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Full text of "The accessory sinuses of the nose in children. With a pref. by W. Waldeyer. Translated by Carl Prausnitz"

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The Accessory Sinuses of the 
Nose in Children. 

102 specimens reproduced in natural size from photographs 

by 

Prof. Dr. A. Onodi 

Director of the University Clinic for Diseases of the Nose and Throat in Budapest. 

With a preface by- 
Prof. Dr. W. Waldeyer 

Director of the Anatomical Institute of the University of Berhn. 

Translated by 
Carl Prausnitz, M.D, M.R.C.S, L.R.C.P. 

Head of the Hydrophobia Department of the Hygienic Institute, University of Breslau, 
late Assistant Bacteriologist to the Metropolitan Asylums Board, London. 







London 

John Bale, Sons & Danielsson, Ltd. 
Oxford House. 83-91, Great Titchfield Street, Oxford Street. 

Wiirzburg 

Curt Kabitzsch 

1911. 



505 
53 



Druck der Kouigl. Universitatsdruckerei H. Sturtz A. G., Wurzburg, 



To His Excellency 

Johann Count Zichy of Zich and Visankeo, 

Imperial and Royal Chamberlain, Member of the Privy Council, Royal Hungarian 
Minister of Education, 

this book is dedicated with deep respect and gratitude 

by the Author. 



1 



Introduction. 



I have gladly acceded to the request of my colleague Prof. Onodi that I should write 
an introduction to his book on the Anatomy and Topography of the Accessory Air 
Sinuses of the Nose in Childhood. In view of the fact that these pneumatic cavities 
of the skull are still so little understood, especially in their physiological bearings, 
every fresh contribution to their exact study is of value; but especial importance 
attaches to a research on their development, such as is given in this work. For our 
best method of elucidating the problems of Normal and Comparative Anatomy is 
always afforded by an investigation of the mode of development of the organs in 
question. 

The object of this work has been to study the development of the air sinuses 
from their first appearance untU after the beginning of puberty. To this end a 
number of sections have been cut through the skulls of infants and children of different 
ages. The sections have been laid in the three principal planes of the body and 
appear to me to have been well chosen. Since accurate measurements are given in 
every instance, a good idea is afforded of the gradual development of the frontal 
and sphenoidal sinuses, the anterior and posterior ethmoidal cells and the maxillary 
antrum. One of the necessary foundations has thus been laid upon which must 
rest any subsequent investigation of the form, relations and functions of these 
important air cavities. 

From a practical point of view, the illustrations and measurements given in 
this book appear to me to have considerable importance particularly for the dia- 
gnosis and operative treatment of the accessory sinuses in children, since they enable 
the surgeon to select and to follow up the best route of access to such cavities. 
In view of the great difficulty of diagnosing and operating for diseases of the 
sinuses in children, every contribution should be welcomed which helps to overcome , 
these obstacles. 

Waldeyer. 



Preface. 



In the investigations which I have hitherto undertaken on the accessory air 
sinuses of the nose, I have been keenly alive to the incompleteness of our know- 
ledge of these smuses in the child. So far as I know, the text-books contain only 
scanty and somewhat vague references to this subject. It has been my endeavour to 
supply this want, and at the same time to make the most complete use possible 
of the material at my disposal. My specimens have been cut with a fret-saw in 
coronal, longitudmal, and horizontal planes, and are reproduced photographically in 
their natural size. The series has been completed by the inclusion of skiagrams 
prepared from different skulls. The resulting atlas contains 102 plates, shewing, in 
various planes, the situation and size of the different sinuses, as well as their relations 
with one another and with the nasal cavity. The illustrations afford a clear view of 
the morphological aspect of the air sinuses in children, whilst the information given 
as to the natural size and measurements of these cavities should prove particularly 
instructive and useful in operative surgery. Of late years the number of operations on the 
diseased sinuses of children has shcAvn a considerable increase, such operations having 
been performed in children of P/s, 2V3, 3, 3V2, 4, 5, 6, 6V4, 6V2, 7, 9, 10, 12, etc., 
years. The material from which the illustrations of this atlas have been prepared, 
was obtained from foetuses of 6^2 and 8 months, from new-born infants, and from 
a number of children, aged, respectively, 1, 2, 4, 47^, 47-2, 5, 5^2, 6V2, 7, 8, 11, 
12, 14, and 15 months, IV2, 2, 3, 3V2, 6, 772, 81/2, 9, 11, 12, 13, 13V2, 14, 15, 18 
and 19 years. Some of the skulls shewed variations in the size and general arrange- 
ment of the sinuses, such morphological differences being the forerunners of those 
variations which are so frequently observed in the sinuses of the adult. 

I venture to hope that this volume which I am now publishing will success- 
fully supply an of ten -felt Avant, and that it will be of general use to every physician 
who wishes to extend his knowledge and to obtain an exact insight into the com- 
plicated structure of the sinuses of the child. I trust that my atlas will be a 
welcome addition to the libraries of my brother specialists as well as of surgeons, 
specialists for diseases of children, ocuhsts and otologists. May it thus prove a 
stimulus for the further and more detailed investigation of the pathology and 
treatment of the diseases of the sinuses in children. 

I welcome the opportunity of expressing my most cordial thanks to the 
Hungarian Academy of Sciences for its valuable assistance, and further to Hofrat 
Professor Dr. M. von Lenhosseh and to Prosector Dr. L. Nagy for their kindness 
in giving me the use of their material. I am indebted to my translators for the 
labour which they have devoted to their work. The French translation was kindly 
untertaken by Dr. Lautmann in Paris, the English translation by Dr. Prausnitz in 
Breslau. My special thanks are due to my publisher for the care which he has 
bestowed upon the arrangement and appearance of the book. 

Budapest, 15th December 1910. 

Onodi. 



% 



Index. 



Preface 
Plate 



i 1. 


Foet 


us of 6'/2 months 


2. 


Foet 


us of 8 months. 


3. 


,, 


n 8 


4. 


New 


-born infant. 


5. 






6. 






7. 






8. 




' if 


9. 






10. 






11. 






12. 


Chile 


of 1 month. 


13. 


jj 


-, 1 „ 


14. 


,' 


„ 1 „ 


15. 


,1 


„ 1 „ 


16. 


" 


,, 1 „ 


17. 




., 1 „ 


18. 


[\ 


„ 1 „ 


19. 


I] 


„ 1 „ 


20. 


Child 


of 2 months. 


21. 


,, 


2 


22. 


Child 


of 4 months. 


23. 




„ 4 


24. 




,> 4 


25. 


Child 


of 47^ months. 


26. 


J, 


n 4V4 


27. 


,' 


M 41/4 


28. 


jj 


4^'4 


29. 


Child 


of 472 months. 


30. 


,^ 


„ 4'/. 


31. 


,J 


„ 47. „ 


32. 


Child 


of 5 months. 


33. 




„ 5 


34. 




.. 5 


35. 


„ 


., 5 


36. 


Child 


of 5\'2 months. 


37. 


„ 


„ 572 „ 


38. 


5) 


» 572 „ 


39. 


^^ 


,. 5' 2 


40. 


Child 


of 6V2 


41. 


,, 


.. 61/2 


42. 


,' 


,. 67-2 


43. 


)) 


„ 67-.. 


44. 


Child 


of 7 mouths. 


45. 


jj 


.. 7 „ 


46. 


Child 


of 8 months. 


47. 




„ 8 



49. 8 

50. Child of 11 months. 

51. „ „ 11 



52. 

53. 

54. 

55. 

56. 

57. 

58 

59. 

60. 

61. 

62. 

63. 

64. 

65. 

66. 

67. 

68. 

69. 

70. 

71. 

72. 

73. 

74. 

75. 

76. 

77. 

78. 

79. 

80. 

81. 

82. 

83. 

84. 

85. 

81 

87. 



Child of 12 months. 

„ „ 12 

„ „ J2 „ 

Child of 14 months. 

„ „ 14 „ 

„ „ 14 „ 

„ „ 14 „ 

,. „ 14 

Child of 15 months. 

>. ,> 15 „ 

-, „ 15 

Skull of child 15 months old. 

Child of 172 years. 



Child of 2 years. 

.. „ 2 • „ 

.. ., 2 „ 

" » 2 „ 
Child of 3 years. 

„ „ 3 „ 

» ,. 3 „ 

„ „ 3 „ 
Skull of child 872 years old. 
Child of 3' ■> years 

. „ 3V'2 „ 

.. ., 37. „ 

,,; „ 3>2 „ 

Child of 6 years. 

„ „ 6 ■ „ 

„ „ 6 ., 

» „ 6 „ 

„ „ 6 „ 
Skull of child 6 years old 
„ 88. Child of 7'/2 years. 
., 89. „ „ 7V2 ., 
,> 90. „ „ 7' 2 „ 
,, 91. Skull of child 8' 2 years old 
.. 92. „ „ „ 8'/2 „ „ 
„ 93. Skull of child 9 years old. 
„ 94. Skull of child 12 years old 
„ 95. Skull of child 13 Vears old 
.. 96. ., „ „ 13 „ 
.. 97. „ „ „ 13 „ 
„ 98. Skull of child 131 2 years old. 
„ 99. Skull of child 14 years old. 
„ 100. Skull of child 15 years old 
„ 101. Adult of 18 years. 
„ 102. Adult of 19 years. 
Synopsis of Results. 



Syiioi)sis of Results. 

I. 

The condition of the accessory sinuses of the nose in childhood has not hitherto 
been investigated systematically. Valuable data, it is true, are already known 
as to their early development in the foetus. But vag'ue, general and often contradictory 
are the scanty items of information supplied by anatomical and rhinological text-books 
as to the condition of the sinuses in children. It has been the object of our investi- 
gations to fill this gap and to supplement the information both as regards purely 
anatomical data, and by reproducing the illustrations in their natural size and 
selecting them with a view to their use in operations. We will begin by giving 
a 7'esumS of the anatomical data, and will afterwards consider the practical impor- 
tance of these results in the treatment of diseases of the accessory sinuses in 
childhood. 

1. The Fiontal Sinus. 

With i-egard to the development of the frontal sinus, I have taken account 
of the investigations of Steiner^), Merkel-), Killian'"*), ZuckerkandH) and Boege^) 
in my monograph dealing with the frontal sinus (Vienna 1909). I do not propose 
to describe in detail the structural conditions of the foetal germs of these sinuses. 
I would, liowever, mention that t'.ie frontal depression called "frontal recess" by 
Killian, has been described by Mihalkovics ") under the name of "recess of the 
middle meatus". From this recess the frontal sinus arises directly, although accord- 
ing to Killian it may also develop indirectly from an ethmoidal cell, the so-called 
"frontal cell". The following data will serve to shew the views of different authors 
as to the development of the frontal sinus in childhood. Steiner described it as 
developing betwen the first and second year, and attaining the size of a pea about 
the sixth or seventh year. According to Aeby') its development begins at the 
commencement of the second year, according to Monti ^) in the third or fourth 

^) Uber die Entwickluiig der Stirnhohle etc. Laiigenbeck's Archiv 1872. 
•') Anatomie. 1885—1890. 

3) Heyinann's Handbuch der Laryngolog-ie. 1900, vol. III. 
■*) Anatomie der Nasenhohle. 1902, I. 
^) Znr Anatomie der Stirnhohlen. Konigsberg 1902. 
") Heymann'f, Handl)iicli der Laryngologie. 1900, vol. III. 
') Der Bau des menschliclien Kcirpers. 1872. 
^) Anatomie. Modona 1891. 
Onodi, NebeuLohlen, eugl 1 



* 



\.-ar, nfi-itnlinjr t" Kiiy;fl'i afit-r tlu" (wt'lfili ymv. ;n'ci.r»liiiji !<• K'. Il.iitni;nm -) 
.luriiip pulu'iny. ami arcoriliiijr to Tillaux''^ jUi.t iIh- iwrlfili y<;ir. Ziirk.i-kandl, 
wim i\ov» not ivjrard tin- frontal sinus as dirixi'.l I'lniii an tilmioiilal ell. writes: 
•In ihf now-luirn infant no trarr of a frontal sinus is vi.sjiilf." .Miii;ilku\ ics siaics 
that "tin* frontal sinus urisrs out of the recess of ilie uiiildh' niraius; iiiiiil ilic 
fonrtli year this |>rotulierance remains small, and escn ai piilu rty ii has (nily 
atiainiMl the si/e of a pea." .Ni-eordin-^- to Toirii-r' ilie t'l-iuiial >inus i.-^ tir>i >c>(ii .iIkhii 
the en«l of tlie .siTontl year and i^ iln-n diflieuli lo druiMii^ir.itr -. almiii the sc\rnili 
year it attains the size of a pea and eea>e.s lo ^rnw iMtwceii ilie liriecntli and 
twentieth year. Spec*) makes the lollowin^- statement: "W'liiUt the liist rudiment 
of a frontal siiuts is visible soon aft<'r llie lirst year in the lorni <>{' a slialiow de 
pression . it does not >^lle\\ any eonsideraMe increase until iln' tiun' immediately 
prtM'eilinfj I'Ul't'Hy. il> linal si/e heiti}^' attaiiii'd, a> a rule. aKoiit the t\\ eiilietli year." 

Aeeordinjr to l,anj,n'r-'i'oldl ''^ Mlie earliot si^ii of a frontal sinus is seen aiiout 
tlie end of the tirst year in the I'onii i>\' a shallnw de|iression. The dejitli ol' this 
cavity increases slowly, so that at tlie sixth year it has haf(||y I'eaelied the size 
of n pea. The devel.ipnient ttf the Ifolital siiuis progresses llioie ra]>idl\- .lixtUt the 

oleventh or twelfth year", ('hiari'i says in his text-book: "The rrniiial sinus 
is eonipietely absent' in the new-born iidani. and at pulierty it is aixiut the size 
of a pea". Zarnieo**) wiites in his text-book: "The frontal sinuses are not present at 
birth. Their developnu-nt i)ej,^ins towards the end of the first year, .\boiit the 
sixth or sevi'iith year their size is aljout that of a pea". 

In Hajek's*) text book we liiid uuly an enunieratiMii df the results of Killian's 
embryolotrical researches. 

According; to Chiarugi '") the frontal sinuses are derived from tlie anterior 
othnioidal cells: they are not distinctly visible until the eighth year, and attain 
the Hnal stage of their development between the fiftoenth and twentieth year, or 
even later. 

In other Oernian. French and English text-books no accurate data referring 
to the frontal sinuses in childhood are to be found. From the statements repeated 
above it will be obvious, that the views of the different authors vary and are 
often contradictory; the only uniform statement as to the measurements of the 
sinus is "the size of a pea", but the authors differ as to when this size is attained. 
1 have been unable to trace any further anatomical data, more especially, any 
measurements of the frontal sinuses, either in anatomical or rhinological text-books. 



•) Anatomic. 1859. 

-) Anatomie. 1881. 

3) Anatomie. Paris 1884. 

*) Traite d'anatomie. 1903. 

') Bardelebens Handbuch der Anatomie. Skelettlehre 1896. 

•) Anatomie. 1897. 

') Die Krankheiten der Nase. Vienna 1903. 

«) Die Krankheiten der Nase. 1910. 

'■') Patholog. u. Therap. der entziindlichen Erkrankungen der Nebenliohlen der Na.se. 1909. 

''') Anatomie. 1904. 



We will proceed to discuss the few publications dealing with skiagrams of 
the frontal sinus, viz. the researches of Eicken, Haike and myself. Five skiagrams 
from my monograph on the frontal sinus have been inc^luded in this atlas. In 
a skull of three years, two skulls of three and a half, one of four, one of six, 
one of eight and a half, one of nine, one of twelve and one of fourteen years, 
I have described the early and the later form of the sinus ; the difference between 
these two forms consisting in the extent of their development in the frontal region. 
The early form of the frontal sinus was situated laterally of the olfactory cleft 
and shewed considerable variation in size. Eicken^) found an ethmoidal cell of 
distinctly frontal character only in one skull of seven years. Smaller frontal ethmoidal 
cells were seen by him in skulls under seven years. In skulls of twelve, fourteen 
and fifteen years frontal sinuses of varying magnitude were observed. Haike ^) in- 
vestigated the accessory sinuses in several children, also in diseased conditions 
of the sinuses. To this part of his work we shall refer later on. His skiagrams 
were taken both in the fronto-occipital and in the lateral direction. As regards 
the frontal sinus, he saw "the earliest evidence of independent frontal sinuses twice 
in girls of S^'a years". 

Haike also examined the frontal sinuses of children aged, respectively 5, 7, 
71/2, 8V2, 10, IOV2, 11^4, 12, 13V/4, 1372, 14, and 16 years, and usually found 
fairly large cavities, those in children of 7^4, 8'/2 and more years shewing a con- 
siderable size. The skiagrams of diseased frontal sinuses and their importance 
will be considered in the second section, when we will also deal with the case of 
Killian^) who opened up a diseased frontal sinus in a child one year and three 
months of age. 

After this literary retrospect it will be convenient to summarize the results 
of our investigations, so far as they deal with the frontal sinus. The following 
tables contain concise details as to the heads examined, their age, the planes of 
section, and the measurements of the sinuses in each case, together with remarks 
and references to the number of the illustration. The first table comprises the 
data obtained from the sections, the second table those derived from skiagrams 
of bony skulls. 

In connection with these tables we will briefly summarize the measurements 
of the frontal sinus at different ages. 

In the first year (newborn infants, children of 1, 4^4, 5, (j'/^, 8 and 12 months) 
the height of the frontal sinus was between 3V2 and 8 mm, its length between 
3 and 9 mm, and its width between 2 and 6 mm. 

In the second year (children of 15, 18 and 24 months) the height of the 
frontal sinus was between 4'/2 and 9 mm, its length between 4 and 5^'2 mm, and 
its width between 3 and 4 mm. 

In the third year (childi-en of 3) the height of the frontal sinus was between 
14 and 18 mm, its length between 11 and 1(1 mm, and its width between 5 
and 6 mm. 



^) Transactions of the I. Internat. Laryngological Congress. Vienna 1908. 
■^) Archiv f. Laryngologie. 1910. vol. 23. 
^) Zeitschrift f. Olirenheilkunde. vol. 56. 



Frontal simis. 



Age 



hoctus of 
S mouths 

Newborn infant 

do. 

lio. 

I month 



do. 

3V2 years 

6 years 

do. 

Vl-2 years 

do. 



I'laiitt of Section 



loDuitii)! viMticiil. 



tlo. 

horizontal 

.io. 

lotmittid. vertical 



do. 


coronal 


do. 


longitud. vertical 


4' -i months 


coiona! 


do. 


lionzoutal 


5 months 


do. 


do. 


.Io. 


5Vs months 


ioniiitiid. vertical 


8 months 


horizontal 


do. 


do. 


12 mouths 


coronal 


14 months 


do. 


do. 


longitud. vertical 


15 months 


coronal 


do. 


longitud. vertical 


do. 


do. 


1', s years 


coronal 


do. 


longitud. vertical 


2 years 


coronal 


do. 


longitud. vertical 


3 years 


do. 



coronal 



do. 




do. 



do. 



coronal 



3>/, 
5 
6 

4V» 



6'/» 
6 

7 
7 'A 
5V2 

8 
5V2 

6 



6 
10 

4'-2 

7 
7 
5 
9 

5V2 
Vt 
11 



longitud. vertical i 13 



10 



11 



16 18 



4'/i 

8',« 
8 
3 



5 

4V's 



3 

5', 2 

5 
6V2 
5 
5 
5 



4 
9 
4 
b 
5 
3 
472 
3 

5'/2 

14 



6V2 

18 

17 

17 

14 



Remurku 



2 

3'/2 



3'A 
3 
2 
4 
4 
2 
3 
5 



3 
6 

3>,2 

4 
4 

3V2 

7 
4 
3 
5 



12 



11 



Frontal rocess showing marked deve- 
lojiinont n|iwar(i.s and forwiirda, 
st'O I '1 11 to '2 r] 
riato 4 ;/ 
I Mate 7 rf 
I'lato \) rf 
Till' early foiiii of the frontal sinus, its 
e.xtoni and situation are clearly visihle; 
it opens immediately into the semilunar 
hiatus, riate 12 -/ 
Plate 14 rf 
The early form of the frontal sinus, 
its extent and situation are clearly vi- 
sible; it opens into the anterior portion 
of the semilunar hiatus. Plate 14 rf 
Plate 2h ."/" 
Plate 28 sf 
Plate 34 xf 
Plate 35 .-/ 
Plate 38 sf 
Plate 47 sf 
Plate 49 sf 
The eaily form of the frontal sinus 
reaches the squamous portion of the 
frontal bone. Plate 52 rf 
Plate 65 rf 
Plate 58 rf 
Plate 60 sf 
Plate 61 sf 
Plate 62 sf 
Plate 65 sf 
Plate 68 sf 
Plate 69 sf 
Plate 72 sf 
The frontal ostium is 2V2 mm long, its 
shape an elongated oval; it opens at the 
anterior end of the semilunar hiatus. 

Plate 73, 74, sf, of 
The frontal ostium is 2'/2 mm long, an 
elongated oval; it opens at the anterior 
end of the semilunar hiatus. Plate 75 sf 
The frontal ostium opens into the narrow 
frontal recess which lies above the 

hiatus. Plate 78, sf, of, rf 
The frontal sinus opens into the ante- 
rior end of the semilunar hiatus. 
Plate 82 sf, of 
The opening of the frontal sinus is 
continuous with the semilunar hiatus. 

Plate 84, 85. sf, of 
The opening of the frontal sinus is con- 
tinuous with the upper portion of the 

semilunar hiatus. Plate 88 sf 
The frontal sinus opens close to the an- 
terior end of the semilunar hiatus. 
Plate 89 sf, of 



Skiagrapliic data of the frontal sinuses in the region of the forehead. 



Age 


Direction of 
Rays 


Height 
mm 


Width 
mm 


Remarks 


15 months 


occipito-frontal 


right 3 
left 3V2 


right 5 
left 572 


Plate 63 sfd, sfs 


3 '/a years 


do. 


right 6 
left 6 


right 6 
left 6 


Plate 77 sfd, sfs 


do. 


do. 


right 4 
left 4 


right 4 
left 4 


— 


6 years 


do. 


right 87-2 
left 6 


right 872 
left 6 


Plate 87 i^fd, sfs 


8 '/a years 


do. 


right 21 
left 21 


right 19 
left 19 


Plate 91 sfd, sfs 


do. 


do. 


right 22 
left 10 


right 22 
left 10 


Plate 92 sfd, sfs 


9 years 


do. 


right 10 
left 10 


right 10 
left 10 


Plate 93 sfd, sfs 


12 years 


do. 


right 10 
left 17 


right 20 
left 20 


Plate 94 s/d, sfs 


13 years 


do. 


right 14 
left 14 


right 20 
left 22 


Plate 95 sfd, sfs 


do. 


do. 


right 13 
left 12 


right 17 
left 18 


Plate 96 sfd, sfs 


do. 


do. 


right 10 


right 16 


Left sinus undeveloped. 
Plate 97 sfd 


13V2 years 


do. 


right 18 


light 21 


Left sinus undeveloped. 
Plate 9« sfd 


14 years 


do. 


left 10 


left 10 


Right sinus undeveloped. 
Plate 99 sfs 


15 years 


do. 


right 5 
left 11 


right 5 
left 8 


Plate 100 sfd, sfs 


18 years 


do. 


right 15 
left 6 


right 26 
left 13 


Plate 101 sfd, sfs 


19 years 


do. 


right 21 
lefr 16 


right 21 
left 24 

1 


Plate 102 sfd, sfs 



In the fourth year (children of 3 and a half years) the height of the frontal 
sinus was 6^/2 mm, its length 6 mm and its width 5 mm. 

In the sixth year (child of 6) the height of the frontal sinus was between 
17 and 18 mm, its length between 10 and 13 mm and its width between 11 and 12 mm. 

In the eighth year (child of 7^/2) the height of the frontal sinus varied between 
14 and 17 mm, its length between 4 and 11 mm, and its width between7 and 9 mm. 

Our skiagrams of the frontal region of bony skulls have furnished the follow- 
ing results : 

In the second year (children of 15 months) the height of the frontal sinus varied 
from 3 to 3^/2 mm, its width from 5 to 5^/2 mm. 

In the fourth year (children of 3^/2 years) the height of the frontal sinus 
varied from 4 to 6 mm, its width from 4 to 6 mm. 

In the sixth year (child of 6 years) the height of the frontal sinus varied 
from 6 to 8^/2 mm, its width from 6 to 8^/2 mm. 



6 

In th«> niuth i/for (rhildivii of s> •_. ;m(| It \M'jii-s^ llu- liri-iiii i>r the Iroiit.-il 
sinus \ariftl from l<> to '2'2 nun, its withli I'lom li> i<> !".• nun. 

In tin* tnrlfth ijetir (cliihl of 1 L' yi-arsi llir liriiiiit uf ihc riMiit;il sinus was 
IT nun Jiu»l its width lM» luiu. 

In tin- thhtttnth ijKir (ch\U\ of 1 ."'> ycafs) tlic lifii^lil <>[ tlic I'lnntal sinus 
varirtl from U) to i;> mm and its widili Imm Id to is nun. 

In tlu' pnirtroifh ijcdr (diildrfn of 1 ;'>',•.' and II years) the licij^lit di' the 
frt>ntal sinus varied fri>iu in to is mm and its width tiMni Hi to L' I mm. 

In the fiftiititli !/i(ir (child of I.") ycarsi the hcij^lii ot ilic lidiilal sinus varied 
from ■'> to 1 1 nun an<l it> width fr'.m .'> to s nun. 

At tile ajje of (iijlitirii (youth of IS years) llie liei^lit of the Trontal sinus 
varii'd fi-oin ('> to 1.') mm and its widtii from l.'> to I'd nnu. 

At the a^^e of niiutcen (youth of I'.' years) th<> heii:lil of th" irontal siinis 
varied from Id to iM mm and its width from l'1 to i' l mm. 

In passiujr I may mention that in some of tlie sections of heads one and 
two y<'ars old tiie exiiression "early form of the frontal sinus, frontal recess" has 
been used. Tiiis teiiu servi^s to describe the stage of development of the frontal 
sinus which occurs in the first years of childhood, before it has reached the basal 
part of the s(|uamougi portion of the frontal bone, and prior to the formation of air 
spaces. With regard to this question detailed histological investigations are now 
being carried vwX in which we hope to elucidate the conditions i^rior to the extension 
of the frontal sinus into the region of the forehead. 

From the al)ove data, as well as the illustrations of coronal, horizontal and 
longitudinal vertical sections, it will be seen that we have ligured the form, situation 
and size of the frontal sinus from its first ai)pearance until tlu; eighth year of life. 
In addition skiagrams are given of ehildn^i and youths from 15 months to 19 
years of age. Older investigations have thus been amplified and corrected in 
many details. AVith the practical employment in surgical work of these data, mea- 
surements and topographical illustrations, we shall deal in the second section of this 
summary'. 

2. The Maxillary Antrum. 

The data found in literature as to the development of the maxillary antrum 
and as to its condition in childhood and youth are far more scanty than those 
referring to the frontal sinus. According to Gegenbaur') "the first rudiment of 
the maxillary antrum is the earliest to appear, being seen even before the middle 
of foetal life ; but it does not attain its complete development until comparatively 
late; nor does it shew any considerable growth before the second year of child- 
hood. Even in the new-born infant the infraorbital furrow lies laterally of the 
developing maxillarv' antrum, whilst at a later stage it is situated on its superior 
aspect." 

According to ]\Iihalkovics 2) "the epithelial depression which marks the earliest 
rudiment of the maxillary antrum is first observed in the middle of the third month ; 



1) Lehrbnch der Anatomie. 1883, 1890. 
==) 1. c. 



in the fourth and fifth montli the maxillary recess has become deeper; in the sixth 
or seventh month it develops into an elongated passage. In the fourth month 
tiie maxillary antrum is V2 mm, in the fifth month 5 mm in depth." Accor- 
ding to Zuckerkandl ^) "the germ of the maxillary antrum is represented by a 
shallow pit wliich stretches backwards from the lachrymal sulcus to the alveolus 
of tlic second molar. Laterally, the germ of the antrum reaches as far as the 



Maxillary Antrum. 



Age 


Plane of section 


Heigh 


t Length 


Width 


Remarks 






mm 


mm 


mm 




Newborn infant 


coronal 


4 


7 


3 


The antrum adjoins the lower meatus. 

Its opening is channel-shaped. 

Plate 5 s7n 


do. 


horizontal 


6 


11 


4 


Plate 6 sm 


do. 


do. 


5 


13 


31/2 


Plate 8 sm 


1 month 


coronal 


4 


5 


372 


The antrum adjoins the lower meatus 
and lower concha. Plate 14, 15 sm 


do. 


longitud. vertical 


4 


10 


4 


Plate 18 sm 


2 months 


horizontal 


3 


7 


2V2 


Plate 20 sm 


do. 


longitud. vertical 


4 


11 


3 


Plate 21 sm 


4 months 


coronal 


5 


13 


7 


Plate 22 sm 


do. 


longitud. vertical 


5 


12 


6 


Plate 23 sm 


do. 


do. 


5 


12 


4 


Plate 24 sm 


4V2 months 


coronal 


7 


11 


472 


Plate 26 sm 


do. 


horizontal 


8 


19 


4V2 


Plate 27 sm 


do. 


longitud. vertical 


6 


16 


5V2 


Plate 29 sm 


do. 


horizontal 


5 


10 


4 


Plate 31 sm 


5 months 


do. 


7 


12 


5 


Plate 32 sm 


do. 


do. 


5 


14 


6 


Plate 33 sm 


572 months 


coronal 


8 


15 


7 


The antrum adjoins the lower meatus. 
Plate 36, 37 sm 


6'/^ months 


do. 


5 


6 


372 


Plate 40 svi 


7 months 


longitud. vertical 


4 


22 


6 


Plate 44 sm 


do. 


coronal 


5 


16 


4 


Plate 45 sm 


8 months 


horizontal 


10 


13 


5 


Plate 46 sm 


do. 


do. 


5 


10 


41/2 


Plate 48 sm 


11 months 


do. 


9 


14 


5 


Plate 50 sm 


12 months 


coronal 


7 


11 


8 


Plate 53 sm 


14 months 


do. 


11 


IP. 


15 


The antrum adjoins the lower meatus. 
Plate 56 sm. 


I'/a years 


do. 


8 


10 


3 


The antrum adjoins the lower meatus. 
Plate 64 .sw 


2 years 


do. 


9 


12 


7 


Plate 70 sm 


3 years 


do. 


13 


2 


13 


Plate 76 sm 


372 years 


do. 


13 


26 


12 


The antrum adjoins the lower and 

middle meatus. A bristle has been 

passed through the maxillary ostium. 

Plate 79, 80 sm, om 


7'/i years 


do. 


23 


38 


20 


Plate 90 sm 



1. c. 



8 

iufraorbiial faiuil. tin- lowoi* asju'ct nf whicli ii lianll\- cxcrtMls. In ilir sccimd 
vi-ar of lifr ilic inaxillaiy aniiiiiii lias Itccoiut- iIccimi- : anteriorly, it siill only 
r«'aolu*s a> far as tlH> infraorluial i-anal . Imt |Mist(rioii\' it lias alrcadx passed 
beyoiid it. The i-avitv lias also incfeased in depth liy this iini<'. since it has 
grown down to the riil^e of insei-tion of the eonclia. In the lliird or fourth year 
thf anterior portion of tlu* aiitrnin has also advanced laterally I'eyond the infra- 
orbital eanal. In the seventh year this portion of the antriini reaches midway 
])Otwoen the infraorbital eanal and the malar process. In the ei;4hili or iiiiitli year 
tho aiitruni has penetrated into the malar proi-ess, and has reached the limit of 
its jrr«>>vth in the transverse direction. The depth and lieii;ii1 of ihe antium are 
considoraltly infUieneed by the descent and eruption of the teeth; in these dimen- 
sions therefore the antrum (.h>es not attain its delinilc form until the end of ilie 
second dentition. 

AccordiniT to Lanu'er-Toldt ') "in tlu' liftli month of foeial life the antrum 
begins ti> develop in the form of an epithelial depression; at birth it already 
rrprosonts a well-marked recess." 

Accordinjr t(_> Chiari^) ^at the liftli nioiitli a deiirossion 5 mm in de|itli is 
present, rntil the fSixth year the antrum remains spherical and very small. It 
then assumes the form of a trianjiular pyramid and g'radually increases owing io 
the growth of the body of the maxilla, the descent of the ])ermnnent teeth and 
the absorption of the spongy substance of the body of the maxilla." 

Acci^rding to Zarnico''') "in the new^-born infant the maxillary antrum is a 
very narrow fossa wliich reaches hiterally to the infraorbital canal. The remainder 
of the body of the maxilla is tilled up with dental germs and spongy bone sub- 
stance. Even after the eruption of the milk-teeth the germs of the permanent teeth 
leave but little space for the antrum. Only at the commencement of the second 
dentition, about the seventh year, it begins to grow more rapidly ; when the molars 
break through and the facial skull increases in height, the antrum soon assumes a 
notable size." 

Haike^) carried out measurements of some skulls. In a child of IM2 years 
he found an antrum 4 to 5 mm wide and 20 mm long; in a child of 2, an antrum 
8 mm wide and 25 mm long ; in a child of 2V2, an antrum 4 mm wide and 9 mm 
long; in a child of 5, an antrum 1(3 mm wide and 25 mm long. According to his 
statement the floor of the antrum has attained its greatest depth at or about the 
twelfth year. Haike also took skiagrams of several children, some of whom had 
diseased antra — tliis we shall refer to subsecjuently — ; the children were aged, 
respectively, 18 months, 2, 272, 274, 3V2, 4, 4:^2, 7, 8, IO74, 11, IIV4, 15 and 
16 years. In describing his skiagrams he gives no measurements of the antra. 
"With the value of the skiagram from the diagnostic and surgical point of view, 
we shall deal in the second section. 

The above data are not very specialised ; in Zuckerkandl's detailed description 



^)1- 


C. 


^)1. 


c. 


3)1. 


c. 


*)1. 


c. 



9 

of the development of the antrum in the first years of childhood no measurements 
are given, whilst in the measurements performed by Haike in four heads the height 
of the antrum is not stated. 

With regard to the foetal germ of the antrum we dispose of one observation: 
in the coronal section of a foetus of 67^ months an antrum 3 mm long and IY2 mm 
wide (PI. 1 sm) was found. 

In connection with the foregoing table we will briefly summarize the mea- 
surements of the maxillary antrum according to the age of the specimen. 

In the first year (new-born infant, and children of 1, 2, 4, 4^/i, 4V2, 5, S'/z, 
672, 7, 8, 11 and 12 months) the length of the antrum varied between 5 and 
10 mm, the height between 3 and mm, and the width between 2^ 1 2 and 8 mm. 

Anterior Ethmoidal Cells. 



Age 


Plane of Section 


Height 


Length 


Width 


Remarks 






mm 


ram 


mm 




Newborn 


coronal 


1—272 


1-272 


1-272 


Plate 5 cea 


infant 












do. 


horizontal 


4—5 


2—3 


2—3 


Plate 9 cea 


1 month 


longitud. vertical 


2—6 


2-4 


2— 27» 


Plate 12 cea 


do. 


coronal 


4 


5 


3 


Plate 15 cea 


do. 


longitud. vertical 


4 


472 


372 


Plate 17 cea 


4' '4 month.') 


horizontal 


4-5 


3-472 


2—4 


Plate 28 cea 


5 months 


do. 


6-7 


4-6 


2—5 


Plate 34 cea 


do. 


do. 


3-8 


272-6 


2—5 


Plate 35 cea 


572 months 


coronal 


3-6 


272-3 


372—4 


Plate 36, 37 cea 


6V2 months 


do. 


4 


572 


3 


Plate 41 cea 


8 months 


horizontal 


4-672 


472 


2 4 


Plate 47 cea 


do. 


do. 


5-7 


6-7 


3—472 


Plate 49 cea 


11 months 


coronal 


872 


472 


4 


Plate 51 cea 


12 months 


do. 


2—4 


2—4 


2—4 




do. 


longitud. vertical 


8 


9 


6 


Plate 54 cea 


14 months 


coronal 


8 


9 


4 


Plate 55 cea 


do. 


do. 


4-8 


6—9 


4—5 


Plate 56 cea 


15 months 


longitud. vertical 


3-472 


3—4 


372—472 


Plate 62 cea 


IV2 years 


coronal 


10 


272 


3»/2 


Plate 65 cea 


2 years 


do. 


5 


37» 


4 


The cell extends from the plane of 

section into thu uncinate process (pn) 

for a distance of 10 mm. 

Plate 69 cea 


do. 


longitud. vertical 


5 


472 


372 


Plate 72 cea 


3 years 


do. 


6-7 


6—7 


3-4 


The opening of an anterior ethmoidal 

cell into the bullar recess is plainly 

visible. Plate 73, 74 cea 


372 years 


coronal 


6 


8 


4 


Plate 78 cea 


do. 


do. 


3V2-5 


6-8 


3—4 


Plate 80 cea 


do. 


longitud. vertical 


5-11 


3—6 


372—7 


Plate 81 cea 


6 years 


do. 


8-11 


5-6 


6 


Plate 82 cea 


do. 


do. 


10-13 


5—6 


7 


Plate 84 cea 


772 years 


do. 


13 


5 


7 


Plate 88 cea 


do. 


, coronal 


8 


11 


7 


Plate 89 cea 



10 



Postrrior l'".iliiiii>i(l;il <"rll> 



Age 


Plane of Section 


Height 
inin 


Length 
nun 


Width 
mm 


IJcmarks 




No « born 


coronal 


2V-- 


5 


I's 


Plate 5 crp 




iiifjint 














do. 


horiz.i'ntal 


r> 


41, 


2 


rialc !) rrp 




1 niontli 


Iont;itud. vertical 


•J-3 


2'/*-3 


2-^ 


Plate 12 ccj> 




do. 


coronal 


3',» 


5 


271 


Plate 15 ccp 




do. 


longilud. vertical 


3'» 


5 


3 


Plate 17 cep 




4' • montlis 


coronal 


7 


6 


3 


Plate 26 cep 




do. 


horizontal 


5 


3—5 


47» 


Plate 28 cep 




5 months 


do. 


8 


9 


4',2 


Plate 34 cep 




do. 


do. 


6 


10 


4 


Plate 35 ccp 




5' 1 montlis 


longitud. vertical 


5 


5'/. 


4 


Plate 38 cep 




6V« months 


coroniil 


4 


57. 


3 


Plate 41 cep 




8 months 


horizontal 


4-5 


272—37. 


2 


Plate 47 ccp 




do. 


do. 


2-3 


27*— 4 


l'/2-2 


Plate 49 cep 




12 months 


coronal 


2-4 


2—4 


2-4 


Plate 53 cep 




do. 


longitud. vertical 


6 


5 


8 


Plate 54 cep 




14 months 


coronal 


4-6 


7—10 


2—3 


Plate 56 cep 




15 months 


longitud. vertical 


5 


6 


4 


Plate 62 cep 




2 years 


do. 


5 


4 


3 


Plate 72 cep 




3 years 


do. 


6-7 


6—7 


3-4 


The opening of a posterior ethmo 

cell into the upper meatus is disti 

ly visible. Plate 73, 74 ccp 


idal 
net- 


3' 2 years 


coronal 


5-6 


6—11 


372—4 


Plate 80 cep 




do. 


longitud. vertical 


372—10 


372—9 


3—11 


Plate 81 ccp 




7'/» years 


do. 


10 


17 


9 


Plate 88 cep 




do. 


coronal 


10 


11 


6 


Plate 90 cep 





In the second year (children of 18 and 24 months) the length of the antrum 
was between 10 and 12 mm, the height between 8 and 9 mm, and the width be- 
tween 3 and 7 mm. 

In the third year (child of 3 years) the antrum was 23 mm long, 13 mm high, 
and 13 mm wide. 

In the fourth year (child of 3^'2) it was 26 mm long, 13 mm high and 12 mm wide. 

In the eighth year (child of 7V2) it was 38 mm long, 23 mm high and 
20 mm wide. 

The tigui'es are reproduced in natural size and shew in coronal, horizontal 
and longitudinal sections the topographical relations and form of the maxillary antrum 
from birth to the eighth year. 

The concluding remarks of the chapter on the frontal sinus (see page 6) hold 
good also for this chapter. 

The Ethmoidal Cells. 

With regard to the development of the ethmoid bone, its cellular spaces and 
foetal ossifications, a number of data are found in the text books of anatomy. 



11 

In addition, tlie reader is referred to the investigations of Seydel ^), Milialkovics^), 
Killian ^) and Zuckerkandl ■*) wlio liave made a particular study of tlie development 
of the nasal cavity, its conchae and meatuses, and of the structural development 
of the ethmoidal labyrinth. In the chapter on the frontal sinus the theory of those 
investigators was mentioned who consider the frontal sinus to have been deve- 
loped from an anterior ethmoidal cell, the so-called "frontal cell". For this reason 
we will not enter into the details of these embryological investigations , nor 
discuss the relations of the osseous plates of the ethmoid bone and the inter- 
turbinal meatuses to the ethmoidal cells. We were not able, however, to discover 
in the literature on the subject any furthei' data as to the anterior and posterior 
ethmoidal cells and their measm^ements in childhood. Zarnico^) says in his text- 
book: "The ethmoidal cells are existent in the new-born infant in the form of 
narrow pouches and very soon attain a considerable size". Haike^) has published 
skiagraphical investigations of the ethmoidal cells which however deal more with 
diseased cavities and wliich will be considered in detail in the second section. 

The foregoing tables shew the age, plane of section and measurements of 
the anterior and i:)OSterior ethmoidal cells, together with some remarks relative 
to them. 

In connection with these tables we will summarize the measurements of the 
anterior and posterior ethmoidal cells according to the age of the specimen. 

In the first year (new-born infant and children of 1, 4V4, 5, 5^/2, 6^/2, 8, 11 
and 12 months) the length of the anterior ethmoidal cells varied between 1 and 
9 mm, their height between 1 and 8 mm, and their width between 1 and 6 mm. 
The length of the posterior ethmoidal cells varied between 2 and 10 mm, their 
height between 2 and 8 mm and their width between 1^/2 and 8 mm. 

In the second year (children of 8 and 24 months) the length of the anterior 
ethmoidal cells varied between 2^/2 and 4^/2 mm, their heigth between 4 and 10 mm, 
and their width between 1^/2 and 4 mm. The length of the posterior ethmoidal 
cells was 4 mm, their heigth 5 mm, and their width ,3 mm. 

In the third year (child of 3) the length of the anterior ethmoidal cells was 
between 6 and 7 mm, their height between 6 and 7 mm, and their width between 
3 and 4 mm. The length of the posterior ethmoidal cells was between 6 and 
7 mm, their height between 6 and 7 mm, and their width between 3 and 4 mm. 

lu the fourth year (child of 3^/2) the length of the anterior ethmoidal cells 
varied between 3 and 8 mm, their height between 3^,2 and 11 mm, and their 
width between 3 and 6 mm. The length of the posterior ethmoidal cells varied 
between 3V2 and 11 mm, their height between Z^/2 and 10 mm, and their width 
between 3 and 11 nun. 

In the sixth year (child of (3) the length of the anterior ethmoidal cells varied 



^) tJber die Nasenhohle der lioheren Silugetiere and des Menschen. Morphol. Jahrb. 1891. 
1. c. 

3) 1. C. 

*) 1. C. 

S) 1. C. 

«) 1. C. 



12 

between .") ;uitl »! nun, tlieii* liei«::lit Ix'lwct'ii S and !<• nun. ami llicir widlli iH'twcen 
(i and 7 mm. 

In llif >i;ihtli i/t'tir u'liild ul' 7' i!\ llif Irn^-lli <•!' llic anlciMdr flliiiiciid.d cells 
varied l)ei\vfcn "• and t> mm, their liei}4:lit hetwet-n H and i:'. luiii, .iiid their 
width was 7 mm: the length of the jiosteritir ethnnndal cells w as Itetwceii II and 
17 mm, their wi<ith between ti and !• mm. and their height was lo mm. 

With refxard i«> the results of (ini* in\'esti^"atiMiis of the aiiiei'ior and posterioi- 
ethmoidal eells, whieh comprise the period Iimiii liirlh down lu ilie ei^liili year, 
I would repeat the I'oncluding" ri-nnirks of the eliai>iers on tiie t'r<>ntal sinus and 
maxillary antrum d'p. tl, 10). 

The Splienoidal Sinus. 

Tln> de\eIopment of the sphenoidal sinus has i-eceived a ('oniparati\e|y de- 
tailed description in anatomical text-books, jiaiMicularly as refi^ards the inllueiu'e 
of the sphenoidal conchae upon the development of the sphenoidal sinus and the 
posterior ethmoidal cells, as well as the ossitieation and consolidation of the sphenoidal 
cttnchae. Tlie investig^ations of Toldt^), Zuckerkandl"'^) and Hpce^) which deal 
with this subject are described in the treatises of these authors, whilst the state- 
ments of Toldt relative to the si)henoidal conchae have also been adopted by rhino- 
logical writers. Toldt regards the sphenoidal sinuses in the lii;ht of the most, 
posteriorly situated ethmoidal cells, a view with which Zuckerkandl however 
does not agree. AVe will not enter into the details of this question, as it is only 
of enibryological interest. 

AlerkeH) dates the first appearance of the splienoidal sinus to the seventh year. 

According to Mihalkovics^) "the first rudiments of the sphenoidal sinus are 
seen in the third month, but it is not until the sixth or seventh year that the 
body of the sphenoid bone forms the wall of the cavity." 

According to Zuckerkandl*^) "in the new-born infant and in young children 
the orifice of the germ of the sphenoidal sinus is narrowed by a semicircular 
fold of raucous membrane projecting from V)elow. In the third year the sphen- 
oidal sinus attains the size of a pea." 

Spee') states that the sphenoidal siims is originally an open diverticulum of 
the nasal cavity; similarly, Chiarugi^) writes that the sphenoidal sinus is a diver- 
ticulum of the nasal cavity which develops about the third year. 

According to Chiari**) "traces of the si)henoidal sinus are seen as early as 
the third foetal month in the shape of a double saccule, which soon afterwards 
increases in size." 



') Osteologische Mitteilnngen. Jahrb. f. Naturwisseiischaften. 1882, vol. Ill— IV 

•^) 1. c. 

=») 1. c. 

*) 1. c. 

^) 1. c. 

«) 1. c. 

') 1. c. 

«) 1. c. 

») 1. c. 



13 



Sphenoidal Sinus. 



Age 


Plane of Section 


Height 


Length 


Width 


Remarks 






mm 


mm 


mm 




Newborn infant 


horizontal 


4 


2 


2 


Sphenoidal ostium 72 mm wide. 
Plate 10 ss, OS 


1 month 


coronal 


3 


2 


272 


Sphenoidal ostium 1'/* mm wide. 
Plate 13 -ss, OS 


do. 


do. 


4 


2 


272 


Sphenoidal ostium 1 mm wide. 


2 months 




1 


1 


1 


Sphenoidal ostium 7^ n\m wide. 


4 months 


coronal 


2 


2 


2 


Sphenoidal ostium '/2 mm wide. 
Plate 22 os 


4'/-' months 


longitud. vertical 


4 


2'/ 2 


2 


Sphenoidal ostium 1 mm wide. 
Plate 30 .s.s OS 


5*/2 months 


coronal 


2 


2 


2 


Sphenoidal ostium 1' 2 mm wide. 
Plate 37 os 


6V2 months 


longitud. vertical 


— 


• — 


— 


Sphenoidal ostium 2 mm wide. 
Plate 42 os 


do. 


coronal 


5 


4 


472 


Plate 43 «s 


7 months 


do. 


2 


2 


2 


Sphenoidal ostium 7^ mm wide. 
Plate 45 os 


8 months 


horizontal 


6 


672 


5 


Sphenoidal ostium 1 mm wide. 
Plate 47 os 


do. 


do. 


9 


6 


5 


Sphenoidal ostium 1 mm wide. 
Plate 49 ss, os 


14 months 


coronal 


5 


472 


472 


Sphenoidal ostium 1 mm wide. 
Plate 57 os 


do. 


do. 


5 


472 


472 


Sphenoidal ostium 1 mm wide. 
Plate 59 ss, os 


15 months 


do. 


372 


5 


3 


Sphenoidal ostium I72 mm wide. 
Plate 62 as 


172 years 


do. 


2 


3 


2 


Sphenoidal ostium 1 mm wide. 
Plate 67 os 


2 years 


do. 


6 


5 


7 


Sphenoidal ostium 1 mm wide. 
Plate 71 OS 


do. 


longitud. vertical 


4 


472 


672 


Sphenoidal ostium 1 mm wide. 
Plate 72 ss 


3 years 


do. 


6 


6 


9 


Situation of sinus and ostium clearly 
visible. Plate 73, 74 ss, os 


3'/2 years 


coronal 


5 


6 


7 


Sphenoidal ostium ' .' mm wide. 
Plate 80 0.9 


do. 


longitud. vertical 


3\'2 


47. 


7 


Sphenoidal ostium I72 mm wide. 
Plate 81 OS, ss 


6 years 


do. 


10 


7 


12 


Sphenoidal ostium I'/-' mm wide. 
Plate 86 os 


do. 


do. 


10 


6 


12 


Sphenoidal ostium I72 mm wide. 
Plate 86 os 


772 years 


do. 


12 


13 


9 


Sphenoidal ostium 2 mm wide. 
Plate 88 ss 


do. 


coronal 


8 


2 


11 


Sphenoidal ostium 4 mm wide, of oblong 
shape. Plate 90 os 



14 

Tho statt'iucnt <>f ZnniicoM is tt^ tlu> rfl'fct tlmt "in ilir new lii>i-n int'niit the 
cavity is as laj-fTf as a pin's licad aini opens ilnon^li a tine canal ;il llic It-vd ol' 
Saiitorini's ("oiu'lia. In llir iliii'il y«'ar il ilicn liri^ins to j^thw nnTc rapidly, and 
at piihiTty lias n-arlird llu- sphi'Mo-iu'i-ipilai synclmndrosis". 

Haikt'*^ I'xainiia'd tlir splicnoidal sinus liy nn•an^ ni' si<iM^ranis : in tlic sixtii 
year tlu' ^inus was of ilir si/t- of a Ix-an ; in the ci-iiitii and IouiIim mli v'.ir 
it was of I'lmsiilcralilt' size: in a yoiitli of sixlffii liir sinus was rcpi-cscntfd hy 
a dcprt'ssion lUfasufiui;- ."> mm in tlir ion^^iludinal direction, identilicalion of the 
dc|>fessi»ai lieiu'T ol>laincii l)y the iutrodinMion of a |)rolie. \\'itii tiie conclusions 
to l)c drawn from the results of skia^^capliic exaniinalion of tlie siilieuoidal sinus, 
we shall deal ill the second section. 

'riic forc>r(tinj:: tahic ^^'ivcs the aj^'e , plane of section, and measurenn-nts of 
the sphenoidal sinus and its ostium, to'i-ethcr \\ilh a few reni;irks. 

In i-oniiection with this talde we \\ill <;i\(' ;i i)rief sumnniry of llu^ 
measurements of the sphenoidal sinus and its ostium according;' to the iliffcrcul af;'(;s. 

In the first near (new-horn infants and children of 1,2, 4, 4^/2, 5, 5^/2, GV2, 
7 and S months' the hei^'ht of the s)>lienoid;d sinus varii'd from I to Ci mm, its 
leiiii-th from 1 to a mm, and its width from 1 to C. mm. The diameter of tlu^ 
circular sphenoidal 'ostium was between ^/a and 2 nnn. 

In \.\\e. second //ear(cIiiIdrenof 14, 15, 18 and 24 months) the height of the sphenoidal 
sinus varied from 2 to »i mm. its length from 3 to a mm, and its width from 2 
to 7 mm. The diameter of the circular sphenoidal ostium was between I an<l 
iV'.' mm. 

In the third year (child of 8) the heigth of the sphenoidal sinus was fi mm, 
its length (5 mm, and its width U mm. The diameter of the circular sphenoidal 
ostium was 2 mm. 

In the fourth year (child of 8^/2) the heigth of the sphenoidal sinus varied 
between 4^/2 and 6 mm, its length between 3^/2 and 5 mm, its Avidth was 7 mm. 
The diameter of the circular sphenoidal ostium was IV2 mm. 

In the sixth year (child of 6) the length of the sphenoidal sinus varied be- 
tween 6 and 7 mm, its height was 10 mm, and its width 12 mm. The diameter 
of the circular sphenoidal ostium was 1^/2 mm. 

In the eighth year (child of 7 '/a years) the height of the sphenoidal sinus 
was between 8 and 12 mm, its length between 12 and 13 mm, its width was 
11 mm. The width of the oval sphenoidal ostium was 4 mm. 

In concluding this summary of data relative to the sphenoidal sinus and its 
ostium we would again refer to the concluding remarks of the chapters on the 
frontal sinus (page 6), the maxillary antrum (page 10) and the ethmoidal cells 
(page 12). 

n. 

AVe will now proceed to supplement the anatomical results given in the first 
chapter by certain practical remarks. Since the publications dealing with affec- 

') 1. c. 
2) 1. c. 



15 



Author 



Age of 
patient 



Cavity diseased 



Treat- 
ment 



Result 



Remarks 



Killian ') 

Lange -') 
E. Meyer'') 



Lange ^) 
Prey si ng^^ 

Lange') 

Killiaii ') 

Prt'ysing'*) 

Prey sing") 

Lange'") 

Haenel") 

Lange '-) 

Hinsberg ") 

Killian") 
Hoffuianii '-'') 



Haike'«) 
Scholle '') 



Tilley '') 
Onodi 
iScholie '") 



Haike-oi 
Killian'^') 



Haike-^) 



15 months! Frontal hinus 'Operation Death 

i's yearS' JViaxillary antra Operation Cure 
^' i years Frontal sirui?-, ethmoidal Operation Cure 
cells ami maxillary an- 
trum 

4 years Ethmoidal cells on botli Operation Cuie 
sides 

5 years Frontal sinus and eth- Opeiatiun Cure 
moidal cells 



5 years 

6 years 
years 

6 years 

6^4 years 
6 \ •; years 
6 ','2 years 

7 years 

7 years 
7 years 



8 years 

9 vears 



9 years 
9 '2 years 

10 years 



11 years 

12 years 



Both frontal f>inuses and Op'^ration Cure 
ethmoidal cells 



Frontal sinus, ethuMidal Operation Cure 
cells, sphenoidal sinus j 

and maxillary antrum ! 

Kthnioidal cells and Opeiation Cure 
sphenoid.il sinus of one 

side 
Ethmoidal cells and Operation Cnie 
sphenoidal sinus of one 

side 
Frontal sinus 



All the accessoiy si- 
nuses 
Right ethmoidal cells 

Maxillary antrum and 
ethmoidal ceils 
Frontal sinus 
Frontal sinus, ethmoidal 
cells and maxillary an- 
trum 
Maxillary antrum 
Frontal sinus 



Frontal sinus 
Frontal sinus 
Frontal sinus 



Operation 

Operation 

Operation 

Operation 

Operation 
Opnation 



Operation 

Operation 

of ear 



Cure 

Cure 

Cure 

Cure 

Cure 
Cure 



Care 
Death 



Operation Cure 

Operation Cure 

Operation Death 
of e:ir 



Maxillary antrum Operation Cure 
Frontal sinus, ethmoidal Operation Cuie 
cells ard maxillary an- 
trum I ' 



15^'2yeai£ Maxillary antrum, eth- Operation j Cure 
I moidal cells and sphe- 
■ noidal sinus 



Scarlet Fever; thrombo- 
phlebitis of siuup. 
Scarlet Fever. 
S( arlet Fever. 



Scarlet Fever. 

Scarlet Fever. The right 
frontal smus was of the 

size of a pea 
Scarlet Fever. Right frontal 
sinus size of a bean, left 
frontal sinus size of a 

cherry. 

Scat let Fever. I>eft frontal 

sinus size of a bean. 

j Scarlet Fevei. Orbital 
abscess. The ethmoidal 

, cells and sphenoidal sinus 
were opened up from the 

' orbit. 

Scarlet Fever. Left frontal 

sinus size of a hazel-nut 

Scarlet Fever. 

Scarlet Fever. Abscess at 

the inner canthus. 
j Scarlet Fever. 

Scarlet Fever. 

Scarlet Fever. ,'\bs(;ess of 

the orbital wall. 

Function and irrigation. 
jScarlet Fever. Operation 
of ear without effect. Post, 
Imortem examination rev- 
ealed diseased frontal sinus 

and meningitis. 

Scarlet Fever. 

Scarlet Fever. 
Scarlet Fever. Operation 
of ear without effect. Post 
mortem examinatioir rev- 
ealed diseased frontal sinus' 

and meningitis. 
Function and irrigation. 
Scarlet. Fever. Etiirnoidal 
cells openi^d from the nasal 
icavity . Irrigation of fi ontal 
Isinusand maxillary antrum. 



1) Die Erkrankungen der Mebenhohlen derNase bei Scharlach. Zeitsehr. f. Ohrenheilk. 1908. 
-') Medizinische Klinik. 1906, ^) Berliner klin. Wochenschr. 1905. "•) 1. c. ) Zeitsehr. f. Ohren- 
heilk. 1898. «) 1. c. ') 1. c. ") Miinchener mediz. Wochenschr. 190.5. ^) 1. c. ") 1. c. ") Ver- 
handl. d. Vereins siiddeutscher Laryngologen. 1908. '-) 1. c. '■') Killian 1. c. '*) 1. c. '■') Zeit- 
schrift f. Aug-enheilk. Vol. XVI. '«) 1. c. ") Detesk. Med. 1904. Killian 1. c. '«) Journal of 
Laryngology. 1905. »») 1. c. -o) 1. c. -') 1. c. ''^) 1. c. 



tions of tlie arcossory sinnsos in i-liildlioixl jirc steadily incrcasin;;'. we may coii- 
rliulr tliMt «lis«'asi's of ilu'Sf i*avitit's occur iii'iic rmiuiiitly in ciiilillinod than 
was j^rnrrally rtH'tijrniscd in tiic |>ast. it should lie iii^aidcd as an (•tal)lish('(| 
fact tiuit uhiMi chihii'cn sulTcf IV<>ni rriMjUcnt attacks nl' acute cold in ihc head, 
sonir of thr accessory sinuses ai'e also allected, and that as a rule iidectious 
diseases attack the partially devidoped a('eessory sinuses, in the tirst years of chihl 
hood it is difricuit to ascertain such <iisease of ilie diirei-ent cavities; besides, at 
this ajre. tlie possihility of treating' such al't'ectious is soinewhal litniled. 

It need hardly he |tointed out liiai many i'atal eases of this disease remain 
ohseiire. and that only a small uundM^r of imsf Dmrtnn reports has hithi-rto heeii 
pnhlislied. In :'\2 out of :'>'i4 autopsies performed on chilili'en. Ilai-ke') opened the 
aeoessory siinises; ln' Totnid them diseased in f)!' cases which were lieiweeii '.• months 
and l.'i years o[ ai:i': in IT eases the maxillary anti'a, in '.'< the eiliuioid.d cells, 
and in '_' the sphenoiilal sinuses were alfecti'd. in an autopsy performed on a 
chihl of :> years, llarke foutnl empyema of the ma.Killary antrum, wlnlst the frontal 
and sphenoidal sinuses were not (levi'lo|M(|. \\'olff-) performed post mortem exa 
minations in two children of ■',, two of .'> and one of (1 years; tlie spli<Mioidal sinus 
was undeveloiied in l)(^th chiklren of ;>, one ciiild of '> and one of C years. 
Werthcim •''i found well-developed frontal .sinuses in a child of twn yeais and two 
montlis; in a child of live, the ethmoidal i-ells were diseased an<l tiie sphenoidal 
sinuses well-developed, in another child of live all the acces-sory sinuses were 
developed, whilst in a child of eight the frontal and splienoidal sinuses were 
absent. 

The foregoing table (Page 15) comprises the cases which have come tmder our 
notice, in which diseases of tlie accessory sinuses were ascertained and treated 
in children. With exception of the cases of Haike all the eases published suffered 
from scarlatinal affections of the nose. 

With regard to the diagnostic emploATiient of electrical transUlumination of 
the frontal sinus and maxillary antrum, and to the stkiagraphic e.ramination of the 
accessory sinuses in childhood, the reader is referred to my monograph on the 
frontal sinus'*) where these questions are disctissed in detail. Our investigations 
which were performed on 1200 skulls demonstrated the unreliability of eh'ctrical 
transillimiination. For by this method absence of l)otli frontal sinuses was diagnosed 
in 30 per cent., absence of the right frontal sinus in 10 per cent., of the left 
frontal sinus in 10 per cent.: yet skiagraphical examination carried out on the 
same skulls revealed absence of both frontal sinuses in only 5 per cent., absence 
of the right frontal sinus in less than 1 per cent, and of the left frontal sinus in the 
same ratio. We also noted the drawbacks of skiagraphic examination and discussed 
why it can not be regarded as an infallible method; but as to its superiority to 
transillumination there can be no doubt. The determination of the absence or 
the extent of the frontal sinuses by means of skiagraphy has greatly assisted the 



^) Beitr. zur Patliol. u. Therap. d. oberen Atmungswege. Wiesbaden 18!)5. 

2) Zeitschr. f. Hygiene 1895, vol. XIX. 

'") Arch. f. Laryngologie, vol. XI. 

*) 1. e 



17 

progress of surgical treatment; in diagnosis, also, skiagraphy represents a valuable 
aid. Needless to say, the chief importance attaches to the clinical investigation 
and to the result of rhinoscopic examination. The same argument holds good for 
the maxillary antrum, where electrical transillumination and skiagraphy are also 
employed as aids to diagnosis, and for the ethmoidal cells and the sphenoidal 
sinus with reference to skiagraphy. Corresponding views on the electrical trans- 
illumination of the frontal sinus and the maxillary antrum of children are expres- 
sed byHaike^): "Whilst even in adults the results obtained by this method must 
be used with caution, it proves utterly unreliable in children." We will therefore 
limit ourselves to a consideration of the skiagraphic examination of the accessory 
sinuses in children. With regard to the frontal sinus, even in adults skiagraphy 
has furnished erroneous results; thus in the cases of Albrecht^), Wassermann ^), 
Chiai'i*), Onodi-^) and others, the frontal sinus appeared fogged or obscured in the 
skiagram, yet this appearance was not confirmed by the operation. 

Obviously, the employment of skiagraphy for purposes of diagnosis is still 
more limited in childhood. Haike himself says: "The difficulties in diagnosing 
empyema of the frontal sinus in children are even greater than those encountered 
in adults. In drawing any conclusions from the skiagram still greater care is 
required in order to avoid errors. For we observe more often than in the fully 
developed cavity a certain amount of blurring and indistinctness of the outlines, 
although the sinus may be perfectly healthy. In consequence of this indistinctness of 
the pictures, which is due to the anatomical condition of the developing frontal sinus, 
it is almost always advisable to supplement the picture by a lateral skiagram, and 
occasionally even this may not clear up every doubt. In view of these diffi- 
culties in judging the picture, it becomes necessary, so far as possible, to consider 
also the clinical features of the case, and in older children to employ the other 
methods of examination in order to secure the diagnosis." 

Besides the skiagrams of the normal frontal sinus by Haike which were 
mentioned previously, only a few cases have been published where the skiagram 
indicated disease of the frontal sinus, viz. a case of 13 and one of 16 years. 
Cases of disease of the sinus, treated surgically, in younger children have not 
been recorded by Haike ^). In the published cases which have come to our 
knowledge the diseased condition of the frontal sinus was determined and operation 
performed without the aid of skiagraphy; the only exception being the case of 
Killian'), a child of twelve, where the antrum, the frontal sinus and the ethmoidal 
cells were undoubtedly blurred in the skiagram. In the first years of childhood the 
value of skiagraphy and the conclusions to be drawn from it, so far as the fi'ontal 
sinus is concerned, are very limited; this is shewn by our results and pictures 
where, with few exceptions, the sinus in the first years only reaches the lower 



') 1. c. 

'^) Archiv f. Laryngologie, 1907. 

^) Verhandl. des intern. Laiyngologenkongresses. 1908. 
*) Archiv f. Laryngologie. 1908. 
") „Stimhohle", Vienna, 1909. 
«) 1. c. 
') I. c. 
Onodi, Nebenhohlen, engl. 



18 

limit of the l>jisjil |M>rlit>n of tin- si|U;miii ui- exists as a driiniir cavity only in liic 
inferior luisal portittn of tlu> s(|naiim. .\^ .1 rulr. ilicicroir, a skiagram taken 
(Itirinjr tli«' tii^t years nf cliildlitxMl will sluw ikiI I'lily liie trunlai sinus, l)nt also the 
adjoiniiifjf anterioi- iMliiiioidal cells : in case nj' ilieir lieinu- tliseased. it is liierelore 
also ai>|)liraltle. From what lias ali'eady l)een said, ii will haidly lie ni'cessary ti) 
point out. that in the tifst place the clinical si^ns and. wliereNcr |iossiltle, inspec- 
tion of tin* nasal ca\ily should he taken iiUo consideration. In such cases how 
«'Vor. where the frontal sinns can he ascertained in ili<' Iroiiial renidn. and 
partiiMilarly whefe there is unilateral disease of the frontal sinus, the skia<;rani may 
he of the sanio value as in iho adtdt. 

In the iirsi vear we found llie largest fi-inilitl siinis to he '.1 mm loni;', s mm 
hijjh. niui (i nun wide: the eai'ly foi-ni of the frontal simis aitaine(| the hase of 
tho siiuainous piu'tion of tho frt^ital l)one towards the end of the iirst year. In 
the second year we found the larii-esl frontal simis to he !» mm hif^h, ^Va nun 
loujr. <"Uid 7 mm wide. Karly in the second year, in a child of IT) months, wc 
saw the fri'tntal sinus situated in the l>asal part of the s(|uanious ixirtion; in an- 
other child of the same ag^e the skiag'ram of the forehead showed a frontal 
sinus monsuriiifi" '.\ to 3^2 mm in heii;"ht and 5 to oVa mm in width. In a child 
of 15 niitnths KillianM opened the diseased frontal sinus. In a ciiild of three and 
a half years we found the frontal sinus G'/a mm high, ('. mm long and 5 mm 
wide, in skiagrams the frontal sinus was shewn to be (> t(^ 1> mm high and 4 to 
(> mm wide. In a case of E. IMeyer *), a child of the same age, the diseased 
frontal sinus was opened and cured. These facts prove that even in the first 
years the frontal sinus may sometimes be seen in the skiagram; its diseased 
condition may thus be recognised and radically cured. 

In the cases of Preysing^) and Lange^) the diseased frontal sinus was opened 
and cured in children of five years. In the sixth year we found a frontal 
sinus measuring 17 to 18 mm in height, 10 to 13 mm in length and 11 to 12 mm 
in widtli, and in one case the skiagram shewed a frontal sinus 6 to 8V2 mm 
high and »i to 872 mm wide. In Killian's^) case disease of the frontal sinus 
was cured by operation in a child of six. In the case of Lange^) the diseased 
frontal sinus was successfully opened in a child six and a quarter years old. 
In the cases of Hoffmann^) and Killian'') the diseased frontal sinus was cured by 
operation in children of seven years. At seven and a half years of age we found 
a frontal sinus 14 to 17 mm high, 4 to 11 mm long and 7 to 9 mm wide. At 
eight and a half years a skiagram of the forehead shewed the frontal sinus mea- 
suring 10 to 22 mm in height and 10 to 29 mm in width. In Tilley's^) case the 
diseased frontal sinus was successfully opened in a child of nine. 



^)1- 


c. 


^)1. 


c. 


3) 1. 


c. 


*)L 


c. 


^)1. 


c. 


0)1. 


c. 


') 1. 


c. 


«)1. 


c. 



19 

In our case, disease of the frontal sinus was cured by operation in a child 
of nine and a half years. The foregoing- are the cases that have come to our 
Ivnowletlge in children under ten. In the following years the frontal sinuses shew 
a varying degree of development in the frontal region: this is illustrated by the 
skiagrams published by Haike^), as well as by the tigures and measurements 
given by us. The experiences which have been gained hitherto are quite insufficient 
to allow a definite conclusion to be drawn as to the diagnostic value of skiagraphy 
in children; there can be no doubt that on the whole it is a valuable supple- 
mentary method of diagnosis. On the other hand, it is a necessary consequence 
of the peculiarities in the form and situation of the frontal sinus which have already 
been noted that the value of such skiagrams taken in early childhood is more 
limited and that their drawbacks are perhaps greater than in adults. For this 
reason , great importance attaches to the clinical signs and to the result of 
rhinoscopic examination. The difficulties encountered in such examinations are 
due to the narrowness of the nasal cavity and the necessarily incomplete cha- 
racter of such investigations in the first years of life; endonasal inspection rev- 
ealing the pathological secretion, but failing to determine its origin. In such 
cases occasionally the skiagram considered in conjunction with the clinical signs 
may give a decisive indication for the mode of treatment. 

In the majority of the cases quoted previously it will be remembered, that 
surgical treatment was carried out. Among these the case of E. Meyer ^) is uniciue, 
for here, in a child of three and a half years, the maxillary antrum was first 
opened and from here the frontal sinus was exposed together with the ethmoidal 
cells. Otherwise the region of the frontal sinus with the ethmoidal cells was opened 
by an arc-shaped incision Ijeginning at the root of the nose and following 
the line of the eye-brow. In the first years of childhood the frontal sinus can 
not be reached from the forehead owing to its peculiar shape and situation which 
have been described previously. The exceptions which have already been mentio- 
ned and illustrated, cannot of course be taken into account. In young children, 
therefore, the frontal sinus is exposed from a spot close to the inner cauthus 
where the frontal bone, the nasal bone and the frontal process of the maxilla 
meet. The line of incision already mentioned together with this spot serve as a guide 
not only for operations on the frontal sinus, but also for exposing and clearing 
the ethmoidal labyrinth and the sphenoidal sinus. This question will be considered 
in detail subsequently. Naturally, in all those cases where the skiagram and the 
age of the patient point to the existence of the sinus in the frontal region, the ordi- 
nary method of resection and radical operation of the sinus is employed. Parti- 
cularly for surgical treatment the skiagram is valualjle, since it allows us to deter- 
mine the presence or absence of the frontal sinus in the region of the forehead 
and to gain an idea as to its extent. 

The Maxillary Antrum is the cavity where diseased conditions have been 
observed most often. We have shewn that the measurements of the antrum at 
birth, and in the first, second, third, fourth and eighth year vary considerably, 

') 1. c. 
^) 1. e. 

2* 



ao 

the lonjritudiujU (liimu'tiT Iiuwcmt l)tMnj; ^rcatcsi. I'litil tin- rmiiili yt'.ir tlic lici-^lK 
i»f tli«* t-avity was iiitrniu'diiitr hftwffu its li'ii-^tli ."iiid its widtli. In tlic lonrtli 
ami cif^litli y<'ars. iiowcvt-r. tin- wiiitli <'f tin- Miitruin li.ul .ilrcidy cxccrdiMl tin- 
ht'ijjlit and was second only to its ji-n^tli. 'Plif skia'^rams nf cliildrfii takrn liy 
llaikf'i liavf alrcatly Iutii inciitioiu'd ; hcsidcs utinnal antra, lie saw diseased 
oiirs ill rliildmi of I's. 7. S, 1(V'''4 and II years. In such |iictures the anti'iini 
appeared Murreil and ilidetini'd. In some eases the skiaer.-mi Inrnishi'd a decisive 
ar^riiiin'iit in favour '>r an oitenition. ^^•t llaike'-') himself slates that in one case 
the dark shadow in the reirion of the antrum did not indicate the presence of 
pus Ml the cavity, whilst in anotlier case no difference was oliserNcd lielween the 
two antra, althou>:'h liiere was a collection of serous lluid in one of them, lie 
n-iuarks as follows : ••Naturally, careful consideration of the pictures will protect us 
ajrainst mistakes due to faults in the idiotoj^'raph and (Oilier causes, which ini^'ht 
•rive a seml'lance of disease. Here ajiain, we would point out that the j;-reatest 
iniportanee attaclu^s to the clinical sijiiis and to the results of riiinolofj^ical exa- 
iniiiatioii , althonj^h we admit that skia<;raphy represents a valuable aid to 
diagnosis. Of the different methods of examination those chielly employed ;ire 
endonasal j>unction and irrijiation of the antrum. Taken in conjunction with these 
methods, the skiap'am may convey information as to tlu; extent and depth of the 
antrum. In the adult, ])unction of the antrum is usually performed from the 
h^wer meatus, from where the endonasal resection of tlie antrmn is also carried 
out. In the first years of childhood this method is beset by several difficulties." 
Mihalkovics was one of the first to point out the narrowness of the lower meatus 
and its impermeability; "In children the meatus is very low^ and narrow, the free 
edgfe of the lower concha meets the floor of the nasal cavity, its thick mucous 
membrane entirely occludes the lower meatus; the middle meatus alone is perme- 
able, so that in the infant oidy this meatus and the corresponding portion of the 
common nasal passage can serve as respiratory space." 

According to Zarnico^) exposure of the maxillary antrum in young children 
prior to the second dentition is best attempted from the middle meatus. It should 
not be performed from the other spots until after the eruption of the first perman- 
ent molars." 

Haike^j remarks "that until the time when the floor of the cavity has quite, 
or almost, attained its permanent depth, i. e. about the twelfth year, it is hardly 
accessible for puiiction from the lower meatus. One might easily penetrate into 
the bone below the antrum." Cases are recorded where even in adults attempts 
at punction from the lower meatus failed, the canula perforating the thin wall of 
the antrum and emerging in the tissues of the cheek. Thus, too, in a child of 
11^/4 years, Haike^) records the canula having penetrated into the cheek, whilst 
in a child of 8 it perforated the spongy bone below the antrum. 



') 1- 


c. 


^)1. 


c. 


^)h 


c. 


^)1. 


c. 


3)1. 


c. 



21 

Our descriptions and illustrations of the morpliological conditions of the 
maxillary antrum shew that punction should be performed from the middle meatus, 
although in exceptional cases we have found the antrum adjoining the lower 
meatus even in the first years of childhood. At the same time we would point 
out the comparatively slight extent of the antrum in the transverse direction. 
This is important, since if the canula were introduced too forcibly, it might easily 
penetrate the opposite, lateral wall of the cavity and injure the cheek. In children 
under ten years of age, radical operation of the antrum has repeatedly been per- 
formed, viz. by E. Meyer ^) in a child of .872, by Killian in a child of 6, by 
HaeneP) in a child of 6V2, and by Hoffmann-^) in a child of 7 years, the treat- 
ment proving successful. Our illustrations in natural size and the measurements 
of the antrum recorded will prove of use both in endonasal and in radical oper- 
ations on this cavity. 

Disease of the Ethmoidal Cells has usually been observed in conjunction 
with disease of the frontal and sphenoidal sinus and of the maxillary antrum. 

Skiagrams have been published by Killian^) of the case of a child of twelve, 
where the frontal sinus, ethmoidal cells and maxillary antrum appeared markedly 
lilurred; also in the cases of Haike^), children of 4, 4V2, 8, 10'/4, 11 and 12 years, 
in all of which the ethmoidal cells appeared obscured and indistinct; in two of 
these cases only the ethmoidal cells were affected, in the remaining five the antrum 
was also diseased. In the first years of childhood it is difficult to distinguish the eth- 
moidal cells from the early form of the frontal sinus ; the frontal sinus can only 
be differentiated, if it is already situated in the region of the forehead. In con- 
sequence of the difficulty of rhinoscopic examination at this age, Haike^) considers 
"that a reliable diagnosis of ethmoidal affections in children can only be obtained 
by skiagraphy." On the other hand, he does not over-estimate the value of the 
skiagram, as is shewn by the following passage: "In young children the picture 
of the ethmoidal cells in the skiagram is so narrow that it is sometimes difficult 
to arrive at a definite diagnosis; thus, even moderate congestion of the mucous 
membrane may veil the lumina of the small ethmoidal cells"; and again; "With 
regard to the question whether the anterior or posterior ethmoidal cells are 
affected, the skiagram can give no more information in children than in the adult". 

The greater part of the cases mentioned by us were cured by operation 
without consulting the skiagram. Together with the clinical signs and the evidence 
of rhinoscopy, the skiagram may doubtless be employed as a valuable diagnostic 
aid, provided that its drawbacks are duly considered. Our pictures and measure- 
ments shew that even in the first years both the anterior and the posterior ethm- 
oidal cells are fairly well developed. The narrowness of the nasal cavity and 
its meatuses explains why it is difficult to expose the ethmoidal cells by endonasal 



^)1. 


c. 


')1. 


c. 


^)1. 


c. 


*)1. 


c. 


»)1. 


c. 


«)1. 


c. 



22 

operation: »'iitl(>ims;il iri'Mtint-ni iliii> Ix'iui:- i>r,iciic,illy limiird io iiTiiiatinii lU' sudioii. 
Tlic situation ami cMfiit of ilu- ftlmioid.il cells linwcNcr |ir<>\i(lr ari^Miiiicnls in 
favour of radical oprratiou. 'i'liis operation was perlornietl in one e.ise ilirmioli 
tlio nuixillarv antrum, in most i>r the other e.ises together with reseciidii t>\' 
tile frontal sinus. ()i>\iously. the eihmi>i(l;il laliyrinth may also he exposecj l»y 
rrst'ction of the orl>ital I'late from the orhii. l-'^r siieii oper.iiiniis. the morpho 
lofjiral conditions of the anterior and posterior eihmoid.il cells descril)e(l and 
illustrated liy us will he foimd inslrucli\e and useful, hi llie case of K. Meyer') 
the diseased ethmoidal cells of a child of ;'. ' j years wei'e successfully exposed 
and cleared out from the maxillar\' antrum. In the cases of I'reysini^"'^) and 

Lanp"''^ children of live y(>ai's — the diseased ellnilojiial cells were opened 

tojjether with the frontal sinus, the affeciinn liein^- cuiimI. In the case> of I'reysiiii;' '), 
I'hildren o[ six. the diseased ethmoidal cells as well as the sphenoidal siims, in 
Killians-**) case, also a child of six. the diseased ethmoidal cells and the frontal 
siinis. wtM'e opei'ated and cured. In l.an^'e's'M case, a child of (I'/i years, the 
diseased etlnmudal cells oidy. and in llaeiiers") ease, also a child of (i'/2 years, 
the ethmoidal cells tog'ether with the frontal sinus were cured by surj^'ical treat- 
ment. In lloffniaun's^) ease, a child of seven, the diseased ethmoidal cells as 
well as the frontal sinus were cur<Ml by operation. We have mentioned these 
cases in children under ten years of ag'e, since the success obtained with them 
is a strong- ariiument in favour of radical operation. Complications may of course 
arise from the orbit, the disease of the I'thinoidal cells spreadin": to the orbit : in 
such cases, this must also receive surgical treatment. 

With repird to the Sphenoidal Sinus, its disease has been observed far more 
rarely in children. By skiagraphic examination Haike twice shewed the absence 
of the sphenoidal sinus in children of 27? ai^d 4 years respectively, whilst in skia- 
grams of a child of fi and one of 8 years he found decisive evidence of their exist- 
ence. He mentions one case, a patient aged 15^2 years, where the sphenoidal 
sinus ai)peared obscured. Diagnosis of a diseased condition of the sphenoidal sinus 
has to deal with the same difficulties which have been mentioned for the frontal 
sinus and the ethmoidal cells. Haike ^) himself remarks : "It is true, that the 
scope of the skiagram is considerably restricted." In view of the difficulty 
of endonasal investigation Haike hopes to obtain conclusive evidence from the 
skiagram alone. Yet he is fain to admit,' "that we must always remain conscious 
of the limitations of the method. In older children, on the other hand, one ought 
always to be guided more by the result of clinical examination." The rule that 
the clinical signs should be considered principally and the skiagram only be used 



1\ 1 


C. 


-) 1. 


C. 


3\ J 


C. 


i\ ]_ 


C. 


b\ \ 


C. 


6\ J_ 


C. 


') 1. 


C. 


8\ \^ 


C. 


9\ \^ 


c. 



23 

as a secondaiy aid to diagnosis, is particulary applicable to diseases of the sphen- 
oidal sinus in children. Our experience on this subject is but scanty. In the 
two cases published by Preysing^), in children of 6 years, the sphenoidal sinus was 
successfully operated upon together with the diseased ethmoidal cells; in Haenel's -) 
case, also a child of six, where all the accessory sinuses were well developed 
and diseased, a cure was effected by radical operation. We are of opinion that 
the details of the sphenoidal sinus described and figured in this book will prove 
instructive for operations carried out in the first years of childhood ; resection of 
this sinus should be performed through the ethmoidal labyrinth. In later years, 
and also in certain exceptional cases which we have seen in young children, 
endonasal treatment of the sphenoidal sinus may be attempted. Its success will 
depend upon the degree of development of the sinus. 

We conclude the synopsis of our results in the hope that the sections repro- 
duced in natural size and the accurate measurements given in every case may 
have served to extend and amplify our knowledge of the anatomy and develop- 
ment of the accessory sinuses in childhood, and that this more accurate information 
will prove helpful in the diagnosis and surgical treatment of the affections of 
these sinuses occuring in childhood. 

>) 1. c. 

'-) 1. c. 



Tafel 1. 

Froiitalscluiitt. 

Naturliche Grosse. — 6 ','2 Monate alter Fotus. 



Plaiiclie 1. 

Coupe frontale. 

Grandeur nature. — Foetus de 6 niois V2. 



1. 

Coronal section. 

Natural size. — Foetus of 6V2 months. 



Tafcl I. 

Xatiirlichp (Irfisse. — «i'j Monalc ivitci l'\')tus. 

.<vi vinu> lu.ixillaris. cm colliila cthiiioidalis. rj conclia iiilniiir. miii meatus iianuin inferior, rtii eoiu-Iia 
media, ttmw meatus iiariiim me«liiis. fiii pnieessus uneinatus. rs concha su))erii)r. niii-s- meatus narium 

>u|>crior, V septum. 

Dcr Fnmtiilsohiiitt oiiios (i'.j Mdiiatc* altcu FiUiis zeigt dir voii der Nasciischcitlo- 
Uinid (a) szelrtMtiiteii Na.s(>iilt<)lileii. cUc imU'fo (ci). mittlcrc {rni) tiiid obere (r^s') Xaseii- 
niusclu'l. »h'n tiiitereii {nnii). iiiittlercn (iiui)n) uiid den obereii (inns) Xasengang, feriier 
dir Kieft'rlu>hlo (^•/») iiiul die voidere Sicl»l)eiir/.elle {r((i). Die Ivieferholilc (stn) ist 
'A mm lanii tind 1 ' .> mm bn'it. 



Planche 1. 

(irandeiif nature. — Foetus de (i itiois '.,. 

sni sinus maxiilaire. cen cellule etinnoidale. ci cornet inferieur. iiiui meat inferieurj on cornet moyen, 
vitnn meat moyen. pu processus uneinatus, cv cornet su))erieur, nnis meat superieur, s- septum. 

Coupe froiitale d"uii foetus de (5 mois ' ^, inontraut les fosses nasales separees 
par le septum (5), les cornets inferieur (ci), moyen (cm) et superieur (cs), les meats in- 
ferieur (mni), moyen (mnm) et superieur (inns), de plus le sinus maxiilaire (sm) et 
la cellule ethmoidale anterieure (cea). Le sinus maxiilaire (sm) a 3 millim. de long, 
et 1 * .> niillim. de large. 



Plate 1. 

Natural size. — Foetus of 6^2 nionths. 
•>•■»( maxillary antrum, ce// ethmoidal cell, ci lower concha, mni lower meatus, on middle concha, 
mnm middle meatus, pu uncinate process, cs upper concha, mns upper meatus, s septum. 

Coronal section through the head of a foetus 614 months old, shewing the nasal 
fossae separated by the septum (s), the lower (ci), middle (cm) and upper (cs) concha, 
the lower (mni), middle (mnm) and upper (mns) meatus, the maxillar}^ antrum (sm) 
and the anterior ethmoidal cell (cea). The maxillary antrum (.5m) is 3 mm long and 
1 1 ., mm wide. 



Tafel I. 



cs cm 




^ 



Tafel 2. 



Sagittalschnitt. 



Natiirliche Grosse, — 8 Monat alter Fotus, 



Plaiiclie 2. 

Coupe sagittale. 

Grandeur nature. — Foetus de 8 mois. 



Plate 2. 

Loiigitudiiial vertical section. 

Natural size. ■ — Foetus of 8 months. 



Tafel 2. 

XiVliulu'lu' (Jriisse. — S .Moii.il allci- l'\ihis. 

r/ r»«i'fssu> Inwilalis. Ii» hiatus srmilunnris, pn pnn-cssus iiiiciiintus, chj I'oiulia lucdia, mns mi'iitus 
iiiiriuiit su|H'riiir. ra oondia s\i|)t'rii>r. t [\i\u\ Kustiu'liii, n- cvsla ivtroplian iiKoalis. 

Dor Sjijiittulsi'liiiit 1 cinrs S Moiiat alien l-'otiis /.ci^t die latci'ale Xasciiw uiid 
imoli Kntfcnumii i\vv iiiittlcrt'ii Naseiinnisrlitl. Man sidit die Aiisal/linic diM- niitt- 
loriMi NastMUuusrhfl [riii). dunh ihvr lailt'fiimnu i>t frciLiclc^t »hi?< (IchicI dcs hiatus 
scinilnnaris (/is). wrK'hcn oIxmi die Ijunu'llc dt>r Imlla. «*(lun()idalis imd iintcn dcr ]«•(>- 
cessus iiiu'iiiatiis (pu) \H'iivv\v/.\ . Oherliall) drs seharf alttiet^nMizleii vordcrsten Tcilcs 
ties hiatus sriuihiiiaris (/is) isl dcv ausifepiilirl \ oi haiuh'iic icccssiis frontalis {/•/) y.u 
sehni. weU'hfr sii-h in ciiicr Ansdeluuiiiu; von 4'^ nun nach ohen uml vorne orstrcckt. 
Olu'rhulh dcr Ansjvt/.Hnio der niittU'rcn Muschel (cm) ist der obere Nasengang (nms) 
luul die olxMv Nasoiunuschrl (rs). riickwiirts die Miiudung der Kustachsclien I^(")lire (t) 
uiid ilie in der I'afel ."{ erwiUinti' Relro])ha.ryi^j;eal/.\ ste (rr) /u ii])er.sehen. 



Planche 2. 

Ciranch'ur nature. — Foetus dc S mois. 

r/ recessus frontal, lis liiatus seiuilunairc i,n ]irocessus uncinatus. cm cornet nioyen, w/iv meat 
suj>erieur. rv eonict suiierieiir. / tr()iii|)c (FEiistache, cr kyste retropliarynge. 

Coupe sagittale trim foetus de S niois niontrant la parol laterale de la fosse 
nasale apies section dti cornet moyen. On voit la ligiie d'insertiou du cornet moyen {cm). 
Par la section du cornet nioyen la region de riiiattis seniilunaire (A.s) est devenue 
visible. Ses limites sont en haut la lame de la bulle cthnioidale et en bas le processus 
uncinatus (pu). Au dessus de la partie anterieuie de I'hiatus seniilunaire (^s) bien 
liinitee se trouve le recessus frontal (/•/) tres marque, s'etendant sur une longueur 
de 4'2 millim. en haut et en avant. Au dessus de la ligne d'insertiou du cornet moyen 
(cm) se trouveut le meat superieur (mjis) et le cornet superieur (cs). En arriere, I'ouvei - 
ture de la tiompe d'Eustaehe (t) et le kN'ste retropharynge (cr) mentionne sur le 
planche 3. 



Plate 2. 

Xatuial size. — Foetus of cS mouths. 

rf frontal recess, hs semilunar hiatus, 'pii uncinate process, cm middle concha, wms n])])er meatus, 
CA' upper concha. / Eustachian tube, cr retropharyngeal cyst. 

Longitudinal vertical section through the head of a foetus 8 months old, shewing 
the lateral aspect of the nasal fossa after removal of the middle concha. The ridge 
of insertion of the middle concha (cm) is visible. Througli the removal of this concha the 
region of the semilunar hiatus {/i.s) has been exposed. It is bounded above b\' the 
lamma of the ethmoidal bulla, below by the uncinate process {pu). Above the sharp 
anterior margin of the semilunar hiatus {/is) the well marked frontal recess {rf) may 
be seen extending upwards and forwards for a distance of 414 mm. Above the ridge 
of insertion of the middle concha (cm) are the upper meatus {mns) and upper concha {cs). 
Further backwards, the orifice of the Eustachian tube {t) and the retro-pharyngeal 
cyst {cr) mentioned in the description of plate 3 are visible. 



Tafel 2. 



mns cs 




Tafel 3. 

Sagittalschnitt. 

Naturliche Grosse. — 8 Monat alter Fotus. 



Plaiiche 8. 

Coupe sagittale. 

Grandeur nature. — Foetus de 8 mois. 



Plate 3. 

Longitudinal vertical section. 

Natural size. — Foetus of 8 months. 



Tafel 3. 

Xutiirliflit> (In')ssi>. — S Mount alter P'otus. 

ci ctMiclin inforidr, mni inoiitvis imriiim inferior, cm cotu'lia mctliii. unnn moatns nnriuni niodiiis, 
r.» coiu'hii su|HTior. mrt« nu"at»is nariuin .supi'rior. vtimr nwatiis iiariiiin suprcMiuis. rr cyst is retro- 

|>liarynjri>alis, rp cystis |)aiatin,i. 

\)vv ^aLiitiulsohnitl tMiu>s S Monat altiMi Fotus ■/.v\}j,i, die ial.i'rali^ Wand dor Nasen- 
lii>lilf. dir iinttMV {<•/). iniltl»MV (cm) und olx'Vc (rs). Xascnmiisrlu'l uiid dcii Host der 
ohcrsten NasiMiimisolicl l)(>LrriMr/.t \o\\ dcm l<ur/.(>n Hcst. dcs olx'vsleii Xas(Mi^aMt>('s {niii.sr), 
f»>riu'r tlfn iintrn'n innii). luittK-rcii (inmn) uiul obcrcn {iinis) Xa>s('ii<ianjj;. Dor Scliiiitt 
/eigt liussordriu y.wvi konm'iiitalc Si-liUMinzystcii im (icbu'te dos wcicluMi (Jauiuens 
imd dt>s Kftroiiharyiix. I>i»' lu'tro|)liaryiiLM>al/.\ stc {rr) bat cine Ausdohnung von 
iMniiu l-aiiu'f. i:>inni \\o\\v uiul Id iiini I'lcitc die ( ^uiincnzyste (cp) hat cine Au3- 
Ifrcituuij; \i>n '.•nun Liinuc M mm llnlic iind 10 mm lircite. 



Planclie 3. 

Grandeur nature. — Foetus de S mois. 

ri cornet iiiforieur. miii meat iiiferieur, cm cornet nioyen. )>in)ti meat moyen, cs cornet snperieur, 
>;/«•>■ meat suiierieur, tnti'-r meat supreme, cr kyste retrophar^-nge, cp kyste palatin. 

8ur cette coupe sagittale d'un foetus de 8 niois, on voit la paroi latetale do 
la fosse nasale, les cornets inferieur (ci), moyen {cm) et superieur {cs) et le reste du 
quatrieme cornet. On voit les meats supreme (7nnsr), superieur {myis), moyen 
(ninni) et inferieur (ntni). 8ur la eou])e on voit de plus deux kystes congenitaux, 
I'un dans le voile du palais et I'autre dans le cavum. Le kyste du pharynx (cr) a 
une longueur de 10 millim., une hauteur de 13 millim. et une largeur de 16 millim. 
Les dimensions du kyste palatin (cp) sont respectivement 9 millim., 9 millim., 
et 10 millim. 



Plate 3. 

Xatural size. — ■ Foetus of 8 months. 

ci' lower concha, vnii lower meatus, cm middle concha, mnm middle meatus, cs upper concha 
mns upper meatus, mnsr uppermost meatus, cr retropharyngeal cyst, cp palatine cyst. 

Longitudinal vertical section through the head of a foetus of 8 months, shewing 
the lateral wall of the nasal fossa, the lower (ci), middle (cm), and upper (cs) concha, 
and a vestige of the uppermost concha bounded by vestiges of the short uppermost 
meatus (miisr); the lower (mtii), middle (mnm), and upper (mns) meatus are also 
visible. The section shews, besides, two congenital mucous cysts situated respectively 
in the })alatal and retro -pharyngeal regions. The retro -pharyngeal cyst (cr) is 10 mm 
long. 13 mm high, and 16 mm wide; the palatal c^'st (cp) is 9 mm long, 9 mm high, 
and 10 mm wide. 



Tafel 3. 



mnm cm mm mnsr 




mni ci cs 



Tafel 4. 

8agittalschiiitt. 

Natiirliche Grosse. — Neugeborenes Kind. 



Plan die 4. 

Coupe sagittale. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant nouveau-ne. 



Plate 4. 

Lougitiulinal vertieul section. 

Natural size. — New-born infant. 



Tafel 4. 

Natiirlifhf (Jriissf. - NfiiiiclM.ifiics Kind. 

r/ rt-ct-^-tiw fruntnlis. i<u prtHT.ssiis tinciimtus. lis liiutus srmiluimiis. //«• liiiiiiim ImlLic cllimoidulis, 
rm i-niidiii m.xlift. mnt m«')itu>* luirimn su|HTior. rx condin suiMTior, rsr coiuli;! supnina. 

IVr SjVifittuIsoliiiitt dt>s Kopfcs fin<-s Xcuuclmrciii'ii /,('i<:l die lalciMlc Niisciiliolilcn- 
«jvim1 luwh tlrr K.MtfrrMUMi: drr mittlcrcii NastMinuischcl. .M;iii siclit die AnsiU/.liiiie 
tU>r mittlert'ii NiWMMiiiMis«-lu'l {mi), diirch ilirc ImiI tcnimiu isl fivi^f(>l<'<j;t das ({chict, 
<li»j« hintus sriuilunaris (fis). wrlcluMi oltcii die l.aincllc dcr l)ulla. cthiHoidalis (Ihc) imd 
union cirr jmn'ossiis uiuMMivtus (pii) lH'<iV(Mr/t . ( thcihall) dcs schart' al)<,M'ur(Mr/1('n vov- 
doTston Toilos ilrs hiivtus siMnilniiaris (lis) ist dry aiisfropriigt \ oiliaiidciic rcccssiis tidii- 
talis (r/) 7.11 srluMi. wrlrluT sicli in ciiu'V Ausdcliiuiiiu voii .'{'^ mm iiacli oltt-ii iind noi-ik^ 
rrstnvkt. (U>t'rli;dl» dcr Aiisivlzlinif dcr mittlcrni Mnsclicl {ciii) ist dci' dhcic Xaseii- 
gnnjl [tuns), die obrrt- Nascnmiisclicl (rs) nnd dcr IJcst dcr oiicrstcii Nasciimiisclicl 
{rsr) r.u iihcr^clu'n. 



Planclie 4. 

(Jranilcur nature. I'aitant nouNcau iic. 

r/ recwisus fn)ntal. /,« processus uncinatus, /<.s' hiatus sciniluiiairc. Iln lame dc la \>\i\\v el liiuoidak', 
ctn cornet moyeii. nuf meat su|)cri(Mir. rs cornel -<u|iciicur. c^r i|ua.ti-irnic coiiict. 

Coupe sagittale d'lin enfant ikjun cau-iH' montniul la j);u;oi lateralc dc la, fosse 
nasale apres section du cornet moyen. On xoit la. iigne d'insertion du cornet moyen. 
Par la section du cornet moyen la region dc Ihiatus seniilunaire limitee en haut par 
la lame de la bidle ethnioidalc et en has par le processus uncinatus est devenue visible. 
Au dessns de la partie antcrieure de Ihiatus seinilunaire {h.s), trcs marcjuee, se voit 
tres distinctcnient le recessus frontal (/•/). (pii sctend sur nne longueur de 3' 9 ii^illini- 
en haut et en avant. On voit au dessus de la Iigne dinsertion du comet moyen {cm) 
le meat supcrieur (/««), le cornet supcrieur (cs) et le reste du quatrieme cornet (csr). 



Plate 4. 

Natural size. — Xe\v-])orn infant. 

rf frontal recess, pii uncinate process, h.1 .semilunar hiatus, Ibe lamina of ethmoidal bulla, cm middle 
concha. >nn~s upper meatus, rs up])er concha, csr uppermost concha. 

Longitudinal vertical section through the head of a new-born infant, shewing 
the lateral wall of the nasal fossa after removal of the middle concha. The ridge of 
insertion of the middle concha (cm) is visible. Through the removal of the middle concha 
the region of the semilunar hiatus (hs) has been exposed; it is bounded above by 
the lamina of the ethmoidal bulla (Ibe), below by the uncinate process (pu). Above 
the clearly defined anterior portion of the semilunar hiatus (hs) a well marked frontal 
recess (rf) may be seen extending upwards and forwards for a distance of 3^2 "i"i- 
Above the ridge of insertion of the middle concha (cm), the upper meatus (mns), 
upper concha (cs), and vestiges of the uppermost concha (csr) are visible. 



Tafel 4. 




TatVl 5. 

Froiitalseliiiitt. 

Naturliche Grosse. — Neugeborenes Kind. 



Plaiiclie 5. 

Coupe frontale. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant nouveau-ne. 



IMate 5. 

Coronal section. 

Natural size. — New-born infant. 



Tafel 5. 

Nutiirlu'lu' (Iriissr. Nt'Ufiflinn'iics Kind. 

IIII4 iiKtxilluriH. /»m-Aj» |in)et'ssuH unciuatus. hiatus sotniluiiuiis. cut crlluli cl iimnidalis ante rii.r. 
«•>• idlulii ••tJiiHoiilaliH iMtstcrior. ri ooiu-lia iiifnior. tuni nifaliis narium iiilcrioi-. cm iniK ha media. 
iNMiM inoatUH nariiiiu mwlius. rt nmi-lia su|KMiur. //(/(•< meatus iiaiium siiixiior, < >( ptum. 

I »«T Krontulsi-hnitt dt's Kopfcs ciin-s NciiiiclKinMU'H /.ciul dif rw^v linkc Nnscii- 
lu'iiiiv an ilinT iiusM'rni Wand die imtcrc (r/). die iiiitllcrc (cin] mid die <)l)cn> (rs) 
Na-M'miuisriirl. dm untrifM (nini). dvn iniltlci'cn (iinnii) mid den oIickh (iitii.s) Xascii- 
jjniii;. Iiu inittlt-n'M Nasfiii:ivnj:«> (nnim) ist dcr hiatus stiiiiliiiiaris (hs) l)('n;i»'ii/,l voiii 
jiriHMwsns uiu'iiiut;is (/*»). ">i( dcr Miiiulnnti dci' Kicl'ciluthlc' (-^iii) /,ii idx-i'sclicii. Die 
Ki«>f«Tln>ld«« (sin) lu'jit im MtM-cii-ho drs iinlcrcii N;isi'iitj;iuiifrs (ninl) iiiid dcr uiitcicii 
Mu.s^'lirl (r»). ist 7 mm hiiiji, 4 mm liocli imd !> mm In'cil. Die \()rd(M-('ii Si('l)l)('iir/.('ll('ii 
(rrw) htilMM) oinc Aiisdrluumg von 1 — 2'^ """■ ''i'' liintnc SicMM-in/.t'llc ((■(/>) ist '> imii 
Innc. -'-.mm hoch mid I ' ., mm hvcil. 



Planche 5. 

(Jrand(Mir natiiic. — Enfant iKnixcau iir. 

.<i« sinus luaxillairo. j.u-lis processus unciuatus. hiatus senulunairc. rci celhile etlinioidalc; antcricur. 

c«;j cfllulf »'thniuidalc postcrieure. ri cornet inferieur. iiini meat inferieur. cm cornet luoyen 

inn III meat nioyen. c-s cornet superieur. //*«•> meat superieiir, v septum. 

lAi coupe frontale de la tete d"un nouveati-nc moiilrc^ la. ])aroi laterale dc la fosse 
na.^ialc gauche etroite. les cornets inferieur (ci). moyen (cm) et superieur (cs), les meats 
inferieur {mni), moyen {mnm) et superieur {nins). Dans le meat moyen (mnm) on pent 
voir I'hiatus .scmilunaire (hs) limite par le processus uncinatus (pu) et I'ostium du 
sinus maxillairc {stn). Le sinus maxillaire (sm) se trouve au niveau du meat inferieur 
{nnil) ct du cornet inferieur (ri) et est long de 7 millim., liaut de 4 millim. et large 
de .'J millim. J..cs cellules ethmoidales anterieures (cea) ont line etendue de 1 a 2^/.> mil- 
lim.: l;v cellule cthmoidale ])osterieure a 5 millim. de longeur, 2^o miliim. de hauteur 
»t 1 ' ., nn'Ilim. de laioeur. 



Plate 5. 

Natural size. — Xew-boni infant. 

XIII maxilhiry antrum, pi(-hs uncinate process, .semilunar liiatus, cea anterior ethmoidal cell. 
cfp pasterior ethmoidal cell, ci lower concha, tnni lower meatus, cm middle concha, mnm middle 
meatus, cs upper concha, 7nns upper meatus, s septum. 

Coronal section through the head of a ne\\-])oni infant, shewing the narrow left 
na.sal fo.ssa. and on its lateral wall the lower (ci), middle (cm) and upper (cs) concha. 
and tlie lower {mni). middle (mnm) and upper (mns) meatus. In the middle meatus 
(mnm) the semilunar hiatus (hs) is seen bounded by the uncinate process (pu) and 
opening into it. the maxillary antrum (sm). The maxillary antrum (s7n) is situated 
near the lower meatus (mni) and the lower concha (ci): it is 7 mm long, 4 mm high 
and 3 mm wide. The anterior ethmoidal cells (cea) are between 1 and 2^2 mm in 
size. The posterior ethmoidal cell (ccp) is 5 mm long. 2^ mm high and Po inm wide. 



Tafe; 5. 




Tafel G. 

Horizontalscliiiitt. 

Natiirliche Grosse. — Neugeborenes Kind. 



Plaiiclie G. 

Coupe horizoiitale. 

Grandeur nature, — Enfant nouveau-ne. 



Plate G. 

Horizontal section. 

Natural size. — New-born infant. 



Tafel 6. 

Ntttiirlu-ho Clrosse. — XciiirclxTciit's Kind. 

am •Unix mnxillnris. tVw/ ductus nft.«oIacrimalis. vnii meatus ii;iri\iiii inferior, ci couelia inferior, (im 

fossa craiiii inetlia. 

l)i'r llunzontalsrhiutl di's Kojifes fines NeugeboiTiU'ii zeigt die Kieferhohie (57/1), 
den ductus nasoliicrinuvlis {dnl). die imtere Nasenmuschel (ci) und den unteren Nasen- 
panp (mni). I>ie Kieferhohie (sni) i.st 11 nun lung, 6 nnn hocli und 4 mm breit. 



Planche 6. 

Orandcur nature. — Enfant nouveau-iie. 

Am sinus niaxiilaire, (/?i/ conduit nasolacr\-mal, ynni meat inf6rieur, ci cornet inferieur, (im fosse 

cerebrale moycnnc. 

Cou|>e horizontale de la tete d"un nouveau-ne, montrant le sinus maxillaire {sm), 
le conduit nasolacrvmiil (dnl), le cornet inferieur (ci) et le meat inferieur (jtuii). Le 
sinus ma.xillaire all millim. de long. (5 millim de haut et 4 milliin. de large. 



Plate 6. 

Natural .size. — Xew-born infant. 
•om maxilian*' antnmi, dnl nasal duct, mni lower meatus, ci lower concha, cnn middle fosse of 

internal base of skull. 

Horizontal section through the head of a new-bom infant, shewing the maxillary 
antrum (.sm), the nasal duct [dnl), the lower concha (ci) and lower meatus (?/aii). The 
Qiaxillary antnmi (.sm) is 11mm long, 6 mm high and 4 mm wide. 



Tafel 6. 




Tafel 7. 

Horizoutalsclmitt. 

Natiirliche Grosse. — Neugeborenes Kind. 



Plaiiclie 7. 

Coupe homoutale. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant nouv^eau-ne. 



Plate 7. 

Horizontal section. 

Natural size. — New-born infant. 



Tafel 7. 

Nrttiirliclii' (;i()ss«\ — N'ciiLrt'IxinMifs Kiiul. 

•/ n><i«wu>i fmntnlifl, ern r«<llulii clliinuidiilis aiUciior, o i> cclhihi rl limoiilalis ixpslcrior, en caviiin 

naritiiu. .< srptiim. iniuii iiicaliis ii;uimn iiirdiiis, uiii fossa craiiii iiit'tiia. 

T>er n«)ri/.i>n(alst linitt dcs Kopfcs ciiics Xcuf^M-bonMU'ii ist am obereii Teilo des 
inittlcnMi Njis»>n^jiiiir»'s (uniiii) iicfiihrt iind '/.cit^t die Xas(Mih()ldo {rn), begrcnzt von 
dt^r Nasonst'hoidenwand (.s). in drr Ili'iliciilolLM' \(iii xiinic i>;u-li riickwilrts den re- 
CfSsiiH fr(>nt;vlis (r/), die voidfrrii (r((i) mid die liiiitcrcn {<'('})) Siobbcinzellen. 



Planche 7. 

( waiidciir nature. — Enfant nouvean-ne. 

•/ rrccssiis frontal, cea celliili' othnioidale antcriourc, cep cellule etlmioidale postf^rieure, en cavito 
nasalo. x septum, ninni rnvni inoven. am fosse cerehrale moycnne. 

Coiil>e hori/AUitale de la tete dun nuuveau-ne passant par la partie superieure 
du meat nioyen (tnnvi) et montrant la cavite nasale (en) limitee par la cloison du nez 
(s); allant d'avant en arriere, on voit le recessus frontal (r/), la cellule ethmoidale 
anterieure (cca) et posterieure {cep). 



Plate 7. 

Natural size. — Xew-born infant. 

r/ frontal recess, cen anterior ethomidal cell, eep posterior ethmoidal cell, en nasal cavity, s septum, 

inn/n middle meatus, nm middle fossa of internal base of skull. 

Horizontal section through the head of a new-born infant. The section is cut 
through the top of the middle meatus (mnm). It shews the nasal cavity (en) bounded 
by the septum (5), and from before backwards, the frontal recess [rf), the anterior (cea) 
and posterior (cep) ethmoidal cells. 



Tafel 7. 



ninm 




Tafel 8. 

Horizontalschnitt. 

Natiirliche Grosse. — Neugeborenes Kind. 



Plaiiclie 8. 

Coupe horizoutale. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant nouveau-ne. 



Plate 8. 

Horizontal section, 

Natural size. — New-born infant. 



Tafel S. 

Njvtiirlirlu' (Jrdssr. — Jsougcltcniics Kind. 
• HinuM iiirtNillaris. dnl durtus ij!is<»li»oiiinalis. unii im-atus iiariiiiii iiilnior. ri tMiuli.i infciior, 
ctn vmvhn niinlia. < septum nariuiii. 

Prr IIori7.«»ntals»"hnitt df- Kopfes riix's X(Mii:cl>()r(MU'ii /ciul (ilicrlialli dci- Aiisatz- 
linio dor tintonMJ Xas(«ninusrlit«l (<•/) die Ricfcrhdlilc {sni) mid /.wischcu dcii \ ( ndcrstcMi 
'IVil di>r Ku'ft'rhr»hl«» (mm) uiul d«M' unlfjvn Miischd (ri) den diictiis iiasolacriinalis (r////). 
I».T S'lmitl zoiijt lUK'li viuvu kU'iiUMi 'iVil d<T luittlcrcu Xascniuusclicl {cm), den iin- 
(«Mvn NiisonpJUlg (tinii) uiid tlit- XasiMischrklcw a.nd (s). Die Kiof('rli()lil(' {sni) ist KJ iiiiu 
IrtiiiT, ."i mm liooh mul ."?'■. nun Itrcit. 



Plaiiche 8. 

OrandiMir natnre. — Enfant nouveau-ne. 
««i !4inus inaxillain-. diil cuiuluit nasolacrymal, uini meat iiifrricur. ci cnrnot inf/rinir, on rnrnet 

moveii, v septum nasal. 

(\»ui)<^ horiztnitiile de latete dun nouveau-nr niontiant au-dessns de la ligne d'inser- 
tion du cornet inforieur (ci) le sinns niaxillaiie {sm), et entre la ])artie anterienre du 
sinus niaxillaire (*•/«) et le cornet inferieur {ci) le conduit nasolacrymal. La coupe 
niontre ejicore une petite partie du cornet moyen {cm), le meat inferieur {min) et le 
septum (.«). Le sinus maxillaire a 1 ."> millim. de long, o millini. de liaut et 3' 2 millim. 
de large. 



Plate 8. 

Natural size. — Xew-borji infant. 
."Wi maxillary antrum, dnl nasal duct, ynni lower meatus, ci lower concha, cm middle conclia, 

■s nasal septum. 

Horizontal section through the head of a new-horn infant, she\\ ing the maxillar\- 
antnim (sm) situated above the ridge of insertion of the lower concha (ci). Between 
the anterior part of the maxillary antrum (sm) and the lower concha (ci) is the nasal 
duct (dnl). The section also shews a small portion of the middle concha (ctn), the 
lower meatus (mni) and the septum (s). The maxillary antrum (sm) is 13 mm long, 
5 mm high and 3^2 n^m wide. 



Tafel 8. 







^ 



Tafcl i), 

Honzontalscliiiitt. 

Natiirliche Grosse. — Neugeborenes Kind. 



l^laiiclie 1). 

C()iil)c liorizoiitale. 

Grandeur nature. Enfant nouveau-ne. 



Plate 9. 

Horizojital section. 

Natural size. — Xew-born infant. 



^ 



Tatol 9. 

Horizoiitalseliiiitt. 

Natiirliclie Grosse. — Neugeborenes Kind. 



Planclie 1). 

Coupe liorizoutale. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant nouveau-ne. 



Plate 9. 

Horizontal section. 

Natural size. — New-born infant. 



Tafel M. 

.\.itiirliilu> (iiHtssc. NCiiuclxn'ciics Iviiid. 

rt n>rossus fnnttalis. /«»( jinu-cs.siis iiiii-inatus. rea rcllula fllinmidiilis ;uil('ii(ir. n j, ccllula d lininidalis 

|iostcritir. ru cavinii n.uiiini. -^ sc|)tuiM. 

|)iT llori/oiitivlsclmitt ties Kopfcs «>iii('s Ncimchorcnrn ist am ohcrstcii TciU^ des 
niitti(Tri) N;vscMir;vni:rs m>fiihrl mul /('isit dcii vt'ccssiis tiontalis (;•/). deii ])rocessiis 
unriiiivtus (pit), dit* vordorrn Sii'bhciir/.cllrii ('<(/). die liiulcrc'ii ►Sicbbcinzclleu (cep), 
tlit> schnuvlo Xivs(Milit>hlr {rn) iind die Naseuscheidewand (.s). Der recessus frontalis 
(;•/) ist r» luin hoeli. .'{ inin lan«i iind 2 mm hreit. Die vordere Siebl)ein/A'lleii (ecu) <\nd 
2 — li mm lanii. 4- — "> mm lioch. 2 — :5 mm \n-v[{. Die liiuteic' Siel)bcin/.elle (cep) ist 
."> mm hoi'h. 4'., mm laiiir mid 2 mm bieit. 



Planche 9. 

' Graiuleur nature. — Enfant nouveau-ne. 

»7 recessus fnmtal. /.ii jn-ocessus iincinatus. cea cellule ethmoi'dalo anterieurc. rep (■clinic ctliinoul.ijc 
jiosterieure. en cavite nasale. .s septum. 

C\)U])e horizontale de la tete d un nouveau-ne passant par la ])aitie su])erieure 
du meat moven et moiitrant le recessus frontal (rf). le processus uncinatus (pu). la cellule 
ethmoidale auterieure (cea). la cellule ethmoidale posterieure (cep), I'etroite cavite 
nasale (en) et le septum (s). Le recessus frontal (rf) a 5 millim. de haut. .'} millim. de 
long et 2 millim. de large. La cellule ethmoidale anterieure (cea) a de 2 a 3 millim. 
de long, de 4 a 5 millim. de haut. de 2 a 3 millim. de large. La cellule ethmoidale 
posterieure (cep) a "> milliju. de haut,. 4^2 millim. de long et 2 millim. de large. 



Plate 9. 

Natural size. — New-born infant. 

rf frontal recess, pu uncinate process, cea anterior ethmoidal cell, cep posterior ethmoidal cell. 

en nasal ca\"it3', s septum. 

Horizontal section through the head of a new-born infant, carried through the 
highest part of the middle meatus, so as to she-N\- the frontal recess (/•/), the uncinate 
process (pu), the anterior (cea) and posterior ethmoidal cells (cep), the narrow nasal 
cavity (en) and the nasal septum (s). The frontal recess (rf) is 5 mm high, 3 mm long 
and 2 mm Mide. The anterior ethmoidal cells (cea) are 2 to 3 mm long, 4 to 5 mm 
high and 2 to 3 mm wide. The posterior ethmoidal cell (cep) is 5 mm high, 4^2 "^"^ 
long and 2 mm wide. 



Tafel 9. 




Tafel 10. 



Horizoiitalscliiiitt. 

Naturliche Giosse. — Neugeboreiies Kind. 



Planclie 10. 

Coupe liorizoiitale. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant nouveau-ne. 



Plate 10. 

Horizontal section. 

Natural size. — New-born infant. 



Tafel 10. 

Xivtiirlu-lu> (JnWsr. Xt'u^rboiTnos Kind. 

.«.< .•iiiui> splu'Uoiilulis, o.s (istiuin .spliriioidaU*. vitii meatus iiariuiii infcridr. rt loiulia iiifiiior. )iiiiin 
nicatus tiariiiiii ino«lius. f/;i coiiclia media, ////o meatus iiarium su|ieii(ir. rv eouelia superior. 

l)er llorizontulsehnitt des Kopfes cines Neugeborciicii /.(miiI von olx-ii die Kcil- 
l>finlu)lilt> (••>>) inul ilnv Miindnnir ('w). von soitwiivls ilen imtcrea (//////). miltlcren 
(viniii) und diMi olu>n'n (iiin<) Nasonjiani:. dit> iintcro (ri). inittlcic ('///) mid die ohcro 
{cs) Nivspiunu.'^rlu'l. \hv Keilbeinhohle (.>-n) ist. 4 nun hot-li. ll nun huiL' und '2 nun hreit. 
drts ostium splirnoidaU' (('••>) ist 'jinm welt und niiindct iiidie tlein Xa.sendaelK'. 



Planche 10. 

'Grandeur natnie. — Enfant nouvcaii-ne. 

,<* simis sphenoidal, o.« ostium du sinus sphenoidal, mni meat inferieur, ci cornet inferieur, mtiyn meat 
moyen. cni cornet moyen. ?«»« meat .superieur, cs cornet superieur. 

Coupe horizontale de la tete dun nouveau-ne niontrant par en hant le sinus 
sphenoidal (55) et son ostium (os), de cote les meats inferieur (unii). moyen {nnini) 
et superieur {miis), les cornets inferieur {ci). moyen (cm) et sn])erieur (rs). Le sinus 
sphenoidal (ss) a 4 millim. de hant. 2 millim. de long et 2 millim. de large; I'ostium 
du sinus sphenoidal {os) a '2 '"i'lii'i- de large et s'ouvre pres du toit de la fosse 
uasale. 



Plate 10. 

Natural size. — Xew-born infant. 

*s sphenoidal sinus, os sphenoidal ostium, mni lower meatus, ci lower conclia. 7mim middle 
meatus, cm middle concha, mns upper meatus, cs upper concha. 

Horizontal section through the head of a new-born infant, shewing a view from 
above of the sphenoidal sinus {ss) and its orifice {os), a side view of the lower {mni), 
middle {mnm) and upper {mns) meatus and the lower {ci). middle {cm) and upper (cs) 
concha. The sphenoidal sinus {ss) is 4 mm high, 2 mm long and 2 mm wide; the 
sphenoidal ostium (os), Uy ^^^^ ^^ diameter, is situated near the roof of the nasal 
cavitv. 



Tafel 10. 







mm ci 



Tafel 11. 

Sagittalschiiitt. 

Natiirliche Grosse. — Neugeborenes Kind. 



PI an die 11. 

Coupe sagittale. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant nuuveau-ne. 



Plate 11. 

Longitudinal vertical section. 

Natural size. — New-born infant 



^ 



Tafel II. 

Nivt iirliclic llr()ss('. Ncu'jiclxii'ciit's Kind. 

PI coiiclta inforinr. "titi imwtiis iiariiim inferior, cm ciiiicIm media, iniiin iiumIiiiii nariiiin nicaliis, 
r,< coDcliii sup«>ri«ir. nui- nifaiiis iiariiim su|ici-inr. -•>■;• ('(iricha su|ii('iiia. umsr mciliis natiuin su|)icinus. 

l)or S!isiilt;klsi'lmitt tlrs Ko|tti's riiu-s Ni'ii<j;c'l)iirciirii /ciiil die I.UcM'a.lc Na.sciilir»lil(Mi- 
\v;iiul, d\c untiTo (c/), luittlore (cni). ohcrr (rs) Xiisciiiiuisclicl nnd den Kcst dcr oIktsUmi 
Muschol (r.sr). fornor d(Mi unteivii (mni). cUmi mittlereii {mntii), den ohcicii {in/is) Nascii- 
L'jvntr inul (1(M\ l\rst drs kiirzon obersten Xas?nganges {mnsr). 



Planche !l. 

(iraiidciir nature. — Enfant nouveau-ne. 

CI cornet infcrieur, itnii meat inferieux", cm cornet mojen, mum meat moyen, cv cornet snperieur 
niti'i meat superieur, ;/(?(w meat supreme, c-^r quatrieme cornet. 

Coupe sagittali' dr la trto d"iin iidiiveau-ne niontrant la parol laterale do la fosse 
nasale. le cornet iiifi'i'lcm- (ri). le cornet moyen (cm), le cornet superieur (r,s) et le 
reste du quatrieme cornet (c.sv). l)e ])lus on voit le meat inferieur {myii), le meat 
moyen (mnm), le meat superieur {mns) et le reste du meat supreme (mn^r) tres court. 



Plate n. 

Natural size. — Xew-born infant. 

ci lower concha, mni lower meatus, cm middle concha, 7nnm middle meatus, cs upper concha, 
mns upper meatus, csr uppermost concha, mti\r uppermost meatus. 

Longitudinal vertical section thi'ougli the head of a new-born infant, shewing 
the lateral wall of the nasal fossa, the lower {ci), middle (cm), upper (cs), and vestiges 
of the uppermost (csr) concha, the lower (mni), middle (nnnii), upper {nins), and 
vestiges of the short uppermost {ynnsr) meatus. 



Tafel II. 



mnsr mns mnm 




dr rs rill rl 



rv 



Tafel 12. 



Sagittalscliiiitt. 



Naturliche Grosse. — 1 Monate altes Kind. 



Plaiiclie 12. 

Coupe sagittale. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 1 raois. 



Plato 12. 



Longitudinal vertical section. 



Natural size. — Child 1 month old. 



Tafel 12. 

Natiirlic'lic (Irossc. I .Moiiat altts Kind. 

rf rvtH'ssus frontalis, br Imlla otliinnidalis. Iii. ini hiatus scmilmiaiis, indci'ssus iincinal us. rrn ccl- 

liila cthinoiilalis antorior. ri}) ft'lliila otliniDidalis postcrioi-. ri coiiclia InfciiDr, on coiiclia iiicdJM. 

wfim inratus Dariuin iiiodius. r< ctmi'lia supnior. iN>f< meatus naiitim superior. 

|)t'r Siviiittalsolmitt dcs 1 .Monat iltcii Konfcs /ciift die St iniholilc in ilirer 
friihfii K<^rni :vls hmtsshs frontivlis (ri). die xovdercn (<•((() niid liiiitcrcn {cp) Sieb- 
luMM/.i'lU'n. t'iiUMi Tril der iinteivn {ri). inittlcrcii [rni) iiiul dvv (ihcicii (rs) Xaseimiuschel 
timl tMiuMJ 'IVil dos inittlrrrii (mum) mid olx'veii (miis) Xasciigantfcs. Dcr rccessus 
frontalis (ri) ist 4'.. min hoeli. .'{'o nun lanu; nnd '.) mm hreit. cr miindct tlirckt in den 
hiatus .semilunaris (/is), weleher zwiselicn del' l)ull;i ethmoidalis und dcni pro- 
ce.ssus uneinatns (pii) /u selicn isl . I)ie xoidcren Sielihcin/ellcn {r((i) sind 2--(iniiu 
hoeh. .'{ — 4 mm lantz nnd 2 — 2*2 """ '"ifit. I>ic liinlercn Sicljheinzellen {rip) sind 
2 — .'? nun hoeh. 2'.. — I? mm ]:\nu, nnd 2 — 4 nun lucit. 



Pianche 12. 

Grandeur nature. — Knfant de I mois. 

rf recessus frontal, hr In/Ue ctlunoklale. hs, pu hiatus semilunaire, proce.ssus uncinatus. cci cellule 

othiuoldale antcrieure, cep cellule ethnioidale posterieure. ri cornet inferieur. on cornet inoyen, 

ninin meat moyen, cs cornet su])erieur. nni.f meat superieur. 

Coupe sagittale de la tete dun enfant de 1 mois montre le sinus frontal dans la 
forme primitive d'uii recessus frontal {/7), les cellules etlimoidales anterieures (cea) 
et posterieures (cep), une partie des cornets inferieur (ci). moyen (cm) et superieur (cs) 
et une partie des meats moyen (mum) et su])erieur (m«.s-). Le recessus frontal (//) est baut 
de 41 2 millim.. long de 3^2 inillim. et large de 3 millim. II se termine directement 
dans I'hiatus semilunaire (hs) que Ton pent voir entre la buUe ethnioidale et le pro- 
cessus uncinatus (pu). Les cellules ethmoidales anterieures (cea) ont une hauteur 
de 2 a 6 millim., une longueur de 3 a 4 millim. et une largeur de 2 a 2^/2 millim. 
Les cellules ethmoidales posterieures (cep) ont une hauteur de 2 a 3 millim., ime 
longueur de 2'2 'i 3 millim. et une largeur de 2 a 4 millim. 



Plate 12. 

Natural size. — Child 1 month old. 

rf frontal recess, be ethmoidal bulla, As, pu semilunar hiatus, uncinate process, ceci anterior eth- 
moidal cell, cep posterior etlmioidal cell, ci lower concha, cm middle concha, mnm middle meatus, 

cs upper concha, mns upper meatus. 

Longitudinal vertical section through the bead of a child 1 month old, she\Aing 
the frontal sinus in its earlier developmental stage of a frontal recess (rf), the anterior 
(cea) and posterior (cep) ethmoidal cells, parts of the loAver (ci). middle (cm) and 
upper (cs) concha and of the lower (mni), middle (mnm) and upper (nuis) meatus. 
The frontal recess (rf) is 4I2 nim high, 314 mm long and 3 mm wide. It opens directly 
into the semilunar liiatus (hs) which is seen enclosed betw een the ethmoidal bulla (he) 
and the uncinate process (pu). The anterior ethmoidal cells (cea) are 2 to 6 mm in 
height, 3 to 4 mm in length and 2 to 272 "^"^ ^^^ width. The posterior ethmoidal 
cells (cep) are 2 to 3 mm in height, 219 to 3 mm in length and 2 to 4 mm in width. 



Tafel 12. 




Tafel 18. 

Frontalschiiitt. 

Naturliche Grosse. — 1 Monat altes Kind. 



Planclie 13. 

Coupe iruiitale. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 1 mois. 



Plate l;3. 

Coronal section. 

Natural size. — Child of 1 month. 



Tafel 13. 

Xrttiirlioho CJr6**so. — 1 Monat ultos Kind. 

.<N siiuis s|ili(>ni>itl.ili>;. "-• o<liiiin s|)li('niiiil:ili". 

l)fr Krnutalsi'lmitt finr^i 1 Mniiat altcii Kopfcs ■/.vvj^i die Kcilhriiiluililc (,s',v) 
im Kt»ilbtMiiki)r|UM-. sio ist !> luin Inxli. "J ' j iiiiu hreit uiid l! mm laiisj;. iluv Miindung, 
div* ostium spluMioidale (cv) hildt't cine I ' i mm write iuihIp ( )t'fiuiii<^. An dicseni 
Kopfr ist dit' Kii'ferh<")hl(» S mm hum. 7 mm huch und 2'onnn bri'it. Die vordcrcn 
SioblH'in/.fllrn .><iiul ."> ."> mm laiiL'. - •"> nim liocli und 2 — 2|,2 mm breit. Die hintere 
Siebbein/('IIt> ist ."> mm laiii,'. 4 mm liocli niul ;>'., mm bicit. 



Plaiiclie 13. 

Grandeui' nature. — Enfant de 1 inois. 
•<N ,'<inu.'< splu'iioidal. <>s ostium du sinus sphonoi'dal. 

La coupe frontale de la tete d'un enfant de 1 mois raontre le simis sphenoidal 
dans le corps de I'os sphenoidal; il a une hauteur de 3 milliin.. une largeur de 214 niillira. 
et une longueur de 2 inillim. L'ostiuin du sinus splienoTdal (o.s-) forme line ouverture 
ronde, large de V/i millim. Sur cette tete le sinus maxillaire a 8 inillini. de long, 
7 millim. de liaut et 2' 2 niiilim. de large. La cellule ethmoidale anterieure a de 3 
a 5 inillim. de long, de 2 a 5 milliin. de liaut et de 2 a 2''2 millim. de large. La 
cellule ethmoidale posterieure a 5 millim. de longueur , 4 millim. de hauteur et 
3'/-' millim. de largeur. 



Plate 13. 

Natural size. — Child 1 month old. 
ss sphenoidal sinus, os sphenoidal ostium. 

Coronal section through the head of a child one month old, shewing the sphe- 
noidal sinus (.s-.s) situated within the body of the sphenoid bone; the sinus is 3 mm high, 
2\ 2 mm wide and 2 mm long. Its orifice, the sphenoidal ostium (os), is a circular 
aperture, 1^4 mm in diameter. The maxillary antrum of this skull is 8 mm long, 
7 mm high and 2'/2 mm wide. The anterior ethmoidal cells are 3 to 5 mm long, 2 to 
5 mm high and 2 to 272 mm wide. The posterior ethmoidal cell is 5 mm long, 4 mm 
high and 372 mm wide. 



Tafel 13. 




Tafel 14. 

Froiitalscliiiitt. 

Natiirliche Grosse. — 1 Monat altes Kind. 



Plauclie 14. 

Coupe frontale. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 1 mois. 



Plate 14. 

Coronal section. 

Natural size. — Child 1 month old. 



Tafcl 14. 

Xivtiiilicli.' (Jrosso. — 1 .Moiial alios Kind. 

rf riMvssiis frontalis. <-».i ivlluhi ftlimoidalis jmlciior. n/// sinus ma silliiis, ;///// iii.aliis n.niuni in 
forior, «•• iMini'lia infiTJor, »;i»im nu-alns nariuni nn-dins, jik protTssiis unciiKil us, nn ninriia iiii(li;i. 

Del- KioiilalM-liiiitt I'iiu's 1 .Moiial alien Koplcs zriut die lalciair Wand i\rv 
Nax-iilioldf. di«' uutrn* (ri) nnil niiltlrrc ('//') Xasi-nnuisclifl. den untcirii (//////) nnd 
luittU'it'ii (tiinni) NasiMipiiiii;. Iiu niittlcicn Na.<(M»,iianm> (nnim) ist do inoctssus ini- 
ciiiutus (fill) iiiul dcv liiivtus st'inilnnaris y.u sclicn. obci-lialb di's initllcrcn .\a.s(Miij;;i,ii>,;('s 
(tnuni) ist (l»M- (» inni liolic. ") mm lan<:i- nnd '2 mm Invite I'ecessus tVonta-lis (//) zn s<'!ien, 
ferner im Heiviehe des mittlen>n Xasen«ia.ng(>s (iiiiuii) vordere Siebhein/ellen (rrr/) 
nnd im Hi'iviche des unterea Xaseuganges {nitii) die Kiofeiliuliie {siti). 



Planche 14. 

Grandeur mituic. — Enfant de 1 mois. 

rf rocossiis frontal, cen eolinio ethmoidale antorieure, sm sinus maxillaire, imii meat int( ricur 
ri comet inferienr. //'/(//' meat mo^en. pii ])rocessu.s uncinatus, on coiiu't moycn. 

Coupe frt>ntale d"nne tete d'eufantde 1 mois montrant la ])ar()i laterah^ de la fosse 
nasale.les eornets infei-ieur (ci) et moyen {cm), les meats inferieur (nini) et inoyen{)iinni). 
Dans le meat moyen {irnim) on peut voir le processus uncinatus (;>w) et I'hiatns semi- 
Innaire: an-dessus dn meat iiioven {)i))>in) on voit le recessus fiontal {rf) haut de 
6 millim.. long de •") niillini. et laiL^e de i' inillim.. de plus au niveau du meat moyen 
(nnnii) se trouvent les cellules ethmoidales anterieures {c((() et au niveau du meat 
inferieur (niui) le sinus maxillaire (.sm). 



Plate 14. 

Natural size. — Child 1 month old. 

rf frontal recess, cea anterior ethmoidal cell, .'m maxillary antrum, nini lower meatus, ci lower 
concha, mnin middle meatus, jt/i uncinate process, cm middle concha. 

Coronal section through the head of a cliild one month old. sliewing the lateral 
wall of the nasal fossa, the lower {ci) and middle (cm) concha, the lower {tnni) and 
middle (yjunii) meatus. In the middle meatus {tnnm) the uncinate process {pu) and 
the semilunar hiatus are \'isible. Above the middle meatus {mnm) is the frontal recess 
{rf), measuring 6 mm in height, 5 mm in length and 2 mm in width. Adjoining the 
middle meatus {mnm) are the anterior ethmoidal cells {cea), adjoining the lower meatus 
{mni) the maxillary antrum {sm). 



Tafel 14. 



cea rf 




TatVl V). 

Froiitalscliiiitt. 

Natiiiliche Grosse. — 1 Moiiat altes Kind. 



l^laiiclie 15. 

Coupe froutale. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 1 moi.s. 



Plate 15. 

Coronal section. 

Natural size. — Child 1 month old. 



Tafel 15. 

Nutiirlielu' tJrosse. — I Monat altcs Kmtl. 

■«wi simis iiiaxilliirlx. rri crllula otliimiulalis ;mt«Mii'r. r, p rdliila rtliruoidalis posterior, iniii im-ahis 
iiariiiiii infrrior. n coiu-lia iiiffrior. nniin luratiis naiium iiudius, mi conclia inrdia. tuns iiu>atiis 

nariuin suprrior. ri t-oiicha superior. 

Dor FnmtaUrlmitt (lt'.>< I Mount jvltcii Kopfcs /riut clir laterals Wand dcr Nascii- 
hohlo. (lie untfiv (ri). ilir miMlrrc (rin) nnd ilic obcrc (rs) Xascmiiiisclicl. den uti- 
tfren (mni), don mittli'irn (inuiii) iind dm olnicn (inns) NasengaiiL!;. I in licreiclie 
des untertMi NastMiiianm'.s (nnii) uiul der iintcn-n Xasi-nnuiscliol {ri) lA die Kicfcrhohlu 
(.<«!). ill) Ht«riMflu> dt's inittlrriMi Na.siMiuaum*.^ {ttnnn) sind die %(irdm'ii Siol)l)c:in7A'!llcii 
(ria) imd ini Im-hmcIh- di's obrrcn XascMiiaum's die hintoren .Sichbeiiizcllon (rrp) /m 
st'lien. Dir Kirfrrlutldi> (.s//() Ut "> mm laiiu. 4 nun liocli niul '.)^ ■, nun In-cit. J)ie vor- 
dvw Siobboiiizollc {rat) i.st .") nun laiiii. \ nun lioch nnd ;j nun hi'cit. Die liintnc Sicb- 
bi'in/t'lli" (ri/i) ist ."> nun lanu. ■*>'., nun luuh und 2'.jnun brcit . Die Kcilbcinliolile 
ist 4 nun lung. 2'.. nun breil und '2 nun IkhIi. ihic MiindnnL' bildcl ( ine 
I mm nuidc ()f<'nnn>:. 



Planche 15. 

Grandeur nature. — Kidant tie 1 mois. 

.1)11 sinus inaxillaire. rrn cellule ethmoklale anterieure, cep cellule ethnioidale posteriiMire. una ineiit 
iuferieur. ri cornet inferieur. nitiiii meat nioyen. rm cornet nioven. nnis meat superieur, rs cornet 

superieur. 

('oni)e frontalediuieteted'enfantde 1 moismontrant la parol lateralede la fossae nasale, 
les c-ornets inferieur {ri). moyen et sui)erieur (cs). les meats inferieur {mni). moyen {mnm) 
et su])erieur (uni-s). On pent voir an niveau du meat inferieur {mni) et du cornet 
inferieur (ri) le siiuis maxillaire {sm): an niveau du meat moyen {nmm) les cellules 
ethmoidales anterieures (ceo) et au niveau du meat superieur les cellules ethmoidales 
posterieures {rep). Le sinus maxillaire {sm) a 5 millim. de long. 4 millini. de haut 
et S'o luillim. de large. La cellule ethmoidale anterieure (cm) a 5 millim. de long, 
4 millim. de haut et 3 millim. de large. La cellule ethmoidale posterieure {cep) a 5 millim. 
de long. 3^2 niillim. de haut et 2^2 n^illm^- de large. Le sinus sphenoklal a 4 millim. 
de long. 2^2 millim. de hirge et 2 millim. de haut. 8on ostium foime une ouverture 
HMule de 1 millim. 



Plate 15. 

Natural size. — Child 1 month old. 

•»»i maxillarv antrum, re'i anterior ethmoidal cell, cep posterior ethmoidal cell, mni lower meatus, 
ci lower concha, mnm middle meatus, cm middle concha, mns upper meatus, rs u])i)er concha. 

Coronal section through the head of a child one month old, shewing the lateral 
wall of the nasal fossa, the lower {ci), middle {cm) and upper {cs) concha and the 
lower {mill), middle {mnm) and upper {mns) meatus. Adjoining the lower meatus 
{mni) and ower concha (c/) is the maxillary antrum (sm). adjoining the middle meatus 
(mnm) are the anterior ethmoidal cells {cea), and adjoining the upper meatus (mns) 
are the posterior ethmoidal cells {cep). The maxillary antrum (,sm) is 5 mm long, 
4 mm high and 3^2 '""^ wide. The anterior ethmoidal cell {cea) is 5 mm long, 4 mm 
high and 3 mm wide. The posterior ethmoidal cell {cep) is 5 mm long, 3^4 '^'^^ high, 
and 21 2 "im wide. The sphenoidal sinus is 4 mm long, 2^ rfi"^ wide and 2 mm high; 
its opening is a circular aperture 1 mm in diameter. 



Tafel IS. 



cep 




Tafel 1(). 



Sagittalsehiiitt. 



Natiirliche Grosse. — 1 Moiiate altes Kind. 



Plaiiclie 10. 

Coupe sagittale. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 1 mois. 



Plate 10. 

LoiigitiuUual vtM'tical section. 

Natural size. — Child 1 month old. 



Tafel 16. 

XjiliiiTu'lu' (;ri)ssi'. I Moiial altps Kind. 

v.s iistiiiiu splu'iuiiilalc. r^ i-diiclia superior. ///«•>• iiumIiis iiarimii sii|)(Mi<ii'. rni coiulia media, ininu 
meatus iiarium nu-dius. ri eoiieiia iurerim-. nini meatus iiaiiiim iiileiioi-. 

Dor Sugittivlsrluiitt imiics 1 Moiiat alien Kopfes /(ml;;! die unton^ (ri). mitt- 
lero ((•//)) iiiul (lio obcri' (r.s) Naseinmiscliel, den niilereii {iiini). iHittI(MTii (niniii) mid 
don (iboivu (niiis) Nasouiiaiiir. Nalie deiu Xasenda.elie ist da.s '.jMiii) woite ostium 
s|)li«Mi()id;vI«> (ns) y.u selien. \\elelu>s in eine I'., nun weile N'erl ieiiini!; I'iilirt. 



Planclie 16. 

( Jrandoui nature. — Knt'ant de 1 inois. 

ON ostium tin sinu.s .sphenoidal, c-y cornet superieur. w/is meat superieur, rni cornet nioyen, j/?7immcat 
nioyen, ri cornet int'erieur. itnii meat inferieur. 

Coupe .sagittale d'uneteted'enfaiit de 1 niois nioutrant les cornets inferieur (a), moyen 
(cm) et superieur (cs), les meats inferieur {mni). nioyen (mnm) et superieur (mns). 
Pres du toit de la fosse nasale on pent voir rostiiun du sinus sphenoidal (os), large de 
]■, millini., ipii condnit dans uiie de])]e.ssioii large de 1 ' > luilliiu. 



Plate 16. 

Natural size. — Child of one month. 

OS sphenoidal ostium, cs- upper concha, mns upper meatus, cm middle conclui. »int)i middle meatus, 

ri lower concha. >iini lower meatus. 

Longitudinal vertical section through the head of a child one month old. shewing 
the loAver {ri). middle (cin) and upper (rs) concha, and the lower (nmi), middle (mnm) 
and upper (mns) meatus. Near the roof of the nasal fossa the sphenoidal ostium (rjs) 
nuiy be seen: it is ^o """ i'l diameter and leads into a cavity l^(, mm in width. 



Tafel 16. 




mm ri cm 



Tafel 17. 

Sagittalschiiitt. 

Natiirliche Grosse. — 1 Moiiat altes Kind. 



Plaiiclie 17. 

Coupe sagittale. 

Gra.ndeur nature. — Enfant de 1 mois. 



Plate 17. 

Longitudinal vertical section. 

Natural size. — Child of 1 month. 



Tafel 17. 

Natiirlioho Cri'issr. I .Monat altcs Kiiul. 

rf r«>cesj<us frontalis, />i/ processus iiiuMuatiis. cri i'i>lliil:i tMlnnoidalis aiitciior. /)v hiatus si'iuiluiiaris. 
ff u tTlIula ••tliinoiilalis jUKstorior. mni meatus nariuin iiift'iior. ci conclia iiifcridr, imi in im iliis n.i- 
riiim im>»liiis. cm otnu'lia nu'ilia. inns moatus nariiim sii|)crii)r. / tiilia lliistachii. 

l)«'r Sivgittivlsrliiiitt (>iiu>s 1 Monal alt«ii l\.(i|il"cs /.cml den iiiitci'tMi (nnii), 
(Ion initthTtMi (ninni) uml ilrn dIhti'ii (iini.<) N'astMi!j,aiiii. die uiilcrc (ci) uiul die milt- 
ItTC (cm) NasiMimusi-lirl. Dun-li ilas Wi'i^fallcii dcs vordcrslcii Tcilcs dcr mi(ll;'i-('n 
Muschol (cm) ist dor hiatus semilunaris (lis) zu scIumi, briircii/.l noiii processus uiioin.itus 
(pti) und der bulla ethnioidalis (cca). Iin Hcreiche des ohcri-u XascMigauijrs (tnns) 
ist die hint ere Siehhein/elle (cep) und in dcr l.inic des initeren Xasenganp:es (nini) 
lunfen di«« t»d)a Eustacliii (I) zu sol\en. Die Friihforin dcr Stirnhnhlc. dcr recessus 
frontalis (ri) ist "> inin lioeh. 4' ^ mm breit mid .*5'.j mm lanir. er miindct am oberen vor- 
deren Teile (h's hiatus semilunaris (//,s). Die vordere Sicl)l)cin/.clle (ce(i) ist 4'2nim 
lanii. 4 mm hoch und !>'.. mm breit. Die liintere Siel>bein/,elle (ccp) ist 5 mm lang, 
.■{'.. mm breit und ."> mm hocli. 

Planclie 17. 

(xrandeur nature. — ICntant de 1 mois. 

r/ recessus frontal, /iii j)roco.s.sus uncinatus. ce'i cellule etlimoidale anterieure. lis liiatus scinilunairc, 

Cfp cellule etlunoidaie pvsterieure, mni meat inferieur, ci cornet inferieur, )nn)ti meat moycn. 

on cornet moyen, tuns meat siiperienr. / trom]»e dKustaelic. 

C'i>ui)e sagittale d'une tete de 1 mois montra.nt les meals inferieur (itnii), 
moyen (/«»/») et su])erieur (m)is). les cornets inferieur (ci) et moyen (cm). Par la 
section de la ]iartie anterieure du cornet moyen, on pent voir I'hiatus semilunaire 
limite ]iar la })rocessus uncinatus (pu) et la bulle etlunoidaie (he). Au niveau du 
meat su])erieur (mns) on pent voir la cellule etlimoidale ])osterieure (cep) et dans la 
direction du meat inferieur (i/nii). la trompe d'Eustache (I). La forme precoce du 
sinus frontal (.?/). le recessus frontal, a 5 millini. de haut. 4^2 niillim. de large et 
3*., millim. de long: il s"ouvre a la partie antero-siiperieure de I'hiatus semilunaire (hs). 
La celhde ethmoidale anterieure (cm) a 4^2 niillim. de long, 4 millim. de haut et 
3'.> millim. de large. La cellule ethmoidale posterieure (cep) a a millim. de long, 
3'., millim. de large et 3 millim. de haut. 



Plate 17. 

Natural size. — - Child of 1 month. 

rf frontal recess, pu uncinate process, ceci anterior ethmoidal cell, hs semilunar liiatus, cep posterior 
etlimoidal cell, mni lower meatus, ci lower concha, mnm middle meatus, C7n middle concha, mns 

upper meatus, t Eustachian tube. 

Longitudinal vertical section through the head of a child aged one month, 
shewing the lower (mni). middle (mnm) and upper (mns) meatus, and the lower (ci) 
and middle (cm) concha. Through the removal of the anterior part of the middle 
concha (cm) the semilunar hiatus (hs) has been exposed; it is enclosed between the 
uncinate process (pu) and the ethmoidal bulla (under cea). Adjoining the upper 
meatus (mns), is the posterior ethmoidal cell (cep)\ in a line with the lower meatus 
(yimi) but further backwards, the Eustachian tube (?) is visible. The early develop- 
mental stage of the frontal sinus or frontal recess (rf) is 5 mm high, 4I2 nini wide 
and 3^2 nim long; it opens into the upper, anterior part of the semilunar hiatus (hs). 
The anterior ethmoidal cell (cea) is 419 nim long, 4 mm high and 3^2 ii^^i wide. The 
posterior ethmoidal cell (cep) is 5 mm long, 3^2 111^1 wide and 3 mm high. 



Tafel 17. 




Tafel 18. 

Sa^ittalschnitt. 

Natiirliche Grosse. — 1 Monat altes Kind. 



Plaiiclie 18. 

Coupe sagittale. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 1 mois. 



Plate 18. 

Longitudinal vertical section. 

Natural size. — Child of 1 month. 



Tafel 18. 

Natiirliohe (iriisse, — 1 MoikiI altcs Kind. 
sin sinus in.ixillaris. 

Der Sajjittalsclinitt oincs 1 Monat alten Kopfes zeigt die 10 nun lan^c, 4 mm 
hohs uiul 4 mm broite KioferluWilc (svi). 



Planche 18. 

Grandeur nature. — J^^ntant de 1 uiois. 
••-•wt sinus luaxillaire. 

Coupe sagittale d'une tete de 1 inois montrant le sinus niaxillaire (stn) long 
de 10 millim., haut de 4 millim. et large de 4 millim. 



Plate 18. 

Natural size. — Child of 1 month. 
sm maxillary antnun. 

Longitudinal vertical section through the head of a child aged one month, shewing 
the maxillary antrum {sm), which is 10 mm long, 4 mm high and 4 mm wide. 



Tafel 18. 




Tafel ID. 

Sa^ittalschnitt. 

Natiirliche Grosse. — 1 Monat altes Kind. 



Planch e 11). 

Coupe sagittale. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 1 mois. 



Plate 19. 

Longitudinal vertical section. 

Natural size. — Child of 1 month. 



Tafcl 19. 

Xrttiirliclio (irossc. — 1 Monat altts Kind. 

rf riTi'ssiis frontalis, cm colula i'tliiiu>i<l!vlis aiitrrior, ci coiii-lia suiurior. ninf iikmIus iiarium si;- 
jK-rior. cm i-oiu'lia iiu-dia. hs liiatus stinilimaris, pit processus um-iiiatiis, he bulla ctliinoidalis. 

rb ri'cossus bullaris. 

Dcr Sajiittalsclmitt oiiios 1 Monat ivltcn K()i)t\'s /riut ilir Schnittlinic. tlor cnt- 
fornten mittlorou Xasommisehol (rm) uud das auf dicsc Weise freiweJegte Gebiet des 
hiatus soinilnnaris (lis), wdclion dor ])rocossvis iiiu'iiiatus (pii) und die bulla ethnioidalis 
(bt) bojjrtMi/.t . Oborhall) dos vi>rdonMi Kiulcs tics hiatus scniilunaris ist dor Pvcihcn- 
folgo nach von voru uai-h riu-kwilits drr retossus frontalis (/•/) uiul zwei vordei'e Sicl)l)('in- 
zellon {era): die zweite vordcre .Siel)l)ein7,elle {cat) niundet in den recessus bullaris 
(rb). Die Fiijur zeigt noch den oberen Nasengang (nuis) und die obere Nasen- 
muschel (cs). 



F^lanche 19. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 1 niois. 

rf recessus frontal, cea cellule ethmoidale anterieure, cs comet superieur, wm^' meat superieur, 
cm cornet moyen, As hiatus semilunaire, pu processus uncmatus, be bulle ethmoidale, rb recessus 

1 ml la ire. 

Coupe sagittale d'lnie tete de 1 niois montrant la ligne de section du cornet 
moyen (cm) et la region de Thiatus semilunaire (h-s) niise a nu de cette faQon et 
limitce ]iar le processus uncmatus (pu) et la bulle ethmoidale (be). Au-dessus de I'extre- 
mit6 anterieure de I'liiatus semilunaire en allant d'avant en arriere on voit le recessus 
frontal (rf) deux cellules ethmoidales anterieures (cea); dont une s'ouvre dans le 
recessus buUaire (rb). La figure montre encore le meat superieur (mns) et le cornet 
superieur (cs). 



Plate 19. 

Natural size. - — Child of 1 month. 

rf frontal recess, cen anterior ethmoidal cell, cs upper concha, win* upper meatus, cm middle conclia, 
hs semilunar hiatus, pu uncinate process, be ethmoidal bulla, rb bullar recess. 

Longitudinal vertical section through the head of a child aged one month, 
shewing the cut edge of the middle concha (on) which has been removed in order to 
expose the region of the semilunar hiatus (A-s) ; the hiatus is enclosed between the uncinate 
process (pu) and the ethmoidal bulla (be). Above the anterior extremity of the semi- 
lunar hiatus may be seen, from before backwards, the frontal recess (rf), and two 
anterior ethmoidal cells (cea); the second anterior ethmoidal cell (cea) opens into 
the bullar recess (rb). The illustration also shews the upper meatus (mns) and 
upper concha (cs). 



Tafel 19. 



cea ce<t rf 




Tafel 20. 

Horizoiitalsclinitt. 

Naturliche Grosse. — 2 Monate altes Kind. 



Plaiidie 20. 

Coupe hoi'izoutale. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 2 mois. 



Plate 20. 

Horizontal section. 

Natural size. — Child of 2 months. 



Tafcl 20. 

Xatiirliolio (Jrr)ss(.>. - '2 Moiiati- allt's Kind. 
ilnl ihu'tiis ii;isol;iciimali-i. ■•'in sinus maxillaris. ci roiiclia int'i rior. 

l)ci llori/oiitalsflinitt oinos l' .Moiuiti- altcii Kopft's /.cij^t die 7 laiu laiige, o nun 
holu" uiul -'.. mm bii'itc Kioforhohle (.s///) im unmittclbaren Nachbarverhaltnisse 
zuin ihu'tus n:vs()Uu'rinialis {</«/). An dieseni Praparatr ist das ostium sphenoidale 
'., mm wfil nnil fiihrt in dio 1 mm woite K(nlb(Mnliolile. 



Planche 20. 

Grandeur nature. — Knfant de 2 niois. 
(hil ( diuhiit nasolacrvmal. snt sinus niaxillairo. ri cornet infcrieur. 

Coupe horizontale d"une tete de 2 mois niontrant le sinus niaxillaire long de 
7 millim., haut de Sinillim., large de 2' ^ niillim. dans le voisinage inimediat du conduit 
nasolacrymal (dnl). Sur cette preparation I'ostium du sinus sphenoidal a ^^ n^iHi"!- 
de large et conduit dans le sinus sphenoidal large de 1 millim. 



Plate 20. 

Natural size. — Child of 2 months. 
ilnl nasal duct, vm maxillary antrum, ci lower conclia. 

Horizontal section through the head of a child aged 2 months, shewing the 
maxillary antrum (sm) in close contact with the nasal duct (dnl). The maxillary 
antrum is 7 mm long, 3 mm high and 2I2 "i»^ wide. In this specimen the sphenoidal 
ostium is 19 "^^"^ ^^ diameter and leads into the sphenoidal sinus which is 1 mm wide. 



Tafel 20. 




Tafel 21. 

Sagittalschnitt. 

Natiirliche Grosse. — 2 Monate altes Kind. 



Plauclie 21. 

Coupe sagittale. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 2 mois. 



Plate 21. 

Longitudinal vertical section. 

Natural size. — Child of 2 months. 



Tafel 21. 

Natiirliche Oosse. - 2 Mcmato altos Kind. 
sm simis niaxillaria. 

Der Sapittalschnitt des Kopfes eines 2 Monate alten Kindes zeigt die 11 mm 
lange, 4 mm breite und 3 mm hohe Kieferhohle (sm). 



Planche 21. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 2 mois. 
■■<m sinus maxillaire. 

Coupe sagittale d'une tete d'enfant de 2 mois montrant le sinus maxillaire {sru), 
lone (le 11 millim., larce de 4 millim. et liaut de 3 luilliui. 



Plate 21. 

Natural size. — Child of 2 months. 
■sm maxillary antrum. 

Longitudinal vertical section through the head of a child aged 2 months, shewing 
the maxillar}- antrum (sm), which is 11 mm long. 4 mm wide and 3 mm high. 



Tafel 21. 




Tafel 22. 

Frontalsclmitt. 

Naturliche Grosse. — 4 Monate altes Kind. 



Plaiiclie 22. 

Coupe froiitale. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 4 mois. 



Plate 22. 

Coronal section. 

Natural size. — Child of 4 months. 



Tafcl II. 

Njvliiilic'lic (intssi'. - \ M( unite altcs Kiiul. 

.<»! eiiuis luaxillaris. mui nu'atiis iiarium iiifciior. ri ('(nnlia iiifciior. ////(//; iiicatiis niiiiini mcdius, 
cm coneliii iiuilia. viu.< inoatus iiariiim sup linr. r-i foiiclia su|tcri()r. ov «istiiim siilicnoiilalc. 

l>(>r I'nmtjvlsfhnitl ilt>s Kopfos riiios 4 Monatc wXWw Kiiides zeigt dir l.'{ mm 
linii;t>, 7 mm hivito iiiul "> mm liohc KioforluUilo, ck'ii uiitorou {mm), dcii mitticrcii 
(m/im) uiul (It'll tibcivn (»(»s) Xasonmiiii^, die iiiitcre (r/), di(> miltlcrc {cm) mid die 
oltort' ((>■) Xasenmusi'lu'l. Das ostium s|)li('n(iida.l(' (o.s) ist kauiii ciii ' ., iiim wcit 
mid fiihrt in fiiu' 'J mm wcitc KtMlltriiilKililc. 



Planche 11, 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 4 inois. 

-m kIiius maxillaire, tnni meat inferieur. ci cornet iiiftrieiir, mum meat moyen, cm cornet moj'en, 
f»7i.« meat superieur, cs cornet superieur, os ostium du sinus splienoidal. 

Coujie frontale d'uno tete de 4 mois niontrant le sinus maxillaire long de 
13 inilliin., large de 7 luillim. et haut de 5 millim., les meats inferieur {mm), moyen 
(mnm) et sujierieur {mns), les cornets inferieur {ci), moyen {cm) et superieur {cs). 
L'ostium du sinus sphenoidal {os) a a peine ' ., niillim. de large et conduit dans un sinus 
sphenoidal large de 2 millim. 



Plate 22. 

Natural size. — Child of 4 months. 

•sm maxillary antrum, mni lower meatus, ci lower concha, mnm middle meatus, cm middle concha, 
mns- upper meatus, cs upper concha, os sphenoidal ostium. 

Coronal section through the head of a child aged 4 months, shewing the maxillary 
antrum {sm), which is 13 mm long, 7 mm Avide and 5 mm high, the lower {mni), middle 
(mnm) and upper {mns) meatus and the lower {ci), middle {cm) and upper {cs) 
concha. The sphenoidal ostium {os), an orifice hardly V^ mm in diameter, leads into 
the sphenoidal sinus, which is 2 mm wide. 



Tafel II, 




mnm ci 



Tafel 28. 

Sagittalschnitt. 

Natiirliche Grosse. — 4 Monate alten Kind. 



Plauche 23. 

Coupe sagittale. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 4 niois. 



Plate 23. 

Longitudinal vertical section. 

Natural size. — Child of 4 months. 



Tafel 23. 

X;vt iirlii-l\(> (irossc. — 4 Monatc altcs Kind. 



on sinus niaxillMris 



Dor SHiiittHlsolniitl. ilos Koi)fc's tnncs 4 Monato alli'ii Kimli's /.cigt die 12 mm 
lange. 5 mm holir und ti mm breito Kioferhohlo (sm). Aiv diosem Priiparate ist das 
ostium sjihonoidali' ' .. mm wcit uml t'iihrt in cine .'{ mm weilc KcinxMulu'ililc. 



Planche 23. 

GraiuU'ur luvture. — Enfant do 4 mois. 
sm sinus maxillaire. 

Coupe sagittale d'une teted'onfant de4 mois montiant le sinus maxillaire (sm) long 
do 12 millim.. liaut do '> niillini. ot lai-^c do (i millim. 8ur cette preparation I'ostium 
du sinus s])lu'Mioidal a ' .> millim. do largo ot conduit dans un sinus sphenoidal large 
de 3 millim. 



Plate 23. 

Natural size. — Child of 4 months. 

•v?/! maxillary antrum. 

Longitudinal vertical section through the head of a child aged 4 months, shewing 
the maxillar}' antrum {sm) which is 12 mm long, 5 mm high and 6 mm wide. In 
this specimen the sphenoidal ostium is 1 2 i^^"^ wide and leads into the sphenoidal 
sinus which is 3 mm wide. 



Tafel 23, 




Tafel 24 

Sagittalschnitt. 

Natiirliche Grosse. — 4 Monate altes Kind. 



Plaiiclie 24 

Coupe sagittale. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 4 mois. 



Plate 24. 

Longitudinal vertical section. 

Natural size — Child of 4 months. 



Tafel 24. 

Xatiirliclic (Ivosse. — -4 Moiiate altes Kind. 
■"Ill sinus maxillaris. 

Din- Sagittalschnitt des Kopfcs ernes 4 Monate alten Kindes zeigt die 12 mm 
lange, 5 mm lidlic iiiul \ nun broite Kioforhohle (.sw). 



Planclie 24. 

Grandeiu- nalurc. — Enfant de 4 mois. 
sin simis maxillaire. 

Coupe sagittale d'lnie teto d'enfant de4 mois montrant le sinus maxillaire (sm) long 
de 12 millim., haut de 5 millim. et large de 4 millim. 



Plate 24. 

Natural size. — Child of 4 months. 
sm maxillary antrum. 

Longitudinal vertical section through the head of a child aged 4 months, shewing 
the maxillar}' antrum (sm) which is 12 mm long, 5 mm high and 4 mm wide. 



Tafel 24. 




Talel 25. 

Frontalselinitt. 

Natiirliche Grosse. — 474 Monate altes Kind. 



Plaiiclie 25. 

Coupe troutale. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 4 mois ^ji. 



Plate 25. 

Coronal section. 

Natural size. — Child of 4\'4 months. 



Tafel 25. 

N;it iirlii'lu' (JWkssc. l', .Mdiiatc iiltcs Kind. 

.</ simis frontalis, re/ cflliila rthinoidalis anterior, en caxinn nafiuin. cm concliu media, iinnii meatus 
nariuin ni»-«lius. r> eonolia inlVrior, nnii meatus narium inferior, 'hil duelus iiasolaerimalis. 

1)«M- Front alsi-hiiitt des 4'., Monale alti-ii Kopt'i-.s zcigt die (iU mm lioluv .'{'o '""^ 
breite mul :> mm l;vnge Stirnhuhle (sf). die vordere 8iebbeinzelle (cea), den tmtcrcii 
(mni) und mittleren (miDii) XasengaiiLr. i!ie imtere (cz) mid die mittlcrc (on) Xhscm- 
rmischel. liu Boreiche des unteren Xiist-iigaiiges (niui) ist der ductus nasolaeiimalis 
({/»/) zu sehen. 



Planche 25. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 4 niois ^. 

>/ sinus frontal, cen cellule e:hmoidale anterieure, en cavite nasale, cm cornet nioyen, tnnin meat 
moyen, ci cornet inferieur. mrii meat inferieur. dnl conduit na.solacrj'uial. 

(\)U])e frontale d'un crane de 4 niois I4, montrant le sinus frontal (.s/) haut de 
0' 2 millim.. large de 3' 2 niiJli"!- et long de 3 millim., lacellule ethmoidale anterieure (cea), 
les meats iiiferieur {mni) et nioyen {mnm), les cornets inferieur (ci) et moyen {cm). 
All niveau du meat inferieur (tnni) on pent voir le conduit nasolacrymal {dul). 



Plate 25. 

Natural size. — Child of 41^^ months. 

i«/ frontal sinus, ce/i anterior ethmoidal cell, en nasal cavity, em middle concha, t/nun middle meatus, 
ci lower concha, mni lower meatus, dnl nasal duct. 

Coronal section through the head of a child aged 4I/4 months, shewing the 
frontal sinus (.5/), measurmg 6V2 ^^^^i^ hi height, 3^2 "^^^^ i^ Avidth and 3 mm in length, 
the anterior ethmoidal cell (cea), the lower (mni) and middle (mnm) meatus, and the 
lower [ci) and middle {cm) concha. Adjoining the lower meatus {mni) the nasal 
duct {dnl) is visible. 



Tafel 25. 




Tatol 2(). 

Frontalselinitt. 

Natiirliche Grosse. — 474 Monate altes Kind. 



Plaiiclie 2(). 

Coupe froiitale. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 4 mois ^/i. 



Plate 20. 

Coroual section. 

Natural size. — Child of 4'/4 months. 



Tafel 26. 

Natiirlulir (Irosse. — >', Mmiatf altcs Kind. 

Kill simis luaxilliiris. ciii ci'llula otliinoidalis jxistrrior. ri:i ci'llnhi ctliinoidalis aiid'iior, inni iMcati\s 
nnriuni iufnior. n I'tmdia iufi'iior. unim meatus nariuin mcdiiis. rv conclia siiin-rior, iiiiii meatus 

nari\iui superior, ru im\ um iiaiiiiiu. 

Dcr Fvoiitivlsfliiiitt riiics J', Moiiatc altt'n K()|)t'('s zcijft die iuirt«(M'e W;uid 
del- Xivsriihohli', den mitcrcii {iiini). di-n iiiit t Icfcii (tinnn) mid dvn oheivii (nnis) Naseii- 
iiaiiu'. dii> iintrrr (ri), die luittlcre {rni) imd die nhcre (rs) Xasciuiuiscilu'l, die Kiofer- 
hohle (.ini). die \ ofdei'e (cm/) nnd die liiiitere (cry*) Sichlx'iii/i'lle. Die Kioforlidiile 
{sw) ist 11 luiu laiiLT. 7 mm lioeh mid 1'^ mm breit. J^ic liiutcro »Siebbeinzolle {cep) 
ist 7 mm lioeli. ti mm laiiii mid ."5 mm breit. 



Planche 26 

Grandeur nature. — Knfant de 4 mois V,. 

•>m sinus maxillaii'e. ccp cellule ethmuidale posterieure. cti cellule ethmoidale aaterieure, unit meat 
inf^rieiir, ci cornet inferieur, mnm m^at moyen, r ■ cornet superieur, mns meat superieur, en cavite 

nasale. 

Coupe frontale d "une ti'te de 4 mois '^ montrant la ])aroi laterale de la fo.sse 
naksale, les meats iiiferieur (mni). moyen (tntnn) et superieur (mns), les cornets in- 
ferieur (ci), moyen (cm) et superieur (cs), le sinus maxillaire (sm), la cellule ethmoidale 
antcrieure (cea) et posterieure (cep). Le sinus maxillaire (.sm) a 11 millim. de long, 
7 millim. de haut et 41^ millim. de large. La cellule ethmoidale posterieure (cep) a 
7 millim. de haut, 6 millim. de long et 3 millim. de large. 



Plate 26. 

Natural size. — Child of 414 months. 
sm maxillary antrum, cep posterior ethmoidal cell, cea anterior ethmoidal cell, mni lower meatus, 
ci lower concha, mmn middle meatus, cs upper concha, mns upper meatus, en nasal cavity. 

Coronal section through the head of a child aged 414 months, shewing the 
lateral wall of the nasal fossa, the lower (mni), middle (mnm) and upper (mns) meatus 
and the lower (ci), middle (cm) and upper (cs) concha, the maxillary antrum (sm), 
anterior (cea) and posterior (cep) ethmoidal cells. The maxillary antrum is 11 mm 
long, 7 mm liigh and 4^ nim wide. The posterior ethmoidal cell (cep) is 7 mm high, 
6 mm long and 3 mm wide. 



Tafel 26. 



en cep 




ci mm 



Tafel 27. 

Horizontalschnitt. 

Natiirliche Groi^se. — 4'/4 Monate altes Kind. 



Planclie 27. 

Coupe horizoutale. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 4 mois V4. 



Plate 27. 

Horizoutal section. 

Natural size. — Child of 4'/4 months. 



Tafel 27. 

Nal iirlirlu- (Ir()SS('. I', Moiiatc altcs Kind. 

sm simis niaxillaris, tliil tluctiis iiasolacriiiuilis. nniiii lucalus nai'iiiin iiicdius. ci ((niclia inliiidi'. 

1 )('!' Horizontalschiiitt ciiics H , .Moiialc iltcii Kopfes zeigt die KicferluihK' (sw/) 
mid. /.uischoii ilir uiul dcin mil l Icicii N;iseng;mgt^ {mum), don ductus nusolaei inialis 
i'lnl). Die Kioferliohlo isl I'.t nun laug, 8 mm hoch uiid 4'^ nun brcit. 



Planche 27. 

Grandeur iialuie. — Enfant de 4 niois i^. 
.N«i sinus maxillairc. (hil Cdiidiiit uasolacryinal. ttnnti meat moyen, ci cornet inferieur. 

Coupe liorizontale d'une teted'enfantde4 moisi/j. montratit le sinus maxillaire (sm), 
ct entre lui et le meat moyen {)ntnti), le conduit nasolacrvmal {dnl). Le sinus 
maxillaire a !!• milliin. de long, S millim. de haut et 4^2 niillim. de large. 



Plate 27. 

Natural size. — Child of 4^4 months. 
.«»( maxillary antrum, dnl nasal duct, itinm middle meatus, ci lower concha. 

Horizontal section through the head of a child, aged 4^4 months, shewing the 
maxillary antrum {.sm) and the nasal duct {dnl). The latter is situated between 
the antrum and the middle meatus {mnjii). The maxillary antrum is 19 mm long, 
8 mm liigh and 4^2 mni wide. 



Tafel 27. 




Tafel 28. 

Horizontalschnitt. 

Natiirliche Grosse. — 4Vi Monate altes Kind. 



riaiiclie 28. 

Coupe horizoiitale. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 4 mois '/4. 



Plate 28. 

Horizontal section. 

Natural size. — Child of 4'/4 months. 



Tafel 2S. 

Njvtiirlii'lu' (in'isso. P , Moiiatc altcs Iviiid. 

.«/ sinus fn>nl;ilis. n i c-fllul;i t-tlimoidalis anterior, rip (•cliiila el Iminidalis pnsiiTidr. nni in iiicttiis 

iiariuin nicilius. 

l)cr lli'ii/outiilsiluiitt «Mn»'s 4', Moiuito altrii Kojjfcs isl am olxTsfcii 'I'cile 
lies iniltlfrtMi Xasenganges (wtnn) gcfiihrt nml /ci^t in dw Itfilicntol^c \<)ii vcirne 
iiacli riiiUwiirts dio Stiriilu'>hlo (.s7). die vordcrni (rai) und die luntrivii (rep) Sii!l)l)cin- 
y.ollon. Die Stirnliohlo (.s7) ist (i intn lioch. ■'i^ ■, mm laiit; und !? mm })r(Mt. Dio vordcrcii 
Siel>luMn/.Hl(Mi (r«7/) sind 4 — "> mm lidch. '.\ — 4'omm lanti und 2 —4 mm l)r('it. Die 
liintt-rtMi SirlilxMn/cllcii (cr/O siiid ."> mm lidcli. .■{.■) mm lanu und 4'., mm hicit. 



Planche 28. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 4 mois ^{^. 

.*/ sinus frontal, cen cellule ethmoidale anterieure. cep cellulo othninklak' i)().stericun\ itinni, meat 

mnyen. 

Coupe liorizontale d'une tete de 4 mois i^ ]iassant par la ]iartie superieure du 
meat moyen (mnm) et montrant, situes davant en arriere: le sinus frontal (sf), la 
cellule ethmoidale anterieure (cea) et posterieure {cep). Le sinus frontal (.s/) a 6 millim. 
de haut. a' ., millim. de long et 3 millim. de large. La cellule ethmoidale anterieure (cea) 
a de 4 a 5 millim. de haut. de 3 a 4V2 millim. de long et de 2 a 4 millim. de large 
Les cellules ethmoidales posterieures (cep) otn 5 millim. de haut, de 3 a 5 millim. de long 
et 4^2 millim. de hirge. 



Plate 28. 

Natural size. — Child of 4^4 months. 
sf frontal sinus, cm anterior ethmoidal cell, cep posterior ethmoidal cell. 7iin)ii middle meatus. 

Horizontal section through the head of a child aged 41^^ months. The section 
is cut through the uppermost part of the middle meatus and shews, from before 
backwards, the frontal sinus (s/), the anterior (cea) and posterior (cep) ethmoidal cells. 
The frontal sinus (sf) is 6 mm high, 5I/2 mm long and 3 mm wide. The anterior 
ethmoidal cells (cea) are 4 to 5 mm high, 3 to 4^4 mm long and 2 to 4 mm wide. The 
posterior ethmoidal cells {cep) are 5 mm high, 3 to 5 mm long and -iK, mm wide. 



Tafel 28. 



Cta 




mnrn 



Tafel 21). 

SagittalschTiitt. 

Naturliche Grosse. — 4'/2 Moiiate altes Kind. 



Plaiiche 29. 

Coupe sagittale. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 4 mois Va. 



Plate 29. 

Longitudinal vertical section. 

Natural size. — Child of 4' 2 months. 



Tafel 29. 

iSatiirlic'lu' Grcisso. — 4'.j Moiuitc allcs Kind. 
.■"HI siiuis iiiaxiliai'is. 

IUt Sapittalsc'luiitt fines 4^., Monate alten Ko])fes zeigt die 10 mm lange, 
<» mm liolie und o'., mm hreite Kioferhohlo (sm). An diesom Priiparate ist die Keil- 
lu'inluWile .S nun lani;;, 2'., mm hoch nnd 1 ' •> mm breit. 



Planche. 29 

Grandenr nature. — Enfant de 4 mois i^- 
■'<7n sinus maxillaire. 

Coupe sagittale d'une tete de 4 mois ^2 niontiant le sinus maxillaire {s7n) long 
de 10 millim.. haut de luillini. et large de 5^., millim. Sur cette preparation le sinus 
sphenoidal a 3 millim. de long, 2^., millim. de haut et 1'^ millim. de large. 



Plate 29. 

Natural size. — Child of 4% months. 
■sm maxillary antrum. 

Longitudinal vertical section through the head of a child aged 4V'2 months, 
shewing the maxillary antrum (.sm) Avhich is 10mm long, Omni high and 5^2 iw»i 
«ide. The sphenoidal sinus of this specimen is 3 mm long, 2% mm high and 
li<, mm wide. 



Tafel 29. 




Tafol m 

Sagittalschnitt. 

Natiirliche Grosse. — 41/2 Monate altes Kind. 



Plaiiclie 80. 

Coupe sagittale. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 4 niois V2 



Plate 30. 

Longitudinal vertical section. 

Natural size. — Child of 472 months. 



Tafel 30. 

NiUiirlirlio (Irosso. — 4 ' j .Mi>nat(' ;illcs Kind. 
>\« simis splienoidalis. o.* ostium s))lu'noi(l:ili'. iimi uu-aIus luiriiim iiitnior. ri cutirlia inlViior, iiunn 
niratus narium iikmHus. ctn oouclia lucdiii. >//»•> lucatiis ii.uiimi sujii'iior, (■•-■ cunclia .su|)i'ri()r. wt/iw 

meatus iiariiim su|ii('miis. 

Dcr Sagittrtlsclmitt riiics 4'.^ Monatc alien Kopfcs /cigt den uutereu {inni), 
den inittU'ivii (/»»//»), dt'n olu'ivti (niiis) uiul den dherslcn (iiinsr) Xasengang, ferner 
die 4 mm liolu'. 2'.. mm lange nnd 2 mm bivite Koilhoinliohle (,v.s) mit ihrer 1 mm 
weiten .Miinduni:. dcm ostium splicnoidale (o.s) nalie /.um Xasendache. 



Planche 30. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 4 mois 14. 
."J."! sinus spheni<klal. o>- ostium du simissphcnoklal. //(«Mii('at inferieur, ci cornet inferieur, ninm meni 
moyeiu <•//( cornet luoyen. >/(«•>• meat .sui)erieur, cs- cornet superieur, niJisr meat supreme. 

C()iii)o sagittale d'une tcte de 4 mois U montrant les meats inferieur {itDii), 
moven (uuini) su])erieur (mns) et supreme {tmisr) de plus le sinus sphenoidal (.w) 
haut de 4 millim.. long de 2'., iiiillini. et large de 2 niillini. avec son ostium (as) large 
de 1 millim. i)res du toit de la fosse nasale. 



Plate 30. 

Natural size. — Child of 419 months. 

ss sphenoidal sinus, os sphenoidal ostium, mni lower meatus, ci lower concha, mnm middle meatus. 

cm middle concha, 7nns upper meatus, cs upper concha, ?wnsr uppermost meatus. 

Longitudinal vertical section through the skull of a child aged 414 months, 
shewing the lower {mni), middle {mnm), upper {mns) and uppermost {tmisr) meatus 
and the sphenoidal sinus {ss), which is 4 mm high, 219 mm long and 2 mm wide. Its 
orifice, the sphenoidal ostium {os), is 1 mm A^dde and lies near the roof of the nasal 
cavity. 



Tafel 30. 




*^^* ci mntu cm 



Tafel m. 

Horizoutalscliiiitu 

Naturliche Grosse. — 4^ I -a Monate altes Kind. 



Plaiiclie M, 

Coupe liorizoutale. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 4 mois ' '2. 



Plate 31. 

Horizontal section. 

Natural size. • — Child of V/-> months. 



Tafel 31. 

Nivtiirliclio (In).sst'. — t'.^ .MoikiIc uUcs Kind. 

.<»n ^imls nuixillaris. ilnl (hictiis iiasol.'U'iiiualis. ri I'oiiclia iiifcrii)r. nunn meatus iiariiiiii iiirdiiis. 

nil I'oiu'lia media. 

Per Hori/.oiit;vlscluiit( drs -^K, Moiialc ultcn Ko])f(»s 'MH\ft d'w 10 mm laii^o, 
.") mm holio uiul 4 mm Itrcitc l\.it'f('vlu')lilc' (s»0- <l<'i^ ductus jiasolacrimalis {(l)il). den mitt- 
icrcu Xaseiiiiaiiiz {nnnn). die inittlcfc {cm) uiid die uutcre (ci) Nascnmusclu'l. 



Planche 31. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 4 mois K,. 

sm sinus niaxillaire, dtil conduit nasolacrymal, ci cornet inferieur, innm meat inoyen, cm cornet 

moyen. 

('()U])e horizontale d'une tete de 4 niois^ montrant le sinus niaxillaire long 
de U» millim., haut de 5 niillini. et large de 4 millim. le conduit nasolaervmal {dnl), 
le meat nioyeu {?nnm), les cornets moyen (cm) et inferieur (ci). 



Plate 31. 

Natural size. — Child of 41/9 months. 
sni maxillary antrum, dnl nasal duct, ci lower concha, mn7n middle meatus, ctn middle concha. 

Horizontal section through the head of a child aged 414 months, shewing the 
maxillary antrum (sm) which is 10 mm long, mm high and 4 mm wide, the nasal 
duct (dnl). middle meatus (mnm) and lower concha (ci). 



Tafel 31 




Tafol 82. 

Horizoiitalscliiiitt. 

Natiirliche Grosse. — 5 Monate altes Kind. 



Plaiiclie 82. 

Coupe horizoutale. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 5 mois. 



Plate 82. 

Horizontal section. 

Natuial size, — Cliild of 5 montlis. 



Tafel n. 

Nat iirliilu' (Ttosse. — o Mniiatr allcs Kind. 
sv> simis luaxillaris. tlul tlui'tus iiasohiiimalis. d cmu'lia iiifciior, uini iiicaliis ii.iriimi iiitcrii)r. 

Dor Ht>ri/.tint;vlsi'lmilt ('incs fiiiif JMonalo alfcii Kopfos zcigt obcrliall) dcr Aii- 
sftlzlinir ilrr untcrt'ii Xascmmischcl (ci) die Kic'fcihrtlilc (sw), vor dcr Kicfcrholili' 
(.«.•;//) Mclu'ii dcr uiiti'i'cii Miischcl (ri) dvw ductus iia.s(»la(riuialis (r////). Die Kid'cr- 
lu>hU' ist 12 inin l;mu. 7 luiu IkhIi und .") mm lucit. An dicscm Kc)])t'(' isl dcr sums 
frontalis 7 mm hoch, ">'.. mm laiiL!: und 2 mm hicit. I)i(^ vordere »Siebbein/elleu siud 
4 — (i mm laiig. t) — 7 mm htuit und 2 — "> mm hrcit. Die liintere Siebbeinzelle ist !• mm 
laiiix. S nun luu-h und 4'., mm l)V«'it. 



Planche ^1. 

(Jiandeur nature. — Knfant de 5 mois. 
siu sinus niaxillaire, <lnl ooiidiiit iiasolacryinal. ci curnt-t infVTJcur, mni meat iafcrieur. 

Coupe horizontale dune tete de 5 mois montrant aii-dessus du point d'insertion 
du cornet inferieur {ci) le sinus maxillaire (f^m). devant le sinus maxillaire {sm) |)res 
du cornet inferieur {ci) le conduit nasolacryinal [(hil). Le sinus maxillaire a 12 millim. 
de long. 7 millim de haut et 5 millim. de large. Le sinus frontal de cette tete a 7 millim. 
de haut. 5' 2 millim. de long et 2 millim. de large. La cellule ethmoidale anterieure 
a de 4 ^ 6 millim. de long, de 6 a 7 millim. de haut et de 2 a 5 millim. de large. La 
cellule ethmoidale posterieure a it millim. de long. 8 millim. de haut et 4^2 millim. 
de large. 



Plate 32. 

Natural size. — Child of 5 months. 
■sm maxillary antrum, dnl nasal duct, ci lower concha, mni lower meatus. 

Horizontal section through the head of a child aged o months, shewing the 
maxillary antrum {sm) situated above the ridge of insertion of the lower concha {ci); 
in front of the antrum {sm) and adjoining the lower concha (ci) is the nasal duct {dnl). 
The maxillary antrum is 12 mm long. 7 mm high and 5 mm wide. The frontal sinus 
of this head is 7 mm high, by^ mm long and 2 mm wide. The anterior ethmoidal 
cells are 4 to 6 mm long. 6 to 7 mm high and 2 to 5 mm wide. The posterior ethmoidal 
cell is 9 mm long, 8 mm high and 414 mm wide. 



Tafel 32, 



>hii 




U^hl^^ 



Tafel 88. 

Horizoutal8cliiiitt. 

Naturliclie Grosse. — 5 Monate altes Kind. 



Plan die 88. 

Coupe liorizoutale. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 5 mois. 



Plate 88. 

Ilorizoutul section. 

Natural size. — Child of 5 months. 



Tafel 33. 

Naliirliolio (ii'(')ssf. T) Mmialc ;iltcs Kind. 

sfii Hiiius 111 ixillaris. iliil (lucliis nasoliicrimjilis. ri (•(Hiclia iiilcrinr. ,///(/ iiumIiis nniiiiiii inlciini'. 

HtT I I<iriz(>n1;vlscliiiit 1 ciiK's tiiiil MinKitc .illcii Koid'cs /cjirt in dcr (ie^cinl 
(los «>l)iM-tM\ Ti'iU's ilrr imtt'ViMi NastMiiniisclu'l {el) die Ivictci'liolilc {.■<ni) mid den duel us 
n;vst)ljvcriinalis(W/;/). wi'K-Ium' in d(MH iiiitcviMi Xas('nu;in>r(> (iinii) nuind(4. Die KictcrlKtlile 
(.s-m) ist 14 nun lan_>i, (> mm bvcit iind ."> mm liodi. An dicscin Kojifc ist. die Stini- 
hohlo 7'.. mm hocli. ."> mm lanu; uud I mm lucit. I)ic xordi-rc Siebbt'lnzclleu sind '\ — 
S nun hoch. 2''., — (» nun himi und 2 — 5 mm hrcil. Die liintere Sicbbcinzelle isl. '.) mm 
huiiz. ti nun lioch nnd 4 nun bvoit. Die Ivcilbcinhrililc ist 5 nun hodi, ;>'.. mm laiig 
uiul li nun bvrit. l)ie JviMlbcMnlH")hl(Muniinduni]; ist I nun wcit. 



Planche 33. 

(irandcur nature. — h]iifant de 5 mois. 
sm sinus in;ixillair(>, (hil (•(induit nasoiacrvinal, a cornet infericur, »ini meat inferieur. 

("()U])e hoiizontale d"une tetc de 5 mois. montraiit . dans la ivgion de la ])artie 
sni)erieure dn cornet inferieiu' (ci). le sinus maxillaire {s)ii) et le conduit nasolacrynial 
(ilnl) qui s'onvre dans le meat inferieur (wn/). Le sinns maxillaire (svi) a 14 millini. dc 
long. <i millini. de large et 5 millim de haut. Le sinus frontal de cette tete a iy.2 milliin. 
de haut, 5 millim. de long et 4 millim. de large. La cellule ethmoidale aiiterieure a 
de 3 a 8 millim. de haut, de £14 a *5 millim. de long et de 2 a 5 millim. de large. 
La cellule ethmoidale posterieure a 9 millim. de long, 6 millim. de haut et 4 millim. 
de large. Le sinus sphenoidal a 5 millim. de haut, 3^2 ii^'him. de long et 3 millim. 
de large. L'ostium du siiuis sj)henoida.l a 1 millim. de large. 



Plate 33. 

Natural size. — Child of 5 months. 
sm maxillary ant rum. i/nl nasal duct, ri lower concha, unit lower meatus. 

Horizontal section through the head of a child aged 5 months. Adjoining the 
upper i)ortion of the lower concha (ci) are the maxillary antrum {sm) and the nasal 
duct (dni); the latter opens into the lower meatus (mni). The maxillary antrum 
(6m) is 14 mm long, 6 mm wide and 5 mm high. The frontal sinus of this head is 
1^2 ^1^11 liigi^; 5 ^^^^ long and 4 mm wide. The anterior ethmoidal cells are 3 to 8 mm 
high. 2^2 to 6 mm long and 2 to 5 mm wide. The posterior ethmoidal cell is 9 mm 
long. 6 mm high and 4 mm A\ide. The sphenoidal sinus is 5 mm high, 3I/2 mm long 
and 3 mm wide. The sphenoidal ostium is 1 mm in diameter. 



Tafel 33. 







%V*^^" 



Tafel 84. 

Horizontalsclmitt, 

Natiirliche Grosse. — 5 Monate altes Kind. 



Planche 84. 

Coupe horizontale. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 5 mois. 



Plate 84. 

Horizontal section. 

Natural size. — Child of 5 months. 



Tafel 34. 

Isatiirliolu' (irossc. — 5 Moiiatc iiltcs Iviiid. 
j«/siii>is fnmtalis, <•»•'/ rollula ethinoiiliilis anterior, cr/) cfllula cthmnidalis posterior, rn cmvuih iiaiiuin. 

.V SC|>tUIIl. 

l)t«r Ht>ri/.(>iit;vUi'lmitt dos f) Monatc altt'ii Ko])fes ist am oborcu Toile tier Nascn- 
h6hlc ficfiihrt iiiul zi'iizl die Stirnlu')hlo (.s/), die vordere Siebbcinzelle {cea), die hiutere 
SiobluMu/ello (('(/)). (We Xasciihtililc (oi) uud die Nasenscheidewand (5). Die Stirn- 
holilo (.'«7) ist 7 mm Iuk-U. o'o mm laiig niul 2 mm bieit. Die vordere Siebbciir/cllen 
{ecu) sind 4 — () mm lanjj;, () — 7 mm hoch uiid 2 — 5 mm breit. Die hintere 8iebbein/,elio 
icep) ist i' mm laiig, S mm liocli uiul t ' o inin breit. 



Planche 34. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 5 mois. 

sj sinus frontal, ce i cellule etlimoidale anterieure, cep cellule ethmoidale posterieure, en cavite 

nasale, s septum. 

Cou])e horizontale d'une tete de 5 mois passant ])ar la partie suijerieiire de la 
cavite nasale. et montrant le sinus frontal [sj), la cellule ethmoidale anterieure {cea), 
la cellule ethmoidale posterieure [cep). la cavite nasale [en) et le septum {s). Le sinus 
fnuital {sj) a 7 millini de haut, 5^2 millim de long et 2 millim. de large. La cellule 
ethmoidale anterieure {cm) a de 4 a 6 millim. de long., de 6 a 7 millim. de haut et de 
2 a 5 millim. de large. La cellule ethmoidale posterieure {cep) a 9 millim. de long, 
8 millim. de haut et 4^2 millim. de large. 



Plate 34. 

Natural size. — Child of 5 months. 
sf frontal sinu.s, cea anterior ethmoidal cell, cep posterior ethmoidal cell, en nasal cavity, s septum. 

Horizontal section through the skull of a child aged 5 months. The section is 
cut through the upper part of the nasal fossa and shews the frontal sinus {sf), the 
anterior {cea) and posterior {cep) ethmoidal cells, the nasal cavity {en) and the septum {s). 
The frontal sums {sf) is 7 mm high, 519 mm long and 2 mm wide. The anterior 
ethmoidal cells {cea) are 4 to 6 mm long, 6 to 7 mm high and 2 to 5 mm wide. The 
posterior ethmoidal cell {cep) is 9 mm long, 8 mm high and 412 mm wide. 



Tafel 34. 




Horizoutalscliiiitt. 

Natiirliche Grosse. — 5 Monate altes Kind. 



Plaiiclie 8e5. 

Coupe horizoutale. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 5 mois. 



Plate 35. 

Horizontal section. 

Natural size — Child of 5 months. 



Tafel 35. 

N;itiirliolu> (!ri'>sso. — 5 Moualc altcs Kind. 

.'/ sinus frontalis. Cfi ivllula t-tlinioidalis anterior, c y, iclhila ctlmioiilalis pnstt'iior. rii cix uni iiaiium. 

A scptinii. 

Dor Hori/.oulalsi'liiiitt ciiu's "> Moiiali- altcii K(i|ilcs ist am ola-rcii 'rcilc dor 
N'jvsonholiU' «zofiihrl niul v.vliii die Stinihiililc (.s/K die Noi-dcrc Siclthfin/.cllc (c'l). die 
luntoiv SiebbiMM/.rllf (<•</>) ilic NasfMlu'>ld«' {oi) iiiul die Sclicidcwand {^). Die Stiiii- 
hohlo (.'>7) ist 7'.. mm hoch. ."> nun laiiii mid 1 nun l)icit. Die xoi'dcH' Siclilx-inzclli'ii 
{cc(i) sind 2'.. — (> mm lansz. ;> -S mm lioc-h inid 2 — ."> mm brcit. Dit^ hintcic Siehbeiii- 
/fllo (c> p) ist 10 mm hxuii. (» mm hoc-h uiul 4 mm l)rrit. An die.sem Prii])iU'ate ist die 
KrilbcinhtihK' ."> mm hoi'li. I?'., mm laiiii nnd ."> mm Iji'cil. ilirc ]\Tiin(bin<r. das ostinm 
sj)hi'noidalt'. ist 1 mm woit. 



Planclie 35. 

' Grandeur nature. ■ — Enfant de 5 niois. 

■if sinus frontal, cen cellule ethmoidale anterieure, cep cellule etlinioulale ])osterienre, en cavite 

nasale, .s septum. 

Coupe liorizontale dime tete de ~) mois passant ])ar la ])artie superieure de la 
cavite nasale. et montrant le sinus frontal (sf), la cellule ethmoidale anterieure (cea), 
le cellule ethmoidale })osterieure (cep). la cavite nasale (en) et le septum {s). Le sinus 
frontal (sf) n 7'.> millim. de haut. 5 millim. de long et 4 millim. de large. Les cellules 
ethmoidales anterieures (cea) ont de 2' 2 a 6 millim. de long, de 3 a S millim. de haut et 
de 2 a 5 millim. de large. La cellule ethmoidale posterieure (cep) a 10 millim. de long, 
ti millim. de haut et 4 millim. de large. 8ur cette preparation, le sinus sphenoidal 
a 5 millim. de haut, 3^2 millim. de long et 3 millim. de large, son ostium a 1 millim. 
de large. 



Plate 35. 

Natural size. — Child of 5 months. 
■sf frontal sinus, ceu anterior ethmoidal cell, cep posterior ethmoidal cell, en nasal cavity, « septum. 

Horizontal section through the head of a child aged 5 months, passing through 
the upper part' of the nasal fossa, and shewing the frontal sinus (sf), the anterior (cea) 
and posterior (cep) ethmoidal cells, the nasal cavity (en) and the septum (s). The 
frontal sinus (sf) is 7^2 "^i^i ^^igh- 5 mm long and 4 mm wide. The anterior ethmoidal 
cells (cea) are 2^2 to 6 mm long, 3 to 8 mm high and 2 to mm wide. The posterior 
ethmoidal cell (cep) is 10 mm long. 6 mm high and 4 mm wide. The sphenoidal sinus 
of this specimen is 5 mm high, 3^2 i^mi ^oi^g ^ii^d. 3 mm A\ide. Its orifice, the sphenoidal 
ostium, is 1 mm in diameter. 



Tafel 35. 




cep 



Tafel 36. 

Froiitalscliiiitt. 

Natiirliche Grosse. — 5Va Monate altes Kind. 



Plaiiclie 36. 

Coupe frontale. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 5 mois V2 



Plate 36. 

Coronal section. 

Natural size. — Child of 5^2 months. 



Tafel 36. 

Xivtiirlicho (Jrossc. - .">i^ Monato altos Kind. 

.-Ml >imis inaxillaris. ciw i-dlula I'tliinoiilalis antcrinr, {rrp) cu^llula ctliinoidalis posterior, iinii iiit'ani.s 

iiariinii inferior, ri coiielia iiifeiior. iiin iti meatus n.niuin iiiediiis, riii eoiieiia media. 

\)vr Frontalsrlinitt ciiifs r)'^ Monato alteii Kopfes zeigt (li(^ uiitero {ci) uiid 
die iiiittlore (cm) Xa.seninusclu'l. dcu unlereii {itDii) uiid den niittleren {tniim) Naseu- 
cang. die Kieferhohle (csm) uud die vorderen Siebbeinzellen (cm). Die zwei zusammen 
bezeielineten vorderen Siebbeinzellen (red) hangen niiteinander zusaiiiiiKMi. die Miin- 
duiiir i-^t iin hiatus semilunaris. 



Planche 36. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de ~> inois i,- 

^tn .^inus inaxillaire, ce^i cellule ethmoidale anterieiire. cep cellule ethmoidale posterieure. iiini 
moat infericur. ri cornet inforieur. mmti meat moyen, rm cornet moyen. 

Coupe frontale d'une tete de 5 niois '^ luontrant les cornets inferieur (ci) et 
moyen (cm), les meats inferieur (iiini) et moyen (mum), le sinus maxillaire (sm) et 
les cellules ethmoidales anterieures (cea). Les deux cellules et^hmoidales anterieures 
(cea) iiidiquees par le meme signe communiquent entre elles; leur ostium est dans 
I'hiatus semilunaire. 



Plate 36. 

Natural size. — • Child of 5I/2 months. 

sm maxillary antrum, cea anterior ethmoidal cell, cep posterior ethmoidal cell, ynni lower meatus, 
ri lower concha, mntn middle meatus, cm middle conclia, 

Coronal section through the skull of a child aged 514 months, shewing the 
lower (ri) and middle (rui) concha, the lower (mni) and middle (mnm) meatus, the 
maxillary antrum (sm) anterior (rea) and posterior ethmoidal cells (cep). The two 
anterior ethmoidal cells (cea) bracketed together communicate with one another; their 
orifices are situated in the semilunar hiatus. 



Tafel 36. 




Tafel 87. 

Frontalschnitt. 

Natiirliche Grosse. — 0V2 Monate altes Kind. 



Planche 87. 

Coupe frontale. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 5 mois ^'2. 



Plate 87. 

Coronal section. 

Natural size. — Child of 57-' months. 



Tafel 37. 

N;il iii'lii'hr (iri'tssc. .")'., .Mcn.ilc jillcs Kind. 

."Ml sinus iiiitxillitris. i>tii ostium uiaxillari". o i ci'liula I'lliinnidalis autcrior. cr/) ci'llula d limoidalis 
posterior, ov ostium spliriioidali'. nnii nu'atus iiarium interior, ri concilia ini'crioi', nni in im.iliis 
narium nu'dius, nn coni-lia uu'dia. niif< meatus nai'ium su|i('rior. rs concha sn))crior, miisr meatus 
narium suprcMuus, /ui processus uncinatus. 

Dor Froiitalsfluiilt riiu's ,">'., Moiialc altcii Ivopics /.cisj;! den iiiilcicn (iiiiil), 
diMi inittltMOii (nniin) uiul drii iilxTcn (/////.v) Xasciimmu. die iiiitcrc (ci). iiiiKlcic (cm) 
iind die oluMV (cs) Nasouimisclicl. die KictVi lu'.hic (sni). die liinlcrcii SicM)ciir/.c||cii 
(rrp) mul ilio Miiiuluiig dor Koill»oinlu>lilc (n.s). Die l.limn laiigo, cS imn liolic mid 
7 mm Invito Kioffrln'«hlo {sni) i^t iin Hcrcichc dos milorcii XastMigangos (unn) mul 
dor untrroii .Musohol (ci) zii solioii mil ihror Miindmiu ("///). wclchc in don hiatus 
somihiiuvris fiihrt. l)t\c:roir/,t vom prooossiis uncinatus (jni). Das oslimu i-plionoidalo 
(oii) ist I'.. Mini woil iind tiihrt in oino 1? iiini w oite Keill)oinlir)|ilc. 



Planche 37. 

(irandoiir luvliiro. — iMifaui do 5 niois i^- 

sni sinus maxillaii'e. lun ostium du sinus maxillaire, cen cellule ethmoidale anterieure, cep cellule 
ethuioldale posterieure, os' ostium du sinus sphenoidal, nmi meat inferieur, ci cornet inf(^rieur, 
vunn meat moven, cm cornel inoycn. »ms meat superieur, f< cornet superieur, mnsr m6at supreme. 

Coupe frontalo d\ine tete d'eiifant do 5 niois ' 4 montrant les meats inferieur {nini), 
moveu (nuim) et superieur {mns), les cornets inferieur {ci), moyen {cm) et superieur {cs), 
le siiius maxillaire (sm), les cellules ethmoidales posterieures {cep) et I'ostium du sinus 
s]ihen()idal (fw). On ])eut voir le sinus maxillaire (sm) long de 5 millim, liaut de 8 millim., 
large do 7 millim.. au niveau du meat inferieur {mni) et du cornet inferieur (ci), avec 
son ostium (om), qui conduit dans I'hiatus semilunaire, limito par le processus unci- 
natus (pit). L'ostium du sinus sphenoidal {os) a 1^2 millim. de large et conduit dans 
lo sinus s])lirn()ida.l large de 2 millim. 



Plate 37. 

Natural size. — Child of 519 months. 

sm maxillary antriim, om maxillary ostium, cea anterior ethmoidal cell, cep posterior ethmoidal 

cell, OS sphenoidal ostimn, mm" lower meatus, ci lower concha, mnm middle meatus, cm middle concha, 

7nns upper meatus, cs upper concha, mnsr uppermost meatus, pu. vmcinate process. 

Coronal section through the skull of a child aged 5^ o months, shewing the 
lower {mni), middle {mnyn) and upper {m^is) meatus, the lower {ci), middle (cm) and 
upper (cs) concha, the maxillary antrum {sm), the anterior {cea) and posterior {cep) 
ethmoidal cells, and the orifice of the sphenoidal sinus {os). The maxillar}' antrum {sm) 
measures 15 mm in length, 8 mm in height and 7 mm in width. It can be seen in its 
relations with the lower meatus {mni) and lower concha {ci); its orifice {om) is also 
shewn, leading into the semilunar hiatus, which is bounded by the uncinate process 
{pu). The sphenoidal ostium {os) is 1^2 im^i in diameter and leads into the sphenoidal 
sinus Avhich is 2 mm wide. 



Tafel 37. 




1 \ 

urn mm ci innm cm 



I 



Tafel 38. 

Sagittalschnitt. 

Natiirliclie Grosse. — SVa Monate altes Kind. 



Plaiiche 38. 

Coupe sagittale. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 5 mois V'2. 



Plate 38. 

Longitudinal vertical section. 

Natural size. — Child of 5'/^ months. 



Tafcl 38. 

Xatiirlii'ho (Irossr. — A'^ .Mounts altcs Kind. 

>7 sinus frttiitalis. cm i-rllula fthiimiilalis aiiti'iinr. <•« /< I'l'lliila ctlmioiil.ilis |ici-,t.'iiur. /( ^ liialus semi- 
lunaris, fill pnitvssus uuoiiiiitus. In l>\illa ftlinioiilalis. /;//(/ mumIu^ niuiuin iuli'iinr. c/ cimi'ha iii- 
ffrior. nniiii meatus iiai-iiim mcdius. ///»/s nicaliis iiariiiin Mi|)cii<)i'. 

I )(•!• SiVLrillahrlmitt fint's ")'., Mniialc alien ls.(i!)t'('s /.cii^l die (liiiclisi'lmil t I'lic 
iint<'r»> Nust'iiimisi'lu'l (ri). dvn uiitcrcii (iinii). mitt Ici'i'ii (iiiinn) mid dcu ohcivn {iini.^) 
Nasriiganii. has (Jcbii't dcs hiatus scmilunai'is (//x) ist frcMUclc^i mil. (lev iimifclxMi- 
dtMi bulhv rtluuoidiilis (In) iiiid dnn indrcssiis imciiiat iis (////). ()l)cii in dcr licihcu- 
fol^e voii vorno luvi-h hintou ist dii' St iriihohic [si), die xordeiv (cki) mid die liiiitcro 
(C( {)) Si(d)1)iMir/.<*ll(' /.u si'lu'M. Die Friiliform ^\v\■ St iriiluUiki (x/) ist (i'^ mm laii<^, 
")'.. inin litK'li uiul 4 mm bvcit. sir iniiiicU't hivit am obcivn I'cilc dcs hiatus scmi- 
hmaris (hs). \)iv vtnxh'nMi Sichhi'ji/.cl'.cn (rra) sind .'} — (5 mm hoch. .'{' 2 — ^ """ brcit mid 
2'., — ;{ mm hm*:. IHc liiiitcrt' SicIthcinzcUc (c( i>) ist .I'^mm laiii;-, ."> mm IkicIi mid 
4 mm ItrtMt. 



Planche 38. 

(^raiuh'ur iiatuic. — Enfant de f) metis %. 

>/ sinus frontal, ri't ct'llule etlmioTdale antt'iioure. rep cellule etiundidale posterieure. /(s hiatus 
semilunaiiv. />" processus uncinatus. be bulle ethmoiclale. mni meat iiif/'rieur, ri cornet inferieur, 

umm meat moyen, mns meat superieui'. 

Coupe sagittaled'unetete d' enfant de 5 mois 1/9 montrant le cornet inferieur (ci) sec- 
tionne, Ics meats inferieur (mni). moyen (mnm) et supcrieur (mns). Lta region de 
I'hiatus semihinaire (hs) est mise a mi avec la bulle ethmoidale (be) environna.nte et 
h^ processus uncinatus {pu). Au-dcssus on pent voir, d'avant en arriere, le sinus 
frontal (.s/), les cellules ethmoidalesanterieure (cea) et posterieure {cep). La forme precoce 
du sinus frontal (sf) a (i^^ niillim. de long, 5^2 "liHiiii- de liaut, et 4 millim. de large; 
le sinus s'ouvre largement a la partie superieure de I'hiatus seniilunaire. La cellule 
ethmoidale anterieure (cea) a de 3 a t) millim. de haut, de 31/2 a 4 millim. de large 
et de 2^2 ^ 3 millim. de long. La cellule ethmoidale posterieure (cep) a oU millim. 
de long, 5 millim. de haut et 4 millim. de large. 



Plate 38. 

Natural size. — Child of 5^2 uionths. 

•«/ frontal sinus, ce 1 anterior ethmoidal cell, rep posterior ethmoidal cell, /; s' semilunar hiatus, 
pu uncinate process, be ethmoidal bulla, tnni lower meatus, ri lower conclia, mnm middle meatus, 

mns upper meatus. 

Longitudinal vertical section through the head of a child aged 5^ months, 
shewing the cut surface of the lower concha (ci), the lower (mni), middle (mnm) and 
upper (7nns) meatus. The region of the semilunar hiatus (hs) has been exposed; the 
hiatus is enclosed between the ethmoidal bulla (be) and the uncinate process (jm). 
Above the hiatus may be seen, from before backwards, the frontal sinus (sf), the 
anterior (cea) and posterior (cep) ethmoidal cells. The early form of the frontal sinus (sf) 
is 6^2 mm long. 0I2 mm high and 4 mm wide; it opens freely into the upper part of 
the semilunar hiatus (hs). The anterior ethmoidal cells (cea) are 3 to 6 mm high, 
3^2 to 4 mm wide and 2^2 to 3 mm long. The posterior ethmoidal cell (cep) is 51-2 mm 
long, 5 mm high and 4 mm wide. 



Tafel 38. 




mnm 



mm ci 



pu 



I 
I 



Tafel 31). 

Sagittalschnitt. 

Natiirliche Grosse. — 5 ','2 Monate altes Kind. 



Plaiiclie 39. 

Coupe sagittale. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 5 moisVs. 



Plate 31). 

Longitudinal vertical section. 

Natural size. — Child of 5\'2 months. 



rafel 3Q. 

Xiitiirliflif (Irosso. — ."j'o Monalc altes Kind. 
dnl «l\U"tus ii;(S()|;uTimalis. unn iiumIuh nariimi iiitninr. ri cdiu'lia iiilVridr. nnnn iiicitus nariiim 
nutliiis. cm coiu-lia nuHlia. inns incnlus nariiim <iii>«Tior. <••.• coticlia sii|)crii)r. mn^r meat us uaiiiim 

sn|iicnius. 

\)vr S;iLritt;ilsrhMit( cines ^i^ Moiiatr alien K()i)f('s zoigt (lie uiitoro (ri), niitt- 
It-rr ((•//() uiul die olx-re (c.n') Nasemnusehel. tleii unteren {iinil), <lei) millleren {fnnni), 
dtMi (.Iu>nMi (m»,s-) nnd ileii oliersten {nnisr) X;iseii<iang. Dei* vordersle Teil der un- 
teren Musehel (ci) ist. entfernt, uni die Miindunti; des ductus nasoliu-riinalis (dnl) v.u 
zeigen. Die liinglich ovale Offnuiig des Triinennasenkanals (dnl) i.st 2U — IJ mm weit. 



Planche 39. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 5 inois U- 

dnl conduit nasolacrymal, vini m^at inferieur, ci cornet inferieur. mnm meat moyen, cm cornet 

moyen, mns meat sup^rieur, cs cornet superieur, imi-'r meat supreme. 

Coupe sagittale d'une tete crciifant de 5 mois K, montrant les cornets inferieur 
(ci). moyen {rni) et su])erieur (r.s), les meats inferieur {mni), moyen (mnm), superieur 
{inns) , et le meat supreme. La pai'tie anterieure du cornet inferieur (ci) est 
sectiomiee pour montrer Tostium du conduit nasolacrymal {dnl). L'ouverture ovalaire 
allongee du canal naso lacrymal {dnl) a de 2'^ :i -^ millini. de large. 



Plate 39. 

Natural size. — Child of 514 months. 
dul nasal duct, 7)mi lower meatus, ci lower concha, mnm middle meatus, cm middle concha, 
7>ins upper meatus, cs upper concha, mnsr uppermost meatus. 

Longitudinal vertical section through the skull of a child aged 5% months, 
shewing the lower (ci), middle {on) and upper (cs) concha, the lower (mni), middle 
(mnm). upper (mns) and uppermost (mnsr) meatus. The front part of the lower 
concha (ci) has been removed, in order to expose the opening of the nasal duct (dnl). 
The elongated oval opening of this duct measures 2^2 by 3 mm. 



Tafel 39. 



mns cs 




mm ct 



Tafel 40. 

Froiitalsclmitt. 

Naturliche Grosse. — 6^2 Monate altes Kind. 



Planclie 40. 

Coupe troutale. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 6 mois V2. 



Plate 40. 

Coronal section. 

Natural size. — Child of 6\ l^ months. 



Tafel 40. 

Niw(i'ivlirlu> (irtissc. — - ti'.. Moiia-lc allcs js.iii(l. 

.■iui .siiuis in;i\illaris. ri' t'<MU'li;> iiiti'rior. nun iiumIiis ii.niiini iiilctior. /•/// coiuha iiicdia, iiuiiii incalns 
iiarimn incdius, r< I'oiu'lin siiiicrior. ////(-- iiicaliis nariiiin sn|ici'ii)r. 

1\'V Front alsclmitt oiiu's (P., ^lonatt' allt'ii Kopt'cs zeigt die lalcrali^ AVaiuI 
ilrr Nasfuholilc. die iintiMO (ci). iniltlcrc (on) niul die <)l)erc (cs) Nasenimiscliel, d(Mi 
luiteieii (itnii). ininleren {niniii) imd den olteren (ni)is) Na.seugiiiig. Ini Hereic^he des 
mittleren Xaseniiaiiszes {nnini) ist die Kieferlu'thle {sm) zu sehen, isie ist G mm lang, 
."» mm liixh und .'{'^ '""^ breit. Die Stiiiiliohle ist ()V2 »i"^ Itwig, mm hoch und 5 mm 
I'l-eit. 



Planche 40. 

Grandeur natuie. — Enfant de 6 mois H- 
"m sinus niaxillairo. ri cornet inforienr. nrni moat inferieur, cm cornet moyen. iiinm mrat nioyon, 

rv cornet snitrricur. /iitis meat superieTu-. 

C()U])e froiitale dune tete d'eufant de (> mois i 2 montre la ])aroi laterale de la fosse 
nasale, les cornets inferieur (ci). moyen {c?7i) et superieur (cs), les meats inferieur [mni], 
moyen (mum) et superieur {mns). An niveau du meat moyen {mum) on peut voir le 
sinus maxillaire {sm) long de 6 millim., haut de 5 millim. et large de 3% millim. 
Le sinus frontal est long de C)^ ., miUim., haut de (1 millim. et large de 5 millini. 



Plate 40. 

Natural size. — Child of 6^2 montlis. 
sm maxillary antrum, ri lower concha, mni lower meatus, cm middle concha, unnn middle meatus, 

cs upper concha, ^nns upper meatus. 

Coronal section through the head of a child QV^ months old, shewing the lateral 
wall of the nasal fossa, the lower (ci). middle (cm) and upper (cs) concha, and the 
lower (mni), middle {mum) and upper {mns) meatus. Adjoining the middle meatus 
(mnm) is the maxillary antrum (sm), which is 6 mm long. 5 mm high and 31/2 mm 
wide. The frontal sinus is 612^^1 loi^gi 6 mm high and 5 mm wide. 



Tafel 40. 





I 



Tafel 41. 

Froiitalschiiitt. 

Natiirliclie Grosse. — 6^/2 Monate altes Kind. 



Plan die 41. 

Coupe frontale. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 6 mo is V2. 



Plate 41. 

Coronal section. 

Natural size. — Child of Q^j-i months. 



Tafcl 41. 

Xatiirliflic (irosse. — »)'., Moiialc alt(>s Kind. 

rr/> celliila ftlimoiilalis j)()slt>rior. rcfi collula i-tlimoiilalis anterior. Hn lamina Imllic {'(limi)i(lalis, 
etn concha iiHHiia. tinnn meatus iiarium niciliiis. ri conclia infcrim-, ihhI iii<al\is t:aiiuin iiilcridi'. 

UtT I'^ionialsi'luiit t ilcs (!'., Moiuitc alien Kopi'rs zcii^fl die iiusscrc Wand dcv 
N;v-it'nlu'>lil('. den unteren (inni) und den inittleren {ninni) Xaseng.ing, die initere (ri) 
imd die niittlere (cm) Xasenniusehel. Die vordere Siebheinzclle (cca) ist r)ioinni 
Iini:. 4 nun Imrli nnd '.\ nun hreit. Die liintere Siebbeinzelle {cep) ist 5y., mm lang, 
.") mm lioeli nnd 1* mm livcit. 



Plaiiche 41. 

Grandenr nature. — Enfant de 6 mois %. 

ct}! cellule ethmoidale posterieure, cea cellule ethmoidale anterieure. Ihe lame de la bulle etlnnoidalc, 
cm cornet moyen. mnm meat moyen, ci cornet inferieur. nnii meat inferieur. 

t'oupe frontale d'une tete d'enfant de 6 mois ' 2 niontrant la paroi laterale de 
la fosse nasale, Ics meats inferieur {mni) et moyen {mnm), les cornets inferieur (ci) 
et moyen (cm). La cellule ethmoidale anterieure (cea) a SH niillim. de long, 4millim. 
de liaut et 3 millim. de large. La cellule ethmoidale posterieure a 0% niillim. de lung, 
5 millim. dc hant et 2 niillim. de large. 



Plate 41. 

Natural size. — Child of 6I2 months. 

cep posterior ethmoidal cell, cea anterior ethmoidal cell, Ibe lamina of ethmoidal bulla, cm middle 
concha, mnin middle meatus, ci lower concha, mni lower meatus. 

Coronal section through the head of a child 6^9 months old, shewing the lateral 
wall of the nasal fossa, the lower (mni) and middle (mnm) meatus, and the Io\\er (ci) 
and middle (cm) concha. The anterior ethmoidal cell (cea) is 5^2 i^^n^ long. 4 mm 
high and 3 mm wide. The posterior ethmoidal cell (cep) is b% mm long, 5 mm high 
and 2 mm wide. 



Tafel 41. 




mm ' 



Tafel 42. 

Sagittalschnitt. 

Natiirliche Grosse. — 6V2 Monate altes Kind. 



Plaiiclie 42. 

Coupe sagittale. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 6 mois V2. 



Plate 42. 

Longitudinal vertical section. 

Natural size. — Child of 6'^ months. 



Tafcl 42. 

Natiirliohe (;ross?e. — ti'j .Moiiatc altcs Kind 
cwtKstiuin splu'iioiilali'. nnii im-alus nariuin infiMior. ci idinha iiifi-rior. inuiii meatus nariuin iiicdius. 
rn> (•..nolia iiU'dia. inif im-atus narium suiu'iior. (< cunclia suiH'rior, mn^r incalus iiariuiii 

supnMUiis, rsr ronclia sii|ni-ma. 

Der Siv'ittalsohnitt drs (P^ Monate ulten KoptVs zeigt den unteren (nini) 
lU'M iiiittloivu (unnn). den oberon (ttnu^) mid den obcrsten (mws/-) Nasengang, die 
uiitere (ci). die niittlere [on), die obere (fs) und die oberste (c^r) Nasenmuschel, ferner 
ill! liiiittreM Ti'ile der Xasenliohle nahe dem Nasendache die Keil])einliohloniniindung 
(on). 1)a< ostium sphenoidale (o.s) bildet eine '2 mm weite niiide ()t'fnung. 



Planche 42. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de (> mois ^. 

o< ostium du sinus splienoidal. nini meat inferieur. ci comet inferieur, innm meat moyen, cm cornet 

moven >««•< meat superieur, c^ cornet superieur, mnsr meat supreme, csr quatrieme cornet. 

Coupe sagittale d'une tete d'enfant de 6 niois '2 niontrant les meats inferieur 
(mni). moyen (nnnn). superieur [mns) et supreme {mn,sr), les cornets inferieur {ci), 
moyen (cm), superieur (cs) et supreme {csr), de plus a la partie posterieure de la 
cavite nasale, pres du toit de la fosse nasale, I'ostium du sinus sphenoidal {os) formant 
une ouverture nuide. large de 2 millim. 



Plate 42. 

Natural size. — Child of 6V2 months. 

OS sphenoidal ostium, mni lower meatus, ci lower concha, mnm middle meatus, cm middle concha, 

mns upper meatus, cs upper concha, rnnsr uppermost meatus, csr uppermost concha. 

Longitudinal vertical section through the head of a child aged 6^2 months, 
shewing the lower (mni), middle {mnm), upper (mns) and uppermost (fnnsr) meatus 
and the lower (ci), middle {cm), upper (cs) and uppermost (csr) concha. At the back 
part of the nasal fossa, near the roof of the nasal cavity, is the sphenoidal ostium (os), 
a circular aperture 2 mm in diameter. 



Tafel 42. 




K ' \ \ 

mnm cm mns 



Tat'el 48. 

Froiitalsclmitt. 

Natiirliche Grosse. — 6'/2 Monate altes Kind. 



Plaiiclie 48. 

Coupe iroutale. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 6 mois V^ 



Plate 48. 

Coronal section. 

Natural size. — Child of 6'/2 months. 



Tafel 43. 

Xiitiirlu'ho (iriissc. — UU Monate altos Kind. 

.<> ■siiui> >|>lifm>i<l;ilis. nmi nn-iitiis nariimi inferior, ri cunoiia inferior, viiiiii meatus nariuin inodius 

rill eoiu'iia media, inn-' meatus nariuni siiju'rior. 

l»cr Froiitivlschtiitt eines i\^ iy Monate alteii K()])fes zeigt den unteren (mni), 
niittltM-cn (nnnii) und oboren (/«?js) Xasengang, die untere {ci), mittlere (cm) Nasen- 
nuische! iind die Keilheinliolile {ss). Die Keilbeinhohle (ss) ist 5 mm lang, 414 mm 
hriMt imd 4 mm linch. 



Planclie 43. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 6 niois ]/^. 

iif sinus sphenoidal. 7mn m^at inferieur, ft cornet inferieur. mniti meat moyen, cm cornet moyen, 

nnix meat superienr. 

Coupe frontale de la tete d'uu enfant de t) moi.s • ^ niontrant les meats in- 
ferieur {mni), moyen (mtitn) et superienr {mns). les cornets inferieur (ci) et moyen 
{cm) et le sinus sphenoidal {ss). Le sinus si^henoidal (ss) a 5 millim. de long, 
4^2 "^illi"^- cl^ large et 4 millim. de liaut. 



Plate 43. 

Natural size. — Child of 6^2 months. 
ss splienoidal sinus, 7«?it lower meatus, ci lower concha, 77inm middle meatus, cm middle concha, 

7nns upper meatus. 

Coronal section through the head of a child aged 6% months, shewing the 
lower {77}m), middle (m?im) and upper {rn7i$) meatus, the lower {ci), and middle {cm) 
concha and the sphenoidal sinus (ss). The sphenoidal sinus (ss) is 5 mm long, 
4^9 mm wide and 4 mm high. 



Tafel 43. 




Tafel 44. 

Sagittalschnitt, 

Natiirliche Grosse. — 7 Monate alien Kind. 



Plaiiclie 44. 

Coupe sagittale. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 7 mois. 



Plate 44. 

Longitudinal vertical section. 

Natural size. — Child of 7 months. 



Tafel 44. 

Xaturliche Grosse. — 7 Monate altes Kind. 
•<■»( sinus niaxillaris. 
Der Sasiittalschnitt eiiios 7 Monate alten Kopfes zeigt die 22 mm lange, G mm 
breite und 4 mm hohe Kieferhohle. 



Planche 44. 

(rrandeur nature. — Enfant de 7 mois. 
sm sinus maxillaire. 

Coupe sagittate de la tete dun enfant de 7 mois montrant le sinus maxillaire lon^ 
de 22 millim. large de fi niiliini. et haut de 4 niillini. 



Plate 44. 

Natural size. — Child of 7 months. 
■fni maxillary antrum. 

Longitudinal vertical section through the head of a child aged 7 months, shewing 
the maxillary antrum, which is 22 mm long, 6 mm wide and 4 mm high. 



Tafel 44. 




Tafel 45. 

Frontalschnitt. 

Natiirliche Groase. — 7 Monate alten Kind. 



Plaiiclie 45. 

Coupe Irontale. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 7 mois. 



Plate 45. 

Coronal section. 

Natural aize. — Child of 7 months. 



Tafcl 45. 

Xatiirliohc Or«>sM-. — 7 Monate jillos Kind. 

.«»i !<iiius iiuixillaris. vitii nn-atiis narinni infiMJor. ci oonc-lia inferior. j««»h iiiciitiis nariiiiii nicdiiis, 

rni ctir.rlirt iinilia. tun-- meatus nariuiii s\i|K'ri(ir. rs concha superior, on ostium sphcnnidalc. 

PtT I'Voiitalsrlmitt cini's 7 M«)iiati' alten Kopfos zcigl <lio Iti mm lango, 5 iniu 
lu>l\f tiiul 4 mm broito Kirferliohle (sm). don untoron (»<n/), dcii mitllcren {mum) 
und drn (.l.cron (mns) XasonEcang. die unterc (ci). dio mittlcre {cm) uiid die oberc (cs) 
Xascnnuiscliel. fornor das ' ., mm wiMto dsliiim sjiliinoidale (o.s). mcIcIics in ciiu' 2 mm 
write Keill)(Mnhohle f iihrt . 



Planche 45. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant dc 7 mois. 

,<tni sinus niaxillaire. w«j meat inferieur, ci cornet inferieur, mnvi meat moyen, cm cornet moyen, 
nms meat .siiperieur. cs cornet -superieur. os ostium du sinus sphenoidal. 

Coupe frontale de la tete dim enfant de 7 mois moiitrant le sinus maxillaire 
(sm) long de 16 millim.. haut de 5 millim. et large de 4 millim.. les meats inferieur 
(mni). moyen {7nnm) et superieur {tini-s), les cornets inferieur (ri). moyen {cm) et 
superieur {cs), de plus I'DStium du sinus sphenoidal {os) large de ^2 "liHini- conduisant 
dans le sinus sphenoidal large de 2 millim. 



Plate 45. 

Natural size. — • Child of 7 months. 

S7it maxillary antrum, mni lower meatu.s, ci lower concha, mnm middle meatus, cm middle concha, 
mns upper meatus, cs upper concha, os sphenoidal ostium. 

Coronal section through the head of a child aged 7 months, shewing the maxillary 
antrum (sm). measuring 16 mm in length, 5 mm in height and 4 mm in width, the 
ewer (mni), middle (mnm) and upper (mns) meatus, the lower (ci), middle (cm) and 
upper (cs) concha and the sphenoidal ostium. This orifice, 19 ^^"^ "^ diameter, leads 
into the sphenoidal sinus, which is 2 mm wide. 



Tafel 45. 




Tafel 40. 

Hurizoutalsclmitt. 

Natiirliche Grosse. — 8 Monate altes Kind. 



Plaiiclie 40. 

Coupe horizoutale. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 8 mois. 



Plate 40. 

Horizontal section. 

Natural size. — Child of 8 months. 



Tafcl 46. 

Natiirlirlic (Irossc. — S Moiiiitc altcs Kind. 

.<m sinus inaxillaris. <)>/i ostium niaxillari'. <lnl iluctiis iiasdiacriinalis. cm concha media, niinii in.atus 

iiariuiii incdius. 

l)(>r Ilori/tmtivlsi'liiiitt cincs S Moiiatc altcii lv(i|tf('s /.(Mift tlic Kicfcrlnililc (sm), 
ihn- Mi'mduu!,' ("tii). dm diutiis iKisohu-rimalis (ihil). den luittloreii Nasengang (wnm) 
uud du- imttTi' Nas.Muniisclifl (ci). Die Kirt'crluihlc (sni) isl^ 1:5 mm iaiig. I'> mm hoch 
imd .") mm hroit. Das voriu' grlogeiu' ostium ma.\illai'<' ("//') miiiidet iji dcm mitlk'ren 
Nasengang {mum), der ductus nasolacrinialis (dnl) miindet ini unteren Nasengang 
(miti). 



Planche 46. 

Orandeur natuie. — Enfant de 8 mois. 

.<»> sinus maxiliairo. om ostium du sinus muxillaire, (hil conduit nasolacrymal, on cornet moyen, 

fiDini meat moyen. 

Coupe horizontale d'une tete d'enfant de S mois montrant le sinus maxillaire 
(sm). son solium {om), le conduit nasolacrymal {(lid), le meat moyen {mum) et 
le cornet inferieur {ri). Le sinus maxillaire a 13 millim. de long, 10 millim. de haut 
et 5 millim. de large. L"ostium du sinus maxillaire situe en avant {om,) s'ouvre dans le 
meat moven {itnun); le conduit nasolacrymal (dnl) s'ouvre dans le meat inferieur {mni). 



Plate 46. 

Natural size. — Child of S months. 
styi maxillary antriun, om maxillary ostium, dnl nasal duct, cm middle concha, rnnm middle meatus. 

Horizontal section through the head of a child aged 8 months, shewing the 
maxillary antrum {sm) and its orifice {om). the nasal duct {d7il), the middle meatus 
{mnm) and the lower concha {ci). The maxillary antium {sm) is 13 mm long, 10 mm 
high and 5 mm wide. Its orifice {om) is situated anteriorly and opens into the middle 
meatus {mnm). The nasal duct {dnl) opens into the lower meatus {mni). 



Tafel 46. 




Tafel 47. 

Horizoutalschnitt. 

Natiirliche Grosse. — 8 Monate altes Kind. 



Plaiiclie 47. 

Coupe horizoutale. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 8 mois. 



Plate 47. 

Horizoutal section. 

Natural size — Child of 8 months. 



Tafel 47. 

Xivtiirlirho (!i\)ssc. — - S MdmiUc altcs Kind. 

«/ sinus fnintalis. jtu prorossus iiiuMnadis, rca ivllula ctlimoidalis antciinr. r, j> icllula ct liinoidalis 
pi>stprior. .-•■••■ siiuis splioiiDiilalis. os ustiiim s|>li'.Miuiilali'. rn caxiini iiariiiiii. v sc|>lum. nni < meatus 

niirinm sii|ifritir. c- coiu'lia su|nriiir. 

her llori/.(»Mtalsi'hi\itt ciiics S Monalc alien I\m|)Ics isl am ohci-stcii Tcilc dcs 
mittlt'iVM NiVson>;anszt's ^cfiilui imd ziMut die I'^iiditoiin dci' St iniliolilc. den rcccssiis 
frontivlis (si), dcii ])i-ooossus iiiK-inatiis {pii). die xordci'di Sifl)!i(Mn/,('lkMi {red), die 
hintt'iTM SichhiMii/i'llcn (ap). die JvfillMMnholilc (ss). dvn ohcrcn Xasenganp; (mas), 
die oltcir Miisolu'l (rv). dcii obi'ivn Tril dcr Ni-^rnhdhic (en) tiiid die N;is(Miscli('ide- 
«:ind (•<■*. |)it> St iinholilo (s() ist S iimi IkkIi. ."> iiiiii iaiiLi; iind '2 mm hrcil.. Die vordcn^ 
Sit'l»l)»'iir/.»'llrn (on) siiul -1 — (5' .> nini lioih. 4' o inni lan<i und 2—4 nun hreit. lYw liintere 
SirlilK'in/.t'llt'ii (r(/>) sind 4 — n nun liocli. 2'^ — '^'2 "'"^ ''*''^f^ ""*^ -^ "^"* broit. Die Koil- 
l>rinli('>hl(* (ss) ist •> nun liocli. .")',, mm laiijj; und ."> mm lircit. ihvc Miindunti (n.s) l)ild(^t 
viuo 1 nin\ woite runile Otluun}'. 



Planche 47. 

Cirandcur nature. -- Kntaiit dc S mois. 

■>•/ sinus frontal, pii processus inic-inatiis. rc'i cellule ethnioVdale aiiteiieure, rij) cellule etlnuoidale 
pusteiieure. x'. sinus sphenoidal, os ostium du sinus sphenoidal, rn cavite nasale, .s septum. 
vins m^at superieur, cs cornet superieur. 

Coupe horizontale d"iine tete d'enfant de 8 mois passant par la partie superieure 
du meat moyen et montrant la forme primitive du sinus frontal, le recessus frontal 
(.s-/). le processus uncinatus {pu), les cellules ethmoidales anterieures (cea), les cellules 
etlunoidales iiosterieures (cep). le sinus sphenoidal (ss), le meat superieur (mn.s), le 
eofiiet sujierieur (rs). la partie sujx'rieure de la cavite nasale (en) et le septum (.s). 
Le sinus frontal a 8 millim. de haut, o millim. de long et 2 millim. de large. Les cellules 
ethmoidales anterieures {cea) ont de 4 a 6]o millim. de haut, 41,2 millim. de long et 2 
a 4 millim. de large. Les cellules ethmoidales posterieures {cep) ont de 4 a 5 millim. de 
haut. de 2^2 fi '^^2 millim. de large. Le sinus sphenoidal {ss) a 6 millim. de haut, 
5*2 niillim. de long et 5 millim. de large; son ostium {os) forme une ouverture 
ronde. large de 1 millim. 



Plate 47. 

Natural size. — Child of 8 months. 

#/ frontal sinus, pn uncinate proce.ss, ce'i anterior ethmoidal cell, cep posterior ethmoidal cell, 
ss sphenoidal sinus, os sphenoidal ostium, en nasal cavity, « septum, mn.s upper meatus, cs upper 

concha. 

Horizontal section through the head of a child aged 8 months, carried along the 
top of the middle meatus and shewing the early developmental stage of the frontal 
sinus, the frontal recess (s/), the uncinate process {pu), the anterior {cea) and posterior 
ethmoidal cells {cep), the sphenoidal sinus {ss), upper meatus {mns), upper concha {cs), 
upper part of the nasal cavity {en) and septum {s). The frontal sinus (sf) is 8 mm 
high, 5 mm long and 2 mm wide. The anterior ethmoidal cells {cea) are 4 to 6I/2 mm 
high, 412 mm long and 2 to 4 mm wide. The posterior ethmoidal cells {cep) are 
4 to 5 mm high, 2^2 to 31 2 mm long and 2 mm wide. The sphenoidal sinus {ss) is 6 mm 
high, 5^2 mm long and 5 mm wide. Its ostium {os) is a circular opening, one mm 
in diameter. 



Tafel 47. 



•s/ fu cea 




cep 



Tafel 48. 

Horizoiitalscliiiitt. 

Naturliche Grosse. — 8 Monate altes Kind. 



Planclie 48. 

Coupe horizoutale. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 8 mois. 



Plate 48. 

Horizontal section. 

Natural size. — Child of 8 months. 



Tafel 48. 

Xatiirliche Crosse. — S Monato altos Kind. 
fui .'"iiHis iii;ixill;iri.-i. ihil diu-tus nasoliicrimalis. c oonclia inferior, innin nuvitiis narium incdius. 

Dor Horizontalschnitt eincs 8 Monate alten Kopfes zeigt die Kioferhohle (sm), 
iicu diH'tus nasohu'rinialis ((hil). don inittlorou Xa.sengang (nnuH) uiul dic^ iiutorc Nasen- 
musoliol ((•/). T>io Kioforliiihlo (s)n] ist 10 inin lanti. ;") mm liocli uiid 4'., mm broit. 



Planche 48. 

GraiultMir iiatui'o. — Enfant de S mois. 
^m sinu.'^ niaxillairo. (hil conduit nasolacrynial, ri cornet infericiir. )nn>n meat moyen. 

Cou])e horizontalo d'nne tete d"enfant de 8 mois montrant le sinus maxillaire 
(sni). le conduit nasolacrvnuil (dnl). le moat moven (mum) et le cornet inferieur {ci). 
Le siiuis maxillaire (sm) a lit millim. do long, o millini. do haut et4i2 uiillim. de large. 



Plate 48. 

Natural size. — ■ Child of 8 months. 
•'») maxillary antrum, dnl nasal duct, ci lower concha, jnnm middle meatus. 

Horizontal section through the head of a child aged 8 months, shewing the 
maxillary antrum (sm), the nasal duct (dnl). the middle meatus (mnm) and the lower 
concha (ci). The maxillary antrum (sm) is 10 nam long, 5 mmhigh and4i2 ii^ni wide. 



Tafel 48. 



sm fJnl 




Tafel 49. 

Horizoiitalschnitt. 

Natiirliche Grosse. — 8 Monate altes Kind. 



Handle 49. 

Coupe horizontale. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 8 mois. 



Plate 49. 

Horizontal section. 

Natural size. — Child of 8 months. 



Tafel 49. 

Nivtiirliflu' (Jnisso. - S Mdiiatc allcs Kind. 

.*/ sinus fiontalis. n i crlhilii flliinoiiliilis nntcrior. pu [irdccssus iiiicin.ilus. //////// iin'atiis iiariuin 
uunlius, rip celliila i-tlimoulnlis postrriiT. >> siiuis spliciioidalis. fn cavimi iiaiiiiiii. v septum. 

Ocr Hori/outalsclmitl ciiios S Monalc altcMi Kopfcs ist am obcrstcii Toilo des 
mittlrrrii Nasouiiaiijics {nnnn) gofiihrt iiiul y.vu^I dir i<"'riilif()rni dor Sliriih«)lile (.y/), 
deti rocH'ssus frontalis, den prooossiis muinat us {pii). die vordere vSieblx'inzcllo {cea), 
die liintoro SirbbiMn/.ollo (crp). don iiiittlcnii Nasoiiiiang {mntn), die Keilboinluilde (ss), 
don oboron Ti'il ilor Nasonlu'>hlo [ni] iiiul tlic N'asonsohoidowand (,s). Die Stirnholilo {«/) 
ist;')'.. n\in lioi'li. a mm lanii und .'{ nun hroit. Dio vordoroii Siol)l)oinz('lloii (red) sind 
t) — 7 nini lan«;. ."> — 7 mm luu-h und ',] — 4'^ nun l)roit. Die liintereii Siel)lK'iM/,ellen {cep) 
sind-'.. — I mm ianj;. - — il mm luieh und \^ ., — - •imi breit. Die Keilbeiiib(")lilo {ss) 
ist U nun hooli. mm breit und 5 mm king. Das ostium sphenoidale ist 1 mm weit. 



Planche 49. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 8 mois. 

sf sinus frontal, cen cellule ethmoidale anterieure. j)u processus uncinatus, mnm meat moyen, 
cep cellule ethmoidale posterieiire. s.s sinus sphenoidal, en cavite nasale, s- septum. 

Coupe horizontale d'une tete d'enfant de 8 mois passant par la partie 
superieure du meat moyen {mnm) et montrant la forme precoce du sinus frontal 
(«/), le reeessus frontal, le processus uncinatus (pu), la cellule ethmoidale anterieure 
{cea). la cellule ethmoidale posterieure {cep), le meat moyen {mnm), le sinus sphe- 
noidal {.ss), la partie superieure de la cavite nasale {en) et le septum {s). Le sinus frontal 
{sf) a r>^ .y millim. de haut. 5 millim. de long et 3 mililm. de large. Les cellules ethmoi- 
dales anterieures {cea) ont de 6 a 7 millim. de long, de 5 a 7 millim. de haut et de 3 a 
4^2 millim. de large. Les cellules ethmoidales posterieures ont de 2I2 a 4 millim. de long, 
de 2 a 3 millim. de haut et de IV2 a 2 miUim. de large. Le sinus sphenoidal {ss) 
a !> millim. de haut. 6 millim. de large et 5 millim. de long. Son ostium a 1 millim. 
de large. 



Plate 49. 

Natural size. — Child of 8 months. 

ff frontal sinus, re'i anterior ethmoidal cell, pit uncinate process, mnm middle meatus, cep posterior 
ethmoidal cell, ss sphenoidal sinus, en nasal cavity, s septum. 

Horizontal section through the head of a child aged 8 months, carried through 
the liighest part of the middle meatus {mnm) and shewing the frontal sinus {sf) in an 
early stage of its development as frontal recess, the uncinate process {pu), anterior {cea) 
and posterior {cep) ethmoidal cells, middle meatus {mnm), sphenoidal sinus {ss), the 
upper i)ortion of the nasal cavity (cw) and the septum (s). The frontal sinus {sf) is 
51 2 iiiwi higli; 5 mm long and 3 mm wide. The anterior ethmoidal cells {cea) are 6 to 
7 mm long, 5 to 7 mm high and 3 to 4' 2 mni wide. The posterior ethmoidal cells {cep) 
are 2^2 to 4 mm long. 2 to 3 mm high and lU to 2 mm wide. The sphenoidal sinus {ss) 
is mm high, 6 mm wide and 5 mm long. The sphenoidal ostium is one mm in diameter. 



Tafel 49. 




mnm 



Tafel 50. 

Horizontalschnitt. 

Naturliche Grosse. — 11 Monate altes Kind. 



Plaiiclie 50. 

Coupe horizoutale. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 11 mois. 



Plate 50. 

Horizontal section. 

Natural size. — Child of 11 months. 



Tafel 50. 

Xatiivlic'lio (Jrosso. — 11 Moiuite altcs Kind. 
>//( siiHis miixiiiaris, dnl ductus nasolacrinialis. 

l)('r Hcn'izontaiscluiitt t-iiu's 11 Moiuite alteii Kopfes zeigt die 14 nim laiige, 
mm hoho und 5 mm biXMte Kieferliohle (sm) und den ductus nasolacrimalis {dnl), 
wclcher in den unteren Xa<ens;anw miindet. 



Planche 50. 

(rrandeur nature. — Enfant de 1 1 niois. 
•vwi sinus uiaxillaire. clnl conduit nasolacrymal. 

Cou]ie hoiizontale d"une tete d" enfant de 11 mois montrant le sinus maxillaire 
(sm) long de 14 millim., haut de millim. et large de 5 millim. et le conduit nasola- 
crynial ((/«/).. qui s'ouvre dans le meat inferieur. 



Plate 50. 

Natural size. — Child of 11 months. 
•s/n maxillary antrum, (Inl nasal duct. 

Horizontal section through the head of a child aged 11 months, shewing the 
maxillary antrum (sin) which is 14 mm long, 9 mm high and 5 mm wide, and the nasal 
duct {dnl) opening into the lower meatus. 



Tafel 50. 




Tafel 51. 

Frontalschnitt. 

Natiirliche Grosse. — 12 Monate altes Kind. 



Plaiiclie 51. 

Coupe frontale. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 12 mois. 



Plate 51. 

Coronal section. 

Natural size. — Child of 12 months. 



Tafcl 51. 

Xatiirlirlic (;r(">ss(>. II Mdiiatc nlt(>s Kind. 

ri i-om-li;i inferior, tnui iiuvUiis u;»rium inferior, rm idiuhii iiuMiiu. /*(/ [Hdci'ssns uncinntus, //s hiatus 

st'iiiiliiiiaris. I,i- litilli ctiimoiilalis. n i i-i-lliila ctliiiuMdMiis iiiiU'rior, ;//»^• meatus iiariuin superior. 

(•< eoiiclia superioi-. n ji eelhila et iunoidalis posterior. 

Drr Fntul;vlsiluii(t ciiu's II .Moiiatc altcu KopIVs /,(M<^t den imtcvcn (tnni), 
inittlmMi uiul oIhmvii (nnis) Nascupiiig. die iiiitcn- (<•/), niittl(M-o (cm) iiiul obcre (cs) 
^i\svnn\Uiiv\\v\. die vordrrc' Si(>l)li(>iir/.rllc (i-ki) mid die liiatiM'o Siobboiiizellc (cep). 
lin inittlrivn Nasi>n<xani: iluvch den NNCizlall dcr mitt Icrcii Muschol (cm) ist das Gobiet 
dfs hiatus soiuilunaris (/(.s), brj^rruzt ndiu procpssus uiK'iiialiis (]»() uiid voii dor bulla 
otlnn«>id;vlis (ht). frciiicloLjt. l)i(> S'.. mm holu'. 4'.> mm lanijt' uiid 4 mm brcite voidere 
Sit'bbiMu/i'iU' (cKt) miiiulct obciliall) dvv l)ulhi ctlimoidalis (h(). 



Planche 51. 

r 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 1 1 mois. 

ri cornet infericur. vini meat inferieur, cm cornet moyen, pii processus uncinatus, Av jiiatus semilu- 

naire, be bulla ethmoidale cen cellule ethmoklale anterieure. wns meat sup^rieur, cs cornet supe- 

rieur, cep cellule ethmoklale posterieure. 

Goupe frontale d'une tete d"enfant de 11 mois montrant les meats inferieur 
(/««/). moven et su})erieur (mns), les cornets inferieur (ci), nioyen (cm) etsuperieur 
(C5), la cellule ethmoidale anterieure (cc(t) et la cellule ethmoidale posterieure 
(cep). Dans le meat moyen, par I'ablation du cornet moyen (cm), la region de Thiatus 
semilunaire (hs), limitee par le processus uncinatus (pu) et la bulle ethmoidale (be), est 
mise a nu. La cellule ethmoidale anterieure (cea) haute de 8^2 niillim., longue de 
4'., millim. et large de 4 millim. s'ouvre au-dessus de la bulle ethmoidale (be). 



Plate 51. 

Natural size. — Ghild of 11 months. 

ci lower chonclia. m7ii lower meatus, cm middle concha, pu uncinate process, hs semilumar hiatus, 
be ethmoidal bulla, ce// anterior ethmoidal cell, mns upper meatus, cs upper concha, cep posterior 

ethmoidal cell. 

Coronal section through the head of a child aged 11 months, shewing the lower 
(mni), middle and upper (mns) meatus, the lower (ci). middle (cm) and upper (cs) 
concha, the anterior (cea) and posterior (cep) ethmoidal cells. In the middle meatus, 
the region of the semilunar hiatus (hs), has been exposed through the removal of 
the middle concha (cm). The semilunar hiatus is enclosed between the uncinate 
process (pu) and the ethmoidal bulla (be). The anterior ethmoidal cell (cea), 
which is 81 9 mm high, 41.7 mm long and 4 mm wide, opens above the ethmoidal 
buUa (be). " 



Tafel 5). 




Tafel 52. 

Froiitalsclmitt. 

Naturliche Grosse. — 12 Monate altes Kind. 



PI ail die 52. 

Coupe frontale. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 12 mois. 



Plate 52. 

Coronal section. 

Natural size. — Child of 12 months. 



Tafel 52. 

N;i.tiirlii'lu> (Inisse. I "J Mouatc allcs Ixiiul. 

rf n>ct>ssiis frontalis. /»« itriiiH'ssus iii\ciimlus. bt laiuiiui ImiILic cI Immidalis. hs liiatus scmiluiuiris, 

ci i-unchu inferior, mni nioatus narinni inferior, nn coiuIki ni<<lia. iiin-< meatus iiarium siipcrior, 

rv I'onclia >u|KTi<ir. diil iliictus nasdlacrimalis. 

Dor Froiitivlscluutt des \1 Mouatc altcii Kt)|)tVs isl (a\\;is scliriig gcfiilirt 
mill /.('ii:t (lir Stiniliolilf in ilui'v friihcii l\.iin rincs recessus frontalis [rf), welcher 
(III- Basis di's S'.'luii>i>rnteilos dos StimlKMiu's (Mri-i('l\l iiiul () mm liocli. .l mm \i\\\» iiiul 
r> mm Im-it ist. Dcr rci't'ssus frontalis (/•/) miiiulct obcrhalb dcs hiatus scmiluiiaris 
(A.v). wt'K'lu'ii dir Imlla. othmoidalis [he] uiul dor imK'cssiis iiiioiiiatiis [pu) lu'greir/.t. 
kin Tt'il dcr mittlcroii {cm) mid obertMi (r.s) Xascnmuschcl ist cntfcrnt wordoii mil 
da^ Ccl.i.'t lies hiivtus somiluiiaris {hs) frci zu legcn. Im Hcici.lic dcs mittUTcii Xascii- 
U'aimcs mid tier miterou XastMiiiiiischcl {ci) ist in ciiici' Liinijc \<)ii I :! mm dcr \'crlaMf 
dcs diu-tus iiasolacrinialis {dnl) vax scheii. 



Planche 52. 

(4randcur nature. — Knfant do 12 mois. 

rf recessus frontal. },n processus uncinatus. he lame de la bulle etlimoidalc hx hiatus semilunaire. 
fi cornet inferieur. tiivi meat inferieur. cm cornet moven. mn^ meat supeiieiir. rv cornet sujK'iieur. 

dnl conduit nasolacrvmal. 

La coiipo frontalc dune tcte d'enfant de 12 niois est legerement oblique et 
niontro lo sinus frontal dans la foinio precoce d'un recessus frontal (r/), qui atteint 
la base de la stiuanie de Tos frontal et est liaut de 6 millim., long de 5 milliin. et large 
de 5 niillim. Le recessus frontal (/•/) so termine au dessus de Thiatus seniilunaire {lis), 
qui est liinite par la bulle ethmoidale {he) et le processus uncinatus {pn). Une partie 
des cornets moyen {cm) etsuperieur {cs) a ete enlevee, pour liborer la region de Thiatus 
scmilunaire {hs). Au niveau du meat moyen et du cornet inferieur {ci) on pent voir le 
conduit nasolacrymal {dnl) sur une longueur de 13 millim. 



Plate 52. 

Natural size. — Child of 12 months. 

rf frontal recess, pu uncinate process, he lamina of etlimoidal India, lis semilunar hiatus, n lower 
concha, mni lower meatus, cm middle concha, mns upper meatus, cv upper concha, dnl nasal duct. 

Coronal section through the head of a child aged 12 months, cut in a slightly 
oblique direction, so as to shew the frontal sinus in an earlier stage of its develop- 
ment as frontal recess (r/); the sinus reaches the base of the squamous part of the 
frontal bone and is 6 mm high, 5 mm long and 5 mm wide. The opening of the 
frontal recess {rf) lies above the semilunar hiatus {lis) which is enclosed between the 
ethmoidal bulla {he) and the uncinate process {pu). Portions of the middle {cm) and 
upper {cs) conchae have been removed so as to expose the region of the semilunar 
hiatus {hs). Adjoining the middle meatus and the lower concha {ci) a portion, 
13 mm long, of the nasal duct {dnl) can be seen. 



Tafel 52. 




Tafel 53. 

Frontalschnitt. 

Natiirliche Grosse. — 12 Monate altes Kind. 



Plaiiche 58. 

Coupe t'rontale. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 12 mois. 



Plate 53. 

Coronal section. 

Natural size. — Child of 12 months. 



Tafel 53. 

\;vtiivlirhf (irossr. — 1 L' .Moiialc altcs Kind. 

nm sinus niuxillaris. As- hiatus siMiiilimaris. (•< /) crllula ct liinoidalis pnstcriDr. ri coiiciia interior. 
wiMi iMoatus iiariiiin iiitVrior. riii com-lia mctlia. itnnn nu-atus iiariuiii nuulius. cv coiiclia siipcritir, 

iini< meatus naridin sii|icii<ir. x scptuin. 

Ih'i- I'rcuitalsrluiitt fines 1 L' MoiKvtc alien K(»|»lcs -/.cigt (lie reclili' Nascu- 
linhle. den Iv'den. das Daeh. die innere nnd die iiussere Wand der Naseiihohle. An 
der iitisstTen Nasenltoldenwaiul siiul die initei(> (ri). die inittlerc (cm) und die o))ero (rs) 
Nasenmnsehel. der nnteiv (nnii), der niittleie {iiiinii) inid der obere (mn.s) Nasenwaiig 
7.11 iihersehen. Ini niiltU'ren Nasengang {nnnti) ist das hintere Knde des hiatus seini- 
hinaris (lis), iin liereii-he des niittleren Xasenganges (niinn) nnd der initeren JNlnseliel 
(ri) ilie Kieferluihle (sni) nnd iin Bereic-lie des oberen Nasenganges (vnis) die hinteren 
tSiebbein/.ellen (ccp) zu sehen. Die Kieferliohle (sm) ist 11 mm lang, 8 mm breit und 
7 mm hoeh. Die Siebbeinzellen liaben cine Ausbreitung von 2 — 4 mm. 



Planche 53. 

(Jraiideur nature. — Enfant de 12 niois. 

^■»i sinus niaxillaire, /*>• liiatiis scmilunaire. r( ji cellule etlnnoidale posterieurc, ci cornet inferieur, 
t7uii nuMt inferieur. on eentet nuiyeu. iiiniii meat moyen. rs cornet superieur. »ins meat superieur, 

s- septum. 

La coupe froutale d'une tete d'un enfant de 12 mois montre la fosse nasale 
cb-oite. le phincher, le toit, la parol interne et externe de la fosse nasale. Sur la parol 
externe de la fosse nasale on voit les cornets inferieur {ci), moyen {cm) et superieur (cs), 
les meats inferieur (mnt). moyen {rnnm) et superieur (nins). On pent voir dans le meat 
moyen {nnun) la partie posterieure de I'hiatus semihinaire {hs), au niveau du meat 
moyen {rnnm) et du cornet inferieur (ci) le sinus maxillaire {sm) et au niveau du meat 
superieur (?»»>) les cellules ethmoidales posterieures {cep). Le sinus maxillaire (.sm) 
est long de 11 millim., large de 8 millim. et liaut de 7 millim. Les cellules ethmoidales 
ont ime et endue de 2 a 4 millim. 



Plate 53. 

Natural size. — Child of 12 months. 

sm maxillary antrum. h.s .semilunar hiatus, cep posterior ethmoidal cell, ci lower concha, mni lower 
meatus, cm middle concha, rnnm middle meatus, cs upper concha, mns upper meatus, s septum. 

Coronal section through the head of a child aged 12 months, shewing the right 
nasal fo.ssa. its floor, roof, mesial and lateral walls. In the lateral wall, the lower (ci), 
middle (cm), and upper (cs) concha, the lower {mni), middle {mum), and upper {mns) 
meatus are shewn. h\ the middle meatus {mnm) the posterior extremity of the 
semilunar hiatus (hs) is visible: adjoining the middle meatus {mnm) and lower 
concha (ci) is the maxillary antrum {sm), adjoining the upper meatus are the posterior 
ethmoidal cells {cep). The maxillary antrum {sm) is 11mm long, 8 mm wide and 
7 mm high. The diameter of the ethmoidal cells is between 2 and 4 mm. 



Tafel 53. 




1 



Tafel 54. 

Sagittalschnitt. 

Natiirliche Grosse. — 12 Monate altes Kind. 



Planclie 54. 

Coupe sagittale. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 12 mois. 



Plate 54. 

Longitudinal vertical section. 

Natural size. — Child of 12 months. 



Tafel 54. 

Nat iirlu'lu' (!ri'»ssr. ll! Moiiatc altcs Kiiul. 

ri n-iH'ssiis frontalis. <•. ; ocllula rtlnnoitlalis aiilfiidr. In Imlla cllmimilalis. i-, j, cilliila el liiimidalis 
posterior. />(/ proci'ssus uiiciniitiis. //< liiatus si'iiiiliiiiaiis, ri ((mclia iiilninr. ///;(/ iiicatus iiariiiin 
infi-iii>r. cm eniu'lia iin'ilia. iniim iiuwtiis iiarimn mrdiiis. r- cDiulia sii|)iriiir. in>i< iiicalus nariuin 

sii|)crior. X srpt uin. 

DtT Sanittalsi-hnit t ciiic-^ 1 1! .Moiiatr alien Ko|ilcs /cii^l. ciiicii klcincn re 
cessus frontalis (/•/) knaiip olx-r dciii voidcrcii I'aidc dcs hiatus scmiliinai is (lis), wclclicii 
(lt>r prtuu'ssus uiu'inatus [pu] mid die bulla rt hinoidalis [he] l)('ii;r(Mr/l . I in Noidcreu 
Tfil ih's lii;vtns scmilmiaris (lis) miindct die vovdcrc Si(d>l)(Mir/('ll(> (ecu), die !» inin laiig, 
S mm Ikh'Ii uiid (> mm i)nMt ist . I)ir Imlla. ti hmoidalis (In) hat oim^ Ausdchiumg von 
15— 4 mm. Die hinti'vc Sichhriir/.cllf ('«/,) ist. S mm brcit, 5 mm lang untl hocli. \)vx 
Si'luiitt zoigt forncr finrn Tcil dw uutrrcu (ci). mittlereii (cm) und obercu (r.s) Mu^jchcl. 
d("s untcrrn (nnii). mitllcvcu [iiniiii] und obcicii (nivs) Nascngaiigcs. 



Plaiiclie 54. 

' Graudoui' natuic. — Enfant dc 12 mois. 

rf recessus frontal, cei cellule ethnioklale aiiterieure. be buUe cthmoidale, cep cellule ethmoidalo 

posterieiu'e. pit {)roce.ssus uucitiatus. /;v liiatus seiniluiiaire, ci cornet inf6rieur, mni meat inferieur, 

cm cornet moyen, mnm nu'-at inoyeu. rv cornet superieur, inns meat superieur, .s septum. 

La coupe sagittak- de la tete dun enfant de 12 mois montre un petit reeessus 
frontal (rf), juste a I'extremite anterieure de I'hiatus semilunaire (hs), limite par le 
processus uneinatus {f,u) et la bulle ethmoidale (/>e). Dans la partie anterieure de 
riiiatus semilunaire (hs) se termine la cellule ethmoidale anterieure (cm), qui est longue 
de i) millim.. haute de S millim. et large de 6 millim. La bulle ethmoidale (be) a una 
etendue de 3 a 4 millim. La cellule ethmoidale posterieure (cep) a une largeur de 8 millim., 
une longueur et une hauteur de 5 millim. La coupe montre de plus une partie des 
cornets inferieur (ci), moyen (cm) et superieur (cs), des meats inferieur {mni), moyen 
{mnm) et superieur [mns). 



Plate 54. 

Natural size. — Child of 12 months. 

rf frontal recess, cei anterior ethmoidal cell, he ethmoidal bulla, cep posterior ethmoidal cell, 

pu uncinate proce.ss, h-< semilunar hiatus, ci lower concha, mni lower meatus, cm middle concha, 

mnm middle meatus, cs upper concha, mns upper meatus, s septum. 

Longitudinal vertical section through the head of a child aged 12 months, 
shewing a small frontal recess (rj) situated immediately above the anterior extremity 
of the semilunar hiatus (hs) which is enclosed between the uncinate j^rocess (pu) and 
the ethmoidal bulla (be). In the anterior portion of the semilunar hiatus {hs) is the 
opening of the anterior ethmoidal cell {cea) ; this cell is 9 mm long, 8 mm high and 
6 mm wide. The ethmoidal bulla {be) is 3 to 4 mm in size. The posterior ethmoidal 
cell (cep) is 8 mm in width. 5 mm in length and height. The section also shews parts 
of the lower {ci), middle (cm) and upper (cs) concha, and of the lower {mni), middle 
{mnm) and upper {mns) meatus. 



Tafel 54. 




)>ini cm 



Tafel 55. 

Frontalschnitt. 

Naturliche Grosse. — 14 Monate altes Kind. 



Plaiiclie 55. 

Coupe frontale. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 14 mois. 



Plate 55. 

Coronal section. 

Natural size. — Child of 14 months. 



Tafel 55. 

NiUiirliclu' (lri»s<('. - 11 Moiuitc allcs Kind. 

r/ rt>cessus frontalis. r«( orllulii ctliiiniidalis anterior. (//// dnrtus nasoiacriinalis. ])u processus uiici- 

natiix. tinii meatus narium iiilt-rior. ri eoiu-ha inferior, iinnii meatus nariuin medius. rin eoneiia 

me<lia. niif meatus narium su|ierior, <•--■ eonclia su|»erior. 

Der Frimtalsehiiitt rines 14 Monate alien Ko])fes zeiu;! die lateraU^ Wand dcr 
X:iseiilu>hlo iiiit der imlcrcMi (ci). iiiiti Icren (cm) nnd obeivii (rs) Xaseniniiscliel, init 
dcm untcrcn (;»»/). mittlercii (nnnn) nnd oIxmcu {inns] Xaseniiantf. Am vordcrsteii 
oborsten Toile dos mittleivii Xasoiiganues (nnnn) ist tier (> nun holio, 4 lUiu brcite iiiid 
3 mm \i\i\iio rocossus frontalis (;•/) zii scIkmi. er miindet oIkmIiuII) des hiatus semilunaris. 
()b(M-halb des ])r(H-esstis mioiuatus (pn) ist cine !» inni lanue. S mm liohe imd 4 mm 
breite vordero Sicbbeiuzcllo {cca) zu vsolicn. 



Planche 55. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 14 mois. 

rf recessus frontal, ecu cellule etinuoidale anterieure, dnl conduit nasolacrymal. pu processus unci- 
natus. mni meat inferieur, ci cornet inferieur, tnnm meat moyen, cm cornet moyeo, mns m6at 

superieur. cs cornet superieur. 

Coupe frontale de la tete d'un enfant de 14 mois montrant la paroi laterale de la 
fosse nasale avec les cornets inferieur (ci). moyen {C7n) et superieur (cs), les meats 
inferieur (>«/»' ). moyen {mnm) et su])erieur (m/is). A la paitie anterieure la plus haute 
da meat moyen (/«??m) on pent voir un recessus frontal (rf) haut de 6 millim., large 
de -4 millim. et long de 3 millim.; il s'ou\'re au-dessus de I'hiatus semilunaire. Au- 
dessus du processus uncinatus (pu) on peut voir une cellule ethmoidale anterieure 
longue de !> millim., haute de 8 millim. et large de 4 millim. 



Plate 55. 

Natural size. — Child of 14 months. 

rf frontal recess, ceu anterior ethmoidal cell, dnl na.sal duct, pu uncinate process, mni lower meatus, 
ci lower concha, mnm middle meatus, cm middle concha, mns upper meatus, cs upper concha. 

Coronal section through the head of a child aged 14 months, shewing the 
lateral wall of the nasal fossa with the lower (ci), middle (cm) and upper (cs) concha, 
and the lower {mni), middle {mnm) and upper {mns) meatus. At the upper anterior 
extremity of the middle meatus (mnm) the frontal recess (rf) is visible; it is 6 mm 
high. 4 mm wide and 3 mm long, and opens above the semilunar hiatus. Above the 
imcinate process (pu) is an anterior ethmoidal cell (cea), measuring 9 mm in length, 
8 mm in height and 4 mm in width. 



Tafel 55. 




Tafel 56. 

Frontalschnitt. 

Natiirliche Grosse. — 14 Monate altes Kind. 



Plaiiclie 56. 

Coupe frontale. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 14 mois. 



Plate 56. 

Coronal section. 

Natural size. — Child of 14 months. 



Tafcl 5(). 

N;kt iirlii'hr (inissr. 11 Monalc altt-s Kiiul. 

stn sinus niaxillaris. rm I't-llnla fllinitiidalis aiitrrior. n p (•(•Hula ctlmioidalis ])()stcii()r, nnii iiicatus 
nariuiu infnior. iiiimi mraliis iiariiim inrdiiis, tnn-< incatiis iiarimii su|ii-ri<)r. ri ((Hiclia inferior. 

rtii ronclia media, ri etmelia superior. 

I >i'r l-'ronlivlsi'luntt ciiu-s 14 Mimalf altcii Knplcs /(Mift die latoralc Wand der 
N;is»Mil»i»hU\ ilir uiittTt' (ri). mittlrrc {cm) iiiul olxrc (r.s) Xasciiimischcl, den untoron 
(niiii). niittlcrcn (nnini) und ohcviMi {nins) Nasongaiig. Iin Bcvcicho dcs untoron (nini) 
und ilos mittloron (iniini) NasonuaMjios ist dio Ivioforholilo (.s/») zu solion, sio ist IS mm 
hvnjz. 1.") mm l)roit und 11 mm hocli. sio miindot mit oinov "> mm lilntrlioh ovalon Off- 
nun*! im hintoron Toilo dos hiatus somilunaris. l)i(» vordiMon Siobboiir/ollon (mt) 
sind 4 — S nun luu-li. (> — !• mm lamjj und 4 — "> mm broil. Dio hintoi'ou Siebbeinzellon 
(ccp) sind 7 — 1<> mm lai»<i. 4 — (> mm liot'h nnd '2 ',i mm l)roit. 



Planche 56. 

(Jrandour nature. — Enfant do 14 mois. 

s») sinus maxillaire. rai cellule ethmoidale anterieure. cep cellule ethmoidale posterieure. mni meat 
inferieiu", tmiiii meat moyeii. nnt-: meat superieur, ci cornet infcricur. on cornet mcven, r-. cornet 

superieur. 

Coupe frontale de la tete dun enfant de 14 mois montrant la ])aroi laterale de la 
fosse nasale, les cornets inferieur {ci), moyen {cm) et superieur {cs), les meats inferieur 
{mni), moyen {mnm) et superieur (m?i.s) Au niveau des meats inferieur (mni) et moyen 
{mtnii) on ])eut voir le sinus ma.xillaire {sm) ; il est long de 18 niillim. large de 15 millim., 
ot haut de 11 millim.: il s"ouvro ])ar une ouverture ovale l(!noue de 5 millim. dans la 
partie ])ostorioin-o do Tliiatus semilunaire. Les cellules ethmoidales anterieures (ceo) ont 
une hauteur de 4 a S millim., une longueur de 6 a 9 millim. ot une largeur de 4 a 5 
niillim. Les cellules ethmoidales posterieures {cep) ont une longueur de 7 a 10 millim., 
une hauteur de 4 a 6 millim. et une largeur de 2 a 3 millim. 



Plate 56. 

Natural size. — Child of 14 months. 

sm maxillary antrum, ceu anterior ethmoidal cell, cep posterior ethmoidal cell, 7nni lower meatus, 
mnm middle meatus, ynns upper meatus, ci lower concha, cm middle concha, cs upper concha. 

Coronal section through the head of a child aged 14 months, shewing the lateral 
wall of the nasal fossa, the lower {ci), middle {cm) and upper {cs) concha and the 
lower {mni), middle {mnm) and upper {mns) meatus. Adjoining the lower {ynni) 
and middle (mnm) meatus lies the maxillary antrum {sm); it is 18 mm long, 15mm 
■wide and 10 mm high, and communicates with the posterior portion of the semilunar 
hiatus by an elongated oval opening 5 mm in width. The anterior ethmoidal cells {cea) 
are 4 to 8 mm in height. 6 to 9 mm in length and 4 to 5 mm in width. The posterior 
ethmoidal cells {cejj) are 7 to 10 mm in length. 4 to 6 mm in height and 2 to 3 mm 
in width. 



Tafel 56. 




Tafel 57. 

Frontalschiiitt. 

Natiirliche Grosse. — 14 Monate altes Kind. 



Planche 57. 

Coupe frontale. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 14 mois. 



Plate 57. 

Coronal section. 

Natural size. — Child of 14 months. 



Tafel 57. 

Natiirliilu" (;n')sse. — 11 .Moiiatc altcs Kiiui. 
o< ostium sphonoidale. r»/i colluhi ft l\iiu>i<l;ilis ix.stciior. / tt><:mcii i;iv. iiiir., rs concha superior, mns- 
intatus iiariuMi superior, cm coiiclia nictli;'.. ininn meatus narium nicdius. ri couclia inferior, nmi 

meatus narium inferior. 

Per Krimtalsi'ln\itt fines 14 .Mmiate altcii Koiifes /oiL't die laterale \\'a.iul der 
Nasonh«)hle in ilnvin liintoivn Absehnitte. die iintere (ri). niittlere (rni) und obcre (r.s) 
Xtvsennui.sehel. den unteren (nuii), niittleren {mnm) und obereu {juri.s) Xasengaug. 
Z\vi.«<chen dor oberen Xasenniuschel (cs) und dem Nasendach (/) ist das 1 juin weite 
ostium sphenoidale (of<) zu .sehen. es fiihrt in die 5 mm hohe. 4' ., mm lange und 4' ^ "^i>i 
breitt^ Keilbeiidu")hle. 



Planche 57. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 14 mois. 
o< ostium du sinus sphenoidal, cep cellule ethmoTdale posterieure, t toit de la fosse nasale, cs cornet 
ffuperieur. /«»* meat supcrieur, cm cornet moyen. mnm meat moyen, ci cornet inferieur, jnni meat 

inferieiir. 

Coupe frontale d'une tete de 14 mois montrant la ])aroi laterale de la fos.se 
nasale dans sa partie posterieure, les cornets inferieur (ci). moyen (cm) et superieur (cs), 
\es meats inferieur (tuni), moyen (mrun) et superieur (mn-s). Entre le cornet superieur 
et le toit de la fos.se nasale (t) on pent voir I'ostium du sinus splienoi'dal (os), large 
de 1 millim.: il conduit dans le smus sphenoidal hatit de ."3 millim.. long de 414 millim. 
et large de 41., millim. 



Plate 57. 

Natural size. — Child of 14 months. 

05 sphenoidal ostium, cep posterior etlimoidal cell, t roof of nasal fossa, cs upper concha, mns upper 

meatus, cm middle concha, mnm middle meatus, ci lower concha, inni lower meatus. 

Coronal section through the head of a child aged 14 months, shewing the lateral 
wall of the nasal fossa, at its po.sterior extremity, the lower (ci). middle (cm) and 
upper (cs) concha and the loAver (mni), middle (mnm) and upper (mns) meatus. 
Between the upper concha (cs) and the roof of the nasal fossa (t) the sphenoidal 
ostium (os) may be detected. It is 1 mm wide and leads into the sphenoidal 
sinus which is 5 mm high. 41211111^ long and 4121^^1 wide. 



Tafel 57. 



cep t 




mns mnm mni 



Tafel 58. 

Sagittalschnitt. 

Natiirliche Grosse. — 14 Monate altes Kind. 



Planclie 58. 

Coupe sagittale. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 14 mois. 



PLate 58. 

Longitudinal vertical section. 

Natural size. — Child of 14 months. 



Tafel 58. 

Nat iirlichf (Jrosscv — 14 Moiiatc altcs Kind. 
rf rtH'i'ssiis fiMMtalis. on ostium ccllulai' ctlminitlalis atilcridris. Av liiatus semilunaris, n/n osiium 
inaxillan-. mnin meatus uarium meiliiis. cm eoiielia media. ///;/- meatus narium superior. (■< ((Hielia 

supciioi'. 

Der Saiiittalsclmitt fines 11 Mnii.itc altcii KopIVs /.ciLit iiacli iMittViimiij^f dcr 
niitlloren NivsiMunusflu'l (cm) das (li'bict dos hiatus sriiiiliiiiaris (/is) uud don rccossus 
frontalis (rf). DtT nrcssus frontalis (rf) ist 10 mm hoch. it mm lang mid () mm breit. 
Im Hfft'ssus miindet vor den\ hiatus semilunaris (lis) cine klcine vordere Siebbeinzelle 
(occ). Am hinti-reii l-'.ndc do hiatus scmilinia.ris (/is) ist die ovale Miiiidiinii; der Kiefer- 
hohle (('///) '/u seh«'n. 



Planche 58. 

(iraiulein- nature. — Enfant de 14 mois. 
rf recessus frontal, occ ostium de la cellule etlimo'idale anterieure. /(v liiatus semiluuaire. om ostium 
du sinus niaxillaire, mnni meat 11103611, cm cornet moyen, rnm meat superieur, cs cornet superieur. 

Coupe sagittale d'une tete d'enfant de 14 mois montrant apres section du cornet 
moyen (cm) la region de Thiatus semilunaire (^s) et le recessus frontal (rf). Le 
aecessus frontal a uiie hauteur de 10 millim. une longueur de 9 millim. et une largeur 
de 6 millim. ])ans le i-ecessus s"ouvre devant I'hiatus semilunaire (hs) une petite cellule 
ethmoidale anterieure (oce). A la partie postcrieure de Thiatus semilunaire on peut 
voir I'ouverture ovale du sinus ma.xillaire (sm). 



Plate 58. 

Natural size. — Child of 14 months. 
rf frontal recess, oce aperture of anterior ethmoid d cell, /n semilunar liiatus, om opening of maxil- 
lary antrum, vtnm middle meatus cm middle concha, mm upper meatus, cj upper concha. 

Longitudinal vertical section through the head of a child aged 14 months; the 
middle concha (cm) has been removed in order to shew the region of the semilunar 
hiatus (hs) and the frontal recess (rf). The frontal recess (rf) is 10 mm high, 9 mm 
long and 6 mm wide. In the recess, above the semilunar hiatus (/is), lies the opening 
of a small anterior ethmoidal cell (oce). At the posterior end of the semilunar hiatus 
(/is) the oval opening of the maxillary antrum (om) may be seen. 



Tafel 58. 




cm mnm om 



Tafel 59. 

Frontalschnitt. 

Natiirliche Grosse. — 14 Monate altes Kind. 



Plaiiclie 59. 

Coupe frontale. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 14 mois. 



Plate 59. 

Coronal section. 

Natural size. — Child of 14 months. 



Tafel 59. 

Natiirlicho lJr(')ssi'. — 14 Moiiato altrs Kind. 
s> simis spluMioitlalis. ns- ostium splienoidalc 

DtT Front alschnitt cim's 14 Monato altcii K()]ifes zeigt die eroffnete Keiibi-in- 
liohlr (n>) Miit ilirt'V Miiiulunu ((w). Die KcillH-iuliolilc {.ss) ist 414 mm laiig, a mm 
hoch mid 4'.', mm Invit. ilivc Miiixlung. das ostium s])liciioidal(' (os) Lildet eiiie 1 mm 
wcite runde ()ffnunir. 



Planche 59. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 14 mois. 
•s.v sinus sphenoidal, os ostium du sinus sphenoidal. 

La coupe frontale d'une tete d'un enfant de 14 mois montre le sinus sphenoidal (ss) 
ouvert avec son ostium (os). Le sinus sphenoidal est long de 4^9 millim., haut de5millim. 
et large de 4V2 millim., son ouverture, I'ostium du sinus sphenoidal (os), forme una 
ouverture ronde. large de 1 milliin. 



Plate 59. 

Natural size. — Child of 14 months. 
ss sphenoidal sinus, os sphenoidal ostium. 

Coronal section through the head of a child 14 months old, shewing the 
sphenoidal sinus (ss) laid open, with its ostium (os). The sphenoidal sinus (ss) is 
4^2 "^^^ l<J"g. 5 mm high and 4^2 mm wide. Its opening, the sphenoidal ostium ios), 
is a circular aperture 1 mm in diameter. 



Tafel 59. 







Tafel 00. 

Frontalschnitt. 

Natiirliche Grosse. — 15 Monate altes Kind. 



Plaiiclie GO. 

Coupe frontale. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 15 mois. 



Plate GO. 

Coronal section. 

Natural size. — Cliild of 15 months. 



Tafel ()(). 

Xiitiirlichr (Irijssc. !."> Mi.nalc altos Kind. 

."7 sinus frontalis, rc'i lU'lliila etlnnoiilalis aiiti'iii>r. »ini incut us n:iriuni inferior, ri conclia inferior, 
w»M»i meatus nariuni nietlius, rm oonelia media, iinii meatus nariuni superior, rv concha superior. 

Per l-'i-iiiitalschtiitt rinr.s 1") ]\Iona(e altcn Kopt'cs /.cigt die 4' o 'i'"' li'ilic. 4 mm 
laiige iiiid IP. J mm hroite kStiniholile (,s/), sie miiiidet am ()l)rrsten vorder.steii Telle 
des hiatus semilimavis, feriicr die vordere iSiebbeinzelle [ecu), den nnteren (tnni). mitt- 
leren (ninni) und den oberen (inns) Nasengang, die untere («'), mittlerc (on) und 
obere (cs) Xasenniuschel. 



Planche 60. 

Grandeur nature. — p]nfant de 15 niois. 

.</ sinus frontal, cen cellule ethmoidale anterieure, mni meat inferieur, ci cornet inferieur. »inm meat 
moyen. cm cornet moyen, mns meat superieur, r.s cornet superieur. 

Coupe frontale d'une tete denfant de 15 mois montrant le sinus frontal {sf) liaut de 
41 2 millim.. long de 4 millim. et large de 3% millim.; il s'ouvre a la partie antero- 
superieure de riiiatus semilunaire; de plus on voit les cellules ethmoidales ante- 
rieures (cea), les meats inferieur {mni), moyen mum) et superieur (mns), les cornets 
inferieur (ci), moyen (cm) et superieur (cs). 



Plate 60. 

Natural size. — Child of 15 months 

.-/ frontal sinus, ce-i anterior ethmoidal cell, mni lower meatus, ci lower concha, mnm middle meatas, 
cm middle concha, ynns upper meatus, c? upper concha. 

Coronal section through the head of a child aged 15 months, shewing the frontal 
sinus (sf), Avhich is A^.y ^'^^^'^ high, 4 mm long and 3% mm wide, opening at the uj^per 
anterior extremity of the semilunar hiatus. The anterior ethmoidal cell (cm), the 
lower (mni), middle (mnm) and upper (mns) meatus and the lower (ci), middle (cm) 
and upper (cs) concha are also illustrated. 



Tafel 60. 







Tafel Gl. 

Sagittalschnitt. 

Natiirliche Grosse. — 15 Monate altes Kind. 



Plaiiclie Gl. 

Coupe sagittale. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 15 mois. 



Plate Gl. 

Longitudinal vertical section. 

Natural size. — Child of 15 months. 



Tafel 61. 

Natiirlic'lio Orosso. — IT) Monate altes Kind. 
>7 sinus frniilalis. ri i rdlula ctliinoiilalis antiM'ior. i>ii |)nK"essus uncinatiis. It, Imlla ct limoidalis. 
r«7> Cflliila ctlimcidalis postiMior. rin couclia media, inn-' meatus uaiium su|)eri(ir. rs- eoiielia 

su|)eri(>i'. 

her Sauit talsrl\nit t cincs 1.") Moiiatc altcti Ki>|)tcs zciLit die 7 mm linlic. r* mm 
laniit' uml 4 mm lu-cilc St iniliolilc (.s7). ^it' miiiidct in den xordci'stm 'I'cil dcs hi;i1iis 
semilunaris. wrK-lu'u dtM- pvcu-essus tiiunnattis {pii) mid die bulla ctlimoidalis (he) l)o- 
crivn/t. Fornor ist die vordore Siebbeiiizelle (cea). niit ihrer MiJnduug in dom mitt- 
leren Xasengango mid die hintere Siebbeinzelle {cep) mit ihrer Miindiing in den oberen 
Nasengang {niii-'<) v.u sehen. 



Planche 61. 

(riaiidetir natme. — Enfant de 15 mois. 

*7 simis fnnital. rxi cellule ethmouiale auterieure. jm processu.s uneiuatus. Ix hulle ethmoklalo, 
cfp cellule ethmtridale ]i(ist( rieure. nn con.et mnyen. tuns meat su])erieur. rs cornet superieur. 

Couix' sagittale dune tete d'enfaiit de 15 mois niontrant le sinus frontal (.s/) hatit 
dv 7 millini. long de 5 millim. et large de 4 millim.: il s'onvre dans la partie anterieure 
de Ihiatus semilunaire. limite par le processus uncinatiis {j)i() et la ])iille etlimoidale (be). 
De plus on pent voir la cellule ethmoidale anterieure (cea) avec son ostium dans le 
meat moyen et la cellule ethmoidale posterieure (cep) avec son ostium dans le meat 
superieur. 



Plate 61. 

Natural size. — Child of 15 months. 

sf frontal sinus, cea anterior ethmoidal cell, pu uncinate process, he ethmoidal bulla, cep posterior 

ethmoidal cell, cm middle concha, mns upper meatus, cs upper concha. 

Longitudinal vertical section through the head of a child aged 15 months, 
shewing the frontal sinus (sf). A\hich measures 7 mm in height, 5 mm in length and 
4 mm in width, opening into the anterior part of the semilunar hiatus, between the 
uncinate process (pu) and the ethmoidal bulla (be). The anterior ethmoidal cell (cea) 
with its opening into the middle meatus and the posterior ethmoidal cell (cep) with 
its opening mto the upper meatus (mns) are also shewn. 



Tafel 61. 




cs mns cm be 



Tafel 62. 

Sagittalschnitt. 

Natiirliche Grosse. — 15 Monate altes Kind. 



Planclie G2. 

Coupe sagittale. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 15 mois. 



Plate 62. 

Longitudinal vertical section. 

Natural size. — Child of 15 months. 



Tafel 62. 

XiVtiirlii'ho i;r»)ssi'. l.") Alonate altos Kind. 

.«./ sinus frontalis, rri c-t'llula otiimoiilalis aiiliTior. pii processus umiualus. In Imlla ctlmioidalis, 
/i< liiatus s«iiiilunaris. ctfi fi-llula t'tlinioitlalis |>osterior. «v ostium spht'iioidale. itufi uirattis nariinn 
sU|)«Tit>r. »(;ii uji>at\is nariuni iiifrrior. inniii uumIus uarium incdius, r/ coiu-ha inferior, r«/ couciia 

uu'dia. r < concha superior. 

iVr S;viiitt;vlsclinitt riiu's 1") Moiialc altcii Ivopfv's y.ci^'t dni iiiitcicii {niiii), 
mittlt'iTU (tnnni) uiul olicivii (///».s) NastMigang. die iiiitrre (ri). mitt li re (cnn mid olxrc 
(r.s-) Nasfiimusi'hcl. in dor Koilionfolijo von vovno nach liinton dio Stiniliclilc (s/). die 
vonloro Siohhoinzollo (cfi). dio liiutcro Si<'l)l)ciii/.fllc ((•( ji) iind das (tsliuni spliciioi- 
dalo (os). Dio Stirnlu")hlo (sf) ist 7 nun IkkIi, ;"> mm lanu iiiid \ mm broil, sic miindot 
am ohoron vordoron Toilo d(>s hiatus somihmaris. \v(>l'.ii(ii dci- procossus iiiuinatus 
(pit) und dio hullacthmoidalis (hr) l)onfron/,t. Dio vordoro Siol)l)ciir/.olioii (r(fi) sind IJhis 

4 mm lang. W^-, — 4'.. nnti Itroit und *} — 4'.^ mm hooli. oino vordoro Si<0)l)oin/t'llo (na) 
sctzt sioh nooli von dor Sohnittfl;iol\o ("> mm in don procossus uncinatus (;)(/) fort. Dio 
hititoro Siol)l)oin/.ollo (rtp) ist (i mm lang. .") mm hooh und 4 mm broit, ihre dirokte 
Miindumr in ilon oboron Nasongang (mns) ist zu iibersehon. Das It^ mm weite ostium 
splu'iioiiialo (os) fiiln't in dio r> mm laiigo. 3'., mm liolio und *} mm l)roito Koilboin- 
hoblo. 

Planche 62. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 15 mois. 
.s/ sinus frontal, n i cellule ethmoklalc anterieure. pti processus uncinatus. he bulle cthiiiuklaie, 
rep cellule ctluno'iilale 'postericure. o< ostium du sinus spiienoTdal. hs liiatus scmiluniire. mni meat 
infcrieur. mniii meat moven. tn>i< meat .superieur. ci cornet inferieur. on cornet moyen. <■■< cornet 

sui)erieur. 

Coupe sagittale d'une tete d'enfant de 15 mois montrant los moats infcrieur (mm), 
moyen (mum) et superieur (mns), les cornets inferieur (ci), moyen {cm) et superieur (cs). 
En allant d'avant en arriore. le sinus frontal (.s/), la cellule ethmoidalo anterieure (cca), 
la oollido othmoidale postorieure (cep) et Tostium du sinus sphenoidal (os). Le sinus 
frontal (sf) a 7 millim. de haut. 5 millim. do long et 4 millim. de large; il s'ouvro a 
la partie antcro-superieure de I'hiatus semilunaire, limite par le processus uncinatus (pii) 
et la bulle ethmoidale (be). La cellule ethmoidale anterieure a de 3 a 4 millim. de 
long, de 31 2 a 4^2 millim. de large et de 3 a 414 millim. de haut. Une cellule 
ethmoidale anterieure (cca) se continue encore sur une longueur de 6 millim. dans le 
processus uncinatus (pu). La cellule ethmoidale posterieure (cep) a 6 millim. de long, 

5 millim. de haut et 4 millim. de large: on peut voir son ostium juste dans le meat 
superieur (tntis). L'ostium du sinus sphenoidal (os) large de % miHiii^- conduit dans 
le sinus sphenoidal long de 5 millim., haut de 31/2 millim. et large de 3 millim. 

Plate 62. 

Natural size. — Child of 15 months. 
■sf frontal sinus, n 1 anterior ethmoidal cell, pa uncinate process, hs semilunar hiitus, be ethmoidal 
bulla, cep posterior ethmoidal cell, oj sphenoidal ostium, mm lower meatus, rnnm middle meatus, 
mns upixT meatus, ci lower concha, on middle concha, a upper concha. 
Longitudinal vertical section through the head of a child aged 15 months, 
shewing the lower (ynni), middle (mnm) and upper {mns) meatus, the lower (ci). middle 
(cm) and upper (cs) concha, and. from before backwards, the frontal sinus (sf). the 
anterior ethmoidal ceUs (cea), the posterior ethmoidal cell {cep) and the sphenoidal 
ostium (os). The frontal sinus {sf) is 7 mm high, 5 mm long and 4 mm wide; it opens 
into the anterior, upper portion of the semilunar hiatus which is enclosed between 
the uncinate process (pu) and the ethmoidal bulla {be). The anterior ethmoidal cells 
(cea) are 3 to 4 mm long. 319 to 4^2 mm ^vide and 3 to 4V2 mm high; one anterior 
ethmoidal cell (cea) extends from the plane of section into the uncinate process (pu) 
for a distance of 6 mm. The posterior ethmoidal cell {cep) is 6 mm long. 5 mm high 
and 4 mm wide; its opening into the upper meatus {mns) can be seen. The sphenoidal 
ostium (os), an aperture 1^2 mm in diameter, leads into the sphenoidal sinus which 
measures 5 mm in length, 3^ mm in height and 3 mm in width. 



Tafe! 62. 




Tafel 03. 

Rontgenaufnahme. 

Natiirliche Grosse. — Schadel eines 15 Monate alten Kindes. 



Planclie 03. 

Radiogramme. 

Grandeur nature. — Crane d'enfant de 15 mois. 



Plate 03. 

Skiagram. 

Natural size. — Skull of child 15 months old. 



Tafel 63. 

Natiirliilu' (irosso. — Schadrl ciiics 1") Moiialc allcMi Kindes. 
.if< simis frontalis siiiistci'. >•■/'/ simis Irdiitalis dexter. 

Die Figur zoigt einc Rt'intgcnaufnahme der Stirnli()lil(Mi eines 15 Monate alten 
Schiidols. Die rtM'hto Stinihohlo {sfd) hat oine Ausdehiiiiug in vortikaler Richtung 
von 3 nun luul in liorizontalor Richtung von ") nun; die linke 8tirnhohle (5/5) hat cine 
Ausdehnung von !>'.. mm in vcrtikaU-r (uul von ')^2 "^'^i J'^ horizontaler Richtung. 



Planche 63. 

Grandeur nature. — Crane d'enfant de 15 mois. 
sf-s sinus frontal gauche, .v/r/ sinu.s frontal droit. 

Figure montrant le radiogramme des sinus frontaux d'lui crane de 15 niois. Le 
.jinus frontal droit (sfd) a une etendue de 3 millim. dans \i\ direction verticale et de 
5 niilHin. dans la direction horizontale; le sinus frontal gauche (sfs) a une etendue 
de 3' 2 uiillim. dans la direction verticale et de 514 millim. dans la direction hori- 
zontale. 



Plate 63. 

Natural size. — Skull of child 15 months old. 
(■fs left frontal sinus, sfd right frontal sinus. 

Skiagram shewing the frontal sinuses in the skull of a child aged 15 months. 
The right frontal sinus (.sfd) measures 3 mm in the vertical and 5 mm in the horizontal 
direction; the left frontal sinus (sfs) measures 3i2n^ni in the vertical and 512 mni 
m the horizontal direction. 



Tafel 63. 



./6- 



Sfd 



J 




Tafel 04. 

Frontalschnitt. 

Natiirliche Grosse. — IV2 Jahre altes Kind. 



Plaiiclie (U. 

Coupe frontale. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 1 an Va- 



Plate G4. 

Coronal section. 

Natural size. — Child of V'2 years. 



T afel 64. 

Natiirlirho (Jrussc. — I '/-' •';'•"' ^''^''^ Kind. 

ci coiu'lm inferior, mni moatus nariuin inferior, on coneiia media, nniin im-atiis naiiuiii iiudiiis, 
,vHi .xinu.-; niaxilluris. o eellula otliinoiilalis. .•.•.septum. /< i>,il.itum. il ZaliiiaiilaLre, ]>ii jirocossus 

imeinatiis. 

I)(M- l'"i(iiitalsi-liiiitt <-iiics I'.' .lalirc altcii Kopfcs zeigt die in dcr .Mcdian- 
linir gt'radvfrluufcudi' Nascn-^t'luMdcwand (s), an dcr latoralcii Xascnluilileiiwand die 
untoro (<"/) und mittletv (<-»i) Xasciunusclu'l, dni uiitoron {))ini) uiid den inittlcriMi 
Na.^^rniZaiiiT (nnnii), den Bdden und da.s Dach der Na-senhohlc, fcrucr die Kiefer- 
hiihlo (sin), die Siel»l)rin/('11(> (<« ) und Zahid-Leime ((/). Div Kiefcrholde (sin) hat 
eine Ausdelinung von lo luin Liinifc, S mm Holu- und .'} inin liieitc. Auf der 
rochten Seite i.st die Miindung der Kieferhohle (sm) in deii hiatus semihuiaris 
7,u iiberseheu, hegren/.t vom proce-ssus uncinatus (jik). Die rechte Siebbeinzehe (rr) 
ist l> nun huiii, "> mm hoeli und 3 mm hreit . die linke Siel»hein/.ell(^ (rr) i.st 
4 mm hinix, 4 mm hoeh und 1' 2 mm breit. 



Planche 64. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de J an Vo. 

ci cornet inferieur, »ini meat inferieur, rui cornet moyen, mnm meat moyen, -sm sinus maxiliaire, 
ce cellule ethmoidale. .s septum. }> ])alais. d couchc dentaire. pu proccs.sus uncinatus. 

La coupe frontalc d'unc tete denfant de 1 an ' ., ])resente un septum {s) tout droit 
dans la hgne mcdiane. 8ur hi ])a.roi latcralc de hi fos.se nasale on voit les cornets inferieur 
(ci) ct moyen (cm), les meats inferieur (myii) et moyen (mnm), le ])lancher et le toit 
de la fosse nasale, de plus le sinus maxiliaire {sm), la cellule ethmoidale (ce) et la 
couche dentaire (d). Le sinus maxiliaire (sm) est long de 10 millim., haut de 8 millim. 
et large de 3 millim. On voit sur le cote droit I'ostium du sinus maxiliaire donnant 
dans le hiatus semilunaire, convert par le processus uncinatus {pu). La cellule ethmoidale 
droite (ce) est longue de (i millim., haute de 5 millim. et large de 3 milhm. Les di- 
mensions correspondantes de la cellule ethmoidale gauche (ce) sont 4 millim.. 4 millim. 
et 11 y millim. 



Plate 64. 

Natural size. — Child of 1^2 .vears- 

ri lower concha, ynni lower meatus, cm middle concha, mnm middle meatus, sm maxillary antrum, 
re ethmoidal cell, s septum, p hard palate, d dental germ, pu uncinate process. 

Coronal section through the head of a child aged l^i years, shewing the nasal 
septum (s) situated in the median i^lane, and in the lateral wall of each nasal fossa, 
the lower (ci) and middle (cm) concha, the lower (mni) and middle (mnm) meatus, 
also the floor and roof of the nasal fossae, the maxillary antrum (sm), ethmoidal 
cell (ce) and dental germs (d). The maxillarj- antrum (sm) is 10 mm long, 8 mm 
high, and 3 mm wide. On the right hand side, the opening of the maxillary an- 
trum (sm) into the semilunar hiatus may be seen. This orifice is bounded by the 
uncinate process (pu). The right ethmoidal cell (ce) is 6 mm long. 5 mm high, and 
3 mm wide; the left ethmoidal cell (ce) is 4 mm long, 4 mm high, and 1^2 i^"^^ wide. 



Tafel 64. 




Tafel 65. 

Frontalsclmitt. 

Natiirliche Grosse. — IV2 Jahre altes Kind. 



Plaiiclie 65. 

Coupe Iroutale. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 1 an V2. 



Plate 65. 

Coronal section. 

Natural size. — Child of l^'s years. 



Tafel 65. 

Naliirliclic (Jrosse. — I'o .lalirc allcs Kind. 

sf fi'mn> frontalis, c i ci'llula ctliinoidalis antrrior. /<// inoti'ssiis imcinatus. ri concha inferior, rin 

conclia media, rv cdnciia superior. 

l)i'r Krontalscliiiitt ilcs I'^ -lalivc altcn K()])fes ist etwas schrag gefiihrt mid 
zeigt den 5 mm holioii. ."{'^ '""^ l>r('ilrn uiul '.) nun lanizcn sitni.s frontalis (sf), er miindet 
obtThall) dos liiatus siMuilunaris. I'm div iStirnliolile (n/) siud vordere Si<'bb('inzollen 
(f((0 golagert. oino hat eine Aiisdelinung von 10 mm Holie, 8' ., mm Breite und 2' > mm 
Liinge. Der Schiiitt zeigt den processus njicinalns (jjh), die untere («'), die mittlere 
(cm) nnd die obere (c.s) Naseumuschel. 



Planche 65. 

Grandeur nature. — ■ Enfant de 1 an \2- 
sf sinus frontal, ceu cellule ethmoidale anterieure, pu processus uncinatus, ci cornet inferieur, 

cm cornet moyen, cs cornet superieur. 

Coupe frontale dune tete d'un enfant de 1 an ^2: legerement oblique, montre le 
sinus frontal (v/) haut de 5 millim.. large de 3^2 n^iUim. et long de 3 millim., qui se 
termine au-dessus de I'hiatu.s semilunaire: autour du sinus frontal (sf) se trouvent 
des cellules ethmoidales anterieures (rca); I'une a les dimensions de 10 millim. de 
haut, 3*2 millim. de large et 214 millim. de long. La coupe montre le processus unci- 
natus ipu), les cornets inferieur (ci) moyen (cm) et superieur (cs). 



Plate 65. 

Natural size. — Child of P^ years. 
sf frontal sinus, cea anterior ethmoidal cell, pu uncinate process, ci lower concha, cm middle concha, 

rs upper concha. 

Section through the head of a child aged l}^ years, cut in a plane slightly 
obUque to the coronal; it shews the frontal sinus (sf), which is 5 mm high, 
3^2^°^ ^^ide and 3 mm long, and opens above the semilunar hiatus. The frontal 
sinus (sf) is surrounded by anterior ethmoidal cells (cea), one of which is 10 mm 
high, 31/^ mm wide and 2^ mm long. The section also shews the uncinate process 
(pit), the lower (ci), middle {cm) and upper (cs) concha. 



Tafel 65. 




Tafel 66. 

Frontalsclmitt. 

Natiirliche Grosse. — IV2 Jahre altes Kind. 



Plauclie 66. 

Coupe frontale. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 1 an V-* 



Plate 66. 

Coronal section. 

Natural size. — Child of l'/^ years. 



Tafel 60. 

Natiirliilu' (;ri)ssc. 1'^ .lahic altcs Kind. 

.v/ Minus frontalis, a i orlhihi ctlmmidalis Miilcrinr. c* ;> ct'llula ctlimoidalis jiosttM-ior, /i-< liialiis semi- 
lunaris. /)!/ prorossus utioinalus. ci f(inclia iiilcrinr. niiii iiic.it us narimii iiircrior. r »i concha media. 
Ilium n>t>atus nariuiu nicdius. cv coiiclia supcridr. nni-i meatus riariiim superior. 

Dor (/ii Tafel <>.")) korresiioiuHcrcmle Frontalschniti oines 1'^ .lalirc alteii 
Kiipfr.-* zeigt die l;vtorak> Wand dcr XastMiluildc, die untere (ci), die luittleve {cm) 
unci die obere (cs) Na.<iennuiseliel. den unteren (m«i). don mittleren {mnm) und don 
oheron (m».v) XasonCi^ng. Fni mittleren Nasonganji; (mnrn) ist dor hiatus semilunaris 
(lis), dor jiroeessiis nneinatus (pit), oberhalh dos hiatus semilunaris {/is) ist die Stirn- 
hr.hle (si) nmuehon von don vordoren Siol)boiir/,ollen (cca), fernor im Beroieho dor 
ohoron Nasonnnisehol die hintoro Siobboinzolle (cep) zu sehen. 



Planche 66. 

Grandeur nature. ■ — Enfant de 1 an |4- 

sf sinus frontal, cc'i cellule ethmoi'dale anterieure, cep cellule ethmoidale postcrieure. hs jiiatus 
semilunaire. pii processus uncinatus, ci cornet inferieur, mni meat inferieur, cm cornet moyen, 
minn meat moyen, c* cornet superieur, mnv meat superieur. 

Coupe fniutale dime tete d'un enfant de 1 an 1/2 (correspondante a la ])lanche 65) 
montro la paroi latorale de la fosse nasale, les cornets inferieur (ci), moyen (cm) et 
superieur (r-s), les meats inferieur (mni), moyen (mnm) et superieur (mns). Dans le 
meat moyen (mtim) on peut voir I'hiatus semilunaire (hs), le processus uncinatus (pu), 
au dessus de I'hiatus semilunaire (hs) le sinus frontal (sf), entoure des cellules eth- 
moidales anterieures (cea) et de plus on peut voir la cellule ethmoidale posterieure 
(cep) au niveau du cornet superieur. 



Plate 66. 

Xatural size. — Child of 1^/2 years. 

sf frontal sinus, cea anterior ethmoidal cell, cep posterior ethmoidal cell, hs semilunar hiatus, 
pu uncinate process, ci lower concha, mni lower meatus, cm middle concha, mnm, middle meatus, 

cs upper concha, m,ns upper meatus. 

Coronal section through the head of a child aged 1^4 years, corresponding 
to the section figured on the previous plate The lateral wall of the nasal fossa is 
shewn with the lower (ci), middle (cm) and upper (cs) concha and the lower (mni), 
middle (mnm) and upper (mns) meatus. In the middle meatus (mnm) the semilunar 
hiatus (^.s) and uncinate process (pn) are visible. Above the semilunar hiatus (hs) 
is the frontal sinus (sf) surrounded by anterior ethmoidal cells (cea), and in relation 
with the upper concha, the posterior ethmoidal cell (cep). 



Tafel 66. 



cea cep 




Tafel 07. 

Frontalschnitt. 

Naturliche Grosse. — IV2 Jahre altes Kind. 



Planche iU. 

Coupe frontale. 

Grandeur nature. - Enfant de 1 an V^- 



Plate 07. 

Coronal section. 

Natural size. — Child of '2 years. 



Tafel 67. 

Naliirlii-Iu' fJrosse. - I ' .j .lalirc altcs Kind. 

jitn sinus inaxillaris. unit im>atii-< nariiiin inferior, ri concliii inferior, imini meatus narium meilius, 

nil c-oiielia media. ;//;i< niealiis naiiuni superior. r< eonelia suju-rior. nni-'r meatus narium supre- 

mus. (•>/• eonelia su|)rema, <>• o>tiiim splieiinidale. 

Ucr Front alselmitt dcs 1'., .lahrc alien Kopfcs z(M<^t die iuissor<> Wand dcr 
Nnsonholih'. tlir iinliMC (ri). die niiltlere (mi). di(> oIxm'o (rs) uiid die ohcrstc (csr) 
Nasonnuiseht>l. drn unti'vcn (nnii). den niittlcrcii [ininii]. <l(n ohcrcn (niiis) und d(Mi 
obt'r.-<t(>n (iiinsr) Nasciiiiane;. Ini Borcii-lir dc\s untcicn {uini) und des niittloron (mnm) 
Nrtsenganiirs ist dif Ricfcrhohle (.svh). zwischeii der obersten Nasenniuschel und deni 
Nascndaclir ist die Miindunc dor Keilbeinhohle (o.s) zii sehen. Die Keilbeinli()hlo 
ist .'> nun lanii. L' mm lun-li und 2 nun breit, das rundc o.stiuni sphenoidale ist 1 nun 
\\v\\ . 



Planche 67. 

CJrantlfur nature. — Enfant de 1 an U- 

"Vi sinus maxillaire, mni meat inMrieur. ci cornet inferieur. mnm meat iiioycn. ctn cornet moyen, 
mn< meat superieur, c->" cornet suj)erieur mnsr meat supreme, csr (juatrieme cornet, os ostium du 

sinus splienoklal. 

Coupe frontale dune lete de 1 an U montrant la paroi laterale de la fosse nasale 
les cornets inferieur (ri). moyen (cw). superieur (cs) et supreme {csr), les meats in- 
ferieur (mni), moyen (mnm). supcriein- (mns) et supreme (mnsr). On pent voir au 
niveau des meats inferieur (mni) et moyen (mnm) le sinus maxillaire (sm) et entre 
se (piatrieme cornet et le toit de la fosse nasale Tostivun du sinus sphenoidal (o.s). Le 
linus sphenoidal es:t long de 3 millim., haut de 2 millim. et large de 2 millim.; son 
ostium rond a une largeur de 1 millim. 



Plate 67. 

Natural size. — Child of I14 years. 

sm maxillary antrum, mni lower meatus, ci lower concha, mnm middle meatus, cm middle concha, 
mns upjxT meatus, cs upper choncha, mnsr meatus narium supremus, csr concha suprema, 

OS sphenoidal ostium. 

Coronal section through the head of a child aged I14 years, shewing the lateral 
wall of the nasal fossa, the lower (ci), middle (cm), upper (cs) and uppermost (csr) 
concha, the lower (mni), middle (mnm), upper (mns) and uppermost (mnsr) meatus. 
Adjoining the lower (mni) and middle (mnm) meatus is the maxillar}^ antrum (sm). 
Between the uppermost concha and the roof of the nasal fossa the sphenoidal ostium (os) 
may be noted. The sphenoidal sinus is 3 mm long, 2 mm high and 2 mm wide, 
the circular sphenoidal ostium is 1 mm in diameter. 



Tafel 67. 




sm mm 



Tafel G8. 

Sagittalschnitt. 

Natiirliche Grosse. — V/2 Jahre altes Kind. 



Planche 08. 

Coupe sagittale. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 1 an '/a. 



Plate G8. 

Longitudinal vertical section. 

Natural size. — Child of V/2 years. 



Tafel 68. 

Nut iirlirht> (Jrosso. - — l'^ .lalirc allcs Kind. 

sf sinus frontalis, mi i-olliila otlinioidalis anterior. Ii>i liialws scinihiiiaris. jm inoccssus iiiiciiiatus, 
out ostium niaxillan*. vnii nioatiis narium inferior, n conelia inferior, nnun meatus nariuni niivlius, 
rni c'oneha inetiia. inii< meatus nariimi su|)eiinr. <■•: eonclia siij)erior. 

I>cr S;vi;itt;vlsi'lmitt dos \^., .hvhro altrii Kopfos zcigt nach .I"]utf(Mnnii^ tier 
inittlereii N;iseninusel\el (rtti) das ({cbiet des hiatus semilunaris {h.s) und die .Stirn- 
hohlennuindunijj (sf). An der iiusseren Wand der Nasenhohle ist die untere (ci), die 
mittlere (rm) und die obere (rs) Nasennnisehel, der untere (rnni), der mittlere [mnm) 
und der obere (/»//^) Xasengang zu sehen. Am hinteren Telle des kurzen und schiiialen 
hiatus semilunaris (lis) miindet die Kieferh()hle mit einer ovalen Offnung {<rm), ober- 
halb des vorderen Kiules des hiatus stMuilunaris (//,s) ist die U mm hohe, 7 mm breite 
und 4'.. mm langi- Stirnhuhle v.n sehen. 



Planche 68. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 1 an ^2- 

>/ sinus frontal, cen cellule ethmoidale anterieure, hs hiatus semilunaire, jm processus uncinatus 

om ostium du sinus maxillaire, mni meat inferieur, ci cornet inferieur, mnm meat moyen, cm cornet 

moyen, mns meat superieur, cs cornet superieur. 

Coupe sagittale d'une tete de 1 an l^ montrant apres section du cornet moyen 
{cm) la region de Ihiatus semilunaire [hs) et I'ostium du sinus frontal (sj). Sur la parol 
laterale de la fosse nasale on pent voir les cornets inferieur (ci), moyen (cm) et superieur 
(cs), les meats inferieur (mni), moyen (mnm) et supeiieur (mns). A la partie poste- 
rieure du court et etroit hiatus semilunaire (hs) s'ouvre le sinus maxillaire par une 
ouverture ovale (om); au-dessus de la partie anterieure de I'hiatas semilunaire (hs) 
on pent voir le smua frontal long de 9 millim. large de 7 millim. et haut de 4^2 iwiHiin- 



Plate 68. 

Natural size. — - Child of Xy^ 3'ears. 

.*•/ frontal sinus, cen anterior ethmoidal cell, hs semilunar hiatus, p?< uncinate process, om maxillary 
ostium, mni lower meatus, ci lower concha, mnm middle meatus, cm middle concha, mn>i upper 

meatus, cs upper concha. 

Longitudinal vertical section through the head of a child aged Pg years. The 
middle concha (cm) having been removed, the region of the semilunar hiatus (hs) 
with the opening of the frontal sinus (sj) is exj)osed. On the lateral ^all of the 
nasal fossa, the lower (ci). middle (cm) and upper (cs) concha, and the lower (mni), 
middle (mnin) and upper (m?i.s) meatus are visible. At the posterior extremity of 
the short and narro\\' semilunar hiatus (hs) is the oval aperture (om) of the maxillary 
antrum. Above the anterior end of the semilunar hiatus (hs) is the frontal sinus, 
measuring 9 mm in height, 7 mm in width and 41/2 mm in length. 



Tafel 68. 



cea sf 




cm mnm ci 



Tafel 69. 

Frontalschnitt. 

Natiirliche Grosse. - — 2 Jalire altes Kind. 



Plaiiche 69. 

Coupe frontale. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 2 ans. 



Plate 69. 

Coronal section. 

Natural size. — Child of 2 years. 



Tafel ()Q. 

N'atiirlii he (Jrt'issr. — 1' .laliiT altrs Kind. 

sf sinus frmitalis. ret rcllula ctliiuoiilalis antcTior. /^^■ liialus sciniliinaris. hr bulla ctlininidalis, pii 
nnn't'ssus tuic-inatus. r< coiu'lia superior, iiiiii mumIus uaiiiiiii supi'iior. on coiirlia media, ininn iiu^itus 
nariuin nu'<lius, ci coiiclia iufcrioi'. nnii meatus nariiim iureiior. 

Dvv Froutivlsc'lmitt (.'iiu^s 2 .luhvi' altcii Kopfes zeigt dcu uiitcrfu {nini), 
inittloRMi (innni) unci drn oboivii (;«;>*•) Xasengang, die untere (ci), mittlere {cm) und 
olu'iv ((•.>•) NasiMinuisi-lu'l. I in (u'bioto des liiatiis siMuiluiiaris (//,s), wolclion dcr ])ro- 
crssiis uminatus (/)//) uiul ilio l)ulla ctliinoidalis (Ix ) ])cgr('nzt, ist die Stiriih()hlo (sf) 
uiul dir vonlcu' Siobbrinzrllo {c(a) zu sohcii. Die Stirnhohle (sf) ist nUniin hoch, 
4 mm breit und .'? mm lang. sie miindot am vorchMVii (jbciTu VakIv dcs liiatus semi- 
hniaris (An). Die v^rdero ^'iebbeinzelle (cca) ist 5 mm hoch. 4 mm bicil und l)^ .^ mm 
lang, diese Zelle reieht von der SclinittflJiche noch 10 mm in den pro- 
cessus uncinatus {pit). 



Planche 69. 

Grandeur nature. - — Enfant de 2 ans. 

.t/ sinus frontal, cea cellule ethmoidale anterieure. hs liiatus scmilunaire, be bulle etliraoidale, pu pro- 
cessus uncinatus. cs cornet superieur, mns meat superieur, on cornet nioyen, mtim meat moyen, 

ci cornet inferieur. )nni meat inferieur. 

Coupe frontale dune tete de 2 ans montrant les meats inferieur (ynni), moyen 
(mum) et superieur (jiuis), les cornets inferieur (ci), moyen (cm) et superieur (cs). Dans 
la region de I'hiatus semilunaire (hs), qui est limitee par le processus uncinatus (pu) 
et la bulle ethmoidale (be) on peut voir le sinus frontal (sf) et la cellule ethmoidale 
anterieure. Le sinus frontal (sf) a 5^2 niillim. de haut, 4 millim. de large et 3 millim. 
de long; il s"ou%Te a Textremite antero-superieure de Thiatus semilunaire (hs). La 
cellule ethmoidale anterieure (cea) a 5 millim. de haut, 4 millim. de large et 3^ ^ "liHin^- 
de long. Cette cellule s'etend depuis le plan de la section encore 10 millim. dans le 
processus uncinatus (pu). 



Plate 69. 

Natural size. — Child of 2 years. 

sf frontal sinus, cea anterior ethmoidal cell, h-^ .semilunar hiatus, be ethmoidal bulla, pu uncinate 
process, cs- upper concha, 7nns upper meatus, cm middle concha, mnm middle meatus, ci lower 

concha, >nni lower meatus. 

Coronal section through the head of a child aged 2 years, shewing the lower 
(myii), middle (mnm) and upper (mns) meatus, and the lower (ci) middle (cm) and 
upper (cs) concha. The semilunar hiatus (hs) may be seen enclosed between the 
uncinate process (pu) and the ethmoidal bulla (he) and adjoining it. the frontal 
sinus (sf) and the anterior ethmoidal cell (cea). The frontal sinus (sf) is 514 mm 
high, 4 mm wide and 3 mm long ; it opens at the upper anterior extremity of the semi- 
lunar hiatus (hs). The anterior ethmoidal cell (cea) is 5 mm high, 4 mm wide and 
31 2 mni long. This cell extends into the uncinate process (pu) for a distance of 
10 mm below the plane of the section. 



Tafel 69. 




mm 



Tafel 70. 

Frontalschnitt. 

Natiirliche Grosse. — 2 Jahre altes Kind. 



Planclie 70. 

Coupe frontale. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 2 ans. 



Plate 70. 

Coronal section. 

Natural size. — Cliild of 2 years. 



Tafel 70. 

Natiirlit'ho (Jrosse. — l' .hilm- altcs Kind. 

.-•HI sinus inaxillaris. ci ; n-lUila i-tliinoulalis antorior. Ci\t cclhila otluiioulalis pustorior. \>v Imlla ctli- 

iitnkialis. \ni |iriKvssus niu'iiiatus. tunt meatus nariiim su|U'ri()r, r.- conclia superior. mn>n iiuitiis 

nariuiit niediiis. i-w eouelia media, ci eonelri inferior, mni meatus narium inferior. 

1 )cr l-'rontalschnitt ilcs 1 .Inlu'c altcii Kopfcs /cifft die lalcralc W'aiul der 
N;vs«-nlu>lilr. tlir iiittiMV (c/). dir inittli'iv {cm) und die obcrc (r.sj Miisclicl, den iiiitci-iMi 
{mm\. inittlrrcn (nnini) iind den oIutimi (nins) Xascnt^ang. Im Bririclu' dcr tiuU'reii 
M»is»-h«'I (rl) und drs inittltM-cn NasiMmaiitics (nnun) ist die KietVrholilt' (sw) zii schen 
nut iluvr Miindung in ik'U inittlcri'ii Xascii^ang {nnini) un hiatus semilunaris, wclchen 
der proci»ssus uneinatus (pii) iind die Imlla ethnioidalis (In) hcifrcnzt. Die Kiefer- 
hohlf (sm) ist \'2 mm lang. ;> mm lioih iind 7 mm bieit. Im Jiereichc des mittleren 
Naseniianges (nnnu) sind die vordereii Siebbeinzellen (cm), im Bereiche des oberen 
Niiscnganges (mns) ist die hintere iSiebbeiiizelle (cep) zu sehen. 



Planche 70. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 2 ans. 

sm sinus maxillaire, cen cellule ethmoidale anterieure, cep cellule ethmoidale posterieure, he buUe 
ethmoidalc. pu processus uneinatus, mns meat superieur, cs cornet superieur, mnm meat moyen, 
cm cornet moyen, ci cornet inferieur, mni meat inferieur. 

Coupe frontale d'une tete de 2 ans montrant la ])aroi laterale de la fosse nasale, 
les comets inferieur (ci), moyen (cm) et superieur (cs), les meats inferieur (mni), moyen 
(mnm) et superieur (mns). Au niveau du cornet inferieur (ci) et du meat moyen (mnm) 
on pent voir le sinus maxillaire (sm) avec son ostium dans le meat moyen (myim) au 
niveau de Thiatas semilunaire, qui est limite par le processus uneinatus (yu) et la 
bulle ethmoidale (he). Le sinus maxillaire (.5m) a 12 millim. de long, 9 millim. de haut 
et 7 millim. de large. Au niveau du meat moyen (mnm) on peut voir les cellules ethmoi- 
dales anterieures (cea) et au niveau du meat superieur (mns) la cellule ethmoidale 
posterieure (cep). 



Plate 70. 

Natural size. — Child of 2 years. 

.sm maxillary antrum, rei anterior ethmoidal cell, cep posterior ethmoidal cell, be ethmoidal bulla, 
pu uncinate process, mns upper meatus, cs upper concha, mnm, middle meatus, cm middle conclia, 

ci lower concha, mni lower meatus. 

Coronal section through the head of a child aged two years, shewing the lateral 
wall of the nasal fossa, the lower (ci), middle (cm) and upper (cs) concha, and the 
lower (mni), middle (mnm) and upper (mns) meatus. Adjoining the lower concha (ci) 
and the middle meatus (mnm) is the maxillary antrum (sm); this may be seen 
opening into the middle meatus (mnm) at the semilunar hiatus, which is enclosed 
between the uncinate process (pu) and the ethmoidal bulla (be). The maxillar}- 
antrum (.sm) is 12 mm long, 9 mm high and 7 mm wide. Near the middle meatus 
(mnm) the anterior ethmoidal cells (cea), near the upper meatus (mns) the posterior 
ethmoidal cell (cep) are shewn. 



Tafel 70. 



ce/> nms 




mm 



Tafel 71. 

Frontalschnitt. 

Natiirliche Grosse. — 2 Jahre altes Kind. 



Plaiiclie 71. 

Coupe frontale. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 2 ans, 



Plate 71. 

Coronal section. 

Natural size. — Child of 2 years. 



Tafel 71. 

Xatiirlifho (Jrosse. — L' .lalirc altcs Kind. 

.im .sinus inaxillaris. n i i-fllula etlimoidalis aiitorior, rip cclliihi ctlimoidalis posterior, <>■< ostium 

si>Iu'noiilal«\ <•< oonclia superior. nni< meatus uariuin superior, rw eimclia media, innm meatus 

narium uu'dius. ri eonclia inferior, imii me.ihH tiariiiin inferior. 

DiT Wroiitalsclmitt I'iiu-s 2 Jahro alten Ki)})l\'s zeigt die lalerale Wand dcr 
Ntiscnholile. dio untore (r/), die niittlere (cm) und die obere (cs) Nasenmuschel, den 
imtiTon (ttini). den niittleren (unint) nnd den oberen {mns) Nasengang, die Kiefer- 
hohle (stn). die vordere {rca) \iiul die hintere {rrp) Siel)beiir/,elle. Zwischen der oberen 
Nasejinnisehel (cs) und dent Xasendache ist das 1 mm weite ostium s|)lu'noidal(^ (os) 
zu sehen. Es fiihrt in die 7 mm breite, G mm liohe mid 5 mm lange Keilbeinliohle 



Planche 71. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 2 ans. 

sm sinus maxillaire. ce^i cellule etlimoidale anterieure. rep cellule ethmoidale posterieure, os ostium 
du sinus sphenoidal, cs cornet superieur. mns meat superieur, rm cornet moyen, mnm meat moyen, 

ci cornet inferieur. ntni meat inferieur. 

Cou])e frontale d'une tete de 2 ans montrant la ])ar()i laterale de la fosse nasale, 
les comets inferieur (ci) moyen (cm) et superieur (cs), les meats inferieur (nini) 
moyen (mnm) et superieur (mns), le sinus maxillaire (sm), la cellule ethmoidale an- 
terieure (cea) et la cellule ethmoidale posterieure (cep). Entre le cornet superieur (c.s)et 
le toit de la fosse nasale on peut voir I'ostium du sinus sphenoidal (os) large de 1 millim. 
II conduit dans le sinus sphenoidal large de 7 millim., haut de 6 millim. et long de 
5 millim. 



Plate 71. 

Natural size. — Child of 2 jears. 

sm maxillary antrum, ce/ anterior ethmoidal cell, cep posterior ethmoidal cell, os sphenoidal ostium, 
cs upper concha, mns upper meatus, cm middle concha, mnm middle meatus, ci lower concha, 

mni lower meatus. 

Coronal section through the head of a child aged 2 years, shewing the lateral 
wall of the nasal fossa, the lower (ci), middle (cm) and upper (cs) concha, and the 
lower (mni), middle (mnm) and upper meatus, the maxillary antrum (sm), anterior (cea) 
and posterior (cep) ethmoidal cells. Between the upper concha (cs) and the roof of the 
nasal fossa the sphenoidal ostium (os) may be seen. It is 1 mm \\ide and leads into 
the sphenoidal sinus which is 7 mm \\ ide, 6 mm high and 5 mm long. 



Tafel 71. 




ct mm 



Tafel 72. 

Sagittalschnitt. 

Natiirliche Grosse. — 2 Jahre altes Kind. 



Plaiiche 72. 

Coupe sagittale. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 2 ans. 



Plate 72. 

Longitudinal vertical section. 

Natural size. — Child of 2 years. 



Tafel 72. 

Xatiirlichc (liossc. — L* .lahrc altcs Kind. 

,</ sinus frontalis, rrn crlhila ftlmmiilalis antrrior. rep cclhila rtlimoidalis |)ostcnor, os ostium sjilio- 

noidalo. .<< sinus splu<noi<lalis. /i.« liiatus scMuilunaris, In bulla ctliuioidalis, pn processus uncinatus, 

nini nieutus nariuni inferior, ci eonolia inferior, nniiii meatus narium medius. rm concha media. 

mill meatus narium superior, cv concha superior. 

her SiVLrittaJM'hnil t eiiu's '2 ,l;ihiT iiltcii Kopt'cs /.ciift die iliisscre Wand dcr 
NasenliohU'. ileii iiiitei'eii (niiii). mittlereii (iiiinii) mid den obercii (mns) .Xaseiii^aiig, 
die imteiv (ri). ilio nuttleiv (cm) iiiid die diierc {cs) Naseiiniusclu'l. Durcli den \v<ig- 
m'falliMUMi Teil der nuttl(>ren Muselu'l [cm) ist das (iebiet des liialus semilunaris (/is) 
fivim*leiit. den hiatus seinilimaris {/is) beirvenzt dio India ethmoidalis (he) iind dor 
])rtH'essiis uneiiiatus (/;»). In der Keihetifoliie mui vorne iiach hiiiteii ist die Stirii- 
liohK' (si), die V(n-dere Siebbein/.elle (<'('(i), div hintcrc Siebbeinzellc (rep) mid die Keil- 
briiduihle (ss) in ilirer Lago unil Aiisbrcituug zii sclien. Die Stirnhohle (sj) ist 7 '4 "^ii 
li«H-h. .")'^ !nin lang mid .'i mm breit. sie miiiidet am Daclie des hiatus semihmaris (/is). 
])ie vordere Siebbeiuzelle (rca) ist 4^2 'nm laiig. 5 mm hoeli mid .'}'.> mm breit. ])ic 
hiiitere Siebl>einzelle ist 4 mm lang, o mm lioch und ^J mm breit. Die Keilbeinluilile 
(.s-.s) ist O'^ umi breit, 4 mm hoeh mid 4^2 i^^'i^ lang. Das ostium sphenoidale ist 1 mm 
w eit . 

Planche 72. 

Grandeur jiatme. Enfant de 2 ans. 

sf sinus frontal, rci cellule othmoklale anterieure. rep cellule ethmoidalo i)()sterieuro, os ostium du 
sinus sphenoidal. ••*v .sinus .sphenoidal, /is hiatus .semilunaire. he bulle ethmoidale. pii processus 
uncinatus. itini meat inferieur, ci cornet infericur. ninni meat moyen, cm cornet moyen. mns meat 

su])erieur. c-i cornet superieur. 

Coupe sagittale dime tete de 2 ans montrant hi paroi laterale de la. fosse nasale, 
les meats inferieur (nini), moyen (mnm) et suyieiienr (mns), les cornets inferieur (ci), 
moyen (cm) et sujierieur (cs). Par ral>hition dime partie du cornet nio3en (rm) la 
region de Thiatus semilunaire (fis) est mise a lui : Ihiatus semilunaire (hs) est limite 
par la bulle ethmoidale (be) et le processus uncinatus (pu). En allant d'en avant en 
arriere on peut voir le sinus frontal (sf), la cellule ethmoidale anterieure (cea), la cellule 
ethmoidale posterieure (cep) et le sinus sphenoidal. Le sinus frontal (sf) a une hauteur 
de 7' 2 niillim.. une longueur de o^.) millim. et une largeur de 3 millim.. il sVmvre 
an toit de I'liiatus semilunaire (/t-s). La cellule ethmoidale anterieure (cea) a 4' 2 niillim. 
de long. 5 millim. de haut et 3^2 miHii^i- de large. La cellule ethmoidale posterieure 
a 4 millim. de long. 5 millim. de haut et 3 millim. de large. Le sinus sphenoidal (.5.5) 
a 6^2 millim. de large, 4 millim. de haut, 4^2 niillim. de long. Son ostium a 1 millim. 
de large. 

Plate 72. 

Natural size. — Child of 2 years. 

6'/ frontal sinus, cen anterior ethmoidal cell, cep posterior ethmoidal cell, os sphenoidal ostium, 

ss sphenoidal sinus, /is semilunar hiatus, be ethmoidal bulla, pu uncinate process, rnni lower meatus, 

ci lower concha, jnnin middle meatus, cm middle concha, tuns upper meatus, c« upper conclia. 

Longitudinal vertical section through the head of a child aged 2 years, shewing 
the lateral wall of the nasal fossa, the lower (mni), middle (mnm) and upper (mns) 
meatus, and the lower (ci), middle (cm) and upper (cs) concha. Through the removal 
of part of the middle concha (cm), the region of the semilunar hiatus (hs) has been 
exposed; the .semilunar liiatus (/is) is enclosed between the ethmoidal bulla (be) and 
the uncinate process (pu). From before back\\'ards may be seen in their full extent 
the frontal sinus (sf), the anterior (cea) and posterior (cep) ethmoidal cell and the 
sphenoidal sinus (ss). The frontal sinus (sf) is 714 mm high, 51/9 mm long and 3 mm 
wide: it opens into the roof of the semilunar hiatus (/is). The anterior ethmoidal 
ceU (cea) is 414 mm long, 5 mm high and 3^4 mm wide. The posterior ethmoidal 
cell (cep) is 4 mm long. 5 mm high and 3 mm wide. The sphenoidal sinus (ss) is 
6t'2 mm wide, 4 mm liigh and 4^2 mm long. The sphenoidal ostium (os) is 1 mm wide. 



Tafel 72. 



cea cep 




be t 



Tafel 78. 

Sagittalschnitt. 

Natiirliche Grosse. — 3 Jahre altes Kind. 



Planche 73. 

Coupe sagittale. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 3 ans. 



Plate 78. 

Longitudinal vertical section. 

Natural size. — Child of 3 years. 



Tafel 71 

Xatiirliolu> Criissc. - a .lalirc Jiltos Kiiul. 
ff sinus frontalis, of ostium fR)iitaIi\ hx liintus scMiiluniiris. i>u proi-i'ssus uiuiiiatus, he iiulla 
cthiuoiilalis . rm condia lUfdia . mum meatus narium meciius. ri condia iiiferiur. )iini meatus 
nariuiu inferior, rrn eellula etlimoiilalis anterior, cry celluia etlinu)iclalis posterior, ci ci)nelia 
superior, i/i/k meatus narium superior. >.< sinus splienoidalis. 
Der Saiiittalst'luiitt oiiu's 3 .lahre alton K.()])f(\>< /eifit dio NasciilKililc iiihI die 
Nrbenluihleii v«m iimrn rroffiirt. Dio utitcrr Xasciimiischel {ci) ist gaii/ crhaltcii, 
ilit' mittleiv [ctu) uml ilie obere (r.s) Nasomuusclu'l ist ziiin Tcil weggefallcii, iiiitcr 
dtMi Mnsrholu ist dor iintore (inni), dor inittlcrc [niinn) mid dor obcre (nni.s) Xasen- 
iianii /u iiluM'sohon. ])uri>h don Wogfall ciiios Toilos di-r iiiittloroii Miisohol (cm) ist 
drt.s (Jebit't dos liiattis somilimaris (//.v) froigologt. wolohcr olion \()ii dor bulla oth- 
iHoidaUs (he), iintoii \on\ pnu-ossus unciiiatus (pii) l)oifroii/t ist. Die rochto Stirn- 
liohlo (sf) ist 11 mm laiiiz. 14 mm lioob iind ") mm l)roit. sio miindot mit oinor 
2', 2 nun liinirlitli ovalon Offmmi: (of) «in vordoi-stoii Eiulo dos hiatus somihiuaris 
(/ks). Dor oborsto 'IVil dor Stirnholdo (sf) orstrookt sioh im uiiteren Schu])])onteile 
de.*? Ntirnboincs. Dio vortloron (red) uiid die hinteren (cep) Siebbeinzellen sind 
G — 7 nun lanii und hcioli. '.i — 4 mm broit. Dio Aliindung; oiuor liiiitoron Siobboin- 
zclle (('(}>) in don oboron Xasongang (nnis). inner dio Miindung dor KoillKMnhohlo 
(.s.N-) und iliro Ausbroitung im Koiiboinkcirpor ist gut zu ii])orsohon. Dio rechte 
Koilbeinhohlo (ss) ist 9 mm broit, G mm lang iind 6 mm liueh, das ostium sphe- 
noiilalo ist 2 mm woit. 

Planche 73. 

(Jraiuloui' nature. — iMifant do 3 ans. 
.</ sinus frontal, o/ ostium du sinus frontal, /tv hiatus semilunaire. /.» processus uncinatus, be l)u!le 
cthmolilale, cm cornet moyen. tnnm meat moyen. ci cornet inferieur, mni meat inferieur. cpi 
cellule ethmoTdale anterieure. cep cellule ethmoidale posterieure. r< cornet suj)erieur. rnns meat 

superieur. .s.s- sinus sphenoidal. 
Coupe sagittak^ do \i\ tete d'tin enfant do 3 ans montrant k^ fosse nasale et les sinus 
ouverts. Le eornot inferieur (ci) est eom])letement conserve, les cornets moyen (cm) 
et superieur (cs) sont en partie enleve!^. Au dessous des cornets on voit les trois meats: 
le moat inferieur (mni), le meat moyen (myim) le meat superieur [mns). Par la section 
d'une i)artie du cornet moyen (cm) la region de I'hiatus semilunaire est devenue visible, 
limitoo en haut par la bulle ethmoidale et en bas par le pioeessus uncinatus. Le sinus 
frontal ch'oit (sj) est long de 11 millim. haut de 14 millim. et large de 5 millim. Son 
orifice (o/) long de 2^2 niillim. so trouve a la partie la plus avancee de I'hiatus semi- 
lunaire (hs). La partie la plus haute du sinus frontal (sj) se trouve dans la partie infe- 
rieure de la squame de I'os frontal. Les cellules ethmjidales anterieures (cea) et poste- 
rieures [cep) sont longues de 6 a 7 millim. et larges de 3 a 4 millim. On voit distincte- 
ment I'ouverture d'une cellule ethmoidale posterieure (cep) dans le meat superieur 
(mns) et I'ouverture du sinus sphenoidal (ss) et son developpement dans I'os sphe- 
noidal. Le sinus sphenoidal droit (ss) est large de 9 millim., haut de 6 millim. long de 
G millim. L'ostium sphenoidal a 2 millim. de largeur. 

Plate 73. 

Natural size. — Child of 3 years. 
sf frontal sinus, of frontal ostium, hs semilunar hiatus, pu uncinate process, he ethmoidal bulla, 
cm middle concha, mnm middle meatus, ci lower concha, mni lower meatus, cea anterior eth- 
moidal cell, cep posterior ethmoidal cell, cs upper concha, mns upper meatus, ss sphenoidal sinus. 

Longitudinal vertical section through the head of a child aged 3 years, shewing 
the nasal fossa and accessory .sinuses which have been opened up from their mesial surface. 
The lower concha (ci) has been preserved, but parts of the middle {cm) and upper 
{cs) conchae have been removed; below the conchae the lower (mni). middle (mnm), 
and upper (mns) meatus are seen. By the removal of part of the middle concha (cm) 
the region of the semilunar hiatus (hs) has been exposed; it is bounded above by 
the ethmoidal bulla (be), below by the uncinate process (pu). The right frontal 
sinus (sf) is 11 mm long. 14 mm high, and 5 mm wide; it communicates by an elongated 
oval opening (of) 2^^ ^^^^ wide with the anterior part of the semilunar hiatus (hs). 
The upper part of the frontal sinus (sf) extends into the lower squamous portion of 
the frontal bone. The anterior (cea) and posterior (cep) ethmoidal cells are 6 to 7 mm 
in length and in height, 3 to 4 mm in width. The opening of a posterior ethmoidal 
cell {cep) into the upper meatus (myis). the orifice of the sphenoidal sinus (ss), and 
the situation of this sinus in the body of the sphenoid bone are clearly visible. The 
right sphenoidal sinus (ss) is 9 mm wide. G mm long and G mm high; the .sphenoidal 
ostium is 2 mm in diameter. 



Tafel 73. 




mns Gi 



Tafel 74 

Sagittalschnitt. 

Natiirliche Grosse. — 3 Jahre altes Kind. 



Planclie 74. 

Coupe sagittale. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 3 ans. 



Plate 74. 

Longitudinal vertical section. 

Natural size. — Child of 3 years. 



Tafel 74. 

Natiirlirlu> (icussc. W .lalirc ;ilt cs Kind. 

.</ simis frontalis, cm cdiu'lia iiu-ilia. iiiiiin iihmIU'^ iiarium mcdius. c- / tclliil.i ct liiiuiidalis arih-rior, 
ct roiu-liii su|uTii>r. »/i»i< meatus iiariuin sii|n'rior. ri/i cclliila ct Iminidali^ inislciior, xx simis s|)lic- 

iioidalis. ov itstiiim splu'iioidalc 

Dor Sapitlivlsclmitt tMii»>s ;{ .lalirc altcn Kopfes stellt den korTesponduTotideii 
Sehititt (h-r Tivfi'l 73 dar. Mansit'ht diMt voii dcr mittlcrcMi XastMiiiuischoI (rm) bodccUton 
V(>rtlt'rst«Mi Tfil dcs mittlrrrn Nasciiiiaiiiios (iniini) mid in (IcmscllK'ii (mikmi slrcijcii- 
artiiZfit Tril dcr IvamcUc ilcr bulla ctlitiioidalis. (Jaiiz vornc ohcii ist ciii Ulciiicr Toil 
dcr Stiriiht.hlt' (sh zii si'licii. hiiitcr ihr liciit cine vordtM'c SicbhciiizcUc {era), wclche 
dirt'kt im rcccssiis Imllaris iiiiindct. wcldicr in dcr Tafcl dcntlich aiisgc])riiii;l ersclicint, 
diinn folycii zwci hiiitcrc Sicbbciii/>cllcn (rip), cine niiindct direkt breit ini obcren 
Xasengang (;h«,s). hn Korper des Keilbeines ist die Keilbeinhohle (.ss) mit ihrer Miin- 
dniiLr. das ostitini si)licn(tida!(^ (o.s) zti iilx^rscluMi. Die Maasse der Ncbcnlinhlcn sind 
in iler Tafel 73 erw iihnt . 



Planche 74. 

' Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 3 ans. 

sf sinus frontal, cm cornet moyen. mnm meat moyen. cr'i collule ethmoidale anterieure, cs cornet 
supt'rieur, tn/ii meat superieur. cep cellule ethmoidale posterieure, sv .sinus sphenoidal, os ostium 

du sinus sphenoidal. 

Coupe sagittale d'une tete d'un enfant de 3 ans correspond a la coupe de la 
planche 73. On voit la partie anterieure du meat moyen {mnm) recouverte par le 
cornet moyen (cm), et dans ce meat une partie de la lame de la bulle ethmoidale. 
Tout a fait en avant et en haut on voit encore une petite partie du sinus frontal 
[sf). Derriere le sinus se trouve une cellule ethmoidale anterieure {cea) (jui s'ou\Te 
directement dans le recessus buUaris tres marque stir la planche. Suivent ensuite 
deux cellules ethmoidales posterieures {cep), dont une s'ouvre directement dans le meat 
nasal superieur {mns). Dans le corps de I'os sphenoidal on voit le sinus sphenoidal 
{s$) avec son orifice {os). Les mesures des sinus sont mentionnees sur la planche 73. 



Plate 74. 

Natural size. — Child of 3 years. 

sf frontal sinus, cm middle concha, mnm middle meatus, cei anterior ethmoidal cell, cs upper 
concha, mns upper meatus, cep posterior ethmoidal cell, ss sphenoidal sinus, os sphenoidal ostium. 

This section, a longitudinal vertical section through the head of a child aged 
3 years, corresponds to the one figured on Plate 73. The anterior portion of the 
middle meatus {mnm) is shewn, overhung by the middle concha (cm); in the meatus 
a narrow strip of the lamina of the ethmoidal bulla is visible. At the upper anterior 
extremity of the nasal fossa a small part of the frontal sinus {sf) may be recognised; 
behind this is an anterior ethmoidal cell (cea) which communicates freely with the well- 
marked bullar recess; still further backwards are two posterior ethmoidal cells (cep), 
one of which opens directly into the upper meatus {mns). Within the body of the 
sphenoid bone lies the sphenoidal sinus (ss) with its orifice, the sphenoidal ostium (os). 
The measurements of the sinuses are given in the description of Plate 73. 



Tafel 74. 




TaM 75. 

Froiitalsclinitt. 

Natiirliche Grosse. — 3 Jahre altes Kind. 



Plaiiclie 75. 

Coupe iroiitale. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 3 ans. 



Plate 75. 

Coronal section. 

Natural size. — Child of 3 rears, 



Tafel 75, 

Nivtiirlichp Oritsse. — !> Julin* altos Kind. 

>7 sinus fritnlalis. cii I'ellul.i cthmoiilalis anterior. fi< hiatus scmilun.iris. hr Imlli ct hmoidalis. pii 
jtn>ces-iU.«J unc'iuatus. ihtl »lui't\is nasolarriniali-*. ri cKiu'ha iiifc'rior. iniii iiii it ih nariiim inferior. 

l)t>r Frontivlsi'hiiitt oim's !^ .liilno altoii Kopfcs li;it drii vonU'rcu Tcil dor 
Stiriih')lilo (.n7) V(ir dom hiatu.^ somiliiiiari.s (hs) gotrofft-ii. Dio linko Stirnliulilc (sf) 
ist nun broit, 10 nun lang und IS mm hoch. sio miindet mit einer 2'4 mm liinglich 
ovalon Offinmg am obor.sten Telle dos hiatus semihniaris. wclchor von dor bulla otli- 
moidalis (/><) luid vom processus luicinatus (pu) begrcnzt ist. Die unterhalb der Stirn- 
huhle (si) siehtbare vordere Siebbeiii/.elle {cia) erstreekt sicli 7 mm weit in den ])ro- 
eessus uneinatus (pu). Xahe dem CJel)iete des mittleren Xasengange-s ist in einer Liinge 
von 1(1 mm dt>r iluetus nasolacrimalis (dnl) zu selien. 



Planche 75. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 3 ans. 

*/ sinus frontal, ce^ cellule etlimoklale anterieure, hs hiatus semilunaire. be bulle ethmoidale, 
pu processus uneinatus, dnl conduit nasolacrymal, ci cornet inferieur, mni meat inferieur. 

Coupe frontale de la tete d'un enfant de 3 ans, passant par la partie anterieure 
du sinus frontal (sf) au-devant de Thiatus semilunaire (hs). Le sinus frontal gauche (sf) 
est large de 6 millim. long de IG millim. et haut de 18 millim. Le sinus s'ouvre par 
un orifice ovalaire de 2^2 millim. de long dans la partie superieure de I'hiatus semi- 
lunaire. qui est limitee par la bulle ethmoidale (6c) et le processus uneinatus (pu). 
Au-dessus du sinus frontal (sf) on voit une cellule ethmoidale anterieure (cea), qui, 
sur une longueur de 7 millim., avance dans le processus uneinatus (pu). Pres du meat 
moyen le conduit nasolacrymal (dnl) est ouvert sur une longueur de 10 millim. 



Plate 75. 

Natural size. — Child of 3 years. 

sf frontal sinus, cei anterior ethmoidal cell, hi semilunar hiatus, be ethmoidal bulla, pu uncinate 
process, dnl nasal duct, ci lower concha, tnni lower meatus. 

Coronal section through the head of a child aged 3 years, traversing the anterior 
part' of the frontal sinus (sf) in front of the semilunar hiatus (hs). The left frontal 
ainus (sf) is 6 mm wide, 16 mm long, and 18 mm high. It opens into the top of the 
semilunar hiatus by an elongated oval orifice, 2 14 mm wide. The semilunar hiatus 
is enclosed between the ethmoidal bulla (be) and the uncinate process (pu). Below 
the frontal sinus (sf) is an anterior ethmoidal cell (cea) which extends into the uncinate 
process (pu) for a distance of 7 mm. Adjoining the middle meatus a part of the nasal 
duct (dnl), 10 mm long, is visible. 



Tafel 75. 




Tafel 76. 

Frontalschnitt. 

Natiirliche Grosse. — 3 Jahre altes Kind. 



Planche 76. 

Coupe frontale. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 3 ans. 



Plate 76. 

Coronal section. 

Natural size. — Child of 3 years. 



Tafel 7(). 

Nivliirlirlio (Irossr. — .') -hihrc alios Kind. 

n cMiirlia inftTior. viut iiu'alus iiarium iiift'rior. •• //( sinus inaxillaris. rut conclia media. ////(/// meatus 
nariuni ni(Hliu.>«. r.v conelia s»i|icri<ir, )iiii-< meatus nariuni su|)erit)r, mi ceilula cllmKiidaiis aiileiior. 

i-t J, ceilula ethmoidalis posterior. 

I )('r I-'r(Hit;ilschiiit t ciiu's ;> .lahrc altcii K()])f('s /.(Mift die latcralc Xa.scu- 
hohlrnwaiul mit <lfm untrrcn (niiii). luittk'i't'n {iiniiii) imd oberen {rnns) Nasengang, 
niit dor unttTen (cl). inittloroii (cm) und oberen {cs) Nasenmuscliel. An deni Sehnitte 
sind die vorderen (cca) und hinteren (ccp) Siebbeinzellen und die Kieferhohle (sm) 
getroffen. Die linke Kieferhi)hle {sm) ist 23 mm lang, 13 mm breit und 13 mm lioch, 
miiiuleL iin liinteren Teile des hiatus scniiluiiaris. 



Planche 76. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 3 ans. 

CI cornet infcrieur. mni meat inf^rieur, sm sinus maxillaire, cm cornet moyen, mnm meat moyen, 
c-s cornet superieur. 7/ms^ meat suporieur. cp'i cellule ethmoTdale anterieure, ccp cellule etlunoidale 

posterieure. 

Coupe frontale d'une tete de 3 ans montrant la paroi laterale de la fosse nasale 
avec les meats inferieur {inni). moyen [mnm), superieur [mns) et les cornets inferieur [ci), 
moyen (cm), superieur (cs). On voit sur la coupe les cellules ethmoidales anterieures [cea) 
et posterieures (cep) et le sinus maxiUaire {sm). Le sinus maxillaire gauche {sm) est 
haut de 13 millim., large de 13 millim. et long de 23 millim. II s'ou\Te dans la 
partie posterieure de Ihiatus semilunaire. 



Plate 76. 

Natural size. — Child of 3 years. 

ci lower concha, mni lower meatus, am maxillary antrum, cm middle concha, mnm middle meatus, 
cs upper concha, mns upper meatus, cea anterior ethmoidal cell, cej) posterior ethmoidal cell. 

Coronal section through the head of a child aged 3 years, shewing the lateral 
Avail of the nasal fossa, with the lower {mni) middle (mnm), and upper (mns) meatus, 
and the lower (ci), middle (cm), and upper (cs) concha. The section has opened up 
the anterior (cm) and posterior (cep) ethmoidal cells and the maxillary antrum {sm). 
The left maxillary antrum (.sm) is 23 mm long, 13 mm wide, and 13 mm high. It 
opens into the posterior portion of the semilunar hiatus. 



Tafel 76. 




Tafel 77. 



lioiitgeiiaufiiulime. 



Naturliche Grosse. — Schadel eines S'gjahr. Kindes. 



Planclie a. 

Radiogramme. 

Grandeur nature. - Crane d"un enfant de 3 ans Va* 



Plate 77. 



Sldagram. 



Natural size. — Skull of child 3' '2 years old. 



Tafel 77. 

Xaliivliche Grdsse. — [Srhiidcl i-iiics .'}'., jlihi'. Kiiules. 
■/'/ sinus frontalis dexter, /v sinus frontalis sinister. 

])ie Figiir ilhustriert die Rontgenaufiuihinc der 8tirnhohlen eines 3' 2 Jalirc alten 
Schiidels. Beide Stirnhohlen (sfd, sfs) erstrecken sich in einer Aiisdehnung von 6 mm 
in dcr liori/ontalou und in der vertikalen IJiehtuno; ini Schuppenteile des Stirnbeines 



Planche 77. 

Grandeur nature. — Crane d'un enfant de 3 ans ^A,. 
ffil sinus frontal droit, a/x : iiuis frontal gauche. 

La figure montre le radiogramme des sinus frontaux d'un crane de 3 ans 14 • 
Les deux sinus {sfd, sfs) ont une etendue de 6 niillim. dans la direction horizontale 
et verticale de la squame de I'os frontal. 



Plate 77. 

Natural size. — 8kull of child 3I/2 years old. 
sfd right frontal sinus, sfs left frontal sinus. 

Skiagram shewing the frontal sinuses of the skull at 3^4 J'ears of age. Both 
frontal sinuses [sfd, sfs) extend into the squamous part of the frontal bone for a 
distance of 6 mm in the horizontal and vertical direction. 



Tafel 77. 




Tafel 78. 

Frontalschnitt. 

Naturliche Grosse, — SVa Jahre altes Kind. 



Planche 78. 

Coupe frontale. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 3 an '/-• 



Plate 78. 

Coronal section. 

Natural size. — Child of 3 '/a years. 



Tafel 78. 

N;itiirli«.'lu' CirOssc. :> ' ^ .lalirt' altcs Kind. 

.«/ simis frontalis, rf rpcossus frontalis, of ostium frontali-. h^ hiatus seniiluuaris. jni |)roc'ossus un- 
cinatus. a i rt-ilula rtlnuoitlalis anterior, cj' cont'li i inferior, rni concli i media, nni < miMtus narium 

superiiir. r< eoneiia superior. 

Dor Frontjvlseltnitt de.-* .'J'^ .Itihro altcMi Kopfcs ist etwas schrilijf gcfiilirt nnd 
zeict dns fri*igolt\iitr (JoMot do.>< Itiatiis seniilimaris (/is). l)('f;r(Mi7,t voiii ])r()cesHus mi- 
ciiuvtiis (pit), die dtin'h.><chiultiM\('ii Tcilc dor untcrcii (ri). inilllcrcn (cm) mul der oboren 
(rs) Nasfiimnsi-hel. o'lucn Toil dcs mitcirn, inittlcrcii iiiul olxucn (/tins) Nascii^iiuges, 
die Stirnhohh' (si) mid die vonlcrc SieMx'iir/.ellc (na). Obcrhall) dcs liialus scini- 
liiiKvris (hs) ist der si-hniale reccssus frontalis (//) ym schcii, wo die Stiriih()hle mit 
eiiuT liiiiglich ovaleu Offiuiiig (of) nuiiidet. Die Stinihohle (sj) ist <> mm laiig. (P^ '""^ 
hoch und 5 mm breit. Die vordere Siebbeinzelle (cea) ist 8 mm lang. (5 mm hocli uiid 
4 mm breit mid erstreckt sich in deti ])rocessus unciiiatus (pu). 



Planche 78. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant uc o mm y^- 

•»7 sinus frontal, r/ reces.sus frontal, o/ ostium du sinus frontal, /(s liiatus semilunaire, />« processus 
uncinatus, ci i cellule ethmoklale anterieure. ci cornet inferieur, cm cornet mo^'en, mnn m6at su- 

p^rieur, cs cornet super ieur. 

Coupe frontale d'une tete de 3 ans 14. legerement oblique et montrant la 
region mise a nu de Ihiatus semilunaire (lis), limitee par le processus uncinatus (/jm), 
la partie sectionnee des cornets inferieur (ci), moyen (cm) et superieur (cs), une partie 
des meats inferieur, moyen et superieur (mns), le sinus frontal et la cellule ethmoidale 
anterieure (cm). Au-dessus de I'hiatus semilunaire (hs) on pent voir I'etroit recessus 
frontal (r\) ou s"ouvre le sinus frontal par un ostium ovalaire allonge (0/). Le sinus 
frontal a (i millim. de long. 6^2 millim. de haut et 5 millim. de large. La cellule 
ethmoidale anterieure (cm) a 8 millim. de long. 6 millim. de haut et 4 millim. de large; 
elle s'etend jusque dans le processus uncinatus (/>?/). 



Plate 78. 

Natural size. — Child of 3^^ years. 

«/ frontal sinus, r\ frontal rece.ss. 0/ frontal ostium, A 9 semilunar hiatus, jm uncinate process, 
ccn anterior ethmoidal cell, ci lower concha, cm middle concha, mns upper meatus, a upper concha. 

Section through the head of a child aged 3^ years, cut in a plane slightly 
oblique to the coronal. The section shews the region of the semilunar hiatus (hs), 
bounded by the uncinate process (pu), the cut surfaces of the lower (ci), middle (cm) 
and upper (cs) conchae, part of the lower, middle and upper (mns) meatus, the frontal 
sinus (s\) and anterior ethmoidal cell (cca). Above the semilunar hiatus (hs) the narrow 
frontal recess (r/) is visible, together with the elongated oval aperture (o/) of the 
frontal sinus. The frontal sinus (.§/) is 6 mm long. GU "^"^ high and 5 mm wide. The 
anterior ethmoidal cell (cea) is 8 mm long, 6 mm high and 4 mm Avide, and extends 
into the uncinate process (pu). 



Tafel 78. 




Tafel 79. 

Frontalschnitt. 

Naturliche Grosse. — 3% Jahre altes Kind. 



Plaiiclie 79. 

Coupe frontale. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 3 ans^^. 



Plate 79. 

Coronal section. 

Natural size. — Child of 3^2 years. 



Tafel 79. 

Xjvtiirlirlio (Jrossi*. — IP ^ •I'l'l"'*' :ilt«'s Iviiul. 

.•>m sums inaxillaris. oni ostium maxillaro. n i ci-Ilula cllmioidilis anterior, n it rcliula ttliiiioi(lalin 

jHistorior. /"' |>roi-fssvis um-iiiatus. //(/)/ incattis naiiiiiii iiift-rior. ri concha interior, iiniin nicattis 

naiiiiin inftliiis. rm coiiclia mctlia. iinx meatus nariuni sujieiior. r; eoticlia superior. 

\h'V Fnmtalsi'liMitt dt-s '.\K, .lahrc iiltcii Kopt'cs /.<M<:t die latcralr W'aiitl dcr 
Nivsonlu'tlilf. i\r\\ iiiiteri'ii (iinii). dcii iiiit t Icrcn (nnini) mid dcii dlicrcii (/////.s) Xasen- 
giwig, die unti'iv (vi), die mittlefe (rm) imd die obere (cs) Nasciiiniisclicl. die Kiefer- 
hohle (sm), die vordere {cea) mid die hiiitere (cep) Siebbeinzellc. hn inittleren Naseu- 
gange (ninni) ist der processus mieinatiis {pu] mid der hintere 'J'etl des liiatus semi- 
lunaris zu sehen. wo die Kieferhdhle (s///) iniiiulet. Diireli das ostium maxillarc: (o/n) 
ist eine Borste gezogeii. Dii- Kiet\'rhrilde (v///) ist 2() mm laiiLj, 1.'} mm lioeli mid 12 mm 
breit. 



Planche 79. 

(iratidi-iir uatuie. — Enfant de 3 ans i/,- 

>/H sinus niaxillaire. om ostium du sinus maxillaire, ce i cellule ethmoidale anterieure, rep cellule 

ethiiioldale posterieure. {lU processus uncinatus. mni meat inferieur, ri cornet inferieur, tnntn meat 

moyen, cm cornet moyen, nnis meat superieur, cs- cornet superieur. 

Coupe frontale d'une tete de 3 ans ^2 iwontrant la parol laterale de la fosse 
nasale, les meats inferieur {mni). moyen {mnm) et superieur (mns), les cornets in- 
ferieur (ci). moyen (cm) et su])erieur (cs). le sinus maxillaire (sm), les cellules ethmo- 
idales anterieure (cea) et posterieure (cep). Dans le meat moyen (mnm) on peut voir le 
processus inicinatus (pu) et la partie posterieure de Ihiatus semilunaire, ou s'ouvre 
le sinus maxillaire (sm). A travers I'ostium du sinus maxillaire (o?n) est passe un crin. 
Le sinus maxillaire (sm) a 26 millim. de long. 13 millim. de haut et 12 millim de large. 



Plate 79. 

Natural size. — Child of 3^2 years. 

fm maxillary antrum, om maxillary ostium, cei anterior ethmoidal cell, cep posterior ethmoidal 

cell, pu uncinate proces.s, mni lower meatus, ci lower concha, mnm middle meatus, cm middle 

concha, mns upper meatus, cs upper concha. 

Coronal section through the head of a child aged 3^2 .years, shewing the lateral 
wall of the nasal fossa, the lower (mni), middle (mnm) and upper (mns) meatus, the 
lower (ci), middle (cm) and upper (cs) concha, the maxillary antrum (sm), anterior (cea) 
and posterior (cep) ethmoidal cells. In the middle meatus (mnm) the uncinate 
process (pu) and the back part of the semilunar hiatus with the opening of the maxillary 
antrum (sm) can be seen. A bristle has been passed through the maxillary ostium (om). 
The maxillary antmm (sm) is 26 mm long, 13 mm high and 12 mm wide. 



Tafel 79. 




cep 



Tafel 80. 

Frontalschnitt. 

Natiirliche Grosse. — SVs Jahre altes Kind. 



Planche 80. 

Coupe frontale. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 3 ans '/a 



Plate 80. 

Coronal section. 

Natural size. - Child of 3V 2 years. 



Tafel 80. 

XatiJrlic'lu' (Jrosse. — .'P^ •'ji'lii*' allcs Kind. 

,sF/i simis maxillaris, n i rcllula ctlimoidalis aiitiMior, ci /; cclliila ct Inmiidalis posti'iioi', os' ostium 

splu'iuMilalf. "I'll nuMtus iiariiiin infcricir, ri coiu'lia iiifcrinr. iiniin mumIms nariiiiii nicdiii-^. riii^ 

I'oiu'lia m('<lia. niiii mt'atns nariiiiu siipciini-. <• . cniiclia siipciinr. 

\hv I'r.iutalsiliiiitt dcs .'{'^ .lalirc ultni i\()|)fcs zciij;! die lateral*' \\;viid dcr 
NasiMiholiir. den iintcrcM (nnii). den inittU'rcii (nnini) imd den oIhtcm (inns) Xascn- 
gjvniz. dit' MMtoiv {ci). mittlcrc (r//*) uiid die olx'vc (r.s) Xasciimuschcl. din Ki('i'('i'h()lil(^ 
(,s-m). dif \(>rdt'ivii (rra) uiul hintt-JHMi (rr;)) Sicbhciir/cilcii mid das ostium sphoiioidalo 
(().s-). ill) Hm'ic-lio drs imtiMvii {nini) mid mitth'rcii {nin in) Xasciigaiigos ist dcr hinteroTeil 
dor Kioforln'thlf (•■>''") sirhthar. i)i(' NoidiMcii Sichlx-inzcilcu (red) sind (5 — S nun lang, 
S'., — ") nun luH'li mid .'{ — 4 mm hrcit. Die liinti'rcn Sicblx'inzoilcn (ccj)) sind () — II mm 
lung. ") — () mm liocli iind ^{'2 — 4 nun hrcit. In dcr H(')he dcs oboron Nasengangos 
{nith'<) ist das ' .j mm wcitc ostium sphenoidale (os) y.u schen, welches in die 7 mm 
breite, G nun hohc und ") mm lange Keilheinhohle tiihrt. 



Planche 80. 

Grandeur nature. — Knfant de 3 ans l^- 

.<Hi sinus maxillaire. cci cellule ethnioidale anterieure. rep cellule ethmoidale postericure, os ostium 
du sinus sphenoidal, 7ti7ii meat inferieur, ri cornet inferieur, nmm meat moyen, cm cornet moyen, 

Dins meat .superieiir, rs cornet superieur. 

Coupe fronlale (rune tcte de 3 ans '2 inontrant la jiaroi hxterale de hi fosse 
nasale. les meats inferieur (mni), moyen (mum) et sui)erieur (mns), les cornets in- 
ferieur (ci), moyen (cm) et superieur (cs), le sinus niaxiUaire (sm), les cellules ethmo- 
idales anterieures (cea) et posterieures (cep) et I'ostium du sinus sphenoidal (os). Au 
niveau des meats inferieur (mni) et moyen (mnm) la partie posterieure du sinus maxil- 
laire (sm) est visible. Les cellules ethmoidales anterieures (cea) ont de 6 a 8 millim. de 
long, de 3'., a 5 millim. de haut et de 3 a 4 millim. de large. Les cellules ethmo- 
idales ])osterieures (cep) ont de 6 a 11 millim. de long, de 5 a 6 millim. de liaut et de 
3^2 ^1 4 nu'llim. de large. Au niveau du meat superieur (mns) on pent voir rostium du 
sinus sphenoidal large de ^2 milhui. (os), qui conduit dans le sinus sphenoidal large 
de 7 millim. haut de 6 millim. et long de 5 millim. 



Plate 80. 

Natural size. - — Child of 3^2 years. 

sm maxillary antrum, cea anterior ethmoidal cell, cep ])osterior ethmoidal cell, o? sphenoidal 
o.stium. mni lower meatus, ci lower concha, mnm middle meatus, on middle c(jncha, mns upper 

meatus, a upper concha. 

Coronal section through the head of a child aged 3^ years, shewing the lateral 
wall of the nasal fossa, the lower (mni), middle (mnm.) and upper (mns) meatus, the 
lower (ci). middle (cm) and upper (cs) concha, the maxillary antrum (sm). anterior (cea) 
and posterior (cep) ethmoidal cells and sphenoidal ostium (os). Adjohiing the lower 
(mni) and middle meatus (myim) the back part of the maxillary antrum (sm) is visible. 
The anterior ethmoidal cells (cea) are 6 to 8 mm long, 31/2 to 5 mm high and 3 to 
4 mm wide. The posterior ethmoidal cells (cep) are 6 to 11 mm long, 5 to 6 mm 
high and 3' 2 to 4 mm wide. On a level with the upper meatus (mns) can be seen 
the sphenoidal ostium (os), an aperture Vo mm wide; it leads into the sphenoidal 
sinus, which is 7 mm wide, 6 nun high and 5 mm long. 



Tafel 80. 




sm mm 



Tafel 81. 

Sagittalschnitt. 

Natiirliche Grosse. — Schadel eines S'gjahr. Kindes. 



Plauclie 81. 

Coupe sagittale. 

Grandeur nature. — Crane d'un enfant de 3 ans V2- 



Plate 81. 

Longitudinal vertical section. 

Natural size. — Skull of child 3V2 years old. 



Tafel 81. 

Nat iirliclu' (Jii')sso. — .'{'._, .laliic allcs Kind 

r/ sinus frontalis, n i cvllula rtlimoidalis antoritir. n i> crliula cthinoidalis posti-rior. //< hiatus semi- 
lunaris, /)>( jinnvssus unciiuitus. ov ostium s|)licnoi(la!i', vs- sinus splu-iioidalis. rin coiu'lia media, 
tinnii nu'atus narium medius. iiiii-< meatus uaiium suiierinr. 

lh>r Siiijittalschiiitt cU's ."{'^ Jaluv altrii KoptVs y.v[<i{ dvu 7 nun Imlicn, "> iniii 
luiigen iiiul 4 mm broitoii recessus frontalis (//). wclchor mil scinciu wcilcii nntcicn 
Toil v«»r (lom hiivtiis semilunaris (//.s-) liogt. Ix'uicii/.t von dcm ])roc('ssiis uncinatiis 
(/>») iinil drn vorilrrrn SirbhiMn/.clliMi (rcfi). Am Schnitto ist die vcrschicdcn grosso 
Aiislin'ituniz ilrr rinzolnon Sit'Ubciir/.clhMi. die Idciiic K<'ill)('iidi()lil(' (s's). die mittlere 
(ctii) Miisclicl. drr mittlrro {nnnii) tind i.{vv nltcrc (nins) Xas('ii(fa.n}^ zii sclicii. Die 
vordiMvn SirbluMnzollt'ii (cai) sind ;"> — 1 1 mm luuh iP^ 7 mm lucit uiid .'} — (i mm laiij^'. 
])io hintoriMi SioblHMnzellen (ccp) sind :>' ^ ".• mm laiijf. :P ^ 10 mmhoch und3 — 11 mm 
breit. Die Keilbeinhohle (i^s) ist 7 mm bieit. 4'omm lioch tind 3^2 nm^ lang. sie 
miindft mit ciiuT 1'., mm wcitcii Offimiiuf (o.s), dctn ostiiitn sphenoidale. 



Planche 81. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 3 ans ].,■ 

rf recessus frontal, cea cellule ethmoidale anterieure, cep cellule ethmoidale posterieure, /^s liiatu.s 

seiuilunairc. pu ]irocessus uncinatus. os ostium du sinus sphenoidal, '-•■s' sinus sphonoi'dal, cm comet 

nioven. mnm meat moyen, mn^ meat suj)erieur. 

Cou])e sagittate dime tete de 3 ans ^ ^ niontrant le recessus frontal (/•/) haut 
de 7 millim., long de 5 millim. et large de 4 millim., dont la large partie inferieure se 
trouve au-devant de Thiatus semilunaire [hs) limite par le processus uncinatus {pu) 
et les cellules ethmoidales anterieures. Sur la coupe on pent voir les differentes dimen- 
sions de chaque cellule ethmoidale. le petit sinus s])henoTdal {ss). le cornet moyen (cu}). 
les meats moyen (mnni) et superieur (mns). Les cellules ethmoidales anterieures (cea) 
ont de 5 a 11 millim. de haut. de 3^2 '^ ^ millim. de large et de 3 a millim. de long. 
Les cellules ethmoidales posterieures {cep) ont de 3^2 3; 9 millim. de long, de 3% a 
10 millim. de haut et de 3 a 11 millim. de large. Le sinus sphenoidal (ss) a 
7 millim. de large, 4V2 millim. de haut et 3^2 millim. de long, il s'ouvre ])ar un 
ostium large de 1^ > millim. (o.s). 



Plate 81. 

Natural size. — Child of 314 years. 

rf frontal recess, cea anterior ethmoidal cell, cep posterior ethmoidal cell, lis semilunar hiatus. 
pu uncinate process, os sphenoidal ostium. .'*« sphenoidal sinus, cm middle concha, mnm middle 

meatus, mns upper meatus. 

Longitudinal vertical section through the head of a child aged 3^2 years, shewing 
the frontal recess (rf). which is 7 mm high, 5 mm long and 4 mm A^ide. Its wieder in- 
ferior portion lies in front the semilunar hiatus (hs) and is enclosed between the uncinate 
process {pu) and the anterior ethmoidal cells (cea). The section illustrates the varia- 
tions m size of the individual ethmoidal cells, the small sphenoidal sinus {ss). the 
middle concha {cm) and the middle (inn^n) and ujjper (mns) meatus. The anterior 
ethmoidal cells (cep) are 5 to 11 mm high. 3^2 to 7 mm wide and 3 to 6 mm long. 
The i^osterior ethmoidal cells (cep) are 3'/2 to 9 mm long, 3^2 to 10 mm high and 
3 to 11 mm wide. The spenoidal sinus (ss) is 7 mm wide, 4^2 n^in liigli and 3^2 '^ni 
long. Its opening, the sphhenoidal ostium {os), is l^o mm wide. 



Tafe/ 81. 



cep OS 




cea cep 



It mm cm 



Tafel 82. 

Sagittalschnitt. 

Natiirliche Grosse. — 6 Jahre altes Kind. 



Planche 82. 

Coupe sagittale. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 6 ans. 



Plate 82. 

Longitudinal vertical section. 

Natural size. — Child of 6 years. 



Tafel 82. 

Nat iirliclif (Jrossc — (1 .lalirc allcs Kind. 

sf sinus frontalis, o/ ostiiun Irontale. /<>•• hiatus seniiluuaris, pii processus uiuiriatus. rci ccllula cth- 

nioidalis anterior, si saecus laeiinialis. 

l)rr SauMttalsflmitt ciiu's (> -laliic altcii Kopfcs '/.vl^^i die St irnlitthlc (.s/), 
die voi-iK-riMi SicltluMH/clliMi {nd). I'iiuMi Toil des Triiiu'iisackcs (.s7). den liiatus seiiii- 
hmaris (/(.s) iind dcii processus imcitiatiis (pi(). lYw liiikc Stinilu'thlc (.s/) ist i;{ inin 
liiiig. IS mm hoch uiul 12 mm bri'it. ilirc Miiiidunij (of) li('(j;t am vordcrstcii i^^iidc des 
hiiitiis semilunaris {li-s). welche der processus uiicinatiis (pit) be<^reuzt. N'or dem 
imtersten Teile der Stirnhohle (sf) ist ein Teil des Triinensackes (67) zu sehen. Die 
vordereii Siebbeinzelleii zei^ren oiue Aiis1)reitiing von 8 — -11 mm Hohe, 5 — G mm 
Liiuiie imd mm Jireite. 



Planche 82. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 6 ans. 

ff sinus frontal, of ostium du sinus frontal. /( •; hiatus serailunaire. pu processus uncinatus, cei 
cellule ethmoidale anterieure, d sac lacrymal. 

Coupe sagittale d'une tete de 6 ans montrant le sinus frontal (sf) les cellules eth- 
moidales antcrieures (cca), une partie du sac lacrymal (si), I'hiatus semilunaire (hs) et le 
processus micinatus (pu). Le sinus frontal gauche (sf) est long de 13 millim., haut de 
IS millim.. large de 12 millim. Son ouverture (of) se trouve dans la partie anterieure de 
rhiatus semilunaire (hs) limitee par le processus uncinatus (pu). Au-dessous du sinus 
fiontal (.s/) on voit une partie du sac lacrymal (si). Les cellules ethmoidales anterieures 
out une hauteur qui varie entre 8 et 11 millim., une longueur de 5 a 6 millim. et 
une largeur de 6 millim. 



Plate 82. 

Natural size. — Child of 6 years. 

sf frontal sinus, of frontal ostium, hs semilunar hiatus, pu uncinate process, ce'i anterior ethmoidal 

cell, d lachrymal sac. 

Longitudinal vertical section through the skull of a child aged 6 years, shewing 
the frontal sinus (sf), the anterior ethmoidal cells (cea), part of the lachrymal sac (si), 
the semilunar hiatus (hs) and the uncinate process (pu). The left frontal sinus (sf) is 
13 mm long, 18 mm high, and 12 mm wide. Its orifice (of) opens into the anterior 
end of the semilunar hiatus (hs), which is bordered by the uncinate process (pu). 
In front of the lower portion of the frontal sinus (sf) part of the lachrymal sac 
(si) is visible. The anterior ethmoidal cells measure 8 to 11 mm in height, 5 to 
6 mm in length and 6 mm in width. 



Tafel 82. 




pU I 



Tafel 83. 

Sagittalschnitt. 

Natiirliche Grosse. — 6 Jahre altes Kind. 



Plaiiclie 83. 

Coupe sagittale. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 6 ans. 



Plate 83. 

Longitudinal vertical section. 

Natural size. — Child of years. 



Tafel 83. 

Natiirliche (Jrossc. — (i .hihiv altes Kiiul. 

."/ simis frontalis. r»/ »)stiiiin fronlali', n i ccllula cthiuoidalis aiitcrim-. //- liiatus sciiiiluiiaiis, pn pro- 
cessus iinciiialus. iiiiini meatus iiaiiuiu iniMliiis, rm coiiclia media. 

"HtT Su<iitt;vlseliiiitl riiics (5 .lahrc altcii Ki)|)t'cs stcllt dcii koiTcspoMdicrciiddi 
Seliiutt ilcr Tafel S2 dav. J)as Bild /,oi<it dir liiiiulichc ovale Miiiiduiiu (o/) der liiikeii 
Stirnhohle. w elehe direkl in den hiatus semilunaris (^.s) iibei-jieht . Der vordersti^ Tell 
tier Miittleren N'aseninusehel (cm) und des niittleren Xaseiiganges {tnnin) und das 
Von der Xasenlu'thle aus bedcckte Miindungsgebiet der Stirnhohle {of, hs, pu) Jst gut 
7.U iiheiselicn. Die Mansse der Stiiiihohle und der vorderen Siebbeinzellen sind in 
der Tafel S2 angegeben. 



Planche 83. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 6 ans. 

.'■/ sinus frontal, of ostium du sinus frontal, ce t cellule ethmoidale anterieure, /is hiatus semilunaire, 
pu processus uncinatus, mnm meat moyen, cm comet moyen. 

Coupe sagittale de la tote d'uu enfant de 6 ans correspondant a la coupe 
representee sur la planche 82. La figure represente I'ouverture ovalaire allongee du 
sinus frontal gauche (of) qui se continue directement dans I'hiatus semilunaire (hs). 
On voit tres distinctement la partie anterieure du comet moyen (cm) et du meat 
moven {mnm) et toute la region autour de louverture du sinus frontal {of, lis, pu). Les 
mesures du sinus frontal et des cellules ethmoidales anterieures sont indiquees sur la 
planche 82. 



Plate 83. 

Natural size. — Child of 6 years. 

sf frontal sinus, of frontal ostium, cei anterior ethmoidal cell, hs semilunar hiatus, pu uncinate 
process, mnm middle meatus, cm middle concha. 

Longitudinal vertical section through the head of a child aged 6 years, shewing 
the section corresponding to that illustrated in Plate 82. The elongated oval ope- 
ning {of) of the left frontal sinus is seen merging into the semilunar hiatus {fis). 
A good view is obtained of the middle concha {cm), the middle meatus {mnm), 
and the region of the frontal ostium {of, hs, pu) which \\ould otherwise be hidden 
by the lateral wall of the nasal fossa. The measurements of the frontal sinus and 
anterior ethmoidal cells are given in the description of Plate 82. 



Tafel S3, 




cm hs 



Tafel 84 

Sagittalschnitt. 

Natiirliche Grosse. — 6 Jahre altes Kind. 



Plaiiclie 84. 

Coupe sagittale. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 6 ans. 



Plate 84 

Longitudinal vertical section. 

Natural size. — Child of 6 vears. 



Tafel 84. 

Natiirlii'hc (Jr(>ss(\ — (i .laliic altcs Kind. 

.v/ sinus frmitalis. o/ osliuiu fmiilalo. rii ccllul:! ftliiiuiidalis anterior. /-/' i>roc<'ssus uiiciiiatiis, As- 
liiiitus sfiniliinaris. ri coiu'lia inferior, iiini meatus uariuiu interior. 

I^cv Sauittalsclinitt dos (> .lahiT alton Ko])fcs zcigt die Stiviiluihle (s/), 
di«' Miiiulniiiz dor Stinilioldi' (<>f). die vorderon Sii'1)lKMiv/('lleu (rm), deii liiatus sf^mi- 
luiiaris (hs) imd don processus unciiuitus ()ii(). Die reehte Stirnliolile (.v/) ist 17 mm 
hooh. 10 mm lang und 11 mm hreit. Die ^liinduiig der Stirnliolile (of) fliesst direkt 
mit dem hiatus semilunaris (Ii.^) zusainmea. Die vorderen Siehbeiir/ellen (rm) zeigeu 
eine .Vusdchnunii von U) — 13 mm liohe, 5 — G mm Liinge und 7 mm Breite. 



Planche 84. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 6 ans. 

6/ siiuis frontal, of ostium du sinus frontal, cea cellule ethmoidale anterieure, pu processus unci- 
natus. hs hiatus semihuiaire, ci cornet inferieur, mni meat inferieur. 

Coupe sagittale d'une tete de 6 ans presente le sinus frontal {sf) et son ouver- 
ture (of), les cellules ethmoidales anterieures [cm), I'hiatus semilunaire (hs) et le 
processus uncinatus (pu). Le sinus frontal droit (sf) est haut de 17 millim., long de 
10 millim.. large de 11 millim. L'ouverture du sinus frontal (of) se continue directement 
avec riiiatus semilunaire. Les cellules ethmoidales anterieures (cea) ont les dimen- 
sions suivantes: hauteur 10 a 13 millim.. lonsueur 5 a (j millim., largeur 7 millim. 



Plate 84. 

Natural size. — Child of 6 years. 

$7 frontal sinus, of frontal ostium, cea anterior ethmoidal cell, pu uncinate process, hs semilunar 
hiatus, ci lower concha, mni lower meatus. 

Longitudinal vertical section through the head of a child aged 6 years, shewing 
the frontal sinus (.s7), the orifice of the frontal sinus (of), the anterior ethmoidal 
cells (cea), the semilunar hiatus (hs) and the uncinate process (pu). The right frontal 
sinus (sf) is 17 mm high, 10 mm long and 11 mm wide. The outlet of the frontal 
sinus (of) merges uninterruptedly into the semilunar hiatus (hs). The anterior 
ethmoidal cells (cea) measure 10 to 13 mm in height, 5 to 6 mm in length and 
7 mm in width. 



Tafel 84. 



cea cea 




Tafel 85. 

Sagittalschnitt. 

Natiirliche Grosse. — 6 Jahre altes Kind. 



Plaiiclie 85. 

Coupe sagittale. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 6 ans. 



Plate 85. 

Longitudinal vertical section. 

Natural size. — Child of 6 years. 



Tafcl 85. 

Niitiirliflic (;v(")sst'. — (i .laliic altrs Kiiul. 

.if sinus frontalis. i>l ustiiiin fnmtalf. Ii^ liiatus scniiluiiaris. /)// jji-occssiis iimiiiat us, ci>i cclliila, 

I'tlinioidalis antrrior. 

l)fr SiVjiittalsclmitt ciiu's <! .lalirc aJtcii K()])f(.',s stcUt dcu koiTospoiidicreudcii 
Sc-lmitt dor 'Vi\iv\ S4 dar. Das l>ild /.ciut die irchte Stiiiiluihlc (,s/) iind die benacli- 
barten vordrren Siobbcinzelleu (red). Die ]\Iiindung der Stirnhohle (of) ist gut zu 
iibiTselu'ii. sie iiborgoht direkt in den hiatus semilunaris (hs), welchen der processus un- 
einatus (pit) beginr/.t. Die Maasse der Stirnhuhle und der vordcren Siebbeinzellcn 
siiul in iler Tafi'l S4 angegeben. 



Planche 85. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 6 ans. 

.«/ siiuis frontal, of ostium du sinus frontal, hs liiatus semilunaire. pu processus uncinatus, ecu cellule 

ethmoidale anterieure. 

Coupe sagittale d'une tete de (i ans representant la coupe correspondant a la 
planche 84. La figure montre le sinus frontal droit (.s/) et les cellules ethmoidales 
anterieures avoisinantes {cea). L'orifice du sinus frontal {of) est bien visible et se 
continue directenient avec Thiatus semilunaire. (fis) limite par le processus uncinatus 
ipii). Les mesures du sinus frontal et des cellules ethmoidales anterieures sont indi- 
quees sur la planche 84. 



Plate 85. 

Natural size. — Child of 6 years. 

sf frontal sinus, of frontal ostium, hs semilunar hiatus, pu uncinate process, cea anterior 

etlimoidal cell. 

Longitudinal vertical section through the head of a child aged 6 years, shewing 
the section corresponding to that illustrated in Plate 84. The right frontal sinus 
(sf) and the adjoining anterior ethmoidal cells {cea) are shewn. The opening of the 
frontal sinus {of) is clearly visible. It merges into the semilunar hiatus {hs) which 
is bordered by the uncinate process {pu). The measurements of the frontal sinus and 
anterior ethmoidal cells are given in the description of Plate 84. 



Tafel 85. 




Tafel 86. 

Sagittalschnitt. 

Natiirliche Grosse. — 6 Jahre altes Kind. 



Planclie 86. 

Coupe sagittale. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 6 ans. 



Plate 86. 

Longitudinal vertical section. 

Natural size. — Child of 6 years. 



Tafel 86. 

Xatiirliclu' (Jrosso. — -hilirc altcs Kind. 

OS ostium siilu'imidalf. / NastMilHililciHliich. r< (•(Uulia supriior. /nns iiicatus iiariimi superior, em 

coiirlia luciiia. 

Dcr Satritlalsilmitt ciiu-s Jalui' altt'U Kopfi-s zcigt die lU "H^^ ruude 
Miiiuliing dor Keilbeinhohle. das ostium sphenoidale (os). nahe dem Dach der Nasen- 
hohle (0- l^it' liuke Keilbeinliohle ist 10 mm hoch, 7 mm lang und 12 mm breit. J^ie 
rechto KiMlb(<inhi)liIe ist 10 mm lioch. mm lang und 12 mm breit. 



Planche 86. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 6 ans. 
OS ostium du sinus sphenoidal. / toit de la fosse nasale. cs cornet superieur, mns meat superieur, 



on cornet moven. 



Coupe sagittale d"une tete de ans montrant I'ostium du sinus sphenoidal large 
de 1 ' o millim. Cet ostium sphenoidal (o.s) se trouve pres du toit de la fosse nasale {() 
Le sinus sphenoidal gauche est haut de 10 millim., long de 7 millim., large de 12 millim. 
Le sinus sphenoidal droit est haut de 10 millim., long de 6 millim., large de 12 millim. 



Plate 86. 

Natural size. — Child of 6 years. 
OS sphenoidal ostiimi, t roof of nasal fossa, cs upper concha, mns upper meatus, cm middle concha. 

Longitudinal vertical section through the head of a child aged 6 years, shewing the 
circular orifice. 1^2 "^"^ wide, of the sphenoidal sinus and the sphenoidal ostium (o.s), 
situated ne^r the roof of the nasal fossa (t). The left sphenoidal sinus is 10 mm high, 
7 mm long and 12 mm wide, the right sphenoidal sinus is 10 mm high, 6 mm long 
and 12 mm wide. 



Tafel 86, 




/ cs mns 



Tafel 87. 



Eoiitgenaufiialime. 



Naturliche Grosse. — Schadel eines 6jahr. Kindes. 



Plaiiclie 87. 



lladiogTamme. 



Grandeur nature. — Crane d'un enfant de 6 ans. 



Plate 87. 

Skiagram. 

Natural size. — Skull of ckild 6 years old. 



Tafel 87. 

N;vtiirli(lu' (Crosse. — Schiidel einos (ijilhr. Kiiides. 
.•>■/(/ sinus frontalis tlrxter, a/s- sinus frontalis sinist r. 
Die Figur zcigt eine Rontgenaufiuihiue der StiniluUilon eincs Ojiihr. Kindes. 
l)i(> reohte 8tiriihohlo (.v/f/) hat eine Ausdehnung in der vertikalcn Richtung von 
S'.. nun nnd in der horizontalen Richtung von 8^2 mJ^^- Die linke Stirnhohle (.s/s) 
hat eine Ausbreitung in der vertikalen Richtung von mm und in der horizontalen 
Rielitunii von (> mm. 



Planche 87. 

Grandeur natiire. — Crane dun enfant de 6 ans. 
sfd sinus frontal droit, sjs sinus frontal gauche. 

Figure montrant le radiogramme des sinus frontaux d'un crane d'un enfant de 
6 ans. Le sinus frontal droit {sfd) a une etendue de 8^2 millim. dans la direction 
verticale et de S^o niillim. dans la direction horizontale. Le sinus frontal gauche {sjs) 
a une etendue de G millim. dans la direction verticale et de 6 millim. dans la direc- 
tion horizontale. 



Plate 87. 

Natural size. — Skull of child 6 3'ears old. 
sjd right frontal sinus, sfs left frontal sinus. 

Skiagram shewing the frontal sinuses of the skull of a child 6 years old. The 
right frontal sinus {sfd) measures 8^ mm in the vertical and 8^2 "^'^^ i'^ t^^® horizontal 
direction. The left frontal sinus {sfs) measures 6 mm in the vertical and 6 mm in 
the horizontal direction. 



Tafel 87. 



sfd 



sfs 



{ 








Tafel 88. 

Sagittalschnitt. 

Natiirliche Grosse. — l^/z Jahre altes Kind. 



Plauche 88. 

Coupe sagittale. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 7 ans V2 



Plate 88. 

Longitudinal vertical section. 

Natural size. — Child of 7^'2 years. 



Tafel cS8. 

Nrttiirliohe (Jrossr. — 7'^ •'ivluc alfrs Kind. 
-7 siiuis frontalis, pii pmcrssns uiicinatus, hi Imlla ctlininiiiaiis. //v liialus scmiliiiiaris. ni collnln 
i>tlimi>iilalis aiilorior. <•« /» rclliila cllimoidalis posterior. .<>• sinus splieiioidalis. rsr n-cossus sjiIkmio- 
etliiuoidali^. <i' lomlia iiit'crior. ;///)( iiu-atus iiariuin interior, cm eonelia nu'dia, iiufi meatus nariuni 

superior, cv eonclia superior. 

Dim- >;ii:iiiaisilumt ciin's 7 ' o .lalirc alten K()i)f('s illiislriorl die eriil aiisticbildclcMi 
NrluMilniltltMi. Dir iHH'htt' Stiniht)hl(> (s/) ist 17 mm lioch, IJmiit laii<i; imd 7 mm 
bri'it. ihrr Miiiidimij: flio.sst mil dnii ohcrstcn vofdrrsttMi Tcil drs hiatus semilunaris 
(/).•.•) /usammtMi. wi'leher vom ])1'(H'cssus uncinatiis (])it) mid von der bulla ctlimoidalis 
{!)() hogivir/.t mil einer kuiipelfcirmigtMi ICrwoihM'iing in dor StirnluUilc (s/) zn endcn 
scluMnt. I>tirih die l-Jitfevimnij; dtM millloren Xascnnnisehel (on) isl das erwiihnto 
(Jel)iot gill /.n iilu-rsehen. |)ie Nordere Sieblx-in/elle {na) isl l.'Jmm hot'li, 7 mm l)reit 
untl ."> mm lang. Die hinlcre SichlxMn/.elle (ccp) isl 17 mm lang. 10 mm hooh vind 
!) mm iMvit. sio miindet mil einer liinglieh ovalen Offimiiti; in den oboren Nasengang 
(m/Kv). l)ie Keill)i'inhi>hle (.s-.s) ist 12 mm lang, \'.\ mm lioch iind '.I mm brcit, das ostium 
sphenoidale miimiet mil einer 2 mm weiten runden Offnung in den reeessus sphenu- 
ethmoidalis. 

Planche 88. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 7 ans l^. 

.if sinus frontal, pii processus iincinalus. be bulle ethmoidale. /is hiatus semilunaire, cert cellub 

ethnioldale anterieure, cep cellule ethmoidale j)osterieure, ■••'S sinus sphenoidal, rse reeessus s))h6no- 

ethmoidal. ri cornet infcrieur, ttnii meat infericur, cm cornet moyen. m>hs meat superieur. 

a cornet superieur. 

Cou]ie sagittale dune tete de 7 ans • o montrant les sinus bien develo])])es. Le 
sinus frontal droit (sj) est haut de 17 millim.. long de 11 millim., large de 7 millim. 
Son ouverture se confond avec la partie anterieure de I'hiatus semilunaire (hs), limitee 
par le processus uncinatus {pn) et la bulle ethmoidale {be), et paraissant se terminer par 
une dilatation cupuliforme dans le sinus frontal (sf). On voit tres bien cette region 
par suite de la section du cornet moyen {cm). La cellule ethmoTdale anterieure {cea) a 
une hauteur de 13 millim.. une largeur de 7 millim. et une longueur de 5 millim. 
La cellule ethmoidale posterieure {cep) est longue de 17 millim., haute de 10 millim. 
et large de 1) millim. Elle se termine par une ouverture ovalaire allongee dans le 
meat superieur {mns). Le sinus sphenoidal {ss) a 12 millim. de longueur, 13 de hauteur 
et de largeur. L'ostium s]ihcno'idal est large de 2 millim. et donne dans le reeessus 
spheno-ethmoi'dal . 

Plate 88. 

Natural size. — Child of 1%. years. 
sf frontal sinus, pn uncinate process, he ethmoidal Ijulla. hs semilimar hiatus, ce'i anterior eth- 
moidal cell, cep posterior ethmoidal cell, ss sphenoidal sinus, rse spheno-ethmoidal recess, ci lower 
concha, mni lower meatus, on middle conclia, mns upper meatus, cs upper concha. 

Longitudinal vertical section through the head of a child aged l]., years, shewing 
the Avell developed sinuses. The right frontal sinus {sf) is 17 mm high, 11 mm long 
and 7 mm wide. Its aperture merges into the upper anterior portion of the semilunar 
hiatus {Jis), A\hich is enclosed between the uncinate process {pu) and the ethmoidal 
buUa {be) and appears to terminate at the frontal sinus {.sf) in a dome-shaped enlarge- 
ment. In consequence of the removal of the middle concha {cm) this region has been 
rendered well visible. The anterior ethmoidal cell (cea) is 13 mm high. 7 mm wide 
and 5 mm long. The posterior ethmoidal cell {cep) is 17 mm long, 10 mm high and 
9 mm wide; it communicates with the upper meatus {mns) by an elongated oval 
orifice. The sphenoidal sinus {ss) is 12 mm long, 13 mm high, and 9 mm wide; the 
sphenoidal ostium opens into the spheno-ethmoidal recess by a circular aperture, 
2 mm wide. 



Tafel ^S. 



cen cep 




Tafel 89. 

Frontalsclinitt. 

Natiirliche Grosse. — 7V2 Jahre altes Kind. 



Planche 81). 

Coupe frontale, 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 7 ans 72. 



Plate 89. 

Coronal section. 

Natural size. — Child of 772 years. 



Tafel 89. 

Nutiirlirlu' (;ri»ss(>. 7 ' j .hilirr altcs Kiinl. 

,v/ sinus frontalis, of ostium frontalo. hi liiatus scniihiiiaris. //» processus imciiiatiis. hr hiilla ctli- 
njoidalis. sm sinus niaxillaris. rr i oi-llula rtlinioiiialis aiitt rior, ri roncha iiilcrior. iiitii iiicaliis iiarintii 

inferior, rni concha media. 

Der Frontrtl.schnitt cino.s 7'-. -lalne alien Kopfes ist etwas seliriiij; gcfiilul uiul 
zoigt das Miindunuscebiet (\vy S(irnlu>lilo (.s/) und der vttrdeveu Sichlx'iir/.cllen [rrd), 
den lualu.s soinihinaris (lis). wolcluMi dor procossu.s uncinatus (pu) mid die bulla cth- 
moidalis (/x) heuren/.t. OlierliaU) dei bulla ollunoidalis (he), ini rceessus l)ullaris ist 
die ovalr Offiiunti oiner vovdereii Siol)bein/.elle (ccd) zu sehon. Die Stirnli()hle (s/) 
ist 14 mm hodi. !• mm breit und 4 mm lang. sie miiudet mit eiiier liinj^lich ovaleii 
Offiiuiij: (()/) knaj)}) atu vordorsten Kudo des hiatus .semilunaris (hs). Unterhalb der 
8tiniholdenmiindung (of) und vor dem vorderen Ende de.s hiatus semilunaris (hs) 
ist die ovale Offnung einer vorderen Siebbeinzelle (cea) zu sehen; dieselbe ist 11 mm 
lang. S mm hoeh und 7 mm breit. Im Bereiche des unteren Xasenganges {iinii) ist 
der vonlere Tell der Kieferhdhle (■«■/// ) /.u iibersehen. 



Planche 89. 

Grandeur nature. — Juifant de 7 ans ]^. 

.</ sinus frontal, of ostium du sinus frontal, hi hiatus semilunaire, pu processus uncinatus. bi bulie 
ethmoidale. "in sinus maxillaire, ce'i cellule ethmoidale anterieure, ci cornet inf^rieur, mni meat 

inferieur, cdi cornet nioyen. 

La coupe frontale de la tete d"uii enfant de 7 ans i ., est legcTement oljli(|ue et 
montre la region autour de I'ouverture du sinus frontal (sf) et des cellules ethmoi'dales 
antcrie.ires {cea), Thiatus semilunaire {hs) limite par le processus uncinatus {pn) et 
la buUe ethmoidale (be). Au dessus de la bulle ethmoidale (be) dans le recessus bullaire 
on pent voir Touverture ovale d'une cellule ethmoidale anterieure (cea). Le sinus 
frontal (sf) a une hauteur de 14 millim.. une largeur de 9 millim. et une longueur de 
4 millim. II se termine par une ouverture (of) ovalaire allongee juste a la partie anterieure 
de riiiatus semilunaire (ft-s). Au-dessous de I'ostium du sinus frontal (of) et devant la 
partie anterieure de lliiatus semilunaire (lis) on pent voir Touverture ovale d'une cellule 
ethmoidale anterieure (cea); celle-ci est longue de 11 millim. haute de 8 millim. et 
large de 7 millim. Au niveau du meat inferieur (mni) on voit la partie anterieure du 
sinus maxillaire (sm). 

Plate 89. 

Natural size. — Child of 7^2 3'ears. 

sf frontal sinus, of frontal ostium, hs semilunar hiatus, jal uncinate process, he ethmoidal Inilla, 
sm maxillary antrum, cea anterior ethmoidal cell, ci lower concha, mni lower meatus, cm middle 

concha. 

Section through the head of a child of 7^ j'ears, cut in a transverse but slightly 
obUque direction, so as to shew the region of the orifices of the frontal sinus (sf) 
and anterior ethmoidal cells (cea), the semilunar hiatus, which is enclosed be- 
tween the uncinate process (pu) and the ethmoidal bulla (be). Above the ethmoidal 
bulla (be), in the bullar recess, is the oval aperture of an anterior ethmoidal cell (cea). 
The frontal sinus (sf) is 14 mm high, 9 mm wide, and 4 mm long; it opens by an 
elongated oval aperture (of) close to the anterior extremity of the semilunar hiatus (hs). 
Below the frontal ostium (of) and in front of the anterior extremity of the semilunar 
hiatus (Tis) the oval orifice of an anterior ethmoidal cell (cea) is visible. This cell 
is 11mm long, 8 mm high and 7 mm wide. Close to the lower meatus (mni) the 
anterior portion of the maxillary antrum (.sm) is shewn. 



Tafel 89. 




ci mm 



Tafel 90. 

Froiitalscliiiitt. 

Natiirliche Grosse. — 7^2 Jahre altes Kind 



Planclie 90. 

Coupe froutale. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 7 ans^^. 



Plate 90. 

Coronal section. 

Natural size. — Child of 7^2 years. 



Tafel 90. 

Natiirlhhr Crosse. — T'^ .hilirc ;ilt(>s Kind. 

sm sinus miixilliirU. cr i colliihi I'tlimoidalis antorior. crj) fcllula ctluiioiilalis posterior, os' ostium 

split'iioiiliile. ri conclia inferior, mni meatus narium inferior, rni cdnclia luiniia. itinm meatus narivun 

nunlius. rs- conciia superior. nnf< meatus narium superior. 

Per Front;U.><clmitt oinos T'-^ .l;vhro ulteu Ki^pfes y.eiut. dw KivivrhnhW (■'*'»), tlio 
Siflilit'in/elleii (rrii unci ct'p). die untcro (ri). niittlero {cm) uiul obore (r.s) Naseninusclicl, 
dm unteren (/««/'). niittlcnMi (mum) unil oborcn (miis) Xascngaiiji iiiul (lie; Miindimt^ 
drr Keillteinl\()hlr (os). J)ie Kiefcrholili' (■'<ni) ist ini Hert'iclu' des untercn (miii) und 
des mittleren (mtnn) Xa.s(Miizanm's /ii iibcrsohen. sio ist US mm lan<^. 2.'} mju hoch und 
20 mm brcit. Die oberlialb des obeveu Xiiseiiganges (w;i.s) liegondc liintcre Sieb- 
beiu/.elle (ccp) ist 1 1 mm lang. 10 mm hoch und mm breit. Die hnke Keilbcinhohle 
ist 12 mm hocli. 11 mm breit und S mm lang. sio miindet untorhalb des Nasendaches 
mit einer 4 mm liinglich ovaleii Offuung (os). 



Planche 90. 

Grandeur nature. — Enfant de 7 ans ^y^. 

sm sinus maxillaire, cei cellule etliraoidale anterieure. cep cellule ethmoidale pcsterieure. os ostium 

du sinus sphenoidal, ci cornet inferieur. mni meat inferieur. cm cornet moyen. m7im meat moyen, 

cs cornet superieur, mns meat superieur. 

La coupe frontale de la tete dun enfant de 7 ans 'o montre le sinus maxillaire 
(sm), les cellules ethmoidales (cea et cep), les cornets inferieur (ci), moyen (cm), 
superieur (r-s), les meats inferieur (mni) moyen(mnm) et superieur (mns) et Tostium 
du sinus sphenoidal (os). On pent voir le sinus maxillaire (.9m) au niveau des meats 
inferieur (mni) et moyen (m?im), il est long de 38 millim., haut de 23 millim. et large 
de 20 millim. La cellule ethmoidale posterieure (cep), situee au-dessus du meat supe- 
rieur, est longue de 11 millim., haute de 10 millim. et large de 6 millim. Le sinus 
sphenoidal gauche est haut de 12 millim., large de 11 millim. et long de 8 millim. 
II se termine sous le toit de la fosse nasale par une ouverture ovale de 4 millim. 
de longueur (os). 



Plate 90. 

Natural size. — Child of 7^4 years. 

sm maxillary antrum, ce'i anterior ethmoidal cell, cep posterior ethmoidal cell, os sphenoidal ostium, 
ci lower concha, mni lower meatus, cm middle concha, vmm middle meatus, cv upper concha, 

mns upper meatus. 

Coronal section through the head of a child aged 7^2 years, shewing the maxillary 
antrum (sm), the ethmoidal cells (cea and cep), the lower [ci), middle (cm) and 
upper (cs) concha, the lower (mni), middle (mnm) and upper (mns) meatus, and 
the ostium of the sphenoidal sinus (os). The maxillary antrum (sm) can be seen in 
its relations with the lower (mni) and middle (mnm) meatus. It is 38 mm long, 
23 mm high and 20 mm wide. The posterior ethmoidal cell (cep) situated above 
the upper meatus (mns) is 11 mm long, 10 mm high and 6 mm wide. The left 
sphenoidal sinus is 12 mm high, 11 mm wide and 8 mm long; its outlet, an elongated 
oval opening (os), 4 mm \vide, lies underneath the roof of the nasal fossa. 



Tafel 90. 




<^* mni 



Tafel 1)1. 

Eontgenaufnalime. 

Natiirliche Grosse. — Schadel eines Si^jahr. Kindes. 



Planclie 91. 

Radiogramme. 

Grandeur nature. — Crane d'un enfant de 8 ans %. 



Plate 91. 

Skiagram. 

Natural size. — Skull of child 8V2 years old. 



Tafel 91. 

Naturliclie Grosse. — Schiiclel oiiies 8i2Jiilii"- Kiiides. 
.•>■/(/ sinus frontalis dexter, s/.v sinus frontalis sinister. 

Die Figur zoim ilir Rontgenaufnahme der Stirnhohlen eines 8'/2Jahr. Kiiides. 
Dio rochte Stiiuhohle (sfd) hat eine Ausbreitung in v^ertikaler Richtung von 
21 nun nnd in horizontaler Richtung von 29 mm. Die linke Stirnhohle (sfs) hat 
eine Ausdohiumg in vertikaler Richtung von 21 mm und in horizontaler Richtung 
von I'.t mm. 



Planche 91. 

Grandeur nature. — Crane dun enfant de 8 ans 14' 
•v/f/ sinus frontal droit, sf-s sinus frontal gauche. 

Figure montrant le radiogramme des sinus frontaux d'un crane de 8 ans l^^- 
Le sinus frontal droit (s/r/) a une etendue de 21 millim. dans la direction verticale et 
de 29 millim. dans la direction horizontale. Le sinus frontal gauche {sfs) a une etendue 
de 21 millim. dans la direction verticale et de 19 millim. dans la direction horizontale. 



Plate 91. 

Natural size. — Skull of child 8^2 years old. 
■sfd right frontal sinus, sfs left frontal sinus. 

The figure shews a skiagram of the frontal sinuses of a skull 8]C, years old. The 
right frontal sinus {sfd) measures 21 mm in the vertical and 29 mm in the horizontal 
direction. The left frontal sinus {sfs) measures 21 mm in the vertical and 19 mm 
in the horizontal direction. 



Tafel 91. 



sfd 



sfs 




Tafel 92. 

Roiitgeiiaiifnalime. 

Natiirliche Grosse. — Schadel eines Si^jahr. Kiades. 



Planche 92. 



Radiogramme. 



Grandeur nature. — Crane d'un enfant de 8 ans 14 • 



Plate 92. 

Skiagram. 

Natural size. — Skull of child 8^2 years old. 



Tafel 92. 

Xatiiilitlie Grosse. — Schadel einos S'/^jillir. Kindes. 
.</'(/ sinus frontalis cloxtcr, .y's sinus frontalis sinister. 

Die Figur illustriert die Rontgenaufnahme der Stirnhohlen eines 8'/2Jahr. 
Kindes. Pie rechte Stirnhohle (>/>/) zeigt eine Ausdelinuno; von 22 mm in der hori- 
zontalen und vertikalen Hiclitung, AviUirend die linke IStirnhohle (x/ls) niit 10 mm 
eine kleinere Ausdehnung zeigt. 



Planche 92. 

Grandeur nature. — Crane d"un enfant de 8 ans 1/2- 
,tfd sinus frontal droit, v/.s sinus frontal gauche. 

La figure presente le radiogramme des sinus frontaux d'un crane de 8 ans 14. 
Le sinus frontal droit (sfd) a un diametre horizontal et vertical de 22 millim. tandis 
que le sinus frontal gauche (sfs), plus petit, n"a qu'un diametre de 10 millim. 



Plate 92. 

Natural size. — Skull of child 8I/2 years old. 
sfd right frontal sinus, sfs left frontal sinus. 

Skiagram, shewing the frontal sinuses in the skull of a child aged 8Yz years. 
The right frontal sinus (sfd) measures 22 mm in the vertical and horizontal directions, 
whilst the left frontal sinus {-sfs) measures only 10 mm. 



Tafel 92. 



sfd 



sfs 




■K 



Tafel m. 

Rontgeiiaufnalime. 

Natiirliche Grosse. — Schadel eines Ojalir. Kindes. 



Plaiiche 93. 

Radiogramme. 

Grandeur Nature. — Crane d'un enfant de 9 ans. 



Plate 98. 

Skiagram. 

Natural size. — Skull of child 9 years old. 



Tafel 93. 

Natiirliche Grosse. — fcschadel eincs l»j;ihr. Kincles. 
■y'll sinus frontalis dexter.. >/'■•< sinus frontalis sinister. 

Die Figur illustriert die Roiitgeiiaufnahiue der Stirnhohlen eines Ojiilir. Kindes. 
Die Stirnliohlen {sfd, sfs) zeigen auf beiden Seiten im unteren Teile des Stirnbeines 
eine Ausdohnunc von 10 nun. 



Planche 93. 

Grandeur nature. — Crane d'un enfant de 9 ans. 
sfd sinus frontal droit, sfs s nus frontal gauche. 

La figure niontre le radiogramme des deux sinus frontaux d'un enfant de 9 ans. 
Les deux sinus {sfd, sfs), ont, dans la partie inferieure de I'os frontal, une etendue de 
10 millini. de chaque cote. 



Plate 93. 

Natural size. — vSkull of child 9 j'ears old. 
sfd right frontal sinus, sfs left frontal sinus. 

Skiagram shewing the frontal sinuses of the skull at 9 years of age. Each 
frontal sinus {sfd, sfs) is 10 mm in width at the lower edge of the frontal bone. 



Tafel 93. 



sfd 



sfs 




Tafel 94. 

Rontgenaufnahme. 

Natiirliche Grosse. — Schadel eines 12jahr. Kindes. 



Planclie 94. 

Radiogramme. 

Grandeur nature. — Crane d'un enfant de 12 ans. 



Plate 94. 

Skiagram. 

Natural size. — Skull of child 12 years old. 



Tafel 94. 

Natiirliche Oriisse. - 8cluidol cines 12j;Uu-. Kiiides. 
.«/(/ sinus frontalis dexter, .i/.s sinus frontalis sinister. 

Die Piiziir illustricrt die Rontgenaufnahme der Stirnhohlen eines 12j;lhr. 
Kiiiderscliiidels. Beido Stirnliolilon (sfd. sfs) zeigen eine gut ausgepriigte Form ira 
SchupjHMiteilo dcs Stiriibeim's. Hire Ausdehiiung betriigt ia der liorizontalen llichtung 
20 mm imd in der vertikalen Richtung 17 mm. 



Planche 94. 

Grandeur nature. — Crane d'un enfant de 12 ans, 
sfd sinus frontal droit, sfs sinus frontal gauche. 

La figure represente le radiogramme des sinus frontaux d'un enfant de 12 ans. 
Les deux sinus frontaux {sfs, sfd) sont bien dev'eloppes dans la squame du sinus frontal. 
Leurs dimensions sont horizontalement de 20 millim. et verticalement de 17 millim. 



Plate 94. 

Natural size. — Skull of child 12 3'ears old. 
sfd right frontal sinus, sfs left frontal sinus. 

Skiagram shewing the frontal sinuses of the skull at 12 years of age. The 
outlines of both frontal sinuses {sfd, sfs) in the squamous part of the frontal bone 
are cle-arly defined. The}' measure 20 mm in the horizontal and 17 mm in the vertical 
direction. 



Tafel 94. 



sfd 



sf. 




Tafel 95. 



Rontgeiiaufnalime. 



Natiirliche Grosse. — Schadel eines ISjahr. Kindes. 



Plaiiclie 95. 



Railiogramme. 



Grandeur nature. — Crane d'un enfant de 13 ans. 



Plate 95. 

Skiagram. 

Natural size. — Skull of child 13 years old. 



Tafel 95. 

Niitiirlicho Grosse. — Schiidel ciiu's KJjilhr. Iviiides. 
,'.7(/ sinus frontalis dexter, .^/n sinus fnmtalis sinister. 

Die Fisiur zeigt die Rontu;en:uifu;ilune eiues 13jiihr. Kindcrschadols. Die 
rechte Stirnhohle {sfd) hat eiiie Auslji-eituiig in vertikaler Kielitiuig voii 14 mm 
and ill horizontaler Richtung von 20 nun. Die linke Stirnhohle {sfs) hat eine Aus- 
dehnunti in vertikaler Richtung von 14 nun nnd in horizontaler Richtung von 22 mm. 



Planche 95. 

Grandeur nature. — Crane d"un enfant de 13 ans. 
.sfd sinus frontal droit, v/v sinus frontal gauche. 

Figure montrant le radiograninie d'un crane d"un enfant de 13 ans. Le sinus 
frontal droit {sfd) a une etendue de 14 millini. dans la direction verticale et de 20 millim. 
dans la direction horizontale. Le smus frontal gauche (s/.s) a une etendue de 14 millim. 
dans la direction verticale et de 22 millim. dans la direction horizontale. 



Plate 95. 

Natural size. — Skull of child 13 years old. 
sfd right frontal sinus, sfs left frontal sinus. 

The figure shews a skiagram of a skull of child 13 years old. The right frontal 
sinus (sfd) measures 14 mm in the vertical and 20 mm in the horizontal direction. 
The left frontal sinus {sfs) measures 14 mm in the vertical and 22 mm in the hori- 
zontal direction. 



Tafel 95. 



sfi 



sfs 




Tafel 96. 



Eontgenaiifnahme. 



Natiirliche Grosse. — Schadel eines ISjahr. Kindes. 



Plaiiclie 96. 

Radiogramme. 

Grandeur nature. — Crane d'un enfant de 13 ans. 



Plate 96. 



SkiagTam. 



Natural size. — Skull of child 13 years old. 



Tafel 96. 

Natiirliclio Grosse. — Schiidel ciiies 13jiihr. Kindes. 

sfil simis frdiitalis dexter, s/m sinus frontalis sinister. 

])io Figur zcigt die HcMitgenaufnhine ciiics IlJjiilir. Kiudcrscliadels Die 
rechte Stirnhohle (.s'/r/) luit oiiio Aiisbreitimg in dor vertikalen Richtung von 
13 mm nnd in der horizontaliMi Hiclitung von 17 iniu. Die linko 8tirnhohle (sfs) hat 
eine Ausdehnung in der vertikalen Richtung von 12 mm und in der horizontalen Rich- 
tung von 18 mm. 



Planche 96. 

Grandeur nature. — Crane dun enfant de 13 ans. 
.<t/f/ sinus frontal drf)it, v/v sinus frontal gauche. 

Figure montrant le radiogramme dun crane d'un enfant de 13 ans. Le sinus 
frontal droit (sfd) a une etendue de 13 millim. dans la direction verticale et de 
17 millim. dans la direction horizontale. Le sinus frontal gauche {sfs) a une etendue de 
12 millim. dans la direction verticale et de 18 millim. dans la direction horizontale. 



Plate 96. 

Natural size. — Skull of child 13 3'ears old. 
■sfd right frontal sinus, sfs left frontal sinus. 

The figure shews a skiagram of a skull of child 13 _years old. The right frontal 
sinus (sfd) measures 13 mm in the vertical and 17 mm in the horizontal direction. The 
left frontal smus {sfs) measures 12 mm in the vertical and 18 mm in the horizontal 
direction. 



Tafel 96. 



sfd 




V 




Tafel 1)7. 

Roiitgenaufnalmie. 

Natiirliche Grosse. — Schadel eiiies ISjahr. Kindes. 



Plaiiclie 1)^. 



Radiogramme. 



Grandeur nature. — Crane d"un enfant de 13 ans. 



Plate 97. 



SldagTam. 



Natural size. — Skull of child 13 years old. 



Tafel 97. 

Natiirliche Grosse. — Schadel cincs l.'Jjalir. Kiiules. 
>fd sinus frontalis dexter. 

Das Bild zcigt die Kontgenaufnalime eines ISjahr. Kiiidcrscliadcls. Die rechte 
Stirnhohle {sjd) hat eiiie Ausdelinung in vertikaler Richtung von 10 mm und in 
horizontaler Richtiuig von Hi imu. Die linke Stirnhohle fehlt. 



Planche 97. 

Grandeur nature. — Crane dun enfant de 13 ans. 
sjd sinus frontal droit. 

L'image represente le radiogramme d"nn crane d'un enfant de 13 ans. Le 
sinus frontal droit {sjd) a une etendue de 10 millini. dans la direction verticale et 
de 16 niillim. dans la direction horizontale. Le sinus frontal gauche manque. 



Plate 97. 

Natural size. — Skull of child 13 years old. 
sjd rislit frontal sinus. 

The figure shews a skiagram of a skull 13 ^-ears old. The right frontal sinus {sjd) 
measures 10 mm in the vertical and 16 mm in the horizontal direction. The left frontal 
sinus is not developed. 



sfd 



Tafel 97. 





Tafel 98. 



Roiitgeiiaiifiialime. 



Naturliche Grosse. — Schadel eines IS'/gjahr. Kindes. 



Planche 1)8. 

Radiogramme. 

Grandeur nature. — Crane d'un enfant de 13 ans ^ 



Plate 98. 

Sldagram. 

Natural size. — Skull of child IS^'g years old. 



Tafel 98. 

Natiirliche Grosse. — Schiidel oiiics l.'i'ojilhr. Kindes. 
.v/f/ siiHis frontalis dexter. 

Die Figiir zeigt die Roiitgenaufnahine eines 13 ^4 Jahre alten Kinderschadels. 
Die reclite Stirnhohle (sfd) hat eine Ausdehnung in der vertikalen lliohtung von 
18 mm imd in der horizon talen Richtung von 21 mm. Die linke Stirnhohle fehlt. 



Planche 98. 

Grandeur nature. — Crane dun enfant de 13 ans i/^. 
a/(/ sinus frontal droit. 

Figure montrant le radiogramnie d"un crane de 13 ans \i,. Le sinus frontal droit {sfd) 
a uae etendue de 18 inillim. dans la direction verticale et de 21 millini. dans la direc- 
tion horizontale. Le sinus frontal gauche manque. 



Plate 98. 

Natural size. — Skull of child 13^4 years old. 
sfd right frontal sinus. 

The figure shews a skiagram of a skull 13 V2 years old. The right frontal sinus (sfd) 
measures 18 mm in the vertical and 21 mm in the horizontal direction. The left frontal 
sinus is not developed. 



sjd 



Tafel 98. 



1 




M. 





' I 




Tafel 1)9. 



Iloiitgeuaufiialime. 



Naturliche Grosse. — Schadel eines 14jahr. Kindes. 



Plaiiclie 99. 



RadiogTamme. 



Grandeur nature. - Crane d'un enfant de 14 ans. 



Plate 99. 



Skiagram. 



Natural size. — Skull of child 1-4 years old. 



Tafel 99. 

NatUrliche Grosse. — Schadel eines 14jahr, Kindes. 

fi/'s sinus frontalis sinislor. 

Die Figur illustricrt die Roiitgeiiaufnahnie dor Stirnholilen einos 14 Jahre alten 
Kindorscliadols. Auf der reclitcn 8eite fehlt die Stirnholile, auf der linken Seito zeigt 
die linke iStiniholilc (sfs) eiue Ausdehnung von 10 mm im Schuppenteile des Stirnbeines. 



Planche 99. 

Grandeur nature. — Crane d'un enfant de 14 ans. 

.v/.s sinus frontal gauche. 

La figure montre le radiograinnie d"un crane d'un enfant de 14 ans. Le sinus 
frontal manque du cote droit. Du cote gauche, le sinus frontal {sfs) a una etendue 
de 10 millim. dans la squanie do I'ns frontal. 



Plate 99. 

Natural size. — »Skull of child 14 years old. 

sfs left frontal sinus. 

Skiagram shewing the frontal sinus of a skull 14 years old. The right frontal 
sinus is not developed, the left sinus (sfs) extends into the squamous part of the 
frontal bone for a distance of 10 mm. 



Tafel 99. 



■tfft 



\ ^ 




Tafel 100. 



Roiitgenaiitiiahme. 



Natiirliche Grosse. — Schadel eines 15jalir. Kindes. 



Plaiiche 100. 



RadiogTamme. 



Grandeur nature. — Crane d'un enfant de 15 ans. 



Plate 100. 

Sldagram. 

Natural size. — Skull of child 15 years old. 



Tafel 100. 

Natiirliclic CirOsso. — Schiidcl ciiics ir»j;lhr. Kiiidcs. 
sfd sinus frontalis dcxlcr. sfs sinus IVmitalis siiiislcr. 

Oie Figur zoijzt die I\(inti:('ii;i.ufiiahiiu' dcr Stiiiiliolilcii eines 15 Jalire alten 
Kindrrschadels. Die rcchte Stirnliohle (vA/) hat ciiio Ausdeluuing in dcr vcrtikalon 
Richtung von 5 mm iind in diT horizontaloji Richtung von 5 nun. Uie linke Stirn- 
liohle {sfs) hat eine Ausbreitung in der vertikalen Richtung von 11 mm und in dcr 
horizontalen l\ichtimu von S mm. 



Planche 100. 

Grandeur nature. — Crane dun enfant de 15 ans. 
■sfd sinus frontal droit, .</.v sinus frontal gauche. 

Figure montrant le radiogramme de.s sinus frontaux d'un crt'ine d'un enfant de 
15 ans. Le sinus frontal droit (.s/r/) a mie etendue de 5 millim. dans la direction 
verticale et de 5 millim. dans la direction liorizontale. Le sinus frontal gauche (sfs) 
a une etendue de 11 millim dans la direction verticale et de 8 millim. dans la direction 
liorizontale. 



Plate 100. 

Natural size. — Skull of child 15 years old. 
sfd right frontal sinus, s/s left frontal sinus. 

Skiagram shewing the frontal sinuses in the skull of a child aged 15 years. The 
right frontal sinus (sfd) measures 5 mm in the vertical and 5 mm in the horizontal 
direction. The left frontal sinus (sfs) measures 11 mm in the vertical and 8 mm in 
the horizontal direction. 



Tafel 100. 



sfd 



sjs 




V 




Tafel 101. 



Roiitoeiiaiifiialiiiie. 



Natiirliche Grosse. — Schadel eines 18 Jahrigen. 



Planclie 101. 



KjuliogTumiiH'. 



Grandeur nature. — Crane de 18 ans. 



Plate 101. 



SldagTani. 



Natural size. — Adult 18 vears of age. 



Tafel 101. 

Xatiirlic'lH' Grosse. — Schiiclel oinos IS ,]ahrigen. 
.</'/ sinus frontalis dexter, sfs sinus frontalis sinister. 

Pi(> FiLinr zeigt oiiie Hontgeiuiufnahine cines IS Jahro alten Schadels. Die 
roc'hte Stirnlu)hle (sfd) zeigt ciiu' Aiislnvitimo; in vertikaler Kichtung von 15 mm 
uiul in horizontalor Richtung \(>ii '2(\ mm. Die linke Stirnhohle {sfs) hat eine Aus- 
dehnuni: in vert ik-ilci- IJiclitimg \(>ii (i mm iiiid in liorizoutalcr Richtung von 1.'} mm. 



Planche 101. 

G]-a.iuIeui' nature. — Crane de 18 ans. 
sfd i<inus frontal droit, .s/.s sinus frontal gauclie. 

Figin-e montrant le radiogramme d"un cnlne de 18 ans. Le sinus frontal droit 
(sfd) a une etendue de 15 millim. dans la direction verticale et de 26 niillini. dans 
la direction liorizontale. Le sinus frontal gauche (sfs) a une etendue de 6 millim. 
dans la direction verticale et de 13 millim. dans la direction liorizontale. 



Plate 101. 

Natural size. — Adult 18 years of age. 
sfd right frontal .sinus, sfs left frontal sinus. 

The figure shews a skiagram of a skull at the age of 18. The right frontal 
sinus {.sfd) measures 15 mm in the vertical and 26 mm in the horizontal direction. 
The left frontal sinus (sfs) measures 6 mm in the vertical and 13 mm in the hori- 
zontal direction. 



Tafel 101. 



sfd 



sfs 





Tafel 102. 

Rontgenaiifnahme. 

Naturliche Grosse. — Scliadel eines 19 Jahrigen. 



Plaiiche 103. 



Radiogramme. 



Grandeur nature. — Crane de 19 ans. 



Plate 102. 

Skiagram. 

Natural size. - Adult 19 years of age. 



Tafei 102. 

Xivtiirlioho (Irosse. — Schadel eines I!) Jilhrigou. 
sfd sinus frontalis doxtor. ■•<fs sinus frontalis sinister. 

Die Figur zeigt eino lvontg(Muiiifnahni(> ciiics \\) Jaliro alten Schiidels. Die 
rechto StinilioliK' (-^M) hat oino AiKsbivituiig in dor vcrtikaleii IJiclitung von 21 mm 
und in dor horizontalon I'iolituiig von 21 mm. Dio linke StirnliriliU^ (.s/.s) hat eine 
Ausdehnung in dor vertikalen Richtung von Ki mm und in dor horizontalon Richtung 
von 24 mm. 



Planche 102. 

Grandeur nature. — Crane de I'J ans. 
^fd sinus frontal droit, ^/v sinus frontal gauche. 

Figure montrant le radiogiamme d'un cnino de 1!) ans. Le sinus frontal droit 
(sfd) a une etenduo de 21 millini. dans la direction verticale et de 21 millim. dans la 
direction horizontale. Le sinus frontal gauche {sfs) a une etendue de IG millim. 
dans la direction verticale et de 24 millim. dans la direction horizontale. 



Plate 102. 

Natural size. — Adidt 19 years of age. 
sfd right frontal sinus, sfa left frontal sinus. 

The figure shews a skiagram of a skull at the age of 19. The right frontal 
sinus (sfd) measures 21 mm in the vertical and 21 mm in the horizontal direction. 
The left frontal sinus (sfs) measures 16 mm in the vertical and 24 mm in the hori- 
zontal direction. 



Tafel 102. 



sfd 



sfs 



i 




Curt Kabitzsch (A. Stuber's Verlag), Wurzburg. 



Wichtige neue laryngo-rhinologische Werke; 

Die Erdffnung der Schadelhiilile und Freileyung des Gehirns 

von den Nebenhohlen der Nase aus. 

Von Professor Dr. A. Onodi-Budapest. 
Mit 134 teils farbigen Abbildungen im Text auf 89 Tafeln. Preis brosch. Mk. 8.— gebd. Mk. 9. 
(Sonderdruck aus der Zeitschrift fur Laryngologie, Rhinologie und ihre Grenzgebiete 

Band IV, Heft 1.) 



Atlas zur Klinik der Kiliian'schen Tracheo-Bronciioskopie. 

20 farbige Tafeln 
nach pathologlsch-anatomischen Praparaten von Fallen, die im Leben mit Hilfe der Tracheo- 

Bronchoskopie untersucht waren. 

Von Sanitatsrat Dr. M. Mann, 

Dirig. ArztderAbteil.furOhren-,Nasen-u.Halskrankea. Stadtkrankenhaus Dresden- Friedrichstadt. 
Mit Text in deutscher, franzosischer u. englischer Sprache, iibersetzt von Dr. Lautmann- Paris 

und Dr. Guthrie-Liverpool. 
Folio-Format. Preis kart. ca. Mk. 25.—. 

Handbuch der speziellen Chirurgie 
des Obres und der oberen Luftwege. 

H erausgegeben 
von 

Dr. L. Katz, Dr. H. Prey sing, 

Spezialarzt fiir Ohren-, Nasen- und Hals- Prof, der Ohrenheilkunde, ord. Mitglied 

krankheiten in Kaiserslautern, der Akad. fiir prakt. Medizin zuColna. Rh. 

und 

Dr. F. Blumenfeld, 

Spezialarzt fiir Nasen-, Hals- und Lungenkrankheiten in Wiesbaden. 

Erscheinungsiueise und Bezugsbedingungen: 

Um die AnschaPFung zu erleichtern, ist lieferungsweises Erscheinen vorgesehen; der 
Preis richtet sich nach dem Umfang und der Zahl der Tafeln und betragt etwa 4 bis 7 Mark 
pro Heft, die Zahl der Lieferungen etwa 25. Das 4bandige Werk soil ungefahr 130 
Bogen mit zahlreichen Tafeln umfassen. Ausser dem kompletten Werk kann auch auf den 
otologischen oder rhino - laryngol. apart in Verbindung mit Band ' (allgemeiner Teil) subskribiert 
warden. Es sind also apart erhaltlich : Band I und II oder Band I und 111 oder Band I und IV, 
einzelne Lieferungen sind dagegen nieht kauflieh. 

Praktischen Bediirfnissen dienende Darstellung der Operationsgebiete (Topographische 
Anatomic); klare Schilder ung der verschiedenen gebrauchlichen und bewahrten Methoden; 
objektives Abwagen der einen derselben gegen die andere; ein klares Bild des operativen 
Vorgehens, )e nach Lage der Fal le; strafFe Indikationsstellun g, Beriicksichtigung der Instru- 
mentenlehre nach Bedarf; kritis che Wiirdigung der operativen Daue rerfolge und Schilderung 
der Nachbehandlung, das sind die Richtpunkte, nach welch en dieses Werk abgefasst wird. Es 
wird alles umfassen, was fiir den Spezialisten von praktischem Interesse auf operativem 
Gebiete ist. 

Ein Probeheft steht gratis, Lieferung 1/2 zur Jlnsicht zur Verfugung. 
WodieBeschaffungaufSchwierigkeitenstosstjWendeman sich diretcran den Verlag. 
Bisher liegen vor: von Band I 1. Halfte, Lieferung 1 — 6 

„ „ III Lieferung 1. 



Curt Kiibii/sch (A. Stubcr's Verlag), Wurzburg. 



Verhandlungen 

des Vereins siiddeutscher Laryngologen 

1SU4- 11>0:J Puis broscli. Mk. 1.".. . «;thmui. Mk. lO.r.O, lJM)t Trcis Mk. 2M, 1905 Preis 
Mk. :>. . V.Hm rieis Mk. ;>. . mo; rrcis Mk. 4. , 1908 Trcis Mk. 2.- , 
1004 1!H)S ki.mpl. iithcl. iiiit S;ulirfgistrr M. 16.50, 
als deifn Koitsct/iiiii; miiimelir die 

Verhandlungen 

des Vereins deutscher Laryngologen 

15K)S. ri<-is.Mk.L'..-.0; !!»()!> m. It;. \l.bild. Tivis Mk. :>. ; 15>10 in. 1'9 Abbild. I'rcis Mk. 5.-. 
IJMl init ca. oO Abbilduiigcii iiii Text und 9 Taleln. Preis ca. Mk. 7.— . 

/u don Vfrli.inilliingiMi siiilil. I-.Tiyngologen I'.tOS — ISt'S erschioii cin Kcijistor, das aiif Vcrlangcn und bei Abnahme 

dcr Scric gratis gclii-fcrt wird. 
Einbanddccken bierzu sind zura I'rcise von Mk. 1.— erhliltlich. 

Ein wertvolles Nachschlagematerial fiir jeden Laryngologen ; Besitzern der 
neueren Verhandlungsberichtc bietet sich durch Nachbezug der alteren Jahr- 
giinge gute Gelegenheit zur Komplettierung der Serie. 

AbonneinentsBestcUiingen aiif die audi kiinftig in Jahresheften als ^Vephandlungen 
des Vereins doiitsc'li'er Laryngologen" zur Ausgabe gelangenden Publikationen des 
iuinnu-hrii:eii \''Miins deutscher Laryngologen nehnien alle Buchhandlungen entgegen. 



Verhandlungen der Deutschen Laryngologischen Geselischaft 

1. Versammlung zu Heidelberg Pflngsten 1905. Preis Mk. 1.50. 
II. Versammlung zu Dresden 1907. Preis IVlk. 5.—. 

Rontgenatlas 5er Lungentuberkulose. 

Von Chefarzt Dr. Otto Ziegler und Dr. Paul Krause. 

61 Rontgenaufnahmen der Lungentuberkulose in den verschiedensten Stadien in photogr. 

Wiedergabe mit 61 Seiten erklarendem Text und einer Einleitung. 

Preis Mk. 40. -. Vorzugspreis ftir Abonnenten der Brauer'sehen Beitrage, als deren 

II. Suppl.-Band der Atlas gleiehzeitig ersehien, Mk. 30. . 

,,Zi'itschrift fur Laryngologie". Hier in dem Atlas von Ziegler und Krause haben wir ein Werlt vor uns, das 
uns ein reiches .\\aterial, kritisch verarbeitet, in bestmoglichsier Darstellung, zum Teil mit autoptischer Konirolle der 
Ronigenogramme bringt, das jeder ro n tgcn ol ogi sch tatige Lungenarzt bezw. Heilstaite besitzen muss, 
und aus dem selbst der erfahrene R on tgen s pez i al is t recht viel lernen kann. 

New York Medical Journal: We do not think, that we have ever seen better reproduced x-ray pictures. 




Von Dr. med. L. KatZ, Spezialarzt fiir Ohren-, Nasen- und Halskrankheiten in Kaiserslautern. 
Mit 8 Tafeln und 36 Abbildungen im Text. Preis broschiert Mk. 6.80, gebd. Mk. 8.— 

,,Reichs-!i/led.-Anz." : Aus dem bisber zerstreuten Material hat Vcrfasser das Wesentliche in systcmatiscber Darstellung 
zusammengezogen, so dass jetzt miihelos in dieser Monographic alles gefunden werden kann, was friiher nur 
miibsam in den einzelnen Zeitschriften und Archiven zu finden war. Die Darstel lung ist klar und kurz, die Ausstattung 
gut, besonders schon sind die farbigen Tafeln. 

Die direkte Besichtigung der Speiserohre 

dsophagoskopie. 



Ein Lehrbuch fiir den Praktiker 



von Professor Dr. Hugo Starck, Heidelberg. 
Mit 8 farbigen Tafeln und 20 Abbildungen. Preis brosch. Mk. 7.—, gebd. Mk. 8. 



Die Sprache des Kindes und ihre Storungen 

von Dr. Paal Maas, 

Spezialarzt fiir Ohren-, Nasen-, Halsleiden und Sprachstorungen in Aaciien. 
Mit 16 Abbildungen. Brosch. Mk. 2.80, gebunden Mk. 3.50. 

„Monatsschrift fiir Ohrenheilkunde" . . . . Sebr instruktiv ist das Kapitel Uber Taubstummheit gescbrieben, und be- 
sonders erwahnenswert sind auch einige schematische Darstellungen der Wirkung der verschiedenen Kehlkopfmuskeln. Das 
Werkchen sei jedera, der sicb rascb iiber das Wichtigste der Pathologie und Tberapie der Sprachstorungen orientieren will, 
wegen der Klarbeit und Cbersi ch tlichkei t der Darstellung aufs warmste erapfohlen. 

„Prager med. Wochenschrift". . . . Das sehr gut geschriebene und ausgestattete Bucb wird fiir den Spezia- 
listen als eine sehr fleissige und griindliche Zusammenstellurig wicbtiger Tatsachen eine willkommene Bereicherung der 
Literatur bilden. 



Curt Kabitzsch (A. Stuber's Verlag), Wiirzburg. 



DJB ZeitsElirift fiir LnryngploBie, miinolDglE and IhrB BrenzgeliiBte 

bringt unter vorwiegeiuler, wtiia aucb iiiLhl ausschliesbHchei lielonuiig pPaktiSCheP Gesichtspunkte 
Arbeiten aus den im Titel genannten Gebieten. Der Zusammenhang niit den grossen Gebieten der inneren 
Medizin und Chirurgie, wie auch mit den Speziahvissenschaften der Nachbarorgane findet dabei besondere 
Beriicksichtigung. 

Neben Original - Abhandlungen werden die genannten Gebiete in ausgewablten Referaten 

behandelt, sodann bietet ein Literatupvepzeichnis den liiekenlosen Naehweis allep Ep- 
seheinungen auf den Haupt- und Gpenzgebieten dep Zeitsehpift. Berichte gelehrter 

Gesellschaften, streng kritische Besprechungen neuer Biicher, schliesslich den Stand deP Lapyn- 
gOlOgen betPeffende Fpagen unter Ausschluss aller personllchen Polemik erganzen den Inhalt. 

Die ,,Zeitschrift fiir Lar\ngologie etc." erscheint in Archiv-Format ; 6 Hefte bilden einen Band im 
Gesamtumfang von 35 — 40 Bogen mit entsprechendem Illustrationsmaterial, welchem besondere Sorgfalt 
gewidmet wird. AbonnementspPSiS pPO Bd. Mk. 24.—. Einzelhefte werden nicht abgegeben 

AbOnnementSbestellungen und Probehefte vermittelt jcde bessere Buchhandlung, eventuell 
wende man sich direkt an den Verleger 

Curt Kabitzsch (A. Stuber's Verlag), Wiirzburg. 
Originalarbeiten de^ I. Bandes: 

Umfang IV u. 796 S. Text mit 25 Tafeln und 49 Textiliustrationen. 

Heft 4 ferner : 

KPOnenbePg, Durchwandem eines Gewebsstiickes 
durch die Tuba Eustachii nach Operation adenoider 
Wucherungen. 

Rethi, Nochmals zur Indikationsstellung der Nasen- 
scbeidewandoperationen. 

ROSenbePg und Baum, Erkrankungen der Nasen- 
nebenhohlen und des Auges. 

Blumenfeld, Adenoider Schlundring und endothora- 
kale Driisen. Mit 2 Tafeln. 

Thomson, Ursachen und Symptome der Throm- 
bose des Sinus cavernosas. Mit 1 Tafel. 

UfTenOPde, Ein Fall von Choanalatresie mit De- 
monstration. 

Heft 5: 

ManaSSe, Zur pathologischen Anatomie und Klinik 
der malignen Nebenhohlengeschwtilste. Mit 2 Taf. 

TheodOPe, Beitrag zur Lehre von den Endotheliomen 
der ausseren Nase. Mit 1 Tafel. 

IwanOff, Plastische Operationen bei Verwachsungen 
des Nasenrachenraumes. 

Heft 6: 

(P'estscbrift fiir Prof. P. Heymann) 

ZuekePkandl, tJber die Beziehung der Arteria 

nasopalatina zu Blutungen bei Septumoperationen. 

Mit 1 Tafel. 
RitteP, Uber Verdoppelung und abnorme Bildung 

der Stirnhohle. Mit 4 Tafeln. 
ZwaaPdemakeP, Die absolute Luftdurchgangigkeit 

der Nasenhohlen. 
Hajek, Akutes Empyem des Siebbeinlabyrinthes mit 

hochgradigem Exophthalmus. Endonasale Er- 

offnung. Heilung. 
Bptihl, Zur Kasuistik der Stirnhohleneiterungen. 
Kuile, Uber doppelseitige Stirnhohlenoperation und 

deren asthetischen EiTekt. Mit 2 Tafeln. 
Kassel, Zur Geschichte des Karzinoms der Nase. 
LittaUP, Vier Falle von Sinuserkrankungen im Ge- 

foige von Ohreiterungen. 
AlexandeP, Serodiagnostische Untersuchungen zur 

Frage der Beziehungen zwischen Ozaena und 

Syphilis. 
KPOnenbePg, tJber die Operation des Empyems 

der Kieferhohle von der Nase aus. 
Massei, F., Wie soilen Miinzen aus der Speise- 

rohre entfernt werden? 



Heft 1: 

Heymann U. RitteP, Morphologic u. Terminologie 

des mittl. Nasenganges. Mit 16 Abb. im Text. 
GePbeP, Uber sogenannte Laryngitis nodulosa. 
StaPCk, Bedeutung der Osophagoskopie fiir die 

Diagnose u.Behandlung verschluckterFremdkorper. 
Gutzmann, SprachstSrungen u. Rhino-I.aryngologie. 
Kan, Uber einen Fall von congenitalen Larynxluft- 

sacken. Mit 1 stereoskop. Tafel. 
Iwanoff, Uber Larynxafifektionen b. d. Syringobulbie. 
HanSbePg, Angeborene Membranbildung des Kehl- 

kopfes. 
GOPIS, Unterlassung einer wicbtigen Operation wegen 

Verkennung der Diagnose. 
Voigt, Uber Gefassgeschwiilste der Mund- Rachen- 

hohle und des Kehlkopfes. Mit 1 lith. Tafel und 

1 Abbiidung im Text. 
M611eP, JOPgen, Epiglottis - Amputation bei der 

Kehlkopftuberkulose. 

Heft 2: 
Citelli, Uber eine neue Behandlungsmetbode der 

chroniscben Stirnhohleneiterungen. Mit 1 Tafel. 
Vohsen, Operation bosartiger Mandelgeschwiilste. 

Mit 1 Tafel. 
GPaeffneP, Larynx und multiple Sklerose. 
Gluek, Die Chirurgie im Dienste der Laryngologie. 
Gutzmann, Stimme und Sprache ohne Kehlkopf. 

Mit 4 Kurven im Text. 

Heft 3: 
Hopmann, Verkiirzung und Verlagerung des V^omer. 

Mit 2 Tafeln. 
Halle, Die submukose Septumoperation. 
MenleP, Ein Fall von Chorea minor nach Ab- 

tragung der adenoiden Wucherungen geheilt. 
SkillePn, Ein Fall von geschlossenen Empyemen 

der hinteren Siebbeinzellen und Keilbeinhoble, 

welche erst nach der Entfernung der miltleren 

Muschel akut geworden sind. 
MeyeP,UberleukamischeVeranderungenim Kehlkopf. 
HalaSZ, Seltener Fall von Speichelsteinbildung. 
MdlleP, Kritische Bemerkungen zu einer Arbeit von 

Herrn Dr. P. J. Mink-Deventer : Die Glottis. 
Heft 4: 
MayeP, Rhinosklerom in Nord-Amerika. 
Lautmann, 1st die gemeine Ozana eine Infektions- 

krankheit? 



Curt K libit/ sell (A. Stuber's Verlag), Wurzburg. 



Zeitschrift fiir Laryngologie, Rhinologie und ihre Grenzgebiete. 



I. lUiul, Hcfl () Iciiiei : 
Lange, lia^mcnt.irische kliiiischc Hi ti.ulitun};i.n 

iiluM lUc Toiixillar- uiul I'l ritonsillai-Abs/csso. 
Meyer, Arthur, Obcr den lnfelaions\vc<; der 

l.aivnMiibciUiilosc. Mil - Tafcln. 
Massei. VlttO. i:in Kail von llypcitiophio der 

/.lukoikandlsi-hon Diiisc Mit '2 Tafoln. 
Gerber. /-m Hehandlun^derliilHikuloscnEpitjlottitis. 
GlllCk, Voisclilat^c und kasuislischcr Ik-ilraj: zur 

("hiiurnir licr oboicn I.uft- und Speisowetjc. Mit 

1 r.iivi. 

Porter, Nvstagnms des lechlen Slimnibandes und 
(its wiiclicn Gauniens bei cineni Fallc von 
zercbialer l->krankun<:. 



Sonntag. /vsli' an dci X.istnwui/cl. Scptikopyiiniic 

nath I'Jitt'cinunu der (iaunicn- u. Kaclicnlonsille. 
Seifert, HciUa;; zur Beliaiuiluii^ der hystcrischen 

Al>hoiiie. 
PleSCh, Ik'itrafj /ur I'.iliaiuilun^ dor lunklionLlicn 

Slimmstiiruiii^. 
Aron, l>ii' rio^;ii()sc der Aorlen-Aneurysmen. 
Blumenfeld, I'ber tin ncucs Mikhsiiure-Praparat 

fiir die rhuiolarvnt^oloyische I'raxis. 
Burger, bin tikilich vcrlaufener bronchoskopischer 

brenidkinperfall. 
Siegel, Halneotherapie und Krkrankungeii der oberen 

l.uttwegc. 



OrijD^inalarbeiten deti II. Bandes: 

Umfan" : IV u. (JiiO S. Text nut 9 Tafoln und '21 Joxtillubtrationen. 



Hoft 1 : 

MQller, Bcnierkungen iibcr die Operation von 
Sopiunidofoiniitalen; die submucose Resektion 
doi Crista lateralis sepli. Mit 1 Textabbildung. 

Henrici, Der Wcrt der Riintgenaufnahnien zuni Xacli- 
weis von Zahnwurzelcrkrankungen beini Kiefer- 
hohlenenipyem. Mit Tafel I und 1 Textabbildung. 

Alksne, Zur Kiisuistik der Nasensteine. 

Goris liaunienplastik mit Stiinaugcnliderlappen nach 
d< I Hardonhouer'schon Methode. Mit 2 Textabb. 

Iwanoff, Die atypischon Hypertrophien der Mandeln. 
Mil 2 Textabbildungen. 

Avellis, Ein schnierzstillendes Mundwasser. 

Heft 2: 
KatZ, Zur Genese der Septumdifforniitatcn. Mit 

Tafel II. 
Horn, DieSchwierigkeitenderKomplikationen dersub- 

mukusen Operation bei Scheidewanddiffomiitiiten. 
Cohen, Ein Fall von primarem Larynx- und sekun- 

daroni Hautlupus. 
Kronenberg, Einige Bemerkungen iiber die Ge- 

fiihrliclikeit und Indikation nasaler Operationen. 

Heft 3: 
Chiari, Die Laryngo-Rhinologie in den Unionstaaten 

Nordamerikas. 
Schilling, Ein Beitrag zu den chronischen Fremd- 

kc'irporfallon der Lunge. AlitTaf. IH und 1 Textabb. 
Iwanoff, Laryngostomie bei Perichondritis des 

Kolilkopfs. Mit 2 Abbildungen ini Text. 
Winckler, Z. Kasuistikd. Kieferhohlencholesteatoms. 
Hopmann, \'orlagerung des Vomer. MitTaf. IVu. V. 

Heft 4: 
Hoffmann, Uber d, Rbynophyma. M. Taf. VI/VH. 
Citelli, Uber zwei m. mein. Methode behand. klin. 



Heft 4 ferner: 
Sommer, Zur Tubcrkulosc der Hypojihyse. 
Neuenborn, J~)io dinkte Untcrsuchnngsmethode 

dos Larynx und Oesophagus. Mit Tafel IX. 
Hirsehland, Zwei kasuistiscbe Beitriige fiir die 

W'icluigkoit der direkten Rohruntersuchungen. 
Seyffahrt, Einc Stanze zur Septumrcscktion. Mit 

1 Textabbildung. 

Heft 5: 
Imhofer, l^ntfemung eines Fremdkorpers aus der 

Kieferh()hlo mit Hilfe ,dcr Endoskopie. 
Graeffner , Beobachtungen an Gaumen , Rachen 

unil Kohlkopf bei zerebralen Hemiplcgien. 
Iwanoff, Die -Sensibilitatsstorungen des Kehlkopfes. 

(Klinische Studien.) 
Hajek, Die Behandlung der Empyeme der Nasen- 

nebenhohlen. 
Hays, Eine neue Untersuchungsmethode fiir die hintere 

Nase, die Tuben und den Larynx mit eineni elektr. 

Pharyngoskop. Mit 6 Abbildungen im Text. 
Rosenberg, Prim. Larynx- u. sekundiirer Hautlupus. 

Eine Bemerk, zu dem Artikel des Herrn Jos. Cohen. 

Heft 6: 
Luc, Anwendung der Lokalaniisthesie bei Radikal- 

operation der chronischen Stimhohleneiterung. 
KarbOWSki, Beitrage zur Kasuistik der Stirnhohien- 

erkrankungen mit intrakraniellen Komplikationen. 
Reipen, Stimhohlenentztindung, Pyamie, Meningitis 

serosa, Heiiung. 
Guisez, Neue Falle von Diagnosen mittels direkter 

Laiyngoskopie, die mit Spiegel nicht gestellt 

werden konnten. 
SokolOWSki, Graviditat und Kehlkopftuberkulose. 
MeyjeS, Nasenleiden als Folge von Hyperaziditat 

des Blutes. 



Falle v. chron. Stimhohleneiterung. M. Taf. VIII. I 

Originalarbeiten des III. Bander: 

775 S. Text mit 34 Tafein und 42 Textillustrationen. 



Umfang : IV 
Heft 1 : 
KatZ, Uber das endonasale Karzinom. (Mit Betrach- 
tungen iiber das Wachstum epithelialer Elemente in 
der Xase.) Mit 6 Tafein und 3 Abb. im Text. 
Preysing, Atypische NebenhShlenoperat. I\Iit 5 Taf. 
Onodi, Uber die intrakraniellen und zerebralen Kompli- 
kationen der Nasennebenhohlenerkrankungen. 
Menier, Uber akute retropharyngeale Abszesse bei 

Kindem. 
Massei, Die Sensibilltatsstomngen des Larynx u. die 
Anas thesie desVestibulimi bei der Rekurrenslahmung. 
Zickgraf, Xerose und Anosmie. 



Heft 2: 
Seifert , Beitrag zur Amputation der tuberkulosen 

E^piglottis. Mit 2 Textabbildungen. 
Hoffmann, Klinische und pathologische Beitrage zu 

den Erkrankungen der oberen Luftwege. I. Uber 

einen Orbitalabszcss nach Siebbeineiterung. Mit 

1 Stereoskop-Tafel. 
Iwanoff, Technisches zur Laryngostomie. 
Meyer, Uber die Beziehungen der oberen Luftwege 

zum weiblichen Genitalapparat. 
Iwanoff, Uber die Stimme Laryngostomierter. Mit 
2 Figuren und 9 Kurven im Text, 



Curt Kabitzsch (A. Stuber's Verlag), Wiirzburg. 



Zeitschrift fiir Laryngologie, Rhinologie und ihre Grenzgebiete. 

III. Band, Heft 3: Heft 5; 



FrankenbergeP , Augenstoiungen bei Erkran- 

kungen der Nebenhohlen der Nase. (Ein kasuisti- 

scher Beitrag). 
Blumenfeld, Zur pathologischen Anatomic der 

Stimmlippe. Mit 3 Tafeln und 6 Abbildungen 

im Text. 
Citelli, Intubation und Tracheotomie bei akuten 

Larynxstenosen der Kinder. 
Denekei', Ein Fremdkorper im rechten Sinus 

piriformis, Tuberkulose resp. Tumor vortauschend. 
Meyer, Uber nasale Fortsatze hypertrophischer 

Rachenmandeln. 
Kassel, Die Nasenheilkunde des Altertums. 

Heft 4: 
Cohn, Die oberen Luftwege bei den Leprosen des 

Memeler Lepraheims. Mit 1 Tafel. 
Preysing', Spongioslerung der Stirnhohlen. Mit 

2 Tafeln. 
Lautmann, Zur Anasthesie bei der Adenotomie. 

Mit 1 Abbiidung im Text. 
FlataU, Chirurgische und funktionelle Behandlung 

der Stimmlippenknotchen mit besonderer Beriick- 

sichtigung der Frage der Berufsschadigung. 
Weski, Die moderne zahnarztliche Diagnostik im 

Dienste der Rhino- und Otologic. Mit 2 Tafeln 

und 11 Abbildungen im Text. 

]>er IV. Band 

Heft 1 : 
Onodi, Die Eroffnung der Schadelhohle und Frei- 

legung des Gehims von den Nebenhohlen der 

Nase aus. Mit 134 Abbildungen im Text und 

auf 89 Tafeln. 
Gerber, Nebenhohlensyphilis und Nebenhohlen- 

koraplikationen. 

Heft 2: 
Bautze, Beitrag zur Lehre von den Kieferzysten. 
OePtel, Uber Missbildung des Larynx und der 

Trachea mit einem Fall von angeborener Spalt- 

bildung der Stimmbander. Mit 1 Tafel. 
RabOtnOW, Uber submukose Behandlung von 

Muschelhypertrophie. 
Iwanoff, Uber die Sensibilitat des Kehlkopfes. 
Kuhn, Der perorale Weg zur Schadelbasis, zur 

hinteren Nasenapertur und zum Keilbein. Mit 

1 Tafel. 
V. Navratil, Sollen wir nach endonasalen Ein- 

griffen tamponieren ? 

Heft 3: 
Blumenfeld, Zur Erinnemng an Friedrich Hofmann. 
Kassel, Galens Lehre von der Stimme. 
HePXheimeP, Uber das sogenannte „harte Papillom" 

der Nase, mit Beschreibung eines Falles der 

Stirnbeinhohle. Mit 2 Tafeln. 
FpiedPieh, Rhinitis sicca postoperativa. 
Luc, Meine gegenwartige Technik bei der Radikal- 

behandlung der chronischen Stimhohleneiterungen. 

Mit 2 Abbildungen im Text und 1 Tafel. 



Fpese, Eigenartige Erkrankungen der Mund- und 

Rachenschleimhaut. 
Hoffmann, Klinische und pathologische Beitrage 

zu den Erkrankungen der oberen Luftwege. 

II. Zur Pathologic der Kieferzysten. Mit 3 

Tafeln und 1 Abbiidung im Text. 
BuPack, Zur Kasuistik der Komplikationen nach 

Adeno- und Tonsillotomien. 
SytsehOW, Trichloressigsilurcatzungen bei Kehlkopf- 

schwindsucht. 
AvelliS, Ehrlich-Hata in der laryngol. Praxis. 
Safpanek, Elhrlich-Hatas Arsenobenzol bei syphi- 

litischen Erkrankungen der oberen Luftwege. 

Heft 6: 

SehwePdtfeg'eP, Beitrag zur Pathologic und Thera- 
pie der Chondrome der Nase und ihrer Neben- 
hohlen. Mit 1 Textabbildung und 2 Tafeln. 

UffenOPde, Komplizierte Falle von Nasenneben- 
hohlenerkrankung. Mit 5 Textabbildungen und 
1 Tafeln. 

ImhofeP, Rezidive nach Adenotomie. 

V. Stein, Ein Fall von sehr verlangsamter Atmung 
infolge eines Nasenleidens. Mit 1 Tafel. 

AvelliS, Notiz iiber gebrauchsfertige Anwendungs- 
formen von Nebennierensubstanzen in der Rhino- 
logie. 

begann mit: 

KPOnenbePg, Uber iible Zufalle bei der Anbohriing 
der Oberkieferhohle und deren Verhiitung. 

Polyik, Uber gleichzeitige bilaterale Nasenoperati- 
onen und deren Nachbehandlung. 

NeumayeP, Behandlung des Asthma nasale durch 
Nervenresektion. 

Polya, Zur Radikaloperation der Karzinome der 
Orbita und Nase. Mit 1 Tafeln. 

GePbeP, Unser Wissen und Nichtwissen von der 
Plaut-Vincentschen Angina. Mit 2 Tafeln. 

Citelli, Uber 10 Fiille von primiiren malignen Tu- 
moren des Nasenrachens (4 Sarkome, 5 Karzi- 
nome, 1 Endotheliom.) Mit 1 Abbiidung im 
Text. 

OppikofeP, tJber die behaarten Rachenpolypen. 

Safpanek, Uber Blutgefassgeschwiilste in den oberen 
Luftwegen. Mit 1 lith. Tafel. 

YankaueP, Die pharyngeale Tubenmiindung mit 
Beschreibung eines Spekulums und anderer In- 
strumente zur direkten Untersuchung und Behand- 
lung derselben. 

Gluek u. SoePensen, Uber chirurgische Eingriffe 
bei Kehlkopftuberkidose. 

Guthpie, Seltene Falle von Fremdkorpern des 
Rachens. 

Blumenfeld, ilber Blutstillung im Kehlkopf durch 
Klammernaht. 

MayeP u. YankaueP, Weitere bronchoskopische 
Erfahrungen. 

SeifePt, Uber Pemphigus. 

GPaeflfneP, Drehung des Kehlkopfes um einen 
rechten Winkel durch ein Aortenaneurysma. 



Curt Kabitzsch (A. Stuber's Verlag), Wiirzburg. 

bi€ Kiinik der Tuberkulose. 

Ein Hantlbuch der gesamten Tuberkulose fiir Arzte und Studierende. 



Dr. B. BandcUcr, 

CbcfAiit lU-s Saiuttoriuiiis St Inv.ii/w.iliihtiiii-SilioiubiTj;. 



\'on 



Dr. O. Roepkc, 

(lul.ir/l lid Kisciih.iliii-Hoilstiitti- in Mclsungcn. 

gr. S" iiber 30 Bg. Brosch. n ur Mk. 9.50, geb. Mk. 10.70. 

Zeitschrift fur Tuberkulose. ,,l'"in wertvolles und .mf .Irm siih immcr unifanKrciihi-r gcst.illciulcn Cnliiet der Tuber- 
kuIc»ito langr fntbfhrt<-s Hurh . in ilcni man sich schnell und sicher iiber ilii- vcrsibicdcnon Kragen Rat und Aufklarung 
verscbufTen kann. . . . Im ubrigcn stcllt t ins verdienstvolle Werk eine Glanzleistung dar und darf in der Biblio- 
thfk keinc* Ariti-s fchlen." 

= Letirbucli der spezifischen Diagnostik und Therapie der Tuberkulose = 

far Studierende und Arzte. 
Dr. B. Kandelier ^""^ ]>r. O. Roepke, 

Chpfant lies Sanatoriiims Scbwarzw.ilJlioim-Schomberg. Chcfarzt der Eisenbalin-IIeilstiittc in Xlelsungen. 

B^* Sechste erweiterte und verbesserte Auflage. 
Mit ciiiem X'oiwort von Prof, Dr. R. Koch, Kxzcllrn/.. 



gr. 8". XVI und 296 Seiten mit 1 farbigen litli. Taiel, 19 Teinperatur-Kui-ven aiif 5 lith. Taleln 
und 5 Abbildungen im Text. Preis brosch. M. 6.60, geb. M. 7.80. 

P^ Von dicscm Buchd sind in knapp 4 Jahren schon 6 Auflagen notwcndig Kewordcn, kein gerin^jercr als Rob. 
Korh s.ii;t im Vorwort zur 3. Auflage, dass es „einen zuverlassigen Fiihrer bildet fiir aUe diejenigen, welche die 
spezifiscbe Behandlung selbst ausiiben lAronen". Die Forschungsergebnisse sind bis in die neueste Zeit beriicksichtigt 
und den grosson Erfahtuogen der Vcrfasser cntsprechcnd kritisch gewiirdigt. 



Kompendium der Rdntgendiagnostik 

Von Dr. Edgar Ruediger, Kiel. 

6 Bogen mit 12 Abbildungen im Text un5 2 Tafeln mit R5ntgenbil5ern. 
Preis brosch. Mk. 3.—, geb. Mk. 3.60. 
Fiir pral^t. Arzte und Studierende ist die Rontgendiagnostilc ein schwieriges Feld, fiir 
erstere besonders dann, wenn ihre Ausbildungszeit weiter zuriickliegt und sie noch keine 
Gelegenheit hatten, an Fortbildungskursen teilzunehmen. Es gehoren gute physikalische 
Vorkenntnisse dazu, um in die radiologische Forschung einzudringen; diese Kenntnisse will 
der kleine Leitfaden vermitteln und ausserdem den Praktiker, der oft zur Anwendung der 
Rontgendiagnostik gezwungen ist, zur richtigen Deutung der Bilder anleiten. Wenn er auch 
Rontgenaufnahmen selbst zumeist dem Spezialisten iiberlassen wird, so muss er doch die 
Grenzen des Verfahrens kennen, um es richtig anzuwenden und die richtigen 
Schliisse daraus zu Ziehen. Bei Fortbildungskursen und den jungen 
Klinikern wird der billige Leitfaden besonders von Nutzen sein. 

,,Schematische Zeicbnungen und einige Thoraxbilder auf Tafeln fordern das Verstandnis der Ausfiihrungen. 
Dem Zwecke, dem das Buch laut Vorwort dienen soil, ist Verfasser in meisterhafter Weise gerecht geworden." 

Dr. A. Kohler- Wiesbaden in ,,Zeitsckr iff fiir Laryngologie" 



Die Immunltatswissenscliaft. 

Eine kurzgefasste Ubersicht uber die 

Immunotherapie un5 -Diagnostik 

— — fiir praktische Arzte un5 Stu()ieren5e. =— ^— 



Von Dr. Hans /Auch^ Oberarzt am Eppen&orfer Krankenhaus. 
Mit 5 Tafeln unb 6 Abbilbungen im Text. 
Preis broschiert M. 7.20, gebanden M. 8. — . 

Muncbener med. Wochenschrift. Es ist ein prachtiges Buch, das der Verfasser da der Arztewelt geschenkt hat. 
Wie man es in die Hand nimmt, ist man gefesselt, uad die Aufmerksamkeit ist gebannt von der ersten bis zur letzten Seite . . . 
Klar und leicht fasslich f iihrt es auch den unbewanderten Leser in den verwickelten Stotf der Immunitatslehre ein . . . Eine 
ausserordentlich grosse Erfahrung, gesammelt an dem klinischen Material des Eppendorfer Krankenhauses, kommt dem Ver- 
fasser zur Hilfe. Man merkt ihm auf Schritt und Tritt an, dass er in fast alien behandelten Zweigen durch praktische T}jt>g- 
keit zu Hause ist. . . . Als Paradigma sei nur das Kapitel iiber ,, Tuberkulose" hervorgehoben, in seiner pragnanten Kiirze 
imd erschopfenden Darstellung geradezu vorbildlich. Wir wiinschen \'ielen Lesern dieselbe Freude an diesem Buch 1 



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