(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Children's Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "An account of the malignant fever which prevailed in the city of New-York : during the autumn of 1805"

KRC 
211 





THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 

OF CALIFORNIA 

PRESENTED BY 

PROF. CHARLES A. KOFOID AND 

MRS. PRUDENCE W. KOFOID 



HJ11 


■py— "■■ ' jje ■ 


^ ■— r...,^ yiiuji ^ "Tg^^^M 


'■>/ " 


X&Jf, 


ytggy "^' ^ 




"■—- -^"."^f (i 


^tf^^^ ~~ 



AN 

ACCOUNT 

OF THE 



iftaltjpattt Jf eta, 

WHICH PREVAILED IN THE CITY OF NEW-YOl 
DURING THE AUTUMN OF 

1805. 



CONTAINING, 



1. The Proceedings of the 
Board of Health, to prevent the 
introduction of Malignant Fever. 

2. The rise, progress, and de- 
cline of the late epidemic. 

3. An Account of the Marine & 
Bellevue Hospitals, with the num- 
ber of patients received, and deaths 
which have occurred, at each of 
tbe.-,e establishments, during the 
sickly season. 

4. Record of deaths, &c. &c. 



5. Opinion of several eminent 
Physicians, respecting the cause of 
Malignant Fever, n several dif- 
ferent parts of the United States. 

6. The situation of the convicts 
in the State-Prison, with respect to 
health during the last summer. 

7. Desultory observations and 
reflections. 

8. The various modes of cure 
adopted in the Malignant Fever. 



BY JAMES HARDIE, 

SECRETARY TO THE BOARD OF HEALTH 



NEW-YORK ; 
PRINTED BY SOUTH WICK If HARDCASTLE, 



NO. 2, WALL-STREET. 

MV J90f....i 



IV 1 

f3, 



DEDICATION. 

TO THE HONORABLE DE WITT CLINTON, ESQ. 

mayor of the city of new- york. 

Sir, 
// has, from time immemorial, been it si; 
ters of Books and Pamphlets to dedicate their respective 
performances to such persons of influence and respecta- 
bility in society, as they thought they' might take such a 
liberty with, without giving offence. In addresses 
of this nature, however, s* much fulsome adulation is 
generally heaped upon the patron,as none but a sycophant 
could write, and a republican could not peruse without 
disgust. In this manner, I shall not transgress ; but the 
occasion surely requires, nor docs delicacy forbid me to 
record, that, during the last spring and early part of 
the summer, you, with the greatest vigilance and assidu^ 
ity, exercised every power vested in you by law, for the 
purpose of preventing the origin or introduction of ma- 
lignant fever into our city ; that after the commencement 
of that cruel disorder, you were never absent from your 
post, as President of the Board of Health, even for a 
single hour ; and that it was your highest ambition 
in conjunction with the other respectable members of 
that body to use your utmost exertions in bringing 
about such measures, as seemed best calculated to miti- 
gate the distresses of the poor and afflicted, to secure the 
property of the citizens and to maintain the peace and 
tranquility of this great metropolis ; and that your efforts 
to accomplish objects of such vast importance to the com- 
munity were crowned with a success, which the most san- 
guine could not have expected is so well known, that even 
your political opponents forgetting the distinction of par- 
ty, cheerfully coincide in opinion with your friends, that 



IV 



you acted in such a manner as to merit the honourable 
appellation of FATHER OF THE CITY. 

That you may long, continue to Jill a distinguish- 
ed station in which you may have it in your power t& 
promote the interest of your constituents, and receive the 
patriots best reward, the approbation of your country- 
men, is the sincere wish of 

Sir, 

Your much obliged, 
most obedient, and 

'very humble servant, 

JAMES HARDIE. 
New-York, December 1805. 



PREFACE. 



THE Malignant Fever, which has of late years, 
been so prevalent, in different parts of the United 
States, has unfortunately been the cause of more dis- 
putes between physicians of respectability, than any 
other disease which has afflicted the human species, 
within the last century. 

Although the great question, whether the disease 
is imported from abroad and contagions, or of local 
origin, aud non-contagious, has been agitated, for 
many years, amongst practitioners in the West-India 
islands, and in the southern parts of Europe ; yet, if 
I am rightly informed, it did not become the subject 
of much discussion, amongst medical gentlemen in 
this country, till the autumn of 1/93, when the city 
of Philadelphia was afflicted with a Pestilential Fever, 
which, in respect to its mortality, has never been 
equalled by any endemic or epidemic ', which has since 
that time appeared, in any port or place of the Unit- 
States. Upon the close of that calamity, various 
publications appeared in Philadelphia, written by gen- 
tlemen highly respected for their literary and profes- 
sional abilities, some of whom espoused one side of 
the question, and some the other ; and since that pe- 
riod, a vast number of pamphlets and several volumes 
upon the same controversy, have issued from the 
press in many parts of the United States. Many ex- 
cellent essays, have, likewise, appeared in our public 
prints, written with a view to elucidate the subject, 
but still,it is to be regretted, that the point remains un- 
settled, and our citizens are in general as much in the 
dark, respecting the cause and origin of pestilence as 
ever, 



VI 



It is not because I have been greatly conversant 
amongst the sick in every malignant fever, with 
which our city has been afflicted since the year 1798, 
and that during these years I have thought and con- 
versed much with intelligent men upon the subject, 
that I have been induced to submit the following 
sheets to the public. Indeed, since the first, and 
most eminent physicians in America, notwithstand- 
ing all their exertions, have not been able to satisfy 
their fellow citizens with respect to the origin or na- 
ture of the disease, it would certainly have been un- 
pardonable vanity in me to have thought, even for a 
moment, that any thing could flow from my pen, 
which could settle" the matter in difference. 

From the nature of my official situation, however, 
during the last season, I was acquainted with all the 
proceedings of the Board of Health, and being persuad- 
ed that a summary thereof, would be highly gratifying 
to our fellow citizens, I respectfully present them with 
the following. Several of our physicians were, like- 
wise, pleased to furnish the Board with their obser- 
vations respecting the nature of the first cases of the 
disease in this city. On whatever side of the ques- 
tion their opinions lay, I have placed them before the 
public without reserve, thus affording an opportunity 
to those who wish to decide impartially, the more ef- 
fectually to judge for themselves; and I have like- 
wise, acted in the same manner with respect to com- 
munications respecting the origin of pestilence in 
other ports and places of the United States. The 
list, containing the names of the dead and some other 
tables connected therewith, it is hoped, will be found 
accurate and interesting. The chapter containing 
desultory observations and reflections, comprises a 
number of particulars which have come under my 
own cognizance. They are not advanced with a 
view to support any particular theory ; but merely 
to record Jacts, from which the intelligent reader can 



Vll 

draw his own conclusions. It is, therefore, hoped, 
they will be received with candour. 

Upon the whole, however, on taking a retrospective 
view of the different opinions, which have been ad- 
vanced this season, by the most eminent physicians, 
respecting the matter in dispute, it may be observed, 
that though those gentlemen who advocate the doc- 
trine of importation and contagion, consider, in op- 
position to their opponents, our present quarantine 
laws as very defective and susceptible of much legis- 
lative improvement; \et they readily agree with, 
them, that token the disease has once been introduced, 
offensive privies, filthy streets, foul docks, putrid ani- 
mal and vegetable substances, &c. tend greatly to 
spread and propagate the disease. Since, there- 
fore, we have, as yet, bad no proof sufficiently satis- 
factory to the public mind, to which of the two sour- 
ces the evil with which we have been afflicted is to be 
attributed, is it not the wisest and best policy to 
suppose, that it may proceed from either ? 

Should we be influenced by a belief of this kind, a 
wise and intelligent legislature, upon due represent- 
ation, will undoubtedly render the quarantine law s, 
so much more efficient and rigorous, as to preclude 
the importation of the disease from abroad ; and 
such undoubtedly will be the vigilance of our Board 
of Health, that for the sake of themselves as well as 
of their fellow-citizens, they will assiduously endea- 
vour to remove every cause of impurity, which can 
be supposed to engender or propagate it from with- 
in. Proceeding in this manner and living, in all re- 
spects, conformably to the nature of the climate, 
which we inhabit, may we not expect, under the 
blessings of Divine Providence, an absolute exemp- 
tion from the disease commonly called Yellow Fever, 
which has for so many years, been the scourge and 
terror of our country *? 

JAMES HARDIE. 



STORY 



OF THE 



MALIGNANT FEVER 



CHAPTER I. 

OF THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE BOARD OF HEALTH, TO 
PREVENT THE INTRODUCTION OF MALIGNANT FEVER. 

BEFORE I enter upon this subject, it will, no 
doubt, be deemed interesting to many of my readers, 
to be informed with what powers the Board of Flealth 
are, by law, invested, as they will thus be better able 
to decide, whether that body have not done every 
thing which they legally could, or which, indeed, 
could reasonably be expected of them to prevent 
the introduction or origin of so dreadful a calamity. 

It is weil known that the public opinion has, for 
a long time, been greatly divided with respect to 
the important question — Whether the Malignant or 
Yellow Fever, with which we have, of late years, 
been so grievously afflicted, be of domestic origin or 
imported ? Physicians of the first eminence, have 
espoused opposite sides. It was, therefore, the wis- 
est policy tor the Legislature, in forming the health 
laws, and for those entrusted with the execution of 
them, to act as if they believed, that the evil might 
proceed from either source - } and, I doubt not, that it 
will be evident to most reflecting persons, that they 
have conducted themselves in this manner. 



10 

The Corporation of the city, about the beginning 
of the present year, had deemed that it would contri- 
bute to the public health, if, instead of a Health Com- 
mittee, which it had heretofore been usual for them 
to appoint, as occasion required, a Board should be 
appointed, with more full and ample powers. A 
draft of a bill, for that purpose, was accordingly 
transmitted to the Legislature and passed, as fol- 
lows ; 

AN ACT, 

RELATIVE TO THE PUBLIC HEALTH IN THE CITY OF NEW 
YORK — PASSED 9th MARCH, 1805. 

1 . Be it enacted by the People of the State of New- 

York, represented in Senate and Assembly, That the 

rs granted in and by the thirty-first and thirty - 

A sections* of the act, entitled " an act to pro- 



* 7 he following are the sections alluded to : 

"XXXL And be it further enacted, That it 
shall be lawful for tlie said commissioners of the 
health-office or a maj #!ty of them, as they shall 
judge advisable, to make and execute the rules and 
orders for cleansing and scouring the streets, alleys, 
, curtilages, sewers, yards, cellars, vaults, 
sinks, and other places, where filth and corruption 
collect, wit bin the said city, and for removing all of- 
fensive, noxious, or putrid articles or substances 

i may be stored, or otherwise collected, within 
the said city ; and all necessary expences for carry- 

.o said rales and orders into effect, where the 
same relate to the cleansing of such places as are 
not the property of private individuals, shall be 
deemed as part of the contingent expences of the 
said city, and the monies for defraying the same shall 
be raised in like manner as the other contingent ex- 



11 

vide against infectious and pestilential diseases," to 
the commissioners of the Health-Office, be and here- 



pences of the the said city ; and where the same 
shall relate to the cleansing such places as are the 
property of individuals, such expences shall be paid 
by the owners or occupiers thereof; Provided, All 
such rules and orders shall be reported to and may be 
suspended or repealed at any time by the person 
administering the government of this State. 

" XXXII. And be it Jurther enacted, That 
whenever the city of New- York or any part thereof 
shall be annoyed or rendered foul by any manufac- 
tory, trade, work, or business, producing noxious va- 
pours or highly offensive smells, or by any place where 
noxious or putrid substances shall be stored or col- 
lected within the said city, it shall be the duty of the 
said commissioners, or a majority of them, if in their 
opinion, the public health or that of individuals shall 
be endangered thereby, to proceed forthwith to such 
place or places and to make due inquiry and strict 
examination respecting the same ; and that it shall 
be lawful for them or either of them whenever it 
may be necessary, to require the aid or assistance of 
a justice of the peace and constable in making of 
such inquiry and examination, who are hereby au- 
thorised and required to break open, whenever ad- 
mittance cannot otherwise be obtained, the iicoror 
doors of such place where such manufactory, trade, 
work or business is carried on, producing or afford- 
ing such noxious vapour or highly offensive smell, or 
where such offensive substances are deposited; and 
if the said commissioners or a majority oi them 
judge, any such manufactory, trade, work, business 
or repository to be carried on or kept in such manner 
as to be a nuisance, they shall declare it so in writ- 
ing to the o\yner thereof, or, in his absence, to such 



it 

by are transferred to the Mayor, Aldermen and 
. monalty of the city of New-York. And that 
the said Mayor, Aldermen and Commonalty shall 
have power, in their discretion, to remove or order 
the removal of all persons and things, within the 
said city, infected by or tainted with pestilential mat- 



workman, clerk, keeper, or one of the family as they 
may then find on the premises, and, at the ^ame time, 
shall require the removal, abatement or discontinu- 
ance of the said nuisance, as the case may lequire, 
within the time to be limited in the said writing; and 
if, on t he expiration of the said time, the same order 
shall not have been complied with, it shall be the 
duty of the mayor cr recorder of the said city, upon 
representation thereof to either of them made by the 
said commishioners, or a majority of them, imme- 
diately to issue a warrant under the hand and seal 
of the said mayor or recorder, directed to the sheriff 
of the said city, commanding him forthwith without 
delay to cause to be removed, abated or discontinued 
such nuisance; and the person to whom such decla- 
ration and requisition in writing as aforesaid shall 
be made, shall besides for not complying therewith, 
be considered us guilty of a misdemeanor, and on 
complaint being made thereof in writing by any one 
or more of the said commissioners to any one of the 
justices c - uee of the said city, it shall be the 

duty of such justice to bind the person so complained 
of in a recognizance with sufficient surety in the 
sum of two hundred dollars, for his appearance at the 
next general sessions of the peace in the said city, to 
answer to the s&:d charge, and on due proof thereof 
it shall be lawful for the said court to impose a fine 
on the person or persons so offending, in a sum not 
exceeding one hundred dollars, out of which fine the 
€xpences of removing, abating or causing to be dis- 
continued such nuisance shall be paid." 



13 

ter, to such place or places as may, in their opinion* 
most conduce to the preservation of the health of the 
said city ; and that such penalties may be contained 
in such bye-iau\s or ordinances, relative to the pow- 
ers hereby granted, as the said Mayor, Aldermen 
and Commonalty shall, from time to time, judge pro- 
per, in order to enforce a prompt and punctual com- 
pliance with the same, and for the punishment of all 
offenders in the premises, not exceeding one hun- 
dred dollars for each offence. 

c 2. And be it further enacted. That it "shall and 
may be lawful for the said Mayor, Aldermen and 
Commonalty, to institute, from time to time, a 
Board of Health for the said city, consisting of the 
commissioners of the health-office, and such othef 
persons as they may think proper, and to invest the 
said hoard with such cf the powers of the said W 
or, AKL :id Commonalty, in relation to the 

public health? as they may judge' proper, and to 
enforce a compliance with the orders of said be 
by the infliction of penalties, not exceeding 
thousand dollars, for each offence. 

3. And whereas doubts may exist, whether 
sels described in the second section of the act, sup- 
plementary to an act, entitled " An act to provide 
against infectious and pestilential diseases may not 
be permitted, after being discharged of their cai ; 

to approach within three hundred yards of the island 
of New- York ; therefore, 

Be it further enacted, That such permission shall 
not, in any case, be granted. \ 

4. And be it farther enacted, That it shall be m 
the power of the Mayor of the said city, or of the 
Board of Health, to order to the quarantine ground, 
or some other place of safety, any vessel or vessels 



14 

at the wharves, or in the vicinity of the said city, 
which he or they may deem prejudicial to the pub- 
lic health ; and in case any master, owner or con- 
signee of such vessel shall refuse or neglect to obey 
such orders, the person so offending shall be consi- 
dered guilty of a misdemeanor and shall be fined in a 
sum not exceeding one thousand dollars, or impri- 
soned lor a term not exceeding twelve months, in 
such case ; and also, in case the master, owner or 
consignee cannot be found, the Mayor of the City 
of New-York, or the Board of Health shall have 
power to remove as aforesaid, such vessel or vessels 
at the expence of the master, owner or consignee. 

5. And be it further enacted, That if any surplus 
money shall, in future, remain in the hands of the 
commissioners of the Health-Office, after each an- 
nual accounting with the comptroller of the state, the 
same shall be paid to the Board of Health of the said 
city, to be by them applied to promote the objects 
of tbat institution." 

On the 23th of March the Common Council re- 
solved, that the Mayor, Recorder, and the Alder- 
men, of the first five wards, together with the Com- 
missioners of the Health-Office should be appointed 
a Board of Health, in conformity to the preceding 
law. The number was, sometime thereafter, ex- 
tended, so as to comprehend the Aldermen of all 
the nine wards, and the city inspector, and when 
the citizens began to flee, in consequence of the 
sickness, it was deemed expedient, that the assistants 
of the different wards should, likewise, be added. 

On the 3d of April, the Board having met and 
being organized, agreeably to the act aforesaid, elect- 
ed Jacob Delamontagnie, Esq. as their Treasurer, 
and James Hardie as their Secretary and Agent. 
At the same meeting, a committee was likewise ap- 



pointed to draft an ordinance for transferring such 
powers from the corporation to the board, as it might 
be deemed necessary, that they should be invested 
with Far the preservation of the public health, and for 
enforcing the orders and regulations of said board. 
In consequence of which, the following was presented 
to the board on the 15th April, and at the next meet- 
ing of the Common Council passed into a law. 



A LAW 

FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A BOARD OF HEALTH. 

Whereas by an act of the legislature of this state, 
entitled, " An act relative to the public heal 
the city of New-York," passed the ninth day of 
March, 1805, the Mayor, Aldermen and Common- 
alty of said city, are empowered to institute, from 
time to time, a Board of Health for the said city, con- 
sisting of the Commissioners of the Health-Office, and 
such other persons as they may think proper, and to 
invest the said board with such of the said powers of 
the said Mayor, Aldermen and Commonalty, in re- 
lation to the public health, as they may judge pro- 
per, and to enforce compliance with the orders of the 
said board, by the infliction of penalties, not exceed- 
ing one thousand dollars, for each offence : therefore, 

1. Be it ordained by the Mayor, Aldermen and 
Commonalty of the city of New-York, in Common 
Council convened, That a Board of Health shall be 
and is hereby instituted to consist of the Commis- 
sioners of the Health-Office, and of the Mayor, Re- 
corder and Aldermen of the city, who shall assemble 
at such time and place and as often as they may judge 
proper, to superintend and carry into effect all laws 
and ordinances of this state and of the Common Coun- 
cil, which at present exist or may hereafter be passed, 
providing against infectious and pestilential diseases, 



16 

or which relate to the public health of this city. 
And the said board are hereby invested with all the 
powers of the said Mayor, Aldermen and Common- 
alty of the city, which regard the public health of said 
city, to be by them exercised in such manner as, in 
their judgment and discretion, may best promote f lie 
important objects for which the said board is insti- 
tuted, and that any five of the said board shall be a 
quorum to transact business. 

2. And be it further ordained, That the said 
Board of Health shall make diligent enquiry with re- 
spect to all nuisances that may exist, and which they 
may deem obnoxious to the health and lives of the 
inhabitants of this city, and shall have full power to 
order the removal of the same at their discretion, un- 
der the several penalties in such case made and pro- 
vided. 

3. And be it further ordained, That the said 
Board of Health may provide or erect a suitable of- 
fice for their accommodation, on the public ground 
or elsewhere, and during the existence of any epi- 
demical disease, or upon its probable approach, shall 
have power at the public expence, to open the hos- 
pital at Bellevue, for the accommodation of the sick, 
and to make such rules and regulations for their re- 
ception, and also to determine what persons shall 
be entitled to admission, as they may think proper ; 
and moreover, that the said board of health, during 
the existance of any epidemic, shall have power 
to furnish and employ physicians, nurses, medicines, 
and other necessaries, not only for the use of the sick 
who shall have been removed into the the said hos- 
pital, but also for the use of the sick and indigent of 
the city. 

4. And be it further ordained, That the said Board 
of Health shall have power in their discretion to re- 
move or order the removal of all persons and things 



17 

within the said city, infected by or tainted with pesti- 
lential matter, to such place or places as may in 
their opinion most conduce to the preservation of the 
health of this city, and in order to enforce a prompt 
and punctual compliance with the said order, all of- 
fenders in the premises shall be subject to a penalty 
not exceeding one hundred dollars for each offence. 

5. " And be it further enacted, That it shall be the 
duty of the city inspector and his assistant, to attend 
the meetings of the Board of Health, and to be sub- 
ject to such instructions as may be given to them in 
relation to nuisauces, and to execute the several re- 
solutions and orders of the said board." 

Having thus laid before my readers, the act of the 
state, and the ordinance of the Corporation, for the 
appointment of a Board of Health, I now proceed 
to relate the measures which were adopted by that 
body, to prevent the introduction of pestilence. 

During the winter, four discreet persons had been 
appointed to examine into the state of ail the pri- 
vies, within the first seven wards, and to report their 
condition to the City Inspector, by whom ordi- 
nances were prepared, and afterwards passed by the 
Common Council, for cleansing all such, the con- 
tents of which arose to within three feet of the sur- 
face of the earth. This duty was performed with 
great assiduity and attention, and though there were, 
no doubt, a few, who contrived to evade these ordi- 
nances, it is certain, that, in by far the greater num- 
ber of instances, they were complied with. 

On the loth of April, his Honour the Mayor stat- 
ed to the Beard of Health, that he had received a 
deposition concerning the health of Point Pet re,' of 
which the following is a copy. 

c 



IS 



* deposes, that he left, Point Pet re en 



the Oth of March, in the , and arrived here on 

Friday evening last ; that a Malignant or Yellow 
Fever prevailed there to an alarming extent, princi- 
pally on board of the shipping, the persons infected 
with it, dying within 12 or 14 hours after being 
taken, if they did not recover ; that the deponent and 
all his hands were sick, except one ; but that they 
all recovered ; that the disease was generally attend- 
ed with black vomit, and that it had considerably 
abated four or five days previous to the deponent's 
departure, two or three deaths only occurring at the 
most daily, whereas before that time, fourteen or 
fifteen deaths took place a day ; that the malignity of 
the disease was encreased by an interdiction of the 
landing of the sick." 

Sworn the 15th April, 1805, before 

DEWITT CLINTON. 

After reading the above deposition, the Mayor 
suggested to the board the propriety of issuing the 
following 

PROCLAMATION, 
By DE WITT CLINTON, 

MAYOR OF THE CITY OF KB W- YORK. 

(< Whereas I have received information, that a ma- 
lignant or pestilential fever prevails at Point Petre, 
in the island of Guadaloupe, I do, therefore, in pur- 
suance of the authority vested in me, by law, direct, 
that all vessels arriving in this port, from the said 
island of Guadaloupe, be subject to quarantine. 
(L. S.) In witness whereof, &c. 

15th April, 1805, 

DE WITT CLINTON." 

* As masters of vessels and others, who give information concerning 
the health of foreign places, might be unwilling that their names should 
appear in public, it is deemed expedient, in general, to suppress them. 



19 

The board unanimously resolved, that it was ex- 
pedient, that the said proclamation should be imme- 
diately published. 

On the 18th April, three vessels were sent down 
to the quarantine ground ; the reason for which will 
be seen from the following extract of a letter from 
the Secretary of the Board of Health to the Health- 
Officer, at Staten-Island. 

" Complaints had been made to the Resident Phy- 
sician, with respect to the foul situation of the ship 
General Wayne, from Toningen. The schooner 
John had, likewise, been stated to have come from 
Point Petre, a sickly port in the West Indies, and the 
ship Betsey, from Jamaica, had by the confession of 
the captain, (M'Dougal) lost two of her crew by 
sickness, at Savannah-la- Mar, the port which they 
had last left, and also two others, dining their passage 
to this city. 

" I accompanied the Resident Physician, this 
morning, on board the John, where he gave orders, 
that she should be immediately removed to 
stream, to the distance of at least three hundred 
yards from the wharf. We,*likewise, went on board 
the Betsey, where the Doctor gave similar orders, as 
iii the case above-mentioned. With respect to the 
ship General Wayne, directions were given to Mr. 
Grant Forbes, the gentleman to whom that \t 
was consigned, to cause her to be sent to the quaran- 
tine ground without delay. " All these orders were 
promptly executed. 

The following letter written by direction of the 
Mayor to the Secretary of the Board of Health of 
Philadelphia, will shew the extreme anxiety and at- 
tention of that vigilant magistrate to obtain such in- 
formation, not only within our own port, but likewise 



20 

from other places, as might be useful in preventing 
the scourge of pestilence. 

" Office of the Board of Health, 
New- York, 19th April, 1805. 
« Sir, 
CJ The friendly correspondence which took place 
last season, between the Boards of Health of Phila- 
delphia and this city, and which was unquestionably 
productive of reciprocal benefit, has induced his Ho- 
nour the Mayor to instruct me to solicit its revival. 

" With this -view, he has directed me to assure 
your board, that a full and candid disclosure of all 
facts; within our knowledge, relative to the objects 
of our appointment, shall be strictly adhered to on 
our part, in the correspondence, as we are fully per- 
suaded it will be on yours. 

Cf I inclose you the affidavit, on which the Mayor's 
late proclamation, restricting vessels from Guada- 
loupe was founded, and have, likewise, to inform you 
of the case of the ship Betsey from Savamiahda-Mar, 
which arrived at this port a few days ago. The cap- 
tain (M'Dougal) states, that while at Jamaica, he 
lost two of his crew by sickness, and two more on 
their passage to this place. The death of the two 
first was, in his opinion, to be attributed to an in- 
flammation of the bowels, occasioned by their fre- 
quent exposure to damps and rains, in the woods, 
where they concealed themselves in order to avoid 
' < impressed by the British. One of the others 
died after an indisposition of about four hours, and 
from the manner in which the captain described the 
symptoms attending the fourth, the Resident Phy- 
sician was induced to apprehend, that he might have 
died of Malignant Fever.* 

* I he captain asserted, that at the time he left Savannah-la-Mar, it 
was remarkably healthy, and subsequent information from that port* 
shewed that lie" was perfectly correct. 



21 

" Although, at this early'period of the season, it is 

not probable that imminent danger was to be appre- 
hended from a circumstance of this nature, the Health 
Commissioners thought it most prudent to send 
Betsey to the quarantine ground, from the ? 
where she now lies, as also the ship General W<»yne, 
which lately arrived here in a foul state, with passen- 
gers, from Toningeu. 

" The alarming indications, which have taken place 
thus early, and the transfer of the seat of war 
Europe to the West-Indies inculcate- the abs ■■-■lute 
necessity of adopting all t\\e precautionary me;i 
in oiu power ; but while our conduct will be mark- 
ed by a spirit of this kind, we shall never lose sight 
of the respect we entertain for your board, nor of the 
duties we owe to your city. 

With great respect, 
I am, kc. 

JAMES BARDIE, SecVy. 

To Dr. James ReynpWfj becre^arv, ) 
Board of Health, Philadelphia. ) 

A polite acknowledgment of the aforesaid letter 
was. soon after received, in which a scrupulous 
transmission of every circumstance that should come 
to their knowledge of the existence of yellow i'e\er 9 
either among themselves, or elsewhere,was promised. 

Altho' as yet, no sicknesshad appeared or even been 
supposed to exist in the city, the board deeming it 
expedient to take every precaution against the worst 
that might happen, proposed to the common coun- 
cil the adoption of the toll -wing resolution : 

" Besolved, That the buildings and grounds be- 
longing to the corporation at Bel ievue, be put under 
the direction of the Board oi Health, and that tfc 
authorized to make such repafcs for the 



22 



©f the buildings, and the accommodation of such sick 
persons, as may be sent there by the said board.*' 

The resolution was accordingly agreed to, and di- 
rections were given, on the 18th day of May follow- 
ing, to the Superintendant of Public Works, to pro- 
ceed as speedily as possible to make the necessary 
repairs. 

The experience of former sickly seasons having 
sufficiently taught us, that a very great proportion of 
eases of Malignant Fever occurred in such taverns 
and boarding-houses, as were kept in a filthy state, 
and were generally overcrouded by lodgers, in order 
to obviate this evil as much as possible, it was deem- 
ed expedient to appoint an additional assistant to the 
City Inspector, who should have it in charge to pay 
particular attention to that business. In the mean 
time, care was taken to remove every nuisance 
which could be discovered > with all possible dispatch. 

It is to be observed, that all vessels coming from 
the West-Indies, and certain other places, between 
the 1st day of June and 1st of October, in any 
one year, are by law prohibited, from approaching 
within three hundred yards of the lower part of the 
island of New-York; but by a subsequent act, the 
Mayor or the Board of Health are invested with 
authority to order to the quarantine ground, or some 
other place of safety, any vessel at the wharves, or in 
the vicinity of the city, which he or they may deem 
prejudicial to the public health, at any season of the 
year. 

In conformity to this last act, on the 23d of May, 
the following resolutions were passed. 

u Nesolved,That all vessels which may have arrived 
at this port, from any port or place in the West-In- 



dies, since the 18th day of May instant, be directed 
forthwith to leave the wharves, and haul out into the 
stream, to the distance of at least three hundred yards 
from that part of the island, which lies southward of 
a line drawn from the house owned and occupied by 
William Bayard, on the north river, and Stuy vesant's 
dock upon the east river, and that the same regula- 
tion shall be observed, with respect to all vessels 
which may hereafter arrive from the West-Indies, un- 
der the penalty of being prosecuted according to law." 

" Resolved, That the Secretary of this board shall 
serve a notice of the above resolution in writing, upon 
the masters, commanders, owners, or consignees, of 
all vessels of the above description, which may have 
come to his knowledge. It was also resolved, that 
the said resolutions should be published in the several 
newspapers employed by tl*e Corporation." 

In consequence of the above resolutions, the Se- 
cretary, on the evening of the same day, (the 23d) 
delivered five different notices to Samuel G. Ogden, 
Esq. the owner or consignee of the ships Hindostan, 
Leander, Oliver Elsworth, Sophrona, and of the brig 
Dolly, and, on the day following, served another to 
the same purport, on captain James Newell, of the 
ship Clyde, from St. Thomas. All these vessels, the 
Hindostan excepted, were moved to the stream forth- 
with; but owing to some peculiar difficulties in car- 
rying out the Hindostan, she did not leave the wharf 
till the evening of the 2?th. It is evident, however, 
that no mischief arose from either of these vessels hav- 
ing been at the wharves, as no person was taken sick 
of lever, in the vicinity of any oftbes* places, at which 
they respectively lay, till at least two month* there- 
after. 

At a meeting of the board, on the 7th June, it was 
stated, that a man named Daniel Wright, was sick 



24 

in Roosevelt-street, of a disease which was deemed 
to be of a malignant nature. As this man's case was 
unfortunately the subject of a short controversy be- 
tween certain medical gentlemen, who are deserved- 
ly ranked amongst the most eminent in their profes- 
sion, I wouid have willingly passed it over in silence, 
but as it is indispensably necessary, that I 
should state how tremblingly alive the board were to 
every thing, which might endanger the public health, 
J cannot consistently with justice to that body, omit 
recording their proceedings upon the occasion. Af- 
I -: -e had been represented, it was immedi- 

ately**' Ordered, that James Hardie and John Dela- 
r, or either of them, cause the said Daniel 
'it to be immediately removed to the Marine 
I ; litai, with all possible precaution for the safe- 
ty of the sick person and jor the prevention of a 
spread of contagion ; that they cause the bedding and 
cloathing infected or 4 suspected to be infected to be de- 
stroyed, and the house of the said Daniel Wright to be 
thoroughly cleansed, and that they furnish the fami- 
ly of the said Wright, with suitable accommodations 
and provisions until the farther order of the board/' 



In consequence of the above orders, the sick per- 
son was forthwith sent ro the marine hospital, and 
his wife, who expressed a desire to that purpose, 
was readily permitted to accompany him.* A fea- 
ther bed, on which he had laid, a straw bed, a sheet 
and bed spread, together with some wearing appa- 
n i, which lay upon the bed were forthwith destroy- 
ed • the house was thoroughly cleansed and white- 
washed, and hisiive children committed to the care 
of Mr. William Davis, a worthy man, and very par- 
ticular friend of the family. 



* The wives and relatives of such persons who were sent from 
this city either to the Marine Hospital or Bellevue were -not, in a single 
instance, refused a similar priviledge. 



25 

Mr. Wright's illness was severe and tedious; but 
after some weeks, he, at last, returned to the cil , 
good health, and received a satisfactory com'pr 
tion for that part of his property, which it had I 
deemed necessary to destroy, with a view to the pre- 
servation oi the general health of the city. 

From this period till the beginning of July, nothing 
remarkable occurred to the board ; the city enjoy- 
ed good health, nor did the citizens appear to be un- 
der the least alarm. 

On the 1st of July, the Secretary wrote a letter to 
the Mayor, of which the following is a copy. 

New-York,.\st July, 1805. 
" Sir, 
" Complaint having been made to me this morn- 
ing, that a sloop was lying, at the west side of the 
Old-slip, which emitted so o e a smell, as al- 

ready to have occasioned the sickness of one person, 
I immediately went to the spot, and found the vessel 
alluded to, to be the sloop Polly, of Xew-O; leans. 

cc With respect to any person having beerj rakeri 
sick there, I have made particular enquiry, and am 
perfectly satisfied that it is not true j but the hold of 
the vessel is foul, and the bilge-water emits an offen- 
sive smell. I am, therefore, oi' opinion, that this ves- 
sel should be moved to the distance of three hundred 
yards from the wharf. 

I am, &c. 

James Hardie, Sec'ry, 

Hon. De Witt Clinton." 

■ In consequence of the above letter, the Mayor is- 
sued an order, directing the said vessel to be forth- 
with moved into the stream to the distance afore- 
The vessel, however, having immediate!-. tho 

IV 



26 

roughly cleaned, and as there was not a single article 
on board, she was permitted to remain. No evil re- 
sulted from this vessel. 

A vessel named the Happy Couple, last from Ha- 
lifax, had been detained in the stream, because she 
had been cleared out from St. Mark, a sickly port in 
the West-Indies. A petition, praying that she might 
be permitted to come up, was presented to the Board 
of Health, on the 21st June. This was accompa- 
nied by the following deposition. 

" Thomas W. Story maketh oath, that he sailed 
in the brig Happy Couple of New-York, as master, 
from the port of St. Mark, in the island of Hispa- 
niola, on the 22d day of February last, bound for 
New- York, and on said passage, said brig was inter- 
cepted and seized as a prize, by the British ship of 
war Cambrian, and carried into Halifax, where this 
deponent left said brig, and came to New-York some 
time since; and this deponent further saith, that there 
was not any sickness nor any death on board said 
brig Happy Couple, at any time during said pas- 
sage, from St. Marks to Halifax, and that said vessel 
hath lately arrived at New- York from Halifax, as he 
has been informed and believes. 

THOMAS W. STORY. 

Sworn 20th June, 1805, before > 
John Keese, Public Notary." J 

It being, likewise, made evident to the board, from 
other respectable testimony, that the Happy Couple 
had been about three months at Halifax, it was re- 
solved, that the Happy Couple cannot be considered 
as a vessel coming from the West-Indies, and that she 
may, therefore, be permitted to come into the dock. 

Complaint having been made concerning the state 
of the Fiy-market-slip, the same was referred to the 
Street Commissioner, on the 1st of July, who report- 
ed as follows. 



27 

" That the Fly-market-slip is now so much filled 
with mud, as to stop the drain, and that the Super* 
intendant of Scavengers believes it can be dug out 
with shovels, in the evenings, at low water, without 
injury to the health of the citizens. 

" That the people who pay for the use cf the slip 
for their market-boats, complain ot the want of ac- 
commodation at the ferry-stairs, and that they can^ 
not land their goods on the wharf at low water. 

" That it would probably be well to cause a plat- 
form to be run across, on the head of the slip, with 
a small stairs on the west side for their accommoda- 
tion, and to prevent the noxious effects upon the mud 
in the head of the slip, which is bare at half tide." 

These measures were afterwards adopted ; but 
not till a committee, appointed to examine into the 
circumstances, had given it as their opinion, that it 
could be done consistently with the health of the 
city. 

But why, it may be asked, was not this and some 
other slips cleaned before this period ? It was owing 
to no neglect in the Superintendant of Scavengers, 
than whom no man can be more attentive to the 
d u tie* of his office ; but to the circumstance, that 
there was* only one mud machine, and that it could 
only be used for a very short period this season, as 
it was unusually late before the winter broke up. 
The corporation, at so early a period as the 24th 
January, were aware that one machine was inade- 
quate for the purpose of cleaning all the slips, at the 
proper time of the year, and then advertised for pro- 
posals to construct two additional ones, similar to 
that which they had already : but as no person could 
be found, who would contract for having them fin- 
ished, so as to answer any purpose this season, the 



28 

business was, for a time, postponed. Contracts, 
however, have been since formed for their construc- 
tion, and there is no doubt that these machines will 
beat work early next spring, so that all the docks 
and slips will bethoroughiy cleansed, previous to the 
commencement of hot weather. 

Complaints having been made that bad smells 
•were emitted from the vats of several tanners and 
curriers, on the 8th of July it was resolved, that the 
existing laws, concerning these objects, should be 
strictly put in force. A Committee was, at the same 
time, appointed to draft an address to the citizens, 
containing an abstract of the laws, which have been 
enacted for the preservation of the public health. 
This Committee made their report to the Board on 
the lith following. As it is rather long, I, at first, 
doubled the propriety ifcgfaiflg it a place, in this 
publication, but when I consider how very desirable 
it is, that every citizen should be acquainted with the 
existing laws respecting health, and that the perusal 
of them might, likewise be interesting to strangers 
I have deemed it advisable to insert it : — 

ADDRESS 

TO TH-: CITIZENS OF NEW-YORK. 

" The Board of Health find it expedient, at the 
present, critical period of the season to call the atten- 
tion of their fellow-citizens to the measures, which 
are now in operation for the purpose of providing 
against malignant and pestilential diseases. They 
consider this duty as the more important, as they 
are anxious to diffuse information on this subject, to 
■ vent undue apprehensions, to secure the vigilance 
aiM.) co-operation ofevjry good citizen, and to attach 
that clegree of confidence, which is requisite, to the 
success of their exertions. 



29 

cc The system of measures which is now in full ope- 
ration, may be divided into etffeihal arid internal, or 
into such as are intended to guard against foreign 
and domestic causes of disease. 

<f The external p recant ions comprehend the regula- 
tions of commerce and shipping-. All vessels arriv- 
ing from any part of the world, except the ports of 
the United States, north-east of Sandy-Hook, be- 
tweeen the 1st of June and 1st of October, :: 
strictly examined at the quarantine ground, and 
made subject to the directions of the Health-Oflicer, 
under a penalty not exceeding two thousand dollars, 
or twelve months imprisonment. 

" All vessels arriving from a place where a Malig- 
nant or Pestilential Fever was prevailing, at the time 
of departure, or if, during the voyage, any person 
has died or been sick on board, with such fever, are 
absolutely prohibited from approaching the city, 
nearer than the quarantine ground, until the 1st day 
of October, under a penalty not exceeding tw T o thou- 
sand dollars, or imprisonment for a time not exceed- 
ing three years. No person, arriving in such or any 
other vessel, at the quarantine ground, is allowed to 
proceed to the city, nor is any part of the cargo of 
such vessels allowed to be conveyed to the city, 
without a permit in writing, from the Health-Officer, 
under the same penalty. 

" The Governor, or in his absence the Mayor, or 
in the absence of both, the Recorder, may designate 
other descriptions of vessels, that may become liable 
to quarantine, and may prohibit or regulate the in- 
tercourse by land or ferries, with all sickly or suspect - 
eplacj^. 

" For the sake of additional security, all vessels ar- 
riving from any port in the W. Indies, in South Ame- 



30 

riea, in the United States, southward of Savannah in 
Georgia, in the Mississippi, in the Mediterranean, 
in Africa, or in Asia, (except Canton and Calcutta,) 
between the 1st of June and 1st of October, altho* 
no Malignant or Pestilential Fever was prevailing at 
such ports, at the time of departure; although no 
person had died or been sick on board with such fe- 
ver, and although the Health-Officer, after examina- 
tion, had given his permit to proceed, are prohibited 
from approaching within three hundred yards of that 
part of the island of New-York, which lies southward 
of a line drawn from the house of William Bayard, on 
the North River, to Stuyvesant's dock on the East 
River, under a penalty not exceeding two thousand 
dollars, or imprisonment for a time not exceeding 
three years. 

44 The Mayor or Board of Health may order to 
the quarantine ground, or other place of safety, any 
vessel at the wharves, or in the vicinity of the city, 
which they may deem prejudicial to the public 
health, under the penalty of one thousand dollars, 
and when the owner, consignee, or commander of 
such vessel cannot be found, they may remove them, 
at the expence of such owner, &c, The Board of 
Health may, likewise, order the removal of persons 
and things infected by or tainted with pestilential 
matter, to such place as they may think proper, and 
any one who resists their authority in this respect, 
forfeits one hundred dollars. 

" Many articles of a suspicious kind are particu- 
larly excluded. Hides are excluded between the 1st 
of June and 1st of November, under the penalty of 
being sold for the use of the Health-Office. Foreign 
cotton is prohibited, within the same period ; but that 
which is the produce of the United States, is only ex- 
eluded from that part of the city, which lies south of 
the out-let of Lispenard's meadow and Ferry-street, 



31 

near CorlaerVhook. Damaged coffee is specially 
prohibited. 

" No communication with vessels at quarantine is 
allowed, without special permit, under a penalty not 
exceeding two hundred dollars. All sick persons ct 
whatever description, found on board such vessels, 
are conducted to the Marine Hospital, and there de- 
tained till their recovery or death. All vessels found 
to be unhealthy, or even suspected to be so, are wash- 
ed, cleansed, ventilated and white- washed, at the 
quarantine ground, and in ease of disobedience to the 
directions of the Health-Officer, in this respect, the 
master, owner, or consignee, is liable to a hue not ex- 
ceeding one thousand dollars. All wearing apparel, 
bedding, &c. are washed and cleansed, or if it be 
thought proper, destroyed." 

<f The above may be considered as a summary of 
the external precautions. The internal precautions 
comprehend those laws and regulations, which re- 
spect the removal of nuisances, and the preservation 
of cleanliness in the citv; the principal of which fol- 
low." 

" No dead animal shall be left exposed, in any 
place, within the first eight wards of the city, under 
the penalty of ten dollars. 

" No pickled or salted beef shall be deposited in 
any place, to the southward of Lispenard's meadow 
and Grand-street, between the 1st of June and 1st 
of November, under a penalty not exceeding five 
hundred dollars, or imprisonment for a time not ex- 
ceeding six months, nor shall any beef or pork be 
sold at auction, within the said period, under the pe- 
nalty of twenty-five dollars. 

" Boarding-houses shall be kept neat and clean, 
and no more lodgers shall be admitted than the City 



$2 

Inspector .shall think proper, under the penalty of 
twenty-five dollars, for each person exceeding such 
number. The City Inspector or bis agent shall, like- 
wise, examine them, at least once a week, during the 
summer. Persons taken sick in boarding-houses, be- 
tween the 1st of June and 1st of November, must be 
reported to the H e alt h-0 ffiee. within twelve hours 
after they are so taken, under the penalty of one hun- 
dred dollars, or six months imprisonment. 

\ € Batchers shall bring no gut-fat into the mar; 
nor the head of any sheep or lamb, unless the same 
be properly cleaned, nr any sheep or lamb in carcase 
or quarters, with the feet or trotters thereto, nor 
any hides or skins, (calves-skins excepted) under the 
penalty of two dollars. They shall, likewise, imme- 
diately after killing any animal, destroy the offals, or 
convey the same into the river, under the penalty or 
twenty-five dollars. They shall not expose to sale, 
any stale or unwholesome provisions, under the pe- 
nalty often dollars. 

" All dirt and filth shall be brought out from 
houses, cellars, alleys, yards and lots, (twice a-week.) 
on sweeping days, before ten o'clock in the morning, 
under the penalty of two dollars. 

" No Sexton shall inter any person who may have 
died of a Pestilential or Malignant Fever, in any 
place to the southward of Pump and Nicholas-streets, 
under the penalty of one hundred dollars; nor shall 
they inter any corpse, within the above limits, except 
Ln graves or vaults, at least six feet deep,, and with- 
out removing any other dead body or collin, under 
same penalty. 

ic No privy shall be emptied during the summer, ex- 
cept between the hours of eleven at night and three 
9 the morning, under the penalty of five dollars, nor 



53 

shall any human excrements be thrown into any 
street, lane, alley, dock, &c. under the penalty of 
ten dollars. t 

<e No new made ground shall be turned up, dur- 
ing the summer months, under the penalty oi twen- 
ty-five dollars. 

cc Gutters shall be thoroughly sweeped out and 
cleansed on sweeping days, under the penalty oi two 
dollars. 

cc Noisome or offensive substances shall not be de- 
posited in any place to the southward of Grand- 
street ; nor shall any pit for tanners and skinners, or 
pool of stagnant water be allowed, except in Beek- 
man's swamp, under the penalty of five dollars. Ma- 
nufactories which emit offensive smells, may, like- 
wise, be suspended by the Board of Health. 

u No oysters shall be brought into or sold in this 
city, between the 1st of June and 30th of September, 
under the penalty of two dollars for every hundred. 

" Undressed skins, hides, blubber, &c. shall not 
be kept to the southward and westward of Catherine- 
street, and the Fresh- Water-Pond, under the penalty 
of five dollars for every twenty-four hours neglect. 

" Putrid and unsound provisions shall be destroy- 
ed by starting them into the river, and no salted or 
pickled fish, {except smoked) shall be kept, to the 
southward of Grand-street, between the 1st of May 
and 1st of October, under a penalty not exceeding 500 
dollars, or imprisonment not exceeding six months. 

" Nuisances of every other description must be re- 
moved or remedied, agreeably to the mode prescrib- 
ed by the City Inspector, under the penalty ct'ftvc 
dollars for every twenty-four hours neglect ; and in 



u 

addition to the penalties prescribed in the cases of 
nuisances, by the salutes of the state and ordinances 
of the city, the remedies by common Jaw., may like- 
wise be enforced. 

" Any physician, having a patient labouring under 
a pestilential or infectious disease, shall forthwith re- 
port in writing to one of the Commissioners of the 
Health-Office, under the penalty of fifty dollars. 

" The Board of Health being conscientiously im- 
pressed with the opinion, that these laws, if duly ob- 
served, are well calculated, under the blessings of 
Divine Providence, to avert pestilential diseases from 
our city, conceive it to be their duty to inform the 
public, that they are determined rigorously to enforce 
their observation, by exacting the several penalties 
therein contained, for neglect or violation ; and, as 
they are persuaded, that the thinking part of the com- 
munity will see the necessity of paying a strict at- 
tenticn to these laws, they earnestly request,' that, 
when any violation shall take place, information may 
be lodged at the office of the City Inspector, in order 
that a prompt and adequate remedy may be applied. 

" The board will conclude this address, bv con- 
gratulating theirfellow-citizens on the state of health, 
which we now enjoy, and which, in so populous a 
city, is almost unparalleled, at this season of the year; 
and they think it proper further to inform the public, 
that they may, at all times, ascertain with precision, 
the state of health, by recurring to the weekly bills of 
mortality* published by the City Inspector, which 
being collected with the greatest care, and issued 
forth to the world, without reserve or disguise, may 
always be relied on as correct and authentic. 
By order and in behalf of the 
Board of Health, 
DE WITT CLINTON, President. 
James Hardie, Sec'ry. 
Office of the Board of Health", > 
llih July, 1805." J 



55 

On the 15th July, the following letter from the 
building committee of Trinity Church was received. 

No. 10, Broadway, July \3th, 1805. 
" Gentlemen, 

u The Corporation of Trinity Church having lately 
purchased the ground between Rector-street and the 
house of Mr. John Livingston, in Broadway, for the 
purpose of erecting thereon a house tor public wor- 
ship, the committee of the vestry charged with this 
business, are ready to begin the building ; but as it 
may be requisite to remove a vault, and open such of 
*the graves as shall be found in or near the line of the 
walls of the building, we have considered it to be our 
duty to consult your board previously to doing so, 
and to request that you will be pleased to infirm us, 
whether, in your opinion, there will be any objection, 
on the score of the public health, to our now going on 
with the business. It will be recollected that the 
ground has been but little used for burial, and rarely 
of late years. 

With sentiments, &c. 

RUFUS KING, 
In behalf of the Committee." 

The above was referred to the medical gentlemen 
of the board and the City Inspector, who after an in- 
terview with the committee of the vestry, reported, 
that these gentlemen were satisfied, that on the score 
of the public health, it would be most prudent to sus- 
pend the work till the month of November. 

On the 16th of July, the Secretary was directed 
forthwith to visit the ship Experiment, from Newry, 
at the bottom of Courtlandt-street, represented to 
be in a foul situation, and report her state as soon as 
possible to the proper authority. 



S6 

The following extract of a letter from the Secretary 
to his Honour the Mayor, written on the evening of 
the same clay, will shew the state of that vessel. 

cc Agreeably to the directions of the board, I have 
this afternoon, particularly examined the ship Expe- 
riment, and have the pleasure of informing you, that 
she is so far fr m being in the state represented, that 
1 consider her to be remarkably clean. 

cc A barrel or two of putrid pork, from on board of 
that vessel, was yesterday started into the river, from 
the far end of the dock, and this, by occasioning, for 
a short time, an offensive smell, might have given rise 
to the report, that the ship was foul. All the beef 
\* hich was on board has, according to information, 
which I deem to be correct, been carried to a pack- 
ing yard, at the upper end of Greenwich-street. We 
have, therefore, in my opinion, not even the slightest 
reason to be apprehen&ive oi danger either from the 
ship or her carg^." 

On the 18th July, the fo'lowing case of disease oc- 
curred, which was universally acknowledged to be Ma- 
lignant or Yellow Fever, by every physician* who vi- 
sited him, as well as by several other persons, who bad 
been accustomed to see that disorder. A man by the 
name of Christopher Hibbron, hostler, in the employ. 
meat of Mr. Andrew Stay ley, who kept a livery-stable 
in an alley, m the rear of No. 92, Maiden-Lane, was 
taken sick on the 9th July. His case was no ways 
alarming until the 1.4th, when he was reported to Dr. 
Miller, the Resident Physician, who, on visiting him, 
did not regard him as being in a critical state, until 
the 18th, when the symptoms had became so alarm- 
ing as to induce that gentleman to recommend his re- 

* Hit: uiusiciarj., who saw him in this City, weie Drs. JViilltr, Jones, 
Moore, Walker and Mauley. At the Marine Hospital, he was unde? 
the care of Drs. Rodgers and Bayley, 



37 

Snoval to the Marine Hospital, where he died on the 
third da\ r alter his arrival. On the same day, a 
man named William Aylesbury, another hostler, who 
was, likewise, in the same employment, and under 
the same roof, was likewise sent to the Hospital. He 
was Lr some time very sick, but at last recovered. 

I, for the present, pass over the medical opinions 
and observations concerning these men, in order that 
1 may go on in chronological order with the most re- 
markable transaction* of the board. I shall, there- 
fore, only observe, at present, that every p *ssible pre- 
caution was taken to prevent the spread of infection, 
by destroying the bedding and wearing apparel of 
the persons removed, aud by thoroughly cleansing 
and white-washing the apartments, in which they had 
slep t, &c. 

On the 20th of July, the following deposition was 
taken before the Mayor. 

deposes, that he left the Havannah in the 



, on — July, when that port was remarkably 

healthy; that at the time of the departure of the said 
vessel, there were but two or three cases reported to 
be so, that the deponent was informed of, of Yellow or 
Malignant Fever, in that place, and that no person 
was sick or died, on board of the said vessel, during 
the passage, as this deponent believes. " 

There were, at that time, two vessels which had 
just arrived from the Havannah, viz. the Eliza and 
the Mary. The former of these was lying in the 
stream opposite the city ; the latter had not yet come 
up from the quarantine ground. To captain Bur- 
gess, master of the Eliza, the Secretary, on the same 
day, delivered an order from the Mayor, directing 
her immediate removal, which was promptly compli- 
ed with. He, likewise, wrote to the Heaith-Oflicer, 



S8 

at Staten-Island, requesting the detention of the 
Mary till further orders. 

It mav be observed, that in the above deposition, 
there was nothing very alarming. Reports had, bow 
ever, gone abroad, that two captains, who had be- 
longed to the Eliza, had died in succession. The 
Mayor, therefore, from motives, which every reflect- 
ing citizen must deem to have been highly prudent, 
thought it advisable to have the vessels detained at 
quarantine, till further information could be procured. 

The captains of the Mary and Eliza, having peti- 
tioned the Board of Health to be permitted to come 
up from quarantine, the Mayor directed the Secre- 
tary, on the 21st of July, to write to the Health-Offi- 
cer, requesting him to put questions, on oath, to the 
following purport, to the sailors of the Eliza sepa- 
rately. 

1st. Did captain Burgess go out as master of the 
Eliza ? If not, who did, and what became of him? 

2d. What persons were engaged, as captains at the 
Havannah before Mr. Burgess, and what became of 
them ? Did they die there ? 

3d. Was there any Yellow or Malignant Fever at 
the Havannah, when the Eliza left that port ? 

4th. Did any person die, or was any person sick 
rm board of the vessel, at the Havannah, or in the 
passage, or in this port ? 

To these queries, the Secretary, on the 22d July, 
received a letter from Dr. Rodgers, containing the 
depositions of the mates of the Mary and Eliza, and 
also of six seamen belonging to the Mary, and of five 
LeloDgrog to the Eliza; all of which amounted to the 



.39 

same purport, \iz. that Captain Eiiab Burgess com- 
manded the Eliza at the time of her departure from 
New- York, in May last, and ever since ; that no per- 
son had died or been sick on board the Eliza since she 
had left this port ; and that at the time they left the 
Havannah, they believed it to be perfectly healthy. 
On the 24th of July, the ship John Jones, likewise 
arrived from the same port, the master of which, cap- 
tain Sherry, deposed, that the port, at the time of his 
departure, was remarkably healthy, and that he had 
brought back all his former crew, no one of them hav- 
ing been sick. Upon the board having received so 
satisfactory evidence upon this subject, it was deemed 
advisable to permit the vessels to come up and an- 
chor in the stream. 

The following extract nf a letter from the Health- 
Officer to the Secretary, dated the 21st of July, will 
shew the state of the shipping, with respect to health, 
previous to that time. " You may assure the Board 
of Health, that not a vessel has passed through our 
hands t his summer to the city, from any part of the 
world, which the law contemplates, that has lost any 
of her crew by sickness, or on beard of which any 
person was taken sick with fever. This I aver, if 
any confidence is to be placed in the oaths of mas- 
ters of vessels $ but if people will perjure themselves, 
I am not responsible." 

On the morning of the 22d of July, it having been 
represented to the board, that Mr. Thomas Young 
was sick of a suspicious disease, at No. 2a Rose-street, 
the Health Commissioners, Drs. Miller and Jones, 
were requested to examine into the nature of the 
complainr, and report to the board at a meeting, 
which was to be held in the afternoon of the same 
day. The following is their report upon this sub- 
ject : " The undersigned, Commissioners of the 
Health-Office, to whom was referred, by the Board 



4G 

of Health, the consideration of the case of Tho- 
mas Young, at No. 25 Rose-street, report, that, 
having visited and carefully examined the case of the 
said Young, they find him, after an illness of thirteen 
days, apparently convalescent, and unless some un- 
expected reverse should take place, likely to recover 
in a short time. They think, however, that thil 
case, though mild and moderate in degree, when 
considered in its whole duration, may be justly sus- 
pected of partaking of the nature ot malignant fever." 
Mr. Young lingered for some time and recovered. 

On the 22d day of July, the board, for the first 
time, received some private information, that a ma- 
lignant or pestilential fever existed in New-Haven, 
Connecticut. The intelligence, however, did not 
appear to carry along with it, that degree of authen- 
ticity which' would warrant the interdiction of com- 
merce between the two cities. It was, therefore, 
deemed expedient to postpone the business tilt the 
nature of the complaint at New-Haven should be 
more particularly ascertained. By the 26th, private 
letters, as well as the deposition ota respectable gen- 
tleman from that quarter, had fixed it beyond a 
doubt, that a fever, prevailed in that city, concerning 
which there was a considerable diversity of opinion, 
some believing it to be bilious, and others to be the 
true yellow, or malignant fever. It was, how- 
ever, admitted, en all hands, that several persons had 
fallen victims to it, after an illness of a few days. 

The board, upon receipt of the above information, 
recommended to his Honour the Mayor, " to issue 
his proclamation, subjecting all vessels from New- 
Haven to quarantine of course, and prohibiting all 
persons from that city to enter this city, unless they 
had been fourteen days from that place." 

The following proclamation was, therefore, issued 
on the same day. 



41 
PROCLAMATION, 

BY THE MAYOR OF THE CITY OF NEW-YORK. 

" Whereas it appears to me, that an infectious or 
pestilential disease doth prevail in the city of New- 
Haven, in the State of Connecticut, I do, therefore, 
by virtue of the powers, in me vested, by the act, en- 
titled " An act to provide against infectious and pes- 
tilential diseases," and in pursuance of the advice of 
the Board of Health, order and direct, that all ves- 
sels which shall arrive at this port, from New-Haven, 
shall be subject to quarantine, of course, and that no 
person shall be permitted to enter the city and county 
of New-York, who shall have been within the said 
city of New-Haven, within fourteen days next pro- 
ceeding his or her arrival, at the said city and county 
of New- York. 

c< Whereof, all pilots and other officers entrusted 
with the execution of the said act, and all other per- 
sons, are requested to take notice, and govern them- 
selves accordingly, under the pains and penalties im- 
posed upon offenders by the said act, which will be 
rigorously enforced. 

In witness whereof, &c. 
the 26th day of July, 1805. 
DE WITT CLINTON." 

On the 27th of July, the following letter from 
our Mayor, was transmitted to the Mayor of New- 
Haven. 

« New-York 21th July, 1805. 
" Sir, 

" Information from various quarters, of the preva- 
lence of a malignant disease, in the city of New-Ha- 
ven, has enforced upon me the duty of issuing the en- 
closed proclamation, 

F 



4$ 

" It is scarcely necessary to assure you, that this 
measure was taken, not without mature deliberation, 
and the most unfeigned regret. We sincerely pray, 
that the cause which has induced it, will soon cease, 
and that a speedy change in the health of your city, 
will produce a renewal of our usual intercourse; and 
we trust, that you will feel persuaded, that there is 
nothing in this step, which can, in the remotest de- 
gree, he deemed unfriendly to the interests of your 
city, and that we entertain every disposition to im- 
prove and extend the friendly communication, which 
I: as hitherto taken place between us. 

I am, &c. 
DE WITT CLINTON. 
The Mayor of New- Haven. 

We shall be happv to hear from you on this sub- 
ject." 

On the same day (July 26), the Mayor wrote a 
letter to Dr. Rodgers, of which the following is a 
copy. 

" New-York, 26th Jul]/, IS05. 

" Dear Sir, 
«' It is of the utmost importance to ascertain the 
origin of the Yellow Fever ; but in order to do this. 
to general satisfaction, it is proper, that the adv ocates 
of both theories should have an equal chance in ex- 
ploring the sources of information. 

" Under this impression, I have concluded, in my 
own mind, to furnish them indiscriminately and im- 
partially with all the information in my power ; but 
as the patients in the Marine Hospital, have only 
undergone the inspection of medical gentlemen, in 
favour of domestic origin, previous to their being sent 
from this place, I have to request, that you will per- 
mit Dr. Hosack and the gentlemen accompanying 



43 

him, to see those sick persons. This cannot be con- 
sidered an interference with your department, and 
the emergency of the occasion, and the interests of 
the city require a step of the kind, in order that a full 
investigation, satisfactory to all parties, may be had. 

I am, &c. 
DE WITT CLINTON. " 

On the afternoon of the same day on which the 
above was written, Dr. Hosack, accompanied by 
Drs. Williamson and Stringham, proceeded to the 
Marine Hospital, at the quarantine ground. Tne 
result of their observations will appear presently. 

At a meeting of the Board of Health, held on the 
30th July, 1805, it was " resjlved, that James Har- 
die be, and he is hereby authorized, to cause James 
Dougherty, from No. 127 Water-streei, to i*: forth- 
with removed to the Marine Hospital, and that he 
also cause all proper means of purification and pre- 
vention to be enforced." In conformity with the 
above resolution, Mr. Dougherty was forthwith re- 
moved; the whole of his cloathirlg and beddnig i? 
either sent along with him to the Marine Hospital, 
or completely destroyed, and the apartments fumi- 
gated, thoroughly cleaned, and white-washed. It is 
to be observed, that this was not only represented to 
be a case of Malignant Fever, by medical gentlemen, 
who believe in the local origin of the disease, but also 
by Dr. Hosack, whose opinion is in favour of its im- 
portation. 

On the 1st of August, the Mayor wrote a letter 
to Dr. Hosack, of which the following is a copy. 

"Sir, 
" I understand, that in consequence of a request 
made by me, (with a view that the advocates of both 
theories might have an equal chance of exploring the 



44 

sources of Malignant Fever) you, in company with 
two other gentlemen, proceeded to the quarantine 
ground, in order to examine the cases of the patients 
there sick, or supposed to be so, with that disease. 
If perfectly agreeable to those gentlemen ai:d your- 
self, I will thank you to favour me with your obser- 
vations and opinions on this subject. 

I have the honour, kc. 

DE WITT CLINTON." 

In consequence of the above letter, the following 
answers were received. 

" Neiv-York, August ith, 1805. 
" Dear Sir, 
" In compliance with your request of July 26th, 
conveyed to me by Alderman Van Zandt, one of the 
members of the Board of Health, I called upon Dr. 
Hugh Williamson and Dr. James Stringham, re- 
questing them, in your name, to accompany me to 
Staten-Island, to examine the two patients who had 
been sent from the city, and reported to be ill of the 
Yellow Fever. 

" Impressed with the belief, that the Health-Offi- 
cer would readily afford us the opportunity we de- 
sired to see and examine the patients, it was from de- 
licacy concluded, not to deliver your letter, unless, 
which could not be supposed, it should become ne- 
cessary, in order that the object in view should not 
be frustrated. 

" Discovering, however, in the Health-Officer, a 
reluctance to shew us the sick, or to give us the in- 
formation we desired, Dr. Williamson presented him 
your letter. We were then admitted to the Hospital. 

" The first of the two hostlers shewn us, as those 
from Stayley's livery-stable, was Aylesbury. He had 



a yellow skin,, but @f the natural temperature ; a fee- 
ble, but not a quickened pulse; bis stomach was re- 
tentive, although we were informed by the nurse, 
that, in the beginning, he had thrown up large quan- 
tities of bile, and that the evacuations from the bow- 
els had been of a dark green colour ; they were now 
natural. Upon enquiring into the state of his urine, 
we were informed that it had been very yellow ,• that 
it still remained so, a;d that it stained his linen. 

" We next visited the man last sent down, by the 
name of Kirkwood j* his symptoms were all so mild, 
that we could scarcely perceive the marks of febrile 
action of any sort; indeed it was admitted on all 
hands, that his illness was not the Yellow Fever. 

" Hibbron, the first person sent down, and whose 
case had excited the most attention, and given the 
most alarm, we were informed, had died the Mon- 
day preceding. We, therefore, could only satisfy 
ourselves as to his case, by enquiry, and having seen 
it asserted in one of the public prints, in such a man- 
ner as to induce the belief, that the information had 
been received from the Health-Office, that Hibbron 
had died, with all the decided and most malignant 
symptoms of the Yellow Fever, and, that he had the 
black vomit, attended with bleeding at ike nose, we 
examined as far as we could into these facts. It 
appeared, that he had voided blood from the intes- 
tines, and that he died of a mortification of the bow- 
els. I asked the Health-Officer in particular, whe- 
ther he had had the black vomit? He answered, that 
he did throw up a dark coloured matter, as he was 
informed by the nurse. The question was then 
urged in a more precise shape, and he was asked if 
he had had the particular species of black vomit, 
which attends the Yellow Fever, either the coffee- 

* James Kirkwood was sent to the Marine Hospital from Mr. Stay- 
ley's on the 23d July. 



s 46 

ground or the jlakey f He answered, No, he could 
not say he had. 

" Such, sir, is the history of the material facts, that 
we saw and ascertained at the quarantine ground. 
The remainder,necessary to complete the cases, will 
be found in the affidavit of Mr. Stayley,* who attend- 
ed upon these men, prior to their removal to the 
Marine Hospital, at whose examination I was pre- 
sent, as was also the Resident Physician. 

" As yoU request not only a detail of particulars, 
but also my opinion of the nature of the disease of 
those persons^ I do not hesitate to express it. 

" I have no doubt that the illness of those three 
men was the effect of cold from exposure to the 
night #zV,and,excepting Kirkwood,of intemperance; 
and that their disease, was the common Bilious Fe- 
ver of our country, to which strangers (as all 
those persons were) are particularly liable on their 
first arrival. And I have no hesitation to pronounce 
that after a minute and I trust a candid and im- 
partial examination of all the facts, there has 
been no Yellow Fever in either of the above cases, 
but that the unnecessary and injurious alarm, which 
has, in this instance, been raised and propagated 
respecting our city^ has been without any adequate 
cause to justify it. 

" I have the honor, &c. 

DAVID HOSACK, 

The Hon. De Witt Clinton." 

" New-York, Aug. 2, 1805. 
"Sir, 

i€ It had been asserted, and the story was often 
repeated, that " two men, sick of the yellow fever, 

* For Mr. StzyUfs affidavit see page 50. 



*7 

were lately sent to the marine hospital from a house 
in Maiden-lane," and that" a third subject, labour- 
ing under the same disease, was sent to the hospi- 
tal after a few days, from the same house." Re- 
ports of this kind have a rapid circulation, and in 
every case are exceedingly injurious to the commu- 
nity ; therefore, the sooner they are corrected, if 
false, the better. As there was no reason to suspcc I , 
that either of the men in question had caught 
imported disease, it must follow, that the Yelk 
Fever is a complaint of domestic origin, provided 
these men have been ill of that disease. Sundry 
cases of Yellow Fever, generated in the country, 
had been slated to me by respectable authority and 
I believed the report, but had reason afterwards 
to be satisfied that in every case my informants 
had been deceived. It was alledged, however, 
that the case above mentioned was a case in point ; 
that is, was indisputably a Yellow Fever of do- 
mestic origin. Wishing, if possible, to discover 
the truth on this question, in which our fellow citi- 
zens are so deeply interested, I visited the Marine 
Hospital on the 26th ult. in company with Dr. Ho- 
sack and Dr. Stringham. It is understood that the 
three men to whom I refer, had been hostlers at the 
same livery-stable, and that they had lately arrived 
from Europe. It is also understood, that one of 
them who w T as first seized of the fever, died at the 
Hospital before we made the visit. Of the other 
two, whom we saw 7 , 1 think it may be said with con- 
fidence, that they were not afflicted with the Yel- 
low Fever; they laboured under a common Bilious 
Fever, from which they have since recovered. This 
complaint is prevalent in the Southern States, dur- 
ing the summer season, and in many cases is fatal, 
especially to strangers who come from a northern 
climate. But, common as the fever may be, a great 
proportion of the cases that I have seen could be 
traced to some act of imprudence in the patient, or 



48 

to obstructed perspiration by rain or dew. The 
symptoms of the fever, by which those men were 
afflicted, according to their own account, have been 
precisely the same from the beginning, with the 
symptoms which attend the Bilious Fever that oc- 
curs every year in the southern states, and fim the 
general appearance of the patients, it must be admit- 
ted that the fevers are of the same kind. The cause 
also of the fever in those men appears to be exactly 
the same as that to which I have alluded. The man 
who was last taken ill, is a native of Scotland, in the 
vigor of life, and lately arrived in the United States. 
He sat out of doors one night in a gig, expecting the 
return of a customer, after midnight, and fell asleep. 
He caught a cold, and in two or three days, the fe- 
ver came on. It must be admitted, that fevers which 
proceed from the same cause, and resemble one ano- 
ther in every particular, should be called by the same 
names. 

" Of the man who died at the Hospital, or of his 
fever, the gentlemen who saw him are the competent 
judges; but if his fever was not strongly marked by 
the peculiar features of the Yellow Fever, if the at- 
tending physicians retained any doubts concerning the 
family to which it belonged, we are justified in sup- 
posing that it was also a Bilious Fever. By the way, 
it is not uncommon for a Bilious Fever, in particular 
seasons and circumstances, to personate the Yellow 
Fever in many of its alarming symptoms ; but it dif- 
fers from the fever in this essential character, in not 
being contagious, for which reason it should not be- 
come the subject of general apprehension. I have 
presumed that the patient who died at the Hospital 
had not the Yellow Fever, because bis disease was 
not contagious. His companions, who lived with 
him, and sickened after him in the same place, did 
not take the Yellow Fever, but sickened with a dif- 
ferent disease; but I take for granted that the Yel- 



49 

low Fever is infectious, and that it has more than 
once been imported. I have presumed also that the 
complaint alluded to was not the Yellow Fever, be- 
cause, upon the supposition that the Yellow Fever 
is a domestic disease and not contagious, it would 
follow that it cannot be imported, in which case the T 
foundation of our Quarantine Law would vanish into 
air; but that law seems to be the dictate of prudence 
and parent of much safety. 

I am, sir, with the utmost respect, 
your most obedient and 
very humble servant, 

HUGH WILLIAMSON. 

The Hon. Ds. Witt Clinton. " 

" New-York, August 3, 1805. 

" Sir, 

" In consequence of your request, I visited the 
quarantine ground, in company with Drs. Hosack 
and Williamson. While there, our attention was 
principally directed to two persons, who had been 
taken ill at Mr. Stanley's, in Maiden-lane, and who 
were reported to have had Yellow Fever. After an 
attentive examination, as to the mode of attack, and 
the symptoms which had since supervened,! leel great 
pleasure in declaring to you, that none of these cha- 
racteristics, which peculiarly designate that disease, 
were in either of these instances, to be detected; on 
the contrary, I consider them merely as cases of the 
common Bilious Fever, which, for many years past, 
has prevailed more or less in New-York, during the 
months of summer. 

With sentiments of respect, Sir, 

I remain your very humble servant, 

JAMES S. STRINGHAM. * 

The Hon. Dje, Witt Clinton." 



g 



5® 

DEPOSITION 

of Mr. Andrew St.-yley, alluded to in Dr. Hosack's 

LETTER. 

Andrew Stayley, of the city of New-Yoik, keeper 
of a livery stable, No. 92 Maiden-lane, deposes, that 
" Christopher Hibbron was in bis employ as hostler, 
and that on the JKb inst. he complained of pains in 
the ancles and legs, which made the deponent be- 
lieve, that he had the rheumatism 5 that on Wednes- 
day morning, he was unable to do his work ; that, 
in the afternoon, he drank a great, deal of cold water 
(which he had been in the habit ofdnnking alter tak- 
ing salts, also of taking salts frequently, working af- 
terwards in the sun, although he had not taken salts 
that day, but a few days before) from the pump in the 
yard, which is of a very hard quality, and that about 
an hour or two afterwards, he fell down sick in the 
stable, in attempting to harness a horse, and that the 
deponent immediately called in Dr. Manley, who 
bled and blistered the patient; that on Friday night, 
there was a stoppage of urine, and on Saturday morn- 
ing, he complained of a continuance of pains in the 
legs and ancles; that Dr. Manley, on the evening of 
Saturday, administered a remedy for the stoppage 
of water, which produced a vomiting soon after : on 
Sunday morning he had a stool, ami his water came; 
that he turned yellow on the stoppage of his urine; 
that, on Sunday morning, the deponent called in Dr. 

, Walker, and the Resident Physician, by his advice, 
was called in about twelve o'clock of that day; and 
that, on the Thursday following, he was sent down 
to the Marine IL spital; that on Monday, Tuesday 
and Wednesday previously, he was much better; 
that on Tuesday he walked in the yard, and washed 
his feet in rain water; that on Wednesday, he ate 

* plentifully of soup, and said he was bravely, and wish- 
ed to go to work; that on Wednesday night he had 
a relapse, and appeared to be delirious, and that a 
bleeding of the nose took place on Thursday; that 



SI 

the deponent attended him during his sickness in 
this city; that he arrived in this place from England, 
on the 12th of May last, and continued from the 
14th of that month, in the deponent's service; that 
he was a man of strict temperance, kept good hours, 
and held never been out late at night, but the night 
before his sickness, when he did not come home until 
one in the morning, having been to visit a shipmate 
of his in Oak-street ; that he had hardly ever been 
out of the yard of the deponent ; that there was 
nothing offensive or nauseous about the depo- 
nent's premises ; they, on the contrary, being re- 
markably clean ; that William Aylesbury, another 
hostler in the deponent's employment, took sick last 
Thursday, and was sent to the Hospital with Hib- 
bron ; that he was somewhat intemperate, and had 
been intoxicated that day ; that James Kirkwood, 
another hostler, also in the deponent's employment, 
took sick on Saturday last, and was sent down on 
Tuesday ; that his symptoms were the same as those 
of Hibbron, as well as Aylesbury ; that the two 
last persons were in the habit of taking salts, drink- 
ing cold water, and exposing themselves to the sun 
in like manner as Hibbron. 

ANDREW STAYLEY. 

Sworn 26th July, 1805, before) 
De Witt Clinton." } 

The further examination of Andrew St ay ley, who 
being duly sworn, deposes, " that when Dr. Man- 
ley was first called in, he stated that he belieyed Hib- 
bron, in consequence of pains in his ancles and legs,had 
the rheumatism ; that the patient did not complain of 
pains elsewhere. Dr. Manley was called in on Wed- 
nesday night. Christopher Hibbron first complained 
on Tuesday night. The first symptoms of indispo- 
sition was vomiting. He threw up his supper. Dr. 
Manley, on Wednesday evening, bled and blistered 
him, his tongue having a white fur upon it. On 
Thursday, the patieut said, that were it not for the 



pains in his legs, be would get up and go to work : 
made no complaint of any pains in his back or head. 
On Wednesday, his countenance sunk to a death-like 
appearance. On Friday he felt so much better, as 
to walk about the yard, sit at the door and eat pana- 
do; but walked lame, and said if it were not for the 
rheumatism, he would go to work. Hitherto, his 
evacuations by stool were of a natural appearance. 
On Friday night there was a suppression of urine. 
The evacuation of urine of Friday morning was 
thick and yellow : he felt worse on Saturday night. 
Hibbron complained of his bowels on Saturday 
night. All the illness the deponent perceived, was 
arising from pains in the lower part of the belly, in 
his limbs, and stoppage of urine. He did not sup- 
pose him dangerous. On Sunday morning, the pa- 
tient felt himself alarmed, and wished for more me- 
dical assistance ; he walked down stairs to the ne- 
cessary, and returned easier. He turned of a high 
bright yellow (between gold and orange). A blis- 
ter was applied to the pit of his stomach, by Drs. 
Manley and Walker; of the weight of which he 
complained On Monday, as the deponent thinks, 
on dressing the blister, there was a discharge, from 
a wine glass to a gill of water, as yellow as his skin. 
Three or four days before he went to the Marine 
Hospital, he was worse in the evening, but better 
in the morning. On Sunday evening and the sub- 
sequent, he appeared delirious. On Monday, Tues- 
day and Wednesday, his stools became of a light 
colour. On some day, between the first illness and 
Sunday, he had a dark stool, asStayley was informed, 
but did not see it. On the Wednesday after he 
was first taken, his complexion w^as of a pale livid 
colour; his eyes not inflamed. Throughout the 
whole of his illness, his complexion was uniformly 
pale. There was the most unlimited intercourse 
between the family and patient; the children play- 
ed with him. On Monday night, he visited his fel- 



53 

low passenger, a gunsmith, in Oak-street. On his 
return home, about one o'clock at night, Mr. Stay- 
ley could not but remark that he had been drink- 
ing, being somewhat merry; but not intoxicated. 
The deponent states, that he is particularly careful 
as to the cleanliness of his stable yard That Wil- 
liam Aylesbury was removed the same dav he was 
taken sick, and had arrived here from England, 
seme time in May last, and resided with the depo- 
nent, as hostler, from that time; that Aylesbury 
complained of pains in his legs, although the depo- 
nent did not believe him ; that he was in the habit 
of laying his head out of the window at night, and, 
in other respects, followed the same mode of life, 
as to hours, as the other hostlers ; that when he took 
sick, he vomited a good deal, and drank brandy. 
That James Kirkwood, the other hostler, took sick 
as before-mentioned, and complained at first, of 
pains in his legs, and the deponent does not recol- 
lect of pains in the back or head ; that he told the 
deponent, that he had not had a passage but once, 
for fourteen days before, and then about eight days 
previous; that he was very sick on the day of his 
removal, vomited a good deal, and was considera- 
bly thirsty, and. so lame, that he could scarcely walk, 
and complained, at the same time, of a violent pain 
in his belly; in vomiting, he did not throw up any 
thing, except what appeared to be the food and 
drink he had recently taken ; that he was from Scot- 
land, and had arrived here some time last fall or 
winter, and was a man of temperate habits; that 
when he took sick, and some days afterwards, he 
appeared pale, and his eyes did not indicate unu- 
sual redness. 

ANDREW STAYLEY. 



a: 

nvorn 29th July, ISOj, before } 
De Witt Clinton." ) 



On the 7th of August, the Secretary was direct- 
ed " to request of the physicians who may have 



54 

seen, or shall hereafter see any cases, or suspected 
cases of Malignant, Yellow, or Pestilential Fever, 
in this city, this season, all Such information as they 
may possess, respecting the origin and nature of the 
disease in question. " 

In consequence of which, the Secretary wrote a 
circular letter to the physicians of the city ; to which, 
he received the following answers, from Drs. Ho- 
sack and Walker. 

" New-York, August 5th, 1805. 

TO THE PRESIDENT AND MEMBERS OF THE BOARD OF 
HEALTH. 

cc Gentlemen, ' 

" In reply to your letter of the#d instar*t, request- 
ing* any information tending to illustrate the origin 
and nature of any real or supposed eases of Malig- 
nant Fever, which may have occurred in this city, the 
present season/ I am happy to remark, that the only 
cases of Malignant Fever, either real or supposed, 
that I have seen i.t the present season, were the host- 
lers from Stay ley's livery-stable, in Maiden-lane, two 
of whom I visited at the quarantine ground, and Mr. 
Dougherty, the clerk of Moore and Storey* 

"For the account of the first of those cases, I beg 
leave to refer to my letter to the Mayor, which con- 
tains all the facts I have been enabled to obtain rela- 
tive to them. 

" On Tuesday morning, July the 30th, about nine 
o'clock, Dr. Riddle, for the first time, requested me 
to visit with him in consultation, Mr. Dougherty in 
Water-street, a clerk in the employ of Messrs. Moore 
and Storey, which I did immediately. 



55 

" As scon as I entered the room of the patient, I 
perceived his skin to be of a dusky yellow colour, es- 
pecially about the neck and chest. He lay in a state 
of stupor ; but upon Dr. Riddle's raising his eye-lids, 
to shew me the state of his eyes, I observed them 
also to be of the same yellow colour with the skin; his 
pulses were slow, not exceeding 60 in a minute, but 

. i; and of their natural healthy fulness — his skin was 
temperate — his tongue was moist, and nearly of its 
natural appearance, excepting somewhat furred in 
its centre; upon speaking to the patient, I found his 
mind to be quite incoherent. Enquiring into the state 
of his stomach, I was told it had been so much afflict- 
ed by vomiting, that the Doctor had found it neces- 
sary to apply a large blister; but notwithstanding 
this application, the vomiting still continued. The 
matter discharged was represented to me, both by 
the Doctor and the nurse, to be very black. As it 
had been just carried out of the room, I did not see it. 

" Dr. Riddle informed me, that his patient had 
been sick since the preceding Wednesday, the 24th 
inst. that this was the seventh day of his disease — that 
he was attacked with excruciating pains in the/ore- 
head, immediately over the eyes, attended also with 
pains in the back and limbs — that his eyes were suf- 
fused with blood — thai* his countenance was also of 
a highly florid colour. Upon retiring, I did not he- 
sitate to express to Dr. Riddle, my belief of the na- 
ture of the disease. Dr. Riddle immediately replied, 
that the patient had not been out of the city. Upon 
enquiring of the gentlemen, in whose employ he bad 
been, the answer was the same; but a lady sitting at 
the table, and accidental !y hearing the question, im- 
mediately remarked, that some time since, he had 
been down at Staten-Island, to procure letters from 
some of the passengers then detained at quarantine. 
As she could not ascertain the time precisely, she re- 
ferred us to his cousin, who was then attending him. 



56 

The cousin stated, that the Sunday preceding, was 
the third Sunday since he had been down at the is- 
land. I asked her if she meant three icceks from the 
last Sunday ? she said no, but the " third Sunday." 
Lest there might be some mistake, and Dr. Riddle 
expressing some doubt, we went up stairs a second 
1 imc, when she, as before, stated that it was not three 
necks, but that the last Sunday was the " third Sim- 
day" since lie went down to the island. Hence it 
appears, that the patient had been at the quarantine 
ground, on Sunday the 14th instant, and that he was 
taken sick on Wednesday the 24th instant, ten days 
after. Dr. Riddle, doubtless, has made the same 
distinction in his report to the Board of Health, other- 
wise it would induce a belief, that seventeen days had 
elapsed between his visit to the quarantine ground, 
and the time of his attack ; whereas, the interval was 
but ten days. As the patient was near his dissolu- 
tion, I immediately made a report to the Mayor, of 
the case, and the circumstance attending it — the steps 
afterwards pursued by the Board of Health, and the 
result your records contain. 

"Having never, gentlemen, met with a case, of 
fever attended with the above-mentioned symptoms, 
that could not be traced to contagion, I cannot but 
believe, that in this instance also, the patient had 
been exposed to the atmosphere of an infected vessel, 
or to persons that had been sick, or in some way con- 
nected with the sick of the Yellow Fever. 

" Had Mr. Dougherty not been out of the city, nor 
in any way exposed to the contagion, I should have 
wanted candor not to have acknowledged it> domestic 
origin. Under the present circumstances, it certainly 
cannot be considered as generated here; the unusu- 
ally healthy state of our city, is also directly opposed 
to this belief. 

I am, gentlemen, with respect, yours, 
DAVID IIOSACK." 



57 

" New-York, August 11, ISO& 

" GENTLEMEN, 

" Bvthe letter which I received a few days ago, from 
the Board of Health, I have been encouraged to re- 
late the case of a man who fell sick of a disease, ac- 
companied with very malignant symptoms, in an al- 
ky adjoining to Maiden-lane. 

" This has been considered by myself, and a num- 
ber of other witnesses, as an instance of our Malignant 
endemic or Yellow Fever. And I communicate it as 
such, in the face of those who admit that a febrile dis- 
ease, with slighter symptoms than this case exhibits, is 
a true Yellow Fever, provided they can trace it to a 
sea-vessel, or something that has been brought from 
the West-Indies ; but deny that the disease, I am 
about to describe, however malignant and violent ^ 
however distinguished by appropriate and character- 
istic signs is Yellow Fever, unless they can trace its 
origin in some occult cause of foreign derivation. 

" The unfairness of which mode of reasoning, is only 
surpassed by the fashionable, but pernicious notion 
of deriving all our ills of this kind from distant places, 
without reflecting that in so doing, we lay down a 
precedent, authorizing all the inhabitants abroad, to 
retort our charges of imported infection, to recrimi- 
nate with positiveness and pertinacity equal to ours, 
to assail ourselves, climate and institutions, with as 
much railing and abuse as we bestow upon them and 
theirs, and finally to have thereby confirmed the na- 
tives of Cuba, Jamaica, St. Domingo, and other is- 
lands of the south, who are mighty sticklers for the 
purity and healthiness of their respective places, that 
they should always escape the Yellow Fever, ii they 
had no commercial connection with New-York, Phi- 
ladelphia, Charleston, and the other foul and pestilen- 
tial cities, situated on the continent of North America 

j foeces 



8 



And in this way the favourers of importation, like 
Isnmael, raise indeed their hands against every man, 
and ought to remember that every man's hand will 
be raised against them. But as k is my chief inten- 
tion to relate to the board an instance of Yellow Fe- 
ver, which occurred this season, in the course of my 
practice, I shall detail the particulars, with all the 
plainness and candor that I possess, without forging 
a chain of connection with the West-Indies, on the 
one part, or concealing or disguising facts as plain as 
noon-day, on the other. 

" Christopher Hibbron, aged about thirty, born in 
Yorkshire (England) arrived at New- York early in 
May last, in the ship Hudson, from Liverpool. On 
the fourteenth of the same month, he was retained in 
the service of Andrew Staylej', No. 92 Maiden-lane, 
in the capacity of an hostler, with whom he resided 
until he was removed to Staten-Island. He posses- 
sed a mild and obliging disposition ; was not subject 
to violent passions, nor did he indulge in dissipation 
or intemperance ; he seldom went from home, his em- 
ployment requiring all his attention, from early in the 
morning, until late at night. 

" He enjoyed good health from the time of his ar- 
rival in this country, until the ninth day of July last ; 
when he complained of great languor, aversion to mo- 
tion, and depression, of spirits. 

" The next day following, he was suddenly seized 
with vertigo, and fell upon the ground ; this affection 
soon subsided, and was succeeded by constant nau- 
sea and frequent vomiting of bilious matter, accom- 
panied by acute pains in the caifes of his legs and 
knees, which gradually progressed upwards, until his 
thighs, back and head were equally aifected ; the 
pain was excruciating, and there seemed to be a spas- 
modic, act ion of the muscles of his legs. - These ail- 



59 

tions induced him to speak of extreme cold, being ap- 
plied to his body; this sensation almost immediately 
passed off, and great irritation, tumult and excite- 
ment of the vascular system became very conspicu- 
ous. The pain at this time seemed to be altogether 
removed from the lower extremities, and fixed in his 
back and head ; pulse 100 or upwards, hard, labour- 
ing and irregular ; heat of the body burning and con- 
centrated ; skin dry and rough ; tongue white, slimy, 
and moist ; countenance flushed, agitated and anxi- 
ous ; eyes red, disturbed, watery and wandering. 

" Dr. Manley judiciously prescribed bleeding, blis- 
tering, bowels evacuated, and the antiphlogistic re- 
gimen enjoined. 

" On the third day of his disease, the violence of 
the symptoms were greatly subdued ; eye and counte- 
nance more natural and cheerful; tongue dry and 
rough ; continual thirst; feeces charged with yellow or 
bilious matter; pain in the stomach and nausea; skin 
moist, but rather clammy and cool when lightly 
touched, but when hard pressed, conveyed a sensation 
of morbid heat; pulse soft and swelling. 

" There were no particular variation of symptoms 
during the fourth and fifth days of his disease ; but on 
the sixth day, he complained of great pain and un- 
easiness throughout his body; this, however, soon be* 
came local, and was confined to his stomach and uri- 
nary bladder, attended with vomiting and suppres- 
sion of urine, his skin was dry. and the heat unequal. 
His medical treatment, was full and regular; at this 
time blistered freely; alkalies with acids; Sp. Nit. 
Dul. tepid bathing; injections; fomentations; calo- 
mel and opium, &c. &c. every thing requisite under 
such circumstances. On the morning of the seventh 
d?tj of disease, there obtained a copious discharge of 
urine, loaded with a dark coloured matter; feeces 



60 

having the appearance of tar or molasses, pain in the 
stomach, constant vomiting, which was no longer bi- 
lious, but rejecting every thing thrown into it. The 
colour or his skin was, on this day, completely chang- 
ed; in health, his skin is uncommonly fair, but its 
present bright and general yellowness is beyond all 
description ; it bears a strong analogy to a high co- 
louring of gambouge upon fine glazed paper. 

ei The eighth and ninth clays of his disease were 
not marked by any particular occurrence. On the 
tenth, his pulse was slow and regular, apparently soft 
and full ; a great proportion of animal heat retired 
from the extremities ; discharge from his bowels, black 
and seemingly charged with blood ; confused and ir- 
regular ideas ; delirium ; haemorrhage from his nose; 
his tongue was loaded with a dark brown thick incrus- 
tation j skin moist but evidently morbid, and widely 
different from the warm and fluid moisture arising 
from an healthy action of the extreme vessels; sigh- 
ing, anxiety, throwing his arms and legs from one 
side of ihe bed to the other; a constant desire to 
change his situation, iviih nit assigning a cause; hick- 
up, with a mahogany countenance, and a variety of 
malignant symptoms, not easily described. In the 
evening oftbis day lie was removed toStaten-lsland; 
v< >rr\iting f black matter came on, during his passage, 
arid continued at intervals until he died, which took 
place on the thirteenth day of his disease, attended 
with all the horrid and a*vfnl appearances that usu- 
ally occur in malignant cases of concentrated epde- 
mic, or Yellow Fever. 

< f I have sought with ail the diligence and care 
that I pessess, for the origin of this frightful disease. 
Jt has beep impossible for me to trace it to any sjiip 
pr vessel whatever. And indeed if I had been able 
to do so, it would not have followed, that the uiir 

an rubbish of a ship had been taken on board irj 



61 



bulk at a foreign port, and not have been engender- 
ed and manufactured within her. 

" For a ship, from her construction and use, being 
first a manufactory of pestilential matter, and then 
a vehicle to transport it from place to place, where- 
ever she goes, is herself the local source of the great- 
est part of that very mischief, which is unreasonably 
ascribed to the ports between which she sails. 

* As to local nuisances in and about the alley and 
stable, where the man lived and worked, there did 
net appear to be any one, which could be fairly sup- 
p i to excite the disease; tor it would be extrava- 
gant to ascribe such to stable-dung. 

" As far as I can penetrate the cause of this dis- 
ease, I will state it. The patient was an English- 
man ; he had been accustomed to a portion of earth 
and atmosphere, by i'ar cooler than ours ; he had the 
northern constitution and habits of a Yorkshire man, 
and he had been but a short time in our city. 

" It is well known when men of such tempera- 
ments migrate to the south, they commonly undergo 
a seasoning as it is called, to their new place of resi- 
dence; Englishmen have to undergo this operation 
when they remove hither, as our own people are 
obliged to submit to it, when they move to Orleans. 
Men so circumstanced, often become diseased before 
they are reconciled to their new situations, and in 
many cases, the stamina of life break before they can 
be bent to the required shape. 

" In the case of Hibbron, there was the ordinary 
predisposition of an English stranger, and he seems 
to have fallen a victim to the combined agency of 
causes, which a native scarcely feels, because he is 
seasoned and habituated to them, but which frequent*- 



62 

\y act with irresistible powers upon visitors from the 
north. 

With sentiments of high respect and esteem, 
I remain your most obedient, 

RICHARD L. WALKER. 

The President and Members > 
oi the Board of Health." ) 

The following extract of a letter from Dr. Man- 
ley, published in the Morning Chronicle, will shew 
that gentleman's opinion of the disease in question. 

Ci I shall now take the liberty of examining briefly, 
such parts of Dr. Hosack's letter, as relate to the 
case of Hibbron. * It appeared/ said the Doctor, 
' that he had voided blood from his intestines, and 
that he had died of mortification of the bowels/ As 
I am the person more interested in the opinion which 
the public shall form of this case, than any other man, 
I should be glad to know, for the sake of information, 
how it appeared to him, that he died with a morti- 
fication of the bowels. As a man of candor, his rea- 
sons for such an opinion should have appeared in 
print as well as the opinion itself, and he is hereby 
informed, that they are still expected. He could not 
draw this conclusion from the circumstance of the 
man's voiding blood, for this we see every day oc- 
curring in cases of the Dysentary ; yet we do not be- 
lieve the mortification of the bowels to exist any length 
of time, proportionate to the duration of the disease ; 
we know that patients will labour under the most ag- 
gravated form of Dysentary for the term of six weeks, 
and during all that time pass blood ; comparatively 
few instances even then are found to terminate in 
mortification of the intestines, as has been repeatedly 
proved upon dissection. But suppose for a moment, 
the man had mortification of bowels, as expres- 
sed, how is it possible to be accounted for ? the mor- 
tification surely was not the consequence of the ap- 
plication of a caustic; it must have been preceded by 



03 

inflammation; if such inflammation did exist, it must 
have been apparent, from the torturing pain, the ob- 
stinate costiveness, and the peculiarity of pulse, 
which in such cases, do exist, and he must have died* 
according to the common course of such a diseasej 
long ere the termination ol the thirteenth day efhia 
illness — neither of which circumstances did obtain. 
I therefore shall rest satisfied in the belief, that he did 
not die with mortification of his bowels, as a primary 
disease, as represented; and the public will, no doubt, 
do themselves the justice to withhold their belief of 
such a statement, until more clearly proved. 

" I asked the Health- Officer in particular, whe- 
ther he had the black vomit ?" He answered, " that 
he did throw up a dark coloured matter, as he was 
informed by the nurse. " The question was then 
urged in a more precise shape, and he was asked " if 
he had the particular species of black vomit which at- 
tends the Yellow Fever, either the coffee grour. 
the flaky r" He answered, " no, he could not say he. 
hacir 

" The public will observe, that the last sentence 
here given, as delivered by the Health-Otiicer, was 
not divided into two distinct parts, as Dr. Hcsack 
would wish it to be believed, by printing one part in 
capitals, and another in italics. J pledge myself that 
Dr. Rodgers did not expect to be thus understood, 
when he was more particularly interrogated whether 
the vomiting was either the coffee ground or the flaky f 
He answered he did not know ; the information he 
had received from the nurse ; he himself had not seen 
it, and he possessed too just a sense of the value of 
truth, to assert that for fact, which rested merely upon 
the statement of one of the hospital attendants! Dr. 
Hosack's enquiry of the Health Olncer, amounts of 
course to nothing more nor less than he could not 
precisely define the appearance of the matter, having 



64 

never seen it. It is certain, however, that the patient 
had an irritable stomach during the whole course of 
his disease, and that he had black vomiting before .he 
arrived at Staten-Island ; and whether he had or had 
not, is not a circumstance essentially necessary to 
the point in question. Had Hibbron Y&Ubiv Fever-? 
It is acknowledged, on all hands, that Yellow Fever^ 
notwithstanding it is a disease of peculiar malign^}, 
does not possess one single sympi m which, taken 
alone, can characterize it. Again, if it be necessary 
that black vomiting should be present to constitute 
the disease Yellow Fever, at least nine out often at- 
tacked by it must die ; for in cases where that symp- 
tom obtains to any extent, the chances of recovery 
are still iess than this proportion, as wiil appear from 
the experience of many of our most able physicians. 
Yellow Fever, though malignant, is not so generally 
fatal as would thus appear. 

" Dr. Hosack thus concludes his letter. c I have 
no doubt that the illness of those three men was the 
effect of cold, from exposure to the night air, and ex- 
cepting Kirk wood, of intemperance, and thai; their 
disease was the common Bilious Fever of our coun- 
try, to which strangers (as all those persons were) are 
particularly liable on their first arrival. And I have 
no hesitation to pronounce, that after a minute, and, 
I trust, a candid and impartial examination of all the 
facts, that there has been no Yellow Fever in either 
of the above cases, but that the unnecessary and in- 
jurious alarm which has, in this instance, been raised 
and propagated respecting our city, has been with- 
out any adequate cause to justify it.' 

" It will here readily appear to the reader, that the 
D ctor, with all his caution, has not been able to 
avoid absurdity. He, in the first part of this letter, 
imputes the death of Hibbron to a mortification of 
the bowels, and now in common with Kirkwood and 



$5 

Aylesbury, he had the common Bilio&s Fever of our 
country, to which strangers are particularly liable; 
this needs no further comment; the contradiction 
would scarcely have been more apparent if it had 
occurred in the same sentence. 

" I shall now conclude my observations on this let- 
ter, by remarking upon the candor and humanity of 
Dr. Hosack, which charged Hifrbrori with btfiffg 
cessory to his own death, when, if he hau\ not ktte 
the least enquiry would have satisfied him that he 
was a man temperate even to a fault, if I may so ex- 
press it. Mr. Stayley told me, when speaking bf his 
habits, that he had never seen him intoxicated dur-» 
ing the whole time he was in his employ, and that it 
was with difficulty he coukt prevail upon him d? 
the warm weather, to drink any other thing rha'n c I 
water ; yes the illness of these three men was (he effect 
of cold, from exposure to the night air, and except- 
ing Kirk wood, of intemperance. 

" I have now said all that the public required of 
me, and no more. It was my intention to have ana- 
lyzed the letter of Dr. Hos&ek, on the case of Dough- 
erty ; but that, I am informed, will come from its 
proper source, in the course of a few days-, and as 
that case a (lords ample matter for a lengthy comment, 
we trust that it will meet with its merited attention. 
I trust that I have done away art injurious impres- 
sions- that the public may have entertained of me, as 
the physician of Hibbron j and 1 likewise hope that 1 
have done some service to the public, in exposing the 
designed misrepresentations in the above case. 

" I shall only observe, in regard to the paragraph 
in Mr. Coleman's fast evening paper, that if* by 
those who know better/ he would be understood as- 
meaning Dr. Hosack and- himself — lie is perfectly 



66 

correct ; since they (and their communications) alonfc 
prompted me to come before the public. 

JAMES R. MANLEY." 



" Dear Sir, 

Cf As you have requested the most important facts 
in the cases of Hibbron, Aylesbury and Kirk wood, 
I have been as particular as my memory, (aided by 
nurses and patients) admit of. 

" Christopher Hibbron was received into the Ma- 
rine Hospital on the 18th inst. late at night. The 
morning of the 19th, I first visited him. His body 
was of a dusky yellow, especially his face ; his eyes 
were yellow, and the blood vessels turgid ; his tongue 
covered with a dark brown fur, but moist, except at 
the edges, which were dty, and darker than the rest; 
pulse full, soft and frequent, beats 100 ; mind collect- 
ed ; he had ten or twelve thin evacuations in as many 
hours, which were of a dark bloody colour ; urine red- 
dish and turbid ; he vomited four times, at an inter- 
val of twelve hours between each, except the last 
twenty-four hours of his life, when he did not throw up 
any thing; the fluid vomited was the colour of por- 
ter, with some ash coloured mucous floating in it, 
except immediately after he was admitted, which is 
stated to have been very dark ; porter was his drink, 
and when he did vomit, it was shortly after he drank ; 
volatile alkali and laudanum were prescribed for him, 
which produced a free perspiration, and lessened the 
number of his stools ; at night blisters were applied to 
his ancles. 

" 20th. The same medicines were continued, he 
having expressed sensible relief therefrom ; some 
coma taking place, a blister was applied between his 
shoulders, which drew well ; during the night he had 
a dark green stool, of natural consistence. 



07 

a 2 1st. Coma increased ; pulse soft and quick; me- 
dicines continued, with the infusion of bark as the ve- 
hicle ; blisters applied to the legs, and cataplasms to 
the feet. 

" 22d. All the symptoms increased, with laborious 
breathing ; had several convulsions, and died at three 
o'clock, P. M. JV. B. He bled several times at the 
nose. 

* William Aylesbury was admitted into the Ma- 
rine Hospital with Hibbron. His body was of a 
natural colour ; eyes slightly inflamed ; tongue white - y 
pulse tense and frequent ; skin hot ; had taken a ca- 
thartic, which had ceased its operation before he 
came here; a sudorific was given at short intervals, 
with acidulated tepid drink, which caused a free per- 
spiration ; had several dark green stools ; urine tur- 
bid and high coloured ; in the evening complained of 
heat and fulness at his stomach, with increased pain 
in the back part of his head, and aching of his back 
and limbs ; twenty-four ounces of blood was taken 
from him, which produced relief. 

" 20th. Had the same sensations at his stomach 
and head as last night ; pulse full and frequent ; bldbd- 
ed him eight ounces ; sudorific mixture continued; in 
the evening costive ; mixture omitted ; took 10 grains 
of calomel every four hours, and rub mercurial oint- 
ment nn the thighs ; had many dark green stools dur- 
ing the night, and vomited onee some light greenish 
bile, which was very bitter. 

<c 21st. Calomel and opium were directed, and 
mercurial frictions continued night and morning. 

<c 22d. Remedies as yesterday ; his eyes have a yel- 
low tinge. 2£d. His body generally' of a yellow hue ; 
bled twice at the nose ; his breath has the mercurial 



68 

taint ; complains of soreness of his gums, medicines 
as beibre. 

" 24th. Medicines discontinued ; complains very 
much of the soreness of his mouth ; stools, of which 
be has had several daily, are of a very dark green; 
took a solution of scda. 

" 25th. Bled at the nose; stools lighter; his jaws 
swollen ; from the 25th to the 50th, under the influ- 
ence of mercury. 

" 30th. His yellowness, which when at its height, 
was of a dusky }e!low, is rapidly lessening; stools 
c ntmue green ; the swelling of his face diminishing, 
and he is recovering. 

" James Kirk wood was taken into the Hospital 
on the 24th inst. his skin of a natural colour ; eyes 
slightly suffused with blood and heavy ; tongue 
white ; pulse full and slow; complained of pain in 
his head, back and limbs ; took a cathartic, which 
operated freely ; opened a vein, but only a few- 
ounces flowed ; stools green ; at night calomel and 
opium were administered every four hours; very 
copious vomiting of a light green bile ensued ; mer- 
curial ointment was applied to his legs and thighs. 

cc 25th. Complains more than yesterday ; had a 
verv restless night ; calomel was exhibited in a 
smaller quantity, and the opium increased every 
four hours,but his vomiting continuing, was obliged 
to omit them ; a solution of soda in mint water, 
with the addition of laudanum was given ; this al- 
layed the irritability of his stomach, and he had a 
much better night ; his stools of a lighter green 5 
pulse full and slow. 26th and 27th. solution of 
soda in mint continued ; laudanum omitted ; pulse 
full and slow, beats 60; he is mending, 28th, 29th 



69 



and 30th. Pulse from 52 to 56 beats in a minute ; 
full and soft; complains of a soreness in his gums; 
he walks about, and is in the use of tonic remedies ; 
his evacuations have a slight tinge of green, in other 
respects natural. 

JOSEPH BAYLEY. 
Dr. John R. B. Rodgers." 

On the 24th August, Mr. Andrew Stayley, the 
tleman in whose house the three histlers had 
taken sick, became indisposed, and on the third day 
thereafter, was sent to the Marine Hospital. It was, 
indeed, his own desire to go there, as he had heard 
a most favourable report of the institution from 
James Kirkwood, who had been sent down sick, 
and a few days before Mr. Stayley's removal, had 
come up perfectly recovered. Soon after Mr. 
Stayley went down, the Secretary wrote a letter to 
the Health-Officer* to which he received the follow- 
ing answer. 

" Quarantine Ground, August 26th, 1805. 
" Dear Sir, 

" Your anxiety respecting your friend Stayley, 
induces me to inform you that he is still very ill, 
but from his having had a better sight the last than 
before, and having a clean and airy apartment, and 
a situation giving him as pure an air as the island 
arlords, I am yet in hopes he may do well. He had 
yesterday a most distressing hiccup, and this has 
occasionally come on this morning, but b 
means so severe as before. He had yesterday a 
disposition to bleed freely wherever he scratched 
himself, and his pulse intermitted frequently. The 
tendency to haemorrhage has gone off this morning, 
and his pulses are more regular ; he speaks, though 
with a quickness that shews his brain is still affect- 
ed, The other man of Stayley's is much better. 



70 

lt 1 find by the public prints, that what was said 
to the three gentlemen who visited the Marine Hos- 
pital, on the 27th of July last, has been put in a 
very improper point of view, and that there are 
some omissions of necessary truth. Whether this 
proceeds from design, I cannot say ; but as the ac- 
count has been given to the Board of Health, to 
whom 1 owe respect, and with whom I am offici- 
ally connected, 1 esteem it my duty to make the 
present communication, and to state all the circum- 
stances of the visit. 

" On the 27th of July, Drs. Williamson, Hosack 
and Stringham came to see me at the quarantine 
ground ; they arrived while we were at breakfast ; 
after the usual compliments, and being seated at the 
table with the family, one of the gentlemen, (Dr. 
Hosack) said that they had come to make enquiry 
relative to the cases of fever which had been sent 
down from the city to the Marine Hospital. I imme- 
diately told them that, if they wished information for 
themselves, I -would give it with pleasure, but that 
w r hat we had said at the quarantine ground, had 
sometimes gone into the public papers without our 
permission, and sometimes been misrepresented — 
that if U were required by those in authority, I would 
at any time give jn writing, all the information in 
my power, but that what I should say then, or 
at other times in conversation, was not to go into 
the public papers, or serve the purposes of party or 
controversy, and that if they intended my answers 
to do this, 1 should be perfectly silent. They all 
of them replied that they had no such idea; and 
under the persuasion of being candidly dealt with, 
I proceeded in the conversation. 

" I held them, from what was said and from their 
manner, as much under the obligations of honour 
and good fciitb, that the conditions prescribed would 



be strictly performed, as if they bad expressed the 
terms in writing, and bound themselves in a bond, or 
by an oath ; and all those who respect the obligations 
of hospitality, will look on such a tie as paramount. 
Very soon after this stipulation, I was a^ked if 
might go into the Hospital. I replied, that ir 
had any request from the Mayor, t he Commissi' i 
of the Health- Office, or the Board of Health to that 
effect, they should be admitted, but if not, that I must 
think of it. Upon which Dr. Williamson produced 
the Mayor's letter for that purpose. I immediately 
told them that they should be admitted. I now en- 
tered on the account of the case of Hibbron — I told 
them that he had died some days before — that he 
came to us with all the symptoms of Yejloyv Fever, 
and died with that complaint. I was asked what his 
appearance was ? I said he was very yellow. I was 
asked if it were a bright yellow, with an observation 
of the gentleman asking the question, making a dis- 
tinction between the yellow colour accompanying 
Jaundice and Yellow Fever. I told him that the 
yellow was deep, but of a dirty hue, and that \us 
eyes were deeply and extremely suffused with red 
and yellow, and that he had that cast of countenance 
and that peculiar look of Yellow Fever, which no 
one acquainted with that disease could mistake — that 
he had a bleeding from his nose — that his stools were 
bloody — that his stomach was very irritable, and that 
he frequently vomited. I was asked (while I was in 
the detail) if he had black vomit? I went on to say 
that he had vomited dark coloured matter, as the 
nurse informed me, but that I had not seen it myself. 

<f I was then asked whether it was of a flaky ap- 
pearance, or of the nature of coffee grounds ? I told 
the gentlemen asking, that I could not say, f r that 
I had not seen it. At the same time I remarked to 
the gentlemen that many died of yellow fever with- 
out any black vomit, or even dark matter ejected 



72 

from the stomach. The insinuation, therefore, thai 
what I then said was at variance with what J had be- 
fore expressed to the Board of Health, or that I 
evaded any questions or intended to evade them is 
neither consistent with fact nor candor. The man- 
ner of answering the first question prevented evasi- 
on, for I had distinctly said that I iiad not seen the 
matter vomited myself, but had received my inform- 
ation from the nurse. No questions were asked 
about his pulse. As soon as we r: :se from breakfast 
we went to the hospital ; the first person seen was 
Aylesbury ; he was asked by Dr. Hosack if he had 
any pain on his first attack, and where it was, if in 
his legs and knees ? He answered yes, in his legs and 
knees — on the small of his back and in his head. — 
Dr. H. asked him if his stomach had been affected 
before he came here ? He said yes, that he had vom- 
ited. Dr. H. asked if it were yellow or bhter mat- 
ter ? He said it was black. Black ! said Dr. H. 
with apparent surprize — of a deep green replied he 
then — he was asked what was the colour of his stools, 
— He answered dark coloured — his urine was in the 
chamber pot and was inspected by the gentlemen, 
and was high coloured. He was asked if it stained 
his linen r He replied yes. These answers were 
partly given by Aylesbury, and partly by his wife, 
his mouth being sore from the use of mercury. He 
had at this time a dusky yellow tinge on his skin and 
eyes, and his eyes looked as if they had been inflam- 
ed. The person who came in last was then asked 
by Dr. H. if he had any pain on his first attack ? He 
said yes, in his head ami limbs. He was asked iiv 
what part of his head ? He said in the back part of 
his head, and put his hand to the hinder part of if — 
if he had any pain in his back ? He said yes. This 
examination did not take up more than six or eight 
minutes; not ten I am sure. The questions asked, 
and the answers given were written down directly 
after the gentlemen left the quarantine wharf, and 



73 

within three quarters of an hour after they were 
asked, they were taken to the hostipal, and there 
read to Aylesbury and his wife, in the presence of 
Dr. Bayley, and declared by them to be correct. 
Upon leaving this ward, Dr. Bayley came up to us 
on the green in front of the long Hospital. I hand- 
ed him the Mayor's letter, and stated to him the ob- 
ject of the visit of the gentlemen ; at the same time I 
told him that I had expressly said to them, that no- 
thing which he or I should say, was to go into the news- 
papers, or be made the subject of controveisy. Dr. 
Ba , ley told them, that he considered Hibbron's case 
as a mixed one, but that if he were to class it, or were 
on his oath, he should say it was Yellow Fever — that 
he had a mortification of his bowels before he died. 
Here you will observe that Dr. Hosack has kept back 
part of what Dr. Bayley said, and has misstated part ; ' 
for Dr. Bayley never said that Hibbron died of a 
mortification of his bowels. He expressed himself in 
such a manner as to shew that the mortification of 
the bowels was a symptom of the disease, and not 
the disease itself. These are the leading circum- 
stances of what occurred on that visit. How any 
one can infer from what I said, or from what I heard 
Dr. Bayley say, that the case of Hibbron was not 
Yellow Fever, is to me very strange. It is equally 
surprising to find gentlemen denying the existence of 
a disease, because they cannot see how it was pro- 
duced, or the truth of a fact, because they cannot ac- 
count for it. Such a mode of reasoning or conduct 
would soon land in the region of downright scepti- 
cism. How many thousand truths are there that we 
cannot account for ! 

(< The facts in this case we know — We know that 
in this summer, as well as preceding ones, cases of 
Malignant Fever have occurred, which could not be 
traced to any connection with ships or infected per- 
sons — We have seen this summer already, the case* 

K 



74 

of Mrs. Pfifer, Dougherty, and the four men from 
Staylev ***» — these ail shew that Malignant Fever ex- 
ists, and they shew the solemn truth ttiat it is of do- 
mestic origin. We must not shut our eyes upon the 
truth. The law under which we act, recognizes in- 
ternals well as external causes of disease, and it is 
our duty to look to both ; but while we know these 
things, I look upon it as improper to make them the 
subject of newspaper discussion — the public mind 
may be irritated and inflamed, but it can never be 
directed in a proper course on such a subject, in this 
way. Before I conclude, permit me to say that I 
find no fault with Dr. Williamson or Dr. Strmgham; 
as it related to me personally they have my respect; 
and their abstaining from saying a word of what was 
told to them, shews that they felt and acted under 
that obligation which I have before mentioned. 
With much respect, 
I am, Dear Sir, 

Year obedient servant, 
JOHN R. B. RODGERS. 

Mr. Jaanes Hardiei Secretary J 
to the iioatU ui Health." $ 

I have been thus particular in communicating all 
the documents, of which I was possessed, either in 
favour of importation or local origin, in order that my 
readers may t lie better be enabled to judge for them- 
selves. In* the case of Mr. Dougherty, however, it 
is necessary to state, that there are two affidavits 
taken before the Mayor; the one by Captain Smith, 
of the ship Endeavour, and the other by Mr. Storey, 
of the firm of Moore and Storey ; both of which are 
to the same purport, viz. that" the said Dougherty 
was down to the quarantine ground on the seven- 
teenth day, previous to his being taken sick; and that 
they had reason to believe that he was on board of no 
vessel whatever, as they saw him at Vanduser's ferry, 
where he continued only for a short time, and went, 



V 

as they supposed, directly to New-York." But it 
C5«a be of HuJfi consequence to ascertain, whether he 
had been on board of any vessel at quarantio • ground 
or not, as the following extract of a letter from 
the Health -Officer, of date Augu>t ?th, in an- 
to one written to hivn by the Score- arv, 
shew that there could be no possibility of contagion 
at the quarantine ground. 

" In answer to yours of yesterday, I have fo say, 
that no case of Yellow Fever has exUted, either at 
the hospital, or on board the snipping at the qua- 
rantine ground, since the 1st of July last,, except 
those sick persons who have been sent from the city 
©f New-York." 

Yv'ith respect to the case of Mr. Stay ley and j 
men who were taken sick at 'his his house, it appears 
difficult to assign any probable cause. The different 
physicians who visited thern, previous to their being 
sent down to Staten-Island, perceived no nuisance of 
any kind, which could possibly be supposed to have 
engendered a pestilential disorder. Biif as it was 
deter. nined to use every precaution, Mibbron and 
Aylesbury, the first two patients, were no sooner 
removed than, as has already been observed, their 
bedding and wearing apparel were destroyed, and 
the apartment in which they had lain, as well as 
those adjoining to it, were thoroughly cleansed and 
white-washed. The same process was likewise re- 
peated, at the time Kirkwood was reur\ed. The 
yard and all the adjoining premises, were examined 
by me with the greatest care , but nothing was dis- 
covered, which could, in the least, be siispected to 
be the cause of so dreadful a malady. It had, indeed, 
been said, that a privy situated directly under the 
window of the room, in which Mr. Stayley common- 
ly sat, emitted a very oilensive smell ; but upon exa- 
mination, it appeared, thai it was at the distance of 



76 

at least six feet from the window, that it was very 
deep, and that it was kept as clean as any in the city; 
besides, the hostler who first got sick, resided in a 
part of the house, the most remote from this privy. 
It cannot, therefore, be well supposed, that there was 
in it any cause of disease. 

That there may, however,* have been some reason 
of complaint, with respect to the premises, a short 
.time before the evil commenced, although, most pro- 
bably, not sufficient to have excited it, appears from 
the affidavit of a very respectable gentleman of this 
city, who deposes as follows : 

City of New-York, ss. 

Nathaniel Prime deposes, Cf that he recently 
kept his carriage at Mr. Stayley's livery-stable ; that 
in passing to it some short time before the men took 
sick, who were removed to the quarantine ground, 
he experienced a very disagreeable smell, which the 
deponent supposed to proceed, either from Mr. Stay- 
lev's or Mr. Cheetham's possessions, and Which he 
ascribed to some old privy, the smell of which was 
probably excited by the removal of rubbish, as the 
Vard, at that time, was undergoing a repair. 

NATHANIEL PRIME. 

Sworn '29th August, IS 05, before > 

Those acquainted with Mr. Prime will, no doubt, 
place the fullest confidence in the truth of his depo- 
skfti. Still, however, there is reason to believe, 
thai though an offensive smell might have been emit- 
M -A from some old privy, either in Mr. Cheetham's 
or Mr. Stay ley's yard, it could not, with propriety, 
have been considered as the cause of fever. Indeed, 
if the privy alluded to, can be supposed to have oc- 
casioned so great an evil, why, it may be asked, were 
not some persons taken sick in Mr. Cheetham's, to 



77 

whose house the privy was more contiguous? But, 
in the house of this gentleman, every one enjoyed 
good health, whilst in Mr, Stay ley's, the case was 
widely different. To this source, thereibre, the evil 
cannot, with propriety, be attributed. 

■ 

There are also two depositions sworn to before his 
Honour the Mayor; the one by Mr. John Hyde, de- 
ceased, late keeper of the Toutine Coifee House, 
dated the ith of August, 1805; the other by Mrs. Ca- 
therine Stayiey, widow cf the late Mr. Andrew Stay- 
ley, dated the 5th of September, ISO J. Although the 
substance of these depositions might be summed up 
in a very few words, yet, that there may be no room 
for an accusation of partiality to either of the theo- 
rists respecting the origin of Malignant Fever, I ha/e 
deemed it most correct to give them at length. 

" John Hyde, keeper of the Tontine CofTee- 
House, deposes, that Andrew Stayiey formerly lived 
in his employ as hostler; that the deponent went to 
Stayiey 's, the day after Hibbron, who lately died at 
the quarantine ground, was removed there, and en- 
quired of him, the circumstances of Hibbron's case; 
that Stayiey told the deponent, that Hibbron had 
been out an eveningor two before he was taken sick, 
and had come, at a very late hour, rather in liquor; 
that he (Stayiey) desired him to go to bed, and that 
Hibbron told him he had been on bfrard some vessel, 
and had bought an English sheep ; but that the sheep 
was never brought home, owing, as Stayiey supposed, 
to Hibbron's sickness ; that Stayiey also told '-the de- 
ponent, that this was the first time that he knew of, 
that Hibbron had been out of the yard. 

JOHN HYDE. 

'worn the 5th of August, 1805,) 
before De Witt Clinton." j 

" Catherine Stayiey, widow of the late Andrew 
Stayiey, livery-stabler, Maiden-lane, being duly 



78 

sworn, doth depose and say, that William Aylesbury 
told this deponent, that Christopher Hibbron, in his 
dying moments,had declared,that he was very sorry, 
he had told Mr. Stayley, that he had not been 
on board of any vessel; for that he had staid part of 
a night on board of a vessel at or near Long-Island, 
about eight days previous to his being taken sick ; 
and further this deponent saith not. 

CATHERINE STAYLEY. 

Sworn the 5th September, 1S05, > 
before De Witt Clinton." C 



But although from the two last affidavits, it ap- 
pears more than probable, that Hibbron had been on 
board of an English ship, yet there are few people 
who will suppose, that Yellow Fever could be brought 
to this country from that quarter. The truth is, it 
appears impracticable to assign any satisfactory rea- 
son for the diseases of Stayley ' and the hostlers who 
resided with him, unless we suppose, that,as they had 
lately come to this country, they had not as yet be- 
come sufficiently inured to the climate, to support the 
intense heat of an American summer • and that they 
had been imprudent in exposing themselves to the 
night air. 

Various cases of Malignant Fever were reported 
*by gentlemen, who believe in its local origin, during 
the latter part of August, and the beginning of Sep- 
tember s but by those medical gentlemen who believe 
in its importation, they were, in general.supposed to 
be only the common Bilious Fever of the country. 

To fgive the advocates of both theories an 
equal chance, the Board of Health, on the 4th of 
September, f < Besolved, that when any case of Ma- 
lignant Fever shall be reported by medical gentle- 
men, who believe in the domestic origin of that dis- 
ease, it shall be the duty of the Secretary to call upon 
some of those gentlemen, who espouse a different 



79 

theory, and that the physicians so employed, shall be 
paid by this board, and give their opinions in writing." 

In consequence of the preceding resolution, the 
Secretary applied to Dr. Hosack. The following 
letters from that gentleman, will shew the proceed- 
ings which took place in consequence thereof. 

" New-York, September 5th, 1805. 
" Dear Sir, 

" Yesterday, at the request of the Board of Health, 
conveyed to me by the secretary, I visited John Pel- 
sue, No. 4, Church-street. His symptoms appear 
to me to be those of the last stage of the Yellow Fe- 
ver. His short illness, and the manner of his attack, 
as related to me by his mother, also serve to confirm 
me in that opinion. His removal to the quarantine 
ground* will, I believe, afford him the best chance 
of recovery, and as it regards the health of our city, 
will certainly be a proper measure. 

I am, Sir, respectfully your's, &c. 

The Hon. De Witt Clinton." 

" New-Fork, September 6th, 1805. 

<c Dear Sir, 

a Accompanied by Mr. Hardie, I visited, this 
morning, the following persons. 

Patrick M. Loyre, in Thomas-street. 

Air. Davis, 128 Front-street. 

Alexander Addison, 132 Front-street. 

* In consequence of the above recommendation, an oi\.'er was made 
•ut for his removal ; but his mother being very unwilling, and it appear- 
ing to the Secretary, that his dissolution was near at hand, it was not 
executed. He died next day, and it is evident that no evil resulted from 
his being permitted to remain, as every one of those who attended him, 
or were anywise connected with him, continued, throughout the whole 
season, to lie exempt from any thing resembling Pestilential Fever. 



so 

if r. Dooly, 1 3 Water-street, and 
Mrs. Daly, in Pine-street. 

€c I also called in Augustus-street, with the inten- 
tion to visit Mr. Brannon, but learned that he was 
dead. Jo the first five of the above, I cannot per- 
ceive any of the characteristic symptoms of the Yel- 
low Fever. On the contrary, I trust the greater part 
of them, if not all, will recover with ordinary care and 
attention. Brapnon being dead, I did not see him. 
This suggests to me the propriety of the board re- 
questing physicians to report their cases of Yellow 
Fever, in the early stage of the disease, and not to 
defer their reports until the patients are so far ad- 
vanced, that they are unable to answer those qe.es- 
iious, which are necessary in the investigation of 
their complaints; and I believe it will not be denied, 
that in the J/rs/ stage of the Yellow Fever, its pecu- 
liar characters are as strongly designated as in the 
last stage. I cannot but suspect, that many cases of 
the common Bilious Fever of our country, have been 
re .ted as ceases of Yellow Fever, in consequence 
of the resemblance which exists in the last stage of 
most fevers at this season of the year. To distinguish 
them, n is necessary to see them in the early as well 
as in the last stage. I will be glad if the board will 
direct, that in any cases which they may wish me to 
visit, that I may see them as early as possible. 
I am, respectfully your's, 

DAVID HOSACK. 

The Hon. De Witt Clinton." 

<c Neiv-York, September $th, 1805. 

" Dear Sir, 

" In consequence of your note of yesterday, I 
called upon Dr. Servant, who "had reported Mr. Pas- 
chal Smith, as ili of Malignant Fever. He inform- 
ed me, that Mr. Smith's disease manifests the cha- 
racteristic symptoms of the Yellow Fever. 



81 

u Nancy Ellis died this morning: not having it 
in my power to visit her last evening, I did not see 
her. 

u Mr. Taylor, at 46 Cedar-street, is, in my opin- 
ion, in the last stage of the most malignant form of 
Yellow Fever. Ihe disease of Mr. Long, in Ry- 
der-street, I also believe to be of the same sort, but 
in a less violent degree. 

" The existence of this disease in our city, being 
now ascertained by physicians who hold opposite o- 
pinions relative to the origin of yellow fever, and as 
it was the object of the board, in requesting me to 
visit some of the cases reported, to give an equal 
opportunity to the advocates of both doctrines, to 
ascertain the existence of this peculiar fever, I pre- 
sume the board will now think it unnecessary for 
me to visit any more of those cases, which may 
hereafter be reported. 

I am, Sir, 

With regard, your's, 

DAVID HOSACK. 

John M. Pintard, Member of > 
the Board of Health." j 

At a meeting of the Board of Health, on the 6th 
of September, the following interesting communica- 
tion was received from Dr. Sir James Jay. 

" Nezv-York, September 5th, ] 805. 

" Sir, 

M The inclosed piece is written by a man, who is 
an impartial spectator of the scene going on among 
the faculty. Should the hints and observations it 
contains, contribute in the least to elucidate the con- 
troversy, and pave the way to truth, he will not re* 

h 



gret the trouble of -writing it. You are at liberty to 
make what use of it .you may think proper. 
I remain, Sir, 

Your very humble servant, 

JAMES JAY. 
De Witt Clinton, Esq." 

" When different opinions are entertained on a 
leal subject, and both parties. pretend to found 
their system on facts, it is obviofifs,that the first step 
to be taken towards a true decision, is accurately to 
ascertain the principal facts on which a solid and con- 
clusive judgment can be formed. Could this be done 
in the case of Yellow fever, in such a way, that men 
cf tolerable education and common sense, who are 
net of the profession, could easily see into the merits 
of the dispute, and form a rational and solid judgment 
on the subject, it would, I presume, afford considera- 
ble satisfaction, and be of no less utility. 

" This, I think, might be effected in a great de- 
gree, were some such mode of proceeding as the fol- 
lowing to be adopted. Desire the leaders of each 
party to give you, in writings an accurate history or 
description of Yellow Fever, mentioning particularly 
the peculiar symptoms attending its commencement, 
progress and termination, which distinguish Yellow 
Fever from any other fever. These descriptions of 
Yellow Fever will be a kind of standard for you and 
other gentlemen to judge by, of all doubtful cases that 
may subsequently occur. When you have obtained 
such a history from each party, whenever a suspici- 
ous case appears, let a physician of each party visit 
the patient, and if they disagree as to the disorder, 
let them give you an account of the symptoms at- 
tending the case ; from whence, by comparing it with 
the standard, you may be able to judge whether it 
is Yellow Fever or not ; and whether the sick person 
should be removed or not, to the Marine Hospital. 



83 

In the execution of this plan, it is probable that a 
good deal of reasoning may be offered by the parties, 
in support of their respective opinions ; but as all rea- 
soning on the subject, that is not founded on char, 
indisputable facts, tends rather to confound and ob- 
scure, than to elucidate the subject, S r will deserve 
no further attention than politeness dictates. Hip- 
pocrates, who wrote above two thousand years ago, 
was so sensible of the insufficiency of speculative opi- 
nions, that he declared, ' no benefit is to be del I 
in medicine, from mere reasoning, but from such as 
is demonstrated by experience to be true; for un- 
founded assertions, however strongly urged, with a 
profusion of words, are fallacious, and lead to error.' 

" Lest these reflections should appear illiberal, it 
becomes necessary to unfold, in some measure, the 
weakness of the profession. It is to be regretted, 
but it is nevertheless true, that an unhappy fatality 
has generally attended the science of medicine, which 
incited its professors, even the most learned of them, 
to dispute warmly about matters, which an unlet- 
tered man, of common sense, would think could be 
determined by plain experiments. For instance, it 
is reasonable to think, that were the same medicine 
to be given in similar cases, it would uniformly pro- 
duce similar effects, and impress every person with 
the same idea of its good or bad qualities; and that 
to ascertain its merits or demerits, nothing need be 
done but to give it a fair and accurate trial. Yet the 
utility of the bark, mercury and antimony, all excel- 
lent medicines, was contested many years, in the 
most enlightened parts of Europe. So true is the 
observation of Galen, ' that erroneous opinions, when 
they prepossess the minds of men, not only ren- 
der them deaf but blind, so that they cannot see what 
appears plain to other people/ And a little further 
he adds, * physicians seldom agree on medical sub- 
jects; they not only differ, but maintain the most 



84 

contradictory opinions.' The late learned and cele- 
brated Doctor Huxham pbserves, ' that from the days 
of" Galen, and indeed long before, vain hypothesis, 
the love of novelty, the fashion and faction of physic, 
too often led its professors devious, and attached them 
to error; and it is too well known, the same misfor- 
tunes still attend us/ It may with truth be added, 
that while physicians pursued a vain, delusive theory 
hi treating the Small-pox, they rendered that de- 
structive disease still more fatal. When they conde- 
scended to observe and follow nature, they then, and 
not till then, began to be of service to mankind in 
that distemper. 

" This little sketch of medical history, by shewing 
what lengths physicians have gone in support of a 
favorite theory, and the ill consequences resulting 
from such a procedure, will render men of sense cau- 
tious of adopting the opinion of any physician on a 
controverted point. It likewise strengthens what 
has been said above, that the only sure way to arrive 
at truth in the present case, is by adhering closely to 
an accurate enquiry into facts, till a sufficient collec- 
tion of them shall be obtained, to enable a man of 
common education and understanding, to form a just 
opinion on the subject. 

" To shew how cautious we ought to be in sending 
sick persons to the Marine Hospital, I shall make a 
few observations, which evince that the utmost cir- 
cumspection should be used on those occasions. The 
many instances of the amazing influence of the mind 
on the body, which are recorded by historians as 
well as physicians, prove that the passions and affec- 
tions of the mind, are among the most powerful and 
active instruments that can be emploj'ed for the de- 
struction or preservation of the body. Sudden joy, 
grief and fright, have occasioned immediate death. 
The fire of ambition^ confidence, faith and hope have 



S3 

raised man\ persons from dangerous diseases to 
health and strength. On the other hand, anxiety, 
despair, and fear, not only make men more suscepti- 
ble of contagion, but have brought, on infirmities of 
the worst kind; and have even rendered diseases 
mortal; where no danger was otherwise to be ap- 
prehended. Thus, many people, who were long 
impressed with a belief that they would die with the 
small-pox, have sunk under the disorder before any 
symptom of its virulence appeared. 

" The consideration of the very pernicious influence 
of the mind, on people in general, in a place where 
contagion really does or is supposed to exist, and the 
frequent unfounded reports of yellow fever that are 
spread in this city, excite a wish that some steps were 
taken to prevent our citizens from crediting any ac- 
count of cases of yellow fever, except such as may be 
published by the Board of Health. 

" Let me now ask, whether it is not reasonable to 
think, if a person should be attacked with a common 
fever, and should apprehend it to be yellow i'evei^ 
that such an idea would endanger his recovery, and 
much more so, if his physician should adopt the same 
injurious opinion ? Still more dangerous w r ould such 
an idea be likely to prove, were persons in a com- 
mon fever, but in that unhappy state of mind, to be 
sent from their friends and family to the marine hos- 
pital, under a positive declaration that they had yel- 
low fever . The safety of the city is certainly not to 
be risked for the sake of any individual : but per- 
haps it would not be improper, nor paying too great 
a tribute to humanity, if a suspicious case should not 
be precipitately sent to the hospital, nor until a phy- 
sician of each party had examined the patient, and 
accurately reported his case to the Board of Health. 
This city and the neighbouring country, have tor a 
long period of time, been annually visited, at this 



8f> 

season, with bilious fever, a disease which is neither 
dangerous, 'nor difficult of cure; unless the case has 
been neglected or injudiciously treated. Yet this 
fever, th oigh distinct from yellow fever, sometimes 
assumes appearances which might induce an incau- 
tious observer to pronounce it yellow fever. And 
that such mistakes have been committed, I' conclude, 
not only from the cases which I have seen, but from 
this remarkable circumstance, that in the reports of 
deaths and new cases, published by authority during 
the yellow fever of 1803, there is not a single instance 
of a person's being taken ill or having died of bili- 
ous fever. This omission is very extraordinary, and 
can only be accounted for on the principle that bili- 
ous fever, in all cases of it, at the time, was mistaken 
for yellow fever. 

" Notwithstanding the partiality of medical men to 
their own opinions aha tneories, it is to be hoped 
that the gentlemen of the profession in this city, will 
become impressed with the importance of rescuing 
our country from the dread and ravages of Yellow 
Fever. On this consideration, they will undoubt- 
edly lay aside all prejudices, and cordially unite in 
investigating the nature of the disease, and in endea- 
vouring to discover a method of rendering it less dan- 
gerous and destructive. Nor should they despair of 
effecting those desirable ends. The Small-pox, for 
a great length of time, was as fatal to mankind, as 
Yellow Fever is at present. Science at length found 
but a way to overcome its virulence, and it is no 
longer the dread and scourge of nations. And why 
may we not indulge the pleasing thought, that sci- 
ence may be equally successful in subduing the Yel- 
low Fever : and that our American physicians may 
have the honour of accomplishing the great work? 
Their liberal and spirited exertions in so laudable an 
attempt, would, in any event, insure them the grati- 
tude of their fellow citizens : and should they succeed, 



S7 

they will do honour to their profession and them- 
selves, enjoy the satisfaction of imparting health and 
happiness to their country, and be ever ranked among 
the benefactors of mankind." 

In order, that I might exhibit, at one view, the 
opinions of different physicians respecting the ori- 
gin and existence of malignant fever in the city, I 
have deviated considerably trom chronological or- 
der. I now return to the proceedings of the board* 
towards the end of July. 

On.the 2yth of that month, the following report 
was published : — 

TO THE PUBLIC. 

Inconsequence of alarming reports of malignant 
cases of fever having occurred in this city, the 
Board of Health think it proper to state, that an 
unusual degree of health at present prevails, and 
that no case of malignant fever, so far as they know, 
now exists in New-York. A few cases of unfa- 
vorable appearance were observed a few days ago ; 
but the sick were removed to the marine hospital, 
and every precaution was taken to guard against 
any farther evil. The constant vigilance exercised 
at the quarantine establishment, the incessant at- 
tention to the removal of nuisances in the city and 
the present favorable state of the weather, all en- 
courage a reasonable hope, that the season will pass 
away, without any malignant epidemic. The Board 
pledge themselves to their fellow-citizens to give ear- 
ly and wire seized notice of danger, if any should 
occur. By the unanimous order of the board of 
health. 

DE WITT CLINTON, President. 
James Hardie, Sec'ry. 

Office of the Board of Health, > 

New-York, July 27th, 1805.") 



S8 

On the 29th of July,in consequence, not only of 
private letters, but of the affidavits of different mas- 
ters of vessels, that a pestilential disease prevailed 
at Providence, in Rhode-Island, his Honour the 
Mayor, in pursuance of the advice of the Board of 
Heahh,issued a proclamation,directing "that all ves- 
sels which might arrive at this port from Providence, 
should be subject to quarantine of course, and that 
no person should be permitted to enter the city and 
county of New- York, who had been within the said 
town of Providence, within fourteen days, next pre- 
ceding his or her arrival, in the said citv and countv 
of New- York." 

On the same day (29th July) the following pro- 
clamation was, likewise, published. 

PROCLAMATION 

BY THE B©ARD OF HEALTH OF THE CITY OF NEW-YORK. 

" Whereas, from a proclamation of the Board of 
Health of the city of Philadelphia, dated the 25th of 
this month, it appears, that Ludowick Brode, mate, 
and William Cross, seaman, of the brig Ann-Jane, 
had made their escape from the Lazaretto of the said 
city, and that it was supposed, that one of them in- 
tended to proceed to the city of New- York. In or- 
der, therefore, to enforce as far as practicable, on the 
part of this board, the health laws of Pennsylvania, 
as zvell as to deter infected persons from coming into 
this place, an additional reward of fifty dollars is here- 
by offered, for the apprehension of either of the said 
persons, within the bounds of the city and county 
of New-York. 

In behalf and by order of the Board of Health, 
DE WITT CLINTON, President. 

James Hardie, Sec ry." 



8§ 

On the 5th of August, the following report was 
published. 

"Since the last address of this board, a case of 
Malignant Fever has occurred at No. 12? Water- 
street, and a Mr. James Dougherty, who was the 
subject, was removed to the Marine Hospital, on the 
30th ult. and died on the evening of that day. 

<c It is scarcely necessary to mention, that all pro- 
per precautionary measures were immediately adopt- 
ed by the Board of Health, who can confidently as- 
sure their fellow citizens, that no case of Malignant 
Fever exists in the city, and that there is nothing, in 
the state of the public health, that ought to create 
apprehension or alarm. 

By order of the Board of Health, 
DE WITT CLINTON, President. 

James Hardie, Sec'ry. 

Office of the Board of Health, ) 
5th August, 1805." $ 

On the 18th of August, the Mayor of this city hav- 
ing received information from the Mayor and Board 
of Health of New-Haven, that that city was restored 
to its usual health, issued a proclamation revoking 
the one of the 26th of July, and authorizing the re- 
newal of the customary intercourse between that city 
and ours. 

On the 29th of August, the following report was 
published by the board. 

" The Board of Health are happy to congratulate 
their fellow citizens on the present favourable state 
of the health of the city. 

" The drought, which has hitherto been so long 
and severe is, at length, mitigated by temperate 

M 



90 

showers. A si >h of rainy weather may reason- 

ably be expected. The consequent change from an 
extreme dry, to a humid atmosphere, may prove very 
Unfavourable, unless every mean be used to ventilate 
and purify cellars in the lower parts of the city. The 
board, therefore, recommend the utmost attention to 
this important subject, and confidently hope, that a 
vigorous perseverance, for a few weeks longer, in the 
precautionary measures hitherto pursued, will, under 
the smiles of Providence, avert every cause of danger. 
Bv order of the Board, 
DE WITT CLINTON, President. 
James Hardie, Sec'ry. ,> 

The following is a copy of the next report which 
was issued by the board, viz. on the Cih of Septem- 
ber, by which it will appear, that the pleasing pn &- 
pect which had been entertained oh i. ^ of 

August, were far fr< ig realiz. 

" Cue Board of Health, 

iSeplanbcr S, 1605, 

" Since the last reporl 

ith respect 1 altiipf'th.^city, td jus- 

tify ah/ . which ] 

n (1, the hoard have been assiduou Joyed, not 

only in executing the pi ►nary powers deposited 

in their hands, but in obtaining as accurate an account 
as possible, of the true state of the general health. 

" In the conflict of opinion, it is extremely difficult 
to arrive at the truth, but the board submit the fol- 
lowing as the result of their enquiries. Ten cases of 
Malignant Fever have occurred since Monday last ; 
five cases of a doubtful nature, some of which have 
been removed into the country or Marine Hospital, 
and four deaths. 



91 

<* Popular rumour has vastly exaggerated the 
number of cases, wherel lue alarm has been 

cited. The board are extremely anxious to impress 
on their fellow -citizens, the imp of giving 

credit to unauthehticated l rest j 

assured, that as long as the present 
state of the public health continues, a candid, undis- 
guised account of the real situation oi . shall 
be regularly published. 

" Considerable anxiety h.as prevailed respecting 
the power of the board, to remove persons sick of 
Malignant Fever. This power, which has been le- 
gally invested in the board, and which has for a lev 
time, been exercised by the Commissioners of t 
Health-Office has, in even' instance, been used with 
the utmost delicacy and discretion. Of those patients 
who were citizens, it has been left entirely at their 
option, to provide retreats. Others, who have been 
removed to the Marine Hospital, were mos an- 

gers, friendless and without families, and have be 
provided with every comfort and convenience. Should 
the fever continue to prevail, Bellevue Hospital will 
be opened. The buildings belonging to this estab- 
lishment have been recently repaired, with cousid 
able improvements, and every accommodation hi 
been liberally provided for the si 

** The part of the city which, at present, appears 
to be the principal seat of the disease, is Water am 
Front-streets, between the Fly-Market and Old-si*^ 
By order of the Board of Health, 
DE WITT CLINTON, President, 
James IIardie, See'ry." 

On the same day, the City-Inspectoi's Office was 
moved from the Federal-Hat! to the Office of the 

Board pf Health, corner of Chamber-street and Broad- 
way, where that gentleman, except between nine 



92 

and eleven o'clock in the morning, when he went 
daily to visit the Hospital at Bellevue, constantly at- 
tended, during the whole time of the sickness, from 
six o'clock in the morning, until nine at night. About 
this time also, the Banks, the Custom-House, the 
Post-Office, and the printers of the Daily News-pa- 
pers in general, moved their respective offices to the 
village of Greenwich, to which place also, a number of 
our most respectable merchants and others resorted. 

On the 8th of September, the Board of Health re- 
solved, that for the accommodation of poor patients, 
Bellevue Hospital should be opened. At the same 
time, Doctor Richard L. Walker was appointed as 
visiting physician, at the aforesaid hospital, Dr. Elias 
"Winfield as the resident physician, and Drs. M'Lean, 
Buchannan, Huyler and Kunzie, as physicians to at- 
tend the sick poor in the city. It was also resolved, 
that from henceforth, during the prevalence of the 
sickness, the board should meet daily. 

On the 10th day of September, the board reported 
twenty-nine cases of Malignant Fever and three 
deaths. They, at the same time, published the fol- 
lowing address. 

" Office of the Board of Health, 

September \0tk, 1805. 

" The Board of Health being extremely anxious 
to be informed of the precise state of the prevalent 
disease, they therefore request physicians to be 
prompt and accurate in making the returns required 
by law. The power of removal, which has been 
vested in them, will only be exercised in cases of 
transient persons, abandoned and without the means 
of support. The disease being unquestionably pre- 
valent, those measures which the public safety might 
have inperiously commanded, at its commencement, 



93 

are now in some measure unnecessary, from the con- 
viction, that the exercise of them in the unhealthy 
parts of the city, will be of little or no use. 

" The Common Council have, at their last meet- 
ing, entrusted, during the recess, thesuperintendance 
of the Fire and Watch Departments to this board. 
It is scarcely necessary to mention, that the city is, 
at this period, greatly exposed to danger, which might 
be prevented or obviated by a faithful and vigilant 
performance of the duties of the firemen and watch- 
men. The board have no reason to doubt the zeal 
and fidelity of their fellow-citizens attached to these 
departments. On the contrary they are persuaded, 
that their attention to their duties will be proportion- 
ed to the emergencies, which demand a faithful exe- 
cution of them. The citizens, who remove, are re- 
quested to send their tire-buckets to the City Hall 
or Bridewell, for which the corporation will be re- 
sponsible. The captains of the watch will make im- 
mediate reports of all delinquents, and the board w r ill 
not forget, at a suitable time, those men, who dis- 
tinguish themselves, by their meritorious exertions. 
The Board call upon all the officers of the city to ex- 
ert themselves upon this occasion*, and they earn- 
estly recommend to their fellow-citizens, in general, 
to lay aside any differences or animosities, at this sea- 
son of common calamity, and to unite with them in 
endeavouring to alleviate the evils, with which we 
are visited. 

Bv order of the Board of Health, 

DE WITT CLINTON, President, 
JOHN PINTARD, City-Inspector." 

* It is a circumstance, which certainly reflects the highest honour, not 
only upon the Board of Health, the Police Justices, and the officers em- 
ployed in different departments under the Corporation, but also upon 
theVitizens at huge, that, although the lower part of the city was, in a 
great measure, evacuated, no robbery, burglary, or lire, worthy of no- 
lice, occurred during this season of calamity. 



34 

On the ISth September the Board published the 
following address : 

" The Board of Health have made a considerable 
augmentation of the watch in the exposed parts of 
the city, and will not fail to make further arrange- 
ments from time to time as Ihe public exigencies may 
require. 

" They have also given special di rections for the 
preservation of the city against fire. They, therefore, 
trust, that their fellow-citizens will feel perfectly sa- 
tisfied, that every possible precaution has been a- 
dopted for the public security. The great amount 
of property, at present in the village of Greenwich 
stored in wooden buildings is exposed to considera- 
ble hazard from fire. 

cc The fire wardens of the eighth ward are especial- 
ly enjoined to use every precautionary measure, with 
the utmost promptitude and vigilance and report to 
this board. 

" Physicians have been engaged to attend the in- 
digent sick. 

DE WITT CLINTON, Presfdent. 
James Hardie, Secretary. " 

On the same day directions were given to Mr. 
Brown, chief engineer of the fire department to pro- 
vide an extra fire engine for the security of persons 
and property in the village of Greenwich, and the 
order was executed with a promptitude highly cre- 
ditable to that gentleman. A fire company was 
also immediately organized to take charge of it. 

On the 13th of September, directions were given 
.to the Secretary to endeavour to persuade as many 
persons as possible, who lived in the infected part of 



95 

the city to more to the country ; and on the 1 4th tL i 
following address was published by the Board : J\ 

" The Board have formed a decided opinion, that 
the principal seat of the prevailing disease is that part 
of the city included between Burling-slip and Old- 
slip as far west as Pearl-street. Almost ail the cases 
of disease, which have occurred^ can be distinctly 
traced to a communication with that part of the city. 
It is matter of extreme regret, that the repeated ad- 
monitions of the board, to remove from this quarter 
have been disregarded by a number of individuals, 
who have remained the self-devoted victims of d; 
ease and death. They conceive it their duty again 
to enjoin it upon their fellow-citizens, who have con- 
tinued there, to remove immediately. To obviat 
every plea of necessity, and to discharge the duties 
they owe to humanity, the board have erected build- 
ings for the reception and accommodation of the in- 
digent, at Bellevue gate, where they will be supplied 
with provisions by the Commissioners oftheAhns- 
House. Such as are able to remove without assist- 
ance, are enjoined to go into the country, and n 
into flie healthy parts of the city. The board wili 
consider it their duty to interpose and prevent sue 
removals, which have excited the apprehension of a 
number of wort by citizens, who regard their health, as 
thereby exposed to imminent danger.* Persons have 
been engaged in these practices, who ought to know 
better, and who, unless their conduct be changed, 
will become the objects of severe reprehension and 
public indignation. All persons who do not comply 
forthwith, with this advice of the board, to remove 
from the above described part of the city, which is 
— \ . 

* This alludes to two gentlemen who reside in healthy parts of the 
city, each of whom had taken a sick person into his house, from places E 
deemed infected. One of these died ; but it is a fact, that no individual 
in either family sickened in consequence thereof. All the neighbours, 
likewise, continued to enjoy good health. 



9« 

deemed the principal seat of the disease, and which 
does not contain more than_33ja.Qres, will be consi- 
dered guilty of a wanton exposure of their lives, and 
will justify the board in resorting to compulsory mea- 
sures. 

By order of the Board of Health, 
DE WITT CLINTON, President. 
James Haroie, Sec'ry." 

At the same time directions were again given to 
the Secretary, to attempt to persuade as many peo- 
ple as he possibly could, to remove from the infected 
part of the city to retreats of their own choice, if they 
were in sufficient circumstances to maintain them- 
selves; if not, to advise them to remove to the new 
buildings at Bellevue gate. In consequence of which, 
the householders residing in the parts alluded to, 
were generally waited upon, and by far the greater 
number left the city. About this time, likewise, se- 
veral cases of the disease made their appearance in 
Rider-street and Eden's-alley. The buildings there 
are small, and much crowded ; the street narrow and 
confined ; and the greater part of the people poor, 
and far from being cleanly in their mode of living; 
besides, it was recollected, that in the year 1798, out 
of upwards of thirty families, who then dwelt there, 
no one escaped sickness, and that only two families 
were exempt from death. It therefore became pe- 
culiarly desirable, that as many of them as possible 
should be induced to more ; and in the space of a 
day or two, almost the whole of the inhabitants were 
lodged at Bellevue gate, and such were the accom- 
modations and treatment which they received, that 
many of those, who were with difficulty persuaded to 
go thither, have afterwards returned their most grate- 
ful acknowledgments. The number provided for at 
this asylum, amounted to one hundred and fifty men, 
women and children ; of whom, about thirty men 
were employed in working on the middle road lead- 



97 

iug through the property belonging to the corpora- 
tion, whose wages tended to lessen the expence in- 
curred for the maintenance of their families. The 
good order and regularity observed amongst these 
people, was extremely gratifying to all who visited 
them. None seemed discontented, but, on the other 
hand, they were friendly to each other, and seemed 
perfectly happy. This was, no doubt, in a great 
measure, owing to the superintendant, Mr. Richard 
Nixon, whose prudent and conciliatory mariners, had 
the most happy effect in keeping up that harmony, 
which was so eminently conspicuous. 

But whilst I record with pleasure the utility of the 
establishment at Bellevue gate, it would be highly 
improper to omit to mention the philanthropy of a 
private individual, whose examplej it is devoutly to 
be wished, may, at future periods of pestilential dis- 
ease, if such should unfortunately happen, be 
followed by other wealthy landlords of this city. The 
gentleman to whom I allude, is Mr. Patrick M'." 
a native of Ireland, who resides in Augustus-Street, 
in which he has a number of houses. Several cases 
of the disease had occurred in that street, and some 
deaths. Mr. M c Koy deemed it advisable to move 
with his family to a house, which he had lately built, 
at the intersection of the Bowery and Bellevue roads; 
but his humanity would not permit him to over 
the perilous situation of his poor tenants. He, with 
the greatest possible dispatch, had buildings erected 
for their accommodation near to his own house, to 
which there removed upwards of one hundred per- 
sons, men, women and children. I have, with 
most heart felt satisfaction, visited these people, a- 
mongst whom was observed the same good order and 
decorum to exist, as amongst those at the Belle vue- 
gate. By the humanity of the Corporation in the 
first of these instances, and of Mr. M'Koy in the 
second, there can be no doubt, that many of those 

N 



people are now in good health, who would otherwise 
have been numbered amongst the dead. 

I now proceed to the further transactions of the 
Board of Health. From the middle of September 
till the 1st of October, nothing very remarkable oc- 
curred before that body, except their unremitting 
care to relieve the exigencies of the poor, to mitigate 
the sorrows of the sick and afflicted, and to provide 
&r the general safety of the public. It, likewise, re- 
l much attention and was fraught with consi- 
derable expenees to supply suitable nurses for the 
sick poor. The care ot this department was, in a 
great measure, invested in an officer of the Board, 
whose duty it was, not only to procure nurses, but, 
from day to day, to visit the families in which they 
were, to examine into their conduct, and in case of 
improper behaviour on their pari, to remove them and 
substitute others. He was, likewise, from time to 
time, furnished with small sums of money for the oc- 
casional relief of such families. 

About this time, hhe reports had been 
spread abroad in the country, announcing the 
breaking up of several warehouses, &c. in the city. 
To obviate unnecessary alarm on this subject, the 
following address was published, on the 1st of Oct. 
" Unfounded reports having been propagated tend- 
ing to alarm the apprehensions of our absent fellow- 
citizens, that several ware- houses and dwelling-houses 
have been broken open, the Board consider it proper 
to declare, that no such occurrence, to their know- 
>, has happened. On the contrary, the vigi- 
lance of the watchmen, through every part of the 
city, especially in the lower parts is such that no 
attempt of the kind can be made without immediate 
detection. Our fellow-citizens may, therefore, rest 
perfectly satisfied, that as far as depends on this 
board and the departments under them, the safety 
and the tranquillity of the city will be secure." 



99 

On the 1 Jth of October, although the number of 
deaths had considerably diminished, yet the board 
thought it proper " to advise those of their fellow- 
citizens, who had removed into the country against 
returning, especially to tfe lower part of the clr , 
until notice be given that they may do the same with * 
safety/' It was also recommended to cause ail houses 
and apartments that have been shut up for some time 
past to be well aired before they are re-inhabit- 

On Fridaj E October, 12 o'clock, the 

following add reW ~v reed to. " The Board 

of Health have the satisfaction to announce to 
their fellow-citizens, that, in their opinion, every 
reasonable cause of danger from malignant fever has 
ceased, and that they may return to iheir respective 
homes with every probability of perfect safety. The 
Board recommend, however, that precautionary mea- 
sures be taken to" ventilate their dwellings. q 
DE WITT CLINTON, Presides 

James Ha r die, See'ry." 

Upon the publication of the above address, those 
of our fellow-citizens, who had upon the approach of 
the disease, fled with precipitation, were no less pre- 
cipitate in their return to their respective habitations, 
so that, in those parts of the city, where even at th 
middle of the day, there was scarcely any thing to be _ 
observed but a dead silence, within a few days t her 
after, the hammer of the mechanic was again heard, 
and all that life,activity and bustle, which is common 
in large and commercial cities was again renewed. 



CHAPTER II. 

OF THE RISE, PROGRESS, AND DECLINE OF THE LATE 
EPIDEMIC. 

THE origin, rise, progress and decline of {he dis- 
; ease has, already been pretty fully recited in the pre- 
ceding chapter, it being deemed more agreeably to 
order, that the narrative of the steps taken by the 
board of Health to prevent the introduction of malig- 
nant fever should be continued, so as to include the 
measures, which they adopted to mitigate its fury. 
Upon mentioning the first causes, which occurred, it, 
likewise, became necessary to communicate the opin- 
ions of various respectable physicians, concerning the 
origin and nature of the disease. Any thing further 
necessary to be said upon that subject may be found 
in the following farewell address of the Board : 

OFFICE OF THE BOARD OF HEALTH. 

November 13, 1805. 

TO THE PUBLIC. 

On the termination of their duties of the late ca- 
lamitous season, the Board of Health consider it no 
more than a becoming mark of respect to their fel- 
low-citizens, to lay t)efore them such facts as may 
illustrate the extent of the distress that has so re- 
cently interested the sensibility, and affected, in a 
greater or less degree, the interests of all descrip- 
tions of the community. 

It is a subject of deep regret, that a collision of 
opinion exists, not only with respect to the origin, 
but also in relation to the nature of the malignant 
disease commonly denominated the yellow fever.... 



101 

While, on the one hand, it is contended that it is 
imported from abroad, and that it is propagated 
contagion, it is on the other hand asserted with equal 
earnestness, that it originates at home, or is gene- I 
rated on board of vessels, which arrive amongst us, I 
and that it is entirely non-contagious. These 
cordant opinions, maintained by medical gentlemen 
of the first respectability and eminence, and which 
enter deeply into the passions as well as the interests 
of the community, must necessarily have an inau- 
spicious influence upon most of the leading mea- 
sures, either of the prevention or remedy, adopted 
by the guardians of the public health. 

The partizans of the opposite theories, aniens 
he heat of debate, and impelled by their differ- 
ent views of the public good, will naturally approve 
or censure the measures proposed to avert or 

this overwhelming calamity, in proportion as 
they corroborate or militate against their favourite 
opinions. Although a man possessed of correct 
views, will proceed in the direct path of duty with- 
out being deterred by censure ; still it cannot be 
controverted, that the support and approbation of 
an intelligent public must animate and encourage 
his exertions. It is not to be denied, that with the 
most upright intentions, and with the most firm de- 
termination, to maintain an impartial official posi- 
tion in the conflict arising from these theories, yet 
that our conduct may sometimes, insensibly and un- 
intentionally, notwithstanding our utmost circum- 
spection, deviate from the strict line of impartiality*, 
That the inconveniences here stated have in some 
measure been felt and observed, is highly probable. 
But we are happy to note that we have received a 
candid and honourable support from our fellow citi- 
zens in general, and composed as the Board is o{ 
persons holding different tenets, yet that our pro- 
ceedings have been governed by a»spirit of harmony 
rarely manifested in public bodies. 



102 

The importance of exploring every source of 
correct information, and the expediency of dispas- 
sionate and ample deliberation, before an official de- 
claration of the prevalence of malignant fever, must 
be obvious to all. The universal alarm excited by 
th'e existence of this disease, the serious injury to the 
commercial and agricultural interests of the commu- 
nity, and the extreme inconvenience to our fellow 
citizens in particular, render it necessary that the 
evil should absolutely prevail before it is acknow- 
ledged. On the other hand, it is due to the health 
as well as the security of the lives of our citizens, to 
apprise them seasonably of the calamity, which men- 
aces them. Circumstanced as the Board were at the 
commencement of the late malignant disease, well 
aware that many of their fellow citizens regarded 
the few cases, which, at that period, had occurred, 
merely as the common bilious feverofthecountry; sen- 
sible of the calamitous consequences, which in either 
case, would result, of announcing the prevalence of 
the fever, if it really did not exist; or or not avowing 
it, if it did 5 anxious to unite public opinion on a 
question so deeply interesting, and with the greatest 
deference and respect to the opinion of the medical 
gentlemen their associates, who early, uniformly and 
decidedly declared the evidence of malignant fever and 
the probability and danger of an impending pesti- 
lential epidemic, the Board considered it their duty 
to avail themselves of the observations and intelli- 
gence of professional gentlemen of different senti- 
ments. Measures were accordingly adopted to 
obtain their information and the result was an ad- 
mission on all sides of the existence of malignant 
fever. 

Although our health laws, in enforcing internal 
cleanliness, and in subjecting vessels entering our 
ports to examination, proceed upon the ground that 
the disease mayt>e either of foreign or domestic 
origin, yet it is evident they recognize, in common 



I OS 

with the health laws of other countries, the doctrine 
of contagion. Under this-impression the Commis- 
sioners of the Health-Office have been authorised, 
almost since their first establishment, to send all 
persons and things infected by, or tainted with pes- 
tilential matter, to the Marine Hospital at Staten- 
Isla-nd. By an act of last session, this Board was 
created, and the Legislature, sensible that the exer- 
cise of the power of removal, in this restricted form 
would be in some cases, extremely inconvenient, 
and in others highly pernicious, invested the Board 
with authority to remove either to the Marine Hos- 
pital or elsewhere. The Board and the Commissi- 
oners of the Health-Office have, consequently, a 
concurrent right to send infected persons and things 
to the Marine Hospital, and the Board, moreover, 
have an exclusive authority to remove them to other 
places. When some solitary cases occurred, the 
I?oard, with a view to arrest the progress of the dis- 
ease, exercised this discretionary power, but only 
with the consent of the parties concerned. After- 
wards, however, when it was ascertained that the 
disease was too firmly rooted, to be eradicated by 
the removal of the sick, the Board considered it ro 
be their duty to discontinue the application of a re- 
medy, at all times extremely irksome and afflicting, 
and which perhaps ought only to be resorted to 
in extreme cases. To the voluntary removal of the 
healthy from the infected parts of the city, the Board 
in a great riegrarc, ascribed the, comparative fewness 
of deaths, which have occurred. In the expediency 
of this step all parties concurred. Whether the dis- 
ease was communicated by the principle of contagi- 
on, or by the influence of an impure atmosphere, the 
danger was equally alarming, and it was equally ex- 
pedient to withdraw from it. 

From the commencement to the final extinction 
•f the late prevailing disease, six hundred Cases of 



Malignant Fever have been reported to the Board. 
Two hundred arid sixty two Deaths, as published in 
the daily Bulletins, including those that happened 
since their discontinuance nave occurred. Sixty 
four patients, moreover, were sent to the Marine 
Hospital, t wenty eight of whom died of malignant 
fever. The total number of patients admitted into 
Bellevue Hospital was owe hundred and seventy -five, 
one hundred and forty-nine of which were cases of 
malignant fever, and twenty-six of other diseases. 
The total number of deaths at the Hospital which 
were included in the bulletins, was sixty-nine, 
■-two of which were by malignant fever, and 
the remaining seventeen by other maladies. The ratio 
of recoveries from malignant fever is very nearly two 
thirds, which considering that a very large propor- 
tion of the patients were received in the last stages 
of disease, and many, of them in the very article of 
death, reflects the highest credit on the practice of 
the visiting and resident physicians cf that establish- 
ment. 

To alleviate as far as possible the miseries of the 
indigent, deprived of all resource for their daily sup- 
port by the general abandonment of the city, the 
doors of the alms house were opened and rations 
issued to sixteen hundred and forty families. An 
asylum was erected on the public grounds adjoining 
Bellevue gate, for the reception of such poor families 
as the Board judged it expedient to remove from 
the seat of disease. Every accommodation was 
afforded to one hundred and fifty persons, men, wo- 
men and children, who were maintained by the pub- 
lic bounty. Of this number thirty men were daily 
employed in improving the middle road, leading 
through the property belonging to the corporation, 
whose wages tended to lessen the expence incurred 
by the support of their families. To improve the 
minds of the children in the asylum, as well as t& 



105 

preserve order and prevent them from becoming 
obnoxious to the neighbourhood, a school was 
opened, which afforded instruction, for the space of 
six weeks, to forty. On the propriety and good con- 
duct of this part of the establishment, the Board will 
long reflect with grateful complacency. 

These various objects,combined with the augmen- 
tation of the city watch, necessarily involved the 
Board in an expenditure of nearly twenty free thou- 
sand dollars, to which it is confidently trusted their 
fellow citizens will submit with that magnanimity, 
which has so peculiarly characterized them, on all si- 
milar occasions. Excepting the solitary contributions 
from Boston, and Richmond, in Virginia, already 
acknowledged, amounting to two hundred and fifty 
dollars* the Board have received no eleemosynary aid 
towards the public exigences. Voluntary assistance 
not being proferred, they did not conceive it just to 
call on their fellow citizens individually — most of 
whom had to struggle with all the inconveniences 
and losses attending removal and the consequent 
derangement of the regular course of business. 

The meetings of the common council being only 
weekly, the peculiar situation of the city, from its ex- 
posure to fire and robbery, in consequence of the eva- 
cuation by its inhabitants, rendered it expedient to 
invest the Board of Health,whosemeetingswere daily 
withasuperintending and controuling power over the 
watchmen and firemen. The board of course paid 
the utmost attention to these departments, and it is 
a circumstance of peculiar felicitation, a fact highly 
honourable to the character of our city, that not a. 

* Of the sum here alluded to, two hundred dollars were transmitted 
from Messieurs James and J. H. Perkins, of Boston, by the hands of 
Messieurs Grant Forbes and Co. of this city ; the other fifty dollars were 
received from a gentleman in Richmond, Virginia, by the hands of 
Messieurs Bailey and Bogert. 



106 

single fire, burglary or robbery of any consequence 
has happened. 

To the fidelity and good conduct of the officers of 
the watch and watchmen ; to the care and precaution 
of the chief engineer, and the indefatigable vigilance 
and attention of the special justices of Police, the 
Board deem it their duty to make the most ample 
acknowledgments. Nor can they omit to mention, 
in terms of the highest approbation, the unremitted 
attention of the City inspector in arranging the busi- 
ness and executing the orders of the Board, in all its 
multifarious details — of the superintendant and com- 
missioners of the Aims-House, in alleviating the dis- 
tress, and administering to the wants of the poor and 
afflicted — of the medical gentlemen attached to and 
employed by the Board, who spared no exertions, 
and who shrunk from no danger in the discharge of 
their hazardous duties— and generally of the officers 
of the city and persons in public employment, with 
whom the Board had official connection, with 
scarcely a single exception. 

The Board will on a future occasion, submit to the 
proper authority, such measures, as, in their opinion, 
may appear necessary to be adopted, in order to pre- 
vent as far as human means extend, a recurrence of 
the calamity recently experienced. In the mean 
time they earnestly solicit a free communication of 
the sentiments of their fellow citizens on this inter- 
esting subject. 

The Board would do injustice to their feelings, did 
they not, on this occasion, recommend in the most 
earnest manner, the destitute widows and orphans 
of the deceased, to the special benevolence and pro- 
tection of their fellow citizens. Nor can they omit, 
in this public manner, to offer up the incense of grate- 
ful hearts to the Sovereign Ruler of the Universe, in 



107 

whose hands are the issues of life and death, for the 
manifestation of his divine mercy and goodness, in 
preserving their health and lives amidst surrounding 
scenes of disease and mortality. 

By order, and in behalf of the Board. 

DE WITT CLINTON, Pres. 
JAMES HARDIE,Sec'ry. 



CHAPTER III. 

AN ACCOUNT OF THE MARINE AND BELLEVUE HOSPITALS, 
WITH THE NUMBER OF PATIENTS RECEIVED, AND DEATHS 
WHICH HAVE OCCURRED, AT EACH OF THESE ESTABLISH- 
MENTS, DURING THE SICKLY SEASON.' 

THE first of these establishments, the Marine 
Hospital, is founded on the eastern pari: of Staten- 
Isiand, on the banks of the river Hudson, in a situa- 
tion as airy and salubrious as any that can well be 
conceived, and having a charming \ lew, not only of 
the city of New- York and the Narrows, but also of 
a large extent of the Long-Island shore. Upon the 
Hospital being opened hero in the year 1799> as 
might reasonably be expected, at the commencement; 
of so important an institution, much remained to be 
done for the comfort and convenience of those for 
whose benefit it was intended. Since that year, how- 
ever, the Commissioners of the Health-Office have 
been annually adding greatly to its improvements, 
though more has been done, in this respect, during 
the last two years, than in any former period of the 
same length. The number of apartments, which were 
at first, very limited, is now such, as to render it al- 
most certain, that they will be found amply sufficient 
for the accommodation of any number of patients 
which may offer, even in the worst of seasons; and 
these are so arranged, as not only to keep the dif- 
ferent sexes , but also persons of different 
colour and si ttions of life ; to which, it may be add- 
ed, that a particular building is appr< priated for the 
convalescents, and there is also a separate room, to 
which the dying are removed, so that those who are 
sick, may not be alarmed by their groans and shrieks. 
The neatness and cleanliness observed in this estab- 
lishment, is so well known, as to require no eulogium. 



109 

On the 17th of June, the Marine Hospital was vi- 
sited by the Board of Health, at the request of the 
Health-Officer, when the following testimony, of 
probation was, by that body, entered upon thei ■ 
nutes. " Upon examining the Hospital xevy p 
cularly, the board are unanimously of opinion, that 
the Health-Officer is entitled to the highest degree 
of credit, for the humane and truly excellent arrange- 
ment which he has made, with respect to that insti- 
tution/' 

The following extract of a letter from Mrs. Stay- 
ley, the widow, and Mr. Herbert, the father-in-law, 
of the deceased Andrew Stayley, which was publish- 
ed in several of our daily papers, will shew the opi- 
nion which they entertained of the treatment of the 
patients at this Hospital. 

to dr. john r. b. rodgers, and dr. joseph bayley, 

at the marine hospital, &taten-island. 
" Gentlemen, 

" In the case of Mr. Andrew Stayley, who w r as 
sent down from No. 92 Maiden-lane, to the Marine 
Hospital, on the 23d ult. we, the widow and father-in- 
law of the said Mr. Stayley, have every reason, not 
only to be satisfied with your conduct, but think it our 
duty, in this public manner, to return you our most 
sincere acknowledgments. 

" Upon the arrival of the deceased at the hospital, 
you sent him to a large, air\ r , and commodious apart- 
ment, as well calculated as any that could have been 
devised, for the accommodation of himself and family, 
and you, in every instance, even anticipated his 
wants. Your siudy was to make him and those con- 
nected with him, comfortable and happy ; and such, 
in our opinion, was your skill and unceasing exer- 
tions as medical gentlemen, that if a cure had been 



110 

practicable, we are persuaded it would have been 
effected. 

" Gentlemen, your politeness, your humanity and 
attention, not only to us, but to every sick person 
committed to your care, demands, and will always re- 
ceive the thanks of those concerned. For our parts, 
words are wanting to express our gratitude, but vou 
shall always have our prayers and good wishes, &c.*&c. 
We are, &c. 
CATHARINE STAYLEY. 
FELIX HERBERT. 
New-York, September 4, 1805." 

The widow of the late Mr. William Fraser, like- 
wise speaks in terms of the highest respect, of the 
treatment received at this Hospital ; and Mr. Eustace 
Long and wife, in Rider-street, Wm. Bower and wife, 
245 Greenwich-street, together with several others, 
who were sent down there sick and recovered, have 
repeatedly mentioned to me, that if they should again 
be in similar circumstances, instead of requiring per- 
suasion to be sent to the Hospital, they would re- 
quest it as one of the greatest favours. 

That this Hospital is chiefly designed for sea-faring 
people, is obvious, from its name ; but the Commis- 
sioners of the Health-Office and the Board of Health, 
have a concurrent jurisdiction to send thither, all per- 
sons and things within the city of New- York, infected 
by or tainted with pestilential matter, which they 
may consider as dangerous to the public health; and 
the" Board of Health have also the further power to 
send persons and things of the above description, to 
such place of safety as they may think proper. Be- 
ing thus vested with this authority, it has heretofore 
been usual, upon the first appearance of Malignant 
Fever, to cause the removal of the infected to the Ma- 
rine Hospital 5 but as soon as the disease becomes 



Ill 

prevalent, the Hospital at Bellevue is opened, and 
such citizens infected with pestilence, as cannot other- 
wise be provided for, are sent to the latter of these 
establishments, whilst sick seamen of every descrip- 
tion are sent down to the former. 

Daring the present season, viz. between the 18th 
of July and 28th of October, sixty-four patients were 
sent from the city to the Marine Hospital, of whom 
the following died of Malignant Fever, viz. 

July 18. Christopher Hibbron, $2 Maiden-lane, died 
July 22. 
30. James Dougherty, Water-street, July 30. 
Aug. 7. Isabella Adams, corner Chamber and Green- 
wich-streets, August 7- 
17. Mrs. Piifer, 102 Water-street, Aug. 17. 
Ji 23. Mr. Andrew Stayley, 92 Maiden-lane, Au- 
gust 31. 
26. Daniel Young, Washington and Duane- 

streets, August 27. 
SO. Joshua Haines, snow Mehitable, Aug. 31. 
Sept. 1. Alfred Preston, Division-street, Sept. 1. 

2. William Fraser, L. Chapel-street, Sept. 2. 

3. Samuel Woodruff, Moore-street, Sept. 5. 
George Pymer, child, Pine-street, Sept. 7- 

5. Jacob Christopher, brig Columbia, Sept. 11. 

6. Charles Everte, Bear-market, Sept. 11. 
John Crowser, from the Aims-House gate, 

Sept. 10. 
Mat hew Burk, Fly-market, Sept. 12. 

7. Richard Thompson, Front-street, Sept. 8. 

8. Charles Diven, Elm-street, Sept. 8. 
Henry Blackham, Pearl-street, Sept. 8. 
Mrs. Beaman, Wall-street, Sept. 9- 
Richard Hollidge, sch. Weymouth, Sept. 18. 

10. Jonathan Campbell, Pine-street, Sept. 13. 
12. John Hardley, ship Flora, Sept. 16. 
16. John Marino, ship Delaware, Sept. 19- 
20. James Develin, Pine and Front, Sept. 24. 



US 

24. Robert Davis, Pine-streef, Sept. 25- 

25. Charles Crewel, George-st. wharf, Sept. 26. 
27. William Behaut, St. James-street,Sept. 30. 

C . 9- WiiJiam Logan, Catharine-lane, Oct. 11. 

Of these, 8 died on the day of arrival. 
7 on the day thereafter. 

1 on the 2d day. 

2 on the 3d day. 
6 on the 4th day. 
2 on the 6th day. 

1 on the $th day, and 

1 on the 10th day. 

Having thus given a short account of the Marine 
Hospital at Stat en-Island, I shall now proceed to give 
a brief statement of the situation of the Hospital at 
Bellevue ; but as this establishment was daily visited 
by the City-Inspector, who, at the close of the sea- 
son, gave in a report of his observations concerning 
that institution, I am persuaded, it would be impos- 
sible for me to present to my readers, any thing 
which would he equally satisfactory. In this official 
communication, he not only states the condition of 
that institution, during the present season, but, like- 
wise, points out a variety of objects, which, if duly 
attended to, (and the Board of Health will, no doubt, 
weigh them with that attention which the importance 
of the subject requires) will render the Hospital, in 
all probability, still more useful, if it should please 
Divine Providence, at any future period, to afflict us 
with Pestilential or Malignant Fever. 

The following is the report alluded to : — 

The City-Inspector has the honour to report, 
That in conformity with the wishes of the Board 
of Health, Bellevue Hospital was finally closed on 



IIS 

Saturday, the 28th of October. From its opening 
on the 9th of September to that day, the number of 
patients admitted amounted to 175 

Of whom the malignant cases were 149 
Other diseases, 28 

175 

The deaths, which occurred, were as follows : 

Of malignant fever, ... 52 

typhus fever, 3 

dysentery, 3 

diarrhoea, 3 

pneumonia, 1 

phtbysis pulrnonalis, . . 1 
epilepsy, .... .3 

cholera infantum, . 1 

diseases unknown 2 

69 

Discharged cured, . . 106 

Total, 175 

The Physicians of the Hospital remark, that only 
one person died, who was admitted on the first day 
of disease. Four of the patients were, on closing 
the Hospital, sent to the City Hospital, cured of 
fever, but convalescent from chronic diseases. 

Of the extreme cases there died 

within 24 hours after admission, .... 5 

12 hours, 6 

6 hours, 3 

1 hour, 6 

10 minutes, , 2 



22 
nearly one-third of the total amount of deaths. 

p 



114 

The ratio of cures from malignant fever to deaths 
by the same disorder is very nearly two-thirds.... 
which, considering that most of the patients were 
sent there in the last stage of disease and death, re- 
flects the highest credit on the practice of Doctors 
Walker and Winfield, the visiting and resident Phy- 
sicians. 

Accompanying this Report is the Return of the 
Physicians, with the list of patients admitted into 
the Hospital during the present season. ...likewise a 
schedule of the state of the Hospital for the year 
1803 ; by which it appears, that the Hospital on 
that occasion was opened on the !2th day of Au- 
gust, and closed on the 7th of November, during 
which period were admitted 

Of malignant fever patients, . . . MO 
Of various other diseases, .... 21 



Total, 191 



The deaths which occurred were, 

Of malignant fever, . . . 100 

phthysis pulmonalis, . . 1 

diarhcea, 2 



103 
Discharged cuied, .... 88 



191 



Of whom were sent to the City 

Hospital, 3 

to the Alms-house, . 10 

13 

On the 7th of November, when the Hospital was 
closed. 

A comparative view of these tables, shews that 
the present season, although nearly one month 



lis 

shorter, has been proportionably more active, and 
that the success attending the practice of the Hos- 
pital has been greater this season than the former : 
as the number of deaths in 1803 considerably ex- 
ceeded one-half of the cases, and, as before remark- 
ed, during the current year, amounted only to about 
one-third. 

The City Inspector wishes it to be understood, 
that the comparison is made from no invidious mo- 
tive, and without the most remote idea of reflection 
on the former services at the Hospital, but solely 
for the satisfaction of the Board, and to furnish data 
for reflection and calculation, whether the treat- 
ment of this awful malady is not better understood, 
and that a reasonable hope may be entertained, that 
at no distant day it will be divested of its horrors, 
and become more controulable and less mortal, by 
the skill and experience of medical professors. 

By the return from the Marine Hospital it ap- 
pears, that from the 18th day of July to the 28th of 
October, the number of patients sent from this 
City, amounted to 64 

Of whom died of malignant fever, 28 

Discharged cured, 50 

Remained of chronic complaints, . 6 



Total, G-l 

The total number of cases reported at the Office 
from the 5th of September to the 2 5th of October 
inclusive, amounted to COO 

The total number of deaths which occur- 
red in this City and at Bellevue Hospi- 
tal during the same period, as published 
in the daily bulletins, was .... 240 
To which are to be added the deaths that 
have happened since the reports were 



116 

closed, and which have been announced 
in the bills of mortality amounting to 13 

262 

Making in all, 262 deaths of malignant fever. 

The total number of cases reported in 1803 ap. 
pears tu have been 1639. 

The deaths by malignant fever, which occurred the 
same year, amounted to 606. 

Inclosing his official report for the present season, 
the City Inspector begs leave to submit a few remarks 
respecting the establishment at B^llevue — the result 
of ins observation and experience. 

The Buildings called Hospitals erected at Bellevue 
appear to have been set up on tie spur of the oc- 
casion, and on the presumption that the fever would 
never recur again. Fatal experience has proved other- 
wise, and points to the conviction, that we may ex- 
pect repeated attacks from this insidious disease. 
The wards, the one appropriated for the men espe- 
cially, are every way inadequate to the wants of the 
patients or the comfort of the nurses and physicians. 
The buiidingsare on too contracted a scale — of mat- 
erials too slight to repeal the summer heat or autum- 
nal cold. Theeroi! .teof the Hospital, during 
the last season, must have had an unfavourable influ- 
ence on the spirits of the patients. Those nev ]y 
arrived were evidenth depressed by the surrounding 
scenes of maladv, and the groans and shrieks of con- 
vulsed and dying subjects. The senses were evi- 
dently offended, and the atmosphere rendered impure 
in consequence of the wards heing so overcrouded. 
M'>re extensive accommodation is absolutely neces- 
sarva-ainst another season ; which it is confidently 
trusted that the Board will, at all events, provide, 



* 



117 

To render this establishment more extensively use- 
ful, and to relieve such persons as may be in tin urn- 
stances to pay for comfortable accommodation, a 
Pay Hospital with suitable distmct apartments might 
be advantageously erected . The difficulty pf pro- 
viding for strangers and single gentlemen, 1 ibouring 
under malignant fever, in private families, has been 
sensibly experienced — such persons are competent 
and willing to pay Hbtrally for genteel accommoda- 
tions, were such provided, and there is no doubt 
that such a branch of the establishment, if not -pro- 
ductive, would at least not become burthenscme, 
and would be highly creditable to our City. 

Perhaps in regarding the proposed improvements 
at Bellevue Hospital, it might be of moxnent to con- 
sider whether a change of the establish men t to some 
other ground, appertaining to the Corporation, 
would not be eligible. The scite of Bellevue might 
in all probability, be sold for a sum adequate to very 
extensive improvements. The accommodation of 
poor families in suitable buildings, is a part of the 
whole establishment, which will also deserve the con- 
templation of the Board, and it is submitted whe- 
ther the present assylurh ought not to be preserved 
until more permanent buildings can be provided' 

All which is respectfully submitted. 

JOHN PINTARD, City-Inspector. 

New-York, 12th Nov. 1305. 



CHAPTER IV. 

RECORD OF DEATHS, 

By Malignant Fever, which have occurred in the 
City of New- York, at the Marine Hospital, or 
at Bellevue, during the Autumn of 1805; in 
which is likewise included the names of sundry 
persons, who, having caught their sickness in the 
City, afterwards died in the country. 

|j3^ The words in Italic, after the name of any 
deceased person, denotes the country, of which he 
or she was respectively a native. 

Oct. 7. Adams, Henry, cartman, 25 Garden, Ire- 
land, 

Aug. 17. Adams, Isabella, (a black) corner of 
Greenwich and Chamber, 

Sept. 29. Allen, Elizabeth, daughter of Mathias, 
75 Courtland, aged 26, New. Jersey, 

■ Arden, Thomas, S. from 186 Pearl, West- 
Chester, 

; 30. Allen, Mary, 196 Broadway, aged 19, 

Ireland, 

29. Allen, Mathias, 75 Courtland, New- 
Jersey, 

30. Allen, Samuel, printer, 32 Lumber, Eng- 
land, 

Oct. 1. Allen, Stephen, mason, S3 Provoost, aged 
38, New-York, 

Sep. 27. Amerman, Joseph B. 11 Vande water, 

Oct. 9. Anderson, Sarah, Cliff, 

Sep. 19. Baehr, Lewis, from 154 Wall, Hammond, 

Oct. 16. Baisely, Margaret, 47 Gold, 

6. Barr, Hugh, Broadway, near Union Fur- 
nace, aged 25, Ireland, 

Sep. 15. Barry, Peter, from 26 Augustus, Bellevue, 
aged 26, Ireland, 



119 

Oct. *11. Bates, Sally, from Thomas, Bellevue, 
Sep. 18. Bazen, James, 34 Robinson, aged 5$, 

France, 

— *28. Bazen, Rachel, from do at Bellevue, 

Oct. 5. Beatty, Thomas, 186 Cherry, aged 22, 

Ireland, 
24. Beekman, Wm. son of Dr. John, at the 

Waliahout, aged 1 1, New-Fork, 
Sep. 9. Mrs. Beaman, from 80 Wall, at Marine 

Hospital, 
17. Benjamin, Everard, broker, 78 Broad, 

Connecticut, 
Oct. 6. Bennet Jacob, 13 Partition, aged 25. 
« 8. Bernard, Joannes Christian, from 195 

Water, at Bellevue, Holland. 
Sept. 3. Behaut, William, from St. James-st. Ma- 
rine Hospital, 

i f27. Bingham, John, cartman, 33 Second. 

12. Bininger, Abm.jun. 20 Maiden-Lane, 

native. 
8. Blackham, Henry, from 136 Pearl, at the 

Marine Hospital. 
Oct. 27. Boerum, Sarah, 130 Fly-Market. 
Sept. 17. Bolen, Ann, 80 Read.' 

7. Bolen James, 5 Moore, aged 24, Newark. 

• 1. Bowie Mrs. Ann, 55 Partition. 

10. Bowie, Miss Flora, near State Prison, 

Greenwich. 

22. Bowers, John, Robinson, corner of 

Greenwich, Baltimore. 

— 6. Brannon, John, 15 Augustus, aged 35, 

Ireland. 
2. Britton, George, 1 5 BurMngsMp, England. 



* Was employed in nursing a sick person in the lower end of Parti- 
tion-street. 

t Attended his stan J as a cartman at the Cofiee-Housej till 
within eight days of his being taken sick. 



120 

Sept. 14. Brown, Mr. corner Depeyster and Front*. 

■ 13. Brown, Laac, son or Saml. coiner of 

Greenwich and Robinson. 

Brown, Isaac, 26 Read. 

i fio. Brown, Mrs. Mary, 66 Roosevelt, 

. 12. Brown, Peter, 188 Pearl, aged 28, Scot- 

land. 

. 14. Browning, William, white-smith from 90 

Water, Brannon, aged 36, England. 

* 11. Browning, Mrs. Nancy, wife of Win. do. 

do. aged 30 

11. Burk, Mathew, from Fly-Market, at Ma- 
rine Hospital. 

10. Burling, Jftsepb, son of Thomas,of White 

Plain ;, Vande water. 

. 25. Byass, Rebecca, 28 John, aged 21, New- 

Jersey. 

Oct. J4. Bru , T ':!, Hester, corner of 

Fourth. 

Sept. 13. Campbell, Jonathan, from lower end of 
Pine, at the Marine Hospital. 

Oct. 2. Cath< art, Allen, 7 Catharine-lane, aged 37, 
Ireland. i 

< 6. Christie, Elizabeth, from Dover, at Belle- 

vue, aged 3!, England. 

• 23. Christie, Mrs; Sarah, Front, near Crane- 
Wharf, Scotland, 

Sept. 12. Caywood, Abigail, 129 Water , aged 17 
NeivYorJc. 

17. Christopher, J«cob, brig Columbia, at the 

Marine Hospital 

• 28. Church, Julian, 15 Fa'r. 

25. Coles, Chide* 10 Little George. 

Oct. 22. Coles, Sarah, 25 Water. 



f This person had not been out of her house for eight weeks 
previous to her being attacked with '^u fever. Her case was, 
notwithstanding, reported to h^ deeded* 

\ Died on the third day of dbtaoe. 



121 



Oct. 28. Collis Maria, 63 Roosevelt, aged 15. 

Collins, Mrs. wife of Isaac, from 189, Pearl, 

West-Chester. 

2. Colver, William, from 72 Vesey, Belle- 

vue. 
— 3. Covet, Mary, 86 St. James', aged 76. 
12. Craig, Mrs. 22 Garden, aged 24, Philadel. 



Sept. 28. Crane, Abner, son of David, aged 11, 

Greenwich, near Courtland. 
Oct. 26. Crowel, Charles, from George st. wharf, 

Marine Hospital. 
Sept. 10. Crowser, John, from the Aims-House 

gate, Marine Hospital. 

'8. Crygier, Corneliusjun. 18 Warren } native, 

28. Culloden, Mary, wife of George,Chandler 

Baltimore, from 6 Stone, Bellevue. 
Oct. 5. Cushing, James, from 7 Hague, Bellevue. 

1. Davis, James, 23 Fletcher. 

Sept. 25. Davis, Robert, from Pine, Marine Hos- 
pital. 
24. Develin, James, from corner of Pine and 

Front, Marine Hospital, Ireland. 
Oct. 19. Decker, Elizabeth Beedie, 19 Water. 
Sept. 26. Deforest, Theodorus, jun. 13 Beekman- 

slip, aged 19, New-York. 
5. Deforest, Mrs. Mary, 133 Water, New- 

Fork. 
• -26.Degraw, William, apprentice to Wm. 

Rider, 13 Barclay, aged 18, Neio-York. 

■ 8. Dinah, (a black woman) 38 Church. 

8. Diver, Charles, from Elm, Marine Hos- 
pital. 

8. Dixon, David, merchant, 40 Wall. 

27. Dixon, John, from 95 Pearl, Bellevue, 

aged 23. 



19. Dobbins, Mrs. Charlotte, Water, corner 

of Beekman-slip, Pennsylvania. 

July 30. Dougherty, James, from 128 Water, Ma- 
rine Hospital, Ireland. 

Q 



122 

Sept. 28. Doughty, Morris, 63 E. George. Ireland. 

-14. Doyle, Michael, from Second, Bellevue. 

26. Drake, Fanny, wife of John, Essex, 

aged 50. 

14. Dufort, Mrs. Jane, 18 Fletcher. 

*24. Dunn, Mary, 3 Rider, aged 38, Ireland. 

Oct. 2. Dwyre, Anthony, from 7 Hague, Bellevue. 

Sept. 8. Ellis, Nancy, near the new church, Bul- 
lock, native. 

■ 16. Ellis, William, 9 Dover. 

6. Everte, Chas. from Bear Market, Marine 

Hospital. 

Oct.f4. Fanshaw, Harriot, daughter of Mrs. Sarah, 
51 Cliff, aged 10, New-York. 

Sept. 28. Feely Michael, from Augustus, at Belle- 
vue. 

• ■ 6. Feeny, Edward, aged 25, Ireland. 

29. Fine, James Lefferts, son of Jacobus, 1 17 

Fly-Market, aged 1 8, New-York. 

15. Finney, Catharine, from 11 Augustus, 

Bellevue, aged 26, Ireland. 

16. Finney, John, 11 Mulberry, aged 38, 

Ireland. 

■ 11. Finnick, Patrick, 25 Augustus, aged 25, 

Ireland. 

21. Fitzpatrick, James, 152 Front, aged 22, 

Ireland. 

Flanagan, Christopher, book seller, from 

151 Water, West-Chester. 

16. Fleming, John, from Pingree's Alley, at 

Bellevue, aged 21, Ireland. 

- '27. Fleron, Andr'e, 144 Greenwich, France. 

21. Fogerty, Eleanor, 306 Water, Ireland. 

Oct. 5. Foley, Margaret, 7 Hague, aged 28, 

Ireland. 

* Was employed in nursing James Develin, corner of Pine 
and Front streets. 

t Died on the third day of disease. 



12* 

Oct. 23. Francis Tracy, 6 Upper Barley. 

16. Fraser, David, son of Duncan, 8 Batavia 

Lane, aged 1$, Nezv-York. 
Sept. 2. Fraser, William, house carpenter, from 3 

Chapel, Marine Hospital, Scotland. 
30. Fulton, Alexander, grocer, corner Nassau 

and Ann, aged 30, Ireland. 
28. Gall, Patrick, from 60 Beaver, Bellevue, 

aged 60, Ireland. 
30. Gallaghan, James, from 5 Tryon Row, 

Bellevue, aged 24, Ireland. 
■ 27. Garcy, George, from Pine, near Front, 

Bellevue. 
29. Gathrey, Andrew, from 15 Rose, Belle- 
vue, aged 31, Ireland. 
Oct. 4. Giggins, Thomas, from 5 Cedar, Bellevue. 
1. Gilchrist, Archibald, dyer, 174 William, 

aged 38, Scotland. 
Sept. 21. Gilchrist, James, 30 Lumber, aged 32, 

Scotla?id. 
Oct. 2. Gollow, Stephen W. 51 Roosevelt. 

13. Gomez, Catharine, 77 Pine. 

Sept. 14. Gordon, Mrs. 98 Front, aged70,Sco(land. 
Sept. 8. ' Gowdy, John, 64 Cedar, aged 23, Ireland. 
Oct. 10. Graham, Mrs. Margaret, 21 Pump. 
Grice, Margaret,Arundel, corner of Hes- 
ter. 

* 8. Griffith, Robert, 41 Church. 

Sept. 28. Habbermil, Mary, 115 Greenwich, aged 

17, New-York. 
8. Haddock, Jan.es, nearly opposite Albany 

Bason, Greenwich. 
Aug. 31. Haines, Joshua, Snow Mehitabel, from 

Havannah, Marine Hospital. 
Oct. 13. Hamilton, Catharine, 21 Rose, aged 40. 

27. Hallman, Thomas, Henry. 

— - — - 15. Halsall, James, 134 William, aged 35, 

England. 
Sept. 16'. Hardley, John, ship Flora, Gained wharf, 

Marine Hospital. 



124 

Sept. 28. Hartman, John, taken up from the fields 
near the State Prison, 15th Sept. Belle- 
vue, aged 53, Germany. 

19. Harvey, James, from 90 Front, Bellevue. 

Oct. 12. Havemeyer, Charles L. 31 Pine, Germany. 

Sept. 20. Hazard, Robinson, 86 St. James',aged 26. 

Oct. 2. Heroy, Clarkson, 142 Harman. 

Sept. 14. Herring, Charles, son of Abraham, 
Greenwich, native. 

July 18. Hibbron, Christopher, from 92 Maiden 
Lane, at the Marine Hospital. 

Sept. 29. Hink, Mary, 73 Broad, aged 16, New* 
Jersey. 

— — 7. Hobart Maria, 161 Fly-Market, aged 9. 

— — 7. Hodgkinson, John, Comedian, from the Ton- 
tin Coffee-House, died in Washington, 
England- 
Oct. 10. Hoffman, Daniel, from 3 12 Water, Belle- 
vue, aged 32. 

*3. Hogg, Mary, wife of John, taylor, 24 

Beaver, aged 25, England. 

Sept. 18. Hollidge, Richard, from schooner Wey- 
mouth, North River, at the Marine Hospital. 

— • — 13. Honesty, Miss Nancy, from near Potter's 
Field, at Bellevue, aged 39. 

f 26- Howell, Silas, W. at Albany. 

Sept. 27. Hoyr, Lydia, wife of Saml. taylor, from 82 
Liberty, at Bellevue. 

* 30. Hunt, Mrs. Rachel, wife of Dr. Hunt, 

Greenwich, near Budd. 

% 14. Hunter, William, and Mary his wife, 58 

Front, Ireland. 

* Died on the third. day of disease. 

f Had been in New-Yoik a few days before, where it is sup- 
posed by some, that he got sick; others attribute his sickness 
and de^ith, as well as that of Capt. Lansing, to a parcel of skins 
on board the vessel, which are said to have emitted a very offen- 
sive smell. 

| Both died about 5 o'clock, p.m. 1 4th September, within a 
few moments of each other, after an illness of four days. 



l%5 

Oct. 22. Huther, George, baker, Lombard, corner 
E. George, Germany. 

. 15. Hutson, John, from 23 Fletcher, at Belie. 

vue, aged 18, England. 

Sept. 9. Hyde, Mrs. wife of John, Tontine Cof- 
fee-House, Wall. 

14. Hyde, John,of the Tontine CofTee-House, 

Rivington. 

15. Jackson* Hugh, from 121 Water, 4 

Roosevelt, Ireland. 

Oct. 4, James, William, from 3 Dover, at Belle- 
vue. 

Sept. 28. Jenkins, Manuel, 18 Chesnut, aged SO. 

Oct. 3. Innis, Lawrance, from 4 Dover, at Belle- 
vne. 

Sept. 13. Johnson, Dinah, (a black woman) 29 
Chamber. 

8. Johnson, Paul R. printer, 46 Cedar, aged 

24, New-Jersey. 

17. Johnson, Phcebe, Leonard, nearChapel. 

11. Jones, David, son of John F. from 46 Di- 
vision, at Bellevue, aged 15, Wales. 

Oct. 1. Jones, James, son of Benjamin, janitor of 
Columbia College, aged 14. 

Sept. 10. Jones, John R. 142 Chatham, aged 22, 
Wales. 
4. Jones, John F. Water, 

11. Jones, Thomas, 1 Pine, aged 46, Wales. 

Oct. 2. Irvin, Sally, corner of Courttand and 
Washington, aged 32, New-Jersey. 

Sept. 30. Israel, Charles, from 5 New Slip, at 
Bellevue. 

Sept. 2S.K'41y,Hugb,31 Augustus, aged SZjreland. 

Oct. 28. Kennedy, Maria, 23 Old-slip, aged 2 years, 
it. 1(5. King, John, S6 Chamber.* 

24. Kirkvvood, James, hostler, from 92 Mai- 
den-lane, aged 27, Scotland. f 

* Mr. King had been at work at the New Coffee-House. 

f This man was taken sick at the livery-stable of the late Mr. Stay- 
ley, and sent to the Marine Hospital, on the 23d Jaly, from whence he 
returned to the city perfectly recovered on the 1 9th of August, and re- 



126 

Sept. 29. Kniffin, Daniel, 70 John, aged 20, New- 
York. 

29- Knowland, William, from Pearl-street, 

Belle vue, aged 27, Ireland.^ 

26. Lansing, Abraham D. schooner Mohawk, 

Albany. See Howell, Silas W. 

Oct. 5. Lannuier, Stanislaus, 60 Broad, aged 24, 
France. 

4. Latour, Francis, Greenwich, corner Ro- 

binson, aged 6, New-London. 
Sept. 19. Leuke, Henry, from Cross-street, at Belle- 
vue. 

28. Lightbody, Isaac, from 25 Barclay,at Belle- 

vue, aged 23. 

18. Lively, Dominic, 64 Front, aged 35, Ire- 

land. 

Oct. 20. Lloyd, Mrs. Laight-street, aged 45, New- 
York. 

21. Logan, William, from Catharine-lane, Ma- 
rine Hospital. 

9. Lomagne, Ann Theresa, 3 Water-street. 

Sept. 20. Long, James, Bayard. 

28. Lnddington, Henry, Washington, near the 

Bear-market. 

29. M'Andre, Patrick, Cross, aged 33, Ire- 
laud. 

Oct. 7. M'Dermot, George, from 51 Pearl, at 
Bellevue, aged 43, Ireland. 

Sept. 28. M'Dewitt, James, 18 Pearl, aged 4 1-2, 
years. 

Oct. 12. M'Dewitt, John, do. aged 40, Ireland. 



commenced his employment as an hostler. About the 18th of Septem- 
ber, he had gone toaNewark with a carriage, where, finding himself sick 
on the morning of the 23d, he caused himself to be conveyed to the door 
of the office, where he requested to be sent to the Marine Hospital. 
There was, however, at this time, no boat ; and as he had no lodgings 
in town, to which lie could retire, he was conducted to the Bellevue Hos- 
pital, where he died next day of black vomit. 

f This man had crawled from his lodgings to the office door, on the 
morning of the 16th Sept. from whence he was carried to Bellevue. 



127 

Sept. 27. M'Donald, Jane, daughter of Duncan, 45 
Nassau, New-York. 

Oct. 2. M'Graw, Robert, 23 Mulberry, aged 24, 
Ireland. 

Sept. 3. MTntosh, Angus, 8 Batavia-lane, Scot- 
land. 

Oct. 12. M'Maaus, Michael, 62 Cedar, aged 35, 
Ireland. 

Mabee, James, S3 Ann-street. 

Mackaness, Thomas Thornton, son of 

Thomas Mackaness, Esq. of Windsor- 
"Hill, Greenwich. 

8. Mackay, John, 8 Ferry-street. 

Sept. 29. Maden, Hugh, opposite the Catholic bury- 

ing-ground, Bowery, aged 28, Ireland. 
*28. Malice, James, from 33 Ann-street, at 

Bellevue, aged 42, Scotland. 
— — 27. Managhan, Edward, grocer, from \5% 

Front-street, at 333 Broadway, aged 35 , 

Ireland. 
— Managhan, Charles, brother of do. from 

152 Front-street, at Esopus. 
Sept. 16. Marino, John, ship Delaware, Rector-st. 

wharf, Marine Hospital. 
30. Marsh, Ephraim, 12 Rector, aged 24, N. 

Jersey. 

8. Martin, Mrs. Bedford-st. near State-Pri- 

son, England. 

- 19. Maxwell, John, Crosby. 

Oct. 13. Miles, Ann, 20 Broadway, aged 18, New- 
York. 

Sept. 9. Miller, Mrs. William G. 41 Nassau. 

■ 18. Miller, Miss Maria, from Front-street, at 

Greenwich, above Tyler's. 

25. Mills, Jane, 55 Henry, aged 26, Ireland. 

26. Mills, Mary Ann, 33 Ann, aged 12, New- 
York. 



* On the SCthof September, this man was sent to Bellevue, his wife 
accompanying him as a nurse. 



12$ 

Oct. 2. Mills, Martha, 50 Stone. 

* 23. Mitchell, Lewis, 35 Read. 

9. Murdock, Mrs. Jane, 28 Water, aged 36 5 

Ireland. 
. 16. Murphy, Benjamin, from 78 Chatham, at 

Believue, aged 24, Ireland. 

- 5. Murphy, John, 4 Swartout's-Bason, aged 

30, Ireland. 

3. Murray, Andrew, from 100 William-st. 

Believue. 
1. Murray, Mary, wife of do. from do. do. 

3. Myers, Maria, daughter of Lewis, 24 Wil- 

liam-street, aged 9 3 Philadelphia. 
Sept. 27.*Needham, John, cartman, 103 Henry, 

aged 32, England. 
16. Newkirk, Gysbert, news-carrier, 19 Rose, 

aged 60, Germany. 

15. Nichols, Lewis, printer, 308 Broadway, 

native. 

24. Nicholas, , from 86 Maiden-lane, 

Believue. 

8. O'Brian, John, Cross- street, aged 28, Ire* 

land. 
Oct. 15. Otis, Eleanor, 36 Lower Robinson. 
Sept. 28. Parks, Thomas, from 90 Front-street, on 

Long-Island, aged 38, Ireland. 

5. Pelsue, John, 4 Church, aged 17, N. Fork. 

Aug. 17, Pfifer, Mrs. from 102 Water-street, Ma- 
rine Hospital. 

Sept. 16. Phyfe, John, 80 Wall, aged 28, Scotland. 

- 1. Preston, Alfred, from upper end Division, 

at Marine Hospital, native. 
Oct. 6. Price, Margaret, Arundel, corner of Hes- 
ter, aged 25, Wales. 

3. Prior, Rachel, 59 St. James, aged 4. 



* This man attended as a cartman, at the store of Post and Russel, 
corner of South and Pine-streets, till the 21st of September, the day oa 
which he sickened. 



12? 

Sept. g£. Purcell, Dominick, from 8 Orange, Belle - 
vue, Ireland. 

7. Pymer, George, son of David, from 76 

Pine, Marine Hospital, aged 4. 
Oct. 11. Rapp, Oras, 151 Fly-market, aged 12. 

27. La Ravine, Dr. Stephen Jean Henry Bap- 

tiste, 144 Greenwich-street, France. 

12. Reynolds, Thomas, 4 mile stone, aged 50. 

Ireland. 
Sept. 14 Richards, Stephen, taylor, 5 Read-street. 

27. Richardson, Horatio, from 156 Front, at 

Bellevue, aged 23, Boston. 

■ 29. Rider, William, turner, 13 Barclay, n alive, 

Oct. 1- Ritcher, Andrew, from near Bunker's-hiil, 

at Bellevue, aged 36, Germany. 
Sept. 26. Robinson, Harriot, 86 James-street, aged 

19, New-York. 
— — 15. Rodermond, John, tavern-keeper, 5 Pine, 

aged 40, Germany. 
Oct. 31. Rose, Ann, daughter of John, 1 13 Liberty. 
Sept. 14. Rumsey, Thomas E. merchant, from 1S2 

Pearl, Greenwich. 
Oct. 2. Russel, Jacob, 104 Greenwich, aged 8. 
Sept. 11. Saltonstall, Miss Hannah, from 86 Pearl, 
Greenwich. 

15. Schultz, Henry G. from Water, at 52 

Cherry, Germany. 
Oct. 28. Sells, Mary, 22 Mulberry. 
Sept. 24. Sharp, Grace, 17 Thoma's, aged 35, Nezc- 
^ Fork. 

30. Simpson, Mary, from 23 Cedar, Bellevue. 

« Singer, James, from Greenwich-street, 

Bellevue. 

11- Skillinger, Sarah, (of Philadelphia) from 95 

Courtlandt, at Bellevue. 
Oct. 20. Sloan, Arthur, from 64 Front, at Bellevue, 

aged 25, Ireland. 
Sept. 20. Smith, Caleb, merchant, from 15 Market, 
field;, comer Fourth and Delaiy 



130 

Oct. 10. Smith, Deborah, 47 Gold-street, native. 

Sept. 17. Smith, James, Orchard, corner of Grand, 
aged 63, Neiv-York. 

Oct. 5. Smith, James I Iarvey,apprentice to James 
Carr, Elizabeth, aged 1?, Long-Island. 

Sept. 8. Smith, Paschal N. President of the Colum- 
bian Insurance Compair atHarsenville. 

16. Smith, Rachel, Depeyste street, aged 27, 

New-Jersey. 

17- Smith, William, from 100 Water, Bellevue, 

aged 21, Ireland. 

24. Smithen, John, 277 Water, aged 16, Ha- 
lifax. 

i 27. Snyder, Elizabeth, 45 Nassau, aged 32, 

New- York. 

Sept. 4. Snythen, Daniel, 70 John. 

4 # Spi image, Daniel, shoemaker, 122 Water, 

New-Jersey. 

, — . „ Stanley, Margaret, Charlotte. 

Aug. 31. St ay ley. Andrew, from 92 Maiden-lane, 
Marine Hospital, England. 

Sept. 19. Stewart, Mr. a ship steward, 88 Water-st. 

Nov . 1 . Stock well, Abel, cooper, 1 2 Fle\cher,nalive. 

Sept. 19. Sweeny, Nancy, from 29 George, Belle- 
vue, aged 21. 

10. Sykes, John, grocer, 69 Catharine, native. 

Oct. 6. Tabcie, Mrs. 32 Nassau. 

3 # Tabeie, Richard, merchant, 52 do. New* 

York. 

Sept. 1 1 . Taylor, John, 46 Cedar, aged 35, England. 

Oct. 3. Ten Eyck, Elizabeth, 37 Beaver, aged 60, 
New-Jersey. 

Sept. 26. Thomas, David, 193 Water, aged 26, 
Wales. 

1 9. Thomas, John, cartman, 46 Chapel. 

Oct. 29. Thome, Fanny, 170 Division, aged 16, 
New-Jersey. 

Nov. 1. Thornton, Samuel, 28 Water. 

Sept. 29. Tice, Catharine, from 70 John, Bellevue, 
aged 26. 



131 

Oct. 8. Tiebout, Miss, daughter of Mrs. Sarah, 358 

Pearl, native. 
Sept. 14. Tracy, Alexander, from 153 Water, Belle- 

vue, aged 14. 
Oct. 15. Turner, Sarah, 63 William, aged 50. 
Sept. 20. Underwood, John, butcher, Elizabeth. 
Oct. 1. Vail, Joseph, 54 E. George, aged 38, E. 

Chester. 
Sept. 27- Valence, John, First. 

27. Van Gelder, Phoebe, 42 William, native. 

30. Van Home, Philip, apprentice to Hiram 

Gardner, 91 Broadway. 
15. Van r J%tls, Joshua, cartman, 2 Leonard, 

aged 35 y native. 
Oct. 2. Van Rantz, Peter, 33 Oak, aged ] 3, Long- 

/stand. 
• 4. Van Steenburgh, Samuel, 35 Cedar, aged 

66, Nezv-York. 
Sept. 17. Van Wart, John, N. Catharine, aged 25, 

native. 
Oct. 2. Voisin, Miss Rosillana, daughter of Ma- 
dame Voisin, 146 William, aged 11, iV. 

York. 

7- Wade, Elizabeth, Catharine, aged 9. 

Wainwright, Francis, druggist, from 152 

Pearl-street, at Newtown, Long-Island. 
Oct. 1. Wallace, Mary Macomb, 95 Greenwich, 

aged 10, Iretand. 
Sept. 14. Walker, Mrs. Alice, 132 Front, IVigau in 

Lancashire, England. 
Oct. 10. Walsh, Arthur, 64 Front, aged 5 years, 

Ireland. 
6. Walsh, Patrick, from 54 Pearl, at Bellevue, 

aged 46, Ireland. 

27. Walsh, Patrick, aged 25, Ireland, 

Sept. 28. Walsh, John, Hester, aged 36, Irelaud. 
Oct. 12. Webb, Thomas, from Orange, Bellevne, 
Sept. 26. Webster, John, 156 Front, aged 27, M&« 

sachus'ells. 



1S2 




Aug 



Whelan, Eliza, 4 Dover, aged 23, Ireland. 
White, Jane, £6 Beaver, aged 26, do. 
White, John, from Coenties-slip, Bellevue. 
Wilder, Jonas, 24 Charlotte-st. aged 35, 

England. 
Wiggmton, Seth B. of the house of Richard 

S; Hackley & Co. 128 Broadway. 
Williams, Henry, from 72 Front, Bellevue. 
Windle, Thomas, 56 Lombard. 
Wilson, Alexander, from lOo William, 
Bellevue. 
5. Woodruff, William, from Moore, Marine 

Hospital. 
11. Wright, Susannah, from Water, corner of 

Lombard and Catharine. 
15. Young, William, from 102 Water, Budd. 
27, Young, Daniel, from corner Washington 
and Duane, at Marine Hospital, Scot* 
land. 
Sept. 28, Zellers, George, little George, aged 20, 
New-York. 

A TABLE, 

EXHIBITING AT ONE VIEW, THE NUMBER OF DEATHS BY MA-, 
LIGNANT FEVER, WHICH OCCURRhD IN EACH PARTICULAR 
STREET, AS ALSO AT BELLEVUE AND THE MARINE HOS- 
PITAL. 

Ann 

Anthony 

Arundel 

Augustus 

Barclay 

Barl«y 

Batavia-lane 

Bayard -street 

Beaver 

Bedford 

Beekmanslip 



2 


Brought over 


19 


1 


Bellevue 


52 


1 


Bloomingdale 


1 


3 


Brannon-street 


2 


2 


Br ad 


2 


1 


Broadway 


7 


2 


B vvery 


1 


1 


Budd 


I 


3 


Bullock 


1 


1 


Burling-slip 


1 


2 


Catharine-lane 


1 




Catharine-street 


3 



19 



91 



153 



Brought orer 91 

Cedar 5 

Chamber 2 

Chapel 1 

Chatham 1 

Charlotte 2 

Cherry 3 

Chesnut 1 

Church 4 

Cliff 2 

Courtlandt 3 

Crane-wharf 1 

Crosby-street 1 

Cross 3 

Depeyster 2 

Division 2 

Dover 2 

East George 2 

Elizabeth 3 

Essex 1 

Fair 1 

Ferry 1 

First 1 

Fletcher 2 

Fly-market 3 

Fourth 1 

Frankfort i 

Front 1 1 

Garden 2 

George 2 

Gold 2 

Greenwich 5 

Greenwich-street 9 

Hague 2 

Hammond 1 

Harm an 1 

Harsenville 1 

178 i 



Brought over 
Henry 
Hester 
James 
John 
Laight 
Leonard 
Liberty 
Lombard 
Lumber 
Maiden-lane 
Marine Hospital 
Moore-street 
Mulberry 
Nassau 
Oak 
Old-slip 
Orange-street 
Orchard 
Partition 
Pearl 
Pine 
Provoost 
Pump 
Read 
Rector 
Rivington 
Robinson 
Rose 
Roosevelt 
Ryder 
Second 
Stone 

Swartwout's Bason 
Thomas 
Vandewater 
Wall 



2 

2 
4 
3 
I 
o 

I 

3 
S 

2 

28 

J 

2 

6 
l 

l 

1 
i 

2 
6 
5 
1 
1 
4 
1 
1 
4 
2 
$ 
i 
1 
1 
1 
1 
2 
2 

281 



134 



Brought over 


281 


Brought over 


295 


Warren 


2 


Washington 


1 


Water 


12 


William 


6 



295 



302 



If. to the above, we add 40, who, it is probable, 
caught the disorder in the city, and afterwards died 
in various parts of the country, the number will 
amount to 342, which is, perhaps, pretty near the 
truth. 

Although it is expected that the preceding table 
will, in general, be deemed interesting, it is believed 
that a list exhibiting the number of cases, which have 
occurred in each particular street, will be found, at 
least, fully as satisfactory. A table of the former 
kind, only informs us of the particular spots at which 
different degrees of mortality prevailed ; in particu- 
lar, it mentions the deaths of fifty-two persons at 
Bellevue, twenty-eight at the Marine Hospital, two 
in Brannon-street, one in Rivington-street, &c. where- 
as it is notorious, that no one of these sickened in 
either of these places. Again, when we are told of- 
ficially, that one hundred and seventy-six persons 
were sent to Bellevue, and sixty-four to the Marine 
Hospital, although it justly affords a very exalted 
opinion of the importance of these valuable institu- 
tions, it does not convey to the mind, a single idea of 
the precise part of the city in which the disease was 
most predominant. To enable the reader to judge 
for himself upon this subject, the following is sub- 
mitted. 



A TABLE* 

EXHIBITING THE NUMBER OF CASES OF MALIGNANT FEVER, 
WHICH HAVE OCCURRED IN EACH PARTICULAR STREET OF 



Ann 

Anthony 

Arundel 

Augustus 

Bancker 

Barclay 

Barley 

Batavia-lane 

Bayard-street 

Beaver 

Beaver-lane 

Bedford-street 

Bed low 

Bee km an 

Bloomini>dale 

o 

Brannon-street 

Bridewell 

Broad -street 

Broadway 

Bowery 

Budd-street 

Bullock 

Burling-slip 

Catharine-lane 

Catharine-street 

Cedar 

Chamber 

Chapel 



2 


Brought over 


1<2S 


10 


Chatham 


2 


1 


Chatham-square 


2 


13 


Charlotte-street 


6 


S 


Cheapside 


4 


6 


Cherry 


5 


4 


Chesnut 


2 


3 


Church 


7 


1 


Cliff 


4 


5 


Corlaer's-hcok 


8 


9 


Courtlandt-street 


6 


1 


Crane-wharf 


1 


4 


Crosby-street 


1 


2 


Cross 


S 


A 


Delancey 


J 


ct 

o 


Depeyster 


30 


1 


Division 


9 


IS 


Dover 


9 


17 


Duane 


1 


4 


Dutch 


l 


2 


East George 


8 


1 


Elizabeth 


5 


1 


Elm 


3 


1 


Essex 


2 


4 


Fair 


4 


7 


Fayette 


1 


7 


Ferry 


1 


6 


First 


3 



128 



245 



* It is necessary to observe, that in this Table, the streets mentioned, 
are those in which persons were taken sick, not those to which they 
were removed. It may, likewise be mentioned, that of the cases which 
occurred in Water- street, Front-street, Pearl-street, &c. at least riw- 
sixths were between Burling and Old-slips. 



136 



Brought over 245 

Fletcher 4 

Fly-market 1 1 

Fourth-sreet 2 

Frankfort 3 

George 6 

Gold 7 

Gouverneur 1 

Greenwich (village) 5 

Greenwich- street 26 

Hague 6 

Hammond 1 

Hannan 7 

Harrison 2 

Harsenville 1 

Henry 10 

Hester 5 

Hudson 2 

Jay 1 

James 1 2 

Jew Valley 2 

John-street 4 

Laight 1 

Leonard 2 

Liberty 4 

Little Water 2 

Lombard 5 

Lumber 5 

Maiden-lane 7 

Magazine-street 1 

Mary 1 

Moore 8 

MooreVBuildings l 
Moore-street (North) 5 

Mott ■ 7 

Mulberry 1 1 

Murray 2 

425 



Brought over 525 

Nassau $ 

New 1 

New-slip 2 

Norfolk-street 2 

Oak 2 

Old-slip 1 

Orange-street 5 

Orchard 1 

Partition 3 

Pearl 26 

Pell 1 

Pine 14 

Pingree's-alley 3 
Potter's-field,vicinity of I 

Pro voost-s tree t 2 

Pump 6 

Read 10 

Rector 2 

Rider 3 

1 
6 



Rivington 

Robinson 

Roosevelt 

Rose 

Rutgers 

Second 

Sixth 

Skinner 

South 

Spring 

Stanton 

State 

Stone 



6 
7 
5 
8 
I 
2 
I 
3 
I 
I 
3 



Stuyvesant's ground I 

Swartwout's Bason I 

Thames-street 2 

Third 2 

564 



137 



Brought over 


564 


Brought over 


£82 


Thomas 


2 


Warren 


2 


Tryou-row 


I 


Washington 


5 


Vande water- street 


4 


Wate r 


40 


Vesey 


3 


Whitehall 


3 


Vestry 


1 


William 


14 


Wall 


7 








5b2 



645 



Upon comparing the foregoing tables with the of- 
ficial report of the City Inspector, contained in the 
preceding pages, it may, at first sight, appear that 
there some is difference. If, however, it be considered, 
that, in that gentleman's report, the twenty-eight 
persons who died of Malignant Fever, at the Marine 
Hospital, are not included, nor several others, who 
fell victims to the same disease, previous to the daily 
meeting of the Board of Health ; the statements will 
be found to be almost, if not altogether the same. A 
similar remark wiil be found equally correct with re- 
spect to the number of cases. 



CHAPTER V. 

THE OPINION OF SEVERAL EMINENT PHYSICIANS, RESPECTING 
THE CAUSE OF MALIGNANT FEVER, IN SEVERAL DIFFERENT 
PARTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

The firs! of these is from Dr. Pardon Bowen, a celebrated 
Physician of Providence, Rhode-Island, 



TO MR. JAMES HARDIE. 



ff Sir, 



cf YOUR letter of the 3d instant, written by the 
direction of the Board of Health of the city of New- 
York, requesting information of the origin and nature 
of the Malignant Fever, which then prevailed here, 
and a retrospective view of the fever in former years, 
came to hand while ] was in the country, in a state 
of convalescence, from a fever taken, I presume, by 
constant attendance upon patients labouring under 
the fever, before their removal ; and I have been com- 
pelled since my return to town, by the pressure of 
business, and the time necessarily taken to procure 
correct information, to defer my answer till the pre- 
sent time, as most of the persons, from whom the in- 
formation was to be derived, were scattered about the 
country ; and I hope the Beard of Health will not 
impute the delay to neglect* or want of respect. 

" I will now, without further preface, endeavour 
to give you as correct a statement of the fever, as the 
most careful investigation will admit, and I hope, 
with the candour the importance of the subject de- 
mands. 

<: And first, with respect to the origin of the fever. 
In order to investigate this point, it will be necessary 



139 

to take into consideration the following circum- 
stances, viz. 

u In the first place, the general state of the health 
of the town, and especially, of that part where the 
fever prevailed. 

" 2dly. The condition of the houses, wharves, 
docks, stores, &c. in the vicinity of the fever ; and, 

rc Sdly. The connection this district had with the 
shipping. 

• " With respect to the first circumstance, the health 
of the town, &c. 

u At the time the fever made its appearance, and 
for a long time before, the town in general was re- 
markably healthy ; and this was the case, more espe- 
cially, with that part of the town, which was the seat 
of the disorder, immediately 7 preceding its origin. For 
several years past, the town has been exempt from 
any remarkable epidemic catarrhal affection, angina, 
or other complaints, by many deemed the precursors 
of Yellow Fever. 

" 2dly. Respecting the condition of the houses, 
wharves, docks, stores, &c. comprising the seat of the 
lever. 

" On the most careful scrutiny, it appeared that 
this district was remarkably clean and tree from filth. 
There were no offensive gutters, nor accumulation of 
putrid animal or vegetable substances, to be found in 
or near it. The houses were detached from 
other, generally; and in the occupancy of families, 
who might vie with any equal number, in point of 
cleanliness, in any part of the town. The wharves 
s,ttd stores had nothing offensive about them, and the 



140 

clocks were as clean and free from any obvious, pu- 
trid and noxious effluvia, or tilth, as in the most 
cleanly part of the town ; and much more so than in 
some other parts, where the docks, at timts, have 
been extremely offensive, from the noisome stench 
issuing from them ; and which, at the same time, has 
been encreased by the putrid effluvium arising from 
damaged bed and tish m the contiguous cellars and 
stores; and yet as lar as my knowledge extends, no 
Malignant or Yellow Fever has ever arisen therefrom, 
although these apparently formidable agents, with 
their combined p nveis, have existed in a number of 
cases, for several years past, that have fallen under 
nay observation, and to snch extent as to have ex- 
cited very serious alarm Lr the consequences. 

" 3dly. With respect to the connection of the sickly 
district with the shipping. 

ec It is to be understood that the fever was confin- 
ed, except in three or four cases, to be mentioned 
hereafter, to both sides of Water-street, extending 
about I \S yards parallel with the wharves. From 
the back part of the houses next the river, the dis- 
tance may be about 35 or 40 yards from the head of 
the wharves, and from the opposite side of the street, 
about 80 or 90 yards; and it appears as a matter of 
fact, that all vessels from the West-Indies and else- 
where, have been permitted, and have actually come 
up to the town, and unloaded their cargoes at the 
wharves, with >ut cleansing, or performing quaran- 
tine, until since the commencement of the fever. 

" And it furthermore appears, that three vessels 
from different parts of the West-Indies, have arrived 
and unloaded at the wharves within the infected dis- 
trict, a very little while before the fever broke out, viz. 
the brig Plaster, from St. Croix, arrived on the 4? h 

July; the brig Hiram, from Antigua, and the 



14 i 

brig Juno, front Havanna, both arrived on the 1 9th 
of July, and the fever began in Captain Stephen Rus- 
set's family on the 19«h following; between which 
time and the 25th, nineteen persons more were at- \|* 
tacked, seventeen in this district, and two living at a 
distance from it. At this time, the town c nncil or- 
dered all that part of the town evacuated, and the 
vessels removed; and the fever immediately ceased, 
except m two cases; one of which, a son of Captain 
Trowbridge, occurred on the 7th, and Mr. Clifford, 
on the 12th of \ugust ; the latter of whom declared to 
my partner, Dr: Eddy, and myself, that he was two 
or three times on beard the brig Hiram, which ves- 
sel had been removed from her former situation, 
where the lever began, to the wharf back of the shop 
where he was employed, instead of being sent down 
to the quarantine ground. She has since gone to 
sea, and there are the strongest grounds to believe 
that Trowbridge had been in the infected street ; and 
if hot, the shop where he worked was not more than i 
30 or 40 yards from where the fever first began. 

" Of the two persons above-mentioned, who were 
early attacked, and resided at a distance from the in- 
fected part, one was Captain John Warner, and the 
other Mr. Jos Masury, jun. and it is perfectly well 
known, that both had been employed on these ; 
wharves, and had been on board the suspected ves- 
sels ; and there is no doubt but that they had the same 
fever the others had. Warner was quite yellow, and 
Masury died on the fifth day with the genuine black 
vomit, and other concomitant symptoms of Yellow 
Fever. 

" In addition to the above, I would beg leave to 
call the attention of the Board of Health to th® fol- 
lowing circumstances, viz. On the 25th of July, the 
order for the evacuation of the infected district, and 
removal of the shipping was issued and immediately 



142 

complied with, and the fever ceased, so that many 
families returned to their habitations, about the mid- 
dle of August, the very season when, in general, the 
Yellow Fever begins its ravages as an epidemic, and 
yet not the slightest case of fever or other sickness 
has appeared in this district, (August 28th) and the 
town continues very healthy ; and what renders the 
case still more remarkable, is, that this district was 
in so clean a state, that no kind of alteration of its 
former condition has been made in it, except that six 
loads of sand have been carted into one dock, and 
that merely because two privies were situated over 
it, but which were constantly washed by the ebbing 
and flowing of the tide, and of course, no considera- 
ble accumulation could, or did take place. This dock 
was not offensive, and the house adjoining the wharf, 
and very near to the dock, was the only one, whose 
inhabitants were exempt from the fever. 

u It further appears by the declaration of Captain 
Benjamin Dexter, who had three of his family taken 
with the fever, that when some of these vessels pump- 
ed out their bilge-water, it was so extremely offen- 
sive, that the workmen on his store were made sick, 
and in some of them to vomiting. And Mr. Goif 
declares, that the bilge-water pumped from one of 
these vessels was so particularly offensive, that he 
was obliged to shut up the doors and windows of his 
shop, notwithstanding his workmen (shoemakers) bad 
been much accustomed to the smell of bilge-water. 

" I would further state to the Board of Health, 
that the persons attacked with the fever had been on 
board the suspected vessels, as well as that they lived 
in the vicinity of them. 

" With respect to the condition of the abovemen- 
tioned vessels, the following' circumstances appear, 
viz. the brig Planter had two men taken sick with 



145 

yellow-fever on board, at St. Croix, early in the 
month of May, who w r ere carried on shore, as soon 
as the disease was ascertained, and died ; but I 
cannot learn that the clothing belonging to them 
was brought home, and the vessel underwent no 
cleansing, before or after, her arrival. 

" The Hiram arrived on the 12th, from Antigua, 
and on her arrival, Mr. Church, one of her owners, 
says that he threw overboard twenty dollars worth 
of sailors' clothes, and the reason he assigned for it 
was, that the countenances of the people did not 
look well, and he thought the air of the vessel was 
not good, and that part of the infection came from 
her. 

cc The brig Juno also arrived, 1 2th July, from Ha- 
%ana, and had one or two people sick on the pas- 
sage home. 

" All these vessels, without performing quaran- 
tine or being cleansed, immediately on their arrival, 
unloaded at the several wharves of the sickly district, 
a little before the sickness began, as before stated. 
I 

" Having thus related the circumstances respect- 
ing the origin of the sickness, as far as they have 
come to my knowledge, I am now to reply to that 
part of your request respecting its nature. 

" When the fever first made its appearance, con- 
sidering the number attacked, and in so small a 
compass, in the vicinity of the wharves and vessels, 
and very near to where the yellow fever had twice 
before appeared in an epidemic form, it highly ex- 
cited our fears, and when added to these circum- 
stances, w r e found them labouring under the follow- 
ing symptoms — rigours — violent pains in the head 



and eyes, back and limbs — prostration of strength*— 
sickness at stomach, with great distress, which was 
a constant and universal symptom with them all — 
with fever, &c. we were almost confirmed in the be- 
lief of Yellow Fever ; but as their eyes had not that 
suffusion so common to that fever, and the more de- 
cided and unequivocal symptoms kept off for four or 
five days, and considering the earliness of the season, 
we still hoped that we might be mistaken, and did 
not make a report to the council, officially, till the 
fifth day, when the symptoms assumed such an as- 
pect, as left no doubt of its real nature; for now one 
patient was attacked with the black or coffee-colour- 
ed vomit ; another had a livid countenance, with pe- 
techias ; a third turned yellow r ; a fourth had black vo- 
mit and was yellow ; a fifth had black vomit and 
stools ; and a sixth black vomit and stools, and pro- 
fuse haemorrhage from the irr uth, stnmach, &c. and 
all of them great sickness at the stomach. 

" Six persons died about the fifth and sixth day 
from the attack. These symptoms, connected with 
the suddenness of the deaths, &c. will clearly point 
out to any person competent to judge of the case, 
that it was unequivocally the Yellow or Malignant 
Fever. 

, " I will now take a retrospective view of the fore- 
going statement, and draw the conclusion that ap- 
pears to me, naturally and fairly to result from it. 

" It then appears that the town of Providence has 
enjoyed a great degree of health for seveial years 
past, and been exempt from those epidemics supposed 
the precursors of Yellow Fever. That about the ^Oth 
of July, seventeen or eighteen persons were attacked 
with Yellow Fever, in a small district, till this time 
remarkably health} — That this district was very clean 
and free from any obvious cause of sickness about the 



145 

bouses, stores, docks or wharves ; but that three dif- 
ferent vessels, from three different ports of the West- 
Indies, had arrived at, and unloaded on, the wharves 
of this district, without performingquarantine or being 
cleansed ; that one had lost two men with Yellow 
Fever, at St. Croix ; another was suspected to be in- 
fected, by the owner ; and that the third had had 
sickness on the homeward bound passage : that the 
inhabitants of this district and the vessels were remov- 
ed on the 26th of July, and that the fever ceased; 
that about the middle of August, many of the inha- 
bitants returned to their habitations in this district - y 
that they have been there about a fortnight, and no 
sickness had recurred, notwithstanding no alteration 
has been made in the condition of this district, except 
six loads of sand put into one dock, merely because 
two privies were over it, but which were not, in any 
manner, remarkably filthy ; that many of the sick 
j had been on board of the suspected vessels; and final- 
ly, that they had been much affected by the extreme 
olfensiveness of the bilge-water of these vessels. 

" From the foregoing premises, I think we may 
fairly infer, that the fever was the Yellow or Malig- 
nant Fever, and that it had its origin, or stood, some- 
L how or other, connected with one or all three of the 
vessels above-mentioned. This is, at least, my opi- 
nion, decidedly -, and not only of the fever of thisyear, 
but in each epidemic Yellow Fever in this town, I 
think I have the most unequivocal evidence of its im- 
portation ; and even in almost every sporadic case, I 
have been able to trace a connection with a source 
of foreign origin, either at the time, or perhaps, by 
knowledge of it obtained along time after. 

" Two such instances have come to my knowledge 
lately. 

" Now, notwithstanding my belief that the conia- 



146 

giou is imported, I think it proper to observe, that I 
also believe, that it requires some peculiar, appro- 
priate, and to me, inexplicable condition in our at- 
mosphere, to render it capable of propagation, either 
as a medium, through which the contagion may be 
spread, or by combining with it, and thus rendering 
it active. It is like tinder fitted to receive a spark 
of fire, and as far as this appropriate state of air ex- 
tends, when saturated or contaminated with the fo- 
reign or contagious principle, so far is it capable of 
communicating the disease to those who inhale it, 
and are predisposed to it : and I am led to this con* 
elusion from the following circumstances. The dis- 
ease, I believe, generally appears first as an epidemic, 
or in its propagating state, near to, or about wharves 
and docks, and extends its influence gradually and 
progressively, so that if a patient ever so bad, and 
even dies with it, is carried into the country, or, in 
the beginning of the epidemic, into a distant part of 
the town or city, remote from the water, he does not 
convey the disorder, even to those in frequent con- 
tact with him ; at least, this has been the case with 
us, and I believe is generally admitted as fact in other 
places. 

" Now, if this fever possessed the common charac- 
ter of other contagious diseases, it would like them, 
in all situations, and in all seasons, be more or less 
capable of propagating its kind under these different 
circumstances. 

" What this condition of the atmosphere is, that 
by assimulating with the contagion, or serving as a 
medium to it, which renders it so destructive to the 
human race, I cannot pretend to say, or even con- 
jecture : but that it is not the object of our senses, I 
am fully convinced, from long and much observation. 
The inference, however, from this hypothesis is obvi- 
ous, if we cannot comprehend the condition of our 



147 

atmosphere, which renders the disease capable of 
propagation, then we should be the more careful to 
prevent the foreign principle from being brought into 
contact with the domestic one. This, however, is a 
task truly peculiar, considering the thousand different 
ways by running articles from vessels, by clothes sent 
from them, by persons visiting them secretly, &c. <>: 
by which it may be conveyed. 

" Before I quit this subject, I must beg leave to 
call the attention of the Board of Health to one cir- 
cumstance attending Yellow Fever; a circumstance of 
the utmost importance in investigating its nature, and 
so obvious, that one would think, that the meanest 
capacity would comprehend it, and which, at the same 
time, is overlooked by many eminent and ingenious 
men. It is this : that the first frost, or what is called 
black frost, destroys the real Yellow Fever radically, 
although it may, at this time, have extended its influ- 
ence ever so far 5 whereas the Bilious and other fevers 
of our country, which are said to be oniy grades of 
the Yellow Fever, are often extended into, and 
through the winter and spring. Now it appears to 
absurd to suppose, that a cause which is capable 
to destroy the highest grade of a ieYer, should be una- 
ble to produce the same effect upon the lower de- 
grees of it; but as we every year see, that frost radi- 
cal!)' destroys the Yellow Fever at once, while our 
other fevers continue through v fa many 

cases, the inference is plain and irresistible, that there 
is a specitic difference between them, although there 
may be some symptoms in col them all. 

" With respect to a retrospective view of former 
years, I must beg leave to reier the Board of Health 
to some documents I am about to send on to Dr. 
1 losaek upon this subject, and which I shall request 
him to give them the perusal of, if they should d 
them of sufficient consequence. 



148 

" You will please to tender my respects to the 
Board of Health. 

I have the honour to be, 
With much respect, 
Your obedient servant, 
PARDON BOWEN. 
Providence, August 28th, 18Go." 

cc September 10///, 1805. 
" Sir, 

" I have been under the necessit}' to withhold my 
communication until this time, as I was informed that 
one of the circumstances mentioned therein, was not 
correct, and the persons capable of giving correct in- 
formation were absent. I have this moment seen 
one of them, and am now able to say, that instead 
of the brig Juno's having one or two persons sick on 
the homeward boBnd passage, she had only one man 
sick or unwell several days in the Havanna, but was 
able to do his duty home. This vessel was also at 
New-Providence during her voyage. 

u No person is or has been sick in the district, 
where our fever prevailed, and the inhabitants are 
all returned, with but a few exceptions. 
Yours with esteem, &c. 

PARDON BOWEN." 

The next opinion, which we have concerning the 
origin of vellow fever is contained in a letter from Dr. 
John Stewart, of Grenada, to Dr. David Hosack, 
of this city. In order to understand this, it may be 
proper to observe, that Dr. Hosack about the mid- 
dle of November last, published a statement of his 
official conduct with the Board of Health ; but as 
his letters to that body have been already published 
in the preceding part of this work, it will be unne- 
cessary here to repeat them. It will, therefore, on- 



14$ 

Iy be needful to give the other parts of Pie- 

man's statement. 

To the Editor of the Morning Chronicle. 

"Sir, 

" As every thing relating to Yellow Fever seems 
to have become so very unpleasant to many of your 
readers, it is with regret that I feel myself compelled 
to occupy a column of your paper on that subject ; 
but to pass over in silence, the misrepresentations, 
which have been circulated relative to my professi- 
onal conduct during the late epidemic, would not 
only be injustice to myself, but inconsistent with that 
respect, which I consider due to public opinion. As 
soon, therefore, as I could procure the necessary do- 
cuments from the Secretary of the Board of Health, 
I prepared the following concise, but I trust satis- 
factory statement, for , the inspection of my fellow- 
citizens. 

" Of the various charges circulated against me tlie 
first is, that I denied the existence of the yellow 
ver after it had appeared in different parts of our ci- 
ty, in consequence of which many persons were induc- 
ed to remain longer than they otherwise would have 
done, and some of whom actually fell victims to their 
misplaced confidence. The following documents 
will, I trust, shew that this new sort of calumny ((or 
till this year I have been pointed at by the same per- 
sons as an alarmist) is totally unfounded. It is ne- 
cessary previously to remind the reader that the 
Board oi Health published their first report of the 
existence of the epidemic on Friday the tith Septem- 
ber. On the 5th of August I addressed a letter to 
the Board, of which the following is an extract : 

" On Tuesday morning, July SO, about 9 o'clock, 
Dr. Riddle, for the first time, requested me to visit 



150 

with him Mr. Dougherty, in Water street, a clerk in 
the employ of Messrs. Moore and Storey, which I 
did immediately.' * 

" The Doctor informed me that this patient had 
been sick since the preceding Wednesday, the 24th 
inst" ! 

" Upon retiring (after having examined the state 
of the patient and heard the Doctor's history of the 
case) I did not hesitate to express my belief of the 
nature of the disease." 

" As the patient was near his dissolution I imme- 
diately made a report to the Mayor of the case." 

Dr. Hosack at the end of his letter of the 6th of 
September, makes the following remarks. " I have 
to observe, that at the very time when the above cases 
were shewn to me, as the only ones that had been 
reported, I have since discovered from an inspection 
of the minutes of the board, that there had been re- 
ported five more, neither of which was shewn to me 
by the Secretary. To the above letter the calumny 
attributing to me a denial of the existence of the dis- 
ease, is to be ascribed. I shall only add, that the 
five cases shewn me as Yellow Fever, but which I 
denied to be such, all terminated as will be found by 
examining the records of the board in recoveries. 
The other five I did not see." 

The above seems to convey a reflection upon me, 
as not having performed a particular duty enjoined 
upon me by the Board. It is well known, however, 
to several of the members, that the circumstances un- 
der which I at that time acted, were peculiarly dif- 
ficult and perplexing, several physicians having ex- 
pressly declared, that they would deem it an insult, 
if any medical gentleman should be introduced to see 



151 

a patient of theirs, without their consent. An im- 
partial public will, I am persuaded, be fully satisfied, 
that upon an occasion of this nature, it was proper 
for me to endeavour, by every means in my power, 
io prevent discord or dissention taking place amongst 
professional characters. 

The following part of Dr. Hosack's statement, 
not having appeared, in what I have already publish- 
ed relative to that gentleman, a regard to justice ren- 
ders it necessary, that it should be republished here. 

" It has been said, that a view to the compensa- 
tion offered by the Board of Health, was the motive 
of the unworthy conduct with which I have been 
charged. 

" The following letter from the Mayor, will, I 
trust, afford a sufficient reply to this calumny. 

" Utk November, 1805. 

" Sir, 

" Agreeably to your request, I have directed the 
Secretary of the Board of Health, to furnish you with 
copies of your reports, which I presume you have re- 
ceived before this time. 

" It is but an act of justice to you to declare, that 
previous to your acting under the request of the 
Board, you explicitly assured me that you would re- 
ceive no compensation. 

I have the honour to be, 

Your most obedient servant, 
DE WITT CLINTON. 
Dr. Hosack." 

" It has been said that I have departed from the 
♦pinions I had heretofore entertained of the origin 



of the yettbw feVef-, and that as in the present year 
no particular vessel had been charged with the in- 
troduction of it, we were compelled to acknowledge 
its domestic origin. Such too appears to be the ob- 
ject and tenor of the last very extraordinary letter 
published by the Healtk-Oflicer. In reply to this 
misrepresentation of my opinion, I have only to re- 
mark, that if I had before entertained any doubt of 
the origin of this calamity, the circumstances attend- 
ing its appearance in the present season, would alone 
have satisfied me (as it has some others who have 
had opportunities of watching its early progress) that 
it is not the product of our own soil or climate, but 
is always introduced from abroad. The intercourse 
I might, perhaps, say the unlimited intercourse , which 
has existed between the Quarrantine ground and this 
city, by night as well as by day, sufficiently accounts 
for the origin of the pestilence of the last season. 

Ci It is unnecessary for me here to go into details; 
the clue to the investigation of the facts upon this 
subject, is in the possession of the proper authority, 
and I trust it will be pursued with the attention it 
merits, and the importance of the enquiry demands; 
but I will venture to predict, that unless our Legisla- 
ture enact a law that will make it necessary to qua- 
rantine the captains of vessels, the supercargo, the 
seamen, the passengers, their bedding, cloathing, 8Cc. 
as well as the vessels themselves, wc shall never be 
secure from danger, and that the now growing com- 
merce of our city will be sacrificed to the repetition 
of this terrible calamity. 

u While I thus recommend a more strict and effi- 
cient Quarantine Law, to prevent the introduction 
irf contagion from abroad, I hope it will not be thought 
that I disregard the attention bestowed by our vigi- 
lant police in preserving cleanliness at home. On 
the contrary, it is conceded, that the Yellow Fever, 



1.53 

like other contagious diseases, is never so readily pro- 
pagated in a pure as in an impure atmosphere; per- 
haps I may go further and say, that the Yellow Fever, 
more than any other contagious disease that we 
know of, requires an impure air, as its conductor. 
But that the filth of our streets, our docks, or ?iew made 
grounds, grave yards or privies, have ever generated 
this species of fever, I cannot believe. I should as 
readily ascribe the origin of Small-pox, or Measles, or 
Plague, to the dirt of our gutters, as to trace the 
Yellow Fever to putrid animal or vegetable matter; 
and that I am not alone in this opinion, a vast body 
of testimony might be adduced, but I shall content 
myself with the following extract from an interesting 
letter, which I received a few days ago from Dr. John 
Stuart, an eminent physician, from the island cf Gre- 
nada, who has lately visited this city. 

" This gentleman has practised medicine 24 years 
in that island, resided there in 1793, when the Yel- 
low Fever was introduced from Boullam, by the ship 
Hankey, and which in the same year, communicated 
that disease to Philadelphia. The celebrity of Dr. 
Stuart, as an accomplished scholar and physician, 
entitles his observations to the particular attention of 
©ur citizens. 

I am, Sir, with regard, vours, 

DAVID IIOSACK." 

" New-York, Nov. 12, 1805. 
a Deab. Sir, 

" I have received your favour of this date, desiring 
information concerning the fever which appeared, 
and proved so fatal, in Grenada, in March, 1793. I 
feel much disposed to comply with your request, but 
regret that my time will not allow me to do so in a 
manner satisfactory to myself; at all events, I hope you 
will make allowance for any inaccuracy I mav coin-,, 



134 

mil, in referring to a circumstance, 'wtich took place 
so long as 12 years ago, especially as I am possessed 
of no memorandum respecting the disease, all my 
papers having been destroyed in the insurrection 
which occurred in that island, in J 795. 

" It may be necessary to premise, that I had been 
engaged in an extensive practice in the quarters of 
St. Andrews and St. Patricks, for 19 years previous 
to the period referred to. My place of residence was 
on the east side of the island, and on the confines of 
these two parishes, about 24 miles from Sfe. George, 
the capital, and upwards of four miles from Grenville 
bay, the second harbour in the colony — The tract of 
country between my abode and the latter, is flat, and 
the shore low and swampy ; it is consequently extreme- 
ly unhealthy in the fall of the year ; I had become, of 
course, welt acquainted with Tertian Fever under its 
various forms, of intermittent, remittent, and conti- 
nued types. It is, however, worthy of remark, that 
1 do not recollect an instance of an epidemic occur- 
ring among the white inhabitants in any part of the 
island, from January to July or August, previous to 
the year 1/93. 

(< My first acquaintance with the fever in question 
wa s as follows : In the month of March of that year 
I went one day on board the ship Adventure, then 
lying in Grenville harbour, to visit the carpenter, at 
that time under my charge for a gun shot wound in 
his hand. While there, captain Remington arrived 
irom St. George's by sea ; he had come round in a 
drogher, and had had heavy squalls, with rain, in his 
passage to windward. He then complained of be- 
ing feverish, and seemed low spirited, he had heat 
of skin, his pulse full and under one hundred, head- 
ache, pain in his back and limbs, and over his whole 
body : these symptoms I imputed to cold caught in 
his passage up, and accordingly took eight ounces 



155 

of blood from him, which unexpectedly neither ex- 
hibited the bussy coat, nor the coagulum any degree 
of contraction, nor consequent separation of serum. 
He took an emetic of Ipecacuanha in the evening, 
and a dose of Glauber Salts the following morning, 
During three days I continued to visit him, his pulse 
did not exceed one hundred, nor was the heat of his 
skin considerable ;• he took occasionally small doses 
of Antimonial Wine, with the addition of Laudanum 
at bed time, and made free use of tepid drinks..., 
At the end of that time, I was under the necessity 
of putting him in charge of a neighbouring practi- 
tioner, having a call to the other side of the island. 
On leaving him, I certainly did not entertain any 
idea of his being in danger; I was, however, forcibly 
struck with, and could not well account for an un- 
common degree of despondency of mind, that was 
then present, and it was not possible to remove the 
impression that he was to die ; nor was I the less 
surprised, on going to Grenville a few days there- 
after to be told of his death, and more especially to 
hear of that event having been preceded by haemorr- 
hage from his nose, stomach, mouth and urinary 
bladder. On this occasion, while in conversation 
with some gentlemen on the fate of this unfortunate 
man, I could not help noticing the malignity of the 
case, and the difference in the train of symptoms 
from what I had ever witnessed to take place in the 
worst case of our endemic fever. But a few min- 
utes had elapsed, when a gentleman arrived from St. 
George's ; I had no sooner mentioned capt. R's. 
death to him, and my surprise thereat, when he ins- 
tantly replied it was known to him, for that capt. 
R. had eat and slept on board the ship Ilankey, dur- 
ing several days that he was in town. This was 
the first notice I had of such a vessel being in the 
colony, and I therefore anxiously requested he 
would explain himself: this he did, by saying that the 
Hankey, capt. Cox, had arrived some time before 



156 

after carrying a number of settlers from England t® 
the coast of Africa, where she had remained tor some 
months, and that during her stay the greater part of 
those unfortunate people had been carried off by fe- 
ver, and concluded by saying, that there was,at that 
time,a cursed infection lurking on board of her. That 
the mate of the ship Baillieshad died, or was dying, 
and several other seamen were very ill when he left 
town. The melancholy scene that artervvards fol- 
owed at St. George's in '93. ...'94, is well and amply 
described by my respectable friend Dr. Chisholm, 
in his well known work, on West-India diseases. 

" As to the character of this fever,my experience 
has fully satisfied me that it was specifically distinct 
from every form of the Indigenous Bilious Remit- 
tent, which I had ever observed. Because it appear- 
ed at a season of the year which I had always found 
healthy, during a period of nineteen years I had 
resided in the colony. Because it did not particu- 
larly appear in those situations where bilious re- 
mittent fever usually prevailed during the unhealthy 
season of the year. Because there was an evident 
difference in the character and type of the two dis- 
eases ; there was a greater despondency of mind in 
this fever, the eyes were more muddy and inflamed, 
there was commonly a deep seated pain in the eye- 
sockets, the motion of the eye-balls was attended 
with uneasiness ; the pain in the back and limbs 
was greater than in bilious fever ; the vomiting was 
not of so violent and straining a nature, nor was 
there such evacuations of bilious matter. The 
black vomit* generally occurred at an early period ; 
the yellowness was of a dingy hue, not of the real 
icteric tinge accompanying cases of bilious fever. 
The delirium was in many instances of a peculiar 
nature, and much resembling a state of intoxication; 

* Which I consider as one of the characterislistics of this disease. 



157 

haemorrhage was more frequent, particularly by 
urine, and from the stomach and intestines. Pati- 
ents, on several occasions, made exertions not long 
before death, that I never witnessed in bilious fever. 
I have known a patient to get up, dress himself, and 
walk about his chamber, a very short time before 
his death. Medical practitioners, before being well 
acquainted with the deceitful nature of the disease, 
not unfrequently declared their patients out of dan- 
ger, when the fatal issue took place an hour or two 
after their departure. Because I never knew this 
fever terminate within a few weeks in intermittent, 
as tertian, remittent or bilious fever commonly does. 
Because the degree of weakness produced by the 
fever is greater, and the recovery of flesh and strength 

more gradual and slow in this than bilious fever 

Because I did not find the same mode of treatment 
successful in both cases of fever ; for the early, bold 
and free use of bark, which I have found very gen- 
erally to answer in bilious fever, seemed to aggra- 
vate this fever, and to hasten the fatal issue. 

"That this fever was contagious,Iconcludedfrom 
the manner in which it broke out and spread. It first 
appeared in two or three vessels that had a commu- 
nication with the Hankey, and from those sources 
it gradually extended itself to other vessels in the 
harbour, but not to all 3 for, where attention was 
paid to prohibit communication with infected ships, 
such vessels escaped. After some time it got on 
shore, both into town and in the garrison. There 
is also reason to think that it was carried from thence 
to the adjoining islands, as it appeared at most of 
those to windward, within two mouths of its break- 
ing out at Grenada; and some time thereafter, it 
shewed itself at Jamaica, and ultimately I believe in 
tember at Philadelphia. 

" Its contagious nature also appeared frommzny 



15S 

instances of men ill 1793 and 1794, going to St. 
George's on business, and being attacked a few 
days after their return to the country with this fever, 
to several of whom it proved fatal ; but I must ob- 
serve that I met with no instance in the country of 
the disease being communicated to others, either visi- 
tors or attendants. It is indeed true that every at- 
tention was paid to keep the chambers of the sick 
well aired f their linen frequently shifted, and when 
a fatal issue took place, every article of wearing ap- 
parel and bedding was commonly destroyed. 

" From knowing several instances of young men 
who got wounded in 1795 and 1796, having been 
sent for convenience and proper attendance to town, 
and during their cure were attacked by this cruel 
disease, and on some occasions fell a sacrifice 
thereto. 

« From instances occurring, of people expressing 
a consciousness of the time, when they received the 
contagion, while visiting acquaintances labouring un- 
der the disease. 

" From a thorough belief in the minds of all the 
medical gentlemen in Grenada, who witnessed the 
disease, that it was so; Jet it be observed, however, 
that one of the most respectable practitioners in St. 
George's, and a particular acquaintance of my own, 
would not allow, at first, that it was contagious. 
And lastly, from a full conviction that I, as well as 
some other medical gentlemen, contracted the dis- 
ease in our attendance on the sick. 

" Respecting the propagation of this fever, I am 
decidedly of opinion, that it was occasioned by visit- 
ing infected apartments, or by the near approach to, 
or contact with people labouring under it. There 
is every probability also, that the infection was 



159 

brought to Grenada by the Hankey;* but what its 
nature was, whether it originated on board in conse- 
quence of the number of sick crowded together, while 
labouring under the endemic of a warm climate, and 
that in a sultry, moist atmosphere, is a question I do 
not take upon myself to answer. 

cc That vegetable and animal matter, in a state of 
putrefaction, does produce disease, is not to be de- 
nied -, but that vegetable matter only in a state of 
corruption, is on many occasions harmless, is evident, 
from the offensive heaps of cotton-seed, and the pulpy- 
covering of the coffee berry, which are daily to be 
met with in Demarara, without being considered as 
a cause of fever - y nor should this circumstance be 
omitted, that when fever does prevail, it is at a sea- 
son, when those causes do not act powerfully. 

Yours, &c. 

JOHN STUART. 

Dr. David Hosack." 

The next opinion which I shall adduce, with, re- 
spect to the origin of Yellow Fever in this country, 
is that of the celebrated French traveller, C. F. Vol- 
ney, in his vary interesting work, entitled, " A View 
of the Climate and Soil of the United States of Ame- 
rica." In page 297, of the London edition, printed 
in 1804, he begins thus: 

OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 

^ " The disease, too well known by the name of Yel- 
low Fever, grows more and more common in the 
United States, and I shall speak of it, at some length, 
on account of the importance of the subject. Be- 
sides, as I was originally intended for the practice of 

^* It is important to note here, that when the Hankey returned to 
Great-Britain, she was immediately ordered by the Board of Health t« 
be burnt, which was done accordingly. 



160 

physic, the studies of fitly younger days enabled me 
to reason upon this disorder with professional men, 
and discuss the various (pinions entertained concern- 
ing it, though with the diffidence becoming one who 
has only had a glimpse of the extensive career. Had 
I not been thus far qualified, I should have refrained 
from meddling with the subject ; for to talk of physic 
without having studied the art, is like discoursing of 
astronomy, mechanics, or military skill., without any 
preliminary information." 

i ; rom the above introduction, it will appear pretty 
evident, that Mr.Volney was well qualified to make 
remarks upon the nature of the diseases, which were 
most prevalent, in those countries, through which he 
travelled, but as want of room compels me to leave out 
his account of the different stages of the yellow fe- 
ver, the different modes of cure, &c. I shall con- 
tent myself, at present, by giving his opinion con- 
cerning the origin of this cruel disorder. After men- 
tioning a schism, amongst physicians, which he says, 
had been particularly notorious, he goes on thus, 
" Some have pretended, that it (the Yellqw Fever) 
was always imported from abroad, particularly from 
the West -Indies ; and that it was not, and could 
not, m any case, be the native produce of the United 
States. In proof of their opinion, they have advan- 
ced the non-existence or extreme rarity of epidemics 
before the peace of 1783 ; and they have ascribed 
their frequency since that period to their more active 
and more direct commercial intercoursce with the 
West-India islands and the Spanish main. They 
have even charged certain vessels, by name, with 
having imported the contagion, the existence of which 
they have supposed in a degree little inferior to the 
Plague." 

c< Other physicians,on tiie contrary,have maintain- 
ed, that from its very nature the yellow fever might 



161 

arise in the United States, as often as its disposing 
and occasional causes of time and place occurred to- 
gether ; and, in the first place, tracing to their source, 
the pretended facts of importation, they have demon- 
strated by the most positive testimonies, not only 
that the vessels accused of having brought with them 
the disease, or its germes, did no such thing, /but that 
it did not appear on beard of them, till after they had 
moored at the quays, and in the vicinity of the places, 
which were noted at New-York and Philadelphia, as 
the foci of the evil ; with this additional peculiarity, 
that it had even seized those of the crews first, who 
had had the most immediate contact with the infec- 
tious place ;* then, collecting all the circumstances 
of the disease, with regard to place, season, and the 
constitutions of the sick, they have demonstrated, 

" 1st. That it attacked populous cities, in prefer- 
ence to villages and country situations. 

" 2dly. That, in populous cities, as New- York, 
Philadelphia, and Baltimore, it affected constantly 
and almost exclusively, the low parts, full of filth and 
stagnant water; streets not ventilated, not pa 
and dirty; and particularly the quays and their vici- 
nity, covered with nastiness to an inconceivable de- 
gree ; where every day, at low water, the shores are 

* Thus the whole city of Philadelphia was persuaded, that the epi- 
demic of 1793, came from the island of Grenada, to which they said it 
had been brought from Bulam, on the coast of Africa, by the ship Han- 
key. An English physician, who happened to be aUihat island, gave 
great weight to the authenticity of this secund part of the story in a 
pamphlet he wrote; yet three yeais after, Mr. Noah Webster and Dr. 
£. H. Smith published, at New-York, a journal of the whole voyage. 
of the Hankey, drawn up by one of the most respectable eye-witi 
which contains such a great body of proof, and bears so obvious a stamp 
of candour and veracity, that the reader is convinced, as » veil as Mr, 
Webster and Dr. Smith, of Dr. Chisholm's having been completely de- 
ceived. In like manner, Dr. Richard Bayley proves, in his excellent re- 
port to the Governor of New-York, that "the accusations brought against 
the vessels Antoinette and Patty, were vulgar rumours, completely des- 
titute of foundation, &c. See the New- York Medical Repository, 2d 
edition, vol. I. pa^e 439 and 121. 

X 



i6% 

exposed to an ardent sun. At New-York, for in- 
stance, Dr. R. Bayley has calculated, that to fill up 
the dock, between the Whitehall and Exchange-slip, 
twenty-four loads of every kind of filth, including even 
carcases of horses, dogs, &c. were used in one year ; 
whence it followed, that in July, the stench was so 
powerful in the neighbourhood, as to excite nausea 
and vomiting, the precursors of the epidemic, espe- 
cially in the evenings. 

" Sdly. That with regard to the course of the sea- 
son, it appeared only in July, August and Septem- 
ber ; that is at the period when the obstinate and in- 
tense heats of 24® or 25° Reaumur, (86* or 88° F.) 
excite an evident fermentation in these heaps of ani- 
mal and vegetable matter, and disengage from them 
miasmata, which every thing indicates to be the de- 
si r yers of health. Tbese v pbysicians have remarked, 
tnat the epidemic redoubled its fury, if the weather 
r the v • id south-east, or even north-east : 
that if was diminished by the cold and dryness of the 
north-west wind, and even by the copious rains of 
ihe,soulh west; that, in the difference of years, the 
ted those, in which the heats of summer 
e dryness and calm in 

; air; no d.:ubl, because then the accumulated 
miasmata exercised a more powerful action on the 
lungs, and, hy their means, on the wiiole circulation. 

" Lastly. They have demonstrated, that in the 
choice of subjects, it attacks in preference", the badly 
fed and dirty inhabitants of the suburbs and quar- 
ters abounding in filth and marshes; workmen ex- 
posed to the heat of fire, as smiths and jewellers, and 
those who were addicted to spirituous liquors, ob- 
serving, that frequently the Yellow Fever has imme- 
diately succeeded a fit of drunkenness ; that it attacks 
also more particularly, people of full, sanguine, ro- 
bust habits, adults of warm constitutions, foreigners 



163 

from northern climates, black?, and men debilitated 
bv libertinism : that it spares foreigners from hot coun- 
tries, people temperate in drinking, and more parti- 
cularly in eating; and those who are in easy circum- 
stances, cleaniy in their persons, living more on ve- 
getable than animal food, and residing in paved, airy 
streets, and high situations. 

. " Farther, following the malady even to the places 
pointed out as the cradle and focus of its origin, they 
hare demonstrated, that even in the West-Indies, 
in the islands of Grenada, Martinico, St. Domingo 
and Jamaica, the Yellow Fever arose only where 
the same circumstances were combined; that it 
.shews itself only in certain places, and particular 
years, exactly similar to the cases mentioned in the 
United States; that places, where there is neither 
marsh nor filth, as St, Kitt's, St. Vincent's, Tobago, 
and J3arbadoes, are constantly healthy; that, if the 
fever has appeared at St. George's, in Grenada, and 
at Fort Royal, in Martinico, it was at the careen- 
age, near noisome marshes, and at a time when a 
superabundance of vessels, and the .extreme dryness 
of the season, had contributed to the deveiopement 
of ferments; that if its appearance in the cities of 
New-York, Baltimore and Philadelphia, had been 
owing only to importation, it must have been brought 
to them habitually, from Norfolk and Charleston, 
with which they had an extensive intercourse, and 
where the combination of all the causes above-men- 
tioned, rendered it almost endemic every summer. 

({ The facts, on which these conclusions are founded, 
are dispersed through different tracts, published from 
1795 and 1798, the time when I left the United 
States."* 

* See the report of the physicians of Philadelphia to the Go- 
vernor of Pennsylvania ; that of Dr. Richard Bayley (q the Go- 



164 

« It is impossible to read them attentively, and not 
he struck with the constant harmony and corres- 
pondence, that every where exist between the pri- 
mary and secondary causes, mediate or immediate, 
the concomitant circumstances and the effects, either 
isolated or combined into a series. Every where we 
find the fever originating and increasing in the com- 
pound ratio of the heat ol the atmosphere, of its con- 
tinued dryness or temporary humidity, of its calm- 
ness, of the vicinity and extent of marshes, and 
especially of the accumulated heaps of animal mat- 
ter, forming a focus of putrefaction, and deleterious 
effluvia. We even see the fevers are more or less 
violent according to the intensity of all these causes : if 
there be only excess ofh< ai, without masses of pu- 
trefaction, and without marshes, they are simply of 
the inflammatory kind, that is scarlatina and bilious 
\ without any complication of malignity ; if there 
be muddy ma shes, unimpR;;nated with animal matter 
the miasmata occasion putrid sore throats, the se- 
vere bilious vomitings called cholera morbus , and 
destructive dysenteries : if to these be added accu- 
mulations of putrefying animal matter, the disorder 
becomes complicated with symptoms, that always 
denote the nervous system to be affected by a kind 
of poison : when the evil is at its maximum, all the 
ether degrees have a tendency to assimilate with it ; 
whence it follows, that fevers may be graduated and 
measured by the degrees of the thermometer, and 
intensity of putrid miasmata ; and that in the course 
of the same summer and autumn, we may follow 

vernor of New- York ; the inquiry into the Cause of the Prevalence of 
the Yellow Fever in New-York, by Dr. Valentine Seaman ; Dr. Rush's 
Medical Inquiries and Observations : a letter from Dr. G. Davidson, 
on the appearance of the Yellow Fever at Mavtinico in 1796: Origin 
of the Pestilential Fever that prevailed in the Island of Grenada in 
1703 and 17.04 by Dr. E. H. Smith ; an Inaugural Dissertation on the 
Bilious Ffevei and Dysentery that prevailed in Sheffield, in Massachu- 
setts, by Dr. W. Buel ; anil lastly the very interesting Collection of 
Letters on the Fevers of various places, published by Noah Webster. 



165 

their progress and affinity from simple synocha, to 
the plague, which is but the last degree in the scale, 
and the maximum of these causes united. In Such 
a state of things it is evident, that every country 
where heat and centres of putrefaction are united to 
a sufficient degree, will be capable of engendering 
all these diseases. I had already imagined, that I 
had observed in Egypt and Syria, a heat of 24° ofj 
Reaumur, (86 F.) to be the point at which a febrile 
disposition and commotion of a destructive ki:: 
denoted by the term of malig?iant freer took place 
in the blood ; and it was with surprise and plea- 
sure I saw the same opinion had been suggested to 
Dr. G. Davidson at Martinico, by similar facts, and 
that he thought with me, that setting out from thflr 
degree, equal to 86° of Farenheir, the characters of 
malignity and contagion are exalted as the heat rises, 
till at length they form the plague. 

" Through the means of the writings and facts I 
have quoted, these principles have acquired such a 
degree of evidence in the United States, that a very 
great majority of the physicians of New-York, Bos- 
ton, Baltimore, Norfolk and Charleston, have joined 
in declaring, that the yellow fever might, and actu- 
ally did arise in the United States. The college of 
Philadelphia alone has persisted in affirming its im- 
portation, and this opinion, which has in its favour 
the advantage of precedence in the minds of the 
common people, will long have partizans in every 
class, from several very potent motives : as 

" 1st. Because it flatters national vanity, and 
many persons want only a pretext, to authorise 
their own. 

" 2d. Because it favours the interest of jobbers in 
the sale of lands, and the emigration of foreigners to 
a country which enjoys the privilege of not engen- 



166 

d'ering fever. It is true that if it be so apt to receive 
it by innoculation, the case is almost as bad ; but 
the partizans of its importation cannot take a joke, 
and I have found many Americans, who were seri- 
ously put out of temper by contradiction on this sub- 
ject. 

" 3d. Because those physicians who first estab- 
lished this belief, are so engaged by self-love or sup- 
posed conviction, that they have almost prohibited 
to themselves the least modification of it; and be- 
cause they have made the government take mea- 
sures so decisive, and so burdensome to commerce, 
Jthat if they were now found to have been adopted 
Vithout reason, the authors would infallibly oc< ur 
ill-will. Yet I consider those offices of health or 
lazarettos in the ports of the United States, as a wise 
institution, particularly in the American trade up the 
Mediterranean, and in the Levant. 

" 4 tidy and lastly, because the contagious and 
almost pestilential character, which is joined with 
the prejudice of importation, very happily excuses 
the want of success of those, whose patients very 
seldom recover. 

" While I adopt the opinion of those physicians 
who consider the yellow fever as an indigenous pro- 
duct of the United States, I am far from inculpating 
the intention of those, who support the opposite side 
of the question; but I consider the doctrine of im- 
portation as dangerous and imprudent, both on ac- 
count of the dogmatic and intolerant tone it has 
assumed so far as to attack domestic liberty and se- 
curity, and to compromise the government ; and be- 
cause, in urging extravagant external measures, it 
has rendered men indifferent to internal steps of far 
greater necessity, that flow directly from the oppo- 
site opinion/ 



167 

" As to the question of its contagious character, 
I can neither admit the absolute negative mentioned 
by some physicians, nor the general and constant 
case supposed by several others. The latter is con- 
troverted by too many incnntestibic facts ; and the 
former, that is, the negative, seems to me inconsistent 
with the very origin of the disorder ; for if marsh 
miasmata and putrid matter possess the property of 
exciting it, surely a fortiori^ the miasmata of an in- 
fected hum£n body must have this quality, their affi- 
nity with the living fluids being much greater. Ac- 
cordingly, it was remarked in -Philadelphia in 1797> 
that several families, in returning from the country 
to their houses in town, in which some persons had 
been sick or died, without taking care to purify it 
from infection, were immediately seized with the dis- 
order, notwithstanding the weather w r as cold, and it 
bad disappeared. At Norfolk, it was still a more 
general remark, that they who had removed from 
1 city, were more exposed to catch the disorder, 
T they who remained constantly in its atmos- 
e; and this case corresponds with that of stran- 
gers, particularly from the north, who were ob- 
served at Philadelphia, New- York, &c. to be parti- 
cularly liable to attack. 

" The men of theory endeavour to explain this 
singularity by saying, that strangers are more sus- 
ceptible of the fever in consequence of a superabun- 
dance of oxygen being infused into the biodtj, by the 
purer air of Europe or the country. But not to men- 
tion that this superabundance of oxygen is merely 
hypothetical, the ideas we have of oxygen gas, essen- 
tially conducive to health, are so contrary to it, that 
we have a right to demand stronger proofs ; and to 
assert, as they do, that oxygen is more abundant in 
low situations than high, is a new supposition in che- 
mistry, so much the less admirable, as the most 
learned chemists in Europe consider the contrary as 



168 

proved. It is not oxygen, that their experiments 
have shewn them to be disengaged from marshes and 
putrid matters, but carbon, hydrogen and azot : it 
even appears, that the combination of the first two 
of these gasses, has the specific property of generat- 
ing intermitting and remitting fevers? and that these 
do not become putrid, but by the addition of azot tw 
the compound. 

" Farther study, no doubt, will unfold the action 
of all these morbific gasses ; at present the best indi- 
cations of cure appear to lie : 1st. to counteract the 
inflammation, which is the first stage of the disorder, 
by diluents and refrigerants ; perhaps baths of such 
a temperature as to excite a slight shivering* would 
be among the most efficacious employed on the first 
suspicion of the disorder and continued for eight or 
ten hours. I leave it to the masters of the art to de- 
cide on very cold baths even near the freezing point, 
from which some American physicians assert, they 
have obtained good effects : it is certain, that in eases 
of phrenzy, they have sometimes effected astonishing 
cures; but the period of their application has a deci- 
sive influence, since their effect in the inflammatory 
stage is very different from what it would be in the 
succeeding. The remedies employed against aphixy 
too irtay be of use, since deleterious gasses appear 
to act a part in the disease. The essential object is, 
to prevent inflammation from increasing to such a 
degree, as to decompose the fluids; for in this case, 
nothing can prevent the disorder from running thro' 
all its three stages. Accordingly, the first few hours 
are decisive, and require all the celerity possible: 
and in them, taking away blood in small quantities, 
may be of great utility. An all powerful preserva- 



* Of 10° or 15° (55 w or 60° F.) according to the feelings of the 
patient. 



169 

tive is the most rigid abstinence,* with aqueous 
drinks, as soon as a sensation of heaviness is felt, with 
lassitude and loss of appetite ; and it must be conti- 
nued strictly two or three days, till the calls of hun- 
ger return, and both mind and body resume their 
wonted alacrity. 

" With regard to general preservatives applicable 
to the cities of the United States, these depend on 
the central government, and consist, 

" 1st. In regulating the strictness of quarantine, 
as well authenticated cases of disorders imported in 
ships may require. Vessels from the Mediterranean 
demand most attention. 

" 2d. In prohibiting the abuse of the pretended 
right of property, and of the liberty of individuals, 
who, in the vicinity, nay even in the heart of great 
cities, fill up low grounds with filth and even carrion. 
The Americans boast of their cleanliness ; but I can 
assert, that the quays of New-York and Philadelphia, 
with certain parts of the suburbs, exceed, in public 
and private nastiness, any thing I ever beheld in Tur- 
key, where the air has the advantage of salubrious 
dryness. 

" 3d. In establishing regulations of police, hither- 
to unadopted or neglected, for the paving of the 
streets, suburbs, and even the hearts of cities. It has 
been observed in Europe, that the great epidemics 
of Paris, Lyons, London, and other very populous 
cities, have ceased since the establishment of a gene- 
ral and regular pavement. 



u 4th. In preventing any stagnant water, accu- 

* See an excellent paper on the Effects of Abstinence at the ap- 
proach of Acute Diseases, by Edward Miller, M. D. New-York Me* 
dical Repository, 2d edition, vol. I. page 187. 

Y 



170 

initiation of putrid matters * in removing from the 
heart of cities, extensive burying-grounds, the pesti- 
lential use of which is generally retained with super- 
stitious respect. Philadelphia* has four vast ceme- 
teries in the handsomest quarter of the city, of the 
smell of which, I was very sensible in the summer, 
and it has not one walk planted with salutary ver- 
dure. 

cc 5th. In obliging the cities to wall and pave 
their privies, which, in their prevent state, commu- 
nicate so directly, through a sandy soil, with the 
wells, equally left destitute of wails, that on the melt- 
ing of the snow in winter, and during the droughts 
of summer, the water in both may be seen to assume 
the same level. It is so true, that the water drank 
in the lower parts of the city, (Philadelphia) receives 
filtrattons from the cemeteries and privies, that in 
Front-street, I found the water in my decanters be- 
come ropy, if kept three days in the month of May, 
and at length acquire a cadaverous stench. 

" Lastly, the government, while it directs the at- 

* if in the city of Philadelphia, there be four vast cemeteries in the 
handsomest quarter of the city, there are of cemeteries of one sort or 
another in the thick settled part of the city of New-York not less than 
eighteen, hi a letter which was written to me, November 24th, 1798, 
by Dr. Samuel L. Mitohill, who is, at present, one of our representa- 
tives in the senate of the United States, and which was afterwards pub- 
lished in my " account of the Malignant Fever" of that year, he makes 
this observation. ** It deserves to be mentioned, that human carcases, 
buried and accumulated for a long series of years, have poisoned the air 
in many parts of Christendom, and that by the concurrence of both mu- 
nicipal and spiritual authority, the practice of interring in cities and 
churchyards has been absolutely prohibited in many parts of Italy, 
on account of the horrid mischiefs occasioned thereby. Although the 
evil has not grown to such an alarming height amongst ourselves at this 
/ day, vet it is certainly worthy of consideration whether it would not be 
tetter' at once for christians to discard the superstition, which leads to 
{his practice, and imitate the Jews and Mahometans in conveying their 
carrion entire!'/ out of town, and burying it in places remote from the 
habitations of the living. A regard for the preservation of posterity, as 
well as our own present and personal security, imposes on us the adop- 
tion of some decisive measures upon this head." 



171 

tention of the inhabitants of the United States to 
these objects of domestic concern, should promote 
their being properly instructed, with respect to one 
of the most essential and most radical causes of all 
their diseases ; I mean their dietic regimen, which, 
in consequence of their origin, they have derived from 
the English and Germans. I will venture to say, 
that if a prize were proposed for the scheme of a regi- 
men most calculated to injure the stomach, the teeth, 
and the health in general, no better could be invent- 
ed than that of the Americans. In the morning, at 
breakfast, they deluge their stomachs with a quart 
of hot water, impregnated with tea or so slightly with 
coffee, that it is merely coloured water ; and they 
swallow, almost without chewing, hot bread half 
baked, toast soaked in butter, cheese of the fattest 
kind, slices of salt or hung beef, ham, &c. all which 
are nearly insoluble. At dinner, they have boiled 
pastes, under the name of puddings, and the fattest 
are esteemed the most delicious ; all their sauces, 
even for roast beef, are melted butter ; their turnips 
and potatoes swim in hog's lard, butter or fat ; under 
the name of pie or pumpkin, their pastry is nothing 
but a greasy paste, never sufficiently baked ; to di- 
gest these vicious substances, they take tea almost 
instantly after dinner, making it so strong, that it is 
absolutely bitter to the taste; in which state it affects 
the nerves so powerfully, that even the English find 
it brings on a more obstinate restlessness than coifee. 
Supper again introduces salt meats or oysters ; as 
Chateleux says, the whole day passes in heaping in- 
digestions on one another; and to give tone to the 
poor relaxed and wearied stomach, they drink Ma- 
deira, rum, French brandy, gin, or malt spirits, which 
complete the ruin of the nervous system." 

After some further observations respecting the diet 
of the Americans, much to the same purport with 
the preceding, our author goes on thus : cc It is so 



172 

true, that their regimen is one of the grand predis- 
posing causes of disease, and of the Yellow Fever, 
that, in the height of the epidemics, a single case ne- 
ver appeared within the confines of the prison at Phi- 
ladelphia;* and this evidently because the system of 
diet there, is regulated by a scale of temperature, 
affording no opportunity for overloading the stomach, 
and consequently, for a depravation of the fluids. 
The abuse of spirituous liquors, in particular, is to- 
tally banished from this admirable establishment." 
i- i . i . i i ■ I. n 

* It is remarkable, that during the different seasons, in which th« 
city of New- York has been afflicted with Pestilential Fever, the Alms 
House, Debtors' Apartment, Bridewell and State Prison have almost 
been totally exempt from that calamity ; and that when any solitary 
case of such fever has occurred in either of these buildings, it does not 
appear even in a single instance, that the disease has been communica- 
ted from one to another. Note or the Editor. 



CHAPTER VI. 

OF THE SITUATION OF THK CONVICTS IN THE STATE-PRISON, 
WITH RESPECT TO HEALTH, DURING THE LAST SUMMER. 

UPON this subject, it is impossible for me to ad- 
vance any thing more satisfactory than the following 
official report of the physicians of that institution to 
the Board of Inspectors. 

" Gentlemen, 

" The undersigned, to whom was referred the re- 
quest of the Board of Inspectors of the State-Prison, 
to be informed of the causes of the great expence of 
the Hospital Department in that Institution, during 
the present year, and of all such other things relative 
to the health of the convicts, as it may be important 
to communicate, beg leave to report : 

u That it appears from inspecting the books of the 
prison, that from the 19th of May, to the 26th of 
November, 391 persons were admitted into the Hos- 
pital, which is a greater number than has been for- 
merly admitted, in the course of a year. The num- 
ber of patients will therefore explain the correspond- 
ing increase of the expences of the Hospital. 

" In order to account satisfactorily for the remark- 
able augmentation of the number of the sick, it will 
be necessary to recollect the peculiarly morbid con- 
stitution of the atmosphere, which prevailed during 
the late summer and autumn, not only in the city of 
New- York, but in a great number of other parts of 
the state. 

" The effects of this condition of the atmosphere, 
were clearly manifested, not only in the appearance 



174 

of an unusually great number of cases of fever, mrfiich 
from the beginning of July till the middle of October, 
amounted to forty-three, but likewise in the great 
number of cases of dysentery, diarrhoea, cholera and 
colic, all of which have a near relation, and frequently 
arise from different modifications of the same cause. 

H There is proof also of the remarkably unhealthy 
state of the atmosphere, in the singular disposition to 
diseases, sometimes light and transient, as well as 
more severe, which existed throughout the months of 
July, August, September and October. 

<c And whoever calls to mind the remarkable heat 
and drought of July and August, will have little he- 
sitation in considering it as a remarkable season, and 
little difficulty in understanding how such a condition 
of atmosphere should be likely to convert into poison, 
all the filth and putrifying matters which may be 
collected in and about an institution, which, from the 
increased number ©f convicts, has become so popu- 
lous and crowded. 

* c This view of the subject is also confirmed by the 
occurrence of two cases of the malignant disease po- 
pularly called the Yellow Fever y in the month of 
August. 

fC The first case, that of Frederick Crater, com- 
menced at Bridewell on the 10th of August, with 
symptoms of bilious colic, which frequently precede 
the characteristic appearances of Yellow Fever, and 
he died on the fourth day of his disease, with decided 
marks of malignancy, and among the rest, with the 
appearances of black vomit. 

" The second case, to which we refer, T was that of 
William Webby who was seized with fever on the 
12th of August, the day before the admission of 



175 

Crater, and who exhibited during his illness in the 
marked affection of his stomach, the discolouration 
of his skin, and in several other appearances, indu- 
bitable evidence of labouring under Yellow Fever.* 

" It is true, that some hesitation and unwillingness 
were shewn at the time to pronounce decisively on 
the first case ; this arose from the early occurrence 
of the case, and an extreme disinclination to disturb 
the public tranquillity, by any suggestions of the ex- 
istence of malignant fever. The events,however, which 
soon afterwards disclosed themselves in the cit v, left no 
room for doubt of the nature of these cases in the 
mind of any reasonable person. 

" It deserved to be remarked, that 'the circum- 
stances of the cases preclude ail suspicion of their hav- 
ing infected one another, or of the disease having 
arisen from any foreign or contagious source. 

" And it is interesting to observe, that the testimo- 
ny in favour of the home-bred origin of our pestilen- 

* At the time Webb was sick, there were rive or six others, who were 
ill of Typhus Fever. These were all taken to the gallery of the chapel, 
jn which situation they enjoyed an air so pure, that it could not be ex- 
ceeded in many places of the island ; and in order that all fear of infec- 
tion or contagion, from the case of Webb, might be removed from the 
minds of the convicts, he was placed in a small wooden building erected 
for the purpose, at a distance as far as practicable, from the prison ; but 
within the walls. He was visited, during his illness, by many physi- 
cians ; by most of whom, his case was pronounced to be Yellow Fever, 
whilst the others seemed to hesitate, with respect to the name, which 
should be given to the disease. All, however, agreed that his case was 
so very dangerous, as to leave very little, if any, hopes of his recovery. 
But owing to the unceasing attention of his physicians, he, at last, got 
better. 

In adverting to the above circumstances, I should do injustice to my 
own feelings, as well as to the cause of truth, if I did not record to the 
honour of the Board of Inspectors and medical gentlemen of the State- 
Prison, that I was in no place, during the epidemic of the last or forrref 
years, where I found the sick treated with more tenderness, care and 
humanity, than in this institution; to which I may, likewise, add, (hat 
as soon as they began to be in a state of convalescence, every necessary 
which it was supposed, could be conducive to their recovery, was libe- 
rally allows! to them. Editor. 



476 

tial disease receives no small degree of confirmation 
from the occurrence of these cases in a situation so 
entirely inaccesable to imported contagion. 

" After this instance of the appearance of so many 
cases of fever in the State Prison, during the course 
of one season, and the malignant and alarming as- 
pect of some of them, it would be improper, on the 
present occasion, to omit recommending to the board 
of inspectors, an incessant attention to all the means 
cf cleanliness and ventilation in the prison, and as 
much indulgence of the prisoners in the benefit of 
exercise and fresh air as the nature and objects of 
the institution will allow. 

" All which is respectfully submitted by the Board 
ofPhysicians. 

RICHARD L. WALKER, 
NICHOLAS I. QUACKENBOS. 

New-York, December 4, 1805. 

The Inspectors of the ) 
Stale Prison." > 



CHAPTER VII. 

DESULTORY OBSERVATIONS AND REFLECTIONS, 

IN adverting to the different tables, which have 
been published, in the preceding part of this work, 
and in reflecting upon various occurrences which took 
place during the prevalence of the late epidemic, 
several observations present themselves to the mind, 
which, it is thought, may be deemed interesting to 
the public in general, particularly as they are not ad- 
vanced for the purpose of supporting any one theory, 
but merely with a view to state facts, from which the 
intelligent reader can, at leisure, draw his own con- 
clusions. 

In the first place, the record of deaths kept at the 
Marine Hospital, and published in page 111 of this 
pamphlet, will shew, that six persons, viz. Christo- 
pher Hibbron, James Dougherty, Isabella Adams, 
Mrs. Pflfer, Andrew Stayley, and Daniel Young, 
who were sent from this city to the Marine Hospi- 
tal, died of Malignant Fever, previous to any person 
being sent thither from any of the shipping. Two 
other persons, viz. William Aylesbury, and James 
Kirkwood, had, likewise, been sent down, ill of the 
same disease, previous to the 30th day of August, 
when Joshua Haines, of the snow Mehitabel, who 
was the first seaman infected with the fever this sea- 
son, was lodged in the hospital, leaving an interval 
of forty-three days, between the time that Hibbron 
was sent down, viz. on the 18th of July, and the re- 
moval of Haines, on the 29th of August. Aylesbury 
and Kirkwood recovered. 

2d. Mr. James Dougherty, who was removed 
from No. 128 Water-street, to' the Marine Hospital, 
©n the 30th of July, on which day, he likewise died, 

z 



17* 

-teas reported by all the physicians who saw him, to 
labour under the most decided symptoms of Yellow 
Fever. He was, at least, visited by six physicians : 
his two female cousins were constant in their atten- 
tion towards him, during his illness. Messrs. Moore 
and Story, as also the servants of the house, frequent- 
ly saw him, nor did several of his friends forsake him. 
My brother as well as myself, were, likewise, present 
at the time of his removal, and assisted in carrying 
him down stairs. It is remarkable, however, that 
no one r{ those who had intercourse with him, cer- 
tainly not less than twenty in number, exclusive of 
the boatmen, who carried him down to the island, 
received the least infection or contagion. 

3d. John Pelsue, who died at the house of his mo- 
ther, ]Mo. 4 Church-street, on the 5th of September, 
Is supposed by some, to have caught his sickness at the 
place where he worked, viz. at the office of the Daily 
Advertiserjower end of Pine-street, while his mother 
imagines, that it proceeded from a cold which he had 
caught, in going down into a cistern, a few days pre- 
vious to his indisposition. But whatever might have 
occasioned his disease, physicians who espouse the 
theory of importation, as well as those who believe in 
the doctrine of local origin, were equally positive in 
asserting that it was Yellow Fever. He too was vi- 
sited by many physicians and others. His mother 
and sister were incessant in their attendance towards 
bun, and a member of my family sat up with him the 
last night of his life. Certainly not less than twenty 
persons had free and repeated intercourse with him, 
during his illness; no one of whom was attacked by 
Malignant Fever, during the season. 

4tb. I think there can be no doubt, that the case 
of Isabella Adams, a black woman, who was moved 
to I he Marine Hospital, from the corner of Green- 
wich and Chamber-streets, on the 7th of August, 



179 

•was decidedly Yellow Fever, The circumstances 
respecting this woman's case, so far as they have have 
come to my knowledge, are as follow : On the even- 
ing of the 6th of August, between the hours of nine and 
ten, a gentleman called at my hotise, with informa- 
tion, that he, as well as his neighbours, were greatly 
alarmed, with respect to a black woman, who had 
been sick for several days, without medical assistance, 
and who was grenerally believed to labour under Ma- 
lignant Fever. I immediately went to the cellar in 
which she lay, and as, after the most critical exami- 
nation, of which I was capable, I was apprehensive, 
that the fears of my informant were well founded, I 
forthwith communicated my suspicions to the Resi- 
dent Physician, w r ho, notwithstanding the lateness of 
the hour, accompanied me to the place, and gave 
directions for her removal to the Marine Hospital, at 
as early an hour, as should be practicable. To com- 
ply with this order, Mr. Delamater, together with 
myself, went to the house next morning at day-break, 
where we found the poor creature, oppressed with 
black vomit, and otherwise so extremely low, as to 
render the propriety of sending her off, somew T hat 
questionable. When, however, we observed the cool- 
ness of the morning, the serenity of the sky, and that 
the wind and tide were both favourable, we were 
persuaded, that if no benefit should accrue from the 
passage, it was impossible that she could sustain any 
injury. From these considerations, therefore, as well 
as to remove the fears of the neighbourhood, she was 
sent to the Marine Hospital, where she died, within 
a tew hours after her arrival, under, as I have ince 
been informed, by the Health- Officer, the most 
marked and unequivocal symptoms of Yellow Fever 
At least one dozen of persons visited this woman, 
previous to her removal ; none of whom, if we except 
one,* was taken sick of the disorder. It ought to be 

* A few days after this woman's removal, Mr. Delamater was taken 
tick of fever ; but that he caught the disease of her, is certainly very 
problematical. 



ISO 

observed, however, that in this, as well as in every 
other instance of the same nature, every measure of 
fumigation and cleanliness, which experience had 
suggested, was uniformly resorted to. 

5th. Of the numerous persons employed at the 
Marine Hospital, whether as physicians, nurses, 
washer- women, boatmen, and attendants of every 
description, no person was taken sick of fever, during 
the whole season; nor did any of those numerous 
persons, who, at different times, went down to Sta- 
ten- Island as passengers, in the same boat with the 
sick, sustam the least inconvenience. All the pilots^ 
likewise, who were employed in bringing up the dif- 
ferent vessels, continued to enjoy an uninterrupted 
state of good health. 

6th. Such sick persons as were sent down to the 
Marine Hospital, were, in general, transported from 
the Whitehall-dock, where it frequently happened, 
that they were obliged to remain some time previous 
to the sailing of the boat. No person in that vici- 
nity, however, was afflicted with fever, till the 19th 
of September, whem a man was attacked with it, who 
resided at the corner of Whitehall and Front-street. 
He soon afterwards recovered. 

7th. The City Inspector, who daily visited the sick 
at Bellevue, and spent considerable time amongst 
them, enjoyed an uninterrupted state of good health, 
during the whole season. The physicians, nurses, 
washer-women, and attendants of every description, 
were all, in the like manner, exempt from disease; 
and this is the more remarkable, as there was nothing 
more common with the nurses, that when fatigued, 
to rest on the same beds with those who were in the 
last stage of the disorder. The hearsemen, likewise, 
who were employed in the dangerous business of re- 
moving the afflicted and interring the dead, were ne- 



181 

ver infected with the disease, either during the last 
season, or any other season of Pestilential Fever. To 
this may be added, that my brother, as well as my- 
self, were constantly amongst the sick, as was also 
Mr. Delarnater, immediately after his recovery, yet 
we were not infected with the fever. 

8th. The three clenrvmen of the Roman church, 
viz. the Reverend Dr. William O'Brien, the Reve- 
rend Dr. Mathew O'Brien, and the Reverend Mr. 
Hurley, were incessant in administering spiritual 
consolation to the sick of their congregation, nor did 
they, in the discharge of this duty, avoid the most til- 
thy cellars, or most infected places, yet none of them 
was, in the least, infected with lever, during the sea- 
son. 

Qth. Of the physicians, who occasionally visited 
those who were sick of the epidemic, there could not, 
at the most moderate computation, be less than sixty, 
no one of whom, so far as I know, died, or was even 
ill of Malignant Fever. Medical gentlemen, how- 
ever, did not fare so well, during the dreadful pesti- 
lence of l? 98 a . when no less than 16 were swept oif 
in^flTJcharging the duties of their profession, viz. Drs. 
Andrews, Brooks. D. Chickering, Dingley, Peter 
Faugeres, John B. Hicks, John B. Jones, Meicher 
Caldwell, Lamb, Millegan, J. B. Scandeila, Elihu 
H. Smith, Teller, Tredwell, Varick and Young. 

10th. The number of persons who were occasion- 
ally employed as nurses, certainly exceeded sixty. 
These, however, were not so fortunate as the physi- 
cians ; four of them having fallen victims to the dis- 
ease, viz. Sally Bates, Mary Dunn, Mrs. Sells, and 
Mrs. Lloyd. It is to be observed, however, with re- 
spect to these four, that the apartments in which the 
sick persons lay, whom they had last attended, were 
low, confined and ill ventilated. One other nurse 



is* 

was taken sick - 3 but after a stay at Bellevue, for a few 
weeks, she recovered. 

1 1th. Upon the first commencement of the dis- 
ease, and even during its continuance, a number of 
sick persons were removed from the infected parts of 
the city to the suburbs, and different parts on the 
western side of the town. But it is not recollected, 
that any evil resulted from such removal, not even in 
a solitary instance. 

12th. Agreeably to the observations which I have 
made respecting the Malignant Fever, during the 
last, as well as the three preceding epidemics, it ap- 
pears that no age or sex is exempt from its ravages, 
since instances can be adduced, of children at the 
breast, being affected with it, as well as persons of 
seventy years and upwards. I believe, however, that 
those who have been most conversant with the dis- 
ease, will agree in opinion, that persons between the 
years of fourteen and forty, are more obnoxious to 
the disorder, than they of any other age. To males 
it is likewise, more frequently fatal than to females; 
and to foreigners, particularly from a cold climate, 
than to natives. 

13th. Of the 302 persons who are stated to have 
died of Malignant Fever, in the city, at the Marine 
Hospital, and at Bellevue, it appears, that 

88 were natives of the United States. 



<57 


do 


do 


Ireland. 


21 


do 


do 


England. 


17 


do 


do 


Scotland. 


10 


do 


do 


Germany 


7 


do 


do 


France. 


7 


do 


do 


Wales. 


1 


do 


do 


Holland. 



183 

218 Brought forward. 

1 do do Halifax, and 

83 whose places of nativity were not properly 
ascertained. 

30$ Total. 

That is, 88 natives. 

13 i foreigners, and 
83 whose country is unknown. 



302 Total. 

Now, if, of the 83 persons whose native country is 
not ascertained, there should be the same proportion 
of natives and foreigners, as of those whose country 
we know, (and this is, at least, highly probable) the 
total amount would be, 

116 natives, and 
186 foreigners. 



302 



15th. Amongst the several nuisances which exist 
in this city, there appears to be none of a more seri- 
ous and alarming magnitude, ti an the allowing o 
people to lodge in low, damp cehars. Of a number 
of persons who were taken sick in such places, there 
is scarcely a single instance of any one having reco- 
vered, unless speedily removed to the Marine or 
Bellevue Hospital, or to some other place, where they 
could enjoy a pure and salubrious atmosphere. 

As it may be interesting to know in how many 
houses more than one person was taken sick of the 
epidemic, the following list is subjoined, which, it is 
believed, will be found tolerably correct. 



134 

Christopher Hibbron,* William Aylesbury, James 

Kirkwood,* ; Laughan and Andrew Stayley,* 

from the rear of No. 92 Maiden-Jane. 

Mr. John Hyde/ Mrs. Hyde,* Mr. John Hodg- 
kiuson,* and Miss Billington, Tontine Coffee- 
House. 

Paul R. Johnson* and John Taylor,* 46 Cedar-st. 

William Browning* and wife*, 90 Water-street. 

William* and Mary Hunter,* 58 Front. 

Robinson Hazard,* Harriot Robinson,* and Mary 
Covet*, 86 St. James. 

Elizabeth Snyder,* Jane M 'Donald,* 45 Nassau. 

John and Susan Webster, and Horatio Richardson,* 
156 Front. 

Nancy Edwards and Rachel Quere, 38 Lumber. 

Will am M'Lean, George Lewis, and Abraham Mon- 
tagnie, 91 James. 

John M 'Dew it* and wife, Hannah Houston, James 
M'Dewit,* (a child) and Catharine Beam, IS 
Pearl. 

Mr. Hoyt and wife,* 82 Liberty. 

Marian Mills* and James Malice,* 33 Ann. 

Mrs. John Pope and sister, 12 Dover. 

Daniel Snythen* and Catharine Tice,* 60 John. 

Mrs. Deforest and son,* 13 Beekman-slip. 

Philip Mahon and John Hull, 91 Broadway. 

Hannah Wilson, James Wooden, and Maria, a black 
woman, 45 Broad-street. 

Stephen and Jarvis Powel, 95 Pearl. 

William Rider* and William Degraw,* 13 Barclay. 

Charles Israel* and Mr. Hull, 5 New-slip. 

Andrew* and Mary Murray,* 100 William-street. 

Lawrance Ennis and Eliza Wheelan,* 4 Dover. 

Andrew Kirkpatrick and wife, 6 Augustus. 

Jane Murdock* and daughter, 28 Water. 

Phoebe and Mary Fulkerson, and James Bolen*, 5 
Moore. 

* Those marked * thus died of the distemper. 



185 

Richard Tabele* and Mrs. Tabele*, corner Nassau 

and Fair. 
Mrs. Cray* and George Jeweson, 22 Garden. 
Mrs. Sarah Coles* and Miss E. Snow, 25 Water. 
Margaret Baise-ly* and Deborah Smith* 47, Gold. 
Anthony Dwyre*, Margaret Foley*, and James 

Cushing*, 7 Hague. 
Susan and Mary Myers, 2 Beaver-lane. 
Jane and Margaret Armstrong, Mrs. Moore, and a 

boy 10 years old, 10 Depeyster-street. 
James Fifer and Samuel Bell, 359 Pearl. 
Tvvochildren of Mrs. Tiebout, 35S Pearl, (one died). 

15th. There is reason to fear, that the officious in- 
terference of friends with the prescriptions of the phy- 
sician, has frequently been productive of the most 
fatal consequences to the afflicted. Of several m- 
* stances of this sort, which might be mentioned, I 
shall content myself with one. A practitioner, upon 
visiting one of his patients, whom he found considera- 
bly better, and as he had reason to believe, out of 
danger, on leaving the house, gave directions to the 
attendants to persevere in the observance of a cooling 
regimen. A brother of the sick man, however, think- 
1 ing that a more speedy cure could be brought about 
than was likely to be effected by the skill of the doc- 
tor, and having heard the practice of sweating highly 
recommended in cases of fever, administered to the 
sick man, a drink so hot, that he complained of his 
mouth and throat being scalded, as he swallowed it. 
The consequence was, that instead of recovering, as 
there were great reason to expect, he died within a 
iew hours thereafter, of symptoms highly malignant. 
In the above, as well as in other cases of a similar 
nature, I am far from supposing, that persons thus 
disobeying the directions of physicians, were actuated 
by improper motives. To say the least, however, 
such conduct is highly injudicious ; for what chance 
has a practitioner of being useful to his patient, un- 
less hjs prescriptions be attended to, or indeed, why 

a a 



186 

send for one at all, if we think ourselves wiser than 
he, and are determined to follow no more of his ad- 
vice, than coincides with our own ideas of propriety ? 
And may not the great proportion of recoveries, 
which took place at Bellevue, of those who were sent 
thiiher in the earl) stage of the disorder, be attribut- 
ed, at least, as much tu the care which was taken, 
that every nurse should implicitly follow the prescrip- 
tion of the physician, as to the salubrity of the air, or 
to any other cause whatever ? 

16th. There is one observation w r hich appears to 
me, to be highly deserving the attention of our fellow 
citizens, as, if it should be duly regarded, it may, in 
the case of a future epidemic, be the means of saving 
a number of lives. As soon as a person finds himself 
indisposed, in a calamitous sea.son of this kind, he 
ought Jorthzvilk to procure the assistance of a skilful 
physician. During the first few hours of the disease , 
time is peculiarly precious; as it can then be 
generally subdued with facility. If, however, it be 
permitted to acquire an ascendancy before medical 
aid be called in, (and this, alas ! is too often the case) 
the physician lias the mortification to find his skill oj 
but little use, and to see his unhappy patient perish 
in his hands, without being able, in the least, to con- 
tribute towards his relief. Ah hough the justice of 
this remark will be denied by no person of reflection, 
yet there is great reason to believe, that there are 
many who would readily have subscribed to it, now 
tenants of the grave, merely because they did not at- 
tend to it. Delay, where expedition is of such im- 
mense importance, is certainly highly culpable, par- 
ticularly as the corporation of this city have, in every 
season of pestilence, humanely made provision that 
the poor should be supplied with medical aid gratis. 

17th. The fears of several of the poorer and more 
illiterate part of the community, especially foreigners, 



187 

of being removed to Bellevue, was very remarkable, 
of which I shall mention tne following instance. I 
had, one morning, fallen in with a man sick of the 
disease, in a low cellar, where he was, in a great mea- 
sure, destitute of every comfort and convenience, and 
I was informed by his physician, that his wife, who 
had only been a short time in the country, and had 
never seen a case of Malignant Fever, was pursuing 
a mode of treatment diametrically opposite to what 
he prescribed. As from every thing that I saw and 
heard, I had reason to fear, that the man, if permit- 
ted to remain where he was, would die, 1 was anxi- 
ous that he should be sent to Belleuie, where I 
thought he would have a considerable chance of re- 
covery. With a view to induce him to consent to 
this measure, 1 attempted to point out the advan- 
tages which 1 believed would result from it, and was 
happy to find, that my observations had the desired 
effect, as he expressed himself willing to go. Mis 
wife, however, and amther female, accosted him with 
tears, in a language which 1 did not understand, the 
purport of which, as I afterwards learnt, was to dis- 
suade him from his intention; but to this he still ad- 
hered. To induce his wife to acquiesce, 1 informed 
her, that the Board would be pleased, that she 
should accompany him ; but this was to no purpose. 
Finding the man,therefore,pe rfectly reconciled, 1 re- 
quested that the sick hearse should be sent for him ; 
but still apprehending some reluctance on the part of 
the woman, I deemed it advisable to accompany the 
drivers, not doubting that I should be able to prevail 
upon her to acquiesce in a measure, which I sincerely 
believed, might be conducive to her husband's reco- 
very ; but what was my surprize, upon opening the 
door, to find a large knife presented to my breast ? 
As I had no serious intention of resorting to coercive 
measures, an argument much less cogent would have 
Certainly induced me to relinquish my design. I, 
therefore, left the place with the gloomy presentiment 
of what was to happen. The man died within twen- 
ty hours thereafter. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

OF THE VARIOUS MODES OF CURE ADOPTED IN THE 
MALIGNANT FEVER. 

IN a disease, which has been so peculiarly fatal to 
the inhabitants of various places in the United States, 
a considerable diversity of opinion, as might natu- 
rally be expected has existed amongst practitioners 
concerning the most successful mode of cure. Su- 
dorifics, the copious use of mercury, and excessive 
bleeding have each had their respective advocates ; 
and I am persuaded, it may be asserted without fear 
of contradiction, that in certain cases of malignant 
fe\e\\ each of these methods has been severally found 
to be productive of the most beneficial consequences. 
To any one, however, who has been much conver- 
sant with the disease, it is evident, that it appears in 
a variety of different forms. Hence that mode of 
treatment, which, in one instance, might effect a ra- 
dical cure, might in another of the very same disor- 
der, when under a different grade and modification, 
tend greatly to aggravate the unfavourable symp- 
toms and terminate in a speedy dissolution. The 
judicious practitioner, therefore, in prescribing to his 
patients, is less influenced by the name of the dis- 
ease than by the symptoms and circumstances at- 
tending it. These he will examine with the greatest 
care and attentiou, arid after having formed his opi- 
nion respecting the nature of the case, will resort to 
such remedies as it may seem to require. 

After having introduced these preliminary obser- 
vations, I shall lay before my readers Dr. Currie's 
letter to Dr. Hosack, communicating his mode of 
treating the disease, the observations of the learned 
Dr. Chisholm of Grenada, relative to the use of mer- 
curv, and some observations on the utility of blood 



189 

letting in Yellow Fever, from the first volume of tie 
second Hexade of the Medical Repository, p. 193. 

From Dr. Currie to Dr. Hosack. 

DEAR SIR, 

" Since I wrote to you last, I have inquired 
into the practice of the physicians, at the yellow 
fever hospital this season, and find that after em. 
ploying mercury in a few of the first cases, without 
success, they entirely abandoned its use, except in a 
few particular instances, and then they combined it 
with some purgative. 

" They seldom employed blood-letting, even 
where the symptoms seemed to indicate it, as they 
seldom received their patients at a period sufficiently 
early to make it advisable. 

"They however, used purgatives freely, and after 
their operation, in recent cases, they had immediate 
recourse to the warm bath, followed by large and 
frequently repeated doses of acetated pot-ash, which 
they preferred to acetated ammonia, and the liberal 
use of warm diluting drinks, and particularly of an 
infusion of expotorium, which you have so highly re- 
commended. 

" When these means produced free perspiration, 
with an alleviation of the febrile heat, and pain of the 
head and back, the disease generally came to a speedy 
and favourable crisis ; but when the symptoms were 
aggravated by the bath, (and in some particular cases 
they appeared to be aggravated by it,) they spunged 
the whole surface of the trunk and limbs of the pati- 
ent, with cold water and vinegar, with the happiest 
effect. 

" In the second stage of th- disease, when disor- 
dered stomach was the predominant symptom, after 



190 

due attention to the state of the bowels, they em- 
ployed the bath era much higher temperature, than 
in the preceding stage, and immediately after its use, 
they applied blisters and sinapisms to different parts, 
and especially to those most affected, directing at 
the same time additional covering, and such mild 
palatable drinks, as upon trial were found to remain 
best on the stomach.... When the patient complain- 
ed of a burning sensation in that organ, calcined 
magnesia was administered in large doses, and fre- 
quently repeated, and when the bowels were not 
sufficiently tree, laxative injections. But the hot 
bath followed by blisters and sinapisms, extensively 
applied, appeared to produce the most beneficial 
effects. 

" In this disordered state of the stomach, however, 
when these remedies failed, they had recourse to 
stimulating injections, particularly to the spirits of 
turpentine, which were exhibited mixed with a suf- 
ficient quantity of warm water, from half an ounce 
to an ounce or more, and repeated at short intervals, 
till they occasioned considerable tenesmus, after 
which, the stomach generally became so well settled, 
as to retain any medicine or nutriment that was 
thought necessary. Perhaps the tincture of aloes 
would have been still more effectual, in bringing on 
this counteracting symptom, than the turpentine. 

" This practice which was prosecuted with that 
2eal and assiduity, which does honour to the human- 
ity of the physicians, and conducted with a discri- 
mination which does credit to their judgment, has 
certainly been much more successful than that of 
former years ; for, although a considerable portion 
of the patients were admitted in the last stage of the 
disease, and consequently in a hopeless condition, 
nearly two thirds recovered, wmereas in former years 
when blood-letting and mercury were almost exclu- 
sively " the order of the day," more than half died. 



191 

" Marks of gangrene were seldom observed in the 
stomachs of those that died, though preceded by 
symptoms which strongly indicated its existence for 
some time before the decease of the patient. The 
black matter usually found in the stomach, had none 
of the characters of either blood or bile, for white 
paper dipt into it, was neither stained red, purple, 
yellow, nor green, but appeared like it does wh^n 
dipt in the fluid of a gangrene. Yet from the extra- 
vasations of blood, which always appeared on differ- 
ent parts of the surface of the stomachs of those who 
had vomited black matter, and the florid and exten- 
sive extravasation observed in the stomachs of some 
which appeared on the fourth day of the disease, who 
had not only thrown up very black but flaky matter, 
I am of opinion thatthe dark coloured flaky particles 
which give to the contents of the stomach the ap- 
pearance of coffee-grounds, are only small portions 
of mucus, coloured by the dissolved and black blood 
which oozes into it. ...It cannot be bile altered in its 
colour, in consequence of a morbid state of the~se- 
cretory vessels of the liver, because those vessels are 
seldom found in a diseased state, and because the 
bile in the gall-bladder, generally retains its natural 
colour, nor can the matter which resembles coffee- 
grounds, be bile changed in its colour and proper- 
ties, after its entrance into the stomach ; because 
this appearance is often found in the stomachs of per- 
sons who have had no vomiting at all, and without 
some vomiting, or at least some efforts to vomit, no 
bile can gain admission into the stomach. 

" Nor can this appearance be owing to portions 
of the abraded villous coat of the stomach, because 
ulcerations are seldom observed, without which, 
or the existence of gangrene, it could not be 
abraded." 

The following is the opinion of the learned and 



192 

respectable Dr. Chisholm, concerning the use of 
mercury in this disease. In his Essay on the Malig- 
nant Pestilential fever, introduced into the West- 
India Islands,from Boullam, on the coast of Guinea, 
as it appeared in 1793, 1794, 1795, and 1796, second 
London edition, vol. 1, page 351. 

" I was encouraged" says he, " to the practice 
of using mercury in this disease, by the appearance 
I perceived in the two first bodies I opened. — 
"The liver was evidently the most diseased part, 
and I knew that mercury was specific in all inflam- 
mations of that organ ; besides, it was, at all events, 
better to try a doubtful one, than remedies of no effi- 
cacy. I accordingly administered calomel, either 
combined with nitre, camphor, and the antimonial 
powder, or in the form of a pill. After many trials 
of both, I preferred the last, chiefly on account of 
the nitre and camphor disagreeing with the sto- 
mach. The pill was generally composed of five 
grains of calomel, two of the antimonial powder, 
and one of opium, and repeated four times in the 
twelve hours, or eight in the twenty-four. I con- 
fess it was with no small degree of anxiety, Iventured 
on this practice, unwarranted by any other author- 
ity than dissection and my own observation ; but 
its success justified my temerity. If salivation was 
speedily raised, the danger was removed, and the 
patient recovered. But in order to effect this, it 
was frequently necessary to increase the quantity, 
and number of the doses ; and in several instances 
I pushed it to what I then considered an almost in- 
credible length, with astonishing success. In one 
case, in particular, in whom signs of recovery did 
not appear till the twenty-first day., fully 400 grains 
were given before the salivary glands were affected. 

CC I have here stated my practice, and the extent 
I thought myself warranted to carry the mercurial 



193 

treatment, during the presence or" the pestilence in 
1793. As it then not unfrequently happened, irom 
the necessary timidity a practitioner feels whoadopts 
a new remedy in the treatment of one of the most 
dangerous and destructive maladies the human frame 
is subject to, that that remedy was not always push- 
ed to the length which secures its efficacy : so on 
the re-appearance of the disease in 1794, I was de- 
termined to give calomel earlier, and in much great- 
er quantity than the preceding year. Accordingly, 
instead of preceding the administration o\ this excel- 
lent remedy, with the usual evacuating medicines, I 
began with it, and continued without the interposi- 
tion of any other, till salivation took place. The 
success attending this practice, exceeded my most 
sanguine expectation ; so great indeed, was it, that 
I did not lose a single patient in whose case it was 
pushed to the full extent. My practice will, no 
doubt, by many, be considered as unwarrantably 
bold \ but as its wonderful success has been expe- 
rienced by several other practitioners,-who can bear 
testimony to it, I feel not the smallest hesitation in 
recommending it with all the fervour which an ear- 
nest wish to save the lives of men, and the fullest 
conviction of, what, I am almost inclined to spy, its 
infallibility can give rise to. 

" My mode of using the calomel after the reap- 
pearance of the malignant pestilential fever in 1794, 
was to give ten grains, either alone, or with an equal 
or a double quantity of jalap, to an adult patient as 
soon as possible after I saw him. This generally 
acts as an evacuant in the degree required, about an 
hour or two after it is given. At the end of three 
hours T repeated the dose of calomel. At the end 
of three hours more,the same quantity is given, add- 
ing opium or not, as the preceding doses have acted. 
In this manner ten grains of calomel were given 
every three hours, till the salivary glands became 
affected, which generally happened in less than twen- 
ty-four hours from the commencement of the treat- 



r 



194 

merit, if it was faithfully conducted. The effect 
of the medicine given in this manner, may be per- 
ceived after the third dose in general ; the patient 
becoming calmer, less restless, less anxious ; his 
skin being softer, and possessed of an agreeable heat ; 
the stomach being perfectly retentive, however irri 
table it might have been before ; and the eyes reco- 
vering their former lustre and sensibility. When at 
length salivation takes place, the patient is left free 
from disease, with a moderate warm moisture on his 
skin; and very soon after signs of returning health 
pre indicated, by calls for food, &x. The recovery 
of strength is proportionally rapid to that from dis- 
ease ; nor is it at all necessary to have recourse to 
bark, or any other medicine whatsoever; a circum- 
stance truly gratifying both to the patient and the 
physician, in a disease wherein nature revolts at the 
very idea of it." 

BLOOD-LETTING IN YELLOW FEVER. 

The following facts afford the most conclusive 
evidence of the efficacy of this remedy in yellow fever, 
when timely arad sufficiently used. The malignity 
of the disease on this occasion, is proved by the 
mortality which took place under the first mode of 
treatment, and the comparative results of blood-let- 
ting exhibits so fair and full a proof of its safety and 
usefulness, that we cannot avoid considering this 
body of testimony as the most unexceptionable and 
satisfactory, that ever come under our notice; it is 
extracted from the Medical and Physical Journal, for 
the month oi: June last. 

" A successful method of treating Yellow Fever at its 
commencement.... Communicated May 25th, 1803, 
by Dr. H arness, commissioner for sick andzvound- 
ed seamen. 

" Lieutenant Douglas, of the 25th Reg. relates. 



19* 

that he embarked on board the Chichester store-ship, 
at Jamaica, for England, with one hundred and 
eighty men, seventy four of whom died on the pas- 
sage previous to their reaching Halifax, in North 
America, exclusive of the captain, two lieutenants, 
surgeon and surgeon's mate of the ship. In conse- 
quence of the two latter having fallen victims to the 
disease, lieutenant Douglas felt himself driven to the 
necessity of undertaking the treatment of the sick ; 
and from the great fatality attendant on the calo- 
mel and purgative plan, pursued by the late surgeon 
and his mate, he (lieutenant Douglas) was induced 
to adopt bleeding, (as recommended hy Dr. Jack- 
son, and as had been suggested in lieutenant Doug- 
las' presence, by the surgeon's mate of the 6th Regi- 
ment, a short time previous to lieutenant Douglas' 
leaving Jamaica) which proved to be productive of 
the happiest effects, as will evidently appear from 
the following statement. 

<c Lieutenant Douglas relates that after the care 
of the sick had devolved upon him, sixty-two men 
(thirty-seven of whom were seamen) were attacked 
with the symptoms of yellow fever, the whole of 
whom recovered by bleeding. Three others were 
likewise bled, but he observes, so late in the disease, 
or not until the symptoms of fever were so fully es- 
tablished, as not to be within reach of the remedy." 

Lieutenant Douglas remarks, the success in treat- 
ing the disease was so evident to the troops and 
ship's company, that after a short time, they would 
on being taken ill, apply to be bled ; and lieutenant 
Douglas became so confident of its good effects, if 
had recourse to at the onset of the disease, as to in- 
duce him to give particular directions to be called in 
the night, should any one be seized with the leading 
symptoms of the disease ; and in every case (the three 
alluded to excepted) he had the happiness to see 



196 

every symptom give way or diminished, and unfa- 
vorable appearances, by one, two or three repeated 
bleedings, performed at intervals of a few hours, as 
the necessity of the remaining symptoms indicated. 

Lieutenant Douglas not being educated to the 
profession, and consequently, ignorant of the doses 
of medicine, was induced to hare recourse to clys- 
ters, when the procuring of evacuations appeared 
necessary ; on which, with bleeding, as beforemen- 
tioned, he rested the whole means of cure. 

A List of Deaths of various diseases which have 
occurred in the city of New- York, in the years 1803, 
1804 and 1805, during the months of August, Sep- 
tember and October. 

In 1803, 1256, of whom 606 were of Malignant 
Fever. 

In 1804, 783. 

In 1805, 934, of whom 302 were of Malignant 



Fe 



ver 



THE END