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Full text of "An account of Ireland, statistical and political"

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ALLEN COUNTY PUBLIC LIBRARY 



3 1833 02141 7495 

Gc 941,5 W13a v. 1 
Wakefield 7 Edward 7 1774- 

1854. 
An account df Ireuandv 

statistical. and pduiticau 



AN 



If 






ACCOUNT 



OF 



IRELAND, 



STATISTICAL AND POLITICAL. 



By EDWARD WAKEFIELD. 



IN TWO VOLUMES. 



VOL. L 



Hontion : 

PRINTED FOR LONGMAN, HURST, REES, ORME, AND BROWN, 
PATERNOSTER-ROW. 



1812. 



n 



r, it-n (■"'r.T.iy ?u^'ic Lib'ani 
900 Wc'JSlcr Street ;. 



J. M' Creert, Printer, 
Black-Horse Court, London. 



m 



INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. 



A KNOWLEDGE of the natural situation, the political institutions, and 
the local advantages, even of a foreign nation, is an object of considerable 
magnitude, and must, to an inquiring and enlightened mind, be a source of 
no small gratification ; but to become acquainted with these relations, as 
they respect the great divisions of that empire, of which we are ourselves 
subjects, is of much higher importance. If we be ignorant of the true 
state of our country, its interests must be imperfectly understood ; and it 
"will be as difficult to discover a remedy for existing evils, as to prevent 
those from arising, which will otherwise necessarily occur during the pro- 
gress of time. It is by the poM-er of foreseeing political danger that we 
can guard against its consequences ; for states, if their capabilities of im- 
provement be overlooked or neglected, will inevitably sink into weak- 
ness, and lose that influence and that consequence among nations, which 
they might otherwise acquire and retain. Contemplating the present 
state of Europe, and the wonderful change which has taken place in the 
general system of continental politics ; it becomes the imperious duty of 
every well-wisher of Great Britain, to point out her resources,. and to recom- 
mend, to the best of his abilities, the manner in which they may be em- 
ployed to the greatest public advantage. From recent events there is rea- 
son to conclude that our country, at least for some years, must depend for 
support chiefly on the natural vigour of her own people, and the internal 
means which they possess of calling it into activity. Her energies, I am 
happy to say, seem to increase in proportion to the difficulties which 
she has to encounter; and her resources, notwithstanding the pressure of 
the times, are still unquestionably great : but the most flattering prospects 
may be unexpectedly obscured ; and prudence requires that we should be 
Vol. I. b 



i INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. 

vigilant, not only to avoid what may tend to depress the one, or to fetter 
and impede the other, but also to pursue such measures as may give addi- 
tional strength and stability to both. 

Those in the least acquainted with history know, that Ireland forms 
a very valuable portion of the British empire ; whether considered in a 
tnmmercial, agricultural, or political point of view, and that its import- 
ance calls for the utmost attention of a wise administration: Even in 
the time of the Romans, the possession of Ireland seems to have been 
considered as necessary towards securing the conquest of Britain ;* and 
we are informed by a very acute and ingenious French wriLer,i that 
Louis XIV., when he endeavoured to re-instate James II. on the English 
throne, and sent troops to Ireland for that purpose, was guilty of a great 
political oversight, in not employing a force sufficient to secure to him 
that countiy ; which, in his hands, and under the control of France, would 
have enabled him effectually to check the increasing power of his rival. 

To point out tlie advantages which England might derive from Ireland, 
were its interests better understood, and its energies properly encouraged 
by sound and well digested laws, is the principal object of the facts and 
observations collected in the following sheets. They were sought after 
fc- the purpose of supplying, with authentic materials and documents, 
those who may be disposed hereafter to turn their thoughts to this subject ; 
and, I hope, however defective this work may be in style, that the matter 
will be found important, if not interesting. It is, indeed, generally ad- 
mitted, that the situation of Ireland, so far from being known and appre- 
ciated in Great Britain as it ought to be, and as it easily might be, is 
ver)- imperfectly understood. 
♦ . 

* Africola expulsuiu seditione domestica uniim ex regulis gentis exceperat, ac specie ainicitiEB in 
occasionem retinebat. Sepe ex eo audivi, legione una el modicis auxiliis debellari obtinerique Hi- 
bemiam posse. Idque eliam adversus Brilanniam profuturum, si Romaua iibiqiie arma, et velut e 
compectu libertas toUeretur. Tacitus in Fit a Agric. edit. Ebz. p. 673. 

f In liis Cotisidcrations stir ks Causes de la Grandeur des Rumuins, alluding to the maxnn of con- 
stantly dividing, adopted by these people, this writer says : Si un grand Prince qui a regn6 de nos jours, 
avoit suivi ces maximes lorsqu'il vit un de ses voisins detrone, il auroit employe de plus grandes forces 
pour le soutcnir, et le borner dans Tisle qui lui resta fidele : en divisant la seule puissance qui pfit 
s'opposer a ses desseins, il auroit tire d'imnienses avantages du inalheur memo de son allig. CEuvres 
de Mujiiesyuieu, torn. vi. p. 72. Anist. 1785. 



f 



INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. iii 

It mav be thought decorous to assign some reason for appearing before 
the pubhc as an author: the following statement vill, I hope, be satisfac- 
tory on that head, and be considered as a sufficient apology for assuming, 
on the present occasion, a character so little in unison with my past 
habits and pursuits. 

In the spring of the year 1 SOS, a committee of the House of Commons 
was appointed to determine on the best mode of affording relief to the West 
India planters, men who have a strong claim to the protection and assist- 
ance of the mother country. In the course of the deliberations of this com- 
mittee, it was suggested, as the most effectual means of relief, that sugar, the 
produce of the West Indies, should be substituted in the distilleries for corn, 
the production of Great Britain and Ireland. Being called upon by that 
committee to state my opinion, as to the effect of the proposed measure on 
the future cultivation of corn at home, I was induced to take a much 
more comprehensive view of the subject, than as it affected the landed 
interest. I conceived that the adoption of such a proceeding would be an 
encroachment on the resources for supplying the people of England with 
food ; and that it would violate those principles of political economy, 
which formed the basis of that system on which the late Mr. Pitt* had acted 
a few years before, when the last corn act was introduced and carried by 
Mr. Western. The suggestion of this plan arrested my attention ; and 
I carefully watched the evidence which was procured by the committee, in 
order that I might confirm or reject the opinion which I then entertained. 

When it appeared, from unquestionable testimony, that Great Britain did 
not produce corn sufficient to supply her inhabitants, and that Ireland 

* " When even the scarcity of the year, when that corn act passed, so severely pressed upon the 
country, the iiouse, with reluctance, resorted to the measure of bounties ; and they acted wisely, rather 
to let things go almost to extremity, than to encourage the people to look to any other resources than 
their own agriculture and industry ,• rather to try their patience and fortitude, to endure distress for a 
short season, in order to turn their attention to the means, and to urge their best exertions to prevent 
the recurrence of similar difficulties in future. The policy of our ancestors had been to encourage im- 
portation of corn by bounties ; but ours was happily that, which by tending to increase our own re- 
sources, more effectually secured us against want ; and he hoped the country would persevere in that 
svstem, for the less we were to depend on other nations for our supply, the less we had to apprehend." 
Extract from Mr. Pitt's speech, 4th December, 1802. JVoodfairs Debates, vol. i. p. 338. 

b 2 



INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. 



had a surplus, it was not difficult to perceive, that the only question 
for the determination of the committee was, M'hether it would be most 
advantageous to the empire, to cultivate the colonies taken from our ene- 
mies, or to encourage the increase and improvement of tillage in Ireland. 
The committee determined in favour of the colonies, and recommended 
to Parliament, that distillers should be obliged to draw their spirit from 
sugar instead of corn. In a budget, or, as it was termed, expose of the 
French empire, the minister of that country boasted, that during the war, 
the culture of the captured islands would be improved by British capital 
and industry;* and that so far from their temporary loss being injurious 
to France, it would have a beneficial result, for at the period of peace they 
would be restored in a state much more valuable and productive. This 
measure, so gratifying to our enemies, however sanctioned by powerful re- 
commendation, did not pass through the British Parliament without much 
opposition: and in the Commons, the Right Honourable John Foster, 
then Chancellor of the Irish Exchequer, voted in the minority. 

In the course of these discussions, the West Indian planters and mer- 
chants produced such statistical information, as afforded apparently pow- 
erful arguments in favour of their interests. This information, was 
obtained from Sir William Young's West Indian Common Place Book ; 
and it then uucuncd to iiie, that a similar work on Ireland might be 
highly acceptable to those interested in the prosperity and welfare of that 
country ; especially as information respecting her resources and powers of 
improvement, moral as well as physical, could be gathered only from 
detached accounts, scattered throughout numerous volumes, which are 
seldom to be met with in England: even the representatives of that coun- 
try in the British Parliament, seemed either unacquainted with her true in- 
terests as far as related to this great question, or unable, from want of suffi- 
cient information, to state and enforce it, so as to produce a beneficiaji 
effect. 

The necessity of such a work was suggested in a conversation with 
Mr. Foster; and I considered his opinion as no mean sanction for con- 

* I know that the French islands, surrendered by the treaty of Amicus^ had their fortifications 
amended, extended, and improved, with British labour antl British money. 



INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. ^ 

eluding, that a compilation of this kind would be of great use, not only to 
Ireland, but to the empire at large. Mr. Foster was so obliging as to 
offer me all the assistance and information in his power ; but 1 consider it 
necessary to observe, that although the idea of the work originated in this 
manner, the opinions are my own; they are the unbiassed result of a 
patient investigation of the state of the country, from actual observ- 
ation. I stated to Mr. Foster, that if I undertook the work, it must be 
done unconnected with any party, and that I should consult the Duke 
of Bedford and the Earl of Darnley, noblemen, who did not accord with 
him in political opinion. Mr. Foster approved my intention ; and both 
these noblemen were assiduous in introducing me to such of their friends 
as were likely to aid in the undertaking. To these noblemen, and to 
the Earl of Fingal, I am particularly indebted ; they afforded me the means 
of procuring much valuable information ; and I take the liberty here of 
mentioning their names, to shew, that it was my early determination not to 
collect materials merely from those who seemed desirous, only in one way 
of serving h-eland. After mixing so much with persons of all parties and all 
religious persuasions, in this my anxious pursuit, I have been surprised, 
and I may say, chagrined, to find an opinion prevailing, that this work is 
invariably to speak the sentiments of Mr. Foster. I should consider myself 
as acting disingenuously, if I did not endeavour to shield him from the im- 
putation of holding many opinions which are to be found in the follow- 
ing pages, and which may be at variance with his own. Whatever reception, 
therefore, this work may meet M'ith, its defects are to be placed to my own 
account ; with me the whole responsibility must rest ; and to prevent any 
part of it from being ascribed to that gentleman, I have generally mentioned 
my authority for every fact. The conclusions which I deduce from these 
facts are the result of my own judgment and conviction. It will bfe found 
that I differ from Mr. Foster on several points of no small moment, and parti- 
cularly on two of the most important measures in which he has participated 
during the course of his long political career. For Mr. Foster, I entertain 
the warmest sentiments of friendship and respect ; I am proud to acknow- 
ledge it; but I never, on that account, yielded up any of my own opinions 
when they happened to be contrary to his. On every occasion, when they 
accorded with those which he is known to entertain, I have felt gratified 



,-i INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. 

and relieved ; for by this coincidence my ideas on some points received 
additional authority; but ahhough circumstances of this kind were to me 
verv flattering,, I am anxious to shew that the difference in our poliiical 
sentiments is not evinced merely on unimportant subjects, but in great 
principles publicly and conscientiously expressed. 

My opinion on the momentous legislative act which united Ireland to 
Great Britain, and formed the two countries into one empire — an act which 
I yet hope to see confirmed, and still farther strengthened by the admission 
of the Roman Catholics to a full participation of the benefits of the British 
Constitution, Avas not founded on interested motives, nor formed from a 
partial view of the subject, but adopted after a mature and most attentive 
consideration of all its bearings and probable effects.* These sentiments 
are now so firmly established, that nothing but strong facts, facts sufficient 
to outweigh those from which I have drawn my conclusions, can make me 
in the least swerve from my present opinions. I am aware that it is popu- 
lar in Ireland to decry the act of unlon.t It is common also to ascribe 
to Great Britain every evil under which that country is now suffering; 
but being no great man's parasite, and having no desire to hunt after that 

* " It removed that most objectionable of all political principles, the separate existence of two 
co-ordinate and independent legislatures in the same state, which constantly exposed the tranquillity of 
the empire to dangers, arising from discord and mutual strife, which ambitious or designing men might 
promote by the agitation of irritating questions." — Extract from Mr. Whitshed Keene's Speech, 
April 2d, 1804. Cobbett's Parliamentary Register, vol. ii. p. 78. 

+ Some persons in that country may, perhaps, have adopted the idea of Dr. Johnson ; but that 
celebrated man, notwithstanding his great genius and extraordinary powers of mind, had his prejudices, 
and this seems to have been one of them. Conversing with an Irish gentleman on the subject of an 
union, Johnson said : " Do not make an union with us. Sir; we should unite with you only to rob 
you. We should have robbed the Scotch, if they had had any thing of which we could have robbed 
them." Bosu-ell's Life of Johnson, vol. iii. p. 440. 

De Foe, however, thought very differently, and justly observes : There is no question but, in time, 
the just reflection on these things will prevail upon men of honesty in all parts of your Majesty's do- 
minions, to acknowledge the happiness and advantages of the Union ; though at present, the artifice 
of their enemies, rather than any real mischiefs felt by it, have filled their mouths with complaint.— 
History of the Union between England and Scotland, dedicated to the Queen, p. xxvi. 



INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. vii 

most unstable of all earthly possessions, popular favour, I must dissent 
from such doctrine'; ; and shall leave to those writers, who do not hesitate to 
gratify their spleen at the expense of public tranquillity, to destroy, if they 
be so disposed, the rising germs of the futuref happiness of her inhabit- 
ants. Connexion with Great Britain — union — inseparable union — the being 
one and the same empire — one and the same people — to have the same in- 
terests — throwing the broad parental shield of the British monarchy over 
the farthermost parts of Ireland, and over the meanest of her inhabitants, can 
alone promote the general and individual welfare of both countries. Great 
Britain, by her situation, seems destmed to be the friend and protectress of 
Ireland; the latter, notwithstanding the bravery and martial spirit of her 
inhabitants, is too weak to defend herself against the attacks of a foreign 
enemy; but uniting her efforts with those of Great Britain, fighting under 
the same banners, and directing her views to the same objects, the general 
good, she may bid a proud defiance to the rest of the world.* 

in the agricultural, one important part of this undertaking, I felt from 
the beginning some degree of confidence in my own strength ; my at- 
tention having, for many years,, been directed to the value and manage- 
ment of land, of which I have seen and examined much in many of the 
counties of England. Mr. Young has remarked, that to prosecute a work 
of this kind with effect, requires a combination of agricultural and poli- 
tical knowledge, sufficient to discover the best means of employing the 
productions of the earth, and of applying them in such a manner as to 
promote the happiness of the people.t These are the acquirements which 
far surpass the information possessed by the mere farmer, or those of the 
politician, Avhose only purpose is the accumulation of the taxes and the 
resources of the country. Properly to execute such a task requires 
greater talents and knowledge, than is commonly to be found in the 
same individual. England, however, in Mr. Young, may boast of juch 
a person ; his labours will shed a lustre on her fame through future 

* Tlie following passage in Livy is very applicable to this subject: Itaque societas et UMO illis 
omnino sen'anda est, si modo salvi esse velint. Aphor. Polit. et Miiit. per L. Dantrum, p. 304. 

+ The Edinburgh Reviewer drew the same character of M. Talleyrand, when he called that genius 
*' a scientific political traveller." Edinburgh Review, No. 11. p. 77. 



,^ii INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. 

ages; but truth compels me to declare, although the assertion may re- 
proach my country, that he has been ill requited for his exertions in her ser- 
vice, and that during the best days of his life, she seems to have been 
coldly insensible to the value of his indefatigable and important labours.* 

I am not so weak as to imagine that I possess such a combination of ta- 
lents and acquirements ; yet I am impelled to the attempt of giving an 
account of Ireland, from a conviction of the importance of the subject, 

* Perhaps, it may not be quite relevant to my present subject to enlarge farther on this topic, but 
having just read Dr. Clark's attack upon Russia for her ungrateful conduct towards Professor Pallas, 
it has roused ray feelings in recollecting the situation of Mr. Young. In early life he produced his 
Political Arilluiietic, a work which, in the opinion of many very able persons, is to be classed with 
the profound researches of Sir James Steuart, and the eloquent disquisitions of Dr. Adam Smith. 
Previously to his writing this book, he had made Ei;gland much better known by the publication of 
his Three Tours, and in 1779 he began his Irish work, in which he pointed out the folly of the 
bounty on the inland carriage of corn. His recommendation on tliis subject was adopted ; and, from 
thu hour, may be dated the commencement of extended tillage in Ireland. — See Annals of Agricul- 
ture, vol. xxix. p. 167. His masterly observations on the penal code of laws against the Roman Ca- 
tholics, in which he proved that they were not laws against the religion, but tlie industry of the 
country, have been frequently quoted, both by writers and public speakers, as authority for the repeal 
of those obnoxious statutes ; and his advice, to a considerable extent, has been followed. He foresavr 
the benefits of an union, and that union has taken place. Had the many minor details which he recom- 
mended, been acted upon, Ireland at this time, would, no doubt, have been in a very different situation. 
His tour in that country was a labour of some years. Mr. Young wrote much in, and edited the 
Annals of Agriculture, a work of forty-five volumes, and of so much importance, that the great Bentham 
has said, that whilst he possessed a guinea, he would not be without it. — See Mr. Bentham s Letter, 
ibid. vol. xxix. p. 393. Mr. Young's Farmer's Calendar now goes through an annual edition; a 
striking proof of its merit and very great utility. His French tour stands unrivalled by any work of 
its kind in any language. His Essay on Manures, for which the Bath Society awarded him the Bed- 
fordian prize, exhibits his intimate acquaintance with chemistry ; and his reports of Essex, Suffolk, 
Norfolk, Lincolnshire, Oxfordshire, Hertfordshire, &c. afford the most evident marks of his talents and 
industry. Elected a member of many learned societies, some of them beyond the Atlantic ; the friend 
and associate of the greatest men of the age in which he has lived, generously imparting to all persons the 
result of his accumulated store of knowledge, Mr. Young has spent a long life in' cultivating and pro- 
moting the arts of peace. Contemning all private emolument, and serving the public without any view 
of adding to his private fortune, he has received, I believe, from his country, no other reward than that 
of being appointed to the office of Secretary to the Board of Agriculture, with the small salary of of 400. 
per annum. Such, reader, is the extent of the boon conferred upon this benefactor of mankind! It is 
posterity now which must do him justice ; and some future biographer, in speaking of his services, may, 
perhaps, be inclined to remark, that his country behaved to him as Frederic boasted he had done towards 
Voltaire — " he treated him like a lemon : squeezed out the juice, and then flung away the rind." 



INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. ix 

and the benefit that must result from even an ordinary execution of the 
■^vork. But I flatter myself that it Mill be more valuable than a dry statis- 
tical account, consisting only of figures and tables, unaccompanied with 
reasoning and observation. To such a mode of proceeding I had one strong 
objection. I should have been confined to a statement of the present re- 
sources of the country, passing over the future means of improvement, 
or the best methods of applying those which Ireland now possesses for the 
strength and security of the empire. 

Had my work been so confined in its object, the quantity of waste 
land not being yet ascertained, nor any census of the people taken, my 
labours would have been nearly useless. Such statistical information as I 
have been able to procure, collected chiefly from papers annually laid 
before parliament, has been incorporated in different parts of the follow- 
ing sheets; and, however scanty, will, I trust, be found in general to be 
^correct. 

I was aware, that to be of service, it \vould be necessary to lay be- 
fore the public, more enlarged accounts of the produce, resources, and 
advantages, of Ireland, than those which were to be obtained from the dry 
returns of exports and imports, revenue, expenditure, and public debt. 
Although to such information might be added what could be gleaned 
from the County Surveys of that country, it did not appear to me suf- 
ficient either for the information of the statesman., or of readers in general. 
I considered that a mere collection of undigested facts, however numerous 
and important in their own application, would not be of general utility, 
but that they should be intermixed with reasoning, founded upon prin- 
ciples of political economy. If the ideas, which have directed my views 
respecting Ireland, be correct, the discussions into which I have entered, 
will render the work more valuable ; for, without recourse to this sure 
test of general political knowledge, the traveller in Ireland will be 
frequently deceived. There are, I am sorry to remark, persons in that 
country, who, in order that they may enjoy the pleasure of misleading 
purposely give erroneous information to the inquirer : even at this day, I 
diave heard Mr, Young ridiculed for repeating the account which was 

Vol. L c 



X INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. 

communicated to him of " claret being given to ewes at a certain season." 
Mr. Young may have been imposed upon once in his life, but the persons 
who laid such a plan were deceiving themselves, and injuring the public. 
The circumstance, however, ought to be a warning to collectors of facts, not 
to give implicit credit to all that is told them. When such snares are laid 
in the way of those who are engaged in works of this description, they must 
weigh the information which they acquire against probability, and their 
own judgment must then decide. Among the numerous difficulties which 
attend such an undertaking, this is not the least ; but I have, in many 
cases, exonerated myself from responsibility by giving the names, where I 
could do it with propriety, of those gentlemen, who were so kind as to 
assist me by answers to my queries. Perhaps, I may here be allowed to say, 
without arrogating too much, that I have been actuated by an honourable 
zeal to promote the interests of a country, for v/hich, in consequence of 
its being the native soil of some of my nearest connexions, I had formed an 
early predilection — a predilection, which by more intimate acquaintance 
with its inhabitants, has increased to a most ardent attachment. 

Under these impressions, all personal considerations vanished ; my re- 
luctance to appear before the public, as an author, decreased ; and I deter- 
mined to undertake the task, endeavouring to execute it to the best of my 
abilities. It is not material how my labours may be dressed, whether 
in the garment of the court or the cottage. Literary fame, however gra- 
tifying, has not been my particular object ; yet I am not insensible 
to its value, and should have been happy to have possessed the genius 
that would have ensured it to me. I must, in this particular, throw myself 
on the indulgence of the public, being more desirous to be useful than 
ornamental. 

In describing the scenery of Ireland, I found myself more at a loss than 
inmost other parts of my work, which is principally a detail of dry, though 
important, facts. But I could not, in many instances, and for many reasons, 
refrain from giving way to my feelings, when contemplating the sublime 
scenes which presented themselves to my view in various situations in this 
country ; and I have endeavoured, with a feeble hand I fear, to give a 



INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. xi 

general idea of its picturesque beauties, under that portion which is 
entitled. Face of the Country. 

Its geological description appeared to me to be of little moment, when 
compared with a knowledge of the state of its people, their habits, 
their inducements to labour, and the manner in which the produce 
of their industiy is afterwards applied. These were my great objects, 
and to such subjects I have always directed my most diligent inquiries : 
yet, in pursuing them, collateral information has never been overlooked 
or neglected. 

In Lord Selkirk's work on Highland Emigration, many quotations from 
other authors are printed in an Appendix, for the purpose of establishing 
or corroborating his opinions and statements ; perhaps, such a method would 
have been more judicious than that which I have adopted ; but when I 
found it necessary to have recourse to the labours of others, I have either 
inserted what 1 borrowed in the text, or given my authority, or the passage 
itself, in a note immediately under the part to which it relates ; conceiv- 
ing that references, by being so placed, may be more easily consulted, 
and occasion less distraction to^ the reader. In some instances, where 
the length of the passages precluded the possibility of inserting them entire, 
I have taken the liberty of abridging them, and have referred the reader 
to the work. 

Although I have been studiously careful to avoid whatever might 
subject me to the charge of intentional plagiarism, I think it necessary to 
observe, that I may unconsciously, in some instances, have adopted the 
sentiments of others. In reading remarks and observations that strike 
forcibly, they often become so strongly imprinted on the mind, as, after 
a considerable lapse of time, to establish themselves as original ideas, 
although they may be nothing more than the undetected productions of 
memory. If I have ever fallen into this error, and if I have employed 
borrowed thoughts without due acknowledgment, I can assure their 
authors I have not transgressed intentionally. 

Being resolved to render this work as comprehensive as possible, I have 

c 2, 



xn INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. 

evaded no question through prejudice, or the fear of giving offence. The 
friends, M'ith whose assistance I have been honoured, are, I trus* too hi^h- 
minded to be displeased at that use of their names, which is r.CLcssary 
to the public welfare. My only claim to confidence rests, indeed, nn my 
determination to speak the truth without reserve or disguise. If unfor- 
tunately I should offend individuals, it is my judgment and not my intention 
that will have erred; and on discovering that any thing in this work may have 
such an effect, I shall feel great regret. Through motives of delicacy, I hav.e 
suppressed many facts which came to my knowledge, because I found, that 
were I to give them to the public, the private concerns of many individuals 
would be exposed. It was, indeed, once my intention not to introduce the 
name of any person ; but I subsequently thought that the adoption of this 
rule would diminish the authority which a work of this kind should pos- 
sess ; and as it contains information derived from many still living, they 
Avill have an opportunity of correcting any mistakes into which I ma,y 
have fallen. 

My motive being the public good, I have thought it necessary to censure 
various practices and habits, to which, if similarly situated, I might myself 
from the fallibility of human nature, have become addicted, and many 
foibles, which, if educated under the like circumstances, might have 
attached themselves to my own character. I am ready, therefore, to 
make every allowance for that infirmity, which is so often derived from 
the society into which we are thrown ; and which, notwithstanding all 
the pains that may be taken by moral precepts and wise regulations, will have 
a sensible effect upon our manners and conduct. But those are the best friends 
to mankind who are bold enough to point out errors wherever they may 
be found; and who are not afraid to expose faults, especially when 
there is a possibility of their being removed. Reproof, conveyed in 
temperate language, can be ungrateful only to the incorrigible ; and I hope 
that the observations I have made on this subject may be of use. They will 
be felt, no doubt, in a proper manner by those to whom they are applica- 
ble ; and if they be felt, they may contribute to produce amendment. One 
kind of indulgence, which is the cause of much irregularity, is more pre- 
valent in Ireland than in any other part of the empire. This indulgence, 
added to passions naturally ardent, gives birth on many occasions, to scenes 



INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. xiii 

of disordev and confusion. To endeavour to check such evils is certainly- 
laudable ; and, without aspiring to the rank of authors of high estimation, 
may I be allowed to ask. Have not Mr. Young's Description of an Irish 
Buckeen, and Miss Edgeworth's Castle Rack-Rent, contributed to the im- 
provement of national morals and manners in Ireland? The publication of 
the Spectator in England effected a striking alteration on English society ; 
and it cannot be doubted, that every representation of national vice and 
folly will have, in some degree, a similar effect. It would be a base return 
for all my obligations to the Irish nation, were I to compromise her in- 
terest, by flattering the vanity of individuals, or throwing a veil over the 
weak parts of her national character. Wherever I conceived that they could 
be amended by being known, I have mentioned them boldly ; but I am con- 
scious that I have done it with the open sincerity of friendship^ and I 
earnestly hope that it may have the effect I intended. Nurnerous are the 
traits of national virtue and of correct high-minded conduct which I have 
observed ; and never have I noticed them without exulting in such symptoms 
of real superiority of character. 

To those partial friends who have expressed an anxious desire for the 
earlier appearance of this work, it may be necessary to offer some apology. 
They will find by its magnitude, that I have not been idle ; and so far 
from feeling confident of its being even now fit for the public tyt, I wished, 
to have profited by the hint of the Roman poet,* and to have allowed more 
time for correction and revision ; but had I so indulged myself, some of my 
observations might have been out of date ; and much rendered unneces- 
. sary by a change of circumstances. 

The history of Ireland has been written with various degrees of ability ; 
but no one, perhaps, has executed his task in such a manner as to give 
general satisfaction. Such a work is still a desideratum in English litera- 
ture. The political events of the last forty years have been detailed 
with such ability by Mr. Hardy, in his life of Lord Charlemont, that, 
probably, a history of Ireland from his pen would add much to the 
literary character of our country, and form a valuable addition to what has 
been already published on the subject. 



noiiumque premntiii in anmim, — Horat. aks PoeticAi 



Mv INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. 

The antiquities of Ireland may be found in the works of Ledwich and 
Grose. The object of the late tour of Sir Richard Hoare, Bart, appeal's to 
have been a research of this kind ; and had he confined his remarks entirely 
to this subject, his volume might have been more useful, 

I have not entered, at length, into any historical or antiquarian dis- 
quisitions. These subjects of themselves would require as much space as I 
have allotted to this work ; in treatises on Ireland there are no such helps 
to be met with as those which England possesses in Camden's Britannia, 
Chalmer's Caledonia, kc. ; and for County Topography, nothing to com- 
pare with Bloomfield's Norfolk, or Sir Richard Hoare "s Wiltshire. 

To English works also, we must look for all state papers ; for although 
there are iniportant documents both in the Castle of Dublin, in Trinity 
College, and some, perhaps, belonging to the Earl of Ormonde, at his castle 
in Kilkenny, there has yet been no printed works similar to Rymer's 
Fcedera, the Clarendon papers, and Lord Somers's Tracts ; unless Lord 
Stafford's works, and Primate Boulter's Letters should be considered as 
an exception. 

Notwithstanding I resided in Ireland nearly two years, for the pur- 
pose of collecting materials, in which pursuit I passed over the greatest 
part of the island, I think it proper to remark, that I have attended less 
to Antrim, Leitrim, Louth, and Longford, than to any of the other coun- 
ties. It is necessary, therefore, that I should state my reasons to the reader 
for this omission. The Rev. Mr. Dubourdieu will soon publish an histori- 
cal report of Antrim; Mr. Edgeworth is engaged on one of Longford, and 
Dr. Beaufort has for some time been preparing a description of Louth. 
Beinji aware that an account of these counties Mould be laid before the 
public, by those who are more able than myself; I thought it would be pre- 
sumptive to anticipate these gentlemen in any thing that they might have to 
produce, further than might be necessary to afford data for my last chapter of 
general results. Leitrim is a small mountainous county, and as I had no 
acquaintance with any one there, I had not an opportunity of increasing 
my knowledge respecting it, other than what I was myself able to obtain, 
by crossing it twice in different directions. 



INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. xv- 

When I was in Ireland, I applied for information to people of every rank, 
from the nobleman to the peasant. To give a list of the persons to v. horn I 
am under obligations, would appear ostentatious. Those to whom I 
am indebted for hospitality, great kindness, and material assistance in the 
prosecution of my labours, will, I hope, be contented with the only return 
for their generosity and disinterestedness which I have it in my power to 
make — my warmest thanks, and lively remembrance of their favours. It 
-will be perceived that I am indebted to the Right Honourable Wellesley 
Pole for many official documents, without any stipulation respecting the 
principles of my work; a proof of his liberality, and of his willingness that 
facts should be laid before the public from incontrovertible documents. 

To many of my friends in England my acknowledgments are due for the 
assistance which they have afforded me by the loan of their books ; and, I 
trust, that none of them will consider themselves as slighted by my particu- 
lar mention of the extraordinary obligation I am under, in- this particular, 
to Sir Joseph Banks. 

Most of the works to which I have referred 1 have had the advantage of 
consulting in my own library. 

But before I proceed to the principal object of this undertaking, it may 
be necessary to make some remarks on the labours of those authors who 
have preceded me; and who have given either general sketches of the state 
of Ireland, or detached accounts of some of its counties or divisions. 

And, first, as meriting particular attention, I shall mention the Tour of 
the celebrated Arthur Young, in the year 1 7 79 ; which, were it a recent 
publication, might render my work in some degree useless. 

The Rev. Dr. Beaufort's Memoir of a Map of Ireland, published in 1792, 
is also a valuable production ; which, added to the foregoing Book, must 
form the basis of every future statistical Survey of Ireland. 

The following counties have been surveyed, and the reports published 
by the Dublin Society : 



INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. 



Armagh 

Cavan - 

Clare 

Cork 

Donegal 

Down 

Dublin 

Observations on it 

Kildare - 

Kilkenny 

King's County 

Leitrim - 

Londonderry - 

Mayo 

Meath - 

Monaghan 

Queen's County 

Sligo 

Tyrone - 

Wexford 

Wicklow 



by Sir Charles Coote, Bart, 

— Ditto 

— Mr. Hely Dutton 

— Rev. Horace Townsend 

— Dr. M'Parlan 

— Rev. John Dubourdieu 

— Mr. John Archer 

— Mr. Hely Dutton 

— Mr. James Rawson 

— William Tighe, Esq. M. P. 

— Sir Charles Coote, Bart. 

— Dr. M'Parlan 

— Rev. G. V. Sampson 

— Dr. M'Parlan 

— Mr. Robert Thompson 

— Sir Charles Coote, Bart. 

— Ditto 

— Dr. M'Parlan 

— Mr. M'Evoy 

— Mr. Robert Fraser 

— Ditto. 



These works are seldom to be met with in England ; and even were 
they found in every library, much of the information contained in them 
is enveloped in theoretical schemes of farming, from which it is difficult 
to extract other valuable information. On this account, and that of their 
being the production of Irish gentlemen, a prejudice has been raised 
against them in Ireland, which prevents their being often consulted, and 
which, of course, renders them of much less utility. 

From my own experience I am led to consider books like men. I have 
met with few' from which I could not select something that was valuable;* 
and from the authors I have just enumerated, it will readily be conceived 



* Dicere etiam solebat : Nullum esse libruin tain malum quod non aliqua parte prodesset. 

Plin. Eptst. lib. iii. 



INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. xvii 

that much valuable information was to be procured. Some of these works 
may be imperfect in many respects, but there are others in the above list 
which are distinguished by peculiar merit; the unworthy and too ge- 
neral jealousy of Irishmen, against the productions of their countrymen, 
is the great obstacle to their extended circulation. Mr. Tighe's Account 
of Kilkenny is a perfect work of its kind ; and may be considered as a 
model for the survey of every other county in the empire. 

Mr. Townsend's work would do credit to any country, the only draw- 
back is the want of an index. The Dublin Society profess not to be 
accountable for the statements or opinions contained in any of these re-, 
ports ; but as they are printed at the instigation and expense of the so- 
ciety, and by it their authors are engaged, the character of this body is 
pledged to the country for the ability and veracity of the gentlemen em- 
ployed. These reports furnish materials upon many subjects which I 
should have found it impossible to collect, unless I had employed as much 
time upon each county as I was able to afford to the whole country. I have, 
therefore, availed myself of their assistance, being desirous to lay the facts 
which they establish before the reader, who, I have no doubt, will join 
with me in lamenting, that the other counties have not yet experienced 
the same fortunate attention. 

Kerry, Cork, and Waterford, were surveyed more than fifty years ago 
by Dr. Smith, whose literary reputation has been fully established ; Down, 
by a Mr. Harris, and by an anonymous author ; and Dublin, by this 
latter writer, and also by Mr. Ferrar, .who has written a History of 
Limerick. 

In 17 72, the learned Dr. Rutty gave the world a Natural History of the 
County of Dublin, which is a work of great merit. Of the more recent pub- 
lications, which contain topographical accounts of Ireland, I shall men- 
tion the following : 

Cooper's Letters on the Irish Nation. London, 1800. 2d edit. 

Campbell's Philosophical Survey of the South of Ireland. Dublin, 1787. 

d 



xvii. INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. 

The Rev. W. Hamilton's Letters on the Coast of Antrim. 

Duhig's Kings Inn. Dublin, 1806. 

Newenham's Inquiry into the Population of Ireland. London, 1805. 

Newenham's View of Ireland. London, 1809. 

The two last works are the production of a member of the late Irish 
Parliament. In the Appendix to the last-mentioned volume are some im- 
portant Tables of Reference. I have not the honour of being personally 
acquainted with this gentleman, yet I am indebted to him for some im- 
portai:it communications which I have acknowledged where they are inserted. 

Weld's Killarney, the elegant production of the well known American 
Traveller, deserves to be particularly noticed. 

The Rev. James Whitelaw's Essay on the Population of Dublin, printed 
in 1805, is a work of great labour and uncommon ability. It gives an 
accurate enumeration of the inhabitants of that city ; and exhibits such a 
faithful picture of local misery, as deserves the serious attention of every 
legislator and political economist. 

The late Dr. Crump, of Limerick, and Mr. Wallace, published each an 
Essay ; both of which were first submitted to the inspection of the Royal 
Irish Academy. The prize from the Society was adjudged to Dr. Crump 
for his learned and philanthropic labours. The subject is the " Employ- 
ment of the People." I have found this Essay full of good sense and 
acute observation. 

Mr. Wallace chose a similar subject, under a different title, namely, 
" What Manufacture is best adapted to Ireland ?" This work did not obtain 
the prize ; but it must be considered as a valuable addition to an Irish library. 

Of Coin, Money, and Circulating Medium, the well-known work of 
Simon, holds a most distinguished rank. Mr. Henry Parnell and Mr. 
John Leslie Foster have each published on the same subject in 1804. 



INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. xix 

Mr. Arrowsmith has favoured me with the data upon which he has con- 
structed his Map of Ireland, by which excellent authority I have been 
guided throughout my first chapter. The map, which is placed before this 
work, must be considered as little more than an itinerary, to guide the 
reader — for more accurate information reference must be made to that 
lately published by Mr. Arrowsmith. 

Mr. Carlisle's Topographical Dictionary is an important and useful 
production. 

In the spelling of proper names, I liave endeavoured to follow Dr. Beau- 
fort ; but having detained the work to the latest period, in order to allow 
time for the receipt of infoiTnation from Ireland, I am fearful that some 
typographical errors may have escaped, owing to the rapidity with which 
these volumes have been printed. 

It will appear that I have referred to many works, the productions of 
the northern countries of Europe, which have not yet been translated 
into our language ; in such cases, I have rendered the passages that elu- 
cidated my subject yvith as much faithfulness as was in my power, for the 
accommodation of those who might not have a knowledge of the original. 

Having given a conscientious and full explanation of my reasons for 
attempting so important a work, I have little more to add ; yet I hope I 
shall be excused for again hinting at the great importance of an undisguised 
developement of the truth, on a subject of such magnitude as the peace 
and prosperity of a whole empire. Impelled by this sentiment, I never 
have felt weary in the prosecution of my undertaking ; this stimulant has 
forced me over many difficulties, and has upheld me to the end. 

Should these volumes, when they are before the public, satisfy in any 
manner the expectations of those kind friends who have encouraged and 
assisted me, and should my labours be of service in giving infoimation to 
the statesman, the politician, or the philanthropist, I shall have a greater re- 
ward than any other circumstance can bestow. If some passages be found 
exceptionable, either in the opinions or the matter, I hope the reader will 
bear in mind the variety of the subjects, and consider that human judg- 
ment has its imperfections, and human exertions their limits. 

d ^ 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



VOL. I. 



CHAP, 



I. Name, Situation, Extent and Divisions 

Extent . 

Political Division . 
Ecclesiastical Division 
Fiscal Division 

II. Face of the Country . 

Of the Province of Ulster 
Of the Province of Connaught 
Of the Province of Leinster 
Of the Province of Munster 

III. Soil . . . • 
IV. Bogs . . . • 

V, Minerals, &c. 

Earths . 

Clay 

Sand 

Stones . 

Gold . 

Silver 

Copper 

Lead 

Iron 

VI. Climate . 
VIL Landed Property, Rental, and Tenures 

Tenures . 
Rental . 



PAGE 
1 

4 

4 

4 

5 

8 

12 

S2 

39 

57 

79 

82 

112 

112 

lis 

114 
115 
ISO 
ISl 
151 
1S4 
1S5 
140 

237 
285 
306 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



CHAP. 

VIII. RuR.lL Economy 
Grazing . 
Dairies . 

Cattle . 
Sheep Griizing 
Sheep 
Horses . 
Goats 



Hogs 

Rabbits . 

Hares and Bees 

Poultry . 

Tillage . 

Agricultural Capital 

Fallows . 

Draining Rivers, Lakes, and Moors 

Mountain Improvement 

Irrigation 

Manures , 

Implements . 

Labour 

Trees and Planting 

General Observations on Rural 



IX. Fuel 
X. Harbours 
XI. Light Houses 



Inns 



XII. Internal Communication 
Rivers 
Canals 
Roads 
Posts 

Mails, Stage Coaches, and 
Post Office . 
XIII. Manufactures, and National Industry 
Linen Manufacture 
Cotton Manufacture 
Woollen Manufacture 
Tanneries 



Economy 



PAGE 

308 

308 

322 

334 

341 

343 

350 

352 

353 

354 

356 

358 

360 

426 

429 

471 

473 

482 

489 

501 

507 

522 

579 

608 

, 625 

632 

. 635 

, 636 

, 637 

. 656 

662 

665 

672 

678 

680 

703 

, 708 

721 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



CHAP. XIII. CONTINUED. 

Iron Manufacture 

Distillation 

Breweries 

Flour Mills 

Salted Provisions 

Making Kelp . 

Salt 

General View of Manufactures 



PAG£ 

727 
727 
743 
747 
748 
753 
.756 
758 



CHAP. 

XIV. 



XV. 



Commerce 
Comme: 



CONTENTS. 

VOL. II. 



cial Tables of Imports . . . . 

— i of Exports .... 

of Exports Foreign and Colonial 



XVI. 



Fisheries . 

Inland . . . . • • • • • 

White Fishery ....... 

Herring Fishery ....... 

Shell Fish 

Whale Fishery 

General Observations on the Fisheries 
Money and circulating Medium . . . . ' 

The past State of Money and Circulating Medium 

The present State of Money and Circulating Medium 

Bank of Ireland ....... 

Private Banks ....... 

Silver Notes ........ 

Bills of Exchange and Tally Payments . 

Guineas . . . ., . 



PAGE 
1 

32 

46 

57 

71 

83 

92 

100 

122 

125 

128 

137 

137 

137 

165 

166 

173 

174 

]74 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



CHAP. 








PAGE 


XVIL 


Weights AND Measures I95 


xvin. 


Prices 203 


XIX. 


Revenue and Finance 235 




Comparative View of Annual Receipts in Great Britain and-j 

Ireland j ^72 






Comparative View of Annual Expenditure in Great Britain-) 

and Ireland j 273 




' 


Comparative View of National Debt of Great Britain and-) 

Ireland j ^74 




and Ireland 5^75 






Detail of Public Receipts of Ireland, from 1800 to 1811 . . 275 




Detail of Expenditure of Ireland from 1800 to 1811 . , 277 




Funded Debt of Ireland from 1800 to 1811 . . , .278 




Comparative Expense of collecting the Revenue 


in Great -> 

J 280 




Britain and Ireland ..... 


XX. 


Representation . . .. • . 

Peerage 

Commons 






. 281 
. 286 
. 300 


XXL 


Government 

Lord Lieutenant 
Chancellor . . . 
Commander in Chief 
Public Boards 
Secretary 

Administration of Law . 
Sheriff .... 
Grand Jury 

Police .... 
Prisons . - . . 
Oaths .... 






. 322 
. 322 
. 325 
. 325 
. 327 
. 328 
. 332 
. 346 
. 347 
. 351 
. 354 
. 355 


XXIL 


Rebellion in 1798 . . . 
French Invasion in 1798 






. 358 
. 358 


XXIII. 


Parties .... 
Beresford Family . 
Ponsonby Family . 
Foster Family 






. 383 
. 383 
. 384 
. 386 



XXIX. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



CHAP. 

XXIV. 



XXV. 

XXVI. 

XXVII. 



XXVIII. 
XXIX. 



XXX 
XXXI 



Education . . . • 
Schools of Roval Foundation . 
Private Establishment 
Charter Schools 
Diocesan Schools . 

Blue-Coat Hospital and Hibernian Schools 
Foundling Hospital 
Hibernian Marine School 
Regimental Schools 
College of Maynooth 

Church Establishment . 

Tithe 

Religious Sects and Parties . 

Protestant Dissenters 

Catholic Claims 

Catholic Aristocracy 

Catholic Clergy 

Catholic Population 

Religious Sects and Parties in each County 

General Observations on Religious Sects and Parties 
Population 

General Observations on Population 
Customs, Manners, and Habits— General Stj 
People 

General Observations on Customs, Manners, and 
Defence . . . . . 
Concluding Remarks 



ATE 



Hab 



OF 

ts 



THE") 



PAGE 

395 

406 

409 

410 

419 

422 

423 

441 

443 

446 

453 

479 

497 

497 

49§ 

, 542 

, 548 

, 567 

, 592 

. 632 

, 664 

, 712 

726 

794 
813 
835 



PRESENT STATE OF IRELAND/ 



CHAPTER I. 



NAME, SITUATION, EXTENT, AND DIVISIONS.. 

Whether Ireland was known to the Phoenicians who frequented the coasts of 
Cornwall for the purpose of procuring tin, is uncertain ; because no authentic in- 
formation on that subject has been preserved.* The earliest notice, perhaps, to be 
depended on, which we have of it, is that of Eratosthenes, librarian to Ptolemy 
Philadelphus, king of Egypt, who flourished about two centuries and a half before 
the Christian aera. The works of this eminent mathematician and geographer have 
been lost ; but Strabo, who frequently refers to them, and who seems to have been 
indebted to him for many observations, praises his private collection of books,t and 
remarks, that he was so well acquainted with the western parts of Europe, that he 
determined the distance of Ireland from Celtica.J 

The first Roman author who speaks of it is Caesar; he calls it Hibernia, a name 
said to be given to it by the Romans on account of its supposed coldness; and he 

» Had the Phcenicians been acquainted with Ireland, it is probable they would have concealed their know- 
ledge of it, because they were exceedingly jealous of their commerce, and unwilling to let other nations 
know the sources from which they derived their riches. The story of the Phoenician ship-master, who, on 
a voyage to Britain, observing a Roman vessel following him in order to watch his course, voluntarily run Ris 
own vessel on a shoal for the purpose of misleading the Roman, is well known. The wily PhcEnician', who 
was a better seaman, found means to escape ; but the Roman, less skilful, was lost. The former, on account 
of his ingenuity, received an indemnification for his goods from the public treasury. Slrab. Geog. edit. Alme- 
loveen, jSmsl. l70", vol. i. p. 265. — Postell, a reviver of-oriental literature in the sixteenth century, derives 
Irin from Jariii, the land of the Jews. IVarai Anliq. cap. 1. and Bochart endeavours to trace Hibernia to 
the Phoenician Iber-nac, or the farther habitation. Ceo. Sac. ed. Leusden, lib. i. cap. GO. 

T Strab. Geog. vol. i. p. 120. 

+ Ibid. ib. p. 124. This author gives to Ireland the name of lerne; mention of it occurs also p. Ill, 
127, 175. .■ " - 

"VoL. I. ^ B 



S NAME, SITUATION, EXTENT, AND DIVISIONS. 

states it to be half the size of Britain, and to lie at the same distance from it that 
Britain does from Gaul.* It is mentioned also by Tacitus, in his Life of Agricola, 
under the same name ; and various writers who lived at later periods describe it 
under those of Ierna,+ lerne,^ luverna,^ and Ivernia.|| 

Diodorus Siculus, who travelled over a great part of Europe and Asia to collect 
materials for his history, gives to Ireland the name of Iris; a word which is to be 
found in no other Greek or Roman author.^ Some, therefore, Live considered it 
as a mistake ; but a learned antiquary seems to think that this was the o-enuine name 
of the island ; and indeed the proofs which he adduces in support of his opinon ap- 
pear to me to deserve particular attention. " Iri, or as now written, Eri, in the 
Irish, is the great isle. In Teutonic Er-aii, contracted into Eri,~is the farther isle. 
It received this appellation from the Teutonic tribes, who formerly possessed Eu- 
rope, and has been invariably used by them in every age." 

A.D. 

" 540, Gildas left the school of Iltutus in Wales and went to Iris.** 

870, In Islands Landnamaboc, one of the oldest Icelandic Sagas, Ireland is named 
Ir-land. In King Alfred's Anglo-Saxon translation of Orosius, Ireland is 
styled Ireland.44 
891, Three Irishmen, says the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, came in a boat from 

Yr-land. 
9SI, In the same record under this year Ireland has the same name. 
I04S, In the same chronicle Harold flies to Yr-land. 
1076, Adam of Bremen has the same name. 
1105, ./Elnoth in his Life of St. Canute calls the Irish Iros. 
MOI, Odericus Vitalis styles the Irish Irenses, and their country Ire-land.J^ 

♦ Cisaris Comment, de Bello Gallico, lib. v. cap. 13. edit. Oxon. 1800, 8vo, p. 93. Tacit. Oi>€ra, 
edit. Eliz. Lugd. Bat. 1640, vol. ii. p. 673. It is mentioned under the same name by Solinus, cap. 25, 
in Pomp. Mela, C. Jul. Solini. Polyhist. yEthici Cosmograp. Lugd. Bat. l646, p. 125, and in jEthicus, 
ibid. p. 508. 

+ Sed in altera parte orbisjacent insularum aggeres maximarum : Britannias duo, Albion et lerna. 

Apuldus de Mundo. Apul. Op. Paris, 1601, p. 8. 

X Scotcrum cumulos flevit glacialis lerne. Claudiani Op. de iv. Cons. Honor. Lubeca. 1701, p. 96. 

jl Pomp. Mela, lib. iii. cap. 6. Lugd. Bat. 1646, p. 125. 

II Agathemer. in Geog. Vet. Script. Min. vol. ii. p. 39, 46. Marcianus Heracleota, ibid. vol. i. p. 
9, 57. 

II ' Ay(iUTa,riii» Si anut rut vTrl rat afxraf xaToiuBFTu* xai tSf tS SxfSia vXriirio^ufut, ^acrt Tua; arDfonrtt; 
sa6ni>, unrif xai zZt BfiTla»i» res xaToixafTa? Tri> otojiai^ojjLivnt Ipi». 

Diod. Sic, edit. IVesseling, vol. i. p. 355. 

''» Valedicens pio magistro venerandisque condiscipulis Iren perrexit. Usser frimor, p. 907. 

■H Johnstone's Antiq. Celto-Scand. p. 14. ' ' 

JJ Usser ut sup. p. 734. 



NAME, SITUATION, EXTENT, AND DIVISIONS. 3 

" And in Wormius's Runic Literature, the Irish alphabet is called Ira-letur. Tlie 
identity of Diodorus's Iris \vith the Iris, Ira, Iros, Irenses, Ire, and Ir, of the 
Gothic and Teutonic people, and that traced for above six hundred years, clearly 
evinces that this Greek author has preserved the genuine and original name of the 
island."* 

This island, which next to Britain is the largest in Europe, lies at no freat dis- 
tance from the western shores of England, and is still nearer to the coast of Scot- 
land. It is separated from Britain by the Irish Sea, which varies in breadth from 
fourteen to forty leagues ; but between Scotland and the county of Down it is con- 
tracted into a channel only six leagues wide, and farther north, to a still narrower 
strait of less than four, between the north-east point of the coast of Antrim and the 
Mull of Kintyre.t 

Ireland lias not yet been surveyed with sufficient care to determine exactly either 
its size; or its situation. General Vallancey constructed a map of it, which is com- 
monly called the " Ordnance Map." This map is supposed to be laid down from 
actual observation, and it has furnished the data for the recent one of Mr. Arrow- 
smith, which, notwithstanding its many errors and deficiencies, must be considered 
as by far the most accurate yet published. I shall, however, point out a few of its 
errors : it makes the, Grand Canal complete no farther westward than Tullamore ; and 
the Royal Canal is marked out only in some places beyond Kilcock. It exhibits a canal 
from Kilkenny to the Barrow, which is a work in contemplation, but not yet be<Tun. It 
is deficient in the orthography of places ; for instance,Tanderagee, one of the first linen 
market-towns, appears under the name of Tanerage. Laurentinum, a place of less 
note in the vale of Doneraile, is named Labantiraan. Castle- Mountgarret becomes . 
Castle Margaret. The Twelve Pins Mountains are the Xiipins. Even Lambay has 
not been suffered to retain its proper name, and numberless instances of the same 
kind might be produced. The town-lands are marked as villages, though they have 
no title whatever to that appellation. In Ireland the places of this kind amount to 
several thousands ; to insert them in a map would be impossible, and if practicable 
it would be useless. 

Mr. Arrow-smith, I believe, received many assurances of being furnished with 
several of the county maps constructed for the use of the grand juries of Ireland, but 
he complains that, except in the case of a very young nobleman, the Earl of Desart, 
the performance of most of these offers has been forgotten. 

•-■ Ledvvich's Antiquities of Ireland, Dublin, 1804, 4to, p. 19, 20. 

+ Beaufort's Memoir of a Map of Ireland, p. 8. 

J The Romans seem to have had a map or topography of Ireland, which is alluded to by Piiny, lib. iv. 
cap. IG, Lug. Bat. 1069, vol. i. p. 234. Sir William Petty constructed a map of Ireland, which was edited 
by Vischer and Homan. See Hauber's Versuch einer Historic der Land-Chartens, Ulm, 1724, pi 97. 

B2 



4 NAME, SITUATION, EXTENT, AND DIVISIONS. 

A tonnage duty is collected in England upon all shipping for the purpose of erect- 
ing light-houses. This fund is intrusted to the management of the Elder Brethren 
of the Trinity House. I do not know the extent of their powers ; but did the na- 
ture of that institution admit of it, I cannot imagine a better application of part of 
their income than in sending men of science to ascertain the precise position of the 
capes, headlands, kc. of Ireland, which would enable ingenious artists like Mr. Ar- 
rowsmith, to lay down correctly the true situation of the coasts of that country, the 
boundaries of which have hitherto been but vaguely defined. 

I have not furnished this work with a map, because I fouud it impossible to give 
any thing like a correct one ; I might have copied that to which I have alluded, but 
it-would have been unfair to ask permission for that purpose of its publisher, who 
ought alone to reap the benefit of his ingenuity and labour. To it, therefore, I must 
refer the reader who may be desirous of becoming acquainted with the situation of 
those places which I shall hereafter have occasion to mention. 

I have measured upon it with some care the area of Ireland, and make the super- 
ficial content of it, including the inland lakes, to be as follows : — 

English Square Miles* Irish Acres English Acres 

32,201 12,722,615 20,437,974 

The divisions of this extent of country may be comprehended under three general 
heads. 

I. A Political Division into hm Provinces ; Ulster, Leinster, Connaught, 
and MuNSTER, which are again divided into thirty-two counties. These coun- 
ties are sub-divided into two hundred and fifty-two baronies ; the baronies into 
2436 parishes; and the parishes into town-lands, ploughlands, gneeves,+ can- 
trons, Sec. ^ - 

II. An Ecclesiastical Division into Provinces and Dioceses, which are distributed 
in the following manner — ' " . 

The Province of Arjiagh contains ten Dioceses-X ■ ■. . . 

Abpk. of Armagh. Bpk. of Raphoe. 

Bpk. ofDromore. of Clogher. 

of Down 1 •, . of Kilmore. - . 

of Connor J """'^- of Ardagh.^ 

of Derry. of Meath. 

The Province of Dublin contains five Z)zoc«jfj. 
Abpk. of Dublin. Bpk. of Ferns | ^^^^^^ 

Bpk. of Kildare. of Leighhnj - 

of Ossory. 
» of 69'15 to a degree. 

+ In the county of Cork, " a gneeve !s the twelfth part of a ploughland." Townsend's Stalislical Survey 
of Corh, p. 320. 

X The djoceses are placed here according to contiguity, and not according to rank. 

j! Ardagh, though in this province, is at present annexed to the Archbishoprick of Tuam. 



NAME, SITUATION, EXTENT, AND DIVISIONS. 

The Province of Cashell contains eleven Dioceses. 
Apbk. of Cashell "|^ ^^^. , _^ Bpk. of Cloyne. 



}"■ 



Bpk. of Emly 3 ■ of Limerick "1 

of Waterford) • j of Ardfert > united. 

of Lismore ) ' 8c An;hadoe ) 

of Cork) ., , of Kilialoe ) ., . 

r r, > united. r irir f UDlted 

of Ross ) oi Kiltenora ) 

The Province of Tuam contains six Dioceses. 
Abpk. of Tuam. Bpk. of Elphin. 

of Clonfert ") ^^j^^j of Killala. 

of Kilmacduagh j ' of Achonry. 

III. A Fiscal Division, comprehending the following Collections : — 

Armagh ' Dublin City Lisburn Strangford 

Athlone Dublin County Londonderry Tralee 

Baltimore Dundalk Loughrea Trim 

Cavan Ennis Mallow Waterford 

Clonmell Foxford Maryborough Wexford 

Coleraine Galway Naas Wicklow 

Cork Kilkenny Newry and 

Dingle . Kinsale Sligo Youghal. 

Drogheda Limerick Strabaue 

A late melancholy event on the coast of Ireland * induces me, before I conclude 
this chapter, to say a few words in regard to the errors of former maps, which 
have been constructed chiefly from the observations of Mackenzie, published in a 
thin quarto volume. This gentleman lays down the river Shannon in a wrong 
position, and in this he has been followed by the surveyors appointed to construct a 
chart of it, and draw up a report for the use of the Irish parliament ; a task which 
they evidently performed, by copying the blunders of their blundering precursor, 
without giving themselves the trouble to make a single observation. These, and 
similar mistakes, have caused many fatal accidents at sea, as will appear from the 
following paper ; a copy of which is furnished by the Admiralty to every com- 
mander of His Majesty's ships. 

" Hydrogkaphical-Office, Admiralty, 
Xovemher 30, ISOI. 

" Remarks on the south-west and north-west coasts of Ireland, by Thomas 
George Shortland, lieutenant in His Majesty's ship Melpomene, communicated by 
Sir Thomas Troubridge, Bart. 

" On making Dursey Island, off Bantry Bay, I observed with one of Ramsden's 

♦ The loss of the Saldanha frigate. 



6 NAME, SITUATION, EXTENT, AND DIVISIONS. 

best sextants, and found the latitude of the south-east end of it 51° 37'Ts\; and 
being off there for three successive days, I found it the same ; and every quadrant in 
the ship agreed within a mile or two of my observation. 

" Sailing still on, past the Skelligs and Blasquets ; next day I observed, off the 
mouth of the Shannon, and found Loop Head to be in 52° 37', Kerry Head 52* SO', 
and Brandon Head 52° 22'. I was off there five or six days, and had excellent 
observations. 

'• From the Shannon we had not any opportunity of seeing the land, until we 
were off Urris Head, the latitude of which I made to be 54° 28' N. From between 
Dursey Island and Urris Head, is laid down from 10' to 12' to the southward of 
the truth. 

" The danger from this is, that should a ship, proceeding to the Shannon, get a 
good observation, and run in the parallel of 52* 24', or 52" 2C'; if thick weather 
afterwards came on, she would, instead of making the entrance of the Shannon, or 
Loop Head, run into Brandon or Tralee Bay ; and should it blow hard to the 
west-north-west, or west, that she could not weather round Kerry Head, the conse- 
quence would be dreadful, from the heavy sea and foul ground in both these places. 

" From the observations I made, the same would hold good in running either for 
Bantry, or any other place on the south-west and west coast of Ireland. I find that 
the York Indiaman was wrecked in Tralee Bay, Oct. 29, 1758. 'At seven A. M. 
Oct. 29, 1758, it blowing hard, bore away for the Shannon. At noon latitude, by 
a good observation, 5i2° 28', which is by my chart and books the latitude of Loop 
Head. Stood on till two o'clock, and then discovered that the entrance must be 
wrong laid down ; as by the form of the land in sight, it must be Tralee Bay. It 
still blowing hard, and running in for the land, the ship struck and was wrecked.' 
The captain observes, ' That had the entrance of the river Shannon been laid down 
in 52° 36', which is the truth, and not 52° 24', the York Indiaman would not have 
been lost.' 

" I have every reason to believe that the latitude of Cape Clear is right, and that 
the error begins at Mizen Head. Cape Tiellen, the northern point of Donegal 
Bay, is right laid down ; but Urris Head, the southern point, is lo' to the southward 
of the truth. Donegal Bay, therefore, is not so wide by ten miles, as it is laid down 
in the charts. A. DALRYMPLE, 

" Hydrographer lo the Jdtniralti/." 

The late Admiral Drury made a survey of the coasts and harbours of Ireland, 
but it has never been published. It is said to have been carried away by some lord- 
lieutenant on his leaving the country. 

As the following glossary, or explanation of some of those words which most 



NAME, SITUATION, EXTENT, AND DIVISIONS. 



frequently occur in composition, with the names of places in Ireland, may render 
these names more intelligible to an English reader, I have taken the liberty of 
copying it from Dr. Beaufort's Memoir.* 



Agh, a field. 

Anagh, or Ana, a river. 

Ard, a high place or rising ground. 

Ath, a ford. 

Awin, a river. 

Bally, or Ballin, a town or inclosed place 
of habitation. 

Ban, or Bane, white or fair. 

Beg, little. 

Ben, the summit of a mountain, generally 
an abrupt head. 

Bun, a bottom, a foundation or root. 

Car, or Cahir, a city. 

Carrick, Carrig, Carrow, a rock or stony 
place. 

Cork, Corragk, a marsh or swampy ground. 

Clara, a plain. 

Croagh-Croghan, a sharp pointed hill re- 
sembling a rick. 

Clogh, Clough, a great stone. 

Curragh, a marshy or fenny plain. 

Clon, a glade or level pasture ground. 

Col, Cul, a corner. 

Derry, a clear dry spot in the midst of a 
woody swamp. 



Don, a height or fastness, a fortress. 

Donagh, a church. , 

Dram, a high narrow ridge of hills. 

Inch, Inis, an island. . 

Ken, a head. 

Kill, a church or cemetery. 

Knock, a single hill or a hillock. 

Lick, a flat stone. 

Lough, a lake or a pool. 

Magh, a plain. 

Main, a collection of hillocks. 

More, large or great. . 

Rath, a mount or entrenchment, a barrow. 

Ross, a point of land projecting into 

waters. 
Shan, old. 
Sliebh, a range of mountain, a hill covered 

with heath. 
Tack, a house. 
Temple, a church. 
Tom, Toom, a bush. 
Tra, a strand. 

Tobar,' Tubber, a well or spring. 
Tullagh, a gentle hill, a common. 
Tully, a place subject to floods. 



♦ Memoir of a Map of Ireland, p. 146. 



FACE OF THE COUNTRY. 



CHAPTER II. 



FACE OF THE COUNTRY. 



,1HE promontory of the Fair Head, in -Antrim, is by many considered as the 
most northerly part of Ireland ; though the extreme point in that direction is evi- 
dently Malin Head, in Donegal. The Fair Head, of which I shall have occasion to 
speak more particularly hereafter, consists of high land, as does also the greater 
part of the shore of Antrim. Pursuing the country southwards, the mountains of 
Mourne, which divide the county of Down, appear of considerable height ; but to 
the south of these, and of the Fews in Armagh, the country sinks into a flat, which 
stretches out to a great length across the counties of Louth, Meath, Dublin, Kil- 
dare, and Carlow. 

The county of Wicklow is an assemblage of granite mountains, extending to 
Mount Leinster, and the range of hills called the Blackstairs, which, dividing Wex- 
ford from Wicklow and Carlow, continue to the Brandon Hills in Kilkenny ; and 
crossing the barony of Idagh in that county, may be traced to the Knockmeleddwn 
ridge, which stand on that side of the Suir next to the county of Waterford, and 
thence to the Galtees, which divide Cork from the county of Limerick. They may 
be afterwards traced in a south-westerly direction, till they spread out towards Cape 
Clear, and are found in the chain of mountains projecting into the sea between 
Bantry Bay and Kenmare River ; and, qn the banks of that large arm of the sea in 
the barony of Iveragh, and in M'Gillyciiddy's Reeks in Kerry, which is the 
highest land in Ireland. The general direction of these heights is from east to west, 
but without forming a continued ridge. Turning the eye once more north, and 
pursuing the western coast, the shore of Donegal presents a mountainous appear- 
ance, with an internal ridge running across the county from Tiellen Head. " 

To the south of Lough Erne, there is a continued line of high mountains, which 
runs in a direction parallel to that inland sea. 

Leitrim is exceedingly mountainous, and in Mayo, Nephin, and Crow Patrick, 
rear their lofty summits to a very great elevation. It is asserted by some, that Crow 
Patrick is the highest ground in the island. 

In the interior, the Sliebhbloom mountains divide the King's and Qiieen's counties 
from each other, and form a great chain, which deserves particular notice ; nor 
ought the heights between Carlow and Castle Connel to be omitted. 

Monaghan, Cavan, Tyrone, the northern shore of Lough Erne and Westmeath, 
are all rugged and uneven, but contain no heights that deserve the name of 
mountains, with the exception of Knock Ton ; or, at any rate, none that would be 



FACE OF THE COUNTRY. 9 

considered as such by an Englishman ; for the Irish sometimes apply that appellation 
to flat land, if it be naked and barren.* 

A great part of Tipperary and Limerick consists of rich calcareous flats ; and, 
from the north of them, may be traced the great bog of Allen, which stretching 
through the King's and Queen's Counties, and also Kildare, extends almost to 
Dublin. 

There is no county in Ireland without some vales of luxuriant soil ; and the 
northern part of Limerick, Clare, and a large portion of Galway and Roscommon, 
exhibit one continued bed of lime-stone. 

One of the natural marks which divide Ireland, is the Shannon ; it separates 
Connaught and the county of Clare from the rest of the kingdom ; and in two 
places at Lough Derg above Limerick, and Lough Reagh above Athlone, this noble 
stream expands into vast sheets of water. 

Lough Neagh in the north-east, lying between the counties of Antrim, Down, 
Armagh, Tyrone, and Londonderry, occupies an extent of I73 English square miles. + 
Lough Erne, which intersects Fermanagh, 85 ; and Lough Carrib, in Galway, 
73. Numerous other lakes are to be found in Ireland, but they are inferior to 
these in magnitude. The Nore, the Barrow, and the Suir, all have their efiBux at 
the same place in the south. 

Could Dr. Johnson have been prevailed on to make the tour of Ireland,^ it would, 
no doubt, have drawn from him the same sarcastic remark as that which he made 
in regard to Scotland. The whole island is remarkably bare of trees, and exhibits a 
naked appearance ; which is more striking to a traveller, whose eye has been fami- 
liarised to the woody counties of England. Yet the varied aspect arising from the 
frequency of sea-views, combined with the rude but grand scenery of the mountains, 
and the diSerent tints they assume according to their distance, produce a number, 
of beautiful and diversified prospects, some of Avhich I shall hereafter describe. .1, 

» Boate, in his Natural History of Ireland, speaking of the distinction between mountains and liiils, says, 
p. 80, Lond. edit. 1652: " The English language useth one and the same word for both, calling hills, as 
well the one as the other, without any other distinction ; but sometimes the word small or greal is added. 
Now because this word so indiflerently used, would cause some confusion in the matter we treat of, this hath 
made us restrain it to one of the sorts, and to call hills only the lesser sort, called in Latin collis, in French 
colline, in Dutch heuvel, and in Irish inoci. As for the other and bigger sort, whose name, in the aforesaid 
four languages, is mens, berg, and slew, we call them mountains ; whicii word mountains, although it be 
good English, yet in common speech it is seldom made use of in that sense whereunto we apply it, but only 
to signify a country wholly consisting of more great hills, especially where the soil thereof is lean and 
unfruitful." 

+ According to Arrowsmith's map. 

t " He, I know not why, shewed, upon all occasions, an aversion to go to Ireland, where I proposed to him 
that we should make a tour." Boswcll's Life of Johnson, vol. iii. p. 440. 

Vol. L C 



10 



FACE OF THE COUNTRY. 



As the height of mountains, in considering the general face of a country, de- 
serves to be particularly noticed, I have here inserted the following comparative 
table of the elevation, above the level of the sea, of some remarkable eminences in 
England, Scotland, and Ireland. The authorities for the heights of the Irish moun- 
tains, were communicated to me by Mr. Herbert, of Carniene, near Kiilarney. 



England. 



ScOLTAND. 



Ireland. 



Jeet. 

Whernside, Yorkshire . , . 534O . 

Ingleborough, ditto 5280 . 

Penny Guest, ditto 5220 . 

Snowdon, Wales 3568 . 

Pendlehill, ditto 34 H • 

Crossfellin, Cumberland . . . 3390 . 

Hellvellyn, ditto 3324 ■ 

Skiddaw, ditto 3270 

Benlomond 3240 . 

Benewick 4350 . 

Benybord Still higher 



Curranea, Toohill, or \ j^ 
M'GilleyCuddy's Reeks) "^y 

Mangerton, ditto 

Sliebh-Donard, Down ... 

Nephin, Mayo 

Crow or Croagh Patrick, ditto 



3695 

2693 
2809 
2630 
2660 



Measured by 
Jefferys 

ditto 

ditto 
Pennant 
Waddington 
Donald 

ditto 

ditto 
Pennant 

ditto , 

Kirwan 

ditto 
ditto 
ditto 
ditto 



Mr. Weld, speaking of the mountains near Kiilarney, says,* " M'Gilleycuddy's 
Reeks are generally supposed to be the most lofty mountains in Ireland, though 
their exact height does not appear to have been ascertained. The celebrated Mr. 
Kirwan made several barometrical observations, both on them and on other moun- 
tains in the vicinity of Kiilarney, from which he concluded, as he informed me, 
that the Reeks were at least 3000 feet in height ; but, at the same time, he added, 
that his experiments were not sufficiently numerous, fully to satisfy his own mind on 
the subject. A gentleman resident near Kiilarney, gave me, from memory, a com- 
putation of their height, derived from a difierent source ; according to which, their 
most elevated point was only 150 feet lower than Snowdon. The latter mountain is 
somewhat less, according to the most generally received calculation, than 600 fa- 
thoms high, or 3568 feet. This measurement, therefore, would leave the height of 
the Reeks at 3418 feet, which rather exceeds what Mr. Kirwan supposed it to be. 



llluslrations of ihe Scenery of Kiilarney, p. 147. 



FACE OF THE COUNTRY. U 

I suspect, however, ihat that gentleman did not direct his observations to the most 
lofty .point. He told me it was his practice to remain below, on one of the islands 
in the lake, whilst his assistant ascended the mountain, and that they corresponded 
from time to time by the means of signals and telescopes. Now, on Glauraun Tuel, 
the highest peak, this would have been impracticable, as no part of it is visible from 
the lake. I should suppose that this mountain rises at least 200 feet above the other 
peaks; but its superior height is not generally known to the people around Kil- 
larney." 

In giving the above heights, I have thought it right to quote the authorities ; but 
the public may soon expect a more accurate account of the Irish mountains, as Dr. 
Berger, a member of the Geological Society of London, is now on a tour through 
Ireland, for the purpose of examining them. 

It may be proper here also to remark, that my account of the face of the country, 
must not be considered as a formal description of the scenery of Ireland. That 
subject would require volumes, and to do it justice, a talent for composition which I 
do not pretend to possess. A summary view of the most prominent features of the 
country is all that I shall attempt. Many parts of it, indeed, are worthy the pen of 
a Gilpin. Of this kind is the scenery around the lakes of Killarney, in the county 
of Kerry, the most picturesque spot in the Island. Lough Erne, also, in the county 
of Fermanagh, exhibits abundance of prospects, which are so striking, that they 
must be long remembered by those who have seen them. 

The sea-coast of the county of Wicklow presents a variety of the most beautiful 
scenery, which would afford delightful occupation to the painter, the poet, or the 
tourist, fond of deline.iting nature as it appears, unassisted by the artificial aid of 
man. 

The estuaries of the Slaney, the Barrow, the Nore, the Suir, the Blackwater, 
the river from Passage to Cork, Kenmare river, all deserve the attention of the 
lovers of rural prospects. 

The coast of Antrim, the Lough of Belfast, and the Bay of Carllngford, exhibit 
Excellent views and beautiful scenery. 



C 2 



FACE OF THE COUNTRY. 



PROVINCE OF ULSTER. 

Ulster, the most northerly province of Ireland, is bounded on the north by the 
Deucaledonian Sea, on the west by the Atlantic Ocean; on the east by St. George's 
Channel and the Irish Sea; and on the south and south-west by the provinces of 
Leinster and Coiinauj!,ht. It forms an area of S375 English square miles, and 
contains nine counties, viz. Antrim, Armagh, Cavan, Fermanagh, Donegal, Down., 
Londonderry, Monaghan, and Tyrone. 

ANTRIM. 

This maritime county contains 10 IS English square miles. On tlie northern 
shore of it is to be seen that astonishing natural curiosity known by the name 
of the Giant's Causeway. The formation of which has given rise to many and va- 
rious opinions. It is situated under high cliffs, and consists of rocks composed of 
pentagonal basaltic pillars, standing in a perpendicular direction, which extend a great, 
way into the ocean. It is seen to most advantage at low water. For a minute account 
of it I must refer to the work of the late Rev. William Hamilton, whose descrip- 
tion is interesting and accurate. His book is in every body's hands, and it is my 
wish to call the reader's attention to objects which have not hitherto been pointed 
out by others. Near the Giant's Causeway, a small village, with an inn, called Bush 
Mills, has been built for the accommodation of travellers.* 

The country as you proceed hence to Fair Head, is highly interesting. Beyond 
Bally Castle I ascended a mountain which conducted me to the Head. It consists of 
an immense rocky promontory, rising higher and higher from the inland country till 
it termiantes abruptly in a perpendicular cliff of gigantic height. According to the 
account of Mr. Staples, jun. of Lisson, by whom it has been measured, it is forty 
fathoms, or £40 feet above the rough ground which stretches out into the sea. This 
statement is confirmed by the following account extracted from the Belfast News- 
paper, an authority to which I should not have referred, were it not supported by the 
above testimony of Mr. Staples. " A gentleman distinguished in the literary world, 
now on a tour through Ireland, has sent to his correspondent in Belfast the measure- 
ment of the Fair Head, east of Bally Castle, county of Antrim, as follows:—" Per- 

* Dr. Johnson said, that the Cianl's-Causeway " might be worth seeing, but not worth going to see;" I 
believe, however, that few philosophers possessed of any curiosity will be of his opinion. 

See Boswctl's Life of Johnson, vol. iii. 440. 



FACE OF THE COUNTRY. IS 

pendicular face, 2S3 feet, total altitude from the level of the sea, 63 1 feet. One of 
the columns is a quadrangular prism, thirty-three feet by thirty-six on the sides, and 
about 200 feet perpendicular height. This column is perhaps the largest in the 
world. The specific gravity of the basaltes, of which this stone is composed, is about 
2*S from which the weight of the prism may be readily estimated. It is so situated, that 
a vessel or raft of any kind could be brought within 200 yards of it. Did we live in the 
times of Roman or Grecian splendour, it would be formed into an obelisk or placed in 
some great public building. This basaltic prism is greater than the pedestal which 
supports the statue of Peter the Great at Petersburgh, and much greater than the 
shaft of Pompey's pillar at Alexandria. The column of grey granite which stood 
before the Temple of Venus Genetrix at Rome, was also composed of one piece. It 
was transported to England, and is now erected before the seat of Lord Pembroke, at 
Wilton, near Salisbury." 

From Fair Head to Glenarm, the scenery is exceedirtgly beautiful, a few miles 
of bog in the neighbourhood of that promontory excepted. This hog, however, is 
very different in its situation from those low flat ones which are seen in various parts of 
Ireland, for it lies on a height, and hence it might be drained without much labour, and 
made to produce corn instead of heath. Descending the hill to Cushendall, a small vil- 
lage standing close to a bay of the. same name, I beheld on the one hand a cultivated 
mountain, and on the other a vale of rich land in a high state of tillage. Upon the 
whole, a more extended and more delightful prospect of hill and dale intermixed in 
charming variety, is not often to be seen. From Cushendall to Glenarm, passing Red 
Bay, and coasting along the ocean the whole way, the road exhibits the most roman- 
tic and beautiful scenery. On the one hand, magnificent and widely-extended views 
of the ocean, which on this coast rolls its swelling waves towards the shore with a 
peculiar and dangerous rapidity; and on the other, rocky mountains of considerable 
height, whose hanging cliffs, as the road extends partly up their sides, seem to threat- 
en the traveller with destruction, and which, in some places, are thickly clothed' 
with woods, through the openings between which, the eye is sometimes surprised by 
the sight of a village. As the road winds round a great many spacious bays which 
abound on this part of the coast, few rides can be more agreeable. 

From Glenarm you soon reach Larne and Carrickfergus. The whole northern 
shore of Belfast Lough is elevated to some height above 'the ocean, and appears 
studded with neat white-washed houses belonging to opulent manufacturers and mer- 
chants of Belfast. This district indeed exhibits every appearance of an abundant 
population and the most active industry. The people all seem cheerful and happy. 

The interior of the country on the eastern side is mountainous to a great degree, 
destitute of plantations, and without that variety which gives so much life and ani- 



U FACE OF THE COUNTRY. 

mation to rural scenery. Between Lough Neagh and Belfast is an immense mountain, 
and the shores of that large lake are flat, dull, and uninteresting. In many places . 
they are boggy, and the water of the lake has a petrifying quality. On the bank 
of it, near Randlestown, stands an ancient seat belonging to Lord O'Neil ; it is called 
Shanes Castle ; but it is badly placed, in an extensive demesne of J 500 acres, abound- 
ing with situations well adapted for a mansion suited to such a landed property. A 
river, called the Mainwater, from its having previously received the tributary water of 
several other streams, runs through the middle of it. The demesne is highly wood- 
ed, and the banks of the river exhibit the appearance of forest scenery. 

The Bann does not afford any picturesque views till it reaches tlie neighbourhood 
of Colerain, where there is a salmon-fishery, and where the elevated grounds on both 
sides the river, which at that place form part of tlie county of Derry, are highly 
romantic and curious. 

From Lisburn to Belfast, along the edges of the counties of Antrim and Down, 
the scenery is grand and striking; the whole county being broken and uneven, and 
aS'ording distant views of the lough, and of the high mountain behind Belfast. The 
land for the most part is cultivated and interspersed with plantations and villas, reared 
by the wealth of that commercial city, -which, overflowing into the adjacent districts, 
gives to the inhabitants an air of ease and independence, which strikes the eye of the 
most careless observer. 

To the westward of the mountain above-mentioned there is a glen belonging to 
Colonel Heyland, which I regret that I had not an opportunity of seeing, as it is 
celebrated for its beauty. 



ARMAGH. , 

This inland county contains 45 1 English square miles. In the southern part 
of it there is a chain of black, and partly uncultivated mountains, called the 
Fews, but thinly inhabited ; without plantations or tillage to enliven the scene, and 
not possessing lime-stone to ameliorate the soil, they present a dreary and melancholy 
aspect. In the neighbourhood of the city, however, numerous inclosures, cultivated 
fields, and other signs of an abundant population, strike the eye, and excite more 
lively and pleasing ideas. In some places the inclosures are fenced with hedges, in 
others they are surrounded, merely by mounds of earth. In this vicinity there are 
also some orchards, but they are not numerous. To the north of it,' near Lough 
Neagh, there are very extensive bogs, the soil of which is remarkably black and ex- 
tends to a great depth. This country affords very little scenery worthy of notice. 



FACE OF THE COUNTRY. 15 



CAVAN. 



Cavan is an inland county, and contains 758 English square miles. The waters 
which proceed from the lakes in Westmeath flow through this county till they 
discharge themselves into Lough Erne. In some places they constitute small lakes, in 
others they retain the form of rivers, and in many cases they contribute, of course, 
to the formation of beautiful and picturesque scenery. On the borders of the coun- 
ty of Monaghan, Mr. Coote, of Bellamont Forest, Mr. Dawson of Dawson's Grove, 
and Mr. Corry, have seats, which are contiguous to each other. Their demesnes are 
abundantly clothed with wood, and are separated only by a kind of lakes which are 
very common in this part of Ireland, so that they have the appearance of belonging 
to the sama owner. 

From Farnham I proceeded to Cootehill, passing through Cavan, Ballyhays, and 
Ballamacongy, and found the roads every where hard and hilly, and the country 
naked and destitute of trees. The substratum is a rotten rock-stone without any in- 
termixture of a calcareous nature. On my return I crossed " the mountain" through 
Stradone. The tops of these hills are cultivated and divided into small inclosures, 
or rather embankments. Near Cavan stands Farnham, the residence of Earl Farn- 
ham, which is one of the finest and best kept demesnes in Ireland. It affords abun- 
dance of views intermixed with some lake scenery. Near Killeshandra, in this 
county, Lord Farnham has a hunting and fishing cottage. The whole county is co- 
vered with hills, but exhibits no particular chain of considerable height, as it seems 
to be composed entirely of eminences ; it contains no valleys of any extent, and in 
some places the cavities between the hills have become lakes. I spent a day with a 
large party on the borders of one of these lakes, close to which stands the elegant 
cottage of Lady Farnham. The scenery here is exceedingly romantic, the sides of 
the hills being covered with waving trees, approaching close to the margin of the 
water. Sir Ralph Gore, who was one of the party, and who had lived several years 
in Canada, observed, that the spot where we were bore a very striking resemblance to 
the view presented by an American river. As for Farnham, its noble possessor has 
spared no expense in adorning it with all those appropriate embellishments which 
art can give to nature. It is his chief place of residence ; and he displays here in his 
domestic economy that warm hospitality, and that well-ordered magnificence, which 
unite the Irish with the English character. Lady Farnham's neat cottages, indepen- 
dently of their use and accommodation, add greatly to the beauty of Farnham. 

I must not here omit to mention the banks of a large lake called Shaalan, which is 
seven miles long, but of various breadths, from half a mile to four. The northern 
part of them are planted and studded with gentlemen's cottages, which are used as 



15 FACE OF THE COUNTRY. 

sporting boxes. On the south side the ground is high, and covered with corn-fields, 
and the view which comprehends tlie ruin of an ancient castle called Ross, is bound- 
ed by hills of considerable magnitude; a remarkable one, the Ben of Fore, forming 
the high ground over the ancient town of the same name in Westroeath. 

DONEGAL. 

Donegal, formerly called Tyrconnel, contains 17 25 English square miles. It is 
a very mountainous country, and is nearly divided by a high ridge stretching 
east and west from Tiellen Head to the county of Tyrone, and in which there are 
three passes. The most remarkable river in this county is the Erne, which 
discharges itself into the sea at Ballyshannon. The Lennan has on its banks the 
beautiful village of Ramelton. At Brov.n Hall, near Ballyshannon, there is a very 
remarkable glen which attracts the curiosity of travellers. It is watered by a moun- 
tain stream which winds through limestone rocks, sometimes above ground, and some- 
times concealed from view. The rock in many places is split, and much wooded, and 
the chasm has many bendings and precipices, over which the water is projected with 
great force, and when swelled by the rains, affords a very awful spectacle. In some 
places the water has worn the rock so much away, as to give to some of the beds 
through which it flows, the appearance of the mouth of a cavern. The last time I was 
in the county of Donegal, September ISOS, I pursued the road on the western coast. 
After passing Imber, there is a fine view of Donegal Bay, which contains several lesser 
ones, but particularly that one, known by the name of Killybegs. This bay is formed 
by the high land of Tiellen Head, in this county, and the Stags of Broadhaven in 
Sligo. The prospect from the bridge of Imber is exceedingly beautiful. On the right 
towards the interior of the land, a mountain is seen at a distance, with cultivated 
fields in the fore-ground. At the foot of another mountain, a gentleman's seat, with 
surrounding plantations, arrests the eye ; and to the left the scene is diversified by a 
sand-bank, thrown up by the sea ; and a high ridge of plantation on the western 
side of the river, with Donegal Bay appearing beyond it. Proceeding onward to 
the mountains in front, all appearance of cultivation ceases. On the high land, in 
advancing to Ardra, I passed over a most extensive bog; but the approach to Major 
Nesbit's, at Woodhill, is scarcely to be paralleled. On the left, the landscape 
stretches out to the sea ; not a single ridge is to be seen ; three mountains, of great 
height, come in view; and before you is a spacious bay, surrounded by sandy 
shores. Mr. Nesbit's plantations are directly in front ; and between them and the 
sea, stands the village of Ardra. On the right the land is high, and for a great way 
up of a boggy nature, but the top is composed of rock ; and beyond the whole, the 



FACE OF THE COUNTRY. 17 

view is terminated by a boundless expanse of ocean. Pursuing the road to Leichbefr, 
through Glentis, the country assumes a^ very singular appearance ; being interspersed 
with small patches of cultivated land, wherever there is any soil, and cabins con- 
structed of stone, without any cement. But the general face of the country pre- 
sents an uninhabited waste of granite rock, which is every where seen in the sides of 
the mountains. 

At Rutland Island, which I visited, my attention was for some time occupied by 
the exertions of the late Right Honourable Burton Conyngham, who erected a town 
here, destined for the residence of fishermen. The scheme has failed, but Mr. 
Conyngham's views were laudable ; and his labours will long be remembered by 
every friend to the industry and prosperity of Ireland. 

The whole of the western coast of this county, consists of a range of mountainous 
rocks, which, in some places, throw out branches that extend to the sea, or run 
between borders of sand, which has a peculiar whiteness, owing, perhaps, to its 
being formed from fragments of granite washed down from the rocks, and reduced 
to its present state by attrition. Between the mountains, in the interior of the 
county, there are tracts of bog; and, at a former period, it is not improbable that 
these were forests ; but, at present, a traveller may proceed many a mile, without 
seeing the least vestige of a tree. 

Near the residence of Mr. Stewart at Horn Head, there is a remarkable cavern, 
called M'Swine's Gun, which is situated in a rocky clifT of about sixty feet in 
height. In this cliff a small bay has been formed, the sides of which are bordered 
by rocks, rising almost in a perpendicular direction. The lower stratum of these 
rocks consists of porous sandstone, in which the violence and continual buffetting of 
the waves has formed a cavern, from which an aperture proceeds to the summit of 
the cliff. When the wind comes from the north-west, it blows directly into this 
small bay; and the billows being driven with great violence into the cavern, the 
water, forced to find a passage through the aperture, rises to the lop of the cliff 
from which it precipitates itself back into the sea with a most tremendous noise.' 
The rock, where the water runs over, has assumed a blue colour, which gives to 
the whole a volcanic appearance.* To the east stands the Arigal, said to be the 
highest mountain in the province ; it consists of mountain spar, and is shaped like a 
sugar-loaf. Near it there are lead-mines, the property of Lord Leitrim. 

♦ A phenomenon, somewhat of the same kind, is observed in one of the Feroe Islands; but vapour only, 
and not water, issues from the hole, which is at the summit of a cliff that rises to the lieight of 120 feet 
above the level of the sea. A hollow murmuring nSise also proceeds from the aperture, which is eight inches 
in diameter. The cause in both cases is the same; namely, water driven with force into a cavity at the bot- 
tom of the cliff. See Landl's Description of tht Ftroe Islands, p. 32. 

Vol. I. D 



18 FACE OF THE COUNTRY. 

I proceeded to the Horn Head, across the whole peninsula, which contains six or 
seven thousand acres belonging to, and occupied by, a Mr. Stewart, who lives on 
the isthmus, or neck, in a comfortable white house, surrounded by plantations. 
This gentleman lias erected a new bridge, of considerable extent, opposite to his 
mansion. Looking to the west over this bridge, you have a prospect of the sea, 
bounded on the right by a sandy bead), and an elevated sand-bank on the left: the 
house appears in front, and the high land of Horn Head behind, completes the 
view. From the main-land we could discern Tory Island, which lies at the distance 
of nine miles. It contains an old monastery, and the ruins of seven churches; it 
is inhabited by about a hundred families, and formerly was a ^'station;" that is to say, 
a place where the Catholics were sent to do penance, as is the case still at Lough 
Derg. 

The gentlemen's seats in this county are but few ; one of the most striking is that 
belonging to Mr. Stewart, of the Ards. It has been built under the hills, probably 
for the sake of shelter, and stands near the shore on a wide arm of the sea, extending 
over a bed of the white sand already mentioned, which gives the water an indescrib- 
able appearance of clearness. The opposite shore consists of a high sand-bank, 
which shifts with the wind. Behind is a high mountain, called the Murkish ; and 
on the right are seen rocky heights, covered with flourishing plantations. The 
whole scene is enlivened by scattered cabins, inhabited by healthy and industrious 
peasants ; objects that never fail to excite the most lively emotions in the feeling 
heart; and without which the finest prospects, though they may affect the mind 
with a momentary delight, must at length appear tasteless and dull. 

Seldom have I seen a spot exhibiting more evident marks of the exertions which an 
active mind is capable of making, in the carrying on of improvements. I quitted 
this gentleman with regret, and proceeded to M'Swine's Castle, the property of 
General Hart; built on a promontory, which projects on the opposite strand. The 
General was then fitting it up for his own residence, and the repairs and improve- 
ments were almost completed. It is surrounded by a wall, inclosing a court-yard, at 
the corners of which there were formerly towers, sixty feet in height About J 3D 
years ago it was inhabited by a M'Swine, from whom it derives its present appella- 
tion. According to the account of my guide, the mountains here are much more 
populous than they were some years ago, and new cabins are arising every day; a 
strong sign that this part of the country is in a state of some improvement. 

Desirous to see every thing curious in the neighbourhood, I passed over Lou- 
gaugh-bridge, which consists of on^ arch, fifty-two feet in the span, and ascended 
Mount-Alt; on the summit of which is a lough, or lake, bearing the same name. 
The views here are truly magnificent. To the west, the immen'^e ocean, forming 
sometimes a suiooth glassy plane, extending as far as tlie eye can reach, .-uid some- 



FACE OF THE COUNTRY. 10 

times rolling its acngry waves in rapid succession towards the shore, which it covers 
with its spray. To the north, the view is terminated by mountains ; and, on the 
south, the Murkish and Arigal, raising their proud summits, obstruct all farther 
prospect in that direction. The latter mountain does not consist of granite ; but 
some, formed of that kind of rock, though not visible from this station, extend 
beyond pt. 

Descending from this height I passed Ramelton, and proceeded to the ferry, over 
Lough Swilly. Ramelton belongs to Sir James Stewart, whose seat stands at no great 
distance from it. Every thing connected with this place bespeaks its owner to be a 
man of correct taste and judgment. When passing it, I much regretted that I had 
not procured a letter of introduction to him ; and the character I afterwards heard 
of him, convinced- me that I w^as right in the opinion I had formed. At the neigh- 
bouring village there is a bridge of three arches over the Lennan. I was much 
struck with the appearance which the town exhibited at a distance, and particularly 
the contrast formed by the new houses, built of ston^ and slated, and the remains of 
the mud walls and thatched roofs overgrown with weeds, which belonged to the old 
ones. This difference impressed me with a lively idea of the pleasing effect pro- 
duced by the hand of improvement, which had been here actively employed in bringing 
about a beneficial change, and exciting the spirit of industry. The beauty of the 
whole is much increased by the place being embosomed in wood. The river here 
abounds with salmon, which, like those caught in the Bann and the Boyne, are 
always in season. 

Approaching Lough Swilly through fine quick hedge-rows, belonging to Sir 
James, I soon saw the barony of Liishoen. The height of the land, the immediate 
foreground being a sandy beach, and this noble sheet of water spread out beneath it, 
afforded a sight truly grand and sublime. I crossed the Lough, and proceeding 
through Newtown Cunningham, reached Londonderry. 

I must here observe, that the barony of Inishoen is badly delineated in maps, as 
no roads are marked out in it; but so far from this being the case, it is inter- 
sected by very good roads, and the land is better cultivated than it is in any other 
part of the county ; for, as it does not consist of a rocky mountainous tract, like 
many other parts, it is more susceptible of tillage and improvement. The Bishop 
of Derry has a house in it at Faun, which is very agreeably situated. The views 
from it of Lough Swilly are exceedingly grand, and such as every traveller 
should see. 



D 2 



20 FACE OF THE COUNTRY. 



DOWN. 



Down is a maritime county, and contains 936 English square miles. In the 
centre of it the Mourne mountains, the second in point of height in Ireland, 
rear their lofty summits ;* and this grand feature produces a very striking difference 
in regard to some parts of the county. To the north of these mountains, and on 
the western side of it, comprehending Hillsboro, Banbridge, Moyallan, and round 
towards Newry, the land is in a liigli state of cultivation, and inhabited by a middle 
class of opulent manufacturers, whose appearance and condition would do credit to 
any country in Europe. Their habitations are well built, display great neatness, 
and are all white-washed. The whole tract is embellished with, plantations ; and 
whether owing to the wealth created by the linen manufacture, or the trade carried 
on at Belfast and Newry, every thing exhibits evident signs of increased population 
and industry. The banks of the rivers Bann and Laggan are covered with bleach- 
fields, and present that cheerful and pleasing scenery which characterizes a manu- 
facturing country, and excites in the mind an idea of improved civilization. The 
whiteness of the linen spread out on these fields, contrasted with the greenness of 
the surrounding sward, produces an effect on the eye not easily described ; and the 
concomitant objects, added to the bustle and activity of the people employed, render 
the whole scene most interesting. From such favoured spots, every appearance of 
that misery and wretchedness, which prevail where industry has not yet extended 
its beneficial influence, are completely banished. 

Tullymore Park, belonging to Lord Roden and Rostrevor, a celebrated bathing- 
place, which is considered the Brighton of Ireland, are both highly extolled, on 
account of their romantic scenery. Rostrevor consists of a wooded bank, on a small 
arm of the sea, which stretches into the country from Carlingford Bay, and has 
behind it the Mourne mountains. I had no opportunity of seeing these places, and 
have mentioned them only from the report of others. Sir Richard Hoare has 
described them minutely. + 

All the views of Belfast Lough are on a grand scale. The opposite shore towards 
Larne, in the county of Antrim, being a rising ground, is studded with white- washed 
houses, inhabited by a numerous class of people, who have acquired opulence, and 
all its attendant comforts, by commercial pursuits. The Lough itself is filled with 

• Slieve Donard, in Down, commonly called the Mountains of Mourne, rise to the height of 2809 feet - 
above the level of the sea, according to the account given to me by Mr. Herbert, of Carneine, near 
iCillarney. 

+ Journal of a Tour in Ireland, p. 230. 



FACE OF THE COUNTRY. 21 

vessels, some with their sails spread, pursuing their course home from distant lands ; 
and others lying at anchor near the town of Belfast, taking in cargoes for a foreign 
market ; while the town itself, appearing as it were, depressed, at the end of the 
Lough, forms a most interesting object. The whole surface of this county, like the 
greater part of the cultivated portion of Ireland, is uneven. *■ 

FERMANAGH. 

Fermanagh contains 694 English square miles. The grand feature in the face 
of this county is Lough Erne, which stretches throughout its whole length, form- 
ing two large lakes in places embayed by mountains; which, in some parts, extend 
to the edge of the water, and in others receding from it, are seen at a distance. 
Both sides of this noble sheet of water are, therefore, hilly and uneven ; but 
the country towards Leitrim, forms one extensive range of mountains, of which 
Belmore, swelling out its massy sides towards the lake, is the most conspicuous. 
There are several other lakes of inferior size in this county, and a great many magni- 
ficent seats, which are highly worthy of notice ; such as Castle-Cool, Florence 
Court, Castle Arclidall, Castle Caldwell, Brookboro, Belleisle, Crum, Sec. 

In the course of my tour I travelled from Farnham, near Cavan, to Belleisle; 
passing through the tov.'ns of Butler's-Bridge, Watlle's-Bridge, and Maguire's- 
Bridge. Lough Erne, which was on my left, is not seen here to advantage. On 
the south side of it there is a range of hills ; and I remarked that the hills here 
are disposed more in ridges than in Cavan, though it equally abounds with them. 
It struck me, also, that this part of the country did not appear to be so thickly 
strewed with cabins or cottages. 

Belleisle, when I was there, belonged to Sir Richard Hardinge, in right of his 
lady; but it has since been sold to Mr. Hannington. The mansion is small, and 
situated on a woody island, which is accessible by means of a causeway and a bridge, 
consisting of one arch. The island contains 112 acres. Adjacent to it is another 
island, nearly of the same extent ; and both exhibit a most agreeable prospect, being 
covered with thriving woods of ash, oak, beech, and firs. The house fronts the 
south, and has before it a neat lawn, ornamented with gravel-walks and plantations. 
Immediately before it, at the distance of about three miles, stands a green hill, called 
Knockninny, which was formerly a deer park, but is now let as a farm. Behind 
this hill the scenery consists of a greenish mountain, which appears to be cultivated 
to a certain heiglit ; and connected on the right with a ridge of much higher black 
mountains, the termination of which becomes lost in the horizon. Immediately to 
the westward, within about a quarter of a mile of West Island, is a range of eleven 
other islands, all covered to the water's-edge with timber, which stretches directly 



28 FACE OF THE COUNTRY. 

across the lake. On the left, in this view from the house, the lake appears too nar- 
row, and to possess less beauty than the western side, which I have described. 

On the 30th of August, 1808, I enjoyed the pleasure of a most delightful water- 
excursion on Lough Erne, which is still fresh in my memory ; but I regret that my 
talent for description is little calculated to do justice to scenes which would re- 
quire a more lively imagination than I possess, and a much more animated pen. As 
the party intended to visit Crum, a small lodge ten miles distant, belonging to Lord 
Erne, we attempted to direct our vessel to the soutli-east of the old castle, which 
stands on the main land, and of which little now remains ; but it is celebrated for a 
most extraordinary ewe-tree, throwing out its branches to the enormous distance of 
forty-five feet. Unfortunately the wind was against us; and after beating about the 
lake for three hours, to the southward of Knockninny, we were reluctantly obliged 
to return, heartily fatigued ; but compensated, in some measure, for our disappoint- 
ment, by the beauty of the surrounding scenery. The views on the lake are indeed 
delightful, and very different from those which you enjoy during a ride on the land. 
The eye being very little elevated above the surface of the lake, the shores appear as 
if emerging from the water. The island of Belleisle, with its white mansion, sur- 
rounded by thick plantations, is the first striking object that occurs; and the eye is 
afterwards attracted by the other wooded islands, stretching in a semicircular direc- 
tion across the widest part of the lake ; and by the black mountains of great height, 
■which rise directly beyond them. Although the sun shed his rays with great bright- 
ness, a blue mist, rising from the summits of these salubrious ridges, and apparently 
.reaching the skies, gave a romantic and picturesque cast to the whole scene; and 
suggested to my mind some of those sublime passages which occur in the works of 
a northern poet.* 

These islands lie at various distances from each other, some of them being half a 
mile apart. Sir Richard Hardinge says, the passages between them are as wide, and, 
he thinks, very similar to, the Straits of Sunda, in the East Indies. We sailed 
through some of them, and landed on one of the islands, called Kelligowan, which 

* This natural phenomenon, so common in hilly countries, gives rise to some beautiful allusions and simi- 
lies in the works of Ossian. " The sun looked forth from his cloud. The hundred streams of Moilena 
shone. Slow rose the blue columns of mist against the glittering hill." temora, book viii. Poems of 
Ossian, Laing's edit. 1805, vol. ii. p. 248. " But they themselves are like two rocks in the midst; each 
with its dark head of pines, when they are seen in the desert, above low-sailing mist." Temora, b. v. ib. 
vol. ii. p. 146. " On Lena's dusky heath they stand, like mist that shades the hills of Autumn; when 
broken and dark it settles high, and lifts its head to heaven." fingal, b. i. ib. vol. i. p. 14. " My hair 
is the mist of Cromla, when it curls on the hill ; when it shines to the beam of the west." Ibid, ib. p. 21. 
" It bends behind like a wave near a rock ; like the sun-streaked mist of the heath," Ibid, ib. p. 20. 



FACE OF THE COUNTRY. 25 

contains forty acres of land, and produces oak, ash, firs, willows, and hazel, of an 
extraordinary size, intermixed with briars and underwood, that reach to the very 
edge of the waler. Beyond this appeared another island, far more extensive, called 
Enniimore, and containing I40O acres. Among these islands, the scene is con- 
tinually varying in all directions ; the expanse of water is completely lost, and in 
many places the appearance is exactly the same as that which occurs to those sailing 
either up or down a large river, bordered by woody b:<riks, and pursuing its sluggish 
course amidst distant mountains. Yet these reaches are short ; and in a moment, on 
turning round a point of land, you are suddenly and unexpectedly astonished by a 
wide expanse of water spread out before you ; and numerous wooded islands, like 
clumps of trees, emerging from the bosom of the lake. The fresh green colour of 
Knockninny, Belleisle, and the West Island, together with the distant prospect of 
the Black Mountain, form a delightful assemblage of objects, in which the softer 
beauties of nature are so blended with the sublime, as to excite a sensation pf plea- 
sure, mixed with surprise and astonishment. In a word, the beauties of Lough 
Erne charm by their variety, and the continued change of scenery. 

Castle Coole, which deserves the appellation of a palace, is a double house with 
extensive wings, and was built after a design by Wyatt, of Portland stone, brought 
hither by the father of the present Earl of Belmore, in 1791. It cost yo, OOO/.; but 
it stands on a lawn very much confined, and unfortunately has too few views of the 
Lough. The mountains, however, to the south and south-west of the lake, are 
seen to great advantage from different parts of the grounds ; and the town of Ennis- 
killen appears at some distance. 

In proceeding from Belleisle to Florence Court, I found the road, as far as Ennis- 
killen, very rugged and uneven, and the country well covered with wood ; in con- ^^^ 
sequence of the tenure being renewable under the bishopric of Clogher, which 
prevents the tenants from cutting down timber. Enniskillen opens to view in a very 
fine manner, and with great effect. The hill which appears above it, was formerly 
planted ; but a French engineer, sent over by Lord Pelham, cleared it of wood, and 
constructed on it a fort. After it was built, " no ghost was wanted to tell him," 
that it was completely commanded by an adjoining hill, the elevation of which is 
much greater. 

The road from Enniskillen to Florence Court, is not so hilly as in some other 
parts ; but excepting the trees planted around gentlemen's seats, it is entirely destitute 
of wood. From neither of the roads is there any view of the lake. Florence Court 
stands at the bottom of a mountain, called Cuha, and fronts the north-west. The 
lawn is of considerable size, and tiie plantations in the demesne are very extensive. ' 

The ash-trees rise to a great height; and had the woods been thinned when they • j 

were young, many of them would have attained to a considerable growth. Some } 



24 FACE OF THE COUNTRY. 

large trees, however, may be seen at the extremities. The prospect behind the house 
is by far the l)est ; as the mountains present a diversified appearance, those which 
consist of lime-stone being green ; and the rest, which are covered with heath, black 
and dusky. 

Proceeding to Ross Clear, the point of a peninsula stretching out into Lough 
Erne, and standing above the woody islands with which it is studded, I called at 
Ross Fadd, the residence of Major Richardson, which is within sight of Castle 
Archdall. The latter is situated on an elbow of the lake, and seems to be sur- 
rounded by beautiful plantations. Taking advantage of a full view, which I here 
liad of the lake, and surveying with great attention that extensive sheet of water, I 
found that the account given of it by Mr. Arthur Young is perfectly correct, except 
in regard to the woods. Among these the axe has made dreadful havoc ; whereas, 
in his time, the opposite hills were all covered with timber. 

In his Tour through Ireland, in 17 SO, he gives the following description of Castle 
Caldwell, which I only saw at a distance. " Nothing can be more beautiful than 
the approach to Castle Caldwell ; the promontories of- thick wood which shoot into 
Lough Erne, under the shade of a great ridge of mountains, have the finest effect 
imaginable. As soon as you arc through the gates, turn to the left about two hun- 
dred yards, to the edge of the hill, where the whole domain lies beneath the poTht of 
view. It is a promontory three miles long, projecting into the lake, a beautiful 
assemblage of wood and lawn ; one end a thick shade, the other grass, scattered with 
trees and finishing with wood. A bay of the lake breaks into the eastern end, where 
it is perfectly wooded. There are six or seven islands, "and among them that of 
Bow, three miles long and one and a half broad ; yet they have a noble sweep of 
water, bounded by the great range of Turaw mountains. To the right the lake takes 
the appearance of a fine river, with two large islands in it ; the whole unites to form 
one of the most glorious scenes I ever beheld. Rode to the little hill above Michael 
Macguire's cabin ; here the two great promontories of wood join in one, but open in 
the middle, and give a view of the lake quite surrounded with woods, as if a distant 
water; beyond are the islands scattered over its face, nor can any thing be more picr 
turesque than the bright silver surface of the water breaking through the dark 
shades of wood. Around the point on which we stood the ground is rough and 
rocky, wild and various ; forming no bad contrast to the brilliant scenery in view. 

" Crossing some of this undressed ground, we came to a point of a hill above 
Paddy Macguire's cabin ; here the lake presents great sheets of water, breaking 
beyond the woody promontories and islands in the most beautiful manner. At the 
bottom of the declivity, at your feet, is a creek, and beyond it the lands of the 
domain, scattered with noble woods, that rise immediately from the water's edge. 
The house, almost obscured among the trees, seems a fit retreat from every care 



FACE OF THE COUNTRY. 



«i 



and anxiety of the world. A little beyond it the lawn, which is in front, shews its 
lively green among the deeper shades; and over the neck of land, which joins it to 
the promontory of wood, called Ross a goul, the lake seems to form a beautifulwood- 
locked bason, stretching its silver surface behind the stems of numerous single trees. 
Beyond the whole, the«iountain-rocks of Turaw give a magnificent finishing. Nea^ 
you, on every side, is wild tossed about ground, which adds very much to the 
variety of the scene. Hence we passed the hill in the mountain-park, from 
which the scenery is different. Here you see a short promontory of wood, which 
projects into a bay, formed by two others, considerably more extensive ; these are, 
JRoss a gold znd Ross moor east ; the lake, stretching away in vast reaches, and be- 
tween numerous islands, almost as far as the eye can conimand. In the great creek 
to the right, which flows up under the mountain of Turaw, are two beautiful islands; 
which, with the promontories scattered with trees, give it the most agreeable varietv. 
'In another ride. Sir James gave me a view of that part of his domain which forn^s 
the promontory of Ross moor; we coasted it, and crossed the hills. Nothing can 
exhibit scenes of greater variety or more beauty. The islands, on every side, are 
of a different character ; some are knots or tufts of wood, others shrubby. Here are 
single rocks, and there fine hills of lawn, which rise boldly from the water: the 
promontories form equal distinctions ; some are of thick woods, which yield the 
darkest shade ; others, open groves ; but every where the coast is high, and yields 
pleasing landscapes. From the east point of Ross moor, the scenery is truly deli- 
cious. The point of view is a high promontory of wood lawn, 8cc. which pro- 
jects so far into the lake as to give a double view of it of great extent. You look 
down a declivity on the lake, which flows at your feet ; and full in front is the wood 
of Ross a goul, at the extreme point of which is the temple. This wood is per- 
fectly a deep shade, and has an admirable effect. At the other end it joins another 
AYOody promontory, in which the lawn opens beautifully among the scattered trees, and 
just admits a partial view of the house, half obscured. Carrying your eye a little 
more to the left, you see three other necks of Avood which stretch into the lake, 
generally giving a deep shade, but here and there admitting the Mater behind the 
stems, and through the branches of the trees; all this bounded by cultivated hills, 
and these backed by distant mountains. Here are no objects which you do not com- 
mand distinctly, none that do not add to thebeauty of the scene; and the whole form- 
ing a landscape rich in the assemblage of a variety of beauties. The other reach of 
the lake varying under Ross moor, is a different scene, bounded by the mountains and 
rocks of Turaw to the right : these reaches join the lake, which opens a fine expanse 
of water spotted with islands. It is, upon the whole, a scene strikingly agreeable. 
Little of the sublime, but the very range of beauty, gaiety, and pleasure, nre the cha- 
racters of the spot ; nature makes no efforts to astonish; manv lo please : tiie parts are 
Vol. I. E 



«6 , FACE OF THE COUNTRY. 

of extreme varieties, yet in perfect unison witli each oilier. Even the rocks of 
Turaw have a mildness in their aspect, and do not break the general effect by abrupt 
or rugged projections. It was with regret I turned my back on this charming 
scene, the most beautiful at Castle Caldwell, and the most pleasing I have any where 
seen. Rode round Boss a goul, the promontory in front of the house, from which 
the views are exceedingly beautiful." 

The Marquis of Ely is building a new lodge in one of tliese Islands in the upper 
lake, the whole of which abounds Avith romantic beauties. I sailed along it from 
Enniskillen; and, for the first two miles, found it contracted to the width of an 
ordinary river. One of the most striking objects which presented itself was Deve- 
nish Island, famous for its perfect round tower, and the ruins of an ancient monas- 
tery ; the mouldering fragments of which attest the desolation produced in the 
labours of man by the powerful hand of time, and by the continued intiuence of 
the weather. There are no trees on the island, and hence it has a naked appear- 
ance ; but the tower, which is ninety yards from the first ruin, and is built of stones, 
withoiit cement, gives to the scene an air of variety and grandeur. After leaving 
this island, the lake expands to the breadth of half a mile; and we passed the 
remains of Castle Hume, a mansion lately pulled down. The surrounding woods, 
which existed in Mr. Young's time, were all cut some years ago. We next reached 
the Gully Islands, well clothed with wood ; and though the trees are not of large 
size, they are sufficient to preserve the romantic appearance of these islands, which 
have been long and justly famed for the beauty of their scenery. During the season, 
they are the abode of numerous flocks of woodcocks ; which, as is well known, are 
birds of passage, that in winter come from the north in search of a milder 
climate.* 

Towards Castle Archdall the lake widens, so as to assume the appearance almost 
of a sea. I landed upon an island called Ennismackeent, from the centre of which 
you see Lough Erne, as if you were standing in a panorama, twenty-seven islands 
being full in your view. On looking back towards the east, yoii command the 
Gully and other wooded islands, together with the principal reach, half a mile 
Avide, extending through them towards Enniskillen. On the right the high land, 
already mentioned ; on the left, the promontory of Ross Clear, and beyond it Ross 
Fadd. To the north Castle Archdall, with the woods belonging to the domain, 
and to the west a noble bay of great extent, the shores of which are bounded on the 
south-west by high land rising into a lofty mountain, which sinks down as it stretches 
out of sight to the south. 

♦ Dr. Rutty says that this bird fScolopax sive Gallinago maximaj visits Ireland about Michaelmas, and ' 
disappears about March. He adds, that it has been sometimes seen white, A'alural History of the County 
nf Dublin, vol. i. p. 321. 



FACE OF THE COUNTRY. 27 

To the south-west of this island, which all travellers, fond of picturesque beauty,' 
should visit, and which might be justly styled Panorama Island, is a much venerated 
iRoman Catholic burying-ground, with a large stone-cross standing on a pedestal at 
its entrance. 

The falls of Lough Erne at Ballyshannon are much admired ; but the previous 
fall of Beeleck presents the most interesting scenery and views, which will never 
fail to catcli the eye and arrest the attention of the observant traveller. The country 
round Beeleck is truly delightful ; I passed through it in the beginning of Septem- 
ber, 180S, and found the road from Church-Hill, on the whole, a coup-d'cEilhi^ly 
interesting, as it commanded the widest part of Lough Erne to the right, and above 
it a mountainous ridge of limestone, clothed with grassy verdure nearly to the top. 
Before me the wooded peninsula, at Castle Caldwell, appeared in full view ; and 
the road being on a very elevated situation, the greater part of the lake, forming a 
most extensive slieet of water, presented a scene of uncommon magnificence — ar 
scene, indeed, such as is rarely seen, and which the astonished traveller leaves with 
regret. Afterwards the lake becomes contracted, and exhibits the appearance of a 
river with flat sides, which afford less interest and variety. 

Proceeding towards Ballyshannon, the shore appears to be highly cultivated, and 
in a state of improvement. On my arrival at Beeleck, a village belontrino- to Sir 
James Caldwell, the first object that engaged my attention was a battery on the top of 
a hill ; and on reaching the summit, -which curiosity induced me to visit, I was not a 
little astonished to see before me a woody eminence, shaped like an inverted bowl, 
winding round in the form of an S ; and an insulated rock, from thirty to forty feet 
high, covered with shrubs, which causes the water- fall. The stream of the river passes 
along here with Avondrous rapidity. On turning to the right, going down the hill 
at the back of the battery, the village first presents itself to the eye, next the bridge, 
and then the water-fall ; a most beautiful object, though perhaps not above twenty 
feet in height; but the water sometimes rolling, and at others dashing, over a rocky 
bed, precipitates itself from the summit of the cliff with great rapidity ; which is 
readily accounted for, when it is recollected that the immense body of water con- 
tained in the great lakes of Lough Erne, finds its way to the sea over this precipice, 
and produces a most romantic effect. The view from the middle of the bridcre, com- 
prehending the fall, with a wooded island, having a rock in the middle of it, is equal 
to any thing of the kind I ever saw. The high ridge of land to the left, beneath 
which we had travelled in the early part of the day, here disappeared. On the 
opposite side of the river, the country consists of a mountainous tract, and is con- 
sidered to be highly salubrious. I ought however to remark, that this description re- 
lates to the road which proceeds from Beeleck to Ballyshannon. 

E t 



«8 FACE OF THE COUNTRY. 



LONDONDERRY. 



Londonderry contains 837 English square miles. This county, according to Dr. 
Beaufort, is not much encumbered with mountains, and he mentions only Benyeve- 
nagh, Slubhgallan, and Cairnloglier; but if he had ever crossed the country from 
Londonderry to Moneymore, he would, in my opinion, have characterized this dis- 
trict in a very different manner. I do not here allude to such mountains as those 
found in Kerry, or Mourne, in the county of Down, or to barren rocky mountains, 
like those in the neighbouring county of Donegal. The mountains here present 
neither roughness nor green herbage, but exhibit something between both, which 
maybe called uncultivated vegetation; while the lower parts are inundated with 
water, and in some places have been converted into bogs.* Lough Foyle and the 
river Foyle belong to this county ; and inland from the city of Derry, afford some 
very fine views. 

On the 13th of September, I8O8, I visited Londonderry, and walked round the 
city. The walls are an English mile in circumference, and are furnished with five 
gates. There is here a cathedral, built in the year I633 ; the most remarkable fea- 
ture of which is two towers, rising at the eastern end. It was built by the Irish 
Society, to whom the city belongs. This place is supplied with water by means of 
pipes, which proceed from a high ridge of hills on the opposite side of Lough 
Foyle. These pipes extend along a wooden bridge, 1080 feet long, the building of 
which cost 1 1,000^. ; the timber being brought from America. Lough Foyle stretches 
a considerable way inwards below Strabane. The episcopal palace, which stands 
within the walls, has lately been used as a barrack ; but it is now under repair, and 
fitting up by the bishop. Without the city there are excellent gardens belonging to 
the see, and near them is a banquetting-room, built in a whimsical style by the late 
bishop, the windows of which command a most delightful view of Lough Foyle, 
contracting its breadth as it proceeds into the country, and winding through a reach 
of great beauty; they have the advantage also of overlooking the domain of Mr. 
Kno.x, ofTrehen, on the opposite side. 

The view of the city from the Derry side of the bridge is very fine, and in 
detailing the scenery of the country, ought not to be omitted. The bridge is a 
striking object; and the town, rising upon the hill, backed by more beyond it, with 
the shining expanse of water in Lough Foyle ; the shipping in it, and various other 
objects of less importance, form altogether a grand and impressive picture. ' 

The neighbourhood of Colerain, and the adjacent falls of the Bann, afford some 
romantic scenery deserving notice. 

» Tlie Rev. Mr. Sampson, in his Survey of Derry, p. 445, has noticed this error of Dr. Beaufort. 



FACE OF THE COUNTRY. ^ 

Near Newtown Limavndy there is a woody glen watered by a stream, which is 
exceedingly beautiful. In the month of September, 1808, I was at the house of 
Mr. Hugh Lyie, near Colerain; and, in my way thither, called at Daisy Hill, 
near Newtown, the residence of the late Mr. M'Causland. The latter consists of a 
neat family mansion, with good farming-offices attached, and surrounded by thriving 
plantations. The town is neat, and stands close to the river. I took a view of the 
romantic glen below it, through which the river pursues its course. It is clothed 
with wood on both sides, and called in Irish Limavady, or the Dog's Leap. The 
view here is much improved and enlivened by the bleach-field belonging to Mr. 
Leslie Alexander; an object always connected with the idea of industry, and its 
consequent attendants, opulence and prosperity. 

I spent the I6th of September, 1808, in visiting Down Hill; and I cannot help 
remarking, that I never saw so bad a house occupy so much ground. It is built of 
stone, and stands on a dry hill, surrounded by a planted glen, which latter is so low, 
that until its wood grows up it will remain hid. The best view from the house is the 
ocean, which is seen to great advantage. The mausoleum, erected to the late Earl 
of Bristol's brother, and the Mussenden temple, raised to perpetuate the remem- 
brance of a lady to whom the earl was much attached, are objects which will attest 
the vanity of their founder, when the names of those they were intended to preserve 
are forgotten, and thus serve as proofs, how little connection subsists between public 
opinion and private feeling. Though we may applaud the motive which produced 
the one, and be inclined to throw the veil of charity over that which gave birth to 
the other, we cannot help smiling at the ostentatious folly of erecting costly edifices 
of this kind, which a successor, perhaps, will consign to neglect; and which, in- 
stead of being viewed, in general, with those sentiments of respect and veneration 
they were destined to excite, are, for the most part, beheld without interest, and 
sometimes even with disgust. 

In this courtty there are few gentlemen's seats worthy of particular notice. Dowti- 
hill is the largest, but it is uninhabited. The cultivated land is seldom divided to 
any extent. The mountains are let in large lots, comprehending immense tracts; 
and the bases are occupied and tilled by the manufacturing peasantry, whose incio- • 
sures consist of earthern banks ; and whose cattle, and even domestic birds, are all 
bound and tethered in a manner which savours of barbarity. 

MONAGHAN. 

Monaghan forms an area of 509 English square miles. The face of this county, 
in general, bears a resemblance to that of Cavan. The whole is hilly ; but the hills 
seem as if scattered in an irregular manner, without forming continued ridges or 



30 FACE OF THE COUNTRY. 

chains. The soil is in some degree superior to that of Cavan, and the country exiil- 
bits the appearance of more corn and flax ; it is exceedingly populous, and contains 
several handsome seats, such as Caledon, Glaslaugh, Castle Blanev, and Dawson's 
Grove, which are all surrounded by plantations. 

When I visited this part of the country, in the month of September, 1808, great 
additions had been made to the domain of Caledon, and to the mansion. The latter 
stands on an elevated situation, and, when the plantations grow up, will be a*masni- 
ficent residence. From this place I passed through the village of Glaslaugh, 
belonging to Colonel Leslie, in the environs of which there is abundance of 
wood. 

On the 24th of September I proceeded from Monaghen to Castle Blaney, and 
found the same hilly appearance as in Cavan. Lord Blaney was not at home, but I 
took a view of the domain, which is a beautiful place, though not on a hrge scale. 
The immediate foreground consists of a wooded promontory; and in front of the house 
is a lake, beyond which hills, some of them planted and rising gently to the view, 
add greatly to the beauty of the prospect. To the left, on the opposite side of the 
lake, stands a delightful eminence clothed with wood, which extends to the edge of 
the water, and on the right appears a screen of trees, on ground which has a consi- 
derable elevation. 

From this place I continued my tour to Ardee, passing through land which exhi- 
bited every mark of the most wretched cultivation. Wood was no where to be seen ; 
the corn-fields were naked and without hedge-rows, and the cattle and live stock 
very few in number. I was informed by the people that it was an estate of great size, 
belonging to Mr. Shirley and the Marquis of Bath, and that the appearance which it 
bore had long been considered as a proof of the bad effects arising from mismanage- 
ment, the people and cattle being all in an exhausted, starving, miserable state. 

The dulness which pervades absentee property is evident- throughout the whole 
country. Inactivity, and a gloomy silence every where prevail ; give a melan- 
choly cast to the ideas of the traveller, and excite in the thinking mind the most se- 
rious reflections. It is, indeed, deeply to be regretted, that noblemen and gentlemen 
■who possess landed property in Ireland, where the beauties of nature are sufficiently 
Ettractive, and where all the necessaries, most of the comforts, and even the luxuries 
of life, may be procured without mucli trouble or expense, should prefer living in 
another country, and leave their tenants to the management of persons who cannot 
have the same interest in their welfare and prosperity. Those who are absent in the 
servicesof their country, or who travel for the acquirement of useful knowledge, have 
a just and most honourable excuse ; but those whose object is merely pleasure, or the 
enjoyment of vain gratifications, which Ireland, perhaps, is less capable of affording, 
are not entitled to the same indulgence. Did proprietors reside on their estates 



FACE OF THE COUNTRY. SU, 

at least some part of the year, and employ tiieir thoughts on the improvement of them; 
they would become better acquainted with the disposition of their tenants; the latter 
■would feel more attachment to their landlords ; the money their landlords spent among 
them would enliven their industry ; and they would be encouraged to labour by the 
presence and kind attention of those to whom they ought naturally to look up as their 
friends and benefactors. If proprietors, consulting the interest of their tenants, 
which is invariably connected with theiv own and with that of the state, set them a 
good example, it would serve them as a guide ; and their influence, properly exerted, 
might restrain them from vicious habits and pursuits. Thus the irregularities which 
are apt to prevail among a populace, rendered ferocious through want of culture, and 
become licentious by neglect, would be more easily curbed; the latent sparks of moral 
good suppressed but not extinguished, would readily be called into action; a spirit 
more congenial to that exalted state of society, for which man was intended, would 
be diffused ; and districts of Ireland, which now exhibit an appearance of desolation, 
would become prosperous, happy, and cheerful. 

TYRONE. 

Tyrone is an inland county, containing 1271 English square miles. Small divi- 
sions of land wi^^hout live fences, and an abundant population, are its striking fea- 
tures. The barony of Strabane is exceedingly mountainous ; but on that side of the 
county are the seats of the Marquis of Abercorn and Lord Mountjoy, both places 
which, according to the accounts given to me, have large plantations attached to them. 
I however did not see them ; and it is now nearly twenty years since I was in that 
part of the county. 

On the 23d of September I visited the seat of Lord Northland, near Dungannon. 
The building now used as a dwelling house, was originally intended for offices. 
There is much thriving timber on the domain ; from a spot near the house the town, 
is seen to great advantage; and beyond it, the waters of Lough Neagh, the banks , 
of which, in this county, have a great sameness, being in general flat and voidi, 
of interest. 



32 FACE OF THE COUNTRY. 



PROVINCE OF CONNAUGHT. 

CjONNAUGHT, the most western province of Ireland, nearly surrounded by the 
Shannon and the ocean, forms an area equal to 7,19! English square miles, and com- 
prehends fiva counties, Galway, Leitrim, Mayo, Roscommon, and Sligo. 

GAL WAY. 

Galway is a maritime county, and, in point of extent, is the second in Ireland, 
since it contains 2,593 English square miles. Its appearance is exceedingly various. 
The north-west part of it, consisting chiefly of the barony of Connomara, the pro- 
perty of Mr. Martin, remains uncultivated and nearly in the state of nature ; nor is 
it likely to exhibit a more pleasing aspect, till from some fortunate change in the 
agricultural system of Ireland, it becomes divided among a greater number of occu- 
piers, and is improved by the hand of industry. At present there are scarcely any 
roads through it. 

In the inhabited parts of this county there are more gentlemen's seats than in any 
other district of Ireland; but it contains none remarkable for their magnificence ex- 
cept Dalystown. The substratum throughout the greater part of the country is lime- 
stone, on which account the verdure is exceedingly luxuriant. In general the fields 
are separated by stone fences. Dr. Beaufort has given a very good description of the 
face of the country in this county, which, like most of the productions of that gentle- 
man, is very accurate. Alluding to the thinness of inhabitants, the author says, 
" This very scanty population may in some degree be accounted for by the rude state 
of the three baronies on the west of Lough Corrib, which amount to a third part of 
the whole county, as they contain about 341,600 acres. The lake itself covers 31,300 
acres. The extensive country on this side the lake is flat, with the exception of a 
few fertile hills of no great height, and some low mountains on the borders of Clare. 
The soil is warm and fertile, covering at no great depth a stratum of limestone rock, 
which in the baronies of Dunkellin and Kiltartan, and in many other places, rises so 
thick above the surface as to render those parts unfit for tillage, though they are 
excellent for pasture. Few ditches are to be seen in this county, the fields being 
chiefly inclosed with dry stone walls,* which gives the country a dreary aspect. 

• The same fenses prevail in a great part of Roscommon, of Mayo, and of Clare. 



FACE OF THE COUNTRY. 33 

" The -western part of the county is of quite a different character from the rest. 
The barony of MoycuIIin, which is also called larconnaught, contains some good 
land on the sea coast and along the beautiful shore of Lough Conib ; but the hf^n 
of this barony is an assemblage of unreclaimable rock and mountain. The rocks at 
Oughterard and in the bed of the river Fuogh, of which there are immense masses, are 
all a black and white marble, equal at least in beauty with that of Kilkenny ; yet there 
is seldom employment for more than one solitary artist in working up a few chimney- 
pieces. Lough Corrib somewhat resembles Lough Erne in its form, and extends 
twenty miles in length, being eleven wide in the broadest part ; in the middle it is 
contracted to a small channel, which is crossed by a ferry at Knock.* There is a 
fresh water muscle in this lake that produces pearls, of which I have seen some very 
fine specimens. The large barony of Ballynahinch, which is better known by the 
name of Connamara, abounds with fine harbours, but is also extremely mountainous. 
The hills of Ourred and Cashel are very high, and the vast ridge called Beannabeola, 
or the Twelve Pins, which is a well known sea-mark, consists almost of perpendi- 
cular rocks. At the foot of this ridge, close to the little village of Ballynahinch, a 
charming lake spreads itself for some miles ; and on the river which runs from it 
into Roundstone Bay, there is a great salmon-fishery. On the sides of hills and in 
villages, which are -watered by rivers and small lalces. and sheltered in some places 
by the venerable remains of ancient woods, the soil is mostly inclined to a black 
bog; but gravel, sand, or rock, lie at no greater depth than from one to three feet below 
the surface. Great quantities of kelp are made along the coast ; and by manuring 
with sea-wreck the land is rendered very productive to the scattered families that in- 
habit it, who are all little farmers and hardy fishermen. The northern part of Bally- 
nahinch and the barony of Ross are called Joyces country, and inhabited chiefly by 
a clan of that name. Ross is also extremely rough ; Mamtrasna, on the borders of 
Mayo, is very high, and Ben-Levagh at the north-west angle of Lough Corrib is a 
stupendous mountain. Yet the borders of the lake, the shore of the Killeries, and 
the valley through which the river Bealnabrack runs, are pretty well peopled, and 
the soil such as would amply repay the pains andexpenc^of good cultivation. 

" This country, which reaches from the sea to the Shannon, is well watered by ri- 
vers and lakes : several of the rivers are in part of their course subterraneous. The 
Black-River, on the bounds of Mayo, dips for about three miles near the village of 
Shrule. The Clare and the Moyne unite their waters under ground, alternately ap- 
pearing and retiring from view at the Turlachmore, which in winter forms a lake, 
and in summer a beautiful and sound sheep-walk, upwards of six miles in length 

* A great number of concealed rocks render the navigation of this lake dangerous to those wlio are not well 
acquainted with it. 

Vol. L F 



34 FACE OF THE COUNTRY. 

and two in breadth. Near Gort there are a vast number of these swallows in which 
some part of almost every river and brook in the neighbourhood is engulphed. The 
river Gustnamakin dips several times, and after a concealed course of t\yo miles, rises 
on the beach below high water mark, and discharges itself among the rocks in the 
bay of Kinvarra. Lough Reagh is a fine piece of water, and Lough Coutra, near 
the borders of Clare, is said to possess all the beauties that hills, woods, and islands 
can impart to water. 

" The maritime advantages of this county must not be omitted. The vast bay of 
Galway is sheltered at the entrance by the three southern isles of Arran. The sound 
between these islands is a safe road, and a number of inlets on the coast, as well as 
the harbour of Galway, are sufficiently deep for the reception of merchant ships ; 
but are more frequented by coasters and fishing boats than by vessels in the foreign 
trade. The indented shores of Connamara abound in well-sheltered havens — those 
of Killkerran, Birturby, Roundstone, and Ballynakill, are the largest ; and the Kille- 
ries are at the northern extremity of this district."* 

LEITRIM. 

Leitrim is a maritime county, and contains 604 English square miles. It is almost 
entirely covered by groups of mountains, which are not completely barren, but 
afford sufficient herbage for the breeding of cattle. The vallies between them contain 
several lakes, such as Lough Allen, Clean Lough, Lough Melvyn, k-c. which give 
birth tb various rivers, some of them of considerable size. The Shannon is said to 
take its rise here+ at Lough Clean, though the honour of producing this noble stream 
is claimed by a spot near Florence Court, in the county of Fermanagh. J Both these 
accounts I believe to be true, as the Shannon originates from two rivulets which 
unite into one current, and this current is afterwards swelled by the accession of tri- 
butary waters to the size and extent of a large river. 

Manor fiamilton stands in a romantic situation among mountains, and is sur- 
rounded by a few trees. The case is the same with Dromahaire, near which are the 
venerable remains of an aiTcient abbey, in the domain of Mr. Johnson at Friarstown. 
In this county there are few gentlemen's seats. 

MAYO. 

Mayo is a maritime county, and contains 2339 English square miles, including about 
two-thirds of Lough Mask, cut off by a straight line drawn through it, to the bounda- 
ries of the county. The north-west part of it, Erris, is mountainous, boggy, and 
destitute of roads. I was on the edge of this county but did not cross it, and few of 

• Beaufort's Memoir, p. 18. t M'Parlan's Survey of Leitrim, p. 18. 

% De Latoenaye's Rambles through Ireland, vol. ii. p. 74. 



FACE OF THE COUNTRY. 35 

the gentry who have properly here, to use their own expression, " have ever been 
in it." The county contains two mountains of great height. Crow or Croagh Patrick 
and Mount Nephin, the former of which rises like a pyramid to a great height, and 
may be seen at an immense distance. I have myself distinguished it from many parts 
of Roscommon, distant upwards of forty miles ; accordino- to Dr. Beaufort, the 
elevation of this mountain above the level of the sea is 2666 feet, and that of Nephin 
2640, which agrees nearly with the measurement of Mr. Kirwan, who makes the 
height of the former 2661 and that of the latter 2630. These mountains hold the 
fourth rank, in point of elevation, among the mountains of Ireland ; M'Gillycuddy's 
Reeks, and Mangerton in Kerry, and the Mourne mountains in Down, all beino- 
higher. 

Having never seen the western part of this county I can say nothing of the beautiful 
scenery which it is said to contain. In regard to the general appearance of those 
districts of it which I visited, they do not exhibit any striking marks of improve- 
ment; I could see nothing but bad tillage and a thin population. The people in 
general were dressed in woollen clothes of a dark colour, and their cabbins, which 
seemed to be more confined than those in other parts of Ireland, had a most misera- 
ble appearance, and gave a dull and gloomy aspect to the whole country. As timber 
is here scarce, the roofs of these huts are constructed of bog-wood, never of suffi- 
cient size to furnish rafters but for the smallest cabbins. Con"-, near Ballinrobe, a 
gentleman's seat on the banks of Lough Corrib is well covered with plantations, and 
said to be a place of great beauty. Mr. Young has given a description of Westport,* 
and his account has been copied, without any acknowledgment, into statistical sur- 
veys, and into the Post Chaise Companion, a useful and entertaining book, which 
has borrowed nearly all its descriptions of places from the works of this celebrated 
writer. " In the evening," says Mr. Young, " I reached Westport, Lord Altamont's, 
whose house is very beautifully situated upon a ground rising gently from a fine 
river, which makes two bold falls within view of his windows, and sheltered on each 
side by two large hanging woods ; behind it has a very fine view of the bay with 
several headlands projecting into it one beyond another, with two or three cultivated 
islands, and the whole bounded by the great mountain of Clara Island and the vast 
region of Crow-Patrick on the right ; from the hill above the wood on the right of the 
house, is a view of the bay with several islands, bounded by the Hummocks and 
Clara Island, with Crow-Patrick immediately rising, like superior lord of the whole 
territory, and looking down on a great region of other mountains that stretch into 
Joyces Country." 

Patterson, in his observations on the climate of Ireland, says, " On the western coast 
of Ireland, in the barony of Morisk, county of Mayo, vastly exposed to the westerly 

•■' Tour through Ireland, published in 1780, p. 210. 
F 2 



36 FACE OF THE COUNTRY. 

blasts, almost covered with considerable mountains, and invested wilii the Atlantic 
ocean and bays formed by it, the Marquis of Slii^o has a prodigious extent and va- 
riety of plantations, some of them quite near the sea ; and in the adjoining barony of 
Marrishool, under circumstances apparently no less adverse to vegetable growth, the 
few hedges and trees about Newport are living proofs oi the facility with which trees 
would grow there by proper culture. Hence the writer of the County Survey, Dr. 
M'Parlan, is convinced that if the numerous islands in Newport or Clew Bay were 
planted, and the necessary parts of the banks and mountains wooded and improved, 
the bay v.oulJ certainly exceed in picturesque beauty any thing of the kind in Eu- 
rope, the bay of Naples 7ict excepted."* 

There are many lakes in this county which generally extend over a bottom of lime- 
stone, and communicate with each other under ground. Towards Killala there are 
some parts which exhibit rich pasture, and seem well adapted for grazing. " In the 
flat country that borders upon the lakes of Mask and Carrah," says Dr. Beaufort,+ 
" there are many miles of rocky ground, which at a distance appear like one immense 
sheet of white stone ; but upon a nearer inspection of these singular rocks, they are 
perceived to stand in parallel lines from one to three feet above the surface, like flag- 
stones hitched in the ground upon their edges, and however they may vary in shape, 
size, and distance, they are all calcareous, and have all the same direction. Fissures of 
a great depth are found in some of the narrowest interstices ; but in general the ver- 
dure between them is beautiful and the pasture excellent for sheep. 

" Large caverns and subterraneous waters are also frequent in this part of the 
country, especially near Cong. At the back of that small village a very broad river 
rushes at once from beneath a sloping bank, and after a rapid course of about a mile 
loses itself in Lough Corrib. It is supposed to be the outlet of a subterraneous chan- 
nel, through which the superfluous waters of Lough Mask and Lough Carrah are 
discharged into Corrib. This rocky part of Mayo abounds also with turlachs, as 
they are called in Irish. These are plains, some of them very extensive, which 
having no visible communication with any brooks or rivers, in the winter are covered 
with water, and become in the summer a rich and firm pasturage, the waters rising 
and retiring through rocky cliff's in the bottoms. There are many fine lakes in this 
county ; Lake Conn, at the foot of Mount Nephin, is nine miles long ; Lough Mask 
is longer by two miles and considerably broader." 

ROSCOMMON. 

Roscommon is an inland county, containing 891 English square miles. The sub- 
stratum consists generally of limestone, and stone fences are employed to inclose 
and separate the fields. The most prominent features of this county are rich and 

* Pawerson, p. 197, + Memoir of a Map of Ireland, p. 75. 



FACE OF THE COUNTRY. 37 

beautiful pastures. There are here extensive bugs, and indeed the whole face of 
the country exhibits either bogs or green fields, for it does not present that mixed ap- 
pearance of russet brown surface which occurs so frequently in Ireland for miles. 
As the grass springs up from a calcareous soil, the verdure is exceedingly luxuriant. 

Lord Boyle has a magnificent seat on the edge of a lake in this county^, but as I 
saw it only at a distance I shall subjoin Mr. Young's account of it; but it is necessary 
to observe that since it was written his lordship has built u capital mansion and 
extended the plantations. It is spoken of as one of the finest places in Ireland. 
" VValked down to Longford Hill to view the lake ; it is one of the most delicious 
scenes I ever beheld, a lake of five miles by four, which fills the bottom of a gentle 
valley almost of a circular form bounded very boldly by the mountains ; those to the 
left rise in a noble slope, they lower rather in the front and let in a view of Strand 
Mountains near Sligo, above twenty miles off. To the right you look over a sm^ll 
part of a bog to a large extent of cultivated hill with the Blue Mountains beyond. 
Were this little piece of bog planted, the view would be more complete." 

Mr. French of French Park, has in this county a large house and domain, and 

were my object the description of hospitality instead of scenery, I should refer for 

a true picture of it to the mansion of this worthy and benevolent gentleman: 

J, 
Thro' whose free opening gate ' 



None comes too early, none departs too late ; 

where it is exercised in all the spirit of former times without ostentation or fasti- 
dious ceremony, and with that unaffected air of sincerity which creates confidence, 
and that ease and politeness which make the kindness doubly acceptable. 
Towards the south the county becomes one continued sheet of limestone.. 

SLIGO. 

Slif^o is a maritime county, and contains 727 English square miles. As Dr. 
Beaufort has described with much precision the face of the country in this district, 
I shall transcribe what he has said: " The county of Sligo contains very good land, 
intermixed with large tracts of coarse and unprofitable ground. In the barony of 
Carbury are the rnountains of Benbulb and Samore ; a chain of rough hills extends 
from Lough Gilly to the bounds of Roscommon and Leitrim. Tyreragh though 
level along the coast is intersected by large bogs, and the southern part of it is bounded 
by the Ox Mountain Sliebh-Dham, and a great range of desolate hills that extend 
a good way into the barony of Leny, in which aUo there is a great scope of bog. 
The Curlews and other mountains cover the most of Coolavin, and the Kishcorran 
forms a long ridge on the borders of Tyraghrill.* 

♦ On the summits of most of these mountains there are very large cairns or camedh. 



38 FACE OF THE COUNTRY. 

'"Among these hills there are many large lakes and abundance of rivers. The Moy 
rises in the mountains of Knocknashee, and after receiving the waters of Lough Calt, 
and Lough Conn, flows in a broad stream to the bay of Killalla. Lough Arrow is about 
eight miles iorjg, full of islands, and of a very irregular form. A river of the same 
name proceeds from it, and running northward to Bailysadere, rushes at once into the 
sea in a stupendous cataract. Lough Garra is also an extensive lake. 

" Lough Gilly exhibits that variety of charming prospects which bold hills, 
wooded lawns, and large islands clothed with verdure and crowned with trees, united 
with a great extent of water cannot fail to produce. 

" Upon the river by which the waters of this lake are discharged into a large 
bay, stands the town of Sligo, and vessels of two hundred tons can come up to the 
quays."* 

Hazelwood, the beautiful seat of Mr. Wynne, stands on the banks of Lough Gill, 
which abounds with roraan'c scenery. I spent a morning in the month of September, 
IS09, in rowing through this lake, which is five miles long and two broad. It dis- 
charo-es its superabundant water into the sea below Sligo, where it forms a waterfall 
similar to that at Ballyshannon. The house of Hazelwood is built at the end of a 
wooded peninsula which runs out into the water, and is seen to most advantage from 
the lake ; the e;round': are kept exceedingly neat. On the land side there is a hand- 
some lawn, and on the other side the opposite shore of the lake consists of moun- 
tains in some places planted, and in others rough and uncultivated. To the north of 
the whole, at the distance of several miles towards the interior of the country there 
is another range of mountains, and the climate is so mild that the arbutus, myrtle, and 
other shrubs of the like kind grow in the grounds here with the utmost luxuriance. 
Nature and art have united their efforts to render this a very agreeable residence, 
where lake and mountain scenery combine in the most romantic manner with plan- 
tations and ornamented grounds to produce variety; still farther increased by the 
intermixture of old timber, some of which appears to be of a large size. 

On the 11th of September, I809, I went to Nymphsfield through Sligo and Balli- 
sadare, where there is a considerable waterfall. At Cooloony there is another, but I , 
observed no trees durino- the whole course of the way. The country seemed to consist 
of limestone rock, intermixed with small bogs. The mountains here are composed 
of a brown kind of rock, although the substratum of all the level land is limestone. 
The tops of the mountains are uncultivated, but tillage begins to advance gradually 

up their sides. 

On the 13th I rode to Mercury, the seat of Mr. Cooper, which is a castellated 
building constructed of limestone. Johnson was the architect, and when the grounds 
are embellished this place will make a very fine appearance. 
♦ Beaufort's Memoirs, p. 72. 



FACE OF THE COUNTRY. 39 



PROVINCE OF LEINSTER. 

LEINSTER the most eastern province of Ireland, is bounded on the north by Ulster, 
on the east and south by St. George's or the Irish Channel, and on the west by the 
province of Munster. It is the most level and best cultivated province in the island, 
and contains 7360 English square miles. It comprehends the following twelve coun- 
ties, Carlow, Dublin, Kildare, Kilkenny, King's County, Longford, Louth, Meath, 
Queen's County, Westmeath, Wexford, and Wicklow. 

CARLOW. 

This county contains 346 English square miles. It is watered on the west by the 
Barrow ; but presents very few instances of that picturesque scenery which abounds 
in some of the other parts of Ireland. The Slaney also flows on the eastern side of 
it, and though of small size, contributes to the beauty of the surrounding districts. , 
One glen through which it pursues its course I shall describe when I speak of the 
county of Wexford, to which it more properly belongs ; it is exceedingly romantic 
and highly worthy of notice. To the west of the Barrow there are mountains, and 
in the south are seen those called the Blackstairs, which divide Carlow from Wex- 
ford. The interior is flat, and the soil rich and of a calcareous nature. 

There are here a great number of gentlemen's seats, and particularly near the town 
of Carlow, but that belonging to Mr. Cavannagh, which I visited on the J 5th of July, 
I809, is the finest place in the whole county. This beautiful domain contains a 
great many elms, and the front lawn is ornamented with horse and Spanish chesnut 
trees, oaks, lime trees, larch, and firs, disposed in single trees. It is bounded on one 
side by the Barrow, but this river is not seen in any picturesque view. The most 
striking features in the general prospect are the Blackstairs Mountains, which exhibit 
a very remarkable appearance, but not so much on account of their height as of their 
perpendicular form and uncommon blackness. The front lawn is bordered by woods 
of considerable extent, and beyond these is a rising slope covered with verdure and 
terminating in mountain scenery which produces a very grand effect. A mountain 
stream running through the midst of the woods adds much to the beauty of the 
domain in various parts. The Blackstairs Mountains, as seen from this place, ap- 
pears suddenly to break off, leaving a gap between them and another mountain in 
Kilkenny, called Brandon Hill. 

On the 17 th of March, IS09, passing through Baltinglass, and crossing a corner of 
Kildare, I arrived at Carlow, a very neat town abounding with " houses of entertain- 



40 FACE OF THE COUNTRY. 

ment;" for every shop alaiost has attached to it a house which is used as an inn. 
An old castle with four turrets stands on the banks of the Barrow, and though 
without a roof, seems still likely to stand for ages. 

DUBLIN. 

Dublin is a maritime county, forming an area of 388 English square miles, and 
contains the metropolis of Ireland, which is situated at the end of a bay of the same 
name. In general it consists of a cold soil, and the face of the country does not ex- 
hibit much diversity of prospect in itself, but the view across the bay towards the 
south, where those mountains which extend over the adjoining county of Wicklow 
take their rise, certainly displays as grand and magnificent scenery as can any where 
be seen. The LifTey, which intersects the county, runs through the heart of the 
city, and discharges itself into the bay. 

On the 27th of April, I809, I passed Merino, the seat of Earl Charlemont, and 
proceeded to the Hill of Hoath,"a very remarkable spot, consisting of a rocky promon- 
tory almost insulated, from the summit of which there is a most beautiful and extensive 
prospect. On the right is seen the whole city of Dublin, backed by the Wicklow 
mountains, the bases of which are studded with numerous villas, many of them white. 
The mountains stretch out towards Dalgy as far as the sight can reach, and the eye 
looking directly forwards catches Bray Head, and at a distance Wicklow Head. I 
here speak of the view as seen from the cottage which stands on a very high clifiT. 
The bay extending twelve miles to Dalgy, with the lighthouse and the walls by which 
it is surrounded rising from the middle of it, makes a very grand appearance. On 
the left there is a most commanding view of the ocean, and the whole scenery, com- 
prehending that along the shore from Dalgy to Dublin to the distance of seven miles 
at least, and the more extensive range of the mountains behind, form altogether a 
magnificent coup d'ail, which perhaps may be equalled, but is scarcely exceeded, 
by any thing of the kind. Having surveyed with no small delight this marine am- 
phitheatre, of which I had a full and complete view, I went round this mountainous 
rock, where the new harbour is constructing for the packets, having Ireland's Eye 
and Lundy Island in sight. I returned along the strand by Clontarf to Dublin. 

The Phoenix Park, the country-seat of the lord-lieutenant, which stands on the 
banks of the Liffey nearly adjoining to the city, is a fine place, and makes a very hand- 
some appearance. Mr. Luke White's, at Luttrel's Town, is also worthy of notice ; 
but as I had not an opportunity of seeiug it, I shall subjoin the following account of 
it by Mr. Dutton.* Woodlands, formerly Luttrel's Town, the seat of Luke White, 
Esq. is a truly magnificent domain, and the improvements.daily making, added to 

" Dutlon's Observations on Archer's Survey of Dublin, p. 125, 



FACE OF THE COUNTRY. 41 

its fine situation and great extent, must insure it a superiority over every otlier 
domain in the country. Nature has thrown the ground into the most delightful and 
undulating variety of surface : the views of the river LifTey are caught in her most 
enchanting points; the foreground, to which nature has been so Ln-ish, is broken in 
the most picturesque manner by the charming plantations of Edmunsbury,Woodville, 
Hermitage, 8cc. and the distant prospect closed in the happiest manner by the moun- 
tains of Wicklow. The glen is particularly beautiful ; it follows the course of a 
natural rivulet, flowing over a rocky bed, between steep banks well wooded, form- 
ing a most agreeable solitude without gloom, and possessing infinite variety. This 
domain contains upwards of four hundred acres, and is embellished with more and 
better full-grown timber than is to be found in any other in the county. Mr. White 
is annually adding to the plantations and improving the soil." Malahide, belonging 
to Colonel Talbut ; and Merino, the seat of Earl Charlemont, have each their par- 
ticular beauties. 

In the south towards Wicklow the whole country is one continued series of gen- 
tlemen's seats, many of which are elegant, and laid out in a tasteful and expensive 
manner. Lucan is a village of great beauty, celebrated for its spa.* Glassnevin is 
also a neat pretty village ; in a word, the whole neighbourhood of the bay is delight- 
ful, and the rising grounds towards Wicklow command very fine prospects, but the 
rest of the county is not remarkable for its scenery, or the picturesque appearance of 
its cottages. 

KILDARE. 

Kildare, anciently Chili-dair, that is, the wood of oaks, is an inland county, con- 
taining 619 English square miles. It has no mountains, but comprehends a consi- 
derable tract of bog, which is so extensive that one gentleman. Sir Fenton Aylmer,, 
possesses 18,000 acres. The curragh of Kildare, the celebrated turfy plain ort which 
the races are held, is equal in extent to nearly five thousand acres. The Duke of 
Leinster has in this county 73:000 acres of what is called in Ireland " Green-land " 
that is, land fit for tillage and pasture, and as the whole of it nearly is let on determin- 
able leases, there are on it of course no seats embellished with that expence which 
gentlemen might be induced to bestow on their own property. The Barrow, part of 
•whch runs through this county, assumes southwards from Athy the size of a consi- 
derable stream, and its vicinity to Dublin accounts for its being ornamented with 
many delightful retreats. Harris-Town, the seat of Mr. Latouche ; that of the Duke 
of Leinster; those belonging to Mrs. Connoly at Castletown; Mr. Wo" an Brown 

■" The water is of a sulphureous nature, and resembles that of Aix-la-Chapelle and Bruges but with this 
difference, that the Lucan water is cold, whereas those of the above two places are hot. A long account of it 
and its medicinal virtues may be seen in Dr. Rutty's Nat. Hist, of the County of Dublin, vol. i. p. 188. 

Vol. I. G 



42 FACE OF THE COUNTRY. 

and several others, are all much admired. The habitations of the poor are so 
extremely wretched that they add the appearance of misery and desolation to the 
general dulness exhibited by the face of the country. There are here a great many 
" Danish mounts," or Raths, surmounted bv a single ash-tree, which may be seen at 
a considerable distance. I observed several of these ancient monuments in my way 
from Packenham Hall in Westmealh to Naas, in the course of which ride the land 
every where shewed evident marks of improved cultivation. This county, indeed, 
like Kilkenny, contains several large farms where tillage is carried on to a consider- 
able extent. 

KILKENNY. 

Kilkenny is an inland county, containing 773 English square miles. It is bounded 
on the south by the Suir, on the east by the Barrow, and is intersected by the Nore, 
which flows through its centre. All these rivers abound with fine scenery. The 
latter, in its course, passes through the grounds of Mount Juliet, the seat of Earl 
Carrick, which seems to be left in a very neglected state. The house, which is built 
in the old-fashioned style of architecture, stands immediately on the banks of the 
rapid and beautiful Nore. The domain belonging to it is extensive, and as the 
plantations are at some distance from the house, the trees seem less conhned, and 
have not the awkward appearance of being all crowded together in one spot. 

On the 21st of January, I8O9, I walked from Kilfaine to a beautiful glen a mile 
and a half long, at the end of which Mrs. Power has built an elegant cottage, in a 
situation truly delightful ; opposite to it is a waterfall, and the rivulet runs through 
the lawn and flower garden, having on both sides rocks ornamented with large ever- 
greens. The morning was frosty, and the trees covered, according to the expression 
of the poet, with 

frost-work fair. 

Where transient hues, and fancy'd figures rise," 

<rlistened on every side by the reflection of the light, which added greatly to the 
beauty of this enchanting though wintry scene. All the improvements on this ro- 
mantic spot display the fine taste of the lady to whom it belongs. 

On the iGth of July, I809, I paid a visit to Woodstock, a place exceedingly rich in 
timber, as it has two hundred acres of plantation on the banks of the river Nore. 
From some parts of this domain the village of Inistioge, and the bridge over the 
Nore may be seen to great advantage. If you turn the other way and look up the 
river, it appears to form a bending, and the woods, which approach close to its edge, 
add much to the beauty of the landscape. Towards the south there is one of those 

■ ■• Thomson's WinJer. 



FACE OF THE COUNTRY- . 43 

romantic woody glens, -watered by a mountain-stream, which are so common in Ire- 
land. A cottage a la Suisse, perched upon the summit of a rugged rock at a consi- 
detable height, forms a very interesting object: a spot more delightful than this glen 
can hardly be conceived ; nature has here scattered her picturesque beauties with a 
lavish hand. The glen is not very wide, but it winds along with so many turnings 
and twistings, breaking off into a different form at the distance of every few yards, 
that as you advance, new scenes continually burst into view, and keep the mind 
alive with expectation. It is thickly clothed with wood wherever there is soil for a 
root to catch, and where this is not the case, a solitary rock or rugged cliff is seen 
projecting its head through the green foliage, while the stream at the bottom, tumbling 
down its rough and uneven bed with a hoarse noise, gives a grandeur to the whole 
scenery which cannot be easily described. The effect is still farther heightened by 
the vie^f of two or three rustic bridges, constructed of timber unbarked, which gives 
them the appearance of trees that have fallen across by accident, rather than of works 
raised by the hand of man. After you have proceeded through these rude scenes 
along a winding path by the side of the stream, amidst the gloom of the plantations, 
you are not a little surprised to find yourself close to a cottage of singular beauty, 
standing on the very edge of a precipice, whence you have a distant view of the 
river Nore. Being desirous to know to whom this charming spot was indebted for 
so many beauties, I inquired, and learned that the bold but rough sketches of 
nature had been softened and embellished by the fine taste of Mrs. Tighe, who seems 
•to have closely followed the advice of the poet — 

To build, to plant, whatever you intend, 

To rear the column, or the arch to bend, 

To swell the terrace, or to sink the grot ; • - 

In all, let nature never be forgot ; 

TBut treat the goddess like a modest fair. 

Nor over-dress, nor leave her wholly bare ; 

Let not each beauty ev'r)- where be spied, 

Were half the skill is decently to hide. 

He gains all points who pleasingly confounds, 

Surprises, varies, and conceals the bounds. 

Pope's Epii. to the Earl of Burlinglon. 

This county is mountainous, but cultivation is making considerable progress, 
though much furze is still to be seen on the hills. The scenery of the Nore, from 
Kilfaine to Ross, has been described by Mr. Young.* I saw it in a different point of 
view, as I passed from Carlow through Graigs to Woodstock, and thence proceeded 
to Ross by water. The banks of the Suir afford many fine prospects ; I coasted it in 

•' Tour in Ireland, p. 73. 
G2 



44 FACE OF THE COUNTRY. 

going to Waterford from Carrick, and for the first four or five miles found the 
country well wooded, and in a high state of cultivation, the Waterford mountains 
appearing in the south. This river flows v.ith great rapidity, and has a considerable 
breadth till it approaches Waterford, when it becomes contracted between two 
rocks, beyond which there is a wooden bridge. The ride from Carrick to Waterford 
will afibrd high gratification to those fond of picturesque and beautiful views. On 
one hand is seen tlie domain of Lord Besborough, ornamented with plantations ; the 
river extending itself in reaches, enlivened by vessels floating on its surface, and be- 
yond it the magnificent Waterford mountains, which at their base afibrd a very in- 
teresting ride. 

The Barrow, from the bridge at New Ross to its junction with the Suir, afl"ords 
most romantic scenery in places wooded to the water's edge, and iu <reneral flows 
between very high land. The baronies of Ibercon, Idngh, and Iverk, are exceedingly 
hilly and ill cultivated ; and the country presents the same appearance to Brandon 
Hill in the barony of Gowran. 

In this county there are a great many gentlemen's seats, and the flat districts of 
it contain more extensive tillage farms than most parts of Ireland, which gives a 
very striking shade of difference to its appearance. 

KING'S COUNTY. 

This inland county contains 661 English square miles, and excepting the Sliebh- 
bloom mountains, which divide it from the Queen's county, is generally flat. On 
the west it is washed by the Shannon, which, however, does not here exhibit any of 
the finest of its scenery. A great part of the bog of Allan lies w ithin the boundaries of 
this county, and according to the account of Mr. Bernard, its member, one half of it 
is of this description. The great proprietors in the other half are Lords Digby and 
Ashtown, entirely absentees ; Lord Charleville, nearly so, and Lord Ross. This 
district, therefore, has a remarkable air of dulness, which renders it less agreeable to 
the traveller who passes through it. Charleville castle, both in its exterior and inte- 
rior, is a magnificent mansion built of lin'.estone in the Gothic style of architecture, and 
stands in the middle of a very flat park, with a large piece of artificial water to the 
south. The road which passes between this piece of water and the house, is sunk into 
a hollow, and to the west there are extensive plantations, with a rivulet flowing through 
them. The domain is very large, and abounds with trees universally stunted'by loads 
of ivy, which has been suffered to grow so thick as to smother them. Neither the 
house nor grounds command any distant views, and beyond the wall by which they 
are surrounded, nothing is seen but one bog succeeding another, and by their dismal 
appearance, seeming to reproach their noble owner for leaving them in so neglected 



FACE OF THE COUNTRY. 45 

a state. I never saw an instance of so much money expended in erecting a princely 
mansion in so bad a situation. 

On the 17th of October I rode to Birr, which is ornamented with a hand- 
some castle, which formerly stood in the town, with its back towards the country ; 
but the houses adjoining it have been pulled down, so that its situation is now 
much more open and free. A wall is raised between it and the town, and the back 
converted into a front, is well castellated. But what excites most admiration is the 
drawing-room, which is one of the best proportioned apartments I ever saw. It is 
fitted up and furnished in the most elegant manner, and when init you wouldhardly 
suppose that you were so near to the dirty town of Birr. 

Durragh, near Tullamore, belonging to Colonel Herbert Stepney, is a domain 
highly improved and well planted. 

LONGFORD. 

Longford, an inland county, lying nearly in the centre of the kingdom, contains 
366 English square miles. It is intersected 4jy the Inny, and on the west it is wa- 
tered by the Shannon, which at Lough Reagh expands to the size of a lake. On the 
banks of one of these rivers, the Inny, there are 36,000 English acres of bog, 
and a great deal of the rest of the county, particularly towards the north, is in a 
rough and uncultivated state. To the lovers of fine and interesting scenery, it affords 
therefore very few treats. The domain of Sir Thomas Newcomen at Carrickglass, 
which is well planted and kept in excellent order, forms a striking exception to the 
general character I have here given of the county. On the 5th of October, 1808, I 
passed from Edgworth's town to Athlone, through Ballymahon; and save the trees 
round the seat belonging to the Oxmantown property, I scarcely saw a twig. 

LOUTH. 

This maritime county, containing only 329 English square miles, is bounded on 
■the south by the Boyne, and on the east by the ocean. A m:i2;nificent obelisk raised 
to cortimemorare the celebrated b:ittle fought by King William at a ford of the 
above river, stands near some scenery of great beauty. A wooded glen, through 
which the triumphant army marched, runs down to the place where it crossed the 
.river. It is about nine miles distant from Drogheda, and is bounded on the one side 
by the dressed and planted domain of Mr. Belfour, and on the other by that of Mr. 
Codrington. Collon is delightfully situated among hills, and Mr. Foster's exten- 
sive plantations are conspicuous in every direction for many miles. This domain 
commands a prospect of singular magnificence. The immediate foreground looking 
north-east, consists of a declivity of tilled land, bordered on each side by beautiful 
plantations. The eye then passing over some miles of country, catches a view of> 



46 FACE OF THE COUNTRY. 

Carlingford Bay, forming a watery expanse of great extent, and of the coast stretchino- 
to a considerable distance, with the mountains surrounding the bay, and those of 
Mourne still higlier, which have a blacker appearance. The blue colour of the bay, 
contrasted with the yellow tint of the sandy beach by which it is bordered, the Car- 
lingford mountains in the neighbourhood, and the more elevated dusky ones of 
Mourne, stretching inland in the form of an immense amphitheatre, and to the 
eastward the sea terminating the view, form altogether a spectacle grand and 
magnificent. The village consists at present of about a hundred neat houses all 
whitewashed. It contains a church, is surrounded by trees, and has a river running 
through it, over which there is a stone bridge, while a bleaching-green on its banks 
gives it a lively appearance. This village has arisen within the last forty years : be- 
fore that period it consisted, as I have been informed, of a few miserable straw- 
thatched cabbins daubed over with mud. Mr. Foster has established here a cotton 
manufactory ; and the collection of shrubs round his seat, which grow with peculiar 
luxuriance,addinggreatly to the beauty of the whole place, is very extensive. Thoutrh 
there are many other seats in the county, I must in a particular manner call the 
traveller's attention to this interesting spot, which in every point of view is superior 
to them all. No place in the island is more worthy of notice. By the improvements 
around, the stranger will perceive long before he reaches it the plans of a great and 
comprehensive mind, executed with much taste and judgment. The roads in the 
neighbourhood are in as good order as any in Europe. 

MEATH. 

This maritime county contains 965 English square miles. Ithas very few moun- 
tains or bogs, and in general consists of flat rich pasture land, divided by grassy banks. 
It is intersected by the Boyne, on the borders of which, at Slane, stand the magni- 
ficent seats of Earl Conyngham and Mr. Lambert. The grounds belonging to these 
places have the appearance of one domain, being separated only by the river run- 
ning between romantic rocks, the summits and sides of which are partly adorned 
with wood. ,The view of this scenery, combined with the dressed lawns of these 
two seats, renders the whole prospect highly interesting. The rest of the county, 
however, though there are a great many gentlemen's houses within it, presents a 
very different aspect. The seat of the Marquis of Headfort, near Kells, is a noble 
mansion; but these fine places contribute to render more striking the wretched 
hovels in which the peasantry dwell, and which are uncommonly bad throughout 
all Meath. 

QUEEN'S COUNTY. 
Tbisinland county contains 602 English square miles. It is separated from the 



FACE OF THE COUNTRY. 47 

King's county by the high bleak mountains of Sliebh-bloom, which extend a dis- 
tance of fourteen miles, having in one place a pass called " The Gap." This county 
abounds with bogs, and the river Nore runs through the centre of it. 

On the 5th of January, I809, I went from Kiidare to Abbeyleix,' passing Monas- 
terevan, the seat of the Marquis of Drogheda, and in my way found a great deal of 
boo-. Abbeyleix is a considerable domain, covered with old timber, and watered by the 
river Nore, which intersects it. The grounds are generally flat, and afford very little 
variety, the river and wood forming the most pleasing features in its scenery, sur- 
rounded by bogs. In the neighbourhood many neat villages have been erected by the 
patriotic exertions of its most respectable owner Lord De Vesci, and give an 
agreeable relief to the eye where there is so much sterility and desolation. 

On the 9th I walked to Durragh, a town belonging to Lord Ashbrook, with an ex- 
cellent chateau, erected according to the date in 1716, on the banks of the Nore, 
and returned by the seat of Sir Robert Staples, which stands on an advantageous po- 
sition on the edge of the same river. 

WESTMEATH. 

Westmeath is an inland county, containing 592 English square miles. The finest 
scenery in Ireland is to be found in Kerry, Fermanagh, Wicklow, and Waterford. 
Next to these, in that respect, may be classed the present courfty, as it abounds with 
lakes, the banks of which are exceedingly beautiful. The substratum here being 
limestone, the verdure of the fields is remarkably fine, and the sight is still farther 
gratified by that of the hills, many of which are covered with wood. When I rode 
through this county I could not help thinking that a late celebrated statesman, Mr. 
Fox, if he had seen Westmeath, would have retracted his assertion, that " no coun- 
try suited to the feeding of bullocks is fit for a gentleman to live in ;" for the largest 
bullocks graze here in a rich dry soil on the borders of lakes, from which in some 
places hills gradually raise their sides, clothed with wood; and many of the genlemen 
reside in great comfoit on their estates, which supply them with abundance of neces- 
saries, and afford prospects highly delightful. From Coolure, which stands on the 
edge of Lough Derveragh,I made many excursions to survey the beauties of the sur- 
rounding country, and always found my labour well repaid. 

On the 7 th of August, 1808, 1 went from Castletown-Delvin, to the seat of Lord Sun- 
derlin, in Barronston, through a charming country, richly diversified with lakes, hills, 
and mountains. Lord Sunderlin's mansion, comprehending the wings, is 300 feet in 
front: it stands in the midst of a considerable park, is surrounded by excellent plan- 
tations, and has annexed to it a very extensive garden. 

On the 9th of August I rode to Lord Granard's seat Clonhugh Lodc;e, which con« 



48 FACE OF THE COUNTRY. 

sists of a delightful cottage, with a domain exceedingly well planted, on the edge of 
Lough Owell. " 

On the 15th, I went from Rochford to Coolure by High Park, leaving the beauti- 
ful woodfed hill of Kuockdrin on my right, and passing the '• Crooked Wood," a 
hill so named from its being once covered with timber, at one end of Lough Derrin, 
and over a steep hill, called in the neighbourhood the " Mountnin." There are here 
commanding views across the lake, having the town of Castle Pollard in the fore- 
ground to the right. The whole country appeared to be well cultivated. 

On the I8th I made an excursion to Fore, over a country covered with hills, all 
cultivated to the summits. On the 21st I proceeded to Portland, passing through. 
Tinea, a long straggling village, and across the bridge over the Liny, which se- 
parates Cavan from Westmeath. The principal lakes here are the Dwell, Deveragh, 
and Rochford. The small one of Fore gives birth to two rivulets which flow from it, 
and discharge themselves into the sea on opposite sides of the kingdom. The land 
here is fertile, the substratum consisting of limestone. The country is well pro- 
vided with wood, and may be ranked with the most beautiful districts in the 
Island. 

On the 1st of October, 1809, 1 paid a visit to Castle Pollard, the seat of Mr. Pollard, 
and to Packenham Hall, belonging to Earl Longford, the plantations of which join, 
but their situation presents nothing either striking or picturesque. 

WEXFORD. 

Wexford is a maritime county, and contains 934 English square miles. It is 
washed on the western side by the Barrow, and has very few mountains. Being des- 
titute of limestone, it assumes an appearance very different from some of the other 
counties, but it possesses the great advantage of the Slaney, one of the most beauti- 
ful of the Irish rivers, running through its centre. This river, though it abounds 
with mao-nificent and romantic views, and deserves as much to be celebrated as the 
Suir and the Blackw.iter, is little visited by travellers. At Newtown Barry It adds 
•rreat life and animation to the scenery of that delightful spot. In its course thence 
to Enniscorthy it exhibits nothing particular, but afterwards its banks become ele- 
vated, and though not richly clothed with wood, they are by no means naked. Many 
parts of them are covered with furze, which grows here with all the luxuriance so 
common to this plant throughout the southern part of Ireland. From Enniscorthy 
to Wexford the scenery is highly picturesque and beautiful, but it is seen to the 
greatest advantage, and with the best effect,by those who go by water; when you arrive 
at Ferry Carrick, the stream becomes contracted between considerable rocks, where 
the traveller must land and ascend the rising ground on the west side of this narrow 
pass. An inland bay, which appears unexpectedly, and animates the scene in no com- 



FACE OF THE COUNTRY. 49 

mon degree, then opens to the view. This noble expanse of water is bounded by 
banks rising from it, all cultivated, and in some places covered with timber. To the 
east, the distant mountains, which are seen of a blue tint, form a great addition to the 
surrounding scenery, which abounds with uncommon beauties. Immediately beneath 
you see one of Coxe's wooden bridges painted white, which makes a very pretty ob- 
ject in this natural picture, still farther diversified by the ruins of an old castle on 
an opposite rock. 

From Ferry Carrick I proceeded along the western bank of this river to the town 
of Wexford, at which there is another of Coxe's bridges, of extraordinary length, 
extending across the bay. Beyond this there is a second expanse of water, partly 
bounded by sand banks, called in all the maps Wexford Harbour. Having crossed 
the bridge, I returned to the one at Carrick on the eastern side of the bay, and, on 
comparing the views I had seen on the western with those I enjoyed on the opposite 
bank, the former, though pleasing in no small degree, appeared to lose much of their 
value. This side of the lake is embellished with the plantations of Mr. Le Hunte 
and the Earl of Arran, their variety, their great extent, the different shades of co- 
lour they exhibit, and the wide expanse of water, all combined to render this one of 
the finest spots imaginable. Behind Mr. Le Hunte's seat is a small woody glen, called 
Eden Vale, which, considering its extent, may be compared, in point of romantic 
beauties, with any thing of the kind in Ireland. 

I cannot close this faint description of the scenery around the bay of Wexford, 
without adverting to the mountains, which, though at a distance, seem to inclose 
and envelop, as it were, the whole of its beauties. Near it stands the house of Mr. 
Devereux, who at present is a prisoner in France; it is uninhabited, but it commands 
some delightful views of the Slaney : adjacent to it is a woody glen, through which 
runs a small river. , 

The first striking place on the Slaney is Newtown Barry, which I visited on the 17th 
of December, 1808, and again in the month of June. I809. It is a mountain village, 
placed in the midst of a highly ornamented domain, belonging to Colonel Barry, 
which is intersected by the Slaney. This may be justly termed really a fairy land. 
The scenery is striking, and in the highest degree beautiful. Colonel Barry's house 
is of the comfortable size of that of a country gentleman in England ; it is built very 
near the town, but upon ground rising above it, having attached to it a garden and a 
plantation of exotics. The whole is enlivened by large dressed lawns in front, ex- 
tending to the river ; the village, consisting of neat white-washed houses, stands on 
the banks of the stream ; beyond it are the church and plantations, and behind all, 
Mount Leinster, rearing its lofty head, which, when I saw it, was covered with snow, 
but it in general has a purple appearance. 

On turning to the left, the Slaney is seen bursting through the woods towards the 
Vol. I. H 



•50 FACE OF THE COUNTRY. 

lawn, and from the opposite side of the town, which is surrounded by the grounds 
of the domain, it receives a great many tributary streams flowing down from the 
mountains. Near this place there are several gravel walks formed under the immedi- 
ate direction of Lady Lucy Barry, who caused part of the woods to be cut down for 
that purpose. They are called " Lucy's Walks," and at every step the improvements 
exhibit evident proofs of her ladyship's refined tasted in ornamental gardening. 

The domain of the Right Honourable George Ogle at Bellevue, and that of Mr. 
Harvey, at Kyle, on the opposite side of the river, both between Enniscorthy and 
Ferry Carrick, are places of extraordinary beauty, inferior to none in the British 
empire. Undulating and uneven in their surfaces — riclily planted— the Slaney flow- 
ing between them, with reaches extending under a lake-like appearance —1 have 
stood many an hour enjoying the sight of this beautiful stream, rolling its waters to the 
sea amidst this magnificent scenery. A few miles east of Enniscorthy is Courtown, 
remarkable for its ever-greens, many of which grow on the margin of the sea. The 
scenery which this county affords deserves to be much better known. 

The baronies of Bargie and Forth are in a high state of cultivation, but there is 
scarcely a single tree to be seen in them, or any prospects worthy to arrest the atten- 
tion of the lovers of picturesque views. 

WICKLOW. 

Wicklow is a maritime county, and contains 781 English square miles. The ce- 
lebrated Dean Swift, if my recollection does not fail me, has compared this county 
to a frise mantle fringed with gold lace. This comparison, like many of this hu- 
morous writer, seems to be peculiarly happy, for the interior consists of boggy 
mountains, without trees or any improvement from cultivation, belonging chiefly to 
the see of Dublin; while the districts on the coast abound with woodlands and glens, 
the beauties of which are so varied and so numerous, that, to give an adequate de- 
scription of them, would require whole volumes. But the first and the most striking 
scene is that which occurs in the country between the Scalp and the Sugar Lo^if 
Mountains, 

On the 23d of May I made an excursion to Powerscouit, which is a place of great 
beautv. On leaving Altadore, the road for a few miles lay over mountains highly 
susceptible of cultivation, till I came to the head of a wide-extended glen., where I 
had to the north a high mountain, called the Scalp, to the south the Sugar Loaf, and 
directly before me the ocean, Avith the domain of Powerscourt covered with planta- 
tions and tillage, while the fore-ground was filled up by the seat and domain of Mr. 
Howard. Looking back, I beheld a magnificient glen planted with trees, and at the 
extremity of it an astonishing waterfall, 36O feet in height. The sides of this glen are 
finely wooded. But these objects form only n small part of the romantic scenery 



FACE OF THE COUNTRY. 51 

which this charming district presents, A minute description of the whole would ex- 
tend to a great length. Speaking, in general, in the exteiit from the Sugar Loaf 
Mountains, a distance to appearance of about six miles; and in that, from the water- 
fall, to the ocean, comprehending nearly the same : nature has scattered her pictu- 
resque beauties with so liberal a hand, that the view altogether reminds the spectator 
of some of those landscapes on canvass in w hich the painter, indulging his genius, has 
collected such an assemblage of interesting objects as are seldom found combined to- 
gether in nature.* 

On the i25th I rode to the above glen, that I might enjoy the pleasure of a nearer- 
and more minute view of its beauties. It is known by the name of the Dar<>-le, an 
appellation given to it from a corruption of the Irish word dar, which si'^nifies an 
oak, and gle, which denotes a glen, and this name appears exceedingly natural, for 
the sides of this chasm are covered with oaks which form a very considerable addition 
to its embellishments. A mountain stream tumbling over its rugged bed, proceeds 
along the bottom of it, running down from the waterfall with wonderful rapidity. 
At a particular spot, called the " Lover's Leap," the view is truly picturesque and 
astonishing, both by its extent and the delightful scenery of the woods beneath. On 
looking to the right, is seen the domain of Powerscourt, a park extending from this 
station to the waterfall, a distance of four miles, consisting of ground thrown into 
the most uneven and varied forms, and richly planted with trees and shrubs of every 
kind, which exhibit the most luxuriant growth. Glens lined with hano-inf' woods, 
and lawns here and there interspersed, appear in several parts of this lencrthened 
prospect, affording so many charms that the eye lingers over them with delight and 
turns from them with reluctance. The mansion, a noble edifice, constructed of P-ra- 
nite, is seen embosomed in trees; and the prospect behind it composed of mountains 
rising above each other in succession, their summits of different shapes, and various 
shades of colour, forming a broken outline, which permits the blueness of the sky to 
be seen in the intervals between them, gives a grandeur to the whole scene, and pre- 
sents a most striking contrast with the verdure and other tints of the immediate fore- 
ground. To conceive a correct idea of the beauties of this truly romantic "[en 
is impossible unless it be seen. On looking towards the left it seems to be overtopped 
by a mountain, and the prpspect is here closed by a distant view of the ocean. It has 
the advantage also of being surrounded by the pleasure-grounds of Lord Monk, those 
of Mr. Howard, and the ornamented grounds of Mr. Grattan at Tinehinch. The 

♦ Some of Claude Lorrain's landscapes are of this kind. An eminent painter and ingenious writer, speak- 
ing of the landscapes of Ruben's, says, " Claude Lorrain, on the contrary, was convinced that, taking nature 
as he found it, seldom produced beauty. His piciures are a composition of the various draughts he had pre- 
Yjously made from various beautiful scenes and prospect." 

li'orks n/ Sir Joshua Reynold's, vol. ii. p. 105. 
H 2 



52 FACE OF THE COUNTRY. 

seat of the last-mentioned gentleman, was formerly the inn where travellers used to 
stop, in order to survey and admire the picturesque charms of the vale of Powers- 
court. 

On the iOlh of May, IS09, I paid a visit to Bellevue, the seat of Mr. Latouche. 
It fronts the sea, from which it is distant in a direct line about an English mile, and 
in the south commands a view of Bray Head, with a part of the coast stretching to- 
wards another promontory, called Wicklow Head. The most magnificent appen- 
dages to this mansion are the adjoining green-houses ; they are connected with it by 
means of a glazed passage, and contains altogether 552 square feet of glass. If the 
mind is here invited to contemplation by the astonishing powers of vegetation, and 
the singular forms exhibited by the different shrubs and plants, some of them very 
rare and uncommon ; this disposition is heightened and increased by advancing a 
little farther, for having reached the extremity of the green-house, after pursuing a 
mazy course through the productions of almost every clime, you are conducted into 
an elen-ant chapel fitted up with great taste, where the family and servants assemble 
twice a day for the purpose of devotion. Behind the house, but not within view of 
it, is the Glen of the Downs. On entering a banquetting house in the pleasure 
^rounds, I was in no small degree astonished and delighted by the unexpected sight* 
of this beautiful glen, lying directly beneath me, one side of it lined with oaks and 
the opposite one rising into a considerable hill, clothed by wood of different kinds, 
the foliage of which presented a most agreeable mixture of tints; the %vhole backed 
by a mountain called Thomond. On the south was a distinct view of Wicklow Bay 
and Wicklow Head, and to the north the Sugar Loaf reared its " princely summit," 
so easily distinguished by its singular appearance. Nature here has done much, 
and art has not been sparing of its embellishments; but though everything announces 
wealth, it is a costly display which does not always exhibit correctness of taste and 
discrimination. 

On the Ijlh of March I travelled from Newrath Bridge to Rathdrum, passing on 
my way the mansion of Mr. Eccles, most delightfully sheltered from the north by 
a rock which overtops it. Though the house itself stands on very high ground, and 
commands a view uver the vale from Wicklow, as far as the ocean s.nd Wicklow 
Head, considerable woods appear rising above it and the grounds, bending to 
the south, have the advantage in fine weather of being constantly illuminated by 
the sun, so diat for the most part they exhibit a lively and cheerful appearance, which 

» A celebrated author speaking of surprise says : " Cette disposition de Tame, qui la porte toujours Ters 
differens objets, fait qu'elle goute tous les plaisirs qui vienneut de la surprise ; sentiment qui plait a Taaio 
par le spectacle ct par la promptitude de Taction : car elle apperjoit on sent une chose qu'elle n'attend pasj ou 
d'une maniere qu'elle n'altendoit pas." Montesquieu siir la Gout duns ses ourra^es, t. vi. p. 3S6. 



FACE OF THE COUNTRY. 53 

is peculiarly striking if tbe foliage at the same time be agitated by a gentle breeze. 
On leaving this place 1 had a cursory view of the lodge and extensive woods belonging 
to Mr. Drout. 

On the 3d of June. IS09, I paid a visit to a mansion called Cronebane, which stands 
in a very singular situation, on a piece of land elevated to neaily half the height of the 
mountain which forms the back-ground. The two rivers, the Avon and the Avoca, 
wind round it in a semicircular form, and it commands a most magnificent view of 
distant mouniaius, exhibiting a broken outline which gives them a more romantic 
appearance, and the valley of Glendallogh which lies between them. The grounds 
are well planted, and the walks, which are exceedingly beautiful, extend towards the 
mountain. This curious spot has given rise to the delightful lines of Moore, entitled 
the " Meetings of the Waters," which have been set to music. 

At Ballyarthur there is an excellent view from the terrace, which runs along the 
summit of the northern bank, forming one side of the vale of Arklow. This walk is 
a mile long; in one part of it stands an octagonal summer-house, and below it, aslope 
of great extent clothed v. ith wood, runs down to the united streams of the Avoca and 
Derry, which under the name of the former, proceed in one channel till they dis- 
charge themselves into the sea at Arklow. The hollow or valley seen here is much 
larger than to admit of its being called a glen, as it is about an English mile and a 
half wide. Looking directly inland, you have before you mountain scenery, the most 
conspicuous feature of which is the Croan Mountain, immediately opposite to a woody 
bank, forming that part of the vale which belongs to Lord Carysfort, and which 
continues to the extent of two or three miles. Directing the eye down the glen, the 
river is seen pursuing its winding course till it becomes lost in cultivated fields, 
bounded by rocky heights. On each side is a magnificent prospect of the sea, and 
more immediately to the left, is a most delightful rising bank, covered with oaks, 
belonging to Mr. Syms, forming the northern side of the river. The lively ap- 
pearance of the woods, the tints of their waving foli.ige, the magnificence of the 
mountain scenery, and the wide expanse of the ocean displaying its surface, all 
combine to render this one of tliose extraordinary scenes of nature which rivet ihe 
attention with delight. The immediate fore ground is formed by the tops uf the trees, 
and the river with cultiva'.ed land scattered about on its edges, the whole encom- 
passed by the most beautiful woods. But this is not the only view from Ballyarthur 
that deserves to be noticed ; a step cannot be taken without seeing new prospects 
arise, to charm and astonish the eye ; and I would recommend to every traveller, not 
destitute of taste, who visits the county of Wicklow, by no means to neglect this 
favoured spot, which to be admired requires only to be seen. Following the course 
of the riverj the opposite way towards Rathdrum, the extent of the woods induced me 
almost to imagine that I was in the midst of one of those immense forests seen only 



54 FACE OF THE COUNTRY. 

in countries " where great Nature dwells in awful solitude;"* and where man, un- 
fettered by the bonds of social life, is free to roam about as fancy directs, and as he 
is impelled by the necessity of procuring subsistence ; and this delusion was siill far- 
ther increased by beholding a river flowing down from the mountains, rolling its 
shallow stream with wonderful rapidity along its rough and pebbly bed. The oppo- 
site side of the glen is covered with wood to the \ery summit ; and behind it are 
seen at a distance, mountains that rear their lofty tops to the skies. 

On crossing the river, and pursuing the road on the opposite side, you have a beau- 
tiful view lengthwise of the two woody sides of the glen, with the river M'inding 
in the bottom of it, and the sea terminating the prospect. Bui nature, as if not satisfied 
with the other beauties conferied on this spot, has made the river, instead of running 
in a straight line, to wind round the domain of Ballyarthur in a circular direction, 
creating a bank covered with oaks which e-xtends for many miles. 

On the 30lh I rode to Glendallogh, through Cronebane, Avondale.and Ratbdrumi 
along the banks of the Avoca, near the ruins of the Seven Churches, and passed a 
house belonging to Mr. Critchly, which being surrounded by wood, forms a very- 
striking object in the midst of these rude mountains. 

On the 8th of June, 1809, I went along the south bank of the river to Arklow, 
and returned by the north, enjoying a fine view of the superb woods rising above the 
river, which belongs to Ballyarthur and cover an extent of full three English 
miles. 

On the lOthlpaida visit to the seat of Lord Wicklow, the situation of which is 
low ; but the wood scenery, by which it is surrounded, makes up in some measure 
for this disadvantage, and renders it less perceptible. 

On March 1, I809, I walked over the domain of Ballybeg, which abounds with 
plantations. The house stands partly on a hill, backed with woods, planted by Mr. 
Syms, to whom the place belongs. 

On the 13th of June, 1809, passing Baily^beg. and crossing a mountainous country 
to Hacketstown, I found a tract where the substratum consisted of limestone. The 
surroundin"- country presented an appearance of superior farmitia;, and in some 
places the fields were separated by hedge-rows. 

But I must not leave this part of Wicklow without saying a few words more re- 
specting Ballybeg. If it does not possess the magnificent scenery of which some places 
can boast, if it is not embellished with all those artificial beauties in w hich one may 
trace the hand of a Replon or a Brown, and though destitute of water, which adds 
so much beauty to rural scenery, still it has in front the magnificent view of moun- 
tain rising majestically above mountain, as if ambitious to be seen, till they become 

• Thomson's Summer. 



FACE OF THE COUNTRY. 55 

lost in the distant horizon. To the north the same alpine sort of prospect attracts 
the eye, and although it does not exhibit much variety, yet, as the back-ground is 
composed of mountains in part covered with wood, the general dreary and desolate 
appearance of such scenes is lessened; and the thriving plantations to the right, with 
the lawn in the fore-ground, afford an agreeable relief to the eye, which when fatigued 
with the sameness of large masses, recurs to these softer objects with more pleasure.- 
But though the whole view presents a peculiar wildness, as if nature were in her 
undress, it fills the mind with sublime sensations, far superior to that kind of plea- 
sure produced by a place fantastically loaded with the most laboured embellish- 
ments of art, which are often the production of false taste or caprice. Here nature, 
free and unadorned, fills up the canvass at every point, and with an extent of figure 
and form which renders alpine scenery so impressive. 

On le.iving this place I soon descended from tlie mountains of Wicklow into 
the level and fertile county of Carlow, where I experienced a very e.xlraordinary 
change in regard to myself, for as I advanced farther from Ballybeg, my spirits sunk 
in the same ratio, and when I arrived at the low grounds, I found them as flat as the 
country around me. I could not help therefore casting a look back to the elevated 
scenery which had inspired me with such exalted sensations; which 1 had beheld with 
rapture, and which was still strongly imprinted on my memory, but with a mixed 
sensation of pleasure and regret. 

On the 14th of March, .1809, 1 walked from Wicklow to the residence of Mr. Synge, 
which stands at the entrance of the Devil's Glen. On the right appeared the sea at 
a distance, extending from Wicklow Head to another mountain'; beneath me a glen, 
with a mountain stream running along its bottom ; opposite to it cultivated hills, and 
on the right rocky promontories. The climate and soil seem here to be peculiarly 
congenial to evergreens, which are planted around the house, and disposed with much 
taste in such a manner as to produce a very fine effect. The deep green of the 
Weymouth pine, intermixed with that of the larch, and other firs, adds much to the 
beauty of the grounds, and on the whole this is a handsome and agreeable place. 

Myrtles flourish here in such profusion that Mr. Beaumont of High Park, near 
Gorey, has known them to be used for making stable brooms. It is not therefore to 
be wondered at that evergreens of all kinds should attain in this country to a size 
that astonishes strangers. The common laurel, Portugal laurel, and arbutus, become 
80 large and luxuriant that they can scarcely be recognised as the same shrubs. The 
principal timber in the rocky glens is oak, and in all the modern plantations the beau- 
tiful larch occupies a most conspicuous place. 

In this county there are no navigable rivers, but abundance of smaller streams, 
which running down from the mountains with great rapidity, discharge their waters 
into the sea. Noblemen's and gentlemen's seats are numerous, as those fond of rural. 



b6 FACE OF THE COUNTRY. 

retreats are attracted hither by the vicinity of the capital, by the romantic beauties 
which every where almost abound, and the uncommon mildness of the climate. 

The breadth of the channel between the coast of Wicklow and Britain, does not 
appear to be great, for f"rom Altidore, when the weather was clear, I could plainlv see 
the high land on the opposite shore. I was at Altidore on the 17ih of May, 1-809, 
and wrote the followine; memorandum which will serve to convey some idea of the 
sensations I experienced on entering this deliglitlul country. " Came by the Glen 
of the Downs to this place : the particularly delightful season of the year, and the 
contrast occasioned by my leaving the confined air of Dublin, a large city, in which I 
had been immured for several weeks, may perhaps heighten my admiration of the 
country; but the tints exhibited by the foliage of the trees, the mountains covered 
with verdure as far as there is any soil, the glens, the i out -ensemble, are certainly en- 
chanting." 

Having seen and enjoyed the beauties of Wicklow, I am apprehensive that those 
acquainted with them will be of opinion that I have done them very little justice. 
My descriptions are only faint sketches comprehending the leading features, but I 
am not without hope that some superior genius, possessing talents fitted for the task 
may direct his steps thither, and inspired by the magic influence of the surrounding 
scenes, give a just and correct delineation of them. The painter and the poet would 
here find ample scope for the exercise of their different talents. 

The vale of Glendallogh which I visited on the 20lh of May, 1809, forms a most 
impressive scene, and deserves much more particular notice than I have paid to it. 
Luggela also is no less interesting on account of a singular lake, called Lough Tay, 
so completely depressed in a hollow, surrounded by dreary mountains, that it cannot 
be seen till you are unexpectedly surprised by its sudden appearance. The moun- 
tains which form the sides of this abyss are exceedingly rugged and barren. Be- 
yond the lake is an expanse of green lawn, together with some plantations; in the 
midst of which stands a banquetting cottage belonging to Mr. Latouche, screened by 
a mountain or ridge rising behind it. On ascending this ridge, which my horse at- 
tained with considerable difficulty, I followed the military road for some miles of 
country, in which I saw neither inhabitants nor traces of cultivation, till I reached 
the vale of Glendallogh. After the dreary prospects I had beheld in passing chrough 
an extensive tract where it may be truly said, " the desolated prospect thrills the 
soul." I was most agreeably surprised to find myself all at once, as if dropped from 
the clouds, in the midst of a glen surrounded by the plantations of Mr. Critchly, 
between which and the road a small river pursues its wandering course. The vene- 
rable remains of the Seven Churches just began to appear; beyond them stood a round 
tower ninety-five feet in height, and still further on a mountain of no great elevation, 
but raising its head considerably above the tower. On the left of it the mountains 



FACE OF THE COUNTRY. 57 

opening afford a view of a lake, but being unadorned with wood, it makes a less pic- 
turesque appearance. Still to the left is seen another line of mountains, but not of 
such magnitude as to entitle them to the epithets of awful or terrific. The deep 
silence, however, v.hich prevails here, the unexpected sight of ruins, the majestic 
tower, and the mountains rising behind it, objects which if insulated might create vefy 
little interest, produce, when grouped into one landscape, a very striking effect. 

Th' enchantment of the place has bound ■. 

All nature in a sleep profound ; 

And silence of the evening hour 

Hangs o'er Glendallcgh's hallow'd tow'r. 

Dr. Drennan. 



PROVINCE OF MUNSTER. 

JVlUNSTER, the most southern province of Ireland, is bounded on the north by 
Leinster and Connaught, and on the east, west, and south, by the ocean. Its aifcient 
name was Mwnhan, derived from the old Celtic Mamman, or the county of the Great 
Mother, and in latter ages it was divided into Desmond, or South Munster ; Ormond, ■ 
or East Munster: and Thomond, or North Munster. It comprehends 9^76 Eng- 
lish square miles ; and contains six counties, viz. Clare, Cork, Kerry, Limerick, 
Tipperary, and Waterford. 

CLARE. 

Clare is a maritime county, bounded to the south and east by the Shannon, and on 
the west by the ocean. It contains 1 125 English square miles. The sea coast by 
which it is bordered consists of a chain of basaltic rocks, on which account sailors 
distinguish it by the epithet of " iron bound." Towards the centre of it an arm of the 
sea, or rather of the Shannon, runs off to Ennis, and is known by the name of the 
Fergus River. The county is remarkably bare of wood, and abounds so much with 
limestone, that whole tracts are entirely beds of it ; the surface even has the appear- 
ance of a mass of stone. 

The banks of the Fergus and Shannon are bordered with rich marshes, which afford 
excellent pasture, and the former present some romantic scenery worthy of attention. 
On the 12th of October, iSoS, I had a view of the Rev. Dr. Parker's, at Bally- 
valley, near Killaloe, standing on the opposite side of the river. After passing the 
foot of the bridge, looking back near the Palace of Killaloe, the river is seen preci- 
pitating itself down a small fall with great velocity, while the bridge, consisting of 
twenty-nine stone arches, each twenty feet span, and the immense sheet of water pre- 
sented by Lough Derg, appearing in the distant prospect, add to the grandeur and 

Vol. I. I 



58 FACE OF THE COUNTRY. 

beauty of the scene, which is still farther diversified by ihe town on the opposite 
bank of the river, placed on a hill rising above the bridge, and ornamented with its 
cathedral, an ancient and veneralsle building, the whole contrasted by mountain 
scenery, forming the back-ground of the prospect. The mountains want nothing 
but wood to give them a more romantic appearance. 

Returning to Killaloe, I took a view of the cathedral, and another ancient building, 
both of which have been fully described by Sir Richard Hoare.* Making a Tour to 
the right, I proceeded to Ballyvalley, a place of modern creation, well planted with 
timber and in a state of great improvement. However much 1 admired the prospect 
on the other side of the bridge, as I now stood on higher ground I found it here im- 
proved; and comprehending the contrary side of the bridge, the cathedral seen in 
another point of view; mountains not visible at the former station, and the Shannon, 
swelled to its noblest expanse in Lough Derg, and gliding past in a most magnifi- 
cent style under the windows. The plantations here, though young, are in a thriving 
condition, and seem to have been arranged and distributed to the best advantage. In 
front of the house is a neat lawn, bounded by the Shannon, which forms no small ad- 
dition to the scene. Behind it, to the north-east, stands a mountain called Crag, once 
covered with oaks, which being church property, were without mercy cut down by 
an avaricious bishop, who seems to have been fonder of money than of the sublime 
beauties of nature. 

In the district between Lough Derg and Ennis, there are some gentlemen's 
seats, the most remarkable of which is that of Sir Edward O'Brien, at Droraoland. 
It consists of a venerable mansion built in the taste of former times, where every 
thing bespeaks antiquity of family, though great exertions have been made to give 
to the whole all those modern improvements which the uneven ness of the ground 
was capable of receiving. When the plantations are completed it will be a resi- 
dence truly delightful. 

On the 28th of October, IS09, on my way to Kllrush, after leaving Bungragy, and 
just before I came to Paradise Hill, I lost the limestone, and I learned that there is 
none west of the place last mentioned. From the top of the hill on the banks of 
the Shannon, the view is most magnificent; it includes the river stretching up to Li- 
merick, and the city itself bounded by high lands on the opposite shore. On the left 
the Fergus River extends inland to Ennis, and at the junction of the rivers are 
a number of islands, one of which, called Canna, presents a very picturesque 
appearance by the ruins of an ancient abbey, which has one of its turrets still entire. 
Immediately beneath is a large island called Tory Island, and the Shannon is seen, 
with a widened surface, proceeding towards the ocean. The whole forms a grand 
natural panorama, but almost without the sight of a tree. 

» Journal of a Tour in Ireland, p. 36. 



FACE OF THE COUNTRY. 59 

After leaving Paradise Hill, I pursued a new line of road, through the interior of 
the country, to Mr. Hickman's, at Kilinore, a beautiful place on the edge of Clon- 
derlough Bay, nearly opposite to Tarbert. Here again the Shannon breaks upon the 
•view in a very magniiicent manner, and from Kilmore to Kilrush I coasted along its 
banks. 

On the 30th of October, I809, I arrived at Ennistymond, after passing through a 
large tract of country badly cultivated, to Hag's Head, on which is a telegraph, now 
ne2;lected. The view from this promontory is exceedingly grand. According to the 
account of the neighbouring peasants, the clifts rise to the height of I300 feet above 
the level of the sea ; but I bad no means of obtaining an accurate measurement of 
them. They are almost perpendicular; consist of bas:dtic rock lying in horizon- 
tal strata, and extending northward with nearly the same elevation run out 
into the sea. In the distant view, looking towards the n6rth, is seen the Bay of 
Galway, bounded by the high lands of Connamara : beneath, the isles of Arran, 
which consist of limestone, and more impressive than all, the grand Atlantic Ocean, 
dashing with majestic force its mighty waves against the tremendous cliffs, which 
seem, with sullen pride, to scorn their efforts, and to set their impotent fury at defi- 
ance. Nature here presents herself in her most awful form, and exhibits, particu- 
larly during storms, some of the most astonishing and sublime scenes that the eye 
can behold. The projecting masses of rock, jagged and broken in all directions, as- 
sume a variety of fantastic forms, and contribute to render the view still more terrific. 
But the eye is not the onli/ organ which is affected on this occasion : the ear is some- 
times wonderfully struck by the loud roaring of the waves, thrown up at one time into 
the air in the form of spray by their collision with these ragged masses ; a^ain retiring- 
to repeat their vain attack, and often uniting, so as to form immense waves, which, 
swelling as they rise, seem ready to sweep every thing before them. I could see the 
surge, though at the distance of ten miles, breaking over some sunken rocks near 
Arran, which are called the Cliffs of Mohir, together with that part of the coast over 
them, which is known by the name of Dooland's Land. A part of the famous Spanish 
Armada was wrecked on this coast in the year I5SS. 

On the 29th of October, I809, I was at Miltown Malbay, an estate belonging to 
Mr. Morony, which consists of a large bank, running down to the sea,' facing the 
south-west. The whole of this " iron-bound" coast is distinguished by the name 
of Malbay, because it has no harbour into ^vhich vessels can run for shelter and 
remain in safety. Trees do not thrive in this part of the country ; but fine sea 
views, the elevation of the land and dryness of the soil, excellent roads, and a cheer- 
ful neighbourhood, render it highly agreeable as a bathing place. A curious pheno- 
menon is observed here at a cavern called the Puffing Hole, which I was induced to visit. 

I2 



60 FACE OF THE COUNTRY. 

When the water recedes from this cavity, which is in the rock, it becomes filled with 
air, and the next wave dashing into it with violence, compresses the air till its elastic 
force becomes so great as to drive the water back, and sometimes force it up in the 
form of mist or spray.* 

CORK. 

Cork is a maritime county of great size, being the largest In the island, and con- 
taining 2990 English square miles. As it comprehends a wide range of sea coast^ 
with an extensive tract of country, it affords great abundance and variety of scenery. 
The whole of the south-west part is formed by a ridge of mountains, which rises tea 
considerable height, and runs out into the sea. Few parts of the county can be pro- 
perly called flat, and though most of the western side is rough and uneven, it is not 
so ruo-tred as to prevent the use of the plow, or impede cultivation. The Blackwater, 
so much celebrated for the delightful scenery on its banks, and which has its source 
within the boundaries of this county, intersects it, and though the finest views at- 
tendinor it are in the county of Waterford, the prospects in the neighbourhood of 
Mallow and Castle Hyde are truly delightful. 

The river Lee runs through the city of Cork, and I have been informed that it 
exhibits most agreeable and, pleasing views between that city and Passage ; but as I 
■went from Cork to Mr. Newenham's at Coolmore, and thence through Passage and 
the Great Island to Castle Martyr, I missed the views to which I have alluded. 

The Bandon also, according to Dr. Beaufort,t in its course from Inishonan t* 
Kinsale, flows between winding banks covered with the most beautiful woods. 

In this large county there is a great number of seats, belonging to noblemen and 
gentlemen of fortune, many of which are ornamented with plantations of thriving 
timber, and the whole of Cork Harbour is surrounded by places commanding beau- 
tiful and diversified prospects. As you sail into the harbour, Rostellan, the seat of the 
Marquis of Thomond, is the most striking. That of Mrs. Connor forms also a de- 
lightful spot. In a word, every side of the harbour affords aquatic views magnificent 
and grand, and the scenery of the mountains beyond Bantry is, perhaps, exceeded 
by none in Ireland, except that of Killarney. 

On the 26th of Octobor, I8O8, I went to Bantry, proceeding through Kenmare, 

' A phenomenon of the same kind is observed near some of the Feroe Islands, " Where there are holes or 
fissures in the rocks, the water is driven into them ; and the air contained in these cavities being compressed, 
forces its way out with a loud report, like that of a cannon, carrying with it the water in the form of smoke 
or vapour, in which the rays of the sun produces sometimes a beautiful rainbow." Landl's Description 0/ 
the Feroe Islands, p. 120. 

t Memoir of a Map of Ireland, p. 95. 



FACE OF THE COUNTRY. 61 

across the mountains, and bidding farewel to KiUarney, Mucross, and its various 
unrivalled beauties. The views among these mountains are bold, wild, and roman- 
tic, but as I had seen them in their most majestic appearance from the top of Man- 
gerton, if I except the nearer sight of the channel between the two lakes, which 
afforded me great satisfaction, I was not so much struck as I expected. 

At Kenmare I crossed the river of that name, and passed through a country equally 
mountainous, abounding with scenes as rude and wild as the imagination can paint, 
to the head of Bantry Bay. On approaching towards it, but before it comes in sight, 
the road proceeds quite to the top of a mountain, between which and another of 
great height, is a glen, where the scenery is much heightened by the peculiarly bar- 
ren and rugged appearance of the opposite mountain. Here the eye is sometimes 
attracted by a solitary herd of goats browsing among the heath below ; while cultiva- 
tion, gradually extending up the sides of the hills, forms a pleasing contrast with the 
desert and more prominent features of the prospect. In this neighbourhood is a 
place called the " Priest's Leap," but on what account I was not able tolearn. 

From Bantry to Glangarriff, the road passes through mountains. Mr. White's 
house is an excellent mansion, built in the modern taste, and surrounded by woods 
rather the production of nature than of art. It stands at the edge of the harbour, 
which is one of the finest indentations of Bantry Bay, so perfect in its form, and so 
depressed at the bottom of the lofty and extensive mountains by which it is surround- 
ed, that it looks like a bason beneath you, and though it appears small to the eye at 
some distance, it is not so in reality. The mountains are separated, rough, and 
craggy, though inferior in height to M'Gillycuddy's Reeks in Kerry, which hang 
over the upper lake of Killarney, they possess, in a consideralile degree, a terrific 
grandeur of the same kind. 'This place is beautiful in the true sense of the word, as 
it is not indebted to art for any of its embellishments. 

The eastern side of the harbour, on which this house is built, is well planted with 
arbutus, holly, and birch, growing in the most luxuriant manner : at every turn you 
perceive a glen, and each step presents new, varied, and enchanting scenery, the 
beauty of which is set off to great advantage by the sight of the immense mountains 
above, and those which surround you on the opposite side of the harbour, and which 
being barren and untenanted, have in their aspect something uncommonly wild. The 
oak and the birch do not attain here a large size, but the different tints produced by 
their foliage add greatly to the richness and variety of the scene. 

Geraniums, myrtles, and many of the most tender plants, remain out of doors the 
whole year, under the shelter of a rock, which protects them from the cutting sharp- 
ness of the north-easterly winds. The mildness of the climate has no small influ- 
ence on the scenery of this delightful spot, as the deciduous trees remain stripped of 
their leaves only during a very short period of the year. The most captivating 
features of the prospect immediately round the harbour, where the woody glens are 



62 FACE OF THE COUNTRY. 

seen to the greatest advantage, are by this genial temperature much improved, and 
a sort of almost perpetual bloom and verdure are maintained. 

There are here no straight highways, presenting one open view before you. The 
road winds round the harbour, a r.ew mountain or a new view every moment bursting 
into sight, which renders the ride to Coohaimy Bridge, in particular, one of the 
most delightful that can be conceived. 

From this place I ascended the Gowl Mountains, at the gap of which I saw the 
Bay of Bantry in its full extent, with the mountains on the opposite shore, and iu 
the distant prospect Cape Clear rising above them all. Hunf^ra Hill, which was 
now in full view, appears to me to be wrongly placed in all the maps which 1 had 
an opportunity of examining, previously to the publication of that by Mr. Arrow- 
smith. I regret much that my time would not allow me to ascend it, as I am told 
that it commands the most extensive prospects any where to bt seen. The fall of 
water down its sides, during rainy seasons, is exceedingly grand. When at Bantry 
I had the pleasure of viewing it, although twenty miles distant. 

I cannot quit this neighbourhood without recommending to every traveller whose 
object may be to see the romantic, beautiful, or sublime scenes of nature, to pay 
particular attention to this part of Ireland. Killarney is spoken of as the ultima- 
tum of every thing worth visiting in the United Empire; but highly as I think of it, 
though gratified and delighted by its enchanting and extraordinary scenery, I can- 
not help saying, that I consider Glangarriff, and the adjacent country, if not 
exactly its rival, at any rate a place of uncommon beauty ; interesting in no small 
degree; possessing charms various and striking ; embracing scenes suited to almost 
every taste ; and, upon the whole, such as must always arrest the notice and excite 
the admiration of those who seek for nature in her most favoured retreats. The 
mountains exhibit as much of the terrific in their character and shapes, and want 
nothing hut a greater height to render them as celebrated as those of Kerry. But 
though these mountains have less elevation, the wide expanse of water, and the 
views connected wiih so noble a bay as that of Bantry, make up for this defect, 
and create an interest, which those who feel it cannot well describe. For my part, 
Glangarriff and its numerous beauties made such a deep impression on my mind, 
that the picture is still lively, and will not easily be effaced. 

The grounds immediately adjoining to Mr. White's house are highly dressed and 
ornamented, like those around the best kept seats in England, owing, 1 believe, to the 
elegant taste of his lady. This decoration, as far as it goes, deserves to be admired ; 
but its effect is in some measure lost, when compared and contrasted with the adjacent 
grand scenery of nature, which, disdaining the shackles of art, scatters her fantastic 
beauties with an irregularity that never satiates the eye, and v.ith an endless variety 
which, always presenting some new object, excites fresh delight. 

In taking leave of the south-west part of Ireland, I think it necessary to call thp 



FACE OF THE COUNTRY. 63 

attention of the reader to the bays and harbours, almost without number, by which 
its shores are broken and indented, and which are all sheltered by mountains of very 
considerable height. I must mention also the immense masses of rock which, stretch- 
ing out into the Atlantic, form prominent head-lands, such as Dursey Head, and 
others of the like nature, to defend the bays, roadsteds, and harbours, from the vio- 
lence of that mighty ocean, which rolls its foaming waves towards them with impe- 
tuous force. The terrific effects, produced by the immense surges, swelled to the 
size of mountains, dashing against the gigantic sides of these tremendous bulwarks, 
exposed for ages to many a rude shock, cannot be conceived by those who have never 
beheld them; and even when seen, can with difficulty be described. The scenes they 
produce are uncommonly striking and grand. The philosophic observer who, ex- 
tending his view beyond the stretch of ordinary minds, penetrates into the economy 
of nature, and sees how means are best adapted to promote certain ends, will here 
find his ideas exalted in no small degree, and his thoughts naturally directed to the 
wisdom and power of Him who has set bounds to the raging ocean, and so provi- 
dentially provided for the security of insular situations, by placing them on the most 
solid basis, and fencing them with massy mounds, capable of resisting the inroads 
which that immense body of water, in consequence of its continued agitation and 
violence, might otherwise make. 

I have somewhere read of an extraordinary genius who, being at sea in the time of 
a violent storm, caused himself to be lashed to the mast of the vessel, that he might 
enjoy, in all its terrific grandeur, the sublime spectacle exhibited by the contending 
elements. But, to those fond of such scenes, I would recommend a station on the 
summit of some of these cliffs, where, during stormy weather, they might view, with- 
out danger, one of the most awful sights that nature can exhibit, for, as has been 
well expressed by a Roman poet, a great part of the pleasure in such cases arises 
from the spectator being conscious that he himself is in safety. 
Suave, mari magno turbantibus asquora ventis, 

E terra magnum alterius spectare laborem : . , ■ 

Non, quia vexari quemquam est jucunda voluptas, 
Sed, quibus ipse malis careas, quia cernere suave est, 

Lucretius dc Rerum JVat. lib. ii. 
How sweet to stand, wben tempests tear the main, 
On the firm cliff, and mark the seaman's toil ! 
Not, that another's danger soothes the soul ; 
But from such toil how sweet to feel secure 1 

Good's Translation. 

On the 12th of November I reached Castlemartyr, standing on a domain of 1200 
acres covered with beautiful plantations. The land is flat, and I must remark, that 
s o large an extent of this kind is uncommon for Ireland. The evergreens were grow- 



64 FACE OF THE COUNTRY. 

ing with Irish luxuriance, and every thing bore the appearance of beinc preserved 
in a state of great neatness. The substratum is limestone, so that the Troiind be- 
comes immediately dry after the heaviest rain. The mansion is old. but commodious, 
and the tout ensemble renders lhi<-, one of the finest places in the kingdom: the moul- 
dering remains of an ancient castle, peeping through the foliage of the ivy under 
which they are buried, at a small distance from the house, and a considerable sheet of 
water, kept exceedingly clean, give a more picturesque appearance to the scenery, 
and add to its beauty. Lady Shannon's flower-garden displays great elegance, and 
her green-houses advantageously placed, and stocked with a variety of curious plants 
and exotics, make the spectator imagine that he is transported to a perfect fairy land, 
encircled by a magnificent bank, covered by arbutus, holly, laurel, mountain-ash, 
and other trees and shrubs. The whole does great honour to the judgment of the 
distinguished personage after whose plan these different objecis were arranged and 
disposed, and shows in a striking manner, that there are Irish ladies who possess a 
fine and correct taste in the modern art of landscape gardening. 

November 23, 1808, I paid a visit to Castle Hyde, which is surrounded by a do- 
main of 1 100 acres ; it fronts the south, and stands immediately beneath a rock, close 
to it, which rises nearly to the same height. The Biackwater intersects this most 
beautiful park, rolling its waters along with that rapidity so common to the rivers in 
the south of Ireland, and which gives them so lively an appearance. At this place 
it passes between very high land, clothed on each side with wood, approaching within 
a stone's throw of the house. The domain of Crag, forming part of the Hyde pro- 
perty, and adjoining that of Castle Hyde, adds, by its plantations, to the scenery of 
the latter. The pleasure-grounds are kept in excellent order, and the whole forms a 
most agreeable residence, which, with great propriety, may be classed among the first- 
rate places in the kingdom. 

On the i25th of November I reached Mallow, a town and large estate belonging to 
Mr. Jephson, within the precincts of which, oti the edge of the Biackwater, stand 
the ruins of Mallow Castle. Crossing the river by a bridge of twelve arches, I went 
to the seat of the Honourable R. Hare, at Ballyellis, a modern edifice, built with 
considerable taste in a well-ornamented domain, which a few years ago was only 
mountain-land. It is not more than a mile from the town, of which it commands an 
advantageous view, including the river and bridge. 

I next paid a visit to Lowhart Castle, belonging to Lord Arden, which, like many 
other mansions in this country, was built by his Lordship's ancestors, probably in the 
reign of Queen Elizabeth, as a place of refuge for the inhabitants during times of 
trouble. It is still entire, and inhabited by his steward. On the top it has a terrace, 
upon which a defence could be made on every side, and is surrounded by a moat. 
It stands on a rising ground, embosomed within a circular screen of firs and other 



FACE OF THE COUNTRY. 65 

trees of modern growth. From this place I rode through the domain of Mr. Rixton, 
the celebrated fox-hunter, which is pretty, and kept in good order, to Mr. Freeman's 
of Castle Cor, an estate of considerable extent and great beauty, containing large 
plantations well laid out. 

The waterfall at Hungra Hill, in this county, has not, in my opinion, been suffi- 
ciently noticed. It is briefly mentioned by Dr. Beaufort* and by the Reverend Mr. 
Townsend, in his Survey of Cork. t Dr. Smith speaking of it, says — " Not far from 
Ross-Mac-Owen is one of the largest and highest waterfalls in this kingdom. Thiscata- 
ract is very visible from the town of Bantry, at least fourteen miles distant from it. The 
water is collected from various small rivulets and springs, forming a large lake on the 
top of a vast, high, rocky, and almost perpendicular mountain, called Hungra Hill, 
which is at least 700 yards above the level of the bay of Bantry. The water cascades 
from the top of this mountain in a beautiful sheet at least ten yards broad, which 
expands as it falls ; about half the height of the mountain it dashes perpendicular 
on a prominent rock, from whence a mist arises almost a third part of the hill, which 
in some particular stations, the sun's rays playing on it, and meeting with the eye of 
the spectator, must make a charming appearance ; these kind of mists in such posi- 
tions generally reflecting the colours of the iris. Hence it falls from rock to rock, 
till it has passed the rugged declivity of Hungra Hill; and before it gains the ocean 
it has another fall, cascading in an arch over a lower hill ; all which make a fine 
sight as one sails up and down the bay.";]: This waterfall is indeed one of the most 
considerable in Europe ;|| but it is to be recollected, that in summer there is no wa- 
ter, and that I saw it in winter. As Mr. Townsend's account of the coast df this 
county is interesting, I beg leave to refer to it, and also to his description of Bantry. 

KERRY. 

Kerry is a maritime county, and contains 17 63 English square miles. If is co- 
vered with mountains, in the midst of which are the justly celebrated lakes of Kil- , 
larney. These lakes are three in number ; the largest is called the Lower Lake, and 
occupies an area of 300O acres. The south-west shore of this lake lies at the bottom 
of a majestic range of mountains, and the opposite shore consists of a low flat tract of 
country in a state of cultivation ; but the distant prospect from the other side is 

* Memoirof a Map of Ireland, p. 96. 

t Survey of Cork, p. 394. The author copying Smith, makes it 2000 feet in height. 

I Ancient and present State of the County of Cork, vol. i. p. 294. 

II Bouguer speaks of a river called Bogota, sixteen miles from Santa Fe, in South America, which precipi- 
tates itself from a mountain with astonishing force, forming a perpendicular fall 300 or 400 fathoms in 
height. Bouguer Voyage an Perou. One of the highest falls in Europe is that of Staubbach, in the county of 
Berne, estimated at 1100 feet. See Otto's Verswh einer Physischen Erdbeschreibung, P. i. p. 20r. 

Vol. I. K 



66 FACE OF THE COUNTRY. 

broken by a few wooded islands. Mucross Lake, to the south, occupies 64O acres, 
immediately under the Turk Mountain, and on the northern shore of it is the do- 
main of Mr. Herbert ; but the Mucross shore of Turk Lake forms too straight a line 
to be picturesque, and the rocks have an artificial appearance which detracts from their 
beauty, and renders them less impressive. I allude to the view of them from the 
■water. The peninsula which is formed here, is one of the most delightful places 
imaginable, and the prospect from the top of the bridge which joins it to Breechen 
Island, is exceedingly pleasing. .To the south, Mangerton and Turk in all their 
glory, sinking down to tbe rugged point at the Eagle's Nesf, where there is a view of 
Glenaa, the immediate fore-ground being Breechen and Dyne's Islands, and beyond 
these the Lower Lake with Ross Castle ; Innisfallen Island and the town of Kil- 
larney in the distant prospect, complete the picture. The water, the mountains, 
and the whole scenery, have something of a remarkably sombre cast ; but this gloom 
is wonderfully relieved by the verdure of Mucross at one point, and the blue tint of 
the mountains stretching towards Dingle at another, both which, combined and con- 
trasted with the other parts, produce a most picturesque effect. 

For about three miles the lakes continue with a width which gives them the ap~ 
pearance of a river, passing between the back of Turk and a large range of other 
mountains, which terminate at the Eagle's Nest, till they approach the Upper Lake, 
an immense reservoir, covering 720 acres, in a hollow between stupendous mountains, 
the rugged, rocky, and almost perpendicular sides of which may be said to overhang 
the water. The scenery of this lake is of the most awful and extraordinary kind, 
such as very seldom occurs, and on a scale of magnificence hardly to be equalled, ex^ 
cept in a wild country like Switzerland. Here nature assumes her roughest 
and most terrific attire to astonish the gazing spectator, who, lost amidst wonder and 
surprise, thinks he treads enchanted ground, and while he scarcely knows to which 
side he shall first direct his attention, can hardly believe that the scenes he sees around 
him are not the effects of delusion, or the airy phantoms of the brain, called into, 
momentary existence by the creative powers of a fervid imagination. Here 
rocks piled upon rocks rise to a towering height ; there one mountain. rears its lofty 
head in succession above another, and sometimes a gigantic range seems to overhang 
you, forming a scene that may be more easily conceived than described. Suct\ 
sublime views cannot be beheld but with a mixed sensation of pleasure and awe, and 
on a contemplative mind they must make a deep and a lasting impression. 

Such are the leading and most prominent features in the character of this much 
celebrated wonder of the united empire, to which my pen is incapable of doing jus- 
tice. Mr. Weld has given a long account of it, which he wrote during a residence of 
BO.iie months at Killarney. It engaged the attention also of Dr. Beaufort, whose de-. 
icription, however, is short, and, as evidently appears, not taken on the spot fronx 



FACE OF THE COUNTRY. 67 

nature, as he doubts whether Mangerton or M'Gillycuddy*s Reeks are highest. I 
well recollect, that when standing on the top of Mangerton, looking up to the Reeks, 
they appeared to me to raise their craggy and towering summits, as far above me as I 
seemed to be above the flat land spread out in the neighbourhood of the Lower Lake. 
But these eminences have been measured by Mr. Kirwan, who makes their height to 
436 as follows : ■ 

FEET. 

Curranea Toohill, in Kerry, which forms M'Gillycuddy's 

Reeks, rises, above the level of the ocean 3405 

Mangerton* 26yS 

Since Mr. Young was at Killarney the timber which clothed the mountain Glenaa 
lias been cut down, and the stumps are now copsed, but the young trees have not 
yet attained to a great size, being only about twenty feet in height. They are, how- 
ever, sufficient to cover the mountain with foliage, which, waving before the breeze, 
gives it a much more lively and agreeable appearance, andrecals to the classical reader 
the luxuriant descriptions of " Woody Tempe,"+ and other places celebrated by the 
ancients for their beauty, which occur in the works of the Greek and Roman poets. 
The trees also on the islands near the town have fallen under the destructive axe, 
which is a loss much to be regretted by the lovers of sylvan beauty, as it cannot be 
repaired during the course of many years. It is indeed a general complaint, 
that the views of Killarney have been destroyed by these sweeping falls of timber; 
^;hey are injured, no doubt, in no small degree ; but the views here are still al- 
most unrivalled, particularly in regard to that species of beauty which arises from 
mountain scenery of the most magnificent kind, and which the hand of man has not 
the power to alter. It will therefore remain to delight every traveller whahas the 
pleasure of seeing it, unless the face of the country should be changed by some grand 
■convulsion of nature. 

But allowing for every change, the Lakes of Killarney are still nearly in the same 
state as described by Mr. Young, and of all the descriptions I have read, his is by 
far the best. Every traveller who pays a visit to this romantic spot should be fur- 
nished with it. Mr. Weld particularly recommends a view of the lakes during a 
clear moon-light night, and I h.'ive no doubt that his observation in this respect is 
perfectly just. I was so fortunate as to be at Killarney at a time when the mountains 

♦ It is very extraordinary that both Dr. Smith and Dr. Beaufort should have been mistaken in regard 
to the relative lieight of Mangerton. See Smilh' s Surfej/ of Kerry, p. 121. 

t Umbrosaque Tempe, Slal. Theb. lib. vi. Tenebrosaque Tempe, Lucan. Pliar. lib. i. IS'enierosaqut 
Tempe, Val. Flac. lib. viii. 

K 2 



68 FACE OF THE COUNTRY. 

darino- tlie night became covered with snow; the morning broke with peculiar bright- 
ness, and I spent the day on the lake, under an atmosphere remarkably clear and se- 
rene, while die towering summits of these lofty mountains, all capped with frozen 
snow of the purest whiteness, formed a sight which does not often fall to the lot of 
those who visit this favoured spot. 

I spent the 2Sth of October, IS 10, in ascending Mangerton, being convinced that ' 
the prospect would amply reward me for my trouble. AVhen I had attained to a suffi- 
cient helf^ht, the Lower Lake of Killarney, the only one visible, had the appearance 
of an inundated marsh, but ascending still farther, the channel to the Upper Lake 
and the surrounding mountain scenery burst suddenly on my view, as if by some- 
mao'ical charm, the whole forming a most extensive landscape, enriched by a variety 
of tints arising from the difference in the distances of the objects. The cavity called 
the Devil's Punch Bowl, I found lo be very insignificant in comparison of what I 
expected, being merely a large hole at the top of the mountain, filled with water; 
but proceeding beyond it I was gratified by a sight of the Iveragh Mountains, piled 
upon each other in wild confusion ; the large arm of the sea called Kenmare River, 
stretching a great way in-land, and beyond all the wide expanse of the mighty At- 
lantic, seeminj in the distant horizon to unite its azure surface to the fainter coloured 
sky, all which formed a scene truly grand and sublime; Cape Clear appearing to 
the south, the Blue Dingle Mountains to the north, M'Gillycuddy's Reeks tower- 
ing immediately above me, and the eye, catching towards the interior of the country, 
a partial view of the Galtee Mountains in Tipperary. Such an assemblage of striking 
and remarkable objects is seldom to be seen in one prospect, and it was only by di- 
recting my sight to the lofty summit of M-Qilivciiddy's Reeks, that I was convinced 
that every thino^ seen here must be trifling, in comparison with the vast and extensive 
views which the astonished eye would embrace in that elevated spot. I have been 
told, that from this immense height the harbour of Cork appears as if in a map ex- 
tended under your feet, and that to the south-west may be seen some of those huge 
headlands which form so conspicuous a feature in that part of the Irish coast. The 
Dint^le Mountains dwindle into hills bene?.th the spectator ; and Brandon, which 
when near it I thought so tremendous, seems to be merely a hillock ; the eye passes 
over Tralee Bay as a small indentation of the sea, hardly worth while to notice, and 
lost in the extent of Galway Bay and the mountains which surround it. 

Those who go to Killarney without ascending one of these commanding heights, 
vrill come away delighted with the high gratification derived from the rich scenery 
of Mucross, the beautiful appearance of the islands emerging from the crystal Hood, 
and astonished by the singularly wild and rugged views which the Upper Lake af- 
fords ; but they will know nothing of those grand, awful, and sublime scenes ex- 
hibited by nature, where objects of the most terrific kind are united in l\\e wildest and 



FACE OF THE COUNTRY. 69 

most fantastical manner, and excite sensations, not easily described, in the mind of the 
astonished spectator; rocky mountains divided by surpri-'-inj chasms and fissures, in- 
termixed with lakes spread out to a great extent beneath them, and intersected by im- 
mense arms of the sea, penetrating to a considerable distance within the land, the whole 
terminated by distant views of the ocean. Killarney may be visited, but those only 
who take the trouble to see the parts which I have here described, can acquire a just 
idea of its beauties, or be able to appreciate the value of the prospects which it in some 
places presents. The ascent of Mangertonis by no means difficult; some guUeys hol- 
lowed out by the water, running down its sides, afford a road for the progress of the 
curious traveller, who with a little labour may pass through them even on horseback. 

In Kerry the attention of the traveller is so much occupied with Killarney, that 
the scenery in other parts of the county is either overlooked or forgotten. It 
ought not, however, to be consigned to neglect, as there is a great deal of it, though 
inferior to that of Killarney, which is still worthy of being noticed. 

The whole barony of Iveragh consists of a chain of rough mountains runnino- 
out into the sea, and if I may judge by what I saw from Mangerlon, and in my 
ride from Mucross to Kenmare, I am convinced that it abounds with raao^nificent 
prospects ; Mr. Herbert of Carnelne, the Knight of Kerry, and Mr. Weld, have 
all passed over it, and I have heard them extol its various beauties, which indeed 
must be great, connected as they are with views of the ocean and Kenmare River. 

On the 17th of October, I8O8, 1 proceeded to Kerry Head, a place which is sel- 
dom visited by travellers, as there are no roads to it of any kind. In my way thUher 
from Listowel, I crossed a bog, passing by the monuments of the Earls of Kerry, and 
the ruins of the family mansion, the estate belonging to which is now nearly all sold. 
I then went to a place called the Causeway, crossing through a valley some miles in 
length, between the Stucks Mountains and those which form Kerry Head. The road 
here is impassable for carriages of every kind. 

Kerry Head is formed by a pathless mountain, which does not exhibit the smallest 
trace of a road, and on seeing it I was much disappointed, as from Mr. Young's 
description my expectations had been considerably raised, and I of course imagined 
that it had more beauties than I found it to possess. The Shannon, however, in 
consequence of its breadth, forms a noble and interesting object, and with the sea 
views and the high land bordering on the coast, will always command attention. A 
careless observer might imagine that the land here slopes down towards the 
shore, but this is not the case, for in some places strata of basaltic columns, placed in 
an horizontal direction, rise over each other, so as to form perpendicular cliffs, two 
hundred feet in height ; and the bottom round the whole head or promontory con- 
sists of a sort of flag-stone, which does not afford the smallest hold for an anchor. 
The sea here, in rough weather, is exceedingly boisterous, and dashes itself against 



70 FACE OF THE COUNTRY. 

this rock with a most tremendous noise. To those fond of such kind of scenery I 
•would recommend the Brandon Mountains forming the south, as Kerry Head does 
the north side, of Tralee Bay. These high mountains stretching out into the sea, as 
if braving its fury, their black and dusky appearance, and the rocks called the Hoo- 
Islands in the midst of the bay, form, on the whole, a very interesting scene. 

On the 18th of October, 1S08, I was at Tralee, and observed that from the signal 
station at Kerry Head to Ballyheigh there is no road. A few scattered villages ap- 
pear in the mountains, but in a place so little frequented that the inhabitants seldom 
see a stranger. 

Ballyheigh, the residence of Colonel Crosby, stands in a commanding situation 
-on the north-east point of Tralee Bay, having a direct view of those heights which 
run up to Brandon Point. From this place I proceeded to Ardfert, a village be- 
longing to Lord Glendore, and during the whole way never had the sight of a single 
bush. From Ardfert, where there is an ancient abbey and cathedral, I took the Spa 
road, which passes along the strand, and making the tour of Tralee Bay, had a 
nearer view of the Brandon Mountains on the opposite side of the bay, which, accord- 
ing to Dr. Smith, are some of the highest in the county, being little, if at all, inferior 
to Mangerton or the Reeks.* However this may he, I remarked a peculiar blueness 
in their appearance, forming a tint unique in its kind. According to information 
I received in this neighbourhood, it is worth a traveller's while to go across them to 
"Dingle, on account of the numerous beautiful and extensive views which they afford. 
Near Listowel the Knight of Kerry has a romantic seat, built in the cottage style, on 
the banks of a mountain stream, called the River Teal, bordered on both sides 
with wood. I went along the edge of the county from Tarbert to Listowel, passing 
Ballybunian ; the woods of the former have long since been cut down, but on this 
side there is abundance of cliff scenery, which sometimes presents very romantic 
views. 

Kenmare River, properly an inlet of the sea, exhibits several fine prospects, and 
the Shannon, which bounds the county towards the north, has on its banks some de- 
lightful spots, well worth the notice of every traveller who visits this part of Ire- 
land. But Mucross exceeds them all, and, in my opinion, is the finest place in the 
island, or in the whole of the united kingdom. The seat of Lord Glendore, that of 
Lord Ventry, as 1 have heard, near Dingle, the residence of Mr. Bateman at Oak 
Park, near Tralee, and Mr. Cronin's domain at the Park, near Killarney, are alj 
much admired for the beauty of their situation. But these are only a few of the 
fine seats in this county, which contains a great many, possessing various advantages, 
.and ornamented both by nature and art. - - 

■^ Smith's Kerry, p, 153. 



FACE OF THE COUNTRY. 71 

Sir Richard Hoare has given a description of Lislaghtin Abbey,* but he places 
k in a wrong situation, as it stands between Tarbert and Ballylongford. From the 
whole account it is evident that Sir Richard never saw it. 

On the road from Tarbert to Listowel, on the 1 6th of October, ISoS, through 
Ballylongford, I travelled over college propertyt where I saw some of the most 
wretched villages I ever beheld ; they exhibited a true picture of Irish misery in its 
worst state. In my way I paid a visit to the abbey of Lislaghtin, on the outside 
of which there are a great many remarkable vaults disposed in rows and constructed 
of stone ; they are seven feet high, as many in width, and have each a door large 
enough to admit a coffin. 

Carigfoyle Castle is in a state of decay, but there still remain one hundred and 
six steps which conduct to the top of it, where there are two arched ceilings of 
stone, but it is probable that there have been intermediate ones of wood. It does 
uot stand on an island but a peninsula.. 

limerick; 

This county contains 1045 English square miles.. " Though diversified by small 
hills, it is not at all mountainous; except on thesouth-east, where it is bounded by the 
Galtees, a ridge of formidable mountains, extending into Tipperary ; and on the bor- 
ders of Kerry, where it grows uneven, and forms a grand amphitheatre of low but 
steep mountains, which stretch in a curve from Loghil to Drumcolloher. In the first 
of these rises the river Maig, which crosses the county and falls into the Shannon i 
as do many fine streams by which it is plentifully watered. In the western hills are 
the sources of the Feale and the Gale, which run westward through Kerry; and of 
the Blackwater, which flows in acontrary direction through the county of Cork. ":|: 
None of the views here exhibit fine scenery; the cabins of the cotters make a most 
wretched appearance, and bear evident marks of the poverty of their inhabitants. The 
!~reater part of the county consists of rich grass lands slovenly kept, and divided by 
earthen banks, but without any trees. 

On the l2th of October, 1808, I paid a visit to Adair, where I viewed the ruins of 
the Castle of the Desmonds, and of three abbeys belonging to it. Mr. Q_uin's domain* 
■watered by the river Maig which runs through it, is of considerable extent and well 
planted. Mountshannon, the seat of Lord Clare, which consists of a large pile of 
building ornamented with plantations, deserves notice, and the environs of Lime- 
rick, studded with neat houses belonging to its wealthy merchants, engage the 
attention, and form a very striking contrast with some of the poorer parts of the, 

'Journal of a Tour in Ireland, p. 57. + it belongs to Trinity College, Dublin. 

X Beaufort's Memoir, p. 87. 



I 



7i FACE OF THE COUNTRY. 

country, which between Limerick and Adair is exceedingly bare of trees, and unin- 
teresting. Between that city and Askeaton I passed over some tracts of land, abound- 
ing with limestone, which lies in strata near the surface. 

From Adair to Askeaton, the country is of a rocky nature. Of the castle at the 
latter, which belonged to the Desmond family, only one side-wall remains. It was 
built on an island formed by the Deal River, whic^i appeared lo me to be fordable. 
The hall, called the Desmond Hall, stands upon arches which are still entire, and is 
now a ball alley. At the distance of a few hundred yards on the other side of the 
river, are the ruins of the abbey. The cloisters almost entire, are exceedingly beau- 
tiful, being built of sculptured marble, and would have been perfect, had not two of 
the pillars been secretly carried away in the year 1 7 84, by some superstitious person, 
as is supposed, who perhaps considered them as sacred relics. At the north-east. 
end of the abbey is a vaulted burying place, which I conceived to be a repository 
for the earthly remains of some persons of distinction, but I found on inquiry that 
it contained the ashes of a family of humble shopkeepers. 

In this neighbourhood there are some beautiful seats belonging to gentlemen of for- 
tune, independently of those villas which must always be attached to a city like 
Limerick. Among the latter, there are a few large edifices built of brick or stone, 
but I saw none of those neat white-washed houses which enliven the scenery on the 
banks of Belfast Lough. Adair is celebrated for its ruins, which have been often 
described. 

Passing O'Brien's Bridge over the Shannon, which from Killaloe becomes con- 
tracted to the breadth of a common river, I travelled across a bog to Castle Con- 
nel, a most beautiful village, so called from an old castle built there on a rock. It is 
celebrated for its medicinal water, and in the summer months is much frequented 
by people from every part of the country. The Shannon, now widened to a consi- 
derable extent, rolls over a rocky bed, the opposite sides being planted, and the fore- 
ground occupied by a bleach-green. The village consists chiefly of lodging houses, 
the whole of which almost are white-washed, and to the north-east of the back scenery, 
the Keeper Mountains rising to view, terminate the prospect 

Proceeding on my tour, I stopped at Lord Massey's, whose domain, or at least that 
part of it near the Shannon, seems most delightful. On the opposite side the river 
makes a bend, and winding round a rocky promontory, with a continued shallow 
stream, enters a bed of rock, in which it proceeds till it disappears among the distant 
hills. On the west, the view is highly picturesque, and in the east, is seen the 
village of Castle Connel with its white houses, while the remote mountains fading 
on the sight, produce a most pleasing effect. But in the upper part of the domain 
the prospect is exceedingly different ; for when the spectator has got so high as to be 



FACE OF THE COUNTRY. 7S 

elevated above the tops of the trees, the beauty of the scenery seems lost amidst the 
immense extent of the naked and bare hills. 

TIPPERARY. 

This large county contains I59I English square miles; and presents extensive 
tracts of uncultivated mountains, but it has also abundance of fertile plains, with a 
calcareous substratum, which form as rich land as is to be met with in any part of 
the empire. The Suir, which washes the bottom of the Waterford mountains, 
exhibits beautiful and romantic scenery, and before it leaves Tipperary, assumes the 
appearance of a magnificent river. There are here a number of fine seats, among 
which that of the Earl of LandafT, at Thomas Town, is remarkable for the extent of its 
domain, which comprehends 2200 acres, the greater part planted, and the whole 
surrounded by a wall. 

Mr. Bagwell's mansion at Marefield, which I visited on the 6th of December, IS08, 
consists of an excellent house on the banks of the Suir, surrounded by extensive 
orrounds, and commandins: in front a view of the Waterford mountains, with the 
Galtees rising at a distance towards the west. 

The seat of Lord Donoughmore, at Knocklofty, is a residence with a beautiful and 
extensive domain attached to it, but the house stands in a hollow, and is so sunk 
beneath the eye, that it can scarcely be seen from any part of the grounds, which on 
that account have a solitary appearance, and seem as if belonging to some other 
place. 

Near Knocklofty stands Kilmanahan Castle, belonging to Major Green. The house 
has been lately built on the site of the old castle, in the ancient style of architecture, 
which gives it a more venerable appearance, and makes the spectator imagine he is 
conveyed back to scenes of former times. It rises from the top of a rock at a 
bending of the Suir, and though in the county of Waterford, that river forming the 
boundary between the two counties, is so elevated, that it commands an extensive 
view far beyond Knocklofty and the adjacent districts. Grandeur united with con- 
venience, renders this one of the most complete residences I have ever seen. 

The Suir, like the Blackwater, runs with great rapidity, and from Kilmanahan 
Castle the spectator sees it rolling its waters as it were at his feet, between Avoody 
banks ; the plantations and grounds of Knocklofty forming the immediate fore- 
ground, and the Galtee Mountains the distant prospect towards the west and the 
north. 

On the 25th of March, IS09, I proceeded along the banks of the Suir, which seem 
to consist of excellent land, and passing the ruins of a very large buildin"- called 
Somerstown, wiih the Galtee Mountains in front, arrived at Cahir ; where I saw the 
remains of an old castle, but of inconsiderable size. The town stands on both sides 

Vol. 1. L 



74 FACE OF THE COUNTRY. 

of the river, surrounded by the extensive domain of Lord Ciihir, who here has a 
leat, -which like that of Lord Lismore, bears evident marks of the good effects that 
may be produced by the patriotic exertions of an ardent mind, directed to laudable 
pursuits, and anxious for improvement. Both these noblemen have contributed, by - 
their extensive plantations, to increase the beauty of this country, which naturally 
abounds with wild and romantic scenery. 

From this place I went to Clogheen, proceeding through a valley which extends 
from the Galtees, on the north, to the Knockmeledown Mountains on the south. The 
land of this vale did not appear to me to be equal in quality to that in the rest of 
Tipperary; and I obsen-ed, that the fields in the whole country were divided either 
by grassy banks or low stone walls. The Knockmeledown Mountains are exceed- 
incrly barren : they are covered with heath, which in the spring season is extremely 
black, and as their great height intercepted the rays of the sun which lay hid be- 
hind them, their north side being towards me, every thing assumed a dusky ap- 
pearance, which threw a gloom over the whole visible face of nature. Clogheen is 
situated upon a stream close to the bottom of these mountains, and the road to the 
town forms a gradual descent of nearly two miles, with a lofty black mountain in 
front. 

The Shannon at Lough Derg, flowing towards the county of Limerick, exhibits 
a variety of views of much grandeur and beauty. In this country there is a large 
valley called the Golden Vale, which contains land exceedingly rich and fertile. 

On the 12th of October, 1808, I paid a visit to Ballyvalley, on the banks of Lough 
Derg, near Killaloe. The domain at Castlelough, belonging to Mr. Parker, con- 
tains abundance of extensive and charming views. The grounds are finely planted, 
but the house stands in a most miserable situation, sunk in a hollow, with a large 
walnut-tree in front, which is the only object seen from it. 

Another house called Castletown, formerly the residence of the heir appa- 
rent, but which had not been inhabited for twenty years, and which when I saw it 
was pulling down, had a far better situation, as it stood on the immediate bank of 
the Shannon, surrounded by trees, and commanded most magnificent views of that 
noble river in every direction. Nearly opposite was the Bay of Sheriff at Lough 
Derg, with a wooded peninsula, and an island of twenty acres called Holy Island, 
on which are a round tower and the ruins of several old churches. 

Near Mitchelstown there are some caverns of considerable extent in limestone 
rock, but I never had an opportunity of seeing them.* 

• Jefferson, in bis Notes on Virginia, p. 19, gives an account of caverns, also in limestone, and I believe 
taverns are frequently found in calcareous rocks. 



FACE OF THE COUNTRY. 75 



WATERFORD. 



Waterford is a maritime county, and contains 7 10 English square miles. On the 
north it is bounded by the Suir, on the east and south by the ocean, and on the west by 
the Blackwater. Two such noble estuaries as the Suir and the Blackwater are seldom 
seen, and they abound with magnificent and romantic scenery, in places which 
are situated either between, or immediately under mountains of no inconsiderable 
height. As I passed along the banks of the Blackwater only in winter, I had not an 
opportunity of seeing its scenery to advantage, and therefore, for a description 
of it, shall refer the reader to the tour of Sir Richard Hoare.* 

On the 5th December, I8O8, I passed through Clonmel, and crossing the bridge into 
the county of Waterford, kept the Suir in view all the way till I reached Curragh- 
more. This river is navigable from Clonmel to Carrick-on-Suir ; the banks through- 
out almost the whole of this extent are covered with wood, and in summer must 
afford a most delightful ride. Carrick appears to be in a state of decline. There is a 
bridge here across the Suir, the arches of which are c(f various sizes, and near it a 
castle belonging to Lord Carrick. 

I spent the whole of the 8th in riding over the large domain of Curraghmore, 
which, in many parts, commands very extensive prospects of the country. From the 
tower, the eye can trace the Suir the whole/way to Waterford, while the ocean, 
stretched out along the coast on the south, forms, in the remote part of the 
picture, a very fine object. The house is seen to most advantage in front, as it is 
backed by wood, which exhibits very grand scenery. This domain contains 2800 
acres, 1100 of which are wood: some artificial pieces of water have been formed, 
but when viewed from the windows, they give the place a contracted look, not at 
all suited to the extent of the grounds." The whole is inclosed by walls. It may be 
justly said, that this domain excels in mountain scenery, and in that woody wild- 
ness to which a flat pond-like piece of water can never add beauty. Had this 
pleasant retreat been suffered to remain indebted to nature only, it might have stood 
the test of comparison with any thing of the kind in the kinf^dom. 

From this place to Waterford the road passes through a district which exhibits a 
great variety of picturesque views along the banks of the Suir. Owing to the nature 
of its situation, the city is not seen till you come within a short distance of it, for it 
stands, as it were, in the bottom of a bason, with the Suir, about a mile broad, and 
filled with shipping, flowing close to its side. A noble quay a mile long, with a 

* Tour through Ireland, p. 103. 

L2 



76 FACE OF THE COUNTRY. 

wooden bridge, like that at Derry, which draws up in the middle, adds much to the 
beauty of this place, and is of great benefit to coninaerce. 

Q^uitting Waterford on the lOlh, and looking back, I observed that the view of 
the city on the side towards Faithleg, is far superior to that "on the road which leads 
to it from Curraglimore, and along the Suir to Faithleg the scenery continues highly 
picturesque. The city of Waterford, from some parts of the country, forms a fine 
object. 

Leaving Clogheen I passed over mountains for nearly ten miles, till I reached Lis- 
more, and during the whole ride did not perceive a sin<rle cabin ; but I observed 
evident proofs of that neglect to which large districts, susceptible of culture, are con- 
signed, in consequence of ignorance, prejudice, and other causes, equally pernicious 
in their effects. I saw, with no small regret, a large tract of country capable of very 
great improvement, drowned in water and destitute of tjees ; I met a poor peasant, 
whose wretched dress bespoke the utmost degree of misery, and whose whole appear- 
ance excited my commiseration. Had our immortal bard seen this child of misfor^ 
tune he must have exclaimed, 

Famine is in thy cheeks ; 



Need and oppression stareth in thine eyes; 

Upon thy back hangs ragged misery, . . • 

Romeo and Juliet, Act v, sc. 1. 

Being desirous of knowing to whom this neglected land belonged, I found on 
inquiry, that it was the property of the Duke of Devonshire. I have in another 
part of this work expressed my sentiments in regard to proprietors, non-residents 
in Ireland, and therefore shall not here indulge in much reflection on that sub- 
ject. But I cannot help remarking, that it is a matter of no small moment, and de- 
serves the serious consideration, not only of those whose interest is more immediately 
concerned, but of all who wish well to their country. 

Before you approach the town of Lismore, you fail into a beautiful glen, which 
proceeds in a winding direction ; the sides of the mou^itain-s by which it is formed, 
being clothed with oak and ash for the distance of two miles. A stream of consi- 
derable size, which discharges itself into the Blackwater at Lismore, runs through 
it, and forms no small addition to its beauties. Near the town are the remains of an 
immense castle, once the residence of the brave but unfortunate Sir Walter Raleigh, 
which forms a very interesting object. This ruined castle stands in an elevated situ- 
ation, and appears to have been a place of strength. 

A great extent of the interior part of this county consists of mountains, which 
itill remain in the wild state of nature. The banks of the Blackwater are wooded. 



FACE OF THE COUNTRY. 77 

and tlie Suir is adorned nith the mngnificent domains of Curra^hmore and Cool- 
rannie, and the seat of Lord Besboro on the opposite bank in Kilkenny. 

On the 2/th of March, 1309, I crossed the ferry at Youj^hall, and passing 
through an uncultivated tract of mountain, destitute of inhabitants, but highly 
susceptible of improvement, belonging to the Duke of Devonshire, proceeded to 
Dungarvon, a town built on the beach, which, as you descend the mountain, 
appears almost as if it stood in the sea. Afterwards, crossing a valley of excellent 
land about four miles wide, as far as I could calculate by the eye, I turned round the 
projecting point of a chain of mountains, and arrived at the small village of Killmac- 
thomas. From this village, the first few miles exhibit the same face of country, 
till within a short distance of the banks of the Suir, where the eye is once more 
gratified with the appearance of trees. On the right, for nearly the whole of the 
way, there are magnificent views of the ocean, but not a gentleman's seat is to be 
seen between Youghall and the mansion of Lord W.aterford at Curraghmore. 

Reflecting on the happy changes that may be produced in the state and condition 
of .1 neglected country by art and labour, where there is genius to plan and sufficient 
population to execute, one is naturally led to the instance of Peter the Great whose 
successful exertions hold forth a most encouraging example to the friends of national 
improvement. The country where Petersburgh now stands, about the betrinnino- of 
the last century, was a mere marsh, or rather consisted of some marshy islands sur- 
rounded by the Neva, and occupied only by the wretched huts of a few poor fishermen ; 
the comprehensive mind of Peter perceived atone glance the advantages it possessed, 
and without suffering his ardour to be damped by difficulties which micrht have de- 
terred men of less resolution, he determined to make it the site of a new city, em- 
bracing all the benefits arising from a maritime situation. The design thus conceived, 
with a spirit almost prophetic, was executed with that enthusiasm which always 
forms an ingredient in the character of true greatness, and Petersburgh now rears jts 
proud spires amidst cultivated plains, to attest to futureages that there is scarcely 
any thing impossible to real genius, directed by firmness, and tempered by judo-ment. 

Immortal teter 1 fust of monarchs I He 
His stubborn country tam'd, ber rocks, ber fens, 
Her floods, ber seas, her ill-submitting sons ; 
And while the fierce barbarian he subdued, 
To more exalted soul he rais'd the man. 

Thomson's fVititer. 

How much it is to be wished that a few sparks of this genius were conferred on o-reat 
men in every country, who sometimes, instead of applying one part of their property to 
render another productive, which would be of the utmost utility, not only to them- 
selves, but to the public, either waste their time in ignoble ease, or suffer themselves. 



76 FACE OF THE COUNTRY. 

to lose all relish for useful pursuits amidst the varied enjoyments supplied by their 
riches. 

Some of my readers perhaps may be disposed to smile at the allusion I have here 
made, and to think that I have wandered needlessly from my subject, to introduce 
acreat prince civilizing a savage nation. But those whose minds are habituated to 
reflection, will I trust be of a different opinion. Some districts of Ireland are at pre- 
sent in a state little superior to that in which the greater part of Russia was in the 
time of Peter the Great, and the same spirit which inspires him who reforms the 
manners of a large empire, actuates the patriot whose improvements promote in- 
dustry and happiness within the more contracted circle over which his influence 
extends. Every proprietor of an estate in which there is much waste land, is not 
required to be a Peter the Great ; but if he cannot found cities, he may rear vil- 
lages ; if he cannot construct ports or create navies, he may enable poor fishermen 
to procure boats, and supply them with tackle ; if he has not the means of establishing 
universities or learned societies, he may contribute towards the erection of schools 
and other seminaries. In a word, he may do what Peter did, and what every great 
and rich man ought to do ; he may animate by rewards, and instruct by example. 
By encouraging industry and promoting virtuous education among the lower classes, 
many of the evils with which Ireland is now oppressed would be banished ; those causes 
of reproach which give rise to national reflections would cease ; every thing in that 
country would assume a new face ; her sons would know a happiness to which, per- 
haps, they have hitherto been strangers, and the harp of Erin, so long mute, would 
once more be strung to celebrate in grateful strains the most pleasing that can vibrate 
on the ear of benevolence, the praises of her god-like benefactors. 



SOIL. 



CHAPTER III. 

SOIL. 

The surface of Ireland affords no" great diversity of soil. Sand is never seen ex- 
cept in places on the shore ; chalk is unknown, and tenacious clays, such as those 
found in Oxfordshire, in some parts of Essex, and throughout High Suffolk, I could 
never meet with, though in the opinion of many around me I was standing on per- 
fectly " stiff clay," an appellation given by the Irish to argillaceous soils. That 
clay may not exist in Ireland I will not venture to assert ; but it is not at the surface, 
as is often the case in. various parts of England. 

Such kinds of flint as are common in Kent, Surrey, and Hertfordshire, are scarce. 
The greater part of the island abounds with limestone or calcareous gravel ; few of 
the counties are without either the one or the other. The former is a useful produc- 
■ tion, and is converted into a source of wealth that will always be employed with ad- 
vantatre. The space occupied by the mountains and bogs,* when compared with the 
whole area, makes a great diminution in the productive acres of the kingdom. In the 
north, the quantity of rich soil is not very considerable, yet vallies of extraordi- 
nary rich land are to be found in every county, and I -was not a little astonished, 
amidst the rocky and dreary mountains of Donegal, where there was hardly a vestige 
of cultivation, to find myself drop all at once into a district where the soil was ex- 
ceedingly fertile. lam inclined to think that the general cultivation of flax isapretty 
sure indication of rich land, as this plant, in poor ground, would never attain to 
perfection. 

A great portion of the soil of Ireland throws out a luxuriant herbage, springing up 
from a calcareous subsoil, without any considerable depth. 1 have seen bullocks of 
the weight of 180 stone,+ rapidly fattening on land incapable of receiving the print of 
a horse's foot, even in the wettest season, and where there were not many inches of soil. 
This is one species of the rich soil of Ireland, and is to be found throughout Ros- 
common, in some parts of Galway, Clare, and other districts. Some places exhibit 
the richest loam that I ever saw turned up by a plough ; this is the case throughout 
Meath in particular. Where such soil occurs, its fertility is so conspicuous, that 
it appears as if nature had determined to counteract the bad efiects produced by the 
clumsy system of its cultivators. On the banks of the Fergus and Shannon, the land 
is of a different kind, but equally productive, though the surface presents the appear- 
ance of marsh. These districts are called " the caucasses ;" the substratum is a blue 

' In regard to the bogs, I me:ui to consider them under a distinct head. + Slbs. to the stone. 



80 SOIL. 

silt, deposited by the sea, wlilcli seems to partake of the qualities of the upper stra- 
tum ; for tiiis land can be injured by no depth of pljuji^hing. 

In the counties of Limerick and Tipperary there is another kind of rich land, con- 
sisting of a dark, friable, dry, sandy loam, which if preserved in a clean state, would 
throw out corn for several years in succession. It is equally well adapted to grazing 
and tillage, and I will venture to say, seldom experiences a season too wet, or a sum- 
mer too dry. The richness of the lai.d, in seme of tiic vnles, may be accounted for 
bv the deposition of soil carried thither from the upper grounds by the rains. The 
subsoil is calcareous, so that the very richest manure is thus spread over the land 
below, without subjecting the farmer to any labour. 

In Ireland there is not much land sufficiently light, though abundance of it is 
luxuriant enough, to be what is known in England under the name of " turnip lands." 
A vein of it. however, may be seen partly in Tipperary, and partly in the King's 
County, westof Roscrea, where I found turnips universally growing, though the soil 
is much inferior to that of our best turnip land. In many of the mountains I have 
observed that the calcareous soil does not extend to the top, though the summits of 
some produce rich clover. It is found also in patches on the mountains. Such 
spots afford great room for improvement. 

One of the most remarkable divisions of soil is that formed by the Barrow. To 
the west of that river limestone is met with in abundance, while it is no where to be 
found throughout the counties of Wexford and Wicklow. The best limestone in 
Ireland is obtained in the neighbourhood of Carlow, at least such is the general opi- 
nion; but it is not improbable, that if some of the marbles were analyzed, they would 
prove to be not in the least inferior to it. On the other hand, in the county oT Wa- 
terford, there is no limestone east of the Blackwater ; so that there is a border of 
country, extending from Dublin, through Wicklow, Wexford, and Waterford, en- 
tirely without it. 

Land, with a calcareous substratum, is by no means adapted in all cases to tillage, 
and Mr. Tighe's remarks on this subject, in regard to Kilkenny, may be applied to a 
great part of Ireland. " The ground that skirts the western bank of the Nore, below 
Kilkenny," says this sagacious observer, "is of a poor quality, consisting of a hun- 
gry, clayey loam, lying immediately over a bed of limestone. In general the nearer 
the limestone comes to the surface the poorer the soil; but this bank of the river, as 
well as the opposite, seems admirably calculated by nature to form the best kind of 
sheep-walks ; where they are permitted, they produce close and green herbage, are 
extremely dry, and tend by nature to produce -white clover and wild burnet ; but 
give miserable crops of corn."* 

Independently of the caucasses, the richest soil in Ireland is to be found in the 
counties of Tipperary, Limerick, Roscommon. Longford, and Meath. In Longford 

» Survey of Kilkenny, p. 19- 



SOIL. 81 

there is a farm called Granard Kill, which produced eight crops of potatoes without 
manure. Some parts of the county of Cork are uncommonly fertile,"' and upon the 
whole, Ireland may be considered as affording land of an excellent quality, though 
I am by no means prepared to go the length of many writers, who assert, that it 
is decidedly acre for acre richer than England. The finer lands of Cambridgeshire 
and Lincolnshire, the rich lands in the south of Yorkshire, and those in the north 
of Nottinghamshire, are so seldom visited, that they are less known than many other 
parts of England ; it is thence concluded, that the latter, in comparison with Ireland, 
is a desert. But such an opinion can be formed only by those who judge merely 
from what they may observe in travelling from London to Holyhead, and who have 
overlooked some of the richest lands in the island. If in Ireland there be no such 
uncultivated wastes as the heaths between Barton Mills and Swaffham, the balance 
is at any rate made up by the hilly tracts I have passed over in the Rosses in Donegal, 
and the Gowl Mountains in the county of Cork ; the comparison, could it be fairly 
made, would be of little importance ; but it is as impossible as to ascertain the 
quantity of water in the German or Irish Ocean. The quality of the soil on one farm 
may be compared with that of another, or a sandy desert with the corn fields of 
Flanders ; but to determine the proportionate fertility of England and Ireland, in a 
satisfactory manner, is beyond the reach of calculation. In the latter, barren moun- 
tains abound, and many of them are incapable of culture or of being rendered pro- 
ductive ; there are similar mountains in England ; but even of the Irish mountains, 
which are tenanted and divided, a large proportion produces very little ; whole 
counties are nearly in the same condition, which makes a great deduction from the 
general sum of fertility. There are also large masses of slaty hills, covered with 
moor-grass and heath, which certainly exhibit strong proofs of neglected tillage. 

* Thf Rev.^Mr. Townsend, in his Survey of Cork, ISIO, has noticed the division of the limestone districts, 
by the rivers in that county. " Here," says he, " as well as in some parts of the county of Kerry, rivers 
often mark the limits of the limestone tract. The Blackwater, in its course from Millstreet to Fermoy, runs 
at the south side of the limestone, for the far greater part of the way between Castlemore and Cork, a distance 
of about eleven miles, the course of the limestone is distinctly marked, first by the river Bride, and after 
its junction with the Lee, by the latter river. During this space, the limestone invariably adheres to one side 
of the channel, which it follows through all its windings, without once crossing it. The same circumstance 
is observable in t!ie river Kenmare." p. 18. It is rather curious, that in the county of Waterford the 
Blackwater is the northern boundary of the limestone country, which still lies to the west of that river. 



Vol. I. M 



BOGS. 



CHAPTER IV. 

BOGS. 

JVlORASSES, fens, bogs, and mosses of different kinds, are every where abun- 
dant on the earth ; but pr.rtic'jlarly in the northern parts of Europe. In Asia and 
Africa they are less numerous, but in America there are a great many, and some 
have thence been inclined to believe that it was peopled at a much later period. In 
the Netherlands, turf mosses are very common, and the Pontine marshes, on the 
•western coast of Italy, twenty-five miles in length, and nearly half as many in 
breadth, the draining of which was attempted and partly performed some ages ago, 
but abandoned after large sums of money had been expended upon them in vain.* In 
Norway, marshes extend between the mountains, and in some places render the roads 
exceedingly dangerous." Pontoppidan speaks of one at Lessoe, through which it has 
been found necessary to construct a wooden road som.e miles in length, where a horse, 
if he make a false step in passing along, instantly sinks in the mud, and is in-» 
evitably lost.t On a marsh called Saevenhasz, near the town of Raab, in Hungary, 
a solid crust, about a mile in length, richly clothed with grass, and on which 
cattle feed, has been formed by nature.;!: The celebrated Thamas Kouli Khan 
marched his whole army through a morass in the Persian province of Chorazan, 

♦ It would appear that these marshes, after having been drained, became again filled with water in the course 
of years. They are mentioned by Pliny, lib. iii. chap. 5 ; Lucan, lib. iii. 85 ; Martial, lib. x. ep. 74, and 
lib. xiii. ep. 112. Juvenal, s:;t, iii. 307, spesks of them as infested by robbers. The famous f^la Appia, 
begun by Appius Claudius the censor, in the year of Rome, 441. Liv. ix. 20. Diod. Sic. xx. 36, called 
by Statius, Silv. ii. 2. 12, Regina Viarum, passed through them. They were drained by the Consul Ce- 
thegus, Livy xliii. and Julius Cffisar intended to drain them, but he left llie execution of the work to Augustus, 
who undertook and completed it. Between Forum Appii, a small town built on this road, spoken of in the 
Acts, ch. xxviii. V. 16. and Terracina, tlicit was close to the road a canal, extending through the marshes, 
on which boats for conveying passengers were drawn by a mule; but chiefly in the night-time, Strab, 
Geog. lib. V. edit. Alrael. vol. i- p. 233. Horace used this conveyance on his journey from Rome to Brun- 
dusium. Sat. i. 5. 9 — 25. These marshes are said to have been drained at a later period by Theodoric, 
king of the Goths. Cluverii Geograph. Amst. 1697, 4to, p. 64. " Ces marais sont a 25 milles, ou envi- 
ron, au sud-est de Rome, et ont enviroii 25 milles de long, sur une largeure moins etendue. lis causent tout 
Ic mauvais air de la Campagne de Rome." Fresnoy, Melhode pour Hudier la Gengrajihie, torn. vi. p. 364. 
" Pius VI.'' (Braschi) whose pontificate began in 1775, " converted, at a great expence, and with indefatigable 
perseverance, a very considerable part of these pernicious marshes into pasturage, corn fields, and rice plan- 
tations. He made a canal twenty miles in length, which conveys the once stagnant waters into the sea ; and 
he intersected it with many lesser channels, which direct them so as to fertilize the fields which they 
once rendered useless and pestilential." A Description of Lalium &c. 1S05, p. 135. 

+ Norges Naturlige Historic Kiobenhavn, 1752, 4to, p. 64. 

X System einerAllgemeinen Hydrographie des Erdbodens, von J. W. Otto. Berlin, ISOO, p. 2S1. 



BOGS. 85 

but with the loss of many of his men and horses, which sunk and were buried in 
the mud.'' 

Some districts in Europe, before their inhabitants were acquainted with the bene- 
fits of civilization, seem to have been in many parts covered by water, though' at 
present little or no vestige of it remains. + As the arts began to be cultivated, men 
abandoned their savage mode of life for the pursuits of agriculture, and while go- 
vernments acquired a more settled form, land rose to a higher value, and a greater 
degree of labour was employed in rendering it productive. Increased population 
called for new means of subsistence ; ingenuity, therefore, v.as exerted to convert 
unprofitable marshes into land fit for tillage, and thus, in the common course of 
things, the whole surface of the earth assumed a new and improved appearance. 

Britain, in the time of the Romans, was covered with fens and marshes, into which 
the natives were accustomed to retire when pursued by their enemies, as we learn 
from Caesar and other ancient authors-t Great part of those districts which now 
form the territory of "Holland, were morasses, frequented by numerous flocks of 
wild geese, the feathers of which were so highly esteemed, on account of their 
softness, that they were carried to Rome, and employed in making pillows and 
beds.§ That part of the Duchy of Holstein, called Ditmarsh, seems once to have 
been in a similar condition; but it now consists of land exceedingly fertile, which 
not only produces luxuriant grass, but excellent crops of corn. All the fields are 
separated by deep ditches, which convey their superabundant waters into the sea ; 

* Lettres Edifianteset Curieuses, torn iv. p. 308. 

+ Many of those extensive plains in Russia, called Steppes, but particularly those in the northern parts of 
the empire, consist chiefly of impassable bogs and morasses. Starch's Hist. Slal. Gemdldc des Russischen 
Reichs. Riga, 1797, vol. i. p. 23. 

X Ab his cognoscit non longe ab eo loco oppidum Cassivelauni abesse silvis paludibusque munitum, quo satis 
magnus hominum pecorisque numerus convenerit. Casar de Eello Gall. lib. v. cap. 16, edit. Oxon. 1800, 
Svo, p. 97. 

Dion says that the Brilons, when pursued, took shelter in marshes, and remained there several days, im- 
mersed up to the neck in mud. E5 ts yip xa t\n xa.ra.SvDij.i>oi KafrtfSaiv Im TroWia; i^ifaj, trtt xfpaXj» 
(io»o> i^u i^''"!- — Herodian, speaking of the expedition of Severus into Britain, says, MaAira Sc yi(pvpaiq 

tv c^ffi Br,j).a.T; idfxiuq iruTB:; lia^nno, ra yap r^«ra Tu; Bpfxlaviiv X^f"-^ i7rlx^l;^(J/i£»a TaT^ tb <ixia»B 
SUh;^;? aH7riuTio-i» iT^iSr, yUna.i. oi; £"90; tok /jlu Bap^apoi; inix^i 9a' " "«» Siuieit (SpEjjoftfjoi! pt'xP'! '!"«• 
yu/iw yap itrif ra izXus-a t» irufjiaro; tij; JAiJo; xara^poSo-i. Lib. iii. cap. 47, edit. Oxon. 1699, 8vo, p. 133. 
f According to Pliny, the Roman Prefects stationed in that country, instead of keeping the soldiers to their 
duty, suffered them to go in pursuit of these birds, ^vhich they caught for the sake of their feathers. E. Cer- 
mania laudatissima. Candidi ibi, verum minores, ganzx vocantur. Pretiuni plumae coram in libras denarii 
quini. Et inde crimina jilerumque auxilium prafectis, a vigilistatione ad haec aucupia dimissis cohortibus totis. 
Eoque delicii processere, uf sine hoc straraento durare jam ne virorum quidem cervices possunt. Plin. Xat. 
Hist. lib. X. cap. 22. Liigd. Bat. 1669, vol. i. p. 677. 

Ms 



84 BOGS. 

and they are secured from the inundations of the latter by dykes, constructed like 
those of Holland, and kept up at considerable expense.* Oiher instances nii2,ht 
be given of the wonderful changes eflected on the rude face of nature by industry, 
continued through ages; but it is needless to enlarge on them, as the immediate object 
of the present inquiry is, those bogs commonly called mosses, which supply an in- 
flammable substance known under the name of turf or peat.t 

In Engla.id a very mistaken notion prevails, that the bogs of Ireland are found 
only in low situations, and people in general have thence been led to compare them 
to the marshy fens of Norfolk, Cambridgeshire, Lincolnshire, and Yorkshire, in 
which so much has been done during the course of the last thirty years. A strong 
desire, therefore, has been manifested to see the same improvement introduced into 
the sister kingdom, and these immense tracts, at present of little use, converted into 
productive land, adding to the national wealth and resources. The change, indeed, 
effected in some of the fenny parts of England has been astonishing; Mr. Young, 
speaking of one of them", that of Holdernesse, says, he was assured that it would not 
be too high a calculation to estimate the general gross produce at ^5. an acre, 
amounting in the whole to ^55)000. a year. " It has been done" continues he, " in 
thirty years, that is, since I was at Beverley in my northern tour. There has conse- 
quently been produced to the public, from a tract which was before the residence of 

* These marsh lands, however, are exceedingly unhealthy,'as the dampness of the soil, and the thick heavy 
atmosphere, produce fevers and other diseases. See L. M. Medel's Jndenlandske Reise igennem de bely- 
deligsle og skjonnesle Egneafde Danske Provindser. Kiobenhavn, 1803. Andet Hefte, p. 63. 

T In England and Ireland it is generally called turf; in Scotland the upper crust only, which is covered 
with heath and cul from the surface, is called turf: the rest is called peat. 

A Germanwriter gives the following account of turf: — Turfa, Humus vegeiabilis aquatica, Linn . 27- Humus 
limosa. Humus vegetabilis lutosa. Waller. Humus uliginosa. Huraus palustris. Torvena, Libavii. In 
German lorf, lurf ; in Danish lorv, and in French Union, lour be, iourbe limoneuse. Sec. is a pulverulent 
earth, mixed with plants and tender roots, which is dug up iu mosses, and properly belongs to the vegetable 
kingdom. There is, however, another kind belonging to the mineral kingdom, called bitumenous turf, 
(Terra bituminosa, Turfa montaua, Amphelitis, Pharmacitis, Bitumen terra mineralisatum. Waller,) 
^vhich consists of earth mixed with coarse rock-oil, or tar, and which burns in the fire with a strong smell ; 
of this kind is that dug up in Dauphigny and in Switzerland. Turf taken from a bottom impregnated with 
salt, and which contains sulphur or vitriol, has a disagreeable smell, and is prejudicial to the health. 
In the island of Zeland there is a kind which makes the faces of those who are in the room where it is burn- 
ing as pale as death ; and if they sit long by it, they are in danger of fainting; it also causes vessels to 
appear white in the inside. Turf taken from mosses which contain no mineral substances, does not produce 
such pernicious effects. The matter of turf is very different according to the difference of depth. In the 
province of Groningen it is light and spongy at the surface, but a little deeper it becomes somewhat better, 
and at the bottom is firm and black. Baron Von Meidino-er, in his Treatise on Turf, makes two kinds of it, 
the first of which he calls Drag lor/ or Darie lorf; the other, which is of a worse quality, he names Hage lorf. 
Turf is discovered either by a borer or by the plants growing ovec it- Bcrgndnisckes IVorlerbuch, CheiiJnitZj 
1778, p. 6G5. 



BOGS. 85 

little more than frogs and wild fowl, one million six hundred and fifty thousand 
pounds. A country is cultivated, built, and peopled, and the people are healthy, 
so far as another tract of marsh on the other side of the river will permit them to 
be. "What a vast improvement, and how many such have taken place in this king- 
dom in the same period ? It is in these amazing exertions, which have added so im- 
mensely to the national territory, changing pestiferous marshes into well-cultivated 
districts, that we are to seek the causes of that matchless superiority which renders 
this country the envy of the world. Imagined, undertaken, and executed, in that 
confidence which every rational man feels in the glorious constitution of this king- 
dom, by which properly is safe, and equal protection given to all from the peasant 
to the prince. Esto perpeliia '."* 

Can any friend to his country who reads with attention the impressive passage I 
have just quoted, and who believes that there are large tracts in Ireland similarly 
situated, abstain from wishina; for the application in that country of the same means 
^Yhich have effected so much in the fens of Holdernesse? The bogs of Ireland, in- 
deed, are widely different in many respects from the fens of England, as I shall 
shew hereafter, but they are capable of much improvement, were the system which 
has been pursued there changed, and a little of the English spirit transfused into 
some of the Irish landholders. The active and inquisitive writer above-mentioned, 
whose penetrating genius renders him a judge of human nature, as well as of land, 
has with true discernment pointed out the chief cause of the national improvement 
he has described. It is our happy constitution, which notwithstanding the severe 
shocks it has sustained from the unhallowed hands of internal enemies, still remains 
secure amidst the wreck of governments, rearing its venerable front above the storm 
— a monument of the wisdom of our forefathers, " Property is safe, and equal 
protection is given to all from the peasant to the prince." Establish the same equita- 
ble system in Ireland, and more will be effected in a few years towards cultivating 
the bogs by the spontaneous efforts of industry, than can be done in half a century 
by all the commissioners, engineers, and other hirelings of government that may be 
employed. The most certain means of improving these wastes, is to raise the con- 
dition of the lower orders, and thereby increase the wealth of the country. Give a 
proper stimulus to the industry of the people; allow them to participate in equal 
rights; inspire them with confidence in their rulers; and convince them that they 
will be permitted to enjoy, like Englishmen, the fruit of the r labour. By means such 
as these, the indolent and oppressed natives will be excited to exertions which can 
be called forth only by this system of encoura.':f-ment and mild treatment ; and in 
the course of a little time these dreary wilds will be converted into fertile fields, 
covered with luxuriant crops. 

•> Aniials of Agriculture, vol. xxxi. p. 114. 



86 BOGS. 

Undertakings of this kind are not confined to England; we read of similar attempts 
made with success in Denmark and some parts of Germany, though at a very con- 
siderable expence. Pontoppidan speaks of a piece of land belonging to Baron 
Schimmelman, in the barony of Lindenberg, about thirty-five English miles in length 
and ten in breadth, which consisted of floating bog that moved under the feet, being 
reclaimed by cutting drains to let the water run from it into the sea. He mentions 
also a sour mora«s, called Hohner-Mohr, which had both surface and bottom water, 
and was so useless that cattle could not go into it without the danger of being lost. 
It was drained in the year 176I by order of his Danish Majesty, under the direction 
of Dr. Erichsen, at the expence of 22,000 rix dollars. Six hundred workmen were 
employed upon it ; and in the course of two or three years it was fit for cultivation, 
and parcelled out to I96 colonists.* 

A piece of land between Ingolstadt and Neuburg, called the Donaumoor, com- 
prehending four square German miles,t consisted formerly of a mere marsh, which 
in wet years became like an immense lake, so that strangers could not pass through 
it without great danger. In some places it was covered with low brush-wood, in 
others with moss, but the greater part of it was overgrown with sour-marsh plants, 
and it served for no other use than as a kind of common into which the peasants who 
lived on its borders drove their cattle; but in general it was so muddy and soft, that • 
they sunk in it up to the knees, and sometimes were lost. There were found here 
in digging through the strata of turf, at the depth of from one to thirty feet, a great 
many fallen trees, tinged to the heart of a black colour, and all lying in the same 
direction. As this marsh had a most pernicious effect on the health of the people 
who resided in its neighbourhood, the Elector of Bavaria, Charles Theodore, em- 
ployed workmen to drain it, and by pursuing other means it was converted in a few 
years into a fertile and beautiful district. t 

The soil of the English marshes " is a black spongy moor of rotten vegetable 
matter." IJ The bogs of Ireland " consist of inert vegetable matter, covered more or 
less with unproductive vegetables, and containing a large quantity of stagnant wa- 
ter."§ The difference between these soils is, that the rotten vegetable matter of the 
one produces unrivalled crops of grass, corn, Sec. while the inert vegetable matter 
of the other, throws out no kind of plant useful to man. 

- Den Danske Alias. Kiobenhavn, 1763, 4to, torn. i. p. 405, 406. 

+ Above 14,000 English acres. 

J Schranlc's Briefe iiber das Donaumoor. Manheim, 1794, 4to. Aretin's Actenmissige Donaumoor-Kul- 
turgescliichte. Man. 1795. 4to. Otto's System einer Allgeraeinen Hydrographie des Erdbodens. Berliu, 
1800j 8vo, p. 205. 

II Annals of Agriculture, vol. xxi. p. 114. 

f Copy of a'Letter from Mr. Davy to the Secretary of the Commissioners, dated 1st Feb. 1811. 



BOGS. s: 

Moss earth assumes various appearances according to the state in which it is kept, 
and particularly as the soil happens to be more or less net when it is formed. The ■ 
damper the soil is preserved when the moss is growing, the lighter,- opener, and less 
useful it will be, but where the soil is kept dry, the moss, though it does not grow so 
fast, will be much firmer, and far more valuable. The different appearances, therefore, 
which moss from this circumstance acquires, have induced some to divide peat earth 
into many kinds. Dr. Walker, in his Essay, published in the Transactions of tlie 
Highland Society, enumerates no fewer than seven, to which he gives the following 
names, viz. Wood-peat, Flmv-peat, Heath-peat, Gramineous-peat, Inch-peat, Consumed- 
peat, and Waterborn peat ; but I agree with Mr. Alton, in thinking that there is no 
necessity for making so many distinctions.* 

In Denmark, where mosses are common, and supply a considerable part of the 
fuel used by the inhabitants,+ moss earth is divided only into four kinds. The first 
called lieath-turf, (Lyngtoi-v), is that taken from the surface of mosses which burns 
in consequence of the'roots and filaments it contains; but being always mixed Avith 
earth and sand it forms bad fuel, and is ysed only by those who can procure ho 
other. The second kind, Jlfort/or;', called in Norway, ilfyr/ory ; in Holland iT/yn^; 
and in Jutland, Skotler ; is that best known and most commonly used, and is dug up 
from a considerable depth. The third kind, Martorv, named by the Dutch, Darie or. 
Darry, is in general found at the bottom of the hills near the sea coast. In some 
places it is seen on the shore itself when the sea retires at low water, but as it con- 
tains a mixture of saline particles it burns with difficulty, produces little ashes, and 
emits sometimes a disagreeable smell. The fourth kind is mountain-turf, Bergtorv; 
it is of 2 binckish colour, gritty, yet sufficiently compact; burns with a strong beat 
and flame, and smells somewhat like coal.":j: 

In regard to the properties of moss earth, they must be very different according to 
the places where it is found, and to many accidental circumstances which are capable 
of altering or modifying its nature. There are some, however, which seem to belong 
to most kinds of moss earth in general, such as inflammability, acidity, insolubility 
and an antiseptic quality. ; 

" Inflammability," says Mr. Alton. " is a quality which moss possesses to a vcny 
high degree. It is evident, that as the putrefaction of the moss advances, the inflam- 
mability of the peat earth is increased. Hence, the upper strata are laid aside when 
peat is dug for fuel ; and where the moss has been in nearly the same state of 

» Alton on Moss Earth, p. 47, 48. 

+ The mosses in Denmark are estimated to occupy a surface equal to above 75,000 English acres. Almin- 
delig Udsigt over Agerdyrhiiingens Titstand i Sjdland og Mden, aj. G. Begtrup Professor i Landoekonomien 
Kiobenhavn, 1803, vol. ii. p. 276. 

X Saralinger om Agerdyrkning og Landvesen Kiobenhavn, 1794, Flerde Hefle, p. 11. 



88 BOGS. 

humidity during the time of its accumulation, the under strata are always the best 
peat. This quality in peat earth renders it of very great utility as fuel. The quality 
of the fuel, or in other words, the inflammability of the peat, is evidenced by its 
colour ; the blackest moss makes always the best peat." 

" Acidity is another quality easily perceptible in peat earth. Hence the unpleasant 
smell, and the poignant pain in the eyes, which are felt from peat smoke, especially 
by those that are least accustomed to breathe in such an atmosphere. Lord Meadow- 
bank describes the acid of peat earth to be of the nature of something resembling 
the gallic acid.* 

" Insolubility and an'antiseptic qualityt are also clearly perceptible in moss earth, 
far beyond what is lo be found in any ether earthy substance. These qualities are 
the c'lhs of nature, which is not more wonderful in her rich variety, than in the infi- 
nity of her laws and the properties she confers on her works. Some plants no sooner 
attain maturity, and get their seeds for a new crop dispersed, than they die; their ' 
frame is speedily dissolved, their parts are separated by putrefaction, and they re- 
store the substances of which they were .composed lo the elements whence they had 
been collected. These very substances are served out by nature to form a new gene- 
ration of veo-etables ; other plants are, at least in some situations, furnished with 
powers not only to resist the progress of corruption so far as regards the reduction of 
their own frame, but even to prevent it from dissolving other bodies, which in any 
other situation would go speedily into putrefaction. The most valuable plants and 
the richest grasses, which grow in dry and fertile soils, and are reared in a genial 
heat, o-enerally form the most bulky crops. But no sooner do such luxuriant crops 
cease to grow, than they are subjected to corruption. That terrible destroyer of all ve- 
getable and animal organized bodies soon reduces their fibre, separates their component 
parts, and completely decomposes them in a space of time not much beyond that in 
which they were collected and formed by vegetable organization. But moss plants are 
capable of resisting that awful destroyer, putrefaction, for a much longer space of 
time than any other animal or vegetable substance. Their growth is but small com- 
pared with that of the richer grasses, but their solubility and putrefaction is still 
proportionably slower ; so that something of their vegetable fibre and texture is pre- 
served for many centuries after the plant has ceased to grow. The growth of one 

"■ In Mr. Aiion's Pamphlet this is spelt Gcclic acid. Gaelic acid would mean HigUand acid, which to me 
is a new term. But perhaps it may be a typographical error. 

+ " This antiseptic quality cannot be ascribed lo any of the mineral acids ; for they appear not in our mosses 
either so frequently or so copiously as to produce this general effect. Neither can it be ascribed to the vege- 
table acid, which is still more feeble and inadequate to the purpose. But probably to a union of the vegetable ■ 
acid with the inflammable matter of the vegetable substance, the result of which combination must be a 
bituminous matter." Dr, IValket's Essay on Peat, p. 33. 



BOGS. S9 

year rises above that of another, but little diminished in size till the mosses have ac- 
cumulated to the vast depth in which we now find them." 

" These singular qualities extend to every thing buried under moss ; wood, when 
exposed to the atmosphere, or buried under any other earth, will be totally annihi- 
lated in a few years ; but if it is enveloped in moss before putrefation has made much 
progress upon it, it will remain but little impaired for many centuries. The under 
side of moss-timber is generally found entire ; the progress which corruption has 
made on the upper side must have been before the moss rose over the trees. 

" Some iron heads of arrows, wooden bowls, three sacks full of nuts, and a coat of an' 
ancient texture and construction, were, in the year 1737, dug from under a moss fif- 
teen feet deep in Ireland ; all of them were in a high state of preservation."* 

" Not only wood and utensils, but even animal substances, which are still more 
susceptible of corruption, have fi"equently been found entire, after remaining bu- 
ried under moss for several years. The antiseptic qualities of peat earth seem 
to exceed in their effects even the art of embalming, practised by the ancient Egyp- 
tians. In the Philosophical Transactions -for the year 1734, mention is made of 
two human bodies dug from under moss, where they had remained forty-nine years, 
and yet corruption had not made the smallest progress upon them ; their flesh was 
quite fair, and pitted when pressed with the finger; the joints played freely, without 
the least degree of stiffness, and their clothes were no way impaired. "+ 
. " In the same work for the year 1747, an account is given of the body of a woman, 
discovered under a moss in Lincolnshire, which, from the antique sandals found 
on her feet, had evidently remained many centuries under the moss, yet the body 
had suffered nothing by corruption. Her hair and nails were as fresh and free 
from putrefaction as those of any living person ; her skin was soft and strong, and 
stretched like doe leather, but had acquired a tawny colour."?: 

" The countess of Moira, in a letter published in the Archasologia, mentions that 
a human body was found under moss eleven feel deep, on the estate of her noble hus- 
band. The body was completely clothed in garments made of hair, which were 
fresh and no way impaired ; and though hairy vestments evidently point to a period 
extremely remote, before the introduction of sheep and the use of wool ; yet the body 
and the clothes were no way impaired." |1 . - ^ 

" A piece of cloth dug from under a moss te)i feet deep on the lands of Flatt, in 
the parish of Glassford, Lanarkshire, was found to be fresh and well preserved. . 
This piece of cloth was brought up from the bottom of the peat forest on the point 
of a spade ; but the incurious labourer was neither at the pains to preserve it, nor so 

♦ Archxologia, vol. vii. p. 3. j Phil. Trans, vol. xliv. p. 571. 

+ Phil. Trans, vol. xxxviii. p. 413. || Arch. vol. vii. 

Vol. I. N 



b^^ 



go BOGS. 

much as to examine if any more clothes were deposited in the same place. Probably 
this might be part of the clothes of a person buried there at so remote a period that 
the moss had risen ten feet over it. Whether a human body had lain there or 
not, the cloth must have been so deposited ; for the solidity of the moss over and 
round where it was found, proves that it had not been buried in a pit dug into the 
moss." 

•' The antiseptic quality of moss extends to all water in which peat has been in- 
fused. Moss-water even when stagnant, and in the warmest climates, neither acquires - 
the putrid smell which arises from other stagnant water; nor do the plants grow or 
the animalcule gender, which we see like a green scum on the surface of all other stag- 
nant water in hot weather, even in this cold climate ; Captain Cook found moss-wa- 
ter good and wholesome after being kept long on ship-board, even in warm climates : 
it had never become the least putrid. Many people live in the midst of much stag- 
nant moss-water, yet they are healthy, and live to as great ages as the inhabitants of the 
driest and warmest soil. Na people whatever are more healthy than those wha 
live in the most extensive and wettest mosses ; while among the inhabitants of all low, 
damp, and fenny places, where stagnant water that has not been impregnated with, 
moss, prevails, intermitting putrid fevers, putrid sore throats, and other malignant 
diseases, are very common. Wherever peat is used for fuel, and especially in the 
low smoky houses which abound in the muir country, vast quantities of the peat- 
smoke and peat-dust pass into the lungs of the inhabitants with the air they breathe, 
as well as into their stomachs with their food and drink, yet their health is in no 
way impaired thereby."* 

" We are informed by Wallerius,+ that the peat of Sweden yields upon distilla- 
tion, beside air and water, a volatile spirit, resembling spirit of hartshorn, some 
volatile salt, and a fetid oil ; and likewise that the fluid and saline matters in the 
Swedish peat amount nearly to one half of its weight ; but the degree to which the 
peat had been previously dried is not specified." 

" Le Sage from eighteen ounces of French peat obtained by distillation as fol- 
lows : 

Water of a disagreeable smell . . . 2 oz. 

Spirit of volatile alkali 4i 

An oily saponaceous matter .... li 

Volatile alkali concreted Oj^ 

Residuum destitute of salt 9i 

■^ Alton on Moss Earth, Glasgow, 1805, p. 66-71. + Waller. Mineralogia, vol. i. p. 17. 



BOGS. 



91 



" These principles obtained from peat by distillation demonstrate its real nature 
and origin, that it is essentially composed of putrid vegetable matter. From peat 
dug in Holland, Le Sage, indeed, besides a thickish oil, obtained an acidulated water 
and marine acid, and found in the residuum a small portion of selenite of Glauber's 
salt and sea-salt. These, however, may have been occasioned by the pit having been 
overflowed by the sea, which is the case with many of the turf-bogs in Scotland. Such 
extraneous matters must no doubt often occur in the analysis of a body so generally 
spread over the surface of the earth ; but in peat, as in every other vegetable sub- 
stance that has undergone putrefaction, though the volatile alkali abounds, no fixed 
alkaline salt has ever been discovered."* 

According to a report made to Parliament by a board of gentlemen appointed to 
examine the bogs in Ireland, it is estimated that they cover at least one million of 
acres ;+ but as "mountain bog and bog under five hundred acres''^ are excluded 
from the computation, the surface covered by them is, perhaps, much greater. The 
commissioners conclude that six-sevenths of the bogs of Ireland occupy a portion 
of the island somewhat greater that one-fourth of its .whole superficial extent, in- 
cluded between a line drawn from Wicklow Head to Galway, and another drawn 
from Howth Head to Sligo, resembling in form a broad belt, stretched across the 
centre of the country, with its narrowest end nearer to the capital, and gradually, 
extending in breadth as it approaches to the Western Ocean. || This district 
includes a number of bogs, called in general the " Bog of Allen," which, contrary 
to the prevailing opinion in England, is not one continued morass of immense ex- 
tent, but consists of a number of bogs adjacent to each other, and all contained 
within the belt described by the commissioners. They all, however, lie on the west 
side of the Shannon, and are for the most part of that kind called red bog, being 
very different in appearance from the deep black bog found to the south of Lough 
Neagh in the province of Ulster, or the high mountain bogs which I have seen in 
almost every part of the island. 

The origin of these masses of inert vegetable matter has given rise to many 
learned antiquarian and philosophical discussions, and notwithstanding all the mo- 
dern discoveries, it appears to me to be still undetermined when or by what means 
they were formed. That they are not primitive or original masses of earth, I think, 

* Dr. Walker's Essay, p. 25-30. Alton on Moss Earth, 71-74. 

+ First Report of the Commissioners on the nature and extent of the bogs of Ireland, p. 4. 

Z Mr. Larkin, who made a survey of the County of Cavan for Its grand jury, has ascertained that it con- 
tains 90 bogs, no one of which exceeds 500 acres ; but if taken collectively, it contains above 11,000 Irish 
acres of bog, which are equal to above 17,000 English acres, independently of many small bogs, varying in 
size from 5 to 20 acres. 

II Second Report, p. 3. 

N 2 



9£ BOGS. 

is certain, because they are found chiefly in northern countries, and always cover 
timber, various utensils, and coins, the two latter of which ai^e certain indications of 
the hand of man, previous to their existence. I have seen fossil timber, in great quan- 
tities, dug up from many of the bogs in Ireland ; and it is found also in all bogs in 
every country of Europe. From this circumstance, many have been induced to be- 
.lieve, that bogs originate fiom decayed forests, which by some accident or convulsion 
of nature Lave bn;n uvtilurned and buried. Mr. GiifTith, who was employed by 
the Irish commissioners to survey a considerable extent of bog, states, in his report, 
" that those bogs which fell under his observation were not produced by any cause 
of this kind, as trees, or the branches of trees, are rarely found in the interior of 
the deep and extensive bogs of Ireland, but are always met with at the edges, or 
near gravelly hills or islands in these bogs, lying horizontally, and in no particular 
direction ; frequently crossing each other, and either attached to their roots or sepa- 
rated from them. In the latter case the stumps usually stand upright in the place 
where they grew, having six or eight feet of the bog sometimes above them, and 
three, four, or five feet, but rarely more, below their roots."* It is difficult to 
account for this circumstance, and therefore I am inclined, without ascribing the 
origin of bogs to decayed timber alone, to consider it as one of the chief causes of 
their formation. Dr. Anderson has combated this opinion, but I do not think with 
success. t Mr. Griffith says, " trees are still to be found growing on the bog edges, 
and in the valleys in the bogs where rivers flow. Thus, in the vale of the stream 
running from Lullymore by Lullyby to Cushaling, in Lullymore bog, oak, alder, 
aspen, birch, willow, whitethorn, and holly trees, are now growing ; but I did not 
observe anv fir-trees, though they are found in the bog."J Mr. J. A. Jones, ano- 
ther of the engineers employed by the commissioners, reports, that " in the borings 
taken to ascertain the depths of the bogs in this .district, no timber was met with 
under the surface except near their edges, and it was usually oak, deal, or yew."§ 
Iilr. Edgev.orth, employed also as an engineer, speaking of the district which he 
examined, says, that " it forms a considerable section of a large circular bason sur- 
rounded by hills rising in the counties of Leitrim, L,ongford, Cavan, Westmeath, 
and Roscommon. It is probable that these hills, and the valleys between them, were 
covered formerly with trees, and from the remains and exuviae of these woods, the 
bogs which at present exist have gradually been formed, fresh vegetation adding to 
the original morass. Whether these morasses were at first formed by the destruction 
of whole forests, or merely by the stagnation of water, in places where its current 
was choked up by the fall of a few trees, and by the accumulation of branches and 

» First Report, p. 16. + Anderson on Peat Moss, p. 64. I First Report, p. 16. 

§ Second Kcport, p. 81. 



BOGS. 93 

leaves carried down from the surrounding hills, is a question that cannot now be de- 
termined. Professor Davy is of opinion, that in many places where forests had 
<rrown undisturbed, the trees on the outside of the woods grew stronger than the rest, 
from their exposure to the air and the sun, and that when mankind attempted to es- 
tablish themselves near the forests, they cut down the large trees on their borders, 
which opened the internal part. When the trees were too weak and slender to with- 
stand the influence of the wind, which, as is commonly to be seen in such circum- 
stances, had immediate power to sweep down the whole of the internal part of the 
forest, the large timber obstructed the passage of vegetable recrement, aixl of earth 
falling towards the rivers; the weak limber in the internal part of the forest, after it 
had fallen, soon decayed, and became the food of future vegetation. Mr. Kirwan 
observes, that wherever trees are found in bogs, though the wood may be perfectly 
sound, the bark of the timber has uniformly disappeared, and the decomposition of 
this bark forms a considerable part of the nutritive substance of morasses.'^' Notwith- 
standing this circumstance, tannin is not to be obtained in analyzing bogs Their 
antiseptic quality is, however, indisputable; for animal and vegetable substances are 
frequently found at a great depth in bogs, without their seeming to have suffered any 
decay. These substances cannot have been deposited in them at a very remote period, 
because their form and texture is such as were common for centuries ago. In 17 86 there 
was found, seventeen feet below the surface of a bog in my district, a woollen coat of 
coarse but even net-work, exactly in the form of what is now called a spencer. It 
fitted me as well as if it had been made by a modern tailor. A razor with a wooden 
handle, some iron he^ds of arrows, and large wooden bowls, some only half made 
were also found, with the remains of turning tools. These were obviously the 
wreck of a workshop, which had been probably situated on the borders of a/orest."t 
Mr. William Trench, of Cangor Park, near Roscrea, in a letter I received from him, 
dated October 25th, 1810, says: " bog timber, for the most part, is found in this 
country, to lie from south-west to norlh-east, which I think may be easily accountedf 
for, if we suppose it to have been thrown down by the prevailing wind of the 

♦ Although I accord very much with the opinion which Mr. Kirwan has formed, I beg to say, that lie is 
mistaken in thinking that the bark Las uniformly disappeared. I have observed the bark of various trees taken 
from bogs in difTerent parts of Ireland. Dr. Walker believed the same fact of the timber found in the mosses 
in Scotland, and as Mr. Kirwan imagines, supposed that the trees had decayed from age, and that the bark had 
dropped oflT before the stock fell, on which Mr. Aiton remarks, " if he had examined fossil wood with atten- 
tion, he would have found that much of it still retained the bark, at least on the under side. The bark will 
often be found adhering to the lower side of the tree, or visible under it when the upper side of the same tree 
is consumed to near the centre. This proves that the tree was entire when it fell. The under side, being 
soon enveloped in the moss, was preserved from corruption, while the upper side, being more years exposed 
■to the atmosphere before the moss rose over it, was much more injured." Allen' sTrealise on Moss, Glis- 
gow, 1805, p. 30. + Second Report, p. 174. 



94 BOGS. 

country, for all the trees here are found to incline in that direction, owing to the 
frequency of the wind from the west or southward. The timber which I have 
found, but in particular the oak, appears to have lain for very different periods. In 
general it is quite black, but I have found some in which that hue was only an inch 
deep, and the remainder of the brown colour usually exhibited by timber cut in our 
own time. Since you were in Ireland, a lake which you may possibly have observed 
between this place and the house of my brother,* has been drained so far, that 
the surface of the water now stands about four feet below its former level ; more 
than one half of it has been left dry, and it appears that three-fourths of its 
banks are bog. The bottom consists of blue shelly marl, which seems to extend 
to a great depth, and when dry it is exceedingly light. In the highest part of this 
reclaimed land, which is about the middle of the old lake, there is seen a circular 
part resembling in shape the top of an immense tub, about sixty feet in diame- 
ter. The large planks which form the staves are from one to ten feet broad, 
and about six inches thick, quite straight, as far as it has yet been possible to 
trace them downwards. None of them have been raised without cutting them. 
At present there is no appearance of either ax or saw having been used in the 
formation of them." 

In a bog belonging to Colonel Heyland, in the county of Derry, there was 
found, under a large tree which some men were raising, a considerable quantity of 
matter resembling coagulated blood, a part of a man's hat, and an instrument which 
might be used for picking pockets, as it folded up into a small space ; it had handles 
like a pair of scissars, and when opened darted out to the length of a yard, exhi- 
biting a long hook at the end. I heard at Colerain of a corpse being found in a 
bog with its clothes and shoes on, together with shoemaker's implements, which 
seemed to indicate that the body was that of some shoemaker. 

In the county of Kerry, great quantities of pine and birch timber are found in 
some of the bogs ; in others there are no trees.t Mr. Ensor, of Ardress, county of 
Armaah, says, in a letter which I received from him : " Do you know that the trees 
found in the bogs have been burned down ? There is now in my yard a fir tree of 
considerable dimensions, one-third of which was burnt ; and I have had in my pos- 
session also oak-trees which were incrusted with charcoal." Some arrow-heads, 
wooden bowls, three sacks full of nuts, and a coat of ^n ancient texture and con- 
struction, were, in the year 1737, dug from under a moss fifteen feet deep in Kil- 
kenny, all of them in a high state of preservation. t Oak and fir, still fresh, were 
found in a bog south of Knoctopher.^ 

' Mr. Francis Trench, of Sopwell Hall. J Archsologia, vol. vil. p. 3. 

+ Weld's Account of Killamey, p. 98. (i Tighe's Survey of Kilkenny, p. l6l. 



BOGS. 95 

" That bog may sometimes exist beneath other strata, and at a good depth from 
the surface, appears from the following fact, which was stated by the proprietor, 
Mr. John Prior, who in sinking a pump lately near his house at Kilree, eight miles 
from Kilkenny, discovered a bog having timber under it at the depth of thirty-three 
feet. He found the following strata : vegetable earth three feet ; marl with black 
stones, fifteen ; yellow clay and hard gravel, fifteen ; making all together, thirty- 
three feet, and with ten feet of bog, below the whole, forty-three. Beneath was 
a mixture of crave!, with clay exceedingly hard, and immediately under the bog lay 
a large block of wood, a piece of which was sent to the Dublin Society, and appeared 
to be oak."* 

In Kildare, " Mr. Bagot of Nurney discovered at the depth of six feet under the 
surface the remains of an old plantation of fir timber ; wherever he found a 
second in the line of drain, he was sure at the end of every ten feet to meet with 
a fallen tree. When these were removed, he sunk the drain six feet more to the 
o-ravel, where he found that there had been a promiscuous growth of trees. "+ 
Sir George Mackenzie, speaking of Iceland, says — " We saw no vestige of wood in 
the bogs, and were informed, that where it occurs the trees were small. Mr. 
Hooker saw one five or six feet long, and about a foot in diameter.":|: 

That England has abounded with morasses ever since the time of its invasion by 
the Romans, there can be little doubt ; and it appears by the evidence of history, that 
formerly they were all covered with forests. The Reverend Dr. Rennie§ has col- 
lected many facts both from ancient and modern authors, which seem fully to esta- 
blish this opinion. These morasses have been cultivated, as the arts and wealth 
were introduced, and the existence of many of them can be traced in tradition, 
or by[consulting ancient records and annals. The only moss, however, of any extent, 
remaining at present, is the Chat Moss near Manchester, which has the same ap- 
pearance as the Irish bogs. Timber is found in all these places, and in many 
which exhibit no appearance of peat. In the Holdernesse fen in Yorkshire, and 
in the fens of Linconshire, fossil wood is often found, and sometimes buried at a con- 
siderable depth. 

Timber and other things are frequently dug up also from the earth in many other 
countries of Europe. The learned Pontoppidan, speaking of Denmark, says — " In 
regard to the old turf mosses which have had time to grow together and become hard, 
they are pretty common in most parts of the country, and in some places so abun- 

* Tighe's Kilkenny, p. 162. + Survey of Ki^are, p. 88. t Mackenzie's Travels in Iceland, p. 88. 

§ Essays on the Nat. Hist, and Origin of Peat Moss, Edin. 1810, 8vo. Dr. Rennie quotes many authors, 
ancient as well as modem; but giTes us no references whatever. In alluding to Pomponius Mela, he calls him 
only Pomponius, an appellation by which some readers will not understand wliat author he means- 



06 BOGS. 

dant, that it is hardly possible they can be ever exhausted, if treated in a proper 
manner As long as the woods supplied- a sufficiency of fuel, turf was little used in 
towns.* At present many are obliged to have recourse to it, as is the case in 
Holland, where there is no other substance that can be used for that purpose. The 
old and solid turf-moss is as good as the Dutch, and the deeper it is found the better 
it is, especiallv when of that kind which has no perceptible admixture of sulphur ; 
for when it contains sulphur it emits a disagreeable and unwholesome smell. It is well 
known that there is found in the turf-mosses here, as well as in other countries, great 
quantities of wood, and even whole trunks of trees, such as fir, birch, and oak, which 
on beino; cut asunder, is found to be so black and smooth that it resembles ebony. 
Fir timber" does not appear to have abounded here ; yet it is the kind most fre- 
quently dug up from the mosses." " A peasant in the district of Yaniss," adds this 
author, "with whom I lodged a night in my tour from Nor-\vayintheyear 1754. shewed 
me sticks and other pieces of wood used in building, which he had dug up in his 
turf-moss. They were squared, had holes bored in them, and were employed by him 
in erecting his barn, were they were intermixed with newer pieces of the same 
kind." 

" Sometimes there are found in turf-mosses at the depth of several feet, nuts, 
cherry-stones, the horns of various animals, and particularly those of the deer. It 
is related in an old manuscript, that a peasant of Lundebye, in digging a foundation 
for a dung-hiil, found at a considerable depth the trunk of an old oak tree, the ' 
branches of whicli were surrounded not only with muscle shells, but with a large 
quantity of sea-weed, though the village lies at the distance of two or three miles 
from the coast. This shews that things of a perishable n.iture may be long pre- 
served when they are completely secured from coming in contact with the at- 
mosphere. "+ 

A German writer says — " Mosses sometimes contain at a considerable depth whole 
forests of trees, which have been overturned. In the island of Zeland, below the turf, of 
which many thousand loads are dug up and carried away every year, large pieces of the 
hardest fir-wood are often found. In East Friesland entire woods are buried under a 
coverin<^ of moss-turf.^ Not far from the townofPallkceping, in Sweden, there are two 
morasses, in which fragments of trees or roots are found on or near the surface, and 
if all those apparent one year be carried away, the same quantity, or perhaps more 

» In country villages turf has been long used as fuel ; for mention is made of turbaries or turf-pits in 
all ancient documents. The inhabitants of the Orkney Islands now belonging to Scotland, and which are 
destitute of timber, learned the use of turf as fuel from a Norwegian, who, on that account, got the name of 
Tui f Eynar. 

+ Pontoppidan's Danske Atlas. Kiobenhavn, 1763, 4to, vol. 1. p. 408-410. 

t Beschafiigungen der Berliuisch. naturf Gesellsch, vol. iii. p. 462. 



BOGS. 



97 



will be found again the next.* At Bruges, in Flanders, timber in good preserva- 
tion has been found at the depth of forty or fifty feet, prostrated and as reo^ularly 
ranged as trees standing in a forest; and in a valley on the Arno, near Arezzo, there 
is a whole wood concealed under the earth. In all these places the ground was co- 
vered with timber long before the formation of turf; they were therefore all dry and 
perhaps inhabited. t 

In Scotland, timber appears to abound in the bogs or morasses, and coins are 
frequently dug up from them, together with utensils of various sorts. In the moss 
of Locher, near Dumfries, there were found some years ago a Phoenician canoe and 
a Roman jug.^ In the same moss a leather bag containing silver coins of the Saxon 
heptarchy was also found. A pot and a decanter, both of Roman copper and ma- 
nufacture, were dug from under a moss in the parish of Kirkmichael, Dumfriesshire.^ 
A Roman camp kettle of brass, nearly as thin as parchment, was found in the clay 
under a moss eight feet deep, on the estate of Aughtertyre. A Roman medal of fine 
gold, with a Roman inscription upon it, was found under a moss near the sources 
of the Annan on the side of the great road formed by Agricola. A chest of Roman 
arms was found under a moss near the house of Lord M'Donald in Sky. Two pair 
of vessels of Roman Bronze and Roman manufacture were discovered under a moss 
in Gender Hill, on the estate of his grace the Duke of Hamilton, in the parish of 
Strathaven, in June, I803. In figure and size they resemble a common brass ladle. 
One of each pair goes nearly within the other, and the inner one of both pairs is 
perforated like a drainer. The holes will receive a pin. of middling size, and are 
remarkably well executed, resembling a meal sieve neatly cut out of sheep-skin. || 
King Robert Bruce in his expedition against Cummin, Earl of Buchan, destroyed 
some forests near Inverury.H The trees then cut down are still to be seen under the 
mosses, which have since risen over them to a great height.** In the parish of Ap- 
plecross, trunks of trees are dug up in the hills and meadows, where no wood grows 
at present. They bear evident marks of having suffered by fire ; and tradition says, 
that the Danes burnt down the forests in that part of the rountry.t+ Trees similarly 
situated have been found in the parish of Edzel, in Forfar.:tt Timber is fre- 
quently found in the mosses in the parish of Kippen, and a Roman road entirely 
constructed of wood, was discovered in them some years ago.^^ A similar road has 

» Schwed. AKhand. vol. xxix. H Fordun, vol. ii. p. 241. 

+ System einer Allgemeinen. Hydrographie des Erd- "* Stat. Account of Scotland, vol. xv. p. l44. 

bodens von I. W. Otto. Berlin, ISOO, p. 279. ++ Stat. Account, vol. iii. p. 379. 

t Statist. Account of Scotland, vol. i. p. 160. |J Stat. Account, vol. v. p. 103. 

§ Stat. Account, vol. vi. p. 60. ff Stst. Account, vol. xviii. p. 317. 
II Alton on Moss Earth, page 19, 20. 
Vol. I. O 



98 V BOGS. 

been found under the moss of Lo^an.* In the parish of Pitsligo in Aberdeen- 
shire the roots of very large oaks still exist in the mosses. + In the parish of 
Inch, in the same county, the hills abound with 'mosses, and in these very large 
trees are frequently dug up.; At Langride also the remains of very magnificent trees 
are found in its extensive mosses.^ Similar accounts are given in regard to the 
parishes of Kintore, Logierait, Peterhead, Saintfergus, and others. 1| Mr.Heron men- 
tions in his Tour, that \Yherever the moss oi Ciee is cut up, large trunks of ireei 
are found lying extremely thick, and most of them undecayed.l 

All these facts, more convincing than speculative opinions, appear clearly to shew 
that bogs are indebted for their origin chiefly to fallen forests, and that by some un- 
known cause the trees have been converted into a vegetable matter, which increases 
annually in bulk, attended with the double effect of rendering the climate colder,** 
and covering, as it increases, a greater extent of country. Mr. Sampson says — " In 
the high mountains, on examining attentively the vertical section of a new cut bog, I 
could almost count the number of annual deposits from the coarse vegetables ; these 
are preserved on account of their strong texture, their tannin matter, and by not being 
the food of animals. One could also enumerate the various vegetables which enter 
into the composition of each bog. These things are much more observable in the 
hard mosses of mountains than in the low marshy bogs ; the latter having surfaces 
rendered unequal by tufts or tummocks, and being poached often by the feqt of 
cattle."t+ Many other facts might be produced to shew that bog is an increasing 
substance ; but I shall content myself with a few of those which seem to me to be 
most conclusive. 

A Danish writer on agriculture says, " Some assert th.it turf grows from the bot- 
tom upwards, because all the leaves of trees, earth, dust,- and other particles, which 
have been conveyed into low bogs, either by inundations or some other revolution of 
nature, seek the bottom, and there first become consolidated. This account seems 
to be very correct in regard to certain situations, for it is evidently seen, in digging 
into bogs, that they consist of one stratum resting upon another, and this disposition 
may be traced to a considerable distance. But in bogs which move when carts or 
people pass over them, and where the whole surface floats upon water, it seems more 
probable that the turfy matter has been gradually formed from the top downwards, by 
the admixture, perhaps, of different vegetable particles, which, fermenting and ac- 
quiring consistence, have at first assumed the form of a thin crust, and this crust be- 

» Alton on Moss Earth, p. *4. || Aiton on Moss Earth, p. 45. 

+ Stat. Account, vol. v. p. 98. f Vol. ii. p. 248. 

J Stat. Account, vol. xvii. p. 483. ♦» Ailon on Moss, Earth, p 2. 

jl Stat. Account, vol. xv. p. 291. -H Survey of Londonderry^ p. 448. 



BOGS. 



99 



coming more solid, had afterwards strength sufficient to support such substances as 
were conveyed to it, either by the winds or currents of water. Besides, when a moss 
is surrounded by stagnant water, which has no efiBux either naturally or given to it 
by art, experience shews that such water, every year, throws up to the surface a slimy 
matter, which becomes consolidated Erst at the edges, and always increases in size 
and solidity, so that, at length, it iriay easily grow together. 

" In regard to the growth of moss which has been cut, there is a difference of opi- 
nion, some admitting and others denying it. It appears, however, that the increase 
of cut moss, in the course of time, is not only possible, but actually proved by ex- 
perience, when the ordinary causes are assisted by accidental circumstances. For if 
moss be so cut that no water can settle upon it, the pits will grow up sooner than in 
the case when the water is suffered sometimes to run off, and at others is dammed up 
by sluices constructed for the purpose. 

" The nature of the moss, and the quality of the bottom, will also produce some 
difference, as the brown and loose kind increases faster than that which is black and 
hard. Old people in Jutland remember places in which the turf was cut out about 
half a century ago, and which at present are filled up with solid matter fit to be cut 
again. Wherever reeds and rushes grow, the turf increases with the greatest rapi- 
dity; but places which produce these do not afford the best turf; as it is generally 
loose and crumbles to pieces when dry. 

" According to the usual manner in which the peasants cut turf, by digging holes 
here and there, it increases very slowly ; but if one direction be pursued in digging, 
and if the loose and useless turf, which forms the upper crust, be thrown into the 
pit, together with all the fragments broken from the turf itself, the operation of na- 
ture will be greatly forwarded, so that the whole will grow up in the course of a few- 
years. I know, from my own experience, the efficacy of this method, for places 
•where turf was cut seven years ngo can now bear a person to walk upon them ; but I 
will not assert, that these places are again fit for cutting, though I have reason to 
think that they will be in the course of seven years move ; and even if ten should 
be required for this purpose, it might be considered as a very great advantage."* 

Mr. Thompson, in his Survey of Meath, says " Bog is composed of a variety of 
decayed aquatic vegetables, whose roots are so interwoven and matted together, that 
they form a substance like a sponge. These vegetables are produced each year in 
proportion to the quantity of water contained on its surface, so that bog may be 
fairly considered as a mass of vegetable matter, and, the more wet the bog, the more 
quickly it vegetates. It is very easy to discern each year's growth, at least for the 
last twenty years, by examining a section of the bog, and considering, that it increases. 

♦ Samliager om Agerdyrkning og Landvesen, Kiobenhavn, 1*94. Fierde Hefte, p, 7, 9. 

O 2 



100 BOGS. 

every year in as gieat a degree as it bears moss on its surface. The moss grows ev^ry 
summer, and is killed the following winter by the frosts ; each year's growth forms a 
stratum, througii which the next summer's heat draws a fresh crop, which dies in 
like manner. Every year's growth may, therefore, be easily distinguished, lying ho- 
rizontally in strata, being of a less degree of thickness the farther it is removed from 
the surface ; because, the more pressed by the weight of those above it until they are 
so consolidated as to be no longer distinguishable. Bogs are considerably higher in 
winter than they are in summer, perhaps three feet on a deep wet bog. This is very 
manifest to any person who takes the trouble of standing on one side, and marking an 
object just visible over the surface at the other side of the bog: this object, though 
visible in the months of August or September, will not be so in February or March 
following. The cause is obvious ; the heat of the summer's sun, and the dryness of 
the atmosphere, cause exhalations from the bog, which deprive it of a considerable 
part of the water with which it was surcharged in the winter, thereby contracting and 
consolidating its surface, which being of a spongy nature, is swelled again by the 
rains of the succeeding winter, so that bogs are in a perpetual state of contraction 
and dilatation."* 

The increase of floating bogs may be so great as absolutely to burst the surface, 
which is often formed by a crust consisting of the same matter. Of this phenomenon 
instances have occurred at Solway MosS in Scotland, and at Chat Moss in England,t 
instances of it have been observed also in Ireland. " In the county of Tipperary, 
within a few years, a bog was so overcharged with under-water, that it broke from its 
ancient situation, and travelled in a compact body over several miles of country, 
bearing down houses, trees, and every thing that opposed its progress, until it reached 
the river Suir, twenty miles from its original situation. ":j: 

A similar phenomenon occurred in the month of March, 1745) at the bog of Ad- 
dergoole, about a mile and a half from the town of Dunmore, county of Galway. 
After a most violent and surprising f"ll of rain, accompanied with a dieadful, though 
unknown noise, a turbary, containing ten acres, in which some people had been at 
work, and which they had quitted to seek shelter from the storm, was seen float- 
ing after them, till it subsided at last upon a low piece of pasture of nearly thirty 
acres, close to the river's side, called Higgins's Park, where it spread and settled, co- 
vering the whole of it, to the great astonishment of all those who beheld it.|| 

' Survey of Meath, p. 257. 

+ Annals of Agriculture, vol. xxv. p. 115. , 

I Rawson's Survey of Kildare, p. 86. "^ 

II Transact, of the Royal Irish Acad. vol. ii. p. 3. 

" Circumstances of this kind," says Otto, " may serve to account for the phenomenon of floating islands, 
which often consist of considerable patches of light earth, composed of roots, rushes, reeds, the leaves of 



BOGS. 101 

In Kildare, Mr. Rawson observes, " in almost all the bogs of any considerable 
depth, it is found that a quantity of water lies in a body between the turbary and the 
gravel, which keeps the turbary itva buoyant state, and contributes to the growth of 

trees, and various plants matted together, raised, torn from the land by inundations, and driven about by the 
winds, from one place to another. They often possess sufficient solidity and lightness to support considerable 
burdens. 

" Islands of this kind, though phenomena rather uncommon, were not unknown to the ancients. Herodo- 
tus speaks of one in Egypt, and Theophrastus mentions another in a lake in Bceotia, the existence of which is 
confirmed by Pliny, lib. xvi. cap. 35. A similar one is noticed by Dioiiysius of Halycarnassus, which was 
observed in the lake now called Contiliagno, in the territories of the church. He says it was fifty paces in di- 
ameter, rose five feet above the surface of the water, and being moveable, was driven about by the wind. 
Varro says that he saw islands in Lydia float about and dance up and down. On this subject the reader may 
consult Plin. Hist. Nat. lib. ii. cap. 96. Seneca Nat. Qua;st, lib. iii. cap. 25. Baccius de Thermis, lib. iv. 
p. 264. Kircheri Mundus Subter, lib. v. cap. 2, and also Plin. Epistola;, lib. viii. cap. I^O. ed. Elz. Arast. 
1659, p. 229. 

" We have many instances of such islands in modern times. Formerly there was one in the Cerdau Lake in 
Prussia, which was so large that a hundred cows could graze on it. In the year 1707 it separated into three 
smaller islands, and a small remnant of it is still left. Rost Dissertal. Physlca de insula naiante Get - 
daviense. Bergman speaks of a floating -island in the lake of Ralangen in Sweden, known under the 
name of Rbdholm. It was visible in the years l696, 1727, 1733, 1743, 1750, 1757, 1758, and 
1766. During the above course of years, it appeared only twice in the month of August, but never 
before the I3th; six limes in September, and twice in the beginning of October. It again sunk down in 
September, October, and sometimes in the beginning of November, appearing, on some occasions, not 
longer than ten days, as in 1758. In the year 1747 it w.as visible from the 17th of August to the 21st of 
October, consequently remained at the surface sixty days, which is the longest period of its appearance known. 
It contained sixty old stumps, twenty-six of which had at that time been taken away. In the year 1766, 
the day after it sunk down, that is, on the 4th of November, it stood at the depth of about eighteen inches 
below the surface. This island was one hundred feet in length, and from twenty to thirty in breadth; it al- 
ways appears in a pan of the lake where the surrounding water is deep. The wind does not seem to have 
any considerable influence over it, foi it nppeared during a strong wind on the 3d of October, 1~57, and sunk 
a^ain on the 19th during a wind of the same kmd. No account can be given of the manner in which it was 
separated from the land. £er/;mann's Ph. Erdbeschryving, 2 Th. p. 20. 

" Pontoppidan speaks of simihir islands covered with wood in some l.ikes in Norway, Korgss JValurlige 
Historie, p. 147. And one in a piece of water near St. Omer is mentioned in the Transactions of the Aca- 
demy of Sciences at Paris, for the years 1700 arid 1745. Gemimanoro Montanari speaks of such islands 
in the vallies of Ribago and Contellazzo. Caslelli RaccoUa d'aulori, kc, 

" Among the latest phenomena of this kind are those near the peninsula of Rovigo, a part in Lombardy, 
which is encompassed by the Po and some other rivers. There are here several islands very different in 
their form and size, which at times become the sport of the winds and the currents ; thfe largest of them con- 
tains about a hundred acres. They consist of strata forming a crust on the ground, and when the rivers break 
in so that the water penetrates below them, they rise up and float. Silvestri Abhand. von den Schwimmen- 
den Jnscln der allern and ncueren Zeilen aus dent Hal. in der Italien. Bibliollie/c, vol. ii. p. 2-2l. , Otto's 
Si/slem einir Allgemeinen Hi/dicgraphie, p. 282-2S4. 

Floating islands seen in some of the lakes in Cumberland are described in the AthenMum. See p. 



102 BOGS. 

the fungus substance ; a turf cutter well knows it, and with fear and caution ap- 
proaches the bottom of the turf hole, from which the water frequently bursts up 
through a close covering of two or three feet, and would overwhelm him in a mo- 
ment, did he not leave benches uncut to secure his retreat."* 

Bogs may be divided into three sorts, mountain bog, red bog, and floating bog; 
In Ireland lliey are all generally in a similar situation, being raised far above the 
level of the sea. At present the immense mass of which they consist is employed 
only for two purposes, that is, for fuel and for manure. The first consideration, 
therefore, that presents itself, if they are reclaimable, is the expediency of reserving 
them for these uses. In regard to fuel, even if their surfaces were cultivated, they 
would still be capable, as I have endeavoured to shew in the chapter on that sub- 
ject, not only of furnishing it in sufficient abundance, but of supplying turf of a 
better quality. As to manure, the benefit of it seems to be very doubtful, and at 
any rate so limited, that it scarcely requires discussion. In many cases I apprehend 
that even for this purpose bogs might be equally useful, whether cultivated at the 
surface or not. The advantage of reclaiming them being therefore apparent, the 
next point to be conside;ed is the expence by which it would be attended : Moun- 
tain bog in most cases may be reclaimed at such an expence, that the land gained to 
cultivation will repay the owner. To combat the two other sorts will be a much 
more serious and difficult labour. 

In all cases where the moss is of the floating kind, it is obvious that the first step 
to be taken is to carry oflT the bottom water, which must be carefully distinguished 
from that diff^used throughout the bog.t If the spring which flows into the bog can 
be found, and a drain immediately applied to it, the required effect will be at once 
produced. In Kildare, " the late Christopher Borr, with a spirit almost peculiar 
to himself, made under the direction of Mr. Williams an immense drain for three 
miles, by which a fall of eight feet has been obtained, and the water which lay at the 
surface of the lands and went south-wcsi to supply the mill, now takes a direction 
northward to the river Boyne. The good effects are already felt, and if Mr. Borr's 
liberal offer to be at half, the expence in continuing the the drain through another 
o-entleman's lands had been accepted, the benefit would be incalculable."! 

I understand a gentleman in Ireland has lately gained a large tract of land, cotl« 
sistin<^ of a thousand acres, by an Herculean labour of the same kind. " He has cut 
immense drains, which if in one straight line would extend for several miles ; in one 

» Rawson's Survey of Kildare, p. 86. 

+ Thirty-two ounces and a half of dry moss soil will absorb and retain without fliridlty, eighteen ounces e( 
water : while thirty-nine ounces of the richest garden mould equally dry, will retain only eiglileen ounces ind 
a half of water. Ailon on Moss Earth, p. 6, 

X Survey of Kildare, p. 84. 



BOGS. 103 

of them he had to encounter a hill of nearly 70 feet in height from the base, and of 
a very considerable length : an obstacle which was overcome only by perseverance. 
This single drain cost nearly XSOO. but it was absolutely necessary, as the only fall 
for the chief drain into which the others flow was in this direction. Some of the 
land thus gained lets now for thirty shillings an acre. But the proprietor, Mr. 
Bunker, was not the only person benefited by this undertaking: the principal part 
of the reclaimed land belonged to others, and it is no small reflection on those who 
have received so much benefit from the exertions of another, that they refused to 
pay their proportion of the expence."* 

A very extraordinary convulsion, mentioned by Mr. Edgeworth, which took place 
in the bog of Rine, or Killoe, near the bridge of Rine, on the night of the 1 6th of Sept. 
1809) seems to shew that nature will sometimes perform the operation of draining 
without the assistance of art. " During a thunder storm, about twenty acres of the 
bog burst asunder in numerous places, leaving chasms of many perches in length and 
of various breadths, from ten feet to three inches. The rifts were in general parallel 
to the river, but in some places the smaller rifts were at right angles to it ; not only 
the bog, but the bed of the river was forced upward, the boggy bottom filling up the 
channel of the river, and rising three or four feet above its former banks. In a few- 
hours one hundred and seventy acres of land were by these means overflowed, and 
they continued in that state for many months, till the bed of the river was cleared, 
by much labour and at considerable expence." 

" I repaired to the spot shortly after the event, and I carefully examined it with- 
out being able to assign an adequate cause for what had happened. As the bog of 
Rine lies in my district, I thought it proper to bestow some pains in ascertaining all 
the circumstances of this phenomenon. I took the levels of the bog to discover 
whether it had sunk partially in any considerable degree. I bored it in a great num- 
ber of places to make myself acquainted with the texture of the bog, and with the 
nature of the sub-strata on which it lies, and to discover whether any large chasm 
could be found into which the water of the bog might have sunk, for the bog, which 
had been uncommonly wet, soon became drier than any other bog in the country. 
The water, however, which was found in all the rifts at three feet from the surface, 
continued to remain at that depth with little variation, and ever since a passage has 
been opened, and all the flooded meadows have become dry, the water still remains 
in the bottom of the chasms."t 

I have mentioned these strong facts, a few out of many which might be produced, 
to shew the possible benefit of one efficient drain to carry oflF the water which flows 

» Survey of Monaghan, p. 33. ' 

+ Second Report of the Commissioners of the Bogs in Ireland, p. 176. 



10+ BOG S. 

into a bog. I take it fur granted, that its being a bog instead of a lake, is a proof that 
the superabundant water finds some where or other a vent to escape. If the natural 
drain is sufficiently large to effect its purpose, no more is required; but whether it 
be natural or artificial, it leaves the surface of the bog in the same stale in which it 
was before the water ran off. I therefore think a drain can be necessary only in those 
cases in which there is a probability of the bog becoming so saturated with water, that 
it will increase and overflow, as in the instances which occured in Tipperary and 
Longford. All the engineers employed by the Bog Commissioners in Ireland, (Mr. 
Edge worth excepted,) have recommended deep and numerous surface drains, and 
this system is recommended by the Commissioners themselves in their report to Par- 
liament, when they say, " upon these principles, therefore, we are of opinion, that 
neither deep nor shallow drainage is to be exclusively preferred, but that where- 
ever extensive bogs are to be drained, main and minor drains will be required for the 
purpose, to act as receiving drains for the water, which a system of numerous small 
surface drains must collect in considerable quantities, and which we are inclined to 
consider that a plan of drainage, embracing a system of main, minor, and surface 
drains, will be found most universally applicable.'"' 

I must here beg leave to ask these gentlemen to explain the purpose of these 
" main, minor, and surface drains:" Are they to carry oflT the water retained by the 
bog? If so, I contend that no drains of any size will produce that effect. I have 
seen thousands of drains, and never could perceive the bog in the least drier even at 
the short distance of two yards from its edge. In corroboration of what I have 
asserted, I shall refer to the following opinion of Mr. Edgeworth. " Examine the 
ground immediatety near to a hole from which turf has been cut, at ten, or even at 
five yards from what is called the surface of the bog, and you will find it but little 
drier, and certainly not in the least more fertile than what is a hundred yards more dis- 
tant. Indeed, no visible change takes'place from this expensive mode of improvement. 

" I have carefully examined many j^laces where former attempts had been made to 
improve red bog. Drains of six or seven feet wide, and as many feet deep, had been 
made from the centre of the bog to the streams that separate it from dry land. These 
were about twenty perches asunder, and though they had been made upwards of 
twenty years ago, the land between them was not in any respect diflTerent from what 
had not been drained. In a float bog, two large drains had been made fifty years ago 
to enclose a road ; they are at present open, and only thirty-two feet distant from 
each other, but the ground which had been marked out for a road between these 
ditches, remains in nearly the same state as the bog on each side of it, except indeed, 
that the meadow banks formed by the stuff, which, whether fiom its becoming drier, 

' Second Report, p. 12. 



BOGS. 105 

or from its exopsure to the air. certainly in all cases where it is turned up, does 
become more capable of supporting vegetation, than it was in its former state. 
I learn, therefore, from experiments made long ago, and from what has repeatedly 
passed before my eyes, that the improvement of these bogs does not require many, 
or deep drains."* 

These and other circumstances of a similar nature induce me to assert, that no 
system of drainage will liberate the water held in bog itself; but admitting for argu- 
ment's sake that it would, can the commissioners point out with what beneficial effect 
it would be attended ?t Will any one doubt that it would render bog a mass of dry 
inert vegetable matter? And unless some means were discovered of bringing it 
into a state of putrefaction, one might as well attempt to cultivate an immense 
wool pack. Even in their present state, Mr. Rawson says, that one man with a knife, 
which he describes to be like that used for cutting hay, will effect more work in re- 
moving bog matter in a day, than ten men with a spade-t And yet a general system 
of drainage is recommended as the only way of reclaiming bogs. By a main drain 
to carry off the bottom water, something, indeed, in certain cases, may be effected ; 
but here in my opinion every benefit of drainage ends. The fact is, that in the pre- 
sent state of bogs, nothing but a covering of earth, clay, marl, or limestone gravel, 
will do any good ; and this can be applied better without large surface drains than 
with them. Mr. Robert St. George, of Kilkenny, who is one of the most useful 
practical men in the empire, in a Letter to Mr. Tighe, which that gentleman has 
inserted in the Survey of that county, says, " I have seen bog reclaimed in many 
parts of the kingdom by men of fortune, and adjoining towns, by people who had 
the power of .getting manure of different kinds, such as dung, soaper's wash, fcc. — - 
the gravelling with limestone, ice. — This is a course by which a small quantity of 
bog in a particular situation may be reclaimed ; but I think in most places the far- 
mer's time and manure would tave been better laid out on the improvement of up- 
land, as it would have cost him less by lar, to have made a much more permanent 
profit."^ There can be no doubt that if bog be buried under any kind of artificial 
staple which can be obtained, it is possible to bring it to a state of cultivation ; but 
the question is what will be the cost, and how much the permanent profit? The an- 
swer to this query will depend on local situation. In some cases the necessary mate- 
rial cannot be obtained ; in others it may be found in the neighbourhood, and when 
the bog is not too deep, the plan of chalking pursued in Hertfordshire might perhaps 

" Second Report, page 12. 

+ Let the reader consult on this point Alton on Moss Earth, p. 111, and Dr. Anderson, p. 99 and 100. 
t Surveyor Kildare, p. 94. (i Tighe's Survey of Kilkenny, p. 164. 

P 



106 BOGS. 

be found to answer.* That of sinking a shaft, and raising the clay, marl, or lime- 
stone gravel, which forms the under stratum, and thus covering the surface, might be , 
tried by using boards in order to convey it in wheel-barrows all over the bog. 

The commissioners have formed estimates of the expence of draining, surface- 
covering, cultivating, and raising a succession of crops. This part of their labour has. 
excited my astonishment ; for until some large bog is effectually cultivated, no certain 
data can be obtained to serve as the foundation for any estimate whatever. That the 
bogs in Ireland will be reclaimed and cultivated as wealth increases, and manufac- 
tures are extended, there can be no doubt. The improvements in Swindrig Moor, 
described by the Duke of Buccleugh,-i- and those of Lord Kaims,? are all evidently 
the effect of population. Daily encroachments are making upon the bogs in Ireland 
from the same cause, but the pieces reclaimed are so small, and possessed by such 
numbers, that the cost however great becomes imperceptible. The c.ise, however, 
would be very different were an individual to undertake the draining of large bogs ; 
the expence would be heavily felt, and I am mistaken if every acre would not cost 
more than the price at which the best acre of cultivated land would now be pur- 
chased. When at Coolure, in Westmeath, on the 23th of August, I808, 1 examined 
a bog belonging to Admiral Pakenham, which consists of 400 acres, all in a useless 
state. The surface of it is about twenty-four feet above the level of the lake, and 
twenty above a firm substratum of blue gravel ; of these twenty feet there are 
five feet at the surface of a spongy dry substance, and the immediate outer crust is 
covered with heath ; the other fifteen feet consist of a substance which can be cut 
with as much ease as soft clay. The five feet of spongy surface being cleared away 
for any given length, such as a quarter of a mile for example, and to the breadth of 
twenty feet, the bog is cut into peats about the size of a brick, which are used as fuel. 

This having been done one year, the next the spongy surface is turned down inta 
the trench where the peat was cut out the preceding one, and it forms the staple . 
earth, which is subjected to the followjns process: — Between the final substratum and 
the bog, there is about eighteen inches of a blue stiff clay; as the bog is surrounded by 
limestone rock, which is common in the whole country, it is carted to a kiln constructed 
in the bog, where it is burnt into lime. The cars which bring away the turf carry back 
limestone; eighty barrels are allowed to each acre, and it is spread out on the new 
land at the rate of I50 barrels a day. The expence attending this operation is about 
fifty shillings per acre, and seven shillings for spreading"; after this it is dug, which, 
costs twenty shillings, and it is then dibbled with potatoes ; the first crop in general 
is indifferent; after the potatoes are taken up it is fallowed for turnips,which are good. 

» For an account of this system, see Young's Survey of Hertfordshire, p. 158. 
+ Annals of Agriculture, vol. xxxi. p. 226. J Transactions of the Highland Society^ 



BOGS. 107 

It is next laid down with grass seeds, and remains as meadow till it becomes covered 
•with heath, which is the case perhaps in the course of four years ; at the end of thi^ 
period the same course is repeated, and then it would let for forty shillinors an acre. 
I saw some bog which had not been cut out converted into tillage land, but it does not 
an'swer nearly so well; it had been clayed and limed in the same manner, the crops,- 
however, were exceedingly indifferent, and the ground had an almost insurmountable 
inclination to produce heath. 

The Admiral has caused a great number of cabins, ten feet wide and twenty m 
length, to be built on the edge of his bog. He supplied the timber which was 
wanted, paid the labourers for building each cabin eight guineas, and allowed them 
whatever quantity of bog they chose to cultivate. Flere I found carrots and pars- 
nips growing in great luxuriance. 

Mrs. Packenham thought that every acre of the reclaimed bog cost the Admiral 
more than the sum for which he could purchase an acre of good land ; and it is 
obvious, that extensive tracts of bog cannot be improved in this manner, as it 
requires the whole bog to be cut out and carried away previously to its being cul- 
tivated. 

On the 18th of August, I809, I paid a visit to Mr. Vernon, Portaferry, county of 
Armagh, who has reclaimed much bog by covering it with earth ; without this, he 
says, nothing can be done ; but he assured me, that he could have purchased the 
same quantity of good land for a much less sum than his improvements had cost. 

When at Lord Ashtown's, at Woodlawn, in the county of Galway, in October, 
I809, his lordship shewed me good land, which had been bog reclaimed by his 
father; but it consisted of numerou.s small spots, seldom exceeding two acres, which 
had been ■covered with limestone gravel, and the bog had not been cut out. These 
spots, however, were numerous ; Lord Ashtown assured me that in cases 
where it had been cut out, it was more difficult to be reclaimed.* His lordship 
carried me to many spots in his neighbourhood which had been improved in a si- 
milar manner. It was a pleasing sight, no doutt, and I saw more of it in that part 
of Ireland than in any other ; but such spots, amidst hillocks of calcareous earth, 
which is seldom found mixed with bog in the county of Cork,+ are very different 
from the miles of deep bog which I have seen in the King's and the Queen's Counties, 
and also in Kildare, and therefore can be cheaply reclaimed. I am fully sensible 
of the importance of reclaiming the bogs of Ireland ; I know that every acre treated 
in this manner will add to the productive land of the empire, and so anxious was 

* This is strongly confirmed by Mr. Townsend's remarts on the same thing in the county of Cort. See hie 
Survey of that county, p. 608. 
+ Townsend's Cork, p. COS. 

P 2 



1«8 BOGS. 

I to procure every information on the subject, tliat with a view to this publication, I 
made a visit, even at the expence of persoiial inconvenience, to Mr. Roscoe's bog, 
near Manchester, called the Chat Moss, in September, 1811; I had much con- 
versation with him upon it in January ISIO; but b^inj desirous to ascertain from 
actual observation, the means which that gentleman pursued, I determined to see 
the spot ; Mr. Roscoe was not there at the time, but I met with his Bailiff, Robert 
Stonard, whom I found to be a most intelligent man. 

September 26, ISII, Chat Moss, between Manchester and Warrington, eleven 
miles from the latter, consists of high land, and in appearance is so similar to an 
Irish bog, that I almost imagined myself in the King's County. In general it is 
fourteen feet in depth ; in some places a pole has been thrust down sixteen without 
finding any bottom. Some fossil timber, chiefly fir, is found in it lying in all di- 
rections, but much decayed. AH large drains here have been abandoned, and nu- 
merous small ones were found to render it too dry. 

Small drains, however, stand much better than large ones. The size, when they 
are new cut, is a foot deep and the same in width, the first year; the following 
year they are enlarged to the width of thirty inches at the top, leaving the width at 
bottom a foot, and sinking them to the depth of three feet. A year after they are 
made a foot wider and a foot deeper. By these means the bottom never rises, and 
the sides become settled. These drains are cut through the whole length of the moss, 
at the distance of Efty yards from each other. The expence of the first cutting is 
Ijd. for eight yards; of the second id. and of the third 4d. at which rate a good, 
workman can earn 5j. a day. 

I was told that in the spring of ISl I, some wheat was sown on the raw moss whicll, 
had been drained; but it would have been much better to have kept it in the sacks, . 
as it will not return the seed. The plan pursued is to plough the raw moss three 
inches deep, to burn it, then to plough six inches deep, and afterwards to carry on to- 
the moss, either in the fine weather of summer, or during frost, one hundred and fifty-, 
tons of marl per English acre. The marl is conveyed in three- wheel carts, the wheels., 
nine inches wide, each carrying a ton, and drawn by two horses at length. This opera-.. 
tion must be renewed three times for the first 2 1 years, that is, at the end of every seven 
years. When this is done it is ploughed by horses, shod with wooden pattens to prevent 
their sinking into the moss, and the seed is drilled by a large machine which delivers 
manure and seed at the same time. Fourteen or fifteen tons of manure are allowed to the 
acre. The plough used has a sock which goes all the way to the heel, four feet long 
and sixteen inches wide behind. The coulter is two feet long and two and a half 
inches wide, like a skim coulter, without a common one. The coulter is placed in 
a dilection contrary to that in which it is commonly used, dragging rather than push- 
ing. The course adopted is: 1st, wheat drilled with compost; t?n bushels are 



BOGS. 



109 



considered as a good crop ; 2d, turnips ; 3d, barley or oats; 4th, clover and seeds 
which lie for three or four years. 

Sheep thrive well on the clover and turnips ; all horse-keep is purchased. Thorn 
quicks grew here for two years, and then came to a complete stand. A small piece 
of ground had been trenched for planting; the trenches were two feet deep ; a layer 
of marl was then applied, and the moss at the surface was thrown over it. After this 
another layer of marl was laid on, and in like manner covered with moss, and then 
another stratum of marl. Holes being then made, horse-dung was put into them, 
and trees were planted in each., I saw poplar, elm, sycamore, willow, ash, and alder, 
which had been phnted in April, two years before I was there, and which were then, 
that is, in the month of September, all in a thriving condition. 

Thatpeat which has been burnt answers for a manure, I believe there can be no 
doubt. I saw a superior patch of clover, where the land had been covered with peat 
ashes and with marl beyond the usual quantity. Lime in such cases has no effect. 
Turnips, white clover, and wheat, answer best. The horses were much harassed 
and could do nothing without pattens. Two horses can skim plough an acre a day 
for burning;* but in regular ploughing they can go through only half an acre; about 
a hundred acres here have been brought into a state oi cultivation. 

Here, then, we have an instance of something effected in reclaiming bog-land, with- 
out any drains of consequence ; for at the distance of fifty yards asunder, they can be 
compared only to ditches made in fields, to carry off the surface water which falls 
from the heavens; t whatever has been done has been accomplished by covering the 
bog with marl. But the question, and the only one of importance in bog improve- 
ment, is the cost. Mr. Roscoe has ordered I300 yards of iron rail-way to be con- 
structed for the pu.pose of conveying the "marl from the pit, and the same plan was 
pursued on the Trafford Moss some years ago.j: The land in the first stages of im- 
provement, not being sufEciently hard to allow the materials to be transported in 
carts, the undertakers availed themselves of a road made of iron, cast in bars of six 

feet in length, and jointed together by dove tailed steps, resting upon wooden sleepers. 
On this road one horse will with ease draw seven waggon loads of marl or sand of 
six hundred weight each. The extremity of the road, where it diverges on each side 
from the principal road, is changed daily, and a single person, without much diffi- 
culty, can take up, remove, and lay down, two hundred yards of it in a day ; a space 

' Burning has been found detrimental at Rainford Moss. Jnnuls of AgrkuUure, vol. xxv. p. 115. 

+ " If any method could be discovered of rendering moss more retentive of water, it would be of much ad- 
•vantage. But to use means for facilitating the departure of its water, is adding to its greatest defect. Under- 
draining, trenching the soil, and every operation whatever, which has a tendency to drain the moss of sap, 
beyond merely relieving the surface of stagnant water, is highly injurious to the soil, and will not remedy its ■ 
Effects." Ailon on Moss Earlh, p. 1 14. 

J Annals of Agriculture, vol. xxv. p. 117. 



110 BOGS. 

of sixteen yards wide, or eight yards on each side the road is then covered with the 
materials employed, beginning at the farther extremity of the road, and as the works 
proceed thence towards the main road, a person is employed in taking up the niovc- 
able road, which is of no farther use, and removing it to the distance of sixteen 
yards, by which means it is in readiness to begin upon as soon as the marlina; of the 
former road is completed. The horses have relays at proper intervals, and the 
marl is thus conveyed to the remotest part of the moss. 

It will, perhaps, be asked, whether I disapprove of the appointment of commission- 
ers in Ireland, and of what they have done? I am ready to admit that their labours 
in some degree have been useful ; the public are in possession of reports on the 
principal bogs, accompanied with sections of their strata, but all these might have 
been obtained at much less expence. * This expence hitherto has been unim- 
portant ; it is, I believe, under ^20,000 ; but the question is, what farther steps 
are to be pursued? and till something better is offered, I will venture to recom- 
mend one. Let an act be made for Ireland similar to the act of sewers in 
England, by which a local body of commissioners, without pay, are formed 
for each district, upon the application of two-thirds of the owners of the estates. 
These commissioners appoint a jury of twenty-three persons, also without pay, 
who on viewing and examining the land, present the necessity of main drains, 
the cost of which is levied by an acreable cess on the district. Romney Marsh, in 
Kent, the marshes in Cambridgeshire and Lincolnshire, are all under the jurisdic- 
tion of such commissioners, and in this manner the ignorance and obstinacy of no 
individual is suffered to injure the neighbourhood, by counteracting plans formed 
for the public good ; and the land thus benefited by drainage pays for the expence of 
the hnprovement. In England there are abundance of persons so unenlightened as 
to throw every impediment in the way of projects highly advantageous to the com- 
munity ; this act rouses them from their indolence, overcomes their stupidity, and 
compels them to engage in works which they have neither judgment nor inclina- 
tion to undertake of themselves. 

By the accounts which I have quoted from the surveys of Monaghan and Kildare, 
there appear to be similar beings in Ireland. To their obstinacy I would apply a si- 
milar compulsory act, and then leave the farther cultivation of the bogs to the pro- 
n-ress of wealth and the increase of population ; I would permit no individual to 
oppose what tends to the benefit of all. If those, however, who hold the reins of 
o-overnment intend to become speculators in bog improvement, and undertakers for 
reclaiming them, and if public money is to be expended for this purpose, I must 

- The accustomed price paid for measuring and mapping small estates divided into numerous inclosures 
in England, is six-pence per acre. If the number of acres of bog in Ireland, the maps of which have been 
laid before parliament, be cast up I suspect it will be found, that the expence of this survey has far exceeded 
^llis sum. 



BOGS. Ill 

deprecate the measure, as it will be productive of evil without effecting any good. 
Places may be created for engineers and overseers, ministerial dependants may be 
provided for, and parliamentary interest may be obtained; but twenty years hence, af- 
ter millions have been wasted, and for ever buried in these bogs, the scheme will be aban- 
doned. This is one of those cases which should be left to the good sense of mankind, 
and the taste for improvement which seems daily to increase. In arbitrary govern- 
ments such works must be undertaken by the crown, because the people have no 
encouragement to embark in them. In free states the case ought to be different. 
The people, if a stimulus be given to their industry, will soon perceive what is ad- 
vantageous to them, and of course will not neglect an improvement in which their 
own interest is so much concerned. Should they want instruction, a cheap edition 
of Alton's small tract on Moss Earth will teach them more than all the reports of the 
commissioners and engineers which I have yet read. I observe that this tract is 
referred to by one of them, and the name mis-spelt Eaton, but without any pac^e of 
reference ;* I suspect, therefore, that it has not yet found its way to Ireland. I have 
quoted a great deal from it without any apology, because I in vain sought for a copy 
of it in London, and thence conclude that it is very little, if at all, known in Eno-- 
land. The author seems to possess so much knowledge of his subject, and has 
treated it in so masterly a manner, as induces me to think that he ought to be con- 
sulted before the commissioners in Ireland determine on any farther steps to be 
taken.t 

I must here remark, in regard to the maps furnished by the commissioners, that 
noiie of them, Mr. Edgeworth excepted, who gives the latitude and lono-itude of 
Edgeworth's town, seems to have taken a single observation, or if taken, they have 
not mentioned them. I shewed these reports to Mr. Arrowsmith, as he was anx- 
ious to insert the true situation of the bogs in his map, but he could find no data 
to determine their position or boundaries. As these reports have cost the public 
upwards of ^10,000. they ought certainly to have exhibited the actual position of 
each bog, laid down from accurate observations. 

Those who wish to obtain farther information in regard to turf and turf mosses 
may consult the following works, which I believe are some of the best on the sub- 
ject. Schookius de Turffis, Gron. I65S. — Van Berkhey Nat. Hist. Van Holland 

Amst. 1769. — CEcon. Nachricht der Patriot. Gesellschaft in Schlesien, I773. Ab- 

handl.der Freyen, CEconom. Gesellschaft in St. Peteisburg, 1767. — Riem's CEconom. 
Encyclopedie, 1789- — Fleischer's Naturhistorie, 1792. — Liitken's CEconom. Tan. 
l:er, 1759- — Beckman's Beytrage zur CEconomie, 17 79- — Von Cancrin Abhandlung 
vom Torfe, 1789. — WestenholzPriiskriftom Vatnledningen, 1772. — Dissertation sur 

♦ Secoud Report, p. 178. 

+ Should any of the commissioners see this work, I would recommend to their attention p. 117 of Mr. 
Alton's Treatise. 



112 MIN £R A LS, &c. 

la Tourbe de Picardie, par Bellery, 17 64. — Abildgaard Abhandlung vom Torf. 
1765 — S. R. Strange Tilforlatelig Beskrifning om Briinnetorf. 17G2.— P. A. Gadd oin 
Brannetorf, 1759- — Von der Natur des Torfes und von Zubereitung morastiger 
Gegenden. M. Miiller von Entdeckung des Torfes, 1752. Several papers on turf 
may be seen also in the Danske CEconom. Magazin. 



CHAPTER V. 

M I N E R A L S, &c. 

It is not my intention to give, under this Jiead, a detailed account of the mineral 
productions found in Ireland, systematically classed and arranged, according to the 
modern discoveries. For so difficult and so extensive a task I do not feel compe- 
tent, nor is it necessary that 1 should attempt it. I shall, therefore, leave it to pro- 
fessed mineralogists, who have made this branch of natural history their particular 
study, and content myself with a brief view, accompanied with remarks of those mi- 
neral' substances connected with the commerce and manufactures of Ireland ; or 
which are, or might be, applied to different purposes in the arts and domestic 
economy. 

Those desirous of ascertaining the mineralogical productions of each county, 
will find specimens of them in the Liskean Collection, at the Society's house in 
Dublin ; and the catalogue will afford much gratification to the man of science, to 
whom such a nomenclature, though it may furnish little amusement to common 
readers, must be highly interesting. When I was in Dublin, in the spring of the 
year I809, the society proposed to employ Mr. R. Griffith in making a general mi- 
neralogical survey of the kingdom, and the expectation raised by this scheme, 
should it ever be pursued and completed, will not, in my opinion, be disappointed. 
The object is of great national importance, and well worth the attention of a public 
body, by whom alone a plan of this l^ind can be effectually carried into execution. 

EARTHS. 

Marl of different kinds is found in various parts of Kilkenny,* and though often 
tried for manure, it is not sought after to that extent which it might be. Some of an 
excellent quality was discovered a few years ago, on the farm of Miss Doyle, near 
the Brandon Hills, in this county, but as yet no use has been made of it. It is abun- 
dant in Cork, and is to be found in Dublin, Kerry, and many other places.t In 
Wexfurd it has, for a long time, been commonly used as manure. 

Yellow ochre of a good quality abounds in Kilkenny, some of which raised at 

» Tighe's Survey of Kilkenny, p. 26 and 109. 
i Smith's Nat. Hist, of Cork, vol. ii. p. 367. Archer's Survey of Dublin, p. 6. Smith's Kerr)-, p. 391. 



MINERALS, 8cc, n3 

Curraghlahy, in the parish of Powcrstown, has been applied to use. Red ochre is 
found in Mayo, and in several other places. To particularize all the parts of Ire- 
land where ochre is to be met with, would be tedious ; it seems to be widely diffused, 
particularly in the counties of Cork and of Waterford, and in the former exhibits a 
great variety of colour.* 

An earth, having a strong resemblance to fuller's earth is found in great plenty in 
the lands of Calinafersey, on the bank of the river Lane, in the county of Kerry. It 
is smooth and unctuous, of a light yellowish brown colour, and has very little foreign 
matter intermixed with it. This substance takes grease and spots out of woollen, 
and seems to possess most of the properties of the real fuller's earth, but it has not 
yet been tried in the scouring of cloth. Fuller's earth is a substance of such value 
in the woollen manufactory, that it cannot be too carefully sought after in Ireland. 
A white saponaceous earth, called by some fuller's earth, from its taking grease out 
of woollen, is found in abundance at Ballymackean, near the old head of Kingsale, 
in the county of Cork. + 

CLAY. 

Good tenacious brown potter's clay is found in the yard of the old barrack at 
Castlecomer, in Kilkenny, and various kinds of clay which would answer the same 
purpose are dug up in the neighbourhood. Mr. Tighe says, that an attempt was 
made, many years ago, to establish a pottery there, but it failed, probably for want 
of ^capital. Few places are better situated for manufactures than Castlecomer, 
hands being numerous, provisions reasonable, and labour cheap. There is also 
abundance of water for every kind of machinery, j 

Clay, capable of making bricks of various colours, and particularly pale bricks, 
which are deemed the most durable, occurs in almost every parish and townland of 
Tyrone. About Fintona, in the barony of Clogher, good flooring and ridge tiles are 
made, also garden pots, and a great variety of earthenware for country use. The 
best pottery in the county, and perhaps in Ireland, is within a mile of Coal Island, 
on the road to Verner's Ferry, in the barony of Dungannon. All sorts of coarse 
crockery ware, fire bricks, and tiles for malt and oat kilns, of as good a quality as 
any imported, are manufactured here. 

The clay before it is baked is of a dirty white colour ; the best of it is made up into 
small oblong pieces of about a pound each, which are dried in the sun and sold on 
the spot at a penny each. They are used as a substitute for fuller's earth, for clean- 
ing leather breeches, and various other purposes. ^ 

♦ Tighe's Survey of Kilkenny, p. S7. M'Parlan's Survey, p. 20. Smith's Nat. and Civil Hist, of Cork 
vol. ii. p. 369' 

+ Smith's Nat. and Civil Hist, of Kerry, p, 390. Smith's Cork, vol. ii. p. 3(53. 

t Tighe's Survey of Kilkenny, p. 76. () M'Evoy's Survey of Tyrone, p. 25. 

Vol. I. Q, 



114 MINER ALS, &c. 

A plastic argillaceous clay,- containing an admixture of ferruginous particles, is 
found at Knock, in the barony of Morgallion, in Meatli. It has given birth to a manu- 
factory of the coarser kind of pottery, such as tiles, garden pots, and other utensils 
used among the lov.er classes, which has been carried on here for many years, but 
rather on a confined scale.* 

Clay of different kinds and colours is found in the island of Torrey, belonging to 
the county of Donegal. Of some of them the common people manufacture pots, 
which they use for boiling their potatoes or other articles of food.t 

Good tobacco-pipe clay fit for use is said to be found near Aghaviller in Kilken- 
ny.:; Clay applicable to the same purpose, and brick clays, occur in some parts of 
the county of Mayo.§ 

A clay remarkable for being as white as snow is found in a stratum nearly six feet 
thick, on the lands of Castlemary, a mile west of Cloyne, in the county of Cork. 
It is used in white-washing the walls of houses. If only diluted with water, it com- 
municates a whiteness superior to that produced by any kind of lime, and will stand 
the weather for several seasons. It is of a saponaceous nature, and takes grease out 
of boards. If mixed with oil, it forms putty for glaziers as good as that made with 
Spanish white. || 

Near the Redstone river in Leitrim there are clays of different colours, bluish 
green, yellow, pale red, a beautiful crimson, &cc. These clays are exceedingly 
viscous, smooth, and unctuous to the touch, arid exhibit various degrees of coarse- 
ness, consistence, and induration, up to that of stone. The sands with which they 
are mixed are very fine and silicious. ' 

The Redstone river, which runs through the estate of Mr.Wynne is highly worthy 
of notice, and deserves in particular the attention of the mineralogist. Its banks 
present all the variety of colours, by which these clays are diversified, and even its 
bed is bestrewed with stones, which shew the same vivid tints, forming altogether 
a ver)' singular phenomenon. H t 

SAND. 

Sand, though a very common substance in most countries, and little valued, 
is of considerable use in the arts, agriculture, and domestic economy. On some 
kinds of soil it is employed as manure ; it gives more tenacity to cement, and its uti- 
lity in scouring utensils of iron or brass is well known in every family where atten- 
tion is paid to cleanliness. It enters as an ingredient into flint glass, and it serves to 

» Thompson's Survey of Meath, p. 19. § M'Parlan's Survey of Mayo, p. 21. 

+ M'Parlan's Survey of Donegal, p. 26. || Smith's Nat. »nd CivilHist. ofCork, vol.ii. p. 363, 364. 

J Tighe's Survey of Kilkenny, p. 87. ^ M'Parlan's Survey of Leitrim, p. U, 15. 



MINERA LS, &c. 115 

make moulds for casting sheet lead and other articles.* Sand fit for all these pur- 
poses, is found, according to Dr. Rutty, in various parts of the county of Dublin.! 

A kind of sand composed chiefly of crystals, which is used for making scythe- 
boards, greatly superior to those brought from England, is found on the shore of 
Lough Graney, in Clare. It is in such request among the country people, that they 
come for it upwards of twenty miles. Sand of the same quality is procured also from 
Lough Coutra, on the estate of Pendergast Smyth, Esq. J 

Silicious sand may be obtained in great abundance on Murkish Mountain in Done- 
gal, which is situated within four miles of two deep and safe harbours, Sheephaven 
and Dunfanaghy. For some time past it has been sent to the Belfast glass manufac- 
tory, where it is substituted for that which used to be imported from Eno^land. It 
is supplied at the bay of Ards for two guineas per ton.§ 

STONES. 

Among the productions of Ireland which may be classed under this head, none 
seem to have a greater claim to attention than that of basaltes, not on account of any 
useful purpose to which it is applied ; but because nature presents it under the 
most awful forms, being sometimes piled up in immense structures of stupendous 
height and extent, where columns of it are arranged in various directions, and with 
as much regularity as if they had been deposited by the hand of man. It deserves 
considerable notice also on account of the dispute to which it has given rise between two 
classes of philosophers, the Plutonians and the Neptunians, theformer of whom assert, 
that it is indebted for its origin to subterranean fire, while the latter maintain that 
it is the result of deposition, and consequently the production of water. Both 
these opinions have bewn supported by very ingenious arguments ; and though able 
men have ranged themselves as partisans on each side, and endeavoured to solve 
the question, it does not appear to have been determined in a satisfactory man- 
ner. The basaltic district in Ireland occupies a range of coast stretched out from the 
estuary of Carrickfergus on the one hand, to Lough Foyle on the other, and extends 
inland to the southern shores of Lough Neagh. Throughout the whole of this 

♦ Sand was formerly an object of commerce, and large quantities of it were sold by tlie Egyptians to the 
Romans for the use of their Athtela or wrestlers, who rubbed it over their bodies. It was sent to Rome 
sometimes by ship loads ; and Suetonius relates, that in the time of Nero, the people expressed tlie utmost 
indignation on seeing a vessel arrive from Alexandria entirely laden with the sand of the Nile, for the use of 
the wrestlers belonging to the imperial court, at a time when the city was reduced to a state of great distress 
for the want of corn. But this use of the sand of the Nile is much older; for we are informed by Pliny, 
lib. XXXV. cap. 1.^, that cargoes of it were sent to Leonatus, Craterus, andMeleager, the generals of Alexander 
the Great. Hisl. du Commerce des Egyptiens, par Ameilhon, p. 253. 

+ Rudy's Nat. Hist, of Dublin, vol. ii. p. 17, 22. |) M'Parlan's Survey of Donegal, p. 23. 

X Dutton's Survey of Clare, p. 14. 

<12 



116 M I N E R A L S, &c. 

country the b:isaltes is frequently seen in thick beds, and in this state it often 
separates into loose blocks, resembling that fossil known' in Sweden by the 
name of trap; but for the most part it is entirely amorphous, and disposed^ in 
large masses which do not split or separate in any assignable direction. At that sin- 
gular phenomenon called the Giant's Causeway, and many other places, it appears 
in large pillars standing perpendicular to the horizon ; but in some of the capes, 
and particularly near Ushet, in the isle of Raghe'-y, tliey lie in an oblique position, 
and at the Doon Point, in the same island, and along the Ballintoy shore, they 
form a variety of regular curves.' The little point of Doon is indeed exceedingly 
curious, as it exhibits pillars perpendicular, horizontal, and bending.* 

The Causeway itself is generally described as a mole or quay projecting from the 
base of a steep promontory some hundred feet into the sea, and formed of per- 
pendicular pillars of basaltes, which standing in contact with each other, exhibit 
a sort of polygonal pavement somewhat similar in appearance to a solid honey-comb. 
The pillars are irregular prisms of various denominations, from three to eight 
sides; but the hexagonal columns are as numerous as all the others together.t 

On minute inspection each pillar is found to be separable into several joints, the 
articulation of which is remarkably neat and compact, the convex termination of 
one joint alays meeting with a concave socket in the next ; and besides this the 
angles of one frequently project over those of the other,; so that they are com- 
pletely locked together, and can rarely be separated without fracturing the 
parts. 

The sides of each column are unequal among themselves; but the contiguous 
sides of adjoining columns are always of equal dimensions, so as to touch in all their 
parts ; and though Jthe angles be of various magnitudes, the siftn of the contiguous an- 
gles of adjoining pillars always makes up four right ones ; so] that there are no void 
spaces among the basaltes, the surface of the Causeway presenting a regular and com- 
pact pavement of polygon stones. t 

In regard to situation, the pillars at the Causeway stand on the level of the 
beach, and even under the surface of the ocean, whence they may be traced 
through every degree of elevation, to the summit of the highest grounds in the neigh- 
bourhood ; as at the old fort of Dunmull, and on the top of Croaghmore, six or 
seven hundred feet above the level of the sea. 

With respect to size, the perfect pillars of the Causeway are usually about a 
foot and a half in breadth, and thirty in length. Among the imperfect and irregular 
crystallizations found throughout the country, small prisms sometimes occur, which 

* Hamilton's Letters on the Coast of Antrim, p. 73. 
+ The triangular and octagonal pillars occur very rarely. J Hamilton's Letters, S;c. p. 28. 



MINERALS, &c. 117 

do not exceed a few inches in breadth, and which in length are proportionally 
d iinutive. In many of the capes and hills the size of the pillars is much 
larger than at the Causeway. At Fairhead they are of gigantic magnitude, often ex- 
ceeding five feet in breadth, and two hundred in length. 

" Of these vast columns the passage usually called Fhir Leith, or the Grey Man's 
Path, in the promontory of Fairhead, exhibits a magnificent example. It is a deep 
chastn dividing the solid promontory in twain; the upper termination of this sin- 
gular passage is narrow, and barred over as. it were by tlie fragment of a pillar, 
t\'hich having fallen across the fissure, remains suspended at an elevated situation. 
As one descends, the chasm widens and becomes more important ; its solid walls 
of rude and threatening columns increase in height, regularity, and magnificence, 
until they attain to a perpendicular elevation of two hundred and twenty feet, 
conducting the passenger at length to the interesting heap of massive ruins which 
forms the base of the promontory itself, and exhaust the fury of the impetuous 
northern ocean."* 

The leading features of this whole coast are the two great promontories of 
Bengore and Fairhead, which stand at the distance of eight miles from each 
other. The former lies about seven miles west of Ballycastle, and is generally 
described by seamen as an extensive head-land, running out from the coast a con- 
siderable way into the sea; but strictly speaking, it is made up of a number of lesser 
ca"pes and bays, each having its own proper name, the whole of which forms 
what seamen denominate the Head of Bengore. 

These capes are composed of different ranges of pillars, and a great number 
of strata; which, from the abruptness of the coast, are extremely conspicuous, 
and form an unrivalled pile of natural architecture, where all the regularity and 
elegance of art is united to the wild magnificence of nature. 

The most perfect of these capes is called Pleaskin. The summit of it is co- 
vered with a thin grassy sod, under which lies the natural basaltic rock, having 
generally a hard surface, somewhat cracked and shivered ; at the depth of ten or 
•twelve feet from the summit this rock begins to assume a columnar tendency 
and forms a range of massy pillars of basaltes, which stand perpendicular to 
the horizon, presenting on the sharp face of the promontory, the appearance of a 
magnificent gallery or colonade upwards of sixty feet in height. 

This colonade is supported on a solid base of coarse, black, irreo-ular rock 
near sixty feet thick, abounding in blebs and air-holes ; but though compara- 
tively irregular, it may be evidently observed to affect a peculiar figure, tendin"^ in 
many places to run into regular forms resembling the shooting of salts, and many 
other substances, during a hasty crystallization. 

* Hamihon's Letters, p. 75, 76. 



]18 MINER A LS, 8cc. 

Under this great bed of stone stands a second range of pillars between forty 
and fifty feet in height, less gross and more exactly defined than those of the 
upper story ; many of them on a close view emulating even the neatness of the 
columns of the Giant's Causeway. This lower range is borne on a layer of red ochre 
stone, which serves as a relief to shew it to greai advantage. 

These two admirable natural galleries, together with the interjacent mass of irre- 
gular rock, form a perpendicular height of one hundred and seventy feet ; from the 
base of which the promontory, covered over with rock and grass, slopes down to the 
sea for the space of two hundred feet more, making in all a mass of nearly four hun- 
dred feet in height, which in beauty and the variety of its colouring, in elegance and 
singularity of arrangement, and in the extraordinary magnitude of its objects, can 
scarcely be rivalled by any thing of the kind at present known. 

At the distance of eight miles, as already mentioned, the promontory of Fairhead 
raises its lofty summit more than five hundred feet above the sea, forming the eastern 
termination of Ballycastle Bay. It presents to view a vast mass of rude columnar 
stones extremely large, many of them exceeding two hundred feet in length, 
and in their texture so coarse as to resemble an imperfect compact granite, 
rather than the unifoim fine-grained basaUes, which composes the Giant's Cause- 
way. At the base of these gigantic columns lies a wild waste of natural ruins, 
of an enormous size, which in the course of successive ages have been tumbled 
down from their foundation, by storms, or some more powerful operations of 
nature. These massive bodies have sometimes withstood the shock of their fall, 
and are often seen lying in groups and clumps of pillars resembling many of the 
varieties of artificial ruins, and forming a very unique and striking landscape.* 

The basaltes of the Giant's Causeway is a black ponderous stone, of an uniform 
close grain and hard texture, fusible /p^r jf, and pretty strongly magnetic. It does 
not effervesce in any of the mineral acids ; it is free from animal or vegetable exuviae ; 
nor does it contain the slightest vestige of any organized substance whatever.t 

According to the experiments of that able chemist Bergman, 100 parts of basaltes 
contain — 

PARTS. 

Silicious earth 50 

Argillaceous earth .... I5 
Calcareous earth . . : . . 8 

Magnesia . 2 

Iron : . . 25 

100 

* Hamilton's Letters, p, 30-38. 4 Ibid, p. 42. 



MIN E RA LS, &c. ng 

From the metallic nature of this stone, it may be inferred, that the columns of 
the Giant's Causeway are all natural magnets, whose lower extremity is their north 
pole, and the upper extremity their south pole. For having stood durin"- many 
ages in a perpendicular position, they must have acquired that polarity which is 
peculiar to all iron substances in a" similar situation; and like natural magnets, 
every fragment when broken will have its north and south pole. " And this," 
says Mr. Hamilton, "I have found true by experience; each pillar in the Giant's 
Causeway, and each fragment of a pillar which I applied near to the needle, havino- 
its attractive and repellent point." 

" Hence likewise it follows, that the great capes of this northern coast must pos- 
sess a similar property ; and accordingly in the semicircular bays of Benjore I have 
often found the compass to deviate very much from the meridian."* 

Though basaltes itself has hitherto been of little use to man, it is accompanied 
with other substances, many of which, by various modifications, derive their ori- 
gin from it, and might be applied to some valuable purpose in economy or the 
arts. Among these may be mentioned thin strata of rich iron ores, of that spe- 
cies commonly cMed hamatiles ; other varieties resembling what are usually deno- 
minated bog ores, present themselves in greater abundance, and are found chiefly on 
the sides of the mountains and in the vallies. Ochres also, of several colours, 
prevail amid the basaltic beds, throughout different parts of the country. The pre- 
dominant colour is red, varying from a dull ferruginous hue to the intensity of ver- 
million. There is much argil generally intermixed with these calces of iron, but in- 
stances occur where they are sufficiently pure to answer all the purposes of coarse 
paint. To these I shall add zeolites, found in the cells and cavities of the basaltes, in 
masses which weigh from a grain to a pound; an extensive tribeof clays, varying inde- 
finitely in colour, tenacity, fusibility, and othei" properties, and a compound gritty pow- 
der, much resembling the pozzolana of Italy, or the terras of the Canary Islands. The 
last-mentioned substance, which results from a decomposition of the finer and softer 
particles of the basaltes, might, with proper attention, be employed for the same im- 
portant uses as the before-mentioned volcanic products in sub-marine buildin^fs and 
other works exposed to constant moisture. I shall close this list with one substance 
more, which, as it may be of use in ornamental architecture, deserves to be mentioned. 
It is calcareous earth united to the vitriolic acid deposited through the argil in strata 
of alabaster. This substance is found to answer for all the purposes of stucco, 8cc. 
equally well as the foreign gypsum.* Those desirous of farther information in re- 
gard to this wonderful phenomenon of nature, may consult the following papers in 
the Philosophical Transactions: Letter by Sir Richard Bulkeley, concerning- the 
Giant's Causeway in Ireland, vol. xvii. n. 199, p- 70S — 710. An Account of the 

f Hamilton's Letters, p. 82— 91. 



120 M I N E R A L S, &r. 

Giant's Causewav in Ireland, wiih Answers to Sir Richard Buikeley's Queries re- 
lating to the same, by Samuel Foley, vol. xviii. n. 212, p. 1/0 — 175- Some Notes, 
by T. Molyneaux, upon the foregoing Account of the Giant's Causeway, vol. xviii. 

n. 212, p. 175 ISS. A Letter, containing some Additional Observations on the 

Giant's Causeway in Ireland, vol. xx. n. 241, p- 209—223- A True Prospect of the 
Giant's Causeway, by Edwin Sandys, vol. xix. n. 235- An Account of the Giant's 
Causeway in Ireland, by Richard Pococke, vol. xiv. n. 485, p. 124—127. vol. xlviii. 

p_ 226 238. A West Prospect of the Giant's Causeway, and an East Prospect, 

painted by Susannah Diury, and engraved by Vivares, were published in 1744- 

An Account, by Mr. Strange, of two Giant's Causeways, and other volcanic con- 
cretions in the Venetian State, may be seen, Phil. Trans, vol. Ixv. p. 5 — 47- 

A similar account of one in the Euganean Hills, near Padua, is given in the same 

volume, p. 418— 423- 

Ireland is said to be formed of one immense rock, or bed of granite, which is seen 
burstino- out in some of the high and primitive mountains. Of this primitive gra- 
nite, a part of the central mountains of the county of Wicklow seem to be formed, 
and also the ridge of mountains which separate the county of Wexford from the 
countv of Carlow.* This kind of stone, indeed, abounds in many of the counties ; 
where it is applied to various purposes in building and architecture. In Kilkenny 
it occupies that portion of the county which lies chiefly between the Nore and the 
Barrow, and is found of various shades, grey, red, and yellow. In the fineness of 
its grain it exhibits considerable diflference, but some of it is very coarse. The best 
is raised from a quarry at Mount Loftus; it is a beautiful stone of a light yellow- 
cast, fine o-rained, and compact. It can be taken up in blocks of a very large size, 
and wrought into any form by the chisel. It is used mostly in single pieces for 
o-ate-posts, which are exceedingly handsome, nor can there be any nacre durable, and 
at the same time equally cheap ; lately a pair of gate-posts cost only a guinea. 
" This granite," says Mr. Tighe, " cannot be seen any where to better advantage 
than in the porch erected by Mr. Power, at Kilfane, which consists of four pillars 
each a sincrle block surmounted by a frize ; in the execution of it the delicate mould- 
ino^s are as well expressed as they could have been in any other stone."t 

In the county of Down granite is to be met with in detached masses, and of various 
colours and de^-rees of fineness, but the great body of it is confined to the barony 
of Mourne, the lordship of Newry, part of Upper Iveagh, and a very small portion 
of the barony of Kinalarty. Quarries of it are opened in different parts along the 
face of the mountains, and from the little river Annalong there is an exportation 
of it to other places on the coast, t Granite abounds also in the neighbourhood of 

'•■ M'Parlan's Survey of Slig», p. 23. + Tighe's Survey of Kilkenny, p. 27. 

J Dubourdieu's Survey of Down, p. ifi, 17. 



M I N E R A L S, &c. 121 

Dublin, even in all the mountains to the south, and to such a degree as to have in 
some measure supplanted the use of Portland stone ; for though it is not capable of 
being cut into the finer figures of architecture, it may be chiselled into any shape 
^vhatever, and at the same time is much more capable of resisting the influence of 
the weather. It is cut at the quarry, Avhere at first it is of a soft nature, but hardens 
by exposure to the air, into window-jaumbs, and window-stools, lintens, and jaumbs " 
of doors, pillars, troughs, and chimney-pieces. The spire of the steeple of St. Pa- 
trick's church, Dublin, was built of it, and also part of Essex Bridge."* 

Granite of various kinds is seen emerging from beneath the basalt mountain of 
Sliebh-Gallan, in the county, of Derry.t 

Sand-stone, more or less fit for building, is found in the lower levels of Derry, as 
along the Largentea, the Castle, and the Baltagh rivers. The quarry of Alknever, 
near Dungivin, is of the finest quality. The colour of the stone is a bright tawney, 
not unlike that of Portland stone, and many of the best buildings have been con- 
structed with it ; but as it lies quite inland, and not convenient for any road, it is not 
to be obtained without great expence. It is wrought into window-stools, quoin-stones, 
grinding-stones, 8cc. at the rate of one shilling per cubic foot. It has been con- 
veyed for architectural purposes to Derry, to Down Hill, and even to Cale- 
don.? 

The county of Down produces remarkably fine freestone, the principal quarries 
of which are those of Scraba, near Newtown, and those of Kilwarlin, on the south 
side of the road from Hilsborough to Moira. The latter yields flags of great length 
and breadth, and of different colours, from the clear stone colour, to the brownish 
red; the former are very superior in beauty and hardness. A stone of uncommon, 
dimensions taken from it, is to be seen as a step to the communion-table of the church 
of Hilsborough ; it is twenty-feet in length, and two in breadth. § 

Quarries of excellent freestone, fit for building, are found in the county of Mayo.|l 
Akindofgrit, or freestone as it iscalled,couslstinsprincipally of quartzy sand, with 
a silicious cement, is dug up from quarries near Kilmaganny, in the county of Kil- 
kenny, whence stones have been raised to floor part of the cathedral of Waterford ; 
but on the side of the hills there are more quarries from which the inhabitants of 
Iverk obtain handsome freestones, and the farmers sometimes build of them very 
neat cut-stone chimneys. The stones are easily worked, and have no defect, except 
that they cannot be raised in blocks of sufficient size, as the strata are very thin, and 
seldom exceed ten inches; some of the same sort, more or less fine, are found on 
the side of the hills east of Knocktopher, and in the hills of Coulagh, south of 
Callan.H 

♦ Rutty's Nat. Hisl. of Dublin, p. 131,132. (1 Dubourdieu's Survey of Down, p. 13, 14. 

4 Sampson's Survey of Derry, p. 91. || Survey of Mayo. 

J Ibid. p. 97 and 101. H Tighe's Survey of Kilkenny, p. 35. 

Vol. I. R 



122 MINERALS, Sec- 

There are abundant quarries of very good freestone south of the city of Dublin.* 
Yellow mica is sometimes found in large masses on the lower part of the hills 
below Inistioge, on the western side of the Nore, in Kilkenny, and a kind of bed of it 
is seen at Inistioge. The detached stones which form the surface of the hills are 
worked up for common uses, and are called fire-stones, because they are employed 
chiefly for hearths. They are formed alsointo troughs and window-stools, and applied 
to various other purposes, t- 

In Kilkenny there are hills of breccia, which run southward from the Nore, and 
joining the hills above Knocktopher, spread towards the south and the south-east. On 
the top of the hill of Drumdowny, which forms the extremity of the principal range, 
there are about three hundred acres enclosed by a dry stone wall, and appropriated 
for the purpose of quarrying this stone, which is cut into mill-stones. There is a 
constant demand for them, and some years ago they were exported to England, but a 
duty of forty shillings per pair, having been imposed there on their importation, the 
trade then ceased. They were sent, however, coast-ways to Cork, Dublin, and 
other Irish ports. Ten guineas were lately the price of the largest pair of mill-stones, 
but eleven or twelve are now sometimes demanded. The workmen employed receive 
six guineas per pair for their labour, and an able and successful stone-cutter, can 
sometimes finish a single stone in a week; but as the stone selected frequently breaks, 
in consequence of flaws Imperceptible till It is worked, the profit to the la- 
bourers is uncertain. The dimensions of some of the largest are five feet di- 
ameter, and sixteen inches in the eye^ smaller ones, which are called horse mill- 
stones, are about three feet eight Inches In diameter, and thirteen inches thick 
in the eye; the latter are sold for half the price of the former. As the stones 
lie near the surface or appear above it, a cavity is formed round the piece fixed 
upon, it is then chiselled in Its original bed, and when finished is rolled down the 
hill by means of a pole passing through the eye, and directed by ropes, after w'hich 
It Is shipped with care Into the vessel ready to receive it. J 

A great part of the county of Tyrone is supplied with mill-stones from the rocky 
mountains about Drumquin ; they are seldom obtained from regular quarries, but are 
hewn out of single detached pieces of rock.^ 

Sllicious schist abounds in some parts of Kilkenny; the base of Brandon Hill on 
the side of the Barrow, and the hill running thence to Gralgue, is composed of It. 
Between Inistioge and Ross it is quarried out of the steep banks of the river for 
building. The town of Ross is mostly constructed of It. In a good quarry three 
men can raise a boat load, containing eleven ton, in the course of a day. A boat 
load costs from seven shillings to eight shillings and eiglit-pence ; and in some places 
thirteenpence is paid for the liberty of quarrying such a freight. H 

» Archer's Survey of Dublin, p. 6. J Tighe's Survey of Kilkenny, p. 34. 

+ Tighe's Survey of Kilkenny, p. 28. (I M'Evoy's Survey ofTyrone, p. 20. 

li Tighe's Survey of Kilkenny, p. 30. 



MINER ALS, &c. 123 

Flags, which consist of a siliciferous shistose argillite, containinj^ mica, are duo- up 
in Galhnoy, at Lisdowny, and at Ballyiing, in the county of Kilkenny; at the last- 
mentioned place they are about two-pence-halfpenny per foot. On the other side 
of the TS'ore, a flag quarry is worked at Conahy. Some thin ones raised here are used 
instead of slates; for flooring they are sold undressed at about sixpence per small 
load ; the best are sold dressed at sixpence-halfpenny a foot; those raised for slating 
cost about four shillings and ten-pence-halfpenny per load of seven and a half cwt. 
These stones are used for hearths and for other purposes ; but the principal flao- 
quarries are at Kellymount and Shankill ; at the former, the quarry begins at ten 
or twelve feet from the surface, and is worked to the depth of forty feet. It gives 
constant employment to about sixteen men, twelve at ten-pence, and four squarers 
at one shilling per day ; it is rented for thirty guineas a year ; some of the best fla^s 
are sold at eighteen-pence a yard, and those for hearth-stones at two shillino-s the 
piece; for drawing a load hence to the Barrow, about three miles, is fifteen- 
pence. 

The quarry of Shankill is on the other side of the same hill, and employs nearly an 
equal number of men, who usually work by the piece, but were formerly paid three- 
pence per yard, at present they sometimes get four-pence. The workmen can make 
from one shilling to sixteen-pence a day. The carriage of a load to the Barrow costs 
from thirteeft-pence to fifteen-pence. The quarry is rented at JCSO. per annum, but 
the excavation is so great, that a pump is necessary to drain the water from it, by 
which means the expence is increased. The surface of these flags is for the most part 
ochreous, or tinged with iron.* 

Slate, though imported in great quantities from Wales, is to be found in most dis- 
tricts of Ireland. Boate mentions the working of slate quarries in his time, and at 
present there are very large ones in various parts of the country. One of great 
extent found in the mountains of Glanmore, near Westport, gives daily employment 
to two hundred workmen; and the best sort of slates dug from it are said to be supe- 
rior in quality to any brought from England. + 

The Bradford slates in Clare, have long been celebrated ; they are nearly equal to 
the best Welsh slates, and cost at the quarry £2. 5s. 6d. per ton ; a smaller kind are 
sold for £i. 6s. Mr. Dutton thints, as the communication is now opened by the 
Shannon to Dublin, that they will supply that city, to the exclusion of the Welsh 
slates. Killaloe slates, however, are reckoned better than the Bradford ; they are 
sold by the ton and half ton, at ^2. 5s- 6d. per ton, and in quarter tons at 55. per 
hundred; small slates cost 13J. per thousand. The quarry men are allowed one- 
half of the profit for raising them; the other goes to the proprietor, Mr. Henry of 
Straffon ; but the quarries are badly worked, the surface only being cut out, and it 

« Tighe's Survey of Kilkenny, p. i\, 42. + M'Parlan's Survey of Mayo, p. 20, 

R 2 



124 I\I I N E R A L S, Sic. 

appears probable that the best slates are at a depth which could not be reached with- 
out machinery.* 

There is a good slate quarry in Donegal, within a mile of Letterkenny, and half 
a mile of Lough Swilly.t 

Slates are found also in the county of Cork, particularly near Kingsale on the 
Bandon River, where there are many quarries of it. There are quarries likewise 
at Cloghnikelty, from which, as well as Kingsale, slates are sent by sea to Cork, 
where they are used for roofing houses, being exceedingly light and durable. J 

Mr. Head of Derry, in the county of Tipperary, possesses one of the finest slate 
quarries in the kingdom. 

Limestone is so general in Ireland, that it occurs in all the counties except Wex- 
ford, Wicklow. Tyrone, and Antrim. § It is of various colours, and besides fur- 
nishing an excellent manure, .is employed in many places for the purposes of ar- 
chitecture. 

Limestone both white and blue is found in the county of Derry, where the latter 
is used for building, some of it being of so fine a texture as to resemble coarse mar- 
ble ; but it is frequently met with in a state so friable, that it is spread over the land 
for manure without being burnt. In a limestone rock on the coast of this county, 
there is a remarkable cavern called the Robbers' Cave, which contains apartments, 
where a large banditti concealed themselves with a considerable booty some years 
ago. II 

Limestone of different colours, white, reddish, and black, occurs in various parts 
of Kilkenny, but the black is said to produce the best lime. At Ballyragget ther£ 
is a quarry of black limestone above the town, which comes close to the river ;. it 
is hard, susceptible of a fine polish, and might be used in the place of marble. The- 
price of quarrying is three-pence a load for stone to burn, and from three-pence- 
halfpenny to four-pence for stone intended to be applied to the purpose of ardaitec- 
ture ; the work is usually paid in this manner, but when the men are engaged by the 
day, they receive thiileen-pence and their diet. In a quan y of fine blackish limestone 
near Ballyspellan, thin slabs for tomb-stones are sold at one shilling per foot. A.ll 
the limestone of Kilkenny contains impressions of shells or corallines.? 

At Ardbraccan in Meath, on the domain of the bishop, is an excellent limestone 
quarry of a fine white grain, and capable of being worked into any form for build- 
ing. The strata are horizontal, and of various degrees of thickness, from four inches 
to two feet ; columns have been raised and worked here of from fifteen to eighteen 
inches in diameter, and nine or ten feet long; of this stone the Hon. Dr. Henry 

* Dutloii's Survey of Clare, p. 16, )) Newenham's View of Ireland, p. 74. 

+ M'Parlan's Survey of Donegal, p. 23. || Sampson's Survey of Derry, p. Q3 — 96. 

t Smith's Nat. and Civil Hist, of Cork, vol. ii. p. 3/3. 5 Tiglic's Survey of Kilkenny, p. 93, 94. 



MINERALS, &c. ,25 

Maxwell, late Bishop of Meath, built a beauti-rul pulace at A rd brae can,* which dis- 
plays simplicity of design and accuracy of execution. This stone is susceptible of 
a fine polish, and though white when it comes from the chisel, acquires in the course 
of time a greyish colour. Tomb-stones and door-cases of it are sent lo a verv ^reat 
distance, but the quarrying of it is attended with considerable expence, in conse- 
quence of the flow of water which continually issues froir. the springs ; yet stone has 
been taken from it since the beginning of the iGlh century, as appears by the groins 
door, and window-cases, kc. of the castles in the neighbourhood built about that 
period being chiefly of that stone. + 

Marble, so useful in ornamental architecture and sculpture, abounds in Ireland, 
and quai-ries of it are worked in various parts, but particularly in the counties of 
Kilkenny, Armagh, and Cork ; some of it is exceedingly beautiful, and being so near, 
there can be no occasion for Great Britain to import foreign marble, as the Irish is 
equal to any that can be met \t-ith even in Italy or Greece. It is also so plentiful 
that whole edifices are constructed of it ; it composes the domain wall at the palace 
of Armagh, and as it is of a calcareous nature, is frequently burnt into lime. 
One of the most important marble quarries in Ireland is that called the Black 
Q^uarry, which lies about half a mile south of the town of Kilkenny, near the right 
bank of the river, one side of which is rented by Mr. Darley of Dublin, but the 
principal part is held by Mr. CoUis. This stone, when polished, exhibit's a black 
ground, more or less varied with white marks, and it is said that these marks assume 
a stronger tint, or increase by long exposure to the air. The price for raising and 
squaring the marble is nine shillings and nine-pence per week ; the wages of com- 
mon labourers are thirteen-pence a day. The quantity of marble e>:por°ed is about 
fifty tons annually, but the disadvantage of land-carriage renders it more expensive. 
The marble sent to Dublin is conveyed on cars as far as Leighlin Bridge, where it is 
embarked on the Barrow ; that which is exported is usually sent to Waterford, and 
goes by land, at least as far as Thomastown ; the blocks expofted, are consigned 
chiefly to Liverpool and Glasgow ; some coarse articles are finished at the quarry ; 
but the principal work is done at the marble mill, J which is on the left bank of the 
river, and nearly two miles from Kilkenny. 

It bears honourable testimony to the ingenuity of its inventor. Alderman Collis 
grandfather of the present proprietor, and is admirable for the simplicity of its con- 
struction, and for the power it exerts. The saws are made of soft iron, and last 

-■ Lord Charleville, also near Tullamore, in the King's County, has built a magnificent house of limestone. 

+ Thompson's Survey of-Meath, p. 28, 29. 

X A great improvement in cutting marble and other stones, but particularly columns by machinery, was 
invented by my much lamented friend the late Sir George Wright, ban. who procured a patent for it. A 
number of hollow columns can now be cut from a solid block, each decreasing in size, so that none of the 
stone IS lost except what is converted into dust by the saw. 



126 MINERAL S, &c. 

about a week; they are constantly supplied with water and sand, the latter of which 
is taken from the bed of the Nore, and well washed and riddled till nothing remains 
but pure silicious particles. A saw cuts ten inches a d.:y, and twelve, when the water 
is strong ; to do the same with a liandsaw would require two men. By means of 
this mill the marble is so easily worked as to be sold at a very moderate price ; a mid- 
dle sized chimney-piece costs about two or three guineas, and the price of the com- 
mon ones usually made, varies from twenty-five shillings to four guineas. 

The marble taken from the mill is first polished by boys, with what is called a 
cove-stone, that is, a brown sand-stone or grit, imported from Chester, which takes its 
name from being used in chimney coves. It is afterwards polished by a hone-stone, 
which consists of a piece of smooth nodule of the argillaceous iron ore, found in the 
hills between Kilkenny and Freshford ; it receives the last polish in the mill with 
rags and putty. But its importation in a finished slate into England and Scotland 
was prevented, when Mr. Tighe wrote, by a duty of two shillings per cubic foot ; 
what was exported, therefore, was in the rude block.* 

Black marble, exceedingly fine, has been raised at Crayieath, in the county of 
Down. It is susceptible of a very high polish, and if well chosen, is free from those 
large white spots which disfigure some of the Kilkenny marble. + 

There is a quarry near Tralee, in Kerry, which affords a black and white marble, 
of a texture and colour different from that found near Kilkenny ; the white spots in 
this being much larger, and the colour of the black part not so deep, but inclining 
more to blue. It takes a fine polish, and may be raised in blocks large enough for 
any work, such as tables, chimney-pieces, tomb-stones. Sec. 

Marble of various colours is found in the same county in the islands near Dun- 
kerron, in the river Kenmare. Some is black and white, others are purple and white, 
intermixed with yellow spots, and some beautiful specimens have been seen of a pur- 
ple colour, veined with dark green, resembling the veins in blood-stone. Sir Wil- 
liam Petty had several quarries opened in these islands in his time, in order to 
carry on a marble manufactory, but they are now worked chiefly for the making 
of lime. J 

Marble abounds in the vicinity of Cork, near which several quarries have been 
opened. A grey kind, interspersed with white veins, is much used for common 
chimney-pieces, but that of Castle Hyde is the handsomest of all, being of a dark 
grey colour with various shades, and a rich display of shells.^ 

Dr. Smith enumerates the following kinds of marble found in the county of 
Cork : — 

Black, near Church Town, and also near Doneraile ; it is very hard, and suscep- 
tible of a fine polish. 

^ Tighe's Survey of Kilkenny, p. 99— 105. J Smith's Nat. and Civil History of Kerry, p. 397, 

t Dubourdieu's Survey of Down, p. 16. (I Townsend's Survey of Cork, p. 18. 



M I N ERA LS, &.C. 127 

Purple and white variegated ; in most the purple makes the ground, and the veins 
and spots are white. The white part is the hardest and most pellucid. 
Blue and white variegated, found also near Church Town. 
Elegant yellow and purple variegated marhle. 

Ash coloured marble found in the hnds of Carigaline, five miles south of Cork. 
Ash coloured or grey, variegated with white spots or veins, found in the lands of 

Castlemary. 

Grey marble, variegated with small spots; ihe tephria and grey serpentine of the 
ancients, takes a most resplendent polish, and is very beautiful in chimney-pieces, 
tables, and other ornamental works. 

A f^rey or dove coloured marble, found at Carigaline, eight miles from Cork. 

Blue and white variegated marble used for tables and tomb-stones. 

Pale brown marble, variegated with white veins. There are excellent quarries of 
this kind at Kilcrea, eight miles west of Cork ; it takes a fine polish, and is known by 
the name of Kilcrea marble. 

All the marbles in this county, Dr. Smith says, are of the variegated kind, and he 
never heard of any of one single colour.* 

Siderocalcite is found in various parts of Kilkenny, where it forms the hill called 
Freeman's Hill, on the turnpike road to Dublin. A quarry of it is open notTar from 
the marble mills, and it has been used in repairing the roads, but it does not seem 
to be of a nature sufficiently durable for that purpose. Though brittle and full of 
interstices, walls have been built of it, and it has been employed in the construction of 
lime-kilns. As it cannot be burnt intolime, it is by the masons, therefore, called a 
free-stone. As it contains iron and manganese, Mr. Tighe is of opinion that it might 
form an useful ingredient in mortar intended for building under water. t 

On the mountain of Mangerton, near the lake called the Devil's Punch Bowl, is 
a species of whetstone, the grit of which is as fine as that of many common hones, 
and beinor shaped properly and afterwards boiled in oil, it serves the country people 
for whetting razors, ?cc. These stones are of a bright olive colour before they are 
boiled, but afterwards they become darker, and seem more smooth and compact. :j; 

The mountain of Aitahoney, in the county of Derry, abounds with white calca- 
reous spar, which in some parts is found to be excellent for tomb-stones, window- 
etools, and other works. ^ ■ 

Some transparent pieces of alabaster, taken from the cave of Dunmore, in Kil- 
kenny, have been occasionally polished and worked into tablets and vases. It is 
very abundant there, and as it can be detached in large masses, might, according to 

» Smith's Nat. and Civil Hist, of Cork, vol. ii. J Smith's Nat. and Civil Hist, of Kerry, p. 39C. 

p. 375 — 378. () Sampson's Survey of Derry, p. 96. 

t Tighe's Survey of Kilkenny, p. 9\ — 93. 



128 M I N E R A L S, &c. 

Mr. Tighe, be made an object of manufacture on a large scale. This cave, one of the 
most remarkable in the country, has been often visited and described by travellers.* 
It is situated a little to the south of the church of Mothe, in a cultivated field on 
the slope of a gently rising hill. The mouth of the cave opens into a large oval pit, 
about forty or fifty yards wide, which seems to have been foi med by the sinking in 
of the surface. It is in the eastern end, and there is a descent to it of seventy feet 
from the opposite quarter, over the rubbish of stone and of clay. The other sides of 
the pit are almost perpendicular. Rabbits often burrow near the entrance, and wild 
pigeons reside within the first cavern, which is spacious, and of an irregular form. 
The roof is nearly fifty feet in height, and the floor slopes downwards. Towards 
the left, a narrow passage leads by a slippery ascent to the interior cavity, where a 
great variety of stalagmitic forms, together with the irregularities of the rock, ex- 
hibit a most singular and striking appearance. Proceeding onwards the cave grows 
narrower, and again opens into a large apartment, beyond which there are winding 
passages and other cavities. In one of these the cave, it is s.iid, runs out to the other 
side of the hill, where the light may be seen through a fissure or chink. The bot- 
tom is always slippery, and stalactites, formed by the dripping water and calcareous 
sinter, are deposited in various shapes on the sides and bottom. In one of the inner 
caverns imagination supposes it to assume theform of an organ, in another that of 
a cross or an altar. A stream of water passes through the cave at a considerable 
distance from its mouth, and many sculls and bones have been found not a great way 
from this stream, and in other parts far within the cavity. Some of the sculls were 
enveloped in calcareous spar. In or near this cave some clay, coloured by carbon, 
and called black chalk, is sometimes picked up.+ 

Incrustations on moss and roots are formed in great quantity, and with rapidity, 
by a stream which flows through the glen of Ballyragget in Kilkenny. This 
deposition makes excellent manure, and has been employed as such by Mr. T. 
Kavanagh.i 

Calcareous petrifactions are occasionally seen dispersed in the county of Kilkenny* 
as pectunculites, echinites, cochlites, and some cornua ammonis ; tubiporites, both 
flatted and round, are not unfrequent, particularly in the barony of Gallmoy, where 
they may be often seen in the fields and dry stone walls. A very large mass of this 
kind was taken out of the Barrow by Sir Edward Loftus, near Mount Loftus, and is 
now in the cabinet of the Dublin Society. It is about two feet in one direction and 
eighteen inches in another. § 

» Account oF the cavern of Dunmore Park, near Kilkenny, in Ireland, by Adam Walker. Phil. Transatt, 
vol. Ixiii. p. 16 — 19. See also Journa/ de Physique, I. iii. p. 303, 30i. 
■i- Tighe's Survey of Kilkenny, p. 107—109. 
: Ibid. p. 109. (I Ibid. p. 110, 111. 



MINERALS, &c. 129 

Near Castle Island in Kerry, Js found the famous Lapis Hiherniciis, or Irish slate. 
formerly used in the Materia Medica, its taste is very austere, and it abounds with com- 
mon green copperas, or a martial vitriol.* On the soulh-east coast of Lough-Shin- 
ny, between Rush and Skerries, in the county of Dublin, there are large rocks of 
it, which in some places exhibit a vitriolic efflorescence. + 

Some years ago a copperas Avork, which produced a vitriol, partly ferruginous and 
partly cupreous, was erected near Tralee, by Col. Blennerhasset, but was dropped 
for want of a market. This vitriol was prepared from an ore like the Irish slate.;!: 

Sir William Petty speaks of alum works having been formerly erected in 
the county of Cork, but Dr. Smith remarks, that in what place, or from what 
substance extracted, he could never learn. ^ Dr. Rutty mentions the same thing, 
and says, " that though these works have been long since dropped, he appre- 
hends it to be no way impossible that they may be revived, and to encourage such 
an attempt he gives several observations and experiments which he made on different 
kinds of stone. "II 

Some pieces of very fine compact jasper, of various sizes, the largest about 
ten or twelve inches in length .and half as broad, have been discovered by 
Sir Edward Loftus on his domain in Kilkenny, near the extremity of the granite 
district. These pieces were of a deep red colour, for the most part obtusely angu- 
lar, and more square at one end than the other. They were discovered a few feet 
below the surface, imbedded in yellow clay.l 

Transparent regular crystals, known under the name of Kerry stones, are found in 
various parts of that county ; many of them are so hard as to cut glass, but they 
will not, like the diamond, continue to do so long. They undergo little change in an 
intense heat, except that some of them appear here and there a little flawed by 
the operation. They are harder, larger, and have more lustre than those brought 
from Bristol. The chief place of their growth is among the rocks and cliffs of 
the sea coast, but particularly in those of Ballyhugh, in the barony of Cianmaurice, 
and also in the barony of Corkaguinny, near Dingle. Coloured crystals, resembling 
emeralds, topazes, and sapphires, have been found also in Kerry, near Lough Lane, 
but they are not harder than common crystals.** 

Very fine amethysts have been discovered in the clefts near Kerry Head, which 
encouraged some gentlemen to form a company in order to search for them. This 
attempt was attended with considerable success, and we are told that a set of ear- 
rings, a necklace, and other ornaments, composed of these amethysts, were pre- 
sented by the countess of Kerry to her majesty, dueen Caroline. Dr. Smith speaks 

• Smith's Nat. and Civil Hist, of Kerry, p. 398. Ij Rutty's Nat. Hist, of Dublin, vol. ii. p. 4.5, 46. 

+ Rutty's Nat. Hist. ofDublin, vol. ii. p. 45. 1 Tighe's Kiitenny, p. 29. 

X Smith's Kerry, p. 401. .,, Smith's Kerry, p. 403 and 407. 

(I Smith's Nat. and Civil Hist, of Kerry, p. 398. 

Vol. I. c 



MO M I N E R A L S, 6cc. 

of one in the possession of the Earl of Shelburne, and James Crosbie, Esq. shewed 
him a very fine one, for which an eminent jeweller offered a considerable price.*^ 

Dr. Rutty says, that considering the little trouble which has hitherto been taken 
to examine the fossils of Ireland, it needs excite no wonder that very few instances 
of real gems being found should have occurred ; but he adds, that " discoveries even 
of these ought not to be despaired of, for Smith's History of Kerry mentions the 
amethyst ; and we have good authority for another, in an account published of the 
Giant's Causeway in the Philosophical Transactions, by Dr. Pocock, namely, that 
among the stones of the said Causeway a certain rough pebble was found, which 
when polished proved to be a white cornelian. "+ 

GOLD. 

The gold mines, as they are called, though the gold hitherto found has not been 
discovered in continued or regular veins, but picked up in small pieces in the beds 
of rivers and other places, gave rise at one time to considerable expectation, but the 
hope they excited seems to have entirely vanished, and at present they are almost 
forgotten. 

In a mountain stream flowing down from Cronebane, which separates Wicklow. 
from Wexford, and which passes through the estate of Lord Carysford, large pieces 
of gold were found some years ago at different times, on land forming part of the 
royalties belonging to the Earl of Ormond. This precious metal was found also on 
the Wicklow side of the mountain, and in two instances in lumps of considerable 
size. On this discovery government laid claim to the supposed mines a« the right 
of the crown, aiid Mr. Mills and Mi. "Weaver of the copper works were appointed 
commissioners, under whose directions the mountain was explored with the utmost 
care and attention. The bed of the river was afterwards searched, and a good deal 
of labour was employed in washing the sand taken from it, but the gold obtained 
by this process was not sufficient to defray the expences. This search, however^ 
though it may have answered no other good purpose, has served to make the com- 
mon people abandon their golden dreams, and convinced them, that if they wish lo 
acquire riches, they must look to some other more productive sources. | The par- 
ticulars of this discovery, written by Mr. Mills and Mr. Lloyd, may be seen in the 
Philosophical Transactions.^ and a very entertaining account of it has been given by. 
Mr. Frazer in his Survey of Wicklow, to which I refer those who may be desirous 
of farther information on the subject. 

• Smith's Nat. and Civil Hist, of Kerry, p. 211. + Rutty's Nat. Hist, of Dublin, p. 91, note. 

} May 11th, 1811. Mr. Weaver, who is now in London, says the working of this mine is given up. 

(I An account of the late discovery tf native gold in Ireland, by John Lloyd, Phil. Transact. 1796, p. 
34-37.— A mineraloglcal account of the native gold lately discovered in Ireland, by Abraham Mills, ibid. 
1796, p. 38-45. — See also Nicholson's Journal, vol. ii. p. 223-227. 



MINERALS, &c 131 

May 30TH I809, WiCKLOw. — Cronebane. — Spent the morning at the gold mine, 
in company with Mr. Weaver. The gold hitherto found, which was picked up within 
a very small extent from the bed of a mountain stream running into the Avoca, which 
discharges itself at Arklow, amounts in value to about ^10,000. Every rivulet be- 
longing to the mountain has been carefully searched, and a small quantity has been ob- 
tained from each. Trenches also were dug so as to intersect the rock in every 
direction. The gold collected was mixed with grains of quartz, and as the same 
mountain furnishes iron ore, of which it exhibits considerable veins, it was concluded 
that it might contain also one or more veins of gold ; a shaft has therefore been sunk 
to a considerable depth, but as yet without success, and the best judges have given 
up every expectation of the mountain containing any gold worth the expence of 
extracting it. 

• SILVER. 

According to a manuscript in the Archiepiscopal library at Lambeth, when the 
Ostmen, or Danes, had possession of the sea coast of Wexford, silver was found 
there in such abundance, that a ipint was erected, and silver coins formed to a con- 
siderable amount.* 

For many centuries the Danes held the people of Ireland in the most slavish 
subjection ; every householder was obliged to subsist a Danish soldier, and to pay an 
annual tax of an ounce of pure silver. As all the ancient records of Ireland state 
that the sword handles, bridles, and even the stirrups of the great people were 
made of gold, it has hence been concluded that this country formerly contained mines 
both of gold and of silver.t 

On the estate of Mr. Glover, near Williamstown in Klldare, a silver mine was 
worked about half a century ago by a Mr. Duggan, but either through want of capi- 
tal or of skill, he failed in the attempt. The smelting houses and pits still remain 
neglected. J 

COPPER. 

Copper ore is found at Ross Island in the Lake of Killarney, where mines were 
■worked with considerable success. 

October IQth 1808. Killarney. — The mines here are leased by a company 
from Lord Kenmare for thirty-one years, five of which are expired. His lordship 
stipulated for one-eighth of the produce in lieu of rent, and this contingency he 
has again let to Mr. White, the superintendent, for .£'2000. per annum. The 
whole concern is divided into sixty-four shares, and at this time each proprietor is 

* Eraser's Survey of Wexford, p. 16. + Rawson's Survey of Kildare, Int. p. xxxvi. 

% Ibid. ib. p. xxxvji. 

S2 



laa MINERALS, &c. 

minus jflSO. Tlie company have erected a steam engine, and a course has been cut 
for the purpose of keeping the mines clear from water. Tlie engine, which has a 
thirty-five horse power, cost ^4000 ; it consumes a ton and a half of coals in twenty- 
four hours, and throws up a thousand gallons of water per minute, from the depth 
of twelve fathoms. It is worked according to the quantity of water in the mines, 
and this varies so much as to render it impossible to give any calculation of the 
average expence. The ore is found in limestone rock, and, as it appears to take a 
direction southwards under the lake, dams are now making at a very great expence 
for the purpose of keeping off the water. When the mines are fully worked, 200 
tons of ore are raised per month ; it is conveyed by land carriage to Tralee, whence 
it is shipped for Swansea, where it is smelted. The whole expence, including one 
and a half per cent, insurance, is three guineas per ton. The ore is raised by small 
gangs, each consisting of two or three persons, who employ labourers to perform 
the different manual operations ; these people are paid from thirty to thirty-nine 
shillings per ton, and find their own tools. Carting costs five-pence p^sr pound, 
gunpowder two shillings and two-pence, and candles one shilling. The: com- 
pany furnish buckets and horses to draw up the ore and keep the mine clear of 
water. The price obtained for the ore varies according to its quality, and the 
price of pure copper, which four years ago was so high as c£l84- per ton, at pre- 
sent is J09T- The company have sold cargoes of ore at so low a rate as J0l4.; 
lately they have sold some for ^41, but the average is about ^20. In I805 the 
ore here was worth ^35. per ton. The whole works employ 500 men, and during 
the last four years were attended with an expence of<i?50,000. The coals consumed 
by the steam engine and in the irine are broucht from Swansea, and cost two guineas 
per ton. 

It evidently appears that this mine was worked in ancient times, but by. what 
means cannot now be ascertained. The limestone rock in which the ore was conr 
tained, seems to have been burned, and hammers, composed of the hardest. stonei, 
with which the ore was extracted, are frequently found, but there is not the slightest 
appearance of either iron or gunpowder having been used. 

There was a copper mine also at Mucross, which has not been worked since 1754. 
Mr. Young says, " many shafts still appear, and as much ore was raised as sold for 
^25,000, but the works were laid aside more from ignorance in the workmen than 
any defect in the mine."* In tli€ limestone extracted from it there was found a 
mixture of some metallic substance, with the nature of which no one at the time 
was acquainted ; it was therefore considered to be of little value, and on that ac- 
count employed to mend the roads which lead to the mine. It has, however, since 
been found to be cobalt, a semi-metal of great value, which ought, certainly, not to. 

» Tour in Ireland, part i, p. 200. 



M I N E R A L S, &c. 133 

be neglected. At this place, and throughout the whole neighbourhood, there is 
plenty of marble of various colours, and particularly black, which when burnt af- 
fords excellent lime. When stones of this kind contain metallic substances, the 
latter may be easily extracted, for if the stone be burnt and then quenched with wa- 
ter, it will be converted into lime, so that the metal will be left in a free state. It 
was perhaps by adopting this method that the copper mines in Ross Island were for- 
merly worked. 

At Cronebane, near Arklow in the county of Wicklow, there are also copper 
mines, the property of an English company, but the ore is by no means so rich as 
that at Killarney. At Ballymurtagh, a short distance thence, there are others which 
belonged to the Whalleys, and afterwards to Mr. Cumac ; but they involved in ruin 
many of those engaged in them, and are now in a state of dilapidation. 

April 13th, I809. — Dined with Mr. Mills, who holds an official situation in the 
ordnance department, and is the principal owner and superintendent of the copper 
mines of Wicklow. The whole concern is divided into 50O shares of ^100. each, 
and the company have purchased the fee simple of the land, amounting to 167 acres, 
together with the royalty, and every thing attached to it. They pay ^8000. per an- 
num for labour, and jCiOOO. for carriage to Wicklow. The duty on copper imported 
into Englandbefore the union was so high, that none of the mines in Ireland were 
worked to any extent. 

May 29th, Wicklow Visited the Cronebane Mines, where the ore lies in beds. 

One large vein, at the depth of 390 feet, is mixed with a considerable quantity of sul- 
phur, from which the ore is separated by the means of fire ; the ore is shipped for 
Swansea, and the sulphur is sent to London. From two to three thousand tons of ore 
are extracted annually: this quantity has been extended sometimes to 3500, and so 
much as 4000 might be raised if proper exertion were used. The ore yields about 
five per cent, and the annual expences are ^8000. 

Mr. Symes is now employed in forming a company to make trials on his estate. 

Mr. Weaver says, that many of the words used here in mining are German words, 
and he thinks they were introduced by German miners who came to England in the 
reign of Queen Elizabeth. 

When copper ore is mixed with sulphur, and the latter predominates so much as 
to burn without fuel, it is roasted, in order to extract the sulphur and lessen the ex- 
pence of carriage. This is the case with a great part of the ore dug up in the county 
of Wicklow. The want of a good harbour on this coast renders it necessary for the 
proprietors of the mines to employ a much larger capital, as they are obliged to keep 
by them the whole of the winter's stock till the weather becomes sufficiently favour- 
able to permit vessels to enter the port of Wicklow, if one so bad can deserve that 
appellation. 

Since the above accounts were written, I have learned that both the copper works 



134 M I N E R A L S, &c. 

at Ross Island in Kerry, and those of Cronebane in Wicklow, are given up; many- 
others, which were once worked, have been also discontinued, and though I do not 
give the following as a correct list of them, I believe it contains the names of those 
which were most worthy of notice. 

JVames of the Places. Counties. Proprietors. 

Dunmore, near Clognikilty* . . . Cork. 

Glenavan, in the barony of Burrint . Clare . . Mr. Annesly. 

MucrossJ Kerry . . Mr. Herbert. 

Walterstown^ Meath . . Sir M. Somervilie. ' 

Mountain Castle, ModeligoU . . . Waterford. 

. Lough ShJnneyH Dublin. 

May 13 th, 1811. — Mr. Weaver is in London, and this day informed me that the 
Cronebane Mines are discontinued, and those at Killarney also, so that there is not 
a' copper mine now worked in Ireland. 

According to Mr. Newenham, the increased exportation of copper ore since the 
union, was as follows:** — 

Average of three years, ending March 25th . 





Tons 


1783 . 


. . 151 


1793 . 


• 2344 


1S08 . 


. 6869 



LEAD. 

Lead ore is found near Enniscorthy in Wexford, and near Glendallogh in 
Wicklow. 

March 15th, 1809- — The lead mines of Glendallogh belong to Lord Essex and 
Lord Henry Fitzgerald, who receive one-eighth of the produce from a company con- 
sisting of seven partners, to whom they are let on a lease of 21 years. The vein of 
ore is situated in a mountain ; a level or adit has been formed at the expence of^lOOO. 
The ore is wheeled out on a railway, and as it does not require to be raised up, as is the 
case in mines in general, there is a considerable saving of labour. Another advantage 
is, that the water finds a ready passage, and runs off through a glen ; but it is not useless, 
as it serves to give motion to wheels at three smelting houses, by which an immense 
pair of bellows is worked at each. The quantity smelted per day is 10 cwt. The 
fuel employed is coal, which is brought from Wicklow, and lime Is used to prevent 

» Townsend's Survey of Cork, p. 270. j) Thompson's Survey of Meath, p. 25. 

+ Dutton's Survey of Clare, p. 16. || Smith's Survey of Waterford, 2d edit. 1774, p. 303. 

X Young's Tour, part i. p. 290. f Archer's Survey of Dublin, p. 8. 

»» View of Ireland, p. 50. I must here observe, that this gentleman's account of the minerals of Ireland 
exhibits them rather as he wishes them to be, than as they are in reality. His statement in regard to the cop- 
per and iron mines at Arigna, is evidently erroneous, and can never be confirmed in practice. 



MINERALS, &c. 1S5 

the coal from coaking. The lead is run into pieces like cast-iron, called bars, each 
of which weighs one cwt. About 180 are made per week, and the labourers receive 
for smelting crop ore lOs. for tale 125. and for sluggs or refuse 13s- Washing the 
ore costs from jCz. 6s. to £4. lOs. per ton. The carriage to Dublin is 20d. per cwt. 

Lead ore was found also at the Scalp, in the neighbourhood of Dublin, and on the 
shore of Clontarf, near the same place ; but the specimens obtained afforded so little 
hopes of success in the month of May, I809, that, in all probability, every idea of 
working these mines has been abandoned. Lord Leitrim is engaged with a Mr. 
Walker, of Liverpool, in working lead mines in the county of Donegal ; and Lord 
Donally has raised some lead ore at the silver mines in Tipperary, but it has not yet 
defrayed the expence of extracting it. 

The following mines seem to have been worked formerly ; but I by no means give 

the list as complete: Mr. Parkes speaks of a rich mine in Antrim,* but he neither 

names the place where it is, nor its owner. If any such mine exists, I never heard- 

of it, ' 

JVames of the Places. Counties. Proprietors. 

Keady-t- Armagh . Earl Farnham. 

Dundrumt Down . . The Blundel estate,. 

Clonligg, between Newtownards,kBangor§ Do. 

Ardmorell '. Waterford. 

Old John's BarH . Dublin. 

Mr. Newenham gives the following account of the increased export of lead since' 

the union.** 

Tons. 

Average of three years, ending March 25th, 1788 .. . 6 

1793 ... 401 
. - July 5th, 1808 ... 929 

IRON. 
Iron is of more general utility to man than any of the other metals, and therefore 
Providence has dispersed it in greater abundance throughout every quarter of the- 
globe. In this distribution Ireland has not been neglected. Ores, and other indica- 
tions of iron, are very common in that country, and the whole northern part of it con- 
sists of rock, in which it seems to form a very considerable ingredient. 
. We are told by Boate, in his Natural History.U that, in I652, iron works were es- 
tablished in many parts of the country ; but iron ore, however rich or plentiful, can 
never be converted to any useful purpose, unless where there is a ready and cheap 

♦ Chemical Catechism, 3d edit. p. 361. || Smith's Survey of Waterford, 2d edit. 1774, p. 302. 

+ Sir Charles Coate's Survey of Armagh, p. 286. H Rutty's Nat. Hist, of Dublin, 1772, p. 137. 

t Dubourdieu's Survey of Down, p. 12. .»♦ Vievr of Ireland, p. 50. 

f Ibid. p. 13. 'jjBoate's"Ireland,NaturalHistory,"edit.l652,p.l25; 



1S6 MINERALS, Sec. 

supply of fuel.* It is not of sufficient value, like copper or lead ore, to make it 
worth. while to transport it to places where there is coal, in order to be smelted and 
manufactured into iron. 

Abundance of iron ore occurs in the county of Cork, and considerable iron works 
were carried on here at a former period, as we are told that about the year I632 the 
Earl of Cork had, in his several forges or bloomeries in this county, 1000 tons of 
' bar iron; besides 100 tons drawn out and fagotted into roods at a slitting mill erected 
by his lordship, and above 2000 tons of sow iron. It appears that iron was sold at 
that time for X 18. per ton. 

We find also, that in 1629, Luke Brady, of Thomgreny in the county of Cork, 
Esq. Richard Blacknal of Macroom, and Henry Wright of DIoughtane in the 
county of Waterford, obtained a patent for making iron ordnance shot, and cross- 
bow shot ; and letters were directed to the lord-president to assist and aid them in 
purchasing, by composition, an iron mine from Sir Richard Everard, knt. in the 
territory of Clangibbon in this county, and from Sir William Fenton, in the same.t 

On the lands of Tallaghan in Mayo, iron works were formerly erected by Sir 
Arthur Sheane, but were discontinued for the want of fuel, charred turf, which was 
tried, not having answered the purpose. At Mullinmore, on a branch of the Deel 
Water, which runs three miles under ground in its descent from the mountains,' are 
the ruins of iron works, formerly carried on by a Mr. Rutledge, who gave them up 
when the woods were burnt out. Vast quantities of iron ore are found on the estate 
of the Marquis of Sligo in the barony of Murrisk.:]: 

Iron works were .carried on by Mr. Rutledge, in the county of Sligo, till the 
woods in the neighbourhood were consumed, after which they were transferred to 
Foxford, where he had others-^ 

Iron ore is found at Arigna in the county of Roscommon, and an attempt was 
made to manufacture it into bars; but the undertakers, after sinking immense sums, 
have been obliged to abandon their design.** 

Manganese is found in various parts of Kilkenny, and is not uncommon on the 
banks of the Barrow. ++ It occurs also ^t Kilcredane Point, near Carigaholt Castle, 
the estate of Lord Conyngham ; on the edge of a bog near Innistymon ; and in other 
parts.^t In t^e mountains of Glanmore, in Mayo, four miles nearly south of West- 

♦ Several of the Ruisian smelting works in Siberia have been abandoned for the want of fuel, all the tim- 
ber in the neighbourhood having been consumed. See Starch's Hisl. Slal. Gemalde des Russischen lieichs, 
vol. ii. p. 448 and 621. •• . 

+ Smith's Civil and Nat. Hist, of Cort, vol. ii. p. 390, 391. 

J M'Parlan's Survey of Mayo, p. 19, 20. f M'Parlan's Survey of Sligo, p. 10. 

»* May 13ih. Mr. Weaver informs me, that the colliery and iron works at Arigna have experienced the 
fate which I foresaw, and are now given up, afier an immense fortune has been sunk in attempting to render 
them productive. 

tt Tighe's Survey of Kilkenny, p. 88. XX Button's Survey of Clare, p. 19. 



M I N E R A L S, &c. 137 

port, there are extensive beds of this substance,"' and it is to be met with in several 
of the other counties. 

By Ihe preceding imperfect and irregular sketch, it appears that Ireland possesses 
fossil and mineral substances of various kinds, many of which, among a people ani- 
mated by a more active spirit of enterprise, might be employed, not only to promote 
industry, and to produce opulence to the individuals, but to add to the revenue and 
resources of the empire. Though the attempts made to work some of its mines have 
hitherto failed, it is probable that great riches are still concealed beneath its soil, 
if proper search were made for them by persons of competent skill and per- 
severance. The bad success as yet experienced is ascribed chiefly to two causes, 
the jealousy of the English miners, who are unwilling to work mines in Ireland, and 
the want of capital to supply the necessary expence ; but neither of these causes ap- 
pears to me to be well founded, and the OAvners of mines in Ireland must there" 
fore be inexcusable if they neglect to pursue means for turning them to advantage. 
One good effect of the union has been, that they are now freed from the duty 
which used to be levied on unwrought ore in Great Britain ; and if they have not 
fuel to smelt it on the spot, it may now go to Swansea as free as if it came from the 
mines in Cornwall. The idea of any impediment arising from the jealousy of Eng- 
lish miners, is too ridiculous to require observation ; and with regard to capital, 
the settlement of Mr. Mills, Mr. Weaver, and the English company, in the county 
of Wicklow, is a sufficient proof that English capital in some cases will be trans- 
ferred to Ireland, whenever circumstances are such as to hold out a reasonable 
hope of success. Mr. Weaver has already formed a new company; and taken a lease 
from the see of Dublin, of its royalties in the county of Wicklow ; and I have no 
doubt that, under the direction of a man so well qualified by skill and activity for 
metallurgic operations, the bowels of the earth will be rendered productive, if such 
an effect can be produced by the united efforts of ingenuity and industry. 

In regard to the noble metals, the gold mine, though placed ulider the direction of 
two of the most scientific and practical men in Europe, has not answered the san- 
guine expectations which, without due examination, were formed of it, and which 
in exploring it induced government to expend a considerable sum. The hope ex- 
cited in regard to silver, seems to rest on no better foundation. All the ore of that 
metal hitherto found has been mixed with lead : the lead-mines of Tipperary sup- 
plied a certain proportion : but ore of this kind has never defrayed the expence 
of working, t 

The copper mines at Killarney produced a rich ore, and, when I visited them, 

' ' ■ M'Parlan's Survey of ^fayo, p. 20. 

4 Mr. Newenham speaks of a silver mine worked formerly at Edenderry in the King's County, but given up 
about 40 years ago. Hew 0/ Ireland, p. 46. 

Vol. I. T 



1S8 ' MINERALS, kc. 

were beginning to repay the proprietors; but as the vein seemed to dip under the 
lake, great apprehensions were entertained that the works would be soon inundated, 
and I now find that this has actually been the case. 

The Wicklow copper mines at Ballymurtagh, have absorbed, without much be- 
nefit, a capital of at least ^200,000. This extraordinary expenditure has been 
ascribed to mismanagement, and such indeed tnay have been the case ; but I know 
that in May, IS09, the Cronebane Mines did not produce an ore of sufficient rich- 
ness, according to the then price of copper, to defray the expence of raising and 
shipping it to England. Not a workman was employed at that time ; the proprietors 
were waiting for a rise of prices : and since that period the works have been entirely 
neglected. 

The appearances of lead in Ireland are, I believe, much more promising. The 
mine near Enniscorthy I did not examine ; but the specimens of ore which I ob- 
tained seem to be of an excellent quality, aud rich in metallic particles. The 
Glendallogh mine in Wicklow amply repays the proprietors ; but the mine at the 
Scalp, belonging to a Dublin company, and lately begun, has not as yet held forth 
much hope of success. The ore falls under that description termed by the miners 
" proud;" that is to say, it is found near the surface, which is always considered 
a sign highly unfavourable. 

The mine on the Clontarf shore was drowned every tide, and the progress of work- 
ing it depended on the improbable success of damming out the water. 

Lord Leitrim's mine in Donegal I did not see, but I received a very favourable ac- 
count of it from gentlemen residing in the neighbourhood. 

Iron is found almost every where ; but the advantage of working it depends upon 
fuel, an article which Ireland does not possess of a quality proper for that purpose. 
The scarcity of timber, also, will be a great impediment here to mining; for it is well 
known, that works of this kind cannot be carried to any great extent without an im- 
mense quantity of that article ; ten thousand pounds worth of it being often necessary 
for a single coal mine. The only mines I ever visited which do not require timber, 
independently of casing the shaft, are the salt-mines of Cheshire, but the salt is 
found there in a situation very difierent from what minerals are in general. 

Marble, slate, granite, and other stones, fit for building, of every kind, may be 
obtained in Ireland, and at a very moderate expence ; yet a great portion of its in- 
habitants reside in filthy cabins ; though from the facility with which better materials 
could be procured, they might exchange them for others much more convenient and 
salubrious: but in countries where ignorance and oppression go hand in hand; 
where the people, through inveterate habit have become indifferent to every thing 
that has the appearance of improvement, and where no stimulus is applied to make 
them emerge from their degraded state, the advantages presented to them by nature 
will either be overlooked or neglected. 



MINERALS, &c. ip9 

Ireland possesses also abundance of clays fit for making bricks, and for the use of 
the potter, but no manufactories of earthemvare worthy of notice have yet been esta- 
blished in any part of the country. Dr. Rutty remarks, that pots made of Irish clay 
are inferior to the English, and do not stand the naked fire nearly so well ; but this 
defect seems to arise rather from the badness of the workmanship, than from any in- 
feriority of the material, and he has no doubt that Irish pots might be made as good 
as the English, if greater encouragement were given to them, which he considers the 
more necessary on account of the dearness of coals and of lead, articles essential 
for glazing. 

The same gentleman states, that the bricks made at Dublin are far from being 
equal to the English, which are redder, more compact, and more durable; but he 
observes, that the former are wrought up too hastily, and not suffered to lie long 
enough to grow close before they are used. He adds, that the brick clays in Eng- 
land, and particularly those of Kent, Surrey, and Middlesex, are always exposed 
nine months to the air after they are dug up, in order that they may be freed from 
the vitriolic salts with which they abound. If these salts be not expelled before 
the clay is baked, they prevent its setting well in the kiln, and communicate to the 
bricks a quality which renders them apt to moulder and decay. Want of atten- 
tion to this precaution, he considers as one cause of the badness of the Irish bricks, 
and their mixture with calcareous earth another.* 

Without admitting to its full extent every thing that has been said by some 
waiters in regard to the mineralogical riches of Ireland, it may be safely allowed 
that it possesses an abundance of mineral and fossil bodies, sufficient to encourage 
hope, and to excite a greater spirit of enterprise than has hitherto been manifested. 
A mineralogical survey of the island, therefore, well executed, and accompanied 
with remarks on the best means of converting the different objects of it to advantage, 
besides affording much satisfaction to men of science, would, no doubt, be attended 
with great benefit to the country. 

Countries abounding with mines, contain in general a great many springs impreg- 
nated with metallic or other particles, which communicate to them various qua- 
lities, and this is the case with Ireland. Mineral springs are found in almost 
eveiy county ; they are chiefly chalybeate, and afford a strong proof that iron 
exists in great plenty. Dr. Rutty has written a learned and elaborate treatise 
on their medicinal properties, to which I must refer those who are desirous of 
information on that head. Mr. Dubourdieu, in the Survey of Down, has given 
an excellent account of the mineral waters in that county. Those chiefly visited by 
invalids, are Lucan near Dublin ; Swadlinbar in the county of Cavan; Johnstown 
near Urlingford, in the county of Kilkenny ; and Mallow, in the county of 
Cork. 

» Rutty's Nat. Hist, of Dublin, p. C6. 
T 2 



CLIMATE. 



CHAPTER VI. 

CLIMATE. 

In considering the state and resources of a country, too little attention is paid 
in general to climate, though it is certain that it has a decided influence not only 
on its inhabitants, but on those animals and vegetables which serve them as 
food, and on many things Avhich add to their comfort, and increase their 
enjoyments. That it affects the health and the spirits, every one feels by 
daily experience ; and that it retards or promotes the growth of trees and plants, 
according to its degree of mildness, is equally well known. A knowledge 
of climate, therefore, is highly necessary to enable man to guard against those 
changes which may prove hurtful" to his constitution, and to counteract the per- 
nicious influence it often has in impeding the progress of his agricultural la- 
bours.* This knowledge, however, can be obtained only by experience and obser- 
vation. But climate is so various in different countries, and is subject to so many 
irregularities, that it is difficult to obtain data sufficiently accurate and numerous to 
enable the philosopher to deduce from them certain results, and to establish an uni- 
versal system adapted to all times and places. 

Climate differs even in the same country, according to local situation. A hilly 
district is exposed to rain, while level lands are in general much drier ; low valleys, 
sheltered by hills, are warmer than high lands, the atmosphere of which is always 
cold and bleak ; and places adjacent to the sea coast have a temperature different 
from those which are more remote. The neighbourhood of woods, lakes, marshes, 
and large rivers, and the nature of the soil, often produce a wonderful effect in 
regard to the state of the surrounding atmosphere. Even a single mountain 
sometimes contains almost all the varieties of climate that exist on the face of the 
earth. Tournefort found growing on the summit of Mount Ararat, in Armenia, 
the plants of Lapland ; a little lower down he observed those indigenous in Swe- 
den ; at a still less elevation he saw the plants common in France; below these the 
productions of Italy ; and at the bottom, the natural plants of the country, t 

* "Agriculture is in so improved a state, that half its operations are bestowed on plants, exotic to the 
country in which they are cultivated. To adapt the management to the change of climate is a necessary at- 
tention ; for v\ant of it, failures have depreciated articles of culture that otherwise might have proved of consi- 
derable importance. Every day's experience gives fresh instances of the vegetables of one climate being na- 
turalized in another. These advances in universal agriculture are rapid, and ought to prevent our despair- 
ing of success in attempts which, at first sight, may savour of great difficulty." Paper on Climale, by Arthur 
Young, in the Annals of Agriculture, vol. xxxix. p. 481. 

+ Zinn vom Erzeugen der Pflauzen, Hamburg Magazin, vol.xvi. • ■ ' 



CLIMATE. 141 

In no quarter of the world, perhaps, is the difference of climate arising from dif- 
ference of elevation more perceptible than in South America, in some parts of 
which there are plains at an immense height above the level of the sea. Humbolt 
says, that the plains in the Canton of Berne are not more than from 1312 to 
3968 feet in height, and that the former, which he thinks a very moderate ele- 
vation, maybe considered as that of the greater part of the plains in Suabia, Ba- 
varia, and New Silesia, near the sources of the Wartha and Peliza. In Spain 
the two Castilles are elevated above 1902 feet; and the highest level in France is 
Auvergne, which, according to M. de Buch, is equal in elevation to 2360 feet. 
In Asia, the elevation of the great desert of Gobi, to the north-west of China, 
exceeds, according to Father du Halde, 55 11 feet; and in Africa, by the account 
of Colonel Gordon, the land from the Cape of Good Hope to the 21st degree of I^ 
titude, rises gradually to the height of 656I feet.* 

These heights, however, are far exceeded by those of the elevated plains of 
JNIexico. According to Humbolt, the table land of that country, where the city of 
Duranga is situated, rises to the height of 656 1 feet above the level of the sea.t 
In South America, the CordjIIera of the Andes exhibits, at immense heights, plains 
completely level; such as the plain of S413 feet elevation, on which is built 
the city of Santa Fe de Bagota ; of the same kind also is the plain of Caxamarea, 
in Peru, the ancient residence of the unfortunate Atahualpa, which is in height 
9021 feet. The great plains of Antisana, in the middle of Avhich stands the 
part of the volcano that penetrates the region of perpetual snow, are 13,451 feet 
above the level of the sea. These plains exceed in height, by I541 feet, the summit 
of the peak of Teneriff, and yet they are so level, that the inhabitants of them 
on viewing their natural soil, have no suspicion of the extraordinary situation in 
which nature has placed them. But all the plains of New Granada, Q^uito, or 
Peru, do not exceed forty square leagues. The inhabitants of these frozen plains 
remain there concentrated, and dread to descend into the neighbouring regions, 
where a suffocating heat, prejudicial to the primitive inhabitants of the higher 
Andes, always prevails.:!: 

Plains more elevated than the valley of Mexico, the absolute height of which ex- 
ceeds 8201 feet, possess within the tropics a climate rude and disagreeable even to 
an inhabitant of the North. Such are the plains of Toluca and the heights of 
Guchilnque, where, during a great part of the day, the air never becomes hotter 
than 43° or 46°, of Fahrenheit's scale, and the olive trees bear no fruit, though they 
are cultivated successfully a few thousand feet lower in the valley of Mexico. ^ 

' Humbolt's Political Essay on the Kingdom of 4 Humbolt ut supra, vol. i. p. 52. 

New Spain, vol. i. p. 49. See also Bar- J Ibid. p. 48-86. 

row's Travels in Southern Africa, 2d edit. )1 Ibid, p. 67. 

vol. ii, p. 4. ^ ■ 



142 CLIMATE. 

In Mexico the mean heat of the day in the coldest season is from 55° to 57°. In 
summer the thermometer never rises in the shade above 75°. In general the tem- 
perature of the whole land of Mexico is 62'6, which is the temperature of Rome. 
At Guyaquil, under a burning sky, the people of colour complain of excessive 
cold when the thermometer sinks to 75° while it remains the rest of the day 
at 86°.* 

In the greater part of Europe, the cultivation of the soil depends almost 
entirely on geographical latitude ; but in the equinoxial regions of Peru, New 
Grenada, and Mexico, the climate is modified solely by the elevation of the land above 
the level of the sea. Lines of cultivation similar to those drawn by Arthur Youngt and 
M. DecandoUe, on the horizontal projections of France, can be indicated only on 
sections of New Spain. Under the latitude of 19° and 22", sugar, cotton, and indigo, 
grow in abundance only at an elevation of from 196S to 2624 feet. European 
wheat occupies on the declivities of the mountains, a zone which generally com- 
mences at 4592 feet, and ends at 9842. The banana tree, musa paradisiaca, the 
fruit of which constitutes the principal food of all the inhabitants of the tropical 
regions, bears scarcely any fruit above the height of 5084 feet; the Mexican oaks 
grow only between 2624 and 9842 feet, and the pines never descend lower towards 
the coast of Vera Cruz than 6068 feet, nor rise nearer to the region of perpetual snow, 
than the elevation of about 13,123 feet.5: 

But besides the difference of climate arising from difference of elevation, there U 
another more singular, and for which, perhaps, it is not so easy to account I al- 
lude here to that observed between places which lie under the same parallel of la- 
titude. " The provinces called inlernas, situated in the temperate zone, and par-^ 
ticularly those included between the latitude of 30° and 38°, have, like the rest of 
North America, a climate essentially different from that of the same parallels in 
the old continent. A remarkable inequality prevails between the temperature of the - 
different seasons ; German winters succeed to Neapolitan and Sicilian summers. It 
would be superfluous to assign other causes for this phenomenon than the great 
breadth of the continent, and its prolongation towards the north pole.§ 

A great difference is observed between the climate of the country round Pekin, 
the capital of China, and places lying under the same parallel of latitude in Europe. 
" In the province of Pe-tche-eli," says Mr. Barrow, " which embraces an extent of 
climate from 38° to 40* 30' of north latitude, the temperature is various. In sum- 
mer Fahrenheit's thermometer is generally above 80° during the day, sometimes ex- 
ceeding 90% and in the middle of winter it remains for many days together below the 
freezing point." || In another part of his work he remarks, that in the northern pro- 

• Humbolt ut supra, p. 67. J Humbolt ut supra, p. 69. 

+ Young's Tour in France, vol. i. p. 307, f Humbolt's Essay, vol. i. p. 70. 

second edit. • || Travels in China, p. 553. 



CLIMATE. 14S 

vinces of China it is impossible to travel during winter with any degree of ease, con- 
venience, or safety, all the canals to the northward of the Yellow River being frozen 
up."* This excessive cold is ascribed to the soil being strongly impregnated with 
nitre, which, in the district around Pekin, may be sometimes seen in the morning 
covering the fields like a hoar-frost. 

A very remarkable alternation of climate prevails in the peninsula of India, where 
the inhabitants of the two coasts, even under the same parallel of latitude, have con- 
trary seasons. This change of seasons, one of the most singular phenomena per- 
haps ever yet observed in nature, is ascribed to the Gauts, the highest ridge of moun- 
tains in the countrV. On the coast of Coromandel the summer begins in June, but 
on the coast of Malabar it does not commence till October. During the latter month 
it is winter on the coast of Coromandel, whereas, on the coast of Malabar it begins 
so early as the 15th of June. The same season, therefore, always commences on the 
east coast at the time when it ends on the western. When winter prevails on the 
coast of Malabar, when the mountains and valleys are shaken by tremendous claps of 
thunder, the sky is pure and serene on the coast of Coromandel ; the inhabitants get 
in their rice harvest and carry on trade with various foreigners, who in abundance 
frequent their shores. But when the wet season commences, and these districts 
are exposed for three whole months to continual hurricanes, the coast of Ma- 
labar opens its ports to the navigator, secures to its inhabitants the advantages of 
trade, labour, and enjoyment ; and from the end of October to the end of June, pre- 
sents a favourable sky, the serene aspect of which is never deformed by a single 
cloud. t 

This phenomenon, whatever may be the cause, extends also to the island of Cey- 
lon. " When the west winds blow," says Knox, " the western parts of the island 
have rain, and this is the season for tilling the land. That part of the country lying 
towards the east, enjoys then dry weather, and the people are employed with their 
harvest. On the other hand, when the east wind prevails, the inhabitants of the 
eastern side of the island cultivate their land, and those on the western gather in 
the fruits of the earth. Harvest and seed time occupy, thexefore, the whole year, 
though at opposite seasons. The rain of the one side, and the drought of the other, 
are generally separated in the middle of the island ; and I have often experienced 
rain on one side of the mountain Cauragahiiig, while it was exceedingly warm and 
dry on the other.":!: 

Some countries are remarkable for great and sudden changes of temperature, and 
others for a singular uniformity in the gravity of the atmosphere. In West Florida 



■f Barrow's Travels in Cliina, p. 513. 

+ Bartoloraco's Voyage to the East Indies, London, 1800, p. 2, 4. 

X Voyage de I'lsle dc Ceylon, Amst. 1693, vol. i. p. 10. 



14' CLIMATE. 

the thermometer will rise or fall sometimes 2o° in the course of a few hours, and at 
others not 2° in many days, the extremes being at least from 17 to yS degrees of Fah- 
renheit's scale ; yet the sky in that country is uncommonly serene, especially when 
the winds are northerly.* On the coast of Guinea the state of the barometer is always 
nearly the same. The mercury generally stands at the height of 29l inches as 
unalterably as if it were fixed. A Danish traveller who resided there some time in 
1783 and I7S4, says, that in the course of six months he never saw it vary one-tenth 
of an inch, and therefore he did not think, it necessary to introduce the height of the 
barometer in the meteorological journal he has given. A similar regularity is re- 
marked in the wind, which almost always blows from the west : in the day-time it 
veers a little to the south, and in the night to the north ; the former is called the sea- 
breeze, and the latter the land-breeze. In the time of rain it is easterly ; but when 
the rain ceases it returns to its usual place. t 

That climate has a very striking effect, not only upon the physical constitution of 
man, but also on his intellectual qualities, was long ago known to the ancients. 
Plato, alluding to Athens, says that Minerva, when she founded it, selected a spot 
where she thought the temperature of the air best calculated to produce wise and 
prudent men.^ The climate of Athens was mild, and the atmosphere pure and se- 
rene, and to this was ascribed the genius and vivacity of the Athenians, who distin- 
guished themselves in literature and the arts more than any of the other people in 
Greece. At Thebes, which was distant only a day's journey, the air was thick and 
heavy, and the inhabitants were accounted so exceedingly stupid and dull,§ that it 
became proverbial to say of a man void of genius, that he had been born in the thick 
air of Boeotia. || 

The most perceptible effects which climate has on the human species, are those ex- 

» Paper, by Dr. Lorimer, in Transact, of the American Phil. Soc. of Philadelphia, 1771, vol. i. p. 251. 

+ Reise na Guinea en de Caribische Eilanden door, P. E. Isert. Dordrecht, 1790, p. 341, 342. 

t TavTD> oZr Sri ToT£ ^ifniraira'' rni iiaxoCjjLvicrii xat aiyra^ty r,- flsoj •n-poTtfoi;; ifia; JiaxoiTfi>)3-ao-a kxtuxi3-£f, 
hM^ajiitrt Tcv To7ro» i» u ytyirr.tr^i, ri* ivufnaent Tut ofut Jr avtu xuTtSovaa, oVi ^fo>ifcoTaToii{ atSpa; eicrti. 

Flalo in Timac in Op. edit. Ficini. Franc. 1S02, p. 1044. 

|1 Inter locorum naturas quantum intersit, videmus: alios esse salubres, alios pestilentes : in aliis esse 
pituitosos, et quasi redundantes, in aliis exsiccatos, atque aridos: multaque sunt alia, quae inter locum et locum 
plurimum differunl. Athenis tenue coelum, ex quo acutiores etiam putantur Attici: crassum Thebis ; itaque 
pingues Thebani et valentes. Cicero de Falo. Opera. Oxon, ISIO, vol. vi. p. 609. 

II Boeotum in crasso jurares aere natum. //ora/. £^isi. lib. ii. ep. 1. 

Dicxarchus describes tlie Thebans as a bold, haughty people, ready to lift their hand against any one 
without distinction, whether a native or foreigner: Bfaa-iTt Si xa) t/Sfiirrai xai i7rtpij^a»oi, wAjxrai n x»i 
a^ia^ocoi TTpos TTarTa ^evov atx ^jj/xotiji', xaTavUTt^Tat irarTo^ Oiy.ami. 

Dicaarchi Slalus Grecice in Hudsoni, Geog. Vet. Scrijjl. Orac. minor, vol. ii. p. 14. 

Cornelius Nepos says of them in the Life of Alcibiades: omnes enim Baiotii magis firmitati corporis quam 
ingenii acumeui inserviiint; and again, in the life of Epaminoudas, he observes : Namque ilii genti plus virium 
(Juain inienii. 



CLIMATE. • 145 

ternal ones observed chiefly in the colour ol' the skin and in the texture of the hair. 
I am well aware, that writers of some eminence have denied this influence of climate, 
but as their arguments have been already sufficiently answered, I shall only mention 
two facts, which appear to me of some importance. Benjamin of Tudela asserts ex- 
pressly, that his countrymen, the Jews, settled in Abyssinia, had become as black as 
the natives of the country;* and Caldanus, an Italian physician, saw at Venice a 
ne"T0 brought to that city, when a child, who by a long residence in the colder cli- 
mate of Italy, had lost so much of his colour that his skin appeared yellowish.t 

In tracing the various countries from the arctic circle to the equator, we find 
them marked with considerable regularity by the colour of the inhabitants, which 
always becomes darker the nearer we approach to the equator. In the most tem- 
perate latitudes of the continent of Europe we meet with a- ruddy and sanguine 
complexion, combined in general with various shades of redness in the colour of the 
hair. A clearer mixture of red in white is then observed, and this is succeeded by 
the brown ; we then find the swarthy, and crossing over into Africa, the tawny, in- 
creasing by deeper and deeper shades towards the hottest temperature of the torrid 
zone. In the Asiatic continent we pass at once from the fair to the olive, and thence 
by various gradations iu the darkness of the hue to the black colour, which prevails 
in the southern provinces of the jpeninsula of Arabia and India. The same dis- 
tance from the sun, however, does not in every region indicate the same temperature 
of climate. Elevated and mountainous countries, in proportion to their altitude 
above the level of the sea, ascend towards the region of the atmosphere which is the 
seat of perpetual cold. The clouds being arrested in their course by high mountains, 
not only dissolve into frequent rains, but spread their cool sh.ides over the valleys 
which lie between them. Deep bays and arms of the sea, running far within the 
land, contribute also to temper the heat as well as the cold of the climate, and in 
general islands enjoy a milder temperature than continents placed at the same dis- 
tance from the sun. Vicinity to the ocean produces opposite effects in high nor- 
thern latitudes, and in those near the equator ; for this great body of water being of 
a more equal temperature than the land, corrects in one case the cold, and in the 
other moderates the heat.^ 

The nature of the soil, likewise, and the state of cultivation in different countries, 
create some variation in the temperature of the climate. Sand is susceptible of a 
much higher degree of heat from the rays of the sun, and retains it longer than clay 
or loam, and an uncultivated region, shaded with forests and filled with undrained 

♦ Voyage de Kabbi Benjamin fils de Joiia de Tudele, par Baratier, Amst. 1734, 2 vols. ; Dans tout ce pays 
il y a environ cent Juifs ; ces Juifs sont aussi noirs que les autres habitans, t. i. p. 297. 
+ Caldan Institut. Pliisiolog. Patav. 1773, p. 194. 
I Smith's Essay on the Variety of Complexion kc in the human fi'^ure, p. 38. 

Vol. I. . ' U 



146 • CLIMATE. 

marshes, is more frigid in the northern, and more temperate in the southern latitudes, 
than countries exposed to the free action of the solar influence. In winter, the 
moisture of the atmosphere is congealed into more abundant snows, and in summer 
it descends in more frequent and copious showers of rain. 

Hence, thout^h it appears that there is a general ratio of temperature prevailing 
over the whole globe, according to the degree of latitude, and that a general resem- 
blance may be traced in the complexion of nations inhabiting the same latitudes, 
these effects are greatly modified in different countries by a combination of vari- 
ous secondary causes, and the whole human appearance is still more diversified by 
the state of society in which different tribes exist, and also by their manner of 
living.* 

The hair and wool of animals is greatly affected by the difference of climate. The 
beaver, removed from the frozen regions of Upper Canada, to the warm latitude 
of southern Louisiana, exchanges its delicate fur for a much harsher substance, which 
preserves the body of the animal in a more comfortable temperature. A similar 
change has been observed in the wool of sheep, removed from Europe to the islands 
of the West Indies. It loses its woolly nature, and is converted into a kind of hair, 
as straight and as coarse as that of the camel. By these means the animal is fitted to 
endure the intense heat of the sun, which otherwise would become intolerable. 
The fineness and density of the hair or wool of most animals, is increased in pro- 
portion to the prevalence and intensity of cold. Hence the excellence of Cana- 
dian and Russian furs, and the fineness of the wool of the sheep of Thibet. 

The colour of the hair also seems, in many instances, to be affected by the tempe- 
rature of the climate. The bear becomes white beneath the arctic circle, and black 
foxes are found only in the coldest latitudes. Nations likewise are found to be dis- 
tinguished by some peculiar quality of this excrescence. The hair of the Danes is 
generally red, of a lighter or deeper shade. That of the French is commonly black; 
and the most frequent among the English is fair and brown. The great variety 
which is seen in the hair in England, may be ascribed to the uncommon mixture of 
nations which has taken place in it, either from early migrations, or the successive 
conquests to which it has been subjected. 

The head of the tropical Africans is covered with a substance like wool, in con- 
sequence of the excessive heat of the vertical sun, acting upon sands which glow 
with an ardour unknown in any other quarter of the globe. Among the Highland- 
ers of Scotland the predominant complexions are black and red. Red hair is like- 
wise frequently seen in the cold and elevated regions of the Alps, while black pre- 
vails in the warm vallies at the foot of them, except along the northern frontier, 
where it borders on the German empire. The aborigines of America have univer- 

» Smith's Eisay, p- 42. 



CLIMATE. . 147 

sally black hair, which is straight, and grows in a thick coat upon the head. The 
most frequent colour of the human hair is black, because those climates which are 
favourable in the highest degree to the multiplication of the species, tend also to 
create different shades of dark complexion.* 

The crisped form of the African hair arises chiefly from certain secretions, which 
being deposited in the cells of the skin, become the nutriment of that excrescence ; 
yet something may be ascribed also to the excessive heat of the sun in that burning 
district.t Africa is the hottest country on the face of the earth. The ancients, who 
frequented the Asiatic regions without fear, esteemed Africa uninhabitable on account 
of its heat; and modern travellers who have explored the interior of that continent, 
inform us, that although on the borders of the rivers Gambia and Senegal, and for 
some distance on each side, there are shady forests and fertile soil, yet almost the whole 
region, comprehended between the tropics, is one continued tract of scorching sand, 
on which it is painful to tread. In Africa alone do we find that exceedingly short 
and close nap which distinguishes the inhabitants of the western tropical region of 
the continent. The hair, as well as the whole constitution, is there affected by the 
burning heat which almost incessantly prevails.^ 

The inhabitants of intensely cold countries seem to be marked by great defor- 
mity of person ; the human stature is there reduced from its usual standard to a 
dwarfish size. The people have large heads, raised shoulders, and short necks. 
Their eyes are small, and in consequence of the great projection of their eye-brows, 
they appear to be sunk in the head. The nose is short, the cheeks are elevated, 
and the whole expression of the countenance is harsh and uncouth. All these de- 
formities are observed as we proceed towards the pole, in the Lappish, the Boran- 
dian, and the Samoiede races, which, according to Buffon, are only Tartars reduced 
to the last degree of degeneracy. A race of men resembling the Laplanders in many 
of their lineaments, is found in a similar climate in America. The frozen countries 
round Hudson's Bay are as cold as Lapland or Kamtschatka. The few wretched na- 
tives who inhabit these dreary and inhospitable regions do not exceed five feet in 
height ; they have large heads ; their eyes are small and weak, and their hands and 
feet are remarkably diminutive. 

These effects are the natural consequences of the extreme cold of the climate, com- 
bined with the hardships to which they are daily exposed in these frozen and sterile 
regions ; from the scantiness and poverty of their food, and the total want of every 
art by which they might protect themselves from the rigour of a polar winter.^ 

A moderate temperature of climate contributes to give tone and vigour to the 
body, and expand it to the largest volume. Extreme cold produces a contrary effect, 
and not only the animal system, under the constriction ofperpetual frost, is irregularly 

* Smith's Essay, p. 88. + Ibid. j Ibid. p. 97. f Ibid. p. 101. 

U 2 ' 



U8 CLIMATE. 

checked in its growth, but the same influence is extended to every vegetable pro- 
duction.* 

If the cold in the frigid zone gives to the countenance a harsh and strong appear- 
ance, the agreeable warmth of the atmosphere in the middle regions of the tempe- 
rate zone dispose the body to more free expansion, and open the features into the 
most pleasing and regular proportions. Hence in Greece, Georgia, Circassia, the 
countries between the Euxine and the Caspian seas, and other districts distinguished 
by their peculiar mildness, the human form is so often seen to display those beau- 
tiful proportions + which most nearly correspond with the perfection of shape ori- 
ginally given to man by his Creator.:^: 

" Man," says an elegant philosophical writer, " is qualified to subsist in every 
climate, and it appears certain, that no animal is capable of sustaining so great a de- 
gree either of heat or of cold. 6 The temperate climates, however, seem to be most 
favourable to his nature, and to whatever cause it may be owing, it is in these that 
he always attained to the greatest degree of perfection, both moral and physical. The 
arts ^vhlch he has on this scene repeatedly invented, the extent of his reason, the 
fertility of his fancy, and the force of his genius, in literature, commerce, policy, 

♦ Smith's Essay, p. 103. + Ibid. 

X Chardin says, that in Georgia he saw the most beautiful people of all the East, and, perhaps, of the 
world. I have never observed, says he, one homely countenance of either sex in that country. Nature has 
shed upon the greater portion of their women graces no where else to be seen. Chardin, vol. i. 112, 171. 

() The greatest degree of natural cold was that experienced by the elder Gmelin, in 1735, at Yeniseisk, in la- 
titude 85° north, and longitude 110° east, from Fero. It set in so strong in January, that the mercury fell 
to 126° below zero, that is, according to Fahrenheit's scale, under the degree of cold produced by a mixture 
of sal-ammoniac and ice. The small birds dropped dead from the atmosphere, and every thing capable of 
freezing was transformed into ice. According to Pallas, the cold was so great on the 7th ofDecember, 1772, at 
Krapnoyarsk, in latitude 56° and longitude 110°, that the mercury fell to 80° below zero. But this was not 
the greatest degree of cold, for, as the scale extended no lov«r, the quicksilver descended into the bulb, and 
became a solid body. Nay, a whole mass of well -purified quicksilver, exposed to the open a'ir, froze to such 
a degree that it could partly be hammered. 

The greatest decree of heat seems to be that experienced by the negroes on the coast of Guinea. Adanson 
found the thermometer, at Senegal, in latitude 17° north, to stand in the shade at lOS^ degrees of Fahrenheit, 
Izert says, that he experienced the greatest heat on the Rio Volta, on the 20th of February, 1784, when the 
thermometer, in an open apartment exposed to the north, stood at noon at 91°, but being carried into the sun, 
ir rose, in a quarter of an hour, to 130°. In the month of March the same year, and at the same place, it stood 
several times in the shade at 93i degrees, and in the sun rose to above 134°. Zimmerman's Geographischc 
Geschichlc dcs Menschen, vol. i. p. 33, 38. Izerl's Eeise na Guinea, p. 342. 

" There is nolhinf^ more wonderful than the extremities which man is capable of enduring througli the 
power of habit. The Finnish peasants pass instantaneously from the atmosphere of 70 degrees of heat," to one 
of 30 decrees of cold : a transition of an hundred degrees, which is the same thing as going out of boiling into 
freezing water, and what is more astonibliing, without the least inconvenience." Accrbi's Travels through 
Su^eden, 1802, vol. i. p. 2i)8. 

' By the Scale of Celsias. 



CLIMATE. 14^ 

and war, sufficiently declare either a distinguished advantage of situation, or a na- 
tural superiority of mind."* 

" In the extremes of heat or of cold, the active range of the human soul appears 
to be limited; and men are of inferior importance, either as friends or as enemies. 
In the one extreme they are dull or slow, moderate in their desires, regular and pa- 
cific in their manner of life ; in the other they are feverish in their passions, weak 
in their judgments, and addicted by temperament to animal pleasure. In both the 
heart is mercenary, and makes important concessions for childish bribes ; in both the 
spirit is prepared for servitude ; in the one it is subdued by fear, in the other it is 
not roused even by its sense of the present."t 

A learned physician, who has written an ingenious essay on these effects of cli- 
mate, accounts for them in the following manner : 

" Heat, when applied in any great degree to the human body, excites the action 
of the nervous system in general, and particularly of the cutaneous nerves, most ex- 
posed to its influence, so as to render them more susceptible of any impression. If 
the heat be long continued, it produces on the skin a moisture called perspiration, 
which, by relaxing the cuticle, keeps the subjacent nervous papillae in a supple state, 
and obvious to every impulse. By heat, also, the disposition of the body and juices 
to putrefaction is much augmented. Cold, on the contrary, in similar circumstances, 
corrugates or wrinkles the cuticle, and causes the cutaneous papillae to contract and 
to retire deeper into the skin. It closes also the orifices of the cutaneous glands, and 
thus prevents the access of any irritating substance. By contracting the nervous pa- 
pillae it diminishes perspiration, and perhaps renders the perspirable matter more 
viscid ; hence the cuticle becomes drier and more rigid, as well as considerably 
thicker, and by these means the accuracy of sensation or feeling is much diminished. J 
The bodily strength is also greater; the bulk of the body is larger, and its humours 
are much less disposed to putrefaction."^ 

From these effects of heat and cold upon the body, says the author whom I have 
just quoted, much of their influence on the mind may be explained. Heat increases 
the faculty or power, as well as the accur.icy of sensation or feeling. This sensibi- 
lity of the body is communicated by sympathy to the mind ; and hence that hio-h 
degree of the former Avhich prevails in hot climates, and which indeed is so great as 
to be scarcely conceivable, except by those who have felt it.|] 

The inhabitants of hot climates, therefore, are disposed to be passionate, litigious, 

» Ferguson's Essay oil Civil Society, pan iii. sect. i. p. 182. + Ibid, p. 188. 

} Mr, Winslow remarks, that the insensible perspiration is always greatest where the feeling is required to 
be more accurate, as in the palms of the hands, insides of the fingers, kc. H'lnslow's Anatomy. 
(1 Remarks on the Influence of Climate, &c. on Mankind, by W. Falconer, M,D. F.R.S. p. 5. 
!l Falconer on Climate, p. 6. 



150 CLIMATE. 

and revengeful, as is particularly observed among the Italians in Europe, and some 
of the negro tribes in Africa ; their attachment for the other sex is likewise increased, 
and on that account, the jealousy which attends love, is always remarked as a part of 
the character of these people. 

Another characteristic of the natives of hot climates is cowardice, or timidity. The 
cowardly disposition of the inhabitants of the East is well known : an hundred Euro- 
peans, says Tavernier, could, without difficulty, beat a thousand Indian soldiers. 
Xenophon also tells us, that the Asiatics in his time would not fight, unless in com- 
pany with Greek auxiliaries.* Even the children of Europeans born in the Indies 
lose the courage peculiar to their own climate. Livy observes to this purpose, that 
the same holds true of men, that does with respect to other animals, and to vegeta- 
bles, that the particular nature of the seed is not so powerful in preserving the per- 
fection of the produce, as the nature of the soil and climate under which it was bred, 
are in changing it ; and he instances this in the Macedonians, whose descendants 
possessed Egypt, Syria, and Babylon, who had all degenerated to an equality with 
the native effeminate inhabitants of the country, and who would prove as easy a con- 
quest to the Roman arms.t 

Indolence is a feature also in the character of these people, and must have been 
remarked by every one who has resided in a hot climate. The natives of Cochin are 
proud and lazy ; those who have no slaves hire one, if it be only to carry a quart of 
rice a hundred paces ; they would be dishonoured if they carried it themselves.;^ In 
many places people let their nails grow, that every one may see that they do not 
work. A similar disposition prevails throughout all the East. Idleness may by- 
many be considered as a vice in itself, but its most fatal consequences often 
arise from the facility it affords for evil propensities to enter the human mind.§ 
What then must be the state of morality It in a country where the greater part of the 
people have no work, employment, or calling, to occupy their thoughts, and no idea 
of intellectual entertainment ? The reverse is no less true. " Oblige men to work," 
says the elegant and spirited commentator on the Marquis Beccaria, " and you cer- 
tainly make them honest." It is well known that atrocious crimes are not committed 
in a country, unless when there is too much holiday, consequently too much 
idleness, and of course too much debauchery.1I 

Perfidy and inconstancy are ascribed likewise to the people of warm climates, 
and they are said to be remarkable for these vices even to a proverb. Livy observes, 
that the people of Africa are inconstant in their expectations, and faithless in their 

* Cyropsedia. + Dampier's Voyages, vol. iii. 

1 Livy xxviii. Speech of Manlius to the Soldiers. § Ulloa's Travels, book v. chap. &. 

jl See an excellent paper on the tendency of Idleness to produce Vice, in the Rambler, No, 85. 

H Falconer, p. 33. 



CLIMATE. lil 

dispositions.* A similar character is given of them by Virgil,t and Cicero ;t and 
we are told by Sallust, that they were to be restrained neither by hope nor by fear.§ 
" The same reproach is thrown out against the Syrians and Asiatic Greeks in 
another place by Livy,"|| and confirmed by Vopiscas.H 

In cold countries, as the power of feeling is blunted and the sensibility of system 
in general diminished, the natives are little subject to emotions of passion, and in- 
deed difEcult to be excited on any occasion. This diminution of sensibility contri- 
butes to render them less timid. The resolution of the northern nations in des- 
pising the fear of death, was remarked by several of the ancients, and particularly 
by Lucan.** Strabo, however, seems to hint, that the courage of these people was 
rather of the passive kind, since he observes, that the northern nations were fa- 
mous in close fights, and for persevering courage.++ 

Dr. Falconer says, that one cause of the superior courage of the people of cold 
climates may be derived from the habit of labour, exercise, and industry, inspired by 
the climate. Hippocrates observes, that " idleness and leisure increase and favour 
a cowardly disposition, but that manly courage is the produce of labour and exer- 
clse."5:j The strength also acquired gives them an idea of security which the inha- 
bitants of hot climates do not possess, as a sense of their debility inspires an appre- 
hension of danger. §^ 

Cold climates are favourable to bodily exertions and exercise, but they seem to 
produce in their inhabitants an Inclination to indulge in the use of strong liquors. 
According to Tacitus, the Germans were accustomed to consult over their cups, and 
during their entertainments, concerning the reconciliation of enmities ; the contrac- 
tion of marriage ; the choice of princes or chiefs ; and even to deliberate in regard to 
war and to peace-HH Montesquieu remarks, that this vice, though with some excep- 
tions, predominates throughout the world in proportion to the coldness and humi- 
dity of the climate.HII Drunkenness, however. Is much less culpable in a cold cli- 
mate than a hot one, as In the former, the hospitable disposition of the people, and 
the necessity of the use of strong liquors to a certain degree, may naturally lead to 
it. Drinking also is less criminal in cold countries, because its effects are there less 
pernicious both to the Individual and to society. In a hot climate a drunken man is 
absolutely frantic ; but in a cold one, it renders him heavy and stupid.*** 

• Lib. iii. f 5, lib. xxxvi. (I 17. 4 jEneid, lib. i. J Carthaginenses frauduleiiti et mendaces. 

^ Bell. Jugurth. de Numidia loquens. Modern writers give the same account of them 

]| Hie Sjri et Asiatici Graci sunt levissima genera hominum, lib. xxxv. v. 17. 

H Raro est ut fidem servant Syri, immo difficile. Aurelianus. Vop. 

•* Pharsal, lib. i. ++ Strabo, lib. iv. 

tX Hippocrates de aeribus, aquis, et locis, jl 54. f^ Falconer, p. 18. 

nil Tacitus says, the Germans practised this vice chiefly in company, () De Mor. Ger. cap. xxi. xxii. 

UT Esprit des Loix, Liv. xiv. ch. 2. 

♦♦♦ Falconer, p. 37. 



152 CLIMATE. 

Gaming seems also to be a vice of cold climates. We are told by Tacitus, that the 
ancient Germans were passionately addicted to it,* and it is said to be still prevalent 
among their modern successors. t According to St. Ambrose, it was common likewise 
among the ancient Huns. " The Huns," says be, as we are informed, " acknowledge 
no laws, and yet they submit to those of gaming. They are always ready to play, even 
when they have their foot in the stirrup. They constantly carry dice about with 
them, and preserve them with as much care as their arms, and more of them lose 
their lives in quarrels which originate from gaming, than by the hands of the enemy." 
He adds, " they pride themselves so much on gaming, that wKen they have lost 
their arms, articles on which they set the highest value, they expose their lives to the 
cast of a die, at the mercy of him with whom they play, or of those who lend them 
money to game with. In a word, it is certain, that one of them, known to a Roman em- 
peror, having thus lost his liberty at play, was so honourable, that he paid the debt 
by submitting to a cruel death, to which he was doomed by the winner.":; 

The Canadian savage is said to be very fond of gaming,^ as it affords an interest- 
ing occupation to him in the intervals of war and hunting, and serves to dispel that 
indolent disposition which the usual affairs and transactions of life have not sufficient 
stimulus to effect. II 

That the people in cold climates should be fond of gaming needs excite no wonder, 
and may be accounted for in a very simple manner. Condemned to live under an in- 
hospitable sky, where the nature of the weather and the shortness of the day prevent 
them from pursuing their ordinary labours, some occupation becomes necessary to 
amuse the mind and keep it alive during this general state of inaction. In the long 
winter evenings, in particular, they must find themselves much at a loss how to fill up 
their time without falling into languor or sleep Ingenuity, therefore, is employed 
to devise the means of making the heavy hours pass lightly away, and these means 
will be different according to the disposition of those who require them. 5 Among 

" De Moribus German, cap. xxiv. + Falconer, p. 35. 

t Ambrosius de Tobia, chap. xi. Barbeyrac Traitedu Jeu, lib. iii. ch. v. (117, p. 295. 

j) Lafitau Mceurs de Sauvages. Cherlevoix's Hist, of Canada. Carver's Travels, p. 244. 

One of the most singular kinds of gaming is that said to have been formerly practised among some of 
the people of Thrace ; a rope was suspended at a certain height, and exactly below it was placed a stone, which 
turned on a pivot ; those who played at this desperate game, then cast lots who should first mount the stone, 
and he on whom the lot fell, holding in one hand a bill, put his neck into a noose made in the rope ; another 
then caused the stone to whirl round, so that if the person in the rope was not speedy and dexterous iu cut- 
ting it, he was in great danger of being strangled. The author who relates this circumstance, adds, that the 
spectators only laughed, considering the death of a man as mere amusement.' 

II Falconer, p. 35. 

' Sed ut homines, labore assiduo et quolidiano assueti, cum tempestatis causa opcre prohibentur, ad pilam 
se, aut ad talos , aut ad tessaras conlerunt, aut etiam novum sibi ipsi aliquem excogitant in otio ludum sic, kc. 
Cictfo de Oratore, lib. iii, cap. 15, in op. edit. Oxon, 1810, vol. i. p. 38". 

' Ktt.\ ii u>.>.-A -/iXiji, waioia ?x"Ti,- TO' !Ks<»!; (titccToi. AtlienKiis, lib. iv. p. 155. Barbeyrac, ibid. (1.2. 
Tills game was called the game of hanging : ay}(,otiv ■aa^i^in. 



CLIMATE. vi5S 

the Icelanders, one of the most useful ways of spending idle time is that of recitino- 
or reading passages from old sagas, or histories in verse, a custom which has been 
long prevalent in that country. These people play also at cards, but their favourite 
amusement seems to be chess, with which they are well acquainted, and though at pre- 
sent they do not play for money, it appears that in the eleventh and twelfth centuries, 
when money perhaps was more abundant, playing for money or for articles of value 
was carried to a very great excess, since it is expressly forbidden by some of the 
old laws.* Chess also is common in Russia: a celebrated traveller says, that during 
his continuance at Moscow, he scarcely entered into any company where parties were 
not engaged in that diversion; and in passing the streets he frequently observed the 
tradesmen and common people playing before the doors of their shops or houses. 
The Russians are esteemed great proficients at this game ;"t and the case is the 
same with the people of the Feroe Islands, who at some seasons of the year have the 
same need of amusement. J 

If we examine the character of the people of temperate climate's, it will be found 
to be of a mixed kind, "though considerably more inclinable to virtue, at least 
the practical part of it, as far as regards external actions, than those of hot ones. 
Their greater acquaintance with the nature of trade, and the necessity of mutual 
confidence, especially in large concerns, renders them less knavish and deceitful. 
Their consciousness of superiority, both in courage and in military science, makes 
them less cruel, and their sense of the necessity of decent conduct and behaviour, to 
preserve the police and form of government, prevents scandalous or open violations 
of morality."§ 

In regard to intellectual qualities, the same causes which sharpen or blunt sen- 
sibility, give a peculiar turn to the powers of the mind, and hence the literary pro- 
ductions of the south have always displayed abundance of fancy and ima"-ination; 
as a proof of this we need only refer to the Persians, who, according'to Le Brun, 
love poetry above all things,* and are fond of exhibiting in it the most lively and 
brilliant images. The case is the same with the Arabs : Leo mentions some at Fez, 
who were accustomed to recite verses in honour of Mahomet on a certain day, and 
he who recited the best was the chief of the poets during that year.|| 

The sensibility and vivid imagination of hot climates has been favourable also to 
discoveries, and we find that many of the most useful inventions of life were originally 
derived from the Orientals. One thing, however, peculiar to these climates, is the early 

• Olafsen's und Povelsen's Reise durch Island. Kopeahagen, und Leipsic, 1774, vol. i. p. 2G. See also 
p. 245, where their method of playing is described. 

■^ Coxe's Travels in Poland, Russia, Sweden, and Denmark. Fifth edit. 1802, vol. i. p. 384. 

J Landt's Description of the Feroe Islands, p. 398. 

|) Falconer, p. 40. 

11 J. Leonis Africas Descript. Elzevir, 1C32, p. 332. 

Vol. I X . 



154 C LI MATE. 

developement of genius, and its early decline. This is universally observed, and is 
particularly remarked in South America, where it is supposed to have a bad effect' 
on the moral character, by making young people early acquainted with vice, and 
giving them a taste for its allurements before their judgment is sufficiently matured 
to perceive its mischievous consequences.* Though this fact is well established, it 
would perhaps be difficult to account for it in a satisfactory manner. 

If the inhabitants of the northern districts of the earth have a less fervid imagi- 
nation than those who enjoy the benefit of a warmer sun and a serener sky, they 
are better fitted, perhaps, for the study of those sciences which are most useful to 
mankind. England produced a Newton, and the shores of the Baltic gave birth to 
a Copernicus, a Tycho Brahe, and a Kepler. The inhabitants of cold climates have 
never been celebrated for their inventions, but they have improved many, and 
brought them to a state much nearer to perfection than that in which they received 
them. 

Though much irregularity must prevail in the effects produced by climate, be- 
cause it will always be combined with other causes either favourable or unfavourable 
to its operation, it is certainly worthy of attention, and particularly to such empires, 
as Britain and Russia, whose extensive dominions are inhabited by people subject to 
the influence of almost every temperature.-)- 

The influence which climate has on the health and animal spirits has been long 
known and experienced. The air of some districts is so mild and favourable to life, 
that the valetudinarian finds himself often revived, when he removes to them from 
his own more inclement atmosphere. Lisbon, Nice, Montpellier, and other places 
in the southern parts of Europe, have been much celebrated on this account; and 
even in Britain a very striking difference prevails between the fens of Lincolnshire 
or the marshes of Essex, and some districts in the county of Devon, where the air 
is said to be more salubrious and pure. 

Of the noxious effects of climate we have melancholy instances in abundance. 
In this respect our own West India islands may be justly styled the grave of our 
soldiers and sailors, who are there cut off every year by thousands ; of the British 
army stationed in these islands, amounting to )9, 676 effective men, there died in 
the course of seven years, from 1796 to 1S02 inclusive, 17,173, besides 590 
officers, t 

In May I796, the thirty-first regiment, then in St. Lucia, was 776 strong, but by No- 
vember, that is, in less than seven months, fifteen only were returned fit for duty. In 
the same island the forty- fourth, forty-eighth, and fifty-fifth regiments, together with 

» Ulloa's Voyage, vol. iv. p, 92, edit. 4to, 1726. 

4 Those who wish to see the subject fully examined may consult Dr. Falconer's Essay, who has discussed it 
at full length. 

X From regimental returns collected by John Sawyer, Esq. commissary ia the Windward and Leeward 
Islands during lliat period. 



CLIMATE. i5j 

the York Fusileers, \\liich in May, 1 796, -were all strong'regiments, lost within the year 
the far greater part of their men. In Grenada, from June 179G, to February 1797, 
the twenty-seventh regiment lost 20 officers and 5 16 men. In the same island, and 
within the same period, the fifty-seventh regiment lost 15 officers and 605 men.* 

These are only a few of the instances which might be produced of the destructive 
mortality occasioned by the influence of climate, and yet this subject, of so much 
importance to every state that possesses extensive and remote colonies, is strangely 
neglected. Had those who planned the attack on Walcheren been properly ac- 
quainted with the nature of that island, the unfortunate expedition fitted out against 
it would certainly not have sailed from our shores, or at any rate, would have been 
dispatched at a less unfavourable season. 

Holland, being flat as well as damp, the air stagnates, and becoming charged with 
watery vapours, gives rise to different kinds of fever, which generally attack stran- 
gers unaccustomed to the climate. t The case is the same with a district in Holstein, 
called Ditmarsh. Moist winds and foggy calms are here very prevalent, with intense 
cold in winter and excessive heat in summer; yet the land is exceedingly fertile, 
and will produce crops for sixteen years in succession without any manure. :[: 

This last circumstance accords with an observation of Humboldt, who says, speaking 
of the kingdom of New Spain, " the declivity of the Cordillera is exposed to humid 
winds and frequent fogs, and the vegetation, nourished with these aqueous va- 
pours, exhibits an uncommon beauty and strength. The humidity of the coasts, 
assisting the putrefaction of a great mass of organic substances, gives rise to mala- 
dies to which Europeans and others, not seasoned to the climate, are exposed ; for, 
under the burning sun of the tropics; the unhealthiness of the air almost always 
indicates extraordinary fertility of soil. Thus, at Vera Cruz, the quantity of rain 
which falls in a year is 63'78 inches, while in France it scarcely amounts to 
37-496."^ 

Batavia, in the island of Java, furnishes an instance of a climate highly dele- 
terious to European constitutions, though the country in general is said to be 

♦ Sir William Young's West India Common-Place Book, p. 218, 223. 

+ A Dutch writer, speaking of climate, says : Uude civitates loco insalubri sitas, ubi aer nebulosus, putris 
tt pestilens, brevi concidisse videmus. Sic Alexandria ^gypti civitas olim florentissima : at quia loco 
insalubri posita et aer ejus propter viciniam paludis Mareotidis pene pestilens hodie nonnisi magna solitudo 
est. Sic Illyricum, Dalmatia, hodie pene desolatas regiones sunt ob aerisinsalubrem constitutionem. Fateorin- 
terdum lucri cupiditatem etiam loca insalubria facile perferre: cunaa enim raalaet pericula spernit ac superat 
avaritia. Quemadmodum vicina nobis Amstelodamum. Gear. Hornii Hist. A'at. cl Civil. Lugd. lint. 1679, 
p. 267. 

t L. M. Medcl's Indenlanske Reise igjennem de Danske Trovindser. Kiobenhavn, 1803. fiJiste Heftt, 
p. 64-66. 

() Humbolt's Essay, vol. i. p. 78. 

X2 



156 . CLIMATE. 

healthy. This place, formerly the capital of the Dutch Indian settlements, is situated 
in the midst of swamps and stagnated pools, whence " a congregation of foul and pe's- 
tilential vapours" arise every morning whenever the sea breeze sets in. The meridian 
sun also raises into the air, from the sliallow and muddy canals with which the town 
is intersected, infectious miasmata, and the trees with which the quays and streets are 
crowded emit noxious exhalations in the night.* It is supposed, that of the Europeans 
of all sorts who come to settle at Batavia, not alwayshalf the number survives the year.+ 
" As a proof of the bad effects of the climate upon both sexes, a lady told one of the 
gentlemen who accompanied Lord Macartney, that out of eleven persons of her 
family who had come to Batavia only ten months before, her father, brother-in-law, 
and six sisters, had already paid the debt of nature:":!: It is stated likewise,- " that 
one of the counsellors of the Indies, after mentioning all the pains taken by him and 
his colleagues for guarding the settlement against external attacks, frankly acknow- 
ledged, that their chief dependance was upon the havoc which the cjimate was likely 
to make among the enemy's forces."^ 

This colony is now in possession of Britain, and I sincerely trust, if there 
be any intention of retaining it, that the city will be razed to the foundation, 
and the seat of government transferred to some healthier part of the island. The 
Roman empire never betrayed symptoms of decline till its territories were ex- 
tended from the cold shores of Britain to the burning regions of India. The extre- 
mities became then too large for the body, which being thus debilitated sunk under 
its cumbrous load, never more to rise. Happy would it be for nations did their 
governments profit by the examples afforded by history, and avoid in time those fatal 
measures which have invariably produced weakness, and hastened the downfal of Em- 
pires I The effects which climate has on the vegetable kingdom are no less striking 
than those which it has on man. The cold districts of the polar region furnish no ve- 
getable useful as food, and the wretched inhabitants are reduced to the necessity of 
employing as a part of iheir sustenance the bark of the fir tree. || Pallas says, " that 
under the latitude of GS^" north, the birch and the ash disappear, and even the tall fir 
and larch, so common in cold climates, assume a stunted and dwarfish formH. In the 

•" Lord Macartney's Embassy to China, vol. i. p. 242. 

+ Ibid. 244. 

J Ibid. 245. 

f Ibid. 253. 

II The inhabitants of Utsibko pastorate in Swedish Lapland, which lies between 69" 22' and "0° 4' north 
latitude, collect in summer the inner bark of the fir tree, and store it up to supply them with food in winter. 
Tiiey tear it. off from the tree in thin strips, hang it up to dry in their huts, and when they use it they cut it 
very small, together with the tallow of the rein deer, and boil it for some hours into a kind of soup. They have 
recourse to this food even in summer, when they are not able to procure fish. Geng. och Ekononiisk Biskrif- 
ning om Kcmi Lappmari tif S. C. Bermeliiis, Stockholm, 1804, 4to, p. 48, 49. 

f Reise dutch Russland, vol, ill. p. 21. 



CLIMATE. 157 

year 1S03 there were numbered in the latitude of 56 degrees, 196,097 oaks above 
24 inches in diameter, but under the latitude of 59 only 97 of that size."* 
" The 60th degree," says Storch, " may be considered as the line beyond wliich it 
is impossible to improve the land by agriculture." Accordino- to the account of 
Pallas, the inhabitants north of Demiansk, a village in the government of Tobolsk, 
lying in about latitude 54° 30', cultivate nothing but barley or oats, or at most a little 
summer grain ; hemp or flax is seldom sown there, and in the course of three years there 
is scarcely a moderate crop. The cabbages never form heads, but sprout out into loose 
green leaves. Farther to the east the country under the same latitude is still more unfit 
for agriculture. Repeated experiments made at Ochotzk, between lat. 59 and 60°, 
and at Udskoi Ostrog, in lat. 55° 20', prove that the summer there is too short; that 
the earth continues too long frozen in spring, and that the night frosts set in too 
early in autumn, to allow of any hope that grain can ever be cultivated with 
advantage. Even in Kamtschalka, the southern extremity of which lies only in about 
lat. 51°, similar attempts have been attended with very little success. In the wes- 
tern part of the Russian empire, even under the latitude of 60°, corn and <rarden 
productions can be reared with very great difRcuIty."t 

Of all the phenomena attending climate, none are more useful, and at the same 
time more destructive, than the winds. These currents of air, which sometimes carry- 
along with them the most pestilential vapours, and at others the balmy breath of 
health, are divided into so many kinds, and possess properties so different, that it 
would be difficult to describe them. There are some, however, so regular in their 
progress or uniform in their effects, that they may be easily distinguished from all 
others. Of this kind are the Sirocco of the countries borderino- on the Mediterra- 
nean, and the Harmattan of Africa. The former is experienced at some seasons of 
the year in Italy, Sicily, and Malta. It proceeds in a north-east direction from the 
hot burning sands of Africa, and is said to be most frequent in the month of May, 
which agrees with observations made in Egypt ; for the Ramsin, or " destroying wind" 
of the desert, visiting the shores of the Nile at this period, proves it to be the 
same as the Sirocco in Italy. When it first leaves the shores of Africa it is 
an exceedingly dry parching wind, loaded with particles of sand ; but in passino- 
over the Mediterranean, it seizes the vapour rising from the surface of the sea and 
deposits the sand which it had before taken up ; and on its arrival on the shores of 
Italy, it there becomes a heated wind, charged with abundant moisture. 

Mr. Brydone, who experienced a Sirocco wind while at Palermo, in Sicily, in the 
month of July, 1770, remarks, " tliat it came in a southerly direction, the thermo. 
meter being previously at '2°, but upon his going into the open air in the morning 

» Storch's Russland unter Alexander, dem ersten, No. liii. ]804. 
+ Hist. Stat. Genaulde des Russischen Reichs, vol. iii. p. 269. 



158 CLIMATE. 

at ei'^ht o'clock, he was astonished to find a sudden change of temperature. The 
first blast on his face excited a sensation like that caused by the burning steam which 
proceeds from the mouth of an oven, and on exposing a thermometer in the open 
air, itTOse to 110°, and soon after to 112°. This extraordinary heat continued till 
three o'clock in the afternoon, when the wind changed at once to the opposite side 
of the compass, blowing strong from the north, and in a little time the thermometer 
fell thirty degrees. 

The Sirocco before it reaches Rome crosses the Pontine Marshes, and though 
checked a little in its progress by the mountains of Albano and Frescati, it relaxes 
the fibres in a manner truly astonishing. The south-west wind which comes from 
Barbary, produces, though in a less degree, the same efiects. But the most pernicious 
of all, and the most common in summer, is the south-west, which passes immediately 
to Rome over the marshes of Ostia,* and brings along with it particles so 
exceedincrly noxious, that the buildings of the city exposed to the south, are 
more corroded than such as are exposed to the winds that come from any 
other quarter. So violent are the agitations occasioned by the constant heat, 
that people in the lower parts of the city become quite distracted, so that they 
jump from the windows, or throw themselves into wells ; and it is confidently 
asserted, that as many suicides are committed at Rome in the summer, as in any 
town of Europe during the whole year. What in other countries is done through 
despondency, is at Rome the effect of phrenzy, generated by climate.t 

In Sicily, the Sirocco, it is said, seldom lasts more than from thirty-six to forty 
hours, during which time the inhabitants confine themselves to their houses, and 
employ their servants constantly in sprinkling water through their apartments to 
preserve the air as temperate as possible. The great heat, however, does not seem to 
produce in that island epidemic disorders, and the only inconvenience the inhabi- 
tants experience from it, is a temporary debility; but when the north wind has 
blown for a few hours, they are restored to their usual vigour and strength. In Na- 
ples and other parts of Italy, the heat is totally different; it is not nearly so violent, 
but it lasts many days, sometimes weeks; it is also attended with putrid disorders, 
and never fails to produce languor and dejection of spirits. t 

Mr. Williams says, " that in England we are subject to a wind which in some 
degree resembles the Sirocco of Sicily, though the variation of temperature here is 

» I have already noticed these marshes, and mentioned in a note, page 82, that they were drained by 
Augustus, a circumstance to which I find Horace alludes in his Art of Poetry, where he says, 

Sterilisve palus prius aplaque remis 

Vicinas urbes alit, et grave ienlit aratrum : 
+ Annals of Agriculture, vol. iii. p. 137. 
4 Williams on the Climate of Great Britain, p. 186-188. 



CLIMATE. 159 

not so considerable. This wind sometimes takes place towards the end of April, ■ 
but most commonly in May; the mean height of the thermometer in the morning 
and evening being usually about 45° with variable winds. The barometer falls; the 
wind frequently becomes stationary at south-west or south, and blowing briskly, the 
air is soon conveyed to us from the countries bordering on the Bay of Biscay, and 
from the western coast of Portugal. The thermometer rises to 59 or 60°, and even 
to 65*, and the heat is attended with great humidity. The previously cooled walls 
of our houses and stone floors condense the vapour which appears in trickling drops ; 
we feel oppressed, and if we take exercise, a considerable debility, with a sense of 
fulness about the head, which never fails to accompany or to follow it. When this 
wind ceases it is immediately succeeded by a wind from the opposite side of the 
compass, that is, from the north-east, and the temperature soon lowers again to 
about 45°."* 

A very extraordinary wind, called the Harmattan, is experienced on the western 
coast of Africa, between the equator and the latitude of 15° north. It blows from 
the north-east towards the Atlantic Ocean, and consequently must sweep a very 
extensive tract of dry and parched land, Izert says, that it is always accom- 
panied with excessive drought, and a fog so thick that one cannot see an object at 
the distance of an hundred paces. As a proof of the extreme dryness of the at- 
mosphere during the continuance of this wind, he informs us, that a hygrometer, 
constructed on the principle of that used by De Luc, which in air of a medium 
dampness, both in Europe and in Africa, stood at 50 or 60 degrees, rose on the 
20th and 2 1st of February, 1 7 86, to more than 145°, and had the extent of the in- 
strument admitted, would have ascended to 170°. This drought, combined with 
the heat, occasions an uncommon coughing ; but it does not last, and may be mo- 
derated by fiequenily sprinkling the apartment with water. The joinings of 
wooden floors and doors become so wide, that one can see through them ; casks 
and barrels, if not completely full, cast their hoops and fall to pieces, and the tin- 
foil at the back of mirrors becomes melted. t 

Though this wind is very prejudicial to vegetables of every kind, which it in ge- 
neral destroys, it is highly conducive to health. Those inbouring under fluxes 
and intermitting fevers, for the most part recover during the time it pre- 
vails, and those weakened by fevers and the injudicious use of medicine, are soon 
restored by it to their former health and strength. J 

To be acquainted with the nature of the winds and the different effects they pro- 
duce, is of great utility to mankind in general ; but in particular to the agriculturist 
and navigator. When the passage to India by the Cape of Good Hope w.-is first 
discovered, the Portuguese lost many of their ships, because their seamen had not 

•' Williams on Climate, p. 18S. J Paper on the Harmattan by Mr. Norris, in the 

+ Izert's Reise iia Guinea, p, 340, 341. Phil. Traosaciions, vol, Ixxii. 



160 CLIMATE. 

learned the prognostics of those violent winds called travados, or tornados,* which 
often come on so suddenly as to leave no time for furling the sails, and making 
other preparations to withstand them.t The signs, however, by which they 
are announced, are now so well known, that littk danger is apprehended from ' 
them. 

Machiavel,j Bayle,^ Montesquieu, H and other eminent writei's, seem to have 
believed that the northern countries are more favourable than the southern 
to population. Sussmilch, who is so often referred to by Mr. Malthus in his 
essay on that subject, controverts this opinion, and maintains that climate has n© 
influence at all on population. H In civilized countries, perhaps, where an ac- 
quaintance with the arts enables men to provide abundant nourishment, and to 
defend themselves from the severity of the weather, this may be true ; but still there 
are cases where they live in a state of nature, or one nearly approaching to it, in which 
one climate will in this respect be superior to another. Among the North Ame- 
rican Indians the mother is always obliged to pay the greatest attention to her 
infant, in order to protect it from the injuries of the seasons, which are various, 
and often rigorous. She is burdened also with the care of providing for it food 
by her own exertion in the forests, where little of spontaneous growth is to be 
found. The hardships of a wandering life prevent the multiplication of chil- 
dren, so that frequently one is three or four years old before she brings forth 
a second. The African mother, on the other hand, is not under the necessity 
of devoting so much time and attention to the care of her children. She can leave 
them exposed to the influence of the weather, without any fear of those dangers 

• " A tornado, though very violent, is never dangerous ; it always gives sufficient warning of its ap- 
proach, and lasts not long. Dark, heavy, and black clouds, are generally first seen rising from the south to 
the south-east, and as they rise forming a large black arch in the heavens, which moves slowly to the east- 
ward, and when it arrives between south-east aiid east the tornado generally comes on. 1 particularly observed 
every tornado at Bulama for two-thirds of one season, and the whole of another, from their first appearance 
till their rage was entirely spent: and I never knew one give less than an hour's notice; but generally two, 
and sometimes four hours; and except seven out of seventy, they were all between the east and south-east 
points of the compass, generally attended with much thunder, lightning, and rain ; and they usually lasted 
from one to three hours. 

" To secure themselves from their violence, those seamen who are conversant with them furl their sails, 
and thus wait their approach ; for if a ship be caught by one of them with much sail set, she will probably 
lose her sails or masts, if even the ship itself be not in danger ; for as to taking in sail, it is entirely out of the 
question." Beaver's African Memoranda, p. 3t)S. 

4 A System of General Geography, by Varenius, vol. i. p. 520. 

J Istoria Fiorent, 1. i. c. 3. 

(S Nouvelles de la Rep. des Lettres, 1685, lanv. art. 8. 

II Esprit des Loix, 1. xxviii. ch. 16. 

H Die Gotiliche Orduung in den Veranderungea des Menschliclien Gesciilichts. Berliu, 1775, vol. i. 
p. 201-203. 



CLIMATE. j6i 

to which the delicate constitution of a child Avould be liable under a cold and va- 
riable sky. The earth, aided by a favourable climate, affords, almost without labour, 
abundance of what is proper for the nourishment of children. When employed in 
cultivating the small spot of earth around her hut,, or in other domestic occupa-. 
tions, she can leave the younger part of her offspring for a long time to their 
own management ; and hence it may be inferred, that a warm climate is in this 
case favourable to the multiplication of children.* 

That the climate of a country is susceptible of change in the course of years, 
seems to be generally admitted, though considerable difference of opinion prevails 
in regard to the causes by which such a change is produced. Such effects seem not 
to have been unknown to the ancients. We are told by Pliny, that a lake at Larissa 
in Thessaly, being drained, the surrounding district became colder than it had 
been before, so that the vines decayed, and the olive trees which grew in it pe- 
rished. t He relates also, that the climate near Philippi" was changed, in conse- 
quence of the land being rendered drier by cultivation.:!: i 

In the year 1770, Dr. Hugh Williamson published a paper in the Transactions 
of the American Philosophical Society, § in which he stated, that it had been ob- 
served within the preceding forty or fifty years, that a very perceptible change 
of climate had taken place in the middle colonies of North America, and that 
the winters were not so intensely cold, nor the summers so disagreeably warm as 
they had been- some years before. This change he ascribes to increased culti- 
vation, and the general improvement of the soil. While the face of the country 
was covered with woods, and every valley presented a swamp or stagnant marsh, 
the air in consequence of a continued exhalation from these fens, became charged 
with a gross putrescent fluid. Hence a series of irregular, nervous, bilious, re- 
mittent, or intermittent fevers, which for many years had maintained a fatal 
reign, but were then evidently on the decline. Pleuritic and other inflammatory 
fevers, were also observed to become milder in their nature as the winters grevr 
more temperate. 

This subject was resumed some time after by the Abbe Mann, who, in a paper 
published in the Transactions of the Academy of Manheim,l| endeavoured to shew 
that this change of climate was not confined to America, but had taken place in the 
greater part of Europe. As this is an interesting subject, which, if properly exa- 

* Smith's Essay on the Variety of Complexion, &c. p. 141, 142. See also Ferguson's Essay on Civil 
Society, p. 232. 

■V In Thessalia circa Larissam emisso lacu frigidior facta ea legio est, olesequc desierunt, quae prius fuerant. 
Item vites aduri quod non antea, lib.xvii. cap. 4. Lugd. Bat. I669, vol. ii. p. 322. 

X Et circa Philippos cultura siccata regio, mutavit habitum coeli. Ibid, ib. p. 323. 

§ Vol. i. sect. 2, p. 272. 

II Transactions of the Electoral Acade.iiy of Sciences at Mauheim, vol. vi. 
Vol. I. Y 



162 CLIMATE. 

examined, might perhaps serve to solve some diflSculties in regard to ch'mate, I 
shall give a short view of the arguments which this writer employs in support of 
his theory. 

We are told by Herodotus, that in the European part of Scythia, on the Palus 
Meotis. the winter continued eight months every year, with almost insupportable 
severity, and that the countries farther towards the north, were on that account un- 
inhabitable ; he adds, that the other four months, called the summer, were also ex- 
ceedingly cold. Now this country lies between the 44th and 50th degrees of north 
latitude, and we know at present that nothing of the like kind has taken place there 
for a long time. Csesar, Virgil, Diodorus Siculus, Ovid, Strabo, Pomponius Mela, 
Seneca, Petronius, Pliny, Statins, Herodian, Justin,* all speak of the insupportable 
cold of the winter in different parts, lying under the same latitude (of from 44* 1050°,) 
as between Gaul and the Euxine Sea. The descriptions they give would suit those 
countries lying between 56'' and the polar circle, and in some respects they seem 
to exceed the cold of the winter in Sweden and Norway. 

All the seas, lakes, and rivers, in the districts between the 44th and 50th degrees of 
latitude, were continually frozen in winter, so that armies of Scythians and Sarma- 
tians, in order that they might plunder the more southern countries, passed with their 
horses, waggons, and baggage, over the ice, which they bestrewed with straw to pre- 
vent their sliding. We are told by Strabo, that Neoptolemus, the general of Mi- 
thridates, beat the barbarians in winter with an army of cavalry, at a place which 
in summer had been the scence of a naval battle. + In a Treatise on Rivers, ascribed 
to Plutarch, it is said, the Thermodon, a Scythian river, froze even in summer,:}: 
a circumstance which never happens at present to the rivers of Siberia, Lapland, and 
Greenland. Ovid tells us that he himself passed over the Pontus Euxinus on the 
ice ; and he adds, that people would scarcely believe him. Plutarch says, that the 
pressure of this enormous mass of ice against the sides of ships, frozen in it, crushed 
them to pieces ; and he mentions the instance of a Roman ship which had expe- 
rienced that fate in the Danube. Strabo and Virgil§ speak of brass vessels bursting 
by the expansive force of the ice, and we are assured by Virgil and Ovid that the 
people in Thrace, and on the Danube, cut the wine with axes, and distributed it in 

» Crcsar, lib. iv. cap. 15 ; Virgil Georgic. lib. iii. v. 349-3S3 ; Ceorgic iv. v. 12S-135 ; Diod. Sic. 
Biblioth. Hist. lib. v. cap. 25 ; Ovid, Trist. lib. iii. Eleg. iv. v. 48, 49, 51 ; Eleg. x ; Strabo, edit. Basil, 
1539, lib. ii. p. 67, 68, 107, 129, lib- *"• P- 297. Pomponius Mela de Situ Orbis, lib. ii. cap. i. De Scy- 
thia Europa ; cap. 2 de Thracia; lib. iii. cap. 3 de Germania ; Seueca de Providentia, cap. 4; Petronius 
Arbiter Satyrs, Lip. 1723, l2mo, p. 24; Pliny Hist. Nat. lib. iv. cap. 12. Statius Sylv. lib. v. edit. Elz. 
1653, p. 83. Herodian, edit. Oxon. 1G99, 8vo, lib. i. p. l2 ; lib. vi. p. 221: Justin, edit. Elz. 1GG4, voi. iL 
p. 25. . .1 

4 Strabo Geog. edit. Almel. vol. i. p. 472. ■ .1 • 

* Plutarchus de Buviis in Geograph. vet. script, vol. ii. p. 29. • .. r v • 

jl Geurgic, lib. iii. v. 3C3, 364, et seq. • 1. 



CLIMATE. 163 

solid portions. They add, likewise, that men's hair and beards were often covered 
with ice. If we compare these facts with the present state of France, Germany, Hun- 
gary, Romania, Transylvania, Wallachia, Moldavia, Bulgaria, Lesser Tartary, Po- 
dolia, and the Ukraine, it will be found that the temperature of these countries has 
not the smallest resemblance to what it was two thousand years ago. The effects 
produced there every winter scarcely take place now in a century, and when they 
occur they are considered as extraordinary phenomena. 

Herodotus, Mela, and Pliny,* speak of the European part of Scythia, as if the at- 
mosphere had been continually filled with snow and fogs, which impeded the view 
of the nearest objects, and obscured the light of day. We are told by Herodotus, 
that the immense load of snow, when it fell, made the air appear as if filled with 
feathers, and that for this reason the country was called Pteropheros. Diodorus 
Siculus speaks of Celto-Scythia as covered with snow in the vyinter time, and the 
same thing is asserted by Florus+ and Petronius. Virgil, speaking of Thrace, and the 
countries on both sides of the Danube, says, that a continual winter prevailed in them, 
and the snow lay upon the ground to the depth of seven ells. The picture which 
Ovid gives of the snow at Tomi, in the latitude of 44", is no less horrid, as he as- 
serts that it continued two years without being melted by the sun or the rain. 

Diodorus Siculus, Tacitus, J and Ovid, when they speak of Gaul, Germany, and 
Thrace, take notice of the prodigious force of the wind which prevailed in those 
countries in their time, and during preceding centuries. These winds raised even 
stones and men from the earth, carried away the roofs of houses, tore up trees by 
the roots, and overturned turrets and other buildings. Such effects of the wind 
are observed at present in the countries on the northern sea and Bay of Biscay, but 
seldom in those parts of the continent mentioned of by the ancients. 

Varro,^ Diodorus Siculus, Ovid, Pomponius Mela, Seneca, Petronius, Pliny the 
elder, Appian,|| Dion Cassius,1I and Herodian, all agree in saying, that the severity 
of the climate and weather, which in their time prevailed in Gaul, Germany, Pan- 
nonia, Thrace, Moesia, and Dacia, would scarcely admit the growth of either 
vines, olives, or fruit-trees, and that in cultivating them it was necessary to cover 
the earth with dung, to preserve them throughout the winter. Tacitus, how- 
ever, says, that these countries produced in abundance, various kinds of grain, 
where the people gave themselves the trouble to improve and manure their fields 
by means of marl or chalk, which destroyed the cold and the moisture. 

♦ Herodot. lib. iv. cap. 31 ; Pomp. Plin. Hist. Nat. lib. iv. cap. 12. Pomp. Mela, cap. 1 ; lib, iii. cap. 6. 
+ Florus, lib. iv. cap. 12. 

X Tacit.de Morib. Germ. cap. 2, 4, 5. , 

(I De Re Rustica, lib. i. cap. 7. 
II Excerpta ex ejus Celticis a Valetio, p. 1220. 
^ Dio. Cassius, Hist. lib. xlix. p. 413, edit. Hanov. 160C, fol. 

Y 2 ' 



164 CLIMATE. 

It is observed by Herodotus,* Strabo, and Tacitus, that the oxen in the European 
part of Scythia, and the country of the Celto-Scythians, had no horns, or horns ex- 
ceedingly small, which they ascribe to the severity of the cold in that climate. Strabo, 
as a proof of the great cold which prevailed in the country now called tlie Ukraine, 
observes, that it produced no asses ; animals, he says, which cannot endure cold; 
and he adds, that the horses there were extremely small. But nothing is more strik- 
ing than the testimony of Pausanias,+ who says expressly, that in Thrace there 
were in his time bears of a white colour, animals which at present are found only in 
the remotest parts of the north, on the other side of the polar circle. We are told by 
Virgil, Ovid, and Poniponius Mela, that the inhabitants of the European part of 
Scythia and Thrace, lived during the whole winter under the earth, that they burnt 
large logs of wood to keep themselves warm, that they never went abroad without 
being wrapped up in furs, and that they left no part of the body uncovered but the 
mouth and eyes. All these facts seem to prove, that an excessive severity prevailed 
two thousand years ago in the climate of those countries of Europe, lying between 
the latitude of 44" and 50"- north, and fully establish a very considerable diffe- 
rence between the state of their temperature in those periods and what it is at 
present. 

The ancients speak likewise of the effects produced by the cold of winter in 
Italy, Greece, Lesser Asia, 8cc. which at present are certainly unknown. 

Dr. Williamson asserts, that the climate of America is also daily becoming milder. 
This effect is directly contrary to the hypothesis of Buffon, respecting the theory 
of the earth and planets, which he asserts have been continually losing warmth since 
they were first in a state of fusion, and are becoming always colder, so that they will 
at length be incapable of keeping alive any animal or vegetable production. All 
historical and physical monuments, however, prove the contrary. 

Columella:!: is the first author who speaks of vines in Gaul, and he says that the 
Sabines and the Romans, in the preceding century, had procured, amidst the de- 
vastation of war, more abundant crops than had been procured in his time during 
a state ■ of perfect peace. But nothing in this respect is more striking than his 
observations -with regard to the changes of climate. " I find," says he, " that it 
is the opinion of many respectable authors, that the quality and state of the atmos- 
phere become changed in the course of a long series of ages ; for Saserna, in the 
TTork which he has left on agriculture, infers that the state of the atmosphere is chang. 
ed, because certain districts, -which formerly were incapable of producing vines or 
olives, on account of the continual severity of the winter, now yield abundant vin- 
tages and plenty of oil, by the climate having become milder and warmer." 

But to what causes is this cliange to be ascribed ? all the ancient writers who speak 

'■ Herodot. lib. iv. cap. 29. + Pausan. Arcad. cap. xvii. p. C34. edit. Lips. 1696, fel, 

J De Re Rustics, lib. i. cap. 1. 



CLIMATE. 165 

of the countries of Europe beyond the latitude of 50" north, represent them as filled 
with lakes and morasses, and even covered with immense forests, almost as America 
is at present. It is a certain fact, that the climate of America is different from that 
of Europe, by about ten degrees of latitude. That Is, the districts of North 
America lying under 40" of north latitude, are as cold and moist as the countries of 
Europe which lie in the latitude of 50°. New England lies between the 4lstand 
4Cth degrees of latitude ; yet it is observed that the climate there, in regard to heat 
and cold, is equal to that of the districts of England between the latitude of 50° and 
56°. It is well known, that in proportion as the people of America extirpate 
the forests, drain the marshes, and cultivate the land, the climate imperceptibly 
becomes milder. For a thousand or two thousand years past, the people in all the 
northern parts of Europe have been in the same manner employed in the improve- 
ment of the soil. These causes, however accidental they may be, and however 
much dependant on human industry, must have contributed their part to render the 
climate milder, not only in the countries where they took place, but even in the 
neighbouring ones exposed to the effects of their atmosphere. 

The great number of lakes and morasses, which, according to the accounts of an- 
cient authors, existed in their time in the northern parts of Europe, must have ren- 
dered the air of these countries exceedingly cold and moist, as well as unhealthy, 
since it lessened its elasticity and filled it with thick vapours, which corresponds with 
the description they have given of them. If we except Sweden and Norway, the 
greater part of these lakes and morasses have disappeared, though the places where 
such marshes formerly existed, both in England and on the continent, in Gaul and 
Germany, may still clearly be observed. A great many epochs are known when 
the draining of lakes and morasses was undertaken ; which are proofs, that in the 
course of ages, human industry has contributed to bring about this change. But 
the gradual sinking of the surface of the sea, has also had a great share in pro- 
ducing this phenomenon. From whatever cause, however, these changes have 
proceeded, it is certain that they have tended to lessen the moisture and cold 
of all the countries of Europe. 

In the time of Julius Caesar, and long after, almost all Germany and Sarmatia 
were covered with immense forests. The Hercynian forest was sixty davs' journey 
in length. It began in Belgic Gaul, near the sea, and extended through Germany 
and Poland. England abounded in forests, but in a less proportion. Now it may 
be readily conceived what extraordinary cold, what moist and unwholesome air 
must have prevailed in the climate of these extensive countries ; as all the moun- 
tains and plains were covered w"ith immense woods, and as each vallev almost con- 
tained a lake or marsh ; and what wonderful changes must have been effected by the 
extirpation of these large forests, and by draining off the stagnant waters. Large 



166 CLIMATE. 

■woods prevent the beams of the sun from penetrating to and warming the soil ; they 
impede also the free diffusion of the internal heat, as the fallen leaves and branches 
■which rot on the ground, form a crust through which the internal and external heat 
can with difficulty force a passage. In the last place they concentrate the cold and 
moist vapours, render them putrid, and corrupt the whole atmosphere. This has 
been always observed in America, and the consequences are bilious and intermittent 
fevers in summer and autumn, and inflammatory fevers in winter. It is also as- 
serted, that the opener and drier the land in that country becomes, the more it is 
remarked that these fatal diseases decrease. 

The increase of agriculture has also had a share in producing this beneficial change. 
The culture of the earth, which breaks its surface, puts it in movement, keeps it in a 
state of continual tenderness, and makes it capable of imbibing the rays of the sun in 
summer, and of affording a passage to the internal heat in winter ; and by these 
means contributes to preserve a continual equilibrium of the principle of heat in the 
earth and the atmosphere. The contrary takes place in all uncultivated countries, 
especially when they are moist and covered with wood. 

It can therefore be no longer doubted, that the gradual draining of the stagnant 
water in all Celto-Scythia and European Sarmatia, with the extirpation of their 
larwe forests, and the general cultivation of the fields in these countries, must have 
had an influence also on the atmosphere of Greece and Italy, and must have contri- 
buted to moderate their climate and to render it milder than it was ISOO or 2000 
years ago. 

The author concludes his dissertation by mentioning, as the last and chief cause 
of these changes, the principle of heat, which continually increasing, overcame in 
the course of time the opposite principles of moisture and cold. " Without this 
principle," he says, " we can never find sufficient grounds for the wonderful changes 
■which have taken place in the nature of 'the soil of all these lands bordering on the 
Mediterranean Sea, which formed the ancient empire of Rome, from Syria to Hin- 
dostan, and which at present have all become dry and fertile." 

Dr. Patterson, in his Essay on the Climate of Ireland, controverts the conclusion 
here drawn by the Abbe Mann, and endeavours to shew that his theory is not sup- 
ported by sufficient evidence to entitle it to full credit. His principal arguments 
are deduced from observations in regard to the climate of Italy. " The winter 
there," he savs, " is generally Introduced with thunder or lightning, and the season 
is often very cold and frosty; Mr. Gray, in 1739, admired the beauty of Lombardy, 
but had to regret that it vi-.is deformed by the severity of the winter.* Towards the 
end of January, 1770, Brydone observed Fahrenheit's thermometer at Rome as low 
as 278. t In 1781, t)i. Pugh found the winter at Naples extremely rigorous; three 

f Cray's Works, by Mason, Letters 13th and 20th, + Brydone's Tour, Letter 1st. 



CLIMATE. 167 

nights' sharp frost in the month of January killed all the orange trees in the environs 
of the city, and did more damage than a long succession of the mildest weather 
could repair."* 

'■ Brydone assures us, that the spring is no better comparatively than the winter; 
which was also the case in pristine times, when the weather was wet and windy, 
with hail even in April. It was indeed, he remarks, abundantly warm at Naples in 
May, but seldom a day passed without sudden storms of wind and rain, which brings 
to mind the " Madidum ver" of Juvenal From a comparative view of the state 
of vegetation in ancient and modern times, it appears that the budding and leafing of 
trees, together with the flowering of plants, were at least as early in the former, when 
the seasons were supposed to be colder, as in the latter periods, when they are 
alleged to be warmer. Formerly the hay, barley, and wheat harvest began in June 
and ended in July; latterly wheat harvest commences in the end of May, and termi- 
nates in the end of July. 

" At present, as it did in days of old, the hot weather begins in May ; and through- 
out the summer it was, as it still is, scorching hot, so hot as to burn up the grass and 
to be scarcely supportable by human feelings, an intemperature which Virgil calls 
torrida astas. By a register of the weather kept at Venice for the year 1755, it ap- 
pears that there were two whirlwinds, and a violent storm, resembling that described 
by Virgil in his first Georgic, which he had often seen in the corn harvest. Upon 
the whole, the Italian climate in recent years displays the same cold frosty air, the 
same piercing changeable high winds, and the same sultry suns that it did in very 
remote ages."t 

Dr. Patterson here speaks only of the climate of Italy : but he says nothing of 
Gaul, Germany, or the countries adjacent to the Euxine, the principal parts of 
Europe to which the Abbe Mann alludes, and which evidently have expe- 
rienced a very considerable change of climate within the last 2000 years. But there 
is reason to think, that even in Italy the weather is not nearly so severe in winter as 
it was formerly. Livy, speaking of the year of the city, 355, says, " it was remark- 
able for a cold snowy winter, so that the roads were blocked up, and the Tyber ren- 
dered unfit for navigation.":!: Hence it-appears that the Tyber was completely 
frozen, a circumstance which I apprehend does not take place at present. The same 
author mentions that the Gauls were so accustomed to cold and wet, that when ex- 
posed to heat they died like diseased cattle. § According to Juvenal, there were fre- 



* Pugh on the Climate ofNaples, TJome, and Nice. 

+ Patterson on the Climate of Irehnd, p. 178. 

+ Insignis annus hieme gelida ac nivosa fuit : adeo lit vJx claiisEE, Tiberis innavigabilis fuerit. Hist. lib. v. 
cap. 13, edit. Oxon, 1708, vol. i. p. 2SS. 

() Quorum intolerantia gens humorique ac frigori assiieta ; quum «stu et aiigore vexati vulgaos velut in 
peccora morbis morerentur. Ibid. lib. v. cap. -IS, p. 325. 



168 CLIMATE. 

quent* showers of hail at Rome in the spring, and by a passage in his fifth Satire, 
he seems to hint, that ice, in the river Tyber, was far from uncommon. t Horace 
also makes frequent allusions to the coldness of the climate, and particularly in his 
Ode to Thaliarchus, where he speaks of Mount Soracte being covered with snow, 
the trees loaded with it, and the rivers completely frozen up. J These and other 
instances which might be adduced, are, in my opinion, sufficient to shew that the 
theory of the Abbe Mann is not void of foundation, and that at any rate it deserves 
to be farther examined. 

The opinion of the Abbe Mann, in regard to the decrease of the waters of the sea 
is not new ; it has long been supposed that the waters of the Baltic and neighbour- 
ing gulphs, have been gradually decreasing, and something of the same kind is re- 
marked in other parts of the world. In a small inhabited island of the Gulph of 
Bothnia, belono-ino; to Sweden, called I;Tor6n, between the 60th and 6 1st deg-rees of 
north latitude, some observations have been made, which seem to prove beyond a 
doubt, that the water in that inland sea has suffered a considerable depression. 
Professor Celsius remarked in the year 1731, that according to the measurement 
made there at Hamskar Head, by O. Rudman, more than a century and a half be- 
fore that period, the surface of the water had sunk eight feet; on this account the 
date of the year, 17-51, was cut out on a rock at a few miles distance, together 
with a line to mark the height of the water, and the place being again examined in 
1791, at the same time of the year, that is, at midsummer, it was found that the 
■water was 28 inches lower.^ 

A similiar instance on the New Continent is mentioned by Humbolt. " The 
sands," says he, " heaped up by the vortices of the waters from the peninsula of 
Yucatan, to the mouths of the Rio del Norte and Mississippi, contract the bason of 
the Mexican Gulph ; geological facts of a very remarkable nature prove this increase 
of the continent. We see the ocean every where retiring ; M. Ferrer found near 
Sotto la Marina, to the east of the small town of New Santander, ten leagues in the 
interior of the country, moving sands filled with sea shells. I myself, observed the 
same thinj in the environs of Antigua and New Vera Cruz. 11 



-per montem adversum, gelidasque cucurri 



Esquilias, fremerat ssva cum grandine vernus 
Jupiter Sat. v. v. 77. 

+ Vos anguilla manet longe cognata colubrs 
Aut glacie aspersus maculis Tyberinus et ipse 

Sat. V. V. 103. 
t Vides ut alta set nive candidum, 
Soracte, nee jam sustineant onus 
Silvae laborantes, geluque 

Flumina constiterint acuto 

Lib. i. ode 9, 
f Tuneld's Geographie ofver Konungariket Swerige. Stockliolm, 1794, vol. iii. p. 33. 
[| Humbolt's Essay on New Spain, vol. i. p. 81. 



CLIMATE. 



169 



In the year 17 S7, Mr. Kirwan published an estimate of the mean heat of different 
climates, calculated from observations of the mean heat of various places, as exhibited 
by the thermometer. But having assumed as one of his data, the mean tempera- 
ture of Padua, given by Toaldo, from only one observation made in 1)82, which 
was an uncommonly cold year, the calculation founded upon it was of course erro-" 
□eous. To rectify this inaccuracy and supply the deficiencies of Mr. Kirwan's 
table, by adding other places of Italy, Toaldo was induced to publish a dissertation, 
accompanied with two tables, in the third volume of Saggi Scientifici e Letterari dell 
Accademia di Padova* As these tables will enable those desirous of examining the 
theory of the Abbe JMann, to form a comparative estimate of the degrees of the 
temperature in former and modern times in Italy, and may be exceedingly useful in 
other respects, I have here subjoined them. ■■ ■ 

Table of the Mean Heat of the following Places by Toaldo. 







Fahren- 


Reau- 


Years 






Fahren- 


Reau- 


Years 


Places. 


Lat. 


heit. 


mur. 


observ. 


Places. 


Lat. 


heit. 


mur. 


observ. 


Naples . 


40° S(y 


67.22 


15.65 


4 


Milan . 


45° 28' 


55.06 


10.25 


16 


Rome 


41 54 


60.69 


12.75 


5 


Verona . 


45 26 


55.96 


10.65 


5 


Florence . 


43 46 


61.63 


13.17 


3 


Padua 


45 24 


56.66 


10.96 


37 


Lucca 


43 50 


60.89 


12.84 


36 


Venice . 


45 25 


56.52 


10.90 


10 


Genoa . 


44 45 


60.89 


12.84 


5 


Udina . 


46 10 


57.09 


11.15 


5 


Bologna . 


44 29 


56.64 


10.94 


4 


Trent . 


46 00 


54.05 


9.80 


3 



Mean heat of Italy— Fahren. 55.67. Reaumur, 10.51. 

Mean Heat of the different Months for the same Places according to Reaumur's 

Thermometer.t 



Places. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


March 


April 


May 


June 


July 


August 


Sept. 


October 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Naples . 


10.13 


11.13 


12.77 


14.00 


16.83 


20.77 


21.37 


21.47 


19.60 


16.00 


11.27 


8.93 


Rome 


6.07 


6.40 


8.55 


10.10 


14.25 


16.42 


19.60 


19.75 


17.57 


13.75 


9.85 


8.28 


Florence . 


5.91 


5.85 


8.77 


11.66 


17.16 


19.12 


22.40 


21.80 


18.14 


12.76 


8.12 


5.76 


Lucca 


3.50 


4.75 


11.10 


13.00 


17.15 


20.05 


21.45 


20.20 


16.20 


14.30 


8.70 


3.65 


Genoa . 


6.55 


7.37 


8.87 


11.20 


15.67 


17.72 


20.20 


19.52 


18.20 


13.45 


9.65 


6.52 


Bologna . 


1.00 


1.33 


5.59 


10.71 


18.15 


19.59 


22.80 


20.59 


18.23 


9.66 


6.86 


2.S5 


Milan . 


0.65 


3.03 


6.46 


9.98 


13.79 


17.15 


18.67 


18.55 


15.26 


10.49 


6.13 


1.99 


Verona . 


2.01 


3.12 


5.74 


9.44 


12.81 


16.35 


17.41 


18.51 


16.72 


12.39 


8.52 


4.88 


Padua . 


1.5 


3.4 


6.8 


10.4 


14.6 


17.7 


19.8 


19.5 


16.3 


11.8 


6.8 


2.9 


Venice . 


1.7 


2.48 


5.47 


8.15 


13.01 


16.50 


1S.52 17.68 


14.92 


11.84 


7.48 


2.66 


Udiua . 


0.22 


2.16 


6.08 


11.00 


16.88 


18.40 


22.40 22.12 


16.94 


11.50 


3.62 


1.30 


Trent 


0.23 


2.54 


5.54 


9.53 


13.86 


16.64 


18.14 17.S4 


15.72 


10.45 


5.21 


2.82 



* Tom. iii. Padova, 1796, p. 228. 

+ The degrees of Reaumur may be easily converted into those of Fahrenheit by the following rule': 
Multiply the given degrees by 9, and divide by 4 ; if 32 be then added to the quotient, the result will be the 
degrees according to Fahrenheit's scale. 

Vol. I. Z 



170 CLIMATE. 

Tlie accounts given by (.he ancients of the climate of Ireland, appear in sortie re- 
spects contradictory. We are told by Cassar, that the climate of Britain was milder 
than that of Gaul,* and, as Tacitus makes the climate of Ireland nearly the same as 
that of Britain, + it may thence be inferred, that the temperature of the air in Ireland 
was also milder than in Gaul. Claudian applies to it the epithet of icy, 5 a character 
which it certainly does not- deserve at present. Strabo, who seems to have been very 
little acquainted with Ireland, considers it as a country scarcely habitable, on account 
of the cold ;§ but acccording to .^Ethicus it enjoyed a climate superior to that of 
Britain. II Mela describes the climate of Ireland as unfavourable to the ripening of 
grain, but says, that it produced such luxuriant crops of grass, that if cattle were 
suffered to feed long upon it, they would be in danger of bursting;.' Solinus states, 
that the country abounded with pastures, and he makes the same observation in re- 
gard to the cattle.** 

The venerable Bede, who flourished towards the end of the seventh century, says, 
that " Ireland is pleasantly situated, that it abounds with honey, and thaf it is not 
destitute of vines. +t Cambrensis, who was twice in Ireland, and who, about the end 
of the twelfth century, collected materials for a topography of the island, declares 
that nature has looked with a more favourable eye than usual on this land of the ze- 
phyrs. At the same time he asserts, that the climate is wet and windy, and repre- 
sents the south-west wind as the most violent.":;:? " This seeming contradiction," says 

* Loca sunt teroperatiora, quam in Gallia, remissiorlbus frigoribus. De Bella Gall. lib. v. cap. 13. 
edit. Oxon, 1780, p. 93. 

+ Solum caslumque et iiigenia cultusque hominum had multum a Britannia difierunt, nee in melius. Agric. 
Vit. cap. 24, in Op. edit. Lipsiat, 1801, p. 746. 

t Claudiani Op. de iv. Cons. Honor Lubeca;, 1701, p. 96. 

(1 'Oi yccf tijt lOTofoKFTi! WifaiTffu rni lt^n)5 hvitv ty(outri \iyEtt' u ffpt ifxTot wpoxsiTiii t»? BftTTa»ix5t <ir\rnrit^, 
uyftut rt>.iuf ajSpuTru* xaxii; oixohtwf Jii 4'i'X°?' ^^"S- '■''• ''• ^'^''' -A-lmel. Amst. 1707, vol. i. p. 114. 

II Hac priori Britannia; spatioterrarum angustior, coeli solisque temperie magis utilis, a Scotoruni gentibus 
colitur. Pomp. Mela de silu orbis, C.JulU Solini Polyhhl. jEthici. Cosmograph. Lugd. Bat. 1645, p. 508. 

5 Supra Britarmiamjuverna est pene par spatio sed utrinque aequalis, tractu littorum oblonga, cceli ad ma- 
turanda semina iniqui: verum adeo luxuriosa herbis non la;tis modo sed etiam dulcibus, ut se exigua partfr 
diei pecora impleant et nisi pabulo probibeantur, diutius pasta dissiliant. famp. Mela, 6-c. Lugd. Bat. 
1646, p. 126. 

*v Multis insulis nee ignobilibus circundatur quarum Hybernia ei proximat magnitudiue. Inbumana est ritU: 
incolarum aspero : alias ita pabulosa, ut pecua nisi interdum a pascuis arceantur, in periculuin agat satias. 

Ibid, p. 300. 
++ Hibernia dives lactis et mellis insula, nee vinearum expers — Insula; hujus situs est amoenus— Bede Hist.^ 
Gent. Anglican. Vila SI. ColunUii, cap. i. 

tt Giraldus de Barri, or as he is commonly called, Cambrensis, from his country, was of illustrious lineage, 
and bom about the year 1146, at the Castle of Manorbeer, in Pembrokeshire. He .shewed strong marks oE 
literary talents at an early age, and an ardent desire to devote himself to the offices of religion. After acquir- 
ing the rudiments ef education at home, he went to Paris to complete his studies ; and returning to England, in 
1172, entered into holy orders. In the year 1185 he was appointed, by King Henry, preceptor to his son. 
Prince Jolin, whom he accompanied to Ireland as secretary; he afterwards visited that country a second time 



CLIMATE. 171 

Dr. Patterson,* " may be reconciled, by observing, that the frequency of our showers 
and fresh breezes, gives an appearance of wetness and ventosity, whilst the mild tem- 
perature of our air softens the impressions of the rain and wind on the feelings, and 
entitles the climate to the genial character bestowed on it in the above general infer- 
ence drawn by Cambrensis." 

Stanyhurst, in the preface to his Irish Chronicle, observes, that few countries are 
comparable, none preferable, to Ireland, in wholesomeness of air, fertility of land, 
abundance of corn, extent of pasturage, and number of cattle.t Boate, who quotes 
these authorities, corroborates the account they give, and contends that there is no 
impediment, but the want of culture, to prevent Ireland from being justly counted 
among the most fraitful countries in the world. ^: 

In the time of Peter Lombard, about two centuries ago, the winters of Ireland, as 
he informs us, were so mild and open, that the inhabitants were negligent in making 
their hay to fodder their cattle, depending chiefly for their support on the hi- 
bernal verdure of the country.^ On this account Dr. Patterson observes, " it has 
been remarked, that it was perhaps not so much the mildness of the winter that 
made the people neglect saving hay, as inattention to their stock, according to the 
ground which they held. In Lombard's time, there were very few stall-fed cattle; 
those brought to market were not half fat; nor were farm-yards, dry-housing, and 
dry-fodder, then understood. A few fields of waste grass were sufficient during the 
■winter, for beasts always accustomed to exposure in the open air ; and it is added, 
that want of civilization and industry prevented the natives from making other exer- 
tions. However just this comment may be, on the indolence of the Irish and their 
ignorance of husbandry at that period, it does not invalidate the testimony of Lom- 
bard, as to the matter of fact respecting the winter season, that in general it was ex- 
tremely temj>erate."|| 

and collected materials for a Topography oF it, manuscript copies of which are preserved in the British Mu- 
seum, at Oxford, and in other public libraries. He refused the bishoprick of St. David's, which was offered 
to him, and died at that place in the seventy- fourth year of his age. For an account of his life and works, 
»ee The Itinerary of Bishop Baldwin, through Wales, translated by Sir Richard Colt Hoare, bart. 2 vols, 
folio, 1806. 

* Observations on the Climate of Ireland, p. 158. 

t Cum Hibemia coeli salubritaie, agrorum fertilitate, ubertate frugum, pastionis magnitudine, armentorum 
jregibus, conferre paucas, anteferre nullas valeas. 

X Natural Hist, of Ireland, chap. x. sect. 7. 

§ De Regno Hibemia:, Sanctorum insula Commentarius, ice. p. 85. Hij words are. Hie plerique negli- 
gunt resecare foenum ob summam temperiam aeris. Lombard, in the same work, p. 72, mentions the humi- 
dity of the climate of Ireland ; but observes, that it might in some measure be coiTected, as is done in Flan- 
ders, by drains, and by clearing the course of rivers and streams. 

Ji Obseprations on the Climate of Ireland, p. 159. 

Z2 



172 



CLIMATE. 



Before the time of Dr. Rutty, very little attention seems to have been paid to the 
climate of Ireland. That learned and indefatigable physician kept a diary of the 
weather for many years, chiefly, as appears, in order to assist him in his professional 
labours ; and he has given, in his History of the County of Dublin, very extensive 
tables relating to the state of the winds, which, as they have a powerful influ- 
ence on the climate of Ireland, I shall here subjoin, accompanied with an abstract 
of his remarks, and of the general conclusions which he deduces from them. 



TABLE I. 

The Winds at Dublin, from 1717 to 1726.* 





E. 


N. E. 


N. 


S.E. 


W. 


S. W. 


N.W. 


S. 


1717 


27 


31 


5 


34 


72 


83 


79 


11 


1718 


10 


21 





73 


48 


103 


37 


6 


1719 


40 


48 


3 


48 


73 


119 


32 


6 


1720 


13 


23 


3 


31 


112 


110 


47 


3 


1721 


19 


20 


2 


29 


38 


91 


62 


8 


1722 


10 


33 


8 


56 


68 


91 


46 


12 


+ 1723 


41 


26 


4 


58 


43 


89 


50 


7 


1724 


11 


19 


1 


41 


63 


64 


22 


5 


1725 


25 


41 


2 


38 


62 


62 


52 





1726 


12 


12 


2 


37 


53 


124 


57 


7 


Total 


20S 


273 


30 


445 


632 


936 


404 


65 


Mean 


20^ 


27A 


3 


44^ 


63tV 


93^ 


48A 


6^ 



J One Month in this Year wanting. 
A Summary of the respective Winds in each Season during the above Period. 





E. 


N.E. 


S.E. 


N. 


W. 


S.W. 


N.W. 


S. 


Spring 
Summer 
Autumn 
Winter 


72 
80 
23 
33 


108 
46 
73 
46 


193 
138 
118 
66 


7 
4 
12 

7 


152 
208 
157 
115 


188 
205 
219 
334 


129 
96 
97 

162 


14 
13 
16 
12 


ToUl 


208 


273 


445 


30 


632 


936 


484 


55 



Western Points, W. 632, S. W. 936, N. W. 4S4. Total, 2052. 
Eastern Points, S. E. 445, N. E. 2/3, E. 208. Total, 926. 

» An Essay towards a Natural History of the County of Dublin, vol. ii. p. 308. 



CLIMATE. 



173 



TABLE II. 

The Winds at Dublin, from 1727 to 1736 inclusive.* 





E. 


N. E. 


s:e. 


N. 


W. 


S. W. 


N. 


S. 


1727 


39 


50 


109 


35 


78 


89 


138 


25 


172S 


67 


31 


64 


3S 


126 


52 


102 


27 


1729 


102 


22 


69 


33 


101 


51 


70 


43 


. 1730 


44 


23 


59 


35 


123 


68 


73 


44 


1731 


28 


23 


95 


22 


150 


66 


42 


33 


1732 


41 


31 


61 


29 


86 


77 


58 


39 


1733 


31 


30 


64 


20 


70 


81 


5b 


42 


1734 


21 


23 


63 


31 


77 


86 


66 


24 


1733 


27 


32 


85 


34 


64 


70 


68 


18 


1736 


26 


24 


62 


28 


78 


77 


67 


32 


Total 


446 


291 


730 


305 


953 


717 


742 


327 


Mean 


^•h 


29Vo 


7? 


30^ 


9S^ 


71-^ 


74^ 


32A 



" It is to be observed," says Dr. Rutty, " that no comparison can be made between 
the absolute number of the winds in this and the first table, because the observations, 
in the present one, were much more numerous and minute than in the preceding : 
consequently the number of winds must appear here far greater than where the ob- 
servations were made more seldom." 

A Summary of the respective Winds in each Season, during the above Period. 





E 


N.E. 


S. E. 


N. 


W. 


S. W. 


N.W. 


S. 


Spring 
Summer 
Autumn 
Wfnler 


172 

125 

73 

76 


137 

72 
33 
49 


225 
216 
156 
133 


98 
80 
67 
30 


172 

260 
250 

271 


142 
184 
200 
191 


202 
203 
171 
166 


S6 
61 
81 
99 


Total 


446 


291 


730 


295 


953 


717 


742 


327 



Western Points, W. 933, S. W. 717, N.W. 742. Total, 
Eastern Points, S. E. 730, N. E. 291, E. 446. Total, 

• Page 335. 



2412. 
1467. 



174 



CLIMATE. 

TABLE III. 

The Winds at Dublin, from 1737 to 1746 inclusive.* 





E. 


NE. 


S. E. 


N. 


W. 


S.W. 


N. W. 


S. 


1737 


36 


28 


62 


14 


69 


83 


64 


21 


173S 


12 


24 


34 


20 


92 


100 


61 


42 


1739 


31 


42 


76 


36 


53 


60 


55 


28 


1740 


25 


53 


73 


33 


42 


83 


75 


13 


1741 


37 


39 


65 


21 


56 


88 


54 


14 


1742 


54 


44 


53 


22 


58 


72 


59 


16 


1743 


53 


25 


66 


22 


54 


79 


56 


20 


1744 


31 


37 


5S 


25 


59 


85 


78 


14 


1743 


36 


34 


84 


15 


51 


105 


34 


29 


1746 


19 


32 


95 


15 


52 


104 


80 


24 


Total 


334 


37S 


6BS 


22s 


591 


859 


636 


221 


Mean 


35^ 


37A 


68,', 


22A 


59A 


85VW 


63^ 


22^ 



A Summary of the respective Winds in each Season, during the above Period. 





E. 


N.E. 


S. E. 


N. 


W. 


S.W. 


N.W. 


S. 


Spring 
Summer 
Autumn 
Winter 


HI 
97 
66 
60 


156 
74 
81 
67 


191 
168 
159 
170 


91 

46 
58 
33 


115 
163 
158 
162 


169 
236 
212 
242 


148 
213 
146 
129 


57 

43 
63 
58 


Total 


334 


378 


688 


228 


591 


859 


636 


221 



Western Points, W. 591, S. W. 859, N. W. 636. Total, 2086. 
Eastern Points, E. 334, S.E. 688, N. E. 375- Total, 1400. 

TABLE TV. 

The Winds at Dublin, from 1747 to 1756 inclusive. + 





E. 


N.E. 


S. E. 


N. 


W. 


S.W. 


N. W. 


S. 


1747 


23 


52 


89 


22 


54 


91 


76 


25 


1748 


18 


50 


86 


22 


60 


119 


70 


15 


1749 


18 


33 


78 


17 


67 


115 


68 


27 


1750 


28 


42 


67 


29 


57 


93 


87 


34 


1751 


24 


54 


75 


19 


62 


94 


79 


19 


1752 


24 


26 


64 


7 


70 


93 


76 


18 


1753 


20 


30 


56 


23 


72 


100 


101 


13 


1734 


28 


33 


86 


20 


74 


72 


77 


'10 


1755 


23 


26 


41 


28 


94 


103 


80 


20 


1756 


37 


35 


84 


22 


46 


81 


74 


19 


Total 


243 


381 


726 


209 


656 


967 


788 


200 


Mean 


24A 


38A 


72,^ 


20^ 


65^ 


96f„ 


78,^ 


20 



Page 376. 



+ Page 412. 



CLIMATE. 



175 



A Nummary of the respective Winds in each Season, during the above Period. 





E. 


N. E. 


S. E. 


N. 


W. 


S.W. 


N.W 


S. 


Spring 
Summer 
Autumn 
Wmter 


89 
71 
47 
36 


156 

93 
79 
54 


190 
191 
139 

206 


70 
49 
57 
33 


134 
162 

207 
153 


213 
296 
221 

237 


215 

224 
189 
160 


46 
58 
41 
55 


Total 


243 


301 


726 


209 


656 


967 


788 


200 



Western Points, W. 656, S. W. 967, N. W. 788. Total, 2411. 
Eastern Points, S. E. 726, N. E. 38I, E. 243- Total, 1350. 

TABLE V. 

The prevailing Winds in each Month, during the above Period of 43 Years. 





S.W. 


W. 


N.W. 


S. 


S. E. 


E. 


N.E. 


N. 


Alarch 


17 


12 


22 


2 


18 


9 


22 


5 


April 


16 


6 


18 





24 


9 


22 


6 


May 


12 


10 


8 


2 


22 


22 


12 


4 


June 


22 


19 


15 


1 


23 


17 


12 


4 


July 


22 


21 


20 


4 


14 


8 


9 


2 


August 


24 


20 


17 


1 


16 


10 


4 


1 


September 


22 


24 


17 


2 


IS 


8 


11 


1 


October 


27 


20 


16 


4 


23 


9 


6 


3 


November 


28 


23 


19 


2 


12 


4 


3 


4 


December 


29 


17 


15 


2 


12 


3 


1 


2 


Janiiary 


26 


15 


11 


5 


18 


3 


4 





February 


31 


17 


13 


4 


13 


5 


5 


1 


Total 


276 


204 


191 


29 


212 


107 


111 


33 



In regard to these tables, Dr. Rutty makes the following remarks : "From the 
fifth table, comprehending the whole series of time of these calculations, it appears 
that the south-west is of all winds the most predominant. In tlie last two tables, the 
north and south winds are more nearly upon an equality than in some of the preced- 
ing ones, the former somewhat exceeding the latter. In the fourth table, the pro- 
portion of the eastern to the western points, is nearly the same as in the first and 
second. In the fourth, the north-west and south-east points a little exceed the west, 
as in the third table. In the fifth, the north-west are somewhat less than the west, 
but the south-east a little exceed them. In the last two tables, the east and north 
prevail much more in the spring than in any other season. In the fourth table, the. 
Bouth-east winds are nearly equal in the spring, summer, and winter." 



176 



CLIMATE. 



TABLE VI. 

Proportion of each Wind to the Sum of the whole Winds, according to the foregoing 
Tables, from Observations made near London and near Dublin, during a period of 
more than Sixty Years.* 



English 
Tables. 


Gadbury. 


Say. 


Short. 


Irish 


Tables. 


The E. wind 

to the whole 

winds. 


nearly 
T 


i 


^ 


The E. wind 

to the whole 

winds. 


Tab. 1. ^ 
Tab. 2. A 
Tab. 3. ,V 
Tab. 4. tV 


N.E. 

to the whole 

winds. 


5- 


T 


nearly 

T 


N.E. 

to the whole 

winds. 


Tab. 1. ^ 
Tab. 2. -^ 
Tab. 3. ^ 
Tab. 4. A 


N. 

to the whole 

winds. 


rr 


TIT 


9- 


N. 

to the whole 

winds. 


Tab. 1. ^^ 
Tab. 2. ^ 
Tab. 3. tV 
Tab. 4. ^ 


S.E. 

to the whole 

winds. 


To 


IT 


scarcely 

TT 


S.E. 

to the whole 

winds. 


Tab. 1. f 
Tab. 2. i 
Tab. 3. i 
Tab. 4. i 


W. 

to the whole 

winds. 


T 


i 


above 

T 


W. 

to the whole 

winds. 


Tab. 1. 4- 
Tab. 2. 4 
Tab. 3. f 
Tab. 4. i 


S. W. 

to the whole 

winds. 


f 


i 


i 


S. W. 

to the whole 

winds. 


Tab. 1. 1 
Tab. 2. i 
Tab. 3. i 
Tab. 4. i 


N. W. 

to the whole 

winds. 


y 


T^ 


T 


N .W. 

to the whole 

winds. 


Tab.l. i 
Tab. 2. i 
Tab. 3. i 
Tab. 4. i 


S. 

to the whole 

winds. 


TIT 


■rs- 


TTTT 


S. 

to the whole 

winds. 


Tab. 1. ^ 
Tab. 2. Vi 
Tab. 3. tV 
Tab. 4. 3^ 



Respecting the above table, Dr. Rutty remarks, that the observations of Gadbury, 
and those of Say, were made both either at or near London, and comprehend a period 
of above twenty years: Dr. Short's were made from numerous registries kept in dif- 
ferent parts of England. 

" These various observations," continues he, " however different they may ap- 
pear on the first view, will, on a more attentive examination, be found to corres- 
pond wonderfully in several particulars of great importance ; and in others, in 
which they differ, they will serve to shew the specific difference of the two climates 
deducible from the various proportions of the respective winds in each country. 

" All these observations agree in this, that the south-west is the grand trade 
wind of both England and Ireland, but most so of IreLmd ; the next in frequency 

» Page 4l5. 



CLIMATE. 177 

in England, is the west. The north-west is also a frequent wind in both countries, 
but much more frequent in Ireland, for according to all the observations, it is even 
double, treble, and more than sixtuple to what it is in England ; and, indeed, on an 
average a little more frequent than the west wind. As to the east, north, and south 
points, the difference is also very considerable ; for in two of the observations out 
of three, the east wind is more frequent in England than in Ireland ; and the 
north-east, in particular, is much more frequent, sometimes double to what it is in 
the latter. The north, also, is often double, and more, in the three English tables, than 
in the Irish; and lastly, as to the south wind, it is observable, that in England it is 
much rarer than the north; whereas at Dublin the south wind is either a little more 
frequent than the north, or sometimes both are nearly equal. 

" From the above faithful collection of observations, it is evident that there is a 
far greater regularity and proportion maintained between the several winds than is 
commonly imagined, even in the variable climate of Ireland ; as appears by com- 
paring the observations of the preceding tables. So that, for the most part, the 
asperity of the norlh and east blasts is generally tempered by the succeeding softness 
of the west and south, and vice versa ; by which means a wholesome temperature is 
in general maintained. On the contrary, whenever we observe the usual harmony 
and proportion of the winds and attendant weather to vary much, we may expect 
an unhealthy season ; as was notoriously the case in the excessive moist seasons 
preceding the great frost in 1740, and the unusually dry seasons and long continu- 
ance of north-east -winds which succeeded the great frost for some years. 

" From the fifth table it appears, that the winds most prevalent at Dublin, in each 
month, are as follows : 

In March there are most N.E. and N.W. winds, and least S. 

In April most S.E. and least S. 

In May most E. and S.E. and least S. 

In June most S.W. and S.E. and least S. 

In July most S.W. and least N. 

In August most S.W. least N. and S. 

In September most W. least N. 

In October most S.W. least N. 

In November most S.W. least S. 

In December most S.W. least N.E. ' 

In January most S.W. least N. 

In February most S.W. least N. 
" Again, the south-west winds prevail least in spring, a little more in autumn 
than in summer, but most of all in winter ; and supply us with the greater part of our 
storms. 

Vol. I. o A 



178 CLIMATE. 

" The west winds blow least in spring, and less in winter than in the summer or 
autumnal quarter. 

" The north-west, at Dublin, blow least in winter; but the south most in winter 
and least in spring ; so that here there are two reasons for the peculiar warmth of 
our winters. 
, " The south-east winds prevail most in spring, and least in winter. 

" The east winds prevail by far the most in spring, next in summer, next in au- 
tumn, and least of all in winter. 

" The north-east prevails most of all in spring, and least in winter; and this affords 
a third reason for the greater warmth of our winters. 

" The north wind prevails most of all in spring, and least of all in the winter quar- 
ter; which is a fourth reason for the warmth of our winters." 

The state of the winds in the different seasons at Dublin, during a period of seven 
years, were, according to Dr. Rutty, as follows: 

In the spring, the winds from some point of the north or east, to the winds from 
some point of the west or south, were, as 565 to 342, or as 100 to ^0. 

In summer, the proportion of the winds from some point of the north or east to 
the winds from some point of the west or south, was, as 5 10 to 442, or as 100 to 85. 

In autumn, the proportion of the winds from some point of the north or east, to 
the winds from some point of the west or south was, as 374 to 44f), or as 100 to 1 19. 

In winter, the proportion of the winds from some point of the north or east, to the 
winds from some point of the west or south, was, as 335 to 35 1, or as 100 to I04. 

" Thus, the general predominance of the north and "east winds in spring is 
apparent; and it is seen, also, that in summer the winds from the north and east 
quarters still prevail, though less than in spring ; and the fine weather which we 
have at Dublin in summer is generally attended with winds from the east ; but in au- 
tumn the winds from the west and south assume and maintain the ascendency, as 
also in winter, yet less than in autumn, and for this obvious reason, that whatever 
notable frosts we have, are commonly brought on by east and north winds." 

But, a clearer idea of the state of the winds and their several proportions to each 
other, in the different seasons, may be formed by inspecting the following table, con- 
structed from the accounts annexed to each month during the course of above seven 
years, that is, from 1759 to 1765 inclusively. 



CLIMATE. 



TABLE VIII. 



179 



1739 


E 


NE 


SE 


N 


W 


SW 


NW 


S 


1763 


E 


NE 


SE 


N 


W 


SW 


NW 


S 


Spring 


9 


19 


11 


11 


23 


12 


29 


1 


Brt. over 


133 


156 


278 


87 


364 


357 


271 


80 


Summer 


7 


3 


21 


5 


24 


26 


29 


3 


Spring 


14 


11 


25 


4 


30 


22 


17 


3 


Autumn 


9 


7 


19 


6 


31 


17 


15 


8 


Summer 


10 


13 


25 


2 


IQ 


37 


14 


8 


Winter 


10 


13 


18 


1 


19 


19 


17 


a 


Autumn 


11 


12 


16 


6 


27 


25 


16 


3 


1760 


















Winter 


4 


12 


8 


3 


31 


SQ 


13 





Spring 


13 


15 


17 


4 


17 


18 


17 


16 


1764 


















Summer 


15 


10 


11 


7 


20 


19 


17 


14 


Spring 


5 


18 


23 


8 


12 


39 


17 





Autumn 


2 


3 


19 


3 


37 


19 


18 


3 


Summer 


15 


9 


32 


5 


31 


28 


13 


3 


Winter 


1 


3 


13 


6 


37 


32 


12 


1 


Autumn 


9 


7 


4 


15 


34 


26 


13 


3 


1761 


















Winter 


9 


3 


36 


5 


11 


27 


7 


4 


Sprmg 


7 


16 


14 


10 


10 


22 


14 


2 


1765 


















Summer 


5 


10 


10 


7 


35 


43 


16 


3 


Spring 


8 


16 


19 


10 


24 


20 


18 


• 3 


Autumn 


8 


5 


'2b 


3 


19 


17 


15 


5 


Summer 


10 


G 


20 


5 


25 


aa 


20 


4 


Winter 


2 


2 


7 


4 


26 


26 


13 


3 


Autumn 


3 


5 


Q 


5 


35 


29 


19 


3 


1762 


















Winter 


5 


8 


22 


2 


25 


17 


9 





Spring 
Summer 


18 
12 


16 
U 


20 
15 


7 
1 


13 

28 


15 
24 


14 
30 


3 

2 




















Total 


236 


276 


517 


157 


668 


688 


447 


114 


Autumn 


7 


12 


16 


9 


17 


32 


13 


6 
















Winter 


8 


11 


42 


3 


8 


16 


2 


8 


Tlie total of three of these col 


umns 


diffei 
, the 


from Dr. 






















points all. 


ii.W 


to/. 


Carryover 


lo3 


156 


278 


87 


364 


357 


27 \ 


80 


and the S. 


96. 

















TABLE IX. 

Exhibiting the Number of Winds in each Season at one view. 





E 


NE 


SE 


N 


W 


SW 


NW 


S 


Spring 


74 


111 


129 


54 


12p 


148 


126 


18 


Summer 


74 


62 


134 


32 


182 


199 


139 


29 


Autumn 


39 


51 


108 


47 


200 


165 


119 


31 


Winter 


39 


52 


146 


24 


157 


176 


73 


8 



" It appears from these tables, compared with those above, which comprehend 
a period of more than forty years, that there is a wonderful harmony between these 
registries, made by different persons, through all the varieties of weather attending; 
and from this comparison the following inferences may be drawn : 

" 1st, That the soutli-west and west winds are the two grand trade winds, or 
reigning winds of Ireland, blowing most in summer, autumn, and winter, and least 
in spring; yet even in spring they prevail sufficiently to temper the pernicious 
blasts from the east and north. 

" 2d, The eastern winds are almost equal in spring and summer, and nearly dou- 
ble to -what they are in autumn and winter. 

" 3d, The north-east wind blows most in spring, and doubly to Mhat it does in 
autumn and winter. 

" 4th, The north-west wind blows most in spring, and least in wimer. 

"■ Page 456. 

2 A 2 



180 CLIMATE, 

" Thus far the observations of the last septenary agree with all the foregoin<r, even 
from 1716 to 1765 inclusive ; but one difference appears, which is, that in the last 
septenary the north winds prevail considerably above the south, whereas in two of 
the four other registries the south prevails above the north. 

5th, " But ail registries agree in this, that the south-east and north-west winds are 
nearly equal, and come next in number to the south-west and west. 
' Dr. Rutty's general observations on the climate of Ireland may be collected from 
the following extracts.* 

" The comparative heal of the several seasons in London and Dublin is thus 
estimated by that accurate observer. Dr. Bryan Robinson: 

Li London. In Diiblin. 
Winter ----- i-oo .-..-- i-45 

Spring 3-00 2-14 

Summer 5'00 4'68 

Autumn 3-00 - 3-80 

12-00 12-07 

" This greater warmth of air at Dublin, than is common to so northern a situa- 
tion, is probably the cause why the perspiration of the human body is there so 
copious. Being estimated at a medium for the whole year, 1721 and 1744, it was 
found to be as expressed in the following table, which contains a comparative view 
of that at some otber places.^' 

In Dublin, 1721 1-141 

., , 1744 o-gso 

In Cork - 1-472 

in England 0-817 

In South Carolina ----.--•- 0-927 

In Italy ------ 1-480 

" Hence it seems to appear," says Dr. Rutty, " that the perspiration in Ireland 
is greater than in England ; and in South Carolina and in Cork it is almost equal to 
what it is in Italy. But though our air be temperate as to heat and cold, the 
country has not unjustly acquired the appellation of Matula Jovh,^ from its 
redundant moisture, which is easily accounted for by our situation farther out in 
the ocean, and our nearer approach to the vapours brought to us on the wings of 
the predominant west and south-west winds, but especially from some point of the 

» Chronological History of the Weather and Seasons, and of the Prevailing Diseases in Dublin, by John 
Rutty, M.D. London edit. 1770, in the introduction, p. 38. 

+ Hornius says, that the same expression was applied to Heidelberg in Germany : sic de Anglia dici 
solet nullam fere diem esse qua ccelum non sit nubilura. Idem de Heidelberga jactatur, quam propter fre- 
quentes imbres malulamjovis studiosi vocare solcnt. C, Hornii Hist. M'at. tl Civil, p. 271. 



CLIMATE. 



181 



south, more than about London, as appears by diaries of the weather kept inboth places. 
The signal moisture of our air further appears from our frequent wet summers, more 
like winters ; from our fogs in winter, which are often so loaded with vapours, as 
not only to increase the weight of the hygrometer, but to raise the mercury in the 
barometer, and as a farther proof of the great moisture of our air, the first named 
instrument varied in its weight in several years from two hundred and forty-one to 
'four hundred and thirty-three, viz. a hundred and ninety-two grains. Our linen 
and our paper imbibe this moisture, books grow mouldy, our woollen also, in rooms 
without a fire, imbibe it even in summer time ; so do salt, sugar, hops, and meal ; 
our corn requires to be kiln-dried, a practice unknown in some parts of England ; and 
Boyle, and Godfrey the chemist, affirmed that salts imbibed much more moisture in 
Ireland than in Sweden. A traveller of veracity assures me, that the isicles dangling 
on our hair while travelling in frosty weather, are not observed on the continent of 
America ; and therefore they may be considered as a proof of the abundance of 
watery vapour suspended in our atmosphere ; from all which it is evident, that we 
live in a constant balneum vaporis, which is undoubtedly also imbibed by the absorbent 
vessels on the surface of our bodies." 

In regard to storms, Ireland, I apprehend, is more subject to hurricanes than 
England ; but thunder and lightning do not by any means visit the former so severely 
as the latter. Dr. Rutty's observations on this subject are contained in the following 
table :* 
Storms in London from 1697 to 1717. 



March 

April 

May 

June 
July 
August 



Storms in Dublin from 1716 to 1756. 

1 ... 3 
... 3 
... 1 
, . . . 1 
- . . 4 

2 - - - 4 



Tolalof the spring and summer) ^ Total o[ the spring and summer) 
storms at London in 20 years I _^ storms at Dublin in 40 years ) 

September - - . g 

October - - - 5 

November - - . ^ 

December - - - 7 

January . . - o , . 

February - - - 6 



Total of the autumn and winter 
storms at London in 20 vears 



■24 



Total of the autumn and winter" 



storms at Dublin in 40 years 
"- Natural History of the County of Dublin, vol. ii. p. 471. 



16 

9 

9 

14 

17 

16 

17 

82 



J82 



CLIMATE. 



It hence appears, that storms Avere much more frequent at London in the au- 
tumn and winter months during the shorter range of twenty years, than in the 
spring and summer; the proportion being as 8 to I. In the longer range of forty 
years at Dublin, the proportion was nearly as 5 to 1 ; and in a somewhat longer 
range at Dublin, namely, from 17 15 to 1758 inclusive, the number of storms in 
each month was as follows: 

May - - 1 September - 9 • 

June - - 1 October - 9 

, ' April - - 3 November - 14 

July - - 4 December -17 

August - - 4 . January - 17 

March - - 5 February - 19 

As a farther illustration of this subject, I shall subjoin another table of the storms 
which took place at Dublin from 1760to 1765. 



Year. 


Months. 


Moon's Age. 


Points. 


1760 
1761 

1762 

1763 

1764 
1765 


November 6 
October 22 

28 

November 19, 20, 21 

January I6, 17 

March 12 

October 20 

September 10 

October 2-3, a storm and great floods 

December 1 


Day before new moon 
3 days after last quarter 

2 days after new moon 
Last quarter 

Day before last quarter 

3 days after full moou 
3 days after new moon 

3 days after full moon 

2 and 3 days after last quarter 

4 days before new moon 
Last quarter 

3, 4, and 3 days after full moon 

2 and 3 days before full moon 
4 days before new moon 
Day after full moon 

3 days before full moon 
3 days before new moon 


WandS\V.4 

SE.3 

S.4 

SW 

W 

SW 

SE 

SW 

NE 

\V 

SW 

W a nd SW 

W and SW 

SE 

W 

SW 

SW 


September 13, 14, 15 
December 5, 6 

18 

September ended 
November 25 
December lO 



From this and other tables Dr. Rutty deduces the following corollaries : 

1st, " That the greater part of the storms are from the soutji-west and west. 

2d, " During these seven years there was not one storm at the new or full moon ; 
and most of the storms which took place were at a considerable distance from either. 

3d, " The above calculations may be of use in the doctrine of chances, where na- 
vigation is concerned. For a man who commits himself to the sea only in the 
spring and summer has five cliances to one of avoiding a storm, to what he has who 
undertakes a voyage in the autumn and winter. 



CLIMATE. : 183 

4th, " The number of the points from which the storms blew at Dublin for forty 
years, ^vere — 

South-west - - 57 South - - - 6 

South-east - - 12 North-east - - 1 

West - - - 9 East - - - 1 

" 5th, Most of the storms in Ireland come from some point of the south or west, 
viz. by far the greater part from the south-west ; next from the west and south, but 
rarely from the north and east. So that a certain eminent divine, who talks of storms 
from the angry north, has but badly copied nature, and we read in Job, chap xxxii. 
V. '9, " Out of the south cometh the whirlwind, and cold out of the north," which 
is a much more just account of this matter, and holds good in our climate. Com- 
pare Isaiah, chap. xxi. v. 1, and Zech. chap. ix. v. I4, " And the south wind in 
Palestine blew from the sea," as it does with us. This may be of use in economies, 
but particularly in regard to the choice of a situation for building a house, and fur- 
nish a proper precaution against the blasts from the south-west. 

" 6th, In the English registries, October, December, and February, and in the 
Irish, November, December, January, and February, are far more prolific in storms, 
than the grand equinoctial months of March and September; so little dependance is 
there on vulgar tradition. 

" 7th, As a considerable point in view in preserving these records of the winds and 
weather, was to establish or explode, by faithful observation, the commonly received 
opinion of the influence of the moon on the weather, I have annexed the age of that 
planet to each storm in the above table. The astrologers, with confidence tell US5 
that the influence of the moon is exerted either at the time of the new or the full, or 
■within three days of either, in which their cunning is very remarkable, even in 
taking care to allow themselves the large scope of six days for their prognostics, 
though at the same time this implies a consciousness that the great commotions of the 
atmosphere were far from being generally synchronous with the new and full moon; 
and accordingly it appears, by a register of storms during a series of sixty years, that 
there were but eight notable storms on the days of new moon, that is, about eight in 742, 
and only about six on the days of full moon, or about six in 742 moons ; and as to their 
triduum, or three days before or after the new or full moon, in the above registers it 
is observable, that 23 of the storms n;entioned happened within three days before 
or after the new moon, and 29 of them within three days before or after the full. 
We have tiierefore 66 as the number of storms on the new moon, full moon, and 
within three days before or after either ; and as to the rest of the storms, viz. those 
which happened in more than three days before or after the new or full moon, twenty 
of these happened in more than three days before or after new, and twentv-one in 
more than three days before or after the full, making in all forty-one. So that we 



184 CLIMATE. 

have here more than forty-one storms in more than three days before or after the 
new or full moon ; whence it sufficiently appears what little certainty there is in any 
prognostications made in this manner. 

" As some of the more sober philosophers seem to acknowledge the powerful influ- 
ence of eclipses, with respect to the great commotions in our atmosphere, it may be 
worth while to consider them also. Now during the above period of sixty years, 
there happened 249 eclipses of the sun and moon, and of all these the following four 
only appear to have been synchronous with any of the storms during the above pe- 
riod, namely, the eclipse of the sun, October 25, 1706; that of the moon, January 
13, 1738; that of the same planet, December 21, 1740; and the eclipse of the sun, 
July 14, 174S-" 

Dr. Rutty next makes the following observations on a catalogue of the gluts of 
rain which fell, in Dublin, from the yeat 17 16 to 175S» inclusive. " This catalogue 
was accompanied with the moon's age, and the winds which prevailed at the time ; 
1st, During the forty-three years comprehended in the above period, the number of 
the respective winds at Dublin, attending the several gluts of rain, was .is follows: 
South-East - - - 205 North-East - - - 62 

South- West - - - 156 East ..... 58 

West .... 75 South 55 

North- West . . - 62 North 41 

" Thus the south-east appears to be the most prolific in rain, and even considerably 
more so than the south-west, but how far this may be owing to the proximity of the 
Irish Sea and St. George's Channel, I shall not take upon me to determine. Here 
still, agreeably to the other observations, the south exceeds the north ; and the north- 
east and east fall but little short of the north-west and west. 

" 2d, The indefatigable Dr. Short, in his Appendix* on the Weather and Meteors, 
annexed to his Observations in the Bills of Mortality, asserts, that according to tra- 
dition, the greatest rains happen at or a little before or after the autumnal equinox j 
but from direct observations, that the most rainy months are neither at the equi- 
noxes nor solstices as is commonly believed, how comes it that of all the gluts of 
rain which happened during these forty-three years at Dublin, that is, of 7 IS rainy 
days, two only took place exactly on the autumnal equinox, and eleven nearly within 
three days before or after the vernal equinox, and three only within three days before 
or after the autumnal ? 

," Next, in recrard to storms, which also, according to vulgar tradition, should ac- 
company the equinoxes, it appears from the above register of storms during the space 
of more than sixty years, made partly at London and partly at Dublin, that of 131 
storms which happened in that period, one only took place on the equinox, and six 

- Page 450. 



CLIMATE. 



185 



within about three days before or after the equinox, whence we see how far vulgar 
traditions will stand the test of solid fact and observation. 

" 3d, Goad, in his Astro-Meteorologia, lays down with great assurance the three 
following aphorisms : 

" 1st, Ex omnibus effectibus pluviam saspissime producet novilunium. 

" 2d, Plenilunium pluvias aut ventos producit idque violentius quam novilunium. 

" 3d, Plenilunuim mensis Aprilis et Augusti pene semper pluviam generat. 

" It is somewhat surprising how men dare hand down to posterity such assertions 
as facts, when each of them, brought to the test of observation, appears to be false, 
at least in this climate, for 

" 1st, As in the above catalogue of great rains, during the space of forty-three 
years, there were riearly 7 13 days of great rain ; it is observable that only twenty- 
two of these o-reat falls of rain happened precisely at the new moon, and 14 1 within 
three days before or after the new moon ; and as during the same term of forty-three 
years there were 532 moons, the great rains fell only on twenty-two of the new 
moons, and 14 1 times within the triduum. 

" 2d, As to the full moon with us, the reverse of what is here asserted took place ; 
for in the above catalogue, fewer rains attended the full than the new moon, that is to 
say, of 713 rainy days, sixteen only happened at the full moon, and 102 at the 
triduum, that is, three days before or after. 

" 3d, As to the full moons in April and August, in the above catalogue, during 
these forty-three years, it appears that only seven of the great rains in April hap- 
pened at the full, or within the triduum ; and eight in August at the full, or within 
the triduum; but the rest of the full moons and the tridua in both these months, dur- 
ing the above period, were not attended with notable quantities of rain ; from all 
which, and the former observations, I am ready to conclude, that the supposed in- 
fluence of the moon on either our rain or winds, does not stand the test of solid 
observation, but appears to be a vulgar error." 

In regard to the humidity of the atmosphere at Dublin, Dr. Rutty gives the fol- 
lowing table of observations made with a hygrometer, Avliich consisted of a sponge 
dipped in brine, and then dried. The year here is supposed to begin in March.* 



A. D, 




Grains. 


A.D. 






1759 




3760 


1760 




165^ 


1760 


The 


3901 


1761 


The quanlity 


106 i^ 


1761 




3S16 


1762 




106^ 


1762 


Hygrometer 


3724 


1763 


of Rain was 


h20Ti:r 


1763 




3S67 


1764 




I2I3V 


1764 


Wis 


3902 


1765 


in Inches 


144^ 


1765 




3844 


' 




lOSiV 



Vol. I. 



1- Natural History of Dublin, vol. ii. p. 45i. 
2B 



186 



CLIMATE. 



Theforegoiug table shews, that in a series of seven years, the greatest quantity of 
watery vapours imbibed by the sponge, was 3902 grains, and the least 3760, so that 
there Avas only a difference of 142 grains.* 



DR. RUTTVS SCHEME OF THE SEASONS AT DUBLIN FOR FIFTY YEARS. 



1716A'arious 
1717|Various 
171li Various 
17iy Various 
17^'0 Various 
17'_'1 Various 
174:; Various, inclining to wet 

1723 Unusually hot and dry 
17'J'l Mostly fair, and pretty dry 
'" Vlnclining to fair, or dry 

1726 Fair, and dry 

727:Varinus 

728 Mild, and mostly fair 
1729 Cold, and dry 

I ; ^ 

1730;Varioui 



Mostly fair 

Hot and dry 

Warm, fair, and pleasint 

Fair 

Wet 

Wet 

Moderately drj and warn 

Excessively hot and dry 

Uel 

Wet and cold, as almost 

tluongh Europe 
Various 

Inclining to fair and dry I 

Wet 
Dry mostly 

Wet 



1731 1 Dry and cold. Ended hot Hot, and dry 

1732| Various; the last month raiuy Moderately fair, or dry 

1733 Very dry 

1734 Warm; hut a cold May 

17 JO Open partly. Ended cold 

1736|Generally mild 



r Warm 

1738 Seasonable 

1759 Mostly cold 



Dn-. Ended wet and windy 
We't 

Cold, and wet; like winter 
The hottest summer remem- 
bered 

Mostly fair, hot, and cold 
Coldiwet. July dry and hot 
Very wet 



Dry, Tritb north winds 

Hot 

A second hot snmmer 

Mostly fair, drj', and hot 

Various. August wet & wind' 



1740:Dry, and cold 
1741 Excessively dry 

Excessively dry 

Various; still inclined to cold 

A'ciy backward 

ilarch, forward ; the tw o others Wet 
mouths backward 

1746 Firstpartcold;lasthotanddry:Wet, except August 

1747 Mostly cold 'iHot. anddry 
I74SjVarions W'arm, and dry 

1749 Cold 'Partly cold, and winter-like 

I7oo!Cold, dry, and backward .'\Iostiy cold, and winter-like 



1751 



iCold - Wet 

|Coiai£dry,exccptamoistM.ny Extremely wet 
Seasonable,cxccptawctMarc'hjIncliuiug to wet 
Various, parlly temperate, W'et 

partlv cold 
Wet 
Various 

fold, and backward 
Culd, and dry 
Fair, and dry 
Diy 
Dri , and cool 



Dry 

Mild 

Mostly dry, and cool 

Variable, except a dry IMay 



Wet, and cold 

Very wet 

lai lining to cloudy, and wet 

IMijstly rainy 

Fair, dry, and warm 

Variable, inc'ining to cold 

Extraordinarily dry 



Dry 

U'et and cool 
Cool and moist 
Excessively dry 



Windy, and wet 

Variable 

Mostly fair 

Variable 

Variable 

Variable, inclinable to wet 

Mostly fair 

Unusually hot, and dry 
IMostly dry 
Various 

Various 

IWet 

Various 

Inclining to wet, and windy 

Various 

Various ; sometimes windy 

A prevalenccof windy weather 

Wet, and windy 

\arions 

Wet 

Moderately fair, and mild 

Fair, and mild 
Mostly wet 
Variable 

Unusually frosty 

Variable 

Various 

Very changeable 

Rainy 

Various, and some frost 

Very changeable 
Unu'sually fair mostly 
Warm, and sunrnjcr-like 
Mostly mild, warm, and dry 
Variable 

Variable 

Moderate, and dry 
Dry ; frosty at the end 
Fair, and summer-like 

Inclining to wet, except Oct 

Various 

Dry, and summer-like 

Mostly dry and fair 

Mostly fair and moderate 

Excessively wet 

Various, except a wet Oct. 

Moist 
Variable 
^'ariable 
Variable 



Frosty 

Various, windy, frosty 
Mild ; very httle frost 
W'et, windy, and frosty 
Cold, frost, sleet, -snow 
Mild, open, dry, fair 
Inchuing to wet, and windy; 

little frost 
Pretty open 

Open ; first stormy, then fair 
Cold, snow, and frequent rain 

For the most part open 

Mild and open 

Variable, inclining to frost 

Open, much rain, somewhat 
w indy 

Open, mild, and comparative- 
ly dry 

Wet, and warm 

Wet, stormy, and warm 

Wet, windy, and very warm 

Wet, windy, mild. 

Very open, and moist 

Very open, wet, and windy 

Open 

Stormy, and wet 

Frosty, after a long series of 

open winters 
Cold, and frosty 
Frosty ; some storms 
Stoi-my, and sonie frosts 
Frosty ; ended stormy 
Foggy, and frosty ; Jan. fioody 
Open, except a frosty January 

Wet, windy, and very open 

Mild, excepta frosty February 

Wnidy , and warm 

Mild, and open 

"'ucli frost and snow, except 

a warm December 
Hazy,foggy,cloudy .little frosty 
Frp(|ueut frosts, and suow 
Rainy 
Frosty 

Wet 

Frosty 

Mild and open mostly 

Open and n>ild 

\ .;riable, inclining to moisture 

\'cry open, and warm 

Diy, except Jan. the two last 

months a little frost 
Foggy, and warm 
Wet, w itii great floods Sc storms 
Warm and moist, except Feb, 
!Much frost and suow 



•"' There appears liere to be some mistake either of tlie author or printer, for, opposite to the year 1762, in 
the table, llie quantity of moisture given is 372-1 grains. If this number be correct, tlie difference should be 
I'S instead of 142. 



CLIMATE, 



187 



By comparing the above scheme of the weather for fifty years at Dublin, with 
two registries kept at London,* Dr. Rutty draws the following conclusions, in regard 
to the state of the several seasons at each of these places : 

" The medium of Gadbury's and Say's Registry, is 13 cold springs in 44. In the 
Dublin Registry for 50 years, there are 16 cold, backward, or dry springs, in 50 ; 
so that the proportion of cold and dry springs is a little greater at Dublin than 
at London. Does not this difference arise from the more northern situation of 
the former, and consequently its greater proximy to the large mountains of ice and 
snow in the north ? 

" In both the London registries of 4I summers, there were at a medium nearly 
20 hot and dry, and 20 wet, cold, and windy, that is, nearly half hot and dry. 

" In the Dublin registry of 50 years, 22 were fair, hot, or dry; 24 wet, and the 
rest changeable. In the London registry, therefore, the number of hot and dry 
summers is almost equal to that of the cold and wet, while at Dublin the number 
of the wet a liitle exceeded that of the hot and dry. Upon the whole, then, it does 
not appear that London has a great deal to boast above Dublin in regard to the su- 
perior heat and severity of its summers. 

" In both the London registries of 4I autumns, I5 were frosty, dry, or warm, 9 
wet, and the rest changeable. 

" In the Dublin registry of 50 years, 16 autumns were fair and dry, 12 wet, and 
the rest changeable ; so that the autumns at Dublin are also a little wetter than at 
London. 

" In both the London registries of 48 winters, 1 9 or 20 were frosty, 17 mild, and 
the rest changeable. 

" In the Dublin registry of 50 years, I3 winters were frosty, I4 wet, and about 26 
open, mild, or warm ; so that according to all observations, the Dublin winters are 
in far greater proportion warmer and moister than at or near London ; and this fur- 
nishes another conclusion of more importance, which is, that notwithstanding some 
defects inevitably attending such registries ; yet upon the whole, both the English and 
Irish registries have been faithfully kept."t 

In the Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy, Mr. Kirwan has given synop- 
tical tables of the state of the atmosphere and weather at Dublin, from the year 1792 
to IS04 inclusive, the principal results of which are as follows ::i: 

• The first of these extending from 1669 to I6S9, was published by John Gadbury, whose pen was un- 
doubtedly far more usefully employed in this manner than in vain attempts at prognostication. The second, 
extendingfrom 1695tol717, was drawn up from observations by a correspondent of Dr. Short's, whom he calls 
the reverend, worthy, and ingenious Mr. Say, late of St. James's, Westminster. Dr. Rutty extracted it from 
the Doctor's Chronological Histor)- of the Weather and Seasons. 

+ Natural History of the County of Dublin, vol. ii. p. 469. 

t Transactions of the R. I. A. vol. v. p. 47, 235; vol, vi. p. 169, 173, 309, 43.5 ; vol. vii. p. 316, 355 ; 
vol. viii, p. 203, 609 ; vol. x. p. 31, 189. 

2 B 2 



188 CLIMATE. 

1792. 

Greatest height of the barometer was in September, 30-69; least, January, 28-76; 
mean of the \Yhole year, 29-958. 

Greatest height of the thermometer was in August, 77 5 the least, in January, 
19-5 ; mean of the year, 50-509- 

Greatest quantity of rain fell in August, 5-8588 inches ; total in the year, 30-70O 
inches. Days of rain 288. 

1793- 

Greatest height of the barometer, January and October, 30*68 ; least, December, 
28-68 ; mean of the year, 30-054- 

Greatest height of the thermometer, August, 75-5 ; least, January, 28 ; mean of 
the year, 49'64- 

Greatest quantity of rain fell, November, 2-7192 inches; total in the year, 22"8554 
inches. Days of rain 214' 

1794. 

Greatest height of the barometer. May, 30-/1; least, April, 29'12; mean of the 
year, 30-036. 

Greatest height of the thermometer, July, 79-50; least, November and Decem- 
ber, 32 ; mean of the year, 51-915- , 

Greatest quantity of rain fell, November, 7 "6767 19 inches. Total of the year, 
28-8260958 inches. Days of rain, 218, and four of light snow. 

It is to be remarked, that on the 2d of July this year. Sixes' thermometer rose 
to 81-50 at one o'clock p. m. at two o'clock it was 79'50- 

1795- 

Greatest height of the barometer, November, 30-88^ least, October, 28-94; mean 
of the year, 30-047- 

Greatest height of the thermometer, August, 7 8 ; least, January, 19-50 ; mean of 
the year, 49' 191- 

Greatest quantity of rain fell, October, 6-6208 inches. Total of the year, 
26-483270 inches; days of rain 196, on 25 of which there fell snow. Storms in the 
year, 24. 

1796. 

Greatest height of the barometer, March, October, December, 30-70; least, Ja- 
nuary, 28'76; mean of the year, 30*044- 

Greatest height of the thermometer, June, 73*5 ; least, December, 20 ; mean of 
the year, 48-847: 

Greatest quantity of rain fell, May, 4*339074 inches. Total of the year 
21-942136 inches. Days of rain 204, on ten of which there fell snow. Storms in 
the year, I9. 



CLIMATE. 



189 



1797. 

Greatest height of the barometer, February and December, 3072; least, Decem- 
ber, 29-00; mean of the year, 30-535. 

Greatest height of the thermometer, July, 75; least, November, 22; mean of 
the year, 49'49- 

Greatest quantity of rain fell, October, 3-15078 inches. Total of the year 
24'457224- Days of rain 2l6, on eight of which snow fell, and on four of which it 
hailed. Storms in the year, 24- 

1798. 

Greatest height of the barometer, February, 30-S8 ; least, April, 28-80; mean of 
the year, 30-56. 

Greatest height of the thermometer, June, 81 ; least, February and November, 25 ; 
mean of the year, 49-22. 

Greatest quantity of rain fell July, 3'310419 inches. Total of the year 20-16457 
inches. Days of rain I9I, on twelve of which snow fell. Storms in the year, 27. 

So great a fog took place, February 7 th, that carriages were by mistake driven into 
the Liffey. 

The following results for the same year, are taken from a Table of Observations 
made by Henry Edgeworth, Esq. at Edgeworthstown, in the county of Longford.* 

Greatest height of the bar. Feb. 30-25 : least, April, 28*10 ; mean of the year, 29-50. 

Greatest height of the thermometer, June, 76; least, Dec. 18 ; mean of the year, 48. 

Greatest quantity of rain fell, January, 5 '80 inches. Total of the year, 35-56. 

1799. 

Greatest height of the barometer, December, 30-75; least, November, 28-86; 
mean of the year, 30-5!. 

Greatest height of the thermometer, June, 74; least, February, 14-50; mean of 
the year, 45-06. 

Greatest quantity of rain fell, April, 3-940975 inches. Total of the year, 22 
inches. Days of rain I06, and on 20 some snow fell. 

ISOO. 

Greatest height of the barometer, March, 30*94; least, November, 29*07 ; mean 
of the year, 30*478. 

Greatest height of the thermometer, August, 81*50 ; least, December, 23 ; mean 
of the year, 47*8 19 ; greatest quantity of rain fell, January, 3*980384 inches. To- 

» Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy, vol. vii, p. 317. — The same gentleman gives the following ab- 
stract of tlie quantity of wind in 17Q6, 1797, and I798 : 

In 1796 the number of the most windy days was 165, of which 29 took place in January. 
In 1797 the number of windy days was 160, of which 22 took place in January. 
In 1798 the number of windy days was 137, of which 21 took place in October. 



190 CLIMATE. 

tal of the year 23-507028 inches; days of rain I97, on 10 of which some snoAr 
fell. Storms in the year, 24- 

ISOl. 

Greatest height of the barometer. April, 30'76 ; least, December, 28-80 ; mean of 
the year, 30-531- 

Greatest height of the thermometer, July, 75; least, October, 34; mean of the 
year, 49-278. 

Greatest quantity of rain fell, November, 3-468058 inches. Total of the year, 
21'965855 inches; days of rain 175 and 19, on Avhich a little snow and some hail 
fell. Storms in the year, 22. 

1802. 

Greatest height of the barometer, June, 30-68 ; least, November, 29*10 ; mean of 
the year, 30'586. 

Greatest height of the thermometer, August, 76 ; least, January, 22 ; mean of the 
year, 48"637. 

Greatest quantity of rain fell, December, 6226619 inches. Total of the year, 
27 '97 87 8 inches ; total days of rain, 222. Storms in the year, I3. 

I803. 

Greatest height of the barometer, June and September, 30-77; least, October, 
20-80; mean of year, 30-64: 

Greatest height of the thermometer, July, 7950; least, December, 22; mean of 
the year, 49'16. 

Greatest quantity of rain fell, November, 5-926320 inches. Total of the year, 
19-67748 inches; days of rain, I93, on 17 of which snow fell. Storms in the 
year, 17- 

I804. 

Greatest height of the bar. Feb. 30-87 ; least, Jan. 28-86; mean of the year, 30-567. 

Greatestheightofthethermometcr, Sept. 75; least, Dec. 3 l;meanoftheyear, 49-916. 

Greatest quantity of rain fell, March, 4-348204 inches. Total of the year, 
30-033722 inches; days of rain 231. Storms in the year, 23- 



CLIMATE. 



191 



Rei-ister of the Rain Guage kept at the Botanic Garden near Dublin. 



Years. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


March 


April 


May 


June July 


Aug. 


Sep. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Total. 


1S02 


•6S2 


1-145 


1-136 


•SGO 


■750 


1-630 


4-420 


2-760 


1-400 


3-240 


3-700 


5-250 


26-993 


1S03 


l-:20 


1-000 


1-700 


1-190 


1-190 


1-000 


-470 


2-450 


-600 


-220 


2-756 


4-6S0 


lS-970 


1S04 


3-2-20 


-300 


4-060 


1-710 


2-710 


1-450 


3-000 


3-260 


-400 


3-100 


2-700 


3-610 


29-720 


1S05 


2-760 


-S30 


■550 


1-000 


1-S50 


-S70 


4-060 


2-260 


2-400 


2-S60 


-6S0 


2-370 


22-470 


1S06 


2-T50 


1-120 


1-520 


1-000 


2-940 


■900 


3-020 


1-290 


2-130 


1-670 


3-920 


2-220 


24-490 


1S07 


2-160 


l-oOO 


-450 


-570 


3-450 


1-350 1-330 


1-S30 


7-332 


2-99S 


1-750 


1-7S0 


26-500 


1S08 


■674 


1-500 


-654 


1 -2S0 


2-340 


1-670 4-500 


1-S34 


1-590 


2-040 


2-330 


2-770 


23-182 


1809 


4-PGO 


2-246 


1-390 


2-SOO 


1-400 


1-9S0 


-456 


4-510 


3-640 


1-770 


1-769 


2-170 


2S-999 


ISIO 


1-240 


■700 


1-67 4 


-9S9 


-S43 


-720 


2-S90 


2 -250 


2-777 


2-223 


3-S67 


2-460 


22-663 


ISll 


1-JOO 


1-7S0 


1-560 


2145 


2-030 


•500 
















Total 


21-666 


12-321 


14-694 


13-544 


19-503 


12-070 


24-146 


22-474 


22-269 


20-121 J23-492 


27-310 





By the above register it will be seen that the order of the months, in regard to the 
quantity of rain which falls in each, beginning with the driest, is as loUows; June, 
February, April, March, May, October, January, September, August, November, 
July, December. This seems to vary considerably from the order observed at Belfast. 

Dr. Rutty says, that the range of variation of the barometer at Dublin, is about 
2t5 inches ; and according to another estimation 2t%. The range of the thermometer 
is about 36 degrees.* Dublin, according to Arrowsmith, lies in lat. 53°2l'N. 
Ion. 6° 15'-+ 

The medium atmospherical heat of five years in Dublin, viz. 1794, 1796, 1797, 
1799^ and I800, is 5(f-15 plus; the ma.ximum is ST'SO; the minimum 14°-50; 
the medium heat of the earth in the same city, as found by the temperature of the 
water in covered deep wells, in the year 17 88, was from 50° to 52°. The thermome- 
ter in January 17 89, at eight o'clock a.m. stood at 17°-5 in London; at two o'clock 
p.ji. it rose to 24°, in Dublin it rose to 28°.* 

It was my intention to add to the preceding information in regard to the climate 
of Ireland, a regular series of observations made in different parts of the country, 
but as the study of meteorology has not yet made that progress there which it has in 
England, the materials which I have procured on the subject are not so complete as 
I could wish. In England many individuals keep registries of the weather, and are 
acquainted with the use of the common meteorological instruments ; but in Ireland 
the case is different, for I never saw a barometer or a thermometer in the possession 
of any farmer. The documents, therefore, which I have obtained, are not sufficiently 
extensive to afford any satisfactory results ; for to enable one to draw general conclu- 
sions with regard to the climate of a whole country, so extensive as Ireland, it would 

f Essay towards a Nat. Hist, of the County of Dublin, vol. i. p. 4. 

+ The observation was made in Meckjenburgh Street. The observatory at Dunsink is in lat. 53° 27' Ion. 6° 20'. 

;: Observations on the Climate oflreland. by W. Pattetson, W.D. Dublin, 1804, p. 1C2. 



195 



CLIMATE. 



be necessary to have a series of observations made for a number of years, and at va- ' 
rious places, distant from each other. 

I have, however, to return thanks to several respectable friends who furnished me 
with such information as they were able to procure. 

To General Vallancey and Mr. John Leslie Foster, I am indebted for a register of 
the rain-guage kept at the Botanic Garden, belonging to the Dublin Society. I am 
under great obligations also to Archdeacon Hill, of Limerick, who obtained for me 
from the widow of the late Dr. Crump, whose polite attention to my request I 
also acknowledge, a journal kept by her late husband at Limerick during the year 
1795 ; and I cannot help regretting the premature death of that ingenious physician, 
■^^•hose talents and knowledge qualified him in an eminent degree for being useful to his 
country. Dr. M'Donnell, of Belfast, procured me much information from that place. 
My thanks are due also to Mr. Aldworth of the county of Cork, and Mr. Plielps of 
Limerick, for their communications ; nor must I forget Mr. Robertson of Kilkenny, 
who has distinguished himself not only by his skill in horticulture, but by a laudable 
desire to cultivate and improve every branch of useful knowledge connected with his 
profession. 

The subjoined table,* containing the quantities of rain which fell at different 
parts of Great Britain, lying chiefly on the western coast of the island, during, the 
course of five years, that is, from 17S8 to 1792, inclusive, was drawn up by the late 
Dr. Garnet, and is here introduced, as the Rev. Mr. Sampson refers to it in his re- 
marks on the quantity of rain which falls at Londonderry. It is to be observed, that 
Kendal bears north, 30° west from London, distant 226 miles,- measured on a great 
circle of the earth, and ac(;ording to the observations of Mr. Dalton, the town is 
elevated about forty-six yards above the level of the sea ; Keswick bears north, 30", 
west ; from Kendal 22 English miles, measured on a great circle, and according to 
" Crosthwaite, is elevated about seventy-six yards above the level of the sea. Fellfoot 
lies at the south end of Winandermere, where the lake contracts into a river, and is 
about twenty-six yards above the level of the sea. These places are surrounded by 
hi<rh hills, some of which rise to the height of more than a thousand yards above 
the level of the sea. Salford joins to Manchester, and Youngsbury is near Ware 
in Hertfordshire, 20 miles north of London. The difference in the quantities of 
rain which fell in these different places, according to this table, is surprising. Much 
more falls in hilly than in level countries. 



Years. 


Dumfries. 


Kendal. 


Keswick. 


Fellfoot. 


Lancaster. 


Salford. 


Youngsbury. 


London. 


17S& 
1789 
1790 
1791 
1792 


26-423 

48-093 

39-354 

39-2S17 

47-5130 


39-2575 

69-S35 

66-263 

62-200 

S4-SS4 


34-3057 
72-2449 
64-7439 
73-5522 
S4-6051 


42-06 
66 52 
5&-4S 


29-45 
51-01 
46-61 


42-75 

54-75 


17-676 
29-493 
22-970 
24-200 


14-S92 
21-976 
16-052 

19-5 



» Transactions of the R. L A. vol. v. p. 262. 



CLIMATE. 
LONDONDERRY.— Lat. 55° o'. Long. 7° 17' 



193 



The Rev. Mr. Sampson, in his Survey of Londonderry,* gives the following 
Tables in regard to the climate of that place, from the papers of his friend the late 
Dr. Patterson. 



Summary of the Ranges of IMeteoric Instruments. 


Years. 


Barometer. 


Thermometer. 


Hygrometer, DeLuc. 


Rain Gauge. 




Max. 


Min. 


Max. 


Min. 


Max. 


Min. 


Inch. Parts. 


1795 
1796 
1797 
179S 
1799 
1800 
1801 
Mean. 


30-84 
30-61 
30-53 
30-68 
30-64 
30-49 
30-59 
30-62 + 


28-64 
28-37 
28-80 
28-60 
28-76 
28-85 ■ 
28-64 
28-66 + 


74 
71 

72 
74 
74 
81 
76 
74 + 


2U 

17 

30 

26 

21 

28 

22 

25-7+ 


55| 
56i. 
50-3 
44^ 

47| 

52f 
51.37 + 


32 
31 

25^ 
24|. 
31 
33} 
26- 
29.13+ 


32-861 plus 

25-718394 

30-821272 

33-2310176 

34-7709468 plus 

29-2263628 

32-197740 

31118147 



♦ Page 12. 



Table of the winds during the above 
period. 



State of the weather in the different years 
during the same period. 



Years. 


N. 


S. 


E. 


W. 


NW. 


NE. 


SW.j SE. 


1795 


21 


38 


26 


79 


109 


•62 


83 


60 


1796 


32 


33 


42 


103 


101 


45 


69 


49 


1797 


19 


51 


16 


98 


55 


29 


82 


50 


179S 


26 


68 


34 


100 


42 


23 


98 


57 


1799 


49 


34 


34 


109 


67 


16 


70 56 


1800 


41 


27 


21 


136 


79 


27 


36 75 


1801 


37 


46 


36 


141 


86 


23 


38 29 


Total 


225 


397 


209 


766 


539 


225 


476 


376 




On the above tables the author makes the following remarks : — " To what decree the 
climate of Ireland, when compared with others, should be deemed wet, a [cw ob- 
servations will tend to ascertain. By the rain-gauge in the preceding summary, it 
appears thatthe maximum annual quantity at Londonderry in tiie space of seven years, 
does not amount to 35 inches, the minimum is below 26 inches, and the mean is 
31*118l47. The greatest quantity that I have found to fall in this place did not exceed 
36 inches, whereas, at Keswick in Cumberland, the ma.\imum amounts to the enor- 

VoL. L c 



194 C L I M ATE. 

mous quantity of 84-6051. the minimum to 34'3057, and the mean to 68-5 inches. 
At Kendal, in Westmoreland, the rates are nearly the same. The medium quantity 
in Ireland, at large, is from 24 to 28 inches. Taking the annual quantity of rain 
that falls on the east coast of England, which is rarely less than 18 inches, and the 
maximum of the west coast of that country, the average will exceed 54 inches, and 
we cannot suppose that Scotland would produce a lower. 

" The frequency of our showers in Ireland, and not the quantity of rain, has given 
rise to the popular notion of the peculiar wetness of our climate ; but I hope I have 
brought cogent arguments to shew that, in this respect, it is neither hurtful to animal 
nor vegetable life, and that in fact it is not comparatively humid and rainy. Some- 
times in spring, the seed time is retarded a little by the wetness of the weather, but 
our spring seasons are so often cold and backward, that early sowing is not always 
most eligible in this district. 

" If, in summer and autumn, frequent showers render the hay and grain harvests 
brittle, vigilance and industry would, on these emergencies, be as successful as they 
are in the catching harvests of England, and improved culture would prepare the 
crops to meet the exertions of the husbandman. 

" During nine years, from 1795 to IS03 inclusive, the winds were: north 29j, south 
398, east 283, west I005, north-west 737, north-east 265, south-west 599, south-east 
454. 

" Of sixteen terms noted at Derry, from 1795 to 1802 inclusive, the mean heat was 
49', which corresponds with the highest medium temperature of the earth in the same 
place, ascertained by experiment. "The maximum of the sixteen terms was 81°, the 
minimum 17°. 

" At Derry, in twelve years, from 1791 to 1802 inclusive, the medium number of 
fair days was above 126; the maximum I48, minimum II3. It appears from nine 
years observation, that the medium number of fair tlays at Belfast is also above 126 ; 
maximum 161, minimum 90.* The yearly number of fair days at Dublin, is from 
168 to 205, and the middle number is 179- At Edgeworthstown, in the county of 
Longford, in the year 1798, there were 233 fair days. Taking twenty-three terms in 
Derry, Belfast, Dublin, and Edgeworthstown, from 17 S3 to 1802, the medium num- 
ber is nearly 14O; so that even the annual mean of fair days, in the kingdom at 
large, may be stated at nineteen above the third. "+ 

* Dr. Patterson supposes this to be a mistake, since it does not rale in proportion with the maximum. 
+ Essay on the Climate of Ireland, by W. Patterson, M.D, Dublin, 180-4, p. 1C4. 



CLIMATE. 



195 



BELFAST.— Lat. 54° 35'. Long. 5" 55'. 



Extract from the Register of the Baro- 
meter and Thermometer kept at Belfast 
Library. 



Barometer. 



1796 
1797 
179S 
1799 
ISOO 
ISOl 
1S03 
1S03 
1&04 
■ISOo 
IS06 
1S07 
ISOS 
1S09 



Highest. Mean. 



31-00 
30S0 
SOSb 
30-60 
S0-6S 
30-5S 
30S0 
30-66 
30-70 
30-52 
30-70 
30-38 
30-90 
30-64 



30-07 

30-5 

30 01 

29-96 

29-93 

30-07 

29-9S 

23-S5 

29-96 

30-00 

30-07 I 

29-15 I 

29 97 , 

29-S5 : 



2S-76 
29-00 
29-OS 
2900 
25-90 
25-00 
25-92 
25-51 
25-50 
25-58 
23-65 
29-00 
28-92 
25-60 



Thermometer. 



65-50 
65-00 
70-00 
65-25 
73-00 
79-00 
73-00 
77-20 
73-00 
72-52 
73 00 
75-00 
75-60 



52-78 
53-63 
51-05 
5113 
32-29 
55-444 
52-90 
52-60 
53-55 
53-01 
53-76 
51-91 
52-50 



rS-80 55-20 



Low 



30-00 
35-00 
33-00 
31-00 
33-05 
35-00 
53-00 
25-00 
31-60 
32-50 
32-50 
28-00 
27-00 
30-05 



The following abstract of a Diary of the 
Weather, from January 1, 1793, till Janu- 
ary, 1 799) kept at Belfast by a man of sino-u- 
lar accuracy, may serve as the means of cor- 
recting other observations of the same kind 
made by incorrect persons, or with bad in- 
struments. Communicated by Dr. M'Don- 
nell. 



Years. 1793 



Barome- 
ter mean 
height 
Thermo- 
meter do. 
Rain 



♦ The return for 1805 is doubtful, being stated 
from memory. 



Kam- "1 
Sauge, ?• 
Inches -' 
Vind -J 
i-aiiing V 
Its ) 



Wind 
prev 
points 



29-63* 

52 

24-55 

SW. 



1794 



29-55 

50 

28-0156 

SW. 



1795 I 1796 



29-83 29-76 

50 '52 

i 
26-951 18 193 26135 



1797 



1798 



26-106 



The subjoined Table shews the Result of a Register of the Rain-Gauge kept at the 
Library of Belfast during the years 1796, 1797, 1798, and till Nov. 4th, 1799. 

Register of the Rain-Gauge kept at the Library, Belfast. 



Years. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


March. 


AprU. 


May. 


June. 


July. 1 August. 


Sep. 


Oct. 


Not. 


Dec. 


Total, 


1796 
1797 
1798 
1799 

Total 


2-983 
0-749 
3-233 
1-845 


2-412 
0-745 
0-650 
1-801 


0-672 
1-890 
0-525 

2-237 


0-692 
1-155 
2-005 
1-510 


2-222 
1-958 
1-030 
1-570 


1-204 
0-726 
1-765 
0-799 


2-723 
3-743 
4-626 
2-752 


0-392 
2-605 
1-445 
4-334 


3-342 
3-245 
4-649 
1-583 


1-065 
1-660 
1-350 
3-755 


0-410 
2235 
3-650 
0-626 


1-388 
3005 
1-160 


19-405 
23-916 
26-121 
22-512 


8-SlO 


5-605 


5-324 


5-362 


6-780 


4-497 


13-5441 5-776 


12-719 


5-060 


6-921 







To the preceding I shall add another register, kept at the Academy, Belfast ; but 
it is to be remarked, that it closed on the 18th of September, 1798, as it was observed 
that the rain-gauge had been going to decay for some time. It could not, therefore, 
be depended on after the month of June.* 

■^ I am indebted for this table, to select papers of the Belfast Literary Society. Fasciculus Fourth. 



SC 2 



196 CLIMATE. 

Register of the Rain-Gauge kept at the Academy, Belfast. 



Years. 


Jan. 


Feb. 




March. 


April. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Total. 


1793 


1-737 


2-595 


1-892 


1-464 


1-050 


1-718 


1-380 


4165 


0-948 


1-626 


3-661 


2-318 


24-554 


1794 


1-209 


2-450 


1-390 


2-017 


1-209 


0-383 


2-310 


3-090 


3-G27 


4-589 


3-295 


2-587 


28-156 


1795 


0-520 


2-76S 


2-248 


1-S80 


0-706 


0-750 


3-231 


2-655 


0-773 


4-837 


3-785 


2-804 


26-957 


1796 


2-4S6 


2-322 


0-551 


0-561 


1-789 


1-437 


2-427 


515 


2-424 


1-222 


1-025 


1-434 


18-193 


1797 


1106 


0-56S 


2095 


M78 


2-045 


0-631 


4-060 


2-583 


3-125 


1-880 


1-220 


3-924 


24-415 


179S 


3-160 


0-SOO 


0-710 


1-730 


1-000 


1-360 
















Total 


10-21S 


11-503 


&-SS6 


S-S30 


7-799 


6-279 



" The annual fall of rain on an average of six complete years, is only 24'TOO 
inches; consequently, the popular opinion of Belfast being subject to much rain, is 
fouiided only on the frequency of showers. The manner in which rain falls is of 
more consequence than the quantity. 

" The greatest fall in twenty-four hours was on October 10, 1794) namely, I'SIO 
inches. Heaviest showers: July 3, 1794, 0"700 of an inch fell in two hours ; and 
August 1, 1795, 0.366 in a quarter of an hour. The Lammas flood seems to be re- 
marked, rather because it is unseasonable, than as being very regular or violent. Be- 
tween December 23d, 1794, and January 31st, 1795, there fell only six hundredth 
parts of an inch of rain and a slight shower of snow. Longest drought: 19 days from 
August 11, 1796; and the same number of days from June 3, 1799- 

" The year 1798 was reckoned dry, and the summer very fine. The year 1799 was 
followed by two years of scarcity, and was considered as very wet. Yet there fell 
in July, August, September, and October, 1798, more rain by 0.245, than in the 
corresponding months of 1799- The difference of the seasons did not consist in the 
quantity of rain ; but in the general inclemency of the weather. 

" In 1793 there fell at Glasgow 29-198 inches of rain in the following proportions, 
which may be compared with the quantity the same year at Belfast. 



Jan. 


Feb. 


March. 


April. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


650 


5-100 


3050 


S-S90 


0-860 


1-400 


2-333 


4185 


1-232 


2-724 


2-953 


2-816 



"This was less than in 1792 by 6-752 inches. The average of two years was 
therefore 32-569 inches. 

" In one of these years, 1792, there fell at Kendal S3I inches; and about the 
same lime 84 at Keswick. The quantity at Walton, near Liverpool, in 1793) was 
30-900 ; evapor.-ition 0-285. It is said that 115 inches have fallen at Senegal in four 
months." 



CLIMATE. 



197 



The rollowing comparative register of the state of the Thermometer, according to 
observations made at Mount Stewart, county of Down, Ireland, by Lady Elizabeth 
Pratt, and at Euston Hall, Suffolk, during the month of January, 1810, and also 
one kept at Lympston, eight miles from Exmouth, in Devonshire, by Lord Charles 
Fitzroy, at the same hours of the day, during nearly the same period, will serve to 
give an idea of the difference of temperature between these places, and of the 
weather which prevailed at each of them. 

A comparative Register of the Thermometer kept at Euston Hall, in Suffolk, and 
at Mount Stewart in Ireland, at the same period. 

Register of the Thermometer, for January, 1810. 



January 


1810 


10 
o'clock. 


1 
o'clock. 


8 in the 
evening. 


Observations. 


Mount Stewart. 


1st day of 


50° 


51" 


49° 




Suffolk. 


the month. 


44i 


50 


46 




Mount Stewart. 


2d day of 


4S 


50 


47 


■ 


Suffolk. 


the month. 


46 


49-' 


44 




Mount Stewart. 


3d day of 


40 


48 


474 




Suffolk. 


the month. 


42i 


474 


44 




Mount Stewart. 


4th day of 


50 


51 


46 




Suffolk. 


the month. 


46 


48 


47 




Mount Stewart. 


5th day of 


47 


50 


-. 




Suffolk. 


the month. 


45 


474 


42 




Mount Stewart. 


6th day of 


46 


46 


45 


' 


Suffolk. 


the month. 


44 


47 


45 




Mount Stewart. 


7th day of 


47 


47 


454 




Suffolk. 


the month. 


44 


45 


40 




Mount Stewart. 


Sth day of 


45i 


43 


43 




Suffolk. 


the month. 




— 


— 




Mount Stewart. 


9tb day of 


38 . 


■ 35 


35 




Suffolk. 


the month. 





_ 







Mount Stewart. 


10th day of 


46 


46 


47 




Suffolk. 


the month. 


35 


— 


37 




Mount Stewart. 


11th day of 


45 


46 


43 




Suffolk. 


the montli. 


44 


— 


42 




Mount Stewart. 


12th day of 


S6 


35 


33 




Suffolk. 


the month. 


38 


42 


38 




Mount Stewart. 


13th day of 


— 


— 


— 




Suffolk. 


the month. 


31 


33 


314 




Mount Stewart. 


14th day of 


34 


35 


324 




Suffolk. 


the month. 


26 


304 


22 




Mount Stewart. 


15th day of 


301^ 


31 


28 




Suffolk. 


the month. 


2U 


28 


18 


144 at Eleven at Night. 


Mount Stewart. 


16th day of 


32 


35 


30 




Suffolk. 


the month. 


20 


27i 


12 





193 



CLIMATE. 



A comparative Register of the Thermometer kept at Lympston, in Devonshire, and 
at Mount Stewart in Ireland, at the same period. 



December 


1S09 


10 


1 


5 in the 


Observations. 






o'clock. 


o'clock. 


evening. 




Mount Stewart. 


Gth day of 


50° 


53° 


4S" L 


^ fine warm day, with sun. 


Devonshire. t 


be month. 


50^ 


— 


521 . 


4 dark day, viith drops of mild rain. 


Mount Stewart. 


7th day of 


45 


44 


40 


Vut cold, but stormy with some rain. 


Devonshire. t 


lie month. 


47i 


49^ 


— 


icavy rain in the morning, fair aftemards. 


Mount Stew art. 


Sth day of 


41 


45 


41 


High wind S. E. with rain for several hours. 


Devonshire. 


he month. 


44 


4Si 


471 


Grey morning, then sun, with distant shou'ers. 


Alount Stewart. 


9th day of 


45 


47 


43 


The storm continuin;:, with violent rain. 


Devonshire. 


he month. 


4S 


51 


52 


Cloudy, ■j.ith shoiuns, dark, and stormy wind. 


Mount Stewart. 


0th day of 


39 


41 


34 


Hather less wind and no ram, but very cold. 


Dezonshire. 


the month. 


45i 


46| 


42 


Sun and wind ; stars after heavy rain. 


Mount Stewart. 


11th day of 


34 


35 


37 


.\ clear day and no rain, but cold w esterly wind. 


Devonshire. 


the month. 


39 


43 


391 


Dark, and Therm, at 40 at Eleven at night. 


Mount Stewart. 


12tli day of 


35 


37 


34 


Rain in the night, west wind, day fine, but cold. 


Devonsliire. 


the month. 


45 


44 


414 


Sun and wind, squally, hard rain at night. 


Mount Stewart. 


13th day of 


354 


37 


34 


^. clear day, with sun, wind westerly. 


Devonshire. 


ilie month. 


40 





364 


Sun, wind, and showers. 


Mount Stewart. 


14th day of 


34 


354 


42 


Rain all night, fine day, wind very high. 


Devonshire. 


the month. 


36 


424 


44 


Cloudy, sun with clouds, star-light. 


Mount Stewart. 


loth day of 


36 


36 


34 


Rain in the night, high wind S. E. 


Devonsliire. 


the month. 


3S 


40 


34 


.ippearance of slight frost, rain. 


Mount Stewart. 


16th day of 


36 


36 


34 


Rain in the night, and high wind S. E. 


Devonshire. 


the month. 


34 


434 


4Ii 


IVhite frost in the morning, rain from two o'clock. 


Mount Stewart. 


I7thday of 


33 


3S 


40 


White frost, wind N. E. a very fine day. 


Devonshire. 


the month. 


44 


474 


40| 


Heavy showers, at night star-light. 


Mount Stewart. 


ISth day of 


42 


43 


42 


A good day, wind north. 


Devonshire. 


the month. 


42 





414 


fVind and showers, clear evening. 


Mount Stewart. 


19th day of 


42 


42 


41 


A beautiful morning, wind N. W. a fine day. 


Devonsliire. 


the month. 





45 


38 


Clear all day. 


Mount Stewart. 


20th day of 


42 


42 


— 




Devonshire. 


the month. 


40 


44 


46 


Grey morning, light clouds in the evening. 


Mount Stewart. 


21st day of 


35 


38 


33 




Devonshire. the month. 


34 


36 


354 




Mount Stewart. 22d day of 


3S 


42 


39 




Devonshire. tlie month. 


38 


40 


36 




Mount Stewart, 23d day of 


43 


46 


41 




Devonshire. 


tlie month. 


37 


— 


41 




Mount Stewart. 


2-ith day of 


47 


47 


3S 




Devonshire. 


the month. 


37 


40 


3S 




Mount Stewart. 


25th day of 


34 


37 


35 


- 


Devonsliire. 


the month. 


39 


40 


37 




Mount Stewart. 


26th day of 


40 


41 


43 




Devonshire. 


the month. 


35 


38 


36 




Mount Stewart. 


27th day o 


44 


45 


41 




Devonshire. 


the month. 


391 


424 


47 




Mount Stewart. 


2Sth day 


47 


49 


47 




Devonshire. 


the month. 


44 


474 


44 




Mount Stewart. 


29lli day o 


f 47 


49 


47 




Devonshire. 


the month. 


50 


50 


49 




Mount Stewart. 


30th day o 


r 47 


49 


46 




Devonshire. 


the month. 


49 


:>o 


51 




Mount Slewart 


Slit day 


47 


49 


46 




Devonshire. 


llie month. 


4S 


49 


50 





CLIMATE. 199 

ARMAGH.— Lat. 54° 20' 30". Long. 6° 32'- 
Vari.mion of the Magnetic Needle, West of Nouth. 
Extracted from the Transit Book, of the Observatory at Armagh. 
1799 December 27 - - 27^^ 40' 

1804 May lO - - - 28" 31' 30'! 

1S05 May U - - - 28» 16' 

IS 10 April 19 - - - 29^ 00' 

1811 July 26 - - - 29" 02' 

KILKENNY— Lat. 52'"3Si'2". Long. 7° 11' 30". 

I am happy to find, by a letter from Mr. Robertson of Kilkenny, that a taste for 
scientific pursuits begins to prevail in that part of Ireland. A society for establish- 
ing a library and collection of natural history has been formed at the above town. 

Mr. Robertson makes «the following general remarks on the weather in the neigh- 
bourhood of Kilkenny. — " The spring months of February and March I have ob- 
served, are in general rainy, and mild, the winds being mostly south-south-west 
and south. April and May are drier, but often attended with northerly and north- 
west winds, v.'hich prove very destructive to the blossom of the fruit-trees, prematurely 
forwarded by the softness of the preceding weather. 

" The summer months of June and July are frequently chilled by rains and cool 
westerly winds, which, however, are occasionally warm, and followed by more settled 
fine weather. 

" During the months of August, September, and October, there is a much greater 
proportion of north and easterly winds. 

" In the winter months of November, December, and January, there is much 
rain, but little frost, and severe cold is rarely of more than a few days con- 
tinuance. 

" In winter, the thermometer seldom sinks below the freezing point, and during 
the summer heat, it seldom rises above 79 in the shade, though I have observed it as 
high as 84 ; I think its average range during our warm weather seems to be between 
70 and 75- 

" I am of opinion that the west winds prevail with us, in general, for about two- 
thirds of the year. 

" Summer fruits ripen here about a fortnight later than in the neighbourhood of 
London, and late ones are still more backward. Grapes planted against our 
best walls never ripen io the open air; and many autumnal flowers that expand 
perfectly well on your opposite coast, such as double pomegranate drops, do not 
open here even in the most sunny aspects ; yet we have sufficient warmth to 
mature, besides our abundant crops of grain, the summer and autumnal fruits, and 
with the assistance of walls, the greater part of the winter ones." 



dOO 



CLIMATE. 



The Following Table, the first fruits of the Kilkenny Society, contains a Meteoro- 
logical Journal of the Weather during the last three months of the year 1811, and a 
part of January, i812, communicated by Mr. Robertson. 



4t 1 


P. 


M. 


Ort. 


TTier. 


liar. 


1 


60 


29-59 


2 


60 


29 57 


3 33 


29-54 


4 


61 


29- 


5 


60 


29- 


6 


57 


29-54 


7 


61 


29- 


S 


63 


29-65 


9 


66 


29-62 


10 


61 


29-55 


11 


57 


29-46 


12 


60 


29-5 


13 


65 


29-70 


U 


60 


29-37 


15 


60 


29-30 


16 


61 


29-50 


17 


60 


29-10 


18 


60 


29-74 


19 


61 


29-90 


20 


60 


29-77 


21 


56 


29-30 


, 29 


51 


29-23 


23 


47 


29-6 


24 


43 


29-10 


25 


51 


29- 


26 


77 


2S-50 


27 


47 


2S-52 


2S 


45 


2S-70 


29 


47 


29-7S 


30 


50 


2S-90 


31 


52 


29-39 


^lo.l 


53 


29-30 


2 


51 


29-30 


3 


4S 


29-40 


4 


46 


29-66 


5 


44 


29-60 


6 


49 


29-60 


7 


46 


29-50 


& 


44 


29-20 


9 


47 


2942 


10 


50 


29-2 


11 


46 


23-55 


12 


44 


29 -SO 


13 


46 


29-65 


14 


47 


2953 


15 


40 


29-50 


16 


44 


29-So 


17 


49 


305 


IS 


49 


30-10 


19 


46 


30-10 


20 


41 


30-33 


21 


47 


3015 


22 


4j 


30-5 


23 


45 


30-20 


24 


46 


JO- 19 


25 


46 


30-35 


26 


45 


30-25 


27 


49 


30-25 


2'i 


51 


30-20 


29 


49 


30 15 


3C 


49 


30-5 



Weather, wind, &:c, 
.Showers, «-inds.-w. partly cloudy 
Wind north-east, afternoon wet 
Wind north-easterly, heavy rain 
Wind southerly, heavy rain 
Wind south, wet 
Wind westerly, high 
Wind south, light rain 
Wind southerly, dry 
Wind south, dry 
Wind south, high and showery 
Wind west, heavy rain 
Wind west, high, showery 
Wind southerly, dry 
Wind south-west, heavy rain 
Wind south, high, dry 
Wind south, dry 
Wind south, high, light rain 
Wind south-east, dry 
Wind south- westj dry 
Wind southerly, light rain 
Wind southerly, heavy rain 
Wind southerly, light rain 
Wind north-west, heavy rain 
Wind westerly, rain 
Wind south, hoar frost, rain, P. M. 
W. s.-easl, heavy rain, & lightning 
Wind northerly, foggy, dry 
Wind southerly, light rain 
Wind north-west, dry 
28-90 Wind north-west, showery 

Wind southerly, hoar frosts, wet 

Wind southerly, heavy rain 

Wind southerly, heavy rain 

Wind southerlj-, wet 

Wind westerly, dry 

Wind westerly, high, .showery 

Wind westerly, showery 

Wind westerly, dry 

Wind easterly, heavy rain 

Wind northerly, dry 

Wind southerly, rain 

Wind north-west, blowing, rain 

W. westerly, heavy rain, hoarfrost 

Wind westerly, fair 

Wind westerly, high, dry 

W. n.-w. stormy, showers,sleet, riin 

Wind north-westerly, dry 

Wind north-westerly, dry 

Wind southerly, dry 

Wind westerly, dry 

Wind north-west, light frost, dry 

Wind south, drj- 

Wind south-west, light rain 

Wind west, hoar frost, dry 

Wind west, dry 

Wind north-west, dry 

Wind vest, dry 

Wind south-west, dry 

Wind south-west, dry 

Wind south-west, fair 

Wind south-west, dry 



At 1 


P. 


M. 


Dec. 


Tber. 


Bar. 


1 


50 


29-50 


2 


39 


30-15 


3 


47 


30- 


4 


33 


29-25 


5 


30 


29-92 


6 


39 


29-70 


7 


51 


29-24 


S 


42 


29-15 


9 


35 


28-90 


10 


42 


29-25 


11 


37 


29-59 


12 


49 


29-66 


13 


49 


29-60 


14 


44 


29-66 


15 


44 


29-60 


16 


37 


29-42 


17 


42 


29-50 


IS 


47 


29-55 


19 


45 


29-46 


20 


38 


23-40 


21 


37 


29-60 


22 


35 


30-20 


23 


45 


30-11 


24 


42 


30-5 


25 


38 


30-8 


26 


33 


30-10 


27 


35 


29-15 


26 


33 


29-57 


29 


33 


29-75 


30 


30 


38-20 


31 


38 


29-99 


janl 


36 


29-66 


2 


37 


29-56 


3 


30 


29 27 


4 


34 


2932 


5 


33 


2956 


6 


40 


29-90 


7 


40 


30-4 


S 


36 


30 72 


9 


41 


3014 


10 


40 


30-16 


11 


40 


30-5 


12 


36 


29-90 


13 


36 


29-83 


14 


42 


30-3 


15 


42 


30 12 


16 


42 


30-7 


17 


44 


5010 


IS 


45 


30-20 



Weather, Wind, &;c. 
Wind south-Mest, high, dry 
Wind n.-west, stormj' and showery 
Wind westerly, high, showery 
Wind n.-west, high, rain, and sleet 
W. n.-w. frost, & showers of snow 
Wind south, &c. thaw 
Wind southerly, wet 
Wind southerly, dry 
Wind south-west, dry 
Wind easterly, dry 
Wind northerly, light frost, dry 
Wind s.-west, light rain, and thaw 
Wind south-west, light rain 
Wind south-west, dry 
Wind south-west, dry 
Wind north-west, high, with rain 
Wind north-west, heavy rain 
Wind south, showery 
Wind south-west, dry 
Wind n. frost, and heavy rain after 
\^'ind north, light rain 
Wind north-west, frost, dry 
Wind north-west, light rain 
Wind west, light rain 
Wind south-east, dry 
Wind north-east, dry 
Wind n.-west, frost, sleet, and rain 
W. northerly, frost, and light snow 
Wind northerly, hard frost, dry 
Wind n. frost, ther. at 9 at 26, dry 
Wind westerly, gentle thaw, dry 
Wind south-west, thawing, dry 
Wind westerly, dry 
Wind north-west, frosty, dry 
Wind westerly, frosty, dry 
Wind northerly, frosty, dry 
Wind south-west, &c. thaw, dry 
Wind north-west, light frost, dry 
Wind north-west, frost, dry 
Wind westerly, thaw, dry 
Wind northerly, dry 
Wind north-west, dry 
Wind north-east, light frost, dry 
W. northerly, light frost, & thaw,dry 
Wind westerly, dry- 
Wind north-w-est, drj- 
Wind s.-east, light rain, a shower 
Wind southerly, dry 
Wind westerly, dry 



October had 20 wet days, 11 dry. 
November 11 wet, 19 dry. 
December 16 wet, dry 15. ♦ 

• I trust in future the society will pay attention to liygro- 
nietical observations, and alio to the rain gauge. 



CLIMATE. 



201 



LIMERICK. 

The late Dr. Crump's Account of the Weather at Limerick, Anno 1795. 

The Latitude of Limerick is 52° 41' 30" North— Longitude 8° 31' West. 



9- 
10- 
11 - 
12- 
13- 
14- 
lo- 
16- 
17- 
IS- 
19- 
20- 
21 - 
22- 
23- 
24- 
23- 
26- 
27- 
26- 
29- 
30- 



Bar, 

29-9 
30-2 
30-2 
30-3 
30-2 
30-3 
30-2 
301 
30-2 
30-2 
30-1 
29-9 
29-5 
29-7 
30 2 
29-9 
;i9-9 
29-6 
29-6 
29-6 
29-9 
29-9 
29-8 
29-6 
29-8 
29 
29 
29S 
29-8 
29-S 
2'JJ 
29-0 
29-5 
29-0 
29-3 
-39-5 
-'9-4 
29-4 
29 
2S-8 
2^ 
28 
292 
29 
30-3 
30-5 
30-5 
30-4 
30-3 
30-2 



Wind 

E 
E 
E 

E 
E 
E 
E 
E 
E 
E 
E 
SE 
SE 
E 
E 
E 

NE 
SE 
E 
E 
E 

NE 
NE 
S 

SE 
E 
NW 
NE 
NE 
E 
SE 
E 

NE 
NE 
E 
E 
SE 
SE 

s\v 

w 

w 
wv 

NE 
NE 
N 

>V 
SE 
SE 
SE 



Remarks. 



Vol. 1. 



Dry, slight frost 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Wet 

Do. 

Dry frost 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. sliglit snow 

Dry 

Do. 

Dry, hard frost 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Dry, sHght thaw 

Dry, heavy snow at night 

Sleet, with high wind, rain 

Dry, thaw 

Snow 

Frost, dry 

Frost 

Wet 

Dry frost 

Do. 

Heavy snow 

Frost 

Do. 

Sleet and rain 

Wet 

Dry 

Variable 

Wet 

Variable 

Dry frost at night 

Frost 

Do. slight 

Frost 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 



.'0 Feb 
21 



Mar 



30 
29-3 
29 
29-3 
9-3 
29-2 
29 
29'3 
29-2 
29-3 
29-7 
300 
29-9 
29 '2 
9-3 
30-0 
301 
29-8 
29-2 
29 
29 
29 
29-3 
295 
29-3 
29-4 
29-9 
301 
30-2 
29-7 
30 
31 1 
29-7 
29 
■-'9.16 
29-6 
29 
29-6 
29-6 
29 7 



Apr 



29-3 
29-6 
29-9 
299 
»1 
30 



36 
33 

37 

48 
48 
30 
48 
47 
44 
45 
43 
43 
46 
43 
44 
4 

50 
43 
43 
iS 
45 
43 
45 
30 
50 
53 
33 
53 
50 
48 
50 
30 
50 
48 
30 

29-8|48 

29•^j!S 



SE 
SE 
SE 
SE 
S 
E 
E 
E 
E 
S 
SW 

\v 
w 

SW 

NW 

NE 

NW 

W 

W 

NW 

NW 

S 

SE 
SE 
SE 
SE 

E 

NE 
NW 
NW 
NE 
NW 
NW 

\y 
w 
w 

SW 
SW 
SW 
SW 
SE 
SE 

■.w 

SW 
E 

SE 
SE 
SE 
St 
sE 



Remarks. 



Frost 
Snow 
Variable 
Wet 
Dry 
Do. 
Do. 

Dry, snow at night 
Dry, thaw 
Variable 
Dry 
Do. 

Slight showers 
Wet 

Showers, stormy 
Dry 
[Do. 
Wet 
Do. 
Do. 

Heavy showers, hail 
Wet 

Dry, slight frost at night 
Do. 

Slight showers 
Dry 
Do. 
Do. 

Do. [after 

Heavy rain before day, showers 

Dry 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Wet 

Dry 

Dry, heavy rain at night 

Dry 

Mild showers 

Dry 

Do. 

Showery 

Dry 

Do. 

Do. 

Dry, showers at night 

Dry 

Do. 

Wet afternoon 



2 D 



Q.OZ 



CLIMATE. 
The late Dr. Crump's Table continued. 



Apr 



-20- 

-2i 

-22- 

-23- 

24- 

25- 

26- 

57- 

26- 

29- 

30- 

1 r 

2- 
3- 
4- 
5- 
6- 



Bar. £ H'ind 



9- 
10- 
11 
12 
13- 
14- 
15 
16- 
1' 
IS 
19- 
20- 
21 
22- 
23- 
24 
25' 
26- 

2S 
29 
30 
31 
1 



Juni 



.30 
30 
30 
30 
29-6 
295 
29 5 
29-4 
29 
29-2 
9-2 

29-2 

292 

29-2 

29-2 

29'2 

29-4 

29-2 

292 

29-5 

29S 

30-1 

30 

30 

30 

30-2 

30-2 

30-2 

30-2 

301 

30-0 

30-1 

301 

301 

29-6 

29-7 

'.9-6 

29-6 

29-& 

30-2 

30-2 

30-3 

30-2 

30 

30 

30-2 

30-3 

iO-J 

30 

30 

29, 

29-; 



jj 
J5 
M 
jt 
51 
55 
54 
50 
50 
50 
55 
,4 
53 
53 
53 
4S 
4S 
46 
55 
56 
5S 
,9 
60 
5S 
59 
55 
54 
55 
54 
53 
55 
54 
54 
55 
55 
5' 
5S 
61 
65 
6S 
65 
67 
64 
60 



,\"\\ 
\V 

\v 
w 
w 
\v 
\v 
xw 

N 

NE 
WV 

\y 

\y 

\v 

sw 

s\^- 

xw 

w 

w 

\v 

w 

w 

w 

w 

w 

w 

NE 
XW 
W 

w 

NW 
NW 
N'AV 
XW 

SW 

sw 

sw 

sw 

w 

w 

w 

w 

NE 
E 
SE 
XE 
NU 
XW 

w 

w 

w 

xw 

xw 

xw 

w 



Remarks. 






Dry 

Do. 

Hazy, wet 

Dry 

"lowtry 

Do. 

Do. 

Heavy showers 

Do. 

Showerv ' 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Heavy rain 

Heavy showers 

Wet 

Heavy showers ^ 

Do. 1 

Do. ■£ 

Dry B. 

Do. 2 

Do. "^ 

Do- -5, 

Do. i^ 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

•Showery 

Dry 

Wet 

i\Iore wet, after ^^. 

Dry 

Do. 

Do. 

Dry, (therm. 99 in the sun) 

Dry 

Do. 
Do. • 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Dry, slight mists 

Wet 

Showery 

Do. heavy 

Do. 

Shght showers 

Dry, heavy rain at night 



July 



29 
29-7 
29-9 
iOl 
301 
30 
30 
30 
29-9 
30 
30 
30] 
301 
30-3 
30 
30 
29-1) 
29 
29-9 
29-9 
300 
29-5 
29j 
29-5 
29-6 
29-6 
29-6 
30 
30-1 
30-1 
30-1 
30-1 
30-1 
30-1 
30-1 
30-1 
30-1 
30-1 
30-1 
30-1 
29-9 
29-9 
29-9 
29-S 
29-5 
29-7 
29-6|64 
29-6 
29-S 
29-9 
29-7 
29-S 
29-8 
29-S 
29-S 



Wine 

NW 
N\\ 
NW 

NE 
SE 

E 

N 

E 
SE 

S 

E 

NE 
NE 
SE 
W 
W 

w 
w 
s^^■ 

S\\' 

sw 

S\\' 

w 
w 
w 
w 
w 

E 
NE 

E 

E 

E 

E 
NE 

E 

E 

E 

E 

NE 
NE 



Kemarks. 



NE|Do 

N 
NW 



72 

72 
■0 
'0 

68 

66 

62 

6S 

6S 


72|W 

70 W 
SW 
NW 
NW 
NW 
NW 
W 
NW 
W 
SW 
SW 

sw 



Heavy showers 

Showers 

Heavv rain, mornin? 

Dry " ^ 

Do. 

Dry, slight mist 

Dry . 

Do. 

Do. . 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Slight showers, dry 

Dry 

Do. 

Do. 

Thunder, l)€avy showers 

Dry 

Heavy rain at night 

Heavy showers and mists 

Very heavy showers 

Showery 

Dry 

Do. 

Showery 

Dry 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. . . 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 



6S 



Do. 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Showers, heavy 

Dry 

Slight showers 

Heat 

Slight showers 

Do. & heavy wet afterwards 

Wet 

Dry, showers 

Dry 

Heavy showers 

iShowei-s 



CLIMATE. 
Tlie late Dr. Crump's Table continued. 



COS 



Bar, 

29-3 
>9-3 
->9-s 
-29-h 

29 -b 
.'9-6 
'p-6 



lo- 
ll 

12 

13- 

U 

15- 

l(i 

17 

IS- 
19- 
■30- 
21 
22- 
23- 
24- 
25- 
26- 
27- 
2&- 
29- 
30- 
31 
1 



Sep. 



Wind 



29- 



G-ll W 
64| W 
66; W 

r,s\ w 

6Sj W 
di3;\V 

64 W 
6j! \v 
■29-6 W W 

-sj W 

2 ^^' 
o' w 

•4 70! W 

5 6S[ W 
n 6b: W 

■C 6b| W 
J62NV^ 

'6G4J W 

0^ W 
69 W 

6 69| ^y 

29-5 691 W 
29-J 5* W 
29-S 64| W 
29-& 62 W 
29-S 83 W 
62 W 



Remarks. 



29-9 
29-9 

29-y 

-29-S 

29-b 

29-7 

29-7 

29-.3 

29-2 

29-1 

29-0 

29-7I67 

-39-9 66 

|9-f, 6S 
30-1 
30- 1 
30-1 
30- 1 
30-1 

;0'! 




30-1 6b 



30-i 6b 
i9 



29-6 6 
'9"- 

^o-i 

Wl ( 



30- 



62 W 

66 W 

W 

66 W 

6b \V 
2 W 
■4 W 

70 EE 

SE 
S\V 
S\V 

sw 
sw 

s 

sw 
sw 
sw 

s 

SE 

s 
s 

SE 
SE 
SE 



Wet and showery 

Showery, heavy 

Heavy >ho\vcrs 

Drv 

Do'. 

Do. 

Showery 

Sliowers 

Drv 

Do: 

Do. 

Do. 

Heavy rain, morning 

Dry 

Showery 

Dry, heavy rain in the night 

Heavy showers 

Showery 

Dry 

Do. showers 

Heavy showers, thunder 

Heavy sliowers 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Dry 

Dry, slight showers 

Dry 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Dry, heavy rain 'at night 

Do. 

Stormy, wet 

Dry 

Dry, showery 

Sliowery 

Dry 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Heavy showers, wet 

Heavy wet 

Dry 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Showers 



26jSci) 

2bl~ 
^29|__ 
iff 



Bar. 



Wiod 



29 •.■1.53 SE 
29-;- ;i) \E 
29:k:_i W 

2:',-sm \y 



Remarks. 



1 Oct.-'O-boO \V 



3- 
4'- 



29 -b 

29-S 

-29-S 

39-4 
39 -b 
29-5 
29-2 
2S-9 
2b-i 

29 
29-3 
29-3 56 
•29-3 " " 
29-3 



62 W 
62' W 
60 ' W 

NE 
J6' SE 
J5 S 
a J SW 
J2N\\' 



29-2 

29-J 

29-3 

29-2 

29 

29 

29 
2S-9 
2S-S 
29-4 
29-6 

J9-3 

29 
29-2 
29-2 
29-2 
29-2 
99-6 
30-1 
29-6 
29-6 

30 

30 
30-1 
30-2 
30-2 
30--( 

0-3 4 
30-25G 
30-::^ 5) 

iO-;h:> 
i'Ji|j2 
2:i-7ki 
-2s-bU; 
29 \.i[: 
■9-2\w 



N\\ 



Wet 

Heavy showers 

Wet 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Di-y 

Dry, fog 

Uo. 

Wet 

Dry, heavy rain at night 

Dry, heavy sliowers 

Dry, heavy rain at -night 

Showers 

Wet 



NWt-Ieavy showers, wet 
SW Wet 

S Do. 

S Do. 
SW Do. 
SW Do. 

SE Showery, heavy rain at nisrht 
SWWet 
SW Do. 
SW Do. 
SW Dry, Showery 

S Dry 

SW Wet, high storm at night 
SW Dry [bar 2S-5 

W^ Heavy showers, wet 
\V Dry 
W W^et 

W Wet, high storm at night 
W Wet, remarkable high tide 
SW Wet 
SW Do. 
SW Dry 
NE Do. slight frost, night 

N W Dry 

sw Heavy, wet, stormy iii"ht 

W Do. ■ 

SW Dry 

SW Do. 

W Dry hoar 

SW Do". 

E Do. 
NE Hoar 

\W Dry, mild, slight showers, nieht 
XW Dry ^ 

N Do. 
SW Do. 

W Do. rain at night 
S'W Wet storm 

N Dry stormy morning 
W Sleet, smart frost,&snow ot night 

NE Dry frost at night 



2D 



20-1 



CLIMATE. 

The late Dr. Crump's Table continued. 



Date. Bar. 



Nov 



Dec 



29-4 
291 
29-2 
29-2 
29'2 
29-5 
29-2 
29- 
29- 
29- 
29-9 
29-9 
29-9 
29-9 
30 
29-9 
30 
301 
301 
301 
30 



Wind 

W 
N\V 

W 

\v 
.v\v 

N 
SE 

N 
•W 
W 

w 

,vw 

xw 

w 

w 

\v 

w 

w 

w 

N\V 

E 



Remarks. 



Thaw and showers, wet night 

Wet 

Heavy, wet 

Dry, heavy, wet night 

Dry hoar, snowy night 

Frost 

Sleet and rain 

Dry 

Heavy, wet 

Wet storm 

Dry 

Shower.*, stormy 

Dry 

Moist 

Dry 

Do. 

Do. 

Heavy mist 

Do. 

Dry 

Do. 



Date. Bar. j5 Wini 



Dec 



29-3 
2S-7 
29-2 
"29 2 
291 
29-4 
29-4 
9 
29-J 
29J 
29-5 
29-6 
29-9 
301 
29-7 
29-6 
29-6 
29- 
29' 



Remarlu. 



Wet, barom. falling fast, storm 

Wet 

Dry 

Wet 

Heavy, wet 

Dry 

Do. 

Heavy, wet storm 

Showery, wet 

Wet showers 

Wet 

Dry 

Showery 

Dry, heavy, moist 

Dry, high wind 

Wet, high winds 

Showery 

Dry, slight frost 

Do. 

Heavy, wet 



State of the Weather at Limerick in ISIO.* 



State of the Weather at Limerick for 1811. 



Months. 


Days with Rain. 


Nights with Frost. 


Months. 


Days with Rain. 


Nights with Frost. 


January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 


20 
14 
19 
14 
9 
10 
25 
21 
17 
18 
23 
27 


11 

12 

6 

8 
10 

2 
8 
12 

7 


January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 


13 
21 
12 

22 
27 
24 
16 
24 
12 
27 
26 
22 


21 
5 

7 
6 

2 
2 
12 


Total 


217 


76 


Total 


246 


53 



Archdeacon Hill says,t that a gentleman at Limerick who constantly observes the 
state of the barometer, and in the habit of committing his observations to paper, tells 
him that during the last ten years he has never seen the barometer higher than 30'5, 
nor lower than SS^S, except in two instances, when it stood at 28' 



Coaununicated by Mr. James Phelps. 



+ In a Letter, 14th Oct. 1811. 



CLIMATE. 205 

The greatest height of the thermometer in the shade in summer is 72 ; the greatest 
depression 58- 

In winter it is under 55, except on some uncommonly warm days accompanied 
with a southerly wind, the depression at that season has never exceeded 28. 

I earnestly sought throughout the west for further accounts of climate, but scien- 
tific pursuits are thought so little of in Ireland that my endeavours were in vain. 
There are some people I know, who consider all such inquiries as mere theory, and 
altogether useless — a short examination, however, will prove the fallacy of such 
opinions. Science was exemplified by the late Dr. Percival ; and Dr. Aikin, at 
Manchester, and the members of the Lunar Club at Birmingham, have unceasingly 
pursued it. The Athenaeum and Lyceum arose under the patronage of Roscoe, 
Currie, and Rathbone, at Liverpool ; and it is from societies formed for these pur- 
poses that Arkwright, Bolton, Watts, Wedgewood, Strutt of Derby, Brinkesly, 
Sec. kc. have sprung, and with them the rapid and astonishing progress of English 
manufacture has taken place within the last thirty years, enlightening and enriching 
the middle class of society, whose general acquaintance with mechanics and chemis- 
try, is truly astonishing. Where philosophical knowledge is neglected, supersti- 
tion must prevail in religion, ignorance in agriculture, and every thing belonging to 
it, and error in many of the common concerns of life. The unexampled perfection 
of the comforts of Englishmen, is chiefly to be attributed to a familiar intercourse 
with the arts, the produce created by them is daily and hourly exchanged with the 
most refined and the most barbarous nations of the earth ; but from all, Britain draws 
wealth, and the result has been power, commensurate with the knowledge of her 
children. 

WATERFORD COUNTY. 

Dr. Smith relates that the air in the county of Waterford, and even of the greater 
part of Ireland, had in his time become more temperate and salubrious, because, 
having had more extensive woods and bogs, it was more subject to rain and moisture. 

Before an east wind the refraction of the air becomes much greater than usual, 
especially towards that part bounded by the sea; at this time vessels seen in the ho- 
rizon, rocks, islands, promontories, and other objects, appear much higher than 
common, and seem in a manner lifted into the air ; and this generally is the case 
even a day or two before the wind blows from that point. 

In Waterford the winters are attended rather with rain than with snow, and nei- 
ther snow nor frost continues there so long in the neighbourhood of the coast, as in 
the more inland parts of the country. The winter of 1744, when the northern part 
of Ireland was covered with snow for many weeks, to the great destruction of 
the cattle, here was little in this county, and what fell continued not above 
two days. In the winter of 1739, also, when there was one of the severest frosts 



206 



CLIMATE. 



ever known in Ireland, with large quantities of snow, very little fell in the neigh- 
bourhood of the ocean, and the cattle grazed there as usual, while at the same time 
there was little or no thaw in the more inland parts for six weeks after. 

•Dr. Smith says, that the sea on this coast becomes sometimes phosphorescent, eniit- 
tino- a stronff Ii<'ht in the dark, and that when this phenomenon appears in the winter 
time, it portends an approaching storm.* 

CORK, Lat. 51" 53' 54". Long. 8^ 30". 

Thou"-h Cork is a populous trading city, I was not able to obtain from that quar- 
ter much information with regard to climate; but Mr. Aldworth informs me, that a 
botanical garden has lately been attached to the Cork Institution, and that a regular 
meteorological journal will be kept there in future. 

This gentleman says, " that as an old agriculturist, he is inclined to think that less 
rain falls in the interior of Ireland than in any of the British isles, and yet, perhaps, 
there are more wet days there than in the former. The earth is kept longer moist with- 
out heavy rains, and this is better suited to the soil, the substratum being generally ar- 
crillaceous rock, or calcareous stone, covered more or less by a fine hasel mould, capa- 
ble of the highest improvement for grass, corn, and potatoes, as well as various other 
productions. No country, perhaps, is more calculated for the breeding and rearing 
of cattle and sheep than the south of Ireland, since it is e.xempted from the extremes 
either of cold or of heat. In general cattle are never housed, and though they Jose 
much of their flesh during the severe weather, they become fat on the summer grass 
before the succeeding winter." 

Dr. Smith, in his Civil and Natural History of Cork, remarks, that it appears from 
a regular diary of the weather, kept for several years in the city,t that the winds blow 
from the south to the north-west three-fourths of the year at least 

The greatest height to which the mercury in the barometer had ascended in the 
course of thirteen years wns 30'4 inches, but it attained to this height only once ; its 
lowest heio-ht was 2S-2 inches. In the Doctor's time it often rose to 30 inches, and 
iVequently fell to 28-6, and this seems to have been its utmost range. 

< Ancient and Present State of the County and City of VVaterford, by Charles Smith, M.D. p. 284. 
+ By Dr. Timothy Tuckey. 



CLIMATE. 

The quantity of Rain which fell at Cork is stated to have been: 



207 



Years. 


Inches. 


Years. 


Inches. 


173S 


54-5 


1744 


33-6 


1739 


nearly the same. 


1745 


4S-4 


1740 


21-5 


1746 


30-0 


1741 


33-6 


1747 


nearly the same. 


1742 


3S-1 


1748 


37-4 


1743 


39-3 






- 









For the purpose of comparison, Dr. Smith gives the following table of the quan- 
tity of rain which fell a few , years before, at London, Padua, and Edinburgh, col- 
lected from the Philosophical Transactions. 



LONDON. 


PADUA. 


EDINBURGH. 


Years. 


Inches. 


Inches. 


Inches. 


1729 


20-34 


35-42 




1730 


21 -49 


34-30 




1731 


13-60 


34-20 




1732 


19-65 


35-45 


24-82 


1733 


18-00 


32-13 


19-69 


1734 


24-57 


38-56 


19-22 


■ 1735 


28-83 


29-68 





Some peculiarities, in regard to the state of the air and the weather, have been ob- 
served in this county at difierent periods. In the winter of 1695, and a consider- 
able part of the following spring, there fell in several places a kind of thick dew, 
■which the peof)le called butter, on account of its yellow colour and of its consist- 
ence, being soft and clammy.* It fell always in the night, and chiefly in marshy 
low grounds, on the top of the grass, and on the ihaich of the cabins, but seldom 
twice in the same spot. It commonly lay a fortnight without changing its colour, 
but after that time it dried and became black. Cattle fed as readily where it lay as 
in other places. It often fell in lumps as big as the end of the finger, thin, and in a 
scattered manner. It emitted a strong and disagreeable smell, similar in some degree 
to that which arises from church-yards and graves. During the greater part of the 
season, when this fetid dew fell, there were stinking fogs, which it is supposed 
might have produced it. 

In the summer of 1 748, a shower of a yellowish substance, resembling brimstone, 
fell in and about the town of Doneraile. It emitted a sulphureous smell, and as it 
lay but thin on the ground it soon dissolved. 

• An account of it by Dr. St. George Ash, then Bishop of Cloyne, was printed in the Philosophical Trans- 
actions, No. 220, p. 223. 



208 CLIMATE. 

Lightning sometimes has produced in this country very extraordinary effects ; 
about fourteen years before Dr. Smith wrote, a ship, riding at anchor in Bantry Bay, 
had her masts shivered in a strange manner by the electric fluid; part of them being 
twisted like a rope, while others were burned to a cinder. At the same time the 
external air became so rarified, that the hull burst asunder by the great pressure of 
the internal air against its sides. 

On another occasion, a small ship of war riding in the same bay had her masts 
shattered in the like manner; and the bodies of the crew of another vessel were mark- 
ed witli stars, similar to those formed by the cracks in a glass bottle. All these 
effects happened in winter, at a period when there were strong gales of westerly 
winds. 

On the 27th of January, 1747, one Robert Barry, a labouring man, being in bed 
with his wife and two children in a close room, the door of which, opposite to a 
chimney in an outer room, was shut, a flash of lightning broke down some part of 
the top of the chimney, and split the chamber door, forcing one half of it into the 
room where the people lay. The man had his breast scorched, and a small streak 
was marked from his shoulder to his stomach. The woman had that side of her 
face on which she lay very much scorched and swelled ; the daughter's hair was. 
burnt close to her temples, and the boy was scorched on the back part of the neck. 
The lightning forced its way through the wall behind the fire-place, making a hole, 
which was larger on the outside of the house, than within. A pig was found dead 
near the chimney. The people being asleep did not hear the thunder, though there 
were very loud claps, and the man said that when he awoke he found a stone on his. 
breast. 

On the night of the 10th of January, 1749, a flash of lightning passed through 
the county, in a direct line from west to east, and after killing seme cows to the 
south of Cork, struck the round tower of the cathedral of Cloyne. It first rent the 
vaulted arch at the top, tumbled down the great bell, together with three galleries; 
and passing perpendicularly to the floor, which is about eight feet higher than the ex- 
terior foundation, forced its way with a violent explosion through one side of the 
tower, and drove the stones, which were admirably well joined, through the roof 
of a neighbouring stable. The door, though secured by a strong iron lock, was 
thrown to the distance of above sixty yards, and shattered to pieces. A few pigeons 
that frequented the top of the steeple were scorched to death, not a feather of them 
being left unsinged. 

On the 14ih of June, 1748, about four o'clock in the afternoon, there was one of 
the most violent showers of hail ever remembered in that part of the country. It 
was attended with thunder and lightning, and continued above a quarter of an hour. 
Several oi the hail-stones measured five inches square, and otheis had projecting 



CLIMATE. 209 

from them, five or six points, each about an inch in length. They broke several 
windows and did considerable damage in and about Cork.* 

Dr. Smith speaks of a tract, entitled Medicina Stalica Hibcrnica, or Statical Ex- 
periments, to examine and discover the insensible perspiration of the human liody, 
in the South of Ireland, made for a year and some months, by Colonel Rye, 
printed in 1734- This tract contains tables of the state of the air and weather, 
together with that of the barometer and thermometer ; but I have never had an op- 
portunity of seeing it. + 

As heat and cold, as well as other things belonging to climate, are relative, the 
inhabitants of a country cannot form a just estimate of that in which they live, unless 
they compare it with those of others. A comparison of this kind, combined with a 
survey of the vegetable productions in each, may furnish many useful hints in re- 
gard to agriculture, planting, and the rearing of exotics; and the philosopher, by 
examining the situations and natural state of the countries compared, may be able 
to ascertain the causes of some phenomena, for which it would otherwise be difficult 
to account. But meteorologic information lies so scattered, that it requires much 
trouble to collect it. I shall therefore here subjoin a few general notices on that 
subject, respecting different parts of the earth where observations have been made, 
extracted from the best authorities. 

Mean height of the barometer at different places, from Erxcleben and others.;?: 
Height, once observed at Middlewich§ - - 31-00 

Greatest observed height according to Shuckburgh - 30*957 

Upsal 30-15 • 

South Carolina -..-... 30-09 

Mean in England and Italy, according to Shuckburgh 30-04 ; 

London, according to the Royal Society - - 29-89 

, Leyden ...... 29-84 

Kendal -.-... 29-8O 

Padua - - - - ^ . 29-80 

Liverpool - - ..... 59-47 

Petersburgh ..... 29-57 

Paris ...... 29-31 

Mr. Kirwan says,|l that the deviations of the mercury in the barometer, from its 

• Smith's Natural and Civil History of Cork, vol. ii. p. 395-398. 

4 Ibid. p. 400. 

% Dr. Young's Lectures on Natural Philosophy, vol. ii. p. 464. " 

(I Manchester Transactions, vol. v. ■ ■ ■ , 

1! Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy, 1788, vol. ii. p. 47. 

Vol. I. 2E -. ;- ... 



210 



CLIMATE, 



mean altitude, are far more extensive in the neighbourhood of the poles, than in 
that of the equator. In the year 1725, the mercury in the barometer, if we may 
credit Mr. Consett, stood at the stupendous height of 31-59 inches; yet it has been 
seen so low as 28* I4. In the northern parts of France the variations are greater than 
in the southern ;* at Naples they scarcely exceed one inch ;t but in other parts, 
within a few degrees of the line, on the approach of the rainy season, or of hurricanes, 
the barometer falls an inch or more. J The above remark and facts agree with the ob- 
servation of Izert on the coast of Guinea.^ 

At Liverpool the wind is said to be westerly two-thirds of the year.|| 
The mean temperature of London, from the observations of the Royal Society, is 
50°*5, varying indifferent years from 48° to 52°. The mean of the greatest heat and 
greatest cold is 50° or 49MI 

The mean fall of rain in London is about 23 inches ; at Exeter, which is nearer 
the Atlantic, it is 33 ; the average of England and Wales is 3 1.** 

The following Table of the quantities of rain which fell at various times in several 
parts of Great Britain, is taken from different volumes of the Philosophical Trans- 
actions : 



London - 1773 
1774 
1775 
1776 
1777 
1778 
1779 . 
1780 

Lyndon in ") 1774 
Rutlandshire) 1775 
1777 
1778 
1779 
1780 
1732 



29I 

26i 

27 

20} 

251 

20I 

26i 

17} 

531 

311 

23i 

261 

20 

20 

32 



Bristol - 17 74 
1775 
1776 
1778 

Edinburgh, 1776 



421 

3H 
31 
26.- 
26 



Mean rain in) ,,.^ , ,,-^ „_ 

lOyearsfromr^^OtoUSO - 26 

Meanraininj^ ^^ 3^ - 22 
lOyearsfrom) 



• La Colte, p, 186. 
+ Phil. Transact, abr. vol. viii, p. 566. 
t Phil. Transact. 1778, p. 182. History of Ja- 
maica, vol. i. p. 372. 



|l See page 1 59 of this work. 
II Dr. Young, vol. ii. p. 455. 
5 Ibid. 
*» Ibid. vol. i. p- 713. 





- 


CLIMATE. 








At Charlestown, 


South Carolina.* 






175S 


- 


49 




1744 


- 


48 


1739 


- 


65 




1745 


- 


50 


1740 


- 


39 




1746 


- 


39 


1741 


- 


52 




1747 


- 


44 


1742 


- 


36 




1748 


- 


51 


1743 


- 


39 











By another account, the average rain in ten years is 42 inches ; 65-96 have been 
known in one year. A beef-stake, of the common thickness, laid on a cannon for the 
space of twenty minutes, has been over done. The thermometer in the streets 130-(- 
' At three o'clock in the afternoon on the 14th, 15th, and 16th of June, 1738, the 
thermometer was at 98 degrees in the shade.? At Surat it has been known for days 
together, in the shade, at I05. At Senegal, in December 17 63, it stood at 93^ and 
at Sierra Leon at 98. § • 

According to a mean of 26 years, from 1751 to 17 76 inclusive, the days of rain in 
the Island of Zeland, lying between lat. 55° 2' and long. 56° 8', were as follows : 
January 
February 
March 
April 
May 

June - 

July 

. Total - 131 

72 

According to Professor Horrebow's Meteorological Observations, from 1751 to 
1761, it appears, that in the island of Zeland, when the ^vind blows 37 times from 
the north, it blows 32 from the east, 42 from the south, and 56 from the west. 

A Danish mathematician, at Copenhagen, has calculated the following table of 
the comparative degrees of heat at the under-mentioned places, by means of an Al- 

» Description of South Carolina, 1761, 8vo, p. 25. 

+ Chalmers's Account of the Weather and Diseases of South Carolina, 1776, 2 vols. 8vo. 

$ Description of South Carolina, 1761, 8vo, p. 17. 

§ Long's History of Jamaica, vol. ii, p. 372. 

2 E 2 



11 


Brought 


up 


- 72 


10 


August 


- 


- 


12 


9 


September 


- 


- 


10 


9 


October 


- 


- 


13 


11 


November 


- 


- 


13 


10 


December 


- 


- 


11 


IS 











£12 






CLIMATE. 










gebraical formula, 


male 


ino; his standard 


, or greatest 


degree of heat, 


equal to 31415 


equal parts.* 


















Piaces. 




Latitude. 




On the 

longest day. 




At the 
equinox. 




Shortest 
day. 


Copenlingen 


- 


55- 41' 


- 


21393 


- 


99ii4 


- 


14 13 parts. 


Altona 


- 


53 -41 


- 


22395 


- 


11017 


- 


1905 


Christiana 


- 


59 54 


- 


19507 


- 


7901 


- 


599 


Bergen 


- 


60 30 


- 


19215 


- 


7618 


- 


511 


Drontheim 


- 


63 26 


- 


17772 




6283 , 


- 


168 


Wardoehus 


- 


70 22 


- 


14322 


- 


3544 


- 





Edinburgh 


- 


55 57 


- 


21367 


- 


9849 


- 


1350 


London 


- 


52 32 


- 


22899 


- 


11620 


- 


2218 


Amsterdam 


- 


52 26 


- 


22944 


- 


11674 


- 


2248 



Although Ireland be considered as a damp country, and subject to much rain, there 
are countries in Europe extolled for their climate,which are exposed to a much greater 
quantity. Mr. John Leslie Foster informed me, that he is of opinion, that three times as 
much rain falls in Lombardy as in Ireland,t and indeed it will be seen by the follow- 
ing account, that his estimate, though perhaps too high, is not far from the truth. 

Italy, like Ireland, is included between two seas, so as almost to be surrounded by 
water. It has the Alps as its northern boundary, and is intersected by the Appe- 
nines, which not only reach to its extremity, but branch out into many divisions 
that occup) an immense tract of land. From these circumstances there is reason 
to conclude, that the quantity of watery vapours to which this country is subject, 
must be considerable. It appears, indeed, that there is scarcely any part of it where 
the quantity of rain which falls in a year does not exceed, by one-third, the quan- 
tity that falls in the neighbourhood of London, and that in some parts there is more 

than even in Lancashire. 

Inches. 

The quantity of rain at Naples, from observations made for ten years, is - 3l*5 

Rome, from 1732 to ir-lO, inclusive - - - - 34 

Sienna, from 1756 to 1760, inclusive .... 41-5 

Pisa - -- - - - -43 6 

Leghorn - - , - - - - 37*11 

Padua, from 1723 to 1730, inclusive - - - - 37 

Milan, from 1764 to 1766, inclusive .... 41-3 

Modena, from 1715 to 1724, inclusive . - . . 50-11 

' Beskrivelse over .\gerdyrkningens Tilstand i Sielland og Moe Kiobenhavn, 1803, vol. i. p. 75, and 
78. 

t Dr. Symonds says that he was much surprised to find the poplars and willows not in leaf on the 21st of 
.\pril, and this convinced him that the trees and plants are in general as forward in England in the beginning 
of vegetation ; the great difference lies in every thing ripening faster in that country than in ours. 

fuller on Ike Climale o/JUdj/, in the Annals oj Agriculture, vol. iii. p. 137. 



CLIMATE. 



213 



It is to be observed, that the vast range of moiiiUaiiis called Garf;<gnana separate the 
territories of Modena from those of Lucca and Pistoia, and are probably the highest 
in the Appenines, though the Monte di Scala in the Bolognese is reported by some 
to be more lofty. 

Rut though there falls a larger quantity of rain in Italy than either in England oi in' 
Ireland, it must not be inferred that the atmosphere in general is so moist as in either 
of these countries, for it is well known that sometimes it does not rain for a consi- 
derable length of time, and that as much rain will fall in a few days, as in several 
weeks in England. 

From Naples to the Alps, the autumn and winter are in general the most rainy 
seasons. In 1741 there was almost as much rain at Rome in November and De- 
cember as in the ten preceding months. From the register kept six years at Sienna, 
it appears that the most rainy season was the autumn, next the winter, then the spring, 
and last of all the summer. It is commonly observed in Tuscany, that the three 
winter months of December, January, and February, determine the goodness of the 
crop of wheat.* 

Among the methods of comparing the heat and cold of one country with another, 
Ave may reckon the usual time of beginning harvest, which varies considerably even 
in the same country, but this is particularly the case in Italy. Professor Syraonds 
enumerates the following particulars in regard to the wheat harvest, which came 
immediately under his own observalion.t 



In Calabria citra it begins on the 

Calabria oltre 

About Naples 

Sulmona 

Aquino 

Rome 

Caraerino 

In the Marc of Ancona .- 

Tuscany 

About Ferrara 

Milan 

Vercella and Novara 

Vicenna 

Valdaguo 



1st or 2d of June, 
the latter end of May. 
12th of June, 
beginning of July, 
end of June, 
middle of June, 
the very end of July, 
middle of July. 
I8th of June, 
latter end of June. ^ 
latter end of June. 
2d week of July, 
latter end of June, 
beginning of July. 



Annals of Agriculture, vol. iii. p, 140. 



+ Ibid, p. MS. 



214 



CLIMATE. 



Annual fall of Rain at different Places, from Erxcleben and others.* 



Upsal 

Si. Petersburgli 

Diss, in Norfolk 

Carlisle 

Paris 

Edinburgh 

Dublin 

London 

Norwich 

Chatsvvorth 



16-7 


Leydon 




- 


30-2 


17-2 


Dahon's mean 


for England 


31-3 


18-7 


Manchester 




- 


33-0 


<iO-2 


Dover 




- 


37-5 


20-2 


Lancaster 




- 


45-0 


22-0 


Plyraouth 




- 


46-5 


22-2 


Kendal 




- 


59-8 


23-0 


Keswick 




- 


67-5 


25-5 


East Indies, 


sometimes 


- 104-0 


27-8 











In a paper published in the seventh volume of the Transactions of the Royal 
, Irish Academy, the Rev. Mr. Hamilton endeavours to shew that the climate of Ire- 
land has of late years undergone a considerable change ; that a more general equa- 
bility of temperature prevails throughout the year, the summer being less warm, and 
the winters milder and opener. As this is a curious and interesting subject, I shall 
give a short view of the author's theory. The winds which most usually prevail in 
Ireland blow from the westward : they are mild in their temperature, and moist in 
their nature. Being therefore highly favourable to animal as well as vegetable life, 
to them, among other natural causes, may be ascribed the population'of Ireland, and 
the uncommon fertility of its soil. Of late years these winds, from whatever cause, have 
assumed more than common violence ; which the author endeavours to prove by ob- 
servatioiK made on the trees of the country, the sands of the coast, and the tides of 
the ocean. To this cause he ascribes unsuccessful attempts made to plant on high 
and elevated situations. He gives some instances also of places buried under sand, 
where the vestiges of towns and villages seem to attest that they were once the resi- 
dence of men.t Of late years extraordinary high tides have been more frequent than 

f Dr. Young's Lectures on Not. Fhil. vol. ii. p. 477. 

+ " Amid the sands between Portrush and Dunluce, in the county Antrim, in the year 1783, the ruins of 
a village might be seen, deserted by its inhabitants, who had been obliged to move farther into the country," 
p. 36. 

" About a century ago, the peninsula of Rosgull, lying between the harbours of Sheep-Haven and Mulroy 
in the county of Donegal, was selected as the residence of one of the noble families of Hamilton, tilled Bayne. 
Foi the age wlierein it was built, and the style of architecture of that day, the mansion of Rosenpenna may 
be called elegant. The approach was from a level green on the shore, through a succession of embattled courts 
and hanging terraces, rising in order one above another, and adorned with marble piers of no mean design and 
workmanship. The rear was ornamented with gardens, laid out and planted in the fashion of the last cen- 
tury, and the parks and fields of the domain seem to have been well divided and enclosed. 

" At present every object in this place presents peculiar characters of desolation; the gardens are totally de- 
nuded of trees and shrubs by the fury of the western winds ; their walls, unable to sustain the mass of over- 



CLIMATE. 215 

formerly ; public roads have been destroyed by them, walls beat down, and other 
damage occasioned, all evidences of increasing tides, and the greater frequency of 
storms. 

He however concludes, that the annual quantity of heat received in the country 
in the present day is not less than it was in former days. 

If the prevalent winds of a country blow over an ocean situated in its parallel, that 
country will be relatively denominated temperate; it will be free from all extremes : the 
heats of summer and the colds of winter will be checked by sea-breezes of a con- 
trary property, and the land, influenced by the neighbouring element, must more or 
less partake in its equability of temperature. Such is the case in almost all the 
islands in the world, and such at all times has been the peculiar character of Ire- 
land. 

Fifty years has elapsed since the River Foyie has been completely frozen over at 
Derry. It is also observed, that the Thames is less frozen of lale years than for- 
merly.* 

The summers in Ireland are colder, and the winters warmer than they -were 
some years ago: hence hemp does not grow so well, and the ancient apiaries of 
the country, once so celebrated, are nearly extinct. Honey, therefore, has become 
a rare article of luxury, or an expensive medicine. 

As instances of the winters being milder, he says, the Irish grapes scarcely droop 
beneath the frost ; wheat and oats vegetate in the open fields during the very solstice 
itself, and myrtles and laurels, when in sheltered situations, brave the severity of 
winter. The Foyle, and other large rivers of the northern province, frequently 
frozen in former times, flow now -with an uninterrupted course throughout the whole 
winter. + 

Mr. Williams, in his Treatise on the Climate of Great Britain, seems to be of opi- 
nion, that a change, somewhat similar, has taken place in this country. The climate' 
of England, he says, though allowed by those who have had an opportunity of 
making comparisons, to be the most uncertain on the globe, possesses many advan- 
tages, the inhabitants not being subject to the extremes of heat and drought in sum- 
mer, nor of cold and frost in winter. Its greatest defect appears to be the dry, cold, 
easterly winds, prevalent in the spring, and the frequent rain and cloudy skies ex- 
perienced in summer. He then adds, that it has been generally believed of late 

bearing sands, have bent before the accumulated pressure, and overthrown in numberless places, have given 
free passage to this restless enemy of all fertility. The courts, the flight of steps, the terracrs, are all in- 
volved in equal ruin; and their limits only discoverable by tops of embattled walls, visible amid hills of 
sand," p. 37. 

■» ArcLsol. vol. iii. p. 53. t Ibid. 



216 CLIMATE. 

years, that the summers have become more wet, and consequently colder, and the 
winters less frosty and more mild than they were in former times. 

Mr. Williams ascribes this change to several causes, the introduction of exotic 
trees, which generate a vaporous atmosphere, too powerful for the heat of our sun 
to dispel; the increase of hedge-rows, in consequence of the multiplication of en- 
closures, and the extension of canals, which now form an evaporating surface of pro- 
digious extent.* 

Dr. Patterson denies all changes of this kind, and alluding particularly to the theory 
of Mr. Hamilton, asserts, that there is still less reason to suppose that any material 
change has of late years taken place in the climate of Ireland. His reasons are, 
because its temperature in heat, which radically governs the other atmospheric condi- 
tions, has been uniformly moderate throughout all ages ; because its general surface 
is only 2/0 feet above the level of the sea; because the altitude of its highest moun- 
tains is comparatively low, and because its geographical situation is far advanced 
westerly into the Atlantic, the vast and potent arbiter of the seasons in Ireland. t 

Respecting the climate of Ireland in general, it would be diflScult to form any 
satisfactory conclusion. It has as yet been little studied, and until more observations 
are made, and in a greater number of places, the results must be very imperfect. 
, Though the country is somewhat northerly, says Boate,^ extending from the com- 
mencement of the fifty-first degree of latitude to the fifty-fifth, the air is very tem- 
perate, and more free from violent cold, even in the most northern part, the province 
of Ulster, than any other country lying under the same latitude, and even than some 
•which are situated more to the south. 

The cold weather, indeed, commences rather early, that is, in the beginning of 
October, and sometimes in the middle or latter end of September, and for the most 
part continues five or six months, till the middle or latter end of March, and some- 
times throughout a considerable part of April. During tins period, persons sensible 
to cold, and accustomed to a sedentary life, can seldom remain long without a fire. 

On the other hand, the cold is rarely violent, or so intense as to produce conge- 
lation. There are generally three or four frosts every winter, but they seldom 
continue more than two or three days at a time. There have been a few winters that 
frost has lasted ten or twelve days, so that the Liffey and other rivers were covered 
with ice, capable of supporting men and animals, but these are extraordinary in- 
stances, which scarcely occur in the course often or twelve years. 

If the cold be moderate in winter, so is the heat in summer ; so that even in the 

» The Climzte of Great Britain, by John Williams, Esq. London, 180S, p. 2, 3. 

+ Essay on the Cliinate of Ireland, p. 178. 

t The reader must bear in mind, that Boate wrote his Natural History of Ireland about the year 1645. 
How far the climate may have been changed since that time, I will not pretend to say. I think it right to 
state, that I have abridged his account, and modernized the language. 



CLIMATE. 2,7 

hottest season, people are never incommoded by it. In the summer months, the 
Aveather, on the contrary, is more inclined to cold than to iieat, and even so much 
that a hve is often desirable. 

In the spring, fair weather with constant sunshine generally prevails about the 
month. of March, for five or six weeks ; but afterwards the weather becomes rainy 
during the whole summer, so that there are scarcely two or three dry days in succession. 
In the latter end of autumn the weather is again fair, and continues so for some 
weeks, as in the spring, but no longer. It is commonly observed in Ireland, that it 
rains more in the day than the night, and that when it rains two or three days fol- 
lowing each other, the intervening nights are entirely fair and serene. 

In Ireland, very dry summers are uncommon, and even wlien they take place 
they are not attended with any bad consequences, as it is a common saying, that the 
driest summers there ne\'er hurt the land. Corn and grass which grow on arid and 
elevated ground, may, indeed, sustain some little injury from the drought, but the 
country in general is benefited by it. When a dearth happens in Ireland, it is not 
occasioned by immoderate heat, but generally through excess of rain. 

Fogs and mists are not more common there in the plains than in any other coun- 
try. The mountains, however, are frequently covered with them to a great extent 
for several hours at a time, even when none are to be seen in the adjacent low dis- 
tricts ; and it sometimes happens, that the top of a moifntain is enveloped in fog, when 
the sides and lower part of it enjoy clear sunshine. There are even instances of the 
middle parts of a mountain being shrouded, while the summit and lower regions 
are quite open and uncovered. This is the case sometimes with the high moun- 
tains between Dundalk and Carlingford, not only in summer, but at other times of 
the year. 

There are two kinds of mist or fog in Ireland, one of which is constant and uni- 
form, filling the whole air in such a manner as to impede the view, and continuing in 
the same state till it vanishes, either by rising into the atmosphere or falling to the 
earth. This kind is commonly^ followed by rain. 

The other consists of clouds of foggy vapours, scattered about, with clear spaces 
between tliem. These clouds are often strongly agitated, and sometimes driven 
about with great velocity. This species of fog arises, not only on the sea coast, 
but also in the interior of the country upon mountains, and often terminates in one 
general mist. 

Ireland is not much exposed to snow, and some years there is none at all, espe- 
cially in the level countries. In the mountains it is generally more abundant. In 
consequence of the winters being so open, cattle of every kind remain there out of 
doors during the whole season without much inconvenience: yet there are in- 
stances, such as that of the year I635, when there was a great fall of snow about the 

Vol. I, 2 F 



218 CLIMATE. 

end of January or the betrinning of February, that the people have found it very 
diflScuh to bring their cattle in safety to their folds or to a place of shelter. 

Thunder and lightning are not more common than in other countries, and there 
are even some years in which they have not occurred above once or twice in a 
summer. They are seldom violent, and rarely do hurt either to the inhabitants or 
to their animals.* 

In the year 1788, and part of I7S9, Mr. Hamilton endeavoured to ascertain the 
temperature of the soil of Ireland, from its southern to its northern coast, by exa- 
mining the temperature of covered wells of pure water ; and though this method 
must be attended with some degree of uncertainty, because water will sometimes be 
affected by the nature of the soil through which it flows, it ought not to be altogether 
rejected. It appears by the results, that there is a difference of nearly three degrees 
between the two extremities of the country. 

Mean temperature of the Sea-Coast of Ireland, observed in different Latitudes. 

Lat. 55' 12' Mean temperature of the northern coast of Ireland, near the 
town of Ballycastle, observed in I788 by means of copious 
springs, flowing from limestone soilt - - - - 48° 

Lat. 54* 48' Mean temperature of the island of Enniscoo, one of the 
Rosses islands, on the western coast of Ireland, observed by 
means of a covered well in a granite rock ; the maximum of 
temperature taken in 1787, the minimum^ in 1788 - - 48' 6' 

Lat. 53° 20' Mean temperature of the eastern coast of Ireland, near Dub- 
lin, observed by means of deep covered wells, in soils of 
clay, gravel, and limestone^ I788 - . - - 49° 4' 

Lat. 51* 54' Mean temperature of the south coast of Ireland, near the city 
of Cork, observed by means of deep covered wells in lime- 
stone and other soils, ^ 1788 - - - - 51 2' 

II. Mean Temperature of Places distant from the Sea, and elevated above its Surface. 

Lat. 55* Mean temperature H in the neighbourhood of Londonderry, 

distant twenty Irish miles |1 from the northern sea, and at a 
supposed elevation of 100 feet above it, 1788 - - 46° 9' 

» Ireland's Natural History, by Gerard Boate, late Doctor of Physick to the State of Ireland, published 

by Samuel Hanlib, Esq. imprinted at London, 1662, 12nio, p. 163-176. 
+ Observed by Mr. Edinond M'Gildowny. § Observed by J. Longfield, M. D. 

J Minimutn observed by Robert Corbet, Esq. U Observed by Wm. Patterson, M. D. 

II 54^ Irish miles are almost equal to a degree of the meridian, that is, to 60 geographical miles, or 68,% • 

Enjilish miles. 



CLIMATE. 219 

Lat. 54° 20' Mean temperature * in the neighbourhood of Armagh, dis- 
tant 25 miles from the Irish Char\nel, and elevated about 58 
feet above the coast, t by means of a well GO feet deep, sunk 
to the bottom of a gravelly hill, I788 - - 45° 5' 

Lat. 53° 12' Mean temperature, derived from the maximum of 1787 and 
minimum of 17 88,:i: in the neighbourhood of TuUamore, 
King's County, near the centre of the kingdom, distant 50 
miles from both the seas,^ and elevated 206 feet above the 
coast in a level country, which may be counted tlie highest 
groundofthegeneralsurfaceofIreIand.il - - 48* 

III. Mean temperature in Cities. 

Mean temperature in different parts of the city of Londonderry, by maxi- 
mum of 178/, and minimum of I7S8, various, from - - 47*6' to 49* 

Mean temperature in different parts of the city of Dublin, in 17 88j 50° to 52' 

Mean temperature in different parts of the city of Cork, in 17 S8, 52° 5' to 53° 5' 

The general temperature, in the vicinity of the capital, is somewhat lower than the 
50th degree of Fahrenheit's thermometer, and a mean of the hottest or coldest 
months of the year rarely varies more than ten degrees from this standard heat ; win- 
ter, therefore, is usually accompanied by a temperature of 40 degrees ; spring and 
autumn of 50, and summer of 60 ; and the general heat of any single month of these 
seasons seldom varies much from the corresponding temperature of the particular 
season to which it belongs. 

Of these limits, the lowest is not sufficiently cold to check the natural herbage of 
the island, nor the highest powerful enough to parch the surface of a moist soil, or 
to scorch its luxuriant grasses. Hence, the fields maintain a perpetual verdure, un- 
impaired by either solstice ; the farmer is enabled to lay his lands under grass at' 
almost every season, even at the commencement of winter, and the grazier never 
loses the benefit of his rich pastures at any period of the year, unless during the pas- 
sage of a temporary drift of snow ; so that horses, cattle, and sheep, attain, with 
little care, to a degree of perfection which they never acquire in other countries 
without great trouble and expence.** 

* Observed by ihe Rev. Dean Hamilton. 

+ This elevatioa is presumed from the following circumstances: the elevation of Lough Neagh above the sea, 
from observations (see IVhilwor lli s Reports J which have lately been found extremely correct, is 38 feet ; 
from Lough Neagh to Blackivater town, through a distance of seven or eight miles, the river Blackwater is 
navigable, and extremely still, so that its fall cannot exceed ten feet ; from Blackwater town to the valley of 
Armagh, is a direct distance of about four miles, and for that space the elevation marked is only the result of 
conjecture, = ten feet, making altogether 58 feet. 

X Minimum observed by the Rev. Peter Turpin. ^ See Map of Ireland. 

II Hamilton on the Climate of Ireland. Transact, of the Royal Irish Acad. vol. vi. p. 49. 

•♦ Ibid. 

2F2 



220 CLIMATE. 

That the climate of Ireland is moist, I think there can be no doubt, and I consider 
this as the reason of wheat. not being generally cultivated to the north of the county 
of Longford. Mr. Young says, that from the observations he made himself, he is 
confirmed in the idea, that the climate of Ireland is wetter than that of England. 
By a register which he kept from the 20th of June to the SOth of October, he found, 
that in 122 days there were 75 of rain, and on many of them the rain was inces- 
sant and heavy. He examined several registers kept in England, and could observe 
no year which exhibited nearly the same degree of moisture. From the information 
he received, he is induced to believe that the rainy season usually sets in about the 
first of July, and continues very wet till September or October, wheti there is usually 
a fine dry season of a month or six weeks.* Mr. Young gives, as a convincing proof 
that the climate of Ireland is far moister than that of England, the amazing ten- 
dency of the soil to produce grass ; and he speaks of instances of turnip land and 
stubble, left without ploughing, which yielded the next summer a full crop of hay; 
facts, he observes, of which we have no idea in England. He mentions, also, that the 
wheat of Ireland has no weight, compared with that of dry countries ; the crops 
are full of grass and weeds even under the best management, and the harvests are so 
wet and tedious as greatly to damage the produce; but for the same reason, cattle 
of all kinds look well, as they never fail of finding abundance of excellent grass ; 
for the very driest summers do not affect the verdure as in England. t 

Mr. Tighe observes, that the crops of corn ripen earlier on limestone than on 
any other stratum ;% and he points out some variation of the climate obserTed by 
the foliage of the trees ; at Inistioge, the oak came into leaf on the 4th of May ;§ on 
the 18th of that month, 1809, I went into the county of Wicklow, and found the 
trees in full leaf, but I must remark, that I kept on the east coast of that county. 
Mr. Wainewright, Lord Fitzwilliam's agent, told me that he always went to Wicklow 
In May to receive his lordship's rents, from those estates lying on that side of the 
the county, and that for many years past he had always at that season, gooseberries, 
but that at Malton, in the hiterior of the county, near Tinehaly, the gooseberries were 
later by three weeks than at Wicklow. Dublin is supplied with new potatoes 
from the sea coast of Wicklow. House lamb is reared there also, and to the 
east of the Wicklow mountains I found spring wheat growing in a state of great 
luxuriance, while I could hear nothing of it to the south or west of them ; so that 
I consider the climate in that part of Ireland to be decidedly different from that 
in the rest of the country. 

In the south of Ireland, the superior value of the mountains of Tipperary, Cork, 
and Kerry, was frequently mentioned to me, as the climate allows them to be grazed 

* Toui- ill Ireland, part ii. p. 4. J Survey of Kilteuny, p. 13. 

•f Ibid. p. 100 < Jl Ibid. 



CLIMATE. 22) 

throughout the whole of the year. The season is reckoned to break invariably, that 
is, to set in rainy about the 15th of July, and it continues so till October, which 
is generally fine, and the favourite month for sea-bathing. 

In the last -week of October, I80S, 1 was at Glangarrif, west of Bantry, and at 
that time I found the season as mild as in England in the first week of June. There 
was a large party of ladies there, and I remarked that they went out to sea in boats 
with no other covering above their usual dress than summer muslin cloaks. On the 
15th and 16th of November it was exceedingly wet; but it again became fine, and 
there was no appearance of a severe season till the 5th of December. 

On the i28th of October, IS09, I was at Malbay on the coast of Clare ; many 
Limerick families remained there bathing, and I found myself much oppressed with 
heat while walking on the cliff. In the beginning of December it set in very wet, 
and according to the memorandum which I made in the course of my journey, 
wet weather is prevalent in the mountainous districts of Kerry and the south-west 
parts of Cork. In the south of Ireland furze is the common fuel throughout the 
greater part of the y^ear, a sure indication of a mild climate ; coal fires are used only 
for a very short time. The Reverend Horace Townsend, whose remarks on the climate 
of this district are more important on account of his residence in the county,* says, 
" along the sea coast the winter is disarmed of its severity by the softness of the 
southern wind, which mitigates the rigour of the frost, and seldom suffers the heaviest 
snow to remain many hours undissolved, except on the north sides of the high hills. 
The sea breeze also tempers the summer's warmth by its refreshing breath, so that 
the greatest degree of heat, as well as cold, is found on the northern side of the 
country. The disparity is not very considerable at either season, but it seems to be 
greater in the winter than in summer, as fruits and corn are found to ripen in all 
places of equal latitude nearly at the same time, provided there be no material dif- 
ference in the nature of the soils. This county 'is remarkable for the mildness of 
its temperature, never experiencing those extremes of heat and cold to which the 
same degree of latitude is subject, not only on the continent, but even in England. 
The difference is occasioned by our nearer approximation to the Atlantic Ocean 
which loads this part of the island with vapours; seldom, indeed, to be complained 
of in winter, but too often interrupting the maturer rays of the summer sun. 
Cork, however, suffers much less in this respect than Kerry, and other countries on 
the western coast, whose loftier mountains involve them still more in cloud and va- 
pour. In such as abound more in pasture than tillage, this humidity of atmosphere 
affords, perhaps, no cause of complaint." 

Severe frosts are indeed unknown throughout the southern part of Ireland. It was 
the opinion of many gentlemen with whom I conveFsed, that such an event would 

♦ Survey of Cork, p. 2. 



S32 CLIMATE. 

be a great public calamity ; for as the people have no expectation of any such event 
occurring, they never take the precaution of securing their potatoes, and conse- 
quently their whole stock of food would be destroyed. Such a misfortune happened 
in the year 1739-40 ; at which time, according to Dr. Smith, one-third of the in- 
habitants of the southern counties died.* I have heard it asserted that the great 
fecundity of the potatoe in Ireland is to be attributed to the absence of frost after the 
21st of April ; and in this opinion I believe there is much truth. Wail-fruit sel- 
dom ripens there, and peaches, nectarines, and apricots, even when brought to 
maturity in green-houses, are destitute of flavour ; grapes out of doors I never saw, 
except at Wicklow. Myrtles, the growth of Mhich is considered by many as a sign 
of a mild climate, are to be found throughout the south of Ireland, but this may- 
be owing to some other cause. The same plants flourish luxuriantly on the eastern 
coast of England, particularly at Burnham, when sheltered from the north by a 
wall, and this is the more extraordinary, as the warmth communicated to plants 
by a covering of snow is not there afforded, it seldom lying long on the vicinity of 
the sea.t 

One remark in regard to Ireland ought not to be omitted, I mean the service it 
renders to England, by being, as it were, a screen or paravent to shelter it from the 
violence of the western gales, the force of which seems in some degree to be brokea 
by it before they reach the opposite shores. Placed between this country and the 
Atlantic Ocean, it arrests also in its course the immense body of vapour raised 
from that wide expanse of watery surface, so that a considerable portion, which 
might otherwise be conveyed to us, attracted and broken by the mountains and high 
land, falls down in copious showers. A similar effect seems to be produced by 
that range of mountains which extends from Cornwall to the north of Scotland^ 
And this may account for the difference in the quantity of rain which falls on the>. 
western and eastern coasts of England. 

The great proportion of rain which falls on the north-western coast of our island, 
says Williams, is probably caused by its vicinity to North Wales and Ireland; the hu- 
mid south-west wind experienced in Lancashire and Westmoreland, passes first over 
the mountainous tract in South Wales, where the clouds are deprived of such a por- 
tion of their electricity, that the contained vapour is precipitated in torrents. Fur- 

» Survey of Kerry, Dublin edition, 1750, p. 77- 

+ Since the above was written, I have received a letter, dated May 15th, 1811, from William Harvey» 
Esq. Kyle, near Wexford, wherein he states, that there had been in that county six weeks' incessant rain,, 
which had suspended every kind of agricultural labour, and that it was found necessary to put spring 
corn and potatoes into the ground again, I am informed, also, that similar accounts have been received by 
Owen Wynn, Esq. of Haselwood, near Sligo, and the Rev. Dr. Dudley, oi Killoun, near Wexford, now in 
in London. This is more remarkable, as in the south of England a more genial season was never ex- 
perienced. 



CLIMATE. 823 

ther, when the wind veers more to the westward, the vapour before its arrival here 
passes over Ireland, the climate of which being naturally humid, and the clouds 
crossing so short a portion of sea, the disposition of the air is scarcely changed; 
so that when the wind is in any westerly point, the inhabitants of Lancashire and 
Westmoreland will seldom have cause to complain, either of intolerable and long 
continued drought, or of their lands suffering for want of atmospheric irrigation. 
The proportion of rain which fell in the course of a year at Townley in Lancashire, 
measured a century ago, and compared with the great quantity which fell during 
the same space of time at Upminster in Essex, was as follows: 

INCHES. 

Townley on an average of six years - - - - 42-5 
Upminster from 1/00 to 1705 inclusive ... I9.5 

The mean quantity of rain which has been observed to fall in the county of Rut- 
land is 20-5 inches. This very large proportion of rain which the county of Lan- 
cashire receives, compared with Essex, is probably occasioned by the above-men- 
tioned local circumstance, for we cannot suppose that the soil of the county of 
Lancashire requires this extraordinary degree of irrigation, the latitude of that 
county being three degrees more to the north than Essex.* 

Though Ireland abounds with lakes and bogs, which might be supposed to have 
some influence on the climate, and consequently on the animal economy of its m- 
habitants, it does not appear that it is any where particularly unhealthy. Bogs, so 
far from communicating any bad qualities to the atmosphere,t as is the case with 
many of the fens and marshes in other countries, seem to have a contrary effect ; 
for it is observed, that the peasants who reside among them enjoy good health. 
A Mr. Hamilton observes, there is here no characteristic disease to mark a natural 
source of unhealthfulness ; there are few disorders which cannot be traced up to 
some artificial cause. From its peculiar salubrity, the natives of this island are cele- 
brated for just symmetry of proportion and an athletic frame ; because, from earliest 
infancy to manhood, a check is rarely given to the progressive increase of animal 

» Williams on the Climate of Great Britain, p. 78, 79. 

+ " Those bogs wherewith Ireland is in some places overgrown, are not injurious to health, as is commonly 
imagined ; the watery exhalations from them are neither so abundant nor so noxious, as those from marshes, 
which become prejudicial from the various animal and vegetable^substances which are left to putrify as soon 
as the waters are exhaled by the sun. Bogs are not, as one might suppose, masses of putrefaction; but, on 
the contrary, they are of such a texture as to resist putrefaction above any other substance we know of. I 
have seen a shoe, all of one piece of leather, very neatly stitched, taken out of a bog some years ago, yet en- 
tirely fresh; from the very fashion of which there is scarcely room to doubt that it had lain there some cen- 
turies. 1 have seen butter called Kousldn, which had been hid in hollowed trunks of trees so long that it was 
become hard, and almost friable, yet not devoid of unctuosily. That the length of time it had been buried 
was very great, we learn from the depth of the bog, which was ten feet that had grown over it." A Plutos. 
Survey oj Uu South of I, dund, Dublin, 1778, 8vo, p. 378. 



224 CLIMATE. 

strength, or the approximate form of an undiseased body ; from the same source 
those ardent passions and that flow of animal spirits which renders the natives of 
Ireland always cheerful, often turbulent and boisterous, the natural consequence of 
uninterupted health and a vigorous constitution.* 

As far as my own observation goes, I have remarked, that typhus fever is common 
throughout Ireland, and arises, in all probability, from the smallness of the cot- 
tages, which do not admit a free circulation of the air so as to become properly ven- 
tilated. The Irish, also, are more subject to scrophula than the English, and 
agues are prevalent tliroughout the south, but are little known in the north. 

An eminent physician in London, a native of Ireland, assures me that nine- 
teen out of twenty of the intermittent patients in the London dispensaries are 
Irish. 

It deserves to be particularly mentioned, that whether owing to the dim ate, or to 
any other cause, instances of suicide rarely occur in Ireland. 

There is one subject connected with climate, which, though of considerable im- 
portance to the farmer and agriculturist, does not seem to have been suffici- 
ently attended to. I allude to the art of prognostication, by which certain 
changes of the weather, or the nature of the approaching seasons, may be foretold 
with some degree of probability a considerable time before they actually take place. 
Many popular and vulgar notions, are, indeed, entertained on this subject ; but it is 
certain also, that it has engaged the attention of eminent philosophers, both in an- 
cient and modern times. We are told by Aristotle, that Thales, being reproached 
on account of his attachment to the study of philosophy, which left him in a state of 
of poverty, determined to shew by a striking example that philosophers, if they 
chose, had it in their power to acquire riches. Having discovered, therefore, by 
his skill in astrology, that the ensuing season would be uncommonly favourable 
in the production of cloves, he bought up at a cheap rate, in the winter season, 
the whole of the future crop, as no one thought of bidding against him. What 
Thales foresaw took place ; and as he had at his disposal the whole of the cloves in 
the country ; there was a great demand for them, and he obtained for them whatever 
price he asked. t 

•^ Hamilton on the Climate of Ireland. Transact, of the Royal Irish Acad. vol. vi. p. 47. 

+ Arist. Polit. lib. i. edit. Francof. 1801, p. 48. Pliny ascribes this circumstance to Democritus. Ferunt 
Democritum, qui primus intellexit ostenditqiie cum terris coeli societatem, spernentibus hanc curam ejus opu- 
lentissimis civium, prKvisa olei caritate ex futuro Vergiliarum ortu, qua diximus ratione osteudemusque jatn 
pleiiius, magna turn vilitate propter spem olivas, coemisse in toto tractu omne oleum, rairantibus qui pau- 
pertatem et quietem doctrinarum ei sciebant in primis cordi esse. Atque ut apparuit causa, et ingens divi- 
tiarum cursus, restiiuisse mcrcedcm anxias et avidse dominorum poenitentia;, conientum ita probasse, opes sibi 
in facili, cum vtUet, fore. jVat. Hisl. lib. xviii. cap. 28. Lttgd. Bat. 16G9, vol. ii. p. 497. Pliny, how- 
ever, seems to have committed a mistake, for the same thing is related by Diogenes Laertius in his life of Thales. 
fl>i)7i XXI I fain; Iifwtiji'j-:, i» T« SiUTtfu rut <r7ropao>i» Ji50f*»7)ftT»w» in, |So:<?iif»£»0) o«|ai ^xc> iitut Tth-j-.Tut, Ocfa? 



CLIMATE. 225 

This art may be divided into two kinds. The first is founded on the same prin- 
ciples as the doctrine of chances, by combining and comparing the state of the different 
seasons, as dry, wet, or variable, for a long series of years, and thence deducing the 
probability of what a season will be, according to the nature of the one that pre- 
cedes it. 

Mr. Kirwan, to whom meteorology is so much indebted, has illustrated this subject in 
a very simple and perspicuous manner, in the fifth volume of the Transactions of the 
Royal Irish Academy. As the hints he has thrown out may lead to some important 
results, I shall give the concluding part of his paper, together with the tables 
which he has added to it, especially as they are applicable chiefly to the climate of 
Ireland. 

" If we had tables of the quantities of rain that fall in each month for eighty or 
one hundred years, we might calculate the mean proportion of each, wliether 
taken singly or in groups, and thence deduce the probable quantities of rain in 
the succeeding months, the table would every year grow more perfect, and in 
time approach very near the truth. But I have met with no account of the quan- 
tities of rain that annually or monthly fall in Ireland, nor any account of the wea- 
ther, except that taken by the industrious Dr. Rutty, with a view to medicine. His 
observations extend to forty-one years ; but his estimations are merely vague and 
popular. However, I shall exhibit a view of them, and to shew how more accu- 
rate observations might be managed, deduce some consequences from them ! I" 

" The letters in the columns of the following table denote wet, dry, and va- 
riable. It is to be observed also, that Dr. Rutty makes the spring to begin in April, 
the summer with June, and the autumn with September." 

fAi\>,ovcrri'; tAaitf* itritrGai TTfovo^o-a? l^tcrfifajj-aTo ret £^a^ofp7«a, xal c■a/A7^^£»cTTa trvvei^t ^(^frj^xra. Lib. i. edit. 
H. Steph. 1570, 12aio, p. 10. And Cicero says — Alii autem in republica exercitati, ut de Atheniensi 
Solone accepimus, orientem tyrannidem multo amc prospiciunt: quos prudentes possumus, dicere, id est 
providentes, divinos nullo modo possumus, non plus quarn Milesium Thdlcm, qui ut objurgatores suos convin- 
ceret, ostenderetque, etiam philosophum, si ei coinmodum esset, pecuniam facere posse, omnem oleam, an- 
te quam florere ca:pisset in agro Jvlilesio coemisse dicitur. Animadverterat fortasse quadam scientia, olearum 
ubertatem fore. De Divinal, lib. i. Op. edit. Oxon, 1810, vol, vi. p. 531. 



Vol. I. 2 G 



226 



CLIMATE. 



Table of the State of Spring, Summer, and Autumn, in Dublin, from 
1725 to 1765 inclusively. 



Year. 


Spring. 


Summer. 


Autumn. 


1725 


D. 


W. 


V. 


1726 


D. 


V. 


V. 


1727 


V. 


V. 


W. 


1728 


D. 


W. 


V. 


1729 


D. 


D. 


w. 


1730 


V. 


W. 


V. 


1731 


D. 


D. 


V. 


1732 


V. 


D. 


w. 


1733 


D. 


D. 


w. 


1734 


V. 


W. 


V. 


1735 


V. 


WW. 


w. 


1736 


V. 


DD. 


D. 


1737 


D. 


D. 


D. 


1738 


V. 


W- 


W. 


1739 


W. 


W. 


V. 


1740 


D. 


D. 


W. 


1741 


DD. 


D. 


V. 


1742 


D. 


D. 


V. 


1743 


V. 


D. 


V. 


1744 


D. 


V. 


w. 


1745 


D. 


w. 


V. 


1746 


D. 


w. 


V. 


1747 


D. 


D. 


D. 


1748 


V. 


D. 


D. 


1749 


W. 


V. 


D. 


1750 


D. 


w. 


V. 


1751 


W. 


w. 


V. 


1752 


D. 


WW. 


D. 


1753 


W. 


W. 


D. 


1754 


V. 


W. 


D. 


1755 


W. 


w. 


W. 


1756 


V. 


w. 


V: 


1757 


W. 


w. 


D. 


1758 


D. 


w. 


D. 


1759 


D. 


DD. 


D. 


1760 


D. 


V. 


W. 


1701 


D. 


DD. 


V. 


1762 


D. 


D. 


W. 


1763 


V. 


W. 


V. 


1764 


D. 


W. 


V. 


1765 


V. 


DD. 


V. 



CLIMATE. 



227 



Hence we see, that in forty-one years there were 
6 wet Sprmgs, 22 dry, and 13 variable. 
20 wet Summers, 16 dry, and 5 variable. 
11 wet AiUiimiis, 11 dry, and 19 variable. 



A dry Spring has been followed by 

A dry Summer 1 1 times. 

A wet 8 

A variable 3 

A wet Spring has been followed by 

A dry Summer 

A wet 5 

A variable 1 

A variable Spring has been followed by 

A dry Summer 5 

A wet 7 

A variable ] 



A dry Summer has been followed by 

A dry Autumn 5 times. 

A wet 5 

A variable 6 

A zi'et Summer has been followed by 

A dry Autumn 5 

A wet ' 3 

A variable 12 

A variable Summer has been followed by 

A dry Autumn 1 

A wet 3 

A variable 1 



Hence in the beginning of any year. 



I. The probability of a dry Spring is - |4 

of a wet - - . - _«j. 

of a variable - - - i^ 

II. The probability of a dry Summer is ^4 

of a wet - - - - 1° 

of a variable - . . ^fj. 

III. The probability of a dry Autumn is 14 

of a wet - . . - i- 

of a variable - - - ir 

TV. Jfter a dry Spring the probability of 
A dry Summer is - ^'j 
A wet - - . . ^j. 
A variable - - . ^^ 



V. After a wet Spring the probability of 
A dry Summer is - 
A wet - - - - i 
A variable - - - i 

VI. After a variable Spring the probability of 

A dry Summer is - tV 
A wet - - - - -rr 
A variable - - - -rj 

VII. After a dry Summer the probability of 

A dr>' Autumn is - tV 
A wet - - - - tV 
A variable - - - -fr 
Vin. After a wet Summer the probability of 
A dry Autumn is - ^ 
A wet - - - - -^ 
A variable - - - H 



IX. After a variable Summer the probability of 
A dry Autumn is - ^ 
A wet - - . - I 
A variable - - - r 



* These rules relate cbieflx to the climate of Ireland. 
2 G2 



828 



CLIMATE. 



But the probability of the autumnal weather will be attained much more 
perfectly by taking in the consideration of the preceding Spring also ; in order to 
which we may observe that, 



A dry Spring and dry Summer were followed 
by a 
Dry Autumn 3 times. 

Wet 4 

Variable 4 

A dry Spring and wet Summer were followed 
by a 
Dry Autumn 2 

Wet 

Variable 6 

A Tvet Spring and dry Summer were followed 
by a 
Dry Autumn 

Wet 

Variable 

A wet Spring and wet Summer were followed 
by a 



A wet Spring and variable Summer were fol- 
lowed by a 
Dry Autumn 1 time. 

Wet 0. 

Variable 

A dry Spring and variable Summer were fol- 
lowed by a 
Dry Autumn 

Wet 2 

Variable 1 

A variable Spring and dry Summer were fol- 
lowed by a 
Dry Autumn 2 

Wet 

Variable 2 

A variable Spring and wet Summer were fol- 
lowed by a 



Dry Autumn 2 
Wet 1 
Variable 2 


Dry Autumn 

Wet 

Variable 


1 
1 
5 


A variable Spring ar 
folio 
Dry Autu 
Wet 
Variable 


d variable Summer were 

rt-ed by a 

Tin times. 

1 






X. Hence, after a dry Spring and dry Summer 

the probability of a 
Dry Autumn is - -rr 

Wet A 

Variable - - - -rr 

XI. After a dry Spring and wet Summer the 

probability of a 

Dry Autumn - - | 

Wet ----- :ft- 

Variable - - - « 



XII. After a dry Spring and variable Summer 

the probability of a 
Dry Autumn - - % 

Wet |. 

Variable - - - ^ 

XIII. After a wet Spring and dry Summer the 

probability of a 

Dry Autumn - - ^ 

Wet ----- ^ 

Variable - - - - ti 



CLIMATE. 229 



XIV. After a wet Spring and wet Summer the 

probability of a 
Dry Autumn - - I 
Wet ----- I 
Variable - - - - | 

XV. After a wet Spring and variable Summer 

the probabihty of a 
Dry Autumn - - ^r 
Wet ----- ^ 
Variable - - - rV 



XVI. After a variable Spring and a dry Sum- 

mer the probabihty of a 
Dry Autumn - - f 

Wet j-v . 

Variable - - - - f 

XVII. After a variable Spring and a wet Sum- 

mer the probability of a 
Dry Autumn - - f 
Wet ^ 

Variable - - - f 



• XVIII. After a variable Spring and a variable 

Summer the probabilit}- of a 
Dry Autumn - - /^ 

• Wet ^ 

Variable - - - ^ 

The otlier kind of prognostics is founded on the observation of certain appear- 
ances in the atmosphere and heavenly bodies, or of various sensations occasioned 
through a change in the state of the air, which animals express by marks of un- 
easiness, or in some otiier manner; These prognostics were well known to the an- 
cients, and many of them are mentioned by Aratus* and PIiny+, and also by Virgil 
in the first book of his Georgics.J Pliny, to shew the utility of attending to them, 

* Aratus was a Greek poet, a native of Solze in Cilicia, contemporary with Theocritus. He wrote a poem 
called *ai*o^tFa, Apparenlia, in which he describes the position, motion, rising and setting of the stars* 
Claudius, and Germanirus Caisar were so delighted with it, that they translated it into Latin. It was trans- 
lated also by Cicero when a young man; and is quoted by the Apostle Paul, Ads x\\i. 28. Aratu» 
introduces his prognostics with the following lines, the fifth and sixth of which have been often 
admired. 

AaTipi; aiV^uTToiui -rfrsvytj^iva, ar^^uivnav- 

Ttii xsUwcp imroiyiffo^ ^i7\ii ot to* T* wbts 9x1 ^ 

IlitrTEtJw?, IvfHv ot7a wy KE^pn^jLeva xE^rat 

^•nfjiXTct ;^t(/x.Epio*« a»£^o(?) *7 ^aiAa^rt wb>T» 

Mo'p^Oo? ^Alt T'o^iy05, TO Ci fAVfiOil UVTIK QVHaf 

Tivtr' twt^fOffvyr)^^ alli •7rt^v\ctyfd.tvu avopl. 
A vTof juEv TctvpareL a-auTEfo^^ iv Se xat aAXok 
Tlaptiirut utriCTEVy or' lyyv^Ev upopE ;^(*^w>. 

Hygyiius, Aratus, ilrc. Lugd. Bat. 1803, p. 22S. 

+ Tradunt eundem Democrilum metente fratre ejus Damaso ardentissirao xstu orasse, ut reliqu:esegeti par- 
teret, raperetque desciia sub tutum, paucis mox horis soevo imbre vaticinalione approbata. Hisl. Kal. lib. 
xviii. cap. 23. Lugd. £al. 1668, vol. ii. p. 518. 

t Atque haec ut certis possimus discere signis 
vf.stusque, pluviasque, et agentes frigora ventos ; 

Ipse 



230 CLIMATE. 

relates, that Democritus seeing his brother Damasus employed in reaping at a time 
of intense heat, begged him to desist and to carry home what he had already cut, 
in order that it might be deposited in a place of shelter. Damasus, no doubt, 
took the hint, for we are told that the prediction of the philosopher was verified 
in a few hours by a heavy fall of rain. 

That changes in the weather may be foretold from various appearances in the atmos- 
phere, and some of the heavenly bodies, will be readily admitted by those acquainted 
with the principles of natural philosophy; and though the prognostics derived 
from the actions of animals appear to be more vague and uncertain, they maybe 
explained in a manner no less satisfactory. " The fibres," says an Italian meteo- 
rologist,* " whicli by their nature are easily moved, as well as the nerves, which 
-are highly susceptible of irritation, are readily affected by changes of the sur- 
rounding atmosphere, and suffer from their impressions, whether the air varies 
in its weight or qualities, or is changed in regard to its elasticity. We find among 
those who are sound and in perfect health, vivacity, good spirits, and great 
agility, when the air is pure and elastic. On the other hand, when the air becomes 
light and damp, it throws the body into a state of languor and debility. Vale- 
tudinarians, whose constitutions are delicate, or who are advanced in life, are 
lEuch sooner sensible of the impressions occasioned by changes of the weather, 
than those who are strong and robust. In general, the senses of men, who 
in their way of life deviate from the simplicity of nature, are coarse, dull, and 
void of energy. Those, also, who are distracted by a multiplicity of objects, scarcely 
feel the impressions of the air ; and if they speak of them, they do it without 
paying much attention to them, or thinking either of their causes or effects. But 
animals which retain their natural instinct ; which have their organs better consti- 
tuted, and their senses in a more perfect state, and which, besides, are not changed 
by vicious and depraved habits, perceive sooner, and are more susceptible of the 
impressions produced on them by variations of the atmosphere, and sooner exhibit " 
signs of them." 

It is difficult to explain clearly, and with precision, how modifications in the 
atmosphere, and vapours, and exhalations affect animals, and produce changes in 
their bodies, since we are not acquainted with the curious organization of their most 
delicate parts ; but we can observe and perceive the progress and general con- 
sequences of these phenomena, as well as of those by which they are produced. 

The foliowin"- are the common and familiar signs exhibited by animals which 

Ipse pater statult, quid menstrua Luna moneret 
Quo regno cadereni Austri ; quid sspe videntes 
Agricols propius stabulis armenta tenerent. 

Georg. lib, i. v. 353. 

'" Toaldo, 



CLIMATE. 



231 



indicate changes of the weather, and which are not so much taken from the ao^ri- 
cuhural poet who first collected them, as from common observation. 

1. When the bats remain longer than usual abroad from their holes, fly about in 
great numbers and to a greater distance than common, it is a sign that the followine 
day will be warm and serene ; but if they enter the houses, and send forth loud and 
repeated cries, rain may be expected to follow. 

2. If the owl is heard to scream during bad weather, it announces that it will 
become fine. 

3. The croaking of crows in the morning indicates fine weather. 

4- When the raven croaks three or four times, extending his wings, and shaking 
the leaves, it is a sign of serene weather. 

5. It is an indication of rain and stormy weather when ducks and geese fly back- 
wards and forwards; when they plunge frequently into the water, or begin to send 
forth cries and to fly about. 

6. If the bees do not remove to a great distance from their hives, it announces 
rain; if they return to their hives before the usual time, it may be concluded that 
the rain will soon fall. 

7. If pigeons return slowly to the pigeon-house, it indicates that the succeeding 
day will be rainy. 

8. It is a sign of rain or wind when the sparrows chirp a great deal and make a 
noise to each other to assemble. ' 

9. When fowls and chickens roll in the sand more than usual, it announces 
rain ; the case is the same when the cocks crow in the evening, or at uncommon 
hours. 

10. Peacocks, which cry during the night, have a presensation of pain. 

11. It is believed to be a sign of bad weather when the swallows fly in such a man- 
ner as to brush the surface of the water, and to touch it frequently with their wings ■ 
and breast. 

12. The weather is about to become cloudy and to change for the worse, when the 
flies sting and become more troublesome than usual. 

13. When the gnats collect themselves before the setting of the sun and form a 
sort of vortex in the shape of a column, it announces fine weather. 

14. When sea fowl and other aquatic birds retire to the shore or marshes it in- 
dicates a change of weather and a sudden storm. 

15- If the cranes fly exceedingly high, in silence and ranged in ^ood order it is 
a sign of approaching fine weather ; but if they fly in disorder and immediately return 
with cries, it announces wind. 

16. When the porpoises sport and take frequent leaps, . the sea being tranquil 
and calm, it denotes that the wind will blow from that quarter from which they 
proceed. 



«3a CLIMATE. 

17. If the frogs croak more than usual ; if the toads issue from their holes in the 
evenin<T in great numbers ; if the earth-worms come forth from the earth, and if the 
ants remove their eggs from the small hills ; if the moles throw up the earth more 
than common ; if the asses frequently shake and agitate their ears ; if the liogs shake 
and spoil the stalks of corn ; if the bats send forth cries and fly into the houses ; 
if the do<fs roll on the ground and scratch up the earth with their fore-feet; if the 
cows look towards the heavens and turn up their nostrils as if catching some smell ; if 
the oxen lick their fore-feet ; and if oxen and dogs lie on their right side, all these 
are signs which announce rain. 

18. The case is the same when animals crowd together. 

19. When goats and sheep are more obstinate and more desirous to crop their pas- 
tures, and seem to quit them with reluctance, and when the birds return slowly to 
their nests, rain may soon be expected. 

OTHER SIGNS WHICH ANNOUNCE CHANGES OF THE WEATHER. . , 

1. If the flame of a lamp crackles or flares it indicates rainy weather. 

2. The case is the same when the soot detaches itself from the chimney and falls 
down. 

3. It is a sign of rain when the soot collected around pots or kettles takes fire in 
the form of small points like grains of millet; because this phenomenon denotes that 
the air is cold and moist. 

4. If the coals seem hotter than usual, or if the flame is more agitated, though 
the weather be calm at the time, it indicates wind. 

5. When the flame burns steadily, and proceeds straight upwards, it is a sign 
of fine weather. 

6. If the sound of bells is heard at a great distance, it is a sign of wind or of a 
change of weather. 

7. The hollow sound of forests, the murmuring noise of the waves of the sea, 
their foaming, and green and black colour, announce a storm. 

8. When the spiders' webs and the leaves of trees are agitated without any sensible 
wind, it is a sign of wind and perhaps rain; because it denotes that strong exhala- 
tions rise from the earth. 

9. These signs are less equivocal when the dry leaves and chafi" are agitated in a 
vortex, and raised into the air. 

10. A frequent change of wind, accompanied with an agitation of the clouds, de- 
notes a sudden storm. 

11. A want, or too great a<]uantity of dew, being a mark of a strong evaporation, 
announces rain ; the case is the same with thick, white, hoar frost, which it only 
dew congealed. 

)2. The winds which begin to blow in the day time, are much stronger, and er^- 
dure lon2,er than those which begin to blow in the night. 



CLIMATE. 



233 



13. Whatever kind of weather takes place in the night, it is not in o-eneral of 
very long duration ; and for the most part, wind is more uncommon in the nic^ht than 
in the day time. Fine weather in the night, with scattered clouds, does not last. 

14- A Venetian proverb says, that a sudden storm from the north does not last 
three days. 

15. The hoar frost which is first occasioned by the east wind, indicates that the cold 
will continue a long time, as was the case in 1770. 

16. If it thunders in the month of December, moderate and fine weather will 
probably follow. 

17. If it thunders at intervals in the spring time before the trees have acquired 
leaves, cold weather is still to be expected. 

18. If the wind does not change, the weather will remain the same. 

In regard to the general qualities of the seasons and their influence, attention may 
be paid to the following signs: 

If the earth and air abound with insects, worms, frogs, Sec. ; if the walnut-tree 
has more leaves than fruit ; if there are large quantities of beans, fruit, and fish ; 
if the spring and summer are too damp ; if hoar frost, fogs, and dew, come on at 
times when they are not generally seen, the year will be barren : the opposite signs 
announce fertility and abundance. 

Animals seem also to foresee and prognosticate fertility or barrenness. It is said, 
that when the birds flock together, quit the woods and islands, and retire to the 
fields, villages, and towns, it is a sign that the year will be barren. 

A great quantity of snow in winter promises a fertile year; but abundant rains 
give reason to apprehend that the year will be barren. A winter, during which a 
great deal of rain and snow falls, announces a very warm summer. It is generally 
believed, but perhaps without foundation, that thunder and storms in winter prog- 
nosticate abundance. When the spring is rainy, it produces a plentiful crop of 
hay and of useless herbs ; but at the same time a scarcity and dearth of grain. If it is 
warm there will be much fruit; but they will be almost all spoiled. If it is cold 
and dry there will be little fruit or grapes, and silk-worms will not thrive. If 
it is only dry, fruit will be scarce, but they will be good. In the last place, if 
it is cold they will be late in coming to maturity. If the sprintr and summer 
are both damp, or even both dry, a scarcity of provisions is to be apprehended. 
If the summer is dry, diseases will prevail ; but they will be more numerous if it is 
warm. If it is moderately cold the corn will be late, and the season will occasion 
few diseases. ' 

A fine autumn announces a winter during which winds will predominate : if it is 
damp and rainy, it spoils the grapes, injures the sown fields, and threatens a 
dearth. If it be too cold or too warm, it produces many maladies. A Ic ig se- 

VoL. I. , 2 H 



234 CLIMATE. 

verity of the seasons, either by winds, drought, dampness, heat, or cold, becomes 
exceedingly destructive to plants and animals. In general there is a compensation 
for drought between one season and another. A damp spring or summer is com- 
monly followed by a fine autumn. If the winter is rainy the spring will be dry ; 
and if the former be dry the latter will be damp. When the autumn is fine the 
spring will be rainy. That this alternation is in general verified, may be seen 
in a journal carried on for forty years, and formerly edited by M. Poleni. 

Many other prognostics derived from natural phenomena might be mentioned ; 
but as the greater part of them are well known, and may be seen in a pamphlet 
entitled " The Shepherd of Banbury's Rules," and similar publications, it is need- 
less to enlarge on them. 

I must however observe, that the Irish peasants have certain prognostics, but 
chiefly of a local nature, from which they can foretel with considerable accuracy 
the approaching state of the weather. Sometimes when I asked their opinion 
on this subject, they would reply, " Arigil has got his night-cap on," by which is 
to be understood that they expect a wet day. It is a common saying also, 

AVhen Carney Clonhugh puts on his hat, 
Let Ballinalu take care of that. 

If a mist in the morning moves up the mountain, it is a sign that the day will be 
wet; but if it descends, there is reason to expect that it will be fine. Mr. Townsend 
remarks, that when a mountain appears to be nearer than ordinary, and is seen as it 
were through a hazy atmosphere, a fall of rain may be shortly expected ; but he 
thinks, contrary to the opinion of some with whom I have conversed, that clouds cap- 
ping the lofty hills, while the lower ones are perfectly clear, are generally a favour- 
able sign, and that the contrary appearance denotes rain. 

As it is well known that the state of the atmosphere^ whether cold and dry, or 
warm and moist, has a very powerful influence on the production of echoes, it may 
not be improper to mention, as connected with this subject, that there are a great 
many, and some of them very extraordinary in Ireland. The one at the Eagle's Nest 
at Killarney is well known, but it is by no means the most singular, as there is ano- 
ther much more remarkable near Killaloe, in the mountains to the north of the 
Shannon; and Dr. Smith speaks of a third equally curious, on the sea beach in the 
county of Waterford. Besides these, there are a great many others in difierent parts 
of the kingdom. 

In the thirty-ninth volume of the Annals of Agriculture,* Mr. Arthur Young, in 
a paper on climate, has indulged in a speculation which is not only curious, but in 
some instances might be exceedingly useful. What is the best climate ? 

A. 

-f Page 483. 



CLIMATE. 235 

The Island ofRhodes is much extolled by ancient authors on account of the serenity 
of its sky, and hence Horace bestows on it the epithet of clara, or bright.* Solinus 
says, that the weather there Avas never so cloudy as to obscure entirely the sun,+ and 
it appears that it was a favourite retreat for such of the Roman nobility as were dissa- 
tisfied with the existing state of politics at Rome.t This preference given to Rhodes, 
arose no doubt from the nature of the climate. Colonel Purry, a Swiss, wrote on this 
subject a tract, in which he fixed upon latitude 33°, and consistently with his own 
doctrine, founded Purry's-burg, in North Carolina. But a worse climate, it is said, 
is hardly to be found than that of the district where this town is situated. 

Mr. Young states, that from the accounts given to him by travellers, he is inclined 
to believe that the finest climate will be found between 32° and 41°) in hilly districts, 
where the hills connect with, but are not themselves mountains. A flat country in all 
the parallels between 32° and 41° is much too hot and too much infested with insects 
to be agreeable; but hilly situations are equally free from putrid effluvia, too often 
met with in low ones, and from the torment of gnats, kc. which swarm in a low 
moist atmosphere. The vallies and plains in such parallels yield (spices excepted) 
the richest productions on the globe, while the hills produce vines, k.c. and afford 
an air truly delicious to breathe in. 

The climate of Chili in South America is supposed to be one of the finest in the 
world. The season Avhich the inhabitants call their winter does not last three months, 
and even then the weather is exceedingly moderate ; all the rest of the year is de- 
lightful.^ 

A remarkable instance of the fineness of the climate in latitude 33° is given by Dr. 
Shaw, who, between Cairo and Mount Sinai, slept on the sands without any covering; . 
though wet to the skin with dew|| he caught no cold, and he mentions this as a strong 
proof of the excellence of the climate. H 

Many parts of the Turkish empire are much praised on account of their cli- 

» Laudabunt alii claram Rhodon aut Mitylenen, Lib. i. ode 7. 

+ Polyhist. cap. 17. Nunquam ita coelum nubilum est, ut in sole Rhodes non sit. 

X D, Brutus, in a letter to M. Brutus and C. Cassius, says : — Ac si dederint, quod petimus, tamen paullo 
post futurum puto ut hostes judicemur, aut aqua et igni interdicaraur. Quid ergo est inquis tui consilii? 
dandus est locus fortunje : cedendum ex Italia : migrandum Rhodum, aut aliquo terrarura arbitror. Si me- 
lior casus fuerit, reverlemur Roraam : si inediocris, in exilio vivemus : si pessimus ad novissima auxilia 
descendemus. Epist. lib. xi. ep. i. op. edit. Oxon, 1810, vol. iii. p. 275. 

C. Matius, also, writing to Cicero, tells him: — Mihi quidem si optata contingant, quod reliquum est viia;, 
in otio Rhodi degam : sin casus aliquis interpellarit, ita ero Romx, ut rccte fieri semper cupiam. Ibid. ib. ep. 
28, p. 297. 

|l Byron's Narrative, p. 222. 

II Le Blanc in his Travels, p. 277, speaks also of the great dews that fall in Egypt. 

^ Travels in Barbary and the Levant, 4to, 2d edit, 1757, p. 11. 

2H2 



236 CLIMATE. 

mate, and particularly those districts called Asia Minor, lying between the Black 
Sea and the Mediterranean. The rich and fertile soil of Cappadocia is highly ex- 
tolled.* The south coast of the Black Sea is represented by a very intelligent tra- 
veller as one of the most delicious climates in the world ; every thing about Trebisond 
was so captivating that he could have spent the remainder of his days there with 
pleasure. t 

The air of the Morea, also, is exceedingly temperate, and there is seldom any rain 
from April to August. The winter is mild, and is never attended with much cold 
beyond two months.? A Dutch traveller speaks highly of the country around 
Ephesus, and applies the epithet ' paradisiacal,' to the delicious tract through which 
the Meander pursues its winding course. § 

La Roque, a French traveller, bestows much praise on the district of Khesroan, 
on the confines of Mount Libanon, in Syria. It produces mulberry trees, grapes 
which afford excellent wine, and olive trees of a very large size. It abounds also 
with rich pastures, corn-fields, fruits of every kind, and is well stored with cattle, 
and with game of various sorts. " This fine country," says the author, *' situated 
under the most temperate climate of all Syria, seems to contribute in some measure 
to produce that mildness and good disposition remarked in its inhabitants. It is rare, 
indeed, to find among mountains, which in general tend to render the manners rude 
and ferocious, a people of so excellent a character as the Maronites of Mount Li- 
banon." || 

The complete discussion of this subject would lead to a review of the different 
climates, and of the advantages and disadvantages which they possess. Some, highly 
favoured by nature in many respects, are subject at times to earthquakes, hurricanes, 
and other causes of devastation, which render them comparatively less agreeable, and 
frequently expose their inhabitants to great loss, as well as to considerable danger. 
Providence has assigned to all countries a proportion of good and evil, and as habit 
reconciles men to many inconveniencies, and fits them for supporting almost every 
degree of temperature, the severity of climate where the arts supply the means of 
guarding against its effects is very little felt, and neither excites complaint nor pro- 
duces uneasiness, except among those labouring under disease and infirmity. 

The climates of Britain and Ireland may be inferior in some respects to many 
others ; but if the inhabitants consider all the advantages which they enjoy, they will 
find little cause to be dissatisfied, for they may justly say, in the words of an elegant 
Greek writer, " some countries produce fruits, trees, and animals of a superior 

♦ Gibbons' Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, 4to, vol, iv. p. 56. 

+ Tournefort's Voyages into the Levant, vol. i. p. 177 , 

I Randolph's Present State of the Morea, l689, p. I9. 
(I V^aii Egmont's Travels, 8vo, 1759, vol. i. p. 125. 

II Voyage dc Syrie et du Mont. Liban. Paris, 1722, torn. ii. 222. 



LANDED PROPERTY, RENTAL TENURES. s.37 

kind, but ours gives birth to, and educates men fitted for business as well as the arts, 
and excelling in bravery and courage."* 



CHAPTER VII. 

LANDED PROPERTY, RENTAL TENURES. 



1 HE first title to landed property seems to have been acquired by labour be- 
stowed on agricultural improvement. In the early stages of society, when men 
pursued a nomadic and pastoral life, the soil belonged to the whole community, and 
its natural produce was enjoyed by every individual in common. This state of things 
prevailed among the Scythians, as we learn from Herodotus, + Justin, J and other an- 
cient authors, and it is still retained by some of the Tartar tribes, their descendants, 
who form part of the population of the extensive empire of Russia.^ 

The people of Ireland during its state of independence were divided into a great 
number of septs, each under a chief, who seems to have possessed a judicial as well 
as military power ; but the latter was delegated to a deputy called a Brehon, who ad- 
ministered justice to the different members of the tribe. It appears, however, that 
the Irish laws then in use were exceedingly barbarous, since murder, robbery, and 
other crimes, which under well-regulated governments are considered capital of- 
fences, were, according to the brehon law, punished only by a fine called ericke.\\ 

* Ewi?Tirf4ai yap U /xtf Tor? ^Mitiit Toffoi; piatiq syyuofi/pa; xccfTiZv y.a; SiiSfUt xai ^ow» i^i«; if ixafTotj xaj 
9roXu Tuy aAXajf diat^Epofcra ^. Tijp Ss yifj.eripap ^upav acopot? xa( rpi^uv Ka« ^spsic Swctuivriv ov llovov Trpo^ ray 
Ti%»a5 xai Ta? Wfa^ii; sv^vtiTaravf aXXa xa» TTfo; utSptat xai wpo; apiTint Sta^ifonaf. Isocratis Areopag. in 
Op. apud Crispin, 1622, p. 306. 

4 Herodotus speaks of Scythians, who were acquainted with agriculture, but to the east of these were others 
who led a wandering life with their herds and their flocks, and paid no attention to the cultivation of the 
earth : To Si wpo? rriv lu tuv yiupyut rirut T^xv^im, Jia^a.Ti tov na.yTtr.a.Trrii,, ■anajj.ti, Nof^aJe; ri^n TxtlSai n- 
fioTai Ste Ti (TffiipcivTs? sJi* HTs afBFTt;. Herodot. lib. iv. cap. 19. edit. Glasg. vol. iv. p. 37, 

X Hominibus inter se nuUi fines, neque enim agrum exercent : nee domus illis uUa, aut tectum aut sedes 
est, armcnta et pecora semper pascentibus et per incultas solitudines errare soliti. JustiniUisl. lib. ii. cap. 2 
edit. Eiz. 1640, p. 16. See also Strabo, lib. vii. and ix. edit. Almel. Amst. 1707, vol. i. p. 302 ; vol. ii, 
p. 492. Pomp. Mela, lib. ii. cap. i. 

§ Storch's Hist. Stat. Gemiilde des Russischen Reichs, vol. i. p. 190-231. — The state of these people is 
well described by Ferguson, in the following words: " The arts wliich pertain to settlement have been 
practised, and variously cultivated, by the inhabitants of Europe. Those which are consistent with perpetual 
migration, have, from the earliest accounts of history, remained nearly the same with the Scythian or Tartar. 
The tent pitched on a moveable carriage, the horse applied to every purpose of labour and of war, of the dairy 
and of the butcher's stall, have made up the riches aud equipage of this wandering people. £ssay on Civil 
Society, part ii. p. 262. 

II Lord Littleton's Hist, of Henry U. p. 23. 



238 LANDED PROPERTY, RENTAL TENURES. 

Long after the English invasion, the Irish seem to have retained so much of the 
pastoral manners of their ancestors, that without confining themselves to a fixed re- 
sidence, they wandered about from place to place with their cattle like the ancient 
Scythians, according as they found pasture sufficient for their support. This cus- 
tom, known under the name of bootying, supposes that there were then in the coun- 
try large tracts of unappropriated land, and that the waste lands bore a great pro- 
portion to those wiiich were employed in tillage.* 

It appears, also, that property in land was vested in the chiefs only, or leaders 
of the septs, and that the inferior people were merely tenants at will. The estates 
of these chiefs, however, were not transmitted from father to son by hereditary de- 
scent; but on the death of the proprietor passed to the eldest of his male relations, 
the best qualified to be the leader of the tribe, and the most capable by courage and 
military skill to defend it. This custom in ancient times was distinguished both in 
Ireland and in Scotland by the name of Tanistri/A 

Though the inferior tenants or followers of the chief seem to have held their lands 
only during pleasure, it is not improbable that they were permitted to remain in pos- 
session of them during life, and upon their decease, their estates were divided among 
the eldest males of the sept.:J: This, by some writers, says Dr. Millar, has impro- 
perly been called succession hy gavel kind; but it was very difierent from the Welch, 
or Kentish gavel-kind, and the consequence of it was, that the landed property of 
the commons was perpetually changing from one man to another.^ 

From the reign of Henry II. to the accession of the House of Tudor, the power 
of the English government was both feeble and precarious. It could- therefore 
afford but little assistance to the original settlers, who easily obtained grants of 
land, not only within the pale, as it was called, but in other parts of the country. 
Thoui^h no more than a third of it was in possession of the English, such liberal do- 
nations were made to a few individuals, that the whole kingdom is said to have been 
parcelled out among ten proprietors. |1 

These n-reat lords, however, were not only incapable of managing the vast estates 
already in their possession, but were interested to prevent the remainder from being 
given either to the native Irish, or to such new English planters as might be willing 
to improve it, and therefore by means of these grants there came to be in Ireland 
at one time no less than eight counties palatine, each of which was governed by a 
sort of independent sovereign.TI 

♦ Review of the Government of Ireland in Millar's Historical View of the English Government, vol. iv. 
p. 10. 

+ Ibid, p. 12. 

X SeeSir John Davis's Discovery, 1747, p. 169. 

f Lord Liuleton's Hist, of Henry II. vol. iii. p. 22. 

II Millar's Historical View of the English Government, vol. iv. p. 20. 

^ Millar's Hist. View of the English Government, vol. iv. p. 10.— The Author refers to Sir John 
Davis's Discovery. 



LANDED PROPERTY, RENTAL TENURES. 239 

The state of landed property in Ireland, however, seems to have been very 
uncertain for a long series of years, and considerable changes were made in it 
by forfeitures, the consequence of various rebellions. In tlie reign of Elizabeth 
there were no less than three. By the attainder of John O'Neil and his associ- 
ates, more than half of Ulster was vested in the queen, to be disposed of as 
mi"-ht be deemed most expedient for tbe interest and security of her government ;* 
and after the rebellion excited by the Earl of Desmond, his immense estate 
was seized and appropriated to the same purpose. In consequence of the latter 
confiscation, lands were offered to settlers at the small rent of three-pence, and 
in some cases of two-pence per acre; and on these terms grants were obtained by 
Sir Walter Raleigh, Sir Christopher Hatton, and many other persons of dis- 
tinction. t 

These frequent changes of landed property produced many violent disputes be- 
tween different families, and in the reign of James I. so much confusion had arisen, 
that it was found necessary to appoint commissioners to examine defective titles, and 
to invite possessors to surrender their estates into the hands of the governor, that they 
might obtain a new and a more legal grant. The governor was empowered also to 
accept surrenders from such Irish lords as held their estates by the ancient precarious 
tenure usual in Ireland, and under certain regulations to re-invest the possessor, ac- 
cording to the common law of England, with a full and complete right of property. 
Care was taken at the same time to limit the new grants to the actual possession of 
the claimants, to secure the state of the inferior tenants, and to convert their former 
uncertain services and duties into a fixed pecuniary payment. The old custom of 
tanistry was thus abolished, and according to the new grants estates became univer- 
sally transmissible to heirs.:;: 

Immense possessions fell afterwards into the hands of government by the flight of 
Tyrone and his principal adherents, so that in the six northern counties there were 
more than 500,000 acres to be disposed of, but in more moderate portions, in order 
to avoid those abuses which had taken place on former occasions of the same kind.§ 



♦ Leland's Hist, of Ireland, 4to, edit. vol. ii. p. 247. 

+ Millar's View of the English Government, vol, iv. p. 31. 

X Ibid, vol. iv. p. 36. 

fl Ibid. p. 36. Leland says, that the lands to be planted were divided into three different proportions, the 
greatest to consist of 2000 English acres ; the least of 1000, and the middle of 1500 ; one-half of the escheated 
lands in each county was assigned to the smallest; the other moiety divided between the other proportions; 
and the general distributions being thus ascertained, to prevent all disputes between the undertakers, their set- 
tlements in the respective districts were to be determined by lot. 

Estates were assigned to all, to be iield of them and their heirs ; the undertakers of 2000 acres were to 
hold of the king in cripile ; those of 1500 by knight's service ; and those of 1000 in common soccage. — All 
were for five years, after the date of their patents, to rebide upon their lands, either in person or by such agents 



440 LANDED PROPERTY, RENTAL TENURES. 

la this distribution of land the city of London participated,* the Corporation 
having accepted of large grants in the county of Derry. They engaged to expend 
jCsOjOOO. on the planPation ; to build the cities of Derry and Coleraine, and at the 
same time stipulated for such privileges as might make their settlement convenient 
and respectable. Under a pretence of protecting this infant settlement, or perhaps 
■with a view of raising money, the King instituted the order of Irish baronets, or 
Kni"-hts of Ulster, t from each of whom, as was then done in Scotland with respect to 
the knights of Nova Scotia, he exacted a certain sum as the price of the dignity 
conferred.! 

Durino- the usurpation of Cromwell, several forfeitures were made of lands be- 
lonc^ino- to those who had adhered to the royal party ; but these lands were appro- 
priated chiefly to the discharge of the arrears due to the English army. Connaught 
•was reserved entirely for the Irish, under certain qualifications determined by par- 
liament. Here they were to confine themselves and enjoy their allotments of land, 
that the new English planters might proceed without interruption, and without the 
danf^er of degenerating, as in former ages, by their intercourse with the Irish, and 
that the natives, divided by the Shannon from the other provinces, and surrounded 
by English garrisons, might be restrained from their barbarous incursions. But after, 
all these assignments and provisions, the counties of Dublin, Kildare, Carlow, and 
Cork, remained still unappropriated, and these, together with the lands of bishops, 
deans, and chapters, a part of which was granted to the University of Dublin, were 
all reserved by parliament to be afterwards disposed of at their pleasure.^ 

After the restoration it was again found necessary to make some new regulations 
in regard lo landed property- and the adjustment of grants, which after considerable 
difficulty, and much opposition, was effected by the famous Act of Settlement and 
the subsequent bill of explanation, |1 a detailed account of which may be seen in the 
Life of the Duke of Oimond, by Carte.^ 

In the reign of King William, forfeitures were made of lands belonging to the 

as should be approved by the state, and to keep a sufficient quantity of arms for defence. — An annual rent from 
all the lands was reserved to the crown : for every sixty English acres 6s. Sd. from the British undertaters ; 
105. from servitors, and 13i. id. from Irish natives. Leland's Hist, of Ireland, vol. ii. p. 432, 433. 

' lames said on this occasion, that " when his enemies should hear that the famous city of London had a 
footing therein, they would be terrified from looking into Ireland, the back-door to England and Scotland. 
LeUer of Sir t. Philips. 

+ Leland says, the number was limited to two hundred. 

J Leland's Hist, of Ireland, vol. ii. p. 433, 434. Millar's Historical View of the English Government, 
vol. iv. p. 38. 

() Leland's Hist. voL iii. p. 396. 

11 The l4tliand 15th, and the 17th and 18th Charles II. 

S Vol. ii- p. 221 et seq. See also Howard's Treatise of the Exchequer and Revenue of Ireland ; Dnblin, 
1786 4to, vol. i- p- 201 and 211 ; also Leland's Hist. vol. iii. p. 417-442. 



LANDED PROPERTY, RENTAL TENURES. «4l 

adherents of James, amounting in the several counties to 1,060,792 acres, which 
being worth j£2ll,623. a year, at six years' purchase for a life, and at thirteen years' 
for an inheritance, amounted to ,£2,685,130. Out of these lands the estates restored 
to the old proprietors by the articles of Limerick and Galway, were valued at 
^724,923. and those restored by royal favour, at ^260,863- and after these deduc- 
tions and several other allowances, the gross value of the estates forfeited from the 
13th of February, 168S, amounted to ^1,699.343.* 

On this occasion seventy-six grants passed the Great Seal; the principal of which 
were as follows: To Lord Romney, three grants of 49,517 acres ; to the Earl of 
Albemarle, two grants of 108,603 acres ; to William Bentinck, (Lord Wood- 
stock) 135,820 acres ; to the Earl of Athlone, 26,480 acres ; to the Earl of Galway, 
36,148 acres ; to the Earl of Rochford, two grants of 30. 5 12 acres ; to Lord Con- 
ningsby. 59,667 acres; to Colonel Gustavus Hamilton^ for his services in wading 
through the Shannon, and storming Athlone at the head of the English grenadiers, 
5,966 acres; to Sir Thomas Pendergast, for the most valuable consideration of dis- 
covering the Assassination Plot, 7,082 acres. t 

It has been observed by a respectable writer, that " landed property is the basis on 
which every other species of material property rests. On it alone mankind can be 
said to live, to move, and to have their being."| To form a just notion, therefore, of 
the state of this kind of property in Ireland, more than common attention is required, 
as it must be considered under various points of view. Hence, it is necessary to ex- 
amine the tenure by which it is possessed, the rights which are annexed to it, the 
incumbrances which affect it, and the manner in which it is managed ; the soil, the , 
minerals, and fossils which it covers, the waters annexed to it, the woods and her- 
bage it produces, the buildings and fences erected upon it, may nil be comprised 
under the term " possessory property."^ Seignorials, as chief rents, whether to the 
crown or others ; manorial, as fines, of which there are but two instances in Ireland ; 
or prescriptive, as common rights, which are also exceedingly rare ; predial, as tythes ; 
parochial, as taxes, are abstracf rights, and on account of these it is evident that pos- 
sessory property is susceptible of further analysis, and more particular distinctions ;|1 
but a minute account of them is not here to be expected. This subject belongs rather 
to tlie laborious investigator of ancient rights and tenures ; and as landed property 
in Ireland is now insured to its possessors by laws formed under a constitution similar 
to that of England, I sliall refer those who may be desirous of fuller information 
on this head, to woiks which treat expressly on the subject. 

•' Lord Sundcrlin, at Barranston, county of Wcstraeath, who is the descendant of Arthur Malone, one of 
the commissioners of the forfeiied estate, possesses the original book of sale, kc. kc. 
+ Howard's Treatise of the Exchequer and Revenue of Ireland, vol. i. 
J Marshal on Landed Estates, p. 1. London edit. 1806. 
§ Ibid. p. 2. 
II Marshal, p. 3. 

Vol. L 2 I 



342 LANDED PROPERTY, RENTAL TENURES. 

There is one striking difference, however, in this respect, between England and 
Ireland, which is much in favour of the latter ; I allude to the absence of those ma- 
norial rights over landed property, so troublesome and vexatious in the former, 
and which, as I shall shew when taking a comparative view of the two countries, in 
many instances are highly prejudicial to the public good, and impede in no small de- 
gree the progress of improvement.* 

" The land revenue of the crown in Ireland consists partly of perpetual unim- 
provable rents, reserved out of lands or other hereditaments, granted in fee to the 
subject, and partly of the rents or profits of lands, of which the freehold or inheri- 
tance still remains in the crown, commonly denominated crown lands. t The 
colection of revenue is under the management of the Commissioners of 
Excise." 

For the origin and history of these rents I refer the reader to the chapter on Re- 
venue, and also to Howard's Treatise of the Exchequer of Ireland, a book of autho- 
rity ; Carte's Life of the Duke of Ormond ; and Davis's Historical Tracts. 

These rents are classed under the four following heads : — Crown Rents, Port Corn 
Rents, Composition Rents, and Quit Rents. 

It appears by the returns made to the precepts of the Commissioners, that the 
rental of the crown lands amounts at present only to ^1,226. derived from 21,333 
profitable acres, let or granted on determinable leases.^ 

There are no port corn rents now on the rental. § 

Composition rents are probably classed in the roll rent, under the head of crowa 
rents. II 

■» The following note will show why there could be no manors in Ireland : " In England the word manor 
now denotes a parcel of land, with or without a house upon it, of which a part remains in the owner's hands, 
and is called his domain land, Arra dominica, or leria domini ; and another part has been granted away be- 
fore the 18th Edward I. or the year 1290, to two or more persons, to hold to them and their heirs for 
ever, of the grantor or lord and his heirs for ever, either by knight's service, or in fee or common soccage. In 
that year the statute olquia eruplorcs was passed, which prohibited the making of these mider grants of land 
to be holden of the grantor, which were found to be attended with many inconveniences, and ordained that 
all lands that should afterwards be granted away, to be held in heritance by the grantors, should be holden 
of the same upper lord of whom the grantor himself held them before the new grant. In consequence of 
this statute, it has been impossible to create a new manor ever since the year 1290, which is now upwards 
of 500 years. But before that time, any man who was possessed of freehold lands of inheritance, might 
have convened them into a manor when he pleased, by granting two or more portions of them to be holdoi 
by them and their heirs for ever, of him and his heirs for ever, either by the tenure of military service, 
called in the law books. Knight's Service, or in fee and common soccage." Msloria Anglicana seUcla 
Monumenia, p. 255. 

+ Fourth Report of the Commissioners of Inquiry. » 

X Ibid. p. 49. 

|) Ibid. 

11 Fourth Report, Appendix, p. 85. 



LANDED PROPERTY, RENTAL TENURES. 243 

Quit rents did average from 1785 to 1804) about ^64,000. but a great part of them 
have been sold in the same manner as the land tax in England.* 

The report to which I have here referred, gives an ample account of the landed 
property now belonging to the crown in Ireland, but it is not sufficiently extensive 
to require particular notice. 

The income of estates in Ireland varies from the lowest value to ^100,000. per 
annum. The titles to them are in general derived by grants from Henry VII. Q^ueen 
Elizabeth, Cromwel, or King William III. A few, however, are held by original 
title to the soil, as is the case with that of Mr. Cavanagh, at Borris in the coiinty of 
Carlow, that ofMr. O'Hara, the member for the county of Sligo, and several in 
the province of Connaught; but frequent rebellions, as already seen, have occa- 
sioned many changes in the ownership of estates ; and by various vicissitudes inci- 
dental to human affairs, they have been transferred from one hand to another through 
many generations, so true are the words of the poet — 

Estates have wings, and hang in Fortune's power 

Loose on the point of ev'ry wav'ring hour. 

Ready by force, or of your own accord. 

By sale, at least by death, to change their lord. 

Man ? and for ever ? wretch I what would'st thou have ; 

Heir urges heir, like wave impelling wave. 

Pope's Episl. b. ii. ep. 2. 

It has been a common practice in Ireland to grant leases for ever, or for 999 years 
or renewable for lives on the payment of a certain fine ; and by these means the fee 
of most extensive estates belongs to persons who at present receive very little head 
rent. The Earl of Ormond possesses the fee of a district, which, if properly ma- 
naged, would produce at least an income of ^500,000. per annum. The Marquis 
of Lansdowne has 60,000 acres in the county of Meaih,+ which are let for ever at a 
very small rent. Property of this kind I at first considered as fee farm rents • but 
I found on minuter inquiry that the owners claim a right to every thm<T under the 
soil. . Near the Groan Mountain, in the county of Wicklow, I saw, on the estate of 
Lord Carysford, a stone quarry, which Mr. Weaver informed me could not be 
worked because it was claimed, in consequence of a title of this sort, by Lord Or- 
mond. In the course of the present work many instances will occur of the misfor- 
tune which arises from the great extent of many properties in Ireland ; but this is an 
evil which can be remedied only by time, as our laws allow the period of two vene- 
rations for cutting off an entail and selling property. Hence much'roora is left for the 

♦ Fourth Report, Appendix, p. 105. + Thompson's Survey of Meath, p. 60. 

2I 2 



C44 LANDED PROPERTY, RENTAL TENURES. 

effects of dissipation and extravagance, and immense tracts of land, which in many 
instances belong to individuals, pass from one family to another, or become broken 
and divided. 

The management of estates, in a certain degree, depends on the settlements by 
which they are handed down from father to son ; as they sometimes allow them to be 
let only under particular restrictions. For some years past many gentlemen have 
let their lands on shorter leases than is prescribed by these settlements ; but I enter- 
tain great doubt in regard to the power of departing from them. The title to 
leasehold property ought to be as well protected as that to freehold, and instances 
where every advantage has been taken of the slightest flaw in the powers of a lessor, 
are so numerous, that it is an object highly worthy of the most serious attention. 
Another practice which those who take leases should guard against, is that of fining 
down the rent by the payment of a large sum when the contract is first made, for 
in most settlements this circumstance will undoubtedly vitiate the lease. The custom 
of taking all advantage of such oversights is now so general, that breaking a contract 
of this kind is not considered in Ireland as the smallest violation of honour. I have 
frequently been in company with noblemen and gentlemen who had acted in this 
manner with perfect impunity, and who did not seem in the least ashamed of their 
conduct. I am, however, happy to state, that a more delicate sense of moral rec- 
titude seems to prevail among the people in England. A gentleman in Essex, a few 
years ago, took a similar advantage, to the prejudice of his tenants ; but though he 
raised his income by this mean subterfuge, he lost 'the confidence of his neighbours, 
and his conduct was universally detested. 

In Ireland, landlords never erect buildings on their property, or expend any thing 
in repairs, nor do leases in that country contain so many clauses as in England. The 
office of an agent is thus rendered very easy, for he has nothing to do but to receive 
his employer's rents twice a year, and to set out the turf-bog in lots in the spring. 
Six months credit is generally given on the rents, which is called " the hanging gale." 
This is one of the great levers of oppression by which the lower classes are kept in 
a kind of perpetual bondage, for as every family almost holds some portion of land, 
and owes half a year's rent, which a landlord can exact in a moment ; this debt 
hangs over their heads like a load, and keeps them in a continual state of anxiety and 
terror. If the rent is not paid, the cattle are driven to the pound, and if suffered to 
remain there a certain number of days, they are sold. This I have frequently seen 
done after the occupying tenant had paid his rent to the middle-man, who had 
failed to pay it to the head landlord. The numerous instances of distress occasioned 
by this severity, which every one w ho has resided any time in Ireland must have 
witnessed, are truly deplorable ; and I believe them to be one of the chief causes 
of those frequent risings of the people, under various denominations, which at dif- 



LANDED PROPERTY, RENTAL TENURES. 245 

ferent times have disturbed tlie internal tranquillity of the country, and been attend- 
ed with atrocities shocking to humanity and disgraceful to the empire.* 

Though few leases contain clauses by which the tenant is bound to cultivate 
the ground in a particular manner, there are some whicli oblige him, when called 
upon, to labour for his landlord at an inferior rate of wages. The common price 
in these cases is eight-pence a day, in some instances only six-pence ; and in con- 
sequence of the service required by this clause being neglected, 1 have seen a poor 
man's cattle taken from his door, and driven away without the least expression of 
feeling or regret. If a peasant consents to the introduction of such a clause into his 
lease, and he binds himself to work for his landlord when required, at a fixed rate 
of wages, which is always low, can any one be surprised that the Irish are reproach- 
ed with idleness, or that they should perform work, under such circumstances, in a 
careless and slovenly manner ? Can men who hold leases on conditions so degrading, 
be considered as living in any other state than that of slavery ? But I shall enlaro^e 
farther on this subject when I come to treat of labour. I have known persons of 
landed property who had taken a dislike to the eldest son, on whom the estate was 
entailed, let the whole for the term which their settlement permitted, putting the 
son's life iu the lease to trustees, to be disposed of according to their will, and thus 
leave the greater part of the actual rent to other persons. 

I shall now proceed to give a short account of the extent of landed property in 
the different counties, an object of the utmost importance in considering the political 
economy of Ireland ; but I wish it to be understood that I by no means give an esti- 
mate of the real income of individuals, for there are some owners of very large es- 
tates who have not a shilling income, the whole of their fortune being absorbed 
either by the payment of a mother's jointure, the fortunes bequeathed to brothers and 
sisters, or debts contracted by themselves, or left them by their predecessors. Others 
have land in different counties, and many possess estates in England and the West 
Indies, besides funded and personal properly. I do not therefore conceive that I am 
disclosing the private situation of families, a circumstance which I am anxious to 
avoid, and on this account I have been obliged to suppress a very large mass of in- 
formation on the subject, now in my possession. 

The rent of land in Ireland is divided into so many parts, first, a certain propor- 
tion to the crown ; then money paid to the holder of the grant ; next, the profit of 
the middle-men, sometimes two or three deep, and perhaps the occupier himself may 
come in for a share if his lease be of any long standing ; that the only way to obtain a 
certain result is to consider the present value of an estate to a solvent tenant, 

♦ Earl Charleraont, according to his biographer, used to observe, and there is much truth in the remark, 
that " a rebellion of slaves is always more bloody than an insurrection of freemen." See Hirdyi Life dJ ihai 
}feblcmun, p. 95. 



246 LANDED PROPERTY, RENTAL TENURES. 

This has been the method which I have adopted in all my inquiries in every part of 
Ireland; and I am inclined to place great confidence in the answers I obtained, as they 
were given by most intelligent gentlemen, who had for many years been upon grand 
juries ; I have, indeed, found their opinions so nearly coinciding with each other, 
that the result, if not perfectly correct, must be very near the truth. But, to ascer- 
tain the rental of the kingdom, it would be necessary to know the quantity of unpro- 
fitable land in each county, with the extent of bog and mountain; and this in- 
formation I have not been able to procure.* 

The rents of cities and towns must form a very great addition to the general amount, 
for it is well known that houses are dearer in some of the most remote corners of 
Ireland, than in the best parts of London. This is ascribed to the temporary resi- 
dence of the military, a circumstance, indeed, which in some measure may have en- 
hanced the value of houses, but does not account in a satisfactory manner for what 
will, no doubt, be considered by some as a paradox. In my opinion it arises from 
another cause, which is, that many towns in Ireland belong to individuals, and this 
is one of the very few cases in which the effects of monopoly are observed. To illus- 
trate this by an example, I shall select Belfast ; no other spot could be found so well 
adapted to the trade carried on at that place; and on this account the merchants and 
manufacturers settled there, cannot change their residence; but Belfast is the pro- 
perty of an individual, and therefore he has it in his power to exact whatever rents 
he may think proper. I do not mention Belfast as a place where this is actually the 
case ; but as one where it is possible to raise the rents in consequence of the circum- 
stance to which I have alluded. 

Antrim. — This county belongs chiefly to a few great proprietors, the Antrim 
family, the Marquis of Hertford, the Marquis of Donegal, Lord Templeton, and 
Lord O'Neil. 

The Antrim property is already divided between the heiresses of the late Earl, 
and is leased for ever, so that the head-rent does not produce a twentieth part of the 
gross rental. The Marquis of Hertford has in this county 64,000 green acres, by 
which term I mean land capable of tillage, independently of bog or mountain land, 
let only on determinable leases, in the centre of which is the flourishing town of Lis- 

* As Mr. Arrowsmith has bestowed the most indefatigable labour, in order that he might give an accurate 
and just representation of the minutest wastes in his new map of Ireland, I consulted him in regard to the 
measurement of them, but they are so varied in their form, and so intermixed with the mountains, that it 
would be very difficult, if not impossible, to obtain, in this manner, any result that could be depended on. 
I have therefore abandoned the idea of taking them from Mr. Arrowsmith's map; but it is his opinion, that 
one-fourth of the kingdom consists of bogs, water, and mountains; in this estimate of waste lands, he does 
not include roads, as they contribute to public utility, but I must request the reader to keep in mind, that 
this is merely an opinion formed without any data sufficient to establish its authority, or to make it be ge- 
nerally admitted as truth. 



LANDED PROPERTY, RENTAL TENURES. 247 

burne, and on this estate live many of the most thriving and opulent persons in the 
kingdom. A finer property can hardly be imagined, and under judicious manage- 
ment it might be turned to very good account. The Marquis lets farms by the Eng- 
lish acre for twenty-one years and one life, and at what I consider a very moderate 
rent. This is one of the estates worth upwards of X 100,000 per annum. The 
marquis of Donegal lets his land for sixty-one years and a life, but renews at the end 
of a few years for a fine, which prevents his ever having much power over this im- 
mense property. The estate of Lord Templeton, in this county, is only leasehold 
held under the Marquis of Donegal. The whole town of Belfast, every brick of 
it, belongs to this nobleman, who, however, receives only a small part of the total 
amount of the rental. 

Lord O'Nei! is the owner also of an immense estate, and he leases his land for 
twenty-one years and a life. 

There are here a great many estates of two or three thousand pounds per annum, 
held by lease under the above titles, some for ever, belonging to Lord Antrim, and 
others determinable, held under different noblemen, whose names it is needless to 
mention. 

Armagh. — Lord Charlemont, Lord Gosford, Mr. Brownlow, Lord Caledon, Mr. 
Cope, Lady Olivia Sparrow, and Count de Salis, have estates in this county of from 
six to ten thousand pounds per annum, let on leases for twenty-one years and one 
life. 

A large portion of this county belongs to church and college establishments, and to 
corporations, which have not the power of granting a freehold lease of lives. There 
are also a great many minor estates, but the tenures by which they are held divide 
them into the minutest parts, so that few persons, the gentry excepted, occupy so 
much as twenty acres, a quantity considered as a large farm. 

On the 14th of August, I809, the remainder of a lease of twelve acres, at Ardress, 
near Moy in this county, rent 5s. 6d. per acre, depending on the life of a person se- 
venty-three years of age, was sold for ^160. without any building or local advanta<ye 
to attach value to it. The first lease, in this country is called " a grand lease." 

The lease of twelve acres, belonging to Mr. Ensor, rent seventeen shillings per 
acre, depending on the life of a person fifty years of age, sold for J^120. 

Mr. Brownlow having granted a lease for twenty-one years and the life of the lessee, 
of twenty-seven English acres, at twenty shillings per acre ; the tenant within three 
■weeks was offered .^300. for his bargain. 

Carlow. — The largest landed estates in this county belong to Mr. Cavannagh of 
Borris,Mr. Brewen, Mr. Latouche, whose property of £.1000. per annum, purchased 
from the Bagenals, and a seat in parliament, cost ^110.000. twenty-eight years ago ; 
Mr. Burton, Mr. Rochford, and a few others, possess from five to s^ven thousand per 
annum, and there are a great many who have from ^500. to ^2000. In this county 



248 



LANDED PROPERTY, RENTAL TENURES. 



there is very little of that minute division so injurious to other parts of Ireland. It 
has neither a temporal nor a spiritual peer resident within it; and though destitute of 
manufactures, it is tenanted by more wealthy people than almost any other county 
in the isJnnd. Of late, leases have been granted for twenty-one years and one life ; 
formerly they ran for thirty-one years and three lives. It is worthy of remark, that 
the fee has been more transferred here than in any other part of the country.' Thirty 
years ago, the Bagenal property, which is now very small, was equal to 32,000 acres, 
and the estate of the Whaleys, once very considerable, has been all sold. 

Ou the 13th of June, 1809) the rent of land was, at Gurryhurden three guineas', 
Carlow ten, Brownhill four. 

The average rent of the county of Carlow is 505. per acre. Good grazing land 
produces from ^3. to £3. lOs. 

June 17th, 1809- Pollerton. — Sir Charles Burton averages the county at two 
guineas and a crown. 

June 26th. A Mr. Butler, of the county of Kildare, thinks that the cultivated 
land in Carlow would produce two guineas. He had not long before let 300 acres 
near Gurryhurden, for three guineas. 

June 27th. Q^ueen's County. — Mr. Roche thinks that the rent of the green-land 
in the county of Carlow is two guineas. 

The quantity of cultivated and uncultivated land in the county of Carlow is stated 
to be as follows : 



Baronies. 


Cull. Land. 


Mount, and Bog. 




Acres. 


Acres. 


Ruthvilly - - - - 


28,510 


- - - 


Carlow (Calherlough)* 


18,487 


. . . 


Forth - - - . 


21,601 


- - - 1937 


Idrone . . . . 


S^fil5 


- - - 7100 


St. Mullins 


16,303 


- - - 3171 



12,3516 12,217 

Total 135-733 
July. 14th, 1809. BoRRis. — Walter Cavannagh, Esq. has granted leases for three 
lives and 31 years, which he considers as a bad method, as he finds that the tenants 
have all become independent. The land let to a tenant is subdivided among his 
children, and by them amongst their children, so that at the end of a lease he has 
twenty tenants instead of one. On his estate, according to the new way of taking 
land, twenty acres are considered a large firm. Sorne districts of the county let for 
four guineas, and no part for less than twenty shillings per acre The average, not 
includin" the vicinity of towns, is above forty shillings. 



This was the old name of the county. 



LANDED PROPERTY, RENTAL TENURES. 249 

July26,1809. Mychell. — Mr. Cornwall thinks the average of the county of Car- 
low is three guineas. In 17S7 this gentleman let 900 acres in the parish of Mychell 
for U-Od. per acre: it would now bring fifty shillings, at the common term of 
three lives, or thirty-one years. A great part of this county belonged formerly to 
Q^uakers. 

Cavan. — The "real landed property in this county is that of Earl Farnham, con- 
sisting of 26,000 acres. The leases are for three lives or thirty-one years. Mr. 
Sanderson possesses the fee of ^0,000 acres, but perpetuity leases have been granted 
upon nearly the whole. Another large property is that of Mr. Cocte, of Bellamont 
Forest, whose leases run for twenty-one years, or one life. The other estates sink to 
a very small amount, and belong chiefly to absentees. This is one of the districts of 
Ireland where the linen manufacture has contributed to render the tenures remarka- 
bly small, as is tlie case in the neighbouring county of Armagh, where twenty acres 
are considered a laige farm. 

August 28, 1808. Mr. Coote thinks that the land in this county in general would 
let for thirty shillings per acre. 

Colonel Barry is of opinion that the rental here is from twenty-six to thirty shil- 
lings per acre. 

Farnham. — Mr. Coote conceives that Cavan does not supply its inhabitants with 
corn, and that it imports some from Longford. Monaghan may produce a suffi- 
ciency for its inhabitants, but nothing more. 

Cavan is a populous and manufacturing county. The land is let in small farms, 
but the ground is uneven, and the soil poor. 

August 28, 1808: Cavan. — Mr. Saunderson complained of the want of markets 
for grain, as there is here no navigation ; and it would not bear the expence of land 
carriage. The illicit distilleries are, therefore, the chief sources of consumption. 
Mr. Saunderson thinks that the land in general of this county would not let for thirty 
shillings per acre. 

Clare, belonged formerly to the family of O'Brien, who possessed the office of 
Custos Rolulorum from the reign of Qiieen Elizabeth, till the death of the late Mar- 
quis of Thomond, but at present this immense estate is divided into four, one of 
which, inherited by Lord Egremont, came to his family by the female line, a great 
part of the property is leased in perpetuity, but enough is still left, as the leases fall 
out, to raise the income of ^1000. per annum. 

The Marquis of Thomond, Sir Edward O'Brien, bart. and Mr. O'Brien, of Bro- 
therwick in Northamptonshire, are proprietors in this county: Lord Conyngham 
also has here a large estate. Lord Egremont's land is let for thirty-one years, and 
the tenant pays the receiver's fees. His lordship is called " a bad landlord," because 
he does not enter into the vile system of making freeholders ; but a lease of thirty- 
one years is a sufficient encouragement to any tenant, and I must commend the prin- 
VoL. L 2 K 



250 LANDED PROPERTY, RENTAL TENURES. 

ciples of this high-spirited nobleman, who spurns the mean idea of driving his tenants 
to a county poll, in the same manner as black cattle are driven to a fair. His lord- 
ship, however, lets his land by advertisement, which, where the tenants are good, I 
think a very bad method. 

Sir Edward O'Brien lets his land for twenty-one years and one life: Lord Co- 
nynf^ham lets for three lives. In this county there is considerable absentee property, 
but there are some residents, besides the proprietors already mentioned, who have 
estates of from four to five thousand per annum. There is not here much of that 
minute division of property observed in some of the other parts of Ireland. 

OcTOBEkSlst. Clare. — Sir Edward O'Brien averages the rent of green-land, 
without including the caucasses, at a guinea and a half per acre. 

October 23d. Dromoland. — I rode to see an estate in this neighbourhood, of 
207 acres, belonging to Mr. Singleton, for which he lately gave /! 18,500. It was a 
part of the caucasses, and according to this price, appeared to have been sold at 
about ninety pounds per acre. 

Cork, being a large county, contains a great number of proprietors, and more 
variety is observed in the size of the estates. Lord Bandon has property here 
which produces ^30,000. per annum ; Lord Carberry posse'sses thirty-two miles of 
the sea-coast, and Lord Shannon's estates bring in an annual income of more than 
^20,000. The Duke of Devonshire has as much ; and Mr. Aldworth possesses the 
fee of an immense tract, but it is leased chiefly for ever. Lady Kingston's estate of 
^30,000. per annum, lies partly in this county, and partly in Limerick and Tippe- 
rary. The heirs of the late Smith Barry, Esq. have ^20,000. per annum. Lord 
Longueville has the same. Sir John Keane, ^14,000. Mr, Freeman, ^15)000. 
Mr. Anderson, ^10,000. Mr. Newenham, of Coolmore, J?lO,000. Lord Ponson- 
by, ^10,000., Mr. Hyde, i:8, 000. Colonel Fitzgerald, ^8,000. The Marquis of 
Thomond, ^6,000. Lord Riversdale, i;iO,000. Mr. Jephson, .i:i2,000. Lord 
Cork, ^20,000. Lord Middleton, <£S,000. Lord Egmont, iT 14,000. Lord Ar- 
den, ^6,000. Lord Kenmare, 20,000 acres. Mr. Townsend, Mr. Beacher, and 
many others, have property in this county ; and the list might be much farther ex- 
tended, by the names of inferior landholders ; but the latter are not in that propor- 
tion which is to be wished, as in many districts there is no intermediate class between 
one of these territorial lords and his lessee. 

The lar2;e estates of the Duke of Devonshire and Lord Middleton, are said to be 
managed in the most miserable manner that can be conceived ; and if one may judge 
from appearance, I must confess that I am strongly inclined to believe it. In the 
course of my tour, I could always tell to a yard upon whose property I trod. The 
land belonging to these proprietors is the worst cultivated in the country, and every 
where exhibits worn down fences, filthy and disgusting cabins, and inhabitants whose 
wretchedness is seen in their looks. But what is most surprising is, that this should 



LANDED PROPERTY, RENTAL TENURES. 25J 

be the case in the middle of estates belonging to Lord Shannon, Mr. Newenham, Co- 
lonel Fitzgerald, and Mr. Hyde, whose tenants are eating wheaten bread, and living 
in a comparative state of affluence. 

There are here many resident proprietors whose exertions to promote improve- 
ment render them worthy of every praise, and whose conduct towards their tenants 
would do honour to any country. I know no part of Ireland that is more fa- 
voured in this respect: Mr. Hyde, Mr. Aldworth, Mr. Freeman, Lord Doneraile, 
Lord Shannon, Mr. Newenham, Col. Fitzgerald, and others, all display, in the ma- 
nagement of their property, an enlightened policy, highly worthy of imitation, and 
no less beneficial to themselves than to their country. 

Mr. Townsend says,* " that the size of farms admits of all the variety that can be 
found in a country where none are large. The generality of those held by a single 
farmer are small ; such as exceed thirty acres are often held in partnership ; a kind 
of tenure objectionable in many respects, yet not ill suited to the incumbrances of a 
poor tenantry, whose chief riches consist in their labour. Two or more families, 
each bringing a little, are thus enabled, by combining their forces, to accomplish 
what they were individually unequal to.+ This species of tenure is further promoted 
by their common law of inheritance, which divides the land of the father among his 
sons : the daughter's portion is generally paid in money, though sometimes the son- 
in-law obtains a subdivision of the farm. "J In the county of Waterford I found the 
division was between the daughters ; the difference of custom in the two counties is 
extraordinary, but still it is division. Mr. Townsend, in another place, states the 
existence of the same evil. " Along the sea-coast, and where the population is 
crowded, farms are generally very small, and from the general custom of subdivision 
among the sons of the occupier, becoming still smaller. In these situations, and 
more particularly on those lands where no leases are given, the houses are very 
wretched. "§ 

This gentleman complains also of the want of confidence in regard to renewal. 
" Many landed proprietors advertise to let to the highest bidder, without any consi- 
deration for the claim of the occupying tenant. To these circumstances are imputed 
the frequent failure of tenants, and the generally unimproved state of the country. 
The farmer who sees his lease drawing near a close, and feels no animating; hope of 

» Survey of Cork, p. 251. 

+ Mr. Townsend certainly does not reason here with a true knowledge of political economy, 

J " So much are they attached to this apparently equitable law of equally dividing the property of the father 
among the sons, that, in case of joint tenants, they never take advantage of survivorship, but suffer the fa- 
ther's part 10 go to the sons. I have known many instances where the surviving lessee might have availed 
himself of that benefit, (of which also he was well aware,) but none in which he did. They are often ready 
enough to take even unfair advantages of each other in their dealing, but this seems to militate loo strgngly 
against their notions of right and wrong." Townsend's Survey of Cork, p. 253, also 202. 

t Survey of Cork, p. 319. 

2K2 



252 LANDED PROPERTY, RENTAL TENURES. 

a renewal upon reasonable terms, yielding to the emotions of despair, racks and im- 
poverishes the farm he has so little chance of retaining."* 

October 30th, 1808. Glangarriff. — The inhabitants of these mountains live 
in villages + near the coast, to \Yhich there are no roads. The rent which the moun- 
tain lands produce is very small ; they are let by the lump, and the leaseholder 
again lets to the cotter, and the cotter to another, perhaps two or three deep. 

Nov. 7 th, 1808. Cool MORE. — In part of this county the substratum is lime- 
stone, and the land lets for five guineas per acre : where the substratum is brown- 
stone, it lets at three guineas. Mr. Warren, a little before this period, had let 
thirty acres of poor land, at the distance of seven miles from Cork, on a perpetuity 
lease, at ^120. per annum. All land is measured here according to the English 
acre. One mile from Cork, twenty acres were let for ever at JCSOO. per annum, 
and a fine of ^1000. Mr. Newenham has an estate now let under a thirty-one years 
lease at J022O. per annum: there are si.\ years of the lease unexpired : at present it 
would bring an annual income of ^4000. The improved state of cultivation, and 
the great rise in the value of land, is here very extraordinary. 

Nov. loth. CoRKBEG. — The farmers here are all saving money. The value of 
land, in the course of twenty-five years, has been tripled, and even quadrupled.' 
Mr. Fiizgerald has let a farm of seventy acres, the substratum brown-stone, at three 
guineas per acre, and might have the same rent for three hundred acres which he 
holds himself, but it consists partly of limestone. A considerable quantity of 
wheaten bread is consumed here ; the people began to use it during a year when po- 
tatoes were scarce, and the consumption of it has ever since increased. 

Nov. 15th. RosTELLAN Castle. — I rctumed hither by the way of Cloyne, 
which is built on bishop's leases: this may account for its being so miserable a place. 

Nov. 18th. Castle-Hyde. — Mr. Hyde has near this place an estate, 300 
acres of which were let by his grandfather for three lives fifty-six years ago, at the 
rate of eight shillings per Irish acre. Were the leases expired, it would bring three 
guineas and a half per English acre, or nearly JOB- I65. per Irish. 

Land in the neighbourhood of Fermoy lets at from three guineas and a half to 
five guineas, but close to towns at ten guineas. 

Nov. iStb. Castle-Hyde. — Went from this place to Mitchelstown, over a 
dreary country, belonging chiefly to Mr. Hyde, and worth from twenty-five to thirty 
shillings per acre. 

Mr. Hyde remarks, that " though lund lets exceedingly high in the neighbour- 
hood of towns, the rental of the county of Cork is much lessened by an immensity of 
mountain-land, which does not bring three-pence per acre, and that even the flat 
lands at a distance from the town produce very little." 

• * Towiisend's Survey of Cork, p. 583. 

+ Villages, in this place, has not the same meaning as in England : it is the collection of houses belonging 
to those who hold the estate in partnership. 



LANDED PROPERTY, RENTAL TENURES. 253 

Nov. 23. DoNERAiLE. — Lord Doneraile says, the average rent in this neigh- 
bourhood is two guineas and a half. He estimates the whole rental of the county at 
a full million. His Lordship can let the land of his domain for three guineas per 
acre ; near the town for five. 

He remarked that the great wastes in England are invariably owing to the want 
of streams, which are as necessary to population as land. Lord Doneraile's father 
let an estate for ever at ^2000. per annum, and lived to see it re-let at a profit rent 
of oCl 8,000. 

Nov. 25th. BuTTEVANT. — The late estate of the Barrymore family, now the 
property of Mr. Anderson, which contains 1,G00 acres, has lately been let by its 
present proprietor for ^G,000. a-year. The village consists of wretched cabins 
constiucted of mud, and every shop and public-house is inscribed with the name 
of Barry. 

Nov. 23d. Castle-Hyde. — The Kingston, Hyde, and Aldworth estates, the last 
of which is let in perpetuity leases, are all held by settlements from Queen Elizabeth. 
The rest in this neighbourhood are by grants from O liver Cromwel. The Boyle 
estate was obtained by purchase from Sir Walter Raleigh; that of Lord Ponsonby was 
purchased from Sir Walter's family, and the property of the Duke of Devonshire was 
inherited in right of a female Boyle. 

Mr. Hyde complains, that it is difficult to hold tenants to occupancy, as juries 
and even judges set thiir faces against it. The former, who holds from five to 
fifty acres, thrives in consequence of the rise of the times, and is never under the 
necessity of paying any thing for labour. The cotter tenant hires a cabin, the worst 
in the country, with a small patch of potatoe land, at a rent of thirty shillings per 
annum. He also agrees for the keep of a collop or half a collop, which is still 
lower. At the same time he works for his landlord at the small wages of 5</. per 
day ; but when he comes to settle, he receives nothing, as the food of his few sheep 
is set off against what he charges for labour. In this manner the poor cotter 
must toil without end ; while his family eats up the produce of the small spot 
of land he has hired. This is called by the lower classes of the Irish " working for 
a dead horse ;" that is to say, getting in debt. 

Happening to dine at Cork with Dr. Moylan the Catholic bishop, he related 
to me the following circumstance in regard to some townlands belonging to the 
Duke of Devonshire: — These lands were occupied by two hundred families, and 
on the expiration of their leases the Duke's agents, wishing to substitute protestants 
in the room of catholics, refused to renew them. The occupiers finding that they 
were likely to be deprived of their possessions, drew up a memorial of the case, 
which Dr. Moylan presented to the Right Honourable Henry Elliot, who transmitted 
St to General VValpole. But what was the result? It was returned to the very agent, 



254 LANDED PROPERTY, RENTAL TENURES. 

whose conduct was censured: and this gentleman, a zealous friend, no doubt, to 
the established church, disregarding the claims of the catholics, introduced pro- 
testants in their stead ; but interest, which often assumes the appearances of li- 
berality, and in many cases impels men to do what they otherwise would not, 
induced the new tenants to enter into treaty with the old ones, and the latter 
obtained leases of their former lands at a small rack rent ; but with this differ- 
ence in their situation, that they were now sub-tenants, under persons who were 
middle-men. 

The leases here are generally for thirty-one years and three lives ; of late they 
have been granted for twenty-one years and one life : but in some parts of the 
country the land is re-let in very small divisions, and particularly on the sea- 
coast. In the mountainous districts land is let to partnerships ; and on the sides 
of mountains it is let by the lump, each partner having a right to turn out a fixed 
number of stock. 

In regard to the rental of this county in general, I found that the opinions 
of the Lords Shannon and Doneraile, and that of Mr. Hyde, coincided with the 
idea of Mr. Townsend, whose estimation is twenty shillings per acre.* But the 
valuation of the former was made according to the Irish, and not the English acre, 
which will render the rate very different, and still farther, from the estimation of Mr. 
Newenham, who, I think, has overrated it considerably. He, however, must be 
a better judge than I am ; and those desirous of seeing his calculations, will find them 
in the Addenda to Mr. Townsend's Survey of Cork.+ 

Donegal. — In this county Lord Conyngham has in the Ross estate 30,000 acres 
of granite mountain, the present rental of which does not exceed X2,200. per 
annum. His leases are granted for thirty-one years and three lives. He is owner 
also of two other estates, which contain together 40,000 acres. 

Lord Donecral possesses nearly 100,000 acres in Inishoen. His leases are for 
sixty-one years ; but he constantly renews on a fine, otherwise his rent .would be 
enormous. Mr. Murray, a gentleman who resides in Scotland, has ^l0,000. per an- 
num, and the Marquis of Abercorn ^9.000. 

The rents of this county are all exceedingly low, and therefore the produce" of 
estates is very small in comparison with their extent. The mountains are let by 
the lump. The common leases, at present, are for twenty-one years and a life ; 
but the greater part of those in existence, were granted for sixty-one years and 
three lives. 

Lord Leitrimhas in this county ^9,000. per annum, and Lord Erne £3,500. 

As is the case in the greater part of Ireland, there is much want here of those 
minor proprietors so frequently met with in England, who possess estates of from 

• Survey of Cork, Addenda, p. 78. + Ibid. 



LANDED PROPERTY, RENTAL TENURES. «55 

£200. to ^1,000 per annum. Wherever such incomes are found they belong 
only to leaseholders. 

The leases granted by Sir James Stewart, are for thirty-one years and three 
lives. 

The system of village partnership so prevalent in the west of Ireland is seen also 
in this county. 

Sept. 7th. Brown-Hall. — Mr. Hamilton is of opinion, that the rent of land fit 
for the plough, is from ten to twenty shillings per acre. Mountain land which is let 
by the lump is of little value. 

Sept. 8th. Donegal is one of those counties which imports corn. The prin- 
cipal land-owners are absentees ; but this list comprehends some who reside in Ire- 
land, though they are absentees from the county. 

Sept. 11th. Ballyconnel. — The Isles of Arran, off Rutland, contain 2,600 acres, 
and 100 families. The rent amounts to between ^300. and ^400. Of this extent 
500 acres are cultivated. 

Sept. 18th. Church-Hill. — In the neighbourhood of Ballyshannon land lets 
at from five to eight guineas. 

Dr. M'Parlan, alluding to the year 1802, says — " The villages of this county, 
which amount to about five hundred, are not on the increase, but dispersing daily 
into separate habitations and holdings."* Before I last visited Ireland I imagined 
that this remark applied to country towns ; but I found that the Doctor here alludes 
to the dispersion of partnership occupations, which he comprehends under the de- 
nomination of " the villages." 

Down. — This county can boast of having more gentlemen of great wealth resi- 
dent within its boundaries than any other in Ireland. The largest absentee property 
is that belonging to the Marquis of Downshire, which is divided into very minute 
portions, and produces ^30, 000. per annum; Mr. Ford has an estate of ^16,000; 
Lord Londonderry one of ^15,000; and Lord Dufferin, and Mr. Kerr, have each 
the same. 

But in this county, besides these large estates, there are a great number of small 
ones, and leases at present are granted for twenty-one years and one life. With re- 
gard to the general income of it, the Rev. Mr. Dubourdieu says : " the rental of the 
county of Down is very considerable, not less, I have reason to think, from the very 
best information, than twenty shillings the Irish acre, allowing for the mountains 
and bogs, which may be computed at 44,658 acres, the surplus of the total acres of 
the county about 300,000 ; so that the rental of the county may very fairly be o-iven 
at ^300,000. though the greatest estate is let much lower than this, yet there are 
others let so much higher as fully to make up the deficiency. Lands in the neigh- 

» Survey of Donegal, p. 64. 



236 LANDED PROPERTY, RENTAL TENURES. 

bourhood of the large towns, such as Belfast and Newry, let beyond their value, 
not as farms, but merely as a matter of convenience to the opulent inhabitants. 
They are not, therefore, to be considered as giving by any means a general idea 
of what the rental produces. What is mentioned above, merely refers to the 
average rent of the cultivable land."" 

This account was published in 1802, since which time a considerable rise has 
taken place in the value of land ; but it is still valuable, as it supplies us with data by 
which the amount of the waste land in the county may be ascertained. By estimating, 
therefore, the remaining 300,000 acres at forty shillings per acre, the whole rental 
of the county will be equal to XGOO,000. 

Dec. 13th, I809. KiRsAssocK. — Mr. Christy is of opinion that the county of 
Down may be taken on an average at two guineas an acre. 

Dec. 15th. Ballyleedy. — Lord Dufferin lets land during three years for one 
half the produce. Both his lordship, and Mr. Potter his agent, estimate the rental 
of the county at two guineas per acre. 

June 30th, I808. Moyallan. — In 1793 land was let for thirty-one years, or 
two lives, at thirteen shillings per Irish acre. At present it lets at the rate of two 
guineas per acre for twenty-one years. 

July 5th — The estate of Earl Moira, in this county, -which was sold a few years 
ago, would now sell for forty per cent, profit. 

Since I was last in Ireland I have learned, not without considerable regret, a cir- 
cumstance in regard to the conduct of the owner of one of the best estates in that 
county, which, as it cannot be doubted, for I have it from the best authority, ought 
to be publicly known from one end of the British empire to the other. As soon as 
the proprietor came of age, his agent sent notice to all the tenants whose leases were 
expired, that there could be no renewal for them unless each consented to pay a 
fine often guineas per acre I But this was not all : — to those in possession of leases 
a threat was held out, that unless they surrendered their leases, paid the required 
fine, and took out new ones, a mark would be placed against their names in the 
rental book, and not only they, but their heirs and families, would be for ever excluded 
from any benefit of a renewal. Can words be found sufBciently strong to charac- 
terize this unparalleled exaction? Was it any thing else than levying a tax of ten 
guineas per acre nearly in the same manner as the autocrat of Russia would order a 
new impost by an imperial ukase ? 

Those who can stoop to be the advocates of despotism, or to vindicate oppression, 
may, perhaps, tell me that the cases are widely different, and that the tenants wer^ 
not obliged to submit to so unjust a demand. But the estate to which I allude extends 
over many miles of country, and a refusal on their part would have been sealing aq 

* Survey of Down, p. 31. 



LANDED PROPERTY, RENTAL TENURES. 257 

?.ct of expatriation. They had no alternative — they could only comply: and thu9 
the hard-earned savings of many years' labour were Avrested from the hands of indus- 
try, to be employed, perhaps, for the worst of purposes — to be spent at the gaming 
table — to pamper luxury — or to gratify the vitiated taste of profligacy and dissipation. 
It was the apparent act of the numerous agents who infest the estate ; but the plan 
must have been known to, and approved by the owner. He is yet young ; there is 
room, therefore, for amendment; and I hope he will livelong enough to become 
wise by experience, and to be convinced that such management of his princely 
estates, is not only fraught with injustice to individuals, and pregnant with mischief 
to the country, but diametrically opposite to his own real interest. When tenants 
experience treatment of this kind, can they be attached to their landlord? And must 
not such conduct contribute in no small degree to increase discontent and excite 
disaffection? 

During the eventful period of the last twenty years, we have seen kingdoms over- 
turned and thrones shaken to the foundation ; independent states annihilated, and 
every vestige of liberty destroyed throughout almost every part of Europe. Britain, 
alone, has braved the awful storm, and made a successful resistance to the desolating 
hand of tyranny. Her sons, blessed with comparative happiness, have disdainfully 
rejected the allurements held out to them by the revolutionary demon, which brought 
ruin on those. who listened to its seducing voice: and though a part of the populace 
of Ireland became, at one time, victims to a momentary delusion, the good sense of 
the people in general, combined with the arm of power, suppressed the spirit of in- 
surrection before it had time to do any serious mischief. The bravery and patriotic 
zeal of our soldiers, who are sensible of the advantages they enjoy, have not only 
driven the enemy from our shores, but carried death and destruction to his 
armies and fleets. Our grateful allies are now pouring forth benedictions 
on the British valour and name.* Such are the effects of superior freedom 
and the comforts it brings. Secure, by proper treatment, the .affection of the 

'J 'Tis Britain's care to watch o'er Europe's fate, 
And hold io balance each conleiiding state; 
To threaten bold presumptuous kings with war, 
And answer her afflicled neighbours' prnj/er. 

Addison's Letter from Ital)-, 1701. 

For every virtue, every worth, renowned; 
Sincere, plain-hearted, hospitable, kind; 
Yet like the mustering thunder when provok'd, 
The dread of tyrants, and the sole resource 
Of those that under grim ojipression groan. 

Thomson's Summer, 

Vol I. 2 L 



258 LANDED PROPERTY, RENTAL TENURES. 

lower orders, and the safety of Britain will be established on a basis that can never 
be shaken. But the present are no ordinary times, and every friend to national 
independence must regret that a single instance should occur of the people being 
treated with either harshness or neglect. No discouraging obstacles should be thrown 
in the way of agriculture ; agriculture tends to create a rich peasantry, and such 
peasantry constitute strength. Britain has been called a commercial country ; but 
with the prospect now before her, she must assume another character, and become 
also a military one. Her armies, therefore, must be supplied with hardy recruits, 
and where are they chiefly to be found but among those enured to labour.* Im- 
pose, then, on that useful class no extraordinary burdens which may check their 
ardour and damp their industry, and bear in mind what has been feelingly expressed 
by an ingenious poet whom Ireland claims as her own: 

111 fares the land, to hast'ning ills a prey 
Where wealth accumulates, and men decay, 
Princes and lords may flourish, or may fade; 
A breath can make them, as a breath has made; 
But a bold peasantry, their country's pride. 
If once destroy'd can never be supply'd. 
. " Goldsmith's Descried tillage. . ' 

Dublin. — Mr. Luke White, Mr. Hamilton, Mr. Talbot, the Lords Longford, 
De Vesci, and Mountjoy, are among the largest proprietors of land in this county; 
and its contiguity to the capital renders it a much more marketable commodity than 
in most of the other counties of Ireland. Leases vary in their terms, except that of 
generally including a life for the purpose of conveying a vote; and the size of 
estates and farms is exceedingly different; but it is to be remarked, that there are 
here no large territorial domains, which can scarcely ever exist in the neighbourhood 
of a large commercial city. 

* Fortissimi viri et milites strenuissimi ex agricolis gignuntur minimeque male cogitantes. Hin. Hist, Kat. 
lib. xviii. cap. 5. Lugd. Bat. 166(), vol. ii. p. 419. 

A late celebrated writer, who was conversant with subjects of political economyj says, " Husbandmen 
at the same time make the best soldiers: a military spirit in the lower classes arises from bodily strength, 
and from affection to their native soil: both are eminent in the husbandman. Constant exercise in the open 
air renders him hardy and robust; and fondness for the place where he finds comfort and plenty, at- 
taches him to his country in general." This observation the ingenious author confirms by the testimony of 
Vegetius, De Re Mililari, lib. i. cap. 3. Nunquam credo potuisse dubitari, aptiorem armis^rusticam 
plebem, quas sub divo et in labore nutritur. He also adds, " An artist, or manufacturer, on the contrary, is 
attached to no country but where he finds the best bread, and a sedentary life enervating his body, renders 
him pusillanirao'.is. For these reasons, among many, agriculture ought to bt honoured and cherished shovt 
all other arts. It is not only a fine preparation for war, by breeding men who love their country, and whom 
labour and sobriety fit for being soldiers; but it is also the best foundation for commerce, by furnishing both food 
and materials to the industrious. Shlches of the Histonj of Man, by Lord Kaims, book ii. sketch 9, 



LANDED PROPERTY, RENTAL TENURES. ^59 

This county Avas surveyed by Lieutenant John Archer, in iSOl, in consequence 
of an order from the Dublin Society. And in 1802 a volume of observations on 
this survey was published by Mr. Hely Button ; but neither of these gentlemen has 
stated a single fact from which an opinion could be formed in regard to the rental 
of the county, which, on account of the number of acres attached to villas and country- 
seats, must be exceedingly high. 

Apkil 30tb, I809. Dublin. — In the course of a ride with Mr. Grierson to his 
farm beyond Finglass, the country to the north and west of Dublin appeared to be 
flat ; but adjoining to Wicklow there is a range of mountains along the southern 
boundary. Mr. Grierson's farm consists of IGO acres, 1/^0 of which are in tillatre, 
and could be let for five pounds per acre. The whole of the subsoil is of so calca- 
reous a nature, that on dropping a small quantity of muriatic acid on some earth 
which had been dug up from the ditches, it produced a strong effervescence; 
and the same effect was observed in every other place where the experiment was 
repeated. 

Fermanagh — Lord Enniskillen has an estate in this county of ^13,000. per 
annum. And in the month of August, I809, when I was at Florence Court, two 
of the leases were nearly expired ; but his lordship found that the land had been 
divided and subdivided from father to son down to the small compass of two or three 
acres. 

Colonel Archdale and Mr. Brook of Brookboro, have estates of the like extent. 
The Marquis of Ely, Lord Belmore, and Sir James Caldwell, possess estates of from 
six to seven thousand pounds per annum. The leases run, in general, for three 
lives or thirty-one years; but of late the period commonly adopted is twenty-one 
years and one life. 

There are here a few estates of from ^1500- to ^2000. per annum ; but the fee 
of the greater part of the county is in those large domains, between the proprietors 
of which and lease-holders there is no intermediate step. 

In this county there is considerable church property, which belongs to the see of 
Clogher. 

The leases granted by Lord Belmore oblige his tenants to work with their horses 
and cars a certain number of days in the year, and particularly at the season for 
procuring turf. 

Aug. 29th, I80S. Belleisle. — Sir Richard Hardinge says, " An island of 
Lough Erne, called Enismore, belonging to the bishopric of Clogher, and contain- 
ing 1400 acres, sold fourteen years ago by the late Lord Ross for 8OOO guineas, 
would now let for ^2000. per annum." 

Galway. — In this large county there is not, in my opinion, ^50,000 per annum 
of absentee property. Mr. Martin, who possesses seventy miles of the sea-coast, has 
the largest territorial extent of any individual iu the British islands ; but it exhibits 

2 L 2 



260 LANDED PRC^PERTY, RENTAL TENURES. 

every mark of the most wretched cultivation, or rather of no cultivation at all. The 
land is let without measurement, and miserably grazed by half-starved stock, and yet 
this gentleman is a constant resident on his estates. If this property be compared 
with the state of that of Earl Fitzwilliam, how shall we find out the truth of the in- 
cessant complaints made against absentees. 

The Earl of Clanricarde, Lord Clancarty, Mr. Eyre, and Mr. Ross Mahon, 
have all estates here of about ^10,000. per annum. Mr. Pendergrast Smith has one 
more considerable, and there are many, the yearly incomes of which amount to five, 
six, and even seven thousand pounds. There is abundance of smaller incomes, and I 
am inclined to think that a full third of the land is let on partnership leases, a sys- 
tem of management which I shall describe hereafter, \Yhen I come to treat of agri- 
culture. 

Oct. 8th, IS09. AVoodlawn. — It is common here to grant leases for three 
lives or thirty-one years, to an indifinite number of persons, very ofien twenty, 
who, by law, are joint tenants, and entitled to the benefit of survivorship. This has 
been an old-established practice, handed down from father to son for many gene- 
rations. These people divide the land, and give portions to their children, which 
consist of a fourth or fifth of what they call a " man's share," that is, of the land 
which originally belonged to one name in the lease. A certain portion of the whole 
farm, or take, as it is styled, is appropriated for tillage, and this portion is then di- 
vided into lots, perhaps twenty or thirty. These lots are again subdivided into 
fields, which are partitioned into smaller lots, each partner obtaining one or two 
ridges ; but these ridges do not continue in the hands of the same occupier longer 
than the time they are in tillage. The pasture is held in common, and the el- 
ders of the village are the legislators, who establish such regulations as may be judged 
proper for their community, and settle all disputes that arise iimong them. Their 
houses stand close to each other, and form what is here termed a village. 

Oct. 20th, IS09. WooDLAWN. — Mr. Trench says, that if the occupying te- 
nants be desired to state how much they will give for their land, they are so fright- 
ened, that they never make an offer, but rather remain silent, and afterwards submit 
to any terms that the middle-man may think proper to impose: he knows no instance 
of their quitting the land rather than accede to the proposed conditions. This infor- 
mation accords with an instance which I witnessed in the county of Waterford, where 
900 acres were re-let at an advance of fifteen shillings per acre by a gentleman in 
the course of a week after he had obtained a lease of them, though the tenants had 
refused an oflfer of the land at the same rent at which he bad taken it. 

Oct. 9th, I8O9. Cangor Park. — The best land in the county of Galway lies 
between Mount Talbot and Portumna, and along by Ballyroan and Kilconnelte- 
nagh. At present it would bring at an average tliirty-five shillings per acre. The 
district next in quality, extends from Athenry to Galway ; it consists of limestone 



LANDED PROf>ERTY, RENTAL TENURES. 2Gl 

rock, and is worth from twenty-five to thirty shillings. It is, however, not 
arable, on account of the rocky nature of the soil, and what grain is produced is 
raised by the spade. But the ground is of an excellent quality and well adapted for 
the pasturage of sheep. I have been informed by Mr. William Trench of Cangor 
Park, a geritleman distinguished for his acuteness of observation, that " no snow 
ever lies upon it," a circumstance certainly worthy of attention. The district which 
forms the third in this scale, is smaller ; it lies in the neighbourhood of Monivea, and 
the average value is twenty shillings. There is here plenty of limestone-ground ; 
the substratum is a w.hilish clay, called laclay, and it produces very coarse grass, 
much mixed with heath. The fourth district, in point of value, comprehends 
Conamara and Joyce's Land, but exhibits no cultivation whatever. 

April 11th, I809. At this time the green land of the county of Galway would 
average from a guinea and a half to two guineas per acre. 

Oct. 1st, ISOS. Ballvuougel. — I observed here no appearance of live hedges; 
stone fences universally prevail. The substratum is limestone. This is a grass^ 
district, and much fewer potatoes are produced in it than in most other parts I have 
seen. The land, which is grazed chiefly by sheep, lets at present for, from two 
guineas to fifty shillings per acre, which I consider enormous. 

Kerry. — In this county there are some landed estates of immense extent. Lord 
Kenmare is the owner of above 35iOOO acres, which bring him about ^SOOO. per 
annum, but his sub-tenants receive ^40,000. Lord Ventry has ^20,000. per 
annum ; his estate lies in the barony of Dingle, and he allows no middle-man to in- 
terfere with it. The landed property of Lord Innismore, purchased from Lord 
Kerry, produces at present ^20,000. per annum ; he lets his farms by advertise- 
ment to the highest bidder, and generally to partners, according to the mode I have 
described under the head of Galway. Mr. Lock, of Norbury Park near Epsom, 
has an estate of ^9000. per annum, which cost ^160,000. Mr. Herring, of Foots 
Cray in Kent, has another of ^7000. and Sir Benjamin Walsh, one of ^3000. 
A very large tract of land in the north-east part of the county, all let to middle-men 
and wretchedly tenanted, belongs to Trinity College, Dublin. Lord Corke's estate 
brings him ^5000. per annum ; that of Lord Headly X4000. and a large moun- 
tainous district, the property of the Marquis of Lansdowne, produces X6OOO. Sir 
Edward Denny, a minor, is proprietor of Tralee and its neighbourhood, which at 
present brings only ^2000. per annum, but when the leases are expired it might 
be raised to ^-£30,000. It consists of 18,000 acres, and comprehends seventeen miles 
of coast. Lord Glandore has an estate of X/OOO. per annum. In this county there 
are few small estates. Leases are granted in general for thirty-one years and three 
lives, and a considerable portion of the whole is let to partnership-tenants. 

Mr. Herbert, of Mucruss, has ^7000. per annum, but his middle-men receive 
^17,000. His estate is in proportion to that of Lord Kenmare as three to eight; 



i62 LANDED PROPERTY, RENTAL TENURES. 

but a great part of the landed property of the latter lies in the counties of Cork 
and Limerick. Lord Powis has the fee of a larj^e estate, which at present produces 
^30,000. per annum. In 1734, one of his ancestors leased it for ever at jC\900. 
per annum, and a fine of ^^6000. A verytonsiderable estate in this connly belongs 
to Lord Carbury. 

The followint^ memoranda I made near Kerry Head, in the year ISOS, in a dis- 
trict infested at the time by persons known under the denomination of White Boys, 
and by others, who were impelled by misery and want to the commission of various 
acts of outrage and violence. 

Oct. 17th, 18O8. Kerry HeaO. — Few persons here occupy such a quantity of land 
as to oblige them to employ a labourer; it is not therefore customary for people to 
go from their own homes to work, and indeed none but those -who have taken very 
dear farms, and experience the necessity of procuring a little leady money, ever 
think of it. This system, considered in a public point of view strikes me as being 
exceedingly injurious. A country, occupied by inhabitants whose ambition is so 
limited, that they have no desire to push their industry beyoud that indolent exer- 
tion which procures them the bare necessaries of life, must remain without improve- 
ment. Such people cannot be said to live, but to exisl ; to supply their animal wants 
is the chief object of their labour, and if they can raise money enough by the sale of 
butter and pigs to pay their rent, all their care and anxiety is ended. The existence, 
bowever, of these wretched beings, depends entirely on the season, for if their po- 
tatoe-crop fails they are in danger of being starved. This mode of life, instead of 
elevating the moral faculties in the slightest degree, tends only to depress and de- 
grade them. It becomes the parent of idleness,* the worst evil that can afflict hu- 
man nature, and that habit, if it spreads or becomes general, must lead to national 
poverty, and even want, with its concomitants, vice and misery. 

The progress of national misfortune, as connected with a vicious system of in- 
ternal administration, may be traced out in a very few words. The gradations are 
not many, but they are striking. Opipression deadens every generous feeling in the 
mind, and begets apathy and idleness: idleness is the parent of want; want gives 

♦ La nature est juste envers les homrnes. Elle les recompense de leurs peines; elleles rend laborieux, parce- 
qu' a de plus grands travaux elle attache de plus grandes recompenses. Mais si un pouvoir arbitraire ote les 
recompenses de la natuje, on reprend le degout pour le travail, et I'inaction paroit ttre le seul bien. Men- 
iesquieu £sprit des Loix. Liv. xiii. cli. 2. (Euvres, vol. ii. p. 4. 

I heartily approve of every regulation that tends to prevent idleness. Chief Justice Hale says, " That the 
prevention of poverty and idleness would do more good than all the gibbets, whipping-posts, and gaols in 
the kingdom." Lord Halms' Sketches oflhe History 0/ Man, book ii. sk. 10. 

Isocrates praises the Athenians for their attention to prevent idleness among the people, which he considers 
as the cause of poverty and crimes. Ts; ni» yap wnStiirtfat TfaTTana; iTri ra; yiu(y\ai xai ras inva(\ai trfi- 
Trtf" tiJoTE; Ta;/*" aTTopia; hiatai; a-fyix; yi7»(ifif>as' tb; ii xaxoKfyla; Sti^ fas airofia!* 

Isccralis Areop. in Op, apud. Crispin. 1622, p. 293. 



LANDED PROPERTY, RENTAL TENURES. 263 

birth to discontent, and discontent produces anarchy, resistence to the laws, and 
rebellion. Experience, it is said, renders men ^vise ; but the application of this 
maxim is certainly limited. Experience can never give wisdom to fools, and happy 
would it be for mankind, if the management of large estates, as well as of empires, 
were never intrusted, but into the hands of those who have sense enough to see 
their errors, and honesty enough to correct them. 

Oct. ISth, \Sv^. Kerry Head. — The leases granted by Lord Innismore are 
for thirty-one years and three lives. Colonel Crosby, late member of parliament 
for the county, has an estate here of ^6000. per annum. In this neighbourhood, 
if a lease be so far expired, that the only part remaining is the contingency of the 
tenant's life, twenty applications will be made for the reversion of it, and bargains 
of this kind are very common. But the usual practice is to expose land to public 
cant,* and he who bids most obtains it ; the unfortunate cotter, if he wishes to pro- 
cure a small tenement, must then apply to the lessee, and submit to pay an exorbi- 
tant rent, which is wrung from him by this petty lord, who, by these means, ac-' 
quires a considerable income. 

Mr. Herbert, of Carniene, says that m many places there is no market for the 
produce of an estate, and that the whole, therefore, must be consumed within its 
own precincts. The labourers on such a domain can be considered in no other light 
than a colony of beggars, and so poor is the land in the whole county of Kerry, 
mountains included, that he thinks it would not average more than ten shillings per 
acre. 

KiLDARE. — In this county there are 73,000 acres of land which belong to the 
Duke of Leinster, at present a minor, and the whole of it almost is let on deter- 
minable leases. Another immense tract is the property of Sir Fenlon Aylmer. 
Mr. Lntouche, Mr. Wogan Brown, and some other proprietors, have estates of 
from six to seven thousand per annum, and several have smaller ones. The farms 
inKildare are in general larger than in most of the other counties, and the leases which 
formerly were for thirty-one years and three lives, are. granted at present for twenty- 
one years and one life. Mr. Rawson says,t " Farms are frequently taken in part- 
nership, and that lands are advertised to be let to the best bidder." He states, also, 
" that lands are often hired by persons without any property," and this appears to 
ht a common practice throughout the kingdom. . 

King's County. — Lord Digby possesses in this county an entire barony, called 

Geshill, which contains l0,822 acres, or forty-seven town-lands. His lordship 

.grants no lease on lives, and lets only for the determinable number of twenty-one 

years. I am, however, sorry to say, that I could not observe on his lordship's 

estate any signs of a superior tenantry. Lord Ross and Lord CharlevilLe, whose 

* In England called a public Auction, in Scotland a roup. + Survey of Kildare, 1808, p. 15. 



364 LANDED PROPERTY, RENTAL TENURES. . 

lenses run for twenty-one years and a life ; Mr. D. B. Daly, Mr. Stepney of Dur- 
ragh, Mr. Bernard, and others, have all large estates in this county; but the above 
noblemen possess so much of it, that the remaining land-holders are scarcely suf- 
ficient to make a grand jury, and on that account it is sometimes difficult to form 
one. 

July loth, IS09. Charleville Castle. — Lord Charleville's leases run for 
twenty-one years and a life, to the occupying tenant. His lordship has often known 
instances, where the lessee of a life lease, in consequence of a quarrel with the owner 
in fee, divided his tenure among several tenants, and in this manner created a 
number of voters in opposition to the political influence of his landlord. 

Tillage farms here are small ; but there are grazing ones of very great extent. Ac- 
cording to a remark of Sir Charles Coote,* " some petty farmers pay their rents with 
the produce of their own and their horses' labour." 

Atril 5th, 1809. Gloster. — Mr. Lloyd averages the rent of this county, 
without including bog, mountain-land, or towns, at thirty-five shillings per acre. 
He is of opinion, also, that the catholics will give much more rent for land than the 
protestants. 

In the neighbourhood of Edenderry, the Marquis of Lansdowne has an estate of 
jCSOOO. per annum, let for ever, which produces to his sub-tenants .^lO.OOO. A part 
of the Lansdowne property was sold some years ago for ^33,000. The purchaser, 
Mr. O'Brien, receives from it an annual income of ^2000. 

Kilkenny. — In this county there are some large proprietors, one of whom. 
Lord Besborough, possesses an estate of 17,000 acres, about 2000 of which are let 
on leases for ever.t Lord Clifton has one of 20,000 acres with the towns of Graigue,:!: 
and Gowran. Lord Ormond, I have been informed, is the owner of property 
here to the amount of ^32,000. per annum. Lord Mountnorris has four or five 
thousand acres, § and Lord Desart, Lord Carrick, ISIr. Tighe, and Mr. Bryan, have 
each from five to six thousand a year. Besides these, there are a great many land- 
holders who own estates of from X1500. to ^2000. per annum ; of these indeed no 
county has more. The leases in general are for three lives, and partnership leases 
are common. The chapter upon tenures, in Mr. Tighe's Survey, ought to be care- 
fully perused by every Irish landlord; the author points out, in a striking manner, 
the injury which arises from a lease granted on lives for electioneering purposes, 
and laments that the entails of estates hold forth encouragement to this mode of 
tenure. As this acute observer has given the substance of Lord Besborough's leases,!] 
I shall insert what he has said, as it contains, in my opinion, many excellent hints 

♦ Survey of King's County, p. 22. f Tighe's Survey, p. 587. 

+ Tighe's Survey of Kilkenny, p. 506. !| Ibid. p. 420. 

X Ibid. p. oS7, 



LANDED PROPERTY, RENTAL TENURES. 265 

and will enable the reader to form some idea of the system, in regard to agricultural 
economy pursued by his lordship. " Common printed leases, with the usual co- 
venants, merely to secure the rents, are often used. As Lord Besborough's estate 
is one of the greatest consequence in the county, and as it has been more particularly 
attended to by intelligent and well-informed agents, it may be proper to recite the 
heads of his usual leases. Formerly many restrictive clauses were inserted in the 
tenures on this estate ; they have now been reduced to the following : 

" The landlord covenants to let the premises as they are particularly measured, 
bounded, and described in the map or chart annexed, reserving to himself and heirs, 
all royalties, mines, minerals, coals, turbaries, quarries of marble, freestone, and 
slate ; and all woods, underwoods, timber trees, and other trees, now standing or 
growing on the premises, with liberty of ingress, egress, and regress, for himself, 
servants, and workmen, to search for, dig, and carry away the same, (except in 
houses, office houses, gardens, courts or yards) paying reasonable amends for waste 
or drainage ; and also reserving free liberty to hunt, hawk, fish, or fowl, and also 
reservincT full and free liberty, leave, and licence, with his servants, workmen, cars, 
carts, and carriages, at any time to enter into the premises, and to make or run, or cause 
to be made or run, a road thirty feet wide through the said premises, in any direction 
which he or his heirs may decree fit or convenient, and to make and erect ditches 
or fences thereto. The tenant, with these exceptions, is to have and to hold the 

premises of , paying the yearly rent of , together with two shillings 

in the pound yearly for receiver's fees, the rent and fees paid at such place, not ex- 
ceeding miles from the premises, as the landlord or agent shall appoint or di- 
rect, by two half yearly payments of clear rent, over and above all taxes, charges, 
assessments, impositions, or payments whatsoever, ordinary or extraordinary, charg- 
ed or to be charged on the premises, by act of parliament or otherwise, quit rent 
and crown rent only excepted. Then follow the usual clauses for distraining, if the 
rent is unpaid for twenty-one days, and of re-entry if it is behind for three calendar 
months. 

" And the tenants covenant truly to pay and to maintain, repair, and keep' the 
premises and all houses, edifices, trees, fences, hedges, ditches, plantations, inclo- 
Bures, and improvements whatever, made or to be made, in good and sufficient tena- 
ble repair and condition, and at the end of the demise to yield up quiet and peaceable 
possession. It is further covenanted and agreed, that the tenant shall also yield 
and pay over and above the yearly rent and fees before reserved, an addition or in- 
crease of sterling, yearly, to be paid with the former rent, in case he shall 

alienate or parcel out to under tenants, commonly called sub-setting, either by 
writing or parole, any part of the premises to any person without licence, under the 
hand and seal of the landlord, holdings not exceeding one-third of the premises 
let to labourers or cottagers, or tenants at will excepted, it being the true meaning 

Vol. L "^ • M 



266 LANDED PROPERTY, RENTAL TENURES. 

of the demise that the tenant shall personally occupy the premises, provided always, 
that it may be lawful for the tenant at any time to sell and alienate in the whole, 
every part of his estate and interest in the premises, so that the landlord may have in 
his room one single tenant to charge with the reserved rent, it being the intention of 
the demise, that the farm should not be divided or split into different farms, without 
the consent of the landlord. It is covenanted, that the tenant shall not sell or carry 
away, or cause or suffer the carrying away of turf or peat off the farm, under a pe- 
nalty of , upon the performance of which conditions, the tenant is to enjoy 

and possess the premises without let or hinderance."* 

The result of my own inquiries, when in this county, is comprised in the fol- 
lowing remarks, which were made on the spot : 

Jan. 22d, I809. The estates in the county of Kilkenny, were the leases expired, 
would average at least full two guineas per acre. 

March 18th. Urlingfokd. — Mr. St. George is of opinion that the lands in 
Kilkenny, if out of lease, would let for forty shillings per acre. 

July 16th. Mr. Henry Tighe estimates the rental of Kilkenny at forty shillings, 
although there is a great deal of bad land from Callan and Kilkenny to Waterford. 
This gentleman had an estate near Gewran, consisting of I80 acres; which were let 
twenty-nine years ago at 17 J. 6(f. When the leases were within three years of ex- 
piration, the tenants resigned them, paid a fine of ^1000. and took new ones at fifty- 
six shillings, for three lives and thirty-one years. 

The Rev. Mr. Cornock, of Wexford, let lo3 acres, situated at the distance of twci 
miles and a half from Kilkenny, for twenty-one years and a life, at £4. per acre» 

Lord Callan has a good estate. ' ' 

Lord Ashbrook . \ - 

Lord Kilkenny 

Lord Besborough - . 

Lord Clifton - - - 

Sir Edward Loftus, a good estate 

Lord Ormond 

Sir John Blundel 

Sir William Morris 

Mr. Bryan ... 

Lady Ormond 

Sir Wheeler Cuff, a good estate. 

The Floods - - - - 9000 

* It has lately been stated, December 1810, in the public papers, that the tenants have refused to renew 
their leases when they expire, but at the old rents. The clauses in Lord OrmoDd's leases I shall consider 
when I comi to treat of religious parties. 



i:7ooo. 


per 


annum. 


8000 






- 




17,000 acres, 


- 




20,000 


32,000 






5000 






3000 




' 


3000 






10,000 







I-ANDF.n PROPKRTY. T?KNTAT. T^NTTRps ofi? 

Dr. St. George - - - - ^3000 per annum. 

Mr. Tighe ... - OOOO 

Mr. Murphy - . - - COOO 

Mr. Bunbury - - - - 40OO 

Limerick. — Lord Courtenay's property in this county, though a large portion of 
it was sold for ^200,000. is still equal in extent to 42,000 acres, and produces at pre- 
sent ^38,000. per annum, but when out of lease, -ivill bring at least XjOO,000. 
Lord Limerick, independently of his property in the city of Limerick, has ^6,000. 
per annum. Lord Clare, a minor, X9,000. Lord Southwell, ^10,000. Lord Char- 
leville, £5,000. Lord Sandwich, and the Count de Salis, each i: 15,000. Mr. 
Oliver, ^9,000. Lord Massie, ^£^7,000. Lord Egremont, X3,000. Lord Adare, 
^6,000. The Marquis of Headford, ^2,000. Sir Edward Harrop, ^5,000. Mr. 
Pigot, XlO,000. Lord Kenmare, 3,800 acres ; Lords Cork, Dorchester, and Char- 
leville, have each large property in this county ; and the case is the same with Sir 
William Barker ; Mr. Creed of Bruff, as a grazier, holds ^10,000. per annum. 
Mr. Lyons of Croom, holds from four to six thousand. In general the leases run 
for thirty-one years, and three lives. Lord Courtenay's land is let only for years, but 
the farms, if I may use the term, are colonizing, and I am assured by the graziers, that 
people pay more rent than bullocks without the employment of capital, and there- 
fore the occupiers of larger premises take in all the cotter tenants they can collect. 

Oct. loth, I80S. Adare. — Mr. Quin has a farm out of lease, consisting of 230 
acres, one-third arable land, for which he is offered from a solvent tenant J06- per 
acre. He has on his estate forty-six of Lord Southwell's Palatine families, all pro- 
testants, who hold about twenty acres each upon old leases of three lives, and thirty- 
one years, at the rate of twenty-five shillings per acre. These people are distin- 
guished for their industry; but it is that kind of routine industry exercised without 
any spirit of enterprise ; for though they all live in a comfortable manner, there is 
no instance of any one of them having ever made a fortune. Formerly their houses 
exhibited a much neater appearance ; at present they have sunk nearly to a level 
with the cottages of the Irish peasantry. 

Nov. 2r)th, ISOS. Castle Oliver. — Land near this place, though in the midst 
of mountains, lets as high as four guineas an acre. 

Mr. Oliver is of opinion, that the present is a perfect corn rent, depending on 
the price of that article. The farmer lives on potatoes, and sells every part of his 
produce, so that he considers a year of scarcity and dearth as advantageous to him. 

Nov. 2Sth, ISoS. Bruff. — Mr. St. Ledger says, that twenty years ago his 
father announced by advertisements, and in every other manner possible, his inten- 
tion of leasing 400 acres in this neighbourhood, and let the whole on three lives at 
nineteen shillings per acre. His brother has been offered for a reversionary lease, four 

2 M 2 



flfie r.AVnKP PT?nPERTY, RENTAL TENIFRES. 

guineas. In this district no consideration is paid to an old tenant, and the highest 
bidder is invariably preferred. 

Dec. 1st. Adake. — Mr. Q_uin is of opinion, that timber has increased here in 
value much more than the rent of land. This gentleman remarked, that the., rents 
of mountain-land had increased in a far greater proportion than those of good land. 

Nov. 28th. Bruff — Land here brings three, four, and even five guineas per acre. 
From an under tenant nothing less is taken than five. 

Nov..29lh. Croom. — The country near the road from this place to Bruff, 
seems to consist of flat, rich, grazing land, without a single tree. This same vein of 
land extends to Tipperary, a distance of thirty miles, varying in breadth from ten to 
twenty: if out of lease it would now let for £^. per acre. 

Mr. Lyons thinks that the green acres in this county would produce three guineas 
an acre. 

Dec. 2d. Gkange Lord Sandwich has lately granted leases on 7 7.5 acres, at 

the rate of from four guineas to £,S- Is. 6d. per acre. 

Did not produce, and particularly butter, sell here for very high prices, it would 
be impossible for the occupiers of land to pay their rents. There is not in this 
neighbourhood a single instance of a person, either rich or poor, possessing funded 
■property. M^r. Grady told many people that he would invest their money in the 
funds for their benefit and use, but the offer had been invariably refused. 

Longford. — The Oxmantown estate in this county is very extensive. Sir Tho- 
mas Newcomen has ,£7000. per annum ; Lord Longford's estate, which is let much 
under its value, brings ^4000. per annum ; Mr. Edgeworth has ^4500. per annum, 
together with Edgeworthstown; and Lord Granard ,£3000. The leases in general 
are for twenty-one vears and a life, but the tenures for the most part are small. 

Louth.— Lord Roden has in this county, besides the town of Dundalk, 6000 acres, 
4050 of which are let on determinable leases. Mr. Foster's estate, which is situated 
at CoUon and Dunleer, is almost as large. That of Lord Fortescue has nearly 
the same extent. The estates of the remaining proprietors are worth from about 
X15OO. to £'2000. per annum, and the farms are generally large. 

Aug. 12th, IS09. Louth Glebe. — John W. Foster sold to Colonel Fortescue, 
ten years ago, a good house with 3OO acres of land annexed to it, for <£! 7,000. and 
at present 15O acres are let for X3OO. per annum. Mr. Fitzmaurice let 120 acres 
for twenty-one years, at £6. per acre, and a fine of £lOOO. The lessee re-let it for 
twenty shillings. It is now out of lease, and will bring jEs. per acre, and other parts 
of the county, when the leases are expired, will let for the same. 

The average rent of Louth at present is from thirty shillings to thirty-one shillings. 

Meath. — Lord Darnley has landed property in this county to the amount of 

£■12,000. per annum. His leases are for thirty-one years and a life, but his lordship 

endeavours to confine the tenant to occupancy. The Marquis of Headford has 



LANDED PROPERTY, RENTAL TENURES. 269 

^14,000. in this county and in Cavan. Lord Lansdowne has G0,000 acres. But his 
land islet on perpetuity leases. Lord Sherborne has .£ 10,000. per annum. Lord 
Fingal, ^7000. Lord Tarra, i:7000. Mr. Corbally has i:iO,000. but this pro- 
perty not all in fee. The Marquis Wellesley, ^6000. Mr. Bligh and Sir Marcus 
Somerville have each ^£'5000. per annum ; and there are a great many proprietors 
who possess annual incomes of from two to three thousand-. 

In my opinion there are in this county as many proprietors with incomes not less 
than ^2500. per annum, as would compose two resident grand juries. Cork, Down, 
and Meath, have a far greater number of wealthy landed proprietors than any of the 
other counties of Ireland. At present leases here are for twenty-one vears and a 
life, formerly they were for thirty-one years and three lives. Eart Moira had an 
estate here, which he sold to the late Archbishop Fowler for ^62,000. it now 
produces X4OOO. per annum, and is daily improving. Mr. Thomson says, that the 
fee of Meath is chiefly absentee property, and seven-eighths of the answers to his 
inquiries were to that effect;* but he does not consider, that an estate let for ever, 
although the head landlord draws a small rent from it, which determines it to belong 
to an absentee ; still the owner of such a lease is in fact the owner of the soil. 

July 29th, IS09. Abraaken. — Mr. Thomson, who drew up the survey of this 
county, is of opinion that Meath contains 3OO.OOO acres of green land, which would 
now let for fifty shillings per acre. 

Sept. 27th. Brittas — Mr. Bligh gets from two guineas to fifty shillings per 
acre for his estate, but it is let much under value. 

MoNAGHAN. — This couDty in one respect is the very reverse of the preceding, 
for not only are the chief proprietors absentees, but there are few possessed of good 
incomes resident within it. The whole land is divided into very small tenures, 
called in Ireland holdings ; the largest estates belong to the Marquis of Bath and Mr. 
Shirley, the latter of whom has 33,000 acres, but both these properties exhibit the most 
wretched cultivation ; fields without hedge-rows, and inclosed only by earthen banks 
or dykes ; land running to waste, which with great truth maybe compared to its inha- 
bitants, that is, losing its strength for want of proper nourishment, and existing in 
a state of the utmost poverty. The people complain loudly of middle-men and bad 
leases; whether their complaints are well founded I will not take upon me to assert, 
but I have strong reason to conclude, that there must be some radical evil in the aori- 
cultural economy of these estates, since according to every appearance no land can be 
in a worse condition. Lord Cremorne, Sir Thomas Lennard, Mr. Dawson, Mr. Leslie, 
and Lord Blaney, have all good estates in this county, but I could obtain no informa- 
tion in regard to the manner in which they are managed. I conversed only with 
the lower orders, and was obliged to listen to complaints without number; but to 

' Survey of Meath, p. 60. 



270 LANDED PROPERTY; RENTAL TENURES. 

judge from hearing one side of a question would be unjust ; and besides, I found that 
these people did not possess that knowledge which could enable me to draw con- 
clusions to be depended on, or to form any certain opinion. I traversed the county 
in every direction, and heard much from the minor tenants of the dues exacted by 
the larger ones as rent ; but I can state in general, that the account given by Sir 
Charles Coote* accords with the appearance which it presented. " In Monaghan 
the rent-rolls of large estates will be found from nearly ^20,000. to ^1000. per 
annum, and a very considerable part is held in grants from ^20. to jObOO. per an- 
num. The large estates are in no instance resided on by the immediate proprietors, 
but the lesser ones are almost uniformly otherwise, and are held in grant from the 
crown since the Scotch colony was introduced here ; and also a considerable share of 
these lands were gifts to Cromwel's soldiers, many of whose posterity now enjoy so 
small a tract as does not yield above j020. annual income. Few of the farms on the 
larger estates are set in perpetuity, and the more general term is twenty-one years 
and a life, or three lives. Alienation is neither opposed nor permitted, generally 
speaking, nor is it a matter of that material consequence where leased farms are un- 
der the average of ten acres through the country. I suppose, taking the large farms 
in Monaghan, they would not average twenty-five acres ; nor could the small ones, 
which are far more numerous, average six acres, so that ten may be the mean rate of 
the whole county." 

The same writer in another part says,t " the beggarly system of extorting duties 
from tenants is so shamefully reprehensible in this enlightened age, that it is sur- 
prising to see such clauses still insisted on in leases. It is not on such paltry con- 
siderations that men of rank and fortune should hold their superiority, and if such 
pitiful dues are beneath them to accept, as poultry, eggs, 8cc. then why insert them in 
their leases, which have no meaning, but may be productive of the worst and most 
tyrannical consequences to the tenant, if a receipt is not regularly passed for his 
duties as well as his rent, because a penal sum is always inserted to be recovered in 
like manner as rent, if the duties should not be paid." 

Mayo. — This county is one of those which is possessed chiefly by immense land- 
owners, but there are parts of it, such as Erris, which, like Joyce's Country, and Con- 
namara in Galway, seem to be uncultivated wastes, and in other parts of it there are 
tracts of " moorland," occasionally covered with water ; the fee, however, still be- 
longs to individuals. Lord Dillon has here a large estate, which produces nearly 
^18,000. per annum, let on determinable leases, and it appears that it must occupy 
a very large extent of country, as there are upon it 2100 registered freeholders, who 
no doubt have a great number of under tenants. When I visited Mayo, I was ad- 
vised not to attempt crossing this estate to Roscommon ; I, however, experienced ne 

f Survey of Monaghan, p. 39. + Pag^ 49. 



LANDED PROPERTY, RENTAL TENURES. 271 

inconvenience but from the hardness of the roads, and my not understanding the 
Irish language, which is here universally spoken. As far as I went, I found the 
farms by no means small. The Marquis of Sligo has ^20,000. per annum ; Lord 
Lucan XlO,000 Mr. Palmer and Lord Tyrawley have each the same; Mr. Brown 
has ^15.000. Lord Clanmorris XlO.OOO. Sir Neil O'Donnel, Colonel Jackson, and 
Mr. Rutledge, each ^7000. and there are many others who have property of inferior 
value in various gradations. 

Two grand juries might be formed in this county, if so low a qualification as 
^1000. per annum were admitted. The greater part of the land is let to partner- 
ship tenants, and the gentlemen say that they are obliged to adopt this method in 
order to secure their rent. The general period of the leases is thirty-one years and 
three lives. The practice of not dividing partnership leases, as they expire, is 
most pernicious in its effects, and to convince those who follow it, that a better 
exists, I need only refer to the management of Mr. Ross Mahon's estates in the 
adjoining county of Galway. 

Nov. 3d, I8O9. Bloomfield. — The best lands in Mayo bring forty shillings, 
the worst twenty shillings per acre. A great part of the county is let on the village 
system, and each village has a certain code of laws established by the inhabitants 
for adjusting any differences that may arise among them. If this be found impracti- 
cable, the whole body apply to the agent, and if his decision be not satisfactory, they 
appeal to the landlord, provided he be a resident. But this rude system of village 
law gives rise to continual wrangling, and pertinacious litigation, for trifles scarcely- 
worth a straw; a disposition which seems not to accord with the boasted generosity 
of the Irish character. But from Dr. M'Parlan's account, published in 1802, it 
would appear that the village system is on the decline. 

The gentry here seem to have a much greater desire to ornament their lands than 
to improve them by culture. On the immediate sea-coast of this county; there is no 
limestone, but the islands, like those of Arran to the west of Galway, are all lime- 
stone. The barony of Tyrawley contains excellent grazing land for cattle ; Kilmain 
affords good pasturage for sheep ; and there are graziers in the county on a very large 
scale, some of whom hold as much as 3OOO acres. The people here in general are 
averse to the hiring of land in any other way than that of partnership, and if land- 
lords will not grant leases according to the village system, they will not offer any 
thing. What little corn is raised, except in this manner, is the produce of fields 
held under the grazier, who thus obtains an exhorbitant rent from the cotters. 
Thirty pounds for four years is the common rent of an acre. Mr. Rutledge remarked, 
that the most striking; rise in the value of land takes place in the neighbourhood of 
sea-port towns ; but wherever a sale can be procured for corn, the value of it finds 
its way into the pockets of the landlords, and the people must endeavour to pro- 
cure food in the best manner they can. 



273 LANDED PROPERTY, RENTAL TENURES. 

Q^ueen's County. — This county contains some large estates, one of which be- 
longs to Lord De Vesci, who possesses 13,000 acres, including 3OOO of bog. The 
whole of this land is let on determinable leases, and at present would let according 
to the lowest valuation for jC 15,000. per annum. Sir Charles Coote, an absentee, 
has ^12,000. per annum. The Duchess of Chandos, ^8000. but it consists in the fee 
of a large income from land which is let for ever, and produces annually ^48,000. 
LordOssory has ^10,000. Lord Ashbrook, Lord Stanhope, Mr. Parnel, Mr. Henry 
Strange, Lord Castlecoote, and Lord Portarlington, have all good estates in this 
county; Mr. Strange possesses one of X5,000.perannum, the leases of which are nearly 
expired ; the premises are small, consisting mostly of from ten to thirty acres: Mr. 
Wellesley Pole has a large estate, and another in the King's County ; were the whole 
of this property in the Queen's County, it might rank with the best it contains. The 
new leases here are granted for twenty-one years and a life ; Mount Mellick belongs 
to the Marquis of Drogheda, who has here ^4000. per annum. 

The minute division of property has given rise to some observations of Sir 
Charles Coote, which, as they merit attention, ought to be generally known. 
" In this county there are large estates from o£8000. to X 1000. per annum in fee, 
but the very respectable middle class of gentry enjoy their fortunes from perpe- 
tuities in lands, granted long since to their ancestors, many of whom have now a 
better interest than the original proprietor, and may be rated to possess from ^800. 
to jClOO. per annum. These lands they have since let out to farm, in smaller par- 
cels on a terminable lease, partly set for Lives, or for years, or for both ; and consider- 
ing the effects of a limitation, so far they are most certainly beneficial ; but in ge- 
neral where it is permitted in an unlimited sense, it becomes the great bar to national 
prosperity, in as much as it clogs and retards the surest source of wealth, which is 
the furtherance and improvement of agriculture. This requires but little eluci- 
dation to demonstrate, for as population increases, consequently land will be sought 
for, and the holder prefers a certain profit rent to the risk of manufacturing it him- 
self; his successor is caught by the same bait, till at last it descends to the miserable 
peasant, to whom it is rated at double its value at a rack-rent, who is without capital 
to work it, and for the few seasons which he perhaps may hold it, is obliged to till it 
incessantly for corn crops, till its vitals are exhausted ; then it is left during a year 
of forbearance, and perhaps another in the stages of ejectment in a slovenly coshier 
fallow, over-run with weeds, and thus its improvement, had it been injudicious hands 
and set out at a reasonable rent, is retarded for a length of time. It is curious to ob- 
serve how opposite are the causes resulting from alienation of land in this country 
and in England ; there it has become the means of the wealth of the nation, and the 
great cause of the rapid improvement in agriculture. It is worth inquiring why the 
same cause has so different an effect: it must be considered, that in England vast 
Cracts of land were in the hands of one proprietor, who was of himself unable to 



LANDED PROPERTY, RENTAL TENURES. t75 

compass the work of so Avide a district, and in the disposal of his lands, wisely let 
them out in parcels commensurate to the wealth and ability of the tenant. The 
lands being let out at a fair rent, it became worth the tenant's care to brino- thera 
from their quondam apparently barren state, to that improvement which they now 
present ; and their farmers are too sensible of the value of their time to work and 
toil without profit, it having being well understood, that three rents were to be 
made of the farm, one for the landlord, one for the taxes, labour and all concomitant 
e.\pences, and a third for the farmer's profit. Thus it was, that the proprietor had - 
but one- third of what his land could actually produce ; but he had a solvent tenant, 
and there the tenant pays not for his improvement ; his rent was only raised in pro- 
portion to the times of which he enjoyed an equal benefit, or indeed, a much greater 
than the landlord. Let us now revert to the state of the capital of those peasants 
who toil unceasingly, and are greater slaves than the labourers they employ ; we 
see their wealth is not sufficient to provide the necessaries, much less tlie comforts of 
life. Let us inquire into the situation of the English peasant; it is true he is with- 
out capital, consequently he farms no land, nor aims at what is above his reach ; we 
see him comfortable and contented with his situation, and able to provide all neces- 
saries in his sphere from his daily labour, well fed, and well clothed, infinitely more 
so than many of our freeholders. In England the lands held under old leases are 
the least improved where they have not been alienated. Itf^Ireland, lands of this de- 
scription are in the highest state of improvement, and their proprietors are almost 
universally in true wealth and independence."* These observations contain much 
good sense, but it is to be regretted, that the author says nothing in regard to the 
amount of rent, a circumstance which is always of the first importance. 

March 19, I809. Saunders'-Court. — Mr. Saunders had an estate in the Queen's 
County, consisting of 300 acres out of lease, the old rent, ^60. which is now let to 
the immediate tenants at ^560. and a year's rent as a fine. 

J.ULY 13. — Sir Allan Johnston let 100 acres for forty-one years, at ^5. per acre. 
The mansion cost .^ISOO.- 

Water Castle, near Abbeleix. — An estate of 120 acres let on a lease of sixty-one 
years, at four guineas per acre. The house cost ^2200. 

June 29, I809. The following is given as the measurement of the Queen's County 
in the map belonging to the grand jury. 

* Survey of Queen's County, p. 20. 



Vol. L 2 N 



^274 



LANDED PROPERTY, RENTAL TENURES. 



ult. Land. 


Bog and Mountain. 


Acres. 


Acres. 


12,314 


- - - 1175 


14,960 


- - - 6480 


15,500 


- - 15,076 


18,250 


- - - 1480 


18,324 


- - - 7930 


12,560 


- - - 1200 


12,140 


- - - 2904 


12,680 


- - - 7 000 


12,534 


- - - 10,280 


23,597 


- - - 1373 


22,079 


- - - 5102 


184,938 


60,000 


60,000 





Maryborough E - - - 

w - - - 

Tinebinch . - . - - 
Portnebinch .... 
CuUinagh - - . - - 

Stradbally 

Ballyadams - - - - - 
Sle'tvmargy - - - - - 
Candred of Upper Woods 
Charriiallagh - - - - 
Candonough . . . - 



Total 244,93s 

June 29, IS09. The mountains belonging to Lord Portarlington bring very little 
rent, but are capable of ndhch improvement. 

Roscommon. — This county is divided among proprietors who possess very large 
estates ; Sir Edward Crofton, and Mr. French, of French Park, have immense tracts 
of land, the leases of which run for twenty-one years and a life. The family of the 
late Mr. St. George Caulfield, Lord Mount-Sandford, Lord Lawton, the second son 
of Lady Kingston, and Lord Hartwell, have each extensive estates. The ap- 
pearance exhibited by that of the last-mentioned proprietor, made me particularly 
anxious to know the manner in which it is managed. I crossed it from Stokestown, 
going towards Longford, and found, every where, cabins of the most wretched. as- 
pect, infamous stone roads, very minute divisions of land, and what usually fol- 
lows it, a superabundant but miserable population. The picture which I here saw- 
will not be easily effaced from my remembrance, and I could not help calling to mind 
an expression of a writer whose opinion on agricultural subjects ought to have great 
weight :* " Go to districts where the properties are minutely divided, and you will 
find, at least I have done it, universally great distress, and even misery, and probably- 
very bad agriculture." I had no letter of introduction to the noble lord, nor to any 
of his agents, but I must confess, that to have learnt the system pursued in the agri- 
cultural economy of this property, would have afforded me a useful lesson in order 
to recommend an opposite system, for I do not recollect to have travelled so many 



Travels in France, by Arthur Yoiins, Esq. F.R.S. 4io, vol. i. p. 484. 



LANDED PROPERTY, RENTAL TENURES. 275 

miles through any estate in Ireland which presented such a scene of desolation ; and 
nothing astonished me so much as the multitude of poverty-struck inhabitants, from 
whom I could learn very little more than that the estate belonged to " My Lord," 
whom they loaded with imprecations. 

This is another instance of great mismanagement under a resident landlord ; but there 
are some parts of the country in which a very different system seems to prevail, and 
where graziers, possessing an immense leasehold interest, have in many cases been 
enabled to become the purchasers of the fee. As their property in the land, from 
the rise of prices, is frequently much larger than that of their landlords, there are 
many persons of this description who, with a mixture of freehold and leasehold, 
have from X1500. to ^5000. per annum. 

Sept. 23d, I809. Roscommon. — Mr. Taafe, seventeen years ago, hired 240 acres, 
which were let by advertisement for thirty-one years and three lives at fourteen shil- 
lings per acre. At present he could readily let it for forty shillings. 

Mr. French's father let 400 acres for three lives, at ten shillings an acre. He has 
now hired it on an expirable lease, at two guineas, and not being likely to renew with 
his own tenant again, he has broken up one piece of land, from which he has taken 
two crops of potatoes, one of flax, and six crops of oats, in succession. 

Sligo. — In this county there are some very respectable properties; Mr. Wynne, 
Mr. Cooper, Mr. O'Hara, Lord Kirkwall, Lord Palmerstone, Miss Ormsby, and Mr. 
Jones, have estates of from five to nine thousand per annum. Leases here are granted 
for longer periods than in many of the other counties, the usual term being thirty- 
one years and three lives, and some are granted for sixty-one years and three lives. 
A large portion of the county appears to be let to partnership tenants, and this is 
confirmed by the following remarks of Dr. M'Parlan, who drew up a survey of the 
county. " Farms, their size is various, from three acres to five hundred, the poorest 
classes have very small holdings, not only three acres, but sometimes even less ; as 
they advance higher in circumstances, the extent of their holdings upwards to 5OO 
acres, as mentioned, and even above it ; not that individuals in general hold farms of 
that extent, but, that unfortunately the tenures of lands are mostly as yet undividedj 
and a great number of tenants hold still, in partnership, wide tracts of land, and be- 
side, because to the farms are commonly annexed wide appurtenances of coarse bot- 
toms and mountain."* 

" Mode of repairing them, whether by landlord or tenant. Always by the te- 
nant. This is the fourth county I have examined, and in all the four not one instance 
occurred where the landlord was obliged to repair." 

Roscommon. — Mr. French is forty-four years old: when he came of age his father 
had agreed to sell his estate in the county of Sligo, consisting of 2600 acres, which 

» Survey of Sligo, p. 33 and 34. 

2 N 2 



276 LANDED PROPERTY, RENTAL TENURES. 

brought an annual income of £,'i 10. at eighteen years purchase. Mr. French refused 
to join his father in the sale, and the event has shewn that a young man may some- 
times conduct his affairs in a more judicious manner than one of superior years, for 
he now receives from this estate ^2000 per annum. A tax is imposed here on every 
lease, and the consequence is, that many tenants never go to the expence of havino- 
a formal one, but hold their land on verbal agreement, telling the landlord : " If your 
honour will only make a memorandum of the bargain in your book I shall be satis- 
fied." With some proprietors a contract of this kind may be perfectly secure ; but 
the e.\perience of the world sufficiently shews that it is but a very frail tenure, and par- 
ticularly at a period when, according to the words of an ingenious writer, " the appe- 
tite for property becomes headstrong, and must be gratified at the expence of justice 
and honour."* 

TiPPERAKY. — This large county, abounding with luxuriant soil, contains landed 
estates of different sizes, held under various tenures and circumstances. Lord Lan- 
daffhas aproperty of 32,000 acres, which at present bring ^28,000 per annum. Lord 
Cahir, in the neighbourhood of the town of that name, has 12,000 acres, the leases 
of which are fast expiring, and which, when re-let according to the present value 
of land, will produce ^36,000 per annum. About 26,000 acres, which bring an 
annual income of ^14,000, belong to Lord Dorchester. 

Lord Haywarden has ... ^12,000 per annum. 

Lord Lismore 15,000 

Lord Donally - . - - - - 8,000 

■ Sir Thomas Osborne - - . . 10,000 

Lord Norbury 8,000 

Sir William Barker - - - - 10,000 

Mr. Bagwell is proprietor of the whole town of Clonmell, together with an im- 
mense estate in the neighbourhood. Besides these large estates there are a great many 
smaller ones of from four to six thousand per annUm. The graziers here, as in Ros- 
common, have leasehold properties of very great extent, and in many instances the fee 
is so trifling compared with their interest in the soil, that they easily become the owners 
of it by purchase. I know persons of this description, who in leasehold and freehold 
property possess incomes of ^9000. per annum: two, three, or four thousand a year 
is very common. Leases formerly extended to thirty-one years and three lives, but 
as in most other parts of Ireland, they are now reduced to twenty-one years and 
one life. In some parts of the country, farms occupied for tillage are small, and 
perhaps it may not be improper to say, that small occupations create tillage, rather 
than that the latter gives birth to the former. In this county there is grazing land 
of every description ; that of the mountainous districts is let by the lump, and where 

■ Lord Kaims' Sketches of the History of Man, b. i. sk. 3. 



LANDED PROPERTY, RENTAL TENURES. 277 

tlie occupations are very large, tlie business of fattening cattle is pursued on a most 
extensive scale. There is here a colony of Palatines ; the greater purl of those set- 
tled in Ireland are to be found in Limerick. 

March 19th, ISOQ- Forty years ago the Palatines on Sir William Barker's pro- 
perty had thirty-two acres each, at 3s. 6d. per acre. None of them have ever emi- 
grated, or been known to inlist in the army. These thirty-two acres are now 
divided among six or seven families, who intermarry with each other like the Jews, 
and live as a distinct people. 

Oct. nth, IS08. Castlelough. — Nenagh belongs to Mr. Holmes, and con- 
tains between two and three thousand inhabitants. Ninety acres are considered here 
as a large tillage farm. The leases, which are for three lives, be<Tin now to be 
granted for twenty-one years and one life ; but the former have been so customary, 
that all marriage-settlements permit the owners of land to let it for three lives 
and thirty-one years. 

Dec 6th. — The high ground-rent for bouses in Clonmell, like that at Fermoy, 
is very extraordinary, being from seventy to an hundred guineas per annum: the lease 
for three lives. 

Dec 14th. Marefield. — Passed Thomastown, the residence of Lord Landaflf, 
who possesses an unbounded influence in the county of Tipperary. In this neigh- 
bourhood I met with some instances of high rent, which appeared to me re- 
markable, and which the reader perhaps will hardly credit : Mr. Sparrow let a 
piece of land consisting of twenty-five acres, without a habitation upon it, at the 
rate of twelve guineas per acre, and another of I05 acres, situated at the distance of 
a mile and a half, at six guineas an acre. Near Clonmell a farm lias been let, on 
account of local convenience, so high as fourteen guineas per acre ; and Sir Thomas 
Fitzgerald receives for six acres, near Cashel, the same extravagant rent. 

Mr Bagwell is of opinion that the green land of this county lets for three o-uineas 
an acre. 

March i22d, 1S09- Littleton Glebe — I here inspected a farm belonging to 
one of the Mr. Scullys, the leases of which were within six years of expiration. 
The occupier was selling off hisstock, having let the land to cottage tenants at the 
rate of XS- 2s. 4d. in order that they might break it up and run it out in time. The 
estate belongs to Lord Norbury, and contains some hundreds of acres. 

April 4th, IS09. Roscrea. — Templemoor belongs to Sir John Cardan. Land 
here lets in general at jCS- per acre. 

Tyrone. — This county is divided chiefly into estates of very large extent. The 
Marquis of Abercorn, Lord Belmore, Lord Northland, Lord Mountjoy, possess very 
large tracts of country. But the first-mentioned proprietor has only a life interest, 
and therefore he grants a lease of years and a life, but under the condition that it 
does not exceed his own. 



278 LANDED PROPERTY, RENTAL TENURES. 

The Newto\vn Steuait estate, consisting of 24-000 plantation acres, is of consi- 
derable value. 

Lord Belmore grants leases for three lives, and Lord Northland for twenty-one 
years and a life. In this large county there are many estates of from five to seven 
thousand per annum, and very few small ones ; but the system adopted by the 
owners of them is very different from that pursued by the proprietors before-men- 
tioned ; as the land passes through the hands of several middle-men, in portions of 
various sizes, from the large territorial possession, embracing many miles of country, 
to the most minute division possible to be of any utility: except in the mountainous 
parts, the quantity of twenty acres is considered as a large occupation. The leases 
granted by Mr. Staples are for thirty-one years and three lives. In this county the 
system of partnership tenures is common. Mr. M'Evoy, who drew up the Survey 
of it in 1S02, gives the following description of it:* " The size of farms differs very 
much throughout the county ; mountainous farms are generally of great extent, and 
are seldom divided themselves, or even from each other. It is customary here for 
several persons to be concerned in one tow n-land, which is held in common, or run- 
dale, as it is usually called, each person paying a certain proportion of the rent, 
such as a fourth or a fifth, perhaps according as the case may be; this determines the 
quantity of land each is to cultivate on his own account ; but the cattle run in com- 
mon, and the number allowed to the share of each person is also-determined by the 
proportion of rent. This system is attended with many inconveniences to the land- 
holder, and is the greatest impediment to every kind of improvement. As long as 
this system exists, there can be no emulation for draining, enclosing, limeing, or car- 
rying into execution any permanent plan for renderingthe land more productive, since 
none of the party have any dis'ision which may properly be called their own. . If one 
person should be disposed to improve, another, or perhaps the whole party may be 
averse to it, and thus the business of improving the farm is dropped altogether." 

Watekford. — In this county there are some very large estates. The greatest 
individual proprietor is the Duke of Devonshire, a part of whose land I had an op- 
portunity of inspecting, having crossed it in going from Youghall towards Dungar- 
von; but I much regret that a regard to truth obliges me to say, in the words of the 
poet: " The desolated prospect thrills the soul."^ I found it in a condition disgrace- 
ful to a civilized and cultivated country. It was grazed by a few half-starved cattle ; 
and, if I e.xcept the circumstance of its not being overburdened with population, it ex- 
hibited every appearance of wretchedness and misery that the mind can conceive ; 
though from its situation, and the nature of the land, it seems capable of being ren- 
dered exceedingly productive. The climate and soil are both favourable, and there 
are sufficient falls for irrigation to be employed with the greatest effect ; yet one may 

- Survey of Tyrone, p. 90. + Tliomsoii's Autumn, 



LANDED PROPERTY, RENTAL TENURES. 27y 

travel mile after mile with the painful prospect of seeing the surface of good land 
drowned under water, wliich, by the slightest management, and with little labour or 
expence, might be carried off in drains, to the great benefit not only of the property it- 
self, but of the whole country. To me the sight of fertile acres treated with so 
much neglect, was uncommonly dismal ;- it suggested the idea of desolation in a spot 
where, if the spirit of industry were excited, and proper encouragement held forth, 
the eye might be greeted with the view of luxuriant meads and fields, 

Wliere Ceres' gifts in waving prospect stand, 
And, nodding, tempt the joyful reaper's hand, 

I met a few lonely inhabitants who could not speak a single word of English, and, as 
I was unacquainted with their native tongue, it was impossible for me to obtain any 
information from them, either in regard to their situation, or to the management of the 
estate on which they resided. My own observation, however, was sufficient to con- 
vince me, that what has been said respecting absentee proprietors, by a very able 
Avriter on economical and agricultural subjects, is strictly agreeable to truth, and 
worthy of the most serious consideration. " It is not the simple amount of the rental 
being remitted into another country, but the damp on all sorts of improvements, and 
the total want of countenance and encouragement which the lower tenantry labour 
under. The landlord, at such a great distance, is out of the way of all complaints, 
or, which is the same thing, of examining into or remedying evils ; miseries, of which 
he can see nothing, and probably hear as little of, can make no impression. All that 
is required of the agent is to be punctual in his remittances, and as to the people who 
pay him, they are too often welcome to go to the devil, provided their rents could 
be paid from his territories. This is the general picture."" I regret much that I had 
no opportunity of becoming acquainted with the system followed in the management 
of this property, as the exposure of it might serve as a warning to others, and induce 
them to avoid plans prejudicial to themselves and ruinous to the country. 

I am willing to believe, that many of those who have estates in a similar situation 
would not intentlonally'do what is morally wrong ; but a wide distinction is to be made 
between positive and negative virtue, and he who neglects to ameliorate the common lot 
of humanity, where amelioration is possible, cannot be said to be perfectly blameless. 
We were not born for ourselves alone ; and he that thinks he has performed his duty 
by abstaining from evil, may pass through life without either praise or censure; but 
his feelings will not certainly be envied by those who conceive tiiat they were called 
into existence for much nobler ends. Indolence, combined with wealth, will some 
times prevent men from enlarging their incomes ; an addition to Avhich, where the 
taste is sated by superfluity, and art has been exhausted to supply external embellish- 

" Tour in Ireland, by Arthur Young, Esq. F.R.S. 4io, part ii, p. 59. 



esd LANDED PROPERTY, RENTAL TENURES. 

merits, could add nothing to their enjoyments, and little to their splendour. But it 
ou^i-ht to be remembered, that he who improves landed property renders an essential 
service to the public; he multiplies industry, which increases the resources of the 
empire; and, what is of greater importance to a generous mind, he substitutes com- 
fort and ease in the room of indigence and misery ; and thus contributes towards ex- 
tending the general happiness of mankind. 

Lord Fortescue has an estate worth X5OOO. per annum, and lets his land to the 
hio-hest bidder for a certain terra of years. Lord Doneraile has also a considerable 
estate, the leases of which are granted for thirty-one years and an old life, in order 
to make a freeholder. The Marquis of Waterford has a large estate in this county,' 
and the property of Mr. Bolton is considerable. The college of physicians at Dub- 
lin have ^4000. per annum. Mr. Holmes, who resides in England, Mr. Palliser, 
Mrs. Mills, and Mr. Power, all possess good estates, the general leases on which are 
for thirty-one years and a life. The divisions of land are in some instances large, 
and in a few cases produce ^1000. per annum. In mountainous districts, the hills 
are let in sides, but in other places, near rivers, the divisions are small. When at 
Faithleg, on the 13th of December, IS08, Mr. Bolton gave me the following account 
of the manner in which land, according to the usual custom, is split into the mi- 
nutest portions. " In this country, when the eldest daughter of a farmer marries, 
the father, instead of giving her a portion, divides his farm between himself and his 
son-in-law ; the next daughter gets one half of the remainder, and this division and 
subdivision is continued as long as there are daughters to be disposed of. In re- 
gard to the male children, they are turned out into the world, and left to shift, for 
themselves the best way they can." 

Leases are now generally granted for twenty-one years and a life, although most of 
the existing ones are for thirty-one years and three lives. There are various ways in 
which the income of an estate may be reduced, when it is suffered to be improperly 
managed. One of the best estates in this county is held under such a tenure, that 
it can be leased only for a definite term; but to elude this settlement, both the 
owner and his son take money from the tenants, and join in the lease : as distress 
has reduced them to this necessity, it may be truly said, that, instead of directing 
their own estates, both they and their estates are subject to the control of their 
tenants. 

December, I8O8. Curraghmore — The rents in the county of Waterford 
are paid chiefly by the produce of the dairy, and of pigs. There are here large 
dairy farmers, some of whom pay ^1000. per annum rent; but such instances 
are few. Green-land lets for forty shillings and two guineas per acre, and leases 
are "ranted for thirty-one years and a life, in order to make a freeholder. 

Dec. 12th. Waterford. — Four fields in the neighbourhood of this place let as 
high as sixteen guineas an acre : leases at present are for twenty-one years. The 



LANDED PROPERTY, RENTAL TENURES. 281 

Rev. Mr. Meara, the marquis's agent, is of opinion, that the county, mountain-land 
included, will average a guinea and a half per acre. He states, also, that one acre 
in Waterford is worth two acres in Derry. 

Dec. 12th. Faithleg. — Land under tillage in Wexford and Waterford, and 
near the mouths of the Suir and the Barrow is worth four, five, and even six pounds 
an acre. In 1/93, Mr. Bolton let a farm of fifty-two acres, in a state of high cultiva- 
tion, at ^4.8^. per acre. The whole system of the occupier has been to obtain from 
it as much as possible by working it down. 

Westmeath. — This county has but one absentee possessed of large property, 
namely, the Marquis of Buckingham, whose income here is jClOOO. per annum. 
I am acquainted with no other property exceeding J06000. a year, but it abounds 
with gentlemen of moderate fortunes, from two to three thousand per annum. It 
is seen, by records of the year I64I, that not one of the names in the grand 
juries of that period are to be found in the lists of jurors summoned at the pre- 
sent time. Lord Sunderlin, Lord Longford, Mr. Pollard, Sir Richard Levinge, 
Mr. Roclifoid, Sir Benjamin Chapman, and Mr. Daese, may be ranked among those 
vho have the best properties in this county. Leases are now granted for twenty-one 
years and a life ; formerly they ran for thirty-one years and three lives. Lord 
Longford's leases are for twenty-one years and two lives ; those of Sir Richard Le- 
vinge for the same number of years and one life. The late Mr. Reynell, of Rey- 
nella, let for twenty-one years and two lives. 

August 12th, 1808. Rochford. — Having stopped at the house of a small 
farmer, he informed me, that the estate on the right of the road belonged to Lord 
Longford, but that it was in the hands of " a retailer," who let it for only seven 
years. 

August 13th. Mr. Rochford's leases are for twenty-one years and one life. 
Having visited a farmer in this neighbourhood, who was called a monied man, as he 
had £500. at interest in the hands of his landlord, I found that he held thirty-six 
acres on lease, at two guineas and a half per acre, but lived in a most miserable ca- 
bin, little better than a pig-stye, and half buried in the mud. 

August I8th. Coolure. — Notwithstanding the population of Castle Pollard, 
■which amounts to three thousand, a butcher will not run the risk of killing a bullock 
until the neighbouring gentlemen have bespoke the whole of it, which they generally 
do in quarters. 

Wexford — There are, in this county, some large proprietors, such as Lord 
Mountnorris, whose income is ^10,000. a year, and Lord Portsmouth, who has the 
town of Enniscorthy, and a large district around it, producing ,^^8000. per annum. 

£■ £. 

Lord Meath has - - 4OOO Lord Spencer Chichester 5<'00 

Lord Courtown - - 3OOO Mr. Groghan - - 7500 

Vol. L 2 O 





£. 


Sir WiHiam Ouseley 


2000 


Sir Brook Bridges 


4000 


Mr. Annesley 


6000 


Mr. Rose 


6000 


Mr. Nunn 


6500 


Mr. Coghley - 


6000 


Mr. Alcock 


3500 



£82 LANDED PROPERTY, RENTAL TENURES. 

£. 

Mr. Tottenham - - 4050 
Mr. Lee - - - 6000 
Mr. Ram - - - 5OOO 
Another gentleman of the 

same name - - ' 3500 ; 

Mr. Carew - - - 6000 
Sir Frederick Flood, and many 
Marquis of Ely - - 5OOO others have very good estates. 

The holdings here are of various sizes, but there is little of that minute division, 
attended with such baneful effects, which is common in other parts of Ireland ; 
neither are there any fine grazing farms which depend upon the quality of the soil. 

A piece of land near Taghmon, consisting of 260 acres, let at 14^. per acre, on 
leases, eighteen years of which were unexpired, was lately sold at sixteen years 
purchase. 

Dec. 17th, 1808. Nev?town Barry.— Colonel Barry is of opinion that the 
average rent of the county of Wexford may be from £\. 2.S. Qd. to £\. 5s. 

Dec. 31st. High Park, near Gorey. — Mr. Beaumont let one hundred acres 
not long ago, at £3. per acre. 

Jan. 23d, 1809, Castleboko. — In the year 1746, Mr. Carew's father let this 
estate at the rate of ten-pence an acre for the worst land, and half-a-crown for the 
best. In 1777, on the expiration of the lease, which was thirty-one years, the same 
land was let for ten shillings an acre, and at present it produces from £l. to ^1. Ss. 

Within Mr. Carew's recollection, many large estates in this county were occupied 
only by cotter tenants, whose industry was barely sufficient to procure them subsist- 
ence. They were permitted to reside on the estate, on condition of their labour- 
ing for their landlord, and rearing poultry for the use of his table. The unin- 
habited part of the land was overrun with furze, and employed' as pasture for his 
horses and cows, which were here turned out loose, and permitted to roam about in 
search of food. The proprietor had very little money to spend ; his wants were 
supplied chiefly from his estate, and the clothes of his family were manufactured 
under his own roof. This mode of life is exactly that which is seen in the infancy 
of states, where agricultural labours are confined to the raising of mere necessaries, 
and where trade and manufactures are unknown. But at present civilization is more 
extended ; estates of this kind are in tillage, and produce a pound or more per acre. 

June Uth, IS09. Mr. Armstrong Brown, who resides near Wexford, at a cer- 
tain period of his life refused to take land at I75. per acre : when out of lease, he 
a^aln refused it at 27^. but on a third offer, when the lease was once more expired, 
he took it at 40s. He has since relet it at 5OJ. and the tenants are living in comfort. 



LANDED PROPERTY, RENTAL TENURES. 289 

March 7th. Gorey. — Went to the late residence of Mr. Ram, at the Park, 
■nhich was burnt during the last rebellion, after the murder of Captain Walpole, 
who was aid-de-camp to Lord Camden. A farm close to Gorey, belonging to Mr. 
Ram, has been let at S4- 5s- per acre ; and Mr. Beaumont has let one of a hundred 
acres, in the same neighbourhood, for jCs. per acre. Mr. Brownrig, of Winkfield, 
who dined here, informed me that his father had been lessee of Lord Powerscourt's 
estate at ^40. per annum, and that he had re-let it for ^4000. per annum, which, 
as he lived to a great age, he enjoyed for many years. 

WicKLOW. The immense tract of land belonging to Earl Fitzwilliam, which 
consists of 46,000 acres in the barony of Shilelagh, with his property in other parts, 
making altogether 66,000 acres, forms the largest estate in the county. The leases 
are for twenty-one years and a life ; and though his lordship is an absentee, his 
estate, without exception, is the best cultivated of all those I have seen in Ireland. 
When the leases expire, a preference is always given to the old tenants, if they are 
inclined to a renewal; the agent, who attends the assizes, rides occasionally through 
the land at Malton, to examine in what manner the agricultural labours of the te- 
nants are conducted, and as he spends some part of the summer with his lordship ; 
the latter is, by these means, made thoroughly acquainted with the condition of his 
property, and the measures necessary to be pursued for improving it. The pecu- 
liarly flourishing state in which it appears, has been ascribed to various causes : the 
talents and integrity of those to whose management it is intrusted ; the opulence of 
the tenantry, who, for the purpose of commanding votes, were formerly all protest- 
ants ; the renewal of leases to the old tenants in preference to others ; and the size of 
the farms, which in general are of considerable extent: but it is not improbable that 
this beneficial result has been the effect of all these causes combined. Where un- 
bounded confidence prevails between the landlord and his agent, and between the 
agent and tenants, industry will be exerted on the one hand, and encourafred on the 
other : improvement will advance with a steady pace, and the mutual benefits which 
arise from a system founded on justice and liberality, will tend to cement the bonds 
of friendship between two classes of society, whose interests are undoubtedly the 
same. But whatever may be the cause, the estate of Earl Fitzwilliam in this county, 
exhibits an appearance that would do honour to any part of Europe ; and though I 
am not inclined to be lavish of compliments, I will not hesitate to say, when I con- 
sider the situation of his lordship's Wicklow tenants, that he appears to me to take 
justice as the guide of his conduct, and to that chiefly I ascribe the admirable state 
in which I found his property in Ireland. Can he who loves his country and ho- 
nours humanity, forbear here from exclaiming to many a thoughtless and improvident 
landlord, " Go thou and do so likewise 1" Will not such examples, if incapable of 
arousing benevolence where benevolence perhaps does not exist, produce some ef- 

£ 02 



284 LANDED PROPERTY, RENTAL TENURES. 

feet upon that principle of self-interest, which sometimes impels men to do good, 
when more honourable motives find no room in the breast ? 

He who neglects to ameliorate his landed property when he has it in his power, 
is certainly inexcusable ; for he might do so without subjecting himself to much la- 
bour or restraint: and how gratifying would it be to one of those lordly proprietors, 
if possessed of "-enerous feelings, to hear applied to him, what a great man, now no 
more, said of our sovereign ; " Even in his amusements he is a patriot, and in hours 
of leisure an improver of his native soil."* 

Lord Carysford, Lord Powerscourt, and Lord Meath, have all large estates, the 
leases on which are, in general, for twenty-one years and a life. The Rev. Mr. 
Symes, of Ballyarthur ; Mr. Blachford, Mrs. Tighe of Rosanna, Mr. Tighe of 
Woodstock, Mr. Synge, and many others, have considerable tracts of land. The 
centre of the county, which is uninhabited, consists of boggy mountains, and be- 
longs chiefly to the see of Dublin. The districts on the sea-coast are very much di- 
vided, and abound with villas, to which the citizens of Dublin retire, to enjoy the 
pleasure of rural views, amidst all those comforts that flow from ease and indepen- 
dence acquired by industry. It appears to me to contain more gentlemen's seats than 
the same space in the vicinity of London. 

Jan. 28th. Ballybeg. As soon as I entered the county of Wicklow, came to 
the estate of Lord Fitzwilliam, where there is a house lately built, in which his agent 
resides. His lordship never changes a tenant, and keeps his woods in his own hand. 
The houses on his estate are by far the best and th^ most comfortable I have seen in. 
Ireland. 

March 15th, I809. WICK.LO^y. — The land in the neighbourhood of the town 
is of an excellent quality, and lets for from three to five pounds per acre. 

January 2d, I809. Kilruddery. — Lord Meath says, that "land in the environs 
of Bray lets for enormous rents, in some places seven guineas, and near Dublin, fif- 
teen per acre." This place is twelve Irish miles from Dublin. 

The register.of property which I have given in the preceding pages, is taken from 
notes written down on the spot during the course of my tour through different parts 
of Ireland. It forms but a very small part of the list which I have in my possession, 
and I hope will be found, in general, to be neaHy correct. In collecting the 
information on which it is founded, I never ventured to note down any property 
on the authority of one individual; I carefully compared the statements given to 
me by different persons, and when the accounts agreed, I concluded that they could 
not be far from the truth. 

■■' Burke's Letter to a Noble Lurd on the Attacks made upon him and his Pension. See his works, octavo 
edit, vol. vii). p. 40, 41. 



LANDED PROPERTY, RENTAL TENURES. 285 

TENURES. 

The general tenure by which land is held in Ireland, is derived from grants made 
by the crovrn on the payment of a certain quit rent, received by the excise collector 
of the district. Persons invested with estates in this manner, have frequently leased 
them for ever, or on lives renewable for ever, or the payment of a fine for the in- 
sertion of a new life instead of that which has dropped. This, in fact, is the 
same thing under a different form, as a lease for 999 years. Any intermediate 
term between that and sixty-one years is so rare as not to be a subject worth 
consideration. 

I place then the original possessors of landed estates, those to whom they were or!-. 
ginally granted by the crown, and the lessee of land for ever, or for 999 years, in the 
same class, considering them as having unlimited power and control over the soil. 
The leases commonly granted appear to be as follows: 

61 years and lives 21 years and lives 

31 years and do. 21 years 

3 1 years 

Of clauses. I am acquainted only with one, which is enforced more in Connaught 
than in any other province of Ireland ; but it is far from being general. It is 
that which binds tenants to work for their landlords at a given rate of wao-es.* 
Some are frequently inserted, to oblige them to maintain and repair houses and 
buildings, of which, perhaps, there is not a stone or a stick remaining ; and 
others, sometimes, to prevent occupiers from breaking up grass land at the ex- 
piration of their leases ; but to these clauses very little attention is paid. Juries 
invariably set their faces against them ; and as they are contrary to the habit and 
spirit of the country, the judges even are said to lean towardj this common feeling. 
It is not, however, improbable, that the acquiescence of the landlord more than 
any thing, is the cause of their being overlooked or neglected : for a landlord, if he 
sees his tenant making money by dividing his farm, looks forward with anxious 
hope to the expiration of the lease, when he expects to enjoy the benefits of aliena- 
tion, mud cabins, and tillage, instead of grass lands: he therefore favours rather 
than opposes the custom. Hence it happens, that when cases are brouo-ht into 
court, the jury, influenced by the general spirit of the times, come with a de- 
termination previously formed, and without attending to the merits of the cause 
decide according to the prejudice they have conceived, and give a verdict'as it directs 
them. 

There are three subjects connected with the state of propertv in Ireland, which 
must necessarily be taken into consideration. These are middle-men, absentees, 

■'■ According to Mr. Tiglie, this clause is inserted soraetimes in Kilkenny. See Survey of Kilkenny, 
p. 491. 



2S6 LANDED PROPERTY, RENTAL TENURES. 

and agents. They are three objects of popular abuse, and I shall probably 
be blamed for not completely falling in with the tide of common opinion, 
and adding my feeble voice to the general clamour, in which many join with- 
out previous examination. Middle-men are abused by the editor of every 
newspaper in Ireland ; they are reviled, and even loaded with maledictions by 
the lower orders in all parts of the country ; and they are treated by the gentry 
with that sovereign contempt which is usually shewn to the most worthless and 
abandoned of the human race. Writers in general, from Mr. Young downwards, 
have inveighed bitterly against them ; and no class of men, I believe, in the 
empire, have been attacked with more virulence from every quarter. The Edin- 
burgh Review is the only work of authority which has come boldly forward to stem 
this torrent ; to advocate their cause and to adduce arguments in their favour ; 
but though the authors of that journal have handled the subject in a very able 
manner, and displayed considerable ingenuity in their reasoning, it is merely that of 
theory in ppposition to practice. 

To this subject I have paid considerable attention ; for, besides collecting ma- 
terials for the work which I now submit to the public, one of my objects was to 
inspect two large estates in Ireland belonging to absentees. On this account I 
was induced to make particular inquiry into the conduct of that class of persons 
called middle-men, and of the agents to whose management these estates were in- 
trusted. The opinion I am about to give, has not therefore been hastily 
formed from a cursory view of the question, but is the result of mature reflection, 
after a minute and attentive survey of some of the largest estates in the island. I 
am inclined, then, to think, that the letting to middle-men ought to depend in 
a great measure on the circumstances of the property and the character of the 
individual into whose hands it is committed. If an extensive tract of country be 
waste, or nearly in a state of nature, as is the case with that belonging to the Duke 
of Devonshire in the county of Waterford, could such a tract of land be im- 
proved by receiving upon it a number of indigent persons, without capital or skill 
in agriculture, who could be considered in no other light than as a colony of 
betTo^ars ? Such people, as they increased in numbers, would only add strength to 
insubordination, and contribute to swell those bands of nightly marauders who in- 
fest the adjoining districts, and spread terror and desolation around them. The 
only tenant for property of this description, would be some man possessed of 
ready money, who had sons or other connections to settle, and who understood 
draining the land, paring and burning the soil, laying it down to grass, and other 
arts of improvement ; who had means sufficient to stock it for a number of years ; 
who would lime it on the sod, and then break it up for tillage: and when he 
had brought it into this state, who would have the best title to reap the be- 
nefit of such exertions ? Every person possessed of common sense must reply 
—he, by whose industry and labour the soil has been so much improved. This 



LANDED PROPERTY, RENTAL TENURES. 28? 

beino- the case, if he divides it into small portions among active sub-tenants, 
his landlord ought to rejoice in his prosperity, which is so intimately connected 
■with his own, and which in the end will add to his wealth, and be a benefit 
to the country. Now, let us suppose that the proprietor had parted with his land 
for the term of the tenant's life, or the lives of his sons and grandsons, and to 
secure possession in case of death, that a concurrent one is introduced of sixty years. 
This term being expired, the estate being improved and divided, and the ex- 
pences of a spirited tenant returned to him, with a sufficient compensation on 
account of his trouble ; (for I should think that the term during which he held 
the land would be adequate to this purpose, and that the landlord and tenant 
would now, in point of obligation, be on an equal footing,) such land as the 
tenant retained in his own occupancy, and which he fairly meant to keep, should 
be re-let to him for twenty-one years ; and if the estate were mine, I should 
grant leases of the remainder to the immediate occupying tenants whom I found 
on the property, and for the same period of time. But I shall suppose that 
the owner of the property, instead of adopting this method, determines to 
expose the land to a public cant, a plan which the arguments of the Reviewers 
seem to recommend, and that he announces his intention of doing so some time 
before. In every case where the occupier confides in a renewal of his lease, he 
will keep his land in a perfect state of cultivaton; but when he finds that it is 
to be offered to the highest bidder, he knows that the only chance he has of 
obtaining a new lease, is to bring the land to such a condition that few will 
venture to bid against him ; and therefore he converts it into a complete desert, 
or reduces it nearly to its original state.* 

I shall now suppose another case, that a middle-man, such as one of those who 
abound in every town of Ireland, obtains the lease of this land, by what means 
is at present of no importance, and that this person takes it without the least in- 
tention of ever laying out upon it a single shilling, or of occupying an acre of it. 
This man re-lets it at a considerable rack rent, and whatever success attends the oc- 
cupiers, the whole fruit of their labour finds its way into the pockets of this 
petty despot. There are various Avays by which persons of this description have 
it in their power to ruin and destroy the real tenantry of an estate ; such as 
that of binding them by an oath to payt their rent on a certain day, or to drive 
their cattle to the pound, and it is extremely difficult to counteract this system. J 
I have known estates offered at a fair but highly increased rent to the occupiers, 

■" Rawson's Survey of Klldare, p. 7- ' 

+ Tighe's Kilkenny, p. 424. 

+ Jan. 6tli. Abbeleix. — LordDe Vesci remarks, tliat the middle-man residing close by, cau exact an enor- 
mous rent in cases where the real owner, at a distance, would be but ill paid. 



288 L-\NDED PROPERTY, RENTAL TENURES. 

M-ho, to a man, refused to take them. They have then been let to one of these 
" land sharks," as they are called ; and I have seen the occupiers, rather than 
quit, agree to give a pound an acre more than the rent at which they had re- 
jected the same land a few weeks before. This singular change is effected, partly 
by fear, and partly by persuasion and encouragement. Many advantages are held 
out by way of lure. One strong inducement is, that the middle-man, not being 
in want of money, engages to take promissory notes at a long date, in payment 
of the rent ; but these poor deluded people soon find, to their cost, that their 
confidence has been most shamefully abused ; for when the day of payment comes, 
the former has nothing to do but to drive away their cattle. The pound is in the 
neighbourhood; and for a few days this business engages the middle-man's atten- 
tion, and prevents him from loitering about the door of the post-office, where 
he is accustomed to watch the arrival of the English newspapers during three parts 
of the year, that he may feast himself with the manna of the day.* Middle-men 
of this kind are a disgrace to a country ; they are real pests of society ; as great 
tyrants in Ireland as the farmers -general were in France ; and while they excite the 
detestation of the honest part of society, they are loaded with curses by the poor, whom 
they oppress. The first case I have here supposed is not an ideal one ; I am 
acquainted with many such middle-men, and they are as great a blessing as the 
latter are a curse. t . 

I have found, however, that to talk of reform in the management of landed 
estates, is like proposing reform in our political system. "Such things," it is 
said, " are very well in theory ; but will never answer in practice : consider 
what human nature is before you think of introducing changes, the result of which 
is at best but uncertain. Your schemes would answer exceedingly well if persons 
could be found fit to be trusted. No such middle-man as you describe is to 
be met with." But I have great satisfaction in being able, from my own experi- 
ence, to produce, in opposition to this popular prejudice, a person whose conduct 
in this respect ought to be made generally known, and held up as a model for imi- 
tation : Mr. Robert St. George, in the county of Kilkenny, on account of the be- 
nefit he has done to the country by the active spirit of industry which he mani- 
fested in that situation, is entitled to every praise. I have myself been a witness 
to the exertions he has made to improve the land which he holds, and to better 
the condition of his sub-tenants. But independently of my feeble commendation, 
the most honourable testimony has been given in his favour by a gentleman of great 

'I- See World, No. 70. 

+ " The middle-man cannot afford to be so indulgent as the proprietor : he must have his profit rent, which 
he enjoys at the expence, partly of the occupier, and partly of the proprietor, who thus pays a high agency 
for the receipt of his income." Townsend's Survey of Cork, p. 189. 



LANDED PROPERTY, RENTAL TENURES. o89 

respectability, who has more particularly described the plans he foHowed, and the 
means he employed in the execution of them.* There can be no better proof of 
the service he has done, than to inspect the adjoining properties, which are 
still in the same state in which they were many years ago. The contrast is strik- 
ing, and strongly corroborates my assertion. — Mr. Lloyd, in Tipperary, is another 
instance ; and I am convinced that it is possible to find a number, sufficient to 
shew that the general abuse thrown out against this class of men is unjust and 
impolitic, as it tends to increase discontent among the poorer class of mankind, w here, 
perhaps, there is no real cause of complaint, and to add to their prejudices, which 
ought rather to be lessened. I will readily admit, that the system of middle- 
men, when carried into general practice, is bad, but great care should be taken 
to make a distinction between that property which requires the aid of a wealthy 
intermediate tenant to bring it to a productive state of improvement, and that 
■which might be let by the landlord to solvent tenants without the intervention of 
others. 

With regard to absentees, lists of them were published by Mr. Lawrence in 1694,+ 
by an anonymous writer in 17 67, J and by Mr. Arthur Young in 17 79-§ I might 
imitate these examples, and give a fourth ; but I decline the task, when I consider 
the nature of absentee property, and how difficult it is to determine what ought 
really to be comprehended under that denomination. There are, no doubt, a great 
many proprietors of large estates, such as Earl Fitzwilliam, the Duke of Devon- 
shire, Lord Middleton, Lord Dorchester, Lord Egremont, Lord Courtenay, ice. Sec. 
who may be called absentees in every sense of the word ; but there are many 
included under this head, who invariably spend their summers in Ireland, and, 
of course, have an opportunity of seeing and examining in what manner their 
estates are managed by their agents ; there are some who make a short trip to 
Ireland in the course of the year, merely for the purpose of having a pretext 
to say that they are residents, in order to evade the income-tax when in England; 
and there are many who, though they do not live on their estates, never quit Ireland, 
but either reside in Dublin or in some other part of the country. To all these the 
general term of absentee is invariably applied without discrimination, though it 
is evident that they belong to classes very distinct from each other, and which, 
in my opinion, ought not to be confounded. Were I, therefore, to give a motley 
list of this kind, it would only be holding up to popular abuse a number of 
noblemen and gentlemen, many of them highly respectable, without presenting 
any useful information, or ascertaining that which is the chief point to be consi- 

•" Survey of Kilkenny, by William Tighe, Esq. p. 285. 
+ State of Ireland, by Richard Lawrence, 1694. 

X A list of the absentees of Ireland, with an estimate of the yearly value of their estates and incomes spent 
abroad, wiih observations on the trade of Ireland, Sec. Dublin, 1767. 
() Young's Irish Tour, part ii. p. 57. 

Vol. L 2 P 



290 LANDED PROPERTY, RENTAL TENURES. 

dered, the real amount of revenue annually dra\Yn from the country, to be spent 
among those who have no title to be benefited by it, which, if it could be obtained, 
would be an object of considerable importance.* 

In regard to the management of absentee property, it is but doing justice to say, 
that I have seen some as well conducted as any other in the country ;t but in many 
cases I have found estates of this kind miserably neglected, and in the most de- 
plorable condition that could be conceived ; much, however, in this respect, de- 
pends upon the character of the agent employed. The truth is, there are abuses 
in either case, whether the landlord be a resident or an absentee. Some pro- 
prietors who live in England, are as attentive to the interest of their tenants as 
many of those who reside in Ireland, and there are bad landlords in both classes. 
Are there not many buckeens, a character to which I have alluded in my introductory 
remarks, among resident land-owners ; and would not their absence be beneficial 
to their tenants, and even to the country ?i: 

On the other hand a landlord, if he be a virtuous man, and really anxious to 
promote the general prosperity of those around him, may do a great deal of 
good by his example •, for, as a celebrated moralist very justly observed when 
conversing on this subject — " A man of family and estate ought to consider himself 
as having the charge of a district, over which he is to diffuse civility and hap- 
piness. "§ And on another occasion he remarked that — " a well-regulated great family 
may improve a neighbourhood in civility and elegance, and give an example of good 
order, virtue, and piety ; and so its residence at home may be of much advan- 
tage." |1 In this point of view, the residence of a landlord might prove highly beneficial, 
and particularly in many parts of Ireland where civilization has made so little pro- 
gress. The ignorant might be instructed and the vicious reclaimed; salutary in- 
stitutions might be formed for bettering the condition of the poor, and a general 
taste for a superior mode of life might be diffused, which would tend to banish that 
indolence, so prevalent where the mind has been familiarized to low ideas, and which 
is a great check to industry and improvement. ■ • • 

The duties of landlords and tenants are certainly reciprocal; a man of probity 
will therefore consider himself bound by every tie of justice and honour to watch 
over the interest of those who toil, on his account as well as their own, and without 

* According to a Report of a Committee of the House of Commons, ordered to be printed on the 4th 
of May, 1804, the amount of absentee property was ,£2,000,000. per annum. My calculation makes it 
more. 

+ Mr. Tighe tliinks absentees, in many instances, the best landlords, p. 586. 

* Sir Charles Coote, in his Survey of the Queen's County, p. 27, speaks of one landlord, whose name he 
ought to have exposed. 

f Boswell's Life of Johnson, vol. iii. p. 271. 

II Ibid, p. 194. But he admits, " that if a great family be disorderly and vicious, its residence at home is 
'.ery pernicious to a neighbourhood." 



LANDED PROPERTY, RENTAL TENURES. 291 

whom his land would be useless and unproductive. But how is it possible for him 
to discharge this duty if he be absent in .inother country ? How can he listen to their 
complaints, or through what channel are they to be conveyed to him? The grievances 
which they suffer must be unknown to him, for he can hear nothing respecting his 
own affairs but from the mouths of persons whose crooked policy induces them to 
deceive him, and who often have the art to insinuate themselves so much into his 
favour by falsehood and flattery, that he places the most unbounded confidence in 
■whatever they assert. Hence, prudence, which requires men to examine the state 
of their own affairs, and not leave too much to strangers, is lulled into a fatal secu- 
rity, and a door is opened for rapacity to exercise deception on the one hand, and 
oppression on the other. Careless masters sometimes make bad servants, and when 
persons of this kind are suffered with impunity to commit petty acts of injustice, 
they will be tempted to proceed from one step to another, till tliey at length grow 
familiarized with iniquity, and become hardened in their crimes. If landlords 
therefore have estates in another part of the empire, and if the attachments of friend- 
ship, alliance by marriage, or other ties and causes, induce them to be absent from 
Ireland, they ought to be careful to select as the managers of their property, men of 
known skill and integrity, whose education may raise them above the meanness of 
being guilty of dirty actions, and whose connexions are of that respectable kind as 
to afford a pledge, that they will not be exposed to the temptation of injuring their 
employer, in order that they may provide for necessitous dependants or relations. 

As to Irish proprietors, natives of England, who have large estates in both coun- 
tries, it is not to he expected that they should quit the place of their birth to reside 
in Jreland. But still, if they possess health, strength, and vigour, they might pay- 
occasional visits to their Irish property, reside a few months among their tenants, 
and thus become acquainted from actual observation with the nature of their estates, 
and the condition of the persons who live upon them ; or they might send thither 
some relation or confidential friend who would give them a faithful report of the 
manner in which they were treated. Were this method adopted, agents knowing 
that they might be surprised in the midst of their nefarious career ; that the tenants 
might unexpectedly have an opportunity of laying their complaints before their 
landlord in person, or of transmitting them to him through a sure medium, and that 
to carry on a system of deception would expose them to danger, might be induced to 
alter their conduct, to abstain from those illicit practices which disgrace so many per- 
sons in that situation, and incline them to pursue the much safer path of rectitude 
and honour. 

.An additional argument for English proprietors visiting Ireland, might be drawn 
from that taste which most men, disengaged from the drudgery of business by their 
rank and opulence, have for travelling, and the desire of seeing the varied and sin- 
gular forms under which nature exhibits the beauties of her rural scenery. When 

9.P2 



292 LANDED PROPERTY, RENTAL TENURES. 

the continent was open to foreign travel, a tour to Swisserland and the Lake of Ge- 
neva was considered as a high treat to men of taste and fortune, and the sublime 
views in these Alpine regions have frequently been themes of admiration to writers 
both in prose and in verse. But if picturesque beauties in foreign countries are so at- 
tracting, why should those at home be neglected ? Ireland in point of grand and ma- 
jestic views may be placed in competition with almost any part of Europe ; and the 
English owner of an estate in that country, by undertaking occasional excursions 
thither, might combine pleasure with advantage. The Lakes of Killarney, and 
numerous other places, would amply reward him for his trouble, and the mo- 
ney spent in the course of his tour would be much better employed than if 
it found its way into the pockets of foreigners. Besides, the presence of English 
travellers in Ireland, would tend to strengthen the connexion which subsists between 
the two countries, and by rendering the inhabitants of both more familiar with each, 
other, would contribute to assimilate their manners, and to remove many preju- 
dices inimical to that harmony of sentiment which ought to prevail among people 
who are subjects of the same government. 

We have heard much of the effect produced by attachment to the " natal soil,'* 
and some remarkable circumstances are related on this subject, but if we are to judge 
from wh.it we know to be the fact, it does not appear to have much influence upon 
some of the natives of Ireland. It has been sarcastically remarked of the Scots, that 
when they find their way to England, they never think of returning to the barren plains 
and bleak hills of the north. Might not a person disposed to be satirical make a simi- 
lar observation in regard to the sons of Erin, who in many instances seem unwilling 
to return to their native mountains and bogs. That a man of low birth and mean 
circumstances who emigrates to another part of the empire, and acquires there opu- 
lence, and all that consideration by which it is generally accompanied, should be 
averse to return to a place where he would only meet with the associates of his early 
days of poverty, does not at all appear extraordinary, because nothing is more com- 
mon than false pride ; but that a man of family, possessed of large property, and 
deeply interested in the happiness of his native country, should become a voluntary 
exile from it, cannot be so readily conceived. 

Men of fortune and rank who travel into other countries may be divided into 
three classes : some travel for the benefit of their health ; others for the sake of plea- 
sure ; and there are some whose sole object is improvement. Those who belong^ 
to the first class, exclaiming, perhaps, with the poet — 

Bear me, some God, to Baia's gentle seat ; 
Or cover me in Urabria's green retreat, 
Where western gales eternally reside, 
And all the seasons lavish all their pride ; 

will no doubt prefer the mild temperature of a southern climate, to the keen, but 



LANDED PROPERTY, RENTAL TENURES. 29s 

invigorating air of their native plains. Such invalids, if they really be so, are objects 
of compassion, and it would be too harsh to find fault with them for absenting them- 
selves from a country where their condition would not admit of their making exer- 
tions that could be attended with any real benefit to its interests. 

As to those whose object is pleasure, while they confine their desires within the 
bounds of decency and moderation, they may be suffered to enjoy their frivolous 
amusements in whatever manner they think most conducive to their happiness. If 
they'waste their time, and spend their money in the pursuit of trifles, the heaviest 
loss will be their own, and as they must return without improvement, they will be 
exposed among persons of judgment to merited contempt. People of this kind 
may reside in any country; their presence or their absence will be a matter of very 
little importance. But the case is different with another species of these hunters 
after pleasure, who being men sunk in luxury and dissipation, think only of new gra- 
tifications, which they seek for in those haunts of profligacy, great cities, and 
in countries where example gives confidence to vice, and where the ministers of 
infamy are in waiting to facilitate every indulgence that the most depraved taste 
can desire. If the property of such woithless and abandoned characters fall into 
the hands of honest and conscientious agents, the situation of their tenants may be far 
better than if they were under their own immediate inspection ; for they could 
have no beneficial influence on a neighbourhood, but tend rather to spread the 
baneful poison of dissipation, in which the lower classes are too apt to induIo;e, 
when they find their irregularities sanctioned by the conduct of their superiors, 
whose vices they are much readier to imitate than their virtues. 

As to travelling for improvement, it is no doubt laudable, and to a mind properly 
prepared for it,* may be a source of much benefit. " In every country whatever," 
says an ingenious writer, " beside the established laws, the political state of the peo- 
ple is affected by an infinite variety of circumstances of which no words can convey 
a conception, and which are to be collected only from actual observation. "+ By 
studying the manners and customs of foreign nations, a man of sound judgment will 
become more thoroughly acquainted with human nature, and a knowledge of their 
laws and institutions will supply him with information which may render him more 
fit to take a share in the administration of his own. If he employs his time when 
abroad in searching for improvements, rather than in gratifying vicious habits, and 
brings with him, when he returns, useful discoveries, instead of ridiculous fashions 
or frivolous accomplishments, he may be of essential service wherever his influence 

• ' As the Spanish proverb says, " He who would bring horae the wealth of the Indies, must carry the 
weaUh of the Indies with him." So it is in travelling, a man must carry knowledge with him, if he would 
bring home knowledge.' Johnson, in BoswcU's Life, vol. iii. p. 32o. See also Moore's Trauls in Italj/, 
vol. ii. p. 442. 

+ Elements of the Philosophy of the Human Mind. £y Dugald SUwarl, F.R.S.E. p. 24e. 



SgE* LANDED PROPERTY, RENTAL TENURES. 

extends. But to become acquainted with the laws, commerce, and agriculture of 
one's own country, is as necessary as to acquire a knowledge of the same objects in 
other parts of Europe. That general information respecting the political economy 
of foreign nations requisite to every man of rank and fortune, but particularly to 
those who may be more immediately destined to take a share in the government, or 
even to hold subordinate situations in the state, may be soon obtained ; but to acquire 
an accurate and minute knowledge of the condition and resources of the British 
empire, is a work of some time, and cannot be effected without considerable labour 
and observation. Hence it is obvious, that travelling at home is an object of more 
importance than is generally imagined ;'' and yet few think of visiting the different 
parts of which this empire is composed, though they exhibit a very essential dif- 
ference both in regard to the nature of the soil, and the manners and customs of the 
inhabitants. Might not a Briton, therefore, who has been blessed with affluence, and 
who possesses all the advantages of education, be as well employed in admiring the 
beauty and convenience of the Bay of Dublin, as in surveying those of the Bay of 
Naples ? And might not one study the interests of his country much better on the 
banks of the Liffey, or the Shannon, and with less danger of acquiring tainted mo- 
rals, than on the shores of the Arno or the Tyber ? 

Some, perhaps, may be inclined to think that I have carried my reflections on this 
subject to too great a length, but in writing on the state of a country, and the means 
best calculated to promote its prosperity, it is necessary, besides embracing general 
views, to take into consideration even those minor causes which have a tendency to 
advance or retard its improvement. The absence of men whose rank or wealth give 
them an influence over others of inferior stations, is certainly an object of no small 
importance, and whether they travel, or reside in any other part of the same domi- 
nions, the loss which their country sustains is nearly the same. As Ireland is cer- 
tainly inferior in point of civilization to many other parts of the empire, it has a 
stronger claim to the residence of its wealthy proprietors, who, if present, may un- 
doubtedly be much better able to assist in plans for the amelioration of the country, 
wherever it is practicable. Besides, in a country where insubordination is so 
apt to prevail, and where laws seem ineffectual to restrain the intractable and ob- 
stinate spirit of the common people, the man v/ho could render himself popular by 
acts of beneficence and kindness, might acquire so much respectability, that his 
friendly admonition alone would be able to effect what sometimes cannot be accom- 
plished by force and compulsion. The example also of a man of this kind would, 

» Ferme dicam fieri non posse ut vel per dimidium diei, aliquo in provincia partria; proficiscaris, quin 
aliquid discas in CEConomicis ; multa occurrent primo sane intuitu levia quidem, sed si pauUo attentius mentem 
oculosque adverteris faterebere statim in rem tuam esse, et longe utilissiina, qualia passim observare licebit in 
vario vesliendi, cibi parandi, pecoris pascendi modo ac ritu ut taceam vivendi mores, commercia infinite nu- 
mero alia. Di Pcregrinal. inlra Palriam Aacssilci, Carnli Linnai Oral. Amenilal. Acad. vol. ii. p. 425, 



LANDED PROPERTY, RENTAL TENURES. 2ff5. 

no doubt, be of great benefit to a neighbourhood; for as Montesquieu justly ob- 
serves, " crimes are to be prevented by punishment, but manners are to be changed 
by example."* Now is there a part of the British empire where the manners of the 
inferior classes have more need of being changed than in Ireland ? A respect- 
able writer of that countryt fairly acknowledges, that " the Irish peasant does not 
much excel the savage in just notions of libertv, or in due respect for the laws 
and civil institutions of man." Is it not evident, therefore, that nothing could 
be so beneficial among a populace of this kind as good example ? for to talk 
of their being improved or reclaimed by laws or punishment, is perfectly ridicu- 
lous ; such an idea could be entertained only by those who have never studied human 
nature in the various relations of society in which man is placed. Where the mind 
is not in some degree prepared by education, laws will be made only to be broken, 
and punishment, instead of amending, will tend only to harden the conscience and 
irritate the feelings. When the same writer adds, that " the Irish peasant, when treated 
in an unaffected conciliatory manner, with that kindness he deserves, with that gene- 
rosity he is ever ready to exercise, with that frankness which allays his habitual sus- 
picions, and with that restrictedly polite familiarity which gratifies his native pride, 
-will seldom fail to endear himself to his patron or his benefactor, and to exhibit a 
character which upon the whole may be considered as not unworthy of a very hi^^h 
degree of philosophic approbation ;" :i: is not this a severe satire on the conduct of 
landed proprietors in Ireland, who either do not treat the poorer classes with that 
kindness and affection which would humanize their character, or abandon them to 
neglect by consigning them into the hands of agents and middle-men, who are not 
equally interested in their civilization and welfare? Does it not exhibit in the 
strongest light, the good which might be produced by men of fortune residing among 
their tenants, and paying that attention to them which their wants might require. On 
this subject, another respectable Avriter says, " one of the greatest wants of our rude 
and ignorant peasantry, is the want of active, industiious, resident gentlemen, to re- 
press their turbulence, relieve their wants, encourage their industry, and humanize 
their manners. In the article of pleasure, something no doubt must be lost by this 
sacrifice to utility, but it will be amply compensated by other gratifications. The 
liberal mind will receive no small degree of satisfaction from the consciousness of 
doing good, and it behoves gentlemen to consider that their country has a claim to 
their services, and that they are not born for themselves alone."§ The same author, 
speaking of the character of the Irish, says, " all these circumstances evince a pos- 

» Montesquieu Esprit des Loix, lib. xix. chap. 14. ■ . 

+ Mr. Newenham. 

J View of Ireland, by Thomas Newenham, Esq. Preface, p. xviii. 
■ ■ }l Tojvnsend's Survey of Cork, p. 574. 



296 LANDED PROPERTY, RENTAL TENURES. 

session of qualities capable of conferring, under proper regulations, a very consider- 
able portion of social enjoyment. When instruction shall have enlightened their 
minds, when their slovenly and rude manners shall have given place to a love of 
order and decorum, and when they shall have known how to value and enjoy the 
blessings of industry and peace, we may venture to say, that they will have no cause 
to envy the inhabitants of any country under heaven."* 

That the Irish peasantry possess the seeds of every qualification requisite to form 
a happy and respectable people, cannot be denied : but they stand in need of instruc- 
tion, and how are they to acquire it, if the country be deserted by men of property 
and rank, whose more immediate duty it is, each in his district, not only to suggest, 
but tp promote and support every thing that may tend to their moral improvement ? 
To abandon a country as if one were ashamed of it, betrays the weakness of a narrow 
mind ; to leave it, in order to avoid danger from the turbulent disposition of its inhabi- 
tants, announces timidity; and to emigrate, because it is poor, and perhaps cannot 
supply those gratifications which a vitiated and luxurious taste requires, is certainly 
not veiy favourable to nobleness and generosity of character. Such reasons are at 
variance with every principle of virtue and honour. Were there more real patriots 
among the Irish nobility and gentry, there would be more good subjects among the 
general population ; and if the common people were treated with less neglect, they 
would certainly be more tractable, and at the same time acquire a greater spirit of 
industry. But I shall add nothing more on this head ; with men of reflecting minds 
the hints here thrown out will, I trust, have a proper effect ; on others no arguments 
that I could use would produce the smallest impression. 

I am well aware that there are many, and persons of great respectability, who 
maintain that the subject of a free country has a right to spend his income in any 
place and in any manner that he pleases. I will readily admit that this may be true 
to a certain extent ; but no one will thence infer, that a man of property is by any 
means justified who spends his income in a manner prejudicial to the general interest 
of that community of which he is a member. How far legislative interference in 
cases of this kind would be proper, is not for me to determine ;t all compulsory 

» Townsend's Survey of Cork, p. 76. 

+ " By tlie Graces, as they were called, granted to the Irish, in l628, by Charles I. soon after his accession, 
and sent as instructions to the Lord Deputy Falkland, and the council of state, to be observed by them in the 
administration of the government, it appears, that a tax was imposed on non-residents, and the nobility and 
imdertakers were restrained from quitting the kingdom viithout licence." 

Carle's Life of the Duke oj Ormonde, vol. i. p. 81. 

" In 1635, a proclamation was issued by the lord-lieutenant, in consequence of particular directions from the 
Ling, prohibiting men of estates to depart the kingdom without licence; but the object of it seems to have 
been to prevent the Irish holding dangerous correspondence with their countrymen in foreign service." Ibid. 
p. 112. — An account of the different acts passed in regard to absentees, may be seen in the Chapter on 
Retenue. 



LANDED PROPERTY, RENTAL TENURES. 297 

]aws Avhich restrain tlie freedom of the will in points perhaps doubtful, ought to be 
avoided, and hence recourse has seldom been had to sumptuary laws, as they have 
never been of much benefit. 

In regard to agents, care should be taken to select men who not only have a know- 
of agriculture sufncient to enable them to manage the estate in such a manner as to 
be conducive to the interest of the landlord, but who possess sufficient justice and 
honesty to prevent them from having recourse to means which may injure or oppress 
the tenants. An agent, to ingratiate himself with his employer, will, no doubt, use 
every exertion to increase the rental of his estate; if this can be done without im- 
posing too heavy buidens on those by whose labour this increase is produced, he will 
so far be worthy of commendation ; but if he wishes to accomplish his end by con- 
trary means, he not only injures the proprietor, by exposing him to an odium 
which he does not deserve, but lays the foundation of ruin to his property, and of 
misery and wretchedness to those who render it productive. 

In my opinion, a resident agent is more exposed to the temptation of making exac- 
tions from the tenants, as is frequently the case, than one who occasionally visits the 
estate for the purpose of collecting the rents. The former often descends to the 
meanness of requiring from these poor people, fowls, geese, or turf, and sometimes 
the labour of men and cars to assist him in his harvest and turf seasons. Such paltry 
emoluments, demanded without right, yielded under the impression of fear, and ac- 
cepted without shame, can be no object to an agent of character, and, in many cases, 
may subject those from whom they are extorted to considerable inconvenience. I 
have, therefore, in general found the non-resident agents, who were not under a simi- 
lar temptation, by far the most respectable. It is proper that agents should be hand- 
somely paid for their trouble ; and there can be no objection to their receiving what- 
ever their employer chooses to give them for their service, which is commonly five per 
cent, on the rent; but improper means of their adding to their emoluments ought to 
be reprobated, and landlords should use every means in their power to prevent 
them. 

What I found most mischievous in the relationship of agent and proprietor is, 
that all intercourse between the latter and the tenant is impeded, except through a 
selfish medium ; the agent, in numerous cases, being a creditor of the landlord, whom 
he therefore has completely under his power and control. This evil, in Ireland, has 
been carried to the most criminal excess, so that it was found necessary to enact a 
law which renders all leases from a landlord to an agent invalid. Witiiout a check 
of this kind, the most flagitious transactions would have been carried on with impu- 
nity, as a door was left open to assist the designs of villany, and fac;ilitate, in an un- 
common degree, unwarrantable transfers of property. 

I must observe, also, that the most bare-faced bribery and corruption are practised 
by this class of people, without the least sense of fear or of shame. I have known 

Vol. I. 2 



298 LANDED PROPERTY, RENTAL TENURES. 

instances where the first question asked, on a person applying for a lease, was, " And 
how much do you propose to give to myself?" — Wives, daughters, kept-mistresses, 
all receive money, and the same infamous system prevails even among some resident 
landlords, who suffering themselves to be guided by that influence which, if I 
may be allowed to compare small things with great, has so often proved destructive 
to states, turn out the best and most improving tenant to make room for some artful 
and desio^nino- knave, who has slipped into the hands of the agent, or into those of 
some part of his family, according to circumstances, twenty, thirty, forty, or even 
sixty e;uineas. Nay, I have known instances where the tenant, after feeing the agent 
in this manner, could not get his lease executed without having recourse to the pro- 
prietor's lady, who was to be moved only by weighty arguments of the same kind, and 
to whom it was necessary for the fleeced tenant to present a similar fee before he could 
succeed in his application. 

The following anecdote, which was related to me by the daughter of an English 
earl, married to a nobleman in Ireland, is an evident proof that bribery in this coun- 
try, among tenants, agents, landlords, and their wives, has become systematic, and 
is considered merely as a sort of political engine, necessary to be employed even in 
the common affairs of life. Soon after the lady's marriage she accompanied her hus- 
band to Ireland, and, on arriving at the family seat, the tenants flocked round it from 
every quarter, telling his lordship that they wished to have the pleasure of seeing 
his lady. The nobleman informed her ladyship what the tenants wanted. Her lady- 
ship, struck with the uncouth appearance of her visitors, declined at first to expose 
herself as a public spectacle before so many men ; but, being told that the tenants 
would be affronted if she did not, she at length consented to gratify their wishes. 
When she appeared among them, a farmer in a brown wig, and a long coat, or trusty, 
as it is called, went up to her, and, jogging her with his elbow, signified that he 
wished to speak a few words to her in private. The lady having stepped aside, the 
farmer said, " I thought, perhaps, that your ladyship might be in want of a little rea- 
dy money for your pocket, and I have brought you some," at the same time slip- 
ping into her hand a piece of paper containing forty or fifty. guineas, but adding: 
" I hope, when my lease is out, your ladyship will speak a word in my favour 
to my lord." Others had come with a similar intention, but the lady having 
been bred in England, disdained to receive such presents ; and, unwilling to be 
the means of encouraging so disgraceful a practice, politely rejected the offer. 
Now it is evident that these people had formed an idea from actual experience, that 
bribery was an all-powerful engine, which, wherever applied, would always produce 
its effect. Can any thing tend more than such a belief to degrade the mind, and to 
render men selfish and dishonest ? Such practices, if not checked and discouraged, 
must sap the foundation of every moral principle ; debase the character, and eradi- 
cate all -enerous feelings from the heart. When ideas of this kind are imbibed by 



LANDED PROPERTY, RENTAL TENURES. 299 

education, strengthened by habit, and confirmed by example, can it excite much sur- 
prise that the labouring classes in Ireland should so often forget the ties of morality, 
disregard the laws, and even set the government itself at defiance. Every proprietor, 
therefore, who values his own welfare, or the prosperity of the country, will oppose 
this spirit of corruption ; let it be discouraged by every possible means, and let those 
who give way to it be branded with infamy. No good can be expected in a country 
where it prevails : it is one of the most destructive of those evils under which Ireland 
now labours. It is as disgraceful to her national character as it is contrary to her real 
interest ; and, as it is loudly condemned by the united voice of justice and sound 
policy, I trust that there is patriotism enough among the gentlemen of Ireland to 
extinguish it, and to wipe away, in an effectual manner, so shameful a cause of re- 
proach. 

While in Kildare, during the spring of the year 1 S09, a gentleman with whom 1 am 
in habits of intimacy, and on whose strict veracity I can place full reliance, communi- 
cated to me the following circumstance, which, had it been a solitary instance, I 
should have suppressed ; but, as a hundred of the same kind might be produced, it 
ought to be made known. 

My friend being about to go to England, was desired by one of his neighbours to 
wait upon a gentleman in London, to request the renewal of the lease of a farm. 
The gentleman received him with much politeness ; and, after some conversation on 
the business, referred him to the agent who resided on the estate. On application to 
the agent, he immediately said, " You must give so much per annum as the rent, and 
it will be necessary, likewise, that you should make me a present of ^500. — I have 
been offered ^£300. already." As a companion to the above, I shall relate a circum- 
stance nearly of the same kind: The late Duke of Leinster, upon the appointment of 
a new agent for his estate, borrowed of him ^20,000. The agent, who was a man of 
character, being desirous to have it understood — whether or not he was to follow the 
usual custom, and to receive presents from the tenants, asked his employer in what 
manner he should act. His grace replied, " Get all you can." 

Many agents have sons, or other relations, settled as shopkeepers on some part of 
the estate to which they belong,'and a tenant, unless he chooses to run the risk of in- 
curring the displeasure of these harpies, cannot purchase a yard of tape or a pound 
of cheese in any other place. Nay, I have known agents, when they had no relations 
to provide for in this manner, dispose of a shop to a stranger, and exact from him a 
per-centage on all his profits. 

Irish landlords, do not give way to delusion — you who reside on the spot, and who 
are well acquainted with these scandalous transactions, are sufferers by them, thoufrh 
you are weak enough to imagine that this is not the case. Sums thus exacted, and fre- 
quently after a bargain has been made, become most oppressive to the tenant, as are 
all unexpected demands ; but in the end they will fall upon the estate, and the loss 

2Q,2 



300 LANDED PROPERTY, RENTAL TENURES. 

be transferred to you. One estate in the north, Avhich came under my observation, 
yielded to the English landlord ^SOOO. per annum, and to the agent ^^000. inde- 
pendently of the patronage which the latter obtained, to the benefit of his family and 
dependants. I know another instance, where the leases of an estate of ^10,000. per 
annum being expired, the agent, on the renewal, exacted a year's rent from each 
tenant, by way of " lease-mone?/,"* and thus put at once into bis pocket XlO,000. 
There are persons of this description in every county of Ireland, and therefore the 
remarks of Mr. Townsend on this head+ are so valuable, that I think it will be doing 
a service to landlords to insert them: " The usual mode of letting land does, I con- 
fess, appear to me very exceptionable, from the latitude it gives to agents in the arti- 
cle of fees. Long usage has now established the custom, that it seems to be consi- 
dered rather as a branch of the duty, than as an appendage of the office. It is, how- 
ever, obvious, that such a practice militates against the interests of the proprietor 
and the occupier, precluding too often the encouragement which the former may be 
disposed to shew an industrious tenant, and debarring the latter from the just claims 
of meritorious exertion. When the agent is allowed a discretionary power of rating 
his fees, there is always danger that such power will be abused. Men come at last to 
consider as a right what is only a courtesy, and to believe themselves justified in 
measuring the scale of merit by the magnitude of the fee. 

" It is well known that tenants have been dispossessed contrary to every principle 
of justice or humanity, in consequence of not coming up to the agent's price ; and 
instances have been related of others, who, rather than lose their farm, have sold 
their all to purchase the agent's good-will, and by this extortion, have been reduced 
to the state of bankrupts. These relations may, perhaps, be often exaggerated; 
but that there is sufficient ground for complaints, where such practices prevail, no 
person who is acquainted with the general circumstances of the country will enter- 
tain the smallest doubt. Perhaps those who know least of it are the very persons 
whom it imports to know the most. The landed proprietor considers his duty done 
in the appointment of a man of fair character, and is supposed, I believe with 
truth, not only to be ignorant that any extortion is practised, but also to think that 
his affairs are conducted with proper fidelity. But in a matter so essential to the 
interests of the estate, he should make every provision in his power against undue 
influence, and endeavour to secure his tenants from the possibility of exaction. 
Leaving them to a power altogether discretionary, is at best leaving them in a 
slate of danger, and has the appearance of acquiescence in whatever may be the 
conduct of the agent." 

It will, perhaps, be said, it is of no importance to the tenant into what propor- 
tions his rent is divided, and if he does give a bribe to the agent or his wife, he 

• Leases are generally printed forms, purchased by agents at a small price in addition to the cost of tlie 
paper, that and the stamp, ought to form the only charge. -!■ Survey of Cork, Addenda, p. 18. 



LANDED PROPERTY, RENTAL TENURES. SOI 

only complies with common custom, by which, in many cases, practices of this 
kind receive a sort of sanction. But no excuse can ever justify \Yhat is radically wrong ; 
custom is one thing, and right another. A door ought never to be opened for cor- 
ruption and rapacity, nor should opportunities be afforded to education to take ad- 
vantage of ignorance, or to wealth to overawe poverty. By the same mode of reason- 
ing, examples might be produced in favour of every vice, and the general prevalence 
of profligacy might be adduced as an excuse for the very worst of crimes. 

I do not, however, wish it to be supposed, that I mean to include in one general 
character, all those agents who are intrusted with the management of estates in Ire- 
land. I know that in that country there are many most respectable agents ; honour- 
able men, who would as little take a bribe from the hands of a tenant, as they would 
pilfer a guinea from a banker's drawer. I observed less of that meanness among the 
non-resident agents, than among those who live in the mansion of an absentee. An 
airent of the latter description acts in general the part of a corrupt narrow-minded 
tvrant ; and, if his employer is in the neighbourhood, he is, in too many cases, the 
Justice Gobble of a Sir Giles Overreach. 

But the subject is not yet exhausted ; and wishing to throw as much light upon it 
ss possible, I shall offer no apology for subjoining what follows: A nobleman who 
has a large estate in Ireland, sent over an Englishman, known as a person of 
tried probity, to be his agent, at a fixed salary ; this agent was made a magistrate in 
two counties, but his ordinary income not being sufficient to defray the expence of 
travelling to attend petty judicial meetings, it was, of course, charged to his em- 
ployer ; the agent was appointed also a captain of a yeomanry corps, and this 
gave rise to another charge ; he resided in the castle, and repairs were necessary, 
hence a further expence ; and to sum up all, a most extensive domain was kept in 
hand, at a considerable annual loss. In this case what was to be done ? The land- 
lord was induced to visit his estate, that he might inquire into the manner in which 
it was managed. When he saw it, disgusted with the mud cabins which stood so 
near to his princely mansion, he ordered them to be pulled down, and new ones 
erected at a greater distance. The tenants surrounded him ; requested that a lime- 
kiln might be built, and assured him that their purchases would repay the expence: 
a lime-kiln was constructed, but next year the nobleman finding his income much 
diminished, proposed another journey to Ireland. A friend of mine advised him 
to remain at home, to put up with the loss, to let the domain for what it would 
bring ; if no tenant offered for the castle to burn it down, and to confine his agent to 
act as a magistrate at home, leaving the yeomanry corps to find out a new captain. 
This advice being followed, and the agent kept within his proper sphere, the no- 
bleman's income soon increased ; and I have reason to believe that the tenants are 
not in a worse situation. Circumstances similar to those here related have fre- 
quently occurred, and, in every instance, the evil has arisen from the landlord 



302 LANDED PROPERTY, RENTAL TENURES. 

placing his agent in a situation too near to his own, a situation which cannot be 
supported by a narrow Income. In cases of this kind, the expence must be sup- 
plied either by the landlord or the tenants ; if the agent Is a man of tender 
conscience, it will fall, perhaps, upon the landlord ; but if he be a knave. It will be 
drawn from the pockets of the tenants. When the attention of an agent is confined 
merely to letting the farms and collecting the rents, a moderate salary will be sufi5- 
cient. The owner of this estate was taught by experience what might have been 
sufficiently obvious to him on the smallest reflection. 

The existing leases on estates frequently prevent them from being put in that 
course of management which their owners could wish, and where they have been 
granted for a term beyond twenty-one years, and where lives have been inserted, 
the period is so distant, that it is an object frequently neglected. In the course of 
the last thirty years, a very great change has taken place in the occupations of estates 
in the south of Ireland. Mr. Townsend says, " Thirty years ago, all the gentlemen 
of this and the adjoining baronies, on the north-east quarter, held large tracts of land 
under the grazing system. The mode is now changed, and they retain only domains 
of a moderate size, which are much better dressed and cultivated than heretofore. 
The remaining lands are occupied by farmers who, on large farms, combine pasture 
and tillage. Estates have hereby risen greatly In value, land now letting from two 
guineas to three pounds per acre Irish."* There Is great room for an extension of 
this system throughout the rich grazing lands of Ireland, the only fear is the rushing 
to an opposite extreme, and that instead of the estate being divided into respectable 
farms, it may be split into the minutest divisions.t " Parliamentary influence Is 
very much looked to in all leases, consequently every proprietor has an army of free- 
holders. The farm-houses, for the most part, are very bad, but they are rather im- 
proving, from the general prosperity of the country ; the landlord seldom has any 
thing to do with them." 

The extravagance with which many of the higher orders waste their incomes, 
often reduces them to the necessity of continuing agents, whose venality, dishonesty, 
and ignorance of the value of land, is perfectly well known to them. In England 
the duties of this office are frequently divided ; the leases are drawn, and the rents 
received by a respectable solicitor ; but the divisions and the amount of rent are de- 
termined by a land valuer. The most important point of all, however, is, that the 
fullest confidence prevails between the landlord and tenant, the latter always being 
assured, that the tenure, if he chooses, will be renewed to him. The total want of 
this confidence in Ireland is an evil of the most serious nature, and injurious in no 
small degree to the prosperity of the country. Mr. Edgeworth, a friend of mine, 
for whom I entertain a very high respect, Is of opinion, that the only thing which 

» Survey of Cork, p. 412. + Jbid. p. 468, 



LANDED PROPERTY, RENTAL TENURES. SOS 

can obviate this evil, is the residence of the owner on his own property. To every 
opinion of this gentleman I must always pay due deference, but I request him to 
recollect, that I found this confidence existing between Earl Fitzwilliam and his 
tenantry, though this nobleman is an absentee. This confidence depends, no doubt, 
in a great measure on the character of the landlord, and that of the persons with 
whom he associates. No man possessed more the confidence of his Irish tenants 
than the late Sir George Saville, and if others would imitate his example, and con- 
duct themselves in a like manner, they Avould. no doubt, enjoy the same. If a 
tenant knows that, however deligenlly he has discharged his duty, he may be turned 
out of his farm by bribery on the expiration of his lease, and when the landlord is 
imdetermined whether he shall renew to the middle-man or not, the latter is equally 
undetermined in regard to his sub-tenants ; besides, as the insertion of lives on leases 
occasions an uncertainty in regard to the termination of them, all these circum- 
stances have a very mischievous tendency, and seem to call for the serious consider- 
ation of those who are the proprietors of landed estates. 

I have endeavoured, on various occasions, to convince an occupier that it was not 
his interest to run so many crops, and that a greater weight of corn could be raised 
under proper management in a less number of years, but my logic was of no use; the 
invariable answer was, " I hold the land only during such a person's life, he is ad- 
vanced in years, and who knows how soon he may drop." But you will get a re- 
newal : " I can't tell that." But it is most probable there can be no wish to change 
the tenant : " A high rent will be bid for the land if it be in heart."* 

Another great source of evil in Ireland is reversionary leases, which are exceed- 
ingly common.-!- I have often been asked how landlords in England are able to 
procure tenants so respectable as those who every where astonish an Irishman when 
he visits this country ? (Queries of this kind I never found it difficult to answer; a 
few words were sufficient. In the first place, the system of an Eno-lish landlord is 
to continue the old tenants, provided they perform their part as skilful and active 
cultivators of the soil. The latter have always a Avell-grounded confidence that 
character and industry will procure them a renewal, or at any rate, a preference 
in case a competition should arise. In cases where new tenants are admitted, capital 
probity, and a knowledge of farming, are essential requisites, without which a lease 
cannot be obtained. But if a country gentleman be so much indebted to his a<rent 
that he must wink at flagrant acts of injustice, and see, without daring to interfere 
an industrious and deserving tenant turned out to make room for a minion Mho has se- 
cured his point by a bribe, no allention can be psid to qualifications of this kind. The 

* Sir Charles Coote, in his Survey of Armagh, says, that it is no uncommon thing wlien the lease of a 
farm is nearly expired, to destroy all the fences and other improvements, to prevent the rent being raise 
in ths new lease. 

1- Tooke, in his Survey of Yorkshire, p. 57, Las pointed out the evil of leases for lives. 



304 LANDED PROPERTY, RENTAL TENURES. 

Irish proprietors are fully aware of ihe superiority of English tenants, and yet these 
gentlemen let their land to persons without property, as if capital were not necessary 
in farming ; without a knowledge of agriculture, as if corn were a spontaneous pro- 
duction, which required neither labourer skill; and without industry or sobriety, 
as if activity and steadiness of character were not requisite to make respectable te- 
nants. The whole business of letting an estate is conducted in a manner that must 
excite the astonishment of an Englishman, who has been accustomed to make the 
strictest inquiries respecting those who solicit for farms. Regard to present gain, 
without the least thought of the future, seems to be the principal object which the 
Irish landlord has in view. The highest bidder, whatever be his character or con- 
nexions, is invariably preferred ; and if he can pay his rent, no inquiries are made 
whether he cultivates the land in a proper manner, or ruins and exhausts it by mis- 
management. 

The principles which form the foundation of that superiority, possessed by the 
tenants in England, may be readily comprehended from the following short, but 
pithy speech, made by a son of Sir John Sebright, hart, to his tenants, at an audit 
dinner. The boy was only eight years old, and his father was absent. 
" Gentlemen, 

" So long as Beachwood estate belongs to a Sebright, I trust it will be occupied 
iy such tenants as yon are ; and I hope, gentlemen, that if ever you should have 
another landlord, he will know your value as well as my father does." 

To become sensible of the value of good tenants is the •whole secret. It is the 
value in which they are held by the English landlords that makes them respectable, 
and renders their own estates productive. I could relate instances of liberality on 
the part of English landlords to their tenants, which in the Irish would excite 
astonishment. I have known Mr. Coke, Mr. Western,* and many others, behave to 
them in times of distress, or when in want of money, with the same kindness that a 
father would to a son. 

In regard to Irish tenants, the highest bidder, as I have already said, is always 
preferred, and it is invariably stipulated, that he must give the proprietor his vote 
at elections. On this head the tenants are exceedingly tractable ; they have no no- 
tion of supporting a candidate from any other motive than interest. And when 
solicited for a vote, their answer always is — " Why, to be sure, and do you think 
now that I would vote against my landlord ?" 

It will be perceived that I am a decided friend to leases, being convinced that they 
are equally benehcial to the landlord, the tenant, and the public, who are in fact in- 
volved in one common interest. In England, my opinion has been in favour of 
twenty-one years as the term ; but I am inclined to think, that this point ought to 
be determined by the nature of the property. In Ireland a great part of the land 
is in such a state, that it requires the management of an attentive farmer during a 



LANDED PROPERTY, RENTAL TENURES. .W5 

long series of years before it can be brought into common cultivation. This proves 
the necessity, under certain circumstances, of lengthening the term beyond the 
usual period ; in such cases thirty-one years probably might be a just and reasonable 
time. In districts which require both money and labour to an amount far beyond 
the value of the fee, sixty-one years would certainly not be too long; but where 
the tenant is good, let me strongly recommend a timely renewal ; a lease should 
never be suffered to expire: a landlord and tenant may always understand each 
other before it comes to an end ; and a reversionary lease to the occupier is as 
beneficial to both parties, as it is destructive when granted to a third. 

Very large estates should never be let in such a manner as to occasion an ex- 
piration of all the leases at the same time. This enables the tenants to combine; 
and when a large tract of land belongs to one individual, as is often the case in 
Ireland, if the divisions are very small, it is almost impossible to transact bu- 
siness with so numerous a body of tenants. Nothing tends so much to induce a 
landlord to let his whole estate to a middle-man, who is more accustomed to deal 
with people of that description, and consequently better enabled to endure the 
fatigue of it. Were my advice followed, landlords would so let their estates as to 
make the leases expire at different periods. 

From the information detailed in the preceding account of the landed property 
in the different counties, I have endeavoured to draw out an account of the rent per 
acre of the whole kingdom, distinguishing the rent per green acre from the rent of 
the total area, but it must be obvious, that without better materials, and a more ac- 
curate estimate of the quantity of waste land, nothing like correctness can be ex- 
pected. It will be perceived by the following table, that I make the average rent of 
the total area of fourteen counties £l. 4s. Qd. per acre. — The average rent of the 
green acres of seventeen £l. ISs. 8d. per acre, which upon their total area is £l. gs. 
per acre.* Two counties, Antrim and Longford, I have left blank, conceiving that 
I have not data enough to form a calculation, but they certainly will not average 
above 30^. or under 25^- per acre ; setting them down therefore at 21s- 6d. for the 
sake of making up an estimate of the island, the average of these three sums will 
be £l. Is. Id. per acre, which upon 12,722,615, is ,£17,228,540. Irish money, and 
Irish acres. 

♦ Calculating the difference between the green acres and total area according to Mr, Arrowsmith's opinion 
at one- fourth. 



Vol. I. 2R 



3b6 



LANDED PROPERTY, RENTAL TENURES. 



Counties. 



ANTRIM 

ARMAGH 

CARLOW 

CAVAN 

CLARE , 

CORK. The accounts given to me in regard to this county, and 
those of Mr. Newenhara, pubhshed by the Rev. Mr. Townsend, 
difTer so widely, that I find it difficult t.o satisfy myself in regard to 
an average. I, however, estimate it at ...... 

DONEGAL 

DOWN 

DUBLIN. The rent of this county arises rather from situation 
than the quality of the soil. It cannot average less than 

FERMANAGH 

GALWAY - 

KERRY. The valuation of this county was received from one 
person, Mr. Herbert, of Carnien. He was long member for the 
county, and is acquainted with every part of it, which he traversed 
with a view of assisting a gentleman who intended to make a 
survey of it, but unfortunately died before he had accomplished his 
design ........-.--- 

KILDARE. The ploughed land in this county is the most worn 
out in the island. It was w ithin the pale, and on account of its 
pohtical circumstances has been longer under tillage - . - - 

KILKENN'Y 

KING'S COUNTY 

LOUTH 

LEITRIM. From riding across this county, I think the mountains 
much more valuable than those in Donegal. Very little here is 
totally waste, but still there is very little good soil .... 

LIMERICK ' - 

LONGFORD 

LONDONDERRY. The mountains here are very similar to those 
of Leitrim, but there is a larger proportion of profitable land. I 
should think the whole county worth ....... 

MAYO 

ME.'VTH .-.-...- 

IMONAGHAN 

ROSCO.MMON. Tliere is a great deal of excellent land in this 
county ; and m the southern part of it, which is very rocky, there 
are good sheep pastures, worth 25j. The waste lands in the north 
are so much improved that the county might be averaged at - 

SLIGO contains much waste -.-.....- 

aUEEN'S COUNTY 

TIPPERARY 

TYRONE - 

WATERFORD 

WESTME,\TH - 

WEXFORD. There is here little mountain or bng .... 

WICKLOW. It IS difficult to itate the value of this county. The 
interior is a waste, but the sea-coast, which abounds with villas, is 
exceedingly valuable. It ought to be formed into three divisions, 
and may average ........... 



Green Acres. 



Total Area. 



15 



10 



10 



13. 



IS 



12 



LANDED PROPERTY, RENTAL TENURES. 3Q7 

To this amount must be added an incalculable rent, for I have no data to enable 
me to ascertain it, arising not only from the large towns, such as Dublin, Cork, Li- 
merick, Belfast, Waterford, Kilkenny, Clonmell, Drogheda, fcc. but that pro- 
duced by small towns, which on the first view might appear of very little conse- 
quence. The rents in some of these places are astonishing. 1 know moderate- 
sized houses in Roscrea that let for JCSOO: per annum. Even at Kilrush, which lies 
as far to the west as any part of Europe, building ground produces a good in- 
come, and consequently that arising from houses must be very great. A fear of 
misleading the public restrains me froni assigning any value to the rental of towns 
in Ireland. I shall therefore leave this point to the judgment of the reader, who, 
however, must not overlook the difference between rent derived from land, which 
annually produces a return, and the site of a town which consumes that produce. 

With regard to the landed property of Ireland in general, it will be found to be 
placed under very advantageous circumstances. The landlord has no repairs to make 
no land-tax to deduct, and except the agent's fees, his rent-roll is his income. How 
different from the state of the same kind of property in England. There are here 
no fines paid to the lord of the manor by copyhold tenures, the titles to estates beino- 
derived from a different principle. In Ireland, live and dead heriots are unknown 
and fines upon death or alienation can in no instance be demanded. There are here 
no open-field tenures or lammas-laud ; none of those immense commons which can- 
not be inclosed without an Act of Parliament, obtained at a great expence, and the 
appointment of commissioners. The whole country is inclosed, ready to receive 
that improvement which the application of industry may give to it, and the te- 
nants in general enjoy tenures which an English farmer would consider as hicrhly 
advantageous. Some of the latter, indeed, if they could obtain a lease for their own 
and their son's lives, would, I am convinced, commence their exertions with as 
much spirit as if they possessed the fee. Resides the absence of poor's rates, the 
advantages are so striking, that I am surprised that English farmers do not eao-erly 
seek after farms in Ireland. 

I had drawn up minutes for the formation of leases in Ireland, under the different 
circumstances of mountain, grazing, or arable land ; but conceiving- that the inser- 
tion of them would only have swelled to a greater size, a work which I fear will be 
considered already too large, I determined to suppress them. 

Landed estates in Ireland sell at very different rates. In the neighbourhood of 
Belfast, and thence to Armagh, the common price is thirty years' purchase. In the 
greater part of the rest of the island it does not exceed twenty ; but in the turbu- 
lent districts, many estates may be sometimes bought for from sixteen to eio-hteen. 
Westmeath and Carlow are the only counties in which I have heard of a ^reat trans- 
fer of property; estates are so much entailed that they are not often exposed to sale. 
The only three large estates which have been sold of late years, are those of Lord 

2R2 



308 RURAL ECONOMY. 

Earrymore, in the county of Cork, purchased by Mr. Anderson, that of Lord 
Dundas in Sligo and Roscommon, which was sold in lots, and the estates of Earl 
Moira, which were situated in different parts of the kingdom. What transfers 
take place are generally made by private bargain, as Irish gentlemen have a particular 
aversion to advertise their estates for sale by public auction. In this respect, the 
difference between England and Ireland is peculiarly striking. 



CHAPTER VIII. 



RURAL ECONOMY. 

Having treated in the preceding chapter of the nature of landed property in 
Ireland, the manner In which it is divided, the value of it, and other things pertain- 
in"- to the subject, I shall now endeavour to describe the manner in which it is em- 
ployed, whether for the breeding and maintenance of cattle and other animals, or 
for the raisin"- of corn, which naturally forms two distinct heads. 

Laro-e tracts of country, exclusively devoted to the breeding of cattle, as is the case 
in the Highlands of Scotland, are not to be found in Ireland, and even in places 
■where this system of rural economy is pursued, they are so uncommon, that they 
appear to have been set apart for that purpose rather by accident than design. 

In most of the dairy districts calves are reared, and frequently sold when yearlings, 
to persons who graze them till they are three or four years old. They are then re- 
sold to o-raziers, in order to be fattened, and in many instances where this method 
is not followed, the male calves are slaughtered at an early age, that perhaps of three 
or four days, and used at the table as veal.* The cow-calves, ho\Yever, are preserved 
and reared for the supply of the dairy. 

A mixture of grazing and tillage is seldom adopted, except by gentlemen, and in 
this respect there is a wide difference between England and Ireland. In the eastern 
part of England in particular, there are many winter graziers whose farms are nearly 
all under the plough, but who fatten such numbers of cattle that the supply of the 
capital during April and May, depends in a great measure upon those which have 
been fed on turnips in Norfolk, Suffolk, and Essex. The mountains of Ireland, 
instead of being grazed by their owners or large occupiers, who in that case would 
annually sell their draught stock, are frequently let on a partnership lease to the 
inhabitants of a mountain village, each of whom turns out a fixed number of co//o/w,t 
according to his share of the tenure. These coUops, for the most part, are cows, goats, 

• Mr. Townsend says, that they are often the fogd of poor housekeepers in towns, p. 221. 
+ The term coUop appears to be ver)- similar to that of catlle gnil in England, when the tenants of a ma- 
nor have a r\"\n to turn out on the common a hxed number of stock. 



RURAL ECONOMY.— GRAZING. 309 

or <Teese ; and the only saleable produce of such districts is butter. The ■\^•ant of 
roads in these mountains is a great impediment to tillage ; grain could not be trans- 
ported from one place to another without considerable expence, but butter is easily 
conveyed in panniers, or at any rate on sliding cars, a kind of vehicle without wheels, 
which is similar to our sledge. The word collop is applied to various objects ; a 
horse is generally a collop, two cows are equal to a horse, and consequently com- 
prehended under the same term ; four yearling calves, or one cow and two yearling 
calves are a collop ; five goats are equal to a cow, so tliat ten goals are also a collop, 
and I believe the case is the same with twice that number of geese. Sheep are rated 
with goats, but are by no means so frequent, for milk is the chief object, and an ewe 
does not yield nearly the same quantity as a she-goat, yet now and then sheep are 
kept also for this piirpose.* Some readers, perhaps, maybe surprised to hear that 
sheep are kept on account of their milk, but this custom is not confined to Ireland ; 
it is common in Carmarthenshire, and I have observed it in other parts of Great 
Britain. 

The northern mountains of Ireland support a few cattle, but they are generally 
in a famished condition ; and even in the south, where they are much more frequent, 
some perish through bad food.t In the north I have travelled during a whole day 
without seeing any other animals than goats, browzing in flocks as they do in Swisser- 
land. The want of cultivation at the bottom of these heights, to insure food in winter, 
and of proper attention to shades, will sufficiently account for this circumstance. 
On the coast of Clare I observed shades, consistjng of stone walls, built in the form 
of a T, which were exceedingly well calculated to answer the purpose intended. 

It is difficult to estimate the mountain produce of Ireland, for no measurement 
of such land has ever yet been made, at least as far as came within my knowledge. 
A mountain is generally let by the side, the bed of some small river often forming the 
boundary; but the quality of the soil is for the most part so variable, that its value 
or susceptibility of improvement, cannot easily be ascertained. The stock kept on 
a given surface depends on the condition of the occupiers ; if they are wealthy 
the number is of course greater, but possessions of this kind are often exceedingly 
small. 

The cotters who keep cows in all parts of the kingdom, rear a calf now and then 
on .their landlord's farm. The privilege of doing this is one of the usual modes 
of payment which are here called " conveniences," and it is by these means that 
they are enabled to become possessed of cows ; but I am much inclined to think that 
they are kept to too great an age, a system which occasions much waste of stock) 
and therefore is very unprofitable. Those who have attended to this subject will 
readily comprehend what I mean ; but as it is a point on which many who are igno- 

' Towusend's Survey of Cork, p. 23/ and 250. Dutton's Survey of Clare, p. 1C9. 
■': Ibid. p. 312. 



310 RURAL ECONOMY.—GRAZING. 

rant of it, have ventured to decide, and as such persons inveigh strongly against the 
use of veal or of Iamb, I shall endeavour to shew that their opinions are erroneous, 
and founded on fallacious arguments. A cow after having produced three or four 
calves, or a ewe after dropping as many lambs, will consume a far greater weight of 
food than either of them would do at a much younger age ; and after that period 
these animals fall into a state of gradual decline, so that it is difficult, or rather 
almost impossible to fatten a very old cow or a ewe. In England this is so well 
Icnown, that most of those that are kept to a great age, are finally used at the dog~ 
kennel. It is to a knowledge of this circumstance that we must ascribe the annual 
drafts of ewes by flock-masters. Wherever the practice of keeping animals to a 
great age prevails, it has a most destructive tendency, and may be considered as pro- 
ducing a great national loss. In the present advanced state of agriculture, it is an 
evil which could scarcely be expected to exist in any part of the empire. In Great 
Britain, a cow, after she has brought her owner a few calves, is fattened to supply 
food to man ; and a ewe, when it is thought expedient to separate her from the 
flock, is placed in the most luxuriant keep, that she may speedily fatten with her 
lamb, in order that the latter may be sooner taken from her. When she becomes 
fat, which will be the case if she be continued on the same keep, she will be 
fit for the knife, and become excellent mutton. Were there little or no de- 
mand for veal or lamb, a small part only of this excellent system could be pur- 
sued, and I am much afraid from what I have seen, that it is little known and 
less practised in Ireland. In Suffolk, Norfolk, and the north of Essex, the cow 
and calf are frequently fattened together, the latter is called a beefen; and of late 
years, the sreat cow-keepers in the neighbourhood of London fatten their cows while 
they are in their prime, renewing their stock from the north, and never suffering a 
cow to waste by age. This method is strictly observed in all the d.iiries of England. 
In Ireland, calves, when yearlings, are often collected by jobbers, who carry a great 
number of them to Connaught, where they are grazed during the course of some 
years, but without any view of being fattened for the shambles. Many farms are 
employed for this purpose, but as they generally lie at a distance from the residence 
of the occupier, he relies entirely on the wise man, or herd, who lives upon the 
spot, and who saves, or rather spoils the little hay collected for their winter's 
food. In this part of Ireland the grass, in what is termed the mountains,* but par- 
ticularly in the moory bottoms, remains till winter, when the cattle are fed with it. 
This I consider as a method extremely advantageous ; it is followed in some de- 
crree throughout the richer pasture grounds, and I am certain, would m all places, 
under proper management, turn to good account ; but I am inclined to suspect that 
the pasture is never really eaten down bare once in the year, without which the 

« Mountains, or mountain)-, in Ireland, is a term frequently applied to uncultivated land. 



RURAL ECONOMY.— GRAZING. 311 

coarser grasses and weeds, but particularly rag-wort and thistles, get so completely 
ahead, that in consequence of their continually shedding their seed, the land, iui- 
stead of a fine piece of winter grass, becomes one tissue of weeds. Under this sys" 
tem, cattle, when four years old, are driven to Ballinasloe fair in October, Avhere 
they are offered for sale in a half-fattened state by some of the graziers, and pur- 
chased by others, for the purpose of finishing them, or fattening them into beef. 
The latter are occupiers of the rich pastures in Limerick, Tipperary, Roscommon, and 
Meath, which are the chief grazing counties in Ireland. The banks of the Fergus in 
Clare, some parts of Cork, the Q^ueen's County, Westmeath, a small part of Louth and 
Kildare, are all in some degree held by persons engaged in the occupation of grazing 
bullocks. The first winter their cattle are kept upon hay, and are generally sold 
out some time before the next Ballinasloe fair; but the period of sale depends very 
much on the markets and the capital of the grazier. From Meath great numbers of 
fat cattle are shipped alive for Liverpool, many are sold for the consumption of 
Dublin and the north ; but the other grazing parts of Ireland rely upon Limerick 
and Cork, as beef-markets, -where it is sold chiefly for exportation in a cured or 
salted state. For a detailed account of the manner of curing it, I must refer to the 
head of national industry, under which I think it may with more propriety be 
introduced. 

Bullock and sheep-grazing are very seldom combined in Ireland ; and to this cir- 
cumstance I ascribe that luxuriant abundance of rag-wort stalks, which are every 
where seen. The latter animal always bites this plant when in a young state, and 
therefore it is never to be found in sheep pastures. The want of tillage, which is 
considered derogatory to the assumed rank in life of a grazier, precludes the produc- 
tion of any other winter food than hay, such as it is ; but the great subject of com- 
plaint is the total ignorance of that regular system so necessary to be pursued by 
a grazier, namely, that of keeping his pastures and stock in a due course, which 
few in Ireland understand or practise. A grazing farm should be divided as nearly 
as possible into equal shares, every one of which ought to be closely and barely 
eaten down in succession. Those cattle in best condition should be thinly intro- 
duced into the most luxuriant pastures, and as they are driven off to market, their 
place should be filled up by the next best, and the grass finally consumed by the 
young and growing stock, which are placed on hard fiire, and doing what the 
English graziers term " working for their living." These should eat up every 
blade of grass, and render the fields completely bare. When taken from them 
the fields should be shut up for a few weeks, and in the course of that time 
they will become clothed with verdure, and throw out young, succulent, and fatten- 
ing herbage, which, of course, will be used as prime pasture for the fat cattle. If 
this economical system be not adopted, grazing cannot be carried on with advantage ; 
but I never saw it practised in Ireland except by Mr. Arthur French, of French- 



312 RURAL ECONOMY.— GRAZING. 

Park, in Roscommon ; nor did I ever meet with any person in that country who 
seemed to understand it, or to have the least idea of the advantages which attend 
it. The graziers all seemed satisfied that the price of beef had risen in common 
with that of every other article since the time they hired their lands ; and, 
therefore, while they find, themselves gainers, they never think of systems, and 
pay little attention to any plans of improvement that may be suggested. They 
conceive that the profits which they obtain are the result of their good management ; 
and without entering into a comparison of what they actually do with what they 
might do, they pertinaciously adhere to their old practice, and suffer themselves 
to be so far blinded by prejudice, that they are incapable of perceiving the advao- 
tages that might be derived from a change in their principles of rural economy. I 
have seen tons per acre of rag-wort and thistles thrown into heaps in the autumn, 
and burnt by the herds, who sell the ashes, which they consider as a perquisite,* 
and which are used instead of soap by individuals as well as by some manufacturers. 
A more wasteful system cannot be conceived than to produce these weeds, which yield 
but a paltry sum to a servant, and are more exhausting to the earth than the growth of 
grass, which can be employed in the fattening of animals. Meath, in regard to the 
quality of its pasture land, undoubtedly stands foremost in Leinster, but in conse- 
quence of its distance from Connaught, the grazing system which is here followed 
varies in a considerable degree from that pursued in Limerick, &:c. ; yet if it lies 
more remote from the market for purchasing its stores, it has the advantage of 
contiguity to Dublin, England, and other places, where it can dispose of its fat 
slock with considerable profit. 

As Mr. Thomson, in his Survey of Meath, has published some very valuable re- 
marks on this subject, I shall take the liberty of giving an abridged view of them. 
From my own observations when I was there in the summers of ISOS and I809, I 
think them correct, and they are equally applicable to all the other grazing parts of 
the province. 

This writer quotes the opinion of Mr. Lowthert in favour of winter grass, and in 
this I entirely coincide with him. Early in May the graziers open the pastures for 
their summer stock which they intend to fatten; for feeding is their principal ob- 
ject, as land bears too high a rent to admit of its being used to raise stock. The cattle 
which the graziers intend to fatten are collected from various places, and after being 
bled, they are turned out till they become fit for the butcher, when they are sold either 
in the Dublin market or the neighbouring fairs to purchasers from the north, who 
sell the beef either for home consumption or salt and barrel it for exportation. The 
slaughtering season commences early in September, after which the Meath graziers 

" Mr. Button, in his Survey of Clare, says that the ashes of these weeds become the perquisite of the col- 
ter's wives. 

-^ Survey of Meath, p. 218. 



RURAL ECONOMY.— GRAZING. 313 

rely chiefly on the northern buyers, because they are exempted from the charges of 
commission, driving, 8cc. which are taxes that fall exceedingly heavy on their profits. 

Many persons fatten from three to five hundred cows in a season, besides bullocks 
and sheep. These cows are purchased sometimes singly in the country from poor per- 
sons who have milked them the preceding summer, and are called " dry cows ;" others 
are heifers, which having missed being in calf, are half fat, and are bought in lots; 
such of them as are in the best condition are placed on the most forward grass, and 
when ready for use are sold in Dublin market in the months of June, July, and 
August, when beef bears the highest price. Many of the more backward heifers are 
•withheld from the bull till August, and reserved for the spring market in Dublin, 
provided they fatten, if not they are sold in May to dairy-men. A few sheep, ge- 
nerally pets, are occasionally pastured among the neat cattle, but this practice is con- 
demned as injuring the " proof" of the beast, because the sheep rob them of the 
sweetest grass, and it is the ultimate interest of the grazier to obtain a character for 
fattening " proof beasts" that will " do well," which is a term used by butchers for 
an animal possessing a considerable quantity of inward fat. In a falling market 
this reputation is exceedingly useful, as it insures a ready sale, while those who have 
not acquired it are obliged to send their cattle again to grass, with the loss of addi- 
tional keep, and the disadvantage of driving. The northern buyers are well ac- 
quainted with the proof of the land of most of the graziers with whom they deal. 

Beasts purchased in May are often fattened and sold by Christmas, if not they are 
fattened in winter with hay, or turned out into old grass ; but, perhaps, in a few in- 
stances, rape, turnips, or potatoes, are given to them ; and there are some distilleries in 
the county, the owners of which fatten bullocks on the wash and the grains, during 
their season of work, till the month of May, when they can be driven to the market 
in Dublin. These animals attain to an uncommon degree of fatness, and are pre- 
ferred by the butchers on account of their superior weight in proportion to their 
size; yet the beef, though apparently juicy, is not so well flavoured ; it eats dry and 
the fat melts away either before the fire or when put into the pickling tub. 

Those who buy up cattle purchase them at the neighbouring fairs when a year 
old, at from two to six pounds per head, and keep them during the summer either 
on land of a coarse bottom or upon ground newly laid down, and in winter upon 
straw till the month of May, when they are again turned out to grass. 

In all the county surveys I have generally found winter grazing and stall feeding 
strongly recommended, and often by gentlemen who did not seem to be much ac- 
quainted with either. But there can be little encouragement for winter grazing in a 
country where, if I except one city, Dublin, there is little consumption of meat, and 
where exportation requires beef only at a certain season of the year. Did Ireland 
abound with large manufacturing towns, there would be plenty of winter grazing 
■without the interference of unexperienced county surveyors. It is the statesman ra- 

VoL. I. 2 S 



SU RURAL ECONOMY.-GRAZING. 

ther than the statistical surveyor who must apply the proper remedy to this evil. To 
adopt the plans proposed by the former would be like cutting a canal where there is 
no trade or commerce to pay the tolls. These gentlemen all recommend the fatten- 
ing of cattle before the inhabitants have attained to that state of luxury, and acquired 
those habits which render a large supply of animal food necessary, and before they 
have become sufficiently rich to be able to bear the expence. Raise the condition of 
the people, increase their industry by a demand for manufactures among them, 
and winter fed beef will be abundant. Towns like Liverpool, Manchester, Birming-. 
ham, Leeds, or Sheffield, would do more to produce this effect than all the books, 
that can be written on the subject.* 

The recommendation of stall feeding as a matter of profit is almost ridiculous ; a, 
grazier can make very little by it, and if he intends to turn bis cattle out again in the, 
spring, he will find that he has adopted a very bad trade. Housing cattle creates a 
tenderness which keeps them in a stationary condition for some weeks before they- 
begin to fatten. Good winter grass with plenty of hay, and a shade to which they 
can retire for shelter whenever they choose, will be of much more service, and cattle 
treated in this manner will be found much superior to those kept in a state of close 
confinement. I have seen this method so often tried, and particularly by the Rev. 
Dr. Henry Bate Dudley, when he resided at Bradwell, in Essex, that I am enabled, 
to speak in the most confident manner on the subject. 

The turnip fed beasts of the eastern part of England, are now seldom fattened in 
stalls butkeptin small yards, and are universally sold out when fat in the spring, May 
or June, a season when there are no contracts for beef at the great export towns of 
Ireland ; so that if stall feeding were pursued while there is no demand for home 
consumption, the animals must be again turned out, which, as I have already said, 
would not be attended with a beneficial result. Meat can be cured only during one 
part of the year; that period is called the " slaughtering season," and while it con-f 
tinues meat is much cheaper, as the offal parts are employed for home consumption. 

The Dublin market for cattle is called " Smithfield," and there are persons who 
sell them alive by commission, as in London ; these salesnaen allow the butchers 
twenty-one day's credit. 

Ulster There is probably no county in Ireland where beasts are not Jattened, 

yet the number in the whole province of Ulster must be very small. In consequence 
of its thick population, little of its cultivated land has been suffered to remain in 

» " The most natural way, surely, of encouraging industry, is Erst to excite other tinds of industry, and 
thereby afford the labourer a ready market for his commodities, and a return of such goods as may contri- 
bute to his pleasure and enjoyment." Hume's Essays, vol. i. p. 435. 

" En un mot, ces etats ont besoin que beacoup de gens cultivent au-dela de ce qui leur est necessaire : pour 
cela, il faut leur donner envie d'avoir le superflu ; raais il n'y a que les artisans qui le donnent." (Euvres d( 
Monlesfdw, torn. iii. p- 73. 



RURAL ECONOMY.— GRAZING. 3 IS 

that state which in England would be termed pasture. Artificial grasses are sown 
only in patches for the cow, the goat, and the horse, but they are never employed 
as food for the fattening of cattle or sheep ; even potatoes, which might be so readily 
and beneficially used instead of turnips, are seldom converted to that purpose. The 
grass of Ulster, which is almost confined to the banks of rivers, or low moist situa- 
tions, sometimes incapable of drainage, is either cut for hay,* or allotted to the cow 
of the poor cotter. There are certainly immense districts of mountain land, which 
in its present uncultivated state can hardly be said to produce grass, if the sour and 
scanty herbage that covers it can deserve this name ; at any rate, it is incapable of 
grazing animals of any kind. 

The accustomed method of grazing in Londonderry, is applicable to all 
the northern districts of Ireland. Many young cattle reared in the low coun- 
tries are about April sent to the high rough pastures, and are called the yeld 
cattle, a term which is probably a contraction of the words a year old. The 
nature of the grass regulates the price of summering from 2^. %\d. to 15j. ; cows 
are tolerably grazed from ^1. 1j. to ^1. \0s. and on the best land for £,%. 2s, 
The sandy pastures ofMagilligan are objectionable, both on account of their wear- 
ing out the teeth, and the quality of the mineral water.t The young cattle are 
housed in November, and fed on barley or oat -straw, but for want of care they are 
small and ill shapen. Milch cows are also badly managed and harshly treated ; they 
are generally milked during the summer at noon,5: that they may have time to feed 
after they are turned out in the morning ; a good cow gives six quarts after the first 
meal, and three after the second ; on account of the poorness of their food in winter, 
scarcely more is obtained on an avarage than one quart at a meal. The custom of 
housing the cattle in summer saves them from the heat during the day, but it 
deprives them in part of the pasture of the early morning. Store cattle are 
brought from the mountains of Donegal when two or three years old ; these are heifers 
or young bullocks which fatten readily, even on indifferent pasture. A young bul- 
lock is called a nah ; many of these have of late been sent to Scotland, and thence to 
the English market. The grass of a horse is valued at four sum\ and a half; a sum 
«f sheep consists of four ewes with their lambs, or six full grown sheep ; twenty 
geese are a sum. The value of a sum of grass difiers according to the nature of the 
soil and the age of the animal. The pasture decreases in value from two guineas in 
the low lands to 65. ^d. or to a rate still lower in the mountains ; even in the best pas- 
tures the cow is herded or tethered, which proves in the most evident manner the 

* In Ireland all grass land to which the scythe is applied, is called " meadow," but that which is grazed, 
" pasture." 

■* Survey of Derry, p. 207. X This is universally the case throughout Fermanagh. 

|) Similar to the coUops of the south. 
2 S 2 



316 RURAL ECONOMY.— GRAZING. 

necessity of laying down with grasses and clovers. To give an instance from among 
a thousand that might be produced of the bad consequences of ignorance and cre- 
dulity, I shall here observe, that a superstitious notion prevails among the lower 
classes, that a calf can be defended from diseases by stretching it, when dropped, be- 
tween two persons, who holding it by the legs, pull it forcibly different ways, then 
stuff its mouth with dung, and keep it a long time after without food. 

Donegal being exceedingly mountainous, and the climate cold, as it lies far to the 
north, and exposed to severe blasts from the Atlantic, produces but few cattle, and 
of that few only a very small number are fattened. This observation is applicable 
to sheep as well as to bullocks, and even in the champaign parts of the county no 
Treat quantity of beef or mutton is raised. In general the pasture is very indifferent, 
and therefore engages little attention, the breeding of milch cows, tillage, and 
manufactures, being the principal objects on which the inhabitants employ their 
industry.* 

Dov/N. — This county has been so sub-divided in consequence of Its dense popu- 
lation, that it cannot be termed a grazing district, yet Mr. Dubourdieu says,+ that 
though the soil is better adapted to tillage, there are many beasts fattened in it an- 
nually, and some of a very large size on the western side, where the soil is a deep 
loam or clay ; and that the low grounds on the banks of the Lagan and the Bann, 
are esteemed peculiarly wholesome for horses and cattle in spring. The grazing 
stock generally consists of calves and heifers collected at fairs, or brought by drovers 
from the breeding counties, whose heifers are excellent both for fattening and milk- 
ing ; bullocks are too heavy for the soil, and are not thought so profitable as cows. 

Fermanagh will not exactly fall under the same description, as I saw in it some 
excellent pasture lands which were grazed both by cattle and sheep :j: of a large 
size. In this county as in Derry, the word sum is used in the same sense as collop is 
in some other parts of the kingdom, and a price, which is 50s. is affixed to it. The 
"■razing a horse is a sum and a half, and the grazing two cows is a sum. 

CoNNAUGHT.— Although vast numbers of cattle are grazed in Connaught, the fat- 
tening of beasts and sheep is very much confined to the rich limestone districts of 
Roscommon. In some of them I have seen remarkably fine animals, but I believe 
the distance from a market is a frequent cause of complaint among the graziers in 
that part of the country. 

Sept. 18th, I809. Roscommon.— Ih 1796, Mr. Molloy hired of Lord Lawton 

••' Surveyor Donegal, p. 47. + Survey of Down, p. 138. 

; Sept. 2d, 1808. Castle Cool.— Lord Belraore buys wedder slieep in Roscommon in May, at three years 
old, with their wool, for 45s. each, and sells them out next year at £3. l2j. He also huys heifers from Con- 
naught at three years old in May for twelve guineas, and sells them in November at eighteen. His sheep 
xrhen fat weigh 30lb. per quarter. 



RURAL ECONOMY.— GRAZING. S^7 

408 acres, eighty miles distant from Dublin, at jCl. 6s. per acre, and let them in ISoS 
for ^1256. This farm carries I50 four-year-old bullocks, worth ten or tTvelve 
guineas each. It is considered as bad economy to place sheep along with bullocks. 
This gentleman had 100 wedders in summer, and 200 e^es or hoggits in winter; ii. 
May he bought sixty dry cows for five or six guineas a piece, and sold them in Oc- 
tober for JO3. profit each. Herds are allowed, instead of payment in money, to have 
eight head of milch cows, five acres of garden, and a quantity of meadow. It is com- 
mon to eat the fields bare till July, and shut them up till February ; some graziers ne- 
ver employ mowing. John Irwin has 1200 bullocks of four different ages, one, two, 
three, and four years old, that is to say, 300 of each. The herds and common people all 
wean their calves, and they .are then picked up by jobbers, who sell them in scores to 
the graziers. A herd calculates that he can rear his calf and make 1 cwt. of butter, 
but in this case his cows lie singly in the best keep. In this county calves are 
reared by suckling, but kept in separate pieces ; if turned out with the cow it is called 
turned at her foot. The graziers in this neighbourhood buy cattle by sight, and 
always select those that are thick hided. 

Sept. 18th, IS09. — Dean French found that the best method of curing land on 
which the cattle are subject to red water, is to cover it with limestone gravel, an ope- 
ration called sanding. Mr. Flanagan, a grazier in a very extensive line, feeds hig 
calves on the best lands along with fat cattle, turns them out into mountain land for 
two years, and then brings them back ; sheep are kept all the winter on fog grass ; 
the best sheep grounds are on a limestone rock, the soil is very thin and they will 
bear any degree of wet weather throughout the summer. Forty, three-year-old bul- 
locks feed upon 100 acres, and no bullock after being fed on potatoes will thrive on 
the summer grass ; for feeding cattle, boiled potatoes are preferred. 

Sept. 21st, .IS09. French Park. — At the fair here this day, yearling calves sold 
at from five to six guineas and a half, three-year-old bullocks at thirteen guineas. 

Sept. 22d. — On a farm belonging to Mr. Carr, 1 saw some uncommonly fine four- 
year-old beasts ; this gentleman's land carries a bullock per acre and a half, and four 
sheep to an acre. In winter the herds are never paid any money; they are allowed 
a cabin to live in, and two or three acres of land, on which they raise potatoes or 
oats, and keep two cows and a broodmare. In return they are answerable for the stock 
on the farm, which is no more than a necessary responsibility, as many of the o-raziers 
live at a great distance from the land which they occupy. The grazier pays for 
mowing his hay from 4s. to 4s. Gd. per acre, but it is spoilt by the herd and his fa- 
mily through false economy, because rather than pay for its being made at once, it is 
left exposed to the rain, until it be repeatedly drenched before it can be stacked. 

Sept. ISth, I809. French Park. — Rode about the domain, which consists of 
650 acres. There is here a succession of grazing winter grass without rag-wort or 
thistles ; the former are kept down by the sheep, and the latter have been extirpated 



318 RURAL ECOJJfOMY.— GRAZING. 

by mowing them. The immediate substratum is a rich loam ; below it there is lime- 
stone gravel, which is dug up and spread over the land at the rate of two guineas per 
a^re. Mr. French's stock, which is indeed excellent, consists of the long-horned and 
long-wooUed breed. He sells out bullocks at four years old, and sheep at two ; they 
are sent for the most part to Balinasloe, where the former are purchased by graziers 
from Limerick and Tipperary, and the latter by those of the county of Meatb. 

The following extracts from Dr. M'Parlan's Survey of Mayo,* will serve to con- 
vey an idea of the system which is followed throughout a great part of this province. 
" B.\KONY OF Tyeawley. — A few veins of excellent ground answer for fattening 
about the Moy and the Laggan ; Deel Castle domain, Gortnar Abbey, Abbeystown, 
Errew, and some other spots, are of the best quality. In general it may be called a 
mixture of good upland and moory pasture, which together with boundless tracts of 
mountain, serve as excellent nurseries for rearing young cattle, and preparing them 
for the fattening grounds of Roscommon, Munster, and Leinster. 

" Barony of Burrishool — The grass of the champaign parts is very sweet, in 
wet weather it is apt to dissolve ; there are also immense quantities of mixed and 
mountain pasture. The bulk of the barony being in tillage, there is, of course, ex- 
cept for the private use of a very few families, no part allotted for fattening cattle of 
any sort, nor are the lands suited to that purpose. 

" Barony of Murrisk.. — Here is very little pasture, the very few good grounds 
beintr mostly employed in tillage. The mountainy mixed pasture is what may 
chiefly be counted on. Most villagers have one or two cows and one horse, beside 
a few sheep, in proportion to their tenures. 

" Barony of Carra. — The pasture of this barony must vary as the soil appears to 
have varied. In some parts, such as the neighbourhood of Ballyhaine and Castle 
Carra, the people call it kindly and good for rearing young cattle, but not fit for fat- 
tening. In the neighbourhood of Barnagee and Partry, is a mountainy healthy 
pasture, fit only for light cattle and summer feeding. The lower part of Partry is 
light sweet pasture. 

" Barony OF Clanmorris. — The pasture here is almost throughout sweet and 
rich, all fit for rearing; in many parts fit to fatten both sheep and neat cattle of con- 
siderable weight, but not so well adapted for the weightiest cows and bullocks, as 
Roscommon, Meath, and Westmeath. 

" Barony of Gallen. — The green parts of it, which make about one-third, are a 
light pasture, fit for rearing cattle from two to three years old, and in some parts 
sheep. 

" Barony of Kilmaine. — The description given of the barony of Clanmorris is 
applicable to that of Kilmaine. 

• Page 40. 



RURAL ECONOMY.— GRAZING . s\9 

"Barony of Costello. — The few good grounds which this barony exhibits are 
ofa remarkable quality for fattening, and a return of tallow. Those only make pan of 
one half of the barony, the other half being mountain, and the rest a light, moory, or 
reclaimed pasture." 

The same author, who was sent by the Dublin Society to survey the county of 
Leitrim, says only that " the cattle are fed with straw and hay in winter."* Short as 
this remark is, I much doubt its correctness, as I conceive that many of the 
graziers trust to the grass saved in the bottoms, while their cattle are feeding 
during the summer in the mountains. In many parts of the province, but parti- 
cularly in Galway, the whole of the summer grass is set apart for winter food, with- 
out hay or other artificial provender, and beasts so fed are brought in excellent con- 
dition in the month of May to the fair of Balinasloe. 

The greatest breadth of fattening land in Ireland is to be found in Munster. — 
A great number of very fine beasts are finished for sale in the inexhaustible rich 
marshes called caucasses on the banks of the Shannon and Fergus, and in many 
parts of the counties of Limerick and Tipperary; and the whole of this land is con- 
tiguous to the markets of Cork and of Limerick. I am not much inclined to give 
credit to stories respecting monopoly and combination ; but the buyers of beef are 
few in proportion to the producers. The sub-contractors all act under one head, 
namely, the London firm, which has entered into an engagement for the season 
with the victualling board in that capital. This contract, indeed, depends on the 
continuance of war ; but while it lasts, the holders of rich pasture lands all make 
fortunes. Should a peace take place their situation would be reversed, unless the 
inhabitants should create a demand by their consumption. 

If contracts are made by commercial houses in England, agents attend the fairs 
in November and December, and generally give good prices. If a peace is expected, 
2s was the case in l8o6, the merchants combine, and the graziers are completely 
at their mercy, and experience not only every kind of gross treatment and indignity 
from these great 7nen, but suffer serious losses by the dishonesty of every person con- 
cerned in slaughtering the cattle. t As it is scarcely known in other parts of the 
kingdom, it may at least be amusing to detail the manner in which the business 
is conducted. The grazier finding no agent attending the fairs to buy except some 
trusty friend of the merchant, who reads a letter from Cork or Limerick stating the 
rumours of a peace, or the expected very low price, is obliged to drive his cattle to 
one of these markets. After driving them into either of these towns, he waits 
upon the great man, and with all humility begs to know if he wants any fat cattle. 
After a good deal of pretended hurry of business, and waiting for a repetition of 
the question, " he believes he shall not want any more than what he has already en- 
gaged ; but to oblige Mr. he will endeavour to make room for his cattle. 

As to the price, it is to be regulated by what any other grazier receives. When 

"' M'Pailau's Leia jm, p. 29. i Dutton's Survey of Clare, p. S7. 



S20 RURAL ECONOMY.— GRAZING. 

this is settled, he must drive his beasts to some of the shughter-houses, many 
of which are erected for the- purpose. He pays for this a high price, and must 
oive also the heads and offals. He is obliged to sit up all night to superintend the 
slaughtering, and must silently observe every species of fraud committed by the 
very worst kind of butchers ; for, as has frequently happened, if resentful language 
is used to these fellows, they begin to whet their knives, and put themselves in 
a threatening attitude. In a slaughter-house at night, and among the horrid scene 
of carna<fe around, no small share of nerves is required to support such a spectacle. 
Next morning, without taking any rest, he must bring his meat to the cutters-up ; 
and here, unless these people are feed,* begins the second part of the fraud he has to 
suffer. In the first place, they take for their perquisite several pounds of his best 
beef; and if he has cows, unless they are well paid, they will cut away large 
quantities of the udder, which they call offal, and which is the proper It/ of (he 
viirchant, though he pays nothing for it.f The merchant also gets the tongue ; and 
if the grazier wants a few, he must buy them at the rate of at least three 
shillings each. The third scene begins at the scales ; here another perquisite must 
be paid, and much good meat is refused, because it happens to be a few pounds 
less than the stipulated weight of the beast. An appeal then is made to the great 
man — " he is gone out ; — he won't be at home to-night ; — he is busy ; — he can't be 
seen." At length, perhaps, he is visible, and when matters are explained : — 
" Really, sir, I do not wish to take your cattle ; the prices I receive in England are 
so low, that I shall loose by my contracts : suppose you try if you can do better 
elsewhere; but I will agree to take your beef, though below the weight, if you make 
the terms lower." The grazier has now no redress, and must agree to any terms. 
But this is not the end of the business : he then inquires what is to be the mode of 
payment : bills at ninety-one days are the best he can get. He next applies to a 
chandler to buy his fat ; when this is settled the tanner must be waited upon, and 
from him as well as from the chandler, nothing is to be obtained but bills at a long 
date ; and as these, in general, have scarcely any capital, if their speculations 
fail, their bills are of little value. This is but a small part of the gross 
indignities the grazier has to suffer; he has to transact business totally foreign to 
his habits of life, consequently is unable to cope with those who from their in- 
fancy are used to tricks practised in _this business, and therefore know how to 
avoid them, or to turn them, perhaps, to their own advantage. The price der 
pends, not only on the causes before-mentioned, but on the size of the beast; 
those of a large size bringing more per cwt. than those that are smaller, which is 
a premium on large bone ; and cow-beef is always lower in price than ox-beef, 
though they are sent to England in the same packages, and if fat, go as the best, 
called -planters' mess. During the negociations for peace with France in the 
autumn of 1S06, the expectation, not the hope of a favour.ible issue, prevented 

- Dutton's Survey of Clare, p. 98. + Ibid. p. 99. 



\ 

RURAL ECONOMY.— GRAZING. 321, 

\ 
speculations, and determined both buyers and sellers to suspend them until the fair 
of Ballinasloe in October, or the result of Lord Lauderdale's negociation should 
transpire.'' 

After what is here said it is unnecessary for me to give any farther description .of 
the sale of fat beasts in the South of Ireland ; but it is worthy of remark, that 
this mode ought to render an Irish grazier an excellent judge of cattle. By selling 
the carcass, the inside fat, and the hides separately, he acquires the experience 
of the butcher united with that of the grazier. It has been universally stated to 
me, that the hides of animals are found to weigh lighter, and consequently are of less 
value, as they advance in age. Hides obtained from animals of six years old, are in- 
ferior in weight fb those obtained from animals of five years old ; and so in suc- 
cession. This difference deserves notice; but I shall leave it to those who study 
comparative anatomy or natural history, to account for it. 

The whole of the eastern side of Munster and the southern coast of Cork, has no 
lands fit for fattening cattle. A large portion of the grass land is occupied by dairies. 
The mountain land of Waterford is grazed by the coUop ; and the total produce 
is of little value. 

Among some of the large^raziers I heard of potatoes being used for fattening cattle. 
Mr. Going of Tipperary, an excellent farmer, gives them to his cattle in a 
mixed state. If raw, he found them too loose, and when boiled they were too 
binding; but when eaten together, each counteracts the effects of the other. Mr. 
Trench of Cangor-Park, found three stone of potatoes equal to two cwt. of 
turnips, and sufficient as one day's food for an ox. He has tried the effect of 
both in a raw state on thirty bullocks. 

Mr. Fitzpatrick of Urlingford, in Kilkenny, fattens his new Leicester tup-rams on 
potatoes, and as he possesses some of the best sheep of this kind in either kingdom. 
The knowledge of his practice is most important. 

Lord Carberry has succeeded in Cork in fattening sheep in the same manner. t 

In my opinion, it would be an object of some consequence, if the potatoe were 
applied more to the use of animals as food, and less to the human race. But I shall 
discuss this point at full length when I come to treat of the food of the people. 
It is sufficient here to have pointed out the beneficial use of this root in the 
feeding of animals. 

The fear of swelling this work beyond all reasonable bounds, has led me to tran- 
scribe but a very few of the notes which I made during my tour, upon this subject, and 
which some perhaps might think necessary to shew the detail, but without doin<T so> 
perhaps I have said enough to exhibit the general system of grazing pursued in Ire- 
land. It is necessary to add, that in suppressing a great deal of what I had written, I have 

» Dution's Survey of Clare, p. 96. + Cork Survey, p. 291. 

Vol. I. 2 T 



322 RURAL ECONOMY.— DAIRIES. 

complied with the wishes of some friends who had the goodness to inspect my manu- 
script, for whose opinion I entertain no small deference. What I have omitled may 
be considered merely as a repetition of similar modes practised in other parts of the 
coyntry, and at best must have been very uninteresting to most of my readers. The 
chief object has been to give general views, for the purpose of shewing the real situa- 
tion of the country; and I trust that what I have said will be sufficient to answer 
the intended purpose. 

Great encroachments have been lately made on the feeding lands of Ireland, by 
people who pay more rent for small tenements than could be made according to 
the grazing system. A cotter tenant hires an acre or two of land, and what he 
pays enables the original holder to make a greater profit without the employment 
of capital, the risk of markets, or attention to business, than he could otherwise 
obtain. All the opulent graziers are now beginning to colonize their lands ; and 
this method is spreading with great rapidity. I observed this mode to be pre- 
valent throughout Limerick and Tipperary, and Mr. Towusend particularly remarks 
it in Cork.* 

Many writers on economics have recommended the adoption of this system as a 
national benefit; but if my view of things be correct, tikse p^entlemen have been 
under an error — and one of no small importance. 

DAIRIES. 

A much greater extent of country in Ireland is covered by dairy than by 

grazing-farms ; large tracts in Kerry, Cork, and Waterford, also part of Kilkenny, 

Carlow, Meath, Westmeath, and Longford ; the mountains of Leitrim and Sligo, 

and a considerable portion of Fermanagh, being occupied by them.t Many other 

* Survey of Cork, p. 412. 
♦ Many ancient nations, before they became acquainted with agriculture, seem to have subsisted chiefly 
upon milk, and the productions obtained from it : 

Lactemero veteres usi memorantur, et herbis 
Sponte sua si quas terra, ferebat ait. 

Oyid. Fast. lib. iv. v. 369. 
We are told by Justin, lib. ii. cap. 2, that the Scythians lived upon milk and honey ; lacte et melle vescun- 
tur: — and the same author, lib. xxiii. cap. 1, says : Cibus his prxda venatica potus aut lactis aut fontium liquor 
erat. Tacitus de Morib. German, cap. 23 : Cibi simpiices, agrestia poma, reccns fera, aut lac concretum : 
jine apparatu, sine blanditiis expellunt famem. Cssar de Bello Gallico, lib. iv. cap. 22 : Agricultura non 
s'.udent, majorque pars victus eorum lacte, et caseo et came consistit. Alluding to the Suevi, he says, also, 
lib. iv. cap. 1 : Neque multum fruinento, sed maximam partem lacte atque pecore vivunt. Sallust de Bello 
Jujurth. cap. 89, gives a similar account of the Numidians : Numidje plerumque iacte, et ferina came vene- 
bauur, neque salera, neque alia irritamenta guias quaerebant. — The milk used by the ancients was obtained 
fron. various animals besides the cow. Pliny, lib. xi, cap. 4l. meiuions that of the camel, which is still 

used 



RURAL ECONOMY.— DAIRIES. 32» 

counties produce butter for exportation, but under a different system of management. 
A great deal is made also on the small tenures in Cavan, Monaghan, and Down, 
as each occupier keeps a cow, and consumes in his family only the skimmed milk. 
Throughout the south, the dairies are let to dairy-men who agree to give so much a 
head per annum for each cow ; a method similar to that practised in Devonshire and 
in South Wales. There are persons, particularly in the county of Waterford, who 
possess large tracts of land, and keep an immense number of cows on the same plan; 
and great fortunes have been accumulated by it. But it was more prevalent when 
the penal laws against catholics restrained them from laying out their property on 
land ; for, having no other resource, they were obliged to employ it in purchasing 
cows. A cow, to produce milk, requires neither the same quality, nor the same quan- 
tity of grass-land as a bullock which is fed for the shambles, and the profit obtained by 
letting cows at so much per head, is far greater than could be made in the same time by 
the grazing of bullocks, as the first cost of the former by no means equals that of the lat- 
ter. In the neighbourhood of some towns the skimmed milk is an article of very great 
demand. In Cork it sells as high as two-pence per quart,* and it is brought to Carlow 
from'the distance of many miles. In Ulster, where the divisions are small, I found " thick 
or sour milk," to be much m request ; but where there are neither towns nor popu- 
lation, many calves are reared with if, and dairy-men in general rear cows much more 
than the cotters. The fattening^ of calves for veal is little practised in any part of 
Ireland. I have seen more veal in the neighbourhood of Wexford than in all the 
rest of thexountry. 

The best buttert is made in Carlow ; it is sent to Dublin by the canal, and gives to 
the butter of that capital a very high reputation, on account of which it always bears 

ased in Arabia; Cameli lac habenl, donee iterum gravescant. Suavissimum hoc existimatur, ad unam men- 
suram tribus aqua: additis. And lib. xxviii. cap. 9: Dulcissimum ab hominis lacte camelinum. The Arabs, 
according to Leo, lib. ix. consider camels as the most valuable part of their riches: Ex camelis Arabes su» 
divitias ac possessiones estimant: et si quando de divitiis principis aut nobilis cujusquam sermo fiat, possidere 
aiunt tot camelonim, non aureorum millia. 

♦ Townsend's Survey of Cork, p. 580. 
+ Beckmann, iu his History of Inventions, says that " butter appears to have been extremely scarce in Nor- 
way during the ages of paganism, for we find mention made, by historians, of a present of butter, which was 
so large that a man could not carry it, and which was considered as a very respectable gift-" Vol. ii. p. 416. 
Yet we are told by some authors that butter was exceedingly abundant, though perhaps at a later period, in 
every part of the North: Olaus Magnus in Gent. Sept. Hist. lib. xiii. cap. 45, says, Transcurrendo singulas 
provincias Septentrionalisplagaea 52 usque ad 64, gradum elevationis poll arctici ubique propter fertilissima 
terrarum pascua et armentorum abundantissimos greges maximam butyri copiam invenies. The same author 
asserts, lib. xxi. cap. 4, that even Iceland abounded with butter : In insula Islandia tanta butyri, saliti, ob 
pecudum multitudinera, et pascuorum ubertatem, repcritur copia, ut non sufficientibus vasis aut tonnis cistas 
velcapsas exodorifero ligno confectas, triginta vel quadraginta pedum longitudine, quatuorverovel quinquc al- 
otudine, quotaunis pluribus in locis repleant atque in doniesticorum usum, irao et mercatorum commutationem 

cooferant 
2 T 2 



S24 RURAL ECONOMY.— DAIRIES. 

a superior price. Butter of the first quality is exported to England, where it is 
either consumed, or shipped for the East and West-Indies ; the next sort is sent to 
Spain, and the third to Portugal, the inhabitants of which prefer it in a rancid state, 
that is, when it has a " strong smell and taste."* 

AiiMAGH. — Speaking of the dairies of this county, Sir Charles Coote says,t 
"^Although there are no farmers exclusively in this branch of husbandry, yet, in the 
aggregate, a considerable quantity of butter is sold in Armagh and in Newry markets 
for exportation. The small firkins in which this article comes to market, prove the 
very slender stock of milch cows which each proprietor possesses. It must not be 
understood that the numerous small firkins purchased in Newry are all the produce 
of this county, perhaps not a fifth will be found to be so. The counties of Cavan, 
Monaghan, Down, and Tyrone, send a great supply ; any of them much more than 
Armagh, and I can shew two reasons for the assertion. These counties are more ex- 
tensive, the people are wealthier, and of course live better, and can afford to con- 
sume their butter in their own houses. Scarcely any farmer is without a cow ; many 
have two or three, but their pastures are always overstocked. It is generally the 
wealthiest farmer who sends most butter to market ; perhaps he keeps the second 
cow entirely for profit. Some Belfast buyers employ commissioners at the principal 
towns to buy butter, which is sent thither by the Newry canal. One hundred weight 
per cow is considered as the usual produce, but perhaps not above the half of this 
quantity goes to market. The proportion of milch cows to the size of the farm is, 
for small farms under five acres, one cow ; if exceeding five acres and not exceed- 
ing ten, perhaps two, seldom more. There are no extensive dairy-farms in the 
county." 

Carlow is a great dairy county ; in this respect, perhaps the first in Ireland, and 
the cows are let to dairy-men in the manner already mentioned. 

June 15th, IS09. Caulow. — The superior quality of the butter here arises from 
a greater degree of cleanliness and attention in salting it. Dairies consist of 

conferant. The island of CEland was also celebrated for its tutter : Idem Olaus, lib. xlii. cap. 45. But the 
best butter of Europe is said to be that of Holland; and Junius asserts that the Dutch cows give three times 
as tnuch milk as the English : Pascui erga agri bonitate cum aliis certare ct verticem attoUere nobis h'cet, absit 
dicto invidia, undc prascipui reditus ac proventus existunt, siquidem e caseis et butyro, quae exportantur ia 
txierna loca, in singulos annos diicenties sestertium cogi putatur, qus summa ad decies ceutena caraleorum 
miUia extendilur, prater ea quje in quotidianum alimentura, quo vix alio bona tenuioris fortuns heminum 
pars victitat, cedunt. Tot ilia bourn armentis abundat, tarn Izeta vaccarum parens ac nutrix est, his copiis 
quam Britannia longe superior, sive opimitatem et arvinx ubertatem spictes, sive laxiores capacioresque ube- 
riim sinus, qui iriplo plus laciis funduni : sola cornuum celsitudo et vastilas in Britannicis bobus excellit. 
Hadrian. Junii, Balav. cap. 15. 

* Strabo says that the ancient Lusitanians used butter instead of oil; Ait' s^iaiew SuTi/fu jjpsjxTai. Lib. iii. 
«dit. Almel. Amst. 1707, vol. i. p. 155. 

+ Survey of Armagh, p. 229. 



RURAL ECONOMY— DAIRIES. 32i^ 

from 20 to jO cows, and during the season produce It cwt. of butter per cow. They \ 
are not so much let as formerly, and answer only when the family can do all the la- 
bour themselves. Most is made by the offal. Butler-milk is an article of sale in 
the town of Carlow. 

Cavan, in regard to dairies, is very similar to Armagh. 

Clare. — There are here a few regular dairies, an account of which has been given 
by Mr. Button, but I must observe, that his witty remark in regard to the " black 
cow" is borrowed from Middleton's Survey of Middlesex.* Regular dairies are 
few, excepting near Ennis, Avhich sends a considerable quantity of butter to Limerick 
in firkins or in tubs. In Ennis new milk sells at from St/, to \s. Id. the pottle of 
eight quarts; thick milk, from which the cream has been skimmed, is sold for 8rf. the 
pottle of fourteen quarts. Some persons, near towns, let their cows to their tenants, 
whose wives retail the milk ; the price is five or six guineas each per annum. It is 
said that the retailer, with the black cow's milk (water), is able to make of the com- 
pound, ifthecow be tolerably good, ^12. per annum. Sheep's milk is frequently mixed 
>vith cow's milk for the Ennis market, and those who practise the deception will not 
purchase any ewes but such as are likely to assist in filling the pail. The filthy cus- 
tom of permitting the calf to suck two teats while the dairy maid empties the other 
two, prevails here and in Gahvay, so that the dribbling from the calf's mouth falls into 
the pail.+ 

Cork. — This county contains a considerable number of dairies, as the city af- 
fords a convenient market for the produce. " In general the cows are let out by 
the year to dairy-men, at a certain price for each, which varies according to the 
distance from the town, the goodness of the land, and the quality of the cattle. There 
are, however, many instances of rich and industrious farmers who conduct the 
business of the dairy themselves ; in which case, though the trouble is greater, 
the emoluments are proportionate, and the general management of the farm very 
superior.":; 

" The number of cows In each dairy is various ; few have more than sixty, and 
the average may be rated at from thirty to forty. Where the farm is duly divided 
between tillage and pasture, the proper management of a dairy enables the husband- 
man to cultivate his land to great advantage. In the opinion of the best judges, a 
farm which keeps forty cows ought to have forty acres of tillage, and so in proportion 
with the rest. In the general rateage, three acres of middle quality are considered 
as necessary for the subsistence of each cow ; but under a skilful process, where 
green crops, as rape, vetches, clover. Sec. are raised, two are found to suffice. Cow- 
houses, though of a recent date, are now in general use on all well-established dairy- 
lands. The same may be said of green crops, concerning the merits of which 

» P. 337. + Duuon's Survey of Clare, p. 129. J Survey of Cork, p. 678. 



326 RURAL ECONOMY.— DAIRIES. 

/ there are different opinions; but all are good. Many have both clover and vetches ; 
the latter of which is in some places gaining ground. These should be succeeded 
as food by turnips or potatoes, and rape, a very meliorating crop, which every cattle 
farmer should diligently cultivate. 

" The favourite breed for milk is the half Ilolderness breed, though it is observed, 
that the common Irish cow frequently equals them in quantity. The best of these 
give from ten to twelve pottles per day. The Devon cow milk is the richest, and 
produces most cream ; but she falls short in quantity, never giving more than six 
pottles, or twelve quarts. The milk is sold in Cork after the cream has been taken 
from it, under the name of thick or sour milk, for three-half-pence or two-pence 
per quart, the price varying occasionally, according to the season of the year or 
the state of the market. A considerable reduction is sometimes produced by a 
supply of fish, particularly sprats, which are often taken in the river in great 
abundance. The Cork butter, a great deal of which is the produce of these dairies 
has been long celebrated for its peculiar sweetness ; of this merit, the kind nature of 
the pasturage may claim some share ; but it is to be ascribed chiefly to care and 
to cleanliness."* 

" The price of fresh butter in Cork is from sixteen to eigliteen-pence per pound. 
The value of a good milch cow, size from four to five cwt. is from ten to fifteen 
guineas. As these prices are considerably higher than those of former years, they 
have rather encouraged the rearing of calves, of which some are bred on most 
dairies, though the number is not very considerable in any ; in the largest dairies 
seldom more are bred than from six to ten, and from cows of the best quality. For 
the first fortnight they are fed with new milk, afterwards hay-water and skimmed milk. 
The fattening of veal is not practised in the neighbourhood of Cork. In places about 
fourteen miles distant, but chiefly in Imokilly, calves are fed for the butcher : they 
get plenty of new milk, are kept very clean, and to make the flesh white are fre- 
quently blooded. Where great care and attention are used, a calf of ten weeks old 
•will sell at from four to five pounds. As none of the dairies breed cows sufficient for 
their stock, recourse is had to the neighbouring fairs, in all of which milch cows 
form a considerable article of trade."-i- 

Nov. 26th, 1808. Castle Oliver. — Near the city of Cork a good cow will let 
for sixteen pounds per annum. It is estimated that an acre of land maintains a cow, 
and that she ought to produce Ij cwt. of butter. The present price Is six pounds 
per cwt. 

Donegal. — I know of no dairies in this county. 

Down in this respect is similar to Cavan and Armagh. 

Dublin.— The dairies which supply the city are for the most part within this 
county; but Mr. Archer says, that this depends a good deal on the working of the 

» Survey of Cork, p, 580. 4 Townsend's Survey of Cork, p. 581. 



\ 



RURAL ECONOMY.-DAIRIES. SS7 

distilleries, and he calculates, that in Dublin and its vicinity, in May 1 801, there were\ 
only 1600 milch cows, whereas formerly there had been 7000.* The decrease he \ 
ascribes chiefly to the butchers. Cows sell at a high rate, from ten to twenty guineas 
each, and the same cause enhances the prices of milk and butter. The average produce ' 
in summer is eight quarts in twenty-four hours: in winter five quarts. + The cattle 
are housed during the latter season, and are fed upon hay and grains, if they can 
be procured. The old Irish breed of cows is extinct, and their place has been sup- 
plied by the English and Dutch breeds, and a few from Kerry, which the dairy-men 
consider less productive in milk, but more advantageous for the butcher. These 
dairies are by no means managed with that systematic regularity of purchasing green 
food, or storing grains in pits, as is done by cow-keepers in the neighbourhood of 
London. The Reverend Mr. Whitelaw considers the cows kept within the city as 
a great nuisance. :i: 

Fermanagh — This county may be included in the number of those in which 
dairies are kept. 

Galway. — Butter is produced here but in small quantity. 

Kerry. — The people who inhabit the mountains of this county, pay their rents 
chiefly by butter. 

KiLDARE. — Mr. Rawson speaks of a dairy kept in this county for the purpose of 
fattening veal, a circumstance which I notice merely on account of a subsequent re- 
mark, that since the Union the demand for veal has been so much lessened, that a 
calf which formerly sold for six guineas will not at present bring four.^ As I write 
for no party, I state facts merely as I find them ; but if the reader will turn to my 
table of prices, it will be perceived that veal has risen in price with other sorts of 
meat. It is a pity that Mr. Rawson did not state what the market-price was ac- 
cording to weight before the Union. 

Kilkenny. — In this county there are a great many dairies, and as I have found 
Mr. Tighe's remarks on this subject to be very accurate, I shall give an extract of 
what he has said.|| As the same system is pursued throughout the county of Wa- 
terford, and extends to Carlow, his account is of the more importance. 

" The most considerable dairies are in the district called the Welch Mountains, 
in Irish SUegh-Brenoch, and which are supposed to take their name from the family 
of Welch or Walshe, by whom a large tract of country was formerly possessed." 

" The district of the Welch Mountains belongs to various proprietors, and con- 
sists in general of dry land fit for tillage, and inclined by nature to grass, but per- 

« I have only Mr. Archer's authority for this diminution and the cause of it. 

+ Archer's Survey of the County of Dublin, p. 59. 

J Whitelaw's Essay on the Population of Dublin, p. 59. 

{! Rawson's Survey of Kildare, p. 13. 

!l Tighe's Survey of Kilkenny, pi 383,