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Full text of "An account of the Polynesian race : its origin and migrations and the ancient history of the Hawaiian people to the times of Kamehameha I"

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THE 

ENGLISH AND FOREIGN 
PHILOSOPHICAL LIBRARY. 



EXTRA SERIES. 
VOLUME VI. 



i 



BALLANTYNE, HANSON AND CO. 
EDINBURGH AND LONDON 



AN ACCOUNT 



OF 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE 

ITS ORIGIN AND MIGRATIONS 



ANCIENT HISTORY OF THE HAWAIIAN PEOPLE 
TO THE TIMES OF KAMEHAMEHA I. 



ABEAHAM FOENANDER, 

CIRCUIT JUDGE OF THE ISLAND OF MAUI," H.I. 
KNIGHT COMPANION OF THE ROYAL OHDER OF KALAKAUA. 



VOL. II. 



LONDON: 
TEUBNEE & CO., LUDGATE HILL. 

1880. 

{All rights reserved. 1 



PREFACE, 



In issuing this, the second volume of " An Account of the 
Polynesian Eace," &c., and the "Ancient History of the 
Hawaiian People," the author gratefully acknowledges 
the kind reception which the first volume received. It 
was a hazardous undertaking to publish a work of that 
kind ten thousand miles away from the author's resi- 
dence, with no opportunity of revising the sheets as they 
came from the press, or preparing an index when the 
volume was finished. The well-known ability and care 
of his publishers, the world-known Messrs. Trlibner & Co., 
grappled bravely and successfully with the difiiculties of 
a MS. which, owing to peculiar circumstances, had not 
been clean copied for the press before it was sent away. 
To Stephen Spencer, Esq., formerly Chief Clerk to 
the Interior Department of the Hawaiian Government, 
and now residing in London, the author is under great 
obligations for the kind and vicarious supervision that 
he gave to the proof-reading, and for the thoroughly 
faultless rendition of the Polynesian words, phrases, and 
entire chants occurring in the work. 

To the gtentlemen who compose the staff of such lead- 



vi PREFACE. 

ing literary journals as the "Westminster Eeview," the 
" British Quarterly Eeview," and the " Academy," the 
author sends his warm Aloha for the notices of kindness 
and encouragement with which they met his efforts to 
bring the Polynesian folklore within the zone of scientific 
research ; to collect the broken and distorted rays of that 
folklore into one historical focus: and, by following the 
indications thus obtained, to seek the homesteads of the 
earlier Polynesians, where they themselves say that they 
ought to be found. 

The author may have startled some and shocked others 
by seeking a Polynesian ancestry beyond the Malay 
Archipelago; but their own undoubted folklore, their 
legends and chants, gave no warrant for stopping there. 
They spoke of continents, and not of islands, as their 
birthplace. They referred to events in the far past 
which have hitherto been considered as the prehistoric 
heirlooms of Cushites and Semites alone. And the lan- 
guage in which that folklore is conveyed, whatever its 
subsequent modifications and admixtures, will be found, 
on a critical examination, to be fundamentally Arian of 
a pre-Vedic type before the inflections were fully de- 
veloped or generally adopted. If the author has not in 
every instance secured the consensus of his reader to 
those conclusions, which to him seem the only possible 
ones, from the data that he has collected, the fault must 
be ascribed to the author and not to the data. He may 
have failed in his manner of presenting them ; they still 
remain, a now imperishable heirloom of the Polynesian 



PREFACE. vii 

race, to await a more skilful expounder, and to challenge 
any attempt to deprive that race of its inheritance in the 
Arian blood and the Cushite civilisation. 

In the present volume the author has endeavoured to 
present the ancient history of that branch of the Poly- 
nesians which took up its abode on the Hawaiian Islands. 
In entering the wilderness of a hitherto untrodden field, 
and the almost impenetrable jungle of traditions, legends, 
genealogies, and chants, the author has had no easy task 
in reducing his materials to historical sequence, precision, 
and certainty. The difficulties he has had to contend 
with hardly any but Polynesian scholars can fully appre- 
ciate, and how far he has succeeded he respectfully leaves 
to the Hawaiians themselves to decide. 

The author had originally sketched out for himself as a 
portion of this work — or rather as an appendix to the first 
volume — a comparative glossary of the Polynesian and 
Arian dialects in confirmation of their affinity. But the 
closer and the more critically that subject was approached, 
the greater and the more numerous became the points of 
contact, and what had been intended for a few pages has 
unavoidably swollen to the size of a volume, and as sucli 
will be issued in separate form if life and health are 
granted the author. 

ABR FORNANDER. 

Lahaina, Decemher 1879. 



ORIGIN AND MIGRATIONS' 



OF 



THE POLYI^ESIAI^ RACE. 



PART 11. 

In the first part of this worli I have attempted to trace 
the origin of the Polynesian Eace by following strictly 
the plain lead of its own folklore and the obvious induc- 
tions which the scattered fragments of that lore suggest. 
To recapitulate in an inverse order the findings to which 
that folklore has led, I would briefly say that I have 
found a vague, almost obliterated, consciousness in some 
of their legends that the head, and front, and beginning 
of the Polynesians lay in a white (the Arian) race ; and 
I found this consciousness confirmed by referring to the 
language, probably the oldest Arian form of speech, and 
to the Arian numeral system, as well as to some customs 
and modes of thought exclusively Arian. I found in 
their legends proofs, many and distinct, that at this re- 
mote era the Polynesians must have come into long and 
intimate contact with the early Cushite, Chaldeo- Arabian 
civilisation, of which so many and so exceedingly interest- 
ing fragments yet remain in their folklore. I found that 
during or after this period of Cushite contact the Poly- 
nesians must have amalgamated, as greatly as their Vedic 

VOL. II. A 



2 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

brethren did afterwards, with the Dravidian peoples south 
of Chaldea in India. I next found that, whatever the 
manner or the occasion of their leaving India, though 
they probably followed in the wake of the great Chaldeo- 
Arabian commerce of that period, they had occupied the 
Asiatic Archipelago from Sumatra to Luzon and Timor. 
I have found no time of their arriving in the archipelago, 
but I have found from their own genealogies and legends 
that, approximatively speaking, during the first and second 
centuries of the Christian era many and properly organ- 
ised migrations of the Polynesians into the Pacific Ocean 
took place from various points of the archipelago; a 
period coincident with the rise and development of the 
Hindoo and Malay invasions of Sumatra, Java, &c. I 
found, moreover, that though there is nothing to indicate 
that some of these migratory expeditions may not have 
pushed on to some of the eastern, northern, or southern 
groups of the Pacific now held by the Polynesians, yet 
that their general rendezvous during this migratory period 
was on the Fiji group, and principally on the west side 
of Viti-levu ; that they were of superior cultivation to the 
Papuans then and now inhabiting that group ; that they 
stayed there long enough to introduce a large amount of 
tlieir vocables into the Fijian language, and no inconsider- 
able part of their legends and customs in the Fijian folk- 
lore; and that when finally, after several generations of 
sdjour, they were expelled from the Fiji group, they 
scattered over the Pacific, taking up their present posi- 
tions on the principal groups, either simultaneously or 
by stages from group to group, or in both ways ; and I 
have shown that that branch of the Polynesian family 
from which the oldest ruling line of Hawaiian chiefs 
claim descent arrived at the Hawaiian group during the 
sixth century of the Christian era, and, in the utter 
absence of legendary information, is supposed to have 
lived secluded and isolated from its cousins in the South 
Pacific for twelve to fourteen generations, or until a 



THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 3 

period which, for convenience, I have designated as that 
of Maweke and Paumahua, or about the close of the tenth 
or beginning of the eleventh century a.d. 

So far the previous volume has carried the reader. It 
is known in most cases, and presumed in all, that by the 
time indicated above all the principal groups had been 
occupied and peopled by the Polynesians migrating 
thither, partly during, mostly after, their s4jour on the 
Fiji group. There are few data to determine the order 
of their going ; whether the more distant groups were not 
settled upon as early, or nearly as early, as those nearer to 
the Fiji group. Mr. Horatio Hale, of the " United States 
Exploring Expedition," argues a successive distribution 
of the Polynesian race, after leaving the Fiji group, from 
the corruption of language and the affinity of dialects; 
and intimates that the Samoan group was the mother 
group and thei keynote of Polynesian migrations within 
the Pacific ; tl at having first settled on the Samoan, 
when this group became over-peopled, it threw off new 
migrations to the Society group, which, in its turn, when 
overstocked, started expeditions to the Paumotu and the 
Marquesas, and that these, in their turn, relieved them- 
selves of a too-redundant population by^ migratory expe- 
ditions to Easter Island and the Hawaiian group, and he 
allows over three thousand years for this gradual process 
of redundancy and relief. 

The dialectical variations of the different Polynesian 
groups, and their linguistic corruption from a once com- 
mon form of speech, are patent enough to him who 
takes an interest in examining the subject; but it is 
far from patent, and cannot be proved, that these varia- 
tions are the result of a process of sequences; in other 
words, that the Tahitian is a dialect of the Samoan, 
the Marquesan is a dialect of the Tahitian, and the 
Hawaiian is a dialect of the Marquesan, and so on in 
other directions. There are shades of affinity that 
appear to link one dialect to another more than to 



4 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

the rest; but there are also shades of divergence so 
great and glaring that they cannot be explained except 
on the hypothesis that they existed of old, and were 
brought with the Polynesians from their various habitats 
in the Asiatic Archipelago when first they entered the 
Pacific. 

I believe it is now well understood among the best 
philologists of Europe that the ancient High and Low 
German, the Saxon and the old Norse, were not succes- 
sive dialects, formed the one upon the other, but contem- 
porary and coexistent varieties of the Teutonic or Gothic 
stock when first it entered Europe ; and by the same law 
I claim that the Polynesian dialects are older than their 
appearance in the Pacific, though the variations may 
have widened and the peculiarities attached to each may 
have hardened through lapse of time and through isola- 
tion; and, consequently, that the lines of distribution 
within the Polynesian area cannot safely be argued 
according to the apparent afiinity or divergence of the 
different dialects. It is, geographically speaking, pro- 
bable, and as a matter of fact not to be disputed, that 
the early Hawaiians arrived at their group via Tahiti 
and the Marquesas ; though there is nothing to disprove 
that some of those emigrants came from Samoa direct, as 
it is known to Hawaiian scholars to have been the case 
during the period upon which we are now entering, five 
hundred years later. There is an amount of archaic forms 
of speech and archaic meanings of vocables in each dialect, 
that have been altered or become obsolete in the others ; 
thus showing that each dialect was coeval with the 
others. And in further disproval of Mr. Hale's theory 
of derivation, the three dialects that are farthest away 
from what is considered the common centre or source, 
the Hawaiian, the Easter Island, and the New Zealand 
are the least corrupted from what undoubtedly was the 
common mother tongue of the Polynesians before their 
migration into the Pacific, and much less so than the 



THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. $ 



supposed mother form, the Samoan. Moreover, the 
legends and traditions of the pre-Pacific life of the Poly- 
nesian race have been preserved in a fuller, better, and 
purer condition on the Marquesan and Hawaiian groups 
than on the Tahitian, Samoan, or Tongan, where they are 
found distorted or frittered away, if found at all, or else 
entirely forgotten. 

I have referred to this subject somewhat at length 
to justify me in assigning as old, or nearly as old, a 
residence of the Hawaiians on their group as the Ton- 
gans, Samoans, Tahitians, and Marquesans on their groups 
respectively ; and to confirm the correctness of Hawaiian 
traditions and genealogies, which carry their principal 
line of chiefs, • known and admitted to have lived and 
^flourished on the Hawaiian group, up to Nanaulu, or 

I some forty-three generations ago, with the reservation 

, always understood of any previous chance emigrants, of 

f whom tradition makes no mention. 

^ During that long period, of which Nanaulu may be 

considered as the initial point, and extending for thirteen 
or fourteen generations, or between four and five hundred 

^ years, I find nothing in Hawaiian legends, except the 
bare genealogical tree, to indicate even the faintest ripple 
of national life and existence. If the epigram be true 
that " happy is the nation that has no history," the 

(Hawaiians must have been eminently happy during this 
period. Human and organic nature were, however, pro- 
I bably the same then as now, and wars and contentions 
) may occasionally have disturbed the peace of the people, 
as eruptions and earthquakes may have destroyed and 
altered the face of the country. The traditions of such 
I events were forgotten through lapse of time, or absorbed 
in and effaced by the stirring events which ushered in 
and accompanied the new era at which we have now 
arrived. But in spite of the din and stir of the succeed- 
ing epoch, in spite of the lapse of time and increasing 
decadence and savagery of the people, some relics still 



6 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

remain of the Nanaulu period to attest the condition 
and activity of the people of that period. Such are the 
Heiavs (temples) of the truncated pyramidal form found 
in various places of the group, and the best preserved 
specimen of which that I have seen is the Heiau of 
Kumahaula at Kaimu, district of Puna, Hawaii. Such 
are the Pohahu-a-Kane, referred to on p. 46, vol. i., and 
which retained their sanctity to comparatively modern 
times. Such are the fishponds — Loko-ia — of Cyclopean 
structure along the coast of Molokai and in some other 
places, of which tradition has no other account than that 
they were the work of the Menehune people, one of the 
ancient names of the Polynesians, thus showing that they 
were executed previous to the Maweke-Paumakua period 
and the arrival of the southern expeditions, after which 
that name, as a national appellation, disappeared from 
Hawaii. Such are the Kuniuhonua, Welaahilani, and 
Kumuuli legends and genealogies referred to in the first 
volume, and which, however much shorn, distorted, and 
overlaid by subsequent innovations, still found shelter 
and adherents among the Maweke descendants, and have 
survived in part to the present time. 

About the commencement of the eleventh century, 
after a period of comparative quiet and obscurity, the 
Polynesian folklore in all the principal groups becomes 
replete with the legends and songs of a number of 
remarkable men, of bold expeditions, stirring adventures, 
and voyages undertaken to far-off lands. An era of 
national unrest and of tribal commotion seems to have 
set in, from causes not now known, nor mentioned in 
the legends. In all the legends and traditions relating 
to this period that have come under my cognisance, I 
have been unable to discover any allusions which might 
indicate that pressure from without by some foreign foe 
was the primary cause of this commotion; and I am 
inclined to believe that it arose spontaneously from over- 
population, or perhaps, in a measure, from elemental 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 7 

casualties, such as desolating volcanic eruptions, subsi- 
dence of peopled areas, or the like. Be the cause what 
it may, a migratory wave swept the island world of 
the Pacific, embracing in its vortex all the principal 
groups, and probably all the smaller. Chiefs from the 
southern groups visited the Hawaiian group, and chiefs 
from the latter visited the former, accompanied by their 
relatives, priests, and retainers, and left indelible traces 
of their sijour and permanent settlement on the genea- 
logies of succeeding chiefs, in the disuse of old and sub- 
stitution of new names for places and landmarks, in tlie 
displacement of old and setting up of new tutelar gods, 
with enlarged rites of worship and stricter tabus. In 
as far as the Hawaiian group partook of this ethnic con- 
vulsion, it continued for seven or eight generations, 
though there is ground for believing that among the 
southern groups it continued several generations later, 
and only finally closed with the emigration from Sawaii, 
^amoan group, to New Zealand, about fifteen genera- 
tions previous to 1850,^ or at the close of the fourteenth 
Dr commencement of the fifteenth century A.D. 



1 In "Polynesian Researches, "Rev. 
Mr. Ellis mentions that the Tahitians 
liave genealogies going back upward 
of a hundred generations, but that 
only thirty of them can be considered 
as accurate an d reliable. Those thirty 
generations bring us up to that period 
of tribal commotion of which I am 
now treating, when the aristocracy 
in almost all the groups took, so to 
say, a new departure. Mr. De Bovis, 
in his "Etat de la Societe Taitienne 
a I'arrivee des Europeens," mentions 
twenty-four generations of chiefs on 
Raiatea and Borabora, from Raa^ the 
progenitor, to Tamatoa, the then 
(1863) reigning chief of Raiatea. The 
establishment of this line of chiefs 
on Raiatea coincides in a remarkable 
manner as to name, time, and some 
other circumstances with the well- 
known Hawaiian chief Laa^ sumamed 



Mai-kahiki, with whom, or perhaps 
with whose sons, closed the Hawaiian 
period of this interoceanic communi- 
cation. In the Hervey group, at Ra- 
rotonga, the chief, Makea, reckoned 
himself as the twenty-ninth descend- 
ant from the time when the two 
united expeditions from Samoa and 
Tahiti, under the leaderships of Ka- 
rika and Tangia, arrived and esta- 
blished themselves by subduing the 
previous inhabitants. The Marque - 
san chiefs of Hivaoa, after counting 
one hundred and forty-eight gene- 
rations from the beginning of things, 
commence a new series from Mata- 
pa, and count twenty-one genera- 
tions to the present time. The 
Mangarewa or Gambier islands count 
twenty- five generations since Teatu- 
moana arrived there from foreign 
lands. 



8 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

It has been objected by not a few writers to the long 
voyages of the Polynesians, either on their first entering 
the Pacific or at this period of tribal commotion and 
unrest, that they could not possibly be performed in 
their frail canoes, incapable of containing stores and 
provisions for a long voyage, and for want of astrono- 
mical and nautical knowledge of those who navigated 
them. Those writers judge the Polynesians as they 
found them one hundred years ago, isolated, deteriorated, 
decaying. Had those writers been acquainted with Poly- 
nesian folklore, they would have learnt that, at the 
time we are now speaking of, the Polynesians were not 
only possessed of open canoes, hollowed out of a single 
tree, and seldom used except for coasting or fishing 
excursions, but of vessels constructed from planks sewn 
or stitched together in a substantial manner, pitched and 
painted, decked over, or partly so, and with a capacity 
of hold sufiicient to contain men, animals, and stores 
for any projected voyage;^ that they possessed a respect- 
able knowledge of the stars, their rising and setting at 
all times of the year, both in the Southern and Northern 
Hemisphere ; that they were acquainted with the limits 
of the ecliptic and situation of the equator; that they 
possessed the keenest eyesight and a judgment trained 
to estimate all appearances indicating the approach of 

1 Rev. J. Williams relates that Ceram. In the Hawaiian group tliis 

during his residence at Tahiti there manner of making large canoes was 

arrived at Papeete, about 1819-20, not wholly discarded as late as the 

from Rurutu, one of the Austral middle of the last century ; for it is 

group, 700 miles distant, a large credibly reported by some of the old 

canoe, planked up and sewed to- natives, whose grandparents lived at 

gether, whose hold was twelve feet the time and saw it, that the principal 

deep. This peculiar method of plank- war-canoe, or admiral's ship, of Pe- 

ing up or sewing together the differ- leioholani — the famous warrior-king 

ent pieces of which the large sea- of Oahu, who died about eight years 

going canoes in olden times were before the arrival of Captain Cook 

made prevailed throughout Polynesia, — was a double canoe built in that 

and is still retained at the Navigators, manner ; its name was " Knneaaiai," 

Paumotu, and other groups, besides and that on PeleioholanVs expedi- 

in Micronesia, and is still customary tions it carried on board from one 

among the Buguis of Celebes and hundred and twenty to one hundred 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 9 

land, by flight of birds and other signs ; and with all this 
a courage, hardihood, and perseverance that never failed 
them at critical moments. And when to this be added 
that seven or eight hundred years ago the Pacific Ocean 
probably presented a different aspect as regards islands 
and atolls than it now does — the legends speaking of 
islands both large and small in the track of their voyages, 
of which now no trace exists — surprise ceases when one 
finds on the traditional record accounts of voyages under- 
taken from Hawaii to Marquesas, Tahiti, Samoa, or xice 
versa. 

As little as the legends speak of the cause or causes 
which led to this ethnic or tribal movement and inter- 
communication after so long a period of comparative 
quiet, as little do they mention the causes which led to 
its discontinuance after more than two hundred years' 
duration. It is permitted, therefore, to suppose that, 
among other causes, not the least potent was the subsi- 
dence and disappearance of some of those islands which 
had served as landmarks and stopping-places on previous 
voyages. 

What the conceptions of the ancient Hawaiians of this 
and subsequent periods were in regard to the geography 
of the Pacific may be gathered from the following chant 
of Kamahualele, the astrologer and companion of Moikelia, 

and forty men, besides provisions, legends collected by Sir George Grey 

water, stores, armament, &c. Of the we read of a Samoan expedition of 

enormous size of the double canoes five large double canoes, the Arawa^ 

that were fashioned out of a single Tainui, &c., decked over, or partly 

tree, some idea may be formed from so, containing the different chiefs 

a specimen still existing— at least it and their families, their retainers 

was a few years ago when the author and their families, provisions, ani- 

visited the locality — near the south mals, &c., which were bound to New 

point of Hawaii. It was said to have Zealand, the Ao-tea-roaoi the legend, 

been one of a double canoe belonging who found the land they were bound 

to Kamehameha I., and it measured to, and, disembarking, settled there ; 

one hundred and eight feet in that some of them returned to the 

length. Its mate had decayed and Samoan group, and finally came back 

disappeared, and this giant relic of and remained permanently on New 

ancient shipbuilding was also has- Zealand, 
tening to decay. In the New Zealand 



lo THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

the grandson of Maweke, on his return from Tahiti to 
Hawaii. As he approached the latter island the seer 
and prophet exclaimed : — 

Here is Hawaii, the island, the man, 

Eia Hawaii, he moku, he kanaka, 
A man is Hawaii, — E. 

He kanaka Hawaii, — E. 
A man is Hawaii, 

He kanaka Hawaii, 
A child of Kahiki, 

He kama na Kahiki, 
A royal flower from Kapaahu, 

He pua Alii mai Kapaahu, 
From Moaulanuiakea Kanaloa, 

Mai Moaulanuiakea Kanaloa, 
A grandchild of Kahiko and Kapulanakehau, 

He moopuna na Kahiko laua o Kapulanakehan, 
Papa begat him, 

Na Fapa i hanau. 
The daughter of Kukalaniehu and Kauakahakoku. 

Na ke kama wahine o Kukalaniehu laua me Kauaka- 
hakoko. 
The scattered islands are in a row, 

Na pulapula aina i paekahi. 
Placed evenly from east to west, 

/ nonoho like i ka Hikina, Komohana, 
Spread evenly is the land in a row 

Pae like ka moku i lalani 
Joined on to Holani. 

/ hui aku, hui mai me Holani. 
Kaialea the seer went round the land, 

Puni ka moku o Kaialea ke kilo, 
Separated Nuuhiwa, landed on Polapola : 

Naha Nuuhiwa, lele i Polapola : 
O Kahiko is the root of the laud, 

Kahiko ke kumu aina. 
He divided and separated the islands. 

Nana i mahele kaawale na moku. 
Broken is the fish-line of Kahai, 

Moku ka aholawaia a Kahai^ 
That was cut by Kukaualoa : 

/ okia e Kukanaloa : 
Broken up into pieces were the lands, the islands, 

Pauku na aina na moku, 
Cut up by the sacred knife of Kanaloa. 

Moku i ka ohe kapu a Kanaloa. 



THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 1 1 

O Haumea Manukahikele, 

Haumea Manukahikele^ 
O Moikeha, the cMef who is to reside, 

Moikelia^ ka Lani nana e nohoy 
My chief will reside on Hawaii — a — 

Noho kuu Lani ia Hawaii— a — 
Life, life, O buoyant life ! 

Ola, Ola, kalana ola ! 
Live shall the chief and the priest, 

Ola ke Alii, ke Kahuna, 
Live shall the seer and the slave, 

Ola ke Kilo, ke Kauwa, 
Dwell on Hawaii and be at rest, 

Noho ia Hawaii a he lana, 
And attain to old age on Kauai. 

A kani moopuna i Kauai. 
O Kauai is the island — a — 

Kauai ka moku — a — 
O Moikeha is the chief. 

Moikeha ke Alii. 



\ In the chant of Kahakukamoana, a famous high -priest 

\ of olden times, though several generations later than this 
migratory period, mention is made of Hawaii as having 

I arisen from the dark — from the deep — and forming one 
of " the row of islands of Nuumea, the cluster of islands 

' reaching to the farthest ends of Tahiti."^ And giving 
the same indefinite origin to Maui and the other islands 
under the paraphrases of natural births, the chant refers 
to some of the principal chief families from Nuumea, 
Holani, Tahiti, and Polapola who settled on the other 
islands of the Hawaiian group, and are thus poetically- 
said to have given birth to them. Thus Kuluwaiea, the 
husband, and Hinanui-a-lana, the wife, are said to be the 
parents of Molokai, which is called " a god, a priest, the 



1 Ea mai Hawaii-nui-akea / Rising up is Hawaii-nui-akea ! 

A'a mai loko, mai loko mai o ka Rising up out of, out of the night 

po/ (Po)! 

Puka ka moku, ka aina. Appeared has the island, the land, 

Ka lalani aina o Nuumea, The string of islands of Nuumea, 

Ka Pae aina o i kukulu o Kahiki. The cluster of islands stretching to 

the farthest ends of Tahiti. 



J 2 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE, 

first morning light from ISTuumea/'^ Lanai is said to 
have been an adopted child of a chief from Tahiti, whose 
name, if the transcript of the chant is correct, is not 
given, but whose epithet was "the spatterer of the red 
or dirty water," Ka haluku wai ea. Kahoolawe is said to 
be the child of Keaitkanai, the man, and Walinuu, the 
wife, from Holani ; and the epithet of the island-child is 
" the farmer " — he lo;pa. Molokini has no separate settlers, 
but is called the navel-string — lewe — of Kahoolawe. 
Oahu is attributed to Ahukini-a-Laa, a son of the 
famous Laa-mai-kahik% who was fourth in descent from 
Paumakua of the southern Ulu-puna branch, and his 
wife's name is given as Laamealaakona. The epithet of 
.Oahu is he Wohi, a royal title assumed only by the Oahu 
chiefs of the highest rank until comparatively modern 
times. Ahukini-a-laa is said in the chant to have come 
from foreign lands, mai ka nanamu, from Apia, Samoan 
group, though the verse makes a pun on the word, and 
from the deep sea of Halehalekalani.^ Kauai is said to 
have been begotten by Laakapu, the man, and Laamea- 
laakona, the wife, thus having the same mother as Oahu. 
Finally, Wanalia, the husband, from Polapola, and his 
wife, Hanalaa, were the parents of Niihau, Kaula, and 
Nihoa, the last and westernmost islands of the group. 

A remarkable fragment has been preserved of the chant 
of Kaulu-a-kalana, a famous navigator of this period. 



^ Na Kuluwaiea Haumeahekane, To Kuluwaiea of Haumea, the hus- 
iVa Hinanui-a-lana he wahine, band, 

Loaa Molokai, he Akua, he Ka- To Hinauui-a-lana, the wife, 

huna. Was born Molokai, a god, a priest. 

He pualena no Nuumea. The first morning light from Nuumea. 

2 Ku mai AJiukinialaa, Up stands Akuhinialaa, 

He Alii mai ka nanamu, The chief from the foreign land, 

Mai ka Api o ka ia. From the gills of the fish, 

Mai ke ale poi pu o ffaleJialeka- From the overwhelming billows of 

lani, Halehalekalani, 

Loaa Oahu he Wohi, Born is Oahu the Wohi, 

He Wohi na Ahukini-a-Laa, The Wohi of Ahukinialaa, 

JVa Laamealaakona he wahine. And of Laamealaakona the wife. 



THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 1 3 

^ Whether he belonged to the southern, JJlu, line of chiefs, 

or to the northern, Nana-ulu, line, is not clear, but that he 
lived or settled on Oahu seems to be admitted ; and he is 
referred to in several legends of this period as contem- 
porary with Moikeha, Luhaukajpawa, the famous priest 
and prophet, and other prominent personages of both 
lines. In his chant he mentions a number of lands and 
islands visited by him, some of which occur under the 
very same names as those earlier homesteads of the Poly- 
nesian race of which I have treated in the beginning of 
the first part of this work, and to which the legends of 
Kumuhonua and Hawaii-loa refer. The majority of the 
lands visited by Kaulu I have, however, been unable to 
identify. Wawau of the Tonga group and Upolo of the 
Samoan are clearly distinguishable as parts of his peri- 
plus. I quote the fragment in full : — 

I am Kaulu, 

Kaulu nei wau, 
The child of Kalana, 

ke kama o Kalana, 
The sacred rest, 

ka hiamoe kapu^ 
The sea-slug, 

Ka auwaalalua, 
The great slinger (expert with the sling). 

Ke keele maaalaioa. 
Rainbow colours, morning light, 

kuulei, o pawa, 
He (is the one) who spreads them out, 

Ka mea nana i hoolei^ 
Kaulu ashore, E, Kaulu at sea, 

Kaulu mauka, E Kaulu makai, 
E. Kaulu— E— He is the Kiwaa, 

E Kaulu — E — Kiwaa^ ia^ 
E. Kaulu — E — a fleet is he. 

E. Kaulu — E — auwaa ia.^ 
He has landed on (visited) Wawau, 

lele aku keia o Wawau, 



^ Kiwaa was the name of a very ^ Analogous to the English expres- 
large bird. sion, "he is a host in himself." 



14 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

Upolu, Little Pukalia, 

Upolu, Pukalia ikiy 
Great Pukalia, Alala, 

Pukalia nui, Alala, 
Pelua, Palana, Holani, 

Pelua, Palana, Holani, 
The Isthmus, Ulunui, Uliuli, 

ke Kuina,^ Ulunui, Uliuli, 
Melemele, Hiikua, Hiialo, 

Melemele, Hiikua, Hiialo, 
Hakalauai ; — who has spanned the heaven, 

Hakalauai- ; apo ka lani. 
Spanned the night, spanned the day, 

Apo ka po, apo ke ao. 
Spanned the farthest ends of Kahiki ; 

Apo Kukuluo Kahiki ; 
Finished (explored) is Kahiki by Kaulu, 

Pau Kahiki ia Kaulu, 
Finished is Kahiki by Kaulu, 

Pau Kahiki ia Kaulu, 
To the coral reefs where the surf is roaring. 

/ Koa o Halulukoakoa. 
From the time perhaps of Ku, 

Mai ke au paha ia Ku, 
From the time perhaps of Lono, 

Mai ke au paha ia Lono, 
Broken has been the sacred shell, 

/ Wahia ai ka Pumaleolani,^ 
The shell-fish, the porpoise, 

ka pupu, ka Naia, 
The garlands for the back, the garlands for the breast, 

ka lei Kua, ka lei Alo, 
The altar, the altar of that one, 

ka lele, ka lele o Kela, 
Hakuhakualani is my father, 

Hakuhakualani kuu Makuakane, 



1 1 have rendered Kuina by "isth- 2 Pumaleolani was the name of a 

mug;" it may be a proper name of large shell or conch, on which the 

a place or land, but the prefixed ar- highest chiefs alone were privileged 

tide, ke, seems to indicate otherwise, to blow ; and it was tabu for any in- 

Kuina is a poetical phrase for an f erior to touch or break it. Thus the 

isthmus, its literal meaning being a sense of this and the two preceding 

" junction," the place where two lines is that from the most ancient 

things meet, a seam between two times the tabus have been broken and 

cloths, &c. What particular isthmus authority disregarded, 
is here referred to it is difficult to say. 



THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 1 5 

The altar, the altar of this one, 

ha lele, Tea lele keia, 
Hakuhakualani is my mother, 

Hakuliakualani kuu Makuahine. 
Falling are the heavens, rushing through the heavens 

Lele ka oili o ka lani, lele i ka lani 
Falls the dismal rain, rushing through the heavens 

Lele ka ua lokuloku, lele i ka lani 
Falls the heavy rain, rushing through the heavens 

Lele ka ua hea^ lele i ka lani 
Falls the gentle rain, rushing through the heavens 

Lele ka ua huna, lele i ka lani 
Soars the dragonfly, rushing through the heavens, 

Lele ka pinaohaololani, lele i ka lani, 
Passed away has this one to Moanawaikaioo. 

lele aku keia Moanawaikaioo. 
The strong current, the rolling current, whirl away, 

ke au miki, ke au ka, e mhnilo ai^ 
It will be overcome by you, — 

E make ai ia oe, — 
Passing perhaps, remaining perhaps. 

E lele paha, e ku paha. 

Another ancient Hawaiian bard sung about these foreign 



The noisy sea (around) the island, 

Kai wawa ka moku. 
The sea of burning coals, 

Kai lanahu ahi, 
The azure blue sea of Kane. 

Kai popolohua mea a Kane. 
The birds drink (of the waters) in the Red Sea, 

Inu a ka manu i ke kai-ula. 
In (the waters of) the Green Sea, 

/ ke kai a ka omaomao. 
Never quiet, never falling, never sleeping, 

Aole ku, aole hina, aole nioe. 
Never very noisy is the sea of the sacred caves. 

Aole wawa loa kai a ke ana oku.^ 

Though the legends of Hema and of Kahai are un- 
doubtedly of southern origin, yet, as evidences of the 

^ "Where these red or green or tainly were beyond the area of tlie 

otherwise described seas may have Pacific Ocean, and in so far attest 

been situated it is now hardly pos- the distant voyages of the Polynesians 

sible to determine ; but they cer- of this epoch. 



i6 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

great nautical activity, and the expeditions to far-off 
foreign lands of this period, the following extracts may 
be quoted. The chant says of Rema : — 

Hema went to Kahiki to fetch the red fillet (circlet or 
ring), 

Holo Hema i Kahiki, kii i ke apo-ula,^ 
Hema was caught by the Aaia, 

Loaa Hema, lilo i ka Aaia,^ 
He fell dead in Kahiki, in Kapakapakaua, 

Haule i Kahiki, i Kapakapahaua, 
He rests in Ulu-paupau. 

Waiho ai i Ulu-paupau? 

According to the legend, his son Kahai started in 
search of his father or to avenge 'his death, and the chant 
describes his expedition : — 

The rainbow is the path of Kahai ; 

ke anuenue ke ala o Kahai ; 
Kahai arose, Kahai bestirred himself, 

Pii Kahai, Koi Kahai, 
Kahai passed on on the floating cloud of Kane ; 

He Kahai i ke Koi ula a Kane ; 
Perplexed were the eyes of Alihi ; 

Hihia i na maka o A lihi ; * 

1 Other versions of the legend say and his brother Karihi had avenged 
that Hema went to Kahiki to receive their father's death upon the Pona- 
the tribute or tax due at the birth of turi tribe — a race living below the 
his son, Kahai, which tax was called sea in the daytime and on shore at 
Palala; those legends stating that night ("Polynesian Mythology," by 
Hema's wife was from Kahiki. Sir G. Grey)— they started to climb 

2 The Aaia, or Aaia-nuke-a-kane, up to heaven in search of Kahai's 
is the name of a large sea-bird with celestial wife. Karihi slipped and 
white feathers, but in the old legends fell back on the earth, and saw, with 
was a fabulous bird, a messenger of wonder and amazement, his brother 
Kane, and dedicated to him. succeeding in getting up into heaven. 

3 For explanations of JTajja^opa-wa Hence doubtless the expression in 
and ZJ^w-paMjuaw, see vol. i. pp. 15, 23, the chant, "perplexed, bewildered, 
134. According to the chant, Hema were the eyes of Alihi." The Ha- 
attempted to revisit those legendary waiian legends make no mention of 
homes of his race and was lost by the Kahai' s brother, but this line in the 
way ; and according to the legend of chant confirms the identity of the 
his son, Kahai, the voyage of the Hawaiian Kahai with the New Zea- 
latter was equally disastrous, at least land, or rather Samoan, Tawhaki, and 
he never returned. the importation of the legend by the 

* According to the New Zealand southern emigrants, 
legend of Kahai or Tawhaki, after he 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

Kahai passed on on the glancing light, 

Ae Kahai i ke anaha. 
The glancing light (on) men and canoes ; 

He anaha ke kanaka, ka waa ; 
Above was Hanaiakamalama, 

Ilunao Hanaiakamalama} 
That is the road to seek the father of Kahai ; 

ke ala ia i imi ai i ka makua o Kahai ; 
Go on over the deep blue ocean, 

hele a i ka moana wehiwehi. 
And shake the foundations of heaven. 

A halulu i Hale-kumu-kalani. 
Inquiring are the retainers of the God, 

Ui Tnai kini o ke akua, 
Kane and Kanaloa are asking 

Ninau o Kane o Kanaloa ^ 
For what purpose is your large travelling party, 

Heaha kau huakai nut, 

Kahai, that has come hither ? 
K Kahai, i hiki mai ai ? 

1 am seeking for Hema, 

/ imi mai au i ka Hema,^ 
There in Kahiki, there in Ulupaupau, 
Aia i Kahiki, aia i Ulupaupau, 



1 Hanaiakamalama was the sobri- 
quet of nemo's mother, Hina. She 
is said to have been disgusted with 
her children Puna and Hema, and to 
have gone up to the moon to live, but 
in the act of ascending, her husband, 
Aikanaka, caught her by the leg and 
tore it off, on account of which she 
was called Lono-moku, " the maimed 
or crippled Lono." Mr. S. B. Dole, 
in his translation of this chant pub- 
lished in the ' ' Hawaiian Club Papers, " 
Boston, i868, gives Hanaiakamalama 
as the "Southern Star." I am not 
aware of any other legends or chants 
where this word is used to designate 
the "Southern Star," or rather the 
Southern Cross, which was a well- 
known and important constellation 
to Polynesian navigators. Its applica- 
tion to the moon was more usual, and 
in this case would imply that Kahai 
sailed under the protection of his 
grandmother, who dwelt in the moon. 

VOL. IL 



2 The placing of Kanaloa in the 
same category of gods as Kane shows 
the southern taint of the chant, al- 
though Hawaiian bards, in adopting 
and rearranging the legend, gave to 
their own ancient god Kane the pre- 
eminence by placing his name before 
that of Kanaloa. 

^ Here is a play upon the word 
Hema, which was the name of Kahai' s 
father, and, with the accent on the 
first syllable, signifies "the south." 
From the whole tenor and drift of 
the literature of this period, I am 
convinced that the article ka before 
Hema is a Hawaiian alteration in 
af tertimes, to produce a double mean- 
ing, and convey the idea, from a 
Hawaiian point of view, that while 
Kahai was seeking his father Hema, 
he was also seeking him in places 
situated at the south of the Ha- 
waiian group. 



i8 THE POLYNESIAN RACEr 

There at the Aaia constantly breathed on by Kane, 

Aia i Tea Aaia, haha mau ia a Kane, 
Reaching to the farthest ends of Kahiki. 

Loaa aku i kukulu o Kahiki. 

Another extract from the chants of this period pre- 
served by Hawaiian bards shows that the Hawaiian 
group was well known to the southern tribes of the Pa- 
cific. It is a portion of the chant of MahiaJcaumana, the 
priest who accompanied Faao, the southern prince and 
high priest, on his voyage to establish a new dynasty on 
Hawaii after the fall of Kapawa. Faao had offered the 
throne to Lono Kaeho, but he after a while refused, and 
recommended that Pili, surnamed Kaaiea, be sent. Fol- 
lowing is the portion of the chant preserved ; Makuakau- 
mana is supposed to be addressing Lono ICaeJio — 

E Lono, E Lono !— E ! E Lonokaeho ! 

E Lono, E Lono—E ! E Lonokaeho ! 
Lonokulani, Chief of Kauluonana ! 

Lonokulani, Alii o Kauluonana! 
Here are the canoes ; get on board, 

Eia na waa ; kau mai a-i. 
Come along, and dwell in Hawaii-with-the-green-back, 

E hoi, e noho ia Hawaii-kua-uli, 
A land that was found in the ocean 

He aina loaa i ka moana. 
That was thrown up from the sea, 

/ hoea mai loko o ka ale. 
From the very depths of Kanaloa, 

I ka halehale poi pu a Kanaloa.^ 
The white coral in the watery caves 

He Koakea i halelo 2 i ka wai, 
That was caught on the hook of the fisherman, 

/ lou i ka makau a ka lawaia, 
The great fisherman of Kapaahu, 

A ka lawaia nui Kapaahu, 
The great fisherman, Kapuheeuanuu. 

A ke lawaia nui Kapuheeuanuu-la.^ 

1 This expression refers again to ' The foregoing lines refer to a le- 
the southern legend that the islands gend which states that Kapuheeu- 
were fished up from the ocean by anuu, a fisherman of Kapaahu in 
Kanaloa. Kahiki, being out fishing, caught a 

2 Abbreviation from " Halelelo," lump of coral on his hook. His priest 
caves in the sea. advised him to perform certain religi- 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE, 19 

The canoes touch the shore, come on board, 

A pae na waa, kau mai, 
Go and possess Hawaii, the island ; 

E holo, e ai ia Hawaii he moku ; 
An island is Hawaii, 

He moku Hawaii, 
An island is Hawaii, for Lonokaeho to dwell on. 

He moku Hawaii, no Lonokaeho e noho. 

Numerous other extracts of ancient legends and chants 
may be quoted from Hawaiian folklore alone to prove, 
not only the knowledge, in a general way, of each other's 
existence, possessed by the Polynesian tribes, but also 
the intimate and frequent connection between them at 
this period. Whatever the causes that led to its discon- 
tinuance, the fact of its once having existed can no longer 
be doubted. And the criticism which rests content with 
the apparent difficulty of navigating the Pacific Ocean in 
small vessels, without compass, and what may now be 
considered competent nautical knowledge, has simply 
failed to inform itself of the conditions and circumstances 
under which those voyages were undertaken, as well as of 
the then intellectual status of those who performed them. 
Certainly the difficulty of the Polynesians navigating the 
Pacific in their large canoes of that period, whether single 
or double, was no greater than that of the Norsemen navi- 
gating the Atlantic to Iceland, Greenland, and Vinland, 
or penetrating up the Mediterranean in their " sneckas " 

ous rites over the coral and throw it ing to the legends, Moikeha and Laa- 
back into the sea, where it would maikahiki departed on their return 
grow into an island and be called to Hawaii. From that time Kapaahu 
Haioaii-loa ; and it happened ac- became the name of several lands on 
cordingly. Next time the fisherman the Hawaiian group. I have been 
caught another lump of coral, which unable as yet to ascertain if any dis- 
in the same manner was sanctified trict or land on any of the southern 
and c&Wed Maui-loa ; and thus on dif- groups still retains the" name of Ka- 
ferent occasions the whole Hawaiian paahu. In Hawaiian legends it is 
group was fished up out of the ocean intimately connected with that south- 
by Kapuheeuanuu. The reference t-o ern migratory period, as one of the 
Kapaahu, as being the place where chief places to which and from 
the fisherman belonged, stamps the which the naval expeditions of those 
legend as of southern origin, it being days were fitted out. 
the place in Kahiki whence, accord- 



20 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

and "drakes;" nor was the nautical knowledge of the 
latter any greater than that of the former. We believe the 
Icelandic folklore which tells of exploits and voyages to 
far distant lands ; why then discredit the Polynesian folk- 
lore which tells of voyages between the different groups, 
undertaken purposely and accomplished safely both in 
going and returning ? ^ 



Among the several southern chief families which at this 
period established themselves on the Hawaiian group, it 
is now almost impossible to determine the priority of 
arrival. The Nana family, of which Ka'pawa was the 
last reigning chief on Hawaii, and predecessor to Fili, 
was probably among the earliest arrivals. I have shown 
(vol. i. p. 200) that this family has been misplaced on the 
Hawaiian genealogies. Nanamaoa, or Nana-a-Maui, as he 
is called in some genealogies, could not possibly be the 
son of Maui-a-halana, and at the same time the grand- 
father, or even great-grandfather, of Kapawa. I am led to 
assume, therefore, that Nanamaoa was the first of his 
family who arrived from one or the other of the southern 
groups and established himself on the Hawaiian group. 
His son, Nanahaoko, was a chief of considerable note on 
the island of Oahu. He and his wife, Kahihiokalani, are 
by the oldest, and by all the legends, acknowledged as 
having built the famous and in all subsequent ages 
hallowed place called Kukaniloko, the remains of which 
are still pointed out about three-fourths of a mile inland 
from the bridge now crossing the Kaukonahua stream in 
Ewa district, island of Oahu. Chiefs that were born 
there were "born in the purple," and enjoyed the dis- 

^ The reader will bear in mind the of vessels the largest of which was 
size of the vessels with which Colum- only one hundred tons and the small- 
bus started to discover the new est was but fifteen tons, the other 
world. Even Drake's celebrated three ranging at eighty, fifty, and 
South Sea expedition was composed thirty tons. 



THE POL YNESIA N RA CE. 2 1 

tinction, privileges, and tabus which that fact conferred.^ 
So highly were those dignities and privileges prized, even 
in latest times, when the ancient structure and surround- 
ings had fallen in decay, that Kamehameha /., in 1797, 
previous to the birth of his son and successor, Liholiho 
K. II., made every arrangement to have the accouchement 
take place at Kukaniloko ; but the illness of Queen Keo- 
pzcolani frustrated the design. 

Notwithstanding the royal genealogies of both Hawaii 
and Maui have expunged the name of Nanakaolw's son 
Kapawa from their lists, substituting the name of Helei- 
pawa, and have misplaced Nanakaoho some seventeen 
generations ahead of his actual time, yet Oahu and Kauai 
genealogies, though equally misplacing the NaTia family 
in the series, acknowledge Ka'paiva as the son of Nana- 
kaoho ; and while the legends — which either come down 
contemporary with and independent of the genealogies, 
or else are a sort of running commentary upon them — 
make brief mention of Kapawa, they are positive and 
plain on three episodes of his life, which, if we recognise 
him as the contemporary of Paumakua, have all the air of 
probability, and doubtless are historically true, but which, 
if referred to fifteen or seventeen generations earlier, 
wouM bring us away from the Hawaiian group altogether, 
and land us in that nebulous region of myth and legend 
which characterises the whole southern element, at least 
in Hawaiian tradition, from the time of Ulu up to this 
migratory period now under consideration. Those three 
events in Kapawa's life were, that he was born at Kukani- 
loko aforesaid; 2 that he was buried at lao, an equally 

^ Here was kept the sacred drum, make no further mention of Kapawa, 

ffaivea, which announced to the as- or of his subsequent career; but 

sembled and expectant multitude the Hawaii legends declare distinctly 

birth of a tabu chief. that he was the predecessor of Pili 

2 Some legends call jSajsatoa a chief as chief over Hawaii, and that for 

of Wailua district, island of Oahu. his bad government or other wicked- 

As he was born at Kukaniloko, his ness he had been deposed or expelled, 

youth may have been passed at Even the notice of his death and 

vrailua, and hence the epithet of burial at lao comes to us through the 

" Ke Alii o Wailua." Oahu legends Paao and Pili legends. 



22 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

hallowed burying-place of ancient chiefs situated in the 
valley of Wailuku on the island of Maui ; and that he was 
the last sovereign or supreme chief of the island of Hawaii 
previous to the arrival of Fili, surnamed Kaaiea. 

Kapawa is the first Hawaiian chief whom tradition men- 
tions as having been buried at lao ; but as no allusion 
is made anywhere to him as the founder of that sacred 
burial-place, the presumption is that it was instituted 
previous, though by whom or when is now unknown. 
During this period, however, and in after ages, it was 
considered as great an honour to be buried at lao as 
to have been born at Kukaniloko. What the particular 
crimes of Kapawa may have been which lost him the 
sovereignty of Hawaii, tradition does not mention. What- 
ever they were, if any, it is presumable that they were 
imputed to him by those who succeeded him; and it is 
equally probable that Paao, that southern chief and high 
priest who constituted his own family as a hereditary 
priesthood on Hawaii, had more or less to do with the 
downfall of Kapawa. On the expulsion or death of 
Kapawa, Paao sent to " Kahiki " for some one of the 
southern chiefs to come and take possession of the vacant 
sovereignty. Lonohaeho was first applied to, but refused ; 
and then Pili Kaaiea was advised to go, and he came to 
Hawaii, and by the assistance of Paao was established as 
the territorial sovereign of that island, Paao remaining his 
high priest. And from Pili the ruling Hawaiian chiefs, 
down to the Kamehameha family, claimed their descent ; 
and, as if conscious of their usurpation or intrusion upon 
the domestic line, their genealogists and bards in subse- 
quent ages were always trying to connect Pili with the 
indigenous chiefs on the Maui line from PaumaTcua and 
Haho ; and the occasional matrimonial alliances of those 
'Pili descendants with Oahu or Kauai chiefs or chiefesses 
of the ancient Nanaulu line were always considered an 
honour, and dwelt on with no small emphasis in the 
Meles (songs) and legends. 



THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 23 

The next families of note derived from this southern 
immigrating element of this period were the two Fau- 
makuas, the one claiming descent from Puna and the 
other from his brother Hema, both of the Ulu line. The 
former family spread over Oahu and Kauai, the latter on 
Maui and Hawaii. The Oahu Paumakuas may have 
arrived in the time of the grandfather Newalani} or even 
earlier ; certain it is that the Paumakua of this branch 
was born on Oahu, at Kuaaohe in Kailua, Koolaupoko, 
that he died on Oahu, and was buried at lao on Maui. 
The Maui Paumakuas, on the other hand, probably did 
not arrive earlier than the time of the father, Huanuikala- 
lailai, if Paumakua himself was not the first arrival of 
that family, along with his brother Kuheailani. And 
though the Maui and Hawaii dynasties ever kept the 
Paumakua, whom they claimed as ancestor, distinctly 
descending on the Hema branch of the Ulu line, yet they 
never scrupled in after ages to appropriate to him the 
legends and events connected with the Oahu Paumakua, 



1 To judge from an ancient legend, them to live in were Kailua in the 

Newalani had another son beside Koolau district, and Pauoa and Puo- 

Lonohoo-Netoa, the father of Pauma- waina in the Kona district ; and it is 

kiia. This son was called ^aAano-a- saidthattheywereintroducedtobethe 

Newa, and is mentioned as the Kahu servants of Kahihi-ku-o ka-lani, and 

(guardian or foster-father) of Kahihi- that they were employed to build the 

ku-o ka-lani, whom there is reason to Heiausof Mauiki,Kaheiki,Kawaewae, 

believe was the same as Kahihio-ka- Eku, Kamoalii, and Kuaokala. It is 

lani, the wife of Nanakaoko and further stated, probably in reference 

mother of Kapawa. If so, it estab- to some remarkable eclipse, that 

lishes beyond a doubt the contem- "when the sun vanished and the 

poi-aneity and relationship of Kapawa earth became dark, Kahano brought 

and Paumakua, as well as their the sun back again." It is impossible 

southern extraction. With a singu- to determine the date of this legend, 

lar blending in after ages of ancient but the ancient national appellation 

reminiscences and ancient myths, the of Menehune must have become obso- 

legend speaks of this iTaAano-a-iyr^wa lete long before that, and forgotten 

as a great sorcerer — a prominent char- by the compiler. The mention of the 

acteristic of most of the southern Menehune as servants of a chiefess of 

celebrities — who ' ' stretched out his known southern extraction marks the 

hands to the farthest bounds of legend as a product of that southern 

Kahiki, and on them," as on a element, especially Tahitian, where 

bridge, "came the Menehune people il/eneAwnghadbecomethenamefortlie 

to Oahu ; " and the places assigned lowest labouring class of the people. 



24 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

and which apparently they borrowed from Kauai and 
Oahu sources. And when in later times, previous to 
the discovery of the islands by Captain Cook, and sub- 
sequently during the long reign of Kamehameha I., the 
Hawaii and Maui dynasties had gained a decided pre- 
ponderance and political supremacy, their versions of 
legends and genealogies passed undisputed, and it became 
treason to criticise them. Hence no little confusion in 
the national records and great embarrassment to the critical 
student who endeavours to elicit the truth from these con- 
flicting relics of the past. Fortunately, both Oahu and 
Kauai genealogies have survived, and by their aid, and by 
the legends attached to them, it is possible to disentangle 
the apparent snarl of the various versions, and reduce the 
pretensions of the Hawaii and Maui genealogists and bards 
to limits conformable with historical truth. 

Thus brought to the test, and divested of the embellish- 
ments of the raconteurs and the poetical frenzy of the 
bards, the Hawaiian folklore of this period establishes the 
following main facts : — That the family of the Oahu Pau- 
makua, the son of Lonohoonewa, had been in the country 
for tw^o if not three or more generations before Faumakua 
was born; that the family of the Maui Paumakua, the 
son of Huanuikalalailai, probably arrived with the said 
Paumakua himself ; that the voyages to foreign lands, 
exploits, and adventures promiscuously ascribed by later 
legends to Paumakua, the ancestor of the Maui and 
Hawaii chiefs, in reality belong to the Oahu Paumakua 
of the Puna branch on the Ulu line.^ 

The various legends referring to this Paumakua relate 

1 There was a legend from which origin of the other legend which 

S. M. Kamakau culled the notice Kamakau strangely mixes up with 

that Huanuikalalailai was buried at the foregoing, and which says that 

Niuula, Honokohau, Maui, and that Huanuikalalailai — so called by the 

he was the ancestor ("Kupuna"), people for his liberal and good gov- 

or, according to the genealogies, the ernment, but whose proper name 

great-grandfather, of the famous was Hua-kama-'pau—'wa.s an Oahu 

Kana and Niheu-Kalohe, of whom chief who ruled in Honolulu and 

more hereafter. I know not the Waikiki, and was born at Kewalo, 



THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 25 

more or less of his wanderings in foreign lands ; liow he 
circumnavigated the world (" Kaapuni Kahiki "), meaning 
thereby all foreign lands outside of the Hawaiian group. 
One of these legends relates that on his return from one 
of his foreign voyages he brought back with him to Oahu 
two white men, said to have been priests, Auakaliinu and 
Auakamea, afterwards named Kaekae and Maliu, and from 
whom several priestly families in after ages claimed their 
descent and authority. The legend further states that 
Paumakua on the same occasion also brought a prophet 
(" Kaula ") called Malela, but whether the latter was also 
a white man the tradition is not so explicit. Another 
legend relates that when Faumakua returned from foreign 
voyages he brought with him three white persons, called 
Kukahaicula, Kukalepa, and Haina-Pole, a woman. The 
latter legend, however, appears to me to be a Maui or 
Hawaii Hchauff6e of the original Oahu legend, and for 
this reason, that in all subsequent times no Maui or 
Hawaii priestly family traced their descent to either 
Kaekae or Malm, which, with perhaps one or two excep- 
tions on Kauai, flourished exclusively on Oahu. 

The white foreigners who came with Paumakua are in 
the legend said to have been " Ka haole nui, maka alo- 
hiloM, ke a aholeJiole, maka aa, ka puaa keokeo nui, maka 
ulaula" ("Foreigners of large stature, bright sparkling 
eyes, white cheeks, roguish, staring eyes, large white 
hogs^ with reddish faces"). A fragment of an ancient 
chant referring to this occurrence has been preserved, 
and reads — 

Paumakua, ka lani o Moenaimua, 
O Paumakua, the lord of Moenaimua, 

betweenthese two places; but in view digenous locus standi when their 

of the foregoing observations, and foreign pedigrees, whether Tahitian 

the fact that the Ohau and Kauai or Samoan, had been forgotten or 

genealogies do not know him, I look obscured. 

upon it as one of many other similar 1 It is not uncommon in the ancient 

attempts on the part of Hawaiian Meles to find the word Puaa (lit. 

bards to give him and other dubious "hog") applied to persons. It was 

names on the Ulu-Hema line an in- a poetical and sacerdotal expression. 



26 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

he Alii nana i hele he Kahihi, 

the chief who went to Tahiti, 
A Kahihi i he kaiahea, 

Tahiti in the open ocean, 
mimo, o momi, o ha mamio, 

The gentle, the precious, the prosperous, 
ha ia mailoho^^ o ha Auahahinu 

(And) the fish within (were) Auakahinu, 
Auahamea ia lani. 

(And) Auakamea the noble. 

There is a discrepancy in the Oahu genealogies leading 
up to Paumakua. Some of them make Moenaimua his son 
and Kumakaha his grandson ; others pass over 3foenaimua 
in silence and make Kumakaha the son of Paumakua. 
Judging from analogy on other well-known genealogies 
of much later age, I am inclined to think that both 
Moenaimua and Kumakaha were the sons of Paumakua, 
and introduced successively by bards in after times with 
that persistent vanity of making the line of descent as 
long as possible which characterised the entire fraternity 
of Hawaiian genealogists and bards. 

Besides his extensive voyages to foreign countries, and 
his introduction of the two priests of an alien race, said to 
be white, and that some legends ascribe the custom and 
ceremony of circumcision to Paumakua — a fact disputed 
by others — little is known of his reign and influence 
on the island of Oahu. A reference to the genealogical 
table will show that he was the ancestor in the fourth 
generation of the famous Laa-mai-kahiki, from whom 
every succeeding generation of chiefs took a special pride 
in claiming their descent. 

Giving thus all due credit to the Paumakua of the Puna. 
line, whom the Oahu and Kauai chiefs exalted and 
glorified as their ancestor, there is little to tell of the 
Maui Paumakua of the Hema line, the son of Hitanui- 
kalalailai, and brother of Kuheailani. Through his son 



o 



1 A poetical phrase signifying that were the foreigners Auakahinu and 
the fish that he caught, the treasure Auakamea. 
he found in his net on his voyage, 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 27 

Halio and grandson Palena he became the great-gi-and- 
father and progenitor of the noted Hanalaa, whom both 
the Maui and Hawaii chiefs contended for as their 
ancestor under the varying names of Hanalaa-nui and 
Hanalaa-iki, asserting that Palena was the father of 
twins who bore those names. Up to the time of the 
conquest of the islands, the Maui chiefs claimed Hanalaa- 
nui as their ancestor, and assigned Hanalaa-iki to the 
Hawaii chiefs ; but after the conquest by Kamehamelia /., 
the claim of the Hawaii chiefs prevailed, and no genealogy 
recited after that ventured to give Maui the precedence in 
the claim upon the two brothers. 

Here, again, the Oahu traditions come in as an umpire 
to settle the contention which for so many generations 
disturbed the peace and ruffled the temper of its wind- 
ward neighbours, and destroy the illusion of the Hanalaa 
twins, into which even the Maui genealogists had fallen 
while hotly contending for their own priority over the 
Hawaii branch. This Oahu tradition is contained in an 
ancient chant or genealogical register, evidently once the 
property of the powerful Kalona families on Oahu, who 
claimed descent from Maweke as well as from Laamai- 
hahiki, and who must reasonably be supposed competent 
to discriminate between the Paumakua, from whom their 
own Zaamaikahiki descended, and this Paumakua, from 
whom the Maui Hanalaa descended. This register, while 
observing the requirements of chronology and contem- 
poraneity, as mostly all the Nanaulu registers do, brings 
the Piliwale branch of the Kalonas up to this Maui 
Paumakua, descending from him through Haho, Palena, 
Hanalaa, Mauiloa, Alo, Kuhimana, &c., to Mailikukahi, the 
father of the Kalonas. This chant says nothing of two 
Hanalaas ; it knows but one ; and when the undisputed 
fact is taken into consideration that Pili, from whom the 
Hawaii chiefs reckon their lineal descent, was an emigrant 
chief from the southern groups, the attempt to piece his 
lineage on to already existing Hawaiian lines becomes too 



28 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

palpably untrue to deserve any notice. The chant or 
register referred to is probably not much later in time 
than the reign of Kalaimanuia on Oahu, the grand- 
daughter of Piliwale, or twelve generations ago; but it 
is invaluable as a protest from olden time, and from those 
who in later ages were generally admitted as the best 
informed, against the exaggerated inflations and unscrupu- 
lous interpolations practised on the national registers by 
genealogists and bards in the service of Hawaii and Maui 
chiefs. 

But though this Maui Paumakua is not remembered 
in song or legend for anything remarkable that he did or 
performed, yet his son, the afore-mentioned Halio, has 
gone down to posterity and been remembered by all 
succeeding ages throughout the group as the founder 
of the Aha-Alii, an institution which literally means 
" the congregation of chiefs," and, in a measure, may be 
compared to a heralds' college; and to gain admission 
into which it was incumbent on the aspirant to its rank 
and privileges to announce his name, either personally or 
through an accompanying bard, and his descent, either 
lineal or collateral, from some one or more of the recog- 
nised, undisputed ancestors (" Kupuna ") of the Hawaiian 
nobility, claiming such descent either on the Nanaulu or 
Ulu line. " Once a chief always a chief," was the Hawaiian 
rule of heraldry, and no treason, crime, or lesser offence 
ever affected the rank or dignity in the Aha-Alii of the 
offender or of his children. There was no " bill of 
attainder " in those days. 

There were gradations of rank and tabu within the 
Aha-Alii, well understood and seldom infringed upon. 
No chief could fall from his rank, however his possessions 
and influence might vane; and none could rise higher 
himself in the ranks of the Aha-Alii than the source from 
which he sprang either on mother's or father's side ; but 
he might in several ways raise the rank of his children 
liigher than his own, such as by marriage with a chiefess 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 29 

of higher rank than his own, marrying with a sister, or by 
their adoption into a family of higher rank than that 
of the father. 

The privileges and prerogatives of the Aha-Alii were 
well defined and universally known, both as regards their 
intercourse with each other and their relation to the com- 
monalty, the Makaainana. Their allegiance or fealty to 
a superior chief w^as always one of submission to superior 
force, of personal interest, or of family attachment, and 
continued as long as the pressure, the interest, or the 
attachment was paramount to other considerations; but 
the slightest injury, affront, or slight on the part of the 
superior, or frequently the merest caprice, would start the 
inferior chief into revolt, to maintain himself and his 
possessions by arms if able, or he fled to some indepen- 
dent chief of the other islands, who almost invariably 
gave him an asylum and lands to live on until a change 
of affairs made it safe to return to his former home. 

A chief of the Aha-Alii, if taken captive in war, might 
be, and sometimes was, offered in sacrifice to the gods, 
but he or his family were never made slaves if their lives 
were spared. And if the captive chief was of equal or 
higher rank than his captor, he invariably received the 
deference and attention due to his rank, and his children 
not unfrequently found wives or husbands in the family 
of the conqueror. A chief of the Aha-Alii was of right 
entitled to wear the insignia of his rank whenever he 
pleased: the feather wreath, the Lei-hulu — the feather 
cloak or cape, the Ahu- TJla — the ivory clasp, the Palaoa ; 
his canoe and its sail were painted red, and he wore 
a pennon at the masthead. 

Among the members of the Aha-Alii it was not unusual 
that two young men adopted each other as brothers, and 
by that act were bound to support each other in weal or 
woe at all hazards, even that of life itself ; and if in after 
life these two found themselves, in war time, in opposing 
ranks, and one was taken prisoner, his life was invariably 



30 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

spared if lie could find means to make himself known to 
Ins foster-brother on the opposite side, who was bound to 
obtain it from the captor or the commanding chief. And 
there is no instance on record in all the legends and tradi- 
tions that this singular friendship ever made default. 

Such were some of the leading features of the Aha-Alii, 
which all existing traditions concur in asserting was insti- 
tuted by Raho about twenty-five generations ago. It 
arose, probably, as a necessity of the existing condition of 
things during this migratory period, as a protection of the 
native aristocracy against foreign pretenders, and as a 
broader line of demarcation between the nobility and the 
commonalty. It lasted up to the time of the conquest by 
Kamehameha I., after which this, as so many other heathen 
customs, good, bad, or indifferent, gradually went under in 
the light of newer ideas, new forms of government, and 
new religion. At present there is no Aha-Alii, though 
there is a " House of Nobles/' in which the foreign-born 
number ten to nine of the native-born, and few of these 
latter recall to the minds of the common people the great 
historical names of former days, the great feudal lords on 
this or that island, who, still within the memory of yet 
living people, could summon a thousand vassals or more 
to work their fields and do their bidding. 

Nothing remarkable has been retained upon Hawaiian 
traditions about Kuheailani, the brother of this Maui Fau- 
makua. His son, Hakalanileo, appears to have become 
lord of some lands in the Hilo district of Hawaii, and mar- 
ried a chiefess of southern descent named Hiiia, or, in 
some legends, Hoohoakalani, whose mother, Uli, came from 
Kahiki by some one or other of those southern expedi- 
tions of the period. The abduction and recovery of this 
Lady Hina or Hooho is the subject of one of the most 
popular legends of olden time. Though this legend is 
bristling with marvellous and fabulous exploits, yet doubt- 
less an historical basis underlies the superstructure of 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE, 31 

later times, and is confirmed by other legends of contem- 
porary and later date. When stripped of their poetical 
and fictitious drapery, the facts appear to have been 
these : — 

At the time of Eakalanileo, the son of KuTieailani, 
there lived on the island of Molokai a powerful family of 
the ancient native chiefs. Tradition has not preserved 
the pedigree of this family beyond that of the father of 
the subject of this legend, but its connection with the 
ancient Nanaulu line is frequently affirmed. The father 
of this family was Kamanaua} who seems to have been 
the superior chief of Molokai. Among his several sons, 
the second, Keoloewa, succeeded his father in the sove- 
reignty of the island, and married Nuakea, the grand- 
daughter of Maweke, and daughter of Keaunui, and sister 
of Lakona, all famous and powerful chiefs on Oahu. The 
eldest son of Kamavuua was called Kaupeepee-nui-kauila, 
and he dwelt on [a promontory or mountain-neck called 
Haupu, situated on the north side of Molokai.^ This pro- 
montory was strongly fortified by art as well as by 
nature, and was in those days considered impregnable. 
From this stronghold Kaupeepee sallied forth in search of 
adventures, possibly plunder, and on one of his excursions 
off the coast of Hilo he saw and became enamoured of 
the beautiful Hina, the wife of Hakalanileo. To see and 
to desire to possess was the logical operation of the chief- 
tain's mind. He succeeded in carrying off the lady, and 
returned with her without mishap to his mountain eyrie. 
So skilfully laid were the plans of Kaupeepee, and so 
well executed, that the bereaved husband was for a long 

^ The children of Kamauaua and yfiie NuaTcea ; the third I have only 

his wife Hinakeha were Kaupeepee- encountered once in the traditions re- 

nui-kauila, Keoloewa, Haili, and Uli- ferring to this family, and then he is 

hala-nui. The adventures of the first quoted as an ancestor of Kanikani- 

will be treated of immediately ; the aula, one of the wives of Kakaalaneo 

second was noted as the head and of Maui and mother of the famous 

progenitor of numerous powerful fa- Kaululaau; of the fourth no further 

milies throughout the group, whose mention has been preserved, 
pedigrees reach up to him and his 2 Between Pelekunu and Waikolo. 



32 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

time ignorant of what had become of his wife or who was 
her abductor. He travelled over Hawaii and Maui, seek- 
ing and inquiring, but got no tidings of the lost one. 
Years rolled on, and the young sons of Hina, having 
grown up. to manhood, took up the search which their 
father had abandoned. These sons were called Kana and 
Niheu-Kalohe. They are said to have been instructed by 
their grandmother, Uli, in all the arts of sorcery and witch- 
craft, for which the southern immigrants were noted and 
feared by the previous inhabitants of the Hawaiian group. 
The sons soon discovered where their mother was kept 
captive, and measures were taken for her liberation. 
Kaupeepee was warned by his Kaula, or prophet, Moi, the 
brother of Nuakea, the wife of his brother Keoloewa, that 
bad days were approaching, and that the sons of Hina 
were coming to the rescue of their mother. Secure in his 
mountain fastness, the chief scorned the advice and defied 
the sons of the outraged lady. On the episodes and de- 
tails of the war that ensued I will not dwell. They are 
so mixed up with the fabulous and supernatural, that it is 
almost impossible to disentangle a thread of truth in the 
whole account. But of the result of the war there is no 
doubt whatever. By force, by stratagem, by treachery, or 
by all combined, the fortress was taken and demolished, 
Kapeepee slain, the Lady Hina delivered and returned to 
Hakalanileo, and the prowess and skill of the southern 
element in this expedition retained upon the songs and 
sagas of all succeeding generations. 

The embellishments of the marvels and of the skill and 
adroitness which adorn this legend, indicate that the form 
it now possesses was given to it in much later times, pro- 
bably during the period of Hawaiian intellectual activity 
which characterised the nearly contemporary reigns of the 
Kawulos on Kauai, the Kakuhihewas of Oahu, the Kama- 
lalawalu of Maui, and the Keawenuiaumi of Hawaii and 
his children, when so many of the old traditions and still 
older myths received a new dress and a new circulation 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 33 

among the court circles and the commonalty of those 
days. 

The two heroes of the legend, Kana — who is said to 
have disdained the use of canoes, and, by a faculty pecu- 
liar to himself, like the joints of a telescope or a Japa- 
nese fishing-rod, could walk with his head above the 
water through the deepest ocean — and his brother Niheu- 
kalohe, renowned for his cunning, his skill, and his trick- 
ery, left no progeny to claim their honours ; and though 
Hakalanileo and Hina had three other children men- 
tioned in the tradition, viz., Kekahawalu, Kejpaniy and 
Haka, yet in all my collections of Hawaiian genealogies 
I have found none and heard of none that ascended to 
either of Hakalanileo'' s children. 



Before referring to Pili, surnamed Kaaiea, from whom 
the principal chief families on Hawaii claimed descent to 
present times, the family and legend of Paao arrests our 
attention. 

Forty years ago there were two sets of traditions cur- 
rent regarding Paao. They were nearly similar in most 
points, but differed in some essentials. The one legend, 
collected and referred to by David Malo, the Hawaiian 
antiquarian, states that Paao came from " Wawao ; " that 
having quarrelled with his brother Lonojpele, he left and 
proceeded to Hawaii, where he established himself in the 
capacity of a high priest; and finding the island in a' 
state of anarchy and without a sovereign chief " on ac- 
count of the crimes of Kapawa, the chief of Hawaii," he 
sent back (another legend says he went back himself) to 
his native island, inviting some chief there to come and 
take possession of Hawaii. To which invitation Pili re- 
sponded, and, having arrived at Hawaii, was confirmed in 
the government by Paao, whose family, after him, remained 
the high priests of the reigniDg chiefs of Hawaii, until 

VOL. II. C 



34 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

after Kamehameha I. The other legend, collected and re- 
ferred to by S. M. Kamakau, another Hawaiian antiquary, 
states that Paao came from " Upolo" though he pos- 
sessed lands at " Wawao,'' and in the islands still farther 
south ; that having quarrelled, as above mentioned, with 
his brother Zonopele, he left in company with Pili-kaaiea, 
Pill's wife Hinaauahu, his own sister Namauuo-malaia, 
and thirty-five others, relatives and retainers, and after 
a long and dangerous voyage, arrived at the island of 
Hawaii, where he established himself in the district of 
Kohala, and Pili became sovereign chief of the island of 
Hawaii. It is possible that Paao, Pili, &c., came from 
Wawao, one of the Tonga group, as the legend quoted by 
D. Malo asserts; but I think it hardly probable, for reasons 
that I will now set forth. Counting the greater distance 
from Wawao to the Hawaiian group as nothing to the 
adventurous spirits of those times, yet the legend quoted 
by Kamakau covers the whole ground when it states that 
Paao, a native of Upolo in the Samoan group, " owned 
lands in Wawao and in the islands farther south." The con- 
tinued intercourse between the Tonga and Samoan groups 
is well ascertained from the earliest times, and it would 
have been nothing unusual for a Samoan chief to own 
lands in the Tonga or Hapai groups. The cause of Paao'a 
departure from Upolo to seek a new establishment in 
other lands, as narrated by Hawaiian tradition, bears so 
strong a resemblance to the Samoan legend brought by 
the first emigrants to New Zealand, and narrated by Sir 
George Grey in his " Polynesian Mythology and Ancient 
Traditional History of the New Zealand Eace," London, 
John Murray, 1855, page 202, &c., that it is easy to recog- 
nise that both legends are but different versions of one 
and the same event. The Hawaiian version, whatever 
embellishments it may have received in subsequent ages, 
came substantially to Hawaii during this migratory period 
we are now considering, from twenty- one to twenty-seven 
generations ago, and is quoted as an explanation of why 



THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 35 

FctcLO left Upolo in the Samoan group. The New Zealand 
version goes back, at best, only fifteen generations on New 
Zealand soil, and is offered as an explanation of why the 
Samoan chief Turi left Hawaiki (Sawaii) for New Zea- 
land, but how many generations that legend may have 
been current in the Samoan group before the departure of 
Turi there is no means of knowing. Thus, whatever cre- 
dibility may attach to the legend as an historical relic, 
yet the similarity of the cast of the drama in each, and 
the fact of its being avowedly derived, both in New Zea- 
land and Hawaii, from Samoan sources, would seem to 
confirm that one of the Hawaiian legends which claims 
Paao and Fili and their companions as coming from the 
Samoan group, notably the island of Upolo. 

The only other places in the Samoan group mentioned 
in the Hawaiian legends of Paao which may help to 
identify the particular place from which Pa^ao came, are 
called " the mountains of Malaia " and " the cliff of Kaa- 
koheo," the latter overlooking the beach from which Faao 
took his departure. Whether any such mountain and cliff 
still exist by those names on the island of Upolu or any 
of the Samoan islands, I am unable to say. Samoan 
archseologists may be able to throw light on that subject. 

Paao is said to have made his first landfall in the 
district of Puna, Hawaii, where he landed and built a 
Heiau (temple) for his god and called it Wahaula. The 
ruins of this Heiau still remain a short distance south of 
the village of Kahawalea in Puna,^ but it is almost im- 
possible now to say what portions of it date back to the 
time of Paao, seeing that it was almost entirely rebuilt 
by Imaikalani, a noted chief over the Puna and Kau 
districts tempore Keawenui-a-umi, some twelve or thirteen 
generations ago, and was again repaired or improved in 
the time of Kalaniopuu, who died 1782. It was the very 
last Heiau that was destroyed after the tabus were abro- 
gated by Kamehameha II. in 1820. It was built in the 

1 On the land called Pulama. 



36 THE POL YNESIA N RA CE. 

quadrangular or parallelogram form wliich cliaracterised 
all the Heiaus built under and after the religious regime 
introduced by Paao, and in its enclosure was a sacred 
grove, said to have contained one or more specimens of 
every tree growing on the Hawaiian group, a considerable 
number of which, or perhaps their descendants, had sur- 
vived when last the author visited the place in 1 869. 

From Puna Paao coasted along the shores of the Hilo 
and Hamakua districts, and landed again in the district 
of Kohala, on a land called Puuepa, near the north-west 
point of the island, whose name, " Lae Ujpolu" was very 
probably bestowed upon it by Paao or his immediate 
descendants in memory of their native land. In this 
district of Hawaii Paao finally and permanently settled. 
Here are shown the place where he lived, the land that 
he cultivated, and at Puuepa are still the ruins of the 
Heiau of Mookini, which he built and where he officiated. 
It was one of the largest Heiaus in the group, an irregular 
parallelogram in form, with walls more than twenty feet 
high and fully eight feet wide on the top ; its longest sides 
are two hundred and eighty-six and two hundred and 
seventy-seven feet, and the shorter one hundred and 
thirty-six and one hundred and eighteen feet. The stones 
of which it is built are said to have come from Mulii, a 
land in Kohala, nine miles distant from Puuepa ; and, as 
an instance of the density of population at that time, tradi- 
tion says that the building-stones were passed by hand 
from man to man all the way from Niulii, a feat requiring 
at least some fifteen thousand working men at three feet 
apart. Ten years ago, when I visited the place, the walls 
of the Heiau were still unimpaired. The then Circuit 
Judge of that part of the island, Mr. Naiapaakai, who was 
well conversant with the ancient lore of the district, and 
who accompanied me to the ruins, showed me a secret 
well or crypt in the south side of the walls, east of the 
main entrance, several feet deep, but now filled up with 
stones and boulders of similar nature to those that com- 



THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 37 

pose the wall. Having climbed on the top of the wall 
and removed the stones out of the well, we found at the 
bottom two Maika stones of extraordinary size, which 
were said to be the particular Ulu which Paao brought 
with him from foreign lands, and with which he amused 
himself when playing the favourite game of Maika. These 
stones were as large as the crown of a common-sized hat, 
two inches thick at the edges and a little thicker in the 
middle. They were of a white, fine-grained, hard stone, 
that may or may not be of Hawaiian quarrying : I am not 
geologist enough to say. I have seen many Maika stones 
from ancient times, of from two to three inches diameter, 
of a whitish straw colour, but never seen or heard of any 
approaching these of Paao in size or whiteness. Though 
they are called the Maika stones of Paao — '' Na Ulu a 
Paao'' — yet their enormous size would apparently forbid- 
their employment for that purpose. If Maika stones, and 
really intended and used for that purpose, there could be 
no conceivable necessity for hiding them in the bottom of 
this crypt or well in the wall of the Heiau. In this un- 
certainty the legend itself may throw some light on the 
subject when it says that " Paao brought two idols with 
him from Upolu, which he added to those already wor- 
shipped by the Hawaiians." Though almost every legend 
that treats of Paao more or less mentions the changes 
and innovations which he effected in the ancient worship, 
yet no tradition tjiat I have heard mentions the names of 
those two idols or where they were deposited. ^ May not, 
then, these so-called Maika stones of Paao, so carefully 
hidden in the walls of the Heiau, be those idols that Paao 
brought with him ? Their presence there is a riddle ; 
and the superstitious fear with which they are treated or 
spoken of by the elder inhabitants of the district evinces 
in a measure the consideration in which they were an- 
ciently held, that certainly would never have been be- 
stowed on a chief's playthings like actual Maika stones. 
When the tabus were abrogated, when the Heiaus were 



38 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

doomed, when Christian zealots proved the genuineness 
of their new faith by burning the objects of faith of their 
fathers, and when the ancient gods were stripped of their 
kapas and feathers and their altars overturned, then many 
a devotee, a Kahu or servant of special Heiaus or indi- 
vidual gods, hid the object of his adoration in caves, in 
streams, in mountain recesses, in the mud of swamps or 
other unfrequented places, in hopes of the better days 
which never came. Thus many a Kahu died and made 
no sign, and the idol he cherished has only been dis- 
covered by accident. And so these stones, if they were 
the idols of Faao, may have been hidden at some previous 
time of change or improvement in the Heiau or its culte 
— perhaps when it was repaired by Alapai-nui of Hawaii, 
the stepson and usurping successor of Keawe, the great- 
<:rrandfather of Kamehameha /. — or when the tabus were 
abolished and Christianity introduced in 1820-30. 

The priesthood in the family of Paao continued until 
the last high priest on Hawaii, Hewahewaniii, joined Lilio- 
liho Kamehameha II. and Kaahumanu in abrogating the 
tabus. Several families at this day claim descent from 
Paao. 



That both Pili and his wife Ilinaauaku were of foreign 
birth, probably from Upolu of the Samoans, there can be 
no doubt. The name of his wife, Hina, with the sobri- 
quet auaku, is a thoroughly southern name, a common 
and favourite appellation of female chiefs on the Ulu line, 
both on the Hema and Puna branches, but was utterly 
unknown or discontinued among the members of the 
Nanaulu line (the Hawaiian) from the days of Kii, the 
father of both Ulu and Nanaulu. 

Of Pilis exploits scant mention is made in the legends 
beyond the main fact that he established himself and his 
family firmly on the island of Hawaii. 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 39 

The genealogical tree published by David Malo, and 
quoted on page 191, vol. i., represents Pili as the father 
of Koa, the grandfather of OU, and great-grandfather of 
Kukohou. I believe this to be another interpolation in 
subsequent ages, when the memory of the names alone 
were retained and the order of succession more or less 
forgotten. Judging from analogy of other genealogies, 
Koa and OU may have been brothers of Fili ; or Koa, 
Ole, emd Kukohau may all have been sons of Pili. There 
are no legends serving as commentaries to their genea- 
logy, and the Meles are silent respecting them. More- 
over, the names of their wives, Hina-aumai, Hina-mailelii, 
Hina-keuki, are all of southern extraction, and indicate a 
simultaneous arrival. Kukohou may have been the son 
of Pili, and his wife the daughter of some other southern 
chief who accompanied Pili to Hawaii ; but that Koa, OU, 
and Kukohou were son, grandson, and great-grandson of 
Pili, as the Hawaiian genealogy current at the court of 
Kamehameha, and quoted by David Malo, has it, I think 
historically impossible. I have shown that the most sober 
and trustworthy traditions concur in making Pili the suc- 
cessor of Kapawa as sovereign chief of Hawaii, and that 
Pili either accompanied or followed Paao to Hawaii, not 
as explorers or first discoverers, but when the Polynesian 
migratory wave was at its full height, and the Hawaiian 
group was already well known to southern chieftains and 
their wise men and bards. Pili therefore must have been 
contemporary with the grandchildren of Maweke of tlie 
Nanaulu line, established on Oahu and Kauai, with Keo- 
loewa of Molokai, with Haho of Maui. When to this is 
added the undisputed, and by the Pili descendants never- 
forgotten fact, that Kanipahu of the Pili posterity married 
HiLolani, the great-granddaughter of Nuakea, who was 
granddaughter of Maweke and wife of Keoloewa, there is 
no room on a correct pedigree for Koa and Ole as being 
son and grandson of Pili. 

Of Kanipahu s father, Kaniuhu, the legends are silent, 



40 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

but of Kanijpdhu himself we gather the following from 
his legends : — 

Beside Hualani, of Molokai and Oahu descent above 
mentioned, he also married Alaihauakoko, who at one time, 
whether previously or subsequently cannot now be ascer- 
tained, was the wife of Lakona, the son of Nawele, who 
was the great-grandson of Kumuhonua the brother of 
Moikelia. With the latter he had a son, Kalapana, sur- 
named Kuioiomoa ; with the former he had four children, 
called Kanaloa, Kumuokalani, Laaikialiualani, and Kala- 
Imimoku. Up to this time the Pili family does not 
appear to have been so firmly seated in the sovereignty of 
Hawaii, but that occasional disturbances occurred with 
the ancient chief families of the island. It is related that 
a scion of one of those families named Kamaiole had 
revolted against Kanipahu^ and, being successful, had 
driven him out of Hawaii. Kanipahu left his sons with 
some trusted friend in the secluded valley of Waimanu, 
Hamakua district, and sought refuge for himself on the 
island of Molokai, where, at Kalae, he lived as a simple 
commoner, doing his own work and carrying his own 
burdens. Years rolled on, and Kamaiole ruled Hawaii 
with such oppressiveness and severity that the people at 
length became wearied and disgusted with his sway, and 
went to the head of the Paao family, the high priest of 
Hawaii, for advice and aid. The priest sent messengers 
to Kanipahu on Molokai asking him to return to Hawaii 
and resume the government. Kaniyahit refused, as the 
legend says, because he was ashamed of the hump on his 
shoulders contracted during the many years of hard and 
toilsome labour that he had lived on Molokai, but he 
directed the messengers to go to Waimanu, where they 
would find his son Kalapana, on whom he devolved the 
war with Kamaiole and the government of Hawaii. On 
the receipt of this information from Kanipahu the high 
priest sent for Kalapana, who raised an army among the 
discontented and gave battle to the usurper at a place 



THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 41 

called Auaelioomalu in Kekaha, North Kona. KamaioU 
was defeated and slain, and Kalaparia was installed sove- 
reign chief of Hawaii. Kanipahu remained on Molokai, 
and died there. 

As Kanipahu was contemporary with Laa-mai-kaliiki 
at the close of this migratory period, I will leave the 
Pili family at present, in order to notice some other pro- 
minent men of southern descent whose names have been 
preserved on the national legends. 

Among those, the one whose fate probably arrested 
most attention, and served as a warning in after ages when 
chiefs ventured to oppose the priesthood, was Hua, with 
the sobriquet of a-Kapuaimanaku, in distinction from 
Hua-nui-kalalailai, the father of the Maui Paumakua. In 
the royal genealogies of both Hawaii and Maui this Hua 
is placed as third in ascent from Paumakuay to whom he 
is represented as having been the great-grandfather ; but 
when the legends referring to him are critically scanned, 
and regard had to the contemporaneity of the other per- 
sonages therein mentioned, his proper place would be 
three generations later than Paumakua. It is probable 
that he belonged to that southern Kua family from which 
Paumakua and Haho descended. He is said to have been 
king of Maui, and lived principally at Hana, Kauwiki. 
The earliest remembered war between Maui and Hawaii 
is said to have been conducted by him, who invaded 
Hawaii, and at Hakalau, in the district of Hilo, thoroughly 
defeated the Hawaii chiefs. The Hawaiian legends call 
that war by the name of Kaniuhoohio. One time, while 
residing on East Maui, Hua got into a dispute with his 
priest and prophet, Luahoomoe, about some birds called 
" Uwau," and became so angry that he resolved upon the 
death of the priest. Luahoomoe, conscious of the fate that 
awaited him, gave directions to his two sons, Kaakakai 
and K^aanahua, how to escape the vengeance of the king. 
In due time, according to ancient custom, the house of 
Luahoomoe was burnt by order of the king, and the refrac- 



42 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

tory priest was killed. His sons and some of his house- 
hold escaped to one of the mountain - peaks called 
Hanaula. But the vengeance of Luahoomoe and the 
king's punishment for slaying a priest were swift in com- 
ing and terrible in their consequences. ]N"o sooner was 
LuaJioomoe consumed by the fire of his burning house than 
the streams of water ceased running, the springs dried up; 
no rain fell for three years and a half, and famine and 
desolation spread over the islands. Hua and his people 
perished miserably, and the saying survives to this day, 
Nakeke na iwi a Hua i ka la — " rattling are the bones of 
Hua in the sun " — as a warning to wicked people, imply- 
ing that no one survived the famine to bury Hua or hide 
his bones ; — the greatest disgrace of ancient times. 

The legend further tells that the drouc^ht and famine 
spread to the other islands, and that Naula-a-Maihea, the 
famous prophet and seer who dwelt at Waimalu, Ewa dis- 
trict, Oahu, became concerned for the fate of the entire 
Hawaiian people. Seeing no signs of rain on the Kauai 
mountains, and none on the Kaala mountains of Oahu, he 
looked towards Maui, and there on the peak of Hanaula 
he saw a dark spot where the rain was concentrated. He 
knew at once that there the sons of Luahoomoe had taken 
up their abode, and he proceeded thither with offerings of 
a pig, fowl, &c., to appease their anger and procure rain. 
The sons of Luahoomoe, seeing Naula arriving, descended 
from the mountain and met him in Kula. The meeting 
was cordial ; rain followed, and the country was relieved 
of the curse which followed Hua's wicked attempt on the 
life of a priest. 

Naula-a-Maihea is said to have accompanied Laa-mai- 
kahiki from Kahiki, the southern groups. He was noted 
and feared as a sorcerer and a prophet, traits strongly 
characteristic of the priestly class of the southern immi- 
grants. He built a Heiau at Waimalu, Ewa, Oahu, the 
foundation of which may still be seen. The legend men- 
tions that, starting at one time from Waianae, Oahu, for 



THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 43 

Kauai, his canoe was upset ; that he was swallowed by a 
whale, in whose stomach he crossed the channel between 
Oahu and Kauai, and was vomited up alive and safe on 
the beach at Waialua, Kauai. If this is not a remnant of 
ancient myths and legends brought with them by the Poly- 
nesians from their trans-Pacific ancient homes, localised 
in new habitats and adapted to the most noted prophet of 
the times, it is at least a remarkable coincidence with 
the Jewish legend of the prophet Jonah. 

Among other southern families of note who arrived at 
the Hawaiian group during this migratory period, though 
now it is impossible to place them in their proper order, the 
lecrend mentions Kalana-nuunui-kua-mamao, and Humu, 
and Kamaunua-niho who came from Kahiki (the southern 
groups), and landed at Kahahawai in Waihee, Maui. Aumu 
soon returned to Kahiki, being discontented with Kalana, 
who had taken Xamaunuaniho for wife. They had a 
daughter named Hina, who became the wife of Olopana 
(not the brother of Moikeha, the grandson of Maweke), who 
liad arrived from Kahiki and settled at Koolau, Oahu. To 
this Olopana is attributed the Heiau of Kawaewae at 
Kaneohe, Oahu. Olopana! s brother Kahikiula came with 
him from Kahiki. Both these families are said to have 
come from places in Kahiki called "Keolewa," "Haena- 
kulaina," and " Kauaniani." 

With this family of Olopana is connected the legend of 
Kama'puaa, whom story and fable have exalted into a 
demigod, assuming the nature of a man or that of a 
gigantic hog as suited his caprice. There was doubt- 
less a historical foundation for the legend of Kamapuaa. 
He is reported to have been the son of Kahikiula (Olo- 
pana's brother) and ffina, Olopana's wife. He offended 
his uncle Olopana and rebelled against him, and after 
various battles was taken prisoner and condemned to be 
sacrificed, but by the advice and assistance of Zonoaohi, 
the chief priest of Olopana, he surprised and slew his 
uncle in the very Heiau where he himself was to have 



44 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

been sacrificed. After that Kamajpuaa left Oalm and 
went to Kahiki, where he married, and, acquiring renown 
for his prowess, dwelt a considerable time. 

It is extremely difficult to advance an opinion as to 
whether the combats and adventures of Kamajpuaa with 
Pele, the reputed goddess of the volcano Kilauea, have any- 
historical foundation, or are merely pure fiction of later 
ages, embodying some hidden and half- forgotten religious 
tenets of opposing creeds. Though Pele was universally 
acknowledged as the goddess of volcanoes, and of Kilauea 
in particular, yet her worship in the Hawaiian group is 
only subsequent to this migratory period and the arrival 
of the southern immigrants. Her culte was unknown to 
the purer faith of the older inhabitants of the Naiiaulu 
line, and her name had no place in the Kane doxology. 
Yet, to the careful observer of the ancient Hawaiian 
legends of this period, various circumstances combine 
together to produce the impression, almost of certainty, 
that among the immigrants of this period arriving from 
the southern groups was one particular family, afterwards 
designated as that of Tele, with her brothers and sisters ; 
that they established themselves on Hawaii at or near 
the volcano of Kilauea; that becoming powerful, they 
became dreaded and identified with the volcano near 
which they resided ; and that in course of time the head 
of the family, under the name of Pele, was regarded as the 
tutelary deity of that and other volcanoes. The minute 
and variedly narrated adventures of Pele herself and her 
sister Hiaka-i-ha-'pole-o-Pele leave but little doubt on the 
critical student's mind that, at the time when the facts 
connected with these personages had become historically 
mouldy and passed into legends, they were still regarded 
as originally mortal beings, but by common consent ex- 
alted in the category of Au-makua (spirits of deceased 
ancestors), and feared and worshipped as such. Viewed 
in that light, there is some sense and some historical 



THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 45 

foundation for the legends which relate that Kamajpuaa 
went to Hawaii to court Pele, how he was refused and 
waged war upon her, and how, after a drawn battle, a 
compromise was effected. The metaphysical and theo- 
logical notions associated with the legends of Pele appear 
to me to be partially due to the fertile imagination of 
priests and bards, as the actual, corporeal existence of Pele 
receded in the shadowy past, and partially also to be rem- 
nants of an older creed which had collected around the 
legend of Pele when their own appropriate associations 
and point de mire had been forgotten or distorted. 

Another notability of southern extraction who arrived 
at the Hawaiian group during this period is Luhauhapawa. 
He was the " kilo-kilo,'' astrologer, navigator, and priest of 
Kaula-a-kalana, the famous Oahu chief who visited so 
many foreign lands, and who is said to have been the 
grandson of Hina-i-kapaikua, the wife of Nanamaoa, and 
consequently contemporary with the Paumakuas and with 
the children of Maweke. What southern group was his 
birthplace is not known, but he returned with Kaulu-a- 
kalana to Oahu and settled there. Some legends attribute 
to LvJiaukapawa, in a general way, the introduction of the 
tabus ; but it is most probable that he only enforced their 
stricter observance, and perhaps added some new regula- 
tions previously unknown to, or not in use among, the 
Hawaiians. He must have attained a remarkable old 
age, for he is said to have been still alive in the time 
of Mualani, the great-granddaughter of Maweke from his 
son Kalehenui, and who was an Oahu chief ess. 

There was at this period one powerful family on the 
island of Kauai known as the Puna family, which pro- 
bably belonged to this oft-mentioned southern Ulu line 
of emigrants, though their pedigree is nowhere mentioned 
in the traditions now remaining. Tradition mentions 
three of that name, viz., Puna-nui-kaian^ina, Puna-kai- 
olohia, and Puna-aikoai, the latter of which was contem- 
porary with Moikeha, who, on his return from Kahiki, 



46 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

married Puna's daughter Hinauulua, or, as she is also 
called, Hooipo-hamalanae. This family may possibly have 
descended from the same Puna branch of the Uln 
southern line as the Oahu Paumakua family ; and as the 
first name known to Hawaiian tradition, that of Puna-nui- 
haianaina, was also probably the first arrival at the 
Hawaiian group from the south, he would be contem- 
porary with Newalani, the grandfather of Paumakua, and 
thus among the first immigrants of this period. I am 
inclined to think that this Puna family originally came 
from the Marquesan group, inasmuch as on a Marquesan 
genealogy of a Hivaoa (St. Dominica) chiefess I find that 
about thirty-two generations ago there were a number of 
Punas, with various sobriquets to distinguish them, on 
the said genealogical tree, evidently showing it to have 
been a family name, and I hold it quite probable that 
Hawaiian immigrants bearing that name came from that 
direction and from that family. 

Doubtless many other southern chiefs visited the Ha- 
waiian group and established themselves there, but time 
has blotted their names from the traditional record, and 
the fame of their exploits has not come down to after 
ages — " carent quia saero vate" — or, having been mixed 
up and absorbed in the native population at an early 
period, they lost their southern individuality. The com- 
bined influence, however, of all these expeditions, large 
and small, known and unknown, on the condition of the 
previous Hawaiians, amounted almost to a social revolu- 
tion, and was deep-felt and lasting. I shall refer to the 
changes introduced during this period at the conclusion 
of this section of Hawaiian history. 



If Hawaiian traditions are remarkably redundant with 
the brilliant exploits of princely adventurers from the 
southern groups, who flocked to this country, or by some 



THE POL YNESIA N RA CE. 47 

means or other insinuated themselves or their descendants 
on vacant thrones and in prominent positions, they are 
equally redundant, if not more so, with the adventures 
and achievements of Hawaiian chiefs of the original 
Nanaulu line, who roamed over the southern and south- 
western groups of the Pacific in quest of fame, of booty, 
or of new homes. Many of these returned to their native 
homes laden with rich and curious knowledge of foreign 
manners and foreign modes of thought, and thus aided 
not a little in overlaying the ancient condition, social, 
political, and religious, with the more elaborate but grosser 
southern cultus and more despotic rule of government. 

About the time, probably a generation earlier, of the 
Paumalcuas, Ka^pawa, and Paao who have been referred to 
in previous pages, there lived on Oahu a chief by the 
name of Maweke. He was the son of Kekupahaikala (k) 
and Maihikea (w), and the lineal direct descendant from 
Nanaulu, the brother of Ulu, from whom the southern chiefs 
claimed their descent. He lived twenty-seven generations 
ago, counting on the direct line through the Oahu chiefs 
his descendants, or from twenty-six to twenty-eight gene- 
rations ago, counting on the collateral Hawaii and Maui 
lines of chiefs, or approximatively about the earlier and 
middle part of the eleventh century. Nothing worthy of 
note is related by the traditions about Maweke, but it is 
remarkable that he is the first on the Nanaulu line, 
counting downward, from whom any collateral branches 
have descended to our days. No doubt there were col- 
lateral offshoots of the Nanaulu line before his time. The 
Hikajpoloa, Kamaiole, and others on Hawaii ; the Kamauaua 
on Molokai ; the Wahanui on Oahu ; the Kealiiloa, Pueo- 
nui, and Keikipaanea on Kauai, and several others to 
whom the legends refer, were not southerners of the Ulu 
line, but it is nowhere stated through whom, on the 
Nanaulu line above Maweke, they descended. It does 
appear as if those families and many other collaterals 
above Maweke had been merged, absorbed in, and eclipsed 



48 ■ THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

by the southern element, and in process of time lost the 
memory of their connection with the Nanaulu line, while 
the Mawcke family was strong enough to not only retain 
its own individuality and its ancient genealogy to the 
latest times unruffled by southern contact, but also to 
absorb and subordinate to itself several of those southern 
invaders whose descendants in after ages counted it no 
small honour to be able, through the marriage of some of 
their ancestors, to claim connection and descent from this 
powerful Nanaulu Maweke family. 

Tradition records that Maweke had three sons, Mulie- 
lealii, Keaunu% and Kalehenui, whose lines, with nume- 
rous collaterals, have descended to our days. The Kale- 
henui family appear to have chiefly resided on the Koolau 
side of the island of Oahu, while the favoured residence 
and patrimonial estates of the Keaunui family appear to 
have been in the Ewa, Waianae, and Waialua districts of 
the same island. The particular district occupied by 
Mulielealii is not well defined in the legends. As the 
descendants of one of his sons, KumuJionua, are found 
for several generations afterwards in possession of the 
district of Kona, Oahu, it may be supposed to haye been 
their heritage after the death of Maweke. 

On the deeds and exploits of Mulielealii and Kalehenui 
personally the legends are silent. But to Keaunui, the 
head of the powerful and celebrated Ewa chiefs, is attri- 
buted the honour of having cut a navigable channel near 
the present Puuloa saltworks, by which the great estuary, 
now known as " Pearl Eiver," was in all subsequent ages 
rendered accessible to navigation. Making due allowance 
for legendary amplification of a known fact, the estuary 
doubtless had an outlet for its waters where the present 
gap is; but the legend is probably correct in giving 
Keaunui the credit of having widened it and deepened 
it, so as to admit the passage of canoes, and even larger 
vessels, in and out of the Pearl Eiver estuary. Among the 
most noted of Keaunui s children were Lakona, the great 



THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 49 

progenitor of the Ewa chiefs, Nuakea, the wife of the 
Molokai Keoloewa-a-kamauaua, and Moi, the prophet 
and seer of Kaupeenui, the brother of Keoloewa. 

]^othing very remarkable is related of the descendants 
of KaleJienui during this period, except that tradition 
informs us that during the time of Mualani, the grand- 
daughter of Kalehenui, while she and her husband Kao- 
mealani lived at Kaopulolia in Kaneohe, Oahu, there 
arrived at the promontory of Mokapu, in Kaneohe afore- 
said, a vessel with foreigners (white people — liaole) on 
board. Tradition gives the vessel's name as Ulupana, and 
of the crew are mentioned the chief or captain, Mololana, 
and his wife, Malaea, and three other persons. Whether 
they remained in the country or left again, is not known. 

We now come to the Mulielealii branch of the Mawelce 
family, which occupies so great a portion of the ancient 
legends of this period. Mulielealii is said to have had 
three sons and one daughter. The former were Kumu- 
Jionua, Olojpanaj and Moikeha ; the latter was named 
Hainakolo. 

KumuJionvAi seems to have remained in possession of 
the patrimonial estates on Oahu, and possibly of the 
nominal sovereignty of the island. He had four sons, 
Molohaia, Kahahuokane, Kukawaieakane, and ElepmiJca- 
honua. The genealogies of none of these has been pre- 
served except the last, which descends to the time of 
Haka, a noted Ewa chief who lived at Lihue, and was the 
last Oahu sovereign of the Kumuhonua branch, having 
been succeeded in the sovereignty by Mailikukahi of the 
Moikeha branch. 

The two other sons of Mulielealii, viz., Olopana and 
Moikeha, appear to have established themselves on Hawaii, 
where Olopana ruled the valley of Waipio and adjacent 
country, and Moikeha, if not co-ordinate with his brother 
in power, was at least his highest subject and most trusted 
friend. Here Olopana married Luukia, granddaughter of 
Hikapoloa, chief of Kohala Hawaii, and Mailelaulii, his 

VOL. II. t) 



50 THE POL YNESIAN, RA CE. 

wife, from Kona Hawaii — both descended from the ancient 
Hawaiian Nanaulu line — and begat a daughter named 
Kcmifea. 

How long Olojpana dwelt in Waipio is not mentioned, 
but the legend states that after a while heavy storms, 
floods, and freshets desolated the valley and compelled 
the inhabitants to seek refuge in other places. Olopana 
and his family, accompanied by his brother Moikeha and 
his family, embarked on their canoes and sailed for Kahiki, 
where they arrived safely, and where, according to the 
legend, Olopana obtained the sovereignty of a district or 
section of land called " Moaulanuiakea," and where Moi- 
keha, still the right-hand man of his brother, built a sump- 
tuous residence and Heiau for himself, called " Lanikeha." 
On this voyage Moikeha took with him, as an adopted son, 
the young chief Laa — who then must have been but a 
child — the son of Ahukai, who was the great-grandson of 
the Oahu Paumahua, and who in the chants is called 
" Chief of Kapaahu and Lord of Nualaka." 

Ke Hii no Kapaahu 
He Lani no Nualaka. 

It would be interesting to know, if possible, on which 
of the southern or south-western groups of the Pacific 
Olopana and Moikeha landed and established themselves. 
The word " Kahiki," from a Hawaiian point of view, com- 
prises any and every group from Easter Island to the 
farthest west, even far into the present Malaysia. Not 
being able to define the particular place, it may be as- 
sumed with a considerable degree of certainty to have 
been on one of the Society or Georgian groups. The 
Hawaiian legends mention only three names of places in 
connection with these voyages of Moikeha, of Kila, or of 
Laa-mai-kahiki, and they were Moa-ula-nui-akea, the 
name of a land or district where Olopana dwelt, Lanikeha, 
the name of the residence and Heiau of Moikeha, and 
Kapaahu, the name of a neighbouring mountain, where 



THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 5 1 

Laa-mai-kahiki Avas stopping when Kila was sent to bring 
him back to Moikeha. My own limited knowledge of 
names of places, ancient or present, in the Society group, 
prevents me from positively identifying either of these 
names, and thus settle the question. But the whole tenor 
of the Hawaiian legends would seem to indicate the 
Society group as the objective point of these voyages of 
Moikeha, Kila, Laa, and others referring to the same locali- 
ties. The name of the district or section of country over 
which Olopana is said to have ruled in Kahiki was in 
Hawaiian Moa-ula-mti-akea. Analysing this word, it 
consists of one appellative, Moa, and three adjectives or 
epithets, ula, nui, akea, " red, great, open, or wide-spread- 
ing." As the adjectives may or may not have been 
original at the place to which they were applied, and 
probably arose in the eulogistic tendency of those who 
cherished its memory, and in the magnifying disposition 
of the bards of subsequent ages, there remains the word 
Moa as an index for our research. In the island of 
Eaiatea, Society group, one of the entrances leading to the 
bay on which Opoa was situated was anciently, and is 
possibly still, called Ava-Moa, " the sacred harbour " or 
entrance. This, then, may be the place which Hawaiian 
legends so highly extolled as the splendid domain of 
Olopana and of Laa. Moa, which in Tahitian means 
" sacred," and was originally a distinctive epithet of that 
particular harbour, became in Hawaiian and to Hawaiian 
emigrants a local name, adorned with other though analo- 
gous epithets. When, moreover, we consider that Opoa, 
to which this " sacred entrance," this Ava-Moa, conducted 
the voyager, was the seat, cradle, and principal sanctuary 
of the entire Society group, the Tahitian Mecca, in fact, 
there are reasonable grounds for assuming that the Moa- 
ula, &c., of the Hawaiian legends refers to the Ava-Moa 
of Eaiatea, Society group. It is true that the Hawaiian 
legends referring to this period make no mention of Opoa, 
its Morae or temple, nor to its presiding deity, Oro, But 



52 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

according to Tatutian legends and traditions, the Morae of 
Opoa was built and dedicated to Oro by Hiro, whom their 
genealogies make the twentieth before the late Queen 
Pomare, and who, according to the same genealogies, was 
the great-grandson of Baa; whereas the Hawaiian Laa 
flourished twenty-three generations ago, and his foster- 
father, Moikeha, at least two generations earlier. Hence 
the legends of Moikeha and his contemporaries are silent 
on the Morae of Opoa and its famous god Oro. 

Of the mountain of Kapaahu I have been unable to 
obtain any information. It is to be hoped that some 
Tahitian archaeologist may take the trouble to ascertain 
if any of the mountains of Eaiatea, especially in the 
neighbourhood of Opoa, ever bore the name of Kapaahu. 

According to the legend, Olopana and Moikeha lived 
harmoniously in their new domain for a long time, until 
jeal-ousy and envy actuated a Tahitian chief named Miia 
to slander Moikeha and prejudice him in the eyes of 
Luukia, the wife of Olopana. Unable to clear himself of 
the slander and to convince Luukia of its malice, life 
became irksome to Moikeha, and he concluded to seek 
diversion by returning to his native land. His canoes 
were equipped forthwith under the superintendence of 
Kamahualele, his astrologer and seer (Kilokilo), and, with 
a goodly company of chiefs, retainers, and relatives, they 
set sail for Hawaii. It was on this occasion, as they 
approached the island of Hawaii, that Kamahualele is 
said to have chanted the verses quoted on page lo. The 
legends differ somewhat as to the names of the followers 
of Moikeha, but they all agree that a number of places in 
the Hawaiian group were named after sucli or such com- 
panions of Moikeha, who were permitted to land here and 
there as the fleet coasted along the island shores, and who 
succeeded in establishing themselves where they landed. 
Thus were named the land of Moaula in Kau, Hawaii, the 
capes of LLaehae and Kumukahi in Puna, the district of 
Honuaula on Maui, capes Makapmi and Makaaoa on Oahu. 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 53 

One legend says that Moikeha's priest was called Mookini, 
and that he and another follower named Kaluawilinau 
landed at Kohala, Hawaii. It may have been so, but the 
inference drawn by the native Hawaiian mind, that the 
famous Heiau of Mookini in Kohala was called after this 
companion of Moikeha, is an evident anachronism, as 
Paao who built the Heiau preceded Moikeha in time of 
arrival at Hawaii ; and it is not probable that the Paao 
and Pili joint interest in Kohala would then, or in after- 
times, permit their special and sacred Heiau to be named 
after a chance passenger in the fleet of Moikeha ; the more 
so as the former sprang from the Samoan group, and the 
latter came from the Society group. There was, doubtless, 
a Heiau in Puuepa, Kohala, near the shore, called Moo- 
kini, the ruins of which still remain, but it was much 
older than the one which Paao built, and probably gave 
its name to the latter. Another of the companions of 
Moikeha was the famous Laamaomao, who by subsequent 
generations was worshipped as an Aumakua, and exalted 
as a demigod, a Hawaiian ^olus, from whose Ipu or 
calabash the imprisoned winds went forth at his bidding, 
in force and direction to suit the wishes of the devotee. 
He is said to have taken up his abode near a place called 
Hale-a-Lono, a well-known hill and landmark on Kalua- 
koi, island of Molokai. No incident is recorded during 
the voyage from Kahiki to Hawaii, and having passed 
through the Hawaiian group, making the different debar- 
cations above mentioned, Moikeha arrived one evening off 
the island of Kauai, and anchored his canoes outside of 
Waialua and the surf of Makaiwa, or, as others say, off 
Waimahanalua in Kepaa, the neighbouring land, where the 
Puna family of chiefs held their court. Early next morn- 
ing, with his double canoe dressed in royal style (Pulou- 
lou-Alii), Moikeha went ashore and was cordially received 
by the chiefs of the district. According to one tradi- 
tion, Puna had two daughters, Hooipo i Kamalanae and 
Hinauu or Hinauulua, who fell in love with Moikeha, and 



54 THE POL YNESIA N RA CE. 

whom he married ; another tradition only mentions Hooipo 
i Kamalanae as his wife. On the death of Puna, Moikeha 
became the principal chief (Alii nui) of Kauai, and re- 
mained there the balance of his life. With these two 
wives Moikeha had the following children mentioned in 
the legends, viz. : — Hoohamalii, Haulanuiaiahea, Kila, 
Umalchu, Kaialca, Kekaihawewe, and Laukapalala, all boys. 
Not much is said of Hookamalii in the legends. It would 
appear that he settled in the Kona district of Oahu, where 
his grandfather, Muliele-alii, had held possession, and is 
reported to have resided at Ewa. His son Kaliai is said 
to have made a voyage to Kahiki, and from Upolu in the 
Samoan group brought a species of bread-fruit tree, which 
he planted at Puuloa. The great-granddaughter of Hoo- 
kamalii, called Maelo, married Lauli-a-Laa, the son of 
Laa-TTiai-kahiki, whom Moikeha took with him to the 
Society group, and from this union descended the great 
Kalona families on Oahu, which spread their scions over 
the entire group. 

The second son of Moikeha was Haulanuiaiakea. He 
followed his father in the supremacy of Kauai. I have 
been unable to recover any complete genealogy of his 
descendants, but it was universally conceded that Kapolei- 
kauila, the wife of Kalanikukuma, a descendant of Laa- 
mai-Kahikis second son, Ahukini-a Laa, was the lineal 
descendant of Haulanuiaiakea. It probably was so, for 
it is undeniable that that union increased immensely the 
tabu and aristocratic rank of Kalanikukuma' s two sons, 
Kahahumakalina and Ilihewalani. 

The third son of Moikeha was Kila. He makes a more 
conspicuous figure in the ancient legends than his other 
brothers. I possess two legends relating to Kila. One is 
very copious and detailed, but shows evident marks of 
the embellishments of later narrators; the other is more 
succinct. They differ in several material points, and thus 
induce me to believe that the one is not a copy of the other, 
but that both sprang from independent sources. Com- 



THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 5 5 

paring the two together, and with other legends referring 
to this period, the historical facts appear to be these : — 
After Moikeha had been many years residing at Waialua 
as chief ruler of Kauai, and when his sons were grown-up 
men, a strong desire took possession of him to see once 
more his foster-son Laa, whom, on his departure from 
Kahiki, he had left with his brother Olopana, and whom 
Olopana had adopted as his heir and successor. Either 
Moikeha was too old, or from other causes unable to 
undertake the voyage himself, and Kila was commissioned 
to go to Kahiki to Moa-ula-nui-akea and bring Laa witli 
him to Kauai. The double canoes were fitted out and 
equipped for the long voyage ; several, if not all, of Kilas 
brothers went with him; and, finally, Moikeha's own 
astrologer (Kilokilo) and friend, Kamaliualele, who came 
with him from Kahiki, was ordered to accompany Kila as 
special counsellor and chief navigator. When all were 
ready the expedition started. After passing through the 
Hawaiian group, and taking its departure from the south 
point of Hawaii, it stood to the southward, and in due 
time arrived at Kahiki. Whether, as the one legend has 
it, Laa returned with Kila to the Hawaiian group, saw his 
foster-father, Moikeha, visited the other islands, and finally 
returned to Kahiki; or, as the other legend has it, Laa 
remained in Kahiki until after the death of Olopana, 
and then proceeded to Hawaii with his own canoes, 
accompanied by his priest, his astrologer, his master of 
ceremonies, his drummer, his prophet, and forty otlier 
attendants, the fact is none the less certain that Laa 
came to the Hawaiian group and stayed there for some 
time, principally on Oahu at Kualoa. Here he married 
three wives — Hoakanuikapuaihelu, daughter of Lonokaehu 
from Kualoa, Waolena from Kaalaea, and Mano from 
Kaneohe. All the ancient traditions retain the fact of 
this triple marriage, and that each one of those three 
ladies was delivered of a son on one and the same day, 
and from each of these three sons it was the glory and 



56 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

pride of the aristocracy on Oahu and Kauai to trace their 
descent. These sons of Laa-mai-Kaliiki were respectively 
called Lauli-a-Laa, Almkini-a-Laa, and Kukona-a-Laa. 
Pakui, a noted bard and priest in the time of Kame- 
hamelia L, in his version of the ancient chant of the 
creation of the islands and the origin of the nobility, 
thus sings : — 

AJmkai, Laa-a, Laa-a, 

O Ahukai, O Laa-a, O Laa-a, 
Laa-mai KahiJci he Alii, 

O Laa from Tahiti, the chief, 
Ahuhini-a-Laa, 

O Ahukini-a-Laa, 
Kukona-a-Laa, 

O Kukona-a-Laa, 
Lauli-a Laa, makua, 

Lauli-a Laa, the father, 
na pukolii a Laa-mai- Kahiki, 

The triple canoe of Laa-mai- Kahiki, 
He mau hiapo kapu a Laa, 

The sacred firstborn (children) of Laa, 
Hookahi no ka la i hanau ai. 

Who were born on the same one day. 

The legend adds that after Moikelia's death Laa returned 
to Tahiti and lived and died there. It then narrates the 
adventures of Kila and his troubles with his brothers in 
a rather prolix and marvellous manner; but the result 
seems to be, comparing the two legends together, that 
Kila abandoned the island of Kauai and established him- 
self on Hawaii, where he obtained possession of the valley 
of Waipio, the former land of his uncle Olopana; and from 
him several Hawaii families claimed descent, notably 
Laakapii, the wife of Kahoiikaptt, Kapukamola, the wife 
of Makakaualii, and Piila7iiwaJiine, the wife of Kama- 
lalawalu of Maui. 

Of Mulielealiis daughter Hainakolo a legend still exists. 
She is said to have married a southern chief named Keanini^ 
whom she accompanied to his home in Kuaihelani; that 
the marriage was not a happy one ; that Hainakolo returned 
to Hawaii while her brother Olopana still resided there ; 



THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 57 

that she met with a tragical end, and that her spirit still 
haunts the mountains and precipices around the valley of 
Waipio. This legend is very much overlaid with the 
fabulous and fanciful, but the historical kernel of it still 
confirms the prevalence of the long voyages and social 
intercourse of the Polynesian tribes during this period. 
Hainakolds son is called Zeimakani, from whom some 
Hawaiian families claimed descent. 

Among other Hawaiian chiefs who during this period of 
unrest and tribal commotion visited foreign lands, the 
leofends have retained the name of Wahanui, a chief from 
Oahu. He is not claimed as a scion of the powerful 
Maweke family, and was probably a descendant of some 
one of Maweke's ancestors, though the connection is now 
lost and forgotten. His expedition visited the southern 
groups first, and having seen them all (" Uapau ka Hema "), 
it started for the islands in the west, and from there re- 
turned to the Hawaiian group. It is said that he brought 
many strange and curious things with him from the foreign 
lands that he had visited, and among others are mentioned 
the Kanaka-pilikua, a dwarfish people, whom he landed on 
Kauai, and who, on account of their swiftness, became 
famous as runners, 

Kaumailkda was another Hawaiian chief whose ad- 
ventures in foreign lands {Kahiki) formed the subject 
of contemporary gossip and of subsequent legend. He 
was the grandson of Hikajpaloa, the noted Hawaiian chief 
from Kohala of the Nanaulu line, and brother to Luukia, 
the wife of Olopana. He married his niece Kaupea, Olo- 
2)anas daughter, who had come on a visit to Hawaii while 
her parents still were living in Kahiki. Misunderstandings 
possibly arose between husband and wife, and Kaupea 
returned to her parents in Kahiki, where she gave birth 
to a daughter afterwards named Karnakaokeahi. Hearing 
of this by other arrivals from Kahiki, Kaumailiula started 
to recover and bring back his daughter. His adventures 
on this voyage, and his narrow escape from being sacrificed 



58 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

in Kaliiki for iiaving inadvertently broken the tabu?, and 
his successful return with his daughter to Hawaii, are the 
theme of the legend and the traditional data in support of 
the frequent and intimate intercourse between the Hawaiian 
and the southern groups at this period. 

With Laa-mai-Kahiki closes this period of oceanic 
travel, migrations, and intercourse so far as the Hawaiian 
group was concerned; at least no name has come down 
upon the traditions, legends, or genealogies of any Hawaiian 
chief who undertook such a voyage to the southward, or of 
any southerner that arrived at the Hawaiian group after 
that time. While the exploits and adventures of the many 
who failed to establish themselves and perpetuate their 
names on the genealogies of the country have faded from 
the national memory, or are only alluded to in connection 
with some other more prominent figure, yet sufficiently 
many succeeded in making themselves famous among their 
contemporaries and sending their names and their exploits 
down to posterity as a cherished heirloom through unbroken 
generations, and thus — in spite of the marvellous accretions 
which the legends gathered as they passed from father to 
son — attesting the historical truth of the fact, the time, 
and the character of this singular episode in Hawaiian and 
Polynesian national life. 



I have formerly stated that Polynesian legends furnish 
no clue as to the causes which set this migratory vortex 
in motion within the Polynesian area of the Pacific. No 
more do they give an inkling of what led to its discon- 
tinuance. To the Hawaiian people it was an era of 
activity and enterprise, an awakening from a sleep of 
fifteen generations, not devoid of the peculiar danger of 
being swamped or absorbed in this ethnic whirl. Its 
traces, however, were deep and indelible. It modified the 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 59 

ancient customs, creed, and polity. It even affected the 
speech of the people, and as late as fifty years ago it was 
easy to distinguish a native from the leeward islands from 
one of the windward by his manner of pronouncing the 
letters h and I, which Kauai and Oahu natives, adopting 
the Tahitian style, pronounced t and r. Since the con- 
quest of Oahu by Kamehameha I. in 1796, and the cession 
of Kauai in 1809, the fusion of the people of the leeward 
and windward isles of the group has been so great as to 
nearly obliterate the ancient difference of speech between 
them. 

To this period Hawaiian tradition assigns the introduc- 
tion of the four-walled, more or less oblong, style of 
Heiau (temple), instead of the open truncated pyramidal 
structure of previous ages, indicating a great change in 
the ceremonial of the religion and a tendency to exclu- 
siveness unknown before. Under the old, the previous 
regime, the Heiau of the truncated pyramid form, w^ith 
it presiding chief, officiating priests, and prepared sacrifice, 
were in plain open view of the assembled congregation, 
who could hear the prayers and see the sacrifice, and 
respond intelligently to the invocations of the priest. 
Under the innovations of this period, the presiding chief, 
those whom he chose to admit, and the officiating priests, 
were the only ones who entered the walled enclosure 
where the high-places for the gods and the altars for tlie 
sacrifices were erected, and where the prayers and invoca- 
tions were recited, the congregation of the people remain- 
ing seated on the ground outside the walls, mute, motion- 
less, ignorant of what was passing within the Heiau until 
informed by the officiating priest or prompted to the 
responses by his acolytes. 

To this period may also be assigned the introduction 
and adoption of several new gods in the Hawaiian pan- 
theon. That the Hawaiians previous to this venerated 
and prayed to the spirits of departed ancestors — Aumakiui 
— is abundantly shown from their legends and traditions ; 



6o THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

but I have found no indications to show that these were 
looked upon in any other light than as tutelar genii and 
family intercessors with the great omnipotent gods Kane, 
Ku, and Lono, to whom alone Heiaus were raised, and to 
whom alone, singly or jointly, the public ceremonial of 
worship was addressed. During and following this mi- 
gratory period, however, several varieties of the great 
gods begin to appear in the legends of the people, 
unknown to the former creed and culte. Originally, 
perhaps, they were considered as manifestations of the 
various attributes and powers of the three primeval gods ; 
but if so, the original conception had been worn down 
by time and defaced by usage, until, at the time we 
now speak of, those deified attributes had been exalted 
to the position of independent godheads, receiving separate 
worship, and as such were introduced by the southern 
emigrants for the acceptance and worship of the Ha- 
waiians. We thus find varieties of Kane, such as Kanc- 
makna} Kanepuaa^ Kane-i Ka-pualena,^ and eight or ten 
others of that class, generally known as Kane-nuiahea. 
We thus find the varieties of Ku, such as Ku-ula,^ Ku- 
ha-oo,^ Ku-kaili-mohu^ and others. We thus find Lono- 
a-hihi^ Lono-i-ha-ou-alii^ and several others in more or 
less vogue. To this period belongs the introduction of 

^ One of the gods worshipped by * A feather god, chosen by Umi 
fishermen, especially at the season of and by Kamehameha I. as their par- 
catching Malolo (flying-fish). ticular tutelar god, generally wor- 

2 The god of husbandry. shipped as a god of war. According 

3 Lit. "Kane with the yellow to Kev. Mr. Ellis's " Polynesian Re- 
flower." The particular god wor- searches," vol. i. p. 276, Tairi was 
shipped by Kmoelo-a-3Iahunalii, the one of the ancient war-gods in Tahiti, 
great Kauai chief who flourished some "a deity of the first rank, having 
eight or nine generations ago. been created by Taaroa before Oro 

•* Another god worshipped by the existed." 

fishermen throughout the group. His ^ The eel god. 

wife's name was Hina — which of 8 xhe particular god which Laa- 

itself shows their southern origin ; raai-Kahiki brought with him from 

and when the god proved unjiropi- Raiatea, and which was deposited in 

tious, the fishermen prayed to her to the Heiau of his foster-father, Moi- 

intercede with her husband. kcha, at "Wailua, Kauai. 

fi A god of husbandry. 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 



6i 



the Fde^ family of divinities, male and female, and tlie 
transformation of the Hawaiian fallen angel, Kanaloa^ 
the prince of darkness and chief of the infernal world, to 
a rank almost equal with Kane, Ku, and Lono. To the 
influence of this period may be attribted the increased 
stringency of the tabus, and probably the introduction, 
or at least more general application, of human sacrifices. 
In support of this surmise, I may state that in all the 
legends or allusions referring to the period previous to 
this migratory epoch I have found no indications of the 
practice of human sacrifices, though they may have ex- 
isted ; but subsequent to this period the inhuman practice 
becomes progressively increasing, until in the latter days 
of paganism hardly any public affair was transacted with- 
out the inevitable preamble of one or more human victims. 



1 This family of gods consisted of 
Pele, the presiding goddess, whose 
especial abode was in the crater of 
the volcano of Kilauea, and her five 
brothers and eight sisters. They 
ruled over all volcanic phenomena, 
and they were considered as a ci'uel, 
capricious, and vengeful set of gods. 
Their names will indicate their attri- 
butes and functions, as well as the 
peculiar process by which, with an 
ignorant people, natural phenomena 
become exalted into special deities, 
and the " nomen " of one age becomes 
the "numen" of another. The five 
brothers were Kamoho-alii, the royal 
Moho ; Kapoha-i-kahi-ola, the explo- 
sion in the place of life ; Ke-ua-a-ke-po, 
the rain of night ; KaneheHli, Kane the 
thunderer; Ke-o-ahi-kama-kaua, the 
fire-thrusting child of war. The eight 
sisters were Makole-wawahi-waa, red- 
eyed canoe-breaker ; Hiaka-wawahi- 
laiii, Hiaka the heaven-rending ; Hid- 
ka-noho-lani, Hiaka the heaven-dwell- 
ing; Hiaka - kaaiawa - makaj Hiaka 
who turns her face ; Hiaka-i-ka-poli- 
o-Pele, Hiaka on the bosom of Pele ; 
Hiaka -kapu-enaena, Hiaka of the 
burning consuming tabu; Hiaka-ka- 



lei-ia, Hiaka adorned with garlands ; 
Hiaka-opio, Hiaka the young one. 
Rev. Mr. Ellis translates Hiaka 
{Hii-aka) with "cloud-holder." I 
think the better rendering would be 
"twilight-bearer." In Tahitian ^^a 
sometimes has the sense of a " cloud," 
but in Hawaiian never. In all the 
Polynesian dialects, Ata, Aka, has one 
common sense, " shadow " of a person 
or thing. In a majority of the dia- 
lects Atd also has the sense of "twi- 
light," the particular lighting up of 
the sky which precedes or follows the 
rising or setting of sun or moon ; and 
in this sense it would appropriately 
convey the idea of the lurid light 
which accompanies an eruption of the 
volcano. As the name of the goddess 
was probably imported along with the 
culte of Pele, it may assist us in 
tracing the direction from whence it 
came to Hawaii to know that in Sa- 
moan Ata means " twilight ; " Ata 
ata, "the red sky after sunset;" in 
Marquesan Ata-ua means the morning 
"twilight," "aurora." 

2 For my remarks upon Kanaloa, 
see vol. i. pp. 83, 84. 



62 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

To what extent the previous Hawaiian social customs 
were affected by this prolonged intercourse with their 
southern cousins, it is extremely difficult now to state 
from any allusions that may be found in the legends or 
Meles. What the peculiar style of garment worn by 
Hawaiian females may have been before this time, I am 
unable to say, and there is nothing in the traditions to 
indicate ; but all the legends concurrently testify that the 
style of garment known as the " Fau]' consisting of five 
thicknesses of kapa or cloth, and reaching from the waist 
to the knee, was first introduced and rendered fashionable 
in Hawaii by Luukia, the wife of Olopana, who, as pre- 
viously stated, established himself as a supreme chief on 
one of the Society group, probably Eaiatea. Could the 
ancient bards and raconteurs of legends be interrogated 
how Luukia could have introduced the fashion of this 
garment on Hawaii, seeing that she never returned there 
after she and her husband and Moikeha left Waipio, 
their probable answer would be that to Luuhia belonged 
the credit of the invention, and that her daughter Kaupea 
brought the pattern of it to Hawaii when she visited her 
mother's family, and became the wife of her uncle Kau- 
mailiula. In tlie Hawaiian group the pattern remained 
in its original comparative simplicity, and to this very 
day the manufacturers of kapa make them fivefold, from 
no other motive than because the " Pau " of Luukia was 
of five thicknesses. 

Among the improvements or additions to the ancient 
musical instruments of the Hawaiians which are assigned 
to this period is that of the large drum, " ICaeke," made 
from the hollowed trunk of a large cocoanut-tree and 
covered with shark skin. It was beaten by hand, and 
was first introduced in the group by Laamaikahiki when 
he returned from Kahiki. It was said to have been pre- 
served at the Heiau of Jloloholoku, Wailua, Kauai, until 
comparatively modern times. Prom Laamaikahiki s time 



THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 63 

to the introduction of Christianity, the use of this kind of 
drum became general over the group, and every indepen- 
dent chief, and every " Heiau Poohanaka " — v^here human 
sacrifices were offered — had its own " Kaekeeke" and 
drummer. 

The " Puloulou" bundles or balls of either black or 
white kapa, tied to staffs and erected in front of the dwell- 
ings of the high chiefs, priests, and of the Heiaus, as signs 
of tabu, are said to have been introduced by Paao, the 
high-priest of Hawaii, who, there is reason to believe, came 
from the Samoan group. The " Puloulou " are still pre- 
served in the national coat of arms as insignia of the 
ancient tabu. 

Some prayers current amongst the priests and the 
people, which evidently go back to this period of disturb- 
ance and innovation on the old creed and old modes of 
thought for their origin, may be found in Appendix 
No. I. 

In the polity of government initiated during this 
period, and strengthened as ages rolled on, may be noted 
the hardening and confirming the divisions of society, the 
exaltation of the nobles and the increase of their preroga- 
tives, the separation and immunity of the priestly order, 
and the systematic setting down, if not actual debasement, 
of the commoners, the Makaainana. From this period 
dates the Aha-Alii, that peculiar organisation of the 
Hawaiian peerage referred to on previous pages, that 
zealous and watchful " Committee on Nobility," before 
whom every stranger aspirant to its prerogatives and pri- 
vileges must recite his Naua, his pedigree and connections, 
and whom no pretensions could dazzle, no imposture de- 
ceive. The obligation was imperative on the highest as 
well as the lowest chieftain, whenever, passing beyond his 
own district or island where personally known, he visited 
a strange place or island where doubts might arise as to 



64 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

his identity. Thus when Lono-i-ha-mahahihi, the son of 
Keawe-nui-a-umi and suzerain lord of the whole island of 
Hawaii, after the unpleasant affair with his wife Kaihi- 
lani-wahine alii oPuna at Kalaupapa on Molokai — to which 
we shall refer in its proper place — visited the court of 
Kakuhihewa of Oahu incognito, a sort of " Chevalier 
^N'oir " in that gay, luxurious, and illustrious rendezvous, 
to which all the restless spirits of the group repaired in 
search of dissipation or distinction, he was promptly chal- 
lenged, although his high rank was surmised from his 
surroundings, and obliged to satisfy the Aha-Alii or its 
committee as to who he was and whence descended. 

At this period commenced the development of the idea 
of a sovereign lord or king, Ka-Moi, over each of the 
principal islands of the group. Previously it appears that 
each chief was entirely independent of every other chief, 
and his authority was co-extensive with his possessions. 
When the legends referring to that time speak of an 
Alii-nui of Kauai or an Alii-iiui of Hawaii, it simply 
means that he was the most powerful chief on that island 
for the time being, and by inheritance, conquest, or mar- 
riage had obtained a larger territory than any other chief 
there. But after this period the word Moi appears in the 
legends and Meles, indicating that the chief who bore that 
title was, by some constitutional or prescriptive right, 
acknowledged as the suzerain lord of his island, the primics 
inter pares of the other chiefs of said island, to whom 
the latter owed a nominal, at least, if not always a real, 
allegiance and fealty. Nor were the territorial possessions 
and power of the acknowledged Moi always the source of 
this dignity, for the legends relate several instances where 
the wealth in lands and retainers of a Moi were inferior 
to some of the other chiefs, who nevertheless owed him 
allegiance and followed his banner. Thus Keawemauhili, 
the twice-tabued chief of Hilo, though he acknowledged 
Kalaniojpuu of Hawaii as his suzerain, and assisted him in 
his wars with Maui, was far the more powerful in terri- 



THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 65 

torial wealth and resources, and he refused to acknow- 
ledge Kameliameha I. as his Moi or sovereign for many 
years. Thus Kuahuia, the grandson of I, chief of Hilo, 
three generations earlier than Keawemauhili, did for many 
years set the whole strength of the nominal sovereign of 
Hawaii at defiance ; that sovereign and titular Ifoi being 
XeaJcamahana, great-granddaughter of Keawe-nui-a-umi, 
and grandmother to Keawe, surnamed i-Kekahi-alii-o-ka- 
mohu (" the one chief of the island "), from whom the 
Kameliameha dynasty descended. Thus the East Maui 
chiefs, though generally acknowledging the line of Piilani 
as the rightful possessors of the dignity and pre-eminence 
as Moi, sovereigns of Maui, were frequently too powerful 
to be coerced ; and similar instances were not scarce on 
the other islands. 

Though the dignity of Moi was generally hereditary, 
yet several cases are recorded in the legends where the 
Moi was deposed from his office and dignity by the other 
chiefs of his island and another Moi elected by them. 
Thus Haha on Oahu, in whose line — the Maweke-kumu- 
honua — the Moi-ship had been retained for many pre- 
vious generations, was deposed by the Oahu chiefs and 
MailikukaJii of the Maweke-Moikeha line elected in his 
place. Thus Kumahana, the grandson of Kualii and son 
of Feleioholani, was deposed by the Oahu chiefs, and 
Kahahana, son of Elani, of the Ewa line of chiefs, elected 
in his place. Thus after the death of Keawe of Hawaii, 
his son and successor to the title of " Moi^' Kalani-nui- 
amao7nao, was deposed and killed by his cousin Alapai- 
nui — the son of Keawe' s half-sister Kalanikauleleiaiwi — 
who, although he usurped the authority and dignity of 
Moi of Hawaii, was none the less so recognised by the 
very son of the deposed monarch, by the rest of his 
family, and by all the other chiefs of Hawaii, and re- 
tained the authority for many years until his death. 

Whatever disadvantages might arise under the govern- 
ment of a sovereign whose individual possessions and 

VOL. II. E 



66 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

power were inadequate to give weight to his commands, 
or who had failed to secure the good-will and co-operation 
of the quasi-independent chiefs and feudatories of his 
island, yet on the whole the institution of a recognised 
political head and umpire between turbulent and contend- 
ing chiefs was a great advantage, in so far as it tended to 
make a political unit of each island, and in a measure to 
check the condition of anarchy into which the people 
apparently had fallen, consequent upon this period of inva- 
sion, disruption, and commingling of elements of varying 
culture and conflictiDg pretensions. It enabled each 
island to combine its forces for purposes of defence, and 
it required a Moi of more than common ability and force 
of character to induce his chiefs to join him in an aggres- 
sive war upon another island. 

I have referred to the institution of a Moi, the recogni- 
tion of one sovereign chief, however limited his authority, 
on each island, as a consequence and a political result of 
this migratory period. My reason for so doing is not 
the fost hoc, propter hoc, argument of some ; but because 
in all the legends and chants that have come under my 
inspection referring to this very period and to times pre- 
ceding, I have never discovered the slightest mention of 
the name of Moi, nor any allusion to an institution at all 
corresponding. When the migratory wave had passed, 
and the commotions incident to it had subsided, this was 
one of the fruits it brought with it, and it grew out of the 
altered condition of society. The very word itself, if it 
existed at all in the Hawaiian dialect, was never applied 
in the sense which it afterwards acquired. We look in 
vain through the Hawaiian dialect for any radical sense 
of the word Moi. It has but one concrete meaning, that 
of sovereign ; whereas in the sister dialect of Tahiti it has 
the radical sense of " the heart of a tree," " the pith," and 
in the duplicated form Moi-moi means "aged, stricken in 
years, principal, steady old man." Hence I look upon this 
word as imported into the Hawaiian, and employed to 



THE POL YNESIA N RA CE. 67 

distinguisli the status and functions of that particuhar 
chief from that of the other independent chieftains of the 
various districts of an island, — the Alii-ai-moJcu, as they 
were called. 

I am inclined to think that the oldest Hawaiian desig- 
nation of the highest rank of chiefs was Rau,^ which word 
meets us with nearly the same meaning in the Samoan 
and Fijian Sau, the Tongan and Tahitian Hau, the "Roro- 
tonga and Mangarewa Au, the New Zealand Whaka-hau, 
for I have found it applied to the independent district 
chiefs of an island as well as to the Moi or titular sove- 
reign of the island ; but the title of Moi was never applied 
to a district chief since Moi-ship was instituted. 



Hawaii. 

When the islands had somewhat recovered from the 
shock of the preceding migratory period, about three gene- 
rations after LaamaikahiJci, there lived a chief on Hawaii 
who was the Moi of that island, and grandson of Kalapana 
of the southern Pili-haaiea line, which came in the time of 
Paao, and had obtained the titular sovereignty of the 
island of Hawaii. The name of this chief was Kalau- Kaiaunuio- 
nuiohua. He is represented in the legends as a warlike 
and enterprising prince, and having confirmed his sway 
on Hawaii, he felt ambitious of extending it over the 
neighbouring islands. His warriors and his fleet were 
collected, and invaded the island of Maui, where Kama- 
luohua was the reigning or principal chief. A battle was 

^ In the excellent Hawaiian Die- half-brother to Kanekapolei, the wife 

tionary of Hon. Lorrin Andrews, this of Kalaniopuu, king of Hawaii about 

word is rendered Haul. The word the year 1784. I am inclined to think 

had become obsolete long before Mr. that Mr. Andrews was misled by the 

Andrews wrote, and was only met spelling of those who reduced that 

with in ancient chants, and there chant to writing. Hau-i-ka-lani 

joined to the epithet Ka-Iani. The would seem to me to be the better 

latest of these chants was composed way of spelling the word with which 

by KeaiUumoku, the son of Kanaka- the chant of Keaulumoku opens. 
hiak^laf of the Maui royal family, and 



.68 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

fought, in whicli Kamaluohua was defeated and taken 
prisoner. Elated with the first success, Kalaunuiohua 
invaded the island of Molokai, where Kahokuoliua was 
the principal chief or Moi. After another obstinate battle 
Kahohuohua was conquered, and surrendered himself to 
the victor. Kalaunuiohua now aimed at subjugating the 
entire group, and hastened to Oahu, taking his royal 
prisoners with him. It is doubtful if Oahu had any recog- 
nised Moi or titular sovereign at the time. The invasion of 
Kalaunuiohua must have occurred while Moku-a-Loe ruled 
over the Koolau division and Kahuoi ruled over the Kona 
division of that island; for, without attacking either of 
those chiefs, Kalaicnuiohua landed his forces at Waianae 
and gave battle to Huapouleilei, principal chief of the 
Ewa and Waianae division of the island. Again victory 
perched on Kalaunuiohua' s banners, and Huapouleilei was 
defeated and captured. What steps, if any, Kalaunuiohua 
might have taken to consolidate his conquests is not 
mentioned in the legend. At least he did not stop to 
subdue the other portions of Oahu, but after the victory 
at Waianae set sail for the island of Kauai with the three 
captive kings in his train. At this time Kukona, the great- 
Cfrandson of Ahukini-a-Zaa, was the Moi or sovereign of 
Kauai. Kalaunuiohua made his descent on the coast of 
Koloa, and in that neighbourhood was met by Kukona 
and all the Kauai chiefs. A desperate engagement ensued 
in which Kalaunuiohua was thoroughly defeated, himself 
taken prisoner by Kukona, and his fleet surrendered. 
Having delivered his country from the invader, Kukona 
immediately set the three captive princes at liberty, and 
furnished them with the means of returning to their own 
possessions, but he kept Kalaunuiohua a close prisoner for 
a long time ; the legend says for several years. At length 
negotiations were entered into with the Hawaii chiefs for 
the release of their Moi, and, though the conditions are 
not mentioned in the legend, the result proved favourable 
to Kalaunuiohua, and he was allowed to return to Hawaii, 



THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 69 

T\'here he ended liis days without indulging in more war- 
like adventures.^ Kalaunuiohua' s wife was Kaheka, with 
whom he is said to have had a son, Kuaiwa, who suc- 
ceeded him, and a daughter, Kapapalimulimu, from whom 
descended Eenaiakamalama, the wife of Makaoku, one of 
the sons of Kilianuilulumoku of Hawaii. 

During this period there lived on Hawaii a prophetess, 
or " Kaula" called Waahia, who in some way was con- 
nected with the expeditions of Kalaunuiohua, or with the 
negotiations for his release ; but the legend merely refers 
to her as a person whose fame was too well known at the 
time the legend assumed its present form to require any- 
thing more than a passing allusion. Her fame and her 
prophecies, their fulfilment or their failures, are now, how- 
ever, completely faded from the popular mind, and even 
the well-stored memory of the late Hon. S. M. Kamakau, 
from whom I received the legend, could tell nothing about 
her, though he admitted that the Wanana na Kaula, 
" the sayings or predictions of the prophets," when pre- 
served, formed a most valuable contribution towards under- 
standing and elucidating the ancient legends purporting 
to treat of this or that dynasty of chiefs. 

In the time of Kalaunuiohua the priestly power had 
not yet been firmly established, for the legends represent 
him as a chief who had no fear of the priesthood, but 
killed both priests and prophets when it suited his humour. 
Ko doubt the priesthood was struggling for ascendancy 
even then, and it is instructive to remark how, here in the 
Pacific, the heathen priests and their kindred bards con- 
signed to odium the chiefs that thwarted or ill used them, 
as Christian priests and monks, the historiographers of 
their times in Europe, besmeared the memory of naughty 
kings who opposed their doings or frustrated their designs. 

Of Kalaunuiohua' s son Kuaiwa, who followed his father Kuaiwa. 
as sovereign of Hawaii, not much is related except that, 

1 This war is remembered in the legends as tlie war of Kawdewele, 



70 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

from his peaceable character, he is held up as a contrast 
to his warlike father. Kuaiwa had two wives, Kamuhi- 
lani and Kamanawa. The former descended from Luaehu, 
of the southern JJlu stock of chiefs, who arrived with or 
about the time of Laamaikahilci ; the latter descended 
from Maweke of the Nanaulu line, throuoh his son Keaunui 
and granddaughter Nuahea. By reference to the genea- 
logical tables, it will be seen that KamanawcCs great- 
grandmother Hualani, on the Maweke line, was the 
Molokai wife of Kanvpahu of the Fili line of Hawaii 
chiefs. With Kamuleilani Kuaiwa had three sons, Kahovr- 
kapu, Hukulani, and Manauea, and with Kamanawa he 
had one son, Ehu, all of whom became noted heads of 
numerous aristocratic families. 

Kalioukapu seems to have followed his father Kuavwa 
in the sovereignty of Hawaii. No wars nor misfortunes 
disturbed his reign, at least the report of none has come 
down to our time. His wife was Zaakapu, who was 
descended from Kila, son of Moikeha, and grandson of 
Maweke on the original Nanaulu line. Only a portion of 
her pedigree has been preserved. Laakapu, with another 
husband named Kanalukapu, became the ancestress of the 
famous Mahi family on Hawaii.i She had also another 
son named Hilo-a-Laakapu, who, in conjunction with two 
other Hawaii chiefs, JETz'/o- a Hilo-kapulii and Punaluu, and 
Luakoa, a Maui chief, invaded the island of Oahu, but 
were defeated and slain Idj Mailikukahi, the then sovereign 
of Oahu. 

Kauholanuimahu was the son of Kahoukapu and Laa^ 
kapu} and followed his father as Moi or sovereign of 
Hawaii. No mention occurs in the traditions of any wars 
between Hawaii and Maui during this and the preceding 
reign, nor of any conquests made ; yet the tradition is posi- 

1 S. M. Kamakau states tliat the must have been on the side of Kana- 
Mahi family descended from Kuai- loanoo, the father of the Mahis. 
vjo's son Hukulani. Kamakau does 2 Kahoukapu is said to have had 
not give the pedigree ; but, if so, it another son named Kukaohialaka 

(Legend of Keamalu). 



THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 7 1 

tive, and has not been contradicted, that Kaulwlanuimahu 
resided a great portion of his time at Honuaula, Maui, 
where he exercised royal authority, and, among other use- 
ful works, built the fishpond at " Keoneoio," which still 
remains. During one of his long sejours on Maui, his 
wife Neula remained on Hawaii and took another husband, 
whose name has not survived in Hawaiian legend. The 
new husband and rival revolted from Kauliolanui and 
assumed the government of Hawaii. Informed of the 
treachery and the revolt, Kauliolanui hastened back to 
Hawaii, suppressed the rebellion, and slew his opponent. 
After that Kauliolanui remained on Hawaii until his 
death. 

Kauliolanui s wife, Neula, is said in some traditions to 
have been a Maui chiefess ; if so, the district of Honuaula 
may have been her patrimonial estate, and that may 
account for the frequent and protracted residences there ^ 
by Kauliolanui. 

Kauholanui-mahu was contemporary with the Kalcaa- 
laneo family on Maui, with the Kalonas on Oahu, and 
with Kahakiiokane, the grandson of Manolcalanipoo of 
Kauai. Kiha-nui-lulu-molcu was the son of Kauliolanui- Kiha-nui- 
maliu and Neula} and succeeded his father as Moi of 
Hawaii. His principal residence was at Waipio, district 
of Hamakua, where the Moi of Hawaii seem to have pre- 
ferred to dwell from the days of Kahaimoelea. Kiha, 
though no wars or conquests are reported as occurring 
during his reign, is represented in the legends as a 
strong, powerful, and industrious chief, who made himself 
respected and obeyed at home, and held in high estimation 
by his neighbours. Hawaiian priests and bards of later 
ages embellished his legend with marvels, and witchery, 
and superhuman adventures, a certain proof of the high 
esteem in which he was held by his contemporaries and 

1 Kauholanui is said in some of the walu, MS. Collection of L. Andrews, 
old chants to have had another son No. 41. 
named Kaohuwale. Mele of Eaaika- 



12 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

their posterity. He is eulogised as a chief of a peaceful 
disposition, but at the same time always ready to keep 
peace between the subordinate chieftains by force if neces- 
sary. Agriculture and industry received his attention, 
and the island of Hawaii is represented as prosperous and 
contented during his reign. 

A curious and much-prized memento of Kiha has come 
down to our times. It was the celebrated war- trumpet of 
Kiha — '' Kiha-pu " — whose notes, when blown upon, were 
said to have been audible from Waipio to Waimea, a 
distance of ten miles. It was a large nautilus shell, of a 
kind seldom if ever found now in this group, and inlaid, 
after the custom of those days, with the teeth of rebel or 
opposing chiefs slain in battle. It had been preserved as 
an heirloom in the KameTiameha branch of Kiha's descen- 
dants, and was, with many other relics of the Hawaiian 
heathen time, sent to the Paris Exhibition of 1865. It 
now adorns the Eoyal Hawaiian Museum. Many a weird 
tale is still told by some of the older people of the mira- 
culous properties of the said shell or trumpet, how it was 
found, and of its power over the Kini Akua, " the host of 
gods or genii," when properly blown. 

Kiha lived to a very old age and died at Waipio. His 
first wife was his own aunt, Waoilea, the sister of Neula, 
his mother, with whom he had Lilou, who succeeded him 
as Moi of Hawaii. He also had three other sons, either 
with Waoilea or with some other wife whose name has 
not been preserved. Their names were Kaunuamoa, Ma- 
haohu, and Kepailiula, the second of whom became chief 
of the Hilo district, and married Hinaiakamalama, sixth 
in descent from Kalaimuiohtca. In his old age Kiha took 
a new wife named Hina-opio, with whom he had a son, 
Hoolana, who appears to have been provided for in the 
Puna district, where the family remained for four genera- 
tions, until KuiJcai removed to Molokai, married Kuma- 
kakaha, the daughter of Kalani-Pehu, the then most potent 
chief of that island, and became the ancestor of the well- 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 



7Z 



known Kaiakea family, the head of which still survives in 
the author's daughter.^ 

Liloa followed his father Kiha as sovereign of Hawaii, LUoa. 
and kept his court at Waipio. He is represented as an 
affable, jolly monarch, who frequently travelled over the 
island, kept the other chiefs quiet, and protected the land- 
holders. After his reign the glories of Waipio declined. 
It had been built up and delighted in as a royal residence 
from the time of Kahaimoclea, and the tabus of its great 
Heiau (temple) were the most sacred' on Hawaii, and 
remained so until the destruction of the Heiau and the 
spoliation of all the royal associations in the valley of 
Waipio by Kaeokulani, king of Kauai, and confederate of 
Kahekili, king of Maui, in their war upon Kamehameha I. 
in 1 79 1. It is not known by whom this Heiau, called 
Pakaalana, was built, but it existed before Kihas time ; 
and so did the sacred pavement leading to the enclosure 
where the chief's palace or mansion — called '' HaunoTca- 
maaliala" — stood, though its name has come down to 



1 The high consideration in which 
the Kaiakea family was formerly held 
throughout the group may be inferred 
from the connections it formed by its 
marriages. Kuikai, as above stated, 
married the daughter of Kalanipehu ; 
his son Kanehoalani married Kawa- 
kaweloaikanaka, daughter of the 
famous Kawelo-peekoa of Kauai. His 
grandson Kukalanihoouluae married 
Aialei, granddaughter of Ilikieleele, 
of the Liloa-Hakau and Keaxoenui-a- 
Umi branches of the Hawaii chiefs ; 
and Kaiakea himself married,^ateni- 
poo-a-Peleioholani, daughter of Ku- 
kuiaimakalani, who was daughter of 
Kualii of Oahu, and own sister to 
Peleioholani, who died about eight 
years before the discovery of the 
Hawaiian group by Captain Cook. 
Kaiakea' s son Kekuelikenui, the grand- 
father of the author's wife, was a 
staunch and personal friend of Kame- 
hameha L, who, referring to the 
unsettled state of the group, the 



treachery and anarchy prevailing at 
the time, remarked that ''^ Kekuelike's 
house was the only place where he 
could sleep with his malo off," that 
is, that he could sleep undressed 
without fear of violence or treachery. 
It was to Kekuelike^s place at Kala- 
raaula, Molokai, that the Maui royal 
family, including Kalola and Keopuo- 
lani, afterwards Kamehameha' s wife, 
fled for refuge after the disastrous 
battle of lao in Wailuku. As au 
instance of the dense population, even 
a few years previous to Kamehameha' s 
death, the author has often been told 
by a grand-niece of Kekuelike, who 
was a grown-up girl at the time, 
that when the chief's trumpet-shell 
sounded, over a thousand able-bodied 
men would respond to the call, within 
a circle described by Palaau, Naiwa, 
Kalae, and Kaunakakai. Those lands 
together cannot muster a hundred 
men this day. 



74 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE, 

our days as the Paepae-a-Liloa. The tabued Nioi, a 
Liloa, or pepper tree, was also uprooted at the same 
time by this sacrilegious Kaeokulani. Liloa's first wife 
was Pinea or Plena, a Maui chiefess, with whom he had 
a sou, Hahau, and a daughter, Kapukini, Later in life, 
while travelling near the borders of the Hamakua and 
Hilo districts,^ he spied a young woman, of whom he 
became deeply enamoured, and whom he seduced, and 
the fruit of which liaison was a son, whom the mother 
named Umi, and who afterwards played so great a role in 
the annals of Hawaii. The mother of Umi was named 
Akaliiakuleana, and though in humble life, she was a 
lineal descendant in the sixth generation from Kalahui- 
moku, the son of Kanipahu, with Hualani of the Nanaulu- 
Maweke line, and half-brother to Kalapana, the direct 
ancestor of Liloa. When parting from Akahiakulcana, 
Liloa gave her the ivory clasp (Palaoa) of his necklace, 
his feather wreath (Lei-hulu), and his Malo or waist-cloth,^ 
and told her that when the child was grown up, if it was 
a boy, to send him with these tokens to "Waipio, and he 
would acknowledge him. The boy grew up with his 
mother and her husband, a fine, hearty, well-developed 
lad, foremost in all sports and athletic games of the time, 
but too idle and lazy in works of husbandry to suit his 
plodding stepfather. When Umi was nearly a full-grown 
young man, his stepfather once threatened to strike him 
as punishment for his continued idleness, when the mother 
averted the blow and told her husband, " Do not strike 
him ; he is not your son ; he is your chief ;" and she then 
revealed the secret of his birth, and produced from their 
hiding-place the keepsakes which Liloa had left with her. 
The astonished stepfather stepped back in dismay, and 

1 The legend says that he had gulch of Hoea, near Kealakaha, he fell 
been to Koholalele in Hamakua to in with Akahiakulcana. 
consecrate the Heiau called Manini, 2 Qne legend has it that, instead 
nnd that, passing from there, he of the Lei, Liloa gave her his Laau- 
Btoppdd ac Kaawikiwiki, and at the palau, a short instrument for cutting 

taro tops, a dagger. 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE, 75 

tlie mother furnished her son with means and instruction 
for the journey to Waipio. Two young men accompanied 
him on the journey, Omaiikamau and Piimaiwaa, who 
hecame his constant and most trusted attendants ever 
after. Arrived in Waipio valley, they crossed the Wailoa 
stream, and Umi proceeded alone to the royal mansion, not 
far distant. According to his mother's instructions, though 
contrary to the rules of etiquette observed by strangers or 
inferior visitors, instead of entering the courtyard by the 
gate, he leaped over the stockade, and instead of entering 
the mansion by the front door, he entered by the back 
door, and went straight up to where Liloa was reclining, 
and set himself down in Ziloa's lap. Surprised at the 
sudden action, Liloa threw the young man on the ground, 
and, as he fell, discovered his Malo and his ivory clasp on 
the body of JJmi. Explanations followed, and Liloa pub- 
licly acknowledged Umi as his son, and even caused him 
to undergo, pro forma, the public ceremony of Old Jca piJco 
in token of his recognition and adoption.^ 

Umis position was now established at the court of 
Liloa, and, with the exception of his older brother Hakau, 
whose ill-will and jealousy his recognition by Liloa had 
kindled, he soon became the favourite of all. When Liloa 
was near dying, he called the two sons before him, and 
publicly gave the charge of the government of Hawaii, the 
position of Moi, to Hakau, and the charge of his God — 
that is, the maintenance of the Heiaus and the observance 
of the religious rites — -to Umi, telling the former, " You 
are the ruler of Hawaii, and Umi is your man," equivalent 
to next in authority. 

The legends make no mention of any wars or conten- 
tions having occurred during Liloa s long reign to disturb 
the tranquillity of Hawaii. 

^ The ceremony of Oki ka piko, performed at the Heiau with much 

" cutting the naval string," was one pomp and ceremony, the sacred 

of the most important proceedings drum heating and prayers offered up 

attending the birth of a high chief's by the officiating priests, 
child. It was always, if possible, 



76 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

Ziloa's liigli-priest was Laeanuilcaumanamana, great- 
grandson of Kuaiwa through his son Ehu, and he received 
as a gift in perpetuity from Liloa the land in Kona dis- 
trict called Kekaha, which, through all subsequent vicis- 
situdes of wars and revolutions, remained undisturbed in 
Zaeanuis family until the time of Kamehamelia I. 
Hakau. After Ziloa's death Hakau became the Moi and chief 

ruler of Hawaii. He appears to have been thoroughly 
wicked, cruel, and capricious. I have found no legend in 
which he is mentioned that has a single good word to say 
in his behalf. Xo doubt much allowance must be made 
from the fact that nearly all the legends relating to him 
emanated from and were handed down by his opponents, 
the family of Umi and their descendants. Yet making 
allowance for the exaggeration of his faults, enough 
remains to load his memory with odium. He was 
rapacious and extortionate beyond endurance of either 
chiefs or people. He had the silly vanity of fancying 
himself the handsomest man on the island of Hawaii, and 
could brook no rival in that matter. If he even heard a 
man praised for his good looks, he would send for him and 
have him killed. He dismissed, disrated, and impoverished 
all the old and faithful counsellors and servants of his 
father, chiefs, priests, or commoners, and surrounded 
himself with a crew of sycophants and time-servers as 
cruel and as treacherous as himself. He missed no oppor- 
tunity to thwart his brother Umi, and openly reviled him 
for his low birth, insisting that his mother was a woman 
of low degree. Umi, unable to bear the taunts of his 
brother, and not prepared to come to an open rupture with 
the tyrant, absented himself from the court of Hakau, and 
quietly left "Waipio with his two friends, Omaukamaii and 
Piimaiwaa. On the road he was joined by Koi, and these 
four travelled through Hamakua without stopping at 
Kealahaka, where Umis mother lived, but proceeded at 
once to Waipunalei, near Laupahoehoe in the Hilo district, 
where, being unknown to the people, they concluded to 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 77 

stop, and being kindly received by the farmers' families, 
they lived there for some time, associating themselves 
with the farmers, assisting them in their labours on the 
land or at fishing or bird- catching. After a while TJmi was 
recognised by Kaoleiohu, a priest of much influence and 
power in that part of the country. Umi and his friends 
now removed to Kaoleiohus estate, and active preparations 
were entered into for the overthrow of Hakau. Men were 
collected from the villages around, and measures taken to 
ensure a successful revolt. The plot, doubtless, spread into 
Waipio, for under the gloss of the legend the fact shines out 
that two of the principal priests and former counsellors 
of Liloa, named Nunu and Kakohe, disgusted with the 
tyranny of Hakau, and under pretext of a journey to 
Hilo, secretly went to Kaoleioku's residence to confer 
with him and Umi and ascertain the strength of the 
conspirators. Deeming Umi's forces inadequate to cope 
with those of Hakau in open combat, they advised a 
stratagem and promised to aid it. Returned to Waipio, 
the priests attended on Hakau, who asked them if they 
had seen Umi on their journey to Hilo. They frankly told 
him that they had seen Umi at Kaoleioku's place, and 
advised Hakau to lose no time to send his men to the 
mountain to get fresh feathers wherewith to dress his tute- 
lar god {Kauila i ke Akua). Hakau, somewhat surprised, 
reminded the old priests that the Kauila Akua was only 
done when war was imminent or on some other public 
emergencies. The priests then told him that Umi was 
collecting men and preparing to rebel at no distant 
time. Somewhat shaken by this recital, Hakau con- 
cluded to follow the priests' advice, and the day after 
the approaching festival of Kane was fixed upon, when 
Hakau was to send all his available household men 
and retainers to the mountain to hunt the birds from 
which the proper feathers were to be obtained. That 
was the very day which had been previously agreed 
upon between the two priests and Kaoleioku and Umi 



yS THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

for an attack upon Halmu. The plot succeeded. Umi 
and his followers descended into the Waipio valley, found 
Hakau nearly alone and killed him, and Umi was pro- 
claimed and installed as Moi or sovereign of Hawaii 
No other blood was shed but that of Hakau, and the 
lives of his wife and daughter were spared ; in fact, in 
after life HakaiCs granddaughter Haukanuinonakapuakea 
became one of the wives of Umis son Keawcnui-a- Umi. 

Hakau' s wife was Kukukalani-o-pae ^ and his daughter's 
name was Finea. 

Maui. 

Among the Maui chiefs from the close of the migratory 
period — say Laamaikahiki to Piilani, the contemporary 
of Umi and his father Ziloa — not many names arrest the 
attention of the antiquarian student. The position of 
" Moi " of Maui appears to have descended in the line of 
Haho, the son of Paumakua-a-Huanuikalalailai, though, 
judging from the tenor of the legends, East Maui, com- 
prising the districts of Koolau, Hana, Kipahulu, and 
Kaupo, was at times under independent Mois. The 
legends mention six by name, from Eleio to Hoolae^ the 
latter of whom was contemporary with Piilani, and 
whose daughter married Piilanis son, Kiha-a-Piilani. 
Their allegiance to the West Maui Mois was always 
precarious, even in later times. The island of Molokai 
does not appear to have acknowledged the sway of the 

1 P obably a daughter, at least ^ These names were Eleio, Kalae- 

belonging to the family of Pae, a haeha, Lei, Eamohohalii, Kalaehina, 

famous priest and high chief in the and Hoolae, each one succeeding the 

time of Liloa. It is reported that other. They generally resided at 

after itioa's death Pae took the bones Hana, where the fortified hill of 

of the defunct chief, and, sailing Kauiki was considered an impreg- 

round the south point of Hawaii, nable fortress. I have a legend which 

stood up along the Kona shore, and mentions some transactions between 

sunk the bones in deep water off Eleio and Kakaalaneo, the son of 

Kekalia. Pat had another daughter Kaulahea J., but, if the legend may 

named jffbf-a-Pac, who was the mother be trusted, Ekio must have been 

of PumaM(7am(w), whose descendants very old at the time. Whether this 

still survive. Eleio of Hana family descended from 



THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 79 

Moi of Maui during this period, and for some time 
after, but obeyed its own independent chiefs, the ancestors 
of Kalanipehu and descendants of Keoloewa and Nuakea. 
The island of Lanai, however, and its chiefs, though 
often in a state of revolt, appear always to have recog- 
nised the Moi of Maui as their suzerain. 

From the time of Mauiloa, third from Haho and con- 
temporary with Zaamaikahiki, to the time of Kaulahea Z, 
there must have been troublous times on Maui, and 
much social and dynastic convulsions, to judge from 
the confusion and interpolations occurring on the royal 
genealogy of this period. I have shown it to be nearly 
historically certain that the Oahu and Maui Paumahuas 
were contemporary, and it will be seen in thesequel that it 
is absolutely certain that KawaohaoJiele on the Paumakua- 
haJio line was contemporary with Kalamakua, Piliwale, 
and Lo-Lale on the Maweke line of Oahu chiefs, as well 
as on the Oahil Paumakua line through Lauli-a-Laa; and 
yet the Maui royal genealogy, as recited at the court 
of Kahikili II. at the close of the last century, counts 
thirteen generations between Mauiloa and Kaulahea /., 
or sixteen generations.between Mauiloa and KawaokaohelCy 
whereas the Maweke and Oahu Paumakua genealogies 
count only seven from Zaamaikahiki to Keleanohoanaa- 
piapi, the sister of Kawaokaohele. Even the contemporary 
Hawaii royal genealogy from Kaniuhi to Kiha-nui 
counts only seven generations. Evidently the Maui 
genealogy has been doubled up by the insertion of con- 
temporary chieftains, who probably divided the rule of 

some of the southern immigrant chiefs of the sons of Hualani, the wife of 

or from the ancient Nanaulu line, I Kanipahu, and fifth in descent from 

have not been able fully to ascertain. Maweke, settled at Kauwiki in Hana. 

The ever more or less uncertain state While the Hawaii chiefs retained the 

of allegiance of the Hana chiefs to pedigree of the younger brother 

the Maui sovereign, and their fre- whose grand - daughter Kamanawa 

quently independent political status, married Euaiwa, the Moi of Hawaii, 

would seem to have been born of the descendants of the older brother, 

some radical ancient antagonism, have dropped out of memory. Ea- 

The old legends mention incidentally naloa may have been the great-grand- 

that Kanaloa and Kalahuimoku, two father of Meio. 



8o THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 



the island. The Oahu and Hawaii genealogies convict 
the Maui genealogy of error. To this confusion may be 
ascribed the fact that the same event is in different 
legends said to have happened in the time of Kamaloahua 
and of Wahalana, and that Lnakoa of Maui, who in 
company with Laakapu's of Hawaii sons made war on 
Mailikukahi of Oahu, is placed the sixth in order above 
Kakae and Kakaalaneo, who, through their grandsons 
KawaokaoJiele and Zuaia, were the undoubted contem- 
poraries of Mailikukahi. Moreover, Kahokuohua, who 
figures on the Maui royal genealogy as the seventeenth 
from Faumakua and a son of Xoe, w^as a Molokai chief, 
contemporary with Kamalooliua of Maui, with Kalau- 
nuiohua of Hawaii and with Kukona of Kauai. 

In reconstructing the Maui royal genealogy for this 
period, I have, therefore, preferred to follow the Kalona 
register referred to on page 27, and the ascertained con- 
temporaneity of Maui chiefs with those of the other islands 
whose places on their respective genealogies are undis- 
puted and historically certain. 

Looking down the line of these Maui chiefs, I have 
found nothing but the names to distinguish the lives of 
Mauiloa, Alo or Alau, and Kuhimana. The son of Kuhi- 
mana was Kamaloohua, of whom mention is made on 
page Gj, and who was attacked, defeated, and taken 
prisoner by Kalaunuiohim of Hawaii, carried captive in 
the conqueror's train to Kauai, and there liberated by 
Kukona after the crushing defeat of Kalaunuiohua. The 
above-mentioned Kalona register indicates that Kuhi- 
mana had a daughter named Waohaakuna, through whom 
Mailikukahi of Oahu became connected with the Maui 
line of chiefs. She does not appear by that name on the 
Kakuliihewa pedigree, though, according to ancient custom, 
it was very common for high chiefs to be known by several 
names. 

While Kamaloohua ruled over the greater part of Maui, 
a chief who was doubtless a near relation, and was called 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 8i 

Walmlana, ruled over the windward side of the island 
and resided at Wailuku. During his time tradition re- 
cords that a vessel called " Mamala " arrived at Wailuku. 
The captain's name is said to have been Kaluiki-a-Manu, 
and the names of the other people on board are given in 
the tradition as Neleike, Malaea, Haakoa, and Hika. These 
latter comprised both men and women, and it is said that 
Neleike became the wife of Wakalana and the mother of 
his son Alo-o-ia, and that they became the progenitors of 
a light-coloured family, ''poe ohana Kekea'' and that they 
were white people, with bright, shining eyes, "Kanaka 
Keokeo, a ua aloJiilohi na maka." The tradition further 
states that their descendants were plentiful in or about 
Waimalo and Honouliuli on Oahu, and that their appear- 
ance and countenances changed by intermarriage with the 
Hawaiian people. As the time of Kamaloohua and Waka- 
lana was at least twenty generations ago, or abotit the 
middle of the thirteenth century, it is evident that no 
Europeans traversed the Pacific Ocean at that time, and 
that these white or light-coloured foreigners probably 
were the crew of some Japanese vessel driven out of her 
course, and brought by winds and currents to these shores, 
as is known to have happened at least in two instances 
since the islands were discovered by Captain Cook, and 
may have happened at other unrecorded times previous 
to the event now referred to. That the Hawaiian natives 
regarded these castaways as of an alien race is evident ; 
and the impression of astonishment and wonder at their 
light complexions remained on the traditional record long 
after their descendants had become absorbed by, and 
become undistinguishable from, the original native inhabi- 
tants. Another version of the same tradition, while sub- 
stantially the same as the foregoing, differs somewhat in 
the names of the new arrivals ; and the event is ascribed 
to the time of Kamaloohua, while the other ascribes it to 
the time of Wakalana. • As Kamaloohua and Wakalana 
were contemporary, and as the main fact is identical in 

VOL. IL F 



Kakaalaneo. 



82 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

both versions, this difference rather confirms than weakens 
the truth of the narrative, inasmuch as it goes to show 
that the remembrance of the event had come down on 
two different streams of tradition, one reckoning time by 
the reign of Kamaloohua, the other by that of Wakalana. 
After the reign and times of Kamaloohua nothing 
worthy of note has been recorded of the Maui chiefs until 
Kakae and wc arrivc at the time of Kakae and Kakaalaneo, the sons 
of Kaulahea /,, three generations after Kamaloohua. Of 
Kakae personally nothing is remembered.^ His wife's 
name was Kapohauola, and she was probably the same 
Ka'pohauola who at one time was the wife of Ehu, the 
son of Kuaiwa, on the Hawaii Pili line, and thus esta- 
blishes the contemporaneity of these chieftains. Kakae s 
son was Kahekili /., who is known to have had two 
children, a son named Kawao Kaohele, who succeeded him 
as Moiof Maui, and a daughter named Keleanohoanaapiapi, 
who was successively the wife of Lo-Lale, son of Kalona- 
iki, and of Kalamakua, son of Kalona-nui, on the Oahu 
Maweke line. 

Kakae s brother, Kakaalaneo, appears, from the tenor 
of the legends, to have ruled jointly with Kakae over the 
islands of Maui and Lanai. He was renowned for his 
thrift and energy. The brothers kept their court at 
Lahaina, which at that time still preserved its ancient 
name of Lele, and tradition has gratefully remembered 
him as the one who planted the bread-fruit trees in 
Lahaina, for which the place in after times became so 
famous. A marvellous legend is still told of one of 
Kakaalaneo' s sons, named Kaululaau, who, for some of 
his wild pranks at his father's court in Lahaina, was 
banished to Lanai, which island was said to have been 
terribly haunted by ghosts and goblins — " Akua-ino" 
Kaululaau, however, by his prowess and skill, exorcised 

1 He was sumamed Kaleo-iki, and genealogies that I have seen or heard 

was considered as deficient in mental make Luaia the grandson of Kakaa- 

qualities. Some traditions state that laneo, and I have followed the latter. 
Imaia was his grandson, but all the 



THE POL YNESIA N RA CE. 83 

the spirits, brought about quiet and order on the island, 
and was in consequence restored to the favour of his 
father.^ It is said that Kaululaau's mother was Kani- 
Icaniaula, of the Molokai Kamauaua family, through 
Haili, a brother of Keoloewa. 

With another wife, named Kaualua, Kakaalaneo had 
a son, KailiiwalvjOb, who was the father of Luaia, who 
became the husband of the noted Kukaniloko, daughter of 
Piliwale, the Moi of Oahu, son of Kalona-ihi, and brother 
of Lo-Lale and Kamaleamaka.^ 

During the reign of Kawaokaohele, the son of KaJiikili Kawaokao- 
/., and grandson of Kahae, the island of Maui appears to ^^^' 
have been prosperous and tranquil. No wars with neigh- 
bourinsj islands or revolts of turbulent chieftains at home 
have left their impress on the traditional record. Kawao- 
kaohele s wife was Kepalaoa, whose pedigree is not remem- 
bered, but who was probably some Maui chiefess. 

The manner in which Kawaokaohele s sister, Kelea, 
surnamed " Nohoanaapiapi!' became the wife of the two 
prominent Oahu chiefs above mentioned is characteristic 
of the times, and was a favourite subject of bards and 
raconteurs in after ages. The tradition regarding her 
may be abridged as follows : — 

There lived at this time at Lihue, Ewa district, Oahu, 
a chief named Lo-Lale, son of Kalona-iki, and brother of 
Piliwale, the reigning Moi of Oahu. He was a bachelor 
and a man of an amiable temper. His brothers and the 
friendly neighbouring chiefs became very anxious that he 
should take unto himself a wife. Apparently no suitable 
match for so high a chief could be found on Oahu, or 
none had succeeded in captivating the fancy of Lo-Lale. 
In this case a bride must be sought for abroad, and a 

1 One legend mentions six chil- 2 Kakaalaneo is also said to have 

dren of Kaululaau by name — Kui- had a daughter named Wao, who 

hiki, Kuiwawau, Kuiwawau-e, Kuka- caused the watercourse in Lahaina 

haulani, Kumakaakaa, and Ulamea- called ' ' Auwaiawao " to be dug and 

lani. No further record of .them named after her. 
occurs, however. 



84 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

proper canoe, with trusty messengers, was fitted out at 
Waialua to visit the windward islands and report upon 
the beauty and rank of the chiefesses there. The canoe 
first visited Molokai, but not satisfied with their inquiries, 
the messengers proceeded to Lanai, and being equally 
unsuccessful there, they sailed to Hana, Maui, intending 
to cross over to Hawaii. At Hana they heard that Kawao- 
haoheUy the Moi of Maui, was at that time stopping with 
his court and his chiefs at Hamakuapoko, regulating the 
afi'airs of the country, and enjoying the cool breezes of 
that district, and the pleasure of surf -bathing, and that 
with him was his sister Kelea, the most beautiful woman 
on Maui, and the most accomplished surf-swimmer. 
Hearing this, the messengers turned back from Hana and 
arrived with their canoe on a fine morning off Hamakua- 
poko. On that very morning Kelea and her attendants 
had gone down to the beach to enjoy the sport of surf- 
bathing. Swimming out beyond the surf, she encountered 
the canoe, and was at first somewhat surprised and startled 
at seeing strangers in it, but being reassured by their 
kindly speech, and being invited to come on board, the 
messengers offered to ride the canoe ashore through the 
surf — a sport as exciting as that of swimming on the surf- 
board. Kelea accepted the invitation, and gallantly the 
canoe shot over the foaming surf and landed safely on the 
beach. All sense of danger or mistrust being dispelled, 
the princess accompanied the canoe again out over the 
surf, and again rode successfully ashore over the breakers, 
the attendants hurraing lustily at the brave and fearless 
style in which the canoe was handled. The messengers 
having by this time ascertained who their illustrious 
guest was, invited her to another trip through the roaring 
surf. Thoughtlessly she consented, and the canoe pulled 
out beyond the surf, watching for a good, high, combing 
roller of the sea to start in with. At this moment a 
squall or a whirlwind suddenly struck the canoe, coming 
from off the shore, and away sped the canoe with its fair 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 85 

and involuntary passenger over the broad ocean. When 
the storm subsided, the shores of Maui were far distant, 
and the messengers started for Waialua, Oahu, where 
they arrived safely. From Waialua KeUa was taken up 
to Lihue, where Lo-Lale received her with the regard due 
to a chiefess of her rank, and as she did not commit 
suicide, it may be inferred that she became reconciled to 
her lot and accepted him as her husband. And as no 
invasion of Oahu was ever attempted by Hawaokaohele, or 
vengeance exacted for the abduction of his sister, it is 
probable, though the legend says nothing about it, that 
the affair was diplomatically settled to the satisfaction of 
all parties. 

For several years Kelea lived with Lo-Lale at Lihue, and 
bore to him three children, named Kalwli-a-Lale, Luliwa^ 
hine, and Luli Kane. But the inland situation of Lihue, 
at the foot of the Kaala mountains, and far away from the 
sea, became wearisome and monotonous to the gay and 
volatile temper of Kelea. She informed her husband of 
her intention to leave, and reluctantly he gave his consent, 
knowing well that the prerogatives of her rank gave her 
the privilege of separation if she wanted it. His grief at 
parting has been preserved by the tradition in the form of 
a chant, the following portion of which alone has been 
remembered : — 

Aloha Tc6u hoa ihapuali. 

Farewell, my partner on the lowland plains, 
/ ka wai Pohakea, 

On the waters of Pohakea, 
He luna Kanehoa, 

Above Kanehoa, 
He Lae ino Maunauna. 

On the dark mountain spur of Maunauna. 
Lihue, he hele ia ! 

O Lihue, she has gone ! 
Honi aku i ke ala ka Mauu, 

Sniff the sweet scent of the grass, 
/ ke ala ke kupukupu. 

The sweet scent of the wild vines. 



86 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

E linoia ana e ha Waikoloa, 

That are twisted about by (the brook) Waikoloa, 
E ka makani he Waiopua-la, 

By the winds of Waiopua, 
Kuu pi( a ! 

My flower ! 
Me he pula la i kuu maka. 

As if a mote were in my eye, 
Ka oni i ka haku onohi, 

The pupil of ray eye is troubled, 
Ka wailiu I kuu maka. E auwe du-e ! 

Dimness (covers) my eyes. Woe is me ! Oh ! 

Leaving Lihue, Kelea descended to Ewa, and skirting 
the head of the lagoon by way of Halawa, arrived at the 
mouth of Pearl river opposite Puuloa, and found a crowd 
of idlers, nobles and retainers of Kalamahua, the high 
chief of that region, disporting themselves in the surf. 
Borrowing a surf-board from one of the bystanders, Kelea 
jumped in the sea and swam out beyond the breakers 
and joined the company of the other surf-bathers. When 
the surf broke at its highest they all started for the shore, 
and Kelea excelled them all, and was loudly cheered for 
her daring and skill. Kalamakua, being at the time in a 
neighbouring plantation, heard the loud uproar of voices 
from the shore, and inquired what the cause of it was. 
He was told that a beautiful woman from Lihue had 
beaten all the Halawa chiefs at surf-swimming, and hence 
the loud and continued cheering. Satisfied in his own 
mind that but one woman at Lihue could perform such a 
feat, and that she must be his cousin, Lo-Lale's wife, the 
Maui chiefess, Kalamahua went at once to the beach, and 
threw his hiliei (mantle) over Kelea as she touched the 
shore, returning from another victorious trip through the 
surf. Explanations followed, and Kelea was borne home 
in state to the residence of Kalamahua in Halawa, and 
became his wife. With him she remained to her death, 
and bore him a daughter, called Laielohelohe, who in 
early youth was betrothed and subsequently married to 



I 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 87 

her cousin Piilani of Maui, the son of Keleas brother, 
Kawaokaohele. 

KawaokaoheU was succeeded as Moi of Maui by his son 
Piilani, who, through his good and wise government, and pmani. 
through his connection with the reigning chief families of 
Oahu and Hawaii, brought Maui up to a political consi- 
deration in the group which it never had enjoyed before, 
and which it retained until the conquest by Kamehamehxi 
I. consolidated the whole group under one rule. During 
Piilani's reign, and perhaps during that of his father, the 
Hana chiefs acknowledged the suzerainty of the Moi of 
Maui, and Piilani made frequent tours all over his 
dominions, enforcing order and promoting the industry 
of the people. One of his daughters, named Piikea, 
became the wife of Umi, the son of Liloa, the Moi of 
Hawaii, and through her great-grandson, /, became the 
ancestress of the present sovereign of the Hawaiian group, 
Kalakaua. 

Piilani's children with Laielohelohe were Lono-a-Pii, who 
succeeded him as Moi of Maui ; Kiha-a-Piilani, who was 
brought up to the age of manhood among his mother's 
relatives on Oahu ; the daughter Piikea, just referred to ; 
and another daughter, Kalaaiheana, of whom no further 
mention occurs. With another wife, named Moku-a- 
Hualeiakea, a Hawaii chiefess of the Ehu family, he had 
a daughter, Kauhiiliida-a- Piilani, who married Laninui-a- 
kaihupee, chief of Koolau, Oahu, and lineal descendant of 
Maweke througrh his son Kalehenui. And with still 
another wife, named Kunuunui-a-kapokii, whose pedigree 
has not been preserved, he had a son, Nihokela, whose 
eighth descendant was Kauwa, grandmother of the late 
Kincr Zunalio on his father's side. 



b 



Oahu. 

On Oahu, at the close of the migratory period, after the 
departure of Laamaikahiki, we find his son, Zauli-a-Zaa, 



88 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

Maeio. married to Maelo, the sixth in descent from Mawehe, and 
daughter of Kuolono, on the Mulielealii- Moikeha line. 
They probably ruled over the Kona side of the island, 
while Kaulaulaokalani^ on the Maweke-Kalehenui line, 
ruled over the Koolau side, and Lakona, also sixth from 
Maweke, on the Midielealii-Kumuhonua line, ruled over 
Ewa, Waianae, and Waialua districts, and in this latter line 
descended the dignity of Moi of Oahu. Tradition is scanty 
as to the exploits of the Oahu Mois and chieftains, until 

Haka. we arrive at the time of Haka, Moi of Oahu, chief of Ewa, 
and residing at Lihue. The only genealogy of this chief 
that I have, while correct and confirmed by others from 
Maweke to Kapae-a- Lakona, is deficient in three genera- 
tions from Kapae-a- Lakona to Haka. Of Haka's place 
on the genealogy there can be no doubt, however, as he 
was superseded as Moi by Mailekukahi, whose genealogy 
is perfectly correct from the time of Maweke down, and 
conformable to all the other genealogies, descending from 
Maweke through his various children and grandchildren. 
Of this Haka', tradition records that he was a stingy, rapa- 
cious, and ill-natured chief, who paid no regard to either 
his chiefs or his commoners. As a consequence they 
revolted from him, made war upon him, and besieged him 
in his fortress, called Waewae, near Lihue. During one 
night of the siege, an officer of his guards, whom he had 
ill-treated, surrendered the fort to the rebel chiefs, who 
entered and killed Haka, whose life was the only one spilt 
on the occasion. Tradition does not say whether Maili- 
kukahi had a hand in this affair, but he was clamorously 
elected by the Oahu chiefs in council convened as Moi of 
Oahu, and duly installed and anointed as such at the 
Heiau (temple). 

Haka's wife was Kajpunawahine, with whom he had a 
son, Kapiko-a-Haka, who was the father of two daughters 
— Kaulala, who married Kalaniuli, a Koolau chief, and 
became the ancestress of the royal Kualii family on Oahu 
— and Kamili, who married Ilihiwalani, son of ICalaniku- 



THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 89 

huma, of the Kauai royal family, from whom Kaumualii, 
the last independent Kauai king, descended. 

Mailikukahi was the son of Kukahiaililani and Koka- Maiiiku- 
lola. His father was fourth in descent from Maelo and 
her husband Lauli-a-Laa, and he thus represented both 
the Maweke and Paumakua families; a fact which gave 
him and his descendants no little importance among the 
Hawaiian aristocracy. 

Mailikukahi is said to have been born at Kukaniloko, 
and thus enjoyed the prestige of the tabu attached to all 
who were born at that hallowed place. After his installa- 
tion as Moi he made Waikiki in the Kona district his 
permanent residence, and with few exceptions the place 
remained the seat of the Oahu kings until Honolulu 
harbour was discovered to be accessible to large shipping. 

On the Oahu legends Mailikukahi occupies a prominent 
place for his wise, firm, and judicious government. He 
caused the island to be thoroughly surveyed, and the 
boundaries between the different divisions and lands to 
be definitely and permanently marked out, thus obviating 
future disputes between neighbouring chiefs and land- 
holders. He caused to be enacted a code of laws, in 
which theft and rapine were punishable with death. He 
also caused another ordinance to be enacted and pro- 
claimed, which the legend says found great favour with 
•both chiefs and commoners, namely, that all first-born 
male children should be handed over to the Moi, to be by 
him brought up and educated. He was a religious chief 
withal, built several Heiaus, held the priests in honour, 
and discountenanced human sacrifices. The island of 
Oahu is said to have become very populous during his 
reign, and thrift and prosperity abounded. 

I have before (p. 70) referred to the expedition by 
some Hawaii chiefs, Hilo-a-Lakapu, Hilo-a Hilo-Kapuhi, 
and P'lmaluu, joined by Luakoa of Maui, which invaded 
Oahu during the reign of Mailikukahi. It cannot be con- 
sidered as a war between the two islands, but rather as a 



90 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 



Kalona-iki. 



Piliwale. 



raid by some restless and turbulent Hawaii chiefs, whom 
the pacific temper of Mailikuhahi and the wealthy con- 
dition of his island had emboldened to attempt the 
enterprise, as well as the Mat that would attend them if 
successful, a very frequent motive alone in those days. 
The invading force landed at first at Waikiki, but, for 
reasons not stated in the legend, altered their mind, and 
proceeded up the Ewa lagoon and marched inland. At 
Waikakalaua they met Mailikuhahi with his forces, and 
a sanguinary .battle ensued. The fight continued from 
there to the Kipapa gulch. The invaders were thoroughly 
defeated, and the gulch is said to have been literally 
paved with the corpses of the slain, and received its name, 
" Kipapa," from this circumstance. Punaluu was slain on 
the plain which bears his name, the fugitives were pursued 
as far as Waimano, and the head of Hilo was cut off and 
carried in triumph to Honouliuli, and stuck up at a place 
still called Poo-Hilo. 

MailikukaMs wife was Kanepukoa, but to what branch 
of the aristocratic families of the country she belonged has 
not been retained on the legends. They had two sons, 
Kalonanui and Kalona-iki, the latter succeeding his father 
as Moi of Oahu. 

Kalona-iki appears to have followed in the footsteps of 
his father, and observed the laws and policy inaugurated 
by him. The island was quiet and continued prosperous. 
No attacks from abroad, no convulsions within, have been 
remembered in the legends during his time. His wife 
was Kikinui-a-Ewa. Her parents are not mentioned, but 
it is said that she belonged to the great family of Ewa- 
uli-a-Lakona, the great-grandson of Maweke. Kalona-iMs 
children, as known, were Piliwale, Lo-Lale, and Kamalea- 
maka. The first succeeded him as Moi, the second we 
have already referred to, and of the third nothing more is 
known. 

Of Piliwale's reign no legends remain, and it may be 
presumed that the country enjoyed the same tranquillity 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 91 

and good fortune which had attended the reigns of his 
father and grandfather. His wife was Paahanilea, but of 
what descent is now not known. They had two daughters, 
one named Kukaniloko, who succeeded her father as Moi of 
Oahu, the other named KoTiipalaoa, who married Kaholi- 
a-Lale, her cousin, and son of Lo-Lale and Keleanohoana- 
apiapi. 

Of Kukanilokds reign the legends are equally meagre, Kukani- 
except that she is frequently referred to as a great and 
powerful chiefess, who kept the country quiet and orderly. 
Her husband was a Maui chief named Luaia, grandson 
of Kukaalaneo. They had two children, Kalaimanuia, a 
daughter, and Kauwahimakaweo, of whom nothing further 
is known. 

MOLOKAI. 

The island of Molokai during this period, from Laa- 
maikahiki to Kukaniloko and her contemporary Fiilani, 
presents no legendary lore of historical importance except 
the disaster which befell its principal chief, Kaliokiiohua, 
from the invasion of Kalaunuiohua, the Moi of Hawaii, 
referred to on page 6^. The possession of the island had 
not yet become a political bone of contention between the 
Oahu and Maui kings, and its internal affairs apparently 
did not attract the attention of the neighbouring islands. 
Among the local legends of the island referring to the early 
part of this period is one which mentions Kujpa as having 
been a brother of Zaamaikahiki, and as having come with 
him from Tahiti, and become a principal chief of the 
eastern portion of Molokai. He is said to have resided at 
Mapulehu, and he and his household were destroyed and 
drowned by an extraordinary waterspout or freshet coming 
down the mountain and flooding the valley. It is also 
said that the Heiaus of Kahakoililani at Waialua, and of 
Iliiliopae at Mapulehu existed at this time, though the 
building of the latter has also been "attributed to later 
times. 



92 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 



Ahukini-a- 
Lan, &c. 



Kukona. 



Kauai. 

On the exploits and achievements of the Kauai sove- 
reigns and chiefs during this period the ancient legends 
are very incomplete. The line of sovereigns or Mois seems 
to have been kept, without exception, in that branch 
of the Laamaikahiki family which descended through his 
second son, Ahukini-a-Laa. How the dynastic differ- 
ences between the older and powerful Puna and Maweke 
families, separately or jointly through Moikeha's children, 
and the comparatively later Laa-maikahiki descendants, 
were settled so as to confirm the sovereignty in the line 
of the latter, I have found no record of. Certain it is that 
the older lines had not become extinct, for their scions 
were referred to in much later times as enjoying a degree 
of tabu and consideration which greatly enhanced the 
dignity of the Ahukini-a-Zaa descendants when joined 
with them in marriage. 

Of Ahukini-a-lMa no legend remains. His wife was 
Hai-a-Kamaio, granddaughter of Luaehu, one of the 
southern emigrant chiefs during the previous period. 
Their son was Kamahano, of whom nothing also is known, 
except that his wife's name was Kaaueanuiokalani, of 
unknown descent, and that their son was Luanuio. Equally 
curt notice remains of the reign of Luanuii. His wife's 
name on the genealogy is Kalanimoeikawaikai, but she 
could hardly have been the same who figures on the 
Muliele Kumuhonua genealogy as the wife of Nawele, the 
grandson of Elepuukahonua, the latter being fifth from 
Maweke, while the former was eighth from Maweke on 
the contemporary line of Paumakua. Zuanuus son was 
Kukona, of whom mention has already been made in 
narrating the war of invasion undertaken by Kalaunuio- 
hua, the sovereign of Hawaii, p. 67. It would appear 
that during these three generations from Laamaikahiki 
to Kukona, Kauai, its government and chiefs, had been 
living apart, or not mingled much with the chiefs or' 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 93 

events on the other islands. Indigenous Kauai legends 
referring to this period have perished, and up to Kukonas 
time naught but the royal genealogy remains. But the 
war with the Hawaii chief, and the terrible defeat and 
capture of the latter, as well as Kukonas generous conduct 
towards the Oahu, Molokai, and Maui chiefs who fell into 
his hands after the battle, brought Kauai back into the 
family circle of the other islands, and with an eclat and 
superiority which it maintained to the last of its inde- 
pendence. Kukona's wife was Laupuapuamaa, whose 
ancestry is not known, and their son and successor was 
Manokalanipo. 

Manokalanipo has the characteristic honour among the Manoka- 
Hawaiians of having had his name affixed as a sobriquet 
to the island over which he ruled, and in epical and dip- 
lomatic language it was ever after known as " Kauai-a- 
Manokalanipo." He was noted for the energy and wis- 
dom with which he encouraged agriculture and industry, 
executed long and difficult works of irrigation, and thus 
brought fields of wilderness under cultivation. No foreign 
wars disturbed his reign, and it is remembered in the 
legends as the golden age of that island. 

The wife of Manokalanipo was Naekapulani. What 
lineage she sprang from is not known with any certainty. 
She was probably of Kauai birth, and one legend calls her 
Naekapulani-a-Makalii, indicating that Makalii was her 
father ; and other legends speak of Makalii as a chief of 
Waimea, Kauai, though nothing is said whether he be- 
longed to the Maweke-Moikeha line, or to that of Laamai- 
kahiki} The children of Manokalanipo and his wife were 
Kaumaka-mano, Napuu-a-mano and Kahai-a-mano. 

No special legend attaches to Kaumaka-a-mano, nor Kaumaka-a- 
to his wife Kapoinukai. Their son was Kahakuakane, of Kahakua- 
whom nothing remarkable has been remembered in the 

^ In the " Mele inoa" (Family and that ilifa/io^a^antpo had also an- 
Chant) of Kika-a-Piilani it is said other wife called Pulanaieie. 
that her name was Noho-a-Makaliif 



94 



THE POL YNESIAN RACE. 



Kuwalu- 

paukamo- 

ku. 



legends. Kahahuakane had two wives. With the first, 
named Manokaikoo, he had a son and successor called 
Kuwalupaukamnoku ; with the second, named Kaponaenae, 
he had two children called Kahekiliokane and Kuonamau- 
aino. Though no legend or genealogy, that I have seen, 
state explicitly who were the parents or ancestors of 
either of the two wives of Kahakuakane, yet, judging from 
their names, and guided by the prevalent custom in such 
cases among the Hawaiian chiefs, it is very probable that 
the first was a granddaughter of Manokalanipo, and thus a 
cousin to her husband, and that the second was a sister 
of Kahekili I. of Maui, and daughter of Kakae and Kapo- 
haioola. And I am strengthened in the correctness of this 
suggestion by the fact that the granddaughter of this 
Kahekiliokane was sought for, and became the wife of 
Lono-a-Pii, the son of Piilani of Maui, thus returning to 
the family from which she sprang with the Kauai blood 
superadded. 

No incidents in the reign of Kahakuakane, nor in that 
of his son Kuwalupaukamoku^ have been retained on the 
traditional record. The wife of the latter was Hamea- 
wahaula, but her parentage is not given. 



Kaliaknma 
kapaweo. 



KuwalupaukamokvJs son was KaJiakumakapaweOy con- 
temporary with Piilani of Maui, with Liloa of Hawaii, 
and with Kukaniloko of Oahu. He is remembered with 
great renown and affection throughout the group, not only 
as a good, wise, and liberal sovereign, but also as the 
ancestor, through his grandchildren, Kaliakumakalina 
and Ilihiwalani, of numerous aristocratic families from 
Hawaii to Niihau, w£o in after ages took a special pride 
in tracing themselves back to the high and pure-blooded 
tabu chiefs of Kauai. 

During these nine generations from Zaamaikahiki, the 
island of Niihau bore about the same political relation 
to the Moi of Kauai as the island of Lanai did to the 
Moi of Maui — independent at times, acknowledging his 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 95 

suzerainty at others. No historical event connected with 
Niihau during this period has been preserved, nor any 
genealogy of its chiefs. Springing from and intimately 
connected with the Kauai chiefs, there was a community 
of interests and a political adhesion which, however 
strained at times by internal troubles, never made default 
as against external foes. 

Thus, after all allowance made for the marvellous and 
the palpably fabulous in the legends, and after comparing 
the legends and scraps of tradition, in prose or verse, of 
each island together, as well as with those of the other 
islands, the foregoing may be considered as the residuum 
of historical truth regarding the period just treated of. 
After the great excitement, the wild adventures, and 
restless condition attending the migratory period, which 
may be considered as closed with Laamaikahiki, a reaction 
of solitariness, quiet, and, so to say, darkness set in over 
the entire group, during which, with a very few excep- 
tions, each island appears to have attended to its own 
affairs, and enjoyed that repose which leaves so little to 
chronicle in song or legend, and whose history may be 
condensed in an epigram. 

We now approach the last period of Hawaiian ancient 
history before the conquest of the group by Kamehameha 
I. It was an era of strife, dynastic ambitions, internal 
and external wars on each island, with all their deterio- 
rating consequences of anarchy, depopulation, social and 
intellectual degradation, loss of knowledge, loss of liberty, 
loss of arts. But, as the moral shadows deepen on the 
picture, the historical figures emerge in better view, and 
enable us to give a clearer synopsis of this period than of 
the foregoing. 



HAWAH. 

We again commence our review with this island, not 
because of any political preponderance that it may have 



96 THE POL YNESIA N RA CE. 

exercised over the other members of the group — for its 
ascendancy only comes in at the closing scene of this 
period — but on account of its geographical position solely, 
it being the most eastward. 

After the overthrow and death of Hahau, the son of 
l£^' Z^Zoa, referred to on p. yd>, his brother, Umi-a-Liloa, 
became the Moi of Hawaii, the titular sovereign of the 
island. So great had been the discontent and disgust of 
the entire people, chiefs, priests, and commoners, with 
the tyrannical and unusually barbarous rule of Hakau, 
that, as a matter of political reaction and as an expression 
of relief, the great feudatory chiefs in the various districts 
of the island cordially received and freely acknowledged 
the sovereignty of Umi as he made his first imperial tour 
around the island shortly after his accession to power. 

This journey, however, was stained by an act of cruelty 
which even those rough times felt as such and recorded. 
When Umi had fled from his brother HakavJs court, and 
was living at Waipunalei, in the Hilo district, unknown 
and in disguise, he and his friend, Koi, attended a surf- 
swimming match at Laupahoehoe. A petty chief of the 
district, named Paiea, invited Umi to a match, and offered 
a trifling bet, which Umi refused. Paiea then offered to 
bet four double canoes, and Umi, at the request, and being 
backed up by his friends, accepted the bet. Umi won 
the bet, but in coming in over the surf, by accident or 
design, Faiea's surf-board struck the shoulder of Umi and 
scratched off the skin. Umi said nothing then, but when 
he had attained to power and was making his first tour 
around the island, on arriving at Laupahoehoe he caused 
Faiea to be killed and taken up to the Heiau at Waipu- 
nalei to be sacrificed to his god. 

Kaoleioku, the priest who assisted Umi in his revolt 
against Hakau, became Umi's high priest and chief coun- 
sellor, and through Umi's acknowledgment of the services 
rendered him, the priesthood advanced a large step in its 
status and pretensions. 



I 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 97 

Though Liloa had formally and publicly acknowledged 
TJmi as his son, and TJmis prowess and accomplishments 
had vindicated his assumption of power, yet doubtless 
not a few of the higher chiefs, while acknowledging the 
pure descent of Um'i^s mother, considered her rank as so 
much inferior to that of Liloa, as to materially prejudice 
the rank of TJmi himself in his position as Moi and as a 
chief of the highest tabu. To remedy this so far as his 
children were concerned, TJmi took his half-sister, Kapu- 
kini, to be one of his wives, and thus their children would 
be " Alii Pio" chiefs of the highest grade. Moreover, on 
the advice of Kaoleiohu, the high-priest, TJmi resolved to 
send an embassy to Maui to solicit the hand of Piihea, 
the daughter of Fiilani, the Moi of Maui, and of Laielo- 
helohe, the grand-daughier of the Oahu Kalonas. Such a 
union, it was thought, would not only bring personal Mat 
to TJmi, but also produce more intimate relations between 
the Hawaii sovereigns and those of the other islands. 
Forthwith a proper expedition was fitted out, and Omao- 
Tcamau was sent as ambassador. The expedition landed 
at Kapueokahi, the harbour of Hana, where Piilani held 
his court at the time. TJmi's offer was laid before Piilani, 
and met a favourable acceptance from both him and his 
daughter, and the time was arranged when she was to 
leave for Hawaii. At the appointed time Piilani sent 
his daughter over to Hawaii, escorted as became her rank 
and dignity. The legend says that four hundred canoes 
formed her escort. She landed at Waipio, where TJmi 
resided, and, according to the etiquette of the time, she 
was lifted out of the canoe by Omaokamau and Piimaiwaa 
and carried on their locked hands into the presence of TJmi. 
The legend adds, that shortly after these nuptials Piilani 
of Maui died, and his son, Lono-a-Pii, succeeded him. 

When Kiha-a- Piilani, the younger brother of Lono-a 
Pii, had to flee from Maui, he sought refuge with his 
sister, Piikea, at the court of T/mi. Here his sister advo- 
cated his cause so warmly, and insisted with TJmi so 

VOL. II. G 



98 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

urgently, that the latter was induced to espouse the 
cause of the younger brother against the older, and pre- 
pared an expedition to invade Maui, depose Lono-a Pii, 
and raise Kiha-a-Piilani to the throne of his father. 
Having received favourable auguries from the high-priest, 
Kaoleioku, Umi summoned the chiefs of the various dis- 
tricts of Hawaii to prepare for the invasion of Maui. 
When all the preparations were ready, Umi headed the 
expedition in person, accompanied by his wife, Fiikea, 
and her brother, Kiha-a-Piilani, and by his bravest 
warriors. 

Crossing the waters of "Alenuihaha" (the Hawaii 
channel), the fleet of Umi effected a landing at Kapueo- 
kahi, the harbour of Hana, Maui, where Lono-a-Pii ap- 
pears to have continued to reside after his father Piilani's 
death. Having failed to prevent the landing of Umis 
forces, Lono-a Pii retired to the fortress on the top of the 
neighbouring hill called Kauwiki, which in those days was 
considered almost impregnable, partly from its natural 
strength and partly from the superstitious terror inspired 
by a gigantic idol called Kawalakii, which was believed 
to be the tutelar genius of the fort. Umi laid siege to the 
fort of Kauwiki, and, after some delay and several unsuc- 
cessful attempts, finally captured the fort, destroyed the 
idol, and Lono-a Pii having fallen in the battle, Kiha-a- 
Piilani was proclaimed and acknowledged as Moi of 
Maui. Having accomplished this, Umi and his forces 
returned to Hawaii. 

Though the legend from which the foregoing episode of 
Umi's reign is taken is probably incorrect when it refers 
to LmaiJcalani, the blind warrior chief, as fighting on the 
side of the Maui sovereign, Lono-a Pii, unless there were 
two of the same name and both affected by blindness, yet 
inasmuch as it has preserved a portion of a chant pur- 
porting to be a Mele inoa (a family chant) of Kiha-a- 
Piilani, which chant bears intrinsic evidence of not hav- 
ing been composed any later than in the time of Keawe 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 99 

and Kalanikauleleiaiwi, or about two hundred years ago, 
in so far it is valuable as showing that at that time Lauli- 
a-Laa's mother (Hoakanuikapiuiihele) was said to be the 
daughter of Lonokaehu, and that the latter or his ances- 
tors came from " Wawau " in the southern groups. That 
legend ends with the return of Umi from the war with 
Maui. 

In the legend of Kihapiilani it is said that Roolae, the 
chief of Hana, commanded the fortress of Kauwiki, and 
that Lono-a Pii was at Waihee at the time ; that Roolae 
escaped at the capture of the fort, but was pursued and 
overtaken on Haleakala, and there slain by Pimaiwaa ; 
and that Umis army proceeded from Hana to Waihee, 
where a final battle was fought with Lono-a Pii, in which 
he was killed. But whatever the discrepancies in detail 
between the two legends — the first being confessedly of 
Hawaiian growth, and the second probably of Maui origin 
— the historical result set forth by both cannot weU be 
called in question. 

After Umi returned from the war with Maui, he turned 
his attention to the domestic afifairs of the island. Some 
legends refer to difficulties between Umi and Imaikalan% 
the powerful blind chief of Kau and parts of Puna, and 
though others intimate that Piimaiwaa was despatched 
to bring the obstinate old chief under subjection, yet it is 
not clear that any open rupture occurred between Umi 
and his great feudatory during their lifetime. 

In the '" R^cits d'un Vieux Sauvage pour servir d VHistoire 
ancienne de Hawaii " M. Jules Eemy has evidently been 
misled by the venerable savage Kanuha, who related to 
him the legend of Umi, when he says that Umi's last 
rival and opponent on Hawaii " was his cousin Keliioka- 
loa" whom he fought and slew on the high plateau be- 
tween the Hualalai and Maunaloa mountains, and erected 
the memorial stone-piles on that spot now known as the 
Ahua-a-Umi in commemoration of that event. As the 
tales related to M. Eemy have been translated into Eng- 



loo THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

lish by Prof. W. T. Brigliam (Boston, i Z^"^), and may be 
read by many people even here, who have not the means 
of critically examining the merits of a legend, it may be 
proper in this place to correct the error into which M. 
Eemy has been led. 

The genealogical tree of JJmi is one of the best pre- 
served in the group, for his descendants were numerous 
and powerful, and spread themselves over all the islands. 
I have a large number of pedigrees of those families 
descending from JJmi, and they all concur in asserting 
that Keliiokaloa was Umi's oldest son, and all the legends 
in my possession referring to the time of Umi and that of 
his children and grandchildren also concur in making 
Keliiohaloa the son and successor of Umi as Moi of 
Hawaii. Thus supported, I venture to say that there 
must have been some confusion as to names in the mind 
of the ancient Hawaiian who told M. Eemy the tale of 
Umi. If there had been contest between Umi and a chief 
of the Kona district, that chief could have been none 
other than Hoe-a-Pae, the son of Pae, who was the coun- 
sellor and friend of Liloa, and who is said to have buried 
his bones in the deep sea off the Hulaana, between 
Waimano and Pololu, on the north-east coast of Hawaii ; 
or, as another legend has it, off Kekaha on the Kona coast. 
But the legends, which I have collected and carefully 
compared, make no mention of such a civil war, nor that 
the Ahua-a- Umi were erected to commemorate this war. 

It is doubtless true that Umi discontinued the per- 
manent residence of the Hawaii sovereigns at Waipio. 
The reasons why are not very explicitly rendered. It is 
advanced in some legends that it was in order to check 
the rapacity of the nobles and retainers attending his 
court while held in that rich and densely peopled valley 
of Waipio, and that that was the reason which led him to 
estiablish his residence on that great and comparatively 
barren plateau where the Ahua-a-Umi were reared, far 
from the fruitful and ordinarily inhabited portions of the 



I 



THE POL YNESIAN RACE. loi 

island, choosing to live there on the income or tribute 
brought him by the chiefs and the landholders of the 
various districts. And thus the six piles of stones were 
reared as peaceful mementoes and rallying-points, each 
one for its particular district, v^hile the seventh pile in- 
dicated the court of Umi and its crowd of attendants. 

Perhaps also another reason for TJmi's removal from 
Waipio was the desire to live conveniently near to the rich 
fishing-grounds of the smooth sea off the Kona coast, the 
" Kai Malino o Koiia" which from time immemorial had 
filled the minds of the chiefs of the eastern and northern 
parts of the island with golden dreams of a luxurious 
life, and which continued to be a constant cause of bitter 
feuds between those who coveted its possession. But 
though Umi deserted Waipio and established his royal 
camp or headquarters at the Ahua-a- Umi, he did by no 
means withdraw himself from the active supervision of 
the affairs of his kingdom. He frequently visited the 
different districts, settled disputes between chiefs and 
others, and encouraged industry and works of public 
utility. 

It is presumed that Umis life passed tranquilly after 
his removal from "Waipio ; at least no wars, convulsions, 
or stirring events have been recorded. In making his 
tours around the island, Umi erected several Heiaus, dis- 
tinguished from the generality of Heiaus by the employ- 
ment of hewn stones. Such, among others, are the Heiau 
of Kuhii, on the hill of that name, overlooking the warm 
springs of Kapoho, in the district of Puna ; and of PoTiaku 
Hanalei, in the district of Kau, above the wooded belt of 
the mountain. A number of hewn stones of this period 
— at least tradition, by calling them the Pohaku Ifalai 
a Umi (" the hewn stones of Umi "), does so imply — were 
found scattered about the Kona coast of Hawaii, specially 
in the neighbourhood of Kailua, and, after the arrival of 
the missionaries (1820), furnished splendid material where- 
with to build the first Christian church at Kailua. 



102 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

Uini is reported to have been a very religious king, 
according to the ideas of his time, for he enriched the 
priests, and is said to have built a number of Heiaus ; 
thoucjh in the latter case tradition often assisjns the first 
erection of a Heiau to a chief, when in reality he only 
rebuilt or repaired an ancient one on the same site. 

M. Jules Remy, in his collection of Hawaiian legends 
before referred to, thinks that the cruciform pavement 
observed in some of the Heiaus said to have been built 
by Umi is an indication of the advent and influence of 
the shipwrecked Spaniards, whose arrival he places in the 
reign of Umi. The author of this work is personally 
cognisant of the great interest and zeal in Hawaiian 
archaeology evinced by M. Eemy during his sejour in 
these islands ; but the limited data at the command of M. 
Remy have led him into a wrong conclusion. For, first, 
the overwhelming majority of traditions still extant, refer- 
ring to the advent of the shipwrecked foreigners about this 
time, place the event in the time of Keliiohaloa, the son of 
Umi, and not in that of Umi himself. Second, as Keliio- 
Tcaloa did not become Moi of Hawaii until after his father's 
death, and as, according to Hawaiian custom, when an 
event is said to have transpired during the time or reign 
of such or such a chief, its proper and traditional meaning 
is that it transpired while such a chief was the Moi or 
sovereign, or at least most prominent chief on his island ; 
it follows that the event so universally ascribed to the 
time or reign of Keliiohaloa — " i he ato o k " — could not 
possibly be, and was not by the ancients construed to 
mean, the time of Umi. Third, the cruciform pavement or 
division of the ground-floor, though found in some of the 
Heiaus on Hawaii ascribed to Umi, and very rare on the 
other islands, was neither exclusively peculiar to Hawaii 
nor to the time of Umi ; for the Heiau of Iliiliopae, in 
Mapulehu valley on Molokai, was certainly not built by 
Umi, inasmuch as it was generations older than the time 
of Umi. 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 103 

In the domestic relations of Umi, though blessed with 
a number of wives, as became so great a potentate, yet he 
knew how to keep his house in order, and no discords or 
family jars have been reported. He is known to have 
had at least six wives, viz.— (i.) Kulamea, whose family 
and descent are not reported, and who was the mother of 
Napunanahunui-a- Umi, a daughter ; (2.) llakaalua, whose 
family has not been remembered, and who was the mother 
of J^ohowaa-a-Umi, a daughter; (3.) Kapukini, a half- 
sister of Umi, and daughter of Liloa with Pima, and who 
was ohe mother of Kealiiokaloa, a son, Kajpulani or Kapu- 
kini, a daughter, and Keawenui-a- Umi, a son ; (4.) Piikea, 
the daughter of Fiilani, the Moi of Maui, and who was 
the mother of Aihakoko, a daughter, and Kumalae, a son ; 
(5.) Mokuahualeiakea, descended from the great Ehu family 
in Kona, and who previously is said to have been the wife 
of PHlani of Maui. She was the mother of Akahiilikapu, 
a daughter. (6.) Henahena, said to be descended from 
Kahoukapu of Hawaii. She was the mother of Kamo- 
lanWi-a-Umi, a daughter. There is one legend which 
mentons a seventh wife, named Raua, but her descent 
and iBr children are unknown, and her name is not men- 
tioned on any of the genealogies that I possess. 

Of bhese eight children of Umi, Kealiiokaloa first, and 
Keaw&iui-a-Umi afterwards, succeeded their father as 
sovereigns of Hawaii. Of Najmnanaliunui-a-Umi not 
much is known, except that the lands generally known 
as " Eapalilua," in south Kona, Hawaii, were given by 
Umi to this daughter in perpetuity, and through all the 
viciss.tudes and violence of subsequent reigns remained 
in the possession of her descendants to the days of Kame- 
hamela, when KeeaumokupapaiaaJieahi, the son of Keawe- 
poepoe and Kumaiku, and grandson of Lonoikahaupu, 
possesed them, they having descended through his 
mothff's, Kumaiku s, ancestors, Ua, Iwakaualii, lama, 
&c., f)r eight generations. Of Nohoivaa-a-Umi nothing 
more s known. Of Fiikea's children the lef]rends refer to 



I04 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

tlie tragical end of Ainakoho, near Kalepolepo, on Maui, 
but no details of her sad fate have come down to the 
present time, so far as the author has been able to learn. 
Kumalae, however, the son of Umi and Fiikea, is well 
known as the grandfather of /, of Hilo, and head of the 
present reigning family of Kalakaua. Of AJcahiilikocpu 
it is related that Kahahumakalitta, son of Kalanikukiima, 
the Moi of Kauai, travelling through the group for 
pleasure and observation, arrived at the court of JJmiy 
and, charmed with this daughter of Umi, asked and 
obtained her for wife. Another legend says that Akahii- 
likapu went visiting the islands, and that having anived 
at Kauai, there became the wife of Kahakumakdiua. 
Judging from the intrinsic merits of each legend, I con- 
sider the former as the correct version of the affair. 
Certain it is that AkaJiiilikapu accompanied her husband 
to Kauai and gave birth to two children, a daughter 
named Koihalauwailaua — or popularly, Koilialawai — and 
a son named Keliiohiohi. After some time spent on Kiuai, 
and for some reasons which have not been handed cown, 
Akahiilikapu returned to Hawaii with her children, and 
Kahakumakaliua remained on Kauai. Of Kamolmmi-a- 
Umi it is known that she became one of the wives of 
Keawenui-a- Umi, and was the mother of Kapohelemti, the 
wife of Makua-a- Kumalae, and mother of /. Karmlanui 
had also another daughter named KaTiakeawe, whp was 
the mother of Kapukamola, the wife of Makakaitali, and 
mother of Iwikauikaua. This Kanakeawe is said slso at 
one time to have been the wife of Kaihikajm-a-^ahu- 
hiJiewa of Oahu. 

The legend which M. Eemy relates of the disposition 
of the remains of Umi is probably correct, for it is corro- 
borated by other legends ; and it so strikingly illu^rates 
the custom of those times in regard to the funeral ol high 
chiefs, that I take the liberty to quote it verbatim : — 
" Umi, some time before his death, said to his old :riend 
Koi, 'There is no place, nor is there any possible my, to 



THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 105 

conceal my bones. You must disappear from my presence. 
I am going to take back all the lands which I have given 
you around Hawaii, and they will think you in disgrace. 
You will then withdraw to another island, and as soon as 
you hear of my death, or only that I am dangerously sick, 
return secretly to take away my body ! ' 

" Koi executed the wishes of the chief, his aikane 
(friend). He repaired to Molokai, whence he hastened to 
set sail for Hawaii as soon as he heard of Umis death. 
He landed at Honokohau. On setting foot on shore he 
met a Kanaka in all respects like his dearly-loved chief. 
He seized him, killed him, and carried his body by night 
to Kailua. Koi entered secretly the palace where the 
corpse of Umi was lying. The guards were asleep, and 
Koi carried away the royal remains, leaving in their place 
the body of the old man of Honokohau, and then disap- 
peared with his canoe. Some say that he deposited the 
body of Umi in the great Pali (precipice) of Kahulaana, 
but no one knows the exact spot ; others say that it was 
in a cave of Waipio at Puaahuku, at the top of the great 
Pali over which the cascade of Hiilawe falls." 

This extreme solicitude of concealing the bones of de- 
funct high chiefs was very prevalent in the Hawaiian 
group, and I have found indications of the same custom 
in other groups of Polynesia. The greatest trophy to the 
victor, the greatest disgrace to the vanquished, was the 
possession of the bones of an enemy. They were either 
simply exhibited as trophies, or they were manufactured 
into fish-hooks, or into arrow-points wherewith to shoot 
mice. Hence various expedients were resorted to to effec- 
tually prevent the bones of a high chief ever becoming 
the prey of any enemies that he may have left alive when 
he died. One of the most trusted friends of the deceased 
chief was generally charged with the duty of secreting the 
bones {Hunakele), and the custom prevailed till after the 
time of Kamehamelia I. This custom applied, however, 
more particularly to prominent warrior chiefs, whose deeds 



io6 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

in life may have provoked retaliation after deatli. Gene- 
rally the custom in chief families was to strip the flesh 
off the corpse of a deceased chief, burn it, and collect the 
skull, collar-bones, arm and leg bones in a bundle, wrap 
them up in a tapa cloth, and deposit them in the family 
vault, if I may so call it, a house especially devoted to that 
purpose, where they were guarded with the utmost care, 
some trusty Kahu or attendant of the family always being 
present night and day, who in time of danger immediately 
conveyed them to some safe and secret hiding-place. 

During Um%s reign the following chiefs have been 
recorded as the district chiefs, the " Alii-ai-moku," of 
Hawaii : — Wahilani of the Koliala district ; TVanua of 
Hamakua ; Kulukulua of Hilo ; Huaa of Puna ; Imai- 
halani of Kau ; and Hoe-a-Pae of Kona. During his and 
their lifetime peace and quiet obtained on Hawaii. 

When Umi died he was succeeded as Moi of Hawaii 
by his oldest son, Kealiiohaloa. Not much is said of him 
klioa. in the legends, and his reign apparently was of short 
duration. Whether he died from sickness, or, as one 
legend has it, was treacherously assailed and killed by 
some rebellious chief, he is remembered as an unpopular 
king, and the only event of note connected with his reign 
is the arrival on the coast of Kona of some shipwrecked 
white people. 

The legend of that event is well known, and has 
several times been stated in print. Its main features are 
the following : — 

" In the time of Kealiiokaloa, king of Hawaii and son 
of Umi, arrived a vessel at Hawaii. Konaliloha was the 
name of the vessel, and Kukanaloa was the name of the 
foreigner (white man) who commanded, or to whom 
belonged the vessel. His sister was also with him on 
the vessel. 

" As they were sailing along, approaching the land, the 
vessel struck at the Pali of Keei, and was broken to pieces 
by the surf, and the foreigner Kukanaloa and his sister 



Kealiio- 



THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 107 

swam ashore and were saved, "but the greater part of the 
crew perished perhaps ; that is not well ascertained. 

" And when they arrived ashore, they prostrated them- 
selves on the beach, uncertain perhaps on account of their 
being strangers, and of the different kind of people whom 
they saw there, and being very fearful perhaps. A long 
time they remained prostrated on the shore, and hence 
the place was called ' Kulou,' and is so called to this day. 

'•' And when evening came the people of the place took 
them to their house and entertained them, asking them if 
they were acquainted with the food set before them, to 
which they replied that they were ; and afterwards, when 
breadfruit, ohia, and bananas were shown to them, they 
expressed a great desire to have 'them, pointing to the 
mountain as the place where to get them. The strangers 
cohabited with the Hawaiians and had children, and they 
became ancestors of some of the Hawaiian people, and 
also of some chiefs." — " Moolelo Hawaii^' ly D. Malo. 

That such an event as the arrival of shipwrecked 
white people really transpired there is no reasonable 
ground for doubting. It was generally so received 
throughout the group previous to its discovery by Captain 
Cook ; and as the first echoes of the event grew fainter 
by the lapse of time, some of the other islands set up 
claims to have this identical event occurring on their 
shores. Thus the Maui version of the event, while 
retaining the name of the vessel and the name of the 
commander, relegates the occurrence to the time of 
Kakaalaneo, king of Maui; changes the locality of the 
wreck from the Kona coast of Hawaii to Kiwi in Waihee, 
Maui, and enters into a number of details unknown or 
forgotten in the Hawaii tradition. There was a tradition 
in later times on Kauai also that such an event had 
happened on their shores. 

Taking the Hawaii tradition to be the original and 
correct version of this event, let us first ascertain to what 
period, if not to what particular year, Hawaiian chronology 



io8 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

assigns it, and then inquire how far it may with probability 
be confirmed by outside contemporary historical evidence. 
Hawaiian chronology counts by generations, not by reigns 
nor by years. In computing long genealogies, thirty years to 
a generation will be found approximately correct. Keliio- 
haloa, it will be seen by all the genealogies that lead up 
to him directly, as well as by the genealogies of his con- 
temporaries in the other islands of the group, is the 
eleventh generation back of the present one now living. 
But the present generation — and for illustration we take 
his present majesty, Kalakaua — was born in 1836. 
Eleven generations, or 330 years back of 1836, bring 
us to A.D. 1506 as the year of Keliiokaloa's birth. If 
we count by the line of her Highness Butli Keelikolani, 
the great-granddaughter of Kameliamcha, 'and who was 
born in 1826, we come to the year 1496 as the probable 
birth-year of Keliiohaloa ; and considering that he was 
the oldest of Umis children, the latter year is probably 
the more correct. When Umi died and Keliiohaloa 
succeeded to the government of Hawaii, the latter was 
certainly about twenty-five or thirty years old, which 
brings us to a period between 1521-1526 A.D. But his 
reign is everywhere said to have been of short duration, 
certainly not exceeding ten years. We have, then, from 
Hawaiian authority, established the fact that the arrival 
of the shipwrecked foreigners — white people — took place 
between the years 1 521-15 30 A.D. No legend states 
whether it was in the early or latter part of his reign, but as 
he is reported to have reigned but a few years before his 
brother succeeded him, we may be justified in taking a 
middle term, and say that it happened between 1 525-1 528. 

In Burney's "Discoveries in the South Seas," vol. i. 
p. 148, we read, in substance, that on October 31, 1527, 
three vessels left a port called Zivat Lanejo, said by Gal- 
vaom to be situated lat. 20° N. on the coast of New Spain, 
for the Moluccas or Spice Islands. The vessels were 






THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 109 

called the " Florida," with fifty men, the " St. lago," with 
forty-five men, and the " Espiritu Santo," with fifteen men. 
They carried thirty pieces of cannon and a quantity of 
merchandise, and they were under the command of Don 
Alvaro de Saavedra. These vessels sailed in company, 
and when they had accomplished 1000 leagues from port, 
they were overtaken by a severe storm, during which they 
were separated. The two smaller vessels were never after- 
wards heard of, and Saavedra pursued the voyage alone 
in the " Florida," touching at the Ladrone Islands. 

A thousand Spanish or Portuguese leagues are equal to 
nearly fifty-eight equatorial degrees. Now allowing that 
Saavedra's logbook was perfectly correct as regards the 
1000 leagues that the vessels kept company, saving and 
excepting always what allowance should be made for 
the westerly current, and that Galvaom is also correct as 
regards the latitude of Zivat Lanejo, the port of depar- 
ture, it becomes evident that Saavedra's fleet must have 
been somewhere within 200 miles, probably to the west- 
ward and southward, of the Hawaiian group when the 
storm overtook it. And, to judge from the period of the 
year when the fleet left New Spain (October 31), that 
storm must have been what in this group is well known 
as a Kona storm — a southerly or south-westerly gale with 
heavy squalls of rain. In that position and under those 
circumstances, if unable to weather the gale by lying-to, 
and obliged to scud, a vessel would almost necessarily 
run ashore on the western coast of Hawaii. That one 
vessel, at least, about that time was wrecked on Hawaii, and 
two, if not more, people saved, Hawaiian tradition bears 
ample testimony to ; and Spanish records furnish us with 
the further testimony that at that time, in that vicinity, and 
during a severe storm, there were not one only, but three 
Spanish vessels likely to be shipwrecked, and that two 
of the three were never afterwards heard of. They may 
have foundered in open sea, but Hawaiian tradition is 
positive, and cannot be refuted, that one at least was 



I lo 7^HE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

wrecked on the Kona coast off Keei, and that two of 
its crew, if not more, a man and a woman, were saved. 

Moreover, as there can be now no doubt that the 
foreigners referred to in the Hawaiian tradition were 
" Haole " — white people — and as no white people except 
Spanish subjects were cruising in the Pacific at that time, 
the conclusion becomes almost irresistible that the said 
foreigners were a portion of the crew or the passengers 
on board of one or the other of the lost vessels under 
Saavedra's command. 

The names preserved in Hawaiian tradition of the 
vessel and of the saved man, " Konaliloha " and " Kuka- 
naloa," are Hawaiian names, and furnish no indications of 
their nationality. 

It may reasonably be assumed, in the absence of proof 
to the contrary, that the influence exercised by these 
foreigners over the people among whom they were cast 
was very limited. No traces of such influence can now 
be found in the religion, knowledge, customs, or arts of 
the Hawaiians, as practised from that time till now. They 
were either too few, or too ignorant, or too unpretending, 
to become reformers, or to impress themselves for good or 
for bad upon the national mind, and with the exception 
of the blood that they transmitted through their descen- 
dants to our days, little is known of them or ascribed to 
them beyond the fact of their arrival. 

It has been said that the feathered headdress or helmet, 
the Mahiole, worn by the chiefs when dressed for battle, 
or in gala array, was an invention of this period, and attri- 
butable to these foreigners. But the Mahiole, as a part of 
a chiefs apparel, is mentioned in legends older than the 
time of Umi; and besides, such feathered helmets were 
worn by Tahitian chiefs when Wallis and Bougainville 
first made their acquaintance. 

The wife of Keliiokaloa was Mahuahineapalaka} and 
their son was Kukailani, who became the father of Maka- 

^ Her family or descent is nowhere mentioned. 



THE POL YNESIA N RA CE. in 

kaualii, and grandfather of Iwikaidkaua, a prominent and 
turbulent chief in his day, and grandfather of Keaweke- 
kahialiiokamoku and his sister Kalanikauleleiaiwi. 

After the death of Keliiokaloa there supervened a season ^ 
of internal war, anarchy, and confusion, which has left its 
blurred image on the traditions of the country, for they 
are neither copious nor clear in regard to it. Yet reading 
the legends of the time with a tolerably correct conception 
of the customs and condition of men and things, and 
knowing that those ancient legends frequently merely 
hint at an event instead of describing it, because it was 
well and commonly known at the time the legend was 
composed or was popularly recited, it would appear that 
at Kealiiokaloa's death the great district chiefs of the 
island of Hawaii refused to acknowledge the sovereignty 
or Moiship of Keaivenui-a-Umi, the younger brother of 
Kealiiokaloa. War followed, but the revolted chiefs seem 
to have been deficient in organisation or co-operation, for 
Keawenui-a-Umi defeated each and all of them, killed 
them, and kept their bones — bundles referred to on page 
105 — as trophies. In the legend and chant of Lonoikama- 
kahiki, the son of Keawenui, the names of the six district 
chiefs whom his father defeated are given : Palahalaka, 
son of Wahilani of Kohala; Pumaia, son of Wanua of 
Hamakua ; Hilo-Hamakua, son of Kulukulua of Hiio ; 
Lililehua, son of Huaa of Puna ; KaJmlemilo, son of /ma^- 
kalani of Kau ; Moihala, son of Hoe-a-Pae of Kona. 

After these revolted chiefs had been subdued and dis- 
posed of,^ Keawenui restored order and quiet in the island 
of Hawaii, on the pattern of his father, Umi. Keawenui 
is said to have been of a cheerful and liberal disposition, 
and not only frequently travelled around his own 
dominions of Hawaii, but also visited the courts of the 
sovereigns of the other islands. His visit to Maui, and 

1 In the legend of Lonoikamakahiki qnered and captured in a severe battle 
the son of Keawenui-a-Umi, it is said fought at Puumaneo, in Kohala dis- 
that the revolted chiefs were cou- trict. 



Keawenui 
Umi. 



112 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

his sumptuous entertainment by Kamalalawalu, the Moi 
of Maui, is particularly described. One of his most 
trusted friends and " Puulm " (royal treasurer) was a man 
named Pakaa, who for many years had served him faith- 
fully and well. But at the court of ICeawenui, as at 
many other courts, jealous and intriguing rivals conspired 
the downfall of FaJcaa, and after a while they succeeded. 
Pakaa fled to Molokai to escape the anger of Keawenui, 
and lived there in retirement and disguise. Pakaa s wife 
is said to have been Hikauhi of Molokai, daughter of 
Hoolehna and Iloli, who lived at Kaluakoi, which may 
have been the reason of his fleeing there for shelter and 
safety. Some time after Pakaa s flight — how long is not 
stated, but several months may be inferred — Keawenui 
discovered that the accusations brought against Pakaa 
had been unjust and malicious, and, filled with sorrow and 
regret for the loss of his old friend and the injustice done 
him, he resolved to seek him in person and be reconciled 
to him. The account of this voyage of discovery by 
Keawenui-a- Umi was a favourite subject for listening ears 
in the olden time, and particularly interesting as giving a 
detailed relation of all the winds, their names and locali- 
ties, that ever blew on the coasts and the mountains 
throughout the group. It is a chant of over four hundred 
lines, embodied in the legend, and supposed to have been 
recited by Ku-a-Pakaa, the son of Pakaa.^ 

After Keawenui s reconciliation with Pakaa, no further 
event of note during his reign has been recorded in the 
traditions. His principal residence seems to have been 
at Hilo. 

Keawenui-a-Umi has been greatly blamed by some 

1 To Hawaiian scholars it may No Fuulenalena, no Hilo no, ofcc 

suflBce to indicate the chant by its Softly ! softly ! softly ! 

opening lines :— The rain is coming, the wind and 

Kiauau ! kiauau ! kiauau I bad weather, 

Eiki kaua, ka makani, ka ino. From Puulenalena* of Hilo. 

* The name of a cold wind from the mountains back of Hilo and the 
neighbourhood of the volcano. 



& 



THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 113 

frenealog^ists for liis numerous amours with women of low 
degree and with the daughters of the common people, 
thereby impairing the purity of the aristocratic blood and 
giving rise to pretensions that in after ages it became 
difficult to disprove. This objection dates back to the 
turbulent times of the early part of the reign of Kame- 
hameha I., and has been repeated since, but may have 
been of older origin. Admitting, however, that Keawenui's 
amours were not always conformable to the rules of Ha- 
waiian heraldry, yet it is due to the memory of this great 
chief and to historical truth to state that during the 
present century, and in all the legends of the times pre- 
ceding it, I have found no name or family claiming 
descent from him and setting up pretensions accordingly, 
unless they were actually and historically descended from 
some one of his five wives, all of whom were of high and 
undoubted aristocratic families. These five wives were — 
(i.) Koihalawai or KoihalauwaUaua, dsLUghtei of his sister 
Akahiilikapu and KahahuTna Kaliua, one of the tabu 
chiefs of Kauai. With this wife Keawenui had four 
children, three sons and a daughter : Kanaloakuaana, 
Kanaloahnakawaiea, Kanaloakapulehu, and Keakalaulani. 
(2.) Haokalani, of the Kalona-iki family on Oahu, or from 
the great Ehu family on Hawaii through ffao-a-kapokii, 
the fourth in descent from Ehunui Kaimalino ; the fact 
is not very clearly stated, though the presumption, from 
allusions in the legends, is in favour of the former. Her 
son was the celebrated LonoikamakakikL (3.) Hoopiliahae, 
whose parentage is not stated,^ but whose son, Umioka- 
lani, allied himself to the Maui chiefess Pii-maui-lani, and 
was the father of Hoolaaikaiwi, mother of the widely- 
known and powerful Mahi family on Hawaii. (4.) 
Kamola-nui-a-Umi, the half-sister of Keawenui. Her 
daughter was Kwpohelemai, who became the wife of her 

1 1 have but one genealogy in which HuanuikaXalailai, through his son, 

her parentage is referred to, and there Kuhelaui, the brother of the Maui 

she is said to be a descendant of Paumakua. 

VOL. II. U 



1 14 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

cousin Makua and mother of /, from whom the present 
reigning family descends. (5.) HakaukalalapvAikea, the 
granddaughter of Hakau, the brother of Umi. Her 
daughter was Iliilikikuahine, through whom more than 
one family now living claims connection with the line of 
Liloa. All the legends mention a son of Keawenui 
named Pupuakea, who was endowed with lands in Kau, 
but none of the legends that I possess mention who his 
mother was. He remained true to Lonoikamakahiki when 
all the world forsook him, and was treated by Lono as a 
younger brother or very near kindred. 

There can be little doubt that Keawenui himself, as 
well as the public opinion of the chiefs and landholders 
of Hawaii, considered his occupancy of the dignity and 
position of Moi of Hawaii as an usurpation of the rights of 
his nephew, Kukailani, the son of Keliiokaloa ; and this 
was probably the cause of the commotion and uprising 
of the great district chiefs in the early part of Keawenui s 
reign. Thus, when Keawenui was on his deathbed, he 
solemnly, and in the presence of his chiefs, conferred the 
sovereignty, the dignity, and prerogatives of Moi on 
Kaikilani, the daughter of Kukailani, and who was the 
joint- wife or successive wife of his two sons, Kanaloa- 
kuaana and Lonoikamakahiki. This Kaikilani, whose 
full name was Kaikilani-nui-alii-wahine-o-Puna, must not 
be mistaken, as several later genealogists have done, 
for another wife of Lonoikamakahiki called Kaikilanimai- 
panio, and who was the daughter of Kaeilaunui and his 
wife Kauluoaapalaka, a descendant of the great Ehu 
family through Laeanuikaumanamana, the high-priest in 
the time of Kihanui and Liloa. Kaikilani-alii-wahinc-o- 
Puna had three children with Kanaloa-kuaana, but had no 
children with Lonoikamakahikii ; whereas Kaikilanimai- 
jpaneo had two sons with the aforesaid Lonoikamakahiki. 
The legends are rather minute in detailing the early life 
?nd^xS- and training of Lonoikamakahiki, how he was instructed, 
kamaka- ^^^ bccamc Q. great proficient in all the athletic and war- 



THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 115 

like exercises of the time; how he was endowed with 
great powers of conversation and argumentation ; how he 
was a zealous worshipper of the gods, having in early life 
been deeply affected, when on a visit with his father to 
Hilo, by the austere and venerable aspect of Kawaamaw- 
Icele, the high-priest of Hilo, whose long hair, reaching 
down to his knees after the fashion of high-priests, in- 
spired him with awe and terror, and who afterwards told 
him his fortune. 

For some time after the accession of Kaikilani as Moi, 
though the government of the island was carried on in her 
name, yet Kanaloakuaana appears to have acted as a 
Kegent or Prime Minister and as a special guardian of his 
younger brother, Lonoikamakahild. After a while, Kana- 
loakuaana instituted a formal examination or trial of 
Lonoikamakahiki as to his qualifications as a warrior, a 
counsellor, and chief, and the latter having come out 
victorious in all the trials, Kaikilani was advised to 
share the throne and dignity with Lonoikamakahiki, and 
thenceforth the latter was hailed as Moi of Hawaii. 

For several years peace and prosperity prevailed on 
Hawaii and concord in the royal family. Having regulated 
the government satisfactorily, and having no wars or 
rebellions to contend with, Lonoikamakahiki concluded to 
visit the other islands, especially Kauai, in search of some 
famous kind of wood of which spears were made. His 
wife Kaikilani accompanied him. Among his outfit on the 
occasion are mentioned the royal Hokeo^ called " Kuwala- 
wala" and the royal Kahili^ called " Eleeleualani!' 

Lo7ioikamakahiki and his suite stopped at Lahaina, but 

1 The Hokeo was a large, high, and 2 The Kahili was an ensign of chief- 
straight calabash, in which the ward- ship and royalty. Ifc was composed 
robe of chiefs and other valuables of select birds' feathers closely tied 
were packed, as in a trunk. This on to a flexible handle or staff, and 
particular "Hokeo " was famous for varying in size from two to three feet 
containing the bundles of bones of the long for daily use, to twelve or 
six rebel chiefs of Hawaii whom his fifteen feet in length for processions 
father, Keaivenui-a- Umi, had slain. and grand occasions. 



1 16 THE POL YNESIAN- RACE, 

Kamalalaiualu, the Moi of Maui, was absent visiting other 
parts of the island, and Lono proceeded on towards Oahii. 
Being overtaken by bad and stormy weather, Lono put in 
to Kalaupapa, on the north-west side of the island of 
Molokai, for shelter ; hauled up his canoes, and remained 
the guest of the Kalaupapa chiefs until better weather 
should permit him to leave. 

To beguile the time while thus windbound, Lonoihama- 
kahiki and Kaikilani frequently amused themselves with 
a game of " Konane!' resembling the game of draughts, 
played on a checkered board with white and black squares. 
One day while thus occupied, seated in the open air, the 
faint sound as of some one hailing from the top of the 
overhanging Pali of " Puupaneenee " reached the players. 
Again the hail was repeated, and distinct and clear these 
words came down on the astounded ears of Lono : — 
" Ey Kaikilani alii wahine o Puna — JE, E aa mai ana ia oe 
koljj ipo ; ke ku a Kalaulipali, o Uli, o Heakekoa ! " 
(" Ho, Kaikilani ! your lover Heakekoa, the son of Kalau- 
lipali and Uli, is longing for you.") By her confusion and 
her attempts to divert the attention of Lono, Kaikilani 
confirmed him in his suspicions ; and enraged at the infi- 
delity of his wife, as well as at the audacity of the lover 
thus publicly to affront him, he snatched up the Konane 
board and struck Kaikilani so violent a blow on the head 
that she fell senseless and bleeding on the broad flag- 
stones ^ where they had been sitting. Full of his angry 
feelings, the chief ordered his canoes to be launched, and, 
sternly forbidding Kaikilani to follow him, set sail for 
Oahu that same day. 

It is said in the legend that this passionate exhibition 
of her husband's love, and the finding herself left alone 
and forbidden to accompany him, produced such revulsion 

1 Tradition has preserved, and the sitting and playing when the game 

old inhabitants, on the author's first was so fatally interrupted. The place 

visit to the place, pointed out the was called "Pikoone," and is near the 

very broad stone on which Lono and harbour of Kalaupapa. 
Kaikilani were said to have been 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 117 

in the mind of Kaikilani as to entirely break off her fond- 
ness for Heakekoa (if she really ever had had any such), 
who disappears, and is not further heard of in the legends. 
As soon as she had recovered from the wound inflicted by 
the Konane-board she sorrowfully returned to Hawaii. 
Meanwhile the news of the tragical episode at Kalaupapa 
had preceded her arrival at Hawaii. The island was filled 
with consternation ; the chiefs took counsel together how 
to avenge the reported death of Kaikilani and the in- 
dignity offered her ; all the brothers of Zonoikamakahiki, 
and all the district chiefs except Fwpuakea of Kau, joined 
in the revolt, Kanaloakuaana again assuming the regency 
and organising measures to intercept and slay Lonoikama- 
kahiki should he attempt to land on the coast of Hawaii. 
When Kaikilani arrived at Kohala from Molokai, she 
learned the news of this great revolt, and, with all the 
ardour of her old love for Lono reawakened, and only 
anxious for his safety, she quietly re-embarked and sailed 
for Kau, avoiding the rebel chiefs, and placing herself in 
communication with Fupuakea, the only chief of note that 
still adhered to the fortunes of Lonoikamakaliiki. Under 
his advice and with his assistance men were assembled 
and measures taken to recover the lost supremacy of Lono. 
In view, however, of the superior forces and personal 
character of the revolted chiefs, it was thought that Lands 
presence was absolutely needed as a counterpoise before 
commencing active hostilities. In this dilemma Kaikilani 
resolved to go to Oahu and personally acquaint her hus- 
band with the state of affairs on Hawaii, and by this proof 
of her returned love endeavour to win back his affections 
and induce him to return. She sailed ; how she succeeded 
will be seen in the sequel. 

When Lonoikamahiki left Kalaupapa on Molokai he 
started with only one canoe, leaving the rest of his retinue 
to follow when ready. Lono went straight to Kailua, in 
Koolaupoko district, Oahu, where Kakuhihewa, the Moi of 
Oahu, then held his court, the name of the royal resi- 



1 1 8 THE POL YNESIA N RA CE. 

dence being " Kamooa." As Lono's canoe approaclied the 
shore, Lancthuimihaku, a chief and a priest who had for- 
merly been in the service of Keawenui-a- Umi, and was 
well versed in all the lore of the Hawaii chiefs, but who 
was now a counsellor under Kakiihihewa, recognised the 
canoe, the sail, and the insignia, and informed Kakulii- 
liewa that one of Keawenui's sons was approaching. 
Kakuhihewoi received him royally and cordially. Food 
was prepared in abundance and a house set apart for his 
reception. An incident that occurred the first night of 
Londs stay ashore will in a measure show the manners of 
the time, and may well be worth repeating. 

After Lono had left his royal host in the evening and 
retired to rest, either that the thoughts of the Kalaupapa 
affair troubled his mind, or that the heat of the night 
made it uncomfortable to sleep in the house, he got up 
and went down to the beach to sleep in his canoe, where 
the cool breeze off the sea would fan and refresh him. 

While there, another double canoe arrived during the 
night from Kauai, having on board a chiefess named 
Ohaikawiliula, bound to Hawaii on a visit. Lono accosted 
the stranger, inquired the news from Kauai, and in course 
of conversation learned that a new Mele or chant had just 
been composed in honour of this chiefess's name ; that it 
was only known to a few of the highest chiefs on Kauai, 
and had not yet become public. Prompted by curiosity 
and a natural bent for acquiring all sorts of knowledge, 
Lono entreated the chiefess to repeat the chant, which she 
complaisantly did, and Lono's quick ear and retentive 
memory soon caught and correctly retained the' whole of 
it. The chant was well known to Hawaiians of the last 
generation, and many of the present may recall it to 
mind by hearing the first line : 

Kealialia liu a Mana.^ 
The salt pond of Mana. 

1 For what remains of this chant, see Appendix No. 2. 



THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 119 

His expected sleep on the beach having been thus inter- 
rupted, Lono returned to the house and slept soundly till 
late in the morning. 

KakuhiJiewa, having enjoyed an uninterrupted night's 
rest, rose early next morning and repaired to the sea- 
shore for a bath, according to the custom. He there 
found the canoe of the Kauai chief ess just getting ready 
to leave. Saluting the stranger, he also inquired the 
latest news from Kauai, and received the same informa- 
tion that Lono had received during the night, of which 
fact, however, Kahuhihewa was ignorant. Having re- 
peated the chant to Kahuhihewa, and he having com- 
mitted it to memory, the Kauai chiefess made sail and 
departed, and Kahuhihewa returned to his palace much 
pleased at the opportunity of puzzling his guest, when he 
should awake, with the latest news from Kauai. When 
Lono finally awoke and made his appearance, Kahuhihewa 
challenged him to chant the latest Mele from Kauai. 
Without hesitation Lono complied, and recited the chant 
correctly from beginning to end, to the great discomfiture 
and perplexity of Kahuhihewa. 

Lonoihamahahihi remained a long time a guest of 
Kahuhihewa, and their adventures, excursions, amuse- 
ments, and betting exploits are related at great length 
in the legends, but they are so greatly exaggerated, so 
mixed with the marvellous, and withal so confused as to 
sequence of time, that it is hardly possible to eliminate 
any historical fact from them, except the general one that 
during this time " les rois s'amusaient." It was during 
this period also that Lono exhibited the trophies of his 
father (the bundles of bones referred to on a former page) 
and chanted the names of the slain chiefs. Yet, though 
there was no doubt in Kahuhihewa' s mind that Lono was 
a chief of very high rank on Hawaii, and probably one of 
Keawenui-a-Umi's sons, still his real name and position 
appear not to have been known to Kahuhihewa nor to his 



1 20 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

grand counsellor Lanahuimihaku, and the latter did not 
scruple openly to call Lono an Alii inoa ole, " a nameless 
chief," to which taunt Lono merely replied that if ever 
Lanahuimihaku fell in his power he would flay him 
alive. 

One day when Lonoikamakahiki and Kakuhihewa were 
playing Konaue, Kaikilani arrived from Hawaii. Going 
up to the enclosure of the palace and perceiving Lono 
inside occupied at the game and with his back towards 
her, she commenced chanting his Mele inoa — " the chant 
of his name " — in the well-known strain : — 

Kahikohonua ia Elekau Kama, 
Halalakauluonae,'^ &c., &c. 

At the very first intonation of the chant Lono knew who 
the singer was, and remembering the unpleasant affair at 
Kalaupapa, resolutely kept his seat without looking round 
to the singer. But as stave after stave of the chant 
rolled over the lips of Kaikilani, and allusions to common 
ancestors and scenes endeared to both came home to the 
obdurate mind of her husband, the stern heart relented ; 
yet, mastering his emotions until she had finished, he 
turned around, and in reply chanted her own name. 
This was the token of his forgiveness and reconciliation, 
and gladly Kaikilani sprang to her husband and was 
again tenderly saluted by him. 

This mutual public recognition between the two sove- 
reigns of Hawaii solved the mystification and the incog- 
nito of Londs presence at Kakuhihewa s court, which form 
so large a portion of the legend. 

Informed by I{^aikilani of the revolt on Hawaii, Lonoi- 
kamakahiki left Oahu at once, crossed the channels of 
the group, and avoiding the Kohala coast, where the 
rebels were in force, sailed to Kealakeakua, and sent 
messengers to Kau to acquaint Pupuakea of the arrival of 
himself and Kaikilani, Fupuakca responded promptly, 



THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 121 

and, taking a mountain road above the coast villages, he 
joined Lono and the forces that the latter had collected 
in Kona at Puuanahulu, on a land called Anaehbomalu, 
near the boundaries of Kohala and Kona. The rebel 
chiefs were encamped seaward of this along the shore. 
The next day Lono marched down and met the rebels at 
a place called Wailea, not far from Wainanalii, where in 
those days a watercourse appears to have been flowing. 
Lono won the battle, and the rebel chiefs fled northward 
with their forces. At Kaunooa, between Puako and 
Kawaihae, they made another stand, but were again 
routed by Lono, and retreated to Nakikiaianihau, where 
they fell in with reinforcements from Kohala and 
Hamakua. Two other ensjagrements were fouejht at 
Puupa and Puukohola, near the Heiau of that name, 
in both of which Lono was victorious. His brother 
KanaloakajpuleJiu was taken prisoner, slain, and sacrificed 
at the Heiau, but Kanaloakuakawaiea escaped with the 
scattered remnant of the rebel forces. The rebels now 
fled into Kohala, and were hotly pursued by Lonoikama- 
kahiki. Several skirmishes were fought during the pur- 
suit ; at Kaiopae, where Kanaloakuakawaiea was slain ; at 
Kaiopihi, and finally at Puumaneo, on the high lands 
above Pololu, where the last remnant of the rebel force 
was conquered and slain, and the island returned to its 
allegiance to Lono and Kaikilani. 

Although Kanaloakuaana, the eldest brother of Lono, 
was the originator and prime mover in this revolt, there 
is nothing said in the legends as to how he escaped con- 
demnation and death, and they are equally silent about 
the youngest brother, Umiokalani. They probably made 
separate peace and submitted to Lono, for we find them, 
a few years afterward, on good terms with their brother 
Lono, and acting under him in his war with Kamalala- 
walu of Maui. 

Having restored peace and order on Hawaii, Lonx) went 



1 22 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

round the island consecrating Heiaus as acknowledgment 
to the gods for his victories. The following Heiaus are 
mentioned : — " Muleiula," in Apuakehau, Kohala ; " Puuko- 
hola," at Kawaihae ; " Makolea," in Kahaluu Kona. After 
leaving the latter place, one of the rebel chiefs named 
Kapulani was caught and brought to Lono. He was 
condemned to death, and ordered to be sacrificed at the 
Heiau the next morning ; but during the night he was set 
at liberty by Kalanioumi, Londs niece, and one of the 
daughters of Kaikilani and Kanaloahuaana. Kapulani 
escaped into Kau, and was not further molested. 

After this Lonoikamakahiki and Kaikilani made a visit 
to Maui. Kamalalawalu, the Moi of Maui, held his court 
at Hana at that time, and thither the royal visitors 
repaired. They were sumptuously entertained, and when 
their visit was ended they returned to Hawaii. Kamala- 
lawalu must have been very advanced in years at that 
time, as he was a contemporary of Keawenni-a- Umi, and 
his sons were man-grown when Lono visited Maui. 

iN'ot long after the return of Lono to Hawaii, Kamalala- 
walu, either stimulated by ambition or misled by false 
reports as to the strength and resources of Hawaii, formed 
the resolution to invade that island and conquer it. 
Orders were issued to prepare the fleet and collect men 
for the invasion. The priests and soothsayers were given 
to understand that the king expected favourable auguries, 
and, afraid of their lives, they framed their answers to 
suit his wishes. One only among the subservient crowd 
lifted a warning and protesting voice against the mad 
enterprise. That man was Lanikaula, a high-priest from 
Molokai, whose tomb and grove may still be seen near the 
north-east point of that island. His warning was un- 
heeded; yet, when the fleet was ready and Kamalalawalu 
was stepping on board, Lanikaula implored him to desist 
in a " Wanana," or prophecy, which has been preserved, 
and which commences — 



THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 1 23 

Koae ^ ula, Ke Koac Kea^ 
Koae lelepauma ana, 
Kiekie i luna Ka hoku 
Haahaa i du Ka Malama. 

The red Koae, the white Koae, 

The Koae soaring, pushing (upward) 

High above are the stars, 

Lowly am I the gazer. 

The only answer the irate monarch vouchsafed was, 
"When I return I will burn you alive." Kamalalawalu s 
fleet landed without opposition near Puako, a few miles 
south of Kawaihae. Kanaloakuaana was at the time at 
Waimea, and hearing of Kamalalawalu' s landing on the 
coast, he started off with what forces he had to check his 
advance until Lonoikamakahihi, who was then at Kohala, 
could arrive. At Kaunooa he met Kamalalawalu, who 
was marching inland. A battle ensued. The Maui forces 
greatly outnumbered those of Kanaloakuaana, who was 
utterly defeated and himself taken prisoner at Kamaka- 
hiwa, in Puako, where his eyes were put out, and then he 
was slain. 

This wanton cruelty inflicted on Kanaloakuaana appears 
to have been looked upon by his contemporaries as a touch 
beyond the ordinary barbarity of Hawaiian warfare, for 
not only was the place where it occurred called after the 
black eyes (Ka-maka-hiwa) of the unfortunate chief, but 
the bards embalmed his memory and his tragical end in a 
Mele or chant, which has been partly preserved till the 
present time, and in the Hawaiian anthology was known 
as " Koauli." 

After this first success Kamalalawalu marched boldly 
inland, and took up a position in Waimea, at a place 
called Hokuula. Here he awaited the arrival of Lono's 
forces. A second battle was fought, and Kamalalawalu 
was defeated with great slaughter. Among the slain were 
Kamalalawalu and Makakukalani, his nephew and gene- 
ralissimo; his son Kauhi-a-Kama escaped to Kawaihae, 

1 A species of bird found in the mountains. 



1 24 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

where lie was aided to cross over to Maui by one Hinau, 
one of Londs officers, who had taken a liking to him, and 
who accompanied him to Maui. 

Though it is very probable that Lonoikamahahihi made 
a visit to Kauai after this war with the Maui king, and it 
may be accepted as a fact that he did so, yet the romance 
of the expedition may be called in question ; that, having 
started with a grand retinue, as became so great a chief, 
immediately on his arrival at Kauai he was deserted by 
all, from the highest to the lowest, of his retainers, and 
left to pursue his way alone, and that he would have 
perished had not a Kauai man named Kapaihiahilina 
been moved by compassion for the forsaken chief, and 
accompanied him through his perilous journey among the 
mountain wilds of Waialeale ^ in search of a real or ima- 
ginary place called ''Kahihikalani;" that having accom- 
plished his journey and returned to Hawaii, he heaped 
honours and distinction on this Kapaihialina, and the 
romance of the latter's disgrace and restoration to favour. 
The adventures related are certainly in keeping with the 
spirit of the time, and there can be no doubt that in his 
day and by his contemporaries Lonoikamakahiki was 
looked upon as a Hawaiian Eichard Coeur de Lion, whose 
name and whose deeds the bards passed down to after- 

1 I know that the romantic episode makahiki legend is the older and the 
of Lonoikamakahiki' s visit to Kauai, original one, after and on which the 
and the rise and vicissitudes in the Kalaninuiamamao legend was mo- 
fortunes of his friend Kapaihiahilina, delled. Kalaninuiamamaohems close 
have by some been attributed to Ka- upon our own times, and the grand- 
(aninuiamamao,fi.ve generations after uncle of Kamchameha I. , it is hardly 
the time of Lonoikamakahiki. But I conceivable that his deeds and adven- 
cannot find that such an application tures should have been set back in 
of the legend dates higher than the time, and assigned to so remote an 
time of the conquest of the group by smceHtoT as Lonoikaynakahiki, whereas 
Kamehameha I., or thereafter. It is there is both probability and prece- 
very probable that ^a^antnwiamawiao dent in favour of the presumption 
visited Kauai as well as Oahu, where that — both having visited Kauai — the 
he fell in with Kamakaimoku, and adveutures of Lono were borrowed, 
engaged her to come to Hawaii as his so to say, or assigned by time-serving 
wife ; but in critically examining the bards or priests to embellish the Kauai 
two legends, it becomes pretty con- voyage of Kalaninuiamamao, 
clusively evident that the Lonoika- 



i 



THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 125 

times, and whose more romantic adventures, embellished 
by fervent imaginations, were rehearsed by professional 
storytellers, and continued to delight chiefs and com- 
moners even down to our own days, when so much of the 
ancient poetry of Hawaiian life has been vn'ung out of 
it by the pressure of a new civilisation, leaving the more 
repulsive features which it partially covered protruding 
in the day, to be wept over or to be hooted at as suits 
the humour of the beholder. 

Eeturned from the Kauai expedition, Lonoikamahahiki 
passed the balance of his days in peace on his own island 
of Hawaii. 

The children of Kaihilani-Alii-WaTiine-o-Puna with 
Kanaloaknaana were a son, Keakealanikane, and two 
daughters, Kealiiokalani and Kalani-o-Umi. She had 
no children with Lonoikamahiki, as previously stated. 
With his other wife, Kaikilanimaipanio, Lono had two 
sons, one called Keawehanauikawalu and the other Kaihi- 
kapumahana, from both of whom her Highness Ruth 
Keelikolani is the descendant on her father's and mother's 
sides. The first was the husband of Akahikameenoa, the 
daughter of Akahiilikapu and Kahakumakalina, referred 
to on page 104. The second, who, according to the Oahu 
legends, was born while Lono was sojourning at the 
court of Kakuhihewa^ and was called after Kahihihewa's 
favourite son Kaihikapu, was the husband of Aila, a 
Kauai chiefess of the great Kealohi family, and thus 
became the great-grandfather of Lonoikahaupu, on whom 
the Kauai sovereignty finally settled after the close of 
the civil wars between the members of the Kawelo family. 

To this period of Lono's reign belongs the episode of 
Lwikauikaua, another knight-errant of this stirring time. 
Liuikauikaua was the son of Makakaualii, who was the 
younger and only brother of Kaikilani-A Hi- Wahine-o-Puna. 
His mother was Kapukamola} The direct legends con- 

^ A daughter of Kanakeawe, who kaualii -were Kapukini, a daughter, 
was the daughter of Kamolunui-a- Keawe and Umikukailani, sons, and 
Umi. The other children of Maka- Pueopokii, a daughter. 



1 26 THE POL YNESIA N RA CE. 

cerning Lim have mostly perished, but enough remains 
referring to him in other legends to give us glimpses of 
his character and a few data of his life. 

Though nearly related to the reigning family of Hawaii, 
yet, being the son of a younger brother, without feuda- 
torial possessions in his own right, a tabu chief by birth, 
but with no land to back the title except what his aunt's 
bounty might provide, brought up to, and master of, all 
the princely exercises of the time, he sought his fortune 
as other chiefly scions had to do. 

During the time of the revolt of Kanaloahuaana and 
the Hawaii chiefs against Lonoikamahahiki, it would 
appear that Iwikauikaua was already a grown-up young 
man, for he is reported as having espoused the cause of 
Lono and his aunt Kaikilani. During some of the battles 
of that civil war Iwikauikaua was taken prisoner by 
Kanaloakapulehu and condemned to be sacrificed at the 
Heiau. When standing on the steps of the altar, he 
asked the officiating priest to allow him to utter a 
prayer to the gods before he was slain. The priest 
consented, but told him if his prayer was bad — that is, if 
it was interrupted or attended by unfavourable omens, 
and thus repudiated by the gods — he would surely die 
that day ; but if not, he would be reprieved. Iwikauikaua 
chanted his prayer, and it appears to have been success- 
ful, for his life was spared. This prayer, addressed to 
Ku, to TJli, and to Kama, has been preserved. It is 
replete with archaic expressions and now obsolete words, 
and is probably as old as the times it represents. 

After this narrow escape Iwikauikaua went to Oahu, 
and there became the husband of Kauakahikuaanauakane, 
daughter of Kakuhihewa's son Kaihikapu. He is next 
heard of in the legends as having visited Maui, where 
one of his sisters, Kapukini, was the wife of the Moi 
Kauhi-a-Kama, and another sister, Pueopokii, was the 
wife of Kaaoao, the son of Makakukalani, and head of 
the Kaupo chief families who descended from Koo and 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 127 

Kaixili. He finally returns to Hawaii, where he becomes 
the husband of Keakamahana, the daughter of his cousins 
Keakealanikane and Kealiiokalani, and who at their death 
became the Moi of Hawaii. 

When Lonoikamakahiki and Kaikilani, his wife, died, 
they were succeeded as Moi of Hawaii by Kaikilani's 
son Keakealanikane. We have no lec^ends of his reign, Keakeaianu 

° ° kane. 

as we have of the preceding, and infer that it was un- 
eventful as regards himself. Though no open revolt 
has been recorded, yet there is little doubt that the 
feudal bonds in which the district chiefs were held by 
the strong hand of Lonoikamakahiki were greatly loosened 
during this reign, and thus the great houses of / in Hilo 
and of Mahi in Kohala, with large territorial possessions, 
were enabled to assume an attitude little short of political 
independence, and which, in the reign of his grandchild 
Keakea-laniwahine, ripened into civil war. 

Keakealanikane s wife was his sister Kealiiokalani, and 
their daughter and successor as Moi was Keakamahana, Keakama- 
whose recognised husband was Lvnkauikaua above re- 
ferred to. They had also another daughter named Kalai- 
kiiki, who became the wife of Ahulililani, a chief of Puna, 
and mother of Kuikai, referred to on pp. yz and 73 note. 
Though the genealogical Meles speak in the highest laud- 
atory terms of Keakamahana, yet there is little left to 
mark her reign on the historical page. 

The most prominent figures about the time of Keaka- 
mahana was probably Kanaloauoo, the renowned chief of 
Kohala, and his three sons, all named Mahi, though with 
different sobriquets, — Mahiolole, Mahikuku, Mahikapa- 
lena or Mahiopupeleha. Kanaloauoo had two wives from 
the reigning Maui dynasty ; first, Kapuleiolaa, who was a 
descendant of Lonoapii; second, Kihamoihala, who was 
a great-granddaughter of Kamxilalawalu. With the first 
he had a daughter named Kapaihi ; with the second he 
had the son Mahikapalena. The families from both these 
children remained on Maui, and do not appear to have 



hana. 



1 28 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

settled on Hawaii or taken part in its politics. Eetiirn- 
ing from Maui to Kohala, of which district Kanaloauoo 
was the ruling chief, the " Alii-ai-molcu," he took for 
wife Hoolaaikaiwi, a daughter of Umiokalani and Piima- 
uilani, and granddaughter of Keawemd-a-Umi. With 
this last wife he had the two sons Mahiolole and Mahi- 
hiku. 

Tlie only husband known of Kealmmaliana was Iwi- 
hauikaua, above referred to, and with him she had a 
daughter called Keakealaniwaliine, who succeeded her 
mother as Moi of Hawaii. With his other wife, the 
Oahu chiefess Kauakahi-kuaanaaioakane, Iwikauikaua 
had a son, Kaneikaiwilani, who became one of the hus- 
bands of his half-sister Keakealaniwaliine, and with 
another wife named Kapukiniakua he had a daughter 
called Kamakahauoku. 

The reign of Keakealaniwaliine was a troubled one. 
The great house of /, in whose family the chieftainship of 
the Hilo district had been vested since the days of their 
ancestor Kumalae the son of TJmi, had grown to such 
wealth, strength, and importance, as to be practically 
independent of even the very loose bonds with which 
the ruling district chiefs were held to their feudatory 
obligations. The representative of this house as district 
chief of Hilo at this time was Kuahuia, the son of Kua- 
ana-a-I, and grandson of /. What led to the war, or 
what were its incidents, has not been preserved on the 
traditional records, but it is frequently alluded' to as a 
long and bitter strife between Knaliuia and Keakealani- 
waliine ; and though tradition is equally silent as to its 
conclusion, it may be inferred that the royal authority 
was unable to subdue its powerful vassal from the fact 
that at the death of Keawe, Keakealani's son and suc- 
cessor, we find that Mokulani, the son of Kuahuia was 
still the principal chief — "Alii-ai-moku" — of Hilo. It "is 
on record that Mahiolole, the powerful district chief of 
Kohala, w^as the chief counsellor and supporter of Keakea- 



I 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 129 

laniwaliine, which fact, independent of other causes, may 
account in a measure for the intimacy of Keakealani's 
daughter, Kalanikauleleiaiwi, and Mahiololes son, Kaiiaua- 
a-Mahi. 

Keakealaniwahine had two husbands. The first was 
Kanaloaikaiwilewa, or, as he is called in some genealogies, 
Kanaloakapuhhu. His pedigree is not given in any genea- 
logy or legend that I have met with, but he was probably 
a descendant of Lonoikamakahiki s brother with the same 
name. The other husband was Kaneikaiwilani, who 
was the son of Iwikauikaua and Kaukahikuaanaauakane. 
With the first, Keakealani had a son named Keawe ; with 
the second, she had a daughter named Kalanikaulele- 
iaiwi. 

Keawe, surnamed " ikekahialiiokamoku!' succeeded his Keawe. 
mother, Keakealaniwahine, as the Moi of Hawaii. He is 
said to have been an enterprising and stirring chief, who 
travelled all over the group, and obtained a reputation for 
bravery and prudent management of his island. It ap- 
pears that in some manner he composed the troubles that 
had disturbed the peace during his mother's time. It 
was not by force or by conquest, for in that case, and so 
near to our own times, some traces of it would certainly 
have been preserved on the legends. He probably accom- 
plished the tranquillity of the island by diplomacy, as he 
himself married Lonomaaikanaka, the daughter of Ahu- 
a-I, and he afterwards married his son Kalaninuiomamao 
to Ahia, the granddaughter of Kuaana-a-I and cousin to 
Kuahuias son, Mokulani, and thus by this double mar- 
riage securing the peace and allegiance of the Hilo chiefs. 
The other districts do not seem to have shared in the 
resistance made by the Hilo chiefs to the authority of the 
Moi, at least the name of no district chief of note or influ- 
ence has been recorded as having been so engaged. 

Three short generations had passed between the time of 
Lonoikamakahiki and the present Keawe, and the " iron- 
hand " policy of the former, as of his father, Keawenui-a- 

VOL. II. I 



I30 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

Umi, had been exchanged for the " velvet-glove " state- 
craft of the latter. But the iron hand, though nude and 
rude, kept the turbulent district chiefs in subjection, or 
forcibly ejected them if contumacious ; whereas the 
velvet glove was deficient in grip, and the great feudal 
vassals became practically independent, and their allegi- 
ance grew into a question of interest, rather than one 
of constitutional obligation. Under these conditions it is 
much to the credit of Keawe that he gathered up in a 
firmer hand the loosened reins of government, and during 
his lifetime ruled the island peaceably and orderly, with- 
out rebellion, tumult, or bloodshed occurring to be chro- 
nicled in song or legend. 

There can be little doubt that Keawe's half-sister, Kala- 
nikauleUiaiwi, was, during the ancient regime, considered 
as co-ordinate with her brother as Moi of Hawaii, though 
she is not known to have been actively occupied in any 
matters of government. The legends refer to her as his 
equal on the throne; and at the time, and by posterity, 
she was held to be of higher rank than Keawe, owing to 
her descent, on her father's side, from the Oahu dynasty 
of Kakuhihewa. 

Keawe s wives were — (i.) Lonomaaikanalm, a daughter of 
Ahu-a-I and of Piilaniivahine. The former belonged to 
the powerful and widely spread I family of Hilo; the 
latter was the daughter of Kalanikaumakaowakea, the 
Moi of Maui. With \ie,Y Keawe had two sons, Kalaninuio- 
mamao and Kekohimoku} (2.) Kalanikauleleiaiwi, his 
half-sister, as before stated. With her he had Kalanikee- 
aumoku, a son, and Kekelakekeokalani, a daughter. (3.) 
Kanealae^ a daughter of Lae, chief of the eastern parts of 

^ Some genealogies state that ^mzte this case, for the reason that the 

and Lonomaaikanaka had also a chronological necessities of Kauhio- 

daughter named Kauhiokaka ; others kaka's descendunts require it. 
state that she was the daughter of ^ She afterwards became the wife 

Lonomaaikanaka with a previous hus- of Kekaulike, the Moi of Maui, with 

band named Hulu. We are inclined whom she had a daughter named 

to hold with the latter authorities in Luahiwa. 



I 



THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 131 

Molokai. With her he had Hao, Awili, Kumukoa, sons, 
and Kaliloamohti, a daughter. (4.) KauJiiokaka, daughter 
of Lonomaaikanaka and Hulu. With her he had a 
daughter named Kekaulike, who became one of the wives 
of her half-brother Kalaninuiomamao, and was the mother 
of the celebrated Keawemauhili, chief of Hilo. Keawe had 
two other wives, though, strange to say, their names have 
perished from the traditional record. With the one he 
had two sons, Ahaula ^ and Kaolohaka-a-Keawe,^ whose 
descendants were conspicuous enough in after-history; 
with the other he had a son, Kanuha, who is said to have 
built the city of refuge, the " Puu-honua" known as the 
Hale-o-Keawe, at Honaunau in the South Kona district. 

Kalanikauleleiaiwi, the half-sister of Keawe, had four 
husbands: — (i.) Kaulahea, the Moi of Maui. This union 
must have taken place in her early youth, and tradition is 
silent as to the causes which led to her leaving Kaulahea 
and returning to Hawaii. With him she had a daughter, 
Kekuiapoiwanui, who remained on Maui and became the 
wife of her half-brother, Kekaulike. (2.) Keawe, the Moi 
of Hawaii, above referred to. (3.) Kauaua-a-Mahi, son of 
Mahiolole, the great Kohala chief. With him she had two 
sons, Alapainui and Haae ! ^ (4.) Lonoikahaujpu, one of 
the tabu chiefs of Kauai, and a descendant of Kahaku- 

1 He was one of the husbands of kanu, Pelekaluhi, Mary Ann Kill- 

the noted Maui chief ess, Kaupeka- wche, et als., some of whom survive 

moku, and father of Kaiana-a- to this day. 

Ahaula, who played bo prominent a ^ I possess one genealogy which 

part during the early years of the asserts that Haae was the son of 

reign of Kamehameha I., and who Kauatui-a-Mahi and Kapoomahana, 

was killed in the battle of Nuuanu, who was a great-granddaughter of 

Oahu, 1796. Kakikauaehu-a-Kama, one of the 

- Fi-om hira descended Kaikioewa, sons of Kamalalaivalu of Maui. I 

the governor of Kauai during portion have not been able to decide upon 

of the reign of Kamehameha III., the merits of these two genealogies, 

and whose daughter Kuwahine was The former appears to have been fol- 

mother of LeUiohoku I., governor of lowed by those who claimed descent 

Hawaii in 1848. From him also de- through Kamakaeheukuli, the one 

scended Koakanu, who was the father daughter of Haae, while the latter 

of the chief ess Liliha, and grand- has been followed by those who claim 

father of her numerous children, through Kekuiapoiwa II., the other 

Abigail, Jane Loeau, KaUinaoa, Koa- daughter of Haae. 



132 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

makapaiceo tlirough Ilihiwalani and Kealohikanahamai- 
hai. With him she had her last and youngest son, Kea- 
wepoepoe, who was the father of Keeaumohu-papaiahiahi, 
Kamedamoku^ and Kamanawa, who, together with Keawe- 
a-Heuhi, were the four principal chiefs that assisted 
Kamehamelia I. to conquer and consolidate the group 
under one dominion, and who became his counsellors and 
ministers after the conquest. Lonoikahawpu afterwards 
returned to Kauai, and with his Kauai wife, Kainuokau- 
mehiwa, became the great-OTandfather of Kaumualii, the 
last independent sovereign of Kauai, of whom the present 
Queen-consort, Kapiolani, is the granddaughter. 

Though nothing is positively said in the legends on the 
subject, yet it may credibly be inferred that during his 
lifetime Keawe had established his eldest son, Kalaninui- 
amamao, as " Alii-ai-Moku" principal chief of Kau, and 
his other son, Kalanikeeaumoku, as principal chief of 
Kona, and probably portions of Kohala, for we find that 
while both were living in their respective districts a 
quarrel arose between them, and that Kalaninuiamamao 
was killed, or caused to be killed, by Kalanikeeaumoku ; ^ 
and we find further that at Keawe s death, Mokulani, who 
ruled over Hilo, Hamakua, and part of Puna districts, 
declared himself independent of Kalanikeeaumoku, who 
apparently was unable to enforce his claims as Moi of 
Hawaii, but who, nevertheless, claimed lordship over the 
Kona and Kohala districts. "WYiQn Keawe died, Alapainui, 
the rightful heir of the Kohala district, as representative 
of the Mahi family, was sojourning at the court of Kekau- 
like, the Moi of Maui, on a visit to his half-sister Kekuia- 
poiwanui, the wife of Kekaulike. Hearing of the troubles 
on Hawaii, he hastened back to Kohala, assembled the 
warriors, vassals, and retainers of his house, made war on 

1 One version of the Kalaninui- bially turbulent people, frequently 

amamao legend states that he was deposing, and even slaying, their chiefs, 

deposed ("Wailana") by the land- when, either from popular caprice or 

holders — " Makaainana " — of Kau, personal tyranny, they had become 

who were a notoriously and prover- unpopular. 



THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 1 33 

Kalanikeeaumoku first, who was worsted in battle and slain, 
and then on Mokulani, who shared the same fate. In con- 
sequence of these victories Alapainui declared himself as 
Moi of Hawaii, and the island submitted to his sway. 

Having established himself as sovereign or Moi of 
Hawaii, Alapainui assumed the lordship, in his own ALapainui. 
person, of the Kohala and Kona districts, while, for 
political reasons, doubtless, the chieftainship of the Hilo 
district, with its outlying possessions, was retained in the 
person of Mokidani's daughter and only child, JJlulani, 
with whom it afterwards passed over to Keaivemauhili, 
the son of Kalaninuiamamao. The Kau district seems in 
a measure to have escaped the troubles and changes 
incident to the interregnum and civil war after Keawe's 
death, for we find that when Kalaniopuu, the son of 
Kalaninuiamamao, was grown up, he assumed the lord- 
ship of it as his patrimonial estate, and it passed as such 
from him to his son, Keoua-Kuahuula, who retained it 
until his death in 1791. 

While these intestine commotions were occurring on 
Hawaii, harassing the country people and weakening the 
power of the chiefs, Kekaulike, the Moi of Maui, judging 
the time opportune for a possible conquest of Hawaii, 
assembled his forces at Mokulau, Kaupo district, Maui, 
where he had been residing for some time, building the 
Heiaus Loaloa and Puumakaa at Kumunui, and Kane- 
malohemo at Popoiwi. When his forces and fleet were 
ready, Kekaulike sailed for the Kona coast of Hawaii, 
where "he harried and burned the coast villages. Ala- 
painui was then in Kona, and, assembling a fleet of war 
canoes, he overtook Kekaulike at sea, fought a naval 
engagement, beat him, and drove him off. Eetreating 
northwards, Kekaulike landed in several places, destroying 
villages in Kekaha, cutting down the cocoa-nut trees at 
Kawaihae, and plundering and killing along the Kohala 
coast, and finally returned to Mokulau, Maui, intending to , 
invade Hawaii with a larger force next time. 



1 34 THE POL YNESIA N RA CE. 

Hearing of the depredations committed by Kehaulike 
on the Kohala coast, Alapainui hurried back to Kohala, 
and concluded to forestall KeJcaulike by invading Maui, 
and thus carry the war home to Kekaulike's own dominions. 
For that purpose all the great feudal chiefs and their 
vassals were summoned to assemble at Kohala along 
the shore from Koaie to Puuwepa, with their men and 
war-canoes, and Alapainui established his own head- 
quarters at Kokoike, near Upolu, the north-west point 
of Hawaii. 

It is related of Alapainui, that when he obtained the 
sovereignty of Hawaii, he caused the oldest sons of Kala- 
ninuiamamao and of Kalanikeeaumoku to be brought to 
him and kept at his court. The legends say that he did 
so out of kindness and love to the young chiefs, his near 
relatives, though it may have been, and possibly was, for 
political reasons — the keeping them about his person to 
prevent them from hatching treason and revolt in the 
provinces. These two chiefs were the afterwards well- 
known Kala7iiopuu, Moi of Hawaii at the time of Captain 
Cook's arrival, and Kalanikupuapaikalaninui, generally 
known by his shorter name of Keoua, who was the father 
of Kamehameha I. But whether from policy or affection 
— and the two motives are so frequently blended in life — 
the fact is none the less that these two princes were the 
nearest and most trusted about the person of Alapainui 
at this time, and for many years subsequent. 

Kamakaimoku was the mother of these two princes, 
and a sketch of her life may serve to illustrate the 
freedom of manners and the liberty of selecting their 
husbands accorded to chiefesses of high rank during the 
ancient regime. 

Kamakaimokio s mother was Umiula-a-kaahumanu, a 
daughter of Mahiolole, the frequently referred to Kohala 
chief, and Kanekukaailani, who was a daughter of / and 
Akahikameenoa ; consequently, according to the Hawaii 
peerage, she was a cousin to Alapainui, and a chiefess of 



i 



THE POL YNESIAN RACE. 135 

the highest rank. Her father was Kuanuuanu, an Oahu 
chief, and in her childhood and youth she was brought 
up by her father on Oahu, her mother having gone back 
to Hawaii and espoused Kapahi-a-Ahu-Kane, the son of 
Ahu-a-I, and a younger brother of ZonomaaikanaJca, the 
wife of Keawe. With Kuanuv/inu Umiulaakaahitmanu 
had another child, a son named Naili, who remained on 
Oahu, and followed his father as chief over the Waianae 
district. With Kapahi-a-Ahukane she had a son named 
Heulu, who was the father of Kmwe-a-Heulu, one of 
Kamehamelia Us doughty counsellor chiefs, from whom 
the present dynasty descends in the fourth degree. When 
grown up, Kamakaimoku was seen by Kalaninuiamamao 
on his visit to Oahu, and sent for to be his wife. Living 
with him at the court of Keawe, she bore him a son, 
Kalaniopuu, who afterwards became the Moi of Hawaii. 
This union was not of long duration, for within a year or 
two she left Kalaninuiamamao and became the wife of his 
brother, Kalanikeeaumoku, and to him she bore another 
son, Kalanikupuapaikalaninui Keoua, the father of Kame- 
hameha I. How long she remained with Kalanikeeau- 
moku is not known positively, but she is next referred to 
as the wife of Alapainui, with whom she had a daughter, 
Manona, grandmother of the celebrated Kekuaokalani, 
who, at the abolition of the tabus in 18 19, altQY Kame- 
hameha's death, took up arms in defence of the old gods 
and the old religion. 

While Alapainui was staying at Kohala superintending 
the collection of his fleet and warriors from the different 
districts of the island preparatory to the invasion of Maui, 
in the month of '' Ikuwa" corresponding to November 
of present reckoning, there was born on a stormy night 
a child whose career in after life so greatly influenced the 
destiny of the entire group of islands and the conditions 
of its people. That child was Kamehamelia /., and we 
thus obtain another approximate chronological starting- 
point, whether counting backward or forward ; for when 



1 36 THE POL YNESIA N RA CE. 

Kamehameha died in 18 19 he was past eighty years old. 
His birth would thus fall between 1736 and 1740, pro- 
bably nearer the former than the latter. His father was 
Kalanikupua-keoua, the half-brother of Kalaniopuu above 
referred to, and grandson of Keawe ; his mother was 
Kekuiapoiwa 11., a daughter of Kekelakekeokalani-a-keaive 
and Haae, the son of Kalanikauleleiaiwi and Kauaua-a- 
Mahi, and brother to Alapainui. 

It is related of Kamehameha I. that on the night of 
his birth, amidst the din, confusion, and darkness of the 
storm, he was stolen from his mother's side by a chief 
called Naeole, lord of Halawa in Kohala. At first all 
search after the missing child proved unsuccessful, but 
finally he was discovered with Naeole, who apparently 
compromised the affair in some way with the parents; 
for instead of being punished as a kidnapper, he was 
allowed to retain the child and become his " kahu " (nurse 
or guardian), and with him Kamehameha remained until 
he was five years old, when he was taken to Alajoainuis 
court and there brought up. 

When all the preparations for the invasion of Maui were 
completed, Alapainui set sail with his fleet and landed at 
Mokulau, in the district of Kaupo on Maui. He met no 
resistance, but learned that Kekaulike had died but a short 
while previous ; that his body had been removed to the 
sepulchre of lao in Wailuku, and that Kamehamehanui, 
the son of Kekaulike and Kekuiapoiwa, had, by orders of 
the late king, succeeded him as Moi of Maui. On hear- 
ing this news Alapainui's anger relented, and moved by 
feelings of affection for his sister Kekuiapoiwa and his 
nephew Kamehamehanui, he refrained from acts of hos- 
tility, and met the young Moi and his mother with the 
rest of the royal family at Kiheipukoa, where peace was 
concluded and festive reunions took the place of warlike 
encounters. 

While here, tidings arrived from Molokai that Kapiio- 
hokalani, the son and successor of Kualii, the Moi of 



THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 1 37 

Oahu, had invaded the island of Molokai with a 'large 
force, and that several of the chiefs there were in great 
distress, having taken refuge in fortified mountain 
localities, while their possessions on the lowlands and 
their fishponds were ravaged and destroyed by the Oahu 
invaders, who were said to have made their headquarters 
at Kalamaula and occupied the country from Kaunakakai 
to Naiwa. 

When this intelligence reached Alapainui, having no 
occupation for his army and fleet on Maui, he concluded 
to go to Molokai to the assistance of the distressed chiefs 
there; the more so as some of them were his near 
relatives, being the sons and grandsons of Keawe of 
Hawaii with his Molokai wife, Kanealai. Leaving Maui, 
he crossed the Pailolo channel, and landed his fleet on 
the Molokai coast from Waialua to Kaluaaha. Having 
landed his army, he marched to Kamalo, and at Kapualei 
he met the forces of Kapiiohohalani. An obstinate fight 
ensued, which lasted for four days, without any decisive 
result ; but as Kapiiohokalani retreated to Kawela, it is 
presumed that he suffered most. On the fifth day the 
battle was renewed at Kawela, extending as far as 
Kamiloloa. The Hawaii troops being ranged along the 
seashore, and the auxiliary Molokai chiefs descending 
from the uplands with their men, Kapiioliokalani was 
hemmed in between them, and, after a severe fight from 
morning till far in the afternoon, he was completely 
routed with great loss of life, and himself slain. Those 
who escaped from the battle immediately evacuated 
Molokai and fled back to Oahu. 

Among the more illustrious of the Oahu chiefs who 
partook in this battle under Kapiiohokalani were Kaua- 
haJiialiikapu, Kuihewakaokoa^ Kaihikapu-a-Mahana, Kawe- 
loikiakulu, Lononuiakea, who are said to have commanded 
the left wing of the Oahu army, and Kahoowahakananuha, 
Kahooalani, Hua, and Mokokalai, who commanded the 
right wing ; the centre being commanded by Kapiiohoka- 



1 38 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

lani in person. Kalanikupua-heoua and Kalaniopuu com- 
manded under Alapainui, 

This famous battlefield may still be seen in the place 
described, where the bones of the slain are the sports of 
the winds that sweep over that sandy plain, and cover or 
uncover them, as the case may be. The numerical strength 
of the two opposing armies is not mentioned in the 
legends ; but to judge from the multitude of bones and the 
number of skulls that are bleaching in the sun when a 
strong north wind has removed their sandy covering, the 
numbers engaged on each side must have been reckoned 
by thousands. 

With rare forbearance in a barbarous chief, Alapainui 
neither annexed Molokai to Hawaii nor covered annexa- 
tion by the name of protectorate ; but reinstated the 
chiefs who had suffered from Kapiiohohalani' s oppression, 
and allowed them to manage their own affairs, domestic 
or foreign, according to ancient custom. The possible 
conquest of Oahu, however, the hereditary kingdom of 
KapiioJiokalani, arose as a bright vision on Alapainui's 
mind after the brilliant victory at Kawela, rendered more 
probable, perhaps, from the number of Oahu chiefs that 
had been killed in the battle, and the fact that KapiioJio- 
kalani' s son and successor, Kanahaokalani, was but a young 
boy, some six years old, thus inferring a regency, discord, 
and weakness in the Oahu government. 

Stopping on Molokai only long enough to refresh his 
men and repair his own losses, Alapaimd started with 
his fleet for the conquest of Oahu. Attempting to land 
at Waikiki, at Waialae, at Koko, and at Hanauma, Ala- 
painui found the young Oahu king's regency fully pre- 
pared to meet the emergency ; and baffled and repelled at 
all these places, he sailed round the east side of the island 
and effected a landing at a place called Oneawa, in Kailua, 
district of Koolaupoko. Though unable to prevent his 
landing on that side of the island, the Oahu forces, after 
crossing the Pali of Xuuanu in great haste, succeeded in 



THE POL VNESIAN RA CE. 1 39 

limiting the operations of the war to a mere series of 
skirmishes, thus protracting the contest for nearly a 
month. 

Immediately on the arrival of Alapainui's fleet on 
the coasts of Oahu, messengers were sent to the young 
king's uncle, Feleioholani, who at that time held the sove- 
reignty over the western portion of Kauai, to come to the 
assistance of the Oahu chiefs. With the least possible 
delay Feleioholani started with a fleet and a number of 
warriors for Oahu, and joining their forces, took supreme 
command of the young king and his chiefs. 

Among the Oahu chiefs was one N'aili, chief of Waianae, 
brother of Kamakaimohu} the mother of Kalaniojpuu and 
Keoua, and a cousin of Alapainui. It is not known on 
whose suggestion he acted, but being so nearly related to 
the principal Hawaii chiefs, he was considered the fittest 
man to approach Alapainui with overtures of peace. Ad- 
vancing to the outposts of the Hawaii army in Kaneohe, 
he encountered Kalaniopuii and Keoua, and having made 
himself known to them, they conducted him to the head- 
quarters of Alapainui at Waihaukalua, near the shore. 
He was cordially received, and Alapai expressed his will- 
ingness to meet and confer with Feleioholani with a view 
of terminating the war. It was agreed that the Hawaii 
fleet should move to a place called Naonealaa, in Kaneohe, 
and that Alapainui alone should go ashore unarmed, while 
Feleioholani on his part would advance from the lines of 
his army equally alone and unarmed. 

The meeting took place as arranged. The two sove- 

1 It is stated in the legend which who was born in Kan, on Hawaii. It 

I am following that at this time may have been so, but the report 

Eamakaimoku was living at Waikele, was probably gotten up by the oppo- 

in Ewa district. nents of Kamehameha I., in the early 

It is further intimated in some years after the death of Kalaniopuu, 

legends that Kamakaimoku had co- when he was contending with Keoua 

habited with Peleioholani before she Kuahuula, the brother of Kiwalao, 

went to Hawaii to be the wife of and son of Kalaniopuu, for the supre- 

Kalaninuiamamao, and that she was macy of Hawaii. 
enceinte at that time yiiih. Kalaniopuu, 



I40 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

reigns met on the beach, and acknowledging each other's 
rights and dignities, a peace was concluded, and Alajpai 
gave orders to evacuate Oahu. 

On his return Alapainui rested his fleet at Molokai, 
and after assisting the chiefs there to settle up their 
affairs and establish friendly relations with those of Maui 
and Lanai, he sailed for Maui. 

Arrived at Lahaina, Alapainui was informed that 
KauhiaimokuakaTna, also known as Kauhipumaikahoaka, 
the eldest son of the late Kekaulike and his wife Kalia- 
walu, had risen in arms against the authority of his 
brother Kamehamehanui, whom Kekaulike on his death- 
bed had appointed Moi of Maui. It is said that Alapainui 
offered to mediate between the two brothers, and that 
if Kauhi would meet him at an appointed place, and 
terms could be agreed upon, then he (Alapai) would 
remove KameJiamelianui to Hawaii and leave Kauhi in 
possession of the government of Maui. Kauhi, on the 
advice of his counsellors, rejected the offer, thinking it 
was a ruse to get him in Alapai' s power, and in answer 
made a furious attack on Kamehamehanui' s forces in 
I^haina, defeated and dispersed them, and obliged Kame- 
hamehanui to flee on board of Alapai s fleet for safety. 

Alapai, not feeling ready for a new war after the losses 
sustained in the various battles on Molokai and on Oahu, 
returned to Hawaii to prepare a fresh force for the 
war with Kauhi, and took Kamehamehanui with him to 
Hawaii. 

In the following year, say 1738, Alapainui returned to 
Maui with a large fleet, well equipped, accompanied by 
Kamehamehanui. With headquarters at Lahaina, his 
forces extended from Ukumehame to Honokawai. Mean- 
while Kauhi had not been idle during the absence of 
Alapai. Besides his own forces and the chiefs that 
adhered to him, he had sent presents and messages to 
Pcleioholani, now king of Oahu, to come to his assistance, 
which that restless and warlike prince accepted, and 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 141 

landing his fleet at Kekaha, encamped his soldiers about 
Honolua and Honokahua. 

It is said that Alapai proceeded with great severity 
against the adherents of Kauhi in Lahaina, destroying 
their taro patches and breaking down the watercourses 
out of the Kauaula, Kanaha, and Mahoma valleys. 

Though details of this war are not given in the legend, 
yet the following facts may be gathered from scattered 
passages, viz., that Alapai arrived at Lahaina with his 
fleet before Feleioholani had landed at Kekaha ; that 
Kauhi, being unable to cope alone with the large force 
under Alapainui, retreated to the uplands and ravines 
back of Lahaina, where he was kept in check by a corps 
of observation ; that Feleioholani, after landing and find- 
ing Kauhi in this position, resolved to march to his 
relief, and by engaging Alapai's forces in a general battle, 
enable Kauhi to descend and form a junction with his 
Oahu allies. 

To this effect Feleioholani advanced to Honokawai, 
where he found a detachment of Alapai' s army, which he 
overthrew and drove back with great loss to Keawawa. 
Here they rallied upon the main body of the Hawaii 
troops. The next morning Alapai had moved up his 
whole force, and a grand battle was fought between the 
Oahu and Hawaii armies. The fortune of the battle 
swayed back and forth from Honokawai to near into 
Lahaina; and to this day heaps of human bones and 
skulls, half buried in various places in the sand, attest the 
bitterness of the strife and the carnage committed. The 
result was probably a drawn battle, for it is related that, 
after great losses on both sides, the two kings — Alapainui 
and Feleioholani — met on the battlefield, and, instead of 
coming to blows, they saluted each other, and, considering 
their mutual losses on behalf of others, they made a 
peace between themselves and renewed the treaty of 
Naonealaa on Oahu. 



142 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

Kauhiaimokuakama was captured during this battle, 
and it is said that he was killed by drowning by order 
of Alapai. No other opposition being made to Kame- 
hamehanui, he resumed the position of Moi of Maui, 
which he held to his death, several years afterwards. 

After this Peleioliolani returned to Oahu, stopping first 
on the Koolau side of Molokai, and Alapainui returned 
to Hawaii. 

Having achieved fame and consideration by his foreign 
expeditions, Alapai now occupied himself with the affairs 
of his own island, making frequent circuits and visiting 
the different districts ; and when not thus occupied he 
resided with his court at Hilo. Nothing appears to have 
troubled the peace and tranquillity of his reign until about 
the year 1752. 

During said year Kalanikupua Keoua, the half-brother 
of Kalaniopuu and father of Kamehameha /., died after 
a severe illness at Piopio, near Wailoa in Waiakea, Hilo 
district. Kalaniopuu was then at Kalepolepo, and 
rumours having been circulated attributing the death 
of Keovxi to Alapai — whether by praying to death or by 
direct poisoning is not stated, but the superstition of 
the times made such rumours possible, and the arbitrary 
rule of the chiefs made them probable to credulous minds 
— Kalaniopuu resolved to abduct Kamehameha from the 
surveillance and grasp of Alapai. The legend leaves 
the guilt or innocence of Alapai an open question, and 
posterity possesses too few data to pronounce a definite 
verdict in the matter. On the one hand, the social con- 
ditions and customs of the times, as well as the personal 
precedents of Alapainui, would seem to support the 
charge. It was no uncommon event in those days for 
a chief to disembarrass himself of an obnoxious and 
powerful vassal, against whom open force or other 
violence would be unadvisable, by the process of praying 
to death, '' Anaana" or by secret poisoning, " Akuaha- 
nai;" and as late as thirty years ago, the belief was 



THE POL YNESIAN RA CE, 143 

common tliat if a person died suddenly in the prime of 
life, without any known cause of death, he had either 
been prayed to death or poisoned by secret enemies ; and 
the belief still lingers in many quarters where none 
would expect it, and divinations and counter-prayers are 
resorted to in place of blisters and aperients. It was 
known, moreover, that the father of Keoua had been 
killed in battle by Alapainui, when, after Keawes death, 
both were contending for the sovereignty of Hawaii, and 
the fate that befell the father might, with some show of 
reason, be apprehended for the son. On the other hand, 
the personal character and conduct of Alapainui would 
go far towards his acquittal. He was always known, 
and in after years quoted, as a most affectionate parent 
and kinsman, and the solicitude and care with which 
he brought up the young chiefs Kalaniopuu and Keoua, 
and employed them about his person in the most confi- 
dential and important positions for so many years, would 
seem to indicate that he entertained no suspicion of 
them, and harboured no ill-will towards them. On the 
whole, we are inclined to deal gently with the memory 
of Alapainui, and are prone to believe that Kalaniopuu 
gave but too willing an ear to the advice of his Kahu, 
named Puna, and to the tales of those restless spirits 
to whom peace and good order had become irksome, 
and who, even in savage courts, indulge in intrigues for 
selfish ends and foment strife in hopes of change. 

Whether Kalaniopuu really believed or affected to 
believe that his own life was threatened, he deemed it 
advisable to withdraw the young Kamehameha from the 
court of Alapai. He laid his plans accordingly, and 
going by land, accompanied by his young half-brother 
Keawemauhili and a few trusty followers, he dispatched 
a large war-canoe under command of Puna to meet him 
at an appointed place, in order to take his party on board, 
should they be pursued. Kalaniopuu arrived that night 
at Piopio, and found most of the prominent chiefs, then 



144 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

residing with the court at Hilo, assembled at the house 
of Keoua for the purpose of wailing over the corpse. 
Kalaniopuu attempted to bring away the young Kame- 
hameha, but was opposed and frustrated in his design by 
the other chiefs present, and a fight ensued, from which 
Kalaniopuu escaped on board of his war-canoe. 

The revolt of Kalaniopuu was no longer doubtful. 
Forces were gathered on both sides, and a civil war com- 
menced. Several bstttles were fought — at Paieie near 
Puaaloa, at Kualoa, at Mokaulele, and at Mahinaakaka, 
at which latter place Kalaniopuu narrowly escaped being 
taken prisoner. After that Kalaniopuu retreated to Kau, 
where he was born, declared himself independent of 
Alapainui and sovereign (Moi) of the Puna and Kau 
districts as the heir of Kalaninuiamamao, to whom 
they appear to have been allotted by his grandfather 
Keawe. 

For reasons that have not come down to our day, 
Alapainui made no further attempts to subdue his con- 
tumaceous kinsman and vassal, but remained for upwards 
of a year at Hilo, apparently unconcerned at the defec- 
tion of one-third of his kingdom. He then removed to 
Waipio in Hamakua, the cherished residence of Ziloa and 
the ancient Hawaii Mois. Having remained here for 
some time, he proceeded to Waimea and Kawaihae in 
Kohala. At this latter place he sickened, and died at 
Kikiakoi some time in the year 1754, having previously 
bequeathed his power and dignity as Moi of Hawaii to 
his son Keaweopala. 

Alapainui, according to the custom among great chiefs, 
had several wives, the principal one among whom, however, 
was Keaha, the mother of Keaweopala. Another wife was 
Kamakaimoku, previously referred to. She was the 
mother of a daughter, Manona, who became the grand- 
mother of Kelcuaokalani, the cousin of Liholiho Kame- 
hameha II., and the defender of the ancient religion when 
the tabus were abolished. Another wife was Kamaua, 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 145 

with whom Alapai had two children, Kauwaa} a daughter, 
and Mahiua, a son. 

In the allotment of lands among the chiefs and mem- 
bers of the deceased Moi's family — which, since the time 
of Keawenui-a-umi, appears to have become a custom on 
the death of a Moi — Keeaumohu, surnamed Fa'paiadhedhe, 
a son of Keawepoepoe, who was a uterine brother of 
Alapainui, became dissatisfied with his allotment and 
retired to Kekaha, where he commenced open rebellion 
against Keaweopala. The latter promptly sent an armed Keawcopaia. 
forced against him and drove him off from the land, and 
obliged him to seek refuge at sea on board of his canoes. 
In this extremity Keeaumohu lied to Kalaniopuu for 
succour and shelter. On learning the death of Alapainui 
and the disposition made of the government, Kalaniopuu 
had collected his forces and started from Kau to contest 
the sovereignty of Hawaii with Keaweopala. Arrived at , 
Honomalino in South Kona, he there met the vanquished 
KeeaumohUy and, joining their forces and fleets, proceeded 
to the northward. Keaweopala, advised of the movements 
and designs of Kalaniopuu, hastened from Waimea, and, 
crossing the "Aamoku" and passing by the "Ahua-a- 
Umi," he descended in Kona and met Kalaniopuu between 
Keei and Honaunau. The battle that ensued is said to 
have continued for several days, owing partly to the 
ruggedness of the ground and the obstinate valour of the 
combatants, and the issue was for a long time uncer- 
tain. Finally Kalaniopuu won the day ; Keaweopala was 
slain, and his adherents acknowledged the new Moi of 
Hawaii. 

It is related that when the battle was at the hottest and 

1 Kauwaa married Nahili, and had to the present Queen Dowager Emma 

two daughters : Alapai, who was B. Kaleleonalani. The other daughter 

married to the late John Young was Kaulunae, who married Kane- 

Keoniana, son of John Young and hiwa, and was the mother of a son, 

Kaoanaeha, and Premier during the Lipoa, and a daughter, Julia Moe- 

reign of Kamehameha III. , and uncle malie. 

VOL. II. K 



146 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

tlie issue most doubtful, Holoae} the Kahuna or priest of 
Kalaniopuu, informed him that the only means of obtain- 
ing victory was to kill Kaalmu, the priest of Keaweojpala, 
whose prayers and powers prolonged the contest. Acting 
on the advice, Kaakau was singled out in the battle by 
Kalaniopuus soldiers and slain, after which the victory 
soon was won. 

Keaweopala is known to have had two wives ; one was 
Keoua, with whom he had a daughter, Felenli ; the other 
was Kwiikuhakuonana^ with whom he had two sons, Kane- 
hiwa and Kuajpuu. 

Kalaniopuu was now sole sovereign of Hawaii, and, at 
the usual redistribution of lands at his accession, appa- 
rently all were satisfied or none dared to resist. Tor 
several years afterwards he occupied himself diligently in 
reorganising the affairs of the state, augmenting the war- 
like resources of the island, building war-canoes, collecting 
arms, &c., and his own and the neighbouring islands 
enjoyed a season of rest from foreign and domestic strife 
and warfare. 
Kaiani(ypuu. But Kalauiopuu was ambitious of fame in his island 
world by warlike exploits and by enlarging his domain 
with the acquisition of neighbouring territory. Possibly 
also he may have been moved by reasons of policy, such 
as finding occupation abroad for the young and restless 
chiefs with whom every district abounded. Suddenly, 
therefore, he concentrated his forces and war-canoes at 
Kohala, and, without previous rupture of peace or declara- 
tion of war, he invaded Maui, where Xamehamehanui then 
ruled as Moi, and made a descent in the Hana district. 
Little or no resistance was offered, and in a short time he 

1 Holoae was of the Paao race of 2 Kanehiwa married Kaulunae, 
Kahunas and descended from him. who was the granddaughter of Ala- 
He was the great-grandfather of the painui, and mother of the late Lipoa 
late Luakine, who was the wife of and Julia Moemalie, both of Hono- 
Kaoleioku, the oldest son of Eame- lulu. Kanepuu was the grandfather 
hameha I. , and grandmother of the of the late Kamaipuupaa. 
present Hon. Mrs. C. B. Bishop. 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 147 

possessed himself of the two valuable districts of Hana 
and Kipahulu, as well as the celebrated forti^on Kauwiki 
Hill overlooking the harbour of Hana. The date of this 
invasion is approximately, and probably correctly, fixed at 

1759. 

Kalanio'puu appointed Puna — the same who counselled 
him to revolt against Alapainui — as governor over the 
conquered districts ; and a number of Hawaii chiefs were 
placed in various positions, and endowed with lands, both 
in Hana and Kipahulu. Satisfied with the success of his 
campaign, Kalaniopuu then returned to Hawaii. 

But Kamehamehanui, though taken by surprise by 
the invasion of East Maui by Kalaniopuu, was not a 
man to yield to such a usurpation and affront without 
an effort to recover the lost districts. Carefully and 
thoroughly he made his preparations, collecting his forces 
from Maui, and strenojthening: himself with a number 
of auxiliaries drawn from the neighbouring islands of 
Molokai and Lanai, under well-known and valiant chiefs. 
Conspicuous among the former were Kaohele} Kaolohalca- 
a-keawe, Awili, Kumukoa, and Kapooloku ; among the 
latter were Namakeha, Kalaimanuia, and Kealiiaa. With 
these forces Kamehamelianui set out for Hana and laid 
siege to the fort on Kauwiki. Several battles were 
fought with the Hawaii army under Puna, especially at 
Makaolehua and at Akiala, where the Maui forces were 
victorious, and in which the valour of Kaohelelani is 
greatly extolled. The fort of Kauwiki, however, with- 
stood all attempts to take it, and, after a prolonged and 
unsuccessful siege, Kamehamehanui withdrew his forces, 
and left Hana in possession of Kalaniopuu, while Puna 
remained as its governor and chief ; and it does not appear 
that Kamehamehanui again attempted to drive the 

^ Kaohelelani was the brother of through his daughter Kamai, was 
Kawau{k) and Kaoenaia{k), chiefs the great-grandfather of the author's 
of Kalaupapa, Molokai. KaoenaiUy wife. 



148 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

Hawaiians out of Hana. In the native legends this 
campaign is sailed the war of " Kapalipilo." 

Suspension of hostilities, if not peace, between Maui 
and Hawaii obtained for several years after this abortive 
attempt to recapture the fort of Kauwiki. During this 
interval not many noteworthy events transpired, at least 
none are related, except the displacement of Puna as 
governor of Hana and commander of the important fort 
of Kauwiki, and the appointment of Maliihelelima in his 
place. This change was effected by a ruse practised upon 
Puna by Maliihelelima, but it was afterwards confirmed 
by Kalaniopim. 

Another event during this interval was the revolt and 
escape and subsequent adventures of Keeaumohu, the son 
of Keawepoepoe, the same who, on the death of Alapainui, 
had rebelled against Keaweopala and joined Kalaniopuu. 
The cause of his defection from the latter is not stated. 
Eevolt and turbulence seem to have been his natural 
element until age cooled his temper, and the conquest of 
the group by Kamehameha I. deprived conspirators of the 
support and aid they formerly had found in the neigh- 
bouring islands. However, it happened Keeaumoku rose 
in revolt against Kalaniopuu, and intrenched himself at 
the fort of Pohakuomaneo, between Pololu and Hono- 
kane, in North Kohala. When informed of the revolt of 
Keeaumoku, Kalaniopuu crossed the mountains with an 
adequate force, took the fort by assault, extinguished the 
rebellion, but missed the arch-rebel ; for Keeaumohu 
escaped over the Pali, reached the shore, and obtaining a 
canoe, was safely landed on Maui, where, on account of 
his mother, Kumaiku — of the Maui line of chiefs — he 
was hospitably received by Kamehamehanui and the great 
chiefs of that house. 

After the death of ^ame/tameAaTim, which happened about 
1765, Keeaumoku took one of his widows for wife. This 
lady was Namxihana, daughter of Kekaulike and his wife 



THE POL YNESIAN RA CE, 149 

Haalou, and consequently half-sister of the deceased king 
and of his brother and successor, Kahekili. The latter 
was greatly displeased with the match, possibly consider- 
ing his brother's widows as his own special inheritance, 
and looking upon the intrusion of Keea%cmoku as an act of 
rebellion and hostility towards himself. 

At that time the large and fertile land of Waihee was 
in the possession of Namahana, and here she and her new 
husband took up their abode. They appear to have kept 
court in princely style, and thither gathered many of the 
gay and restless spirits of the time, besides her mother, 
Haalou, and her brothers, Kekauhiwamoku and Kauhiwa- 
waeono. Several Molokai chiefs whom Peleioholani, the 
Oahu king, had despoiled of their lands and driven out of 
the island, had also found refuge and entertainment at 
Namahanas court in Waihee, among whom are men- 
tioned by name Kumukoa, the son of Keawe of Hawaii, 
who at that time must have been considerably aged. 

While this brilliant assembly were passing their time 
at Waihee, Kahekili had come over the mountain from 
Lahaina and was holding his court at Pihana and at 
Paukukalo in Wailuku, and the ill-will which the mar- 
riage of Keeaumoku and Namahana had engendered soon 
found an occasion to show itself. 

Among the subordinate landholders in Waihee, occupy- 
ing a subdivision of land called Kaapoko, was a warrior 
named Kahanana. For some reason, now unexplained, 
this Kahanana had frequently been neglected when the 
chief of Waihee distributed fish, after fortunate catches, 
among the subordinates and warriors living on the land. 
Incensed at what he considered a studied neglect and 
insult, Kahaimna donned his feather cape — the Ahuula — 
and his helmet — the Mahiole — and went in the night to 
Nuikukahi in Waiehu and killed three men belonging 
to Keeaumoku, An emeute arose, sides were taken, and 
the Kahanana party being supported by Kahekili, a 
general fight ensued, in which Keeaumoku and the Waihee 



1 50 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

party maintained their ground for some days, but were 
eventually overmatched, beaten, and obliged to flee. This 
battle is known in the regions as the battle of " Kalai- 
iliili" 

The Waihee coterie of chiefs having thus been broken 
up, some fled over the Lanilili spur of the Eka mountains 
into the Kaanapali district. Among these were Keeau- 
mohu, his wife Namahana, her mother Haalou, and her 
brothers Kekuamanoha and Kauhiwawaeono, and at 
Kaanapali they embarked for Molokai. But the hot 
anger of Kahehili pursued the fugitives. Invading Molo- 
kai, he engaged Keeaumohu and his Molokai allies in a 
sea-fight, was .again victorious, and Keeaumohu fled to 
Hana, where Mahihelelima, the governor under Kala- 
niopuu, received him and his wife and entertained them 
at Kauwiki. The naval engagement just referred to 
is in the native legend called the battle of " Kalauona- 
kukui." 

At Kauwiki Keeaumohu appears to have found a short 
repose in his turbulent career, at least he is not heard of 
again for some years. It is probable that he made his 
peace with Kalaniopuu and was permitted to remain at 
Hana, where the afterwards so famous Kaaliumanu, wife 
of Kamehameha L, was born in 1768. 

Again several years pass by, of which the native legends 
make no mention, Kalaniopuu still holding portions of 
the Hana district on Maui and the great fort of Kauwiki ; 
but about the year 1775 the war between Hawaii and 
Maui broke out again. 

The Hawaii forces at Hana, apparently under the com- 
mand of Kalaniopuu in person, had made an incursion or 
raid in the Kaupo district, which still acknowledged the 
rule of Kahekili. Taken by surprise and unprepared, the 
Kaupo people suffered great destruction of property, 
cruelty, and loss of life at the hands of the Hawaii 
soldiers ; and the expedition is called in the legends the 
war of " Kalaehohoa," from the fact that the captives were 



THE POL YNESIAN RACE. .151 

urxinercifully beaten on their heads by the war-clubs of 
the Hawaii troops. 

When Kahekili heard of this fresh irruption into his 
domain, he immediately sent two detachments of soldiers, 
under the command of Kaneolaelae, to the support and 
relief of the Kaupo people. A sanguinary battle ensued 
between the Hawaii and Maui forces near the point of 
land called " Kalaeokailio." Kalaniopuu's army w^as 
utterly routed and pursued to their fleet, which was lying 
under lee of the said point of land, and barely a remnant 
escaped on board and returned to Hana. After this severe 
repulse Kalaniopuu went back to Hawaii, determined to 
make preparations for a fresh invasion that would prove 
irresistible. 

Among the warriors on the Hawaii side in this battle 
of " Kalaeakailio " the legends make honourable mention 
of the valour of Kekuhaupio, whose fame as a warrior 
chief stood second to none of his time, and of Kamehamelm] 
afterwards so famous in history, and who on that occasion 
gallantly supported Kelculiaupio and rescued him from 
inevitable capture. 

A whole year was consumed by Kalaniopuu in prepar- 
ing for the next war with Maui. Six army corps or 
brigades were organised, and became known by the names 
of /, Aliu, Mahi, Pcdena, Luahine, and Paia ; the members 
of the royal family were formed into a life-guard, called 
Keawe; and the Alii-ai-alo — the nobles who had the 
privilege of eating at the same table with the Moi — com- 
posed two regiments called Alapa and Fiijpii. 

While thus preparing material resources, Kalaniopuu 
was not forgetful of his duties to the god whom he 
acknowledged and whose aid he besought. This god 
was Kaili — pronounced fully " Ku-kaili-moJcu" — who, 
from the days of Liloa, and probably before, appears to 
have been the special war-god of the Hawaii Mois. To 
ensure the favour of this god, he repaired and put in 



152 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

good order the Heiaus called " Ohiamukumuhu " at Ka- 
lialuu, and " Keikepuipui" at Kailua, in the Kona dis- 
trict, and the high-priest Holoae was commanded to 
maintain religious services and exert all his knowledge 
and power to accomplish the defeat and death of the 
Maui sovereign. 

Kahehili, the Maui king, was well informed of the 
preparations of Kalaniopuu, and in order not to he out- 
done hy the latter in reference to the spiritual powers, 
and there being apparently no high-priest on Maui at the 
time of adequate celebrity and power to cope with the 
Hawaii high-priest Holoae, he sent to Oahu and prevailed 
upon Kaleopuupuu, the high-priest of Peleioholani — and 
who after Peleioholani' s death appears not to have been 
employed in that capacity by his successors — to come to 
Maui and take charge of the religious rites and magical 
processes whereby to counteract the incantations and 
powers of the Hawaii high-priest. This Kaleopuupuu 
stood high in the Hawaiian priesthood, being a de- 
scendant of Kaekae, Maliu, and Malea, the foreign priests 
whom Faumakua of Oahu is said to have brought with 
him on his return from foreign voyages about seven 
hundred years previously. Following his instructions, 
Kahekili repaired and consecrated the Heiau called " Ka- 
luli " at Puuohala on the north side of Wailuku, and was 
greatly comforted by the assurances of Kaleopuupuu that 
the Hawaii forces would be caught like fish in a net — 
" Ua komo ka ia i ka makaha ua puni i ka nae." 

In 1776 Kalaniopuu embarked his forces and landed 
them without resistance in the Honuaula district, from 
Keonioio to Makena. Plunder and spoliation marked 
his arrival, and the country people fled to the woods and 
mountain ravines for shelter. Taking part of his forces 
around by water, Kalaniopuu landed again at Kiheipukoa, 
near the Kealia or salt marsh between Kalepolepo and 
Maalaea. The landing being effected early in the day, 
it was resolved to push forward at once, and " On to 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 153 

Wailuku ! " where Kahekili was residing, became the war- 
cry of the day. The detachment or regiment known as 
the Alapa, mustering eight hundred men, was selected 
for this hazardous expedition, and with high courage 
they started across the isthmus of Kamaomao, now known 
as the Waikapu common, determined, as the legend says, 
" to drink the waters of the Wailuku that day." This 
regiment was considered the bravest and best of Kalani- 
opuu's army, every man in its ranks being a member of 
" la haute noUesse " of Hawaii. They are said to have all 
been of equal stature and their spears of equal length ; 
and the legend represents their appearance — with their 
feather cloaks reflecting the sunshine and the plumes of 
their helmets tossing in the wind — as a gorgeous and 
magnificent spectacle. 

Little did this gallant troop apprehend the terrible fate 
that awaited them. Little did Kalaniopuu know the , 
wily warrior with whom he was contending. Offering 
no resistance to the enemy while crossing the common, 
Kahekili distributed his forces in various directions on 
the Wailuku side of the common, and fell upon the 
Hawaii corps d'armee as it was entering among the sand- 
hills south-east of Kalua, near Wailuku. After one of 
the most sanguinary battles recorded in Hawaiian legends, 
and deeds of valour that await but another Tennyson, the 
gallant and devoted Alapa were literally annihilated; 
only two out of the eight hundred escaped alive to tell 
Kalaniopuu of this Hawaiian Balaclava, and the only 
prisoner brought alive to Kahekili was Keawehano, a chief 
of Hilo, and he died of his wounds before he could be 
sacrificed at the Heiau by the victors. This battle is 
called the " Ahulau kapiipii i Kakanilua." 

When, in the evening of that day, the news of the 
battle was brought to Kalaniopuu at Kiheipukoa, where 
he and the royal family and the main body of his army 
were encamped, consternation and sorrow filled his mind 
at the loss of his gallant eight hundred. A council of 



154 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

war was called in the night, at which the following chiefs 
are said to have assisted : — Keaivemaithili, half-brother 
of Kalaniopuu ; KalanimanookaJioowaha, a scion of the 
Luahine family of Kohala ;^ Keawe-a-Eeulu, of the great 
/family, and also called in the legend a scion of Imaka- 
kaloa of Puna ; Nuuanit, from Naalehu in Kau ; Naeoh^ 
a scion of the Wahilani family in Kohala ; Kanehoa^ 
from Waimea ; Nanuekaleiopu, from Hamakua ; Kameeui- 
amoku and Kamanawa^ the twin children of Keawepoejpoe ; 
Kekuhaupio, a relation and son-in-law of the high-priest 
Iloloae ; besides the sons and relatives of Kalaniopuii. 

In that council it was resolved to march the entire 
army on Wailuku the following day, and, by a bold 
attack, retrieve the fortunes of the previous day. 

Kahekili had not been idle during the night. Dis- 
tributing his own forces and the auxiliary Oahu troops, 
under the Oahu king, Kahahana^ among the sandhills, 
from Waikapu to Wailuku, which skirt that side of the 
common, and stationing a reserve force at the turn of the 
Waikapu stream, he awaited the approach of the enemy 
coming from the Kealia saltponds. Long and severe 
was the contest, but again the Hawaii army was beaten 

1 The Luahine family in Kohala, to and her Kauai husband Lonoika- 
which Keaka, the wife of Alapainui, kaupu ; the latter a daughter of 
belonged, is said to be descended Lonoanahulu, of the great Ehu 
fvora Keakealanikane, the grandson family. It is not easy to tell whether 
of Keatve-Nui-a-Umi. the legends or the genealogies are 

2 The same that stole Kamehameha correct. The former frequently give 
/. away from his mother on the night the chronique scandaleuse of their 
of his birth. time, either directly or by innuendo ; 

3 He was son of Kalanikeeaumoku, the latter are generally such as the 
the son of Keawe, Moi of Hawaii, parties themselves, or their descen- 
His mother was a lady called Kaila- dants, wished to be understood as a 
kanoa. fact, and so handed down to pos- 

* In more than one legend Kameeia- terity. 

moku and Kamanawa are called the « He was a relative of Kahekili 

tabued twin children of Kekaulike, on his mother's side, and had been 

and half-brothers of Kahekili; but elected Moi of Oahu by the Oahu 

all the genealogies that I have had chiefs after they had deposed Kuma- 

access to represent them as the sons hana, the son of Peleioholani^ about 

of Keawepoepoe and Kanoena ; the 1773. 
former a son of Kalanikauleleiaim 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 155 

back with fearful slaughter ; but, although victorious, the 
battle must have cost Kahehili dearly, for it is not 
mentioned that the pursuit of the fleeing remnant of 
Kalaniopuus army was ever very close or long protracted. 

In this extremity Kalaniopiu proposed to send his wife, 
Kal'ola, who was own sister to Kahekili,^ as an ambassa- 
dress to solicit peace and personal safety. Kalola, however, 
refused to go, distrusting the temper of her victorious 
brother, and alleging to Kalaniopuu that she feared for 
her own life, inasmuch as this had been a war of 
devastation and conquest (" Kaua Jiulia mahi"), and not 
characterised by princely courtesy ; but in her turn she 
proposed that KalaniopuvJs son, Kiwalao, the nephew of 
Kahehili and the tabued heir of Kalaniopuu, should be 
sent with Kameeiamoku and Kamanawa, to soothe the 
temper of Kahehili, and obtain the most favourable terms 
possible. 

The advice was acted on, and, dressed up with all 
the royal insignia of his rank, and accompanied by 
Kameeiamohu and Kamanawa, the former carrying the 
chief's Ipu-huha, and the latter his Kahili, Kiwalao 
proceeded to Wailuku. The proclamation of his heralds 
and the insignia of his rank passed him safely through 
the ranks of the Maui soldiers, who, according to custom, 
prostrated themselves at the approach of so high a chief. 

"When it was reported to Kaliehili, who was reposing at 
" Kalanihale," in Wailuku, that Kiwalao was approaching, 
he is said to have turned round on the mat, face upward ;2 
a sign of kindly intentions and good-humour. 

On entering the house, Kiwalao went direct to where 
Kahehili was reposing, and sat down on his lap They 
saluted each other, and wailed according to custom. 
When the wailing was over, Kameeiamohu and Kamanawa^ 

1 She was daughter of Kekaulike ' *' Iluna ke alo." A contrary 

and Kekuiapoiwanui, the parents position, *' Halo ke alo," would have 

of Kahekili, Kamehamehanui, and a be«n the certain death-warrant of 

daughter named KuhooheiJieipahu. Kiwalao. 



1 56 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

according to the etiquette of the time, crawled up ("Kokolo") 
to Kahekili and kissed his hands. Kiwalao being too high 
a chief to commence the conversation, the negotiations 
were opened by Kahekili. The conditions of peace are 
not mentioned, but Kalaniopuu and Kahekili met after- 
wards, and a peace was concluded, whereupon Kalaniopuu 
returned to Hawaii. 

The defeat and humiliation of Kalaniopuu in this last 
campaign rankled deep in his mind, and hardly a year 
had elapsed after his return to Hawaii before we find him 
afloat again with a large force, carrying war and desolation 
into Kahekili's dominions. His first descent on Maui was 
at Mokolau, in the Kaupo district, where the inhabitants 
were plundered and ill-treated On hearing of this new 
invasion, Kahekili sent troops to Kaupo, and apparently 
cleared the country of the invaders, for it is said that 
Kalaniopuu left Kaupo, and made his next descent on the 
island of Kahoolawe, and, not finding much booty there, 
steered for Lahaina, whither Kahekili and the Oahu 
auxiliaries hastened to oppose him. After some partial 
successes, Kalaniopuu attempted to take a fortified place 
called Kahili, between Kauaula and Kanaha, where the 
chiefs of Lahaina had taken refuge ; but failing in the 
assault, and being repulsed with considerable loss, he 
embarked his force and landed on Lanai. 

During this campaign at Lahaina we first meet with the 
name of Keaulwmoku} the great bard and prophet, who at 
that time was following KahoJuiTia, the Oahu king, whom 
he afterwards left and went to Hawaii, where he was 
received at the court of Kalaniopuu. Some time after 
the death of the latter, Keaulumoku composed the famous 
chant, " Hau-i-Kalani" describing the horrors of the civil 
war then desolating the island of Hawaii, and prophesying 
the success and glory of Kamehameha I. 

Kalaniopuu ravaged the island of Lanai thoroughly, and 

1 Keaulumoku was the son of Kauakahiahua, a cousin of Kekaulike, king 
of Maui. His mother was a lady from Naohaku, Hamakua, Hawaii. 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 157 

the Lanai cliiefs, unable to oppose him, retreated to a 
fortified place called "Hookio," inland from Maunalei. 
But being short of provisions, and their water supply- 
having been cut off, the fort was taken by Kalaniopuu, 
and the chiefs were killed. This Lanai expedition is 
remembered by the name of Kamohulii. 

From Lanai Kalaniopuu proceeded with his fleet and 
army up the Pailolo channel, between Molokai and Maui, 
touching at Honokohau, where provisions were obtained. 
Then, rounding Kahakuloa, he stood to the eastward, and 
landed at Hamakualoa, on Maui, where he plundered the 
country, and committed fearful barbarities on the people, 
until Kahekili came to their support with his forces, and, 
after several encounters, drove Kalaniopuu on board of 
his fleet. Toiled in Hamakualoa, Kalaniopuu made his 
next descent in the Koolau district, committing similar 
depredations and barbarities there. While there, he waa 
joined by Mahihelelima, the Hawaii governor of the adjoin- 
ing Hana district, with a select force of warriors, and being 
thus enabled to rally and hold his ground against Kahekili, 
he again attempted the invasion of Hamakualoa, where 
the war was protracted, with varying success, for several 
months. 

It was during the early part of this campaign of 1778 
that the English discovery ships " Eesolution" and " Dis- 
covery," under command of Captain James Cook, arrived 
at these islands. The subject of his discovery, his com- 
munications with the natives, and his violent death, may 
as well be discussed in this place as in any other. They 
form an epoch in the history of the group, and their 
consequences, reacting on the destiny and development 
of this and other Polynesian groups, amount almost to a 
revolution, as unique as it is instructive, in the history of 
mankind. One hundred years have passed since that 
memorable event, and yet there linger a few persons on 
the various islands who were bom before Cook arrived, 
and who have witnessed the stupendous changes that 



1 5 8 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE, 

have occurred since then; and the children and grand- 
children of many of those who took a part in the scenes 
then transacted, and who heard the tale of the arrival and 
death of "Lono" from the lips of then living witnesses, 
are still alive, or have left their memoirs of that time in 
writing. 



The objects of Captain Cook's voyage of discovery are 
well known, and need not be repeated here. Tiie question 
has arisen, and been in some measure discussed — Whether 
Captain Cook was aware of the existence of the Hawaiian 
group from information received from Spanish authorities, 
and looked for it on purpose to find or rediscover it, or 
whether he was entirely ignorant of its existence, and thus 
by merest accident discovered it ? 

There can be no doubt that in the early part of the 
sixteenth century shipwrecked Spaniards arrived at the 
Hawaiian Islands, as already stated on page io6, &c., and 
I think that various evidences, set forth in the " North 
Pacific Pilot," London, 1870, and in the document from 
the Colonial Office in Spain, procured at the solicitation of 
the Hawaiian Minister of Foreign Affairs in 1866 — both 
published in "The Friend," Honolulu, October 1873 — 
will satisfy the majority of those who take an interest in 
the matter that the Hawaiian group was discovered in 
1555 by Juan Gaetano, a Spaniard sailing from the coast 
of New Spain to the Spice Islands.^ And we will, in the 
sequel, attempt to show that it is extremely probable that 
other Spanish vessels besides that of Gaetano passed by 
or through the Hawaiian Archipelago on their way to or 
from Manilla. 

But if the priority of the discovery, as a fact, must be 
conceded to the Spaniards, yet the credit of the redis- 
covery, as an act tending to enlarge the knowledge of 
mankind, and extend the area of civilised and Christian 

1 See Appendix No. 3. 



THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 1 59 

activity, must be awarded to Captain Cook. The Spaniards 
knew of the existence of the Hawaiian group, but they 
buried that knowledge in their logbooks and archives, 
and it was as barren of results to themselves as to others. 
Cook gave the world the benefit of his discovery, and in 
the fulness of time added another star to the family 
group of civilised peoples. 

In attempting to reproduce a correct narrative of 
Captain Cook's discovery of, visit to, and intercourse with 
the Hawaiian Islands, I have taken due heed of what has 
been written on the subject by himself and by Captain 
King in their journal of " A Voyage to the Pacific Ocean," 
printed by order of the Lords Commissioners of the 
Admiralty, 1784, as well as of what has been written by 
others ; but as I am not writing a history of Captain 
Cook, but a history of the Hawaiian group, I have also 
consulted the Hawaiian reminiscences of that memorable 
event, as handed down to still living children or grand- 
children by those who figured more or less prominently at 
the lifting of the curtain in January 1778 on Kauai, and 
at the close of the drama in February 1779 on Hawaii. 
The one story in several instances supplements the other ; 
and in some cases where the two differ, and, from ignorance 
of the language and the people, Captains Cook and King 
were misled as to facts, the Hawaiian version gives a more 
natural, and consequently a more probably correct, account 
of the transaction. 

On the 8th of December 1777, Captain Cook, with 
H.B.M. ships "Eesolution" and "Discovery," left the 
island of Bolabola, Society group, bound to the north- 
west coast of America. Before leaving he had inquired 
of the natives if any land or islands known to them existed 
to the north or north-west, and was told that they knew 
of none.^ Standing up through the south-east trades, he 
discovered Christmas Island, lat. 1° 58' N., long. 157° 
32' W., on the 24th of December. Leaving that island 

1 Vol. ii. p. 180. 



1 60 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

on the 2d January 1778, steering to the north, he dis- 
covered on the 1 8th January the island of Oahu, bearing 
north-east by east, and soon after saw the island of Kauai, 
bearing north. On the 19th January, at sunrise, Oahu 
bore east several leagues distant, and he therefore stood 
for the other island seen the day before, and not long after 
discovered a third island, Niihau, bearing west-north-west. 
When approaching the east side of Kauai several canoes 
came off, and a barter of bits of iron for hogs and vegetables 
commenced. Speaking of the appearance of the natives 
Cook says :^ — " There was little difference in the casts of 
their colour, but a considerable variation in their features, 
some of their visages not being very unlike those of 
Europeans." Coasting along the south-east side of the 
island, he saw several villages, some near the sea, others 
more inland. Standing off and on during the night. Cook 
again approached the land on the 20th of January, when 
several canoes came off filled with people, some of whom 
ventured on board. The ships were now off Waimea Bay, 
and Cook sent three armed boats ashore to look for a 
watering-place, under command of Lieutenant Williamson. 
On his return the Lieutenant reported that he had found 
a good watering-place, but that, on attempting to land, he 
was so pressed upon by the natives, who had flocked to 
the beach, that he was obliged to fire,^ by which one 
native was killed. Between three and four o'clock that 
afternoon the ships anchored in Waimea Bay, Kauai, and 
Captain Cook went ashore. I quote his remarks upon 
that occasion, as they will throw some light upon his 
subsequent conduct at Hawaii, — a conduct that has been 
the subject of no little animadversion. He says :^ — " The 
very instant I leaped ashore the collected body of the 
natives fell flat upon their faces, and remained in that 
very humble posture till, by expressive signs, I prevailed 
upon them to rise. They then brought a great many 
small pigs, which they presented to me, with plantain 

1 Vol. ii. p. 192. 2 Ibid., p. 198. 3 Ibid., p. 199. 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE, i6i 

trees, using mucli the same ceremonies that we had seen 
practised on such occasions at the Society and other 
islands ; and a long prayer being spoken by a single 
person, in which others of the assembly sometimes joined, 
I expressed my acceptance of their proffered friendship by 
giving them in return such presents as I had brought with 
me for that purpose." 

On the 2 1st January, in the morning, the business of 
watering the ships began ; trade with the natives was 
established ; and everything having the appearance of 
friendliness and goodwill. Cook took a walk up the 
country, and returned on board. On the 2 2d January a 
southerly storm with rain set in ; and on the 23d, on 
endeavouring to change the anchorage of the " Eesolution," 
which was rather too close inshore, the ship drifted off to 
sea ; and after cruising about from the 24th to the 29th, 
and being unable to regain the roadstead of Waimea, he 
steered for Niihau, and anchored off the west point of that 
island on the last-named day, having been joined by the 
" Discovery" on the 25th. 

Cook says that when he ordered the boats ashore at 
"Waimea to search for a watering-place, he gave orders ^ 
" not to suffer more than one man to go with him (the 
officer) out of the boats," and explains the motive of the 
order to be '' that I might do everything in my power to 
prevent the importation of a fatal disease into this island, 
which I knew some of our men now laboured under, and 
which, unfortunately, had been already communicated by 
us to other islands in these seas. With the same view I 
ordered all female visitors to be excluded from the ships. 
. . . Many of them had come off in the canoes. They 
would as readily have favoured us with their company 
on board as the men ; but I wished to prevent all con- 
nection which might, too probably, convey an irreparable 
injury to themselves, and, through their means, to the 
whole nation." 

1 Vol. ii. p. 195. 
VOL. II. L 



i62 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

Giving Cook all credit for his good intentions, it is 
lamentable to reflect that his orders were so little heeded 
and so badly executed. The native accounts are positive 
and unanimous that the intercourse between the seamen 
of the ships and the native women, both ashore and on 
board, was notorious and unchecked. The native his- 
torians all say that on the night that Cook's ships 
anchored at Waimea, a grand council was held at the 
house of KaTYiakahelei, the highest chiefess on the island, 
and the actual hereditary sovereign of that part of Kauai, 
when some proposed to seize the ships by force and run 
them ashore for the sake of the plunder that would be 
obtained, while others of a more pacific or more timid 
mind proposed to propitiate the newcomers — whom, or 
rather whose captain, they in some confused manner con- 
nected with the old and distorted legend of Lono — with 
presents and with the charms of their women. The 
latter advice was acted on, and hogs, vegetables, kapa, 
and women were sent on board, and among the latter was 
Kamalcahelei' s own daughter, Lelemahoalani ; and during 
the last generation of Hawaiians it was openly said, and 
never contradicted, that that night Lelemahoalani slept 
with Lono (Cook). 

Native historians^ are particularly bitter against the 
memory of Captain Cook on account of the introduction 
of the venereal disease in the group by the seamen of 
the ships under his command ; and they argue, that had 
Cook himself shown greater continence, his orders re- 
ferred to above would have been better obeyed. The 
resentment is natural, the argument cogent ; but it is an 
ex post facto argument, which takes no notice of the times 
and the circumstances under which Cook and his seamen 
were placed, nor of the social condition, customs, and 
modes of thinking which at that time obtained among 
the Hawaiians. I am not called upon to defend the 
personal morality of Cook. Though superior to many 

1 D. Malo and S. M. Kamakau. 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 163 

of his day as a naval commander and a discoverer in 
unknown seas, yet he was probably no better than the 
majority of men of his education, training, and pursuits 
would have been under the same or similar circumstances ; 
nor were the simple sailors of a hundred years ago more 
sensitive to moral teachings or more obedient to naval 
discipline than are such men at the present time. On 
the other hand, the Hawaiians of that time were not the 
race of Nature's innocents which the school of Eousseau 
loved to paint ; their moral darkness, or rather their deep 
ignorance of the precepts and principles which ought to 
restrain and guide a Christian or a moral person, has so 
often and so broadly been described by others, that I may 
only allude to it here. Placed under particularly trying 
circumstances, confronted with men whom they looked 
upon as divine, or supernatural beings at least, the 
Hawaiians freely gave what in their moral ethics there 
was no prohibition to give ; and the seamen — well, they 
were mortal men with mortal passions, and they only 
followed the famous saying inaugurated by the Buc- 
caneers and become proverbial ever since, that "there 
was no God on this side of Cape Horn." 

The result, however, was death and indescribable misery 
to the poor Hawaiians, and no wonder that the memory 
of Captain Cook is not cherished among them. 

When Cook says that he gave orders to " exclude the 
women from on board the ships," and the native testi- 
mony asserts that numerous women, and the queen's own 
daughter among them, passed one or more nights on 
board, there is but one way to escape from the dilemma, 
and that is to assume what was probably the fact, though 
Cook does nowhere acknowledge it — namely, that his 
orders were not properly carried into effect. 

Cook remained at anchor off Niihau from the 29th 
January to the 2d of February 1778, where, owing to 
the unfavourable weather and the high surf, twenty of 



i64 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

Lis men, with an officer, were left ashore two nights, and 
were hospitably treated by the natives. 

On February i, Cook landed a ram-goat, two ewes, a 
boar, and a sow of English breed, and seeds of melons, 
pumpkins, and onions, which were given to a prominent 
native. 

Cook does not mention that he met any superior chief 
while staying at Waimea, Kauai ; and yet it is indisput- 
able that Kamakalielei and her family were there.^ But 
on Niihau he was told that the island owed allegiance 
to Kaneoneo, and that Kauai was ruled by several chiefs, 
notably by Kaneoneo^ Kaeof and Terarotoa} After Cook 
left Kauai, however, and while the " Discovery " was still 
detained there, a high chief, before whom the natives pro- 
strated themselves, came on board and was entertained by 
Captain Clerke.^ This chief is said to have been " a young 
man accompanied by a young woman, supposed to be his 
wife," and his name as reported to Cook was Tamahano.^ 

1 S. M. Kamakau, in his account, Cook and those around him appre- 
states that both Kaeo and Kamaka- hended the native names of persons 
helei received Cook and exchanged and places, and reproduced them in 
presents veith him on the day that Avriting, is sometimes sorely perplex- 
he went ashore, but he does not men- ing to Polynesian scholars. 

tion that they visited the ships. ^ Cook's Voyages, vol. ii. p. 245. 

Apparently Cook was ignorant of 6 j^ jg uncertain who this high 

their exalted rank when he met them chieftain might have been. Kuma- 

ashore. hana, the son of Peleioholani, to 

2 Kaneoneo was the son of Kuma- whom the name most probably cor- 
hana, king of Oahu, and grandson of responds, was doubtless then on 
the famous Peleioholani. He was Kauai, if alive, whither he had fled 
one of the husbands of Kamakahelei. after being dethroned on Oahu by 

^ Kaeo, or, more correctly, Kaeo- his chiefs and subjects in 1773 *» ^"^^ 

kulaniy was a son of Kekaulike, king he was not " a young man " at the 

of Maui, and his wife Hoolau, a time. If he had died in the interval 

great - granddaughter of Lonoika- between his deposition and 1778, it is 

makahiki of Hawaii on her father's possible that his son Kaneoneo might, 

side. Kaeokulani was another hus- according to frequent usage, have 

band of Kamakahelei, and father of assumed his father's name, or pre- 

Kaumualiij the last independent sented himself under that name on 

king of Kauai. board of the "Discovery." Or it 

* I have been unable to identify might have been a younger son of 

this name with any of the known ^uma/^awa, bearing his father's name, 

chiefs of that time on Kauai. The of whom, however, native traditions 

singular manner in which Captain are silent. 



THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 165 

It is probable that Cook's estimate of the populousness 
of Kauai is too high. Judging from the section of the 
island that he saw, and taking the village of Waimea 
as a standard, he estimated sixty such villages on the 
island, with a total of 30,000 inhabitants.^ The ancient 
native division of the island gives no account of so 
many villages as Cook supposed, yet it may safely be 
assumed that the island contained 20,000 people at that 
time. On the second visit to Kauai, Captain King 
estimates the population at 54,000 ; but his calculation 
is based on the assumption ^ that the whole coast-line 
of all the islands was as thickly inhabited as the bay 
of Kealakeakua on Hawaii. On Niihau Cook supposed, 
judging from the "thinly-scattered habitations of the 
natives," ^ that there " were not more than five hundred 
people on the island ; " but King, according to his rule of 
calculation, assumes the island to have had 10,000 in-* 
habitants.^ It is plain that Cook underrated Niihau as 
much as he overrated Kauai, and that King's rule of 
calculation was not borne out by fact. Yet there can be 
no doubt that aU the islands at that time were vastly 
more populous than they ever have been since ; and there 
exist no valid reasons for assuming a greater or more rapid 
depopulation between 1778 and 1832, when the first regular 
census taken gave an approximately correct enumeration 
of 130,000, than between the latter year and 1878, when 
the census gave only 44,088, exclusive of foreigners. 

It has been presumed by several writers that Captain 
Cook was acquainted with the existence of the Hawaiian 
group from the chart captured on board of the Spanish 
galleon " Santissima Trinidad " by Commodore Anson in 
1 742, where a group of islands in the same latitude, but 
with somewhat varying longitude, were laid down; and 
that with him it was not a discovery, inasmuch as he 
merely found what he sought for. 

1 Vol. ii. p. 230. 2 Vol. iiL p. 128. 

' Vol. iii. p. 218. ■* Vol. iii. p. 129. 



1 66 THE POL YNESIA N RA CE. 

That the Spanish navigators between Acapulco and 
Manilla, at least some of them, knew of the existence of 
the Hawaiian group, I think is no longer doubtful, and 
may yet be proven as an historical fact when Spanish 
archives in the Old and New World shall have been 
thoroughly ransacked.^ The chart above referred to is 
jprima facie, evidence, and, as we shall see hereafter, 
Hawaiian tradition confirms the inference. But that 
Cook had any previous knowledge of such a group in 
such a place, or that he knew that it was known to the 
Spaniards, I consider hardly probable, or at all con- 
sistent with what he says on the very subject of the 
discovery of the group. On p. 251, vol. ii., he says: 
" Had the Sandwich Islands been discovered at an early 
period by the Spaniards, there is little doubt that they 
would have taken advantage of so excellent a situation, 
and have made use of Atooi " (Kauai), " or some other of 
the islands, as a refreshing place to the ships that sail 
annually from Acapulco for Manilla. An acquaintance 
with the Sandwich Islands would have been equally 
favourable to our Buccaneers, who used sometimes to pass 
from the coast of America to the Ladrones with a stock 
of food and water scarcely sufficient to preserve life. . . . 

" How happy would Lord Anson have been, and what 
hardships would have been avoided, if he had known that 
there was a group of islands half-way between America 
and Tinian, where all his wants could have been effec- 
tually supplied ! " 

If these words mean anything at all, they convey the 
unavoidable inference that Cook had no previous know- 
ledge of the existence of the group. To argue the 
contrary, as Mr. Jarves has done,^ is to accuse Cook of a 
hypocrisy and disingenuousness that his works give no 
warrant for, and of which competent men who can appre- 
ciate the real traits of his character will acquit him. 

^ See Appendix No. i, and p. io8. 
? History of Hawaiian Islands, by J. J. Jarves, 4tli ed., p. 50. 



THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 167 

Let us now see how this unexpected meeting of Euro- 
peans and Polynesians affected the latter, what impressions 
they received; what accounts they gave of it. 

It is reported by the native historians that during one 
of Peleioholani's (king of Oahu) maritime excursions — 
1740-70 — a ship was seen off the Oahu channel by the 
crew of his famous war-canoe, but it was too far off to 
be boarded or spoken. If such was really the case, the 
impression of such a sight was confined to but a few 
persons, and was of too indefinite a nature to have been 
long retained, and was probably only revived as a reminis- 
cence after Captain Cook's arrival. However that may 
be, the astonishment and excitement of the Hawaiians 
as Cook's vessels approached the coast of Kauai were 
thoroughly genuine and extravagant. David Malo, the 
Hawaiian historian, who heard the account of Cook's 
arrival from actual eye-witnesses, writes in his Moolelo* 
Hiwaii (Hawaiian History), printed in 1838, as follows : — 

"It is at Waimea, on Kauai, that Lono first arrived. 
He arrived in the month of January, in the year of our 
lord 1778. Kaneoneo andKeawe were the chiefs of Kauai 
at that time. He arrived in the night at Waimea, and 
when daylight came the natives ashore perceived this 
vonderful thing that had arrived, and they expressed their 
estonishment with great exclamations. 

" One said to another, ' What is that great thing with 
kanches?' Others said, ' It is a forest that has slid 
down into the sea,' and the gabble and noise was great.^ 
Then the chiefs ordered some natives to go in a canoe and 
observe and examine well that wonderful thing. They 
Tent, and when they came to the ship they saw the iron 
Ihat was attached to the outside of the ship, and they 
-vere greatly rejoiced at the quantity of iron. 

1 S. M. Kamakau, in his History, priest Kuoho said it was the Heiau 
idds : " Others said it was an ' Auwa- (temple) of Lono, with the ladders of 
ilalua' * from Olohe, Mana, but the Keolewa, and the steps to the altars. " 

* " A large species of fish ; an animal that sails in the sea like a cauoe." — 
Andrew/ Hawaiian Dictionary. 



i68 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

" Because the iron was known before that time from 
wood with iron (in or on it) that had formerly drifted 
ashore, but it was in small quantity, and here was plenty. 
And they entered on board, and they saw the people with 
white foreheads, bright eyes, loose garments, corner-shaped 
heads, and unintelligible speech. 

"Then they thought that the people (on board) were 
all women, because their heads were so like the women's 
heads of that period. They observed the quantity of iron 
on board of the ship, and they were filled with wonder 
and delight.^ 

" Then they returned and told the chiefs what they had 
seen, and how great the quantity of iron. On hearing 
this, one of the warriors of the chief said, ' I will go and 
take forcible possession of this booty, for to plunder is my 
business and means of living.' 

" The chiefs consented. Then this warrior went on 
board of the ship and took away some of the iron on 
board, and he was shot at and was killed. His name was 
Kapupuu. The canoes (around the ship) fled away and 
reported that Kapupmo had been killed by a ball from a 
squirt-gun.2 

" And that same ni^ht ^uns were fired and rockets were 
thrown up. They (the natives) thought it was a god, and 
they called his name Lonomahua, and they thought there 
would be war.^ 

'* Then a chiefess named Kamakalielei, mother o: 



1 Kamakau (S. M.) mentions that o Kapupuu i ka Waiki,' he said thai 
the party sent consisted of Kaneoka- Kapupuu was killed by the Waiki 
hootcaha, Kuohu the priest, and i.e., the wad or ball of the gun." S. M 
Kiildki, another chief ; that when Kamakau adds that the unfortunate 
they came on board they saluted Kapupuu was a retainer of Kaeo, and 
Cook by prostrating themselves and that when the people were urging 
with prayer, and that they were the chief to avenge the death ol 
kindly received. Kapupuu, the priest Kuohu dissuaded 

2 Hawaiian TFai/a. Judge Andrews, them from so perilous and recklesj 
Hawaiian Dictionary, gives the follow- an adventure. 

ing explanation : — "4, The ball, an- ^ Kamakau relates that JTmoM, the 

ciently made of stone, and projected priest, had his doubts whether the 

from a squirt-gun. * Hai raai ua make newcomers were gods or mortal menj| 



THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 169 

Kaumualii, said, ' Let us not fight against our god ; let 
us please him that he may he favourable to us/ Then 
Kamakahelei gave her own daughter as a woman to Lono ; 
Lelemahoalani was her name; she was older sister of 
Kaumualii. And Lono slept with that woman, and the 
Kauai women prostituted themselves to the foreigners for 
iron." 

The news of Cook's arrival, and all the wonders con- 
nected therewith, spread rapidly over the entire group, and 
here, as elsewhere, the reports were swelled by repetition. 
Kauai natives brought the news to Oahu, and a Hawaii 
native, whose name has been preserved as Moho, and who. 
at the time was living on Oahu, brought the intelligence 
with all its embellishments to Maui, and made his report 
to Kalaniopuu, who was then at Han a. 

It will thus be seen that before Captain Cook returned 
from the north-west coast of America, in the fall of that 
year, his fame had preceded him throughout the group,^ 
and the people were fully prepared to receive him as an 
impersonation of Lono, one of the great gods of the 
Hawaiian trinity, and render him the homage and worship 
due to so great and mysterious a visitant, until his long 

and that having tried to ascertain by are foreigners (ffaole) from Hiikua, 

means of the sacred cup (Ka ipu from Melemele, from TJliuli, from 

Aumakua), he came to the conclusion Keokeo. They are surely the people 

that " they were not gods but Eaole that will come and dwell in this 

(foreigners), from the country whence land" {0 na Kanaka na e noho aku 

Kaekae Siud Kukanaloa* csime;" hut kaaina). Others said :" Those are 

the young people and the majority the people of whom Kekiopilo, the 

looked upon Cook as the god Lono. prophet of Kupihea, spoke when he 

^ After Cooke's departure Kaeo sent said, * the foreigners should come 

Kaneokahoowaha and Kaukapua to here— white people- and as for their 

Oahu to acquaint King Kahakana of dogs, people should ride upon them ; 

the arrival of the foreigners, and all and they should bring dogs with very 

the wonders connected therewith, long ears.'" Others thought they 

After hearing the wonderful tale, were the " Haole" referred to in the 

KaopuhulukvZu, the high-priest of chant of Kualii. (S. M. Kamakau's 

^aAa/iawa, replied: "Those people account of Cook'g visit.) 



* Kaekae and Maliu were the two white priests said to have been brought 
from a foreign country by Pauviakua, vide p. 25 ; and Kukdnaloa was the 
native name of the white man shipwrecked at Keei, Kona, Hawaii, vide^. 106. 



1 70 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

sejour at Kealakeakua Bay and his ill-advised projects 
destroyed the illusion and caused his death. 

On February 2, 1778, Captain Cook left the island of 
Niihau to prosecute the objects of his voyage, connected 
with the exploration of Behrings Straits and the North- 
West Passage. When the inclemency of the weather and 
the approach of winter precluded farther researches in 
the north, Cook returned with a light heart to the sunny 
isles that he discovered at the commencement of that 
year. On the 26th of N'ovember the island of Maui was 
seen well to the westward, and later in the day the island 
of Molokai. Cook was now off the Hamakua coast, and 
in the morning of the 27th the isthmus of Kamaomao 
was visible. The ships were lying off and on, and con- 
siderable trading was done with the natives, whom Cook 
found were advised of his visit to Kauai in the early 
part of the year ; and, as indubitable proof of that fact, 
he states with regret that he observed that they had 
already been infected with the disease which his crew 
communicated to the Kauai women. In beating to wind- 
ward, Cook found himself, on the 30th of ^N'ovember, off 
the north-east end of Maui. Here more canoes came off 
trading, and Kalaniopuu came off on board. After Kala- 
niopuu left the ship some six or eight natives remained, 
"who chose to remain on board," and whose double 
sailing- canoe, having arrived to attend them, was towed 
astern all night. That evening Cook discovered the island 
of Hawaii, and next morning his visitors left him and 
returned to Maui. Cook crossed the Hawaii channel, 
and hove-to off the Kohala coast on the eveninsj of 
December ist. 

During the whole of the month of December Cook kept 
beating round the east side of Hawaii, frequently standing 
inshore and trading with the natives. On the 5 th of 
January 1779, Cook rounded the south cape of Hawaii, 
and on the 17th of that month he anchored in the bay of 



THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 171 

Kealakeakua, on the south-west side of the island, in the 
south Kona district. 

The Hawaiian accounts are somewhat more detailed, by 
stating that it was off the village of Wailua, in the Koolau 
district, that the Hawaiian chiefs came on board of Cook's 
ship and remained there that night. Although Kala- 
niopuu was at Wailua at that time, yet no Hawaiian 
account mentions that he went on board personally ; ^ but 
they all concur that it was Kamehameha^ afterwards king 
of Hawaii, who went on board and passed the night in 
Cook's ship ; and they state, moreover, that when the ships 
stood off to sea for the night and Kamehameha did not 
return, a great wailing was set up ashore by Kalaniopuu 
and his retinue, thinking that Kamehameha had been 
abducted by the ship and was lost; and their joy was 
proportionately great when he returned the next day.^ 

The native accounts farther remark that the first place, 
on Hawaii off which Cook stopped to trade after leaving 
Maui was near the village of Kukuipahu, in the district 
of North Kohala ; that crowds of people went off to see 
the vessels and the wonders that they contained ; that 
when the natives saw the sailors eating water-melons, — 
this fruit being unknown to them, — they fearfully ex- 
claimed, " These men are gods indeed ; see them eating 
human flesh " (the meat of the melon), " and the fire burns 
in their mouths " (pipes or cigars). 

As Cook proceeded up the west side of Hawaii, along 

1 It will be seen farther on that the ships on the ocean and recover 
Captain King says that, when they and bring back Kamehameha and his 
had arrived at Kealakeakua, he recog- company, is possibly true in the main, 
nised Kalaniopuu as one of those but confused as to time and detail. 
Hawaiian chiefs that had come on Cook expressly states that after Ka- 
board off the east end of Maui. S. laniopuu left, six or eight of his 
M. Kamakua states that Kalaima- company remained on board, and 
mahu, the brother of Kamehameha that " a double sailing-canoe came 
and maternal grandfather of the late soon after to attend upon them, 
king Lunalilo, was one of those who which we towed astern all night." 
stayed on board that night. That probably was the canoe which 

2 The native account that Kala- Kalaniopuu sent off under Kepaa- 
niopuu sent Kepaalani with a smart lani to bring Kamehameha back, 
canoe and six picked men to hunt up 



172 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

the Kona coast, the populousness of the country and the 
abundance of provisions surprised and delighted him. 
This is what he says in his journal, as on the i6th of 
January he approached the bay of Kealakeakua : — 

" At daybreak on the 1 6th, seeing the appearance of a 
bay, I sent Mr. Bligh, with a boat from each ship, to 
examine it, being at this time three leagues off. Canoes 
now began to arrive from all parts ; so that before ten 
o'clock there were not fewer than a thousand about the 
two ships, most of them crowded with people, and well 
laden with hogs and other productions of the island. We 
had the most satisfying proof of their friendly intentions ; 
for we did not see a single person who had with him a 
weapon of any sort. Trade and curiosity alone had 
brought them ofif. Among such numbers as we had at 
times on board, it is no wonder that some should betray 
a thievish disposition. One of our visitors took out of 
the ship a boat's rudder. He was discovered, but too late 
to recover it. I thought this a good opportunity to show 
these people the use of firearms ; and two or three mus- 
quets, and as many four-pounders, were fired over the 
canoe which carried off the rudder. As it was not 
intended that any of the shot should take effect, the 
surrounding multitude of natives seemed rather more 
surprised than frightened." 

After anchoring and mooring his ships on January 17th, 
Cook's journal continues : — " The ships continued to be 
much crowded with natives, and were surrounded by a 
multitude of canoes. I had nowhere in the course of my 
voyages seen so numerous a body of people assembled at 
one place. For besides those who had come off to us in 
canoes, all the shore of the bay was covered with specta- 
tors, and many hundreds were swimming round the ships 
like shoals of fish. We could not but be struck with the 
singularity of this scene ; and perhaps there were few on 
board who now lamented our having failed in our endea- 
vours to find a northern passage homeward last summer. 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 173 

To this disappointment we owed our having it iu our power 
to revisit the Sandwich Islands, and to enrich our voyage 
with a discovery which, though the last, seemed in many 
respects to be the most important that had hitherto been 
made by Europeans throughout the extent of the Pacific 
Ocean." 

After Cook's ships had anchored, two chiefs, named 
FaUa and Kanina, came on board, and the former in- 
formed him that Kalaniopun, the king of Hawaii, was 
absent on Maui, but would be back in a few days, and 
he and Kanina appear to have made themselves service- 
able in keeping order among the natives and preventing 
the ships from being overcrowded. Another prominent 
man was also introduced to Cook by Palea, whose name 
was Koa, and was apparently the highest officiating 
priest of the place in the absence of the high-priest who 
accompanied Kalaniojpuu} Of this interview Captain, 
King says: 2 — " Being led into the cabin, he approached 
Captain Cook with great veneration, and threw over his 
shoulders a piece of red cloth, which he had brought along 
with him. Then stepping a few paces back, he made an 
offering of a small pig which he held in his hand, while 
he pronounced a discourse that lasted for a considerable 
time. This ceremony was frequently repeated during 
our stay at Owhyhee, and appeared to us, from many 
circumstances, to be a sort of religious adoration. Their 
idols we found always arrayed in red cloth in the same 
manner as was done to Captain Cook, and a small pig 
was their usual offering to the Uatooas." ^ 

That same afternoon Captain Cook landed and was 
received by Koa, Paha, and a number of priests, who 
conducted him to the Heiau, just north of the IS'apoopoo 

^ There is no doubt that Holoae was the son of Holoae, was with Kalani- 

the recognised high-priest of Kalani- opuu on Maui, and officiating priest 

opuu ; where he was, however, at the on that expedition, 

time of Cook's arrival at Kealakea- ^ YqI. ii. p. 5. 

kua, is not easy to say. Native ac- ^ The divinities, 

counts assert that Pailili or Pailikiy , 



1 74 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

village and at tlie foot of the Pali.^ Here the grand 
ceremony of acknowledging Cook as an incarnation of 
Lono, to be worshiped as such, and his installation, so to 
say, in the Hawaiian Pantheon took place. The scene is 
so vividly described by Captain King, that I need not 
apologise for its repetition here. Captain King says : ^ — 

"Before I proceed to relate the adoration that was 
paid to Captain Cook, and the peculiar ceremonies with 
which he was received on this fatal island, it will be 
necessary to describe the Moral, situated, as I have already 
mentioned, at the south side of the beach at Kahooa 
(Kealakeakua). It was a square solid pile of stones, 
about forty yards long, twenty broad, and fourteen in 
height.^ The top w^as flat and well paved, and sur- 
rounded by a wooden rail, on which were fixed the skulls 
of the captives sacrificed on the death of their chiefs. 
In the centre of the area stood a ruinous old building of 
wood, connected with the rail on each side by a stone w^all, 
which divided the whole space into two parts. On the 
side next the country were five poles, upward of twenty 
feet high, supporting an irregular kind of scaffold ; on the 
opposite side toward the sea, stood two small houses with 
a covered communication. 

" We were conducted by Koah to the top of this pile 
by an easy ascent leading from the beach to the north- 
west corner of the area. At the entrance we saw two 
large wooden images, with features violently distorted, 
and a long piece of carved wood of a conical form in- 
verted, rising from the top of their heads ; the rest was 
without form, and wrapped round with red cloth. We 
were here met by a tall young man with a long beard, 
who presented Captain Cook to the images, and after 

^ The name of this Heiau is ffikian. ^ Vol. iii. p. 6. 

It was sacred to Lono, and its ruins * It was one of the ancient Heiaus, 

may still be seen. By a not uncora- of a truncated pyramidal form, that 

xaonespi'ttdecorpSfitaTpriests -were the obtained before the southern migra- 

firmest and most constant believers in tory period. — The Author. 
Captain Cook's identity with Lono. 



THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 175 

chanting a kind of hymn, in which he was joined by 
Koah, they led us to that end of the Morai where the 
five poles were fixed. At the foot of them were twelve 
images ranged in a semicircular form, and before the 
middle figure stood a high stand or table, exactly resem- 
bling the Whatta of Otaheiti, on which lay a putrid hog, 
and under it pieces of sugar-cane, cocoa-nuts, bread-fruit, 
plantains, and sweet potatoes. Koah having placed the 
Captain under the stand, took down the hog and held it 
toward him ; and after having a second time addressed 
him in a long speech, pronounced with much vehemence 
and rapidity, he let it fall on the ground and led him to 
the scaffolding, which they began to climb together not 
without great risk of falling. At this time we saw coming 
in solemn procession, at the entrance of the top of the 
Morai, ten men carrying a live hog and a large piece 
of red cloth. Being advanced a few paces, they stopped , 
and prostrated themselves; and Kaireekeea, the young 
man above mentioned, went to them, and receiving the 
cloth, carried it to Koah, who wrapped it round the Cap- 
tain, and afterwards offered him the hog, which was 
brought by Kaireekeea with the same ceremony. 

" Whilst Captain Cook was aloft in this awkward situa- 
tion, swathed round with red cloth, and with difficulty 
keeping his hold amongst the pieces of rotten scaffolding, 
Kaireekeea and Koah began their office, chanting some- 
times in concert and sometimes alternately. This lasted 
a considerable time; at length Koah let the hog drop, 
when he and the Captain descended together. He then 
led him to the images before mentioned, and having said 
something to each in a sneering tone, snapping his fingers 
at them as he passed, he brought him to that in the 
centre, which, from its being covered with red cloth, 
appeared to be in greater estimation than the rest. Before 
this figure he prostrated himself and kissed it, desiring 
Captain Cook to do the same, who suffered himself to be 
directed by Koah throughout the whole of this ceremony. 



I -je THE POL YNESIAN RA CE, 

" We were now led back to the other division of the 
Moral, where there was a space, ten or twelve feet square, 
sunk about three feet below the level of the area. Into 
this we descended, and Captain Cook was seated between 
two wooden idols, Koah supporting one of his arms, whilst 
I was desired to support the other. At this time arrived 
a second procession of natives, carrying a baked hog and 
a pudding, some bread-fruit, cocoa-nuts, and other vege- 
tables. When they approached us, Kaireekeea put himself 
at their head, and presenting the pig to Captain Cook in 
the usual manner, began the same kind of chant as before, 
his companions making regular responses. We observed 
that after every response their parts became gradually 
shorter, till, toward the close, Kaireekeea's consisted of 
only two or three words, which the rest answered by the 
word Orono. 

" When this offering was concluded, which lasted a 
quarter of an hour, the natives sat down fronting us, and 
began to cut up the baked hog, to peel the vegetables and 
break the cocoa-nuts ; whilst others employed themselves 
in brewing the Awa, which is done by chewing it in the 
same manner as at the Friendly Islands. Kaireekeea then 
took part of the kernel of a cocoa-nut, which he chewed, 
and wrapping it in a piece of cloth, rubbed with it the 
Captain's face, head, hands, arms, and shoulders. The Awa 
was then handed round, and after we had tasted it, Koah 
and Pareea began to pull the flesh of the hog in pieces, 
and to put it into our mouths. I had no great objection 
to being fed by Pareea, who was very cleanly in his person, 
but Captain Cook, who was served by Koah, recollecting 
the putrid hog, could not swallow a morsel ; and his 
reluctance, as may be supposed, was not diminished when 
the old man, according to his own mode of civility, had 
chewed it for him. 

" When this last ceremony was finished, which Captain 
Cook put an end to as soon as he decently could, we 
quitted the Morai, after distributing amongst the people 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 177 

some pieces of iron and other trifles, with which they 
seemed highly gratified. The men with wands conducted 
us to the boats, repeating the same words as before. The 
people again retired, and the few that remained prostrated 
themselves as we passed along the shore. We immediately 
went on board, our minds full of what we had seen, and 
extremely well satisfied with the good dispositions of our 
new friends. The meanings of the various ceremonies 
with which we had been received, and which, on account 
of their novelty and singularity, have been related at 
length, can only be the subject of conjectures, and those 
uncertain and partial ; they were, however, without doubt, 
expressive of high respect on the part of the natives ; and, 
so far as related to the person of Captain Cook, they seemed 
approaching to adoration." 

In another place ^ Captain King, relating Captain Cook's 
visit to the habitations of the priests in the neighbourhood 
of the observatory, says : — 

"On his arrival at the beach, he was conducted to a 
sacred building called Harre-no-Orono, or the house of 
Orono, and seated before the entrance, at the foot of a 
wooden idol, of the same kind with those on the Moral. 
I was here again made to support one of his arms, and 
after wrapping him in red cloth, Kaireekeea, accompanied 
by twelve priests, made an offering of a pig with the usual 
solemnities. The pig was then strangled, and a fire being 
kindled, it was thrown into the embers ; and after the hair 
was singed off, it was again presented, with a repetition 
of the chanting, in the manner before described. The 
dead pig was then held for a short time under the Cap- 
tain's nose, after which it was laid, with a cocoa-nut, at his 
feet, and the performers sat down. The awa was then 
brewed and handed round, a fat hog, ready dressed, was 
brought in, and we were fed as before. 

" During the rest of the time that we remained in the 
bay, whenever Captain Cook came on shore he was 
1 Pp. 13-15. 

VOL. II. M 



178 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

attended by one of those priests, who went before him, 
giving notice that the Orono had landed, and ordering the 
people to prostrate themselves. The same person also 
constantly accompanied him on the water, standing in the 
bow of the boat with a wand in his hand, and giving 
notice of his approach to the natives, who were in canoes, 
on which they immediately left off paddling, and lay down 
on their faces till he had passed. Whenever he stopped 
at the observatory, Kaireekeea and his brothers imme- 
diately made their appearance with hogs, cocoa-nuts, 
bread-fruit, &c., and presented them with the usual solem- 
nities. It was on these occasions that some of the inferior 
chiefs frequently requested to be permitted to make an 
offering to the Orono. When this was granted, they pre- 
sented the hog themselves, generally with evident marks 
of fear on their countenances, whilst Kaireekeea and the 
priests chanted their accustomed hymns.^ 

" The civilities of this society ^ were not, however, con- 

1 One of the formulated prayers noa ! " Which may be translated as 

or addresses with which the priests follows : — " O Lono in heaven ! you 

and others generally accosted Captain of the many shapes (or beings). The 

Cook in his character of Lono has long cloud, the short cloud, the cloud 

been preserved by Kamakua, and I just peeping (over the horizon), the 

insert it here: — " Ou raau Kino e wide-spreading cloud, the contracted 

Lono i ka lani. He ao loa, he ao cloud in the heaven, (coming) from 

poko, he ao kiei, he ao halo, he ao XJliuli, from Melemele, from Kahiki, 

hoopu-a i ka lani, mai Uliuli, mai from Ulunui, from Hakalauai, from 

Melemele, mai Kahiki, mai Ulunui, the country of Lono situated in the 

mai Haehae, mai Omaokuululu, mai upper regions, in the high heavens, 

Hakalauai, mai ka aina o Lono i in proper order, in the famous order 

wahi aku ai i ka lewa nuu, i ka lewa of Leka. O Lalohana, O Olepuu-ka- 

lani, i ka papa ku, i ka papa kukui honua ; Eh Ku, Eh Lono, Eh Kane, 

a Leka — O Lalohana,— O Olepuu- Eh Kanaloa, Eh the god from Apa- 

kahonua. E Ku, E Lono, E Kane, palani of Apapanuu, from Kahiki 

E Kanaloa, E ke Akua mai ka Apa- east, from Kahiki west, here is the 

palani o ka Apapanuu, mai Kahiki- sacrifice, here is the offering. Pre- 

ku, a Kahiki-moe, eia ka mohai, eia serve the chief, preserve the worship- 

ka alana; E ola i ke Alii, E ola i na pers, and establish the day of light 

pulapula, a kau a kau i ke ao mala- on the floating earth ! Amen.* 

malama ia lana honua. Amama, ua ^ The priests. 

* The phrase, '"'' Amafna^ ua noa,'' invariably used at the conclusion of 
every Hawaiian heathen prayer, corresponds, in so far, to the Christian 
Amen. Literally it means "it is offered, the tabu is taken off," or the 
ceremony is ended. 



THE POL YNESIAN RA CE, 1 79 

fined to mere ceremony and parade. Our party on shore 
received from them every day a constant supply of hogs 
and vegetables, more than sufficient for our subsistence, 
and several canoes loaded with provisions were sent to 
the ships with the same punctuality. No return was ever 
demanded, or even hinted at in the most distant manner. 
Their presents were made with a regularity more like the 
discharge of a religious duty than the effect of mere 
liberality ; and when we inquired at whose charge all this 
munificence was displayed, we were told it was at the 
expense of a great man called Kaoo, the chief of the 
priests, and grandfather to Kaireekeea, who was at that 
time absent attending the king of the island." 

After these detailed accounts of the reception of Cook 
by the chiefs, priests, and common people, there can be no 
doubt that, so far as the latter were concerned, they looked 
upon him as a god, an " Akua"'^ possessed of hitherto 
unknown and terrible powers of destruction, and of an 
inexhaustible mine of that metal which they so highly 
coveted, accompanied by a crew of wonderful beings, 
" Xupueic" of different colour, speech, and customs than 
their own, who had come from another and unknown 
world, " Afai ha lewa mai." Coming to them from over 
the sea, and apparently having the thunder and the 
lightning at his command, no wonder that the natives 
regarded Captain Cook as an avatar of the great Lono- 
noho-ik a-wai of their religious creed, whose attributes may 
be found described in the chant of the deluge (see vol. i. 
pp. 93, 94), and their adoration was as natural as it was 
spontaneous, and their gifts " more like the discharge of a 
religious duty," as Captain King expresses it. But that 

^ It should te borne in mind that also, as Judge Andrews says in his 
to the heathen Hawaiian the word Hawaiian Dictionary, " applied to 
Akua did not convey the same lofty artificial objects, the nature and pro- 
idea as the word God or Deity does perties of which Hawaiians did not 
to the Christian. To the Hawaiians understand, as the movement of a 
the word Akua expressed the idea of watch, a compass, the self-striking of 
any supernatural being, the object of a clock, &c." For etymology of the 
fear or of worship. This term was word Akua, see Appendix, No, 4. 



i8o THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

Captain Cook should have permitted himself to foster and 
keep up that delusion into which the natives had naturally 
fallen, by complacently receiving and assisting at the 
adoration which he must have perceived and known was 
only intended for the Divine Being, however gross the 
native conception of that Being might have been, that is 
the great blot which some of Cook's critics, native and 
foreign, Malo, Dibble, and Jarves, have thrown upon his 
character, and, penetrating the designs of Providence, they 
have not failed to consider his violent death as an act of 
Divine punishment. 

Can nothing be said for Captain Cook against this 
terrible charge of self- deification ? 

That intelligent men, writing long after the event, when 
the religious customs and modes of thought of the natives 
were well understood and their intentions in the matter 
were well known, would not have lent themselves to 
" perform a part in this heathen farce," as Jarves calls it, 
is perfectly intelligible ; but that, before giving their ver- 
dict, they should not have been able to place themselves in 
the position of Cook, who was ignorant of those custom.s 
and modes of thought, and naturally enough construed 
their intentions as those of goodwill, respect, and friendship, 
is a lamentable defect in a critic, the more so when the 
object of his criticism is dead and cannot reply to the 
charge, and has left no materials for his friends from which 
to argue what his own construction of the affair might 
have been. To Captain King, who seems to have been 
not only a kinder man but also a gentleman of finer sus- 
ceptibilities than Captain Cook, these ceremonies " seemed 
approaching to adoration," though he had no doubt that 
on the part of the natives they were " expressive of high 
respect ; " and so little did even he perceive the blasphemous 
act of self- deification in what transpired, that he actually 
took an active part in the performance, not exactly under- 
standing "the meaning of the various ceremonies," but 
certainly not apprehending that a damaging judgment 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE. i8i 

would be passed Tipon Captain Cook or himself for so 
doing. 

If we now look back to p. i6i, and see what Cook himself 
says of his reception on Kauai, we find that he had been 
the recipient of " much the same ceremonies on such occa- 
sions at the Society and other islands." To him, then, 
this prostration of bodies, offerings of pigs, chanting of 
hymns, &c., of which he understood nothing, were no new 
things, for he had seen them on Kauai and elsewhere, and, 
though details might vary, they were substantially " much 
the same," and to him they were apparently only significant 
of respect and friendship. 

" The apology of expediency," which Jarves ^ says has 
been offered, has then no room in the argument. It was 
never offered by Cook or King, and its admission would 
imply a consciousness of the infraction of a moral duty in 
that respect which neither Cook nor King were ever 
conscious of or ever admitted. Captain Cook committed 
several errors in his intercourse with the natives, and 
their consequences proved fatal to him ; but I think that 
a candid posterity, judging him as his contemporaries 
would have judged him, will acquit him of a wilful 
assumption of divine honours or of a conscious participa- 
tion in his own deification. 

The native accounts relate what Captain Cook apparently 
was not aware of, viz., that when the ships arrived at 
Kealakeakua, the bay was under a tabu, the festival days 
connected with the ancient celebration of the new year 
not having as yet expired. But as his fame had preceded 
him throughout the group, and Cook himself was looked 
upon as a god (an Akua) and his ships as temples (ffeiau), 
the priests and chiefs who governed in the bay in the 
absence of Kalaniopuu proclaimed an exception to the 
tabu in the matter of the ships of the newcomers — a 
lucky thought, a well-timed compromise to gratify their 
curiosity and soothe their consciences ; for most assuredly 

^ History of tlie Hawaii Islands, p. 54, 



i82 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

without some such arrangement not a single canoe would 
have dared to ripple the quiet waters of the bay. 

The business of recruiting the ships, caulking their sides, 
erecting an observatory ashore, salting pork for ships' stores, 
mending sails, &c., was now proceeded with, and every 
assistance the natives possibly could give was unhesitat- 
ingly and liberally given. 

On the 24th January Kalaniojpuu returned from Maui, 
and one of his first acts was to put a tabu on the bay, no 
canoes being allowed to leave the beach. All that day no 
vegetables were brought on board as usual. After a week 
of feasting and plenty, a day of fasting caused considerable 
disappointment and irritation among the ships' companies. 
As a specimen of the inconsiderate and overbearing man- 
ner in which the foreigners returned the unbounded 
liberality and kindness of the natives when their wants 
and desires were in the least crossed, the following remarks 
of Captain King may illustrate. After mentioning the 
fact of the tabu having been laid on the bay, he says ^ — 
" The next morning, therefore, they (the ships' crews) en- 
deavoured, both by threats and promises, to induce the 
natives to come alongside ; and as some of them were at 
last venturing to put off, a chief was observed attempting 
to drive them away. A musquet was immediately fired 
over his head to make him desist, which had the desired 
effect, and refreshments were soon after purchased as usual. 
In the afternoon Tereeoboo " {Kalaniopuu) " arrived, and 
visited the ships in a private manner, attended only by 
one canoe, in which were his wife and children. He 
stayed on board till near ten o'clock, when he returned to 
the village of Kowrowa" (Kaawaloa). 

On the 26th January Kalaniopuio made a formal state 
visit to the ships, and I again quote from Captain King : — 

" About noon, the king, in a large canoe, attended by 
two others, set out from the village, and paddled toward 
the ships in great state. Their appearance was grand and 

1 Vol. iii. p. 16. 



THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 1 83 

magnificent. In the first canoe was Tereeoboo and his 
chiefs, dressed in their rich feathered cloaks and helmets, 
and armed with long spears and daggers ; in the second 
came the venerable Kaoo,^ the chief of the priests, and his 
brethren, with their idols displayed on red cloth. These 
idols were busts of a gigantic size, made of wickerwork, 
and curiously covered with small feathers of various 
colours, wrought in the same manner with their cloaks. 
Their eyes were made of large pearl-oysters, with a black 
nut fixed in the centre; their mouths were set with a 
double row of the fangs of dogs, and, together with the 
rest of their features, were strangely distorted. The third 
canoe was filled with hogs and various sorts of vegetables. 
As they went along, the priests in the centre canoe sung 
their hymns with great solemnity ; and after paddling 
round the ships, instead of going on board, as was 
expected, they made toward the shore at the beach where 
we were stationed. 

"As soon as I saw them approaching, I ordered out 
our little guard to receive the king; and Captain Cook, 
perceiving that he was going on shore, followed him, and 
arrived nearly at the same time. We conducted them 
into the tent, where they had scarcely been seated^ when 
the king rose up, and in a very graceful manner threw 
over the Captain's shoulders the cloak he himself wore, 
put a feathered helmet upon his head, and a curious fan 
into his hand. He also spread at his feet five or six other 
cloaks, all exceedingly beautiful and of the greatest value. 
His attendants then brought four very large hogs, with 
sugar-canes, cocoa-nuts, and bread-fruit ; and this part of 
the ceremony was concluded by the king's exchanging 
names with Captain Cook, which amongst all the islanders 

1 As the native testimony is con- another name or sobriquet of Holoae, 

current and clear that Holoae was given to the foreigners instead of the 

the high-priest of Kalaniopuu, at ordinary and well-known Holoae. 

least during the latter years of his Such transpositions and changes of 

reign, and attended him in his expe- names in the same person were and 

ditions to Maui in 1776-78, it is are of frequent occurrence, 
possible that Kaoo might have been 



1 84 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE, 

of the Pacific Ocean is esteemed the strongest pledge of 
friendship. A procession of priests, with a venerable old 
personage at their head, now appeared, followed hy a long 
train of men leading large hogs, and others carrying 
plantains, sweet potatoes, &c. By the looks and gestures 
of Kaireekeea, I immediately knew the old man to be the 
chief of the priests before mentioned, on whose bounty we 
had so long subsisted. He held a piece of red cloth in his 
hands, which he wrapped round Captain Cook's shoulders, 
and afterward presented him with a small pig in the usual 
form. A seat was then made for him next to the king, 
after which Kaireekeea and his followers began their 
ceremonies, Kaoo and the chiefs joining in the responses. 

*' I was surprised to see, in the person of this king, the 
same infirm and emaciated old man that came on board the 
* Kesolution' when we were off the north-east side of the 
island of Mowee ; and we soon discovered amongst his 
attendants most of the persons who at that time had 
remained with us all night. Of this number were the two 
younger sons of the king,^ the eldest of whom was sixteen 
years of age, and his nephew, Maiha-maiha,^ whom at first 
we had some difficulty in recollecting, his hair being 
plastered over with a dirty brown paste and powder, 
which was no mean heightening to the most savage face 
I ever beheld. 

"As soon as the formalities of the meeting were over, 
Captain Cook carried Tereeoboo, and as many chiefs as 
the pinnace could hold, on board the ' Eesolution.' They 
were received with every mark of respect that could be 
shown them; and Captain Cook, in return for the 
feathered cloak, put a linen shirt on the king, and girt 
his own hanger round him. The ancient Kaoo and about 
half a dozen more old chiefs remained on shore, and took 
up their abode at the priests' houses. During all this 
time not a canoe was seen in the bay, and the natives 

^ Keoua Kuahuula and Keoua Peeale, sons of Kalaniopuu and Kanekapolei. 
- Kamehameha. 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE. i8$ 

either kept within their huts or lay prostrate on the 
ground. Before the king left the ' Eesolution/ Captain 
Cook obtained leave for the natives to come and trade 
with the ships as usual ; but the women, for what reason 
we could not learn/ still continued under the effects of 
the tabu; that is, were forbidden to stir from home or 
to have any communication with us." 

When Captain Clarke of the " Discovery " paid his visit 
to Kalaniopuu on shore,^ he was received with the same 
formalities as were observed with Captain Cook, and on 
his coming away, though the visit was quite unexpected, 
he received a present of thirty large hogs, and as much 
fruit and roots as his crew could consume in a week.^ 

When the scientific members of the voyage started for 
an excursion into the interior of the island, we are told 
"that it afforded Kaoo a fresh opportunity of showing 
his attention and generosity. Eor as soon as he was , 
informed of their departure, he sent a large supply of 
provisions after them, together with orders that the inha- 
bitants of the country through which they were to pass 
should give them every assistance in their power. And 
to complete the delicacy and disinterestedness of his con- 
duct, even the people he employed could not be prevailed 
on to accept the smallest present." * 

Again, the day before their departure from the bay, 
Kalaniopuu gave them another large present of hogs and 

1 The reason was not far to search, which he says took on Kauai. And 

While the fame of Cook had spread when it was left to the sovereign of 

throughout the group, the disease con- the island to protect his people as 

nected with his arrival at Kauai had hest he could, his act, instead of 

also spread ; and when Kalaniopuu^ awakening reflection and suggesting 

on his return from Maui, found the the cause, became a subject of won- 

women received by hundreds at a der. Neither Cook nor King seem to 

time on board the ships, he took the have felt the quiet rebuke implied 

only course left him, though, alas ! by the tabu being laid on the women, 

too late to restrict the evil. It is ^ When at Kaawaloa, Kalaniopuu 

somewhat remarkable that on his dwelt at Awili in Keaweaheulu's place 

arrival at Hawaii, neither Cook nor on Hanamua. 

King make the slightest mention of » Vol. iii. p. 22. 

having taken any similar precautions * Ibid, 
against the spreading of the disease. 



1 85 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

vegetables. Captain King says, *' We were astonished 
at the value and magnitude of this present, which far 
exceeded everything of the kind we had seen, either at 
the Friendly or Society Islands." ^ 

And how did Captain Cook requite this boundless 
hospitality, that never once made default during his long 
stay of seventeen days in Kealakeakua Bay, these mag- 
nificent presents of immense value, this delicate and 
spontaneous attention to his every want, this friendship 
of the chiefs and priests, this friendliness of the common 
people ? By imposing on their good nature to the utmost 
limit of its ability to respond to the greedy and constant 
calls of their new friends ; by shooting at one of the king's 
officers for endeavouring to enforce a law of the land, an 
edict of his sovereign that happened to be unpalatable 
to the newcomers, and caused them some temporary 
inconvenience after a week's profusion and unbridled 
license ; by a liberal exhibition of his force and the meanest 
display of his bounty ; by giving the king a linen shirt 
and a cutlass in return for feather cloaks and helmets, 
which, irrespective of their value as insignia of the 
highest nobility in the land, were worth singly at least 
from five to ten thousand dollars, at present price of the 
feathers, not counting the cost of manufacturing; by a 
reckless disregard of the proprieties of ordinary intercourse, 
even between civilised and savage man, and a wanton 
insult to what he reasonably may have supposed to have 
been the religious sentiments of his hosts.^ 

^ Vol. iii. p. 29. found myself mistaken. Not the 

' Captain Cook being in want of slightest surprise was expressed at 

fuel for the ships, sent Captain King the application, aud the wood was 

to " treat with the priests for the readily given, even without stipulat- 

jjurchase of the rail that surrounded ing for anything in return." But 

the top of tlie Moral." King says when the sailors carried oflf, not only 

(vol. iii. p. 25), " I had at first some the railing of the temple, but also the 

doubt about the decency of this pro- idols of the gods within it, even the 

posal, and was apprehensive that even large-hearted patience of Kaoo gave 

the bare mention of it might be con- up, and he meekly requested that the 

sidered by them as a piece of shock- central idol at least might be restored, 

ing impiety. In this, however, I Captain King failed to perceive that 



THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 1 87 

It is mucli to be regretted that no acts of kindness, 
benevolence, or sympathy, or any endeavours to amelio- 
rate the material or mental condition of his generous 
hosts, have been recorded to relieve the dark, harsh, 
greedy, and imperious traits of Captain Cook's character, 
which his stay at Hawaii indelibly impressed on the 
memory of the natives. To them he was a god or the 
incarnation of a god, no doubt, but a god to be feared, not 
loved, and from whose further visits they devoutly prayed 
to be delivered. To use a common expression, he " wore 
out his welcome," a fact of which Captain King appa- 
rently became sensible when he wrote as follows : — 

" Tereeoboo and his chiefs had for some days past been 
very inquisitive about the time of our departure. This 
circumstance had excited in me a great curiosity to know 
what opinion this people had formed of us, and what were 
their ideas respecting the cause and object of our voyage. 
I took some pains to satisfy myself on these points, but 
could never learn anything further than that they ima- 
gined we came from some country where provisions had 
failed, and that our visit to them was merely for the 
purpose of filling our bellies. Indeed, the meagre ap- 
pearance of some of our crew, the hearty appetites with 
which we sat down to their fresh provisions, and our 
great anxiety to purchase and carry off as much as we 
were able, led them naturally enough to such a conclusion. 
To these may be added a circumstance which puzzled 
them exceedingly, our having no women with us, together 
with our quiet conduct and unwarlike appearance. It 

the concession of the priests was that they exhibited no resentment at the 

of a devotee to his saint. The priests request, the want of delicacy and 

would not sell their religious emblems consideration on the part of Captain 

and belongings for " thirty pieces of Cook is none the less glaring. After 

silver" or any remuneration, but they his death, and when the illusion of 

were willing to offer up the entire godship had subsided, his spoliation 

Heiau, and themselves on the top of of the very Heiau in which he had 

it, as a holocaust to Lono, if he had been deified, was not one of the least 

requested it. So long as Cook was of the grievances which native annal- 

regarded as a god in their eyes, they ists laid up against him. 
could not refuse him. And though 



1 88 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

was ridiculous enough to see them stroking the sides and 
patting the bellies of the sailors (who were certainly 
much improved in the sleekness of their looks during our 
short stay in the island), and telling them, partly by signs 
and partly by words, that it was time for them to go, but 
if they would come again the next bread-fruit season, they 
should be better able to supply their wants. We had 
now been sixteen days in the bay, and if our enormous 
consumption of hogs and vegetables be considered, it need 
not be wondered that they should wish to see us take our 
leave. It is very probable, however, that Tereeoboo had 
no other view in his inquiries at present than a desire to 
make sufficient preparation for dismissing us with pre- 
sents suitable to the respect and kindness with which 
he had received us. For, on our telling him that we 
should leave the island on the next day but one, we 
observed that a sort of proclamation was immediately 
made through the villages, to require the people to bring 
in their hogs and vegetables for the king to present to 
the Orono on his departure." 

On the 4th of February 1779, the ships being ready. 
Cook left Kealakeakua Bay to visit and explore the lee- 
ward side of the group. When abreast of Kawaihae Bay, 
on February 6th, which Captain King writes " Too-yah- 
yah," he says that they saw " to the north-east several 
fine streams of water," ^ and a boat was sent ashore to 
look for an anchorage, but could not find any suitable 
watering-place. 

On the 8th of February the ships encountered a gale, 

1 Captain Vancouver, if I remem- must have been an ordinary feature 
ber correctly, also speaks of streams of the landscape. It is possible that 
of running water in the neighbour- since that time unrecorded earth- 
hood of Kawaihae. I am not aware quakes and the terribly wasteful 
of any stream now coming down to destruction of the forests in the 
the seashore, unless in extraordinary interior may have diverted and dried 
heavy freshets ; and as no extra- up the streams that fertilised the 
ordinary southerly storm occurred lower slopes of the Kohala mountains 
while the ships were lying at Keala- and gladdened the sight of transient 
keakua, those streams that Cook saw n wiga.ors. 



THE POL YNESIA N RA CE. 189 

during whicli the fishes of the fore masthead gave way, 
and it became necessary to seek a port where to repair 
the damage. After some consideration it was resolved 
to return to Kealakeakua, and on the nth February the 
ships anchored again in nearly their former position. 

On this occasion their reception was not of that bois- 
terous jubilant kind as on their former visit, an ominous 
silence reigned along the shore, and not a canoe came off 
to the ships. A boat sent ashore to inquire the reason, 
soon returned and informed Captain Cook that Kalani- 
ojpuu was absent and had left the bay under tabu. How- 
ever, the injured mast was sent ashore, carpenters and 
sailmakers set to work, the observatory erected anew on 
the ground formerly occupied on the south side of the 
bay. The priests still remained friendly, and, for the 
protection of the workmen and their tools, tabued the 
place where they were at work. 

There can be no doubt that during the absence of the 
ships reflection had sobered the judgment of the natives, 
and measurably cooled their enthusiasm. When the 
excitement of the novelty had subsided, it was found that 
the visit of Lono and his crews had been a tremendous 
drain on their alimentary resources, for which their only 
equivalents were some scraps of iron, a few hatchets and 
knives. But another, and perhaps a principal, reason of 
their waning friendliness is probably correctly expressed 
by the native historian, D. Malo, when he says, " The long 
and amorous intercourse of the foreigners with the women, 
and the great liking which some of the women had taken 
to the foreigners, was the reason why the men became 
opposed to Lono and his whole crew of foreigners." 
Another fact tended not a little to weaken the dread 
with which the natives had at first beheld the foreigners — 
the death from sickness and funeral on shore of one of the 
seamen. However firm their opinion might have been 
about Cook and his being a god — the Lono of their ancient 
creed — yet it was evident that Lonos companions, how- 



I90 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

ever wonderful in other respects, were mortals like them- 
selves, that could be reached by sickness and subdued by 
death. From such or similar mingled motives the conduct 
of the natives had become, if not actually hostile, yet 
troublesome and defiant. The return of the ships was not 
viewed with pleasure, and the ill-will of the natives, and 
their readiness to measure themselves with the foreigners 
in actual combat, did not wait long for an opportunity 
to manifest itself. 

On the 1 2th of February Kalaniopuu returned to the 
bay, the tabu was taken off, and he visited Captain Cook 
on board. It cannot now be positively known whether 
Kalaniopuw personally shared in the unfriendly and jealous 
feeling entertained by his subordinate chiefs and the 
common people. If he did, he knew how to dissemble ; 
but it is due to the memory of Kalaniopuu to state that 
no act of his has been recorded that would indicate that 
he was not as loyal and liberal on the second visit of 
Cook to the bay as on the first. The priests also remained 
friendly to Cook, to his officers and men, although their 
friendship was badly requited. 

In the afternoon of the 1 3th February a watering-party 
belonging to the " Discovery " was interrupted and impeded 
by some of the chiefs, who had driven away the natives 
engaged in assisting the sailors to roll the casks to the 
shore. When informed of this, Captain King immediately 
went to the watering-place. On seeing him approach, the 
natives threw away the stones with which they had armed 
themselves. After remonstrating with the chiefs, they 
drove away the crowd that had collected at the prospect 
of an affray, and the watering-party were no more molested. 

On the events which followed this first attempt of the 
natives to resist and defy the foreigners there are three 
independent sources of information. First, Captain King's 
continuation of Captain Cook's journal of the " Voyage to 
the Pacific Ocean," vol. iii. ; second, Ledyard's Life, by 
Sparks ; and, third, the native reminiscences as recorded 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 191 

by D. Malo, S. Dibble, and S. M. Kamakau. The main 
facts are the same with all these authorities, though each 
one supplies details that are omitted or unknown to the 
others. Captain King reqeived his information, where he 
was not personally present, from Lieutenant Philips and 
others who accompanied Cook ashore on that ill-fated 
14th of February. Ledyard professes to have been one 
of the company who went ashore with Cook, and was an 
eye-witness to the whole affray. Malo, Dibble, and 
Kamakau obtained their information from some of the 
high chiefs who were present at the time and formed the 
" Ai-alo" (court circle) of Kalaniopuu. There are a few 
discrepancies between King's and Ledyard's accounts, but 
they are not very material, and may be owing to want of 
correct information on the one part, and to exaggeration 
and a confused memory on the other, whose memoirs were 
only written years after the event. 

Among these various versions of the same melancholy 
event and the causes that led to it, I prefer to follow the 
compilation of the native authorities as prepared by Eev. 
Sheldon Dibble in his " History of the Sandwich Islands," 
printed at Lahainaluna, 1843, ^s the least inflated and 
probably most correct account that can now be obtained. 
Mr. Dibble says : — 

" Some men of Captain Cook used violence to the canoe 
of a certain young chief whose name was Palea. The 
chief making resistance, was knocked down by one of the 
white men with a paddle. 

" Soon after, Palca ^ stole a boat from Captain Cook's 

1 This was the same Palea who during the night after the above fracas, 

from the first had been the constant, the night of the 13th February, that 

kind, and obliging friend of Captain the cutter of the " Discovery " was 

Cook and all the foreigners, and who, stolen from her mooring, as King 

only the day before Cook's death, himself admits, "by Palea's people, 

had saved the crew of the pinnace of very probably in revenge for the blow 

the " Resolution " from being stoned that had been given him," and not by 

to death by the natives, exasperated Palea himself. The boat had been 

at the brutal and insolent manner in taken to Ououli, a couple of miles 

which Palea had been treated by an higher up the coast, and there broken 

officer of the "Discovery." It was to pieces. 



192 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

ship. The theft may be imputed to revenge, or to a desire 
to obtain the iron fastenings of the boat. 

" Captain Cook commanded Kalaniojpiiu, the king of the 
island, to make search for the boat and restore it. The 
king could not restore it, for the natives had already- 
broken it in pieces to obtain the nails, which were to them 
the articles of the greatest value. 

" Captain Cook came on shore with armed men to take 
the king on board, and to keep him there as security till 
the boat should be restored. 

" In the meantime was acted the consummate folly and 
outrageous tyranny of placing a blockade upon a heathen 
bay, which the natives could not possibly be supposed 
either to understand or appreciate. The large cutter and 
two boats from the ' Discovery ' had orders to proceed to 
the mouth of the bay, form at equal distances across, and 
prevent any communication by water from any other part 
of the island to the towns within the bay, or from within 
to those without. 

"A canoe came from an adjoining district, bound within 
the bay. In the canoe were two chiefs of some rank, 
Kekuhaujpio and Kalimu} The canoe was fired upon from 
one of the boats, and Kalimu was killed. Kekuhaupio 
made the greatest speed till he reached the place of the 
king, where Captain Cook also was, and communicated 
the intelligence of the death of the chief. The attendants 
of the king were enraged, and showed signs of hostility ; 
but were restrained by the thought that Captain Cook was 
a god.2 At that instant a warrior, with, a spear in his 
hand, approached Captain Cook, and was heard to say 
that the boats in the harbour had killed his brother, and 

1 Kekuhaupio was the great warrior Kalimu was the brother of Palea, but 

chief under Kalaniopuu who had I have been unable to trace their 

instructed Kamehameha in all the pedigree. 

martial exercises of the time. He ^ King mentions that when Kal- 

was the son-in-law of the high-priest aniopuu manifested a willingness to 

Holoae, and his daughter Kailipa- go onboard the "Resolution" with 

kalua was the great-grandmother of Captain Cook, and his two younger 

the present Hon. Blrs. Fauahi Bishop, sons were already in the pinnace, his 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 193 

he would be revenged. Captain Cook, from his enraged 
appearance and that of the multitude, was suspicious of 
him, and fired upon him with his pistol. Then followed 
a scene of confusion, and in the midst of it Captain Cook 
being hit witli a stone, and perceiving the man who threw 
it, shot him dead. He also struck a certain chief with his 
sword whose name was Kalaimanokahoowaha} The chief 
instinctively seized Captain Cook with a strong hand, 
designing merely to hold him, and not to take his life, 
for he supposed him to be a god, and that he could not 
die. Captain Cook struggled to free himself from the 
grasp, and as he was about to fall uttered a groan. The 
people immediately exclaimed, ' He groans — he is not a 
god,' and instantly slew him. Such was the melancholy 
death of Captain Cook. 

" Immediately the men in the boat commenced a delibe- 
rate fire upon the crowd. They had refrained in a measure 
before for fear of killing their captain. Many of the 
natives were killed. In vain did the ignorant natives 
hold up their frail leaf-mats to ward off the bullets. 
They seemed to imagine that it was the fire from the guns 
that was destructive, for they not only shielded themselves 
with mats, but took constant care to keep them wet. 
Soon round-shot from one of the ships was fired into the 
middle of the crowd, and both the thunder of the cannon 
and the effects of the shot operated so powerfully that 
it produced a precipitate retreat from the shore to the 
mountains. 

" The body of Captain Cook was carried into the interior 
of the island, the bones secured according to their custom, 
and the flesh burnt in the fire. The heart, liver, &c., of 

wife, whom King calls Kanee-Kab- seen hereafter that Kalola and her 

areea, came along, and " with tears son Kiwalao were probably on Maui 

and entreaties besought him not to at this time. 

go on board." The lady's name was 1 He was also known by the name 

Kanekapolei, referred to in a previous of Kanaina, and from him the late 

note. S. M. Kamakau states that Charles Kanaina, father of the late 

the lady was Kalola, another of King Luaalilo, received his name. 
KdaniopmCs wives; but it will be 

VOL. IL N 



194 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

Captain Cook were stolen and eaten by some hungry 
children, who mistook them in the night for the inwards 
of a dog. The names of the children were Ku^a, Mohoole, 
and Kaiivikokoole. These men are now all dead. The last 
of the number died two years since at the station of Lahaina. 
Some of the bones of Captain Cook were sent on board his 
ship, in compliance with the urgent demands of the officers, 
and some were kept by the priests as objects of worship." ^ 

The other side of the bay, where the carpenters and 
sailmakers were at work, and where the observatory was 
erected, and where Captain King was in charge, shared 
also in the confusion, strife, and bloodshed which had 
been enacted at Kaawaloa.^ Protected by Kaoo and the 
priests, the injured mast, the instruments at the observa- 
tory, and the ships' artisans, returned on board unhurt. 
Negotiations were entered into for the recovery of the 
bodies or bones of Captain Cook and the four marines 
that had been killed in the affray at Kaawaloa, and the 
ships, finding their situation precarious, concluded to pro- 
cure a supply of water and leave the bay. The watering, 
however, was not suffered to proceed unmolested. The 
throwing of stones by the natives was at first responded 
to by the musquets of the foreigners, by the guns from the 
ships, and finally by burning the village of Napoopoo,^ in 
which conflagration the houses of the friendly and faithful 
priests were destroyed. 

" On the evening of the i8th February," Captain King 
writes, " a chief called Eappo,* who had seldom visited us, 

1 Or, as I have heard native autho- the highest rank. Of the merely 

rities suggest, as objects of revenge, wounded no account was made, 

for the purpose of making fish-hooks ^ A cocoa-nut tree is still standing 

or arrow-heads of them. near the landing-place at Napoopoo 

' King reports that he learned from whose trunk was pierced through and 

some of the priests that seventeen through by one of the cannon-balls 

natives were killed in the action at fired on this occasion. The hole made 

Kaawaloa, where Cook fell, of whom by the ball has never closed up. A 

five were chiefs, and that eight natives melancholy souvenir of Lono's visit, 

were killed at the observatory at * I am unable to ascertain the pro- 

Kapoopoo, three of whom were of per name of this chief. Captain 

King's orthograpliy must be wrong. 



THE POL YNESIAN RACE. 195 

but whom we knew to be a man of the very first conse- 
quence, came with presents from Tereeoboo to sue for 
peace. These presents were received, and he was dis- 
missed with the same answer which had before been 
given, that until the remains of Captain Cook should be 
restored, no peace would be granted. We learned from 
this person that the flesh of all the bodies of our people, 
together with the bones of the trunks, had been burnt ; 
that the limb bones of the marines had been divided 
among the inferior chiefs, and that those of Captain Cook 
had been disposed of in the following manner : — The head 
to a great chief called Kahoo-opeou,^ the hair to Maia- 
maia, and the legs, thighs, and arms to Tereeoboo." 

The fact that Kamehameha was a party to the division 
of these sad relics of Captain Cook is of itself no proof 
that he was directly or indirectly a leader or a prominent 
actor in the fatal affray at Kaawaloa. But the careful 
historian will not fail to note what Captains Portlock and 
Dixon, who were the first foreigners that arrived at 
Hawaii after the death of Captain Cook, and who had 
been with Cook on his last disastrous voyage, say of 
Kamehameha ; that he declined to visit their ships when 
anchored in Kealakeakua Bay, from apprehension that 
they had come to avenge the death of Captain Cook, in 
regard to which Portlock expressly says,^ that " Kame- 
hameha took an active part in the unfortunate affray 
which terminated in the much-lamented death of Captain 
Cook." And again, in the " Voyage of John Meares," who 
visited the islands the next year after Captain Portlock, 
we are told that Kamehameha took no common pains to 
persuade Captain Douglas that Tereeoboo was poisoned 

^ I am equally unable to give the waii Islands," mentions tliat "Lilio- 

correct name of this chief, unless, liho"(theson of Kamehameha I.) is 

which is probable from his known said to have carried a portion of them 

position as Kalaniopuu's generalis- (the bones of Cook) to England, and 

simo, it was Kekuhaupio above re- to have presented one of the sad 

ferred to. " Maia-niaia," who got relics to the widow of Cook, 

the hair, is evidently Kamehameha. 2 Voyage Round the World, by 

Jarves, in his " History of the Ha- Portlock, 1786, p. 61. 



196 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

for having encouraged the natives to the murder of 
Captain Cook.^ What grounds Portlock had for the 
assertion that he makes are not stated. He may have 
spoken of his own personal knowledge, having attended 
Cook on his last visit to these islands, or he may have 
expressed what was the current opinion at the time. 
What motive Kamehameha might have had in endeavour- 
ing to impose upon Captain Douglas by the story of 
Kalaniopuu having been poisoned by the revolted chiefs 
for murdering Captain Cook can only be surmised from 
concurrent circumstances. Certain it is, if Meares' repre- 
sentation of the conversations betw^een KamehameJia and 
Captain Douglas is correct, that Kamehameha knowingly 
told Captain Douglas three distinct untruths in thus 
imposing upon him. We know now, from native annals 
and from native contemporary eye-witnesses, that Kala- 
niopuu was at first a willing companion of Cook, then a 
passive, and lastly a frightened spectator of the affray 
going on around him, and took no active part in the 
final tragedy. We know that the chiefs did not revolt 
from him during the remainder of his life for this or any 
other cause ; and we know that he did not die from poison 
administered by the revolted chiefs, who threatened worse 
outrage if he refused to submit, but that he died three 
years after Cook, of old age and debility. It is impossible 
to believe that Kamehameha was ignorant of these facts, 
and it is but fair to infer that his motive, in thus misre- 
presenting things, was to screen himself from the odium 
and reprisals which he anticipated would follow an act 
in which he had been a prominent if not a chief actor. 
Neither Captain Cook nor Captain King mention the pre- 
sence of Kiwalao, the son and heir-presumptive of Kala- 
niopuu, and native historians are equally silent as to his 
whereabouts at the time of Cook's death. In his absence, 
therefore, Kamehameha was the next highest chief of the 
blood-royal, and might naturally be supposed to have 

^ Voyage of John Meares, 1787, 1788, 1789, Loudon, 1790, p. 374. 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE, 



197 



resented and forcibly resisted the attempted abduction, 
of his aged uncle, and to have taken an active part in the 
affray which ensued. The persistent efforts of Captain 
Cook to bring Kalaniopuu on board of his ship, and his 
unprovoked firing upon the canoes in the bay, would have 
been enough to fire the blood of civilised men into resist- 
ance, much more that of a semi-barbarous chief ; and if 
Kamehameha " took an active part in the unfortunate 
affray," as Portlock says, the impartial historian will not 
blame him. 

On the 20tli and 21st of February, " Eappo and the 
king's son " brought what remained of the bones of Captain 
Cook on board of the " Kesolution," and Eappo having 
been dismissed with a request to tabu the bay, the bones 
were committed to the deep with military honours ; and 
on tlie 22d of February, in the evening, the ships lefb 
Kealakeakua Bay for the last time. " The natives, at the ^ 
time," Captain King says, " were collected on the shore in 
great numbers, and as we passed along, received our last 
farewells with every mark of affection and good-will." 

On the 24th February, being off the south side of Maui, 
in the channel between Kahoolawe and Lanai, canoes from 
Maui came alongside to sell provisions, and Captain King 
learned from them that they had already heard of the 
transactions at Kealakeakua and the death of Captain 
Cook. 

Going to the southward of Lanai, and rounding the east 
and north points of Oahu, the ships anchored off the mouth 
of the Waialua river on the 27th February. The two 
captains and Captain King landed, and, he says, "we 
found but few of the natives, and those mostly women ; 
the men, they told us, were gone to Morotoi to fight ^ 



1 The " Tahy-terree " of Captain 
King was tlie well-known Kahekil% 
king of Maui. The report of Waialua, 
or Oahu men, warring again st^a/jeA;t7i 
on Molokai is hardly correct. There 
is no doubt that Molokai was in a 



distracted condition at the time, and 
individual free lances from Oahu 
were probably engaged on the sides 
of contending chiefs ; but in 1779 
Kahahana, the Oahu king, had buc 
lately returned from Maui, where he 



198 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

Taliy-terree, but that their chief, Perreeoranee/ who had 
stayed behind, would certainly visit us as soon as he heard 
of our arrival." 

On the 1st of March, the ships not finding watering 
facilities at Waialua, and having crossed the channel on 
the 28th, anchored in their former places off Waimea, 
Kauai. Of their welcome there Captain King writes : — 
" We had no sooner anchored in our old stations than 
several canoes came alongside of us, but we could observe 
that they did not welcome us with the same cordiality in 
their manner and satisfaction in their countenances as 
when we were here before. As soon as they got on board, 
one of the men began to tell us that we had left a disorder 
amongst their women, of which several persons of both 
sexes had died. As there was not the slightest appearance 
of that disorder amongst them on our first arrival, I am 
afraid it is not to be denied that we were the authors of 
this irreparable mischief." 

On the first day of their stay at Waimea the watering- 
party experienced much trouble and annoyance from the 
natives, who were apparently left to themselves in the 
absence of their chiefs, and who demanded a hatchet as 
the price for each cask of water that was filled, and who 
strove in different ways to obtain possession of the mus- 
quets of the marines. When the party were getting into 
the boats to return on board, the natives commenced 
throwing stones and made a rush for the boats. Two 
musquets were fired at them, and they dispersed, leaving 
one fellow wounded on the beach. The next day, however, 
no further trouble was experienced, some of the chiefs 
having apparently returned, and the watering-place being 
tabued by the erection of small white flags around it. 

had assisted Kahekili in his wars lani. He, and the only one of that 

against Kalaniopuu of Hawaii, and name who was king of Oahu, died 

the rupture between Kahekili and about the year 1770. The one tliat 

Kahahana did not occur till some- Captain King refers to must have 

time afterward, in 1780-81. been a namesake and an inferior chief 

1 "Perreeoranee," properly Pe?eioAo- in the Waialua district. 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE, 199 

Several cliiefs having come off on board on the 3d of 
March, Captain King learned that contentions and wars 
had occurred between the two high chiefs Kaneoneo and 
Keawe ^ in regard to the goats which Captain Cook had 
left at Niihau, and that during the period of dispute the 
goats had been killed. 

The mother and sister of Keawe, and also Kaneoneo, 
visited the ships, making presents to Captain Clarke. 

On the 8th of March the ships left Kauai and anchored 
at their former station at Niihau, and on the 15th of 
March took their final departure for the north. 



Thus ended the episode of Lono (Captain Cook), but its 
influence on the Hawaiian people was lasting and will 
long be remembered. He came as a god, and, in the 
untutored minds of the natives, was worshipped as such ; 
but his death dispelled the illusion ; and by those whom 
he might have so largely benefited he is only remembei ed 
for the quantity of iron that for the first time was so 
abundantly scattered over the country, and for the intro- 
duction of a previously unknown and terrible disease.^ 
As education and intelligence are spreading, however, 
among the natives, they will gradually learn to appreciate 
the benefits that have followed and will continue to follow 
in the wake of his first discovery. The reproaches that 
have been levelled at his memory will gradually fade, as 
men learn to judge others according to the standard of the 
times and the exceptional circumstances under which they 
lived and had to act ; and while time will eradicate the 
evils attributed to Cook's arrival, time will also bring into 
greater prominence the advantages and blessings, the light 
and the knowledge, to which his discovery opened the 

^ I have referred to Kaneoneo before in note to page 164. Keawe was 
another grandson of Peleioholani of Oahu. 

- S. M. Kamakau states that fleas and mosquitoes were unknown in the 
Hawaiian group until the arrival of Cook's ships. 



20O THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

portals, and enable future historians, be they native or 
foreign, to draw a truer, more just, and more generous 
balance. In contemplating what the Hawaiians were one 
hundred years ago and what they are this day, no candid 
person can fail to kindly remember the man who first tore 
the veil of isolation that for centuries had shrouded the 
Hawaiians in deeper and deeper growing darkness, who 
brought them in relation with the civilised world, and who 
pointed the way for others to bring them that knowledge 
which is power and that light which is life. 



After Captain Cook's death and the final departure of 
the two ships, Kalaniopuu dwelt some time in the Kona 
district, about Kahaluu and Keauhou, diverting himself 
with Hula performances, in which it is said that he 
frequently took an active part, notwithstanding his ad- 
vanced age. Scarcity of food, after a while, obliged 
Kalaniopuu to remove his court into the Kohala district, 
where his headquarters were fixed at Kapaau. Here the 
same extravagant, laissez-faire, eat and be merry policy 
continued that had been commenced at Kona, and much 
grumbling and discontent began to manifest itself among 
the resident chiefs and the cultivators of the land, the 
" Makaainana." Imakakaloa, a great chief in the Puna 
district, and Nituanupaahu, a chief of ISTaalehu in the Kau 
district, became the heads and rallying-points of the dis- 
contented. The former resided on his lands in Puna, and 
openly resisted the orders of Kalaniopuu and his extrava- 
gant demands for contributions of all kinds of property ; 
the latter was in attendance with the court of Kalaniopuu 
in Kohala, but was strongly suspected of favouring the 
growing discontent. 

One day, when the chiefs were amusing themselves 
with surf-swimming off Kauhola, in the neighbourhood of 
Halaula, Nuuanupaahu was attacked by an enormous 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 201 

shark. He perceived his clanger too late, and the shark 
bit off one of his hands. Nothing daunted, Nuuanupaahu 
sprang to his feet, and standing upright on the surf-board, 
shot through the surf and landed safely. But from loss 
of blood and exhaustion he died a few days after at Pololu, 
and the court of Kalaniopuu was thus relieved from further 
anxiety in that quarter. 

It appears from the native accounts that at this time 
Ki'walao, the son of Kalanio;puu, and his mother, Kalola, 
were absent on Maui, on a visit to her brother Kahekili. 
Messengers were sent to recall them to Hawaii, and in the 
meanwhile the court moved from Kohala to the Waipio 
valley in Hamakua district. When Kiwalao arrived, a 
grand council of the highest chiefs was convened, at 
which, with the approval of the cliiefs present, Xalaniopuu 
proclaimed Kiwalao as his heir and successor in the govern- 
ment and the supervision of the tabus and the " palaoa 
pae," and he intrusted the care of his particular war-god, 
Kukailimoku, to his nephew Kamehameha, who was, how- 
ever, to be subordinate to Kiimlao. The Heiau of Moaula, 
in Waipio, was then put in repair and consecrated to the 
service of the war-god aforesaid. 

Having thus arranged his worldly and spiritual affairs 
to his satisfaction, Kalaniopuu started with his chiefs and 
warriors for Hilo, in order to subdue the rebel chief of 
Puna. In Hilo Kalaniopuu consecrated the Heiau called 
Kanowa, in Puueo, to the service of his war-god; then 
took up his abode at Ohele, in Waiakea, and then the war 
with Imakakoloa commenced. The rebel chieftain fought 
long and bravely, but was finally overpowered and beaten. 
Por upwards of a year he eluded capture, being secreted 
by the country-people of Puna, In the meanwhile Ka- 
laniojpuu moved from Hilo to the Kau district, stopping 
first at Punaluu, then at Waiohinu, then at Kamaoa, where 
he built the Heiau of Pakini in expectation of the capture 
of Imakakaloa. Finally, exasperated at the delay, and 
the refuge given to the rebel phief by the Puna people, 



202 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

Kalaniopuu sent Fuliili, one of his Kalms, to ravage the 
Puna district with fire, i.e., to burn every village and 
hamlet until Iinakakoloa should be found or the people 
surrender him. Commencing with the land of Apua, it 
was literally laid in ashes. It is said that through some 
accident one of ImakakoloaJs own nurses became the 
means of betraying his liiding-place. He was found, 
captured, and brought to Kalaniopuu in Kamaoa, Kau. 

Imakakoloa is represented to have been a young man of 
stately aspect, and with hair on his head so long as to 
have reached to his heels. That he had secured the 
affection of his people is shown by the war he waged and 
the shelter he found among them when the war was over, 
and he was hunted as an outlaw by Kalaniopuu' s warriors 
and servants. 

When Imakakoloa was to be sacrificed at the Heiau of 
Pakini, the performance of the ceremony devolved on 
Kiwalao, as representing his father. The routine of the 
sacrifice required that the presiding chief should first offer 
up the pigs prepared for the occasion, then bananas, fruit, 
&c., and lastly, the captive chief. But while Kiwalao was 
in the act of offering up the pigs and fruit, KameJiameha 
catches hold of the slain chief and offers him up at the 
same time, and then dismisses the assembly. 

The native authorities intimate that Kamelmmelia was 
instigated to this act of insubordination by some chiefs 
who, in fomenting strife and jealousy between the two 
cousins, saw an opportunity of profit to themselves. As 
no names of such Hawaiian Achitophels are given in the 
native accounts, it may possibly be but a surmise of 
Kamehamelia s contemporaries, who in that way sought 
to remove the blame from his shoulders. The more 
probable motive would be irritation and a sense of slight 
at being superseded, as it were, by Kiwalao in the perfor- 
mance of the sacrifices to that particular god which 
Kalaniopuu had officially and solemnly intrusted to his 
care at Waipio. While, therefore, native chroniclers do 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 203 

not go deep enougli in search of motives to an act that 
doubtless coloured the subsequent intercourse of the 
cousins, and left its sting in both their breasts, the 
resentment felt by Kamehameha at what he considered 
an intrusion upon his prerogative may very likely have 
been fanned into flame by evil counsellors. 

This daring act of Kamehamelia created an immense 
excitement in the court circle of Kalaoiiopuu and among 
the chiefs generally, and not a few looked upon it as an 
act of rebellion. When Kalaniopuu was informed of the 
transaction, he called Kamehamelia privately to his side, 
and told him that the sentiment of the chiefs about the 
court was so bitter and hostile to him that it would be 
difficult to answer for his safety, and advised him kindly 
to leave the court and go to Kohala for a season, but to be 
careful to attend to the observances due to his god 
Kuhailimoku. 

Kamehameha took his uncle's advice, and in company 
with his wife Kalola} his brother Kalaimamahn^ and the 
god Kaili, he left Kau, and passing through Hilo, went 
to Halawa, his patrimonial estate in Kohala, where he 
remained till the death of Kalaniopuu. 

From Kamaoa Kalaniopuu moved down to Kaalualu 
and Paiahaa, and from there to Kalae, where he attempted 
to dig a well in order to obtain good water, but failed to 
reach it. In his anger and disappointment he killed the 
soothsayer who had endeavoured to dissuade him from so 
fruitless an attempt. 

Intending to go to Kona once more, Kalaniopuu left 
the seashore of Kalae and went up to Kailikii, in Waioa- 

1 ^a?oZ(X was the daughter of ^wm It- ^ Kalaimamahu was the son of 

hoa, who was the son of Keaicelkeka- Keouakalanikupuapaikalani and Ka- 

hialiikamoku, the king of Hawaii, and makaeheukuli, who was a daughter of 

his wife Kane-a-Lae. Kalola after- Haae, of the famous Mahi family in 

wards had Kekuamanoha, a younger Kohala, and his wife Kalelemauli- 

brother of Kahekili of Maui, for hus- okalani. Kalaimamahu was the 

band, and became the mother of the father of the late Kekauluohi, who 

valiant and faithful Manono, the wife was mother of the late King Luna- 

of Kekuaokalani, a nephew of Kame- lilo. 
hamcha. 



204 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

hukini, where he sickened and died some time in the 
month of January 1782.^ Of course his exact age cannot 
be ascertained, but he was very ohl, and probably upwards 
of eighty years old when he died. 

It has been often asserted that Kalaniopuu was the son 
of Peleioholani, and that his mother, Kamakaimohi, was 
pregnant with him when Kalaninuiamamao brought her 
to Hawaii as his wife from Oahu, where her mother and 
brothers were living at Waikele, in the Ewa district ; and 
it is said that his mother called him Ka-lei-opuu, after 
the ivory ornament with braids of human hair worn as 
a necklace by the Oahu chiefs, which name the Hawaii 
chiefs and nurses (Kahu) perverted to Kalaniopuu, The 
truth or error of this assertion was apparently an open 
question in Kalaniopuu's own lifetime, and will probably 
ever remain so. 

During the last years of Kalaniopitus life, KaheJdli, the 
Maui king, invaded the Hana district of Maui, which since 
1759 had been an appanage of the Hawaii kingdom. Suc- 
cessful this time, Kahekili reduced the celebrated fort on 
the hill of Kauwiki and reannexed the Hana district to 
the Maui dominion. The particulars will be given when 
treating of Kahekili' s reign among the Maui sovereigns. 

Xalaniopmo had at different times of his life six wives ; 
their names were — 

(i.) Kalola, the great tabu chief ess of Maui, daughter of 
Kekaulike and his wife Kekuiajooiwanui. With her he had 
but one c\n\di,Kiwalao, who succeeded him as king of Hawaii. 

(2.) Kalaiwahineuli, the daughter of Heulu and his wife 
Kaliikiokalani, and thus a cousin on his mother's side. 
AVith her he had a son, Kalaipaihala, great-grandfather of 
the present queen- dowager, Emma Kaleleonalani. 

(3.) Kamakolunuiokalani, with whose pedigree I am not 
acquainted. With her he had a daughter, Pualinui, who 
became the mother of the late LuluMwalani of Lahaina. 

1 Jarves in his history says that Kalaniopuu died in April 1782. I know^ 
not Jarves' authority. 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 



20: 



(4.) Mulehu^ of a Kau chief family. With her he had a 
(laughter, Manoua or Manowa, who became the grand- 
mother of the late Asa Kaeo, and great-grandmother of 
the present Peter Kaeo Kekuaokalani. With another 
husband, named Kalaniivahikapaa} Muleliu became the 
grandmother of the late A. Paki, and great-grandmother 
of the present Mrs. Pauahi Bisliop. 

(5.) Kanekapolei is claimed by some to have been the 
daughter of Kauakahiakua, of the Maui royal family, and 
his wife Umiaemoku; by others she is said to have been 
of the Kau race of chiefs. With her he had two sons, 
Keoua Kuahuula and Keoua Peeale. The former con- 
tested the supremacy of Hawaii with Kamehamelia after 
the death of Kiwalao ; the latter made no name for him- 
self in history. 

(6.) Kekuohi or Kekujpuohi, with whose pedigree I am 
not acquainted, and who had no children with Kalaniopuu. 



Maui. 

After Piilanis death (p. 87), his oldest son, Lono-a-Pii, lono-a-r 
followed him as the Moi of Maui. His character has been 
severely handled by succeeding generations and the legends 
they handed down. He is represented as unamiable, surly, 
avaricious — unpardonable faults in a Hawaiian chieftain. 
His niggardliness and abuse of his younger brother, Kiha-a- 
Piilani, drove the latter into exile and brought about his 
own downfall and death, as already narrated on page 98. 

Lono-a-Piis wives were — Kealana-a-waauli, a great 
granddaughter of Kahakuokanc, the sovereign of Kauai, 
and grandson of Manokalanipo. With her he had a 
daughter called Kaakaupea, who became the wife of her 
uncle Nihokela, and mother of Piilaniwahine, the wife of 
Kamalalawalu. Lonoapii had another daughter named 
Moihala, from whom descended Kapuleiolaay one of the 

1 Son of Kumukoa-a-Keawe and Kaulahoa (w). 



2o6 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

wives of Kanaloauoo and ancestress of Sarai Hiwauli, 
wife of the late Hon. John li. 

There is a legend, or rather a version, of the war which 
Umi-a-Liloa undertook against Lono-a-Pii on behalf of his 
brother Kihapiilani, which states that when Umi arrived 
with his fleet at Hana, he was informed that Lono-a-Pii had 
died, and that a son of his named Kalanikupua reigned in 
his stead, and had charge of the fort of Kauwiki at Hana; 
that Umi was disposed to spare the young man and allow 
him to remain on the throne of his father, but Piihea, 
Umi's wife, strongly opposed such clemency, and persuaded 
her husband to prosecute the war and place Kiliapiilani 
as Moi of Maui. I kpow not the source of this version, 
but finding it among the legends of this period, and it 
being the only one which mentions a son of Lono-a-Fii, I 
refer to it under reserve. 
Kihapiiiani. KihapUlani, who thus forcibly succeeded his brother as 
Moi of Maui, had been brought up by his mother's relatives 
at the court of Kuhaniloko of Oahu, and only when arrived 
at man's estate returned to his father on Maui. Having, 
as before related, through the assistance of his brother-in- 
law Umi obtained the sovereignty, he devoted himself to 
the improvement of his island. He kept peace and order 
in the country, encouraged agriculture, and improved and 
caused to be paved the difficult and often dangerous roads 
over the Palis of Kaupo, Hana, and Koolau — a stupendous 
work for those times, the remains of which may still be 
seen in many places, and are pointed out as the " Kipapa" 
of Kihapiiiani. His reign was eminently peaceful and 
prosperous, and his name has been reverently and affec- 
tionately handed down to posterity. 

Kihapiiiani had two wives — (i.) Kumaka, who was of 
the Hana chief families, and a sister of ICahuakole, a chief 
at Kawaipapa, in Hana. With her he had a son named 
Kamalalawalu, who succeeded him as Moi of Maui. (2.) 
IColeamoJcu, who was daughter of Hoolae, the Hana chief 
at Kauwiki, referred to on page 99. With her he had a 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 207 

son called KauhioJcalani, from whom the Kaupo chief 
families of Koo and Kaiuli descended. 

Kamalalawalu followed his father as Moi of Maui. He J^^maiaia- 

walu, 

enjoyed a long and prosperous reign until its close, when 
his sun set in blood and disaster, as already narrated on 
page 123, &c. His reputation stood deservedly high 
among his contemporaries and with posterity for good 
management of his resources, just government of his 
people, and a liberal and magnificent court according to 
the ideas of those times, and in recognition of all which 
his name was associated with that of his island, and Maui 
has ever since been known in song and saga as Maui-a- 
Kama, His sumptuous entertainments of the two Hawaii 
kings, Keawenui-a- Umi and his son Lonoikamakahiki, are 
dilated upon in the legends ; and Maui probably never 
stood higher, politically, among the sister kingdoms of the 
group than during the life of Kamalalawalu. 

There are no wars mentioned in the legends as having 
been undertaken by Kamalalawalu except the one against 
Lonoikamakahiki of Hawaii, in which Kamalalaioalu lost 
his life, and in which the old king's obstinacy was the 
cause of the disaster that befell his army and himself. 
But from certain allusions in the legends the inference 
may with great probability be drawn that the chiefs of 
Lanai became subject or tributary to Maui during this 
reign ; but whether through war or negotiation is not 
apparent. 

Kamalalawalu had only one recognised wife, Piilani- 
wahine. She was the daugliter of his cousin Kaakaupea, 
who was the daughter of Lono-a-Pii, and who in the family 
chants was also known by the name of Kamaikawekiuloloa. 
"With this wife he had six children, four boys and two 
girls, named respectively Kaiohi-a-kama, Umikalakaua, 
I^^alakauaehu-a-kama, Fai-kalakaua, Piilanikapo, and Kau- 
noJio. The first succeeded him as Moi of Maui ; the third, 
through his children Kawaumahana, ICihamahana, and 
Moihala, became widely connected with the aristocracy of 



KauM-a- 
kaina. 



208 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE, 

the other islands, and progenitor of several still living 
families. Of the other four children of Kamalalawalu 
little is known. 

Kaulii-a-kama followed his father on the throne of 
Maui. It is related of him that when Kamalalawalu was 
meditating and preparing for the invasion and war on 
Hawaii, he sent Kaiihi on a secret mission to explore and 
report upon the condition, resources, and populousness of 
the Kohala and Kona districts ; and that Kauhi performed 
his mission so carelessly or ignorantly, that, on his return 
to Maui, he led the old king to believe that those districts 
were but thinly peopled and totally unprepared to resist 
an invasion ; and that this incorrect report from his own 
son confirmed Kamalalawalu in his project of invasion. 
It is further related that after the disastrous battle at 
Hokuula, where Kamalalawalu and the best part of his 
army perished, Kauhi escaped to Kawaihae, where he hid 
himself among the rocks for two days until discovered by 
Hinau, who assisted him and procured a canoe, in which 
they crossed over to Maui. 

Keturned to his own island, Kauhi assumed the s^overn- 
ment left vacant by the death of his father, and gratefully 
remembered the services of Hinau by heaping wealth and 
distinction upon him, until, in an evil hour, Hinau was 
enticed to return to Hawaii on a visit, was caught by the 
orders oiLonoikamahahiki^^Qm^dindi sacrificed at theHeiau. 

Of the subsequent career of Kauhi not much is said in 
the legends. It appears, however, that at the close of his 
reign he headed an expedition to Oahu ; that having 
landed at Waikiki, he was met by the Oahu chiefs, and 
was defeated and slain, his body exposed at the Heiau of 
Apuakehau, and that great indignities were committed 
with his bones. And it is further said that the memory 
of this great outrage instigated his descendant, Kahekili, 
to the fearful massacre of the Oahu chiefs, when, after the 
battle at Niuhelewai, he had defeated the Oahu king, 
Kahahana, and conquered the island. 



THE POL YNESIAN RA CE, 209 

Kaiiliiakama, like his father, had but one recognised 
wife, Kapukini. She was the daughter of Mahakaualiiy 
the grandson of Keliiokaloa, of the Hawaii reigning family, 
and sister to the celebrated Iwikauikaua. Their only 
known son was Kalanikaumakaowakea, who followed his Kaiani- 
father as Moi of Maui. Peace and its attendant blessings olllTa. *" 
obtained on Maui during his reign ; and not a cloud abroad 
or at home gave rise to an item in the legend or the chants 
referring to his name among the Mois of Maui. 

Kalanikaumakaowakea had two wives — (i.) Kanea- 
kauhi, or, as she was also called, Kaneakalau. With her 
he had a son, ZonoJionuakini, who succeeded him as Moi, 
and a daughter, Fiilaniwahine, who became the wife of 
Ahu-a-I, of the great / family on Hawaii, and mother 
of Zonomaaikanaka, the wife of KeaweikekaJiialiiokamoku 
and mother of Kalaninuiamamao, (2.) Makakuwahine, 
a daughter of Kanelaaukahi and his wife Kamaka, of the . 
Kcaunui-a-Maweke-Laakona family. With her he had a 
son named Umi-a-Liloa, from whose three children, Pajpai- 
kaniau, Kuimiheua, and Uluehu, a number of prominent 
chief families descended. Kalanikaumakaowakea had 
another son called Kauloaiwi, but whether with the first 
or second wife, or with some other, is not very clearly 
ascertained. 

ZonoJionuakini ascended the throne of Maui under the lonohonua- 
fiattering auspices of peace and prosperity bequeathed by 
his father, and, with singular good fortune, succeeded in 
maintaining the same peaceful and orderly condition 
during his own reign also. Though the yearly feasts and 
the monthly sacrifices were performed as usual, though 
bards gathered to the chieftain's court to chant the deeds 
of his ancestors and extol the wealth and glory of his own 
reign, yet the smooth and placid stream of this and the 
preceding reigns left no ripple on the traditional record, 
and considering the convulsed condition of the neighbour- 
ing islands, this absolute silence is their noblest epitaph. 

ZonoJionuakini' s wife was Kalanikauanakinilani, with 

VOL. IL .0 



210 THE POL YNESIA N RA CE, 

whom he had the following children : — Kaidahea, a son, 
who succeeded his father in the government ; Lonomakai- 
Jionua, who was grandfather to the celebrated bard Keauhi- 
Tfiokii ; Kalaniomaihcuila, mother of Kalanikahimakeialii, 
the wife of Kualii of Oahu, and, through her daughter 
Kaionidlalahai, grandmother of Kahahana, the last inde- 
pendent king of Oahu, of the Oahu race of chiefs, who 
lost his life and his kingdom in the war with Maui 
in 1783. 
KauiaJiea. KaulaJiea continued the same peaceful policy as his 
father and grandfather had pursued, and Maui deservedly 
rose to be considered as a model state amongr its sister 

o 

kingdoms of the group. It is probable, however, that 
during this period were sown the seeds of disintegration 
which in the next two reigns destroyed the independence 
and autonomy of the island of Molokai, whose chiefs in 
their internal divisions and quarrels began to seek outside 
support, some from Maui, some from Oahu. 

But no prospect of foreign conquests, however tempt- 
ing, induced Kaulahea to forsake the peaceful path of his 
fathers, and no domestic troubles with his feudal chiefs 
distracted his attention or impoverished his resources. 

Kaulahea had two wives — (i.) Kalanikauleleiaiwi, 
daughter of Keakealani, the sovereign queen of Hawaii, 
and half-sister of Keawckekahialiiokamoku, already referred 
to on page 128. With her he had a daughter named 
Kekuiapoiwanui, also known in the chants by the names 
of Kalanikauhihiwakama and Wanakapu} (2.) Papai- 
kaniaii, also known as Lonoikaniau, the daughter of his 

1 I am aware that certain genealo- his son Kekaulike, and that Keaioe 
gists contend that Kekuiapoiwanui and his wife complied with the re- 
was the daughter of Keawe and Kal- quest. I know not how old that 
anikauleleiaim ; that she was born assertion may be ; but I am certain 
at Olowalu or Ukumehame while her that neither David Malo, who was 
said parents were on a visit to Maui ; instructed by Ulumeheihei Hoapili- 
that Kaulahea, the Moi of Maui, and kane, nor S. M. Kamakau, who was 
then living at Wailuku, hearing of particularly well informed in the Maui 
the event, sent to Keawe and asked genealogies, so understood it or so 
that the new-born child be given to expressed it. It was a matter of 
liim to be brought up as a wife for frequent occurrence in those days 



THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 211 

uncle, Umi-a-Liloa. With her he had a son named Kekmt- 
like, also known by the name of Kalaninuikuihonoikamoku, 
who succeeded him as Moi of Maui.^ 

Kekaulike's reign over Maui continued for a long time KekauUk-t. 
on the same peaceful and prosperous footing as that of his 
predecessors ; but towards the close of his life, after the 
death of Keawe of Hawaii, the civil war then raging on 
Hawaii presented too tempting an opportunity for invasion, 
possibly conquest, or at least unresisted plunder, and Kekau- 
like assembling his fleet and his warriors, started on the 
expedition recorded on page 133. It was a raid on a grand 
scale, that brought no laurels to Kekaulike's brow, and did 
not materially cripple the resources of Hawaii. 

We know that Kekaulike died the year that Kamehameha 
I. was born, 1736-40, probably nearer the former year, and 
thus we have here a starting-point for computing the 
generations of chiefs on Maui, » 

When Kekaulike was on his death-bed, while beinsr 
brought from Mokulau in Kaupo — where he landed on his 
return from the raid on Hawaii — to Wailuku, he appointed 
his son Kamehamehanui as his successor, thus breakinir 
the rule of primogeniture which generally was observed 
on such occasions. But this deviation from a common 
rule was probably based upon the consideration that not 
only was Kamehamehanui an Alii Niaupio, being the son 
of Kekuiapoiwamci, but also that the said mother was of 
higher rank than Kahawalu, the mother of Kekaulike's 
first-born son, Kauhiaimokuakama. 

Kekaulike enjoyed the company of several wives, and 
was blessed with a numerous progeny. We know who 

that high chief esses visited the other ^ It is said by some genealogists 

islands and contracted alliances ac- that ^aw?aAea had another son named 

cording to their own liking, and as Kanaluihoae, who was the father of 

long as they liked. They were as Namakeha, of whom more hereafter ; 

much at liberty to have more than but I am inclined to follow those who 

one husband as the high chiefs were represent Kanaluihoae as the son of 

to have more than one wife, and the Uluehu, a brother of Fapaikaniau, 

Vfholeliieoi Kalanikauleleiaiwi show » the wife of Kaulahea, and his cousin, 

that she availed herself of her privi- Kanaluihoae s mother was Kalani- 

leges in that respect. kauhialiiohaloa. 



2 1 2 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

was his first wife, but the order in which the others were 
obtained is not certain. They probably were contemporary 
with each other, or nearly so. 

The wives and children of Kekaulike were — 
(i.) Kaliawalu, from the Kaupo or Hana chief families. 
With her he had but one son, the aforesaid Kauliiaimokua- 
kama, whose ambition and whose fate is mentioned on 
page 140-42. Of this Kaiohis descendants, the most pro- 
minent in Hawaiian history was his daughter's ^ son, Kalai- 
moku, famous in the latter part of the wars of Kameliameha 
Z, and as prime minister of the kingdom after Kame- 
hameha's death. That branch of the family is now extinct ; 
but from another daughter ^ of KauM, who became one of 
the wives of Keaumokupapaia, there still survives a grand- 
son in the valley of Pelekunu, on Molokai. 

(2.) Kekuiwpoiawanui, who was his half-sister, as before 
stated. With her he had the following children : — Kame- 
hamehanui, a son who succeeded his father as Moi of 
Maui. Kalola, a daughter, who became the wife of 
Kalaniopuu, the king of Hawaii, and bore to him his son 
and successor, Kiwalao. She was also at one time the 
wife of Keouakalanikupua, Kamehameha I.'s father, and 
with him had a daughter, Kekuiapoiwa Lililia, who became 
the mother of Keopuolani, the queen of Kameliameha I. 
Kalola was also the mother of a girl, Kalanikauikikilo- 
kalaniakua, who in those days was one of the highest 
tabu chiefs, on whom the sun was not permitted to shine, 
and who, unless with extraordinary precautions, only 

^ Kamakahukilani. She was of the after Kaumualiis death, and of Kea- 

Kaupo Koo family. Her mother's hikuni Kekauonohi, a granddaughter 

name was Luukia. She married Keku- of Kamehameha I. 

amanoha, one of Kekaulike's sons with ^ Kalolawahilani. With Keaumo- 

Haalou, and thus became the mother kupapaia she had a son, Keakakilohi, 

of Kalaimoku, mentioned above ; of who, with Kamahanakapu — a daugh- 

his brother Poki, whose turbulent ter of Kawelookalani and his wife 

career met a tragical close on a sandal- Naonoaina, the former a brother of 

wood expedition to the New Hebrides Kamehameha /., the latter a grand- 

in 1829 ; and of a daughter, Kahaku- daughter of Kaiakea of Molokai — 

haakoi, who became the mother of begat a son, Kalaniopuu, the person 

Kahalaia, the first governor of Kauai referred to above. 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 213 

moved about when the sun was so low as not to throw its 
beams upon her head. There was another daughter of 
Kekaulike and Kekuiapoiwanui on the genealogy, named 
Kuhoohiehiepahu, but she is not further referred to, and 
probably died young. The youngest scion of this union 
was a son, Kahekili, who succeeded his brother Kame- 
hamehanui as Moi, and was the last independent king 
of Maui. 

(3.) Kane-a-Lae, daughter of Zae, one of the independent 
chiefs of the eastern part of Molokai. She had previously 
been one of the wives of Keawe of Hawaii. With her he 
had a daughter named Luahiwa, who became one of the 
wives of his son Kahekili. 

(4.) Hoolau, daughter of Kawelo-ailay a grandson of 
Lonoikamakaliiki of Hawaii, and of KauakahiJieleikaiwi} 
"With her he had two sons and one daughter — Kekauhi- 
ivamokic, from whom descended Keouawahine, the grand- 
mother of her Highness Ruth Keelikolani ; Kaeokulani, 
who married Kamakahelei, sovereign of Kauai, and became 
father of Kaumualii, the last independent sovereign of that 
island, and grandfather of the present queen, Kapiolani, 
and her sisters ; and Manuhaaipo, who was the mother of 
Kailinaoa and grandmother of Ahu Kai Kaukualii. 

(5.) Haalou, daughter of Haae, the son of Kauaua-a- 
Mahi and brother of Alapainui of Hawaii, and of Kalele- 
mmdiokalani, daughter of Kaaloapii, a chief from Kau, 
and of Kaneikaheilani, said to have been a daughter or 
granddaughter of Kawelo-a-Mahunali% who in his day 
was the Moi of Kauai. With her Kekaulike had one 
son and two daughters — (i.) Kekuamanoha, previously 
referred to ; (2.) Naiimhana-i-Kaleleokalani, who was first 
the wife of her half-brother Kamehamehanui, with whom 
she had two sons, Pelioholani and Kuakini, who both died 
young; afterwards she became the wife of Keeaumoku- 
papaiahiahi, the son of Keawepoepoe of Hawaii, with whom 
she had three daughters {Kaahumanu, Kaheiheimalie, and 

1 Of the Kauai aristocracy. 



214 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

Kekuaipiia) and two sons {Keeaumohuopio, known by the 
English name of George Cox, and Kuakini, also known as 
John Adams); (3.) Kekuapoi-ula, said to have been the 
most beautiful woman of her time, and w^ho became the 
wife of Kahaliana, the king of Oahu. 

Kamohomoho, a high chief on Maui in the time of 
Kahekili, is said to have been a son of Kekaulike, but 
his mother's name has not been handed down. 
hanui^^^^' KameliameJianui followed his father Kekaulikc as Moi 
of Maui. I have on previous pages described his relations 
with Alapainui of Hawaii, and his troubles and civil war 
with his half-brother, Kauliiaimokuahama. After this 
nothing transpired to interrupt the peace and tranquillity 
of Maui until the abrupt invasion by Kalaniopuu of 
Hawaii, about the year 1759, when the districts of 
Hana and Kipahulu were wrenched from the crown of 
Maui and became subject to Haw^aii. It is probable 
that, although KameliameJianui failed in retaking the 
fort of Kauwiki, Hana, yet to some extent he curtailed 
the possessions of Hawaii outside of Kauwiki, more espe- 
cially on the Koolau side. 

It should be mentioned that in his younger days, when 
quite a lad, Kamehamehanui was brought up at Moanui, 
Molokai, in the family of his nurse and " Kahu," Palemo, 
of whom several descendants still survive. 

Kamehamehanui resided most of his time at Wailuku, 
and there he died about the year 1765. He had two 
wives — ^his half-sister, Namahana, with whom he had two 
children, Pelioholani and Kuakini, who both died young ; 
and Kekukamano, whose lineage is unknown to me, and 
wdth whom he had three sons, Kalaniulumoku, Kalani- 
Jielemailuna, and Peapea, all apparently of tender age at 
the time of his death. Of the two first, several scions still 
survive ; the line of the last, I believe, is extinct, Peapea 
himself having been killed in 1794 by the explosion of a 
barrel of gunpowder at the fort of Kauwiki, Hana. 

When Kamehamehanui died, the government of Maui 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 215 

devolved by force of circumstances upon liis brother 
Kahekili, the youngest son of Kekautike and Kekuia- Kaheim 
poiwanui, and the highest chief in the absence of his 
sister Kalola, the wife of Kalaniopmo. 

Kahekili is said, by those who knew him in mature 
life and later age, to have been of a stern, resolute, and 
reserved temper, living much by himself and avoiding 
crowds. He gave freely, as became a chief, but was an- 
noyed at the boisterous 6clat which his largesses elicited. 
He was laborious and persistent, cold, calculating, and 
cruel. Successful in all his enterprises during a long life, 
yet its close was clouded by reverses, and he presented 
the singular instance of a monarch who conquered another 
kingdom but was not able to keep his own. In an age 
when tattooing was declining as a custom, he made him- 
self conspicuous by having one side of his body from head 
to foot so closely tattooed as to appear almost black, while . 
the other side bore the natural colour of the skin. In a 
state of society where a number of wives was looked upon 
as an indispensable portion of a chief's establishment, 
Kahekili contented himself with only two wives. Being 
a younger son, with no prospect or expectation of ascend- 
ing the throne until nearly fifty years old, he had lived 
as a private nobleman, a dutiful son, and a loyal brother 
during the two preceding reigns. But after the death of 
Kamehamehanui's children with Namahana, Kahekili was 
the highest chief on Maui, and as such assumed the govern- 
ment at his brother's death by common consent as of 
right. 

I have mentioned on foregoing pages (149-57) the 
domestic trouble of Kahekili with Keeaiimoku-papaia, the 
new husband of his sister Namahana, and his wars with 
Kalaniopuu, the Moi of Hawaii, up to the fall of the year 
1778, and the arrival of the discovery ships under com- 
mand of Captain Cook. 

In 1 78 1 Kahekili, hearing of the weakness and approach- 
ing end of Kalaniopuu, prepared his forces to recover the 



2 16 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

districts of East Maui, which for so long a time had been 
under the rule of the Hawaii king. Mahihelelima was 
still Governor of Hana, and with him were a number of 
Hawaii chiefs of high renown and lineage/ Kalokuoka- 
maile, Naeole, Malualani, Kaloku, and others. Kahekili 
divided his forces in two divisions, and marched on Hana 
by Koolau and by Kaupo. Tlie fort on Kauwiki w^as 
invested, and the siege continued for many months. The 
Hawaii chiefs were well provisioned, and the fort held 
out stoutly until Kahekili was advised to cut off the water 
supply of the fort by damming and diverting the springs 
in the neighbourhood. The measure succeeded, and the 
garrison, making desperate sorties beyond their lines to 
procure water, were slain in numbers and finally surren- 
dered, expecting no mercy and obtaining none. Mahihe- 
lelima and Naeole made good their escape to Hawaii,^ but 
the larger number of Hawaii chiefs and soldiers were slain 
and their corpses burnt at Kuawalu and at Honuaula. 
This war is called in the native legends the war of 
Kaumupikao. 

Thus the famous fort of Kauwiki fell again into the 
power of the Maui king, but its prestige was gone, and we 
never hear of it again as a point of strategical importance. 

According to the political economy of those days, 
Kahekili fell back from the devastated neighbourhood of 
Kauwiki to the large plain of Makaliihanau, above 
Muolea, in Hana district, and employed himself, his 

1 Kalokuokamaile was the son of Malualani was the son of Kekau- 

Keouakalanikupuapaikalani,Sindhsi[i- like, the granddaughter of Keaweot 

hroiher of Kamehameha I. ; hismother Hawaii, and her husband, Kepoo- 

was KalanUehua, also called Kahiki- mahoe. He was grandfather of the 

kala, said to have been a grand- late Kalaipaihala of Lahaiua. Ma- 

daughter of Mopua of Molokai. Ka- lualani's sister, Kalaikauleleiaiwi II. ^ 

lokuokamaile, through his daughter was the great-grandmother of the 

Kaohelelani, became the grandfather present queen, Kapiolani. 

of the late Laanui, and great-grand- Who the last-mentioned Kaloku 

father of the present Mrs. Elizabeth was I am unable to determine. 

Kaaniau Pratt. 2 jt is said by some thdit Malualani 

Naeole was the same Kohala chief also escaped to Hawaii, and was 

who abducted Kamehameha I. on the afterwards killed in an affray at 

night that he was born. Makapala, Kohala. 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 217 

chiefs, and his soldiers in planting a food-crop for the coming 
year. The surrender of Kauwiki maybe dated as of the early 
part of 1782, about the time of Kalaniopuii' s death. 

In order to understand the political relations between 
Kahehili and Kahahana, the king of Oahu, and the causes 
of the war between them, it is necessary to go back to the 
year 1773, when Kumahana^ the son of Peleiolwlani, was 
deposed by the chiefs and Makaainana of Oahu. Though 
Kumahana had grown-up children at the time, yet the 
Oahu nobles passed them by in selecting a successor to 
the throne, and fixed their eyes on young Kdhdkana^ the 
son of Elani, one of the powerful Ewa chiefs of the Mawelce 
Lakona line, and on his mother's side closely related to 
Kahehili and the Maui royal family. Kahahana had from 
boyhood been brought up at the court of Kahekili, who 
looked upon his cousin's child almost as a son of his own. 
What share, if any, indirectly, that Kahekili may have had 
in the election of Kahahana, is not known ; but when 
the tidings arrived from Oahu announcing the result to 
Kahekili, he appears at first not to have been overmuch 
pleased with it. The Oahu chiefs had deputed Kekela- 
okalani, a high chiefess, a cousin to Kahahana! s mother 
and also to Kahekili, to proceed to Wailuku, Maui, and 
announce the election and solicit his approval. After 
some feigned or real demurrer, Kahekili consented to 
Kahahana going to Oahu, but refused to let his wife 
KekvAipoi-ula go with him, lest the Oahu chiefs should 
ill-treat her. Eventually, however, he consented, but 
demanded as a price of his consent that the land of 
Kualoa in Koolaupoko district should be ceded to him, 
and also the " Palaoa-pae " (the whalebone and ivory) cast 
on the Oahu shores by the sea. 

Hampered with these demands of the crafty Kahekili, 
Kahahana started with his wife and company for Oahu, 
and landed at Kahaloa in Waikiki. He was enthusi- 
astically received, installed as Moi of Oahu, and great 
were the rejoicings on the occasion. 



2 1 8 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

Shortly after his installation, Kahoihana called a great 
council of the Oahu chiefs and the high-priest Kaopulu- 
pulu, and laid before them the demands of Kahekili 
regarding the land of Kualoa and the " Palaoa-pae." 
At first the council was divided, and some thought it 
was but a fair return for the kindness and protection 
shown Kaliahana from his youth by Kaliehili; but the 
high-priest was strongly opposed to such a measure, and 
argued that it was a virtual surrender of the sovereignty 
and independence of Oahu. Kualoa being one of the 
most sacred places on the island, where stood the sacred 
drums of Kapaliuula and Kaahu-ulapunaivai, and also 
the sacred hill of Kauakahi-a-Kahoowaha ; and the sur- 
render of the " Palaoa-pae " would be a disrespect to the 
gods ; in fact, if Kahekili s demands were complied with, 
the power of war and of sacrifice would rest with the 
Maui king and not with Kahahana. He represented 
strongly, moreover, that if Kahahana had obtained the 
kingdom by conquest, he might do as he liked, but 
having been chosen by the Oahu chiefs, it would be 
wrong in him to cede to another the national emblems 
of sovereignty and independence. Kahahana and all 
the chiefs admitted the force of Kac/pulupulu' s arguments, 
and submitted to his advice not to comply with the 
demands of Kahekili, 

Kahekili was far too good a politician to display his 
resentment at this refusal of his demands, knowing well 
that he could not have the slightest prospects of enforcing 
them by war so long as the Oahu chiefs were united in 
their policy, and that policy was guided by the sage and 
experienced high-priest Kaopulupulu, He dissembled, 
therefore, and kept up friendly relations with Kahaliana, 
but secretly turned his attention to destroy the influence 
of Kaopulupulu in the affairs of Oahu, and create distrust 
and enmity between him and Kahahana. In this object 
he is said to have been heartily advised and assisted by 
his own high-priest, KaleopmipuUy the younger brother of 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE, 219 

Kaopulupulu, and who envied the latter the riches and 
consideration which his wisdom and skill had obtained 
for him. Moreover, the warlike preparations of his 
brother-in-law, the Hawaii king Kalaniopuu, cautioned 
him against precipitating a rupture with so powerful an 
ally as the Oahu king ; and Kahekili was but too glad to 
obtain the assistance of Kahahana and his chiefs in the 
war with Kalaniopuu, I'j'jj-J^, Kahahana! s forces arriv- 
ing from Molokai just in time to share the sanguinary 
battle on the Waikapu common,^ related on page 153, 
and the subsequent events of that war. 

After the return of Kalaniopuu to Hawaii in January 
1779, Kahahana went over to Molokai to consecrate the 
Heiau called Kupukapuakea at Wailau, and to build or 
repair the large taro patch at Kainalu known as Paika- 
hawai. Here he was joined by Kahekili, who was cor- 
dially welcomed and royally entertained. On seeing the 
fruitfulness and prosperity of the Molokai lands, Kahe- 
kili longed to possess some of them, and bluntly asked 
Kahahana to give him the land of Halawa. Kahahana 
promptly acceded to the request, not being moved by 
the same considerations regarding the Molokai lands as 
those of Oahu, Molokai having been conquered and sub- 
jected as an appanage or tributary to the Oahu crown by 
Peleioholani. At this meeting, while discussing Kaha- 
hana s previous refusal to give Kahekili the Kualoa land 
and the "Palaoa-pae" on Oahu, Kahekili expressed his 
surprise at the opposition of Kaopulupulu, assuring Kaha- 
hana that the high-priest had offered the government and 
throne of Oahu to him {Kahekili), but that out of affection 
for his nephew he had refused ; and he intimated strongly 
that Kaopulwpulu was a traitor to Kahahana. 

The poisoned arrow hit its mark, and Kahahana returned 
to Oahu filled with mistrust and suspicion of his faithful 

^ They arrived on the evening of lated by Kahekili, and joined in the 
the day that the famous "Alapa" next day's general battle, 
regiment of Kalaniopuu was annihi- 



220 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

high-priest. A coolness arose between them. Kaliahana 
withdrew his confidence from, and slidited the advice of, 
the high-priest, who retired from the court to his own 
estate in Waialua and Waimea, and caused himself and 
all his people and retainers to be tatooed on the knee, as 
a sign that the chief had turned a deaf ear to his advice. 
It is said that during this period of estrangement Kahahana 
became burdensome to the people, capricious and heedless, 
and in a great measure alienated their good-will. It is 
said, moreover, that he caused to be dug up dead men's 
bones to make arrow-points of wherewith to shoot rats — 
a favourite pastime of the chiefs ; and that he even rifled 
the tombs of the chiefs in order to make Kahili handles of 
their bones, thus outraging the public sentiment of the 
nation. That Kahahana was imprudent and rash, and 
perhaps exacting, there is no doubt ; and that conquered 
chieftains' bones were the legitimate trophies of the victors 
is equally true ; but that Kahahana would have violated 
the tombs of the dead — an act even in those days of the 
greatest moral baseness — is hardly credible, and is probably 
an after exaggeration, either by the disaffected priestly 
faction or by the victorious Kahekili plotters. 

While such was the condition on Oahu, Kahehili recon- 
quered the district of Hana, as already related, and, 
hearing of the death of Kalaniopuu and the subsequent 
contentions on Hawaii, he felt secure in that direction, 
and seriously turned his attention to the acquisition of 
Oahu. He first sent some war-canoes and a detachment 
of soldiers under command of a warrior chief named Kaha- 
hawai ^ to the assistance of Keawemauhili, the then inde- 

1 It is related by S. M. Kamakau, him with some double canoes in his 

that when Kahekili heard of the projected war against Kahahana, 

defeat and death of Kitvalao, and and that Kamehameha had refused, 

that Kamehameha had assumed the replying that when he had subdued 

sovereignty of the Kona, Kohala, and the chiefs of Hilo and Kau he then 

Hamakua districts on Hawaii, he would consider KahekiWs request ; 

then sent Alapai-maloiki and Kaulu- and that when Keawemauhili, the 

nae, two sons of Kumaaiku (w) and chief of Hilo, heard of this refusal, 

lialf-brothers of Keeaumoku-papaia- he hastened to send some double 

hiahi, to ask Kamehameha to assist canoes and other costly presents to 



THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 221 

pendent chief of Hilo, in his contest with Kameliameha?- 
He next sent his most trusted servant Kaichi to Kahaliana 
on Oahu, with instructions to inform Kahahana in the 
strictest confidence that Kaopulupuho had again offered 
him the kingdom of Oahu, but that his regard for Kaha- 
hana would not allow him to accept it, and exhorting 
Kahahana to be on his guard against the machinations of 
the high-priest. Credulous as weak, Kahahana believed 
the falsehoods sent him bv Kahekili, and, without confiding: 
his purpose to any one, he resolved on the death of Kaopu- 
lupulu. Preparations were ordered to be made for a tour 
of the island of Oahu, for the purpose of consecrating 
Heiaus and offering sacrifices. When the king arrived at 
Waianae he sent for the high-priest, who was then residing 
on his lands at Waimea and Pupukea, in the Koolau 
district, to come to see him. It is said that Kaopulupulu 
was fully aware of the ulterior objects of the king, and 
was well convinced that the message boded him no good ; 
yet, faithful to his duties as a priest and loyal to the last, 
he started with his son Kahulupue to obey the summons 
of the king. Arrived at Waianae, Kahulupue was set upon 
by the king's servants, and, while escaping from them, was 
drowned at Malae.^ Kaopulupulu was killed at Puuloa, 
in Ewa. 

Thus foolishly and cruelly Kahahana had played into 

Kahekili; and that this was the their brethren in other lands. Its 

reason why Kahekili sent Kahahawai literal meaning is — " It is far better 

and some soldiers to assist Keawe- to sleep in the sea ; for from the sea 

mauhili against Kamehameha. comes life or the means of living." 

^ Kahahawai was from "Waihee, Those who heard it and reported it 

Maui. He was a special friend of found the fulfilment of the prophecy 

Kahekili {an " Aikane"), and was the when Kahekili, coming over the sea 

father of Keaholawaia and Haia. from Maui, conquered Oahu and 

2 The legend relates that when caused -Sa^aAana to be slain. Others 

Kaopulupulu saw his son set upon sought the fulfilment in the conquest 

and pursued by Kahahana s retainers, of the group by Kamehameha coming 

he called out to him, " / nui ke aho from Hawaii ; others found it in the 

a moe i ke kai ! No ke kai ka hoi ua arrival of the foreigners, coming over 

aina." This was one of those oracular the ocean with new ideas, knowledge, 

utterances in which Hawaiian priests and arts, 
and prophets were as adept as any of 



222 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

the hand of Kaliehili, who, with his high-priest Kaleo- 
jniupuu, had for a long time been plotting the death of 
Kahahanas ablest and wisest counsellor. 

Though executions de far le roi of obnoxious persons 
for political reasons were not uncommon in those days 
throughout the group, and by the proud and turbulent 
nobility generally looked upon more as a matter of personal 
ill-luck to the victim than as a public injustice, yet this 
double execution, in the necessity of which few people 
except the credulous Kahaliana believed, greatly alienated 
the feelings of both chiefs and commoners from him, and 
weakened his influence and resources to withstand the 
coming storm. 

The death of Kaopulupidu took place in the latter part 
of 1782 or beginning of 1783. 

As soon as Kahelcili heard that Kaopulujpulu was dead, 
he considered the main obstacle to his acquisition of the 
island of Oahu to be removed, and prepared for an inva- 
sion. He recalled the auxiliary troops under Kahahawai 
which he had sent to the assistance of Keawemauhili in 
Hilo, and assembled his forces at Lahaina. Touching at 
Molokai on his way, he landed at Waikiki, Oahu. Among 
his chiefs and warriors of note on this expedition are 
mentioned Kehuamanoha, Kaiana, Namakeha, Kalaihoa^ 
KamoTiomoho, Nahiolea, Hiteu, Kauhikoakoa, Ka]iue,Kalani- 
nuiulumoku, Feapea, Manono-Kauahapekulani, Kalaniku- 
jmle, Koalaukane} Besides his own armament, he had 

1 Kelcuamanoha was a son of Ee- of Hilo, Hawaii. This was the same 

laulike, king of Maui, and his wife, Kaiana who went to China in 1787 

Haalou. He was thus a half-brother with Captain Meares, returned to 

to Kahekili. His son was the cele- Hawaii, and was finally killed in the 

hrated Kalaimoku, prime minister battle of Nuuana, 1796. His cousin, 

during the regenc}' of Kaahumanu. Kaiana Ukupe, the son of Kaolohaka, 

His other son was Boki, at one time was father of the late Kaikioewa, 

governor of Oahu. governor of Kauai. 

Kaiana, a\&o ovWeA Keaxve-Kaiana- Namakeha was son of the above- 
a-Ahuula, was the son of Ahuula-a- mentioned Kaupekamoku and Kana- 
Keawe,vf\io cla.imedKeaweoi'H.-AW&ii luikoae, a brother or cousin of Ke- 
ns his father and Kaolohaka- a- Keawe kaulike of Maui. In after-life Nama- 
as his brother. Kaiand's mother was keha rebelled a.ga.mst Kamehameha I. ^ 
the famous Kaupekamoku, a grand- and was slain in battle, 1796. 
daughter of Akia (w) of the I family Nahiolea was another son of the 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 



223 



several double canoes furnished him by Kcawemauhili of 
Hilo, and by Keouakuahuula of Kau. 

Kahahana was at Kawananahoa, in the upper part of 
Kuuanu valley, when the news came of Kahekili's landing 
at Waikiki, and hastily summoning his warriors, he pre- 
pared as best he could to meet so sudden an emergency. 

As an episode of this war the following legend has been 
preserved and may prove interesting: — When the news 
of the invasion spread to Ewa and Waialua, eight famous 
warriors from those places, whose names the legend has 
retained, concerted an expedition on their own account to 
win distinction for their bravery and inflict what damage 
they could on KaheldKs forces. It was a chivalrous 
undertaking, a forlorn hope, and wholly unauthorised by 
Kahahana, but fully within the spirit of the time for 
personal valour, audacity, and total disregard of conse- 
quences. The names of those heroes were Pupuka} Ma- 
kaioulu, Fuakea, Finau, Kalaeone, Pahua, Kauhi, and 



same above-mentioned Kaupekavioku 
and Kuimiheua II., a cousin of Ke- 
kaulike of Maui. Nahiolea was father 
of the late M. Kekuanaoa, governor 
of Oahu, and father of their late 
majesties Kamehameha IV. and F., 
and of her Highness Ruth Keelikolani. 

Kamohomoho is always called a 
brother of Kahekili in the native 
accounts, but I have been unable to 
learn who his mother was. 

Kauhikoakoa was a son of Kau- 
hiaimokuakama, the elder brother 
of Kahekili, who rebelled against 
his brother, Kamehamehanui, and 
was drowned after the battle near 
Lahaina. Kauhikoakoa s mother was 
Luukia, of the Kaupo Koo family of 
chiefs. 

Kalaninuiulumoku was the son of 
Kamehamehanui of Maui, and Ke- 
kumano (w), and thus a brother of 
Kalanihelemailuna, the grandfather 
of the present Hon. Mrs. Fauahi 
Bishop. 

Peapea was another son of Kame- 
hamehanui of Maui. He was subse- 



quently killed at Hana by the explo- 
sion of a keg of gunpowder. 

Manonokauakapekulani, also called 
Kahekilinuiahunu, was the son of 
Kahekili of Maui and Luahiwa, a 
daughter of Kekaulike of Maui and 
Kane-a-Lae (w). 

Kalanikupule, son and successor of 
Kahekili of Maui. His mother was 
Kauwahine. 

Koalaukane, another son of Kahe- 
kili and Kauwahine. 

Kalaikoa, Hueu, and Kahu, un- 
known to me. 

1 Fupuka, an Oahu chief of con- 
siderable importance, was father of 
Inaina, the wife of Nahiolea, and 
mother of Kekuanaoa, late governor 
of Oahu. 

Tradition is silent on the descent 
and connections of the other heroes of 
this band. They and theirs were pro- 
bably all exterminated, and not being 
maritally connected with the victo- 
rious side, no scions were left to chant' 
their names. 



224 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

Kapukoa. Starting direct from Apiiakehau in Waikiki, 
where Kaliehili's army was encamped and organising pre- 
paratory to a march inland to fight Kahahana, the eight 
Oahu warriors boldly charged a large contingent of several 
hundred men of the Maui troops collected at the Heiau. 
In a twinkling they were surrounded by overwhelming 
numbers, and a fight commenced to which Hawaiian 
legends record no parallel. Using their long spears and 
javelins with marvellous skill and dexterity, and killing a 
prodigious number of their enemies, the eight champions 
broke through the circle of spears that surrounded them. 
But Makaioulu, though a good fighter was a bad runner, 
on account of his short bow-legs, and he was overtaken 
by Kauhikoakoa, a Maui chief. Makaioulu was soon 
tripped up, secured, and bound by Kauhikoahoa, who, 
swinging the captive up on his own shoulders, started oif 
with him for the camp to have him sacrificed as the first 
victim of the war. This affair took place on the bank of 
the Punaluu taro patch, near the cocoa-nut grove of Kua- 
kuaaka. Makaioulu, thus hoisted on the back of his 
captor, caught sight of his friend Pupuka, and called out 
to him to throw his spear straight at the navel of his 
stomach. In hopes of shortening the present and pro- 
spective tortures of his friend, and knowing well what his 
fate would be if brought alive into the enemy's camp, 
Pupuka did as he was bidden, and with an unerring aim. 
But Makaioulu, seeing the spear coming, threw himself 
with a violent effort on one side, and the spear went 
through the back of KauMkoakoa. Seeing their leader 
fall, the Maui soldiers desisted from farther pursuit, and 
the eight champions escaped. 

In the beginning of 1783 — some say it was in the 
month of January — Kahekili, dividing his forces in three 
columns, marched from Waikiki by Puowaina, Pauoa, 
and Kapena, and gave battle to Kahahana near the small 
stream of Kaheiki. Kahdhanas army was thoroughly 
routed, and he and his wife Kekua-poi-ula fled to the 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE, 



225 



mountains. It is related that in this battle Kauwahine, 
the wife of KaheMli, fought valiantly at his side. 

Oahu and Molokai now became the conquest of Kahe- 
JcUi, and savagely he used his victory. 

For upwards of two years or more Kahahana and his 
wife and his friend Alajpai ^ wandered over the mountains 
of Oahu, secretly aided, fed, and clothed by the country 
people, who commiserated the misfortunes of their late 
king. Finally, weary of such a life, and hearing that 
Kekuamanoha, the uterine brother of his wife Kekuajooi- 
ula, was residing at Waikele in Ewa, he sent her to nego- 
tiate with her brother for their safety. Dissembling his 
real intentions, Kekuamanoha received his sister kindly and 
spoke her fairly, but having found out the hiding-place of 
Kahahana, he sent messengers to Kahekili at Waikiki in- 
forming him of the fact. Kahehili immediately returned 
peremptory orders to slay Kahahana and Alapai, and he 
sent a double canoe down to Ewa to bring their corpses up 
to Waikiki. This order was faithfully executed by Keku- 
amanoha; and it is said that the mournful chant which still 
exists in the Hawaiian anthology of a bygone age under the 
name of " Kahahana " was composed and chanted by his 
widow as the canoe was disappearing with her husband's 
corpse down the Ewa lagoon on its way to Waikiki. 

The cruel treachery practised on Kahahana and his sad 
fate, joined to the overbearing behaviour and rapacity of 
the invaders, created a revulsion of feeling in the Oahu 
chiefs, which culminated in a wide-spread conspiracy 
against Kahekili and the Maui chiefs who were distributed 
over the several districts of Oahu. Kahekili himself and 
a number of chiefs were at that time living at Kailua ; 
Manonokauakapekulani, Kaiana, Namakeha, Nahiolea, Kal- 
aniulumoku, and others, were quartered at Kaneohe and 
Heeia ; Kalanikupule, Koalaukane, and Kekuamanoha were 
at Ewa, and Hueu was at Waialua. 

The Oahu leaders of the conspiracy were Elani, the 

1 1 have been unable to learn who this Alapai was, and of what family. 
VOL. II. P 



226 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

father of Kahahana, PupuJca, and Makaioulu, above 
referred to, Konamanu, Kalakioonui, and a number of 
others. The plan was to kill the Maui chiefs on one and 
the same night in the different districts. Elani and his 
band were to kill the chiefs residing at Ewa ; Makaioulu 
and Pupuha were to kill Kahekili and the chiefs at Kailua ; 
Konamanu and Kalaikioonui were to despatch Hueu at 
Waialua. By some means the conspiracy became known 
to Kalanikupule, who hastened to inform his father, Kahe- 
kili, and the Maui chiefs at Kaneohe in time to defeat the 
object of the conspirators ; but, through some cause now 
unknown, the messenger sent to advise Hueu, generally 
known as Kiko-Hueu, failed to arrive in time, and Hueu 
and all his retainers then living at Kaowakawaka, in 
Kawailoa, of the Waialua district, were killed. The con- 
spiracy was known as the " JVaipio Kimopo " (the Waipio 
assassination), having originated in Waipio, Ewa. 

Fearfully did Kahekili avenge the death of ^iteit on 
the revolted Oahu chiefs. Gathering his forces together, 
he overran the districts of Kona and Ewa, and a war of 
extermination ensued. Men, women, and children were 
killed without discrimination and without mercy. The 
streams of Makaho and Niuhelewai in Kona, and that of 
Hoaiai in Ewa, are said to have been literally choked with 
the corpses of the slain. The native Oahu aristocracy 
were almost entirely extirpated. It is related that one of 
the Maui chiefs, named Kalaikoa, caused the bones of the 
slain to be scraped and cleaned, and that the quantity 
collected was so great that he built a house for himself, 
the walls of which were laid up entirely of the skeletons 
of the slain. The skulls of Elani, Konamanu, and Kala- 
kioonui adorned the portals of this horrible house. The 
house was called " Kauwalua," and was situated at 
Lapakea in Moanalua, as one passes by the old upper 
road to Ewa. The site is still pointed out, but the bones 
have received burial. 

The rebellion of the Oahu chiefs appears to have had 



THE POL YNESIAN RACE. 227 

its supporters even among the chiefs and followers of 
Kahekili. KalaniuhomoJcu, the son of Kamekamehanui 
and nephew of Kahekili, took the part of the Oahu chiefs, 
and was supported by Kaiana, Namaheha, Nahiolea, and 
Kaneoneo} the grandson of Feleioholani. Their struggle 
was unsuccessful, and only added to the long list of the 
illustrious slain. Kalaniulumoku was driven over the 
Pali of Olomana and killed; Kaneoneo was killed at 
Maunakapu, as one descends to Moanalua; Kaiana, 
Nahiolea, and Namakelm escaped to Kauai. A number 
of chiefesses of the highest rank — "Kapumoe" — were 
killed, mutilated, or otherwise severely afflicted. Kekelao- 
kalani, the cousin of Kahahana's mother and of Kahekili, 
made her escape to Kauai. As an instance of deep affec- 
tion, of bitterness of feeling, and of supreme hope of return 
and revenge at some future day, it is said that she took 
with her when she fled some of the Oahu soil from Apua- 
kehau, Kahaloa, Waiaula, and Kupalaha at Waikiki, and 
deposited it at Hulaia, Kaulana, and Kane on Kauai. 

The events above narrated bring us down to the early 
part of 1785. 

While Kahekili was carrying on the war on Oahu and 
suppressing the revolt of the Oahu chiefs, a serious dis- 
turbance on Maui had occurred, which gave him much 
uneasiness. It appears that he had given the charge of 
his herds of hogs that were running in the Kula district 
and on the slopes of Haleakala to a petty chief named 
Kukeawe. This gentleman, not satisfied with whatever he 
could embezzle from his master's herds, made raids upon 
the farmers and country people of Kula, Honuaula, Kahi- 
kinui, and even as far as Kaupo, robbing them of their 

^ In 1779 we have seen that Kaneo- there during those trouhlous times, 
neo was on Kauai. He had been con- is not well known. After the over- 
tending with his cousin Keawe for throw and death of Kahahana he 
the supremacy of Niihau and the probably returned to Oahu in the 
possession of the goats left there hope that the chapter of accidents 
by Captain Cook, and he had been might prepare a way for him to re- 
worsted in the contest. What brought cover the throne that his father had 
him to Oahu, and what part he played lost. 



228 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

hogs, under pretext that they belonged to Kahekili. In- 
dignant at this tyranny and oppression, the country people 
rose in arms and a civil war commenced. Kukeawc called 
the military forces left by Kahekili at Wailuku to his 
assistance; a series of battles were fought, and finally 
Kukeawe was killed at Kamaole-i-kai, near Palauea, and 
the revolted farmers remained masters of the situation. 

When Kahekili was informed of this disturbance and 
its upshot, he appointed his eldest son and heir- apparent, 
Kalanikupule, as regent of Maui, and sent him back there 
at once with a number of chiefs to restore order and to 
pacify the people, while he himself preferred to remain 
on Oahu to ensure its subjection and to reorganise that 
newly conquered kingdom. 

Kalanikupule departed for Maui, accompanied by his 
aunt, Kalola, the widow of Kalaniopuu, and by her new 
husband, Kaopuiki ; by her daughters, Kekuiapoiwa Liliha, 
widow of Kiwalao, and Kalanikauikikilo ; and by her 
granddaughter, Keopuolani. His brother Koalaukane, and 
his uncle Kamohomoho, and a noted warrior chief named 
Kapakahili, were also sent off as his aids and counsellors. 
Kalanikupule s personal popularity, his affable manners, 
and the supreme authority vested in him, soon tran- 
quillised the revolted country people, who had only risen 
in defence of their own property against the unauthorised 
oppression of Kukeawe, and peace and order was again 
established on Maui. 

While the events above narrated were transpiring on 
Oahu and on Maui, Kamehameha I. had fought and won 
the battle of Mokuohai, in which Kiwalao, the son and 
successor of Kalaniopuu, was slain, had assumed the 
sovereignty of the districts of Kona, Kohala, and Ha- 
makua, on Hawaii, and was carrying on desultory war 
with Keawemauhili and Keouakuahuula, the independent 
chiefs of Hilo and Kau, with varying and not very 
marked success. Towards the close of the year 1785 or 
beginning of 1786, during a truce between the contending 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE, 229 

chiefs on Hawaii, Kamehameha Z, probably considering 
the defenceless condition of Maui on account of the 
absence of most of the prominent chiefs with Kahekili on 
Oahu, and deeming the opportunity favourable, fitted out 
an expedition under command o£ his younger brother, 
Kalanimalolculoku-i-kapoohalani, to retake the districts of 
Hana and Kipahulu which had been reconquered by 
Kahehili during the last year of Kalaniopuu's life. The 
expedition landed successfully, and soon took possession 
of the coveted districts. Contrary to all previous practice, 
Malokuloku scrupulously caused to be respected the private 
property of the country people and farmers, and thereby 
not only secured the good- will of the inhabitants towards 
the Hawaii invaders, but earned for himself the sobriquet 
of Keliimaikai (the good chief), by which he was ever 
after known. 

As soon as Kalanikwpule received tidings of this inva- 
sion, he immediately sent Kamohomoho with what forces 
he could muster to drive the invaders out of Maui. The 
hostile armies met on the Kipahulu side of the Lelekea 
gulch, and the battle waged with great fierceness. After 
hard fighting the Hawaii troops were driven back as far 
as Maulili, in Kipahulu, where they were joined by a 
reinforcement under Kahanaumaikai, and the battle con- 
tinued. But victory rested with the Maui troops, and 
what were not killed of the Hawaii expedition fled back 
to Kohala. Keliimaikai narrowly escaped with his life, 
and would have been captured but for his timely rescue 
by his Kahu, Mulihele, who hid him until nightfall, when, 
by the assistance of the country people, whom his kind 
treatment had conciliated, he obtained a passage over to 
Hawaii; and it was remarked of Kamehameha, as an 
instance of his love for this younger brother, that he was 
more rejoiced at his safe return than grieved at the loss 
of the expedition. 

It was in this year, 1786, that the first vessels after 
the death of Captain Cook visited the Hawaiian Islands. 



230 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

The " King George " and " Queen Charlotte," from Lon- 
don, commanded by Captains Portlock and Dixon, touched 
at Kealakeakua Bay on the 26th of May ; but finding the 
natives troublesome, and no chief of apparently sufficient 
authority to keep the^a in order, they left on the 27th, 
touched ofPthe east point of Oahu on ist June, anchored 
at Waialae Bay on 3d June, discovered Waikiki Bay as a 
preferable anchoring ground,^ and touched at Waimea, 
Kauai, on the 13th June. In the fall of that year those 
ships returned to the islands, again visiting Hawaii, Maui, 
Oahu, and Kauai, for the purposes of trade. Having 
anchored off Waikiki,^ Kahehili came on board, and dur- 
ing their stay treated them hospitably and kindly.^ In 
December of that year, while at Kauai, they met with 
Kaeo, the principal chief, and Kaiana^ who appears to 
have found a refuge there from the dire vengeance which 
Kahehili had executed upon the Oahu chiefs and their 
sympathisers. 

On the 28th May 1786, La Perouse, commanding the 
French exploring expedition, anchored near Lahaina on 
Maui. He was favourably received, but did not meet 
with Kahekili, who was then on Oahu. 

In August 1787, Captain Meares in the ship " Nootka" 

1 Portlock says that he found the pired, it was either a false report, or 
country "populous and well culti- effectually checked hy the vigilance 
vated." constantly displayed by the crews, 

2 On December i, 1786, Portlock and dread of firearms, the effect of 
describes ^aAeA;i^i as " an exceedingly which the king, at his request, had 
stout, well-made man, about fifty been shown." The native accounts 
years old, and appears to be sensible, make no mention of any such plot, 
well disposed, and much esteemed by ^ Jarves, loc. ciL, calls Kaiana a. 
his subjects." He says further, that brother of Kaeo. Kaiana's mother, 
at that time Kahehili drank no awa, Kaupekamoku, was a daughter of 
nor would he touch any spirits or Kukaniauaula, of whom I have no 
wines that were offered him on board, direct genealogy, but whom I have 

^ Jarves, quoting from Portlock's reason to believe was the same as 

"Voyage Round the World," says Papaikaniau, the wife of the Maui 

that "an old priest who came fre- king Kaulahea, and grandmother of 

quently on board informed Captain Kaeo. Hence the high rank which 

Portlock that there was a plot brew- Kaupekamoku enjoyed among her 

ing to cut off both vessels. As no contemporaries ; and hence Kaiana 

other evidence of such a design trans- was a cousin of Kaeo. 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 231 

arrived at the islands in company with the " Iphigenia," 
Captain Douglas. While at Kauai, Kaiana embarked 
with Captain Meares for a voyage to Canton, and was 
returned the following year in the " Iphigenia ; " but Kaco 
having become inimical to him in his absence, he pro- 
ceeded in the ship to Hawaii, where at Kamehameha s 
request he landed with his foreign acquired property, 
including guns, powder, &c., in January 1789. His high 
aristocratic connections, his well-known personal bravery, 
his at the time large, miscellaneous, and valuable property, 
and the fact of his having visited " Kahiki," those foreign 
lands of which the legends told and of which Kualii sang, 
procured for him a distinction at the court of Kamehameha, 
that in the end turned his head with vanity and ambition 
and caused his ruin. 

At this period a number of vessels, following in the 
tracks of those just mentioned, chiefly occupied in the 
fur trade on the north-west coast of America, visited the 
islands for refreshments and for trade, touching regularly 
on their passage to and from China, bartering arms and 
ammunition with the different chieftains, and not a few 
runaway seamen from those vessels became scattered over 
the islands.^ 

Among those trading vessels was the American snow 
" Eleanor," Captain Metcalf, accompanied by her tender, a 
small schooner called the "Fair America," under com- 
mand of the son of Captain Metcalf. The vessels had been 
trading off the coasts of Hawaii during the winter months 
of 1789, and, leaving the tender off Hawaii, the larger 
vessel went over to Maui and anchored off Honuaula 
in the month of February 1790, and trading was com- 

1 It became quite fashionable for skill and adroitness in managing fire- 

every chief of note to have one or arms, and in many other things 

more of these runaway foreigners in hitherto unknown to the Hawaiians, 

his employ. They were not always made them valuable to the chiefs, 

the best specimens of their class, but who aided them to run away from 

they made themselves serviceable as their ships, or even kidnapped them 

interpreters and factors in trading if other means failed, as will be seen 

with the foreign ships ; and their hereafter. 



232 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

menced witli the natives. The native accounts state that 
the captain was an irritable and harsh man, and liberal in 
his use of the rope's-end on trifling provocations ; yet trade 
was continued and his ill-usage submitted to for the gain the 
common people thought they obtained in the barter of their 
commodities for those that the foreigner brought them. 

Kalola, the widow of Kalaniopim, with her new hus- 
band, Kaopuiki, and her family, were at this time living 
at the village of Olowalu, some fifteen miles from where 
Metcalf's vessel was anchored. Hearing of the arrival of 
the trading ship at Honuaula, Kaopuiki got ready a number 
of hogs and other produce, and started for Honuaula to 
trade for musquets, ammunition, and such other articles. 
It is not known that Kaopuiki received any bad usage 
from Captain Metcalf, although others did ; but noticing 
that the ship's boat was left towing astern during the 
night, Kaopuiki formed the design of getting the boat 
into his possession. The following night the plan was 
carried into effect, the boat was cut adrift from the vessel, 
the watchman, who had fallen asleep in her, was killed, 
the boat towed ashore and broken up for the sake of the 
iron fastenings, and Kaopuiki and his men returned to 
Olowalu. 

When the loss of the boat and the death of the seaman 
were ascertained in the morning. Captain Metcalf fired on 
the people ashore, and took two prisoners, from one of 
whom belonging to Olowalu it is thought that he received 
information as to who the party was that had stolen his 
boat. In a day or two the vessel left her anchorage at 
Honuaulu and came-to off Olowalu. The following day 
Kalola put on a tabu in connection with some festival or 
commemoration relating to her own family ; the tabu to be 
binding on all for three days, no canoes to leave the shore, 
and the being burned alive was the penalty of disobedience. 
This tabu was called '' Mauumae." On the fourth day the 
tabu was taken off, and the native canoes crowded to the 
vessel for the purposes of trade. Canoes from the imme- 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 



233 



diate neighbourhood of Olowalu and Ukuniehame, from 
Lahaina, Kaanapali, and from Lanai, came, in good faith 
and suspecting no harm, to exchange their produce for the 
coveted articles of the white man's trade. 

But Captain Metcalf meditated a terrible revenge for 
the loss of his boat and the death of his seaman.^ As the 
canoes collected around the ship, he ordered the guns and 
small arms to be loaded, and the unsuspicious natives were 
ordered to keep their canoes off the waists of the ship, and 
when any strayed either under the bows or the stern, they 
were pelted with stones or other missiles until they 
rejoined the fleet of canoes lying off either broadside of 
the ship waiting for the trade to commence. When all 



1 Jarves in his History, page 6g, 
mentions that "the bones of the 
murdered seaman and the remains of 
the boat, for which a reward was 
offered, had been delivered up ; and 
the natives supposing the anger of 
the captain appeased by the attack he 
had already made, innocently asked 
for the promised reward. This he 
said they should have." This cir- 
cumstance is not referred to in the 
native accounts, which merely state 
that when the boat had been towed a 
long distance from the ship the sleep- 
ing sailor woke up and began to cry 
out for help ; but the ship was then 
too far off to hear him, and that then, 
to stop his cries, he was killed and 
thrown overboard from the boat. No 
mention of any reward is made, or of 
the recovery of the bones of the sea- 
man and the remnants of the boat, 
though such may have been the case. 
The tragedy enacted at Olowalu was 
horrible enough without the spice of 
such accursed perfidy ; yet, if Mr. 
Young — who was on board of the 
"Eleanor" at the time, and subse- 
quently resided and died on the 
islands — had so reported it, ifc un- 
doubtedly was so. In Vancouver's 
Voyage, vol. ii., page 136, edition 
1798, Vancouver says that "Young 
stated that on a reward being 



offered for the boat and the man, Mr. 
Metcalf was informed that the for- 
mer was broken to pieces and the 
latter had been killed. The bones 
of the man were then demanded, 
which, with the stem and the stern- 
post of the boat, were carried on 
board the snow in about three 
days." On demanding their reward, 
"Mr. Metcalf replied they should 
hpve it, and immediately ordered all 
the guns to be loaded and fired 
among the canoes." But Mr. Young 
was dead some years before Mr. Jar- 
ves arrived, and as Mr. Dibble, who 
knew Mr. Young well in his lifetime, 
says nothing in his History of the 
islands of the recovery of the remains 
or of the promised reward, on which 
the native narrative is equally silent, 
I am inclined to think that either 
Young's memory was somewhat con- 
fused, or that Vancouver misunder- 
stood Young. The dead seaman 
thrown overboard in the middle of 
Maalaea Bay would probably have 
been food for sharks before it drifted 
ashore; and as the boat was taken 
and broken up at Olowalu, and no 
communication had with the ship 
until the day of the massacre, I think 
the story of the recovery and the 
reward as prima facie doubtful. 



234 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

was ready, Captain Metcalf mounted on the rail and gave 
orders to open the ports of the ship, that had hitherto been 
closed. The guns of the ship, loaded with small shot and 
grapnel, and the musketry of the sailors, were lired in the 
crowd of canoes lying within easy range on both sides. 
The carnage was immense. Over a hundred natives were 
killed outright, and several hundred more or less seriously 
wounded. The confusion, the wailing, the rush to escape, 
was indescribable.^ 

After this cruel and wanton vengeance on an innocent 
and unsuspecting multitude — for the main trespasser, 
Keopuiki, was not among the slain, and does not appear 
to have been afloat that day — Captain Metcalf lifted his 
anchor and proceeded to Hawaii to join his tender, the 
" Fair American." 

It was probably in the morning of the 17th March 
1790 that the tender was captured off Kaupulehu, in 
North Kona, by Kameeiamoku^ a great chief and sup- 
porter of Kamehameha, and all the crew killed, including 
Metcalf s son, excepting the mate, Isaac Davis, whose life, 
from some sudden impulse of compassion, was spared.^ 

^ "The bodies of the slain were chiefs, his relatives — Kalaukoa, Ma- 

dragged for with fish-hooks " (after nukoa, Kanuha, and Keakaokalani — 

the vessel had sailed), *' and collected and a quantity of trade as a pretext 

in a heap on the beach, where their for boarding. At a given signal the 

brains flowed out of their skulls." — crew were attacked, young Metcalf 

Moolelo Hawaii^ by D. Malo. thrown overboard and drowned, and 

2 Grandson of Kalanikauleleiaim, the rest of the crew killed except 

wife of Keawe of Hawaii. Having Isaac Davis. 

gone on board of Metcalf 's ship one Vancouver relates (p. 137, vol. ii. ), 

day, he was, for some reason not that on the 22d March Kamehameha 

recorded, beaten with a rope's-end. I. and Young set out for where the 

Smarting under the indignity offered schooner was, that he severely repri- 

to him, he vowed to avenge himself manded Kameeiamoku for his breach 

on the first foreign vessel that fell in of hospitality and inhumanity, and 

his power. Not long after, the un- ordered the schooner to be delivered 

fortunate tender came in his way. up to him in order to be restored to 

Her crew consisted of only five men the owner. Kamehameha I. also 

and the captain. Fitting out his took the wounded Davis under his 

canoes, Kameeiamoku went off to special care and as a companion to 

the sloop, taking with him a number Young. 

of retainers, seven of whom are men- ^ See Vancouver for particulars, 

tioned by name, and four other yol. ii. p. 139, ed. 1798. 



THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 235 

The vessel was hauled ashore, the booty of guns, ammuni- 
tion, articles of trade, and the wounded prisoner, Davis, 
were afterwards taken to Kamehamelia, then stopping at 
Kealakeakua, where Metcalf's ship, the " Eleanor," was 
lying. On the same day a party of seamen from the 
"Eleanor," with the boatswain, John Young, had been 
ashore. Young, who had wandered inland and been 
separated from his shipmates, found his return to the 
beach barred by orders of Kamehameha, who, having 
obtained a quantity of arms and ammunition, was anxious 
of having a foreigner in his employ who knew how to 
use them and keep them in order. When the boat's crew 
returned to the ship, John Young was missing. Captain 
Metcalf remained two days off the bay, firing guns and 
awaiting Young's return ; but Kamehameha having received 
intelligence of the capture of the tender by Kamedamoku, 
and having heard of the massacre at Olowalu, would not 
permit a canoe to leave the beach or go alongside the 
ship, lest Metcalf should retaliate as he had done on Maui. 

The two captive foreigners. Young and Davis, finding 
their lives secure and themselves treated with deference 
and kindness, were soon reconciled to their lot, accepted 
service under KameTiameha, and contributed greatly by 
their valour and skill to the conquests that he won, and 
by their counsel and tact to the consolidation of those 
conquests. 

It is not clearly stated by native authorities in what 
manner the feud between KamehaTneha and Keawemauliili 
of Hilo had been composed. Certain it is that during the 
summer of this year (1790), Kamehameha, assuming the 
style of " Moi " of Hawaii, sent to KeaweTnauhili of Hilo 
and Keoua-Kuahuula of Kau to furnish him with canoes 
and troops for a contemplated invasion of Maui. Keawe- 
mauhili complied with the summoiis of Kamehameha, and 
sent a large force of men and canoes under command of 
his own sons Keaweokahikiona, Meele or Elelule, Koahanu, 
and his nephew Kalaijpaihala. Keoua-Kitahuula positively 



236 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE, 

refused to obey the summons, acknowledging no feudal 
obligations to Kamehameha, and deeming the projected 
war with Maui as unwise and unprovoked. 

Having collected his forces in Kohala, Kamehameha 
crossed the Hawaii channel, making his descent in Hana, 
and, as the natives say, his canoes covered the beach from 
Hamoa to Kawaipapa. 

When Kalanikupule heard of the landing of Kame- 
hameha at Hana, and that he was marching with his 
force through the Koolau district, he sent Kapahahili 
with the best troops he had through the Hamakua dis- 
tricts to meet and resist the progress of the invader. 

Of the campaign in Hamakualoa some mementoes are 
still pointed out. The fortified position at Puukoae on 
Hanawana, which was attacked and taken by Kame- 
hameha, who had brought his fleet round from Hana. 
The hill is known as " Kapuai-o-Kamehameha," to the 
west of the Halehaku stream, where he encamped for 
the night after taking Puukoae. Here his war-god KuJcai- 
limoJcu was paraded around the camp, to ascertain by the 
usual auguries — the more or less erect position of the 
feathers, &c. — the issue of the campaign ; and the answers 
being favourable, Kamehameha engaged Kapahahili in 
battle the following morning. For some time the result 
was uncertain, but reinforcements having come up to 
Kamehameha, the Maui forces were routed, and fled as 
far as Kokomo, where a final stand was made. Fighting 
desperately, and with hardly a hope of retrieving the 
fortune of the day, Kapakahili encountered Kamehameha 
,on the field, and one of those single combats ensued in 
which the fate of an empire depends on the personal 
prowess of one or the other of the combatants. Kapa- 
Tcahili was killed, the Maui men fled and dispersed, and 
the road to Wailuku lay open to Kamehameha. 

After this victory Kamehameha moved his fleet to 
Kahului, and hauled up his canoes from there to Hopukoa 
without opposition. After two days of preparation he 



THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 237 

marched on to Wailuku, where Kalanikupile awaited him 
with such forces as he had been able to collect. This 
battle was one of the hardest contested on Hawaiian 
record. We have no detailed account of the disposition 
of the forces on either side ; we only know that the battle 
commenced at Wailuku and thence spread up the lao 
valley, the Maui army defending valiantly every foot of 
the ground, but being continually driven farther and 
farther up the valley, KameJiameha's superiority in the 
number of guns, and the skilful management of the same 
under the charge of Young and Davis, telling fearfully 
upon the number of his foes, and finally procuring him 
the victory. The author has conversed with people who 
were present at the battle and escaped with their lives, 
and they all tell that before the battle commenced the 
women and children, and the aged who could move, were 
sent up on the mountain-sides of the valley, where they 
could look down upon the combatants below. They speak 
of the carnage as frightful, the din and uproar, the shouts 
of defiance among the fighters, the wailing of the women 
on the crests of the valley, as something to curdle the 
blood or madden the brain of the beholder. The Maui 
troops were completely annihilated, and it is said that 
the corpses of the slain were so many as to choke up 
the waters of the stream of lao, and that hence one of 
the names of this battle was " Kepaniwai " (the damming 
of the waters). 

Kalanihu]pule, his brother Koalavkcmi, Kainidhomolno, 
and some other chiefs escaped over the mountain and 
made their way to Oahu. Kalaniakua, Kehuia;poiwa 
LiliJia, and her daughter Keopuolani, crossed over to 
Olowalu, where they joined their mother, Kalola, and 
after a hurried preparation they all left for Molokai, and 
took np their residence with Kekuelikenui at Kalamaula. 

It does not appear that Kamehameha took any active 
steps at this time to secure the conquest of Maui by 
leaving garrisons or organising the government. The 



238 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

island was completely conquered, its fighting force de- 
stroyed, its land wasted, and its chiefs seeking refuge on 
Oahu and Molokai. It is probable that his intention 
was to follow up his victory by an invasion of Oahu, 
where Kahekili still ruled with unbroken force. But 
deeming it an object of sound policy to come to some 
terms with Kalola, and, if possible, get her daughters 
and granddaughter in his possession, he sent a messenger 
named Kikane ahead to Molokai to request of Kalola that 
she would not go to Oahu, but go back with him to 
Hawaii, where she and her daughters would be provided 
for as became their high rank. He then re-embarked his 
forces, and leaving Kahului, sailed to Kaunakakai, on 
Molokai, deeming it prudent also to secure the adhesion 
of its chiefs before proceeding to Oahu. 

When Kamehameha arrived at Kaunakakai he was 
informed that Kalola was very sick and not expected to 
live long. He at once went over to Kalamaula and had 
an interview with her, renewing his request that she 
should confide her daughters and granddaughter to his 
care and protection. To which Kalola is said to have 
replied, "When I am dead, my daughters and grand- 
daughter shall be yours." Not long after this Kalola 
died and was mourned with the customary rites attending 
the death of so high a chiefess. The custom of " Moepuu "^ 
was observed, so was tattooing and other practices. Even 
Kamehameha had some of his teeth knocked out in token 
of sorrow. When the mourning season was ended Kalola s 
bones were deposited in Konahele, and Kamehameha took 
charge of her daughters and granddaughter, not only as a 
legacy from the mother, but as a seal of reconciliation 
between himself and the older branch of the Keawe 
dynasty, the representatives of Kiwalao. 

When the funeral rites were finished and the tabus 
taken off, and the creed and customs of the time permitted 
business to be attended to, Kamehameha dispatched two 

1 See vol. L p. io8. 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 



239 



messengers to Oahu. One was Kikane, above referred to, 
the other was Raalou, the mother of Namahana, and 
grandmother of Kamehameha's wife, Kaahtimanu. The 
mission of Kikane was to Kahekili ; that of Haalou was 
originally intended for Kauai, to seek some renowned 
soothsayer, for which that island was famous, and obtain 
his opinion as to the best way in which to obtain the 
supremacy of Hawaii for Kamehameha. 

Kikane presented himself before Kahekili at Waikiki, 
and in the name of Kamehameha offered him two Maika- 
stones, " Ulu-maika," one black and the other white. 
Kahekili looked at them and said, " This one (the white) 
represents agriculture, fishing, husbandry, and the pro- 
sperity of the government; that one (the black), is a 
symbol of war. Does Kamehameha want to go to war 
with Oahu ? " On Kikane replying that such was Kame- 
hameha! 8 intention, and that he had been sent as a herald 
to arrange with Kahekili in a courteous and chiefly 
manner about the place of landing and the field of battle, 
Kahekili, after some consideration of the various plans 
proposed by Kikane, replied, "Go, tell Kamehameha to 
return to Hawaii, and when he learns that the black kapa 
covers the body of Kahekili and the sacrificial rites have 
been performed at his f uneral,^ then Hawaii shall be the 
Maika-stoue that will sweep the course from here to 
Tahiti; let him then come and possess the country." 
Kikane then presented one more request from Kameha- 
meha, which was for the gods Olopue and Kalaipahoa} 



1 "^ kau ka puaa i ka nuku,'^ lit., 
"when the hog has been placed at 
his nose." This was one of the sacri- 
ficial observances on the demise of 
high chiefs, and is used as a trope to 
indicate the entire funeral ceremony. 
The offering of hogs in sacrifice on 
the death of a person, especially a 
chief, was a mark of respect similar 
to that offered to the idols of the 
gods ; and the savour of the baked 
animal was supposed to refresh and 



comfort the spirit of the defunct, still 
hovering about its mortal remains. 

^ Olopue or Ololupe was a god who 
conducted the spirits of chiefs to 
their final abode after death, and 
assisted them on the journey. This 
god was greatly feared by the warrior 
chiefs of olden times. 

Kalaipahoa. This god was made 
of the wood of the Nioi tree, in which 
his spirit or essence was supposed to 
reside. It was an exceedingly poison- 



240 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

Kahekili gave him a cliip of the Kalaipahoa, but the 
Olopue was in charge of the high-priest KaopuhuluhulUj 
and Kikane did not obtain it for his master. 

HdoLou's mission was more successful. Arrived at 
Oahu, she was spared the further journey to Kauai by 
finding the object of her search at Kamoku in Waikiki. 
His name was Ka'poukalii. He was a Kauai man, and 
related to Haalou's grandmother Kaneikaheilani. Hence 
he received her overtures kindly, and in reply to her 
inquiries, instructed her to tell Kamehamehd to build a 
large Heiau for his god at Puukohola, adjoining the old 
Heiau of Mailekini near Kawaihae, Hawaii; that done, 
he would be supreme over Hawaii without more loss of 
life. 

Having accomplished their errands, Kikane and Eaalou 
returned to Kamekameha on Molokai. 

While these events transpired on Maui and Molokai, 
Kamehameha' s power on Hawaii was seriously threatened. 
When Keouakuahuula heard of the assistance in men and 
canoes which Keawemauhili of Hilo had furnished to 
Kamekamelia on his expedition to Maui, he was greatly 
irritated, and considered it as a breach of the agreement 
between them to jointly oppose Kameliameha' s pretensions 
to sovereignty. To punish, therefore, his former ally, 
Keoua invaded Hilo. A battle was fought at Alae in 
Hilo-paliku, in which Keawemauliili was killed, and 
Keoua added the district of Hilo to his own possessions 
of Puna and Kau. Elated with his victory, he entered 
Kamehameha's estates, overran Hamakua, destroying valu- 
able fish ponds and taro patches at Waipio, and plundering 
the inhabitants. From Waipio he crossed over to Waimea 
in Kohala, committing similar ravages and barbarities. 

ous wood, said to have been found or drink was sure to kill the con- 
only on Mounaloa, Molokai, though sumer. It is said to have been dis- 
I have heard it said that it was also covered by Kaiakea of Molokai, at 
found on Lanai. That species of the least its uses, or rather abuses, were 
Nioi is now extinct. The least par- greatly in vogue in the latter part of 
tide of the wood inserted in the food his generation. 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 



241 



When the news of these transactions by Keoua reached 
Kamehameha at Kaunakakai, he was deeply moved at the 
death of his uncle Keawemauhili, and at the ravages and 
cruelties committed on his people and possessions by 
Keoua. All thoughts of invading Oahu, even of securing 
Maui, were given up, for a season at least, for the one 
imperious necessity of hastening back to Hawaii to pro- 
tect his own estates and to punish the audacious Keoua, 
Gathering his army and his fleet together, Kamehameha 
evacuated Maui and Molokai, and returned to Hawaii. 
' This brings us to the latter months of the year 1790, for 
it is known that the eruption of Kilauea, which destroyed 
a portion of Kcouo's army on its return to Kau, took 
place in November 1790. 

The abrupt departure of Kamehameha and his fleet from 
Molokai and his return to Hawaii took a great weight off 
the mind of Kaheldli, and plans of vengeance, if not of 
aggrandisement, occupied his thoughts and brightened his 
vision in the immediate future. He was doubtless en- 
couraged by Kaeohulani, who by this time had obtained 
the supremacy of Kauai, and who urged upon his aged 
brother the golden opportunity of Kamehameha's diffi- 
culties with Keoica-kuahuula to avenge the defeat of 
Kalanikupule on Maui, and to deal a crushing blow to 
the growing power of Kamehameha. Negotiations and 
preparations having been perfected between the Kauai and 
Oahu sovereigns during the winter months of 1790-91, 
Kaeolzulani left Kauai with a well-equipped fleet of war 
canoes, accompanied by his nephew Peapea} his military 
commanders Kiikiki and Kaiawa, his foreign gunner Mare 
Amara,2 and a number of ferocious trained dogs, and 
arrived at Oahu in the spring of 1791. 



1 Peapea was a son of Kamehameha- 
nui, already referred to. 

2 Who this man was and in what 
ship he arrived at the islands, I am 
unable to say. His first name was 
"Mare," Hawaiianised, but the 

VOL. II. 



second name, " Amara," is but the 
Hawaiian corruption of the English 
" Ai-mourer." The man was probably 
the gunner or blacksmith of some 
of the foreign vessels trading at the 
islands. 



242 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE, 

Kahehili appointed his son Kalanikupule as regent of 
Oahu during his absence, and the combined fleets of 
Kahekili and Kaeokulani started for the Windward 
Islands. Making a short stay at Kaunakakai, Molokai, 
the fleet passed to the windward side of Maui, and landed 
for a while at Waihee and Waiehu. It would appear 
from subsequent facts as if some convention or stipula- 
tion had been agreed upon between Kahehili and Kae-o- 
kulani, in virtue whereof Kahekili had transferred, either 
provisionally or permanently, the sovereign authority over 
Maui to Kaeo. Certain it is that the latter on his arrival, 
commenced to divide up the island, apportioning the 
various districts among the Kauai chiefs and warriors. 
This proceeding gave great umbrage to the sons of Kahe- 
kili and to the ancient Maui chiefs, and came near break- 
ing up the entire expedition of the two kings. A quarrel 
and an ^meute arose on this subject at Paukukalo, near 
Waiehu, between the Kauai and Maui chiefs, in which 
Koalaukani, one of the sons of Kahekili, greatly distin- 
guished himself for his bravery against a vastly superior 
number of Kauai warriors. 

In some way not now particularly remembered, this 
misadventure was smoothed over without more serious 
results, and the two fleets left Waiehu, Kaeokulani going 
round by the Koolau side to Hana to recruit, and Kaliekili 
going farther on to Mokulau in Kaupo, for the same pur- 
pose. It is reported that while at Hana, Kaeokulani 
ascended the famous hill of Kauwiki, and, in a spirit of 
bravado, threw his spear up into the air, exclaiming, " It 
is said of old that the sky comes down close to Hana, but 
I find it quite high, for I have thrown my spear, ' Kamoo- 
lehua,' and it did not pierce the sky, and I doubt if it 
will hit Kamehameha ; but hearken, Kauai ! you chiefs, 
warriors, and relations, be strong and be valiant, and we 
shall drink the water of Waipio and eat the taro of 
Kunaka." 

Leaving Hana, the fleet of Kaeokulani sailed direct for 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 



243 



Waipio, Hawaii, where he landed his troops and ravaged the 
valley thoroughly. The acts of spoliation and barbarity 
committed on this occasion were the common occurrence 
of war in those days, and would not of themselves have 
stained the memory of Kaeokulani in the native estima- 
tion; but his disregard and desecration of the ancient 
tabu places, the tearing up and overturning the sacred 
pavement of Liloa, the burning of the sacred pepper-tree 
supports of the ancient palace of the Hawaiian kings, said 
to have been built by Kahoiihapu, and his general demo- 
lition and destruction of all the sacred and valued me- 
mentoes of ancient times, in which that valley was so 
rich, — these and similar acts were regarded as unpardon- 
able acts of vandalism, for which the insulted gods and 
** Aumakuas '' would in due time exact a condign and 
fearful punishment. 

While these outrages of the Hawaiian public sentiment 
were perpetrated by Kaeokulani in Waipio, the Kahekili 
division of the fleet, leaving Mokulau, had landed at 
Halawa in the Kohala district of Hawaii, and after vari- 
ous desultory and unimportant skirmishes with the troops 
of Kamehamehay proceeded to join Kaeokulani at Waipio. 

KameTmmeha was in the Kona district when he received 
the tidings of the invasion of Kahekili and Kaeokulani. 
His preparations to repel the invasion were not long in 
being perfected. Collecting a large fleet of double canoes, 
many of which were filled with small cannon obtained 
from traders, and with the sloop which Kameeiamoku had 
captured from the ship "Eleanor" the preceding year,i he 



^ So the native account collected by 
S. M. Kamakau says ; but Vancouver, 
in vol. ii. p. 165, says that in March 
1793 the sloop was lying in a creek 
about four miles from Kealakeakua, 
where she had been hauled up, and 
was fast decaying for want of neces- 
sary repairs. The impression is ob- 
tained from Vancouver's recital of 
what Young and Davis told him that 
the vessel had not been used since 



she was captured. But Vancouver 
does nowhere state that Young and 
Davis had told him of their accom- 
panying Kamehameha in his cam- 
paigns, while at the same time he 
expressly states that for a long time 
after their capture they invariably 
accompanied Kamehameha wherever 
he went. The silence of Vancouver 
is, therefore, no denial of the correct- 
ness of the native account. 



244 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

started for Waipio, placing John Young and Isaac Davis 
in command of his artillery. Not far from Waipio, near 
the Pali Hulaana of Waimanu, the hostile fleets met, and 
the first naval battle was fought in Hawaiian waters in 
which modern gunnery formed a conspicuous element of 
strength on both sides. No particulars of this battle have 
been handed down ; no chief of any prominence lost his 
life in this engagement. It is said, however, to have been 
sanguinary, and many lives and not a few canoes on either 
side were lost of whom Hawaiian fame had made no note ; 
but the artillery pf Kamehameha seems to have been too 
heavy or too well served for his foes, as he remained 
master of the situation; and Kaliekili and Kaeokulani 
returned to Hana in Maui with their shattered fleet, and 
with no farther thoughts of invading Hawaii, fortunate if 
they might be able to defend Maui from the retaliatory 
invasion by Kamehameha, which they certainly expected, 
and which they are known to have strained all their 
resources to frustrate. 

This sea-fight off Waipio is remembered by the natives 
under the name of " Ke-pu-waha-ula-ula'' and also of 
*' Kawair It occurred in 179 1, before the death of Keoua 
Kuahuula. 

Some time after this, Peajpea Mahawalu, the nephew of 
Kahekili and Kaeo, was fatally wounded by the explosion 
of a keg of gunpowder on the hill of Kauwiki. He was 
removed to Honokohau in the Kaanapali district, where 
he shortly afterwards died from his wounds.^ 

Kahekili and Kaeo remained on Maui during the winter 
of 1 79 1 and during the whole of the year 1792. It was 
during this latter year that Captain Vancouver, command- 
ing H.B.S.S. " Discovery " and " Chatham," arrived at these 
islands. Touching at Kealakeakua Bay on Hawaii on 3d 

1 Vancouver in his " Yoyage of Dis- his other name JVamahana, had only 

covery," vol. iii., says that in March a short time before been killed by an 

1794 he heard from the natives of explosion of gunpowder. 
Maui that Pcapea, whom he calls by 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 245 

March, lie inquired after Kalaniopuu, and learned that he 
was dead. Kamehameha being absent/ Vancouver, passing 
by Maui without stopping, proceeded to Oahu and anchored 
off Waikiki on 7th March. There he learnt that Kaliekili 
and Kaeo were absent on Molokai or Maui making pre- 
parations to repel an expected invasion by Kamehameha, 
and no person of distinction appearing, he left Oahu on 
the 8th and anchored at Waimea, Kauai, on the 9th, and 
left there for the north-west coast of America on the 14th 
of the same month. 

The political situation of the islands of this group at 
this period may be concisely stated in this way. On 
Hawaii Kamehameha and Keoua Kitahuula were still con- 
tending for the sovereignty of the island, though Keoua's 
strength was gradually being exhausted. The great Heiau 
of Puukohola had been built, yet Keoua stubbornly defended 
himself, and his subjection by war seemed as distant as 
ever. By false representations and promises of safety he 
was induced during the fall of this year or early in 1792 
to go to Kawaihae to confer with Kamehameha, and on 
his arrival was treacherously killed and sacrificed at the 
Heiau. On Maui, Molokai, and Oahu, Kahekili was still 
the recognised actual sovereign, but owing to his great 
age and feeble health the regency of Oahu and Molokai 
was intrusted to his son Kalanikui)ule ; and his brother 
Kaeokulani remained with him on Maui to administer the 
affairs of that island, while the government of Kauai and 
the guardianship of Kaeokulani's son, Kaumualii. the 
legitimate Moi of Kauai, was intrusted to a high chief 
named Nakaikuaanap" 

As Oahu had virtually lost its autonomy on the over- 
throw and death of Kahahana, the events connected with 

1 On 5th March Vancouver stopped ways by the name of Enemo, and says 

off Kawaihae, where he saw Keeau- that his other name was Wakm ; and 

inoku, and gave him some goats, it is said that he was a brother of 

seeds, &c. Kaahumanu, one of Kamehameha' s 

'^ Such is his name in the native wives. The real name and the lineage 

accounts. Vancouver calls him al- of this chief are unknown to me. 



246 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

its history may properly be referred to under the reigns of 
the Maui kings. 

Vancouver's visit to Oahu in March 1792 left no special 
recollections in the native mind but the to them singular 
and inexplicable fact that these two foreign vessels posi- 
tively refused to barter guns, ammunition, and arms for 
hogs, potatoes, or refreshments of any kind that might be 
offered. The foreign traders who had visited the islands 
since their discovery by Captain Cook had so recklessly 
pandered to the lust of the native chieftains to possess fire- 
arms and ammunition, used only for their own destruction, 
that they could not appreciate the humane motive of Van- 
couver in his refusal, and his reception, though civil and 
without any untoward accidents, was proportionately cool. 

On the 7th of May 1792 the English national ship 
" Dsedalus," acting as a storeship for Vancouver's expedi- 
tion, and under command of Lieutenant Hergest, arrived 
off the north coast of Oahu, and standing in for the land, 
came-to off the mouth of the Waimea stream, in the 
Koolauloa district. While lying off and on in this road- 
stead a party was sent ashore on the nth to procure fresh 
water, accompanied by Lieutenant Hergest and Mr. Gooch, 
the astronomer. 

The result of this watering-party was unfortunate, and 
another tragedy was enacted, which, although entirely 
unprovoked by the foreigners, has not received a moiety 
of the sympathy and comments from the civilised world 
which have shed such a halo over the memory of Cook as 
a martyr to science. Lieutenant Hergest and Mr. Grooch 
w^ere foully murdered by the natives of Waimea, on set 
purpose, for the sake of plunder. By his own harsh and 
injudicious conduct Captain Cook drove the natives of 
Kealakeakua into open resistance, and fell ingloriously in 
an affray of his own seeking. In thus expressing myself, 
I only give utterance, as an historian, to what I know to 
be the native national sentiment on the subject. The 
Hawaiians never felt that they were in the wrong, or 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 247 

admitted that they were to blame for the death of Captain 
Cook, but they freely admit that they were solely to 
blame for the deaths of Lieutenant Hergest and Mr. Gooch, 
and they acquiesced then in, and appreciate now, the 
justice of Vancouver's proceedings in that regard the 
following year. 

By comparing the native narratives of this transaction 
at Waimea with that of Vancouver and other foreign 
writers, I think the following will contain briefly the 
substantial facts of the case. 

After the repulse of Kahelcili and Kaeohidani in the 
naval engagement called " Kepuwahaulaula," off the Pali 
Hulaana, on the Hamakua coast of Hawaii, the inferiority 
of firearms on the losing side had become disastrously 
manifest, and a desire to obtain a more abundant supply 
became the dominant passion of the chiefs who had shared 
and lost in the above-mentioned campaign. Whether 
Kahekili or Kaeo ordered or countenanced any violent 
measures against foreign vessels or their crews for the 
purpose of obtaining arms is doubtful, and has never been 
charged against them by the foreigners nor admitted by 
the natives.^ But it is tolerably clear that Kalanikupule, 
Kahekili' s viceroi on Oahu, had instructed his chiefs and 
military officers, or at least that they so understood his 
instructions, that although he was not willing to com- 
promise himself by allowing violent measures or treatment 
of foreign vessels or their crews at the principal trading 
port at Waikiki, where he himself resided, yet violent 
measures, if successful in obtaining guns, side-arms, and 
ammunition — peaceful barter failing — from any vessels 
that might touch at the out-of-way districts of the island, 
w^ould not only not be punished, but would be looked 
upon and rewarded as a service rendered to the state or 
the sovereign. 



O' 



1 Vancouver distinctly exculpates Kahekili and Kaeo from any complicifey, 
direct or indirect, in this sad affair. 



248 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

When, therefore, Koi^ — a military chief who had shared 
in the late campaign against Hawaii, and was now stationed 
in the neighbourhood of Waimea — observed the arrival 
of the "Dsedalus" and the landing of the watering- 
party, he laid his plans to obtain some of the coveted 
articles. 

The watering-party, finding the water near the mouth 
of the stream rather brackish, rolled their casks some 
distance farther up, where the water was thoroughly 
fresh. Having filled their casks, the seamen were rolling 
them to the sea, assisted or impeded, as the case might be, 
by the natives that were crowding around them. In this 
general scramble a dispute arose between the seamen and 
the natives, a melee ensued, in which a Portuguese sailor 
was killed,^ and the rest of the sailors escaped on board 
of their boats that were laying off the mouth of the river. 
Meanwhile Lieutenant Hergest and Mr. Gooch had been 
enticed away from the watering-party by Koi and his 
men, under pretext of selling them some fine hogs and 
vegetables, when suddenly they were attacked with 
stones,^ knocked down, and killed. The boats with the 
watering-party on board fired on the natives on the beach. 
The *' Daedalus," seeing the boats firing, brought her 
broadside to bear on the scene and fired for some time up 
"the valley, but apparently no great damage was done to 
the natives. That evening the " Daedalus " stood off to 
seaj and proceeded to join the Vancouver expedition on 
the north-west coast of America.* 

^ Koi was an important personage that they were rolling to the sea, and 
among the courtiers of Kahekili. He ran speedily to the boats and corn- 
was also a priest of the Kaleopuu- menced firing on the natives. 
puu family, and to him belonged the ^ Kapaleaiuku and Kuania were 
Heiau and the grounds at Kapokea, the two men of KoVs following who 
in Waihee, Maui. commenced throwing stones at the 

2 The native accounts make no two officers, 
mention of killing the Portuguese * The account given by Captain 
sailor. They state that the sailors, Vancouver, vol. ii. p. 96, as he re- 
seeing the natives surrounding and ceived it from Mr. New, the master 
stoning Lieutenant Hergest and Mr. of the " Daedalus," is as follows :— 
Gooch, deserted their water-casks ** In the morning of the 7th of May 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 



249 



The guns, pistols, side-arms, &c., of the killed foreigners 
were secured by Koi, their bodies taken to Mokuleia, in 
the Waialua district, where they were dissected and the 
bones kept for future use ; and in due time Koi presented 
himself at Waikiki before Kalanikupule with the spoils 
which he had obtained, and, as the native legend says, 
Kalaniku;pule was greatly rejoiced at the acquisition to 
his armoury. 

In the spring of 1793 Vancouver returned from the 
coast of America to the Hawaiian group, and anchored 
off Kawaihae, Hawaii, on 13th February. Having been 
kindly and liberally entertained by Kamehamelia and the 
Hawaii chiefs, to whom he had brought some cattle from 
California, and having fully discussed, and, as he thought, 
satisfactorily arranged a plan for the pacification of the 



the ' Daedalus ' arrived in that bay- 
where the ' Resolution ' and ' Dis- 
covery ' had anchored in 1779, but 
Mr. Hergest declined anchoring there, 
as he considered the inhabitants of 
that neighbourhood to be the most 
savage and deceitful of any amongst 
those islands. For this reason he lay 
to, and purchased from the natives 
some hogs, vegetables, and a few 
gourds of water. In the evening he 
stood off shore, and desired that the 
inhabitants would bring a farther 
supply of water and refreshments 
the next morning ; but it falling 
calm, and the current setting the 
ship to the westward, it was near 
noon on the nth before they regained 
the shore, when Mr. Hergest receded 
from his former wise determination, 
and, unhappily for himself and those 
who fell with him, ordered the ship 
to be anchored. The cutter was 
hoisted out and veered astern for 
the better convenience of purchasing 
water from the natives, but before 
three casks were filled, which was 
soon done, he ordered the cutter 
alongside, the full casks to be taken 
out and replaced by empty ones ; and 



then, accompanied as usual by Mr. 
Gooch, he went on shore, and another 
boat was hoisted out for the purpose 
of obtaining water, while those on 
board continued making purchases 
until near dusk. At this time the 
cutter returned with only five per- 
sons instead of the eight who had 
gone on shore in her, from whom was 
learned the distressing intelligence 
that Mr. Hergest and Mr. Gooch, and 
two of the boat's crew, having landed, 
unarmed with two of the water-casks 
to fill, their defenceless situation was 
perceived by the natives, who imme- 
diately attacked them, killed one of 
the people, and carried off the com- 
mander and the astronomer. The 
other, being a very stout active man, 
made his escape through a great 
number of these savages, fled to the 
boat, and with two others landed 
again with two muskets, and with the 
intention to rescue their officers and 
to recover the body of their messmate. 
They soon perceived that both Mr. 
Hergest and Mr. Gooch were yet 
alive amongst a vast concourse of the 
inhabitants, who were stripping them 
and forcing them up the hills behind 



250 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 



islands, Vancouver left Kealakeakua on 8th March, and 
touching at Kawaihae on the 9th, anchored in Maalaea 
Bay, Maui, on the nth, having the previous evening, 
while to the eastward of Molokini, fallen in with a canoe 
purporting to have been sent by Kahekili to inquire who 
he was and what his intentions. Vancouver returned a 
satisfactory answer, and despatched the chief in command 
of the canoe with a suitable present for Kahekili. 

About noon of the i ith Kamolwmolio arrived at Maalaea 
and informed Vancouver that he had been sent by Kahekili 
to pilot the ship to Lahaina. That same evening the 
" Discovery " and the " Chatham " anchored off Lahaina. 

Vancouver's description of Lahaina, as it was in 1793, 
may interest the Hawaiian reader. He says : ^ 

" The village of Raheina is of some extent towards the 



the village ; they endeavoured to get 
neai* the multitude, but were so 
assailed by stones from the crowd, 
who had now gained the surrounding 
hills, that they were under the 
painful necessity of retiring ; and as 
night was fast approaching, they 
thought it most advisable to return 
on board, that more effectual means 
might be resorted to on this unfor- 
tunate occasion. 

" Mr. New immediately assembled 
all the oflBcers, to consult with them 
what was best to be done. It was 
agreed to stand off and on with the 
ship during the night, and in the 
morning to send the cutter, well 
manned and armed, on shore, and if 
possible to recover their unfortunate 
commander and shipmates. An old 
chief belonging to Attowai, who had 
been on board since the 'Daedalus' 
entered the bay, and had been pro- 
mised by ]Mr, Hergest a passage to 
his native island, went also in the 
boat to assist as interpreter, and went 
towards the natives, of whom he de- 
manded the absent gentlemen, on 
which he was informed they were 
both killed the preceding night. 
Having delivered this message, he 



was sent back to demand their bodies, 
but was told in reply that they had 
both been cut in pieces and divided 
among seven different chiefs ; at least 
it was so understood by those in the 
boat from the language and signs 
which the chief made use of. 

" Afterthisconversation the savages 
came in great numbers towards the 
seaside and threw stones at the party 
in the boat, who fired several times, 
and at length obliged them to retire. 
Finding their errand to be completely 
fruitless, the boat returned on board, 
in which the old chief re-embarketl, 
and the vessel bore away to land him, 
agreeably to a former promise, at 
Attowai; but when they were about 
five or six leagues to leeward of 
Woahoo, about five in the evening, 
the old chief made a sudden spring 
overboaixl and swam from the ship, 
which was instantly brought to ; but 
on finding that he still continued to 
swim from them, without the least 
inclination of returning on board, 
they filled their sails, and having 
then no business at Attowai, they 
made the best of their way towards 
Nootka, agreeably to my directions." 

^ Vol. ii. p. 176. 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 251 

north-west part of the roadstead. It seemed to be plea- 
santly situated on a space of low or rather gently elevated 
land, in the midst of a grove of bread- fmit, cocoa-nut, and 
other trees. To the eastward the country seemed nearly 
barren and uncultivated, and the shores were bounded by 
a reef, on which the surf seemed to break with so mucli 
force as to preclude any landing with our boats. In the 
village the houses seemed to be numerous and to be well 
inhabited. A few of the natives visited the ships ; these 
brousfht but little with them, and most of them were in 
very small miserable canoes. These circumstances strongly 
indicated their poverty, and proved what had been fre- 
quently ^ asserted at Owhyhee, that Mowee and its neigh- 
bouring islands were reduced to great indigence by the 
wars in which for many years they had been engaged." 

While on Hawaii, Vancouver had been told that three 
of the murderers of Lieutenant Hergest of the " Daedalus " 
had been put to death by the orders of Kahehili ; but he 
was also told there that those murders were premeditated ^ 
by them {Kahekili and Kaeo), and committed by their 
express orders, for the sole purpose of revenging a difference 
that had happened between them and Mr. Ingraham.^ 
He was assured, however, by Kamohomolio and Kahekili 
that such was not the case ; that not only had no such 
orders been issued by Kahekili or Kaeo, nor had any chief 
been connected with the murder of the *•' Dsedalus' " people, 
but that it had been perpetrated by a lawless gang living 
on that side of Oahu ; and that as soon as they {Kahekili 
and Kaeo) became acquainted with the sad event, they 
had immediately sent orders to Oahu to arrest and put to 
death those who were guilty of the murder, and that in 
consequence three of the most prominent of the gang had 
been executed, three or four others equally guilty having 
escaped to the mountains and eluded pursuit for a long 
time. As Vancouver insisted that those men should also 
be caught and punished by their own chiefs as a warning 

1 Vol. ii. p. 177. 2 Of the " Hope," a North-West trader. 



252 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

to others, it was arranged that KamohomoJio should accom- 
pany him to Oahu in order to see Kahekili's orders to that 
effect duly executed. 

During his stay on Hawaii, Vancouver had taken great 
pains to impress upon Kamehainelia and his chiefs the 
necessity, propriety, and mutual advantages of the island 
chiefs living in peace and harmony with one another, 
instead of impoverishing each other by continual wars 
and the destruction of people and property. Though the 
Hawaii chiefs were rather reluctant to accede to this new 
peace policy, they finally agreed that if Vancouver could 
induce Kaliekili and Kaeo — whom they greatly distrusted — 
to enter honestly and fairly into such an arrangement, they 
would be content with Hawaii for themselves, and leave 
Maui and the leeward islands to Kaheldli and Kaeo. 
Acting upon this understanding, Vancouver lost no time, 
after his arrival at Lahaina, to lay before Kahehili and 
the Maui chiefs there assembled the propositions of Kamc- 
Immeha and the Hawaii chiefs, backed by his own serious 
recommendations. Kahekili and the chiefs listened atten- 
tively, admitted the great benefit that would accrue to 
their country from a period of peace and rest, but that 
they knew Kanuhameha too well to place any reliance 
upon his promises to keep the peace. He was ambitious 
of fame, they said, and greedy of possessions. Their 
jealousy and mistrus-t of Kamehameha was apparently 
deep rooted and not easily overcome. After a lengthy 
discussion the meeting was adjourned till the following 
day, when Kaeo, who was now on Molokai, would have 
returned. On the 13th March, Kaeo being present, the 
subject was resumed, and it was proposed that Vancouver 
should return to Hawaii with Kaeo on board as ambassador 
from Kahekili, and that then and there, under the eyes of 
Vancouver, the treaty of peace should be negotiated and 
concluded. With this Vancouver stated his inability to 
comply, on account of the limited time at his disposition ; 
but he proposed to send a letter to John Young, asking 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 253 

him to notify Kamehameha that KaJiehili and the Maui 
chiefs were willing to enter into a treaty of peace on the 
conditions agreed upon between Kamehameha and Van- 
couver, and that a prominent chief should be sent with 
this letter, assuring them that on receipt of said letter 
Kamehameha would assemble his chiefs and ratify the 
peace thus concluded, adding that if Kamehameha should 
refuse, he, Vancouver, would withdraw his friendship and 
favour from him and his island. To this proposition 
Kahehili, Kaeo, and the other chiefs agreed, and a high 
chief, whom Vancouver calls Martier} was appointed to 
carry the letter to Hawaii and conclude the negotiations. 
The great good- will and disinterested endeavours of Van- 
couver to establish a peace between the Hawaii and Maui 
sovereigns unfortunately came to nothing. Though the 
native historians make no mention of this transaction, 
either in the life of Kamehameha or that of Kahekili, yet 
we gather from what Vancouver says, on his return that 
winter to the islands, that the Maui chiefs appear to have 
performed their part of the plan proposed by Vancouver. 
He then learned ^ that a small party had arrived from 
Maui on the west coast of Hawaii, but had been driven 
away by the inhabitants. Several versions of the affair 
were told to Vancouver, and this is what he says : — 

"Immediately on my arrival here I inquired if my 
letter from Mowee had been received, and receiv-ed an 
answer in the negative. But I was given to understand 
that a small party from that island had arrived on the 
western side of Owhyhee, whose object was suspected to 
be that of seizing some of the inhabitants there for the 
purpose of taking them away and of sacrificing them in 
their religious rites at Mowee; and some reports went 
so far as to assert that this diabolical object had been 
effected. On farther inquiry, however, this fact appeared 

1 Who this chief may have been I of that time.' The English of that 

am unable to tell. The name aa day made sad havoc of Polynesian 

Vancouver gives it bears no resem- names, 

blance to any known (Jhief's name 2 yol, iii. p. 4^. 



254 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

to "be by no means established, as it was positively insisted 
on by some, and by others as positively denied. One cir- 
cumstance, however, both parties agreed in — that of the 
people from Mowee having been under the necessity of 
making a hasty retreat. I could not understand that any 
chief was in the neighbourhood of the place where they 
had landed ; and TamaahmaaJi himself, either from a con- 
viction that they had been unfairly dealt with, or that I 
should disapprove of the suspicious narrow policy that 
had influenced the conduct of his people on this occasion, 
was unwilling to allow that he had been made duly 
acquainted with their arrival, and was always desirous of 
avoiding the subject in conversation. 

" After many attempts to fix his attention, I at length 
explained to him what was the result of my negotiation 
with the chiefs at Mowee ; and he then seemed to concur 
in opinion with me, that the party from Mowee who had 
landed on the western side of Owhyhee, could be no other 
than the embassy charged with my letter and invested 
with powers to negotiate for a general pacification." 

Although Vancouver's kindly disposition accepts the 
foregoing explanation, and appears loath to charge the 
failure of the Maui embassy to Kamehameha or his chief 
counsellors, yet to those acquainted with the character of 
the people and the spirit of that time, the desire to please 
and the fear to offend those whom they looked upon as 
present friends and possible auxiliaries in their dreams of 
conquest, their power of equivoques and peculiarity of 
expressing them, to such the hesitating '' pelapaJia" ^ with 
which KaTnehameha seemed to concur in opinion with 
Vancouver, joined to his "unwillingness to allow that 
he had been made duly acquainted," &c., and "desire of 
avoiding the subject in conversation," would be good 
if indirect proofs of his knowledge of and collusion with 
those who forcibly repelled and frustrated the Maui em- 
bassy. It is doing Kamehameha no injustice, and it is no 

^ " Perhaps so." 



THE POL YNESIAN RACE. 255 

detraction from his other great qualities, to say that he 
was not equal to the large-hearted philanthropy of Van- 
couver. And so ended the last and best-laid scheme of 
peacemaking between these jealous and embittered foes, 
and henceforth the conquest of the leeward islands was 
but a question of time and of favourable opportunity in 
the not distapt future. 

To Hawaiian readers it may be interesting to know the 
description that Vancouver gives of Kahekili and Kaeo. 
The former especially had filled so prominent a part in 
Hawaiian politics for the last thirty years. Speaking of 
the first meeting with Kahekili, Vancouver says : ^ — 

" On Wednesday afternoon, 13th March 1793, we were 
honoured with the presence of Titeeree, who I was given 
to understand was considered as the king of all the islands 
to leeward of Owhyhee, and that from him Taio derived 
his authority. There seemed, however, nothing in his 
character or appearance to denote so high a station, nor 
was his arrival attended by any accumulation in the 
number of the natives on the shores or in the canoes 
about the vessels. He came boldly alongside, but entered 
the ship with a sort of partial confidence, accompanied 
by several chiefs who constantly attended him. His age, 
I suppose, must have exceeded sixty. He was greatly 
debilitated and emaciated, and from the colour of his skin 
I judged his feebleness to have been brought on by an 
excessive use of the ava. His faltering voice bespoke the 
decline of life, and his countenance, though furrowed by 
his years and irregularities, still preserved marks of his 
having been in his juvenile days a man of cheerful and 
pleasing manners, with a considerable degree of sensi- 
bility, which the iron hand of time had not entirely 
obhterated." 

Of Kaeokulani Vancouver says, referring to the circum- 
stance of Kaeo reminding him of a lock of his hair that 
he had given Kaeo when visiting the islands in 1778, on 

1 Vol. ii. p. 182. 



256 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE, 

board of the " Eesolution " with Captain Cook, and which 
exchange of friendship's tokens Vancouver seems to have 
forgotten : — 

" The circumstance of the hair having before been fre- 
quently mentioned to me, had made me endeavour to 
recall the person of this former friend to my remembrance, 
and on recollection, I suspected that Taio must have been 
a young chief, at that time about eighteen years of age, 
who had made me several presents, and who had given 
me many other instances of his friendly attention. But 
t3 my great surprise, on his entering the cabin, I beheld 
him far advanced in years, seemingly about fifty, and 
though evidently a much younger man than Titeeree, yet 
nearly reduced to the same state of debility. If he were 
really the person I had considered him to have been, I 
must have been much mistaken with respect to his age 
on our former acquaintance, or the intemperate use of 
that pernicious intoxicating plant, the ava, which he took 
in great quantities, assisted by the toils of long and 
fatiguing wars, had combined to bring upon him a pre- 
mature old age. Notwithstanding these appearances of 
the decline of life, his countenance was animated with 
great quickness and sensibility, and his behaviour was 
affable and courteous. His inquiries were of the most 
sagacious nature respecting matters of useful information. 
The shrewdness of his understanding, his thirst to acquire 
and wish to communicate useful, interesting, or entertain- 
ing knowledge, sufficiently indicated a very active mind, 
and did not fail to impress us with a very favourable 
opinion of his general character." 

On the 1 8th March Vancouver left Lahaina with Kamo- 
JiomoJio on board. After examining the southern and 
western shores of Molokai, he anchored off Waikiki, Oahu, 
on the 20th March 1793. 

The main object of Vancouver's visit to Waikiki was 
to see that the remaining murderers of the officers and 
man of the " Daedalus " were apprehended and punished. 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 



257 



KamohomoTiOj who had accompanied Yancouver as high 
commissioner from Kahekili to attend to this business, 
secured the apprehension of three natives, who were 
brought on board the " Discovery " for trial. A native 
— whom Yancouver calls Tohodbooarto, who had been a 
voyage to China with some of the foreign traders, who 
spoke a little English, and who said he had visited the 
" Dgedalus " in Waimea Bay, and went ashore in the same 
boat as Lieutenant Hergest after dissuading him from 
landing — was the principal witness who identified the 
prisoners to Kamohomoho, by whose orders they were 
apprehended. A Mr. Dobson, who had been midshipman 
of the " Daedalus " on the occasion, identified one of the 
prisoners as having been very turbulent and insolent on 
board of the " Dsedalus " before Lieutenant Hergest went 
ashore, and who immediately followed him thither, and 
whom the crew of the " Dsedalus," after the occurrence, 
accused of having been the ringleader or principal actor 
in the murders committed on shore. Adding to this the 
general belief of the chiefs present that the prisoners were 
concerned in and guilty of the crime they stood accused 
of — an opinion confirmed by Kalanikupule himself, who, 
however, pleaded sickness as an excuse for not attending 
the trial — Yancouver considered himself justified in sanc- 
tioning their conviction and punishment. The three 
prisoners denied their guilt, and stoutly asserted their 
ignorance of the whole occurrence. " This very asser- 
tion," Yancouver thinks, " amounted almost to self-con- 
viction, as it is not easy to believe that the execution of 
their comrades by Titeeree's orders for the same offence 
with which they had been charged had not come to their 
knowledge, or that it could have escaped their recollec- 
tion."! 

On the 22d March the prisoners were placed in a 
double canoe alongside of the " Discovery," and, in sight 
of the shore and of numbers afloat in their canoes, were 

1 Vol. ii. p. 209. 
VOL. II. R 



258 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

publicly executed, a chief, whom Vancouver calls TennavcCj 
shooting each one of them with a pistol. 

It is very probable that the three first natives who 
were punished with death by the order of Kahekili for 
the murder of the " Dsedalus " people were more or less 
concerned in the affair, and that when Kahekili learned 
from the foreigners residing with him that such an 
outrage on an English national' vessel would surely, 
sooner or later, meet with condign punishment and prove 
highly injurious to himself, he then ordered the execution 
of the three first offenders as an- expiation, and to put 
himself right on the record, as it were. And it is equally 
probable — their protestations to the contrary notwith- 
standing — that the three last offenders, who were executed 
in the presence of Vancouver, were also implicated in the 
murder. But we have the positive declaration of S. M. 
Kamakau, who in after-life conversed with one of the 
parties participating in the murder, that Koi, the head 
and instigator of the whole affair, and his immediate 
subordinates, were neither apprehended, punished, nor 
even molested, and that the parties executed were 
criminals of other offences, who, their lives having been 
forfeited under the laws and customs of the country, 
were imposed upon Vancouver as the guilty parties in 
the " Daedalus " affair. 

On the 23d March, Kalanihupule, the son of Kahekili 
and the viceroy on Oahu, visited Vancouver, who thus 
describes him : — " Trytoohoory appeared to be about thirty- 
three years of age ; his countenance was fallen and reduced, 
his emaciated frame was in a most debilitated condition, 
and he was so totally deprived of the use of his legs, that 
he was under the necessity of being carried about like 
an infant; to these infirmities was added a considerable 
degree of fever, probably increased by the hurry and fatigue 
of his visit." 

On the 24th March Vancouver left Waikiki, and after 
inspecting the Puuloa inlet to the Ewa lagoon, proceeded 



THE POL YNESIAN RACE. 259 

to Kauai. In mid-channel he fell in with a fleet of 
canoes on their way from Kauai to Maui, carrying dis- 
patches and a number of prisoners to Kaeo^ informing 
him of a revolt that had occurred on Kauai against the 
authority of Enemo, his regent there, and of its suppres- 
. sion. At the head of this fleet was a single canoe that 
attracted Vancouver's attention. It was made from an 
American pine-tree that had drifted ashore on Kauai ; it 
was the largest single canoe that he had seen, being sixty- 
one and a half feet long. It carried, as trophies of the 
suppression of the revolt, the leg-bones, with some of the 
flesh adhering, of two chiefs that had been engaged in it 
and been killed. The other canoes carried a number of 
prisoners, several of whom, Vancouver says, " were his 
(Kaeo's) nearest relations ; one in particular was his half- 
sister, who had also been his wife or mistress, and had 
borne him some children." 

Arrived off Waialua, Kauai, Vancouver was kindly 
received by Kaumualii and the chiefs there present, and 
proceeding to Waimea, he landed and provided for two 
Hawaiian girls from Niihau, whom an English trader had 
carried off the preceding year to the north-west coast of 
America, where Vancouver found them, and kjndly gave 
them a passage home. 

On his return from the American coast in the spring of 
1794, Vancouver visited Hawaii first. Leaving that island 
on March 3d and proceeding westward, he spoke some 
canoes off Hamakuapoko, Maui, who told him that Kahe- 
kill was on Oahu, and that Kaeo was on Molokai at that 
time. 

Of the occurrences on tlie leeward group of the islands 
under the sway of Kaheldli and Kaeo from March 1 793 
to March 1794, our only information comes from Van- 
couver's valuable account of his voyage. We there learn 
that shortly before his arrival — either latter part 1793 
or in the early part of 1794, while he was at Hawaii — 
Enemds conduct as regent under Kaeo on Kauai had 



26o - THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

become so suspicious and apparently disloyal, that Kalu- 
kili, advised of the fact, and acting for his brother Kaeo, 
who was absent on Maui or Molokai, sent an embassy to 
Kauai to investigate the matter. Vancouver intimates 
that the " renegade white men " in Enemos employ had 
instigated him to his disloyal conduct, and that they 
killed the greater portion of Kahehilis messengers. In 
this critical situation Kahehili, notwithstanding his ad- 
vanced age, acted with his usual promptitude and decision. 
Obtaining a passage for himself and his following on 
board of the English ship " Butterworth," Captain Brown, 
he proceeded to Kauai and summoned Encmo to justify 
himself. Either overawed by the presence of Kahehili, 
or conscious of his own innocence, Enemo met Kahehili 
in conference, a compromise of existing difficulties was 
effected, and Enemo was retained as regent of Kauai. 

Erom the native accounts it does appear that, after the 
above trouble on Kauai, Kahehili visited Maui once more, 
and returning to Oahu in the month of " Ikiiki " (June), 
died in the month of " Kaaona" (July) 1794 at Ulukou, 
Waikiki. His age is not accurately known, but as by all 
native accounts he was the reputed, if not the legitimate 
and acknowledged, father of Kamehameha Z, he could not 
well have been less than eighty years old, and was pro- 
bably some years older. The same authorities state that 
Kameeiamohu and his twin-brother Kamaimwa secretly 
took Kahehili's body away and hid it in one of the caves 
at Kaloko in North Kona, Hawaii. If this fact is truly 
accredited to those two Hawaiian chieftains, and, although 
happening in comparatively modern times, I have never 
heard or seen it disputed, it will, in consideration of the 
ancient customs, go far to justify the current opinion of 
that time, shared alike by chiefs and commoners, that 
Kameeiamohu and Kamanawa were the children of Kehau- 
lihe of Maiii, and thus half-brothers of Kahehili. This 
relationship receives farther confirmation from the native 
legends when they relate that, on learning the birth of 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 261 

KawAhameha, Kahekili sent these two sons of Lis father 
Kekaulihe^ to Hawaii to be and act as "Kahus"^ to 
Kamehameha. In no other way can the otherwise singular 
fact be explained that two of Kamehameha' s oldest and 
most prominent and trusted councillor chiefs, during a 
time of what may be called suspended hostilities, should 
have repaired from Hawaii to Oahu for the purpose of 
securing and safely hiding (Huna-kele) the bones of 
Kamehameha' s political rival; nor the otherwise equally 
inexplicable fact that they should have been permitted 
by Kalanikupule, Kahekili's son and successor, to carry 
their design into effect. Under the social system of the old 
regime, and of time-hallowed custom, KamehameJia would 
have had no power to prevent those chiefs from execut- 
ing their pious errand, and Kalanikupule would have had 
no motive to mistrust their honesty when resigning to 
them his father's remains ; and a breach of trust on their 
part would have consigned them to an infamy of which 
Hawaiian history had no precedent, and so deep, that the 
Hawaiian language would not have had a word detestable 
enough wherewith to express it. 

KahekilihsidL two wives : — (i.) Kauwahine, of the Kaupo 
Koo and Kaiuli chief families. Her children were — 
Kalanikupule and Koalaukani, already referred to, and 
two daughters, Kailikauoha and Kalola; the former be- 
came the wife of Ulumeheihei Hoopilikane (son of Kameeia- 
moku) and mother of Liliha, the princely and popular wife 
of governor Boki of Oahu after the death of Kamehameha 
I. ; of the latter daughter, Kalola, nothing is known with 
certainty. (2.) Luahiwa, daughter of Kekaulike and his 
Molokai wife Kane-a-Lae, and thus a half-sister to Kahe- 
kili. With her Kahekili had a son, Kahekilinuiahunu, 
also frequently called Manonokauakapekulani, who married 

1 Though every Hawaiian genealogy legends which refer to these two chiefs 

in my possession invariably states that call them the sons of Kekaulike. ' ' Na 

Kameeiamoku and Kamanawa were keiki kapu a Kekaulike. '' 

the twin children of Keawepoepoe and 2 «< Guardians, attendants." 
his wife Kanoena, yefc all the older 



562 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

his cousin Kailinaoa, the daughter of 3fanuhaaijoo, one of 
the sons of Kekaulike and Hoolau. 
Kaianiku- Although Kalaniku'puU, at his father's death, was recog- 
nised as the Moi of Maui and its dependencies, Lanai, 
Molokai, and Oahu, yet the previous arrangement between 
Kahehili and Kaeohulani remained in force for some time, 
the latter governing Maui and the adjacent islands, while 
Kalanikupule ruled over Oahu. 

Towards the close of the year 1794 Kaeo became very 
desirous of revisiting Kauai and placing affairs there on a 
better footing. Embarking with his chiefs and his soldiers, 
he left Maui and stopped a while on Molokai to collect 
tribute and take in supplies. 

It is not stated in the native accounts whether any 
jealousy or ill-feeling had arisen between Kaeo and Kalani- 
kupule, nor, if so, what may have been the occasion of it. 
Certain it is that when Kalanikupule was informed that 
Kaeo was coming with a great force on his way to Kauai, 
he assembled his chiefs and fighting men in Waimanalo, 
Koolaupoko district, in readiness to repel Kaeo should he 
attempt a landing. Not aware of the hostile reception 
that awaited him, Kaeo, after leaving Molokai, steered for 
Kukui in Kalapueo, Waimanalo, but when arriving there 
he was repulsed by the Oahu forces, and a skirmishing 
fight was kept up for two days, during which time Kaeo's 
fleet kept at sea off the coast, exchanging shots with the 
forces ashore, with apparently no great losses on either 
side, except that the commander of the Oahu troops was 
shot by Kaeo's foreign gunner, Mare Amara, near a little 
brook named Muliwaiolena. 

By this time Kalanikupule had crossed the mountain 
and arrived on the scene of action. What influences 
had operated a change in his mind is not known, but he 
stopped farther hostile proceedings, permitted Kaeo and 
his followers to land, and invited him to a conference at 
Kalapawai, in Kailua. What took place at this meeting 
is not known, but to all appearance friendship and good- 



THE POL YNESIAN RA CE, 263 

will were restored between uncle and nephew, and Kaeo 
remained some time the guest of Kalanikupule. 

Still anxious to proceed to Kauai, and unwilling to tax 
the hospitality of his nephew too far, Kaeo refitted his 
lieet and re-embarked his men. Leaving Kailua and 
proceeding by easy stages, he touched at Wailua and at 
Waianae before intending to cross the channel to Kauai. 
Stopping a few days at Waianae, a defection sprang up 
among his troops and was surely and rapidly spreading, 
and is said to have been fomented by Kaiawa and other 
chiefs. On the eve of departure for Kauai, Kaeo was 
informed of the conspiracy and of its magnitude, and that 
the conspirators had resolved to throw him overboard on 
the passage to Kauai. The motives of this sudden con- 
spiracy have not transpired. No oppressive or tyrannical 
act had been committed by Kaeo, who, on the contrary, 
had always been very popular with his subjects. On the 
other hand, subsequent events go far to show that it was 
hardly possible that Kalanikupule had tampered with 
the fealty of Kaeds chiefs during their s^jour at Kailua, 
or they would have saved themselves at the battle of 
Kukiiahu. 

In this great emergency Kaeo showed himself equal to 
the occasion. Only a bold stroke could extricate him 
from the threatening peril. There would be no possible 
chance to cope with the conspirators if once they were 
embarked and afloat on the ocean. Could he divert the 
rebellion he was unable to ^suppress ? Yes ; one course 
was open, and only one. He might save his life and gain 
a kingdom, or at least fall in battle as became a brave 
man, instead of being thrown overboard like a dog. The 
expression he made use of on this occasion, when com- 
municating his resolution to his intimate friends, has been 
preserved and recorded : " E aho hoi ha make ana i he 
kaua, he nui na moejpu " — " It is better to die in battle ; 
many will be the companions in death." Next morning 
the departure for Kauai was countermanded, the canoes 



264 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

were ordered to be dismantled and hauled up ashore, and 
the troops were ordered to prepare for a march on Waikiki 
and war with Kalanikupule. 

Kaeo had judged his men correctly. The prospect of 
battle and renown, the hope of booty and new lands in 
the fertile valleys of Oahu, brought them back to their 
allegiance like a charm, and the cloud of revolt fled afar 
from the camp. 

When this new order was proclaimed, the tidings of 
Kaeds altered designs flew fast and far. A number of 
people from Wailua and Waianae flocked to his banner, 
and Kalanikupide hurried forward what forces he could 
collect at the moment to stop the advance of Kaeo. 

In the month of November 1794 Kaeo broke up his 
camp at Waianae and marched on Ewa. At a place 
named Punahawele he encountered the troops of Kalani- 
kupule, who had received an auxiliary force of armed 
seamen from the English vessels " Jackal " and " Prince 
Leboo," under command of Captain Brown, who shortly 
previous had been the first to enter the harbour of Hono- 
lulu, known to the natives by the name of Kou. In this 
first battle Kaeo was victorious. Some of Kalanihcjoule's 
liired foreigners were shot by Kaeo's gunner, Mare Amara, 
and the native troops were routed. Desultory fighting 
continued for several days afterwards, in all of which 
fortune still adhered to the arms of Kaeo, who slowly but 
steadily advanced through the Ewa district. 

Worsted but not disheartened, Kalanikupule collected 
his scattered forces between Kalauao and Aiea, in Ewa, 
determined to dispute by another pitched battle the pro- 
gress of Kaeo. The native chroniclers have noted the 
disposition of Kalanikupule s forces. His brother Koalau- 
kani occupied with the right wing the raised main road 
from Kalauao to Aiea ; his uncle Kamohomoho with the 
left wing occupied the shingly beach at Malei; and 
Kalanikupule himself, with his chiefs, occupied the middle 
of Aiea, while Captain Brown with his armed boats occu- 



THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 265 

pied a commanding position off the shore. We know not 
how Kaeo had marshalled his forces. He was probably 
advancing through the cultivated fields below and beyond 
the ravine of Kalaiiao. The battle took place on the 12th 
December 1794. It was a long and sanguinary conflict, 
and occupied nearly the whole of that day, The furious 
onset of Koalauhani descending from the upland where he 
was posted is said to have broken the main column of 
Kaeds army, and decided the fortune of the day. Kaeo 
personally is said to have displayed prodigies of valour, 
but was finally compelled to flee, and with six of his com- 
panions in arms sought shelter in a small ravine near the 
shore of Aiea. His yellow feather cloak, the " Ahuula," 
betrayed his presence and his rank to the men stationed 
in the boats off shore, who fired at him and his party 
while the pursuers rushed upon them from above ; and 
thus, with his face to the foe, like a lion at bay, died 
Kaeokulani, a perfect type of the personal daring, the 
martial skill, and the princely qualities that formed the 
heau ideal of a Hawaiian chieftain and the admiration of 
his contemporaries. The native historian Kamakau says 
that Kaeds wives and several prominent chiefs were also 
killed in this battle, which received by the natives the 
name of "the battle of Kukiiahu." We are not told 
who those wives of Kaeo were. Kamakahelei, the Kauai 
princess and mother of his son Kaumualii, was certainly 
not among the number. 

Towards evening of the day of the battle the corpses 
of the slain were collected and piled up in heaps near the 
shore at Paaiau. As an instance of an extraordinary 
escape, it is related that a woman named Kahulunui- 
Jcaaumoku, a daughter of Kuohu, the high-priest of 
Kauai, was among the number that were killed where 
Kaeo fell. To all outward appearance the woman was 
dead, and as such picked up and thrown on the pile of 
corpses. Life still lingered, however, though the woman 
was unconscious. During the early part of the night an 



266 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

owl, or some otlier carrion bird, hovering over the pile of 
corpses, alighted on the woman's head and attempted to 
pick out her eye. The blow of the bird's beak and the 
smart of the torn eyelid brought her back to conscious- 
ness and a sense of her situation. Watching her oppor- 
tunity when the sentinel's back was turned, she cautiously 
slipped off from the ghastly company, and crawling on 
the ground, reached the waters of the bay. She then 
swam to the farther side of Aiea, where she landed, and 
then went to the upper part of Halawa valley. Here she 
found a cave in which she hid herself, fully expecting to 
die from her wounds and exhaustion before morning. 
Morning came, but the woman was still alive; and one 
of her Kahus, going up to the mountain, passed by her 
cave, recognised her, and preserving her secret, brought 
her food and ointment. Two days after the battle Kala- 
nikujpule proclaimed an amnesty, and forbade any farther 
pursuit and slaughter of those who might have escaped 
the battle. Kahulunuikaaumohu recovered from her 
wounds; in after years she embraced Christianity, and 
died as late as 1834. 

Beside the " Jackal " and " Prince Leboo " there was 
lying in Honolulu harbour at this time an American 
sloop, the " Lady Washington," Captain Kendrick. When 
Captain Brown and his sailors returned to Honolulu from 
the battle of Kukiiahu, he caused a salute to be fired in 
honour of the victory. A wad from one of the guns 
entered the cabin of the " Lady Washington " and killed 
Captain Kendrick, who was at dinner at the time. Captain 
Kendrick was buried ashore, and the natives looked upon 
the funeral ceremony as one of sorcery to procure the 
death of Captain Brown. The son of Captain Kendrick 
requested KalaniJcupule to take good care of his father's 
grave; but that very night the grave was opened and 
robbed by the natives, as alleged, for the purpose of 
obtaining the winding-sheet. Shortly afterwards the 
" Lady Washington " left for China. 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 267 

The native accounts state that when Captain Brown 
engaged to assist KalanikupuU in his war with Kaeo^ 
Kalanikupuh had promised to pay him 400 hogs for his 
services. After the return from the war it appears that 
Captain Brown insisted upon some additional conditions, 
to which Kalanikupule and his chiefs strongly objected, 
and at which they were much annoyed, and plans, said 
to have been suggested by Kamohomoho, began to be enter- 
tained of cutting off the two vessels, should a favourable 
opportunity offer. The difficulty about the payment 
seems to have been amicably arranged, and Captain Brown 
acquiesced in the terms of the original agreement. Ac- 
cordingly Kalanikupule commenced sending off the hogs 
in great numbers. Being short of salt wherewith to cure 
the pork, Captain Brown applied to Kalanikujpide, who 
told him to send to the salt-ponds at Kaihikapu and help 
himself to as much as he wanted. The boats of the two 
vessels were sent off accordingly, and it happening to be 
high water on the reef at Keehi, they arrived at Kaihi- 
kapu without inconvenience, and loaded up with salt. In 
returning, however, the tide at Keehi was at low water, 
and the boats grounded. 

In the meanwhile Captain Brown, who had now been a 
long time in the harbour, and considered himself on the 
most friendly and intimate terms with the Oahu chiefs, 
and suspecting no treachery, had invited Kalanikupule 
and a number of others on board of his vessels, it being 
New Year's day 1795. Kalanikupule, Kamohomoho, and a 
number of other chiefs and men of lesser note, repaired 
on board and were feasted and entertained by the two 
captains. When the visitors perceived that the ships' 
boats had grounded on the reef at Keehi and the crews 
were unable to return to the vessels, a general and pre- 
concerted attack was made on the few foreigners that 
remained on board. Captains Brown and Gardner were 
killed and most of the seamen on board, while at the 
same time an overwhelming party was sent off to kill 
the boats' crews, and take possession of the boats. The 



268 THE POLYNESIAN RACE, 

greater number of the crews were killed, but a few were 
spared to assist in navigating the vessels. 

In possession of these two vessels, with all their stores 
of arms and ammunition, Kalanikupule became so elated, 
that, in a council with his chiefs, it was resolved to start 
forthwith to Hawaii and to conquer that kingdom from 
KameJmmeha. The account of the subsequent proceed- 
ings are differently narrated by Dibble, Jarves, and by 
Kamakau ; but although the two latter agree best together, 
I prefer to follow Dibble's account as probably the most 
correct as regards the facts, though he is wrong in the 
year that he assigns to them. 

. After describing the capture of the vessels, Mr. Dibble 
says : — " The ship's deck was soon crowded with soldiers 
and set sail under the management principally of a 
a few foreigners. When they were fairly out of the 
harbour off Waikiki, the foreigners began to cover the 
rigging with oil that was extremely offensive, which so 
increased the sea-sickness of the king and his soldiers as 
to be insupportable, and they insisted upon returning into 
the harbour. On setting sail the second time, Kamo- 
homoho advised that the foreigners should go in canoes, 
and natives only on board ship. Kalanihupule replied in 
English, " No." The soldiers therefore set sail in a fleet 
of canoes, and the foreigners with Kalanihupule, with all 
the guns, muskets, ammunition, and other means of war- 
fare, and a few attendants perhaps, on board the ship. 
The foreigners, instead of sailing for Hawaii, stood directly 
out into the open ocean, sent Kalanikupule ashore at 
Waikiki, and took a final leave of the islands. It is said 
they touched at Hawaii and delivered the arms and am- 
munition to Kamehameha!' . 

Kamakau's account differs somewhat in details, but it 
is substantially the same as to the results — the failure of 
Kalanikupule to hold the vessels he had captured and 
carry out the plans he had formed, and the success of the 
surviving seamen in escaping with their ships. 

Before proceeding farther with the closing events of the 



THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 269 

Hawaiian autonymous states under the old regime, it is 
proper to take up the Oahu line of kings from the time 
of Ktikaniloho to the death of Kaliahana, which closed 
the autonomy of that island. 

Oahij. 

Kalaimanuia followed her mother, Kukaniloho, as Moi J^«/«»'««- 
of Oahu. No foreign or domestic wars appear to have 
troubled her reign, and little is known of her history. 
She was born at Kukaniloko, that famous birthplace of 
Hawaiian royalty, and resided most of her time at 
Kalauao, in the Ewa district, where the foundations of 
her houses are still pointed out at Kukiiahu and at 
Paaiau. To her is attributed the building of the great 
fishponds of Kapaakea, Opu, and Paaiau. Her husband 
was Lujpe Kapukeahomakalii, a son of Kalanuili (k) and 
Naluehiloikeahomakalii (w), and he is highly spoken of in 
the legends as a wise and kind man, who frequently 
accompanied his royal spouse on the customary circuits 
of inspection of the island, and assisted her in the govern- 
ment and administration of justice. 

An instance of LupekapjJs mildness of disposition has 
been preserved in the legends. Once a native stole a hog 
from the chief. When the theft was found out, Lupekapu 
goes to the house of the thief and asks, " Did you steal 
my hog?" The native answered trembling, "Yes." 
Lupekapu then ordered the thief to prepare an oven and 
bake the hog. When that was done, he was told to sit 
down and eat. The thief fell to with a light heart, but 
on attempting to rise, when his natural appetite was 
satisfied, he was sternly told to continue eating until he 
was told to desist. When nearly suffocated with food, 
the poor wretch was told to get up, and Lupekapu told 
him, " Next time that you steal your neighbour's hogs, 
the law of the land that Mailekukahi established will 
punish you, viz., you will be sacrificed as a malefactor, 



270 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

and your bones will be scraped to make fish-hooks and 
arrow-heads of." 

Kalaimanuia and Lupekapu had four children, three 
sons and one daughter. The first were Ku-a-Manuia, 
Kaihihapu-a-Manuia, and Hao ; the latter was Kekela. 
According to ancient custom the sons were given over to 
their several Kahus or guardians, chiefs of high rank and 
generally related to the parents, to be by them brought 
up and educated. Thus Ku-a-M. was brought up at 
Waikiki, Kailiihapu-a-M. at Waimanalo, Koolaupoko, 
and Hao at Waikele, Ewa ; but the daughter, Kekela, was 
brought up with her parents. 

Before her death Kalaimanuia made the following dis- 
positions of the government and the land. She appointed 
her eldest son, Ku-a-M., to succeed her as Moi of Oahu, 
and she gave him the Kona and Koolaupoko districts for 
his maintenance. To Kaihikayu-a-M. she confided the 
charge of the tabus, the religious culte, and her family 
gods, " Kukalani " and " Kuhooneenuu ; " and for his 
maintenance she gave him the lands of Kalauao, Aiea, 
Halawa, and Moanalua. To Hao she gave the districts 
of Ewa and Waianae, subject in authority, however, to 
his elder brother. And to her daughter, Kekela, she gave 
the districts of Waialua and Koolauloa. 

Ku-a-Manuia is spoken of in the legends as an exceed- 
ingly greedy and ambitious king, who endeavoured to 
wrest the lands from his brothers that had been given to 
them by their mother ; and by his niggardliness he incurred 
the ill-will of the priests and the country-people, and 
became very unpopular. This manner of bickering and 
disputes with his brothers continued for about six years, 
when finally Ku-a-M. resolved on an armed attack on his 
brother, Kaihikapu-a-M., who was at the time building 
the two fishponds at Keehi known as Kaihikapu and 
Lelepaua. Kaihikapu-a-M. defended himself against this 
sudden attack ; the country-people and his brother Hao 
hurried up to his assistance, and a general battle was 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 271 

fought between Lelepaua and Kapuaikaula, in which 
Ku-a-M. was slain. Not long ago a memorial stone was 
still pointed out on that field as marking the place where 
Ku-a-M. fell. 

The legends have not preserved the names of Ku-a- 
Manuia's wives or children. 

Kahikapu-a-Manuia followed his brother as Moi of KaUukapu- 
Oahu. Tradition has preserved his memory as a pious 
and worthy chief, who built new Heiaus, repaired the 
old, and encouraged devotion and religious exercises. 
During one of the circuits of the island which the Moi 
occasionally made to inspect the condition of the country, 
to administer justice, and to dedicate or repair Heiaus, he 
visited his brother Rao, who lived at Waikele, Ewa, and, 
as the legend says, was surprised and disturbed in his 
mind at the wealth of all kinds and the number of vassals 
and retainers, both chiefs and commoners, that followed 
the banner of his opulent brother. 

Apprehensive that a chief with so abundant material 
resources might any day rise in revolt and assert his 
independence, Kaihikapu-a-M. returned to Waikiki and 
took counsel with his high-priest, Zuamea. The priest 
advised him that open force would not prevail against 
ffao, but that he might be overcome by stratagem and 
surprise. The native legend makes a kind of Trojan 
horse of an enormous shark that had been caught off 
Waikiki by Kaihikapu-a-M., and which was sent as a 
present to Hao, from which, while Hao was occupied in 
dedicating it to the gods, armed men issued and slew Hao, 
his priest, and attendant chiefs, who, occupied with the 
sacrifice, were unarmed and unprepared. 

I am inclined to believe that the embellishments of the 
legends, as in many other cases, are of a much later time, 
and that the actual fact of the matter was the sending of 
a valuable present, the bearers of which surprised Hao at 
the Heiau and killed him there. 

Hao's son Napulanahu-mahiki escaped from the assassins 



272 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

and fled to Waianae, where he maintained himself against 
Kaihika'pu-a-M. until the death of the latter. By marry- 
ing his annt Kehela, Napulanahu came into possession also 
of the Waialua and Koolanloa districts, and the island 
was thus divided into two independent sections, which 
continued until Kakuhihewa' s reign. 

Kaihikapu-a-Manuias wife was Kaunui-a-Kanehoalani, 
a daughter of Kanehoalani, who was a grandson of Lo 
Lale (k) and Keleanohoanaajpiajpi (w), referred to on pre- 
vious pages. Kaunuis mother was Kitaloakalailai of the 
Kalehcnui branch of the Maweke line, but whose pedigree 
I am not in possession of. With tliis wife Kaihikapu-a-M. 
had a son named Kakuhihewa, who succeeded him as Moi. 
If Kaihika'pu-a-M. had other wives or other children, the 
legends are silent on the subject. 
KakuUhewa. As Kakuliihewa was not only one of the great kings of 
Oahu, but also celebrated throughout the group for all the 
princely qualities that formed the heau ideal of a high- 
born chief in those days, the legends relating to him are 
somewhat fuller, or have been retained better, than those 
of many of his contemporaries or successors. 

Kakuhihewa was born at Kukaniloko, in the sleeping- 
place consecrated by the tabu of Liloe. From thence he 
was taken to Hoolonopahu by his grandfather Kanehoa- 
lani. Forty-eight chiefs of highest rank, conspicuous 
among whom were Makokau, Ihukolo, Kaaumakua, Paka- 
jpakakuana, were present at the ceremony of cutting the 
navel-string of the new-born chief, and the two sacred 
drums, named " Opuku " and " Hawea," announced the 
august event to the multitude. Several Kahus were duly 
appointed to watch over and bring up the heir-apparent, 
whose childhood was principally passed between Waipio, 
Waiawa, and Manana in the Ewa district. 

During his youth Kakuhihewa was instructed in all the 
sciences and accomplishments known among his people, 
and such as became a chieftain of his rank and expecta- 
tions. Spear exercise of the various kinds, single-stick. 



THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 273 

stone-throwing, the use of the sling and the javelin, and 
the knowledge of martial tactics, were taught him by a 
number of masters, whose names the legend has preserved, 
and whose skill is said to have been so great that they 
could hit the smallest bird or insect at long distances. 
The use of the bow and arrow was taught him by the 
famous Mailele. The bow was never used in war, but 
was a fashionable weapon to shoot rats and mice with. 
There being no beasts of prey or wild animals on the 
islands, the rats were the only fera natura that offered 
the sports of the chase to the chiefs and their followers, 
with whom it seems to have been a fascinating amuse- 
ment, and heavy bets were frequently put upon this or 
that archer's skill. The arrows were generally tipped 
with the sharpened bones of birds or of human beings. 

When Kahuhihewa succeeded his father in the dignity 
of Moi of Oahu, his first care was to reunite the divided 
empire of the island. Instead of continuing the war with 
his cousin NajpulanaJmmaJiiki, he made peace with him, 
and married his daughter Kaea-a-Kalona, generally known 
in the genealogies by the name of Kahaiaonuiakauailana, 
with whom the three districts of Waianae, Waialua, and 
Koolauloa again fell under the sway of the legitimate Moi 
of Oahu; and during the balance of his long reign, no 
war or rebellion distracted the country or diminished his 
power. 

The legends speak in glowing terms of the prosperity, 
the splendour, and the glory of Xakuhihewa's reign. Mild 
yet efficient in his government, peace prevailed all over the 
island, agriculture and fishing furnished abundant food for 
the inhabitants; industry throve and was remunerated, popu- 
lation and wealth increased amazingly, and the cheerful, 
liberal, and pleasure-loving temper of Kakuhihewa attracted 
to his court the bravest and wisest, as well as the brilliant 
and frivolous, among the aristocracy of the other islands. 
Brave, gay, and luxurious, versed in all the lore of the 
ancients of Ms land, a practical statesman, yet passion- 

VOL. IL s 



274 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

ately fond of the pleasures of the day, wealthy, honoured, 
and obeyed, Kakuhihewa made his court the Paris of the 
group, and the noblest epitaph to his memory is the sobri- 
quet bestowed on his island by the common and sponta- 
neous consensus of posterity — " Oahu-a- Kakuhihewa." 

Kakuhihewa! s principal royal residences were at Ewa, 
Waikiki, and Kailua. On the latter land, at a place 
called Alele, he built a magnificent mansion, according to 
the ideas of those times. It was named Pamoa,"^ and is 
said to have been 240 feet long and 90 feet broad. To 
those who remember the large houses of even inferior 
chiefs in the latter years of the old regime, ere the feudal 
power was completely broken, the above dimensions, as 
given in the legend, will not appear extravagant, and were 
probably correct. 

Kakuhihewa had three wives, some legends say four, 
(i.) Kaea-a-Kalona or Kahaiaonuiakauailana, the daughter 
of Najpulanahumahiki, above referred to, and Kekela, the 
daughter of Kalaimaneia. With her he had two sons 
and one daughter — Kaihikapic-a-Kakuhihewa, Kanekapu-a- 
Kakuhihewa, and Makakaialiilani. (2.) Kaakaualani, the 
daughter of Zaninui-a-Kaihicpee and his wife Kauhiiliula- 
a-Piilani ; the former a descendant of the Kalehenui-a- 
Maweke branch, the latter a daughter of Piilani, king of 
Maui. With her he had a son named Kauakahinui-a- 
Kakuhihewa. (3.) Koaekea, whose pedigree I am not in 
possession of, and with whom he had a son named Kale- 
hunapaikua. The fourth wife mentioned by some legends, 
though not by all, was Kahamaluihi, a daughter of I^aioe — 
a descendant of the Kumuhonua-a-Mulielealii branch of 
the Maweke line — and I'Cawelo-Ehu, of the Kauai branch 
descending from Ahukini-a-Laa. She is said to have 
become afterwards the wife of Kanekapu-a-Kakuhihewa. 
When Kakuhihewa died, the office and dignity of Moi 
Ka)ieivpu- of Oahu dcsceudcd to his oldest son, Kanekapu-a-Kakuhi- 
tewt^^^' ^^ewa, in whose family it remained for five generations 

^ Some legends give the name as Kamooa. 



THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 27 5 

afterwards. In other respects the island appears to have 
been divided between the three oldest brothers. 

No legends remain of the life of Kanekwpu-a-Kakulii- 
hewa. The brothers agreed well together ; no dissensions 
seem to have troubled their lives, and peace and abundance 
blessed the land. Occasional allusions in the legends of 
other chiefs would seem to indicate, however, that the gay 
temper and sumptuous style of living, which had made 
Kakuhihewa so famous among his contemporaries, were in 
a great measure shared by his son Kaihikapu-a- Kakuhi- 
hewa, whose brilliant entourage continued the lustre of his 
father's court. 

Kanekapu-a-Kahahihewa' s wives were : (i.) Kalua, with 
whose name some confusion appears to have been made 
by the genealogies. On some she is said to have been one 
of the daughters of Hoohila — a daughter of Kalaniuli (k) 
and Kaulala (w) — and her husband Kealohi-Kikaupea, and 
thus a sister to Kaioe, the mother of Kahamaluihi, above 
referred to ; but as Hoohila was a half-sister of Kakuhi- 
hewa' s grandfather Liipekapukeahomakalii, and is referred 
to in the legends of Kakuhihewa as an old lady in his 
days, it is hardly probable that any of her daughters could 
have been the mate of Kakuhihewa s son. That she was 
descended from Hoohila, and in the Meles and legends is 
known as Kalua-a- Hoohila, there is no doubt, and I think 
it therefore more reasonable to assume that she was a 
granddaughter or great-granddaughter of Hoohila. The 
only child that Kanekapu-a- Kakuhihewa had with this 
wife was a son, Kahoowahaokalani, (2.) Kahamaluihi^ 
just mentioned above, with whom he had no children. 

Kaihikapu-a- Kakuhihewa, though acknowledging his 
brother Kanekapu-a- Kakuhihewa as the Moi of Oahu, 
kept his gay and brilliant court sometimes at Ewa, some- 
times at Waikiki. We know but little of the history of 
his life. The Meles and legends merely allude to certain 
events known to have transpired during his time as if 
they were too well known in the community at the time 



276 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

those accounts in verse or prose were composed to require 
farther details. Thus there can be no doubt that it was 
during his time that Kauhi-a-Kama, the Moi of Maui, 
started an armed expedition to Oahu, landed at Waikiki, 
and met a violent death there at the hands of the Oahu 
chiefs ; but we know not the cause of the quarrel or the 
invasion, nor if Kaihikapu-a-Kahuhiliewa was personally 
present at Waikiki and shared in the battle and took 
part in the outrage committed on Kauhi-a-Kama s body 
at the Heiau of Apuakehau. We know that the great 
civil war between Kawelo-a-MaihunoMi and his cousin 
or near relative, Aikanaka, on Kauai, occurred during 
this period, and that Kawelo-a-Maihunalii — whose wife 
belonged to the Kalona family of Oahu, and who had 
obtained lands in Ewa on the slope ascending to the 
Kolekole pass of the Waianae mountains — was assisted 
with men, arms, and canoes by Kaihikapu-a-Kahuliiheiua 
during the war ; but we learn nothing from those legends 
that throws any light on the contentions which distracted 
the island of Kauai between the time of Kahakumakalina 
and that of KawelomahamaTiaia. 

■ Kaihikapu-a-Kakuhihewas wife was Ijpuioai-a-Hoalani, 
a daughter of Hoalani and Kaua Kamakaohua ; the former 
a brother to KakuJiihewa' s wife, Kaakaualani, the latter a 
daughter of Kamakaohua, a chief in Kohala, Hawaii, to 
whom belonged the Heiau of Muleiula, on the land of 
Kahei. With this wife Kaihikapu-a-K. had a daughter 
named Kauakahikuaanaauakane, who married Iwikaui- 
kaua, referred to on p. 126, and thus became the grand- 
mother of the famous Kalanikauleleiaiwi, the wife of 
Keaweikekahialiiokamoku, king of Hawaii. 

Of Kauakahinui-a-K I have found no mention in the 
legends, except that he was the ancestor of Fapaikaniau, 
one of the wives of Kaulahea, Moi of Maui, and of her 
brothers Kuimiheua and Uluehu, from whom several dis- 
tinguished families descended. 

Of Kalehunapaikua, the fourth son of KakuhiJiewa, 



THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 277 

nothing is known but the fact, which the genealogists 
carefully kept from oblivion, that from him descended 
the celebrated Kaupekamohu and her three warrior sons, 
Nahiolea, Namakeha, and Kaiana-a-Ahaula. 

KaJioowahaohalani appears to have been recognised as KaJwowa- 
Moi of Oahu after his father, Kanekapu-a-K. His life 
and reign have furnished no theme for bards or r-aconteurs, 
from which the historian infers that peace and prosperity- 
were uninterrupted. KahoowalwCs wife was Kawelolau- 
huhi, whose pedigree is not clearly stated, but who was 
undoubtedly either a daughter or a niece of Kaweloma- 
hamahaia of Kauai. Their son was 

Kauakahi-a-KaJioowaha, who followed his father as Moi KanaMid-a- 

' Aahoowa/M. 

of Oahu. On the subject of his life the legends are as 
barren as on that of his father, with one exception. It is 
stated that Kauakahi-a-K. sent an ambassador named 
Kualona-ehu to the court of Kawelomakualua and his 
sister-wife, Kaawihiokalani on Kauai, who are said to 
have been the first to establish the dreaded " Kapu wela 
na Lii," the " Kapu-moe," which compelled all persons, 
on penalty of death, to prostrate themselves before a high 
chief, or when he was passing. On the return of the 
ambassador the tabu which he had witnessed on Kauai 
was introduced and proclaimed on Oahu by Kauakahi- 
a-K., and it is intimated that his grand-aunt, Kahama- 
luihi, was still alive at that time, and actively contributed 
to the introduction of the above tabu. From Oahu this 
tabu is said to have been introduced on Maui in the reign 
of Kekaulike. 

The expression of the legend would seem to convey the 
impression that Kawelomakualua and his wife were the 
first to institute the " Kapu-moe " in the Hawaiian group. 
Such impression, I believe, would be incorrect, in view of 
the fact that the " Kapu-moe " — prostration before chiefs 
— ^was a well-known institution in all, or nearly all, the 
principal groups of Polynesia before they were visited by 
Europeans in the eighteenth century. Like many other 



Kualii. 



278 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

common customs with that race, it may have slumbered 
or been discontinued on the Hawaiian group for many 
generations, and probably the Kauai chieftains were the 
first to revive its practical application, and hence were 
said to have been the first to establish it. 

Kauahalii-a-KahoowahaJ s wife was Moliulua, She was 
doubtless of a rank corresponding to his own, but I have 
found no allusion to her pedigree in the legends or genea- 
logies now extant. Their first-born, and perhaps their 
only son, was Kualii. If they had other children, their 
names have been eclipsed and forgotten in the superior 
renown of Kualii. 

Kualii succeeded his father as Moi of Oahu, but by that 
time it would appear that the title had become more 
nominal than real, and that the Ewa and Waialua chiefs 
ruled their portions of the island with but little regard 
for the suzerainty of the Moi, who, since the time of 
Kanekaipua-Kakiihihewa, resided chiefly on their patri- 
monial estates in the Koolaupoko district. 

Kualii was born at Kalapawai, on the land of Kailua, 
Koolaupoko district. The ceremony of cutting the navel- 
string was performed at the Heiau of Alala, and thither, 
for that occasion, were brought the sacred drums of Opuku 
and Hawea. During his youth Kualii was brought up 
sometimes at Kailua, at other times at Kualoa. One of 
the special tabus attached to Kualoa, whenever the chief 
resided there, was that all canoes, when passing by the 
land of Kualoa, on arriving at Makawai, should lower 
their masts and keep them down until they had passed 
the sea off Kualoa and got into that of Kaaawa. I note 
the tabu and the custom, but I am not certain of the 
underlying motive. It may have been a religious observ- 
ance on account of the sacred character of the "Pali 
Kualoa," or a conventional mode of deference to the high 
chief residing there. It was strictly observed, however, 
and woe to the infractor of the tabu. 

So far as known to me, only one legend of the life and 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 



279 



acts of Kualii has been reduced to writing and preserved. 
There doubtless were at one time several other legends 
regarding a king so widely known, so thoroughly feared, 
and so intimately connected with the highest families on 
Maui, Molokai, and Kauai as was Ktcalii, and as was his 
hardly less illustrious son, Peleioholani. But the political 
destruction of the house of Kualii by Kahehili of Maui, 
the spoliation of the territorial resources of its scions by 
the successful conquerors, and perhaps in no inconsider- 
able degree the idea set afloat by both the Maui and 
Hawaii victors that the Kualiis were a doomed race, all 
these co-operative causes first rendered the recital of such 
legends treasonable, next unfashionable, and lastly for- 
gotten. As a singular good fortune, however, amidst the 
destruction of so much ancient lore that doubtless clus- 
tered round the names of Kualii and Peleioholani, several 
copies of the celebrated Mele or chant of Kualii have 
been preserved and reduced to writing; and Polynesian 
students are under great obligation to Mr. Curtis J. Lyons 
for his English translation of the same.^ 

The above legend of Kualii, to which I have referred, 
appears to be rather a compilation of previous existing 
legends than an original one, and its compilation was 
probably as late as the latter part of the reign of Kame- 
hameha Z, when upwards of a century had elapsed since 
the death of Kualii, and time had covered the original 
historical data with its ivy of fable and myth. Subjecting 
this legend, however, to the same critical examination 
with which I have treated other legends; allowing for 
the exaggerations and embellishments incident to and 



1 This remarkable chant will be 
found in Ai)pendix, marked 5. lu 
the accompany inaf translation into 
English I have differed in several 
places from that of Mr. Lyons — for 
the better or for the worse, let the 
Hawaiian scholar determine. I have 
had the advantage of comparing four 
versions of this celebrated chant — 



one collected on Hawaii, one on Oahu, 
one given by S. M. Kamakau to my 
collector, S. N. Hakuole, and lastly, 
the one furnished by Kamakau to 
Judge Andrews and Mr. Lyons — and 
I feel thus tolerably sure that the 
text I have followed is as nearly 
correct as such things can be when 
handed down by oral tradition only. 



28o THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

unavoidable in a legend that is told by professional 
raconteurs to admiring audiences, and is orally handed 
down for several generations; and having compared it 
with other legends treating of Kualii's contemporaries, 
and with the Mele just referred to,^ I have been able 
to arrive at the following data as probably historical 
facts : — 

Kualii's first attempt to bring the Oahu chiefs to their 
proper status as feudatories of the Moi of Oahu was 
directed against the chief of the Kona district. The 
legend gives the name of the principal chief in Kona 
as Lonoikaiha, but I doubt the correctness of the name. . 
The occasion of the collision was this : — In the valley of 
Waolani, a side valley from the great Nuuanu, stood one 
of the sacred Heiaus called Kawaluna, which only the 
highest chief of the island was entitled to consecrate at 
the annual sacrifice. As Moi of Oahu the undoubted 
right to perform the ceremony was with Kualii, and he 
resolved to assert his prerogative and try conclusions with 
the Kona chiefs, who were preparing to resist what they 
considered an assumption of authority by the Koolaupoko 
chief. Crossing the mountain by the ]!^uuanu and Kalihi 
passes, Kualii assembled his men on the ridge of Keana- 
kamano, overlooking the Waolani valley, descended to the 
Heiau, performed the customary ceremony on such occa- 
sions, and at the conclusion fought and routed the Kona 
forces that had ascended the valley to resist and prevent 
him. The Kona chiefs submitted themselves, and Kualii 
returned to Kailua. 

We next hear of Kualii making an expedition to Kauai 
for the purpose of procuring suitable wood from which to 
manufacture spears for his soldiers. Succeeding in this, 
and fully prepared, Kualii turned his attention to the Ewa 
and Waialua chiefs and their subjection to his authority. 

1 Of that Mele or chant, however, lifetime of Kualii^ who must have 
there is no doubt as to its age. It died some time previous to 1730. 
was evidently composed during the 



THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 28 1 

The hostile forces met on the land of Kalena and the plain 
of Heleauau, not far from Lihne, where Kualii was vic- 
torious. The Ewa chiefs, however, made another effort to 
retrieve their fortunes, and fought a second battle with 
K^ulli^ at Malamanui and Paupauwela, in which they were 
thoroughly worsted, and the authority of Kvxilii as Moi 
of Oahu finally secured and acknowledged. 

Having thus subdued the great district chiefs of Oahu, 
it is related, and the Mele confirms the fact, that Kualii 
started with a well-equipped fleet to make war on Hawaii, 
but what in reality was only a well-organised raid on 
the coast of Hilo — kind of expedition not at all un- 
common in those days, and undertaken as much for the 
purpose of keeping his warriors and fleet in practice and 
acquiring renown for himself, as with a view of obtaining 
territorial additions to his kingdom. As this expedition 
took place in the earlier part of Kualii' s life and reign, it 
probably occurred while Keakealaniwahine was still the 
Moi of Hawaii, and before the accession of her son Keawe. 
Landing at Laupahoehoe, the subordinate chief there 
hastily assembled what force he could command to repel 
the invader. The name of this chief is given as Haalilo, 
but as this is the only time and the only legend that 
mentions him, I am unable to connect his name with any 
of the great Hawaii families. In the battle that ensued 
this Haalio was defeated, and Kualii having secured such 
plunder as usually fell to the victors on such excursions, 
was preparing to make his next descent on the Puna 
district, when news came to him from Oahu that the 
Ewa and Waianae chiefs had revolted again. Hastily 
returning to Oahu, he met the hostile chiefs at Waianae, 
and after a severe contest, routed them effectually with 
great slaughter near the watercourse of Kalapo and below 
Eleu. 

Having again crushed rebellion at home, it is said in 
the legend that Kualii made a second voyage to the Hilo 
district, but what he did or how he succeeded is not 



282 ■ THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

stated. On his return from Hilo, however, while recruit- 
ing his force at Kaanapali, Maui, he was met by a depu- 
tation from the Kona chiefs of Molokai, invoking his 
assistance against the Koolau chiefs. of that island, who 
had encroached upon the fishing-grounds of the former. 
The deputation consisted of a chief named Paepae and a 
chiefess named Kajpolei, the daughter of Keopuolono. Ac- 
cording to their request, Kualii crossed over to Molokai 
and landed at Kaunakakai, where the Kona chiefs were 
assembled. After agreeing upon their operations, their 
forces and Kimlii's fleet rendezvoused at Moomomi on 
Kaluakoi, and from there made their descent on Kalau- 
papa, where the Koolau chiefs had collected. A well- 
contested battle was fought, the Koolau chiefs were 
beaten, and having satisfactorily settled the territorial 
disputes of the Molokai chiefs, Kualii returned to Oahu. 

The legend refers to an expedition that Kualii made to 
Lanai, but the incidents related are so full of anachron- 
isms, as to render the whole account unreliable. That 
Kualii made an armed excursion to Lanai is quite pro- 
bable, and in accordance with the spirit and customs of 
his age, but that the excursion was made as related in 
the legend is highly improbable. 

But what neither legend nor Mele refers to, however, is 
Kualii's connection with the Kauai chiefs and his influ- 
ence there. And yet it is incontestable, that during his 
own lifetime he had established his son Peleioliolani as 
Moi over at least the Kona section of Kauai. Had this 
connection been the result of war and conquest, it is 
hardly probable that the legend and the Mele would have 
both been silent about it. It arose then, probably, from 
a matrimonial connection of himself as well as of his said 
son Peleioliolani with Kauai chiefesses, heiresses of the 
Kona districts. Of Kualii' s wives only one is known by 
name, viz., Kalanikahimakeialii, a Maui chiefess, whose 
mother was Kalaniomaiheuila, a daughter of Lonohonua- 
kini, king of Maui. Other legends speak of the large 



THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 283 

family of Kualii, but without mentioning liis wives or 
their descents. It may fairly be assumed, therefore, that 
his relations with Kauai originated from such a cause. 

Kualii is said to have lived to an extremely old age, 
and to have possessed unusual strength and vigour to the 
last. It is related that when Kualii was upwards of 
ninety years old, Feleioholani arrived one time from Kauai 
on a visit to his father on Oahu. Without endorsing the 
details of the legend, it suffices to say that a quarrel arose 
between father and son, that the latter assaulted the 
former, and a scuffle ensued, in which the old man, getting 
the grip of the " lua " ^ on his son, handled him so severely 
that, when released from the paternal grasp, he started at 
once for Kauai, and never revisited Oahu until after his 
father's death. 

Kailua, in Koolaupoko, seems to have been the favourite 
residence of Kualii, and there he died at a very advanced 
age. Shortly before his death he called his trustiest Kahu 
and friend to his side and strictly enjoined upon him the 
duty of hiding his bones after death, so that mortal man 
should never get access to them or be able to desecrate 
them. When Kualii was dead, and the body, according to 
custom, had been dissected and the flesh burned, the Kahu 
carefully wrapped the bones up in a bundle and started 
off, as everybody thought, to hide them in some cave or 
sink them in the ocean. Instead of which, he repaired to 
a lonely spot and there pounded up the bones of the dead 
king into the finest kind of powder. Secreting this about 
his person, the Kahu returned to court and ordered a grand 
feast to be holden in commemoration of the deceased. 
Immense preparations were made, and the chiefs from far 
and near .were invited to attend. The night before the 
feast the Kahu quietly and unobserved mixed the powdered 
bones of the dead king in the Poi prepared for the morn- 

1 The " lua " in ancient wrestling- tage could easily, if he chose, break 
matches was a grip or a position in the back of the other, 
which the one who had that advan- 



284 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

ing's feast. At the close of the meal the following day 
the Kahu was asked by the chiefs present if he had faith- 
fully executed the wishes of the late king regarding his 
bones. With conscious pride at his successful device, 
the Kahu pointed to the stomachs of the assembled com- 
pany and replied that he had hidden his master's bones in 
a hundred living tombs. The legend does not say how 
the guests liked their repast, but the Kahu was greatly 
applauded. 

As before stated, the name of only one of Kualiis wives 
has come down to present times. Kalanikahimaheialii was 
the daughter of Kaulahea, king of Maui, and his sister 
Kalaniomaiheuila, and thus a chiefess of the highest rank, 
an Alii Pio. Three children were born from this union, two 
sons, Kajpiohookalani and Peleioholani, and one daughter, 
Kukuiaimakalani. 

This is perhaps the proper place to refer to the celebrated 
Mele or chant of Kualii} It is one of the longest known 
chants in the Hawaiian anthology, comprising 563 lines 
according to some versions, and 612 according to others ; 
the difference being more in the manner of transcribing 
than in the actual matter of the two versions. This Mele, 
which is referred to and quoted in the legend, is said to 
have been composed by Kapaahulani and his brother 
Kamahaaulani, and chanted by the former within hearing 
of the two armies previous to the battle of Keahumoa 
against the rebellious Ewa chiefs. It bears all the internal 
evidences, in language, construction, and imagery, of having 
been composed at the time it purports to be, and was widely 
known among the dite and the priesthood at the time of 
Captain Cook's arrival. There is in some versions of this 
chant an addition of some 200 lines, but their genuine- 
ness has been called in question, and I think justly so. 
They are probably of later origin than the time of Kualii. 
It is to the first and undoubted portion of this chant that 

1 See Appendix No. V. 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE, 



285 



I wish to call the attention, for in it occur the following 
lines — 

" Kahiki, moJcu hai a loa, 
Aina Olopana i noho ai ! 
Iloko ka moku, i waho ka la ; 
ke aloalo ka la, ka moku, ke hiki mai. 

Ane ua ike oe ? 
Ua ike. 
XJa ike hoi au ia Kahiki. 
He moku leo pahaohao wale Kahiki. 
No Kahiki kanaka i pii a luna 
A ka iwi kuamoo ka lani ; 
A luna, keehi iho. 
Nana iho ia lalo. 
Aole o Kahiki kanaka; 
Hookahi o Kahiki karmka, — he haole ; 
Me ia la he Akua, 
Me au la he kanaka ; 

He kanaka no, 
Pai kau, a ke kanaka hookahi e hiki. 
Hala aku la Kukahi la Kulua, 
Kukahi ka po, Kulua ke ao, 
hakihana ka ai, 
Kanikani ai a manu — a ! 
Hoolono mai manu o lanakila I 
Malie, ia wai lanakila ? 

Ia ku no. " 

Which may be rendered in English — 

Kahiki, land of the far-reaching ocean, 
Land where Olopana dwelt ! 

Within is the land, outside is the sun ; 
Indistinct is the sun and the land when approaching. 
Perhaps you have seen it ? 
I have seen it. 

1 have surely seen Kahiki. 

A landjwith a strange language is Kahiki. 

The men of Kahiki have ascended up 

The backbone of heaven ; 

And up there they trample indeed, 

And look down on below. 

Kanakas (men of our race) are not in Kahiki. 

One kind of men is in Kahiki — the Haole (white man). 

He is like a god ; 

I am like a man ; 
A man indeed, 



286 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE, 

"Wandering about, and the only man who got there. 

Passed is the day of Kukahi and the day of Kulua, 

The night of Kukahi and the day of Kulua. 

By morsels was the food ; 

Picking the food with a noise like a bird ! 

Listen, bird of victory ! 

Hush ! with whom the victory ? 
With Ku indeed. 

The above verses, from 137 to 161 of the chant, follow- 
ing the two versions which I possess, throw a singular and 
unexpected light on the knowledge, mode of thoughts, and 
relation to the outer world possessed by the Hawaiians of 
two hundred years ago. From these we learn that Kualii 
had visited " Kahiki," that foreign, mysterious land where 
the white man (" Haole ") dwelt, with his proud manners 
and his strange language, a land shrouded in mists and 
fogs, and reached only after a long voyage, when provi- 
sions fell short, and from which he successfully escaped 
or returned to his island home. 

Knowing that in the Hawaiian language " Kahiki " is a 
general term, designating any and all foreign lands outside 
of the Hawaiian group — those inhabited by cognate races 
as well as by alien — the natural queries arise — Which was 
the Kahiki that Kualii visited? how did he get there, 
and how return ? 

Although the chant says that it was the land where 
Olopana formerly dwelt, and thus seems to indicate that 
it was the Tahiti of the Georgian group in the South 
Pacific, yet the farther designation instantly dispels that 
idea when it speaks of a country where the sun and the 
land are seen indistinctly, as if shrouded in fogs and 
appearing to elude or dodge (" aloalo ") the view of the 
approaching mariner ; when it speaks of a people with a 
strange language (" leo pahaohao ") — an expression that 
could never have been used by an Hawaiian when refer- 
ring to the kindred dialects of his race; — and finally, 
when it expressly states that the people of that Kahiki 
(foreign land) were not of the same race as the narrator, 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 287 

but were white men (" Haole "), aliens in race as well as 
in lanouacfe. 

While the chant thus enunciates with startling pre- 
cision the fact that in the middle part of the seventeenth 
century, or thereabout, Kualii had actually visited a land 
where white men lived, yet it gives ns hardly any light 
whereby to determine in which direction the land was 
situated or by what people it was inhabited, nor yet as to 
the question how Kualii was brought there and returned. 
In answer to all these questions the historian can only 
offer a more or less probable conjecture. 

From the middle to the close of the seventeenth cen- 
tury, the time when Kualii flourished, the only lands 
bordering on the Pacific that were held by the white man, 
the Haole, were the western coast of America, the Ladrone 
Islands, and different places in the Philippine Islands. 
Between those places the regular trade was carried on by 
the Spanish galleons. I have endeavoured to show^ that 
there can be little doubt that the Hawaiian group was 
discovered by Gaetano, a Spanish navigator, as early as 
1555, and that this discovery was probably utilised by 
other Spanish galleons from time to time, though no 
written evidence of that fact has yet been found. To 
judge from the long discontinuance of native Hawaiian 
voyages to foreign lands — a discontinuance dating back 
to the time of Zaa-mai-kahili, or some fourteen gene- 
rations — and the consequent loss of nautical know- 
ledge, it is hardly credible that Kualii started for 
Kahiki in his own Hawaiian canoes. But it is probable 
— and the only way to account for the fact vouched 
for by the chant — that some Spanish galleons, passing 
by the islands, had picked up Kualii and his company 
while fishing off the Oahu coast, carried them to Aca- 
pulco, and brought them back on the return trip. I 
am inclined to prefer the voyage to Acapulco or the 
American coast, in place of Manilla, from the fact that 

1 See p. 109, and Appendix Nc. III. 



288 772^^ POL YNESIAN RA CE, 

tlie cliant describes the country as having " the land within 
and the sun outside " — 

" Iloko ha mohu, iwaJio ka la,''^ — 

which is a peculiarly Hawaiian expression, and, though 
not much used at present, may have been more prevalent 
in olden times, indicating that the land was to the east- 
ward of the voyager. One may hear to this day among 
the native population such geographical terms as " Ko- 
hala-iloko, Hamahua-iloho" expressing Eastern Kohala on 
Hawaii and Eastern Kamakua on Maui, in distinction from 
''Kohala i waho!' Western Kohala, &c. Moreover, the 
word " Aloalo" which I have rendered as "indistinct," 
from its identity with the Tahitian " Aroaro" " indistinct, 
dark, mysterious," would seem to apply with greater force 
to the high mountain land back of the American coast, 
shrouded in clouds or fogs, than it would to the neigh- 
bourhood of Manilla. 

I have thus offered my conjecture, based partly, it is 
true, upon an assumption of probable incidents in the 
Spanish galleon trade, and also upon what I consider the 
correct exegesis of the native text in the chant referred 
to. The assumption may never be proven by the evidence 
of Spanish log-books, the exegesis may partly or wholly 
be controverted by some more able scholar than I claim 
to be ; but while the chant itself remains an undisputed 
heirloom from the period and the chief whose acts it 
describes, the voyage of Kualii to that foreign land, where 
the white man dwelt with his strange and alien language, 
must be accepted as an historical fact, and as such I have 
referred to it here. 

When Kualii died he was followed as Moi of Oahu by 

Kapiohoo- his SOU KajpioJiookalaui, and his other son, Feleioholani, 

succeeded him as sovereign over that portion of Kauai 

which in some now forgotten manner had come under the 

sway of Kualii. 

Of the unfortunate campaign which KapioJiookalani 



THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 289 

undertook against Molokai in order to reduce its chiefs 
to subjection, and in which he lost his life, mention has 
been made on page 137, &c. 

The legends are silent as to who was Kapiohoohalani' s 
wife, but his son's name was Kanahaohalani, who was but 
a child when his father died, and who appears to have 
only survived him about one year, for in the war between 
Alapainui of Hawaii and Kaiihiaiinokuakama, the revolted 
brother of Kamehamehanui of Maui, we find that Peleio- 
Iwlani had succeeded his nephew as Moi of Oahu, and had 
gone with his fleet and warriors to Maui to assist Kmihi 
against Alapainui. Vide page 140, &c. 

On his return from this expedition to Maui Peleioholani Peieiohoiani. 
visited the windward side of Molokai, and is said to have 
brought the Koolau chiefs to acknowledge him as their 
sovereign, though their subjection was neither very thorough 
nor very lasting. This must have been about the year 1738. 

There is no special legend now extant that treats of 
Peleioholani' s life and acts ; but all Hawaiian legends that 
refer to him even incidentally speak of him as a most 
celebrated warrior king of his time, and as one of the 
highest tabu chiefs in the group. Yet, with the exception 
of his campaigns against Alapainui on Oahu and on Maui, 
I find no mention of any wars with the greater islands 
which he undertook after that and in which he distinguished 
himself, unless his several expeditions to keep the Molokai 
chiefs in subjection form the basis for his renown and for • 
the terror that he inspired. 

About the year 1764 or 1765, for some reasons not now 
known, the Molokai chiefs killed KeelanihonuaiaJcama, a 
daughter of Peleioholani, and on that occasion he took such 
a signal vengeance upon them that the island remained 
quiet in the possession of the Oahu sovereigns until the 
downfall of Kahahana. In this crusade and last military 
expedition of Peleioholani the revolted Molokai chiefs, 
mostly from the Koolau and Manae sides of the island, 
were either killed and burned or driven out of the island 

VOL. II. ^. T 



290 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

to seek refuge at the courts of Maui and Hawaii. The 
Kaiahea family alone appears not to have been disturbed 
in their possessions or persons by the irate monarch, and 
their exemption was probably owing to the fact that 
Kaiakea's wife, Kalanipo, was Peleioholani' s own niece, 
being the daughter of his sister Kukuiaimakalani, 

About the year 1770 Peleioholani died on Oahu at an 
advanced age. He is reported as having had two wives : 
— (i.) Halakii, of whose pedigree I have found no men- 
tion in the legends of the time, but who most probably 
belonged to the Kauai aristocracy. The children with 
this wife, whose names have been remembered, were a 
son, Kumahanay and a daughter, KeelaniJwnuaiakama ; ^ 
(2.) Zonokahikini, of whose ancestry and kindred no men- 
tion is made. It is said that with this wife he had two 
children, a son Keeumoku, of whom nothing further is 
known, and a daughter Kapueo, who is said to have lived 
to an advanced age. 
Kumahana KumaJiana followed his father as Moi of Oahu. He 
appears to have been an indolent, penurious, unlovable 
chief, and for these or other reasons incurred the illwill 
and estranged the loyalty of chiefs, priests, and commoners 
to such a degree that, after enduring his rule for three 
years, he was formally deposed from his office as Moi by 
the chiefs of Oahu in council assembled. So thoroughly 
had he succeeded, during his short incumbency of office, 
. to make himself disliked, that, in an age so peculiarly 
prone to factions, not a voice was heard nor a spear was 
raised in his defence. It was one of those few bloodless 
revolutions that leave no stain on the pages of history. 
There was no anger to appease, no vengeance to exact, it 
was simply a political act for prudential reasons. His 
deposition atoned for his incompetency, and he and his 
family were freely allowed to depart for Kauai, where 
they found refuge among their kindred in Waimea. I 

1 It will be seen in the next section on Kauai, that probably Kaaj^uwai^ 
the wife of Kaumeheiwa of Kauai, was also a daughter of Feleioholuni. 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 291 

have not learned who was his wife, and the only son of 
his to whom history refers was Kaneoneo, who married 
KartiakaheUi, the sovereign chiefess of Kauai, and who 
was killed in a fruitless attempt to recover the kingdom 
of Oahu by joining the insurgent chiefs under Kahekili's 
iron rule, as narrated on page 265. 

KahaJiana was elected by the Oahu chiefs to succeed Kakahana. 
Kumahana as Moi of Oahu. His election, his reign, and 
his tragical end have already been narrated on page 225, 
and with his downfall Oahu ceased to be an independent 
state, and became a tributary to the Maui kings, with 
whose history it thenceforth became associated. 

Kauai. 

The last portion of the ancient history of Kauai, from 
the time of Kahahumakapaweo until the close of the • 
eighteenth century, is the most unsatisfactory to whoever 
undertakes to reduce the national legends, traditions, and 
chants to some degree of historical form and sequence. 
The legends are disconnected and the genealogies are few. 
The indigenous Kauai folklore of this period was singu- 
larly obscured and thrust in the background by that of 
Oahu during the ascendancy of Kualii and of Peleioholaniy 
and by that of Maui during the time of Kaeokulani. When, 
subsequently to this period, after the death of Kameha- 
meha, Kaumualii, the last independent king of Kauai, 
removed to Honolulu and became the spouse of Kaahu- 
manu, most of his nobles followed him thither, and Kauai 
folklore suffered a further eclipse. That the ruling 
families of Kauai were the highest tabu chiefs in the 
group is evident from the avidity with which chiefs and 
chiefesses of the other islands sought alliance with them. 
They were always considered as the purest of the " blue 
blood " of the Hawaiian aristocracy; and even at this day, 
when feudalism has vanished and the ancient chants in 
honour of deceased ancestors are either silent or chanted 



292 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 



Kalaniku 
kuma. 



Kahakuma 
kalina. 



ill secret, it is no small honour and object of pride to a 
family to be able to trace its descent from KahaJcumaka- 
paweo through one or the other of his grandsons, Kahaku- 
makalina or Ililiiivalani. But of the exploits and trans- 
actions of most of the chiefs who ruled over Kauai during 
this period, there is little preserved to tell. 

Kalanikukuma followed his father Kahakumakapaweo as 
Moi of Kauai. No legend attaches to his name. His wife 
was Ka;poleikauila, but whence descended is now not 
known. He is known to have had two sons, Kahakuma- 
kalina and Ilihiwalani, or, as he is called on some gene- 
alogies, nimealani. The latter married Kamili, a sister 
of Kaulala of the Oahu Maweke-Elejpuukalionua line, and 
from him descended Zonoikahaupu, the great-grandfather 
of Kaumualii. 

Of Kahakumakalina as little is known as of his father 
except the genealogical trees which lead up to him. It 
has been stated before that Akahiilikapu, one of TJmi-a- 
Liloa's daughters, of Hawaii, went to Kauai and became 
the wife of Kahakumakalina^ with whom she had two chil- 
dren, a son named Keliiohiohi, who was father of the well- 
known Akahikameenoa, one of the wives of / of Hilo, and 
of a daughter Koihalauwailaua or popularly Koihalawai, 
who became the wife of Keawenui-a- Umi of Hawaii. After 
Akahiilikapu returned to Hawaii, Kahakumakalina took 
another wife, whose name on the genealogies is Kahaku- 
maia, but whose parentage is not given. With her he had 
a son Kamakapu, who succeeded him as Moi of Kauai. 
Kamakapu. Of Kamakajpu nothing further has been remembered 
than that his wife's name was Pawahine, and that their 
son was Kawelomahamahaia. 

Both the legends and the family chants refer to Kawe- 
lomahamahaia as one of the great kings of Kauai under 
whom the country prospered, peace prevailed, and popu- 
lation and wealth increased. His wife was Kapohinao- 
kalani, but of what family is not known. They had 
several children, and the names of the following have been 



Kaweloma- 
hamahaia. 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 



293 



preserved : — KaweloTmkualua, Kaweloikiakoo^ Kooakapo'ko, 
sons, and Kaawihiohalani and Malaiakalani, daughters.^ 

Kawelomahualua followed his father as Moi, the prin- fa^oeioma- 

*■ kicalua 

cipal royal residence being at Wailua. He is mentioned 
in the legends with almost equal veneration to that of his 
father. His wife was his sister KaawihioJcalani, and she 
bore him two sons, twin brothers, Kaiuelo-aikanaka and 
Kawleo-a-pcekoa. 

I have been unable to learn, and the legends that have 
been preserved throw no light upon, the origin of the 
Kealohi family, which about this time had become pro- 
minent on the Kauai legends, the first of the name, Kea- 
lohikanakamaikai, having married Kaneiahaka, a grand- 
daughter of Ilihiwalani, the brother of Kahakumakalina, 
Erom the tenor of the legends I infer that the older branch 
of Kahakumakalina were the titular sovereigns of Kauai, 
while the younger branch of Ilihiwalani were the " Alii- ^ . 
Aimoku " of Waimea and the south-western section of the 
island. The children of Kealohikanakamaikai and Kanei- 
ahaka were Kealohi-a-peekoa, Kealohikikaupea, Kanaka- 
hilau, sons, and Kapulauki, a daughter. The first son 
obtained a lordship of Waianae on Oahu, and became con- 
nected with the powerful Ewa chiefs. The second sought 
his fortune among the Koolau chiefs on Oahu, and seems 
to have been connected with the Kanekapu-a-Kakuihewa 
family, for I find his name mentioned as a relative in the 
Kualii legends. The third son apparently remained on 
Kauai, and eventually married his niece Kuluina, and 
became the father of Lonoikahaupu. The daughter Kapu- 
lauki — with whom the fief of Waimea and perhaps the 
whole Kona side of Kauai, as descended from IlihiivalanL 



1 It is nowhere clearly stated, but 
the course of events and the tenor of 
the legends make it extremely credi- 
ble, that Keaweloinahamahaia had 
another daughter, named Kawelolau- 
huki, who became the wife of Kahoo- 
wahaokalani, the son of Kanekapu- 
a-Kakuihuoa and Moi of Oahu, and 



grandmother of Kualii. As the 
legends are silent, I can find no other 
reasonable way to explain the inte- 
rest which Kualii acquired on Kauai 
after the close of the civil war be- 
tween Kawdoaikanaka and Kawelo- 
a-Maihunalii. 



kanaka. 



294 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

appears to liave remained — became the wife of Kainaaila, 

a son of KaihihapuTnahana and grandson of ZonoiJcama- 

Jcahiki of Hawaii, and their child was a daughter Kuluium, 

When Kawelomakualua died he was followed by his son 

Kaweioai. Kaweloaikauaka as Moi of Kauai. Kawdo-a-Maihunalii, 
a cousin of the former, and a son of Malaiahalani and of 
Maihunalii, whose pedigree I have been unable to collect, 
for some reason not clearly stated in the legends became 
obnoxious to Kaiueloaikanaka and was driven out of the 
island. The Kawelo-a- Maihunalii legends certainly state 
that he found a refuge with Kaihikapu-a-Kakuhihewa in 
Ewa, Oahu, and was given a land bordering on the Kole- 
kole Pass in the Waianae mountains ; but unless Kaihi- 
kapu-a-Kakuhiliewa had survived to an unprecedentedly 
old age, he must have been dead before this time, and the 
succour given to Kawelo must have come from Kaihikapu's 
sons or descendants. Certain it is, however, that Kawelo 
not only received the land on Oahu referred to for his 
maintenance, but in due time obtained both men and 
canoes to invade Kauai and make war on Kaweloaikauaka. 
The legends and chants referring to this war are lengthy, 
confused as to sequence of events, and so overloaded with 
the marvellous and fabulous, that very little reliance can 
be placed upon the details which they set forth. The 
result, however, is historically certain and vouched for by 
numerous other legends from the other islands, and that 
was the overthrow and death of Kaweloaikanaka and the 

Kawdo-a- transfer of the supremacy of Kauai to Kawelo-a- Maihu- 
nalii, or, as he is also called in some legends, Kawelolei- 
makua. How long he reigned is not known, but it is said 
that when he became old he was killed by having been 
thrown over a cliff by some rebellious subjects ; but who 
they or their leader were, or what the occasion of the 
revolt, is not remembered. Kawelo-a-Maihunalii's wife 
was Kanewahineikiaoha, a daughter of Kalonaikahailaau, 
of the Koolau chief families on Oahu. They are known 
to have had a daughter, Kaneikaheilani, who became the 



Maihunalii. 



i 



THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 295 

wife of Kaaloajpii, a Kau chief from Hawaii, and grand- 
mother to Haalou, one of the wives of Kekaulike of Maui, 
and to KamakaeJieukidi, one of the wives of Kameeiamohu, 
a Hawaii chieftain and grandson of Lonoihahaupu. 

What became of KawdoaikaTwka! s family after his death 
is not known. His wife's name was Naki, but of what 
lineage is equally unknown at the present time. The 
probability is that he left no sons to avenge his death or 
reclaim the dignity of Moi after the death of Kawelo-a- 
Maihunalii. His twin brother, Kawelo-a-Peekoa, so far as 
I have been able to ascertain, is not heard of in the legends 
after the death, of his brother, and appears to have had 
but one child, a daughter, named after her uncle, Kau-a- 
Kaweloaikanaka, and who married a Molokai chief named 
Kanehoalani, sl grandson of Kalanijpehu of that island, and 
grandfather to the, in later times, well-known Kaiakea, 

No legends that I have seen state how it happened, but 
they all concur in representing Kualii of Oahu as the next Kuaiu. 
chief over the windward side of Kauai after the death of 
Kawelo-a-Maihunalii. The historical probability is that 
Kualii reclaimed the succession to that portion of the 
island, as well as the sovereignty, in the name of his 
grandmother, Kawelolauhuki, one of the daughters of 
Kawelomahamahaia. The legends of Kualii never speak 
of Kauai as a conquered country, and the presumption is 
that he came into possession by inheritance, as understood 
in those days. 

The Ilihiwalani branch of the Kauai royal family does 
not appear to have been disturbed or evicted from its 
possessions in the Kona part of the island by the usurpa- 
tion of Kawelo-a-Maihunalii, for we find that Kauakahilau 
and his wife Kuluina remained at Waimea, and that their 
territory descended to their son, Lonoikahaupu. 

From this time forward, to the arrival of Captain Cook 
in 1778, a mist has fallen over the history of Kauai, its 
legends and traditions, through which are but indistinctly 
seen the outlines of some of her prominent men. Kvxilii 



296 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

is called the Moi of Kauai, but, except on occasional visits, 
does not seem to have resided there, preferring Oahu and 
his paternal estates. But when he grew old he placed his 
son, PeleioJwlani, as his viceroy over Kauai, and the latter 
resided there for many years; yet of his administration 
. and exploits while thus governing Kauai not a whisper 
has come down to break the silence brooding over Kauai 
history. And when, after the death of his brother Kapiio- 
Jiookalani, he removed to Oahu, nothing seems to have 
transpired on Kauai worthy of note in Hawaiian annals, 
or, if so, it was obscured -and forgotten in the course of the 
stirring events that followed close upon this historical 
calm and convulsed the islands from one end to the other. 
Lonoika- Qf Lonoikahauvu-Kauoholani, the representative of the 

IliJiiwalani family and contemporary with Xualii, we 
should probably have known as little as we do of Kualii 
and Feleioholani in their relation to Kauai, were it not for 
the visit which he made to Hawaii, which brought his 
name in upon the legends and genealogies of that island. 
EoUowing the custom of the times, Lonoikaliaupu set 
out from Kauai with a suitable retinue of men and canoes, 
as became so high a chief, to visit the islands of the group, 
partly for the exercise and practice in navigation, an 
indispensable part of a chiefs education, and partly for 
the pleasures and amusements that might be anticipated 
at the courts of the different chieftains where the voyager 
might sojourn. Whether Zonoilcahaiopic stopped on Oahu 
or Maui, or, if so, what befell him there, is not known; 
but on arriving at Hawaii he found that the court of 
Keaweihehahialiiohamoku, the Moi of Hawaii, was at the 
time residing in Kau. Eepairing thither, he was hospit- 
ably received, and his entertainment was correspondingly 
cordial, as well as sumptuous. The gay and volatile 
Kcdaiiikauleleiaiwi, the imperious and high-born wife of 
Keawe, the Moi, became enamoured of the young Kauai 
chief, and after a while he was duly recognised as one of 
her husbands. From tliis union was born a son called 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 297 

Keaioepoejpoe, who became the father of those eminent 
Hawaii chiefs, KeeaumoJcupapaiaMahi, Kameeiamohu, and 
Kavianawa, who placed Kamehameha I. on the throne of 
Hawaii. How long Lonoikahaupu remained on Hawaii 
has not been stated, but after a time he returned to Kauai 
and took for a wife there a lady known by the name 
of Kamuokaumeheiwa^ but from what family she was 
descended has not been remembered. With this lady 
Lonoihahauvu had a son, Kaumeheiwa, who married Kaa- Kaume- 
fuwa%, of whose pedigree we have no positive mtormation. 
Their daughter was the well-known Kamakahelei, who 
appears to have been the sovereign or Moi of Kauai when 
Captain Cook arrived. How this change of dynasty from 
the older to the younger branch had been effected there 
are no le^^ends existincj to tell and no chants to intimate. 
The only solution of this historical problem will be to 
admit what was probably the fact, though the legends 
concerning it have been lost or forgotten, namely, that 
Kaajpuwai, the wife of Kaumeheiwa, was the daughter of 
Feleioholani, on whom the possessions of that house on 
Kauai and the sovereignty of the island had been bestowed 
either before or at the death of Feleioholani, and thus, by 
her marriage with Kaumeheiwa, united the dignity and 
possessions of the two royal branches descending from 
Manohalanijpo upon her daughter Kamakahelei. 

We know that Kumahana, the son of Feleioholani, sue- Kamaia- 
ceeded him as Moi of Oahu about 1770, and that after ^'^^^' 
three years' reign he was deposed by the chiefs and com- 
moners of that island, and that he was permitted to return 
with his family to Kauai, where probably he still held 
lands from which to maintain himself. But it has never 
been asserted on his behalf, and I have nowhere seen it 
intimated, that Kumahana ever was, or was considered to 
be, the Moi of Kauai as his father was, or his grandfather 
Kualii before him. A farther confirmation of the above 
proposition may be advanced from the well-known fact 
that Kamakahelei s fii'st husband was Kaneoneo, the son cf 



^ ^BE POLYNESIAN RACE 

Kumahana, with wlioin she had two daughters, Lelema- 
lioalani, referred to on page 169, and Kapuaamohu, who 
became one of the wives of Kaumimlii, and grandmother 
of the present Queen Kapiolani. It is stated in some 
genealogies that Kahulunuiaaumoku was also a sister of 
Kaumualii^ but whether she was a daughter of Kamaha- 
helei with either of her two husbands, or was the daughter 
of Kaeohulani with another wife, I have been unable to 
ascertain. When Captain Cook arrived at Kauai in 
January 1778, the native legends state that Kaumelieiiua 
and Kaapuwai were still alive, and that Kamahahelei had 
obtained a second husband in the celebrated Kacokulani, 
a younger brother of Kahekili, the Moi of Maui. 

All that we know with any certainty from that time on 
to the close of this period, has already been related under 
the section of Maui. With Kaeohulani Kamahahelei had 
a son named Kaumualii, whom Captain Vancouver inti- 
mates as having been about fourteen years old in 1792, 
but who was probably two or three years older. 

Kamahahelei s first husband, Kaneoneo, died during the 
rebellion on Oahu against Kahehili about 1785-6; her 
second husband, Kaeohulani, died on Oahu in 1794, but 
the time of her own death has not been remembered, but 
it probably occurred shortly after that of Kaeo. 
Kaumuaiiu At his mother's death Kaumicalii became the sovereign 
of Kauai, and, though young in years, appears from all 
descriptions to have been a prince of remarkable talents 
and a most amiable temper. 

Though the cession of Kauai by Kaumualii to Kame- 
hameha I. did not occur till 18 10, yet as for convenience 
sake I have preferred to close the ancient Hawaiian 
history with the battle of Nuuanu in 1795, a year after 
the accession of Kaumualii to the throne of Kauai, I leave 
the modern history of that island, as well as of the entire 
group, to some future writer. 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 



299 



Hawaii. 



By referring to page 1 54 of this volume, it will be seen 
that at the great council of chiefs held by Kalaniopim 
some time in 1780, at Waipio, the succession as Moi of 
Hawaii was conferred and confirmed on his son, Kiiualao, Knoaiao. 
and that, while no territorial increase was given to Kame- 
liameJm, the particular war-god — " Ku-Kaili-moku " — of 
the aged king was bestowed on him as a special heirloom, 
and its service and attention, and the maintenance of its 
Heiaus dedicated to that god, were enjoined upon him. 
It is known, and not contradicted, that during Kalanio- 
^uu's lifetime all that remained to Kamehameha of his 
patrimonial estates was a not very extensive portion in 
the north Kohala district, of which Halawa may be con- 
sidered the centre, and which was his favourite residence. 
Dibble, followed by Jarves, in their histories of these 
islands, state that before his death Kalaniopuu divided 
the island of Hawaii between Kiwalao and Kamehamehay 
giving the former the districts of Hilo, Puna, and Kau, 
and to the latter the districts of Kona, Kohala, and 
Hamakua, Kamehamelm, however, being subordinate to, 
and acknowledging, the authority of Kiwalao as Moi of 
Hawaii. Dibble doubtless had his information from some 
of the chiefs in the train or in the interest of the Kame- 
hamehas ; but if we carefully look into the social condition 
of that period, the precedents that governed the distribu- 
tion of land, and the political status of the prominent chiefs 
who took an active part in subsequent events, I think it 
will be found that the claims set up for a division of the 
island by Kalaniojpuu between Kiwalao and Kamehameha 
is hardly correct in the strict and political sense that the 
apologists of Kamehameha advance it. Such a division is 
not mentioned by David Malo, by S. M. Kamakau, nor by 
the writer of the "Life of Kapiolani"^ — gentlemen who 

* See the ** Eleele," a newspaper printed in Honolulu in 1845. 



300 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

were contemporary with Mr. Dibble, and had access to 
the same and many other sources of information. 

It had been the custom since the days of Keawenui-a- 
Umij on the death of a Moi and the accession of a new 
one, to distribute and redivide the lands of the island 
between the chiefs and favourites of the new monarch. 
This division was generally made in a grand council of 
chiefs, and those who were dissatisfied had either to 
submit or take their chances of a revolt if their means 
and connections made it judicious to attempt it. Certain 
lands, however, appear to have become hereditary in cer- 
tain families, and whatever changes and divisions took 
place elsewhere, these estates never went out of the 
family to whom they were originally granted. Such were 
the lands of Kekaha in North Kona, the property of the 
Kamceiamoku family since the days of Umi-a-Liloa ; such 
the lands of Kapalilua in South Kona, the property of 
Keeaumoku; such the Halawa portion of the Kohala 
district, the patrimony of the Main family and, through 
his mother, of KamehameJia ; and some other such estates 
in other parts. All other lands were subject to change 
in this grand council of division, unless their previous 
owners were of the court party or too powerful to be 
needlessly interfered with. 

In this periodical distribution and redistribution of the 
lands of the islands, regard was generally had to the 
advantages of the country and the wants and conveni- 
ence of the chiefs who shared in the division. Thus the 
chiefs on the windward sides of the island, Kohala-iloko, 
Hamakua, Hilo, Puna, always coveted the lands on the 
leeward side, the Kona districts, on account of its mild 
climate and its rich fishing-grounds; while the Kona 
chiefs coveted the lands in the windward districts on 
account of their streams of running water, their numerous 
taro lands, and abundant food. To accommodate, adjust, 
and conciliate these ever-clashing claims was the great 
business of state on the accession of a new monarch. 



J 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 301 

Had Kalaniopuu before his death made such a division 
of the districts as Dibble intimates, Kiivalao would have 
had no more right to divide the lands in Kona, Kohala, 
and Hamakua between his chiefs than Kamehameha would 
have had to divide the Hilo, Puna, and Kau lands between 
his chiefs. Though Kamehameha would have acknow- 
ledged Kiwalao as Moi of Hawaii, and owed him fealty 
as such against foreign foes or internal rebellion, yet 
within his own districts he would have been practically 
independent. Moreover, the district of Hilo was not in 
the power of Kalaniopuu to give to either Kiwalao or 
Kamehameha, for it was an hereditary iief in the / family, 
had been such from the time of Keawenui-a- Umi, had never 
been conquered since then by any of the reigning Moi, and 
was now held by Keawemauhili for his wife Ululani, the 
daughter of Mohidani and great-granddaughter of /. In 
the other districts of the island the ancient hereditary 
lordships (" Alii-ai-moku ") had been gradually extin- 
guished by conquests. Alapainui, the hereditary lord of 
Kohala, conquered Kona and the greater part of Hamakua 
from KalanikeeaumoJcu, and constituted himself Alii-ai- 
moku over those districts. His son Keaweopala inherited 
those districts from his father, still leaving Hilo, Puna, 
and Kau districts under separate independent Alii-ai- 
moku. When Kalaniopuu, the independent Alii-ai-moku 
of Kau, overthrew Keaweopala, he conquered and invested 
himself with the lordships of Kona, Kohala, and Hamakua, 
and when afterwards he subdued and slew Imakakaloa of 
Puna, that district also became the apanage of the reigning 
Moi. 

At the time of Kalaniopuu's death Kamehameha held 
possession of his ancestral home in Halawa, Kohala 
district. He also held possession of the Waipio valley 
in Hamakua, probably under gift from Kalaniopuu. And 
it is very likely that, like many other chiefs on the wind- 
ward side of the island, he also held some land or lands 
in the Kona district, probably Kailua, though I have been 



302 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

unable to find any specific evidence of that fact. The 
sequence of this narrative gives, however, a plausibility 
to that assumption. 

The pretended division of the island in equal parts 
between Kiwalao and Kamehameha I hold, therefore, to 
be a fiction of later years, when KamehamelwC s power had 
been long established, and when bards and heralds, in 
shouting his praise, found it incumbent to represent him 
as the injured and unjustifiably attacked party in the 
contest with Kiwalao. But a hundred years have cooled 
the partisanship and the bitter hatreds of those days, and 
the impartial historian can now give a different judgment 
without, therefore, impugning the remarkably great quali- 
ties which distinguished Kaynehameha above his rivals. 

I hope I have made it plain that the lands which 
Kamehameha held in Hamakua and Kona were not his in 
his own right, but were what would now be called crown- 
lands, in the gift of the sovereign, and revokable at his 
pleasure; and that on a particular occasion, like the 
accession of a new Moi, they might be retained in the 
hands of previous holders, or be lawfully given to others. 

When the period of mourning the death of Kalaniopuu 
had expired, about the month of July 1782, Kiwalao, his 
uncle and chief counsellor, Keawemauhili, and the prin- 
cipal chiefs in attendance on the court, prepared them- 
selves to bring the bones of Kalaniopuu to Kona, to be 
deposited, according to his last wish, with those of his 
ancestors in the " Hale Keawe" that famous sanctuary 
or city of refuge (Puu-honua) on the land of Honaunau 
in South Kona. Of this grand ceremonial procession the 
Kona chiefs had been duly informed; but mistrusting 
the haughty and grasping temper of Keawemauhili, who 
appeared to have obtained complete influence over Ki- 
walao, and apprehensive lest, in the coming division of 
the lands, their possessions, which they held under Kala- 
niopuu, would be greatly shorn or entirely lost, they 
became restless, and anxiously looked round for a leader 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE, 



303 



to meet the coming storm. The leading spirits of this 
growing conspiracy were Kemumoku of Kapalilua, Keawe- 
a-Heulu of Kaawaloa, Kameeiamoku of Kaupulehu in 
Kekaha, Kamanawa of Kiholo, and Kehuliaupio of Keei, 
the veteran warrior chief, the hero of many battles, and 
the military instructor of Kameliameha. 

Considering Kamehameha, on account of his high birth, 
his martial prowess, and of his being the heir to the 
redoubtable war-god of Kalaniopuu, as the most suitable 
person for their purposes, Kekuhaupio started off for 
Kohala, where Kameliameha had quietly remained since 
his quasi-disgrace at Kalaniopuu's court, narrated on page 
203, cultivating and improving his lands, building canoes, 
and other peaceful pursuits. 

When Kekuhaupio arrived with his canoes at Kapania 
in Halawa, he found Kameliameha and his brother Kalai- 
mamahu and their wives bathing in the sea and enjoying 
the sport of surf -swimming. When Kamehameha recog- 
nised Kekuhaupio on the canoe he repaired to his house, 
followed by the latter, who, after the customary saluta- 
tions, entered upon the business that had brought him 
there. Gently reproaching Kamehameha for wasting his 
time in what he considered as unprofitable pursuits and 
in pleasures while the times were so unsettled, he repre- 
sented that the only pursuit worthy of so great a chief 
would be the practice of war, and striving to obtain 
possession of the kingdom. He then informed him that 
Kiwalao was going to deposit the bones of Kalaniopuu at 
Honaunau, and intimated that if Kiwalao acted hand- 
somely on the occasion (namely, the forthcoming division 
of the lands), all would be well, and quiet would prevail ; 
but if not, then the country would belong to the strongest 
— " aia ka aina ma ka ikaika." 

To this proposition Kamehameha assented, and is said 
to have answered, " Your words are good ; let us go to 
Kona at once, lest the king should already have arrived 
with the corpse. Let us pay our respects to the corpse, 



304 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

and we may then perchance learn the nnkind disposition 
of the king " — o i ia mai auanei e ke alii i ha loJcoino. 

Collecting his followers Kamehamelm set out without 
delay, in company with Kekuhaupio, for Kaupulehu in 
Kekaha, and stopped with Kameeiamoku. 

When all was ready for the funeral procession, Kiwalao 
on his double canoe, with the corpse of the deceased king 
lying in state on board of another double canoe, and ac- 
companied by his chiefs and retainers and a numerous 
party of well-armed men, set sail for Honaunau. The 
first day they came to Honomalino in Kona, and stopped 
there. The next day, when off Honokua, Keeaumokii came 
down from Kapalilua and went on board of the funeral 
canoe to see the corpse. After the wailing was over, 
Keeaiimoku inquired whither they were going? One of 
the guardsmen, Kaihikioi by name, in attendance on the 
corpse, answered off-hand and apparently without fore- 
thought, "to Kailua." As the Kona chiefs had been 
informed that the corpse was to be deposited in the 
" Hale-a-Keawe " at Honaunau, this answer confirmed 
Kecaumoku in his opinion that Kiwalao and his chiefs 
had an intention to occupy the whole of Kona. Eeturn- 
ing ashore, he started off that very night for Kekaha, 
where he knew that Kamehameha had arrived, and where 
he found Kameeiamoku, Kamanawa, KekulmupiOy and a 
number of other chiefs in council, and informed them that 
Kiwalao with the corpse of his father had arrived at 
Honaunau. On the advice of KekuJiaupio, the assembled 
chiefs ,set out forthwith to take up their quarters at 
Kaawaloa, ]N"apoopoo, and Keei, the ground about Hauiki 
being considered a good battlefield, should occasion so 
require. 

There is no proof that Kiwalao intended to take the 
bones of his father any farther than the " Hale-a-Keawe," 
and the reply of the guardsman to Keeaumoku was pro- 
bably a wanton and boastful expression, the man know- 
ing or suspecting that in the coming division the landed 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 



305 



possessions of the opulent Kona chiefs would be con- 
siderably curtailed. It has been said by those from whom 
D. Malo and Dibble obtained their information of this 
eventful journey, that it was the accident of a heavy 
rainstorm that obliged Kiwalao to stop at Honaunau, or 
he would have hurried on to Kailua. That information 
bears the impress of having come from the same quarter 
that was misled by the guardsman's insolent taunt to 
Keeaumohu. For not only did Kiwalao put in at Honau- 
nau, as previously notified, and deposited his father's 
bones in the " Hale-a-Keawe " with all the ceremonies 
due on so solemn occasion, but remained there several 
days and commenced the business of dividing the lands. 

When Kiwalao heard that Kamehameha had arrived at 
Kaawaloa, he went there and called on him, and was 
received with all the observances due to his high rank. 
After the wailing and salutations were over, Kiwalao 
addressed Kamehameha, saying, '' Where are you ? It is 
possible that we two must die. Here is our father (their 
uncle Keawemauhili) pushing us to fight. Perhaps only 
we two may be the ones that shall be slain. What 
misery for both of us!" Kamehaimha answered eva- 
sively, " To-morrow we will come and visit the corpse of 
the king." After this interview Kiwalao returned to 
Honaunau. 

The next day Kameliameha went to Honaunau and 
attended on the corpse of Kalaniopuu, when the ceremo- 
nial wailing over the dead was repeated. That part per- 
formed, Kiwalao ascended a platform outside the " Hale- 
a-Keawe " and addressed the assembled chiefs and com- 
moners. He told them that in his last will Kalaniopuu 
had only remembered Kamehameha and himself. That 
the bequest to the former was the wargod Kukailimokit, 
and such lands as had been given him by Kalaniopuu ; 
and that to himself {Kiwalao) was bequeathed the govern- 
ment of Hawaii and the position and dignity of Moi. 

When the Kona chiefs heard this publication of the last 
will of Kalaniopuu, they were greatly dissatisfied, saying, 



VOL. II. 



u 



3o6 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

" Strange, very strange ! Why not have divided the 
country, three districts to one and three to the other ? that 
would have been equal. Now we will be impoverished, 
while the Hilo and Kau chiefs will be enriched, for the 
king is of their party. War would be better, decidedly 
better ! " E aho ke kaua. 

It is said that Kamehameha was rather reluctant to go 
to war. It was urged upon him, however, by the great 
Kona chiefs who feared for their possessions, but who, 
while preparing for the worst, were apparently loath to 
take the first step in rebellion, and prudently waited for 
the chapter of accidents to furnish a suitable pretext. 
They had not long to wait before the mad rashness of 
Keoimkuahuula brought on a crisis. 

As Kamehameha and the Kona chiefs were returning 
from Honaunau, after hearing the royal proclamation, 
Kekuhaupio invited Kamehameha to stop with him at 
Keei, and in the evening go back to Honaunau and visit 
Kiwalao at his own residence. Kamehameha assented, 
and at nightfall he and Kekuhaupio were paddled over 
to Honaunau. When they entered the house occupied by 
KiwalaOy preparations were in process for an Awa-party. 
The scene that ensued is thus related by a native histo- 
rian : — " On seeing the awa roots passed round to be 
chewed, Kekuhaupio says to the king, ' Pass some awa to 
this one {Kamehameha) to chew.' The king replied, 
' What occasion is there for him to chew it ? ' Kekuhaupio 
answered, ' It was so ordered by both of your fathers, that 
the son of the one should be the man of the other,^ should 
either of them ascend the throne/ The awa was passed 
to Kamehameha, who chewed and prepared it, and handed 
the first bowl to the king. Instead of drinking it himself, 
however (Kiwalao), passed it to a special favourite sitting 
near him. As this chief was lifting the bowl to his mouth 

^ ** Kanaka." When used in tliis the expression remained, and ^a^ai- 

sense it means the principal business- moku was invariably called the *' Ka- 

man of a chief, the next in authority, naka" of Kaahumanu during her 

a subject, but the highest subject in regency, 
the land. Thus even in modern times 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE, 307 

to drink, Keknliawpio indignantly struck the bowl out of 
his hand, and addressed the king, saying, * You are in fault, 
king ! Your brother has not prepared the awa bowl 
for such people but for yourself alone,' and pushing Ka- 
mehameha out of the house, he said, * Let us go on board 
of our canoes and return to Keei.' " 

This breach of etiquette or studied insult to Kame- 
hameha was to his aged counsellor a sure indication of the 
king's unfriendly disposition towards his cousin; but it 
is possible that this conclusion was not altogether just 
toward Kiwalao. The want of etiquette was not, pro- 
bably, premeditated by him. It was an unfortunate and 
unguarded oversight on his part, and the ceremony of the 
court was perhaps relaxed or forgotten in the convivial 
meeting of the evening. We have but few means left to 
estimate correctly the character of Kiwalao, but what 
there is seems to indicate that he was a good-natured, 
pleasure-loving monarch, who would rather have been on 
good than on bad terms with his cousin ; but he was 
lacking in resolution, and indolently preferred to be led 
by his imperious uncle than to exercise his own judgment 
in State matters. 

Some days afterwards the great business of dividing the 
lands of the kingdom was taken in hand. It does not 
appear that Kamehameha or any of the great Kona chiefs 
were present. It is reported that Kiwalao intimated a 
wish that some more lands should be given to Kame- 
hameha, but that he was rudely interrupted by Keawe- 
mauhili, who told him that such was not the will of the 
late king, who had bequeathed to Kamehameha his war- 
god and such lands as he held at that time, adding, " You 
are the king ; I am next under you, and the other chiefs 
are under us. Such was the will of your father." Keawe- 
mauhili, it appears, did not fail to remember himself in 
the division, and the chiefs and followers of his party 
were the most favoured. Towards the close of the session 
Keoua Kuahuula came to his brother, the king, asking for 
the gift of several lands, all of which he was told had 



3o8 THE POLYNESIAN RACE, 

already been disposed of by Keawemauliili. Among those 
lands was the valley of Waipio, in Hamakua, which had 
been given to Kamehameha by Kalaniojpuu. Disgusted 
and chagrined, Keoua exclaimed, " Am I to have no share 
in this new division ? " To which Kiwalao mildly replied, 
" You are no worse off than I am in this division. We 
will have to be content with the lands we held before." 

Infuriated and disappointed, Keoua Kuahuula went to his 
own place, called his chiefs, kahus, warriors, and retainers 
together and ordered them to don their feather mantles 
and helmets and their ivory clasps, and, fully armed, to 
follow him. They proceeded at once to Keomo, a place 
south-east from Keei, and commenced cutting down cocoa- 
nut trees. This was in olden time tantamount to a 
declaration of war, or that the party so doing defied the 
lord on whose land the trees stood. Erom there he pro- 
ceeded to the shore at Keei, where he fell in with some 
chiefs and other people who were bathing. With these a 
quarrel was soon picked ; a fight ensued, in which some 
natives were killed by Keoua, and the corpses were taken 
to Honaunau to be offered in sacrifice by Kiwalao, which 
he did. 

The slain people belonged to Kamehameha. 

The crisis had come, and the pretext for the rising of 
the Kona chiefs. 

The native historians are rather minute on some details 
connected with these events, while they touch but lightly 
on other matters that to us would appear of greater im- 
portance. But in carefully comparing the various now 
existing sources of information, it appears that a kind of 
skirmishing fight was kept up for two or three days, and 
that, although the fight originally commenced between 
Keoua Kuahuula and Kamehameha, without the command 
or sanction of Kiwalao, yet he was gradually drawn into 
it in support of his brother as against Kamehameha. The 
contest now had become one between Kiwalao and the 
Kamehameha faction, and the chiefs ranged themselves on 
either side. With Kamehameha stood KeeaumoJcu, Keawe- 



THE POL YNESIAN RA CE, 309 

a-Heulu,'^ Kameeianwhu, Kamanawa, Kekuhaupio, and 
some chiefs from Kohala, besides his brothers, Kalaima- 
mahu, Kawelookalani, and Kalanimalokuloku.'^ With Ki- 
walao came the Hilo, Puna, and Kau chiefs, beside some 
notable defections from the Kameliameha party, especially 
Kanekoa^ and Kahai, and some other chiefs of lesser 
note. 

This mustering of forces on both sides, from day to day, 
eventually brought on a set battle. On a morning in July 
1782, the chiefs of the KamehameJia party started for the 
battlefield, but KamehameJia himself was detained at Kea- 
lakeakua by Holoae, the old high-priest, and his daughter, 
Fine,^ who were in the act of performing the auguries 
incumbent on the occasion. At the same time Kiwalao 
marched with his troops from Honaunau, and at Hauiki 
in Keei he met Keeaumoku with the opposing party, and 
the battle began. At first success leaned to the king's 
side; the rebel chiefs were driven back, a number of 
soldiers were slain and brought to Kiwalao to be sacrificed 
to his god, and expectation arose that the royal party 
would be victorious. 

About this time Kamehameha arrived on the field, and 
the equilibrium of the battle was in a measure restored. 
While the fight was progressing, Keeaumoku got entangled 
with his spear in the rocky ground and fell. Immediately 

1 His father was ffeulu, a great- outlived both her husbands, and died 

grandson in direct descent from /, towards the close of the century, 

and on his mother's side a grandson ^ Otherwise known as Keliimaikai. 

of the famous Mahiololi of Kohala. ^ Xanekoa was a son of Kalani- 

His wife was at one time Ululani, keeaumoku and his wife Kailakauoa, 

also a descendant of I, and hereditary and thus a paternal uncle of Kame- 

chiefess of the Hilo district. Their hameha. Both he and his brother 

children were Naihe, a son who died Kahai went over to the Keawemau- 

childless, and ^eoAo^iwa, a daughter, hili party during this crisis. The 

of whom the present royal family are present queen Kapiolani, on her 

the great-grandchildren. For reasons father's side, is the great-grand- 

now unknown, but perfectly in con- daughter of Kanekoa, 

sonance with the customs of that age, * She was the wife of Kekuhaupio 

Ululani left Keawe-a-Heulu and be- above mentioned, and ancestress to 

came the wife of Keawemauhili, with present Hon. Mrs. Pauahi Bishop. 
whom she had several children. She 



3IO THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

KahaV- and Nuhi ^ rushed upon him and stabbed him with 
their daggers, while Kini struck him in the back with his 
spear, exclaiming as he did so, " The spear has pierced the 
yellow-backed crab."^ Kiwalao seeing Keeaumoku falling 
called out to the soldiers, " Be careful of the ivory neck- 
ornament, lest it be spiled with the blood." On hearing 
these words Keeaumoku knew that no quarter would be 
given, and expected every moment to be the last. His 
half-brother Kamanawa, however, had also seen him fall, 
and instantly despatched a division of his men to succour 
him, or at least bring his corpse off. Hurrying up to the 
spot they drove away the assailants of Keeaumoku^ and 
one of the troop, Keakuawahine by name, armed with a 
sling, threw a stone that struck Kiwalao on the temple of 
his head and stunned him as he fell. When Keeaumoku 
saw Kiwalao falling he crawled up to him, and with an 
instrument garnished with shark's teeth cut his throat. 

After Kiwalao's death the rout of his party became 
general. Keoua Kuahuula fled to the shore, where his 
canoes had been ordered to wait. Hastily embarking, he 
sailed back to Kau, where he was acknowledged as Moi 
and successor to his brother Kiwalao. A number of chiefs 
and warriors fled to the mountain and ultimately found 
their way through the forests to Hilo and Kau. A large 
number were taken prisoners, among whom was Keaiue- 
mauhili. 

This first battle of Kamehameha for the empire of the 
group has been called the battle of " Mokuohai." 

When Keawemauliili was captured he was led to Napoo- 
poo and confined in a building at Waipiele, under the 
guard of Kanuha, there to await the pleasure of Keeau- 
moku as to the time when he was to be offered in sacrifice. 

1 The other uncle of Kamehameha father of the present Mrs. Mizabetk 
referred to in note to previous page ; Kaaniau Pratt. 

brother of Kanekoa. ' " Ku aku la ka laau i ka aama 

2 Nuhi was a chief from Waimea kua lenalena^'* referring to Keeau- 
Hawaii, father of Laanui, and grand- moku's surname, papai-ahiahi, " the 

evening crab." 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 311 

Kanuha and some of the other chiefs, either touched by 
compassion or awed by the high rank of the prisoner — he 
being one of the highest tabu chiefs and an " Alii Niaupio " 
for two consecutive generations — managed during the night 
to let him escape ; and, making good use of his oppor- 
tunity, Keawemauhili crossed the mountain, and, after 
making a detour by Paauhau, in Hamakua, arrived safely 
in Hilo and proclaimed his independence of both Kame- 
hameha and Keoua Kuahuula. 

The result of the battle of Mokuohai was virtually 
to rend the island of Hawaii into three independent and 
hostile factions. The district of Kona, Kohala, and por- 
tions of Hamakua acknowledged Kamehamelm as their 
sovereign. The remaining portion of Hamakua, the dis- 
trict of Hilo, and a part of Puna, remained true to and 
acknowledged Keawemauhili as their Moi ; while the lower 
part of Puna and the district of Kau, the patrimonial 
estate of Kiwalao, ungrudgingly and cheerfully supported 
Keoua Kuahuula against the mounting ambition of Kame- 
hameha. 

In order to properly understand the political relations 
and rival pretensions of these three chiefs, and to dis- 
illusion oneself from certain impressions obtained from 
those who in the earlier days wove the history of Kame- 
hameha into legend and song, or from those who in after 
years kept up the illusion from force of habit or from 
interested motives, it may be well to " take stock," as it 
were, of the political capital with which each one supported 
his claim to supremacy. 

Keawemauhili was undoubtedly the highest chief in 
rank, according to Hawaiian heraldry, of the three. He 
was the son of Kalaninuiamamao and Kekaulikeikawe- 
kiuokalani, the latter being the half-sister of the former 
and daughter of Kauhiokaka, one of Keaweikekahialiio- 
kamoku's daughters. Hence he was also called Keawe- 
Wililua. As " Aliiaimoku," or provincial chief of the 
populous district of Hilo and its late accretions in Hama- 



312 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

kua and Puna, he was also the most powerful and opulent 
chief on Hawaii. He had always been loyal and faithful 
to his brother Kalaniopuu during his reign ; and when at 
liis death Kiwalao succeeded, he naturally was looked 
upon as the first prince of the blood, the Doyen of the 
Hawaiian aristocracy, and as such became the prime 
counsellor and executive minister under his nephew 
Kiwalao. When Kiwalao was killed in the battle of 
Mokuohai by the revolted Kona and Kohala chiefs, there 
was actually no chief living on Hawaii of sufficient rank 
and influence whom Keawemauhili would acknowledge as 
his superior, or to whom he could rightfully transfer his 
allegiance, except to Kiwalao's daughter, Keopuolani, who 
was then but an infant, and had fled with her mother 
and grandmother to Kahekili on Maui. The power and 
resources of Kamehameha, though successful in the late 
battle, were yet of too untried and unconsolidated a 
nature to impress themselves on Keawe'tnauliili as a 
political necessity that must be submitted to without a 
struggle. Moreover, he looked upon Kamehameha and 
the chiefs associated with him as rebels against Kiwalao 
and himself. Under those circumstances Keawemauhili 
could not do otherwise than take the stand he did, and 
oppose the pretensions of Kamehameha with all his might. 
Keoua Kuahuula, the half-brother of Kiwalao, while 
acknowledging the superior rank of his uncle Keawe- 
mauhili, shared fully in his opinions as to the status 
and claims of Kamehameha, whom they both looked upon 
as a rebel and usurper. At the death of his brother the 
lordship of Kau, provisionally at least, descended to him 
as the next heir of his father, and he was acknowledged 
as such by the Kau chiefs, as well as by the other mem- 
bers of his family, notably by his brothers Kaoleiohu^ and 

1 The mother of Kaoleioku, as well of his birth that Kamehameha was his 

as of the two Keouas, was Kaneka- real father, and in after life the latter 

polei, one of the wives of Kalaniopuu. so acknowledged it. At this time, 

It was bruited, however, at the time however, Kaoleioku adhered to the 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 



313 



Keoua Peeale. He was young, adventurous, and ambitious. 
He might hold his fief under his niece Keopuolani, but 
under Kamehameha never. In conjunction with his uncle 
KeawemauJiili he deemed himself a match for Kamehameha, 
and thus personal enmity and political considerations urged 
him to assert the independence of his possessions and a war 
cb Voutrance with Kamehameha. Of the bitterness of feeling 
that grew up between these two it is hardly possible now 
to form an adequate conception. Crimination and recrimi- 
nation were bandied about between the rival courts and 
their adherents, and a period of intense excitement ensued, 
during which the characters of the rival chiefs were out- 
rageously smirched by their respective opponents. From 
Keoua! s point of view he would have been a traitor and 
coward had he yielded to Kamehameha, and so the strife 
went on for many a year to come. 

In writing the history of this period thus much is due 
in justice to Keawemaiihili and Keoua Kuahuula. It has 
been too much the habit of former writers to consider the 
battle of Mokuohai as an accident between two equally 
and legally constituted monarchs, and the opposition of 
Keawemauhili and Keoua as a selfish and wilful refusal to 
submit to lawful authority. 

The last, but not least, prominent figure in the triangular 
fight that distracted Hawaii for upward of nine years was 
Kamehameha. His birth and lineage have already been 
related. His father, Keoua Kalanikupua, was the uterine 
brother of Kalaniopuu, and grandson of Keawe of Hawaii. 
His mother, Kehuiapoiwa II., was a granddaughter of 
the same Keawe and, through her father Haae, a scion of 
the great Mahi family in Kohala. His rank was conse- 
quently high, among the very highest, and had Kalaniopuu 
had no son to succeed him as Moi of Hawaii, there can be 



party and shared the fortunes of his Konia, became the grandfather of 

brother Keoua until the death of the Her Highness JRuth Keilikolani and 

latter. Kaoleioku died in 1816, and, of Hon. Mrs. Bemice Pauahi Bishop. 
through his daughters Pauahi and 



3 1 4 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

hardly any doubt that the claims of KameJiameha by blood 
and rank would have prevailed over any other claimant in 
any convocation of chiefs to whom the subject might have 
been submitted. His patrimonial possessions, which he 
shared with his brothers Kalaimamahu and Keliimaikai, 
were small when compared with his rivals, and would 
never have justified or enabled him to compete for the 
throne of Hawaii, notwithstanding his high lineage; but 
his personal character, his well-known talents, and often- 
tried ability had brought him a host of powerful friends 
and created a confidence in him as a leader, when the 
interests of those friends were threatened by the intoler- 
able greed of Keawemauhili, the fiery ambition of Keoua 
Kuahuula, and the weak and irresolute character of the 
actual sovereign. At this period KameJiameha was past 
the meridian of life, being some years over forty, and, after 
his retirement from the court of Kalaniopuu, appears to 
have found pleasure and occupation in his own family 
and in the cultivation of his lands ; and it is not now 
known, and has never been alleged, that in any way he 
mixed in the intrigues or shared in the apprehensions 
which agitated the court and alarmed the country after the 
death of Kalaniopuu. It is certain, moreover, that it was 
the great Kona chiefs who sought him out — not he them 
— when their personal fears for their own possessions made 
them contemplate and counsel revolt as an escape from 
the unfair division of the lands which they apprehended 
under the new regime. It was their urgent solicitations, 
and the prospect of a crown which they held out, that 
moved Kamehameha from his quiet retreat in Kohala. 
The compact was that he should lead and they should 
aid, and the guerdon, which they reserved to themselves 
and their children, was the enjoyment and enlargement 
of their possessions and a participation in the administra- 
tion of the government. And faithfully did Kamehameha 
perform his part till the day of his death. These chiefs 
w^ere Keeaumoku'pa;paiahiahi, Kameeiamokii, his brother 



THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 31$ 

Kamanawa, and Keawe-a-Heuln, The tliree first were 
grandsons of the famous Kalanikauleleiaiwi, the wife of 
Keawe of Hawaii ; the fourth was the most prominent male 
representative of the proud and powerful / family ; and 
each one of these could on occasion have mustered some 
thousands of spears to battle. That these chiefs at that 
time, and for years afterwards, were looked upon by the 
commonalty, and looked upon themselves, as something 
more than the mere counsellors of Kamehameha — in short, 
as his partners in the conquest of the kingdom — is an 
historical fact that it is well not to forget; openly and 
tacitly during his and their lifetime Kamehameha acknow- 
ledged his indebtedness to them, and on sundry occasions, 
even after his power was confirmed, he bore and forbore 
with their crotchets and delinquencies where another mon- 
arch would have punished. This political relation between 
Kamehameha and those chiefs will go far to explain the fact 
why, failing heirs to the throne in the Kamehameha family, 
the national sentiment at the election of the present 
king went back to the head of one of those families who, 
in the war of Mokuohai, brought Kamehameha to the front 
of affairs ; who placed the crown on his head that in those 
uncertain times might have dropped on one of their own ; 
and who remained faithful and loyal to their choice in an 
age when intrigues, defection, and treason were the order 
of the day, and the rebel of one island or district was sure 
to find sympathy and assistance from the king of another. 

When Kahekili, the king of Maui, learned the result of 
the battle of Mokuohai, and that Kamehameha ruled over Kamc- 
the entire leeward side of the island of Hawaii, he sent 
the message to him asking for assistance in his contem- 
plated invasion of Oahu, as related on page 220, note i. 
Instead of returning to Kahekili the messengers were 
persuaded to remain on Hawaii, took service under Karm- 
hameha, and were rewarded with lands. 

Neither of the three independent chiefs of Hawaii was 
in a hurry to renew the war which all felt must end in 



3i6 THE POLYNESIAN RACE, 

the extermination of two of the three. Warlike prepara- 
tions resounded on every side; fashioning spears and 
daggers, building of war canoes, and enlisting men. How 
long this armed suspense, for it can hardly be called a 
truce, might have continued there is no knowing, but 
accident made it the duty of Kamehameha to be the first 
agrcrressor. 

Kanekoa, one of the uncles of Kamehameha — who, it 
will be remembered, previous to the battle of Mokuohai, 
had gone over to the party of Kiwalao along with his 
brother Kahai, and after the battle had found refuge and 
protection with Keawemauhili at Hilo — for reasons not 
now remembered, revolted from Keawemauhili and took 
up arms to defend his real or pretended rights. The 
result was that he was defeated, and with his brother fled 
to Kau, where Keoiia received him hospitably and gave 
him lands to live on. After a while — how long cannot 
be specified in months — difficulties arose between Kanekoa 
and Keoua, and the former raised troops and made war on 
the latter. Keoua immediately went in pursuit of the 
ungrateful rebel, and falling in with him between Olaa 
in Hilo and the crater of Kilauea in Kau, at a place not 
otherwise designated, fought a battle with him in which 
he was defeated and killed. When Kanekoa fell, his 
younger brother, Kahai, seeing safety in no other direc- 
tion, fled to Kona, where Kamehameha was at the time 
residing, and presented himself before his nephew with 
all the signs of extreme grief and abject submission. 
Moved to compassion at the death of one uncle and 
the destitute condition of the other, and remembering 
the youthful days he had passed under the roof of 
Kanekoa at Waimea, he resolved to avenge his death and 
commence at once the long-deferred contest with Keawe- 
mauhili and Keoua, 

After consulting with his counsellors and completing 
his preparations by sea and land, Kamehameha moved his 
forces to Kawaihae. The passage of the war canoes was 



THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 3 17 

endangered by stormy weather, and the army, marching 
over the mountain, suffered from cold and severe rains, so 
that the expedition was remembered by the name of 
" Kamaino." At Kawaihae the plan of the campaign was 
agreed upon in the council of Kamehameha. The fleet of 
war canoes under command of Keeaumohu was to attack 
and harass the Hilo coast, while the main army under 
command of Kamehameha marched inland, towards the 
crater of Kilauea, with the intention of preventing the 
junction of Keoua's and KeavMmauhili's forces, and of 
fighting them in detail should no junction have been 
effected. Arriving at Kilauea, Kamehameha learned that 
Keoua with the Kau army was encamped at a place above 
Ohaikea in Kapapala, some twenty miles distant over a 
difficult country. A council of war was held, and it was 
considered more prudent to act in conjunction with their 
own fleet, which by this time ought to be off the Hilo 
coast. Orders were therefore given to descend to Hilo 
and give battle to Keawemauhili first. 

On descending the mountain from the neighbourhood 
of Kilauea, Kamehameha's army debouched at a place 
called Puaaloa, just outside of the Panaewa woods, some 
three or four miles east of Hilo Bay. Here the Hilo 
army, reinforced by the Maui auxiliaries under Kaha- 
hawai, met the invaders and a severely-contested battle 
ensued, in which a number of lives were lost on both 
sides. Kahahawai and his lieutenant, Kahitewa, are said 
to have performed prodigies of valour. Kamehameha's 
brother, Kalanimalohuloku, narrowly escaped with his life. 
The Kona and Kohala forces were utterly routed, Kame- 
hameha himself obliged to flee,, and his defeat would have 
been decisive and fatal to himself and his chiefs had they 
not been able to save themselves on board of the fleet under 
KeeaumokUy that was hovering near the shore and received 
the fugitives. It is related that in his flight Kamehameha 
was pursued by a soldier from the opposite ranks named 
Moo, who tauntingly called out to him, " Lord ! do not 



3i8 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

be in a hurry ; it is only me " (E Kalani E ! e akahele paha 
Im Inolo, owau wale no). 

When Kamehameha had saved all that he could on hoard 
of his fleet, he sat sail for Laupahoehoe in North Hilo, 
where he landed and established his headquarters. 

This second war of Kamehameha has been called 
" Kauaawa " — the bitter war — on account of its reverses. 

A short time after his debarkation at Laupahoehoe 
Kamehameha started one day with his own war canoe and 
its crew alone, without making his object known to his 
counsellors, and unaccompanied by any of them. Steer- 
ing for the Puna coast, he ran in upon the reef at a place 
called Papai in Keaau. A number of fishermen with their 
wives and children were out fishing on the reef, and, as 
they were about returning ashore, Kamehameha rushed 
upon them with the object of slaying or capturing as 
many he could, they being the subjects of Keawemauhili. 
The greater number of these people saved themselves by 
flight, but two men were hemmed off and they engaged in 
fight with Kamehameha. During the scuffle Kameha- 
meha' s foot slipped into a crevice of the coral reef, and, 
while thus entangled, he was struck some severe blows on 
the head with the fisherman's paddle. Luckily for Kame- 
hameha the fisherman was encumbered with a child on his 
back, and ignorant of the real name and character of his 
antagonist. Extricating himself with a violent effort, Kame- 
hameha reached his canoe and returned to Laupahoehoe. 

This excursion is by native historians called " Kale- 
leike." It was one of those predatory expeditions and 
wild personal adventures characteristic of the times and 
the reckless daring of the chiefs. 

In singular commemoration of his own narrow escape 
from death on the above occasion, for having wantonly 
attacked peaceable and unoffending people, Kamehameha 
in after life called one of his most stringent laws, punishing 
robbery and murder with death, by the name of Mamala- 
hoe, the " splintered paddle." 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 319 

The foregoing events must have occurred during tlie 
latter part of 1782 and early part of 1783, for it is well 
established that shortly after Kamehameha s raid on Keaau, 
and while he was still residing at Laupahoehoe, Kahekili 
of Maui sent Akalele to KeawemauJiili to recall Kahahawai 
and the Maui auxiliaries in order to join Kahekili in his 
invasion of Oahu, which took place that year. Feeling 
perfectly secure as against any further attempts of Kame- 
hameha, Keawemauhili readily released the Maui troops 
from his service, and both he and Keoua sent a number of 
war canoes to the assistance of Kahekili. 

On his return passage from Hilo to Maui, Kahahawai 
stopped at Laupahoehoe and fearlessly presented himself 
before Kamehameha, who received his late enemy cour- 
teously and kindly. 

Seeing no prospect of prosecuting the war to any 
advantage, Kamehameha shortly after this left Laupa- 
hoehoe and established his court at Halaula and at 
Hapuu, in Kohala, and seriously occupied himself with 
the reorganisation and improvement of his portion of the 
island. During his residence here, some time in the year 
1 784, Kekuhawpio died at Napoopoo, in Kona, having been 
accidentally but mortally wounded during a spear exer- 
cise. Kekupaupio enjoyed by the common consensus of 
all his contemporaries the reputation of having been the 
most accomplished warrior of his time, and as wise as he 
was brave. His death was a great loss to Kamehameha^ 
and his chiefs. 

During the year 1785 Kamehameha again invaded the 
territories of Hilo. A protracted and desultory war was 
kept up with the combined Kau and Hilo forces ; but no 
decisive results were obtained. In the absence of more 
definite information about this war, it is probable that 
Kamehameha was again repulsed, but that the Hilo and 
Kau chiefs were too weak to follow up their success by 
invading Kamehamelwcs territories. 

At the close of the campaign Kameliameha returned to 



320 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

Koliala and resided at Kauliola, in Halaula, where he 
turned his attention to agriculture, himself setting an 
example in work and industry. The war just referred to 
has been called the war of " Hapuu," and also the war of 
" Laupahoehoe-hope." 

It was during this year of 1785 that Kamehameha took 
Kaahumamo to be one of his wives. This lady, who fills 
so prominent a place in modern Hawaiian history, after 
the death of Kamehameha, was the daughter of his coun- 
sellor, coadjutor, and most devoted friend, Keeaumohu- 
jpajpai-ahiahi ; her mother was Namahana, of the royal 
Maui family, and a half-sister to Kahekili. Kaahumanu 
was then about seventeen years old. Up to this period 
Kamehameha had had but two recognised wives. One 
was Kalola, referred to on page 201 ; the other was Peleuli. 
Her parents were Kamanawa and Kekelaokalani. The 
former a son of Keawepoepoe and grandson of Kalani- 
kauleleiaiwi, of the royal Hawaii family, and the latter a 
daughter of Kauakahiakua and Kekuiapoiwa-Nui, both of 
the royal Maui family. With this Peleuli Kamehameha 
had four children: — (i.) Maheha Kapiilikoliko, a daughter, 
of whom nothing more is known ; (2.) Kahoanoku Kinau, 
a son, whose wife was Kahakuhaakoi, a daughter of 
KekvAimanoha, of the Maui royal family, with whom he 
had a daughter, Keahikuni Kekauonohi, who died in 1847 ; 
(3.) Kaikookalani, a son, whose wife was Haaheo, a niece 
of Keawemauhili by his sister Akahi, and who afterwards 
became the wife of Kuakini, one of the brothers of 
Kaahumanu ; (4.) Kiliwehi, a daughter, who became the 
wife of Kamehamehakauokoa. 

Nothing worthy of notice appears to have transpired on 
Hawaii after the war of "Hapuu" until the following 
year (1786), when the expedition to Hana, Maui, was 
fitted out under command of Kamehameha s brother Kala- 
nimalokuloku, as already narrated on page 229, under the 
article of " Maui." 

In 1786, as previously stated, the first foreign vessels 



THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 32 1 

touched at the Hawaiian group after the death of Captain 
Cook. The discovery of the islands, with its brilliant open- 
ing and its tragical close, had been a nine years' wonder 
to the civilised world. The first impression of horror and 
affright had been softened by time, and cupidity growing 
stronger than fear, men thought more of the advantages 
that offered than the dangers that menaced. 

In 1787-8-9 and 1790 a steadily increasing number 
of English, American, French, Spanish, and Portuguese 
vessels touched at the islands and traded with the people. 
Iron, pure and simple and in its various forms of utensils, 
guns, and ammunition brought fabulous prices, and other 
things in proportion. To the natives it was an era of 
wonder, delight, and incipient disease ; to their chiefs it 
was an El Dorado of iron and destructive implements, 
and visions of conquest grew brighter as iron, and powder, 
and guns accumulated in the princely storerooms. The 
blood of the first discoverer had so rudely dispelled the 
illusion of the " Haole's " divinity that now the natives, 
not only not feared them as superior beings, but actually 
looked upon them as serviceable, though valuable, materials 
to promote their interests and to execute their commands. 
JiTot a few of the seamen belonging to the foreign ships 
that now dodged each other in the island ports and under- 
bid each other in the island markets had deserted their 
vessels and taken service under this or that chief, and 
already the dawn of a new day had sent its grey streaks 
of morning across the dark sky of Hawaiian night. Men 
wondered no longer at the sight of a foreigner, and chiefs 
pondered deeply on themes of glory and conquest that 
would never have had a shadow of realisation but for the 
foreigners' arms and the foreigners' knowledge enlisted 
in their service. 

It may well be supposed that Kamehameha neglected 
no opportunity of improving his circumstances and in- 
creasing his stores from the newborn commerce that 
courted his country. Kuling over the entire western 

VOL. II. X 



322 THE POLYNESIAN RACE, 

half of Hawaii, with its splendid climate, its smooth 
sea, its regular sea-breeze, its commodious roadsteads, 
its dense population, and abundant food supply, there 
is no doubt that he and his chiefs took the lion's share 
of all the commerce that the foreign vessels brought to 
the group. Doubtless considerable trade was carried on 
with the windward districts, where Keawemauhili and 
Keoua ruled supreme, but for the reasons above stated 
the major part of such trade was distributed along the 
western coast, and whatever was of special value or use 
soon found its way to Kamehameha's warehouses. 

For once at least commerce brought peace for a season. 
iN'o wars have been recorded on the islands during this 
period. Chiefs and commoners were all too busy to raise 
supplies and other articles wherewith to barter for foreign 
commodities. If the hatchet was not actually buried, it 
was at least turned to a more productive use than the 
splitting of an enemy's head. Unfortunately the fires 
that mouldered were not quenched, and with increasing 
power and resources the old contentions burst out anew, 
and to Kamehameha's name attaches the odious and 
weighty responsibility of having set the island world 
ablaze again. 

I have referred on page 222, note i, and page 231 to 
Kaiana-a-Ahuula, his voyage to China along with Captain 
Mears in the ship " Nootka," and his return to the islands 
and debarkation on Hawaii in January 1789, where he was 
welcomed by Kamehameha, who looked upon his large and 
miscellaneous property of guns and ammunition, acquired 
while abroad, as a valuable aid in future enterprises. 

The detention of John Young by Kamehameha and 
the narrow escape of Isaac Davis, two foreigners be- 
longing to the American vessels " Eleanor " and " Fair 
American," have been already mentioned on pages 231 
and 235 as occurring in March 1790. It must therefore 
have been during the middle, probably latter, months 
of that year that Kamehameha invaded Maui and fought 



THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 323 

the famous battle of lao, which campaign is mentioned 
on page 237. 

There is now no means of knowing at what time or in 
what manner Keawemauliili and Kamehameha came to a 
peaceable understanding, so much so as to induce the 
former to assist the latter with canoes, with men, and 
even with his own sons to command them in the cam- 
paign against Maui. That Keawemauhili did so assist 
Kamehameha is a well-known fact, and that Keoua Kua- 
huula did resent that assistance as a breach of the agree- 
ment between himself and Keawem^tuhili is equally well 
known. How he revenged himself by invading Hilo, by 
defeating and slaying Keawemauhili in the battle at Alae, 
ravaging the Hamakua district, and crossing over to 
Waimea, sent equal terror and devastation into the Ko- 
hala district, has already been mentioned on page 240, 
&c. The entire island lay open and defenceless before 
him, unless Kaiana, whom Kamehameha had -left to 
guard the Kona district in his absence, could have made 
an effectual resistance. The news, however, had reached 
Kamehameha in time, and abandoning his conquests on 
Maui and Molokai, and his intended invasion of Oahu, 
he hurried back to Hawaii to defend his own dominions, 
to avenge the death of Keawemauhili, and to finally and 
definitely settle the question of superiority between him- 
self and Keoua. 

When Kamehameha landed at Kawaihae he learned that 
Keoua was at Waimea, and with the least possible delay 
he started to encounter his enemy. Whether Keoua had 
heard of the arrival of Kamehameha and wished to avoid 
him, or that he preferred some other battle-ground, it 
happened that when Kamehameha and his army had 
ascended to Waimea, Keoua had retreated to Paauhau, 
in the Hamakua district, where he awaited the arrival of 
Kamehameha. Here a battle was fought and obstinately 
contested on both sides. Kamehameha had one fieldpiece 
in action, known in the native account by the name of 



324 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

" Lopaka," which appears to have greatly annoyed the 
Keoua party, until by a brilliant charge it was captured 
by Kaiaiaiea, one of Keoua's chiefs. Great carnage was 
committed on both sides, but the battle proved indecisive, 
and was renewed at Koapapa, not far distant, on the fol- 
lowing day. Long and bitter was the strife of that day, 
but the powder falling short on the side of Keoua, he 
withdrew his forces and retreated to Hilo. 

Though Kamehameha was victorious in the battle, and 
master of the field, yet his victory had cost him so dearly 
that he was unable to pursue the retreating foe, and, satis- 
fied for the time with having driven Keoua out of his 
territory, he turned down to Waipio to recruit his losses. 

Having reached Hilo, Keoua, considering that district 
now as part of his own possessions, stopped there awhile 
to divide the lands between his chiefs and soldiers ; and 
having performed that act of suzerainty, he set out for his 
own home in Kau. It was on this return march that a 
great disaster befell a portion of his army while passing 
by the crater of Kilauea. The most graphic and correct 
account of that disaster is given by Dibble in his " History 
of the Sandwich Islands," page 65, and as it corresponds 
with the information that Kamakau received from a living 
witness to the event, I transcribe it here. Dibble says — 

" His {Keoua' s) path led by the great volcano of Kilauea. 
There they encamped. In the night a terrific eruption 
took place, throwing out flame, cinders, and even heavy 
stones to a great distance, and accompanied from above 
with intense lightning and heavy thunder. In the morn- 
ing Keoua and his company were afraid to proceed, and 
spent the day in trying to appease the goddess of the 
volcano, whom they supposed they had offended the day 
before, by rolling stones into the crater. But on the 
second night and on the third night also there were 
similar eruptions. On the third day they ventured to 
proceed on their way, but had not advanced far before 
a more terrible and destructive eruption than any before 



THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 325 

took place ; an account of which, taken from the lips of 
those who were part of the company and present in the 
scene, may not be an unwelcome digression." 

"The army of Keoua set out on their way in three 
different companies. The company in advance had not 
proceeded far before the ground began to shake and rock 
beneath their feet, and it became quite impossible to stand. 
Soon a dense cloud of darkness was seen to rise out of the 
crater, and almost at the same instant the electrical effect 
upon the air was so great that the thunder began to roar 
in the heavens and the lightning to flash. It continued 
to ascend and spread abroad till the whole region was 
enveloped, and the light of day was entirely excluded. 
The darkness was the more terrific, being made visible by 
an awful glare from streams of red and blue light variously 
combined that issued from the pit below, and being lit up 
at intervals by the intense flashes of lightning from above. 
Soon followed an immense volume of sand and cinders, 
which were thrown in high heaven and came down in 
a destructive shower for many miles around. Some few 
persons of the forward company were burned to death by 
the sand and cinders, and others were seriously injured. 
All experienced a suffocating sensation upon the lungs, 
and hastened on with all possible speed. 

" The rear body, which was nearest the volcano at the 
time of the eruption, seemed to suffer the least injury, 
and after the earthquake and shower of sand had passed 
over, hastened forward to escape the dangers which 
threatened them, and rejoicing in mutual congratulations 
that they had been preserved in the midst of such immi- 
nent peril. But what was their surprise and consternation 
when, on coming up with their comrades of the centre 
party, they discovered them all to have become corpses. 
Some were lying down and others were sitting upright, 
clasping with dying grasp their wives and children, and 
joining noses (their form of expressing affection) as in the 
act of taking a final leave. So much like life they looked 



326 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

that they at first supposed them merely at rest, and it was 
not until they had come up to them and handled them 
that they could detect their mistake. The whole party, 
including women and children, not one of them survived 
to relate the catastrophe that had befallen their comrades. 
The only living being they found was a solitary hog in 
company with one of the families which had been so 
suddenly bereft of life. In those perilous circumstances 
the surviving party did not even stay to bewail their fate, 
but leaving their deceased companions as they found 
them, hurried on and overtook the company in advance 
at the place of their encampment." 

In the above disaster it is said that Keoua lost about 
400 fighting men. 

The war with Keoua was vigorously continued by 
Kamehameha during the year 1791. One army corps 
under command of Keeaumoku, to which John Young and 
Isaac Davis were attached, operated against Hilo, while 
another corps under Kaiana-a-AJiaula was sent against 
Kau. Though sorely pressed on both sides, yet Keoua 
bravely kept his ground during the spring and summer 
of that year, and no decisive advantages were gained by 
Kamehameha in any of the battles fought. The prolonged 
contest, however, began to tell upon the resources of Keoua, 
yet with consummate tact and bravery he showed a bold 
and ready front to every attack, from whatsoever quarter 
aimed. 

!N'o reminiscences of the operations against Hilo have 
survived, but of the campaign in Kau some notices have 
been collected by the native historians. Supported by a 
fleet of war canoes hovering about the South Cape (" Lae 
a Kalaeloa ") of Hawaii, Kaiana fought several engage- 
ments with Keoua at Paiahaa, at Kamaoa, and at Naohu- 
lelua, but they were what may be called drawn battles, 
Kaiana sometimes remaining master of the field, and 
sometimes being obliged to fall back on his flotilla 
for support. During one of the intermissions in this 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 



327 



martial game Keoua suddenly changed his ground from 
Kau to Puna. Kaiana looked upon this move as a con- 
fession of weakness, followed Keoua into Puna, and with 
jubilant exultation anticipated an easy victory. At a 
place called Puuakoki the two forces met, and Kaiana 
was so severely handled by Keoua and by his generals, 
Kaieiea and Uhai, that he made a precipitate retreat out 
of Puna and returned with his men to Kona, reporting his 
ill success to Kamehameha. 

Meanwhile the great Heiau on Puukohola, at Kawai- 
hae, was approaching completion. It will be remem- 
bered {vide page 240) that when Kamehameha had sent 
Haalou, the grandmother of his wife KaahumanUy to 
consult the wisest of the Kauai soothsayers, she brought 
back the advice of KapouJcahi to build a Heiau on Puu- 
kohola to the war-god KuJcailimoIcu, and that that act 
would secure to Kamehameha the kingdom of Hawaii. 
Whether it was that Kamehameha preferred to try the 
eJQ&ciency of carnal weapons before having recourse to 
spiritual agencies, and believed more in his guns and his 
powder than in the prayers of his priests, certain it is that 
the building of the Heiau was but little advanced when 
Kaiana returned from Kau; and as no victories have been 
reported from the army corps under Keeaumoku against 
Hilo, it is presumable that the campaign in that direction 
had been equally unsuccessful. After nine years of 
struggle between the two sections of the island, Kameha- 
meha stood no nearer to the supremacy of Hawaii than he 
did on the day of Mokuohai. He was richer, no doubt, in 
men and arms and the means of destruction that com- 
merce had brought him, but Keoua had also shared in the 
fruits of that commerce, and so their relative means were 
about the same as at the beginning of the contest. 

Keoua had repulsed Kamehameha both from Kau and 
Hilo, but was probably too crippled by his victories to 
follow them up by invading Kona or Hamakua. Kame- 
hameha had trusted to spear and gun, and, however 



328 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

successful in other directions and against other chiefs, 
they had proved powerless to subdue Keoua ; and so he 
bethought himself of the Kauai soothsayer's advice, and 
the construction of the Heiau on Puukohola was resumed 
with a vigour and zeal quickened, perhaps, by a conscious- 
ness of neglected duty. Kelays of people were ordered 
from Kona, Kohala, and Hamakua to repair to Kawaihae 
to carry stones and assist at the building. Chiefs of the 
highest degree and common natives worked side by side, 
and Kamehameha himself set the example of carrying 
stones to the building. There was but one exception 
known, and that was Kamehameha's younger and favourite 
brother Keliimaikai. Tradition says that when all the 
chiefs set out to carry stones to the Heiau, Keliimaikai 
also took up a stone and started with the others. Seeing 
which, Kamehameha rushed up and, taking the stone from 
the other's shoulder, exclaimed, " Some one must observe 
the Tabu, be thou the one." He then ordered the stone 
that had been touched by Keliimaikai to be taken out to 
sea and sunk in deep water. To judge from the heathen 
ritual of that time and its stringent requisitions, the object 
of this exception doubtless was that some high chief of 
tabued rank should remain uncontaminated by the menial 
labour of carrying stones, so as to preside at the ordinary 
sacrifices and assist at the purification of the others, when 
the building should be completed.^ 

It is often difficult to bring the events of Hawaiian 
history into their proper chronological order. Eegarding 
the war and the invasion of Hawaii, undertaken by the 
joint forces of Kahekili and Kaeo, related on page 242, 

1 The author a few years ago con- of work and relaxation, the number 
versed with a centenarian Hawaiian of chiefs that attended, and who, as 
at Kawaihaeuka who had assisted the old man said, caused the ground 
in carrying stones towards building to tremble beneath their feet ; and 
this Heiau. His description of the the number of human victims that 
thousands of people encamped on the were required and duly offered for 
neighbouring hillsides, and taking this or that portion of the building — 
their turns at the work, of their this description was extremely inter- 
organisation and feeding, their time esting and imjiressive. 



THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 329 

there is great difference between the Hawaiian authorities. 
David Malo places the occurrence shortly after the death 
of Keoua, but does not state the year; Jarvis places it 
after the last departure of Vancouver, which took place in 
1794; Dibble places it before the building of the Heiau 
on Puukohola ; and Kamakau places it before the death 
of Keoua, The truth probably is this, that Kaliekili and 
Kaeo, learning the small progress which Kameliameha was 
making in his war with Keoua, and believing him fully 
occupied with all his men and means in its prosecution, 
thought this a favourable opportunity to harass his pro- 
vinces and retaliate his invasion of Maui the preceding 
year, and, possibly also, as a diversion in favour of Keoua. 
How, after ravaging Waipio and Kohala, they were beaten 
in the sea-fight, known as " Kepuwahaula," has already 
been narrated. Whether it took place before or after the 
completion of the Heiau of Puukohola, it may now be 
impossible to ascertain ; but that it took place before the 
death of Keoua there can be little doubt; and that the 
defeat of Kahekili and Kaeo in some measure influenced 
Keoua to enter into negotiations with Kamehameha seems 
to be a probable inference. The same want of chrono- 
logical precision characterises my historical predecessors 
in regard to the time of Keoua' s death. D. Malo,^ without 
stating any year, intimates that it happened before the 
battle of " Kepuwahaula." Dibble ^ places the event 
shortly after the eruption of Kilauea, referred to on page 
324, which would bring it into the latter part of 1791 
or beginning of 1792. Jarvis^ says it occurred in 1793. 
Kamakau says it occurred in 1 79 1 , after the completion of 
the Puukohola Heiau. I believe Dibble and Kamakau 
are nearest the truth. It certainly occurred after the 
erection and consecration of Puukohola and before the 
arrival of Vancouver in March 1792. 

Dibble, Jarvis, and Kamakau all concur in stating that 

1 Moolelo Hawaii, page 105. 2 History of Sandwich Islands, page 67. 
^ History of Hawaiian Islands, page 69. 



330 THE POL YNESIAN FA CE. 

Keoua was enticed by false promises to leave Kau and 
visit Kamehameha at Kawaihae, where he was murdered 
while in the act of landing. Dibble intimates that " the 
deed was not done at the order of Kamehameha" Jarvis 
says that Keeaumohu acted under '* secret instructions," 
and scouts the idea of Kamehameha not being privy to the 
murder. Kamakau admits that it was done in the presence 
of Kamehameha, but leaves his reader to infer that it was 
an act of over-officiousness on the part of Keeaumohu, who 
slew Keoua. David Malo is silent on the subject. In 
critically examining the above sources of information, and 
from what appears to have been the general opinion of 
that generation of Hawaiians who were contemporary with 
the event, it is impossible to acquit Kamehameha of com- 
plicity in the cruel death of Keoua. It must have been 
planned in his council. It was executed by three of his 
highest chiefs and most trusted counsellors. The deed 
itself took place in his presence and within sound of his 
voice ; and there is no mention, tradition, or hint that he 
ever disapproved or regretted it, or in the slightest manner 
rebuked or punished those who treacherously enticed 
Keoua away, or him who actually stabbed him. 

Before passing sentence, however, upon Kamehameha for 
what will always remain the darkest blot upon his otherwise 
fair name, the candid and impartial historian will not fail 
to take into consideration the political and social condition 
of the country and the principles of right and wrong that 
governed men's actions in that age. Kamehameha had 
contended with Keoua for the supremacy of Hawaii for 
more than nine years, and had failed to subdue him. 
Frequently routed, but never conquered, Keoua valiantly 
held his own, and on several occasions repelled the invaders 
of his territory. Each looked upon the other as an usurper, 
and the bitterest personal hatred had sprung up between 
them, heightened and envenomed, if possible, by the most 
outrageous vilifications with which each party branded 
-jhe other. And in those days the putting away of an 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 



331 



obnoxious person by secret means, be he chief or commoner, 
where open force had made default, was not a crime that 
the gods condemned or society criticised too severely. 
Moreover, even if the deed had been planned without the 
knowledge and done without the consent of Kamehameha, 
yet the very men who planned and executed it were also 
the very men who had raised Kamehameha on the throne, 
who had aided and supported him throughout this long 
contest, and who singly or jointly were too powerful to be 
safely rebuked or alienated for an act, whose very object 
was to remove his rival, to increase his power and render 
it for ever secure. Under these considerations, though the 
deed was none the less a cruel wrong and a foul murder, 
and posterity will so designate it, it is well to bear in 
mind that the actors in that deed, while undoubtedly the 
foremost men of their age, yet were men of that age and 
of no other, swayed by its modes of thought, following its 
modes of action. But Kamehameha and his victim have 
both mouldered in dust. Nearly a hundred years have 
folded their cooling wings over those burning hearts. The 
sceptre has passed from the family of the former, and not 
a scion remains of the latter to point a finger or call 
out for vengeance. Their disputes are settled, and history 
resumes its course. 

In referring to the tragedy of Keoua, neither Dibble nor 
Jarvis gives any detail. I shall therefore follow Kamakau, 
whom I believe to be substantially correct, though some- 
what verbose. 

After the unsuccessful campaign of Kaiana against 
Keoua, and after the Heiau of Puukohola had been 
finished, but not yet consecrated, Keaweaheulu and Ka- 
manawa, two of the four principal counsellors of Kame- 
hameha, set out for Kahuku in Kau, where Keoua then 
held his court. Keaweaheulu and his party landed at 
Kailikii, and, passing over the upland of Keekeekai, 
arrived at Keoua's abode. On approaching the fence of 
the royal residence they prostrated themselves according 



332 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

to the etiquette of that time. Mutual recognitions were 
exchanged, and information given to Keoua of the arrival 
of Kamehameha's ambassadors. Kaieiea, the chief coun- 
sellor of Keoua, advised him to put the two chiefs to 
death, saying that " thus Kamehameha would lose two of 
his wisest and wiliest counsellors, and the supremacy of 
the island would easily pass to Keoua!' Prompted by 
better feelings Keoua refused, remarking, " they are the 
brothers (near relatives) of my father, and they shall not 
die." They were accordingly admitted, and, crawling up 
according to custom, they embraced the feet of Keoua and 
wailed. When the wailing was over Keoua asked them 
what their errand was. They then said, " We have come 
to you, the son of our late lord and brother, to induce you 
to go with us to Kona to be united and reconciled with 
your younger brother (meaning Kamehameha), that you 
two may be the kings, and we, your parents, live under 
you. Let the war between you two come to an end." 
To which Keoua replied, " I am agreed ; let us go to 
Kona." 

The arrangements for the journey were soon made. 
Sending some of his party by land, Keoua himself em- 
barked with the others in his double canoes. At Hono- 
malino the overland party was picked up and they all 
proceeded to Kaawaloa, where they were the guests of 
Keaweaheulu, from Kaawaloa to Kailua, and from there to 
Luahinewai in Kekaha, which was the last stopping-place 
previous to Kawaihae. Here Keouoj bathed and prepared 
himself for the possible events of the day; either a 
friendly reception by Kamehameha, or to die as became 
a chief of his rank and fortune. During the journey 
from Kau to this place Kaieiea had more than once 
endeavoured to obtain the consent of Keoua to kill 
Keaweaheulu and Kamxinawa and to return to Kau, but 
Keoua had always and peremptorily refused. 

There can be no doubt but that Keoua was well aware 
of the great risk he ran in thus trustin^r himself in the 



THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 333 

power of Kamehameha. His motives can only be guessed 
at. He may have felt a touch of the old chivalric spirit, 
and thought that his own life would be held as sacred as 
he had held the lives of Kamehameha' s counsellors sacred. 
He may have been moved by the fatalism of the ancient 
creed, and, tired of tl^e never-ending war and the unaccom- 
plished objects of life, may have considered his course 
run and his time up, and that the only object worthy of 
consideration was how to die with the dignity and 4clat 
becoming so great a chief. But men's motives are fre- 
quently of a mixed nature, seldom apprehended by them- 
selves, and not always acknowledged. While Keoua fairly 
trusted the smooth speeches and large promises of Kea- 
weaheulu and Kamanawa, yet with a singular contradic- 
tion of that trust he, on that fatal morning, prepared his 
own body for the sacrifice, selected out of his company 
those whom he wished to be his companions in death, his 
" Moe-pu," and caused all others to be put in a separate 
fleet of canoes to follow after him, under the charge of 
his half-brother, Pauli Kaoleioku, whose life he supposed 
Kamehameha would at all events spare, the young man 
being the natural son of Kamehameha. 

Having deposited his feather cloaks and other valuables 
in Keaweaheulus canoe, Keoua stepped on the platform of 
his own double canoe, followed by JJhai, his kahili-bearer, 
and by his ipu-bearer (whose name is not given). 
Twenty-four oarsmen propelled the canoe. When off 
Puako, the environs of Kawaihae burst upon his sight ; 
the great and new Heiau of Puukohola; the fleet of 
war canoes, many of them mounted with guns, forming" a 
semicircle in the bay, the crowds of chiefs and warriors 
upon the beach, and other war-like appearances. Observ- 
ing this, Keoua said to Keaweaheulu, whose canoe was 
near his own, " It looks bad ashore, the clouds are flying 
unfavourably " (Ino uka, ke lele ino mai nei ke ao). To 
which Keaweaheulu replied, "By whom should the evil 
come on so pleasant a day ? " (Nawai hoi ka ino o ka la 



334 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

malie). Keoua merely repeated, "The clouds have an 
unfavourable flight." 

When the canoes were close to the landing at Mailekini 
in Kawaihae, Keeaumoku surrounded Keoua!s canoe with 
a number of men armed with spears, guns, and other 
weapons, and KeaweaheulvJ s canoe was separated from 
that of Keoua. Seeing Kamehameha on the beach, Keoua 
called out to him, " Here I am ;" to which Kamehameha 
replied, " Else, and come here that we may know each 
other." As Keoua was in the act of leaping ashore, 
Keeaumohu struck him with a spear. Keoua turned 
hastily and caught hold of the spear, endeavouring to 
wrench it out of the hands of Keeaumoku, but in vain, and 
falling down he expired. All the men in Keoua's own 
canoe, and in the canoes of his own immediate company, 
were killed, with two exceptions. One was Kuakahela, a 
priest of the Nahulu order, who succeeded in reaching 
the shore, and hastily entering the house of Kekuiapoiwa, 
and lifting up the edge of the mats, hid himself there- 
under. Kekuiapoiwa's house being tabu, he was not pur- 
sued, and remained there until the proclamation was 
issued to cease slaying. The other saved one was Laanui, 
who had secretly left his canoe at Puako, before entering 
the bay of Kawaihae. All others but these two, of either 
high or low rank, that formed the escort of Keoua, were 
killed. And this cruel butchery, which must have 
required some time to execute, was done under the very 
eyes of Kamehameha himself, who never lifted his voice 
to stay the slaughter, until the second division of Keoua's 
escort, under the command of Fauli Kaoleioku, approached, 
then the word was given, and the lives of Kaoleioku and 
all his company were saved.^ 

The body of Keoua was taken to the Heiau of Puuko- 

1 One of the versions of this tragedy, in vain, and that when the second 

current among the last generation of division of Keoua's escort, in charge 

Hawaiians, was, that Keliimaikai, of Kaoleioku, arrived, Keliimaikai in- 

the younger brother of jKame/iameAa, sisted that he also should be slain, 

interceded for the life of ^eowa, but saying to Kamehameha, "You have 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE, 335 

hola and there sacrificed to KamekamehcCs war-god Ku- 
kailimoku. It is not known whether Keoua had any 
children or what became of them. His wife's name 
was Hiiaka, but of what family I have been unable to 
ascertain. 

Thus fell Keoua ; and the districts ruled by him passed 
at once under the sceptre of Kamehameha, and once more 
the entire island of Hawaii bore fealty to one king alone. 
It was the first step in the consolidation of the group 
under one government, whereby civilisation could be made 
possible and permanent. Providence does not provide 
angels for the introduction of necessary reforms in human 
affairs. It works by the means at hand, and one age 
unavoidably leaves its imprint upon the next. Of Kame- 
hameha and Keoua, the former was probably the better 
means for the end in view — the consolidation and civilisa- 
tion of the group — but he left the marks of the age of 
heathenish darkness, in which he was reared, upon the 
work that he took in hand. We admire the edifice whose 
foundation he laid, but we note that one of its corner- 
stones is laid in blood. 

After the death of Keoua it is not known how Kame- 
hameha employed the spring months of 1 792. It is fairly 
presumable, however, that he was visiting the newly- 
acquired districts of Hilo, Puna, and Kau, and incor- 
porating them in the body politic of which he now was 
the sole head. Certain it is that when the English 
commander, Vancouver, approached the western coast of 
Hawaii in March 1792, Kamshameha was neither at 
Kealakeakua nor at Kawaihae. Kaiana was his lieu- 
tenant in the former place, and Keeaumdku at the latter. 
To Keeaumoku Vancouver gave some goats and fruit 
and garden seeds, and, being pressed for time, left for the 

killed my j^anai,* and I will now kill child of my youth ;" and ordered his 
yours." To which Kamehameha re- elder brother Kalaimamahu to pro- 
plied, " He shall not die ; he is the claim a cessation of the slaughter. 

* Hanai means a " foster-child." 



336 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

Leeward Islands, and thence for the nortli-west coast of 
America. 

On the 13th of February 1793, Vancouver returned 
from the coast of America and anchored at Kawaihae, 
where Keeaumohu was still dwelling. Mutual civilities 
were exchanged, and on the 19th Vancouver landed a bull 
and cow, the first of its kind, on these islands, intended as 
a present to Kamehameha, who had not yet arrived at 
the bay. Vancouver had some difiiculty in landing the 
animals, but having satisfied the greediness of Kameha- 
meha's brother, Kalaimamahu, the latter furnished a large 
double canoe, on which the animals were safely landed.^ 

On February 21st the ships were visited by Kame- 
hameha, who had arrived at the bay, by his wife Kaaliu- 
manu^ by John Young, and a number of chiefs. It was 
the first time since the night off Maui, in November 1778,^ 
that Kamehameha and VancouVer had met, and the sur- 
prise and pleasure was mutual, and a sincere friendship 
sprang up between those two. 

On February 22d, Vancouver with his ships, and 
Kamehameha with his court, went to Kealakeakua. Here 
Vancouver landed five cows, two ewes, and one ram, as a 
present for Kamehameha, and exacted of him a promise 
that they should be tabued for ten years. Eight royally 
did Kamehameha requite Vancouver's beneficent present. 
On his very first visit on board ninety of the largest-sized 

1 In vol. ii. p. 120, Vancouver says of the ages of certain prominent 
that on the 20th February 1793, Hawaiians. In speaking of Kaahu- 
Kamehameha's eldest son, about nine manu in March 1793, Vancouver says 
years old, came on board. Vancouver that she was "about sixteen years 
does not give the lad's name. It may old." It is now thoroughly well 
have been Kahoanoku Kinau, or it established that ^aa^w7nawM was born 
may have been his nephew, Kekuao- in 1768 at Kauwiki, in Hana, Maui, 
kalani, the son of Keliimaikai. It and that Kamehameha took her as his 
could not possibly have been PauU wife in 1785, about the time of the 
Kaoleioku. campaign of Hapuu or Laupahoehoe 

2 The difficulty of judging the age Lope. She was consequently twenty- 
of Hawaiians by their looks is well five years old when Vancouver saw 
illustrated by the wellnigh random her. 

guesses, by which the navigators of •* Vide pp. 171, kc. 
those days expressed their opinion 



THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 337 

swine were deposited on the decks of the vessels, and 
a prodigious quantity of fruit and vegetables, besides 
feather cloaks and feather helmets ; and during the entire 
stay of Vancouver hardly a day passed without some kind 
remembrance of similar kinds from Kamehameha. 

It was at this time that Vancouver exerted himself to 
negotiate a peace between the' two sovereigns of Maui 
and Hawaii. With what result has already been narrated 
on pages 252, &c. 

On the 8th of March 1793 Vancouver left Hawaii, and 
after visiting the Leeward Islands, as already related in 
article " Maui," proceeded again to the north-west coast 
of America. 

On January 9th, 1794, Vancouver returned from the 
American coast and came to off Hilo, Hawaii. The 
vessels being unable to enter the port on account of bad 
weather, Kamehameha and his suit went on board and 
accompanied them to Kealakeakua, where Vancouver 
anchored on January 12, and he and his ships became 
the national guests of Kamehameha, and were constantly 
and liberally provided with hogs and vegetables. 

At this time Vancouver landed some more cattle for 
Kamehameha, and allowed the ships' carpenters to assist 
the foreigners^ in the employ of Kamehameha to build a 
small schooner, which was named the " Britannia," the 
first vessel of the kind built on the islands. 

Since the last visit of Vancouver an estrangement and 
separation had occurred between Kamehameha and his 
wife, Kaahumanu, occasioned by what appears to have 
been an unfounded jealousy of Kaiana, and she was now 
living with her father, Keeaumoku. Through the good 
offices of Vancouver a reconciliation was effected and the 
royal pair made happy. But as a strange instance of the 
manners of the time, even in high life, Vancouver narrates 
that, before quitting the ship where the reconciliation 

^ The principal of those foz-eign carpenters in Kamehameha' s employ was 
named Boid. 

VOLi IL . Y 



33^ THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

took place, Kaahumanu insisted that Vancouver should 
exact a promise from Kamehameha not to whip her when 
they returned home. 

We learn from Vancouver that at this time Kaheihei- 
malie, afterwards known as Hoapiliwahine, a younger 
sister of Kaahumanu, was still the wife of Kamehameha s 
brother, Kalaimamahu. Vancouver also mentions " a 
captive daughter of Kahekili,'' who was then residing at 
Kamehameha' s court. The person referred to was either 
one of KahehiKs nieces and his sister Kalolas daughters, 
Kalaniakua or Liliha Kehuiayoiwa, or else Kalola's grand- 
daughter, Keopuolani, which three ladies were brought 
from Molokai to Hawaii by Kamehameha after the death 
of Kalola, as related on page 238. 

This may perhaps be the proper place to refer to some 
remarks of Mr. Jarves, in his " History of the Hawaiian 
Islands," touching events at this time.^ He says, speaking 
of Vancouver's s4jour at Kealakeakua Bay : — 

" To confirm the general good- will and establish an 
amnesty for past troubles, Palea, the chief who stole 
the cutter of the " Resolution," was allowed to visit the • 
vessels; Kameeiamohu, the murderer of young Metcalf 
and his crew, having humbled himself, and urged in jus- 
tification of his revenge the harsh treatment he had 
received from the father, obtained permission to come 
on board. He arrived at the bay in great state, attended 
by a thousand men. This act does not appear consistent 
with Vancouver's previous inflexibility in obtaining justice 
upon the death of his countrymen at Oahu. In this 
instance the property was American, and the principal 
actor a high chief, whom it would have been difficult to 
secure, and whose death would have caused a hostility 
which would have led to dire revenge. Impunity for 
crime where wealth and rank are engaged is not peculiar 
to the savage." 

When Mr. Jarves penned the above lines he knew ^ that 

1 Jarves' History, p. 80. 2 Hjid.^ p. 59. 



THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 339 

the ungrateful and barbarous treatment of FaUa by an 
officer of the " Discovery " was never apologised nor atoned 
for, and that his unselfish exertions, in saving the crew 
of the " Eesolution's " pinnace from being stoned to death 
by the natives, had not been noticed or acknowledged by 
Captain Cook, though he was present on the scene shortly 
after the occurrence. The provocations given by the 
civilised and enlightened side, what could be expected 
from the barbarous and ignorant side ? If Palea's sum- 
mary settlement of his accounts with Cook, by abducting 
the cutter of the " Eesolution," was not according to moral 
law, and contrary to the peace and dignity of His Majesty 
George III., yet Mr. Jarves might have done better justice 
to the memory of that injured chief than to brand him as 
a common thief, to be pardoned by the gracious amnesty 
of Vancouver. When Mr. Jarves speaks of Kameeiamohu 
in the same breath as of the murderers of Lieutenant Her- 
gest, of the " Daedalus," he evidently makes no distinction 
between the wanton unprovoked murder for robbery's 
sake by those lawless Oahu brigands, and the cruel pro- 
vocation that impelled Kameeiamoku to execute that 
vengeance on the tyrant Metcalf, which in his country, 
and from his point of view, was neither immoral nor 
illegal, the Hoomauhala being as cherished an institution 
with the ancient Hawaiians as the vendetta with some of 
the peoples in Southern Europe. And to such a mind, under 
such conditions, whatever belonged to Metcalf, from his 
child to his cat, would have been equally doomed to 
destruction in expiation for the wrong and the insult 
which Kameeiamoku conceived that Metcalf had inflicted 
upon him. We, writing in our peaceful parlours, whether 
in 1840 or in 1870, are naturally very much shocked at 
the killing of young Metcalf and his crew, and regret 
that the savage Kameeiamoku should have taken the law 
in his own hands ; and perhaps we would have preferred 
that he should have gone and laid his complaint before 
Kamehameha, who at that very time was driving a lucra- 



340 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

tive trade with the elder Metcalf at Kealakeakua, and 
meditating how to kidnap Metcalf 's boatswain, John 
Young. But the candid historian will judge men accord- 
ing to the standard of the times in which they lived, and 
will certainly not place Kameeiamokio in the same category 
with the Oahu ruffians who killed Lieutenant Hergest. 

And, finally, when Mr. Jarves accuses Captain Van- 
couver of inconsistency in admitting Kameeiamohu to his 
presence, and being so inflexible in "obtaining justice 
upon the death of his countrymen at Oahu," and intimates 
that "in this instance the property was American, and 
the principal actor a high chief," &c., Mr. Jarves writes 
as a partisan and not as a historian, and commits a 
gratuitous libel on the good name of Vancouver, than 
whom no more judicious, high-souled, or kind-hearted 
man, in his dealings with the barbarous tribes that he 
encountered, ever sailed the high seas. There is no 
shadow of justification for assuming that the nationality 
of the sufferers in the least influenced Captain Vancouver 
in his treatment of the offenders. There may be a ques- 
tion how far Vancouver would have been justified in 
taking up the quarrels of other governments than his 
own with native chiefs. Vancouver expressly relates his 
personal repugnance to meet Kameeiamohu on account of 
the murder of young Metcalf; but, as Mr. Jarves puts 
it, Kameeiamohu " having humbled himself," and urged 
the extenuating circumstances above referred to, Van- 
couver received him as he did Palea. Of Vancouver's 
sense of fairness there is abundant evidence in the trial 
of the Oahu culprits, where they and their witnesses were 
again and again interrogated as to whether the captain 
and crew of the " Daedalus " had in the least manner com- 
mitted any act that could possibly have been construed 
as an injury or a provocation, but they all admitted that 
the attack on the captain and the astronomer was unpro- 
voked, wanton, and solely for the sake of plunder. 

Many and sage were the counsels that Vancouver gave 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 



341 



Kamehameha and his chiefs touching their intercourse 
with foreigners, and in due time much of it bore good 
fruit. One thing, however, weighed heavy on Kame- 
Jiameha's mind and that of his chiefs. They had heard 
and learned that there were other peoples on the 6arth 
with ships of war as powerful as those of " Pelekane'' 
(Britannia) ; they had seen the armed merchant ships of 
the United States of America, of Spain, and Portugal ; they 
had seen the French La Perouse and his squadron ; and 
whether the idea arose in their own minds or was instilled 
by the foreigners residing among them, they felt an appre- 
hension that at any unlooked-for moment some one of those 
other powers might pounce upon and take possession of 
their island. Who so likely to protect them as that 
power which had discovered and made them known to 
the others, and whose present representative had, by his 
judicious, generous, and unselfish conduct, won their 
fullest confidence and respect ? Prom this germ of ideas 
sprang what by some writers has been called the cession 
of the islands by Kamehameha to the English Crown. In 
Vancouver's " Voyage," vol. iii., may be read his narrative 
of the whole transaction from his point of view. While 
Kamehameha and his chiefs became willing to acknow- 
ledge King George as their suzerain, in expectation of his 
defending them against foreign and outside foes, they 
expressly reserved to themselves the autonomous govern- 
ment of their island in their own way and according to 
such laws as they themselves might impose. It is not 
evident that Vancouver did or could hold out to the 
Hawaii chiefs anything more than the probability of such 
protection, the cession, from even his point of view, re- 
quiring the acceptance and ratification of the English 
Government, which it never received. That Kamehameha 
and his chiefs did not understand the full meaning of the 
word cession is plain from the reservations which they 
made. As it was, the so-called cession of the island of 
Hawaii was no doubt entered into by Vancouver with the 



342 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

very best intentions for the protection and advancement of 
the Hawaiians, and by Kamehameha and his chiefs with 
undisguised expectations of receiving material aid in 
their wars with Kahehili and Kaeo, and of certain com- 
mercial advantages not very well defined. The cession, 
however, was never accepted or ratified by the English 
. Government, and no steps were taken by emigration or 
colonisation to make good use of the friendly disposition 
of the chiefs, and to secure by stronger ties the suzerainty 
thus loosely acquired. The disturbed state of Europe and 
the wars and troubles incident to this period diverted the 
attention of England, and a cession that might have be- 
come to Hawaii what the treaty of Whanganui fifty years 
later became to the New Zealanders quietly went by 
default and was lapsed by non-user. 

To make the above cession as imposing and stately 
as possible, Vancouver sent Lieutenant Paget ashore to 
formally take possession and to hoist the English colours 
over the land that thenceforth was to have acknowledged 
King George IV. as its lord of lords — its protecting 
Numen, when badgered by insolent trading captains, or 
when bullying its own neighbours of the Leeward Islands. 
This ceremony was performed on the 25th of February 
1794, and the parties present^ on Vancouver's ship, who 
discussed and consented to the cession, were Kameliamelia, 
his brothers Keliimaikai, and Kalaimamahu, the latter of 
whom Vancouver styles a "chief of Hamakua;" Keeau- 
TTiohu, chief of Kona ; Keaweaheulu, chief of Kau ; Kaiana^ 
chief of Puna ; Kameeiamoku, chief of Kohala ; and Kalai- 
wohif who is styled a half-brother of Kamehameha. 

On February 26th, 1794, Vancouver left Kealakeakua, 
and on March 3d he left Kawaihae for the Leeward Islands. 

1 Vancouver, vol. iii. p. 54. like-a-Keawe. According to modern 

2 I know of but one Kalaiwohi of ideas of relationship he would have 
that time, and he was the son of been called a second cousin of Kame- 
Kalanikauleleiaiwi II., who was a hameha. Kalaiwohi' s daughter, the 
half-sister of Keawemauhili of Hilo, venerable chiefess, Kaunahi, died in 
their common mother being Kekau- Lahaina, 1875, at a very advanced age. 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 



343 



After the departure of Vancouver nothing seems to 
have disturbed the tranquillity of Hawaii during the 
balance of the year 1794, though the Leeward Islands 
were profoundly moved by the events transpiring there. 
The death of Kahekili ; the war between Kaeohulani and 
Kalanikupule on Oahu; the defeat and death of Kaeo ; the 
seizure by Kalanikupule of the English vessels, " Jackal " 
and " Prince Le Boo," and the murder of their captains ; 
the preparations for an invasion of Hawaii and its sudden 
frustration ; the recapture of the vessels by their crews ; 
all those events narrated on pages 268, &c. ; each in its 
measure and each in due order, led up to the final act 
of Hawaiian- ancient history, the consolidation of Kame- 
hameha's empire, and the unification of the island group 
under one head, one will, and one system. 

According to Hawaiian sources of information, the two 
recaptured vessels, after putting Kalanikupule ashore and 
leaving Oahu, made the Hawaii coast and acquainted 
Kamehameha with the state of affairs on Oahu, and, in 



exchange 

livered to him the 



for refreshments and other trade. 



having 



de- 



guns, ammunition, and arms which 
Kalanikupule had collected and stored on board for the 
invasion of Hawaii. Acting on this intelligence, and 
having been thus fortuitously reinforced with warlike 
stores, Kamehameha and his chiefs determined that the 
time had come for the final struggle with the Maui 
dynasty for the possession of the group. Messengers 
were despatched to the great feudal lords to muster with 
their contingents of canoes and armed men. 

The strength of Kamehameha's army, with which he 
invaded Oahu, has never been definitely stated by native 
historians. That it was not only unprecedentedly large, 
but also organised and armed according to all the latest 
instructions of Vancouver to Kamehameha, may be taken 
for granted. In the month of February 1795 Kame- 
hameha left Hawaii with a fleet of canoes which, when 
it arrived at Lahaina, Maui, is said to have occupied the 



344 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

beach from Launiupoko to Mala. Kefresliments alone 
being the object of stopping at Lahaina, the town was 
plundered, after which the fleet proceeded down the 
channel and came to at Kaunakakai, Molokai, being 
distributed along-shore from Kalamaula to Kawela. 

For some time previous to this great enterprise a cool- 
ness, that at any moment might become an open rupture, 
had been growing between Kaiana and Kamehameha and 
his aged chiefs and supporters. The latter were offended 
at the airs of superiority which Kaiana gave himself on 
the strength of his foreign voyages and foreign knowledge, 
and they were jealous lest his influence with Kamehameha 
should overshadow their own ; while Kamehameha, on his 
part, deeply mistrusted the loyalty of Kaiana., whose 
ambition he measured with his own, but who had hitherto 
lived too circumspect to give an open cause to fasten a 
quarrel upon him and precipitate his ruin. Kaiana, on 
the other hand, had for some time been painfully aware 
that his influence was waning in the council of Kaine- 
hameha, and that his conduct was watched by no friendly 
eyes. His proud spirit chafed at his owing fealty and 
allegiance to Kamehameha, whom he looked upon as no 
greater chief than himself, a cadet of the younger branch 
of the royal house of Keawe, whom the fortune of Mokuo- 
hai and the, for the times, unexampled constancy of the 
great Kona chiefs had placed at the head of affairs on 
Hawaii. Still, when the summons was issued for the 
invasion of Oahu, Kaiaiia appeared at the rendezvous with 
his contingent of canoes, of warriors, and arms, as numerous 
and as well equipped as those of any other district chief. 
If he meditated defection or treason that was not the 
moment to show it. He knew full well that it might 
have delayed the expedition, but it would have ensured 
his utter and complete ruin to attempt single-handed to 
fight Kamehameha and the combined forces of the rest of 
Hawaii. And so Kaiana sailed with the other fleet to 
Lahaina and to Molokai. 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 



345 



What additional or later provocations Kaiana may have 
given to Kamehameha are not known ; but after the 
arrival of the fleet at Molokai, at the very first council of 
war or of state that Kamehameha held at Kaunakakai 
with his chiefs to discuss and arrange the plans of the 
campaign against Oahu, it is certain that Kaiana was not 
invited to attend. 

To a man like Kaiana this omission was not only a 
slight, that might be explained and forgiven, but an actual 
omen of danger, that must immediately be attended to and 
met or averted. He felt morally certain that his own death 
was as much a subject of discussion as the invasion of 
Oahu. Restless and annoyed, Kaiana left his quarters at 
Kamiloloa and went to Kalamaula, passing by Kauna- 
kakai, where the council was held. Calling at the house 
occupied by Namahana, the mother - in - law of Kame- 
hameha and the wife of Keeaumoku, Kaiana was invited 
in. After the usual salutations Kaiana said, " I have 
called out of affection for you all to see how you are, 
thinking some of you might be unwell after the sea 
voyage ; and as I was coming along I find that the chiefs 
are holding a council, and I was considerably astonished 
that they should do so without informing me of it." 
Namahana replied, ** They are discussing some secret 
matters." " Perhaps so," Kaiana said, and the subject was 
dropped ; but Kaiana knew the men and their temper too 
well, and knew also that the only secret matter for their 
deliberation, to which he could not be a party, would be a 
question affecting his own fate. 

Eeturning from Kalamaula, as he was passing Kapaakea, 
where Kalaimokus quarters were, he heard a voice calling, 
"Iwiula E! Iwiula E! Come in and have something 
to eat." Recognising the voice of Kalaimohu, Kaiana 
entered and sat down. 

The better to understand the relation of these two 
chiefs, it may be well to bear in mind that Kalaimoku's 
father, Kehuamanoha, was at this time still on Oahu, and 



346 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

supporting the interest of his nephew Kalanikupule ; and 
that Kalaimohu, having visited Hawaii in the train of 
Kalola, his aunt, and of Kiivalao, on their return from 
Maui, about a year or more before the death of Kalani- 
opuu, had remained at the court of Kiwalao until the 
battle of Mokuohai, when he was taken prisoner by the 
Kamehameha party ; that his life having been spared by 
the intercession of Kamehameha, he became firmly attached 
to the latter, who had taken a great liking to him, had 
employed him on many occasions of responsibility and 
trust, and on this very expedition had confided to him 
the command of a large portion of the invading army. 
On the other hand, Kaiana, though on his father's side a 
grandson of Keawe of Hawaii, appears to have set greater 
value on his connection with the Maui royal family, of 
which his mother was a near and prominent relative. 
Only by bearing this in mind can we rightly understand 
the peculiar yearning with which Kaiana accosted his 
Maui relatives, and the full drift of the conversation that 
occurred between him and Kalaimohu on this occasion. 

Of that conversation, and the allusions therein occur- 
ring, I have been unable to obtain a very exact and reli- 
able sketch, though it has been referred to by more than 
one native writer; but from what has been reported, it 
appears that Kaiana had made some appeal to Kalaimohu, 
on the strength of their common kindred to the Maui 
royal family, and that he had received evasive and unsatis- 
factory answers. So much was Kalaimohu impressed with 
the manner and purport of Kaiana s discourse, that, fear- 
ful lest some one should have betrayed the resolutions of 
the council to Kaiana, he went to Kaunakakai, as soon 
as the latter had gone, and informed Kamehameha, who, 
however, treated the matter with apparent indifference. 

From his interview with Namahana and with Kalai- 
mohu, it was now clear enough to Kaiana' s mind that his 
ruin and death had been determined upon by the chiefs, 
and when he returned to his own quarters he informed 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 



347 



his brofher Nahiolea of the state of affairs, telling him 
that if they remained with Kamehameha they would 
surely be killed secretly and suddenly ; but that if they 
joined the forces of Kalanikupule, the son of their brother, 
as he called Kahehili, they might fall in battle, if so 
should be, but they would die like men and like chiefs, 
with their faces to the foe, and with numbers to accom- 
pany them in death. 

Whatever may have been the resolution of Kameha- 
meJias council as to the time and manner of despatching 
Kaiana, its execution was apparently deferred, and the 
invading fleet left Molokai in the same order and high 
spirit as it had arrived. 

Kaiana s resolution, however, had been taken, and his 
plans formed. When that portion of the fleet which 
carried the wives and daughters of Kamehameha and the 
principal chiefs was ready to start, Kaiana goes to the 
canoe, where his wife Kekujpuohi was sitting, and, bidding 
her a tender farewell, tells her of his intention to secede 
from Kamehameha and join KalanihupulQ. She expressed 
some astonishment, but said that she preferred to follow 
her chief {Kamehameha), and that thus, in case of unfore- 
seen events, both their interests might be best subserved. 

It has never been stated if the whole of Kaianas 
contingent to Kamehameha's army, or what portion of it, 
followed him in his defection. The number must have 
been considerable, however, including his own and his 
brother's immediate friends and retainers. Neither has 
it been stated whether the passage across the channel was 
made in the night or in daytime. Certain it is, however, 
that during the passage Kaiana and those who adhered 
to him separated from the main fleet and landed on the 
Koolau side of Oahu, whence, crossing the mountain, they 
joined Kalanikupule. 

In the meantime Kamehameha landed his fleet and dis- 
embarked his army on Oahu, extending from Waialae 
to Waikiki. Consuming but a few days in 



348 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

and organising, lie marched up the Nuuanu valley, where 
Kalanikupule had posted his forces, from Puiwa up- 
wards, occupying Kaumuohena, Kapaeli, Kaukahoku, 
Kawananakoa, Luakaha, Kahapaakai, Kamoniakapueo, 
and jSTuuanu. At Puiwa the hostile forces met, and 
for a while the victory was hotly contested ; but the 
superiority of Kamehamehas artillery, the number of his 
guns, and the better practice of his soldiers, soon turned 
the day in his favour, and the defeat of the Oahu forces 
became an accelerated rout and a promiscuous slaughter. 
Of those who were not killed, some escaped up the sides 
of the mountains that enclose the valley on either side, 
while a large number were driven over the pali of ISTuuanu, 
a precipice of several hundred feet in height, and perished 
miserably. Kaiana and his brother Nahiolea were killed 
early in the battle. Koalaukani, the brother of Kalani- 
hupule, escaped to Kauai. Kalanikupule was hotly pur- 
sued, but he escaped in the jungle, and for several months 
led an errant and precarious life on the mountain-range 
that separates Koolaupoko from Ewa, until finally he was 
captured in the upper portion of Waipio, killed, brought 
to Kamehameha, and sacrificed to the war-god " Kukaili- 
moku." 

This battle, known as the battle of iSTuuanu, after making 
all necessary allowances for preparations, journeys, and 
delays, could not possibly have been fought much earlier 
than the middle of April 1795. It made Xamehameha 
master of Hawaii, Maui, Kahoolawe, Lanai, Molokai, and 
Oahu, and though the acquisition of Kauai was delayed for 
several years, yet from this battle and the conquest of 
Oahu dates the unification and consolidation of the 
Hawaiian group under one government. It is the clos- 
ing scene in the ancient history of the Hawaiian Islands. 
Though many things of the ancient regime survived for 
years, yet they were doomed to perish in the glare of the 
new era which that battle inaugurated. Of the transition 
period that followed — and which can hardly yet be said to 



THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 



349 



have been passed — from feudal anarchy and general law- 
lessness to personal despotism and stringent repression, 
and from that to a constitutional monarchy; from social 
barbarism to a degree of civilisation that is unexampled 
in the history of mankind considering the time that has 
elapsed ; from the most cruel and oppressive idolatry to 
the spontaneous repudiation of the idols and adoption of 
Christianity ; of this period, which the battle of ISTunanu 
rendered possible, there are ample and documentary evi- 
dences to guide the candid and impartial historian. It 
forms the modern era of Hawaiian life — political, social, 
and religious — and as such has a history of its own, and 
formed no part of my design when I undertook to unravel 
the past of this people and, by critically collecting their 
legends and traditions, preserve the knowledge that they 
had of themselves, their origin, their migrations, their 
settlements, their national life, and its various episodes 
during ancient times. 



If I have succeeded in showing that the Hawaiians had 
a history of their past, and a history worth preserving, my 
labour will not have been in vain. The dark shadows 
which flit across its pages are dark indeed, but they are 
no darker than those which, under even more favourable 
circumstances, have stained the annals of many a proud 
nation that formerly stood, or now stands, in the foremost 
rank of civilisation. I think it is Emerson who has said 
"that no nation can go forward that has no past at its 
back." The aphorism is pertinent, is one of the deepest 
lessons of humanity, and, if rightly used, a stimulus that 
leads to progress. 



APPENDIX. 



No. I. 
PRAYERS TO LONO (Vide page 63}. 

(!•) 

Ua lewa mai ha Lani ; 

Ua haule o Makakulukahi ; 

Kg kau mai la na onohi i ka lewa. 

Pill aku la na kapuai o Kahiki ; 
5 Nahae na lala Kamahele o ke Akua ; 

Helelei-kia ka pohaku Eleku ; 
Lele ka mamala i Hashae, 
komokomo kini o ke Akua 
Haule ke kino o Lono i ka Hiwa. 
10 Kapu Kanawao i ka naele ; 

Ku ke kino oia laau iloko o Lani wao ; 

Ua kau ka Aha kapu o Lono iloko a ka iuiu kapu. 
Kapu ka leo o ke kanaka ! 
Eia kdhoaka iloko o Kulu-wai maka-lani, 
15 kahoaka iloko o ka iivi laumania o ke Akua. 

Eia ka lioailona kapu o ka Alia ; 

Poha mai ka leo o ka hekili ; 

mai ka maka o ka uwila ; 
Nauwe mai ke olai i ka lionua ; 
20 Iho mai ka alewalewa me ka anu^mue; 
Hele ino ka ua me ka makani ; 

Will ka puahiohio Halo a ka honua ; 

Kaa ka pohaku-pili o ke kahaioai ; 

Iho ka omaka wai ula i ka moana, 
25 Eia ka wai-pui-lani ; 

Ke hiolo nei ka pae-opua i ka lani ; 
Huai ka wai-punai ka pali. 



352 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

Akahi maka o ke Akua ; 

Alua, aha niaka, i lele pono ka ike ma ka kua. 
30 Hoano nui ka leo kou Akua i ka lani. 

Hahano mat iloko Papa-iakea, 
Noho mat iloko ka Makakolukolukahi. 
Hoi ke kapu Lono i Kahiki. 

Hoi aku la e kulai i ke kapu Kaliai, 
35 Kau i ka lele ke kapu Kahai^ 

Hina e hio iloko ka pilikua. 
Make ka ia, moe i ka naholo ; 
Hina kikepakepa iloko Kahiki ; 
Hoolale Kahai i ka paka ka ua ; 
40 Hahau Kahai i ka papa ka moku. 

Eia Lono ka iwi kaola a ka Hiiva ; 
Ka iivi kau iloko ka alaneo. 
Paee mai ka leo ke Akua, 
Paee mai iloko ka nalu alo kahi ; 
45 Ua hanau-mano kou Akua ; 

Hanau-mano iloko Hinaiaeleele. 
E ola du i kau waihona-pule ! 
E ola i ka Alatm ola ! 
E ola i kau pulapula ! 
50 la oe eke Akua ! 



Unstable are the heavens ; 
Fallen has Makakuliikahi ; 
The stars still stand in the upper space. 

Approaching are the footsteps of Kahiki ; 
5 Broken are the Kamahele branches of the god ; 

Shattered is the brittle stone ; 
Strewn are the pieces in Haehae, 
And attached are they to the host of spirits ; 
Turned has the body of Lono into glory. 
10 The Kanawao grows in the moist earth ; 

The body of that tree stands where the gods reside; 

Established is the holy assembly of Lono in the far- 
off sacred place. 
Forbidden be the voice of the native ! 
Here is the spirit within Kulu-wai maka-lani, 
15 The spirit within the smooth polished bones of the god. 

These are the sacred signs of the assembly ; 

Bursting forth is the voice of the thunder ; 

Striking are the rays (bolts) of the lightning ; 
Shaking the earth is the earthquake ; 



APPENDIX. 



353 



20 



25 



30 



35 



40 



45 



50 



Coining is the dark cloud and the rainbow ; 
Wildly conies the rain and the wind ; 

Whirlwinds sweep over the earth ; 

EoUing down are the rocks of the ravines ; 

The red mountain-streams are rushing to the sea. 
Here the waterspouts ; 

Tumbled about are the clustering clouds of heaven ; 
Gushing forth are the springs of the mountains. 

One eye has the god ; 

Two, four eyes, that he may see clearly behind him. 

Greatly revered be the voice of my god in heaven. 
It has been inspired into Papa-iakea, 
And it dwells with Makakolukolukahi. 
The tabu of Lono has passed to Kahiki 

It has passed thither and overthrown the tabu of 
Kahai, 

The tabu of Kahai has been sacrificed on the altar, 

It has fallen and tumbled into confusion. 
Dead are the fish, fallen in their flight ; 
Fallen disfigured all through Kahiki ; 
Kahai is stirring up the heavy rainstorm ; 

Kahai is beating the surface of the land. 

Here is Lono, the bone of salvation and glory ; 

The bone set up in the serene sky. 
Indistinct (softly) comes the voice of the god, 
Indistinct through the one-billowed surf ; 
My god has assumed the shape of a shark ; 
Has assumed the shape of a shark in the month of Hina • 

iaeleele. 
May I be saved through my fulness of prayer ! 
Saved through my health-offering ! 
Saved through my devotion ! 
By you, god ! 



(2.) 

Kiehie e mai nd hoi ua Lani nei, 

ua Lani nd hoi keia he hemo nd ka manaioa ka Lani; 

Ke halulu nd ka piko i lalo ; 

He ajpi nd ka halo, ka maha, ka jpoo ka honua / 

Uwa mai kini, ka mano ke Akua. 

Hull aku la ke alo ke Akua i ka lewa ; 

Hull aku la e keehi ia Kahiki. 

mai ka hoano kapu a Lono ; 

mai iloko Kahiki a hoano. 



VOL. II. 



354 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

10 Oiliili mat Ice kino lau o Lono ; 

Kaliuli mai he kino aha o he Ahua, 

Kahuli mai iloho o Maewa-lani ; 

Kani ha poo iloho o Fapa-iormea. 
Ua neoneo ha lani ; 
1 5 TJa ikea mai e Kahihi na maha o Lono, 
mai na huhuna o ha malama ; 
Ihua la, o Mahalii^ 
Hi7iaiaeleele, la, o Hilinehu, 
Kaelo la, Kaaona, ha malama. 
20 Ua ho iloli mai o Lono ; 

TJa Tiaahohohi mai ha malama^ 

Oili ha inaina, 

Hemo he huahoho iloho a Hinaiaeleele, 

Nauwe ha eha o Paporia-mea, 
25 Helelei he hino lau Lono ; 

Ua, hau he aha Lono i ha molia^ 
Ku, a hina i ha mole ha mohu ; 
Opaipai lalo ha Hiwa ; 

Wahi he Ahua i ha lani ; 
30 Ua paa ia lani. 

Wahi he Ahua i ha papa ha honua. 

Uina ha leo ha Alae iloho Kanihaivi; 

Uina ha leo ha hehili ; 

Uina iloho he ao polohiwa ; 
35 Naha ha umaha pali lalo ; 

Hoi he Ahua, noho i ha hanono ; 

Hele he Ahua, noho i ha pilihia ; 

Hoi he Akua, Lono, noho i ka naele, 
Kani ke ka, leo ka pupu ; 
40 Kani kaulele ka leo ke kahuli ; 
Kani halale ka leo ka manu ; 
Uwi ka leo ka laau i ka nahele ; 
Eia ko kino manu, E Lono I 
Ke wili nei ka la i ka lani ; 
45 Lele na maka Lono i lele Hoomo ; 
Ke noho mai la i ka wa ka moku. 

Kupu ke kino a kiekie i ka lani, 

Haule na kikeao makini mua, 

Na, makahiapo Hinaiaeleele, 
50 E ola du ia oe, e Lono, hdu Akua I 
E ola i kalele pule 1 
E ola i ka wai aha I 
E ola i kanaenae ia oe, e ke Akua I 
Eia kanaenae la, he mohai leo. 



APPENDIX. 



355 



TO 



15 



20 



25 



30 



35 



40 



45 



Strangely lofty indeed is this heaven, 

This very heaven which separates the seasons of heaven ; 

Trembling is the- lowest point ; 

Moving are the gills, the fins, and the head of the earth ; 

Exclaiming are the hosts, the multitudes of spirits. 

Turned is the bosom of the god to the sky ; 

Turned and treading on Kahiki. 

Extended be the sacred worship of Lono ; 

Extended through Kahiki and worshipped. 

Budding are the leaves of Lono ; 

Changing is the image of the god, 

Changing within Maewa-lani ; 

Sounded has the shell in Papa-ia-mea, 
Silent are the heavens \ 
The eyes of Lono have been seen by Kahiki, 
Extended be the rays of the light j 
There is Ikua and Makalii, 
There is Hinaiaeleele and Hilinehu, 
There is Kaelo and Kaaona, the months. 

Pregnant has Lono become ; 

The light has been taken with the pains, 

The foetus is coming, 

The birth is made in (the month) of Hinaiaeleele, 

Trembling with pains is Papa-ia-mea. 
The leaves of Lono are falling ; 
Doomed is the image of Lono to destruction, 
Standing it falls to the foundation of the land ; 
Bending low is the glory. 

Covered is the god by the heaven ; 

Fastened up is that heaven. 

Covered is the god by the shell of the earth. 

Squeaking is the voice of the Alae inside of Kanikam ; 

Cracking is the voice of the thunder ; 

Cracking inside of the shining black cloud ; 

Broken up are the mountain springs from below ; 

Passed away has the god, he dwells in the clefts ; 

Gone is the god, he dwells in obscurity ; 

Passed has the god Lono, he dwells in the mire. 
Sounding is the voice of the shell-fish ; 
Sounding increasingly is the voice of the snails \ 
Sounding excitingly is the voice of the birds ; 
Creaking is the voice of the trees in the forest j 
Here is your body of a bird, Lono ! 
Whirling up is the dust in the sky ; 
Flying are the eyes of Lono to the altar of Hoomo ; 



356 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE, 

And he dwells here on the land. 

Growing is the body high up to heaven ; 
Passed away are the former blustering winds, 
The firstborn children of Hinaiaeleele. 
50 May I be saved by you, Lono, my god ! 

Saved by the supporting prayer ! 

Saved by the holy water ! 

Saved by the sacrifice to you, god ! 

Here is the. sacrifice, an offering of prayer (words). 



( 357 ) 



No. II. 

THE CHANT OF OHAI KAWILIULA (page ii8). 

ke alialia liu o Mana, 
Ke uhai la no. 
Ke uhai la ka wai ; 
Ke uhai la ka wai a Kainakahou. 
5 Wai alialia, 

Wai Mana. 
Mehe kai la ka "wai, 
Mehe wai la ke kai ; 
Mehe kai la ka wai o Kamakahou. 
lo O ka aina ko du i ai a kiola, haalele, 

Hoi aku a niua, 
Hoohewahewa mai, 
Hoi ana i ke kua, i ke alo. 
O ka Hiau loha i ka la, 
15 Puolo hau kakahiaka. 

Hele ke alia o Aliaomao, 
Hele kanu kupapau, 
ke kaha i Nonohili. 
Halala na niu i kai Pokii, 
20 Hoakua wale la o Makalii. 

&c. &c. 

In English it would read as follows : — 

The salt-pond of Mana 
Is breaking away. 
Breaking away is the water, 
Breaking away is the water of Kamakahou. 
5 Salt is the water, 

The water of Mana, 

Like the sea is the water, 

Like water is the sea. 

Like the sea is the water of Kamakahou. 



358 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

lo The land which I enjoyed and rejected and forsook 

It has gone before, 

It is forgotten, 

It has gone, both back and front. 

The Iliau bush has faded in the sunlight, 
15 (As) the plentiful dew of the morning. 

Passed by have the emblems of the god of the year ; 

Gone to bury the dead, 

(On) the barren sands of Konohili. 

Bending low are the cocoanut trees seaward of Pokii, 
20 Doing reverence to Makalii. 

&c. &c. 

Notes. — Verse i. Mana is a land during the festival at the close of the 

on the south-west side of Kauai, year. 

celebrated for its salt-pond produc- Verse 18. Honohili or JVohili. Known 

ing very perfect and really beautiful as "the singing sands." A number 

mirages. of sandhills along the shore of Mana 

Verse 15. '''' Puolo hau," lit. "a towards Poli-halo, which produce a 

bundle of dew ;" a rather violent soft, rather plaintive sound when a 

trope, but not uncommon. person slides down the hill, or in a 

Verse 16. "jK'e alia." The two similar manner disturbs the sand, 

staffs or wands, dressed with feathers, Verse 20. The cocoanut trees at 

■which were carried in procession Pokii and adjoining land are repre- 

before Lono^ the god of the year, sented as bending low in homage to 

the new year — MahaliU 



( 359 ) 



:n"o. hi. 
discovery of the hawaiian islands 

(page 158). 

I. Frmn the '' Nmih Pacific PiloV By W. H. Rosser. 
London, 1870. 

Discovery op the Islands, and Progress of the People. — 
In the old Spanish charts taken by Anson from the Manilla 
galleon there is a group of islands called Los Majos, the different 
members of which are termed La Mesa, La Desgraciado, Los 
Monjes, Rocca Partida, La Nublada, &c. ; and they are placed 
between lat. 18° and 22° N., and between long. 135° and 139° 
W. ; but their existence in that position — at least as regards 
longitude — was disproved by the subsequent voyages to the 
Pacific of La Perouse in 1786, of Portlock and Dixon in 1786, 
and of Vancouver in 1793. The Spanish word Mesa, however, 
signifies table, and is sufficiently indicative of the island of 
Hawaii, the mountains of which do not, like most volcanoes, 
rise into peaks, but are " flat at the top, making what is called 
by mariners tableland ;^^ while other points of coincidence — 
such as an island-group extending through four degrees of lati- 
tude and longitude, the position as regards latitude nearly 
correct, &c. — would seem to refer to what is now called the 
Hawaiian Archipelago. The discrepancy as regards longitude 
(nearly twenty degrees) counts for little where dead-reckoning 
was the means employed to determine that element ; as great an 
error was made by the Hon. East Indian Co.'s ship "Derby" in 
1 7 19, proceeding from the Cape of Good Hope to India, when 
the islands off the west coast of Sumatra were thought to be the 
Maldives. 

The positions given above are, according to various authori- 
ties, those in which the Spaniards placed the islands of Los 
Majos; but from a note, p. 116, in the second volume of 
" Voyage de La Perouse autour du Monde, redig6 par M. L. A. 
Milet Mureau," published in Paris in 1797, it appears that 
Gaetano, in 1542, sailed from Navidad on the west coast of 
Mexico (lat. 20" N.) ; he steered a due-west course for 900 



36o THE POL YNESIAN RACE, 

leagues, when he discovered a group of islands inhabited by 
savages nearly naked ; the islands were fringed with coral, and 
grew cocoanuts and other fruit ; there was neither gold nor 
silver ; he named them Isles del Key ; the island twenty leagues 
more to the west he called Isle de las Huertas. It is also stated 
that the Spanish editor of Gaetano's account placed the islands 
between 9° and 11° N., a clerical error for 19° and 21°. Now 
Navidad is in lat. 19° 10' N., long. 104° 40' W. ; 900 leagues 
in lat. i9j° in 28° 64' diff. long, (or 47° 44'), which added 
to the long, of Navidad gives 152° 24', or 2|° short of the 
long, of the nearest point of Hawaii, but 5^° short of the 
long, of Oahu ; and the next island, Kauai, is sixty miles, 
or twenty leagues, distant. Thus, if the information con- 
veyed in the note to La Perouse's " Voyage " is correct, it is 
more than probable that Gaetano did visit the Sandwich 
Islands ; but it is extraordinary, as Cook observes, that, con- 
sidering their favourable position, the Spanish gaUeons did not 
visit them. 

2. Coipy of the Official Communication from the Government of 
the Marianas Islands, and from the Colonial Office, Spain. 

[Translated from the Spanish."] 

Government of the Marianas Islands, 
Ayana, January 2'jth, 1866. 

Sir, — I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your 
Excellency's esteemed communication of the 24th of April, ult., 
informing me that you had not yet received the notifications 
referring to the discovery of the Hawaiian Islands by Spanish 
navigators. It gives me great pleasure to transmit to you, here- 
in enclosed, said notifications translated into the English and 
Erench languages, obtained from the archives of Spain, by 
order of Her Catholic Majesty. These documents will satisfy 
you that this long-contested discovery took place in the year 
1555. These notifications reached me at the same time as your 
letter. 

I am much gratified to comply with your desire on this 
subject, and I should be happy to have some other occasions 
to be agreeable to His Hawaiian Majesty, and to strengthen the 
ties of our good relations. 

May God keep you in His guard. 

(Signed) Eelipe de la Cortb. 

To His Excellency the Minister of Foreign 
Affairs of His Hawaiian Majesty. 



APPENDIX, 361 

Colonial Office, No. 64. 

SiE, — The Marine Department communicated to this office on 
the 28 th January, instant, that which follows. As there do not 
exist in the archives of this office any records whatever bearing 
dates previous to the year 1784, when all those of dates anterior 
to it were transmitted to the Archives Simancas, the Eoyal 
order of the 4th instant, communicated by your Excellency to 
this office, was referred to the Hydrographical Department, 
for obtaining particulars respecting the discovery of the 
Hawaiianas or Sandwich Islands, in order to ascertain whether 
there were to be found records that could elucidate in any way 
the date of that discovery, and the name of the discoverer. On 
the 25 th instant the Chief of that Department replied as follows : 

" Sir, — In fulfilment of the Royal order dated the 7th instant, 
for the purpose of ascertaining the historical information extant 
in this office regarding the discovery of the Hawaiianas or 
Sandwich Islands, I have the honour to send your Excellency 
the result of the investigations made with the diligence recom- 
mended to me in that Royal order. By all the documents that 
have been examined, it is demonstrated that that discovery dates 
from the year 1555, or 223 years before Captain Cook surveyed 
those islands ; and that the discoverer was Juan Gaetano or 
Gaytan, who gave names to the principal islands of that archi- 
pelago. It is true that no document has been found in which 
Gaytan himself certifies to this fact, but there exist data which 
collectively form a series of proofs sufficient for believing it to 
be so. The principal one is an old manuscript chart, registered 
in these archives as anonymous, and in which the Sandwich 
Islands are laid down under that name, but which also contains 
a note declaring the name of the discoverer and date of the dis- 
covery, and that he called them ' Islas de Mesa ' (Table Islands). 
There are, besides, other islands, situated in the same latitude, 
but io° farther east, and respectively named *La Mesa' (the 
Table) ; * La Desgraciado ' (the Unfortunate) ; ' Olloa,' or * Los 
Monges ' (the Monks). The chart appears to be a copy of that 
called the chart of the Spanish galleon, existing long before the 
time of Cook, and which is referred to by all the national and 
foreign authors that have been consulted, such as the follow- 
ing : — 'Batavian geography, 2d voL of the geographical atlas 
of William Blaen, Amsterdam, 1663.' In the first map, 
entitled * America Nova Fabula,' the neighbouring island, ' La 
Desgraciado,' and those of ' Los Monges,' are placed towards the 
2ist degree of north latitude, and 120° west of the meridian 
passing through the island of Tenerifie. * Geographical Atlas of 
D'Auville, published in 1761, and revised and improved in 
1786 by Barbie du Bocage.' In the second map, and in the 



362 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE, 

hemisphere of the Mappa Mundi, the islands * Desgraciado,' 
*Mesa,' ' OUoa,' and ' Los Monges,' are found in the 20th degree 
of north latitude, and about 17° farther east than the Sandwich 
group, augmented by Barbie in this chart. James Burney, in 
the chronological history of the discoveries in the South Sea or 
Pacific Ocean, cites the atlas of Artelius, entitled *Theatrum 
Orbis,' in which the same islands are found, and placed in nearly 
the same position. * Alexander Findley's Directory for the 
Navigation of the Pacific Ocean, edition of 1857.' In the 
second part of this work, page 11 20, the author expresses and 
recapitulates the ideas already brought forward respecting this 
matter by Mr. Flurien in his description of Marchand's voyage, 
and by Mr. Ellis in his voyage around Hawaii ; and conceives 
strong suspicions that the true discoverer must have been one of 
the Spanish navigators of the sixteenth century, because of the 
iron articles found by Cook in those islands, one of them being a 
fragment of a wide sword, whose existence there he could not 
satisfactorily account for. The author most explicit in regard 
to these surmises is the said Fleurien, who, on the 42 2d page 
of the first volume, says, ' By taking from Captain Cook the 
barren honour of the first discovery of the Sandwich Islands, 
I do not endeavour to diminish the glory he so justly 
merited;' and he continues, on page 423, 'Lieutenant Koberts, 
who constructed the chart of the third voyage of the English 
navigator, in which are traced his three voyages round the 
world and towards both poles, has preserved the Mesa group of 
the chart of the Spanish galleon, and has placed it with its 
centre 19° east of Owhyhee, and in the parallel of the latter 
island. He doubtless thought that by preserving the group 
found by the Spaniards, none would dare dispute with the 
English the first discovery of the Sandwich Islands. But 
Arrowsmith, in his general chart of 1790, and in his plani- 
sphere of 1794, sacrificing his amour propre to the evidence, 
only lays down one of the two groups. Since 1786, La 
Perouse, desirous of ascertaining if such islands really existed to 
the eastward of Sandwich, passed over in the same parallel, 300 
leagues from east to west, and in the whole of this expanse he 
found neither group, island, nor any sign of land ; and did not 
doubt that the island of Owhyhee, with its arid mountain in the 
form of ajtable, was "La Mesa" of the Spaniards;' and he adds, 
at page 125, * In the charts, at the foot of this archipelago, 
might be written: "Sandwich Islands, surveyed in 1778 by 
Captain Cook, who named them, anciently discovered by the 
Spanish navigators." V Perfectly in accord with this opinion, and 
strengthening it by an evident proof, is the log of the corvettes 
* Descubierta ' and * Atrevida,' on their voyage from Acapulco 



h 



APPENDIX. 363 

to Manilla, which manuscript is preserved in this office, and 
apropos to this case, states, at folio 25, 'With a sea so heavy 
from N.W. and K, that while the rolling of the ship increased, 
and with it the irksome interruption of our internal duties, the 
speed decreased, with considerable delay to our voyage ; scarcely 
by noon of the 20th could we consider ourselves to be at 72°, in 
the meridian of Owhyhee, about 55° longitude and 13° latitude ; 
nevertheless we had not, according to our calculation, an error 
of less than 7° to the eastward, which, considering the long log- 
line we made use of, and that that error ought not necessarily 
to be the maximum to which it should be circumscribed on the 
voyage, strongly supported the suspicion that the Sandwich 
Islands of Captain Cook were Los Monges and Olloa of the 
Spanish charts, discovered by Juan de Gaytan in 1555, and 
situated about 10° to the eastward of the new position fixed 
upon by the English.' We thus see that the presumptive or 
circumstantial evidence as to the true discoverer of the Sand- 
wich Islands is indubitable ; having on its side the opinions of 
distinguished men, among whom figure countrymen of Cook 
himself, men who prefer justice and reason to a vain national 
pride. The last observation to be considered is the difference in 
the dates given to the first discovery. Foreign authors say that 
it took place in 1542, in the expedition commanded by General 
Rui Lopez de Villalobo ; while the Spanish chronicles denote 
1555. The latter date should be the more correct one, for Juan 
Gaytan wrote the narrative of the voyage of 1542, and mentions 
nothing respecting those islands, while he gives an account of 
Rocca Partida (Split Rock), and Amblada (Cloudy Island), and 
of all those he discovered on that expedition. To complete and 
terminate, therefore, these investigations, there is only wanting 
the narrative of Gaytan corresponding to the voyage in which 
he made that discovery; though in my opinion it is not required 
to make clear the truth of this fact. I have the honour to 
transmit this to your Excellency by Royal order, so that you 
may communicate the preceding information to the Government 
of the Sandwich Islands, and as being consequent to your 
Excellency's letter, No. 864, dated the i8th July ultimo. God 
guard your Excellency many years. Setas. 

*' Madrid, 2i5< February 1865. 

** To His Excellency the Superior Civil Governor 
of the Philippines. 

" It is a true copy. Jose Felipe del Pan, 

" Acting Colonial Secretary. 
" Es traduccion Inglesa 

" Florencio Laen de Yizmano." 



364 THE POLYNESIAN RACE, 

The remarks of La Perouse upon the effect of the westerly 
currents in the North Pacific, as regards the longitude of places 
discovered by the earlier Spanish navigators, are well worthy of 
attention by those who deny the discovery and identification of 
the " Los Majos " with the Hawaiian group. His remarks may 
be found in " Voyage de la Perouse autour du Monde," Paris, 
^797) PP' io5~i7* I^ coming up from the southward he 
found the current between the latitudes of 7° and 19° N., 
setting west at the rate of three leagues in twenty-four hours, so 
that when he arrived off the island of Hawaii, he found the 
difference between his observations and his dead-reckoning 
amounting to five degrees. Thus, by the latter alone the 
longitude of Hawaii would have been five degrees to the east- 
ward of its proper place. Bearing this in mind, one has no 
right to be astonished that the early Spanish navigators, who 
calculated their longitude by dead-reckoning alone, should after 
crossing the Pacific from Mexico westward, have placed the 
island they discovered and named "Los Majos" some ten 
degrees too far to the eastward. And speaking of those very 
islands, La Perouse says, p. 106, "Mes differences journalieres 
en longitude me firent croire que ces ties " (the Hawaiian group), 
" etaient absolument les memes " (as the Los Majos). 

Vancouver, "Voyage," vol. iii. p. 3, remarks "that his dead- 
reckoning, on making the islands, coming from the American 
coast, was 3" 40' to the east of the actual position of Hawaii." 



( 365 ) 



Ko. IV. 

Page 179, Note i. 

I HAVE been led to offer a few remarks upon the etjrmology of 
the Polynesian word Akua^ Atua, Etna, Otua — dialutial varia- 
tions of the same word — from noticing what so eminent a philo- 
logist as Professor Max Miiller says on the subject in the 
November number, 1878, of "Nord und Liid," a German 
periodical, published in Berlin, in an article headed "Ueber 
Petischismus," p. 160. Professor Miiller says : — 

" Nichts ist schwieriger als der Versuchung zu widerstehen, 
eine unerwartete Bestatigung unserer Theorien, die wir in den 
Berichten von Missionaren und Keisenden finden, fur einen 
Beweis zu halten. So ist das Wort fUr Gott im ostlichen 
Polynesien Atua oder Akua. Da nun Ata in der Sprache der 
Polynesien Schatten bedeutet, was konnte natiirlicher erscheinen, 
als in diesem Namen f Ur Gott, der urspriinglich Schatten bedeutet, 
einen Beweis zu finden, dass die Vorstellung von Gott Uberall 
aus der Vorstellung von Geist entsprang, und die Vorstellung 
von Geist aus der Vorstellung von Schatten ? Es konnte wie 
blosse Streitsucht aussehen, wollte man Einwendungen dagegen 
erheben oder zur Vorsicht rathen, wo Alles so klar scheint. 
Gliicklicherweise hat aber das Studium der Polynesischen 
Sprachen in der letzten Zeit schon einen mehr wissenschaft- 
lichen und kritischen Charakter angenommen, so dass blosse 
Theorien die Probe der Thatsachen bestehen miissen. So zeigt 
denn Mr. Gill ('Myths and Songs from the South Pacific/ p. 
33) der zwanzig Jahre in Mangaia gelebt hat, dass Atua nicht 
von Ata abgeleitet werden kann, sondem dass es mit fatu im 
Tahitischen und Samoanischen zusammenhangt, und mit AitUy 
und dass es urspriinglich das Mark eines Baumes bedeutete. 
Nachdem es nun zuerst Mark bedeutete, wurde es spater, etwa 
wie Sanskrit, sdra zur Bezeichnung von AUem, was das Beste ist, 
bezeichnete die Starke eines Dinges, und schliesslich den Starken, 
den Herm. Das aublautende a in Atua ist intensiv, so das also 
Atua fill einen Polynesier die Bedeutung von dem innersten 



366 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

Mark und Lebenssaft eines Dinges hat, und hieraus entwickelte 
sich bei ihnen einer der vielen Namen fiir Gott. 

"Wenn wir mit einem Manne von wirklicbem "Wissen zu 
thun liaben, wie Mr. Gill ist, der fast sein ganzes Leben unter 
einem Stamme der Polynesier verlebt hat, so konnen wir uns 
wohl auf seine Darstellung verlassen." 

The Rev. Mr. Gill, in the work above cited, says : — 

" The great word for God through Eastern Polynesia is 
* Atua ' (Akua). Archdeacon Maunsell derives this from ' Ata ' 
= shadow^ which agrees with the idea of spirits being shadows^ 
but, I apprehend, is absolutely unsupported by the analogy of 
dialects. 

"Mr. Ellis (Polynesian Researches, vol. ii. p. 201) regards 
the first a as euphonic, considering * tua ' = ' hacky as the essential 
part of the word, misled by a desire to assimilate it with the 
*■ tev ' of the Aztec and the * deva ' of tha Sanskrit Occa- 
sionally, when expressing their belief that the divinity is * the 
essential support,' they express it by the word * wi-mokotua ' = 
the back-bom, or vertebral column ; never by the mere ' tua ' = 
back. 

*' That the a is an essential part of the word is indicated by 
the closely-allied expressions *atu' ('fatu' in Tahitian and 
Samoan) and * aitu ; ' in the latter the a is lengthened into ai. 

*' A key to the true sense of * atua ' exists in its constant 
equivalent * io,' which (as already stated) means the ' core ' or 
^pith ' of a tree. 

"Analogically, God is the pith, core, or life of man. 

"Again, *atu' stands for 'lord, master,' but strictly and 
primarily means 'core' or 'kernel.' The core of a boil and the 
kernel of a fruit are both called the 'atu' — ie., the hard and 
essential part (the larger kernels are called ' katu '). As applied 
to a ' master ' or ' lord,' the term suggests that his favour and 
protection are essential to the life and prosperity of the serf. 
By an obvious analogy, the welfare of mankind is derived from 
the divine 'Atu' or 'Lord,' who is the core and kernel of 
humanity. In the nearly-related word Atua = God, the final 
a is passive in form but intensive in signification, as if to indicate 
that He is ' the very core or life of man.' " 

I am ready to accord all credit and praise to Mr. Gill's exceed- 
ingly valuable contribution to a better knowledge of Polynesian 
archaeology, through its " Myths and Songs ; " and I regret very 
much that I did not become acquainted with his work before 
the first volume of my own was sent to the press ; but, in his 
analysis and explanation of the word Atua, I believe that his 
religious feelings have biased his judgment, and led him to a 



APPENDIX. 367 

conclusion " absolutely unsupported by the analogy of dialects " 
and the hard matter of facts. 

I entirely concur with Mr. Gill that the word Atua is neither 
referable to the Polynesian Ata^ shadow; nor to the Tev or 
Deva^ the Aztec and Sanskrit for God. But when he asserts 
that " the a is an essential part of the word, from the analogy 
of '' Atu^ and ^Aitu,^" I would call his attention to the follow- 
ing considerations, which, I think, will be fully borne out by 
" the analogy of dialects," which Mr. Gill invokes in defence of 
his analysis. 

Mr. Gill is aware that in the Hervey group (Rarotonga, 
Mangaia, &c.) the letters H. F. S. are not sounded; in fact, in 
that respect the Herveyans are the Cockneys of the Pacific. 
Now the Mangaia Atu occurs with the same or similar meaning 
in, I believe, all the other Polynesian dialects. Haw. Haku, 
** a hard lump of anything, a bunch in the flesh, ball of the 
eye;" with po intensive, po-haku, "a stone." Sam. Fatu, 
" seed, the heart of a thing, stone." Mua, Fakaafo, Fatu, " a 
stone." Tahit. Fatu^ "gristly part of oysters, core of an 
abscess." Marquesan, Fatu, " breast of a woman," also " stone." 
N. Zeal. WhatUy "a nail," ^^ Ko-whatu, "a stone," also Patu 
and Patu-patu. Pigi, Vatu, " stone, rock ; " Vatu-m-taba, 
*' shoulder-blade ; " Vatu-ni-balawa, a whale's tooth put in the 
hands of a dead person. Tonga, FattCj " the stomach." While in 
tlie Sam. Tong. Fatvr-titili, Marqu. Fatutii, N. Zeal. Watitiri, 
Tah. Pa-tiri means thunder, probably thunderbolt or meteoric 
stone. Now in all these dialects the Mangaian Atu commences 
with a consonant, F, H, F, Wh, or P, which are more or less 
interchangeable, thus showing that the word originally was 
FatUy Haku, Whatu, &c., and that the omission of the con- 
sonant H in the Hervey dialect is as much a later corruption of 
the original word, as the omission of the L or R in the Mar- 
quesan dialect is a later corruption of the original forms of the 
words containing them. If we now go to the Polynesian con- 
geners in the Indian Archipelago, we find that the Sunda has 
Bcitu, " stone ; " Amboyna (Liang), Haturaka, " belly ; " Burn. 
(Wayapo), Ulun-fatu, " head," all showing that even there the 
word commences with a consonant similar to that of the Poly- 
nesian dialects. 

Now if we look at the Polynesian word Atua, Etna, Otua^ 
the first current in Samo. Tah., Rarot., Haw., Marqu., the second 
in Mangaia, the last in Tonga, there is no trace or indication 
that it ever commenced with either of the consonants that form 
the initial letter of the word Fatu, &c. There is no such word 
as Fatua, Fetua, Fotua. And as Atua is not a modern word, 



368 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

to be derived from the Hervey Islands' dialect, which is an his- 
torically late compound of the Samoan and Tahitian dialects, I 
see no possible ground for deriving the universal Polynesian 
Atua from the exceptional Mangarian Atu. 

Neither do I see any good reasons for holding that Aitu is a 
lengthened form of Atu^ or, as Mr. Gill says, that " a is length- 
ened into aV^ I question whether Mr. Gill can produce another 
word from the whole Polynesian language where the a has been 
lengthened into ai. It is true that in the Samoan and Tahitian, 
and in some from those derived dialects, Aitu means " spirit, 
god, supernatural being;" but in Hawaiian, where Aiku does 
not occur in that sense, we have Iku^ one of the oldest royal 
appellatives of the highest tabu chiefs, thus showing what was 
its primary and simplest form before the euphonic a was added 
to it. In the Paumotu or Taumotu group this word with the 
meaning of " spirit " occurs in the form of Maitu, composed of 
the augmentative or intensive prefix Ma and Itu. 

I do not deny, and think it very probable that both forms of 
the word, Aiku and Itu, were current at the same time in the 
Polynesian dialects ; and as there is no instance in the language, 
so far as I know, of the diphthong ai being shortened to z, I am 
forced to conclude that the initial a in Aitu is merely euphonic, 
a euphonism of too frequent occurrence in all the dialects, and 
which at this time should be too well known to mislead a com- 
parative philologist. To what root and to what language the 
original form of Itu should be referred, and what may have 
been its primary sense, are questions for abler philologists than 
myself to settle; and also whether the Hawaiian sense of 
" royalty and highest tabu " was anterior or posterior to the 
South Pacific sense of " spirit, god," or whether both were the 
outgrowths, in different directions, of an older, once common, 
then underlying, and now obsolete idea. On page 41 of the 
first volume of this work I have ventured to suggest a solution, 
and until a better is found I shall adhere to it. 

In regard to Atua, as it cannot, as above ^shown, be referred 
to Fatu, Haku, &c., which undoubtedly are the original forms 
of the Mangarian Atu^ I am inclined to hold with Rev. Mr. 
Ellis that the initial a in Atua is also euphonic. It is probable 
that the simple form Tua originally served to express a family 
relation. In the Indian Archipelago we still find it lingering 
in certain places. In the Sula Islands and in parts of Borneo 
Tua means "lord, master, husband." In Malay, Tuan or Tuhan 
means " god," and Orang-tuan a " grandfather." In the Fiji 
group, where so much of the archaic sense and forms of Poly- 
nesian speech still survives, Tua and Tuka means "grandfather] 



APPENDIX, 369 

very old, immortal ; " Tuorua, " elder brother or sister." In the 
Samoan Tua'a, in the IS". Zeal. Tuakana^ Tahit. Tuaana, 
Hawaiian Kai-kuaana, we have a *' brother s elder brother," or 
a "sister's elder sister." In the Sam. and Tonga Tua-fafine, 
Tahit. Tua-hine, we have a word expressive of a brother's 
sister. 

From this showing it is fair to infer that the word Tua was 
originally used to express a sense of age, strength, and superiority 
between the members of a family ; and as men's thoughts tra- 
velled further beyond the narrow home circle, it came to express 
the ideas of " lord," " master," and " god." As the initial a in 
A-tua, or its equivalents, is common to the entire Polynesian 
family, it must have been adopted as a distinguishing sign of 
the supernatural, incomprehensible Tua from the ordinary 
family Tua, at a time when the Polynesians yet were a com- 
paratively united and compact people, long before their exodus 
to the Pacific. 

I think Mr. Gill is fully justified, "by the analogy of 
dialects," in considering the final a in A-tu-a as an intensive 
suffix; and the examples he quotes could be multiplied ad 
infinitum from every dialect of the Polynesian. That conceded, 
there remains Tu as the root of the words Tua and Atua, Does 
the meaning of Tu explain the derivation of Tua ? In all the 
Polynesian dialects Tu or Ku means primarily " to rise up, 
to stand, be erect." In N. Zeal. Tu-mata was the name of 
the "first son, born of heaven and earth;" in Saparua and 
Ceram Tu-mata means " man ; " in Fiji Tu is used interchange- 
ably with Ta, to express the sense of a father when spoken to 
by his children. As I think there are many reasons to hold 
that the Polynesian language, deducting its many admixtures, 
was originally a form of Arian speech in Yedic or pre-Yedic 
times, I would refer to the Yedic verb Tu, "to be powerful, to 
increase;" a word occurring also in the Zend with similar 
meaning, whence Tu-i (Yed.), " much ;" Tavas (Skrt.), " strong." 
From this root Benfey and Ad. Pictet derive the old Irish 
Tuad, Tuath, the Cymr. and Armor; Tut, Tud^ the Goth; 
Thuida, the Lettic Tauta, all meaning " people, race, country." 

As the Polynesian Atua, if I am correct, cannot be derived 
from Fatu or Atu, nor from Aitu or Iku, Mr. Gill's explanation, 
that the word refers to the " Lord, who is the core and kernel of 
humanity" and that it indicates that He is the very " core or 
life of man," cannot be maintained as a correct analysis and 
etymology. I think it more probable that men's ideas developed 
gradually from things natural to things supernatural, adapting 
the phraseology of the former to the exigencies of the latter, for 

VOL. II, 2 A 



370 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE, 

the sake of distinction, and that tlius from the original Tu^ " to 
be erect, powerful, increasing, superior," were derived the ex- 
pressions of Tu and Tua for " man, father, elder brother," subse- 
quently "husband, lord, master;" and finally the Polynesian 
A-tua^ "god, spirit," anything of a supernatural or incompre- 
hensible character. 

It is with some hesitation, and not without regret, that I 
have thus felt called upon to correct Mr. Gill's etymology and 
analysis of the Polynesian word Atua^ and at the same time 
enter my protest against Professor Muller's endorsement of such 
an analysis. The Professor will again experience the sad truth 
of his own dictum, that " Nichts ist schwieriger als der Versu- 
chung zu widerstehen, eine unerwartete Bestatigung unserer 
Theorien, die wir in den Berichten von Missionaren und Eeisen- 
den finden, fiir eines Beweis zu halten." The remedy, however, 
against such temptation (" Yersuchung"), as regards the Poly- 
nesians, lies in a critical study of their language, which does 
not always come within the sphere or the ability of " mission- 
aries and travellers ;" and I may be permitted to refer Professor 
Miiller to his own words in the same paragraph, where he says : 
— " Gliicklicherweise hat aber das Studium der Polynesischen 
Sprachen in der letzten Zeit schon einen mehr wissenschaf tlichen 
und kritischen Charakter angenommen, so dass blosse Theorien 
die Probe, der Thatsachen bestehen miissen." 



( 371 ) 



No.V. 



KA INOA KUALII (Page 279, Note i). 



He eleele kii na Maui, 

Kii aku ia Kane ma, 

Laua Kanaloa, ia Kauakahi, 

Laua Maliu. 
5 Hano mai a hai a hai i ka puu 

Hai a holona ka puu o Kalani 

Ka Makau nui o Maui, 

O Manaiakalani, 

Kona aho, hilo honua ke kaa, 
10 Hau hia amoamo Kauiki ; 

Hania Kamalama. 

Ka maunu ka Alae a Hina 

Kuua ilalo i Hawaii, 

Ka hihi kapu make haoa, 
15 Kaina Nonononuiiakea 

E malana iluna ka ili kai. 

Huna Hina i ka eheu o ka Alae, 

"Wahia ka papa ia Laka, 

Ahaina ilalo ia Kea, 
20 Ai mai ka ia, ka ulua makele, 

O Luaehu kama a Pimoe, e Kalani e. 

O Hulihonua ke kane 

O Keakahulilani ka wahine, 

O Laka ke kane, Kapapaiakele ka wahine, 
25 O Kamooalewa ke kane, 

Nanawahine kana wahine, 

O Maluakapo ke kane, 

O Lawekeao ka wahine. 

O Kinilauamano ke kane, 
30 Upalu ka wahine. 

O Halo ke kane, Koniewalu ka wahine. 

Kamanonokalani ke kane, 

O Kalanianoho ka wahine. 



372 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

Kamakaoholani ke kane, 
35 O Kahuaokalani ka wahine. 

O Keohokalani ke kane, 

O Kaamookalani ka wahine. 

Kaleiokalani ke kane, 

O Kaopuahihi la ka wahine. 
40 O Kalalii la ke kane, 

Keaomele la ka waliine. 

O Haule ke kane, Loaa ka waliine. 

O Nanea ke kane, Walea ka wahine. 

O Nananuu ke kane, Lalohana ka wahine. 
45 O Lalokona ke kane, 

O Lalohoaniani ka wahine. 

O Hanuapoiluna ke kane, 

O Hanuapoilalo ka wahine. 

O Pokinikini la ke kane, 
50 O Polehnlehu la ka wahine. 

O Pomanomano la ke kane, 

Pohakoikoi la ka wahine. 

Kupukupunuu ke kane, 

Kupukupulani ka wahine. 
55 O Kamoleokahonua ke kane, 

O Keaaokahonua ka wahine. 

O Ohemoku ke kane, Pinainai ka wahine. 

O Makulu ke kane, Hiona ka wahine. 

O Milipo mea ke kane, - 

60 O Hanahanaiau ka wahine. 

O Hookumukapo ke kane, 

O Hoao no ka wahine. 

O Lukahakona ke kane, 

O Niau ka wahine. 
65 O Kahiko ke kane, 

O Kupulanakehau ka wahine. 

O Wakea la ke kane, Papa la ka wahine. 
Hanau ko ia la lani he ulahiwa nul 
He alii o Pineaikalani, ko Kupunakane ; 
70 Hanau ka lani he alii ; 

Hua mai nei a lehulehu ; 
Kowili ka hua na ka lani ; 
Lele wale mai maluna 
Ka loina a ka lani weliweli. 
75 He alii pii aku, koi aku, wehe aku, 

A loaa i ka lani paa ka ke alii. 
E Ku e, he inoa, 
Ina no ka oe, i o'na. 



APPENDIX, 373 

Ku, o ke koi makalani ! 
80 Kakai ka aha maueleka, na Ku ! 

Kohia kailaomi e Ku ! 

Kai Makalii, kai Kaelo, 

Kao ae Kaulua. 

Ka malama hoolau ai a Makalii 
85 O ke poko ai hele, ai iwi na 

Ka pokipoki nana i ai ka iwi Alaka — poki — e 

O ka makua ia Niele o Launieniele 

O kanaka ka wai, 

Ku, ke Alii Kauai. 
90 O Kauai mauna hoahoa, i 

Hohola ilalo Keolewa 

Inu mai ana o Niihau ma i ke kai — e. 

Kiki ma ka-kai Keolewa, 

Kalaaumakauhi ma ka-kai luna — e — 
95 Hawaii. 

Hawaii, mauna kiekie. 
Hoho i ka lani Kauwiki ; . 
Ilolo ka hono na moku, 

1 ke kai e hopu ana. 
100 Kauwiki 

O Kauwike ka mauna i ke opaipai, 
E kalal na a hina, Kauwiki — e — 
Kauai 

Kauai nui Kuapapa, 
105 Noho i ka lulu o Waianae, 

He lae Kaena, he hala Kahuku, 

He kuamauna hono i ke hau Kaala, 

Noho mai ana Waialua ilalo — E — 
Waialua-ia. 
no Mokuleia, Kahala, Ku ipu 

Ka loko ia mano lala walu 

Hui Lalakea o Kaena 

Mano hele lalo o Kauai — E — 

Olalo Kauai, kuu aina, 
IT5 Kauai. 

Ke holo nei Ku i Kauai — e — 

E ike i ka oopu makapoko Hanakapiai. 

Ke hoi nei Ku i Oahu-e- 

1 ike i ka oopu kuia, ia 
120 Hilahila o Kawainui 

Elana nei iloko ka wai. 

A pala ka hala, ula ka ai — e — 



374 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE, 

He hailona ia no Ku, 

TJa pae mai la 
125 Kauai. 

Kauai nui moku Lehua, 

Moku panee lua iloko ke kai, 

Moku panee lua ana Kahiki, 

Halo Kahiki ia Wakea ka la, 
130 Kolohia kau mai ana Kona i ka maka, 

Hooulu ilalo Kumuhonua, 

Makeke ka papa i Hawaii-akea, 

O Kuhia i ka muo ka la. 

Ke kau la ka la i Kona, ke maele Kohala, 
135 Kahiki ; ia wai Kahiki ? 

laKu. 

O Kahiki, moku kai a loa, 

Aina a Olopana i noho ai. 

Iloko ka moku, iwaho ka la ; 
140 ke aloalo ka la, ka moku, ke hiki mai. 

Ane ua iko oe % 
Ua ike. 

TJa ike hoi a'u ia Kahiki. 

He moku leo pahaohao wale Kahiki. 
145 No Kahiki kanaka i pii a luna 

A ka iwikuamoo o ka lani j 

A luna, keehi iho, 

Nana iho ia lalo. 

Aole Kahiki kanaka ; 
150 Hookalii Kahiki kanaka, — he Haole; 

Me ia la he Akua, 

Me a'u la he kanaka ; 
He kanaka no, 

Pai kau, a ke kanaka hookahi e hiki 
155 Hala aku la Kukahi la Kulua, 

O Kukahi ka po, Kulua ke ao, 

O hakihana ka ai ; 

Kanikani ai a manu-a ! 

Hoolono mai manu lanakila ! 
160 Malie, iawai lanakila? 

Ia Ku no. 

Ilaila ka ua, ilaila ka la ; 

Ilaila ka hoku Hiki-maka hano he Alii. 

O Kaulukahi ka la, 
165 Kaupukahi ka la, 

Puna, Hooilo, o Hana, Lanakila, 



APPENDIX, 375 

O Hooilo, Tia ino Pele. 

O ka makani ; ia wai ka makani % 
la Ku no. 
170 Puhia ka makani a Laamaomao 

Ke ahe Koolauwahine ka makani olalo 

O Kauai ka'u i ike, 

ke kiu ko Wawaenohu, 

O ka hoolua ko Niihau, 
175 O ke Kona ka makani ikaika, 

ke Aoa ka makani ino, 

Ka makani halihali wai pua Kukui, 

1 lawea ia la e Lonomoku, 
Pa ilalo Hana — e — 

180 Oia Koolauwahine olalo Kauai 

Ke pa la ka i Wailua la 

O ka hoku, iawai ka hoku % 
la Ku no. 

Iluna ka ua Puanalua 
185 Ku i ke Kao-Maaiku — hoolewa 

Ka wae ke kaina, 

Oiliili lupea na hoku mahana elua. 

Heua Kona me ka makani 

Ku i ke Kao-Maaiku — hoolewa 
190 Ka wae ke kaina, 

ka ua ; ia wai ka ua \ 

la Ku no. 

1 moea ka ua i Kunaloa, 
I pakakahi ka ua i ka ili, 

195 I liki ka ua i Kananaola, 

Pahee mahiki, ke ka la, 

Ua luia ka ua e Hina, 

Haalulu ai lalo o Maheleana. 

O ka punohu ka ua kai Kahalahala. 
200 ka pokii ka ua, 

E ua ka i ka lehua la, 

ka la, ia wai ka la i 

la Ku no. 

1 puka ka la ma Kauwiki, 
205 Hawewe ka la i ka Upilialoula, 

Ke kohokoho la kamalii, 
Ke na'una'u la ka la, 
Ka la kieke pua Hilo, 
O ke kua ka la kai hulihia iluna, 
210 O ke aloalo o ka la kai lawea ilalo, 

ka malu ka la kai kaa iloko, 



376 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

ke aka o ka la kai hele iwaho, 
ka mahana o ka la ke hele nei 
Maluna o ka aina — a 
215 Kau aku i Lehua la. 

ke kai ; ia wai ke kai ? 

la Ku no 

1 nui mai kai i Kahiki, 
I miha kai i ka aina, 

220 I lawea kai i ka lima, 

I kiki ke oho i ke kai, 
I ehn ke oho i ke kai lin, 
I pala ke oho i ke kai loa, 
I lelo ke oho i ke kai kea. 
225 He kai kuhikuhinia ko ka puaa, 

He kai lihaliha ko ka ilio, 
He kai okukuli ko ka moa, 
He kai ala ko ka anae. 
He kai hauna ko ka palani, 
230 He kai heenalu ko Kahaloa, 

He kai hului ko Kalia, 
He kai hele kohana ko Mamala, 
He kai au ko ka puuone, 
He kai kaha nalu ko Makaiwa, 
235 He kai ka anae ko Keehi, 

He kai alamihi ko Leleiwi, 
He kai awalau kee Puuloa, 
He kai puhi nehu, puhi -lala, 
He kai Ewa e noho i ka lai nei, 
240 ]N'a Ewa nui a Laakona, 

Ku i ka alai ka ua o ka lani, 
Kai apukapuka Heeia, 
Ke kai o hee ko Kapapa, 
He kai oha i ke Kualoa, 
245 He kai aai ko Kaaawa, 

He kai ahiu ko Kahana, 
I wehe kai ia Paao, 
Ikea Paao i ka wai — hi, 
Ikea ka hiwa mai lalo Kona, 
250 O ka Hiwa ia mai lalo Kona, 

He au, he koi, he aha, he pale, 
E kii, e hoa, e lanalana, 
E kua i kumu o Kahiki — e, 
O ua mai Hilo. 
255 Ke kuee nei na opua ua Maheleana — e, 

Oua mai kanaka 



APPENDIX. 377 

Ilaila ka ua a malie, 
He lala loa i ka makani, 
Haiki ka make o ka ua, 
260 Haakookoo ana Mahiki i ka pukalea, 

Aia Mahiki, ke ka mai la. 

Opukahonua, Lolomu, Mihi, 

Lana ka wahine, 

Noho Wakea noho ia Papa, 
265 Noho ia Kananamukumamao, 

Hanau ka Naupaka, 

Ku i ke Kahakai, 

Ohikimakaloa ka wahine, ^ 

O Hoopio, Hulumaniani, 
270 Ku i Kaena, ana-id i lalo. 

O Mehepalaoa, 

O Naholo, 

Mehe kai olohia a Manu, 

Oia alakai honua Ku. 
275 Lanipipili, Lanioaka, 

Lanikahuliomealani, 

O Lono, Hekili kaaka, 

Nakoloailani, 

O Kailolimoana, Waia, 
280 O Hikapoloa, 

O Kapoimuliwaa, 

O Kane, 

O Ahulukaaala, 

Kanei Kamakaukau. 
285 Alua ana hulu wau ia oe e Ku — e ; 

E ka'u Alii. 
Eia ka paia ai o Kapaau, 
He kanaka o Wawa-Kaikapua. 
Keapua ko Hawi, 
290 Eia ke puhi kukui ai o Kukuipahu, 

Ka wahine waha ula 
Ke ai i ka ina Makakuku, 
Eia ke kanaka pii pali 
Haka ulili Nanualolo, 
295 Keiki kia manu — e — 

Kau kiakia manu Lehua. 

Kuku, Aa, Naio, 

O Haulamuakea ke koi j Hinaimanau ; 

O Paepae 
300 O Manau ka wahine, 

Hanau ka Naenae noho kuamauna 



378 ' THE POLYNESIAN RACE, 

Ka Hinihini kani kuaola, 

Hakina iho i ka wae mua o ka waa. 

Molokai ua naha ke'na, 
30 S Haalele aku Kanaloapuna, 

Xanaloa a Waia ; 

O make holo uka, make holo kai, 

Hoonalulu ana Luukia, 

Hoopailua i ka ilolo, 
310 I ke kauhua o ke kamaiki 

Hanau ka leie hihi i ka nahele, 

Q Makaaulii kana wahine. 

Hanau ka Lupua me ka Laulama, 

Ku i ke opu Lono. 
315 O Kapolei ka wahine, 

O Kukaikaina i hope ka lanalana, 

O Kukonaihoae, Ku, 

O ke kai mahuehue, 

Mehe kai e haa aku ana Ku. 
320 Eia ka wahine peeki 

Uhi lepo Keaau, 
Ka umeke hoowali na lepo, 
Mehe hako la ke ala, 
Eia ka huakai hele 
325 Alanui ka kanaka. 

Wali ai ka lepo Mahiki, 
I ka padla a ka wawae. 

Kapapaiakea, 

O ka nalu o ka inaina, 
330 O Kauhihii kana wahine, 

Hanau Koawaa ku i ka nenelu, 

Kalaia ka ipu i ke kai aleale, 

Kalaia Hinakapeau, 

Loaa mai o Ukinohunohu la, 
335 Ukinaopiopio, 

O Moakueanana, 

O Kalei, 

O Keelekoha, 

O ke 'kua maka holo lalo, 
340 O ke kau iluna Kahualewa, 

Ako Lipoa o Kanamuakea, 

O ke kai akea 

O ka moana akea. 

O Hulukeeaea 
345 O Hauii, Hauee, 

O Hauii-nui naholoholo, 



APPENDIX, 379 

Hauii kai apo kahi, ' 
Kai humea mai ko malo o Ku. 

No Ku ka malo i ke kaua, haa oe, 
350 Oia i luia ka umu mehe awai la. 

Eia ka uhuki hulu manu, 
Kau pua Haili, 
Na keiki kiai pua, 
Ka lahui pua lalo. 
355 Eia ka wahine ako pua, 

Kui pua lei pua, kahiko pua Paiahaa, 
Ke uhai mai nei i ke 'kua, 
A pau mehameha A pua. 
Kau ia ka makani, hiamoe — la — e 
360 Moe ua makani, hiamoe la la — e — 

1 ka papa Kukalaula. 

Uliuli, Maihea, 

Kahakapolani ka wahine, 

Kaukeano, Mehameha, 
365 O po ka lani i ka ino ; 

He ino ka lani, ke wawa nei ka honua, 

1 ka inaina kalani. 
Hoonaku, hookaahea, hoowiliwili, 
Hoonahu, hoomamae, 

370 Hookokohi ana iloko o Hinaiaeleele, 

Hanau ka maua ku i ka nahele, 

Hanau ka ouou kani kuaola, 

Puka ke kama-hele 

Ku i ke alo ka hakoko, 
375 He pukaua, na ke Alii, he kaua, 

He wai kaua, o Ku no ke Alii, 

He kaua na Ku, 

E uhau ana iluna Kawaluna. 

Ihea, ihea la ke kahua, 
380 Paio ai o ke koa — a? 

I kahua i Kalena, 

I manini, i hanini, 

I ninia i ka wai Akua, 

I ko hana, i Malamanui 
385 Ka luna o Kapapa, i Paupauwela, 

I ka Hilinai, i ke Kalele, 

Ka hala Halahalanui-maauea, 

Ke kula Ohia, ke Pule — e, 

Ke 'kua Lono Makalii 
390 Ka lala aala Ukulonoku, 

No Kona paha, no Lihue. 



38o THE POL YNESIAN RA CE, 

No ka la i Maunauna, 
No ka wai i Paupauwela, 
I ulu Haalilo i Nepee, 
395 A ka hau'na o Aui. 

Kikomo kahuna i kakua laaii, 
Komo ku i kona ahuula, 
Ka wela o ka ua i ka lani, 
Ka la i Kauakahi-hale, 
400 TJla ka lau ka Mamane, 

Ke koaie o Kauai ; 
Ke pili kai ihi ia e Ku, 
Ka alo-alo Kamaile, 
Ka nalu kakala of Maihiwa, 
405 Pani'a ka wai i Kalapo, 

Ka naha i lalo o Eleu. 
Huki ka ua a moa i ka lani, 
Mehe hee nui no kuaMwi ; 
Ka hee'na o Hilo ia Puna, 
410 Aia ma Hilo Peahi ; 

Ula ka wai i Paupauwela, 
Ka Kilau Malamanui, 
Ka moo Kilau i Kapapa. 
Kui ka lono ia Haalilo, 
415 Haua aku la ko kaina ; 

Hahaki Haalilo i ka manawa ; 
I kai muku kahuna ia Ku ; 
I laa ka manawa ia Ku, 
I Keiki a Haalilo. 
420 Eia Malanai-haehae, 

Kama a Niheu-Kalohe, 
Ke pani wai Kekuuna, 
He mee nei no ke kanaka, 
Ke pu nei i ka aahu, 
425 Ke lapa nei i ka laau, 

Ka laulau ka palau, 
Eia Haalilo — e ! — 

Ku no he Alii. 
Aloha Kukui peahi i na leo Paoa ; 
430 Ua oa ka maka ka ilima make, 

Nonu i ka malama Makalii ; 
la Makalii la pua ke Koolau, 
Pau i ke hau o Maemae. 
He mae wale ka leo ke kai olalo, 
435 Hoolono wale Malamanui, 

la ai Ku i ka uwala, 



APPENDIX, 381 

Kawewe Kupukupu ala Lihue. 

Kupu mai nei ka manawa ino e Ku — e — 

Hanau mai, a me kalani wale la ; 
440 Ku no he Alii. 

He pu hinalo no Ku i Kamakoa, 

Oi lele Ku i ka pali, 

Mai pau Ku i ke ahi, 

ke aha la kau hala — e Ku ? 
445 ke kua aku i ka laau, 

O ka luukia ana o ka pau, 

O ke ahina ana ke oa, 

ko Ku ia Kona hoa — hele 

1 ka ua, i ka la. 

450 A ai ai Ku i ka unahi pohaku, 

Ola Ku i ka ipu o Lono 

I ka ipu a Kupaka, 

Ku no he Alii. 

Kailua makani anea oneanea, 
455 Makani aku a Hema, 

He mama wale ka leo ke uwalo mai — e — 

E o ia nei, ka lahui-makani, 

E ku mai oe i ka hea i ka uwalo, 

Mai hookuli mai oe ; 
460 O ke kama hanau 

O ka leo kai lele aku la i waho, 

Kai noa iwaho ka paio, 

Pale aku la ilaila ; 

Hoi mai i ka hale liliia, 
465 Mehe leo la ko ka aha, 

Ke kaunuia la ka moena, 

Ke kapa me ka aahu, 

Ke hea wale la i ka uluna — e — 

Aole ia he kanaka. 
470 maua no na kanaka. 



Ao ole i like i ka Hala wili, 
Ke naio laau kekee, 
Ka aukaahihi ku makua ole, 
Ke kawakawa i keekeehia, 
475 Ka hinahina i ka makani 

Hele ana e hio, e hina la — 
Aole i like — Ku. 
TJa like paha ka Ohia, 
Ka lehua i ka wao-eiwa, 



382 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE, 

480 Ka laau hao wale Ku i nahelehele, 

Aole i like — Ku. 

Aole i like i ka ekaha, 

I ka ekaha Ku i ka moena, 

Me ke kiele, me ke ala, 
485 Me ka Olapa lau kahuli, 

Me ka pua mauu kuku, 

Hina wale — hina wale la — 
Aole i like — Ku. 

Aole i like i ka naulu, 
490 la ua hoohali kehau, 

Mehe ipu wai i ninia la, 

Na hau Kumomoku ; 

Kekee na hau Leleiwi, 

Oi ole ka oe i ike 
495 I ka hau kuapuu. 

Kekee noho kee, Kaimohola, 

Kanehili i Kaupea — la — 

Aole i like — Ku. 
Aole i like i ka Lipoa, 
500 Ka Nanue, ai a ka ia, 

Ka Lipahapaha "Waimea, 
Ka limu kau i ka laau, 
Ka elemihi ula i ka luna Kaala — la— 
Aole i like — Ku. 
505 Aole i like i Kukui, 

1 Kukui ili puupuu, 
Hi nakaka i ka la, 

Mehe kanaka iuu i ka awa la, 
Ka mahuna Kukui Lihue la, 

510 Aole i like — Ku. 

Aole i like i ke Aalii, 
Ka poho lua laau ala, 
Ka Malie hoe hoi i Maoi, 
Ke Kaluhea o Kawiwi — la, 

515 Aole i like — Ku. 

Aole i like i ke Kokio, 
I ka hahaka pua maoia, 
Ke kahuli pua i ka papa la. 
Aole i like — Ku. 

520 Aole i like i ke Kawau, 

I ke Kalia ku ma ka waha, 
Ai mai ka mahele he kanaka. 
He moku, he au, he aina la, 
Aole i like — Ku. 



APPENDIX, 

525 Aole i like ka Naia, 

I Kona ihu i kihe i ke kai, 

Kona kino i kai ; ka mano — la 
Aole i like — Ku. 

Aole i like i ke hokii, 
530 I ka hawana ai pua Lehua, 

Ka Oo, Manu Kaiona — la 
Aole i like — Ku. 

Aole i like i ka paaa, 

I ka weke lao a ke Akua, 
535 Ka Ulu kanu a Kahai ; 

Oi ole ka oe i ike, 

Ka wahine pau mao 

I ka luna Puuokapolei — la 
Aole i like — Km 
540 Aole i like i ka Wiliwili 

Kona hua i kupee ia 

Ka oiwi ona i hee — a, 

Kona kino i kai o ka nalu la — Heenalu, 
Aole i like — Ku. 
545 Aole i like i ka pa a ka makani, 

E nu ana i ke kuahiwi, 

Kakoo ana ka hale Koolau, 

Lawalawa ana a hina i ka makani, 

Ka mokoi hoolou a ka lawaia, 
550 Ka pa Manaiakalani — la, 

Aole i like — Ku. 

Aole i like i ka Mamaki, 

I ka hialoa maka ka nahele, 

Ka maka kohikohi laalaau ; 
555 Ke a maka-ulii, maka-ehu, 

I ehu i ke alo Kuehu, 

I ke ala ihi, i ke alaloa, 

I ke alaloa e liele ia la — la, 
Aole i like — Ku. 
56c Aole i like i na laki, 

I ka laki-pala Nuuanu, 

I hehe ia e ka ua, e ka makani, 

A helelei, 

Ka laki-pala i ka luna i Waahila la 
565 Aole i like— Ku. 

Aole i like i ka ua o Waahila, 
la makani anu Kahaloa, 

E lu ana i ka pua Kou, 

E kui ana a paa ia, 



383 



384 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

570 E lei ana i ke kai Kapua — ^la, 

Aole i like — Ku. 
Aole i like i ke Kamaniula, 
Ma ke kia ula na nianu — la, 
Me ka pa lei ka hala — la, 

575 Me ke pua ke kaa, 

Lau kani Ku — la 

O Ku no ke Alii 
Aole i like — Ku. 
Aole i like i ka makole, 

580 la laau Kewai nui, 

E hihi ana e ka lihilihi — la 
Aole i like — Ku. 
Ua like ; aia ka kou hoa e like ai, 
Keawe-i-Kekahi-alii-o-ka-moku, 

585 O Keawe, haku Hawaii la. 

He awaawa hoi ko ke kai, 
He mananalo hoi ka wai, 
He welawela hoi ko ka la, 
He mahana hoi ko kuu ili 

590 No kuu kane Nininini ke wai 

Pulele la. Ua like ? 

Aolo i like — Ku. 
Aole i like nei Lani, 

1 ka hoohalikelike wale mai ; 
595 He kanaka ia, 

He Akua Ku, 
He ulele Ku mai ka lani, 
He haole Ku mai Kahiki, 
He mau kanaka ia eha, 

600 Ewalu hoi nei kanaka, 

O Ku, Lono, Kane, Kanaloa, 
Kane-makaiahuawahine, 
Haihaipuaa, Kekuawalu — la, 
Ua like. 

605 Kona la, ua wela ka papa, 

Ua ku ke ehu o ka la, 
Ua wela ka hua Unulau, 
Kalanipipili, Hoolilo, 
E a'e e puka ae ka la, 

610 Ka mana o Ku-leonui, 

Haawiia piai ai ka la 
Mahana ai na Lii aua Kona. 

Following is the English translation. 



( 385 ) 



THE CHAKT OF KUALII. 

A messenger sent by Maui to bring, 
To bring Kane and his company, 
(Him) and Kanaloa, and (to bring) Kauakahi, 
(Him) and Maliu. 
5 To praise and to offer, to offer up prayer, 

To offer and decree the fortune of the chief. 
The great fish-hook of Maui, 
Manaiakalani, 

(And) its line, naturally twisted is the string that ties 
the hook, 
lo Engulfed is the lofty Kauwiki, 

(Where) Hanaiakamalama (dwelt). 
The bait was the Alae of Hina, 
Let down upon Hawaii, 
The sacred tangle, the painful death, 
15 Seizing upon the foundation of the earth, 
Floating it up to the surface of the sea. 
(But) Hina hid the wing of the Alae, 
Broken up was the table of Laka, 
Carried away below (was the bait) to Kea ; 
20 The fishes ate it, the Ulua of the deep muddy places. 
Luaehu, child of Pimoe, eh Kalani eh ! 
O Hulihonua the husband, 
O Keakahulilani the wife. 
' O Laka the husband, Kapapaiakele the wife. 
25 Kamoolewa the husband, 

O Nanawahine his wife. 
O Maluakapo the husband, 
O Lawekeao the wife. 
O Kinilauamano the husband, 
30 O Upalu the wife. 

O Halo the husband, Koliiewalu the wife. 
O Kamanonokalani the husband, 
Kalanianoho the wife. 
O Kamakaoholani the husband, 
35 O Kahuaokalani the wife. 

Keohokalani the husband, 
O Kaamookalani the wife. 
O Kaleiokalani the husband, 
Kaopuahihi the wife. 
VOL. II. 2 B 



386 THE POLYNESIAN RACE, 

40 Kalalii the husband, 

O Keaomele the wife. 

Haule the husband, Loaa the wife. 

O Nanea the husband, Walea the wife. 

Nananuu the husband, Lalohana the wife. 
45 O Lalokona the husband, 

Lalohoaniani the wife. 

O Hanuapoiluna the husband, 

O Hanuapoilalo the wife. 

O Pokinikini the husband, 
50 O Polehulehu the wife. 

O Pomanomano the husband, 

O Pohakoikoi the wife. 

O Kupukupunuu the husband, 

O Kupukupulani the wife. 
55 O Kamoleokahonua the husband, 

O Keaaokahonua the wife. 

O Ohemoku the husband, Pinainai the wife. 

O Makulu the husband, Hiona the wife. 

O Milipomea the husband, 
60 Hanahanaiau the wife. 

O Hookumukapo the husband, 

O Hoao indeed the wife. 

Lukahakona the husband, 

Niau the wife. 
65 Kahiko the husband, 

O Kupulanakehau the wife. 

O Wakea the husband, Papa the wife. 

Born to that chief was a great purple fowl — 
A chief was Pineaikalani, your grandfather. 
70 The chief begat a chief ; 

Prolific he was, abundantly ; 
Intertwined is the seed of the chief ; 
Towering up on high 
Is the rank of the dreaded chief. 
75 A chief ascending, pushing, breaking through. 

And reaching the solid heaven of the chief. 
Eh ! Ku eh ! (here is) a name, 
If it is you in that place. 

Ku, the axe with heavenly edge ! 
80 Following is the train of clouds after Ku ! 

Drawn (down) is the horizon by Ku. 

The sea of Makalii, the sea of Kaelo, 

The rising sea of Kaulua. 

The month that increases the food of Makalii \ 



APPENDIX. 387 

85 The worm that eats crawling, eats to the very ribs. 

The sea-crab that eats the bones of the shipwrecked, 

That is the father of Niele and Launieniele, 

The people of the water ; 

O Ku, the chief of Kauai. 
90 Kauai with the ragged mountains, • 

Spreading out below is Keolewa ; 

Niihau and its neighbours are drinking the sea, 

Kiki, and those, following Keolewa \ 

Kalaaumakauahi and those, following upwards. 
95 Hawaii ! 

Hawaii with the lofty mountains, 

Shooting up to heaven is Kauwiki ; 

Below is the cluster of islands ; 

In the sea they are gathered up. 
100 Kauwiki ! * 

Kauwiki, mountain bending over, 

Loosened, almost falling, Kauwiki — eh ! — 
Kauai ! 

O Kauai, great and peaceful, 
105 Situated under the lee of Waianae. 

A cape is Kaena, (full of) hala is Kahuku ; 

A mountain ridge reaching up to the cold is Kaala ; 

Waialua is situated below : 

Oh, that is Waialua. 
no Mokuleia, (with its) Kahala fish (and its) gourds, 

(Its) fishpond of sharks to be roasted on coals. 

The tail of the white shark is Kaena, 

The shark stretching away under Kauai eh — 

Below Kauai, my land, 
115 Kauai! 

Ku is travelling to Kauai — eh — 

To see the short-faced Oopu of Hanakapiai. . 

Ku is returning to Oahu — eh, — 

To see the slow-moving Oopu, 
120 The shameful fish of Kawainui, 

Floating about in the water. 

When the Hala is ripe the neck becomes red — eh : 

That is a sign of Ku. 

He has landed now. 
125 Kauai! 

great Kauai, island (filled) with Lehua, 

Island stretching out into the sea. 

Island stretching out towards Kahiki 

Kahiki looking at Wakea, the sun ; 



388 ' THE POLYNESIAN RACE, 

130 Creeping along, Kona stands forth to sight ; 

Lifting up below is Kumnhonua ; 

Shaking is the foundation of Hawaii — akea, 

Pointing to the rising rays of the sun. 

• The sun stands over Kona, Kohala is in darkness. 
135 Kahiki ; for whom is Kahiki? 
For Ku. 

Kahiki, land of the far-reaching ocean, 
Land where Olopana dwelt. 

Within is the land, outside is the sun ; 
140 Indistinct is the sun, and the land, when approaching. 
Perhaps you have seen it % 
I have seen it. 

1 have surely seen Kahiki, 

A land with a strange language is Kahiki. 
14s The men- of Kahiki have ascended up 

The backbone of heaven ; 

And up there they trample indeed, 

And look down below. 

Kanakas (men of our race) are not in Kahiki. 
150 One kind of men is in Kahiki — the Haole (white man) ; 
He is like a god, 
I am like a man, 
A man indeed, 

Wandering about, and the only man who got there. 
155 Passed is the day of Kukahi and the day of Kulua, 

The night of Kukahi and the day of Kulua. 

By morsels was the food ; 

Picking the food with a noise like a bird. 
Listen, bird of victory ! 
160 Hush ! with whom the victory? 

With Ku indeed. 

There is the rain, there is the sun, 

There is the star Hiki-maka-hano, the chief. 

O Kaulukahi the sun, 
165 Kaupukahi the sun ; 

Puna, Hooilo, Hana, Lanakila ; 

The winter season, very bad (has) Pele (become). 

And the wind ; for whom is the wind % 
For Ku indeed. 
170 Blown is the wind of Laamaomao ; 

The gentle breeze of Koolauwahine, the wind from be ow 

Kauai — (as) I have known it ; 

The north-west wind of Wawaenohu, 

The north wind of Niihau ; 



APPENDIX. 389 

175 The Kona is the strong wind ; 

The howling Aoa, a bad wind, 

The wind scattering Kukui blossoms ^ • 

That have been brought by Lonomoku 

And arrested below Hana — eh — . 
180 Such is Koolauwahine below Kauai,] 

"When it is stopped at "Wailua. 

And the stars ; for whom are the stars % 
For Ku indeed. 

Above is the rain of Puanalua, 
185 Reaching up to Kao — Maaiku bringing along 

The drifts of low-hanging clouds. 

Stretching out as eagles are the two twin stars ; 

There is rain in Kona and there is the wind, 

Reaching up to Kao — Maaiku — bringing along 
190 The drifts of low-hanging clouds. 

The rain; for whom is the rain? 
For Ku indeed. 

Low-lying is the rain of Kunaloa ; 

Pattering is the rain on the skin \ 
195 Pelting is the rain of Kananaola ; 

Slippery is Mahiki, it causes (one) to fall ; 

Poured out about is the rain by Hina \ 

Causing (great) fear (when) below Maheleana ; 

The storm-clouds of rain are at Kahalahala ; 
200 The younger children of the rain (the fine rain) 

Are raining on the Lehua (forests). 

The sun ; for whom is the sun \ 
For Ku indeed, 

Comes forth the sun at Kauwiki ; 
205 A humming sound (makes) the sun at Upilialoula; 

Challenging each other are the children 

To hold their breaths at the sun-(set). 

The sun is a net of flowers at Hilo ; 

The back of the sun is turned above ; | 
210 The changing face of the sun flits about below ; 

The comfort of the sun takes eff'ect within ; 

The image of the sun is moving about outside ; 

The heat of the sun is now passing 

Over the land — eh — 
215 And rests upon Lehua. 

The sea j for whom is the sea ? 
For Ku indeed. 

Great is the sea to Kahiki, 

Rippled is the sea by the land 



390 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. 

220 Taken up is the sea in the hand, 

Painted white is the hair by the sea, 

Eeddish (becomes) the hair by the very salt sea, 

Softened is the hair in the great sea, 

Brownish is the hair in the foaming sea. 
225 Delicious is the soup of the (cooked) hog. 

Fat is the soup of the dog, 

Satiating is the soup of the fowl, 

Savoury is the soup of the Anae, 

Strong smelling is the soup of the Palani. 
230 A sea for surf -swimming is Kahaloa, 

A sea for net-fishing is Kalia, 

A sea for going naked is Mamala, 

A sea for swimming is Kapuuone, 

A sea for surf-swimming sideways is Makaiwa, 
235 A sea for catching Anae is Keehi, 

A sea for crabs is Leleiwi, 

A sea of branching crooked harbours is Puuloa, 

A sea for the Nehu eel and the Lala eel 

Is the sea of Ewa, basking in the calm ; 
240 The great Ewa (lands) of Laakona 

Surrounded by the rain of heaven. 

A deceitful sea is Heeia, 

A sea for spearing Hee is Kapapa, 

A sea for nodding is Kualoa, 
245 A sea of heavy surf is Kaaawa, 

A sea for the Ahiu wind is Kahana. 

Let loose was the flood by Paao, 

Seen was Paao in the waterfall, 

Known were the sacred things from below Kona ; 
250 Oh, the sacred things from below Kona, 

A handle, an axe, a cord, a sheath. 

Take it, tie it, wind it around ; 

Cut down the foundations of Kahiki — eh, 

While Hilo is raining. 
255 Contending are the rain-clouds of Maheleana — eh, 

"While it rains on the people. 

There is the rain until it stops ; 

A long day in the wind ; 

Cramped (is he) who is (half-) dead with the rain ; 
260 Mahiki is obstructing the great passage way ; 

There is Mahiki, striking one down. 

O Opukahonua, Lolomu, Mihi, 
Lana the wife, 
Wakea dwelt with Papa, 



APPENDIX, 391 

265 Dwelt with Kananamukumamao 

Eorn was the Naupaka 

That grows by the sea-shore. 

O Ohikimakaloa the wife, 

O Hoopio, Hulumaniani, 
270 Stood at Kaena (and) were precipitated below. 

O Mehepalaoa, 

Naholo, 

Like the (ever-) rolling sea of Manii, 

Over which the proper guide is Ku. 
275 O Lanipipili, Lanioaka, 

O Lanikahuliomealani, 

O Lono — the rolling thunder. 

O Nakoloailani, 

O Kailolimoana, Waia, 
280 O Hikapoloa, 

O Kapoimuliwaa, 

O Kane, 

O Ahulu Kaaala. 

O Kaneikamakaukau. 
285 Twice ten days I have been with you, Ku — eh ; 

my chief. 
Here is the pearl-shell fish-hook of Kapaau ; 
A man is Wawa-Kaikapua, 
A sugar-cane arrow is Hawi. 
290 Here is the torch-lighter of Kukuipahu, 
The woman with the red mouth, 
"Who eats the sea-eggs of Makakuku. 
Here is the man who climbs the mountains, 
The ladder of Nanualolo, 
295 The child catching birds — eh — 

Reaching up the bird-catching pole on Lehua. 

Kuku, Aa, Naio. 

Haulanuiakea, the axe ; Hinaimanau, 

O Paepae, 
300 O Manau the wife. 

Born was the Naenae who dwells on the mountain, 

The Hinihini chirping on the hillsides, 

(Fed with) crumbs on the first division of the canoe ; 
Molokai that has been torn in sunder, 
305 Deserted by Kanaloapuna, 
Kanaloa and Waia ; 

It is death to go landward, death to go seaward. 
Suffering by headache is Luukia, 
Qualmish from her pregnancy 



392 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE, 

310 From her pregnancy witli tlie cliild, 

Born is the tangled leie in the forest, — 
O Makaaulii is its wife, — 
Born is the Lupua and the Lanlama, 
Placed on the stomach of Lono, — 
315 Kapolei was the wife, — 

O Kukaikai 'na behind the spider, 
O Kukonaihoae, Ku, 
O the rising sea, 

As if the sea were dancing for Ku. 
320 Here is the woman sent in haste 

To spreak the dirt of Keaau. 
(With) a calabash of mixed dirt. 
(Straight) as a sugar-cane leaf is the road ; 
Here is the travelling company \ 
325 The great road of the people. 

Mixed is the dirt of Mahiki, 
Beaten up by the feet. 
O Kapapaiakea, 

O the roaring surf of angry feelings, 
330 O Kauhihii his wife ; 

Born was Koawaa of the muddy places, 
Fashioned was the bowl for the billowy sea ; 
Fashioned was Hinakapeau ; 
Thus was obtained Ukinohunohu, 
335 Ukinaopiopio, 

O Moakueanana, 
O Kalei, 
O Keelikoha, 

O the god with the downcast eyes, 
340 O the turned-up (eyes of) Kahualewa ; 
Gathering Lipoa is Kanamuakea j 
O the wide sea, 
the open ocean, 
O Hulukeeaea, 
345 O Hauii, Hauee, 

O Hauii-nui the swift running, 
O Hauii the sea-encircling, 
Sea where your girdle is put on, Ku. 
When Ku puts on his girdle of war, you are humbled ; 
350 He has scattered the oven like the (rush of) a watercourse ; 
He is the picker of bird feathers, 
(Of birds) lighting on the flowers of Haili, 
The young ones watching the flowers, 
The multitude of flowers below. 



APPENDIX, 393 

355 Here is the woman gathering flowers 

Stringing flowers, making garlands, putting on the flowers 

of Paiahaa, 
So as to drive away the spirits 
And destroy the solitude of Apua. 
Fallen has the wind, it is sleeping — eh — 
360 Resting is the wind, sleeping indeed — eh — 
On the flats of Kukalaula. 

O Uliuli, Maihea, 

O Kahakapolani the wife, 

Kaukeano, Mehameha, 
365 O dark is the heaven by the storm, 

Stormy is the heaven, noisy is the earth, 

Because of the labour-pains of the chief. 

Trembling, crying, struggling. 

Travailing, shrinking (at the touch), 
370 Lowering were the clouds in the month of Hinaia- 

eleele. 

Bom was the Maua (tree) standing in the forest, 

Bom was the Ouou (bird), singing on the hillsides j 

Brought forth is the child. 

It stands before the face of the travailing (mother), 
375 A chief of warriors for the king — a battle — 

A bloody battle ; Ku indeed is the chief, 

A battle for Ku, 

Fought on the heights of Kawaluna. 

Where, where was the field 
380 (On which) the warriors fought ? 

Lo ! the field is at Kalena ; 

Scattered about, overflowing, 

Poured out is the godly fluid 

By your work at Malamanui, 
385 Above Kapapa, at Paupauwela, 

At Hilinai (and) at Kalele. 

The Hala trees of Halahalanui-maanea, 

The upland Ohia trees, the strange prayer 

The spirit of Lono (and) of Makalii, 
390 The fragrant branch of XJkulonoku. 

For Kona perhaps, for Lihue. 

For the day at Maunauna, 

For the waters at Paupauwela, 

That Haalilo's name may flourish at Nepee, 
395 All the scourging of Aui. 

Enter the priests to dress the idol ; 

Ku is putting on his feather cloak \ 



394 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE. 

The rainbow (stands) in the heaven ; 
The sun is over Kauakahi's mansion ; 
400 Eeddish are the leaves of the Mamane tree ; 

And the Koaie tree of Kauai ; 
The long grass has been removed by"Ku, 
The waving (grass) of Kamaile ; 
The toppling surf of Maihiwa ; 
405 Dammed up are the waters at Kalapo, 

Bursting out (are they) below Eleu, 
Drawn away are the rain-clouds and dried up, in 

the sky, 
Like a great land-slide from the hills, 
The falling of Hilo upon Puna, 
410 Here in eEiIo — Peahi. 

Red are the waters of Paupauwela, 
• The Kilau of Malamanui, 
The Kilau ridges at Kapapa. 
Comes the report to Haalilo, 
415 That your younger brother has been whipped ; 

Troubled (broken up) is the mind of Haalilo ; 
At the quarrelling of the priests with Ku ; 
For the want of sympathy with Ku, 
"With the son of Haalilo. 
420 Here is the Malanai-haehae, 
Descendant of Niheu-kalohe, 
The water-dam of Kekuuna, 
A prodigy here among the people. 
He is tying up his clothing, 
425 He is swinging about his weapons, 
The bundle of daggers ; 
Here is Haalilo — eh ! — 

Ku indeed is the chief. 
Love to the Kukui trees wafting the voices of Paoa ; 
430 Shattered are the buds of the withered Hima, 
Wilted in the month of Makalii ; 
In Makalii blossoms the Koolau plant, 
"Wet with the dew of Maemae. 
Faintly comes the sound of the sea below, 
435 Heard only (perhaps as far as) at Malamanui, 
Where Ku ate the potato, 

Covered (in baking) with the sweet Kupukupu of Lihue. 
Rising are bitter thoughts in the mind of Ku — eh — 
They are born and with the chief they rest. 
440 Ku indeed is the chief. 

A bunch of Hala blossoms for Ku at Kamakoa ; 



APPENDIX. 395 

While Ku was leaping down the pali 

Ku nearly perished in the fire ; 

"What could have been your fault, Ku 
445 (Was it) the cutting down of the trees, 

The girdling on of the woman's garment. 

The throwing down of the spear 

That belongs to Ku and is his companion 

In the storm and in the sunshine % 
450 Ku is reducing to powder the scales of the rock ; 

Ku draws life from the bowl of Lono, 

From the bowl of Kupaka. 

Ku indeed' is the chief. 

O Kailua with the hot and desolating wind, 
455 The wind (coming over) from the south; 

Eeeble is the voice that is caUing out for help ; 

When that one is caUing the winds are answering ; 

Stand up at the call, at the cry ; 

Don't you turn a deaf ear, 
460 The child is born. 

The sound has gone forth abroad j 

Surely the struggle is outside, 

And there is the dehvery. 

Eetum to the hated house ; 
465 Vociferous becomes the company ; 

Provoked to anger is the mat. 

The covering cloth and the dress ; 

He calls in vain to the pillow — eh — . 

He is not a man ; 
470 We too are the men. 

Not like the twisted Hala, 

(Nor) the crooked Naio tree, 

(Nor) the Ahihi standing motherless inland, 

(Nor) the deep pools trodden (by bathers), 
475 (Nor) the Hinahina in the wind, 

Moving, leaning, falling ; 

Not like these (is) Ku. 

Perhaps like the Ohia, 

(Like) the Lehua on the mountain side, 
480 (Like) the big trees standing in the jungle ; 
Not like these (is) Ku. 

Not like the Ekaha fern. 

The Ekaha put on to mats, 

With the Kiele, with the Ala, 
485 With the Olapa of the changing leaves, 



396 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE, 

With the flower of the Kuku grass, 

Falling hither, falling thither. 

Not like these (is) Ku. 

Not like the Naulu (shower), 
490 The rain that brings the land breeze, 

Like a water-bowl that has been poured out, 

The land breezes of Kumomoku, 

The land breezes coming round to Leleiwi. 

Truly, have you not known 
495 The mountain breezes, that double your back up, 

(That make you) sit crooked and cramped, the Kaimohala, 

The Kanehili at Kaupea % 

Not like these (is) Ku. 

Not like the Lipoa seaweed, 
500 (Or) the Nanue weed, food for fishes, 

(Or) the Lipahapaha weed from Waimea, 

(Or) the weed that clings to the trees, 

(Or) th^ red crab on the top of Kaala. 
Not like these (is) Ku. 
505 Not like the Kukui tree. 

The Kukui with the rough bark. 

Bark that is cracking in the sun, 

Like (the skin of) a man drinking awa ; 

The scaly-(barked) Kukui tjees of Lihue. 
510 Not like these (is) Ku. 

Not like the Aalii tree, 

(Or) the Poholua, sweet-scented tree, 

(Or) the Maile, causing one to pant on Maoi, 

(Or) the flowering Kaluhea from Kawiwi. 
515 Not like these (is) Ku. 

Not like the Kokio tree, 

With the many branches and wilted flowers, 

Dropping the flowers on the ground. 
Not like these (is) Ku. 
520 Not like the Kawau tree, 

(Or) the Kalia (which), placed in the mouth, 

Consumes into morsels the people. 

The island, the district, the land. 
Not like these (is) Ku. 
525 Not like the porpoise 

With his nose that spouts up the sea. 

While his body is in the sea, (and) the shark. 
Not like these (is) Ku. 

Not like one with the asthma, 
530 The wheezing (bird) that eats the Lehua blossoms ; 



APPENDIX. 397 

The Oo, bird of Kaiona. 

Not like these (is) Ku. 

Not like the rind of the banana, 

(Or) the tattered sugar-cane leaves of the gods, 
535 (0^) ^^® breadfruit tree planted by Kahai ; 

Truly, have you not known . 

The woman with the faded garment 

On top of Puuokapolei % 

Not like these (is) Ku. 
540 Not like the Wiliwili tree, 

Of whose fruit bracelets are made, 

"Whose trunk is gliding away, 

"Whose body is in the sea of the rollers surf-riding. 
Not like these (is) Ku. 
545 Not like the blast of the wind 

Moaning over the hill-tops. 

Causing to be tied down the houses in Koolau, 

Fastened down lest they fall by the wind ; 

The tricky hook of the fisherman, 
550 The fish-hook of Manaiakalani. 
Not like these (is) Ku. 

Not like the Mamaki shrub, 

"With its long tangling shoots in the forests, 

The choicest buds of all shrubs ; 
555 With its fine mesh-like covering 

Like spray of the surf on the breast of Kuehu, 

On the sacred road, on the long road. 

On the long road that must be travelled (by all). 
Not like these (is) Ku. 
560 Not like the leaves of the Ti plant, 

(Or) the leaves of the "Wiliwili in Nuuanu, 

Which wilt in the rain and the wind 

And fall off. 

The Wiliwili leaves on the top of Waahila. 
565 Not like these (is) Ku. 

Not like the rain of Waahila, 

(And) the cold wind of Kahaloa, 

Scattering the Kou blossoms 

That have been strung and fastened up, 
570 And worn as wreaths on the sea of Kapua. 
Not like these (is) Ku. 

Not like the Kamaniula tree. 

The bright catcher of birds, 

(Or) like the garlands of Hala nuts, 
575 (0^) ^^® t-^® blossoms of the Kaa vine, 



398 THE POL YNESIAN RA CE, 

The musical (singing) leaves of Ku. 
For Ku is the chief. 
Not like these (is) Ku. 

Kot like the Makole tree, 
580 That tree of great moisture, 

Which gathers thick on the eyelashes. 
Not like these (is) Ku. 

He is like ; here is thy mate, thy equal, 

O Keawe-i-Kekahi-alii-o-ka-moku, 
585 O Keawe, Lord of Hawaii. 

Bitter is the salt water, 

Sweet is the fresh water, 

Very hot is the sun. 

Warm is my skin, 
590 From my husband, Nininini (comes) the water. 

OPulele,— Isitlike? 

Not like these (is) Ku. 

Not like these is the chief, 

Under any comparison. 
595 That was a man, 

A god is Ku, 

A messenger is Ku from heaven, 

A Haole (foreigner) is Ku from Kahiki, 

He is (equal to) four men, - 
600 Yes (to) eight men ; — 

Ku, Lono, Kane, Kanaloa, 

O Kane-maikai-ahua-wahine, 

Haihaipuaa, Kekuawalu la. 
To these he is like. 
605 There is Kona, hot is its surface, 

Eises the steam from (the heat of) the sun, 

Warmed are the offspring of Unulau, 

The rainy season and the winter. 

Ascending, coming forth is the sun, 
6 1 o The glory of great- voiced Ku ; 

Given (to us) is the sun. 

To warn the selfish chiefs of Kona. 

Notes. — Verses 1-6 contain the in- referred to in the first portion of this 

troduction, or invocation, to the great volume. 

gods acknowledged by the composers Verses 7-21 give the Hawaiian ver- 

of the chant. It will be noticed that sion of the southern legend of how 

even so late as KualiVs time the the earth was fished up from the 

original Hawaiian gods, '■^ Kane and ocean by the demigod Maui, The 

his company," i.e., Ku and Lono^ hook was called Manaiakalani ; it 

took the lead of the southern gods, was baited with the Alae, the mud- 

Kanaloa, Kauakahi, and Maliu, in- hen sacred to ITina, the daughter or 

troduced during the migratory period wife of KanaloUy who hid one of the 



APPENDIX. 



399 



•wings of the bird and thus defeated 
the purpose of Maui, so that *' the 
table of Laka "—the bottom of the 
sea — was broken up into pieces and 
only came to the surface in the shape 
of islands. Verse lo. — *' Lofty Kau- 
wiki" refers to a prominent hill in 
the district of Hana, island of Maui, 
where Hanaiakamalama, the reputed 
mother of the Hawaiian Maui, dwelt. 
The introduction of "Kauwiki " and 
"Hanaiakamalama" in this connec- 
tion shows the confusion in which 
the legend had fallen at this time, 
and the attempts of Hawaiian bards 
and priests to localise a notoriously 
southern legend on Hawaiian soil. 
Verse 15. — " Nonononuiakea," the 
great wide place full of holes or gulfs 
— Poet. : the very foundation of the 
earth, the sea bottom. 

Verses 22-67 contain the celebrated 
" Kuauhau Kumuuli," the Kumuuli 
genealogy, referred to in vol. L p. 
184. 

Verses 82-83.— The months of " Ma- 
kalii, Kaelo, and Kaulua" were noted 
for high tides, '* Kaikoo," and rough 
seas. According to the generally 
received Hawaiian calendar, these 
months would correspond to January, 
February, and March. The reference 
to the " Poko " worm, which generally 
appears in the months of February 
and March, shows that the most 
ancient mode of computing the year 
was followed in this chant. At the 
same time there were other modes of 



computing in vogue both on Oahu 
and elsewhere on the group, some 
making the year commence at the 
vernal equinox, and calling "Welehu" 
the first month of the year; while 
others, commencing at the same time, 
called " Nana" the first month of the 
year. 

Verse 117. — "Oopu," a small fish 
found in ponds and streams. 

Verses 137-161. — The import of this 
portion of the chant has already been 
commented on, p. 285. 

Verse 170. — " Laamaomao " was the 
Hawaiian jEolus who kept the winds 
imprisoned in his calabash or "ipu." 

Verse 185.—'^ Kao-Maaiku." Kao 
was the Hawaiian name for the star 
Antares in the horns of the constella- 
tion Taurus. ' ' Alaaeku ' ' is evidently 
an epithet and a compound word, 
though its exact meaning has now 
been forgotten. 

Verse 187. — "Na hoku mahana." 
The twin stars; referring to Castor 
and Pollux, also known by the name 
of "Nana-mua" and "Nana-hope." 

Verse 196.— "Alahiki." The road 
from Waimea to AVaipio on Hawaii. 

Verse 243. — "Hee," the squid. 

Verses 263-284. — Names of Auma- 
kuas or deified ancestors. 

Verses 328-347. — Names of more 
Aumakuas. 

Verses 362-365. — Still more Auma- 
kuas. 

Verses 378-419. — Describing the 
battles of Kualii with the Ewa chiefs. 



THE END. 



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ments, both in themselves and in tneir mutual relations." — Scotsman. 

" Although it is only a few years since Lange's book was originally published, it 
already ranl^s as a classic in the philosophical literature of Germany. He was not only a 
man of vast learning, but had a very rare {)ower both of analy.«is and generalisation ; and 
his style is singularly clear, strong, and graceful. Nominally only a history of materialism, 
it is in reality very much more. It takes in the whole development of pliilosophical 



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opinion, but with especial reference to materialism. So far as he has proceeded, Mr. 
Thomas ha-< done his work witli great spirit and intelligence. We have tested the trans- 
lation at different points, and have alwa^'s found tliat, it reflects the original freely and 
accurately. "—Paii Mull Gazette. 

" Evei-y section of Dr. Lange's work is followed by a copioiis body of notes, abounding 
in references to autliorities, aud bearing ample testimony to the extensive reading of the 
author." — Saturday Revieto. 

"We see no reason for not endorsing the translator's judgment that it is raised far 
above the level of ordinary controversial writing by its thoroughness, comprehensiveness. 
and impartiality." — Contemporary Review. 

"Tlie 'English and Foreign Philosophical Librarj' ' could not be more worthily 
inaugurated than by a translation of Lange's great work. " — Mind. 



Vol. IV.] Post 8vo, pp. xii. — 362, cloth, price 10s. 6d. 

NATURAL LAW : An Essay in Ethics. 

By EDITH SIMCOX. 

Second Edition. 

" Miss Simcox deserves cordial recognition for the excellent work she has done in 
vindication of naturalism, and especially for the high nobility of her ethical purpose." — 
Athenceuin. 

" A book which for the rest is a mine of suggestion." — Academy. 

"The writer's highest skill is seen in bringing together aspects of ideas which limit 
one another, and even seem to contiict, in elucidating the paradoxical side of accepted 
propositions, and embodying acute perceptions in elaborate epigrammatic periods." — 
Sxaviiner. 

" This thoughtful and able work is in many respects the most important contribution 
yet made to the ethics of the evolution theory." — Mind. 



Vols. V. VI.] In Two Volumes, post 8vo, pp. 268 and 288, cloth, price 15s. 
THE CREED OF CHRISTENDOIVE : 

ITS FOUNDATIONS CONTRASTED WITH ITS SUPERSTRUCTURE. 
By W. B. GREG. 
Sixth Edition, with a New Introduction. 
"Professional reproaches against a book po manly and modest, so evidently truth- 
loving, so high-minded and devout, as this of Mr. Gteg's, are but a melancholy imbecility. 
.... No candid reader of the ' Creed of Christendom ' can close the book without the 
secret acknowledgment that it is a moiiel of honest investigation and clear exposition, 
conceived in the true spirit of serious an<i faithful research." — Westviinster Revieio. 

"This work remains a monument of his industry, his high literary power, his clear 
intellect, and his lesolute desire to arrive at the truth. In its present shape, witli its 
new introduction, it will be still more widely read, and more warmly welcomed by those 
who believe that in a contest between Truth and Error, Truth never can be worsted." — 
Scotsman. 

Vol. VII.] Second Edition. Post 8vo, pp. xix. — 249, cloth, price 7s. 6d. 
OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF RELIGION 

TO THE SPREAD OF THE UNIVERSAL RELIGIONS. 

By C. P. TIELB, 
Dr. Theol., Professor of the History of Religions in the University of Leiden. 

Translated from the Dutch by J. EsTLiN Carpenter, M.A. 

" Few books of its size contain the result of so much wide thinking, able and laborious 
study, or enable the reader to gain a better bird's-eye view of the latest results of inves- 
tigations into the reliizious history of nations. As Professor Tiele modestly saj's, ' In this 
little book are ontlines — pencil sketches, I might say — nothiny more.' But there are 
.some men whose sketches from a thumb-nail are of far more woi th than an enormous 
canvas covered with the crude painting of others, and it is easy to see that these pages, 
full of information, these sentences, cut and perhaps also dry, short and clear, condense 
the fruits of long and thorough research." — Scotsman. 

"To us the value of the book seems to consist in the condensed statement of what is 
certainly known of all the chief religions of the world up to the rise of Buddhism, Chris- 
tianity, Islam, which are qualilied as tunversal religions; and the opportunity which it 
thus affords 10 the student of making origiial and more minute investigations from a 
starting-point of unquestioned fact," — Theological Review. 



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Vol. VIII.] Post 8vo, pp. 276, cloth, 7s. 6d. 

RELIGION IN CHINA: 

Containing a Brief Account of the Three Religions of the Chinese, with 

Observations on the Prospects of Cliristian Conversion 

amongst that People. 

By JOSEPH BDKINS. D.D.. Peking. 

"We confidently recommend a careful perusal of the present work to all intereste<i 

in this great subject." — London and China Express. 

" Dr. Edkins has been most careful in no ing the varied and often complex phases of 
opinion, so as to give an account of considei-able value of the subject." — Scotsman. 



Vol. IX.] 



Post 8vo, pp. 216, cloth, 7s. 6d. 



A CANDID EXAMINATION OF THEISM. 

By PHYSICUS. 

" An essay of marked ability that does not belie its title." — Mind.i 

" On the whole a candid, acute, an i honest attempt to work out a problem which is 
of vast and perpetual interest." — Scotsman. 

" It is impos-ible to go through this work withont forming a very high opinion of his 
speculative and argumentative powcf, and a sincere respect for his temperance of state- 
ment and his diligent endeavour to make out the best case he can for the views lie rejects." 
— Academy. 

" This is a telling contribution to the question of questions. The author has pushed 
a step further than any one before him the bearing of modern science on the doctrine of 
Theism." — Examiner. 

Vol. X.] Post 8vo, pp. xii. — 282, cloth, los. 6d. 

THE COLOUR SENSE : Its Origin and Development. 

AN ESSAY IN COMPARATIVE: PSYCHOLOGY. 
By QRANT ALLEN, B.A., Author of "Physiological Esthetics." 
" The book is attractive throughout, for its object is pursued with an earnestness and 
singleness of purpose which never fail to maintain the interest of the Tea.d.Qr."— Saturday 
Heview. 

"A work of genuine research and bold originalit j."—Westminstei' Review. 
"All these subjects are treated in a very thorough manner, with a wealth of illustra- 
tion, a clearness of style, and a cogency of reasoning, which make up a most attractive 
volume. " — Nature. 



Vol. XI.] Post 8vo, pp. 336, cloth, los. 6d. 

THE PHILOSOPHY OF MUSIC. 

BEING THE SUBSTANCE OF 

A COURSE OF LECTURES 

Delivered at thk Royal Institution of Great Britain, 

IN February and March 1877. 

By WILLIAM POLE, Mus. Doc. Oxon. 

Fellow of the Royal Societies of London and Edinburgh ; one of the Examiners in Music 

to the University of Loudon. 

The great and justly celebrated work recently published by Professor Helmholtz, of 
Berlin, "The Doctrme of the Perception of Musical Sounds, considered as a Physiological 
Basis for tlie Tlieory of Alusic," consists of two parts, which nmy be called the Physical 
and the Musical Parts respectively. Tlie firmer, containing tlie author's novel investi- 
gations and discoveries in the domains of Acoustics, has been already made t'atniliar in 
this country by popular illustrative works; but the latter portion, which is the more 
inteiesting to tlie musical public, as containing the philosophical application of these 
investigations and discoveries to the Science of Music, has received, as yet, but little 
attention, and can only be studied in the elaborate form in which it exists in the author's 
treatise. 

Tlie object of the present publication is to explain the Philosophical Theory of Music, 
as based on Helmholtz's investigations, in a way which, it is hoped, will be intelligible 
to practical musicians, and to such of the general public as take an interest in the art. 
And it is thought that such an introduction to the subject m;iy be particularly usefid at 
the present time, when the Universities are beginning to insi-t on theoretical knowledge 
as an indispensable qualifieatiou for the musical honours granted by them. 



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VOLS.I.-II.] EXTRA SERIES. 

Two Volumes, post 8vo, pp. 348 and 374, with Portrait, cloth, 218. 

LESSING : His Life and Writings. 

By JAMBS SIME, M.A. 
Second Edition. 

"It is to Lessiner that an Englishman would turn with readiest affection. We cannot 
but wonder that more of this man is not known amongst us." — Thomas Carltle. 

" But to Mr. James Sime has been reset ved the honour of presenting to tl-.e Eng^lish 
public a full-length portrait of Lessing, in whicla no portion of the canvas is uncovered, 
and in wliich there is hardly a touch but tells. He has studied his subject with that 
patient care which only revert nee and sympathy can support; he lias attained the true 
proportion which can alone be gained by peiietraticm and clear insight into motive and 
purpo.ses. We can say that a clearer or more comp^ict piece of biographic criticism has 
not been produced in England for many a day." — Westminster Review. 

" An account of Lessing's life and work on ihe scale which he deserves is now for the 
first time oflfered to English readers. Mr. Sime has performed liis task with industry, 
knowledge, and sympathy ; qualities which must concur to make a successful biogra- 
pher."— Pa» Mall Gazette. 

" Tins is an admirable book. It lacks no quality that a biography ought to have. Its 
method is excellent, its theme is profoundly interesting : its tone is the hapuiest mixture 
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closes it with regret, the critic must own that it is not a page too short." — Standard. 

"He has given a life of Lessinsr clear, interesting, and full, while he has given a 
study of his writings which bears distinct marks of an intimate acquaintance with his 
gubject, and of a solid and appreciative judgment." — Scotsman. 



Vol. III.] Vol. I., post Svo, pp. 264, cloth, price 7s. 6d. 

AN ACCOUNT OF THE POLYNESIAN RACE : 

ITS ORIGIN AND MIGRATIONS, 

AND THE ANCIENT HISTORY OF THE HAWAIIAN PEOPLE TO THE TIMES OF 

KAMEHAMEHA I. 

By ABRAHAM FORNANDER, Circuit Judge of the Island of Maui, H.I. 

•'Mr. Fomander has evidently enjoyed excellent opportunities for promoting the 

study which has produced this work. Unlike most foreign residents in Polynesia, he has 

acquired a good knowledge of the language spoken by the people among whom he dwelt. 

This has en-ibled liim, during his thirty-four years' residence ni the Hawaiian Islands, to 

collect materitil which could be obtained only by a person possessintr such an advantage. 

It is so Seldom that a private settler in the Polynesian Islands takes an intelligent interest 

in local ethnology and archjeology, and makes use of the advantage he posse-^ses, that 

we feel especially thanicful to Mr. Fornander for his labours in this comparatively little 

known field of research." — Academy. 



Vols. IV., V.] In Two Volumes, post Svo, pp. viii. — 408 ; viii. — 402, cloth. 

ORIENTAL RELIGIONS, 

AND THEIR RELATION TO UNIVERSAL RELIGION. 
By SAMUEL JOHNSON. 

/yy\^ I.— INDIA. 



Vol. VI.] Vol. II., post Svo, pp. 408, cloth, price los. 6d. 

AN ACCOUNT OF THE POLYNESIAN RACE : 

ITS ORIGIN AND MIGRATIONS, 

AND THE ANCIENT HISTORY OF THE HAWAIIAN PEOPLE TO THE TIMES OF 
KAMJlHAMEHA L 
By ABRAHAM FORNANDER, Circuit Judge of the Island of Maui, H.I. 



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