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' AN 


Of the Firft 

Voyages and Discoveries 

Made by the S p a n i a r d s in America. 

The moft Exad Relation hitherto pub- 
lifli'd, of their unparallel'd Cruelties 
on the Indknsj in the deftru6tion of a- 
bove Forty Millions of People. 

With the Propofitionsoffer'd totheKing of Spam, 
to prevent the further Ruin of thQWefi-hdies. 

By Do^ Bartholomew de las Qafa6\f Bifhop ofChiapa, 
who was an Eye-witnefs of their Cruelties. 

llluftrated with Cuts, 

To vvhich is added. 

The Art of Travellings fhewing how a Man may 
difpofe his Travels to the beft advantage. 


Printed by J. Darby for D. Brown at the Black Swan 
and Bible without Temple- Bar, J. Harris at the 
Harrow in Little Britain^ and Andr. Bell at the 
Crofs-kcys and Bible in Combil. M.DCXC.IX. 


AMerica wasfrfi difcover''d by Chriflopher 
Columbus A Genoefe in the year 149 , 
in the Name of Ferdinando Kjng ^f 
Arragon, hut takes its Name from Ame- 
ricus Vefpucius a Florentine, who difcover^d the 
Country of Brezil five years after ^ by order of 
Emanuel KJng of Portugal. 

The Europeans had no fooner enter'^d on this 
vafi Continent y and the I (lands about itj but the Na- 
tives fhew*d ''em aE imaginable Kjndnefs and Kefp^^ 
and were ready to worjhip ''em as Gods ; but thefefoon 
took care to convince ''em of their Error ^ and to de- 
liver ''em from the danger of falling into thi^ fort of 
Idolatry^ by treating ''em with all manner of Cruel- 
ties^ and tormenting ''em like fo many Devils : fo 
that thefe barharom People receiv'*d as great a 
turn in their thoughts concerning the Spaniards, as 
the Barbarians of the Ifland of Melita did in refpe^ 
of St. Paul ; for as theje believ''d him to be a God 
whom they had juft before taken for a Murder er, fo 
the other really found them to he Murderers, whotn 
they had a little before efieem^d asfo many Gods, 

The following Relation of the Defiruiiion of ma- 
ny Millions of Indians by all the inhuman methods 
the Spaniards could invent, would appear incredible^ 
were not the truth of it confefs*dy and attefled by 
the Spaniards themfelves^ and among others, efpe- 
daily by Don Bartholomew de las Cafas Bi/Jjop of 
Chiapa, who made large Complaints of thefe Cru' 
A 2 elties 

The P R E F A C E. 

Bities to the Kjng of Spain, and. to the RoydCoufP- 
tilfor the Indies, with a defign to fut a. flop to "^em 
if fofjthk. That he is a Ferjon of irrepraachahle 
Credit in this cafe., will appear hy the jollowing ac- 
count., wherein he challenges all the World to dif- 
prove the truth of the matters of Fact he ajferts., 
while he food the Teft of a Court who could eafilj 
have detected himy if he had attempted to impofe on 
^em by a malicious Faljhood. 

This Bijhop writes with fuch an Air of Honejly^ 
Sincerity, and Charity y as would very well h$ve he* 
come one of a better Religion than that in which he 
had the unhappinefs to be educated. It may well fur-* 
prize the Reader to hear a Spanifll Prelat declaim 
JO loudly againft Perfecutian^ and plead fo freely for 
Liberty of Confcience in a Country fubjugated to 
the Inquifition. To hear him in his dispute againfi 
Doctor Sepulueda, decry all methods of Violence for 
the propagation of the Truth, as more fut able to 
the Maxims of Mahometifm than the Principles of 
Chriftianity : To hear him affert the Natural Right 
of all Mankind to Liberty and Property, and invetgh 
againjt all Vfurpation and Tyranny in the fmartefl: 
Terms, is enough to move any one'*s Wonder, and Pity 
too, when on the other band "'tis obferv^d how much 
he magnifies the Power and Authority of the Pope in 
Come of his Proportions contained in the following 
Treat ife. But all may ferve to convince one how great 
an advantage or difadvantage a Man has as he 
pleads the Caufe of Tr'uth or Error ; and of the 
great, difference there is 'beti:ecn the genuin Lan^ 
guage if Reafon and good Senfe, and the fervil 
Prejudices of Bigotry and Sups'ftition, 



'T// fio lefs A SuhjeB of Admiration that a. Book 
of this Jt amp, which reflects fofharplj on Ferfecution 
and Tyranny, fhould fee the light cum privilegio at 
this time of day in France, where the Civil and Re- 
ligiou^ Liberty of Subjects have not been provided 
for with the utmofl Care, where rhe Will of the 
Prince has long ftnce been the Law, and Dragoons 
of late years the principal Miffionaries for the Pro- 
pagation of the Gofpel. 

This Treat if e wasfrfi compos'' d in Spanifli in the 
beginning of the Reign of Charles V. and was 
long fwce tranflated and printed in more Lan- 
guages than one \ but having lately receiv'^d a new 
drefs in Modern French at Paris, V/j hofd this 
Tranflation from the French will not be unaccepta- 
ble to the English Nation. Ym fure the above- 
mention* d Principles of the Bijhop of Chiapa con- 
cerning Property and Liberty both Civil and Reli- 
gious, are more agreeable to the Genius and Confli- 
tution of this ijland, than to the prefent temper of 
that part of the Continent which lies near eft to it ; 
and fo this Book may expect at le aft as favorable a 
reception in this Nation as in that where it has. 
been lately publifjj'd. 

What the Btjhopfays here and there in favor of 
his own Religion, is jo weak, and has been fo often 
exploded here and every where elfe where the Refor- 
mation has obtained, that "'twould be unnecejfary to 
confute any of thofe Popifh Fancies in this Preface^, 
^Tts enough for me that 1 have faithfully difcharg^d 
the fart of a Tranjlator. And if fome particular 
things occur more than once, it muft be conftder'^d on 
the one hand, that the Biflpop had need to mention 


them on divers occafiom, as when he dijpufed, and 
when he wrote his Arguments for the ufe of the 
Kjng 0/ Spain, &c. and on the other ^ that the Im- 
portance of the Affair y and the Greatnefs of his 
Xeal to have the Grievances he complained of re- 
drefs'*d^ made fo deep an Imfrefflon of fame things on 
his Mind that he could not forbear to repeat "^em. 

As for the Tranflation it felf I hope thofe that 
fbafl have the Curiofity to compare it with the French 
Copy^ will find that 1 have done it fuflice. And 
if there is not that exactnefs of Method and Stile 
the prefent Age expecfs^ it may be the better ex- 
cus dy when "'tis conpder'^d how long fence the Original 
was compos"* d. However, the extraordinary things 
contained in this Hifiory will make fujfic lent amends 
for any Defers in the Compofition of the Bijhop of 
Chiapa, and for the abrupt Tranjitions fometimes 
us^d by the Compiler of this Treatife inputting the 
Bijbop^s fever al Pieces together, of which it almojl 
wholly confijls. 

Ifball only add^ That as no Hijlory in the World 
can parallel this for the inhuman flxughter of fuch 
vaft numbers of People ; fo thefe Barbarities^ to- 
gether with the bloody Croifades in the 1 2th and 
I ^th Centuries y as well as the many Perfecutions 
and Majf acres fince the Reformation, render it no 
difficult matter to difcern to what Church that Pro- 
phetick Character agrees^ that in her was found 
not only the Blood of Prophets and of Saints, but 
of all that were {lain upon the Earth. Rev, 

18. 2J. 




THE Introduflion. page i. 

A particular Account of what the Spaniards 
did in HifpanioJa, 6. 

Of the Kingdoms contained in the Jy?<s(«f/o/Hirpaniola. 9. 
Of the I/lands of St. John tfw^ Jamaica. . 18. 

Of the Jjland of Cuba. ip. 

Of the Continent. 23, 

Of the Province of Nicaraqua. 28. 

Of New Spain. 32. 

A more particular jiccount of New Spain. 34. 

Of the Kingdom of Guatimala. 41. 

Of New Spain ; of Panuco and Xalifco. 47. 

If the Kingdom of Yucatan. 52. 

If the pSvince of St. Martha. 60. 

If the Province of Carthagena. 53. 

)/ the Pearl-Coaft, and the Jjland of Trinidado. 64. 
If the River Yuya-pari. 73. 

9/ the Kingdom of Vencuela. 74. 

Of the Provinces of the Continent caWd Florida. 80. 
Of the River de la Plata, or Silver River. 82. 

Of the great Kingdoms and Provinces of Peru. 84. 
A Letter from Frier Mark de Xlicia to the King of 

Spain againji the Cruelties of the Spaniards. 87. 
y the new Kingdom of Grenada. p2. 

A Letter of Bartholomew de las Cafts concerning the 

Spanilh Cruelties in the Weft-Indies. 1 00. 

A Fragment of a Letter relating to the fame Jff air. 104. 
The Bifhop of Chiapa'i Bifcourfe to the King of Spain in 

order to prevent the ruin of the Weft-Indies, pag. 115. 
H'vi Propofitions concerning the Title of the Kings of Spain 

to America. 1 38. 

The Contents. 

A Difpute between the Bijhop of Chiapa and Dr. Sepu- 
lueda concerning the lawfulness of the Wars made by 
fk Spaniards o» tfce Indians. 150. 

The Bp of Chiai^a's further Sentimtnts of that affair. t6o. 

//is Rtafom at large for fubjcBing the Welt-Indies to 
the Crown of Spain, and thereby preventing the Ra- 
njagts of the Spaniards there^ &:c. 1 84. 

Newly publi/Fd^ 

AN Inquiry concerning Virtue, in two Difcourfes : the firifl 
of Virtue, and the belief of a Deity •, the fecond, of the 
ObHgations to Virtue. Price bound in Calf 3 s. 

The Complete Works of Mr. fames Harrington: With a Prelimi- 
nary Difcourfe upon them, ^c Fot. 

A Complete Colleftion of the Hirtorical, PoHtical, and Mifcella- 
neous Works of Mr. John Milton. Together with his Life. 
With fonie things never before publifh'd. In 2 Vol. Fot, 

An Argument, fhewing that a Standing Army is inconfiftent with 
a Free Government, and abfolutely deftruftive to the Liberties 
of this Nation. In two Parts. 

A Letter from the Author of the Argument againfl a Standing 
Army, to the Author of the Balancing Letter. 

The Militia Reformed, or an eafy Scheme of furnifhing England 
with a conftant Land-Force, capable to prevent or to fubdue any 
foren Power, and to maintain perpetual Quiet at home, with- 
out endangering the Public Liberty. 

4 Letter to a Member ot Parliament, (hewing that a Reftraint on 
the Prefs is inconfiftent with the Proteftant Religion, and dan- 
gerous to the Liberties of the Nation. 

A Letter to his Majefty King WiUiam concerning the Expedients 
us'd CO fupport the EngUfti Monarchy. 

^.~ Tk& CrucLtLes uscL l?t/ t/i^ 

t4nf\i^r en t/ic Itidtc 


p. Zi . 

Tfie. (Spantards Crueltt 

the Indians Sec 


^^M^^( r^^fw^ 


(1 ) 

•iilrttfil fiiiiT(fT*V1 



OF The 
Vo Y AGES and Cruelties 

Of the Spaniards in the 


THE Wejl-Inclies wer*- difcover'd in th^ 
Year 1492 •, the yenr after the S^aniardi 
fetled there, and inhabited this nevr 
World. But for t:he fpace of thefe 4$> 
years lalt palt, an infinite nvimber of People haV0 
left Spain to dwell in thefe Cot jntries •. they generally" 
touch at Hifianiola^ Which i3 a very fertile and large 
llland, and is become very ^/araous : The Extent of 
it is above <^oo Leagues ^ 't'ls furrounded with a muU 
titudeof fmall Iflandfj, an'i abounds fo with Inhabi-* 
tants,that there's no Country in the World more po* 
pulous. The Contini^nC, Which is above 250 Leagues 
diftant from it, is of a vail Extent j a great part of 
which has been alre^idy difcoVered^ and frefh Dlf^ 
coveries are made every day : and fuch great riuttl* 
bers of People inhabit all thefe Countries, that ifi 
feems as if Providence had artiafs'd together the 
greateft part of Mankind in this pan of the World. 

B All 

2 A Relation of the Spanifh Voyages 

All thefe People are naturally fimple, they know 
not what belongs to Policy and Addrefs,to Trick and 
Artifice ^ but are very obedient and faithful to their 
rightful Governors : They are Humble, Patient, 
and Submiflive, even to the Spaniards who have fub- 
dued and enflav'd 'em : they love to live quietly, and 
•ate enemies to difputes and quarrels, hardly know- 
ing what 'tis to be malicious, and feldom meditafeting 

They are a weak effeminate People, not capable 
of enduring great Fatigues *, they care not to be ex- 
posed to Toil and Labour, and their Life is of nc? long 
continuance-, their Conflitution is fo nice, that a 
fmall fit of Sicknefs carries 'em off. The Children 
of their Princes and Nobility, are in all refpeds 
dealt with like thofe of the meaneft Subjeds : in 
which they differ much from our £^urppeans^ among 
whom the Children of Kings and great Men, arc 
brought up with ail the delicacy and tendernefs ima- 
ginable. ,^, , . . . ,- ^ 
'.. The People of this Tlland are fo very poor,, that 
they live in the want of almoll every thing*, they 
are very cool and indifferent in the purfuit of tem- 
poral Advantages, ar?d feem not to be inclined to 
Pride and Ambition •,. their way of living is lb fru- 
e;al, that the antient Hermites in the Wildernefs 
were fcarce more Sober and Abftemious. All the In-- 
dians in general go naked, only they have the mo" 
defly to wear a fort of Apfon about their Wafte. 
They fometimes ufe a kind of fliaggy Covering,, or 
a piece of Cloth an Ell or two long : Thofe of the 
befl Fafhion lie on Beds made with Girts tyed in 
iCrlotsat the four Corners: their Apprehenfion is 
quick and fubtile, therefore they are very docile, 
capable of receiving the imprelfions, of found Do- 
ftrine, and eah'lyinclin'd to embrace the Principles 
of the Gatholick Religion : They are no Enemies to 

And Cruelties in the Weflr-Indles. ^ 

good Manners, but have a greater difpolition to Ci- 
vility than many other Nations, becaufe their man- 
ner of Life is free from that care and diftradion ia 
which the perplexity of Bufinefs involves others. 
The very firft Ideas and Inllrudions that are given 
'em of our Religion, kindle in their Souls fo great a 
delire to the Sacraments and Divine Service of our 
Church, that thofe Monks that inftrud 'em, have 
need of a great deal of Patience to moderate the ira- 
petuofity of their Minds, and to anfwer all the Que- 
ftions they have the curiofityto ask. And it may 
truly be faid that thefe Indian Nations would be the 
moft happy in the World, if endued with the know- 
ledg of the true God. The Spaniards themfelves 
who have treated 'em fo ill, cannot but confefs the 
goodnefs of their natural Temper, and the great 
difpofition of their minds to every kind of Vertue. 

The Almighty feems to have infpir'd thefe People 
with a meeknefs and foftnefs of Humour like that of 
Lambs : and the Spaniards who have given 'em fo 
much Trouble, and fallen upon 'em fo fiercely, re- 
ferable favage Tigers, Wolves, and Lions, whenin- 
rag'd with prefling Hunger. They applied them- 
felves forty years together wholly to the mallacring 
the poor Wretches that inhabited the lOands ^ 
putting them to all kinds of unheard of Torments 
and Punifhments, (a part of which Cruelties exer- 
cifed on thefe miferable Indians we defign to defcribo 
in the fequel of this Work) infomuch that this Ifland 
which before the arrival of the Europeans, contain- 
ed about three Millions of People, is now reduc'd to 
lefs than three hundred. The Ifland of Cuba^ the 
length of which is equal to the diftance between 
F'alidolid and Rorne^ is entirely defert and deftitute 
of its Inhabitants, and nothing but Ruins nov/ to be 
feen in it. The Iflands of St. John, and Jamaica, 
have met with the like Treatment, which were 

B 2 very 

4 A Relation of the Spanifh' Voyages 

very fertile and populous, but are rcnder'd defolatc 
and wafte by the like means. The IQands near Cu- 
ba and Hifpamola on the North-fide are fixty in 
number, which are commonly calVd the Ifles of Gi- 
ants, of which the leaft fruitful abounds more with 
Plenty than the Royal Garden of Seville ^ but they 
are deftitute of Inhabitants, tho 'tis as wholefom 
,an Airas men can breath in. When the Spaniards 
.jirft landed in thefe llles, there were above five 
.hundred thoufand Souls ^ they cut the Throats of a 
great part of thefe-, and carried away the reft by 
force to make 'em work in the Mines of Hifpaniola, 
When fome pious Perfons embarked to vifit thefe 
Ifles after the Ravage the Spaniards had made in 'em, 
they found but eleven People left there : It was from 
the motives of Charity and Compaflion they under- 
took this difficult and perilous Voyage, in hope to 
inftruft thefe poor Creatures in the knowledg of Je- 
fus Chrift. Above 30 Ifles near that of St. Joljn were 
entirely depopulated, tho of a vaft Extent, fo that 
tiiere is fcarce an Inhabitant to be found in them. 

As for the Continent 'tis certain, and what I my 
felf know to be true, that the Spaniards have ruined 
ten Kingdoms there, bigger than all Spain^ by the 
commillionof all forts of Barbarity and unheard of 
Cruelties. They have driven away or kill'd all, the 
Inhabitants ^ fo that all thefe Kingdoms are defolate 
to this day, and reduc'd to a moft deplorable Con- 
dition, tho this was formerly the bell peopled 
Country in the World. Wc dare aflert, without 
fear of incurring the reproach of exaggerating, that 
in the fpace of thofc forty years in which the Spani- 
ards exei cis'd their intolerable Tyranny in this new 
World, they unjufl;ly put to death above twelve 
Millions of People, counting Men, Women, and 
Children : and it may be affirm 'd without injury to 
Truth, upon a juil Calcultition, that during this 


and, Cruelties in the Weft-Indies. 5 

fpace of Time, above fifty Millions have died ia 
tfaefe Countries. 

The Spaniards who invaded thefe Ifles, and boalled 
of their Chriftianity, made ufe of two ways prin- 
cipally to exterminate the Inhabitants: thefirftof 
which was by an iinjuft and bloody War carried on 
with the utmoft Barbarity and Cruelty y the other 
was that deteflable Policy which infpir'd them to 
malTacre all that had any remains of Liberty, or 
endeavour'd to fhake off their Tyrannical Yoke, and 
to free themfelves from fo unjaft and intolerable a 
Slavery \ for this the bravefl, moil potent, and moil 
warlike Nations off the Indians attempted. When 
the Spaniards had killVl all the Men in the War, they 
fuffer'd the Women and Children to live, but with 
the impolition of a Yoke {o cruel and infupportable, 
that their Condition was rcndred as miferable as that 
of Beails. A multitude of other particular methods 
were taken for the deflruftion of thefe poor Ame- 
ricans^ but they may be reduc'd in general to thofe 
two we have mentioned. 

The Gold and Silver thefe People had in their pof- 
feffion, was the Motive that violently prompted the 
Europeans to perfecute and deilroy 'em. The ear- 
neil defire they had of fpeedily enriching themfelves, 
in order to procure-fuch Honour and Dignity as far 
exceeded their Condition, infpir'd 'em with all this 
inhumanity. In a word, their Avarice and Ambi- 
tion were arriv'd to an excefs beyond Imagination ; 
theimmenfe Riches of the new World, the trada- 
ble, fwect, and good difpofition of the Indians^ 
which renderMa defccnt into their Country eafy to 
any that would attempt it, have occafion'd all the 
Ravage and Spoil, all the horrid Mallacresand Cru- 
elties which the Spaniards have caus'd 'em to fuffer. 
They made fo little account of the miferable Inha- 
bitanrs of thefe Iflands', that I may aver, without 

B 3 fear 

6 A Relation of the Spanifh Fojages 

fear of being accus'd either of Impofture, or of fpeak- 
ing inconfiderately, fince 'tis that of which I have 
been an Eye-witnefs, that they valued them lefs, and 
treated them worfe than Beafts. They had fo little 
regard to the Salvation of their Souls, that they 
would not give themfelves the trouble fo much as to 
fpeak of the Chriflian Faith and Sacraments to thofe 
numberlefs multitudes of Men and Women whom 
they facrific'd to their Ambition and Tyranny. And 
that which aggravates the enormity of their Crimes, 
is, that thefe poor Indians had ofFer'd 'em no Inju- 
ry, but on the contrary, gave 'em as much Honour 
and Refpeft as if they had been fent from Heaven •, 
till they were wearied out with repeated Outra- 
ges and Maflacres, and conftrain'd to betake them- 
lelves to Arms contrary to their inclination, and to 
repel force by force, to fecure themfelves from the 
horrible Violences and Infults of their Enemies, who 
invented divers kinds of Torments for them, with 
a Barbarity beyond all Defcription. 

u4 pariicuiar Account of what the Spaniards did, 
in Hifpaniola. 

\ 3% T this Ifland the Spaniards arrivM in their firft 
Jl\ Voyages, and here began to perfecute and 
murder the Indians^ taking away their Wives and 
Children, and ullng 'em, or rather abufing 'em at 
their pleafure. They devoured all that thefe poor 
Creatures had amafs'd together for their Subfiftence 
with a great deal of Care and Labour, not content 
with what they freely offer'd 'em as far as their Po- 
verty and the meannefs of their Condition would 
permit: for they arefatisfied with what is of pure 
Neceffity>not troubling themfelves with fuperfluities, 


and Cruelties in the Weft- Indies. 7 

or laying up great ftores before hand. One S^a~ 
ward would confurae in a day, that which would 
have fuffic'd three Indian Families of ten Perfcns 
each, for the fpace of a whole Month. This ill 
treatment and fpoil foon made the Inhabitants of 
this Ifland lofe the Efteem they had conceiv'd of the 
Spaniards, whom they at firlt look'd upon as mef- 
fengers from Heaven : fothat at length they began 
to hide their Wives and Children, and whatever 
Goods they had from 'em. Some retired into Caves, 
others fled up into the Mountains to avoid meeting 
witli the Spaniards who now appear'd fo terrible and 
cruel to 'em. The Spaytiards did not content tb.em- 
felves to beat 'em, and to offer 'em many other 
Indignities, 1but cut their Throats in cold Blood : 
and without any refpedl either to Age or Quality, 
put their Princes, and the Governors of their Cities 
to death : They came to that height of Impudence and 
Villany, that a Spanijh Captain had the Infolencc 
to abufe the Wife of the greatelfc King of the 
Ifland. This vile fad drove 'era quite to defpair, 
fo that from that time they fought means of dri- 
ving the Spaniards out of their Country ; they be- 
took themfelves to Arms, and did what they could 
to defend themfelves againft thefe Tyrants : but 
the Weapons they us'd were neither capable of 
defending them, nor of ofTending their Enemies to 
any purpofe ; and were more like thofe that Chil- 
dren ufe to play with, than fuch as are fit for Soul- 
diers to ufe in War. 

The Spaniards, who were mounted on fine Horfes, 
and armed with Lances and Swords, look'd upon 
Enemies fo meanly equip'd with the greateft Con- 
tempt, and committed the mofl; horrible Slaughters 
with Impunity. They pafs'd through the feveral 
Cities^ and Towns, fparing neither Age nor Sex, 
but kill'd Women and Children as well as Men : 

B 4 They 

8 J Relation of the SpaniHi Voyages 

They rip'd up Women with Child, that Root and 
Branch might be deftroy'd together. They laid 
Wagers one with another, who fhould cleave a Man 
down with his Sword raoft dexteroufly at one blow \ 
or who fhould take his Head from his Shoulders moft 
cleverly ^ or who fliould run a Man through after 
the moll artificial manner : They tore away Chil- 
dren out of their Mothers Arms, and dalh'd out 
their Brains againft the Rocks \ others they threw 
into the River, diverting themfelves with this bru- 
tifli Sport, and giving great fhouts while they faw 
^em in this mifery : And to add infulting Scoffs to 
their Cruelty, advis'd 'em to ftruggle in the Water, 
^nd try if they could fave themfelves from drowning. 
They held up the Bodies of Mothers and Children 
together upon their Lances : they fet up Gibbets, 
jmd hang'd up thirteen of thefe poor Creatures in 
honour to Jefus Chrill and his twelve Apoftle ( as 
they blafphemoufly exprefs'd themfelves) : They 
kindled a great Fire under thefe Gibbets, to burn 
thofe they had hang'd upon 'em : They cut off the 
Hands of thofe they fav'd alive, and fent 'em away 
in that miferable condition, bidding 'era carry the 
News of their Calamities to thofe that were retir'd 
Into the Mountains to efcape the Spaniards. 

They ere<^ed a fmall Scaffold, fupported with 
Forks and Poles, upon which to execute their Chiefs, 
and thofe of the moft confiderable quality among 
^em» When they had laid 'era at length upon this 
§caffbld, they kindled a gentle Fire, to make 'em 
feel themfelves die gradually, till the poor Wretches 
after the mofl exquifite Pain and Angujlh, attended 
with horrible Screeches and Outcries, at length exr. 
pirM-. I one day faw four or five Perfons of the 
higheil Rank in this Ifland burn'd after this manner, 
But the dreadful Cries this Torment extorted from 
''^iTij incommoding ^ Spniih Captain, and hindring 

4»d Cruelties m the WQd-'lndks, 9 

his Sleep, he commanded 'em to be prefently 
itrangled. But a certain Officer whofe Name I 
know, and whofe Relations are well known at Sc- 
<viUe^ put Gags into their Months to hinder 'em from 
making a Noife, that he might not be depriv'd of 
the brutilh Pleafure of broiling them gently, till 
they breath'd out their Souls in this Torment. I 
have been an Eye-witnefs of all thefe Cruelties, and 
an infinite number of others which I pafs over in 

And becaufe thefe poor People took all the care 
they could to hide themfelves from a Generation of 
Men fo barbarous and wicked as the Spaniards, who 
had no Sentiment of Humanity, Honour, or Reli-? 
gion left, but aded as if they were made for nothing 
elfe but to deftroy Mankind '-, to add further to their 
brutilh Cruelty, they taught Dogs to go a hunting 
for thefe poor Wretches,and to devour 'em as if they 
had been Beafts. And becaufe the Indians after 
they had been provokM with fo many unheard of 
Injuries, now and then kilPd one of them when 
they met with 'era ftragling ^ the Spaniards made 
9 Law among themfelves to mafTacre a hundred In* 
dians for every Spaniard they Ihould kill. 

Of the KJngdoms contained in the Ijlan^ of ^ 

Hlfpaniola contains five great Kingdoms, the 
Kings of which were very powerful, and go- 
verned all the other Chiefs, whofe number is very- 
great : yet there are fome independent Countries 
which have their particular Lords, and are not 
fubject to any of thofe Kings. One of thefe Kings 
ll]ey call Ma^na^ which lignifies a Pkin^ his Name 


lo A Relation of the SpaniOi Voyages 

being taken from the fituation of his Kingdom, 
v/hich is extremely pleafant. This Plain is 80 
Leagues in extent from South to North, but is 
only five, eight, and fometimes ten Leagues in 
breadth. 'Tis encompafsM on every fide with high 
Mountains; 'tis waterM with a great number of 
Brooks and Rivers, of which there are twelve that 
come not behind thofe famous Rivers the Ehre^ 
the Duere^ and the Guadalquivir for bignefs. The 
Rivers that water this Plain, efpecially thofe falling 
down from a Mountain that looks towards the Weft, 
abound with Gold. This Mountain bounds the 
Province of Cihao^ where the Mines bearing that 
Name produce that pure Gold of the finenefs of 
24 Carrats, fo much talk'd of in Europe. The So- 
veraign of this Kingdom was call'd Guarionex ; he 
|iad under him fuch powerful Subjefts, that one of 
'em could bring i5ooo Men into the field for 
the King's Service. I knew fome of thefe Indian 
Lords. This King was very fubmifiive to the Kings 
of Spain^ and exprefs'd a great deal of AfFedion to 
them. His Humour was mild and peaceable ; and 
his Soul capable of every Vertue. He once or- 
dered all his Subjefts to bring him each of 'em a 
great Purfe of Gold ; but finding they were not in a 
condition to anfwer his Requirement, he remitted 
half this Tax. The Inhabitants of this Ifiand have 
not the Art of extrading Gold out of the Mines. 
This Cacique voluntarily offer'd himfelf to the Ser- 
vice of the King of S^ain^ on condition the Queen 
Ifabella would take care that thofe Lands Ihould be 
cultivated, which the Spaniards inhabited at their 
firft Arrival in the Indies^ extending about the fpace 
of 50 Leagues towards St. Domingo: for he faid his 
Subjeds had no Experience or Skill to extraft Gold 
out of the Mines. If this Condition had been ac- 
cepted, he woald faithfully and joyfully have accom- 


and Cruelties in the Weft-Indies. 1 1 

plifhed his Promife, which would have been of vaft 
advantage to the King of Sp^/w, who might have 
taken above three Millions or Gold every year out 
of thefe Mines \ and confequently there might now 
have been fifty Cities in this Province as fine as ' 

But what grateful Acknowledgments did the 
Spaniards return to the kind Offers of this Prince, 
who gave fach Proofs of his Good-will to 'em, and 
iincere defire to ferve 'era ? They covered him with 
Shame and Infamy, his Wife was violated (as has 
been faid ) by a Spanijh Captain, a Wretch un- 
worthy of the Chriftian Name. This Prince might 
have waited for an opportunity to revenge himfelf 
of this Outrage, but chofe rather to retire and live 
in Obfcurity and Exile in the Province of one of his 
Subjeds, voluntarily abdicating his Kingdom and 
Government. The Spaniards being inform'd of the 
place of his Retreat, purfued him with the utmoft 
Fury, without giving him time to hide himfelf. They 
cruelly declar'd War againft that Indian Lord that 
had given him Sanduary, and had received him with 
a becoming Humanity and Refpcd •, they ravag'd 
all his Country, and never left off their Cruelties 
till they had found and feiz'd this Fugitive Prince, 
whom they loaded with Chains, and put on Ship- 
board to be carried into Spain as their Prifoner. 
This Veflel was caft away in the Voyage, a great 
many Spaniards drown'd, and an incredible fum of 
Gold and Silver loft : Among the reft there was a 
prodigious lump of Gold as big as a great Loaf, 
which weighed 3500 Crowns. Thus did the Ven- 
geance of God meet with 'em for the enormous 
Crimes they had committed in the Indies. 

The fecond Kingdom is called Marten^ where 
there is a fine Port juft at the end of the other 
Kingdom on the North-fide : This Kingdom is 


12 A Relation of the SpaniOi Vojages 

larger than Portugal^ and more fruicfiil, and was 
ftor'd with vaft numbers of Inhabitants^ there are 
divers Mountains in it, and feveral Mines abounding 
with Gold and Copper. The Name of the King 
of this Country was Guacanagan^ who had divers 
Lords under his Jurifdi'lion. 'Twas in this Coun- 
try that famous Pilot who firll difcover d Amenca 
landed. Guacanagari received him with ail imagi- 
nable Hofpitality and Civility ; he made the bell 
Entertainment he could for all the Spaniards who 
accompanied him : when their Ship was funk, they 
were receiv'd at this Prince's Court as kindly as if 
they had been in the Houfes of their own natural 
Relations : here they met with all manner of Re- 
irelliments and Recruits the Country afforded, which 
were given 'em with great ExpreQions of Humanity 
and Compaffion on the account of their Hardlhips. 
This King afterwards to fecure himfelf from the 
barbarous Ufage of the Spaniards^ when they began 
to commit their MalTacres in his Country, abandon'd 
his Kingdom, and was forc'd to retreat into Tome 
of the remote Mountains, where he di^ed with the 
Fatigues and Inconveniencies to which he was ex- 
posed. Thofe Indian Lords that depended on him 
found no better Treatment, but pcriiTi'd under that 
horrible Slavery to which the Spaniards had reduc'd 

Maguana is the third Kingdom of this Ifland, 
and is an admirable Country, both for Health and 
Fruitfulnefs. Here is made the beft Sugar in Ante- 
fie^, ' Caonabo was the King of it, who furpafs'd all 
the other Kings both in regard of his Power, the 
Riches of his Kingdom, and the Refpect and Cere- 
mony with which he was honour'd. This Prince 
not keeping on his Guard, nor at all dillrulling 
what Tricks t\\Q Spaniards defign'd to play him, was 
furpriz'd in his own Houfe by the Artifices they had 


dnoi Cruelties In the Wed-Indies, i J 

laid to infnare him. He was put in a Ship to be 
.carried into S^aln^ and there were at the fame time 
fixVeflels in the Port ready tofetSail, when all on 
a fudden there rofe a liorrible Tempeft, which 
batter 'd the Ships to pieces and funk 'em, with all 
the Spaniards that were on board. King Caondbo 
loaded with Chains perifh'd, together with the 
VelTel in which he wasembarqu'd. The Almighty 
was pieas'd to difplay his jufl and terrible Judgment 
by this fudden Storm, in dellroying fo many Spa^ 
rtiards^ and thereby punifliing the Crimes they had 
committed in -dhuiin^ the -poor Indians. This King 
had three or four Brothers, all of 'em valiant and 
couragious Princes ^ who being much provokM at 
-the unjuft'Captiv itv of the King, their Brother and 
■Sov<;raign, and in^brni'd of the Ravage and Maila- 
jcres the Spaniards had made in other neighbouring 
Kingdoms, and after all hearing the News of the 
fatal End of their Brother, betook themfelves to 
Arms, and fought means of revenging themfelveg 
on their Enemies. The Spaniards ^ttzck^d 'em with 
their Cavalry, which is very formidable to the 
Indians^ whom they foon conquer'd, and made fo 
prodigious a Slaughter among 'em, that half the 
Kingdom was depopulated and became defert after 
this Defeat. 

Xavagua is the fourth Kingdom of Hifpaniola^ and 
is asnt were the Heart and Centre of all this liland ; 
the Language of it is the moft refinM and polite. 
The People of this Kingdom are the moft civilizM, 
and their Manners more cultivated than thofe of 
other parts of the Country : and there are a greater 
number of great Lords and Perfons of Quality 
among 'em. Thefe People are better fhap'd, and 
hive a finer Afped than thofe of the other King- 
doms. The King's Name was Bebcchio, he had a 
Sifter call'd Anacaona j both of 'cm heap'd their Fa- 

14 A Rehtion of the Spanifli Voyages 
vours on the Spaniards when they landed in theit 
Country, and with a great deal of Generofity fav'd 
*em from Death, which they could not otherwife 
have avoided : They left no Stone unturn'd to fhew 
themfelves obliging to the Kings of Spain. After 
Bchechio's Death his Sifter Anacaona continued ab- 
folute Miftrefs of the whole Kingdom. One day 
the Governor of the Ifland, accompanied with 60 
Horfe and 300 Foot, fends a Summons to about 300 
of the greateft Lords of the Country to attend his 
Perfon. Thefe few Horfemen alone were able to 
have ravag'd and laid wafte not only all this Ifland, 
but even the whole Continent, fo defencelefs were 
thefe poor People. The Indian Nobles, not at all 
fufpeding any treacherous Defign, were by the Go- 
vernor's Order brought into a Houfe cover'd with 
Straw, which he commanded to be fet on fire, 
where they periih'd miferably. Thofe of 'era who 
attempted to efcape were purfued by the Spanifli 
Troopers, and kill'd without Mercy. They alfo 
kiird a vafl: multitude of the common People, cut- 
ting 'em and running 'era through with their Swords 
and Lances. This fame Governor caus'd Queen 
Anacaona, who had the foveraign Authority after 
the Death of her Brother ( as has been faid ) to be 
hang'd, that he might difgrace the Memory of that 
Princefs as much as he could by fo vile and igno- 
minious a Death. If at any time a Spaniard, either 
touch'd with the Sentiments of Compafllon, or 
prompted with thofe of Avarice, thought fit to 
fpare one of thefe poor Wretches for his ovfn Ser- 
vice ^ another would come tranfported with Rage, 
and fall upon him in his prefence, and either run 
him through the Body, or cut off his Legs, fo as to 
render him unferviccable. Some of thefe Indians 
who efcap'd this Mafl^cre retir'd into an Ifland not 
above eight Leagues diftant from this Kingdom, to 


and Cruelties in the Weft-Indies. 1 5 

fhelter themfelves from the Fury of the Spaniards y 
but thefe were condemned by the Governor to 
perpetual Slavery. 

The Name of the fifth Kingdom h Hiquey : Hi- 
quanama thQ Queen, who govern'd it, tho very 
much advanc'd in Years and (;lecrepit, was hang'd by 
order of the Spaniards^ who tormented an infinite 
number of the Inhabitants of this Kingdom by di- 
vers kinds, of cruel Punilhments. Some they burn'd 
;,alive, they cut off the Arms and Legs of others, 
^and made, Slaves of the reft. There are fo many 
things to be faid of the ill Treatment and Cruelty 
the Spaniards exercis'd againft the People of this 
Ifland, that'tis impoffible to recount 'em all j and if 
that could be done, the recital of 'em would ap- 
pear incredible : and yet the Indians gave the Spa- 
niards no occafion to engage in fo barbarous a War 
againft 'em, and to commit fuch Violences upon 
'em ; but one may truly fay, thefe poor Creatures 
liv'd in as great Subjection and Obedience to the 
Spaniards^ as the moft fubmifiive and obfequious 
Order of Monks do in the moft regular and well- 
difciplin'd Monaftery ^ fo that there was no lawful 
occafion given 'em to rob thofe of their Property, 
or condemn 'em to a rigorous Slavery, who had 
found means of efcaping their bloody Maflacres. 
Tis further to be obferv'd, that the Indians offer'd 
no Affront to the Spaniards when they firft arriv'd 
in America ': So that they had no colourable Pretext 
for Revenge, or the leaft right to punifli 'em after fo 
cruel a manner. As for thofe Sins, the Puniihment 
of which Godhasreferv'd tohimfelf,fuch as Hatred, 
Envy, the paflionate defire of Revenge, the Spa- 
niards had no occafion to reproach 'em on this ac- 
count, fince thefe People have fcarce more Strength 
' and Courage than Children of ten Years old. On 
the other fide, the Indians had a thoufand juft Rea- 


(-t5 J Relation of the Spanifh Voydges 

fons to make War with the Spaniards^ tho thefe had 
no reafonable pretence to treat them as they did 
with a barbarity equal to that of. the moft favage 
and inhuman Tyrants. 

After this unjuft War was ended with the De- 
itrudion and Maflacre of all the Inhabitants of thefe 
Countries, having referv'd few befides the Women 
and Children, they divided thefe among themfelves, 
fome keeping 30 of them, others 40, others 100, 
forae 200, according to the Intereft they had in the 
Tyrant of the Ifland, whom they honour'd with the 
Title of Governor ^ for 'twas he that gave 'em 
thefe Indians J on condition they would caufe 'era to 
be inftrufted in the Maxims of the Catholick Reli- 
gion, tho thePerfons to whofe care he committed 
^emwere the moft ignorant, cruel, covetous, and 
▼itious of all Mankind. Thefe (as might well have 
been expected) took no care to inftrud 'em^ but 
confined the men to the Mines to get out Gold with 
incredible Toil and Labour ^ they us'd the Women 
for Husbandry and Tillage, tho this laft was a La- 
bour hard enough for men of the moft robuft and 
vigorous Conftitution. They fed 'em only with 
Herbs, or fuch like Food, that had but little Sub- 
■ftance or Nourifhment in it : So that the Milk dry'd 
up in the Breafts of the Women that gave fuck, and 
their Children in a little time pin'd away and dyed 
with Faintnefs and Hunger. The Men having no 
Converfation with the Women, but dwelling in fe- 
parate Houfes, there could be no farther propaga- 
tion of Children by 'em. Thus at length the Men 
perifli'd in the Mines with Hunger and Labour, the 
Women dyed under the preflure of their fervitude 
in the Fields ^ lb that all the Inhabitants of this po- 
pulous Ifland were exterminated in a jfhort time- 
And indeed if the fame courfe were t^ken every 
^vherselfe, all Mankind would be dcftroy'd in the 


d'/td Cruelties in the Weft-Indies. i-j 

ipace of a few Years. The Spaniards oblig'd thefe 
poor Creatures to carry Burdens of fourfcore or a 
hundred pound weight for a hundred or two hun- 
dred Leagues. And that they might travel the 
more at eafe, they would make thefe Indians carry 
them in Chairs and Horfe-litters on their Shoulders : 
They us d 'em like Beails of Burden to carry their 
Utenlils, and what they pleas'd either for their Pro- 
lit or Pleafure, fo that the Backs and Shoulders of 
thefe poor Slaves were black with Bruifes occafion'd 
by the great weight of their Burdens. Thefe in- 
credible Fatigues did not fecure 'em from JBlows 
with Cudgels and Whips, accompanied with Curfes^ 
lior from a great many other Punifhments. Buc 
'twould be endlefs to defcribe all the Miferies thefe 
unfortunate People were made to fuffer ^ it would 
require whole Volumes, and the reading of fo de- 
plorable a Story would deeply affecl and foften eve- 
ry Mind not quite divefled of Humanity. 

It is to be obfervM that the Deflrudion and Delb- 
lation of thefe Provinces began lince the Death of 
the molt ferene Queen Ifabella, who departed this 
Life in the Year i 504. Before this time the Spa- 
niards never durll exercife their Cruelties on the 
People of this Ifland, nor deftroy their Country : if 
they ofFer'd "em any Violence, 'twas as it were hy 
ftealth, and with great Precaution. But after the 
Death of this Princefs, the Defolation became gene- 
ral. Before this fatal time, they took great care to 
conceal whatever Hardfhips they made thefe People 
endure, becaufe the Qiieen was marvelloufly zealous 
both to promote the Inftrudion and Salvation of the 
Inhabitants of this new World, and to advance their 
Temporal Advantages ^ and accordingly Ihe gave us 
ftiany Examples of her Piety and Zeal. 

In Whatever part of jimerica the Spaniards fet 
their F€«t, they perpetrated the fame abominable 

Q Villa-^ 

1 8 A Relation of the Spanifli Voyages 
Villaniesand Maflacves, to opprefs and exterminate 
thefe poor Innocents. They feem'd to take Plea- 
fure in the invention of new kinds of Torments, 
and their Fury augmented every day more and 
more, till God Almighty provok'd by fo many hor- 
rid Crimes, abandon'd 'em to a reprobate Senfe, 
and permitted 'em to fall as it were from deep to 
deep, and from one Precipice to another. 

Of the JJlands of St. John and Jamaica. 

N the Year i<09 the Spaniards went into the 
Iflands of St, John and Jamaica (which refemble 
delicious Gardens) with the fame Intentions and De- 
figns they had carried on in the Ifland of Hifpaniola. 
Here they committed a world of Robberies and 
Cruelties, jufl: as they had done in other places 
where-ever they came. The Marks of their De- 
vaftations and Murders were every where to be feen. 
They laid all places defolate where they arriv'd, 
expofing Men to the Mercy of Beafts. And after 
having inflided all forts of Torments on 'em, put 
'em in the Mines^to work like Slaves as long as they 
liv'd. They entirely depopulated thefe Countries, 
fo that in thefe two Illands, where there were com- 
puted to have been above dooooo Inhabitants be- 
fore their Arrival, there are fcarce 200 now to be 
found : The reft being all deftroy'd with Mifery 
and Hardfhip, and that without having any Pains 
taken with 'em to inftrudt 'em in our Religion, or 
to adminilter the Sacraments to 'em. 


a^d Cruelties in the Weft-Indies. 1 9 

Of the JJland of Cuba. 

TH E Spaniards pafs'd into the Ifland of Cuba in 
the year 1 5 1 1 , which contains as much ground 
in length as from rallidolid to Rome. There were 
formerly fine and flourifhing Provinces to be feen, 
fill'd with vaft numbers of People, who met with 
no milder or kinder Treatment from the Spaniards 
than the rejft. On the contrary, they fcem'd to 
have redoubled their Cruelty upon thofe People. 
There happen'd divers things in this Ifland that de- 
ferve to be remark'd. A rich and potent Cacique 
nam'd Hathuey was retir'd into the Ifle of Cuha^ to 
avoid that Slavery and Death with which the 5p^- 
niards menac'd him: and being informed that his 
Perfecutors were upon the point of landing in this 
Ifland, he afl^embled all his Subjeds and DomeHicks 
together, and made a Speech to 'em after this man- 
ner. You kmrv ( faid he) the Report that is fprad 
abroad^ that the Spaniards are ready to invade this 
Ifland-^ and you are not ignorant of the ill Vfage our 
Friends and Country-men have met with at their hands ^ 
and the Cruelties they have committed at Hayci (fb 
Hifpaniola is called in their Language ) they are nocj 
coming hither with a defign to exercife the fame Outrages 
and Perfecutions upon us. Jlre you ignorant ( fays he ) 
of the ill Intentions of the People of whom 1 am f^eahng / 
We know not (fay they all with one Voice) upr-< 
what account they come hither^ but rre know they arc .i 
very wicked and cruel People. Ill tell you then ( reply' 1 
the Cacique^ that the fe Europeans worf hip a very coz\ - 
torn fort of God^ fo that "'tis difficult tofitisfy him ^ 01 i 
to perform the IVorfmp they render to this Idol^ they' I 
excUf imminfe Treafures of rw, and will ufs their utrn' > 

G 2 Bid.. I- 

20 A delation of the Spanifli Voyages 

Endeavour to reduce «v to a m't fur able flate of Slavery^ 
or elj'e to put us to death. Upon which he took a Box 
full ot Gold and valuable Jewels which he had with 
him, and expofing it to their view: Here vs (fays 
he ) the Gcd of the Spaniards, vphom rve mufl honour 
xvith our Sports and Dances^ to fee if we can appeafe 
htm^ and render him propitious to us ; that fo he may 
cojyiniand the Spaniards not to offer us any Injury. 
They all applauded this Speech, and fell a leaping 
and dancing round the Box, till they had quite 
tired and fpent themfelves. After which the Cacique 
Hathuey refuming his Difcourfe, continued to fpeak 
to them in thefe terms : If rve keep th'x God ( fays he) 
till he''s taken avaay from us, he'll certainly caufe our 
Lives to be taken from us ; and therefore I am of opinion 
^tw'dl be the befl way to cajl him into the River. They 
all approy'd of this Advice, and went all together 
with one accord to throw this pretended God into 
the River. 

The Spaniards were no fooner arrived in the Ifle 
of Cuba^ but this Cacyque who knew *em too well, 
began to think of retreating, to fecure himfelf from 
their Fury, and refolv'd to defend himfelf by force 
of Arms, if he Ihou Id happen to meet with them^ 
but he unfortunately fell into their Hands: and be- 
caufj he had taken all the precautions he could to a- 
void the Perfecutions of fo cruel and impious a Peo- 
ple, and had taken Arms to defend his own Life, as 
well as the lives of his Subjeds;, this was made a 
capital Crime in him, for which he was burn'd a- 
live. While he was in the midft of the Flames, tied 
to a Stake, a certain Francifcan Frier of great Piety 
and Vertue, took upon him to fpeak to him of God 
and our Religion, and to explain to him fome Arti- 
cles of the Catholick Faith, of which he had never 
heard a word before, promifing him Eternal Life, 
if he would believe, aad threatning him with eter- 

And Cruelties in tin Weft-Indies. 2 1 

nal Torment, if he continued obilinate in his Infi- 
delity. Hathmy refieding on the matter, as much 
as the Place and! Condition in which h# v/js would 
permit., askM the Frier that inftructed him, whe- 
ther the Gate of Heaven was open 10 the Soayiiards ; 
and being anfwer'd that fuch of 'em as were good 
men might hope for entrance there : The Cacyque^ 
withoutany farther deliberation, told him, he had 
no mind to go to Heaven, for fear of meeting with 
fuch cruel and wicked Company as they were ^ but 
would much rather choofe to go to Hell, where he 
might be deliver'd from the troublefom fight of fuch 
kind of People : To fo great a degree have the wicked 
Adions and Cruelties of the Spaniards difhonor'd 
God and his Religion in the Minds of the y^mcricans. 

One day there came to us a great number of the 
Inhabitants of a famous City, fituate above 10 
Leagues from the place where we lodg'd, to com- 
plement us, and bring us all forts of FroviGons and 
Refrelhments, which they prefented us with great 
marks of joy, carefllng us after the moft obliging 
manner they could. But that evil Spirit that pof- 
fefs'd the Spaniards put 'em into fijch a fndden Fury 
againib 'em, that they fell upon 'em and maflacred 
above 3000 of 'em, both Men and Women, upon 
the fpot, without having receiv'd the leaft Offence 
or Provocation from 'em. I was an Eye-witnefs of 
this Barbarity ; and whatever endeavours were 
us'd to appeafe thefe inhuman Creatures, 'twas im- 
polTible to reduce 'em to Reafon ^ fo refolutely 
were they bent to fatiate their brutal Rage by this 
barbarous Adtion. 

Soon after this I fent Meffengers to the moft noted 
Indians of the Province of Havane^ to encourage 
and engage 'em to continue in their Country, and 
not to trouble themfelves to feek remote places to 
hide in, and advis'd 'em to come to us with affurance 

C 3 of 

22 Ji Re/at h;f of the Spanifh Voyages 
of our Protedlion. They knew well enough what 
Authority I had over ihzS^aniards^ and I gave 'em 
my word, n|^njury Ihould be offer'd 'em : for the 
pafl Cruelties and MaUiicres their Country-men had 
iuffer'd, had fpread Fear and Terror through all the 
Country^ and this Adurance I gave 'em was with 
the Confent and Advice of the Captains and other 
Ofiicers. When we enter'd into this Province, two 
and twenty of their Chiefs came to us, and the ve- 
ry next Morning the Commander of our Troops, 
without any regard to the Promife that had been 
made 'em, would needs fcntence 'em to be burnt, 
pietending 'twas befl to put thefe People to death, 
becaufe they might one time or other ufe fome Stra- 
tagem to furprize and deftroy us : And I had all 
the difficulty in the world to prevent 'em from 
throwing 'em into the Fire. 

The Indians of Havane feeing themfelves reduc'd 
to L. ftatc of fevere Slavery, and that there was no 
Remedy left^ but they were irrecoverably undone, 
began to feek Refuge in the Deferts and Mountains, 
to fecure themfelves if poHlble from Death: Some 
llrangled themfelves in defpair \ Parents hang'd 
themfelves, together with their Children, to put the 
rpcedier end to their Miferies by Death. Above 
two hundred Indians periOi'd here after this manner, 
TO avoid the Cruelty of the Spaniards j and abun- 
dance of them afterwards voluntarily condemn'd 
themfelves to this kind of Death, hoping thus in a 
moment to put a period to the Miferies their Per- 
fecutors infiided on 'em. 

A certain Spaniard who had the Title of Sove- 
raign in this Illand, and had three hundred In- 
dians in his Service, deftroy'd a hundred and lixty 
of 'em in lefs than three Months, by the excefiive 
Labour he continually exafted of 'em. The Recruits 
he took to fill up their places were dellroy'd after 

and Cruelties in the Wefl-Indies. 2 1 

the fame manner •, and he would in a {hoic time have 
unpeopled the whole libnd, if Death, wiiich took 
him out of the way very happily lof thofe poor 
Wretches, had not fhekei'd 'era from his Cruelties. 
I faw with with my own Eyes above lix thoufand 
Children die in the fpace of three or four Months, 
their Parents being forc'd to abandon 'em, being 
condemned to the Mines. After this the Spaniards 
took up a Refolution to purfue thofe that 
were retir'd into the Mountains, and malTacred mul- 
titudes of 'em i fo that this Ifland was depopulated 
and laid wafle in a very little time. And 'tis a moll: 
lamentable Spectacle to fee fo fine a Country thus 
raiferably ruin'd and unpeopled. 

Of the Continent. 

IN the Year i $ 1 4, a mercilefs Governor, deflitutc 
of the leall fentiment of Pity or Humanity, who 
was defervedly accounted a barbarous Tyrant, and 
cruel Inftrument of the Wrath of God, pierc'd into 
the Continent, being followed by a great many 
S^aniards^ all animated with the Spirit, and pur- 
fuing the Defigns of their Leader. Tho fome of 
his ftarap had 'enter'd the Continent before him, 
and had killd a great many People, yet they had 
only exercis'd their Robberies and Cruelties on the 
Sea-Coafts. But he of whom I am now fpeaking, 
furpafs'd all his PredecefiTors in Cruelty and Impiety. 
He was not content to ravage the Sea-Coafls, but 
laid wade great Kingdoms and vafl Countries, and 
deftroy'd an infinite number of Indians in the grofs 
Darknefs of their Idolatry. He run through above 
fifty Leagues of the fineft Country in the World, 
and carried Defolation with him where-ever he 

C 4 went, 

24 -^ Relatio?t of the Spanifh Voyages 

went, ruining in a little time the mofl plcafant and 
fruitful Country in the IVefl^lndies. There were 
before the Arrival of this Tyrant, abundance of 
Villages, Towns and Cities, that excell'd thofe of 
^W the neighbouring Countries. This Country a- 
bounds more in Gold than any yet difcover'd. The 
immenfe Riches that have fiil'd Spain fince fhe has 
traded to the Indies^ have been chiefly drawn out 
of the Mines of the Country of which I am now 

The Governor of this new World invented va- 
rious kinds of Torments to conllrain the Inhabitants 
to give him all the Gold they had heap'd together. 
In one Progrefs which fome of his Captains made by 
his Order to pillage and rob the People of their 
niches, they put above forty thoufand of 'em to 
the Sivord ^ others they burnt, others they expos'd 
to be devour'd by Dogs, and the reft they deftroy'd 
with divers other kinds of cruel Punifhraents. 

The wretched Ignorance of thofe that have been 
fent to govern the Indies^ has occafion'd a great ma- 
ny Mifchiefs and Difcrders, and hinder'd the Con- 
verfion of the Indians : for what they endeavoured 
to perfwade 'em by their Words, was contradicfted 
bv their Actions-, and the Sentiments of their 
I\linds were no ways conformable to the Pretenfions 
of their Tongues. They commanded the Indians 
to embrace the Chriftian Religion upon pain of 
Death, they raenacM 'em with cruel Slavery, or the 
moll exquifite Tortures, to force 'em to turn Chrifti- 
ans, or to fwear Allegiance to the King of Spain: 
As if the Son of Gcd, who dy'd for the Redemption 
of Men, had ordain'd thofe whom he fent to preach 
tlie Gofpel, and .to declare the Kingdom of God, 
to coRiLrain People that liv'd peaceably in their 
own Country, to make profedion of his Dodrine, 
en pain of bein^ plunder'd of their Goods, of being 


and Cruelties in the Weft-Indies. 2 5 

feparated from their Wives and Cliilciren, of lofing 
their Liberty, and of being condemn'd to a cruel 
Death, without having ever been inftruded in tiie. 
Maxims and Principles of our Religion. And the 
poor Creatures muft be oblig'd to render an exad 
Obedience to a King they had never feen or heard 
of, till they were inform'd of him by thefe Mcfien- 
gers of his that treated 'em fo inhumanly. 

This bloody and impious Governor, urg'd with 
the infatiable defire of heaping up Treafure, pilla- 
ged the Indians that dwelt both in the Villages and 
Cities with Impunity, while they little thought of 
fecuring themfclves againft his Robberies. He or- 
dered his Souldiers to go privately to the places 
where they fufpeded any Gold was to be found, 
and to declare his Orders to the Inhabitants of this 
new World after the following manner. '' Caciques 
'' and Indians of this Continent, we are come to de- 
'' clare to you that there is but one God, one Pope, 
" and one King of Spain^ who is Lord and Mafter of 
'' the Country you inhabit *, we therefore require 
*' you to come immediately and take the Oath of 
" Allegiance to him. After fuch kind of Preambles 
as thefe, they would choofe the Night to fall fud- 
denly upon thefe poor Wretches, when laid faft 
afleep, v/ithout having taken any meafures to fecurc 
themfelves from the Artifices of their Enemies, 
who Would fet fire to their Houfes, which being 
thatch'd with Reeds and Straw, were burnt to A flies 
in an inftant. The Women and Children were de- 
vour'd by the Flames almolt before they had time to 
confider where they were. They maflacred fuch 
as made a fliift to efcape the Fire, or kept 'em for 
Slaves ^ they ufed Tortures to force 'em to tell 
where they had hid their Gold. They printed 
Marks on their Bodies with red hot Branding-irons ^ 
and after all thefe Cruelties, us'd their utraolt dili- 

26 A Kelttion of the Spanidi Voyages 
gence to make a ftrid fearch for the Gold of thefe 
miferable People, of which they got vail Quantities 
together, befides Pearls and Diamonds, which the 
Indians gave 'em to avoid their Fury. All the Spct- 
niards who had any Office or Place of Trult, com- 
mitted the fame Rapine j every one fent as many 
Souldiers as he. could to make their ProgrefTes, and 
ravage all the Country. The firft Bifhop that was 
fent into America^ imitated the Condud of thefe 
covetous Governors, and made ufe of his Servants 
to procure himfelf a (hare of the Spoil. The S^a- 
mards in a little time carried away above three 
Millions out of this Kingdom^ of which vaft Sum 
the King of S^ain had fcarce 3000 Crowns for his 
Ihare. Here were above 800000 People flaughter'd ; 
and the fucceeding Governors continued the like 
MalTacres till they had deftroy'd the refl of the Na- 

I mufl not pafs over in filence one Action com- 
mitted in this Country by the Governor, of whom 
I have been fpeaking. A Cacique^ whether volun- 
tarily or out of fear I know not, gave him the weight 
of 9000 Crowns in Gold : This great Sum not con- 
tenting the Spaniards^ they tied this unhappy Prince 
to a Stake, and fetting fire to his Feet, endeavour'd 
by this means to extort a greater quantity from him. 
This Torment being intolerable to him, he gave 
'em the weight of 3000 Crowns of Gold more, 
which he had referv'd ^ upon this they renew'd their 
Tortures, to get ftill more out of him : but whether 
he had no more to give 'era, or whether he was 
refolv'd they Ihould exad no more of him, he ex'- 
pir'd amidft their Tortures. They put to death 
many of the moft confiderable Perfons of this 
Kingdom after the fame cruel manner. 

A Company of Spaniards happening to light on a 
Body of Indians that had retreated into the Moun- 

and Cruelties in the Weft-Indies. 27 

tains, to avoid the Tyranny of their Pcrfecutors, 
in a great rage fell upon the poor Wretches, and 
killing all the Men they could catch, carried away 
three or fourfcore Women Prifoners. The Indums 
that efcap'd being highly incens'd, came in Arms to 
attack the Sj^aniards^ to try if they could oblige 
'em to let go their Prey : Thefe feeing the Indimis 
drav/ near 'em, and being unwilling, to furrender 
the Booty they had taken, ftab'd the Women and 
Maids in the prefence of their Husbands and Fathers, 
who were feiz'd with Horror and Defpair at the 
fight of fo lamentable a Tragedy, and fmiting their 
Breafls, cry d out, O tnercilefs Mtn I O cruel Spa- 
niards ! who can murder poor Women that never offended 
you without Pity I And indeed they muft be more fa- 
vage and bloody than Beafts of Prey, who can be 
capable of fuch brutifli Aftions as thefe. 

One of the greateft Lords of this Country, 
whofe Name was Paris^ had a Houfe about ten or 
fifteen Leagues diflance from Panama \ he was very 
rich, having a great quantity of Gold in his pofTelfi- 
on. When the Spaniards came to his Houfe, here- 
ceiv'd 'em with as much Kindnefs and Civility as if 
they had been his Relations. He frankly gave the 
Captain the value of 1 5000 Crowns : This Captain, 
and the Spaniards that accompanied him, concluded 
that this Indian muft needs have immenfeTreafures, 
from the parcel of Gold he had given 'em j and 
fince they had undertaken this Journey on purpofe 
to rob him, to make the more fure of fucceeding in 
their Delign, they pretended they would be gone, 
and accordingly took their leave of him, but re- 
turn'd in the middle of the Night, and rufhing into 
the City unexpectedly, they fet it on fire, and de- 
ftroy'd abundance of the Citizens in the Flames, 
and carried away thence 50 or r^oooo Crowns. A 
Perfon of the molt confiderable Quality of any in 


28 A Relation of the Spanifh Voyages 

this City efcap'd the fury of this Fire ^ and after a 
Refpite of three or four days, having got as many 
Men together as he could, fell upon the Spaniards by 
flirprize, kill'd about fifty of 'em, and retook all 
the Spoil of the City which they had burnt, and 
particularly the Value of 40C00 Crowns, of which 
they had plunder'd him : the reft of the Spaniards 
made the beft of their way and efcap'd, but not 
without a great many Wounds. Soon after this 
they return d with a greater Force to attack this 
Cacique, and deftroy'd the greateft part of his 
Troops, making Slaves of the reft. 

Of the Provmce of Nicacaqua, 

IN the Year 1522, the forementioned Governor 
undertook to fubdue the Province of Nicaragua. 
The great Fertility of this Country, the Goodnefs of 
the Air, and the vaft number of the Inhabitants 
cannot be fuificiently exprefs'd. There were Cities 
in this Province four Leagues in length. The great 
quantities of excellent Fruits that grow there, drew 
together thofe great multitudes of People. Thefe 
Cities being fituate in vaft Plains, the People had 
no Mountains near in which to hide themfelves \ 
bcfides, the Climat is fo fweet, and the Country fo 
agreeable, that the Inhabitants could not eafily re- 
folve to quit it, and confequently were the more 
cxpos'd to the Outrages and Perfecutions of the 
Spaniards •, yet they fuffer'd all with as much pa- 
tience as was poflible, that they might not be oblig'd 
to change their Dwelling. And tho thefe People 
are naturally of .a mild and peaceable Temper, the 
Governor, or rather the Tyrant, with the Minifters 
of his Cruelty, refolv'd to treat the Indtans of this 


And. Cruelties in the Wefl-Indies. 29 

Province after the fame manner he had done thole 
of other Kingdoms. Here he committed fo many 
Enormities, fuch Robberies and Maflacres, that 'tis 
impoffible for any Pen to relate 'em all. He fent 
50 Troopers into this Province, which is bigger than 
the County of Roufillon, who malTacred almoft all 
the Inhabitants, without any regard to Age, Sex or 
Qiiality. • If thefe poor Creatures fail'd to bring 
'em a certain meafure of Corn which they exaded 
of 'em, or did not fend into their Service fuch a 
number of Slaves as they demanded, they kill'd 'em 
without Mercy. And this being a plain Country 
( as has been faid ) there was no place to fhelter 'em 
from the Spanifli Horfe, who purfu'd 'em with the 
Btmoft Fury. 

The General permitted thefe Villains to commit 
all the Infolencies and Robberies they pleas'd, and 
to take as great a number of Prifoners as they defir'd. 
Thefe they fometimes loaded with Chains of fixty 
or eighty Pound weight j fo that of 4000 Captives, 
fcarce fix were able to endure this Fatigue, the reft 
all dy'd by the way under the intolerable weight of 
their Fetters. That they might not have the trouble 
to open the Chains of fuch as dy'd with Hunger, 
Thiril, Wearinefs and Toil, they cut off their 
Heads. When the Indians faw the Spaniards pre- 
pare for thefe kind of Journeys, well knowing they 
were never likely to fee their Friends and Country- 
men any more, they, with many deep Sighs and 
Groans, and floods of Tears, utter'd their Com- 
plaints after this manner. Time was (fay they) 
when we have travelPd thefe Journeys toferve the Chrijti- 
ans^ and have been fujfer''d after a certain ff ace of time 
to return home to our Wives and Children^ hit novo there 
is no hope of any fuch return j and thv9 Separation mttfi 
be for ever. 

One day a Fancy came into the Governors Head, 


JO A Relation of the Spanifl] Voyages 
to make a new diftribution of the Indians ^ Jie took 
'em away from tbofe for whom he had no kindnefs, 
and gave a greater number to thofe he reipefted. 
This chopping and changing of Slaves occalion'd a 
great fcarcity for one Year, there being but a very 
fmall Crop on the ground. Ihe Spaniards endea- 
vour'd to fupply this defed by taking from the In- 
dians all the Corn and other Provilions which they 
had laid up in flore for the Subfiflence of their 
Families. This Diforder produc'd a Famin among 
'em, which deftroy'd above thirty thoufand People. 
There was one Woman fo intolerably prefs'd with 
Hunger, that (he kill'd her Child to appeafe her 

All the Cities and Fields round 'em are like plea- 
iant Gardens, which the Spaniards cultivated ac- 
cording to the fliare each one had allign'd him by 
Lot : and to fave their own Revenues, they fed up- 
on the Stores that belong'd to the Indians^ and liv'd 
at their Charge, devouring in a few days what thefe 
poor People had been a long time getting together 
with a great deal of Care and Toil. There was 
no Spaniard but had an Eitate of his own, and kept 
abundance of Indians in his Houfe to manure his 
Land, and to do other Domeltick Bufinefs : and none 
of thefe were exempted from Slavery, their Nobles, 
their Women and Children were made to work day 
and night for the advantage of the Spaniards^ who 
exacted Tasks of 'era quite beyond their Strength, 
and miferably wore 'em out with excefs of Labour 
and Hardfliip. They drove 'em out of their Houfes, 
and took polTefllon of 'em ; they feiz'd their Goods 
and Lands, and inllantly confum'd their Provilions, 
thus reducing 'em to extreme necellity. Many of 'em 
dy'd under the heavy Burdens they oblig'd 'em to 
carry on their Shoulders as far as the Port, which was 
above 30 Leagues ^ for hither they made 'em bring 


and Cruelties in the Weft-Indies. 5 1 

Planks and pieces of Timber for the building of 
Veilels. They forc'd 'em to go and feek for Honey 
and Wax in the Mountains, where they were d€- 
vour'd by Tygers : Women big with Child were 
not exempted from thefe hard Services, and often 
perifli'd together with their Fruit, under the prelTure 
of this rigorous Slavery. 

That vvhich contributed y&t farther to unpeople 
this Province, was the liberty the Spaniards took to 
exaA of the Caciques^ and richeil Indians^ a great 
number of Slaves. This kind of Tribute was au- 
thorized by the Governor, and levied with a great 
deal of Severity ; for he threaten'd to burn 'em alive 
if they faiFd to fend him a Recruit of fifty Slaves 
every three Months, or as often as he fhould give 
order : tho the Indians have no great number of 
Slaves ordinarily, and 'tis much if a Cacique has three 
or four among his other Domefticks. If a Father 
had two Children, the Spaniards would take away 
one of them, or two if he had three : The Parents 
^muft fabmit, with how great Relu<^ancy foever ^ but 
, their Children were not ravifti'd from 'em without 
abundance of Tears and dolorous Complaints^ for 
they have a very tender AfFedion to their Off- 
fpring, and breed 'em up with abundance of Care. 
This kind of Tribute being often extorted, all this 
Kingdom was in a few years depopulated. There 
arriv'd five or fix Ships here every year, which were 
laden with Slaves, whom they tranfported into 
Peru and Panama^ and there fold 'em, where they 
died in a little time ; for it has been confirmed by 
many Experiments, that thofe Indians that are tranf- 
ported from their Native Country into other Cli- 
mats, fcldom live long: And that which contri- 
buted to kill 'em the fooner, was the negled of fup- 
plying 'em with fufficient Sultenance, and the ex- 
ceffive Labour with which they were ovcr-charg'd. 


^2 j4 Relation of the Spanifh Voyages 

In .the fpace of a i^vj Years there were above 
5000CO Slaves drawn out of this Province, the they 
were all born free : and during the War that was 
made againll 'em, there dy'd about fifty or lixty 
thoufand beiides thefe : the relt were condemn'd to 
cruel Slavery, in which a confiderable number dy'd 
everyday. There are about four or five thoufand 
People (till to be found in this Province ;, but it was 
once one of the beft peopled Countries in all uime- 
rica: And in a little time in all appearance the reft 
will be deftroy'd by the ill Treatment they conti- 
nually fufFer. 

Of New Spain. 

NErv Spain was difcover'd in the year 1517, and 
the year following the Spaniards began to ra- 
vage it, and to maflacre the Inhabitants, tho they\ 
pretend to go out of Europe to people this Country. 
Their Violences and Oppreffions arrivM to fuch a 
height, that they had no regard either to God of 
thelKing, but forgot both that they were Men and 
Chriftians. Since they came into this Country, there 
has been nothing but Rapine and Spoil, Maflacres, 
and burning of Cities, nothing but Tyranny and 
Violence^ fo that they have in a fhort time depo- 
pulated and ruined vaft Kingdorhs from one end to 
t'other. The remembrance of the Villanies and 
Cruelties committed there, has caft fuch a Terror 
into the minds of the Natives, that they can't think 
of a Spaniard without trembling. They have not 
yet left off tormenting *em j on the contrary 
they rather grow worfe and worfe, and their Perfe- 
cutions augment every year. The Spaniards fince 
they firft enter'd into New Spain have deftroy'd 


<i.nd Cruelties in the Wefl-Indics. ^ ^ 

450000 by violent Deaths in and about Mexico. 
This Country contains four or five Kingdoms, that 
come not fhort of the Kingdom of S^ain iox Ex- 
tent, Fertility, and Plenty of all things : Here werd 
Cities to be feen more populous than Toledo^ Seville^ 
VaUidoUd^ Saragoffa^ ov.E.arcelona v for tho all thefe 
Cities are well Itor'd with Inhabitants, thofe of the 
new World are yet more populous. The Country 
of which I am now treating is above 1 800 Leagues 
in compafs. Here the Spaniards have kill'd above 
four Millions of People by Fire and Sword, and o- 
ther violent Deaths, both Men, Women and Chil- 
dren, within the fpace of 480 Leagues. They call 
the Countries they have got by theii' ufij^it and 
cruel Wars, their Coriquefts, into which they en- 
ter'd with the bloody delign of exterminating the 
Inhabitants, and behav'd themfelves worfe than 
Turksy or the greateft Enemies of the Chrilliail 
Name would have done. I don't now reckon in the 
number of thofe they have kill'd, fuch as have pe- 
rifh'd in Slavery, or dy'd under the Hardlhips of 
their Tyrannical Oppreflions. No Tongue is capa- 
ble of defcribing to the life all the horrid Villanies 
perpetrated by thefe bloody-minded Men, They 
feem to be the declar'd Enemies of Mankind, and 
aft as if they were deftin'd to deftroy the whole 
Human Race : And how accuratly foever one en- 
deavours to relate the Cruelties and Ravages of the 
Spaniards, the thoufandth part of it cannot be 

V J 

54 ^ Relation of the Spanifh Voyages 

A more farticuUr Account of New Spain. 

IN the flourifliing and famous City of Cholula^ 
which contained more than thirty thoufand Fa- 
milies, the principal Inhabitants, together with the 
Friefts, led by him whom they look d upon as their 
High-prieft, came with abundance of Solemnity and 
Pomp to meet the Spaniards j and that they might 
receive 'em w th the greater Honour and Refpedt, 
they had order'd matters fo amongft themfelves, 
that thofe of the higheft quality in the City fhould 
condu(f^ the Spaniards to their Houfes, and give 'em 
the befl Entertainment they could. Notwithftand- 
ing this, the Spaniards refolv'd upon the fpot ta 
make a horrible flaughter of 'em, thereby to render 
themfelves the more formidable, and to fpread 1 er- 
ror through all the Country. And this method they 
us'd to obferve in every Country through which 
they pafs'd, viz. to make a great Maflacre at their 
firll Arrival, that the People, who are as meek as 
Sheep, might not look upon 'em without dread. 
They deputed fome to go and treat with the chief 
Men of the City, and places adjacent, to engage 
'em to come and meet 'em, that they might confer 
together. Thefe were no fooner come to 'em, but 
they put 'em in Chains, while the Inhabitants of 
the City knew nothing of this Treachery. They 
demanded 6c oo Indians of 'em to carry their Bag- 
gage, their Utenfils and Provifions: When they 
were come, they Ihut 'em up in divers Yards, and 
'twas a miferable Speftacle to fee the poor Wretches 
prepare to carry the Burdens they were to lay upon 
'em. They were almofl ftark naked, and Itoop'd 
down proflrating themfelves upon the Ground, fub- 


and Cruelties in the Weft-TndleS. ^ 5 

mitting like Sheep to the Blows and Wounds thefe 
Tyrants gave 'era. When they were all thus pound- 
ed in feveral Courts or Yards, part of the S^amards 
arm'd with Lances and Pikes fill'd up the Avenues 
to hinder the Indians frona efcaping, while the relt 
put 'em to the Sword '-, Co that none of thefe efcap'd. 
Two or three days after they found fome of them 
among the Carcafes all cover'd with Wounds and 
Blood, that had been left for dead ■-, thefe cry d for 
Mercy, and beg'd they might be fufFer'd to live ; 
but thefe bloody Men were not at all foften'd by 
their Groans and Tears, and the fubmifTive manner 
in which they ask'd their Lives, but cut 'em in pieces 
upon the fpot with a kind of namelefs Cruelty. 
Above a hundred of the principal Indians of this 
place were put in Irons, and kept alive as yet: 
But the Commander of the Spaniards order'd Stakes 
to be fix'd in the Ground, and thefe unhappy Peo- 
ple to be faften'd to 'em and burnt. The King of 
the Country happen'd to make his Efcape, and re- 
tired into a Temple with thirty or forty attending 
him, hoping to find Sanduary there : Here he de- 
fended himfelf for a whole day. But the Spaniards^ 
who never gave Quarter to any one whom they 
found in Arms, fet fire to the Temple, and burnt 
all that were in it. They cry'd out of the midft 
of the Flames : O vile and cruel Men ! what hurt have 
roe done you^ that you /hould kill us after this manner ? 
Be gone^ he gone to Mexico, where our Ktng Monte- 
zuma will puniP) you according to your deferts. 'Tis 
faid the Spanilh Commander was at play during this 
Tragedy ; and that when the Flames had quite con- 
fum'd thefe poor Indians^ in a Tranfport of barba- 
rous Joy, (hall I fay ? or Fury, he utter'd thefe words : 
Neroy fays he, beholding from Mount Tarpeius the 
Flames that laid Rome in Jl/hes, heard the Cries of his 
Citizens without any Emotion of CompaJJion, 

D 2 The 

3 6 A ReUtionof the^^dsii^hVoyages 

The Spaniards made another great Ma fiacre in 
the City of Tepeaca^ which is a yet finer and larger 
City than the former, and comprehends in it a 
greater number of Houfes. Here they kilFd a mul- 
titude of the Inhabitants with their Lances and 
Swords. They afterwards went to Mexico^ where 
King Monteguma accompanied with his Nobles, and 
thofe of tlie moll diftinguifhed Rank in his Court, 
entertain'd the Spaniards with all forts of Divertife- 
ments, to teftify how mightily they were pleas'd 
with their Arrival. The King's Brother came to 
meet 'em with a fplendid Retinue ^ he made 'em 
iioble Prefents in Gold and Silver, and gave 'em 
rich Stuffs painted with divers Colours : the King 
himfelf receiv'd 'em at the entrance of the City with 
all his Court, being carried upon a Golden Frame, or 
Chair of State, and conduced 'em to the Palace 
that was provided for 'em. But the fame day they 
feiz'd this unfortunate Prince, who thought of no- 
thing lefs, and pofted fourfcore Souldiers to guard 
him, having loaded him with a heavy Chain. This 
Action put all the Indians in a Confternation and 
Fear. But to augment their Terror, they contriv'd 
to fignalize their Cruelty by fome memorable Adtion. 
An the Nobility of the City was engag'd inrepre- 
fenting Plays and Shows, and in dancing round the 
place where their King was imprifon'd, to allay the 
Troubles of his Mind during his Captivity j in thefe 
Plays they expos'd to view all their Riches and Mag- 
nificence. Thefe were the Demonftrations of their 
Joy, and of the defire they had to pleafe the Spa- 
niards. The Nobles and Princes of the Blbod, ac- 
cording to their feveral degrees, were employ'd in 
thefe Plays and Dances ( as I have faid ) round about 
their Prince's Prifon ^ fo that there were about the 
Paldce two thonf^nd young Men that were the very 
fiower of the whole Kingdom, and the Pride and 


And Cruelties in the Weft-Lid ies. -^ 7 

Glory of the Court of King MonUcum.i: While 
they were thus engag'd, the Commander of the 
Spaniards with one of his Troops came to fall upon 
'em. He had fent the reft of his Souldiers into the 
other quarters of the City, where the People were 
iifing the like Divertifements, ordering '■em to feenx 
to join in with thefe Indian Sports, as if they were 
mightily pleas'd with 'em, but withal giving 'em a 
word to put thefe Dancers at a certain time to the 
Sword. Accordingly they fell upon em, pro- 
nouncing the word St. James^ which was the Signal 
for maflacring thefe poor naked Indians^ that were 
in no condition to detend themfelves from Souldiers 
arm'd with Swords and Lances : with thefe they 
made large Wounds in the tender Bodies of the 
young Noblemen of Mexico^ who were all maflacred, 
and not fo much as one of 'era efcap'd. The Indians 
in the other parts of the City were feiz'd with fo 
much Horror and Trouble, that they knew not 
where to feek for fhelter to fecure themfelves from 
the fury of thefe Cut-throats, whom they loaded 
with a thoufand Curfes. Since this time they don't 
forget to celebrate the memory of this barbarous 
Adtion with their Sighs and Tears, and have put 
this day in the Rank of their moft unfortunate ones, 
lince in it they loft in a moment the moft illuftrious 
Nobility of the whole Kingdom. 

The Indians who had fuffer'd the Imprifonment of 
their King with fo much patience, hearing of the 
Maifacre of fo many young Noblemen, could not 
but exprefs their Deteftation of this fo bloody and 
wicked a Fad, and took up Arms to revenge them- 
felves : and tho Monte had forbidden 'em to 
offer the Spaniards any Violence, they attack'd 'em 
.vigoroufly, and kilFd divers of 'em, and the reft were 
•conftrained to retreat. The Spaniards put a Dagger 
to their Prince's Breaft, and ftiew'd him in "this 
D 3 pofture 

^8 A ReUtion of the Spanifh Voyages 

poflare to his Subjeds through a Window, hoping 
the fight of it would oblige 'era to lay down their 
Arms, which the Prince himfelf likewife command- 
ed them to do *, but they were too much provok'd 
now to obey even his Orders. They chofc one to 
head 'em, and having put all their Troops under 
his Command, attackM the Spaniards fo furioufly, 
and fought with fo much obftinacy, that thefe con- 
cluding they were not able to withftand 'em, left 
the City, and retreated in the middle of the night \ 
which the Indians perceiving, purfu'd Vm, and kill'd 
a great number of 'em as they pafs'd the Rivers. 
However the Spaniards return'd foon after with a 
greater Strength, and affaultcd and took the City, 
in which they made a horrible flaughter, and burnt 
thofe Indians that were of greateft Note. 

After they had committed all this Cruelty and 
Spoil in the City of Mexico^ they carried Defolation 
with them into the Province of Panuco, which is 
not above twenty Leagues diftant from it, and here 
exercifed their ordinary Barbarity. This Province 
was mightily ftock'd with People : but fmce the ar- 
rival of the Spaniards, the greateft part of 'em has 
been cut off. The Province of Tut^-peca^ and that 
of Colima underwent the fame Fate ^ each of which 
Provinces is as big as the Kingdoms of Leon and 

'Tis to be obferv'd that the Spaniards invaded 
thefe Provinces only to plunder and inflave the In- 
habitants. One of the firft things they did was to 
oblige 'em to take the Oath of Allegiance to the 
King of Spain ; which if they refus'd to do, they 
were prefently maflacred, or made Slaves. They 
declared thofe of 'em Rebels who came not to meet 
the Spaniards^ and to fubmit to their unjuft and cruel 
Orders. Thofe of the higheft rank among the In- 
dians were accus*d of this Crime, and this was im- 


and Cruelties in the Weft- Indies. 1 9 

prov'd againft 'em to the King of S^ain^ without 
confidering that 'tis a plain Rule in Law, that none 
can be term'd Rebels but Subjeds that are revolted 
from their Prince. 

•' There's no good Chriftian will nwke any dif- 
ficulty to conclude, that fuch Millionaries as the 
5payuards have not the Qiialifications necellary to 
infinuate the Maxims of our Religion into thefe 
people, who are naturally free, and know not how 
to bear the Haughtinefs and Infolence with which 
they have been treated : for they are peremptorily 
told, you muft without any more ado fubmit to the 
Obedience of a Foreign Prince, whom you never 
law nor heard of; and if you refufefo to do, we'll 
cut you in pieces; and this no fooner faid but done. 
But that which is more unaccountable is, that thofe 
who yield a blind Obedience to all they command 
'em, are no better treated than the others; for they 
are made miferable Slaves, they exaft intolerable 
Tasks of 'em, and condemn 'em to all forts of Tor- 
ments : So that whole Provinces, both Men, Women 
and Children, are deftroy'd in a (hort time : Nay, 
thofe whom they kill outright are the happier fort, 
as having an end put to their Miferies in a moment. 
But when they are forc'd by Menaces to promife 
Fidelity and Obedience to a Foreign Prince, can it 
be pretended they are obligM to it in Confcience, 
when this fupposM Duty is neither founded on the 
Laws of God, nor thofe of Nations ? Befides, the 
Threatnings that are made 'em are capable of ter- 
rifying Men of the greateft Courage and Refolu- 
tion ; wherefore all the Proraifes obtained by fuch 
menaces have no value nor obliging force. I pafs 
over in filence the Affronts, the Infults and Injuries 
that were offered the King of Mexico. In a word, 
they have violated all the Laws of Nations, and 
infinitely wrong'd and abus'd the poor Indians. This 

D 4 is 

4© ^ Relation of the Spanifh Voyages 

is all the Service the Spaniards have done thefe 

The Governor of this new World, fupported by 
bis imaginary Titles, fent two Captains, fcarce in- 
ferior to himfelf in Impiety aad Cruelty, into the 
Kingdoms of Guatmala^ which are fituate towards 
the South : they pierc'd as far as the Kingdoms of 
Naco and Gaymura^ which extend Northward for 
the fpace of about 300 Leagues \ thefe Kingdoms 
bolder upon that of Afexico. Thefe Captains tra- 
veird both by Sea and Land, accompanied with a 
good party of Horfe, and a confiderable number of 

The Ciptain whofe Lot it was to travel into Cua- 
t'lmala, did a world of mifchief there (the other 
foon dying ) he carried Defolation with him every 
where, and fill'd this Kingdom with Blood and Ruin, 
to render the Spaniards formidable even to future 
Generations. I am of opinion, that the mifchief this 
Captain did here furpafs'd whatever the Europeans 
had done before in the new World. He went by 
Sea, and carried Sword and Fire throughout all the 
Coafts. Some of the Inhabitants of the Kingdom 
of Yucatan^ which is in the way to the Kingdoms of 
JVaco and Gaymura^ made him magnificent Prefents : 
yet as foon as he had enterd their Country, he ferjt 
his Souldicrs into every part of it, who committed 
iiorrible Spoil, and ftiaflacred an infinite number of 
thefe poor People. A furious Spaniard at the head 
of 300 Men, enter'd the Country adjoining to Gua- 
timala^ fet fire to all their Cities, and cut the throats 
of all the Inhabitants, without giving any quarter : 
Jie carried away%hat Booty he could, and continued 
to pillage the Country for the fpace of fixfcore 
Lea2;ues. This Captain had rebelFd, and revolted 
againfl his General \ and Ms defign in ruining the 
Country after this manner was to put the Spaniards 
^ - ■ ' ' " '■■ "" " out 

and Cruelties in the Weft-Indies. 41 

out of a condition to pnrfue him, by preventing 
their finding Subfiflence in a Country thus ruin'd, 
and by expofing 'em to the fury of the Indians^ who 
would omit nothing to revenge upon 'em the Injuries 
and Mifchiefs they had receiv'd from their Com- 
panions, which fell out accordingly : For the Spanifli 
General attempting to purfue this Rebel, was kiird 
by the Indians. Thofe that fucceeded him exer- 
cifed all manner of Cruelties on 'era, and reduc'd al- 
moffc all of 'em to Slavery, after they had fpoil'd 'em 
of all their Goods, Provifions, Clothes, Corn, Wine 
and other neceflaries of Life. The Provinces of 
Naco and Hondure^ which were like Gardens of 
Pleafure, were turn'd into melancholy Deferts, al- 
tho this Country was very full of People. 'Tis 
" impoflible to refledt on thefe things without being 
fenfibly touch'd and foften'd into Corapaflion, tho 
one were naturally of an obdurate and fowr Tem- 
per. They kill'd two Millions of People in this 
Country in lefs than ten years ^ fo that there are 
fcarce two thoufand left in all the vail Extent of it ^ 
and theft are groaning under a heavy yoke of Bon- 
dage. When they propos'd to 'em to take the Oath 
of Allegiance to the King of Spain^ they would 
give 'em no time to deliberate ^ they muft imme- 
diately obey, or elfe die by Fire or Sword. 

Of the 'Kjngdom of Guatimala. 

TH E Spaniards lignaliz'd their entrance into this 
Kingdom by divers MalTacres, tho the King 
came to meet 'em in his Chair of State fupported 
by his Slaves, follow'd by a great number of his Lords, 
and with Trumpets and Drums before him, to give 
the greater Teftimony of Joy j he fliew'd 'em all 


42 A Relation of the Spanifh Voyages 

the Courtefy and Civility in the world, manifefted 
a great deal of Kindnefs in readily fupplyina; 'em 
with plenty of Provifions, and gave 'em whatever 
they could reafonably defire. The Spaniards lodg'd 
without the City the firft night, thinking they fhould 
not be fecure enough in a place fo well fortified. 
The next day they engagM the Prince of the place 
to come out to 'em with the greateft part of the 
Perfons of Quality, obliging to bring with them a 
certain quantity of Gold. The Indians made anfvver 
that 'twas impofllble for them to do what was re- 
quired, becaufe their Country did not yield this Me- 
tal. However this refufal fo mov'd the Indignation 
of the Spaniards^ that for no other Offence, without 
any formal Procefs, they call 'em all alive into a 
great Fire. The moil confiderable Inhabitants of 
thefe Provinces, feeing their Maflers fo cruelly 
treated, only becaufe they gave not the Spaniards 
all the Gold they demanded, retir'd with all fpeed 
into the Mountains, ordering the common People 
to fiibmit to the Spaniards as their Maflers, and 
giving 'em a flrid charge by no means to give the 
leafl notice of the places where they were gone to 
hide themfelves. Abundance of thefe poor People 
came accordingly to the Spaniards, begging of 'em 
to receive them into the number of their Servants, 
and promifing to ferve 'em faithfully as far as they 
were capable. The Spanifh Commander roughly 
anfwer'd 'em, that he would not fo receive 'em, but 
cut *em to pieces without Mercy, unlefs they would 
difcover the places whither their Maflers were re- 
treated ^ the Indians replied, they did not know : 
however they readily offer'd themfelves, their 
Wives and Children to their Service j and faid, they 
would continue in their Houfes expeding their Or- 
ders ^ they further told 'em, they might treat 'em 
as they pleas'd, 'twas in their power either to kill 


and Cruelties in the Weft-Indies. 4 ^ 

'em, or to fave 'em alive to employ 'em in their 
Service. The Soamards upon this went into their 
Villages and 1 owns, and tound thefe poor Indians 
withtheir Wives and Children bnfy at their Work, 
and in great fecurity, believing they had no need to 
fear the Spaniards would attack 'em -, yet thefe blood- 
thiifly Men maffacred 'em without pity. After 
this they went to another great Town, the Inha- 
bitants of which confiding in their lnnocence,thoiight 
themfelves in no great danger^ but this whole Town 
was deftroy'd in lefs than two hours, and the Maf- 
facre was fo general, that no Age, nor Sex, nor 
Quality met with Pity, but all were put to the 
Sword, unlefs fuch as fled before the arrival of the 

The Indians at length finding it impoffible either 
by their Patience, their SubmifFions, or their Prefents 
to foften the cruel and favage Temper of the Spa- 
niards^ who cut their Throats without any reafon, 
or any fentiment of Pity, refolv'd to get together 
in a body, and take Arms to defend themfelves : for 
feeing Death was inevitable to 'em, and become a ne- 
ceflary Evil, they chofe rather to die with Weapons 
in their hands, thereby to fell their Lives at as dear 
a rate as they could, and to revenge themfelves as 
much as poffible on their Perfecutors, than to fuffer 
their Throats to be cut like Sheep without making 
any refiftance. They wanted effeftual Arms, they 
were quite naked, and knew their Strength was 
much inferior to that of their Enemies ; they had 
no Horfes, nor did they underfland the ufe of 'em 
in Battel : they had to do with a furious and warlike 
Enemy that gave 'em no quarter, and defign'd no- 
thing but their Extirpation. They therefore thought 
it necelTary to ufe Stratagems : it came into their 
heads to make Pits up and down the Ways by which 
the Spaniards were to pafs, and to cover 'cm with 



44 ^ Relation of the Spanifh Voyages 
Straw and Leaves that they might not be perceiv'd, 
that fo their Horfes might fall in 'em, and break their 
Necks or Legs. Some of the Spaniards were two or 
three times taken in thefe Traps, but afterwards 
took care to avoid 'em, and refolv'd to call all the 
Indians they could take into thefe Pits, whether 
Men, Women or Children, of what Age or Con- 
dition foever; they threw in Women big with 
Child, and old Men as well as others, till they had 
quite fiird 'era. It was a moft lamentable fight to 
fee fome Women empaled together with their Chil- 
dren, and fo expos'd to the fury of greedy Dogs, 
and others run through with Lances and Halberts. 
They burnt one of the greatefl Lords of the Coun- 
try with a gentle Fire, and infultingly told him 'twas 
to do him the more honour, that they put him to 
death after this manner. Thefe Butcheries and Cru- 
elties were committed for feven years together. 
The Reader may conjefture what multitudes of poor 
Indians w€rc flaughter'd during fo tedious and 
bloody a Perfecution. 

'Tis fit to be remarked, that the Spaniards were 
receiv'd with great Acclamations, and with all the 
demonftrations of a fincere Joy in the Province of 
Cuzcatan, which is fituatc on the Sea-fide, and ex- 
tends forty or fifty Leagues in length. In this Pro- 
vince is the famous City of St. Saviour \ Cuz.catan is 
the Metropolis of the Province. Thefe People fent 
30000 Indians to the Spaniards laden with Indian 
Poultry, and all other Frovifions the Country would 
afford in great abundance. After they had receiv'd 
thefe Prefents, the Spanifh General order'd his Men 
to choofe as many Indians as each of 'em defir'd for 
their Service, while they remain'd in that Province : 
Accordingly one took a hundred, another fifty, as 
they had occafion to carry their Baggage. Thefe 
poor Wrepcljes ferv'd them with all the care and 


and Cruelties in the Weft-Indies. 45 

diligence they could, and were even ready to wor- 
Ihip 'em. At length the General demanded of 'em 
a great quantity of Gold, that being the main bufi- 
Tiefs for which he came : they with a great deal of 
Huraility'and SubmifTion, told him they would readi- 
ly give him all they had, and prefently got together 
all the Lances they had, which were made of Cop- 
per gilt, and which they took for pure Gold by the 
looks of it. The General foon made trial of it, and 
finding what it was, addrefs'd himfelf to the S^a- 
niards in thefe terms : We muft carry DefiruCtion with 
us ( fays he ) through all th'vs Country ^ feeing here's no 
Cold to he found: Every one of you may keep the Indians 
you have chofen for your perpetual Slaves : Tou may load 
^em with Chains^ and brand ''em with the marks of their 
Slavery : Which was immediately done : For they 
printed the King's Arms with a hot Iron upon all 
they could take. Thofe of 'em that efcap'd, provok'd 
with the ill Treatment which they every where 
met, alTembled all the Indians they could to make an 
Effort to deliver themfelves from the Perfecutions 
of their Enemies by force of Arms \ but their En- 
terprize was not fuccefsful, fo that an incredible 
number of 'em was kill'd. 

After this Expedition the Spaniards return'd to 
Cuatimala, where tirey built a City ; but God was 
pleas'dby his jult Judgment utterly to overthrow 
and deftroy it. They kill'd all without Mercy whom 
they fuppos'd to be in a condition to incommode 
'em by their Arms, and the reft were condemn'd to 
Slavery. They extorted from 'em a Tribute of 
Boys and Girls, and fent 'em into Peru to be fold. 
The other Inhabitants of this Kingdom, which is 
100 Leagues in length, were likewife deflroy'd. 
Thus one of the moft pleafant and fruitful Countries 
in the World was reduc'd to a melancholy Deferr. 
The Governor himfelf has freely confefs^'d, that this 


46 J ReUrion of the Spanifli Voyages 

was the mofl populous Country in the Wejl -Indies^ 
not excepting Mexico it felf, which is certainly 
true. In this noble Country the Spaniards have de- 
flroy'd no lefs than four or five Millions of Men in 
fifteen or fixteen years, and continue every day to 
treat thofe that remain after the fame manner. 

Thefe inhuman Creatures were wont when they 
declar'd War againft any City or Province, to bring 
with 'em as many of the conquered Indians as they 
could, to make 'em fight againfl their Country-men j 
fometimes they had fifteen or twenty thoufand of 
thefe new Subjeds among 'em. But becaufe they 
were not able to furnifli 'em with all neceflary Pro- 
vifions, they allowed 'em to eat thofe other Indians 
whom they took in War, fo that in their Camp they 
had Shambles ftor'd with human Flefh. Infants were 
kill'd in their fight, and then broil'd and eaten j 
Men were flaughter'd like Beafts, and their Legs 
and Arms drefs'd for food \ for the Indians like the 
tafle of thofe Parts better than others. The News 
of thefe horrible Practices foon alarm*d the neigh- 
bouring Countries, and fill'd 'em with Terror and 

Many of the Indians were worn out with carrying 
the Tackle of the Spanifli Ships, which they would 
needs have brought from the North to the South 
Sea, which are 130 Leagues diftant: They made 
'em carry Anchors of a great weight all this long 
way i they laid great Guns upon the naked Backs of 
thefe poor Creatures, under the weight of which 
they were not able to ftand j fo that the greateft 
part of 'em dy'd by the way, not being able to en- 
dure thefe Fatigues. To increafe their Mifery, they 
divided their Families, taking Husbands from their 
Wives, and Wives from their Husbands •, their 
Daughters were taken from 'em, and given to the 
Seamen and Souldiers to fatisfy their Lull, and to 


and Cruelties in the Weft-Indies. 47 

appeafe their murmuring. They fiU'd the Ships 
with Indians^ and fufFer'd 'em to perilh with Hunger 
and Thirft, becaufe they would take no care to fur- 
niih 'em with NecefTaries. But to give a particular 
account of all their Cruelties would require large 
Volumes, the view of which would aftonifh all thaE 
Ihould have the curiofity to look into 'em. 

The Spaniards had two powerful Fkets deftin'd 
to the fame purpofe of deftroying the poor Indians. 
How many Parents have they bereav'd of their 
Children ! How many Children of their Parents ! 
of how many Adulteries and other infamous Pradi- 
ces have they been the Caufes, the Adors, and Ac- 
complices ! How many People have they inllav'd I 
What Miferies and Calamities have they not brought 
upon this new World ! What Fountains of Tears 
have they opened ! What Rivers of Blood have they 
pourM out ! How many Lives have they taken away 
after fuch a manner as might render 'em yet more 
niiferable in the other World ! which is a melan- 
choly Refledion both in regard of the Indians who 
have fuffer'd fo many Cruelties, and of the Spaniards 
who have been the Authors of fo much Mifchief and 

Of New Spain, of Panuco 0nd Xalifco. 

AFter the Spaniards had committed all the fore- 
mention'd Cruelties and MalTacres in New 
Spain^ there came to Panuco another Tyrant as bar- 
barous and unmerciful as the former. He loaded his 
Ships with multitudes of the Natives, and carried 
'em to Cuba and Hifpaniola^ where they were fold 
for Slaves : fo that in a little time he rendered the 
whole Country deftitute of People. Fourfcore of 


48 J Relation of the Spanifh J^cyagSs 

thefe Indians (tho they have realbnable Souls as 
well as other Men ) were exchang'd for one Horfc. 
When the Prefident of the City oi Mexico was made 
Governor of all New Spain, there were alfo a great 
many AlTcnbrs and Auditors made, who all rul'd 
like fo many petty Tyrants, and committed un- 
parallel'd Cruelties and Outrages in the exercife 
of their Offices. They afted fuch abominable things, 
and made the Country fo defolate in a very little 
time, that if the Francifcan Monks had not oppos'd 
their Diforders with a great deal of Courage and 
Refolution, and had not the Royal Council by their 
Meflages given Orders for the prefervation of this 
Province, all New Spain had been ruin'd in lefs than 
two years, and been made as defolate as Hifpaniola. 
One of the Prefident's Companions employed eight 
thoufand Indians to make a Wall round his Garden, 
but he gave 'em neither Wages nor Vidtuals ; fo 
that they almoft all dy'd before the Work was fi- 
nilh'd : neither the hard Labour they endur'd, nor 
their Death could make this mercilefs Man relent. 

After the former General, of whom we have 
fpoken above, had made an end of deftroying and 
wafting the Province of Panucoy and was inform'd 
that the Royal Council would arrive in a little 
time, he advanc'd farther into the Country, hoping 
to find fome new Province on which to exercife his 
wonted Rapine. He forced fifteen or twenty thou- 
fand Indians to attend him, to carry the Spaniards 
Baggage and Provifions, which they did till they 
all died in the way except two hundred. He came 
at length into the Province of Mechuaca^ about forty 
Leagues from Mexico. The King of this Province 
very civilly came out to meet him, and was as offi- 
cious to ferve him as could be defir'd ^ but for his 
reward was loaded with Irons, becaufe fuppos'd to 
have a great Treafure by him ^ and the better to 


and Cruelties in the Weft-Indies. 49 

extort great Sums from him, he was made to fuffer 
a great many Torments. His Hands being tied to 
a Stake, and his Legs ftretch'd out, they drop'd 
burning Pitch on 'em, and bafted his Body with 
boiling Oil from time to time, that his Skin might 
be gradually roafled. Over againft liim Hood a fu- 
rious Souldier with a Bow (hooting Arrows into his 
Breaft : Another let loofe hungry Dogs to bite and 
tear him in every part ^ all theie Tortures were to 
make him confefs where he had hid his Gold : And 
thefe Cruelties would have been continued longer 
if a Francifcan Frier had not happen'd to come and 
refcue him out of their hands \ however he could 
not fave his Life, for he expir'd foon after. Many 
Caciques and great Men of this Province were put to 
death after this manner, to make 'em confefs where 
they had hid their Gold and bilver. 

About this time there arriv'd another Perfon in 
this Country, who was more greedy of Money, than 
folicitous about the Salvation of the poor Indians, 
He happen'd to find fome of their Idols which they 
had hid, (for the Spaniards would very feldora give 
themfelves the trouble to inform thefe Idolaters of 
the True God ) Upon this he imprifon'd the molt 
confiderable Perfons in the Nation, till they fliould 
difcover to him where they had put their Idols, be- 
caufe he fuppos'd theirs were made either of Gold 
or Silver -, but he fail'd in his Expectation : however 
to mend the matter, he impos'd great Sums on the 
Indians^ which they were to pay for the redemption 
of their Idols, that they might worlhip 'em after 
their wonted manner. Thefe are the Improvements 
the Spaniards have been making in the Weft-Indies^ 
and this is their Zeal for the Glory of God and Re- 

After this Tyrant had run through the whole 
Province of Mcfjuaca, and pillaged it, he came to 

E Xalifyua, 

V50 A Relation of the Spanifli Voyages 
'Xalifquo^ a Country very populous and fruitful, and 
the molt famous in all America-^ there are Towns 
in it of feven Leagues in length. Thefe Indians^ as 
the others had done before, came out to meet him 
with great exprelTions of Joy ^ but he foon left up- 
on 'em the marks of his Cruelty, which he had cul- 
tivated by long Experience. The noble Prefents 
made this Tiger could not mollify him. His defign 
was to heap together a great quantity of Gold, this 
was the only Idol he ador'd j and all means were in- 
different to him, fo he could but attain his end. 
He fet fire to all the Cities through which he pafs'd, 
and deflroy'd 'em to the very Foundation. He kept 
thofe of the higheft Dignity prifoners, after he had 
inflided divers kinds of Torments on 'em. The 
Spaniards loaded all the Indians they could take here 
with Chains, which was a great number. The Soul- 
diers made Women big with Child carry their Bag- 
gage, till they fainted and funk under their Burdens 
with hunger and wearinefs. Others not able to 
carry both the heavy Burdens they gave 'em, and 
their Children too, were forcM to leave thefe by the 
way, by which means a prodigious number of Chil- 
dren perifh'd. 

A Spaniard attempting to ravifli a Virgin in the 
prefence of her Mother, the Mother did what fhe 
could to hinder him *, upon which, to prevent her 
from farther oppoling his brutifh defign, he drew 
his Sword and cut off her Arms, and afterwards 
kiird her Daughter becaufe fhe would by no means 
confent to his filthy Defires, but refifted him with 
a virtuous Indignation and Courage to her laft 

Four thoufand and five hundred of thefe poor In- 
dians were branded with a hot Iron by the Spaniards^ 
who mark'd 'em thus for Slaves, tho they were 
born free and independent. The very Children, 


and Cruelties m the Weft-Indies. 5 1 

as well asthofe that were grown to maruricy, fuffer'd 
this Pnniihme.ic and Irvfamy: They pretended they 
had right to make a great number of 'em Slaves, 
to defray the Charge of their long Travels \ and 
that they might lawfully make the fe poor Creatures 
endure all forts of Torments, to. force 'em to de- 
clare v/here they had hid their Gold : Some of 'em 
they burnt, others were torn in pieces by hungry- 
Dogs \ they cut off the Feet, Hands, Arms, Tongue?, 
and fometimes the Heads of others, to terrify the 
reft by thefe fad Spectacles, that they might oblige 
'em the more ealily to fubmit to Slavery, or to (hew 
'em the places where they had fecur'd their Trea- 
iure. And all thefe things were aded with the 
knowledg and confent of the Governor, who would 
fometimes order more Blows to be given 'em, when 
they were beat or whip'd, to compleat their Mi- 

Fourfcore Towns and Villages at leafl: were burnt 
in the Kingdom of Xalifco : Which tragical fight, 
together with all the various Cruelties they furrer'd 
every day, fo provok'd the Indians^ that they arm'd 
themfelves and fell upon the S^amards^ and kill'd 
fome of 'em : after which Expedition they fled up 
into the Mountains, but at length were malTacred ia 
this place of Refuge by other Spaniards who made 
Excurfions through thefe Provinces to lay 'em wafte. 
They put all of 'em to the Sword who made any 
offer to defend themfelves, fo that this place became 
a horrible fcene of Blood : And there is fcarce any 
Remnant of this once numerous People left. The 
Spaniards were certainly blinded, harden'd and aban- 
don'd by the Almighty, that they made no Reflection 
on the Laws of God or Men, which all forbid the 
cxercife of fuch Violence as they have been guilty 
of in America. They had no juft occafion given 'em 
to drive the Inhabitants of thofe Provinces from 

£ s their 

52 u4 Relation of the Spanifh Voyages 

their Native Country by force of Arms, and to 
mafiacre 'em fo barbaroully : they did not confider 
how unjult and criminal thefe Outrages were, and 
Iiow contrary it was to all the Laws of Nations, for 
them to treat thofe who had never injur'd 'em with 
fb much Cruelty. They pretend the Wars they 
have madeagainft thefe People are juft and lawful ; 
that God hath left em to their Mercy, and that 
they have right to make fuch Conquells as thefe, 
and to deftroy all thefe Nations : So that it feems 
they would fain make God hinifelf Partner with 'em 
in their Tyranny and Wickednefs \ and one may 
well apply the v/ords of the Prophet Zccbariab to 
'cm : Feed the flock of the /laughter ^ whofe Pojfejfors 
Jlay thcm^ and hold them f elves not guilty : and they that 
pU them fay^ Blejfed be the Lord^ for I am rich •, and 
their own Shepherds pity them not. Chap. 1 1. 4, 5. 

Of the Kjngdom of Yucatan. 

A Very profligate Perfon who had neither Ho- 
. nour nor Confcience, was made Governor of 
the Kingdom of Tucatan in the year 1526 ^ which 
Dignity he procurM by his Lies and Artifices, and 
the faife arcounts of Matters which he fent to the 
King of Spain. A method v^hich other Tyrants 
have hitherto likewife followed to obtain places of 
Tniit : For under the umbrage of the Title of Go- 
vernor, which fsem*; 10 give fome Dignity and Au- 
tborJty to all { ,; y do, they take the liberty toex- 
crciie their Rob!y = ries and Violences with Impunity. 
The Kingdom of Tucatan contain'd a prodigious 
number of People :, the Air of this Country is very 
.temperate and plealaut : it has great plenty of 
Fruits, and all the IxecclTaries of Life j it exceeds 


And. Cruelties in the Well-Indies. 5 1 

Mexico it felf in Fertility : Tliere is more Wax and 
Honey found in this tiian in any other j?art of Amzxka 
that has been yet difcoverM. This Kingdom is 300 
Leagues in compafs. The Inhabitants of it are more 
polite,more civiliz'd,and better difciplin'd in Morals, 
and in what belongs to the good order of Societies, 
than the reft of the Indians. There is a remarkable 
Prudence and Juftnefs of Mind in them, which is not 
to be found in others. Thefe natural Endov/ments 
without doubt ought to have encouraged Chriftians 
to take the pains to inftrud 'em in the knowledg of 
the true God \ and they feem'd to have no fmall 
difpofition to receive the Maxims of the Catholick 
Religion. The Spaniards might have built great and 
flourifhing Cities in fo pleafant and commodious a 
Country, where they might have liv'd in the midll 
of Pleafure and Plenty, as it were in another Earth- 
ly Paradife : but their Stupidity, their Avarice, and 
the enormous Crimes they have committed in Ameri- 
ca have render'd 'em unworthy of thefe Advantages. 
They attack'd thefe poor Indians^ who liv'd in pro- 
found Peace and Security, with the utmoft Violence 
of a cruel War, and maiTacred a prodigious num- 
ber of 'em, tho the number of the Spaniards was 
but three hundred. This Country produces no 
Gold *, if the Spaniards could have found any Mines 
there, they would have condemn'd the Indians to 
'em, who muft have perifli'd with Hunger and Hard* 
fhip. Thefe covetous Wretches efteem'd Gold 
more than Souls, which were purchas'd by the Blood 
of Jefus Chrift j they made Slaves of thofe whom 
they fav'd alive, and fill'd the Ships they had brought 
Xo the Coafts of this Kingdom with 'em, and fo ex- 
chang'd 'em for Wine, Oil, Vinegar, fait Pork, 
Horfes, and all other Neceflaries. They would give 
fiifty or a hundred of the handfomeft' young Girls 
for a meafure of Wine, Oil or Vinegar, and would 

£ 3 fell 

54 -^ Kehtion of the Spanifh Voyages 
fell a hundred or two of lully well-made young Men 
at the fame rate. They fwop d a Prince's Son for 
a Chcefe, and a hundred Perfons of Eminency for a 
Horfe. They continued in this Country till they 
heard of the Riches of Peru^ the News of v;hich 
made 'em leave it immediately, and thus their Pcr- 
fecutions ended in the Kingdom of Yucatan, How- 
ever, before they v;ent they committed all the Ex- 
celTes and Diforders that can be imagined againll 
both God and Men : fo that thofe three hundred 
Leagues of one of the finefl: Countries in the World, 
that was very rich and full of People before their 
arrival, were in a little time reduc'd to a valt 
Defer t. 

'Tis not eafy to believe the Account of all the 
vilknous Adions they committed in this Kingdom : 
I'll recite but two or three particular Fads. They 
had prepared fierce Dogs which they kept hungry 
to go a hunting after the poor Indians ; as they were 
hunting they lighted on a Woman that was lick, 
who not being in a condition to fly to avoid being 
devour'd of the Dogs, hang'd her felf, after fhe had 
hang'd a Child fhe had with her of a year old ; the 
Dogs prefently came to her, and began to devour 
her: but a tertain Frier that was happily there 
perceiving the Child not to be yet quite dead, bap- 
tiz'd it. 

When they quitted this Kingdom, they invited 
the Son of one of the Princes of the Country to 
accompany 'em, who fhew'd a great unwillingnefs to 
abandon his Country to follow 'em, on which they 
threatned to cut him in quarters if he did not con- 
fent to their defire. The Child ftill perfifling in 
the fame mind, one of the Spaniards drew his Sword 
and cut off both his Ears : This ill Treatment how- 
ever could not make him alter his purpofe, upon 
which this Brute cut off* his Nofe and Lips, and 


dm Cruelties in the Weft- Indies. 5 5 

laugh'd while' he was committing this barbarous 

Anothet brag'd that he had got many Indian 
Women with Child, that he might fell 'em for the 
more Money. Some of the Spaniards have been fo in- 
human as to give Infants to their Hounds when they 
were hungry: they would takethefe poor Babes by 
the two Legs<, and violently tear 'em afunder into 
two pieces, and then feed their Dogs with 'em* 
They were left of God to fuch a reprobate mind, 
that they made no more account of human Crea- 
tures, that were ranfonfd by the Blood of Jefias 
Chrift, than of Beafls. ': 

I pals over an infinite number of other unheard 
of Cruelties, which farpafs all Imagination. When 
thefe covetous and ambfcious Tyrants left the King- 
dom oi Tiicatan to go in fearch after the greater 
Riches of Peru^ four Francifcan Friers came thither 
to comfort thefe miferable People, and to endeavour 
by their preaching to bring thofe that had efcap'd 
the fury of the Spaniards to the knovvledg of the true 
,God. The fame Friers were very carneflly foli- 
cited by many other Indians to come into their 
Country likewife to teach 'em the Maxims of their 
Religion. They afTembled in great companies to 
inform themfelves what fort of Men thefe Religious 
Perfons were, who call'd one another Father and 
^»T)f/xr,to inquire into their true deligns, and to know 
wherein they differ'd from other Spaniards^ who 
had exercis'd fo much Cruelty over all the IVefi- 
Indies. They were willing to entertain 'em on con- 
dition they would come alone to inflrud 'em, with- 
out any other Spaniards to attend 'em ^ which the 
Friers promis'd very readily, alluring 'em they would 
not offer 'em the leafl Injury. The Governor of 
New Spain likewife now ordered 'em to promife the 
Indians^ that they fliould be treated more kindly 

E 4 for 

5:6 J Relatiof7 of the Spanifh Voyages 
for the.time to come, and fhould find no farther oc- 
calion to complain of the J/j^w^r^/i Severity. Thus 
tiiefe Religious Men began to preach the Gofpel of 
Ghrift with a great deal of Zeal, and inform'd thefe 
Feoplfe moreover of the good Intentions of the King 
ot Sjain towards *em ^ fo that in about forty days 
time, they brought all their Idols to throw 'em in 
the fire : they as readily brought thtir Children, 
whom they bring up with a great deal of tendernefs 
and fondnefs, to be inftructed^ and built both Houfes 
and Churches for thefe Friers with all the AfFedtion 
and Forwardnefs imaginable. All the feveral Pro- 
vinces drove with great Emulation for their Com- 
1^3 ny, their Zeal was fo great for the new Religion 
they preach'd to 'em. So that what the Governors 
could never obtain of the Indians in many years, 
thefe Friers accomplifh'd in a very little time : for 
the Princes and Great Men of thefe Provinces, at 
the head of their People in a General Aflembly, 
voluntarily fubmitted to the Government of the 
King of S^ain^ whom they acknowlcdg'd for their 
Soveraign, and put themfelves under his Protection ; 
as may be feen by the account thefe Friers fent into 
Spain fign'd with their own hands. 

Thefe pious Men were tranfported with Joy to 
find a door open'd to 'em to preach the Gofpel in 
'thefe vaft Provinces, to thofe that had efcap'd the 
Barbarity of the feveral Governors, who had mafla- 
cred fuch prodigious numbers. About this time 
there came into thefe parts eighteen Spanifh Troo- 
pers with twelve foot Souldiers, who brought with 
them abundance of Indian Idols which they had 
taken out of other Provinces ^ the Commander of 
thefe Souldiers fent for one of the principal Chiefs of 
the Nation, and commanded him to take thefe Idols 
and diftribute 'em throughout the Country, and to 
bring him Indian Men and Women in exchange for 


and Cruelties in the Wefl -Indies. 57 

'em, threatning him with a fevere War if he re- 
fus'd to obey him. This Prince was fo terrified 
with thefe Menaces, that he carried away all thefe 
Idols, and difpos'd 'em in the feveral Cities of his 
Province, requiring the People in the name of this 
Spanifli Captain to worlhip thefe falfeGods, and to 
render *em all the Honour and Service they were 
formerly wont to do. To recompenfe this Adion 
they gave him liberty to make as many Slaves as he 
pleas'd. The \nd'ta,m^ frighted with the threatnings 
that were made'em,deliver'd up their own Children ; 
he that had two gave one, and he that had three 
gave two. This was the Event of this impious 
Traffick, the Cacyque being forced to obey the Or- 
ders of the Spanilh Captain. One of thefe ungodly 
Wretches, whofe name was John Garcia, being taken 
dangeroufly lick, and ready to expire, bethought 
himfelf that he had a confiderable number of thefe 
Idols under his Bed *, and therefore order'd an In- 
dian Woman that he kept to fell 'em, telling her fhe 
might make a good market of -em, the matter of 
which being very valuable, he told her every Image 
was at leaft fairly worth an Indian in exchange. 
This was the Spaniards lall Will and Teftament, 
and thefe were the marks he gave of the pious dif- 
pofition of his Mind, and in the raidfl of fuch Cares 
as thefe he gave up the Ghoft. By this Story it may 
eafily be conjeftur'd what good Examples the Spa- 
niards fet before the Indians^ and what progrefs the 
Catholick Religion is likely to make among thefe 
People •, who being Eye-witnelTes of fuch Actions as 
thefe, eafily perceive that the Europeans have fo 
little fentiment of Religion, that they don't much 
care whether poor Infidels be reduc'd to pay the true 
God that Worfhip and Honour they owe him, or 
not. It can hardly be faid that Jeroboam's Crime, 
who caused two Golden Calves to be call, and ob- 


58 A ReUtion of the Spanifli Voyages 

lig'd his Subjefts to worfhip 'em, is more hainous 
than that of the Spaniitrds, who drive fuch an abo- 
minable trade with Idols, and occalion ib much 
fcandal by this fhamcful kind of Traffick. This is 
the manner of their Condud and Behaviour in the 
new World. They facrifice every thing to their 
detellable Avarice, and fell Chrift Jefus himfelf for 
Gold. They are every day renouncing hrm, and 
dilhonouring his Religion by the many infamous 
Crimes of which they are guilty. 

The Indians feeing the Spaniards ftill continue to 
Tuin their Country, notwithftanding all the exprefs 
Promifes the Friers had made 'em that they would 
abftain for the future from their wonted Robberies ^ 
and that inftead of mending their own Lives, they 
brought Idols even from other Countries to expofe 
to fale among them, who had voluntarily refign'd 
their own to the Friers to be committed to the 
Flames, being refoWd to vaorlhip but one God in 
their Country for time to come : Seeing all this 
(I fay) they were extremely cnrag'd at the Spa- 
niards, and no lefs provok'd againfl the Friers, whom 
they accofted after this manner. IVhy ( fay they ) 
have you deceivd us thus by your falfe Promifes ? Did 
not you ajfure us the Spaniards fhould no more invade 
andopprefs us ? IVhy have you burnt our Gods, to bring 
us Jlrange Gods out of other Countries ? Are thefe better 
or mightier than our own ? The poor Friers endeavor'd 
to appeafe 'em as well as they could, tho they fcarce 
knew how to anfwer their Complaints, having no 
good Reafons to offer to excufe the matter. How- 
ever they applied therafelvcs to the Spaniards, rt- 
proach'd 'em for having fo exceedingly fcandaliz'd 
the Indians, and conjur'd 'em to leave the Country, 
which they abfolutely refus'd to do ', and which wds 
ftill more vile and unworthy, they perfwaded the 
Indians that they had not come into their Country 


and, Cruelt'us in the Weft-Indies, 59 

but at the requeft of thefe Friers: Which pretence 
had the fuccefs they defired •, for the Indians giving 
credit to thefe Stories, refolv'd to kill the poor 
Friers-, but fome of 'em giving 'em notice of the 
Delign, they made their cfcape in the night. After 
they were gone, the Indians perceiv'd they were im- 
pos'd on, and receiv'd full information of the Malice 
of the S^aniardsj and the bafe trick they had play'd 
'cm, and therefore difpatch'd a Mcllage to the Friers 
to entreat 'em to return, and forgive the fault they 
had committed, afluring 'em they heartily repented 
of their Ingratitude. 

Thefe pious Men that were devoted to the Ser- 
vice of God, and animated with an ardent Zeal for 
the Salvation of Souls, confiding in the Protefta- 
tions of the Indians^ returned to 'em according tQ 
their requeit, and were received as if they had been" 
Angels ^come down from Heaven: they continued 
three or four Months among 'em, receiving abun- 
dance of refped and kindnefs from 'em. The Spa- 
niards^ who ftill refusM to quit the Country, the 
the Vice-roy had exprefly ordered 'em fo to do, and 
had us'd all his Authority to oblige 'em to it, were 
declar'd Rebels and Traitors ; however this did not 
hinder *em from continuing their Rapine and Info- 
lence. And tho the Friers Vv'ere fatisfied they would 
not always efcape with Impunity, yet they fear'd it 
might be a long time before they receiv'd their De- 
ferts i and confidering moreover that the continual 
Infults they made on the Indians^ depriv'd them of 
the liberty of preaching to *cm, upon the whole 
they thought meet to refolve to leave this Kingdom, 
which was depriv'd of the light of the Gofpel by 
the Malice of the Spamards: and thus thefe poor 
Indians who manifefted fuch good Inclinations to- 
ward Chriflianity, were abandon'd to their former 
Darknefs and Idolatry, in which they continue to 


6o A Relation of the Spanifh Voyages 

this day, while thofe profligate Wretches llill lay 
the fame Obftacles in the way of their Converfion. 
When thefe Friers were conftrain'd to retire out of 
the Country, the Indians began to imbrace the Chrif- 
tian Religion with a great deal of Zeal and Fervor j 
but being unhappily depriv'd of all means of In- 
ftruftion, they withered like tender Plants, for want 
of Water. 

Of the Province of St. Marth;?. 

TH E Province of St. Martha was famous for the 
rich Golden Mines that are near it, anu for 
the fruitfulnefs of its Soil. The People are nume- 
rous, and very skilful in getting Gold out of the 
Mines, which eafily engaged the Spaniards to go thi- 
ther, and that in great numbers •, they made conti- 
nual Excurfions over all this fine Country to ravage 
and fpoil it ^ they maflacred vaft numbers of the 
Inhabitants, took away all their Gold, and fill'd their 
Ships,which ferv'd 'em for Magazines,with the Booty. 
They foon laid wafte this fiourifhing Province by 
the Robberies and Villanies they committed : they 
did the greateft mifchief upon the Sea-coafts, but 
they foon after pieic'd higher up into the Country, 
where they endeavour'd to make a Settlement. The 
Country being rich and fertile, divers Spanifh Cap- 
tains fuccefTively invaded it with their Troops, and 
the laft was ftill more cruel and inhuman than his 
Predeceflbr. They feem'd ambitious to outvie one 
another in the Enormity of their Crimes and Villa- 
nies. In the year i 520, a Spanifh General attended 
with a great many Souldiers enterM into this Pro- 
vince with a refolucion of ruining it entirely. He 
continued therefor fcven years together, and carried 


and, Cruelties in the Weft-Indies. 6% 

away an immenfe Treafure with him \ at lafl lie 
was condemn'd to be banifli'd, and dyed in his 
Exile without fhewing the leaft token of Repen- 
tance. Thofe who fucceeded him went on to maf- 
facre thofe Indians that he and other Tyrants had 
fpared \ they made both the common People, and 
,the Nobility of this Province fufFer moft horrible 
Torments, to oblige 'em by the violence of their 
pain to difcover their Gold : they laid this Coun- 
try walle for above 40 Leagues, not leaving one 
foul alive \ tho this Province was well ilock'd with 
Inhabitants before their arrival. 

To give a particular Relation of all the Extrava- 
gances, MafTacres and Defolations, of all the Impie- 
ties and Villanies committed by the Spaniards in this 
Province againll God, againit the King, and againft 
the innocent Indians^ would require a large Hilto- 
ry : I muft therefore content my felf to pafs over 
many Circumltances after a curfory manner. The 
Bilhop of this Province, writing to the King of 
Spain in the year 1541, among other things thus 
exprefTes himfelf : Great Sir^ To redrefs the Grievances 
of this Province^ it ought to be delivered from the Ty^ 
ranny of thofe that ravage it^ and committed to the 
Care of Perfons of Integrity^ who will treat the Inha^ 
bitants with more hindnefs and humanity ^ for if it be 
left to the mercy of the Governoursy who commit all forts 
of Outrages with impunity^ 'twiU be defiroy'^d in a very 
little time. The fame Bilhop farther adds in his Let- 
ter : The ill Conduit of the Governours may well engage 
your Majefly to derive ^em abfolutely of their Places^ 
to relieve thefe Provinces •, and if this courfe be not 
taken^ the difeafe will be incurable. I am neceffitated 
to let your Majejly know^ that the Spaniards who 
come into this New Worlds live here rather like Devils 
than Chriflians •, they neither ftrve God nor the King ; 
they violate all tk Lm of Cad and Mm with Impuni- 

62 A Relation of the Spanifh Voyages 
ty. Nothing can he a greater hindrance to the Converji' 
on of the Indians, than the ill Treatment and Per/ecu- 
tion they make 'em fujfer continually. Thefe People na^ 
turally love peace and quietnefs -^ but the barbarous ufage 
they meet with from the Spaniards,m/piref 'em with horror 
and indignation againfl all Chrijltans^ whom they there" 
fore call in their Language Yares, that is to fay .^ Devils. 
Nor is it without reafon that they appear fo odious and 
abominable to thefe poor Creatures^ fince the Anions 
they fee ^em commit., are more like thofe of Devils.^ than 
of reafonable Creatures., or Chrifiians. For while the 
Indians fee the Officers as well as Souldiers commit fuch 
deteflable Crimes ^ they bdienje the Laws of Chriftianity 
authoriz.e thefe inhuman ABions.^ and that neither our 
Cod nor our King forbids ^em. ^Tis to no purpofe to 
pretend to undeceive 'em., and remove thefe Prejudices., 
as the Cafe jlands •, *tis but only to expofe the Laws and 
Religion of Chrijl the more to the Contempt of thefe Ido- 
laters. The Indians now begin to defend themfelves from 
the Spaniards by force of Arms \ and choofe rather to 
ferifh together at once than to fujfer a thoufand deaths by 
the Cruelty of thefe unmerciful Men. Tour Aiajefly has 
more Servants in this New World than you imagine •, 
for there are none who bear Arms in thefe vafl Coun- 
tries., and make it their bufmefs to plunder., kill., and 
hum., but give out that they are employed here in your 
Majefly'^s bujlnefs., and endeavour to perfwade the World 
that 'tis by your Afajefly^s Order, and for your Inter e^., 
that they do all this Mifchief to the Indians : tho the 
Truth is., they ufe ''em after this violent manner^ only 
to enrich themfelves by plundering ''em of all they have. 
It feems abfolutely necejfary for your Majefly to flop the 
Courfe of thefe Robbers by fome Exemplary Punifhment , 
and that your Majefly declare you wiU have none of 
their Services^ whofo highly difhonour God and Religion. 

Thus far the Letter which the Bifliop of St. Mar- 
tha wrote to his Catholick Majefty : By which it 


\and Cruelties in the Weft-Indies. 6^ 

may be conjectured how the Spaniards have abus'd 
the poor Indians. They in derifion and fcorn call 
thofe the Warlike Indians^ that fly into the Moun- 
tains to fave their Lives. And when they force 
thefe miferable People, to travel in tough and dif- 
cult ways, fweating under the great Burdens 
they oblige 'em to carry, not content with having 
overloaded 'em, they aggravate their mifery by 
beating 'cm unmercifully, and bruifing their Fa- 
ces with the pommels of their Swords, till the poor 
Wretches driven to defpair with all this Op- 
prefTion, often cry out, 1 can hold out no longer ; hU 
me out-right ^ ^ut an end to my Mifiries by a fpedy 
Death. And many deep fighs accompany thefe 
Exprefllons, which fometimes they are fcarce able 
to utter, their Strength is fo exhaufted with their 
Toil, their Vv^earinefs, and the unmerciful Blows 
which they give 'em, without any regard to their 
other Miferies. 

Of the Province of Carthagena. 

TH I S Province is fiaiate about 50 Leagues dis- 
tance from that of St. Martha Wellward, and 
borders on the Country of Cenu •, it itretches along 
the Sea-(hore as far as the Gulf of Foaha^ the fpace 
of a hundred Leagues ^ and is flill larger on the 
South-fide. All this Country from the year 1498. 
to this time hath fufFer'd great Ferfecutions from 
the Spaniards^ who have exercifed a World of 
violence, and made a great many Maflacres hefe, 
till they have made all this Country as defolate as 
that of St. Martha. But I begin to be weary of men- 
tioning fo often the Barbarity and Impiety the S^a* 
niards have difcovered in America, 


^4 -^ KeUtiofi of the Spanifh Voyages 

Of the Pearl-Coaft, and the IJland of Tri- 

THE Spaniards have made horrible Ravage and 
Spoil from the Coaft of Paria quite to the 
Gulf of Venecuela^ which is the fpace of above 
200 Leagues •, and after having committed their 
wonted Robberies, have taken as many Indians as 
they could, and either fold 'em, or made Slaves of 
'em themfelves, contrary to the promifes often made 
'cm, that they would treat 'em as their Friends, 
and as a free People \ which Proteftations they ne- 
ver took care to obferve. And tho thefe poor People 
did 'em all the good Offices they could, and were 
very ready to ferve 'em on all occalions*, tho they 
liberally gave *em all they had to fublift on them- 
felves 5 yet 'tis not to be exprefs'd with what Inju- 
ries and Mifchiefs the Spaniards requited all this kind- 
nefs. I purpofely omit a great many Diforders which 
they committed along this Coaft, being willing to 
infift only on thofe matters that are moft remarka- 

The IQe of Trinidado is larger and more fruitful 
than that of Sicily^ it is join'd to the Continent on 
that fide where it touches Paria •, the Inhabitants 
are a very honeft fort of People, teachable enough, 
and well inclinM to Virtue. A Spanifh Captain, ac- 
companied with 60 Cut-throats like himfelf, invad- 
ed this Country in the year 1 5 1 o, and immediate- 
ly commanded the Indians to come to him, pretend- 
ing he was come to live peaceably with them in 
the Ifland^ who receiv'd him and his Company 
with as great Teftimonies of kindnefs, as if they 
"had been their owa Children. The chief men of 


And Cruelties in the Weft-Indli^Si S5 

the Country as well as the common People all wait- 
ed on 'em with abundance of alacrity and joy j they 
every day brought 'em a quantity of Provifions fuffi- 
cient for a much greater number of men: For the 
Indians are very much given to hofpitality, and rea- 
dily fupply Strangers with all the NecelTaries they 
have. In a little time the Spaniards would needs 
make 'cm build a vail houfe, that all the Indians 
might lodg together in the fame place ^ they us'd 
this Artifice to catch 'em in the fnare they were 
preparing for 'em. When the work was carried 
up about the height of two men^ they inclos'd a 
great many Indians within, that the work might be 
the fooner finilh'd, as they pretended j but the de- 
fign was to hinder any Communication between 
them that were within and thofe that were with- 
out : part of the Souldiers kept the doors of the 
houfe with their Weapons in their hands to prevent 
any from going out •, another part went in among 
'em with their naked Swords, rhreatning to cue 
their Throats, if they made any ftir or dilturbance 5 
and fo bound 'em all like fo many Sheep. If any 
one attempted to make his efcape, they immediately 
cut him in pieces j however divers ot 'em efcaped, 
Ibme whole and others wounded, who joining with 
thofe that had not yet been fhut up in this fatal 
Houfe, and arming themfelves with Bows and Ar- 
rows to the number of 20b, retir'd into another 
Houfe, where they thought themfelves feciire, if 
they could defend the door againll the Spaniards ^ 
but thefe let ic on fire on the other fide, and cruel- 
ly dellroy'd thefe poor Creatures. After this bar- 
barous Expedition they retreated into the Illand of 
St. John with about 180 Prifoners, who had fufFer'd 
themfelves to be bound ; where they fold half of 'em, 
and che relt in Hifpaniola. When I feverely reprov'd 
this Captain for his perfidioufnefs and cruelty, he 

F fatif- 

66 A KeUtion of the Spanifh Vojxges 
fatisBed himfelf with making me this anfwer : JDonV 
you trouble your feJf about the fe matters \ they that fent 
me gave me Orders to a{} after this manner^ and to 
take all thofe by force that I could not bring away under 
the/})iidow and pretence of Peace. The Spaniards were 
guilty of a world of fuch bafe Actions, in feizing 
thefe Indians contrary to their promifes that they 
would treat 'em like Friends. 

Let any one now make refletflion on the Condu(!l 
of the Spaniards^ and fee if thev have any appea- 
rance of right to reduce the Inhabitants of America^ 
as they do, to fuch a miferable ftate of bondage. It 
was refolv'd among the Dominican Friers to fend 
fome of their Order, to difplay the Light of the 
Gofpel among the Indians that liv'd in the grofs dark- 
nefs of Idolatry, and were out of the way of Sal- 
vation : Tliey firft fent one that was a Licentiate in 
Divinity, of great reputation for his Piety and Vir- 
tue, who took with him a Lay-brother: they both 
went through this Country to feek a commodious 
place for the building of a Monallry j and conferr'd 
withfonie of the Inhabitants what meafures to take 
to fucceed in this defign. When the other Friers were 
arriv'd, the Indians receiv'd 'em as if they had been 
Meflengers fent from Heaven •, they manifefted abun- 
dance of affedion to 'em, heard what they faid 
with great attention, as far as they were capable of 
underflanding them ;, for thefe religious Perfons 
not being yet fufficiently acquainted with their 
Language, were conllrain'd to make ufe of figns to 
exprefs their meaning. 

No fooner was the Ship that brought the Friers 
gone off, but there came another full of Souldiers, 
who made ufe of Treachery and Artifice, according 
to their wielded Cul]:om,to feize the Prince of this Na- 
tion, unknown to the Friers. This Prince's name was 
^Ifonfo^ which was given him either by the Friers, or 


And Cruelties in the Weft-Indies. 6j 

Ibme other Spaniards ^ for thefe Indians take upon 'ern 
Chriftian Names with a greac deal of Joy ^ and before 
they areinftrufted in our Myfleries, very eagerly de- 
iire to be baptized. This Prince ^Ifonfo ^logcihQr with 
his PrincefsjnoS aware of the Artifices of the »S^/:»<^^/^rJx, 
and the deceitful trick they had refolrd to play 'em, 
were perfwaded to ^o on board one of their Ships, 
and many other Indians did the like, being all made 
to believe there was a greit Feaft preparM tor 'em j 
and they needed the ieis importunity to entice 'era 
into the Ship, becaufe they fupposM the Friers, ia 
whom they put abundance of Confidence, had Inte- 
reitand Authority enough among the Soldiers to fe- 
cure 'em from all manner of danger : otherwile 
they would not have lb ealily cri.iled theinfclves ia 
the hands of the Spaniards. The very moment they 
enterd the VelTel, thefe perfidious Men let fail, and 
carried 'em to Hifpaniola^ where they fold 'em for 
Slaves. All the Country was alarni'd at the fad 
tidings that the Spaniards had carried away their 
Prince and Princefs ; and came in Crowds to feek: 
the Friers, who narrowly efcap'd being kilFd by'em. 
Thefe good men were extreamly griev"d at the 
treachery us'd with thefe poor People •, and would 
rather have died than fufferM thefe Outrages to 
be on all occalions committed againft 'em, if they 
could have prevented 'em, becaufe thefe Were the 
great obftacles thathinderM 'em from embracing the 
Catholick Religion. However, the Indians were ap- 
peas'd by the promifes the Friers made 'em, that 
they would write by the firft Voirel that Ihould 
go to Hifpaniola^ to procure their Prince and Priri* 
cefs to be fent back. Accordingly a Veffel being 
in a little time prepared for this Voyage, they 
made ufe of the oppornnnity to write lO Hifpaniolay 
to engage thefe Robbers to reftore their Prey, which 
they obftinately refus'd to do, the Governours of 
F 2 thac 

68 J Relation of the Spanifh Voyages 

that Ifland having had a fliave in the Booty. Thefe' 
good Fliers who had given their word to the Indians^ 
thai their Prince Alfonfo and his Princefs fhould be 
rellord to em in four months, feeing twice four 
Months elapsM without any hope of their return, 
were oblig d to prepare for death ^ there was now 
noway to avoid fiiedding their blood for the Glory 
of Chrill, and in his Service, which Sacrifice they 
had ofFer'd in the ready difpofition of their Minds 
to fuffer before they came from S^ain: In Ihort, 
they were maflacred by the Indians^ who believed 
they Were Accomplices of the foremention'd Trea- 
chery \ and thought their fafpicion well founded, 
becaufe the Friers had prorais'd to redrefs their 
Grievance in four months time ^ and yet they faw 
thefe promifes produc'd no effect : Befides, thefe 
Barbarians make no great difference between thofe 
religious Men that go to the Indies only to inftrud 
and preach to 'em, and the Spanilh Souldiers who 
go thither only to enrich themfelves by robbing 'em. 
However, thefe good Fathers were unjuflly put to 
death •, and one may without fcruple place 'em in 
the Order of Martyrs, and conclude they are now 
enjoying God in the glory of Heaven. They obe- 
diently refign'd themfelves to go into America ac- 
cording to the dire^ion of their Superiours, and 
had no other intention in their Voyage, but that of 
preaching the Chriftian Faith to thefe Idolaters, 
and of putting 'em in the way of Salvation, with a 
refolution to fuffer any hardlhips, or even death it 
felf, in the profecution of fo pious a Delign. 

The cruel Treatment the Indians met with from 
the Spaniards cccafioned 'em likewife to kill two 
Dominican Friers about the fame time. There was 
IT thefe Provinces, near the Gulf of Codera^ a City, 
the Prince of which was nam'd Higuerote ^ who was 
raturally of a fweet and amicable temper, and his 


And Cruelties in the Weft-Indies. 69 

Subjeds civil and complaifant : when the Spaniards 
came firft afhore in hisCountry,the Inhabitants treat- 
ed 'em with abundance of Kindnefs ^ they fupplied 
'era with Provilions and Stores in great plenty •, 
and omitted nothing they were capable of doing 
to refrelh and recruit 'era after the fatigues and 
troubles of their Voyage. This Prince had fav'd 
the lives of a great many Europeans ^ who had ex- 
ercis'd their Cruelty and OpprelTion in other Pro- 
vinces, when they came to his Coafts half dead with 
hunger and wearinefs j and after he had recruited 
'em with his good Entertainment, fent 'em fafe and 
in a good Hate of health to the Ifie of Pearls^ which 
was the ordinary Relidence of the Spaniards^ tho 
he might have fecurely kilPd 'em all, without being 
ever fafpeded of the fad. Upon this the Spaniards 
were fo well perfwaded of H/^we^'ofe's good inclina- 
tion toward "^era, that they took his houfe for their 
home, and were as kindly entertain'd in it as they 
could expect to be in their own. While this Coun- 
try thus enjoy'd a profound Peace, a Spanifh Captain 
coming aftiore there,invited divers of the Inhabitants 
to come on board his Veflel ^ which they often d]d, 
from the entire confidence they had in the repeated 
Promifes the Spaniards made ''em that they would 
do 'era no injury : At length when many of 'em 
were got into the Ship, the Captain gave a Sig- 
nal to put out to Sea, and faiPd diredly for the Ilk 
of St. Jobn^ where he fold all the poor Creatures, 
whom he had thus perfidioully furpriz'd. I foon 
after arriv'd in the fame Ifland, where I faw this 
Robber, and had a particular account given me of 
the Circumftances of this villanous Action ^ and it 
feems, to compleat the Crime, he utterly deftroy'd 
this Prince's City. Thefe things were not well re- 
fented by the reft of the Spaniards that us'd to cruife 
up ajiddown the neighbouring Coafts to pillage 'em j 

F 3 for 

yo A ReUtton of the Spanifh Voyages 

for they could not but abhor the Adion of this Cap- 
tain, that he fhould by ib infamous a piece of Trea- 
chery abufe this Indian Chief, who had done 'em fo 
inany good Offices from time to time, and was wont 
to entertain 'em as if they had been his own Chil- 
dren. ,^ 

The Spaniards took away above two Millions of 
Men from the Coalls of thefe Provinces, and tranf- 
ported 'em into the iflands of Hifpaniola and St. John^ 
where the greateft part periflid in the Mines, or 
by other Hardfhips wliich they made 'emfufter. It 
ivould produce Compafhon in the hardeft Hearts, 
to fee thefe Coa lis that were once fo full of People 
now abfolutely defert. It has been obferv'd by ma- 
ny Trials, that one third part of the Slaves which 
the Spaniards take on board their VelTels die by the 
way, befides thofe they kill when they fearch their 
Houfes to take thefe poor Wretches away. The 
end the Spantdrds propofe to themfelves, which is 
to getKiches at any rate in the v/orld, induces 'em 
to commit all this Violence ^ they carry away great 
numbers of Slaves, to produce confiderable Sums of 
Mony, and yet take but a fmall quantity of Provi- 
fions in their Ships to maintain all thefe People, for 
fear of being at too great a charge in transporting 
'em y nay foraetimes they have fcarce enough for the 
Spaniards that man the Ship: fo that many of the 
Indians perifli miferably with Hunger and Thirll •, 
and fometimes they cafl the greatell part of 'em 
over board, to preferve the reft. A certain Pilot 
told me, that in a Voyage he c nre made from 
the LucaylH^uds to Hifpaniola^ which is about fe- 
Venty Leagues, he had no need either of a Com- 
pafs, or the obfervation of the Stars to guide his 
Veflel^ for he alTur'd me the floatinp, Bodies of 
the Indians that had been thrown into the Sea, 
ferv'd for his Guide throughout chis Paflage, ar.d 
*^- ■ -' ' - • con- 

dnd Cruelties in the Weft- Indies. 7 1 

conduced him ftraight to the port to which he 
was bound. 

To fee the Indians arrive in any Ifland where they 
defign to fell 'em, can't but excite Compaffion and 
Trouble in every Mind that is not divefted of all 
Sentiments of Humanity : To fee a great number 
of Men, Women and Children ftark naked, and fo 
worn out with Hunger andHardlhip, that many of 
'era can fcarce fl:and,and others fall down with Faint- 
nefs \ and to fee 'era divided into feveral Companies 
like Sheep, Husbands feparated from their Wives, 
and Children from their Parents •, for the Spaniards 
are wont to divide 'em by ten or twenty in a Com- 
pany, and then to call Lots which Ihare each Man 
fhall have. This is the trade oi thefe Pirats, who 
arm and fit out VelTels on purpofe to carry away 
thefe poor Wretches from theii" own Houfes, to in- 
rich themfelves by felling 'em for Slaves. When a 
Spaniard happens to have an old or fick Man fall to 
his (hare among the reft, he'll complain of fuch a 
Lot, and fay to his Companions, Why dye give me 
th'vs old Ft'llow thafs good for nothing ? he w not worth his 
keeping : What /hall I do with this fick Slave ^ that will 
only he a charge to me^ and can do me no Service ? "Tis 
eify to fee by all this how little account they make 
oF thefe People, and what little regard they have 
to the Rules of Chriftian Charity ;, 'tis too evident 
they neither have any love to God, nor to their 
Neighbour, tho on thefe two ( as our Saviour fays) 
both the Law and the Prophets depend. 

The deteftable Cruelty and Tyranny of the Spa- 
niards in infnaring and feizing thefe poor Indians^ 
when they go in quelt of 'em to inflave 'em, and 
employ 'em in fifhing for Pearls, is fcarce to be ima- 
gin'd. The Torments they make thefe unfortunate 
People endure, can fcarce be compar'd to any lefs 
than thofe of Hell. What they fulFer in the Gold 
F 4 Mines, 

72 A Relation of the Spanifh Voyages 

Mines, tho very terrible, yet is far inferior to that 
we are now relating. They make 'em dive in the 
Sea five or fix fathom under water (where they are 
forc'd to hold their Breath ) to take up Mother of 
Pearl ^ and when they come up to the furface of the 
Water with Nets full of thofe Shells, to get a little 
Breath, if they keep above water fomething longer 
than ordinary to refrefh themfelves a little, a mer- 
cilefs Spaniard who attends with a Boat, beats and 
abufes 'em without meafure, and often takes 'cm by 
the hair of the head, to force 'em again under 
water, to continue their filhing. They feed 'em 
with a little Fifh and a piece of dry hungry Bread, 
and don't give 'em a Belly full of that neither ^ they 
have no other Bed than the hard ground on which 
they make 'em deep in their Chains, for fear they 
ihould run away. They are often drown'd in fiftiing 
thus for Pearl, or elfe devour'd by a fort of Sea- 
monfters, that will fwallow a Man whole, fothat 
they hear no more of 'em. 

'Tis no hard matter to perceive by what has been 
faid, that the Precept of Chriftian Charity is ill ob- 
ferv'd in this kind of fifhing, feeing thefe poor 
Slaves are expos'd to imminent danger of perifhing 
both in Soul and Body. The Avarice of the S^a- 
tiiards, who mind nothing but Gain, is fuch, that 
they fcarce take any care to inftruft their Slaves, 
and to fortify 'em by communicating the Sacraments 
to 'em. They opprefs 'em with fo much Labour 
and Fatigue, that they die in a little time j and 'tis 
impofTible Men fhould continue long under water 
without Refpiration, and endure the great Con- 
Itraint they fuffer in holding their Breath : The 
coldnefs of the Water fometimes makes 'em vomit 
Blood ^ and they foon die, partly by having their 
Stomachs fo violently prefs'd by long holding of 
their Breath under water, and partly by the ex- 


and Cruelties in the Weft-Indies. 7^ 

ceflive Cold they endure, which caufes that flux of 
Blood of which I have juft now fpoken. Tho they 
have naturally black Hair, the Fatigue they undergo 
changes the colour of it % fo that it becomes like the 
Hair of Sea-wolves. The foam of the Sea flicks fo 
faft to their Shoulders, and in fuch a manner,that they 
look more like Monfters than Men. By this filhing 
trade the Spaniards have deftroy'd all the People of 
the Z«c^^-Iflands, which were the moft skilful and 
experienc'd in this Employment ; and the reafon 
why one of thofe Indians was fold for fifty Crowns 
or more, and fometimes for a hundred, was be- 
caufe they were marvelloufly dextrous at fwimming 
and diving. However, thofe of other Provinces 
were employ 'd too in this work when they could 
take 'em ; fo that by this means an infinite number 
of People have been deftroy'd. 

Of the River Yuya-pari. 

THIS Province is water'd by the River Tuya- 
pari^ tho the fource of it is two hundred Leagues 
diftant. A Spanifh Captain once had the boldnefs 
to go up this River to penetrate farther into the 
Country, and to ravage and fpoil it. He maflacred 
abundance of People in his way, laid the Coun- 
try wafle with Fire and Sword, and ruin'd them 
by whole Families, while they were peaceably en- 
joying themfelves in their Houfes, and thought of 
nothing lefs : But after all this mifchief, himfelf pe- 
rifh'd miferably, and his Souldiers quarreFd and 
deftroy'd one another. They that afterwards came 
into this Country fucceeded him in his Cruelties, and 
are dill laying it walle •, they commit abundance of 
MafTacres and Robberies there with Impunity, and 


74 -^ Relation of the Spanifh Voyages 
feem' to undertake their long Voyages and Journeys 
on purpofe to precipitate an infinite number of 
Souls into Hell, that were ledeem'd by the Biood of 
the Son of God. 

Of the Kjngdom of Ven^uela. 

IN the year 1 525, the King of 5p^m, abusM by the 
Artifices of fomc ill-dcfigning People, who made 
ufe of a thou fa nd fetches and excufes to conceal 
from him the great Devaltations the S^aniatds had 
made in the new World, to the great prejudice of 
the Glory of God, the Chriftian Religion, and the 
Salvation of the poor Indians^ gave the Government 
of the Kingdom of renguelay which is bigger than 
all Spain^ to feveral Flemi/h Merchants, with full 
Jurifdidion and Power to do what they pleas'd there, 
and to difpofe of the Country as they thought 
convenient. They accordingly enter'd it with 
three hundred Men, and found the People there to 
be of a meek, tradable and peaceful Difpofition, as 
indeed the Indians generally are when left to their 
natural Temper, and not enrag'd by the Abufes fo 
often ofFer'd 'em. Thefe were ftill more brutifh 
and cruel than thofe Spaniards of whom we have 
been hitherto fpeaking : They exceeded Tygers, 
Wolves and Lions in Barbarity, when they faw 
themfelves Mafters of this great Kingdom, in pof- 
feflion of it, and the Jurifdidion of it entirely put 
into their hands : they thought they had ample li- 
berty to do there whatever they pleas'd, and that 
they might fatisfy their Covetoufnefs at any rate, 
and by all the methods they could imagine, tho 
never lb unjuft. They took no care but how to heap 
ep vaft Treafures of Gold and Silver j and the abo- 

and Cruelties in the Weft-Indies. 7 $ 

rninable means they usM to this end, fhew'd they 
had no regard either to God or their Prince •, nay, 
they feem'd to have utterly forgotten that them- 
ielves were Men, having put on fuch an inhuman and 
favage Fiercenefs ^ or to come yet nearer to their 
true Charader, they appear'd like fo many Devils 
in the fhapeof Men. 

They ran through thefe rich and pleafant Pro- 
vinces, and inllantly laid the Country waftefor forty 
Leagues together, wherein were fruitful Vallies of 
a prodigious extent^ and Towns and Villages ftorM 
with great quantities of Gold. The deftrudion 
they made was fo general, that fcarce a Man was 
left to carry the News of the Cruelties they ex- 
ercifed in this Kingdom to other Provinces : none 
but thofe that hid themfelves in Caves and Holes of 
the Earth, could efcape the Sword of thefe furious 
and inhuman Creatures. They invented new kinds 
of Punifhments wherewith to torment 'em, to force 
*em to part with their Gold by difcovering the places 
where they had hid it : After this manner they 
deftroy'd three or four Millions of People. The 
Inftances of three or four Fads will fufficiently dif- 
cover how thefe Brutes behav'd themfelves in this 

One of the firft things they did, was to feize him 
whom they look'd upon as the Soveraign Prince of 
the whole Kingdom ^ they loaded him with Irons 
to get the more Gold out of him : they endeavour'd 
by the Tortures to which they put him, to make 
him difcover the places where he had fecur d his 
Treafures •, but he had the good fortune to efcape 
their hands, and fly into the Mountains : His Sub- 
jeds furrounded him, and hid him in the Woods ^ 
but their number was too great to be long conceal'd : 
fo that the Spaniards purfued 'em with Swords in 
their hands, and made a dreadful Maflacre among 
^ ^ ' 'em> 

J 6 A Relation of the Spanifh Voyages 

'cm ; others of them they took alive, and fold for 

Before the ^aniards had took their King Prifoner, 
they were receiv'd in all thefe Provinces with ring- 
ing, dancing, and all the higheft demonftrations of 
Joy, as if come to bring Peace and Plenty with 'em 
into the Country : They frankly and voluntarily 
gave 'em immenfe Sums of Gold and Silvery for 
which all the Compenfation they had was to be 
run through, and cut with Lances and Swords, and 
maflacred without pity. One day when they came 
out to meet the Spaniards to do 'em the more ho- 
nour, the Plemifh Commander having order'd a 
great number of 'em to aflemble together in a cer- 
tain Houfe, cut 'em all in pieces immediately, only 
Ibme of the poor Wretches got upon the Beams to 
avoid the fury of the Souldiers ^ upon which this 
Commander caus'd the Houfe to be fir'd, and de- 
Itroy'd them in the Flames. The whole Country 
was foon turn'd into a Defert ^ for all that efcap'd 
the Souldiers Rage retir'd into the Mountains. 

The Spaniards after this pafs'd into a vaft Pro- 
vince upon the Confines of that of Sp. Martha^ 
where they found the Natives following their ordi- 
nary bufinefs in profound Peace. All the while they 
continued here they liv'd at the charge of the I«- 
dians^ who ferv'd 'em with as much Affedion and 
Diligence, as if they had ow'd their Lives to 'em : 
nay, they bore with their troublefom Humors, and 
continually receiv'd ill Treatment from 'em with in- 
credible Patience. The Indians moreover to qualify 
their ill Temper, brought 'em a prodigious quanti- 
ty of Gold, and many other things of great value. 
Yet thefe Tyrants, when upon the point of leaving 
'em, infteid of gr 'tefully acknowledging all the 
good Oifices they had receiv'd of 'em, refolv'd to 
put 'em all to the Sword. The Fkmi/h General 


And Cruelties in the Weft-Indies. 77 

( who has lince been fuppos'd to be a Heretick, be- 
caufe he never went to Mafs himfelf, nor futer'd 
others to go ) commanded his Men to take all the 
Indians with their Wives and Children, and put 'era 
into fome very large place capable of containing 
'em all \ and then to declare to 'em that if they had 
a mind to redeem their Liberty, with that of their 
Wives and Children, they mult nfecelFarily lay down 
a certain Sum, which this unjufl: Governor had tax'd 
'em according to his own capricious Humour j and 
to urge 'em the more to anfwer his Requirement, he 
barbarouQy prohibited his Men to give any Viduals 
to thefe poor Creatures, till each of 'em had paid 
the Sum impos'd on him. Many of 'em fent to their 
Houfes for the Sum demanded, being willing to do 
what they could to redeem their Liberty, and to 
have leave to go feek fomething to eat : Yet they 
were no fooner got out of the Clutches of this co- 
vetous Governor, but he inftantly fent Soldiers to 
take 'em again, and fubjed 'em to the fame Confine- 
ment from which they had ranfom'd themfelves 
with fo much difficulty : fo that they dy'd in this 
Captivity with Hunger andThirft, unlefs they fpec- 
dily bought their Liberty again, which they forc'd 
'em to do by this barbarous ufage. So that many 
of 'era were taken and retaken thus three or four 
times, and every time oblig'd to ranfom themfelves 
with great Sums. Thofe that were not able to pay 
the Tax laid upon 'em, continued in this cruel Prifon 
till they pin'd away with Hunger and Mifery. Thus 
was this opulent Province that abounded with Gold, 
made defolate in a very little time. There was one 
pleafant and fertile Vale ravag'd by thefe Brutes, 
which extended no lefs than forty Leagues ^ they 
burnt a Town in it confifting of a thouland Houfes. 
After this refolving to advance farther into the 
Country to difcover a new way to Pf r«, they made 


^8 A Relation of the Spanifli Voyages 

ufe of a multitude of Indians in this Journey, whom 
they loaded with Chains, and their Baggage toge- 
ther: thofe that fainted under their Burdens with 
wearinefs, they kill'd upon the fpot, cutting off 
their heads ^ and divided the Burdens of them that 
died among the Survivors. 

If one could exaftly defcribe all the Ravage and 
MaflTacres the Spniards commited in this Province, 
together with all the Towns they fir'd, fo deplora- 
ble a Story would fill every Reader with horror, and 
almoft furpafs belief Many other Tyrants came 
afterward into this Province, who folio w'd the fteps 
of the former in fearching for Gold and other Trea- 
sure ^ but they found the Country fo burnt, pillag'd 
and defolate, tho it had heretofore been both very 
populous and fertile, that they themfelves could 
rot but Hand amaz'd to think what Cruelties the 
poor Indians had endur'd. 

All thefe Violences were plainly prov'd by the 
Procurator of the Tre^fury of the Council of the 
Weft'lndks. The Adts and Proceedings made in 
this Affair are yet prefer v'd upon record ^ yet not 
one of thefe Tyrants was ever put to death for 
the Injuries offer'd thefe poor Indians : fo that all 
the Procefs that was made againft 'em prov'd to ve- 
ry little purpofe. Thofe Minifters of JuRice that 
have been hitherto fent into the Indies have regard- 
ed nothing but their Interell •, and ftudied how to 
enrich themfelves without taking the trouble to 
examin and punifh the Crimes of thefe Tyrants, 
who did fo much mifchief, and committed fo many 
Outrages on the poor Indians. They content them- 
felves to fay in general, that fuch and fuch have 
committed great Crimes,and abus'd the Inhabitants of 
the New World ^ that they have leffen'd the King's 
Revenues to fuch a degree. But when they have 
made thefe loofe and general Enquiries, they go no 

farther : 

mi Cruelties in the Weft-Indies. 79 
farther : Whereas more effedual Remedies ought 
to be ufed to ftop the Courfe of all thefe Mifchiefs. 
There is not fo much care taken as to evidence and 
verify thefe matters j nor do they give their Afts 
and Proceedings all the Life and Authority they 
ought : for to difcharge their Duty faithfully to 
God and the King, they fliould make fuch Tyrants 
as thefe reftore all the Plunder they have fo unjuftly 
got. And 'twould be no difficult matter to prove 
that they carried out of this Kingdom of Vmcuda 
above 3 Millions of Gold, having utterly ruined 
the Country for 40 leagues together in the fpace of 
17 years ^ for fo long they continued fpoiling this 
noble and fruitful Region. They have cheated 
the King of above 2 Millions of his Revenues \ nor 
can they ever be able to repair the damage they 
have done this delicious Country, unlefs the ma- 
ny thoufand People they have cruelly murder'd 
could be rais'd again from the dead. What I am 
now fpeaking of, only refpeds the King's tem- 
poral Interell, which they have fo ill manag'd, with- 
out faying any thing of their Blafphemies, their 
Impieties and Outrages committed immediately a- 
gainft the Divine Majefty. And who fhall make 
reparation for the lofs of fo many Souls they have 
precipitated into Hell, in not fuffering the Miflio- 
naries to inftruct 'em ? Thefe are the Fruits of 
their deteftable avarice and profanity. As foon as 
ever they enter'd this Kingdom, they feveral times 
loaded divers Ships with great numbers of Indians^ 
whom they carried into the Ifle of St. Martha^ and 
fold for Slaves. Great multitudes of thefe poor 
Creatures were likewife carried into Hifpaniolay 
Jamaica, and the Ifle of St. John, to the number at 
leall of a million of Men. The Royal Council has 
beenfufficientlyinform'dof all thefe Diforders and 
.Cruelties •, but they are pleas'd to connive at 'em, 


So A Relation of the Spanifh Voyages 

and are as willing to Ihut their Eyes, and take no 
notice of all the Robberies and Villanies the S^a- 
niards have committed on the Coafts of the Ifle of 
St. Martha ; tho they might have eafily hinder'd all 
this raifchief if they had applied themfelves to it, 
'Twas the infamous Avarice of thefe Tyrants, that 
induc'd 'em to take fo many Indians to fell 'em for 
Slaves : and the very fame covetous humour and 
phrenzie has feizM all the Europeans that have hi- 
therto fet foot in America. Their Cuftom has been 
to take the poor Indians out of their houfes, with 
their Wives and Children, to load 'em with Chains, 
to mark 'em like Sheep that they might diftinguilh 
'em one from another, and afterwards to fell 'em as if 
they had been born Slaves. 

Of thofe Provinces of the Continent called, 

THREE mercilefs Tyrants have invaded thefe 
Provinces one after another (ince the year 
1510, all animated with the fame Spirit, andmov'd 
by the fame defigns. They all committed the fame 
Outrages throughout this Country, to put them- 
felves by robbing and pillaging into a capacity of 
buying places of honour and profit, far above their 
quality : but God was pleas'd to punifh 'em after a 
f ery lignal manner \ for they all came to a mifera- 
ble end j they were buried in the ruins of thofe 
Houfes, which they had built with the Spoils of 
ib many miferable People whom they had ruin'd 
and murder'd. Thus were thefe Provinces left de- 
folate. Thefe Brutes would doubtlefs have com- 
mitted yet more Villanies, had not the juft Judg-* 
ment of the Almighty fhorten'd their days, and pu- 


and Cruelties in the Weft-Indies. 8 1 

nifli'd *eni in this Country for the MafTacres and 
Robberies they had committed in other parts of 
the Indies. 

When they came mto-tlwida^ they found it plen- 
tifully ftor'd with People, who were wife and well 
difciplin'd both in Civil Affairs, and in Morals : 
they immediately began to caft a Terror through- 
out the Country by I know not how many MafTa- 
cres \ fo that the poor Indiars who had never 
known any thing like it, were put into a mighty 
Confternation. The Spaniards us'd 'era inflead of 
Beafls of burden to carry their Arms, Utenlils and 
Provifions: yet the Inhabitants of one great Town 
cxprefs'd abundance of Joy at their arrival, enter- 
tain'd 'em with the belt they had, and furnifh'd 'em 
with plenty of Provifions as long as they continued 
there ^ they offer'd 'em 600 of their Itrongefl men 
to carry their Baggage, and look to their Horfes. 
Yet the Spanifh General was fo little touch'd with 
the courtefie of thefe People, that he kill'd their 
Prince with a Lance, that fo he might be in a better 
condition to pillage them, who little thought of 
fuch a bloody fadl as this, and other Cruelties with 
which their barbarous Guefts requited their kind- 
neffes. They with their Swords and Lances kill'd 
all the Inhabitants of another Town, who flood 
upon their Guard , and endeavour'd to defend 
therafehes from the Hoflilities of thefe Tyrants. 
They put Men and Women, great and fmall, Maf^ 
ters and Servants all to the Sword, without any 
refpecl either to Age, Sex or Quality. In another 
Village a Spanifh Captain kill'd above loo Indians .' 
he cut off the Lips and Nofes of others, and fent 
'em away in. this condition to terrify the reft of the 
Country by fo horrible a fight. Thefe Cruelties 
hinder'd the fuccefs of the Millions of our Apollo- 
lick Men in the Indies, who had no good reafons tO" 

G produc<l 

82 A Relation of the Spanifh Voyages 
produce to thefe poor Wretches to excufe fuch 
Barbarities as thefe. One may eafily gueft by this 
Inftance what love the Indians muft have for the Ca- 
tholicks, and what confidence they can put in their 
Promifes. What Idea can they have of God, when 
he is defcribed to 'em as infinitly good and merciful? 
What can they think of his Law, which they are 
to'd is fo holy and joll •, when they fee thofe that 
profefs to obferve it, not fcruple to comihic all thefe 

Mofl: of thefe cruel Villains perifh'd miferably 
without the leafl contrition or repentance ^ and tho 
God is infinitely gracious and merciful, there is 
reafon enough to fear they are conderan'd to eter- 
nal Torments. 

Of the River de la Plata, or Silver-River. 

SEveral Spanifli Captains have undertaken Voyages 
to xht SilvtY- River ^ fince the year 1502. The 
Country upon it is of a valt extent, and contains ma- 
ny great Kingdoms and noble Provinces. The In- 
habitants are a very i*ational and civil fort of Peo- 
ple, and live at a confiderable diftance from the 
other Indians j which render'd it an eafy matter 
to tl^e Spaniards to molelt 'em with impunity, and 
to exercife all their wonted Rapine and Cruelty 
among 'em. They every where carry with 'em the 
fame defign of enriching and making themfelves 
great and powerful at the colt of thefe unhappy 
People, whom they plunder of their Treafure, as if 
it were the fpoil of a juft and lawful War. Wher- 
ever they come, they ufe the fame ways and means 
to compafs their deiign \ they torment and kill the 
People, pillage and deftroy the Country, mining 
whole Nations to poITefs themfelves of their Gold 
and Silver. On 

k^d Cruelties m the Weft-Indies. 8 1 

. On the Banks of the Silver-River they have de- 
ftroy'd clivers great Provinces and Kingdoms j and 
cut the Throats of multitude of Indians^ treating; 
'em with all the Cruelties they could invent : for 
when they were at this vafl diilance from Spain, 
they did not much fear the King's Authority ^ be- 
lieving the remotenefs of the place where they com- 
mitted their Crimes, would fecure 'era from the 
danger of fufFering for 'em. This hope of impu- 
nity made 'em more barbaroufly cruel in this Coun* 
try than in others ; fo that they liv'd. here after the 
moft licentious manner imaginable, without the 
leaft regard to Law or Juflice. However fomeof 
their Actions have been reported to the Council of 
the Indies. A certain Governor one day command- 
ed his Souldicrs to enter into a Town, and maffa- 
ere all the Inhabitants, if they Ihould refufe to 
give 'em what provifions they wanted. The Sol- 
diers prompted by this Order, and fupported by 
the Authority of the Governor that fent 'em, kili'd 
5000 of thefe poor Creatures *, who looking on. 
the Spaniards as their declared Enemies, were not 
willing to truft 'em, or to have any commerce 
with 'em ^ and therefore hid themfelves, not fo 
much to avoid giving 'em what they as'kd, as to 
efcape the points of their Swords. The other !«- 
dians were fo terrified by this flaughter, that they 
readily ofFer'd therafelves in great numbers to ferve 
the Spaniards. Thefe Indians when they were one 
day call'd by the Governour to receive foms orders 
from him, 1 know not by v/hat hap, made fome de- 
lay to prefent themfelves before him •, upon which 
he commanded 'em to be deliver'd up to another 
Nation of Indians who were their mortal Enemies* 
The poor Wretches as foon as they heard this cruel 
Sjentence, cried out mofl: hideoufly, entreating the. 
Sj^dniards with tears in their Eyes rather to kill 'cm 

G I outright 

84 ^ Relation of the Spanlfh Voyages 

outright with their Swords and Lances, than to 
abandon 'em to tlie rage of their fworn Enemies. 
Nor could they by any means be got out of the 
houfe were they were ^ upon which the Spaniards 
hew'd 'em in pieces one after another j while the poor 
Indians complain'd to 'em of their barbarity, expref- 
fmg themfelves with hearts full of anguifh anddefpair 
after this manner : We came voluntarily to meet you^ 
to offer our Service to you^ and to fherv you all the re^ 
fpe{i rve could •, and all the return you make to our kind' 
nsfs is to murder us without pity. Our Blood that is 
da/h'd on every fide upon the Walls of this Houfe Jhali be 
an everlafling witnefs of your cruelty^ and cry for ven* 
geame againfi you for the unjufl death you make us fuffer* 
■*Tis impoiTible to refied on this Adion without be- 
ing mov'd both with horror and compaflion. 

Oj the great Kjngdoms and Fr evinces of Peru. 

ASpanilh Commander with a great number of 
Soldiers enter'd thefe Kingdoms with the Ti- 
tle of Governour j and with a Refolution to heap 
up a vafl Treafure in a little time. He had already 
given fome proofs of his skill and capacity on the 
Continent •, and he every day peifedted himfelf 
more and more in the Art of cutting of throats 
and pillaging. He was naturally cruel, without 
Faith, Honour or Religion ^ he knew no other 
God than Gold or Silver, and therefore gave him- 
felf liberty to commit all forts of Crimes,to get thefe 
Metals any way in the world. He did abundance 
of mifchief in the large Provinces of Peru. 'Tis 
not poflible to reprefent to the life what Perfecutl- 
ons the Inhabitants of this rich Country underwent j . 
and what cruel forts of death they were made to • 


and Cruelties in the "Weft-Indies. 8 5 

fuffer, to extort their Gold and Silver from 'em. 

When this Governour firfl enter'd Vcyu^ he rifled 
divers Villages, and took away prodigious quantities 
; of Gold. He then pafs'd into an Ifland (not far 
' from this Kingdom) which is very pleafant, fruit- 
ful and populous. The Prince of this Ifland, toge- 
ther with the Inhabitants, came out to meet the S^a- 
\ijiards^ and received 'em with greatjoy and civility. 
I But in the fpace of fix months, which time the Spa^ 
' niards continued here,they confum'd all the Corn and 
; other Provifions they found in the Ifland. After this 
they difcover'd that the Indians had hid fome Corn 
under ground, to keep againft a time of fcarcity, for 
the fubfiftence of their Wives and Children j which 
they were conllrainM to leave to the difcretion of the 
Spaniards, who took polTeHion of it as their own Pro- 
perty ^ and hereby reduc'd thefe poor People to the 
utmofl neceflity. Soon after this they left the Ifland, 
but firlt kill'd a great many of the People, and car- 
ried away the reft with 'em for Slaves. Thus by the 
many Cruelties they committed, this Ifland is quite 

From hence they went into the Ifle of Tumbala^ 
which is fituate near the Continent \ here they maf- 
facred all the Inhabitants that fell into their hands. 
The reft frighted at this cruel flaughter, fled every 
way they could to avoid 'em ; and tho they did this 
only to fave their Lives, it was interpreted a Rebel- 
lion againft the King of Spain ^ but was only an Ar- 
tifice of this Tyrant to entrap thefe miferable Peo- 
ple, that he might make 'em fur render to him all 
the Gold and Silver they had : which they brought 
to him in great quantities, while he ftifl demanded 
greater, being refolv'd to leave 'em nothing : And 
when he had ftrip'd 'em of all they had, he told 
them he receiv'd 'em into the number of the King of 
Spain's Subjeds, and pretended a great deal of kind- 

G 3 nefs 

Sd A Relation of the Spanlfh Voyages 

nefs to 'em, promifing he would treat 'em as his 
friends, and not do 'em the leaft hurt for the time 
to come. This Hypocrite was for plundering the 
Indians, and terrifying 'em with menaces of the 
King of S^ainh difpleafure •, but had the Policy not 
tp receive 'em into the number pf this Prince's Vaf- 
f^ls, till he had robb'd 'em of all they had. And 
yet the Title of the King of Spain's, Subjeds did 
not fecure 'em for thq future from his Infults and 

The name of the Soveraign Prince and Empe- 
ror of all thefe Kingdoms was Atahali^a^ who 
brought with him an innumerable Army of naked 
men, who made ufe of a ridiculous fort of Wea- 
pons, not underflanding the force of the Spaniards 
S.words and Lances, and Horfes, with which thefe 
Indians had never been acquainted ^ he advanc'd his 
Troops near the Spaniards^ crying with a great deal 
of courage, Where are thefe Spaniards ? 17/ never Icav^ 
^ern tili they have made we fatisfaBion for all my Subjeds 
that have keen kill' d by them '-, of all my Towns which 
they have, hurnt^ and of all my Riches which they have 
carried away. The Spaniards came to meet this 
Prince in good order and well-arm'd, and made a. 
horrible daughter among his Souldiers ^ they took 
the King himfelf, who was carried on a flately Seat 
upon the Shoulders of his Subjeds. This Prince 
finding himfelf .in this miferable Condition, began 
to treat with 'em about his Ranfom, for which 
he promifed to give 'em 4 Millions of Crowns : for 
this Sum they engag'd to give him his Liberty \ yet 
would not ftand to their own Agreement, but 
obliged him to aflemble all his People, who to obey 
their Prince's order came together in Qrowds. This 
King bore fuch a fvvay in the minds of his Subjedls, 
that he boafted that the Leaves of the Trees in the 
Woods durit not move without his order. He told 
■^ • - the 

and Cruelties in the Wefl-Indies. S 7 

the Spaniarr's he was their Prifoner, ;md they had 
now power to pot him to death if ;hey pleas'd. 
.Upon this they held a Council of War to deiiberate 
what to do with him ^ and relblv'd to burn him 
with a gentle Fire: only there was one Captain not 
quite fo inhuman as the reft, who told 'em they 
ought to content themfelves with ftrangling him, 
and then burning him after he was dead. When 
the King was inform'd that he was condemned to 
die, lie thus exprefs'd himielfj Why will je needs put 
me to death .■' What Crime have I committed ctgainji 
you ? Did you not promife to rejlore me my Libin-ty^ pro- 
vided I would pay that ttm of Cold you imtos'd on trie ? 
Have not Igwenyou a greater Sum than you demanded? 
However tf you are refolv^d to hill me^ firjl fend me at 
leafl to the King of Spain. But all his Complaints, 
all his juft Reproaches and Proteftations could not 
hinder them from burning him. 'Tis eafy to f;c 
that the Spaniards had no right to make War with 
this Prince, and to treat him fo inhumanly. B^t 
the Captivity of tliis King, the Sentence of Death 
pronounc'd againft him, and the Cruelty with "which 
they put it in execution, after they had extorted 
fuch vaft Treafures from him, all fufficiently difco- 
ver the Genius of thefe Tyrants, and of what In- 
inft'ce and Violence they have been guilty both 
againll the Princes and People of the new World. 

I have a Letter from a Monk of the Order of 
St. Francis written to the King of Spain^ by whi' h 
it will appear how the Spaniards behav'd themfelves 
towards the Indians : The very Terms of which 
Letter FU here fet down. 

J, Frier H2rk de Xlicia of the Order of St. Francis, 
General of all the Monks of the faid Order in Peru, who 
name into this Country TP;tfe fk Spaniards that firjl in- 
vaded it J do teflify what I have feen with my own Eyes of 

G 4 the 

88 ji Relation of the Spanifh Voyages 
the manner of their treating the People of th'vs new World. 
Having been an Eye-voitnefs^ I have a certain knowledg 
of the Oifpo/ition and Manners of the Inhabitants of Pe- 
ru j they are a meek^ good-humoured and peaceable Na- 
tion^ and have fhewn a great deal of yiffe^ion and Re^ 
fpe{} to the Spaniards j I have feen ''em give \m great 
Sums of Gold and Silver^ and Pearls of a great value 
very readily ^ they render d ^em all the Services they could 
require of* em with all the diligence that could be reafonably 
de/tr'*d. They never offer'^d to make War with Vw, nor 
fo much 06 to put themfelves in a poflure of Defence^ till 
they had received all imaginable Injuries from 'ew, and 
were thereby confirained to it contrary to their Inclina- 
tions. They gave the Spaniards as many Men and 
Women as they needed for their Vomefiick Bufinefs ; 
and when they had receiv'^d ''etn into their Towns and 
f^illagcs with all the Honours they could think o/, they 
fupplied ^em liberally with all the neceffary jiccommoda- 
tfons of Life, 

I farther tedify^ that the Spaniards without having 
received the leafl occajion of Offence from the Indians, 
feiz^d their great Cacique Atabalipa, foon after they " 
enter' d h'vi Country^ and burnt him after they had received 
four Millions of Gold of him, and after having taken 
immenft Sums out of hvs Province without any Refiflance. 
They infiicied the fame Punifhment on Cochilimaca his 
(Captain General, when he came to meet them in an ami- 
fabk manner with many other Noblemen of Peru. A 
few days after another great Lord of the Province of 
Qmtomdfufferd the fame fate ^ for the Spaniards burnt 
him without having the leafl occafton given ^em for fo 
cruel an A^ion : With the like Barbarity and Injufiice 
thty burnt Schapera the Prince of the Canaries. They 
0lfo burnt the feet of Aluis, the firfi and greateft Lord 
p/ the Province of Quitonia, and put him to a great 
many other Torments to rnake him reveal K. Atabalipa'x 
friiafures^ of whic^ be was utterly ignorant ^ 06 it evi- 

tind. Cruelties in the Weft-Indies. S9 

dtnXly appeared by the fequel. They condemned Coco- 
pagaganga to the fame Punijhment^ who wa/i Prince of 
the Province of Quitonia : He fuffer'd himfelf to he 
over perfwaded by the Treaties of Scbaftian Banalcacar 
a Spanifh Captain^ to come in an amicable manner and 
furrender himfelf to the Spaniards ^ this Captain having 
given him his word that no Injury fhould be done him j yety 
contrary to this promife^ he wa/s burnt alive ^ with fever at 
Caciques hejides : and I have been inform' d^ that the 
Spaniards dejign^d to fhew no Mercy to any Indian in 
the Country. 

1 moreover affirm, that I my felf havefeen the Spa- 
niards in feveral places cut off the Nofes^ Ears and 
Hands of Indian Men and Women, without any Provo" 
cation, in cold Blood ( as itfeem*d ) purely for the fake of 
doing Mifchief, which is a mofl inexcufable fort of Bar- 
barity. I have feen the Spaniards fet their fierce and 
hungry Dogs at the Indians to tear ^em in pieces anddc" 
vour ''em. And I have feen ''em fet fire to fo many 
Towns and VtUages, that 'tis impofftble I fhould recoUeif 
the number of Vm. 'Tu certain they have torn Children 
from their Mothers Breajis^ and thrown 'em with all their 
might 06 far as they could, to divert themfelves with this 
hrutifh Sport. 1 have often been a Witnefs of many other 
Cruelties of this nature, which have fiU'd me with Dread 
and Horror ; but I fhould be too prolix and tedious to give 
the Detail of Vm. 

I protefi, that once the Spaniards when they had af^ 
fembled thegreatefi number of Indians they could in three 
great Houfes, fet fire to 'em and burnt 'em all alive, 
without any reafon, having not received the leafi affront 
from 'em. And a certain Priefi, whofe name was Ocana, 
happening to attempt to take a young Child out of the 
flames, <« Spaniard that faw him, took the Child from 
him, and immediately cajl it again into the Fire, where 
it was burnt with the rcfl. This Spaniard the fame day 
he committed this black and curfed Adion, died fuddenly 


1^ A Relation of the Spanifh Voyages 

c& he WA5 going to the Camp *, and I was of opinion that 
hi6 Carcafe ought not to be interred. 

I have feen the Spaniards fend Deputies to the Ca- 
ciques and chief Indians, t^ engage 'em to come and 
meet ''em without fear, promifmg 'em^ to employ their In- 
terefi with the King of Spain on their behalf: but as foon 
as they were come upon the Credit of the Promt fes that 
had been given Vw, they were burnt without Pity^ or any 
formal Procefs. Two of the mofl illujlriom and confjde- 
rable Indians were burnt in my fight ^one ^r Andonia, and 
the other at Tumbala. yiU the Efforts I made to ftcure 
''em from the Flames^ and to get ''em out of the hands of 
thefe bloody Wretches^ were to no purpofe ^ my Difcourfes 
and Exhortations made no imprcffion on 'em. I can 
fay with a good Confcience^ and in the prefence of God, 
that fo far 06 I have been able to learn^ by the long time 
1 have been among 'fw, the Inhabitants of Peru have 
never fomented any Mutiny or Rebellion^ or done the Icafi 
Injury to the Spaniards, who have treated them fo inhu- 
manly '-, but whatever Torments they have fuffer'd^ they 
feem^d to have laid afide the thoughts of Revenge, jind 
when they found the Spaniards were always deceiving 
Vw, and breaking the Promifes they made ''em V when they 
found they treated ^em with fo much Tyranny, contrary to 
all Law and Equity ; and that they did not fcruple to 
commit aU forts of Outrages againjl Vw, they rather 
chofe to die^ than to he continually expos'^d to fuch Mi' 

I have been informed by the Accounts the Indians 
themfelves have givtn^ that there is a great deal more 
Gold among *em imdifcover'^d than has been yet found ^ 
the ill Vfige and Cruelty of the Spaniards having made 
Vw conceal it : and they are rtfolv'd never tordifcover it 
while they are treated with fo much Injufiice and lyranny^ 
hut will rather die 06 thtir Companions have done, who 
have been put to death witbfo much Cruelty. The Injuries 
offered thefe poor Indians are I'ery hainout Sins in the 


anoi Cruelties in the Weft-Indies, 91 

fi^ot of God^ and contrary to the Interejl and Service of 
the King^ who has been cheated of more Treafure in Peru 
than would keep all the People in Caftile. 

Thus far the -Letter of that Monk, which was 
confirm'd by the Atteftation of the Bifhop of Mexi- 
co: He was an Eye-witnefs of what he here relates, 
for he went through this Country for the fpace of 
fourfcore or a hundred Leagues, and contiued there 
nine or ten- years, in a time when there were but 
few Spaniards there. But as foon as it was reported 
in Spain that this new World was fo full of Gold, 
there prefently came four or five thoufand People^ 
who fpread themfelves through thefe noble Pro- 
vinces, and pofTefs'd five or fix hundred Leagues of 
the Country, which they entirely ruined, commit- 
ting all thofe Djforders and Crimes that have been 
mention'd before. They have deftroy'd a great ma- 
ny more People here than this Frier takes notice of 
in his Letter : and without having any fear of God 
before their Eyes, or any regard to the King, or 
the leaft fentiment of Compafiion to their fellow- 
Creatures, they have almoll deftroy'd one half of 
Mankind ; for in the Provinces of Peru alone they 
have kiird above forty Millions of People. 

A few days after what 1 have related above, they 
kill'd a great Queen with Arrows made of Reeds j 
Ihe was Wife to Prince Elingue^ who ftill governs 
this Province in quality of King : the Spaniards did 
what they could to feize this Prince'^s Perfon, and 
omitted no Tricks and Artifices to accomplifli it^ 
this was the occafion of his Revolt againft the Spa- 
niards^ and he has ever fince continued their declar'd 
Enemy. They took his Queen contrary to the Rules 
of Equity and Juftice ; and 'tis faid they kill'd her 
at a time when (he was big with Child, mecrly to vex 
and grieve the King her Husband, who lov'd her 


92 A ReUtton of the Spanlfh Voyages 

very tenderly. If all the Mafiacres the Spaniards 
have committed in Peru Ihould be recounted, every 
one would be aftonifti'd at the recital, and the num- 
ber of 'em after an exad Computation would fur- 
pafs all probability, and appear too great to be 

Of the new Kjngdom of Grenada. 

f A Great number of Spaniards went from Venc" 
J^ ^uela^ the Ifle of St. Martha^ and Carthagena 
in the year 1 536, to make a Difcovery of Peru : Di- 
vers others went up higher, three hundred Leagues 
beyond St. Martha and Carthagena^ to difcover 
thofe excellent Countries that were very fertile, and 
full of People of a mild and fociable Temper^ 
where is abundance of Gold and precious Stones 
found, efpecially Emeralds : they gave this King- 
dom the name of New Grenada, becaufe the Cap- 
tain that firll fet his foot in it was born at Grenada. 
They that accompanied him were very profligate 
Men, and extremely cruel *, they fhed human Blood 
without any fcruple or remorfe, for they had been 
long accultom'd to all forts of Wickedneft, and 
therefore 'tis the lefs to be wonder'd at that they 
have committed fo many Crimes in this New Grenada^ 
where they abandon'd themfelves to all manner of 
Abominations. I fhall only mention fome Inftances 
of 'em, becaufe an exaft recital of their Cruelties 
would fill the Minds of all that read this Hiflory 
with too much Horror. 

A certain Governor that could not get his Ihare 
of the Booty another had got before him in ra- 
vaging this new Kingdom of Grenada at his pleafure, 
tho he could have feconded him with all his heart 


mci Cruelties in the Wefl-Indies. 9 j 

in the Cruelties and Robberies he committed here % 
yet being enrag'd to fee fuch a valuable Prey efcape 
him, thought meet to appeafe his Trouble after a 
fort, and to revenge himfelf on the other by making 
authentick Informations confirm'd by the concur- 
rent Tefcimony of many WitneiTes, which expos'd 
to light all the Vexations, Murders and Cruelties 
which this Tyrant had been guilty of va.NewGfS'^ 
nada. The faid Informations were read in the Coun- 
cil of the Indies, where they have been hitherto pre- 
ferv'd, and arc yet to be feen. 

In thefe Informations the Witnefles depofe, that 
this new Kingdom enjoy'd a fettled Peace before the 
Spaniards came thither ^ that the People Ihew'd 'era 
all the kindnefs imaginable as foon as they came a» 
mong 'em j that they maintained tho^Spaniards with 
their Labour, and the Fruit of the Ground which 
they manur'd i that they gave 'em prodigious quan- 
tities of Gold, and abundance of precious Stones, 
amongft others a great many Emeralds ; that they 
freely brought 'em whatever was mofl valuable ia 
their Cities, the Government of which the Spa" 
niards divided among themfelves when they had can- 
ton'd 'em into feveral parts : for this they counted s. 
proper method, the better to compafs their defigu 
of heaping together all the Gold they could poflibiy 

When the Indians were firll fabjugated to the 
Tyranny of the Spaniards^ the chief Captain, who 
was General of the reft, took pofTeffion of the King's 
Perfon as well as of the Country, and kept him 
Prifbner for five or fix Months, without any rcafon 
in the World, demanding Gold and Emeralds of 
him continually. This King, whofe name was Bogota, 
in the midfl of his fears, promis'd the Spanifli Ge- 
neral to deliver up all the Gold-plate he had, hoping 
by this means to get out of the hands of this Tyrant ; 


94 ^ Relation of the Spanifh Voyages 
he fent a great many Indians to his Houfe to fetcH 
thefe precious Goods ^ and at the feveral turns they 
made he gave the Spaniard a great quantity of 
Gold and Emeralds ^ who was not content with all 
this, but threaten'd to kill him. Accordingly he 
commanded this unfortunate King to be brought be- 
fore him to receive his Sentence. This is the Treat- 
ment thefe Tyrants give the moll illuflrious Perfons 
of the new World : This haughty General pro- 
nounc'd a fatal Sentence againft this Prince, by 
which he was condemn'd to m.oft horrible Torments 
if he did not immediately fend for all the Gold he 
had : Accordingly this Tyrant's Executioners laid 
hold of the King, ftretch'd him out at length upon 
the ground naked, and pour'd boiling Rofm upon his 
Belly •, befides this, they put his feet into a Fire, hav- 
kig faften'd his Neck to a Stake fix'd in the ground, 
while two of thefe Hangmen held him by the Arms. 
The cruel General came from time to time to look 
upon him while this Torture continued, threatning 
to take aw'ay his Life if he did not fpeedily deliver 
up his Gold. God feem'd by his Providence tolig- 
nify his Difpleafure againft thefe Cruelties, in fuf- 
fering the City where they were committed to be 
confumM with Fire in a moment. The reft of the 
Spaniards took pattern by their General, and fill'd 
up his fteps : And having no other trade than that 
of tormenting the Indians^ and cutting 'em in pieces, 
they pradifed the fame Villanies in divers parts of 
this Kingdom : They infxided terrible Punifliraents 
on feveral Caciques^ and all thflr Subjeds, who too 
imprudently depended on the good words and pro- 
mifes the Spaniards made 'em : And this after they 
had given 'em incredible Sums of Gold, and many 
Emeralds. Thefe Prefents, tho fo valuable, could 
not foften their obdurate Hearts, and render 'em 
Ivil to their Benf'^^adors,' The Tortures to whi<ih 


and Crueitks in the Weft-Indies. 9$ 

they put the Indians were to make 'em bring yet 
mote Gold and precious Stones ^ and the fame motive 
has induc'd 'em to burn all the great Lords of the 
Country with a flow fire. A great multitude of 
Indians one day came to meet the Spaniards with a 
great deal of humility and fimplicity (as their man- 
ner is) to offer 'em their fervice, fuppofing them- 
felves fafe ^ but while they were fleeping without any 
apprehenfion of danger, being faint and weary, 
a Spanifh Captain commanded his men to maffacre 
'em al), which was accordingly executed. This 
was done to flrike the whole Country with terror 
and conflernation, and to fright the Inhabitants 
out of their Gold by the horror of fo tragical a 
Spedacle. The General made his Souldiers fwear 
how many Caciques and Indians each of 'em had 
kill'd, and how many they had referv'd alive for 
their Slaves ^ thefe he immediately order'd 'em to 
bring out into the mcft publick place of their City, 
and made 'em there cut off the heads of 4 or 500 
of thefe poor Creatures. Divers Witnefles have 
depos'd that this Captain order'd the hands and no- 
fes of many Indians both Men and Women to be cut 
off, and exercis'd other unheard of Cruelties among 
'em. He fent into Bogata's Province to enquire v/ho 
had fucceeded that Prince, whom he had fo inhu- 
manly put to death : The Men he fent to make this 
Difcovery took as many Indians as they could ^ fuch 
of 'em as could not tell the name of their late Prin- 
ce's SuccelFor, were barbaroufly abus'd, feme of 'em 
had their Arms and Legs cutoff^ others were ex- 
pos'd to the fury of greedy Dogs, and foon torn in 
pieces by 'cm. 

They fell upon a great number of Caciques and 
Indian Noblemen by a treacherous furprize in the 
middle of the Night, after they had afiiir'd 'em they 
need not fear any affront or abufe from them. The 


^6 A Relation of the Spanifh Voyages 

innocent Indians confiding in thefe fair promifes^ 
were come down out of tlie Mountains where they 
had hid themfelves, to lodg in the Cities, not fuf- 
peding the ill defign the Spaniards had againft 'em : 
However thefe perfidious men furpriz'd 'em, and 
cut off the Hands and Arms of all they took, let- 
ting 'era know they were chaftiz'd after this fevcrc 
manner for not telling the name of their late King's 
Succeflbr. Another time the General fent a great par- 
ty of Soldiers into a City to make war with the In- 
habitants, becaufe they fent him not a basket of Gold 
which he had demanded : they made thefe poor 
people fuffer a thoufand Outrages,and maflacred vaft 
numbers of 'em. They inhumanly cut off the no- 
les and hands both of Men and Women, and gave 
others to be devour'd by their Dogs, which were 
wont to be fed with human fielh. 

The people of one of thefe Provinces, feeing 
5 or 6 of their Chiefs burnt to death with a flow 
fire, were frighted by this horrible fight into the 
mountains to flielter themfelves from the Spaniards -^ 
they were about 5 or 6000 : hereupon the Spanifh 
Commander fent a Company of Soldiers to purfue 
'em, and treat 'em as Rebels. 'Tis hard to imagine 
by what right they affum'd an Authority to punifh 
people as rebels, that were free-born, and did not 
in the lealt depend on 'em. When the Spanilh 
Soldiers were got into this Mountain, they fell on 
the poor Indians^ who were naked and difarm'd, 
with a fury like that of Wolves and Lions,when they 
fet upon a flock of Sheep to devour 'em ^ till at 
length they were fo fpent and fatigu'd meerly with 
ilaughtering thefe poor Creatures, that they were 
forc'd to give over a while to take breath '-, after 
which they renew'd this MaiTacre with more vigour.', 
And to cue fliort their bloody work, they threw 
down the grcateft part of thefe Indians headlong 


and Cruelties in the W^eft-Indies. 97 

from the top of the Mountain, which was very high. 
It has been depos'd by thofe that were Eye-witnefTes 
of this Tragedy, that they forc'd above 700 of thefc 
poor Indians all together down this Precipice, fo 
that they look'd like a Cloud as they fell •, they were 
all dalh'd in pieces by this dreadful fall, and died 

The Spaniards pulh'd on th 15^)3 rbarous Expedition 
to the utmoft ; for they made a xliligent fearch in 
all the remote Corners of the Mountain, and gave 
no quarter to any they found •, thofe they could catch 
were either cut to pieces, or after many wounds caft 
down from the top of the Mountain. Nor did thefe 
Cruelties fatisfy 'em, but they fhut up divers Indi- 
ans both Men and Women, whom they had referv'd 
for Slaves, in a houfe coverM with llraw, which 
they fet on fire and fo confum'd 'em. They likewife 
went to the City of Cola^ where they took abun- 
dance of People, with about 15 or 20 of their 
Great Men ^ they expos'd thefe to the fury of their 
Dogs, which devoured 'em, having firft cut off the 
hands and feet both of Men and Women ; and 
fix'd thefe fad Spoils on Poles, that they might be 
obvious to the view of all, and that the dreadful 
fight might call terror and amazement in the minds 
of all that furviv'd. 

The Ravage and Cruelties thefe bloody-minded 
Men exercifed in this new Kingdom of Grenada are fo 
great, that if the King of Spain dos not apply a fpee- 
dy remedy, and fet bounds to their excedive Avarice 
and infatiabic thirft of Gold, that whole Kingdom 
will foon be deftroy'd, and the Land lie unculti- 
vated and unimprov'd, for want of Inhabitants. 

In the fpace of 2 or 3 years, fince this Kingdom 
li3s been difcover'd, they have without the fear of 
God or Man put the Inhabitants to death, without 
any emotion or pity to fee fo much human blood 

H pour'd 

98 A Relation of the Spaniih Voyages 
ponv'd out. There are now fcarce any People to 
be found there after all thefe Maffacres. Tiiere are 
divers fine large Provinces near Nevo Grenada \ this 
Country is called Popoyan and Cali^ and is above 
-50 leagues in extent, which they alfo have ruined, 
and made as defolate as the former. Here they 
have fo flaughter'd the people, that this once po- 
pulous Country is now quite deftitute of Inhabitants. 
Thofe that come from thence relate fuch terrible 
things of the Spaniards proceedings there, that one 
can't hear their fad Stories, without being pierc'd 
with trouble and compallion in a very fenlible man- 
ner. In thefe Provinces they have ruin'd many fine 
Cities from one end to t' other , fo that they now 
lie buried in their own Afhes : there are fcarce any 
of the ruins of thofe Cities to be feen, which once 
contain'd above 2000 Houfes. In a word, this Coun- 
try which was full of Villages, Towns, and Cities 
for the fpace of 50 leagues, is now fo bare, that 
there's fcarce any token remaining to fignifie there 
ever were any fuch buildings. 

Some of the Spaniards came from Peru into New 
Grenada and Popoyan through the Province of Qui-^ 
tonia i others of em came to CaJi by the way o: 
Carthagena and rraba, butalljoin'd together to car 
ry on the fame defign, fpoiling a Country of 60c' 
"leagues in extent of all its Riches, and extirpating 
all the Inhabitants after they had plunder'd 'em 
When this cruel War was ended, the Spaniards tool 
fome of the Indians^ whom they had rcferved fo 
Slaves, into their fervice, and caus'd the heads of fe 
veral of their Companions to be cut off in their figh 
to terrify 'em •, telling em they muft all exped t 
undergo the fame fate, if they did not ferve 'erii 
faithfully. By the recital of fuch barbarous Adiori: 
as thefe, the Reader may eafily imagin how the'^]>fi ' 
ijiards behave themfelves towards the Indians in thi 


an^ Cruelties in the Weft-Indies, (^() 

feveral parts of Ammca. They feed their fierce 
Dogs with human fiefh, on purpofe to accuftom'ern 
to tear Men in pieces, and devcur 'em. They car- 
ry thefe Dcgs v;ith 'era wherever they go, ancj 
barbaroufly murder the poor Indians^ to feed thefe 
favage Curs with their liefh. They'l fay one to ano-- 
ther. Give me a quarter of that Indian to m^ake m/ 
Dog a feall \ and when 1 kill one, fll pay you again. 
They commonly hunt in the morning with thefg 
Dogs ■^ and when ask'd by their fellows what luck: 
they iiave had, they anfwer according to their fuccefs. one will fay, I am content, my Dogs have 
kiird about a fcore of 'em ^ fo that one would think 
they were fpeaking of Wolves or wild Bears. Can 
any thing be imagin'd that exceeds fuch horrible 
Cruelty as this? And all thefe Barbarities have been 
prov'd and averred by ftridt Examinations made and 
produc'd before the Council of the Indies. 
. But I fhall add no more, till I fhall receive farther 
information of their other Villanies, which may be 
cxpeded to be yet greater than thofe I have men- 
tion'd, if greater can pollibly be committed. And 
that which is moll deplorable is, tlmt the Spaniards 
take no care to fpcak to thefe people of the My^ 
fteries of our Religion j nor feem to regard 'em 
any more than Dogs or wild Beafts. Nay they 
have forbidden the Monks and I\lifljonaries to in«- 
ftrud 'em, whom they have even perfecuted, and 
laid a thoufand Obllrndions in their way, to hin- 
der 'em from preaching the Gofpel to tiiefe poor 
Creatures who palfionately defired it •, and all becaufe 
they thought the Converfion of thefe People would 
be an Obitacle to their covetous Defigns, and bin* 
der 'em from getting all the Gold they delir'd. So 
that thefe miferable people have been induftrioufly 
kept in their former ignorance, and knov/ no other 
Ood than thofe of Wood, Stone or Copper , unlcfs 

too A Relation of the Spanifli Voyages 

it be the People of Ncxo Spain (which is but a fmall 
part of America') where the A!onks have exercifecl' 
their Fundion, and have been fuffer'd to difplay 
their Zeal with more freedom. In the other Pro- 
vinces the Indians perifh without Baptifm, or any 
other Sacrament ^ and no one gives himfelf the 
trouble to inftruct 'em ^ as will farther appear by 
an authentick Letter from a Bifhop of this Country, 
who exprelles hirafeif in thefe Terms : 

I Frier Bartholomew de Las-Cafas, Monk of the 
Order of St. Dominique, having ftgnified my defire to 
he recall' d from the Indies, had league to come over to 
the Court of Spain, to give an account of the deplorable 
Condition of the Indians. To this I have been mov'd 
by the Zeal with which God has infpir^d me for Souls re- 
deemed by his Blood. My earnefh deftre is, that they 
may know their Creator, and embrace his Word^ that 
they may be favd. jind 1 cannot choofe but extremely 
pity Spain, my native Country, becaufe I am greatly 
afraid God will utterly deflroy it, for the enormous 
Crimes committed by the Spaniards (who go into the In- 
dies) both againfl God, agatnjl the King, and againfi 
their Neighbours. I don't doubt but divers illuflrioiis 
Perfons of this jCourt,^ who are truly z.ealous for the Sal' 
vation of Souls, are very fenfibly touch'' d with the Cala- 
mities and Mifcries thofe multitudes of poor Creatures 
fuffcr in the New World^ who are abandoned to the fury 
of the Spanifh Souldiers. I refolv^d long ago to draw up 
an exalt relation of thefe matters^ but have been fill 
hindered by the continual urgency of thofe affairs in which 
I have been engaged till now. However I have at length 
acco7nplif}i*d tins defign at Valence, the 8th of Decem- 
ber, Anno 1 542. This Treatife gives afhort account 
of the P'iolcnce^ Tyranny, Perfecutions, Robberies, Maf- 
facres and Dfvaftations committed by the Spaniards in 
all the parts of America where they have difpcrs'd them- 


And, Cruelties In the Weft-Indies. i o i 

pelves. Thefe Calamities and Diforders are advancW to 
a decree that furpajfes all beliefs and is the more furpriz,- 
ing in that the Spaniards are much lefs furious and cruel 
every where elfe. Indeed the Peojjle oj Mexico ayid of the 
places adjacent, are now treated much better than others ; 
infomuch that no body there dares offer ^violence to any 
Indian openly : 'Tis true they exa3 immenfe Sums of 
'ew, but the forms of Juflice are at leajl fo obferv'^d^ 
that the People are protected from the Infults and ^jfronts 
of fuch as have more power than themfehies. I have 
great hope our lUuflrious Lord, Charles the Fifth, Em- 
peror and King of Spain, who begins to take cogniz.ance 
of the Tyranny and ill behaviour of the Spaniards toward 
the Indians, ivill undertake the protefiion of thcfc mife- 
Table People, who are perfecuttd againfl his will, as well 
as again]} the wilt of God. All the miferies that have 
bin infilled on thefe newly difcoveid Nations have bin hi- 
therto concealed from our Prmce with no kfs fubtilty and 
addrefs than malice. Tet now "tis not to be doubted but 
this wife Emperor, into whofe hands God has cajl the Go- 
vernment of thofe v aft Regions, and who bears fo fine ere 
an affe^iion to Juftice, will give effe^ual Orders to put 
a ft op to thefe Perfecutions. May Godpreferve this lUu- 
ftrious Emperor in all the Glory and Profperity that at' 
tends him, fir the Salvation of his Soul, and the Pre- 
fervation of the Church. Amen. 

A year after the writing of all thefe matters 
above recited, there were publifhed in the City of 
Madera certain Laws and Conititutions made by his 
Majcily at Barcelona, in the month of December in the 
year I 542. which were calculated according to the 
urgent necellity of Affairs to redify the Diforders 
that were then commited with fo much Infolence both 
agriinfb God and Man, to the utter deftrudtion and 
defolation of the New World. For the conftitnting; 
of thefe wife Laws his Majefty affcmbled a gre^t 

H 3 many 

jo2 ^ Relation of the SpaniHi P^ojages 

many Perfons, iliuftrious both for their Quality and 
Learning, and moreover endued with gfeat Piety^ 
tvho deliberated on thefe important Affairs in di- 
vers Selfions at yalladolid. At length by the unani- 
mous Confent of the whole Aflembly, divers Pro- 
pofiiiions were ratified and publifli'd \ and which ap- 
pear the more conformable to the Rules of Chriftia- 
iiity, in as much as the Perfons who compos'd this 
famous Affembly had never been any way concern'd 
in the Outrages offerM the Indians ; they were fuch 
as had neither wafh'd their hands in their Blood, 
nor reap'd any advantage by the immenfe Treafures 
that had been taken from 'em with fo much Vio- 
lence, after the murder of incredible numbers 
of innocent People. For the Avarice and Cruelty 
of thofe Spaniards who fir ft fet foot in America have 
been the fatal Caufes of all the Miferies that new 
World has undergon. 

After the publication of thefe new Orders for 

regulating the Affairs of the Indits, the Prote^lors 

of thofe cruel Tyrants, who had Hill fome Credit 

at Court, procured feveral Precepts to conftitute 

Officers to fend into divers Provinces of the Indies^ 

for they were much concerned to fee the courfe of 

theit Violence likely to be flop'd, and their wonted 

Robberies and Extortions obftruded. And thus 

they to whom the care of fuppreffmg thefe Difor- 

derS) and preventing the farther Infults of thefe 

Tyrants was committed, made no confcience of 

violating that Equity and Fidelity they ow'd both to 

God and their Prince •, for they i^new very well 

what effed the Edids that w^ere made muft needs 

have, and therefore alarm'd the People before the 

arrival of the Judges who were fent to the Indies 

to publiih the Laws of their Prince, and to put 'em 

in execution : fo that as foon as thefe Judges came 

into America^ they appear'd to be of the fame ftamp 



and Cruelties in the VJt^-lndk-S. 103 

with thofe that fent 'em, and neither regarded God 
nor Man ^ they immediately forgot the King's Or- 
ders, and laid afide the Reverence due to fo great 
a Prince j and being willing to take part with thofe 
Tyrants, that they might have a fhare of the Booty, 
behav'd themfelves with a Cruelty beyond imagi- 
nation, and jullified thofe Villanies which they were 
fent to puni(h. 

So that (ince the year 1 542, fuch Rapine and 
Violence has been committed in Peru^ that the like 
has not been heard of either in the Indies^ or any 
other part of the World : Nor do they exercife 
their Cruelty only on the Indians^ whom they have 
almoll exterminated, but are fufFer'd by the jnft 
Judgment of God to turn their Arms one againft 
another with great fury to their mutual dellrudion. 
Some of the People of this new World under the 
protection of thefe Rebels, were encourag'd to re- 
fufe Obedience to the Emperor's Orders \ others 
pretending they were defirous to addrefs Petitions 
to his Imperial Majefty, have fjfferM themfelves to 
be carried down the ilream with the reit, and have 
revolted too. For the Spaniards 2iXQ not q^l^xIy per- 
fwaded to furrender thofe Treafures they have un- 
juitly ufurped, or to releafe thofe Indians whom 
they ha:ve inflav'd. If they don't fo often inaflacre 
'em, they increafe the weight of their Irons, and im- 
pofe Laws on 'em more and more unjufl and rigo- 
rous. And the King with all his Authority has not 
yet been able to ftop the courfe of thefe Mifchiefs, 
becaufe they are generally link'd together in a Con- 
federacy, both fmall and great ^ and all ufe the 'li- 
centious trade of robbing and fpoiling more or lefs 
according to their power, fome more publickly, 
and others after a clandelline manner. But that 
which yet further difcovers the Boldnefs and Info- 
lence of thefe Hypocrites is, that they ftill make 

H 4 pre- 

I04 ^ Relation of the Spanifb Voyages 
pretences that they confult nothing but the King's 
Interefl:, and the Glory of God in all they do ^ 
while 'tis moll apparent, they are continually rob- 
bing the King, and that with impunity, and are 
always difhonouring God and Religion by their cri- 
minal and fcandalous Praftices. 

That which next follows is a Fragment of a Let- 
ter of a certain Perfon who accompanied the Spa- 
niards in their Voyages and Journies, giving an ac- 
count of their Adions in the various places through 
which they pafs'd : But this Letter being defign'd to 
be fent with other Papers, he that made up the 
Packets loft feveral Pages of it which contain'd very 
remarkable and extraordinary things concerning the 
Adtions of the Spaniards. This Fragment I fend you 
is the Body of the Letter, the beginning and end of 
which are both wanting. However, feeing that 
which it contains deferves the notice of the Publick, 
I thought meet to print it, and hope the view of it 
will produce the fame effed of moving you to coni- 
miferate the Calamities of the poor Indians^ as I 
prefume the more ample Relation I have given you 
above has done : And confequently that your won- 
ted Charity will excite ia your Minds an ardent de- 
fire to oppofe and redify ail thofe Diforders as much 
as in you lies. 

The Fragment. 

t The Captain ordered thefe Indians to 

* be chain'd for Slaves, which was prefently done, 
'and he carried away with him great numbers of 
*Men and Women in Chains-, fo that the whole 

* Country was foon turn'd into a Defert. They 

* took away all the Crop of Corn thefe poor Crea- 
' tures had, and whatever elfe they had laid up for 

* the fubfilience of their Families, by which means 

*■ they 

a^d Cruelties in the Weft-Indies. 105 

' they were foon reduc'd to extreme want ; fo that 
' many were found dead in the High-ways merely 
*• with Famine. There were alfo above ten thoufand 
' of thofe Indians the Spaniards took to carry their 
' Baggage, that died on the Coafts : for almoft all 
' that went any diftance from the Sea were kill'd 
' with the excelTive Heat they met with on the Con- 
' tinent. This fame Captain following the fteps of 
' John Ampidia^ fent before him two Indians whom 
' he had taken in the Province of Quitonia^ to difco- 
' ver the Villages and Towns that were in their way, 
' and where any Booty was to be got ^ thefe Indians 
'were either his own Slaves, or thofe of his Soul- 
' diers, fome of whom had two or three hundred 
' Slaves a IMan, and others more or lefs, as they had 
' more or lefs Baggage and Provilions to carry. 
' Thefe Indians leturn'd to their Mafter, together 
' with fuch others as they could bring away with 'em. 
' And in thefe Expeditions all forts of Cruelties were 
' committed upon Women and Children. They did 
* the fame in the Province of Quitonia^ they fir'd 
' their Houfes wherever they came, and burnt all 
' the Stores of Corn the Indians had. And to fhew 
' their fpite the more, as if all this Mifchief had 
'been- too little, they kill'd their Cattel only for 
' the Suet and Marrow, having no occaiion for the 
' Flelh ^ only the Indians who attended the Spaniards 
' in thefe Expeditions ate the Livers, that being one 
' of their principal Difhes. 'Tis fcarce to be be- 
' lieved what numbers of Cattel they kill'd here *, 
' they deftroy'd above a hundred thoufand after this 
' manner only for the Fat and Livers, and fo made 
'the Country defolate by this needlefs llaughter, 
' which brought fuch a Famine and Mifery upon the 
' Inhabitants, that they died for want of Food : 
' They belldcs carried away out of this Province all 
' the Corn they did not burn j fo that tho the Coun- 

' try 

io6 A Relation of the Spanid) Voyages 

*■ try produces abundance, there was fo great a Scar- 
' city, that a * Septier of Corn was worth ten 
' Crowns, and a Lamb was fold for the fame Price. 
' The Commander of thefe Troops being returned 

* from the Sea-Goafl, refolvM to leave the Province " 
*of Quitonia^ and to join John .Ampudia. To ac- 

' complifh this Defign he raifed above two hundred" 

* Men Horfe and Foot, among which were divers 

' Citizens of Quitonia. He gave 'em leave to bring . 
*■ with them the Caciques^ and all the other Indians 
*- which had formerly fallen to their fliare, and to- 
' add as many others to 'em as they pleas'd, which 
' they did. One Al^honfo Sanchez, carried with him 
*■ his Cacique^ whofe name was Nenuyta, with a hunr 

* dred other Indians and their Wives. Peter Cobo 
' accompanied him with a hundred and fifty Indians 
*- and their Wives, who were forc'd to drag their 
'- Children after 'em, for fear they fhould perilh with 

* Hunger. One Moran a Citizen of Popayan carried 
'■ above two hundred People with him •, and all the 
' reft of the Souldiers did the fame proportionably 

* to their Stock and Occafions. They defir'd permif- 

* (ion to make all the Indian Men and Women that 

* attended 'em their abfolute Slaves, which was 
*^ granted ^ and this Privilege continued as long as 
' they liv'd, tho thefe Indians were the Subjects and 
' ValTals of the King of Spain as well as the Spaniards 
' themfelves. 

' With fuch an Equipage as this our General left- 

* the City of ^itonia, to go take polTefllon of that 

* of OSaba^ which fell to his lot. He demanded of 
' the Cacique five hundred Men to join his Forces, 
' which were deliver'd to him, with divers other 

* Perfons of Note. Part of thefe Indians he diftri- 

' buted 

" ^ 

* A Septier is a megfure of Corn concaiaing about 240 pound 

and Cruelties m the Weft-Indics. 107 

- buted among his Souldiers, and took the reft to 
' himfelf, fome of whom were loaded with Chains, 
' and others with his Baggage and Provilions. 'Twas 

* a lamentable fight to fee thefe poor Wretches tied 
' one to another with Cords. When thefe Siiamards 
' parted from the Province oi Quitonia^ they carried 
' away no lefs than fijc thoufand Indians^ of wliich 
' fcarce twenty came back to their own Country^ 
' for the extreme Fatigues and fcorching Heat they 
*■ endur'd in thofe hot Countries foon cut 'em off. 

' The General having made Al^honfo Sanchtz. Cap- 
' tain of a Company, this Brute meeting fome 
'Women and Children in his way, loaded with 

* Providons, and waiting for him to prefent him 
' with what they had brought, malTacred 'em all 

* without pity. In this cruel Adfion, a Spaniard 
' going about to kill an Indian Woman broke his 
' Sword in two the firft blow he gave her ^ at the 
' fecond llroke he broke it again, fo that he had no- 

* thing but the Hilt left in his hand : but that which 
*■ is more furprizing is, that this poor Woman re- 

* ceiv'd no Wound by the blows he gave her. Ano- 
' ther Souldier ftriking an Indian Woman with a 

* large Dagger, had about three Inches of it broken 
' off at the firll furoke, and the whole Blade quite 
' to the Hilt at the fecond. 

' When this General, of whom we have been 
' fpeaking, parted from Quitonia^ he cruelly fepa- 
' rated Husbands and Wives one from another, 
' giving the young Women to the Indians that went 
' with him, and leaving the old Women to thofe 
' that remain'd in the City. One of thefe Women 
' foliow'd him with loud Cries when he went away, 
'and beg'd of him with abundance of Tears, than 
' he would not take away her Husband from her, 
' telling him Ifie had the charge of three Children, 
' and 'twould be impoffible for her to provide for 

loS A Relation of the Spanifh Voyages 

'em if (he were bereavM of her Husband ^ fb that 
they muft neceffarily be ftarv'd. The General re- 
puls'd her not without fome Indignation, upon 
which fhe redoubled her Sighs and Cries, telling 
him her Children were ready to die with Hunger: 
at length feeing her Prayers and Tears made no 
Imprefllon on him, fhe took a Stone and dafh'd out 
the Brains of all her Children in his fight. 
' When this Commander arriv'd in the City of 
Pit/o, which is fituate in the Province of Lilia^ he 
met with Captain John Ampudia^ who went before 
him to make a difcovery of the Country, and to 
fettle Peace in it : he was now Governor of this 
City, which had a Garifon in the King of Spain'^s 
Name, and was under the direction of the Mar- 
quefs Francis de Piccaro, who had eftablifh'd a 
Council there confilting of eight Counfellors, that 
had the Infpeftion of the whole Country, and kept 
it in Peace and Union by the good management of 
Peter Solano de Quenon. Ampudia hearing our Ge- 
neral was arriv'd in the Country, came to give him 
a Vifit, accompanied with many of the Inhabitants 
and Indians^ who brought him abundance of Fruit, 
and other Provifions. Many of the neighbouring 
Indians came afterwards on the fame Errand, and 
after them the Inhabitants of Xamundia^Palonia^ So- 
limania and Bolonia, did the like. But becaufe they 
did not bring fo great a quantity of Corn a» de- 
manded, the General fent a Troop of Souldiers 
with a great many Indiansto feek fome elfewhere, 
with Orders to take it where ever they found it. 
With this Order they went into Palonia and Bolo- ' 
nla^ where they found the Indians dwelling very 
peaceably in their Houfes ^ and without any re- 
gard to the Laws of Nations or of Hofpitality, 
took away all the Corn and other Provifions, to- 
gether with all the Gold and Silver they had, and 

' put' 

and Cruelties in the Weft-Indies, 1 09 

put many of the poor Indians in Chains to make 
Slaves of 'em. Thefe unhappy People came to 
make their Complaint to the General of the ill 
Treatment and Injuftice they had fufFer'd, and to 
intreat him to caufe Reftitution to be made of 
what had been fo violently taken from 'em, but in 
vain, for he would do nothing in the matter, only 
gave 'em his promife that his Men Ihould do 'em no 
hurt for the future, and that they fhould never come 
again into their Country : yet four or five days 
after they went into another part of the Country 
for Corn, and pillag'd the poor Indians as they had 
done before-, who were fo provok'd to fee them- 
felves deluded by the General, who had broke his 
Promifes almolt as foon as he had made "em, that 
the whole Country betook themfelves to their 
Arms in an inftant^ which Tumult afterwards oc- 
calionM many Diforders and great Offences to be 
commited both againil the Majefty of God and 
the Dignity of the King of S])ain : At length thefe 
People fled, and left this whole Country defolate. 
They that retreated into the Mountains came down 
from time to time tP feek Provifion \ the Indians 
likewife engag'd in a cruel War one with another, 
wherein the ftronger party us'd to eat the weaker : 
For that Indian Nation that inhabits the Moun- 
tains are a fierce and warlike People, and mor- 
tal Enemies to their Neighbours. After this in- 
furredion the General went to the City of Am^u- 
dia^ where he receiv'd all the Honours due to his 
Charader •, he afterwards march'd with two hun- 
dred Horfc and Foot toward Lilia and Pelinia. 
' He fent his Captains all round the Country to 
make a cruel War upon the Indians -^ they fir'd a 
great many Houfes, robb'd all that fell into their 
hands, and kill'd abundance of 'em. This killing 
and pillaging continued many days together. The 

' Lord 

no J Relation of the Spanifh Voyxges 

Lord of the Country hoped to put a ftop to thefii 
Miferies, and to allay the bloody Rage of thefe Ty- 
gers by fending their Subjeds to *cm with all forts 
of Provifions and other Prefents. Soon after this 
they came to Li\%a with all the Indians they had 
taken, for they would not difcharge one of 'em. 
They pafs'd through Tcea in their way, and were 
no fooner arrived there, but they fell to pillaging 
and maflacring all they met with i they exercis'd 
their ufual trade of firing their Houfes, they con- 
fum'd above a hundred of 'em in one Village ^ nor 
did other Towns and Cities in the neighbouring 
Country, which they call Tulilicui, fare any better. 
When the Cacique at the head of a great company 
of Indians came to meet 'em, the Spani/h Com- 
mander demanded Gold of him and his Subjeds : 
they told him they had no great quantity, but 
would readily give him all they had ^ and accor- 
dingly brought him that little they had got toge- 
ther. Upon which he deliver'd a kind of Receipt 
lign'd with his own hand to each of 'em, which was 
to ferve for a token by which todiflinguilh thole 
that had given him Gold from the reft-, addiii 
that whoever had not this Receipt fhould be c 
pos'd to the Dogs to be devour 'd by 'em. Ti 
■poor Creatures terrified by thefe Menaces, btjought , 
him all the Gold they had in very great halle, and; 
thofe that had none were fain to retire into thcij 
Mountains, or into other Cities to fave their Lives *, 
and thus the Country was depriv'd of the greateft 
part of its Inhabitants. A little after he order'd 
the Cacique to fend two Indians to the City of; 
Jlgua, to fignify that he requir'd the Inhabitants tc 
meet him, which they might do with fafety, and 
to bring with them all the Gold they could. After 
he had difpatch'd this Order, he went to anotheii 
City, and the fame night fent a party of Spaniard.\ 

and Cruelties in the Weft-Indies. 1 1 1 

' to feize forae of the People of Tulilkui^ who 
' brought him a hundred Men and Women the day 

* following, of which he referv'd the moft robufi 

* and lufty, whom he thought lit to carry great Bur- 
' dens, for himfelf and his Souldiers, and put many 
' of 'era in Chains, giving the young Children to 

* the Cacique of Tulilicui to eat, in whofe Houfe their 
' Skins fiird with Afhes are ftill to be feen. After 
'this Expedition he went tov/ard the Provinces of 
' Caitiff where he join'd Captain John d' Am^udta, 
*■ who was gone another way to make a further 

* difcovery. Thefe two Commanders left great 
' marks of their Cruelty in all the Provinces through 
' which they pafs'd. ^mpudio- happen'd to come 

* to a certain City, the Governor of which, whofe 
' name was Bitacon^ had made deep works under 
' ground to hinder the approach of an Enemy : 
' Two of the Spaniards Horfes, that of one Antony 

* Redondon^ and that of Marc Marques^ fell into thefe 
' Traps, and the latter of 'em dy'd with the fall, 
'■ but the other efcap'd the danger. However this 
'■ fmall lofs by the Stratagem of the Indians fo pro- 
' vokM this Captain, that he order'd his Men to 
' take all of 'em they could light on, which was 
"• about three hundred, and to cad *em into thefe 
' Pits *, belides this they fir'd a hundred Houles. 
' From hence they came to a very great and populous 
'• City, here they had no Interpreter by whom to 
' converfe with thefe Indians ^ however they mafla- 
* cred abundance of 'em with their Swords and 
' Lances, As foon as thefe two Commanders met 
' one another again after all thefe Expeditions, Am- 
' pudia gave the other a relation of what he did at 
' Bitaconia^ and told him how many Indians he had 
' call into the Pits that were made at the 
' of the City, while the other applauded all he had 
' done, telling him he had reafon to feryc 'em after 

* that 

112 ^ Relation of the Spanifh Vojages 

that manner : And added, that for his part he had 
deftroy'd above two hundred Indians near the Ri- 
ver Bamba, which waters the Province of Quito- 
nia. Thus thefe two Tyrants made War upon all 
this Country at the fame time. They both after 
this enter'd into the Provinces of Birumia and 
^nzerma^ where they left everlafting tokens of 
their Barbarity and Fury. One Francis Garcia^ 
whom they fent out to pillage the Country, treated 
the People with abundance of Infolence, till he 
reduced 'em to extreme Indigence and Mifery, 
The Indians came to him by couples, making 
figns to defire Peace for the whole Country, pro- 
millng to give the Spaniards all they fliould de- 
mand, and to deliver up their Gold, and their 
Wives too, provided they would give 'em their 
Lives-, but receiv'd no other Anfwer from this 
cruel Garcia^ but that they muft be gone, for he 
had drank too much, and was now in no condition 
to confider of what they faid. He enter'd their 
Country full of Fury, and running through the 
whole Province, put it all under Military Execu- 
tion, robbing, and fpoiling, and maflacring the 
Inhabitants without mercy : he carried away 
two thoufand of the People with him, who were 
put in Chains, and dy'd under the rigor of their 
cruel Bondage : And before he left this Cotmtry 
he put fifty more to a violent Death. 
' After he had filFd this Province with mifery' 
and horror, he paiTed into the Province of Calili, 
When any of the Indians that carried his Baggage 
fainted with wearinefs, and fell under their Bur- 
dens in the way, they kill'd 'em on the fpot, to 
terrify the reft by thefe bloody Adions, that none 
of 'em might dare to pretend themfelves fick to |j 
get rid of their Burdens and Labours. And thus 
they were all deftroy'd by degrees^ for partly bc- 

* caufc 

and Cruelties in the Weft-IndieS. i i J 

caufe they were not fufficiently look'd after, and 
partly becaufe unreafonable Labour was exaded of 
'em, tliere was not fo much as one of all thofe Indi- 
ans left alive, which they brought from ^/fo«/^j 
Pajtonia^ ^ill(iy Can^apatra^ Popaya^ Lilia^ Calicia^ 
and An^^erma. As the Spaniards return'd, they 
pafl; through a great City, where they put moll 
of the Inhabitants to the Sword, and carried away 
300 Prifoners, whom they inflav'd according to 
their ufiial manner. » 

* The General Tent John Ampudia^ when they 
were in the Province of Lilia^ with a confiderable 
Party of Soldiers into thofe parts of the Country 
moll inhabited, to take as many Indians as he could 
to carry the Baggage 3 becaufe not one of that num- 
ber they brought from Anzerma 3.nd Allia^ which 
amounted to about 1000 Men, was able to endure 
the Fatigue, but all died in the way. They here 
took as many as they had occafion for to carry their 
Baggage, and the reft were left to the difcretion 
of the Soldiers, who put 'em in Chains, and kept 
'em till they were ftarv'd ^ fo that this Country 
was quite unpeopled, neither Spaniards nor Indians 
being now to be found in it. After all thefe Ra- 
vages, they advanc'd toward Popaya^ leaving 
Martin d'y^quirra by the way, he being unable to 
follow the reft. As foon as they arrived at Popaya, 
they formM a Garifon in the City, and treated the 
Inhabitants v/ith the fame Infolence and Violence 
they had us'd in all other parts of the Country where 
they had made their Progrefs. Here they coined 
Money with the King's Image and Arms upon it j 
they ftamp'd all the Gold they had, as well as 
that which John d' Ampudia had got by his Rob- 
beries, after this manner. All this Gold was 
melted by the General's Order, without keeping 
any Account of it, or paying any of the Soldiers^ 

1 ' unlets 

114 A ReUtion of the Spanlfli Foyages 
^unlcfs it were fuch as had lofl their Horfes *, fo 
.*'that he kept almoft all the Gold for his own private 

* ufe. He pretended indeed to take the %th part of 
' it, which is the King's due, and to go to to 
' give aa Account of it to his Majefty's Intendent j 

* but rook another way, and return'd into the Pro- 
' vince of Quitonia^XzV\x\g up many Indians as he went, 
' who ail died under the heavy Yoke of their flavery. 
' He afterwards effac'd the King's Image, which he 
' had ftamp'd Upon this new Money. And 'tis re- 
' markable concerning this Man, that he could not 
' but refieft on all the mifchief he had done, and on 
' the Cruelties he had committed ■-, for he was wont 
*• to fiy of himfelf. Whoever (hall come into thefe 
' Provinces 50 years hence, and be told what kind 

* of life 1 led here, will fay. Such a Tyrant went thh 
^^yoay^ and here are everlafting marks of his violence 
^ and Cruelty. 

' It is not to be conceal'd from Tour Highnefs^ that 
' the refl of the Spaniards who came into the Indies 
*■ after him, have endeavour'd to tread in his fteps, 
' and have exaflly followed the Example he fet 'em j 

* for they have committed the fame Injuftice and 

* Villany, and fo they ftill continue to do. 

- Among the other Remedies propos'd by the Lord 
^Bartholomew de Las-Cafas in the Allembly of PrelatsI 
and Learned Men whom the King call'd together atj 
Valladolid^ to reform the Affairs of the Indies^ \- 
the year 1 542, he advifes, That the King of S'^a. 
fiiould take the Indians under his protedtion, an«:. 
confider 'efft as his lawful SubjeQ:s, that by th 
means they may be fhelter'd and guarded from ti, 
'continual Tyranny and Infolence of their Enemic 
and not be utterly extirpated by Maflacres, whic, 
|iave bin fo often committed with Impunity. For a<! 
Iruiriul and populous as this New World has been 
/-?' it 

affd Cruelties in the Well-Indips. 115 

it will foon be laid entirely wafle, and turn'd into a 
barren Defert, if the Spaniards be ilill fuffefd to 
root out the Inhabitants, as they have hitherto 

The Words of the Biihop on this Subjed are as 
follows : 

The molt proper and belt Expedient, and which is 
of great importance for your Majefty's Intereft,with- 
Qut which all others will be fruitlefs, is,thatyour Ma- 
jefty fend exprefs Orders to all your Courts and Tri- 
bunals in the Indies^ to receive all the Indians^ both 
thofe that have been already fubjugated, and thofe 
that ftall be conquerM for time to come,into the num- 
ber of your free Subjeds, that all the Provinces they 
inhabit be united to the Kingdoms of Cafiile and 
Uon^ and that all the Inhabitants be incorporated 
as your own People, fo that they (hall not be capa- 
ble of being inflaved by any Spaniard ^ and that this 
Law and Order be inviolably obferv'd : that for the 
future thefe new Provinces may not be difmember'd 
and alienated from the Crown of Spa'in^ under any 
pretext whatfoever, tho never fo great neceffity 
fhould be pretended ^ and never fo preifmg inter- 
ceflion be made with your Majefty to obtain the Ti- 
tle of a particular Soveraignty for any one: That 
all the world may know that the Government 
of thofe Provinces that are fubdued in the In- 
dies^ is infeparably united to your Majefty's Crown, 
and a part of your Property. That to confirm this 
Conllitution the better, and to render it the more 
folemn and inviolable, your Majefty would pleafe to 
take an Oath upon the Holy Gofpel, on your Grown, 
and all that is moft facred, in the form and manner 
Princes are wont to do on fuch Occafions, thatyoa 
will never revoke this Edid ^ and that your Succef- 

1 2 fors 

1 16 A Relation of the Spaniih VojAges 

fors be oblig'd to take the fame Oath : And that your 
Majefty take care to make it one exprefs Article of 
your lafl Will' and Telia ment to engage your Succef- 
fors to obferve this Law, and to make others ob- 
ferve it, as much as lies in their Power. 

Divers reafons are afterwards produced to fiiew 
that this Policy is of abfolute necefiity for the Pre- 
fcrvation of Amtrka^ and to hinder the utter Extir- 
pation of the Indians. 

The infatiable Covetoufnefs of xhtS^amards^ who 
mind nothing but to amafs together heaps of Trea- 
fure, makes 'em unwilling to fuffer any Priell or 
Monk to come into thofe Cities where they are 
Mailers, for fear their worldly Intereft fhould receive 
conCderable damage by that fort of Men -^ becaufe 
(they fiy) it makes the Indians idle, to allemble 'em 
(as they do) to inftrudt 'em in the matters of Reli- 
gion -^ for all the time they take up to preach to 'em, 
they detain 'em from the Work impofcd on em. 
Sometimes when the poor Indians have been aileni- 
bled for their inftrudion in Chriftianity, ih^ Spani- 
ards have infolently accofled 'em with Cudgels in I 
their hands ^ taking fuch a number of 'em as theyi 
think fit, to carry their Baggage or any fuch like Ser-i 
vice ^ and if they are unwilling to obey, they force i 
'em to it with Blows in the light of all the reft,i| 
and in the prefence of the Monks that inftruft 'em ^1 
which is a great Scandal to our Religion, and ajj 
mighty Obftacle to their Converfion, who arel 
Itrangely terrified and hinder'd in thefe pious Exer-ii 
cifes as well as the Monks that preach to !em, byii 
this ill ufage. I 

Another Inconvenience the" S])(tA»'^r(^j pretend theyf 
receive from thefe Inftruftions, is, that when the In-l 
dians are converted and placM in the number of Chri-|i 
llians, they grow proud and infolent, thinking bet-ji 
ter of themfelves than they are^and refufe to work fcj 


And, Cruelties in /^?. W^il-Indies. 1 1 7 

hard as they did before. For the Spaniard's are very 
ambitions to comirivind the Indians as their abfolute 
Slaves, and to be obey'd, refpecled, and even a- 
dord by 'em ^ and therefore omit nothing that may 
hinder them from becoming Chriftians. 

Sometimes 3 or 4 Towns or Villages are given 
up to the difpofal of a certain number of Spaniards^ 
and the Inhabitants dillribufed among 'em, to fome 
more, to others fewer ^ and it often happens thac 
a Woman falls to one Man's fiiare, whofe Husband 
falls to the Lot of another, and their Children to 
a third i fo that they divide thefe miferable Fami- 
lies like Flocks of Sheep. They employ 'em in all 
forts of fervice, as to manure the ground, to work 
in the Mines, and to carry Burdens in Journeys of 
50 or do Leagues. And their Mailers To con/tantly 
exad the hard Tasks of Work they fet'em, that the 
poor Wretches have not time to attend,the Inftrucli- 
ons of the Divine Word, and to le^arn the Rules of 
Chrifliianity. Thele People, tho free, have been 
made Slaves, and the greatelt part of 'em deftroy'd. 
Parents and Children have been llaughter'd toge- 
ther :; Villages and Cities entirely ruin'd, and not 
a Houfe left (landing. And the Spaniards hsive no 
more regard to their Salvation, than if their Souls 
and Bodies died together, and were uncapable of 
eternal Rewards or Punifhments. 

The Spaniards undoubtedly have an Obligation of 
Duty upon 'em to inflru'.^ them in the Doftrine of 
Chrifl ', but they are fo ignorant themfelves, thac 
'tis not much to be wondefd at, if they take no care 
to inform others. Lknew ont John Colmenero in the 
lUc of St. Alartba, as dull, as ignorant and whimfi- 
cal a fellow as one fliould meet with, to whom the 
care of inllrucUng the Indians in a great City was 
committed, tho he fcarce knew how to make the 
lign of the Crols ^ and when he was examined about 

I 5 the 

1 1 8 A Relation of the Spanifh Voyages 

the courfe he took to inflrucl the Indians^ could 
make no other anivver, but that he taught 'em to fay, 
Ter fignin f.viCrm Cyuccs. By which one may eafily 
guefs at the profound Underftanding of the Man. ' 
And how indeed is it poffible for the Spaniards to 
teach the Indians Chriftianity, and to inform 'em 
what is necefTary to Salvation, when the moft no- 
ted Spanifh Lords, and fuch as make the greateft fi- 
gure in the Indies^ fcarce know how many Com- - 
mandmenrs there are ? For they go into America ' 
only to gratify their infatiable Covetoufnefs. They ] 
are generally given to a41 forts of Vices ^ and fo im- 
modeft, voluptuous and effeminate, that if a jult 
Comparifon were made between them and the In- 
dians^ thefe latter would be found to have muc}\ 
more Virtue and Honefly : For as ignorant and bar- 
barous as they be, they are content with one Wife 
according to tjie Laws of Nature, as a necelTary help 
to 'em i whereas the Spaniards lay afide all refpeft to 
the will of their Maker, and take 14 or 1 5 Women, 
or as many as they pleafe, to fatisfy their brutilh 
PafTions, how oppoflte foever this Plurality of Wives 
is to the Law of God. The Indians fcarce know what 
it is to take away one another's Goods, and live in- 
nocently by their Neighbours, without offering 'em 
any Violence or OpprelTion. And what thoughts 
mull fuch People as thefe have of thofe that call 
themifelves Chriftians, when they fee 'em commit 
all m.anner of Crimes and Villanies *, when they 
fee 'em guilty of fo much Injuftice and Treachery, 
and in a word, of all the Abominations of which 
men that are left of God, and have no principle oi 
honour or confcience can be capable? This makes 
m.any Indians laugh at the God we worfhip, and 
perfifl: obftinately in their Incredulity. They be- 
lieve the God of the Chrillians to be theworftol 
Gods, becaufe his Worfhippers are the worft o: 
Men. A; 

und, Cruelties in the Weft- Indies. 119 

As for your Majelly, they think you are the molt 
cruel and impious Piince in the World, while they 
fee the Cruelty and Impiety your Subjects fo info- 
Jently commit \ and they veriiy believe your Maje- 
lly lives upon nothing but human fiefh and bIoo4. 
Probably this account may very much furprize youf 
Majefly, who perhaps have not yet receivM fuffi- 
cient information about theie matters \ but this Opi- 
nion is of long ftanding, and become inveterate 
among 'em. I could produce a great many Inllances, 
of which I have been an Eyevvitnefs, to convince 
you of tlie Truth of it \ but I am afraid of m.akin^ 
your Majefly too uneaf>', and of filling the Readep:^s 
mind with too much horror, by reciting fuch extra- 
ordinary and unparallel'd Stories, which may give 
a jufl occafion of Wonder, that God has fo long 
defer'd to inflid fome exemplary and terrible Judg- 
ment upon S^a'm^ to puniih all the Abominations 
the Spaniards have committed in the Indies. The 
Pretence of fubjecling the Indians to the Govern- 
ment of Spain^ is only made to carry on the deuga 
of fubjugating 'em to the Dominion of private Men, 
who make 'em all their Slaves. One Spaniard who 
has the Government of a Town or City, does more 
mifchief by his vitious and fcandalous Exami le, 
than a hundred Priefts and Monks can do good in en- 
deavouring to advance Chriflianity by all their 
Piety, and the exemplary Sandity of their Lives. 

When the Spaniards have the Government of any 
place committed to 'em, or have any perfonal con- 
cern, or fpecial intereft in it, they'l be fure to op- 
prefs and harafs the poor Indians^ and offer "email 
the Abufes that can be. And 'tis now become almoft 
impoflible for your Majefly or your Miniflers to Hop 
the Courfe of thefe Oppreffions, and regulate theie 
Diforders *, for the Spaniards lerrify the Indians hy 
their threatnings, and fometimes kill 'em to prevent 

I 4 their 

I20 J Relation of tfje SpaniO] Voyages 

their complaints againft 'em : and of this kind of 
Cruelty we have many Inftances : So that the poor 
Indians are continually mplefled and harafled, with- 
out any calm Intervals in which to compofb their 
Minds, and therefore are not capable oi applying 
their Thoughts to the confideration of Divine 
things. Their whole Life is fpent in Sorrow and 
Anguilh under their Perfecutions and Torments. 
This makes 'em mortally hate your Majefty, and 
abhor the Chriftian Religion ^ for they can't but 
think you impofe a fevere Yoke on 'em with intole- 
rable Tyranny, that you are the moffc covetous 
Prince upon Earth, and that therefore they ought 
to leave no ftone unturn'd to get clear of your Go- 
vernment. The defpair under which they lie, occa- 
iions 'em to belch out a thoufand Curfes againft our 
God, attributing all the Miferies they fuft'er to him, 
whom they accufe of Blindnefs, Injuftice, and want 
of CompafTion, for not punifliing the Outrages coni- 
mitted againft 'em under the pretence of obliging 
'em to embrace his Religion, and for not chaftifing 
the Impiety of fuch as make a boaft of being his 
Servants, while they are guilty of the highefl: Abo- 
minations. This inflames their Zeal towards their 
falfe Gods, which they fay are much better than 
ours, who has brought all manner of Miferies upon 
'em, whereas their own were the Authors of all 
kinds of Bleffings. 

We fhall make it evidently appear to your Ma- 
jeily, that the Spaniards in about eight and thirty or 
forty years have unjuftly put to death above twelve 
Millions of your Subjeds ^ and what an incredible 
damage jnuft your Majefty have farther fuftain'd by 
thefe Maflacres, as they have hinder'd ail thefe Peo-. 
pie from multiplying, who would have amounted to 
an infinite number, the People of this new World 
being very fruitful, and the Climat generally ve- 

• and Cruelties in the Weft-Indies. 121 

ry temperate and pleafant, and confequently very 
proper for Generation? Th^ Spaniards h^\Q raafla- 
cred and deftroy'd all thefe Nations, to pofTeft 
themfelves of their Country, and to ufurp the Go- 
vernment of it, fo as to have it entirely at their 
difpofal. And how injuft foever thofe Wars have 
been which they have made upon the Indians^ if the 
poor Creatures put themfelves in a polture of De- 
fence, they cruelly cut their throats without any 
diftindtion of Qiiality, Sex or Age : Such as efcape 
their Fury they referve for Slaves, many of whonx 
they condemn to the Gold or Silver Mines, others 
they yoke together like Bealls to make 'em carry 
v^ft Burdens. They don't much concern themfelves 
whether the Indians live or die, provided they reap 
fome advantage by their Labour, and heap up Gold 
at any rate in the World. I pafs over in filence a 
great many of the Torments thefe poor People have 
been made to endure on all occafions. If any fhall 
attempt to perfwade your Majefly of the contrary, 
we'l undertake to prove what Violence the S^a^ 
niards have us'd among the Indians by invincible and 
undoubted Evidence: And fliall not fcruple to fay, 
that whoever take upon 'em to deny the truth of 
thefe matters, have in all appearance partaken of 
thofe Robberies, or at leaft hope to have a Ihare of 
'em one time or other. For what fhew of proba- 
bility is there in faying the Contagion of the Air 
has fo entirely deftroy'd the People of a Country of 
2500 Leagues extent, that there's fcarce a Man to 
be found ? 

The Spaniards, who know no other God but their 
Interefl:,have fullied the Reputation of the poor Indi" 
ans with the mcfl odious Stain that can be imagin'd, 
in accufing 'era of being addided to an infamous 
and abominable Sin againfl Nature ^ a Calumny as 
,ill contriy'd as 'tis unjujt. For that Crime has never 


1-22 J Relation of the Spanifli Voyages 

been heard of in tlie I (lands of Hifpaniola^ St. John^ 
Cuba, and Jamaica, which have been very populous. 
This I can fpeak with aflarance, as knowing ic to be 
true, becaufe I took care to inform my felf of it 
as fbon as I came afliore in the new World. Nor 
is it fo much as known what this Vice is in all Peru : 
not one Man has ever been found guilty of it in the 
whole Kingdom of Tucatan-^ and the like may be 
^fierted in general of other Countries of America : 
Only 'tis faid, that in fome very remote parts of 
Jt there are fome People addided to this monftrous 
Crime : But is it reafonable for this to accufe the 
whole new World, and to call an everlafting Re- 
fwoach on fo many different Nations ? We rauft fay 
Jjhe fame of another Enormity charg'd upon the In- 
^iam, namely their eating of Human Flelh. There 
are indeed in fome particular places a fort of Men 
lb barbarous that they cat their own kind ^ but 'tis 
very injuft to take occafion from this to report the 
l^me of all America in general. Another pretence 
the Spaniards ufe, by which to juftify their ill Carriage 
towards' the hidians, is their Idolatry ^ as if it did 
-not belong to God rather than to thern, to punifii 
ihofe that OiTend him by fuch abominable Worfhip 
when he fees meet. 

. Befides, the Lands and Territories they polfefs are 
■not under the jurifdidion of the S^aniardsy nor are 
die Indians oblig'd to own any other Governors than 
i^eir lawful and natural Soveraigns. Our Anceflors 
^fore they were inftruded in the Dodrine of 
Chriftianity, were buried in the grofs darknefs of 
Idolatry as well as the Indians. And before the 
coming of Chriil, all the Nations of the World in 
jgieneral were guilty of that Crime. But that which 
evidently proves the Minds of the Indians to be ve- 
f y fufcepdble of our Religion, is the Mild lefs, Hu- 
aiiiity and Gourtefy they at firll exprefs'd to the 
r... S^ani- 

md, Cruelties in the Weft-Indks. 123- 

Spaniards^ and the patience wherewith they have 
fince undergone their Cruelties. 

'Tis a mod inexcufable piece of Wickednefs in 
the Spaniards^ that they have made ufe of all the 
Obflrudtions they could, and that deliberately, to 
hinder the Indians from imbracing the Chrillian 
Faith ^ they have driven away all the Monks that 
came into the Indies to preach theGofpel, from thofe 
places where they had power enough to do it, be- 
caufe they did not care thefe Religious Perfons 
fliould be WitnefTes of the Tyranny and Cruelty 
they exercis'd on the poor People. They have even 
debauch'd the Indians by the ill Example they have 
fet 'em, and taught 'em a great many Vices they 
never heard of before they converfed with the 
Spaniards^ fuch as Oaths and Blafphemies againft the 
Name of Chrift, the Praftice of Extortion, Lying, 
and many other Sins that feemM oppofite to the 
fweet and peaceable Temper of thefe People : So 
that to leave thefe poor Indians under their Govern- 
ment, is vifibly to expofe 'em to utter Deltruftion, 
and to make 'em miferable both in Soul and Body. 

King Ferdinando was fo far impos'd on by the Ar- 
tifices of fome felf-interefted Men, as to give 'era 
leave to tranfport the Inhabitants of the Lucay- 
Iflands into Hifpaniola : thefe People were forc'd out 
of their Houfes, and out of their Country, in pur- 
fuance of this Grant, which was fubtily obtain'd, 
and occafion'd the deftrudion of above a hundred 
thoufand People •, fo that there now remain but 
eleven of 'em in fifty Iflands, fome of which are 
bigger than the Canaries^ that were well ftorM with 
People. And this I can affirm on ray own know- 
ledg, if your Majefty could have feen the "Ravages 
and Maffacresthat have been committed in the Lucay 
Iflands, you would have been pierc'd with the moit 
lively fentimentsof Compaffion ; and then I fliould 


124 -^ Relation of the Spanifh Voyages 
have been afraid to incommode your Majefty by re- 
viving the memory of that Tyranny, in giving an 
exad Recital of it. We have taken notice above of 
the injuft Wars the Spaniards formerly rals'd againfl 
the Indians •, we have (hewn how they malfacred 'em 
againfl; all Law and Equity, how cruelly they de- 
prived 'em of their Children, their Parents, and 
Friends ; how they have laid wafte one of the fineft 
Countries in the World, and rendcr'd it in a man- 
ner defl:itute of Inhabitants. This Barbarity makes 
the Earth groan, the Angels lament thefe Miferies : 
And God himfelf has given us to know by the Judg- 
ments he has inflided on us, how much thefe injuft 
and violent Actions difpleafe him. 

The Spaniards have taken from the Indians all 
they had •, they make 'em work till they fpit Blood, 
they expofe 'em to all forts of Hardfliips, and ex- 
ad intolerable Tasks of 'em ^ and, which is yet more 
horrible, after all they load 'em with heavy Blows, 
beating, whipping and tormenting 'em with the ut- 
molt Cruelty. To give up the Indians to the Go- 
vernment and Tyranny of thefe Men, is as great a 
madnefs, as to give Children into the hands of Men 
that are aded by a raging Phrenzy, and have 
Knives and Daggers ready in their hands to cut their 
Throats *, or to facriiice Men to the fury of their 
fworn Enemies, who have long entertain'd the defire 
of Revenge, and form'd a defign to murder 'em ^ or 
to expofe a young beautiful Virgin to the Difcretion 
of an impudent Ravillier. Who in fuch a conjundure, 
without the interpolition of fpecial Grace, would 
abandon himfelf to the Condud of his Paflions ? 
In a word, it would be the fame thing as to give 'em 
up to fo many wild Bulls, Wolves, Lions and Tigers, 
when inrag'd with prefTing Hunger : for all the Pro- 
hibitions that fhould be given thefe wild Beafl;s not 
to touch fuch as are expos'd to their fury, would 


and Cruelties in the Vv^'efl-Indies. 125 

have jull: the fame efFed to prevent 'em from being 
devour'd, as any Charge tfrat can be given the S^a- 
niards to hinder 'em from murdering the Indians to 
pofTcfs themfclves of their Gold and Silver. We 
dire afRire your Majefty after the long Obfervation 
we have made of thefe matters, that if your Ma- 
jefty fhould order a Gibbet to be fet up 'at every 
Spam ard's door ^ and Ihould fwear upon your Crown, 
that you would caufe every Man to be hang'd that 
fhould kill or offer any confiderable Injury to the 
Indians to get their Riches \ this would not be an 
efledtual Remedy to thefe Diforders, if your Ma- 
jefty gave 'em any Authority or Power over 
'em either directly or indirectly. The fame occa- 
(lons of doing mifchief would Hill prefent, and 
defeat all the Prohibitions that could be made, and 
all the Ponifiiments that could be us'd to terrify 

Nor are the poor Indians expos'd only to be made 
Slaves by the Spaniards^ but fuffer abundance of Op- 
preffion from a cruel Tyrant, that has the Govern- 
ment of each Town or City, who has a fevere Eye 
over 'em, to fee how they acquit themfelves of 
their Labors, and perform the Tasks impos'd on 'em. 
His bufinefs is to plague and torment *em fo many 
different ways, that their Sufferings are almoft be- 
yond comparifon '-, he beats 'em with Cudgels, tears 
their Flefh with Whips, and caufes burning drops 
of Fat to be diftill'd on their naked Bodies. He is 
continually exercifing his Invention in contriving 
new Tortures, he violates their Wives, takes away 
their Turkeys, which they count one of their great- 
eft Treafures ^ thefe Fowls ferve him to make Pre- 
fents to the General, who is fuperior to all thefe 
petty Tyrants. But 'tis impoffible to give a parti- 
cular defcription of all the Punifhments thefe poor 
Wretches endure •, and after all to ftop their Com- 

126 A Relation of the Spanlfh Voyages 
plaints, they threaten to accufe 'em of Idolatry. 
Thus thp poor Indians are fubjed to the Authority 
of feveral different Powers, to your Majefly, to their 
Caciqucy and to the Spani/h Governor, befides twen- 
ty other little Tyrants, dellituteof Reafon, Honor 
and Confcience, who commit all forts of Outrages ^ 
and likewiie thz Moors whom the chief Tyrant em- 
ploys to rob and opprefs the poor Indians. 

'Tis much to be fear'd that Almighty God will 
make Spain feel fome extraordinary marks of his 
Difpleafure and Indignation for thefe enormous 
Crimes : nay, there appear already forae tokens of 
the Divine Anger againft the Spani/h Nation, for 
the Diforders and Devaftations made by fome in the 
new World : for tho God had laid up fuch quanti- 
ties of Treafure there, that it may be faid neither 
Solomon nor any other Prince ever poflefs'd a ftock 
t)f Gold and Silver comparable to that which the 
People of thefe vaft Regions enjoy'd ^ yet they have 
bin fo pillag'd, that now there's little remaining 
among 'em: But that which is more unaccountable 
is, that there's fcarce any of that Silver now to be 
found, that was fo common in America when the 
Spaniards firft difcover'd it. This makes every thing 
extraordinary fcarce there, fo that the Spaniards are 
reduc'd to extreme Poverty and Indigence. 

All the while Lares govern'd the Indies^ there was' 
no more care taken to inftil the Principles of 
Chriftianity into the poor Indians^ and to put 'era 
in the way of Salvation, than if they had no Souls 
to fave. This General applied himfelf only to plun- 
der the great Cities, and would give a hundred In- 
dians to one Spaniard^ and fifty to another, as he 
had m.ore or lefs refpedt for 'em. He made no 
dillindion of Age or Condition, but promifcuoufly 
diHributed old Men, and bigbellied Women, as well 
as others, Pcrfons of Eminency and Princes as well 


and Cruelties in the Weft-Indies. 127 

as the common People, to oblige his Favorites •, as 
if thefe Indians were his abfolute Property. Their 
new Mafters made 'em work in the Gold Mines, or 
employ'd 'em in any other Service they pleas'di 
and without regard to their Rank or Quality, ob- 
lig'd 'em to bear this flavifh Yoke till they dy'd. 

This Governor fuffer'd • the Spaniards to confine 
eighty thoufand of 'em in the Mines, who were all 
married Men, while theirdefolate Wives were forc''d 
to labor in the Villages, in digging the ground, 
making Ditches, and throwing up Banks, a fort of 
work fit only for the Itrongeft Men, and the rather 
becaufe they had neither Shovels iior other Inftru- 
ments proper for their bufinefs. In other places 
they put 'em upon fpinning and other works of that 
kind, which they found would turn to account ^ and 
would fometimes keep Husbands and Wives from 
feeing one another a whole year together ^ and when 
they met after this long feparation, they were often 
fo fatigued, and confum'd with Hunger and Labor, 
that they were incapable of Multiplication. Some- 
times the Children dy'd for want of SuftenanCe, 
their Mothers Milk being exhaufted with hard La- 
bor and Hunger ^ by this means there dy'd feven 
thoufand Infants in the fpace of three months in the 
Ille of Cuha^ of which I was an Eye-witnefs. Some 
of the Women tranfported with defpair fbrangPd 
their own Children •, others that were with Child 
took poifonous Herbs to dellroy their Fruit. Thus 
the Men dy'd with hardlhip in the Mines, and the 
Women in the Villages ^ fo that the whole Country 
became defert in a little time, becaufe the Womea 
ceas'd to bring forth Children into the World. 

This Governor deliver'd up all the Indtans to the 
Difcretion of the Spaniards, and fuffer'd 'em to treat 
'em with all the Rigor and Severity they pleas'd, 
and to opprefs *em with the hardeft Labor they 


128 A Relation of the Spanifh Voyages 

could. They employ'd Men to chaflife 'em that 
were more favage and barbarous than Tygers, thefe 
fcourg'd and beat 'em moft unmercifully, and gave 
them all the ill Treatment they could devife ;, they 
would never difcover the leaft fign of Kindnefs or 
Pity, but always Ihevv'd themfelves auftere and bar- 
baroufly cruel. It would be very inhuman to treat 
the MooYs themfelves after this manner, tho they 
are fo very cruel to the Chriftians, and do 'em all the 
mifchief they can, when they have the Afcendent 
over 'em. But the Indians are naturally a good- 
humour'd, eafy, peaceable, fubmiflive, and tradiable 
fort of People. Some of 'em have by the many 
Miferies they fuffer'd, been driven to defpair of any 
mitigation of 'em, and therefore fled into the Moun- 
tains, where they expeded Death every moment. 
The Spaniards to hinder 'em from flying after this 
manner, appointed a bloody F'ellow to make it his 
whole bufinefs to hunt out thefe Indian Refugees up- 
on the Mountains. The Governor befides eftablifli'd 
a fort of Officers in the Spaniflo Cities of great Con- 
fideration and Authority, whom he call'd Vifitors ^ 
to each of thefe he gave a hundred Indians to ferve 
him, befides his ordinary Domeflicks, the better to 
fupport his Dignity. He chofe fuch to this Office 
as had fignaliz'd themfelves by their Cruelty. When 
the Alquaz^ils prefented the Indians they found on the 
Mountains to thefe Vifitors, there were Perfons 
fuborn'd and inftruded to accufe 'em after this 
manner ; This Indian vs a laz.y Dog^ that fled into the 
Mountains to avoid IVorh, therefore I dsfire he may 
he chaftizJd as he deferves. After the giving of 
this Evidence, the Vifitor us'd to caufe the poor 
Indian to be tied to a Stake, and beat with a tarr'd 
Rope, which the Seamen call a Salt-Eel, and indeed 
is like a Rod of Iron, till the Blood would ftart out 
in I know not how many parts of his Body, and the 


and Cruettiei In the Weft-Indies. 1 2^ 

poor Creature would lie for dead upon the place. 
God is witnefs of all the Cruelties thefe miferable 
Innocents have endur'd : 'Tis not pofllble to re- 
count the hundredth part of what I have feen with 
my own Eyes. A man had need have a Body of 
Iron to undergo the Labor they endure in getting 
Gold out of the Mines. They muft delve and fearch 
a thoufand times over in the bowels of the Moun- 
tains, till they dig 'em down from top to bottom ; 
they muft work the very Rocks hollow. After this 
the Gold muft be walh'd in fome River, and the 
poor Creatures that do this work muft be perpe- 
tually in the Water, which gradually alters and 
fpoils the Conftitution of their Bodies \ and if the 
Mines happen to be full of Water, they are forc'd 
to empty 'em. That your Majefty may the better 
judg of the Labor and Toil they fuffer in the Gold 
Mines, your Majefty may pleafe to confider, that the 
Pagan Emperors accounted this the worft and moft 
intolerable Punifhment to inflid on the Martyrs, 
next to Death it felf. The Indians are fometimes 
, kept a whole year in thefe Mines : but fince the S^a- 
niards have obferv'd, that it kill'd moft of 'em td 
keep 'em there fo long together, becaufe their Bo- 
dies were uncapable of fuftaining the Fatigues of 
fuch a tedious and continual Labor, they rcfolv'd to 
make 'em work only for the fpace of five months 
fuccefllvely, and then to give 'em'a refi^ite of forty 
days, wherein they employed 'em in melting Gold. 
But this pretended Reft did 'em no great good, for 
they were not much lefs incommoded during this 
time than before, being employ'd in other very 
troublefom kinds of Work. The Indians don't 
know what Holy-days arc j for they work as hard 
and as long on thofe days as at other times. Nor 
have they a fufficiency of Bread allow'd 'em j and 
what they have is a very ordinary fort, that has 

K »ot 

I ^o J^Re/aio/z of the Spanlfli Voyages 
not; much itrength in it, being made of Roots and 
Caflave ^ fo that if they don't eat Fleih or Fifli with 
it, it yields very little Nouriihment. They like- 
wife giye 'em a fort of Pepper that grows in ths 
Country^ and looks much like a dry'd Grape. 
Thofe Spaniards that pretend to keep their Slaves 
extraordinary well, diftribute a Porker every week 
among fifty Indians •, but he that prefides over 'em 
at the Mine keeps one half of it for his fhare, and 
gives them the other, which is but every one a bit. 
Some of the Spaniards are fo wretchedly covetous, 
that they fend their Slav^S' into the Fields and Moun- 
tains to feed upon what Fruit they can find, and 
then oblige 'em to work two or three days without 
giving 'em any thing to eat. Your Majefty may 
ealily imagine, that fuch kind of Food can't poflibly 
fuftain their weak and languifhing Bodies, that are 
continually enfeebled and exhaufted with hard La- 
bor-, or that thefe poor Creatures that are mace- 
rated with all manner of Hardfhip and Fatigue, 
without any reft, or relaxation of their Mifery, can 
live long under the preifures of fo cruel a Servi- 

The abovemention'd Governor at laft order'd 
they Ihould have Wages diftributed among 'em, viz.. 
that three ^ Blancs filould be given each of 'em to 
fpend every two days, as the Reward of the hard 
Labors they exacted of 'em. This was only to mock 
the poor Wretches, for this Mony would fcarce 
■ buy 'em the leaft Trifle. But for many years they 
had nothing at all given 'em, yet this does not 
diiturb 'em fo much as want of Victuals ^ for there 
is nothing in the world they fo much defire as to 
eat well, infomuch that if they could but fatisfy 
themfelves with one good Meal, they would after- 

^ A Elanc is abouc the value of a Ha/f-penny. 

wards be content to die. This Governor depriv'd 
'cm of all the liberty they enjoy'd, and fufFer'd the 
Spaniards to indave 'em, and treat 'em as feverely 
as they pleas'd ^ and indeed the ill ufage they have 
met with is beyond what the Mind of man can ima- 
gine. They have not the liberty to difpofe of any 
thing they have : The condition of Beafts is prefera- 
ble to theirs, for thefe are at leall fometimes turn'd 
ioofe to fill their Bellies with Grafs in the fields, and 
have, a little eafe and liberty j whereas the poor 
Indktfjs have, fcarce any time of refl allow'd 'em, 
but 0re conftrain'd to do whatever the covetous 
Spaniards command 'em. They lead 'em to work 
like Beafts of Burden rather than Men. If at any 
time they give 'em leave to go home to take a little , 
Repofe, they neither find their Wives nor Children 
^here, nor any thing to eat, and have no other re- 
lief than to lay themfelves down and die. The in- 
credible Fatigue they undergo wears 'em out the 
fooner, becaufe they are naturally of a weak and 
tender Conftitution ^ and when they are fick and 
faint, they are ftill made to work without any Comr 
pafTion: nay, the Spaniards are fo cruel as to beat 
and abufe 'em when they are juft ready to die, calling 
'em lazy Rafcals, as if they refus'd to work, and 
feign'd themfelves fick, merely out of Idienefs. Ac 
laft when they fee their lllnefs incrcafe to that de- 
gree, that they can expeft no more Service of 'em, 
they fend, 'em home, giving 'em fix: or feven great 
Roots, almoft like Turnips, with a fmall quantity 
of CafTave, to carry 'em a journey of fifty or fixty 
Leagues ^ fo that they often mifcrably languifti and 
die before they have proceeded far on their way : 
we often found a great many of 'em dead on the 
lloads, others we found ready to expire, and others 
by their Groans and Sighs gave us to underftand 
f neif extreme Hunger. When the Governor had 

K 2 n<K 

1^2 A Relation of the Spanifh Voyages 

not a fufficient number of Men for the Works in 
the Mines, he fuppUed the places of them that were 
releas'd by death, by calling Lots for others, which 
method was obferv'd once a year. 

When he enter'd into the Continent, he came 
like a fweeping Judgment of God, or as a Wolf 
among Sheep : He committed fo many Robberies, 
MalTacres and Cruelties, depopulated and deftroy'd 
fo many Towns and Cities, giving the Spaniards li- 
berty to do what they pleas'd, that no Hiftory can 
parallel his Barbarity : He robb'd both the King of 
S^a'm and his Subjeds, without being ever call'd to 
account for it ^ he left above forty Leagues of a 
very populous and fertil Country to the difcretion 
or rather fury of his Soldiers: All that pleafant 
Trad of Ground from Daria where he landed to 
Nicaragua was reduc'd to the utmolt Defolation ^ 
fo that five or fix Millions of Mony will not re- 
pair the Damage done there. This vile and cruel 
Man abandon'd the Indians to the Tyranny of the 
Spaniards, which was the fource and original Caufe 
of all the Pcrfecutions under which thofe poor Peo- 
ple have fince groan'd, and of all the Devaftations 
that America has fuffer'd wherever the Spaniards 
have fet their feet. This Contagion by degrees 
fpread far and near *, fo that this General by let- 
ting loofe his Soldiers after this licentious manner, 
has occafion'd the ruin of many millions of Men, 
and the delblation of divers great Kingdom.s that 
were fubjefted to your Majelty's Dominion. If we 
fay the Spaniards have deftroy'd {^vtn. Kingdoms 
bigger than that of Spain, we can fpeak it with 
confidence, as knowing it to be true, and having 
known the time when they were filFd with multi- 
tudes of People, tho now there are fcarce any to 
be found, the Spaniards having extirpated the Peo- 
ple of thefe large Kingdoms, and left the Walls 


and Cruelties in the Weft-Indies. i ^ j 

and Houfes of the Towns and Cities without Inha- 

Your Majefty has no fix'd and conftant Revenue 
in the Indks ^ your Effects are like Leaves, which 
when once they fall from the Trees appear no more 
till a year after. That the Spaniards are poflefs'd 
of the abfolute Government of the Indks is the 
true caufeof thisDiforder-, for the number of the 
Indians every day decreafing, your Majefty's Re- 
venues muft neceffarily receive a proportionable di- 

The Kingdom of Spain is in great danger to be 
invaded by Foreign Nations, efpecially by the A<foors 
and Turks^ who perhaps may one day be in a con- 
dition to deflroy it : For God is a juft Judg, and 
cannot look upon the Villanies and Oppreffions, the 
Robberies and Murders of the Spaniards in the Indies^ 
without indignation. All the Nations of this new- 
World, who were created (as well as others) af- 
ter the likenefs and image of God, and ran- 
fom'd by the precious Blood of Jefus Chrift, have 
been unjuftly and cruelly tormented and perfecuted 
by'em^ they have made horrible flaughters among 
'em to requite the many KindnelTes they heap'd on 
*em with all imaginable Freedom and Civility. And 
that which ftill aggravates their Crimes the more, 
and muft needs farther provoke the Divine Difplea- 
fure, is, that God had made choice of Spain to car- 
ry his blefled Gofpel into the Indies^ and to bring 
many populous Nations to the knowledg of himfelf •, 
for which if they had fallen in with his DeJigns, he 
would, befidcs thofe eternal Rewards referv'd for 
'em, have given into their hands many good and 
fruitful Countries, abounding with Mines of Gold 
and Silver, Diamonds and other precious Stones 
and Pearls ^ in a word, with all forts of temporal 
Bleflings, beyond what any one can imagine, unlefs 

K 3 fuch 

f ^4 -^ Relation of the Spariifh Voyages 
facii as have feen it with their own eyes. And 'tis 
to be remarked that God ufually obferves this Rule 
in the execution of his Judgments, to proportionate 
his Penalties to the Crimes committed ggainit him. 

The Outrages and Cruelties thefe innocent People 
have felt are fo horrid and notorious, that their 
Tears and Groans and Blood, the cry of which has 
reach'd the Throne of God, will undoubtedly draw 
down Vengeance on thofe that have ofFerM all this 
violence to their Perfons, and plunderM 'em of their 
Eilates. The Report of thefe Cruelties is fpread 
through the whole World, and has been carried even 
to the moft barbarous Nations, and has made 'em ab- 
hor the S^^aniards^ and conceive a mortal hatred a- 
gainfl 'em : A hatred which extends to the Perfon of 
gur King, as well as his Subjefts, and is extremely 
prejudicial to the whole Nation in general. 

None can be fo ignorant as not to forefee what 
Mifchiefs the Defolations in America are like to 
bring upon S^ain '■, and fucceeding Generations will 
be but. too much convinc'd of the truth of this Pro- 
phecy : And if the King of Spain flill fuffers the 
Spaniards to domineer and tyrannize as they have hi-^ 
therto done in the Indies^ and makes not effedtual 
provifion by proper Edids to frop the Courfe of the 
jnany Miferies the People of this New World un- 
dergo, thofe Countries will in a little time be totally 
depopulated. And God will undoubtedly make all 
Spain feel the Efleds of his Wrath in punifliing fuch 
Crimes as thefe ^ fmce the whole S,cripture is full of 
Threatnings, and plain Inflances of the Judgments 
of God on fuch as have been acceflbry to the Sins of 
others by permitting them. 

Mo/t lilujirious and Mighty Prince j The Royal 
Council for the Indies, animated with a fincere Zeal 
for the Glory of God, and your Majefly's Honour, 
defir'd me a few days ago to write to your Majefty 


■^fi'd Cruelties in the^TQ^.lic\^\QS. 175 

all that I had told you viva voce before, and to ex- 
plain to you what Right the Kings of S^ain have to 
thofe Kingdoms in the Indies : and the rather be- 
cause forae who are imeafy to fee the liberty your 
Majelty is pleas'd to give me in converiing'wich 
your Royal Perfon about thefe Affairs, to engage 
you td^.regulate thofe Diforders committed in Anjcri- 
ca^ have declar'd againfc my Sentiments with a great 
deal of heat and animofity. They lay the Zeal 
with which I oppofe the Violence and Injuftice of 
the Spaniards (and thefe I'm refoivM to oppofe as 
long as it pleafesGod to continue my life) prompts 
men to call in queffion the Title the King of 5p^m 
pretends to have to the New World. However I 
have perform'd what the Council demanded of me, 
and drawn up thirty Propofitions, without giving 
myTelf the trouble of proving them at large, partly 
becaufe they are all certain and evident, and partly 
becaufe I was much urg'd to difpatch the b'ufmefs, 
and to fend them to your Majeily -^ which I have ac- 
complilh'd in the fear of God, and according to 
the didates of my Confcience, with a ftrid regard 
to Truth. 

Since the defire I have of being ferviceable to God 
daily increafes, I thought my felf obliged to refute 
the Impoftures and Calumnies of fome ill-defigning 
Perfons, who wilfully (hut their eyes againft the 
Truth, becaufe 'tis direftly oppofite to the Defigns 
and Projefts they have form'd. They flatter them- 
felves, that under the falfe pretext of ferving the 
Kings of 5p(?m, who are ordinarily of a fweet and 
benign temper, and ready to judg of others by the 
good Sentiments they find in themfelves •, I fay, they 
Hatter themfelves that they Ihall ftill be able to im- 
pofe on 'em, and bear a fufficient fway in their minds 
to bring 'em into the fnarcs they have laid for 'em. 
It was the complaint of Ahafuems in the Hiftory of 
K 4 MJ^her^ 

1^6 A Relation of the Spanifli Voyages 

Ejlher^ that corrupt and vicious Subjedts alter'd the 
good difpofition of Princes, and betray'd 'era into 
ExcelTes, that occafion'd the ruin of whole King- 
doms and their Kings together. 'Tis for this rea- 
fon, Great Sir^ 1 have briefly drawn up thefe Propo- 
fitions, to fet this matter before you in a clear light. 
This I have done to difcharge my own Confcience, 
and that I might the better anfwer the Obligations of 
that Miniftry wherewith God has entrufted me. I 
jfind my felf growing old, being advanced to the ^oth 
year of my age ; and the great acquaintance I have 
had with the Affairs of jlmerica^has turnifliM me with 
a very diftinft knowledg of 'em ^ fo that ray circum- 
ftances render me in forae relpefts more capable 
than others of giving proper Advice to thofe that 
are propos'd for the Government of America^ that 
they may know how to put a period to its Mife- 
ries : for I have no other intention or defire in this 
niatter, than that of fuppreffing the Injuftice and 
Cruelty that has fo long harafs'd the Inhabitants of 
the New World. 

They that endeavour to crofs my good Defign 
with the greatell warmth, and deck themfelves with 
a falfe appearaceof zeal and affedion to your Ma- 
jefty, tho at the bottom they have no regard either 
to truth or juftice, take care to hide their Deligns 
under the fpecious colour of promoting your Ma- 
jefty's Service and Intereft, and of eftablifhing your 
Majefly's Right and Title to America^ while indeed 
all they do isdiredly contrary to your Majefty's Ser- 
vice, whether in refpe^: of Spirituals or Temporals. 
And I. believe all intelligent Chriftians, that have a 
true zeal for their Religion, will be of this opinion. 
when I have made the Errors and Extravagancies of 
thofe that oppofe my Sentiments appear j for thefe 
Centlemen hand over head maintain that the Kings 
of S^ain have a Right to foynd and eftablifh them- 

and Cruelties in the Weft-Indies. 157 

felves a Title to the Government of America by 
force of Arms, after the fame manner that iV^m- 
fod^ who was the firit mighty Hunter ( as the 
Scripture exprefly obferves) and firft began to 
tyrannize over Men, laid the foundation of his 
Dominion *, or as Alexander the Great, and the 
antient Romans extended the bounds of their Em- 
pire ^ or juft as the Turks to this day opprefs the 
Ghriftians, and invade their Territories. All the 
World may ealily perceive that they who reafon thus, 
are ignorant of the true Intereft of the King of Spain^ 
and fhamefully violate all the Rules of Juftice. To 
prove what they advance,they add new Errors to their 
fiffl Extravagancies, till they fhew by the wretched 
Maxims they expofe, that they have neither Honor 
nor Chriftianity. For it often falls out, that while 
they who wander from the Trad of Truth and Vir- 
tue, go about to excufe the Errors they have made, 
they fall into other Miftakes that are ftill more grofs 
and dangerous. 

There are others of 'em who produce Titles that 
appear to be fomewhat better founded, and alledg 
Arguments that feem more probable and honelt. 
Thefe fay we may juftly take pofTeffion of the Indies^ 
and fubdue the People, becaufe we have a greater 
ftockof Prudence and Wifdom than other Nations, 
and becaufe our Country is nearer to the Indies than 
many others. But 'tis eafy to fee that none of thefe 
Reafons are concluding, having no folid Foundation 

That your Majefty may the better comprehend 
the force of the Reafons that have been produc'd be- 
fore you, and more eafily diftinguifh what is agree- 
able to the Rules of Equity from what is con- 
trary to 'em, and difcern your faithful Servants 
from fuch as mind nothing but their own Intereft, 
I fhall come my felf, and viva voce explain to yonr 


i^^8 Bropdfttions concerning the Title 

Majelly the principal Points on which my Judgment 
is founded. In the mean time I fend your Majefty 
^a Abftrad of my Propofitions, which your Majefty 
may caufe to be tranflated into Latin, if you tliink 
meet, that they may be printed both in the Latin 
and Spanifh Tongues : or if your Majefly don't fee 
good to piafce 'em publick, 'twill be no great mat- 

I Fropofition* 

The Pope of Rome Canonically eleded to be the 
yicar of JefusChrift, and the Succeflbr of St. Peter, 
hath received his Authority and Power from Chrift 
himfelf ^ and this Power extends over all Men, whe- 
ther Believers or Infidels, in matters appertaining 
to Salvation, and the way.of eternal Life. But it is 
to be obferv'd, that he ought to exercife this Power 
toward Infidels, that never enter'd into the Church 
by Baptifm, nor never heard of Jefus Chrift and the 
Catholic Faith, in a different manner from what he 
does toward thofe that either are or have been Be- 

II Propofition. 

St. Peter and his SuccelTors contra^^ied an indif- 
penfible Obligation, founded on the Divine Pre- 
cept, to procure the publication of the Gofpel, 
and the propagation of the Chriftian Faith in the 
whole World, that all Infidels may be brought to 
the knowledg of the true God, when there is any 
hope that they will not oppofe the promulgation of 
ihp Faich, and the Doctrin of the Gofpel. 

III Propojition. 

The Pope by the Authority of his Apoflolic Mi- 
piflry, may end ought to fend capable Miniflers 


of the Kjngs of Spain to America, i J9 

from all the States of Chriflendom^ to preach the 
Dodrine of Jefus Chrift through the Univerfe : 
Nay, he may oblige 'em by virtue of his power to 
accept this Miflion and Employ \ and they on the 
other hand are oblig'd to undertake it, in obedience 
to the Pope, as to Jefus Chrilt. 

IV" Pro^ofition. 

Among all the Inftruments that can be chofen 
for the publication of the Catholic Faith, and the 
Gonverfionof Infidels, Chriflian Princes are capa- 
ble of contributing moll ta the carrying on of this 
Work ^ becaufe their Authority, their Forces and 
temporal Riches are a great help to preferve and 
defend Ecclefiaftical Minifters that may be fent, and 
to furnifh 'em with proper means to attain the end 
proposed . 

V Propfimn. 

The Pope by the Authority which Jefus Chrifl: 
has given him upon Earth, ought to exhort Chti- 
ftian Princes to contribute all their Afliftance to re- 
move the Obftrudions that impede the publication 
of the Chriftian Faiths to employ their Mony in 
advancing this Work, and to fend fuch of their Sub- 
jeds as are capable of inftruding Infidels. The 
Pope may moreover in fome fort oblige all Chri- 
ftians in general, according to their ability, to 
bear the necelTary Charges of thofe Miffionaries in 
fo pious a Work, as occafion may require. 

VI Propofttion. 

No Chriftian Kings or Prinzes ought to engage in 
this Work without the participation of the Holy See, 
and of the Vicar of J. Chrift. And if any Prince Ihould 

' • think 

140^ V r of jit ions concerning the Title 

think himfelf oblig'd, for the advantage of his 
Kingdom, to fend Evangelic Minifters to inflrud 
the Infidels, he ought to confult the Pope about it, 
who will ufe fuch means as he thinks molt proper 
to advance this defign. 

VII PYOpjition. 

To avoid confufion, the Vicar of Chrift may di- 
Itribute the Kingdoms and Provinces of the Infidels, 
of what Seft foever they be, among the Princes or 
Chriftendom *, and may exhort 'em to be zealous for 
the propagation of the Faith, and vigoroufly to ap- 
ply themfelves to the work of enlarging the Uni- 
verfal Church, by the Converfion and Salvation of 
§ouls, as the only end they ought to have in view. 

VIII Fro^ofttion. 

In making this divifion the Pope ought not to re- 
gard the increafe of the Honors, Titles, Riches and 
Territories of Princes, but only to have refpeft to 
the Converfion of the Infidels ; fince this alone is the 
Intention of Chrift in the trull he repofes in 'em, to 
take care of the Jnftrudion of Souls, which is a dif- 
ficult and careful Charge, and of which they will be 
one day oblig'd to render an account before the 
ftrid Tribunal of God. For this Employ refpefts 
tlie ad vantages of Infidels more than the particular 
intereft of Chriftian Princes. 

|X Propofition. 

Chriflian Princes ought to have no confideration 
for any thing but the Service of God, and the Ad- 
vancement of the univerfal Church, when they ap- 
ply their endeavors to propagate the Faith of Chrift : 


<f the Kjngs of Spain to America. 141 

In this affair they ought to have no temporal Advan- 
tage in their eye, but to look upon all earthly things 
as tranfitory and of fraall confequence : Yet it would 
not be juft, if they can do any thing for the advan- 
tage of their Dominions, while they are procuring 
the Augmentation of the Kingdom of Chrift, to 
oblige 'em to negled fo favourable an occafion, pro- 
vided it be done without any confiderable prejudice 
to the Infidels, or to the Princes that govern 'em- 

X PropoJitioH. 

Thofe Infidels that live in Countries remote from 
Europe^ andhavenever heard of JefusChrift, or the 
Chriftian Religion, have their own lawful Kings and 
Princes, who are the natural Rulers of the particular 
Countries they govern, and have right to make 
Laws, and to eftablifh all things necellary for the 
good Government of their refpedive Dominions ^ fo 
that they can't be expelPd out of 'em, or deprived 
of what they pofiefs, without doing violence to the 
Law of God as well as to the Law of Nations- 

XI Propq/ition. 
That Opinion which contradifts the Principle juft 
now laid down, is erroneous and pernicious ^ and if 
any Perfons fet themfelves obftinately to defend it, 
they'l become guilty of Herefie. For it opens a door 
to all Impieties and Villanies, to Robbery and Cruel- 
ty *, in a word, to many irreparable Mifchiefs, and 
hainous Sins which difhonor the name of ChriH, hin- 
der the progrefs of the Catholic Faith, and bring tl^e 
greateft Miferies on Mankind in this life, together 
with the inevitable deftrudion of multitudes of Souls 
ranfom'd by the Blood of Chrilt. So that this would 
be the way to ftifle all the Sentiments of Piety, Hu- 
mility, and Evangelic Meeknefs, nay of all Chriftian 
Virtues in general, to introduce Violence, Treache- 

142 Frof oft ions concerning the Title 

17, Revenge, and other vices that are moft contrary 
to the Maxims of the Gofpel in their Itead. 

XII Propofition. 

Infidel Princes ought not to be depriv'd of their 
States for their Idolatry, nor any other of thofe 
great Sins they commit ^ nor may their Subjeds be 
depriv'd of their Eftates or Honors for th6 like 

XIII Propofition. 

Idolaters ought not to be punifh'd for their Ido- 
latry, or other Sins, how enormous and great fo- 
ever, during the time of their Infidelity, before they 
have voluntarily receiv'd Baptifm : There being no 
Tribunal or Judg in the world that has a right to 
inoleft 'cm on that account, unlefs they diredly op- 
pofe the publication of the Gofpel, and after they 
have been admonifh'd and warn'd of it, obftinatly 
perfifl to obftrud it out of mere malice. 

XIV Propofition. 

Pope Alexander VI. under whofe Popedom the 
Wefi'Indies were difcover'd, was indifpenlibly ob- 
liged by the Divine Law to chufe a Chriftian Prince, 
to whom he might commit the care of making pro- 
vifion for the preaching of the Gofpel in this new 
World, for the advancement of the Univerfal 
Church, the Catholic Faith, the Worihip of God, 
the Converfion and Salvation of the Inhabitants of 
America^ and for all things neceflary to attain this 

XV Propofition. 

King Ferdinando and Ifabella his Queen had fomc 
fpecial Advantages preferable to thofe of alJ 6th?f 

of the Kjngs of Spain ^^' America. 14 j 

Catholic Princes, to induce the Pope to chiife them 
rather than any other Potentates of Em-ope^ to coii- 
fer on 'era the Truft of publifhing the Catholic 
Faith in the Indies, and, without any other reafon, 
by the Authority which God has given him, to 
inveft 'em with this Dignity, and conflitute 'em thfe 
Minifters of the Apoftles in the Indies. Among o- 
ther Privileges peculiar to them, this is the princi- 
pal, that they have taken a world of pains to refoie 
thofe Kingdoms which they inherited from their 
Anceftors out of the hands of Infidels and Mahome- 
tans, who are declar'd Enemies of the Catholic 
Faith. For this they expos'd their Royal Perfons to 
imminent danger, when they attempted to enter 
again into the Kingdom of Grenada^ to which they 
had a lawful Title, and which they at length re- 
duc'd under the Yoke of Chrift, and the Catholic 
Church. Another Reafon to their advantage is, 
that they fent the famous Chrijlopher Columbus to 
America at their own charge, and honor'd him 
with the Title of Chief Admiral of the Weft-IndisSy 
when he had difcover'd thofe rich and vait Coun- 

XVI Propofttion, 

The Pope might well chufe them as the moffc 
proper Perfons to eflablifh Chriftianity in the new- 
World, juft as he made choice of the Emperor for 
his Son to be the Defender of the Catholic Faith. 
But if this Choice (hould in the iflue become preju- 
dicial to the eftablifhment of the Faith, 'tis not 
to be doubted that the Pope might revoke it by 
the Authority he has receiv'd from God. And 
■for the fame reafon he might forbid all other Chrif- 
tian Princes to fend MiiTionaries into the Indits 
without the confent of the holy See, on pain of 
Excommunication. And whoever fhould ad con- 

144 Propofitioffs concerning the Title 

trary to this Prohibition, would grievoufly offend 

XVII Propofition, 

The Kings of CafiiUe and Leon are the lawful So- 
veraigns of many Princes and Kings of the new 
World-, therefore this univerfal Jurifdidion over 
the Indies^ of which we have been fpeaking, belongs 
to them. 

XVIU Propofition, 

The Soveraign Empire which the Kings of Spain 
have over the Indies^ obliges the natural Kings of 
thofe fubje&ed Nations to fubmit to the Jurifdidibn 
of the King of Spain, 

XIX Propofition. 

All the natural Kings and Princes, all the Na- 
tions, Cities and Communities of the Indies^ over 
whom the Kings of Spain have acquired a lawful 
Right, ought to acknowledg them for their right- 
ful Soveraigns in the manner we have faid, fince 
they have freely and voluntarily receiv'd the Catho- 
lic Faith and Baptifm. But before they receiv'd it, 
or fubmitted to Chriflianity, and before the Kings 
of Spain had acquir'd any right over 'em, they de- 
pended on no Tribunal, nor Jurifdidion of any 
Judg in the World. 

XX Propofition, 

The Kings of Spain are oblig'd by the Law of 
God to chufe out and fend into the Indies fuch Mi- 
niflers as are capable of preaching the Gofpel and 
the Catholic Faith, to exhort all the People of the 
new World to embrace the Dodrine of Chrill, 


of the Kjngs of Spain to America* 14^ 

and to feek all jufl and neceflary means to accom- 
pliih this Work. 

XXI Fropofition. 

The Kings of Spain have the fame Power and 
Jurifdidion over thefe Infidels before their Conver- 
lion, as, the Pope h^s in quality of Chrift's Vicar, 
becaufe the charge and care of fpreading the Light 
of the Gofpel amongll thefe Idolaters, and of do- 
ing all that's poilible for their Gonverfion, is com- 
initted to them. 

XXII Fropofition', 

The manner of eftablifhing the Chrillian Faith in 
the /;i^ie5 ought to be conformable. to that which 
our Saviour ufed to introduce his Religion into the 
Worlds that is, it ought .to be a mild, peaceable, 
and charitable' method. Humility, and, the good 
Examples of a holy and regular way of living, are 
to be impioy'd to gain upon all Infidels, efpecially 
the Indians^ who are naturally of a fweet and eafy 
Temper, and ready to fubmit to the Yoke of Chrift. 
They ought moreover to be engag'd by Prefents, 
and we Ihould with alacrity give, 'em i (hare of 
what we have, without regarding their Riches. By 
this means they would be eafily perfvvaded, that the 
God whom the Chriflians worlhip, is good, jufl; and 
gracious \ they vyould more readily give ear to his 
Word, and would make no difficulty to forfake the 
Worfhip of their falfe Gods. 

>IXIII PropofittQK. 

.To go about to fubdue th^ indiam hy force of 
Aritf>; is 3 cou'rf^ utterly againH; the Law of OccL' 

L - ^H 

14^ Propofttions concerning the Title 
who is full of Kindnefs, Grace and Love. 'Tis to 
follow the method which Mahomet and the Romans 
before him usM to fpoil and conquer the World : 
and the Turks and Moors to this day take the fame 
courfe, but 'tis unjuft, tyrannical, infamous, and 
unworthy of Chriflians : It would be the occafion of 
many blafphemous Refiedions on the Name of Chrift, 
and the Chriilian Religion, as we have been taught 
by fad Experience, fince the Spaniards have exercised 
fo many Cruelties on tlie Indians \ for they believe 
that the God we worfhip is the moft unjuft, unmer- 
ciful and cruel of all Gods: Therefore the way of 
Violence and Severity would be an invincible Obfta- 
cle to the Converfion of the Indians. 

XXIV Propofition. 

'Tis to be expefted that Infidels will alway oppofe 
fuch as attempt to invade their Country, in order to 
take pofTelTion of it by the Title o^ Conqueft •, fo 
that to go about to fnbdue 'em as the proper way 
to convert 'em, is to lofe time, and ruin fo holy 
an Enterprize. 

XXV Propofition. 

From the time when Chrijlopher Columbus difco-, 
ver'd the Indies^ the Kings of Spain have always 
exprefly forbidden their Subjeds to make Wai; up- 
on the Indians : fo that the Spaniards can fhew no 
Authority or Permifllon that was ever given 'em by 
the King of ^p^m to commit any Ad of Hoftility 
in the new World : or if they can (hew any fach 
Commifiions, they are forged, or have bin furrepti- 
tioudy obtain'd by falfe Informations, invented to 
obtain a power of taking away the Riches of the 
Indians^ or of making them Slaves with impunity. 


of the Kjng; of Spain to America* 147 

On the contrary, the Kings of S^a'm have often oa 
this account renevv'd their Orders to obviate the 
Cruelties and Outrages that were committed on ths 


XXVI ProPq/jtioH. 

Seeing the Spanhrds have not been fupported ei- 
ther by the Authority of their Prince, or any law- 
ful reafon to make War againil the Indians., who 
liv'd peaceably in their own Country, and had done 
the Spaniards no' wrong : All fuch Conquefts that 
have been, or may hereafter be made in the India 
are to be accounted unjuft, tyrannical, and null, 
being condemned bv all the Laws of God and Men* 
For the proof of this Propohtion one need only- 
produce the Proceedings againil thefe Tyrants, 
which are yet to be k^n. in the Archives of the Royal 
Council \ or tiiofe Proiecutions that might ftijl be 
m-ide agjinfl 'cm every moment. For both Heaven 
and Earth cry aloud againft the Violence they have 
ofFer'd the poor yimericans. 

Q XXVII Propofitjon. 

\jThe Kings of Spain are by the Law of Cod ob- 
lig'd to eftablifh fo good a Government in the In- 
dies., by caufing thofe Indian Laws and Guftoms that 
are good to be obferv'd, and by aboliftiing the bad, 
which are lefs numerous than the other, that no- 
thing contrary to good Manners and the Rules of 
civil Policy may be tolerated. And the mofl likely 
way to fucceed in fuch a defign is to publifh the 
Gofpel among thofe People, by which means both 
the King's Intereft and that of the Indians will be 
provided for effedually. 

t a X'XVIII JPro^ 

148 Propofaiom comerning the Title 

XXVIII Propofition. 

The Devil could never have invented any thing 
more pernicious for the extirpation of the Peo- 
ple of this New World, and the defolation 
of fo' many great and populous Kingdoms in a 
little time, than the diftribution theSpaniards have 
made of ihefe Nations among themfelves, taking 
poireffion of the Inhabitants as their own Property, 
and then treating 'era as ravenous Wolves do a flock 
of Sheep : For this is the moft barbarous kind of 
Tyranny that can be imagin'd, becaufe it hinders all 
thofe Nations from embracing the Chriftian Reli- 
gion : For the Spaniards employ 'em night and day 
in the Mines, and all other kinds of Labor v fome- 
times obliging 'em to carry heavy Burdens forty or 
fifty Leagues, fo that their condition is w'orfc than 
that of Beafts. Befides, they perfecute thp^e Indians 
with frefh Cruelty, who apply themfelves to the 
Monks to be inftruded in the Gofpel, becaufe they 
are afraid (if thefe Religious Men fhould be encou- 
raged to come among the Indians) they would h7 
witnelfes of their Robberies and Cruelties. 

XXIX Propofition. 

The diftribution which the Spaniards make of 
thcfe People among themfelves, as if they were fo 
many head of Cattel, was never commanded nor 
allow 'd by the Kings of Spain fince the Spaniards 
enter'd the Indies. They never thought of autho- 
rizing fo injuft and tyrannical a kind of Govern- 
ment, and which fo much tends to the deftrudian 
of the People of the new World. Qiieen IfabeUa 
of immortal memory, under whofe Reign the Indies 
were difcover'd, gave exprefs Orders to Chriftopher 


•vf the KJngs of Spain to America. 149 

Columbus^ who v>^as the firft Governor and chief 
Admiral of the Indies^ and to Franchs Bobadilla^ who 
fucceeded him, and alfo to General £)e Lares ^ who 
came after both the farmer, to preferve Pe.Keand 
Liberty among the Indians^ and to do 'em Juilice in 
every thing. Admiral Columbus gave only thi ee 
hundred Indians to fiich of the Spaniards as had done 
great Service to the Crown j and for his own part, 
contented himlelf with having only one Indian to 
ferve him : The Court of Spain was then at Grer.a- 
da^ where the Queen iillied out an Order that thefe 
three hundred Indians fliould be releas'd and fent 
home, only Ihe permitted Columbus to keep one In- 
dian whom he had taken for his Service. What thea 
would this great Qiieen now fay, to fee how the 
Spaniards have inflav'd the People of America ? Tht 
continual Avocations the King has had, and the 
frequent Journys he has been oblig'd to make into 
Jtaly^ having not permitted him to inform himfelf 
exadly of the Miferies thofe People endure from 
the hands of the Spaniards. 

XXX Propofition. 

From all that has been faid it may well be con- 
cluded, that if the foveraign Jurifdidion of the In- 
dies belongs only to the Kings of Spain^ the Conque/ls 
that private Men appropriate to themfelves are 
injulland tyrannical; that the (hares they have made 
among t|iemfelves are founded upon no lawful right : 
and that thofe who ufurp the Lands of the new- 
World, without the Confeni and Authority of their 
Prince, are abfolute Tyrants, inading (as they do) 
directly contrary to his Orders," and the Regulations 
of the Royal Council ■■, which is a matter fo public 
and notorious, that there's no Spaniard in the Indies 
can jullly excufe himfelf by pretending ignorance. 

L 3 A 

1^6 A Difpute concemwg 

A Difpute hetiveen Don Bartholomew de Laf- 
Cafas, Bishop ofQlm^z^md Dr. Sepulueda. 

DR. Sepulucda^ at the inlligation of fome Spa- 
niards who had committed great Ravages in 
the Indies^ wrote a very elegant Book in Latin in the 
form of Dialogues, which containM principally two 
Conclurions, namely, that the Wars of the Spaniards 
in the Indies were very juft, and that they might 
lawfully fubjugate the People of this new World ^ 
and that the Indians were oblig'd to fubmit to the 
Spaniards^ and acquiefce in their Government, be- 
caufe thefe are more wife and prudent than the 
others. And in cafe they refufe to fubmit, this 
Doctor alTerts, that they may be conftrain'd to it 
by force of Arms. Thefe are the two Points that 
have occafion'd the ruin of incredible numbers of 
Indians •, fo that the Country is almoll: entirely un- 
peopled for the fpace of two thoufand Leagues, 
\A'here the Spaniards have left the marks of their 
boundlefs Cruelty. This Doctor, to give fome co- 
lor and fhew of Truth to his Reafons, declar'd that 
he had no other defign in writing than that of jufti- 
fying the King of Spain's Title to the Indies. He 
prefented his Book to the Royal Council, and was 
very importunate to obtain leave to print it, which 
was feveral times refus'd ^ after which he ap- 
plied hirafelf to fome of his Friends, who were in 
the Emperor's Court, to patronize this Work. The 
Biihop of Chiapa being well informed of the fteps 
this Dodor made, with all his might oppos'd the 
Impreflion of his Book, plainly demonflrating what 
jU Confequences the publication of it might pro- 
<iucc. The Members of the King's Council per- 

the ifiJlAv'mg of the Indians. 351 

ceiving this matter was jSurely Theological, refolv'd 
to difmifs it to the Univerfities of Salatnanca and 
cicala, defiring them to make a thorow Examina- 
tion of this Treatife, to fee if it contain'd any thing 
that might jultly obltrud the printing of it. Thefe 
two Univerfities after they had accuratly examin'd 
it, declar'd that it was not fit to be printed, as 
containing unfound Dodrine. The Doctor now 
defpairing of feeing his Book obtain in Spam^ fent 
it to Rome^ earneftly recommending it to the Bifhop 
of Segovia^ who was one of h^s particular Friends. 
When it was primed, it was prohibited by the Em- . 
peror's exprefs Order, who caiisM the Copies to be 
feiz'd, forbidding any of 'em to be fold in S^ain : 
but becaufe it was impolTible to prevent divers Co- 
pies in the vnlgar Language from being fpread 
among the People ^ the Bifiiop of Chia^a thought 
himfelf obligM to refute this Book in defence of 
the Indians^ and to let all the world know how fcan- 
dalous Dodrinc it contain'd, being accommodated 
to open a door to all manner of Diforders. Dr. Se- 
pulneda was cited to give an account of his thoiights 
on this Subjedl: by word of mouth, and the Bifhop of 
Chiapa was engag'd to anfwer him : The Difpute 
lalled five whole days, after which Dominic de Soto^ 
a great Divine, and ConfefTor to his Majefty, was de- 
fir'd to give a fummary account of this Difpute, 
which he did before the'Allembly in thefe terms. 

Mofl Illujlrioiis^ mojl Mignificent^ and moji ReVS' 
rend Lords and Fathers. 

YOU have bin pleas'd to order me to give a 
fuccindf and fummary account of the Difpute 
maintain'd between the famous Dr. Se^ulueda, and 
the Bifhop of Chiapa, without adding any thing of 
my own, or troubling my felf to feek other Reafons 

L 4 to 

152 ^ DJfpute corjccrning 

tofupport the Sentiments of either of em. The Point 
about which ycudefire to be intbrra'd, is in general 
ivhat method ought to be us'd for the publication of 
the Catholic Faith in the new World, which has bin 
lately difcovcr'd by the permilTion of God, and how 
the Emperor may fubjed thofe Nations to his Go- 
vernment without offending his Confcience, in con- 
forming himfelf entirely to the Bull of Pope .Akx- 
midcY. 'Tis tirft neceflary to enquire whether the 
Emperor may juftly make War with the Indians 
before the Faith of the Gofpel be preach'd to 'em j 
and whether thefe People will be in any condition to 
receive the Light of the GofpeT, after they have 
bin fijbdu'd by force of Arms^ whether they will 
be more tradable and docil, and better difpos'd to 
receive the Impreffioris defignM to be given, fo as to 
rejed their' Errors, and embrace the Doch'ine of 
the Gofpel; Dr. Sepulueda maintains, that this War 
Js not only allowable and lawful, but necelTary. 
The Bifhop of Chidfa is of the contrary Opinion, 
and pretends that thi? W^r is unjull, and an invin- 
cible Obftacie to the propagation of the Faith in the 
Indies. '■' ■ ^ • ■ ■• ■ • 

' Sepulueda fupports his Opinion by four principal 
Arguments : The firft is founded on the enormous 
Crimes of which the Indians have bin, and areeve- 
ty day guilty, efpecially their Idolatry, and their 
Sins againll Nature. His fecond Reafon is taken 
from their Barbarity and Ignorance, which may be 
reform^ under the Government of a People fo in- 
, telligent and polite as the Spaniards. His thir4 
Reafon'refpefts the facility he fuppofps of publilh- 
ing the Chriflian Faith to the Indians when they are 
6nce fubdu'd. His fourth Argument is taken irom 
the cruel Treatment the Indians give one another, in 
that they offer human Sacrifices to their falfe Gods. 
He confirms his firft Reafon three ways : ijl. By 
i-^. .. \: ■ , . :-. Example$ 

the injlitvmg of the Indians. 35^ 

Examples and Authorities taken out of the holy 
Scripture." idly. By the Suffrage of Doctors and 
Canonifts. '^dly. By a particular account of the 
grofs Crimes which the Indians commit. He cites 
a Paflage out of Deut. 20. to explain after what 
manner War ought to be made on the Indians \ the 
words are thefe : When thou comefi ni^h unto a City 
to fight againfi it^ then proclaim Peace unto it. And it 
/hall be^ if it make thee anfwer of Peace^ and o^en unto 
thee, then it /hall be that all the People that i/s found there- 
in, /hall be Tributaries unto thee, and they /hall ferve 
thee. And if it rviU mahc no Peace with thee, but will 
make War again/l thee, then thou /halt heftege it : And 
when the LO R D thy God hath deliv€r''d it into thy 
hands, thou (halt fmite every Male thereof with the 
Edg of the Sword : ver. i o, 1 1 , 1 2, 1 3. and 'ver. 1 6, 
But of the CittL'S of thefe People which the Lord thy God 
doth give thee for an Inheritance, thou /halt fave alive 
nothing that breatheth. The Dodor adds, that this 
PalTage is not to be flridly taken, and enforc'd a- 
gainft the Indians with fo much feverity : tho 'tis al- 
fo faid, Thus /halt thou do unto aU the Cities that are very 
far from thee ', by which Paflage the Glofs underftands 
thofe of different Pveligions. From hence he con- 
cludes, that we may lawfully declare War againft 
thofe Nations that are of a Religion different from 

My Lord Bi/hop anfwers him four ways. Firfl, he 
fays, it Was not to punifh the Sin of Idolatry, that 
God com.manded the Ifraclites to make War with 
the Gentiles and Infidels : That God was pleas'd to 
fingle out precifeiy feven Nations, the Canaanites^ 
tliQ Jebufites^&:c. mentioned in Deut. 7, who poflefs'd 
the Land of Promife bequeathed to Abraham and 
his Pofterity. He allows it to be true, that God de- 
fign'd to punifnthe Idolatry of thofe Heathen Na- 
tions, in giving 'era up to the Ifraelites ^ but he favs 
"^ ■■ •■ - -• • ■ • •'• 'if 

1^4 -^ Difpute concerning 

.if God's intention had bin only to chafirife 'em for 
their Idolatry, he would alfo have punjlh'd all the 
Nations of the whole World after the fame manner, 
feeing they were all polluted with the fame Sin. 
Whereas God fpecified only thefe Nations to be 
abandoned to the Sword of the Ifraelitcs^ to fhev/ 
that it was rather to acQomplilh the Promife he had 
made to Abraham^ than to punifli thei'e Idolaters 
that he deliver'd 'em into the hands of their Ene- 
mies. That God himfelf exprelly forbad the ffrac- 
iites to offer any Violence to the Edomites, or to the 
Egypiam who had entertained 'em when they were 
ftrangers in their Country. 

Secondly, That the Pailageof Liike 14. where it 
is faid, Compel them to come in, is not to be under- 
ftood of an external Conftraint by War and Arms, 
but ought to be interpreted of internal Infpiration, 
and the Motions which God produces in the Hearts 
of Men, either immediatly, or by the Miniftration 
of Angels. 

In the third place the Bifhop maintains, that Chrif- 
tian Emperors have never engaged in War with 
Heathen Nations to oblige 'em to renounce Idolatry, 
and to induce 'em to imbrace the Chriflian Faith ^ 
that the Wars of Confiantine were purely on a po- 
litic account, and that the Faffage of the Eccle- 
fiaftical Hiftorian, lib. i o. cap. 6. is to be underllood 
in that fenfe. That this Prince who was fo ani- 
mated with Piety, when he fubdued by his Arms the 
Coths^ Sarmatians, and other barbarous Nations, ex- 
cepted thofe that fought his Friendlhip, and defir'd 
Peace. That becaufe he fubjed^ed himfelf to the 
Divine Commands, God was pleas'd to recorapenfe 
his Virtue in fubjefting all the People of the World 
to his Dominion. Befides, he fays, Conjlantine made 
War with the Goths and Sarmatians^ becaufe they 
made incredible Ravage and Spoil wherever they 


the wflAvijig of the Indians. 155 

came. But when thefe barbarous People were at 
peace with the Chriftians, and offer'd 'em no Injury, 
they were fuffer'd to live at quiet. 

He adds in the jfXh place, That if we would do a- 
ny good upon Pagans, it muft be by the power of 
good Examples, and not by Violence. He cites to 
this purpoie a paflage of St. jiugudin^ who fays it 
.belongs only to men tranfported with Rage, and to 
Aflallins to ufe force againlt thofe that are inferior to 
'em in Power : that this Father alfo condemns fuch 
as v/ere not able to do the Pagans any hurt, and yet 
irafhly offer'd themfelves to death, to gain the repu- 
tation of Martyrs. He alfo quotes a Paflage out of 
Deut. 7. When the Lord thy Cod (hall bring thee into the 
Land trhithtr tboA gocfi to pffefs it^ &c. ver. i. Te 
jhall dejlroy their Altars^ and break down their Images^ 
and cut down their Groz'cs^ and hum their graven hnages 
with Fire, ver. 5. Upon Which Paflage he fays St. Au- 
gujiin exprefles himfelf after this manner : Many of 
the Pagans have Idols in their Fields, muft we take 
upon us to break thefe Idols in pieces ? 'Tis much 
better to endeavour to get 'em out of their Hearts. 
When they haveembrac'd Chriftianity, and exhort 
us themfelves to break thefe Idols, we ftiall do it with 
pleafure. We muffin the mean time pray for their 
Converfion, without appearing violent and paQio- 
nate againfl 'em becaufe of their Idolatry : We are 
not ignorant where they hide their Idols, and yet 
we let 'em alone, becaufe God has not given us a 
Commiffion to take 'em away without their leave. 
When then does God give us leave to take 'em from 
them ? Not till the owners of thefe Idals are become 

He farther produces the examples of the Apofl:les 
and Martyrs, who took no other courfe to overthrow 
Idols but by their Dodrine. He grants that indeed 
on fome accounts War may be made with Infidels •, 


1^6 A Difpute concermng 

for inflance, if they have violently ufurpM the Lands 
of Chriilians, as they have the Holy- Land -^ if they 
profane our Churches, break down our Images, and 
offer any great outrages to Chriftians, in hatred and 
contempt of their Faith : That when the Emperor 
C onfl amine ioxhik<l the Heathens to keep their Idols, 
it was for fear the Chriflians fhould be fcandali^'d 
by 'em. 

He fays, If God feverely punifh'd the Crimes of 
the Sodomites^ it does not therefore follow that we 
may take upon us to puni(h all Infidels for their un- 
natural Pollutions : That we are to admire the Judg- 
ments of God, but not always to imitate every 
thing he 4oes. He fays, we may punifii Infidels if 
they blafpheme the Holy Name of God, or difhonour 
the Saints and the Church •, if they openly hinder 
the publication of the Faith, and if they maifacre 
thofe that preach it : but that it is not lawful to de- 
clare War againfl; 'era merely on the account of their 
Idolatry, their unnatural Sins, or any other Grimes 
they commit among themfelves. 

And whereas Dr. Sepulueda fays, The Indians are 
a barbarous People, and born for Slavery: the Bi- 
shop of Cbiapa anfwers this Objedion, in faying. 
That we ought not to make War upon Infidels to 
bring 'em to the true Religion, which is only to be 
clemonftrated by genuin Reafons, that the under- 
Handing may be captivated according to the words 
of St. Paul^ That it muft be a pious Affedion to the 
Chiiflian Faith that will difpofe men to embrace 
it •, and that care ought to be taken thatr they may 
have no averfion againffc thofe that preach it y who 
therefore ought by their good Examples to engage 
the Indians to relifh the Doftrine they endeavour to 
propagate among 'em : That War is vifibly contrary 
to this end, becaufe it fills the minds of thofe Ido- 
laters with horror and indignation againfl the Chrif- 


j the wjlavwg of the Indians. n^j 

j tians, for bringing fo many Miferies upon 'em \ and 

that they cannot chufe but think the Law of Chrilt 

an execrable Dodtrin, fince it authorizes (as they 

iraagin) fuch terrible Diforders. The Bidiop con- 

1 eludes in faying, 'tis a mere delufion to aifert, that 

1 the Wars made againfl thefe Infidels are not delign'd 

, to introduce Chriftianity among, 'em by open force, 

but only to fubjugate thofe barbarous Nations the 

better to difpofe 'em to receive the Faith of Chriffc 

: voluntarily. He pretends that this is ill reafoning, 

! becaufe War fpreads fo much terror among thofe 

People, that if they afterwards embrace the true 

Faith, 'tis to be fuppos'd they do it rather out of fear 

than love : and that their Neighbours when they hear 

j what Violence, Spoil, and MafTacres have attended 

I this War, may probably, to avoid the like Mifchiefs^ 

i blindly embrace the Faith, without iaiowing what 

they do themfelves. 

Dr. Sepulueda urges for another reafon of War, 
that the Indians maflacre innocent Perfons, either to 
facrifice, or to eat 'em. To which Argument ths 
Bifhop returns this anfwer, That if the Church ex- 
horts us to undertake the defence of Innocents,, it 
ought not in this cafe to be by the way of Arms. 
Firft, becaufe of two Evils v/e ought to chufe the 
Teaft. If the Indians malTacre fome innocent Perfons 
to eat 'em, 'tis indeed a great Evil ^ but War would 
bring much greater [laughters with it : beiides, that 
thefe Wars diihonour our Religion, and render the 
Chriftians odious to the Infidels ^ who tho they fa- 
orifice men, are not altogether inexcufable, becaufe 
of their great Ignorance, and have reafon not to 
put themfelves into the hands of the SpanifJ) Soldi- 
ers, who come with their Swords in their hands to 
rob and kill 'em, infleadof inilruding 'em in Reli- 
gion i whereas they have no right to punifh 'em iov 
their Errors: Thdit Pint mh' {^ys^ whenthe Roma.i^ 


1^8 -^ Dijpute concerfjtrfg 

fubdued divers barbarous Nations, who were wont 
to offer men in Sacrifice, they did not punifh 'em for 
that Crime, but only forbad 'em to do the like for 
the future. That it is not to be expc6^ed of the In- 
dicins^t\\2it they fhould renounce their Errors in a mo- 
ment j that the light of Nature which informs 'em 
there is a God, teaches 'em to fhcw him refped^and 
to return him thanks for the Benefits they receive 
of him, and likewife to endeavour to make atone- 
ment for the Sins they commit againft his Divine Ma- 
jefly^ and that they ought to devote the beil they 
have to him in Sacrifice: Confeq^uently their evil 
Cuftom of facrificing human Creatures to the fup- 
pos'd Deities they worfhip, is the Icfs to be wonder'd 
at, lincethey have no knowledg of Divine Revela- 
tion, butonlythe glimmerings of natural" Light tp 
direft 'em •, which Light too is obfcur-d with much 
thick darknefs in the minds of Pagans. That thefe 
People believe they perform a very acceptable Ser- \ 
vice to God, when they offer him tiie Lives of Men ^ 
that this may be confirmed in fome fort by the Te- 
fliraony of Holy Writ, feeing God, when he would 
try the faithfulnefs of Abraham^ commanded him to 
facrifice his only Son, whom he tenderly lov'd ; 
which God might do, as he is theabfolute Mafler of" 
the Lives of Men : that befides this Inftance, x\\q 
Scripture teftifies that God requir'd the Ifraelitcs to 
redeem their own Lives by the facrifice of Animals. 
That the Word of God remarks, that 'tis impoffible 
to give a greater Teftimony of Love, than to ofi^er 
ones felf for the Perfon belov'd : that thofe Women 
in the Indies that were moft dear to their Husbands 
while they lived, chofe to be buried alive with 'em, 
to give the greater proof of their conjugal Fidelity 
and Affection. 

In anfwer to the other Argument alledg'd by Dr. 
Se^ulueda^ namely, that the barbarity of xht Indians 


the infliLving of the Indians. 159 

which (he fays) (hews they were born for Slavery, 
is a fufficient reafon to declare War againfl 'em, in 
order to fubjed -em to the Government of the Eu- 
YQ}tans: the BifHop of Cfc/cif'? fays, there are three 
different forts of Barhari.VfJs. Firfl, that this Term 
is taken in general to fignify any Nation that differs 
from others by fome ftrange Opinion, or peculiar 
Cufloms, tho they v»'ant not Prudence or Policy to 
condnd their Affairs. That the fecond kind of 
Barbarians is of thofe, who have no Language pro- 
per by which to exprei^s themfelves to other People ; 
fuch as the Englifh formerly were, when they had 
no Letters or'characters whereby to explain their 
Thoughts. The third fort of Barbarians are fuch as 
refemble favage Beafls, by the dulnefs and ftupidity 
of their IMinds, by their brutifli Inclinations, and by 
the extravagance of their Cuftoms '-, who wander up 
and down in the Fields, never dwelling together ia 
Towns or Cities^ who are without Laws or Civil 
Government, and take no care to obferve the Law of 
Nations ^ who rove about to commit Robberies, 
and ufe Violence on all that have not power enough 
to refill 'era •, fuch as the Gotbs and u4lans were for- 
merly, and fuch as the Jlrabs in ^fia are to this day : 
That 'tis as lawful to make War with this fort of 
' People, as to hunt wild Beafls, and would be a great 
piece of fervice to the World to reduce 'em to any 
tolerable Difciplin. But as for the Indians^ that 
tho they have fome extravagant Cufloms, but 
not any good Policy, yet they ought not to be 
look'd upon as properly Barbarians ^ feeing they are 
of a quite contrary difpofition, being meek, civil, 
and tractable in their Manners \ that they are a nu- 
merous People, who have Cities and Laws, andun- 
derfland divers Arts j that they have Princes over 
'em, and live under a kind of regulated Government ; 
that they not only punifh Sins againfl Nature, but 


i^o A Relation of the Spanifh Voyages 

have Laws that award capital Punifhments for fomc 
Crimes of leiFer confequence : That their Policy has 
its particular Rules ., that upon all thefe Accounts 
their pretended Barbarity is not a fufficient Reafon 
for any to declare War againft 'em, but would be a 
piece of vifible Tyranny and Injuftice \ and that 
this Courfe would be fo far from promoting the 
Gofpel, th^t 'twould be the very way to cut off all 
liope of ellablifliing Chriftianity among them. That 
therefore the belt expedient would be to fend 
Preachers into the Indies^ to endeavour to convince 
fome of the principal Indians of the truth of our 
Religion ^ and to make Treaties of Peace with 'em, 
to favour the entrance of the Europeans into the In- 
dies by fuch a gentle and peaceable Method as this : 
that if any danger fhould arife after this, we might 
build fome Forts upon the Frontiers, and fo treat 
with 'em v^ith the greater Security, and make 'em 
gradually relilh our Religion, by letting 'era good 

The Royal Council for the Indies having heard this 
Difpute, between the Bilhop of Chiapa and Dr. Se- 
j^ulueda, concerning the manner in which the Indians 
ought to be treated, order'd the Bifliop to draw up 
his Thoughts of this matter in Writing, whereby 
they fhould be the better able to determin this quefli- 
on, Whether they might lawfully inflave th.e Indians, 
or were obliged to fetat liberty all they had hitherto 
reduc'd to flavery. In anfwer to their^delire, the 
Bilhop farther explain'd his Sentiments after the fol- 
lowing manner. 

All the Indians taken in the Indies fince the difco- 
veryof the New World to this day, fiave bin un-r 
juflly inflav'd ^ and the Spaniards who retain 'em in 
bondage againll their wills, can't do it v/ith a good 

and Cruelties in the Weft-Indies. \6t 

Confcience, becaufe they had no right to declare 
War againft 'em j for it follows by confequence they 
could not lawfully deprive 'em of their Liberty, nor 
were they ever authoriz'd by their Prince to make 
War upon 'em. Now there are but two Motives 
that can render any War juft, namely, fomerirghte- 
ous Caufe, or the Authority of one's Prince. And 
what jufl motive then could the Spaniards have to de- 
clare War againft the Indians^ who never did 'em 
any wrong, nor ever gave 'em any difturbance ? They 
were people they had never feen ^ they had never 
made any defcent into any Country that belong'd to 
the Spaniards^ to fpoil and ravage it ^ they had ne- 
ver profefs'd Chriflianity as the Moors of y^frica had 
done, who were Chriftians in the time of St. j^u- 
gufiin J or as the Kingdom of Grenada^ the Empire 
of Confiantinopley and the Kingdom of Jerufalemdid 
formerly. Nor can we juftly reproach the Indians as 
declared enemies to our Religion, or that they ever 
attempted to deftroy it by open Perfecutions, or fe- 
cret Perfwafions, by Prefents, or any other manner 
whatfoever, that can be ufed to engage Chriftians to 
renounce their Faith, and turn Idolaters : For nei- 
ther the Law of God, nor that of Nations ever 
pfermitted War to be made againft any People mere- 
ly to eftablifli Chriftianity among 'em. Unleis any 
one will pretend that the Gofpel of Chrift, which a- 
bounds with Charity,Meekners,and Humanity, ought 
to be introduc'd into the World by Force like the 
Religion of Mahomet. 

The Spaniards can't fay, that they had no other 
end than that of protefting the Innocent, feeing 
they have made it their whole bufinefs to rob, pil- 
lage, and murder the poor Indians, taking upon 'e/n 
to ufurp their Goods and Lands. Befides, if the 
War they undertook had bin in defence of thofe poor 
Wretches the Indians unjuftly put to death for Sa- 

M crifices. 

t62 A Relation of the Spanifli Voyages 

crifices, it would not have bin carried fo generally 
thro' the Indies^ but would have bin a fort of Civil 
War kept up only in fome particular Places: Nor 
would the Spaniards have had right even in fuch Pla- 
ces, to have made Slaves of thofe whom^ they took 
in fJJich a War. 

They can't fo much as pretend that ever they had 
a Command or Order to this day from their Prince, 
to declare War againft the Imliam : 'Tis eafy to e- 
vidence fuch a Fad as this •, for the Governors and 
Generals have nothing to do but to (how their Com- 
mifiions if they have any. There's not one of 'em 
who has any fear of God, orrefpedfor his Prince, 
that will pretend to fnew any fuch CoramiiTion, ex- 
cept the Vice-Pvoy Don Antonio^ and Don Sehajlian 
Ramire Bifhop of Cuenza •, all the reft that have made 
War on the Indians^ are Thieves, and Robbers, Mur- 
derers, and declar'd Enemies of Mankind. Seeing 
then the Spaniards have had no lawful reafon to fup- 
port their Declarations of War againft the People 
of America^ nor have bin authoriz'd in fuch Proceed- 
ings by their Prince, it evidently follows that the 
War they have m.ade is injuft, and contrary to the 
Laws of God and Men, and confequently that the 
Indians ought not to have bin treated as Slaves. - 

All the ways the Spaniards have us'd to compafs 
this end of inflaving thefe People, have bin mon- 
ftroully wicked, made up of nothing but Fraud and 
Treachery, unlawful Tricks and Artifices, and fuch 
tinheard of Villanies as can't but fill the Minds of all 
that hear 'em with aftonilhment and horror. Some 
to infnare the poor Indians that liv'd among 'era, 
have confbrain'd 'em to own themfelves their Slaves 
in Courts of Juftice : after which extorted Confef- 
lion, the Governors have order'd the King's Arms 
to be fix'd upon their Skin with a hot Iron ^ tho they 
were not ignorant what an unlawful Courfe had been 

*• a Ir f» n 

dnd Cruelties w the VJt^'lndiits* 16^ 

taken to abufe thefe poor Creatures. Others hir'd the 
Indians with a little Wine, or a Shirt, or by giving 
'em fome other trifle of fmall value, to bring 'em fa^ 
therlefs and motherlefs Children, whom they put on 
Shipboard, and tranfported into other Countries, 
where they were fold for Slaves, efpecially into New- 
Spain^ the Iflands of St, John^ and Cuba^ or other 
neighbouring Iflands. But at firft the Spaniards 
us'd open Violence, attacking the Indians that liv'd 
peaceably in their Houfes, fetting their Towns on 
fire, mafTacring fome, and after the exercife of all 
this Cruelty, carrying away thofe they could take 
alive to fell 'em for Slaves. They us'd without any 
formal procefs, to brand 'em with the King's Arms^ 
which was enough to make 'em pafs for Slaves 3 and 
accordingly they were fold from ome hand to ano- 
ther, till thev were tranfported into the Iflands* 
Thefe were alf the forms of Juftice the Spaniards ob- 
ferv'd in carrying away the Indians from the Conti- 
nent into the Iflands of New-Spain^ the Ifles of Cuhct 
and St. John^ the Coall of Pearls^ Tucatan and PanU- 
CO. And by thefe execrable Artifices they have fince 
carried away vafl: multitudes of People of every 
Age,Sex, and Condition, from the Kingdoms of Fen^ 
cuela, Guatimala, and Nicaraqua^ to fefl 'em in Pa^ 
nama^ and in Peru. They once put 4 or 500 of 'em 
in one Ship, the greatelt part of whom died in their 
paflage for want of Food, the AUowance given 'em 
being fo very fmall. 

At a Town corliilling of about 200 people, the 
Spaniards would require the Cacyque to fend 'em 
300 Indians at fuch a certain day and hour, to Garry 
their Provifions, and work for 'em. ifhe poor 
Cacyque was mightily concern'd he could not ex- 
ecute this Order, not having People enough in the 
whole Town •, and not knowing what to do in the 
€afe, defired to have a day or two more allow'd him : 

M 2 Bus 

164 A Relation of the S^'Am^h Voyages 

But thefc Brutes would interpret this delay as an cx- 
prefs breach of their Orders ^ and immediately ask- 
ing leave of the Governor to go and fall upon 'em, 
would attaque 'em in their houfes, cutting the 
throats of many of 'em in a barbarous manner, and 
carrying away the reft as Prifoners of War, whom 
they inflav'd contrary to all Law and Equity. Some- 
times they would order a Cacyque to fend 'em half 
a hundred men to labour for 'em, and would fet 
'em to what v/ork they thought good, after which 
they would embark 'em in Ships and carry 'em away ^ 
and fometimes would mark *em with the Letters of 
their own Names without fixing the King's Arras 
on 'em. When they were angry with 'em, they 
would load 'em with Chains, and make 'em carry 
heavy Burdens befide, for 1 00 or 200 Leagues. Af- 
ter they had us'd 'cm in what Drudgery they ^leas'd, 
they would fell 'em, tho the Indians are as freeborn 
as any other Nation. By this means the Spaniards 
.have unpeopled the Province of SU Michael, which 
is fituate between Guatimala and Nicaraqua. 

When they formerly advaftc'd far into the Coun- 
try to make further Difcoveries of the Indians that 
liv'd there, thefe good-natur'd People came to meet 
'em loaded with Turkeys, and other Provifions, 
which they freely ofFer'd 'em, but for their kindnefs 
were either hew'd in pieces, or elfe made Slaves, 
on pretence they were found in Arms in the Fields. 
Nor could the Governors be ignorant of thefe 
Violences and Diforders of the Soldiers, fince them- 
felves had the belt fhare of the Spoil. 

When they had divided thofe Countries among 
themfelves, which they had fo un juftly ufurp'd, and 
render'd themfelves the abfolute Mafters of the In- 
dianSj as if they had conquer'd 'em in a jufl and 
lawful War, they oblig'd the Caciques and natural 
Princes of thofe People to bring 'em fuch a Sum of 


ami Cruelties m the \Ve(\'lndks. 165 

Gold as they were pleas'd to command 'em. If they 
had not fuch a quantity, they told the S^aniards^ 
they would willingly give 'em all they had to ap- 
^peafe 'em •, but received a fevere reply from theTe 
jGruel Men in fuch terms as thefe : If you do:i?t bring 
m all the Gold ive demand vp'nh'mfuch a time^ wellfttfire 
' $0 all your houfes. The poor Cacyques would fome- 
times make fuch a return as this in a lamentable 
Tone : Indeed our Country has no great flore of Gold in 
it '■, and be/ides, we have not bin curious to fearch for 
Mines. Upon fuch an Account as this the Spaniards 
have faften'd 200 Stakes at a time in the ground, 
and tied the poor Wretches to *«m with terrible 
Menaces, and then let loofe thofe ravenous Dogs up- 
on 'em, that us'd to be fed with human flelli, it 
may be the Cacique would be fo terrified with fuch 
a hon-iMe Spectacle as this, that he'd go among his 
Subjefts, and take Children out of every Family, 
and give 'era to the Spaniards for Slaves to pacify 
'em. If there were but 2 Children in a houfe, one of 
'em was taken away, and that mufl be the Itrongelt 
and likelieft to do fervice. When the Cacique had 
got together fuch a number of his People as the Spa- 
niards requir'djhe would come toprefent 'em to them 
iiimfelf And it was a moil lamentable thing to 
fiear the Sighs and Crys of Parents, when their dear- 
eft Children were ravifli'd from 'em, to be tranfport- 
ed into remote Countrys for Slaves. When thefe 
Children were brought to the Governor to be brand- 
ed, the Spaniards would order the Caciques to engage 
the Indians to teftify that they were Slaves, and 
the Children of Slaves, and that they were bought 
in the Market ; and would threaten to burn 'em, 
unlefs they would ftand to fuch Lies as thefe. And 
when the Perfon appointed to examin them, who 
was well acquainted with all thefe Tricks, would 
ask the Children of what Country they w»rc j they 
M 3 made 

i66 A ReUtion^of the Spanifh Voyages 

mrde \m anfwer, that they were Slaves, and that 
their Parents werefo, and that they were bought in 
fuch a Ma» ket. After this Examination they were 
;n; rk'<i, with the King's Stamp. His Majefty*s Go- 
vernors and Officers are very well acquainted with 
ail this Roguery of the Soldiers, and have had 
too great a hand in the invention of thefe Artifices, 
as appears by their having the largell Ihare of the 

When the MifTionary Monks had got a great num-^ 
ber of Indians together in their Church to inftrud 
*em in the knowledg of the true God, the S^anw 
ards would fuddenly come upon 'em with their 
Swords in their hands, and take what number of 
'em they thought meet ^ which could not but much 
fcandalize the reft, and extremely griev'd theMif- 
iionaries, who were only told by the Spaniards^ that 
they wanted Men to carry their Baggage andProvi- 
fions, and fo were forc'd to take all patiently. When 
they had thus feiz'd the poor Indians^ they fet their 
mark upon 'em, and fold 'em for Slaves. 

The Governors at firit feldom refus'd any that 
ask'd leave to Y)\nndQr the Indiam^ and ruin and de- 
polulate the Country. This was a kind of recom- 
penfe they gave 'em for the great Services they had 
render'd die King o^ Spain. But afterwards they 
took a Courfe that did not feem fo difhoneft and 
cruel, but was equally pernicious to the People of 
the New World, which was to buy Slaves of the 
Caciques, threatning 'em to burn 'em alive if they 
did not furnifli 'em with fuch a number as they de- 
manded, for which they would only give 'em a 
Shirt or fome fuch Trifle j fo that the poor Caciques 
became themfelves the ruin of their own Country 
for fear of being burnt, and made it their bufmefs 
to 'go among their Subjefts to gather great numbers 
pf Slaves together, to fasiify the Avarice of the Spa- 


avd Cruelties in the Well-Indies. 167 

Yitards. At lail they v.ould make the Caaques pay 
'em this tribute with other people ^ fo that they 
were conftrain'd to go to fome of the neighbouring 
CAciques, and would make their Complaint to 'em 
^fter this manner : Tk-fe Tyrants threatcyi me (would 
one fay) to cut my throat if I don't furnijh "^mi Kith 
fuch a numhcr of Indians for Slaves^ and they wont 
Suffer me to chufe out fome of my own SubjeiJi for ''em j 
therefore I defirc the liberty to take fome of yours ^ and 
you fhall haws as many <jf mine for ''em. I am content 
(would the other fay) and the rather hcaufe I jny 
felf am ohlig'd to pay fuch a Tribute as you are^ and to 
feek for Slaves out of my own Country to fatisfy the Spa- 
niards. The Caciques themfelves w^ere wont to bring 
thefe poor Slaves to be mark'd, and w^ere made to 
fwear they were none of their Subjcds, but that they 
bad taken 'em among their Neighbors ^ which was 
true, but the Spaniards were never the lefs guilty in 
conftraining cm fo to do. The Governors that knew 
their injuflice and roguery, wink'd at it, and would 
never accuie any of 'em of thefe prevarications be- 
fore the judges of the Royal Council ^ tor they 
made it no part of their care to perform their Duty 
to God and the King faithfully ^ nor did they feem 
to be touch'd with the leaft Corapafiion in obferv* 
ing all the violence committed againit thofe mifera- 
ble People. 

I could produce a multitude of proofs to con- 
firm v/hat I fay, but one lliall fuffice at prefent. 
There came an Order from the King to the Gover- 
nor of the Province of Nicaraqua^ to forbid him to 
inflave any Indians^ or to brand him with the King's 
Arms : at the fam.e time there v/as a Ship in the 
Road that was delign'd to be lill'd with Slaves ^ 
which made the Governor forbear to publifli the 
Order lie' had receiv'd, till the Veflel was laden 
vfi^jii Indians, and ready tofet fail j nay he privately 

M 4 gave 

1 68 A Relation of the Spanifh Voyages 

gave notice to thofe that were concern'd in the Ship, 
to make what hafle they could, and carry away as 
many Slaves as they needed, becaufe the King had 
fent an exore s Prohibition to hinder any from being 
inflaved tor the future. 

It was once matter of Aftonifhment to fee the 
fruitfulnefs, plenty and multitude of Inhabitants, that 
'H'd the Province of /frt«<i«rii5 ^ and 'tis now as de- 
plorable to behold the Mifery, Defolation, and 
want of People there, which refemble it to a melan- 
clioly Wildcrnefs. The Governor of this Province 
made ufe of a trick not much unlike that of which 
we have been fpeaking. He ow'd a great Sum of 
Mony to fome Merchants for Wine and other Com- 
TJiodities he had bought of 'em ^ who had their 
VefTels in the Port, and expeded this Governor to 
pay 'era in Slaves. But the Emperor's Order forbid- 
ding him to make any Slaves in this Province being 
very flrift,he durfl not take up Indians publicly to pay 
his debts,for fear of provoking the Emperor by ading 
diredlly againfl his Command : He therefore fent out 
two of his Captains, one fo the Sea-Coall, and the 
other farther up into the Continent, with Orders to 
take up fuch Indians as w»ere likely to make the leaft 
noife and dillurbance by their Complaints^ thefe he 
order'd to be embarqued, and to prevent to himfelf 
any danger from the Court, he pretended thefe In- 
dians were feditious Perfons and Malefactors, whom 
he v;as oblig'd to banifh, becaufe it would have been 
of ill confequence to have let 'em remain in their 
Country : This was the Pretext under which he fold 
'em for Slaves to pay his Debts. And with this fort 
of Coin the Spaniards us'd to buy all forts of Com- 
iTiodities that came from Europe^ and whatever elfe 
they thought necefTary. So that 'tis no wonder 
that thofe fine and rich Provinces are become for- 
loraDeferts, fince this Trade of buying and felling 


and Cruelties in the Weft-Indies. 169 

Slaves has been allow'd, v/hich was firft pradis'd in 
fJifpaniola. Sometimes the Spaniards to deceive the 
Jndiam would perfwade 'em they fhould go with 
them into Spain^ when they defign'd only to carry 
'em to the Ifle of Cuba^ and fell 'em there. And 
there are many ftill at Havana^ that v/ere taken af- 
ter this manner ^ for when other Spaniards heard of 
the Stratagems their Countrymen us'd to impofe on 
the poor Indians^ they would ule the fame Tricks, 
and brag of 'em inftead of being afhara'd ; fo that 
the World has been fufficiently inform'd of thefe Ar- 
tifices. The Miferies and Defolations of the Provin- 
ces of Nicaraqua and Guatimalapi the greatell part of 
Mexico^ Tabefco^ and Panuco^ are inconteftible Proofs 
of the Cruelties and other Crimes of the Spaniards. 
The Archbiihop of Mexico wrote an Account of 'em 
by way of complaint to the Royal Council for the 
Indies, wherein he inform'd 'em that the Governor 
had loaded twenty eight Ships with Slaves. The 
Governor of the Province of Xalifco took for his 
own Share 4^60 Slaves^ Men, Women and Chil- 
dren, fome of whom were but one, others two or 
three years old -^ all was fifh that came to net ; be- 
fides an infinit number that other Spaniards took in 
this Province, againft the King's exprefs Orders, 
who was much difpleas'd that thofe People fliould 
be inflav'd, who ought to have bin injftrudted in the 
knowle^g of the true God, and of the Chrilfian 
Religion, in order to their Salvation. Thofe Flc- 
mifh Merchants that got polfefFion of the Kingdom 
of Ven^Mla^ to pillage and deltroy it, made horri- 
ble Spoil there for the fpace of twenty years. That 
all I fay is the very Truth, may better appear 
by confulting the Archives of the Royal Council, 
which are full of complaints againft the infidious 
Contrivances of the Spaniards^ and the great Violen- 
ceq they have committed to enHave the poor Indians. 
" ." Thelc 

1 70 J Relation of the Spanifli Voyages 

Thefe poor Wretches have no body to interceed 
for 'em, or to proted 'em ; and are always in great 
confternation, becaufe continually expos'd to the in- 
fults of their Enemies, who opprefs 'em without be- 
ing caird to account for it. So that they defpair of 
relief, not knowing to whom to addrefs themfelves 
for juftice. 

Now feeing the Artifices that have bin usM to in- 
llave thefe poor Creatures, are {q unjuft and tyranni- 
cal \ and feeing thefe People as well as others are 
born free, it follows that the Spaniards have adted 
contrary to the Law of Nations,in inflaving all thofe 
Indians whom they have taken for that end ever 
lince the Difcovery of the New World, and have 
by their Violences evidently tranfgrefs'd the Law of 
God and Nature. 

To prove yet farther that the Spaniards are ob- 
liged to reftore thofe Indians their Liberty, whom 
they yet detain in bondage, there's only need of 
making one refledion, namely, that the Law of God 
obliges us to make reftitution of every thing we 
have taken unjuftly from our Neighbours, and to 
make reparation for the injuries done xm j and 
without doing thus 'tis impoffible to be fav'd. Up- 
on this Principle 'tis evident, that the Spaniards 
ought to releafe their Indian Slaves, and ^o do what 
in 'em lies to make 'em amends for the wrong they 
have done 'em, againfl: all Law and Equity •, for 'tis 
not to be fuppos'd the fm will be forgiven, till 
what has bin unjuftly taken away is rcllor'd •, and 
confequei;itly the Spaniards who have treated the 
poor Indians after fo ill a manner, and yet don't go 
about to make 'em fatisfaftion, are under the guik 
of a mortal Sin. 

To make this appear yet more evidently, two 
things mull be fuppos'd. Firlt, that ^:here were no 
Slaves in A^cw S^ain^ on the Borders of which there 


and Cruelties in the Weft-Indies. 171 

dwelt divers Nations, efpecially the Mexicans^ that 
are more dexterous and politic than other Indians : 
This every one knows who is acquainted with 
the new World. Secondly, That the term Slave 
does not fignify the fame thing among the Indians as 
among the Europeans^ but only denotes a Servant 
with the former, or one that has fome particular 
obligation to affill us in our neceflary Affairs^ fo 
that to be the Slave of an Indian^ is to be but one 
degree below his Son j 'tis to dwell in his Houfe, to 
take care of his Goods and Silver, to wait on his 
Wife and Children, which is confiftent with the 
enjoyment of his Liberty : He fets the Houfe in 
order,^fows the Land, and does any necelfary work, 
as occafion requires. And his Mailer on his part 
treats him with a great deal of Kindnefs and Hu- 
manity, as if he were not oblig'd to render him this 
Service. Thofe Miflionaries that have learn'd the 
Indian Language, and know the import of their 
words, can teflify the truth of what I fay. 

It is farther to be fuppos'd, that in Nev:> Spain and 
'Mexico many unlawful ways have bin us'd by the 
Spaniards to inflave the Indians, in fo much that one 
would have thought they knew aothing of the true 
God, nor had ever heard of the Precepts of the 
Gofpel. When there was a Famin there, which fel- 
dom happens in thofe rich and fertil Countries, 
thofe Indians that had altock of Corn, perfvvaded 
them that were poor to fell 'era their Children for 
fome of their Corn : with this propofal they com- 
ply'd very willingly, becaufe their Servitude is fo 
eafy, their Slaves not being oblig'd to any very hard 
Labor. And the Indians are naturally obfequious and 
fubmiffive to thofe on whom they depend; they 
would give one of their Children for five Bulhelsof 
Corn, and this was the ordinary Price they gave. 
'Tis true, this was an unjuft method of making 


172 A Relation of the Spanifh Voyages 
Slaves, becaufe all things ought to be common in a 
time of extreme Neceflity •, for the Law of Na- 
ture obliges us freely to give or lend to thofe that 
are under prelTmg want. 

Another occalion on which the Spaniards made 
the Indians their Slaves was^this •, when any one had 
found an Indian with fome Ears of Corn which he 
had ftolen, he had Authority to make him his Slave. 
The MilTionaries have obferv'd that fome of 'em 
would malicioufly fcatter Ears of Corn in the High- 
ways, that they might feize thofe for Slaves that 
had innocently gathered 'em up. Befides this, the 
Parents and Relations of him that had the Corn 
found upon him were made Slaves for this imagina- 
ry Theft, which is a very unjult and criminal Ar- 
tifice. They like wife had invented a fort of Play 
among 'em, in which he that loft, was made a Slave ; 
the beft Players would make as if they knew not 
how to play, to infnare thofe that were ignorant 
into their Service. If any one whom they had thus 
caught, prefum'dto run^away, his nearefl Relations 
were forc'd to fupply his place. When a Free-man 
had lain with a Woman that was a Slave, her Mafler 
had power to feize him, or his Wife, if he were 
married, and to oblige him to ferve him till fhe was 
brought to bed. Which Cuftom obtain'd through- 
out the whole Country. He that had a young Maid to 
his Slave, v/ould inflave any one that lay with her, 
which was attended with great Inconveniences ^ 
for the Mafters of thefe young She-flaves would put 
'em upon enticing Men to lie with 'em, on purpofe 
to catch 'em in this Trap. If a Slave took any thing 
out of his Mafters Houfe to give it to his Relations, 
they all immediately became his Mafters Slaves. 
W hen feveral Merchants went into other Countries 
for Slaves to fell in Nevs> Spain^ where they had the 
beft trade for 'em, they lent thofe that were poor 


and Cruelties in the Weft-Indies, 175 

their Goods and Corn upon Ufury •, and when they 
were not in a condition to pay for what they had 
bought, they feiz'd 'em for Slaves. If he that ow'd 
the Sum, died before the Debt was difcharg'd, and 
his Wife and Children were not capable of paying 
the Creditor, they became his Slaves. In time of Fa- 
min, Parents would fell one of their Children to ferve 
a Mailer for a certain number of years ^ but indeed 
there was no end of this Servitude, for if the Mailer 
dy'd, his Relations would take pofTeflionof his Slave. 
But the Biftiop of Mexico^ who is a very pious and 
virtuous Prelat, has written an account in Latin of 
all the Tricks the Spaniards have us'd to inflave the 
Indians ^ by which 'tis eafy to fee with how much 
Injuflice they have abus'd the Simplicity and Necef- 
iity of thefe poor wretches to reduce 'em to a mife- 
rable ftate of Bondage. 

Fi'om what I have been relating it appears, that 
the Indians being Idolaters, and deflitute of the 
knowledg of the true God, and the Rules of Chrif- 
tianity, don't regulate their Aftions by furh Mo- 
tives as the fear of Hell, and the defire of Heaven, 
and the hope of having their good Works rewarded 
hereafter : Therefore they are vicious and corrupt 
in many refpefts ^ for inftance, they don't obferve 
the Law of Nations in the Wars they make one up- 
on another *, by which one may well guefs there are 
many other injull things done among em. 

But the Faith of Chrifl, and the Precepts of the 
Gofpel are for preferving only good Laws and 
Cuftoms, and for abolilhing thofe that are bad, efpe- 
cially fuch as are oppofite to the Law of Nature, 
and prejudicial to Human Society. Therefore thofe 
I«^/'rfMj that are converted, who have bin guilty of 
Polygamy, are oblig'd to put away all their Wives 
but one, according to the prefer! ption of the Law 
of God, as well as to reltore all the Goods they 


174 ^ Relation of the Spanifh Voyages 
have gotten by unlawful ways of Robbery or Extor- 
tion. If Chriftians follow the evil Cuftoras of In- 
fidels, or tolerate 'em when they can hinder 'em^ 
they manifeflly render themfelves Accomplices in 
the Crimes of thofe Idolaters, becaufe we are ob- 
liged by the Divine Law to abftain from fuch Adtions 
as may occafion Scandal, or any way injure the 
temporal or fpiritual Welfare of our Neighbor. 
For this reafon St. ?aul commanded Chriftians not 
to eat things offered to Idols, left it fhould be 
thought they approv'd of thofe damnable Sacri- 
fices ^ tho they might eat of thofe very meats, pro- 
vided the Pagans did not fee 'em, and fo were not 
fcandaliz'd by the Adion. 

All Chriftians are oblig'd by the Divine Word 
to do what in 'em Ij^s for the Abolition of finful 
Cuftoms, or at leaft to abftain from 'em, and dis- 
approve 'em themfelves. And when a man doubts 
whether any Aftion he is about to do is juft or injuft, 
he can't do it with a good Confcience : this is a ge- 
neral Rule that admits of no exception, becaufe 
Chriftians are oblig'd by the Dodtrin of the Gofpel, 
rather to lofe all they have than to commit the leaft. 
Sin. Therefore while the Mind helitates and doubts, 
whether the Aftion on which one thinks be fin or 
no, we ought neceflarily to abftain from it. The 
very defire of doing fuch an Adtion is contrary to 
right Reafon, and to the Love of God \ becaufe it 
would be to expofe one's felf to the hazard of tranf- 
greffing the Divine Will, to do that concerning 
which one labors under an uncertainty whether it , 
be lawful or forbidden. And the Doubt, when one 
thus ventures to fin, is no longer a mere Doubt, 
but moft certainly becomes an Offence a^ainft God, 
becaufe we are always oblig'd to take the fafeft 
courfe. When it falls out that we meet with two 
ways, and are uncertain whiej} is the right, we 


and Cruelties in the Weft-Indies. 175 

ought always to chufe that which is the leafl dan- 
gerous, according to that Maxim of St. Jugufiin 
in his penitential Book, Take what m certain^ and 
leave what is uncertain. 

The Rules of the Civil Law, which are confirm'd 
by Reafon, by the Law of Nature, and that of 
Chriftian Charity, admit of a Difpenfation in fome 
cafes, when there is a profpect of fome great Good, 
to which a greater ftriftnefs would probably be 
prejudicial. But 'tis a general Rule, that when a 
Man deliberates on two doubtful things, he is to 
determin his' choice on that fide v^^here he may avoid 
Sin, where there are the feweft Inconveniences, 
and v^here his Neighbour's Intereft runs the leafi: 
hazard. Upon this Principle, Clergy-men ought 
not tp be oblig'd to retire and live leparatly from 
their Mothers, Grandmothers or Sifters, or to for- 
fake their Father's Houfe ^ becaufe fuch a Separation 
may be vei-y difadvantagious to 'em, tho there may 
poflibly be fome Inconvenience likewife in their 
dwelling together. 

That man retains a thing with an evil Confcience, 
about which he is in doubt whether it be lawfully 
gotten, or which he has receiv'd of one who had 
no right to it, or who had reafon to doubt whether 
it belong'd to him or no. Whatever is poffefs'd 
under fuch circumftances, is kept contrary to the 
Rules of Juftice, and againft both the Law of God 
and Nature. Therefore the Spaniards who keep 
thofe Indians in flavery, concerning whom they are 
in doubt whether they have bin bought, or given 
to thofe of whom they had 'em, aft contrary to 
Juftice and to the Law of God, in retaining 'em 
while under this doubt. Every one knows that a 
man is oblig'd to reftore whatever he does not law- 
fully poflefs, and whatever he has receiv'd from one 
that had no juft right to it, becaufe a man can't 


I'] 6 A Relation of the Spanifh Voyages 

communicate a right tO' another which he has not 
firil himfelf. Thus when any one buys or receives 
any thing from a Perfon who fells or gives it, and 
yet has no right to it, he is unjuft if he keeps it, 
and is oblig'd to make reftitution. The Reafon is 
evident, becaufe 'tis no lefs than the commiflion of 
Theft, wilfully to retain any thing againit the will 
of him to whom it appertains. And tho this thing 
iliould have pafl through a thoufand hands before it 
came to you, you would have no right to withold 
it from the proper Owner, becaufe thefe were all 
unlawful PoflelTors, and confequently ought to have 
made reftitution. And tho fome human Laws give 
permiffion to retain a thing which one has bought 
with Mony that is coin'd with the King's (tamp, and 
is current in the Commonwealth, yet this is no law- 
ful Title to it, becaufe human Laws muft not pre- 
fcribe contrary to the Law of God and Nature, nor 
to good Morals, which forbid Theft, and the with- 
olding of another man's Goods againfi: the confent of 
the rightful Owner. Inferiors, and fuch are Kings 
themfelves in refpedt of the Divine Majefty, can't 
juftly eftablifli any thing in prejudice to the Law of 
God, which is fuperior to all other Laws. 

He that buys ftolen Goods knowingly, is an Ac- 
cefTory in the Robbery : and if he does but fufped 
they are ftolen, and has not bin fo diligent as he 
might have bin, to inform himfelf whether they 
were lawfully gotten, he can't keep 'em with a good 
Confcience ^ becaufe no man can innocently do that 
which expofes him to Sin. And if we will not take 
the pains to inform our felves whether that which 
is fold or given to us be lawfully gotten, when we 
are in doubt about it, we can't be the lawful Pof- 
felFors, becaufe this is a culpable and wilful Igno- 
rance. Thofe who have in fuch cafes confult%d Men 
capable of giving information, are excufable, un- 


and Cruelties in the Weft-Indies. 177 

lefs themfelves be of fuch a Character as obliges 
'em to be acquainted with Law and Equity, as Ci- 
vilians, Judges, and the like \ or when they ask ad- 
vice, content themfelves with confulting only one 
Perfon, tho they have opportunity of advifing witfi 
many ^ or ask counfel of interefted Perfons, and fuch 
as will not anfwer according to the Didtates of their 
Confcience, inftead of confulting Men of Integrity 
who will give advice according to the Rules of Law 
and Equity i or when they addrefs themfelves to 
Perfons whofe Honelly is fufpected upon good 
grounds. A Man is not excufable under fuch Cir- 
cumftances as thefe, tho he ask Counfel of the 
Learned in the Law •, and after haying taken their 
Advice, ads contrary to Right and Equity. Thefe 
ifour Circumftances being regarded, may be of great 
ufe to eafe fcrupulous perfons of their doubts, and 
to give *em peace of Confcience, 

And by thefe Principles it may be eafily kriowrl 
that the Spaniards unjullly retain mofl of their In- 
dian Slaves againft the Law of God : and if they 
have a right to any of 'em, the number is very fmall^ 
and they have reafon to doubt whether thefe have 
been lawfully made Slaves •, becaufe thofe they have 
had from the Indians have been brought to 'em as 
a Tribute extorted from 'em againft their will, by 
Fear, Menaces and Torments •, fo that they have no> 
juft Title to 'em : or if they have bought 'em of 
Indians^ they have us'd unfair tricks to procure 'em, 
having terrified the Caciques^ and conftrain'd 'em 
by Tortures to deliver up their Subjeds into their 
hands, threatning other wife to accule 'em to the 
Judges for worlhipping and offering Sacrifices to 
Idols ^ fo that the poor Caciques when they could 
not give the Spaniards as many Indians as. they de- 
manded, us'd to fteal 'em where they could, 'Tis 
true, when th^fe Diforders came to bi known to ini 

lj2 A Relation of the S^^iVvSh. Voyages 
Majelty, he exprefly fwbad any fuch ways of in- 
flaving the People for the future. 

As for thofe few Slaves which the Indians have 
volantarily fold, tho the Spaniards have hitherto 
made no qucftiori that they had a hwful right to 
'cm, they have had however reafon enough to doubt 
it, and they otight by no means to have taken 
pofledlon 6f 'c'rti, till they had firfl us'd all necefla- 
ry diligence to get information whether they might 
do it with a good Confcience ^ and if after all their 
inquiry the matter remain'd dubious, they ought 
not to have bought 'em while under thatfcruple: 
So that all the ways they have taken to procure 
themfelves great numbers of Slaves are unlawful: 
And when the Indian Princes faw how eagerly the 
Spaniards piirfu'd this trade, they would tyrannize 
over their Subjefts, and force 'era to become Slaves, 
that they might be capable of anfwering the Spaniards 
demands^ and of buying the trifles they fold 'em. 
The Judges of the Royal Council, who have founded 
this matter to the bottom, have declar'd, that fcarce 
any of the Indians have been lawfully inflav'd, and 
on this account'have fet many of 'em at liberty. 

The MiiTionary Monks who underftood the Lan- 
guage of the Indians, and were acquainted with 
their Secrets, have declar'd, that thofe who have 
kept 'em as their Slaves, have done fo without any 
jull ground : and they had no intereft to fpeak after 
this manner, being only concerned about the Salva- 
tion of Souls. 

And can it be thought that the Spaniards were ig- 
norant of what themfelves had done, who made 
themfelves formidable to the poor Indians, and forc'd 
'em by fevere Punifhments to procure *em what 
Slaves they requir'd ? And thefe ignorant Infidels, 
who have fo little of the fear or love of God, might 
eafily perfvyade themfelves that there was no In- 


and Cruelties in the Wefl-Indies. 179 

juflice in doing what they favv Chriflians do before 
'cm j fo that their ill Examples might well embolden 
'em to Ileal away fatherlefs Children, to trepan the 
ignorant, and even to make ufe of force and vio- 
lence to get Slaves to fell to the Spaniards. For 
after this manner have the Indians been corrupted 

ipnd induc'd to commit all kinds of Injullice againlt 
their own Country-men to procure Slaves, fmce 
they have iiad Converfation v;ith the Chriflians, 
who incouraged 'em in thefe Tricks, not only by 
their Words, but likewife by their Example. And 

,'tis mofl certain, the Spaniards could not be igno- 
rant of thefe unrighteous Proceedings, fince them- 
felves were the occallon and infli'uments of all this 
Mifchief : and it raufl at ieaft be granted, that they 
were oblig'd to fufpedt whether the Slaves that were 
brought 'em were taken as lawful Prifoners of War, 
and to inquire whether they might keep 'em with a 

'"good Confcienceor not. 

They drove this trade with fufpicious Perfons, 
and therefore might well have prefum'd that they 
offended the Rules of JuHice ^ and that thofe that 
gave or fold thefe Slaves to 'em, had no right fo to 
do. Men ought to be very cautious how they deal 
with the Indians^ left they approve of the Theft and 
other Crimes of thefe Infidels. The Spaniards knew 
well enough what was commonly reported of the 
Indians every where, that they us'd tnany unjuft and 
tyrannical ways to get Slaves on all fides ^ and there- 
fore ought to have fcrupled the buying of 'em foch 
as were naturally free, and who had bin infiav'd 
againft the Law of Nations : So that they can ne^ 

. ver excufe themfelves from poffeding 'em unjuftly^ 

v" and from participating of the of ths Indians. 

jl yin ftealing and captivating ereat numbers of Pcopk. 

., Among a hundred thoufand Slaves whom the Indians 
. .havs fold to the S^aniards^ or paid 'em by tvay of 

f .>,i N 2 Tribute^ 

J So J Relation of the Spanifh Voyages 

Tribute, perhaps not one of 'em was properly a 
Slave, or taken in a juft and lawful Wan But al- 
lowing fome of 'cm to be fo, how could they be difr 
tinguifhM from the reft in this vaft number ? Bfefides, 
that there is a great difference, as we have already 
obferv'd, between the Slaves of the Indians and 
thofe of the Europeans : The former make Slaverer 
not very uneafy or troublefom, their Slaves being 
in a manner free, and not much differing from their 
Children ^ whereas Slavery among the Spaniards is a 
moft terrible condition, and thofe that are fubjected 
to it, enjoy no Favor, Comfort or Reft, but are cor 
tinually expos'd to Hunger and Thirft, and otht. 
fevere Puniflimcnts : Nor are there any Laws ci 
Statutes that can foften the cruel Temper of the 
Spaniards^ and hinder 'em from exading of their 
Slaves fuch Service as furpafTes human Strength. 

From all the Principles we have been eftablilhing, 
it follows, Firft, that his Majelly is oblig'd by the 
Law of God to fet all thofe Indians at liberty, 
whom the Spaniards have made their Slaves, and 
nnjuftly retain as fuch. Firft, Becaufe his Majcfty 
is oblig'd to do Juftice to all the World, to great 
and fmall, without rcfpeft of Perfons, without de- 
fpifing the Caufe of the miferable and afflided, who < 
are not in a condition to defend themfelves, or re 
drefs their own Grievances. 'Tis'the principal du- 
ty of Kings to execute Juftice, and protedt the 
weak againft the oppreflion ot the ftrong ^ and 
when they fail in this, they fometimes draw down 
the Divine Vengeance on their own Perfons and 
Kingdoms \ becaufe the Cries of the poor, and fuch 
as labor under Milsry, inceflantly go up to the 
Throne of God. And fmce the Spaniards unjuftly 
opprefs the Indians^ who have no way to fecure 
themfelves from the Violence and Tyranny of their 
Perfi'cutors •, 'tis evident his Majefty is oblig'd to 


and Cruelties in the "U'eft-Indies. 1 8 1 

Hop the courfe of their InjuHice, and to tefcore 
thole poor People their Liberty who groan under 
fo cruel a Bondage. Nor ought tliis to be one mo- 
ment deferr'd, feeing thefe Vexations are publick 
and notorious, and his Majefty cannot be ignorant 
^of 'era. 

Thofe Kings that are willing to obferve the ilricl 
Rules of Juftice, whether Pagans or Chriilians, ought 
to ufe their utmoft Efforts to keep their Subjeds in 
peace, tho at the fame time they fhould forget no- 
thing that may conduce to lead 'em in the way of 
Virtue ; becaufe the end that every Governor of a 
Commonwealth ought to propofe to himfelf is, to 
ad fo as to render all his Subjeds virtuous. How- 
much more are Catholic Princes, who profefs to 
follow the Rules of Chrifl, oblig'd to govern their 
Subjeds according to his Precepts, and to remove 
all the Obllacles that are likely to turn 'em out of 
the way of Truth ? In which Enterprise they cannot 
fucceed without giving 'em good and equal Laws, 
and obliging 'em to an exad obfervance of 'em. 

Chriftian Princes are moreover bound to exhort 
their Subjeds to ferve the true God, and to yield 
obedience to the Dodrin of Chrift, as much as 
polfibly they can. And feeing the Spaniards by un- 
juftly retaining the /«i/i^«5 in flavery, are continually 
in the habit of a mortal Sin, and confequently don't 
live according to the Laws of Chrift, our Kings 
ought to command 'em to releafe all the Indians^ 
that they may remove this great Obftacle which lies 
in the way of their Subjeds Salvation. The Royal 
Charader of Princes obliges 'em to make Laws and 
Regulations, that Juftice may be maintain'd, and 
the People fubjed to their Government preferv'd 
in the pradice of Virtue ; and are likewife requir d 
by the Divine Law to employ their temporal Power 
for the augmentation of the Catholic Church, and 

N 3 the 

I §2 A ReUtion of the Spanifli Voyages 

the maintenance of EcclefiaflicalDifciplin, that the ! 
Profefibrs of Chriftianity may not rebel againfl the 
Miniders of Chrift. In this they may lawfully cm- 
ploy the terror of their Arms, to keep all People 
to their Duty •, for otherwife Temporal Powers 
would not be necedary for the adminiltration of the 
Affairs of the Church. From hence it may fairly 
be concluded, that the King of S^^ain ought to ufe 
his power to render Juflice to the poor Indians^ who 
are fo tyrannically opprefs'd, and to ftrengthen the 
hands of the Miniflers of the Church in "the Indies 
by his Authority, who are not able to make any 
progrefs by their Miniltry among the Natives, nor 
to reclaim the Spaniards from their Vices, while they 
are fufferd to afflid and perfecute the poor Indians^ 
becaufe thefe continual Violences, and their fix'd 
refolution to perfift in 'em, are habitual Sins. At 
prefent they regard not at all the Remonftrances and 
Menaces of Prelats, or Ecclefiaftical Cenfures, but 
go on adding Sin to Sin, in fo much that the Church 
in the Indies is in a forlorn condition, and under 
great difficulties : fo that the Indians ought to be fed 
free, that the Obllru^^ions lying in the way of their 
Salvation may be remov'd, and that they may the 
better be engag'd to fubmit to the Doi^trin that is 
preachM to 'em: FoV by this means Chriftiaa 
Paftovs will have a full liberty to exercife their Mi- 
nillry, and to difcliarge their Apoltolic Functions. 

The Bifiiops of America are oblig'd by the Law 
of God continually to follicit his Maiefty and his 
lloyal Council to deliver the Indians from the Op- 
prefilon under which they groan, and to give 'em 
their former Liberty, becaufe thefe Bilhops are ne- 
cefTarily engag-d by their Character to do the befc 
they can for the difcharge of their Paftoral Office, 
which conflfts in governing and teaching the People 
iii^Gsr their CP"4^^<^7 3nd in providing for all their 


and Cruelties tn the Weil-Indies. 1 8 1 

fpiritual necedities ^ as alfo ia fecuring 'em as well as 
they can from any temporal Injury, and in refcuing 
'era from the hands of OpprelFors, efpeciaily when 
the Vexations they fuffer are fo many itiimbling 
blocks in the way of their Salvation. Nor ought, 
they to be wanting in procuring 'em all tl.e tempo- 
ral Advantages they can. 

The Dominican and Francifcan Friers are very pi- 
ousand prudent, and deferve to be highly commend- 
ed, in that they have agreed to refufe abfolution to 
all the Spaniards of Nerv Spaia^ who keep Indian 
Slaves, and to oblige 'em to bring this alfair under 
examination before the Royal Council, in con- 
formity to the Laws newly made ^ tho they would 
have done better not to have had recourfe to this 
Tribunal. Thefe Monks know very well by experi- 
ence what unjiift and deceitful Methods have been. 
us^d to inQave the Indians^ and can't doubt but God 
has been highly offended by thefe Violences, and 
that thofe who have committed 'em are obliged to 
repair the Injuries of which they have been guilty. 
A Confeflbr who undertakes to hear Mens Confeili- 
ons, one who officiates in quality of a Bifhop or 
Curat as a fpiritual Judg, ought to underlland the 
Obligations of his Miniftry, and to have that know- 
ledg and prudence which is requifite to perform it 
after a becoming manner, that he may pafs a wife 
and jult Judgment on all matters proposed to him, 
and rightly difcern what v/rong is ofter'd to any op- 
prelfed Party. If his ignorance or negligence is the 
caufe of his Miftake, fo that he obliges not his Pe- 
nitent to reftore any ill-gotten goods, he commits a 
great Sin, and is himfelf bound to make reftituti- 
on and amends for the Injuftice done the offended 
Party : Juft as a Phylician who has through igno-- 
rance done fome confiderable Mifchief to his Pa- 
tient, or occafion'd his death, ought to make fome 

N 4 fpecial 

I §4 ^ ReUtion of the Spanifh Voyages 
fpecial Reparation for his fault. Tlie fame may 
be faid of Judges that pafs an unrighteous Sen- 
tence, while they are ignorant of the Law, or take 
no care to inform themfelves of the merit of the 
Caufe before 'em, becaufe fuch negled and igno- 
rance are criminal, and they ought to know the 
matters on which they are intrulted to pafs a Judg- 

'Tis certain all the Ecclefiaftical Perfons in Nexv 
Spain are well alTur'd that the Indians have been in- 
flav'd, and are [till kept in bondage, contrary to all 
Law and Equity •, and therefore are not oblig'd to 
refer the Examination of this Affair to the Royal 
Council : befides, there are all forts of tricks and 
devices ufed to divert the Council from taking cog- 
rii2ance of the matter, left they fiiould fupprefs thofc 
vexatious Pradices. His Majefty ought with all 
fpeed to ifTue out his Orders for the releafe of thefe 
miferable People, and fo much the rather, becaufe 
the oppreflion they are under is the occafion of the 
ruin of an infinit number of Souls. And this is the 
only way to reclaim the Spaniards from the habit of 
a mortal Sin, and to put the Prelafs in a conditi- 
on freely to acquit themfelves of their Ecclefiaftical 
Fundtions. all the Expedients TrieY Don Bartholomew 
de Laf-Cafas^ Biiliop of the Royal City of Chiapa^ 
proposed tor the reeftablifhment of Peace and Tran- 
quillity in America^ the moft effedual was that of 
diredly fubjeding all the IVeJi-Indies to the Crown 
of Spam^ that fo the Spanilh Lords might be uncapa- 
ble of making the Indians their own Subjefts and 
ValTals. And he fupported this Propofal with many 
very cogent Reafons. 

Firft, he fays, the Princes and People of the New 
^yVoirld being Infidels, and their Converfion to our 

and Cruelties in the Wefl-Indies. i S 5 

holy Faith appearing necelTary, 'tis very proper 
they fhould be under the Protedion of a Catholic 
and powerful King, who has a true zeal for the ho- 
nor and propagation of the Chriftian Religion, and 
might fend able MifTionaries into the New World, 
to bring thofe Idolaters to the knowledg of the true 
God, and to embrace our Divine Religion, and fub- 
mit themfelves to the Holy See. And hence it ap- 
pears that nothing can be more advantageous to the 
Indians^ than to put themfelves under the protefti- 
on of Catholic Princes, that no particular Lords 
may be capable of taking pofTeflion of 'em as their 
Property. This is what the Kings of S^ain on^t 
to regard,withoutfhanng with any others that Pow- 
er and Authority they have acquired over the In- 
dians ; for they ought to preferve this Jurifdidion 
immediately to themfelves, and not divide it to in- 
veft private Men with it. And this is an Affair of 
fo great confequence, that no lefs than both the? 
temporal and eternal Welfare of thofe Nations de- 
pend on it j for the Converfion of the New World 
would be a very advantageous thing to the Com- 

'Tis neither juft nor poflible to abandon this Jurif- 
didion to private Perfons, fince none but the King 
can be inverted with it ^ becaufe when the Pope has 
once made choice of any Perfonor Power for this Af- 
fair, it ought not to be delegated or entrulted to ano- 
ther. When he has in this matter declared himfelf 
in favor of any Perfon illuflrious by his Charader 
and Merit, who has a perfed knowledg of any Caufe 
he may have to determin, 'tis to be prefum'd he'l 
pafs fuch a Judgment as the Pope himfelf would 
have done. Now 'tis manifell that in the Cafe in 
queftion we have a Perfon cloth'd with Grandeur and 
Dignity, feeing he is King of S^ain^ a very good 
Chrillian, and zealous for the Catholic Religion ; 
" * ' ^ " and 

1 86 A Relation of the Spanifh Voyages 
and the matter is of great importance, becaufe it 
concerns the preaching and propagation of the true 
Faith and.Worfhip of God, the Convcrfion of nume- 
rous Nations, and the Government of 'em -^ which 
is to be adminillred witli Lenity and Prudence, 
that Juftice may be maintained among 'em, and the 
love of Virtue infpir'd into 'em : which is an Em- 
ploy too great for any but Soveraign Princes to 

'Tis certain the Holy See has chofen the King of 
S^a'in to be entrufted with the Government of the In- 
dies •, which may be prov'd by two confiderable Cir- 
curaftances. The firft of which is the Claufe added 
in the CommilTion, We rely upon your Fidelity ^Pnuif nee 
andjufiice: which is inferted in the Bull of Grant 
and CommiiTion of the Indies to the mofl ferene Kings 
of Spain^ wherein the Pope fays in exprefs Terms ^ 

' Knowing you to be Kings truly Catholic, as we 
*have been aiTur'd by many experiences, and that 
' your Piety is every where regarded throughout the 

* Chriltian World, we doubt not but you will ufe 
*" all the care and diligence you can for the Exaltati- 

* on and Increafe of the Catholic Faith •, as you have 

* fpar'd no charge or pains to refcue the Kingdom 
' of Grenada from the hands of S:iraz.ens and Infidels, 

* which has fo much conduc'd to the Glory of the 
'name of God. 

The fecond Circumflance is, that when any ix- 
prefs Order is added in the Commiffion, the firll 
Claufe of it is exprefs'd in ,thefe Words : 

' We exhort you by your Holy Baptifm, which 

* obliges you to fubmit to our Apoftolic Orders -, 

* and we conjure you by the Bowels of Compaffion 
' in Jefus Chrift, that you would generoufly under- 
' take this Expedition, to engage the People of the 
' Nev/ World to embrace the Chriltian Religion : 
'nor let any Hardihips o; perils di.fcpurage you, but 


ami Cruelties in the Wed-Indles. 187 

' put your trufl: in God, who will make your Work 
' fucceed to his Glory. 

The other Claiiie contains a kind of Command, 
and is thus exprefs'd ^ 

'' We command you in virtue of the holy Obe- 

* dience you owe us ; and we doubt not but you 
' will undertake this Affair with a great deal of 
' zeal and fervor, and fend into thci Iflands and 
' Continent Men fearing God, able, experienc'd, 
' and capable of inftrncling the Inhabitants of the 

* New World in the Catholic Faith, and of infpir- 

* ing 'em with the love of Virtue. 

Thefe Circumftances make it fufficiently appear, 
that the Pope gave the charge of caufing the Indians 
to be inftruded to the Kings of Spain^ in confide- 
ration of the fignal Services render'd the Church by 
that Crown j nay, that he has oblig'd them to un- 
dertake this good work by his exprefs Command to 
apply themfelves to it, in virtue of the holy Obe- 
dience they owe him. 

Purfuant to this thefe Princes folemnly engag'd 
themfelves to fecond the Pope's deiigns with all their 
Power : Their Promife was turn'd into a Covenant, 
and became a formal Obligation on 'em •, and con- 
fequently 'tis the indifpenfible Duty of the Kings of 
Spain to be the Minifters of the Holy See in carry- 
ing the Word of God into the Indies^ and contribut- 
ing all their Power to continue the work of convert- 
ing the Indians^- Their care fhould be extended to 
their temporal as well as fpiritual Concerns^ and 
they ought to neglecl nothing that may be nccefTary 
for their prefervation or converlion. Nor is it law- 
ful for thefe Princes to abdicate this Authority, and 
dived themfelves of this Jurifdiftion. 

_ Let your Majefty therefore pleafe to confider fe- 
rioufly how ftrid and indifpenfible this Obligation 
if J bs pleas'd to remember that in the year 1 499, 


i88 Jt Relation of the Spanifh Voyages 
when Chrijlopher Columbus, the firfl Difcoverer and 
Admiral of the Wejl- Indies, had permitted each 
^prtw/^r^ that accompanied him to take ont Indian in 
recompence of the great Services done the Crown 
of S^ain in that Voyage, when thofe Indians arriv'd 
in Spain^ your Majefly fo much refented it, that 
'twas not eafy to appeafe your Anger on that occa- 
fion. Your Majefty ask'd if the Admiral had power 
to deftroy your Subjeds ; and commanded the Spa- 
niards to fend back to the Indies all the Indians they 
had brought from thence on pain of Death. Ac- 
cordingly they return'd in the year 1500, when 
Tranc'vs BobadiUa went to take the Government of the 
New World. 

The fecond reafon that proves your Majefty under 
an obligation to incorporate the Indies into the In- 
heritance of your Crown, and not to fufFer the Spa- 
niards in the leaft to ufurp any thing in quality of 
Lords and Mailers, is, that otherwife 'tis impoflibl? 
the People fhould ever be brought to efpoufe Chri- 
Hianity. To comprehend the force of this Reafon 
it muft be remember'd that the Defign of your Ma je- 
lly's Title to pofFefs thefe newly-difcover'd Nations, 
is no other than the publication of the Gofpel, to 
fpread the knowledg of Jefus Chrifl among 'em ; 
and confequently your Majefly is obliged to remove 
all Impediments that oppofe this end, by eflablilh- 
ing good Laws and Orders, and ufing all other juffc 
ways and means to render this defign profperous. 
The End is always the great Spring that lliould give 
motion and diredion to our Adions j and 'tis this 
we ought to have principally in view, that we may 
the bsccer forefee what Obftrudtions are likely to 
lie in our way, and take the moll futable meafures 
to attain the end propos'd. Now 'tis certain, that 
the Power iifurp'd by the Spaniards over the Indians 
is one of the gi eatefi: hindrances to the preaching of 


and Cruelties in the Wefl-Indies. 189 

the Gofpel among 'em for their Converfion. Ali 
the World knows their exceflive Avarice makes 'em 
unwilling to fuffer the Mifiionary Monks to preach 
the Gofpel to the Indians^ whom thofe Tyrants look 
upon as their VaiTals \ becaufe the publication of the 
Gofpel (they fay) occalions a confiderable damage 
to 'em two ways. Firft, becaufe thefe Monks make 
the Indians lofe too much time in hearing their In- 
flrudtions^ thefe People (fay they) are naturally 
lazy and negligent, fo that when they are diverted 
from their Work, 'tis hard to bring 'em to it again. 
It has often happen'd when the Monks had got the 
Indians together in their Church to inftrud 'em, the 
Spaniards have come upon 'em, and taken away a 
hundred or two by force, beating 'em cruelly to the 
fcandal of the reft, in fpite of what the poor Monks 
could fay or do. And fuch Violences can't but ex- 
tremely impede the Salvation of the Indians. Another 
Difadvantage the Spaniards pretend to receive from 
the Converfion of the Indians, is, that when they are 
once inftruded in the Maxims of Chriftianity, they 
grow proud and untractable, and not fo capable to 
ferve 'em : and is not this an open Confeffion that 
their private Intereft is dearer to 'em than the Sal- 
vation of thefe Peoples Souls ? The frame of their 
mind is an habitual mortal Sin againft Charity, the 
Order of which they pervert, not only in not pro- 
moting their Salvation themfelves, which they ought 
every day to do, being oblig'd in Confcience either 
to initrud 'em, or procure others to do fo j but 
alfo in that they are fo far from acquitting them- 
felves of this duty, that with all their might they 
hinder others from informing 'em, without being 
" afraid of the Judgments of that God, who will one 
day feverely punilh 'em for want of Charity to their 
Neighbours, in witholdirig light from 'em, t)io 


190 J Relation of the Spanifh Voyages 

they have fo much need of Information. They 
hinder the pious Miilionaries from coming to preach 
to 'em, left they fiiould become acquainted with their 
Vexations and Cruelties, which are fo great and 
llrange, that the Monks arefeiz'd with horror v/hen 
the Indians relate 'em. And when they fee with their 
own Eyes iiow raiferably the Indians are treated, 
they make it their bufmefs (as they are bound in 
duty to God) to oppofe thefe Diforders. They 
fometimes advertife the Judges of thofe Tribunals 
your Alajefly has eftablifned there of thefe things, 
to leek to redrefs 'em that way ;, tho the means hi- 
therto ufed have had very little effed ^ becaufe 
the Governors and Judges having a great many In- 
dians themfelves, to whom they are unmerciful and 
cruel, abufe their Power *in opprefFrng thefe poor 
Creatures, caufmg 'em to be punifh'd rigoroufly for 
the flighteft faults. This is tne true reafon why the 
Monks are look'd upon as fo many troublefom Spies, 
and the Enemies of their temporal Intereft ^ fo 
that they can't endure fo much as to fee 'em, nor 
would they willingly tolerate 'era in the Country, 
"but often curfe 'em, and invent all forts of Calum- 
nies againfl 'em. The poor Indians alraoft defpair 
to fee any end of their M iferies \ and having nothing 
to truft to but the Zeal and Charity of the Monks, 
do love and reverence 'em as their Deliverers and 
Prote(^ors, ftill putting great Confidence in thera 
under all their troubles ^ they often come in Bodies 
out of their Towns and Cities to meet 'em : But 'tis 
a great mortification to the Spaniards to fee the In- 
dians pay thefe good Men fo much refpeft j and 
they take occafion from hence to reproach 'em, 
pretending the Monks defign to make themfelves 
the Lords and Mafters of thefe poor Wretches. But 
God only knows what Labors and Hardfhips thefe 


and Cruelties in the Weft-Indies. 191 

MifTionaries undergo, and to what Extremity they 
are often reduc'd by poverty and hunger-, when 
they undertake great Jouriieys with inexprefiible 
fatigue, in rough and troublefom ways, to aflill the 
Indians^ and (hew 'em the way of Salvation ^ and to 
admonilh the Spaniards of their enormous Sins, in 
tormenting 'em fo many ways, in robbing and mur- 
dering 'em : all which Violences call for large refli- 
tution, . if they expedt to be fav'd. Govetoufnefs 
and InjuHice reign more in the Indies^ than in all the 
World befides j tho the Spaniards have no jull righC 
nor power there, lince they don't derive it of your 
Majelty. The Indians are naturally timorous and 
cowardly, or rather the ill Treatments and Cruel- 
ties of the Spaniards hav& terrified 'em to that de- 
gree, that confternation and dread are become na- 
tural to 'em, infom.uch that they fcarce remember 
they are Men. 

'Tis impoITible for Men in their Condition to ap- 
ply themfelves to hear the preaching of the Gofpe}, 
that fo they might become Chriftians, lince the 
Spaniards fo Itrenuoufly oppofe it j who ought there- 
fore to give up the Title they have ufurp'd over 
them, ever fince they made a Conqueft of 'era, as 
they are wont to boaft. They that have any Intereft 
in a Governor's favor, difpofe of the Perfons of 
thQ Indians as their proper Goods, and divide 'em 
among themfelves, as if they were born abfolute 
ValTals. Two or three Spaniards will fometimes 
appropriate to themfelves a whole Nation of Indi' 
ans. It may be the Mafter of the Family falls to 
the Lot of one, his Wife to another, and their 
Children to a third. They are fent to the Mines 
loaded like Horfes, and forc'd to carry heavy Bur- 
dens a hundred or *two hundred Leagues ^ this is 
teen every day. To obviate thefe Diforders, it 


192 -^ Relation of th Spanifh Voyages 

will not be fufficient that your Majefly demand your 
Tributes, and threaten thofe with fevere Punifli- 
inent who (hall prefume to torment the Indians for 
the future, or exad fuch Tasks of 'em as they are 
not juftly obli^'d to perform j for they'l ftill perfifn 
in the fame courfe. 

As the fevere Bondage of the Indians is a great 
obftacle to their Converfion on the one hand, fo on 
the other is the courfe taken to difperfe 'era at a 
diftance one from another, whereby 'tis almoft im- 
poffible to alTemble a confiderable number of 'em. 
Both thefe ways prevent their being inftruded in 
our Religion, and put in the way of Salvation. 
'Tis necellary in order to their being fed with the 
Divine Word, that they live in Society, and be in 
a condition to be eafily aflembled •, and 'tis as ne- 
ceflary they fhould enjoy an entire Liberty, that 
they might voluntarily embrace the Word of God. 
The Learned fay there was no Syltem of written 
Laws given by God in the time of Ahraham^ becaufe 
the Church was his Family, and did not confift of any 
whole Nation. Nor did God fee good to give his 
Law to the Ifraelites while in E^ypt, tho they were 
then a numerous People, and computed to be no lefs 
than fix hundred thoufand Men able to bear Arms, 
becaufe they were not a free People, being yet in 
Captivity. But the Almighty gave 'em his Law 
when thefe two conditions were found in 'cm to- 
gether, namely, when they were both Numerous and 
Free *, which was not till he had employ'd his Power 
to deliver 'em from the Yoke of Pharaeh. But of 
all Laws, that of the Gofpel efpecially requires 
both thefe Conditions, becaufe it fuppofes Perfons 
at liberty to feek to be inftruded in it, and to put 
the Precepts of it in pradife. And 'tis very pro- 
per for thofe that obferve the Laws of Chrift to 


and Cruelties in the Weft-Indies. 191 

incorporate themfelves and live in Societies, tha| 
they may perform the folemn Ads of Divine Wor- 
fliip by the pradice of the feven Sacraments an4 
other Ceremonies of the Church. 'Tis necefl^ary 
for Chriftiaas to meet together from time to time 
in public to hear the Word of God, and allill at 
other parts of his Worfhip, that fo new Converts 
may be confirm'd in the manner of Life they have 
embrac'd *, for without thefe helps they would ia- 
fcnfibly decline in their Zeal, and might come even 
to lofe their Faith. In Oiort, if the Spaniards arQ 
permitted to keep the Indians fcatter'd up and down 
on the Mountains, and in the Vallies, and to employ 
'em perpetually in performing the unreafonabl^ 
Tasks they exaft of 'em, it will be impofiible to 
inftrud 'em in our Religion to any purpofe. 

By what has been faid^ your.Majefly may very well 
conceive what Difbrders reign in the Indies^ antj 
how neceHary 'tis to hinder the Spaniards from re- 
taining the Natives under fo fevere a Yoke, an4 
from proceeding to depopulate the Country as they 
have hitherto done. And that which is yet more 
deplorable, is, that they fuffer 'em to die withoufi 
taking care to haVe tfie Sacraments adminifler'd to 
'era, having no more regard for 'em than for Dog§ 
or Horfos. One would think they believ'd thefe 
People to have no immortal Souls, but were uncapa^ 
ble of Rewards or Punifhments in the other Life. 

The 'Spaniards are no way qualified either to be 
Lords and Mafters of the Indians, or to teach 'em 
the Dorhin of the Gofpel, or to induce 'em to im^ 
brace it by their Examples. A conliderable num- 
ber of Indians were committed to the care of John 
Colmenero. to be inftruded in our Religion, tho he 
was fo ignorant that he knew not well how to make 
the fign of the Crofs, or give any tolerable account 
Qf hi^ own Faith ^ in fo much that wiieij he W95 ask*4 


1 94 ^ Relation of the Spanifh Voyages 
what he taught thofe Indians under his Condud, he 
could make no other Anfwer than that he taught 
'era to make the fign of the Crofs, but pronounc'd 
the words wrong that are us'd in that Ceremony. 
When the Indians of one Province had brought all 
their Idols to the MifTionaries, with Proteftations that 
they now detefted that impious Worfhip, and were 
refolv'd to ferve the true God for time to come, 
the Spaniards fold thefe very Idols to other Indians, 
or exchanged 'em for Slaves. What concern of Mind 
can the Spaniards be fuppos'd to have for the Salva- 
tion of thefe People, when they only dcfign to en- 
rich themfelves, and thereby to be qualified for Em- 
ployments above their Rank^ and when they are 
fo ignorant, that they don't know the Creed, or ten 
Commandments ? They are fordidly covetous, and 
indeed give themfelves up to all forts of Vices ; fo 
that their Lives are infamous and abominable. The 
Indians are comparatively more honeft and virtuous 
than they are : for tho they are Pagans and Idola- 
ters, yet are content with one Wife, as Nature 
teaches 'em, while they fee Chriltians take fourteen 
or fifteen Women, how exprefly foever the Law 
they profefs forbids it. Many of the Indians fcarce 
know what it is to rob one another, to offer Vio- 
lence to anyone, or to commit Murder: Whereas 
they fee the Chriflians guilty of all thefe, againft 
all Reafon and Juftice, and that they violate all their 
Oaths, fo that there is no ground to put the leaft 
confidence in 'em. The poor Indians that are Wit- 
nefles of the Crimes of fuch as call themfelves 
Chriflians, think the God they worfliip is the vileft 
and moft unjufl God in the world, becaufe he does 
not immediately inflict fome lignal Punifhment on 
thofe that pretend to ferve him, for their flagitious 
Lives. They alfo think your Majcfty the mofl cruel 
of all Princes, becaufe your Subjeds are fo abomi- 

and Cruelties in the Weft-Indies; 195 

liably vicious \ they fancy ( as I have before faid ) 
that your Majefty drinks human Blood, and eats 
the Flefh of Men. And tho thefe things may ap- 
pear ftrange and furprizing to your Majefly, they 
;are no news to us who have been accuftom'd to 'em. 
And we can't but wonder, that fome extraordinary 
[marks of the Divine Anger and Indignation have 
inot been infiided on Spain to make her fmart for 
I the Criraies committed by the Spaniards in ^we- 

\ Your Majefty may by this time very well perceive 
the Character of thofe Men to whom the charge and 
icare of the Souls of the Indians is committed. And 
'tis no Wonder that there's fo little done either for 
Itheir temporal or fpiritual Advantage, fmce the dif- 
Icovery of the Indies^ under fuch Condud. God is 
ino more known there now than he was before, un- 
jlefs it be in the Province of Mexico. And that 
iQight Inftrudion the People have had there has colt 
f'em very dear: Tho the Son of God commanded 

his Difciples to give that freely which they had 
.freely receiv'd. The Indians were committed to 

the Spaniards^ on condition they would undertake to 
jteach 'em the Chriftian Religion : therefore fince 
I they have acquitted themfelves fo ill of that Com- 
'miffioii, they ought to riiake reftitution of all they 

have taken from 'em under this pretext. However^ 
;God will not be mocked, who fees all things, and is 

a witnefs of all the wicked Aftions of the Spaniards^ 
rwho have made it their bufinefs only to torment 
(^nd inflavc thefe pooi* People inftead of taking 
licare to inforni 'em of the Truth. And ihdeed 
l^thefe fecular Mert are not vfery proper to be made 
f Preachers of the Gofpel. Your Majelly has been 

111 fcrv'd in not having had good Information given 

you of the ill deportment of your Subjeds. For 

'tis riot to he. doubted but your Majclty would 

O 2 have 

196 A Relation of the Spanifh Voyages 

have provided a Remedy, if due care had beea 
taken to give you advice of it : Or if yourMajefty 
had not done it, you would have very much wrofig'd 
your Conicience in fending fuch Men into the new 
World to preach the Faith, and give teftimony c6 
the Doctrin of Jefus Chrift, who are abfolutely un 
capable of fo honourable a Miniflry, and even de 
cry and debafe it by their fcandalous Converfatio^j. 
'Tis therefore necell'ary that this Employment be 
taken away from Secular, and committed to Reli- 
gious Perfons, as agreeing better with their Cha- 
racter, which may be done without giving thefe 
Ecclefiaftical Miniflers any occafion to claim a tern 
poral jurifdidion over the Indians ^ for if that 
(hould be allow d, we fhould fall into the fame la; 
conveniences we are endeavouring to avoid. The 
corrupt Lives and evil Examples of the S^aniardi 
do, more hurt than the preaching of an infinii 
number of Priefts and Monks can do good. There 
fore your Maj^fty is oblig'd in Confcience to de- 
prive the Spaniards of the power they ufurp ovej 
the Indians, and never fuffer em to make 'em theii 

One principal Reafon that proves this Propofi 
tion is, that People ought to enjoy Peace and Tran- 
quillity, that they may be in a condition to at 
tend the Worfhip of God, and the good Work 
prefcrib'd by the Chriflian Religion, and not to b 
diverted from the Sacraments by being condemn'c 
to continual Labor. Which flate of Peace am 
Reft can't fublift without preferving to every Mai 
his Property, and guarding him from all the aflaulti 
of Injury and Injuftice. The Governors of Cora 
monwealths are bound by the Law of God to re 
move out of the way all Obftrudions to fo neceflar , 
a Peace", and fpeedily to allay thofe Diflenfions an* 
Troubles that may continue Difcord among fuch a 


and Cruelties in the Weft-Indies. 197 

profefs Chriflianity, becaufe 'tis diredly oppofit to 
cfee end of God in creating Men \ for he fends 'era 
mtothe World to obferve his Commands, and to 
I'pply themfelves to the exercife of Religion and 
^ood Works, that they may thereby merit eternal 

ife.' This good order is neceflary in every Chrifti- 
m Republic, but there efpecially where the Chrillian 

aith has been' but lately entertain'd. The Spaniards 
ire too cc/etous 'and felf-intereited to have any 

uriidiftion over'thefwdl/jiEny granted 'em, becaufe 

hey'l never give 'em any refpit orrepofe, but go 
)n to rob and torment 'em all the ways they can: In- 
dent. There is no kind of Injuftice but they tdm- 
nit it to fpoil thefe poor People, and therefore 
here is no way to fnelter 'em from their Oppref- 
ions, but by annexing the Ind'tzs to the proper In- 
heritance of your Majefly's Crown. The S^amardi 
;ill the Indians Vs^ith impunity in the Fields, in the 
-ligh-ways, and in the Mines, and do it moreboJd- 
y, becaufe many times theieare no WitnelTespre- 
ent to convict 'em of their Cruelties. So that no- 
hing G?.n be more evident, than that l\\t\ndums are 
lot in a condition to compole their Minds to at- 
end to the Divine Word, fo as to be induced to 
)bey the Divine Commands, while the Spaniards avQ 
heir abfolute Lords, who will continually harafs 
em with endlefs Trouble and Perfecution, which 
vill fill their minds with Anguifli and Vexation, and 
ill kinds of Mifery, nay with an averfion to your 
Majefty, and a great hatred to our God, and to his, which feems to 'em fo fevere, fo heavy and 
ntolerable a Yoke. They can't but think your Ma- 
efty's Government is tyrannical, as well as that the 

od whom we adore is unjufl and unmerciful ^ fup- 
)ofing him the Author of all the Violence they fuffer 
Tom the Spaniards j becaufe while they, on pretence 
of preaching the Catholic Faith, bring fo many 

O 3 terri- 

19S 4 Relation of the Spanlfh Voyages 

terrible Calamities upon 'em, their God fufFers this 
without punifhing their Injuftice and Impiety after a 
very remarkable manner. Thefe unfortunate Peo- 
ple have no other Relief than what they find in 1 
their Tears, whicli they pour forth day and night, ' 
protefting their own Gods were more kind and fa- 
vourable than the God of the Europeans, and faying 
they enjoy'd a fettl'd Peace, and all tHS Conve- 
niences of Life while they ferv'd their own Gods, 
whereas ever fmce they had been under the power 
pf the Chriftians, they had been expos'd to all man- 
ner of Abufes. This makes 'em abhor the Catholic 
Faith, and by confequence puts thofe that preach 
to 'em out of a condition to attain their end : So 
that your Majefly is beyond all queftion oblig'd by 
the Law of God to refcue the Indians from the Yoke 
of the Spaniards, and to take 'em under your owa 

I farther add, that the power your Majefly has 
over the People of the New World, has been 
granted you by the Grace of God and the Suffrage 
of the Church, both for the temporal and eternal 
Advantage of the Indians ^ which Privilege is a kind 
of neceffary means of their Salvation. So that the 
Government of 'era belongs of right to none but 
your Ma jelly, with the exclufion of all other Powers 
whatfoever, unlefs they defire to frullrate ^11 the 
Advantages both fpiritual and temporal, which the 
Indians might hope to reap from the Converfation 
of the Europeans. Your Majefly's Character and 
Jurifdidtion over 'em engages you to remove all Ob- 
flacles that may hinder them from obtaining thefe 
Advantages, and being fav'd through Faith by the 
preaching of the GofpeL Your Majefly ought not 
to fuffer your Authority to become infamous and 
odious, nor your Subjedls to ufurp a tyrannical 
Power that will infallibly iffue in the dellrudion of 


and Cruelties in the Weft-Indlcs. 199 

the Indians^ if they mufl be Vaflals to the Spaniards^ 
who treat 'em fo cruelly and inhumanly. When 
we firft arriv'd in the New World, we faw innu- 
merable multitudes of People inhabiting the Pro- 
vinces of New-S^ain^ Cuha^ Jamaica^ and the Ille 
of St. John, which are now all defolate. The Pro- 
vinces and Kingdoms of the Continent are in a yet 
more deplorable condition, tho once as well peo- 
pled as Toledo and Seville. There's fcarce any place 
in the World where Men and other Animals multi- 
ply fo much as they do in the Indies^ bccaufe the 
Air of the Country being temperate, favours Ge- 
neration. But the Spaniards have found out the 
art of entirely depopulating large Countries filPd 
with infinit numbers of People, for they have un- 
juflly malTacred fome to poITefs themfelves of their 
Gold and Silver, others they have deftroy'd by ex- 
cefTive Labors, or by forcing them to carry unrea- 
fonable Burdens in long Journies ^ in a word, they 
have facrific'd the poor Indians to enrich themfelves. 
We advance nothing but the very Truth, and all 
that we have faid does not exprefs half of what we 
have feen j nor will it be a difficult task to convince 
them of falfhood who dare maintain the contrary 
before your Majefty. None but fuch as have fliar'd 
inthetruitof this Rapine and Cruelty, will oppofe 
the truth of fuch Fads as are known to all the 
world. And 'twill be in vain to pretend that any 
contagious Dillemper has made a Country of 2500 
leagues defolate, which before was very populous. 

The manner of governing Kingdoms ought to be 
conformable to the Law of God and Man, for the 
good and profit of the People, who are to be de- 
fended and preferv'd from the Violence and Injullice 
of thofe that are deflitute of the fear of God, and 
ufe a tyrannical Power, merely obtained by Ufur- 
pation, for the ruin and deftruftion of thofe that are 

O 4 under 

feoo A Relation of the Spanifh Voyages 

under 'era. Your Majefty may eafily be informM 
how the Spaniards have abusM the Power you grant- 
ed 'em for the Converiion of the Indians^ in turning 
it to afflict and deftroy 'em with unexampled Cruel- 
ty. And that which makes the cafe yet more la- 
mentable is, that none of thofe who have been cm- 
ploy'd in your Majelly's fervice have ever given you 
advice of thefe great Diforders, tho fo very preju- 
dicial to your Interefl, beiides the lofs of an infi- 
nite number of Souls who have perilh'd in the dark- 
nefs of Paganifm, out of which tliey might have 
been eafily reduc'd if the Spaniards had in the leaft 
been governed by the fear of God. 

Your Majefty may pleafe to remember that one 
Article of the Will of the mofl Serene Queen IJa- 
bella^ is exprefs'd after this manner : 

* /tew. Since the time wherein the Apoftolic See 

* granted us the Ifles and Continent of the Ocean, it 

* has always been our principal Intention to caufe 

* the Light of the Gofpel to ihine on the People of 

* the New World, and to fend Prelats and Monks 

* thither to convert and inllruct 'em in the truth of 

* the Catholic Faith. Therefore I befeech my Lord 

* the King, and the Princefs my Daughter, to labour 

* with all their might to render this Enterprize 

* fuccefsful, and to fecure the Indians from receiving 
*any damage either in their Eftates or Perfons, but 

* on the contrary to take care they be treated with 

* all forts of kindnefs j and that ftriu: and fpeedy 
' Juftice be executed upon any one that fliall offer 
*'era the leafl Injury, and to keep exactly to the 

* terms of the Apoftolic Brief difpatched for this 

* Grant. Thefe are the exprefs Words of that II- 
luftrious Princefs : And yet no fooner was fhe ex- 
pir'd, but the Spaniards began to abufe the Indians, 
and to offer 'em all the Outrages of which we have 
been fpeaking, and could give your Majefty a more 
limple Relation* To 

and Cruelties in the Weft-Indies. 201 

To all the foregoing Reafons it may be added, 
that t\\Q Spaniards are declaiM Enemies to the Mi- 
ansj and deiign nothing but their deftrudion, arid 
to get polTertion of their Country *, which is fo un- 
doubted a truth, that 'tis altogether needlefs to 
prove it. For he is properly a Man's declared Ene- 
my, who goes about to aCcufe him of forae ca- 
pital Crime, that deferves death ; who deprives hini 
of his Liberty and the grcateit part of his Goods ; 
who makes a cruel War upon him and inflaves him ^ 
who feeks all Occafions to kill him, and takes away 
his Wife and Children to inflave 'em ^ who ufurps^ 
all the Goods of his Relations whert they die, and 
ifnjuftly ravifhes from him all that is dear to him. 
Certainly fuch Violences as thefe are againft the 
Rights both oi People and Princes^ and4isfiiffici- 
ent to demonltrate the Spaniards to be the declared- 
Enemies of the Indians^ tliat they have done 'em all 
the mifchief which we have been relating. For 
they have calumniated and accus'd 'em of the; moffc 
horrible and infamous Crimes that cart be imagin'd, 
meerly to get polTdhoh of their EffEtes, andftrip 
'em of all they had under this pretext j whereas the 
pradices they charge 'em with are purely imagi- 
nary, and flich as have never been fo much as heard 
of in the great Illands of New Spain, Cuba, Jamaica^ 
and St. John, tho they h we been all very populous ; 
for .after the molt exad Enquiries we were able to 
to make, we could never find the leafl appea- 
rance of thofe abominable Sins, to which fome few 
Perfians are addided. The Indians of the Kingdom 
of Tucatan know not what this unnatural Vice is. 
Nor are there any great number of 'em that eat hu- 
man Flefh. They are farther accusM of Idolatry ^ 
but Men have no right to punifh 'em for this Crime, 
which ought to be left to the judgment of God. 
Our Anceltors were formerly Idolaters, as the In- 


ao2 A Relation of the SpanKh Voyages 
diam are now % and the whole Univerfe was pollu- 
ted with this Sin before the coming of Chrift, and 
before the Apoftles had preach'd the Chriftian Faith. 
For God difpers'd them up and down the World to 
diflipate the darknefs that was fpread over the 
Earth : and they did not employ violence and force 
of Arms to punifli Idolatry, or other Sins that were 
the Confequences of Infidelity ^ they made ufe of 
nothing but the good Examples of their Virtue and 
Holincfs, together with their Dodrin, which con- 
tain'd the Menaces and Promifes of the Word of 
Godi and we ought to do that in the Indies^ which 
they did in other parts of the World. This was the 
Courfe which Chrift himfelf firft took, and then 
oblig'd his Apoftles to follow his Example. The 
Son of God came to feek and to fave that which was 
loft. Which of our Anceftors could have been fav'd 
if they had been put to death for Crimes commit- 
ted in the time of their unbelief? the exprefs Words 
of the Gofpel are contrary to this Method j for 
Chrift fays to his Difciples, Thus it is written^ and 
thus it behoved Chrip to fujfer and to rife from the dead 
the third day ^ and that repentance and remiffton of Sins 
fljould he preach'' d in his Name among all Nations^ be^ 
ginning at Jerufalem : yind ye are Witneffes of thefe 
things^ Luke 24. 46, 47, 48. which evidently proves 
that the Gofpel ought to be at firft preach'd to Infi- 
dels, by declaring of Peace, and the remifllon of 
Sins that are paft, fince Chrift has given no power 
or permiflion to men to punifh 'em. 

The Spaniards have moreover prefumM to main- 
tain that the Indians were like brute Beafts, utterly 
uncapable of difciplin, and unfit to receive the light 
of Chriftianity. Your Majefty has good reafon to 
punilh thofe that declare fuch notorious Fallhoods : 
For under this Colour they have obtain'd of your 
Majefty a power to poflefs themfelves of the Indies 


and Cruelties in the Weft-Indlcs. 20 j 
as their abfolute Property ,and to do the Indiam what 
mifchief they pleafe. Thus have they imposed on 
the Confcience of the molt Catholic King j and ob- 
tain'd leave to carry away the Inhabitants of the 
Iflands and Countries that lie near Hifpaniola, and 
have accordingly forc'd 'em out of their own Coun- 
try againfl all Law and Equity ^ fo that an innume- 
rable multitude both of Men and Women that in- 
habited above fifty Iflands, fome bigger than the Ca- 
naries, have beendeftroy'd, infomuch that there are 
but eleven Perfons left. I have been an Eye-witnefs 
of this defolation, as well as Peter de Life, who is a 
man of honor and credit, and now a Monk of the 
Order of St. Francis. He built a Brigantine, and 
man'd it with Sea-men to make a review of thofe 
once populous Iflands ; and they found in all that 
vail Country but eleven People (as has been faid) 
tho they fpent two years in making this Voyage. 
'Tis impoflible for me to txprefs to your Majelly, 
on the one hand, the great meeknefs, goodnefs of 
temper, and finccrity of the People of the NTcw^ 
World, and on the other, what enormous Rava- 
ges and Cruelties the Chriftians have exercifed up- 
on 'em. Your Bowels would be mov'd with Com- 
paflion, and your heart too much afFeded, if an ex- 
ad defcription of all this were made you. 

Cruel Wars have been raisM in divers rich Pro- 
vinces, without any fair occafion, but only to gratify 
the covetous humour of the Spaniards : At thf fame 
time they flatter themfelves that they have Authority 
from your Majefl:y to employ force and violence to 
inflave thefe People. And all the difference they make 
between thofe Indians they look upon as their Sub- 
jeds, and thofe whom they treat as Slaves, is, that 
they fell the latter publicly, but ufe a little more for- 
mality about felling the former, by feeking pretences 
to hide their Injuftice. In the unjuft Wars they have 


204 A Rehtion of the Spanifh Voyages 
made with 'era^ after having kiird the Mailers of Fa- 
Hiilies,they have alfo murder'd their Wives and Chil- 
dren, and polFefsM theoifelvesof all they had. And 
God is now.pleas'd every day to fliew usby his fevere 
Chaftifements that he has been grievoully offended 
by thefc Robberies and Cruerties." The Welfare of 
the Indians both as to Body and Soul is in the great- 
eft danger-, for if they muftbe fubjeO: co'the abfo- 
lute Power of the Spaniards^ tbty'l utterly' deftVoy 
'em, without fparing any, fomuch asto pt^opagate 
their Race. : If the Law of Nature torbids us to 
commit a Pupil to thechargeof one that is a mor- 
tal Enemy to him or his Parents, or has embezerd 
his Eftate, or fet him an ill Example ^ and yet he has 
been given up to the care of. a Perfonof thisCha- 
radler •, the Judges would be obliged to rectify the 
matter, by taking him from under his Conduct, 
whatever fecurity he offers to give for his fidelity. 
'Tis much the fame cafe withthe I»«//^m in refpeO: of 
the Spaniards^ for thefe would have it believ'd that 
they are the Guardians, Tutors, and Protestors of 
the other : tho 'tis only a fraudulent pretence to en- 
fnare 'em. The Indians know well enough how to 
govern themfelves, without being beholden to Guar- 
dians ', and the Spaniards are no way capable of in- 
ftruding 'em in the things of Religion, which yet 
is the main thing the Indians want, and the greateft 
kindnefs that can be done 'em. And 'tis eafy to fee 
what difpofition the Spaniards have towards 'em, as 
to their temporal advantage. So that 'tis moft cer- 
tain they are their declared Enemies \ lince they have 
ftrip'd *em of all their Goods, offer'd all forts of 
abufes to their Perfons, and taken away their Wives 
and Children, whom they have condemn'd to perpe- 
tual Slavery ^ which courfe, together with the cruel 
Wars made upon 'em, has almoft quite unpeopled the 
New World. How is it pofGble that men that lead 


md Cruelties in the Weft-Indies. 205 

flich kind ot\Live3, fliould infpire the Indians with 
the deiire of embracing the Law of God, and the 
love of .Virtue, efpecially; feeing they many ways 
perfecure the very Monks, who are lb zealous for 
the Retormation of thefe Idolaters? On the con- 
trary, the spamards fpare nothing that may debauch 
'em, and ex^pofe "em to all forts of Vice by the evil 
Patterns they fet 'em : They teach 'em to fwear and 
blaipheme the holy Name of God, tho in reality the 
poor Indians don't do it defignedly, but only becaufe 
they iieai: the. Spaniards i^fe fuch Expreffions. 'Tis 
therefore, plain that the Spaniards ought not to have 
any ]urifdi£tion over the Indians, if their advantage 
either as to this Life or that to come be confider'd, 
feeing they are the mortal Enemies of this People, 
and think of nothing but how to deftroy 'em. Ic 
would, therefore be a piece of great Injuflice to 
abandon 'em to fuch Men, when their Difpofition 
toward 'em is fo well known •■, it being a mortal Sin 
to expofe one's Neighbor to evident danger of 
lofing his Life : And we doubt not but your Majefty 
will be cautious of falling under the guilt of fuch a 
Crime, and not give up the Indians to thefiiryof 
the Spaniards. 

All juft andteafonable Laws, and thofe Philofb- 
phers that have written on Morality are againll 
placing any Government in the hands of neceflitous 
and covetous Men, whofe greatelt end is to get rid 
of their Poverty, and to deliver themfelves from 
that mean condition in which they live, and there- 
fore are ready to facrifice all the obligations of 
Duty to the defire they have of becoming rich. 
And becaufe this greedy Paffion is continually in- 
creafing, and their Minds are v/hoUy fet on the ways 
of heaping up Wealth, and filling their Chefts, they 
find no reft but in fatisfying their Avarice. They 
abhor Poverty as Nature docs a racuum^ and there- 

2o6 A Relation of the Spanifh Vcynges 

fore have no other thoughts night or day but t6 
contrive means of amairing together as much Trea- 
fure as they can. Upon this account the Philofopher 
determins that 'tis a dangerous thing to put Nations 
or Provinces under the Government of fuch as are 
covetous or needy, who are refolv'd to be rich at 
any rate in the world. We are inform'd in Hifto- 
ry that the Romans being about to fend two Confuls 
to govern S^ain^ one of whom was poor and the 
other covetous^ when this Affair was propos'd to 
the Senat, Scipo j4fricanus gave his opinion that 
neither of 'em was proper to make a Governor, 
there being reafon to fear that both would abufe 
their Authority to feather their Nefts out of the 
public Stock j becaufc fuch kind of Perfons are like 
Leeches in a Commonwealth, and make it their 
principal care to gather fomething on every lide^ 
and to devour the Subftance of the People, making 
themfelves rich at their charge, becaufe their 
covetous Defires can never be fatiated as long a$ 
they remain in this World : Nay it muft be ad- 
ded, that this Vice moft commoilly proves incura* 
ble j fo that if Men greedy of Lucre get Authority 
over any People, they will not fail to fpoil and ruin 
'cm, becaufe the Paffion that animates 'cm, keeps no 
bounds or meafures. No Laws nor Penalties with 
which they can be menaced, will be ftrong enough 
to reftrain 'em, as long as they are inverted with 
Power *, and the more fuccefsful any covetous Man 
finds his Induftry to be, the more earneftly does he 
delire and purfne Riches, which he accounts the 
fupreme Good. The delire of being rich produces 
much the fame efFed in the mind of a poor cove- 
tous Man, as the hope of Celeflial Happinefs would 
in that of a good Man \ for as this perfedtly fills up 
the Capacity of his Mind that ardently wilhes for 
it, fo the Mifer's Soul can defire nothing befides 


And Cruelties in the Weft-Indies. 207 

hoards of Treafure, wherein his Happinefs confifts, 
becaufe Money anfwers all things : For this is that 
which capacitates Men to undertake the greateft 
Enterprizes, and to obtain whatever they defire in 
this World, the highefl Employments, Honors and 
Dignities, coftly Habit, and the moft delicious Dain- 
ties j this facilitates their commiflion of all forts of 
Crimes, gives 'em opportunity to be reveng'd on 
their Enemies, to acquaint themfelves with Perfons 
of great Quality, and to obtain their Favour and 
Efteem. 'Tis on thefe accounts that the Men of the 
world feek it with all their might, and expofe them- 
felves to fo many Fatigues and Perils, as well as per- 
petrate the greateft Villanies to procure it. 

Now the pofTeflion of Riches can never fatisfy 
the Soul, fo as to give it ^erfed content ^ for 'tis 
perpetually craving what it does not yet poflefs. 
Therefore the Worldling, who has chofen Mony 
for his chief Good and laft End, is indifferent as to 
other things, but devotes himfelf entirely to this, 
employing all his care and diligence to increafe his 
Bags \ and his thirft of Gold grows more and more 
violent, by how much the more his Eftate fwells, 
according to the Philofophcr's Maxim, that Motion 
is by fo much the more impetuous, by how much 
the nearer it approaches its end. 

Avarice is a more incurable Evil than Concupis- 
cence, becaufe its Objed, and the things it promifes 
attrad the Hearts of Men with greater violence \ 
and the power of Mony is of a larger extent, be- 
caufe it puts a Man in a condition to gratify his 
Luft, whereas this on the other hand can't procure 
him Riches. The love of Mony endures longer on 
the Mind than the Appetite of fenfual Pleafures, 
how violent and impetuous foever they may be for 
a time. Covetoufnefs is always on the advance, and 
feldom cxtinguifh'd but with a Man's Life: For the 


i?o8 A Relation of the Spanifh Voyagef 

more a Man's natural Infirmites incf eafe, the more 
the defire of heaping up Wealth fortifies it felf ^ as 
'tis obfervablein old Men, that the nearer they ap- 
proach their end, the more covetous they ufually 
grow 5 becaufe as their Health and Strength gra- 
dually dirainifh, they think they have the more need 
of the affillance of the things of this World. 

Thefe Reafons make itevident, that if any Ju- 
rifdidion or Government be given to covetous Men, 
they will not fail to opprefs and vex thofe that are 
fubjeded to them, that they may make themfelves 
rich at their cofts ^ and that nothing will hinder 'em 
from gratifying their Avarice whenever they have 
a fair occafion ; for this Vice is the root and fpring 
of all others, 'tis the fource of Treafon, Fraud, 
•perjury, Violence, Rapine, and barbarous Cruelty. 
This Pafllon is faid to be blind, becaufe it occafions 
blindnefs in the Mind, and benights the Reafon with 
the grofleft Darkn^fs, and hinders him that is cap- 
tivated with it from perceiving his danger. The 
light of Gold, tho it caufes the commiffion of all 
manner of Crimes, and is the fource of Calumnies, 
gives him more Joy than the light of the Sun, be- 
caufe he finds his Account in the ruin of others. 
It excludes Fidelity, and banifhes Union and Con- 
cord out of the World •, it violates Charity, and 
produces all manner of Mifchief ^ it knows no Com- 
panion, but induces Men to difclaim their very Pa- 
rents, and break all the ties of Faith and Amity •, 
it never fuffers a Man to fympathize with his Neigh- 
bour's Miferies, but even makes him difregard his < 
Relations as if utterly unacquainted with them, i 
The covetous Man never forgives himfelf his own , 
Expences, and leads a miferable Life in the midft of i 
Plenty and Wealth. This greedy humor fo darkens 
the llnderltandings of thofe that are bewitch'd by it, 
that they know not how to make a right Judgment 
^ of 

and Cruelties in the WeH-Indies. 2051 

of any thing, but inflead of following the Didates 
of reafon, are on all occadons driven down the im- 
petuous Current of their beloved Vice, all their 
Thoughts and Defires are direded this way, an4 
yet they can never quench the infatiable Thirlfc that 
preys upon their Souls. 

But I mu/t now apply all thefe Reafons to the fub- 
jed in hand : and I befeech your Majefly to give 
attention to the Confequences I draw from 'em. 
All the Spaniards that leave their own Country tQ 
go into the Indm are poor, and 'tis only Avarice 
that drives thera thither \ for they don't only pre- 
tend to raife themfelves a little above a condition of 
Poverty and Want, but to amafs valt Treafures to- 
gether, without fetting any Limits to their unmea- 
furable Covetoufnefs, that they may be able to' buy 
honorable Offices and Emploiments, and advance 
themfelves far above their degree. We have beea 
taught by experience that in a few years, many Sea- 
wards who were in the meanefl; and bafelt condition, 
and always led a miferable Life, have conOderabl/ 
alter'd their fortune by the Riches they have brought 
from the New World, and likewife introduced 
great corruption of Manners throughout ail S^a'm^ 
The love of Mony is now grown to that height, 
that Gold and Silver feem the only Gods that are 
worfhip'd. They that know not how to advance 
themfelves by induftry and labor, do it by plundring 
and robbing without any fear of punifhment. They 
take away from the poor Indians all they find in their 
houfes, and after all make 'em work to get Itill more 
put of their fweat and labor ^ fo that if any Autho- 
rity over the Indians be allowed 'em, they'l certainly 
abufe it to enrich themfelves, while this deteftable 
covetoufnefs reigns in their minds. And what can 
the poor Indians do to fhake off their tyrannical 
Yoke, fince they arc naturally ipeek, quiet and timq- 
' B ' rous. 

210 J KeCAtion of the Spanifli Voyages 

rous, and dare not complain or murmur ^ or if they 
fhould, have no body to hearken to 'em or defend 
'em? The Spaniards who have an abfolute Power, 
are always chiding and domineering over 'em wher-. 
ever they are, in the Fields, on the Mountains, in 
the Mines, in- the Defarts, or in the High- Ways. 
They take all the furniture of their Houfes from 
'em, which is their greateH; Riches, as well as ex- 
pofe -em to the greateft dangers, and moft intolera- 
ble Labours, beating and inflifting on 'em the fe- 
verell Puniiliraents for the leafl Trifle, when they 
hope to get any thing by it. What a piece of In- 
juftice then muft it be to abandon fuch meek 
and fubmilTive Creatures to the fury of fuch mea 
as thefe, when they are in no capacity to refifl the 
tyranny of their Perfecutors, but are made their 
nieer tools ? 

What would one fay of that Judg, who after 
he has received information of the violent paflion of 
a wild Spark in the heat of Youth, to a beautiful!; 
Virgin, fhould notwithftanding order 'em to live to- 
gether in the fame houfe, and give him an abfolute 
power over her, but withal threatning to punifh 
him feverely if he ofFerd her any violence ? Could 
any one fafely confide in the PromJfes of lich a man 
as this, whatever Proteftations he Ihould make of 
moderating his paflion on fo critical an occafion ? It 
is not to be doubted but fuch a Judg would commit 
a mortal Sin, in thus expofing his Neighbour to fc 
dangerous a Temptation, tho he fhould happen tc 
abftain from the Sin to which he has fo great a pro 
penlion. It almoft amounts to the fame thing t< 
put the Indians under the Jurifdiftion of the S^a 
niardsj who are their mortal Enemies •, for if the; 
don't maflacre 'em in cold blood meerly out of th 
hatred they bear 'em, they do it however to ge 
their Goods, and rob 'em of their Treafure. An] 

' a^d Cruelties in the Weft-Indies.^ 2 1 1 

as in the former Inftance it would be next to a Mi- 
racle for that amorous Youth not to abandon him- 
felf to the Conduft of his Pafllon, when the Objea: 
of it is committed to his difpofal j fo 'tis not to be 
expeded that the Spaniards fhould abftain from com- 
mitting all forts of Outrages on the Indians^ and fa- 
crificing both their Ellates and Lives to their owa 
Intereft, fmce their Avarice irritates 'em with 
greater violence (if poflible) than Lull does the 
other in the former cafe : fo that Laws back'd with 
Menaces and Punifliments will make no impreifions 
on the minds of thefe men, but they'l be fure ftill to 
exercife a thoufand Cruelties on the poor Indians^ if 
no other courfe be taken to give check to their Co- 

I entreat your Majelly to confider what befals any 
Province to which you fend a Governor. If he be 
covetous, and regardlefs both of his Honor or Reli- 
on, what Diforders and Mifchiefs does he not bring 
with him ? Tho he has not fo abfolute a Power as 
the Spaniards have over the Indians whom they keep 
in their Houfes ^ tho the Royal Council of Spain 
think themfelves concerned to oppofe his Prevarica- 
tions ^ and tho the King's Prefence one would think 
fhould be a Itrong Bridle to restrain his Exadions : 
yet in two years time, fuch a Governor as we have 
bin defcribing will become rich, by the Rapine and 
Extortion he commits in the Province put under his 
care. What then is it likely th^ Spaniards yj'iW^o, 
in the remotefl parts of the Indies^ when they have 
an unlimited Power over the Indians^ and neither 
Itand in awe of God nor the King ^ and when thefe 
poor People are under fo great apprehenfion of 
ftill more intolerable Cruelties, that they dare not 
complain of the violence they fufFer? And how 
Ihall they report their Grievances ? Ihall they go to 
the Royal Council, which is it may be three or four 

P 2 ^^ hundred 

212 A ReUtion of the Spanifli Vojages 

hundred Leagues from 'em ^ or fhall they addrefs 
themfelves to your Royal Throne, which is diftant 
above three thoufand ^ What courfe fhall they take 
to prove the Infults, Vexations and Perfecutions 
they endure from the Spaniards in Countries fo re- 
mote, where they can expcd no relief? 
^. "^The Spaniards are fo hardn'd by their exceffivc 
Avarice, that they are not in the leafl touch'd with 
the Groans and Complaints of thefe miferable Peo- 
ple j for nothing makes impreffion on their minds 
but Gold and Silver. The Condition to which they 
advance themfelves in the Indies is fo far above their 
former Hate, that it infpires 'em with intolerable 
Pride and Arrogancy. They pafs away their time 
in pleafure and feafting, and clothe themfelves after 
fo fumptuous a manner, that nothing in the World 
can be more magnificent. And withal it may well be 
faid that nothing can equal the corruption, licen- 
tioufnefs and dillblutenefs of their Manners j and to 
fupply all thefe fuperfluous Expences and ExcefTes, 
they fuck out the very Blood of the poor Indians. 
Now feeing there's no hope of obliging the Spa- 
niards to alter their Condud, and both the Laws of 
God, and right Reafon, and all the Maxims of Poli- 
cy and Prudence oppofe the giving of any Govern- 
ment into the hands of covetous and indigent Per- 
fons, who are prejudic'd with a violent defire of 
gain: Much lefs ought your Majefty to fufFer the 
Spaniards to ufurp a Title to the Indians as their 
Free-hold, when they are fo greedy and infatiable, 
that they'l make no diiEculty to facrifice all kinds of 
duty to the defire they have of raking fums of Mo- 
ny together any way in the World. For all their 
Induftry will be employ'd in pillaging their Vaflals ; 
and which is yet more to be lamented, while they 
cruelly deprive 'em of temporal Life, they likevvife 
take a cowrfe to expofe 'em to eternal Death. 


And Cruelties in the Weft-Indies. 2 1 j 

Therefore your Majefty ought to incorporate the 
Indiei with the Inheritance of your Crown, that yoa 
may be the univerfal Father, Protedor, <3overnor 
and Lord of all the Indians. 

1 add to all the foregoing Reafons, that the Spa- 
niards impofe intolerable Burdens on the Indians^ 
and exadt fuch Services of 'em as reduce 'em to the 
extremity of raifery and defpair. 'Tis their firft 
and principal duty to ferve and obey their own na- 
tural Princes j becaufe this is founded on the Law of 
Nature. In the fecond place, they owe your Maje- 
fty fervice and obedience, as being their univerfal 
Soveraign ^ which is an obligation of Divine Right, 
founded on the Engagement your Majefty has con- 
tracted to fend 'em the Light of the Gofpel, and 
to take care for their Inftruftion in the orthodox 
Faith. The third kind of Service is that which the 
Spaniards oblige 'em to render them whether they 
will or no, which is a fevere and tyrannical Yoke, nay 
more intolerable than what the Heathen Tyrants id- 
posM on the primitive Chriftians ^ it may be liken'd 
"to the torment the Devils inflict on the Damned in 
Hell. The Violence of it is contrary to all the Laws 
jOf Nature and Reafon, nor can it bejuftified by any 
'human Laws. It muft be remembred that the In- 
dians are naturally weak, going always naked, and 
" continually expos'd to the heat of the Sun : 'tis there- 
fore contrary to all Juftice that they fhould be op- 
prefs'd with heavy Burdens far above their ftrength, 
as well as contrary to Charity, and the Cuflom of all 
reafonable Men. All the fervice thefe poor Crea- 
tures do can't fatisfy the Spaniards^ who thef efoi e fee 
an Officer over 'em ftridly to infped their Adions, 
and render their fervitude ftill more terrible. This 
Employ is ufually beftow'd on fome cruel and inexo- 
rable Monfler, who always ftands over 'em to make 
'cm work the harder, and pundlually to obey all his 

P 3 ' Commands. 

214 ^ Relation of the Spanifh Voyiges 

Commands. The Executioners of the divine Wrath 
in Hell can't be more wicked and hard-hearted than 
this fort of Men : They brand 'em with hot Irons, 
and are continually beating and abufing 'em *, they 
are not content to make 'em labor without inter- 
in iflion, and to fet 'em unreafonable Tasks, but al- 
ways reproach and chide 'em while they undergo 
this Toil, and befides all this, violate their Wives 
and Daughters, or make Prefents of many of 'em 
together to their Mailers on whom they depend, 
and who fet 'em to work as fo many principal Ty- 
rants, who alfo make it their bulinefs to invent cruel 
and unfufFerable Torments. And to hinder the 
Indians from complaining of their Mifcries, they 
threaten to inform againft 'em, that they have feea 
^em worfhip their Idols. This is the fad ftate to 
which thele People are reduc'd. They depend on 
no lefs than four feveral Matters, on your Majefly, 
their Caciques^ the Spaniard to whom they are in- 
flavM, and his Deputy, who is the greateft Plague 
to 'era that can be. Nay, 'tis impoflible to tell how 
jnany Matters they have, feeing all the Spaniards do- 
mineer over 'em as fo many Tyrants, robbing 'em 
by turns, and making no fcruple cruelly to abufe and 
murder 'em. 

Seeing the preaching of the Orthodox Faith k 
the only thing that could warrant the redudion of 
the Indians to a ftate of dependance on any foreign 
Power, in order to their Converfion \ and feeing 
none can pretend ori this account to be their lawful 
Soveraign but your Majefty ^ it follows that your 
Alajetty ought with all your might to oppofe the 
Power which private Men afllime over 'era, and 
which can't be look'd upon as any better than Ty- 
ranny. Your Majefty is oblig'd for the common 
good of all your Subje<fts to eftabliih a regular and 
ftabie form of Governraeat among 'em, which niay 
'•• • ''-'^'^ ■ ^- ':. conduce 

and Cruelties in the Weft-Iildies. 215 

conduce to their Gonverfion and Salvation : and fee- 
ing the foveraign and lingle Power you have over 
'em is fufficient for the end propos'd, other Jurif- 
didions are not to be tolerated, becaiife they can 
only prove burdenfom and incommodious, and con- 
trary to the common Maxjms of Government re- 
ceived in the World, which will not allow a People 
to be fubjedt to feveral different Princes-, much 
lefs fhould the Indians be thus fubjected, becaufe of 
their Poverty, Meeknefs, Patience, Humility, and 
the tendernefs of their Conflitution, partly occa- 
fion'd by their going naked, their unwholfom Food, 
and the Labor they undergo to get their living. 
After all this 'twould be fufficiently tedious and un- 
eafy to 'em if no other Duties were exadled of 'em 
than thofe which your Majefty and their Caciques^ 
who are their immediat Princes, impofe. How then 
can they be able to endure thofe excelFive Tasks, 
thofe heavy Blows, Vexations and Abufes of which 
we have fpoken above ? If your Majefly has a mind 
to preferve the Indians from utter Deltrudtion, thefe 
new Burdens ought not to be imposed on 'em, nor 
fliould they be condemn'd to this fevere Slavery. 
This would be to violate the Laws of Juftice and 
Charity : For the Mafters of Policy and Prudence 
ufually fay, that tho a Prince require extraordinary 
afliftance of his Subje£l:s in fome prefllng Exigencies 
of the Commonwealth ^ yet where thefe Subjeds arc 
under other fubordinate and immediate Lords, to 
whom they areoblig'dto pay the fame Duties, this 
cannot be done, becaufe this would be to over- 
charge 'em with endlefs Taxes : for 'tis contrary to 
all Juftice to opprefs 'era with a double Burden, and 
all good Laws formally condemn it ^ for the Rules 
of Equity forbid all Oppreflion and Injury. There- 
fore fince the Indians are already bound to ferve 
their natural and immediate Princes, and to pay 'em 

P 4 all 

2 16 A Kehtion of the Spanifli Vojuges 

all the homage and duty of Subjeds, it would be un- 
juft to fubjedt 'em to fuch new Mailers as pretend to 
a right of exading new Services of 'era. The 
Taxes that are impos'd on any Eftate fliould be pro- 
]^ortionate to the Revenue that may be cxpeded 
If om it •, and there ought not to be more Homage 
and Service annex'd td it than is reafonable lor 
the advantage of him that owns that Eftate. If in- 
animate things have this privilege, how much more 
ought it to be fo with Men, who deferve to be 
tis'd a little better ? Since therefore your Majefty's 
Government alone is fufficient for the welfare and 
advantage of the Indians^ to fet other Lords over 
'era v/ould be to ad contrary to Juftice. For who 
can deny it to be contrary to all the Laws of Equity, 
to fubjed the Indians to the Spaniards ^ who mind no- 
thing but to raife Eftates by making a Prey of 'em ? 
An 'tis as oppofit to Charity to add new Burdens to 
them that can fcarce bear fuch as are already im- 
pos'd upon 'em, and to increafe the Calamities of 
fuch as are fufficiently befet with AfRidtion, befides 
the pains they take for the fubfiftence of their Wives 
and Children* Charity teaches to do to others as 
we would have them do to us, to fecure 'em front 
all the Evil we can, and to relieve 'em in their In- 
digence when they addrefs themfelves to us, and 
Ihew us their NecefHties, becaufe we our felves are 
'defiroiis of the Affiftance of others, when in diftrefs. 
The Laws of Chrill are founded on fuch Maxims as 
fehefe : Do to others what you would have others do to 
you'^ and, Thou /halt love thy Neighbour as thyfelfj 
in which one word, St. Paul fays, the whole Law is 
containM. He farther fays, Bear ye one another^s 
■^urdens, and fo fulfil the Law of Chrijl. 

It is to be conlider'd, that all the Inhabitants of 
ihe New World are born free : Nor do they lofe 
this Liberty in recognizing your Majefty for their 


and Cruelties in the Weft-Indies. iij 

Sovcraign, and univerfal Emperor of the indks. 
On the contrary, if there be any defeOis in their 
Polity, your Majefly^s Government may fupply em, 
by which their Liberty will be render'd the more 
compleat. This was the defign of that mofl Chrif- 
tian Princefs, Queen Ifabdla^ as appears by all the 
Writings (he left about this Affair. A few days be- 
fore her Death ihe commanded General d'^kantara^ 
then Governor of Hffpaniola^ to treat all the Indians 
as a free People. And in a general Aflembly of 
Divines and Lawyers held at Burgx>s^ his Catholic 
Majefty declar'd in Council, that the Inhabitants of 
America were free, and commanded they fhould be 
treated as fuch. The fame was done by your Ma- 
jefty, after having confulted the moft learned Di* 
vines and Canoni/ls in the year 1 523. 

Now if it be an inconteftable Principle that all 
the Indians are free, and that all of 'em that have 
been, or fhall be difcover'd in time to come, can't be 
fubjefted to any other Jurifdidion but that of your 
Majefty, and that they owe to your Majefty alone 
that Homage and Obedience which free Cities and 
Nations are oblig'd to pay their lawful Soveraign, 
'tis mofl evident that no private Men can pretend 
to the fame. Nay, they are more free in refpeft 
of us than other Nations, becaufe the Kings of 
S^ain have no Title to 'em as their Subjeds by 
right of Inheritance, or that of Purchafe, or of 
Conqueft, as they might have had, if they had 
been conquer'd in a lawful War, that had bin for- 
mally declar'd, for the revenge of fome great 
Offence which the Indians might have commited 
againft the Spaniards^ or againft the univerfal 
Church, or fome very confiderable Member of it, 
for which they had refus'd Satisfadion when de- 
hianded : or if they had unjuftly retain'd any Lands 
or Goods of which they were unlawfully pofTefs'd. 


2i8 A Relation of the Spanifh Voyages 
But on the contrary, they have frankly and volun- 
tarily fubmitted themfelves to your Majefty. And 
yet they have bin hitherto not only negleded, but 
treated by the Spaniards^ as wild Bealts are by Hun- 
ters, tho they never did any thing to deferve fuch 
ill ufage. They have yet feen nothing to convince 
'em of your Majefty's Grandure, Juflice, Goodnefs, 
and Magnificence, having found nothing but Ty- 
ranny, Violence, Injufticc and Cruelty from the 
Spaniards your Subjeds, whofe ill Aftions and bad 
Examples render 'era infamous j fo that the Indians 
look upon 'em as the vileft of Men. And this makes 
'em think upon the Kings of Spain with horror, 
who yet never gave 'em occafion to entertain fuch 
thoughts of 'em. But they fancy your Majefty per- 
fectly knows all the ill treatment they endure, and 
that 'tis by your Confent and Approbation^ they 
believe 'tis all done by your order, and that you 
give your Protedion and Favour to thofe that infult 
over 'em. 

The Title your Majefty has to the Indians is 
founded only on the Obligation you have taken 
upon your felf to have 'em inftruded into the true 
Faith, as appears by the Apoftolic Briefs granted 
on this account : which ought to engage your Ma- 
jefty to moderate your Government fo much the 
more, and to treat 'em with the greater tendernefs 
and kindnefs. The Kings of Spain fhould fignalize 
the Firft-fruits of their Soveraignty over the Indies, 
by the tokens of Peace and Love to thefe People, 
and by taking care to furnifh 'em with good Ex- 
amples : In a word, they ought to treat 'era'as their 
Neighbors and natural Subjects, for fear the com- 
miffion of any Injuftice or Cruelty among 'era (hould 
prejudice 'em againft the Chriftian Faith, and in- 
difpofe 'em to receive the Counfils and Maxims of 
our Religion. There fhould not be the leaft occa- 


and Cruelties in the Weft-Indies. 219 

Hon given 'em on any account to blafpheme the 
^ Name of God, - which would be an Obllacle to the 
' great end of their Gonverfion. Nothing (hould be 
left undone, that may make 'em love your Majefty, 
and induce 'em to praife God on finding them- 
felves under a Government fo eafy and commodious. 
They deferve in fome refped to be dealt with after 
this manner, becaufe of the freedom of their birth, 
which makes it unjufl for any to violate their Li- 
berty. 'Tis neceflary for the Honor of the Chrif- 
tian Religion, that they embrace it voluntarily, 
bfcaufe God himfelf will have men miake a free 
choice in matters of Religion ^ nor is any man 
whatfoever to be treated with violence in this cafe, 
and forc'd to embrace a Religion againft his Will. 
And temporal Princes commit a great piece of in- 
juftice, if they put a force on the minds of their 
Subjects in a bufinefs wherein they ought to have an 
entire liberty of Confcience : they ihould rather 
obferve the Rules which God, the Univerfal Sove- 
raign of all his Creatures, has conftituted. There 
is no Power or Authority on Earth that has a right 
to violate the Liberty of any People, becaufe 'tis 
the moil valuable thing they poflefs, and preferable 
to all other things in the World. Hence it is there 
are fuch advantageous Conltitutions in the Civil 
Law in favor of Liberty. And the particular Cus- 
toms of the Kingdom of S^ain prefcribe that no- 
thing be determin'd in prejudice of a Man's Liberty 
in doubtful things, nor the leafl force or conftraint 
put upon men that are free. And v;hen their con- 
sent to any thing is violently extorted, it ought not 
to be imputed to 'em, becaufe 'tis an infringement 
of the Law of Nature. 

If 'tis unlawful to feize on the Goods of Men that 
are free without caufe, much more is it to offer 
violence to their Perfons, and to inflave 'em, which 


210 A Relation of the Spanlfh Voyages 

is the greatefl Injury they can receive next to the 
lofs of Life it felf. If a Father can't choofe himfelf 
another Heir without the confent of his Son, who 
has a natural Title either to the whole, or at leaft 
a 4r/; part of his Father's Eftate 9 much lefs may 
inferior Lords pretend to a right of appropriating 
the Kings Subjects to themfelves, unlefs his Majefty 
confent by abandoning his own Right,whichis found- 
ed on the voluntary Agreement of his Subjeds. If 
the current Mony of the Kingdom can't be alter'd 
without the People's confent, becaufe the alterati- 
on may be attended with great Inconveniences j 
much lefs can the People themfelves be taken from 
the Dominion of the King againft their Will, and 
fubjeded to the abfolute Power of private Mafters ^ 
becaufe this forc*d Change is a Violation of their Li- 
berty. It muft be farther added, that fuch as arc 
tributary to your Majefty, can't pafs under the JuriC- 
dii^ion of another Perfon, which would be more 
uneafy and difadvantageous to 'em, and under which 
they would perhaps be condemn'd to a more fervile 
and laborious Gourfe of life. How much more 
ought they who enjoy an entire liberty under any 
Prince's Goverm'nent,to be prefervM in the poffeflion 
of their Privileges ^ and how injurious would it be 
to deliver 'em up as VaiTals to particular Lords, 
who would probably abufe their Authority, and 
treat their Perfons with violence, as well as greatly 
prejudice 'em in their Eftates ? 'Tis moft injurious 
both to the Lives and Liberties of Men, to depend 
on divers Lords and Mafters, becaufe their Service 
and Labors multiply according to the number of 
thofe under whofe jurifdidion they are : And 'tis to 
be prefumM they will not be all alike juft and equita- 

'Tis very much the Interefl of Princes, not to fuf- 
fer the number of their Subjeds to be diminifh'd, 


and Cruelties in the Weft-Indies. 221 

becaufe it will deprive 'em of much of the advan- 
tage and fervice they may reafonably exped from 
'em. And 'tis as much the Intereft of Subjeds, not 
Vo fuffer themfelves to be transfer'd from the Do- 
minion of the Prince under which they have always 
liv'd, to that of an inferior Mailer. Thofe that 
know the difference between the Government of 
Kings, and that of particular Lords, which is ufual- 
ly hard and fevere, will do any thing to be fecurc 
from the latter ^ while they are well pleas'd with 
the former, and readily difpofe themfelves to bear 
a Yoke that appears fo much eafier and lighter 
than the other. And this is the reafon why the ge- 
nerality of Men do all they can to avoid falling un- 
der the dominion of private Men to the prejudice 
of that Royal Jurifdidion to which they have been 
continually accuflom'd. And this Sentiment is juf- 
tified by the fufFrage of all wife Men, and favor'd 
by all juft Laws. 

'Tis a general Rule, that a Prince can do nothing 
that may caufe any confiderable damage to his Sub- 
jeds, unlefs they freely give their own confent : 
And this your Majefty every day obferves, where- 
in you follow the fteps of your Anceltors, who to 
avoid doing any thing contrary to the rules of Juf- 
tice and Equity, frequently us'd to aflemble their 
Council, and to take their advice who werePer- 
fonsof great Wifdom and Senfe, and to make a due 
improvement of it. In the prefent affair, it would 
be injurious to the Indians to give 'em up to the Spa- 
niards as their Vaffals, becaufe they ufe *em fo bar- 
baroufly, and reduce 'em to the utmoft degree of 
Servitude. And fuch a matter as this is not to be 
concluded, without propofing it to the Indians^ and 
obtaining their confent. For thus to change their 
condition without confulting 'em, were to put a 
treacherous trick upon 'em againft the Laws of Na- 

222 J R elation of the Spanifh Voyage f 

ture, Juftice and Chanty, becaufe this fubjedion 
would be to a fevere and tyrannical Power ^ as is 
evident by what the Indians have hitherto met with 
from the Spaniards. Befide, fuch an alteration would 
be contrary to the Will and Law of God, becaufe 
it would hinder the progrefs of the Catholic Faith, 
and infpire the Indians with hatred to the Gofpel, 
and would tend to the general deftrudion of thofe 
People whom your Majelly is bound to preferve and 
proteft. This you owe 'em from a motive of Cha- 
rity and Zeal for the good of your Neighbor, as you 
are a Chriflian Prince, and moreover by the Obli- 
gation of your Office, as the Vice-gerent of Jefus 

From all the Reafons alledg'd, it may well be con- 
cluded, that if even the Indians themfelves would 
voluntarily confent to be inflav'd, and utterly re- 
nounce their Liberty ^ yet this confent of theirs 
would be void and null of it felf, becaufe a thing 
every way fo mifchievous ought by no means to be 
tolerated. Your Majefty would be oblig'd by the 
Law of God to hinder 'em from ruining themfelves 
in fuch a manner ^ becaufe the Tyranny the Spa- 
niards exercife over 'em is fo great, that many of 
the Indians have fallen into utter defpair under their 
unfufferable Impofitions, and chofen rather to ftab 
or poifon themfelves than to pine away gradually 
under their miferable Bondage : Others have fled 
into the Mountains, where they have become a Prey 
to Tigers and Lions ^ others have died merely with 
Sorrow and Anguifh, when they found they were 
condemn'd to a Life fo full of Mifery and Toil, 
without any hope of refpit or mitigation. I knew 
a Spaniard who was fo famous for his Cruelty, that 
above two hundred People kill'd themfelves, forae 
one way and fome another, to avoid his Barbarities 
i.i HifpanioU : A like number underwent the fame 


and Cruelties in the Weft-Indies. 22^ 

fate i^ the Ifle of Cuha^ where this Tyrant exercis'd 
his Violence and Rapine. 

But tho the common Intereft of all Nations in 
the World ought to prevent their Kings from alie- 
nating them from their own Dominion to make 'em 
the VafTals and Subjects of private Men, and tho this 
is founded on natural Reafon and Juftice •, yet fome- 
times in prefling Exigencies Princes may alienate a 
part of their Territories to extricate themfelves out 
of fome great and perplexing diiRculty, from which 
they cannot otherwife get free. For inftance, if 
they have no other courfe to take for the defence of 
the Commonwealth, it feeras lawful for 'em to ex- 
change the Jurifdidion they have over their Subjeds, 
provided they fome way indemnify 'em, or repair 
any damage this exchange may occafion. But 'twould 
be impoflible to indemnify the Indians if they fliould 
be left to the Dominion of the Spaniards^ who bring 
upon 'em inexpreffible Calamities and Mifchiefs, that 
can never be repair'd by any advantage they may 
allow 'em ^ for they take a courfe to deflroy both 
their Souls and Bodies. Therefore feeing the Con- 
verfion of the Indians depends principally on your 
Majefiy's Title and Jurifdidion over 'em, you ought 
not to do any thing that may blafl the hope of this 
Defign, and will infallibly hinder thefe People from 
embracing Chriftianity. And it muft be remem- 
ber'd they have freely and willingly chofe your Ma- 
jefty for their Soveraign, which is a kind of Con- 
trad they have made with your Majefly, that can- 
not be violated without their Confent, unlefs it be 
to put 'em in a condition more eafy, advantageous 
and fecure, than what they enjoy under your Ma- 
jelly's Dominion. And your Majefty is oblig'd to 
promife and fwear to 'em, that >ou will always 
preferve their Privileges, as they are ordinarily kept 
in the generality of Kingdoms, when a free People 


224 -^"^ Relation of the Spanifh Voyages 

fnbmit themfelves to the Government of a new 
King. This Practice is almofl as antient as the 
World, for ever finceMen began to fpread them- 
felves upon the face of the Earth, it has always been 
the cuftora of Princes to promife and fwear to 'em to 
employ all their Power in preferving and defending 
'era from OpprefTion. Which evidently proves that 
your Majefty has not power to give up the Ind'tam 
to the abfolute Dominion of the Spaniards^ who 
have had the cruelty to deftroy fuch numerous Na- 
tions of 'em, without any legal Procefs, or leave to 
make their Defence. For it would be to ad contra- 
ry to the Law of God and Nature to expofe 'em to 
fo many Miferies, which are as fo many invincible 
Obftruftions to hinder 'em from turning Chriftians. 
Nor is there any Prince on Earth, who can juflly 
pretend to have fuch a Power: for Soveraign 
Princes have no Authority to do any thing that may 
provoke the Juftice of God, who has not fet 'enj 
over their People for their ruin and deftrudion, or 
for the overthrow of the Church j but on the con- 
trary has fet 'em in the World to defend the Church, 
to bring their People to efpoufc the true Faith, and 
edify 'em in it. 

Reafon and the Law of Nature dired that thofe 
who have made an ill ufe of the Privileges granted 
to 'em, ihould be deprived of 'era. Now the Jurif- 
didion allow'd the Spaniards over the Indians was 
only on condition they would inftrud 'em in Reli- 
gion, and defend 'em from their Enemies ^ and they 
have not only fallen fliort of this Engagement, but 
even barbaroully abus'd thofe they were oblig'd to 
pi-oted. 'Tis remarkable in the Laws of Spain^ 
that if a Mafter treats any one of his Slaves inhu- 
manly, he is oblig'd to fell him, becaufe 'tis but juft 
that he who tyrannizes over his Subjeds fhould lofe 
his Jurifdidion over 'em, which of right devolves 


And Cruelties in the Wef!-Indlesl i5 2 J 

dn the Prince. He that abufes his Title is not wor- 
thy to poflefs it : and a Man neither owes Homage 
nor Obedience to a Tyrant. So that your Majefty 
ought in quality of Soveraign Lord of the People 
of the New World, to defend 'em, and do 'em 
Jullice, when they are wrong'd \ and confequently 
to refcue 'em from the power of the Spaniards, that 
they may enjoy their Liberty. 

'Tis moreover a Cuftom eftablifh'd by the Laws 
of Spain^ That if the King grant any Privilege 
contrary to the Catholic Faith, 'tis null and void, as 
much as if it were contrary to the civil Good and 
Welfare of the Kingdom, or to the Rights of any 
particular Perfons. And the fame account is to be 
made of any Privilege given contrary to the Law 
of Nature: as for example, if a King fliould take 
away any private Man's Eftate, to beftow it on ano- 
ther. Therefore your Majefly cannot diveft the na- 
tural Princes of the Indians of their Dominion over 
'em, to inveft: the Spaniards with it, who not only are 
Foreigners to 'em,but alio treat 'em after a tyrannical 
manner. 'Tis therefore neceflary for your Majefty^ 
to revoke fo unjull a Privilege, deftrudive to the 
People, and diredly oppofit to the Catholic Faith, 
as well as to your Majefty's Service, the advantage 
of your Kingdom in general, the good of many 
Members of the Commonwealth in particular, and 
which is contrary to Reafon, and the Law of Na« 

'Tis farther conftituted by the Cuftoms of Spaing 
in conformity to the Imperial Laws of your Ma- 
jefty, as well as thofe of the Church, that when a 
Privilege in procefs of time proves injurious, and 
occalions more hurt than good, it ought to be im- 
mediately aboli(h'd, without fo much as confulting 
the Prince that granted it j becaufe from that very 
pioment wherein this Privilege began to be detri- 

Q. ' mentaL 

226 A Relation of the Spanifli Foyages 

mental, it ought to be fuppos'd the Prince dcfign'd 
to revoke it : fo that it can have no more force or 
authority, becaufe not according to the Prince''s In- 
tention, who always ought to have Equity and the 
Divine Will in view. Now fince the Privilege 
granted the Spaniards to fubjed the Indians as Vaflals 
is become lb pernicious, and occafions an irrepa- 
rable damage to the Chriftian Religion, and to the 
Crown of S^ain^ and lias bin the caufe of the ruin 
of fuch vafl numbers of People, and of the defola- 
tion of fome of the fineft Countries in the World ; 
and feeing in all appearance it is the very reafon of 
thofe Calamities with which God is now affliding 
S^ain^ 'tis neceflary to apply a fpeedy Remedy, and 
to go to the root of the Difeafe, in revoking fo 
pernicious and tyrannical a Grant. 

Befides, the Dominion of the Spaniards over the 
Indians has never bin judicially approved by the 
Kings of Spin. He that firfl fhar'd thefe poor 
People among 'em, as if they had been fo many 
Sheep, had no order to make this diftribution, 
which abfolutely defolated and unpeopled NewSpain^ 
but exceeded the limits of his Power ^ fo that no juft 
Confequence can be drawn from what he did. It 
was the great General d^ Alcantara who began this 
irregular courfe in America. In the year 1 502, the 
moll ferene King Ferdinando and Queen JfaheUa fent 
General De-Lares from Grenada to govern the new 
Conquelts : At which time there were but three 
hundred Chriitians in the Ifland of Hifpaniola. This 
Governor was cxprefly charg'd to treat the Indians 
as free Nations •, to be very kind, tender and chari^ 
table toward 'em, to do 'em exad Juflice on all 
occafions, and not to impofe too fevere a Yoke on 
'em, or to inflave 'em ; in a word, to proted 'em 
"from all Injuries, left any Violence Ihould prove a 
Stumbling-block to divert 'em from entertaining 


and Cruelties in the Weft-Indie^' &f 

the Chriftian Faith, and infpire 'em with an averfion 
to the Profeflbrs of it. Gt\\Qx:x\De- Laves (Tarried 
with him three thonfand Spaniards^ who landed 2^t 
St. Domingo^ where they foon foli'nd themfelve^'re- 
dnc'd to great' ftraits for wahtof.Food. However, 
the flrid Orders he 'had receiV'd would not permic 
him to do any Violence to the Indians, or to infringe 
their Liberty in the leaft ^ upon which he writes 
many things to the Queen againft the Indians, loop- 
ing to render 'erti odious to hei" by his Lies and 
Slanders, that he might have leave to abufe the popr 
Wretches at his'pleafure. Among other things be 
wrote,. that it would be impoflible to preac^^ ^Jie 
Chriliian Faith to 'em, as long as they were fiiffer'd 
to enjoy an entire Freedom, becaufe they indnflri- 
oufly avoided, all manner of acquaintance with the 
Chriftians j in fo much that they refus'd to Work 
for 'em, tho they ofFer'd 'em Wages for their L,a- 
bor, and chofc rather to wander ilp and down a§ 
Vagabonds, than to keep company vvith Chriftians 
to inform themfelves of their Religion. As if jic 
thought the Iwi/rfwi we're oblig'd to divine that 
there 'was a new. Religion to b6 preach'd to 'cm, 
which they ought to embrace; or that they oint^t^ 
as poor as they are, to forfake their Houfes, Wives 
and Children, and to leave their Lands unmanur'd,, 
to come to feek the Spaniards^ and fo expofe them- 
felves to die with Hunger in a Journey it may be of 
two hundred Leagues or more; or as if they were 
Under any obligation to undergo the fatigue of bririgr 
ing Provifion to the Spaniards fuclj a tedious way, as 

this. ' ' , ' '' ■ ' ' ' ■ '' -"^ 

His Majefty, who was fincerely :zcalous fbi^ t'he 
Salvation of thefe Idolaters, and publifhing the 
Name of Chrift in the New World, anfwer'd the 
General after this manner : '' We very ardently 
** ^efire the Converfion of the Indiam to our iioly 

228 J Relation of the Spanifh Voyages 

*' Faith, and that they be taught the Myfteries of 
*' the Catholic Religion ^ and think it neceflary to 
"" the fuccefs of this Defign, that the Indians and 
*' Spaniards converfe and live together. Therefore 
" we by thefe Prefents command you to oblige the 
*' Indians to deal with the Spaniards of Hifpaniolaj 
" and to have Converfation with 'em, to alTifb 'em 
'' in building their Houfes, and in getting Gold and 
" other Metals out of the Mines, and to pay 'em 
" their Wages exadly, according to their labor 
" and defert. You Ihall likcwife order every Ca- 
" ciquc to have a certain number of Indians always 
" in a readinefs to be employ'd in fuch Work as 
" fhall be affign'd 'em, provided that care be taken 
" to preach to 'em, and inftrud 'em in the Word 
*' of God on all Holy-days, and that they be always 
*' treated as Free- men, and not as Slaves j and be- 
** fure let them meet with no ill ufage, nor have any 
*' occafion to complain : Yet let fome diftinSion be 
" ftill made in favor of fuch as embrace the Faith. 
*' But let no Perfon be permitted to wrong 'em, or 
•' give 'em the leaft difgufl in any thing whatfoever. 
Thefe are the very words of the Letter which the 
King fent to the Governor of the Indies^ by which 
his Majelty fufEciently fignified that his principal 
defign in the Indies was the Salvation of thofe Ido- 
laters, and that for that end they (hould converfe 
with the Spaniards, which plainly proves he had no 
other regard to this Commerce betwixt the Chrifli- 
ans and thefe Infidels, but only as a neceflary means 
for their Converfion. And it muft be farther ob- 
ferv'd, that when the King gives order to obligo^ 
each Cacique to fend the Spaniards a certain number 
of Indians to work for 'em, on condition of being 
paid for their Labor, he did not intend that all the 
Men in the Indies Ibould be bound to perform fuch 
Tasks, much lefs that the Women, Children, old 


unci Cruelties in the Weft-Indies. 229 

Men, and Chiefs of each Nation, whom the Indians 
look upon as their natural Princes, fliould be thus 
treated. The King defign'd there (hould be due 
confideration had of their Neceflities, that they 
Ihould have liberty to provide for their Wives and 
Children, and go every night home to refiefli them- 
lelves with their Families, and fleep in their own 
Houfes. And it may be farther remarked in the 
King's Patent, that he did not in the leaft delign 
the Indians Ihould be made to work every day and 
without intermifllon, feeing it provides they fhould 
be paid daily after their Labor j his intention was 
that they Ihould be engag'd by fair means to do 
what was requir'd of 'em, and not forc'd to it whe- 
ther they would or no ^ in Ihort, that they fhould 
be us'd in all refpeds as a free People. Befides, the 
King commanded that all their Labors Ihould be 
moderate, and proportionate to their Strength, and 
that they (hould reft on Holy-days and Sundays, that 
their Wages ihould be futable to' their Work, fuffi- 
cient to encourage 'em in taking pains, and to re- 
lieve their Families in all their doraeftick NecefU- 

If the King had a perfeQ: account of the nature 
of the Land in the Indiesy of the Weaknefs, Pover- 
ty, Meeknefs and good humor of the Inhabitants, 
of the rigor and feverity of their Labors, and the 
great difficulty of getting Gold out of the Mines ; 
if he knew the defolate ftate in which they are often 
left, and the little care taken to engage 'em to re- 
ceive the Sacraments before they die, he would 
without doubt employ fome efFedual means to put 
an end to thefe Diforders. The firft Admiral of 
the Indies^ who made the difcovery of this New 
World, though the afted conformably to the King's 
Intereft in rendering the Indians of Mm Spain tri- 
butary, by obliging 'em to dig a certain quantity 

0.3 of 

2^ o^ u4 R elatioK- of. the Spanlfli Voyages 

of Gold out of the Mines, and condemning others 
that were remote from any Mines to other kinds of 
Tribute. Some of the Spaniards he carried with 
him, Ihook ofF the Obedience they ow'd tiie King, 
and fet up for fo many Tyrants, committing Vio- 
lence and Spoil beyond what can be eafily imagin'd 
in the Province of Xavagua^ one of the fineft and 
mofl populous Countries in the Indies. The King 
being inform'd of thefe Ravages, wrote his mind 
to General De-Lares, and order'd him to put a flop 
to the Cruelty and Violence of the Spaniards on the 
Indians^ and to govern 'em as a free People, which 
Orders were not well executed : For the Spaniards- 
fliut up tjie Indians by force in the Mines, to employ 
'em in the toilfom work of digging for Gold, which 
requires a very robuft Conftitution : And v/hea 
they had got this Gold, they were forc'd to be all 
day in the Water to wafli it. At firfl the Indians 
were kepf in the Mines for a whole year, till the, 
Spaniards found they were not able to endure fuch 
hard and continual Labor, and therefore gave 'em 
fome time of refpite, contenting theraielves to 
keep 'em only for five Months in digging Gold, after 
which they employ'd 'em forty days in melting it.' 
This they pretended was a time of reft for thefe 
poor Creatures, tho this latter fort of Work is 
more toilfom than that of grubbing up of Roots, 
and clearing Ground that isover-run with Wood: 
fo that they don't know what a Holy-day or Sun- 
day mearis throughout the whole year. They are 
fometimes almoft famifh'd, having nothing given 
'em fave afew dry Roots that yield but little Nu- 
triment-^ Tho the moft liberal of the Spaniards difr 
tribute, 3 Porker once a week among half a hundred 
Indians^ which is little more thai! everyone a tafte. 
Kay fome of *em have not been willing to give the 
Vidians th^t fei'v'd 'em any thing at all to eat, but 


^nd Cruehies in the Weft-Indies. 2^ i 

out of mere Avarice fent 'ein to feed like Beads in 
the fields, or to gather fjuit upon the Mountains, 
after which they forc'd 'em to work two or three 
days together without eating. One Man frankly 
confefs'd to me that he had got a great Eflate in a 
little time by this kind of frugality. What ftrength 
can Bodies that are naturally of a tender Conflitu- 
tion be fuppos'd to have when fed after this manner, 
and opprefs'd befides with exceflive Labor? 'Tis 
impoffible they Ihould fublilt long under this cruel 
Bondagej which makes 'em lead a forrowful, lan- 
guifliing and miferable Life, being deltitute both of 
convenient Food and Reft. 

Tho the King order'd each Indian to be paid in 
proportion to his Work, that they might have fome- 
thing to live on, and be capable of buying them- 
felves Necelfaries ^ this Command has been ill ob- 
ferv'd, for they had nothing at all for many years j 
fo that they were put to the greateft Extremity, 
and fuffcr'd Hunger to that degree that they defir'd 
nothing more than to die, that they might find an 
end of their Miferies. Thefe are the Calamities 
the poor Indians have fuffer'd in the Service of 
Chrillians, who have had no regard either to their 
Souls or Bodies. 

As for thofe Orders that have been given the 
Spaniards to treat the Indians as a free People, not 
to over-charge 'em with Labor, not to do 'em any 
Injuftice, and to let 'em mind their own Affairs, 
and order their bufinefs as they faw good, they have 
bin no more heeded than the other. For they have 
been made mere Slaves, and certainly have not fo 
much liberty as Beafts. And the Spaniards^ as good 
Chriftians as they are, are not at all mov'd by all 
the Calamities thefe poor Wiretchesundergo,but look 
upon them as the vilelt of Slaves, and not fit to have 
the liberty of doing any thing they have a mind to 

0.4 do. 

'552 A Relation of the Spanifh Voyages 

do. They are conftantly expos'd to the Cruelty of 
thefe Tyrants, and not treated like human Crea- * 
tures, but wild Beads, who are kept in Chains by 
their Owners, and difpos'd of at their pleafure. 
If they fometimes let 'em go to their own Country, 
they will not fufFer 'em to carry their Wives and 
Children with 'cm, nor hardly any thing to eat *, fo 
that they are prefently conftrain'd to return, while 
the Refiedion they make on their deplorable Con- 
dition often makes 'em defire death to relieve 'em. 
if the exceflive Labors impos'd on 'cm make 'cm 
lick, as it often happens (becaufe, as I have ob- 
ferv'd, the natural Temper of their Bodies is none 
of the ftrongeft ) the Spaniards do not in the leaft 
pity their Con^Jition, but opprefs 'em with intole- 
rable Tasks, reproaching 'era as lazy, and only 
feigning themfelves ill to be excus'd from Labor. 
And when they fee their Sicknefs increafe, fo that 
they become unferviceable, they fend 'em to their 
own Country, which is fometimes forty or fifty 
Leagues diftance, giving 'em nothing but a few fap- 
lefs Roots to eat by the way, fo that they often die 
miferably, not being able to accomplifh fuch a Jour- 
ney. Sometimes we find fome of 'em on the Road 
juft ready to expire, others groaning hideoufly in 
the Agonies of Death, and others quite dead. Thofe 
of 'em that are able to fpeak, fay nothing but Hun- 
ger. Hunger. Your Majefty by this account may fee 
that the Governor of the New World had little 
regard to the Orders that were given him, to treat 
the Indians as a free People. 

That Governor was exprefly charg'd not to do 
any thing to the Indians that might hinder ^em from 
receiving the Principles of the Chriftian Religion, 
or prejudice their Lives or Health, becaufe the King 
had no defign to deflroy 'em : yet this Man faw in- 
finit numbers of 'em perilh that were imploy'd ia 
' "^ - . • melting" 

dftd Cruelties in the Weft-Indies. 255 

melting of Gold. The Labors exaded of 'em were 
like a furious Peftilence, which cuts off multitudes 
of People in a little time ^ and yet this fad Spedacle 
could not engage him to revoke his cruel Orders, 
or fo much as mitigate the feverity of 'em. How- 
ever he knew well enough that he was not able to 
cxcufe his Proceedings either before God or the 
King, being exprefly contrary to the Charge that 
had been given him; and therefore us*d fo much 
Subtilty and Artifice in the management of this 
Affair, that none of his Cruelties on the Indians 
were known in Spain for thofe feven years in which 
he tyrannized over the New World. They that 
came after him, trod in his fteps by deftroying the 
Indians^ tho his Catholic Majefty recommended it 
to 'em to induce the Indians to receive the Catholic 
Faith, by fliewing allkindnefs to 'em, and not to 
make War upon 'em on the account of Religion, or 
to conftrain 'em to embrace Chriftianity by force, 
but rather to treat 'em as the King's Liege People, 
impofing a certain Tribute on 'em, as on his other 
Subjeds. All this was exprefs'd in the Inftrudions 
given to Pedrarias, when he was made Governor of 
the Indies ^ notwithftanding which he enter'd Ame- 
rica juil as a hungry Wolf falls on a flock of Sheep, 
and made horrible (laughters on all fides, ufing fuch 
unheard of Torments, and making fuch wafte and 
fpoil, that nothing like it is to be found in any 
Hiftory. He might have been look'd upon as a 
heavy Plague, fent by God to execute his Wrath in 
extirpating the Indians. This Man, and thofe that 
accompanied him, cheated your Majefty of five or 
fix Millions of Gold, and 'tis impoflible to compute 
the Spoil they made in the Indies. They depopulate4 
a Country of above four hundred Leagues, as rich, 
fertil and pleafant as any in the World. AH this 
Tyranny was us'd to make the Ittdiam deliver up 


SJ4 -^ Relation of the Spanifh Voyages 
all their Gold : But by the juft Judgment of God 
they made no great advantage of their Robberies ^ 
and it would have bin more for their interelt to 
have kept the Indians alive, and to have made a coa- 
liderable Profit out of their hard Labors. If a par- 
ticular account fhould be given your Majefly of all 
the Diforders committed by the Spaniards in the 
noble Province of Nicaraqua^ your Majefly would 
be aflonifh'd ^ and if they had not ftill continued 
their Tyranny over thefe poor People, every day 
killing and deftroying 'em, I fliould not have ex- 
pos'd my felf to the fatigue of fo tedious and trou- 
blefom a Voyage, to give your Majefly an account 
of it. When your Majefly isalTur'd that the Spani^ 
ards have depopulated fo many vafl and noble King- 
doms, and that they ftill continue todeflroy what- 
ever efcap'd the fury of former Governors ^ when 
you are convinc'd that they have carried Fire and 
Sword through feven Kingdoms that are larger than 
Spain^ your Majefly will eafily be perfwaded that 
,what I have faid is no Exaggeration. I have feen 
thefe Kingdoms in a manner as full of People as 
Hives are of Bees, where now there are none to be 
found, having been all murder'd by the Spaniards ; 
fo that there are only naked Walls and empty 
Houfes to be feen in many once populous Cities. 
The Orders given by the moll Catholic Queen Jfa- 
bella to General Ds-Lares were very prudent and 
ufeful, but he did not think fit to obferve'em ^ and 
the Relation he gave the King and Queen of matters 
from time to time, were very far from Truth, tho 
fupported by the Tellimony of divers Indians. He 
aded quite contrary to the Inflrudions given him, 
violating all the Rules of the Law of Nature and 
Reafon -^ by which 'tis evident he went beyond his 
Commiffion, aiid prevaricated in thofe Letters he 
direded to the Council of Spain^ by intermixing 


and Cruelties in the Weft-Indies. 255 

Falftioods in his account, and difguifing what was 
true. And 'tis certain if your Majefty had been 
inform'd how tyraniucally this Governor treated 
the Indians^ you would never have entrufted your 
Authority in his hands ^ and by confequence your 
Majefly is oblig'd to declare that you deteft the Pro- 
ceedings of this Governor as injuft and tyrannical, 
and to abrogate all he has done, and declare that 
the Indians ought not to have been fubjefted to the 
Dominion of particular Men, and that all the In- 
juries they have fuffef d are contrary to the Law of 
God and Nature, as well as to the Imperial and 
Canon Laws ^ feeing they have been tormented in 
their Perfons, raolelted in their Liberty and Eftates, 
and condemned to die. Your Majelty is oblig'd, as 
you are a juft Prince, and an Enemy to Violence, to 
fupprefs thefe vexatious Pradices, and to deliver the 
poor Indians from the Tyranny of thofe that have 
opprefs'd and tormented 'em. 

If your Majeily negleft to take this cruel Yoke 
from their Necks, they will infallibly perifli. And " 
that lovely Country which is naturally fruitful and 
populous will foon become a vail Defert ^ for the 
Spaniards that go thither, don't go to people the 
Country, but to inrich thcmfelves by pillaging it. 
Thofe that have lately gon into Hifpaniola, and 
other depopulated places, and carried thither the 
Commodities of Europe^ have not been able to dif- 
pofe of 'em, there not being People to buy 'em : So 
that thefe Diforders are diredly oppout to your 
Majefty's Interelt •, for what advantage can you re- 
ceive from the ruin of thofe People ? And what will 
the World fay of fo juit a Prince as your Majeily, 
if when you are inform'd of the mifchief don by 
your Subjects in thofe vail Kingdoms, and among 
fuch multitudes of People, you ftould not apply fu- 
table Remedies to fo dangerous a Difeafe ? It can't 


2^6 A Relation of the Spanlfh Voyages 

be thought that your Majefty, whofe Mind abounds 
with fo much Goodnefs, and fo great a Zeal for 
Equity and Juftice, can tolerate fuch cruel Opprefll- 
ODS as thefe. 

To what has been faid, it may be added, to de- 
monftrate that the power the Spaniards have over 
the Indians is prejudicial to the Crown of Spain^ 
that by this means your Majefty lofes an infinit 
number of Subjeds, who are every day cut off with- 
out any lawful occafion •, whereas if fufFer'd to live, 
they would chearfully fubmit to your Majefly's Go- 
vernment when they faw the difference between 
your Majefty 's Yoke, and that Slavery in which 
they are held by their private Mafters. If your 
Majefty had once received 'em into the number of 
your Subjects, fo that they might be fecur'd from 
the inhuman Severities they now daily endure, they 
would love and ferve your Majefty with incredible 
Zeal, being naturally inclin'd to be very fubmiffivc 
to their Princes. 

Your Majefty may farther confider, that you lofe 
imraenfe Riches by the cruel depopulation of the 
Indies^ which otherwife you might juftly acquire j 
for 'tis impofllble for the Spaniards to fubfift long in 
the Indies^ if the Natives be exterminated. And 
thofe Treafures fufficient to enrich all Spain, would 
be no fmal] advantage to promote your Defigns, and 
enable you to refift your Enemies. If there come 
3!o Mony from the Indies, but that Spring of Trea- 
■fure be fafFerd to dry up, Spain muft necefTarily 
ioftain great Inconveniences for want of it. Ex- 
perience already ftiews that the Indies don't furnifli 
us with fo great a quantity as in time paft, and 'tis 
likely to diminifh more and more for time to come. 
Befides, the manner of extorting it from the Indians 
can't polTibiy laft long, becaufe 'tis too violent a 
courfe. The Ifle of Hifpaniola is an unexceptionable 


mA Cruelties in the Weft-Indies. 237 

Inftance of what I fay *, for whereas above three 
Millions of very fine Gold were drawn out of it at 
firft, it cannot now afford the tenth part of that 
Sum. The leafl Refledion your Majefty can make 
will eafily convince you how your Revenues every 
day diminilh. Your Majefty has nothing certain and 
liable in the Indies^ if the Land be not cultivated, 
and the Inhabitants preferv'd for thofe Labors thac 
are fo advantageous. You have now but a fmall 
number of Indians in all New Spain, from whence 
your Majefty might annually have drawn a Million 
of Ducats, if the Indians had been preferv'd, and 
your Majefty's Interelt at iirft regarded. There 
have been yet greater Confufions and Diforders in 
Peru^ and the Mifchief daily increafes j from which 
Kingdom your Majefty might yearly receive two or 
three Millions of Gold if the Indians were not 
treated with fo much Injuftice and Inhumanity, ma- 
ny of *em having been murder'd, togther with their 
great King Atahalip. All the Gold the Chriftians 
have taken by force in Fern would of right have 
belong'd to your Majefty, becaufe that Indian Prince 
would have voluntarily prcfented himfelf to your 
Majefty with all his Treafures. The Church has 
likewife receiv'd great damage by thefe Cruelties ^ 
for as your Majefty has been fruftr^ted of thofe 
immenfe Riches, fo the Church has loft an infinit 
number of Souls who have perilh'd in their Igno- 
rance, when they might have been taught the Myfte- 
ries of our Faith : fo that the Lofles fuftain'd both 
by Church and State are irreparable. 

The Kingdom of Spain, which your Majefty rules 
with fo much Equity, is furrounded with Enemies, 
and in danger of being wafted and ruin'd by the 
Turks and Moors, thofe dedar'd Enemies of the 
. Catholic Faith : Becaufe God, who is the juft j«dg 
and Soveraign Lord of the Univerfe, is grievoufly 


2^8 A Relation of the Spanifh Voyages 

offended with the Violence and Madacres which the 
Spaniards have committed in the Indies^ where they 
have opprefl: and flaughter'd innumerable multi- 
tudes of People. Thefe Indians have rational Souk 
form'd after the image and likenefs of God, and 
ranfom'd by the Blood of his Son, who keeps an 
account of 'em, and will not think 'em of no value, 
how ignorant and barbarous foever they feem to 
•be. He was pleas'd to choofe Spain to the Service 
of carrying the Light of the Gofpel into the New 
World, and to engage thofe Nations to entertain 
the Chriftian Faith. And it feem'd as if the Al- 
mighty had difcover'd all thele Temporal Riches to 
the Spaniards^ as a recompenfe for thofe Spiritual 
Pleafures with which they were to enrich the Indies. 
But the he open'd a way for 'em into thofe valt 
Regions^ ib wealthy, fertil and pleafant, fo full of 
Mines of Gold, Silver and precious Stones \ inllead 
of being thankful for all thefe Favors, they have 
committed the moft hainous Crimes to provoke him. 
Now 'tis ufual for God to diftribute his Punilhments 
by a rule of proportion, adjufting them to the na- 
ture of the Offence. If Men fin by Pride, he covers 
'em with Confufion and Shame v if they get any 
. thing unjuftly through Avarice, he often fuffers 'em 
to lofe their own Goods *, and they that have ftolen, 
iare in turn rob'd themfelves. Thofe that opprefs 
and murder others, he permits to fall into the hands 
of fuch as treat 'em with the like Cruelty : They, 
that take away their Neighbors Wives and violate 
'em, have fometimes the fame Outrages committed 

■ on their own. And fuch as ufurp Kingdoms that 
don't belong to 'em, by God's Judgment come to 
fee their own Kingdoms invaded by their Enemies ; 
and thus it is with other Judgments which frequently 

■ apffwer the different kinds of Sin. The Holy Scrip- 
ture and other Hiltories are full of Inftances to thi$ 

h':' purpofe^ 

and Cruelties in the Weft-Indies* 2^9 

purpofe ^ and Experience every day furnifhes us 
with fuch marks of the Divine Difpleafure as thefe. 
The Moors once over-run Spain^ and this was in- 
terpreted as a Judgment from God to puniih the 
Crime of King Roderick^ who ravifh'd the Daughter 
of Count Don Julian^ tho 'tis more probable it was 
to punifh the Crimes of the People of S^ain^ and 
the Injuries they ofFer'd their Neighbours, and that 
the Crime of this King only fill'd up the meafure of 
thofe Vices. 

'Tis convenient to inform your Majefty what is 
thought by Perfons of the beft fenfe, whoare go- 
vern'd by no Prejudice, but only companionate the 
Sufferings of the poor Indians. I have heard many 
fuch Perfons fay, I pray God thefe extravagant 
Cruelties don't one day fall heavy upon Spain ! It 
may be fuch words as thefe that drop from many 
wife Men, are fo many Advertifements and Menaces 
from God, who has been highly incens'd againftthis 
Nation by the Crimes of the Spaniards. And we 
already fee that Spain is reduc'd to great Neceffities, 
and I^lony is very fcarce among us \ tho more Trea- 
fures have bin brought hither than Solomon poffefs'd 
in all his Glory : Moft of thofe that have brought 
thefe Riches from the Indies have made a miferablc 
end, and their Children are reduc'd to extreme 
Poverty, which juftifies the old Maxim, Vix gaudtt 
tertius Hceres^ the third Heir feldom enjoys an ill- 
gotten Eftate ^ and that Paflage of holy Scripture, 

He that opprejfeth the poor to increafe his Riches /haU 

furely come to want, Prov. 22. 16. Becaufe, as has 
bin faid, the Divine Judgments bear fome propor- 
tion to the Crimes that Men commit. If your Ma- 
.jefby have the curiofity to inform your felf of the 
detail of all thefe matters, we can fhew you a Lift 
.:of the principal Tyrants that have committed the 
greatelt Diforders in the Indies^ by pillaging and 
i malfa- 

240 ^ Relation of the Spanilh Voyages 

inaflacring thofe poor People, and have themfelves 
all died in a dreadful and defpairing manner. It 
feems their Violence and Cruelty, the great quan- 
tity of Blood fhed in the Maflacres they have com- 
mited, and their other vicious Adions, the efFeds 
of which arc yet to be feen, cry aloud to Heaven 
for Vengeance^ while the Tears, and Sighs, and 
Entreaties of fo many poor Innocents have iill'd 
Heaven and Earth, and put all the World into a 
Confternation, to the utter (hame and reproach of 
all the Spanifh Nation, and of the Kings of Spain 
too. Since then it depends only on your Majefty to 
lay the Ax to the Root of all thefe Diforders, and to 
do Juftice to thefe afflided People, it will be aa 
Argument of your Prudence and Equity to employ 
your Power to deliver the Indians from the terrible 
Oppreflions and Calamities under which they yet 

Your Majefty may be pleas'd farther to obferve, 
that if the Spaniards have an Authority given 'em 
over the Indians^ however it may be qualified, they 
will infallibly abufe it^ for being naturally proud, 
they'l become flill lefs obedient to your Majelly's 
Commands: Nay the immenfe Sums which they'l 
get in the Indies will enable 'em to confederate 
with other Nations, to withdraw their Allegiance 
entirely from your Majefty at long-run, and to fup- 
port one another in their Rebellion. We already 
fee that the richeft of 'em, that flatter themfelves 
with the Title of Conquerors, are fo intolerably 
prefumptuous, as to fet themfelves above the Rules 
of common Juftice. Your Majefty's Vice-roy faid 
not long fince in one of his Letters, that the Indians 
ought to acknowlege no other God nor King than 
himfelf. Your Majefty therefore fhould take it for 
granted that it is not confiftent with the Security of 
your Government, that there Ihould be any great 


and Cruelties tn the Weft-Indies. 241 

Lord in the Continent of the Wejl-Indies^ invelled 
with an abfolute Jurifdidion over the Indians \ this 
Power ought to be infeparable from your Royal 
Perfon : 'Tis not convenient for the future to give 
any one the Title of Count, Marquefs, or Duke over 
either the Indians or Spamards that are fetled there; 
becaufe 'twill prompt 'em to think too highly of 
them lei ves, and to advance themfelves above their 
Condition, which may have very mifchievous Con- 
fequences : In a word, this may probably open *em 
a way to make themfelves Kings of the Indies^ and 
thereby devefl your Majefly of Ae Right you have 
to thofe Countries. 

Nor will it be m<5ie fafe to trufl this Power in 
the hands of thofe Gentlemen that compofe your 
Majefty's Council in the Indies^ which may alfo be 
attended with Inconveniences*, for 'tis impoflible 
for the Affairs of America to be well adminiltred if 
the Members of that Council be abfolute Lords of 
the Indians: To be fure then the King of Spain 
fhall never know the truth of what palTes there j 
this would produce nothing but Fraud and Im- 
polture, and be an infallible means to compleat the 
Ruin of the Indies. They that govern in the Indies^ 
induftrioufly endeavour to prevent the Court of 
Spain from receiving any true Information how 
matters ftand there, that they may fecurely pillage 
the Country, and live at their own Difcretion. 
They have oppos'd thofe Friers whofe Zeal carried 
'em to America to preach, and have hinder'd 'em from 
reaping the fruit they might have expeded froni 
their Labors. The Judges and other Officers were 
afraid the Converfion of the Indians would be pre- 
judicial to their Temporal Intereft ^ and Avarice 
bore fway in their Minds inftead of that Zeal they 
ought to have had for the Salvation of thofe Infi- 
^lils. God is witnefs that this is true, and 'tis not 

R diScuIt 

242 A ReUtton of the Spanifh Voyages 
difficult to prove it. They continued to perfecute 
the Monks, till one of 'em, pitying them iferable 
cafe of thefe Idolaters, came on purpofe to inform 
the King of S^ain of the Violence of his Officers, 
and of the Obftrudions they rais'd againft the pub- 
lication of the Gofpel there. Cardinal Ximenes at 
that time manag'd the Affairs of Spain^ who being 
well informed of the Affairs in the Indies^ imme- 
diately refolv'd to devefl the Council there of the 
Jurifdidion they pretended to have over the Indians^ 
as being very pernicious. But the Kings of Spain 
are at fo vail a diltance from thofe Countries, that 
they have not been able fpeedily to redrefs all the 
preffing Grievances that inceflantly afflict thofe mi- 
ferable People. Their Laws and Orders given at 
fo great a diflance have no great Efficacy : and 'tis 
next to impoflible for 'em to have a true account 
what Perfecutions the Indians fuffer : Or if a true 
Information fhould be had, they can only give fome 
general Orders, without defcending to make fpe- 
cial provifion againft all thofe Mifchiefs that can't 
be well known unlefs they were upon the place 
where they are aded. Befides, the Perfons to whom 
thefe Orders are directed, commonly conceal 'em, 
or defer the execution of 'em ^ fo that when they go , 
about to fulfil 'em, 'tis too late, and the Remedies 
applied prove unfeafonable and ufelefs. Nay, they 
are often fo wicked as to ad- in dired contradidion 
to what is commanded 'em j and flatter themfelves 
with hopes of never being call'd to account, becaufe ! 
they are fo remote from Spain. 

If your Majefty would referve to your felf alone; 
the Jurifdidion of the Indies^ without fharing it; 
among the Spam(\rds^ it would be the greateft hap- 
pinefs imaginable to the Indians^ and nothing could: 
more rejoice 'em, becaufe then they would be con- 
vinc'd they Ihou^d be no more expos'd to the In- 


afid Cruelties in the Wefl- Indies* 241 

fults and Perfecutions of their Enemies j and would 
have fo great a refpeft for your Majelly, obey you 
fo univerfally, and love you fo fincerely, that they 
would be always ready to facrifice their Lives for 
your Service. You could then require nothing of 
'em, but they would do it chearfully, becaufe they 
feem to have a great propenfion to fubmit to 
your Royal Crown •, whereas if the Spaniards arg 
their abfolute Maflers, as their Obedience will 
be forc'd, (o it will be of no long continuance, 
and they'l do all they can to get free of fo fevers 
a Yoke. 

Moreover, when the Indians are once perfwaded 
they are under your Protedtion, that they may liv^ 
fafely in their own Houfes, and need fear no injury 
either in their Perfons or Goods ^ all that are re- 
tir'd to the Mountains will foon come down to dwell 
in the Plains, as they were wont heretofore. For 
abundance of 'em have retreated to avoid the Crii* 
elties of the Spaniards ^ and chufe rather to be de- 
vour'd by wild Beafts in the Mountains, than to fall 
into the hands of their Perfecutors, tho Chriftians. 
The poor Wretches fufFer a world of Inconveniences 
in thofe places whither they have retir'd, wanting 
almoft all the Neceflaries of Life : And 'tis impofli- 
ble to find 'em out to inftruft 'cm in the Chriilian 
Faith : whereas if they liv'd together in Towns and 
Cities, they might eafily be taught Religion, and a 
regular fort, of Government eflabiifh'd among 'em,^ 
whereby they would be brought to the Service or 
the True God, which would become familiar to 'em : 
By this means the Ground would be cultivated, the 
Roads frequented and rcnder'd more fafe, and the 
Country no longer be defert and forlorn : The 
Spaniards would be fupplied with Provilions, and 
convenient places to lodg in on their Journeys, and 
have a tlioufand other Advantages of which they 

R 2 at<§ 

244 ^ delation of the Spanifli Voyages 

are now deprivd by the Indians deferting their Ha- 

Your Ma jelly may remember that after a mature 
examination of this Affair by many learned Men 
and able Divines, they unanimouHy declar'd, that 
the Dominion of the Indks could not be juftly given 
to private Men, nor difmember'd from your Ma- 
jelly's Crown. This Determination was lignified 
to Ferdmando Cortez,, with orders to put it in execu- 
tion. Your Majefty was pleas'd on the fame account 
again to call together an AfTembly of Perfons of 
great Learning and Virtue, who after a long de- 
bate, declar'd that the Spaniards could not lawfully 
be made Lords of the Indies. After which your 
Majefty gave mofl exprefs Orders to prohibit it, 
revoking all Grants to the contrary procured on 
thofe falfe Accounts and Mifreprefentations that 
had been given you. Your Majelty commanded the 
Governor of Florida to put thefe Edifts in execution, 
as may be Hill feen by his Inflrudions. Among the 
principal Articles of thefe Conftitutions, one is. 
That the Indians ought to be accounted free, and 
not obliged to any other Services than the refl of 
your Majelly's Subjects who enjoy their Liberty 
under your Government : That they ought to 
pay Tithes to God, unlefs excus'd for fome time, 
and likewife fuch Tribute to your Majefty as is im- 
pos'd lawfully, and in proportion to the Goods 
they poifefs, and the quality of their Land, accord- 
ing to the reaibnable Eftimate of thofe that govern 

If it be defir'd that the Indians fhould be taught 
the Catholic Faith, and brought to embrace our 
Cuftoms, while they keep up a fort of Government 
among themfelves, your Majefty ought not to give 
tl)em as Slaves to any one whatfoever, either for 
ever, or for a limited time , fcr this would be to ex- 


a^d Cruelties in the Weft-Indies. 245 
pofe 'em to the fame Mifenes they have hitherto 
endurM, and perhaps to increafe them : for after 
this there will be no dependence to be had on the 
Orders a:.d Prohibitions made in favoiir of the 
Indians^ whatever Penalties fhall be annex'd to fa- 
cilitate their Execution ^ for thofe that have bin 
already mide are very wife Edidts, and might be 
very ufeful if put in practice. And one chief 
Reafon againit giving the Indians for Valla Is to 
the Spaniards^ is the fmall account theie latter 
make of the Lives of thofe poor Creatures ^ for 
'tis not to be iraagin'd with what Contempt they 
look upon 'em, unlefs by thofe that have feenit: 
Their excedive Covetoufnefs induces 'em to make 
^m labor beyond their Strength, not caring what 
becomes of 'em fo they get any thing by 'em. 
If any Perfons give your Majefly a contrary ac- 
count of thefe matters, yon ought to look upon 'em 
as Enemies to the State, and dilaffecled to your Ma- 
jefty's Service. 

If your Majelly be convinc'd by the Arguments 
produced, you will prevent the Spaniards from com- 
mitting a great many Violences and Murders, of 
which they are every day guilty. You will fecure 
Spain from this Contagion, in preventing your 
People at home from partaking of the Sins of 
their fellow-Subjecls, and fharing the Plunder with 
them which they have fo unjullly gotten. For all 
Men of fenfe acknowledg that the Crimes of the 
Spaniards in America render all Spain obnoxious to 
the Curfe of God ^ that the courfe they take to be- 
come rich is unjufl ^ that the Gold and Silver they 
bring from the Indies is ftolen, and that they are 
oblig'd to reflore it to the right Owners whom 
they have unjuflly plunder'd : which likewife evi- 
dences that thofe that partake of thefe ufurpM 
Riches have no good Title to 'em j for they ought 

R 3 to 

§4^ A Relation of the SpaniOi Voydges 

to have no Commerce with thofe publick Robbers^ 
nor to fell 'em any Commodities for their ftolen 
Gold •■) they ihould not fo much as receive Prefents 
from 'em, or confent to be their Heirs: And if fo, 
it follows that all Spai7i is become guilty of the 
Crimes of thofe Men ; fo that there are few but 
liave reafon to be under trouble of Confcience, and 
are in danger of Damnation^ becaufe there are fcarce 
any who have j\ot participated of the Rapine of 
thofe that have come from the New World. 

It has bin obje^fled by the Spaniards^ that if they 
have not a Jurifdidtion over the Indians as their 
Vaflals, it will be impoifible for 'em to live in the I«- 
dies^ and confequently that your Majefty will not be 
able to keep thofe Kingdoms that have bin conquer'd 
in your Name, nor to publifh the Catholic Faith 
there. For they fay, if the Spaniards can't fubfift 
there, the King of Spain can't preferve his Domi- 
nion over the Indians^ nor maintain Monks among 
'em to preach to 'em, fo that they mull be deftitute 
of the Light of the Gofpel •, and thofe of 'em that 
have already receiv'd it, will gradually lofe it for 
want of frelh Inftrudion, and fo return to their for- 
paer Idolatry, and other Sins. 

They that reafon after this manner, do it not fb 
much from a Principle of true Zeal and Compalfion, 
left fo many Souls fliould perifh, as from a defire of 
ppprefTmg thefe People, and that they may grow 
rich by the Spoil they get from 'em. 'Tis only their 
privat Intereft makes 'em talk at this rate •, for they 
are not at all concern'd about your Majefty's Inte- 
refl, or the Salvation of the poor Indians. 'Tis not 
the Good of the Public, or the Glory of God that 
moves'em •, for their Conduct fufficiently (hews what 
little- refpe6t they have to the Law^ of God, which 
forbids 'em to do the leaft hurt to any one, how 
great an advantage foQver it might procure 'em. 


and Cruelties in the Weft-Indies* 247 

They ought to know, if they have the true Senti- 
ments of Chriflianity, that tho your Majefty ihpuld 
run the risk of loiing all your Conquefts in the /«- 
dks^ and be rendered uncapable of . caufing tjie 
Chriftian Faith to be preach'd among the Indians j it 
were better to forgo all fuch great Advantages, than 
to obtain 'em by ruining the Inhabitants after the 
inanuer hitherto. pradis'd. It had bin no great Mif- 
fortune to your IV|ajeIlyj if your Empire had not 
extended fo far as the Indies ^ and 'tis an ill way of 
going to v/ork, to endeavour to eltablifh Chriftianity 
there. by fuch criminal Methods. The reafon of 
which is evident, becaufe we are forbidden to do evil 
that good may come^ Rom. 3. 8. God is not pleas'd 
with the greateffc Sacrifices if polluted with any Sin, 
but abhors all fuch Offerings. 'Tis a moll hainous 
Sin, and worthy of eternal Damnation, to maflacre 
Infidels on pretence of introducing the Chriftian 
Faith among 'em, and of extirpating a part of 'em 
to fave the reft. God dos not require Men to re- 
ceive his Word on fuch hard terms, and abfolutely 
forbids fuch a kind of Zeal for the Salvation of Souls 
as this. He would not have us pretend to be more 
concern'd about the Salvation of Souls than himfelf. 
That which he requires of us is to keep within the 
compafs of his Laws, and not to exceed the Limits 
he has prefcrib'd. For 'twould be an Argument of 
much Stupidity, and a great fm for any one to throw 
a Child into a Well to baptize it, and fo to drown 
it on pretence of faving its Soul. And is it not a 
greater Crime, and more odious and abominable in 
the light of God, to fcandalize, deftroy and maffa- 
cre fo many thoufand People, under the pretext of 
putting the reft in the way of Salyation ? 'Tis our 
bullnefs to do all the Good we can in conforming our 
felves to God's Commandments, and keeping with- 
in the bounds he has fet us, leaving the reft to him- 

R 4 felf. 

248 A Relation of the Spanifh Voyages. 

fclf. But this is a falfe Glofs which the Spaniards 
ufe to cover their Avarice •, for the Salvation of the 
Indians is no part of their Care j all they mind is 
rather to ruin and inflave 'em, than to make Chrif- 
tians of 'em. Therefore in oppofition to all their 
falfe Pretences, we aflure your Majefly, that if you 
pleafe to refer ve to your felf alone the Dominion 
of the Indies without admitting the Spaniards to 
aflume the quality of Lords and Mafters over the 
Indians^ it will be an infallible means to eftablifh the 
Catholic Faith among them. The Spaniards will be 
able to live commodioufly among 'em in greater 
numbers than they have hitherto done ^ and all 
other Inconveniences will be remov'd, which will 
mightily conduce to the Glory of God, the Advan- 
tage of the Indians^ the Aggrandizement of your 
Empire, and the general Good of all Spain. 


c o 




Travelling to Advantage. 

^/■" m M S commonly thought that the Advantages 
■ of Travelling are always out-balanc'd by 
M^ the Inconveniences that attend it j that 
"^^ tho a Man is at never fo much Charge in 
his Voyages, he muft ftill undergo a great deal of 
Hardlhip ^ and when all is done, the Profit he reaps is 
not to be compar'd with the Fatigues he endures. 
But nothing can be more falfe than this Opinion j for 
in truth, the advantage of Travelling infinitely fur- 
mounts the trouble of it : and as the Experiment of 
a Chymilt, whatever it colls him, is very well re- 
warded when he makes fome confiderable difcovery 
of Nature ^ fo that Traveller that knows how to 
improve his Mind as he ought by his Voyages, is al- 
ways well requited for the Inconveniences he has 

The Prejudice that fome entertain, that the want 
of that Experience which is to be gain'd in Voyages 
and aftual Difcoveries, may bo fuppHed by reading 
Books that treat of fuch matters, or by the force of 
the Imagination, which gives its own fhape to all 
tilings it reprefents, and never makes 'em appear as 
t.hey are in themfclves, is a mere Illuflon : For what- 

2 The Art of Travelling. 

ever foreflals and prepoITeires the Judgment is fo 
little capable of forming the Mind, that 'tis the ve- 
ry thing which corrupts it, and deprives it of its 
natural relifli for Truth, and that difpofition to re- 
ceive it, which ferves as a foundation for Reafon to 
build upon. That which is found in Books is not 
always true ^ for-befides that Decency will not per- 
mit Men to write but within the compafs of certain 
Rules, Flattery, the humor of the Time and Nation 
wherein a Man lives, the public Intereft, or the ma- 
nagement of private Affairs, always make fome dif- 
ference between what a Man writes, and what may 
be thought .by: thofe among whom he lives : Which 
forms an almolt invincible Obftacle in the way of 
Truth, and hioij^p her from fhewing her felf ia her 
proper fliape.", 

But in Travelling we find all imaginable hel^ and 
afTiflance to fiirnilh our Minds with Experience and 
Knowledg \ for what is conceal'd in Books is by 
this means openly difcover'd to us •, and we judg of 
things with more fafety, becaufe we fee 'em with 
greater perfpicuity when the Curtain is drawn afide. 
When we go to the very Principles of things, and 
draw Water at the Fountain, the tafte and quality 
of it mufl needs be mofl agreeable. This is the way 
to know Men as they really are, and not only as the 
Lntereft of fome Perfons makes 'em appear tobe^ 
^nd to judg of their Adions, Manners, and Poli- 
ticks in themfelves, and not on the Credit of fo- 
reign Relations •, fo that the Mind receiving thence 
a pure and vivid light, that fets it above the dan- 
ger, of Prejudice, is at the fame time confirm'd and 
ihi^rov'd on folid grounds, and at length rais'd to 
tfe upper Region of Policy where its great Plieno- 
mena appear. " ,. 

W'e are taaghjija the Book of EcclefiaJies^th2Lt to 
become wife a Afr^a mult go into ftrange Couniries, 
- ""^•' • ■ ■ ' • -, Saficns 

The Art ofTravelimg, ^ 

Sapiens in terram alienigenarum Gentium pertr^nfiet \ 
and it follows afterwards, in abfconditis fuis concilia- 
himr^ by that means he Ihall be acquainted with the 
moft profound Notions of Wifdom, that is, of 
RELIGION^ Occulta Proverbiorum exquiret^ he'll 
make a fcrutiny into their Maxims, Manners and 
Cuftoms, that is, into MORALITY: bona enim 
& mala in hominibus tentabit , he'll have the advan- 
tage by converfing with the Living ( which is much 
better than to confult the Dead) to know the fources 
of that Good and Evil which Men do either to 
themfelves, or one another, that is, in one word, 
POLICY. Thefe are the three fundamental Prin- 
ciples by which a wife Man ought to regulate his 
Condud, and in thefe he ought to accomplilh himfelf 
by Travelling : For a Man is confirra'd in his Reli- 
gion by the knowledg he acquires of the importance 
and certainty of it ; he forms a folid Scheme of 
Morality from the different Pradices he obferves in 
the World, and informs himfelf in the true Rules 
of Polic)/ by the ufe he finds other people make 
of 'em. From which it follows, that if a Man 
would be wife, he ought to travel -^ and 'tis hard- 
ly to be expefted that any one who negleds this 
method, will prove eminent for Prudence and Po- 

This Art of Travelling to advantage requires 
four Conditions that are all abfolutely neceflary in 
every one that would fucceed in it. The firft is, 
'That his Mind be already form'd and fix'd, and yec 
this in fuch a manner as not to be ftriclly determin'd. 
The fecond is, That he be not prepoflefs'd with Pre- 
judices. The third is, That his Capacity bear a 
proportion to the Science or Bufinefs to which he is 
devoted, and in which he defires to be accomplifhM. 
And the fourth is. That he want no alTiflance 
Ii^eir^ry to bring hira into acquaintance with the 


4 The Art of Travelling, 

beft Mailers, and that he knov7 their Sentiments at 
the firft hand. 

I lay,the firll Condition is to have the Mind form'd, 
but not determin'd j that is, it mould not be fo 
crude as, eagerly to receive all forts of ImprelFions, 
and yet fufficiently difpos'd to give a free admiflion 
to Truth, which will perhaps be underflood better 
by an Example. One that travels too young is im- 
mediately diflatisfied in the exercife of the Religion 
he profelTes, by the different manners of Worlhip 
he difcovers abroad ^ therefore the greennefs of his 
Age makes him run a greater risk than is commonly 
thought in the difcuffion of matters of Religion, 
tho it renders him very fit to endure Fatigues, the 
difference of Climats, of Food, and of the various 
Seafons of the Year. Nor is a Man any more fit to 
improve by Travelling when too much advanc'd in 
Years, becaufe his Mind is too much determin'd, 
and in no very good difpofition to learn what he 
thinks he knows well enough already. So that that 
part of a Man's Age from twenty five to thirty five 
is the moft proper time for Travelling, becaufe his 
Mind is neither wholly crude, nor entirely form'd 9 
that which he has already learn'd only difpofes him 
to judg the better, while he feeks to be inform'd 
after another manner \ and thus he makes fo fair a 
decifion of what he learns, that all the Sophifms in 
the World will never (hake him. By this 'tis eafy 
to fee whence it is that fo few are the better for 
Travelling, and can only give an account of fuch 
Circumftances as Soldiers and Poftilions might ea- 
fily relate •, 'tis to be attributed either to their too 
great Youth or too great Age. 

The fecond Qualification of a Traveller is, That 
he be void of Prejudice in every thing, about which 
he defires to receive Information j becaufe Prejudice 
produces fuch an Effe<?: upon our Reafon, as a Film 


The Art of Travelling, 5 

docs upon the Eye ^ it calls fuch a Mill upon it, and 
renders it fo uncapable to make a fair Judgment of 
what is proposed to it, that nothing can be more 
oppofite to the difcovery of Truth than PrepoIIeili- 
on,.which if it bear fway in the Mind, will give little 
hope of improvement by Travelling. 

The third Qiiality requifite is, To have a Capacity 
of Mind proportionate to the bufinefs to which a man 
applies hirafelf, and in which he feeks to be accom- 
plifh'd : For feeing the Rudiments of Painting and 
other Arts are not to be learn'd by Travelling, and 
obferving the finefl Strokes of the beft Mailers j 
but a Man mull be cut out for a bufinefs before he 
prefuraes to feek Improvement in it by going abroad : 
They that fuppofe to turn a Blockhead into a Man of 
Parts by fending him into foreign Countries, will 
find themfelves raillaken. He that has but a fmall 
Natural Capacity will never have a large one, what- 
ever courfe be taken to improve it : 'Tis true, he may 
learn by Travelling to fill up what Capacity he has, 
but he'll never be able to go beyond it ^ for the 
Minds of Men have their feveral degrees of height 
and Itrength, as well as their Bodies ^ and as 'tis 
.impolfible by all the Art in the World to add one 
inch to a Man's Stature when at his full growth, fo 
'tis utterly impracticable to enlarge the Capacity 
of his Mind beyond the Bounds which Nature has 

The fourth Qualification is. To be furnifli'd with 
all necelTary Afliftance to facilitate his Accefs to the 
Mailers of thofe Arts and Sciences he has a mind to 
learn i in which refped every Country has a diffe- 
rent Genius •, fo that 'tis often feen, that what may 
contribute to a man's afllllance in one place, will by 
no means do him any good in another. For in- 
ftance, In Germany a man Ihall never get inward 
with Gi cat Men by being profufe in his Expences, 


6 The Art of Travelling. 

but will by this means be the more likely to fall un- 
der fufpicion, and become much lefs welcome than 
one of another Charader. To gain Efteem there, 
a Man mult bring with him a good Reputatiefti, a 
diftinguiih'd Birth, or an extraordinary Merit. In 
Italy the quite contrary Humor obtains. And in the 
Levant neither one nor t'other takes place, but an 
Air of Simplicity, Sincerity and Honefty will in- 
troduce a Man into any Company. An eloquent 
and voluble Tongue does well in Poland^ but very 
ill in Spain^ and Hill worfe at Conjiantmople : A great 
fhew of Devotion will naturalize a Man in Portugal^ 
but render him ridiculous in the Northern King- 
doms. A pleafant and merry Humor will fpoil a 
Man's bulmefs in Auflria and Italy ^ but give him eafy 
accefs in England. 

As for the knowledg of Tongues, befidesthatit 
is impoflible to acquire all a Man wants if he travel 
any thing far, and that it will not do him all the 
Service that is commonly imagin'd, if he has only a 
mind to run through Europe^ it is a great occafion of 
the Corruption of Manners, by eafily introducing 
Men into places of Debauchery -, and on the other 
hand it has been obferv'd, that it contributes very 
little to the forming of the Mind : for befides that 
it is not the common People that a Man ought to be 
curious in confulting •, and among Men of figure the 
knowledg of their Language renders a Man ob- 
noxious to fufpicion, 'tis fufficient that a Man can 
fpeak any one Language that is known : As the 
Italian Tongue is very common in Greece and the 
LefFer Jfia^ befides the help one may have from 
Interpreters, of whom there are great numbers for 
all the living Tongues in Euroiie. And if you fpeak 
a dead Language with any Native of a foreign 
Country, he has no advantage above you ^ and if 
you are better vers'd in ic than he, he'll be fure to 


The Art of Tra^velling, 7 

fupply what he wants in Expreflion by the degree 
of Knowledg, wherein he excels you in refpedt of 
the matter about which you converfe, and will give 
you a greater infight into it in half an hour's Dif- 
courfe, than you Ihould have obtain'd it may be in 
twenty Vifits, if you had made ufe of his Native 
Language. 'Tis fufficient if you have Language 
enough to make your felf underllood about your 
neceffary Affairs ; and there are always People to 
be found, who will make ufe of your Native Lan- 
guage, to difcourfe with you fo as not to be under- 
ftood by others, that they may learn fomething of 
you that others don't know ^ and that they may 
give you occafion to learn fomething of them which 
you don't yet underltand. But Curiofity ought to be 
kept within the bounds of Patience and Difcretion, 
and that being fupposM, there's fcarce any thing 
but a Man may be capable of it in Travelling ^ if 
one can but add to the Conditions I have been men- 
tioning a lively and yet obfequious Fancy, an eafy 
and faithful Memory, a fweet and iniinuating Hu- 
mor, a Curiolity that is not impatient, and an im- 
partial way of judging. Thefe are the Qualities that 
give a Man an eafy and agreeable reception into all 
Companies, and prepoflefs the People of any Na- 
tion with favourable thoughts of a Traveller who is 
endow'd with 'em. Thele cut his Work fliort, re- 
move all Obftacles in the way of his acquaintance 
with them, and bring them into fuch a familiarity 
- with him, as will be fure to engage their Confidence, 
if he be but careful to obferve himfelf, as well as 
ftudy the Temper of others. Thefe are the Vehi- 
cles of Policy, which by difcovering the Humor, 
Inclinations and Genius of every Nation, infenfibly 
bring us to the knowledg of their Maxims, their 
Reafons of State, their Defigns, their Condud and 
^various Sentiments. In .a word, 'tis by the help of 


8 The Art of TrAvellmg. 

thefe Qualifications, that a Man becomes a Froteus 
in foreign Countries, and knows how to transform 
himfelf into the fhape of others, ^d fo to conceal 
his own. And by confequence muft needs reap ad- 
vantage by all the good he fees or ficars, which is 
agreeable to his Gharader, and the Capacity of his 

I iay, he fhould have a lively, but obfcquious Ima- 
gination, which may pafs for a Paradox among fuch 
as judg haftily, juft as they feel their Fancies touch'd ^ 
and fuppofing a lively Imagination can never be ob- 
fequious without lofmg its Vivacity at the fame time, 
will tell me I require an impoffibility : 'tis there- 
fore convenient to undeceive em by a fcnfible Com- 
parifbn. When on.e that feeks for Game fees fome- 
thing move in a Bufh, his firft motion is to put him- 
felf in a pofture to fhoot ^ but if he difcharges im- 
mediately without any further Obfervation, he may 
well be counted rafh, and his precipitancy will fpoil 
his Defign : whereas if he has prudence and patience, 
he'll obferve what 'tis that ftirs, and endeavour to 
difcover what Game may be in tlie Bulh, which way 
it came, and whither it goes, which gives him the 
greater advantage to dired his Aim, fo that his fliot 
can hardly mifs. There's no Comparifon can be 
more juft and applicable to the cafe in hand. A 
Traveller that has a mind to make fome Difcoveries 
in the Myfteries of State-Policy, is prying and ob- 
ferving with an Activity like that of one who is 
feeking after Game j every rhii^g that appears more 
than ordinary ought to ftrike his Mind fo as to ex- 
cite his Attention : but nothing ought to determine 
him but his Reafon, and a due application of the 
Principles of Policy j he (hould fee and hear, and 
take a meafure of every thing, without imagining 
he has got any thing till he has meafur'd it with 
that profound DifculTion I have been commendingr- 


The Art of Travellmgl g 

Stdtefmen are extremely crafty, and know how to 
dodg with a Stranger, efpecially when they fee in 
him a great Vivacity and Eagerncfs to receive what 
they tell him. 

Thefe Artifices are us'd in all Nations more or 
lefs according to the degree of their Refinement and 
Subtilty : Therefore the intelligent Traveller muft 
imitate the cunning Hunter, who fometimes makes 
as if he did not fee his Game, merely to furprize 
it the more eafily : He mufl make as if he did not 
hear Ibme things, and as if he underllood much lefs, 
and difcover'd nothing at all \ from whence one of ' 
thefe two things mufb neceifarily follow, either that 
he will be fuppos'd to be ignorant and ftupid, which 
will render him lefs fnfpeded, and occafion a new 
Explication of the matter difcourfed of in more 
open and intelligible terms j or elfe that the Per- 
fbn he converfes with, will immediately give ano- 
ther turn to the Subjed in hand by different Ex- 
prelfions, and the variety of Terms cannot choofe 
but give fome light into what he would conceal or 

He may alfo learn fomewhat from the common 
report of a Province or City, to inform him what is 
the predominant Genius of a Nation, or of the Court 
that governs it, only with this difference, that what 
he is told of the Spirit of any Nation, is generally 
and almoft infallibly true j whereas the Idea that is 
given of a Court is almoft always falfe ; fo that 
'twould be a kind of Miracle if ever it fhould 
happen to be true. There is in the Voice of the 
Publick a certain trad of Truth, Simplicity, In- 
genuity and Sincerity, which keeps the Multitude 
either from being eafily deceived themfeJves, or 
from deceiving others ^ and fo much the more, be- 
caufe ( as Origen fays ) God, the firit Caufe of all 
things, has referv'd only this way to make an im- 

S preffion 

DO The Jrtjtf Travellmg. 

prefilori of Truth on the Minds of the Populace, who 
are not capable of any other difcuflion of things, 
much lefs of refitfd Politicks ; which gave occafion 
to that wife faying, The Voice of the People is the 
p^oice of God. But the Court is another World, 
where all things are compounded, and from whence 
Simplicity, Candor, Sincerity, and oftentimes even 
Jultice and Truth are exil'd. And feeing the Men 
of this World are different from others, 'tis not to 
be wonder'd at if one is deceiv'd by their Difguifes, 
and if the warm Fancy of a young Man is every 
day impos'donby them: For every thing they do 
is with defign, and therefore 'tis no wonder that 
there's double dealing in all Affairs, fo that one 
knows not where to have 'em. Hence it is that 
thofe Authors that write Relations of the State of 
Princes Courts, are carried away with ib many 
Ulufions : For the more account they make of that 
certain knowledg they pretend to have of 'em, and 
the more the Miniftry fee they depend upon it, the 
more they vary in their difcourfe with fuch an Au- 
thor, to deprive him of the fight of what he aims 
at, by embarafling his Mind with diverfity of Me- 

There's no Rock more dangerous to an intelligent 
Traveller, than the popular Reports which a Prince's 
Council either purpofely fpreads abroad, or fuffers 
to be divulg'd : There's no ftrefs to be laid on fuch 
Stories, and a Man ought to be careful not to fuffer 
himfelf to be furpriz'd by 'em. A wife Roman on 
fuch an- occafion one day faid to me, Se queflo foffe 
<viro^ non lo faprebbe il popolo. " The Credit the Peo- 
" pie give this Report may be enough to convince 
" you that there's no fuch matter at the Palace, but 
" that the bufmefs is either already finifh'd, or elfe 
" 'tis a Itroke that is not refolv'd, and it may be 
'* not thought on ^ for if it was either the one or the 

^' other, 

The Art cf Travelling. , . ^ ^ 

" other, you may be fure the People would have 
'^ known nothing of it. 

However 'tis true, that common Reports as they 
precaution the Fancy inftead of inftru6\ing it, d6 
not fail to furnifh a Traveller with fuch Notices, as 
muft needs turn to his account. Thefe Reports 
Salujl very wifely calls, Experimenta Nationum, The 
Trials of the People -, for there is at Icaft fo much 
probability in 'em, that they have fome Principle 
that gives rife to 'em, and that they have givea 
fome colour to an End which a Court is willing to 
hide by fome fpecious means. 

I confefs the Italians excel all Chriftian Nation^ 
in this method of Travelling ^ but the People of 
the Eaft infinitely out-do the Italians themfelves : 
'and 'tis from the long Converfation I have had with 
both, that I have receiv'd what Light I have in this 
matter, efpecially the way of abating the heat of 
Fancy, and preventing it from being tranrported 
beyond due bounds by its Vivacity, in which the 
Ealtern People are inimitable j and 'tis a Qiiality 
one can't behold in 'em without Aftonifhment. 

But feeing a Fancy that is tradable and obedient 
determines nothing, and what it difcovers may a§ 
well deceive it as inform it ^ it ought to commit the 
difculTion of all to the Judgment, that fo it may come 
to a refult: For this purpofe the Judgment ought X.6 
be fublime and clear, tho thefe two Qualities are 
not fo compatible as at the firit glance they feem t6 
be: for the elevation of the I\Iind expofes it to 
Mills and Clouds, tho clearnefs of thought is com- 
mon to an extenlive Soul. The former is like the 
tops of Mountains which reach to the Clouds, and 
alraofl: always feem cover'd. with a Alilt to them 
that ftand in the Plain. That is, to explain the 
Siffiilitude \ That Genius which is naturally fub- 
limej being iefs capable than others of floopirir 

S 2 dow 

1 2 The Art of TrAvelling. 

down to the many frivolous Circuraftances which 
Concur to the difcovery of the politick Spirit of a 
Court, often happens to pafs fuch a Judgment as is 
not free from all Objedions, or elfe his way of ex- 
preflion is lefs clear and intelligible than that of 
others. On the contrary, they that afFed clearnefs 
of Judgment creep on the ground as it were, ftill 
following the natural extent of their Minds which 
ferves for a Line to diredt their fteps j and as with- 
out this they could never go diredly to the end they 
have in view, fo by the help of it they do every 
thing with a becoming Juftnefs and Deliberation. 

Happy are they whofe Genius is both fublime and 
extenlive, for the elevation of their Minds iliews 
'em what Souls of an inferior Rank could never 
have difcover'd ^ and their exteniion ferves to help- 
to render every thing prefent to 'em without con-^ 
fufion, becaufe the elevation of their Minds gives 
'em a profpedt of every thing ^ fo that they fee both 
diftindly, and as it were at one view, whatever 
is neceiTary to dired 'em to make a right Judg- 

To inculcate this matter the better, it may not 
be amifs to make ufe of a Comparifon. Suppofe 
three Men walking in the field together difcover an 
Objed at a diftance : one of 'em having obferv'd 
it, fays 'tis a Cart going on the top of a Hill ; ano- 
ther fuppofes it to be a Bufh wav'd up and down by 
the Wind ^ and the third is confident 'tis a Man on 
horfeback riding againft the Wind. Now it being 
naturally impolfible for the fame Objed to be at 
once a Cart, a Bufh, and a Man on horfeback, 'tis 
moll certain that at leaft two of the three are 
niiftaken in their Judgments •, and if one of them 
judges right, it mult be he that conHders with the 
gre'atell force of thought all poffible Motions of that 
Gbjed about which he has thought fit to make- a » 


The 4^t of TrdveRing. 1 5 

Judgment. This difcovery is not to be afcrib^d 
precifely to the fenfe of feeing, fince this is fuppos'd 
to be ^;like in all three *, therefore the truth ot this 
Judgment muft be attributed to the quality of his 
Mind who has the bell notices of the matter. 

The application of this Comparifon iseafy : Tra- 
vellers often think they have difcover'd every thing 
that pafles in a Court, thofe Enterprizes that are yet 
only to be feen at a diftance, and thofe Defigns that 
are ftill more remote •, yet 'tis not pofiible that all 
that make thefe Obfervations Ihould have the fame 
elevation of Mind, and none but fuch as have a very 
fublime and clear Judgment are capable of fpeaking 
accuratly of what they have obferv'd. Hence it is 
that we fee fo many different accounts of foreigt> 
Countries, and yet all of 'em publifh'd for truth by 
their refpedive Authors ^ and indeed they may be 
fo, but this in proportion to the Charader of the 
Minds of thofe who compos'd 'em in their Travels, 
according to the Judgment they made of things. 

If I had not read in the account of the Voyage to 
Athens the Hiflory of one Hkros Damashinos of Ca- 
loyero^ with whom I had jufl fuch another interview 
as the Author of that Relation fays happen'd to 
him, I would here give an account of it at large \ 
but fhall now only add fomething which that Tra- 
veller feems not to have met withal. There were 
three Gentlemen of different Countries and my felf 
one day difcourUng with this illuftrious Caloyer about 
the Policy of the Turks^ which each of us pretended 
to look upon as barbarous and uncultivated, on pur- 
pofe to give him an occalion to fpeak of it after fuch 
a manner as might give us light into it. He told 
us he had no skill in Policy either in general, or in 
the ufe of it among the Turh ^ and that he made it 
his bufmefs only to underftand and explain the holy 
Scripture to his Difciples of Athens : but hefaid if 

S3 we 

^ ^ The uirt of Tra,velling, 

we would addrefs our felves to the Turh^ as to the 
Vaivode of Athens^ or any other Perfon of Note, 
they would be fure to give us fatisfadion in thofe 

I remember I was the only Perfon in the company 
that could not be perfwaded that this Caloyer was 
unacquainted with Politicks. A very ingenious Po- 
iander thought he was too much devoted to the ftudy 
of the Scripture to have any great matter of skill 
\n other things. A German that was of our com- 
pany took him for a Perfon only vers'd in the No- 
tions of the School-men, and capable of criticizing 
on the holy Scripture : an Italian that was with us 
maintain'd that as he was one of that remnant of 
GreeJvs who feem to be the Pofterity of the Pcafants 
of former times ; he had not fubtilty of mind 
enough to penetrate into fuch Politicks as were as 
burdenfom to 'em as they appeared violent and un- 

We pufh'd our Curiofity yet further, and by good 
luck a Sangiac who was upon his return from Candle 
to the Port, and pafs'd through Athens^ was fo kind 
a^ to inform us of many things we had a mind to. 
know ; and among other things told us there was no 
Man in the World knew more of thofe matters 
than this Grecian. It may eafily be imagin'd I hug'd 
my felf for iudging differently of this Man from the 
reft of the company. And at laft, after many earneffc 
SoUicitations, we engag'd this learned Caloyer to take 
off the Mask, and (hew us that he was under fuch a 
iejious d.ifguife of Simplicity as would have dece^v'd 
4 ihoufand People. 

'' 'To return from this Digreflion *, I fay, to judg 
vvell of all that prefents and ftrikes the Imagination 
of' a mar; in travelling into foreign Parts, vvhetlier 
It concern Pveligion, Morals or Politicks, there's 
^eed of both elevation and clearnefs in the Judg- 
ment i 

The Art of Tramllmg. ^ 

ment '-, that is to fay, fuch a meafure of both, as 
may difpofc things in fo much order that they don't 
perplex and confound the Minds of other Men, rtd,r 
produce any thing in 'em but Light. And thfs 
Qualification is not to be acquir'd'if a Man is Sot 
born with a futable difpofition. It can't be well e^- 
plain'd but by;Pradice ^ however, to give fome Idea 
of it, it feems to htc to confift in three things: 
Firft, In laying the ftrefs of one's Judgment on that 
which makes the leaiir appearance in an Intrigue or 
Negotiation ^ for Policy being the Academy of Dif- 
guife, and an exercife of Cratt and Subtilty, gene- 
rally that which appears lealtin a politick Obfer- 
vation may pafs for the moft real and true part of 
it. Secondly, In never counting any thing fuffi- 
ciently explained to determine one's mijid about it, 
that io the unexpected founding of fome Circum- 
ftance or other, that does not feem to be thought 
of, may give one a difcovery of fomewhat of which 
the Miniftry of a Court perhaps is not aware. And 
fo much the more in as much as fpeculative Policy 
being fupposM impenetrable, and not beginning to 
appear till 'tis going to be put in execution, 'tis in 
the Circumftances of the Execution that you are 
to feek the certain difcovery of the Defign. Third- 
ly, In the oppofition of one thing to another \ for 
akho the means employ'd in any particular politick 
Defign may be abfolutely alter'd from one day to 
another, becaufe there's no Medium always ellential 
to and infeparable from Policy, yet 'tis certain, con- 
lidering how Men are made, that 'tis probable the 
Council of a Prince don't alter their common No- 
tions, nor take up Refoiutions as contradictory one 
to another as Black to White : and therefore the 
Oppofition an intelligent Traveller difcovers in the 
Affairs on which he is making obfervation, ought to 
fufpend his Judgment, and to oblige him to for- 

S 4 bear 

l6 The Art of Travelling. 

bear determining his Opinion, till time give him 
fiirther light. The firft of thefe Rules forms the 
Judgment, and renders it folid *, the fecond culti- 
vates and refines it ; and the third advances it to 
Perfedion. The firft is owing more to Nature than 
Experience j the fecond depends as much on Expe- 
rience as on a Genius: and the third raifes the 
Mind to a confummate Prudence, which is the higheft 
pitch of politick Wifdom. 

That Traveller who has not an elevation of Mind 
capable of fuch Inventions as may out-wit another, 
may make ufe of the fecond Charader of a prudent 
Mind, namely, to enquire much into things, and 
determine but little about 'em j but if a Man wants 
both the one and the other of thefe Qualities, we'll 
venture to prophefy that he'll never become a Po- 

The Memory in the judgment of many paffes for 
one of the moft excellent Faculties of the Soul : 
But few confider, that feeing it brings out nothing 
but what has been committed to it before, when 
there is Confufion in the Mind, there muft alfo ne- 
cefiarily be the like diforder in the Memory. 'Tis 
a great advantage to a Traveller to have a Memo- 
ry eafily imprefilble, provided it be faithful ^ for if 
a Man becaufe he has feen much, goes about to utter 
a great deal without giving an intelligible account of 
matters, by reafon of that Confufion which the ama- 
zing diverfity of Things, Names and Circumftances 
ordinarily occafions, his Memory appears to be a 
mere Labyrinth of Perplexity. 

I have always look'd upon an eafy Memory to be 
like a handfome Face, which hides a great many 
Infirmities in a cra2y Body, and ftrikes the Fancy 
more than all thefe Imperfedions, tho they really 
much out-balance it. For befides that fuch a Me- 
mory ferves for a Rock for the Imagination to fplit 


The An of TrAveliing. 17 

on, and this becomes as dangerous to the Reafon 
and Judgment, fuppofing it noc to be incompatible 
with the regular exercife of either of thefe j yet 
'tis molt certain a great multiplicity of Fads require 
either abundance of time to range 'em in good or- 
der, or a prodigious heat of Fancy to melt 'em 
down (as it were) altogether, without making any 
alteration in 'em. So that it feems an impoflible 
fuppofition, that an eafy Memory can be flrong and 
true, fo as not to divert from that fteady Applica- 
tion which the Judgment requires. 

And yet both are neceffary for a Traveller, ^o 
that one of thefe Qualities without the other would 
be of no ufe to get the knowledg of the States 
Refolutions of any foreign Politicians : For if what 
he learns to day is not fupported with all thofe 
Circumilances that may render it more than pro- 
bable to his difculTion, and is not produc'd afrefii in 
all its Circumftances when any Affair that bears a 
proportion to it prefents, 'tis eafy to conceive that 
ail the Circumftances that help'd him at firll to de- 
cide the matter in hand being reprefented to him but 
by halves, and in the room of thofe that are omit- 
ted others fubftituted which alter the ftate of the 
cafe t 'tis not difficult, I fay, to conceive that fuch 
an eafy Memory muft caft him into confufion, be- 
caufe it does not faithfully revive all thofe Cir- 
cumftances. This Conclufion may be fet in a clearer 
light by an Example. 

The Vilier Kara Alujlapha who befieg'd rienna 
remember'd the Advice, and a great many of the 
Projects Count Tekely had given him in his Tent at 
their enterview beyond Buda before this great En- 
terprize : And his Memory reproduc'd that in his 
extremity, which his Pride had made him defpife. 
The Count perfwaded him to polfefs himfelf of the 
Bridges of riema on the North-fide before he made 

1 8 The Art cfTravellmg. 

a formal Siege, prefuming that by this means he 
would either block up the late Duke of Lorrain 
with his Troops in Leopaljlat, or oblige him to quit 
it with the more fpeed, and a greater number of his 
iMen, which would make the Circumvallation more 
eafy, and the Garifon probably lefs numerous, or 
elfe the Duke would expofe himfelf to be firft routed 
in the field : and never was any Advice more wifely 
given, or more ra(hly contemn'd. 

When this Vifier was mortified by the Refiflance 
of the Befieged, and refolv'd to attempt any thing 
to repair the damage he had fuflain'd, and the time 
he had loft in this Siege, he was willing to have re- - 
courfe to Count Tehly''s Counfel, and would needs 
endeavour to be mafter of thofe Bridges, without 
conlidering the difference of Time and other Cir- 
cumftances ; he gave his Orders for the execution 
of this Defign, but inflead of depriving Vknna of 
good part of its Garifon, or of weakening thofe 
Succors which the Prince of Lorrain manag'd fb 
lone, and to fo good purpofe againfl him, as he 
might certainly have done in the former Jundure, 
he diminifh'd his own Force, and fent his Troops to 
be cut in pieces without being able to execute the 
Orders they had receiv'd. 

By this one may judg that an eafy Memory is al- 
ways dangerous when 'tis unfaithful ^ tho I confefs 
'tis lefs fo in the fpeculation of a Traveller than in 
the conduft of a Statefman, who ought from the 
very firfl ftep he takes to dillruft it more than de- 
pend on it. Memory is a great help at the Bar, and 
in the Pulpit, but 'tis the leafl Qualification of a 
Statefman. Tis by reading (which is a kind of 
Travelling ) and by Travelling ( which is a living^ 
fort of reading) that a Man is to be convinced of 
this Truth, that an eafy Memory being ufually 
treacherous when 'tis over-charg'd with many things 


The Art of Travelling, . 1 9 

that have no mutual connexion, nothing is to b^ 
omitted that may render it lefs eafy and mor^ 

I think I have obfervM by Experience three Rules 
that contribute much to reduce the Memory to this 
ftate, which is certainly no eafy matter to accom- 
plifli. The firil is, for a Man to learn well the chief 
foreign things about which he has a mind to employ 
his Memory, without troubling himfelf to retain the 
proper Names of Places, Perfons and Times, of 
\vhich Gazetteers feldom fail to give a very particu- 
lar account for the information of the Curious, be- 
(jaufe 'tis th^ir province to know things of this 
kind. The fecond is. To join that which one de- 
fires to know, to what one knows already by fome 
M^ocha of FaQs^ Times, or Conjundures, which re- 
semble and refer one to another ^ as, for inftance, 
to join to the raifmg the Siege of Vienna the politick 
Propofition made by the King of Poland for his 
cldell Son to be married to the Archdutchefs as his 
Reward for relieving that City. The third is, to 
unite and accommodate both the one and the other 
to the Circumflances and adual Conduft of the 
Country where a Man is at prefent, or whither he 
is. to return ^ bccaufe what pafles there can't eafily 
efcape the Alind, being often reviv'd by the Memo- 
ry, and therefore that which has been link'd to it 
, will alfo be retain'd, and the Memory render'd faith- 
ful to fuch a degree, that all things will be eafily re- 

I fay a Min ought in the firfl place thorowly to 
pofTefs his Mind with the firil difcoveries he makes 
in his Travels, that is to fay, after he has made a 
deep fearch into the Precepts of Policy (without 
which nothing is to be expected of him ) to look on 
. every fide upon that which firfl; ftrikes his Mind in a 
jmamier different, from the Prejudices he has brought 


20 The Art of Travelling, 

out of his own Country, that fo he may objeft a-i 
gainft his own PrepoflefTion all thofe Reafons that 
he imputes to the Prejudices of others, which is fit 
to be demonltrated by an Example. 

A French Man that goes to Rome furnifli'd with 
many Advantages and Recommendations that give 
him accefs to Perfons of Qiiality, is prefently loaded 
with Civilities, without being taken into that kind 
of Familiarity with them, which is fo agreeable to 
his Humor : This makes him impatient, and it fecms 
no fmall Punifhment to him to continue fix weeks 
at Rome^ to live all the while in an Inn : But at 
length the Reafons of this kind of Treatment are 
open'd to him, and he comes to underftand that the 
Italian loving Splendor tho he is not rich, and af- 
feding to be liberal without incommoding himfelf, 
waits to regale him after a magnificent manner and 
in good company, when he finds a proper time for 
it, and then his Splendor, Profufion and Magnifi- 
cence will appear at once. He muft therefore ex- 
amine all the Reafons of this kind of Condud ^ and 
by oppofing this liberty the Italians referve to them- 
felves, to the ordinary profufenefs of that Nation, 
he'll be convinc'd that they do well at Rome not to 
live in that familiarity he fo much defir'd. Thefe 
Difcoveries will be ferviceable to him at Conflanti- 
nopk^ and he'll appear a knowing Man in other places 
in proportion to the faithfulnefs of his Memory in 
reviving the Reafons, and different refpeds that 
have determin'd him at Rome. This is what I call 
a thorow poflefling of the Mind with that which 
one defires to commit to Memory. 

The fecond method is, to join things together by 
iorae Epocha that is remarkable, and not eafy to be 
chang'd. This Connexion is like a Guide always 
going before the Judgment with a light in his hand, 
io that he feldom miftakes his way who is conduded 


The Art of TrA-velling, 21 

by it. The E^cha contributes much to the fidelity 
of the Memory, and the things being allied toge- 
ther by a proper reference and proportion, 'tis al- 
moffc impolTible that the revival of 'epi in the Me- 
mory fhould not be exadt and true. 

The reafon of which is not from the nature of 
thofe Incidents which accidentally happen to be 
link'd together, but from the immediate applica- 
tion of the Mind, which becaufe it omits nothing 
that may give it a deep imprelTion of a thing, can't 
fee two different Circumftances which concur to the 
fame Fad, without making a certain fix'd Point, as 
well for the Time, as other Conjundures : 'Tis this 
that has occafion'd fo many Digreffions in antient 
Hiftorians, who have not been able to refifl that 
natural Inclination of Ihewing in the fame Treatife, 
what they had obferv'd at the fame time, and by 
the fame difcoveries. 

. In fine, the third method of rendering the Me- 
mory faithful is, to reunite the Notices one receives, 
and the Conjunctures that prefent, to what adually 
palTes in one's own Country •, becaufe the revival 
of what is aded there muft needs be frequent and 
of long duration, and a Man's mind will neceflarily 
be concern'd about it j and feeing this obliges a 
Man to join to his prefent Obfervations, that which 
pafs'd in his own Country when he was there, he 
is as it were tied fafl; to the Circumftances of things 
fo that he cannot eafily miftake 'em, but is neceffa- 
rily oblig'd to revive 'em in his mind. Tis true, 
there muft be ftrength of Thought, Labor and Time 
to reunite thefe things after long Voyages, efpeci- 
ally if our Traveller has not had much correfpon- 
dence with his own Country : But Experience every 
day (hews that 'tis no impoffible thing. 

This is, in my opinion, the innocent Art of ren- 
dering an eafy Memory faithful j let us now pafs 


i2'i The Art of Travelling. 

to the other Qualifications of a Traveller. 

It has been faid that he ought to have a fweet and 
infinuating Humor, not by a^ltudy'd compoiing of 
himfelf, which will foon betr% him when he tarries 
long in a place, but by a docility of Mind, which 
makes a Man as it were naturally comply with things 
that one would think muft needs fliock him, to judg 
of him by the guft of his Country. 'Tis this 
fweetnefs of temper which becomes Affability in 
thofe who are in public Polls, but in Travellers it 
fhould always be Condefcenfion, without degene- 
rating into a fervile weaknefs of Mind : And they 
ought to have the art of ufing this Condefcenfion 
after an advantageous manner, fo as to engage thofe 
with whom they converfe, either to confide in 'era, 
or to inform 'em. Suppofe, for inflance, that one 
happens to be with an Englilh-man who boafts of 
his own Nation, in refped of its Strength, Courage, 
Trade, Plenty and Independence j and fcarce ever 
fpeaks of a French-man, an Italian, or a German, 
without contempt ; a Traveller who has docility^ 
and yet firmnefs of Mind, will in finccrc terms give 
his Suffrage to applaud what is good in the EnglilH 
Nation, and in their Politics, without undertaking 
to make comparifons between Nation and Nation^ 
or fo much as between Man and Man, which ought 
to be induftrioully avoided ^ becaufe there are al- 
ways in foreign Countries fome Perfons that go un- 
der a difguife, whofe Genius, Country, Intereft and 
De(igns,*can fcarce ever be difcover'd, but yet by 
this means may be won upon. In obferving this 
Conduct, our Traveller would not fail to attract the 
Confidence of fuch an Englilh-man, and fo might 
get out of him why the ErigliQi Nation is fo fickle 
and unlleady in the midft of all its Profperity, why 
they are fo eager after Gain amidlt fo great Riches,, 
aad why they are fo unfic for long Enterprizes and 


The Art of Travellmg, 2 j 

tedious Conquefts, tho they have fuch good Armies 
and Fleets. In a word, he'd learn more of this 
Englifli-man in three days, than he could perhaps 
in reading all the Hiftorians that have written of 
that Country. 

But to give the Demonftration of this, when ever 
any thing flatters and pleafes a Man to fuch a degree 
as to make him defpife what does not feem to bear a 
proportion to it, either he is a Fool, or under a dif- 
guife, or an intelligent Man fetupon his own Inte- 
relt, and over-zealous for it. If the firfl, a wife 
Traveller will eafily difcover him, and contemn 
him, without troubling himfelf to talk with him. 
If the fecond, he'll make trial of him by the Rules 
I have been laying down j fo that this Man under a 
Mask fhall not be able to proceed far without being 
either reduc'd to filence, or elfe betraying himfelf. 
If the laft, he can't be a man of Knowledg but by 
the universal Principles of Policy, in which he has 
no advantage above our Traveller, or elfe by fuch 
particular Decifions he has made as are proper to 
his Country ; and in this point he excites all the 
Curiofity of our Traveller, who for his own fatif- 
fadion mufl; apply himfelf to receive Inllrudion 
with all that nice Complaifance which we have been 
already fuppoling ^ he mull hearken, applaud, and 
enquire: for Attention and Applaufe always pro- 
cure the Efteem and Confidence of him that fpeaks ^ 
and a fweet, ingenuous and modeft way of inquiring 
always returns with fome difcoveries ; Experience 
ibews that it never fails to get fome degrees of 
knowledg out of thofe upon whom 'tis duly tried. 
The Information I have received even from a Ser- 
vant as it were by accident, of a Vifit made by a 
certain Perfon to his Maftcr, has furnifh'd me 
with the firft: occafion of diving into an Affair, of 
which I had not the leail: thought, and the difco- 
ver y 

24 ^^^ A^f of Tra-Velling. 

very of which gave me that fatisfadion which is a- 

greeable to one that travels for his Information. 

But to render this Effedt the more certain ; to this 
quality one ought to add a Curiofity that is not im- 
patient. Curiofity is needful in travelling, but then 
it ought not to be too brisk and lively, that one 
may the better diflemble the Motives of it, and 
cover 'em with the ufual pretexts of fuch a vaia 
Curiofity as only applies it felf to the defcription 
of Churches, Palaces, Gardens, Fortifications, and 
the detail of fuch Counfels and 
the raeancft Servants of a Court always underlland, 
as well as thofe that compofe Hiltorical Relations. . 
There muft be Curiofity to mitigate the uneafinefs 
and difficulty a man mull be fure to meet with in 
accommodating one's way of Living, Habit and 
Manners, to the Cuftom of Countries fo unlike one's 
own : for feeing Self-love hath more prefiing Rea- 
fons when it deprives it felf of what is pleafing to it, 
to expofe it felf to that to which it has an averfion *, 
'tis necelfary that it be requited for quitting what it 
fo naturally likes, by fome other fatisfadion which 
the Fancy has the art to reprefent as greater, more 
rare, and more durable ^ without which there's no 
probable ground to exped a Man fhould travel with 
delight, and 'twould be an unadvifed thing to at- 
tempt it. For to fuppofe that all thofe advantages 
a Man may make ufe of in Travelling will excufe 
him from all kind of uneafinefs, is to pleafe one's 
felf with a mere Delufion, efpecially when a Man 
goes out of the Chriftian part of Europe. Curiofity 
therefore mufl ferve inftead of all other Pleafure to 
make amends for the Expence and Uneafinefs to 
which our Traveller is expos'd. 

This Curiofity deprives it felf of what it defigns 
to obtain, when it once appears to be impatient, 
and it really is impatient when ever it appears to 


The Art of Travellmg, 2 5 

be fo. iMen of all Countries in the World are 
tram'd after fnch a manner, that no Man is willing 
to oblige another to his own difadvantage j and the 
moft grateful and officious Perfon that can be will 
never give an occalion of getting an advantage over 
him by what Ire difcovers. All that obferve a Tra- 
veller have in this refped the fame impreflion \ eve- 
ry body fufpedts that Man to have fome fpecial de- 
lign, who leaves his Family and his Country to ex- 
pole himfelf to Sicknefs and other Dangers and In- 
conveniences, which are inevitable. Ihey that fup- 
pofe he has only a fenfual Curiolity are always in- 
dulgent enough to fatisfy him in that refpedt, be- 
caufe felf-love obliges a Man to difcover whatever 
is curious in his own Country to a Stranger: but ic 
being anotner fort of Traveller that 1 have been 
fuppofing, ramely, on£ who feeks to get an infighc 
into State-Policy i the chief Advice I would give 
him, is not to de- eft himfelf of Curiolity ( for that 
would be unreiibaable ) but not to be impatient in 
feeking to give it latisfadion. 

Impatience is the daughter of Defire, and th's 
if it be reafonable, mull be the production of rhe 
Judgment, which will fully convince a Man that 
whatever fets him at a greater diftance from the 
end he has in view, can't be proper to lead him to 
it. Now Impatience will infallibly fet our Tra- 
veller at a greater diftance from the End he pro- 
pofes, and confequently cannot be fit to promote 
the Pleafure he expects from it. But to make it 
the better underftood how and why Impatience re- 
tards the fatisfadion of the Curiofity, one need on- 
ly obferve that it produces fuch precaution in the 
Minds of thofe with whom a Traveller converfes, 
as becomes a kind of Partition-wall, that he mult 
cither pierce through or break down before he can 
difcover what is aited on the other iidt of ic. The 

T more 

i6 The Art of Travelling, 

more impoitunate a Man of underftanding perceives 
a Stranger to be to get information, the lefs willing 
he is to fatisfy him, and keeps the greater guard 
on himfelf not to gratify his defire till he is as it 
were neceflitated to do it, and has learn'd fomething 
of this Traveller that may oblige him to it. This 
Obilacle is fo great that one miiil not think either of 
flighting it, or of overcoming it without a confide- 
rable fpacc of time, and a great deal of manage- 
ment, if a Man prefumes to do the former, he'll 
find every body prejudic'd againfl him, when the 
Perfon he has flighted comes to explain himfelf after 
a manner that is difadvantageous to him : and if he 
depends on the latter courfe, he engages himfelf in 
a great Charge with more than a moral uncertainty 
of fucceeding in his Defign. 

Would it not therefore be much better for our 
Traveller to appear free and eafy in the prefence of 
fuch Perfons. that they may not become fo cautious, 
but may attribute that only to his Curiofity which 
by his Impatience he'll give 'em occallon to impute 
to a defire of knowing the prefent ftate of the Go- 
vernment in which they are concerned? And on 
this head it will not be improper to alledg an Ex- 
ample of which I have been a witnefs my felf. I 
liappcn'd to be in a certain foreign Court, where ' 
there was a Dutch-man who had a great deal of • 
Wit, and made too great an appearance not to be 
fiifpecled \ this Perfon defir'd Audience of one of 
the principal Minillers of State, who in converfa- 
tion making ufe of that right which his Rank and 
Authority gave him, ask'd him. What was the Mo- \ 
tive of his Tra'uds ? The Dutch- man thinking to 
make his Court to him, anfwer'd, that it was fo* 
iearn of him as well as by the Example of other Perfons 
of his figure^ to underftand the Goverment of a State. 
1 he Minilter coldly replied, Ton bad need of a great 


The An of Travellmg, 27 

deal of time ^ and a ripenefs of^ge to fucceed in a hufmefs 
of this nature. To which this Stranger made this 
foolifli return, My Curioftty (fays he ) and impatience 
after Kmvcledg may ahridg both the one and the other. 
At this Anfwer the Statefman rofe up and left him, 
with thefe words, For my part^ Sir^ J perceive I JhaU 
contribute nothing to either. And the Dutch-man was 
driven to defpair to find himfelf fufpedted by a 
Minifter of State, who had receiv'd him with affa- 
bility, and now look'd upon him as a Man of no 

Needs any more to be faid to (hew that Curiofity, 
which is fuppos'd necefTary to a Traveller, ought 
not to be impatient? But for this end there's need 
of a great deal of judgment, and a good faculty 
of difcerning the Humor of Nations, and the Tem- 
per of particular Mens Minds, which is a Talent 
that one can't communicate to any Man. 

After all it is not impoflible not to be impatient 
to learn what one goes fo far to feek : for as our 
Traveller has not affign'd his Voyages a precife 
fpace of time, much lefs does he pretend to pre- 
fcribe Laws to foreign Nations ^ 'tis his bufinefs to 
accommodate the extent of his Curiofity to the 
meafure of his Capacity, and to proportion the 
effeds of it to the good fuccefs he has had in fo- 
reign Difcoveries : All Occafions, Seafons and Con- 
jundures are not equally proper for this purpofe. 
There are fome States in which nothing at all 
is to be learn'd during the time of War, and 
others wherein one can get no information but in 

Ifuch a time. In one place Peace is an Obftacle to 
politick Difcoveries, in another War fhuts up all 
the Avenues to the confidence of particular Peffons. 
There are fome Minilters under whofe Conduft Men 
dare not fpeak, and others under whofe Govern- 
ment people fay any thing. Hence it is that fome 
T 2 Travel- 

28 The Art of TrAvetling, 

Travellers learn more tlian others, iho perhaps they 
rire Fcifons af like Ability and Curiofity. And if 
I may be permitted to add my Opinion, I Ihall not 
llruple to fay, that a Man ought to travel at feveral 
liines and occalions to the fame Court, to be well 
alibr'd of Improvement, and that he has penetrated 
into the Maxims and Conduct of it. 

Let any one judg after this, whether Impatience is 
not an invincible Obltacle to Curiofity, and how 
great a difadvantage they mult be under, whofe too 
j;r€at Vivacity precipitates 'em, and whofe warm 
Temper expofes 'em rather to the Cenfure than 
procures 'em the Confidence of foreign Nations. 

'Tis Hill much worfe when a Man has not fuch 
a politick undetermined pollute of Mind as to a£t 
v/ith impartiality, and not to fhevv any prejudice or 
a Itrong inclination to the Maxims of his own 
Country on the one hand, and on the other hand 
an indifference for thofe of others. And this being 
the great and indeed the original fault that Men 
carry into other Countries, one can't too much ar- 
gue againft it, and (hew the danger of it. 

Univerfal Reafon, which is the foundation of 
Policy, direfts that a Man of Honor part from his 
own Country UHdetermin'd in hisl\lind, that is, fo 
difposM to learn of all Men according to the fore- 
mention'd Paflage of the wife Man ^ Bona enim (^ 
mala ex bominibus tentabit ^ He JJiall try what vs good 
and evil amot^g Men : That he may appear docile 
to every Man, and receive any one courteoufly who 
is willing to give him any Information. 'Tis not 
only ufelefs but dangerous to travel without this 
difpofition ^ for the diverfity of Minds one meets 
with being the only remedy againft Prejudice, an 
inco; ii lerate and heady Traveller often ruins his 
Heal:h, as well as corrupts his Reafon, by every 
-thing which might otherwife improve the one and 


The Arp of Travelling. 1 9 

reflore the other. 'Twas this that made tJie Jare 
Eleftor Palatine fay, That Mm is a fool that ^ces out 
of bis own Country without hopes of returning with 
more Honor ^ IVifdom and Knovckdg than ichat he carried 

This difpofition being fuppos'd will be followed 
by another, and that is, that a wife Traveller will 
never return undetermin-d in his Mind, as he was 
when he went out : But fully convinc'd what is the 
greateft and mofl: folid Advantage, with which he 
has had the addrefs to form his Mind in proportion 
to the Capacity he has had of calling abundance 
of differing matters together, only to extrad oi»t 
of 'em what might contribrre to his improvement in 

This temper of Mind is more ealHy fpokcn of 
than found; for the Mind mull be moulded af er 
an extraordinary manner to be capable of that do- 
cility wliirh places a Man at the feet of others to 
learn their Inftruclions ^ and 'tis next to a Miracle 
to find a Genius of this Character, which is fix'd 
and fclid enough to com^ to a determination in the 
midfl of fuch a prodigious number of Maxims 
which all refult from Reafon as their Principle, tho 
the Effecls they produce appear fo oppoGte one to 
another. And again there is danger- lell this do- 
cility with which a Man prepares himfelf in going 
abroad, fhould degenerate into Irrefolution, Eaiincfs, 
and fervile Complaifance at his return. That which 
is to befeen in the greatelt part of thofe who are 
willing to make too deep and prying a fearch into 
matters of Religion in prejudice to the eilablifli'd 
Syilems, who often by their too curious Enquiries 
are brought at lafl to fit loofe from all Religion, sni 
die in this irrefolution of Mind, often happens to 
thofe middle-v/itted Perfons whofe Minds are tracta- 
ble in appearance, but weak in reality, fo that by 
T 3 the 

^o The Art of Travelling, 

the very profped: of the many different Maxims of 
Government, they become uncapable of governing ; 
becaufe their Minds are not endowM with a vigor 
and heat fufficient to melt down all fuch matters 
together, and to extraft out of 'em only what pre- 
cifely futes with the Government of the Country in 
which they live. 

One may every day fee not only a great many 
Travellers, but even Minifters of State and Am- 
bafiadors, whofe Minds are fo fram'd, that their 
Heads turn round inltead of becoming firm and lia- 
ble at the appearance of fo many different Circum- 
itances and Meafures. On which account the old 
Prince Lubomirsh was wont to fay, that fuch fort of 
Men are fent abroad to learn the art of being regular 
Fools. Indeed fuch Perfons appear fo little furnilhed 
with the general Ideas of Policy, and fo deeply 
prepofTefs'd with the particular Maxims of their 
own Country, that their Weaknefs is difcover'd 
aim of!: as foon as they begin to talk. 

To fpeak yet more plainly for the good of the 
publick, 'tis Ignorance that determines the Judg- 
ments of fome Travellers ^ even before the Maxims 
of foreign Countries are known to 'em, they go from 
home fo full of Prejudice, that they are refolv'd to 
return poffefs'd with greater Opiniatrety than when 
they went out : whence it comes to pafs either that 
they can learn nothing becaufe of their prevention, 
or elfe they fee and obferve fo much that they can 
come to no decifive Judgment, like thofe who have 
inore Viftuals in their Stomachs than they have natu- 
ral heat to digeft. To this purpofe the late Prince 
Charles of L'/rra'm us'd to fay \ If thefe Travellers 
would learn with a de/tgn of improving in Knowledge 
they would a^ becomingly ^ but to prefufne they know every 
things before they are capable of learning^ is the way to be- 
come a difiinguifhi^d Fop, 


The Art of Travelling. ^ i 

And Ignorance in this matter contains in it three 
refpeds, which the greateft part of the World does 
not fufficiently confider, at leaft they feldom or ne- 
ver unite 'em all together. The firfl regards the 
Principles of univerfal Policy ^ which Perfons of or- 
dinary Parts almoft perpetually confound with the 
aftual Determinations of the Government of their 
Country. 'Tis true, there are every where fome 
Minds more fublime and Judicious, who go to the 
bottom of things, and feek out means of repairing 
the Defeats of the Politicks of their Country : but 
it generally fo happens that Perfons of this Genius 
are feldom advanc'd into favor, and meet with ve- 
ry little Refped in a State •, whether it be that they 
want Docility to accommodate themfelves to the 
Humors of others, or Subraiflion to procure them 
Patrons, or Ambition to pufli 'era forward. It was 
of this fort of Men that the Duke of Parma once 
faid, Tijey were of the fame ufe to States^ a5 Props to 
old Houfts to hinder their fall. 

The fecond fort of Ignorance refpedts Perfons of 
another Genius, who furpaffrng the former as well 
in Number as Authority, are in polfefiion of the 
privilege of fetting a value upon things, and giving 
weight to Decilions that are made : and hence it al- 
mofb neceffarily comes to pafs, that that is fuppos'd 
to be belt and trueft, which appears to be moft au- 
thoriz'd, and moil generally receiv'd. And this 
Miflake is almoft irreparable, if we take the mat- 
ter in genera], in as much as the number of juft and 
fublime Minds being every where very fraall, and 
that of narrow Capacities almoft immenfe in pro- 
portion to the other ^ there is between both a fort 
of middle-iiz'd Underftandings, to whofe Decifion 
thofe of a fubordinate Rank pay a blind deference, 
which produces that publick ImprefTion which ob- 
tains on the generality of People, that fuch as fill 

T 4 the 

? 2 The Art of TrAvelling. 

^Iie fivfl places in any Government, are ordinarily 

^he wifcit and ablefl Men. This popular Opinion 
i«; often heard without contradiction, and this li- 

1 iKC encreafes the number of the Sufrraees that are 
given 'em, by which means People are confirm''d 
and rivettcd m their Ignorance. 

'Y\\t Dutch with fbme appearance of Reafcn va- 
lue themlelves upon their fcrupulous care of avoid- 
ing the fitTt of thefe Inflances of National Igno- 
rance i becaufe they indeed apply themfelves more 
than any other Nation to dive into the Principles 
and fpecial Ufes of univerfal Policy : And we de- 
sign hereafter to fV/ew what is their Motive, and how 
it is fupported, \n a Trcatife of the Politic Genius 
of the United Provinces. But they have too little 
firmnefs to keep 'em from falling into the fecond 
Error, which vviil always mightily check the Projeds 
they lay in particular Determinations. 

On the contrary, the Spaniards very Hupidly fall 
into aii the faults of the firlu Miitake by their negli- 
gence and contempt of the Principles of Univerfal 

■ Policy, which they feem not to know, but only fo as 
to appropriate them to themfelves without any di- 
fiindlion of A<^ions, Feifons, Interefts and Obfta- 
cles, which foils 'em at every turn, and defeats 'em 
ill all l^reatics. But they preferve among 'em the 
-liberty of fpeaking with f.rmnefs of Mind about 
public Affairs againll the fecond In/lance of Natio- 
jial Ignorance ; and therefore the Duke of Holfle'm 
.J'loen faid one day at f'^enna with a ,£;reat deal of foli- 
ciity ; By thefrfl cGnrfe the Dutch willfufpoYt themfelves 
^ gyeat vohilc^ but never advance very far : Whereas the' 
Spaniards have enough to do to fujl^in themfelves by 
reafon of the actual vreaknef of thtjr prefent Situation ^ 
■but if ever they come to ncoi/er themfelves^ they can't 
Jail of making a very ^reat advance. 


The Art of TraveUwg. ^ ^ 

The third refped of this National Ignorance 
proceeds from the Indifpolition Men are in to know 
others, by reafon of the little fincerity and appli- 
cation they ufe to get the knowledg of themfelves, 
which betrays 'em into frequent Miftakes, and oc- 
caQons 'em to take the Faults of a Nation for the 
Genius of it, and the Art of augmenting thofe 
Faults ( inftead of mending 'em ) for Motives of 
governing it. Nay more than this. Men are wil- 
ling to mifunderftand their cwn Properties which 
might be cultivated, and by that means negled the 
Rem-edies by which they might continually reftify 

Perhaps thefe Metaphyfical Abflradions will not 
fute every body's Palat j but I have already de- 
clar'd that I fpeak in general without making a 
particular application of things, and am unwilling 
to offend any one. However 'tis certain that every 
Nation has its faults, its fmgular qualities, its bright 
and dark fides ^ and if an Inllance of this be de- 
fir'd, the love of Riches will one time or other 
ruin the Dutch^ but the indefatigable Induftry they 
are capable of to acquire Wealth, will be their 
fupport a long time. Ambition is a fault in the 
French^ which may run to dangerous Extremes •, but 
their Valor and Adtivity will ferve a great while 
to fuftain 'em. 

To avoid being ignorant of any thing that relates 
to this, both thefe are to be throughly confider'd, 
and exadly balanc'd one againft the other ^ and a 
Man Ought to be convinc'd by himfelf which fide 
has the greateft weight, either to do the moll 
Mifchief, or procure the mofl Good. But in good 
"earneft do Men ufually begin their Voyages with 
fuch a preliminary Knowledg as this? And yet lefs 
than this will not fuffice to travel to any pur- 
pofe •, and for want of this Difcuffion, Men carry 


54 ^I'he Art ofTrarjelling. 

nothing but Ignorance with them into Foreign 

I could advance a great deal on this Head, but 
fhall produce only two Examples, which may ferve 
to inftrud others, and 'tis in what I have been a Wit- 
nefs my feif. 

A certain Gentleman that made a good Appea- 
rance, and had very great Recommendations (a 
fatal help in a Foreign Court when a Man has not 
the art of fupporting them well by his ownConduft ) 
was ask'd by a Minifler of State, What was the oc- 
calion of his Travels, becaufe he feem'd to be of a 
weak Conftitution, and confiderably advanc'd in 
Years, and therefore probably had fome particular 
defigu in view. The Gentleman ingenuoufly an- 
fwer'd : 5'/V, 7 travel to acquaint my f elf with Europe, 
and to take occafton hereafter to make my own Country 
acquainted with itt The Minifler replied j If the 
Pencil that is to draw your Pi{fure of Europe is like that 
xcith which you defcribe your own Country^ there will be 
7nore Fancy than Truth in your Originals, Sir^ I can 
fcarce believe (return'd the Gentleman) that there are 
any more perfect ones than thofe I have left in my own 
Country. Upon which the Minifler rofe up and faid, 
5/V, you feem to me to be rather firuck with one certain 
ImpreJJion than to have a true kmwledg of things j yopCU 
judg of us by that in which you mojl excel : Have a care 
that you he not judg'd of here by that in which you are mofi 

This Stranger was call into fo great a perplexity, 
when he compared this Anfwer with the firfl Com- 
pliments of Efteem for his Country, and for the Re- 
commendations he brought from thence, that he was 
quite nonplus'd. And tho he would feveral times 
fain have recover'd himfelf, and endeavor'd by 
great Expence, Induflry and Converfation with in- 
genious Men to inform himfelf better than he had 


The Art of Travelling, ^5 

done •, all fignified nothing but to give occafion ro 
have it faid to him at the end of eighteen Months, 
Sir^ you had need to come and confult m ^ you fee a 
Man learns much if he knows but little when he lea-ves his 
own Country ^ and that he has made no fmall advantage^ 
who has acqiiir'^d by his Travels the art of Learning. 

The fecond Inftanceis of one who was fent with 
the Charge of a Negotiation to a Court, where he 
had Orders to tarry only fo long as was necelTary to 
perform his Duty, and to w^ait for an Anfwer. He 
came and lodg'd in a Publick Houfe, where he was 
complimented on the part ot the Chief Minifter by 
an Abbot, who found him ready to fit down at 
Table, very much difpleas'd at the way of drefTing 
the Viduals which was prepared according to the 
guft of the Country: After the firll Compliments 
were pall, this Envoy could not help faying. What 
fo)t of a Country have you here. Sir ? Here is not fo 
good eating a5 in other places where Jrhave been^ and 
nothing mar fo good as at my own Table. Sir, ( faid 
the Abbot ) Men reafon here as they ought to do, but 
do not mMch trouble their heads about the art of Cookery ; 
that they leave to other Nations to carry to the higheft 
pitch of Ferfe^ion they pleafe. What (reply'd the 
Envoy ) can there be juft reafoning in a Country where 
every thing feems out of order .^ At which the Abbot 
rofe up and faid, Tou fhall judg of our Country ( if 
you pleafe ) by your felves ; and we'll refer our felves 
in this matter to your Opinion, provided you don*t prC' 
tend to fubje{l ours to your plcafure. 

By the recital of this foolifh Difcourfe of the 
Envoy, the Miniiler of State had a fufficient difco- 
very of his Character : the day following he came 
to his Audience, where nothing was difcours'd but 
State-Affairs ; and as he was going out, fays the 
Minifter in a tone of Railery: Be fureto get a good 
Pinner, Sir, c{nd pray crdtr your tnatters foai to dine 


^6 The Art of Travelling, 

with me to morrow. The Envoy did not fail to 
come, and oppofire to him was plac'd one of x.hoX'-' 
fecret Cenfoys, who penetrate a Man as foon as !^ 
begins to open his Mouth, without regard ro li 
Office, of which they never fpeak diredr ^ - 
diredly. He was magnificently regard, an " 
the time when the Table allows a liberty o^' : 
Difcourfe^ Well Sir^ fays this Cenfor, hoir 
like this Country ? There^s nothing but Miign^iice} 
( fays the Envoy ) evtry nhere^ hiitytt here's one thr: r 
fpanting : to which the other wittily reply'd •■, /. ' 
be nothing but your yipprobationj we can do well em-. 
without it. 

Indeed this Envoy was not long enough at tr..-. 
Court to improve himfelf by it : for when he left 
it he was fo entirely difpleas'd with it, that Uf 
fignifying his Difguft, he gave occafion to 'em-t<!> 
let him know a thc«aftnd -ways^ that they wer^: 
every jot as much difgufted with him. At his ' ' 
turn he made a ridiculous Defer iption of this Co . 
but Men had need take care what they fa/, ^r 
there happened to be a Stranger in the comf 7 
who made this difdainful Reply : If your own ( 
try (faid he) could not furnt/Jj you with c^.- ; ^r 
Senfe^ how could you expe&- that a Court whu ' -^t 
did but jujh pafs through fJjould teach you what . d 

no difpo/ition to learn ? This Repartee was l 1 
to that Court of which this Envoy had gj^ , jo 
unfutable a Character, and 'tis certain he v. ■ :;^ 
time pafs'd there for the greateft Fool that e^ - 1^ 
honour'd with a public Employ: Thefe ?..r :>? 
EfFeds of Ignorance, and a fottilh Prejudice. 

That is never to be learn'd in Travelling v, liicii 
'tis fuppos'd a well-bred Man ought to know he- 
fore he engages in Travels. For the Principles 
of Society and Policy are fo link'd together, that 
he that tranfgrelTes the former, renders himfelf ri> 


The Art of Travelling, ^j 

diculous wh€n he fpeaks, co fignify fomc unjuft Pre- 
ference that he makes in it. 

The confounding of a perfonal Determination 
of a Minifter of State, together with a National 
Determination, is a fecond Stumbling-block, againft 
which the gieateit part of inconfiderate and raw 
Travellev:; break their Shins : Who when they are 
fpoken to about the adual Symptoms of the Go- 
vernment of their Country, on purpofe to put 'em 
upon difco'jriing, if inftead of intimating by a wife 
Reply, that they know how to diftinguilh the In- 
terefts and Deiigns of their Country from the 
perfonal JMouves of thofe who govern it, which 
on that account determine them otherwise, they 
confound them both together, they pafs for Fools, 
and mere Butterfiies, that always flutter about that 
which calls the greatefl Light. And after a Man 
has once made Inch a falfe flep, let him try as 
long as he pleafes, he'll find it impoflible to fet 
himfelf right again in the Efteem of Men of fenfe, 
Railery will take its turn after ferious Difcourfe ^ 
and the greater Expence he fball be at to intro- 
duce himfelf into good Company, the more ridi- 
culous will he appear to 'em. And if you tell 
thefe ftup'id Creatures, or (if you pleafe) thefe 
pretended Politicians, that they err in the firffe 
Principles of Policy, they'll treat you as a ridi- 
culous and whimfical Perfon ^ nay fome of 'em 
have been fo ill-temper'd as to endeavour to render 
a Man fufpei^ed, for having had refpedt and kind- 
nefs enough for his Country to advertife 'em of 
their Miftake. 

The Faults of every Nation are known in all 
foreign Countries : Nay they compofe divers Axi- 
oms of 'em, which are not altogether falfe j for 
after all, if they are not all of 'em abfolutely true, 
there's fomething in 'em infallibly fo. And whe- 

^8- The Art of Travelling. 

ther it be Prejudice or Time that has given Au- 
thority to this fort of Proverbs, 'tis certain who- 
ever Ihocks 'em, goes for an extravagant Man. 

The Art of Travelling teaches a Man to keep 
his equal dillance from the Extremities of wholly 
denying, or wholly confefling fuch National Faults. 
For 'tis equally dangerous to err on either hand, 
which very few Peiffons confider : He that denies a 
Fault that is imputed to his Country, pulls an old 
Houfe upon his head in irritating the People among 
whom he refides atprefent, which muft needs be a 
great piece of Imprudence. Nor is that Traveller 
much wifer who falls into the other Extreme, that 
is, coldly and tamely to grant every Story that is 
impos'd on his Country •, for tho he fhould capti- 
vate fome vulgar Minds by this Air of Sincerity, 
he'll be fure to get the Reputation of a Fop among 
Perfons of Note. 'Tis ftill worfe when a Traveller 
grants that with which his Country is reproach'd, 
only to take his turn immediately to twit that 
Nation where he is thus attack'd with that Fault 
which is imputed to it in our Traveller's Country •, 
for this is to infult over People at their own home, 
and therefore can't choofe but irritate 'em. And 
the wifeft Men will difapprove of any man's coming 
into a Country to reproach it with a Fault, which 
*tis always afliam'd to be thought to have, and 
perfeftly hates to hear laid to its charge. What 
then muft a Man do in this cafe ? Why that which 
no body will ever teach you, if you negled to 
learn it before you leave your own Country \ And 
that is, to ftudy well the Defeds and Virtues 
of your Country by fetting 'cm in oppofition one 
to the other, that fo you may oppofe 'em when 
occalion requires to what is imputed to you, and 
may fpeak of the one, without fignifying any thing 
for or againft the others, by entering into a parti- 

The Art of Travelling, J 9 

cular Examination and Confutation of 'em. By 
this Condudt you'l pafs in Foreign Nations for a wil^ 
Man, by this means your Capacity will be knovvn, 
and you'l be confider'd and efteem'd in proportioa^ 
c to the Knowledg you appear to have, and to the 
Advantage others may have of learning by you- 
to become acquainted with a Nation which perhaps-; 
they never defign to fee. And fince one Story! 
draws out another, that which you give concerning; 
your Country will infallibly procure you the know- 
ledg of the Nation where you arej and by this 
Addrefs you'll eafily get. a folid underftanding of; 
what you came to feek, namely, the difcovery of- 
the Genius, Policy, and Manners of a. whole Nation,, 
This is the Produd: of Skill in the Art of Travellings 
I'll give one Inftance which formerly touch'd me 
very fenfibly. A certain Italian being in Lithuania^ 
one of the principal Lords of the Country faid to 
him in Converfation : Whence is it, Sir^ that the 
Italians never forgive an Injury ? My Lord, reply'd 
the Italian, "'tis becaufe they are never eaftly offended. 
Now this being the great fault of the Polijh and Li- 
thuanian Nobility, the Repartee was very witty, and 
as it feem'd to me, the molt fubtil and ingenious 
Cenfure that a Man could pafs on 'em. The Lithua' 
nian Nobleman receiv'd the Impreifion of it fd pru- 
dently, that he even afFefted to expofe the fault 
of his Country yet farther, in making this return: 
Sir, ( faid he ) we Jhould he as eafily offended as you 
have been made to believe of us in your Country, if 
we could be capable of being difpleas^d to hear the Truth 
told us with fo good a Grace. He afterwards pre- 
fented him with a Horfe, and order'd that he 
fhould be conducted at his Charge from his Eftate, 
which lies within tv/o days Journy of Grodnaw^ 
as far as DantzJck, Whither this Italian had a mind 
to go. 


^o The Art of TrAvelling. 

And now let any one put in the room of what 
he has been reading, fuch a difpofition of Mind as 
the greatefl part travel with, and he'll eafily per- 
ceive what is produced by that bufy Preference 
which determines on the firft Prejudices, which 
are almoft always falfe, and may eafily judg by 
this whether it was not necefTary to give the Pub- 
lick a method of Travelling. I intend hereafter 
to treat of the Politic Genius of all the Courts of 
Europe J and hope the manner in which I Ihall dif- 
courfe of 'em will fute the relifh of the World j 
becaufe I am to treat of the Fads and Maxims of 
common life and Converfation, without which 'tis 
impoflible to penetrate into the true Spirit of 
thofe Courts : And I fhall begin with the Port, or 
Ottoman Court. 




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