song to contradict 
the report of its having been said ia an old copy to 
be written by this witty prince, 

" I pass all my houra in a shady old grorei 
But I live not the day when I see not my love : 
I survey ev'ry walk now my PhilJis is gone, 
And sigh when I think we were there all alone. 

O then 'tis I think there's no hell 

Like loving too well. 

" But each shade and each conscious bow'r when I find, 
[ Where I once have been happy, and she has been kind ; 
r- yVbea I see the print IcH of her shi^ e on the green, 
And imagin the pleasure may yet come agea; 
O theo 'tis I think that no joys are above 
The pleasures of love. 

" While alone to myself I repeat all her charms, 
She I love may be lockt in another man's arms, 

* WorkB, vol. i. p. 3ST. A ilronger claim to royal suthonlnp 
has been produced by sir D. Dalryniple, from the P^yiian MSS. 
in Magdalen College, Cambridge, bdng " An Account of the 
Preservation of King Charles II. after the Battle of Worccfter, 
drawn up by the l^g himself." 


She may laugh at my caresy and so false she may be» 
To say all the kind things she before said to me : 

O then 'tiS| O then, that I think there's no hell 

Like loving too well. 

'* But when I consider the truth of her hearti 
Such an innocent passioui so kind without art ; 
I fear I have wrong'd her, and hope she may be 
So full of true love to be jealous of me t 

And then '^ I think that no joys are above 

The pleasures of love." ^ 

Mr. Seward has printed a short but interesting 
letter of Charles the second to Mrs. Lane, who ma- 
naged his escape after the battle of Worcester. 

Another tribute of spc itaneous thanks written by 
the hand of Charles to the earl of Sandwich, on his 
victory at sea, has been transcribed from the original 
in Sloan MS. 1.512. 

<< My Lord Sandwich, Whitehall^ 9 Jime. 

'^ Though you have already done me very eminent 
service, yett the great part you have had in this happy 
victory which it hath pleased Ood to send us, adds 
very much to the former obligations I have to you. I 
send this bearer, my lord Hawly, on purpose to lett 
you know more particularly my sencie of it, and will 
ssy no more my selfe till I see you, that I may take 
you in my armes, and givejrou other testunonies how 
truely I am 

^' Yomr afiectionat firinde, 
JFbr the Eark (^fSandmch. << Cuauu R." 

9 Appendix to Hawkia»* Hist, of Music, vol. v. p. 477. 


Charles the second, tliough a genius, as lord Orford 
has pronounced him*, yet acted, as Granger* has 
well stated, in direct opposition to every principle of 
sound policy ; and without any apparent propensity to 
tyranny, mode no scruple of embracing such measures 
as were destructive to the civil and religious libeities 
of his people. He chose rather to be a pensioner to 
France, than the arbiter of Europe; and to sacrifice 
the independence of his kingdom and the happiness 
of his subjects, than to remit his attachment to indo- 
lence and pleasure. Under the veil of openness and 
candour, he concealed the deepest and most dangerous 
dissimulation. Though he was a slave to appetite, he 
ajipears to have been an entire stranger to the softer 
sentiments of pity and compassion. He was gay, af- 
fable and polite, and knew how to win the hearts, 
when he could no longer gjun the esteem of mankind.^ 
Rochester's epigrammatic jest, that " he never said 
a foolish thing, nor ever did a wise one," forms a 
tolerable motto for his " picture in little." 

Dryden, however, did not scruple to laud him in 
his Threnodia Augustalis, or fiineral-pindarique, as 

•Seep. 158. 

sBiog.Hist voliii. p. 169, 

^ The earl of DertniDUih was told, Uiat be had a conrtant 
maxim, which was, never to ta\l out with any one, let the pn> 
vocation be ever eo great; by which he said, he had (bund 
great benefit all hii life : and the reason he gave for it was, that 
he did not know how soon it might be necessary for him to 
have them again for his best friends. Biographiana, vol.ii. 

p. 509. 


Truly good, and truly great : 
For glorious as he rose, benignly so he set ! 
Charles (he adds) left behind no harsh decree 
For schoolmen with laborious art 

To salre from cruelty : 
Those, for whom love could no excuses framci 

He graciously forgot to name ! 

His conversation, wit, and parts. 
His knowledge in the noblest, useful arts. 
Were such, dead authors could not give ; 
But habitudes of those who live; 
Who, lighting him, did greater lights receive : 
He drain'd from all, and all they knew : 
His apprehension quick, his judgment true : ' 
That the most leam'd, with shame, confess 
His knowledge more, his reading only less! 

But when the same writer had the fulsome flattery 
to afiinny that mankind could no more subsist without 
the poetry of his patron (Lord Middlesex) than the 
world could subsist without the daily course of divine 
Providence ; his laudatory strains will be entitled to 
no higher estimation than the ' &lse trappings of fie* 
titious fame.'] 

7 Churchill has truly, though tartly, characterised him in 
<* Gotham.'* Had this king but loved business as well as he un- 
derstood it, said sir Richard Bulstrode, he would have been the 
greatest prince in Europe. Of his own country he used to say, 
that it was the most comfortable climate to live under that he 
had ever experienced; as there were more days in the year, and 
more hours in the day, that a man could take exercise out of 
doors in it, than in any country he had ever known. Seward's 
Anecd. vol.ii. 4th edit. 


Ihe only genius of the line of Stuart, 
CHARLES the Second, was no author, unless 
we allow liim to have composed the two simple 
papers found in his strong box after his death : 
but they are universally supposed to have been 
given to him as a compendious excuse for his 
embracing doctrines, which he was too idle to 
examine, too thoughtless to remember, and 
too sensible to have believed on reflection. 
His brother James wrote 

" Memoirs of his own Life and Campaigns 
to the Restoration." 

The original, in English, is preserved in the 
Scotch College at Paris^ ; but the king himself, 
in 1696, to oblige the Cardinal de Bouillon, 
made an extract of it in two books in French, 
chie6y with a view to what related to Marshal 
Turennc. This piece is printed at the end of 
Ramsay's Life of that hero. 

We have besides, under the name of this 
prince, the following works : 

« [Mr. Seward mentions many other curious pnpers dqm- 
Biteil in the same place, relating; (o the transactions of king Jnmcs 
the second's reign and the archbishopric of Glasgow, tvhii^h iiiifilit 
have hecTi purchased for ^000/, Diograpliinnn, vol. ii, p. Si S. 









^ " The Royal Sufferer, King James II. con- 
sisting of Meditations, Soliloquies, Vows, &c.** 
one of the latter is, " to rise every morning at 
seven." The whole, said to be composed by 
his majesty at St. Germain's, is written in bad 
English, and was published at Paris by father 
Bretonneau, a Jesuit. The frontispiece repre- 
sents the king sitting in a chair, in a pensive 
manner, and crowned with thorns.^ 

" Memoirs of the English Afiairs, chiefly 
naval, from the Year 1660 to 1673, written by 
his Royal Highness James Duke of York, und^r 
his Administration of Lord High Admiral, &c. 
Published from his original Letters, and other 
royal Authorities,** Lond. 1729. 8vo. 

9 In another edition it is called ** Royal Tracts.*' Tliis is evi- 
dently an imitation of his father's works, containing his ** speeches, 
orders, messages, letters, &c. upon extraordinary occasions ; both 
before and since his retiring out of England." The second part 
is intituled, ^ Imago Regis ; or the sacred Image of his Majesty in 
his Solitudes and Sufierings, written during his Retirements in 
France." Paris, 1692, 16*. [This book, while it professes to be 
** imprinted at Paris for Estiene Lucas, merchant bookseller," hat 
erery appearance of proceeding from an English press.] 

« [His crown is lying on a table beside him, and a volume spread 
before him, with a citation fW>m one of David's psalms. The 
figure of the king much resembles Hogarth's design of the dis- 
tressed poet. When George prince of Denmark joined king 
William, James merely said, '* What, has the little est ilpoMle 
left me at last?" But when he heard of the princess Anne's de- 
fection, he exclaimed, ** Good God ! am I then abandoned by my 
children ?" Seward's Anecd. vol. ii. p. 2.78.] 



Though this work is ascrihed to king James, 
I believe it was drawn up by secretary Pepys. 

" Three letters from khig James" 
were published by William Fuller, gent.*, in 
1702, with other papers relating to the court 
of St. Germains ; and are said in the title-page 
to be printed by command. 

[Mr. Granger truly describes die history of this 
reign, to consist of tittle more than the weak and irre- 
gular efforts of a bigotted and tyrannical prince to in- 
troduce popery ; an attempt so absurd, that it did not 
meet with the least encouragement from llie pope 
himself. The capacity of James was by no means 
equal to the subversion of those deep and solid found- 

> [Fuller, who haU bccD n page of honour to the queen of 
Jamei the second, was a great dealer in ptot^ and was detected 
in Mvernl gross falsehoods j whence he was prosecuted lij the 
altorncy-fenerol, ileclared an impostor bj the House of Commons, 
aud whipped and pilloried. This man put a forth a pamphlet, 
entitled, " A brief Discovery of the true Mother of the pretended 
Prince uf Wales ;" the fabrications in which were obviated, by 
the several dcclanttioiu and dq>ositions made in council, Oct. 39, 
less, and published by hi« majc«t}''& special command; aHn«ll 
volume in possession of the late George Isted, esq. A more 
eaustie retort was printed In 1700, in two anonj'mous letters, 
under the title of " Fuller's plain Proof of the true Mother of 
the pretended Prince of Wales, mode out to be no Proof" a 
pamphlet in thu British Muicuni. 



alions which supported the civil aiid religious liberties 
tit' his people. Tlie share which he had in Jiis father's 
KUlTerings had not sufficient); taught him, that jea- 
lousy of the royal prerogative is a fundamental prin- 
ciple in the English constitution. lie was so violent 
and precipitate in his conduct, that he never fail<M 
to counteract his own purposes ; and he established 
the protestant religion on a firmer basis than ever, by 
his wild iitlempis to introduce that of the church of 
Rome.' Though he ascended the throne with almost 
every advantage, he could never sit easy in it ; and 
having taught even the advocates of non-resistance to 
resist, he was forced to relinquisli a crown which he 
was ahsoliituly unfit to wear. He fled into France, 
where Uie palace of St. Gennaui was assigned him ; 
but the convent of La Trappe, adds the biographer, 
would have been a much more suitable retreat.' Like 

' Theiliikoof Ouckinghnm gave ihinchnmclpr of the iwo roj-al 
hrothcrs, CharltB anil Jamea j Uint " the eliler coulJ tee thiiigt if 
liR would ; ami tlic younger woutil see tilings if lio cuulJ." Tlie 
inrMuntol conduct of king June* no wberc appronin netroniior 
light than in the rircuiniUuitinI account of hit behaviour at 
Oxford, in the life of Antliony Wood. 

Aa oJdreis of tbe quokcrs to this moniurh on hit wce^ini, 
(ireurvcd in Wanley'o Cominon-filuce Uook, U highly clinrBctur- 
iHtic of that upright sect. " Wc come to condole the death 
of our friend Charles, and we are glad thnt thou art come to be 
our rider. We hear that thou an u diucnter from the church of 
England, and m are we. Wc beg that tliou wouldst gram us the 
«ime liberty that ihoii take^t Ihjaelf; and so we wish thee well. 
Farewell." Hurl. MS. coso, 

' Mr.Seword inforim im, that the kinw vinited the I'unvcm 



those of Richartl the first, his body, brains, and heart, 
were deposited in different cemeteries. 

Xing J&mes supplied ^cre Orleans with materials to 
write his history; but this privileged Jesuit was not his 
only biographer. The same task was volunteered by 
various pens, both here and on the continent, among 
which the following productions may be enumerated 
from the select historical library of Mr. George Isted. 

" Memoires concemans la Vie de Jaqnes II. cy-de- 
vant Roi de la Grand Bretagne. Traduits de I'An- 
glois." Amsterdam, 1691.* 

" Histoire secrette du Voyage de Jaques 11. a C«- 
Uis pour passer en Angleterre ; oil Ton voit les Voyes 
cachees que ce Prince a tenues pour ce dessein," &c, 
Cologne, 1696. 

"EIKGN BA2IA1KH, or the Picture of the late King 
James, drawn to the Life ; in which is made manifest, 
that the whole Course of liis Life hath to this Day 
been a continued Conspiracy agtunst the Protestant 

of La Trappe not long before be died, and on his taking leave 
of the abbot, said to him, " Reverend father, 1 have been 
here to perfomi a duty which I ought to have done long before. 
You and your monks hevc taught me how to die; and if God 
*parM my life, 1 will return to take another lesion." Anecd. 
ToLiL p. 14S. 

' An advertisement lo this work says, " L'Auteur de ees Me- 
moires a ill^ ami familier d'un officier du roi Jaques, qui n'en 
plus Ru service de cc monarque d^tr6nf ; et c'eat de lui qu'il ■ 
i^ris une psrtie det choses qu'il avance." These Memoirs 
GOnt«a rome narrations and documents of interest and cu- 



Religion, Laws, nnd Liberties of the three Kingdomsi 
ill s Letter to himself. By Titus Oates,D.D. In 
three Parts." Lond. 1696-7. 4to.* 

The only article in this scarce book which would 
have invitcil transcription, is n pi^r entitled, ** Hia 
Majesty's Reasons for witltdrawing himself from Ro- 
chester, written with his own Hand, and ordered by 
him to be published." But this paper is printed in 
Rapin, and was successively animadverted on by Dr. 
Burnet '', and Mr. Ek:hard. ' As a specimen, there- 
fore, of king James's style, the following is extracted 
from his meditations : 

" Upon tlie Miseries of moital Life, and the Insta' 
bility of humane Greatness ; writ on the Occasion of 
his Majesty's Sufferings in his Solitudes in France." 

'* So many are the miseries of human life, that 
lliey cnnnot all be numbred. Deatli, which is thought 
tiy some the greatest of evils, is by many esteemed a 
lesser evil than life ; iJie muiy evils in tliis, suriMssing 
the gi'eatness uf the evil in that; and dierefore some 

^ The Tint part of this virulent and ■cun-lloiii publication was 
inscribed in king William, in a long epistle dedicatory. The 
second anil titird \axu hud the rollowing inicription; " To h» 
nio«t cxcellcnl majesty William III. by the grace of God and ihe 
ch(Ho« of tlic good people of Englnnd, t'nmce, nnd Ireland, 
rightful and lawful king, defender of tlie fuiih, end tlw reUorer 
of our taws iind libcrtiei, m well as llic victorioui protector of 
opprcited Europe, Titiu Uatct, D.D. Iiit faithful, dutiful, and 

luynl Htbject nnd scfrant, t 

• StUe Tnela, vol. i. 

' Hiflory, rot.iti. p. 49). 

.1 humbly dedin 

s thii cniuiug 


have conceived it's better to suffer the greatest, wliicli 
is death, than to suffer so many, though lesser, which 
are in life. For this reason, one calls death the last 
and greatest physitmn ; because though in itself it is 
the greatest evil, yet it cures all others, and therefore 
prescribes the hopes of it ; as an efficatious remedy 
and comfort in the afflictions of life. 

" What security can there be in life, when tbe 
earth, which is the mother of the living, is unfwth^ 
to tliem, and sprouts out miseries and death even of 
whole cities ? What can be secure in the world, if the 
world it self be not, and the most solid parts of it 
shake ; if that which is only immovable and fixt for 
to sustain the living, tremble with earthquakes; if 
wliat is proper to the earth, which is to be firm, be 
tmstable, and betray us, where shall our fears find a 
refiige? Wlien the roof of the house shakes, we may 
fly into the fields ; but when the earth shakes, whidier 
shall we go ? In the time of the plague we may change 
places, but Irom the whole earth we cannot fly; and 
so, from dangers. And therefore not to have a re- 
medy, may secure us as a comfort in our evils; for 
fear is foolish without hope. Reason banbhes fear in 
those who are wise ; and in those who are not, de- 
spair of remedy gives a kind of security, at least lakes 
away fear ; [he] that will fear nothing, let him think 
all things are to be feared. 

" See what slight things endanger us ; even those 
which sustain life lay ambushes for us. Meat and 
drink, without which we cannot live, take away our 
lives. It's no wisdom therefore to fear swallowing by 



an earthquake, and not to lear the falling of a tile. In 
deatli all sorts of dyings are equal. What imports it, 
whether one single stone kills thee, or a wliole moun- 
tain oppress tbee ? Death consists in the soul's leaving 
of the body, which often happens by slight accidents. 
But Christians, in alt tlie miseries and dangers of 
liiimane life, have great comforts to lay bold on ; 
which are, n good conscience, liope of glory, confor- 
mity unto divine will, and immutation and example of 
Jesus Christ; from these four, he shall in life have 
happiness, in death security, and in eternity n reward. 
How unjust then was the complaint of Theophrsstus, 
that nature hath given longer life unto many birds and 
beasts than unto man. If our lives were less trou- 
blesome, he had some reason ; but it being so fraught 
with miseries, he might rather tliink that lite the 
happiest which was shortest : it is better to be young 
and die well, than to be old and die ill. This voyage 
being of necessity, the felicity of it consists not in 
l)eing long, but in being prosperous ; and at the last 
we arrive in the desired port Therefore, supposing 
so many miseries, we cannot complain of God for 
giving us a short life, but of our selves, for having 
made it a bad one." 

Since the above was extracted from the volume of 
Itoyal Tracts in Mr. Isted's Ubraiy, I have met with a 
small pamphlet entitled 

" Tile pious Sentiments of the late King James II. 

of blessed Memory, upon divers Subjects of Piety. 

Written with hisown Hand, and found in his Cabinet 

after his Death." Lond. 1704. 12mo. 

N 3 


Some of the sentimenu which this opusCulum Con^' 
tains are so consonant with those of the present editor, 
and the reprehensions that accompftny thein apply 
BO strongly to certain fashionable excesses of our own 
time, that he hopes to be excused for introducing s 
short citation. It is taken from " Seasonable Instruc- 
tions for riie Reguladon of our Lives in a Christian 

" I have observed the playhouses, and other places 
of dangerous pleasures, as much frequented and even 
tbrong'd with company upon holy days as on other 
days in the week ; as if the other parts of the week 
were not more than sufficient for innocent and honest 
recreations. By frequenting plays or other public as- 
semblies of that nature, I am sure very many thereby 
have lost innocencj', and not one has bettered himself 
and gain'd virtue. 

'* The same reason obliges us to forbear romances. 
Those who have the charge of young people, especially 
if they are girls, ought never to suffer the reading of 
such books. If no worse effect were to be appre- 
hended, it is a vast loss of time. Besides that, it 
makes strong and lasting impressions upon the heart ; 
fills it with vain, sorry, and foolish imaginations, and 
often with thoughts very criminal, and which are the 
beginnings of great evils. Let them rather be em- 
ployed in tlie reading of history, which is profitable 
and pleasant. 

" In fine, we must not be dismay'd nor disheart- I 
en*d in the pursuit of our duty, nor retarded in I 
good way which wehavc begun, for the railleries b 



mockeries of ihe world. Let us courageously ndvance 
in the paths of perfection. Let us continually step 
forward, and every day gain some new degree of 
virtue in the course which we have undertaken. It's 
very dangerous to grow slack or lose ground." 

Mr. Seward hiLs published some account of this 
monarch during his visit to the university of Ox- 
ford, from a letter of Dr. Sykes ; and he has added 
several anecdotes from M. Misson's diary of the limesr 
in tlie second volume of his entertMning collections, 
ediL 4tli; to which the reader is referred. 

In 1816 was published, by command of hispresen 
Majesty, and edited by the Rev. J. S. Clarke, " The 
Life of James II. King of England, &c., collected out 
of Memoirs writ of his own Hand : together with the 
King's Advice to his Son, and his Majesty's Will." 
The original Stuart manuscripts, which had been care- 
fully preserved at Rome, in the family of the Pre- 
tender, ore now deposited in Carlton palace. A clia- 
ractcr of this prince, when duke of York, was printed 
before the elegies of Sir Fr. Wortley, who says, " H>- 
is as like his royal father, as nature could cast him in 
so princely a mould; so like he is, wc may Invert tlic 
royal epidiet tliat was given his father, Jacvbtssitma 
Catolus to C'ltvlissimiis Jucobits."} 


[ Was entered in Mr. Gyll's copy of Royal and Nable 
Authors as a manuscript addition, from the insignifi- 
cant consideration which follows : 

" Sir Roger L'Estrange was in die commission of 
the peace for Westminster «■ Middlesex, during the 
reign of king Charles the second, and his brother; but 
probably did not continue so alter die revolution, as 
(jueen Mary seemed to show great contempt of him, 
making the following anagram on his name : 

Roger L'Estrange ; 
Lying strange Roger. 

" The compiler of his life in the Biog. Brit. 
(vol. V. p. 2927, note T.) says he had this ' from the 
* information of a lady living in 1752.'"^ 

The following anecdote of this princess is related 
in die preface to a Salyrc upon King William, 1703. 
When reflections were once made before queen Mary 
of the sharpness of some historians who had left 


* QuELN Eleanor, the Ttife of Henry tbe fourtii, has an equal 
title to the prcceiliiig for admission, as two Latin epinles ad. 
dressed by her to pope Alexander, and to cardinal Jocincto, are 
contained in Spiakgio Dacherii, torn. ii. p. 152.; though it it 
probable that these epistles were only written in the queen*# I 
name by her secretary ; ashas beensuggesiedbyDavidIrTing,et^ 1 
the bif^ophical chronicler of the Scotiih poets, who inspected 
the volume in the advocates' library, Edinburgh. 




QU££N MARY II. 169 

heavy imputations on the memory of some princes ; 
she answered, ^^ that if these princes were truly such 
as the historians represented them, they had well de- 
served that treatment; and others who tread their steps 
might look for the same ; for truth would be told at 

The character of queen Mary, written by bishop 
Burnet, contains a delineation of every female virtue, 
and of every female grace. He makes her say, that she 
looked upon idleness as the great corrupter of human 
nature, and believed, that if the mind had no employ- 
ment given it, it would create some of the worst to 
itself; and she thought that any thing which might 
amuse and divert, without leaving a dreg and impres- 
sion behind it, ought to fill up those vacant hours that 
were not claimed by devotion or business. ** When her 
eyes," adds the bishop, <^ were endangered by reading 
too much, she found out the amusement of work ; and 
in all those hours that were not given to better employ- 
ments, she wrought with her own hands, and that 
sometimes with so constant a diligence^ as if she had 
been to earn her bread by it Her example soon 
wrought on not only those that belonged to her, but 
the whole town to follow it, so that it was become as 
much the fashion to work as it had been to be idle."^ 

Thb excellent princess was so composed during 
sickness, that when archbishop Tillotson, who assisted 
her in her devotions, stopped, with tears m his 
eyes, on coming to the commendatory prayer in 

3 Seward's AaeciL vol. iL p. 184. 



the oSice I'or tlie sick, she said to him, " My lord, why 1 
do you not go on ? I am not afraid to die." 

King WiUiam has been supposed not to have been I 
a very kind husband to his consort. He was how- 
ever much affected by her death, and said she had ] 
never once given him any reason to be diispleased with 
her during the course of iheir marriage. After his 
demise a locket, containing some hair of <]ueea Mary, 
was found hanging near his heart.* 

In Laclirynue Sacerdods^, on ode on tlie death of I 
this queen by the rev. Henry Park, curate of Went- [ 
wortli, her person and mind are thus characterised : 

A graceful aspect, and a port divine, 
A female sweetness, courage masculine, 

Majestic dread, yet free address, 

Awe, without superciliousness, 
Kind clemency, and bright imperial mien. 
All these united in her loolts were seen: 

Nor were the dowrys of her soul 
Less channing than her outward parts ; 
By both she purchas'd love, by both she gain'd our 
hearts, j] 

' Sewsrd, ut nip. 

> This rare tract nat kindly presented to the editor b; his vi 
lued friend the rev. Henry John Todd, keeper of the MSS. in the 
Lambeth library, &c. &c. The earl of Suffolk drew a pleaiing 
poetical delineation of Queen Mary in his Mutatum Delicuc, 
It declares 

" A cheerful iwcctness ever did Jppear 
In her mild looks, as locrcd fountainis rlcar." 



[Father to his late majesty George the third, was a 
man of very elegant manners, says Mr. Seward, and 
a great reader of French memoirs* He had written 
those of his own times under the title of *^ Histoire 
du Prince Titi/' They were.fbmid amongst Ralph 
the historian's pikers : his executor, the late Dn Rose 
of Chiswick, with a spirit of honour and of disinter- 
estedness of which the world has seen few examples^ 
put the manuscripts without any terms into the hands 
of a nobleman then in great &vour at Carlton-house* 
Of this generous behaviour that nobleman never took 
the least notice^ nor ever made the least remuner- 
ation, either pecuniary or in any other manner whatr 
soever ! f * 

This prince b allowed to have composed some 
French songs, and, as lord Orford conceived, in imi- 
tation of the regent Philip, duke of Orleans.^ Mr* 
Reed has obligingly directed me to one of these in the 
Gent Mag. for 1 760, p. 1 96. It is followed by a trans- 
lation which reflects little reputadon on the original* 

* Supp. to Anecd. of diftiiigiiiflhed Penoos, p. 1 19. On nanr* 
ing these circumstances to Samuel Rose, esq. the son of Dr. Rose, 
he confirmed their general tenor, hut believed the manuscript to 
be the composition of Mn Ralph, who M^as secrttary to the prince 
of Wales. That manuscript, he fiirther informed ma, had been 
presented by the late lord Bute to his Sovereign. See more in 
Doddington's diary, and Cumberland's life. 

^ See Works, vol. i. p. 27S. Lord O. thought his royal High- 
ness did not miscarry sdbf^ by writing in a laagioiige not his own. 


" CHANSON. Par F.P.deG. IFrederic Prince deG<dUs.-\ 

" Venez, mea clieres deesses, 

Venez calmer mou chagrin ; 
Aidez^, niCB bcllcB prince&ses, 

A le noyer dans le via ! 
Foussons cette douce ivresse 

Jusq'au milieu de la nuit ; 
£t n'ecoutons que la tendresse 

D'un cliarmant vis-a-vis! 

" Quand le chagrin roe devore, 

Vite d table je me mets ; 
Loin do I'objet que j'abhorre, 

Avec joye ]"y trouve la paix. 
Peu d'amis, reste d'un naufrage, 

Je raaaemble autour de moi ; 
Ah 1 que jc ris dc I'etalagc, 

Qu'a chez lui toujaurs un roi ! 

" Que m'imporie que I'Europc 

Ait un ou plusicurs tyranE? 
Prions seulement Calliope, 

Qu'elle iospire nos vers, noe chaat«. 
Laiesons Mars a toute sa gloire: 

Ltvrons nous a I'amour ; 
A Que Bacchus nous donne a boire ; 

A ces dieux faisons la cour. 

" Pafisons ainsi notre vie. 

Sans rSver a ce qui suit ; 
Avec nta chere Sylvie 

Le temps trop vitc me fuit. 

' This and a few other word* have betn emcDded by Mr. G, 
Ellis, on the supposition that they were typogn^ihiciil feiijb. 





Mais 81, par un malheur extreme, 

Je perdois cet objet charmant ; 
Cette compagnie m^me 

Ne me tiendroit un moment* 

<< Me livrant k ma tristesse, 

Toujours plein de mon chagrin, 
Je n'aurois plus d'allegresse 

Pour mettre Bathurst^ en train. 
Ainsi, pour vous tenir en joye, 

Invoquez toujours les dieux, 
Qu'elle vive, et qu'elle voye 

Avec nous toujours des heureux !" 1745. 

Warton, that true poet, has an elegy on the death 
of Frederick, which confers higher honour on the 
memory of this prince, than could possibly be con- 
ferred by his own productions. It extols him for his 
mild graces and cultivated mind, his aversion to flattery 
and freedom from pride, hb exemplary conjugal a& 
fection, his taste for the simply elegant in poesy, and 
his benevolent patronage of the muses' living train ; 

For to the few, with sparks ethereal stor'd. 

He never barr'd his castle's genial gate. 

But bade sweet Thomson share the friendly board. 

Soothing with verse divine the toils of state : 

Hence fir'd, the bard forsook the flowery plain, 

And deck'd the royal maske, and tried the tragic strain.] 

* Earl Bathurst, the associate of the poetical bons vivants, who 
held their festive assemblies with their princely president at 
CarltonJiouse. See Biog. Brit, vol.ii. art. Bathurst. In the 
Appendix to lord Orford's Memoirs some verses are pvtn, as 
written by thb prince to his princess. 


I o a work of no intrinsic merit, tliat aspires 
neither to discovery nor instruction, that aims 
at none of the higher ranks which are of dig- 
nity enough to he cmitined by rules and regu- 
larity, a little eccentric addition may be 
allowed. 1 have classed together a band of 
authors, the least of whom certainly wished 
to be numbered with better writers than those 
of his own order: and yet, as perhaps their 
personal titles preserved many who would 
have been forgotten, had they been bom or 
died in an humbler sphere, they will not be 
disparaged if I introduce among Ihcm a 
prince, who, after 400 years, has emerged 
into notice on the merit of poetry, which till 
within these tew years had never obtained 
tiiat very common honour of being transmit- 
ted to the press. 

The prince in question, I confess, was not 
of English blood royal ; yet as he paid us the 
singular compliment of attempting to versify 
in our language, snrh a pursuivant of poetic 

CniAKil.KS DtKK of OKf.KAN'S = 



royal personages as I am, feels a sort of 
iliity to enrol Iiim in the college of arms on 
our mount Parnassus. The gentle prince, it 
is true, is indebted for the assertion of his 
claim to a fair lady, who, zealous to record 
and illustrate the writers of her own sex and 
country, delivered by the bye irom the dun- 
geon of a library a royal knight, who had long 
lain in durance among the MSS. of the crown 
of France. The generosity of tliis fair cham- 
pion is the greater reproach to the biographere 
of that nation, as she asserts, and seemingly 
with reason, that the royal prisoner, whom she 
has set free, was the first purifier of French 
poetry, an honour hitherto unjustly ascribed 
to Villon. 

The authoress I quote is Mademoiselle 
Kcralio, who is publishing a work called Col- 
lection dcs meilleitrs ouvrages Francois com- 
posis par des Jenimes, to be comprised in 
tliirty volumes of corpulent octavo ; a treasure 
that would throw our island below all compe- 
tition, did not the present period jjrove that 
the muses have at last recollected that their 
favours have too long and too partially been 
showered on a sex that it was less decent for 
maiden goddesses to countenance. 

The prince, then, whom I shall venture to 


range with our royal authors, is Charles duke 
of Orleans, nephew of Charles the sixth, and 
son of tliat amorous, presumptuous, and proba- 
bly agreeable duke of Orleans, so audaciously 
assassinated in the streets of Paris in open day, 
by the order of John duke of Burgundy, who 
lived to commit so many more atrocious crimes, 
that it was not one of his least demerits to have 
ibrced his sovereign (Charles the seventh), in 
other respects almost entitled to be universally 
beloved, to violate his oath and lionour, by 
causing that odious duke to be assassinated 
before his eyes, while treating of peace with 

Charles duke of Orleans was taken prisoner 
at the battle of Agincourt, in 1415, was brought 
to England, and kept prisoner here for twenty- 
five years ^ : a rigour no doubt occasioned by 
our pohtical connection with Burgundy, who 
could but dread the return of the sou, when 
he had murdered the father. 

Burning with vengeance, Orleans still ap- 
pears to have been a prince of amiable quali- 
ties, and to have been endued with talents and 

* He was confined in a moated miuuian at Groombiitlge, Dear 
Tunbridge Wells: 

" Where c^tur'd banners wavM beneath the roof, 
'i'o taunt ihc royal Troubadour of Gaul." 


taste very dissimilar to the ferocious com- 
plexion ol'that age, when civil animosity had 
embittered even the predominant barbarism, 
and when Isabel of Bavaria, the prototype of 
Catherine of Medici, had leagued with John of 
Burgundy, to dethrone her own son, and mas- 
sacre his subjects. 

The Duke of Orleans, happily restrained 
from dipping in or from retorting those horrors, 
soothed the hours of wearisome captivity by 
the solace of poetry : nor was so far exasper- 
ated by involuntary confinement amongst us, 
as to disdain to cultivate the language of his 
jailors, — a symptom itself of hberal and noble 

Chancer bad enriched rather than puritied 
our language ; but if the Duke of Orleans 
improved the poetry of his own country, he 
certainly contributed no graces tooure. Nor 
are his niirabera or images more poetic than 
those I have formerly specified of" Richard I., 
as a counterpart to whose composition I will 
transcribe the two bttle poems, printed by 
Mademoiselle Keralio, from a M.S. in the royal 
library at Paris. She owns that some words 
arc grown antiquated, and others ill-spelt ; aod 
she has been so kind as to give a version of 
them, which I believe conveys their general 


meaning, though I confess I slioiild not have 
so easily deciphered thera, and have more 
faith than conviction of her having inter- 
preted the whole justly. 

Myn hert (heart) hath send glad hope thyg message 
Unto comfort pleasant joyc and speed : 
I pray to God that grace may in leed, 

Without clenching or danger of passage. 

In tryst to fynd prouffit and ad?antage, 
Within short tyme, to the help of hie need, 

Myn hert, &c. 
Unto comfort, &c, 

All yat he come, myn hert yn hermitage 
Of thoght shall dwell alone ; God gyve him med: 
And of wishing of tymis shall him fed. 

Glad hope foUyw, and sped well this viage. 

Myn hert, &c. 
Unto comfort, &c. 


Mon cceur a envoys avee ce message la joyeuse espe- 
rance pour encourager le plaisir et llieureux succes. Je 
prie Dieu que la grace puisse le conduire, sans qu'il 
trouve danger ou empechement. 

Dans Tespoir de trouver bicntot quelque bien et qud- 
que avantage pour soulager son ennui. Mon cceur b 
envoys, &c 

Jusqu*!! ce qu'ellc rcvJenne (esperance) mon cteur 
habitera daoa la solitude de sa pens^e; que Dieu le 



soutienne etle nourrisse du desir d'un terns heureux. 
Vole, joyeuse esperance, et reussis dans ce voyage. Mon 
coeur a envoy^y &c. 


The next is called " Rondeau en Anglois. 

When shall thows come» glad Hope, y viage ? 

Thows hast taryd so long many a day : 

For all comfort is put fro my away. 
Till that y her tything of my message. 

Us hat that had letting of thy passage, 

Ortaryin? alas! y cannot say. 
When shall) &c. 

Thows hast, &c. 

Thows knows full well yat y have gret damage, 

la abyding of the that is no nay ; 

And thof y syng an dance, or lagh and play, 
In black mourning clothid my corage. 
When shall, Ac. 

Thows hast, &c. 


Quand reviendras tu, joyeuse Bsperance ? Tu as tard6 
trop long terns. Tout soulagement est moi, 
jusqu*k ce que je recueille les firuits de mon message. 

A t'on laiss£ libre ton passage: Ta t'on retards? 
Helas ! je ne puis'le dire. Quand reviendras tu, &c. 

Tu le sais bien quelle est ma peine k supporter ce qui 
est rdiia ; tu sais qoW milieu des chants, des danses, des 
ris, el des jeux, un vfttement nour couvre mon courage. 
Quand reviendras tu, &c. 

N 2 



It grieves me ii little to mention, that the 
fell' editor is of opinion, that the duke's 
English poetry is not inferior to his French, 
wliich does not inspire a very advantageous 
opinion of the latter. Though, indeed, such 
18 the poverty and want of Iiarmony of the 
French tongue, that one knows how very 
meagre thousands of couplets arc which pass 
for poetry in France. It is sufficient that the 
rhymes are legal ; and if sung to any of their 
numerous statutable tunes, nobmly suspects 
that the composition is as arrant prose as 
ever walked abroad without stepping in 

It is owing to the unmusical nature of their 
language, probably, that the poets of France 
adhere to tragedies in rhyme; as rhyme con- 
stitutes the principal difference between their 
prose and their verse. Yet, how strange! 
when their language is allowed to excel in 
dialogue and short narration, that they should 
tie down comedy to the same unsonorous 
metre. Nay, such is their prejudice, that 
MoUere, who in a manner created their 
comedy, and who has never been equalled by 
any of liis successors, baa had his comedies 
in prose turned into rhyme! The conse- 
quence of this obstinacy, and of the fetters 


witli wliich they have cramped their poetry, 
and of the refinements with which they have 
hampered their stage, is, that they scarce ever 
of late produce either a passable tragedy or 
comedy, and are obhged for their chief 
theatric pleasures to the introduction of Ita- 
han music into their operas, and into the 
musical pieces of the Tlieatre Italien. Yet 
that, like other reformations, was scarce 
achieved without a civil war. The senses are 
pai'tial to their habitudes, and are apt to take 
up arms against common sense, and usually 
find the multitude on their side. Slaves are 
offended at the offer of liberty ; ignorance is 
affronted at the pretensions of knowledge ; 
and taste has still greater difficulties to com. 
bat, — for who thinks himself void of it? 
And who that is void of it, conceives what 
it is? Who therefore can make converts 
in a language not intelligible to his auditors? 
But I beg pardon for a digression into 
which the Duke of Orleans's poetry misled 
me i and I ask more pardon of the lady, 
whose talents and industry have done justice 
to a long-ncglected prince, and furnished 
me with an opportunity of transplanting :i 
curiosity from her learned volumes into a 

N 3 




his wit being so dull and himself so untaught, he is 
utterly unable to thank him as he ought to do. A long 
parley ensues, introductory to hia volume of verses; a 
few extracts from which, hitherto unprinted, may not 
prove unwelcome to the poetic antiquary, being very 
superior specimens to those produced by lord Orford. 
The reader of Chaucer will find no diiGcuUy la 
reading these without any interpretadon. 


To longe, for shame, and all to longe, trewly, 
Myn hert y se thee slepe in displesere : 
Awake this Any, awake, O verry fy! 
Lete us at wode go geder may in fere. 
To holde of oure oold custome the manere; 
Ther shall we here the burdis synge and pley, 
Right as the wood thcrwith shulde for shynere 
This joly tyme, this fresshe first day of May. 

The god of love, thia worldis god myghti, 
Holdith this day his feste, to fede and cherc 
The hertis of ue poore lovers hevy 
Which only him to serve sett owre desere ; 
Wherfore he doth affoyle the trees sere 
With grene, and hath the soyle y-flowrid gay. 
Only to shewe his fest to more plesere 
This Joly tyme, thia fresshe first day of May. 

Myn hert thou wost how daungere hath on whi 
Doon thee endure full grevous paynes here, 
Wl)ich doth the longe thus absent thi lady 
That willist most to hen unto hia nere: 
Wherfore the beat avise y kan thee lere 
Is, tliat thou drawe thee to disportis ay. 


Thi trowbely sorow therwith to adere 
This joly tyme, thU fretshe first day of May. 

My first in thought and last, my lady dere, 
Hit axith more then this oon day leysere 
To telle yowy loo ! my greef and gret affiray. 
That this wolde make myn hert a poore martere. 
This joly tyme, this fresshe first day of May. 


When that ye goo, 
Then am y woo ; 
But ye, swete foo. 

For ought y playne 
Ye sett not no 
To sle me so. 
Alias! and lo! 

But whiy soverayne, 
Doon ye thus payne 
Upon me rayne. 
Shall y be slayne? 

Owt, owty wordis mo 
Wolde ye ben fayne, 
To se me dayne 
Now then certayne 

Ye do me slo. 
For y am he 
Contentith me. 
What so that ye 

Wil to me geve ; 
But yet, pard^. 
To have pit^ 
Ye ought ben she 

On my myscheve : 


O me forgere. 
And let me lyve 
To y be. shrevey 

A day or thre 
Ye kan not lyve : 
How hitt doth cleve 
Myne hert thus greve, 

Bt|^ ye hit se.^ 

It is remarkable that lord Orford makes no mention 
of the two manuscripts in our Museum, which contain 
so many metrical efforts by the duke of Orleans, and 
should only have heard of those preserved in the 
royal library at Paris.] 

One of thete ^ complayntu or baladisy" as the MS. designates 
them, b addressed to Cupid, and thus records its season of com- 
position :— 

■ " the date yow to remembre 

As on the thrittenthe day of Novembre, 

Bi the trewe Charlis Duk of Orli/auncc, 

That sumtyme was oon of your pore servauncc." 

> I 





[Illustrious for family honours and disdnctions, 
hereditary and ac<]uired, the son of Henry Plantage- 
iiet, carl of X,eicester, Derby, and Lincoln^, appears 
to have written a pious tr«ati5e, entitled, 

" Livre de setntes Medicines :" 
extant in the library of C. C. C. Cam. num. ccxviii.^ 

This Henry, soys Mr. Nichols*, sumomed Gris- 
mond from the place of his birth, being Grismoiid 
castle in Monmouthshire, was tlie only son of Henry 
earl of Liancastcr, the second son of king Henry III. 
He was created earl of Derby in his father's life, 
xi Edw. HIt earl of Lincoln, xxiii Edw. Ill,, and 
duke of Lancaster, xxv Edw. III., and married Isabel, 
daughter of Henry lord Beaumont, by whom he had 
issue two daughters, of whom Blanche, the younger, 

■> Bolton's Extinct Peerage, p. I6T. 
> See Nasmitb't Cualoguo, p. S95. 
' RoyalWaUi,p.8T. 



being married to John oC Gaunt, brought him the 
estate and title of Lancaster. He signalized himself 
as a soldier and statesman, says Granger, and ac- 
quitted himself with reputation in several treaties and 

Thb duke has been generally considered as the 
founder of Corpus Christi or Benet College, Cam- 
bridge: but Mr. Wilson informs us% that college 
owed its origin, in the year 1350, to a union betneen 
two guilds or reUgious societies in the town of Cam- 
bridge, called Corpus Christ! and tlie Blessed Virgin 
Mary ; wliich, in order to obtain a license fixim king 
Edward the third, to convert their houses into a col- 
lege, claimed and obtained the protecdon and muni- 
ficent hberality of Henrj-, first duke of Lancaster. 
This duke, he adds, accompanied Edward the third, 
to whom he was a kind of guardian, in all his expe- 
ditions ; and acquitted himself with the highest repu- 
tation. Elis retiuue was more splendid than tliat of 
any nobleman of his period, never having less than 
eight hundred men at arms, and two thousand archers. 
His daily expenditure is calculated at one hundred 
pounds, an immense siun at tliat time ; and he spent 
seventeen thousand pounds sterling in the French 
wars, beside his pay. He was advanced by the 
king's special charter, and by the general consent of 
all tlie prelates and peers then sitting in parliament, 
to the dukedom of Lancaster, for his prudent conduct 

> Biog- Hist. vol. i. |) 35. 
• Memorabilia Cantabrigiie 



and renowned exploits in the wars ; luid wns elected a 
knight of the garter, and constituted admiral of the 
king's whole fleet westward of the river Thames. 

Dugdalc has recorded many of his military adven- 
tui'e.s. He received a cltallenge from tlie duke of 
Brunswick to personal combat, before the king and 
court of Franca ; hut when every thing was prepared, 
the challenger became so dismayed ajid panJc-sUuck 
by the appearance of the English hero, tliat he 
advised by his friends to submit himself to the award 
of the French king, who with some difficulty effected 
a reconciliation between the parties. At anotlier time, 
being about to retire with his army from Normandy, 
after having in vain invited the king of France to 
battle, he received a message that the king would fulHl 
his desire. Whereunto he returned answer, " that 
he was come into those parts uj)on special business, 
which he had ah-eady in part effected; and that he 
was tlien going hack to some other parts, where he 
had somewhat to do; adding, that if tlie king of France, 
or any one of his subjects, should endeavour to hinder 
him, he was ready to moke his way by force, resolv- 
ing to do nothing obscurely ; and that he would cause 
a lantern to be carried behind him, that the king of 
France might know which way he bent his course." 
The king forbore to follow him.' 

Henry built and resided at the palace of the Savoy 
in London, but died at Leicester of die plague iit 
ISfiO, and was buried in the collegiate church of St. 

' Diigdule's Bnrunnge, tom. i. p. 7 



pieces de poesie legere, telles que les ballades 
Ie3 (ays, les virelays, et les rondeaux," 

Neither Christioa, nor the editor, has grati- 
fied our curiosity with a single stanza of lord 
.Salisbury's composition ; yet the Ibllowing 
amorous declaration, which the lady has pre- 
served, may fairly be presumed a translation 
of a lay, which at least she seems to intend we 
should suppose was the purport of one of his 
poetical addresses to her. 

" O la perle des plus beaux esprits, comme 
la ^eur des plus belles : vous avez chants ; 
il ne me reste plus de sons. O desir de moD 
cceiir, plaisance de mes yeux, tourment de ma 
pensee, vous avez attire k vous raon entende- 
ment et ma substance entiere ; vous avez li£ 
nia langue: tout ce que je puis faire a cette 
heure, c'est de vous voir et de vous entendre.*' * 

This declaration was gallant and tender 
enough for a swain on the banks of the 1%- 
non ; and if Christina did not lend her lover 
both sentiment and expression, we must allow 

* [Bibliotheque, ut nip. where several colloquies are p,fett, 
which passed between the EDgUsh earl and the lair Chriititic, 
who \i uid to have been a beaut)', though she gave the Tollowing 
modeitt account of her own person: " Je doisaucr^t«ur, d*av<»r 
cor|is sons diHbrmiti!, et pasaablement agr^le."] 


that the institutions of chivalry hail rendered 
our heroes as polite as they were valiant. 

But before I can entirely admit the earl of 
Salisbury into the choir of our earliest bards, 
it will be requisite to examine both Iiis charac- 
ter and that of his fair voucher : and that dis- 
cussion may perhaps make some slight amends 
for the loss of the earPs ditties. 

I shall begin with the history of the lady, 
from the anecdotes of her life in the work I 
have cited. Christina was daugliter of Thomas 
de Pisan, and was born at Bologna, tlie most 
flourishing school of literature, next to Flo- 
rence, of that age. The reputation of Thomas 
for science spread so diffusely, that aller having 
married the daughter of Dr. Forti, a member 
of the great council of Venice, the kings ot 
France and Hungaiy were jealous of Venice 
possessing such a treasure, and invited Thomas 
of Pisan to adorn their respective courts. The 
personal merit of Charles the fifth, surnamed 
the wise, la preponderance (says my author) 
du nam Francois, and the dcsiic of visiting 
tlie university of Paris, trcs brillante ahrs, 
determined the illustrious stranger, Ciiarles 
showered bouours and wealth on I'homas of 
Pisan. The wise monarch appointed liim his 
astrologer, and fixed him in France, wliither 
VOL. I. o 



he sent for his wife and daugliter, who were 
received at the Louvre, whither tiie people, 
enchante de hurs 7Hagiitfiques habillemeiis d la 
Lombarde, followed them with admiration and 

This happened in 1S68, when Christina was 
but five years old. Site was born with her 
father's avidity for knowledge, and was early 
instructed in the Latin tongue. At fifteen 
she had made such progress in the sciences, 
and her personal charms ripened so fast, that 
she was sought in marriage yar plusieurs cheva- 
liers, autres nobles et riches clercs .- yet she 
adds, modestly, yw'on ne regards pas ceci 
comme ventcnce ; la grande amour gue le Rot 
demmitroit d man pere en etoit la cause, et 
noji ma valeur. 

The king had bestowed on Thomas a pen- 
sion of 100 livres, payable every month, and 
equivalent to 8400 livres at present, besides 
annual gratifications of livrees et autres baga- 
telles. And that this bounty might not be 
thought extravagant in so economic a 
monarch, Christina, to prove the solidity of 
her father's knowledge, informs us that he 
died on the very hour that he himself had pre- 
dieted ; and that Charles owed ranch of the 
prosperity of his arms, and of the great effects 


of Ilis government, to the aage councils of 
Thomas oi' Pisaii. 

It is not, in fact, extraordinary, that the 
first rays of learning should have made strong 
impressioHB on a rude and illiterate age. A 
.sun-beam admitted through the smallest aper- 
ture of a dark chamber, appears more vivid 
by the contrast, than the diffused splendour 
of the whole luminary ; which, though every 
thing is made visible by its emanations, im- 
parts such general light tliat nothing seems 
to be particularly illustrated. Legislators, 
poets, philosophers, institutors of new re- 
ligions, have owed a large portion of their 
success to the darkness of the periods in 
which they have appeared : and with all the 
merit of their several institutions, productions, 
lessons, doctrines, they might have missed tlic 
eclat that has consecrated their names, had 
they fallen on less favourable, that is, better 
ductrinated a^ras. With what difficulty iloes 
a genius emerge in times like tlic present, 
when poets and sages are to be ibund in every 
country and in every magazine ! 

Stephen Castel, a young gentleman of 
Picardy, was the fortunate suitor that ob- 
tained the hand of the favourite astrologer's 
danghter ; and the sovereign who made the 
o a 



marriage, appointed the bridegroom one of 
his notaries and secretaries. Cliristina adored 
her husband, whose character she has painted 
in the most favourable colours, and by whom 
she had three children. But this biilliant 
horizon was soon overcast ! The king died : 
the uncles of the young successor thought of 
nothing but plundering the kingdom, and 
probably were not fond of predictions. 
Thomas's pensions were stopped, his son-in- 
law was deprived of his offices. Thomas, 
who, his daughter confesses, had been too 
liberal, iell into distress, grew melancholy, 
and soon followed his royai master. Castel, 
by his good conduct, for some time sustained 
the iamily, but was also taken off by a contagi* 
ous distemper, at the age of tliirty-fbur. 

The widowed Christuia was deeply afflicted 
for the loss of her consort, and had injustice 
and poverty to struggle with, as well as with 
her grief. Still she sunk not under her mis- 
fortunes, but, with true philosophy, dedicated 
her melancholy hours to the care of her chil- 
dren and the improvement of her mind, though 
but twenty-five at the death of her husband. 
She gave herself up to study and then to 
composition. Poetry was a cordial that na- 
turally presented itself to her tender hearty 


and coloured deliciously the sighs that she 
vented for her beloved but lost turtle. Yet 
whilst unfortunate love was her theme, the 
wound was rather mitigated than cured, and 
proved that a heart so sensible was far from 
being callous against a new impression. 

In a word, ere her tears were dried for 
Castel, the earl of Salisbury arrived at Paris, 
as ambassador from l)is master, to demand 
tlie young princess Isabel in marriage. The 
beauty and talents of Christina outshone in 
the eyes of the eiu-l all the beauties of the 
court of France, and the splendour and ac- 
complishments of the personage were too im- 
posing not to make his homage agreeable to 
the disconsolate, philosophic relict. 

Yet so respectful were tlie Palatlins of those 
days, or so austere were the tnanners of 
Christina, that they communicated their com- 
positions to each other, in which, as we have 
seen, Salisbury by no means spoke myste- 
riously on his passion, yet the sage Christina 
affected to take the declaration for the simple 
conipUmeut of a gallant knight ; and the earl, 
blushing at having gone too far, vowed for 
the future to be more circumspect. 

Christina's eldest son was about the age uf 
thirteen. The discreet eart, to prove at once 
o 9 




his penitence and esteem, proposed to her to 
take the youth with him to England, declar- 
iDg that he bade adieu to love, renounced 
marriage, and would build his future happi- 
ness on educating and making the fortune of 
her son. 

Far from being offended at so extraordinary 
an alternative, the tender mother resigned her 
child to that mirror of knighthood} and the 
too generous Salisbury departed with the 
pledge of his mistress's favour, which his un- 
accountable delicacy had preferred to- one 
which it had been more natural to ask, and 
which some indirect queries that Christina 
confesses she put to him, induce us to think 
she would not have received too haughtily, 
if consistent with the laws of honour. 

I will abridge my author's narrative, and 
hasten to the deplorable and vapid conclusion 
of so exalted a story. King Kichard was de- 
posed, and the usurper, Henry of Lancaster, 
immediately imprisoned his faithful servants, 
and struck off the head of his favourite Salis- 
bury, — a catastrophe which my zeal for ro- 
mance would incline me to wish had been less 
precipitate, had not the austere dignity oi* 
history too clearly authenticated the event. 

The i'erocity of contending factions was 


no doubt a cruel drawback on the gallantry 
and courtesy of that age i and many a gentle 
knight lost his head on a scaffold, who had 
encountered giants and dragons, (such giants 
and dragons as existed in the degeneracy of 
later times), and had even outlived the frowns 
of his mistress. 

iiut though I am impatient to examine the 
title of lord Salisbury to the rank of Noble 
Author, I will not deprive tlic reader of a 
short summary of what farther relates to the 
interesting Christina. The savage BoUnbroke, 
who, she says, found her la^s in the porfe/iuille, 
of her murdered lover, was yet so struck with 
the delicacy and purity of hei' sentiments, i 

that he formed the design of drawing her tu his 
court, and actually wrote to invite her. — She 1 ' 

»lie at the court of the assassin of her lover! 
Horrible thought! Impossible! However, 
the decorum due to a crowned liead, and who 
had taken into his custody and treated kindly 
her son, imposed on her the hard necessity of 
making a gentle but firm excuse. And though 
the monarch twice despatched a herald to 
renew the invitation, she declined it, and 
nevertheless obtained the lecovery of her son. 

Visconti, duke of Milan, and Philip the 
Hardy, duke oi' Burgundy, were uo less 
o ^ 

h , M 


pressing to obtain her residence at their 
courts. The first was positively refused, 
though her fortunes in France were far from 
being re-establislied. The latter Iiad taken her 
son into his protection, and had tempted tier 
by an employment most congenial to lier senti- 
ments, — a proposal of writing the reign of 
her patron Charles the Fifih. She had even 
commenced the agreeable charge, when death 
deprived her of that last protector hkewise. 

Destitute of every thing, with a son, an 
aged mother, and three poor female relations 
to maintain, her courage, her piety, and the 
muse, supported her under such repeated ca- 
lamities, the greatest of all seeming to her 
that of being reduced to borrow money, — 
a confession, perhaps, never made by any 
other lady of so romantic a complexion : — 
" Bcmt sire Dieu! commeelle rougissoit alors / 
Deniantler, ha causoH tonjours un acces de 
_fievrc" are her own words. Her latter days 
were more tranquil ; and her ingenious anil 
moral writings are favourable indications of 
her amiable mind, and justify the attention 
|>aid to her by so many puissant princes. 

Jf, in discussing the validity of lord Salis- 
bury's, I aliall seem to call them iu question, 
though founded oji thu testimony of so compe- 

tent a witness ami contemporary, I willnotstart 
a cavil beyond where history will bear me out. 

John Montacute, earl of Salisbury, appears 
by no means, from Dugdale's account, in so 
amiable a light as in his portrait, drawn by 
Christina. The genealogist does not even 
mention his commission to treat of king 
Richard's marriage with the princess Isabel, 
only saying that he had a licence to 
travel into France. But, perhaps, his instruc- 
tions were secret, and he might be sent to 
sound the inclinations of the French court 
before any formal demand was made.^ Dug- 
dale allows that he was employed with the 
bishop of St. Asaph to negociate a peace with 

But that he was a very confidential instru- 
ment of his royal master, appeared from an act 
of state, which proved fatal to the monarch, and 
was extremely unpopular in the eyes of the 
nation. He was suborned, says my author, 

> Thii i» iho more probable, os the princew IwUicI was but 
Buven ycari old when she came over to be quoen of Richanl : nnJ 
UB lie wm deposed three yeiirs after, the murriuga wbi nevci 
coiisutnmBtciI. [mbcl wbs restored lo her father, and wm ofter- 
wnnb nnuried to hi> nephew, the duke of Orieani; ai her 
youDgait titler Catherine wu to our Hcary UicfiAh, Kmof fain 
who bud dethronctl her Mtter't hiuband- 



to impeach the duke of Gloucester, his Ma- 
jest>''s uncle, and the earls of Warwick aod 
Arundel in parliament, — the conclusion of 
which tragedy was transacted at Calais in the 
person of the duke. 

Anotiier circumstance in the earl's life 
could not hut tend to decry him with the 
raiyority in that age. *' He was a chief of the 
Lollards, and tlie greatest fanatic of tliem all, 
(says Thomas of Walsingham) being so trans- 
ported with zeal, that he caused all the images 
which were in the chapel at Schenele, there set 
up hy John Aubrey and Sir Adam Buxhall, his 
wife's former husbands, to be taken down 
and thrown into an obscure place: only the 
image of St. Catherine, in regard that many 
did affect it, he gave leave that it should stand 
in his bakehouse." 

The earl attended his master into Ireland, 
but on the news of tlie duke of Hereford's 
landing in England, was despatched thence 
with a great power, and landed at Conway ; 
but soon was deserted by his forces, as the 
king himself was also, and was left, almost 

On Richard's deposal, the earl is said to 
have had fair respect from the fortunate 
usurper, and not to have had his life called in 


question. Nevertheless, he conspired with the 
earls of Huntingdon and Kent to take away 
the new monarch's life ; and for that purpose 
went to Windsor under the disguise of Christ- 
mas players : — but finding that the plot was 
discovered, they fled by night to Cirencester: 
the townsmen affrighted at their coining in 
such numbers. — Here we may pause a little, 
and suspect the accuracy of the historian. It 
does not seem very probable that three great 
peers, who had disguised themselves like stroll- 
ing players to surprise and murder a king, 
and who, on tlie discovery of their design, had 
fled to Gloucestershire, should have been at- 
tended by a body of troops. Yet troops there 
must have been i for the citizens of Cirences- 
ter were 80 affrighted, that, blocking them up 
and their forces witliin the town, so sharp a 
fight ensued, that it lasted from midnight till 
three of the clock in the morning, when the 
earls, being overpowered, surrendered theca- 
selves, and were beheaded about break of 

I Some historians Jo uiy,thEit the coiupiratore not finding the 
king at Winilaor, the plot being iliscoTireJ, and hearing ihnt He 
tw niarchinit HgiuoM them with on army, retired to Groaceuet, 
whurc thi- towDunen riling Bguiiiiit theui, the carls of Salubury 
ami Ki'ni vfcru tloin, uutl thuir hiMh bving cut qS were neiit to 


I do not question tlie veracity of the earl's 
catastrophe : yet so vague, desultory, and un- 
satisiactory in general are the narratives of our 
ancient historians, that whoever has occasion 
to examine their relations critically, must be 
convinced that, except some capital outlines> 
the relators set down any random ac<!ount5 
they lieard of events, and took no pains, em- 
ployed no judgment, to reconcile the most 
absurd and contradictory. 

Thus, though Christina is not warranted by 
our historians, they, on the other hand, are 
not supported by common sense. The ele- 
gance of her mind and learning certmnly has 
drawn a portrait of her !over, that gives us 
tittle idea of a turbulent baron of that bois- 
terous age : and it is unfortunate that the re- 
fined phantom which is commonly conjured 
up by the pen of a romantic lady, should 
seldom exhibit the picture of the manners of 
any age that has yet existed. 

Montacute, if we believe Walsingham, 
whom Dugdale transcribed, was a court-tool, 
who accused the king's uncle, was an accom- 
plice in his murder, was a hot-brained heretic, 
was ungrateful to the prince who had spared 
him, and even was so base as to plot his assas- 
sination. — This J3 not exactly the bashful, 


self-denying, generous lover, wlio forswore 
marriage, because lie had not courage to de- 
clare liis passion but in a ditty, whicli too he 
acknowledged for a presumptuous offence. 

How far the sublimated notions of chivalry 
might impose respect on a true knight, I can- 
not tell — bnt unluckily there is a coarse evi- 
dence, who, devoid of sentiment, and regarding 
nothing but wlio begat whom, deposes against 
Christina's testimony, and that witness is 

Far from forswearing matrimony, the earl 
was not only married, as we have seen, but his 
widow suiTived him, and had a grant of part 
of hia forfeited lands for Jier subsistence. She 
had a son too, of age so mature, that ten years 
afler his father's deatli, he, being then married, 
received the purparty of his wife's lands oir 
the division of her estate witli her sisters. 

In other respects, I should be inclined to 
think that the earl of Salisbury's crimes might 
admit of alleviation. Suborned is a stigma- 
tizing word — but that Thomas duke of Glou- 
cester was by no means the pat riot -niaityr 
that he was represented, has been judiciously 
observed by Mr. Hume. Though the youngest 
of the sons of Edward the third, he probably 
aimed at the crown, and affected with that 


view to censure, and perhaps to aggnivatet 
tiie incapacity and wortlilessness of liis ne- 
pliew ; resembling suqimingly botli in liia 
manoeuvres and catastrophe the duke of Guise, 
who, with still worse, or indeed no pretensions, 
aspired to depose Henry the third, and set him- 
self on the throne of France. Both Ricliard 
and Henry felt the predominant ascendant of 
their rivals ; and too weak to counteract by 
policy, or to stem by maniy hardihood, their 
insolent competitors, tliey stooped to the in- 
famy of assassination — and precipitated by 
the odium of that act the destruction they had 
hoped to ward off. 

The duke of" Hereford, whose nearer title 
would have been obstructed by Gloucester's 
ambition, lamented his uncle's fall, at which 
he must have rejoiced, and reaped the harvest 
that Gloucester had sown for liimseif. The 
earl of Salisbury, as a faithful subject, might 
have abhorred and dreaded the duke's machin- 
ations, and, for aught we know to the con- 
trary, might iiave obtained proof of his guilt. 
Tlie same fidelity to his legal master must 
have inspired him with detestation of the 
usurper Henry ; nor, as the latter, afler Salis- 
bury's death, called to severe account some of 
Bichard's ministers, who had dipped Uieir 


hands in the death of Gloucester, must wf 
rely too rashly on Henry's mercy to liim, 
which might amount to no more than not hav- 
ing yet punished him. If Henry's indulgence 
is problematic, the crime of ingratitude va- 
nishes — and if Salisbury', Huntingdon, and 
Kent, retired to Cirencester with ai'med forces, 
1 should believe that they had made an at- 
tempt to dethrone the usurper by arms, and 
ibund him i)repared, rather than that they 
meditated to assassinate him at a mummery. 

In a word, though I cannot on such doubt- 
ful characteristics admit the earl into t)ie choir 
of English poets, I must, as a good protestant 
subject, suspect that his zeal as a Lollard occa- 
sioned our monkish annalists to blacken his 
actions. — And 1 must admire the tervour of 
the amiable Christina's love, which could 
counterbalance the prejudice of education and 
of the times, and aid ber to discover virtues 
and innate woith even in a heretic, who had 
treated St. Catherine with so little politeness 
and decorum as to banish her into a bake- 

[After so copious a disquisidon oa Uic merits and 
demerits of two nearly romance characters, afibrding 
so brilliant a spedtnen of lord Orford's love of tlic 


iHnceUanie in composition, it was impossible the earl 
of Salisbniy ooold be exduded from this catalogue.—- 
It is recorded of him in the Bibliotheque^ p. 134. 
Dam ces grandes anmnotiom (Tun etat, les nuMewreux 
uMt Mouoent crimindsj SaUAury perd la tHe nar tos 
idu^aud^ malgrS Pestime piMiquef &c.] 



[To this metrician, as Fabian termed our elder wri- 
ters in verse, lord Orford did not think it worth while 
to allot an article, as he deemed the authority too 
vague. Strutt, in his *^ Manners and Customs of the 
English^," introduced part of a poem from a manu- 
script in his own possession (temp. Hen. V.}, which 
was composed by a duke of York. This duke was 
conjectured by lord Orford to be Edward^ eldest son 
of Edmond of Langley ; there being no duke of York 
in the reign of Henry the fifth. ^ Yet as the verses 
seem to be addressed to a queen, his lordship thought 
they might have been written in the preceding reign, 
duke Edward having fallen in the batde of Agincourt ; 
and in this case they were likely to have been addressed 
to Joanna, second wife of Henry the fourth, soon 
after she became queen dowager.^ However this un- 
settled point may be adjusted by profounder antiqua- 
ries, the manuscript itself is undoubtedly genuine, 
and the signature at the close of the poem assigns it to 
a duke of York, whom Mr. Warton considered as an 
" unknown prince/'* From the hands of Mr. War- 

• Vol. iii. p. 183. 

s Qu. How is this sentence to be reconciled with the succeed- 
ing, which agrees with history in saying, that Edward, a duke of 
York, was slain at the battle of Agincourt ? 

< Lord Orford's Works, rol.i. p. 527. 

^ See Hist, of Bng. Poetry, rol. iu. p. 106. 

VOL. I. P 


too the nuuiiiscripC passed into those of Mr. Stmtt, 
of whom it was pnrcfaased bjr m j kind and intelligent 
friend Francis Dooce, esq. to whose indulgence the 
readers of the extracts here giTenwill be indebted Sofr 
their aocmacj. The entire poem extends to thirty- 
firar stanzas, more of which may be seen, by those 
who wish for more, in Stmtt's publication, abore 

EzceUent sovraine ! semeiy to see. 
Proved prudeDcey peerlees of pris. 

Bright blossome of benjngnyt^ 
Figure fairest, and fresshest of devys : 

I recomaonde me to your riafaiesse, 

As lowely as y can or may, 
Besech3mg inwardly your gentilnesse ; 

Let never faynt hert true love betraye. 

Your womanly beauts delicious 

Hath me hent all into his cheyne, 
But ye graunte me your love gracious, 

My hert will melt, as snowe in reyne. 

Yif ye wist my lyfe, and knewe 

And of the peynes that y feell, 
Y wys ye wold upon me rewe, 

Though your hert wer made of steell : 

And though ye be of high renoun, 
Let mercy enclyne your hert so fre, 

To you lady this is my boun, 
To graunt me grace, in soro degr^ 


To your mercy wold ye me take, 

Yif your will were for to do, 
Then wold y truely for your sake 

Change my chere and slake my wo. 

Explicet amorp. dncem Ehor. nup^Jact, 

Edmund duke of York, was the author of the MS. 
on hunting, called the ^^ Mayster of the Game," copies 
of which are in the British Museum and other libra- 
ries. See Mr. Haslewood's Preliminaries to the Book 
of St Albans.] 

P 2 


The abolition of taste and literature was not 
theslightestabuseproceedingfrompoperyj the 
' revival of letters was one of the principal ser- 
vices effected by the reformation. Tlie Romish 
clergy feared, tiiat ii' men read, they would 
think : — it is no less true, that the moment they 
thought, Ihey wrote. The first author, as 
well as the first martyr among our nobility, was 
, wr John Oldcastle, called the good lord Cob- 
[ ham : a man whose virtues made him a re- 
former, whose valour a martyr, whose martyr- 
dom an enthusiast.' He was much esteemed by- 
Henry the fifth, and had served him with great 
zeal, at a time when the church was lighting its 
holy fires for Lollards', or the disciples of 

3 [He woB sheriff' of Ilercronlshire in n Henry IV. and had 
tumnianE to parliameiir mnongst the barons of the realm, in II, 
19, and 14 of that king's reign. Dugdttle's Baronage, tom. ii. 

p. 67.] 

^ [Lollardy,says Ritson, a word oruncertainderivation.iE welt 
known to mean with us the doctrine propagated by John Wick- 
liffeand his followers. Ancient Song«, p.6S. This doctrine, ac- 
cording to the statute 2 Hen. V. wu to aubvert the Cfariitian 
faith, the laws ofGod, the church, and the realm, lb.) 

S^.|0I:1S 01.1JCA3TI.E LOBB CoBHAM. 



WicklifFe. Henry at first, with sense and 
goodness, resisted insinuations against the lord 
Cobham, whom he tried to save by gentle ex- 
hortations : but as the peer was firm, it natu- 
rally made the prince weak, and he delivered 
the hero over to the inquisitors. Lord Cobham 
was imprisoned, but escaped. The clergy, 
however, with great zeal for the royal person, 
informed the king, then lying at Eltham, that 
20,000 Lollards were assembled at St. Giles's, 
for the destruction of him and his brothers. 
The brave young monarch immediately headed 
a troop, and arriving at ten at night, at the 
sign of the Axe without Bishopsgate, took the 
man of the house and seven others prisoners, 
which closed his first campaign. Fourscore 
more were seized about St. Giles% and some of 
them being induced, (as Rapin ^ guesses) to con- 
fess a design of murdering the royal family, 
and making the lord Cobham protector, the 
king no longer doubted of the conspiracy, but 
ordered about half of them to be executed, and 

4 [Rapin seenu to draw his information from the public actt^ 
in which some deposed that after the murder of the king and 
princes they intended to make Oldcastle regent of the kingdom : 
but the historian declares it hardly conceivable^ how a prince so 
judicious as Henry could suffer himself to be imposed upon by 
so gross a fiction. Hist, of Eng. 1 4 Hen. V.] 

p s 



, issued a proclamation for apprehending Colv 
f ham, who was all this time concealed in Wales. 
The king, who was Lollard enough himself to 
cast a rapacious eye on the revenues of the 
clergy, was diverted by a free gift, and by a 
persuasion to undertake the conquest of 
France, to which kingdom they assured him 
he had undoubted right : when he thought he 
had any to the crown of England, the other 
followed of course. In such reciprocal inter- 
course of acts of amity, heretics were naturally 
abandoned to tiieir persecutors. The conquest 
of France soon followed, and the surprisal of 
lordCobham', aflcr a very valiant resistance", 
in which he was wounded. Being examined 
before tlie duke of Bedford'*, he would have 

• [Lo[\l Cobliam Irad the commantl of an Eaglah tamy in 
Prance, whii-h was at that time a scene of great confuiton, 
ihroiigh llie cum |icti lion of the Orleans and Burgundian faction, 
and uliligcd tlic Duke of Orleans to raise the sit^ of I^rii. 
New Biog. Diet, vol.xi. p. 303.] 

< He was seised by the lord I'owis. The |)roelainatian for 
apprehending him offered 1 000 marks of gold and SO/, a-year 
lor life, and a discharge from all taxes to any dly, borough, or 
town, ibat should deliver him up. Vide Appendix to BaJe'a 
Brefe Chronicle eonccmynge the Examynacyon and Death of 
the blessed Martyr of Christ Syr Johan Oldecastetl the Lorde 
Cubhom. Reprinted in 1 739. His ready wit and brave ^rit 
i-ippcar to great advantage in this account of his U'Jol. 

" [Dugdalc and olheit> speak of u Scolish imuiiiDn iu 1417-, 
which wai excited by lord C'ohhuni, and repelled by the duke f»F 


expatiated on his faith ; but the chief justice 
moved, ^^ that they should not suffer him to 
spend the time so vainly, in molesting of the 
nobles of the realm.'' Not being indulged to 
speak on what he was accused, and naturally 
provoked by the ingratitude and weakness of 
Henry, the stout lord avowed aUegiauce 
to king Richard^ : his sentence and execution 
soon followed. He died entreating sir Thomas 
Erpingham, that if he saw him rise from death 
to life the third day, he would procure that 
his sect might be in peace and quiet.^ 

He wrote 

" Twelve Conclusions, addressed to the 
ParUament of England." 

At the end of the first book, he wrote some 
monkish rhymes in Latin, which Bale has pre- 
served, and which he says were " copyed out by 
dyverse menne, and set upon theyr wyndowes, 
gates, and dores, which were then knowen for 

Bedford; but Rapin says, he dare venture to affirm it is aU a 
mistake, since such an incursion is not mentioned either in the 
public records or in the histories of Scotland. Ubi sup. 

7 King Richard had long been dead; I suppose it is only 
meant that lord Cobham disclaimed obedience to the house of 
Lancaster, who had usurped the throne of king Richard and his 
right heirs. 

" ^Stowc, p. 556. 

P 4 



obstynatc liypocrj'tes and fleshlye lyv 

which made the prelates raadde."" 

" The Complaints of the Countrjinan.**' 
" His Confession'' and Abjuration:'* 

but this piece is believed to be, and certiunly 

was, a forgery. 

[Sir John (Mdcastle, according to Dugdale, Rapin, 
fuid Granger, married Uie niece and heiress of the pa- 
triotic lord Cobham, and upon his marriage assumed 
that title. * On account of his inflexible adherence to 
the doctrines of WlckUffe, he was exposed as a buf- 
foon character by some early English dramatist, in an 
old play entitled The famous Victories of Henry the 
Fifth, containing the honorable Battjule of Agincourt ; 
in which the scene opens with prince Henry's rol>- 
beries, and sir John Oldcastle is mentioned as one 
ofhia gang. As Shakspeare appears to have bor- 
rowed some hints from this old play, it gave occasion 
to the mistake that sir John OldcasUe was origuiaUy 
the comic hero of his historical drama of Henry the 

> Bale's Brefe ChroDycle, p. 99. 

'Tanner, p, 561. 

' [This ia inserted in Bale's Brerc Chronycle, and called ■• A 
Christen Confeuyon or Rekenyng of lii» Fayth."] 

* [Bcatson sayt he was called to the house of peers by sunu 
mom, in right of his wife Joan, grand-daughter of John lord 
Cobhani, to whom he was third hiuband. Political Index, 
TOl.i. p.4T,] 



Fourth, till lie changed his name to Falstof!^ or Fa:>- 
tolfT. That such change of those lamous names ui 
history, or substitution of one for the other, was 
made by our immortal bard, we may be satisfied Irom 
his own words in his epilogue to the Second Part of 
Henry the Fourth, where he says, " If you be not 
too much cloyed witli fat meat, our humble author 
will continue the story with su- John in it, and make 
you merry with fair Catliarine of France ; where, for 
any thing I know, FaUtaff shall die of a sweat, unless 
already he be killed with your hard opinions ; for Old- 
castle died a martyr, and this is not the man." And 
yet the freedom thought by some grave writers to have 
been taken with Oldcastie and FastolfT has given 
offence, notwithstanding sir John FalstaS''s name is 
not (according to the strictness of die letter] to be found 
in history. Stage poets, says Fuller, have themselves 
been very bold with, and otiiers very merry at, the 
meaniug of sir John Oldcastie, whom they have lan- 
cied a boon companion, a jovial royster, and yet a 
coward to boot ; contrary to the credit of all chro- 
nicles, awning him a martial man of merit. The best 
is, sir John FalstafF hadi relieved the memory of sir 
John Oldcastie, and is substituted buffoon in his 
place; but it matters as little what petulant poets ns 
what malicious papists have written against him.^ 
Mr. Anstis seems to lament, that as of old the reput- 
ation of Socrates was in his lifetime sullied by Afis- 
toplianes, in personating him on the stage ; so the 

> Church IIiBt 



memory of our hero had in thi>i last age met with the 
same hard fate by interludes in plays^ : yet the same 
writer owns ihat Shalcsi)eiire cannot be charged with 
aay premeditated spleen when lie composed his come- 
dies, as he subslituted sir John FalstaJT for sir John 
OMcastle. Mr. Gougli, who has drawn Uie preceding 
notices togetlier in the Biograpbia, refers to Mr. Stee- 
vens's note in the play of Shalupeare's Henry the 
Fifdi, for a fartlier exoneration of the bard from the 
charge of personal satire. Ttiis charge is solely im- 
putable, it seems, to the old play, which is represented 
to be full of ribaldry and impiety. No ignorance, adds 
Mr. Gough, could debase the gold of Shakspeiure 
into such dross, though no chemistry but that €>f 
Sltakspeare could exalt such base metal into gold.' 

•■ Order of the Garter, p. 131. 

'Biog, Brit. vol. T. p, 701. Mr. Revil, ii nmy be observed 
in the lost edition of Shakspeare, declares his opinion that tlie 
tradition uF FalbtatT hating been ori^nally Oldctutle, U by 
DO means dispruved. The weight of real evidence appears to him 
to tie on the side of Puller, who lived near enough to the tiine 
of SliaksiitVe to be accurately bfonncd, and hud no leniptation 
to falsify the teiA fact. Addenda to notes on Henry the Fourth, 
*ol.xxi. p.4S3. Kitson, in his Ancient Songs", ]\af printed a 
latire against the Lollards, which he coneavcd to be parliculorlr 
tevelled at lord Cabhnni, the Coryphceus of the sect. It b^a» 

Lo he that can be Cristes clerc. 

And knowe the knottes of Ids crede, 

Now may se u wonder werkc. 

Of hurde hap^iCB lo take goiid becdu. 


Lord Cobham was one of the leaders in the reform- 
ing party, who drew up a number of articles against 
the corruptions which then prevailed among church* 
men, and presented them in the form of a remon- 
strance to the commons. He was at great expense in 
collecting and transcribing the works of Wickli£&, 
which he dispersed among the people ; and he main- 
tained a great number of his disciples as itinerant 
preachers in many parts of the country. These things 
naturally awakened the resentment of the clergy 
against him. In the reign of Henry the fifth he was 
accused of heresy, and the growth of it was particu- 
larly attributed to his influence. The king de- 
layed the prosecution against him, and undertook 
to reason with him himself, and to convert him from 
his errors. Lord Cobham's answer is upon record : 
^* I ever was," said he, '^ a dutiful subject to your ma- 
jesty, and ever will be. Next to God, I profess obe- 
dience to my king : but as to the spiritual dominion 
of the pope, I never could see on what foundation it 
is claimed, nor can I pay hhii any obedience. It is 
sure, as God's word is true, he is tlic great antichrist 
foretold in holy writ" This answer so exceedingly 
shocked the king, that, turning away in visible dis- 
pleasure, he withdrew his favour from him, and left 
him to the censures of the church. He was sum- 

Thc dome of deth is hevy drede, 
For hym that woi not mercy eric. 
Than is my rede, for muchc nc nicde» 
That no man mcllc of Lollardrvc. 



moiied to appear before the archbishop, and not ap- 
pearing, was pronounced contumacious, and excom- 
municated. In hopes to avoid the impending storm, 
he waited upon the king with a written confession of 
his faith ; but while he was in his presence, a person 
entered the chamber, cited him to appear before the 
archbishop, and he was immediately hurried to the 
tower. He was soon after cited before the primate, 
and read his opinion of those articles on which he 
supposed he was called in question, viz. the Lord's 
supper, penance, images, and pilgrimages. He was 
told that in some parts he bad not been sufficiently 
explicit ; that in all these points holy church had de- 
termined, by which determinations all ChristlBns 
ought to abide ; and that these determinations should 
be given him as a direction of his taith. In conclu- 
sion, he was condemned as a heretic, and remanded 
to the Tower.' A billof attainder passed agmnst lord 
Cobham ; a price of a thousand marks was set upon 
his head ; and a perpetual exemption from taxes pro- 
mised to any town that should secure him. After he 
had been four years in Wales, he was taken at last l^ 
the vigilance of his enemies, brought to London in 
triumph, and dragged to execution in St Giles's fields. 
As a traitor and heretic, he was hung up in chiuns 
alive upon a gallows ; and fire being put wider him, 
was burnt to death.* 

whith place he had ctfecleil hia ci^cqm ii 

■ Ne* Biog. Diet, vol.ii 


The monki^ rhymea referred to by lord Orford, 
In p. 19I9 as preserved by Bale^ are thus printed in 
his Brief Chronicle : 

Plangunt Anglorum 
Grentes crimen sodomorum. 
Faulus ferty horum 
Sunt idola causa malorum. 
Surgunt ingratiy 
Giezite Symone nati ; 
Nomine prelati^ 
Hoc defensare parati. 
Qui reges estis^ 
Populis quicunque preestis, 
Qualiter his gestis. 
Gladios prohibere potestis ? 

Gilpin's Lives of the Reformers includes a memoir 
of lord Cobham, with a circumstantial account of his 
lordship's conduct before the consistory. He sums 
up his narrative by sajring — *^ Lord Cobham was a 
person of uncommon parts and very extensive talents ; 
well qualified either for the cabinet or the field. His 
acquirements were equal to his parts. No species of 
learning, which was at that time in esteem, had es* 
caped his attention. It was his thirst of knowledge, 
indeed, which first brought him acquainted with the 
opinions of Wicklifie. The novelty of them engaged 
his curiosity. He examined them as a philosopher, and 
in the course of his examination became a Christian. 
He showed the world that religion was not merely 
calculated for a cloister, but might be introduced into 

2£2 ijobd cobbaji. 

lifis. aid dftM k wm not beiaMr j 
to m tlH- l«t haoid kt ds dftinii-' ^ pu 15iA. ^ 

Tbc MNJorac tcmmi' b BPonr <h ta^ CBOBafliL one 

4if F^bl^ ocean B a MSl pool cndod 
ia dbe vear 16SO. 


Cn0pc badrvara, aad falott JifMHtr^ 

la MM a pool n pufaGtihed by Jo. Wccver, casaiieiJ '^ TW 
Maror of MMtjn, or d^ life aad death of tint ^mt 
Captaiae md im godlr MstiTe, Sr Joha OUostie, 
Lord CoUmb." Mr.Maloiie»iBpo8K9Miof acofnr, 




[This duke, commonly called the goody was youngest 

brother to Henry the fifth, and the first founder of 
the university library in Oxford, wbidi was pillaged of 
the greater part of its books in the reign of Edward 
the sixth. He was created duke of Gloucester in 1 4 1 4, 
and became lord protector to Henry the sixth ; firom 
which station the queen and her party being resolved 
to remove him, he is said to have been secretly mur- 
dered, and buried in St. Alban's abbey, anno 144?.^ 
His marriage with Jaqueline, daughter to William 
the sixth of Bavaria, was animlled by the pope, and 
he soon after married Eleanor Cobham."^ This 
Humffirey, duke of Gloucester, says Grafton, descend- 
ing of the blood royal, was not only nol^le and valient 
in all his actes and doings, but sage, poUitique, and not- 
ably well learned in the civil law. And among other 
his worthy praises, the chronicler relates a remarkable 
instance of sagacity, set forth by sir Thomas More, 
in a book of his, entitled A Dialogue concerning He- 
resies and Matters of Religion.'* 

Mr. Cole^ seemed to think that he ought to have a 
place in the present catalogue, as Leland, in his Col- 


"3 Bolton's Extinct Peerage, p. 181. 

* Granger's Biog. Hist. vol. i. p. SO. 

« See Grafton's Chronicle, 1569, vot.ii. p. 598. 

> Cole MSS. vol. XXXV. p. 30. 


lectanea, iii. 25. 38. in his DictionHry of Writers, 
published by bishop Tanner (notwithstanding what 
he says in his note about the book), ascribed to htm 

" Tabulae Direction um." 

7^6 sante antiquary records, that in queen Anne's 
time, while they were di^ng a grave in Saint Aiban's 
abbey, was found the vault of Humphrey, duke of 
Gloucester, and in a leaden coffin fiJl of picide the 
corpse entire, with a beautiful cruciftx painted against 
the east wall at his feet, which is yet entire, but the 
body is now quite decayed. 

G. Ferres drew up a metrical history in the Mirror 
for Magistrates, " How Humfrey Plantagenet, duke 
of Gloucester, protector of England, during the mino- 
ritie of his nephew, king Henry the sixt, by practise 
of his enemies, was brought to confusion," 1 578 ; and 
Chr. Middleton printed a more poetical If^nd of th« 
same, in 1 600. There is a ditty In Evans's collection 
of old ballads, vol. iii. describing the " Lamentable 
fall of the Dutchess of Gloucester, wife to duke 


In those riide ages, when valour and ignor. 
ance were the attributes of nobility, when 
metaphysical sophistries and jingling rhymes, 
in barbarous Latin, were the highest endow- 
ments and prerogatives of the clergy ; and 
when* " it was enough tor noblemen's sons to 
wind their horn, and carry tlicir hawke fair, 
and leave study and learning to the children 
of mean people ;" it is no wonder that our old 
peers produced no larger, nor more elegant 
compositions, than the inscription on the 
sword of the brave earl of Shrewsbury, 

Sum Talboti pro occidere iniinicos;' 

It is surprising that the turbulent times of 
Henry the sixth, and Edward the fourth, 
should have given to the learned world so 
accomplished a lord as the eari of Worcester. 
He early tasted of the muses' fountain, dis- 
pensed in more copious streams over Europe, 

" A Nobleman'" Speech i^ Richard Pace, in the reign o( 
lieaty VUI. Bioera|>hia, vol. ii. p. 1:^36. 

1 Olhen give it, " Sum 1'iUbati pro vincerc iiiimico meo." 
Cnmileu'n Ri'iimim. 



by the dtscoveiy of printing in 1450. Pope 
Nicholas the 6Sib patrcmised the new art ; 
and the tmreDt of learned men that was 
poured upon Italy by the taking of Constan- 
tinople in 14>53, by Mahomet the second, re- 
rived the arts, and the puri^ of the almost- 
forgotten tongues. The celebrated ^neas 
Sylvius, then on the throne of Rome by the 
name of Pius the second, encouraged learning 
by his munificence and example. One of his 
brightest imitators and contemporaries, was 
John Tiptoft, earl of Worcester, who was 
bom at Everton * in Cambridgeshire, and edu- 
cated at Baliol college in Oxford. * He was 
son of the lord Tibetot, or Tiptoft, and Powys, 
and was created a viscount and earl of Wor- 
cester by king Henry the sixth, and appointed 
lord deputy of Ireland. By king Edward the 
fourth he was made knight of tiie garter, and 
constituted justice of North Wales for life, 
Dugdale, who is more sparing of titles to him 
than our other writers, says he was soon after 
made constable of the Tower for life, and twice 

• rRead Evtrilm, loys Mr. Cole. MS. note in Mr. Cough's 

» Ldand He Script. Brit, vol.ii. p.47S. The ewi is not meu- 
tioned by Am. Wood, wiioae account does not commence before 
the yenr ISoo. 


treasurer of the king's exchequer : but other 
historians" say he waslortl high constahle, and 
twice lord treasurer; the first time, according 
to Lud. Carbo, at twenty-five years old ; and 
r^ain deputy of Ireland for the duke of 
Clarence. But whatever dispute tliere may be 
about his titles in the state, there is no cloabt 
but he was eminently at the head of literature, 
and so masterly an orator, that he drew tears 
from the eyes of the before-mentioned pope 
Pius, by an oration which he pronounced 
before him when lie visited Rome, through 
a curiosity of seeing the Vaticau library, 
after he had resided at Padua and Venice, 
and made great purchases of books." This 
was on his return from a ])iIgriniago^ to Jeru- 
salem i which holy expedition la partly attri- 
buted, by a modem writer ■, to the suspense of 
his lordship's mind between gratitude to king 
Henry, and loyalty to king Kdward.^ — But 

'■ Allien, Gritiih Librviim, Hale, &c. 

' lie M MUll to have given MSI:>. to the value of SOO morki (u 
ihe univenitjr of Okford. TNnnor'a Uibliuth. Urit. p. 715. 

" He had licforu tliu diatiiiguiilioii biitiaclf l>y uleiuiiig dm mm 
rrom pinitei. Vide LeUiul. 

• 0.8. Wiirthi«icirGn|[land, 

° [llo rutuMied IVoib Cl)ri*t'D KpiiU-lirc, raji Fuller with \w 
usual <|ii«inliii)u, to hii own grave in Kuglaiid ; coming home in 
a in(MtimhB(>f>]r juuctureariiinc: if loonororlatcrfliehiulfouiMJ 
kiiij; Etlward on that throne to whidi now Ilctiry lh« MXlh w» 



he seems not to have been much embarrassed 
with the former, coasidering how greatly he 
had profited of king Edward's favour. It is 
certain, that the rapid Richard Nevil, earl of 
Warwick, did not ascribe much gratitude to 
the earl of Worcester, and tiiat the earl did 
not confide much in any merit of that sort j 
for, absconding during the short restoration 
of Henry, and being taken concealed in a 
tree in Weybridge-forest in Huntingdon- 
shire, he was brought to London, accused 
of cruelty in his administration of Ireland S 
particularly towards two infant sons of the 

rcstoretl,andwhoK restitution was only rcmorkubleforthe death 
of this worthy lord. Thus those who when the hoiisf of the state 
u on fire, politically liope to save their own chamber, are some* 
times burned therein. Worthies of Cambridgeshire, p. 155.] 

3 Letand owns that he had exerted himself too severely agwtut 
some Lancastrians, which drew down the vengeance of that partr 
on him, p.4T9. In sir Richard Cox's History of Ireland it b said, 
" that the enri of Worcester was scat over in 1 4GT, and held a 
parliament at Drogfaeda, in which the earls of Desmond and Kil- 
dare were attainted, on accusation of having assisted the king's 
enemies in that country; but that the Irish aSirni it was in r»- 
venge for Desmond's undervduing his majeity'« match with 
Elisabeth Gray ; and that as soon as Desmond, the great earl, waa 
beheaded, Kildare was pardoned and left deputy byTiptoft, vho 
returned to England." Pages 169, 170, 171. Campion says, tbat 
the queen earned the earl of Desmond's trade of life to be aded 
after the Irish inanncr (contrary to sundry old statutes) by hii 


earl of Desmond S and condemned and be- 
headed at the Tower, 1470.* Hall and Hoi- 
linshead speak of his tyranny as not quite 
equivocal, though more favourable writers as- 
cribe his imputed crimes to the malice of his 
enemies. Indeed, it was an unwonted strain 
of tenderness in a man so little scrupulous of 
blood as Warwick, to put to death so great a 
peer, for some inhumanity to the children of 
an Irish lord ; nor does one conceive why he 
sought for so remote a crime — he was not 

successor the earl of Worcester, in consequence of which Des- 
mond was attainted and put to death. Hist, of Ireland^ p. lOl. 
^ [In Baldwin's Legend of the Earl of Worcester, a poem in 
the Mirror for Magistrates, Tiptoft alleged, that he put these 
children to death by command of Edward the fourth, a conunand 
that he dared not disobey : 

The chiefest crime wherewith men do me charge 
Is death of the earle of Desmonds noble sonnes, 
Of ^hich the king's charge doth me cleare discharge 
By strayt commandement and injunctions : 
The effect whereof so rigorously ninnes, 
That either I must procure to see them dead. 
Or for contempt as a traytour loose my head. 
Fuller says, he wat charged with treason for ^ secret nding 
with king Edward (who before and tStcmrardde factor and always 
dejure^ was the lawful king of England), and on this account he 
lost.his life." Worthies of Camb. ubi sup. He was beheaded 
on St. Luke's day 1470.] 

^ [According to Ldand, he was buried in the Donunicani* 
convent at London* Br. Lib. p. sec] 

Q S 


otien so delicate. Tiptoft seems to have been 
punished by Warwick for leaving Henry for 
Edward, when Warwick had thought fit to 
(juit Edward for Henry. 

Thia earl of Worcester % " which (as Caxton 
his printer, who was much enamoured of binii 
says) in his tyme flowred in vertue and 
cunnyng, and to whom he knewe none lyke 
emong the lordes of the temporalite in science 
and moral vertue," translated 

" Cicero de AxnicitiA," and 

" Two Declarations made by Publius Cor. 
nelius Scipio, and Gayus Flamyneus, Compe- 
titors for the Love of Lucresse," 
which he dedicated to Edward the fourth ; 
and wrote some other orations and ^listle^ 
and engtished 

" Ceaser's Commentaries, as touching Bri- 
tish Affairs ;" 

which version was published without name of 
printer, place, or date, but was supposed to be 
printed by John Rastell, who lived in the 
reign of Henry the eighth.' 

Ill the 6th of Edward the fourth he drew up 

* Ames on Printing, in his account of CiutOD, p. 36. ct wq. 
^ [Amei concluded thiij book to have been printed by RaattU, 
bom its tj-pe. The uiargin cootoim the orieinal Latin ia Rowan 



" Orders for the placing of the Nobility in 
all Proceedings";'* and 

" Orders and Statutes for Justs and Tri- 
umphs." " 

In the Ashmolean collection' are the follow- 

'* Ordinances, Statutes, and Kules, made by 
John Tiptofl, Earle of Worcester, and Consta- 
ble of England, by the King's Commandment 
at Windsor', to be observed in all manner of 
Justea of Feirs within the Realm of England, 


He is also said to have written, 

** A Petition against the Lollards' ;" and 
*' An Oration to the Citizens of Padua."" 
In the manuscripts belonging to the cathe- 
dral of Lincoln is a volume of some twenty 
epistles, of which four are written by our earl, 
and the rest addressed to him.' 

• MS. Cotton. TAtr. E, Tiii. SS. 

IbU. 40. 

• MS,7«J. 

> S9 Mail. GlhEil«utllV. 

• [ThcMi onlicuuicM were agtuo rerived in the *th of Eliz. and 
areprintcdinNugieAuliijuic, vol. i. edit. Ifl04.j 

> FUUer'iCh.Hi>t.iv.tG9, 
' TMiiier,p.TlC. 

' Itnd.p.TlT. [Mr.Gough made kcunifulaMrchiiitheUbraiy 
for thne epi»tle«, but the MSS. were so thnmdully neglected uid 
diiordered, tint he could not discover them.] 
Q 4 


• . 



O good blessyd Lord God !*' saith Caxton, 
what grete losse was it of that noble, vertuous, 
and wel-disposed lord ! &c* and what worship 
had he at Rome in the presence of our holy 
fader the pope ! And so in alle other places unto 
his deth ; at whiche deth every man that was 
there might leme to dye, and take his deth pa- 
ciently/'® The axe then did at one blow cut off 
more learning in England than was left in the 
heads of all the surviving nobility.' 

[Pennant is of opinion, that all his love for die 
sciences could not soften in him the ferocious temper 
of the unhappy times he lived in. London, p. 315.] 

8 [Caxton's conclusion to the earl of Worcester's translation. 
See Herbert, vol. L p. 34. Mr. Dibdin farther observes, that 
** the most illustrious patrons of which Caxton could boast, 
were the earl of Worcester and earl Rivers; but even the 
rank and accomplishments of these noblemen, especially of the 
former, were insufficient to protect them from insult, persecution, 
and a premature end." Life of Caxon, p.cjud. See also Biog. 
Brit. ill. 568. second edit.] 

9 FuUer's Worthies in Camb. p,155. 



^ f 



Though Caxton knew *' none like to the erie 
of Worcestre,'* and though the author' last 
quoted thinks that all learning in the nobility 
perished with Tiptoft, yet there flourished at 
the same period a noble gentleman, by no 
means inferior to him in learning and polite- 
ness, in birth his equal, by alliance his superior, 
greater in feats of arms, and in pilgrimages 
more abundant This was ' Antony Widville^ 
earl Rivers, lord Scales and Newsells, lord of 
the Isle of Wight, << defenseur and directeur 
of the causes apostolique for our holy fader 
the pope in this royame of Englond, and 
unde and govemour to my lorde prince of 

He was son of sir Richard Widville by Jaque- 
line of Luxemburg!!, duchess dowager of Bed- 

« Fuller. 

3 [Or, according to Herbert*! citatioii from Caxton, " the 
noble and piusaant lord Antone, erle of Ryuycrs, lord of Scalet 
and of the isle of Wyght, defendour and directour of the liege 
apostolique, for our holy fader the pope, in thb ruyatne of Eng- 
lond, and govemour of my lord prynce of Wale*.'' Typogr. 
Antiq. ToLi. p. 15.] 

« Caxton in Ames*! Catal. p. 14. 


ford, and brother of the fair lady Gray, who 
captivated that monarch of pleasure, Edward 
the fourth. * When about seventeen years of 
age, he was taken by force from Sandwich, 
with bis father, and carried to Calais by some 
of the opposite faction. The credit of his 
sister, the countenance and example of his 
prince, the boisterousness of the times, no- 
thing softened, nothing roughened the mind 
of this amiable lord, who was as gallant as his 
luxurious brother-in-law, without his weak- 
nesses ; as brave as the heroes of either Rose, 
without their savageness ; studious in the in- 
tervals of business, and devout after the man- 
ner of those whimsical times, when men 
challenged others whom they never saw, and 
went barefoot to visit shrines in countries of 
which they had scarce a map. In sliort, lord 
Antony was, as sir Thomas More' says, 

^ [Baldwin hu thus made or AuthoDj ^ve an accoimt of lui 
fiuuilf cujinesioas, in mOBt pros^c lOctrificauoD: 
My father, higbt sir Richard Wodvile, he 
Eipousde the duchcs of Bedford, mid bjr her 
Hod blue dibIgs my brother John, uid me 
Called Anthony ; king Edward did pre&Re 
Ut fatre above the state wherein we were. 
Pot be e^wuted our sitter Elizabeth, 
Whnm sir John Gray made widow by lui death. 

Mir. for Magiatr. etCt. 1575.) 

'In vita Rich. III. 


" Vir, haud facile discernas, raanuve avit con- 
silio promptior." 

*He distinguished himself both as a warrior 
and a statesman. The Lancastrians making 
an insurrection in North umberlaiul, he at- 
tended the king into those parts, and iras a 
chief commander at tlie siege of Ahiwick- 
castle ; soon after which he was elected into 
the order of the garter. In the tenth of tlie 
same reign, he defeated tlie dukes of Clarence 
and Warwick in a skirmish near Southampton, 
and prevented their seizing a great ship called 
the Trinity, belonging to the latter. He at- 
tended the king into Holland on the change 
of the scene, returned with him, and Imd a 
great share in his victories, and v/an consti- 
tuted governor of Calais, and captain-general 
of all the king's farces by sea and land. He 
had before been sent embassador to negotiate 
a marriage between the king^s sister and the 
duke of Burgundy ; and in the same character 
concluded a treaty between king Edward and 
the duke of Bretagne. On prince Edward 
being created prince of Wales, he was ap- 
pointed his governor, and had a grant of the 
office of chief butler of England ; and was 


even on the point of attaining the high honour 
of espousing the Scottisli princess, sister of 
king James the third ; the bishop of Roches- 
ter, lord privy-seal, and sir Edward Widville, 
being dispatched into Scotland to perfect that 
marriage. ' 

* A remarkable event of this earl's life was a 
personal \ictory he gained in a tournament 
over Antony count de la Roche, called the bas- 
tard of Burgundy, natural son of duke Philip 
the Good. This illustrious encounter was per- 
formed in a solemn and most magnificent tilt 
held for that purpose in Smithfield. * Our earl 
was the challenger j and from the date of the 
year and the affinity of the person challenged, 
this ceremony was probably in honour of the 
aforementioned marriage of the lady Mar- 
garet the king's sister, with Charles the Hardy, 
last duke of Burgundy. Nothing could be 
better adapted to the humour of the age, 
and to the union of tliat hero and virago, 
than a single combat between two of their 
near relations. In the Blographia Britannica 

' The qaeen had before projected to marr; him to that great 
heirest, Miuy ot Buipindy, who at the same time was sought bj 
Clareoce; a circumstaoce that must have heightened that prince's 
aversion to the queen and her liunily. 

* Dugdale ubi supra, and Biogr. Biit. p. i23S. 
» [See Hall's Chronicle, 6 Edw, IV.] 

liAKI. HIVEltS. 237 

13 a long account, extracted from a curious 
manuscript, of this tournament, for wiiich let- 
ters of safe conduct were granted by the Icing, 
as appears from Rynier's ro^dera j the title of 
which are, " Pro bastardo Burgundiee super 
punctis armorum perficiendis." At these 
justs the earl of Worcester (before mentioned) 
presided as lord high constable, and attested 
the queen's giving the Jlower of souvenance to 
tbc lord Scales, as a charge to nndertake the 
enterprise, and liis delivery of it to Cheater- 
Iierald, that he might carry it over to be 
touched by the bastard, in token of his accept- 
ing the challenge. This prize was a collar of 
gold, with the rich flower of souvenance en- 
amelled, and was fastened above the earl's 
knee, by some of the queen's ladies, on the 
Wednesday ailer the feast of the resurrection. 
The bastard, attended by four hundred lords, 
knights, squires, and heralds, landed at Grave- 
send ; and at Blackwall he was met by the lord 
high constable with seven barges and a galley 
full of attendants, richly covered with cloth 
of gold and arras. The king proceetled to 
London; in Fleet-street the champions so- 
lemnly met in his presence ; and the palaces 
of the bishops of Salisbury and Ely were ap- 
pointed to lodge these brave sons of holy 


church ; as St. Paul's Cathedral was, for hold- 
ing a chapter for the solution of certain doubts 
upon the articles of combat. The timber and 
workmanship of the lists cost above 200 marks. 
The pavilions, trappings, &c. were sumptuous 
in proportion. Yet, however weighty the ex- 
pense, the queen could not but think it well 
bestowed, when she had the satisfaction of be- 
holding her brother victorious in so sturdy an 
encounter ; tlie spike in the front of the lord 
Scales's horse having run into the nostril of 
the bastard's horse, so that he reared an end, 
and threw his rider to the ground. The ge- 
nerous conqueror disdained the advantage, and 
would have renewed the combat, but the bas- 
tard refused to fight any more on horseback. 
The next day they fought on foot, wlien Wid- 
ville again prevailing, and tiie sport waxing 
warm, the king gave the signal to part them. 

Earl Rivers had his share of his sister's afflic- 
tions as well as of her triumphs ; but making a 
right use of adversity, and understanding that 
there was to be a jubilee and pardon at St. 
James's in Spain in 1'1'73, he sailed from South- 
ampton, and for some time was " ful vertu- 
ously occupied in goyng of pilgrimagis to 
Seint James in Galice, to Rome, and to Scint 
Nicholas de Bar in Puyie, and other diverse 


holy places. Also he procured and gotten, of 
our holy fader the pope, a greet and a large 
indulgence and grace unto the chapel of 
our lady of the Piewe, by Seint Stephen's at 
Westmenstre." ' 

Tlie dismal catastrophe of tliis accomplished 
lord, in the forty-first year of his age, is well 

' Rivers, Vuughan, and Gray, * 

Ere tbii lie shorter by the heads at I'orofret.'' 

' Ames, p, H. 

* {One of BtddwIn'M tnetrkal Mories in the Mirrour for M»- 
fSutnites, «cIEeth forth, " How sir Anthony Wodvile, lortlo Ri- 
vers and Scolus, govtrnour of prince EdwnnI, was with his nejihue 
lordc Richard Gray and others, causelcasc impriwined and cruelly 
murdered, anno Has." And nrThomanMorehasgircnaprose 
account of Ghiuceiter's artliil dealing with lord Rivers, in his 
" Desciipcion ofiUchard tlic thirde."] 

> QiiFcii Elizid>cth Gray is deservedly pidcd for losing her 
two sons; hut the royalty of their Inrth has so en^;rossed the 
attention of historians, that they never reckon into the number 
ot'bor misfortunes tlic murder of this her second son sir Richard 
Qriiy. It is as remarkable how slightly the death of our earl 
Riven is always mentioned, though a man invested with such 
hf^ officM of trust and dignity; and how much we dwell on 
the execution of the lord chnmbcrliuu Hastings, a man in every 
light his inft-rior. In tnuh, the generality draw their ideas of 
English story ftoni the tragic rather than the historic authors. 
" (" Rest, gentle Rivers ! and ill-fated Gray! 

A flower or tear ofl strcwi your humble grave, 
Whom Envy slew, to pave Ambition's way. 
And whom a monarch wept in vain to sate." 

Langhonie'i Elegy, written in iTfC] 

24tO i;arl bivers. 

The works of this gallant and learned person 

I. " The Dictes and Sayinges of Pliiloso. 
phres J whiche boke 13 translated out of Latyn 
into Frenshe by a worshipful Man called Mes- 
sire Jehan de TeonviUe^ sometyme Provost 
of Parys •" 

and from thence rendered into English by our 
lord Rivers, who sailing to the Spanish jubilee, 
" and lackyng syght of alle londes, the wynde 
beyng good and the weder fayr, thenne for a 
recreacyon and passyng of tyme, had delyte 
and axed to rede some good historye : a wor- 
shipful gentylman called Lowys de Bretaylles** 
lent him the above-mentioned treatise, which 
when he had " heeded and looked upon, as he 
had tyme and space, he gaaf therto a veray aP. 
fection ; and in especial, by cause of the hol- 
some and swete saynges of the Paynems, 
whiche is a glorious fayr myrrour to all good 
Chrysten people to behold and nnderstonde." 
And afterwards being appointed governor to 
the prince, he undertook this translation for 
the use and instruction of his royal pupil. 

' [By others, tays Herbert, he is called GuiUaurae de Tigno- 
ville, or Thignovillc. He was provost of Paris in ihe ypu 1408. 
Typ. Ant. p. 14.] 


The book is supposed to be the second ^ ever 
printed in England ^ by Caxton ; at least the 
first which he printed at Westminster, being 
dated November 18, 1477* A fair manu- 
script' of this translation, with an illumin- 
ation' representing the earl introducing 
Caxton * to Edward the fourth, his queen, and 

7 [The $e9tnikf according to Mr. Dibdin.] 

• Ainetyp.9. 

• [Marked ccIxt. Cat MSS. Bibl. LambeChaiUB.] 

< [Beneath thb illumination are the foUowii^ linei : 
Thif boke late translate here in tight. 
By Antony erle [Riven*,] that vertueux knyght, 
Pleaie it to accepte to youre noble grace, 
And at youre convenient leysoure and space. 
It to see, reede, and understond, 
A precious Jewell for alle your lond : 
For therin is taught, howe and in what wyse 
Men Yertues shulde use and vices despise. 
The subgetts thetre princes ever obeye. 
And they theim in right defend ay : — 
Thus do every mann in hb degr^ 
Graunte of his grace, the Trinit^.] 

s [Qu. (says Mr. Cole) how lord Orford came to know tl^e 
kneeling figure in a clerical hriiit was Caxton the printer? He 
was certainly a priest, as b evident from his tonsure, but I do 
not think that Caxton was in orders. I should rather suppose 
that it was designed for Jean de Teonville, provost of FMs. 
(MS. note in Mr. Gougli's copy.) A farther doubt has been 

[* The name is erased from tlie MS.] 
VOI^. I. R 


the prince, is preserved in the archbishop's 
library at Lambeth.' — The most remarkable 
circumstance attending this book, is the gal- 
lantry of the earl, who omitted to translate 
part of it, because it contained sarcasms of 
Socrates against the fair sex : and it is no less 
remarkable, that his printer ventured to trans- 
late the satire, and add it to his lordship's per- 
formance ; yet with an apology for his pre- 
sumption. '' 

siiggesteit, whether the person presenting the book was enri 
Rivers, as most of the quarlerinps on his tabard B]>pear to be 
foreign : but Mr. Lodge has oblipngly solved this difficulty, by 
pointing out, that Richard Widevile, earl Riven, married Jacqiiet 
de Luxcinbourgb, daughter of Peter count de St. Pot, and widow 
of the great regent duke of Bedford. The arms on the tabard 
therefore are, 1st, Widevile: sd, Redvers, or de Ripariis, ancient 
earlb of Devon : 3d, St. Pol : and the rest, foreign coats brought 
in by St, Pol. If Mr. Cole's supposition be received, that the 
author of the book was here presented to Edward the fourth, bj 
the translator; it may be adied — was Jeiin d« Teonville, or 
Tignoville, ever in England ? And if our first printer is thought 
to be the person introduced, it may be questioned with what pro- 
priety, when the earl only exhitated hit. own inaDUScript?] 

* {See frontispiece to Vol. n. of this work.] 

' Ames, and the British Librarian, p. 63. [The printer mmaaa 
that the earl left the sayingf of Socrates outof hii translatioD at 
the desre of some fair iady, or else he was amorous on lome 
noble lady, for who&e love he would not set it in his book ; or ebe 
for the very affection, lore, and good will, that he had unto all 
ladiei and gentlewomen.] 


IL " The morale Pioverbes of Christyne of 

another translation. ' The authoress, Cliris- 
tiua, was daughter of Thomas of Pisa, other- 
wise called of Uouiogne, whither her father 
removed ; and though she styled herself " a 
woman YtaUen,*' yet she wrote in French, and 
flourished about the year 1400. In this trans- 
lation the earl discovered new taJents, turning 
the wtirk into a poem of two hundred and 
three lines, the greatest part of which he con- 
trived to make conclude with the letter E : 
an instance at once of his lordship's applica- 
tion, and of the bad taste of an age, which 
had witticisms and whims to struggle with ax 
well as ignorance. It concludes with twu 
stanzas of seven lines each, beginning thus : 

' [Thii ii an En^liili iranalaiion, layi llprbert, of a buak 
wHilen in French, witJi this title: " Lea Pruverbet luoreauxet Ir 
l.ivfe de Prudence, par Cliriitine dc Piwm, flllc Uc M. Thumu 
Uc PiiHD, Mitrement die de Etolognc." Typagt. Anllij. vol.i. 
A tu[«rb manuicript of theworlci of Chrodna writh iUu- 
niinationa, ii in ilic Korldnn collection, thmigii hcretoroK unde- 
»cribcdin the catalogue. It iatiumbercd i4!ii,BndeontMntttiiity 
different iirtklcs »» I 'eum from the rev, wclideucun Nores. The 
Moral Proverb) iire in rh,vniiiig diitichi; the Book at Prudence 


* Amen, p. lit. 

€44 EAEL ftlVEBS. 

The grece rertas of oare tliden nolabltf 
Ofte to remembre is thing profitable ; 
An happj [hous^ is* where dwelleCh 
For where the is, raison is in presoice, Ac. 


Of these sajjnges Cristjne was the 

Whiche in makyng hadde sadie intdligeooe» 

That therof she was mireur and maistresae i 

Hire werkes testifie thexperience; 

In Frenssh languaige was writen this sentence ; 

And thus englished dooth hit rdiers 

Antoin Widevylle therl Ryvers, 

Caxton, inspired by his patron's muse, con- 
cludes this work thus : 

Go, thou litil quayer ^, and recommaund me 

Unto the good grace of my special lorde 
Therle Ryveris, for I have emprioted the 
At his commandement, folowyng evry worde 
His copye, as his secretaire can recorde ; 
At Westmestre, of Feverer the xx daye» 
And of kyng Edward the xvii yere, vraye. 


In Feverer the colde season. 

III. " The boke named Cordyale or Memo- 
rare novissima ; 


• [i.e. Quire, book ; from cahier, Fr. Hence James the first of 
Scotland entitled his celebrated allegorical poem, ** The King^a 


•a third translation from the French j the ori- 
ginal author not named ; begun to be printed 
by Caxton " the morn after the purification 
of our blissid Lady, in the yere 1478, which 
was the daye of seint Blase, bisshop and mar- 
tirs and finisshed on the even of th'aonun- 
ciation of our said blissid Lady, in the xix 
yere of kyng Edwarde the fourthe, 1480." 
By which it seems that Caxton was above two 
years in printing this book. It does not ap- 
pear that he published any other work in that 
period ; yet lie was generally more expedi- 
tious; but the new art did not, or could not 
multiply its productions, as it does now in its 
maturity. -' 

These are all the remains of tliis ilUistrious 
lord, though, as Caxton says, " notwithstond- 
ing tlie greet labours and charges tiiat he had 
in the service of the kyng and of my said lord 
prince, which hath be to him no litle thought 
and besines ; yet over that, t'enriche his ver- 
tuous disposicion, he put him in devoyr at all 
tyraes, when he might have a leyser, which 
was but startemeic, to translate diverse bookes 

" AmM,f.n. 

* [Tliu obawrvation, tsyi Mr. Dibdin, ii not the language of ■ 
weUi«nMlUbl)iignpber, when it i> rccolletted whnt the tmij 
Kardgn printrn produ<:ed. Typogf. Antlq. i. 8 I.J 




outof Freiish into English."* He tlien 
tions tliose I liave recited, and adds, 

IV. " Over that, hath made divers balades 
ayenst the Seven dedely Synoea."^ 
It is observable with what timidity and lowli- 
ness young learning ventured to unfold her 
recent pinions ; how little she dared to raise 
herself above the ground. We have seen that 
earl Tiptoft and earl Rivers, the restorers and 
patrons of science in this country, contented 
themselves with translating the works of 
others ; the latter condescending even to 
translate a translation. But we must remein- 
ber how scarce books were y how few of the 
classic standards were known, and how muc:h 
less understood. Wiioever considers the ac- 
count which Caxton gives of his meetiiig 
" with the lytyl book in Frenshe, translated 
oute of I^atyn by that noble poete and grete 
clerke Virgyle," will not wonder that inven> 
tion did not exert itself. Whatever was 
translated was new, and a real present to the 
age. Invention operates only where there is 
no pattern, or where all patterns are exhausted. 
He, who in the dawn of science made a ver- 
sion of Christina of Pisa, in its vigorous ma* 

"' s [Caxloti'i- e[iilo|jiit. See Ilerbcrl, vol. L |i. SO.J 
-11*^ Awifs, p. H, 


turity would translate Montesquieu — and, I 
trust, not in metre. 

I have dwelled the longer on the articles of 
these two lords, as they are very slightly 
known, and as I think their country in a great 
measure indebted to them for the restoration 
of learning. The countenance, the example 
of men in their situation must have operated 
more strongly than the attempts of an hundred 
professors, benedictines, and commentators. 
The similitude of their studies was terminated 
by too fatal a resemblance in their catas- 
trophe ! 

[The amiable light, says bishop Percy, in which 
the character of Anthony Widville, the gallant earl 
Rivers, has been placed by the lively and elegant au- 
thor of the Catalogue of Noble Writers, interests us 
in whatever fell from his pen. It is presumed, there- 
fore, that the insertion of a little ballad by that no- 
bleman will be pardoned, though it should not be 
(bund to have much poetical merit, as it is his only 
original production ; his more voluminous works being 

The ballad thus introduced to notice by bishop 
Percy, was printed in the first edition of his Reliques, 
irom an imperfect copy preserved by Rouse ; the de- 
fects of which were afterward supplied by the Fair- 

R 4 

348 EAML R1V£BS. 

fia maoiiscripi \ and the entire poem wm given 
Ritfoo's Ancient Songs; whence^ after cnefid 
etion to its genuine orthogr^dijy it has been 
ferred to the present poUicatioo. That the piece 
composed during the anthof's cmel iJnifMiiiiiii^rt m 
Pomfiret castle, is a circomstanoe hif^j interesting; 
and the sentiments it ccmreys are tinctured widi sage 
reflecticm and manly resignation, thoo^ the 
will not appear very dignified to a modem 


'* Sum what rausyng^ 
And more morenyngy 
In remembryng 

The unstedfitttness ; 
This worlde beyng 
Of such welyngy 
Me contnuyyngy 

What may I gess ? 

** I fere doutless 
Is now to cess 

My wofull chaunce ; 
For unkyndness 
Withouten less. 
And no redress. 

Me doth avaunce. 

'* With displesaunce 
To my grete grevaunce 
And no suraunce 
Of remedy; 

^ Sloanian collection, No. S<65. 


Lo ! in this traunce, 

Now in substaunce. 

Such is my daunce, 

WiUyng to dye. 

«< Me thynkyth truly 
Bounden am I, 
And that gretly. 

To be content ; 
Sayng playnly, 
Fortune doth wry 
All contrary. 

For myn entent. 

" My lyff was lent 
To an ententy 
It is ny spent; 

Wellcum fortune ! 
Yet I ne went 
Thus to be shent, 
But she it ment ; 

Such is her wone.*' * j 

• ThiiUttle piece is pointed out by its early editor to be writtM 
in imitation of a poem of Chaucer's, beginning thus : 

" Alone walking. 
In thought plainyug, 
And sore nghyng 

All desolate. 
My remembiying 
Of my lifying, 
My death wishyng 

Both erly and kte,*' drc 

Uny's edit. p. SSS. 



1 HE mother of Henry the seventh, to whom 
she seems to have willingly ceded her no right 
to the crown, whUe she employed herself in 
founding collegesS and in acts of more real 
devotion and goodness than generally attend 
so mucli superstition. While she was yet young, 
and a rich heiress, the great duke of Suffolk*, 
minister to Henry the sixth, or rather to queen 
Margaret, solicited her in marriage for his son, 
though the king himself wooed her for his hal^ 
brother Edmund. On so nice a point, the good 
young lady advised with an elderly gentlewo- 

° Ai B lhii:k quarto * volume has btxn publiehtd wichin tbeae 
few yean, of tuch illiislrjout women iu have contribuled to Ibe 
fepnhlic of letters, I shall be very brief on thb head, having little 
to ailil lo what that author hiu taid. 

> [Mr. Oallnnl ha< printed a c^y of Latin venci, which coo. 
tun nn accurUe account of her coUi^'utc foundatioiu. See 
Memoirs, p. a I . Mr. Gyll, in a miuiuscript note, says she was a 
juUicc of pvHce-l 

< [Duke of Elokingham, M8. toll. Jo. Funeral Sennon in 

• Memoirs uf several Ladies of Greul Itritain who have been 
cclclirBtetl for their writings, &t. hy George Btillard, I7Si. 



mau, who thinking it too great a decision to 
take upon herself, recommended her to St. 
Nicholas, who whipping on some episcopal 
robes, appeared to her, and declared in favour 
of Edmund. The old gentlewoman, 1 suppose, 
was dead, and St. Nicholas out of the way ; 
for we hear nothing of the lady Margaret 
consulting either of them on the choice of 
two other husbands afler the death of earl 
Edmund, by whom she had king Henry. Sir 
Henry Stafford, the second, bequeathed to his 
son-in-law ** a trappur of four new horse har* 
nish of velvet ;" and his mother, the duchess 
of Buckingham, in consideration of lady Mar- 
garet's great affection for literature, gave her 
the following legacy by her will : " To my 
daughter Richmond, a book of English, being 
a legend of saints ; a book of French, called 
Lticun; another book of French of the epistles 
and gospels: and a primmer with clasps of 
silver gilt, covered with purple velvet.** • 

Her virtues are exceedingly celebrated: 
** Her humility was such that she would often 
say, on condition that the princes of Christen- 
dom would combine themselves and march 
against the common enemy the Turks, she 
would most willingly attend them, and be their 

> Dugdale. 


laundress in the camp."* And for her 
chastity, the rev. Mr. Baker, who republished 
bishop Fisher's funeral sermon on her, informs 
U8, " that in her last husband's days, she ob- 
tained a license of him to Hve chaste, where- 
upon she took upon her the vow of celibacy ;** 
a boon as seldom requested, I believe, of a 
third husband, as it probably would be easily 
granted. This princess published 

" The Mirroure of Golde for the siafull 
Soule, translated from a French translation of 
a Book called, Speculum aureura Peccato- 
rum." Emprynted at London, in Flet-strete, 
at the signe of St. George, by Richard Pyn- 
son, tto. with cuts on vellum. " 

" Translation of the fourth Book of Dr. J, 
Gerson's Treatise of the Imitation and follow- 
ing the blessed Life of our most merciful Sa- 
viour Christ ;" * 

" CBmden'B Remaini, p.3Tl. edit.lS5l. 

' BallBrd, p. 16. [The copy w printed was in 
of Mr. West.] 

* [Herbert hai pveo the title «nd colophon of this book 
from a copy in his own possewon : " Hoe beginethe the forthe 
boke of the folowinge Jeiu Cryst, and of the c<HitepnIge of the 
world. Imprinted U the comaudement of the most excellent 
prynreas Margsrete, moder vnto our 
Henry the Vll. coutet of Richemout ■ 
Mine prynceM i was trantlated out of f 



printed at the end of Dr. William Atkinson's 
English translation of the three first books, 

" A letter to her son is printed in Howard's 
Collection of Letters."* 

She also, by her son's command and autho- 
rity, " made the orders (yet extant) for great 
estates of ladies and noblewomen, for their 
precedence, attires, and wearing of barbes at 
funerals, over the chin and under the same.** * 

[This illustrious lady was the sole daughter of John 
Beaufort, duke of Somerset, the grandson of John of 
Craunt, who has met with a literary champion in Mr. 

V. Godwin.'^ Caxton dedicated the " Hystorye of Kynge 

Blandhardyne and Queen Eglantyne,^ to this princess 

''' by the title of duchesse of Somercete ; " but this," says 

Herbert, *^ must be a mere compliment of Mr. 
Caxton's, as I don't recollect her being called so any 
where else."^ The honour of duchess of Somerset 
seems to have been granted to descend only by male 

foiurme and nuuier entoioge: the yere of our Lorde Ood 
Bfl'J>JIII/' Containt eighteen leaves. Colophon: "^ Thw 
endeth the forth hoke fblowinge Jem Cryit, and the contevip- 
nyinge of the worlde.** Imp. by PSnion, in 4to.l 

• Ballard, p. 155. 

• BtUard and Sandfbrd. 
< LifeofChauotr. 

« Typogr.Antiq. p.Sia. 




issue, seeing lady Margaret never assumed the titles 
and fidmund, lier father's younger brother, had a 
special charter of (creation to that honour, 26 Heii. 
the sixth.* Her title of coiuitess of Richmond was 
derived from her first husband, Edmund of Haddani, 
son of Owen Tudor, by Katherine, daughter to 
Charles the sixth, king of France, by whom she had 
our Henry the seventh. Her title of Countess ot" 
Derby ceine by her third husband, Thomas earl of 
Derby.^ Her will, dated June 6, 1 508, has been 
extracted from the prerogative court of Canterbury, 
and printed by Mr. Nichols/ 

Mr. Brand had a copy of the lady Margaret's Golden 
Mirror, printed by Wynken de Worde, from which 
the proem and colophon have been transcribed. 

" This present boke is called the Mirroure of Golde 
to the sinfull Soule ; the whiche hath ben translated 
at Parice oute of Laten Into Frenclie, and after the 
translacion seen and corrected at length of many 
ctarkis, doctours, and maisters in diiinile, and nowe 
of late translatede oute of Frenche into EngUsshe by 
the right excellent princesse Margarete, moder to oure 
souerain lorde king Henry the vtL and coimtesse 
of Richeraond and Derby." — " Imprynted at London, 
in Fletestrete, at the sygne of the soiie, by Wynkyn 
de Worde. Here endeth the Myrroure of Golde. Ii] 

A Dugdale Baronage, lorn. Ji. p. 1 22, iii. p.Ssi. 
; Tollecrion of Hoyal Wills. 


the xxix day of Marche, the yere of our Lorde^ a 
M.D. and xxii." 

Herbert says, there were two editions of this book 
by W. de Worde in the same year, the typographical 
variations between which he has described.^ 

The countess of Richmond has had the honour to 
be introduced by Gray in his Ode for Music, as ** the 
venerable Margaret,*' from having been the foundress 
of St John's and Christ's colleges, Cambridge, in 
1505 and 1511.^ 

That she was a zealous patroness of literature, b 
obvious from the testimony of the following publicar 
tions, which were undertaken and executed at the 
^^ command, exhortation, or enticement" of the 
princess Margaret 

** Seals, Perfeccionis, englyshed. The Ladder of 
Perfeccion." By Walter HUton. Printed by W. d6 
Worde, in Caxton's house, 1494, fol. 

*^ Treatise concemynge the Seven Penetencyall 
Psalmes," &c. By John Fisher, Bishop of Rochester, 
Printed by W. de Worde, 1509, and by R. Pinson, 
1510. 4to. \ 

<< The Ship of Fooles of this World.'' Translated 
by Henry Watson, into prose, and printed by W. de 
Worde, 1517, 4to. 

*< FruytfuU sajringes of Davyd, the kynge and 
prophete," were compiled by Fisher, ^< at the exor- 

8 Ut tup. p. 165. 

See Wilson's « Memorabilia Cantabrigie." 



tacion of the princess Margaret, countesse of Riche- 
mount," and printed in 1555. 

Bishop Fisher's funeral sermon on the noble prin- 
cess Margaret, was printed by W. de Worde, under 
the title of " A MornjTige Reniembraunce^," and 
contains the following eulogiuin : 

" She was bounteotis and lyberal to every perstHi of 
her knowlege or acquaintance. Avarice and covetyse 
she most hated, and sorowed it fiill moche in all 
persons, but specially in ony that belonged unto ber. 
She was of syngular easyness to be spoken unto, and 
tull curtayse onswere she would make to all that came 
unto her. Of mervayllous gentyleness she was onto 
all folks, but specially unto her owne, wbom she 
trustede and loved rj-ghte tenderly. Unkynde she 
wolde not be unto no creature, ne forgetful] of ony 
kyndnesg or servyce done to her before, which is no 
lytel part of veray nobleness. She was not vengeable 
ne cruell, but redy ancme to folate and to forgy*-e 
injuryes done unto her, at the least desyre or mocyon 
made luito her for the same. MercyfuU also and pyte- 
ons she was unto such as was grevyed and wrongfully 
troubled, and to tliem that were in poverty or sdceness, 
or any other mysery. She was of singular wisedom, 
ferre passyng the comyn rate of women. She was 
good in remembraimce, and of holdynge tnemf>rye ; a 
redye witte she had also to conceive all thyngs, alb^ 
they were ryghte derke. Right studious she was in 

' Reprinted by the learned Mr. Baker, 
biojtTsphical preface, ftc. 

■, in l70«,withs»aluBbl« 



bokes, which she had in grete number, both in Eng- 
lysh and in LaCin, and in Frenshe ; and for her exer- 
cise, and for the profyte of others, she did translate 
divers matters of devocyon out of the Frensh into 
Englysh. In fitvour, in words, in gesture, in every 
demeanour of herself, so grete nobleness did appear, 
that what she spake or dyd, it mervayllously became 
her. She had in a maner all that was praysable in a 
woman, either in soul or body." 

The following letter to her son, Henry the seventh, 
was inserted in Dr. Howard's Miscellaneous CoUec* 
tion of Letters, from the original in her own hand- 

^* My derest and only desired joy yn thys world, 
^^ With my moste herty lovynge blessyngs and 
humble comendations — y pray oure Lord to reward 
and thancke your grace, for thatt yt hathe plesyd your 
hyghnes soo kyndly and lovyngly to be content to 
wryte your lettyrs of thancks to the Frenshe kying, for 
my greet mater, that soo longe hathe been yn sewte ; 
as mastyr Welby hath shewed me your bounteous 
goodness is plesed. I wysh my der hert and my for- 
tune be to recover yt, y trust ye shall well perseyve y 
shall delle towards you as a kind lovyng modyr : and if 
y shuld nevyr have yt, yet your kynd delyng ys to me 
a thousand tymes more then all that good y can reco- 
ver, and all the Frenshe kyngs mygt be mjoi wythalL 
My der hert, and yt may plese your hyghnes to lycense 
master Whytstongs for thys time, to present your 
honorabyll lettyrs, and begyn the process of my cause ; 
for that he so well knoweth the matter, and also 
VOL. I. s 



Skelton, that ^^ breathless rhymer," as he was ap- 
positely characterized by bbhop Hall, wrote a Latin 
elegy upon the funeral of this illustrious lady, which 
Ballard has anglicised in his Memoirs. He compares 
her to Penelope, to Abigail, and to Hester : 

En tres jam proceres nobilitate pares.] 

the following notes were added to the several items of female 

** A sloppe is a mominge cassocke for ladyes and gentle- 
women^ not open before. A surcote is a moumeing garment 
made like a close or straite bodyed gowne, which is wome 
under the mantle : the same for a countesse must have a trayne 
before, an other behinde; for a baronesse noe trayne. The 
traine before to be narrow, not exceeding the breadth of a ynches, 
and must be trussed up before, under the girdle, or borne upon 
hir left arme." In Leland's Collectanea, vol. iv., is described, 
from Harl. MS. 6079, ** Ordinances by Margaret, countess of 
Richmond and Derby, as to what preparation is to be made 
against the deliverance of a queen," &c. 

Nicholas Loirij Vai'x 

fi;>m /r *fl»vna*B VIrrut in llie Pefit/iion ef Itir 3,ia.Bi 
fnm Ac i'ri'yinaJ iy Hetbitn. 

261 ^ 


Seems to have been a great ornament to the 
reign of Henry the seventh, and to the court 
of Henry the eighth, in its more joyous days, 
before queens, ministers, peers, and martyrs, 
embrued so many scaffolds with their blood. 
William Vaux, his father, had forfeited his 
fortunes in the cause of Henry the sixth. 
They were restored to the son with the honour 
of knighthood, on his fighting stoutly at the 
battle of Stoke against the earl of Lincoln, on 
the side of Henry the seventh. In the seven- 
teenth of that reign, at the marriage of prince 
Arthur, the brave young Vaux appeared in a 
gown of purple velvet, adorned with pieces of 
gold so thick and massive, that, exclusive of 
the silk and furs, it was valued at a thousand 
pounds : about his neck he wore a collar of 
SS, weighing eight hundred pounds in nobles. 

« [In his quarto edition of this Catalogue, lord Orfbrd re- 
marked, that the judicious editor of the Reliques of Ancient 
Poetry has, on rtty good reasons, surmised, that NicMat^ lord 
Vaux, was not the poet, bat his son T^mat, His lordship, how- 
ever, persisted in retaining this article of Nicholas, though it 
oucht to knre been displaced for his successor.] 

Jf S 3 





In those days it not only required great bodily 
strength to support the weight of their cum> 
i bersome armour ; their very luxury of appareJ 
for the^rawing-room would oppress a system 
of raooern muscles ! 

In the first of Henry the eighth, Vaux was 
made lieutenant of the castle of Guisnes in 
Picardy ; and in the fifth of that reign was at 
the siege of Therouenne. In the tenth year 
he was one of the embassadors for confirming 
the peace between Henry and the French 
liing ; and soon after in commission for pre- 
paring the famous interview between those 
monarchs near Guisnes. These martial and 
festival talents were the direct road to Henry's 
heart, who, in his fifteenth year, created sir 
Nicholas a baron at the palace of Bridewell ; 
but he lived not long to enjoy the splendour 
of tliis favour. Departing this Ufe in 1523*, 
he founded chantries for the souls of his 
ancestors ; portioned his three daughters with 
five hundred pounds apiece for their mar- 
riages } and to his sons Thomas and William 
bequeathed all his wearing gere, except cloth 
of gold, cloth of silver, and tissue.' A battle. 

Mr. Lodge, only »e- 
the peerage. See the 

' [In 1524, May H, soys the 
veiitecQ days after his advancement 
article of Thomas, lord VauK.} 

* Wood, vol.i. p.lo. Diigdale, vol.ii. p.3iM. 



1 *l%* 


u pageant, an embassy, a superstitious will, 
compose the history of most oi' the great 
men of that age. But our peer did not stop 
there: he had been bred at Oxford, and had 
a happy genius for poetry, of wliich some 
samples are extant in the Paradise of dainty 
Devices.* An author', who wrote nearer to 
those times, says, " that his lordship's com- 
mendation lay chiefly in the facillitie of his 
meetre, and the aptnesse of his descriptions, 
such as he taketh upon him to make ; namely 
in sundry of his songs, wherein he sheweth the 
counterfait action very lively and pleasantly.'* 
In Antony Wood' may be seen the titles of 
some of his sonnets ; and the same author 
says, that there goes a doleful ditty also under 
his name, beginning thus, " I loath that I did 
love," &c. which was thought by some to be 
made upon his death-bed." 

^ PubluheJ by Richard Edwanli, VHs Wood,Tol.i. p.lAU. 

■ Arte of En^iih Poeaie, p. 51. 
' Vol. i. p. 19. 

■ [Gucoii^t!, inuii'[iiatlc|ircliKCtl taliisPoaica, 15T5,riiiiculeii 
this D) 14 vulgur error. Sec art. of Thomoi, lord Vmii.] 




Cthandson and heir of a lord of the same 
name ^, who was descended from Thomas of 
Woodstock, duke of Gloucester, and had been 
knight of the garter and constable of Windsor 
castle under Edward the fourth." Our lord 
John was created a knight of the Bath at tlie 
marriage of the duke of York, second son of 
Edward the fourth ; and was first known, by 
quelling an insurrection in Cornwall and 
Devonshire under the conduct of Michael 
Joseph, a blacksmith, in 1495''; which re- 
commended him to the favour of Henry the 
seventh. He was captain of the pioneers at 
the siege of Therouenne, under Henry the 
eighth, by whom he was made chancellor of 

< [Son of John Boardiier, baron Bemers, in the i^}it of 
Margery his wife, daughter of sir Richard Bemers, of West 
Horsley, in Surrey. Fuller's Worthies of Herts, p. -21. He suc- 
ceeded his gnmd&therin I4T4, being then only seven years old; 
was educated at Oxford, travelled abroad, became a master of 
several languages, and a complete gentlemau. Vide Cona, Liter, 
vol.i. p.lSl.] 

" Bloomfield'e Hist, of Norf, vol. ill. p IDo. 

* Ant. Wood, vol.i. p. 34. ^ 


the excheqiier for life, lieutenant of Calais 
and the marches ^, appointed to conduct the 
lady Mary, the king's sister, into France, on 
her manage wiAJ.H.U the twelitt, ^i with 
whom (Henry the eighth) he had the raret 
felicityi^f continuing in favour eighteen years. 
He died in 1532, leaving his " gown of 
damask-tawney, furred with jennets,'' to his 
natural son Humphrey Bourchier ; and certain 
legacies to two other illegitimate sons ; having 
had^only two daughters by his wife Catherine, 
daughter of John duke of Norfolk ; from one 
of whichjadies is descended the present lady 
barones^Serners, whose right to that title, 
which had long lain in obscurity, was clearly 
made out and recovered by the late Peter 
Leneve, esq. Norroy. 

Lord Bemers, by the command of king 
Henry, translated 

" Froissart's Chronicle *," 
which was printed in 1523, by Richard Pin- 
son \ the fifth on the list of English printers, 
and scholar of Caxton. 

& Dugd. Baron, vol. ii p. 135. 

* Ames in Pinion^ p. 1S5. 

f [In two Yolumes folio : the first commences with the reign 

of Edward the third, and ends 9 Richard the second ; the second 

ends with the coronation of Henry the fourth. Froiisart em- 

^ ployed upwards of forty years in the formation of his history. See 


\ r ' 



Others of his works were a whimsical medley 
of translations from French, Italian, and Spa- 
nish novels, which seem to have been the 
mode then, as they were afterwards in the 
reign of Charles the Second, 

When ev'ry fiow'ry courtier wrote romance. 

These were, 

" The Life of Sir Arthur, an Armorican 
Knight «i" 

" The famous Exploits of Sir Hugh of 
Bourdeaux" j*' 



euaj annexed to Memwi of FroiBuirt, by ThomBi Johnei, esq. 
who hai publithetl a new translation of the Clironicles of that 
honest historiographer, and thereby fumithed a vtiluable sccestioo 
to English literature.] 

* Lord Oxford had one of these, with thlB title, ■■ Hie Hu> 
tory of the doost noble and valyaunt Knigkt, Arthur of Lytell 
Bryteine,tranElatedoutof I-'renche by Johan Bourgcher, Knyght, 
Lord Barn era." Black letter. Vide Harieian Catid. vol iii. p. sa. 

> Done at the desire of the earl of Huntingdon ; it puaed 
^irou^ three editions. Tanner, p. 116. [The third in 1601. 
Mr. Douce possesses a printed copy of this edition, and its title 
H here preiented, ai bishop Tanner hat omitted to reg^Mer it. 
" The ancient, honourable, faioous, and deligbtAill Hietorio of 
Huon of Bourdeauit, one of the peeres of Frounce, and duke of 
Guyennc. Entcrlated with theLoveof nuwyLodies; as aUo iha 
fortuues and Adventurei of Knigliti^emnil, their ainorouE set- 


" The golden Book of Marcus Aure- 
lius';" and ' 

" The Castle of Love." ^ 
He composed also a book 

" Of the Duties of the Inhabitants of 
Calais ;" 
and a comedy intituled, 

" Ite in Vineam,"* 
wliich is mentioned in none of our catalogues 
of English plays : Antony Wood says it was 
usually acted at Calais after vespers. * 

" Ames, p. I<>e. Tbi( wu* undertaken at ttie desire of hii 
nephew sir FVanqu Bryan. Tanner, ib. (Warton lays the first 
edition be bad seen was printed by Berthutet, in isse, no. 
Hist, of E. P. iii. 379. Herbert nicntioni nn earlier by the same 
prinler, witb die fallowing thle and colophon: "The golden 
Bokeof Morcu) AuretitUiKniperoiir andetoiiuent Oratour." At 
the end : " Thus endath the Volum* of Msrkc Aurelio, Erap*- 
rouT) Stc. triuiBlalud out of Frcnchc into Englishe by John Dour- 
vhier, Kjiigtii, Lurde Oamere, Deputic Generall of the Kyngc* 
Town of C'otcii and Mnrcheii of the uune, at the inntaunt Doire 
uf Ub Nevowe Hh Frauucis Bryan, Knighte : ended at Colciv tlw 
tenth Ditie of Msrdifl, ia the Yere of the Reignc of our 8ove> 
raygue Lonle Kyng Henry the VIII. the ixiiiL" Lond, XS.f1. 
8to. Thia goldea book Jh dccniod by Mr. Douce no amnt for- 
gory, by the Spanish author (Iiicvarn.] 

" DedicaMd to the lady of fir Nicholu Carcw, u whoie do- 
mn he tnnslMud it from tho Upanih- Tanner, ib. 

« Bale, Cent. 9. p. 706. "' 

' Vol.l. p.33. — Fuller, in bit Wonhie* of lUrtJbrdshire, 
p. IT, uys, " I behold hit [lord Bemcn'i) an the irrond, account- 
ing the lord Tiptoft the finl mible katul, which, line* the decay 


36s LOUD B&RNER8. 

Lord Berners died at Calais "iJE 

[The " Castle of Love" was first printed by Ro- 
bert Wyer % and afterward by John Kynge. ' ^Vith 
the use of the latter impression Iwas freely indulged by 
my much-respected and endeared iiiend George Ellis, 
esq., and it enabled me to gratify the curious with a 
specimen of lord Berners' talent in original comp(^ 
sition, from an epistle dedicatory. 

" To the good and vertuous lady, the lady Carewe, 

" The alTecciant desyre and obligation that I am 
& bounde in, towardes you, rjghte vertuous and good 
lady, as well for the goodnesse that it hath pleased you 
^^ tosheweme, asforthenyrenes* of consanguinite, hath 
encoraged me to accomplyshe your desyre, in trans- 
lating this present booke. And though my so doynge 
can not be correspondent any thing to recompence 


of learning, took a pen therein, to be author ofa book." But I 
have shown that lord Berners was but the filUi writer among the 
nobility, in order of time. 

' See Herbert's Ames, p. 380. 

' Title, " The Castel of Lotc, translated oute of Spanjwhe 
into Englyssb, by John Bowretuer, Knjght, Lord Bernes, at the 
Instaunce of the Lady Elizabeth Carewe, late Wyfe to Syr 
Nicholas Carewe, Knight. The which Booke treateth of the 
Love bctwene Leriano and Laureola, Doughter to the Kyn^ of 

' i. c. Neamesi. 



your goodnes, yet nGitl)eing ignoraunt of your good- 
wil and des3rre, the which in this cause I take for the 
hole e£fecte; thinking thereby to do you some smale 
rememoracion, and also bycause the matter is very 
plesaunt for yonge ladies and gentlewomen : therfore 
I have enterprysed to reduce the same from Spanishe 
into the Englyshe tonge, not adorned with so freshe 
eloquence that it shold merite to be presented to your 
goodnes. For or ^ I first entred into this rude labour I 
was brought into great doubtfiilnes, and founde my 
selfe in divers ymaginacions : for sejmg the quicke in- 
telligence of your spirit, I feared ; and againe, the 
remembraunce of your vertue and prudence, gave me 
audacite : — in the one I founde feare, and in the other 
suerty and hardines. Finally, I did chose the moste 
unvaylable, for m}nie owne shame, and moste utilitie; * 
in any reprehencion or rebuke for the moche bolde^ "^^ 
nesse in that I have not taken such respite as I ought 
to have done; yet in consyderacionof your gentylnes, 
myne aifeccion is alwayes in truste to scape blameles. 
I have taken this enterprice on me, more by desyre to 
have blame therby, then to attaine prayse or laude. 4J( 

*^ Wherfore, right vertuous ladye, maye it please 
you of your goodnes to accepte this litell presente 
treatyse, and to recey ve this my good wil, or ye con- 
dempne the fitult And also to have more affisccion 
to the presenter then to ^ vaRHrof the thing pre- 
sented, requiring you to o^pe aDdTTCflRia^De alwayes 
as one of the nombre of them that alwayes shalbe 
redye to do you plesure. And for the surplu^i^ desyre 

i.e. Ere. 




tkeCraMoiuv of the first caute^ Iwy w iadnreaad 
Id eocfct roar h^ipie fgosperilc Amen." 

A tneincal address to the reader, ** is roawcr of « 
prologue," is prefixed by Androw« Spi^iumel, wbo 
sets fortli bis lordsh^i book n the strU of an idner- 
atit iDowman : 

" Beholde, 700 readen of dua boke^ preceot. 
Which the lord Barnes oat of the Spanishe 
Hath translated, to a good inleci. 
And reduced the same into our Eoglrde, 
And, thanke* to have, the same did he fiiushe : 
WherJD it sppereth moche paines he did tal:e 
^ At the instaunt request, and for ladies sake,*' Ac Jrc 

Warton reports, from the manuscripls of CHdys, 
that Henry, lord Bemers, translated some of Petrarcii's 

An original letter from lord Bemers (o canUoal 
WoUey, dated Calais, March S5, occurs amoof; the 
Conon MSS. Calig. D. ix. and three copies of others 
in Vesp. C. L In Harl. MS. 295, occur three mor*, 
when embassador to the emperor Charles the fifth. 

The following letter from his lordship, while lieu* 
tenant of Calais, to Henry VIII. is taken from C<moii 
MS. Vesp. F. xiii. and is curious at least for its oitlio- 

*' Pies yt your grnse to be advertesyde, as on Mun- 
day last past the erll of Anguysch ^ off Skottlonde, and 
a byschop with liym, landyd at Boloyn, as prisoaefs 

■ Hitt-ofEng.Poetry, vot.iii. 
* Biri ofAnpii. 


sent by the duke off Albeney, and vij schypes browght 
hym thedyr; and as on Fryday be forr that, they lay 
upon her be ffi)r thys town off Caleys, and at nyght 
they went in to the Downes, and ther lay Saterday all 
day, and so came to Boloyn ; with owtt inoounterynge 
off eney off the kynges grasses schypes. Wold to God 
they had mett with them ! But the Inglysch schypes 
kepyth but lytj^ll se from betwen Dover and CSaleys^^ 
or elles ther were ner a londe. 

^^ As I her forther, your grase shall be advertesyde, 
by the grase of Jhu, who preserve your grase, 
^^ At Caleys, the xxvj day off March, 

<< By your lowly servaunt, jH^ 

<* John Besiisrs/'] 



Ihe unfortunate brother of Anne Boleyn ; 
raised by her greatness, involved in her fall, and 
more cruelly in her disgrace. He was accused 
of too intimate familiarity with his sister, by a 
most infamous woman, his wife, who continued 
a lady of the bed-chamber to the three suc- 
ceeding queens, till her administering^ to the 
pleasures of the last of them, Catherine How- 
ard, brought that sentence on her, which her 
malice or jealousy had drawn on her lord and 
her sister-in-law. The weightiest proof against 
them was his having been seen to whisper the 
queen one morning as she was in bed.* But 

< Honest Siowe hM pmerved a convenalion between Anne 
of Cteve* and this lady Rochford, in which the arch uinplicity of 
the former, and the petulant curiosit}- of the lutler, are very re- 
lUHrkable. The lady Eleanor Rutland, the liuiy Kalherioe Edg- 
cumbe, and lady Rochford, were sifting to tuow whether ber 
majesty was breeding? The queen fairly owned, "That thekit^ 
when they went to bed took her by the hand, kissed her, and bid 
her, Good-ttigkt, fwedhearl .' and in the morning kissed her, and 
bid her, Farewet, darling.' And is not this enough? quotfa her 
majesty." Stowe's Annals, p. 578. 

> The poor queen hH so little idea of guilt, or of what the 
was accused, that on her tint commitment to the Tower, she 


that could make incest, where a jealous or 
fickle tyrant could make laws at his will! 
Little is recorded of this nobleman, but two 
or three embassies to France, his being made 
governor of Dover and the Cinque Ports, and 
his subscribing the famous declaration to Cle- 
ment the seventh. Like earl River^he rose 

exclaimed tenderly^ '*Ohl where is mj sweet brother?" The 
lieutenant, willing to spare her a new shock, replied, (without 
telling her that the lord Rochford was committed too,) ^ That 
he left him at York Place." Strype, Tol.i. p. S80. The author 
of English Worthies tells a story, which u rela(ed too by 
Fuller in his Worthies of Wiltshire, p. 146 : That on Jane 
Seymour's first coming to court, queen Anne snatched at a jewel 
pendent about this Jane's neck, and hurt her own hand with 
the yiolence she used.—* She was struck with finding it the 
king's picture. Page 848. [Mr. Andrews remarks, that Anne 
Boleyn had been bred at the court of France, and had there 
nnbibed a levity of behaviour, which, though it probably as*- 
sisted in alluring the passions of Henry, most certainly affi>rded 
her enemies ample materials for her destruction. The natural 
timidity of her sex threw the unhappy queen into hysteric 
agonies on hearing the crimes imputed to her, and every excla- 
mation was treasured up by her profligate suter4n-law, to be pro- 
duced against her. Yet the delicate, the fearful Anne could 
find magnanimity enough in her last moments to jest with the 
executioner on the smallness of that nedc which he was doomed 
to divide. But more affecting was the eflbrt of maternal tender- 
ness which caused the dying parent to deny herself the triumpb 
of avowing her heart-felt innocence, lest she might irritate the 
flinty-hearted Henry against her infant daughter. Hist, of O. B. 
vol. ii. p. S7.3.] 

VOL. I. T 


by the exaltation of his sister ; like him wa% 
innocently sacrificed on her account ; and, 
like hira, showed that the lustre of his situa- 
tion did not make him neglect to add accoin> 
plishments of his own. 

Anthony Wood says he was much adored 
at court, especially by the female sex, for his 
admirable discourse and symmetry of body ; 
which one may well believe : the king and 
the lady Rochford would scarce have suspected 
the queen of incest, unless her brother had had 
uncommon allurements in his person, — Wood 
ascribes to liim 

" Several Poems, Songs, and Sonnets, with 
otiier things of the like nature." 

Bale calls them " Rythmos elegantissimos,** 
lib. i. But none of his works are come down 
to us, unless any of the anonymous pieces, 
published along with the earl of Surrey's 
poems, be of his composition. 

[Wood, probably, hnd his information from Ho- 
liuslied, who says " George Bulleyii, lord Rocbeibrde, 
wrote dyvers songs and sonettes."* By the Haring- 
ton manuscripts, however, from which die Nugae An- 
tique were compiled, one piece of lord Rocheford*s is 
identified ; and is extolled for its simplicity, harmonvy 

' Vol.ii. |). Iiiis. edit. ISTT. 


%ti^ elegtoce, by l<Md Orford, who proceeds to show 
that with some little alteration it might pass for the 
production of a more refined age. ^ 

Those readers who are disposed to agree in the 
noble critic's eulogy, will certainly be unwilling to see 
the original beauties which excited that applause, re- 
fined away. Instead, therefore, of his lordship's 
modem parody ^, the poem is here presented in the 
antiquated garb of the early printed copy in Tottell's 
collection 7 of " Songes and Sonnettes," dated 1557, 
compared with the copy which was extracted firom the 
Horington manuscript, dated 1564.^ 



My lute awake, performe the last 
Labour that thou and I shal wast ; 

And end that I have now begonne : 
And when this song is sung and past, 

My lute be stil, for I have done. 

» Works, vol. i. p. 528. 

^ A parody, or modermxation, of tuperior merit to lord 
Orford*8, was printed with the rtv. Mr. Ball's Odes and E\e* 
Ipes, &c. Dublin, 1778. 

7 To this collection Richard Smith seems to allude iu his 
commendatory yerses before Gascoigne^s Poems, 1575 c 
'' Sweet Surrey suckt Pemasfus' springs. 
And Wiai wrote oC wondrous things ; 
And Roc^fori dambe the stateHe throne 
Which muses hold in Helicooek'* 
• Vid. Nugse Antiquas, vol. ik p. 40(K Br.Nott deems it 
Wyan*s ; but at the same dme pronounces, that lord Rocheford 
certainly contributed to Tottell's songs and sonnets among the 
uncertain authors. 

T 2 

As to be heard whcr 

As lead to grave in marble si 

My song may pearse her heart as gone : - 
Should we then sigh, or singe, or monc? 

No, no, my lute, for I have done. 

The rockes do not so cruelly 
Repulse the waves condnually. 

As she my sute and affection; 
So that I am past remedy, 

Whereby my lute and I have done. 

Vengeaunce shall fall on thy disdainc. 
That makest but game on earnest payne : 

Think noi alone under the sunne, 
Unquit to cause thy lovers plain, 

Although my lute and I have done. 

* May chance thee lie withered and olde 
In winter nightes that are so colde, 

Playning in vaine unto the moone; 
Thy wishes then dare not be tolde. 

Care then who list, for I have done. 

And then may chance thee to repent 
The time that thou hast lost and spent. 

To cause thy lovers sigh and swowne ; 
Then shalt thou know beau tie but lent. 

And wish and want, as I have done. 

Now cease my lute : this is the last 
Labour that thou and I shall wast, 

And ended is that we begonne ; — 
Now is this song both mag and past ,- 

My lute be still for I have done. 

* PiTi-iiBiini-e ihf>, &i. Hurininoii MS. 


An original letter from lord Rocheford to Henry 
VIIL is here added from Cotton MS. Vesp. F. xiii. 

It seems that his lordship had to convoy the French 
admiral from the coast to the court, which ceremonial 
he appears to have adjusted with Asiatic solemnity, as 
he only admitted him to travel a single stage a day. 

** It may please your highnes to be advertised, that 
the admirall of Fraunce hath remaynyd here syns 
Thursday at nyght, and as yet hys hole train both of 
horses, mulettes, and men, be not come hyther nor 
unshyppyd. But by to-morrow I doubt not but all 
hys hole train shalbe here assemblyd together : and 
upon Munday, I wyll bryng hym to Sytyngboume, 
there to remayn that nyght, for that yt would be to 
sore a journey to bryng hys carriage to Rochester in 
a daye. On Tuesday from thence to Rochester. On 
Wensday to Dartford; and on Thursday, by xij of 
the clocke at none, to Blacke-heth ; where as my lord 
of Norffolk ys appointyd by your grace to mete hym. 

** I would not have had hym remayn so long in this 
towne, but that hym self was very desyrous so to doo» 
because that he would comme with hys trayne hole 
together, which I thought I myght not for your graces 
honnor gain saye. And thus, besechyng God to have 
your hyghnes in hys kepyng, I make an ende. 

<* From Cantorbery, this Saterday xiiijth day of 

*^ Your gracys most humble and obedient 
** Subject and sarvant, 

" George Rocheford.*'] 

T 3 


Son of Richard lordLumley*, was the seventh 
baron of that family, and an eminent warrior 
in the reign of Henry the eighth. Beiug 
about the age of twenty-one, in the fifth of 
that king, he carried a considerable force to 
the earl of Surrey at York, and was a prin- 
cipal commander at Flodden^field, where he 
distinguished himself with great bravery. He 
was present at most of the interviews between 
his master and foreign monarchs, which so 
much delighted that prince and his historians; 
and agdn served against tlie Scots in the 
iiflccntti of that king. He was one of the 
barons who signed the memorable letter to 
Clement the seventh, threatening him with 
the loss of his supremacy in England, unless 
he proceeded to dispatch the king's divorce : 
but notwithstanding this, we find him deeply 
engaged in the rebellion, which our old 
writers call " the pilgrimage of grace." The 
duke of Norfolk, general of the royalists, 
offered them a free pardon ; lord Lumley was 

' Vide Dugdulc, and CoUins's Peerogcs, 


commissioned to treat on the part of the re- 
volters, and with great dexterity extricated 
himself and his followers. Yet soon after he 
lost his only son George> who being taken in 
another insurrection with the lord Darcy, was 
beheaded. Of the father we find no more men- 
tion, but that in the year 1550 he translated 

" Erasmus's Institution of a Christian 
Prince ;" which is preserved in manuscript in 
the king's Ubrary.* 

[Tlie manuscript referred to by lord Orford in the 
royal library (17 A. xlix.) is perhnps the only extunt 
evidence of lord Lumley's pretensions to authorship ; 
but as that is wholly a translation, and as no dedi- 
catory episde appears, though the work seems to liave 
been BiUlrcssed to his noble father by his " lorde- 
shippes obedient sonne, J. Lumley, 1550;" it is 
judged more advisable to insert an original compo- 
sition by this nobleman, though merely a letter of 
acknowle<1gnient for personal obligations to lord 
Cromwell, as the catalogue announces, for no super- 
scription appears. 

' Vide Cotlcy't Caiaiogue, p. d6:^ LAnwther i 
the •umc libmry (itA. xlii.) contains a poem oddrciscd to toni 
Lumlcy, cnlled Juhn Phillips' Qotet of Council: Init the voIuidf 
it cither 1d>I or inisplnced.] 

T 4 



Cottonian MS. Vespaaian, F. xiiL 
^ My Ytrej syngnler good lorde, 

^ My dewtfe lowlye doon, I humbly thankee your 
kvdshyp for all yaare goodness towardes me ; by- 
sydiyiig the same off contenewaxmce : and thatt* yt 
may lyke yoa to be soo good lorde mito me in soo 
mydie^ as afiicr thys troUesom worlde many parssons 
be dy s puss ed to make smistere reports, to take every 
aucfae infimnacyoo in good pertye, miito sache tyme 
as yee here or knoirn^ne awnswere therin. Fcx'iin- 
dowttydlye yee shall ever fynde me one man. Wyth 
yoore lordschypp I b^ann, and thare wyll I end ; and 
seyke no fiuther, but to the kyngs magistye and you. 

^ And (cfT as myche as I am adwiessed by my* 
lemed counsell, thatt I may order myne enherytaunce 
as to mayke myne heere whome I lyst, I schall most 
hartely besnche yoor lordschypp to gyff farther cre- 
dence to youre serwande Wyllm. Bljtheman, and my 
chaplean syr Thorns. Halljrman, whome I have in- 
struct att lenghte in that behaUTe off my full mynde, 
besuchyng youre lordshypp to contynew good lorde 
unto me. And I hawe sent unto youre lordeschjrpp 
the powre haliFe yeres fee, whyche I promest unto 
you; besuchyng youre lordeschypp to tayke ytt in 
worthe ; for I am, and ever schalbe youre headman, 
as Jhu knowythe ; whoo preserwe youre lordschypp 
m healthe and myche honor, to hys plesure and youre 
inost coumfort, 

" By yours, att commaundment, 

" Jhon Lumley."] 



We now emerge from the twilight of learning 
to an almost classic author \ that ornament of 
a boisterous, yet not unpolished court, the earl 
of Surrey, celebrated by Drayton, Dryden, 
Fenton, and Pope, illustrated by his own muse, 
and lamented for his unhappy and unmerited 
death ; << a man,'' as sir Walter llaleigh says \ 
** no less valiant than learned, and of excellent 

He was son and grandson of two lord trea- 
surers, dukes of Norfolk ^ and seemed to have 
a promise of fortune as illustrious, by being 
the friend, and at length the brother-in-law of 

* [Since the former editions of thb work, a cridcal memoir of 
lord Surrey has been publiibed by the rev. Dr.Nott, to which it 
may be proper to refer the reader, as subversive of many tra- 
ditionaiy particulars, here and elsewhere given, of this ill-fotcd 
but deservedly eminent personage.] 

9 [The article of lord Surrey was hypcrcritically cxamineil in 
the Gent. Mag. for Jan. 1759, and this expression, among others, 
deemed liable to exception.] 

* In the preface to his History. 

H [<« Dy this expression an inattentive reader might be surprised 
into an opinion that this nobleman had two fathers, and grand- 
fathers, who were all lord trcuMircrs, and dukcb of Norfolk ; 
whereas the author means only thai both his father and hh {grand- 
father were thu» dignified.** Gent. Mag. Critique. 


the duke of Richmond, Henry's' natural son : 
but the cement of that union proved the bane 
of her brother ! He shone in all the accom- 
plishments of that martial age ; his name is 
renowned in its tournaments and in his father's 
battles. In an expedition of his own he was 
unfortunate, being defeated endeavouring to 
cut off a convoy to Boulogne ; a disgrace he 
soon repaired, though he never recovered tlie 
king's favour, in whose eyes a moment could 
cancel an age of services ! ' 

The unwieldy king growing distempered 
and froward, and apprehensive for the tran- 
quillity of his boy-successor, easily conceived 
or admitted jealousies infused into him by the 
earl of Hertford and tJie Protestant party, 
though^ one of the last acts of his fickle lilb 
was to found a convent ! Rapin says, he ap- 
prehended if the Popish party should prevail, 
that his marriage with Catharine of Arragon 
would be declared good, and by consequence 
his son Edward bastardized. — A most inac- 

« IHenrj' tiie Eighth's, ib.} 

1 [" The only opporiteg in this senteaic ure nionifM aiic] a^, 
but the author's meaning requirei that sertacrt should have an 
opposite; for, ab the sentence now stands, its meiwing, by llie 
law* of granifliar, b, that the service o( a moment could cnnca) 
the service of an age." Gent, Mag. Cndque.] 

a LordHerbert'sLifeofHcnryVm. 


curate conclusion ! It would have afiected 
the legitimacy of Elizabeth, whose mother was 
married during the Ule of Cathaiine, but the 
latter was dead before the king married Jane 
Seymour. An odd circumstance is recorded, 
that Anne Boleyn wore yellow for mourning 
for lier predecessor." 

It seems ■ that the family of Howard were 
greatly at variance ; the duke and his son had 
been but lately reconciled ; the duchess was 
frantic with jealousy, had been parted four 
years from her husband, and now turned his 
accuser ; as her daughter the duchess of 
Richmond, who inclined to the Protestants, 
and hated her brother, deposed against him. 
The duke's mistress too, one Mrs. Holland, 
took care to ]>rovide for her own safety, by 
telhng all she knew : that was little, yet etjual 
to the charge, and coincided with it. The 
chief accusation against the earl was hia quar- 
tering the ai'ms of Edward the Confessor : the 
duke had forborne them, but leil a blank 
quarter. Mrs. Holland deposed, tiiat the duke 
disa]>]>roved his son's bearing them, and for- 
bade her to work tliem on the fiuniture for 

> NutcitoTiiiJttl'iHuiiio, Tol. IKcnryuHU 
in white Tor Anne Bolc^n. Aoiltcwa't liiiL v< 
' Lor J Herbert. 


his house. The duchess of Ilichmond's' testi' 
timony was so trivial, that she deposed her 
brother's giving a coronet % which to her 
judgment seemed a close crown, and a cypher 
which she took to be the king's j and that he 
dissuaded her from going too far in reading 
the Scripture. Some swore that he loved to 
converse with foreigners ; and (as if ridiculous 
charges, when multiplied, would amount to 
one real crime,) sir Richard Southwell af- 
firmed, without specifying what, that he knew 
certain things which touched the carl's fidelity 
to the king. The brave young lord vehe- 
mently affirmed himself a true man, and of- 
fered to fight his accuser in his shirt i and with 
great spirit and ready wit, defended himself 

■ against all the witnesses to little purpose 1 

Wlien such accusations could be alleged, they 
were sure of being thought to be proved. 
Lord Herbert insinuates that the earl would 
not have been condemned, if lie had not been 
a commoner, and tried by a jury. On what 

' Tbis ihows that Bt that time tliere was no cstabliEbed rule 
Tor coronets. I cannot find when thoie of dukes, 'marquito^ 
aid earls, were icttled. Sir Robert Cecil carl of tjaJMmry, 
when viscount Cranborn, was the first of that degree that bore 
a coronet. Darons rcteived theirs from CharlesUie second, [at 
may be seen in the plutei of tirnis from puintcd glass, in Dugdatc's 
Orig. Jurid-l 


could he ground this favoura|)Ie opinion of 
the peers ? What twelve tradesmen could be 
found more servile than almost every court of 
peers during that reign ? Was the duke oi' 
Buckingham, was Anne Boleyn condemned 
by a jury, or by great lords?* 

The duke, better acquainted with the hu- 
mour of his master, or fonder of life as it grew 
nearer the dregs, signed a most abject con- 
fession ; in which, however, the greatest crime 
he avowed was, having concealed the manner 


* The parliaments of that reign were not lets obMquious than 
the peen distinctively : " The countess of Salibbiir}'," wyg Slowe 
in hit Annals, p. SSl, " wai condemned by parliament, though she 
wu never amugncil nor tried before. Catharine Howard was 
attainted by parlionjcnt, tind sutTcrcd without trial. Cromwell 
carl of Essex, though a lord of parHament, was attiuntcd without 
being heard." The power granted to the libg of regulating the 
lucceiuon by his will, was an unheard-of abuse. If we pais from 
tht Peen to the Houte of Commons, and from ihcncc to the 
CoavocatioD, we shall find that Juries by no nieani deserved to 
be stigmatized for peculiar servility. The conunons besought the 
king to let hit marriage with Anne of Clerei be inquired into. 
He dissolution of (hat marriage, or such absurd reasons as hU 
majesty vouchsafed to give, as " her being no virgin," which. It 
seems, he discovered by a peculiar secret of his own, without 
using the common method of knowing; and his nhimsicnl in- 
ability) which he pretended to have in vain attempted to remove 
by taking physic, the more to enable htm j that dissolution, I say, 
was an instance of the grossest romp Iw sane c, as Cnnuner'a having 
before pronounced the divoree from Anne Boleyn wu* an rllect 
of the mail wri-tched tiinidity. 


in which his son bore his coat-annour — an 
offence, by the way, to wtiich the king bim- 
seif and all the court must long have been 
privy. As this is intended as " a treatise of 
curiosity," it may not be amiss to mention, 
that the duke presented a petition to the lords, 
desiring to have some books from Lambeth, 
without which he had not been able to recom- 
pose himself to sleep for a dozen years. He 
desired leave to buy St. Austin, Josephus, and 
Sabellicus'; and he begged for some sheets. 
— So hardly was treated a man, who had mar- 
ried a daughter' of Edward the fourth, who 
had enjoyed such dignities, and, what was 
still more, had gained such victories for his 

The noble earl perished ' j the father esca- 
ped by the death of the tyrant. 

We have a small volume of elegant and 
tender sonnets composed by Surrey ; and with 

> lie artAil duhe, though a strong pnpiM.pretcn Jed (o ask for 
SahcUifui, as the most vehement cicteclor of the usurpations of 
the biihop of Rome. Lord Herbert, p. 6S9. 

« Ilia dm wife was the ladj Anne, who left no bate, Hi» 
ijci-ond woa daughter of the duke of Buddnghani. 

' [After hia decapitation, the carl's boJy was conveyed (o 
Fnuiilynghwn in SuSiIk, and the following epitaph ptaced on hi* 
tomb: Hunrico Hownrdo, Thomie lecundi duels Norfolcite Mi« 
primogenito Tbcnnie lertii patri, comiti Surrdfc ct Georgiam 
ordinii equiti aunito; immature anno salutii ISIG abrepto; d 


them ^ some others of that age, particularly of 
sir Thomas Wyat the elder*, a very accom- 
plished gentleman, father of him who fell in 
a rebellion against queen Mary. Francis the 

I ■--■■■ ■ -.1 ■ » t I I ■ I > 

Francises uxori ejus filise Johannis comitis Oxonke; Henricus 
Howardusy comes Northamptomse» filius secundo genitus, hoc 
siipremum pietatis in parentes monumentum posuit, A. D. 1614. 
Howard Anecdotes, p. 28.] 

• The earl was intimate too with sir Thomas More and 
Erasmus, and buill a magnificent house, called Mount Surrey* 
on Lennard*s Hill, near Norwich. See note to verse 159 of 
Drayton's Epistle iVom the Earl to Geraldine. 

[Mr. Headley thinks that sir T.Wyat desenres equally of 
posterity with Surrey, for the diligence with which he cultivated 
polite letters, although in his verses he seems to have wanted 
the judgment of his friend, who in imitating Petrarch reusted the 
contagion of his conceits. Biog. Sketches, p. Ixv. A similarity 
or rather sameness of studies, says Warton, as it b a proof, so 
perhaps it was the chief cement, of that inviolable friendship 
which is said to have subsisted between Wyat and Surrey. Tlie 
principal subject of their poetry was the same; and they both 
treated the passion of love in the spirit of the Italian poets, and 
as professed disciples of Petrarch. Tliey were alike devoted- to 
the melioration of their native tongue, and an attainment of the 
elegancies of composition. They were both engaged in translating 
Virgil, and in rendering select portions of Scripture into English 
metre. Hist, of E.P. vol. iii. p. 40. Sir E. Brydges has well ob- 
served, that the characteristics of their minds were very different : 
one was picturesque and sentimental, the other was moral and 
didactic. No old poet had less dross and more genuine ore than 
Surrey. For the information of the curious it may be added, 
that some madms and sayings by sir T. Wjrat are preserved 
among the Sloan MSS. in our Museiun* Sec Aysc Cat. No» 



first had given a new Mr to literature, whiclt 
he encouraged by mixing gallantry with it, 
and by producing the ladies at his court along 
witli the learned. Henry, who had at least as 
much taste for women as letters, and was fond 
of splendour and feats of arms, contributed to 
give a romantic turn to composition j and 
Petrarch, the poet of the fair, was naturally 
a pattern to a court of that complexion. In 
imitation of Laura, our earl had his Geraldine. 
Who she was, we are not told directly ; him- 
self mentions several particulars relating to 
her, but not her name. The author of the 
last edition of his poems says, in some short 
notes on his life, that she was the greatest 
beauty of her time, and maid of honour to 
queen Catharine ; to which of the three 
queens of that name he does not specify. 
1 think I have very nearly discovered who 
this fair person was : here is the earl's de- 
scription : 

Front Tuscane came my ladies worthy race, 
- Faire Florence was somctymc her' auncient seaie : 
The western yle, whose pleasant shore doth face 
Wilde Camber's cliffs, did gyve^ her lyvely heate ; 

luld read, lAtir. 

Hffatv. ed. ISST.] 


Fostred she was with milke of Irishe brest : 
Her sire an earle ; her dame of princes blood ; 
FVom tender yeres in Britain she doth ^ rest 
With kinges childe, where she tasteth costly food. 
Honsdon did first present her to myne yien : 
Bright is her hewe» and Geraldine she hight : 
Hampton me taught to wishe her first for mlne^t 
And Windsor, alas ! doth chase me from her sight. 
Her beauty of kinde, her vertue from above ; 
Happy is he that can obtaine her love. 

I am inclined to think that her poetical ap- 
pellation was her real name, as every one of 
the circumstances tally.^ Gerald Fitzgerald 

4 [Did she, ed. 1557.] 

^ [Nash, in hb Life of Jacke Wilton, makes the earl of Surrey 
exclaim, " Oh, thrice imperiall Hampton Courts Cupid's inchauntcd 
castle, the place where I first sawe the perfect omnipotence of the 
Almighty expressed in mortalitie. There it was where I first set 
eie on my more than celestiall Geraidine, Seeing her, I admired 
her. Long sute and uncessant protestations got roe the grace to 
be entertained. Upon a time 1 was determined to travel ; the 
fame of Italy and an especiall affection I had unto poetrie, my 
second mutres, for which Italy was so famous, had wholy ravbht 
mee unto it ; / peie Itaiiam, (said she), go and scckc Italic with 
iEneas, but be more true. When thou comest to Florence (the 
fayre citie whence I fetcht the pride of my birth) by an open 
challenge defend my beautie, &&"] 

6 [Mr.Warton readily adopted this key to the geneslogy of 
the fair Geraldine, and complimented the elegant biographer in 
having with the most happy sagacity solved the difficulties of thin 
little enigmatical ode, which had been before either neglected 
and unattempted as inexplicable, or rendered more unintelligible 
by false conjcctiu*cs. Hist, of E. P. vol. iii. p. 4.] 

VOL. I. U 


earl of Kildare, in the reign of Hrary the 
dgfatfa, married to his second wife Margaret, 
daughter of Thomas Gray marquis of Dorset ; 
by whom he had three daughters, lady )Iar- 
garet, who was bom deaf and dumb (probably 
not the fair Geraldine), Elizabeth, third wife 
of Edward Ointon earl of Lincoln, and the 
lady Cicely. 

Our genealogists say that the family of Fitz- 
gerald derives its origin from Otho, descended 
from the dukes of Tuscany, who in the reign 
of king Alfred settled in England, and from 
thence transplanted themselves into Ireland. 

From Tuscane came his lady's ngble race. 

Her sire an earl, and her being fostered with 
milk of Irish breast, follow of course. Her 
dame being of prince's blood is as exact ; 
Thomas marquis of Dorset, being son of queen 
Elizabeth Gray, daughter of the duchess of 
Bedford, of the princely house of Luxembure. 
The only question is, whether the lady Eliza- 
beth Fitzgerald ^ or her sister lady Cicely, was 

* (Thii laJy was first married to Sir Anthony Brown, and wlbet 
hU dealh became the third wife of Edward Clinton, earl of Lin- 
coin ; and Surrey married Frenceii daughter of the earl of Oxfoid, 
by whom he had several children. See EUti's Specitneni, «ol. a. 
J). 5S., and Nott'a Mem. of Surrey, p. cxs.] 


the fair Geraldine ? I should think the former, 
as it is evident she was settled in England. 

The circumstance of his first seeing her at 
Hunsdon, indifferent as it seems, leads to a 
strong confirmation of this conjecture : sir 
Henry Chauncy says \ that Hunsdon-house in 
Hertfordshire was built by Henry the eighth, 
and destined to the education of his children. 
The lady Elizabeth Fitzgerald was second cou- 
sin to the princesses Mary and Elizabeth, and it 
was very natural for her to be educated with 
them, as the sonnet expressly says the fair 
Geraldine was. The earl of Surrey was in like 
manner brought up with the duke of Richmond 
at Windsor.* Here the two circumstances 
clearly correspond to the earl's account of his 
first seeing his mistress at Hunsdon % and being 

^ In his Hertfordshire, p. 197. 

V One of the most beautiful of lord Surrey's compositions is a 
rery tender elegy written by him when a prisoner ut Windsor, la- 
menting the happier days he formerly passed there. His punish- 
ment was for eating flosh in Lent. Wood, vol.i. p. 58. [Thb 
circumstance is recorded in Sloane MS. 1525, and under it is 
written,** A secreat and unobserved contempt of the law is a close 
undarmining of authority; which must be cither its selfe in in- 
dulging nothing, or nothing in allowing all." This apothegm is 
attributed to the Seymours, temp. £dw.VI.] 

7 Strype has preserved a curious letter, relating to the mainte- 
nance of the lady Elizabeth after the death of her mother. It is 
written from Hunsdon by Margaret lady Bryan, govemoss to the 

U 2 

eaiu, of surrey. 

deprived of her by Windsor: when he attended 
the young duke to visit the princesses, he got 
sight of their companion ; when he followed 
him to Windsor, he lost that opportunity. If 
this assumption wanted any corroborating inci- 
dents, here is a strong one : the lord Leonard 
Grey, uncle of the Fitzgeralds, was deputv of 
Ireland for the duke of Richmond ; and that 
connexion alone would easily account for the 
earl's acquaintance with a young lady bred up 
with the royal family. 

The following short genealogy will at once 
explain what I have said, and show that in 
every light my opinion seems well grounded. 

. I 

Henrv Vll. 
Henr\ Vlll. 

Tho. M. of Donet. 

Margaret, Leonard. 

E.ofKildiu-e. Deputytotbe 

Maby, Eliza, Henry 


The fair Gersldine. 

princess, nnd who, as she says herself, had been niBile n 
on her former preferment to the same post about the Isdy Hmt; 
a creation which seems lo have escaped al! our writers on the 
peerage. The letter mentions " the lowardly and gentle caadi- 
tions of her grace," vol. i. no. ixii. In the same collection are 
letters of prince Edward from Hiin^don. 


. Since I made the above discovery, I find that 
Michael Drayton, in his Heroical Epistles, 
among which are two between this earl and 
Geraldine 7, guesses that she was of the family 
of Fitzgerald, though he has made a strange 

7 Antony Wood was still more mistaken, for he thinks she 
was bom at Florence : he says that Surrey, travelling to the em- 
peror's court, grew acquainted with Cornelius Agrippa, famous 
for natural magic, who showed him the image of his Geral- 
dine in a glass, sick, weeping on her bed, and resolved all into 
devout religion for the absence of her lord; that from thence 
he went to Florence, her native city, where he published an 
universal challenge in honour of her beauty, and was victorious 
in the tournament on that occasion. The challenge and the 
tournament are true ; the shield presented to the earl by the 
great duke for that purpose is represented in Vertue's print of 
the Arundel family, and was in the possession of the last earl 
of Stafford. Wood, vol. i. p. 68. [It now belongs to the duke 
of Norfolk. Wood seems to have derived this fiction of the 
magical glass frt>m Nash's fancifulLifeofJacke Wilton, published 
in 1594; where, under the character of his hero, he professes 
to have travelled to the emperor's court as page to the earl 
of Surrey. On their way they met Mrith Cornelius Agrippa, 
and desired to see the lively image of Geraldine in his glass, 
and what at that instant she did, and with whom she was talking. 
** The magician shewed her to them," says Nash, ** Mrithout more 
adoe, sicke, weeping on her bedde, and resolved all into devoute 
religion for the absence of her lorde;" at the sight whereof Nash 
eould in no ¥rise refrain from penning an extemporal ditty, which 
is inserted in his very rare publication. 

The Oxford historian appears to have regarded this legendary 
figment as a traditional fact, and might not perhaps have traced 
it hi^er than Drayton's Heroical Epistles, in 1598. Sir Walter 
Scott has wrought this legendary tale into a lively episodic poem, 

U 8 

" One book of Viigil, in 

I »^ : , - - I r . I 




Bf dl ifce 1^ «r ckmliy.*! 

efidoo of die Peerage, in tbe ead of KDdve^s 
k » luDted that this ladj Eliiabedi FitisenkI was die 
raddaoe; batm no aulh ori tj r nor msoos are ignoCed to pnyv«it^ 
thcpe conjectures before mentioned maj lerfe to tappfy tiieir 
place. Since die firit ecfition, I hare been told that Ho&dfeed 
confinnt my supposition. [Drajton, in his necricai 
traces Gerakfine from die Geraldi, who demed tlieir 

* pPiinted from one of the Harington mamsor^its in Ni 
AntiqiiCy vol. ii. edit. 1 804, and again bj Dr. Nott.] 

» Vol.Lp.57. 

^ r^ie fact iiy he translated the seoosd and fonrdi bocdks oT 
tbe .£neid into blank Terse, and they were printed togetber in 
1557. Vid. postea. It is probably however, that the fiMuth 
book had appeared singly, as it is thus mentioned in AafAmm*^ 
Scfaolemaster : ** The noble lord the eaiie of Surrey, first of all 
Eng^hmen in translating the foiirdi book of Vifg^** 


^^ Poems addressed to the Duke of Rich- 

Dr. Nott thinks it probable we are to under- 
stand no more by this than the single Elegy 
beginning " So cruel prison," &c. at p. 48. of 
his edition. 

** Satires on the Citizens of London/' in 
one book. ^ 

" Juvenile Poems." Those printed by 
And a translation of 

** Boccace's Consolation to Pinus, on his 
Exile." Not hitherto discovered as extant. 

In Lambeth church was formerly an af- 
fectionate epitaph in verse, written by this 
lord on one Thomas Clere, who had been his 
retainer, and caught his death by attending 
him in his wars. It is preserved in Aubrey's 
Survey of Surrey •, and ought to be printed 
with the earl's poems. ^ 

His daughter Jane, countess of Westmor- 

» [Qu. Whether a portion of these Satires has not been re- 
covered from one of the Harington manuscripts^ as printed in 
NugB Antiquae, voLiL p. 356.?] 

• Vol. V. p. 247. 

7 [It is so, in Dr. Anderson's comprehensive and valuable 
edition of the British Poets, and agab b Mr. Chalmers's.] 

U 4 


land, was a great mistress of the Greex t 
Latin languages." 

[*' The character of Henry earl of Surrey," says 
Mr. Lodge, " reflects splendour even on the name 
of Howard. M"ith the true spirit and dignity of an 
English nobleman, and with a personal courage 
almost romantic, he united a politeness and urbanity 
then almost peculiar to himself, and all those mild 
and sweet flispositions which blandish private life: 
he possessed talents capable of directing or thwarting 
the most important slate affairs; but he was too 
honourable to be the instrument either of tyranny or 
rebellion, and the violent reign imder which he had 
the misfortune to live, admitted of no medium. He 
applied those talents, therefore, to softer studies ; 
and revived in an age, loo rude to enjoy fully those 
beauties which mere nature could not but in sotne 
degree relish, the force of expression, the polished 
style, and the passionate sentiments of the best poets 
of antiquity." ' 

• Fox's AcM Hud Monuiuenls. Dr. Nott observes tlist the 
WB8 one of the most learned ladies ol' a learned age; when 
knowledge as well as virtue wae deemed essential to the lemde 
character, Catherine, her uster, mnrricd lord Berkeley, and wm 
prob^ly a scholar ulso: as maj- be inferred from a MS. treatise 
of philosophy, written by Iicr hrother for her use. 

^ Biogr. Accounts of ihc Holbein Portraits. 


This just and elegant encomium has many concur- 
ring testimonials in its support, from the period of 
Elizabeth to the present. Leland, Ascham, Turber- 
ville, Churchyard, Sidney, Webbe, Puttenham, Meres, 
Harvey, Whitney, Drayton, Bolton, and Peacham, 
were among his eulogists of elder date; Dryden^ 
Fenton, [and Pope, revived his memory : nor have 
the poetic amateurs of modem time been inattentive 
to his fiune. Mr. Ellis selected much from his 
songs and sonnets ^f and Sir EL Brydges has re« 
marked that his writings deserve every celebrity and 
attention ^ : but our late laureat has given the most 
ample attestation to this ^^ first polite writer of lov&> 
verses in our language ^," by devoting a whole section 
of his third volume to the illustration of Surrey's 
poetic history. ^ Dr. Anderson has added his re« 
spectable testimony to that of Mr. Warton, in saying 
that lord Surrey's are not only the first, but are 
equal to the best English love-verses; and in har- 
mony of numbers, perspicuity of expression, and 
fiicility of phraseology, approach so near the pro- 
ductions of the present age, that they will hardly be 

* See Spedmensy vol. iL 

9 Theatrum Poetarum, p. 44. 

4 Hist of E.P. vol. ill. p. S7. 

s In R. Heron's Hist, of Scotland lord Surrey is slurred as • 
writer of little poetical genius, who poured forth some ftw 
ditties ; but Dr. Henry has done oar noble author more jotdc^ 
by observing that English poetry, till refined by SorrQr, dege- 
nerated into metrical chronicles or tasteless allegories. Hisc of 
England, toI. xii. p. 898. 



bc£e*ed lo hare been produced in die rdgn of Htij 

Lord Surrey's poems were first collected and 
printed by Richard ToUeU, in 1557, snaU qaarto^ 
with the following title : / " Sot^es and SmetMs 
written by the Right Hottorable Lotde Hemy 
Howard, late esri of Sorrey, and others." ^ 

Successive editions, somewhat altered and enlarged, 
though tor the most pan less correct, of^ieared in 
1565, 1567, 1569, 157*, 1585, and 1587.' In con- 
sequence probably of Pope's compIimeDt to Gran- 
viiie and Surrey, in his Windsor Forest, two reprints 
were ushered forth in 1717, by Meares aiid Curll; 
and Dr. Farmer ^ long since announced a beantifol 
edition of Surrey's Poems from the able hand of 
bishop Percj-. Two additional pieces ascribed to 
lord Surrey were printed in Nuge Antique ' ; with 

6 British Poeti, vol. i, p. 595. 

^ Sir Tho. Wiat, sir Fr. BiTon, lord RocbeTord, loH Vaux, 
Nic. Grimoold, and Tho. Churchj-Bn), were ainoi^ the odier 
contributors to this enrtiest collection of our fugitivD poetry. 
Warton tliiuki il gave birth to two favourite miiceQaniem of 
the &Btne kind, Eogland's Helicon, and the ParadiM of daia^ 

^ Tliough these early black-letter editions were to nutneroui^ 
they have aow become, as Mr. Neve obtervcs, tome of the 
icarcest books in English literature. Cursory Remarks, p. te. 

9 Seciitecveas'f SlukBpcare, vol.iv. p. 386, edit. 1793; hkI 
alio New Biog. Diet. art. Hen. Howard. 

»Sk vol. ».c4it, 1804. 


a version of three Psalms, and five chapters firom the 
Ecclesiastes of Solomon. These have been reprinted 
by Dr. Nott, in his very richly illustrated edition of 
the works of Surrey, with two additional poans firom 
a MS. belonging to the duke of Devonshire^ temp.. 
Hen. VIII. 

His lordship's blank verse translation of the seccmd 
and fourth books of Virgil, was thus entided : 

^* Certaine Bookes of Virgiles ^neis turned into 
English Metir, by the Right Honourable Lorde 
Henry Earle of Surrey." Lond. 1557, 4to. 

A copy of this curious work is preserved in the 
library of Dulwich college, and another in that of 
Wadham college, Qxon ^. From the former of these 
a reprint has been made, under the editorial care of 
Dr. Percy, and it is hoped, will soon be given to the 
public. Mr. Warton thinks it probable that lord 
Surrey's active situations of life alone prevented him 
from completing a design of translating the whde 
iEIneid. This performance received an early com- 
pliment from the translator of Palingenius : 

The noble Henry Hawarde once 

That raught etemall fame, 
With mighty style did bryng a pece 

Of Vhrgili work in frame. ^ 

9 A few »pedmeii« of thb ?entoo «rt ghnen bjr Ur. Wartoa 

and Dr. Andenon. 
* Googe*! Eglogf, Epytapbes, 4^c. 1563. 



And Mr. Warton, a true classical critic, denies it 
merely the relative and accidental merit of being a 
curiosity. It is executed, he says, with fidelity, the 
diction is oden poetical, and the versification varied 
with proper pauses. * 

In Historical Anecdotes of some of the Howard 
Family, 1769, chiefly compiled from the accounts of 
Walpole and Hume, four letters by lord Surrey are 
inserted from Harl. MS. 283. Another occurs in 
No. 7S of the same collection, and has been thence 
transcribed ; being of superior interest to those 
selected by the lion. Mr. Howard, afterwards duke 
of Norfolk. 

" The Erie of Surrie to the Lords of the Councell, 
at suclie tyme as he was in the Tower. 
" My verie good lordys, 
" After ray humble conmiendations to your lord- 
shlppes, tliese presents shalbe to advertyse you, that 
albeyt I have of late severally requered eche of yoo, 
by my servant Pickeringe, of your favore; from whome 
as yet I have receavyd no nother comfort then my 
passed foUye hathe deseiTed; I have yet thought yt 
my dutie agayne as well to reneue my sute, as humbly 
to requere you rather to impute this error to the fiirie 
of rechelesse youthe, then to a wyll not conformable 
and contented with the quyet beringe of the just 
rewarde of my folye, for as myche as 1 so sodaynelye 
and quicklye dyd procure and attempte to seke for 

' Hist, of E. P. vol. iu. 



frendshipe, and iiitreate for my delivciaunce ; as then 
not sufficientlye ponderinge nor debiitiiige with my 
self, that a prynce offended hathe none redresse upoiie 
his subjecte, but condinge punysliement, with owt 
respect of the persone. Yet, letl my youtlie, iinprac- 
^■sed in duraunce, optayne pardone ; altlioughe for 
lecke of atrengthe yt yelde not ytselfe wholye to his 
gentell chastysement ; whites tlie herle is resolved 
with paciens to passe over the same in satj'sfuction of 
myne errors. And, my good lords, yf yt were lawfijU 
to perswade by the president of other younge men 
reconsUed, I wolde af^rme tliat this myglit sounde to 
me a happy tawte ; by so gentell a warninge to leme 
howe to brydle my heddye will, which in youthe is 
rarely attayned with owt adversyte. 

" Wheare myghte I, with owte vaunte, liiy before 
you the quyet conversation of my passed lyf, which 
(tuidestayned witli anye unhonest touche, unsemynge 
in suche a man as hathe pleased God and the kj-nge to 
mayke me) myght perfectly promyse newe amende- 
ment of myne ofFence ; whcarof ji" you dowght in anye 
poynt, I sliall humbly deiyer you, that duringe my 
affliction (in which tyrae malyce is most redye to 
sclaunder the innocent) ther may be made a hole ex- 
amynation of my lyf; wyssliyiig that for the better 
tryall iherofi rather to have the tyme of my duraunce 
redubeled, and so declared and well tryed as unsus- 
pected, by your medytations to be restored to the kyngs 
fevour, then condemned in your grave heads, with owt 
aunswere or farther examynacion, to be quicjye deli- 
vered this heynus offence, always unexcused ; wliear 




uponc I was commytted to tliis so noysum a prysone, 
whose pestilent ayers ar not unlyketo brj-nge sum al- 
teration of healthe. Whearfore, yf your good lord- 
ships judge me not a membre rather to be desne cutt 
away then reformed, yt may jilease you to be suters to 
the kyngs majeste on my behalfie, as well for his fovor 
as for my liberte : or els, at the lest, yfhis pleasure be 
to puimyshe this oversyghte with the forberinge of his 
presens imto everie lovinge subjecte, specially unto 
me, which from a prynce caiie not be les counted 
then a ly^-inge deathe) yet yt wolde please hym to 
cotnmaunde me into the countrie to sum place of open 
ayer, with lyk restraint of libertie, there to abyde his 
graces pleasure. 

" Finally : albej't no parte of this my tresspas in my 
wayght to do me good, I shuldc yet judge me happie 
yf yt shulde please the kyngs majeste to thynke that 
thys symple bodye, rashelye aventurjd in the revei^e 
of his owne quarrell, shalbe with owt respecte al- 
wayes reddie to be employed in his service; tnistinge 
ons^ so to redouble this error, which maybe well r©. 
peted but not revoked : desyeringe your good lord- 
shipps, that lyke as my offence hathe not hyne, my 
Gubmyssion may lyke wyse appere, which is all the 
recompence; that I may well thynke my doings 
aunswere not your grave heads, shulde ye con^der 
that nether am I the fyrst younge man that, goremed 
by fiirie, hathe enlerprysed suche thyngs as he hftthe 
afterwarde repented; nedier am I so wede to my 

'Sir MS. 


owne wyll, that I had rather with favorable surmyses 
obstynatly to stande to the defence of my follye, then 
umbly to confesse the same, infected wythe anye suche 
spote as He knowethe to whom ther is nothynge 
miknowne, whoe preserve you to his pleasure I 

As bishop Percy's edition* of the Sonnets of lord 
Surrey is likely very soon to be in the hands of poetical 
readers, a single specimen of his lordship's versification 
may suffice ; in which the measure is correct, the lan- 
guage polished, and the modulation musicaL"^ 




Give place, ye lovers, here before 
That spent your bostes and bragges in vaine : 

My ladie*8 bewty pasieth more 
The best of yours, I dare wel saine, 

Than doth the aunne the candle light, 

Or brightest day the darkest night : 

« [This edition had the fatality to perish, in the dettnictiTe fire 
which took place at Mr. Nichols' printing office, and four or &fe 
copies only were preserved from the wreck, by previous pre- 
sentation. For one of these the present ej^tor is indebted to 
the kindness of bishop Percy. Dr. Nott has supplied a valuable 
substitution for thb mischance.] 

7 See Warton, ut sup. 

I :*. 



Bflr UBfdbm ooljr Mt flfif^ 

im BO Imw I^ kifc 
llMit eodd liBfe gow M sMpeMr bttvt 

And tfus was diefelj all her ]NUiie» 
She could not make the like againe. 

Sith Nature thus gave her the praiae 
To be the cheifest worke she wrought : 

In &ith| me thinke, some better ways 
On your behalf might well be sought. 

Than to compare, as ye have done, 

To match the candle with the sun.] 



Of this lord little is recorded. He was mad^ 
a baron ' by Edward VI., and had his tbrains 
knocked out by a butcher at an insurrection 
in Norfolk ^ to quell which, he attended the 
marquis of Northampton. Falling into a 
ditch near Norwich, and raising his helmet to 
show the rebels who he was, he was dispatched. 

To this little, Bale ^ has added (what obliges 
us to give him a place in this catalogue), that 
'.he wrote — 

<' A Book of Sonnets, in the Italian Man- 

[To lord Orford's brief account of the catastrophe 
which befel this nobleman, the following poetic illus- 
tration cannot fiul to be generally acceptable. I have 

« [Of Butterwicke in Lincolnshire, 1547. Seo Beatson's Po- 
litical Index, vol. i. p. 61.] 

' [A paper of directions from the lords of ^e (ioundl to the 
earl of Shrewsbury, Aug. 5, 1549, records this event, and says^ 
''the lord Sh^fibld, sir' John Cleeie, and another gentilmau 
named Comwales, were slayn in a skinniih with the rebells about 
Norwich.^* Lodge's Illustrations, vol. i. p. 153.] 

« P. 106. 

VOL. I. X 

been pennitted to transcribe it from what Mr. Steerens 
considered as one of the scarcest hooits in the English 
language *, by favour of its present possessor, Richard 
Heber, esq. 


When brutysh broyle, sad rage of war, 

in clownysh hafli began ; 
When tigres etoute, in taners bonde 

unmusled all they ran ; 
The noble Shefteyld, lord by byrth, 

and of a courage good, 
By clubbish^ hands of crabbed clowna 

there spent his noble blud. 
His noble byrth avayled not, 

his honor alt was vayne ; 
Atnyd the prease of mastye curres 

the valyanl lorde was aiayne. 
And after Buch a aorte, (O ruth !) 

that who can teares euppresse ? 
To thynlte that dunghyll dogs shuld dawnt 

the floure of worthynes ! 
Whyie as the ravenyng wolves he prayed 

his gylteles lyfe to save, 
A bluddy butcher, byg and blunt, 

a vyje unweldy knave, 

■■ A wconil copy occurs in the library of Trinity CoUcM. 
Cambridge. Vid. Capell's ShakiperiBna. 

" Hi> horse falling into a ditch, : 
. club. Burona^. lonie ii 

1 Dugdale, a butcher ilcw 


With beastly blow of boysterous byll 

at hym (O Lorde) let dryve. 
And clefte his head, and sayd therwith, 

<< shalt thou be lefte alyve ?^'— 
O Lorde» that I had present ben, 

and Hector's force withall, 
Before that from his carlysh hands 

the cruell byll dyd i^ail. ' 
Then shidde that (leaMiutft vyl^ have fek 

the clap upbn his crowne, 
That shuld hUte daaed his dogged hart 

from dryvyng lordes adowne : 
Then shuld my hands have saved thy.lyfe> 

good lord, whom deare I loved ; 
Then shuld my hlirt, in doutfuU case, 

full well to the ben proved. 
But all in vayne thy death I wayle, 

thy corps in earth doth lye ; 
Thy kyng and countrey for to serve 

thoii didst not feare to dye. 
Farewely good lord, thy deth bewayle 

all suche as well the knewe ; 
And everye man laments thy case, 

and Googe thy death doth rewe.^ 

Fuller speaks of lord Sheffidd^s great ASH in music^ 
and intimates that he was direct ancestor to the hope* 
ful earl of Mulgrave % afterward duke of Bucknig* 

^ S^logt, Epytapbet, &e. by B.Oooge» 1565. 
• Wortkiet of . Lincolnshire, p. 167. 

X 3 


^Hko'THEr to the duke of Somerset, lord high admi- 
ral, and created lord Seytoour t^ Sadler Castle, in 
Gloacestenhire, 1547^; impeacfaed Jaonaiv 19, 1549, 
and sent to the Tower; Bttaioted of bigfa treascm' ' 
and beheaded M&rd] 20. His criioe was alleged to 
be ambition ; which brooght bis brother, the protector, 
to the block. This turbulent and a^Jring man is said 
to have been an excellent commander to those knights 
and gentry who served under him. He is only known 
as an author by the following lines, which are certified 
to hare been written the week before his dealli.* 
They begin with a reflection veiy similar to tliat oT 
cardinal Wolsey when he was deserted by Heniy the 
eighth : 

" Forgetting God to love a kynge 
Hath been my rod, or else no ihytige 
In this frail lyfe, being a blast 
Of care and stryfe, till yt be paste. 

» Botton points out this as hii proper title, ihon^ commoni; 
called lord Sudley. Extinct Peerege, p. 975. 

* Boatson's Political Indoc, vol. i. p. 61. 

< The articlei of high treason exhibited against the loid admi- 
ral, are printed in Bumct'i History of the Refonnation, voL u. 
*M liiro eoneilU. 

> Vid. NugK Antiquie, vol, ii. p. 3Sh, edit. IS04. 


Yet God did call me, in my pryde 

Leste I shulde fall, and from him slyde. 

For whoqi he loves he muste correcte. 

That they may be of his, electe. 

Then death haste thee, thou shalt me gaine . 

Immortallie with God to raigne. — 

Lorde ! sende the kyng like years as Noye ^, 

In goveminge thys realme in joye ; 

And, after thys frayl lyfe, such grace, 

That in thy blisse he maie find place !"' 

A copy of verses, said to be placed under a picture 
of this nobleman, in the notes to Harington's Ari- 
osto, lib. xix. are printed in Nugse Antiques ^, and are 
more flattering to his character than history has been. 
They conclude by lamenting, that 

** His blood was spilt, guiltless, without just cause. 


But Mr. Lodge, whose accuracy and whose can- 
dour are above all suspicion, says, that be was con- 
demned ** after a very impartial trial in parliament." 
See Illustrations of British History, vol. i. p. 112% 
where a letter is printed from the Talbot papers, and 
here inserted : 

^^ Sir Thomas Seymour to the £arl of Shrewsbury. 

^^ Afler my most hartie comendacions,- thes shalbe 
to certefie your lordshipp that the king's majestes 

^ i. e. Noah. 

7 in the same miscellany occurs an allegorical poem of very 
superior merit, entitled The Hospitable Oak, written on occasion 
of lord Seymour's fall. 

• Also State Trials, vol. vii. 

X 3 


The rise, the valour, ambition, weakness, and 
fall of this great lord, are so universally known, 
that it would be transcribing whole pages of 
our most common histories to give a detail of 
liis life. His contributing to the ruin of the 
Howards hurt him much in the eyes of the 
nation : his severity to his own brother, though 
a vain and worthless man, was still less excus- 
able : his injustice to his own issue by his first ' 
wife was monstrous ; and both the latter crimes 
were imposed on him by his second duchess, 
a haughty, had woman. I have mentioned 
the complaisance of the pai'liament and of the 
nobility under Henry the eighth : their ser- 
vility is still more striking, when we see them 
crouch under a protector', and scandalously 

■' [^ E. Br}'dge9 hinU, that tame reason for thie duke's ma- 
parent injustice lo his first wife seems to be assignej in tljc 
Somerset pedigree in the Heralds' College,] 

' [This proleclar is said to have sent for the books in the 
lilirary founded by the executors of Whittington, in xhv colleee 
at Guildhall, with a promise of being shortly returned. Tbey 
were accordingly taken away in three carts, but were nev«r 
bruuh'ht back again. !jec Grose's Antiq. of England] 

Kdwakd Sbymoitr 

M Mty - /iti^. f^ -'.SnV. JVr • 




sufter him to deprive his eldest son of his in- 
heritance and titles, to humour a domineering 
wife. Yet iiaving the misfortune to fall by 
the policy of a man more artful, more ambi- 
tious, much less virtuous than himself (for 
with all his faults he had many good qualities^)^ 
he died lamented by the people, and even 

< I choose to throw into a note a particularity on this head, 
that it may be the more remarked. Great clamour was raised 
against him for a merit of the most beautiful nature ; thu was 
his setting up a court of requests within his own house; " to hear 
the petitions and suits oi poor men; and upon the compassion 
he took of their oppressions, if he ended not their business, he 
would send his letters to chancery in their favour." Strype, 
vol. ii. p. 185. In times when almost every act of state was an 
act of tyranny, how amiable does this illegal jurisdiction appear * 
If princes who afiect arbitrary power wolild exert it in this man- 
ner, despotism would become the only eligible species of govern- 
ment. To the disgrace of history, while there are volumes on 
the dettroyers of mankind^ not ten lines are written on the life of 
Mahomet Galadin emperor of Mogiil, who gave audience twice 
a day to hb subjects ; and who had a bell which reached from hb 
own chamber to the street, at which the poor might ring for ju^ 
tice. At the sound of the bdl he always went to, or sent for the 
person who rung. The Benedictine who records this, says it b 
not known of what sect he was. The wretched monk did not 
perceive that this emperor was above all sects ; that he was of 
thp^vine religion— ir«fitaiit(y. VideGen. Diet vol. vii. [MThy 
** wretched monk ?** says Mr. Cole. It was not hb fortune to live 
in thb illuminated age, which has thrown off the shackles of 
every system of religion. The monk surely deserves quarter 
for hb ignorance of thb new philonophy. He erred with the 


Ilis unjust dispositicm of his fortunes and 
honours was sufiered to take place when his 
family was restored. At last tlie true line 
has recovered their birthright. 

He had been educated at Oxford, and was 
chancellor of Cambridge ; and, as Anthony 
Wood observes, there is no foundation for be- 
lieving what one Parsons has asserted, that he 
could scarce write or read. On the contrary, 
he appears to have been an author. While 
he was lord-protector, there went under his 

" Epistola exhortatoria missa ad Nobilita- 
tem ac Plehem uoiversumque Populum R^tii 
Scotia:." * Printed in 4to. at London, 154-8. 

This might possibly be composed by some 
dependent : his other works were penned dur- 
ing his troubles, when he does not appear to 
have had many flatterers. During Ws first 
imprisonment, he wrote 

" A spirituall and most precious Pearl, 
teacliing all Men to love and embrace the 
Cross, as a most sweet and necessary Thing, 
&c." London 1550. 16°.* 

> Ant. Wood, vol. i. p. ST. [An English crmnitation ira* primnl 
by Grafton, in 1548. The late duke of Roxburgh possemed b 
copy.] e 

■ IThis book was tranttated from the Getrrsn of Womm* 
lerui, by |lilci Cuverdalc . Tlie duke had been it in ■"rntiicfipt. 

DUKE OF SOaiKltSET. olo 

About that time he had great respect paid 
to him by the celebrated reformers Calvin and 
Peter Martyr. The former wrote to him an 
epistle of godly consolation, composed before 
the time and knowledge of his disgrace ; but 
being delivered to him in the Tower, his grace 
translated it from French into English. It 
was printed in 1550 by Edward Whitchurch, 
and is entitled 

' " An Epistle both of godly Consolacion, 
and also of Advertieemente. written by John 

Had being much edifieJ by it in hi> impriionmeat, be procured it 
(o be printed, and wrote a recomoiendatory preface to It. (Or. 
Lort.) The entire title run« thus: " A spyrytudl and moont 
precyoiue Pearic : leoch^g rII Men to love and imbracc the 
Crouc^ M n muoatc iwctc and necoMary Tbyng unlo the 8owle, 
and what Comfort in to be taken ihen^f, and also where aiid 
howB, both Consolacyon and Ayde in all Muter or Afllyccyuns 
ii to be raughtc ; and agaytie, howa all Men Khould behave iJiein 
kclrea therein, eccordynge to the Word of God. Sett forth liy 
the moite honorable Lorde, the Duke by* Qracoof 
B(i(>circtli by hy» Epyitle •« before the Mine." Imptyntud m 
London for Owalcer Lynne, Ac. M. iX L. | al«o by Cnwuod and 
•Singleton. It coaeludei with " A humble Pctieyon to the Lord, 
pnictyted in the communo Prayer of the whole Faniylye at S^cne, 
during the Troubl* of their Lord aud Mayiicr, the Duke of So- 
merut hia Grace: gUberod and wt furth by Thouuw Becoii, 
Miniitcr there." " A ThenkcigcTyng for hyi Grace* Oelyver- 
auDce." " A godlyo Prayer and Confewyon of Syiuie»i" eud a 
" Prayer for the Kyngci Maycslyc oud for Pence."] 
: Vide Ame), p, UOT, 308. Bale, p. 10!>. 

31 G 


Calvine, the Pastoiirand Preacher of Geneva*", 
to the Righte Noble Prince Edwardc Duke of 
Somerset, before the Time or Knowlcdj^ had 
of his Trouble, but ilelyvered to the sayJe 
Duke in theTime of hys Trouble, and so trans- 
lated out of Frenshe by the same Duke hym- 
flelfe, in the Tyme of his Impriesonmente." 
Lond. Inipr. Apr. 5. 1550. Small Svo." 

Martyr wrote an epistle to Mm in Latin 
about the same time, which pleased the duke 
so much, that at his desire it was translated 
into English by Thomas Norton ^ and printed 
in 1550, 8vo. 

In Strype' is a prayer of the duke " for 

' [Calvin'a Epistle is liatcil " ihc \ku of Octobrc lS4<i."] 

3 [An eputoloiy prefix " to the Christian reader," ^ipcsn ta 

be drawn up by the Protector, and conl^ns this loyal pmtage : — 

" God hath.of his infinite goodnei, not only made England Strang 

enoughc to withstand al foreign puissaunc^ if ve hold together 

and agree well emonges oureselves, obeying the king and atg^. 

traces as we oughte to dooc, but also by many nodoubtable tt^ea* 

hath declared that He mindeth, oi it were, to make his habitacioo 

and dwelling place here emong us, of purpose to be oune sure 

ifence and proteccion, yf we wyll receyve him accordjngly.*'j 

^ The same who assisted Sternhold and Hopkins in their *«<- 

Ltion of the Psalms. {He was one of the council, and soliciior to 

r the city of London. See Birch's Menoin of Quet-n EliMbeth, 

:. p. 42. OneThoniaii Norton (says Mr. Gyll] wrote down 

' the trial of the duke of Noriblk in liTI, who w 

nie person.] 

' Vol. ii. Ajip. B. 


God's Assistance in the high Office of Pro- 
tector and Governor, now committed to 

Some of his letters are preserved in the li- 
brary of C. C. C. Camb. and several among 
the Harleian manuscripts. 

[A favourable epitome of the duke of Somerset's 
character is drawn up by bishop Burnet, in his His- 
tory of the Reformation, vol. i. ; and a more extended 
account of him may be seen in Hayward's Ed. VI. 
or in Strype's Memorials. 

He was made earl marshal of England during life by 
the young infant his nephew, in 1 Edw. VL * (1541); 
was raised to the dukedom in 1547 ; and lost his head 
January IS, 1551. 

In Sloane manuscript. No. 1528, a page of precep- 
tive sentences is ascribed to << the Seymors," in the 
reign of Edward the sixth, and most of them seemed 
to merit transcription. I will annex H portion. 

*^ Affection shall lead me to court, but I'll take 
care that interest keeps me there. 

*^ In the throng of courtiers there are but three 
steps to raise a man to observation : 1. Some peculiar 
sufficiency ; 2. Some peculiar exploit ; 8. An especiall 

« Howard Anecdotet, p. 199. 



*< Sufficiency and merits are neglected tilings, when 
not befriended. 

" Princes me loo reserved to be taken with the very 
Brst f^pearances of worth, unlesse recommended by 
tryed judgment. It's fitt, as well as common, that 
they have their counsellors for persons as well as 

" A secreat and unobserved contempt of the law 
is a close undermining of authority; which must he 
either its selfe in indulging nothing, or be nothing 
in allowing all. 

" Libertj' knows no restraint, no limit, when 
winked at. 

" In counsel) is stability ; things wilt leave their 
first or second agitation ; if they be not tossed upon 
the argument of counsel], they will be tossed upon 
the waves of fortune. 

" A good name is the embalming of the vertuous 
to an eternity of love and gratitude among posterity." 

His grace's recommendatory preface to that rare 
typographical morceau, " The Spiritual! Pearle," is 
thus worded : " Edward by the grace of God, duke 
of Somerset, earle of Hertford, vycount Beachamp, 
lorde Seimour, uncle to the kynges excellent majes- 
tye, knyght of the most noble ordre of the garther, 
&c. to the Christian reader gretyng. 

" If they be worlhye prayse who for a zeale and 
desyre that they have to do iheyr neyghbours good, 
do wryghte and put in prynte suche thynges as by ex- 
peryence they have proved, or by heare saye of grave 


iuid trustye men tliey have iindeistandetl to be a salve 
or medycyne to a man's body or to a parte or membic 
of the same ; how muche more deserve they thank and 
prayse tlmt teache us a true comtbrt salve and medy- 
cyne of the soule, spyrit, and mynde. The whyche 
spyryte and mynde, the more precyous it is then the 
bodye, the more daiingerous be hys sores and syknes, 
and the more thancke-worth the cure thereof. For a 
well quyeted mjTide to a troubled bodye, yet maketh 
quyetnes ; and sycknes of bodye or losse of goodes is 
not muche paynfull to hym that estemeth it not, or 
tflketh it pacyently. But an unquyet mynde, yea to a 
moste whole bodye> m^eth helth unpleosaunt and 
death to be wyshed : and an unsacyable mynde and 
sore wyth desyre of more, maketh ryches povertye, 
and health a syknes ; slrengthe, an infy-rmyte; bewty 
a deformyle ; and wclth, povertye : when by compar- 
yng hys felycytye wyth a better, it loseth the grace 
and joye of that it hath, and felyth the smart of that 
It hath not. 

" Then to amende thys in wealthe, and to take 
awsye sorowe and griefe, where no juste nor appa- 
raunte cause of gryefe is, is a greate mayster of phy- 
sykes dede, and worthye muche commendacyon ; 
what is he then worthy that can ease gryefe in dede, 
and make healthe where a verye sore restyth ? I meone 
that can ease a man set in afflyccyon, take away the 
gryefe from hym that is persecuted, lose the prysoner 
yet in bondes, take awaye adversytye in adversytye, 
make grevous syckenes not to be felt, make povertye 
ryches, beggerye to be rejoysed at. 


" Dyvei's ieametl men lieretofore, by 
grounded of man's knowledge, wrot nnd invented gK*t 
coDiforte agaynst all kynde of gryefes : and so emotige 
the gentle and pliylosophers bokes be bokes of com- 
forte. But whosoever foloweth but worldlye and man's 
reason, to teache comforte to the troubletl mynde, can 
geve but a counterfeit medycyne. Ami as tlie surgyon 
doeth whyche colorablye healcth, or the physyCTon 
whyclie geveth niedycynes tliat doeth astonyshe and 
mortyfye the pUice; they deceyve iJie pacyent, end 
peradventure to the outward showe they may bring 
in a certayne stowtnes and blynde dissemblinge of 
payiie: but the true healyng of gryefe and sorowe 
they fiad not, for they lacked the grounde; they lacked 
that that shoulde heale the sore at the bone fyrste — 
that is, true fayth in Christ and hys holye word. All 
medycynes of the soule whych be layed on the sores 
iherof, not havynge that cleanser wyth them, be but 
over healers : they do not take away the nmklyng 
wythin, and many tyraes under colors of hasty 
healyng, they bryng fourth proude fleshe in the soi«, 
as evell and worse as that whych was fiirst cornipte. 

" Thys man, whosoever he be that was the tVrst 
author of thys boke, (If oure judgement be anye 
thynge) goeth the ryghte waye to worck ; he bryiigeth 
hys grounde from God's worde ; he taketh wyth hym 
the oyle and wjTie of the Samarytan ; he carpeth the 
hurte man from thence as he lay hurt, and bryngeth 
hym to hys right hoste, where no dowt he msy be 
cured if he wyll hym selfe aplye hym thereto. It is 
red in hystoryes, that the maner emong the olds 





Eg}-ptiaiifi or Assyrians was, when any were syck, 
to lay hym abroade, iliai every man that passed by. 
myght tell if he hod bene vexed wydi lyke syekenes, 
what ihyng was tliat that dj-d cure and heale liyn>, 
and so they roiglit use it to the pacyentc. And by 
thys meanes, it Js thought tJiat the scyence ul" pliy- 
syck was first found oute. So that it moye ap]jeai« 
thatthys redynes to teach an otherthatthingwhereiii 
a man fenJeth ease of gryefe, is not onlye Cliristioii, 
but also naturoll. 

" III oure greate trouble, wliyche of late dyd hap- 
pen unto us (as all the woride tlotli knowe) wlien ii 
pleased God for a tyine to attenipte us ivj'th hys 
scourge, and to prove if we loved hym ; in reading 
thys Ijoke we dyd fynde greatt comforte, and an in- 
warde and godlye workjTige power, much relevyng tlie 
gryefe of om-e mj-nile. The whytli thyng now call- 
ynge to reniembi-nticc, we do thynke it oure diitye 
not to be more nnnaturnl tlien lite old F.gj'plyans were. 
But rather, as the ofiyce of a Christian is, to be ready 
to helpe all men by all wnyes possyble that we can. 
and csppcyally those that be afflicted. 

" And hereupon, we have retjuyrcd hyni of whom 
we lud the copye of tJiys lx>ke, die ratlier, at our i-e- 
<]ueBt and coinondocyon, to set thys boke forth and in 
prynte ; that not oneiye we, or one or two Riorc, but 
oJI that be ufltycted, may take profyt and consolacyon if 
they wyll. Yea, and they that be not afflycted, nmye 
oyther sec what they should have done in iheyr troble; 
or what hereafter tliey ought to do if anye lyke Imp- 
peneth. Knowynge certeynHy, (iinl suche t* the un- 


In lord Oxford's library was the following 
book': — "' The Monument of Matrons, con- 
taining seven several Lamps of Virgiuitie, or 
distinct Treatises, compiled by Tiiomas Bent- 
ley," black letter, no date. In tlie be^nntng 
was a note, written by the reverend Mr. 
Baker, saying that this book contained several 
valuable pieces or prayers, by queen Catharine, 
queen Elizabeth, the lady Abergavenny, and 
otliers. If I guess right, this lady Aberga- 
venny was Joanna, daughter of Thomas F'ttz- 
Aiao earl of Arundel, wife of George Jord 
Bergavenny*, who died in the twenty-seventh 
of Henry the eighth, and niece of that bright 
restorer of literature Antony earl Rivers. If 
my conjecture is just, she was probably the 
foundress of that noble school of female 

» Harl. Cat^. voL L p. loo. 

* (I learn from Mr. Loitge, to vhose inteUigeot iJd I owe 
many obligatioos, that Fkancss lady BergBvency, who appean 
to be the righttii] cloimant of thu article, vas the dau^te*^ 
in-law ofthisGoorge lord Bergavcnny. It teems inTerditefivti) th« 
number of children his lordship had by his second uid titlrd 
vrivee, that Jouina his first wife could not have been Uviqg !■*.■• 
than iS2S. It i* probable the died mQch earlier.] 


learning, of which (with herself) there were 
na less than four authoresses in three de> 
scents, as will appear by this short table, and 
by the subsequent account of those illustrious 


Margaret Widville. 

.1 1 

William, Joanna, 

I G. Ld. Bergavenny, 

Henry— I Mary Arundel, 
*2 Catherine Grey, 

.±: — a. 

Lord Lumley . T, D, of Norfolk . 

[Lord Orford was afterwards induced to think, that 
the lady Bcrgavenny he has here described was not 
Joanna Fitz-AIan, but her daughter-in-law, lady 
Frances Manners, daughter of Thomas earl of Rut- 
land, and wife of Henry lord Bergavenny.^ 

Herbert inclined lord Orford to this opinion^ from 
having stated that the following work was licensed to 
Hugh Jackson the printer, in 1577:^ 

^ Precious Perles of perfect Grodlines, &c. begun 
by lady Frances Aburgauenny, and finished by John 

*-Scc Works, vol.i. p. 5SS. * Typogr«Aotiq. voLii. p. US4. 

Y 3 



The noble earl miglit have collected from the sa 
volume of oiir typographical historian, p. 9S4^ i 
lady Frances, and not Joanna, was the undoubtc 
author of" certain pieces in Bentley's Monument < 
Malrones, 1582. Those pieces consist of prayers 
for various occasions, " committed at the houre of her 
death to die right worshipfull ladie Marie Fane, her 
onlie daughter, as a jewell of health for the soule, 
and a perfect path to Paradise, verie profitable to be 
used of everie faithfull Christian man and woman." 

One of these prayers deciphers " in alphabet forme" 
the name of lady Mary Fane.** The following devout 
apostrophe follows the letter F : 

" Faith is to be embraced of all those, that hope 
for felicitie and blessednesse in Jesus Christ. Give 
me therefore such wisdome from above, that I may be 
dailie desirous to learne thy sacred precepts, and 
walke in the path-waie of thy giorioiis statutes ; that 
by the exercise of thy will, sinfuU vice and miquitie 
may be vantjuished, and vertue may have the domi- 
nion and sovereigntie in me." P. 209. 

An acrostical hymn concludes the pious legacy of 
lady Fraunces Aburgavenny, and may suitably dose 
this article : 

" From Biniulnease preserve mf, Lord ! 

Renew thy spirit in my hart, 
And let my tongue therewith accord, 

Uttering all goodnesse for his pan. 

> This IbJj Faac wa^ the only child of Heary lurd Benn^ 
nnoj bj Joanu l^^ti-Alsa, and i-arried the barony ot Le Do 


No thought let there arise in me 

Contrarie to thy statutes ten ; 
Ever let me most mindfull be 

Still for to praise thy name : Amen. 

'< As of my soule, so of my bodie, 

Be thou my guider, O my God ! 
Unto thee onlie I do crie, 

Remove from me thy furious rod. 
Graunt that my head may still devise 

All things that pleasing be to thee ; 
Unto mine eares, and to mine eies, 

Ever let there a watch set bee> 
None ill that they may heare and see ; 
No wicked deedc let my hands dO| 
In thy good paths let my feete go/' ^] 

ipenser into the Fanes, by her marriage with Thomas Fane of 
Baddishall, in Kent. She died June 28, 16S6. See the case in 
Collins's Baronies in Fee. 
4 Monument of Matrones, p. 815. 

T 4 


This admirable young heroine should perhaps 
be inserted in the Royal Catalogue rather 
than here, as she was no peeress ; but having 
omitted her tlicre, as she is never ranked in 
the Hst of kings and queens, it is impossible 
entirely to leave out the fairest ornament of 
her se.\. It is remarkable that her mother 
(like the countess of Richmond before men- 
tioned) not only waved her small pretensions" 
in tjvoiir of her daughter, but bore her train 

' It ia very obsercable how nianj defetK concurred in tbc 
title of this ]>riLicc» to the crown, l. Her descent vizt trmn 
the younger sister of Henry the eighth, aiid there were ite- 
scenil^uiti of the elder living, whose ciniiu indecU haJ been tct 
usiile hy the power given by parliatncnt lo king Henry u> nga- 
lulc the fruccession : a power which, not being fountled on 
iiatiunal expetUcnce, could be of do force ; and additiotwily in- 
TiJidated by that hing having, by the uimc authority, letrled tfac 
trown preferably on hts own daughters, who were bolli living. 
•J. Her mother, (i-om whom alone Jane could derive any right, 
wiis idive. 3. The inothcr was young enough to have other chil- 
dren [not being piul thtr^-one at the death of king Edward *V 
and if she had borne a son, hii> right prior lo thalofhit atterwai 
incontestable, 4. Charles Brandon, lather of the duchess of Suf. 
folk, had married one woaian while contracted to anotfaert but 
was divorced to fulfil his promise : the repudiated wife ■mat Itviw 
when lie married Mary queen of France, by whom he had ib« 

• Sec Veriuc'* print of this duchess i 
where her age k wid to be tbirty-«u, in 

od her second husbaod, 


-Lauv Ja.xk <Ihav 



when she made her public entry into the 
Tower, ^ 

Of this lovely scholar*s writing we have — 

" Four Latin Epistles/* 
three to BuUinger, and one to her sister the 
lady Catharine ; printed in a book called, 
** Epistolas ab Ecclesiae Helveticae Reforma- 
toribus, vel ad eas scriptae,*' &c, Tiguri, 
1742, 8vo, The fourth was written the night 
before her death, in a Greek Testament, in 
which she had been reading, and which she 
sent to her sister. 

** Her Conference with Feckenham, Abbot 
of Westminster, who was sent to convert her 
to Popery," * 

** A Letter to Dr, Harding, her Father's 
Chaplain, who had apostatized/^^ 

" A Prayer for her own Use during her Im- 
prisonment." ^ 

duchess. 5. If, however, Charles Brandon^s first marriage should 
be deemed mill, there b no such pica to be made in fiivour of the 
duchess Frances herself, Henry duke of Sufiblk, father of Jane, 
being actually married to the sister of the earl of Arundel, whom 
he divorced without the least grouads,.(o make room for his mar* 
riage with Frances. 

9 Strype*s Memorials, vol. iiL p. 8. 

4 Ballard, p. 105. and the Harleian Miscellany. 

* Printed in the Phcenix, voL ii. p. S8. 

VideJ'ox's Acts and Monuments. 



" Four Latin Verses written in Prison with 
a Pin.' 

" Her Speech on the Scaftbld." * 

Hollinshed and sir Richard Baker say, she 
wrote divers other things, but know not where 
they are to be found. Bale * adds to the above 
mentioned : 

" The Complaint of a Sinner.** 

" The Duty of a Christian.'* 

And Fox ^ mentions 

" A Letter to her Father." ' 

There are besides, in a manual of prayers, 
which has been supposed to be the composi- 
tion of the Protector Somerset, two notes 
written by Lady Jane Grey, and another by 
her husband, which have escaped all the au- 
thors that mention her. They are pre- 
served among the Hart. MSS. in the Museum, 
No. 2343. 

[Lady Jane Grey, the eldest daughter of Henry 
Grey, marquis of Dorset and duke of Suffolk, by 
Frajices Brandon, eldest daughter of Charles Brandon 
duke of Suffolk, by Mary, youngest daughter of Itjng 
Henry the seventh, was not more distinguished by her 

1 BiiUard,p.ll6 
' Fox.p.nao. 

■ It), p. 114. 

' ViJe infra. 


descent than by her extraordmary accomplishments ; 
and these were adorned with such sweetness of tem- 
per and innate goodness of heart, as rendered her the 
delight and wonder of all who knew her. * Under the 
tuition of bishop Elmer she made a surprising progress 
in arts and sciences, and could express herself very 
properly In the Latin and Greek tongues. We are 
assured by Ascham, that she wrote in the Latin with 
great strength of sentiment ; and we are informed by 
her contemporary sir Thomas Chaloner^ that she 
was well versed m Hebrew, Qialdee, Arabic, French, 
and Italian; that she played well on instrumental 
music, wrote a curious hand, and was excellent at her 
needle ; and with ail these rare endowments, wbm cS a 
mild, humble, and modest spirit. Fuller adds^ that 
she had the ^^ innocency of childhood, the beauty of 
youth, the solidity of middle, the gravity of old age^ 
and all at eighteen ; the birth of a princess, the learn* 
ing of a clerk, the life of a saint, yet the death of p, 
male&ctor for her parents* ofibnces.'* 

Ascham, who was queen Elizabeth's language- 
master, thus describes this pattern of every female 
excellence, as Mr. Seward justly termed lady J&ne 
Grey : ^^ Aristotle's praise of women i» perfected in 
her. She possesses good manners, prudence, and a 
love of labour. She possesses every talent, without 
the least weakness of her sex. She speaks French and 
Italian as well as she does English. She writes readfly 

« Ballard, p. 98. 

^ Strype'f Memoirt, vol. iii. 

Holy State, p. 511. 

and with propriety. She iias more ttiaii once spokefl 
Greek to me." And again, in his Schoohnaster, he 
says, " I found her in her chamber readinge Pluedon 
Platonis in Greeke, and that with as much deligte as 
some gentlemen would read a merie late in Bocase." 
He also relates an anecdote of her conversation with 
liim, — because he deemed it worthy of memory, and 
because it was the last talk he ever had with heti ami 
the last time he ever saw that " noble and worthie' 

The following pious and affectionate address from 
this most interesting victim of courtly ambition, was 
printed in Bentley's Monument of Matrons, 1S82, 
p. 100 ; but is here given from a more early and ac- 
curate copy in the library of Mr. Brand, which is 
appended to " A moste truitefuU piththye and learned 
Treatise how a Christen Man ought to belittve himself 
in the Daunger of Death." Black letter, no ditte. 
" All Exhortacion wrytten by tlie Lady Jane, the 

Night before she suffred ; in the End of tlie New 

Testaniente in Grcke, wliych she sent to her Sister 

Ludye Katlieriiie. ^ 

" 1 have sent you, good sister Katberine, a bodui 
whych although it be not outwardly trymmed 
golde, yet inwardlye it is more worth dien precyi 


' BollBrdhas printed aLetin copyof this ciJiortation. Rjthfwi 
Bunict iayB, that lady Jane wrote it in Greek ; but Mr. B«kc« 
siipposcil it to bewrilten in English, bcctuiK il was printed in that 
tunguage by Fox in his Acts and Monuments. See Mem. of eni- 
Bent Ladies, p. 11 1. A MS. copy oecun in HarL BiW. 4U, 



sloiies. It in tlie booke, cteai-e sister, of tlie law of llie 
Lord : it is hys testament and last wjll, whj'clie lie 
bequettied unto ns wretches, wliyche shall leade yoii 
to the jMith of eternal joye. And if yoii with a gootl 
niinde reade it, and with an earnest desier followe it, 
it shftl brj'ng you to an immortal and everlasting life. 
It wil teache you to lyve, and learn you to dye. It 
shall wj-nne you more then you shoulde hare gained 
by liie possessions of yoiire wofull fntliers landes. 
For as, if God hadde prospered liyni, you should have 
inherited his landes; so if you apply diligentlye tliys 
boke, sekyng to directe your lyfe after it, you shalbe 
an inheritoiir of suclie rychcs, as neyther the covetous 
shal wj'thdrawe from j-ou, neyther the thefe shall 
steale, neitlier yet the mothes comipte. 

" Desyerwyth David, good sister, lo uiiderstande tlie 
lowe of the Lorde your GOD. Live styl to dye, that 
you by death mnye purchace etemall l^'fe; or after 
your death enjoie the life purchaced you by Christes 
deatli. And tniste not, that the tendemes of youre 
iige shall lengthen your life ; for ossone % if God cull, 
gocth the yonge as theolde; and labour aiwaye to 
learne to dye; deny the world, defye the devyll, and 
despyse the fleshe, and delilc your selfe only in the 
Lorde. Be penitent for your syiincs, and yet despayre 
not. Be strong in faith, and yet presume not. And 
desyer wyth St. Paul, to bee dissolved and to lie wyth 
Chryste ; wyth whom even in death there is lyfe. Bee 
lyke the good servant, and even at midnight be wak- 



ing, lest whan death commetlk and steateth upon, like 
a thefe in the nyght, you be wyth the evill servaunt 
Ibund slepinge; and leaste for lacke of oyle, ye be found 
lyke to the five foolysh wemen [virgins], and like him 
that had not on the weddyng garment, and then be 
cast out from the maryage. 

" Rejoyce in Chryste; as I truste ye doe: and, 
seyng ye have the name of o ChrysOan, as nere as ye 
can, folowe the steppes of your master Chryst, and 
take up your crosse ; laye your synnes on hys backe, 
and alwayes embrace him. And, as touching my 
death, rejoyce as I dooe (good sister) that I shalbe 
delivered of this corruption, and put on uiicomipcyoii. 
For I am assured, that I shal, for losyng of a mortall 
!yfe, Wynne an imraortdi lyfe ; the whych I praye 
God graunt j'ou : sende you of lus grace to live in his 
feare, and to dye in the true Chrystyan fayth ; from 
the whyclie in God's name I exhorte you that ye 
never swarve, neyther for hope of tyfe, nor feare of 
death. For if ye wyl dejiy hys trueth, to lengthen 
your lyfe, God wyll denye you, and yet shorten your 
dayes. And if ye wyll cleave to liim, he wil proionge 
your dayest to your comforte and hys glory. To the 
whyche glory God bring me now, and you hereafter, 
when it shall please God to call you. 

" Fare well, good sister, and putyoure onely trust 
in GOD, who only nnist helpe you, 

" Your loving sister, 
" Jane Duhley." 

Iliis Exhortation was reprinted in 161 5, 4to. along 


with an admonition to such as are weak in the Faith, 
a Catechism, and the History of the Life and Death 
of Lady Jane. ^ These were likewise republished in 
vol. V. of Lord Somers' Tracts, with certain words 
spoken at her death. 

In Bentley's Monument of Mfttrons, the following 
Latin sentences were subjoined : 


" Non aliena putes homiai qu» nbtingere possum, 
Sors hodierna mihi, craa crit ilia tibi. 

Jane Dudlsv. 
Deo juvaote, nil nocet livor malus : 
Et non juvante, nil juvat labor gravis. 
Post tenebras spero lucem." 

The following translations of these verses have 
been oflered by BaUard : 

Wliate'er to man, as mortal, is assign'd. 
Should raise compassion, reader, in thy mind ; 
Mourn others woes and to thy own resign : 
Tliat fate whicli I have found may soon be thine I ' 

f While God assists ua, envy bites in vain : 
If God forsake us, fruitless all our pain ! 

I hope for light after this darkness. 

« Vid. Bibl. Bodl. vol. i. p. 51B. 

■ Mr. Seward has rendered the fint diitich with greater close- 

" To mortals* cominon fate tby mind rcMgn ; 
Jfy lot co'day, (o-aiorrow nmy be time" 

Anecd. rol. I 



In Hori. M.S. 416. is pi-esened an original 
rant, signed " JANE, tlie Queue*," given uiiiler her 
signet al the Towre of London, the xTiijth day of 
July, the first yere of lier reign, and directing sir Jobll 
Bridget, afterwards die first lord Chandos^, aud sir 
Nidiolas PojTitz, to " repair with all speed towards 
Buckinghamshire, for the repression of certain tumulu 
iDoved there against herself and crowne ; authorizing 
them to assemble, muster, and le^'j, all the power 
that they could possibly make, eidier of servants 
tenants, officers, or friends ; reserving to the use of 
her right trusty and well beloved cousins, the earls of 
Arundel] and Pembroke, tlieir servantii, tenants, and 
officers." ITiIs warrant proved a fatal snare; for, 
those ' right trusty cousins ' were at that time 
ting against her. Her father's miscounselled 
ness accelerated her demise ; a little before which 
she sent the following pathetic letter to hini, which 
occurs HI Marl. MS. SIS*. It is the same very pro- 
bably which lord Orford says was mentioned by 

> See also in the Lunsdown MSS, 1.109, a letter to the ntarqais 
of Northaiiiplon go signed, which terms Mary the ** bttrtard 
daughter to her great iuicl« Ucnry." 

* Hewas created baron Chanitos of Sudeley, at the coronation 
of queen Mary. Heis related to have attended Indy Jane on the 
scoAbld ; and, in testimony ofhis civilities, to have recdved finm 
her a table-book, with Bomc Greek and Latin verses writlen upon 
it, in consequence of his lordshL|)'i requesting something to reiwit 
u a memorial or licr. See HoliiiDhed's Chronicle, and CoUin'* 



■ Father 

" Aldiough it hath pleased God to hasten my 
dentil by you, by whome my lite shoiUd rntlier have 
beeae lengtlieiied, yet can I soe patiently take it, that 
I yeild God more hearty thanks for shortning my 
wofuU dnyes, than if all the world had been given into 
my possessions, with life lengthened at my owne will. 
And albeit, I ani very well assured of your impatient 
dolours, redoubled many wnyes, both in bewayling 
your owne woe, and especially (as I am informed) 
my woUilt estate ; yet, my deare father, if I may witli- 
otil offence rejoyce in my owiie mishaps, herein I may 
account mysclfe blessed, that washing my hands witli 
tlie innocence of my fact, my guiltless bloud may cry 
before the Lord, mercie to the innocent ! And yet 
though I must needs acknowledge, tliat beinge con- 
strayned, and (as you know well enough) continually 
assayed ; yet in taking upon mee, I seemed to con- 
sent, lUid therein grievously offended the qucene and 
her lawes. Yet, doe I assuredly trust that this my 
offence towards God is soe much the lesse ; in tliat 
being in so royoll estate as 1 was, my enforced honour 
never mingled with mine innocent heart. And tlius, 
good fatlicr, I have oj>enett unM you die state- where- 
in I presently stand. My death at hand, although Ut 
you perhaps it may sucnie wofull, yet to mee there is 
nothing tliat can Ikh; more welcome, tlian from this 
vale of misery to aspire lo llmt heavenly tlironc of all 
joy and pleasure, with Christ my Saviour ; in whose 
atedlasl fiiidi (if it may be lawfuUfor the daughter soe 
to write to the father) the l^rd that hath hiUierto 
VOL. I. Z 



strengthened you, soe continue to keepe jou, that aa 
Ae last wee maj meete in heaTcti, wiifa the Father, 
Sonn, and Holy Ghost ■ 

" I am your obe<Ecsit daughter, till death, 
" Jun DuDiXT.' 

The above was remarked, bji; sir E. Biydges, to be I 
indeed a most pathetic, and eloquent, and ht^i-mind- ^ 
ed letter, which would alone justify all the praises 
that have been bestowed on thb incomparable woman. 
Phillips records her as far more happy in ber learn- 
ing, wherein she took wonderfid delight ; and ber fine 
vein of poetry, for which she is by many highly com- 
mended, than in being proclaimed queen of Ei^and. 
TTieatr, Poetar. p. 258. See the case of her preten- 
dons to the crown learnedly discussed in Hargnve's 
edition of Lord Hale's Jurisdiction of the Lords ; and 
much of her family history in Nichols' Leicestershire- 
Cawthom has a poetical epistle &om lady Jane Gre; 
to ber husband, lord Guilford Dudley, pro&ssing to 
be in the manner of Ovid, but really more in the man- 
ner of Pope.] 



{^Nicholas lord Vaux^ the ambassador, had long 
been confounded with his son, Thomas lord Vaux the 
poet Edwards in his Paradise of dainty Devises, 
or Puttenham in his Art of Poesie, seem to have given 
rise to this error, which was continued by Phillips and 
Wood, and adqpted by lord Orford. To the acum^i 
of Dr. Percy we are indebted for its detection^, in the 
year 1765; and his opinion has been followed by 
Mr. Warton, by Mr. Ellis, and by Mr. Ritson. The 
latter indeed has proceeded a step farther, and assigns 
a place among our poets to William, the son of Tho- 
mas lord Vaux ; but his assignment does not appear 
to have the warrant of confirmed authority. ^ 

Thomas lord Vaux of Harwedon, was eldest son 
to Nicholas, the first lord, by his second wife Anne, 
daughter of Thomas Greene, of Green's Norton, in 
Northamptonshire, esq. He was fourteen years old 
at the death of his &ther, which happened on the 

ft Among the Cottoniun MSS. it a letter from lir Nicholas 
Vaux to cardinal Woliey, about the preparation at Guinety 
May iSy 15S0y and another from fir Thomas Vaux to the duke 
of Norfolk, reporting queen Catherine's protestation against re- 
linquishing the title of queen, April 18, 1555. 

i Reliques, voL iii. p. 336, first edit 

* See Bibliographia Poetica, p. 379 ; and Spedrocns of Eng. 
Poetry, vol. ii. p. 8«. 

z 2 


Hth of May 1524, only seven days after his ad- 
vancement to the peerage. In 1527 we find this 
nobleman among the attendants in Wolsey's stately 
embassy, when that prelate went to treat of a peace 
between the emperor Charles the fifth, and the kings 
of England and France; and on the 19th of January 
1530, he took liis place in parliament as a baron. In 
1 532 he waitetl on the king in his splendid expedition 
to Calais and Bologne, a little before which time he 
is said to have had the custody of the mild and perse- 
cuted Catherine. In the following year he was made 
a knight of the Bath, at the coronation of her yet 
more ill-fated successor Atme Boleyn. He appears 
to have held no public office but that of captain of tlie 
island of Jersey, which he suiTendered in 1536. 

He married Elizabeth daughter and sole heir to 
sir Thomas Cheney of Irtlingburgh, in Northampton- 
shire, knight, and had by her two sons, William, 
who succeeded him, and Nicholas ; and two daugh- 
ters, Anne, married to Reginald Bray, of Stone, 
county of Northampton, and Maud, who died un- 
married. I..ord Vaux died early in the reign of Philip 
and Marj'. * 

From the prose prologue to Sackville's Induction, 
in the Mirror for Magistrates, it would seem that 
lord Vaux had undertaken to pen the history of king 
Edward's two sons cruelly murdered in the Tower of 
London ; but what he performed of his undertaking 
does not appear. 

^ Loilgc's Biognipbical Notices of the Portnuts engraved from 
Hulbeiti's Drawings. That uf torJ Vaux is angularly beautiful 
iind interesting. 


Dr. Percy and Mr, Ellis, in their highly valuable 
Selections of early English Poetry, have printed " the 
Assault of Cupid,'' and the *^ Dyttye, or Sonet made 
by the Lorde Vans in Time of the noble Queene 
Marye, representinge the Image of Deathe ;*' of which 
a copy occurs in Harl. MS. 1703. They are not, 
therefore, inserted in the present work. But it may 
not be superfluous to remark, of the latter production^ 
that the popular notion of lord Vaux's having cod>- 
posed it upon his death-bed, was discredited by Gas- 
coigne in 1575, and is neither supported by its manu- 
script or printed title, which runs, ^* The aged Lover 
renounceth Love.** 

In the Paradise of dainty Devises, 1596, there are 
ten pieces attributed to lord Vaux. One of those is 
here extracted from that scarce miscellany, on the 
supposition that it has not been republished : 


** How can the tree but waste and wither away» 

That hath not some time comfort of the sunne? 
How can that flower but vade and soone decay, 
That alwaies is with darke clouds over runne ? 
Is this a life ? — Nay ; death you may it call 
That feeles each paine, and knowes no joy at all. 

** What foodelewe beast can live long in good plight? 

Or is it life where sences there be none ? 
Or what availeth eies, without their sight ? 
Or els a tongue to him that is alone ? 
Is this a life ? — Nay ; death you may it call 
That feeles each paine» and knowes no joy at all. 

z 3 



" Wliereto serves eares, if ihnt there be no sound ? 

Or such a heud where no device doth grow ? 
Bui ail of plainteH, since sorrow h tlie ground, 
Whereby the heart dolh pine in deadly woe. 
Ib this 8 life ? — Nay ; death you may it call 
That feeles each paine, and knowes no joy at aU." 

To the Poetical Register fur 1801, that el^^t 
scholar and writer, sir I^rton Brydges commuiu- 
cated two poems by lord Vaux trom the some early 
compilation ; and prefaced them by saying, that Tho- 
mas lord Vaux was summoned to parliament 22 Hen, 
VIII. &c. He also intimates a suspicion, as well as | 
the late Mr. Ritson, djat Williani, tlie eldest son of 1 
Thomas lord Vaux % might have been the writer 
whose works have created so much difficulty in ap- 
propriating, and which combine (he thinks) an ease 
and elegance of manner, with a certain sincerity of 
sentiment diat generally results from a long intet^ 
course and disgust with the world.' Camden, under 
the year 1595, speaks of William lord Vaux, as 
departing this life much about that time, a pri 
at large, and a most bigoted catholic. He was su& 
ceeded by his grandson, Edward.] 

'' 'I'liis lord iiaU isuie Georj^, who inarricil Elizabeth. daughMr 'I 
sir John Roper, afterward created lord Tpynhao 
' Poetical Register, p. ISS. 

Was son of sir William Parker*, by Alice, 
sister of Lovel lord Morley, by which title this 
Henry was summoned to parliament in the 
twenty -first of Henry the eighth. Except be- 
ing a pretty voluminous author, we find nothing 
remarkable of him, but that he too signed the 
before-mentioned letter to pope Clement ; and 
having a quarrel for precedence with the lord 
Dacre of Gillesland, had his pretensions con- 
firmed by parliament. Antony Wood says, ' 
he was living an ancient man, and in esteem 
among the nobility, in the latter end of the 
reign of Henry the eighth ; and in the cata- 
logue of king Charles's collection*, a portrait ' 
is mentioned of a lord Parker, who probably 
was the same person. 



He wrote — 

" A Declaration of the xciv. Psalm, "printed 
by T. Berthelet, 1539. " 

'* The Lives of Sectaries." 

Several tragedies and comedies, whose very 
titles are lost." And, according to Bale and 

'* Certain Rhimes." 

Besides these pieces, there are in the king's 
library the following manuscripts^ translated 
by him, styling himself Henry Parker, knight, 
lord Morley. 

" Seneca's xviii. and xcii. Epistles." 

" Erasmus's Praise to the Virgin Mary;" 
dedicated to the princess Mary. 

" St. Athanasius's Prologue to the Psalter." 

" Thomas Aquinas of the angelical Saluta- 

" Anselme, of the Stature, Form, and Xafe 
of the Virgin Mary and our Saviour." 

" The Ecclesiastes of Solomon, with a long ■ 

" Translation of the Somuium Scipionis.*' 

'' Ames, p, ITl. [Myles Diiviei;, in his Icon Libelionun, ^ve& 
the title thus : " Dcclsrntion of the Psalm xciii. Deiu ultujnum 
DonuDUB,DeuBuItionenilitH;reegil,"&c.: but tlii« Pialm in all 
ProtcBtant editions ia numbercil xciv.] 

' Tbeatr, Records, p. S. 

I Vide Men of Note imdei Henry VIU. 

• Vide CWej'ii CeUlogue. 


« The History of Paulus Jovius/'^ 

" History of the Pope's Ill-treatment of the 
Emperor Frederick, translated from the Latin 
of Massuetius Salemitanus."^ 

" Plutarch's Life of Theseus j*' dedicated to 
Henry the eighth, 

" Plutarch's Lives of Scipio and Hannibal." 

" Plutarch's Life of Paulus iEmilius."* 

<* John de Turre crematd, his Exposition of 
the XXXIV. Psalm." 

And there is in the same collection, a book 

*< Expositio in Psalterium ;" 
in which is written *' Henricus Parker, eques, 
baro Morley, hunc codicem dono dedit Domi- 
nas Maris, regis Henrici VIII. filiae." 

In an old catalogue of a sale of books I 
found this article : ^ 

*< Lyff of the good King Agesilaus, wretten 
by the famous Gierke Plutarche, in the Greke 

9 [Vid. BibliothecaNorfoldana, p. 1S6» 1681, 4to.] 

« Tanner^ p. 573. [Dp. Tanner^s inibnnatkni wat inaccurate: 
the story of the emperor Frederick is profetsedly translated firom 
the Italian novels of Masuccio; and is the 49th of Part V. as Bfr. 
Douee has intimated.] 

) Ma in the Bodl. Library. Vid. Tan. ib. 

« [It occurs in Osbom*s Cat for ns€. No. 18157» says Dr. 
Lort. In MaunsdPs Cat of books in Divinity, 1 595, there occurs 
a Sermon on the 91st Psaim, ascribed to Henry Fu4cer, Lord 


Tounge, ai)d traunslated out of the Greke into- 
Lat^'ii by Antony Tuilaityn, and drawne out of 
Latyn into Englishe by me Henry Lord Mor- 
ley, and dedycated unto the Right Honourable 
Baron the Lorde Cromwell, Lord Privy-sea! j 
with a Comparison adjoyned of the Life and 
Actions of our late famous King Henrie the 
Eighth ; MS. wrote in his Lordship's own 
Hand-writing; as appears by Letter to the 
LordZouch, President of the Queene's Coun- 
saill in the Marches of Wales, wrote by Wil- 
liam Henrick, one of the Clerkes of that ] 
Court in l602. Price ten shillings and six- 

[Mr.WoTton suspects that the tragedies and come- 
dies of lord Morley, mentioned by Bole, were nothing 
more than grave mysteries and moralities, which pro- 
bably would not now have been lost had they deserved 
to live; nor could he suppose his rkimes to have been 
imitations of Petrarch.* Wood says, that his younger 
years were adorned with all kinds of superficial learn- 
ing, especially with dramatic poetry, and his ^er 

) The epitaph, which in my former cdidon I mentioned to 
have been written by this lord for himself, was probably his mn's ; 
at Henry carl of Arundel did not die, auonling to Dugdole, I 
the szd of Elizabeth. 

Hist of Eng. Poetry, vol. i. p. se. 



with that which was divine, and therefore worthily 
characterized to be ctr literis daru&, ac generis ncbi^ 
litate conspiatus. ^ It is a stronger proof of his jdety 
than his taste, adds Warton, that he sent as a new 
year's gift to the princess Mary, Hampole's Ccxor 
m^tary upon Seven of the first Penitential Ftolms.® 
The manuscript with his epistle prefixed ^, is in the 
royal numuscripts of the British Museum. The 
authors he translated show his track of reading. He 
seems to have been a rigid Catholic, retired and stu- 
dious. But we should not forget his attention to the 
classics, and that he translated also Tully*s Dream of 
£kupio^ and three or four lives of Plutarch, although 
not immediately firom the Oreek.^ 

Mr. Waldron has printed, in his collection of scarce 
l^ld curious tracts entitled The Literary Museum, 
^ De Predaris Mulieribus ; that is to say, in En^yshe, 
Of the ryghte renoumyde Ladyes.'' Translated fixMU 
Boccace, and dedicated to king Henry the eighth by 
Henry Parker, knight, lord Morley. The specimen 
given by the carefiil editor is firom a manuscript on 
vellum^, which is supposed to have been the present 
ation copy to the king, and cannot be deemed incu- 
rious. The dedicatory epistle, being his lordship's 
own composition, b here extracted. 

*^ To the moste hygh, motte puysante, motte ex- 

7 Athen. Oxon. vol. i. col. 5.7. 

« Bibl.Reg. isB.xxi. 

u This epiiitle does not appear in Reg. MS. 18 B. xxi. 

^ WartoD, ut Kup. 

^ Lately in the library of Jamet Bindley, eiq. M. A. and F.8. A. 



client, and moste clirysteii kjnge, my moste redonbt*- 
ede sovereygne lorde Henry tli'eighte, by the g^race 
of Gode of Engloode, Fraunce and Irelonde kynge^ 
defender of tlie feythe, &c. your moste humble sub- 
jecte Henry Parctire, knyght, lorde Morley, desyreth 
thys newe yere with infynyte of yeres to your impe> 
riail majeste, helthe, honours, and vyctory. 

" In the tyme the hoole worlde was obediente to 
the Homaynes, most victoriouse and graciouse so- 
vereigne lorde, not onely by armes they were renou- 
mede above all other naciones, but also in eloquens 
and goode lemynge, as it apperethe by thyes oretours 
and poetes in the greate Augustus days ; that is to saje, 
Varro, Tullius Cicero, Virgill, Orace, and Ovyde, with 
divers others. And all thougbe that those that en- 
suyde from oone empoure to another were excllently 
lemede, as bothe the Plynys, Marciall, Quyntilii 
and Claudian, and suche other ; yet why it was so^j 
that they coulde never attayne to these afore rehersyde, 
neither in prose nor yet in verse, is to me n greate 
wonder. For asmuche as they sawe the workes of the 
otlier, whiche as my reasone gevythe me should have 
rather causede theym to have bene in science above 
theym, then inferiours to theym. For why, if one 
that gothe aboute to buylde a palace, if he se another 
whiche lykethe hym well, it shalbe noo greate niastrie 
if he spye a faulte in his exemplar to amende it in hys 
worke. And why thys shulde not be, truely I can 
geve noo reasone to the contrary ; for soo it was that 
evere as the greate empyre of Rome decayde in deedes 
of armes, so dyd it in learenynge : in somuche> that 


LORD morleV. 349 

whether it were by the straynge nationes, that they 
were mynglede with all, or otherwise; at the laste, 
theimseUs that accomptyde all other nationes barba- 
rouse, oonely the Greakes excepte, by the space of 
sex or sevene hundrithe yeres, were as barbarouse as 
the best Thys contynuynge so long a time, that in 
processe aboute the yere of our LordeGod, a thousand 
fbure hundrith, in the tyme of the floWre and honour 
of prynces, kynge Edwarde the thjrrde of that name^ 
holdynge by ryghte the septre of thys imperiall realme, 
as your grace nowe dothe, there sprang in Italy three 
excellente clerkes. 

<< The fyrst was Dante ; for hys greate leamynge in 
hys mother tunge, sumamyde dyoyne Dante : surely 
not without cause. For it is manyfest, that it was 
true whiche was graven on hys tumbe, that hys mater- 
nal eloquens tDuchede so nyghe the pryke, that it 
semyde a mjrracle of nature. And for because, that 
one shuldnot thynke I do feyne, I shall sett the wordes 
in the Italiane tunge, whiche is thys : 

Dante alegra son Minerva obscura 
De arte & de intelligentia nel au ingenio. 
Le elegantia mat" na aldose al scengo ; 
Que se tient pour miracol de natura. ^ 

^^ The next unto thys Dante was Frauncis Petrak, 
that not onely in the Latyne tunge, but also in swete 
ryme is so extemyde, that unto thys present tyme, un- 

* Dante composed his own epitfiph in Latin, very different 
from thu, which looks like a gallimawfry of Latin, Italian, and 



netlie is ther any noble prince in Italy, nor gOitlematl, 
withoute havynge in hys liandes hys Sonnetes and hys 
Tryhumphes and his other rymes. And he wrote also 
in ihe Latyne tunge cerleyn Eglogys in versys, and an- 
other booke namede ASrica, and of the Remedyes of 
bothe Fortunes, with dyvers epistles, and other workes 
whiche 1 over passe. 

" The lost of thies three, most gratJouse sovereigne 
lorde, was John Bocas of Certaldo, whiche in lyke 
wyse as the tother twayne, Dante and Petrarcha, were 
moste exellent in llie vulgare ryme, so tliys Bocas 
was above all others in prose ; as it apperjthe by hys 
hundrith tales, and many other notable workes. 
Nor he was noo lesse elegauntc in the prose of his 
oune tunge, then he was in the Latyne tunge, wher- 
in OS Petrak dyd wryte clerkly certeyn volumes in 
the Latyne tunge, so dyd this clerke. And iyrst of 
the Fall of Prynces, of the Geonelogye of the Goddes ; 
and, emonge other, thys booke namede De Preclaris 
Mulieribus ,- that is, ' of the ryght renomyde ladies.' 
Whiche sayde booke, as in the ende he wrytethe, he 
dyd dedicate the same to quene Jane, in hys tyme 
queneofN^les; a pryiicesse enduede with all vertues, 
u^'sdome, and goodenes. 

" And for asmuche as that I thoughte howe that 
your hyghnes, of youre accustomede mekeness and 
pryncely herte, wolde not disdayn it ; so dyd I ima- 
gyne that if by chaunce it shulde cum to the handes 
of the ryght renomyde and moste honorable ladyes of 
your highnes moste tryhumphaunte courte, that it 
shuide be well acceptyde to theym to se and reede tb« 



mervelouse ireitue of theyr oune sexe, to the laude 
perpetuall of thejrm. And albeit, as Bocas wrytethe 
in hys proheme, he mengljrssheth sum not verey chaste 
emongste the goode : yet hys honeste excuse declarethe 
that he dyd it to a goode entent, that all ladyes and 
gendewomen, seynge the glorye of the goode, may be 
steryde to folowe theym ; and seynge the vyce of sum, 
to flee theym. Whiche saide worke, my moste noble 
and gratiouse sovereyne lorde, as fiurr as it gothe, I 
have drawne into our matemaU tonge, to pres^ate the 
same unto ]rour imperiall dignyte thys newe-yeres 
day. Praynge to Chryste Jhesu to teche that right 
Christen faande of yours to batell agaynste youre aun- 
cyente mosmyesj that they may knowe that HE 
whiche ittbe way and the truethe, helpythe your ex- 
ellencye in your truethe. So that they may fiiU, and 
youe to r]r9e in honour, victory, and fame, above all 
kynges that is, hathe bene, or shalbe. Amen.!! 

In the Cottonian MS. Titus B. II. is a letter from 
lord Morley to his loving wifi^ dated Bruges, May 
11, 1571, which contains some severe reflections on 
the simulation of lord Burleigh. The following epi- 
taph by his lordship is printed in Leigh's Accedence 
of Armorie, 1597. 



Vertue, honestie, iiberalitie, and grace. 
And true religion, this seelie grave doth hold ; 
I do wish that all our great men would 

In good, follow this noble barons trace. 


That from liis wise hart did alwoies chase 

Envic and malice, and sought of yoong and olde 
Love and favour, that passetli stone and gold ; 

Unto B worthie man, a rich purchase. 

These waies he used, and obtaioed thereby 
Good fame of all men, aa well far offa^ nte; 
And now is joyfull in that celestial sphere, 
Where with saincts he sings uncessantlie, 
Holie honor, praise, and glorie, 
Give to God ; that gave him such might 
To live 80 nobly, and come to that delight. 

By the kind researches of Mr. Douce, I have been 
enabled to subjoin the epitaph on Dante, in its origi- 
nal garb, instead of the motley " mingle-mangle" it 
wears at page 349. 

" Dante Aligieri soti) Minerva oscura 
D'intclligenza, & d'arte ; nel cui ingegno 
L'eleganza matcrna aggiunse al segno, 

Che si tien gran miracol di natura," Ac. 


These lines were not placed on the tomb of 
Dante, as lord Morley announces, but beneath 
the poet's engraved portrait. Boccacio was their 

In the Bodleian library is a translation by lord 
Morley, from " The Tryumphes of Fraunces Pe- 
trarche *," 4to. printed by Cawood ; and among the 

* This is inscribed to " the most toward yonge gentleman, 
lord Mntrsvers, tan and heir apparent to the worth}' and noble 


Ashmole MSS. are two short moral poems. One of 
them has been printed in Mr. Bliss's edition of the 
Athens Oxon. and the other in Dr. Nott's Memoirs 
of the Earl of Surrey.] 

earle of Arundel.** Dr. Nott has reprinted an entire canto of it, 
in his Appendix to the Works of Surrey. 

VOL. I. A A 

I otJNGER sister of Joanna lady Ltimley, and 
first wife of Thomas duke of Norfolk *, who 

« Shedietlin 1557. [In HaddoniPocniatA, 1567, are lines on 
Mary, Margaret, ard Elizabeth, the three wiTes of Thoina» duke 
of Norfolk, who were buried in one tonib.] 

' [Son to the celebrated Henry, earl of Surrey. Mr. Lloyd, 
of Buckingham Street, York Buildings, possessed b copy of 
Grafton's abridged Chronicle, 1 570, which contained the follow- 
ing interesting mcmoranduni in the hand-writing of thi* onfortu- 
nate but magnanimous personage : — " Good frynd George, &re- 
well 1 I have no other tokins to send mj fryndes but tnj boke*; 
and I knowe howc lorj'full you are lunongsl the rest for my bard 
hupc, wheroff 1 tbanke God, because I hope hys raercyfull cfaas- 
tysment wyll prepare me for a better world. Looke well 
thowruwe thys boke ; and you schall (yud the nune off a duke 
verye unhappye. I prey God ytt maye ende with me, and that 
others maye ppede better hereafter. But yff I myght have my 
wysche, and weare in as good state as ever you knewe me, yeat 
1 wold wjsehe for a lower degre. Be ftynd, I prsye you, to 
myne ; and do my hartye commendatyont to your good wyte, 
and to gentle Mr. Dennye. I dye in the iaytke that j'ou have 
everknowen me lo be off, Farewell, good frynd. 1571-0. 
" Yours dyyng as he was lyvyng, 

" NoarroLX. 
" God biyue my god 6one. Ame." 

Dr.Nott has printed u most interesting, and, indeed, monJIr. 
estimable letter, from this duke of Norfolk to his childreo, while 
a prisoner in the Tower, in hij well-stored Appendix to Suirey't 






was belieaded on account of the queen of 
Scots, translated from the Greek — 

" Certain ingenious Sentences collected out 
of various Authora." 
Dedicated to her father.* 

[This lady was the second daughter and co-heir of 
Henry Fitz-Allan, earl of Ariuidel, an account of 
whose life occurs among die royal manuscripts in the 
Museum.*^ She died at Arundel house in the Strand, 
August 25, 1557 ' ; and, according to the manuscript 
mejnoir of her father, in childbed of an earl of 
Surrey *, being but sixteen years of age. 

Tlie dedication to her father, before the perform- 
ance^ pointed out by lord Orford, begins thus : 

" Etsi plurlmis modis, honoratissime pater, mutuus 
hominiim amur, atque studia eluccre solent, turn 
etiani non mediocriter ex xeniis, ct muneribus, lioc 

' hi the king's library. 

" [l7A.i»0 He died Feb. 84, 1519, at thcagc of lixty-eighl; 
and wru accoimtuil in hii lime to be " a flover of ri^te 

' Stiype'* McmoriaU, col.iiu p.?7.j and Dugdale, 

p. 376. 

« Tliii tiiiitt have Iwcn Philip, who inherited Arundel caitlc, 
Sutfex, and the title o( carl of Arundel, by descent from hii 
mother; the dutedom of Norfolk being forfeited by nttModcr. 
See Dugdale and Collin*. 

t " -ScniontiB qn^dnni unite cx variii Authoribu* collects 
Btqnc c Gr«cia in Laiina vcrss." IsA. iL 



tempore vidssim dads acceptUque: In qmbas 
qnisque iiicite declarat, quare, et ille ipse qai Aal, et 
illi, qui occipiuDt, delectantur. Quibos ganinas, 
aunun, vestes, equos, vel quicqnid est ejusmodi ge- 
neris, gratum esse nonint, id illi ad uoicos suos, at 
judicia amoris, deferre solenL Qua ratione et consoe- 
tiidine, omatlssime pater, ego impulsa Aii, ut aliqnod 
munusculum literarium dominationi tute in prssentia 
oSerrem, persuasa D. T. inde Don mediocrem rolup- 
tatem capturam esse," &c 

From another performance of a similar oatureS in 
the same volame, the entire dedicatioo is here copied. 

" Postquam statuissem, honoratlssime pater, aliqood 
xenioium dominationi tme exhJbere, ut neque tempo- 
ris cotisuetudini, neque officio meo omoi ex parte 
deessem, in varias ct^tationes facile distrahebar. 
Nam, etsi nihil haberem dominatione tua dignum, 
pro maximis et patemis tuis in me ciunulatJssime col- 
lalis beneficiis; putavi tamen aliquod potius usitaUe 
meffi literarise exercitationis munuscultun dare, quod 
dominationi tua; ante hac gratum fiiisse intellexi, quam 
officii mei penitus immemor videri. Cum tgitur qua»- 
flam breves sententias Grmcas legens, Latinas fecissen)| 
nihilque mihi aliud esset, quod torn convementer 
dominationi tuce a me dari posset, volui easdem domi- 
nationi tus ofTerre, tum propter elegantiam sermoms, 
cujus plenissime sunt, tum propter non mediocrem 



ligi potest, quid in hac vita faciendum, quidque fiigi- 
endum est Quod cum ita sit, obsecro dominationem 
tuam, ut illas quasi judicia officii erga te mei, et 
felicissimum non hujus tantum anni, sed totius vitce 
tuae cursus omen accipias. 

'< Filia tua dominationi tuae dedidssima, 

" Maria Norffolke/*]