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Full text of "An account of the voyages undertaken by the order of His present Majesty for making discoveries in the Southern Hemisphere, and successively performed by Commodore Byron, Captain Wallis, Captain Carteret, and Captain Cook, in the Dolphin, the Swallow, and the Endeavour: drawn up from the journals which were kept by the several commanders, and from the papers of Joseph Banks, esq.;"

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Darlington Memorial Library 

[ A N 







Difcoveries in the Southern Hemifphere, 

And fucceffively performed by 


la the DOLPHIN, the S WALLOW, and the ENDE AV O URr 

From the Journals which were kept by the feveral Commanders, 
And from the Papers of JOSEPH BANKS, Efqj 



Illuftrated with CUTS, and a great Variety of CHARTS and MAPS relative oe 
Countries now full difcovered, or hitherto but impwfe&ly known. 



Printed for W. STRAHAN; and T. CADELL in the Strand, 


O F T H E 


■ . 



Range from Cape Turnagain fouthivard along the eajlern Coajl of 
Poenammoo, round Cape South, and back to the wefern Entrance 
of Cook's Streight, which completed the Circumnavigation of this 
Country ; with a Defcription of the Coaf, and of Admiralty Bay : 
The Departure from New Zealand, and various Particulars. 41J 


A general Account of New Zealand: its frjl DiJ cover y, Situation, 
Extent, Climate, and Productions. 43/ 


A Defcription of the Inhabitants, their Habitations, Apparel, Orna- 
ments, Food, Cookery, and Manner of Life. 446 


Of the Canoes and Navigation of the Inhabitants of Neva Zealand ; 
their Tillage, Weapons, and Mufc ; Government, Religion, and 

A 2 Language: 


Language i With fame Reafons againjl the Exijlence of a Southern 
Continent. 46 


G H A P. I. 

The Run from New Zealand to Botany Bay, on the Eafi Coaji of New 
Holland, now called New South Wales-, various Incidents that 
happened there j iv ith fame Account of the Country and its Inha- 
bitants. 4 3j 


The Range from Botany Bay to Trinity Bay; with a farther Account 
of the Country, its Inhabitants, and Productions. r ? 


dangerous Situation of the Ship in her Courfe from Trinity Bay u 
Endeavour River. $** 


Tranf actions while the Ship was refitting in Endeavour River: A 
Defcription of the adjacent Country, its Inhabitants, and Pro- 
ductions. 557 


Departure from Endeavour River ; a particular Defcription of the 
Harbour there, in which the Ship was refitted, the adjacent Coun- 
try, andfeveral IJlands near the Codfi : the Range from Endeavour 
River to the Northern Extremity of the Country, and the Dangers 
tf that Navigation. 589 

* The fecond Chapter in this Book, is by miftake numbered IV. 




Departure from Neiv South Wales ; a particular Defcription of the 
Country, its Produtls, and People : A Specimen of the Language, 
andfome Obfervations upon the Currents and Tides. 622 


The Pajfagefrom Neiv South Wales to Neiv Guinea, ivith an Ac- 
count of -what happened upon landing there. 649 


The Pajfagefrom New Guinea to the Ifland of Savu, and the Tranf- 
aclions there. 662 


A particular Defcription of the Ifland of Savu, its Produce and In- 
habitants, ivith a Specimen of their Language. 681 


The Run from the Ifland of Savu to Batavia, and an Account of the 
Tranfaclions there ivhile the Ship ivas reftting. j Q i 


Some Account of Batavia, and the adjacent Country, ivith their 
Fruits, Flowers, and other Produclions. 724 


Some Account of the Inhabitants of Batavia, and the adjacent Coun- 
try, their Manners, Cujloms, and Manner of Life. jaq 


The Pajfagefrom Batavia to the Cape of Good Hope : Some Account 
of Prince's I/land and its Inhabitant s, and a comparative View of 
their Language with the Malay andjavamfg. y6y 




Our Arrival at the Cape of Good Hope ; fome Remarks on the Run 
from Java Head to that Place ; a Defcription of the Cape and of 
Saint Helena : With fome Account of the Hottentots, and the Return 
of the Ship to England. 781 

A N 

A N 


O F A 

VOYAGE round the WORLD, 


Range from Cape Turnagain fouthward along the eaftern 
Coajl of Poenammoo, round Cape South, and back to the 
weflern Entrance of Cook's Streight, which completed 
the Circumnavigation of this Country ; with a Dejcription 
of the Coafj and of Admiralty Bay : The Departure 
from New Zealand, and various Particulars. 


T four o'clock in the afternoon of Friday the 9th of Fe- , 77Cj 



bruary, having tacked, we flood S. W. and continued 
to make fail to the fouthward till funfet on the nth, when c Fr ' day 9 
a frefh breeze at N. E. had carried us back again the length 
of Cape Pallifer, of which as the weather was clear we had 
a good view. Between the foot of the high land and the fea 
there is a low flat border, off which there are fome rocks 
that appear above water. Between this Cape and Cape 
Turnagain, the land near the ihore is, in many places, low 
and flat, and has a green and pleafant appearance ; but far- 
ther from the fea it rifes into hills. The land between 
1 Cape 



1 ebruary. 

Sunday 1 1, 

Cape Pallifer and Cape Tierawitte is high and makes in 
table-points ; it alfo feemed to vis to form two bays, but we 
were at too great a diftance from this part of the coaft, to 
judge accurately from appearances. The wind having been 
variable, with calms, we had advanced no farther by the 
Monday 12. 1 2th at noon than latitude 4.1 ° 52', Cape Pallifer then bearing 
north, diftant about five leagues ; and the fnowy mountain 
S. 8 3 W. 

Tuefday 13. At noon on the 13th, we found ourfelves in the latitude of 
42° 2'S. ; Cape Pallifer bearing N. 20 E. diftant eight leagues. 
In the afternoon, a frelh gale fprung up at N. E. and we 
fleered S. W. by W. for the fouthermoft land in fight, which 
at funfct bore from us S. 74 W. At this time the variation 
was 1 5 4 E. 

wednef. i 4 . At eight o'clock in the morning of the 14th, having run 
one and twenty leagues S. 58 \V. fince the preceding noon, it 
fell calm. We were then abreaft of the fnowy mountain 
which bore from us N. W. and in this direction lay behind 
a mountainous ridge of nearly the fame height, which rifes 
directly from the fea, and runs parallel with the fhore, which 
lies N. E. i N. and S. W. 4 S. The north weft end of the ridge 
rifes inland, not far from Cape Campbell ; and both the 
mountain and the ridge are diftinctly feen as well from Cape 
Koamaroo as Cape Pallifer : from Koamaroo they are diftant 
two and twenty leagues S. \V. £ S.; and from Cape Pallifer 
thirty leagues \V. S. W. ; and are of a height fufficient to be 
feen at a much greater diftancc. At noon this day, we were 
in latitude 42°34'S. The fouthermoft land in fight bore 
S. \V. ' \V. ; and fome low land that appeared like an ifland, 
and lay clofe tinder the foot of the ridge, bore N. W. by N. 
about five or fix leagues. 

8 ' In 


In the afternoon, when Mr. Banks was out in the boat a *77°- 


mooting, we faw, with our glaffes, four double canoes, hav- < — ^ — # 
ing on board fifty-feven men, put off from that more, and 
make towards him : we immediately made fignals for him 
to come on board; but the fhip, with refpect to him, being 
right in the wake of the fun, he did not fee them. We were 
at a confiderable diilancc from the more, and he was at a 
confiderable diflance from the fhip, which was between hira 
and the more ; fo that, it being a dead calm, I began to be 
in fome pain for him, fearing that he might not fee the ca- 
noes time enough to reach the fhip before they mould get up 
with him: foon after, however, we faw his boat in motion, 
and had the pleafure to take him on board before the Indians 
came up, who probably had not feen him, as their attention 
feemed to be wholly fixed upon the fhip. They came within 
about a Hone's caft, and then flopped, gazing at us with a 
look of vacant aftonifhment : Tupia exerted all his eloquence 
to prevail upon them to come nearer, but without any efFect. 
After furveying us for fome time, they left us, and made 
towards the fhore ; but had not meafured more than half the 
diflance between that and the fhip before it was dark. We 
imagined that thefe people had heard nothing of us, and 
could not but remark the different behaviour and difpofitions 
of the inhabitants of the different parts of this coaft upon 
their firft approaching the vefTeL Thefe kept aloof with a 
mixture of timidity and wonder ; others had immediately 
commenced hoflilities, by pelting us with ftones: the gentle- 
man whom we had found alone, fifiiing in his boat, feemed 
to think us entirely unworthy of his notice ; and fome, al- 
moll without invitation, had come on board with an air of 
perfect confidence and good-will. From the behaviour of 
our laft vifitors, I gave the land from which they had put 
Vol. III. 3 G off, 

Wcdnef. 14 


1770. off, and which, as I have before obferved, had the appear- 
ance of an ifland, the name of Lookers-on. 

At eight o'clock in the evening, a breeze fprung up at S.S.W. 
with which I flretched off fouth eaft, becaufe fome on board 
thought they faw land in that quarter. In this courfe we 

'lTmrfday 1 5. continued till fix o'clock the next morning, when we had 
run eleven leagues, but faw no land, except that which we 
had left. Having flood to the S.E. with a light breeze, which 
veered from the weft to the north, till noon, our latitude by 
obfervation was 42 56' S. and the high land that we were 
abreaft of the preceding noon bore N. N. W. £ W. In the 
afternoon we had a light breeze at N. E. with which we 
fleered weft, edging in for the land, which was diftant about 
eight leagues. At feven in the evening, we were about fix 
leagues from the more, and the fouthermoft extremity of 
the land in fight bore W.S.W. 

Friday 16. At day-break on the 16th, we difcovered land bearing 

S. by W. and feemingly detached from the coaft we were 
upon. About eight, a breeze fprung up, at N. by E. and we 
fleered directly for it. At noon, we were in latitude 43 ° 19S. 
the peak on the fnowy mountain bore N. 20 E. diftant 
twenty-feven leagues ; the fouthern extremity of the land 
we could fee bore weft, and the land which had been difco- 
vered in the morning appeared like an ifland extending from 
S.S.W. to S.W. by W. 7 W. diftant about eight leagues. In 
the afternoon, we flood to the fouthward of it, with a frefh 
breeze at north: at eight in the evening, we had run eleven 
leagues, and the land then extended from S. W. by \V. to 
N. by W. We were then diftant about three or four leagues 
from the neareft fhore, and in this fituation had fifty fathom 
water, with a fine fandy bottom. The variation of the com- 
pafs by this morning's amplitude was i4°3o'E. 



At fun-rife, the next morning, our opinion that the land p 1 ^ - 
we had been ftanding for was an ifland, was confirmed, by ^ — , — -* 

„ , , , n _ _j , Saturday i y. 

our feeing part of the land of Tovy Poenammoo open to the 
weftward of it, extending as far as W. by S. At eight in the 
morning, the extremes of the ifland bore N. 76 \V. and 
N. N. E. 7 E. ; and an opening near the fouth point, which 
had the appearance of a bay or harbour, N. 20 \V. diflant be- 
tween three and four leagues : in this fituation we had thirty- 
eight fathom water with a brown fandy bottom. 

This ifland, which I named after Mr. Banks, lies about five Banks's 


leagues from the coaft of Tovy Poenammoo ; the fouth 
point bears S. 21 \V. from the higheft peak on the fnowy 
mountain, and lies in latitude 43 ° 32' S. and in longitude 
1 8 6° 30' \V. by an obfervation of the fun and moon which 
was made this morning : it is of a circular figure, and about 
twenty-four leagues in compafs: it is fufficiently high to be 
fcen at the diftance of twelve or fifteen leagues, and the land 
has a broken irregular furface, with the appearance rather 
of barrenncfs than fertility ; yet it was inhabited, for we 
law fmoke in one place, and a few draggling natives in 

When this ifland was firft difcovered in the direction of 
S. by W. fome perfons on board were of opinion that they 
alfo faw land bearing S. S. E. and S.E. by E. I was myfelf 
upon the deck at the time, and told them, that in my opinion 
it was no more than a cloud, and that as the fun rofe it 
would diffipate and vanifh. However, as I was determined 
to leave no fubjeet for difputation which experiment could 
remove, I ordered the fhip to be wore, and fleered E. S. E. by 
compafs, in the direction which the land was faid to bear 
from us at that time. At noon we were in latitude 44 7' S. ; 
the fouth point of Banks's Ifland bearing north, diftant five 

2 leagues. 


1770. leagues. By feven o'clock at night we had run eight and 
v_U3!Zj twenty miles, when feeing no land, nor any figns of any, 
Saturday 17. ^ that w hi c h we h a d left, we bore away S. by \V. and con- 
Sunday is. tinued upon that courfe till the next day at noon, when we 
were in latitude 45 16', the fouth point of Banks's Ifland 
bearing N. 6° 30' W. diilant twenty-eight leagues. The va- 
riation by the azimuth this morning was 15 30' E. As no 
figns of land had yet appeared to the fouthward, and as I 
thought that we had flood far enough in that direction to 
weather all the land we had left, judging from the report of 
the natives in Queen Charlotte's Sound, I hauled to the 
weft ward. 

We had a moderate breeze at N.N.W. and N, till eight 
in the evening, when it became unfettled ; and at ten fixed 
at fouth : during the night, it blew with fuch violence that it 
brought us under our clofe reefed topfails. At eight the 

Monday 19. next morning, having run twenty-eight leagues upon a 
W. by N. 4 N. courfe, and judging ourfelves to be to the 
weftward of the land of Tovy Poenammoo, we bore away 
N. W. with a frefh gale at fouth. At ten, having run eleven 
miles upon this courfe, we faw land extending from the 
S. W. to the N. W. at the dillance of about ten leagues, which 
we hauled up for. At noon, our latitude by obfervation was 
44° 38', the fouth eafc point of Bank's Ifland bore N. 58 30' E. 
diftant thirty leagues, and the main body of the land in fight 
W. by N. A head fea prevented us from making much 
way to the fouthward ; at feven in the evening the extremes 
of the land ftretched from S.W. by S. to N. by W. ; and 
at fix leagues from the fhore we had thirty-two fathom wa- 

Toefday 20. ter. At four o'clock the next morning, we flood in for the 

fhore W. by S. and during a courfe of four leagues, our 

depth of water was from thirty-two to thirteen fathom. 

9 When 


When it was thirteen fathom we were but three miles diflant *77 - 

Februa' .-. 

from the fliore, and therefore flood off; its direction is here < .— v 

nearly N. and S. The furface, to the diftance of about five ue ay 2 

miles from the fea, is low and flat ; but it then rifes into hills 

of a confiderable height. It appeared to be totally barren, 

and we faw no figns of its being inhabited. Our latitude, 

at noon, was 44° 44 ; and the longitude which we made 

from Banks's Ifland to this place was 2 22' W. During the 

laft twenty-four hours, though we carried as much fail as 

the fhip would bear, we were driven three leagues to the 


We continued to ftand off and on all this day and the next, Wednef. z». 
keeping at the diftance of between four and twelve leagues 
from the fliore, and having water from thirty-five to fifty- 
three fathom. On the 2 2d, at noon, we had no obfervation, Thurfday2*. 
but by the land judged ourfelves to be about three leagues 
farther north than we had been the day before. At fun-fer, 
the weather, which had been hazey, clearing up, we faw a 
mountain which rofe in a high peak, bearing N. W. by N. ; 
and at the fame time, we faw the land more diftinctly than 
before, extending from N. to S. W. by S. which, at fome dif- 
tance within the coaft, had a lofty and mountainous appear- 
ance. We foon found that the accounts which had been 
given us by the Indians in Queen Charlotte's Sound of the 
land to the fouthward were not true ; for they had told us 
that it might be circumnavigated in four days. 

On the 23d, having a hollow fvvell from the S. E. and ex- Friday^. 
pecting wind from the fame quarter, we kept plying be- 
tween feven and fifteen leagues from the fliore, having 
from feventy to forty-four fathom. At noon, our latitude 
by obfervation was 44° 40' S. and our longitude from Banks's 
ifland i° 31' W. From this time to fix in the evening it was 

Vol. II. 3 H calm ; 


177°- calm -, but a light breeze then fpringing up at E.N.E. we fleered 
i_L^Tj/ S. S. E. all night, edging off from the land, the hollow fwell 
" ay Z3 ' Hill continuing ; our depth of water was from fixty to 
feventy-five fathom. While we were becalmed, Mr. Banks, 
being out in the boat, fhot two Port Egmont hens, which 
were in every refpect the fame as thofe that are found in 
great numbers upon the ifland of Faro, and were the firfl of 
the kind we had feen upon this coafl, though we fell in with 
fome a few days before we made land. 

Saturday 24. At day-break, the wind frefhened, and before noon we 
had a flrong gale at N.N. E. At eight in the morning we faw 
the land extending as far as S.W. by S. and fleered directly 
for it. At noon, we were in latitude 45 ° 22' S. ; and the land, 
which now flretched from S.W. 4 S. to N. N.W. appeared to 
be rudely diverfified by hill and valley. In the afternoon, 
we fleered S. W. by S. and S. W. edging in for the land with 
a frefh gale at north ; but though we were at no great dif- 
tance, the weather was fo hazey that we could fee nothing 
diflinctly upon it, except a ridge of high hills lying not far 
from the fea, and parallel to the coafl, which in this place 
flretches S. by W. and N. by E. and fcemed to end in a high 
bluff point to the fouthward. By eight in the evening we 
were abreafl of this point ; but it being then dark, and I not 
knowing which way the land trended, we brought to for the 
night. At this time, the point bore weft, and was diflant 
about five miles : our depth of water was thirty-feven fa- 
thom, and the bottom confifled of fmall pebbles. 

Sunday 25. At day-break, having made fail, the point bore north, diflant 
three leagues, and we now found that the land trended from 
it S. W. by W. as far as we could fee. This point I named 
Cape Saunders, in honour of Sir Charles. Our latitude was 
45 Q 35' S. and longitude 189 4' W. By the latitude, and the 




angles that are made by the coaft, this point will be fum- 1770. 
ciently known; there is, however, about three or four 1./- "-T 
leagues to the fouth well of it, and very near the more, a * m **7'*t* 
remarkable faddle-hill, which is a good direction to it on 
that quarter. From one league to four leagues north of Cape 
Saunders, the more forms two or three bays, in which there 
appeared to be good anchorage, and effectual flicker from 
the S. W. wefterly, and N. weflerly winds ; but my defire of 
getting to the fouthward, in order to afcertain whether this 
country was an ifland or a continent, prevented my putting 
into any of them. 

We kept at a fmall diftance from the fhore all this morn- 
ing, with the wind at S. W. and had a very diftincl view of 
it : it is of a moderate height, and the furface is broken by 
many hills, which are green and woody; but we faw no ap- 
pearance of inhabitants. At noon, CapeSaunders boreN-soW. 
diftant about four leagues. We had variable winds and calms 
till five o'clock in the evening, when it fixed at W. S. W. and 
foon blew fo hard that it put us paft our topfails, and fplit the 
forefail all to pieces : after getting another to the yard, we 
continued to ftand to the fouthward under two courfes ; and 
at fix the next morning, the fouthermoft land in fight bore 
W. by N. and Cape Saunders W. diftant eight leagues: at 
noon, it bore N. 20 W. fourteen leagues ; and our latitude by 
obfervation was 46 e 36'. The gale continued, with heavy 
fqualls and a large hollow fea all the afternoon ; and at 
feven in the evening, we lay to under our forefail, with the 
fhip's head to the fouthward: at noon on the 27th, our 
latitude was 46 ° 54', and our longitude from Cape Saunders 
1 ° 24' E. At feven in the evening, we made fail under our 
courfes ; and at eight the next morning fet the topfails clofe 
reefed. At noon, our latitude was 47* 43', and our longi- 
tude eaft from Cape Saunders s° 10. At this time^ we wore 

3H: and 

Monday 2 5. 


Wednef, z8. 




.Vednei". 23. 

Thurfday I. 

Eriday 2. 

Saturday 3. 

S'snday 4. 


and flood to the northward : in the afternoon, we found the 
variation to be i6 c 34' E. At eight in the evening, we tacked 
and flood to the fouthward, with the wind at weft. 

At noon this day, our latitude by account was 47 ° 52', 
and our longitude from Cape Saunders 1 ° 8' E. We flood 
to the fouthward till half an hour pafl three in the afternoon ; 
and then, being in latitude 48 S. and longitude 188 W. and 
feeing no appearance of land, we tacked and flood to the 
northward, having a large fwell from the S. \V. by W. At 
noon fhe next day, our latitude was 46 ° 42' S. ; and Cape 
Saunders bore N. 46 W. diflant eighty-fix miles. The fouth 
weft fwell continuing till the 3d, confirmed our opinion, that 
there was no land in that quarter. At four in the afternoon, 
we flood to the weflward with all the fail we could make. 
In the morning of the 4th, we found the variation to be 
1 6° 16' E. This day we faw fome whales and feals, as we had 
done feveral times after our having pafTed the flreight ; but we 
faw no feal while we were upon the coafl of Eahienomauwe. 
We founded both in the night and this morning, but had'no 
ground with one hundred and fifty fathom. At noon, we 
faw Cape Saunders bearing N. 4- Wi ; and our latitude by ob- 
iervation was 46 3i'S. At half an hour pafl one o'clock, 
we faw land bearing W. by S. which we fleered for, and be- 
fore it was dark were within three or four miles of it : du- 
ring the whole night we faw fires upon it, and at feven in 
rhe morning were within about three leagues of the more, 
which appeared to be high, but level. At three o'clock in 
the afternoon, we faw the land extending from N. E. by N. 
to N.W. t N. ; and foon after we difcovered fome low land, 
which appeared like an ifland, bearing S. JL W. We conti- 
nued our courfe to the W. by S. and in two hours we faw 
high land over the low land, extending to the fouthward a& 
far as S..W< by S. ; but it did not appear to be joined to the 
i land; 



land to the northward, fo that there is either water, a deep 177°- 
bay, or low land between them. >_ - „ '_■ 

At noon on the 6th, wc were nearly in the fame fituation Tuefday 6. 
as at noon on the day before : in the afternoon we found the 
variation, by feveral azimuths and the amplitude, to be 
15 10' E. On the 7th at noon, we were in latitude 47 6'S. Wednef. 7. 
and had made twelve miles eafling during the laft twenty- 
four hours. We Hood to the weftward the remainder of this 
day, and all the next till fun-fet, when the extreams of the Thurfday8. 
land bore from N. byE. toW. diftant about feven or eight 
leagues : in this fituation our depth of water was fifty-five 
fathom, and the variation by amplitude 16 29' E. The wind 
now veered from the N. to the W. and as we had fine wea- 
ther, and moonlight, we kept Handing clofe upon the wind 
to the S. W. all night. At four in the morning, we had fixty Friday 9 , 
fathom water} and at day-light, we difcovered under our 
bow a ledge of rocks, extending from S. by W. to W. by S. 
upon which the fea broke very high: they were not more 
than three quarters of a mile diftant, yet we had five and 
forty fathom water. As the wind was at N. W. we could not 
now weather them, and as I was unwilling to run to lee- 
ward, I tacked and made a trip to the eaftward ; the wind 
however foon after coming to the northward, enabled us to 
get clear of all. Our foundings, while we were pafling 
within the ledge, were from thirty-five to forty-feven fathom 
with a rocky bottom. 

This ledge lies S. E. fix leagues from the fouthermoft part 
of the land, and S. E. by E. from, fome remarkable hills 
which Hand near the more: about three leagues to the 
northward of it, there is another ledge, which lies full three 
leagues from the more, and on which the fea broke in a 
dreadful furf. As we palled thefe rocks to the north in the 



i77°- nieht, and difcovered the others under our bow at break of 

March. ° 

v_ — s — _/ day, it is manifeft that our danger was imminent, and our 
efcape critical in the higheft degree: from the fituation of 
thefe rocks, fo well adapted to catch unwary ftrangers, I 
called them the Traps. Our latitude at noon was 47 26' S. 
The land in fight, which had the appearance of an ifland, 
extended from N. E. by N. to N. W. by W. and feemed to be 
about five leagues diftant from the main ; the eaftcrmoft 
ledge of rocks bore S. S. E. diftant one league and an half, 
and the northermoft N. E. tE. diftant about three leagues. 
This land is high and barren, with nothing upon it but a 
few ftraggling fhrubs, for not a fingle tree was to be feen ; 
it was however remarkable for a number of white patches, 
which I took to be marble, as they reflected the fun's rays 
very ftrongly: other patches of the fame kind we had ob- 
ferved in different parts of this country, particularly in 
Mercury Bay: we continued to ftand clofe upon a wind to the 
weftward, and at fun-fet the fouthermoft point of land bore 
N. 38 E. diftant four leagues, and the weftermoft land in 
fight bore N. 2 E. The point which lies in latitude 47 19' S. 
longitude 192 12' W. I named South Cape; the weftermoft 
land was a fmall ifland, lying off the point of the main. 

Suppofing South Cape to be the fouthern extremity of this 
country, as indeed it proved to be, I hoped to get round it 
by the weft, for a large hollow fwell from the fouth weft, 
ever fince our laft hard gale, had convinced me that there 
was no land in that direction. 

Saturday 10. In the night we had a hard gale at N. E. by N. and N. 
which brought us under our courfes, but about eight in the 
morning it became moderate ; and at noon, veering to the 
weft, we tacked and flood to the northward, having no land 
in light. Our latitude, by obfervation, was 47 33' S. our 

4 longitude, 


longitude, weft from the South Cape, 59'. We flood away 1770. 
N. N. E. clofe upon a wind, without feeing any land, till u— ^— lj 
two the next morning, when we difcoveredan ifland bearing Sunday u. 
N. W. by N. diftant about five leagues : about two hours 
afterwards we faw land a-head, upon which we tacked and 
flood off till fix, when we flood in to take a nearer view of 
it: at eleven we were within three leagues of it, but the 
wind feeming to incline upon the fhore, I tacked and flood 
off to the fouthward. We had now failed round the land 
which we had discovered on the 5th, and which then did not 
appear to be joined to the main which lay north of it i and 
being now come to the other fide of what we fuppofed to be 
water, a bay, or low land, it had the fame appearance, but 
when I came to lay it down upon paper I faw no rcafon to 
fuppofe it to be an ifland ; on the contrary, I was clearly of 
opinion that it made part of the main. At noon, the weftcrn 
extremity of the main bore N. 59 W. and the ifland which 
we had feen in the morning, S. 59 W. diftant about five 
leagues. It lies in latitude 46 3,1' 3. longitude 192° 49 W. 
and is nothing but a barren rock about a mile in circuit, re- 
markably high, and lies full five leagues diftant from the 
main. This ifland I named after Dr. Solander, and called it 
Solander's Island. The fhore of the main lies neareft E. 
by S. and W. by N. and forms a large open bay, in which 
there is no appearance of any harbour or flicker for flapping 
againft S. W. and foutherly winds: the furface of the coun- 
try is broken into craggy hills, of a great height, on the 
fummits of which are feveral patches of fnow; it is not, 
however, wholly barren, for we could fee wood not only in 
the vallies, but upon the higheft ground, yet we faw no ap- 
pearance of its being inhabited. 

We continued to fland to the S. W. by S. till eleven o'clock Monday 1:. 
the next morning, when the wind fhifted to the S. W. by W. 




Tuefday 13. 


upon which we wore, and flood to the N. N. W. being then 
in latitude 47 40' S. longitude 193 50' W. and having a hol- 
low fea from the S. W. 

During the night, we fleered N. N. W. till fix in the morn- 
ing, when, feeing no land, we fleered N. by E. till eight, 
when we fleered N. E. by E. 7 E. to make the land, which at 
ten we faw bearing E. N. E. but it being hazy, we could dif- 
tinguifh nothing upon it. At noon, our latitude, by obfer- 
vation, was 46 S. About two it cleared up, and the land 
appeared to be high, rude, and mountainous : about half an 
hour after three 1 hauled in for a bay, in which there ap- 
peared to be good anchorage ; but in about an hour, finding 
the diflance too great to run before it would be dark, and the 
wind blowing too hard to make the attempt fafe in the 
night, I bore away along the fhore. 

This bay, which I called Dusky Bay, lies in latitude 45 
47' S. : it is between three and four miles broad at the en- 
trance, and feems to be full as deep as it is broad : it con- 
tains feveral iflands, behind which there mufl be fhelter 
from all winds, though poflibly there may not be fufficient 
depth of water. The north point of this bay, when it bears 
S. E. by S. is rendered very remarkable by five high peaked 
rocks which lie off it, and have the appearance of the four 
fingers and thumb of a man's hand, for which reafon I 
called it Point Five Fingers: the land of this Point is far- 
ther remarkable, for being the only level land within a con- 
fiderable diflance. It extends near two leagues to the north- 
ward, is lofty, and covered with wood : the land behind it 
is very different, coniifling wholly of mountains, totally 
barren and rocky ; and this difference gives the Cape the ap- 
pearance of an ifland. 



At fun-fet, the fouthermoft land in fight bore due fouth, 1770. 
diftant about five or fix leagues ; and as this is the weftermoft v. — ^j 
point of land upon the whole coaft, I called it West Cape. ue ay '" 
It lies about three leagues to the fouthward of Dufky Bay, in. 
the latitude of 45 54' S. and in the longitude of 193 ° 17' W. 
The land of this Cape is of a moderate height next the fea, 
and has nothing remarkable about it, except a very white 
cliff, two or three leagues to the fouthward of it: to the 
fouthward of it alfo the land trends away to the S. E. and to 
the northward it trends N. N. E. 

Having brought to for the night, we made fail along the Wednef - 14- 
fhore at four in the morning, in the direction of N. E. i. N. 
with a moderate breeze at S. S. E. At noon, our latitude, by 
observation, was 45 13'S. At this time, being about a 
league and an half from the fhore, we founded, but had no 
ground with feventy fathom : we had juft puffed a fmall nar- 
row opening in land, where there feemed to be a very fafe 
and convenient harbour, formed by an ifland, which lay in 
the middle of the opening at eafi. The opening lies in lati- 
tude 45 16' S. and on the land behind it are mountains, the 
fummits of which were covered with fnow, that appeared to 
have been recently fallen ; and indeed for two days paft we 
had found the weather very cold. On each fide the entrance 
of the opening, the land rifes almoft perpendicularly from 
the fea to a ftupendous height, and this indeed was the rea- 
fon why I did not carry the fliip into it, for no wind could 
blow there but right in, or right out, in the direction of 
either eaft or weft, and I thought it by no means advifable 
to put into a place whence I could not have got out but with 
■a wind which experience had taught me did not blow more 
than one day in a month. In this, however, I acted con- 
trary to the opinion of fome perfons on board, who in very 

Vol. IL 3 I urong 


»77°« ftrong terms exprefled their defire to harbour for prefent con^ 
« — v — ~ > venience; without any regard to future difadvantages. 

Wedcef. 14. 

In the evening, being about two leagues from the more* 
we founded, and had no ground with 108 fathom: the va- 
riation of the needle, by azimuth, was 14 E. and by ampli- 
tude 1 5 2'. We made the bell of our way along the fliore 
with what wind we had, keeping at the diflance of between 
two and three leagues. At noon, we were in latitude 44. 
47', having run only twelve leagues upon a N. E. ^ N. courfe, 
during the lafl four and, twenty hours. 

We continued to fleer along the fliore, in the direction of 
N. E.i- E. till fix o'clock in the evening, when we brought to 

Thurfday 15. f or t hc night. At four in the morning, we flood in for the 
land, and when the day broke we faw what appeared to be 
an inlet ; but upon a nearer approach proved to be only a 
deep valley between two high lands: we proceeded there- 
fore in the fame courfe, keeping the more at the diflance of 

Friday 16. between four and five miles,. At noon on the 16th, the. 
northermoft point of land in fight bore N. 60 E. at the dif- 
tance of ten miles ; and our latitude, by obfervation, was 
44° 5> ° ur longitude from Cape Welt 2 8' E. About two, 
we pail the point which- at noon had been diftant ten miles,, 
and found it to confifl of high red cliffs, down which there 
fell a cafcade of water in four fmall ftreams, and I therefore: 
gave it the name of Cascade Point. From this Point the 
land trends firft N. y6 E. and afterwards more to the north- 
ward* At the diflance of eight leagues from Cafcade Point, 
in the direction of E. N. E. and at a little diflance from the 
fhore, lies a fmall. low ifland, which bore from us S. by E. at 
the diflance of about a league and a half.. 

6 At 


At feven in the evening, we brought to, in thirty-three >7?o. 
fathom with a fine fandy bottom, at ten we had fifty fathom, ■ a . rch " - 
and at twelve wore in fixty-five fathom, having driven feveral 
miles N. N. W. after our having brought to. At two in the Saturday 17. 
morning, we had no ground with 140 fathom, by which it 
appears that the foundings extend but a little way from the 
fhore. About this time it fell calm; at eight, a breeze 
fprung up at S. W. with which we fleered along the more, in 
the direction of N. E. by E. f E. at the diflance of about three 
leagues. At fix in the evening, being about one league from 
the more, we had feventeen fathom ; and at eight, being 
about three leagues from the more, we had forty-four : we 
now fhortened fail and brought to, having run ten leagues 
N. E. by E. fince noon. 

It was calm moll part of the night ; but at ten in the Sunday 18. 
morning a light breeze fprung up at S. W. by W. when we 
made fail again along the fhore, N. E. by N. having a large 
fwell from the W. S. W. which had rifen in the night ; at 
noon, our latitude, by obfervation, was 43 4S. and our 
longitude from Cape Weft 4 12' E. We obferved, that the 
vallies as well as the mountains were this morning covered 
with fnow, part of which we fuppofed to have fallen during 
the night, when we had rain. At fix in the evening we 
fhortened fail, and at ten brought to, at the diftance of about 
five leagues from the fhore, where we had 1 1 j fathom. At 
midnight, there being little wind, we made fail, and at 
eight in the morning we flood to the N. E. clofe upon a wind Monday ig. 
till noon, when we tacked, being about three leagues from 
the land, and, by obfervation, in latitude 42° 8', and longi- 
tude from Cape Weft 5 5' E. 

We continued to fland weftward till two in the morning Tuefday 2c; 
when we made a trip to the eaftward, and afterwards flood 
weftward till noon, when, by our reckoning, we were in 

3 I 2 the 


*77°- the latitude of 42 23', and longitude from- Cape Weft 3 55-' E.. 

i ., " ' -■ We now tacked and flood eaflward, with a frefh gale at N.. 
by W. till fix in the evening, when the wind fhifted to the S. 
and S. S. W. with which we fleered N. E. by N* till fix in the 

Wednef. 21. morn i n g 5 -when we hauled in E. by N. to make the land,, 
which we law loon afterwards; at noon, our latitude, by 
account, was 41 ° 37, and our longitude from Cape Weft 5 
42' E. We were now within three or four leagues of the 
land, but it being foggy, we could fee nothing upon it 
diftinc"tly, and as we had much wind, and a vaft fwell rolling 
in upon the fhore, from the W. SvW.. I did not think it fafe 
to go nearer. 

In the afternoon, we had a gentle breeze from the S. S.W. 
with which we fleered north along the fhore till eight, when, 
being within between two and three leagues, we founded, 
and had but thirty-four fathom ; upon which we hauled off 
N. W. by N. till eleven at night, and then brought to, having 

Thwfday xz. fixty-four fathom. At four in the morning, we made fail to 
the N. E. with a light breeze at S.S. W. which at eight veered 
to the weft ward, and foon after died away: at this time we. 
were within three or four miles of the land, and had fifty- 
four fathom, with a large fwell from the W. S. W. rolling 
obliquely upon the fhore, which made me fear that I mould 
be obliged to anchor ; but by the help of a light air now 
and then from the S. W. I was able to keep the fhip from 
driving. At noon, the northermoft land in fight bore N. E- 
by E. t E. diftant about ten leagues ; our latitude, by ac- 
count, was 40 55' S. longitude from Cape Weft 6° 35' E. 
From this time we had light airs from the fouthward, with 

Friliys;. intervals of calm, till noon on the 23d, when our latitude,, 

by obfervation, was 40 36' 30" S. and our longitude from 

Cape Weft 6° 52 E. The eaftermoft point of land in fight 

bore E. 1 o N. at the diftance of feven leagues, and a bluff 

c head 


Friday 23. 

Read or point, of which we had been abreaft at noon the day 1770- 

r March. 

before, and off which lay fome rocks above water, bore S. 
iSW. at the diftance of fix leagues.. This point I called 
Rock's Point. Our latitude was now 40 55' S, and having 
nearly run down the whole of the north weft coaft of Tovy 
Poenammooy I fhall give fome account of the face of the 

I have already obferved, that on the nth, when we were 
off the fouthern part, the land then feen was craggy and 
mountainous, and there is great reafon to believe that the 
fame ridge of mountains extends nearly the whole length of 
the ifland. Between the weftermoft land which we faw that 
day,, and the eaftermoft which we faw on the 1 3th, there is a. 
fpace of about fix or eight leagues, of which we. did not fee 
the coaft, though we plainly difcovered the mountains in- 
land. The fea coaft near Cape Weft is low, rifing with an 
eafy and gradual afcent to the foot of the mountains, and 
being in moft parts covered with wood. From Point Five 
Fingers, down to latitude 44 20' there is a narrow ridge of 
hills that rifes directly from the fea, and is covered with 
wood : clofe behind thefe hills are the mountains, extending 
in another ridge of a ftupendous height, and confifting of 
rocks that are totally barren and naked, except where they 
are covered with fnow, which is to be feen in large patches 
upon many parts of them, and has probably lain there ever 
fince the creation of the world : a profpect more rude 
craggy, and defolate than this country affords from the fea, 
cannot poffibly be conceived, for as far inland as the eye 
can reach, nothing appears but the fummits of rocks, which 
ftand fo near together, that inftead of vallies there is only 
fiffures between them. From the latitude of 44 20', to the 
latitude of 42 8', thefe mountains lie farther inland, and 





Friday 23. 

Saturday 2;. 

Sunday 25. 

Monday 26. 

Tucfday 27, 

the fea coaft confifls of woody hills and vallies, of various 
height and extent, and has much appearance of fertility: 
many of the vallies form plains of confiderable extent, 
wholly covered with wood, but it is very probable that the 
ground, in many places, is fwampy and interfperfed with 
pools of water. From latitude 42 8', to 41° 30', the land is 
not diflinguifhed by any thing remarkable: it rifes into hills 
directly from the fea, and is covered with wood; but the 
weather being foggy while we were upon this part of the 
coaft, we could fee very little inland, except now and then 
the fummits of the mountains, towering above the cloudy 
mills that obfcured them below, which confirmed my opinion 
that a chain of mountains extended from one end of the 
ifland to the other. 

In the afternoon, we had a gentle breeze at S. W. which, 
before it was quite dark, brought us abreaft of the eaflern 
point which we had feen at noon ; but not knowing what 
courfe the land took on the other fide of it, we brought to in 
thirty-four fathom, at the diilance of about one league from 
the fhore. At eight in the evening, there being little wind, 
we filled and flood 011 till midnight, and then we brought to 
till four in the morning, when we again made fail, and at 
break of day we faw low land extending from the point to 
the S. S. E. as far as the eye could reach, the eaflern extre- 
mity of which appeared in round hillocks: by this time the 
gale had veered to the eaftward, which obliged us to ply to 
windward. At noon next day, the eaflern point bore S. W. 
by S. diftant fixteen miles, and our latitude was 40 19': the 
wind continuing eafierly, we were nearly in the fame fitu- 
ation at noon on the day following. About three o'clock the 
wind came to the weflward, and we fleered E. S. E. with all 
the fail w.e could fet till it was dark, and then fhortened fail 
.tilljhe morning: as we had thick hazey weather all night, 



we kept founding continually, and had from thirty-feven to 1770. 
forty-two fathom. When the day broke we faw land bearing ■ art " ' • 
S. E. by E. and an ifland lying near it, bearing E. S. E. diftant Tuefday 27 ' 
about five leagues : this ifland I knew to be the fame that I 
had feen from the entrance of Queen Charlotte's Sound, 
from which it bears N. W. by N. diftant nine leagues. At 
noon, it bore fouth, diftant four or five miles, and the north 
weft head of the Sound S. E. by S. diftant ten leagues and an. 
half. Our latitude, by observation, was 40 ° 33'S. 

As we had now circumnavigated the whole country, it be- 
came necefTary to think of quitting it, but as I had thirty 
tons of empty water cafks on board, this could not be done 
till I had filled them : I therefore hauled round the ifland, 
and entered a bay, which lies between that and Queen Char- 
lotte's Sound, leaving three more iflands, which lay clofe 
under the weftern fhore, between three or four miles within 
the entrance, on our ftarboard hand : while we were run- 
ning in, wo kept the lead continually going, and had from 
forty to twelve fathom. At fix o'clock in the evening, we 
anchored in eleven fathom with a. muddy bottom, under the 
weft fhore, in the fecond. cove, that lies within the three 
iflands ; and as foon as it was light, the next morning, I took. Wednef.-zS; 
a boat, and went on fhore to look for a watering-place, and 
a proper birth for the fhip, both which I found, much to my 
fatisfacStion. As foon as the fhip was moored, I fent:an offi- 
cer on fhore to Superintend the watering, and the carpenter, 
with his crew, to cut wood, while the long-boat, was em- 
ployed in landing the empty cafks. 

In this employment we were bufy till the 30th, when the- Frida »^ 
wind feeming to fettle at S. E. and our water being nearly 
completed, we warped the fhip out of the cove, that we 
might have room to get under fail : and at noon I went away 


Friday 30 


1770. in the pinnace to examine as much of the bay as my time 
would admit. 

After rowing about two leagues up it, I went afhore upon 
a point of land on the weftern fide, and having climbed a 
hill, I faw the weftern arm of this bay run in S. W. by W. 
about five leagues farther, yet I could not difcover the end of 
it: there appeared to be feveral other inlets, or at leaft fmall 
bays, between this and the north weft head of Queen Char- 
lotte's Sound, in each of which, I make no doubt, there is 
anchorage and fhelter, as they are all covered from the fea 
wind by the iflands which lie without them. The land 
about this bay, as far as I could fee of it, is of a hilly fur- 
face, chiefly covered with trees, lhrubs, and fern, which 
render travelling difficult and fatiguing. In this excurfion I 
was accompanied by Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander, who found • 
feveral new plants. We met with fome hutts, which feemed 
to have been long deferted, but faw no inhabitants. Mr. 
Banks examined feveral of the ftones that lay upon the 
beach, which were full of veins, and had a mineral appear- 
ance ; but he did not difcover any thing in them which he 
knew to be ore : if he had had an opportunity to examine 
any of the bare rocks, perhaps he might have been more 
fortunate. He was alio of opinion that what I had taken for 
marble in another place, was a mineral fubftance ; and that, 
coniidering the correfpondence of latitude between this place 
and South America, it was not improbable but that, by a 
proper examination, fomething very valuable might be 

At my return in the evening, I found all the wood and 
water on board, and the ihip ready for the fea ; I refolved 
therefore to quit the country, and return home by fuch a 
route as might be of moft advantage to the fervice ; and 




upon this fubject. took the opinion of my officers. I had 1770. 

myfelf a ftrong defire to return by Cape Horn, becaufe that < ,— Lj 

would have enabled me finally to determine, whether there " ay 3 " 
is or is not a fouthern continent ; but againft this it was a 
fufficient objection that we muft have kept in a high fouth- 
ern latitude in the very depth of winter, with a veflel which 
was not thought fufficient for the undertaking : and the 
fame reafon was urged againft our proceeding directly for 
the Cape of Good Hope, with ftill more force, becaufe no 
difcovery of moment could be hoped for in that rout ; it was 
therefore refolved that we fhould return by the Eaft Indies, 
and that with this view we fhould, upon leaving the coaft, 
fteer weflward, till we fhould fall in with the eaft coaft of 
New Holland, and then follow the direction of that coaft to 
the northward, till we fhould arrive at its nefcthern extre- 
mity ; but if that fhould be found impracticable, it was fur- 
ther refolved that we fhould endeavour to fall in with the 
land, or iflands, faid to have been difcovered by Quiros. 

With this view, at break of day on Saturday the 31ft of Saturday 31. 
March 1770, we got under fail, and put to fea, with the ad- 
vantage of a frefh gale at S. E. and clear weather, taking our 
departure from the eaftern point, which we had feen at noon 
on the 23d, and to which, on this occafion, 1 gave the name 
of Cape Farewell. 

The bay out of which we had juft failed I called Admiralty 
Bay, giving the name of Cape Stephens to the north weft 
point, and of Cape Jackson to the fouth eaft, after the two 
gentlemen who at this time were Secretaries to the Board. 

Admiralty Bay may cafily be known by the ifland that has 
been juft mentioned, which lies two miles N. E. of Cape Ste- 
phens, in latitude 40 37' S. longitude 18.5 6'W. and is of a 
confiderable height. Between this illand and Cape Farewell, 

Vol. II. 3 K which 

Saturday it. 


ij-o. which are between fourteen and fifteen leagues diftant from 

March. •"»--".- 

each other, in the direction of W. by N. and E. by S. the 
fhore forms a large deep bay, the bottom of which we could 
fcarcely fee while we were failing in a ftrait line from one 
Cape to the other ; it is, however, probably of lefs depth than 
it appeared to be, for as we found the water fhallower here, 
than at the famediftance from anyother part of the coaft, there 
is reafon to fuppofe, that the land at the bottom which lieo- 
next the fea is low, and therefore not eafily to be diilin- 
guifhed from it. I have for this reafon called it Blind 13a y, 
and am of opinion that it is the fame which was called Mur- 
derer's Bay by Tafman. 

Such particulars of this country and its inhabitants, with 
their manners and cuftoms, as could be learnt while we were 
circumnavigajting the coaft, mall now be related. 

C H A P. 





A general Account of New Zealand: its firjl Di/covery? 
Situation, Extent ', Climate, and Productions. 

EW ZEALAND was firfl difcovered by Abel Janfcn 1770= 
Tafman, a Dutch navigator, whofe name has been 
feveral times mentioned in this narrative, on the 13th of 
December, in the year 1642. He traverfed the eafiern coaft 
from latitude 34 to 43, and entered the ftreight which di- 
vides the two iflands, and in the chart is called Cook's 
Str eight ; but being attacked by the natives foon after he 
came to an anchor, in the place to which he gave the name 
of Murderer's Bay, he never went on more. He gave the 
country the name of Staaten Land, or the land of the States, 
in honour of the States-General, and it is now generally 
diftinguifhed in our maps and charts by the name of New- 
Zealand. As the whole of this country, except that part of 
the coaft which was feen by Tafman from on board his fliip, 
has from his time, to the voyage of the Endeavour, remained 
altogether unknown, it has by many been fuppofed to be 
part of a fouthern continent. It is however now known to 
confifl of two large iflands, divided from each other by a 
fti-eight or paflage, which is about four or five leagues 

Thefe iflands are fituated between the latitudes cf 34 and 
48" S. and between the longitudes of 181 and 194° \V. which 
is now determined with uncommon exactnefs, from innu- 
merable obfervations of the fun and moon, and one of the 

3 K. z tranfits 


1770. tranfits of Mercury, by Mr. Green, a perfon of known abi- 

5_ M "-.'.» lities, who, as has been obferved before, was fent out by the 

Royal Society, to obferve the tranfit of Venus in the South 


The northermoft of thefe iflands is called by the natives 
Eaheinomauwe, and the fouthermoft Tovy, or Tavai Poe- 
nammoo ; yet, as 1 have obferved before, we are not Aire 
whether the name Tovy Poenammoo comprehends the 
whole fouthern ifland, or only part of it. The figure and 
extent of thefe iflands, with the fituation of the bays and 
harbours they contain, and the fmaller iflands that lie about 
them, will appear from the. chart that I have drawn, every 
part of which, however, I cannot vouch to be equally accu- 
rate. The coaft of Eaheinomauwe, from Cape Pallifer to 
Eaft Cape, is laid down with great exactnefs, both in its 
figure, and the courfe and diflance from point to point; for 
the opportunities that offered, and the methods that I ufed, 
were fuch as could fcarcely admit of an error. From Eaft 
Cape to St. Maria van Diemen, the chart, though perhaps 
not equally exact, is without any error of moment, except 
poilibly in fome few places which are here, and in other 
parts of the chart, diilinguifhed by a dotted line, and which 
I had no opportunity to examine: from Cape Maria van Di- 
emen to latitude 36 15', we were feldom nearer the more 
than between five and eight leagues ; and therefore the line 
that marks the fea coafl may poflibly be erroneous. From 
latitude 36 15' to nearly the length of Entry Ifland, our 
courfe was very near the more, and in this part of the chart 
therefore there can be no material error, except perhaps at 
Cape Tierawitte. Between Entry Ifland and Cape Pallifer 
we were again farther from the more, and this part of the 
coaft therefore may not be laid down with minute exaclnefs ; 
vet, upon the whole, I am of opinion that this ifland will be 



found not much to differ from the figure that I have given i77°- 
it, and that upon the coaft there are few or no harbours v. ,,-.-'.^ 
which are not noticed in the journal, or delineated in the 
chart. I cannot however fay as much of Tovy Poenammoo, 
the feafon of the year, and the circumftances of the voyage, 
would not permit me to fpend fo much time about this 
ifland as I had employed upon the other; and the florms 
that we met with made it both difficult and dangerous to 
keep near the fhore, However, from Queen Charlotte's 
Sound to Cape Campbel, and as far to the S. W. as latitude 
43°, the chart will be found pretty accurate. Between lati- 
tude 43 and latitude. 44 2 a' the line may be doubted, for of 
fome part of the coaft which it reprefents, we had fcarcely a 
view. From latitude 44 20', to Cape Saunders, our diftance 
would not permit me to be particular, and the weather was 
befides extremely unfavourable. From Cape Saunders to 
Cape South, and even to Cape Weft, there is alfo reafon to 
fear that, the chart will in many places be found erroneous, 
as we were feldom able to keep the more, and were fomc- 
times blown to fuch a diftance that it could not be feen. 
From Cape Weft to Cape Farewell, and even to Charlotte's 
Sound, it is not more to be unified. 

Tovy Poenammoo is for the moft part a mountainous, and Country, 
to all appearance a barren, country ; and the people whom 
we faw in Queen Charlotte's Sound, thofe that came off to 
us under the fnowy mountains, and the fires to the weft of 
Cape Saunders, were all the inhabitants, and figns of in- 
habitants, that we difcovered upon the whole ifland. 

Eaheinomauwe has a much better appearance ; it is indeed 
not only hilly but mountainous, yet even the hills and moun- 
tains are covered with wood, and every valley has a rivulet 



177c- of water: the foil in thefe vallies, and in the plains, of 
v— -v— _; which there are many that are not overgrown with wood, is 
in general light but fertile, and in the opinion of Mr. Banks 
and Dr. Solander, as well as of every other gentleman on 
board, every kind of European grain, plants, and fruit, 
would flourifh here in the utmofl luxuriance : from the ve- 
getables that we found here, there is reafon to conclude, 
that the winters are milder than thofe in England, and we 
found the fummer not hotter, though it was more equally 
warm ; fo that if this country mould be fettled by people 
from Europe, they would, with a little induftry, be very 
foon fupplied not only with the neceflaries, but the luxuries 
of life in great abundance. 

Quadruped?. i n this country there are no quadrupeds but dogs and rats, 
at lead we faw no other, and the rats are fo fcarce that many 
of us never faw them. The dogs live with the people, who 
breed them for no other purpofe than to eat : there might 
indeed be quadrupeds that we did not fee, but this is not 
probable, becaufe the chief pride of the natives, with refpect 
to their drefs, is in the fkins and hair of fuch animals as they 
have, and we never faw the fkin of any animal about them 
but thofe of dogs and birds : there are indeed feals upon the 
coaft, and we once faw a fea lion, but we imagine they are 
feldom caught, for though we faw fomc of their teeth 
which were fafhioned into an ornament like a bodkin, and 
worn by the natives at their breaft, and highly valued, we 
faw none of their fkins: there are whales alfo upon this 
coaft, and though the people did not appear to have any art 
or inftrument by which fuch an animal could be taken and 
killed, we faw pattoo-pattoos in the pofTeilion of fome of 
them, which were made of the bone of a whale, or of fome 
other animal whofe bone had exactly the fame appearance. 
7 Of 



Of birds the fpecies are not many; and of thefe none, 1770. 
except perhaps the gannet, is the fame with thofe of Eu- 
rope : here are ducks indeed, and mags of fevcral kinds, 
fufliciently refembling thofe of Europe, to be called the 
fame, by thofe who have not examined them very nicely 
Here are alfo hawks, owls, and quails, which differ but 
little from thofe of Europe at firft fight ; and feveral fmall 
birds, whofe fong, as has been remarked in the courfe of 
the narrative, is much more melodious than any that we 
had ever heard. 

The fea coaft is alfo vifited by many oceanic birds, parti- 
cularly albatroffes, fheerwaters, pintados, and a few of the 
birds which Sir John Narborough has called Penguins, and 
which indeed are what the French call Nuance, and feem 
to be a middle fpecies between bird and fifli ; for their fea- 
thers, efpecially thofe upon their wings, differ very little 
from fcales; and their wings themfelves, which they ufe only 
in diving, and not to accelerate their motion even upon the 
furface of the water, may, perhaps with equa] propriety, be 
called fins. 

Neither are infects in greater plenty than birds : a few 
butterflies and beetles, flefh flies, very like thofe in Europe, 
and fome mufquitos and fand flies, perhaps exactly the fame: 
with thofe of North America, make up the whole catalogue. 
Of mufquitos and fand flies, however, which are juflly ac- 
counted the curfe of every country where they abound, we 
did not fee many ; there were indeed a few in almofl every 
place where we went on more, but they gave us fo little 
trouble, that we did not make ufe of the fhacles which we 
had provided for the fecurity of our faces. 

For this fcarcity of animals upon the land, the fea, how- 
ever, makes an abundant recompenfe ;. every creek fwarm- 



1770. ing with fifli, which are not only wholefome, but equally 
delicious with thofe of Europe : the fhip feldom anchored in 
any ftation, or with a light gale paffed any place, that did 
not afford us enough with hook and line to ferve the whole 
fhip's company, efpecially to the fouthward ■ when we lay 
at anchor, the boats, with hook and line, near the rocks, 
could take fiih in any quantity ; and the feine feldom failed 
of producing a flill more ample fupply ; fo that both times 
when we anchored in Cook's Streight, every mefs in the fhip, 
that was not carelefs and improvident, faked as much as 
lafted many weeks after they went to fea. Of this article, 
the variety was equal to the plenty; we had mackrel of many 
kinds, among which, one was exactly the fame as we have in 
England: thefe came in immenfe flioals, and were taken by 
the natives in their feines, who fold them to us at a very eafy 
rate. Befides thefe, there were fifh of many fpecies which 
we had never feen before, but to all which the feamen very 
readily gave names ; fo that we talked here as familiarly of 
hakes, bream, cole-fiih, and many others, as we do in Eng- 
land ; and though they are by no means of the fame family, 
it muft be confeffed that they do honour to the name. But 
the higheft luxury which the fea afforded us, even in this 
place, was the lobfter or fea cray-fifh, which are probably 
the fame that in the Account of Lord Anfon's Voyage are faid 
to have been found at the ifland of Juan Fernandes, except 
that, although large, they are not quite equal in fize: they 
differ from ours in England in feveral particulars, they have 
a greater number of prickles on their backs, and they are 
red when firft taken out of the water. Thefe we alfo bought 
every where to the northward in great quantities of the na- 
tives, who catch them by diving near the more, and finding 
out where they lie with their feet. We had alfo a fiih that 
Frezier, in his Voyage to the Spanifh Main in South Ame- 
2. rica, 


rica, has defcribed by the names of Elefant, Pejegallo, or i?7°- 
Polfon coq, which though coarfe, we eat very heartily. Seve- i — - '_, 
ral fpecies of the fkate, or fling-ray, are alfo found here, 
which were flill coarfer than the Elefant ; but as an atone- 
ment, we had among many kinds of dog-fifh one, fpotted 
with white, which was in flavour exactly fimilar to our bed 
fkate, but much more delicious. We had alfo flat fifh re- 
fembling both foles and flounders, befides eels and congers 
of various kinds, with many others of which thofe who 
mail hereafter vifit this coafl will not fail to find the advan- 
tage ; and fhell-fifh in great variety, particularly clams, 
cockles, and oyfters. 

Among the vegetable productions of this country, the Trees. plants, 
trees claim a principal place ■ for here are forefls of vafl ex- &c " 
tent, full of the flraitefl, the cleanefl, and the largefl timber- 
trees that we had ever feen ; their fize, their grain, and ap- 
parent durability, render them fit for any kind of building, 
and indeed for every other purpofe except mafls ; for which, 
as I have already obferved, they are too hard, and too hea- 
vy: there is one in particular which, when we were upon 
the coafl, was rendered confpicuous by a fcarlet flower, that 
feemed to be a compendage of many fibres ; it is about as 
large as an oak, and the wood is exceedingly hard and hea- 
vy, and excellently adapted to the ufe of the mill-wright. 
There is another which grows in the fwamps, remarkably 
tall and flrait, thick enough to make mafls for veffels of any 
iize, and, if a judgment may be formed by the direction of 
its grain, very tough : this, which, as has been before re- 
marked, our carpenter thought to refemble the pitch-pine, 
may probably be lightened by tappingv and it will then 
make the finefl mafls in the world : it has a leaf not unlike 
a yew, and bears berries in fmall bunches. 

Vol. II. 3 L Great 


1770- Great part of the country is covered with a luxuriant ver- 

l - w - '_? dure, and our natural hiftorians were gratified by the no- 
velty, if not the variety of the plants. Sow-thiflle, garden 
night-fliade, one or two kinds of grafs, the fame as in Eng- 
land, and two or three kinds of fern, like thofe of the Weft 
Indies, with a few of the plants that are to be found in 
almofl every part of the world, were all, out of about four 
hundred fpecies, that have hitherto been defcribed by any 
botanifts, or had been feen elfewhere during the courfe of 
this voyage, except about five or fix which had been gathered 
at Terra del Fuego. 

Of eatable vegetables there are but few ; our people, in- 
deed, who had been long at fea, eat, with equal pleafure 
and advantage, of wild celery, and a kind of crefTes, which 
grew in great abundance upon all parts of the fea-fhore. We 
alfo, once or twice, met with a plant like what the country 
people in England call Lamb's quarters, or Fat-hen, which we 
boiled inftead of greens ; and once we had the good fortune 
to find a cabbage tree, which afforded us a delicious meal ; 
and, except the fern-root, and one other vegetable, totally 
unknown in Europe, and which, though eaten by the na- 
tives, was extremely difagreeable to us, we found no other 
vegetable production that was fit for food, among thofe that 
appeared to be the wild produce of the country ; and we 
could find but three efculent plants among thofe which are 
raifed by cultivation, yams, fweet potatoes, and coccos. Of 
the yams and potatoes there are plantations confiding of 
many acres, and I believe that any fhip which fhould hap- 
pen to be here in the autumn, when they are dug up, might 
purchafc them in any quantity. 

Gourds are alfo cultivated by the natives of this place, the 

fruit of which furnifhes them with vefTels for various ufes. 

8 We 



We alfo found here the Chinefe paper mulberry tree, the 1770. 
fame as that of which the inhabitants of the South Sea * 
iflands make their cloth ; but it is fo fcaree, that though the 
New Zealanders alfo make cloth of it, they have not enough 
for any other purpofe than to wear as an ornament in the 
holes which they make in their ears, as I have obferved 

But among all the trees, fhrubs, and plants of this coun- 
try, there is not one that produces fruit, except a berry 
which has neither fweetnefs nor flavour, and which none 
but the boys took pains to gather, mould be honoured with 
that appellation. There is, however, a plant that ferves the 
inhabitants inftead of hemp and flax, which excels all that 
are put to the fame purpofes in other countries. Of this 
plant there are two forts ; the leaves of both refemble thofc 
of flags, but the flowers are fmaller, and their clutters more 
numerous 5 in one kind they are yellow, and in the other a 
deep red. Of the leaves of thcfe plants, with very little pre- 
paration, they make all their common apparel ; and of thefc 
they make alfo their firings, lines, and cordage for every pur- 
pofe, which are fo much ftronger than any thing we can 
make with hemp, that they will not bear a comparifon. 
From the fame plant, by another preparation, they draw 
long flender fibres which fhine like filk, and are as white 
as mow: of thefe, which are alfo furprifingly ftrong, the 
finer clothes are made ; and of the leaves, without any other 
preparation than fplitting them into proper breadths, and 
tying the ftrips together, they make their fifhing nets ; fome 
of which, as I have before remarked, are of an enormous 

A plant, which with fuch advantage might be applied to 
fo many ufeful and important purpofes, would certainly be 

3 L 2 a great 


i7"°- a great acquifition to England, where it would probably 

R.arcti. . * J 

v— v- — > tlirive with very little trouble, as it feems to be hardy, and 
to affect no particular foil; being found equally in hill and 
valley; in the driefl: mould, and the deepefb bogs: the bog, 
however, it feems rather to prefer, as near fuch places we 
obferved it to be larger than elfewhere. 

I have already obferved, that we found great plenty of 
iron fand in Mercury Bay, and therefore that iron ore is 
undoubtedly to be found at no great diftance. As to other 
metals we had fcarcely knowlege enough of the country for 

If the fettling of this country fliould ever be thought an 
object worthy the attention of Great Britain, the bell place 
for eflablifhing a colony would be either on the banks of 
the Thames, or in the country bordering upon the Bay of 
I/lands. In either place there would be the advantage of an 
excellent harbour; and, by means of the river, fettlements 
might be extended, and a communication eftablifhed with 
the inland parts of the country : veflels might be; built 
of the fine timber which abounds in thefe parts, at very little 
trouble and expence, fit for fuch a navigation as would an- 
fwer the purpofe. I cannot indeed exactly affign the depth 
of water which a veffel intended to navigate this river, even 
as far up as I went with the boat, mould draw, becaufe 
this depends upon the depth of water that is upon the bar, 
or flats, which lie before the narrow part of the river, for I 
had no opportunity to make myfelf acquainted with them ; 
but I am of opinion, that a vefTel which mould draw not 
more than twelve feet would perfectly anfwer the purpofe. 

People. When we firft arrived upon the coaft of this country, we 

imagined it to be much better peopled than we afterwards 



found it, concluding that the inland parts were populous »f7°- 
from the fmoke that we favv at a considerable diftance from 
the more ; and perhaps that may really be the cafe with re- 
fpeet to the country behind Poverty Bay, and the Bay of 
Plenty, where the inhabitants appeared to be more nume- 
rous than in other places. But we had reafon to believe, 
that, in general, no part of the country but the fea coaft is 
inhabited ; and even there we found the people but thinly 
fcattered, all the weftern coaft from Cape Maria Van Diemen 
to Mount Egmont being totally defolate ; fo that upon the 
whole the number of inhabitants bears no proportion to the 
extent of country. 





A Defcription of the Inhabitants, their Habitations, Ap- 
parel, Ornaments, Food, Cookery, and Manner 
of Life. 

T 77 - ' I ^ H E flature of the men in general is equal to the largeft 
JL of thofe in Europe : they are flout, well limbed, and 
flefhy ; but not fat, like the lazy and luxurious inhabitants 
of the iflands in the South Seas : they are alfo exceedingly 
vigorous and active ; and have an adroitnefs, and manual 
dexterity in an uncommon degree, which are difcovered in 
whatever they do. I have feen the ftrokes of fifteen paddles 
on a fide in one of their canoes made with incredible quick- 
nefs, and yet with fuch minute exa&nefs of time, that 
all the rowers feemed to be a&uated by one common foul. 
Their colour in general is brown ; but in few deeper than 
that of a Spaniard, who has been expofed to the fun j in many 
not fo deep. The women have not a feminine delicacy in 
their appearance, but their voice is remarkably foft ; and by 
that, the drefs of both fexes being the fame, they are prin- 
cipally diftinguifhed: they have, however, like the women of 
other countries, more airy cheerfulnefs, and a greater flow 
of animal fpirits, than the other fex. Their hair, both of the 
head and beard, is black ; and their teeth extremely regular, 
and as white as ivory : the features of both fexes are good ; 
they fecm to enjoy high health, and we faw many who ap- 
peared to be of a great age. The difpofitions both of the 
men and women feemed to be mild and gentle; they treat 



each other with the tendereft affeftion, but are implacable *77°- 

towards their enemies, to whom, as I have before obferved, i ,—_/ 

they never give quarter. It may perhaps, at firft, feem 
ftrange, that where there is fo little to be got by victory, there 
fhould fo often be war ; and that every little diftridl of a 
country inhabited by people fo mild and placid, fhould be 
at enmity with all the reft. But poffibly more is to be gained 
by victory among thefe people than at firft appears, and they 
may be prompted to mutual hoftilities by motives which no 
degree of friendfhip or affection is able to refift. It appears, 
by the account that has already been given of them, that 
their principal food is fifh, which can only be procured upon 
the fea coaft; and there, in fufficient quantities, only at cer- 
tain times : the tribes, therefore, who live inland, if any 
fuch there are, and even thofe upon the coaft, mull be fre- 
quently in danger of perifhing by famine. Their country 
produces neither flicep, nor goats, nor hogs, nor cattle ; tame 
fowls they have none, nor any art by which thofe that are 
wild can be caught in fufficient plenty to ferve as provifion. 
If there are any whofe fituation cuts them off from a fupply 
of fifh, the only fuccedaneum of all other animal food, ex- 
cept dogs, they have nothing to fupport life, but the vegetables 
that have already been mentioned, of which the chief are fern 
root, yams, clams, and potatoes : when by any accident thefe 
fail, the diftrefs muft be dreadful ; and even among the inha- 
bitants of the coaft, many tribes muft frequently be reduced 
to nearly the fame fituation, either by the failure of their 
plantations, or the deficiency of their dry flock, during the 
feafon when but few fifh are to be caught. Thefe confide- 
rations will enable us to account, not only for the perpetual 
danger in which the people who inhabit this country appear 
to live, by the care which they take to fortify every village, 
but for the horrid practice of eating thofe who are killed in 



i77°- battle ; for the hunger of him who is preffed by famine to 
i_ -.- _■ fight, will abforb every feeling, and every fentiment which 
would reftrain him from allaying it with the body of his ad- 
verfary. It may however be remarked, that, if this account 
of the origin of fo horrid a practice is true, the mifchief 
does by no means end with the neceflity that produced it : 
after the practice has been once begun on one fide by hun- 
ger, it will naturally be adopted on the other by revenge. 
Nor is this all, for though it may be pretended, by fome who 
with to appear fpeculative and philofophical, that whether 
the dead body of an enemy be eaten or buried, is in itfelf a 
a matter perfectly indifferent ; as it is, whether the breafls 
and thighs of a woman fhould be covered or naked ; and 
that prejudice and habit only make us fhudder at the viola- 
tion of cuflom in one inflance, and blufh at it in the other: 
yet, leaving this as a point of doubtful difputation, to be dif- 
cufled at leifure, it may fafely be affirmed, that the practice 
of eating human ilelh, whatever it may be in itfelf, is rela- 
tively, and in its confequences, mofl pernicious ; tending 
manifeflly to eradicate a principle which is the chief fecu- 
rity of human life, and more frequently reftrains the hand 
of murder than the fenfe of duty, or even the fear of pu- 

Among thofe who are accuftomed to eat the dead, death 
rnufi have loft much of its horror ; and where there is little 
horror at the fight of death, there will not be much repug- 
nance to kill. A fenfe of duty, and fear of punifhment, may 
be more eafily furmounted than the feelings of Nature, or 
thofe which have been engrafted upon Nature by early pre- 
judice and uninterrupted cuftom. The horror of the mur- 
derer arifes lefs from the guilt of the fact, than its natural 
effect ; and he who has familiarifed the effect, will confe- 
quently lofe much of the horror. By our laws, and our re- 



ligion, murder and theft incur the fame punifhment, both >77o. 


in this world and the next ; yet, of the multitude who would < -v-^ 

deliberately ileal, there are but very few who would delibe- 
rately kill, even to procure much greater advantage. But 
there is the ftrongeft reafon to believe, that thofe who have 
been fo accuftomed to prepare a human body for a meal, 
that they can with as little feeling cut up a dead man, as our 
cook-maids divide a dead rabbit for a fricaflee, would feel 
as little horror in committing a murder as in picking a 
pocket, and consequently would take away life with as little 
compunction as property ; fo that men, under thefe circum- 
ftances, would be made murderers by the flight temptations 
that now make them thieves. If any man doubts whether 
this reafoning is conclulive, let him afk himfelf, whether in 
his own opinion he fhould not be fafer with a man in whom 
the horror of deftroying life is ftrong, whether in confe- 
quence of natural inftinct unfubdued, or of early prejudice, 
which has nearly an equal influence ; than in the power of a 
man who under any temptation to murder him would be 
reftrained only by confiderations of intereft; for to thefe all 
motives of mere duty may be reduced, as they muft termi- 
nate either in hope of good, or fear of evil. 

The fituation and circumftances, however, of thefe poor 
people, as well as their temper, are favourable to thofe who 
fhall fettle as a colony among them. Their fituation fets 
them in need of protection, and their temper renders it eafy 
to attach them by kindnefs ; and whatever may be faid in 
favour of a favage life, among people who live in luxurious 
idlenefs upon the bounty of Nature, civilization would cer- 
tainly be a blefling to thofe whom her parfimony fcarcely 
furnifhes with the bread of life, and who are perpetually 
deftroying each other by violence, as the only alternative of 
perifhing by hunger. 

Vol. II. ' 3 M But 


1770. But thefe people, from whatever caufe, being inured to 

^ - I-' j war, and by habit confidering every ftranger as an enemy, 
were always difpofed to attack us when they were not inti- 
midated by our manifeft fuperiority. At firft, they had no 
notion of any fuperiority but numbers ; and when this was 
on their fide, they confxdered all our expreffions of kindnefs 
as the artifices of fear and cunning, to circumvent them, 
and preferve ourfelves: but when they were once convinced 
of our power, after having provoked us to the ufe of our 
fire-arms, though loaded only with fmall fhot; and of our 
clemency, by our forbearing to make ufe of weapons fo 
dreadful except in our defence; they became at once friend- 
ly, and even affectionate, placing in us the moil unbounded 
confidence, and doing every thing which could incite us to 
put equal confidence in them. It is alfo remarkable, that 
when an intercourfe was once eftablifhed between us, they 
were very rarely detected in any act of dimonefly. Before, 
indeed, and while they confide: ed us as enemies, who came 
upon their coaft only to make an advantage of them, they 
did not fcruple by any means to make an advantage of us ; 
and would, therefore, when they had received the price of 
any thing they had offered to fell, pack up both the pur- 
chafe and the purchafe-money with all poffible compofure, 
as fo much lawful plunder from people who had no view 
but to plunder them. 

I have obferved that our friends in the South Seas had not 
even the idea of indecency, with refpect to any object or any 
action •, but this was by no means the cafe with the inhabi- 
tants of New Zealand, in whofe carriage and converfation 
there was as much modefl referve and decorum with refpecT: 
to actions, which yet in their opinion were not criminal, as 
are to be found among the politeft people in Europe. The 
women were not impregnable ; but the terms and manner 



of compliance were as decent as thofe in marriage among us, 
and according to their notions, the agreement was as inno- < 
cent. When any of our people made an overture to one of 
their young women, he was given to underftand that the 
confent of her friends was neceflary, and by the influence of 
a proper prefent, it was generally obtained ; but when thefe 
preliminaries were fettled, it was alfo neceflary to treat the 
wife for a night, with the fame delicacy that is here required 
by the wife for life, and the lover who prefumed to take any 
liberties by which this was violated, was fure to be difap- 

One of our gentlemen having made his addrefles to a fa- 
mily of the better fort, received an anfwer, which, tranflated 
into our language, according to the mode and fpirit of it, as 
well as the letter, would have been exactly in thefe terms : 
" Any of thefe young ladies will think themfelves honoured 
by your addrefles, but you mull firft make me a fuitable pre- 
fent, and you muft then come and fleep with us on more, for 
daylight muft by no means be a witnefs of what pafles be- 
tween you." 

I have already obferved, that in perfonal cleanlinefs they 
are not quite equal to our friends at Otaheite ; becaufe, not 
having the advantage of fo warm a climate, they do not fo 
often go into the water; but the moll difguftful thing about 
them is the oil, with which, like the Wanders, they anoint 
their hair: it is certainly the fat either of fifh or of birds, 
melted down, and though the better fort have it frefh, their 
inferiors ufe that which is rancid, and confequently are al- 
moft as difagreeable to the fmell as a Hottentot ; neither are 
their heads free from vermin, though we obferved that they 
were furnifhed with combs, both of bone and wood : thefe 
combs are fometimes worn ftuck upright in the hair as an 

3 M 2 ornament. 




xy?o. ornament, a fafhion which at prefent prevails amon? the 

! 1 ' ladies of England. The men generally wear- their beards 

fhorr, and their hair tied upon the crown of the head in a 
bunch, in which they ftick the feathers of various birds, in 
different manners, according to their fancies ; fometimes 
one is placed on each fide of the temples, pointing forwards, 
which we thought made a very difagreeable appearance. 
The women wear their hair fometimes cropped fhort, and 
fometimes flowing over their fhoulders. 

The bodies of both fexes are marked with the black flains 
called Amoco, by the fame method that is ufed at Otaheite, 
and called Tattowing ; but the men are more marked, and 
the women lefs. The women in general ftain no part of 
their bodies but the lips, though fometimes they are marked 
with fmall black patches on other parts : the men, on the 
contrary, feem to add fomething every year to the orna- 
ments of the laft, fo that fome of them, who appeared to be 
of an advanced age, were almoft covered from head to foot. 
Befides the Amoco, they have marks impreffed by a method 
unknown to us, of a very extraordinary kind : they are fur- 
rows of about a line deep, and a line broad, fuch as appear 
upon the bark of a tree which has been cut through, after a 
year's growth: the edges of thefe furrows are afterwards in- 
dented by the fame method, and being perfectly black, 
they make a moft frightful appearance. The faces of the 
old men are almoft covered with thefe marks ; thofe who 
are very young, black only their lips like the women ; when 
they are fomewhat older, they have generally a black patch 
upon one cheek, and over one eye, and fo proceed gra- 
dually, that they may grow old and honourable together: 
but though we could not but be difgufted with the horrid 
deformity which thefe ftains and furrows produced in the 
" human face divine," we could not but admire the dexte- 
8 rity 



rity and art with which they were imprefled. The marks upon *77°f 

the face in general are fpirals, which are drawn with great «—->, > 

'nicety, and even elegance, thofe on one fide exactly corre- 
fponding with thofe on the other: the marks on the body 
fomewhat refemble the foliage in old chafed ornaments, and 
the convolutions of fillagree work ; but in thefe they have 
fuch a luxuriance of fancy, that of an hundred, which at 
firft fight appeared to be exactly the fame, no two were, 
upon a clofe examination, found to be alike. We obferved, 
that the quantity and form of thefe marks were different in 
different parts of the coaft, and that as the principal feat of 
them at Otaheite was the breech, in New Zealand it was 
fometimes the only part which was free, and in general was 
lefs dift inguiilied than any other. 

The fkins of thefe people, however, are not only dyed, but 
painted, for as I have before obferved, they fmear their bo- 
dies with red oker, fome rubbing it on dry, and fome apply- 
ing it in large patches mixed with oil, which is always wet, 
arid which the leaft touch will rub off, fo that the tranfgref- 
fions of fuch of our people as were guilty of ravifhing a kifs 
from thefe blooming beauties, were mofl legibly written 
upon their faces. 

The drefs of a New Zealander is certainly, to a ftranger 
at firft fight, the moll uncouth that can be imagined. It is 
made of the leaves of the flag, which has been defcribed 
among the vegetable productions of this country : thefe 
leaves are fplit into three or four flips, and the flips, when 
they are dry, interwoven with each other into a kind of fluff 
between netting and cloth, with all the ends, which are 
eight or nine inches long, hanging out on the upper fide, 
like the fhag or thrumb matts, which we fometimes fee 
lying in a paffage. Of this cloth, if cloth it may be called, 



1770. two pieces ferve for a complete drefs; one of them is tied 
i_ '.tl.' i over their moulders with a firing, and reaches as low as 
the knees ; to the end of this firing is fattened a bodkin of 
bone, which is eafily pafTed through any two parts of this 
upper garment, fo as to tack them together ; the other piece 
is wrapped round the waift, and reaches nearly to the 
ground : the lower garment, however, is worn by the men 
only upon particular occafions ; but they wear a belt, to 
which a firing is fattened, for a very Angular ufe. The in- 
habitants of the South Sea iflands flit up the prepuce fo as 
to prevent it from covering the glans of the penis, but thefe 
people, on the contrary, bring the prepuce over the glans, 
and to prevent it from being drawn back by the contraction 
of the part, they tie the firing which hangs from their girdle, 
round the end of it. The glans indeed feemed to be the 
only part of their body which they were folicitous to con- 
ceal, for they frequently threw off all their drefs but the belt 
and firing, with the moft carelefs indifference, but fhewed 
manifeft figns of confufion, when, to gratify our curiofity, 
they were requefled to untie the firing, and never confented 
but with the utmofl reluctance and fhame. When they have 
only their upper garment on, and fit upon their hams, they 
bear fome refemblance to a thatched houfe ; but this cover- 
ing, though it is ugly, is well adapted to the ufe of thofe 
who frequently fleep in the open air, without any other 
ftielter from the rain. 

But befides this courfe fhag or thatch, they have two forts 
of cloth, which have an even furface, and are very ingeni- 
oufly made, in the fame manner with that manufactured 
by the inhabitants of South America, fome of which we 
procured at Rio de Janeiro. One fort is as coarfe as our 
coarfeft canvas, and fomewhat refembles it in the manner of 
laying the threads, but it is ten times as flrong : the other is 

4 formed 



formed by many threads lying very clofe one way, and a '770. 
few croffing them the other, fo as to bind them together; 
but thefe are about half an inch afunder, fomewhat like the 
round pieces of cane matting which are fometimes placed 
under the diflies upon a table. This is frequently ftriped, 
and always had a pretty appearance, for it is compofed of 
the fibres of the fame plant, which are prepared fo as to 
fhine like filk. It is made in a kind of frame of the fize of 
the cloth, generally about five feet long, and four broad,, 
acrofs which the long threads, which lie clofe together, or 
warp, are ftrained, and the crofs threads, or woof, are worked 
in by hand, which muft be a very tedious operation. 

To both thefe kinds of cloth they work borders of different 
colours, in flitches, fomewhat like carpeting, or rather like 
thofe ufed in the famplars which girls work at fchool. Thefe 
borders are of various- patterns, and wrought with a neat- 
nefs, and even an elegance, which, confidering they have 
no needle, is furprizing : but the great pride of their drefs 
confifts in the fur of their dogs, which they ufe with fuch 
Geconomy that they cut it into ftripes, and few them upon 
their cloth at a diftance from each other, which is a ftrong 
proof that dogs are not plenty among them ; thefe ftripes 
are alfo of different colours, and difpofed £0 as to produce a 
pleafing effect. We faw fome drefies that were adorned with 
feathers inflead of fur, but thefe were not common ; and 
we faw one that was intirely covered with the red feathers- 
of the parrot. 

The drefs of the man who was killed, when we firft went 
afhore in Poverty Bay, has been defcribed already ; but we 
faw the fame drefs only once more during our flay upon the 
coaft, and that was in Queen Charlotte's Sound. 


45 b 



770.I The women, contrary to the cuftom of the fex in general, 
feemed to affect drefs rather lefs than the men : their hair, 
which, as I have obferved before, is generally cropt fhort, is 
never tied upon the top of the head when it is fuffered to be 
long, nor is it ever adorned with feathers. Their garments 
were made of the fame materials, and in the fame form, as 
thofe of the other fex, but the lower one was always bound 
fail round them, except when they went into the water to 
catch lobfters, and then they took great care not to be feen 
by the men. Some of us happening one day to land upon a 
fmall iiland in Tolaga Bay, we furprized feveral of them at 
this employment ; and the chafle Diana, with her nymphs, 
could not have difcovered more confufion and diftrefs at the 
fight of Aclseon, than thefe women exprefled upon our ap- 
proach. Some of them hid themfelves among the rocks, 
and the reft crouched down in the fea till they had made 
themfelves a girdle and apron of fuch weeds as they could 
find, and when they came out, even with this veil, we could 
perceive that their modefty fufTered much pain by our pre- 
fence. The girdle and apron which they wear in common, 
have been mentioned before. 

Both fexes bore their ears, and by ftretching them the 
holes become large enough to admit a finger at leaft. In 
thefe holes they wear ornaments of various kinds, cloth, 
feathers, bones of large birds, and even fometimes a flick of 
wood ; and to thefe receptacles of finery they generally ap- 
plied the nails which we gave them, and every thing which 
it was poffible they could contain. The women fometimes 
thruft through them the down of the albatrofs, which is as 
white as mow, and which, fpreading before and behind the 
hole in a bunch almoft as big as the fift, makes a very An- 
gular, and however ftrange it may be thought, not a dis- 


agreeable appearance. Befides the ornaments that are thruft , 77^ 
through the holes of the ears, many others are fufpended to v— -v— j 
them by firings ; fuch as duffels or bodkins made of green 
talc, upon which they fet a high value, the nails and teeth 
of their deceafed relations, the teeth of dogs, and every 
thing elfe that they can get, which they think either curious 
or valuable. The women alfo wear bracelets and anclets, 
made of the bones of birds, fhells, or any other fubflances 
which they can perforate and firing upon a thread. 1 he 
men had fometimes hanging to a firing, which went round 
the neck, a piece of green talc, or whalebone, fomewhat in 
the fhape of a tongue, with the rude figure of a man carved 
upon it ; and upon this ornament they fet a high value. In 
one inflance, we faw the griflle that divides the noflrils, and 
called by anatomifls, the feptum nafi, perforated, and a fea- 
ther thruft through the whole, which projected on each fide 
over the cheeks : it is probable that this frightful Angularity 
was intended as an ornament, but of the many people we 
faw, we never obferved it in any other, nor even a perfora- 
tion that might occafionally ferve for fuch a purpofe. 

Their houfes are the mofl inartificially made of any thing H ° ufea - 
among them, being fcarcely equal, except in fize, to an 
Englifli dog-kennel: they are feldom more than eighteen 
or twenty feet long, eight or ten broad, and five or fix high, 
from the pole that runs from one end to the other, and forms 
the ridge, to the ground : the framing is of wood, generally 
flender flicks, and both walls and roof confift of dry grafs 
and hay, which, it mufl be confeffed, is very tightly put to- 
gether; and fome are alfo lined with the bark of trees, fo 
that in cold weather they mufl afford a very comfortable re- 
treat. The roof is floping, like thofe of our barns, and the 
door is at one end, jufl high enough to admit a man, creep- 
ing upon his hands and knees: near the door is a fquare 

Vol. II. 3 N hole, 


i77°- hole, which ferves the double office of window and chim- 


<— v ' ney, for the fire-place is at that end, nearly in the middle 

between the two fides : in fome confpicuous part, and gene- 
rally near the door, a plank is fixed, covered with carving 
after their manner : this they value as we do a picture, and 
in their eflimation it is not an inferior ornament : the fide- 
walls and roof project about two feet beyond the walls at 
each end, fo as to form a kind of porch, in which there are 
benches for the accommodation of the family. That part 
of the floor which is allotted for the fire-place, is enclofed in 
a hollow fquare, by partitions either of wood or flone, and 
in the middle of it the fire is kindled. The floor, along the 
infide of the walls, is thickly covered with draw, and upon, 
this the family fleep. 

Furniture. Their furniture and implements confift of but few articles,, 
and one chefl: commonly contains them all, except their 
provifion-bafkets, the gourds that hold their frefh water, 
and the hammers that are ufed to beat their fern-root, which 
generally Hand without the door: fome rude tools, their 
cloaths, arms, and a few feathers to flick in their hahv 
make the reft of their treafure. 

Some of the better fort, whofe families are large, have 
three or four houfes enclofed within a court-yard, the walls 
of which are conilrucled of poles and hay, and are about 
ten or twelve feet high. 

When we were on fhore in the diftrict called Tolaga, we 
faw the ruins, or rather the frame of a houfe, for it had 
never been finifhed, much fuperior in fize to any that we 
faw elfewhere : it was thirty feet in length, about fifteen in 
breadth, and twelve high : the fides of it were adorned with 
many carved planks, of a workmanihip much fuperior to 
any other that we had met with in the country ; but for 

4 what 


what purpofe it was built, or why it was deferted, we could wo- 
never learn. ' — ■* — - 

But thefe people, though in their houfes they are fo well 
defended from the inclemency of the weather, feem to be 
quite indifferent whether they have any fhelter at all during 
their excurfions in fearch of fern roots and fifh, fometimes 
fetting up a fmall made to windward, and fometimes alto- 
gether neglecting even that precaution, fieeping with their 
women and children under bufhes, with their weapons 
ranged round them, in the manner that has already been 
defcribed. The party confiding of forty or fifty, whom we 
faw at Mercury Bay, in a diftridr. which the natives call 
Opoorage, never erected the leaft fhelter while we ftaid there, 
though it fometimes rained inceiTantly for four and twenty 
hours together. 

The articles of their food have been enumerated already ; Food. 
the principal, which to them is what bread is to the inha- 
bitants of Europe, is the roots of the fern which grows upon 
the hills, and is nearly the fame with what grows upon our 
high commons in England, and is called indifferently fern, 
bracken, or brakes. The birds which fometimes ferve 
them for a feaft, are chiefly penguins and albatroffes, with a 
few other fpecies that have been occalibnally mentioned in 
this narrative. 

Having no veffel in which water can be boiled, their Cookery. 
cookery confifts wholly of baking and roafling. They bake 
nearly in the fame manner as tiie inhabitants of the South 
Seas, and to the account that has been already given of their 
roafling, nothing need be added, but that the long fkewer 
or fpit to which the flefh is fattened, is placed doping towards 
the fire, by fetting one flone agamft the bottom of it, and 
fupporting it near the middle with another, by the moving 

3 N 2 of 


l 77°- of which to a greater or lefs diftance from the end, the de- 

March. ■ . . -, *■ ~ • • /i i 

«— v ' gree of obliquity is mcreafed or diminiflied at pleafure. 

To the northward, as I have obferved, there are planta~ 
tions of yams, fweet potatoes, and eoccos, but we faw no 
fuch to the fouthward ; the inhabitants therefore of that 
part of the country mult fubfift wholly upon fern root and 
fifti, except the fcanty and accidental refource which they 
may find in fea fowl and dogs ; and that fern and fifti are 
not to be procured at all feafons of the year, even at the fea 
fide, and upon the neighbouring hills, is manifeft from the 
ltores of both that we faw laid up dry, and the reluc- 
tance which fome of them exprefled at felling any part of 
them to us when we offered to purchafe them, at leaft the 
filh, for fea ftores : and this particular feems to confirm my 
opinion that this country fcarcely fuftains the prefent num- 
ber of its inhabitants, who are urged to perpetual hoftilities 
by hunger, which naturally prompted them to eat the dead 
bodies of thofe who were fiain in the conteft. 

Water is their univerfal and only liquor, as far as we. 
could difcover, and if they have really no means of intoxica- 
tion, they are, in this particular, happy beyond any other 
people that we have yet feen or heard of. 

As there is perhaps no fource of difeafe either critical or 
chronic, but intemperance and inactivity, it cannot be 
thought flrange that thefe people enjoy perfect and uninter- 
rupted health: in all our vifits to their towns, where young 
and old, men and women, crowded about us, prompted by 
the fame curiofity that carried us to look at them, we never 
faw a fingle perfon who appeared to have any bodily com- 
plaint, nor among the numbers that we have feen naked, 
did we once perceive the flighted eruption upon the fkin, or 
any marks that an eruption had left behind: at firft, indeed, 
3 observing 


cbferving that fome of them when they came oiF to us were 1 17°- 
marked in patches with a white flowery appearance upon <— -v — j 
different parts of their bodies, we thought that they were 
leperous, or highly fcorbutic ; but upon examination we 
found that thefe marks were owing to their having been 
wetted by the fprey of the fea in their pafTage, which, when 
it was dried away, left the falts behind it in a fine white 

Another proof of health, which we have mentioned upon 
a former occafion, is the facility with which the wounds 
healed that had left fears behind them, and that we faw 
in a recent ftate ; when we faw the man who had been 
jhot with a mufket ball through the flefhy part of his arm, 
his wound feemed to be fo well digefted, and in fo fair a 
way of being perfectly healed, that if I had not known no 
application had been made to it, I fhould certainly have en- 
quired, with a very interefted curiofity, after the vulnerary 
herbs and furgical art of the country. 

A farther proof that human nature is here untainted with 
difeafe, is the great number of old men that we faw, many 
of whom, by the lofs of their hair and teeth, appeared to be 
very ancient, yet none of them were decrepit, and though 
not equal to the young in mufcular. ftrength,- were not a 
whit behind them in cheerfulnefs and vivacity. 




Of the Canoes and Navigation of the Inhabitants of New 
Zealand ; their Tillage, Weapons ', and Mufic : Govern- 
ment, Religion, and Language : With Jome Reafons 
againfl the Exiflence of a Southern Continent. 

ij 77 ° h " / | \ h E ingenuity of thefe people appears in nothing more 

Canoes. ^ 

than in their canoes : they are long and narrow, and 
in fhape very much refemble a New England whale boat : 
the larger fort feem to be built chiefly for war, and will 
carry from forty to eighty, or an hundred armed men. We 
meafured one which lay afhore at Tolaga: flie was fixty- 
eight feet and an half long, five feet broad r and three feet 
and an half deep; the bottom was fharp, with ftrait fides 
like a wedge, and confifled of three lengths, hollowed out 
to about two inches, or an inch and an half thick, and well 
fattened together with ftrong plaiting: each fide confifted 
of one intire plank, fixty-three feet long, ten or twelve 
inches broad, and about an inch and quarter thick, and 
thefe were fitted and lafhed to the bottom part with great 
dexterity and flrength. A confiderable number of thwarts 
were laid from gunwale to gunwale, to which they were 
fecurely laflied on each fide, as a ftrengthening to the boat. 
The ornament at the head projected five or fix feet beyond 
the body, and was about four feet and an half high ; the 
ornament at the ftern was fixed upon that end, as the fiern- 
poft of a fliip is upon her keel, and wasj about fourteen feet 
hvgh, two feet broad, and an inch and an half thick. They 






Hp^ pBJrj^ &T ^^y JgppBJ 

W *.* H V V 


ff 1 



both confifted of boards of carved work, of which the defign 1770- 


was much better than the execution. All their canoes, ex- 1 ,— «a 

cept a few at Opoorage or Mercury Bay, which were of one 
piece, and hollowed by fire, are built after this plan, and 
few are lefs than twenty feet long : fome of the fmaller fort 
have outriggers, and fometimes two of them are joined 
together, but this is not common. The carving upon 
the {tern and head ornaments of the inferior boats, which 
feem to be intended wholly for fifhing, confifts of the 
figure of a man, with a face as ugly as can be conceived, 
and a monftrous tongue thruft out of the mouth, with 
the white fhells of fea-ears ftuck in for the eyes. But 
the canoes of the fuperior kind, which feem to be their men 
of war, are magnificently adorned with open work, and co- 
vered with loofe fringes of black feathers, which had a moll; 
elegant appearance : the gunwale boards were alfo fre- 
quently carved in a grotefque tafte, and adorned with tufts 
of white feathers placed upon a black ground. Of vifible 
objects that are wholly new, no verbal defcription can con- 
vey a juft idea, but in proportion as they refemble fome that 
are already known, to which the mind of the reader rauft be 
referred : the carving of thefe people being of a fingular 
kind, and not in the likenefs of any thing that is known on 
our fide of the ocean, either " in the heaven above, or in the 
" earth beneath, or m the waters that are under the earth/' 
I mull refer wholly to the reprefentations which will be 
found of it in Plate XV. 

The paddles are fmall, light, and neatly made ; the blade 
is of an oval fhape, or rather of a fhape refembling a large 
leaf, pointed at the bottom, broadei! in the middle, and gra- 
dually lofing itfelf in the fhaft, the whole length being about 
fix feet, of which the fhaft or loom including the handle is 



1770- four, and the blade two. T5y the help of thefe oars they puili 
v— . ^~— j on their boats with amazing velocity. 

In failing they are not expert, having no art of going 
otherwife than before the wind : the fail is of netting or 
matt, which is fet up between two poles that are fixed up- 
right upon each gunwale, and ferve both for malls and 
yards : two ropes anfwered the purpofe of meets, and were 
confequently fattened above to the top of each pole. But 
clumfy and inconvenient as this apparatus is, they make good 
way before the wind, and are fleered by two men who lit in 
the ftern, with each a paddle in his hand for that purpofe. 

Tools> Having faid thus much of their workmanfhip, I mall now 

give fome account of their tools j they have adzes, axes, and 
chiiTels, which ferve them alfo as augers for the boring of 
holes : as they have no metal, their adzes and axes are made 
of a hard black Hone, or of a green talc, which is not only 
hard but tough ; and their chiflels of human bone, or fmall 
fragments of jafpar, which they chip off from a block in 
fharp angular pieces like a gun-flint. Their axes they value 
above all that they poiTefs, and never would part with one of 
them for any thing that we could give : I once offered one 
of the bed axes I had in the fliip, befides a number of other 
things for one of them, but the owner would not fell it; 
from which I conclude that good ones are fcarce among 
them. Their fmall tools of jafpar, which are ufed in finifh- 
ing their niceft work, they ufe till they are blunt, and then, 
as they have no means of fharpening them, throw them 
away. We had given the people at Tolaga a piece of glafs, 
and in a fhort time they found means to drill a hole through 
it, in order to hang it round the neck as an ornament by a 
thread ; and we imagine the tool muft have been a piece of 
this jafpar. How they bring their large tools firft to an 



edge, and fharpen the weapon which they call Patoo-Patoo, 1770. 
we could not certainly learn ; but probably it is by bruifing 1 ._/_ '__, 
the fame fubftance to powder, and, with this, grinding two 
pieces againft each other. 

Their nets, particularly their feine, which is of an enor- Nets, 
mous fize, have been mentioned already : onei)f thefe feems 
to be the joint work of a whole town, and I fuppofe it to be 
the joint property alfo : the other net, which is circular, and 
extended by two or three hoops, has been particularly de- 
fcribed as well as the manner of baiting and ufing it. Their 
hooks are of bone or fhell, and in general are ill made. To 
receive the fifh when it is caught, and to hold their other 
provifions, they have baf&ets of various kinds and dimen- 
fions, very neatly made of wicker work. 

They excel in tillage, as might naturally be expected Tillage. 
where the perfon that fows is to eat the produce, and where 
there is fo little befides that can be eaten : when we firft 
came to Tegadoo, a diflrift between Poverty Bay and Eafl 
Cape, their crops were juft covered, and had not yet begun 
to fprout ; the mould was as fmooth as in a garden, and 
every root had its fmall hillock, ranged in a regular quin- 
cunx by lines, which with the pegs were Hill remaining in 
the field. We had not an opportunity to fee any of thefe 
hufbandmen work, but we faw what ferves them at once 
for fpade and plough : this inftrument is nothing more than 
a long narrow flake fharpened to an edge at one end, with a 
fliort piece fattened tranfverfely at a little diftance above it, 
for the convenience of preffing it down with the foot. With 
this they turn up pieces of ground fix or feven acres in ex- 
tent, though it is not more than three inches broad ; but as 
the foil is light and fandy it makes little refinance. 

Vol. II. 3 O Tillage, 


1770. Tillage, weaving, and the other arts of peace, feem to be 

]y3"i r cTit 

i_ '-[-. _« bell known and mofl pradtifed in the northern part of this 
country ; for there is little appearance of any of them in 
the South : but the arts of war flourilh equally through the 
whole coaft. 

Weapons. Of weapons they have no great variety, but fuch as they 

have are well fitted for deftruclion ; they have fpears, darts, 
battle-axes, and the Patoo-Patoo. The fpear is fourteen 
or fifteen feet long, pointed at both ends, and fometimes 
headed with bone : thefe are grafped by the middle, fo that 
the part behind balancing that before, makes a pufh more 
difficult to be parried, than that of a weapon which is held 
by the end. The dart and other weapons have been fufli- 
ciently defcribed already ; and it has alfo been remarked, 
that thefe people have neither fling nor bow. They throw 
the dart by hand, and fo they do flones ; but darts and Hones 
are feldom ufed except in defending their forts. Their 
battles, whether in boats or on more, are generally hand to 
hand, and the flaughter mufl confequently be great, as a 
fecond blow with any of their weapons is unneceflTary, if the 
nrft takes place : their truft, however, feems to be princi- 
pally placed in the Patoo-Patoo, which is faflened to their 
wrifls by a flrong flrap, left it mould be wrenched from 
them, and which the principal people generally wear flick- 
ing in their girdles, confldering it as a military ornament, 
and part of their drefs, like the poinard of the Afiatic, and 
the fword of the European. They have no defenfive armour ; 
but, befides their weapons, the Chiefs carried a ftafF of dis- 
tinction, in the fame manner as our officers do the fpontoon : 
this was generally the rib of a whale, as white as fnow, with 
many ornaments of carved work, dog's hair, and feathers; 
but fometimes it was a flick, about fix feet long, adorned in 
2 the 

X°l i 


the fame manner, and inlaid with a fhell like mother-of-pearl. 1770. 
Thofe who bore this mark of diftinction were generally old, ■_ -,—!__/ 
at leaft paft the middle age, and were alfo more marked with 
the Amoco than the reft. 

One or more perfons, thus diftinguifhed, always appeared 
in each cauue, when they came to attack us, according to 
the fize of it. When they came within about a cable's length 
of the fhip, they ufed to flop, and the Chiefs riling from their 
feat, put on a>drefs which feemed appropriated to the occa- 
fion, generally of dog's fkin, and holding out their decorated 
ftaff, or a weapon, directed the reft of the people what they 
fhould do. When they were at too great a diftance to reach 
us with a lance or a ftone, they prefumed that we had no wea- 
pon with which we could reach them ; here then the de- 
fiance was given, and the words were almoft univerfally the 
fame, Haromai, haro7iiai, harre uta a Patoo-Patoo oge : " Come to 
" us, come on fliore, and we will kill you all with our 
" Patoo-Patoos." While they were uttering thefe menaces 
they came gradually nearer and nearer, till they were clofe 
alongfide ; talking at intervals in a peaceable ftrain, and an- 
fwering any queftions that we afked them; and at intervals 
renewing their defiance and threats, till being encouraged 
by our apparent timidity, they began their war-fong and 
dance, as a prelude to an attack, which always followed, 
and was fometimes continued till it became abfolutely ne- 
ceffary to reprefs them by firing fome fmall-fhot ; and fome- 
times ended after throwing a few ftones on board, as if con- 
tent with having offered us an infult which we did not dare 
to revenge. 

The war-dance confifts of a great variety of violent mo- 
tions, and hideous contortions of the limbs, during which 
the countenance alfo performs ks part ; the tongue is fre- 

3° 2 quently 


1770. quently thruft out to an incredible length, and the eye-lid& 
i_ "- '_r fo forcibly drawn up that the white appears both above and 
below, as well as on each fide of the iris, fo as to form a 
circle round it ; nor is any thing neglected that can render 
the human fhape frightful and deformed : at the fame time 
they brandifh their fpears, make their darts, and cleave the 
air with their Patoo-Patoos. This horrid dance is always 
accompanied by a fong ; it is wild indeed, but not difagree- 
able, and every ftrain ends in a loud and deep figh, which 
they utter in concert. In the motions of the dance, however 
horrid, there is a ftrength, firmnefs, and agility, which we 
could not but behold with admiration ; and in their fong 
they keep time with fuch exactnefs, that I have often heard 
above an hundred paddles ftruck againft the fides of their 
boats at once, fo as to produce but a {ingle found, at the 
divifions of their mufic 

A fong not altogether unlike this, they fometimes fmg 
without the dance, and as a peaceable amufement : they 
have alfo other fongs which are fung by the women, whofe 
voices are remarkably mellow and foft, and have a plealing 
and tender effect ; the time is flow, and the cadence mourn- 
ful ; but it is conducted with more tafle than could be ex- 
pected among the poor ignorant favages of this half defolate 
country ; efpecially as it appeared to us, who were none of 
us much acquainted with mufic as a fcience, to be fung in 
parts } it was at leaft fung by many voices at the fame time. 

They have fonorous inftruments, but they canfcarcely be 
called inftruments of mufic; one is the fhell, called the Tri- 
ton's trumpet, with which they make a noife not unlike that 
which our boys fometimes make with a cow's horn : the 
other is a fmall wooden pipe, refembling a child's nine-pin, 
only much fmaller, and in this there is no more mufic than 



in a nea-whiftle. They feem fenfible indeed that thefe in- *77°- 

r ' March. 

ftruments are not mufical ; for we never heard an attempt to 1 , * 

fing to them, or to produce with them any meafured tones 
that bore the leaft refemblance to a tune. 

To what has been already faid of the practice of eat- 
ing human flefli, I mall only add, that in almofl every 
cove where we landed, we found flefli bones of men near the 
places where fires had been made; and that among the heads 
that were brought on board by the old man, fome feemed 
to have falfe eyes, and ornaments in their ears as if alive. 
That which Mr. Banks bought was fold with great reluc- 
tance by the poffeffor: the head was manifeftly that of a 
young perfon about fourteen or fifteen years of age, and by 
the contufions on one fide appeared to have received many 
violent blows, and indeed a part of the bone near the eye 
was wanting. Thefe appearances confirmed us in the opi- 
nion that the natives of this country give no quarter, nor 
take any prifoners to be killed and eaten at a future time, as 
is faid to have been a practice among the Indians of Florida: 
for if prifoners had been taken, this poor young creature, 
who cannot be fuppofed capable of making much refinance, 
would probably have been one, and we knew that he was- 
killed with the reft, for the fray had happened but a few- 
days before. 

The towns or Hippahs of thefe people, which are all for- 
tified, have been fufficiently defcribed already, and from the 
Bay of Plenty to Queen Charlotte's Sound they feem to be 
the conftant refidence of the people : but about Poverty Bay, 
Hawk's Bay, Tegadoo, and Tolaga, we faw no Hippahs, but 
fmgle houfes fcattered at a diftance from each other; yet 
upon the fides of the hills there were ftages of a great length, 
furnifhed with ftones and darts, probably as retreats for the 



1770- people at the laft extremity, as upon thefe flages a fight may 
,_ -~ _> be carried on with much advantage againft thofe below, who 
may be reached with great effect by darts and ftones, which 
it is impofiible for them to throw up with equal force. And 
indeed the forts themfelves feem to be no farther ferviceable 
than by enabling the pofTeflbrs to reprcfs a fudden attack ; 
for as there is no fupply of water within the lines, it would 
be impofiible to fuflain a fiege. A confiderable flock of 
fern-root and dry fifh is indeed laid up in them ; but they 
may be referved againfl feafons of fcarcity, and that fuch 
feafons there are, our obfervations left us no room to doubt ; 
befides, while an enemy fhould be prowling in the neigh- 
bourhood, it would be eafy to fnatch a fupply of water from 
the fide of the hill, though it would be impofiible to dig up 
fern root or catch fifli. 

In this diftrict, however, the people feemed to live in a 
flate of confcious fecurity, and to avail themfelves of their 
advantage : their plantations were more numerous, their 
canoes were more decorated, and they had not only finer 
carving, but finer clothes. This part of the coaft alfo was 
much the mofl populous, and poflibly their apparent peace 
and plenty might arife from their being united under one 
Chief, or King ; for the inhabitants of all this part of the 
country told us, that they were the fubjeets of Teratu: when 
they pointed to the refidence of this Prince, it was in a direc- 
tion which we thought inland ; but which, when we knew 
the country better, we found to be the Bay of Plenty. 

Government. U is much to be regretted that we were obliged to leave 
this country without knowing any thing of Teratu but his 
name. As an Indian monarch, his territory is certainly ex- 
tenfive : he was acknowledged from Cape Kidnappers to the 
northward, and weftward as far as the Bay of Plenty, a length 



of coaft upwards of eighty leagues ; and we do not yet know »77°- 

how much farther weflward his dominions may extend. < . » 

Poffibly the fortified towns which we faw in the Bay of 
Plenty may be his barrier; efpecially as at Mercury Bay he 
was not acknowledged, nor indeed any other fmgle Chief: 
for wherever we landed, or fpoke with the people upon that 
coaft, they told us that we were at but a fmall diftance from 
their enemies. 

In the dominions of Teratu we faw feveral fubordinate 
Chiefs, to whom great refpect was paid, and by whom juf- 
tice was probably adminiftered ; for upon our complaint to 
one of them, of a theft that had been committed on board 
the fhip by a man that came with him, he gave him feveral 
blows and kicks, which the other received as the chaftife- 
ment of authority, againft which no refiftance was to be 
made, and which he had no right to refent. Whether this 
authority was poflefTed by appointment or inheritance we 
could not learn ; but we obferved that the Chiefs, as well 
here as in other parts, were elderly men. In other parts, 
however, we learnt that they poflefTed their authority by in- 

The little focieties which we found in the fouthern parts 
feemed to have feveral things in common, particularly their 
fine clothes and fifhing nets. Their fine clothes, which pof- 
fibly might be the fpoils of war, were kept in a fmall hut, 
which was erected for that purpofe in the middle of the town : 
the nets we faw making in almofl every houfe, and the feveral 
parts being afterwards collected were joined together. Lefs 
account feems to be made of the women here than in the 
South Sea iflands ; fuch at leafl was the opinion of Tupia, 
who complained of it as an indignity to the fex. We ob- 
ferved that the two fexes eat together; but how they divide 



1770. their labour we do not certainly know. I am inclined to be» 
ti —.—' . '_; lieve that the men till the ground, make nets, catch birds, 
and go out in their boats to fiih ; and that the women dig 
up fern roots, collect lobfters and other fhell fiih near the 
beach, drefs the victuals, and weave cloth: fuch at leaft were 
their employments when we had an opportunity of obferv- 
ing them, which was but feldom ; for in general our ap- 
pearance made a holiday wherever we went, men, women 
and children, flocking round us, either to gratify their curio- 
fity, or to purchafe fome of the valuable merchandize which 
we carried about with us, confiding principally of nails, 
paper, and broken glafs. 

Religion. Of the religion of thefe people it cannot be fuppofed that 
we could learn much ; they acknowledge the influence of 
fuperior beings, one of whom is fupreme, and the reft fub- 
ordinate ; and gave nearly the fame account of the origin of 
the world, and the production of mankind, as our friends 
in Otaheitc : Tupia, however, feemed to have a much more 
deep and extenfive knowlege of thefe fubjects than any of 
the people here ; and whenever he was difpofed to inftruct 
them, which he fometimes did in a long difcourfe, he was 
fure of a numerous audience, who liitened in profound 
filence, with fuch reverence and attention, that we could not 
but wifh them a better teacher. 

What homage they pay to the deities they acknowledge 
we could not learn ; but we faw no place of public worfhip, 
like the Mora is of the South Sea iflands: yet we faw, near a 
plantation of fweet potatoes, a fmall area, of a fquare figure, 
furrounded with ftones, in the middle of which one of the 
fharpcned (lakes which they ufc as a fpade was fet up, and 
upon it was hung a bafket of fern roots : upon enquiry, the 
natives told us, that it was an offering to the gods, by which 

6 the 


the owner hoped to render them propitious, and obtain a J 77o. 

r March. 

plentiful crop. < „ > 

As to their manner of difpofmg of their dead, we could Dead. 
form no certain opinion of it, for the accounts that we re- 
ceived by no means agreed. In the northern parts, they told 
-us that they buried them in the ground ; and in the fouth- 
ern, that they threw them into the fea : it is however certain 
that we faw no grave in the country, and that they affected 
to conceal every thing relating to their dead with a kind of 
myfterious fecrecy. But whatever may be the fepulchre, the 
living are themfelvcs the monuments ; for we faw fcarcely 
a fingle pcrfon of either fex whofe body was not marked by 
the fears of wounds which they had inflicted upon them- 
felves as a teftimony of their regret for the lofs of a relation 
or friend: fome of thefe wounds we faw in a ftate fo recent 
that the blood was fcarcely {launched, which mows that 
death had been among them while we were upon the coaft ; 
and makes it more extraordinary that no funeral ceremony 
mould have fallen under our notice : fome of the fears 
were very large and deep, and in many inftances had greatly 
disfigured the face. One monument indeed we obferved of 
another kind, the crofs that was fet up near Queen Char- 
lotte's Sound. 

Having now given the beft account in my power of the 
cuftoms and opinions of the inhabitants of New Zealand, 
with their boats, nets, furniture, and drefs, I fhall only re- 
mark, that the fimilitude between thefe particulars here and 
in the South Sea iilands is a very flrong proof that the inha- 
bitants have the fame origin ; and that the common ances- 
tors of both, were natives of the fame country. They have 
both a tradition that their anceltors, at a very remote period 
of time, came from another country - h and, according to the 

Vol. II. . 3 p tradition 





tradition of both, that the name of that country was He a- 
wije ; but the fimilitude of the language feems to put the 
matter altogether out of doubt. I have already obferved, that 
Tupia, when he accofled the people here in the language of 
his own country, was perfectly underftood ; and I ihall give 
a fpecimen of the fimilitude by a lift of words in both lan- 
guages, according to the dialect of the northern and fouth- 
ern iflands of which New Zealand confifts, by which it will 
appear that the language of Otaheite does not differ more 
from that of New Zealand, than the language of the two 
iflands from each other. 


New Z 





A Chief, 




A man, 




A woman, 




The head, 




The hair, 




The ear, 




The forehead, 




The eyes. 




The cheeks, 




The nofe, 




The mouth, 




The chin, 



The arm, 




The finger, 




The belly, 



The navel, 




Come hither, 
















Sweet potatoes, 
















































The teeth, 




The tuind, 



A thief, 



To examine, 


















What do you") 

call this or > 
that, J 

Owy Terra, 

Owy Terra. 

By this fpecimen, I think it appears to demonftration that 
the language of New Zealand and Otaheite is radically the 
fame. The language of the northern and fouthern parts of 
New Zealand differs chiefly in the pronunciation, as the 
fame Englifh word is pronounced gate in Middlefex, and 
gedte in Yorkfhire : and as the fouthern and northern words 
were not written down by the fame perfon, one might pof- 

3 P 2 fibly 


177°- fibly ufe more letters to produce the fame found than the 

March. , J 

< „. — r other. 

I muft alfo obferve, that it is the genius of the language, 
efpecially in the fouthern parts, to put fome article before a 
noun, as we do the or a \ the articles ufed here were generally 
he or ko .• it is alfo common here to add the word oeia after 
another word, as an iteration, efpecially if it is an anfwer to 
a queftion ; as we fay yes indeed, to be Jure, really, certainly: this 
fometimes led our gentlemen into the formation of words of 
an enormous length, judging by the ear only, without being 
able to refer each found into its fignification. An example 
will make this perfectly underftood. 

In the Bay of Iflands there is a remarkable one, called by 
the natives Matu aro. One of our gentlemen having afked 
a native the name of it, he anfwered, with the particle, Ke- 
matuaro ; the gentleman hearing the found imperfectly, re- 
peated his queftion, and the Indian repeating his anfwer, 
added oeia, which made the word Kematuarooeia ; and 
thus it happened that in the log book I found Matuaro 
transformed into Cumettiivarroiveia : and the fame trans- 
formation, by the fame means, might happen to an Englifh 
word. Suppofe a native of New Zealand at Hackney 
church, to enquire " what village is this :" the anfwer 
would be, " it is Hackney :" fuppofe the queftion to be. re- 
peated with an air of doubt and uncertainty, the anfwer 
might be " it is Hackney indeed," and the New Zealander, 
if he had the ufe of letters, would probably record, for the 
information of his countrymen, that during his refidence 
among us he had vifited a village called " Ityfhakneeindede.'' 
The article ufed by the inhabitants of the South Sea iflands, 
inftead of he or ko, is to or ta, but the word oeia is common 
to both ; and when we began to learn the language, it led 
us into many ridiculous miftakes. 



But fuppofmg thefe iflands, and thofe in the South Seas, i77°- 
to have been peopled originally from the fame country, it 
will perhaps for ever remain a doubt what country that is: 
we were, however, unanimouily of opinion, that the people did 
not come from America, which lies to the eaftward ; and ex- 
cept there mould appear to be a continent to the fouthward, 
in a moderate latitude, it will follow that they came from 
the weflward. 

Thus far our navigation has certainly been unfavourable 
to the notion of a fouthern continent, for it has fwept away 
at leaft three-fourths of the pofitions upon which it has been 
founded. The principal navigators, whofe authority has 
been urged on this occafion, are Tafman, Juan Fernandes, 
Hermite, the commander of a Dutch fquadron, Quiros, and 
Roggewein; and the track of the Endeavour has demonftrated. 
that the land feen by thefe perfons, and fuppofed to be part 
of a continent, is not fo; it has alfo totally fubverted the the- 
oretical arguments which have been brought to prove that 
the exigence of a fouthern continent is ncceffary to preferve 
an equilibrium between the two hemifpheres ; for upon this 
principle what we have already proved to be water, would 
render the fouthern hemifphere too light. In our rotit to 
the northward, after doubling Cape Horn, when we were 
in the latitude of 40 , our longitude was 110°; and in our re- 
turn to the fouthward, after leaving Ulietea, when we were 
again in latitude 40°, our longitude was 145 ; the difference 
is 35 . When we were in latitude 30° the difference of lon- 
gitude between the two tracks was2i°, which continued till 
we were as low as 20 ; but a fingle view of the chart will 
convey a better idea of this than the mod minute descrip- 
tion: yet as upon a view of the chart it will appear that 
there is a large fpace extending quite to the Tropics, which 



1770- neither we, nor any other navigators to our knowlege have 
te "1' . explored, and as there will appear to be room enough for 
the Cape of a fouthern continent to extend northward into a 
low fouthern latitude, I mall give my reafons for believing 
there is no Cape, of any fouthern continent, to the north- 
ward of 40° fouth. 

Notwithstanding what has been laid down by fome geo- 
graphers in their maps, and alleged by Mr. Dalrymple, with 
refpect to Quiros, it is improbable in the higheft degree that 
he faw to the fouthward of two iflands, which he difcovered 
in latitude 55 or 26, and which I fuppofe may lie between 
the longitude of 130 and 140 W. any figns of a continent, 
much lefs any thing which, in his opinion, was a known 
or indubitable fign of fuch land ; for if he had, he would cer- 
tainly have failed fouthward in fearch of it, and if he had 
fought, fuppofing the figns to have been indubitable, he 
mull have found : the difcovery of a fouthern continent was 
the ultimate object of Qiiiros's voyage, and no man appears 
to have had it more at heart ; fo that if he was in latitude 
26 S. and in longitude 146 W. where Mr. Dalrymple has 
placed the iflands he difcovered, it may fairly be inferred 
that no part of a fouthern continent extends to that latitude. 

It will, I think, appear with equal evidence from the ac- 
counts of Roggewein's voyage, that between the longitudes 
of 130 and 150 W. there is no main land to the northward 
of 35 S. Mr. Pingre, in a treatife concerning the tranfit of 
Venus, which he went out to obferve, has inferted an extract 
of Roggewein's voyage, and a map of the South Seas ; and 
for reafons which may be feen at large in his work, fuppofes 
him, after leaving Eafler Ifland, which he places in latitude 
28 f S. longitude 123° W. to have fleered S. W. as high as 

34° S. 


9£ 9 S. and afterwards W. N. W. ; and if this was indeed his W- 

. Marcfe. 

rout, the proof that there is no main land to the northward 1 , — j 

of 35 S. is irrefragable. Mr. Dalrymple indeed fuppofes 
his rout to have been different, and that from Eafter Ifle he 
fleered N. W. taking a courfe afterwards very little different 
from that of La Maire ; but I think it is highly improbable 
that a man, who at his own requeft was fent to difcover a 
fouthern continent, mould take a courfe in which La Maire 
had already proved no continent could be found: it rauft 
however be confeffed, that Roggewein's track cannot certainly 
be afcertained, becaufe in the accounts that have been pub- 
lilhed of his voyage, neither longitudes nor latitudes are 
mentioned. As to myfelf I faw nothing that I thought a fign 
of land, in my rout either to the northward, fouthward, or 
weftward, till a few days before I made the eaft coaft of New 
Zealand: I did indeed frequently fee large flocks of birds, 
but they were generally fuch as are found at a very remote 
diftance from any coaft ; and it is alfo true that I frequently 
faw pieces of rock-weed, but I could not infer the vicinity of 
land from thefe, becaufe I have been informed, upon indu- 
bitable authority, that a confiderable quantity of the beans 
called ox-eyes, which are known to grow no where but in the 
Weft Indies, are every year thrown up on the coaft of Ire- 
land, which is not lefs than twelve hundred leagues diftant. 

Thus have I given my reafons for thinking that there is 
no continent to the northward of latitude 40° S. ; of what may 
lie farther to the fouthward than 40 I can give no opinion ; 
but I am fo far from wilhing to difcourage any future 
attempt, finally to determine a queftion which has long been 
an object of attention to many nations ; that now this voyage 
has reduced the only poffible fcite of a continent in the 
fouthern hemifpherc, north of latitude 40°, to fo fmall a 



i77°- fpace, I think it would be pity to leave that any longer tin- 
v ,- > examined, efpecially as the voyage may turn to good ac- 
count, belidcs determining the principal queftion, if no con- 
tinent ihould be found, by the difcovery of new iilands in 
the Tropical regions, of which there is probably a great 
number, that no European veffel has ever yet vifited. Tupia 
from time to time gave us an account of about one hundred 
and thirty, and in a chart drawn by his own hand, he actu- 
ally laid down no lefs than feventy-four. 


" EN Tils ':jtf 

*j8fe Endeavour River , 1 



T.Giisan kT-Sowm ScA ■ 



O F A 

VOYAGE round the WORLD. 


The Run from New Zealand to Botany Bay 1 on the Eajl 
Coafi of New Ho/land, now called New South Wales ; 
various Incidents that happened there \ with fome Account 
of the Country and its Inhabitants, 


AVING failed from Cape Farewell, which lies in la- '/ 7 °* 

r March. 

titude 40 33 S. longitude 18 6° W. on Saturday the 31ft 

of March 1770, we fleered weftward, with a frefh gale at 

N. N. E. and at noon on the 2d of April, our latitude, by ob- April. 

fervation, was 40% our longitude from Cape Farewell 2 ° 31'W. 

In the morning of the 9th, being in latitude 38* 29'S. we faw Monday 9. 
a tropic bird, which in fo high a latitude is very uncommon. 

In the morning of the Toth, being in latitude 38 51'S. TWday i«, 
longitude 202 ° 43' W. we found the variation, by the ampli- 
tude, to be ii° 25' E. and by the azimuth 1 1 ° 20'. 

Vol. II. 3 Ct In 

-^^'^^:^ U ^^^ : ^ i $^^/^^, A Scale of one 3file . 

^\V UNtA^TSTC^ I. {ft A. The place >«L E we lanjcj our Uteres. 

;,! of im.t » Refiau*U the J/up . 

$jp| Endeavour river, 

»]■ ' Lath's* "fll 

3'fcf/ywtv de/tofr f//e rfyif/i it/ faf/io»/s ar 
"''"'"•„, uvv~n r aicf. 



O F A 

VOYAGE round the WORLD. 


The Run from New Zealand to Botany Bay y on the Eafl 
Coafi of New Holland, now called New South Wales ; 
various Incidents that happened there ; with fome Account 
of the Country and its Inhabitants. 


AVING failed from Cape Farewell, which lies in la- *77°« 

r March. 

titude 40 33 S. longitude i8<5° W. on Saturday the 3 ill ' « ' 

of March 1770, we fleered weftward, with a frefh gale at 

N. N. E. and at noon on the 2d of April, our latitude, by ob- April. 

fervation, was 40% our longitude from Cape Farewell 2 ° 31'W. 

In the morning of the 9th, being in latitude 38* 29'S. we faw Monday 9. 
a tropic bird, which in fo high a latitude is very uncommon. 

In the morning of the 10th, being in latitude 38 5-1' S. Tuefday i«, 
longitude 202 ° 43' W. we found the variation, by the ampli- 
tude, to be ii° 25' E. and by the azimuth 1 1 ° 20'. 

Vol. II. 3 Q In 


1770. In the morning of the nth, the variation was 13 48', 

^.f-* ... which is two degrees and an half more than the day before, 
wednef. 11. though ! ex p e <5ted to have found it lefs. 

Friday ,j. In the courfe of the 1 3th, being in latitude 39 23' S. lon- 
gitude 204 2'W. I found the variation to be iq° 27' E. and 

Saturday i 4 . in the morning of the 14th, it was ii° 30'; this day we alfo 

Sunday i S . faw fome flying fifh. On the 15th, we faw an Qgg bird and a 
gannet, and as thefe are birds that never go far from the 
land, we continued to found all night, but had no ground 

Monday 16. with 130 fathom. At noon on the 16th, we were in latitude 
39 45' S. longitude 208° W. At about two o'clock the wind 
came about to the W. S. W. upon which we tacked and flood 
to the N. W. ; foon after a fmall land-bird perched upon the 
rigging, but we had no ground with 120 fathom. At eight 
we wore and flood to the fouthward till twelve at night, and 

Tuefdayi 7 . then wore and flood to the N. W. till four in the morning, 
when we again flood to the fouthward, having a frefli gale 
at "W. S. W. with fqualls and dark weather till nine, when 
the weather became clear, and there being little wind, we 
had an opportunity to take feveral obfervations of the fun 
and moon, the mean refult of which gave 207 56' W. longi- 
tude : our latitude at noon was 39 36' S. We had now a hard 
gale from the fouthward, and a great fea from the fame 
quarter, which obliged us to run under our fore-fail and 
mizen all night, during which we founded every two hours, 
but had no ground with 120 fathom. 

Wednef. 18. I Q ^ ie morning of the i8th, we faw two Port Egmont 
hens, and a pintado bird, which are certain ligns of ap- 
proaching land, and indeed by our reckoning we could not 
be far from it, for our longitude was now one degree to the 
wcftward of the call fide of Van Diemen's land, according to 
8 the 


the longitude laid down by Tafman, whom we could not 

fuppofe to have erred much in fo fliort a run as from this 

land to New Zealand, and by our latitude we could not be 

above fifty or fifty-five leagues from the place whence he 

took his departure. All this day we had frequent fqualls 

and a great fwell. Atone in the morning we brought to and Thurfday 19. 

founded, but had no ground with 1 30 fathom ; at fix we law 

land extending from N. E. to W. at the diftance of five or fix 

leagues, having eighty fathom water with a fine fandy 


We continued Handing weft ward, with the wind at S.S. W. 
till eight, when we made all the fail we could, and bore 
away along the fhore N. E. for the eaftermoft land in fight, 
being at this time in latitude 37° 58' S. and longitude 210 
S9W. The fouthermoft point of land in fight, which bore 
from us W. 4 S. I judged to lie in latitude 38% longitude 2 1 1° 
7', and gave it the name of Point Hicks, becaufe Mr. flicks, 
the Firfl Lieutenant, was the firft who difcovered it. To the 
fouthward of this Point no land was to be feen, though it 
was very clear in that quarter, and by our longitude, com- 
pared with that of Tafman, not as it is laid down in the 
printed charts, but in the extra&s from Tafman's journal, 
publilhed by Rembrantfe, the body of Van Diemcn's land 
ought to have borne due fouth ; and indeed, from the fudden 
falling of the fea after the wind abated, I had reafon to 
think it did ; yet as I did not fee it, and as I found this coaft 
trend N. E. and S. W. or rather more to the eaftward, I can- 
not determine whether it joins to Van Diemen's land or 

At noon, we were in latitude 37° 50', longitude 21c 29' W. 
The extreams of the land extended from N. W. to E. N. E and 
a remarkable point bore N. qo E. at the diilance of about four 

3 0^2 leagues. 


1770* leagues. This point rifes in a round hillock, very much 

« ^1— 1 refembling the Ram Head at the entrance of Plymouth 

•hur ay l9 . g ount ^ an( j therefore I called it by the fame name. The va- 
riation by an azimuth, taken this morning, was 3 7' E. ; and 
what we had now feen of the land, appeared low and level: 
the fea fhore was a white fand, but the country within was 
green and woody. About one o'clock, we faw three water 
fpouts at once ; two were between us and the more, and the 
third at fome diftance, upon our larboard quarter : this phe- 
nomenon is fo well known, that it is not neceffary to give a 
particular defcription of it here. 

At fix o'clock in the evening, we fhortened fail, and 
brought to for the night, having fifty-fix fathom water, and 
a fine fandy bottom. The northermoft land in fight then 
bore N. by E. 7 E. and a fmall ifland lying clofe to a point on 
the main bore W. diftant two leagues. This point, which I 
called Cape Howe, may be known by the trending of the 
coaft, which is north on the one fide, and fouth weft on the 
other j it may alfo be known by fome round hills upon the 
main, juft within it. 

iHday 20. We brought to for the night, and at four in the morning 

made fail along fhore to the northward. At fix, the norther- 
moft land in fight bore N. N. W. and we were at this time 
about four leagues from the fhore. At noon, we were in 
latitude 36° 51' S. longitude 209 53 W. and about three 
leagues diftant from the fliore. The weather being clear, 
gave us a good view of the country, which has a very 
pleafing appearance : it is of a moderate height, diverfified 
by hills and vallies, ridges and plains, interfperfed with a 
few lawns of no great extent, but in general covered with 
wood : the afcent of the hills and ridges is gentle, and the 
fummits are not high. We continued to fail along the fhore 



ro the northward, with a foutherly wind, and in the after- 
noon we faw fmoke in feveral places, by which we knew the 
country to be inhabited. At fix in the evening, w r e fhortened 
fail, and founded : we found forty-four fathom water, with a 
clear fandy bottom, and ilood on under an eafy fail till twelve, 
when we brought to for the night, and had ninety fathom 

At four in the morning, we made fail again, at the dif- Saturda y 2Zi 
tance of about five leagues from the land, and at fix, we 
were abreaft of a high mountain, lying near the more, 
which, on account of its figure, I called Mount Drome- 
dary: under this mountain the more forms a point, to 
which I gave the name of Point Dromedary, and over it 
there is a peaked hillock. At this time, being in latitude 
36 18' S. longitude 209 55 W. we found the variation to be 
io° 42' E. 

Between ten and eleven, Mr. Green and I took feveral ob- 
fervations of the fun and moon, the mean refult of which 
gave 209 17' longitude W. By an obfervation made the day 
before, our longitude was 210 9' \V. from which, 20' being 
fubtracted, there remains 209 ° 49' the longitude of the fliip 
this day at noon, the mean of which, with this day's obfer- 
vation, gives 209° 33', by which I fax the longitude of this 
coaft. At noon, our latitude was 35° 49' S. Cape Drome- 
dary bore S. 30 W. at the diftance of twelve leagues, and an 
open bay, in which were three or four fmall iflands, bore 
N. W. by \V. at the diftance of five or fix leagues. This bay 
feemed to afford but little fhelter from the fea winds, and 
yet it is the only place where there appeared a probability of 
finding anchorage upon the whole coaft. We continued to 
fteer along the fliore N. by E. and N. N. E. at the diftance of 
about three leagues, and faw fmoke in many places near 
1 the 


the beach. At five in the evening, we were abreaft of a 
point of land which rofe in a perpendicular cliff, and which, 
for that reafon, I called Point Upright. Our latitude was 
35° 35 S. when this Point bore from us due weft, diftant 
about two leagues: in this fituation, we had about thirty- 
one fathom water with a fandy bottom. At fix in the even- 
ing, the wind falling, we hauled off E. N. E. and at this time 
the northermoft land in fight bore N. by E. f E. At mid-j 
night, being in feventy fathom water, we brought to till 
Sunday 22. four in the morning, when we made fail in for the land; 
but at day-break, found our fituation nearly the fame as it 
had been at live the evening before, by which it was appa- 
rent that we had been driven about three leagues to the 
fouthward, by a tide or current, during the night. After 
this we fleered along the fhore N. N. E. with a gentle breeze 
at S. W. and were fo near the land as to diftinguifh feveral of 
the natives upon the beach, who appeared to be of a black, 
or very dark colour. At noon, our latitude, by obfervation, 
was 35 27' S. andlongitude 209 23'W. Cape Dromedary bore 
S. 28 W. diftant nineteen leagues, a remarkable peaked hill, 
which refembled a fquare dove-houfe, with a dome at the 
top, and which for that reafon I called the Pigeon Housk, 
bore N. 32° 30' W. and a fmall low ifland, which lay clofe 
under the more, bore N. W. diftant about two or three 
leagues. When I firft difcovered this ifland, in the morn- 
ing, I was in hopes, from its appearance, that I fhould have 
found fhelter for the (hip behind it, but when we came near 
it, it did not promifc fecurity even for the landing of a boat . 
I fhould however have attempted to fend a boat on more, if 
the wind had not veered to that direction, with a large hol- 
low fea rolling in upon the land from the S. E. which indeed 
had been the cafe ever fmce we had been upon it. The coafl 
£1111 continued to be of a moderate height, forming alter- 


nately rocky points and fandy beaches ; but within, between 17-0. 

Mount Dromedary and the Pigeon Houfe, we faw high \ I'll^j 

mountains, which, except two, are covered with wood : 
theie two lie inland behind the Pigeon Houfe, and are re- 
markably flat at the top, with fteep rocky cliffs all round 
them, as far as we could fee. The trees which almoft every 
where clothe this, country, appear to be large and loft v. 
This day the variation was found to be 9 50' E. and for the 
two laft days, the latitude, by obfervation, was twelve or 
fourteen miles to the fouthward of the fh ip's account, which 
could have been the effect of nothing but a current fetting 
in that direction. About four in the afternoon, being near 
five leagues from the land, we tacked and flood off S. E. and 
E. and the wind having veered in the night, from E. to N. E. 
and N. we tacked about four in the morning, and flood in, Monday 23. 
being then about nine or ten leagues from the more. At 
eight, the wind began to die away, and foon after it was 
calm. At noon, our latitude, by obfervation, was 35 38', 
and our diftance from the land about fix leagues. Cape Dro- 
medary bore S. 37 W. diftant feventeen leagues, and the 
Pigeon Houfe N. 40 W. : in this fituation we had feventy- 
four fathom water. In the afternoon, we had variable light 
airs and calms, till fix in the evening, when a breeze fprung 
up at N. by W. : at this time, being about four or five leagues 
from the fhore, we had feventy fathom water. The Pigeon 
Houfe bore N. 45 W. Mount Dromedary S. 30 W. and the 
northermoft land in fight N. 19 E. 

We flood to the north eaft till noon the next day, with a Tuefday 24. 
gentle breeze at N. W. and then we tacked and flood weft- 
ward. At this time, our latitude, by obfervation, was 35 ° 
io'S. and longitude 208 5 1' W. A point of land which I had 
difcovered on St. George's day, and which therefore I called 
Cape George, bore W. diftant nineteen miles, and the 



Tigeon Houfe, (the latitude and longitude of which I found 
to be 35° 19' S. and 209 42' W.) S. 75 W. In the morning, 
24 ' we had found the variation, by amplitude, to be 7 50' E. 
and by feveral azimuths 7 54 E. We had a frefh breeze at 
N. W. from noon till three ; it then came to the weft, when 
we tacked and flood to the northward. At five in the even- 
ing, being about five or fix leagues from the fhore, with the 
Pigeon Houfe bearing W. S. W. diflant about nine leagues, 
we had eighty-fix fathom water ; and at eight, having thun- 
der and lightning, with heavy fqualls, we brought to in 
120 fathom, 
wcdnef. 25. At three in the morning, we made fail again to the north- 
ward, having the advantage of a frefh gale atS.W. At 
noon, we were about three or four leagues from the fhore, 
and in latitude 34 22' S. longitude 208 ° 36' W. In the courfe 
of this day's run from the preceding noon, which was 
forty-five miles north eaft, we faw fmoke in feveral places 
near the beach. About two leagues to the northward of 
Cape George, the fhore feemed to form a bay, which pro- 
mifed fhelter from the north eaft winds, but as the wind 
was with us, it was not in my power to look into it without 
beating up, which would have cofl me more time than I was 
willing to fpare. The north point of this bay, on account of 
its figure, I named Long Nose; its latitude is 35 6', and 
about eight leagues north of it there lies a point, which, 
from the colour of the land about it, I called Red Point: its 
latitude is 34 29', and longitude 208' 45' W. To the north well 
of Red Point, and a little way inland, Hands a round hill, 
the top of which looks like the crown of a hat. In the after- 
noon of this day, we had a light breeze at N. N. W. till five 
in the evening, when it fell calm: at this time, we were be- 
tween three and four leagues from the fhore, and had forty- 
eight fathom water: the variation by azimuth was 8° 48' E. 



and the extremities of this land were from N. E. by N. to 1770. 


S. W. by S. Before it was dark, we faw f moke 111 leveral <_ / 

. Wednef. 2 y . 

places along the more, and a lire two or three times after- 
wards. During the night we lay becalmed, driving in be- 
fore the fea till one in the morning, when we got a breeze Thurfda/26. 
from the land, with which we fleered N. E. being then in 
thirty-eight fathom. At noon, it veered to N. E. by N. and 
we were then in latitude 34 10'S. longitude 20B 27' W.: 
the land was diitant about live leagues, and extended from 
S. 37 W. to N. 7 E. In this latitude, there are fome white 
cliffs, which rife perpendicularly from the fea to a con- 
fidcrable height. We flood off the fhore till two o'clock, and 
then tacked and ftood in till fix, when we were within 
four or live miles of it, and at that diflance had fifty fathom 
water. The extremities of the land bore from S. 28 W. to 
N. 25 30 E. We now tacked and ftood off till twelve, then 
tacked and flood in again till four in the morning, when we F f i da y *7« 
made a trip off till daylight ; and during all this time we loft 
ground, owing to the variablcnefs of the winds. We con- 
tinued at the diflance of between four and five miles from 
the fhore, till the afternoon, when we came within two 
miles, and I then hoifled out the pinnace and yawl to 
attempta landing, but the pinnace_ proved to be fo leaky that 
I was obliged to hoifl her in again. At this time we faw 
feveral of the natives walking brifkly along the fhore, four 
of whom carried a fmall canoe upon their moulders : we 
flattered ourfelves that they were going to put her into the 
water, and come off to the fhip, but finding ourfelves dis- 
appointed, I determined to go on fhore in the yawl, with as 
many as it would carry: I embarked therefore, with only 
Mr. Banks, Dr. Solander, Tupia, and four rowers : we pulled 
for that part of the fhore where the Indians appeared, near 
which four fmall canoes were lying at the water's edge. 
Vol. II. 3 R The 


i77°- The Indians fat down upon the rocks, and feemed to wait 
v_ JylL-j for our landing ; but to our great regret, when we came with- 
F«day 27. .^ a ^ out a q Uarter f a mile, they ran away into the woods: 
we determined however to go afhore, and endeavour to pro- 
cure an interview, but in this we were again difappointed, 
for we found fo great a furf beating upon every part of the 
beach, that landing with our little boat was altogether im- 
practicable : we were therefore obliged to be content with 
gazing at fuch objects, as prefented themfelves from the 
water: the canoes, upon a near view, feemed very much to 
refemble thofe of the fmaller fort at New Zealand. We ob- 
ferved, that among the trees on ihore, which were not very 
large, there was no underwood ; and could diftinguifh that 
many of them were of the palm kind, and fome of them 
cabbage trees: after many a wifhful look we were obliged 
to return, with our curiofity rather excited than fatisfied, and 
about five in the evening got on board the fhip. About this 
time it fell calm, and our fituation was by no means agree- 
able : we were now not more than a mile and a half from 
the Ihore, and within fome breakers, which lay to the fouth- 
ward ; but happily a light breeze came off the land, and car- 
ried us out of danger: with this breeze we flood to the 
Saturday 28. northward, and at day-break we discovered a bay, which 
feemed to be well fheltered from all winds, and into which 
therefore I determined to go with the fhip. The pinnace 
being repaired, I fent her, with the Matter, to found the 
entrance, while I kept turning up, having the wind right, 
out. At noon, the mouth of the bay bore N. N. W. diftant 
about a mile, and feeing a fmoke on the more, we directed, 
our glafTes to the fpot, and foon difcovered ten people, who, 
upon our nearer approach, left their fire, and retired to a 
little eminence, whence they could conveniently obferve our 
motions. Soon after two canoes, each having two men on 



board, came to the more jufl under the eminence, and the 
men joined the reft on the top of it. The pinnace, which 
had been fent ahead to found, now approached the place, 
upon which all the Indians retired farther up the hill, ex- 
cept one, who hid himfelf among fome rocks near the 
landing-place. As the pinnace proceeded along the more, 
moft of the people took the fame route, and kept abreaft of 
her at a diflance ; when fhe came back, the matter told us, 
that in a cove a little within the harbour, fome of them had 
come down to the beach, and invited him to land by many 
figns and words of which he knew not the meaning ; but 
that all of them were armed with long pikes, and a wooden 
weapon fhaped fomewhat like a cimeter. The Indians who 
had not followed the boat, feeing the fhip approach, ufed 
many threatening geflures, and brandifhed their weapons ; 
particularly two, who made a very fingular appearance, for 
their faces feemed to have been dulled with a white powder, 
and their bodies painted with broad ftreaks of the fame co- 
lour, which palling obliquely over their breads and backs, 
looked not unlike the crofs-belts worn by our foldiers ; the 
fame kind of ftreaks were alfo drawn round their legs and 
thighs like broad garters : each of thefe men held in his 
hand the weapon that had been defcribed to us as like a 
cimeter, which appeared to be about two feet and a half 
long, and they feemed to talk to each other with great ear- 

We Continued to fland into the bay, and early in the after- 
noon anchored under the fouth fhore, about two miles with- 
in the entrance, in fix fathom water, the fouth point bearing 
3. E. and the north point Eaft. As we came in we faw, 
on both points of the bay, a few huts, and feveral of the 
natives, men, women, and children. Under the fouth head 

3 R 2 we 


Saturday 28. 


1770. w e f aw f our fmall canoes, with each one man on board, who 

< .^j were very bufily employed in ftriking fifh with a long pike 

or fpear : they ventured almofl into the furf, and were fo 
intent upon what they were doing, that although the fliip 
pafled within a quarter of a mile of them, they fcarcely 
turned their eyes towards her; poflibly being deafened by 
the furf, and their attention wholly fixed upon their bufine& 
or fport, they neither faw nor heard her go paft them. 

The place where the fhip had anchored was abreaft of a 
fmall village, confifting of about fix or eight houfes ; and 
while we were preparing to hoift out the boat, we faw an old 
woman, followed by three children, come out of the wood'; 
fhe was loaded with fire-wood, and each of the children had 
alfo its little burden: when fhe came to the houfes three 
more children, younger than the others, came out to meet 
her: fhe often looked at the fhip, but expreffed neither fear 
nor furprife : in a fhort time fhe kindled a fire, and the 
four canoes came in from fifhing. The men landed, and 
having hauled up their boats, began to drefs their dinner, 
to all appearance wholly unconcernecf about us, though we 
were within half a mile of them. We thought it remark- 
able that of all the people we had yet feen, not one had the 
Icaft appearance of clothing, the old woman herfelf being 
deftitute even of a fig-leaf. 

After dinner the boats were manned, and we fet out from 
the fhip, having Tupia of our party. We intended to land 
where we faw the people, and began to hope that as they 
had fo little regarded the fhip's coming into the bay, they 
would as little regard our coming on fhore : in this, how- 
ever, we were difappointed ; for as foon as we approached 
the rocks, two of the men came down upon them to dif- 
pute our landing, and the reft ran away. Each of the two 



Saturday 2S. 

champions was armed with a lance about ten feet long, and 177°. 
a fhort flick which he feemed to handle as if it was a ma- 
chine to aflift him in managing or throwing the lance : they 
called to us in a very loud tone, and in a harfh diflbnant lan- 
guage, of which neither we nor Tupia underftood a fingle 
word : they brandifhed their weapons, and feemed refolved 
to defend their coaft to the uttermoft, though they were but 
two, and we were forty. I could not but admire their cou* 
rage, and being very unwilling that hoflilities mould com- 
mence with fuch inequality of force between us, I ordered 
the boat to lie upon her oars : we then parlied by figns for 
about a quarter of an hour, and to befpeak their good-will, 
I threw them nails, beads, and other trifles, which they 
took up and feemed to be well pleafed with. I then made 
figns that I wanted water, and, by all the means that I could 
devife, endeavoured to convince them that we would do them 
no harm: they now waved to us, and I was willing to inter- 
pret it as an invitation ; but upon our putting the boat in, 
they came again to oppofe us. One appeared to be a youth 
about nineteen or twenty, and the other a man of middle 
age : as I had now no other refource I fired a mufquet be- 
tween them. Upon the report, the youngeft dropped a 
bundle of lances upon the rock, but recollecting himfelf in 
an inflant he fnatched them up again with great hade : a 
flone was then thrown at us, upon which I ordered a muf- 
quet to be fired with fmall mot, which ftruck the eldeft upon 
the legs, and he immediately ran to one of the houfes, which 
was diflant about an hundred yards : I now hoped that our 
conteft was over, and we immediately landed ; but we had 
fcarcely left the boat when he returned, and we then per- 
ceived that he had left the rock only to fetch a fhield or tar- 
get for his defence. As foon as he came up, he threw a 
lance at us, and his comrade another ; they fell where we 




1770. flood thickeft, but happily hurt nobody. A third mufquet 
._ Apn1 ' , with fmall fhot was then fired at them, upon which one of 
Saturday :8. t i iem t hrew another lance, and both immediately ran away : 
if we had purfued, we might probably have taken one of 
them ; but Mr. Banks fuggefting that the lances might be 
poifoned, I thought it not prudent to venture into the woods. 
We repaired immediately to the huts, m one of which we 
found the children, who had hidden themfelves behind a 
fhield and fome bark; we peeped at them, but left them in 
their retreat, without their knowing that they had been dif- 
covered, and we threw into the houfe when we went away 
fome beads, ribbons, pieces of cloth, and other prefents, 
which we hoped would procure us the good-will of the in- 
habitants when they mould return ; but the lances which 
we found lying about, we took away with us, to the number 
of about fifty : they were from fix to fifteen feet long, and 
all of them had four prongs in the manner of a fifh-gig, each 
of which was pointed with fifh-bone, and very fliarp : we 
obferved that they were fmeared with a vifcous iubftance of 
a green colour, which favoured the opinion of their being 
poifoned, though we afterwards difcovered that it was a mif- 
take : they appeared, by the fea-weed that we found flicking 
to them, to have been ufed in ftriking fiih. Upon examining 
the canoes that lay upon the beach, we found them to be the 
worft we had ever feen : they were between twelve and 
fourteen feet long, and made of the bark of a tree in one 
piece, which was drawn together and tied up at each end, 
the middle being kept open by flicks which were placed 
acrofs them from gunwale to gunwale as thwarts. We then 
fearched for frefh water, but found none, except in a fmall 
hole which had been dug in the fand. 

Having reimbarked in our boat, we depofited our lances 
on board the fhip, and then went over to the north point of 



the bay, where we had fcen feveral of the inhabitants when 1770. 
we were entering it, but which we now found totally de- ».. '-? -'_> 
ferted. Here however we found frefh water, which trickled atur aya ** 
down from the top of the rocks, and flood in pools among 
the hollows at the bottom ; but it was fituated fo as not to 
be procured for our ufe without difficulty. 

In the morning, therefore, I fent a party of men to that Sunday z 9 , . 
part of the fhore where we firft landed, with orders to dig 
holes in the fand where the water might gather; but going 
afhore myfelf with the Gentlemen foon afterwards, we 
found, upon a more diligent fearch, 2. fmall ftream, more 
than fufficient for our purpofe. 

Upon vifiting the hut where we had fcen the children, we 
were greatly mortified to find that the beads and ribbons 
which we had left there the night before, had not been 
moved from their places, and that not an Indian was to be 

Having fent fome empty water-cafks on more, and left a 
party of men to cut wood, I went myfelf in the pinnace to 
found, and examine the bay ; during my excurfion I faw fe- 
veral of the natives, but they all fled at my approach. In: 
one of the places where I landed I found feveral fmall fires, 
and frefh mufcles broiling upon them ; here alfo I found, 
fome of the largeft oyfter-fhells I had ever feen. 

As foon as the wooders and waterers came on board to din- 
ner, ten or twelve of the natives came down to the place, 
and looked with great attention and curicfity at the cafks, 
but did not touch them : they took away however the canoes 
which lay near the landing-place, and again difappeared. 
In the afternoon, when our people were again afhore, fix- 
teen or eighteen Indians, all armed, came boldly within 
about an hundred yards of them, and then flopped : two of 
6 them; 


1770. them advanced fomewhat nearer; and Mr. Hicks, who com- 

1 v — > mandcd the party on more, with another, advanced to meet 

u,n y 29 ' them, holding out prefents to them as he approached, and 
■exprefling kindnefs and amity by every fign he could think 
.of, but all without effect^ for before he could get up with 
them they retired, and it would have anfwered no purpofe 
to purfue. In the evening, I went with Mr. Banks and Dr. 
Solander to a fandy cove on the north fide of the bay, where, 
in three or four hauls with the feine, we took above three 
hundred weight of fifh, which was equally divided among 
the fhip's company. 

Monday 30. The ncxt morning, before day-break, the Indians came 
down to the houfes that were abreaft of the fliip, and were 
heard frequently to fhout very loud. As foon as it was light, 
they were feen walking along the beach ; and foon after 
they retired to the w r oods, where, at the diftance of about a 
mile from the fhore, they kindled feveral fires. 

Our people went afhore as ufual, and with them Mr. 
Banks and Dr. Solander, who, in fearch of plants, repaired 
to the woods. Our men, who were employed in cutting 
grafs, being the fartheft removed from the main body of the 
people, a company of fourteen or fifteen Indians advanced 
towards them, having flicks in their hands, which, according 
to the report of the Serjeant of the marines, flione like a 
mufquet. The grafs-cutters, upon feeing them approach, 
drew together, and repaired to the main body. The Indians, 
being encouraged by this appearance of a flight, purfued 
them ; they flopped however when they were within about 
a furlong of them, and after fhouting feveral times went 
back into the woods. In the evening they came again in 
the fame manner, flopped at the fame diftance, fhouted and 
retired. I followed them myfelf, alone and unarmed, for a 

£ confiderable 



confiderable way along the fhore, but I could not prevail upon >77°- 
them to flop. < -j 

Monday 30. 

This clay Mr. Green took the fun's meridian altitude a little 
within the fouth entrance of the bay, which gave the lati- 
tude 34 S. the variation of the needle was n° 3'E. 

Early the next morning, the bodv of Forby Sutherland, May. 

. Tuefday i . 

one of our feamen, who died the evening before, was buried 
near the watering-place ; and from this incident I called the 
fouth point of this bay Sutherland Point. This day we 
refolved to make an excurfion into the country. Mr. Banks, 
Dr. Solander, myfelf, and feven others, properly accoutred 
for the expedition, fet out, and repaired firfl to the huts, 
near the watering-place, whither fome of the natives conti- 
nued every day to refort ; and though the little prefents 
which we had left there before had not yet been taken away, 
we left others of fomewhat more value, confiding of cloth, 
looking-glafTes, combs, and beads, and then went up into 
the country. We found the foil to be either fwamp or light 
fand, and the face of the country finely diverfified by wood 
and lawn. The trees are tall, {trait, and without under- 
wood, Handing at fuch a diftance from each other that the 
whole country, at leaft where the fwamps do not render it 
incapable of cultivation, might be cultivated without cut- 
ting down one of them : between the trees the ground is 
covered with grafs, of which there is great abundance, 
growing in tufts about as big as can well be grafped in 
the hand, which fland very clofe to each other. We faw 
many houfes of the inhabitants, and places where they had 
flept upon the grafs without any fJielter ; but we faw only 
one of the people, who the moment he difcovered us ran 
away. At all thefe places we left prefents, hoping that at 
length they might produce confidence and good-will. We 
Vol. II. 3 S had 


1770. had a tranfient and imperfefl view of a quadruped about as 
*— JJ*Z— -j big as a rabbit : Mr. Banks's greyhound, which was with 
Wo, got fight of it, and would probably have caught it, but 
the moment he fet off he lamed himfelf, againft a flump 
which lay concealed in the long grafs. We afterwards faw the 
dung of an animal which fed upon grafs, and which we 
judged could not be lefs than a deer ; and the footfteps of 
another, which was clawed like a dog, and feemed to be 
about as big as a wolf : we alfo tracked a fmall animal, 
whofe foot refembled that of a polcat or weafel. The trees 
over our head abounded with birds of various kinds, among 
which were many of exquifite beauty, particularly loriquets 
and cockatoos, which flew in flocks of feveral fcores toge- 
ther. We found fome wood which had been felled by the 
natives with a blunt initrument, and fome that had been 
barked. The trees were not of many fpecies ; among others 
there was a large one which yielded a gum not unlike the 
Sanguis draconis ; and in fome of them fteps had been cut at 
about three feet diflance from each other, for the conveni- 
ence of climbing them. 

From this excurfion we returned between three and four 
o'clock, and having dined on board, we went afhore again at 
the watering-place, where a party of men were filling calks. 
Mr. Gore, the Second Lieutenant, had been fent out in the 
morning with a boat to dredge for oyflers at the head of the 
bay ; when he had performed this fervice, he went afhore, 
and having taken a midfhipman with him, and fent the boat 
away, fet out to join the waterers by land. In his way he 
fell in with a body of two and twenty Indians, who followed 
him, and were often not more than twenty yards diftant ; 
when Mr. Gore perceived them fo near, he flopped, and faced 
about, upon which they flopped alfo; and when he went 

4 on 



on a<*ain, continued their purfuit : they did not however '77°- 


attack him, though they were all armed with lances, and I „- ^j 

he and the midfhipman got in fafety to the watering-place. ue iyu 
The Indians, who had flackened their purfuit when they 
came in fight of the main body of our people, halted at 
about the diflance of a quarter of a mile, where they flood 
ftill. Mr. Monkhoufe and two or three of the waterers took 
it in their head to march up to themj but feeing the Indians 
keep their ground till they came pretty near them, they 
were feized with a fudden fear very common to the rafh and 
fool-hardy, and made a hafty retreat : this Hep, which in- 
fured the danger that it was taken to avoid, encouraged the 
Indians, and four of them running forward difcharged their 
lances at the fugitives, with fuch force that, flying no lefs 
than forty yards, they went beyond them. As the Indians 
did not purfue, our people, recovering their fpirits, flopped 
to collect the lances when they came up to the place where 
they lay ; upon which the Indians, in their turn, began to 
retire. Juft at this time I came up, with Mr. Banks, Dr. So- 
lander, and Tupia ; and being defirous to convince the In- 
dians that we were neither afraid of them, nor intended 
them any mifchief, we advanced towards them, making 
figns of expoftulation and entreaty, but they could not be 
perfuaded to wait till we could come up. Mr. Gore told us, 
that he had feen fome of them up the bay, who had invited 
him by figns to come on fhore, which he, certainly with 
great prudence, declined. 

The morning of the next day was fo rainy, that we were WedaeT. 2* 
all glad to flay on board. In the afternoon, however, it 
cleared up, and we made another excurfion along the fea- 
coafl to the fouthward : we went afhore, and Mr. Banks and 
Dr. Solander gathered many plants ; but befides thefe wc 
faw nothing worthy of notice. At our firft entering the 

3S 2 woods. 


177s- woods, we met with three of the natives, who inftantly raa- 
«. -,-' w away : more of them were feen by fome of the people, but 
they all difappeared, with great precipitation, as foon as they 
found that they were difcovered. By the boldnefs of thefe 
people at our firfl landing, and the terror that feized them at 
the fight of us afterwards, it appears that they were fuffrv 
ciently intimidated by our fire-arms : not that we had any 
reafon to think the people much hurt by the fmall-fhot 
which we were obliged to fire at them, when they attacked 
us at our coming out of the boat j but they had probably 
feen the effects of them, from their lurking places, upon 
the birds that we had fhot. Tupia, who was now become a 
good markfman, frequently ftrayed from us to moot par- 
rots ; and he had told us, that while he was thus employed, 
he had once met with nine Indians, who, as foon as they 
perceived he faw them, ran from him, in great confufion and 

Tiiurfday 3. The next day, twelve canoes, in each of which was a fmgle 
Indian, came towards the watering-place, and were within 
half a mile of it a confiderable time : they were employed in 
ftriking fifh, upon which, like others that we had feen be- 
fore, they were fo intent that they feemed to regard nothing 
elfe. It happened, however, that a party of our people were 
out a mooting near the place, and one of the men, whofe 
curiofity might at length perhaps be roufed by the report of 
the fowling-pieces, was obferved by Mr. Banks to haul up 
his canoe upon the beach, and go towards the mooting 
party : in fomething more than a quarter of an hour he re- 
turned, launched his canoe, and went off in her to his com- 
panions. This incident makes it probable that the natives 
acquired a knowlege of the deftruclive power of our fire- 
arms, when we knew nothing of the matter ; for this man 



was not feen by any of the party whofe operations he had 1770. 

. , May. 

reconnoitred. * , 1 

Thurfday 3.. 

"While Mr. Banks was gathering plants near the watering- 
place, I went with Dr. Solander and Mr. Monkhoufe to the 
head of the bay, that I might examine that part of the coun- 
try, and make farther attempts to form fome connection 
with the natives. In our way we met with eleven or twelve 
fmall canoes, with each a man in it, probably the fame that 
were afterwards abreaft of the fhore, who all made into 
fhoal water upon our approach. We met other Indians on 
fhore the firft time we landed, who inftantly took to their 
canoes, and paddled away. We went up the country to fome 
diflance, and found the face of it nearly the fame with that 
which has been defcribed already, but the foil was much 
richer; for inflead of fand, I found a deep black mould, 
which I thought very fit for the production of grain of any- 
kind. In the woods we found a tree which bore fruit that 
in colour and fhape refembled a cherry ; the juice had an 
agreeable tartnefs, though but little flavour. We found alfoin- 
terfperfed fome of the finefl meadows in the world : fome places 
however were rocky, but thefe were comparatively few: the 
flone is fandy, and might be ufed with advantage for build- 
ing. When we returned to the boat, we faw fome fmoke 
upon another part of the coaft, and went thither in hopes of 
meeting with the people, but at our approach, thefe alfo ran 
away. We found fix fmall canoes, and fix fires very near 
the beach, with fome mufcles roafling upon them, and a 
few oyflers lying near : by this we judged that there had 
been one man in each canoe, who having picked up fome 
fhell-fim were come afhore to eat it, and that each had made 
his feparate fire for that purpofe : we tailed of their cheer, 
and left them in return fome firings of beads, and other things 



1770. which we thought would pleafe them. At the foot of a tree 
,_ M _T _, in this place we found a fmall well of frefli water, fupplied 
Thurfday 3. ^ a f rin g . anc i t h e day being now far fpent, we returned 
to the fhip. In the evening, Mr. Banks made a little excur- 
fion with his gun, and found fuch a number of quails, re- 
fembling thofe in England, that he might have fhot as many 
as he pleafed; but his object was variety, and not number. 

Fdday 4 . The next morning, as the wind would not permit me to 

fail, I fent out feveral parties into the country to try again 
whether fome intercourfe could not be eftablifhed with the 
natives. A midfhipman who belonged to one of thefe par- 
ties, having ftraggled a long way from his companions, met 
with a very old man and woman, and fome little children ; 
they were fitting under a tree by the water fide, and neither 
party faw the other till they were clofe together: the Indians 
fhowed figns of fear, but did not attempt to run away. The 
man happened to have nothing to give them but a parrot 
that he had fhot ; this he offered, but they refufed to accept 
it, withdrawing themfelves from his hand either through 
fear or averfion. His flay with them was but fhort, for he 
faw feveral canoes near the beach fifliing, and being alone, 
he feared they might come afliore and attack him : he faid, 
that thefe people were very dark coloured, but not black ; 
that the man and woman appeared to be very old, being 
both grey-headed ; that the hair of the man's head was 
bufhy, and his beard long and rough ; that the woman's hair 
was cropped fhort, and both of them were flark naked. Mr. 
Monkhoufe the Surgeon, and one of the men, who were with 
another party near the watering-place, alfo ftrayed from 
their companions, and as they were coming out of a thicket 
obferved fix Indians Handing together, at the diftance of 
about fifty yards. One of them pronounced a word very 



loud, which was fuppofed to be a fignal, for a lance was 177°- 
immediately thrown at him out of the wood, which very t_ .'-,_/ 
narrowly miffed him. When the Indians faw that the wea- nda> 4 ' 
pon had not taken effect, they ran away with the greateft 
precipitation ; but on turning about towards the place 
whence the lance had been thrown, he faw a young Indian, 
whom he judged to be about nineteen or twenty years old, 
come down from a tree, and he alfo ran away with fuch 
fpeed as made it hopelefs to follow him. Mr. Monkhoufe 
was of opinion that he had been watched by thefe Indians 
in his paffage through the thicket, and that the youth had 
been Rationed in the tree, to difcharge the lance at him, 
upon a fignal as he mould come by ; but however this be, 
there could be no doubt but that he was the perfon who 
threw the lance. 

In the afternoon, I went myfelf with a party over to the 
north fhore, and while fome of our people were hauling the 
feine, we made an excurfion a few miles into the country, 
proceeding afterwards in the direction of the coafl. We 
found this place without wood, and fomewhat refembling 
our moors in England ; the furface of the ground, however, 
was covered with a thin bruffi of plants, about as high as 
the knees: the hills near the coafl are low, but others rife 
behind them, increafmg by a gradual afcent to a confiderable 
diilance, with marfhes and moraffes between. When we 
returned to the boat, we found that our people had caught 
with the feine a great number of fmall fifh, which are well 
known in the Wefc Indies, and which our failors call Leather 
jackets, becaufe their fkin is remarkably thick. I had fent 
the Second Lieutenant out in the yawl a finking, and when 
we got back to the fhip, we found that he alfo had been very 
fuccefsful. He had obferved that the large fling-rays, of 



1770. which there is great plenty in the bay, followed the flowing 
v. — —— / tide into very fhallow water ; he therefore took the opportu- 
nity of flood, and ttruck feveral in not. more than two or 
three feet water : one of them weighed no lefs than two 
hundred and forty pounds after his entrails were taken out. 

Saturday 5 . The next morning, as the wind flill continued n orthcrly 
I fent out the yawl again, and the people ftruck one flill 
larger, for when his entrails were taken out he weighed 
three hundred and thirty- fix pounds. 

The great quantity of plants which Mr. Banks and Dr. So- 
lander collected in this place induced me to give it the name 
of Botany Bay. It is fituated in the latitude of 34. ° S., lon- 
gitude 208 37' \V. It is capacious, fafe, and convenient, and 
may be known by the land on the fea-coaft, which is nearly 
level, and of a moderate height ; in general higher than it is 
farther inland, with fteep rocky cliffs next the fea, which 
have the appearance of a long ifland lying clofe under the 
more. The harbour lies about the middle of this land, and 
in approaching it from the fouthward, is difcovered before 
the fhip comes abreafl of it ; but from the northward it is 
not difcovered fo foon : the entrance is a little more than a 
quarter of a mile broad, and lies in W.N.W. To fail into it 
the fouthern more ffiould be kept on board, till the fhip is 
within a fmall bare ifland, which lies clofe under the north 
fhore; within this ifland the deepefl water on that fide is 
feven fathom, fhallowing to five a good way up. At a con- 
fiderable diftance from the fouth fhore there is a fhoal, reach- 
ing from the inner fouth point quite to the head of the har- 
bour; but over towards the north and north weft fhore there 
is a channel of twelve or fourteen feet at low water, for 
three or four leagues, up to a place where there is three or 
four fathom, but here I found very little frefh water. We 

6 anchored 



anchored near the fouth fhore, about a mile within the en- J 77o. 

IV: ay. 

trance, for the convenience of failing with a foutherly wind, 
and becaufe I thought it the befl fituation for watering; but I 
afterwards found a very line fire am on the north fhore, in the 
firfl fandy cove within the ifland, before which a fhip might 
lie almofl land-locked, and procure wood as well as water in 
great abundance. Wood indeed is every where plenty, but 
I faw only two kinds which may be confidered as timber. 
Thefe trees are as large, or larger than the Englifh oak, and 
one of them has not a very different appearance : this is the 
fame that yields the reddifh gum like /unguis draconis, and 
the wood is heavy, hard, and dark-coloured, like lignum 
<vit£ : the other grows tall and flrait, fomething like the 
pine ; and the wood of this, which has fome refemblance to 
the live oak of America, is alfo hard and heavy. There are 
a few fhrubs, and feveral kinds of the palm ; mangroves 
alfo grow in great plenty near the head of the bay. The 
country in general is level, low, and woody, as far as we 
could fee. The woods, as I have before obferved, abound 
with birds of exquifite beauty, particularly of the parrot 
kind ; we found alfo crows here, exactly the fame with thofe 
in England. About the head of the harbour, where there 
are large flats of fand and mud, there is great plenty of 
water-fowl, moil of which were altogether unknown to us : 
one of the mod remarkable was black and white, much 
larger than a fwan, and in fhape fomewhat refembling a pe- 
lican. On thefe banks of fand and mud there are great quan- 
tities of oyflers, mufclcs, cockles, and other fhell-fifli, which 
feem to be the principal fubiiflence of the inhabitants, who 
go into fhoal water with their little canoes, and pick them 
out with their hands. We did not obferve that they eat any 
of them raw, nor do they always go on fhore to dre-fs them, 
for they have frequently fires in their canoes for that pur- 
Vol. II. 3 T pofe. 


i77°- pofe. They do not however fubfrft wholly upon this food, 

1 ri 1 for they catch a variety of other fifh, fome of which they 

r ays * ftrike with gigs, and fome they take with hook and line. 
All the inhabitants that we faw were flark naked : they did 
not appear to be numerous, nor to live in focieties, but like 
other animals were fcattered about along the coaft, and in 
the woods. Of their manner of life, however, we could 
know but little, as we were never able to form the leaf! con- 
nection with them : after the firft contefl at our landing, they 
would never come near enough to parley ; nor did they 
touch a fingle article of all that we had left at their huts, and 
the places they frequented, on purpofe for them to take 

During my flay in this harbour, I caufed the Englifh co- 
lours to be difplayed on fhore every day, and the fhip's name, 
and the date of the year, to be infcribed upon one of the 
trees near the watering-place. 

It is high-water here at the full and change of the moon 
about eight o'clock, and the tide rifes and falls perpendicu- 
larly between four and five feet. 




The Range from Botany Bay to Trinity Bay, with a farther 
Account of the Country, its Inhabitants, and Productions, 

AT day-break, on Sunday the 6th of May 1770, we fet 1:70. 
fail from Botany Bay, with a light breeze at N. W. v___^-l. 

which foon after coming to the fouthward, wc fleered along un ay 
the more N. N E. ; and at noon, our latitude, by obfervation, 
was 33° 50' S. At this time we were between two and three 
miles diftant from the land, and a-breaft of a bay, or har- 
bour, in which there appeared to be good anchorage, and 
which I called Port Jackson. This harbour lies three 
leagues to the northward of Botany Bay : the variation, by 
feveral azimuths, appeared to be 8° E. At fun-iet, the 
northermoft land in fight bore N. 26 E. and fome broken 
land, that feemed to form a bay, bore N. 40 \V. diftant four 
leagues. This bay, which lies in latitude 33 42', I called 
Broken Bay. We fleered along the more N. N. E. all night, 
at the diftance of about three leagues from the land, having 
from thirty-two to thirty-fix fathom water, with a hard 
fandy bottom. 

Soon after fun-rife on the 7th, I took feveral azimuths, Monday - 
with four needles belonging to the azimuth compafs, the 
mean refult of which gave the variation f 56' E. At noon, 
our latitude, by obfervation, was 33* 22' S. : we were about 
three leagues from the more ; the northermoft land in fight 
bore N. 19 E. and fome lands which projected in three bluff 
points, and which, for that reafon, I called Cape Three 

3 T 2 Points, 


Monday ; 

Tuefdav 3. 


Points, bore S. W. diftant five leagues. Our longitude from 
Botany Bay was 19'E. In the afternoon, we faw fmoke in 
feveral places upon the fliore, and in the evening, found the 
variation to be 8° 25' E. At this time we were between two 
and three miles from the more, in twenty-eight fathom j 
and at noon the next day, we had not advanced one Hep to 
the northward. We flood off more, with the winds north- 
erly, till twelve at night, and at the diilance of about five 
leagues, had feventy fathom ; at the diilance of fix leagues 
we had eighty fathom, which is the extent of the found- 
ings; for at the diflance often leagues, we had no ground 
with 150 fathom. 

Thurfday 10. The wind continuing northerly, till the morning of the 
10th, we continued to ftand in and off the more, with very 
little change of fituation in other refpecls ; but a gale then 
fpringing up at S. W. we made the beft of our way along the 
ihore to the northward. At fun-rife, our latitude was 33° 2' S. 
and the variation 8° E. At nine in the forenoon, we paffed 
a remarkable hill, which Hood a little way inland, and fome- 
what refembled the crown of a hat: and at noon, our lati- 
tude, by obfervation, was 32 53' S. and our longitude 208° 
W. We were about two leagues diflant from the land, 
which extended from N. 41 E. to S. 41 W., and a fmall round 
rock, or ifland, which lay clofe under the land, bore S. 82 
W. diftant between three and four leagues. At four in the 
afternoon, we paffed, at the diftance of about a mile, alow 
rocky point, which I called Point Stephens, on the north 
fide of which is an inlet, which I called Port Stephens: 
this inlet appeared to me, from the mail head, to be fhel- 
tered from all winds. It lies in latitude 32 40', longitude 
207 51', and at the entrance are three fmall iflands, two of 
which are high ; and on the main near the fliore are fome 
high round hills, which at a diilance appear like iflands. In 



pafiing this bay, at the diftance of two or three miles from 
the more, our foundings were from thirty-three to twenty- 
ieven fathom, from which I conjectured that there muft be 
a fufficient depth of water within it. At a little diftance 
within land, we faw fmoke in feveral places; and at half an 
hour pafl five, the northermoft land in fight bore N. 36 E. 
and Point Stephens S. W. diftant four leagues. Our found- 
ings in the night, were from forty-eight to fixty-two fathom, 
at the diftance of between three and four leagues from the 
more, which made in two hillocks. This Point I called 
Cape Hawke: it lies in the latitude of 32 14'S., longitude 
207 30' W. ; and at four o'clock in the morning bore W. ?r ' ldz Y "■ 
diftant about eight miles ; at the fame time the northermoft 
land in fight bore N. 6 E. and appeared like an ifland. At 
noon, this land bore N. 8 E. the northermoft land in fight 
N. 13 E. and Cape Hawke S. 37 W. Our latitude, by obfer- 
vation, was 32 2' S. which was twelve miles to the fouth- 
ward of that given by the log ; fo that probably we had a 
current fetting that way: by the morning amplitude and 
azimuth, the variation was 9 ° io'E. During our run along 
the ihore, in the afternoon, we faw fmoke in feveral places, 
at a little diftance from the beach, and one upon the top of 
a hill, which was the firft we had feen upon elevated ground 
fince our arrival upon the coaft. At fun-fet, we had twenty- 
three fathom, at the diftance of a league and an half from 
the more: the northermoft land then bore N. 13 E. and three 
hills, remarkably large and high, lying contiguous to each 
other, and not far from the beach, N. N.W. As thefc hills 
bore fome refemblance to each other, wc called them the 
Three Brothers. They lie in latitude 31"' 40', and may be 
feen fourteen or fixteen leagues. Wc fleered N. E. by N. all 
night, having from twenty-feven to fixty-feven fathom, at 
the diftance of between two and fix leagues from the fliore. 

7 Ac 


«77o. At day-break, we fleered north, for the northermoft land 

v___!L_y in fight. At noon, we were four leagues from the fhore, 
Saturday ri and b ^ bf erV ation, in latitude 3 1 ° 18' S., which was fifteen 
miles to the fouthward of that given by the log; our longi- 
tude 206 58'W. In the afternoon, we flood in for the land, 
where we faw fmoke in feveral places, till fix in the even- 
ing, when, being within three or four miles of it, and in 
twenty-four fathom of water, we flood off with a frefh 
breeze at N. and N. N. W. till midnight, when we had 118 
fathom, at the diflance of eight leagues from the land, and 
Sunday 13. then tacked. At three in the morning, the wind veered to 
the weftward, when we tacked and flood to the northward. 
At noon, our latitude, by obfervation, was 30° 43' S., and 
our longitude 206 • 45' W. At this time we were between 
three and four leagues from the more, the northermoft part 
of which bore from us N. 13 W. and a point, or head land, 
on which we faw fires that produced a great quantity of 
fmoke, bore W. diftant four leagues. To this Point I gave 
the name of Smokey Cape: it is of a condfierable height, 
and over the pitch of the Point is a round hillock; within it 
are two others, much higher and larger, and within them 
the land is very low. Our latitude was 30 31'S., longitude 
2c6°54'"W.: this day the obferved latitude was only five 
miles fouth of the log. We faw fmoke in feveral parts along 
the coafl, befides that fcen upon Smokey Cape. 

In the afternoon, the wind being at N. E. we flood off and 
on, and at three or four miles diflance from the fhore had 
thirty fathom water: the wind afterwards coming crofs off 
land, we flood to the northward, having from thirty to 
twenty-one fathom, at the diflance of four or five miles from 
the fhore. 

At five in the morning, the wind veered to the north, and 

Monday 14. ° . , . , , 

blew frefh, attended with fqualls : at eight, it began to thun- 


der and rain, and in about an hour it fell calm, which gave *71°' 


us an opportunity to found, and we had eighty-fix fathom at « — v 1 

rr J ' o J Monday 14. 

between four and five leagues from the fhore : foon after 
this we had a gale from the fouthward, with which wc 
fleered N. by \V. for the northermoft land in fight. At noon, 
we were about four leagues from the fhore, and by obfer- 
vation, in latitude 30 ° 22', which was nine miles to the 
fouthward of our reckoning, longitude 206 ° 39 W. Some 
lands near the fhore, of a confiderable height, bore W. 

As we advanced to the northward, from Botany Bay, the 
land gradually increafed in height, fo that in this latitude it 
may be called a hilly country. Between this latitude and 
the Bay, it exhibits a pleafing variety of ridges, hills, vallies, 
and plains, all clothed with wood, of the fame appearance 
with that which has been particularly defcribed : the land 
near the fhore is in general low and fandy, except the points, 
which are rocky, and over many of them are high hills, 
which, at their firft rifing out of the water, have the appear- 
ance of iflands. In the afternoon, we had fome fmall rocky 
iflands between us and the land, the fouthermoft of which 
lies in latitude 30* 10', and the northermoft in 29 ° 58', and 
fomewhat more than two leagues from the land: about two 
miles without the northermoft ifland we had thirty-three fa- 
thom water, Having the advantage of a moon, we fleered 
along the more all night, in the direction of N. and N. by E. 
keeping at the diftance of about three leagues from the land, 
and having from twenty to twenty- five fathom water, As 
foon as it was light, having a frefh gale, we made all the 
fail we could, and at nine o'clock in the morning, being Tuaflayij. 
about a league from the fhore, we difcovered fmoke in 
many places, and having recourfe to our glafJes, we faw 
about twenty of the natives, who had each a large bundle 

\ upon 


i?r°. upon his back, -which we conjectured to be palm leaves for 

«. — „ 1 covering their houfes: we continued to obferve them above 

'' iy h ' an hour, during which they walked upon the beach, and up 
a path that led over a hill of a gentle afcent, behind which 
we loft fight of them : not one of them was obferved to flop 
and look towards us, but they trudged along, to all appear- 
ance, without the leaft emotion either of curiofity or fur- 
prize, though it is impoffible they mould not have feen the 
fhip by a cafual glance as they walked along the fhore ; and 
though fhe muft, with refpect to every other object they had 
yet feen, have been little lefs ilupendous and unaccountable 
than a floating mountain with all its woods would have been 
to us. At noon, our latitude, by obfervation, was 28 39' S., 
and longitude 206 27'W. Ahigh point of land, which I named 
Cape Byron, bore N. W. by W. at the diftance of three miles. 
It lies in latitude 28° 37' 30" S., longitude 206° 30' W. andmay 
be known by a remarkable fharp peaked mountain, which 
' lies inland, and bears from it N. W. by W. From this point, 
the land trends N. 13 W. : inland it is high and hilly, but 
low near the fhore ; to the fouthward of the point it is alfo 
low and level. We continued to fleer along the' more with a 
frefh gale, till fun-fet, when we fuddenly discovered 
breakers a-head, directly in the fhip's courfe, and alfo on 
our larboard bow. At this time we were about five miles 
from the land, and had twenty fathom water: we hauled up 
eaft till eight, when we had run eight miles, and increafed 
our depth of water to forty-four fathom: we then brought 
to, with the fhip's head to the eaftvvard, and lay upon this 
tack till ten, when, having increafed our founding to 
feventy-eight fathom, we wore, and lay with the fhip's head 
Wednef. 16. to the land till five in the morning, when we made fail, and 
at daylight, were greatly furprized to find ourfelves farther 
to the fouthward, than we had been the evening before, 



though the wind had been foutherly, and blown frefh all 
night : we now faw the breakers again within us, and parled 
them at the diftance of one league. They lie in latitude 
28 8'S. flretching offeaft two leagues from a point of land, 
under which is a fmall iiland. Their fituation may always 
be known by the peaked mountain which has been juft 
mentioned, and which bears from them S. W. by W. for this 
reafon I have named it Mount Warning. It lies feven or 
eight leagues inland, in latitude 28 22' S. The land about 
it is high and hilly, but it is of itfelf fufficiently confpicuous 
to be at once diftinguifhed from every other object. The 
Point off which thefe fhoals lie, I have named Point 
Danger. To the northward of this Point the land is low» 
and trends N. W. by N. ; but it foon turns again more to the 

At noon, we were about two leagues from the land, and 
by obfervation, in latitude 27 46' S. which was feventeen 
miles to the fouthward of the log ; our longitude was 206 ° 
26' \V. Mount Warning bore S. 26 W. diftant fourteen leagues, 
and the northermoft land in fight bore N. We purfued our 
courfe along the more, at the diftance of about two leagues, 
in the direction of N. 1 E. till between four and five in the 
afternoon, when we difcovered breakers on our larboard 
bow. Our depth of water was thirty-feven fathom, and at 
fun-fet, the northermoft land bore N. byW. the breakers 
N. W. by W. diftant four miles, and the northermoft land fet 
at noon, which formed a point, and to which I gave the 
name of Point Look-out, W. diftant five or iix miles, in 
the latitude of 27 ° 6'. On the north fide of this Point, the 
fhore forms a wide open bay, which I called Moreton's 
Bay, in the bottom of which the land is fo low that I could 
but juft fee it from the top-maft head. The breakers lie be- 
tween three and four miles from Point Look-out ; and at this 

Vol. II. o U time 

Wednef 16. 


1770- time we had a great fea from the fouthward, which broke 
■ M ^"' . upon them very high. We Hood on N.N.E. till eight 
Wednef. 16. ^^^ w ] ien having paffed the breakers, and deepened our 
water to fifty-two fathom, we brought to till midnight, when 
Thwfday 17. we made fail again to the N. N. E. At four in the morning, 
we had 135 fathom, and when the day broke, I perceived 
that during the night I had got much farther northward, and 
from the fhore, than I expected from the courfe we fleered, 
for we were diftant at leaft feven leagues ; I therefore hauled 
in N. W. by W. with a frefh gale at S. S. W. The land that 
was farthefl to the north the night before, now bore S, S. W. 
diftant fix leagues, and I gave it the name of Cape More- 
tom, it being the north point of Moreton's Bay : its latitude is 
26 ° 56', and its longitude is 206' 28'. From Cape Moreton 
the land trends away weft, farther than can be feen, for 
there is a fmall fpace, where at this time no land is vifible, 
and fome on board having alfo obferved that the fea looked 
paler than ufual, were of opinion that the bottom of More- 
ton's Bay opened into a river : we had here thirty-four fa- 
thom water, and a fine fandy bottom : this alone would have 
produced the change that had been obferved in the colour of 
the water ■■, and it was by no means neceffary to fuppofe a 
river to account for the land at the bottom of the Bay not 
being vifible, for fuppofing the land there to be as low as we. 
knew it to be in a hundred other parts of the coaft, .it would 
have been impoflible to fee it from the ftation of the fhip y 
however, if any future navigator fhould be difpofed to de- 
termine the queftion, whether there is or is not a river in 
this place, which the wind would not permit us to do, the 
fituation may always be found by three hills which lie to the 
northward of it, in the latitude of 26 ° 53". Thefe hills lie 
but a little way inland, and not far from each other: they 
are remarkable for the angular form of their elevation, 



which very much refembles a glafs-houfe, and for which 1770. 

reafon I called them the Glass Houses: the northermoft of 1— ^ » 

the three is the higheft and large ft : there are alfo feveral 
other peaked hills inland to the northward of thefe, but they 
are not nearly fo remarkable. At noon, our latitude was, by 
obfervation, 26° 28' S. which was ten miles to the northward 
of the log, a circumftance which had never before happened 
upon this coaft ; our longitude was 206° 46'. At this time 
we were between two and three leagues from the land, and 
had twenty-four fathom ■ water. A low bluff point, which 
was the fouth head of a fandy bay, bore N. 62 W. diftant 
three leagues, and the northermoft point of land in fight 
bore N. 4. E. This day we faw fmoke in feveral places, and 
fome at a confiderable diftance inland. 

In fleering along the more at the diftance of two leagues, 
our foundings were from twenty-four to thirty-two fathom, 
with a fandy bottom. At fix in the evening, the norther- 
moft point of land bore N. ~ W. diftant four leagues ; at ten 
it bore N. W. by W. t W. and as we had feen no land to the 
northward of it, we brought to, not well knowing which 
way to fleer. 

At two in the morning, however, we made fail with the Friday ts. 
wind at S. W. and at daylight, we faw the land extending as 
far as N. 4 E. the point we had fet the night before bore S. W- 
by \V. diftant between three and four leagues. It lies in la- 
titude 2j-° 58', longitude 206 ° 48' W. : the land within it is of 
a moderate and equal height, but the point itfelf is i~o un- 
equal, that it looks like two fmall iflands lying under the 
land, for which reafon I gave it the name of Double Island 
Point -, it may alfo be known by the white cliffs on the north 
fide of it. Here the land trends to the N. W. and forms a 
large open bay, the bottom of which is fo low a flat that 

3 U 2 from 


1770- from the deck it could fcarcely be feen. In crofling this 
« ^ — > bay, our depth of water was from thirty to twenty-two fa- 
thom, with a white fandy bottom. At noon, we were about 
three leagues from the more, in latitude 25 ° 34' S. longitude 
206° 45' W. : Double Iiland Point bore S. ^W. and the norther- 
moft land in fight N. \ E. This part of the coafl, which is of 
a moderate height, is more barren than any we had feen, 
and the foil more fandy. With our glafles we could difcover 
that the fands, which lay in great patches of many acres, 
were moveable, and that fome of them had not been long in 
the place they pofiefTed •■> for we faw in feveral parts, trees 
half buried, the tops of which were Hill green; and in 
others, the naked trunks of fuch as the fand had furrounded 
long enough to deflroy. In other places the woods appeared 
to be low and fhrubby, and we faw no figns of inhabitants. 
Two water makes fwam by the fhip : they were beautifully 
fpotced, and in every refpect like land makes, except that 
their tails were broad and flat, probably to ferve them inftead 
of fins in fwimming. In the morning of this day, the vari- 
ation was 8° 20' E. and in the evening, 8° 36'. During the 
night, we continued our courfe to the northward, with a- 
light breeze from the land, being diftant from it between 
two and three leagues, and having from twenty-three to 
twenty- feven fathom with a fine fandy bottom. 
Saturday i 9 , At noon on the 19th, we were about four miles from the 
land, with only thirteen fathom. Our latitude was 25 ° 4', 
and the northermoft land in fight bore N. 21 W. diflant eight 
miles. At one o'clock, being flill four miles diftant from 
the fhorc, but having fevcnteen fathom water, we pafTed a< 
black bluff head, or point of land, upon which a great num* 
bcr of the natives were afTembled, and which therefore I 
called Indian Head: it lies in latitude 25 3'. About four 
miles N. by W. of this Head, is another very like it, from 1 



whence the land trends away fomewhat more to the weft- 1770. 


ward : next to the fea it is low and fandy, and behind it 

nothing was to be feen, even from the maft-head. Near atur y ' 9 " 
Indian Head we faw more of the natives, and upon the 
neighbouring fhore fires by night, and imoke by day. We 
kept to the northward all night, at the diftance of from four 
miles to four leagues from the more, and with a depth of 
water from feventeen to thirty-four fathom. At day-break, Sunday z<r. 
the northermoft land bore from us W. S. W. and feemed to 
end in a point, from which we discovered a reef running 
out to the northward as far as we could fee. We had hauled 
our wind to the weftward before it was light, and contimied 
the courfe till we faw the breakers upon our lee bow. We 
now edged away N. W. and N. N. W. along the eaft fide of 
the fhoal, from two to one mile diftant, having regular 
foundings from thirteen to feven fathom, with a fine fandy 
bottom. At noon, our latitude, by obfervation, was 24 ° 26', 
which was thirteen miles to the northward of the log: we 
judged the extream point of the fhoal to bear from us about 
N.W. and the point from which it feemed to run out, bore 
S. i-W. diftant twenty miles. This point I named Sandy 
Cape, from two very large patches of white fand which lay 
upon it. It is fufficiently high to be feen at the diftance of 
twelve leagues, in clear weather, and lies in latitude 24 ° 45', 
longitude 2c<5° 51": the land trends from it S. W. as faras can 
be feen. We kept along the eaft fide of the fhoal till two in 
the afternoon, when, judging that there was a fufficient 
depth of water upon it to allow paffage for the fliip, I fent< 
the boat r-head to found, and upon her making the fignal 
for more than five fathom, we hauled our wind, and ftood 
over the tail of it in fix fathom. At this time we were in la- 
titude 24 22', and Sandy Cape bore S. 7 E. diftant eight 
leagues ; but the direction of the fhoal is neareil N. N. W. 



i77°- and S. S. E. It is remarkable that when on board the fhip 

' r—rf we had fix fathom, the boat, which was fcarcely a quarter 

of a mile to the fouthward, had little more than five, and 
that immediately after fix fathom we had thirteen, and then 
twenty, as fail as the man could call the lead: from thefe 
circumftances, I conjectured that the weft fide of the fhoal 
was fteep. This fhoal I called the Break Sea Spit, becaufe 
we had now fmooth water, and to the fouthward of it we 
had always a high fea from the S. E. At fix in the evening, 
the land of Sandy Cape extended from S. 17 E. to S. 27 E. at 
the diftarfce of eight leagues ; our depth of water was twenty- 
three fathom: with the fame foundings we flood to the weft- 
Monday 21. W ard all night. At feven in the morning, we faw, from the 
maft-head, the land of Sandy Cape bearing S. E. 4 E. diftant 
about thirteen leagues: at nine, we difcovered land to the 
weft ward, and foon after faw fmoke in feveral places. Our 
depth of water was now decreafed to feventeen fathom, and 
by noon we had no more than thirteen, though we were 
feven leagues from the land, which extended from S. by W. 
to W. N. W. Our latitude at this time was 24° 28'S. For a 
few days paft we had feen feveral of the fea birds called boo- 
bies, not having met with any of them before ; laft night a 
fmall flock of them palled the fhip, and went away to the 
N. W. and in the morning, from about half an hour before 
fun- rife, to half an hour after, flights of them were con- 
tinually coming from the N. N. W. and flying to the S. S. E. 
nor was one of them feen to fly in any other direction; 
we therefore conjectured that there was a lagoon, river, or 
inlet of mallow water, in the bottom of the deep bay, to the 
fouthward of us, whither thefe birds reforted to feed in the 
day, and that not far to the northward there were fome 
iflands to which they repaired in the night. To this bay I 
gave the name of He rve y's B a y, in honour of Captain Hervey. 




In the afternoon, we flood in for the land, fleering S. W. 177°- 


with a gentle breeze at S E. till four o'clock, when, being l, _ ,_' _, 

in latitude 24 36', about two leagues from the more, and on ay21, 
having nine fathom water, we bore away along the coaft 
N. W. by W. and at the fame time could fee land extending 
to the S. S. E. about eight leagues. Near the fea the land is 
very low, but within there are fome lofty hills, all thickly 
clothed with wood. While we were running along the 
fhore, we fhallowed our water from nine to feven fathom, 
and at one time we had but fix, which determined us to an- 
chor for the night. 

At fix in the morning we weighed, with a gentle breeze Tucfday 22. 
from the fouthward, and fleered N. W. - W. edging in for 
the land till we got within two miles of it, with water from 
feven to eleven fathom: we then fleered N. N. W. as the 
land lay, and at noon, our latitude was 24 19. We conti- 
nued in the fame courfe, at the fame diflance, with from 
twelve fathom to feven, till five in the evening, when we 
were abreafl of the fouth point of a large open bay, in which 
I intended to anchor. During this courfe, we difcovered 
with our glafles that the land was covered with palm-nut- 
trees, which we had not feen from the time of our leaving 
the iflands within the Tropick : we alfo faw two men walk- 
ing along the fhore, who did not condefcend to take the leafl 
notice of us. In the evening, having hauled clofe upon a 
wind, and made two or three trips, we anchored about eight 
©'clock in five fathom, with a fine fandy bottom. The fouth 
point of the bay bore E. 1 S. diflant two miles, the north 
point N. W. ^ N. and about the fame diflance from the fhore. 

Early the next morning I went afhore, with a party of Wednef. 23,. 
men, in order to examine the country, accompanied by Mr. 
Banks, Dr. Solander,. the other gentlemen, and Tupia : the 

i wind. 


1770. wind blew frefh, and we found it fo cold, that being at fome 

May. ° 

' , 1 diftance from the more, we took our cloaks as a neceffary 

Wcdnef. 2%, 

equipment for the voyage. We landed a little within the 
fouth point of the bay, where we found a channel leading 
into a large lagoon: this channel I proceeded to examine, 
and found three fathom water till I got about a mile up it, 
where I met with a fhoal, upon which there was little more 
than one fathom, but having palled over it, I had three fa- 
thom again. The entrance of this channel lies clofe to the 
fouth point of the bay, being formed by the more on the 
eaft, and on the weft by a large fpit of fand: it is about a 
quarter of a mile broad, and lies in S. by W. In this 
place there is room for a few fhips to lie in great fecurity, 
and a fmall dream of frefh water ; I would have rowed into 
the lagoon, but was prevented by mallows. We found 
feveral bogs, and fwamps of fait water, upon which, and 
by the fides of the lagoon, grows the true mangrove, fuch 
as is found in the Well Indies, and the firft of the kind that 
we had met with. In the branches of thefe mangroves there 
were many nefts of a remarkable kind of ant, that was as 
green as grafs : when the branches were difturbed they came 
out in great numbers, and puniflied the offender by a much 
fharper bite than ever we had felt from the fame kind of 
animal before. Upon thefe mangroves alfo we faw fmall 
green caterpillars in great numbers : their bodies were thick 
fet with hairs, and they were ranged upon the leaves fide by 
fide like a file of foldiers, to the number of twenty or thirty 
together: when we touched them, we found that the hair 
on their bodies had the quality of a nettle, and gave us a 
much more acute, though lefs durable pain. The country 
here is manifeftly worfe than about Botany Bay : the foil is 
dry and fandy, but the fides of the hills are covered with 
trees, which grow feparately, without underwood. We 




Wednef. 2 

found here the tree that yields a gum like the Sanguis draco- 1770 
nls i but it is fomewhat different from the trees of the fame 
kind which we had feen before, for the leaves are longer, 
and hang down like thofe of the weeping willow. We found 
alfo much lefs gum upon them, which is contrary to the 
eftablifhed' opinion, that the hotter the climate, the more 
gums exude. Upon a plant alfo, which yielded a yellow 
gum, there was lefs than upon the fame kind of plant in 
Botany Bay. Among the fhoals and fand-banks we faw 
many large birds, fome in particular of the fame kind that 
we had feen in Botany Bay, much bigger than fwans, which 
we judged to be pelicans ; but they were fo my that we 
could not get within gun-mot of them. Upon the more we 
faw a fpecies of the buflard, one of which we fhot, it was 
as large as a turkey, and weighed feventeen pounds and an 
half. We all agreed that this was the bell bird we had eaten 
fince we left England ; and in honour of it we called this 
inlet Bustard Bay. It lies in latitude 24 4', longitude 
208 18'. The fea feemed to abound with filh ; but, unhap- 
pily, we tore our feine all to pieces at the firft haul : upon 
the mud-banks, under the mangroves, we found innume- 
rable oyfters of various kinds ; among others the hammer- 
oyfler, and a large proportion of fmall pearl-oyfters : if in 
deeper water there is equal plenty of fuch oyflers at their 
full growth, a pearl fifhery might certainly be eftablifhed 
here to very great advantage. 

The people who were left on board the mip faid, that while 
we were in the woods about twenty of the natives came 
down to the beach, abreaft of her, and having looked at her 
fometime, went away ; but we that were afliore, though we 
faw fmoke in many places, faw no people : the fmoke was 
at places too diftant for us to get to them by land, except one, 

Vol. II. 3 X to 


1770. to which we repaired : we found ten fmall fires ftill burnin a* 

May. • 1 • 

■ — .- _f within a few paces of each other ; but the people were 
Wednef. 23. g 0ne . we f aw near t h e m feveral veffels of bark, which we 
fuppofed to have contained water, and fome fhells and fifh- 
bones, the remains of a recent meal. We faw alfo, lying 
upon the ground, feveral pieces of foft bark, about the 
length and breadth of a man, which we imagined might be 
their beds ; and, on the windward fide of the fires, a fmall 
fhade, about a foot and a half high, of the fame fubftance. 
The whole was in a thicket of clofe trees, which afforded 
good fhelter from the wind. The place feemed to be much 
trodden, and as we faw no houfe, nor any remains of a houfe, 
we were inclined to believe that as thefe people had no 
clothes, they had no dwelling; but fpent their nights, among 
the other commoners of Nature, in the open air : and Tupia 
himfelf, with an air of fuperiority and companion, fhook 
his head, and faid that they were Taata Enos, c poor wretches* 
I meafured the perpendicular height of the laft tide, and 
found it to be eight feet above low-water mark, and from 
the time of low-water this day, I found that it mull be bight- 
water at the full and change of the moon at eight o'clock. 

Thurfda^2 4 . At four o'clock in the morning we weighed, and with a. 
gentle breeze at fouth made fail out of the bay. In Handing 
out our foundings were from five to fifteen fathom ; and at 
day-light, when we were in the greateft depth, and abreaft 
of the north head of the bay, we difcovered breakers ftretcft- 
ing out from it N.N.E. between two and three miles, with a 
rock at the outermoft point of them, juft above water. While 
we were parting thefe rocks, at the diftance of about half a 
mile, we had from fifteen to twenty fathom, and as foon 
as we had pafTed them, we hauled along more W.N. W. for 
the farmed land we had in fight. At noon, our latitude by 



obfervation was 23 ° 52' S. ; the north part of Buflard Bay bore 1770. 

S. 62 E. diflant ten miles ; and the northermofl land in fight ■ ay '_r 

N. 60 W. ; the longitude was 208 " 37', and our diflancefrom Thurfda y 2 *' 
the nearefl fhore fix miles, with fourteen fathom water. 

Till five in the afternoon it was calm, but afterwards we 
fleered before the wind N.W. as the land lay till ten at night, 
and then brought to, having had all along fourteen and fif- 
teen fathom. At five in the morning we made fail ; and at Fn<* a y 2j. 
day-light the northermofl point of the main bore N. 70 W. 
Soon after we faw more land, making like iflands, and bear- 
ing N. W. by N. At nine, we were abreafl of the point, at 
the diflance of one mile, with fourteen fathom water. This 
point I found to lie directly under the Tropic of Capricorn ; 
and for that reafon I called it Cape Capricorn : its longitude 
is 2c8* 58'W.: it is of a confiderable height, looks whiteand 
barren, and may be known by fome iflands which lie to the 
N. W. of it, and fome fmall rocks at the diflance of about a 
league S. E. On the weft fide of the Cape there appeared to 
be a lagoon, and on the two fpits which formed the entrance 
we faw an incredible number of the large birds that refemble 
a pelican. The northermofl land now in fight bore from 
Cape Capricorn N. 24 W. and appeared to be an if] and ; but 
the main land trended W. by N.-i N. which courfe we fleered, 
having from fifteen to fix fathom, and from fix to nine, with a 
hard fandy bottom. At noon, our latitude by obfervation was 
23 24' S. ; Cape Capricorn bore S. 60 E. diflant two leagues ; 
and a fmall ifland N. by E. two miles : in this fituation we 
had nine fathom, being about four miles from the main, 
which, next the fea, is low and fandy, except the points 
which are high and rocky. The country inland is hilly, but 
by no means of a pleafing afpecl. We continued to ftand to 
the N.W. till four o'clock in the afternoon, when it fell 

3X2 calm ; 


1770. calm ; and we foon after anchored in twelve fathom, having 
* y * ■ the main land and iilands in a manner all round us, and 
Friday 25. Cape Capricorn bearing S. 54 E. diftant four leagues. In the 
night, we found the tide rife and fall near feven feet; and 
the flood to fet to the weflward, and the ebb to the eaflward, 
which is jufl contrary to what we found when we were at 
anchor to the eaftward of Buftard Bay. 

Saturday z6. At fix in the morning we weighed, with a gentle breeze 
at South, and flood away to the N. W. between the outer- 
moll range of iilands and the main, leaving feveral fmall 
iilands between the main and the fhip, which we palled at 
a very little diflance : our foundings being irregular, from 
twelve to four fathom, I fent a boat ahead to found. At 
noon we were about three miles from the main, and about 
the fame diftance from the iflands without us : our latitude 
by obfervation was 23° 7'S. : the main land here is high and 
mountainous ; the iflands which lie off it are alfo moft of 
them high, and of a fmall circuit, having an appearance 
rather of barrennefs than fertility. At this time we faw 
fmoke in many places at a confiderable diflance inland, and 
therefore conjectured that there might be a lagoon, river, or 
inlet running up the country, the rather as we had pafTed 
two places which had the appearance of being fuch ; but our 
depth of water was too little to encourage me to venture 
where I fnould probably have lefs. We had not flood to the 
northward above an hour, before we fuddenly fell into three 
fathom ; upon which I anchored, and fent away the Mafler 
to found the channel which lay to leeward of us, between 
the northermoit ifland and the main : it appeared to be 
pretty broad, but I fufpec~ted that it was fhallow, and fo in- 
deed it was found ; for the mafler reported at his return 
that in many places he had only two fathom and an 
6 half, 


half, and where we lay at anchor we had only fixteen feet, 1.770. 
which was not two feet more than the fhip drew. While the < - v a y '_> 
mafter was founding the channel, Mr. Banks tried to fifh from Saturday 26 * 
the cabbin windows with hook and line : the water was too 
fhallow for fifh ; but the ground was almoft covered with 
crabs, which readily took the bait, and fomctimes held it fo 
fall in their claws, that they did not quit their hold till they 
were confiderably above water. Thefe crabs were of two 
forts, and both of them fuch as we had not feen before: one 
of them was adorned with the finefl blue that can be ima- 
gined, in every refpecl equal to the ultramarine, with which 
all his claws, and every joint was deeply tinged: the under 
part of him was white, and fo exquifitely polifhed that in 
colour and brightnefs it exactly refembled the white of old 
china: the other was alfo marked with the ultramarine upon 
his joints, and his toes, but fomewhat more fparingly ; and 
his back was marked with three brown fpots which had a 
fingular appearance. The people who had been out with 
the boat to found, reported, that upon an ifland where we 
had obferved two fires, they had feen feveral of the inhabi- 
tants, who called to them, and feemed very defirous that 
they mould land. In the evening, the wind veered to E.N.E. 
which gave us an opportunity to flretch three or four miles 
back by the way we came ; after which, the wind fhifted to 
the South, and obliged us again to anchor in fix fathom. 

At five in the morning, I fent away the Mafter to fearch SunJay 27, 
for a pafTage between the iflands, while we got the fhip un- 
der fail ; and as foon as it was light we followed the boat, 
which made a fignal that a pafiage had been found. As foon as 
we got again into deep water, we made fail to the ndrthward, 
as the land lay, with foundings from nine fathom to fifteen, 
and fome fmall iflands ftill without us, At noon we were 



1770. about two leagues diftant from the main ; and by obferva- 
»— -^~ 1 tion in latitude 22° si S. The northermofl point of land in 
Sunday .27. fight nQw bore N-NiW . diftant ten miles. To this point I 
gave the name of Cape Manifold, from the number of high 
hills which appeared over it : it lies in latitude 22 ° 43' S. and 
diftant about feventeen leagues from Cape Capricorn, in the 
direction of N. 26 W. Between thefe Capes the more forms 
a large bay, which I called Keppel Bay ; and 1 alfo diftin- 
guifhed the iflands by the name of Keppel's Islands. In 
this bay there is good anchorage ; but what refrefhments it 
may afford, I know not : we caught no nth, though we were 
at anchor ; but probably there is f rem water in feveral places, 
as both the iflands and the main are inhabited. We faw 
fmoke and fires upon the main; and upon the iflands we 
faw people. At three in the afternoon, we paffed Cape Ma- 
nifold, from which the lands trends N.N.W. The land of 
the Cape is high, rifing in hills directly from the fea ; and 
may be known by three iflands which lie off it, one of them 
near the more, and the other two eight miles out at fea. One 
of thefe iflands is low and flat, and the other high and 
round. At fix o'clock in the evening we brought to, when 
the northermofl part of the main in fight bore N.W. and 
fome iflands which lie off it N. 31 W. Our foundings after* 
twelve o'clock were from twenty to twenty-five fathom, and 
in the night from thirty to thirty-four. 

Monday 28. At day-break we made fail, Cape Manifold bearing E. 
diftant eight leagues, and the iflands which I had fet the 
night before were diftant four miles in the fame direction. 
The fartheft vifible point of the main bore N. 67 W. at the 
diftance of twenty-two miles ; but we could fee feveral 
iflands to the northward of this direction. At nine o'clock 
in the forenoon, we were abrcaft of the point which I called 

5 Cape 


Gape Townshend. It lies in latitude 22 15'; longitude jjjo. 
20Q 4r< : the land is high and level, and rather naked than 1 ^Lj 

, 1 1 r- i jt Monday *g. 

woody. Several iflands lie to the northward or it, at the dil- 
tance of four or five miles out at fea ; three or four leagues 
to the S. E. the more forms a bay, in the bottom of which 
there appeared to be an inlet or harbour. To the weftward 
of 'he Cape the land trends S.W. 1 S. and there forms a 
very large bay which turns to the eafhvard, and probably 
communicates with the inlet, and makes the land of the 
Cape an iiland. As foon as we got round this Cape, we 
hauled our wind to the weftward, in order to get within the 
iflands, which lie fcattered in the bay in great numbers, and 
extend out to fea as far as the eye could reach even from the 
mart-head : thefe iflands vary both in height and circuit from 
each other ; fo that, although they are very numerous, no 
two of them are alike. We had not flood long upon a wind 
before we came into fhoal water, and were obliged to tack 
at once to avoid it. Having fent a boat ahead, I bore away 
W. by N. many fmall iflands, rocks, and fhoals, lying be- 
tween us and the main, and many of a larger extent with- 
out us : our foundings till near noon were from fourteen to 
feventeen fathom, when the boat made the figual for meet- 
ing with fhoal water : upon this we hauled clofe upon a 
wind to the eaftward, but fuddenly fell into three fathom 
and a quarter? we immediately dropped an anchor, which 
brought the fhip up with all her fails Handing.. When the 
fhip was brought up we had four fathom, with a coarfe 
fandy bottom, and found a flrong tide fetting to the N. W. 
by W. 1. W. at the rate of near three miles an hour, by 
which we were fo fuddenly carried upon the fhoal. Our 
latitude by obfervation was 22 8' S. ; Cape Townfhend bore 
E. 16S. diflant thirteen miles j and the weftermofl part of 



1770. the main in fight W. ± N. At this time a great number of 
._ _ a - j iflands lay all round us. 

Monday 28. 

In the afternoon, having founded round the fhip, and 
found that there was water fufficient to carry her over the 
fhoal, we weighed, and about three o'clock made fail and 
flood to the weftward, as the land lay, having fent a boat 
ahead to found. At fix in the evening, we anchored in ten 
fathom, with a fandy bottom, at about two miles diftance 
from the main ; the weftermoft part of which bore W. N.W. 
and a great number of iflands, lying a long way without us, 
were Hill in fight. 

Ti-efday 29. At five o'clock the next morning, I fent away the Matter 
with two boats to found the entrance of an inlet which bore 
from us weft, at about the diftance of a league, into which 
I intended to go with the fhip, that I might wait a few days 
till the moon mould encreafe, and in the mean time examine 
the country. As foon as the fhip could be got under fail, the 
boats made the fignal for anchorage ; upon which we flood 
in, and anchored in five fathom water, about a league within 
the entrance of the inlet ; which, as I obferved a tide to flow 
and ebb confiderably, I judged to be a river that ran up the 
country to a confiderable diftance. In this place I had 
thoughts of laying the fhip afhore, and cleaning her bottom; 
I therefore landed with the Mafter in fearch of a convenient 
place for that purpofe, and was accompanied by Mr. Banks 
and Dr. Solander. We found walking here exceedingly trouble- 
fome, for the ground was covered with a kind of grafs, the feeds 
of which were very fharp and bearded backwards j fo that 
whenever they ftuck into our clothes, which indeed was at 
every ftep, they worked forwards by means of the beard, 
till they got at the flefli ; and at the fame time we were fur- 
rounded by a cloud of mufquitos, which incefTantly tor- 


merited us with their flings. We foon met with feveral 1770. 
places where the fhip might conveniently be laid afhore ; ■ -.-'_, 
but to our great difappointment we could find no frefli wa- Tuefday * 9 ' 
tcr. We proceeded however up the country, where we 
found gum trees like thofe that we had feen before, and 
obferved that here alfo the gum was in very fmall quanti- 
ties. Upon the branches of thefe trees, and fome others, we 
found ants nefts, made of clay, as big as a bufhel, fomething 
like thofe defcribed in Sir Hans Sloan's Natural Hiftory of 
Jamaica, vol. ii. p. 221, tab. 258, but not fo fmooth: the ants 
which inhabited thefe nefts were fmall, and their bodies 
white. But upon another fpecies of the tree we found a fmall 
black ant, which perforated all the twigs, and having worked 
out the pith, occupied the pipe which had contained it ; yet 
the parts in which thefe infecls had thus formed a lodg- 
ment, and in which they fwarmed in amazing numbers, 
bore leaves and flowers, and appeared to be in as flourifhing 
a ftate as thofe that were found. We found alfo an incre- 
dible number of butterflies, fo that for the fpace of three or 
four acres the air was fo crowded with them that millions 
were to be feen in every direction, at the fame time that 
every branch and twig was covered with others that were 
not upon the wing. We found here alfo a fmall fifh of a 
fingular kind ; it was about the fize of a minnow, and had 
two very ftrong breaft fins : we found it in places that were 
quite dry, where we fuppofed it might have been left by the 
tide ; but it did not feem to have become languid by the 
want of water ; for upon our approach it leaped away, by 
the help of the breaft fins, as nimbly as a frog : neither in- 
deed did it feem to prefer water to land ; for when we found 
it in the water, it frequently leaped out, and purfued its way 
upon dry ground : we alfo obferved that when it was in 
places where fmall ftones were flanding above the furface 
Vol. II. 3 Y of 



1770. of the water at a little diftance from each other, it chofe ra- 
y ay ' _■ ther to leap from ftone to. ftone, than to pafs through the 
ue ay 29. water . am j we f aw f evera l f them pafs entirely over pud- 
dles in this manner, till they came to dry ground, and then- 
leap away. 

In the afternoon we renewed our fearch after freffi water, 
but without fuccefs; and therefore I determined to make my 
flay here but fhort: however, having obferved from an emi- 
nence that the inlet penetrated a confiderable way into the 
country, I determined to trace it in the morning: 

Wednef 30. At fun-rife I went afhore, and climbing a confiderable hill,. 
I took a view of the coaft and the iflands that lie off it, with, 
their bearings, having an azimuth compafs with me for 
that purpofe ; but I obferved that the needle differed very 
confiderably in its pofition, even to thirty degrees, in fome 
places more, in others lefs ; and once I found it differ from, 
itfelf no lefs than two points in the diftance of fourteen feet. 
I took up fome oi the loofe ftones that lay upon the ground, 
and applied them to die needle, but they produced no effect; 
and I therefore concluded that there was iron ore in the hills, 
of which I had remarked other indications both here, and in 
the neighbouring parts. After I had made my obfervations 
upon the hill, I proceeded with Dr. Solander up the inlet ; I 
fet out with the firft of the flood, and long before high- 
water I had advanced above eight leagues. Its breadth thus 
far was from two to five miles, upon a S. \V. by S. direction ; 
but here it opened every way, and formed a large lake, 
which to the N. \V. communicated with the fea ; and I not 
only faw the fea in this direction, but found the tide of 
flood coming ftrongly in from that point : I alfo obferved an. 
arm of this lake extending to the eaftward, and it is not im- 
probable that it may communicate with the fea in the bot- 



torn of the bay, which lies to the weftward of Cape Town- 1770. 
ihcnd. On the fouth fide of the lake is a ridge of high hills ■ -."-'_/ 
which I was very defirous to climb; but it being high-water, We ne * 3 °* 
and the day far fpent, I was afraid of being bewildered 
among the flioals in the night, efpecially as the weather was 
dark and rainy ; and therefore I made the bell of my way to 
the fliip. In this excurfion I faw only two people, and they 
were at a diftance ; they followed the boat along the fhore a 
good way, but the tide running ftrongly in my favour I could 
not prudently wait for them : I faw however feveral fires in 
one direction, and fmoke in another, but they alfo were at a 
diftance. While I was tracing the inlet with Dr. Solander, 
Mr. Banks was endeavouring to penetrate into the country, 
where feveral of the people who had leave to go afhore were 
alfo rambling about. Mr. Banks and his party found their 
courfe obilructed by a fwamp, covered with mangroves, 
which however they refolved to pafs ; the mud was almofl 
knee deep, yet they refolutely went on ; but before they got 
half way, they repented of their undertaking : the bottom 
was covered with branches of trees interwoven with each 
other, fometimcs they kept their footing upon them, fome- 
times their feet flipt through, and fometimes they were {o 
entangled among them, that they were forced to free them- 
felves by groping in the mud and flime with their hands. In 
about an hour however they eroded it, and judged it might 
be about a quarter of a mile over. After a fhort walk they 
came up to a place where there had been four fmall fires, 
and near them fome fliells and bones of fifh, that had been 
roafted : they found alfo heaps of grafs laid together, where 
four or five people appeared to have flept. The Second 
Lieutenant, Mr. Gore, who was at another place, faw a little 
water lying in the bottom of a gully, and near it the track 
of a large animal : fome buflards were alfo feen, but none 

3 Y 2 of 


VH&t of them mot, nor any other bird except a few of the beauti- 

t. — v > ful loriquets which we had feen in Botany Bay. Mr. Gore, 

and one of the midfhipmen, who were in different places, 
laid that they had heard the voices of Indians near them, 
but had feen none : the country in general appeared fandy 
and barren, and being deflitute of frefli water, it cannot be 
fuppofed to have any fettled inhabitants. The deep gullies, 
which were worn by torrents from the hills, prove, that at 
certains feafons the rains here are very copious and heavy. 

The inlet in which the fhip lay I called Thirsty Sound, 
becaufe it afforded us no frefli water. It lies in latitude 
22 io'S. and longitude 210 18'W. ; and may be known by 
a group of fmall iflands lying under the fhore, from two to 
five leagues diftant, in the direction of N.W. and by another 
group of iflands that lie right before it, between three and 
four leagues out at fea. Over each of the points that form 
the entrance is a high round hill, which on the N. W. is a 
peninfula that at high-water is furrounded by the fea : they 
are bold to both the mores, and the diflance between them 
is about two miles. In this inlet is good anchorage in feven, 
fix, five, and four fathom; and places very convenient for 
laying a fhip down, where, at fpring-tides, the water does 
not rife lefs than fixteen or eighteen feet. The tide flows at 
the full and change of the moon about eleven o'clock. I 
3iave already obferved that here is no frefli water, nor could 
/ we procure refrefhment of any other kind : we faw two turtles, 
but we were not able to take either of them: neither did we 
catch either fifh or wild-fowl, except a few fmall land-birds : 
we faw indeed the fame forts of water-fowl as in Botany Bay, 
but they were fo fhy that we could not get a fhot at them. 

As I had not therefore a fingle inducement to flay longer 
Thaifday 3 i. in this place, I weighed anchor at fix o'clock in the morn- 


Thurfday 3 1, 


ing of Thurfday the 31ft of May, and put to fea. We flood 
to the N.W. with a frefh breeze at S.S. E. and kept without 
the group of iflands that lie in more, and to the N. W. of 
Thirfty Sound, as there appeared to be no fafe pafTage be- 
tween them and the main : at the fame time we had a number 
of iflands without us, extending as far as we could fee : 
during our run in this direction our depth of water was ten, 
eight, and nine fathom. At noon, the well point of Thirfty 
Sound, which I have called Pier Head, bore S. 36 E. diftant 
live leagues ; the eaft point of the other inlet, which com- 
municates with the Sound, bore S. by W. diftant two leagues ; 
the group of iflands juft mentioned lay between us and the 
point, and the fartheft part of the main in fight, on the 
other fide of the inlet, bore N. W. Our latitude by obferva- 
tion was 2 1 ° 53'. At half an hour after twelve, the boat, 
which was founding ahead, made the fignal for fhoal water, 
and we immediately hauled our wind to the N. E. At this 
time we had feven fathom, at the next caft five, and at the 
next three, upon which we inftantly dropped an anchor, that 
brought the fhip up. Pier Head, the north weft point of 
Thirfty-found, boreS.E. diftant fix leagues, being half-way 
between the iflands which lie off the eaft point of the weft- 
em inlet, and three fmall iflands which lie diredtly without 
them. It was now the firft of the flood, which we found to 
fet N.W. by W. I W. ; and having founded about the fhoal, 
upon which we had three fathom, and found deep water all 
round it, we got under fail, and having hauled round the 
three iflands that have been juft mentioned, came to an an- 
chor under the lee of them, in fifteen fathom water; and 
the weather being dark, hazy, and rainy, we remained there 
till feven o'clock in the morning. At this time we got again , June. 

Friday I. 

under fail, and flood to the N.W. with a frefh breeze at 
S. S.E.j having the main land in fight, and a number of 



i77°- iflands all round us, fome of which lay out at fea as far as 
i u "_ _f the eye could reach. The weflern inlet, which in the chart 
Fndiy i. . g diflinguifhed by the name of Broad Sound, we had now 
all open j at the entrance, it is at leaft nine or ten leagues 
wide : in it, and before it, lie feveral iflands, and probably 
ihoals alfo ; for our foundings were very irregular, varying 
fuddenly from ten to four fathom. At noon, our latitude by 
obfervation was 21 29'S. ; a point of land which forms the 
north weft entrance into Broad Sound, and which I have 
named Cape Palmerston, lying in latitude 21 30', longi- 
tude 210 54 W. bore W. by N. diftant three leagues. Our 
latitude was 21 ° 27', our longitude 210 57'. Between this 
Cape and Cape Townfhend lies the bay which I have called 
the Bay of Inlets. We continued to fland to the N.W. and 
N. W. by N. as the land lay, under an eafy fail, having a 
boat ahead to found : at firfl the foundings were very irre- 
gular, from nine to four fathom ; but afterwards they were 
regular, from nine to eleven. At eight in the evening, being 
about two leagues from the main land, we anchored in 
eleven fathom, with a fandy bottom ; and foon after we 
found the tide fetting with a flow motion to the weflward. 
At one o'clock it was flack, or low-water; and at half an 
hour after two the fhip tended to the eaflward, and rode fo 
Saturday 2". till fix in the morning, when the tide had rifen eleven feet. 
We now got under fail, and flood away in the direction of 
the coafl, N. N. W. From what we had obferved of the tide 
during the night, it is plain, that the flood came from the 
N. W. ; whereas the preceding day, and feveral days before, 
it came from the S. E. ; nor was this the firfl, or even fecond 
time that we had remarked the fame thing. At fun- rife this 
morning, we found the variation to be 6° 45' E. ; and in fleer- 
ing along the more, between the ifland and the main, at the 
diflance of about two leagues from the main, and three or 



four from the ifland, our foundings were regular from 1770. 
twelve to nine fathom ; but about eleven o'clock in the fore- « -"-'__? 
noon we were again embarrafled with fhoal water, having 
at one time not more than three fathom ; yet we got clear, 
without cafting anchor. At noon we were about two leagues 
from the main, and four from the iflands without us. Our 
latitude by obfervation was 20 56', and a high promontory, 
which I named Cape Hillsborough, bore W. 4 N. diftant 
feven miles. The land here is divernfied by mountains* 
hills, plains, and valleys, and feems to be well clothed with 
herbage and wood : the iflands which lie parallel to the 
eoaft, and from five to eight or nine miles diftant, are of va- 
rious height and extent ; fcarcely any of them are more than- 
five leagues in circumference, and many are not four miles : 
befides this chain of iflands, which lies at a diftance from; 
the coaft, there are others much lefs, which lie under the 
land, from which we faw fmoke riling in different places. 
We continued to fleer along the more at the diftance of about 
two leagues, with regular foundings from nine to ten fa- 
thom. At fun-fet, the fartheft point of the main bore 
N. 48 W. and to the northward of this lay fome high land* 
which I took to be an ifland, and of which the north weft 
point bore 41 W. ; but not being fure of a pafTage, I came 
to an anchor about eight o'clock in the evening, in ten fa- 
thom water, with a muddy bottom. About ten we had a 
tide fetting to the northward, and at two it had fallen nine 
feet ; after this it began to rife, and the flood came from the 
northward, in the direction of the iflands which lay out to 
fea ; a plain indication that there was no pafTage to the N.W-*. 
This however had not appeared at day-break, when we got 
under fail and flood to the N.W. At eight o'clock in the 
morning, we difcovered low land quite acrofs what we took 
for an opening, which proved to be a bay, about five or fix* 


Sunday 3 I 


'770- leagues deep; upon this we hauled our wind to the eaft- 

'_- -"-'-/ ward round the north point of the bay, which at this time 
Sunday 3 . bore from ug N E> by N> diftant f our i ea g Ues . f rom this 

point we found the land trend way N. by W. i. W. and a 
ftreight or paflage between it and a large ifland, or iflands, 
lying parallel to it. Having the tide of ebb in our favour, we 
flood for this paflage ; and at noon were juft within the en- 
trance: our latitude by obfervation was 20 26' S. ; CapeHillf- 
borough bore S. by E. diflant ten leagues ; and the north 
point of the bay S. 19 W. diftant four miles. This point, 
which I named Cape Conway, lies in latitude 26 36' S. lon- 
gitude 211 28' W. ; and the bay which lies between this Cape 
and Cape Hillfborough I called Repulse Bay. The greateft 
depth of water which we found in it was thirteen fathom, 
and the leaft eight. In all parts there was fafe anchorage, 
and I believe that, upon proper examination, fome good har- 
bours would be found in it ; efpecially at the north fide 
within Cape Conway ; for juft Within that Cape there lie two 
or three fmall iflands, which alone would fhelter that fide of 
the bay from the foutherly and fouth eafterly winds, that feem 
to prevail here as a Trade. Among the many iflands that lie 
upon this coaft, there is one more remarkable than the reft j 
it is of a fmall circuit, very high and peaked, and lies E. by S. 
ten miles from Cape Conway, at the fouth end of the paf- 
fage. In the afternoon, we fleered through this paflage, 
which we found to be from three to feven miles broad, and 
eight or nine leagues in length, N. by W. 4 W., S. by E. f E. 
It is formed by the main on the weft, and by the iflands on 
the eaft, one of which is at leaft five leagues in length : our 
depth of water in running through was from twenty to five 
and twenty fathom, with good anchorage every where, and 
the whole paflage may be confidered as one fafe harbour, ex- 
clufive of the fmall bays and coves which abound on each 
6 fide, 


fide, where mips might lie as in a bafon. The land both 1770. 
upon the main and iflands is high, and. divcrfified by hill ■ une ' _, 
and valley, wood and lawn, with a green and pleafant £unday3, 
appearance. On one of the iflands we difcovered with our 
glafTes two men and a woman, and a canoe with an out- 
rigger, which appeared to be larger, and of a conftruction 
very different from thofe of bark tied together at the ends, 
which we had feen upon other parts of the coafl ; we hoped 
therefore that the people here had made fome farther ad- 
vances beyond mere animal life than thofe that we haxl feen 
before. At fix o'clock in the evening, we were nearly the 
length of the north end of the pafTage ; the north wcflermoft 
point of the main in fight bore N. 54 W. and the north end 
of the ifland N. N. E. with an open fea between the two 
points. As this pafTage was difcovered on Whitfunday, I 
called it Whitsunday's Passage, and I called the iflands that 
form it Cumberland Islands, in honour of his Royal High- 
nefs the Duke. We kept under an eafy fail, with the lead 
going all night, being at the diftance of about three leagues 
from the fhore, and having from twenty-one to twenty-three 
fathom water. At day-break, we were abreaft of the point Monday 4. 
which had been the fartheft in fight to the north weft the 
evening before, which I named Cape Gloucester. It is a 
lofty promontory, inlatitude 19 59' S. longitude 211° 49' W- 
and may be known by an ifland which lies out at fea N. by W. 
i- W. at the diflance of five or fix leagues from it, and which 
I called Holborne Isle; there are alfo iflands lying under 
the land between Holborne Iflc, and Whitfunday 's PafTage. 
On the weft fide of Cape Gloucefter the land trends away 
S. W. and S. S. W. and forms a deep bay, the bottom of which 
I could but juft fee from the malt-head-: it is very low, and 
a continuation of the low land which we had feen at the 
bottom of Repulfe Bay. This bay I called Edccu.mbe Bay, 
Vol. H. q Z but 


177c but without flaying to look into it, we continued our courfe- 
■ ' t to the weitward, for the fartheft land we could fee in that 

Monday 4. ^.^o^ w hich bore W. by N. 4 N. and appeared very high. 
At noon, we were about three leagues from the more, by 
obfervation in latitude i9°47'S. and Cape Gloucefter bore 
S. 6$ E. diflant feven leagues and an half. At fix in the 
evening, we were abreaft of the weftermoil point juft men- 
tioned, at about three miles diflance, and becaufe it rifes ab- 
ruptly from the low lands which furround it, I called it 
Cape Upstart. It lies in latitude 19 39' S. longitude 212 
32' W. fourteen leagues W. N.W. from Cape Gloucefter, and 
is of a height fufficient to be feen at the diflance of twelve 
leagues : inland there are fome high hills or mountains,, 
•which, like the Cape, afford but a barren profpect. Having, 
pailed this Cape, we continued Handing to the W. N. W. as- 
the land lay, under an eafy fail, having from fixteen to ten 
Tuefdjy 5. fathom, till two o'clock in the morning, when we fell into 
feven fathom ; upon which we hauled our wind to the north- 
ward, judging ourfelves to be very near land: at day-break,. 
we found our conjecture to be true, being within little 
more than two leagues of it. In this part of the coafl the 
land, being very low, is nearer than it appears to be, though 
it is diverfified with here and there a hill. At noon, we 
were about four leagues from the land, in fifteen fathom 
water, and our latitude, by obfervation, was 19 12 S. Cape 
Upilart bearing S. 32° 30' E. diilant twelve leagues. About 
this time fome very large columns of fmoke were feen riling 
from the low lands. At fun-fet, the preceding night, when 
we were clofe under Cape Upftart, the variation was nearly 
9 E. and at fun-rife this day, it was no more than 5 35' ; I 
judged therefore that it had been influenced by iron ore, or 
other magnetical matter, contained under the furface of the 

fe We 


We continued to fleer W. N.W. as the land lay, with 1770. 
twelve or fourteen fathom water, till noon on the 6th, when <__ T'^j 
our latitude, by obfervation, was 19 i'S. and we had the Wedn€f,<5 ' 
mouth of a bay all open, extending from S. 4. E. to S. W. J.S. 
diftant two leagues. This bay, which I named Cleaveland 
Bay, appeared to be about five or fix miles in extent every 
way: the eaft point I named Cape Cleaveland, and the 
weft, which had the appearance of an ifland, Magnetical 
Isle, as we perceived that the compafs did not traverfe well 
when we were near it: they are both high, and fo is the 
main land within them, the whole forming a furface the 
moft rugged, rocky, and barren of any we had feen upon 
the coaft ; it was not however without inhabitants, for we 
faw fmoke in feveral parts of the bottom of the bay. The 
northermoft land that was in fight at this time, bore N. W. 
and it had the appearance of an ifland, for we could not 
trace the main land farther than W. by N. We fleered 
W. N. W. keeping the main land on board, the outermofl 
part of which, at fun-fet, bore W. by N. but without it lay 
high land, which we judged not to be part of it. At day- jhurfday?. 
break, we were abreaft of the eaftern part of this land, 
which we found to be a group of iflands, lying about five 
leagues from the main: at this time, being between the two 
mores, we advanced flowly to the N. W. till noon, when oar 
latitude, by obfervation, was iS° 49' S. and our diftance from 
the main about five leagues: the north weft part of it bore 
from us N. by \V. f W. the iflands extending from N. to E. 
and the neareft being diftant about two miles : Cape Cleave- 
land bore S. 50 E. diftant eighteen leagues. Our foundings, 
in the courfe that we had failed between this time and the 
preceding noon, were from fourteen to eleven fathom. 

In the afternoon, we faw feveral large columns of fmoke 
upon the main ; we faw alfo fome people and canoes, and 

32 3 upon 


i77°- upon one of the iflands what had the appearance of cocoa 
t !' _i nut-trees : as a few of thefe nuts would now have been very 
Thurfday 7 . acce p ta bi ej j f ent Lieutenant Hicks afhore, and with him 
went Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander, to fee what refrefhment 
could be procured, while I kept Handing in for the ifland 
with the fhip. About feven o'clock in the evening they re- 
turned, with an account that what we had taken for cocoa 
nut-trees, were a fmall kind of cabbage palm, and that, ex- 
cept about fourteen or fifteen plants, they had met with no- 
thing worth bringing away. While they were afhore, they 
faw none of the people, but juft as they had put off, one of 
them came very near the beach, and fhouted with a loud 
voice ; it was fo dark that they could not fee him, however 
they turned towards the fhore, but when he heard the boat 
putting back, he ran away or hid himfelf, for they could not 
get a glimpfe of him, and though they fhouted he made no 
reply. After the return of the boats, we flood away N. by W, 
for the northermofl land in fight, of which we were abreaft 
Fridays. at three o'clock in the morning, having pafled all the iflands 
three or four hours before. This land, on account of its 
figure, I named Point Hillock: it is of a confiderable 
height, and may be known by a round hillock, or rock r 
which joins to the Point, but appears to be detached from 
it. Between this Cape and Magnetical Ifle the fhore forms a 
large bay, which I called Halifax Bay: before it lay the 
group of iflands which has been jufl mentioned, and fome 
others, at a lefs diflance from the fhore. By thefe iflands 
the Bay is flickered from all winds, and it affords good an- 
chorage. The land near the beach, in the bottom of the 
Bay, is low and woody, but farther back it is one continued 
ridge of high land, which appeared to be barren and rocky. 
Having paffed Point Hillock, we continued ftanding to the 
N. N. W. as the land trended, having the advantage of a light 



moon. At fix, we were abreaft of a point of land which lies 1770. 
N. by W. f W. diftant eleven miles from Point Hillock, which « . Ju ," e '_r 
I named Cape Sandwich. Between thefe two points the InJa > s - 
land is very high, and the furf'ace is craggy and barren. 
Cape Sandwich may be known not only by the high craggy 
land over it, but by a fmall ifl'and which lies eafl of it, at the 
diftance of a mile, and fome others that lie about two leagues 
to the northward. From Cape Sandwich the land trends 
W. and afterwards N. forming a fine large bay, which I 
called Rockingham Bay, where there appears to be good 
fhelter, and good anchorage, but I did not flay to examine 
it: I kept ranging along the more to the northward, for £ 
clufter of fmall iflands, which lie off the northern point of 
the Bay. Between the three outermoft of thefe iflands, and 
thofe near the fhore, I found a channel of about a mile 
broad, through which I paffed, and upon one of the nearcfl 
iflands we faw with our glaffes about thirty of the natives, 
men, women, and children, ail Handing together, and look- 
ing with great attention at the lhip ; the fir ft inftance of cu- 
riofity that we had feen among them : they were all ftark 
naked, with fhort hair, and of the fame complexion with 
thofe that we had feen before. At noon, our latitude, by 
obfervation, was 17 59', and we were abreaft of the north 
point of Rockingham Bay, which bore from us W. at' the 
diftance of about two miles. This boundary of the Bay is 
formed by an ifland of confiderable height, which in the 
chart is diftinguifhed by the name of Dunk Isle, and which 
lies fo near the fhore as not to be eafily diftinguifhed from it. 
Our longitude was 2 1 3 57' W. Cape Sandwich bore S. by E. f E, 
diftant nineteen miles, and the northermoft land in light 
N. fW. : our depth of water for the laft ten hours had not 
been more than lixteen, nor lefs than feven fathom. At fun- 
let, the northern extremity of the land bore N. 25 W. and we 



1770- kept our courfe N. by W. along the coaft, at the diftance of 
■ between three and four leagues, with an eafy fail all night, 

Fnday 8. ^ving from twelve to fifteen fathom water. 

Saturday 9. At fix o'clock in the morning, we were abreaft of fome 
fmall iflands, which we called Frankland's Isles, and 
which lie about two leagues diftant from the main land. 
The moil diftant point in light to the northward bore N. by 
W. 7 W. and we thought it was part of the main, but after- 
wards found it to be an ifland of confiderable height, and 
about four miles in circuit. Between this ifland and a point 
on the main, from which it is diftant about two miles, I 
paffed with the fhip. At noon, we were in the middle of 
the channel, and by obfervation in the latitude of 16 57' S. 
with twenty fathom water. The point on the main, of 
which we were now abreaft, I called Cape Grafton : its la- 
titude is 16 57' S. and longitude 214° 6' W. and the land here, 
as well as the whole coaft for about twenty leagues to the 
fouthward, is high, has a rocky furface, and is thinly 
covered with wood: during the night we had feen feveral 
fires, and about noon fome people. Having hauled round 
Cape Grafton, we found the land trend away N. W. by\V. 
and three miles to the weftward of the Cape we found a bay, 
in which we anchored about two miles from the more, in 
four fathom water with an ouzey bottom. The eaft point 
of the bay bore S. 74 E. the weft point S. 83 W. and a low, 
green, woody ifland, which lies in the offing, N. 35 E. This 
ifland, which iies N. by E. 7 E. diftant three or four leagues 
from Cape Grafton, is called in the chart Green Island. 

As foon as the fhip was brought to an anchor, I went 
afhore, accompanied by Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander. As 
my principal view was to procure fome frefh water, and as 
the bottom of the bay was low land covered with mangroves, 



where it was not probable frefh. water was to be found, I 177°* 
went out towards the Cape, and found two fmall ftreams, i_— ^_L_> 
which however were rendered very difficult of acccfs by the atur ay 9 ' 
furf and rocks upon the fhore: 1 faw alfo, as I came round 
the Cape, a fmall flream of water run over the beach, in a 
fandy cove, but I did not go in with the boat, becaufe I faw 
that it would not be eafy to land. When we got afliore, we 
found the country every where rifing into fteep rocky hills, 
and as no frefh water could conveniently be procured, I was 
unwilling to lofe time by going in fearch of lower land elfe- 
where: we therefore made the belt of our way back to the fhip, 
and about midnight we weighed and flood to the N. W. hav- 
ing but little wind, with fome fhowers of rain. At four in the Sunday ic* 
morning, the breeze frefhened at S. by E. and the weather 
became fair : we continued fleering N. N. W. 7 W. as the land- 
lay, at about three leagues diftance, with ten, twelve, and 
fourteen fathom water. At ten, we hauled off north, in order 
to get without a fmall low ifland, which lay at about two 
leagues diftance from the main, and great part of which at 
this time, it being high water, was overflowed : about three 
leagues to the north weft of this iiland, clofe under the main 
land, is another ifland, the land of which rifes to a greater 
height, and which at noon bore from us N. 55 W. diftant 
feven or eight miles. At this time, our latitude was 16 20' S, 
Cape Grafton bore S. 29 E. diftant forty miles, and the north- 
ermoft point of land in fight N. 20 W. ; our depth of water 
was fifteen fathom. Between this point and Cape Grafton, 
the fhore forms a large, but not a very deep bay, which 
being difcovered on Trinity Sunday, I called Trinity Bay. 




Dangerous Situation of the Ship in her Courfe from 'Trinity 
Bay to Endeavour River. 

I77 °' T T ITHERTO we had fafely navigated this dangerous 

Sunday 10. 

coaft, where the fea in all parts conceals fhoals that 
fuddenly project from the more, and rocks that rife abruptly- 
like a pyramid from the bottom, for an extent of two and 
twenty degrees of latitude, more than one thoufand three 
hundred miles ; and therefore hitherto none of the names 
which diflinguifh the feveral parts of the country that we 
faw, are memorials of difbrefs ; but here we became ac- 
quainted with misfortune, and we therefore called the point 
which we had jufl feen fartheft to the northward, Cape Tri- 

This Cape lies in latitude i6° 6'S. and longitude 214 39' W. 
We fleered along the more N. by W. at the diftance of be- 
tween three and four leagues, having from fourteen to 
twelve, and ten fathom water : in the offing we faw two 
iflands, which lie in latitude 16 S. and about fix or feven 
leagues from the main. At fix in the evening, the northermofl 
land in fight bore N. by W. f'W. and two low woody iflands, 
which fome of us took to be rocks above water, bore N. 7 W. 
At this time we fhortened fail, and hauled off more E.N. E. 
and N. E. by E. clofe upon a wind, for it was my defign to 
flretch off all night, as well to avoid the danger we faw 
ahead, as to fee whether any iflands lay in the offing, efpeeially 



as we were now near the latitude affigned to the iflands !77 Q « 


which were difcovered by Quiros, and which fome geogra- v- — » 

phers, for what reafon I know not, have thought fit to join 
to this land. We had the advantage of a fine breeze, and «t 
clear moonlight night, and in flanding off from fix till near 
nine o'clock, we deepened our water from fourteen to 
twenty-one fathom, but while we were at fupper it fuddenly 
fhoaled, and we fell into twelve, ten, and eight fathom, 
within the fpace of a few minutes j I immediately ordered 
every body to their ftation, and all was ready to put about 
and come to an anchor, but meeting at the next cad of the 
lead with deep water again, we concluded that we uad gone 
over the tail of the fhoals which we had fcen at fun-fet, and 
that all danger was paft: before ten, we had twenty and 
one and twenty fathom, and this depth continuing, the gen- 
tlemen left the deck in great tranquility, and went to bed ; 
but a few minutes before eleven, the water fhallowed at 
once from twenty to feventeen fathom, and before the lead 
could be caft again, the fhip ftruck, and remained immove- 
able, except by the heaving of the furge, that beat her 
againft the craggs of the rock upon which fhe lay. In a 
few moments every body was upon the deck, with counte- 
nances which fufficiently exprefTed the horrors of our fitu- 
ation. We had flood off the fiiore three hours and a half, 
with a pleafant breeze, and therefore knew that we could not 
be very near it, and we had too much reafon to conclude 
that we were upon a rock of coral, which is more fatal than 
any other, becaufe the points of it are fharp, and every part 
of the furface fo rough as to grind away whatever is rubbed 
againft it, even with the gentleft motion. In this fituation 
all the fails were immediately taken in, and the boats hoifted 
out to examine the depth of water round the fliip: we foon 
difcovered that our fears had not aggravated our misfor- 
Vol. II. 4 A tune, 


I 77°- tune, and that the veffel had been lifted over a ledge of the 

June. ° 

< , > rock, and lay in a hollow within it: in fome places there was 

from three to four fathom, and in others not fo many feet. 
The fhip lay with her head to the N. E. ; and at the diftance of 
about thirty yards on the ftarboard fide, the water deepened 
to eight, ten, and twelve fathom. As foon as the long-boat 
was out, we ftruck our yards and top-mafts, and carried out 
the ftream anchor on the ftarboard bow, got the coafting an- 
chor and cable into the boat, and were going to carry it out 
the fame way; but upon founding a fecond time round the 
fhip, the water was found to be deepeft aftern : the anchor 
therefore was carried out from the ftarboard quarter inftead 
of the ftarboard bow, that is, from the ftern inftead of the 
head, and having taken ground, our utmoft force was ap- 
plied to the capftern, hoping that if the anchor did not come 
home, the fhip would be got off, but to our great misfortune 
and difappointment we could not move her : during all this 
time fhe continued to beat with great violence againft the 
rock, fo that it was with the utmoft difficulty that we kept 
upon our legs ; and to complete the fcene of diftrefs,. we 
faw by the light of the moon the fheathing boards from the 
bottom of the veffel floating away all round her, and at laft 
her falfe keel, fo that every moment was making way for 
the fea to rulli in which was to fwallow us up. We had now 
no chance but to lighten her, and we had loft the opportu- 
nity of doing that to the greateft advantage, for unhappily 
we went on more juft at high water, and by this time it had 
confiderably fallen, fo that after {he mould be lightened fo 
as to draw as much lefs water as the water had funk, we 
fliould be but in the fame fituation as at firft ; and the only 
alleviation of this circumftance was, that as the tide ebbed 
the fhip fettled to the rocks, and was not beaten againft them 
with fo much violence. We had indeed fome hope from the 



next tide, but it was doubtful whether flie would hold toge- >77°- 


ther fo long, efpecially as the rock kept grating her bottom ' , — -> 

. . Sunday 10. 

under the ftarboard bow with fuch force as to be heard in the 
fore flore-room. This however was no time to indulge con- 
jecture, nor was any effort remitted in defpair of fuccefs: 
that no time might be loft, the water was immediately 
flarted in the hold, and pumped up ; fix of our guns, being 
all we had upon the deck, our iron and ftone ballaft, calks, 
hoop flaves, oil jars, decayed flores, and many other things 
that lay in the way of heavier materials, were thrown over- 
board with the utmoft expedition, every one exerting him- 
felf with an alacrity almoft approaching to chcerfulnefs, 
without the leaft repining or difcontent ; yet the men were 
fo far imprefl with a fenfe of their fituation, that not an oath 
was heard among them, the habit of profanenefs, however 
ffrong, being inftantly fubdued, by the dread of incurring 
guilt when death feemed to be fo near. 

While we were thus employed, day broke upon us, and Monday u. 
we faw the land at about eight leagues diftance, without 
any ifland in the intermediate fpace, upon which, if the 
fhip mould have gone to pieces, we might have been fet 
afhore by the boats, and from which they might have taken 
us by different turns to the main : the wind however gra- 
dually died away, and early in the forenoon it was a dead 
calm ; if it had blown hard, the fhip mull inevitably have 
been deflroyed. At eleven in the forenoon we expected high 
water, and anchors were got out, and every thing made 
ready for another effort to heave her off if flie fhould float, 
but to our inexpreffible furprize and concern fhe did not 
float by a foot and a half, though we had lightened her near 
fifty ton, fo much did the day-tide fall fhort of that in the 
night. We now proceeded to lighten her flill more, and 
threw overboard every thing that it was poffible for us to 

4 A z fpare : 


'77°- fpare : hitherto me had not admitted much water, but as the 


< : 1 tide fell, it rufhed in fo fall, that two pumps, incefTantly 

worked, could fcarcely keep her free. At two o'clock, Hie 
lay heeling two or three flreaks to flarboard, and the pin- 
nace, which lay under her bows, touched the ground : we 
had now no hope but from the tide at midnight, and to pre- 
pare for it we carried out our two bower anchors, one on the 
(larboard quarter, and the other right a-ftern, got the blocks 
and tackle which were to give us a purchafe upon the cables 
in order, and brought the falls, or ends of them, in abaft, 
draining them tight, that the next effort might operate upon 
the fhip, and by fhortening the length of the cable between 
that and the anchors, draw her off the ledge upon which fhe 
relied, towards the deep water. About five o'clock in the 
afternoon, we obferved the tide begin to rife, but we ob- 
ferved at the fame time that the leak increafed to a moll 
alarming degree, fo that two more pumps were manned, 
but unhappily only one of them would work : three of the 
pumps however were kept going, and at nine o'clock the 
fhip righted, but the leak had gained upon us fo confide- 
rably, that it was imagined fhe mufl go to the bottom as 
foon as flie ceafed to be fupported by the rock: this was a 
dreadful circumflance, fo that we anticipated the floating of 
the fhip not as an earned of deliverance, but as an event that 
would probably precipitate our detraction. We well knew 
that our boats were not capable of carrying us all on more, 
and that when the dreadful crifis fhould arrive, as all com- 
mand and fubordination would be at an end, a contefl for 
preference would probably enfue, that would increafe the 
horrors even of fhipwreck, and terminate in the deflruction 
of us all by the hands of each other ; yet we knew that if 
any fhould be left on board to perifh in the waves, they 
would probably fuller lefs upon the whole than thofe who 




mould get on more, without any lafting or effectual defence 1770. 

againfl the natives, in a country, where even nets and fire- < ,—'■-. 

arms would fcarcely furnifli them with food; and where, if ° n ay "' 
they mould find the means of fubfillence, they mud be con- 
demned to languifh out the remainder of life in a defolate 
wildernefs, without the poilemon, or even hope, of any do- 
meftic comfort, and cut off from all commerce with man- 
kind, except the naked favages who prowled the defert, and 
who perhaps were fomc of the mod rude and uncivilized 
upon the earth. 

To thofe only who have waited in a flate of fuch fufpenfe, 
death has approached in all his terrors ; and as the dreadful 
moment that was to determine our fate came on, every one 
Taw his own fenfations pictured in the countenances of his 
companions : however, the capllan and windlace were man- 
ned with as many hands as could be fparcd from the pumps, 
and the fhip floating about twenty minutes after ten o'clock, 
the effort was made, and fhe was heaved into deep water. 
It was fome comfort to find that me did not now admit more 
water than fhehad done upon the rock; and though, by the 
gaining of the leak upon the pumps, there was no lefs than 
three feet nine inches water in the hold, yet the men did not 
relinquifh their labour, and we held the water as it were at 
bay ; but having now endured exceflive fatigue of body and 
agitation of mind for more than four and twenty hours, and 
having but little hope of fucceeding at laft, they began to 
flag: none of them could work at the pump more than five 
or fix minutes together, and then, being totally exhaufted, 
they threw themfelves down upon the deck, though a ftream 
of water was running over it from the pumps between three 
and four inches deep ; when thofe who fucceeded them had 
worked their fpell, and were exhaufted in their turn, they 
threw themielves down in the fame manner, and the others 



1770. ftarted up again, and renewed their labour; thus relieving 
L Ju ne ' _, each other till an accident was very near putting an end to 
Monday n. fa^j. e ff or ts a t once. The planking which lines the infide of 
-the fhip's bottom is called the cieling, and between this, and 
the outfide planking, there is a fpace of about eighteen 
inches : the man who till this time had attended the well to 
take the depth of water, had taken it only to the cieling, and 
gave the meafure accordingly ; but he being now relieved, 
the perlbn who came in his (lead, reckoned the depth to the 
outfide planking, by which it appeared in a few minutes to 
have gained upon the pumps eighteen inches, the difference 
between the planking without and within. Upon this, even 
the braveft was upon the point of giving up his labour with 
his hope, and in a few minutes every thing would have been 
involved in all the confufion of defpair. But this accident, 
however dreadful in its firft confequences, was eventually 
the caufe of our prefervation : the miflake was foon detected, 
and the fudden joy which every man felt upon finding his 
fituation better than his fears had fuggefted, operated like a 
charm, and feemed to poffefs him with a ftrong belief that 
fcarcely any real danger remained. New confidence and 
new hope, however founded, infpired new vigour ; and 
though our ftate was the fame as when the men firft began 
to flacken in their labour, through wearinefs and defpon- 
dency, they now renewed their efforts with fuch alacrity and 
fpirit, that before eight o'clock in the morning the leak was 
fo far from having gained upon the pumps, that the pumps 
had gained confiderably upon the leak. Every body now 
talked of getting the Chip into fome harbour, as a thing not 
to be doubted, and as hands could be fpared from the pumps, 
they were employed in getting up the anchors : the ftream 
anchor and beft bower we had taken on board ; but it was 
found impoffible to fave the little bower, and therefore it 



was cut away at a whole cable: we loft alfo the cable of the l n°- 

ftream anchor among the rocks ; but in our fituation thefe >. .u> 

were trifles which fcarcely attracted our notice. Our next 
bufinefs was to get up the fore-topmaft and fore-yard, and 
warp the fhip to the foutheaft, and at eleven, having now a 
breeze from the fea, we once more got under fail and ftood 
for the land. 

It was however impoffible long to continue the labour by 
which the pumps had been made to gain upon the leak, and 
as the exact fituation of it could not be discovered, we had no 
hope of flopping it within. In this fituation, Mr. Monkhoufe, Tuefday is. 
one of my midfhipmen, came to me and propofed an expe- 
dient that he had once feen ufed on board a merchant ffiip, 
which fprung a leak that admitted above four feet water an 
hour, and which by this expedient was brought fafely from 
Virginia to London ; the mafter having fuch confidence in 
it, that he took her out of harbour, knowing her condition, 
and did not think it worth while to wait till the leak could 
be otherwife flopped. To this man, therefore, the care 
of the expedient, which is called fothering the fhip, was im_ 
mediately committed, four or five of the people being ap- 
pointed to affift him, and he performedit in this manner: 
He took a lower ftudding fail, and having mixed together a 
large quantity of oakham and wool, chopped pretty fmall, 
he ftitched it down in handfuls upon the fail, as lightly as 
poffible, and over this he fpread the dung of our fheep and 
other filth ; but horfe dung, if we had had it, would have 
been better. When the fail was thus prepared, it was hauled 
under the fhip's bottom by ropes, which kept it extended, 
and when it came under the leak, the fudlion which carried 
in the water, carried in with it the oakham and wool from, 
the furface of the fail, which in other parts the water was 



1770- not fufficiently agitated to wafli off. By the fuccefs of this 
i___l^Il_j expedient our leak was fo far reduced, that inflead of gain- 
Tuefday 12. . upon three pumps, it was eafdy kept under with one. 
This was a new fource of confidence and comfort ; the peo- 
ple could fcarcely have exprefled more joy if they had been 
already in port ; and their views were fo far from being 
limited to running the fhip afhore in fome harbour, either 
of an ifland or the main, and building a vefTel out of her 
materials, to carry us to the Eaft Indies, which had fo lately 
been the utmoft object of our hope, that nothing was now 
thought of but ranging along the more in fearch of a con- 
venient place to repair the damage fhe had fuftained, and 
then profecuting the voyage upon the fame plan as if no- 
thing had happened. Upon this occafion I mufl obferve, 
both in juftice and gratitude to the fhip's company, and the 
Gentlemen on board, that although in the midft of our dif- 
trefs every one feemed to have a jufl fenfe of his danger, yet 
no paflionate exclamations, or frantic geflures, were to be 
heard or fcen ; every one appeared to have the perfect pof- 
feffion of his mind, and every one exerted himfelf to the ut- 
termoft, with a quiet and patient perfeverance, equally dif- 
tant from the tumultuous violence of terror, and the gloomy 
inactivity of defpair. 

In the mean time, having light airs at E.S.E. we got up 
the main-topmaft, and main-yard, and kept edging in for 
the land, till about fix o'clock in the evening, when we came 
to an anchor in feventeen fathom water, at the diftance of 
feven leagues from the more, and one from the ledge of 
rocks upon which we had {truck. 

This ledge or ihoal lies in latitude 15 45' S. and between 
fix and feven leagues from the main. It is not however the 
only fnoal on this part of the coaft, efpecially to the north- 

4 ward ; 


ward; and at this time we faw one to the fouthward, the J77°- 


tail of which we patted over, when we had uneven iound- c — ,—_ 1 

ings about two hours before we (truck. A part of this ihoai 

is always above water, and has the appearance of white 

fand : a part alfo of that upon which we had lain is dry at 

low water, and in that place confiits of fand ftones ; but all 

the reft of it is a coral rock. 

While we lay at anchor for the night, we found that the 
fhip made about fifteen inches water an hour, from which 
no immediate danger was to be apprehended ; and at fix 
o'clock in the morning, we weighed and flood to the N. W. wednef. 13. 
Hill edging in for the land with a gentle breeze at S. S. E. 
At nine we paffed clofe without two fmall iflands that lie in 
latitude 15 41' S. and about four leagues from the main : to 
reach thefe iflands had, in the height of our diftrefs, been the 
object of our hope, or perhaps rather of our wifhes, and 
therefore I called them Hope Islands. At noon we were 
about three leagues from the land, and in latitude 15 37' S. ; 
the northermolt part of the main in fight bore N. 30 W„; and 
Hope Iflands extended from S. 50 E. to S. 40 E. In this fitua- 
tion we had twelve fathom water, and feveral fand-banks 
without us. At this time the leak had not increafed ; but 
that we might be' prepared for all events, we got the fail 
ready for another fothcring. In the afternoon, having a 
gentle breeze at S. E. by E. I fent out the Mafler with two 
boats, as well to found ahead of the fhip, as to look out for 
a harbour where we might repair our defects, and put the 
fhip in a proper trim. At three o'clock, we fav; an opening 
that had the appearance of an harbour, and flood off and on 
while the boats examined it ; but they foon found that there 
was not depth of water in it fufficient for the fhip. When 
it was near funfet, there being many flioals about us, wc 

Vol. II. 4 B anchored 


1770. " anchored in four fathom, at the diftance of about two miles. 

. J ""!: , from the more, the land extending from N. jl E. to S, by E. i-E. 

Wednef. 13, rj.j ie pi nnace was ftill out with one of the mates ; but at nine 
o'clock fhe returned, and reported, that about two leagues to- 
leeward fhe had difcovered juft fuch a harbour as we wanted* 
in which there was a fufficient rife of water, and every other 
convenience that could be defired, either for laying the lhip 
afhore, or heaving her down. 

In confequence of this information, I weighed at fix o'clock 
Thurfdayii. in the morning, and having fent two boats ahead, to lie 
upon the fhoals that we faw in our way, we ran down to the 
place ; but notwithstanding our precaution, we were once in 
three fathom water. As foon as thefe fhoals were pafTed, I 
fent the boats to lie in the channel that led to the harbour, 
and by this time it began to blow. It was happy for us that 
a place of refuge was at hand j for we foon found that the 
fhip would not work, having twice miffed flays : our Situa- 
tion, however, though it might have been much worfe, was 
not without danger ; we were entangled among fhoals, and 
I had great reafon to fear being driven to leeward, before 
the boats could place themfelves fo as to prefcribe our courfe. 
I therefore anchored in four fathom, about a mile from the 
ihore, and then made the fignal for the boats to come on 
board. When thi3 was done I went myfelf and buoyed the 
channel, which I found very narrow ; the harbour alfo I 
found fmaller than I expected, but mod excellently adapted 
to our purpofe ; and it is remarkable, that in the whole 
courfe of our voyage we had feen no place which, in our 
prefent circumftances, could have afforded us the fame re- 
lief. At noon, our latitude was- 15 26' S. During all the reft 
of this day, and the whole night, it blew too frefh for us to 
venture from our anchor and run into the harbour ; and for 




our farther fecurity, we got down the toprgallant yards, un- 1770. 
bent the mainfail and fome of the fmall fails ; got down the ■ u " e ' _j 
fore-top-gallant malt, and the gibb boom, and fprit-fail, with u aj li ' 
a view to lighten the fliip forwards as much as poflible, in 
order to come at her leak, which we fuppofed to be fome- 
where in that part ; for in all the joy of our unexpected de- 
liverance, we had not forgot that at this time there was no- 
thing but a lock of wool between us and deftruction. The 
gale continuing, we kept our ftation all the 15th. On the Friday ij. 
16th, it was fomewhat more moderate ; and about fix o'clock Saturday 16, 
in the morning, we hove the cable fliort, with a defign to 
get under fail, but were obliged to defift, and veer it out 
again. It is remarkable that the fea breeze, which blew 
freih when we anchored, continued to do fo almoft every day 
while we Hayed here ; it was calm only while we were upon 
the rock, except once ; and even the gale that afterwards 
wafted us to the fhore, would then certainly have beaten us 
to pieces. In the evening of the preceding day, we had ob- 
ferved a fire near the beach over againft us ; and as it would 
be neceffary for us to flay fometime in this place, we were 
not without hope of making an acquaintance with the peo- 
ple. We faw more fires upon the hills to-day, and with our 
glafTes difcovered four Indians going along the more, who 
Hopped, and made two fires ; but for what purpofe it was 
impoflible we mould guefs. 

The fcurvy now began to make its appearance among us, 
with many formidable fymptoms. Our poor Indian, Tupia, 
who had fome time before complained that his gums were 
fore and fwelled, and who had taken plentifully of our le- 
mon juice by the Surgeon's direction, had now livid fpots 
upon his legs, and other indubitable teflimonies that the 
diieafe had made a rapid progrefs, notwithftanding all our 
remedies, among which the bark had been liberally admi- 

4 B 2, niflered. 


l 7~ ' niflered. Mr. Green, our ailronomer, was alfo declining*; 


' — . — r and thefe, among other circumflances, imbittcred the delay 

Saturday 16. , . , . . n 

which prevented our going aihore. 

Sanday i 7 . In the morning of the 17th, though the wind was flill 
frefh, we ventured to weigh, and pufli in for the harbour j 
but in doing this we twice run the fhip aground : the firil 
time flie went off without any trouble, but the fecond time 
me (luck fall. We now got down the fore yard, fore top- 
malls, and booms, and taking them overboard, made a raft 
of them alonglide of the fhip. The tide was happily rifing, 
and about one o'clock in the afternoon, fhe floated. We foon 
warped her into the harbour, and having moored her along- 
fide of a lleep beach to the fouth, we got the anchors, ca- 
bles, and all the hawfers on lliore before night. 

CH AP i 

■ ■■ HI 9 





TranfaSiions while the Ship was refitting in Endeavour 

River : A Defcription of the adjace?it Country > its 

Inhabitants, a7id Productions. 

IN the morning of Monday the 18th, a ftage was made 1770* 
from the fhip to the more, which was fo bold that £he ,_ ^ n c J __, 
floated at twenty feet diftance : two tents were alfo fet up,. Monda y l8 "' 
one for the fick, and the other for flores and provifions, 
which were landed in the courfe of the day. We alfo landed 
all the empty water calks, and part of the flores. As foon 
as the tent for the lick was got ready for their reception, they 
were font afhore to the number of eight or nine, and the 
boat was difpatched to haul the feine, in hopes of procuring 
fome fifh for their refrefhment ; but fhe returned without 
fuccefs. In the mean time, I climbed one of the highefl hills 
among thofe that overlooked the harbour, which afforded 
by no means a comfortable profpecl : the low land near the 
river is wholly over-run with mangroves, among which the 
fait- water flows every tide ; and the high land appeared to 
be every where floney and barren. In the mean time Mr. 
Banks had alfo taken a walk up the country, and met with 
the frames of feveral old Indian houfes, and places where 
they had drefled fhell-fifh; but they feemed not to have been 
frequented for fome months. Tupia, who had employed 
himfelf in angling, and lived intirely upon what he "caught, 
recovered in a furprifing degree; but Mr. Green Mill conti- 
nued to be extremely ill. 




TranfaSiions while the Ship was refitting in Endeavour 

River : A Description of the adjacent Country, its 

Inhabitants, a?td Produclions. 

IN the morning of Monday the iSth, a ftage was made 1770* 
from the fhip to the more, which was fo bold that me , ^" c " __, 
floated at twenty feet diflance : two tents were alfo fet up,- Monda y l8i 
one for the nek, and the other for ftores and provifions, 
which were landed in the courfe of the day. We alfo landed 
all the empty water cafks, and part of the ftores. As foon 
as the tent for the fick was got ready for their reception, they 
were fent amore to the number of eight or nine, and the 
boat was difpatched to haul the feine, in hopes of procuring 
fome fifli for their refrefhment; but Ihe returned without 
fuccefs. In the mean time, I climbed one of the highefl hills 
among thofe that overlooked the harbour, which afforded 
by no means a comfortable profpect : the low land near the 
river is wholly over-run with mangroves, among which the 
falt-water flows every tide ; and the high land appeared to 
be every where floney and barren. In the mean time Mr. 
Banks had alfo taken a walk up the country, and met with 
the frames of feveral old Indian houfes, and places where 
they had drefTed mell-fiih ; but they feemed not to have been 
frequented for fome months. Tupia, who had employed 
himfelf in angling, and lived intirely upon what he'eaughr, 
recovered in a furprifing degree ; but Mr. Green flill conti- 
nued to be extremely ill. 



1770. The next morning I got the four remaining guns out of 

v_i!^L^ the hold, and mounted them upon the quarter-deck; I alfo 
i uefday 19. a fp are anc hor, and anchor-flock afhore, and the remain- 

ing part of the flores and ballafl that were in the hold : fet 
up the fmith's forge, and employed the armourer and his 
mate to make nails and other neceHaries for the repair of the 
fhip. In the afternoon, all the officers' flores and the ground 
tier of water were got out ; fo that nothing remained in the 
fore and main hold, but the coals, and a fmall quantity of 
ilone ballaft. This day Mr. Banks crofled the river to take a 
view of the country on the other fide : he found it cOnfift 
principally of fand-hills, where he faw fome Indian houfes, 
which appeared to have been very lately inhabited. In his 
walk, he met with vafl flocks of pigeons and crows : of the 
pigeons, which were exceedingly beautiful, he mot feveral; 
but the crows, which were exactly like thofe in England, 
were fo fhy that he could not get within reach of them. 
Wednef. 20. On the 20th, we landed the powder, and got out the flone 
ballafl and wood, which brought the fhip's draught of wa- 
ter to eight feet ten inches forward, and thirteen feet abaft; 
and this 1 thought, with the difference that would be made 
by trimming the coals aft, would be fufficient ; for I found 
that the water rofe and fell perpendicularly eight feet at the 
fpring-tides : but as foon as the coals were trimmed from 
over the leak, we could hear the water rufh in a little abaft 
the foremaft, about three feet from the keel : this deter- 
mined me to clear the hold intirely. This evening, Mr. 
Banks obferved that in many parts of the inlet there were 
large quantities of pumice ftones, which lay at a confide- 
rable diilance above high-water mark ; whither they might 
have been carried either by the frefhesor extraordinary high 
tides, for there could be no doubt but that they came from 

the fea. 6 




The next morning we went early to work, and by four J 77°- 


o'clock in the afternoon had got out all the coals, caft the < ; 

moorings loofe, and warped the fhip a little higher up the 
harbour to a place which I thought mod convenient for lay- 
ing her afhore in order to flop the leak. Her draught of 
water forward was now feven feet nine inches, and abaft 
thirteen feet fix inches. At eight o'clock, it being high- 
water, I hauled her bow clofe afhore ; but kept her flern 
afloat, becaufe I was afraid of neiping her ; it was however 
necefTary to lay the whole of her as near the ground as 

At two o'clock in the morning of the 22d, the tide left her, Friday zz. 
and gave us an opportunity to examine the leak, which we 
found to be at her floor heads, a little before the (larboard 
fore-chains. In this place the rocks had made their way 
through four planks, and even into the timbers ; three more 
planks were much damaged, and the appearance of thefe 
breaches was very extraordinary : there was not a fplinter to 
be feen, but all was as fmooth, as if the whole had been 
cut away by an inftrument : the timbers in this place were 
happily very clofe, and if they had not, it would have been 
abfolutely impoflible to have faved the fhip. But after all, 
her prefervation depended upon a circumftance flill more 
remarkable : in one of the holes, which was big enough to 
have funk us, if we had had eight pumps inftead of four, 
and been able to keep them inceflantly going, was in great 
meafure plugged up by a fragment of the rock, which, after 
having made the wound, was left (ticking in it ; fo that the 
water which at firfl had gained upon our pumps, was what 
came in at the interftices, between the ftcne and the edges 
©f the hole that received it. We found alfo feveral pieces 
of the fothering, which, had made their way between the 



1.770. timbers, and in a great meafure flopped thofe parts of the 

\ ^X^j leak- which the flone had left open. Upon further examina- 

jfnday 22. j^q^ we found that, befides the leak, confiderable damage 
had been done to the bottom ; great part of the fheathing was 
gone from under the larboard bow; a confiderable part of 
the falfe keel was alfo wanting, and thefe indeed we had 
feen fwim away in fragments from the veffel, while flie lay 
beating againft the rock : the remainder of it was in fo mat- 
tered a condition that it had better have been gone, and the 
fore foot and main keel were alfo damaged, but not fo as 
to produce any immediate danger : what damage me might 
have received abaft could not yet be exaclly known, but we 
had reafon to think it was not much, as but little water 
made its way into her bottom, while the tide kept below the 
leak which has already been defcribed. By nine o'clock in 
the morning the carpenters got to work upon her, while the 
fmiths were bufy in making bolts and nails. In the mean time, 
fome of the people were fent on the other fide of the water 
to moot pigeons for the fick, who at their return reported that 
they had feen an animal as large as a greyhound, of a flender 
make, a moufe colour, and extremely fwift ; they difcovered 
alfo many Indian houfes, and a fine ftream of frefh water. 

Saturday 23. The next morning, I fent a boat to haul the feine; but at 
noon it returned with only three fifli, and yet we faw them 
in plenty leaping about the harbour. This day the carpen- 
ter finifhed the repairs that were necefTary on the ftarboard 
fide ; and at nine o'clock in the evening, we heeled the fhip 
the other way, and hauled her off about two feet for fear of 
neioing. '1 his day almoft every body had feen the animal 
which the pigeon-fhooters had brought an account of the 
day before ; and one of the feamen, who had been rambling 
in the woods, told us at his return, that he verily believed. 

n he 


he had feen the devil : we naturally enquired in what form i n°- 

n June. 

he had appeared, and his anfwer was in fo fingular a llile 1 , » 

that I mall fet down his own words ; " He was, fays John, as 
" large as a one gallon keg, and very like it ; he had horns 
u and wings, yet he crept fo flowly through the grafs, that 
« if I had not been aftard I might have touched him." This 
formidable apparition we afterwards difcovered to have been 
a batt; and the batts here mull be acknowledged to have a 
frightful appearance, for they are nearly black, and full as 
large as a partridge ; they have indeed no horns, but the 
fancy of a man who thought he faw the devil might eafily 
fupply that defect 

Early on the 24th, the carpenters began to repair the Sunday 24. 
fheathing under the larboard bow, where we found two 
planks cut about half through; and in the mean time I fent 
a party of men, under the direction of Mr. Gore, in fearch 
of refrefhments for the fick : this party returned about noon 
with a few palm cabbages, and a bunch or two of wild plan- 
tains ; the plantains were the fmalleft I had ever feen, and 
the pulp, though it was well tailed, was full of fmall Hones. 
As I was walking this morning at a little diftance from the 
fhip, I faw myfelf one of the animals which had been fo 
often defcribed : it was of a light moufe colour, and in fize 
and ihape very much refembling a greyhound ; it had a long 
tail alfo, which it carried like a greyhound ; and I mould 
have taken it for a wild dog, if infkad of running, it had not 
leapt like a hare or deer : its legs were faid to be very flender, 
and the print of its foot to be like that of a goat ; but where 
I faw it the grafs was fo high that the legs were concealed, 
and the ground was too hard to receive the track. Mr. Banks 
alfo had an imperfect view of this animal, and was of opi- 
nion that its fpecies was hitherto unknown. 

Vol.H. 4 G After 


iilSiiiM^-V- v^ 

• ; .-. A 5 

I m 


'J % 

3& J 


ill |g§ I gl 1EL^ h n J 





... 1 ml . .. 


IPIilill-" A . >' v , 



he had feen the devil : we naturally enquired in what form f 77°- 


he had appeared, and his anfwer was in fo lingular a ftile i , » 

that I mall fet down his own words ; " He was, fays John, as 
" large as a one gallon keg, and very like it ; he had horns 
" and wings, yet he crept fo flowly through the grafs, that 
" if I had not been afeard I might have touched him." This 
formidable apparition we afterwards difcovered to have been 
a batt; and the batts here mull be acknowledged to have a 
frightful appearance, for they are nearly black, and full as 
large as a partridge ; they have indeed no horns, but the 
fancy of a man who thought he faw the devil might eafily 
fupply that defect, 

Early on the 24th, the carpenters began to repair the Sunday 24. 
fheathing under the larboard bow, where we found two 
planks cut about half through; and in the mean time I fent 
a party of men, under the direction of Mr. Gore, in fearch 
of refrefhments for the fick : this party returned about noon 
with a few palm cabbages, and a bunch or two of wild plan- 
tains ; the plantains were the fmalleft I had ever feen, and 
the pulp, though it was well tailed, was full of fmall Hones. 
As I was walking this morning at a little diflance from the 
fhip, I faw myfelf one of the animals which had been fo 
often defcribed : it was of a light moufe colour, and in fize 
and fhape very much refembling a greyhound ; it had a long 
tail alfo, which it carried like a greyhound ; and I mould 
have taken it for a wild dog, if inftead of running, it had not 
leapt like a hare or deer : its legs were faid to be very nender, 
and the print of its foot to be like that of a goat; but where 
1 faw it the grafs was fo high that the legs were concealed, 
and the ground was too hard to receive the track. Mr. Banks 
alfo had an imperfect view of this animal, and was of opi- 
nion that its fpecies was hitherto imknown. 

Vol. II. 4 G After 


1770. After the fhip was hauled afhore, all the water that came 

t -.-' , _/ into her of courfe went backwards ; fo that although fhe was 
7Q ' y 24 ' dry forward, fhe had nine feet water abaft: as in this part 
therefore her bottom could not be examined on the infide, I 
took the advantage of the tide being out this evening to get 
the mafter and two of the men to go under her, and exa- 
mine her whole larboard fide without. They found the 
fheathing gone about the floor heads abreall of the main- 
mall, and part of a plank a little damaged ; but all agreed 
that fhe had received no other material injury. The lofs of 
her fheathing alone was a great misfortune, as the worm 
would now be let into her bottom, which might expofe us to 
great inconvenience and danger ; but as I knew no remedy 
for the mifchief but heaving her down, which would be a 
work of immenfe labour and long time, if practicable at 
all in our prefent flotation, I was obliged to be content. The 
carpenters however continued to work under her bottom in 
the evening till they were prevented by the tide ; the morn- 
ing tide did not ebb out far enough to permit them to work 
at all, for we had only one tolerable high and low tide in 
four and twenty hours, as indeed we had experienced when 
we lay upon the rock. The polition of the fhip, which 
threw the water in her abaft, was very near depriving the 
world of all the knowlege which Mr. Banks had endured fo 
much labour, and fo many rifks, to procure; for he had re- 
moved the curious collection of plants which he made du- 
ring the whole voyage, into the bread room, which lies in 
the after part of the fhip, as a place of the greateft fecu- 
rity ; and nobody having thought of the danger to which 
laying her head fo much higher than the ilern would ex- 
pofe them, they were this day found under water. Moft 
of them however were, by indefatigable care and attention, 
?, reftored 


reftored to a ftate of prefervation, but fome were entirely 1770. 
fpoilt and deftroyed. ^_ -"_'_. 

The 25th was employed in filling water and over-hauling Monday «;. 
the rigging, and at low water the carpenters finifhed the 
repairs under the larboard bow, and every other place which 
the tide would permit them to come at ; fome caiks were 
then lamed under her bows to facilitate her floating, and at 
night, when it was high water, we endeavoured to heave 
her off, but without fuccefs, for fome of the caiks that were 
lafhed to her gave way. 

The morning of the 26th was employed in getting more 
cafks ready for the fame purpofe, and in the afternoon we 
lafhed no lefs than eight and thirty under the fhip's bottom, 
but to our great mortification thefe alfo proved ineffectual, 
and we found ourfelves reduced to the neceflity of waiting 
till the next fpring-tide. 

This day, fome of our gentlemen who had made an excur- 
fion into the woods, brought home the leaves of a plant, 
which was thought to be the fame that in the Weft Indies is 
called coccos, but upon trial, the roots proved too acrid to 
be eaten ; the leaves however were little inferior to fpinnage. 
In the place where thefe plants were gathered, grew plenty 
of the cabbage trees which have occafionally been men- 
tioned before, a kind of wild plantain, the fruit of which 
was fo full of ftones as fcarcely to be eatable; another fruit 
was alfo found about the fize of a fmall golden pippin, but 
flatter, and of a deep purple colour : when fir ft gathered 
from the tree it was very hard and difagreeable, but after 
being kept a few days became foft, and taftcd very much 
like an indifferent damafcene. 

The next morning we began to move fome of the weight wednef. 27. 
from the after-part of the fhip forward, to eafe her; in the 
mean time the armourer continued to work at the forge, the 

4 C 2 carpentei 


Wednef. 27, 


carpenter was bufy in caulking the fhip, and the men em- 
ployed in filling water and over-hauling the rigging: in the 
forenoon, I went niyfelf in the pinnace up the harbour, and 
made feveral hauls with the feine, but caught only between 
twenty and thirty fim, which were given to the fick and 

Thurfday2S. On the 28th, Mr. Banks went with fome of the feamen up 
the country, to fhew them the plant which in the Well Indies 
is called Indian kale, and which ferved us for greens. Tu- 
pia had much meliorated the root of the coccos, by giving 
them a long dreffing in his country oven, but they were fo 
fmall that we did not think them an object for the fhip. In 
their walk they found one tree which had been notched for 
the convenience of climbing it, in the fame manner with 
thofe we had feen in Botany Bay : they faw alfo many nefls 
of white ants, which refemble thofe of the Eafl Indies, the 
moll pernicious infects in the world. The nefls were of a 
pyramidical figure, from a few inches to fix feet high, and 
very much refembled the flones in England, which are faid 
to be monuments of the Druids. Mr. Gore, who was alfo 
this day four or five miles up the country, reported that he 
had feen the footfleps of men, and tracked animals of three 
or four different forts, but had not been fortunate enough to 
fee either man or beafl. 
Friday 29. At two o'clock in the morning of the 29th, I obferved, in 

conjunction with Mr. Green, an emerfion of Jupiter's firfl 
fatellite ; the time here was 2 k 18' 53", which gave the lon- 
gitude of this place 214 42' 30" W.: its latitude is 15 26' S. 
At break of day, I fent the boat out again with the feine, and 
in the afternoon, it returned with as much fifh as enabled 
me to give every man a pound and an half. One of my 
midfliipmen, an American, who was this day abroad with 
his gun, reported that he had feen a wolf, exactly like thofe 



which he had been ufed to fee in his own country, and that *77Q. 
he had mot at it, but did not kill it. '_ -y-— i 

The next morning, encouraged by the fuccefs of the day Saturday 30, 
before, I fent the boat again to haul the fcine, and another 
party to gather greens: I fent alfo fome of the young gen- 
tlemen to take a plan of the harbour, and went myfelf upon 
a hill, which lies over the fouth point, to take a view of the 
fea. At this time it was low water, and I faw, with great 
concern, innumerable fand banks and moals lying all along 
the coaft in every direction. The innermoft lay about three 
or four miles from the more, the outermofl extended as far 
as I could lee with my glafs, and many of them did but juft 
rife above water. There was fome appearance of a paflage 
to the northward, and I had no hope of getting clear but in 
that direction, for as the wind blows constantly from tb.2 
S. E. it would have been difficult,, if not impoffible, to return 
back to the fouthward. 

Mr. Gore reported, that he had this day feen two animals 
like dogs, of a firaw colour, that they ran like a hare, and 
were about the fame fize. In the afternoon, the people re- 
turned from hauling the feine, with Hill better fuccefs than 
before, for I was now able to diftribute two pounds and an 
half to each man : the greens that had been gathered I or- 
dered to be boiled among the peas, and they made an excel- 
lent mefs, which, with two copious fupplies of fiih, afforded 
us unfpeakable refrefhment. 

The next day, July the ill, being Sunday, every body had July. 

r i Sunday i,. 

liberty to go afhore, except one from each meis, who were 
again fent out with the feine. The feine was again equally 
fuccefsful, and the people who went up the country gave 
an account of having feen feveral animals, though none cf 
them were to be caught. They faw a fire alfo about a mile 



'77°- up the river, and Mr. Gore, the Second Lieutenant, picked 
\_ -Jl , _t up the huik of a cocoa nut, which had been call upon the 
Sunday i. | )eac ] lj an( j was full of barnacles : this probably might come 
from fome ifland to windward, perhaps from the Terra del 
Efpirito Santo of Quiros, as we were now in the latitude 
where it is faid to lie. This day the thermometer in the made 
rofe to 87, which was higher than it had been on any day 
fince we came upon this coaft. 

Monday 2. Early the next morning, I fent the Matter in the pinnace, 
out of the harbour, to found about the fhoals in the offing, 
and look for a channel to the northward : at this time we 
had a breeze from the land, which continued till about nine 
o'clock, and was the firftwe had had fince our coming into 
the river. At low water we lamed fome empty calks under 
the fhip's bows, having fome hope that as the tides were 
rifing me would float the next high water. We ftill conti- 
nued to fifh with great fuccefs, and at high water we again 
attempted to heave the fhip off, but our utmoft efforts were 
flill ineffectual. 

Tu«rday 3. xhe next day at noon, the Mafter returned, and reported, 
that he had found a paffage out to fea between the fhoals, 
and defcribed its fituation. The fhoals, he faid, confided of 
coral rocks, many of which were dry at low water, and upon 
one of which he had been afliore. He found here fome 
cockles of fo enormous a fize that one of them was more 
than two men could eat, and a great variety of other fhell- 
fifh, of which he brought us a plentiful fupply : in the even- 
ing, he had alfo landed in a bay about three leagues to the 
northward of our ftation, where he diflurbed fome of the na- 
tives who were at fupper : they all fled with the great-eft pre- 
cipitation at his approach, leaving fome frefh fea eggs, and 
a fire ready kindled behind them, but there was neither 



houfe nor hovel near the place., We obfcrved, that although *77P« 
the fhoals that lie juft within fight of the coaft, abound with <— .,-L^ 
fhell-fifh, which may be eafily caught at low water; yet we 
faw no fuch fhells about the fire places on more. This day 
an allegator was fecn to fwim about the fhip for fome time, 
and at high water we made another effort to float her, 
which happily fucceeded : we found however that by lying fo 
long with her head a-ground, and her Hern a-float, flie had 
fprung a plank between decks, a-breaft of the main chains, 
fo that it was become neceffary to lay her afhore again. 

The next morning r was employed in trimming her upon Wed.nef. lo- 
an even keel, and in the afternoon, having warped her over, 
and waited for high water, we laid her afhore on the fand 
bank on the fouth fide of the river, for the damage flie had 
received already from the great defcent of the ground, made 
me afraid to lay her broad-fide to the ihore in the fame place 
from which we had juft floated her. I was now very defirous 
to make another trial to come at her bottom, where the 
flieathing had been rubbed off, but though fhe had fcarcely 
four feet water under her, when the tide was out, yet that 
part was not dry. 

On the 5th, I got one of the carpenter's crew, a man in Thurfdays. 
whom I could confide, to go down again to the fhip's bot- 
tom, and examine the place. He reported, that three ftrcaks 
of the flieathing, about eight feet long, were wanting, 
and that the main plank had been a little rubbed ; this ac- 
count perfectly agreed with the report of the Matter, and 
others, who had been under her bottom before : I had the 
comfort however to find the carpenter of opinion that this 
would be of little confequence, and therefore the other da- 
mage being repaired, flie was again floated at high water, 
and moored along-fide the beach, where the flores had been 





Thurfday 5. 

Friday 6. 

Saturday 7. 

Sunday 8. 

deposited ; we then went to work to take the ftores on board, 
and put her in a condition for the fea. This day, Mr. Banks 
crofled to the other fide of the harbour, where, as he walked 
along a fandy beach, he found innumerable fruits, and 
many of them fuch as no plants which he had difcovered in 
this country produced: among others were fome cocoa 
nuts, which Tupia faid had been opened by a kind of crab, 
which from his defcription we judged to be the fame 
that the Dutch call Beurs Krabbe, and which we had not 
feen in thefe feas. All the vegetable fubftances which he 
found in this place, were encrufted with marine productions, 
and covered with barnacles ; a fure fign that they muft have 
come far by fea, and, as the trade-wind blows right upon the 
ihore, probably from Terra del Efpirito Santo, which has 
been mentioned already. 

The next morning, Mr. Banks, with Lieutenant Gore, and 
three men, fet out in a fmall boat up the river, with a view 
to fpend two or three days in an excurfion, to examine the 
country, and kill fome of the animals which had been fo 
often feen at a diftance. 

On the 7th, I fent the Mafter again out to found about the 
fhoals, the account which he had brought me of" a channel 
being by no means fatisfaclory j and we fpent the remainder 
of this day, and the morning of the next, in fifTiing, and 
other neceiTary occupations. 

About four o'clock in the afternoon, Mr. Banks and his 
party returned, and gave us an account of their expedition. 
Having proceeded about three leagues among fwamps and 
mangroves, they went up into the country, which they 
found to differ but little from what they had feen before : 
they purfued their courfe therefore up the river, which at 
length was contracted into a narrow channel, and was 
bounded, not by fwamps and mangroves, but by fteep 

banks 3 


banks, that were covered with trees of a mod beautiful ver- 
dure, among which was that which in the Weft Indies is 
called Mohocy or the bark tree, the hibifau tiliaccus ; the land 
within was in general low, and had a thick covering of long 
grafs: the foil feemed to be fuch as promifed great fertility, 
to any who fhould plant and improve it. In the courfe of 
the day, Tupia faw an animal, which, by his defcription, 
Mr. Banks judged to be a wolf: they alfo faw three other 
animals, but could neither catch nor kill one of them, and 
a kind of bat, as large as a partridge, but this alfo eluded all 
their diligence and fkill. At night, they took up their lodg- 
ing clofe to the banks of the river, and made a lire, but the 
mufquitos fwarmed about them in fuch numbers, that their 
quarters were almoft untenable ; they followed them into 
the fmoke, and almoft into the fire, which, hot as the cli- 
mate was, they could better endure than the ftings of thefe 
infects, which were an intolerable torment. The fire, the 
flies, and the want of a better bed than the ground, ren- 
dered the night extremely uncomfortable, fo that they palled 
it not in fleep, but in reftlefs wifhes for the return of day. 
With the firft dawn they fet out in fearch of game, and in a 
walk of many miles, they faw four animals of the fame 
kind, two of which Mr. Banks's greyhound fairly chaced, 
but they threw him out at a great diftance, by leaping over 
the long thick grafs, which prevented his running: this 
animal was obferved not to run upon four legs, but to bound 
or hop forward upon two, like the Jcrbua, or Mus Jaculus. 
About noon, they returned to the boat, and again proceeded 
up the river, which was foon contracted into a frefh water 
brook, where, however, the tide rofe to a confiderable 
height : as evening approached, it became low water, and 
it was then fo fhallow that they were obliged to get out of 
the boat and drag her along, till they could find a place in 
Vol. II. 4 D which 


1 7?°' which they might, with fome hope of reft, pafs the night. 

« „ 1 Such a place at length offered, and while they were getting the 

things out of the boat, they obferved a fmoke at the diilance 
of about a furlong: as they did not doubt but that fome of 
the natives, with whom they had fo long and earaeftly de- 
fired to become perfonally acquainted, were about the fire, 
three of the party went immediately towards it, hoping that 
fo fmall a number would not put them to flight : when they 
came up to the place, however, they found it deferted, and 
therefore they conjectured that before they had difcovered 
the Indians, the Indians had difcovered them. They found 
the fire ftill burning, in the hollow of an old tree that was 
become touch-wood, and feveral branches of trees newly 
broken down, with which children appeared to have been 
playing: they obferved alfo many foot-fteps upon the fand, 
below high water mark, which were certain indications that 
the Indians had been recently upon the fpot. Several houfes 
were found at a little diflance, and fome ovens dug in the 
ground, in the fame manner as thofe of Otaheite, in which 
victuals appeared to have been dreffed fince the morning, 
and, fcattered about them, lay fome fliells of a kind of 
clamm, and fome fragments of roots, the refufe of the 
meal. After regretting their difappointment, they repaired 
to their quarters, which was a broad fand bank, under the 
flicker of a buffi. Their beds were plantain leaves, which 
they fpread upon the fand, and which were as foft as a mat- 
crefs; their cloaks ferved them for bed-clothes, and fome 
bunches of grafs for pillows : with thefe accommodations 
they hoped to pafs a better night than the laft, efpecially as,, 
to their great comfort, not a mufquito was to be feen. Here 
then they lay down, and, fuch is the force of habit, they 
refigned themfelves to deep, without once reflecting upon 
the probability and danger of being found by the Indians in 



Sunday 8- 


that fltuation. If this appears flrange, let us for a moment »" 
reflect, that every danger, and every calamity, after a time 
becomes familiar, and lofes its effect upon the mind. If it 
were poflible that a man fhould firfl be made acquainted with 
his mortality, or even with the inevitable debility and infir- 
mities of old age, when his understanding had arrived at its 
full flrength, and life was endeared by the enjoyments of 
youth, and vigour, and health, with what an agony of ter- 
ror and diflrefs would the intelligence be received ! yet, 
being gradually acquainted with thefe mournful truths, by 
infenfible degrees, we fcarce know when, they lofe all their 
force, and we think no more of the approach of old age and 
death, than thefe wanderers of an unknown defart did of a 
lefs obvious and certain evil, the approach of the native fa- 
vages, at a time when they mud have fallen an eafy prey to 
their malice or their fears. And it is remarkable, that the 
greater part of thofe who have been condemned to fuffer a 
violent death, have flept the night immediately preceding 
their execution, though there is perhaps no inftance of a 
perfon accufed of a capital crime having flept the firfl night 
of his confinement. Thus is the evil of life in fome degree 
a remedy for itfelf, and though every man at twenty depre- 
cates fourfcore, almofl every man is as tenacious of life at 
fourfcore as at twenty ; and if he does not fuffer under any 
painful diforder, lofes as little of the comforts that remain 
by reflecting that he is upon the brink of the grave, where 
the earth already crumbles under his feet, as he did of the 
pleafurcs of his better days, when his diflblution, though 
certain, w 7 as fuppofed to be at a diilance. 

Our travellers having flept, without once awaking, till 
the morning, examined the river, and finding the tide fa- 
voured their return, and the country promiied nothing 

4 D a worthy 




i — , — 

Sunday 3 

1770. worthy of a farther fearch, they reimbarked in their boat,' 
and made the bell of their way to the fhip. 

Soon after the arrival of this party, the Matter alfo re- 
turned, having been feven leagues out to fea, and he was 
now of opinion, that there was no getting out where before 
he thought there had been a pafTage ; his expedition how- 
ever was by no means without its advantage, for having 
been a fecond time upon the rock where he had feen the 
large cockles, he met with a great number of turtle, three 
of which he caught, that together weighed {even hundred 
and ninety-one pounds, though he had no better inftrument 
than a boat hook. 
Monday 9. The next morning therefore, I fent him out again, with 
proper inflruments for taking them, and Mr. Banks went 
with him, but the fuccefs did not at all anfwer our expecta- 
tions, for, by the unaccountable conduct of the officer, not 
a fingle turtle was taken, nor could he be perfuaded to re- 
turn : Mr. Banks, however, went aihore upon the reef, where 
he faw fevcral of the large cockles, and having collected 
many lhells, and marine productions, he returned at eleven 
o'clock at night, in his own fmall boat, the Mailer ftill con- 
tinuing with the large one upon the rock. In the after- 
noon, feven or eight of the natives had appeared on the 
fouth fide of the river, and two of them came down to the 
fandy point, oppofite to the fhip; but upon feeing me put 
oil* in a boat to f peak with them, they all ran away with the 
greateft precipitation. 

As the Mailer continued abfent with the boat all night, I 
was forced to fend the Second Lieutenant for him, early the 
TuefJa 10. next mormn g m the yawl ; and foon after four of the natives 
appeared upon the fandy point, on the north fide of the 
river, having with them a fmall wooden canoe, with out- 
riggers : 


riggers : they feemed for fome time to be bufily employed 
in flriking fifh : fome of our people were for going over to 
them in a boat, but this I would by no means permit, re- 
peated experience having convinced me that it was more 
likely to prevent, than procure an interview. I was deter- 
mined to try what could be done by a contrary method, and 
accordingly let them alone, without appearing to take the 
lead notice of them: this fucceeded fo well, that at length 
two of them came in the canoe within a muikct mot of the 
Ihip, and there talked a great deal in a very loud tone : we 
underflood nothing that they faid, and therefore could 
anfwer their harangue only by (homing, and making all 
the figns of invitation and kindnefs that we could devife. 
During this conference, they came, infenfibly, nearer and 
nearer, holding up their lances, not in a threatening man- 
ner, but as if to intimate that if we offered them any injury, 
they had weapons to revenge it. When they were almofl 
along-fide of us, we threw them fome cloth, nails, beads, 
paper, and other trifles, which they received without the 
leafl appearance of fatisfadtion: at laft, one of the people 
happened to throw them a fmall fifh ; at this they exprefled 
the greater! joy imaginable, and intimating, by figns, that 
they would fetch their companions, immediately paddled 
away towards the more. In the mean time fome of our 
people, and among them Tupia, landed on the oppofite fide 
of the river: the canoe, with all the four Indians, very foon 
returned to the fhip, and came quite along-fide, without ex- 
preffing any fear (K diftruft. We diftributed fome more 
prefents among them, and foon after they left us, and 
landed on the fame fide of the river where our people had 
gone afhore : every man carried in his hand two lances, and 
a flick, which is ufed in throwing them, and advanced to 
8 the 


Tuefday 10. 


177©- the place where Tupia and the reft of our people were fitting; 

< 111 i Tupia foon prevailed upon them to lay down their arms, and 

Tuefday 1.0. come f orwarc i without them : he then made figns that they 
lliould fit down by him, with which they complied, and 
feemed to be under no apprehenfion or conftraint : feveral 
more of us then going afhore, they expreffed fome jealoufy 
left we mould get between them and their arms ; we took 
care however to fhew them that we had no fuch intention, 
and having joined them, we made them fome more pre- 
fents, as a farther teftimony of our good-will, and our defire 
to obtain theirs. We continued together, with the utmoft 
cordiality, till dinner time, and then giving them to under- 
ftand that we were going to eat, we invited them, by figns, 
to go with us : this however they declined, and as foon as 
we left them, they went away in their canoe. One of thefe 
men was fcmewhat above the middle age, the other three 
were young ; they were in general of the common ftature, 
but iheir limbs were remarkably fmall •, their fkin was of 
the colour of wood foot, or what would be called a dark cho- 
colate colour ; their hair was black, but not woolly ; it was 
ihort cropped, in fome lank, and in others curled. Dampier 
fays, that the people whom he faw on the weftern coaft of 
this country, wanted two of their fore-teeth, but thefe had 
no fuch defect: fome part of their bodies had been painted 
red, and the upper lip and breaft of one of them was painted 
.with ftreaks of white, which he called Carbanda-, their fea- 
tures were far from difagreeable, their eyes were lively, and 
their teeth even and white, their voices were foft and tune- 
able, and they repeated many words after us with great fa- 
cility. In the night, Mr. Gore and the Mailer returned with 
the long-boat, and brought one turtle and a few mell-iifh. 
The yawl had been left upon the ihoal with fix men, to 

make a farther trial for turtle. 



The next morning, we had another vifit from four of the 1770. 
natives; three of them had been with us before, but the 1 - .-' _> 
fourth was a flranger, whofe name, as we learnt from his Wednef * lfc 
companions who introduced him, was Yaparico. This 
gentleman was diflinguifhed by an ornament of a very link- 
ing appearance: it was the bone of a bird, nearly as thick 
as a man's finger, and five or fix inches long, which he had 
thrufl into a hole, made in the griftle that divides the 
noftrils ; of this we had feen one inflance, and only one, in 
New Zealand ; but upon examination, we found that among 
all thefe people this part of the nofe was perforated, to re- 
ceive an ornament of the fame kind: they had alfo holes in 
their ears, though nothing was then hanging to them, and 
had bracelets upon the upper part of their arms, made of 
plaited hair, fo that, like the inhabitants of Terra del Fuego, 
they feem to be fond of ornament, though they are abfo- 
lutely without apparel; and one of them, to whom I had 
given part of an old fhirt, inilead of throwing it over any 
part of his body, tied it as a fillet round his head. They 
brought with them a fifh, which they gave us, as we fup- 
pofed, in return for the fifh that we had given them the day 
before. They feemed fo be much pleafed, and in no hafle 
to leave us, but feeing fome of our gentlemen examine their 
canoe with great curiofity and attention, they were alarmed, 
and jumping immediately into it, paddled away without 
fpeaking a word. 

About two the next morning, the yawl, which had been Thurfdaj?i^ 
left upon the fhoal, returned, with three turtles and a large 
fkeat. As it feemed now probable that this fifhery might be 
profecuted with advantage, I fent her out again, after break- 
faft, for a further fupply. Soon after, three Indians ven- 
tured down to Tupia's tent, and were fo well pleafed with 
their reception, thax one of them, went with the cance to* 



1773- fetch two others whom wc had never feen: when he re- 
^_ -"/' • turned, he introduced the flrangers by name, a ceremony 
■ihurida) 12. ^jjjpjj^ upon fuch occafions, was never omitted. As they 
had received the fifh that was thrown into their canoe, when 
they firft approached the fhip, with fo much pleafure, fome 
fi.fli was offered to them now, and we were greatly furprized 
to fee that it was received with the greateft indifference: 
they made figns, however, to fome of the people, that they 
mould drefs it for them, which was immediately done, but 
after eating a little of it, they threw the reft to Mr. Banks's 
dog. They ftaid with us all the forenoon, but would never 
venture above twenty yards from their canoe. We now per- 
ceived that the colour of their fkin was not fo dark as it ap- 
peared, what we had taken for their complexion, being the 
effects of dirt and fmoke, in which, we imagined, they con- 
trived to fleep, notwithftanding the heat of the climate, as 
the only means in their power to keep off the mufquitos. 
Among other things that we had given them when we firft 
faw them, were fome medals, which we had hung round 
their necks by a riband ; and thefe ribands were (b changed 
by fmoke, that we could not eafily diftinguifh of what colour 
they had been: this incident led us 'more narrowly to ex- 
amine the colour of their fkin. While thefe people were 
with us, we faw two others on the point of land that lay on 
the oppoiite fide of the river, at the diftance of about two 
hundred yards, and by our glaffes difcovered them to be a 
woman and a boy ; the woman, like the reft, being ftark 
naked. We obferved, that all of them were remarkably 
clean-limbed, and exceedingly active and nimble. One of 
thefe flrangers had a necklace of fhells, very prettily made* 
and a bracelet upon his arm* formed of feveral firings, fo as 
to reiemble what in England is called gymp: both of them 
hid a piece of bark tied over the forehead, and were dif- 
t figured 


figured by the bone in the nofe. We thought their Ian- 1770. 
guage more harfh than that of the Illanders in the South " 

Sea, and they were continually repeating the word chercau y Thurfda y l2< 

which we imagined to be a term exprefling admiration, by 

the manner in which it was uttered: they alfo cried out, 

when they faw any thing new, cher, tut, tut, tut, tut! which 

probably had a fimilar fignification. Their canoe was not 

above ten feet long, and very narrow, but it was fitted with 

an outrigger, much like thofe of the iflands, though in every 

refpectvery much inferior : when it was in mallow water, they 

fet it on with poles, and when in deep, they worked it with 

paddles about four feet long : it contained juft four people, 

fo that the people who vifited us to-day went away at two 

turns. Their lances were like thofe that we had feen in 

Botany Bay, except that they had but a fingle point, which 

in fome of them was the fling of the ray, and barbed with 

two or three fharp bones of the fame fifli : it was indeed a 

moft terrible weapon, and the inflrument which they ufed 

in throwing it, feemed to be formed with more art than any 

we had feen before. About twelve o'clock next day, the Frida x »3« 

yawl returned, with another turtle, and a large fling-ray, 

and in the evening, was fent out again. 

The next morning, two of the Indians came on board, Saturday 14. 
but after a fhort flay, went along the fhore, and applied 
themfelves with great diligence to the flriking of fifli. Mr. 
Gore, who went out this day with his gun, had the good 
fortune to kill one of the animals which had been fo much 
the fubject. of our fpeculation: an idea of it will befl be con- 
ceived by the cut, plate XX, without which, the moft accu- 
rate verbal description would anfwer very little purpofe, as 
it has not fimilitude enough to any animal already known, 
to admit of illuflration by reference. In form, it is moft 

Vol. II. 4 E like 


1770- like the gerbua, which it alfo refembles in its motion, as 


i 1 has been observed already, but it greatly differs in fize, the 

. ° ay '*' gerbua not being larger than a common rat, and this animal, 
when full grown, being as big as a fheep : this individual was 
a young one, much under its full growth, weighing only 
thirty-eight pounds. The head, neck, and moulders, are very 
fmall in proportion to the other parts of the body; the tail is 
nearly as long as the body, thick near the rump, and taper- 
ing towards the end: the fore-legs of this individual were 
only eight inches long, and the hind-legs two and twenty : 
its progrefs is by fucceflive leaps or hops, of a great length, 
in an erect pofture ; the fore-legs are kept bent clofe to the 
breafl, and feemed to be of ufe only for digging: the fkin is 
covered with a fhort fur, of a dark moufe or grey colour 
excepting the head and ears, which bear a flight refemblance 
to thofe of a hare. This animal is called by the natives 
Sunday 15. The next day, our Kanguroo was drefled for dinner, and 
proved molt excellent meat ; we might now indeed be faid 
to fare fumptuoufly every day, for we had turtle in great 
plenty, and we all agreed that they were much better than 
any we had tailed in England, which we imputed to their 
being eaten frefh from the fea, before their natural fat had 
been wailed, or their juices changed by a diet and fituation 
fo different from what the fea affords them, as garbage and 
a tub. Moil of thofe that we caught here, were of the kind 
called green turtle, and weighed from two to three hundred 
weight, and when thefe were killed, they were always found 
to be full of turtle grafs, which our naturalifls took to be a 
kind of conferva : two of them were loggerheads, the flefli of 
which was much lefs delicious, and in their flomachs nothing 

was to be found but fhells. 



In the morning of the 16th, while the people were em- 1770. 
ployed as ufual in getting the fhip ready for the fea, I 1 , .l ul> J 
climbed one of the hills on the north fide of the river, from Monda y l6 - 
which I had an extenfive view of the inland country, and 
found it agreeably diverfified by hills, vallies, and large 
plains, which in many places were richly covered with 
wood. This evening, we obferved an emerfion of Jupiter's 
firft fatellite, which gave 214 53' 45" of longitude. The 
obfervation which was made on the 29th of June gave 2 14° 
42' 30"; the mean is 2 14° 48' 7 4", the longitude of this place 
weft of Greenwich. 

On the 17th, I fent the Matter and one of the Mates in the Tuefday 17. 
pinnace to look for a channel to the northward ; and I went 
myfelf with Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander into the woods on 
the other fide of the water. Tupia, who had been thither by 
himfelf, reported, that he had feen three Indians who had 
given him fome roots about as thick as a man's finger, in 
fhape not much unlike a rhadifh, and of a very agreeable 
tafte. This induced us to go over, hoping that we mould be 
able to improve our acquaintance with the natives : in a very 
little time we difcovered four of them in a canoe, who as foon 
as they faw us came afhore, and, though they were all Gran- 
gers, walked up to us, without any figns of fufpicion or fear. 
Two of thefe had necklaces of fhells, which we could not 
perfuade them to part with for any thing we could give 
them: we prefented them however with fome beads, and 
after a fhort ftay they departed. We attempted to follow 
them, hoping that they would conduct us to fome place 
where we fhould find more of them, and have an oppor- 
tunity of feeing their women ; but they made us understand, 
by figns, that they did not defire our company. 

4E 2 At 


1770. At eight o'clock the next morning, we were vifited by fe- 

s_ "__ _f veral of the natives, who were now become quite familiar. 
Wednef. is. Q n£ Q £ t j iemj at our d e f ire> threw his lance, which was 

about eight feet long : it flew with a fwiftnefs and fteadinefs 
that furprifed us, and though it was never more than four 
feet from the ground, it entered deeply into a tree at fifty 
paces diftance. After this they ventured on board, where I 
left them, to all appearance much entertained, and went 
again with Mr. Banks to take a view of the country ; but 
chiefly to indulge an anxious curiofity, by looking round us 
upon the fea, of which our wifhes almoft perfuaded us we 
had formed an idea more difadvantageous than the truth. 
After having walked about feven or eight miles along the 
fhore to the northward, we afcended a very high hill, and 
were foon convinced that the danger of our fituation was at 
leaft equal to our apprehenfions ; for in whatever direction 
we turned our eyes, we faw rocks and fhoals without num- 
ber, and no paffage out to fea, but through the winding 
channels between them, which could not be navigated with- 
out the laft degree of difficulty and danger. We returned 
therefore to the fhip, not in better fpirits than when we left 
it ; we found feveral natives ftill on board, and we were told 
that the turtles, of which we had then no lefs than twelve 
upon the deck, had fixed their attention more than any 
thing elfe in the fhip. 

ThwHayip, On the 19th in the morning, we were vifited by ten of the 
natives, the greater part from the other fide of the river, where 
we faw fix or feven more, molt of them women, and like 
all the reft of the people we had feen in this country, they 
were ftark naked. Our guefts brought with them a greater 
number of lances than they had ever done before, and hav- 
ing laid them up in a tree, they fet a man and a boy to 



watch them : the reft then came on board, and we foon per- *77°- 

ceived that they had determined to get one of our turtle, v. — ._> 

which was probably as great a dainty to them as to us. Ul ay * 9 ' 
They firft afked us, by figns, to give them one ; and being 
refufed, they exprefTed, both by looks and geftures, great 
difappointment and anger. At this time we happened to 
have no victuals drefTed, but I offered one of them fome bif- 
cuit, which he fnatched and threw overboard with great dif- 
dain. One of them renewed his requeft to Mr. Banks, and 
upon a refufal (lamped with his foot, and pufhed him from 
him in a tranfport of refentment and indignation : having 
applied by turns to almofl every perfon who appeared to 
have any command in the fhip, without fuccefs, they fud- 
denly feized two of the turtles, and dragged them towards 
the fide of the fhip where their canoe lay : our people foon 
forced them out of their hands, and replaced them with the 
reft. They would not however relinquifh their enterprife, 
but made feveral other attempts of the fame kind, in all 
which being equally cufappointed, they fuddenly leaped into 
their canoe in a rage, and began to paddle towards the fhore. 
At the fame time,. I went into the boat with Mr. Banks, 
and five or fix of the fhip's crew, and we got aihore before 
them, where many more of our people were already en- 
gaged in various employments; as foon as they landed, they 
feized their arms, and, before we were aware of their de- 
fign, they fnatched a brand from under a pitch kettle which 
was boiling, and making a circuit to the windward of the 
few things we had on fhore, they fet fire to the grafs in their 
way, with furprifmg quicknefs and dexterity: the grafs, 
which was five or fix feet high, and as dry as flubble, burnt 
with amazing fury ; and the fire made a rapid progrefs to- 
wards a tent of Mr. Banks's, which had been fet up for 
Tupia when he was fick, taking in its courfe a fow and pigs, 
4 ous 


i77°« one of which it fcorched to death. Mr. Banks leaped into a 
<l ■-.- , _/ boat, and fetched fome people from on board, juft time 
ur yi9 ' enough to fave his tent, by hauling it down upon the beach; 
but the fmith's forge, at lead fuch part of it as would burn, 
was confumed. While this was doing, the Indians went to a 
place at fome diftance, where feveral of our people were 
wafhing, and where our nets, among which was the feine, 
and a great quantity of linen, were laid out to dry ; here 
they again fet fire to the grafs, entirely difregarding both 
threats and entreaties. We were therefore obliged to dis- 
charge a mufquet, loaded with fmall mot, at one of them, 
which drew blood at the diftance of about forty yards, and 
this putting them to flight, we extinguifhed the fire at this 
place before it had made much progrefs; but where the 
grafs had been firft kindled, it fpread into the woods to a 
great diftance. As the Indians were ftill in fight, I fired a 
mufquet, charged with ball, abreaft of them among the 
mangroves, to convince them that they were not yet out of 
our reach : upon hearing the ball they quickened their pace, 
and we foon loft fight of them. We thought they would 
now give us no more trouble ; but foon after we heard their 
voices in the woods, and perceived that they came nearer 
and nearer. I fet out, therefore, with Mr. Banks and three 
or four more, to meet them : when our parties came in fight 
of each other, they halted j except one old man, who came 
forward to meet us : at length he flopped, and having ut- 
tered fome words, which we were very forry we could not 
underftand, he went back to his companions, and the whole 
body flowly retreated. We found means however to feize 
fome of their darts, and continued to follow them about a 
mile : we then fat down upon fome rocks, from which we 
could obferve their motions, and they alfo fat down at 
about an hundred yards diftance. After a fliort time, the old 
s man 


man again advanced towards us, carrying in his hand a mo. 
lance without a point: he flopped feveral times, at different v -.- ^r 
diftanccs, and fpoke ; we anfwered by beckoning and mak- ur ay ' 9 ' 
ing fuch figns of amity as we could devife ; upon which the 
meflenger of peace, as we fuppofed him to be, turned and 
fpoke aloud to his companions, who then fet up their lances 
againfl a tree, and advanced towards us in a friendly man- 
ner: when they came up, we returned the darts or lances 
that we had taken from them, and we perceived with great 
fatisfaction that this rendered the reconciliation complete. 
We found in this party four perfons whom we had never 
feen before, who as ufual were introduced to us by name ; 
but the man who had been wounded in the attempt to burn 
our nets and linen, was not among them ; we knew how- 
ever that he could not be dangeroufly hurt, by the diftance 
at which the fhot reached him. We made all of them pre- 
sents of fuch trinkets as we had about us, and they walked 
back with us towards the (hip : as we went along, they told 
us, by figns, that they would not fet fire to the grafs any 
more ; and we diflributed among them fome mufquet balls, 
and endeavoured to make them underftand their ufe and ef- 
fect. When they came abreaft of the fliip, they fat down^ 
but could not be prevailed upon to come on board ; we 
therefore left them, and in about two hours they went 
away, foon after which we perceived the woods on fire at 
about two miles diftance. If this accident had happened a 
very little while fooner, the confequence might have been 
dreadful j for our powder had been aboard but a few days, 
and the ftore tent, with many valuable things which it con- 
tained, had not been removed many hours. We had no idea 
of the fury with which grafs would burn in this hot climate, 
nor confequently of the difficulty of extinguifhing it ; but 
we determined, that if it mould ever again be neceflary for 



Thurfday 19. 

Saturday 21. 

Sunday 22. 


us to pitch our tents in fuch a fituation, our firft meafure 
mould be to clear the ground round us. 

In the afternoon we got every thing on board the fhip, 
new birthed her, and let her fwing with the tide ; and at 
night the Matter returned, with the difcouraging account 
that there was no paflage for the fhip to the northward. 

Fw&y 20. The next morning, at low water, I went and founded and 
buoyed the bar, the fhip being now ready for the fea. We 
faw no Indians this day, but all the hills round us for many 
miles were on fire, which at night made a moft ftriking and 
beautiful appearance. 

The 2 1 ft palled without our getting fight of any of the in- 
habitants, and indeed without a fingle incident worth no- 
tice. On the 22d, we killed a turtle for the day's provifion, 
upon opening which we found a wooden harpoon or turtle- 
peg, about as thick as a man's finger, near fifteen inches 
long, and bearded at the end, fuch as we had feen among 
the natives, flicking through both fhoulders : it appeared to 
have been ftruck a confiderable lime, for the wound had 
perfectly healed up over the weapon. 

Monday 23. Early in the morning of the 23d, I fent fome people into 
the country to gather a fupply of the greens which have 
been before mentioned by the name of Indian Kale ; and one 
of them having ftraggled from the reft, fuddenly fell in with 
four Indians, three men and a boy, whom he did not fee 
till, by turning fhort in the wood, he found himfelf among 
them. They had kindled a fire, and were broiling a bird of 
fome kind, and part of a Kanguroo, the remainder of which, 
and a cockatoo, hung at a little diftance upon a tree : the 
man, being unarmed, was at firft greatly terrified ; but he 
had the prefence of mind not to run away, judging very 



rightly, that he was moft likely to incur danger by appear- »77°- 

ing to apprehend it ; on the contrary, he went and fat down * ^ — ' 

by them, and, with an air of chearfulnefs and good humour, 
offered them his knife, the only thing he had about him 
which he thought would be acceptable to them ; they re- 
ceived it, and having handed it from one to the other, they 
gave it him again : he then made an offer to leave them •, 
but this they feemed not difpofed to permit: Hill however he 
diffembled his fears, and fat down again ; they confidered 
him with great attention and curiofity, particularly his 
clothes, and then felt his hands and face, and fatisfied them- 
felves that his body was of the fame texture with their own. 
They treated him with the greateft civility, and having kept 
him about half an hour, they made figns that he might de- 
part : he did not wait for a fecond difmiflion, but when lie 
left them, not taking the direct way to the fhip, they came 
from their fire and directed him ; fo that they well knew 
whence he came. 

In the mean time, Mr. Banks, having made an excurfion 
on the other fide of the river to gather plants, found the 
greateft part of the cloth that had been given to the Indians 
lying in a heap together, probably as ufelefs lumber, not 
worth carrying away ; and perhaps, if he had fought fur- 
ther, he might have found the other trinkets ; for they 
feemed to fet very little value upon any thing we had, except 
our turtle, which was a commodity that we were leaft able 
to fpare. 

The blowing weather, which prevented our attempt to Tuefdayz4. 
get out to fea, flill continuing, Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander 
went again out on tiie 24th to fee whether any new plant 
could be picked up: they traverfed the woods all day with- 
out fuccefs ; but as they were returning through a deep val- 

Vol. II. 4 F ley, 


i77°- ley, the fides of which, though almoft as perpendicular ass 
» — -v — j a wall, were covered with trees and bufhes ; they found 
lying upon the ground feveral marking nuts, the Anacardium 
orient ale \ thefe put them upon a new fcent, and they made a' 
moft diligent fearch after the tree that bore them, which 
perhaps no European botanift ever faw ; but to their great 
mortification they could not find it : fo that, after fpending. 
much time, and cutting down four or five trees, they re- 
turned quite exhausted with fatigue to the fhip. 

Wednef. 25. On the 25th, having made an excurfion up the river, I 
found a canoe belonging to our friends the Indians, whom 
we had hot feen fince the affair of the turtle ; they had left 
it tied to fome mangroves, about a mile diftant from the. 
fhip, and I could fee by their fires that they were retired at 
leaft fix miles directly inland. 

As Mr. Banks was again gleaning the country for his Na* 
'' tural Hiftory on the q6th, he had the good fortune to take- 
an animal of the Opojfum tribe : it was a female, and with it 
he took two young ones : it was found much to refemble the 
remarkable animal of the kind, which Monf. de Buffon has 
defcribed in his Natural Hiftory by the name of Phalanger r 
but it was not the fame. Monf. Buffon fuppofes this tribe to 
be peculiar to America, but in this he is certainly miftaken,^ 
and probably, as Pallas has obferved in his Zoology, the 
Phalanger itfelf is a native of the Eaft Indies, as the animal, 
which was caught by Mr. Banks refembled it in the extra- 
ordinary conformation of the feet, in which it differs from, 
animals of every other tribe. 
Friday 27. On the 27th, Mr. Gore fhot a Kanguroo, which, with the 

fkin, entrails, and head, weighed eighty-four pounds. Upon 
examination, however, we found that this animal was not at 
its full growth, the innermoft grinders not being yet formed: 
5 We 


We dreffed it for dinner the next day; but to our great dif- ^re- 
appointment, we found it had a much worfe flavour than ». -, y ' __? 
that we had eaten before. Saturday z«. 

The wind continued in the fame quarter, and with the 
fame violence, till five o'clock in the morning of the 29th, Sunday 23, 
when it fell calm ; foon after a light breeze fprung up from 
the land, and it being about two hours ebb, I fent a boat to 
fee what water was upon the bar ; in the mean time we got 
the anchor up, and made all ready to put to fea. But when 
the boat came back, the officer reported that there was only 
thirteen feet water upon the bar, which was fix inches lefs 
than the fhip drew. We were therefore obliged to come to, 
and the fea breeze fetting in again about eight o'clock, we 
gave up all hope of failing that day. 

We had frefh gales at S. E. with hazy weather and rain, Monday 30. 
till -two in the morning of the 31ft, when the weather being Tuefday 31. 
fomething more moderate, I had thoughts of trying to warp 
the fhip out of the harbour ; but upon going out myfelf 
£rft in the boat, I found it ftill blow too frelh for the at- 
tempt. During all this time the pinnace and yawl continued 
to ply the net and hook with tolerable fuccefs ; fometimes 
taking a turtle, and frequently bringing in from two to three 
hundred weight of fifli. 

On the 1 ft of Auguft, the carpenter examined the pumps, Auguft. 
and, to our great mortification, found them all in a ftate of 
decay, owing, as he faid, to the fap's having been left in the 
wood j one of them was fo rotten as, when hoifted up, to 
drop to pieces, and the reft were little better ; fo that our 
chief truft was now in the foundnefs of our veflfel, which 
happily did not admit more than one inch of water in an 

4F 2 At 


177°- At fix o'clock in the morning of Friday the 3d, we made 

t. "f "^ another unfuccefsful attempt to warp the fhip out of the 
Sday 4 . harbour; but at five o'clock in the morning of the 4th, 
our efforts had a better effecT:, and about feven, we got once 
more under fail, with a light air from the land, which foon 
died away, and- was followed by the fea-breezes from S. E. 
by S. with which we flood off to fea E. by N. having the 
pinnace ahead, which was ordered to keep founding conti- 
nually. The yawl had been fent to the turtle bank, to take 
up the net which had been left there ; but as the wind frefh- 
ened, we got out before her. A little before noon we an- 
chored in fifteen fathom water, with a fandy bottom ; for I 
did not think it fafe to run in among the fhoals, till I had 
well viewed them, at low-water, from the mafl-head, which 
might determine me which way to fleer : for as yet I was 
in doubt whether I fhould beat back to the fouthward, round 
all the fhoals, or feek a paffage to the eaflward or the north- 
ward, all which at prefent appeared to be equally difficult 
and dangerous. When we were at anchor the harbour from 
which we failed bore S. 70 W. diflant about five leagues ; the 
northermofl point of the main in fight, which I named Cape 
Bedford, and which lies in latitude 15 16' S., longitude 
2 1 4 45' \V. bore N. ao W. diflant three leagues and a half; 
but to the N. E. of this Cape we could fee land which had 
the appearance of two high iflands : the turtle banks bore 
eafl, diflant one mile : our latitude by obfervation was 
15 32' S. and our depth of water in flanding off from the 
land was from three and an half to fifteen faihom. 


21.' >. *,' * * " ..;i- -. 

On thu Lctldv^' t/u- yht[> ** "■•.*■•' 

laid x 3 Hours. and, n- * * " * ♦ * 
cdvednuick Jama,),- . 

Ji — «w "'■■" "^ ^'"i ""»« '"'"r 

.jo I.', 



1^'*— «** 



Departure from Endeavour River ; a particular Defcrip- 
tion of the Harbour there, in which the Ship was refitted, 
the adjacent Country, and fever al Ifla?ids near the Coafii .• 
the Ran<re from Endeavour River to the Northern Ex- 
tremity of the Country, and the Dangers of that Navi- 

TO the harbour which we had now left, I gave the name 1770; 
of Endeavour River. It is only a fmall bar harbour, L _ _^— * 
or creek, which runs in a winding channel three or four Saturdj y 4 
leagues inland, and at the head of which there is- a fmall 
brook of frefh water: there is not depth of water for (hip- 
ping above a mile within the bar, and at this diflance only 
on the north fide, where the bank is fo fleep for near a 
quarter of a mile, that a fhip may lie afloat at low water, fo 
near the lhore as to reach it with a ftage, and the fituation is 
extremely convenient for heaving down ; but at low water, 
the depth upon the bar is not more than nine or ten feet, nor 
more than feventeen or eighteen at the height of the tide ; 
the difference between high and low water, at fpring tides, 
being about nine feet, At the new and full of the moon it 
is high water between nine and ten o'clock: it muft alfo be 
remembered, that this part of the coaft is fo barricaded with 
fhoals, as to make the harbour ftill more difficult of accefs ; 
the fafeft approach is from the fouthward, keeping the main 
land clofe upon the board all the way. Its fituation may 
always be found by the latitude, which has been very accu- 
4 rately 

' i6 ."4. J"- -U, -- 

5 « '*" v 'I 4 V 3 i°... ..■'£. „ i- i£™^2 y , * 

2 ¥ J° „^™i J v' s,° ^ 10^1 


„ stS -« 

Chart of Part of the Coast 

S 8 | 






flL ^ ''K^wr$^- 


■I.i - 


Cape Tribulation to Endeavour Straits . 

B^^s ^ & :« , 

By Lieut. J.Cook, 



„,„ "TRSfea^;-.,?. , 



■2 18 


iP^A.: » <°* 



W^ J0 it &? ; I I s1 




Bolt Head J VJ? . 1 O '" " "<&' 

SPr'^4 "i r , f , 




<$■ Recks,. nvnc of which arc dry at Low- water 
and others alum:, covered. 
_ r ^- Supposed direction of such part of the Coast 

Cape M r evn».ulh"/wxi^ I-'f ,'^ L ■'# 'foci-hum J sic, f 

s 217 


and Shoals as were not seen. 

21 f,,- ; «^^. 

/ 3 



? Place., where the Ship anchored 

The injures denote the depth, of Water in Fathoms. 

4P 4%^: 1 •>' 


/ T3 

/ • s 



,/ \C •*/ 

' / '&■ 



$ . ik:^' 

y/ 2 


/ ' •/'"-<:.! '•:•- j?ST.*i\ 

/ * 


/'"' ^ ,/ / f 

■/ ■ ' " 



■'/ ! < 




'^f^ 4 *^ 





\ ■ 


1 1.6- 

§ & ') i> 



ft k> tJ/i £ S\ ■-' * 

■ \. 


^ dCr ^~~~y$-', ^*i^~y~7~~\ 't^f' f << 

/'■t v 

\ . 




z 7 • 

• \ 

- 8 o 

Onthiil.cdiZ'IUu.Ship <-, '■. «.*' 


.lautiaHours.aiuln- *****»..«*' / 


1 ''< 

/ scale of Leagues. 




6 1 

5 1 

'(S Jo '(j 

4 1 

3 - 1 

2 11 10\ 




Departure from Endeavour River ; a particular Defcrip- 
tion of the Harbour there, in which the Ship was reftted, 
the adjacent Country, and fever al I/lands near the Coafi .* 
the Range from Endeavour River to the Northern Ex- 
tremity of the Country, and the Dangers of that Navi- 

TO the harbour which we had now left, I gave the name 1770. 
of Endeavour River. It is only a fmall bar harbour, ■ " s " * 
or creek, which runs in a winding channel three or four Saturda y 4 
leagues inland, and at the head of which there is- a fmall 
brook of frefh water : there is not depth of water for (hip- 
ping above a mile within the bar, and at this diftance only 
on the north fide, where the bank is fo fteep for near a 
quarter of a mile, that a fhip may lie afloat at low water, fo 
near the fhore as to reach it with a ftage, and the fituation is 
extremely convenient for heaving down j but at low water, 
the depth upon the bar is not more than nine or ten feet, nor 
more than feventeen or eighteen at the height of the tide ; 
the difference between high and low water, at fpring tides, 
being about nine feet. At the new and full of the moon ic 
is high water between nine and ten o'clock: it muft alfo be 
remembered, that this part of the coaft is fo barricaded with 
fhoals, as to make the harbour ftill more difficult of accefs ; 
the fafeft approach is from the fouthward, keeping the main 
land clofe upon the board all the way. Its fituation may 
always be found by the latitude, which has been very accu- 
4 rately 


1770. rately laid down. Over the fouth point is fome high land, 

< „ — — * but the north point is formed by a low fandy beach, which 

r ay4 " extends about three miles to the northward, where the land 
begins again to be high. 

The chief refreshment that we procured here, was turtle, 
but as they were not to be had without going five leagues 
out to Tea, and the weather was frequently tempeftuous, we 
did not abound with this dainty : what we caught, as well as 
the fifh, was always equally divided among us all by 
weight, the meaneft perfon on board having the fame fhare 
as myfelf ; and I think every commander, in fuch a voyage 
as this, will find it his intereft to follow the fame rule. In 
feveral parts of the fandy beaches, and fand hills near the 
fea, we found purflain, and a kind of bean that grows upon 
a ftalk, which creeps along the ground: the purflain we 
found very good when it was boiled, and the beans are not 
to be defpifed, for we found them of great fervice to our 
fick : the beft greens, however, that could be procured here, 
were the tops of the coccos, which have been mentioned al- 
ready, as known in the Weft Indies by the name of Indian 
ink: thefe were, m our opinion, not much inferior to 
fpinnage, which in tafle they fomewhat refemble; the roots 
indeed are not good, but they might probably be meliorated 
by proper cultivation. They are found here chiefly in boggy 
ground. The few cabbage palms that we met with, were 
in general fmall, and yielded fo little cabbage that they 
were not worth feeking. 

Befides the kanguroo, and the opofTum that have been al- 
ready mentioned, and a kind of polecat, there are wolves 
upon this part of the coaft, if we were not deceived by the 
tracks upon the ground, and feveral fpecies of ferpents ; 
fome of the ferpents are venomous, and fome harmlefs; 



there are no tame animals here except dogs, and of thefe we 1770. 
faw but two or three, which frequently came about the k "f- j 
tents, to pick up the fcraps and bones that happened to lie atur ay4 * 
fcattered near them. There does not indeed feem to be 
many of any animal, except the kanguroo; we fcarcely faw 
any other above once, but this we met with almoft every 
time we went into the woods. Of land fowls we faw crowsj 
kites, hawks, cockatoos of two forts, one white and the 
other black, a very beautiful kind of loriquets, fome parrots r 
pigeons 'of two or three forts, and feveral fm all birds not 
known in Europe. The water fowls are herns, whittling' 
ducks, which perch, and, I believe, rooll upon trees, wild 
geefe, curlieus, and a few others, but thefe do not abound. 
The face of the country, which has been occafionally men= 
tioned before, is agreeably diverfified by hill and valley, lawn 
and wood. The foil of the hills is hard, dry, and ftony, 
yet it produces coarfe grafs befides wood : the foil of the 
plains and vallies is in fome places fand, and in fome clay; 
in fome alfo it is rocky and ftony, like the hills; in general, 
however, it is well clothed, and has at lead the appearance 
of fertility. The whole country, both hill and valley, wood 
and plain, abounds with ant hills* fome of which are fix or 
eight feet high, and twice as much in circumference. The 
trees here are not of many forts; the gum tree, which we 
found on the fouthern part of the coaft, is the mod common, 
but here it is not fo large : on each fide of the river, through;- 
its whole courfe, there are mangroves in great numbers, 
which in fome places extend a mile within the coaft. The: 
country is in all parts well watered, there being feveral fine 
rivulets at a fmall diftance from each other, but none in the 
place where we lay, at leaft not- during the time we were; 
there, which was the dry feafon ; we were however welL 
fupplied with water by fprings, which were not far off. 



»77°- In the afternoon of the 4th, we h; d a gentle breeze at S.E. 

<_^_JLj and clear weather, but as I did it intend to fail till the 
aturday*. morn i n g, I fent all the boats to the reef, to get what turtle 
and fhell fifh. they could. At low water, 1 went up to the 
mall-head, and took a view of the flioals, which made a 
very threatening appearance : I could fee feveral at a remote 
diflance, and part of many of them was above water. The 
fea appeared mod open to the north eaft of the turtle reef, 
and I came to a refolution to ftretch out that way clofe upon 
a wind, becaufe if we mould find no pafTage, we could al- 
ways return the way we went. In the evening, the boats 
brought in a turtle, a fling-ray, and as many large cockles 
as came to about a pound and a half a man, for in each of 
them there was not lefs than two pounds of meat : in the 
night alfo we caught feveral fharks, which, though not a 
dainty, were an acceptable increale of our frefh provifion. 
Sunday 5. j n the morning, I waited till half ebb before I weighed, 

becaufe at that time the flioals begin to appear, but the 
wind then blew fo hard that I was obliged to remain at an- 
chor: in the afternoon, however, the gale becoming more 
moderate, we got under fail, and flood out upon a wind 
N. E. by E. leaving the turtle reef to windward, and having the 
pinnace founding ahead : we had not kept this courfe long, 
before we difcovered flioals before us, and upon both the 
bows ; and at half an hour after four, having run about 
eight miles, the pinnace made the fignal for fhoal water, 
where we little expected it : upon this we tacked, and flood 
on and off, while the pinnace ftretched farther to the eaft- 
ward, and night approaching, I came to an anchor in twenty 
fathom water, with a muddy bottom. Endeavour River 
then bore S. 52 W. Cape Bedford \V. by N. -IN. diflant five 
leagues, the northermofl land in fight, which had the ap- 
pearance of an ifland, N. ; and a jSboal, a fmall fandy part 



of which appeared above water, bore N. E: diflant between *77°- 


two and three miles s in (landing off from turtle reef to this < „ 1 

place, we had from fourteen to twenty fathom water, but 
when the pinnace was about a mile farther to the E. N. E. 
there was no more than four or five feet water, with rocky 
ground ; and yet this did not appear to us in the (hip. In 
the morning of the 6th, we had a (Irong gale, fo that inftead Monday 6. 
of weighing, we were obliged to veer away more cable, and 
(Irike our top-gallant yards. At low water, myfelf, with 
feveral of the officers, kept a look-out at the mad-head, to 
fee if any paffage could be discovered between the (hoals, 
but nothing was in view except breakers, extending from 
the S. round by the E. as far as N. W. and out to fea beyond 
the reach of our fight ; thefe breakers, however, did not ap- 
pear to be caufed by one continued (hoal, but by feveral, 
which lay detached from each other: on that which lay 
fartheft to the eaftward, the fea broke very high, which 
made me think it was the outermoft, for upon many of thefe 
within, the breakers were inconfiderable, and from about 
half ebb to half flood, they were not to be feen at all, which 
makes failing among them (till more dangerous, efpecially 
as the (hoals here confift principally of coral rocks, which 
are as deep as a wall ; upon fome of them however, and ge- 
nerally at the north end, there are patches of fand, which 
are covered only at high water, and which are to be difcerned 
at fome diilance. Being now convinced that there was no 
paffage to fea, but through the labyrinth formed by thefe 
Ihoals, I was altogether at a lofs which way to (leer, when 
the weather (hould permit us to get under fail. It was the 
Matter's opinion, that we (hould beat back the way we 
came, but this would have been an endlefs labour, as the 
wind blew (Irongly from that quarter, almoft without inter- 
miflion ; on the other hand, if no paflage could be found to 
Vol. II. 4 G the 


tf7o. the northward, we fhould be compelled to take that meafure 
■ ^"f" ft " , at laft. Thefe anxious deliberations engaged us till eleven 
o'clock at night, when the fhip drove, and obliged us to 
veer away to a cable and one third, which brought her up ; 
Tuefday^. fc ut i n t he morning, the gale increafing, fhe drove again, 
and we therefore let go the fmall bower, and veered away 
to a whole cable upon it, and two cables on the other an- 
chors, yet fhe ftill drove, though not fo fall ; we then got 
down top-gallant mads, and (truck the yards and top-malts 
clofe down, and at laft had the fatisfaction to find that fhe 
rode. Cape Bedford now bore \V. S. W. diftant three leagues 
and an half, and in this fituation we had fhoals to the eafl- 
ward, extending from the S. Ev by S. to the N. N. W. the 
Wednef. 8. neareft of which was about two miles diftant. As the gale 
FHd^io 9 ' continued, with little remiflion, we rode till feven o'clock in 
the morning of the ioth, when, it being more moderate, we 
weighed, and flood in for the land, having at length deter- 
mined to feek a paflage along the fhore to the northward, 
ftill keeping the boat ahead : during our run in we had from 
nineteen to twelve fathom : after flanding in about an hour, 
we edged away for three fmall iflands that lay N. N. E. 7 E. 
three leagues from Cape Bedford, which the Maflcr had 
vifited while we were in port. At nine o'clock, we were 
abreafl of them, and between them and the main: between 
us and the main there was another low ifland, which lies 
N. N. W. four miles from the three iflands ■> and in this 
channel we had fourteen fathom water. The northermoft 
point of land in fight now bore N. N. W. 7 \V. diftant about 
two leagues. Four or five leagues to the north of this head 
land, we faw three iflands, near which lay fome that were 
ftill fmallcr, and we could fee the fhoals and reefs without 
us, extending to the northward, as far as thefe iflands : be- 
tween thefe reefs and the head land, we directed our courfe* 



leaving to the eaflward a fmall ifland, which lies N. by E. »77°- 

° } Auguft. 

diftant four miles from the three iflands. At noon, we ^- — 1 

were got between the head land and the three iflands: from 
the head land we were diftant two leagues, and from the 
iflands four; our latitude, by obfervation, was 14 51'. We 
now thought we faw a clear opening before us, and hoped 
that we were once more out of danger; in this hope, how- 
ever, we foon found ourfelves difappointed, and for that 
reafon I called the head land Cape Flattery. It lies in lati- 
tude i4°56'S. longitude 2i4°43 / W. and is a lofty promontory, 
making next the fea in two hills, which have a third behind 
them, with low fandy ground on each fide : it may however 
be Hill better known by the three iflands out at fea: the 
northermoll and largeft lies about five leagues from the 
Cape, in the direction of N.N. E. From Cape Flattery the 
land trends away N. W. and N. W. by W. We fleered along 
the fhore N. W. by W. till one o'clock, for what we thought 
the open channel, when the petty officer at the mafl-head 
cried out that he faw land ahead, extending quite round to 
the iflands that lay without us, and a large reef between 
us and them : upon this I ran up to the mafl-head myfelf, 
from whence I very plainly faw the reef, which was now fo 
far to windward, that we could not weather it, but the land 
ahead, which he had fuppofed to be the main, appeared to 
me to be only a clufler of fmall iflands. As foon as I got 
down from the mafl-head, the Maflcr, and fome others went 
up, who all infifled that the land ahead was not iflands, but 
the main, and to make their report flill more alarming, they 
faid that they faw breakers all round us. In this dilemma, 
we hauled upon a wind in for the land, and made the fignai 
for the boat that was founding ahead to come on board, but 
as me was far to leeward, we were obliged to edge away to 
take her up, and foon after we came to an anchor, under a 

4 G 2 point 


*77°- point of the main, in fomewhat lefs than five fathom, and 

' r— '—> at about the diflance of a mile from the more. Cape Flattery 

now bore S. E„ diftant three leagues and an half. As foon as 
the fhip was at anchor, I went afhore upon the point, which 
is high, and afforded me a good view of the fea coaft, trend- 
ing away N. \V. by \V. eight or ten leagues, which, the wea- 
ther not being very clear, was as far as I could fee. Nine or 
ten fmall low iflands, and fome fhoals, appeared off the 
coaft ; I faw alfo fome large fhoals between the main and the 
three high iflands, without which, I was clearly of opinion 
there were more iflands, and not any part of the main. Ex- 
cept the point I was now upon, which Icalled Point Look- 
out, and Cape Flattery, the main land, to the northward of 
Cape Bedford, is low, and chequered with white fand and 
green buflies, for ten or twelve miles inland, beyond which 
it rifes to a conliderable height. To the northward of Point 
Look-out, the coaft appeared to be fhoal and flat, for a con- 
fiderable diftance, which did not encourage the hope that 
the channel we had hitherto found in with the land would 
continue. Upon this point, which was narrow, and con- 
fifted of the fineft white fand we had ever feen, we discovered 
the footfteps of people, and we faw alfo fmoke and lire at a. 
diflance up the country. 

In the evening, I returned to the fhip, and refolved the 
next morning to vifit one of the high iflands in the offing,, 
from the top of which, as they lay five leagues out to fea, I 
hoped to difcover more diftinetly the fituation of the fhoals, 
and the channel between them. 

Saturday ii. In the morning therefore, of the nth, I fet out in the pin- 
nace, accompanied by Mr. Banks, whofe fortitude and curi- 
ofity made him a party in every expedition, for the norther- 
moft and largeft of the three iflands, and at the fame time I 




fent the Matter in the yawl to leeward, to found between the '77o« 
low iflands and the main. In my way, I parted over a reef g - i lJ 
of coral rock and fand, which lies about two leagues from atur ayir * 
the ifland, and I left another to leeward, which lies about 
three miles from it : on the north part of the reef, to the lee- 
ward, there is a low fandy ifland, with trees upon it ; and 
upon the reef which we parted over, we faw feveral turtle : 
we chafed one or two, but having little time to fpare, and 
the v/md blowing frefh, we did not take any. 

About one o'clock, we reached the ifland, and immediately 
afcended the higheft hill, with a mixture of hope and fear, 
proportioned to the importance of our bufinefs, and the un- 
certainty of the event : when I looked round, I difcovercd a 
reef of rocks, lying between two and three leagues without 
the iflands, and extending in a line N. W. and S. E. farther 
than I could fee, upon which the fea broke in a dreadful 
furf ; this however made me think that there were nofhoals 
beyond them, and I conceived hopes of getting without 
thefe, as I perceived feveral breaks or openings in the reef, 
and deep water between that and the iflands. I continued 
upon this hill till funfet, but the weather was fo hazy during 
the whole time that I came down much difappointed. After 
reflecting upon what I had feen, and comparing the intelli- 
gence I had gained with what I expected, I determined to 
ftay upon the ifland all night, hoping that the morning 
might be clearer, and afford me a more diflinct and compre- 
henfive view. We therefore took up our lodging under the 
fhelter of a buffi which grew upon the beach, and at three 
in the morning, having fent the pinnace with one of the Sunday n.% 
Mates whom 1 had brought out with me, to found between 
the ifland and the reefs, and examine w T hat appeared to be a 
channel through them, I climbed the hill a fecond time ; but 
to my great difappointment found the weather much more 
4. hazy 


1 770. hazy than it had been the day before. About noon the pin- 
L /vJ ° u11, _, n ace returned, having been as far as the reef, and found 
Sunday 1 z. between fifteen and twenty-eight fathom of water; but it 
blew fo hard that the Mate did not dare to venture into one 
of the channels, which he faid appeared to him to be very 
narrow: this however did not difcourage me, for I judged 
from his defcription of the place he had been at, that he had 
feen it to difadvantage. While I was bufy in my furvey, Mr. 
Banks was attentive to his favourite purfuit, and picked up 
feveral plants which he had not before feen. We found the 
ifland, which is vifible at twelve leagues diftance, to be about 
eight leagues in circumference, and in general very rocky 
and barren. On the north weft fide, however, there are 
fome fandy bays, and fome low land, which is covered with 
long thin grafs, and trees of the fame kind with thofe upon 
the main : this part alfo abounded with lizards of a very 
large fize, fome of which we took. We found alio frefh 
water in two places ; one was a running ftream, but that 
was a little brackifh where I tailed it, which was clofe to the 
fea ; the other was a {landing pool, clofe behind the fandy 
beach, and this was perfectly fwcet and good. Notwith- 
ftanding the diftance of this ifland from the main, we faw, 
to our great furprize, that it was fometimes vifited by the 
natives ; for we found feven or eight frames of their huts, 
and vaft heaps of fhells, the fifh of which we fuppofed had 
been their food. We obferved that all thefe huts were built 
upon eminences, and entirely expofed to the S. E. contrary 
to thofe which we had feen upon the main; for they were 
all built either upon the fide of a hill, or under fome bumes 
which afforded them inciter from the wind. From thefe 
huts, and their ntuation, we concluded that at fome feafons 
of the year the weather here is invariably calm and fine; for 
ihe inhabitants have no boat which can navigate the fea to 




fo great a diflance, in fuch weather as we had from the time of J 77°- 

our firft coming upon the coaft. As we faw no animals upon < „ — Li 

this place but lizards, I called it Lizard Island; the other 
two high iflands, which lie at the diflance of four or five miles 
from it, are comparatively fmall ; and near them lie three 
others fmaller flill, and low, with feveral fhoals or reefs, 
efpecially to the S. E. : there is however a clear pafTage from 
Cape Flattery to thefe iilands, and even quite to the outward 
reefs, leaving Lizard Ifland to the north weft, and the others 
to the fouth eaft. 

At two in the afternoon, there being no hope of clear 
weather, we fet out from Lizard Illand to return to the fhip, 
and in our way landed upon the low fandy ifland with trees 
upon it, which we had remarked in our going out. Upon 
this ifland we faw an incredible number of birds, chiefly 
fca-fowl : we found alfo the nefl of an eagle with young 
ones, which we killed ; and the nefl: of fonte other bird, we 
knew not what, of a moft enormous fize ; it was built with 
flicks upon the ground, and was no lefs than fix and twenty 
feet in circumference, and two feet eight inches high. We 
found alfo that this place had been vifited by the Indians, 
probably to eat turtle, many of which we faw upon the 
ifland, and a great number of their fhells, piled one upon 
another in different places. 

To this fpot we gave the name of Eagle Island, and 
after leaving it, we fleered S. W. dire&ly for the fhip, found- 
ing all the way, and we had never lefs than eight fathom, 
nor more than fourteen ; the fame depth of water that I had 
found between this and Lizard Ifland. 

When I got on board, the Mafter informed me that he had 
been down to the low iflands, between which and the main 
I had directed him to found ; that he judged them to lie 



i77° n - about three leagues from the main ; that without them he 
i_J^__l_j found from ten to fourteen fathom, and between them and 
„un >• L2. t j ae ma j n f C ven: but that a flat, which ran two leagues out 
from the main, made this channel narrow. Upon one of 
theie low iilands he flept, and was afiiore upon others ; and 
he reported, that he faw every where piles of turtle-fhells, 
and fins hanging upon the trees in many places, with the 
fietli upon them, fo recent, that the boat's crew eat of them: 
he faw alfo two fpots, clear of grafs, which appeared to have 
been lately dug up, and from the fliape and fize of them he 
conjectured they were graves. 

After confidering what I had feen myfelf, and the report 
of the Matter, I was of opinion that the paffage to leeward 
would be dangerous, and that, by keeping in with the main, 
we fhould run the rifk of being locked in by the great reef, 
and at laft be compelled to return back in fearch of another 
paffage, by which, or any other accident that mould caufe 
the fame delay, we fhould infallibly lofe our pafTage to the 
Eaft Indies, and endanger the ruin of the voyage, as we had 
now but little more than three months provifions on board 
at'fhort allowance. 

Having ftated this opinion, and the facts and appearances 
upon which it was founded, to the officers, it was unani- 
moufly agreed, that the beft thing we could do would be to 
quit the coaft altogether, till we could approach it with lefs 

Monday 13. m tne morning therefore, at break of day, we got under 
fail, and ftood out N. E. for the north weft end of Lizard 
Illand, leaving Eagle Ifland to windward, and fome other 
iflands and fhoals to the leeward, and having the pinnace 
ahead to afcertain the depth of water in every part of our 
courfe. In this channel we had from nine to fourteen fa- 


thorn. At noon, the north weft end of Lizard Ifiand bore 1770. 

E. S. E. diftant one mile ; our latitude by observation was » „ — L-/ 

14. ° 38', and our depth of water fourteen fathom. We had 
a fteady gale at S. E. and by two o'clock we juil fetched to 
windward of one of the channels or openings in the outer 
reef, which I had feen from the ifiand. We now tacked, and 
made a fhort trip to the S. W. while the Mailer in the pin- 
nace examined the channel : he foon made the fignal for the 
fhip to follow, and in a fhort time fhe got fafe out. As foon 
as we had got without the breakers, we had no ground with 
one hundred and fifty fathom, and found a large fea rolling 
in from the S. E. a certain fign that neither land nor fhoals 
were near us in that direction. 

Our change of fituation was now vifible in every counte- 
nance, for it was mofl fenfibly felt in every breafl : we had 
been little lefs than three months entangled among fhoals 
and rocks, that every moment threatened us with deftruc- 
tion ; frequently pafling our nights at anchor within hear- 
ing of the furge that broke over them ; fometimes driving 
towards them even while our anchors were out, and knowing 
that if by any accident, to which an alrnoft continual tempeft 
expofed us, they fliould not hold, we muft in a few minutes 
inevitably perifh. But now, after having failed no lefs than 
three hundred and fixty leagues, without once having a 
man out of the chains heaving the lead, even for a minute, 
which perhaps never happened to any other veflel, we found 
ourfelves in an open fea, with deep water ; and enjoyed a 
flow of fpirits which was equally owing to our late dangers 
and our prefent fecurity : yet the very waves, which by their 
fwell convinced us that we had no rocks or fhoals to fear, 
convinced us alfo that we could not fafely put the fame con- 
fidence in our veflel as before fhe had flruck ; for the blows 

Vol. II. 4 H flu 


1770. flie received from them fo widened her leaks, that fhe ad- 
'■ %_ , ^_ '_, mitted no lefs than nine inches water in an hour, which, 
Monday 13. con f K } er i n g the ftate of our pumps, and the navigation that 
was Hill before us, would have been a fubjecl: of more feri- 
ous confideration, to people whofe danger had not fo lately- 
been fo much more imminent. 

The paffage or channel, through which we palled into the 
open fea beyond the reef, lies in latitude 14 32' S. and may 
always be known by the three high iflands within it, which 
I have called the Islands of Direction, becaufe by thefe a 
ftranger may find a fafe paffage through the reef quite to the 
main. The channel lies from Lizard Ifland N. E. A N. diftant 
three leagues, and is about one third of a mile broad, and 
not more in length. Lizard Ifland which is, as I have before 
obferved, the largeft and the northermofl of the three, af- 
fords fafe anchorage under the north weft fide, frefh water, 
and wood for fuel. The low iflands and fhoals alfo which 
lie between it and the main abound with turtle and fifh, 
which may probably be caught in all feafons of the year, 
except when the weather is very tempeftuous ; fo that, al* 
things confidered, there is not perhaps a better place for 
ihips to refrefh at upon the whole coafl than this ifland. 
And before I difmifs h > I mufl obferve, that we found upon 
it, as well as upon the beach in and about Endeavour River, 
bamboos, cocoa nuts, pumice flone, and the feeds of plants 
which are not the produce of this country, and which it is 
reafonable to fuppofe are brought from the eaftward by the 
trade winds. The iflands which were difcovered by Quiros r 
and called Auflralia del Efpiritu Santa, lie in this parallel ; 
but how far to the eaftward cannot now be afcertained : in 
mofl charts they are placed in the fame longitude with this- 
country, which, as appears by the account of his voyage 



that has been publifhed, he never faw ; for that places his 
difcoveries no lefs than two and twenty degrees to the eafl- 

d~ C :•. Monday i *. 

or It. ' j 

As foon as we were without the reef, we brought to, and 
having hoifled in the boats, we flood off and on upon a wind 
all night ; for I was not willing to run to leeward till I had a 
whole day before me. In the morning, at day-break, Lizard Tuefday 14. 
Ifland bore S. 15 E. diftant ten leagues ; and we then made 
fail and flood away N.N.W. i. W. till nine o'clock, when we 
flood N. W. 4 N. having the advantage of a frefh gale at S.E. 
At noon, our latitude by obfervation was 13° 46' S. and at this 
time we had no land in fight. At fix in the evening we 
fhortened fail and brought the fliip to, with her head to the 
N.E. ; and at fix in the morning made fail and fleered weft, Wednef. 15, 
in order to get within fight of the land, that I might be fure 
not to overfhoot the paffage, if a pafTage there was, between 
this land and New Guinea. At noon, our latitude by obfer- 
vation was 1 3 2' S., longitude 21 6° W.; which was i 2 23' W. 
of Lizard Ifland : at this time we had no land in fight ; but a 
little before one o'clock, we faw high land from the mafl-head, 
bearing W.S.W. At two, wc faw more land to the N. W. 
of that we had feen before : it appeared in hills, like iflands; 
but we judged it to be a continuation of the main land. 
About three, we difcoverecl breakers between the land and 
the fliip, extending to the fouthward farther than we could 
fee; but to the north we thought we faw them terminate 
abreafl of us. What we took for the end of them in this 
direction, however, foon appeared to be'only an opening in 
the reef; for we prefently faw them again, extending north- 
ward beyond the reach of our fight. Upon this we hauled 
clofe upon a wind, which was now at E. S. E. and wc had 
fcarcely trimmed our fails before it came to E. by N. which 
was right upon the reef, and consequently made our clear- 

4 EI a ing 


*7»* ing it doubtful. At funfet the northermoft part of it that 

Augult.^ ^^ .^ ^^^ bor£ from ug N> by . £> and was twQ Qr tllree . 

Wednef. i S . i ea g Ues diilant ; this however being the beft tack to clear it, 
we kept Handing to the northward with all the fail we could 
fet till midnight ; when, being afraid of Handing too far in 
this direction, we tacked and flood, to the fouthward, our run 
from funfet to this time being fix leagues N. and N. by E. 
When we had flood about two miles S. S. E. it fell calm ; we 
had founded feveral times during the night, but had no bot- 
tom with one hundred and forty fathom, neither had wet 
any ground now with the fame length of line ; yet, about 

Thurfdayi6. four in the morning, we plainly heard the roaring of the 
furf, and at break of day faw it foaming to a vaft height, at 
not more than a mile's diftance. Our diftrefs now returned 
upon us with double force; the waves which rolled in upon 
the reef, carried us towards it very faft y we could reach no 
ground with an anchor, and had not a breath of wind for 
the fail. In this- dreadful fituation, no refource was left us 
but the boats ; and to aggravate our misfortune the pinnace 
was under repair : the longboat and yawl however were put 
into the water, and fent ahead to tow, which, by the help of 
our fweeps abafr, got the mip's head round to the north- 
ward ; which, if it could not prevent our deftruction, might 
at leaft delay it. But it was fix o'clock before this was ef- 
fected, and we were not then a hundred yards from the 
rock upon which the fame billow which warned the 
fide of the fhip, broke to a tremendous height the very 
next time it rofe ; fo that between us and deftruction there 
was only a dreary valley, no wider than the bafe of one 
wave, and even now the fea under us was unfathomable, at 
leaft no bottom was to be found with a hundred and twenty 
fathom. During this fcene of diftrefs the carpenter had 
found means to patch up the pinnace ; fo that fhe was 
3 hoifted 



lioifled out, and fent ahead, in aid of the other boats, to tow; 1770. 
but all our efforts would have been ineffectual, if, juft at t Au s uft -^ 
this crifis of our fate, a light air of wind had not fprung up, Thurfda >' ,6 - 
fo light, that at any other time we mould not have obferved 
it, but which was enough to turn the fcale in our favour, 
and, in conjunction with the affiftance which was afforded 
us by the boats, to give the fhip a perceptible motion ob- 
liquely from the reef. Our hopes now revived j but in lefs 
than ten minutes it was again a dead calm, and the fhip 
was again driven towards the breakers, which were not 
now two hundred yards diftant. The fame light breeze 
however returned before we had loft all the ground it had 
enabled us to gain, and lafted about ten minutes more. 
During this time we difcovered a fmall opening in the reef, 
at about the diflance of a quarter of a mile : I immediately 
fent one of the Mates to examine it, who reported .that its 
breadth was not more than the length of the fhip, but that 
within it there was fmooth water : this difcovery feemed to 
render our efcape poffible, and that was all, by pufhing the 
fhip through the opening, which was immediately at- 
tempted. It was uncertain indeed whether we could reach 
it ; but if we fhould fucceed thus far, we made no doubt of 
being able to get through : in this however we were difap- 
pointed, for having reached it by the joint affiftance of our 
boats and the breeze, we found that in the mean time it had 
become high water, and to our great furprizc we met the 
tide of ebb rufhing out of it like a mill-ftream. We gained 
however fome advantage, though in a manner directly con- 
trary to our expectations ; we found it impoffible to go 
through the opening, but the ftream that prevented us, car- 
ried us out about a quarter of a mile: it was too narrow for 
us to keep in it longer; yet this tide of ebb fo much affifted 
the boats that by noon we had got an offing of near two 



1770- miles. We had, however, reafon to defpair of deliver- 
■ ".- '_. ance, even if the breeze, which had now died away, 
Thurfday 16. ^^j^ revrve} f or we were flill embayed in the reef ; and the 
tide of ebb being fpent, the tide of flood, notwithftand- 
ing our utmofl efforts, again drove the fhip into the bight. 
About this time, however, we faw another opening, near a 
mile to the weflward, which I immediately fent the Firfl 
Lieutenant, Mr. Hicks, in the fmall boat to examine : in the 
mean time we flruggled hard with the flood, fometimes 
gaining a little, and fometimes lofing ; but every man flill 
did his duty, with as much calmnefs and regularity as if no 
danger had been near. About two o'clock, Mr. Hicks re- 
turned with an account that the opening was narrow and 
dangerous, but that it might be palled : the poffibility of 
pafling it was fufficient encouragement to make the attempt, 
for all danger was leis imminent than that of our prefent 
fituation. A light breeze now fprung up at E. N. E. with 
which, by the help of our boats, and the very tide of flood 
that without an opening would have been our definition, 
we entered it, and were hurried through with amazing ra- 
pidity, by a torrent that kept us from driving againil either 
fide of the channel, which was not more than a quarter of a 
mile in breadth. While we were mooting this gulph, our 
foundings were from thirty to feven fathom, very irregular,, 
and the ground at bottom very foul. 

As foon as we had got within the reef we anchored in 
nineteen fathom, over a bottom of coral and fliells. And 
now, fuch is the viciflitude of life, we thought ourfelves 
happy in having regained a fituation, which but two days 
before it was the utmofl object of our hope to quit. Rocks 
and fhoals are always dangerous to the mariner, even where 
their fituation has been afcertained ; they are more dange- 
rous in feas which have never before been navigated, and in 




this part of the globe they are more dangerous than in any 17-0. 

other ; for here they are reefs of coral rock, riling like a 1 _ g Ll# 

wall almoft perpendicularly out of the unfathomable deep, Thurfda >' l6> 
always overflowed at high-water, and at low-water dry in 
many places ; and here the enormous waves of the vaft 
Southern Ocean, meeting with fo abrupt a refinance, break, 
with inconceivable violence, in a furf which no rocks or 
ftorms in the northern hemifphere can produce. The dan- 
ger of navigating unknown parts of this ocean was now 
greatly increafed by our having a crazy fhip, and being fhort 
of provifions and every other neceiTary ; yet the diftinction 
of a firft difcoverer made us chearfully encounter every dan- 
ger, and fubmit to every inconvenience ; and we chofe ra- 
ther to incur the cenfure of imprudence and temerity, which 
the idle and voluptuous fo liberally beftow upon unfuccefs- 
ful fortitude and perfeverance, than leave a country which 
we had difcovered unexplored, and give colour to a charge 
of timidity and irrefolution. 

Having now congratulated ourfelves upon getting within 
the reef, notwithftanding we had fo lately congratulated 
ourfelves upon getting without it, I refolved to keep the 
main land on board in my future route to the northward, 
whatever the confequence might be ; for if we had now 
gone without the reef again, it might have carried us fo far 
from the coaft, as to prevent my being able to determine, 
whether this country did, or did not, join to New Guinea; a 
queftion which I was determined to refolve from my firft 
coming within fight of land. However, as I had experienced 
the difadvantage of having a boat under repair, at a time 
when it was poflible I might want to ufe her, 1 determined 
to remain fall at anchor, till the pinnace was perfectly re- 
fitted. As I had no employment for the other boats, I fent 
them out in the morning to the reef, to fee what refreih- Friday , r> 
4 ments 


1773- ments could be procured, and Mr. Banks, in his little boat, 
■ "f- r _f accompanied by Dr. Solander, went with them. In this fitu- 
■ftiday 17- ation I found the variation by amplitude and azimuth to be 
4° 9 E. ; and at noon, our latitude by obfervation was 12 
38'S. and our longitude 2i6°45'W. The main land extended 
from N. 66 W. to S. W. by S. and the nearefl part of it was 
diflant about nine leagues. The opening through which we 
had pafled, I called Providential Channel ; and this bore 
E. N. E. diftant ten or twelve miles s on the main land with- 
in us was a lofty promontory which I called Cape Wey- 
mouth ; on the north fide of which is a bay, which I called 
Weymouth Bay: they lie in latitude i2°42'S., longitude 
127 15'W. At four o'clock in the afternoon the boats re- 
turned with two hundred and forty pound of the meat of 
fhell-fifh, chiefly of cockles, fome of which were as much as 
two men could move, and contained twenty pounds of good 
meat. Mr. Banks alfo brought back many curious fhells, 
and Mollafca ; befides many fpecies of coral, among which 
was that called the Tubipora mufica. 

At fix o'clock in the morning, we got under fail and flood 
away to the N.W. having two boats ahead to direct us ; our 
foundings were very irregular, varying five or fix fathom 
every cafl, between ten and twenty-feven. A little before 
noon, we pafied a low fandy ifland, which we left on our 
itarboard fide, at the diflance of two miles. At noon, our 
latitude was 12° 28', and our diflance from the main about 
four leagues: it extended from S. by W. to N. 71 W. and 
fome fmall iflands from N. 40 W. to 54 W. Between us and 
the main were feveral fhoals, and fome without us, befides 
the main or outermofl reef, which we could fee from the 
mafl-head, flretching away to the N. E. At two in the af- 
ternoon, as we were fleering N.W. by N. we faw a large 
fhoal right ahead, extending three or four points upon each 

. bow 5 

Saturday i£ 


bow ; upon this we hauled up N. N. E. and N. E. by N. to get ' 770- 

round the north point of it, which we reached by four, and « -f- '..- 

then edged away to the weftward, and ran between the north aturday lS * 

end of this fhoal and another, which lies two miles to the 

northward of it, having a boat all the way ahead founding; 

our depth of water was flill very irregular, from twenty-two 

to eight fathom. At half an hour after fix, we anchored in 

thirteen fathom : the northermofl of the fmall iflands feen at 

noon bore W. £ S. diflant three miles : thefe iflands are dif- 

tinguifhed in the chart by the name of Forbes's Islands, 

and lie about five leagues from the main, which here forms 

a high -point that we called Bolt Head, from which the 

land trends more weflerly, and is in that direction all low 

and fandy ; to the fouthward it is high and hilly even near 

the fea. 

At fix in the morning we got again under fail, and fleered Sunday i ? .- 
for an ifland which lay at a fmall diflance from the main, 
and at this time bore from us N. 40 \V. diflant about five 
leagues: our courfe was foon interrupted by fhoals; how- 
ever, by the help of the boats, and a good look-out from the 
top of the mail, we got into a fair channel that led us down 
to the ifland, between a very large fhoal on our (larboard 
fide and feveral fmall ones towards the main: in this chan- 
nel we had from twenty to thirty fathom water. Between 
eleven and twelve o'clock we hauled round the north en ft 
fide of the ifland, leaving it between us and the main, from 
which it is diflant about feven or eight miles. This ifland is 
about a league in circuit, and we faw upon it five of the na- 
tives, two of whom had lances in their hands ; they came 
down upon a point, and having looked a little while at the 
fhip, retired. To the N.W. of it are feveral low iflands and 
quays, which lie not far from the main ; and to the north- 

Vol. II. 4 I ward 


1770. ward and eaftward are feveral other iflands and fhoals ; fo 
._ u ^"' ' f that we were now encompaffed on every fide : but having 
Sunday 19. ] ate ]y been expofed to much greater danger, and rocks and 
fhoals being grown familiar, we looked at them compara- 
tively with little concern. The main land appeared to be 
low and barren, interfperfed with large patches of the veiy 
fine white fand, which we had found upon Lizard Iiland and 
different parts of the main. The boats had feen many turtle 
upon the fhoals which they pafled, but it blew too hard for 
them to take any. At noon, our latitude by obfervation was 
is , and our longitude 217 25': our depth of water was 
fourteen fathom ; and our courfe and diftance, reduced to a 
ftrait line, was, between this time and the preceding noon 
N. 29 W. thirty two miles. 

The main land within the iflands that have been juft men- 
tioned forms a point, which I called Cape Grenville : it 
lies in latitude u° 58', longitude 217* 38'; and between it 
and Bolt Head is a bay, which I called Temple Bay. At the 
diftance of nine leagues from Cape Grenville, in the direc- 
tion of E. 4-N. lie fome high iflands, which I called Sir 
Charles Hardy's Isles -, and thofe which lie off the Cape I 
called Cockburn's Isles. Having lain by for the boats, 
which had got out of their flation, till about one o'clock, we 
then took the yawl in towj and the pinnace having got 
ahead, we filled, and flood N. by W. for fome fmall iflands 
which lay in that direction ; fuchatleafl they were in appear- 
ance, but upon approaching them we perceived that they 
were joined together by a large reef: upon this we edged 
away N. \V. and left them on our flarboard hand ; we fleered 
between them and the iflands that lay off the main, having 
a clear paffage, and from fifteen to twenty-three fathom 
water. At four o'clock, we difcovered fome low iflands and 



rocks, bearing W. N. W. and flood directly for them : at half 1770. 

an hour after fix, we anchored on the north eaft fide of the < ,~L> 

northermofl of them, at one mile diftance, and in fixteen 
fathom. Thefe iflands lie N. W. four leagues from Cape 
Grenville, and from the number of birds that I faw upon 
them, I called them Bird Isles. A little before fun-fet, we 
were in fight of the main land, which appeared all very low 
and fandy, extending as far to the northward as N. W. by N. 
fome fhoals, quays, and low fandy ifles flretching away to 
the N. E. 

At fix o'clock in the morning, we got again under fail, Monday raj 
with a frefh breeze at E. and flood away N. N. W. for fome 
low iflands in that direction, but were foon obliged to haul 
clofe upon a wind to weather a fhoal which we difcovered 
upon our larboard bow, having at the fame time others to the 
eaftward : by the time we had weathered this fhoal to lee- 
ward, we had brought the iflands well upon our lee bow, 
but feeing fome fhoals run off from them, and fome rocks 
on our flarboard bow, which we did not difcover till we 
were very near them, I was afraid to go to windward of the 
iilands, and therefore brought to, and having made the fig- 
nal for the pinnace, which was ahead, to come on board, I 
fent her to leeward of the iflands, with orders to keep along 
the edge of the fhoal, which ran off from the fouth fide of 
the fouthermofl ifland, fending the yawl at the fame time, to 
run over the fhoal in fearch of turtle. As foon as the pin- 
nace had got to a proper diftance, we wore, and flood after 
her : as we ran to leeward of this ifland, we took the yawl in 
tow, ihe having feen only one fmall turtle, and therefore 
made but little ilay upon the fhoal. The ifland we found to 
be a fmall fpot of fand, with fome trees upon it, and we 
could difcern many huts, or habitations of the natives, 
whom we fuppofed occafionally to vifit thefe iflands from 

4 I z the 


i77°- the main, they being only five leagues diftant, to catch 

Auguft. y 

t — -~ — i turtle, when they come afhore to lay their eggs. We con- 
tinued to fland after the pinnace N. N. E. and N. by E. for 
two other low iflands, having two ihoals without us, and 
one between us and the main. At noon, we were about 
four leagues from the main, which we law extending to the 
northward, as far as N. W. by N. all flat and fandy. Our la- 
titude,, by obfervation, was n° 23' S. and our longitude 217 
46' VV. our foundings were from fourteen to twenty-three fa- 
thom ; but thefc, as well as the fhoals and iflands, which 
are too numerous to be particularly mentioned, will be belt 
feen upon the chart. By one o'clock, we had run nearly the 
length of the fouthermoft of the two iflands in fight, and 
finding that the going to windward of them would carry us 
too far from the main, we bore up and ran to leeward, 
where finding a fair open paffage, we fleered N. by W. in a. 
direction parallel to the main, leaving a fmall ifland which, 
lay between it and the fhip, and fome low fandy ifles and 
ihoals without us, of all which we lofl fight by four o'clock, 
and faw no more before the fun went down : at this time 
the fartheft part of the land in fight bore N. N. W. 7 W. and 
foon after we anchored in thirteen fathom, upon foft ground, 
at the diftance of about five leagues from the land, where 
we lay till day-light. 

Tuediayzi. Early in the morning, we made fail again, and fleered 
N..N. W. by compafs, for the northermoft land in fight ; and 
at this time, we obferved the variation of the needle to be 
3 6' E. At eight o'clock, we difcovered Ihoals ahead, and 
on our larboard bow, and faw that the northermoft land, 
which we had taken for the main, was detached from it r 
and that we might pais between them, by running to leer 
ward of the fhoals on our larboard bow, which were now 
near us : we therefore wore and brought, to, fending away 



rhe pinnace and yawl to direct us, and then fleered N. W. 1770. 

along the S. W. or infide of the flioals, keeping a good look- \ Z~Lj 

out from the maft-head, and having another fhoal on our 
larboard fide : we found however a good channel of a mile 
broad between them, in which we had from ten to fourteen 
fathom. At eleven o'clock, we were nearly the length of 
the land detached from the main, and there appeared to be 
no obftruCtion in the paflage between them, yet having the 
long-boat aftern, and rigged, we fent her away to keep in 
more upon our larboard bow, and at the fame time dif- 
patched the pinnace a-ftarboard ; precautions which I thought 
necefTary, as we had a flrong flood that carried us an end 
very fall, and it was near high water : as foon as the boats were 
ahead, we flood after them, and by noon, got through the 
pafTage. Our latitude, by obfervation, was then io° 36', and 
the nearefl part of the main, which we foon after found to 
be the norfhermofl, bore W. 2 S. diflant between three or 
four miles : we found the land which was detached from 
the main, to be a fingle ifland, extending from N. to N. 75 E- 
diflant between two and three miles ; at the fame time we 
faw other iflands at a confiderable diflance, extending from 
N. by W. to W. N. W. and behind them another chain of 
high land, which we judged alfo to be iflands: there were 
flill other iflands, extending as far as N. 71 W.-which at this, 
time we took for the main. 

The point of the main which forms the fide of the chan- 
nel through which we had pafTed, oppofite to the ifland, is 
the northern promontory of the country, and I called it York 
Cape. Its longitude is 218 24' W. the latitude of the north 
point is io° 37, anc l of the eafl point io° 42' S. ■ The land over 
the eafl point, and to the fouthward of it, is rather low, and 
as- far as the eye can reach, very flat, and of a barren ap- 

7 pearance. 


1 770- pearance. To the fouthward of the Cape the fliore forms a 
■ "f 1 " » large open bay, which I called Newcastle Bay, and in 
Tuefday 21. w j 1 j c j 1 are f ome fmall low iilands and fhoals ; the land adja- 
cent is alfo very low, flat, and fandy. The land of the 
northern part of the Cape is more hilly, the vallies feem to 
be well clothed with wood, and the more forms fome fmall 
bays, in which there appeared to be good anchorage. Clofe 
to the eaftern point of the Cape are three fmall iflands, from 
one of which a fmall ledge of rocks runs out into the fea : 
there is alfo an ifland clofe to the northern point. The illand 
that forms the ftreight or channel through which we had 
patted, lies about four miles without thefe, which, except 
two, are very fmall: the fouthermoft is the largeft, and 
much higher than any part of the main land. On the north 
weft fide of this illand there appeared to be good anchorage, 
and on fhore, vallies that promifed both wood and water. 
Thefe iflands are diftinguifhed in the chart by the name of 
York Isles. To the fouthward, and fouth eaft, and even to 
the eaftward and northward of them, there are feveral other 
low iflands, rocks, and fhoals : our depth of water in failing 
between them and the main, was twelve, thirteen, and four- 
teen fathom. 

We flood along the fhore to the weflward, with a gentle 
breeze at S. E. by S. and when we had advanced between 
three and four miles, we difcovered the land ahead, which, 
when we firft faw it, we took for the main, to be iflands de- 
tached from it by feveral channels : upon this we fent away 
the boats, with proper inftrucftions, to lead us through that 
channel which was next the main ; but foon after difcovering 
rocks and fhoals in this channel, I made a fignal for the boats 
to go through the next channel to the northward, which lay 
between thefe iflands, leaving fome of them between us and 



the main : the fhip followed, and had never lefs than five fa- '77°. 
thorn water in the narrowed part of the channel, where the e— y-^j 
diftance from ifland to iflind was about one mile and an ue ay zu 

At four o'clock in the afternoon, we anchored, being 
about a mile and a half, or two miles, within the entrance, 
in fix fathom and a half, with clear ground: the channel 
here had begun to widen, and the iflands on each fide of us 
were diftant about a mile : the main land ftretched away to 
the S. \V. the farther! point in view bore S. 48 W. and the 
fouthermoft point of the iflands, on the north weft fide of 
the paflage, bore S. 76 W. Between thefe two points we 
could fee no land, fo that we conceived hopes of having, at 
laft, found a paffage into the Indian fea; however, that I 
might be able to determine with more certainty, I refolved 
to land upon the ifland which lies at the fouth eaft point of 
the paflage. Upon this ifland we had feen many of the in- 
habitants when we firft came to an anchor, and when I 
went into the boat, with a party of men, accompanied by 
Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander, in order to go afhore, we faw 
ten of them upon a hill: nine of them were armed with 
fuch lances as we had been uied to fee, and the tenth had a 
bow, and a bundle of arrows, which we had never feen in 
the poffeffion of the natives of this country before : we alfo 
obferved, that two of them had large ornaments of mother 
of pearl hanging round their necks. Three of thefe, one of 
whom was the bowman, placed themfelves upon the beach 
abreaft of us, and we expected that they would have oppofed 
our landing, but when we came within about a mufket's 
fhot of the beach, they walked leifurely away. We imme- 
diately climbed the higheft hill, which was not more than 
three times as high as the maft-head, and the moft barren of 
2 any 


177°- any we had feen. From this hill, no land could be feen be- 
i__^LL» tween the S. W. and W. S. W. fo that I had no doubt of find- 
Tuefdayzi. j^ a channel through. The land to the north weft of it 
confifted of a great number of iflands of various extent, and 
different heights, ranged one behind another, as far to the 
northward and well ward as I could fee, which could not be 
lefs than thirteen leagues. As I was now about to quit the 
eaftern coaft of New Holland, which I had coafted from lati- 
tude 38 to this place, and which I am confident no European 
had ever feen before, I once more hoifted Englifh colours, 
and though I had already taken poffemon of feveral parti- 
cular parts, I now took poffemon of the whole eaftern coaft, 
from latitude 38"' to this place, latitude ioi S. in right of his 
Majefty King George the Third, by the name of New South 
Wales, with all the bays, harbours, rivers, and iflands 
fituated upon it: we then fired three vollies of fmall arms, 
which were anfwercd by the fame number from the fhip. 
Having performed this ceremony upon the ifland, which we 
called Possession Island, we reimbarked in our boat, but a 
rapid ebb tide fetcing N. E. made our return to the veffel very 
difficult and tedious. From the time of our laft coming 
among the fiioals, we conftantly found a moderate tide, the 
flood fetting to the N. W. and the ebb to the S. E. At this 
place, it is high water at the full and change of the moon, 
about one or two o'clock, and the water rifes and falls per- 
pendicularly about twelve feet. We faw fmoke riling in 
many places from the adjacent lands and iflands, as we had 
clone upon every part of the coaft, after our laft return to it 
through the reef. 

We continued at anchor all night, and between feven and 

v,tJnef. zz, eight o'clock in the morning, we faw three or four of the 

natives upon the beach gathering mell-fifJr j we discovered, 



by the help of our glaffcs, that they were women, and, like *77°' 


all the other inhabitants of this country, flark naked. At ■ » > 

low water, which happened about ten o'clock, we got under 
fail, and flood to the S.W. with a light breeze at E. which 
afterwards veered to N. by E. ; our depth of water was from 
fix to ten fathom, except in one place, where we had but 
five. At noon, Pofleffion Iiland bore N. 53 E. diflant four 
leagues, the weflern extremity of the main land in fight bore 
S. 43 W. diflant between four and five leagues, and appeared 
to be extremely low, the fouth welt point of the largcfl 
ifland on the north well fide of the pailage bore N. 71 W. 
dillant eight miles, and this point I called Cape Cornwall. 
It lies in latitude io° 43' S., longitude 2 19° W. ; and fome low 
lands that lie about the middle of the paflage, which [ 
called Wallis's Isles, bore W. by S. 7 S. diflant about two 
leagues: our latitude, by obfervation, was lo^G'S. We 
continued to advance with the tide of flood W. N. W. having 
little wind, and from eight to five fathom water. At half 
an hour after one, the pinnace, which was ahead, made the 
fignal for fhoal water, upon which we tacked, and lent 
away the yawl to found alfo: we then tacked again, and 
flood after them: in about two hours, they both made the 
fignal for fhoal water, and the tide being nearly at its greatefl 
height, I was afraid to fland on, as running aground at that 
time might be fatal ; I therefore came to an anchor in fomc- 
what lefs than feven fathom, fandy ground. Wallis's iflands 
bore S. by W. 7 W. diflant five or fix miles, the iflands to the 
northward extended from S. 73 E. to N. 10 E. and a fmall 
iiland, which was jufl in fight, bore N. W. 7 W. Here we 
found the flood tide fet to the wcflward, and the ebb to the 

After we had come to an anchor, I fent away the Matter 

in the long-boat to found, who, upon his return in the 

Vol. II. 4 K evening, 


1770. evening, reported, that there was a bank flretching north 
«,_ -f - _> and fouth, upon which there were but three fathom, and 
Thurfdayzj. t ] lat beyond it there were feven. About this time it fell 
calm, and continued fo till nine the next morning, when 
we weighed, with a light breeze at S. S. E. and fleered N. W. 
by W. for the fmall illand which was juft in fight, having 
firft fent the boats ahead to found : the depth of water was 
eight, feven, fix, five, and four fathom, and three fathom 
upon the bank, it being now the laft quarter ebb. At this 
time, the northermoft ifland in fight bore N. 9 E. Cape Corn- 
wall E. diflant three leagues, and Wallis's Ifies S. 3 E. diftant 
three leagues. This bank, at leaf! fo much as we have 
founded, extends nearly N. andS. but to what diltanccldonot 
know: its breadth is not more than half a mile at the utmoft. 
When we had got over the bank, we deepened our water to 
fix fathom three quarters, and had the fame depth all the 
way to the fmall illand ahead, which we reached by noon, 
when it bore S. diftant about half a mile. Our depth of 
water was now five fathom, and the northermoft land in 
fight, which is part of the fame chain of iflands that we had 
feen to the northward from the time of our firft entering the 
ftreight, bore N. 71 E. Our latitude, by obfervation, was 10° 
-33'S. and our longitude 2 1 9 asrW.: in this fituation,nopartrof 
the main was in fight. As we were now near the ifland, and 
had but little wind, Mr. Banks and I landed upon ir, and 
found it, except a few patches of wood, to be a barren rock, 
the haunt of birds, which had frequented it in fuch num- 
bers, as to make the furface almoft uniformly white with 
their dung : of thefe birds, the greater part feemed to be 
boobies, and I therefore called the place Booby Island. 
After a fhort flay, we returned to the fliip, and in the mean 
time the wind had got to the S. W. ; it was but a gentle 
breeze, yet it was accompanied by a fwell from the fame 

5 quarter, 


quarter, . which, with other circumftances, confirmed my *77 - 
opinion that we were got to the weftward of Carpentaria, or t_ _ _! '_, 
the northern extremity of New Holland, and had now an ur ayz3 ' 
open fea to the weftward, which gave me great fat is faction, 
not only becaufe the dangers and fatigues of the voyage were 
drawing to an end, but becaufe it would no longer be a 
doubt whether New Holland and New Guinea were two fe- 
parate iflands, or different parts of the fame. 

The north call entrance of this paffage, or ftreighr, lies in 
the latitude of io u 39 S. and in the longitude of 21 8° 36' W« 
It is formed by the main, or the northern extremity of New 
Holland, on the S. E. and by a congeries of iflands, which I 
called the Prince of Wales's Islands, to the N. W. and it is 
probable that thefe iflands extend quite to New Guinea. 
They differ very much both in height and circuit, and many 
of them feemed to be well clothed with herbage and wood : 
upon moft, if not all of them, we. faw fmoke, and therefore 
there can be no doubt of their being inhabited: it is alfo 
probable, that among them there are at leaft as good paf- 
fages as that we came through, perhaps better, though 
better would not need to be defned, if the accefs to it, from 
the eaftward, were lefs dangerous : that a lefs dangerous 
accefs may be difcovered, I think there is little reafon to 
doubt, and to find it little more feerns to be neceffary, than 
to determine how far the principal, or outer reef, which 
bounds the fhoals to the eaftward, extends towards the north, 
which I would not have left to future navigators if I had 
been lefs haraffed by danger and fatigue, and had had a fhip 
in better condition for the purpofe. 

To this channel, or pafTagc, I have given the name of the 
fhip, and called it Endeavour Streights. Its length from 
N. E. to S. W. is ten leagues, and it is about five leagues 

4K2 broad ; 


J77°- broad, except at the north eaft entrance, where it is fome- 
. ° su ' '_. what lefs than two miles, being contracted by the illands 
Tiu 1 rfda y23 . ^.^ u? ^ e?e . That which I called PoiTeffion Ifland is of 
a moderate height and circuit, and this we left between us 
and the main, palling between it and two fmall round 
illands, which lie about two miles to the N. W. of it. The 
two fmall illands, which I called Wallis's Illands, lie in the 
middle of the fouth well entrance, and thefe we left to the 
fouthward. Our depth of water in the ilreight, was from 
four to nine fathom, with every where good anchorage, ex- 
cept upon the bank, which lies two leagues to the north- 
ward of Wallis's Illands, where, at low water, there are but 
three fathom : for a more particular knowlege of this 
ftreight, and of the fituations of the feveral illands and 
fhoals on the eaftern coaft of New Wales, I refer to the 
chart, where they are delineated with all the accuracy that 
circumftances would admit ; yet, with refpect to the fhoals, 
I cannot pretend that one half of them are laid down, nor 
can it be fuppofed poffible that one half of them mould be 
difcovered in the courfe of a fmgle navigation : many illands 
alfo mull have efcaped my pencil, efpecially between lati- 
tude 2o° and 22°, where we faw illands out at fea as far as 
an ifland could be diilinguifhed ; it muft not therefore be 
fuppofed, by future navigators, that where no fhoal or ifland 
is laid down in my chart, no fhoal or ifland will be found in 
thefe feas : it is enough that the fituation of thofe that appear 
in the chart is faithfully afcertained, and, in general, I have 
the greateft reafon to hope that it will be found as free from 
error as any that has not been corrected by fubfequent and 
fucceflive obfervations. The latitudes and longitudes of all, 
or moll of the principal head lands and bays, may be con- 
fided in, for we fcldom failed of getting an obfervation once 
at leaft every day, by which to correct: the latitude of our 



reckoning, and obfervations for fettling the longitude were 1770. 
equally numerous, no opportunity that was offered by the ■ cgu ' ■ 
fun and moon being fullered to efcape. It would be inju- Thulfda y z 3- 
rious to the memory of Mr. Green, not to take this oppor- 
tunity of attefling that he was indefatigable both in making 
obfervations and calculating upon them ; and that, by his 
instructions and afliftance, many of the petty officers were 
enabled both to obferve and calculate with great exactnefs. 
This method of finding the longitude at fea, may be put 
into univerfal practice, and may always be depended upon 
within half a degree, which is furflcient for all nautical pur- 
pofes. If, therefore, obferving and calculating were con- 
fidered as necefTary qualifications for every fea officer, the 
labours of the fpeculative theorift to folve this problem 
might be remitted, without much injury to mankind: 
neither will it be fo difficult to acquire this qualification, or 
put it in practice, as may at firfl appear ; for, with the affift- 
ance of the nautical almanack, and aftronomical ephemeris, 
the calculations for finding the longitude will take up little 
more time than the calculation of an azimuth for finding the 
variation of the compafs. 




Departure from New South Wales ; a particular Defcrip- 
tion of the Country , its ProduEls^ and People : A Speci- 
men of the Language^ a?id fo?ne Obfervations upon the 
Currents and "Tides. 



F this country, its products, and its people, many par- 
Aigufi. ^ \_J ticulars have already been related in the courfe of the 
narrative, being fo interwoven with the events, as not to ad- 
mit of a reparation. I fhall now give a more full and cir- 
cumftantial defcription of each, in which, if fome things 
mould happen to be repeated, the greater part will be found 

New Holland, or, as I have now called the eaftern coafl, 
New South Wales, is of a larger extent than any other coun- 
try in the known world that does not bear the name of a 
continent : the length of coafl: along which we failed, re- 
duced to a ftrait line, is no lefs than twenty-feven degrees 
of latitude, amounting to near 2000 miles, fo that its fquare 
furface mull be much more than equal to all Europe. To 
the fouthward of 33 or 34, the land in general is low and 
level ; farther northward it is hilly, but in no part can be 
called mountainous, and the hills and mountains, taken to- 
gether, make but a fmall part of the furface, in comparifon 
with the vallies and plains. It is upon the whole rather bar- 
ren than fertile, yet the rifing ground is chequered by woods 
and lawns, and the plains and vallies are in many places 
covered with herbage : the foil however is frequently fandy, 



and many of the lawns, or favannahs, are rocky and barren, 1770. 
efpecially to the northward, where, in the bed fpots, vege- . Au £ uft, _ , 
tation was lefs vigorous than in the fouthern part of the 
country ; the trees were not fo tall, nor was the herbage fo 
rich. The grafs in general is high, but thin, and the trees, 
where they are largeft, are feldom lefs than forty feet afun- 
der; nor is the country inland, as far as we could examine 
ir, better clothed than the fea coaft. The banks of the bays 
are covered with mangroves, to the diftance of a mile within 
the beach, under which the foil is a rank mud, that is al- 
ways overflowed by a fpring tide ; farther in the country we 
fometimes met with a bog, upon which the grafs was very 
thick and luxuriant, and fometimes with a valley, that was 
clothed with underwood : the foil in fome parts feemed to be 
capable of improvement, but the far greater part is fuch as 
can admit of no cultivation. The coaft, at leaft that part of 
it which lies to the northward of 25° S. abounds with fine 
bays and harbours, where vefTels may lie in perfect fecurity 
from all winds. 

If we may judge by the appearance of the country while 
we were there, which was in the very height of the dry fea- 
fon, it is well watered : we found innumerable fmall brooks 
and fprings, but no great rivers ; thefe brooks, however, 
probably become large in the rainy feafon. Thinly Sound 
was the only place where frefh water was not to be pro- 
cured for the fhip, and even there one or two fmall pools 
were found in the woods, though the face of the country- 
was everywhere interfered by falt-creeks, and mangrove 

Of trees there is no great variety. Of thofe that could be 
called timber, there are but two forts ; the largeft is the gum 
tree, which grows all over the country, and has been men- 


: r i77Q. tioned already: it has narrow leaves, not much unlike a 
t _ !^ u '_, willow ; and the gum, or rather refin, which it yields, is of 
a deep red, and refembles the fangnis draconis; pollibly it may 
be the fame, for this fubftance is known to be the produce 
of more than one plant. It is mentioned by Dampier, and 
is perhaps the fame that Tafman found upon Diemen's 
Land, where he fays he faw " Gum of the trees, and gum 
«' lac of the ground;" The other timber tree is that which 
grows fomewhat like our pines, and has been particularly 
mentioned in the account of Botany Bay. The wood of both 
thefe trees, as I have before remarked, is extremely hard 
and heavy. Befides thefe, here are trees covered with a foft 
bark that is eafily peeled off, and is the fame that in the 
Eaft Indies is ufed for the caulking of mips. 

We found here the palm of three different forts. The 
firft, which grows in great plenty to the fouthward, has 
leaves that are plaited like a fan : the cabbage of thefe is 
fmall, but exquifitely fweet ; and the nuts, which it bears in 
great abundance, are very good food for hogs. The fecond 
fort bore a much greater refemblance to the true cabbage 
tree of the Weft Indies ; its leaves were large and pinnated, 
like thofe of the cocoa-nut ; and thefe alfo produced a cab- 
bage, which though not fo fweet as the other, was much 
larger. The third fort, which, like the fecond, was found 
only in the northern parts, was feldom more than ten feet 
high, with fmall pinnated leaves, refembling thofe of fome 
kind of fern : it bore no cabbage, but a plentiful crop of 
nuts, about the fize of a large chefnut, but rounder : as we 
found the hulls of thefe fcattered round the places where 
the Indians had made their fires, we took for granted that 
they were fit to eat ; thofe however who made the ex- 
periment paid dear for their knowlcge of the contrary, for 



they operated both as an emetic and cathartic with great 1770 

violence. Still, however, we made no doubt but that they 
were eaten by the Indians ; and judging that the constitution 
of the hogs might be as ftrong as theirs, though our own 
had proved to be fo much inferior, we carried them to the 
ftye ; the hogs eat them, indeed, and for fome time we 
thought without fuffering any inconvenience ; but in about 
a week they were fo much difordered that two of them died, 
and the reft were recovered with great difficulty. It is probable, 
however, that the poifonous quality of thefe nuts may lie in 
the juice, like that of the caffada of the Weft Indies ; and 
that the pulp, when dried, may be not only wholefome, but 
nutricious. Befides thefe fpecies of the palm, and man- 
groves, there were feveral fmall trees and fhrubs altogether 
unknown in Europe ; particularly one which produced a 
very poor kind of fig ; another that bore what we called a 
plum, which it refembled in colour, but not in fhape, being 
flat on the fides like a little cheefe ; and a third that bore a 
kind of purple apple ; which, after it had been kept a few 
days, became eatable, and tafted fomewhat like a damafcene. 

Here is a great variety of plants to enrich the collection of 
a botanilt, but very few of them are of the sefculent kind. 
A fmall plant, with long, narrow, graffy leaves, refembling 
that kind of bulrufh which in England is called the Cat's- 
tail, yields a refm of a bright yellow colour, exactly refem- 
bling gambouge, except that it does not ftain ; it has a fwect 
fmell, but its properties we had no opportunity to difcover, 
any more than thofe of many others with which the natives 
appear to be acquainted, as they have diftinguifhed them by 

I have already mentioned the root and leaves of a plant 

refembling the coccos of the Weft Indies, and a kind of 

Vol. II. 4 L bean ; 



1770. bean ; to which may be added, a fort of parfley and purfe- 
w^l— t lain, and two kinds of yams ; one fhaped like a rhadifli, and 
the other round, and covered with ftringy fibres : both forts 
arc very fmall, but fweet ; and we never could find the 
plants that produced them, though we often faw the places 
where they had been newly dug up; it is probable that the 
drought had deflroyed the leaves, and we could not, like the 
Indians, difcover them by the ftalks. 

Mod of the fruits of this country, fuch as they are, have 
been mentioned already. We found one in the fouthern 
part cf the country refembling a cherry, except that the flone 
was foft ; and another not unlike a pine-apple in appear- 
ance, but of a very difagreeable tafte, which is well known 
in the Eaft Indies, and is called by the Dutch Pyn Appcl 

Of the quadrupeds, I have already mentioned the dog, 
and particularly defcribed the kanguroo, and the animal of 
the opofTum kind, refembling the phalanger of BufFon ; to 
which I can add only one more, refembling a polecat, which 
the natives call %<?//; the back is brown, fpotted with white, 
and the belly white unmixed. Several of our people faid 
they had feen wolves ; but perhaps, if we had not feen tradts 
that favoured the account, we might have thought them 
little more worthy of credit than he who reported that he had 
feen the devil. 

Of batts, which hold a middle place between, the beafts 
and the birds, we faw many kinds, particularly one which, 
as I have obferved already, was larger than a partridge ; we 
were not fortunate enough to take one either alive or dead, 
but it was fuppofed to be the fame as Buffon has defcribed: 
by the name of Rovjft or Rouget, 



The fea and other water-fowl of this country, are. gulls, 1770. 
fhaggs, foland gec^e, or gannets, of two forts ; boobies, nod- t_.-^f_, 
dies, curlieus, ducks, pelicans of an enormous fize, and 
many others. The land-birds, are crows, parrots, paroquets, 
cockatoos, and other birds of the fame kind, of exquifue 
beauty ; pigeons, doves, quails, buftards, herons, cranes, 
hawks, and eagles. The pigeons Hew in numerous flocks, 
fo that, notwithstanding their extreme fhynefs, our people 
frequently killed ten or twelve of them in a day : thefe birds 
are very beautiful, and crefted very differently from any we 
had feen before. 

Among other reptiles, here are ferpents of various kinds, 
fome noxious, and fome harmlefs ; fcorpions, centipieds, and 
lizards. The infects are but few. The principal are the 
mufquito, and the ant. Of the ant there are feveral forts ; 
fome are as green as a leaf, and live upon trees, where they 
build their nefls of various fizes, between that of a man's 
head and his fift. Thefe nefts are of a very curious ltruc- 
ture : they are formed by bending down feveral of the leaves, 
each of which is as broad as a man's hand, and gluing the 
points of them together, fo as to form a purfe ; the vifcus 
ufed for this purpofe, is an animal juice, wdiich Nature 
has enabled them to elaborate. Their method of firft bend- 
ing down the leaves, we had not an opportunity to obferve ; 
but we faw thoufands uniting all their ftrength to hold them 
in this pofition, while other bufy multitudes were employed 
within, in applying the gluten that was to prevent their re- 
turning back. To fatisfy ourfelves that the leaves were bent, 
and held down by the effort of thefe diminutive artificers, 
we difcurbed them in their work, and as loon as they were 
driven from their ftation, the leaves on which they were 
employed fprung up with a force much greater than we 

4 I- - could 


1770. could have thought them able to conquer by any combine 
. tU f! 'j, tion of their flrength. But though we gratified our curio- 
fity at their expence, the injury did not go unrevenged; for 
thoufands immediately threw themfelves upon us, and gave 
us intolerable pain with their flings, efpecially thofe which 
took pofTeffion of our necks and our hair, from whence they 
were not eafily driven : the fling was fcarcely lefs painful 
than that of a bee ; but, except it was repeated, the pain did: 
not laft more than a minute. 

Another fort are quite black, and their operations and! 
manner of life are not lefs extraordinary. Their habitations 
are the infide of the branches of a tree, which they contrive 
to excavate by working out the pith almofl to the extremity 
of the flendereft twig; the tree at the fame time flourifhing, 
as if it had no fuch inmate. When we firfl found the tree, 
we gathered fome of the branches, and were fcarcely lefs 
aftonifhed than we mould have been to find that we had 
prophaned a confecrated grove, where every tree, upon being 
wounded, gave figns of life ; for we were inftantly covered 
with legions of thefe animals, fwarming from every broken 
bough, and inflicting their flings with incefTant violence.. 
They are mentioned by Rumphius in his Herbarium ^mboi- 
nenfe, vol. ii. p. 257. ; but the tree in which he faw their 
dwelling, is very different from that in which we found: 

A third kind we found nefled in the root of a plant, which 
grows on the bark of trees in the manner of mifletoe, and 
which they had perforated for that ufe. This root is com- 
monly as big as a large turnip, and fometimes much big- 
ger: when we cut it, we found it interfered by innume- 
rable winding pafTages, all filled with thefe animals, by 
which however the vegetation of the plant did not appear to 
6 have 


Have fuffcred any injury. We never cut one of thefe roots 1770. 
that was not inhabited, though fome were not bigger than i. ^_'_j 
a hazle-nut. The animals themfelves are very fmall, not 
more than half as big as the common red ant in England. 
They had ftings, but fcarcely force enough to make them 
felt ; they had however a power of tormenting us in an 
equal, if not a greater degree ; for the moment we handled 
the root, they fwarmed from innumerable holes, and running 
about thofe parts of the body that were uncovered, produced 
a titillation more intolerable than pain, except it is increafed 
to great violence. Rumphius has alfo given an account 
of this bulb and its inhabitants, vol. vi. p. 120. where he 
mentions another fort that are black. 

We found a fourth kind, which are perfectly harmlefs, 
and almoft exactly referable the white-ants of the Eaft In- 
dies j the architecture of thefe is ftill more curious than that 
of the others. They have houfes of two forts, one is fuf- 
pended on the branches of trees, and the other erected upon 
the ground : thofe upon the trees are about three or four 
times as big as a man's head, and are built of a brittle fub- 
ftance, which feems to confifl: of fmall parts of vegetables 
kneaded together with a glutinous matter, which their bo- 
dies probably fupply ; upon breaking this crult, innumerable 
cells, fwarming- with inhabitants, appear in a great variety 
of winding directions, all communicating with each other, 
and with feveral apertures that lead to other nefts upon the 
fame tree : they have alfo one large avenue, or covered way, 
leading to the ground, and carried on under it to the other 
neft or houfe that is conftructed there. This houfe is gene- 
rally at the root of a tree, but not of that upon which their 
other dwellings are conftructed : it is formed like an irre- 
gularly fided cone, and fometimes is more than fix feet 




1770. high, and nearly as much in diameter. Some are fmaller, 
and thefe are generally flat fided, and very much refemble 
in figure the Hones which are feen in many parts of Eng- 
land, and fuppofed to be the remains of druidical antiquity. 
The outfide of thefe is of well tempered clay, about two 
inches thick ; and within are the cells, which have no open- 
ing outwards, but communicate only with the fubterranean 
way to the houfes on the tree, and to the tree near which 
they are conftrucled, where they afcend up the root, and fo 
up the trunk and branches, under covered ways of the fame 
kind as thofe by which they defcended from their other 
dwellings. To thefe ftructures on the ground they probably 
retire in the winter, or rainy feafons, as they are proof 
againft any wet that can fall ; which thofe in the tree, 
though generally conftrueted under fome overhanging 
branch, from the nature and thinnefs of their cruft or wall, 
cannot be. 

The fea in this country is much more liberal of food to the 
inhabitants than the land; and though Mi is not quite fo 
plenty here as they generally are in higher latitudes, yet we 
fcldom hauled the feine without taking from fifty to two 
hundred weight. They are of various forts ; but, except the 
mullet, and fome of the fheH-fifh, none of them are known 
in Europe : moil of them are palatable, and fome are very 
delicious. Upon the fhoals and reef there are incredible 
numbers of the fineft green turtle in the world, and oyilers 
of various kinds, particularly the rock-oyfler and the pearl- 
oyfter. The gigantic cockles have been mentioned already; 
befides which there are fea-crayfifh, or Iobfters, and crabs ; of 
thefe however we faw only the fliells. In the rivers and fait 
creeks there are aligators. 



The only perfoh who has hitherto given any account of '77 - 

this country or its inhabitants is Dampief, and though he is, v , — . 

in general, a writer of credit, yet in many particulars he is 
miftaken. The people whom he faw were indeed inhabi- 
tants of a part of the coafl very diftant from that which we 
vifitcd; but we aifo faw inhabitants upon parts of the coafl 
very diftant from each other, and there being a perfect uni- 
formity in perfon and cufloms among them all, it is reason- 
able to conclude, that diltance in another direction has not 
considerably broken it. 

The number of inhabitants in this country appears to be- 
very fmall in proportion to its extent. We never faw fo many 
as thirty of them together but once, and that was at Botany 
Bay, when men, women, and children, aflembled upon a 
rock to fee the fhip pafs by : when they manifestly formed 
a refolution to engage us, they never could mufter above 
fourteen or fifteen fighting men ; and we never faw a num- 
ber of their meds or houfes together that could accommo- 
date a larger party. It is true, indeed, that we faw only the 
fea-coafl on the eaftern fide; and that, between this and the 
weftern fhore, there is an immenfe tract of country wholly 
unexplored : but there is great reafon to believe that this 
immenfe tract is either wholly defolate, or at lead ftill more 
thinly inhabited than the parts we vifited. It is impoffible 
that the inland country mould fubfift inhabitants at all fea- 
fons without cultivation ; it is extremely improbable that the 
inhabitants of the coaft mould be totally ignorant of arts of 
cultivation, which were practifed inland.; and it is equally 
improbable that, if they knew fuch arts, there mould be no . 
traces of them among them.. It is certain that we did not 
fee one foot of ground in a ftate of cultivation in the whole 
country; and therefore it may well be. concluded- that where- 




1770. the fea does not contribute to feed the inhabitants, the coun«= 
t "f u . ' • try is not inhabited. 

The only tribe with which we had any intercourfe, we 
found where the Ihip was careened ; it confided of one and 
twenty perfons ; twelve men, feven women, one boy, and 
one girl : the women we never faw but at a diftance ; for 
when the men came over the river they were always left be- 
hind. The men here, and in other places, were of a middle 
fize, and in general well made, clean limbed, and remark- 
ably vigorous, active, and nimble : their countenances were 
not altogether without expreffion, and their voices were re- 
markably foft and effeminate. 

Their fkins were fo uniformly covered with dirt, that it 
was very difficult to afcertain their true colour : we made 
fevcral attempts, by wetting our fingers and rubbing it, to 
remove the incruftations, but with very little effect. With 
the dirt they appear nearly as black as a Ncgroe ; and ac- 
cording to our bell difcoveries, the fkin itfelf is of the colour 
of wood foot, or what is commonly called a chocolate colour. 
Their features are far from being difagreeable, their nofes 
are not flat, nor are their lips thick ; their teeth are white 
and even, and their hair naturally long and black, it is how- 
ever univerfally cropped fhort; in general it is ftrait, but 
fometimes it has a flight curl 4 we faw none that was not 
matted and filthy, though without oil or greafe, and to our 
great aftoniihment free from lice. Their beards were of the 
fame colour with their hair, and bufhy and thick : they are 
not however fuffered to grow long. A man whom we had 
feen one day with his beard fomewhat longer than his com- 
panions, we faw the next, with it fomewhat fhorter, and 
upon examination found the ends of the hairs burnt : from 
this incident, and our having never ieen any fharp inftru- 



ment among them, we concluded that both the hair and the 
beard were kept fliort by fingeing them. 

Both fexes, as I have already obferved, go (lark naked, 
and feem to have no more fenfe of indecency in difcoverin g 
the whole body, than we have in difcovering our hands and 
face. Their principal ornament is the bone which they 
thruft through the cartilage that divides the noftrils from 
each other : what perverfion of tafte could make them think 
this a decoration, or what could prompt them, before they 
had worn it or feen it worn, to fuffer the pain and incon- 
venience that muft of neceflity attend it, is perhaps beyond 
the power of human fagacity to determine : as this bone is 
as thick as a man's finger, and between five and fix inches 
long, it reaches quite acrofs the face, and fo effectually flops 
tip both the noftrils that they are forced to keep their 
mouths wide open for breath, and muffle fo when they at- 
tempt to fpeak, that they are fcarcely intelligible even to 
•each other. Our feamen, with fome humour, called it their 
fpritfail-yard ; and indeed it had fo ludicrous an appearance, 
that till we were ufed to it, we found it difficult to refrain 
from laughter. Befide this nofe-jewel, they had necklaces 
made of fhells, very neatly cut and ftrung together ; brace- 
lets of fmall cord, wound two or three times about the up- 
per part of their arm, and a firing of plaited human hair 
about as thick as a thread of yarn, tied round the waift. Befides 
thefe, fome of them had gorgets of fhells hanging round the 
neck, fo as to reach crofs the breaft. But though thefe people 
wear no clothes, their bodies have a covering befides the 
dirt, for they paint them both white and red: the retl is 
commonly laid on in broad patches upon the moulders and 
breaft ; and the white in ftripes, fome narrow, and fome 
broad: the narrow were drawn over the limbs, and the broad 
over the body, not without fome degree of tafte. The white 
Vol. II. 4 M was 



1770. was alfo laid on in fmall patches upon the face, and drawn 
' X "f ij in a circle round each eye. The red feemed to be ochre, buc 
what the white was we could not difcover ; it was clofe 
grained, faponaceous to the touch, and almofl as heavy as- 
white lead, poflibly it might be a kind of Steatites, but to 
our great regret we could not procure a bit of it to examine. 
They have holes in their ears, but we never faw any thing 
worn in them. Upon fuch ornaments as they had, they fet 
fo great a value, that they would never part with the leafl 
article for any thing we could offer ; which was the more ex- 
traordinary as our beads and ribbons were ornaments of the 
fame kind, but of a more regular form and more fliowy ma- 
terials. They had indeed no idea of traffic, nor could we 
communicate any to them : they received the things that we 
gave them ; but never appeared to underfland our figns 
when we required a return. The fame indifference which 
prevented them from buying what we had, prevented them 
alfo from attempting to Ileal : if they had coveted more, they 
would have been lefs honefl ; for when we refufed to give 
them a turtle, they were enraged, and attempted to take it 
by force, and we had nothing elfe upon which they feemed 
to fet the leafl value ; for, as I have before obferved, many of 
the things that we had given them, we found left negli- 
gently about in the woods, like the playthings of children, 
which pleafe only while they are new. Upon their bodies 
we faw no marks of difeafe or fores, but large fears in irre- 
gular lines, which appeared to be the remains of wounds 
which they had inflicted upon themfelves with fome blunt 
inflrument, and which we underflood by figns to have been 
memorials of grief for the dead. 

They appeared to have no fixed habitations, for we faw 
nothing like a town or village in the whole country. Their 
houfes, if houfes they may be called, feem to be formed 



\vith lefs art and induftry than any we had feen, except the »77°- 
■wretched hovels at Terra del Fuego, and in fome refpects uJ^— . t 
they are inferior even to them. At Botany Bay, where they 
were beft, they were juft high enough for a man to fit up- 
right in; but not large enough for him to extend himfelf in 
his whole length in any direction : they are built with pli- 
able rods about as thick as a man's finger, in the form of an 
oveo, by flicking the two ends into the ground, and then 
covering them with palm leaves, and broad pieces of bark : 
the door is nothing but a large hole at one end, oppofite to 
which the fire is made, as we perceived by the afhes. Under 
thefe houfes, or fheds, they fleep, coiled up with their heels 
to their head ; and in this pofition one of them will hold 
three or four perfons. As we advanced northward, and the 
climate became warmer, we found thefe fheds flill more 
flight : they were built, like the others, of twigs, and covered 
with bark ; but none of them were more than four feet deep, 
and one fide was intirely open: the clofe fide was always op- 
pofed to the courfe of the prevailing wind, and oppofite to 
the open fide was the fire, probably more as a defence from 
the mufquitos than the cold. Under thefe hovels it is pro- 
bable, that they thruft only their heads and the upper part 
of their bodies, extending their feet towards the fire. They 
were fet up occafionally by a wandering hord, in any place 
that would furnifh them for a time With fubfiftence, and 
left behind them when, after it was exhaufted, they went 
away: but in places where they remained only for a night 
or two, they flept without any fhelter, except the bufhes or 
grafs, which is here near two feet high. We obferved, how- 
ever, that though the fleeping huts which we found upon 
the main, were always turned from the prevailing wind, 
thofe upon the iflands were turned towards it; which feems 
to be a proof that they have a mild feafon here, during which 

4 M 2 the 


1770- the fea is calm, and that the fame weather which enables 
them to vifit the iflands, makes the air welcome even while 
they fleep. 

The only furniture belonging to thefe houfes that fell un- 
der our observation, is a kind of oblong vefTel made of bark, 
by the limple contrivance of tying up the two ends with a 
withy, which not being cut off ferves for a handle ; thefe 
we imagined were ufed as buckets to fetch water from the 
fpring, which may be fuppofed fometimes to be at a confide* 
rable diflance. They have however a fmall bag, about the fize 
of a moderate cabbage-net, which is made by laying threads 
loop within loop, fomewhat in the manner of knitting ufed 
by our ladies to make purfes. This bag the man carries loofe 
upon his back by a fmall firing which pafles over his head ; 
it generally contains a lump or two of paint and refin, fome 
fiih-hooks and lines, a fhell or two, out of which their hooks 
are made, a few points of darts, and their ufual ornaments, 
which includes the whole worldly treafure of the richeft 
man among them. 

Their fiih-hooks are very neatly made, and fome of them 
are exceedingly fmall. For linking turtle they have a peg 
of wood which is about a foot long, and very well bearded ; 
ibis fits into a focket at the end of a flafF of light wood, about 
as thick as a man's wrirt, and about feven or eight feet long: 
to the flafF is tied one end of a loofe line about three or four 
fathom long, the other end of which is faftened to the peg. 
To flrike the turtle, the peg is fixed into the focket, and when 
it has entered his body, and is retained there by the barb, 
the flafF flies off and ferves for a float to trace their vielim in 
the water ; it affifls alfo to tire him, till they can overtake 
him with their canoes, and haul him afhore. One of thefe 
pegs, as I have mentioned already, we found buried in the 
3 body 


"body of a turtle, which had healed up over it. Their lines »77o. 
are from the thicknefs of a half inch rope to the finenefs of * — ,— Lr, 
a hair, and are made of fome vegetable fubflance, but what 
in particular we had no opportunity to learn. 

Their food is chiefly fifh, though they fometimes contrive 
to kill the kanguroo, and even birds of various kinds ; not- 
withftanding they are fo fhy that we found it difficult to get 
within reach of them with a fowling-piece. The only vege- 
table that can be confidered as an article of food is the yam ; 
yet doubtlefs they eat the feveral fruits which have been 
mentioned among other productions of the country ; and in- 
deed we faw the fhells and hulls of feveral of them lying 
about the places where they had kindled their fire. 

They do not appear to eat any animal food raw ; but hav- 
ing no vefTel in which water can be boiled, they cither broif" 
it upon the coals, or bake it in a hole by the help of hot' 
ftones, in the fame manner as is practifed by the inhabitants 
of the iflands in the South Seas. 

Whether they are acquainted with any plant that has an 
intoxicating quality, we do not know; but we obferved 
that feveral of them held leaves of fome fort conftantly in 
their mouths, as an European does tobacco, and an Eaft In- 
dian betele : we never faw the plant, but when they took it 
from their mouths at our requefl ; poflibly it might be a 
fpecies of the betele, but whatever it was, it had no effect x 
upon the teeth or the lips. 

As they have no nets, they catch fifh only by finking, or 
with a hook and line, except fuch as they find in the hol- 
lows of the rocks and fhoals, which are dry at half ebb. 

Their manner of hunting we had no opportunity to fee ; 
but we conjectured by the notches which they had every 



1770. where cut in large trees in order to climb them, that the? 

AugufL ° J 

.V— r—^ took their flation near the tops of them, and there watched 
for fuch animals as might happen to pafs near enough to be 
reached by their lances : it is poflible alfo, that in this fitua- 
tion they might take birds when they came to roofl. 

I have obferved that when they went from our tents upon 
the banks of Endeavour river, we could trace them by the . 
fires which they kindled in their way ; and we imagined 
that thefe fires were intended fome way for the taking the 
kanguroo, which we obferved to be fo much afraid of fire, 
that our dogs could fcarcely force it over places which had 
been newly burnt, though the fire was extinguished. 

They produce fire with great facility, and fpread it in a 
wonderful manner. To produce it they take two pieces of 
dry foft wood, one is a Hick about eight or nine inches long, 
the other piece is flat : the flick they fhape into an obtufe point 
at one end, and preffing it upon the other, turn it nimbly by 
holding it between both their hands as we do a chocolate 
mill, often fhifting their hands up, and then moving them 
down upon it, to increafe the prefiure as much as poflible. 
By this method they get fire in lefs than two minutes, and 
from the fmallefl fpark they increafe it with great fpeed and 
dexterity. We have often feen one of them run along the 
fhore, to all appearance with nothing in his hand, who 
ftooping down for a moment, at the diflance of every fifty 
or a hundred yards, left fire behind him, as we could fee 
firfl by the fmoke, and then by the flame among the drift 
wood, and other litter which was fcattered along the place. 
We had the curiofity to examine one of thefe planters of 
fire, when he fet off, and we faw him wrap up a fmall 
fpark in dry grafs, which, when he had run a little way, 
having been fanned by the air that his motion produced, 



began to blaze ; he then laid it down in a place convenient 1770. 
for his purpofe, inclofing a fpark of it in another quantity »_. °- _j 
of grafs, and fo continued his courfe. 

There are perhaps few things in the hiftory of mankind 
more extraordinary than the difcovery and application of 
fire: it will fcarcely be difputed that the manner of pro- 
ducing it, whether by collifion or attrition, was difcovered 
by chance : but its firft effects would naturally ftrike thofe to 
whom it was a new object, with confirmation and terror: it 
would appear to be an enemy to life and nature, and to tor- 
ment and deflxoy whatever was capable of being defcoyed 
or tormented ; and therefore it feems not eafy to conceive 
what mould incline thofe who firft faw it receive a tran- 
fient exiftence from chance, to reproduce it by defign. It is 
by no means probable that thofe who iirfl faw fire, ap- 
proached it with the fame caution, as thofe who are familiar, 
with its effects, fo as to be warmed only and not burnt ; and 
it is reafonable to think that the intolerable pain which, at 
its firft appearance, it muft produce upon ignorant curiofity, 
would fow perpetual enmity between this element and man- 
kind; and that the fame principle which incites them tocrufh 
a ferpent, would incite them to deftroy fire, and avoid all 
means by which it would be produced, as foon as they were 
known. Thcfe circumftances confidered, how men became 
fufficiently familiar with it to render it ufeful, feems to be a 
problem very difficult to folve: nor is it eafy to account for 
the firft application of it to culinary purpofes, as the eating 
both animal and vegetable food raw, muft have become a 
habit, before there was fire to drefs it, and thofe who have 
confidered the force of habit will readily believe, that to men 
who had always eaten the flefh of animals raw, it would be 
as difagreeable dreffed, as to thofe who have always eaten is 
drefled, it would be raw. It is remarkable that the inhabi- 
ts tanta 


-1770. tants of Terra del Fuego produce fire from a fpark by col- 
jJ^!!L» lifion, and that the happier natives of this country, New 
Zealand, and Otaheite, produce it by the attrition of one 
combuftible fubftance againft another: is there not then 
fome reafon to fuppofe that thefe difTerent operations cor- 
refpond with the manner in which chance produced fire in 
the neighbourhood of the torrid and frigid zones ? Among 
the rude inhabitants of a cold country, neither any operation 
of art, or occurrence of accident, could be fuppofed fo eafily 
to produce fire by attrition, as in a climate where every 
thing is hot, dry, and aduft, teeming with a latent fire which 
a flight degree of motion was fufficient to call forth 5 in a 
-cold country therefore, it is natural to fuppofe that fire was 
produced by the accidental collifion of two metallic fub- 
ftances, and in a cold country, for that reafon, the fame ex- 
pedient was ufed to produce it by defign: but in hot 
•countries, where two combuftible fubflances eafily kindle 
by attrition, it is probable that the attrition of fuch fub- 
flances firfl produced fire, and here it was therefore natural 
for art to adopt the fame operation, with a view to produce 
the fame effect. It may indeed be true that fire is now pro- 
duced in many cold countries by attrition, and in many hot 
by a flroke ; but perhaps upon enquiry there may appear 
reafon to conclude that this has arifen from the communi- 
cation of one country with another, and that with refpect to 
the original production of fire in hot and cold countries, the 
diftinction is well founded. 

There may perhaps be fome reafon to fuppofe that men 
became gradually acquainted with the nature and effects of 
-fire, by its permanent exiftence in a volcano, there being re- 
mains of volcanoes, or vefliges of their effects, in almofl 
every part of the world: by a volcano, however, no method 
of producing fire, otherwife^than by contact, could be learnt 5 



the production and application of fire therefore, Hill fcem to *77° 

afford abundant fubject of fpeculation to the curious. 

The weapons of thefe people are fpears or lances, and 
thefe are of different kinds: fome that we faw upon the 
fouthern part of the coaft had four prongs, pointed with 
bone, and barbed ; the points were alfo fmeared with a hard 
refin, which gave them a polifh, and made them enter 
deeper into what they ftruck. To the northward, the lance 
has but one point : the fhaft is made of cane, or the ftalk of 
a plant fomewhat refembling a btilrufli, very flrait and 
light, and from eight to fourteen feet long, confifling of 
feveral joints, where the pieces are let into each other, and 
bound together ; to this are fitted points of different kinds; 
fome are of hard heavy wood, and fome are the bones of 
fifh : we faw feveral that were pointed with the flings of the 
fling-ray, the largeft that they could procure, and barbed 
with feveral that were fmaller, fattened on in a contrary di- 
rection ; the points of wood were alfo fometimes armed with 
fharp pieces of broken fhells, which were fluck in, and at 
the junctures covered with refin: the lances that are thus 
barbed, are indeed dreadful weapons, for when once they 
have taken place, they can never be drawn back without 
tearing away the flefli, or leaving the fharp ragged fplinters 
of the bone or fhell which forms the beard, behind them in 
the wound. Thefe weapons are thrown with great force 
and dexterity ; if intended to wound at a fhort diftance, be- 
tween ten and twenty yards, fimply with the hand, but if at 
the diftance of forty or fifty, with an inftrument which we 
called a throwing flick. This is a plain fmooth piece of a hard 
reddifh wood, very highly polifhed, about two inches broad, 
half an inch thick, and three feet long, with a fmall knob, 
or hook at one end, and a crofs piece about three or four 
nehes long at the other: the knob at one end is received in 
Vol. II. 4 N a fmall 



1770- a fmall dent or hollow, which is made for that purpofe in 
i Au f" ' . the fhaft of the lance near the point, but from which it 
eafily flips, upon being impelled, forward : when the lance 
is laid along upon this machine, and fecured in a proper po- 
sition by the knob, the perfon that is to throw it holds it 
over his moulder, and after making it, delivers both the 
throwing Hick and lance with all. his force, but the flick 
being flopped by the crofs piece which comes againfl the 
fhoulder, with a fudden jerk,, the lance flies forward with 
incredible fwiftnefs, and with fo good an aim, that at the 
diftance of fifty yards thefe Indians were more fure of their 
mark than we could be with a fingle bullet. Befides thefe 
lances, we faw no ofFenfive weapon upon this coaft, except 
when we took our laft view of it with our glafTes, and then 
we thought we faw a man with a bow and arrows, in which 
it is pofllble we might be miflaken. We faw, however, at 
Botany Bay, a fhield or target, of an oblong fhape, about 
three feet long, and eighteen inches broad, which was made 
of the bark of a tree : this was fetched out of a hut by one 
of the men that oppofed our landing, who, when he ran 
away, left it behind him, and upon taking it up, we found 
that it had been pierced through with a fingle pointed lance 
near the center. Thefe fhields are certainly in frequent ufe 
among the people here, for though this was the only one 
that we faw in their pofleflion, we frequently found trees 
from which they appeared manifeftly to have been cut, the 
marks being eafily diftinguifhed from thofe that were made 
by cutting buckets : fometimes alfo we found the fhields cut 
out, but not yet taken off from the tree, the edges of the 
bark only being a little raifed by wedges, fo that thefe people, 
appear to have difcovered that the bark of a tree becomes 
thicker and ftronger by being fuffered to remain upon the 
trunk after it has been cut round. 



The canoes of New Holland are as mean and rude as the » 
houfes. Thofe on the fouthern part of the coaft are nothing > '-"--'_; 
more than a piece of bark, about twelve feet long, tied to- 
gether at the ends, and kept open in the middle by fmall 
bows of wood : yet in a vefTel of this cqnftruction we once 
faw three people. In mallow water they are fet forward by 
a pole, and in deeper by paddles, about eighteen inches 
long, one of which the boatman holds in each hand ; mean 
as they are, they have many conveniences, they draw but 
little water, and they are very light, fo that they go upon 
mud banks to pick up fhell fiih, the moil important ufe to 
which they can be applied, better perhaps than veffels of 
any other conftruction. We obferved, that in the middle of 
thefe canoes there was a heap of fea-weed, and upon that a 
fmall fire ; probably that the fiih may be broiled and eaten 
the moment it is caught. 

The canoes that we faw when we advanced farther to the 
northward, are not made of bark, but of the trunk of a tree 
hollowed, perhaps by fire. They are about fourteen feet 
long, and, being very narrow, are fitted with an outrigger 
to prevent their overfetting. Thefe are worked with pad- 
dles, that are fo large as to require both hands to manage 
one of them: the outfide is wholly unmarked by any tool, 
but at each end the wood is left longer at the top than at the 
bottom, fo that there is a projection beyond the hollow part 
refcmbling the end of a plank ; the fides are tolerably thin, 
but how the tree is felled and fafhioned, we had no opportu- 
nity to learn. The only tools that we faw among them are 
an adze, wretchedly made of flonc, fome fmall pieces of the 
fame iubftance in form of a wedge, a wooden mallet, and 
fome fhells and fragments of coral. For poliihing their 
throwing flicks, ana the points of their lances, they ufe the 
leaves of a kind of wild fig-tree, which bites upon wood al- 

4 N 2 rnofl 


1770* moil as keenly as the fhave-grafs of Europe, which is ufed 


by our joiners: with fuch tools, the making even fuch a ca- 
noe as I have defcribed, mull be a moll difficult and tedious 
labour : to thole who have been accullomed to the ufe of 
metal, it appears altogether impracticable ; but there are few 
difficulties that will not yield to patient perfeverance, and 
he who does all he can, will certainly produce effects that 
greatly exceed his apparent power. 

The utmoll freight of thefe canoes is four people, and if 
more at any time wanted to come over the river, one of 
thofe who came firll was obliged to go back for the rell: 
from this circumllance, we conjectured that the boat we 
iaw, when we were lying in Endeavour River, was the only 
one in the neighbourhood : we have however fome reafon to 
believe that the bark canoes are alfo ufed where the wooden 
ones are conftructed, for upon one of the fmall illands where 
the natives had been fiihing for turtle, we found one of the 
little paddles which had belonged to fuch a boat, and would 
have been ufelefs on board any other. 

By what means the inhabitants of this country are reduced 
to fuch a number as it can fubfift, is not perhaps very eafy 
to guefs ; whether, like the inhabitants of New Zealand, 
they are dellroyed by the hands of each other in contells for 
food; whether they are fwept off by accidental famine, or 
whether there is any caufe which prevents the increafe of 
the fpecies, mull be left for future adventurers to determine. 
That they have wars, appears by their weapons ; for fup- 
pofmg the lances to ferve merely for the linking of fifli, the 
fliield could be intended for nothing but a defence againft men ; 
the only mark of hostility, however, which we faw among 
them, was the perforation of the ihield by a fpear which 
has been jufl mentioned, for none of them appeared to have 
been wounded by an enemy. Neither can we determine 
2 whether 


whether they are pufilanimous or brave ; the refolution with l 7l°- 

' r Auguft. 

which two of them attempted to prevent our landing, when u~^j 
we had two boats full of men, in Botany Bay, even after one 
of them was wounded with fmall mot, gave us reafon to 
conclude that they were not only naturally courageous, but 
that they had acquired a familiarity with the dangers of 
hoftility, and were, by habit as well as nature, a daring and 
warlike people ; but their precipitate flight from every other 
place that we approached, without even a menace, while 
they were out of our reach, was an indication of uncommon 
tamenefs and timidity, fuch as thofe who had only been 
occafionally warriors mufl be fuppofed to have fhaken off, 
whatever might have been their natural difpofition. I have 
faithfully related fa els, the reader mufl judge of the people 
for himfelf. 

From the account that has been given of our commerce 
with them, it cannot be fuppofed that we fliould know much 
of their language ; yet as this is an object of great curiofity, 
efpecially to the learned, and of great importance in their 
refearches into the origin of the various nations that have 
been difcovered, we took fome pains to bring away fuch a 
fpecimen of it as might, in a certain degree, anfwer the pur- 
pofe, and I fhall now give an account how it was procured,, 
If we wanted to know the name of a ftone, we took a flone 
up into our hands, and as well as we could, intimated by 
figns that we wifhed they fhould name it: the word that 
they pronounced upon the occafion, we immediately wrote 
down. This method, though it was the beft we could con- 
trive, might certainly lead us into many miflakes ; for if an 
Indian was to take up a ftone, and afk us the name of it, we 
might anfwer a pebble or a Hint ; fo when we took up a 
flone, and afked an Indian the name of it, he might pro- 
nounce a word that diflinguifhed the fpecies and not the 


6 4 6 




genus, or tliar, inftead of fignifying ftone Cmply, might fig- 
nifv a rough ftone, or a fmooth ftone ; however, as much as 
poffible to avoid miftakes of this kind, feveral of us contrived, 
a<- different times, to get from them as many words as we 
could, and having noted them down, compared our lifts : 
thofe which were the fame in all, and which, according to 
every one's account, fignified the fame thing, we ventured to 
record, with a very few others, which, from the fimplicity 
of the fubjecT:, and the eafe of expreffing our queition with 
plainnefs and precifion by a fign, have acquired equal au- 


New Holland. 


New Holland. 

The head, 






















A rope, 




A man, 




A male turtle, Poinga. 







A canoe, 




To paddle, 




Sit down, 





Mier Carrar. 



A dog, 

Cotta, or Kota. 



A lor iq net, 

Perpere, Grpier-pier, 









The foal of 


The bone it. 


the foot, 


the nofe, 



A bag, 





Englifh. New Holland. 
Arms, Aco, or Acol. 

'Thumb, Eboorbalga. | 
The fore, 1 

middle, ««^>Egalbaiga. 

ringjingers, J 
The little 7Nakil, or Eboor- 

fnger, j nakil. 
Thejky, Kere, or Kearre* 
A father, Dunjo. 
A fon, Jumurre. 

Englifh. New Holland. 
A great cockle, Moingo. 
Cocos, jams, Maracotu. 



Tut, tut, 
tut, tut, 

tExpreffions, as <we 
fuppofed, of ad~ 
miration, tuhich 
\ they continually 
I ufed ivhen they 
I iu ere in company 
L with us, 

I fliall now quit this country, with a few obfervations re- 
lative to the currents and tides upon the coaft. From lati- 
tude 3 2 , and fomewhat higher, down to Sandy Cape, in 
latitude 24 46', we conftantly found a current fetting to the 
fouthward, at the rate of about ten or fifteen miles a day, 
being more or lefs, according to our diflance from the land, 
for it always ran with more force in fhore than in the offing ; 
but I could never fatisfy myfelf whether the flood-tide came 
from the fouthward, the eaftward, or the northward : I in- 
clined to the opinion that it came from the fouth-eaft, but 
the firfl time we anchored off the coaft, which was in latitude 
24030', about ten leagues to the fouth eafl of Buftard Bay, I 
found it come from the north weft ; on the contrary, thirty 
leagues farther to the north weft, on the fouth fide of Keppel 
Bay, I found that it came from the eafl, and at the northern 
part of that Bay it came from the northward, but with a 
much flower motion than it had come from the eafl: on the 
eafl fide of the Bay of Inlets, it fet flrongly to the weftward, 
as far as the opening of Broad Sound ; but on the north fide 
of that Sound, it came with a very flow motion from the' 
north weft j and when we lay at anchor before Repulfe Bay*, 


*77 - it came from the northward: to account for its courfe in all 


U —<<,■• mt this variety of directions, we need only admit that the flood- 
tide comes from the eaft or fouth eaft. It is well known, 
that where there are deep inlets, and large creeks into low 
lands, running up from the fea, and not occafioned by rivers 
of frefh water, there will always be a great indraught of the 
flood-tide, the direction of which will be determined by the 
pofition or direction of the coaft which forms the entrance of 
fuch inlet, whatever be its courfe at fea ; and where the 
tides are weak, which upon this coaft is generally the cafe? 
a large inlet will, if I may be allowed the expreflion, attract: 
the flood-tide for many leagues. 

A view of the chart will at once illuftrate this pofition. To 
the northward of Whitfunday's Paflage there is no large in- 
let, confequently the flood fets to the northward, or north 
weflward, according to the direction of the coafl, and the 
ebb to the fouth, or fouth eaftward, at leafl fuch is their 
courfe at a little diflance from the land, for very near it they 
will be influenced by fmall inlets. I alfo obferved, that we 
had only one high tide in twenty-four hours, which hap- 
pened in the night. The difference between the perpen- 
dicular rife of the water in the day and the night, when 
there is a fpring-tide, is no lefs than three feet, which, 
where the tides are fo inconfiderable as they are here, is a 
great proportion of the whole difference between high and 
low water. This irregularity of the tides, which is worthy 
of notice, we did not difcover till we were run afhore, and 
perhaps farther to the northward it is itill greater: after we 
got within the reef the fecond time, we found the tides more 
confiderable than we had ever done before, except in the Bay 
of Inlets, and poffibly this may be owing to the water being 
more confined between the fhoals ; here alfo the flood fets to 



the north weft, and continues in the fame direction to the 1770. 

extremity of New Wales, from whence its direction is weft 1 <~-j 

and fouth weft into the Indian fea, 


77je Pajfage from New South Wales to New Guinea^ with 
an Account of what happened upon landing there, 

IN the afternoon of Thurfday Auguft the 23d, after leaving Thurfday^; 
Booby Ifland, we fleered W. N. W. with light airs from 
the S. S. W. till five o'clock, when it fell calm, and the tide 
of ebb foon after fetting to the N. E. we came to an anchor in 
eight fathom water, with a foft fandy bottom. Booby 
Ifland bore S. 50 E. diftant five miles, and the Prince of 
Wales's Ifles extended from N. E. by N. to S. 55 E.; between 
thefe there appeared to be a clear open pafTage, extending 
from N. 46 E. to E. by N. 

At half an hour after five, in the morning of the 24th, as Friday 24, 
we were purchafing the anchor, the cable parted at about 
eight or ten fathom from the ring : the fhip then began to 
drive, but I immediately dropped another anchor, which 
brought her up before fhe got more than a cable's length 
from the buoy ; the boats were then fent to fweep for the 
anchor, but could not fucceed. At noon, our latitude, by 
obfervation, was io^o'S. As I was refolved not to leave 
the anchor behind, while there remained a poiTibility of 
recovering it, I fent the boats again after dinner, with a 
fmall line, to difcover where it lay ; this being happily ef- 
fected, we fwept for it with a hawfer, and by the fame 
hawfer hove the fhip up to it : we proceeded to weigh it, but 

Vol. II. 4 O juft 


juft as we were about to fhip it, the hawfer flipped, and we 
had all our labour to repeat: by this time it was dark, and, 
we were obliged to fufpend our operations till the morning. 
As foon as it was light, we fweeped it again, and heaved 
it to the bows: by eight o'clock, we weighed the other an- 
chor, got under fail, and, with a fine breeze at E. N. E. flood 
to the north weft. At noon, our latitude, by obfervation, 
was io° i8'S. longitude 219° 39/ W. At this time, we had 
no land in fight, but about two miles to the fouthward of us 
lay a large fhoal, upon which the fea broke with great vio- 
lence, and part of which, I believe, is dry at low water. It 
extends N. W. and S. E. and is about five leagues in circuit. 
Our depth of water, from the time we weighed till now, was 
nine fathom, but it foon fhallowed to feven fathom ; and at 
hal£ an hour after one, having run eleven miles between 
noon and that time, the boat which was a-head made the 
fignal for fhoal water ; we immediately let go an anchor, 
and brought the fliip up with all the fails ftanding, for the 
boat having jufl been relieved, was at but a little diftance: 
upon looking out from the fliip, we faw fhoal water almofl 
all round us, both wind and tide at the fame time fetting 
upon it. The fhip was in fix fathom, but upon founding 
round her, at the diftance of half a cable's length, we 
found fcarcely two. This fhoal reached from the eaft, round 
by the north and weft, as far as the fouth weft, fo that there 
was no way for us to get clear but that which we came. 
This was another hair's-breadth efcape, for it was near high 
water, and there run a fhort cockling fea, which mufl very 
foon have bulged the fhip if fhe had ftruck ; and if her direc- 
tion had been half a cable's length more either to the right 
or left, fhe mufl have ftruck before the fignal for the fhoal 
was made. The fhoals which, like thefe, lie a fathom or 
two under water, are the moft dangerous of any, for they do 



not difcover themfelves till the veffel is juft upon them, and 1770. 
then indeed the water looks brown, as if it reflected a dark i__ , -" g - '_/ 
cloud. Between three and four o'clock the tide of ebb be- u ayzs * 
gan to make, and I fent the Mailer to found to the fouth- 
ward and fouth weftward, and in the mean time, as the fhip 
tended, I weighed anchor, and with a little fail flood firfl 
to the fouthward, and afterwards edging away to the weft- 
ward, got once more out of danger. At funfet, we anchored 
in ten fathom, with a fandy bottom, having a frefh gale at 
E. S. E. 

At fix in the morning, we weighed again and flood weft, Sunday 26. 
having, as ufual, firft fent a boat ahead to found. I had in- 
tended to fteer N. W. till I had made the fouth coaft of New 
Guinea, defigning, if poffible, to touch upon it ; but upon 
meeting with thefe flioals, I altered my courfe, in hopes of 
finding a clearer channel, and deeper water. In this I fuc- 
ceeded, for by noon our depth of water was gradually in- 
creafed to feventeen fathom. Our latitude was now by ob- 
fervation io° 10' S. ; and our longitude 22 o° 12' W. No land 
was in fight. We continued to fteer weft till funfet, our 
depth of water being from twenty-feven to twenty-three fa- 
thom : we then fhortened fail, and kept upon a wind all 
night; four hours on one tack, and four on another. At 
day-light, we made all the fail we could, and fleered W.N. W. Monday 27. 
till eight o'clock, and then N. W. At noon, our latitude by 
obfervation was 9 56' S. ; longitude 22 1° W. ; variation 
2 30' E. We continued our N. W. courfe till funfet, when 
we again fhortened fail, and hauled clofe upon a wind to 
the northward: our depth of water was twenty-one fathom. 
At eight, we tacked and flood to the fouthward till twelve ; 
then flood to the northward with little fail till day-light: our Tuefdayzs. 
foundings were from twenty-five to feventeen fathom, the 
water growing gradually fhallow as we flood to the north- 

4 O 2 ward'. 


1770. ward. At this time we made fail and flood to the north, in 
. Augulh , or{ j er t o make the land of New Guinea : from the time of 
Tuefday zg. Qur ma ^^ n g f a ^| t [\\ n0 on, the depth of water gradually de- 
creased from feventeen to twelve fathom, with a ftoney and 
Ihelly bottom. Our latitude by observation was now 8° 52' S» 
which is in the fame parallel as that in which the fouthern 
part3 of New Guinea are laid down in the charts ; but there 
are only two points fo far to the fouth, and I reckoned that 
we were a degree to the weftward of them both, and there- 
fore did not fee the land, which trends more to the north- 
ward. We found the fea here to be in many parts covered 
with a brown fcum, fuch as failors generally call fpawn. 
When 1 firft faw it, I was alarmed, fearing that we were 
among fhoals ■, but upon founding, we found the fame 
depth of water as in other places. This fcum was examined 
both by Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander, but they could not de- 
termine what it was : it was formed of innumerable fmall 
particles, not more than half a line in length, each of which 
in the microfcope appeared to confift of thirty or forty tubes ; 
and each tube was divided through its whole length by 
fmall partitions into many cells, like the tubes of the con- 
ferva : they were fuppofed to belong to the vegetable king- 
dom, becaufe upon burning them they produced no fmell 
like that of an animal fubftance. The fame appearance had 
been obferved upon the coavt of Brazil and New Holland, 
but never at any considerable difiance from the fhore. In 
the evening a fmall bird hovered about the fhip, and at 
night, fettling among the rigging, was taken. It proved to 
be exa&ly the fame bird which Dampier has defcribed, and 
of which he has given a rude figure, by the name of a Noddy 
from New Holland. [See his Voyages, vol. iii. p. 98. Tab. of 
Birds, Fig. 5.] 



We continued {landing to the northward with a frefii gale 1.770. 
at E. by E. and S. E. till fix in the evening, having very ir- \ - g -' ._<■ 
regular foundings, the depth changing at once from twenty- Tuefda> ' 28, 
four fathom to feven. At four, we had feen the land from 
the maft-head, bearing N. W. by N. ; it appeared to be very 
low, and to flretch from W. N.W. to N.N. E. diflant four or 
five leagues. We now hauled clofe upon a wind till feven, 
then tacked and flood to the fouthward till twelve, at which 
time we wore and flood to the northward till four in the 
morning, then laid the head of the vefiel off till day-light, WedneG 29. 
when we again faw the land, and flood in N, N. W. directly 
for it, with a frefh gale at E. by S. Our foundings during 
the night were very irregular from feven to five fathom, 
fuddenly changing from deep to fhallow, and from mallow 
to deep, without in the leaft eorrefponding with our diflance 
from the land. At half an hour after fix in the morning a 
fmall low ifland, which lay at the diflance of about a league 
from the main, bore N. by W. diflant five miles: this ifland 
lies in latitude 8° 13' S., longitude 221° 25'W. ; and I find it 
laid down in the charts by the names of Bartholomew and 
Whermoyfen. We now fleered N. W. by W. W. N.W. W. by 
N. W. byS. and S.W. by W. as we found the land lie, with 
from five to nine fathom; and though we reckoned we were 
not more than four leagues from it, yet it was fo low and 
level that we could but jufl fee it from the deck. It appeared 
however to be well covered with wood, and among other 
trees, we thought we could diftinguifli the cocoa-nut. We 
faw fmoke in feveral places, and therefore knew there were 
inhabitants. At noon we were about three leagues from 
the land; the weflermofl part of which that was in fight 
bore S. 79 W. Our latitude by obfervation was 8° 19' S. and 
longitude 221 44 W. The ifland of St. Bartholomew bore 
N. 74 E. diflant 20 miles. 





Wednef. 2 c 

Thurfday 30. 

After fleering S. W. by W. fix miles, we had fhoal water on 
our ftarboard bow, which I fent the yawl, to found, and at 
the fame time hauled off upon a wind till four o'clock, and 
though during that time we had run fix miles, we had not 
deepened our water an inch. I then edged away S. W. four 
miles more ; but finding it flill fhoal water, I brought to and 
called the boats aboard. At this time, being between three 
and four leagues from the fhore, and the yawl having 
found only three fathom water in the place to which I had 
fent her to found, I hauled off clofe upon a wind, and wea- 
thered the fhoal about half a mile. 

Between one and two o'clock, we paffed a bay or inlet be- 
fore which lies a fmall ifland that feems to fhelter it from 
the foutherly winds ; but I very much doubt whether there 
is fufficient depth of water behind it for fhipping. I could 
not attempt to determine the queflion, becaufe the S. E. trade 
wind blows right into the bay, and we had not as yet had 
any breeze from the land. 

We fbretched off to fea till twelve o'clock, when we were 
about eleven leagues from the land, and had deepened our 
water to twenty-nine fathom. We now tacked and flood in 
till five in the morning ; when, being in fix fathom and an 
half, we tacked and laid the head of the veffel off till day- 
light, when we faw the land, bearing N. W. by W. at about 
the diflance of four leagues. We now made fail, and fleered 
firfl W. S. W. then W. by S. ; but coming into five fathom and 
*n half, we hauled off S.W. till we deepened our water to 
eight fathom, and then kept away W. by S. and W. having 
nine fathom, and the land juft in fight from the deck ; we 
judged it to be about four leagues diflant, and it was flill 
very low and woody. Great quantities of the brown fcum 
continued to appear upon the water, and the failors, having 



given up the notion of its being fpawn, found a new name >77 - 
for it, and called it Sea-faw-duft. At noon, our latitude by » ' " £u '_. 
obiervation was 8°so'S. ; our longitude 222' 34/ \V.; and ThurfJa >'3 - 
Saint Bartholomew's ifle bore N. 69 E. diflant feventy-four 

As all this coaft appears to have been very minutely ex- 
amined by the Dutch, and as our track with the foundings 
will appear by the chart, it is fufficient to fay, that we con- 
tinued our courfe to the northward with very mallow water, 
upon a bank of mud, at fuch a diftance from the more as 
that it could fcarcely be feen from the fhip, till the 3d of Sep- 
tember. During this time we made many attempts to get 
near enough to go on more, but without fuccefs ; and hav- 
ing now loit fix days of fair wind, at a time when we knew 
the fouth eaft monfoon to be nearly at an end, we began to 
be impatient of farther delay, and determined to run the 
fhip in as near to the more as poffible, and then land with 
the pinnace, while fhe kept plying off and on, to examine 
the produce of the country, and the difpofition of the inha- 
bitants. For the two laft days we had early in the morning 
a light breeze from the more, which was flrongly impreg- 
nated with the fragrance of the trees, fhrubs, and herbage 
that covered it, the fmell being fomething like that of Gum 
Benjamin. On the 3d of September, at day-break, we faw September, 
the land extending from N. by E. to S. E. at about four ° nda> 3 
leagues diftance, and we then kept {landing in for it with a 
frelh gale at E.S. E. and E. by S. till nine o'clock, when 
being within about three or four miles of it, and in three 
fathom water, we brought to. The pinnace being hoifted 
out, I fet off from the fhip with the boat's crew, accom- 
panied by Mr. Banks, who alfo took his fervants, and Dr. 
Solander, being in all twelve perfons well armed ; we rowed 



1770- directly towards the fliore, but the water was fo fhallow 
v— — v~J/ that we could not reach it by about two hundred yards : we 
°" ay 3 " waded however the reft of the way, having left two of the 
feamen to take care of the boat. Hitherto we had feen no 
figns of inhabitants at this place ; but as foon as we got 
afhore we difcovered the prints of human feet, which could 
not long have been imprefled upon the fand, as they were 
below high-water mark: we therefore concluded that the 
people were at no great diftance, and, as a thick wood came 
down within a hundred yards of the water, we thought it 
neceflary to proceed with caution, left we mould fall into an 
ambulcade and our retreat to the boat be cut off. We walked 
along the fkirts of the wood, and at the diftance of about 
two hundred yards from the place where we landed, we 
came to a grove of cocoa-nut trees, which flood upon the 
banks of a little brook of brackifh water. The trees were of 
a fmall growth, but well hung with fruit ; and near them 
was allied or hut, which had been covered with their leaves, 
though moil of them were now fallen off: about the hut lay 
a great number of the fhells of the fruit, fome of which ap- 
peared to be juft frefh from the tree. We looked at the fruit 
very wifhfully, but not thinking it fafe to climb, we were 
obliged to leave it without tailing a fingle nut. At a little 
diftance from this place we found plantains, and a bread- 
fruit tree, but it had nothing upon it ; and having now ad- 
vanced about a quarter of a mile from the boat, three In- 
dians ruihed out of the wood with a hideous fhout, at about 
the diftance of a hundred yards ; and as they ran towards us, 
the foremoft threw fomething out of his hand, which flew 
an one fide of him, and burnt exactly like gunpowder, but 
made no report : the other two inftantly threw their lances 
at usj and, as no time was now to be loft, we difcharged our 
3 pieces, 


pieces, which were loaded with fmall fliot. It is probable >77o. 
that they did not feel the fhot, for though they halted a mo- i _ P - em - "^ 
ment, they did not retreat ; and a third dart was thrown at 
us. As we thought their farther approach might be pre- 
vented with lefs rifle of life, than it would cofh to defend 
ourfelves againft their attack if they fliould come nearer, we 
loaded our pieces with ball, and fired a fecond time : by this 
difcharge it is probable that fome of them were wounded ; 
yet we had the fatisfaction to fee that they all ran away with 
great agility. As I was not difpofed forcibly to invade this 
country, either to gratify our appetites or our curiofity, and 
perceived that nothing was to be done upon friendly terms, 
we improved this interval, in which the deflruclion of the 
natives was no longer necefTary to our own defence, and 
with all expedition returned towards our boat. As we were 
advancing along the fhore, we perceived that the two men 
on board made fignals that more Indians were coming down ; 
and before we got into the water we faw feveral of them 
coming round a point at the diftance of about five hundred 
yards : it is probable that they had met with the three who 
firft attacked us ; for as foon as they faw us they halted, 
and feemed to wait till their main body fhould come up. 
We entered the water, and waded towards the boat ; and they 
remained at their ftation, without giving us any interrup- 
tion. As foon as we were aboard we rowed abreaft of them, 
and their number then appeared to be between fixty and a 
hundred. We now took a view of them at our leifure ; they 
made much the fame appearance as the New Hollanders, 
being nearly of the fame ftature, and having their hair fhort 
cropped: like them alfo they were all ftaxk naked, but we 
thought the colour of their ikin was not quite fo dark : this 
however might perhaps be merely the effect of their not 
being quite fo dirty. All this while they were fhouting de- 
Vol.II. 4P fiance* 


1770. fiance, and letting off their fires by four or five at a time. 
^ eptem er. ^^ t thefe fires were, or for what purpofe intended, we 
Monday 3. cou [^ not imagine : thofe who difcharged them had in then- 
hands a fhort piece of Hick, poilibly a hollow cane, which 
they fwung fideways from them, and we immediately faw 
fire and fmoke, exactly refembling thofe of a mufquet, and 
of no longer duration. This wonderful phenomenon was 
obferved from the fhip, and the deception was fo great that 
the people on board thought they had fire-arms ; and in the 
boat, if we had not been fo near as that we muft have heard 
the report, we mould have thought they had been firing 
volleys. After we had looked at them attentively fome time, 
without taking any notice of their flafhing and vociferation, 
we fired fome mnfquets over their heads : upon hearing the 
balls rattle among the trees, they walked leifurely away, 
and we returned to the fhip. Upon examining the weapons 
they had thrown at us, we found them to be light darts, 
about four feet long, very ill made, of a reed or bamboo cane, 
and pointed with hard wood, in which there were many 
barbs. They were difcharged with great force ; for though 
we were at fixty yards diftance, they went beyond us, but in 
what manner we could not exactly fee : poffibly they might 
be mot with a bow; but we faw no bows among them 
when we furveyed them from the boat, and we were in ge- 
neral of opinion that they were thrown with a flick, in the 
manner praclifed by the New Hollanders. 

This place lies in the latitude of 6° 15' S. and about fixty- 
five leagues to the N. E. of Port Saint Augufline, or Walche 
Caep, and is near what is called in the charts C. de la Colta de 
St. Bonaventura. The land here, like that in every other part 
of the coaft is very low, but covered with a luxuriance of 
wood and herbage that can fcarcely be conceived. We faw 
8 the 



the cocoa-nut, the bread-fruit, and the plantain tree, all 
flouriihing in a ftate of the higheil perfection, though the 
cocoa-nuts were green, and the bread-fruit not in feafon ; 
befides mod of the trees, ihrubs, and' plants that are com- 
mon to the South Sea iilands, New Zealand, and New Hol- 

Soon after our return to the fhip, we hoiiled in the boat 
and made fail to the weftward, being refolved to fpend no 
more time upon this coaft, to the great fatisfaetion of a very 
confiderable majority of the fhip's company. But I am forry 
to fay that I was ftrongly urged by fome of .the officers to 
fend a party of men afhore, and cut down the cocoa-nut 
trees for the fake of the fruit. This I peremptorily refufed, 
as equally unjuft and cruel. The natives had attacked us 
merely for landing upon their coaft, when we attempted to 
take nothing away, and it was therefore morally certain 
that they would have made a vigorous effort to defend their 
property if it had been invaded, in which cafe many of them 
mull have fallen a facrifice to our attempt, and perhaps alfo 
fome of our own people. I mould have regretted the necef- 
fity of fuch a meafure, if I had been in want of the neceffa- 
ries of life ; and certainly it would have been highly crimi- 
nal when nothing was to be obtained but two or three 
hundred of green cocoa-nuts, which would at mod have 
procured us a mere tranfient gratification. I might indeed 
have proceeded farther along the coaft to the northward and 
weftward, in fearch of a place where the fliip might have 
lain fo near the fhore as to cover the people with her guns 
when they landed ; but this would have obviated only part 
of the mifchief, and though it might have fecured us, it 
would probably in the very act have been fatal to the na- 
tives. Befides, we had reafon to think that before fuch a 

4 P 2. place 


1770. place would have been found, we fhould have been carried 
September fo ^ tQ ^ we ft war( } as to h ave been obliged to go to Bata- 
Monday 3. y j a> on tJie nort h fi t | e of Java ; which I did not think fo fafe 
a paffage as to the fouth of Java, through the Streights of 
Sunday : the fhip alfo was fo leaky that I doubted whether 
it would not be neceflary to heave her down at Batavia, 
which was another reafon for making the beft of our way 
to that place ; efpecially as no difcovery could be expected in 
feas which had already been navigated, and where every 
coaft had been laid down by the Dutch geographers. The 
Spaniards indeed, as well as the Dutch, feem to have circum- 
navigated all the iflands in New Guinea, as almofl every 
place that is diftinguifhed in the chart has a name in both 
languages. The charts with which I compared fuch part of 
this coaft as I vifited, are bound up with a French work, in- 
titled, "HiftoiredesNavigationes auxTerres Auftrales," which 
was publifhed in 1756, and I found them tolerably exact - % 
yet I know not by whom, nor when they were taken : and 
though New Holland and New Guinea are in them repre- 
fented as. two diftinct countries, the very hiftory in which, 
they are bound up, leaves it in doubt. I pretend however" ta 
■no more merit in this part of the voyage, than to haveefta.- 
"blifhed the fact beyond all controverfy. 

As the two countries lie very near each other, and the in- 
termediate fpace is full of iilands, it is reafonable to fuppofe 
that they were both peopled from one common flock ■ yet no* 
:mtercourfe appears to have been kept up between them ; for 
if there had, the cocoa-nuts, bread-fruit, plantains, and other 
fruits of New Guinea, which are equally neceflary for the 
fupport of life, would certainly have been tranfplanted to- 
New Holland, where no traces of them are to be found. The 
tohoxof the "HiftoiredesNavigationes auxTerres Auftrales ~ 


m his account of La Maire's voyage, has given a vocabulary *77°- 
of the language that is fpoken in an ifland near New Britain, v. — Z—J 
and we find, by comparing that vocabulary with the words 
which we learnt in New Holland, that the languages are 
not the fame. If therefore it fhould appear, that the lan- 
guages of New Britain and New Guinea are the fame, there 
will be reafon to fuppofe that New Britain and New Guinea 
were peopled from a common flock; but that the inhabi- 
tants of New Holland had a different origin, notwithftanding: 
the proximity of the countries. 

€ H A P> 



The Pa(fa<re from Neiv Gumea to the Ijland of Savu, and 
the c Tra?tfaSiiom there. 

1770- \\ 7E made fail, from noon on Monday the 3d to noon on 
£!!^!2, VV Tuefday the 4th, Handing to the weflward, and all 
Tuefday 4 . ^ time kept - m f oun< jings, having from fourteen to thirty 
fathom ; not regular, but fometimes more, fometimes lefs. 
At noon on the 4th, we were in fourteen fathom, and lati- 
tude 6° 44' S., longitude 223 ° 51' W. 5 our courfe and diftance 
fince the 3d at noon, were S. 76 \V. one hundred and twenty 
Wednef. 5. miles to the weflward. At noon on the 5th of September, 
we were in latitude 7 25 S., longitude 225 41'W.; having 
been in foundings the whole time from ten to twenty fa- 
Thurfday 6. At half an hour after one in the morning of the next day, 
we paffed a fmall ifland which bore from us N. N.W. diftant 
between three and four miles ; and at day-light we difco- 
vered another low ifland, extending from N.N.W. to N.N.E. 
diftant about two or three leagues. Upon this ifland, which 
did not appear to be very fmall, I believe I fhould have 
landed to examine its produce, if the wind had not blown 
too frefh to admit of it. When we pafTed this ifland we had 
only ten fathom water, with a rocky bottom ; and therefore 
I was afraid of running down to leeward, left I fhould meet 
with fhoal water and foul ground. Thefe iflands have no 
place in the charts except they are the Arrou iflands ; and if 



thefe, they are laid down much too far from New Guinea. >77°- 
I found the fouth part of them to lie in latitude 7" 6'S., Ion- » -.-. ^j 
gitude 225" W. 

We continued to fleer W. S. W. at the rate of four miles 
and an half an hour, till ten o'clock at night, when we had 
forty-two fathom, at eleven we had thirty-feven, at twelve 
forty-five, at one in the morning forty-nine, and at three 
120, after which we had no ground. At day-light, we made 
all the fail we could, and at ten o'clock, faw land, extending 
from N. N. W. to W. by N. diflant between five and fix leagues: 
at noon, it bore from N. to W. and at about the fame diflance : 
it appeared to be level, and of a moderate height: by our 
diflance from New Guinea, it ought to have been part of the 
Arrou Iflands, but it lies a degree farther to the fouth than 
any of thefe iflands are laid down in the charts; and by the 
latitude mould be Timor Laoet: we founded, but had no 
ground with fifty fathom. 

As I was not able to fatisfy myfelf from any chart, what 
land it was that I faw to leeward, and fearing that it might 
trend away more foutherly, the weather alfo being fo hazy 
that we could not fee far, I fleered S. W. and by four had loft 
fight of the ifland. I was now fure that no part of it lay to 
the fouthward of 8° 15' S. and continued ftanding to the 
S. W. with an eafy fail, and a frefh. breeze at S. E. by E. and 
E. S. E. : we founded every hour, but had no bottom with 
120 fathom. 

At day-break in the morning, we fleered W. S. W. and Friday 7 . 
afterwards W. by S. which by noon brought us into the lati- 
tude of 9 30' S. longitude 229°34'W. and by our run from 
New Guinea, we ought to have been within fight of Weafel 
Ifles, which in the charts are laid down at the diflance of 
twenty or twenty-five leagues from the coafl of New Hol- 

66 4 



Friday j. 

Saturday S 
jSunday 9. 

Monday 10. 

"Tuefday it. 

land; we however faw nothing, and therefore they muft 
have been placed erroneously ; nor can this be thought 
flrange, when it is confidered that not only thefe iflands, 
but the coaft which bounds this fea, have been difcovered 
and explored by different people, and at different times, and 
the charts upon which they are delineated, put together by 
others, perhaps at the diftance of more than a century after 
the difcoveries had been made ; not to mention that the difco- 
verers themfelves had not all the requifites for keeping an ac- 
curate journal, of which thofe of the prefent age are poffeffed. 

We continued our courfe, fleering W. till the evening of 
the 8th, when the variation of the compafs, by feveral azi- 
muths, was 12'W. and by the amplitude j'W. At noon, on 
the 9th, our latitude, by obfervation, was 9 46' S., longitude 
23 2 7'W. For the lafl two days we had fleered due W. yet, 
by obfervation, we made fixteen miles fouthing, fix miles 
from noon on the 6th to noon on the 7th, and ten miles from 
noon on the 7th to noon on the 8th, by which it appeared 
that there was a current fetting to the fouthward. At fun- 
fet, we found the variation to be 2 W. and at the fame time, 
faw an appearance of very high land bearing N, W, 

In the morning of the 1.0th, we faw clearly that what had 
appeared to be land the night before, was Timor. At noon, 
our latitude, by obfervation, was io° i'S- which was fifteen 
miles to the fouthward of that given by the log ; our longi- 
tude, by obfervation, was 233 ° 2 7'W. We fleered N. W. in 
order to obtain a more diflinct view of the land in fight, till 
four o'clock in the morning of the nth, when the wind 
came to the N. W. and W. with which we flood to the fouth- 
ward till nine, when we tacked and flood N. W. having the 
wind now at W. S. W. At fun-rife, the land had appeared to 
extend from W. N. N. E, and at noon, we could fee it 



1 uefday 1 1. 

extend to the weftward as far as W. by S. ; S. but no farther 
to the eaflward than N. byE. We were now well aifured, 
that as the firft land we had feen was Timor, the lall ifland 
we had palled was Timor Laoet, or Laut. Laoet, is a word 
in the language of Malaca, fignifying Sea, and this ifland 
was named by the inhabitants of that country. The fouth 
part of it lies in latitude 8° 15' S. longitude azS io'W. but 
in the charts the fouth point is laid down in various lati- 
tudes, from 8° 30' to 9 30': it is indeed poflible that the 
land we faw might be fome other ifland; but the prefumption 
to the contrary is very ftrong, for if Timor Laut had lain 
where it is placed in the charts, we muft have feen it there. 
We were now in latitude 9 37' S. ; longitude, by an obferva- 
tion of the fun and moon, 233 54' W. we were the clay before 
in 233 27'; the difference is 27', exactly the fame that was 
given by the log: this, however, is a degree of accuracy in 
obfervation that is feldom to be expected. In the afternoon, 
we flood in fhore till eight in the evening, when we tacked 
and flood off, being at the diflance of about three leagues 
from the land, which at fun-fet extended from S. W. " W. to 
N. E. : at this time we founded, and had no ground with 140 
fathom. At midnight, having; but little wind, we tacked WedneCis, 
and flood in, and at noon the next day, our latitude, by ob- 
fervation, was 9 36' S. This day, we faw fmoke on fhore 
in feveral places, and had feen many fires during the night. 
The land appeared to be very high, rifing in gradual Hopes 
one above another: the hills were in general covered with 
thick woods, but among them we could diftinguifh naked 
fpots of a confiderable extent, which had the appearance of 
having been cleared by art. At five o'clock in the afternoon, 
we were within a mile and a half of the fhore, in fixtcen fa- 
thom water, and abreafl of a fmall inlet into the low land, 
which lies in latitude 9 34' S. and probably is the fame that 
Vol. II. 4 Q^ Dampier 


1770- Darnpier entered with his boat, for it did not feem to have 
■ eptem "'■ fufficient depth of water for a fhip. The land here anfwered 
WcdneC 12. we jj tQ t j 1£ defcription that he has given of it: clofe to the 
beach it was covered with high fpiry trees, which he men- 
tions as having the appearance of pines j behind thefe there 
feemed to be fait water creeks, and many mangroves, inter- 
fperfed however with cocoa-nut trees : the flat land at the 
beach appeared in fome places to extend inward two or three 
miles before the rife of the firft hill ; in this part, however, 
we faw no appearance of plantations or houfes, but great 
fertility, and from the number of fires* we judged that the 
place mull be well peopled. 

When we had approached within a mile and an half of 
the more, we tacked and ftood off, and the extreams of the 
coaft then extended from N. E. by E. to W. by S. ± S. The 
fouth weflerly extremity was a low point, diflant from us 
about three leagues. While we were {landing in for the 
more, we founded feveral times, but had no ground till we 
came within about two miles and a half, and then we had 
live and twenty fathom, with a foft bottom. After we had 
tacked, we flood off till midnight, with the wind at S. ; we 
then tacked and flood two hours to the weflward, when the 
wind veered to S. W. and W. S. W. and we then flood to the 
ThuWdiy i 3 . fouthward again. In the morning, we found the variation, 
to be i° 10' W. by the amplitude, and by the azimuth i° 27'- 
At noon, our latitude was, byobfervation, 9 45' S. our lon- 
gitude 234 12' W. ; we were then about feven leagues 
diflant from the land, which extended from N. 31 E. to» 
W. S. W. i- W. 

With light land breezes from W. by N. for a few hours in: 
a morning, and fea breezes from S. S. W. and S. we advanced; 
1 „ ]4 , to the weflward but flowly. At noon on the 14th, we were 
between fix and feven leagues from the land, which ex- 


tended from N. by E. to S. 78 W. ; we ftill faw fmoke in 1770. 
many places by day, and fire by night, both upon the low , Septembe! \ 
land and the mountains beyond it. We continued fleering Friday I+ ' 
along the more, till the morning of the ijth, the land ftill Saturday ij. 
appearing hilly, but not fo high as it had been : the hills in 
general came quite down to the fea, and where they did not, 
we faw inftead of flats and mangrove land, immenfe groves 
of cocoa-nut trees, reaching about a mile up from the beach : 
there the plantations and houfes commenced, and appeared 
to be innumerable. The houfes were fhaded by groves of 
the fan palm, or borajjus, and the plantations, which were 
inclofed by a fence, reached almofl to the tops of the hio-hefl 
hills. We faw however neither people nor cattle, though 
our glaffes were continually employed, at which we were 
not a little furprifed. 

We continued our courfe, with little variation, till nine 
o'clock in the morning of the 16th, when we faw the fmall Sunday 16. 
ifland called Rotte ; and at noon, the ifland Semau, lying 
off the fouth end of Timor, bore N. W. 

Dampier, who has given a large defcription of the ifland 
of Timor, fays, that it is feventy leagues long, and fixteen 
broad, and that it lies nearly N. E. and S.W. I found the 
eaft fide of it to lie neareft N. E. by E. and S. W. by W. and the 
fouth end to lie in latitude io° 23' S. longitude 236" 5'W. 
We ran about forty-five leagues along the eaft fide, and found 
the navigation altogether free from danger. The land 
which is bounded by the fc-a, except near the fouth end, is 
low for two or three miles within the beach, and in general 
interfered by fait creeks: behind the lowland are moun- 
tains, which rife one above another to a confiderable height. 
We fleered W. N. W. till two in the afternoon, when, being 
within a fmall diilance of the north end of Rotte, we hauled 

4 Q^ 2 U P 


1770. up N. N. \V. in order to go between it and Semau : after fteer- 
■l ep " . "' , ing three leagues upon this courfe, we edged away N. W. 
Sur.aay 16, an( j ^ an ^ ^y f 1Xj we W ere clear of all the iflands. At this 
time, the fouth part of Semau, which lies in latitude io° 
15' S. bore N. E. diflant four leagues, and the iiland of Rotte 
extended as far to the foufhward as S. 36 W. The north end 
of this iiland, and the fouth end of Timor, lie N. -- E. and 
S. 4. W. and are about three or four leagues diflant from each 
other. At the weft end of the pafTage between Rotte and 
Semau, are two fmall iilands, one of which lies near the 
Rotte fhore, and the other off the fouth weft point of Semau: 
there is a good channel between them, about fix miles 
broad, through which we paffed. The ifle of Rotte has not 
fo lofty and mountainous an appearance as Timor, though 
it is agreeably diversified by hill and valley: on the north 
fide, there are many fandy beaches, near which grew fome 
trees of the fan palm v but the far greater part was covered 
with a kind of brufhy wood, that was without leaves. The 
appearance of Semau was nearly the fame with that of 
Timor, but not quite fo high. About ten o'clock at night, 
we obferved a phenomenon in the heavens, which in many 
particulars refembled the aurora borealis, and in others, was 
very different : it confuted of a dull reddifli light, and 
reached about twenty degrees above the horizon : its extent 
was very different at different times, but it was never lefs 
than eight or ten points of the compafs : through, and out of 
this, paired rays of light of a brighter colour, which va- 
nifhed, and were renewed nearly in the fame time as thofe 
of the aurora borealis, but had no degree of the tremulous 
or vibratory motion which is obferved in that phenomenon: 
the body of it bore S.S. E. from the fhip, and it continued, 
•without any diminution of its brightnefs, till twelve o'clock, 



when we retired to fleep, but how long afterwards, I cannot J77°- 

,. - September. 

tell. ' . _f 

Being clear of all the iflands, which are laid down in the Monda y n* 
maps we had on board, between Timor and Java, we fleered 
a weft courfe till fix o'clock the next morning, when we un- 
expectedly faw an iiland bearing W. S. W. and at firft I 
thought we had made a new difcovery. We fleered directly 
for it, and by ten o'clock were clofe in with the north fide of 
it, where we faw houfes, cocoa-nut trees, and, to our very 
agreeable furprife, numerous flocks of flieep. This was a 
temptation not to be refilled by people in our fituation, efpe- 
cially as many of us were in a bad ftate of health, and many 
ftill repining at my not having touched at Timor : it was 
therefore foon determined to attempt a commerce with 
people who appeared to be fo well able to fupply our many 
neceflities, and remove at once the ficknefs and difcontent 
that had got footing among us. The pinnace was hoifted 
out, and Mr. Gore, the Second Lieutenant, fent to fee if 
there was any convenient place to land, taking with him 
fome trifles, as prefents to the natives, if any of them mould 
appear. While he was gone, we faw from the fhip two men 
on horfeback, who feemed to be riding upon the hills fcr 
their amufement, and often flopped to look at the fhip. By 
this we knew that the place had been fettled by Europeans, 
and hoped, that the many difagreeable cireumftances which 
always attend the firft cttablifhment of commerce with fa- 
vages, would be avoided. In the mean time, Mr. Gore 
landed in a fmall fandy cove near fome houfe3, and was 
met by eight or ten of the natives, who, as well in their 
drefs as their perfons, very much refembled the Malays : 
they were without arms, except the knives which it is their 
cuftom to wear in their girdles, and one of them had a jack 
afs with him: they courteoufly invited him afhore, and con- 
S verfed 


1770. verfed with him by figns, but very little of the meaning of 
/-epte m er '/ either party could be underflood by the other. In a fhort 
JMonday 17. t - me j i£ returnec i with this report, and, to our great mortifi- 
cation, added, that there was no anchorage for the fliip. I 
fent him however a fecond time, with both money and 
goods, that he might, if pomble, purchafe fome refrefh- 
ments, at leafl for the lick ; and Dr. Solander went in the 
boat with him. In the mean time I kept {landing on and off 
with the fhip, whieh at this time was within about a mile 
of the fhorc. Before the boat could land, we faw two other 
horfemen, one of whom was in a complete European drefs, 
confiding of a blue coat, a white waiftcoat, and a laced hat : 
thefe people, when the boat came to the more, took little 
notice of her, but fauntered about, and feemed to look with 
great curiofity at the fliip. We faw however other horfe- 
men, and a great number of perfons on foot, gather round 
our people, and, to our great fatisfaction, perceived feveral 
cocoa-nuts carried into the boat, from which we concluded 
that peace and commerce were eftabliflied between us. 

After the boat had been afhore about an hour and a half, 
ihe made the fignal for having intelligence that there was a 
bay to leeward, where we might anchor: we Hood away 
directly for it, and the boat following, foon came on board. 
The Lieutenant told us, that he had feen fome of the prin- 
cipal people, who were d re fled in fme linen, and had chains 
of gold round their necks : he faid, that he had not been 
able to trade, becaufe the owner of the cocoa-nuts was ab- 
feht, but that about two dozen had been fent to the boat as 
a prefent, and that fome linen had been accepted in return. 
The people, to give him the information that he wanted, 
drew a map upon the fand, in which they made a rude re- 
prefentation of a harbour to leeward, and a town near it : 
they alfb gave him to underftand, that mcep, hogs, fowls, 



and fruit might there be procured in great plenty. Some of *77°- 

r i r • September. 

them frequently pronounced the word Portuguefe, and laid « u » 

fomething of Larntuca, upon the ifland of Ende : from this 
circumftance, we conjectured that there were Portuguefe 
fomewhere upon the ifland, and a Portuguefe, who was in 
our boat, attempted to converfe with the Indians in that lan- 
guage, but foon found that they knew only a word or two 
of it by rote : one of them however, when they were giving 
our people to underftand that there was a town near the 
harbour to which they had directed us, intimated, that as a 
token of going right, we mould fee fomewhat, which he 
exprefTed by crofling his fingers, and the Portuguefe inftantly 
conceived that he meant to exprefs a crofs. Jufl as our 
people were putting off, the horfeman in the European drefs 
came up, but the officer not having his commiffion about 
him, thought it beft to decline a conference. 

At feven o'clock in the evening, we came to an anchor in 
the bay to which we had been directed, at about the diftance 
of a mile from the fhorc, in thirty-eight fathom water, with 
a clear fandy bottom. The north point of the bay bore N. 
30 E. diftant two miles and an half, and the fouth point, or 
weft end of the iiland, bore S. 63 W. Juft as we got round 
the north point, and entered the bay, we difcovered a large- 
Indian town or village, upon which we flood on, hoifting a 
jack on the fore top-maft head: foon after, to our great fur- 
prize, Dutch colours were hoifted in the town, and three 
guns fired ; we flood on, however, till we had foundings, 
and then anchored. 

As foon as it was light in the morning, we faw the fame TuefU&y is;. 

colours hoifted upon the beach, abreafl of the fhip ; flip- 

pofing therefore that the Dutch had a fettlement here, I fen!: 

Lieutenant Gore afhore, to wait upon the Governor, or the 

jb chief 


177°- chief perfon refiding upon the fpor, and acquaint him who 
<. ep e "'° e '/ we were, and for what purpofe we had touched upon the 
lueidayis. CQ ^ ^ s fc OIi as } ie came alliore, he was received by a 
guard of between twenty and thirty Indians, armed with 
rnulkets, who conducted him to the town, where the colours 
had been hoifted the night before, carrying with them thofe 
that had been hoifted upon the beach, and marching with- 
out any military regularity. As foon as he arrived, he was 
introduced to the Raja, or King of the iiland, and by a Por- 
tuguefe interpreter, told him, that the fhip was a man of 
war belonging to the King of Great Britain, and that fhe had 
many fick on board, for whom he wanted to purchafe fuch 
refrefhments as the iiland afforded. His Majefty replied, 
that he was willing to fupply us with whatever we wanted, 
but, that being in alliance with the Dutch Eaft India Com- 
pany, he was not at liberty to trade with any other people, 
without having firft procured their content, for which, how- 
ever, he faid he would immediately apply to a Dutchman 
who belonged to the company, and who was the only white 
man upon the ifland. To this man, who refided at fome 
diftance, a letter was immediately difpatched, acquainting 
him with our arrival and requeft: in the mean time, Mr. 
Gore difpatched a meffenger to me, with an account of his 
fituation, and die ftate of the treaty. In about three hours, 
the Dutch refident anfwercd the letter that had been fent 
him, in perfon: he proved to be a native of Saxony, and his 
name is Johan Chriftopher Lange, and the fame perfon whom 
we had feen on horfeback in a European drefs : he behaved 
with great civility to Mr. Gore, and allured him, that we 
were at liberty to purchafe of the natives whatever we 
pleafed. After a fhort time, he expreffed a defirc of coming 
on board, fo did the king alfo, and feveral of his attendants : 
Mr. Gore intimated that he was ready to attend them, but 



Tucfday i3. 

they defired that two of our people might be left afhore as n »77° 
hoflages, and in this alfo they were indulged. 

About two o'clock, they all came aboard the fhip, and our 
dinner being ready, they accepted our invitation to partake 
of it: I expected them immediately to fit down, but the King 
feemed to hefitate, and at laft, with fome confufion, faid he 
did not imagine that we, who were white men, would fuffer 
him, who was of a different colour, to fit down in our com- 
pany ; a compliment foon removed his fcruples, and we all 
fat down together with great cheerfulnefs and cordiality : 
happily we were at nolofs for interpreters, both Dr. Solandcr 
and Mr. Sporing underflanding Dutch enough to keep up a 
converfation with Mr. Lange, and feveral of the feamen 
were able to converfe with fuch of the natives as fpoke Por- 
tuguefe. Our dinner happened to be mutton, and the King 
exprefTed a defirc of having an Englifh fheep; we had but 
one left, however that was prefented to him : the facility 
with which this was procured, encouraged him to afk for 
an Englifh dog, and Mr. Banks politely gave up his grey- 
hound: Mr. Lange then intimated that a fpying-glafs would 
be acceptable, and one was immediately put into his hand. 
Our guefls then told us that the ifland abounded with buf- 
faloes, fheep, hogs, and fowls, plenty of which mould be 
driven down to the beach the next day, that we might pur- 
chafe as many of them as we mould think fit: this put us 
all into high fpirits, and the liquor circulated rather falter 
than either the Indians or the Saxon could bear ; they inti- 
mated their defire to go away, however, before they were 
quite drunk, and were received upon deck, as they had 
been when they came aboard, by the marines under arms. 
The King expreffed a curiofity to fee them exercife, in which 
he was gratified, and they fired three rounds : he looked at 
them with great attention, and was much furprifed at their 

Vol. IT. 4 R regularity 


1770. regularity and expedition, efpecially in cocking their pieces j 


« „ 1 the firft time they did it, he flruck the fide of the fhip with a 

Hick that he had in his hand, and cried out with great 
vehemence, that all the locks made but one click. They 
were difmhTed with many prefents, and when they went 
away faluted with nine guns : Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander 
went afhore with them ; and as foon as they put off they 
gave us three cheers. 

Our Gentlemen, when they came afhore, walked up with 
them to the town, which confifts of many houfes, and fome 
of them are large ; they are however nothing more than a 
thatched roof, fupported over a boarded floor, by pillars 
about four feet high. They produced fome of their palm- 
wine, which was the frefh unfermented juice of the tree ; 
it had a fweet, but not a difagreeable tafte ; and hopes were 
conceived that it might contribute to recover our fick from 
the fcurvy. Soon after it was dark, Mr. Banks and Dr. Solan- 
der returned on board. 

Wednef. 19. In the morning of the 1 9th, I went afhore with Mr. Banks, 
and feveral of the officers and Gentlemen, to return the 
King's vifit ; but my chief bufinefs was to procure fome of 
the buffaloes, fheep and fowls, which we had been told 
mould be driven down to the beach. We were greatly mor- 
tified to find that no fteps had been taken to fulfil this pro- 
mife ; however, we proceeded to the houfe of afTembly, 
which with two or three more had been erected by the 
Dutch Eaft India company, and are diflinguifhed from the 
reft by two pieces of wood refembling a pair of cow's horns, 
one of which is fct up at each end of the ridge that termi- 
nates the roof; and thefe were certainly what the Indian in- 
tended to reprefent by crofling his fingers, though our Por- 
tuguefe, who was a good Catholic, conftrucd the fign into a 
4 crofs, 

Wednef. i<j. 


crofs, which had perfuaded us that the fettlement belonged '779 
to his countrymen. In this place we met Mr. Lange, and 
the King, whofe name was A Madocho Lomi Djara, attended 
by many of the principal people. We told them that we had 
in the boat goods of various kinds, which we propofed to 
barter for fuch refremments as they would give us in ex- 
change, and defired leave to bring them on more ; which 
being granted, they were brought afliore accordingly. We 
then attempted to fettle the price of the buffaloes, fliecp, 
hogs, and other commodities which we propofed to pur- 
chafe, and for which we were to pay in money ; but as foon 
as this was mentioned Mr. Lange left us, telling us that 
thefe preliminaries muft be fettled with the natives : he faid, 
however, that he had received a letter from the Governor of 
Concordia in Timor, the purport of which he would com- 
municate to us when he returned. 

As the morning was now far advanced, and we were very 
unwilling to return on board and eat fait provifions, when 
fo many delicacies furrounded us afhore, we petitioned his 
Majefty for liberty to purchafe a fmall hog and fome rice, 
and to employ his fubjeets to drefs them for us. He an- 
fwered very gracioufly, that if we could eat victuals drefled 
by his fubjecls, which he could fcarcely fuppofe, he would 
<lo himfelf the honour of entertaining us. We cxpreffed our 
gratitude, and immediately fent on board for liquors. 

About five o'clock, dinner was ready j it was ferved in fix 
and thirty dimes, or rather bafkets, containing alternately 
rice and pork ; and three bowls of earthen ware, filled with 
the liquor in which the pork had been boiled : thefe were 
ranged upon the floor, and mats laid round them for us to 
fit upon. We were then conducted by turns to a hole in the 
floor, near which flood a man with water in a veflel, made 

4R 2 of 


1770., of the leaves of the fan-palm, who affifted us in wafliing 
». ep -.- _'f our hands. When this was done, we placed ourfelves round 
Wednef. 19. ^ e v ^ ua i S) an j waited for the king. As he did not come, 
we enquired for him, and were told that the cuftom of the 
country did not permit the perfon who gave the entertain- 
ment to fit down with his guefts ; but that, if we fufpected 
the victuals to be poifoned, he would come and tafte it. We 
immediately declared that we had no fuch fufpicion, and 
defired that none of the rituals of hofpitality might be vio- 
lated on our account. The prime minifter and Mr. Lange 
were of our party, and we made a mod luxurious meal : we 
thought the pork and rice excellent, and the broth not to be 
defpifed; but the fpoons, which were made of leaves, were fo 
fmall that few of us had patience to ufe them. After dinner, 
our wine palled brifkly about, and we again enquired for 
our royal hoft, thinking that though the cuftom of his coun- 
try would not allow him to eat with us, he might at leafl 
fhare in the jollity of our bottle ; but he again excufed him- 
felf, faying, that the mailer of a feaft Ihould never be drunk, 
which there was no certain way to avoid but by not tailing 
the liquor. We did not however drink our wine where we 
had eaten our victuals ; but as foon as we had dined made 
room for the feamen and fervants, who immediately took 
our places : they could not difpatch all that we had left, but 
the women who came to clear away the bowls and bafkets,. 
obliged them to carry away with them what they had not eaten. 
As wine generally warms and opens the heart, we took an 
opportunity, when we thought its influence began to be felt, 
to revive the fubject of the buffaloes and fheep, of which 
we had not in all this time heard a fyllable, though they 
were to have been brought down early in the morning. But 
our Sax"on Dutchman, with great phlegm, began to commu- 
nicate to us the contents of the letter which he pretended to 



have received from the Governor of Concordia. He faid, 1770. 
that after acquainting him that a vefTel had fleered from > epte ™ ier */ 
thence towards the ifland where we were now afhore, it re- Wcdnef- 19 " 
quired him, if fuch fhip mould apply for provifions in dif- 
trefs, to relieve her; but not to fuffer her to flay longer than 
was abfolutely necefTary, nor to make any large prcfents to 
the inferior people, or to leave any with thofe of fuperior 
rank to be afterwards diflributed among them: but he was 
gracioufly pleafed to add, that we were at liberty to give beads 
and other trifles in exchange for petty civilities, and palm- 

It was the general opinion that this letter was a fiction ; 
that the prohibitory orders were feigned with a view to get 
money from us for breaking them ; and tha.t by precluding 
our liberality to the natives, this man hoped more eafily to 
turn it into another channel. 

In the evening, we received intelligence from our trading- 
place that no buffaloes or hogs had been brought down, and 
only a few fheep, which had been taken away before our 
people, who had fent for money, could procure it. Some 
fowls however had been bought, and a large quantity of a 
kind of fyrup made of the juice of the palm tree, which, 
though infinitely fuperior to molafies or treacle, fold at a 
very low price. We complained of our difappointment to 
Mr. Lange, who had now another fubterfuge ; he faid, that 
if we had gone down to the beach ourfelves, we might have 
purchafed what we pleafed ; but that the natives were afraid 
to take money of our people, left it mould be counterfeit 
We could not but feel fome indignation againfl a man who 
had concealed this, being true ; or alleged it, being falfe, 
I ftarted up, however, and went immediately to the beach, 
but no cattle or fheep were to be feen, nor were any at hand 
7 to 


„ l 77°; to be produced. While I was gone, Lange, who knew well 

September. * ° ° 

« — -v— _* enough that 1 fhould fucceed no better than my people, told 
' ' 9 * Mr. Banks that the natives were difpleafed at our not having 
offered them gold for their flock ; and that if gold was not 
offered, nothing would be bought. Mr. Banks did not think 
it worth his while to reply, but foon after rofe up, and we 
all returned on board, very much diffatisfied with the ifTue 
of our negociations. During the courfe of the day, the 
King had prom i fed that fome cattle and fheep mould be 
brought down in the morning, and had given a reafon for 
our difappointment fomewhat more plaufible ; he faid that 
the buffaloes were far up the country, and that there had 
not been time to bring them down to the beach. 

Thurfday 20. The next morning we went afhore again : Dr. Solander went 
up to the town to fpeak to Lange, and I remained upon the 
beach, to fee what could be done in the purchafe of provi- 
fions. I found here an old Indian, who, as he appeared to 
have fome authority, we had among ourfelves called the 
Prime Minifler ; to engage this man in our intereft I pre- 
fented him with a fpying-glafs, but I faw nothing at mar- 
ket except one fmall buffalo. I enquired the price of it, and 
was told five guineas : this was twice as much as it was 
worth ; however, I offered three, which I could perceive the 
man who treated with me thought a good price ; but he faid 
that he muft acquaint the King with what I had offered be- 
fore he could take k. A meflenger was immediately dif- 
patched to his Majefty, who foon returned, and faid, that the 
buffalo would not be fold for any thing lefs than five guineas. 
This price I abfolutely refufed to give ; and another meflen- 
ger was fent away with an account of my refufal : this mef- 
fenger was longer abfent than the other, and while I was 
waiting for his return I faw, to my great aftonifhment, Dr. 



Solan der coming from the town, followed by above a hun- 1770. 
dred men, fome armed with mufquets and fome with Ian- *^-.- _j 
ces. When I enquired the meaning of this hoftile appear- ur da>r 2 °* 
ance, the Doctor told me, that Mr. Lange had interpreted to 
him a meflage from the King, purporting that the people 
would not trade with us, becaufe we had refufed to give 
them more than half the value of what they had to fell; and 
that we fTiould not be permitted to trade upon any terms 
longer than this day. Befides the officers who commanded 
the party, there came with it a man who was born at Timor, 
of Portuguefe parents, and who, as we afterwards difco- 
vered, was a kind of colleague to the Dutch factor; by this 
man what they pretended to be the King's order was deli- 
vered to me, of the fame purport with that which Dr. So- 
lander had received from Lange. We were all clearly of 
opinion that this was a mere artifice of the factors to extort 
money from us, for which we had been prepared by the 
account of a letter from Concordia ; and while we were he- 
fitating what flep to take, the Portuguefe, that he might the 
fooner accomplifh his purpofe, began to drive away the 
people who had brought down poultry and fyrup, and others 
that were now coming in with buffaloes and fheep. At this 
time. I glanced my eye upon the old man whom I had com- 
plimented in the. morning with the fpying-glafs, and I 
thought, by his looks, that he did not heartily approve of 
what was doing; I therefore took him by the hand, and pre- 
fented him with an old broad fword. This inftantly turned 
the fcale in our favour ; he received the fword with a tran- 
fport of joy, and flourifhing it over the bufy Portuguefe, 
who crouched like a fox to a lion, he made him, and the 
officer who commanded the party, fit down upon the ground 
behind him : the people, who, whatever were the crafty 
pretences of thefe iniquitous factors for a Dutch company, 



'77°- were eager to fupply us with whatever we wanted, and 
u!!^L!!j feemed alfo to be more defirous of goods than money, in- 
:' ay30 ' ilantly improved the advantage that had been procured 
them, and the market was flocked almofl in an inftarit. To 
eflablifh a trade for buffaloes, however, which I mofl wanted, 
I found it necefTary to give ten guineas for two, one of 
which weighed no more than a hundred and fixty pounds ; 
but I bought feven more much cheaper, and might after- 
wards have purchafed as many as I pleafed almofl upon my 
•own terms, for they were now driven down to the water- 
fide in herds. In the firfl two that I bought fo dear, Lange 
had certainly a fhare, and it was in hopes to obtain part of 
the price of others, that he had pretended we mufl pay for 
them in gold. The natives however fold what they after- 
wards brought down much to their fatisfaction, without pay- 
ing part of the price to him as a reward for exacting money 
from us, Mofl of the buffaloes that we bought, after our 
friend, the Prime Minifter, had procured us a fair market, 
were fold for a mufquet apiece, and at this price we might 
have bought as many as would have freighted our fhip. 

The refrcfhments which we procured here, confifled of 
nine buffaloes, fix fhcep, three hogs, thirty dozen of fowls, 
a few limes, and fome cocoa-nuts ; many dozen of eggs, 
half of which however proved to be rotten; a little garlic, 
and feveral hundred gallons of palm-fyrup. 




A particular Description of the IJland of Savu, its Product 
and Inhabitants, with a Specimen of their La?iguage. 

THIS ifland is called by the natives Savu; the middle of 1770; 
it lies in about the latitude io° 35' S., longitude 237 , v ep _ e ^^, 
30' W. j and has in general been fo little known that I never 
faw a map or chart in which it is clearly or accurately laid 
down. I have feen a very old one, in which it is called Sou, 
and confounded with Sandel Bofch. Rumphius mentions 
an ifland by the name of Saow ; and he alfo fays that it is the 
fame which the Dutch call Sandel Bofch : but neither is this 
ifland, nor Timor, nor Rotte, nor indeed any one of the iflands 
that we have feen in thefe feas, placed within a reafonable 
diftance of its true fituation. It is about eight leagues long 
from eaft to'weft ; but what is its breadth, I do not know, as 
I faw only the north fide. The harbour in which we lay is 
called Seba, from the diflridl in which it lies : it is on the 
north weft fide of the ifland, and well fheltered from the 
fouth weft trade wind, but it lies open to the north weft. We 
were told, that there were two other bays where mips might 
anchor ; that the beft, called Timo, was on the fouth weft 
fide of the fouth eaft point : of the third we learnt neither 
the name nor fituation. The fea-coaft, in general, is low ; 
but in the middle of the ifland there are hills of a confide- 
rable height. We were upon the coaft at the latter end of 
the dry feafon, when there had been no rain for feven 
months ; and we were told that when the dry feafon conti- 
Vol. II. 4 S nues 


1770- nues fo long, there is no running flream of frefh. water 
L^'i upon the whole ifland, but only fraall fprings, which are 
at a confiderable diflance from the fea-fide : yet nothing 
can be imagined fo beautiful as the profpect of the coun- 
try from the ihip. The level ground next to the fea- 
fide was covered" with cocoa-nut trees, and a kind of palm 
called Arecas , and beyond them the hills, which rofe in a 
gentle and regular afcent, were richly clothed, quite to the 
fummit, with plantations of the fan palm, forming an al- 
tnoft impenetrable grove. How much even this profpecl 
mull be improved, when every foot of ground between the 
trees is covered with verdure, by maize, and millet and in- 
dico, can fcarcely be conceived but by a powerful imagina- 
tion, not unacquainted with the ftatelinefs and beauty of the 
trees that adorn this part of the earth. The dry feafon com- 
mences in March or April, and ends in October or November. 

The principal trees of this iiland, are the fan-palm, the 
cocoa-nut, tamarind, limes, oranges, and mangoes ; the 
other vegetable productions are maize, Guinea corn, rice, 
millet, callevances, and water-melons. We faw alfo one 
fugar-cane, and a few kinds of European garden-fluff; par- 
ticularly cellery, marjoram, fennel, and garlic. For the fup- 
ply of luxury, it has betele, areca, tobacco, cotton, indico, 
and a fmall quantity of cinnamon, which feems to be 
planted here only for cufiofity ; and indeed we doubted 
whether it was the genuine plant, knowing that the Dutch 
are very careful not to trufl the fpices out of their proper 
iflands. There are however feveral kinds of fruit, befides 
thofe which have been already mentioned ; particularly the 
fweet fop, which is well known to the Weft Indians, and a 
fmall oval fruit, called the Blimbi, both of which grow upon 
trees. The blimbi is about three or four inches long, and 



in the middle about as thick as a man's finger, tapering to- '770. 
■wards each end : it is covered with a very thin fkin of a light ,' ep e ™ er ', 
green colour, and in the infide are a few feeds difpofed in 
the form of a liar : its flavour is a light, clean, pleafant acid, 
but it cannot be eaten raw ; it is faid to be excellent as a 
pickle ; and ftewed, it made a moft agreeable four fauce to 
our boiled difhes. 

The tame animals are buffaloes, fheep, goats, hogs, fowls, 
pigeons, horfes, afles, dogs and cats ; and of all thefe there 
is great plenty. The buffaloes differ very confiderably from 
the horned cattle of Europe in feveral particulars ; their ears 
are much larger, their fkins are almoft without hair, their 
horns are curved towards each other, but together bend di- 
rectly backwards, and they have no dewlaps. We faw fe- 
veral that were as \>\g as a well grown European ox, and 
there rauft be fome much larger ; for Mr. Banks faw a pair 
of horns which meafured from tip to tip three feet nine 
inches and an half, acrofs their widefl diameter four feet 
one inch and an half, and in the whole fweep of their femi- 
circle in front feven feet fix inches and a half. It mufl 
however be obferved, that a buffalo here of any given fizc, 
does not weigh above half as much as an ox of the fame 
fize in England : thofe that we gueffed to weigh four hun- 
dred weight did not weigh more than two hundred and 
fifty ; the reafon is, that fo late in the dry feafon the bones 
are very thinly covered with flefh: there is not an ounce of 
fat in a whole carcafs, and the flanks are literally nothing 
but fkin and bone : the flefh however is well tailed and 
juicy, and I fuppofe better than the flefli of an Englifli 
ox would be if he was to flarve in this fun-burnt country. 

The horfes are from eleven to twelve hands high, but 
though they are fmall, they are fpirited and nimble, efpe- 

4 S 2 cially 


i77°- cially in pacing, which is their common ftep: the inhabi- 
^ptem^ e n tantg generally ride them without a faddle, and with no 
better bridle than a halter. The fheep are of the kind 
which in England are called Bengal fheep, and differ from 
ours in many particulars. They are covered with hair in- 
flead of wool, their ears are very large, and hang down 
under their horns, and their nofes are arched ; they are 
thought to have a general refemblance to a goat, and for 
that reafon are frequently called cabritos: their flefh we 
thought the woifl mutton we had ever eaten, being as lean 
as that of the buffalo's, and without flavour. The hogs, 
however, were fome of the fattefl we had ever feen, though, 
as we were told, their principal food is the outfide hufks of 
rice, and the palm fyrup diffolved in water. The fowls are 
chiefly of the game breed, and large, but the eggs are re- 
markably fmall. 

Of the fifh which the fea produces here, we know but 
little : turtles are fometimes found upon the coaft, and are 
by thefe people, as well as all others, confidered as a dainty. 

The people are rather under, than over the middling fize ; 
the women efpccially are remarkably fhort and fquat built : 
their complexion is a dark brown, and their hair univerfally 
black and lank. We faw no difference in the colour of rich 
and poor, though in the South Sea iflands thofe that were 
expoled to the weather were almoft as brown as the New 
Hollanders, and the better fort nearly as fair as the natives 
of Europe. The men are in general well-made, vigorous, 
and active, and have a greater variety in the make and dif- 
pofition of their features than ufual ; the countenances of the 
women, on the contrary, are all alike. 

The men faften their hair up to the top of their heads 
with a comb, the women tie it behind in a club, which is 



very far from becoming. Both fexes eradicate the hair from 1770. 
under the arm, and the men do the fame by their beards, t " epte " ue ^, 
for which purpofe, the better fort always carry a pair of 
filver pincers hanging by a firing round their necks ; fome 
however fuffer a very little hair to remain upon their upper, 
lips, but this is always keptfhort. 

The drefs of both fexes confifts of cotton cloth, which 
being died blue in the yarn, and not uniformly of the fame 
fhade, is in clouds or waves of that colour, and even in our 
eye had not an inelegant appearance. This cloth they ma- 
nufacture themfelves, and two pieces, each about two yards 
long, and a yard and a half wide, make a drefs: one of 
them is worn round the middle, and the other covers the 
upper part of the body : the lower edge of the piece that 
goes round the middle, the men draw pretty tight juft below 
the fork, the upper edge of it is left loofe, fo as to form a 
kind of hollow belt, which ferves them as a pocket to carry 
their knives, and other little implements which it is conve- 
nient to have about them. The other piece of cloth is palTed 
through this girdle behind, and one end of it being brought 
over the left fhoulder, and the other over the right, they 
fall down over the bread, and are tucked into the girdle 
before, fo that by opening or clofing the plaits, they can 
cover more or lefs of their bodies as they pleafe ; the arms, 
legs, and feet are always naked. The difference between 
the drefs of the two fexes confifts principally in the manner 
of wearing the waift-piece, for the women, inilead of draw- 
ing the lower edge tight, and leaving the upper edge loofe 
for a pocket, draw the upper edge tight, and let the lower 
edge fall as low as the knees, fo as to form a petticoat; the 
body-piece, inflead of being palled through the girdle, is 
fattened under the arms, and crofs the bread, with the utmoft 
decency, I have already obferved, that the men fallen the 



i77°- hair upon the top of the head, and the women tie it in a 
■_ pe . - .'• club behind, but there is another difference in the head- 
drefs, by which the fexes are diftinguilhed : the women 
wear nothing as a iuccedaneum for a cap, but the men con- 
ftantly wrap fornething round their heads in the manner of" 
a fillet ; it is fmall, but generally of the fined materials that 
can be procured : we faw fome who applied filk handker- 
chiefs to this purpofe, and others that wore fine cotton, or 
muflin, in the manner of a fmall turban. 

Thefe people bore their tefcimony that the love of finery is 
a univerfal paflion, for their ornaments were very nume- 
rous. Some of the better fort wore chains of gold round 
their necks, but they were made of plaited wire, and con- 
fequently were light and of little value ; others had rings, 
which were fo much worn that they feemed to have defcend- 
ed through many generations ; and one perfon had a filver- 
headed cane, marked with a kind of cypher, confiding of 
the Roman letters V, O, C, and therefore probably a prefent 
from the Dutch Eafl: India Company, whofe mark it is : they 
have alfo ornaments made of beads, which fome wear round 
their necks as a foiitaire, and others, as bracelets, upon 
their wrifls : thefe are common to both fexes, but the women 
have befidcs, firings or girdles of beads, which they wear 
round their waifls, and which ferve to keep up their petti- 
coat. Both fexes had their ears bored, nor was there a fingle 
exception that fell under our notice, yet we never faw an or- 
nament in any of them ; we never indeed faw either man or 
woman in any thing but what appeared to be their ordinary 
drefs, except the King and his minifter, who in general 
wore a kind of night-gown of coarfe chintz, and one of 
whom once received us in a black robe, which appeared to 
be made of what is called prince's fluff. We faw fome boys, 
about twelve or fourteen years old, who had fpiral circles 



of thick brafs wire pafTed three or four times round their r 77o. 
arms, above the elbow, and fome men wore rings of •w- Y _^J 
ivory, two inches in breadth, and above an inch in thick- 
nefs, upon the fame part of the arm : thefe, we were told, 
were the fons of the Rajas, or Chiefs, who wore thefe cum- 
brous ornaments as badges of their high birth, 

Almofl all the men had their names traced upon their 
arms, in indelible characters of a black colour, and the 
women had a fquare ornament of flourifhed lines, impreffed 
in the fame manner, jufl under the bend of the elbow. We 
were ftruck with the fimilitude between thefe marks, and 
thofe made by tattowing in the South Sea iflands, and upon 
enquiring into its origin, we learnt that it had been praclifed 
by the natives long before. any Europeans came among 
them ; and that in the neighbouring iflands the inhabitants 
were marked with circles upon their necks and breads. The 
univerfality of this praftice, which prevails among favages 
in all parts of the world, from the remotefl limits of North 
America, to the iflands in the South Seas, and which pro- 
bably differs but little from the method of ftaining the body 
that was in ufe among the ancient inhabitants of Britain, is 
a curious fubject of fpeculation f. 

The houfes of Savu are all built upon the fame plan, and 
differ only in fize, being large in proportion to the rank and 

f In the account which Mr. Boflu has given of fome Indians who inhabit the bank g 
of theAkanza, a river of North America, which rifes in New Mexico, and falls into 
the Mifliflippi, he relates the following incident: "The Akanzas, fays he, have 
adopted me, and as a mark of my privilege, have imprinted the figure of a roe-buck 
upon my thigh, which was done in this manner : an Indian having burnt fome firaw, 
diluted the allies with water, and with this mixture, drew the figure upon my ik'-ri ; he 
then retraced it, by pricking the lines with needles, fo as at every puncture jufl to draw 
the blood, and the blood mixing with the alhes of the flraw, forms a figure which cart- 
never be effaced." See Travels through Louifiana, vol. i. p. 107. 

3 riches 


1770. riches of the proprietor. Some are four hundred feet long, 
^sptem er.^ ^^ f ome are not more than twenty : they are all raifed upon 
polls, or piles, about four feet high, one end of which is 
driven into the ground, and upon the other end is laid a 
fubftantial floor of wood, fo that there is a vacant fpace of 
four feet between the floor of the houfe and the ground. 
Upon this floor are placed other pods or pillars, that fupport 
a roof of Hoping fides, which meet in a ridge at the top 
like thofe of our barns: the eaves of this roof, which is 
thatched with palm leaves, reach within two feet of the 
floor, and over-hang it as much: the fpace within is gene- 
rally divided lengthwife into three equal parts ; the middle 
part, or center, is inclofed by a partition of four fides, reach- 
ing about fix feet above the floor, and one or two fmall 
rooms are alfo fometimes taken off from the fides, the reft 
of the fpace under the roof is open, fo as freely to admit the 
air and the light : the particular ufes of thefe different apart- 
ments, our fhort flay would not permit us to learn, except 
that the clofe room in the center was appropriated to the 

The food of thefe people confifts of every tame animal in, 
the country, of which the hog holds the firft place in their 
eflimation, and the horfe the fecond ; next to the horfe is the 
buffalo, next to the buffalo their poultry, and they prefer 
dogs and cats to fheep and goats. They are not fond of fifli, 
and, I believe, it is never eaten but by the poor people, nor 
by them, except when their duty or bufinefs requires them 
to be upon the beach, and then every man is furnilhed with 
a light calling net, which is girt round him, and makes 
part of his drefs ; and with this he takes any fmall filh which 
happen to come in his way. 

The aefculent vegetables and fruits have been mentioned 

already, but the fan-palm requires more particular notice, 

9 f° r 


for at certain times it is a fuccedaneum for all other food I 77°- 
both to man and beaft. A kind of wine, called toddy, is , 
procured from this tree, by cutting the buds which are to 
produce flowers, foon after their appearance, and tying 
under them fmall bafkets, made of the leaves, which are fo 
clofe as to hold liquids without leaking. The juice which 
trickles into thefe veffels, is collected by perfons who climb 
the trees for that purpofe, morning and evening, and is the 
common drink of every individual upon the ifland ; yet a 
much greater quantity is drawn off than is confumed in this 
ufe, and of the furplus they make both a fyrup and coarfe 
fugar. The liquor is called dua, or dime, and both the fyrup 
and fugar, gula. The fyrup is prepared by boiling the liquor 
down in pots of earthen ware, till it is fufficiently infpiffated; 
it is not unlike treacle in appearance, but is fomewhat 
thicker, and has a much more agreeable tafte: the fugar is 
of a reddifh brown, perhaps the fame with the Jugata fugar 
upon the continent of India, and it was more agreeable to 
our palates than any cane fugar, unrefined, that we had 
ever tafted. We were at firft afraid that the fyrup, of which 
fome of our people eat very great quantities, would have 
brought on fluxes, but its aperient quality was fo very flight 
that what effect it produced was rather falutary than hurt- 
ful. I have already obferved, that it is given with the hufks 
of rice to the hogs, and that they grow enormouily fat with- 
out taking any other food : we were told alfo, that this fyrup 
is ufed to fatten their dogs and their fowls, and that the in- 
habitants themfelves have fubfifted upon this alone for 
feveral months, when other crops have failed, and animal 
food has been fcarce. The leaves of this tree are alfo put to 
various ufes, they thatch houfes, and make bafkets, cups, 
umbrellas, and tobacco-pi pes. The fruit is leaft efteemed, 
and as the bloffoms are wounded for the tuac or toddy, there 
Vol. II. 4 T is 


1770- is not much of it: it is about as big as a large turnip, and 
^ep^em er^ covere( j j y^ e t i ie cocoa-nut, with a fibrous coat, under 
which are three kernels, that mull be eaten before they are 
ripe, for afterwards they become fo hard that they cannot be 
chewed ; in their eatable ftate they tafte not unlike a green 
cocoa-nut, and, like them, probably they yield a nutriment 
that is watry and unfubftantial. 

The common method of dremng food here is by boiling, 
and as fire-wood is very fcarce, and the inhabitants have no 
other fuel, they make ufe of a contrivance to fave it, that is 
not wholly unknown in Europe, but is feldom practifed ex- 
cept in camps. They dig a hollow under ground, in a hori- 
zontal direction, like a rabbit burrow, about two yards long, 
and opening into a hole at each end, one of which is large 
and the other fmall: by the large hole the fire is put in, and 
the fmall one ferves for a draught. The earth over this 
burrow is perforated by circular holes, which communicate 
with the cavity below ; and in thefe holes are fet earthen 
pots, generally about three to each fire, which are large in 
the middle, and taper towards the bottom, fo that the lire 
acts upon a large part of their furface. Each of thefe pots 
generally contains about eight or ten gallons, and it is fur- 
prifing to fee with how fmall a quantity of fire they may be 
kept boiling ; a palm leaf, or a dry ftalk, thruft in now and 
then* is fufficient: in this manner they boil all their victuals, 
and make all their fyrup and fugar. It appears by Frazier's 
account of his voyage to the South Sea, that the Peruvian 
Indians have a contrivance of the fame kind, and perhaps it 
might be adopted with advantage by the poor people even of 
this country, where fuel is very dear. 

Both fexes are enflaved by the hateful and pernicious habit 
of chewing beetle and areca, which they contract even while 




they are children, and practife incelTantly from morning till 1770. 
night. With thefe they always mix a kind of white lime, , c P tembe ^ 
made of coral ftone and fhells, and frequently a fmall quan- 
tity of tobacco, fo that their mouths are difguftful in the 
higheft degree both to the fmell and the fight: the tobacco 
taints their breath, and the beetle and lime make the teeth 
not only as black as charcoal, but as rotten too. I have feen 
men between twenty and thirty, whofe fore teeth have been 
confumed almoft down to the gums, though no two of them 
were exactly of the fame length or thicknefs, but irregularly 
corroded like iron by ruft. This lofs of teeth is, I think, by 
all who have written upon the fubject, imputed to the tough 
and ftringy coat of the areca nut ; but I impute it wholly t<& 
the lime : they are not loofened, or broken, or forced out, as 
might be expected if they were injured by the continual 
chewing of hard and rough fubftances, but they are gra- 
dually wafted like metals that are expofed to the action of 
powerful acids ; the flumps always adhering firmly to the 
focket in the jaw, when there is no part of the tooth above 
the gums : and poffibly thofe who fuppofe that fugar has a 
bad effect upon the teeth of Europeans, may not be miftaken, 
for it is well known that refined loaf fugar contains a con- 
fiderable quantity of lime ; and he that doubts whether lime 
will deftroy bone of any kind, may eafily afcertain the fact 
by experiment. 

If the people here are at any time without this odious 
mouthful, they are fmoking. This operation they perform 
by rolling up a fmall quantity of tobacco, and putting it into 
one end of a tube about fix inches long, and as thick as a 
goofe quill, which they make of a palm leaf. As the quan- 
tity of tobacco in thefe pipes is very fmall, the effect of it is 
increafltd,. efpecially among the women, by fwallowing the 

4 T 2 When 


I 77°« , When the natives of this ifland were firft formed into a 
^ eptem er^ ^.^ {qq^j^ j g nG t certainly known, but at prefent it is 
divided into five principalities or nigrees: Laai, Seba, 
Regeeua, Timo, and Massara, each of which is governed 
by its refpective Raja or King. The Raja of Seba, the prin- 
cipality in which we were afhore, feemed to have great au- 
thority, without much external parade or fhow, or much 
appearance of perfonal refpect. He was about five and thirty 
years of age, and the fatteft man we faw upon the whole 
ifland : he appeared to be of a dull phlegmatic difpofition, 
and to be directed almoft implicitly, by the old man who,, 
upon my prefenting him with a fword, had procured us a 
fair market, in fpight of the craft and avarice of the Dutch 
factors. The name of this perfon was Mannu Djarme, and 
it may reafonably be fuppofed that he was a man of uncom- 
mon integrity and abilities, as, notwithflanding his pofTef- 
iion of power in the character of a favourite, he was beloved 
by the whole principality. If any difference arifes among 
the people, it is fettled by the Raja and his counfellors, with- 
out delay or appeal, and, as we were told, with the mofi 
folemn deliberation and impartial juflice. 

We were informed by Mr. Lange, that the chiefs who had 
fucceflively prefided over the five principalities of this ifland, 
had lived for time immemorial in the ftrictefl alliance and 
mofl cordial friendfhip with each other; yet he faid the 
people were of a warlike difpofition, and had always cou- 
rageoufly defended themfelves againft foreign invaders. We 
were told alfo, that the ifland was able to raife, upon very 
fhort notice, 7300 fighting men, armed with mufkets, 
fpears, lances, and targets. Of this force, Laai was faid to 
furnifh. 2600, Seba qooo, Regeeua 1500, Timo 800, and 
Maffara 400. Befides the arms that have. been already men- 
tioned, each man is furnifhed with a large pole-ax, refem- 



bling a wood-bill, except that it has a ftrait edge, and is T 77°' 
much heavier: this, in the hands of people who have cou- »_ ■-.- _j 
rage to come to clofe quarters with an enemy, muft be a 
dreadful weapon ; and we were told that they were fo dex- 
terous with their lances, that ar the diftance of fixty feet they 
would throw them with fuch exadtnefs as to pierce a man's- 
heart, and fuch force as to go quite through his body. 

How far this account of the martial prowefs of the inha- 
bitants of Savu may be true, we cannot take upon us to 
determine, but during our uay, we faw no appearance of 
ir. We faw indeed in the town-houfe, or houfe of aflcmbly,. 
about one hundred fpears and targets, which ferved'to arm 
the people who were fent down to intimidate us at the 
trading place; but they feemed to be the refufe of old ar- 
mories, no two being of the fame make or length, for fome 
were fix, and fome fixteen feet long : we faw no lance among 
them, and as to the mufkets, though they were clean on the 
outfide, they were eaten into holes by the rulV within; and' 
the people themfelves appeared to be fo little acquainted 
with military difcipline, that they marched like a diforderly 
rabble, every one having, inflead of his target, a cock, fome 
tobacco, or other merchandife of the like kind, which he 
took that opportunity to bring down to fell, and few or none 
of their cartridge boxes were furnifhed with either powder 
or ball, though a piece of paper was thruft into the hole to 
fave appearances. We faw a few fwivel guns, and pateraros 
at the town-houfe, and a great gun before it ; but the fwivels 
and pateraros lay out of their carriages, and the great gun 
lay upon a heap of {tones, almofl confumed with ruft, with 
the touch-hole downwards, poffibly to conceal its fize, 
which might perhaps be little lefs than that of the bore. 




1770. We could not difcover that among thefe people there was 

any rank of diftinction between the Raja and the land- 
owners: the land-owners were refpectable in proportion to 
their pofTeflions ; the inferior ranks confift of manufacturers, 
labouring poor, and flaves. The flaves, like the peafants in 
fome parts of Europe, are connected with the eftate, and 
both defcend together: but though the land-owner can fell 
his flave, he has no other power over his perfon, not even to 
correct him, without the privity and approbation of the Raja. 
Some have five hundred of tftefe flaves, and fome not half a 
dozen : the common price of them is a fat hog. When a 
great man goes out, he is conftantly attended by two or more 
of them: one of them carries a fwordor hanger, the hilt of 
which is commonly of fdver, and adorned with large tafiels 
of horfe hair ; and another carries a bag which contains betel, 
areca, lime, and tobacco. In thefe attendants coniifts all 
their magnificence, for the Raja himfelf has no other mark 
of diftinction. 

The chief object of pride among thefe people, like that of 
a Welchman, is a long pedigree of refpectable anceftors, and 
indeed a veneration for antiquity feems to be carried farther 
here than in any other country : even a houfe that has been 
well inhabited for many generations, becomes almoft facred, 
and few articles either of ufe or luxury bear fo high a price 
as ftones, which having been long fat upon, are become even 
and fmooth: thofe who can purchafe fuch ftones, or are 
pofTefied of them by inheritance, place them round their 
houfes, where they ferve as feats for their dependants. 

Every Raja fets up in the principal town of his province, 
or nigree, a large ftone, which ferves as a memorial of his 
reign. In the principal town of Seba, where we lay, there 
are thirteen fuch Hones, befides many fragments of others, 



which had been fet up in earlier times, and, are now mould- 1770. 
ering away: thefe monuments feem to prove that fome tl ep -.- e ^ 
kind of civil eftablifhment here is of confidcrable antiquity. 
The laft thirteen reigns in England make fomething more 
than 276 years. 

Many of thefe ftones are fo large, that it is difficult to con- 
ceive by what means they were brought to their prefent 
ftation, efpecially as it is the fummit of a hill ; but the world 
is full of memorials of human ftrength, in which the me- 
chanical powers that have been fince added by mathematical 
fcience, feem to be furpafTed; and of fuch monuments 
there are not a few among the remains of barbarous anti- 
quity in our own country, befides thofe upon Salifbuiy 

Thefe ftones not only record the reigns of fucceffive 
princes, but ferve for a purpofc much more extraordinary, 
and probably altogether peculiar to this country. When a 
Raja dies, a general feaft is proclaimed throughout his do- 
minions, and all his fubjects afiemble round thefe ftones 5 
almoft every living creature that can be caught is then 
killed, and the feaft lafts for a lefs or greater number of 
weeks or months, as the kingdom happens to be more or 
lefs furnifhed with live ftock at the time ; the ftones ferve for 
tables. When this madnefs is over, a faft muft necefTarily 
enfue, and the whole kingdom is obliged to fubfift upon, 
fyrup and water, if it happens in the dry feafon, when no 
vegetables can be procured, till a new ftock of animals can 
be raifed from the few that have efcaped by chance, or been 
preferved by policy from the general mafTacre, or can be 
procured from the neighbouring kingdoms. Such, how- 
ever, is the account that we received- from Mr. Lange. 


1770. We bad no opportunity to examine any of their manufao 

September. r ■% 11 1 • i 

v. — *-—j tures, except that or their cloth, which they fpin, weave, 
and dye ; we did not indeed fee them employed, but many 
of the inftruments which they ufe fell in our way. We faw 
their machine for clearing cotton of its feeds, which is made 
upon the fame principles as thofe in Europe, but is fo fmall 
that it might be taken for a model, or a toy : it confifts of 
two cylinders, like our round rulers, fomewhat lefs than an 
inch in diameter, one of which, being turned round by a 
plain winch, turns the other by means of an endlefs worm ; 
and the whole machine is not more than fourteen inches 
long, and feven high: that which we faw had been much 
ufed, and many pieces of cotton were hanging about it, fo 
that there is no reafon to doubt its being a fair fpecimen of 
the reft. We alfo once faw their apparatus for fpinning ; it 
confifted of a bobbin, on which was wound a fmall quantity 
of thread, and a kind of diftaff filled with cotton ; we con- 
jectured therefore that they fpin by hand, as the women of 
Europe did before the introduction of wheels ; and I am told 
that they have not yet found their way into fome parts of it. 
Their loom feemed to be in one refpect preferable to ours, 
for the web was not ftretched upon a frame, but extended 
by a piece of wood at each end, round one of which the 
cloth was rolled, and round the other the threads: the web 
was about half a yard broad, and the length of the fhuttle 
was equal to the breadth of the web, fo that probably their 
work goes on but flowly. That they dyed this cloth we firil 
guefled from its colour, and from die indigo which we faw 
in their plantations j and our conjecture was afterwards con- 
firmed by Mr. Lange's account. I have already obferved, 
that it is dyed in the yarn, and we once faw them dying 
what was laid to be girdles for the women, of a dirty red, but 
with what drug we did not think it worth while to enquire. 



The religion of thefe people, according to Mr. Lange's in- 1770. 
formation, is an abfurd kind of paganifm, every man chu- ._ ep -™- C '". 
fing his own god, and determining for himfelf how he 
fhould be worfhipped ; fo that there are almoft as many 
gods and modes of worfhip as people. In their morals, 
however, they are faid to be irreproacliabie, even upon the 
principles of Chriftianity : no man is allowed more than one 
wife ; yet an illicit commerce between the fexes is in a man- 
ner unknown among them: inftances of theft are very rare; 
and they are fo far from revenging a fuppofed injury by 
murder, that if any difference arifes between them, they 
will not fo much as make it the fubjecT: of debate, left they 
fhould be provoked to refentment and ill-will, but immedi- 
ately and implicity refer it to the determination of their 

They appeared to be a healthy and long-lived people; yet 
fome of them were marked with the fmall-pox, which Mr. 
Lange told us had feveral times made its appearance among 
them, and was treated with the fame precautions as the 
plague. As foon as a perfon was feized with the diflemper, 
he was removed to fome folitary place, very remote from 
any habitation, where the difeafe was left to take its courfe, 
and the patient fupplied with daily food by reaching it to 
him at the end of a long pole. 

Of their domeftic ceconomy we could learn but little: in 
one inftance however their delicacy and cleanlinefs are very 
remarkable. Many of us were afhore here three fucccflive 
days, from a very early hour in the morning till it was dark •■, 
yet we never faw the leaft trace of an offering to Cloacina, 
nor could we fo much as guefs where they were made. In 
a country fo populous this is very difficult to be accounted 

Vol. II. a U for, 


1770. for, and perhaps there is no other country in the world 
£l^!ll> where the fecret is fo effectually kept. 

• The boats in ufe here are a kind of proa. 

This ifland was fettled by the Portuguefe almofl as foon as 
they firft found their way into this part of the ocean; but they 
were in a fhort time fupplanted by the Dutch. The Dutch 
however did not take poffeffion of it, but only fent floops to- 
trade with the natives, probably for provifions to fupport the- 
inhabitants of their fpice iflands, who applying themfelves 
wholly to the cultivation of that important article of trade, 
and laying out all their ground in plantations, can breed 
few animals : poflibly their fupplies by this occafional traf- 
fic were precarious ; poflibly they were jealous of being fup- 
planted in their turn ; but however that be, their Eaft India 
Company, about ten years ago, entered into a treaty with 
the Rajas, by which the Company ftipulated to furnim. each 
of them with a certain quantity of filk, fine linen, cutlery 
ware, arrack and other articles, every year ; and the Rajas 
engaged that neither they nor their fubjedts mould trade 
with any pcrfon except the company, without having firft 
obtained their confent, and that they would admit a refident 
on behalf of the Company, to refide upon the ifland, and 
fee that their part of the treaty was fulfilled : they alfo en- 
gaged to fupply annually a certain quantity of rice, maize, 
and calevances. The maize and calevances are fent to Ti- 
mor in floops, which are kept there for that purpofe, each of 
which is navigated by ten Indians; and the rice is fetched 
away annually by a fliip which brings the Company's re- 
turns, and anchors alternately in each of the three bays. 
Thefe returns are delivered to the Rajas in the form of a 
prefent, and the calk of arrack they and their principal 



6 99 

people never ceafe to drink, as long as a drop of it re- 1770. 


mains. *_ -.- -j 

In confequence of this treaty, the Dutch placed three per- 
fons upon the ifland: Mr. Langc, his colleague, the native of 
Timor, the fon of an Indian woman by a Portuguefe, and 
one Frederick Craig, the fon of an Indian woman by a 
Dutchman. Lange vifits each of the Rajas once in two 
months, when he makes the tour of the ifland, attended by 
fifty flaves on horfeback. He exhorts thefe Chiefs to plant, 
if it appears that they have been remifs, and obferves where 
the crops are got in, that he may order Hoops to fetch it ; fo 
that it paiTes immediately from the ground to the Dutch 
ftorehoufes at Timor. In thefe excurfions he always carries 
with him fome bottles of arrack, which he finds of great ufe 
in opening the hearts of the Rajas with whom he is to deal. 

During the ten years that he had refided upon this ifland 
he had never feen a European befides ourfelves, except at the 
arrival of the Dutch fhip, which had failed about two 
months before we arrived; and he is now to be diftinguifhed 
from the natives only by his colour and his drefs, for he fits 
upon the ground, chews his betele, and in every refpedl has 
adopted their character and manners : he has married an 
Indian woman of the ifland of Timor, who keeps his houfe 
after the falhion of her country; and he gave that as a rea- 
fon for not inviting us to vifit him, faying, that he could 
entertain us in no other manner than the Indians had 
done, and he fpoke no language readily but that of the 

The office of Mr. Frederic Craig is to inftruct the youth of 
the country in reading and writing, and the principles of 
the Chriftian religion ; the Dutch having printed verfions 
of the New Teftament, a catechifm, and feveral other tracts, 

4 U 2 in 


^770. in the language of this and the neighbouring iflands. Dr. 
September^ So i ander) w h wa s at his houfe, faw the books, and the copy- 
books alfo, of his fcholars, many of whom wrote a very fair 
hand. He boafted that there were no lefs than fix hundred 
Chriftians in the townfhip of Seba ; but what the Dutch 
Chriftianity of thefe Indians may be, it is not perhaps very 
eafy to guefs, for there is not a church, nor even a prieft, in 
the whole ifland. 

While we were at this place, we made feveral enquiries 
concerning the neighbouring iflands, and the intelligence 
which we received, is to the following effect : 

A fmall ifland to the weflward of Savu, the name of which 
we did not learn, produces nothing of any confequence but 
areca-nuts, of which the Dutch receive annually the freight 
of two floops, in return for prefents that they make to the 

Timor is the chief, and the Dutch refidents on the other 
iflands go thither once a year to pafs their accounts. The 
place is nearly in the fame ftate as in Dampier's time, the 
Dutch having there a fort and ftorehoufes ; and by Lange's 
account we might there have been fupplied with every ne- 
ceflary that we expe&ed to procure at Batavia, fait provifions 
and arrack not excepted. But the Portuguefe are ftill in 
pofTemon of feveral towns on the north fide of the ifland, 
particularly Laphao and Sefial. 

About two years before our arrival, a French fhip was 
wrecked upon the eaft coaft of Timor ; and after me had 
lain fome days upon the fhoal, a fudden gale broke her up 
at once, and drowned the Captain, with the greateft part of 
the crew : thofe who got alhore, among whom was one of 
the Lieutenants, made the bed of their way to Concordia ; 
they were four days upon the road, where they were ob- 



liged to leave part of their company through fatigue, and 1770 

the reft, to the number of about eighty, arrived at the town. 
They were fupplied with every neceffary, and fent back to 
the wreck, with proper affiftance, for recovering what could 
be fifhed up : they fortunately got up all their bullion, which 
was in chefts, and feveral of their guns, which were very 
large. They then returned to the town, but their compa- 
nions who had been left upon the road were miffing, hav- 
ing, as it was fuppofed, been kept among the Indians, either 
by perfuafion or force ; for they are very defirous of having 
Europeans among them, to inftruct them in the art of war. 
After a flay of more than two months at Concordia, their 
number was diminifhed nearly one half by ficknefs, in con- 
fequence of the fatigue and hardfhip which they had fuf- 
fered by the fhipwreck, and the furvivors were fent in aj 
fmall veflel to Europe. 

Rotte is in much the fame fituation as Savu ; a Dutch fac- 
tor refides upon it to manage the natives, and look after its 
produce, which confifts, among other articles, of fugar. 
Formerly it was made only by bruifing the canes, and boil- 
ing the juice to a fyrup, in the fame manner as Toddy; but 
great improvements have lately been made in preparing 
this valuable commodity. The three little iflands called the 
Solars are alfo under the influence of the Dutch fettlement 
at Concordia : they are flat and low, but abound with provi- 
fions of every kind, and the middlemoft is faid to have a, 
good harbour for (hipping. Ende, another little ifland to 
the weftward of the Solars, is the hands of the Por- 
tuguefe, who have a good town and harbour on the north 
eait corner of it called Larntuca t they had formerly an har- 
bour on the fouth fide of it, but that, being much inferior 
to Larntuca, has for fome time been altogether neglected. 



< c " 




The inhabitants of each of thefe little iflands fpeak a lan= 
guage peculiar to themfelves, and it is an object of Dutch 
policy to prevent, as much as poflible, their learning the 
language of each other. If they fpoke a common language, 
they would learn, by a mutual intercourfe with each other, 
to plant fuch things as would be of more value to them- 
felves than their prefent produce, though of lefs advantage 
to the Dutch ; but their languages being different, they can 
communicate no fuch knowlege to each other, and the Dutch 
fecure to themfelves the benefit of fupplying their feveral 
neceflities upon their own terms, which it is reafonable to 
fuppofe are not very moderate. It is probably with a view 
to this advantage that the Dutch never teach their own lan- 
guage to the natives of thefe iflands, and have been at the 
expence of translating the Teftament and catechifms into the 
different languages of each ; for in proportion as Dutch had 
become the language of their religion, it would have be- 
come the common language of them all. 

To this account of Savu, I fliall only add a fmall fpecimen 
of its language, by which it will appear to have fome affi- 
nity with that of the South Sea iflands, many of the words 
being exactly the fame, and the numbers manifeftly derived 
from the fame fource. 

A mail) 


The ears, 


A woman, 


The tongue, 


The head. 


The neck, 


7 'he hah-, 

Row catoo. 

The breajls, 


The eyes, 


The nipples, 

Caboo foofoo, 

The eye-laJJjes, 

Rowna matta. 

The belly, 


The nofe, 


The navel, 


The cheeks, 


The thighs, 






The knees , 


The fun, 

Lodo. 1770- 

The legs, 


The moon, 


Wurroo. » -,- 

The feet) 




The toes, 

Kiilbvei yilla. 



The arms, 




The hand, 


To die, 


A buffalo, 


To Jleep, 


A horfe, 


To rife, 


A hog, 








A goat, 




A dog, 




A cat, 




A j oiv I, 




The tail, 


Seven, . 


The beak, 








A turtle, 




A cocoa-nut, 



Singurung ufle, 

Fan- palm, 







Sing afTu. 













Tattoiv, the marks 1 

' . £Tata, 



on the/kin, 

In this account of the ifiand of Savu it muft be remem- 
bered, that except the facts in which we were parties, and the 
account of the objects which we had an opportunity to exa- 
mine, the whole is founded merely upon the report of Mr. 
Lange, upon whofe authority alone therefore it mull reft. 




The Run from the IJland of Savu to Batavia, and an 

Account of the TranfaSiions there while the Ship 

was refitting. 

177°- TN the morning of Friday the 21ft of September, 1770, we 
i ep - em - "it A got under fail, and flood away to the weftward, along 
" ay zu the north fide of the ifland of Savu, and of the fmaller that 
lies to the weftward of it, which at noon bore from us S.S.E. 
diftant two leagues. At four o'clock in the afternoon, we 
difcovered a fmall low illand, bearing S. S. W. diftant three 
leagues, which has no place in any chart now extant, at 
kaft in none that I have been able to procure: it lies in lati- 
tude io°47'S., longitude 238° a8'W. 

Satuuiay 2 2." At noon on the 22d, we were in latitude ii° io'S., longi- 
.Sunday zy tude 240 38' \V. In the evening of the 23d, we found the 
variation of the needle to be 2 44' W. ; as foon as we got 
clear of the iflands we had conftantly a fwell from the fouth- 
ward, which I imagined was not caufcd by a wind blowing 
from that quarter, but by the fea being fo determined by the 
pofition of the coaft of New Holland. 

Monday 24. At noon on the 26th, being in latitude io° 47' S., longi- 

WedneH z6. tude 249 52' W. we found the variation to be 3 ° ro'W. and 
our fituation to be twenty-five miles to the r jrthward of the 
log ; for which I know not how to accour c. At noon on the 

Thurfday27. 27th, our latitude by obfervation was ,o° 51'S. which was 
agreeable to the log; and our lor^itude was 252 ii'W. 

Friday 28. Wc fleered N. W. all day on the 28th, in order to make the 



land of Java ; and at noon on the 29th, our latitude by obfer- 1770. 
vation was 9 31' S., longitude 25.).° 10' W.; and in the morn- . epteni "^ 
ing of the 30th, I took into my polleffion the log-book and slSjyj' 
journals, at lead all I could find, of the officers, petty offi- 
cers, and feamen, and enjoined them fecrecy with refpcct to 
where they had been. 

At feven in the evening, being in the latitude of Java 
Head, and not feeing any land, I concluded that we were too 
far to the weftward: I therefore hauled up E. N. E. having 
before fleered N. by E. In the night, we had thunder and 
lightning; and about twelve o'clock, by the light of the 
flafhes, we faw the land bearing eaft. I then tacked and 
flood to the S. W. till four o'clock in the morning of the ifl oaober 
of October ; and at fix, Java Head, or the weft end of Java, Monday u 
bore S. E. by E. diflant five leagues : foon after wc faw 
Prince's Ifland, bearing E. l S. ; and at ten, the ifland of Cra- 
catoa, bearing N.E. Cracatoa is a remarkably high-peaked 
ifland, and at noon it bore N. 40 E. diflant feven leagues. 

I mufl now obferve that, during our run from Savu, I al- 
lowed twenty minutes a-day for the weflerly current, which 
I concluded mufl run flrong at this time, efpecially ofF the 
coafl of Java, and I found that this allowance was jufl equi- 
valent to the effect of the current upon the fhip. 

At four o'clock in the morning of the 2d, we fetched clofe Tuefd 
in with the coafl of Java, in fifteen fathom ; we then flood 
along the coafl, and early in the forenoon, I fent the boat 
afhore to try if fhe could procure fome fruit for Tupia^ who 
was very ill, and fome grafs for the buffaloes that were flili 
alive. In an hour or two fhe returned with four cocoa-nuts, 
and a fmall bunch of plantains, which had been purchafed for 
a fhilling, and fome herbage for the cattle, which the In- 
dians not only gave us, but aflifled our people to cut. The 

Vol. IL 4 X country 

ay 2. 

3 uefday 2 


country looked like one continued wood, and had a very 
pleafant appearance. 

About eleven o'clock, we faw two Dutch fhips lying off 
Anger point, and I fent Mr. Hicks on board of one of them, 
to enquire news of our country, from which we had been 
abfent fo long. In the mean time it fell calm, and about 
noon I anchored in eighteen fathom with a muddy bottom. 
When Mr. Hicks returned, he reported that the mips were 
Dutch Eaft Indiamen from Batavia, one of which was bound 
to Ceylon, and the other to the coaft of Malabar ; and that 
there was alfo a flyboat or packet, which was faid to be fla~ 
tioned here to carry letters from the Dutch fhips that came 
hither to Batavia, but which I rather think was appointed to 
examine all fhips that pafs the flreight : from thefe mips we 
heard, with great pleafure, that the Swallow had been at 
Batavia about two years before. 

At feven o'clock a breeze fprung up at S. S.W. with which 
'having weighed, we flood to the N.E. between Thwart-the- 
way-Ifland and the Cap, founding from eighteen to twenty- 
eight fathom: we had but little wind all night, and having 
a itrong current againft us, we got no further by eight in 
vednef, 3. the morning than Bantam Point. At this time the wind 
came to the N. E. and obliged us to anchor in two and twenty 
fathom, at about the diftance of two miles from the fhore j 
the point bore N. E. by E. diflant one league, and here we 
found a ftrong current fetting to the N. W. In the morning 
we had feen the Dutch packet flanding after us, but when 
the wind lhifted to the N. E. flie bore away. 

At fix o'clock in the evening, the wind having obliged us 
to continue at anchor, one of the country boats came along 
fide of us, on board of which was the Mafter of the packet. 
He feemed to have two motives for his vilit, one to take an 

1 account 


account of the fhip, and the other to fell us refrefhments ; 1770. 
for in the boat were turtle, fowls, ducks, parrots, paroquets, t oa ° be ^ 
rice-birds, monkies, and other articles, which they held at a Wednef - ** 
very high price, and brought to a bad market, for our Savu 
Hock was not yet expended : however, I gave a Spanifh dol- 
lar for a fmall turtle, which weighed about fix and thirty 
pounds ; I gave alfo a dollar for ten large fowls, and after- 
wards bought fifteen more at the fame price j for a dollar 
we might alfo have bought two monkies, or a whole cage 
of rice-birds. The Matter of the Hoop brought with him 
two books, in one of which he defired that any of our offi- 
cers would write down the name of the (hip and its Com- 
mander, with that of the place from which fhe failed, and 
of the port to which fhe was bound, with fuch other parti- 
culars relating to themfelves, as they might think proper, for 
the information of any of our friends that mould come after 
us : and in the other he entered the names of the fhip and 
the Commander, himfelf, in order to tranfmit them to the 
Governor and Council of the Indies. We perceived that in 
the firfl book many fhips, particularly Portuguefe, had made 
entries of the fame kind with that for which it was pre- 
fented to us. Mr. Hicks, however, having written the name 
of the fhip, only added " from Europe." He took notice of 
this, but faid, that he was fatisfied with any thing wc 
thought fit to write, it being intended merely for the infor- 
mation of thofe who mould enquire after us from motives 
of friendfhip. 

Having made feveral attempts to fail with a wind that 
would not item the current, and as often come to an an- 
chor, a proa came alongfide of us in the morning of the 5th, Friday c, 
in which was a Dutch officer, who fent me down a printed 
paper in Englifh, duplicates of which he had in other lan~ 

4X2 guages, 


1770. guages, particularly In French and Dutch, all regularly 
y - -'l, figned, in the name of the Governor and Council of the In* 
¥nday 5 * dies, by their fecretary : it contained nine queftions, very ill 
exprefled, in the following terms: 

"■ 1. To what nation the fhip belongs, and its name? 

** 2. If it comes from Europe, or any other place? 

" 3. From what place it laflly departed from l 

" 4. Whereunto defigned to go I 

"- 5, What and how many fhips of the Dutch Company 
M by departure from the laft more there layed, and their 
" names-? 

" 6. If one or more of thefe mips in company with this,. 
« is departed for this, or any other place ?. 

«« 7. If during the voyage any particularities is happened. 
" or feen . ? 

" 8. If not any fhips in fea, or the Streights of Sunda, have 
" feen or hailed in, and which ?: 

" 9. If any other news worth of attention, at the place- 
" from whence the fhip laflly departed, or during the voy— 
w age, is happened. 

" Batavia, in the Caflle. 

" By order of the Governor General, and the 
" Counfellors of India,. 

" J. Brander Bungl, Sec/ 5 ' 

Of thefe queftions I anfwered only the firft and the fourth; 
which when the officer faw, he faid anfwers to the reft were- 
of no confequcncc: yet he immediately added, that he mufl 
fend that very paper away to Batavia, and that it would be 
there the next day at noon, I have particularly related this, 



incident, becaufe I have been credibly informed that it is bur *77°- 
of late years that the Dutch have taken upon them to exa- c_ — „-.!> 
mine mips that pafs through this Streighr. 

At ten o'clock the fame morning, we weighed, with a light 
breeze at S. W. ; but did little more than Hem the current, 
and about two o'clock anchored again under Bantam Point, 
where we lay till nine ; a light breeze then fpringing up at 
S.E. we weighed and flood to the eafhvard till ten o'clock the 
next morning, when the current obliged us again to anchor Saturdays. 
in twenty-two fathom, Pulababi bearing E. by S. 4 S. diflant 
between three and four miles. Having alternately weighed 
and anchored fevcral times, till four in the afternoon of the 
7th, we then flood to the eafhvard, with a very faint breeze Stmday7»- 
at N. E. and paffed Wapping Ifland, and the firfl ifland to the 
eafhvard of it ; when the wind dying away, we were carried 
by the current between the firfl and fecond of the iflands 
that lie to the eaflward of Wapping Ifland, were we were 
obliged to anchor in thirty fathom, being very near a ledge 
of rocks that run out from one of the iflands. At two the 
next morning we weighed with the land wind at fouth, and' Mend- 
flood out clear of the fhoal; but before noon were obliged 
to come to again in twenty-eight fathom, near a fmall 
ifland among thofe that are called the Thoufand Iflands,. 
which we did not find laid down in any chart. Pulo Pare a: 
this time bore E.N.E. diflance between fix- and feven miles. 

Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander went afhore upon the ifland, 
which they found not to be more than five hundred yard; 
long, and one hundred broad j yet there was a houfe upon 
it* and a fmall plantation, where among other things was 
the Pahna Chrifii, from which the caflor oil is made in the 
Wefl Indies : they made a fmall addition to their collection 
cf plants, and fhot a bat, whofe wings when extended mea— 
4 fured 


1770. furcd three feet from point to point : they mot alfo four plo 


vers, which exactly refembled the golden plover of England. 
Monday 8. Soon after ^y returned, a fmall Indian boat came alongfide 
with two Malays on board, who brought three turtles, fome 
dried fifli, and a few pumpkins : we bought the turtle, 
which altogether weighed a hundred and forty-fix pounds, 
for a dollar, and coniidering that we had lately paid the 
Dutchman a dollar for one that weighed only fix and thirty 
pounds, we thought we had a good bargain. The feller ap- 
peared equally fatisfied, and we then treated with him for 
his pumpkins, for which he was very unwilling to take any 
money but a dollar ; we faid that a whole dollar was greatly 
too much ; to which he readily affented, but defired that we 
would cut one and give him a part : at laft, however, a fine 
fhining Portuguefe petacka tempted him, and for that he fold 
us his whole ftock of pumpkins, being in number twenty- 
fix. At parting, he made figns that we mould not tell at 
Batavia that any boat had been aboard us. 

We were not able to weather Pulo Pare this day, but get- 
ting the land wind at fouth about ten o'clock at night, we 
weighed and flood to the E. S. E. all night. At ten in the 
Tuefd o. morning, wc anchored again, to wait for the fea breeze ; 
and at noon it fprung up at N.N. E. with which we flood in 
for Batavia road, where at four o'clock in the afternoon we 
came to an anchor. 

We found here the Karcourt Indiaman from England, two 
Englifh private traders of that country, thirteen fail of large 
Dutch fliips, and a confiderable number of fmall veffels. A 
boat came immediately on board, from a fhip which had a 
broad pendant flying, and the officer who commanded hav- 
ing enquired who we were, and whence we came, immedi- 
ately returned with fuch anfwers as we thought fit to give 

him : 


iiim : both he and his people were as pale as fpeclres, a fad 1770. 
prefage of our fufferings in fo unhealthy a country j but ■ Cci _ ^"^ 
our people, who, except Tupia, were all rofy and plump, Tuefda ^9' 
feemed to think themfelves fo feafoned by various climates 
that nothing could hurt them: In the mean time, I fent a 
Lieutenant ailiore to acquaint the Governor of our arrival, 
and to make an excufe for our not faluting ; for as I could 
falute with only three guns, except the fwivels, which I was 
of opinion would not be heard, I thought it was better to let 
it alone. As foon as the boat was difpatched the carpenter 
delivered me an account of the defects of the fhip, of which 
the following is a copy : 

" The defects of his Majefly's bark Endeavour, Lieutenant 
" James Cook Commander. 

" The fhip very leaky, as flic makes from twelve to fix 
" inches water an hour, occafioned by her main keel being 
" wounded in many places, and the fcarfs of her ftern being 
M very open : the falfe keel gone beyond the midfhips from 
" forward, and perhaps farther, as 1 had no opportunity of 
u feeing for the water when hauled afliore for repairing ; 
s< wounded on the larboard fide under the main channel, 
" where I imagine the greater! leak is, but could not come 
" at it for the water: one pump on the larboard fide ufelefsj 
<c the others decayed within an inch and an half of the bore. 
si Otherwife mails, yards, boats, and hull, in pretty good 
" condition/' 

As it was the univerfal opinion that the fhip could not 
fafely proceed to Europe without an examination of her bot- 
tom, I determined to apply for leave to heave her down at 
this place ; and as I underflood that it would be neceflary to 
make this application in writing, I drew up a requeft, and 



*77o. the next morning, having got it tranflated into Dutch, we 


v. — - — > all went afliore. 

W«dnef. I/O. 

We repaired immediately to the houfe of Mr. Leith, the 
only JEnglifhman of any credit who is refident at this place; 
he received us with great politenefs, and engaged us to 
dinner: to this gentleman we applied for mftruetions how to 
provide ourfelves with lodgings and neceflaries while we 
fhould flay afliore, and he told us, that there was a hotel, or 
kind of inn, kept by the order of government, where all 
merchants and ftrangers were obliged to refide, paying half 
per cent upon the value of their goods for warehoufe room, 
which the matter of the houfe was obliged to provide ; but 
$hat as we came in a King's fhip, we mould be at liberty to 
live where we pleafed, upon afking the Governor's perinif- 
fion, which would be granted of courfe. He faid, that it 
would be cheaper for us to take a houfe in the town, and 
bring our own fervants afliore, if we had any body upon 
whom we could depend to buy in our provifions; but as 
this was not the cafe, having no perfon among us who could 
fpeak the Malay language, our gentlemen determined to go 
to the hotel. At the hotel, therefore, beds were immediately 
hired, and word was fent that we fhould fleep there at 

At five o'clock in the afternoon, 1 was introduced to the 
Governor-General, who received me very courteoufly ; he 
told me, that I fhould have every thing I wanted, and that 
in the morning my requeft fhould be laid before the coun- 
cil, which I was defired to attend. 

About nine o'clock, we had a dreadful ftorm of thunder, 
h'ghtning, and rain, during which the main-maft of one of 
the Dutch Eait Indiamen was fplit, and carried away by the 
<3eck ; the main-top-mafl and top-gallant-maft were fhivered 



all to pieces ; fhe had an iron fpindle at the main-top-gallant- 
maft-head, which probably directed the ftroke. This (hip 
lay not more than the diftance of two cables' length from 
ours, and in all probability we mould have fhared the fame 
fate., but for the electrical chain which we had but juft got 
up, and which conducted the lightning over the fide of the 
fhip; but though we efcaped the lightning, the explofion 
fhook us like an earthquake, the chain at the fame time ap- 
pearing like a line of fire: a centinel was in the action of 
charging his piece, and the fhock forced the mufket out of 
his hand, and broke the rammer rod. Upon this occafion, I 
cannot but earneftly recommend chains of the fame kind to 
every fhip, whatever be her deflination, and I hope that the 
fate of the Dutchman will be a warning to all who fhall read 
this narrative, againft having an iron fpindle at the mad- 

The next morning, I attended at the council-chamber, and TWday u, 
was told that I fhould have every thing I wanted. In the 
mean time, the gentlemen afhore agreed with the keeper of 
the hotel for their lodging and board, at the rate of two rix- 
dollars, or nine fhillings fterling a day for each; and as there 
were five of them, and they would probably have many 
vifitors from the fhip, he agreed to keep them a feparatc 
table, upon condition that they fhould pay one rix-dollar for 
the dinner of every ftranger, and another for his fupper and 
bed, if he mould flccp afhore. Under this flipulation they 
were to be f urnifhed with tea, coffee, punch, pipes and to- 
bacco, for themfelves and their friends, as much as they 
could confume ; they were alfo to pay half a rupee, or one 
milling and three pence a day for each of their fervants. 

They foon learnt that thefe rates were more than double 

the common charges of board and lodging in the town, and 

Vol. II. 4 Y their 


*77°- their table, though it had the appearance of magnificence., 

' * — -* was wretchedly ferved. Their dinner confifted of one courfe 

luraayu. ^ fif teen dimes, and their fupper of one courfe of thirteen, 
but nine or ten of them confided of bad poultry, varioufly 
dreffed, and often ferved up the fecond, third, and even the 
fourth time : the fame cluck having appeared more than once 
roafccd, found his way again to the table as a fricafee, and 
a fourth time in the form of forced meat. It was not long, 
however, before they learnt that this treatment was only by 
way of eflay, and that it was the invariable cuftom of the 
houfe, to fupply all ftrangers, at their fiift coming, with 
fuch fare as could be procured for the leafc money, and con- 
fequently would produce the moft gain: that if either 
through indolence or good-nature they were content, it was 
continued for the benefit of the hoft, but that if they com- 
plained, it was gradually amended till they were fatisfied, 
which fometimes happened before they had the worth of 
their money. After this difcovery, they remonftrated, and 
their fare became better; however, after a few days, Mr. 
Banks hired a little houfe, the next door on the left hand to 
the hotel, for himfelf and his party, for which he paid after 
the rate of ten rix-dollars, or two pounds five millings fler- 
ling a month ; but here they were very far from having either 
the convenience or the privacy which they expected ; no per- 
fon was permitted to ileep in this private houfe occafionally, 
as a gueft to the perfon who hired it, under a penalty, but 
amoft every Dutchman that went by ran in without any 
ceremony, to aflc what they fold, there having been very 
feldom any private perfons at Batavia who had not fome- 
thing to fell. Every body here hires a carriage, and Mr. 
Banks hired two. They are open chaifes, made to hold two 
people, and driven by a man fitting on a coach-box ; for 
each of thefe he paid two rix-dollars a day. 

5 As 


As foon as he was fettled in his new habitation, he fent for *77 c - 
Tupia, who till now had continued on board upon account J^^IIl* 
of his illnefs, which was of; the bilious kind, and for which Thurfday "' 
he had obftinately refufed to take any medicine. He foon 
came afhore, with his boy Tayeto, and though while he was 
on board, and after he came into the boat, he was exceed- 
ingly liftlefs and dejected, he no fooner entered the town 
than he feemed to be animated with a new foul. The houfes, 
carriages, ftreets, people, and it multiplicity of other ob- 
jects, all new, which rumed upon him at once, produced 
an effect like the fudden and fecret power that is imagined 
offafcination. Tayeto expreffed his wonder and delight 
with ftill lefs reftraint, and danced along the ftreet in a kind 
of extafy, examining every object: with a reftlefs and eager 
cuiiofity, which was every moment excited and gratified. 
One of the firfl things that Tupia remarked, was the various 
dreffes of the paffing multitude, concerning which he made 
many enquiries ; and when he was told that in this place, 
where people of many different nations were affembled, 
every one wore the habit of his country, he defired that he 
might conform to the cuflom, and appear in that of Otaheite. 
South Sea cloth was therefore fent for from the fhip, and he 
equipped himfelf with great expedition and dexterity. The 
people who had feen Otourou, the Indian who had been 
brought hither by M. Bougainville, enquired whether Tupia 
was not the fame perfon; from thefe enquiries, we learnt 
who it was that we had fuppofed to be Spaniards, from the 
accounts that had been given of two mips by the Iflanders. 

In the mean time, I procured an order to the fuperinten- 
dant of the ifland of Ouruft, where the fhip was to be re- 
paired, to receive her there ; and fent by one of the mips that 
failed for Holland, an account of our arrival here, to Mr. 
Stephens, the Secretary to the Admiralty. 

4 Y 2 The 


i-77** The expences that would be incurred by repairing and re- 

• — -v-lL/ fitting the fhip, rendered it neceffary for me to take up 
rhurfdayu. mone y in ^jg pi ace) w hich I imagined might be done with- 
out difficulty, but I found myfelf miftaken; for after the 
moil diligent enquiry, I could not find any private perfon that 
had ability and inclination to advance the fum that I wanted. 
In this difficulty I applied to the Governor himfelf, by a 
written requeft, in confequence of which, the Shebander had 
orders to fupply me with what money I mould require out of 
the Company's Treafury. 

ThurfdayiS. On the 18th, as foon as it was light, having by feveral 
accidents and miftakes fuffered a delay of many days, I took 
up the anchor, and ran down to Ouruft : a few days after- 
wards, we went along-fide of the wharf, on Cooper's Iflandj 
which lies clofe to Ouruft, in order to take out our ftores. 

By this time, having been here only nine days, we began 
to feel the fatal effects of the climate and fituation. Tupia, 
after the flow of fpirits which the novelties of the place pro- 
duced upon his firft landing, funk on a fudden, and grew 
every day worfe and worfe. Tayeto was feized with an in- 
flammation upon his lungs, Mr. Banks's two fervants became 
very ill, and himfelf and Dr. Solander were attacked by 
fevers: in a few days, almofl every perfon both onboard 
and afliore was fick ; affected, no doubt, by the low fwampy 
fituation of the place, and the numberlefs dirty canals which, 
interfect the town in all dire&ions. On the 26th, I fet up 
the tent for the reception of the fhip's company, of whom 
there was but a fmall number able to do duty. Poor Tupia, 
of whofc life we now began to defpair, and who till this 
time had continued afliore with Mr. Banks, defired to be re- 
moved to the fhip, where, he faid, he fiiould breathe a freer 
air than among the numerous houfes which obftructed ic 
h afliore.?: 


afliore: on board the fhip, however, he could not go, forfhe 1770. 

x October. 

was unrigged, and preparing to be laid down at the careen- < „ r 

ing place ; but on the 28th, Mr. Banks went with him to Sunday 28,. 
Cooper's hland, or, as it is called here, Kuypor, where fhe 
lay, and as he feemed pleafed with the fpot, a tent was 
there pitched for him: at this place, both the fea breeze and 
the land breeze blew directly over him, and he expreffed 
great fatisfaction in his fituation. Mr. Banks, whofe huma- 
nity kept him two days with this poor Indian, returned to 
the town on the 30th, and the fits of his intermittent, which Tuefday 301 
was now become a regular tertian, were fo violent as to de- 
prive him of his fenfes while they lafted, and leave him fo 
weak that he was fcarcely able to crawl down flairs : at this 
time, Dr. Solander's diforder alfo increafed, and Mr. Monk- 
houfe, the Surgeon, was confined to his bed. 

On the fifth of November, after many delays in confe- November;. 
quence of the Dutch mips coming along-fide the wharfs to 
load pepper, the fhip was laid down, and the fame day, Mr. 
Monkhoufe, our Surgeon, a fenfible, fkilful man, fell the 
firft facrifice to this fatal country, a lofs which was greatly 
aggravated by our fituation. Dr. Solander was juft able to 
attend his funeral, but Mr. Banks was confined to his bed. 
Our diftrefs was now very great, and the profpect before us 
difcouraging in the highefl degree: our danger was not fucii 
as we could furmount by any efforts of our own ; courage, 
fkill, and diligence were all equally ineffectual, and death 
was every day making advances upon us, where we could 
neither refift nor fly. Malay fervants were hired to attend 
the fick, but they had fo little fenfe either of. duty or huma- 
nity, that they could not be kept within call, and the patient 
was frequently obliged to get out. of bed to feek them,. On 
die 9th, we loft our poor Indian boy Tayeto r and Tupia was FxHajr.^. 



i77°« fo much affected, that it was doubted whether he would 

November. _ .,, . ■> 

< . furvive till the next day. 

Friday 9. ' ' . 

In the mean time, the bottom of the imp being examined, 
was found to be in a worfe condition than we apprehended : 
the falfe keel was all gone to within twenty feet of the ftern 
poll; the main keel was confiderably injured in many 
places ; a great quantity of the fheathing was torn off, and 
feveral planks were much damaged; two of them, and the 
half of a third, under the main channel near the keel, were, 
for the length of fix feet, fo worn, that they were not above 
an eighth part of an inch thick, and here the worms had 
made their way quite into the timbers ; yet in this condition 
fhe had failed many hundred leagues, where navigation is 
as dangerous as in any part of the world : how much mifery 
did we efcape, by being ignorant rhat fo confiderable a part 
of the bottom of the veffel was thinner than the fole of a 
fhoe, and that every life on board depended upon fo flight 
and fragile a barrier between us and the unfathomable 
ocean ! It feemed, however, that we had been preferved only 
to perifh here ; Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander were fo bad that 
the phyfician declared they had no chance for recovery but 
by removing into the country ; a houfe was therefore hired 
for them, at the diftance of about two miles from the town, 
which belonged to the mafler of the hotel, who engaged to 
furniih them with provifions, and the ufe of flaves. As they 
had already experienced their want of influence over flaves 
that had other matters, and the unfeeling inattention of thefe 
fellows to the fick, they bought each of them a Mallay 
woman, which removed both the caufes of their being fo ill 
ferved ; the women were their own property, and the ten- 
.dernefs of the fex, even here, made them good nurfes. 
While thefe preparations were making, they received an 



arccount of the death of Tupia, who funk at once after the 
lofs of the boy, whom he loved with the tendernefs of a 

By the 14th, the bottom of the fhip was thoroughly re- Wednef. i> 
paired, and very much to my fatisfaclion : k would, indeed, 
be injuftice to the officers and workmen of this yard, not to 
declare that, in my opinion, there is not a marine yard in 
the world, where a fhip can be laid down with more conve- 
nience, fafety, and difpatch, nor repaired with more dili- 
gence and fkill. At this place they heave down by two 
mafts, a method which we do not now practife ; it is, however, 
unqueftionably more fafe and expeditious to heave down 
with two mails than one, and he muft have a good fhare of 
bigotry to old cuftoms, and an equal want of common fenfe, 
who will not allow this, after feeing with what facility the 
Dutch heave down their largeft mips at this place. 

Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander recovered flowly at their coun- 
try-houfe, which was not only open to the fea breeze, but 
fituated upon a running ftream, which greatly contributed 
to the circulation of the air: but I was now taken ill myfelf ; 
Mr. Sporing, and a feaman who had attended Mr. Banks^ 
were alfo feized with intermittents ; and indeed there was 
not more than ten of the whole fhip's company that were 
able to do duty. 

We proceeded however in rigging the fhip, and getting 
water and flores aboard : the water we were obliged to pro- 
cure from Batavia, at the rate of fix fliillings and eight pence 
a leager, or one hundred and fifty gallons. 

About the 26th, the weflerly monfoon fet in, which gene- Monday 26. 
rally blows here in the night from the S. W. and in the day 
from the N. W. or N. For fome nights before this, we had . 
very heavy rain, with much thunder ; and in the night be- 



Monday 26. 

tween the 25th and 26th, fuch rain as we had feldom feen, 
for near four hours without intermiflion. Mr. Banks's houfe 
admitted the water in every part like a fieve, and it ran 
through the lower rooms in a dream that would have turned 
a mill: he was by this time fufliciently recovered to go out, 
and upon his entering Batavia the next morning, he was 
much furprifed to fee the bedding every where hung out to 

The wet feafon was now fet in, though we had fome in- 
tervals of fair weather. The frogs in the ditches, which 
croak ten times louder than any frogs in Europe, gave notice 
of rain by an inceffant noife that was almofl intolerable, and 
the gnats and mufquitos, which had been very troublefome 
even during the dry weather, were now become innu- 
merable, fwarming from every plafh of water like bees 
from a hive ; they did not, however, much incommode us 
in the day, and the flings, however troublefome at firft, 
never continued to itch above half an hour, fo that none of 
us felt in the day, the effects of the wounds they had received 
in the night. 

On the Sth of December, the fhip being perfectly refitted, 
and having taken in moil of her water and ftores, and re- 
ceived her fick on board, we ran up to Batavia Road, and 
anchored in four fathom and an half of water. 
Monday 24. From this time, to the 24th, we were employed in getting 
on board the remainder of our water and provifions, with 
fome new pumps, and in feveral other operations that were 
neceffary to fit the fhip for the fea, all which would have 
been effected much fooner, if ficknefs and death had not dis- 
abled or carried off a great number of our men. 

While we lay here, the Earl of Elgin, Captain Cook, a fhip 
belonging to the Engliffi Earl India Company, came to an 


Saturday 8 


anchor in the Road. She was bound from Madrafs to China, 1770. 

but having loft her paflage, put in here to wait for the next ■ vec ""' er '- 

feafon. The Phoenix, Captain Black, an Engliffi country Monday 24 * 
fhip, from Bencoolen, alfo came to an anchor at this place. 

In the afternoon of Chriftmas eve, the 24th, I took leave 
of the Governor, and feveral of the principal gentlemen of 
the place, with whom I had formed connections, and 
from whom I received every pollible civility and affiftance ; 
but in the mean time an accident happened, which might 
have produced difagreeable confcquences. A feaman had 
run away from one of the Dutch mips in the Road, and 
entered on board of mine : the Captain had applied to the 
Governor, to reclaim him as a fubject of Holland, and an 
order for thatpurpole was procured : this order was brought 
to me foon after I returned from my laft viflt, and I (aid, 
that if the man appeared to be a Dutchman, he mould cer- 
tainly be delivered up. Mr. Hicks commanded on board, 
and I gave the Dutch officer an order to him, to deliver the 
man up under that condition. I flept myfelf this night on 
fhore, and in the morning, the Captain of the Dutch Com- Tuefday-25. 
modore came and told me that he had carried my order on 
board, but that the officer had refufed to deliver up the man, 
alleging, not only that he was not a Dutchman, but that 
he was a fubject of Great Britain, born in Ireland ; I re- 
plied, that the officer had perfectly executed my orders, and 
that if the man was an Englifh fubjecl, it could not be ex- 
pected that I fhould deliver him up. The Captain then faid, 
that he was juft come from the Governor, to demand the 
man of me in his name, as a fubject of Denmark, alleging, 
that he flood in the fhip's books as born at Elfineur. The 
claim of this man as a fubject of Holland, being now given 
up, I obferved to the Captain, that there appeared to be fome 

Vol. II. 4 Z miftake 


miftake in the General's mefTage, for that he would certainly 
never demand a Danifh feaman from me, who had com- 
Tuefday 26. m i tte( j no ot h er crime than preferring the fervice of the 
Englifh to that of the Dutch. I added, however, to con- 
vince him of my fincere defire to avoid difputes, that if the 
man was a Dane he mould be delivered up as a courtefy, 
though he could not be demanded as a right ; but that if I 
found he was an Englifh fubject, I would keep him at all 
events. Upon thefe terms we parted, and foon after I re- 
ceived a letter from Mr. Hicks, containing indubitable proof 
that the feaman in queflion was a fubject of his Britannic Ma- 
jelly. This letter I immediately carried to the Shebander, 
with a requeft that it might be fhewn to the Governor, and 
that his Excellency might at the fame time be told, I would 
not upon any terms part with the man. This had the defired 
effect, and I heard no more of the affair. 

In the evening, I went on board, accompanied by Mr. 
Banks, and the reft of the gentlemen who had conflantly 
refided on more, and who, though better, were not yet 
perfectly recovered. 

^'ednef. z6. At fix in the morning, of the q6th, we weighed and fet 
fail, with a light breeze at S. W. The Elgin Indiaman fa- 
luted us with three cheers and thirteen guns, and the garri- 
foh with fourteen, both which, with the help of our fwivels, 
we returned, and foon after the fea breeze fet in at N. by W. 
which obliged us to anchor juft without the mips in the 

At this time, the number of fick on board amounted to 
forty, and the reft of the fhip's company were in a very feeble 
condition. Every individual had been fick except the fail- 
maker, an old man between feventy and eighty years of 



age, and it is very remarkable that this old man, during 177°- 
our ftay at this place, was conftantly drunk every day: we L_ v - ' 
had buried feven, the Surgeon, three feamen, Mr. Green's Wednef ' z ' 
fervant, Tupia, and Tayeto his boy. All but Tupia fell a 
facriflce to the unwholefome, ftagnant, putrid air of the 
country, and he who from his birth had been ufed to fubfifl 
chiefly upon vegetable food, particularly ripe fruit, foon 
contracted all the diforders that are incident to a fea life, 
and would probably have funk under them before we could 
have completed our voyage, if we had not been obliged to 
go to Batavia to refit. 

4 Z a CHAP. 



Some Account of Batavia, and the adjacent Country , with 
their Fruits, Flowers, and other Produ&ions. 

J77°» "|3 ATA V I A, the capital of the Dutch dominions in India, 
1 -™ 2t *- J and generally fuppofed to have no equal among all the 
pofTeflions of the Europeans in Afia, is Situated on the north 
fide of the ifland of Java, in a low fenny plain, where feveral 
fmall rivers, which take their rife in the mountains called 
BlaeuwenBerg, about forty miles up the country, empty them- 
felves into the fea, and where the coaft forms a large bay, called 
the Bay of Batavia, at the distance of about eight leagues 
from the ftreight of Sunda. It lies in latitude 6° io'S. and 
longitude 106^50' E. from the meridian of Greenwich, as 
appears from aftronomical obfervations made upon the Spot, 
by the Reverend Mr. Mohr, who has built an elegant ob- 
fervatory, which is as well furnifhed with instruments as 
molt in Europe. 

The Dutch feem to have pitched upon this fpot for the 
convenience of water-carriage, and in that it is indeed a 
fecond Holland, and fuperior to every other place in the 
world. There are very few Streets that have not a canal of 
considerable breadth running through them, or rather Stag- 
nating in them, and continued for Several, miles in almoft 
every direction beyond the town, which is alfo interfected 
by five or fix rivers, fome of which are navigable thirty or 
forty miles up the country. As the houfes are large, and 
the Streets wide, it takes up a much greater extent, in pro- 

7 portion 


portion to the number of houfes it contains, than any city 
in Europe. Valentyn, who wrote an account of it about the 
year 1726, fays, that in his time there were, within the 
walls, 1242 Dutch houfes, and 1200 Chinefe; and without 
the walls 1066 Dutch, and 1240 Chinefe, befides 12 arrack 
houfes, making in all 4760 : but this account appeared to us 
to be greatly exaggerated, efpecially with refpect to the 
number of houfes within the walls. 

The ftreets are fpacious and handfome, and the banks of 
the canals are planted with rows of trees, that make a' very 
plealing appearance ; but the trees concur with the canals 
to make the fituation unwholefome. The ftagnant canals 
in the dry feafon exhale an intolerable flench, and the trees 
impede the courfe of the air, by which in fome degree the 
putrid effluvia would be diffipated. In the wet feafon the 
inconvenience is equal, for then thefe refervoirs of corrupted 
water overflow their banks in the lower part of the town, 
efpecially in the neighbourhood of. the hotel, and fill 
the lower ilories of the houfes, where they leave behind 
them an inconceivable quantity of flime and filth : yet thefe 
eanals are fometimes cleaned ; but the cleaning them is fo 
managed as to become as great a nuifance as the foulnefs of 
the water; for the black mud that is taken from the bottom is 
fufFered to lie upon the banks, that is, in the middle of the 
Itreet, till it has acquired a fufficient degree of hardnefs to 
be made the lading of a boat, and carried away. As this 
mud confifts chiefly of human ordure, which is regularly 
thrown into the canals every morning, there not being a 
neceflary-houfe in the whole town, it poifons the air while 
it is drying to a confiderable extent. Even the running 
ftreams become nuifances in their turn, by the naflinefs or 
negligence of the people ; for every now and then a dead 



1770. hog, or a dead horfe, is flranded upon the mallow parts, and 
Decem ber^ ^ i,Q m g the bufinefs of no particular peribn to remove the 
nuifance, it is negligently left to time and accident. While 
we were here, a dead buffalo lay upon the fhoal of a river 
that ran through one of the principal ftreets above a week, 
and at laft was carried away by a flood. 

The houfes are in general well adapted to the climate; 
they confift of one very large room or hall on the ground 
floor, with a door at each end, both which generally ftand 
open : at one end a room is taken off by a partition, where 
the mafter of the houfe tranfadls his bufinefs ; and in the 
middle between each end there is a court, which gives light 
to the hall, and at the fame time increafes the draught of 
air. From one corner of the hall the flairs go up to the floor 
above, where alfo the rooms are fpacious and airy. In the 
alcove, which is formed by the court, the family dine ; and 
at other times it is occupied by the female flaves, who are 
not allowed to lit down any where elfe. 

The public buildings are, mofl of them, old, heavy, and 
ungraceful ; but the new church is not inelegant; it is built 
with a dome, that is feen from a great diftance at fea, and 
though the outfide has rather a heavy appearance, the infide 
forms a very fine room : it is furnifhed with an organ of a 
proper fize, being very large, and is mofl magnificently il- 
luminated by chandeliers. 

The town is inclofed by a ftone wall, of a moderate height; 
but the whole of it is old, and many parts are much out of 
repair. This wall itfelf is furrounded by a river, which in 
fome places is fifty, and in fome a hundred yards wide : the 
ftream is rapid,, but the water is fhallow. The wall is alfo 
lined within by a canal, which in different parts is of diffe- 
rent breadths ; fo that, in palling either out or in through the 



gates, it is nccefTary to crofs two draw-bridges ; and there J 77o. 
is no accefs for idle people or ftrangers to walk upon the ( ]" Jj 
ramparts, which feem to be but ill provided with guns. 

In the north eafl corner of the town flands the caflle or 
citadel, the walls of which are both higher and thicker than 
thofe of the town, efpecially near the landing-place, where 
there is depth of water only for boats, which it completely 
commands, with feveral large guns that make a very good 

Within this cattle are apartments for the Governor Gene- 
ral, and all the Council of India, to which they are enjoined 
to repair in cafe of a fiege. Here are alfo large ftorehoufes, 
where great quantities of the Company's goods are kept, 
efpecially thofe that are brought from Europe, and where 
almoll all their writers tranfacl their bulinefs. In this place 
alio are laid up a great number of cannon, whether to mount 
upon the walls or furnifh flapping, we could not learn ; and 
the Company is faid to be well fupplied with powder, which 
is difperfed in various magazines, that if fome mould be de- 
flroyed by lightning, which in this place is very frequent^ 
the reft may efcape. 

Befides the fortifications of the town, numerous forts are 
difperfed about the country to the diftance of twenty or thirty 
miles ; thefe feem to have been intended merely to keep the 
natives in awe, and indeed they are fit for nothing elfe. For 
the fame purpofe a kind of houfes, each o^ which mounts 
about eight guns, are placed in fuch fituations as command 
the navigation of three or four canals, and ■ ... .nfequently the 
roads upon their banks: fome of thefe are in the town itfelf, 
and it was from one of thefe that all the belt houfes belong- 
ing to the Chinefe were levelled with the ground in the Chi- 
nefe rebellion of 1 740. Thefe defences are fcattered over all 
8 parts 


i77°- parts of Java, and the other iflands of which the Dutch have 

i_ -.- Jj got pofTeffion in thefe feas. Of one of thefe fingular forts, or 

fortified houfes, we fhould have procured a drawing, if our 

Gentlemen had not been confined by ficknefs almoft all the 

time they were upon the ifland. 

If the Dutch fortifications here are not formidable in 
themfelves, they become fo by their fituation ; for they are 
among morafTes where the roads, which are nothing more 
than a bank thrown up between a canal and a ditch, may 
eafily be deftroyed, and confequently the approach of heavy 
artillery either totally prevented or greatly retarded : for it 
■would be exceedingly difficult, if not impoflible, to tranfport 
them in boats, as they all mutter every night under the 
guns of the cattle, a fituation from which it would be im- 
poflible for an enemy to take them. Befides, in this country, 
delay is death ; fo that whatever retards an enemy, will de- 
ftroy him. In lefs than a week, we were fenfible of the un- 
healthinefs of the climate -, and in lefs than a month half 
the fhip's company were unable to do their duty. AVe 
were told, that of a hundred foldiers who arrive here from 
Europe, it was a rare thing for fifty to furvive the firft year; 
that of thofe fifty, half would then be in the hofpital, and 
not ten of the reft in perfect health : poffibly this account 
may be exaggerated ; but the pale and feeble wretches 
whom we faw crawling about with a mufquet, which they 
were fcarcely able to carry, inclined us to believe that it was 
true. Every white inhabitant of the town indeed is a foldier ; 
the younger are conftantly muttered, and thofe who have 
ferved five years are liable to be called out when their affift- 
ance is thought to be necefiary ; but as neither of them are 
ever exercifed, or do any kind of duty, much cannot be ex- 
pected from them. The Portuguefe, indeed, are in general 



good mark (men, becaufc they employ themfelves much in 
mooting wild hogs and deer: neither the Mardykers nor the 
Chinefe know the ufe of fire-arms ; but as they are faid to 
be brave, they might do much execution with their own 
weapons, fwords, lances, and daggers. The Mardykers are 
Indians of all nations, who are defcended from free ances- 
tors, or have themfelves been made free. 

But if it is difficult to attack Batavia by land, it is utterly 
impoffible to attack it by fea : for the water is fo mallow, 
that it will fcarcely admit a longboat to come within cannon 
fhot of the walls, except in a narrow channel, called the 
river, that is walled on both fides by ftrong piers, and runs 
about half a mile into the harbour. At the other end, it ter- 
minates under the fire of the flrongeft part of the caftle; and 
here its communication with the canals that interfect the 
town is cut off by a large wooden boom, which is fhut 
every night at fix o'clock, and upon no pretence opened till 
the next morning. The harbour of Batavia is accounted the 
finefi: in India, and to all appearance with good reafon ; it is 
large enough to contain any number of fhips, and the 
ground is fo good that one anchor will hold till the cable 
decays : it never admits any fea that is troublefomc, and its 
only inconvenience is the fhoal water between the road and 
the river. When the fea breeze blows frefh, it makes a cock- 
ling fea that is dangerous to boats: our longboat once ftruck 
two or three times as flie was attempting to come out, and 
regained the river's mouth with fome difficulty. A Dutch 
boat, laden with fails and rigging for one of the Indiamen, 
was entirely loft. 

Round the harbour, on the outiide, lie many ifiands, which 
the Dutch have taken poffeilion of, a ad apply to different 
ufes. To one of them, called Edam, they tranfport all Eu- 

Vol. II. 5 A ropeans 




»77°« ropeans who have been guilty of crimes that are not worthy 

December. ■ ' " ' ■ J 

\. — „ — i of death: fome are fentenced to remain there ninety-nine 
years, fome forty, fome twenty, fbme lefs, down to five, in 
proportion to their offence ; and during their banimment, 
they are employed as Haves in making ropes, and other 
drudgery. In another ifland, called Purmerent, they have an 
hofpital, where people are faid to recover much falter than 
at Batavia. In a third, called Kuyper, they have warehoufes 
belonging to the Company, chiefly for rice, and other mer- 
chandize of fmall value ; and here the foreign mips, that 
are to be laid down at Ouruft, another of thefe iflands, which 
with Kuyper has been mentioned before, difcharge their 
cargoes at wharfs which are very convenient for the pur- 
pofe. Here the guns, fails, and other flores of the Falmouth, 
a man of war, which was condemned at this place when fhe 
was returning from Manilla, were depofited, and the fhip 
herfelf remained in the harbour with only the warrant offi- 
cers on board for many years. Remittances were regularly 
made them from home ; but no notice was ever taken of the 
many memorials they fent, defiring to be recalled. Happily 
for them, the Dutch thought lit, about fix months before our 
arrival, to fell the veilel and all her flores, by public auction, 
and fend the officers home in their own mips. At Ouruft, 
they repair all their own {hipping, and keep a large quan- 
tity of naval ftores. 

The country round Batavia is for fome miles a continued 
range of country houfes and gardens. Many of the gardens 
are very large, and, by fome ftrange fatality, all are planted 
with trees almoil as thick as they can Hand ; fo that the 
country derives no advantage from its being cleared of the 
wood that originally covered it, except the fruit of that 
which has been planted in its room. Thefe impenetrable 



forefts fland in a dead flat, which extends fome miles beyond 
them, and is interfered in many directions by rivers, and 
more flill by canals, which are navigable for fmall vefTels. 
Nor is this the worfl, for the fence of every field and garden 
is a ditch ; and interfperfed among the cultivated ground 
there are many filthy fens, bogs, and morafles, as well frefh 
as fait. 

It is not ftrange that the inhabitants of fuch a country 
mould be familiar with difeafe and death: preventive medi- 
cines are taken almoft as regularly as food ; and every body 
expects the returns of ficknefs, as we do the feafons of the 
year. We did not fee a fingle face in Batavia that indicated 
perfect health, for there is not the lead tint of colour in the 
cheeks either of man or woman : the women indeed are 
mod delicately fair; but with the appearance of difeafe 
there never can be perfect beauty. People talk of death 
with as much indifference as they do in a camp ; and when 
an acquaintance is faid to be dead, the common reply is, 
" Well, he owed me nothing ;" or, " I muft get my money 
" of his executors." 

To this description of the environs of Batavia there are but 
two exceptions. The Governor's country houfe is fituated 
upon a rifing ground; but its afcent is fo inconfiderable, that 
it is known to be above the common level only by the ca- 
nals being left behind, and the appearance of a few bad 
hedges : his Excellency, however, who is a native of this 
place, has, with fome trouble and expence, contrived to in- 
dole his own garden with a ditch ; fuch is the influence of 
habit both upon the tafte and the undcrftanding. A famous 
market alio, called Paflar Tanabank, is held upon an emi- 
nence that rifes perpendicularly about thirty feet above the 
plain ; and except thefe fituations, the ground, for an extent 

<; A 2 of 


i77°- of between thirty and forty miles round Batavia, is exactly 
\_ - T -l!l< parallel to the horizon. At the diftance of about forty miles 
inland there are hills of a confiderable height, where, as we 
were informed, the air is healthy, and comparatively cool. 
Here the vegetables of Europe flourifh in great perfection, 
particularly ftrawberries, which can but ill bear heat ; and 
the inhabitants are vigorous and ruddy. Upon thefe hills 
fome of the principal people have country houfes, which 
they vifit once a-year; and one was begun for the Governor, 
upon the plan of Blenheim, the famous feat of the Duke of 
Marlborough in Oxfordfhire, but it has never been finifhed. 
To thefe hills alfo people are fent by the phyiicians, for the 
recovery of their health, and the effects of the air are faid to 
be almofl miraculous : the patient grows well in a fhort time, 
but conitantly relapfes foon after his return to Batavia. 

But the fame fituation and circumftances which render 
Batavia and the country round it unwholefome, render it the 
befl gardener's ground in the world. The foil is fruitful be- 
yond imagination, and the conveniences and luxuries of 
life that it produces are almoft without number. 

Rice, which is well known to be the corn of thefe coun- 
tries, and to ferve the inhabitants inftead of bread, grows in 
great plenty: and I mull here obferve, that in the hilly parts 
of Java, and in many of the eaftern iflands, a fpecies of this 
grain is planted, which in the weftern parts of India is intirely 
unknown. It is called by the natives Paddy Gunung, or Moun- 
tain rice ; this, contrary to the other fort which muft be un- 
der water three parts in. four of the time of its growth, is 
planted upon the fides of hills where no water but rain can. 
come : it is however planted at the beginning of the rainy fea- 
fon, and reaped in the beginning of the dry. How far this kind 
of rice might be ufeful in our Well Indian iflands, where no 
a. bread. 


bread corn is grown, it may perhaps be worth while to en- 

Indian corn, or maize, is alfo produced here; which the 
inhabitants gather when young, and toaft in the ear. Here 
is alfo a great variety of kidney beans, and lentiles, which 
they call Cadjang, and which make a confiderable part of the 
food of the common people ; befides millet, yams both wet 
and dry, fwect potatoes, and European potatoes, which are 
very good, but not cultivated in great plenty. In the gar- 
dens, there are cabbages, lettuces, cucumbers, rhadifhes, 
the white rhadiihes of China, which boil almofl as well as a 
turnep ; carrots, parfley, celery, pigeon peas, the egg plant, 
which broiled, and eaten with pepper and fait, is very deli- 
cious ; a kind of greens refembling fpinage ; onions, very 
fhiall, but excellent •, and afparagus : befides fome European 
plants of a ftrong fmell, particularly fage, hyfop, and rue. 
Sugar is alfo produced here in immenfe quantities : very 
great crops of the fineffc and larger! canes that can be ima- 
gined are produced with very little care, and yield a much 
larger proportion of fugar than the canes of the Weft Indies, 
White fugar is fold here at two pence half-penny a pound ; 
and the molaffes makes the arrack, of which, as of rum, it 
is the chief ingredient ; a fmall quantity of rice, and fomc 
cocoa-nut wine, being added, chiefly, I fuppofe, to give it 
flavour. A fmall quantity of indigo is alfo produced here, 
not as an article of trade, but merely for home confumption. 

But the mod abundant article of vegetable luxury here, is 
the fruit ; of which there is no lefs than fix and thirty dif- 
ferent kinds, and Lfhall give a very brief account of each. 

i. The pine apple ; Bromelia Aiianas, This fruit, which is 
here called Nanas, grows very large, and in fuch plenty that 
they may fometimes be bought at the firft hand for a fay- 


thing a piece ; and at the common fruit fhops we got three 
of them for two pence half-penny. They are very juicy and 
well flavoured ; but we all agreed that we had eaten as good 
from a hot-houfe in England : they are however fo luxuriant 
in their growth that rnoft of them have two or three crowns, 
and a great number of fuckers from the bottom of the fruit; 
of thefe Mr. Banks once counted nine, and they are fo for- 
ward that very often while they ftill adhered to the parent 
plant they (hot out their fruit, which, by the time the large 
one became ripe, were of no inconfiderable fize. We feveral 
times faw three upon one apple, and were told that a plant 
once produced a clufter of nine, befides the principal : this 
indeed was confidered as fo great a curiofity, that it was pre- 
ferred in fugar, and fent to the Prince of Orange. 

2. Sweet oranges. Thefe are very good, but while we 
were here, fold for fix pence a piece. 

3. Pumplemoefes, which in the Weft Indies are called 
Shaddocks. Thefe were well flavoured, but not juicy; their 
want of juice however was an accidental effect of the feafon. 

4. Lemons. Thefe were very fcarce ; but the want of them 
was amply compenfatcd by the plenty of limes. 

5. Limes. Thefe were excellent, and to be bought at about 
twelve pence a hundred. We faw only two or three Seville 
oranges, which were almofl all rind ; and there are many 
forts, both of oranges and lemons, which I mall not particu- 
larly mention, bccaufe they are neither efteemed by Euro- 
peans nor the natives themfelves. 

6. Mangos. This fruit during our ftay was fo infefled 
with maggots, which bred in the infide of them, that fcarcely 
one in three was eatable ; and the bed of them were much 
inferior to thofe of Brazil : they are generally compared by 



Europeans to a melting peach, which, indeed, they referable 
in foftnefs and fweetnefs, but certainly fall much fhort in 
flavour. The climate here, we were told, is too hot and 
damp for them ; but there are as many forts of them as 
there are of apples in England, and fome are much fuperior 
to others. One fort, which is called Mangha Coivani, has fo 
ftrong a fmell that a European can fcarcely bear one in the 
room -, thefe, however, the natives are fond of. The three 
forts which are generally preferred, are the Mangha Doodool, 
the Mangha Santock, and the Mangha Cure, 

7. Bananes. Of thefe alfo there are innumerable forts, 
but three only are good ; the Pijfang Mas, the Pijfang Radja r 
and the Pijfang Ambou: all thefe have a pleafant vinous tafte, 
and the reft are ufeful in different ways ; fome are fried in 
batter, and others are boiled and eaten as bread. There is 
one which deferves the particular notice of the botanift, be- 
eaufe, contrary to the nature of its tribe, it is full of feeds, 
and is therefore called Pijfang Batu, or Pijfang Bidjie ; it has 
however no excellence to recommend it to the tafte, but the 
Malays ufe it as a remedy for the flux. 

8. Grapes. Thefe are not in great perfection, but they are 
very dear ; for we could not buy a moderate bunch for lefs 
than a milling or eighteen pence. 

9. Tamarinds. Thefe are in great plenty, and very cheap: 
the people however do not put them up in the manner prac- 
tifed by the Weft Indians, but cure them with fait, by which- 
means they become a black mafs, fo difagreeable to the 
fight and tafte, that few Europeans chufe to meddle with 

10. Water melons. Thefe are in great plenty, and very 

3 11. Pumpkins. 



1770. ir. Pumpkins. Thefe are beyond comparifon the mod 

December ^fefai fafa t hat can be carried to fea ; for they will keep 
without any care feveral months, and with fugar and lemon- 
juice, make a pye that can fcarcely be diftinguifhed from 
one made of the beft apples ; and with pepper and fait, they 
are a fubftitute for lurneps, not to be defpifed 

12. Papaws. This fruit when it is ripe is full of feeds, and 
almoft without flavour ; but if when it is green it is pared, 
and the core taken out, it is better than the beft turnep. 

13. Guava. This fruit is much commended by the inha- 
bitants of our iflands in the Weft Indies, who probably have 
a better fort than we met with here, where the fmell of them 
was fo difagreeably ftrong that it made fome of us fick ; 
thofe who tafted them, faid, that the flavour was equally 

id.. Sweet fop. The Amwna fquammofa of Linnams. This 
is alfo a Weft Indian fruit; it confifts only of a mafs of 
large kernels, from which a fmall proportion of pulp may 
be fucked, which is very fweet, but has little flavour. 

15. Cuftard apple. The Annona reticulata of Linnasus. The 
quality of this fruit is well expreffed by its Englifh name, 
which it acquired in the Weft Indies ; for it is as like a cuf- 
tard, and a good one too, as can be imagined. 

16. The cafliew apple. This is feldom eaten on account of 
its aftringency. The nut that grows upon the top of it is 
well known in Europe. 

17. The cocoa-nut. This is alfo well known in Europe; 
there are feveral forts, but the beft of thofe we found here is 
called Calappi Edjon, and is eafily known by the rednefs of 
the nefh between the fkin and the fhell. 

18, Mangoftan. 



18. Mangoftan. The Garcinia Mangoflana of Linnaeus. This 1770. 

fruit, which is peculiar to the Eaft Indies, is about the fizc of 
the crab apple, and of a deep red-wine colour : on the top of 
it is the figure of five or fix fmall triangles joined in a circle, 
and at the bottom feveral hollow green leaves, which are re- 
mains of the bloflbra. When they are to be eaten, the fkin, 
or rather flefh, mufl be taken off, under which are found fix 
or leven white kernels, placed in a circular order, and the 
pulp with which thefe are inveloped, is the fruit, than which 
nothing can be more delicious : it is a happy mixture of the 
tart and the fweet, which is no lefs wholefome than plea- 
fant ; and with the fweet orange, this fruit is allowed in any 
•quantity to thofe who are affii&ed with fevers, either of the 
putrid or inflammatory kind. 

19. The jamboo. The Eugenia Mallaccenfis of Linnaeus. This 
fruit is of a deep red colour, and an oval fhape ; the largeft, 
which are always the beft, are not bigger than a fmall apple ; 
they are pleafant and cooling, though they have not much 

so. The jambu-eyer. A fpecies of the Eugenia of Linnaeus. 
Of this fruit there are two forts of a fimilar fhape, refem- 
bling a bell, but differing in colour ; one being red, the 
other white. They fomewhat exceed a large cherry in fize, 
and in tafte have neither flavour nor even fweetnefs, con- 
taining nothing but a watry juice, flightly acidulated ; yet 
their coolnefs recommends them in this hot country, 

21. Jambu-eyer mauwar. The Eugenia jambos of Linnaeus. 
This is more grateful to the fmell than the tafte ; in tafte it 
refembles the conferve of rofes, and in fmell the frefh fcent 
of thofe flowers. 

22. The pomgranate. This is the fame fruit that is known 
by the fame name all over Europe. 

Vol.IL 5B 23. Durion, 



23. Durion. A fruit that in fhape rcfembles a fmall melon, 
but the fkin is covered with fharp conical fpines, whence 
its name ; for dure, in the Malay language, fignifies prickle. 
When it is ripe, it divides longitudinally into feven or eight 
compartments, each of which contains fix or feven nuts, not 
quite fo large as chefnuts, which are covered with a fub- 
ftance that in colour and confiftcnce very much refembles 
thick cream : this is the part that is eaten, and the natives 
are fond of it to excefs. To Europeans it is generally difa- 
greeable at firfl j for in tafte, it fomewhat refembles a mix- 
ture of cream, fugar, and onions 5 and in the fmell, the 
onions predominate. 

24. Nanca. This fruit, which in fome parts of India is called 
Jack, has, like the Durion, a fmell very difagreeable to Aran- 
gers, and fomewhat refembling that of mellow apples mixed 
with garlic : the flavour is not more adapted to the general 
tafte. In fome countries that are favourable to it, it is faid 
to grow to an immenfe fize. Rumphius relates, that it is 
fometimes fo large that a man cannot eafily lift it j and we 
were told by a Malay, that at Madura it is fometimes fo 
large as not to be carried but by the united efforts of two 
men. At Batavia, however, they never exceed the fize of a 
large melon, which in fhape they very much refemble: they 
are covered with angular prickles, like the ihootings of fome 
chryflals, which however are not hard enough to wound 
thofe who handle them. 

25. Champada. This differs from the Nanca in little ex- 
cept fize, it not being fo big. 

26. Rambutan. This is a fruit little known to Europeans; 
in appearance it very much refembles a chefnut with the 
hufk on, and like that, is covered with fmall points, which 
are foft and of a deep red colour: under this fkin is the 

8 fruit, 


fruit, and within the fruit a ftorie ; the eatable part there- 
fore is fmall in quantity, but its acid is perhaps more agree- 
able than any other in the whole vegetable kingdom. 

27. Jambokm. This in fize and appearance is not unlike 
a daraafcene ; but in tafle is flill more aftringent, and there- 
tore lefs agreeable. 

28. The Boa Bidarra ; or Rhammis Jujuba of Linnaeus. This 
is a round yellow fruit, about the fize of a goofeberry; its 
ilavour is like that of an apple, but it has the aftringency of 
a crab. 

29. Nam nam. The Cynometra Cauliflora of Linnams. This 
fruit in fhape fomewhat refembles a kidney ; it is about 
three inches long, and the outfide is very rough : it is fel- 
dom eaten raw, but fried with batter it makes a good fritter, 

30,31. TheCatappa, or Tertamalia Catappa ; and theCanare, 
the Canarium commune of Linnaeus ; are both nuts, with kernels 
fomewhat refembling an almond ; but the difficulty of 
breaking the fhell is fo great, that they are no where pub- 
licly fold. Thofe which we tailed were gathered for curio- 
fity by Mr. Banks, from the tree upon which they grew. 

32. The Madja; or Limonia of Linnceus ; contains, under a 
hard brittle fhell, a lightly acid pulp, which cannot be eaten 
without fugar; and with it, is not generally thought plea- 

$$. Suntul. The Trichilia of Linnaeus. This is the word of 
all the fruits that I mall particularly mention : in fize and 
fhape it refembles the Madja ; and within a thick fkin con- 
tains kernels like thofe of the Mangoftan, the tafle of which 
is both acid and aftringent, and fo difagreeable that we were 
furprifed to fee it expofed upon the fruit-flails. 

S B 2 34 , 




1770. 34, 35, 36. The Blimbing, or Averrhoa Belbnbi ; the Blira- 

eJ^l^ bing BelTe, or Averrhoa Carambola; and the Cherrema, or 
Averrhoa aclda of Linnseus, are three fpecies of one genus ; 
and though they differ in fhape, are nearly of the fame 
tafte. The Blimbing Beffe is the fweeteft : the other two are 
fo aufcerely acid, that they cannot be ufed without drefling j 
they make however excellent pickles and four fauce. 

37. The Salack ; or Calamus Rotang Zalacca of Linnxus. This 
is the fruit of a prickly bufli ; it is about as big as a walnut, 
and covered with fcales, like thofe of a lizard : below the 
fcales are two or three yellow kernels, in flavour fomewhac 
refembling a ftrawberry. 

Befides thefe, the ifland of Java, and particularly the coun- 
• try round Batavia, produces many kinds of fruit which were 
not in feafon during our flay ; we were alfo told that apples, 
ftrawberries, and many other fruits from Europe, had been 
planted up in the mountains, and flourifhed there in great 
luxuriance. We faw feveral fruits preferved in fugar, that 
we did not fee recent from the tree, one of which is called 
Kimkit, and another Boa Atap : and here are feveral others 
which are eaten only by the natives, particularly the Kellor^ 
the Guilindina, the Moringa, and the Soccum. The Soccum is of 
the fame kind with the bread-fruit in the South Sea iflands, 
but fo much inferior, that if it had not been for the fimili- 
tude in the outward appearance both of the fruit and the 
tree, we mould not have referred it to that clafs. Thefe and 
fome others do not merit to be particularly mentioned. 

The quantity of fruit that is confumed at Batavia is incre- 
dible ; but that which is publicly expofed to fale is generally 
over-ripe. A ftranger however may get good fruit in a flreet 
called Paflar Piflang, which lies north from the great church, 
r and 


and very near it. This flreet is inhabited by none but Chinefe »77o- 
fruit-fellers, who are fupplied from the gardens of Gentle- , Dcce ™ bg 2. 
men in the neighbourhood of the town, with fuch as is 
frcfli, and excellent in its kind, for which however they 
muft be paid more than four times the market price. 

The town in general is fupplied from a considerable dis- 
tance, where great quantities of land are cultivated merely 
for the production of fruit. The country people, to whom 
thefe lands belong, meet the people of the town at two 
great markets ; one on Monday, called Paffar Sineen ; and 
the other on Saturday, called Paffar Tanabank. Thefe fairs 
are held at places confiderably diftant from each other, for 
the convenience of different diftriets ; neither of them how- 
ever are more than five miles diftant from Batavia. Ac thefe 
fairs, the befl fruit may be bought at the cheapeft rate ; and 
the fight of them to a European is very entertaining, The 
quantity of fruit is aftonifhing ; forty or fifty cart loads of 
the finefl pine apples, packed as carelefsly as turneps in 
England, are common, and other fruit in the fame profu- 
fion. The days however on which thefe markets are held 
are ill contrived ; the time between Saturday and Monday 
is too fhort, and that between Monday and Saturday too 
long : great part of what is bought on Monday is always 
much the worfe for keeping before a new ftock can be 
bought, either by the retailer or confumer ; fo that for feve- 
ral days in every week there is no good fruit in the hands 
of any people but the Chinefe in Paffar Piffang. 

The inhabitants of this part of India practife a luxury 
which feems to be but little attended to in other countries ; 
they are continually burning aromatic woods and refms, 
and fcatter odours round them in a profufion of flowers, 
pollibly as an antidote to the noifome effluvia of their ditches 



and canals. Of fweet fmelling flowers they have a great va- 
riety, altogether unknown in Europe, the chief of which 1 
fhall briefly defcribe. 

i. The Champacka, or Michelia Champacca. This grows upon 
a tree as large as an apple tree, and conflfts of fifteen long 
narrow petala, which give it the appearance of being double, 
though in reality it is not fo: its colour is yellow, and much 
deeper than that of a jonquil, to which it has fome refem- 
blance in fmell. 

2. The Cananga, or Uvaria Cananga, is a green flower, not 
at all refembling the bloflbm of any tree or plant in Europe : 
it has indeed more the appearance of a bunch of leaves than 
a flower; its fcent is agreeable, but altogether peculiar to 

3. The Mulaiti, or Njflanlhes Sa?nbac. This is well known in 
Englifh hot-houfes by the name of Arabian jeffamine: it 
grows here in the greater! profufion, and its fragrance, like 
that of all other Indian flowers, though exquifitely pleafing, 
has not that over-powering ftrength which diftinguifhes fome 
of the fame forts in Europe. 

4. 5. The Combang CaracnaJ/i, and Combang Tonquin, Pcrcularla 
Glabra. Thefe are fmall flowers, of the dog's-bane kind, 
very much refembling each other in fhape and fmell, highly 
fragrant, but very different from every product of an Englifh 

6. The Bonga Tanjong, or Mimufops Elengi of Linnseus. This 
flower is fhaped like a ftar of feven or eight rays, and is 
about half an inch in diameter; it is of a yellowifh colour, 
and has an agreeable fmell. 

Befides thefe, there is the Sunclil Malum, or Pollanthes Tube- 
rofa. This flower, being the fame with our own tuberofe, can 



have no place among thofe that are unknown in Europe, 
but I mention it for its Malay name, which fignifies " In- 
triguer of the Night," and is not inelegantly conceived. 
The heat of this climate is fo great, that few flowers exhale 
their fweets in the day ; and this in particular, from its total 
want of fcent at that time, and the modefty of its colour, 
which is white, feems negligent of attracting admirers, but 
as foon as night comes on, it diffufes its fragrance, and at 
once compels the attention, and excites the complacency of 
all who approach it. 

Thefe are all fold about the flreets every evening at fun- 
fet, either ftrung upon a thread, in wreaths of about two 
feet long, or made up into nofegays of different forms, 
either of which may be purchafed for about a halfpenny. 
Befides thefe, there are, in private gardens, many other 
fweet flowers, which are not produced in a fufficient quantity 
to be brought to market. With a mixture of thefe flowers, 
and the leaves of a plant called pandang, cut into fmall 
pieces, perfons of both fexes fill their hair and their clothes, 
and with the fame mixture indulge a much higher luxury by 
lire wing it on their beds, fo that the chamber in which they 
fleep, breathes the richell and purefl of all odours, unallayed 
by the fumes which cannot but arife where the fleeper lies 
under two or three blankets and a quilt, for the bed covering 
here is nothing more than a Angle piece of fine chintz. 

Before I clofe my account of the vegetable productions of 
this part of India, I mufl take fome notice of the fpices, 
Java originally produced none but pepper. This is now 
fent from hence into Europe to a great value, but the quan- 
tity confumed here is very fmall: the inhabitants ufe Cap- 
ficum, or, as it is called in Europe, Cayan pepper, almoft 
univerfally in its (lead. Cloves and nutmegs, having been 



monopolized by the Dutch, are become too dear to be plen- 
tifully ufed by the other inhabitants of this country, who 
are very fond of them. Cloves, although they are faid ori- 
ginally to have been the produce of Machian, or Bachian, a 
fmall illand far to the eaflward, and only fifteen miles to the 
northward of the line, and to have been from thence dif- 
feminated by the Dutch, at their firft coming into thefe parts, 
over all the eaftern iflands, are now confined to Amboina, 
and the fmall ifles that lie in its neighbourhood ■ the Dutch 
having, by different treaties of peace between them and the 
conquered kings of all the other illands, ftipulated, that they 
mould have only a certain number of trees in their domini- 
ons, and in future quarrels, as a punifhment for difobedi- 
ence and rebellion, leffened the quantity, till at laft they left 
them no claim to any. Nutmegs have in a manner been 
extirpated in all the illands except their firft native foil, 
Band a, which eafily fupplies every nation upon earth, and 
would as eafily fupply every nation in another globe of the 
fame dimenfions, if there was any fuch to which the in- 
duflrious Hollander could tranfport the commodity ; it is, 
However, certain, that there are a few trees of this fpice 
upon the coaft of New Guinea. There may perhaps be both 
cloves and nutmegs upon other iflands to the eaflward ; for 
.thofe, neither the Dutch, nor any other European, feem to 
think it worth while to examine. 

The principal tame quadrupeds of this country are horfes., 
cattle, buffalos, fheep, goats, and hogs. The horfes are 
fmall, never exceeding in fize what we call a flout galloway, 
but they are nimble and fpirited, and are reported to have 
been found here when the Europeans firft came round the 
Cape of Good Hope. The horned cattle are faid to be the 
fame fpecies as thofe in Europe, but they differ fo much in 
appearance, that we were inclined to doubt it: they have in- 


deed the pakaria or dewlap, which naturalifts make the dif- '77<>. 
tinguifhing characteriftic of the European fpecies, but they ■_ -.- *■ 
certainly are found wild, not only in Java but feveral of the 
eaftern iflands. The flefh of thofe that we eat at Batavia, 
had a finer grain than European beef, but it was lefs juicy, 
and miferably lean. Buffalos are plenty, but the Dutch 
never eat them, nor will they drink their milk, being pre- 
pofTened with a notion that both are unwholefome, and 
tend to produce fevers ; though the natives and Chinefe eat 
both, without any injury to their health. The fheep are of 
the kind which have long ears that hang down, and hair in- 
Head of wool : the flefh. of thefe is hard and tough, and in 
every refpect the worfl mutton we ever faw: we found here, 
however, a few Cape fheep, which are excellent, but fo 
dear that we gave five and forty millings a-piece for four of 
them, the heavieft of which weighed only five and forty 
pounds. The goats are not better than the fheep, but the 
hogs, efpecially the Chinefe breed, are incomparable, and 
fo fat, that the purchafer agrees for the lean feparately. 
The butcher, who is always a Chinefe, without the leafl 
fcruple cuts off as much of the fat as he is deiired, and after- 
wards fells it to his countrymen, who melt it down, and eat 
it inftead of butter with their rice: but notwithftanding the 
excellence of this pork, the Dutch are fo ftrongly prejudiced 
in favour of every thing that comes from their native coun- 
try, that they eat only of the Dutch breed, which are here 
fold as much dearer than the Chinefe, as the Chinefe are fold 
dearer than the Dutch in Europe. 

Befides thefe animals, which are tame, they have dogs 
and cats, and there are among the diftant mountains fome 
wild horfes and cattle: buffalos are not found wild in any 
part of Java, though they abound in MacaiTar, and feveral 
other eaftern iflands. The neighbourhood of Batavia, how- 

Vol. II. 5 C ever, 


ever, is plentifully fupplied with two kinds of deer, and 
wild hogs, which are fold at a reafonable price by the Por- 
tuguese, who flioot them, and are very good food. 

Among the mountains, and in the defart parts of the 
ifland, there are tygers, it is faid, in great abundance, and 
fome rhinoceroies ; in thefe parts alfo there are monkies, 
and there are a few of them even in the neighbourhood of 

Of fifli, here is an amazing plenty ; many forts are excel- 
lent, and all are very cheap, except the few that are fcarce. 
It happens here, as in other places, that vanity gets the 
better even of appetite: the cheap fifh, moll of which is of 
the bed: kind, is the food only of flaves, and that which is 
dear, only becaufe it is fcarce, and very much inferior in 
every refpett, is placed upon the tables of the rich. A fen- 
fible houfekeeper once fpoke to us freely upon the Subject. 
I know, faid he, as well as you, that I could purchafe a 
better dim of fifli for a milling, than what now cofts me ten % 
but if I mould make fo good a ufe of my money, I mould 
here be as much defpifed, as you would be in Europe, if you 
were to cover your table with offals, fit only for beggars or 

Turtle is alfo found here, but it is neither fo fweet nor fo 
fat as the Weft Indian turtle, even in London ; fuch as it is, 
however, we fliould confider it as a dainty ; but the Dutch, 
amongother angularities, do not eat it. We faw fome li- 
zards, or Iguanas, here of a very large fize ; we were told 
that fome were as thick as a man's thigh, and Mr. Banks fhot 
one that was five feet long: the flefh, of this animal proved 
to be very good food. 

Poultry is very good here, and in great plenty : fowls of 

a very large fize, ducks, and geefe are very cheap ; pigeons 

4 are 



are dear, and the price of turkies extravagant. We fome- »77°« 
times found the flefh. of thefe animals lean and dry, but this '• 

was merely the effect of their being ill fed, for thofe that we 
fed ourfelves were as good as any of the fame kind that we 
had tafted in Europe, and we fometimes thought them even 

Wild fowl in general is fcarce. We once faw a wild duck 
in the fields, but never any that were to be fold. We fre- 
quently faw fnipes of two kinds, one of them exactly the 
fame as that in Europe, and a kind of thrufli was always to 
be had in great plenty of the Portuguefe, who, for I know 
not what reafon, feem to have monopolized the wild fowl 
and game. Of fnipes, it is remarkable that they are found 
in more parts of the world than any other bird, being com- 
mon almoft all over Europe, Afia, Africa, and America. 

With refpect to drink, Nature has not been quite fo liberal 
to the inhabitants of Java as to fome whom £he has placed in 
the lefs fruitful regions of the north. The native Javanefe, 
and moft of the other Indians who inhabit this ifland, are 
indeed Mahometans, and therefore have no reafon to regret 
the want of wine ; but, as if the prohibition of their law 
refpected only the manner of becoming drunk, and not 
drunkennefs itfelf, they chew opium, to the total fubverfion 
not only of their underftanding but their health. 

The arrack that is made here, is too well known to need a 
defcription : befides which, the palm yields a wine of the 
fame kind with that which has already been defcribed in the 
account of the ifland of Savu ; it is procured from the fame 
tree, in the fame manner, and is fold in three ftatcs. The 
firft, in which it is called Tuac mamfe, differs little from that 
in which it comes from the tree ; yet even this has received 

5 C 2 fome 


1770* fome preparation altogether unknown to us, in confequence 
■l ecem - "'_. of which it will keep eight and forty hours, though other- 
wife it would fpoil in twelve : in this ftate it has an agreeable 
fweetnefs, and will not intoxicate. In the other two Hates it 
has undergone a fermentation, and received aninfufion of cer- 
tain herbs and roots, by which it lofes its fweetnefs, and ac- 
quires a tafte very auftere and difagreeable. In one of thefe 
Hates it is called Tuac eras, and in the other Time cuning, but 
the fpecific difference I do not know ; in both, however, it 
intoxicates very powerfully. A liquor called Tuac is alfo 
made from the cocoa-nut tree, but this is ufed chiefly to put 
into the arrack, for in that which is good it is an efTential in- 

GH A P. 



Some Account of the Inhabitants of Batavia, and the ad- 
jacent Country, their Manners, Cufioms, and Manner 
of Life. 


THE town of Batavia, although, as I have already ob- ^177° 
ferved, it is the capital of the Dutch dominions in India, 
is fo far from being peopled with Dutchmen, that not one 
fifth part, even of the European inhabitants of the town, and 
its environs, are natives of Holland, or of Dutch extraction: 
the greater part are Portuguefe, and befides Europeans, there 
are Indians of various nations, and Chinefe, befides a great 
number of negro Haves. In the troops, there are natives of 
almoft every country in Europe, but the Germans are more 
than all the reft put together ; there are fome Englifh and 
French, but the Dutch, though other Europeans are per- 
mitted to get money here, keep all the power in their own 
hands, and confequently poiTefs all public employments. No 
man, of whatever nation, can come hither to fettle, in any 
other character than that of a foldier in the Company's fer- 
vice, in which, before they are accepted, they muft covenant 
to remain five years. As foon however as this form has 
been complied with, they are allowed, upon application to 
the council, to abfent themfelves from their corps, and enter 
immediately into any branch of trade, which their money 
or credit will enable them to carry on ; and by this means it 
is that all the white inhabitants of the place are foldiers. 

Women, however, of all nations, are permitted to fettle 
here, without coming under any reftrictions ; yet we were 



told that there were not, when we were at Batavia, twenty 
women in the place that were born in Europe, but that the 
white women, who were by no means fcarce, were defcen- 
dants from European parents of the third or fourth genera- 
tion, the gleanings of many families who had fucceffively 
come hither, and in the male line become extinct ; for it is 
certain that, whatever be the caufe, this climate is not fo 
fatal to the ladies as to the other fex. 

Thefe women imitate the Indians in every particular ; their 
drefs is made of the fame materials, their hair is worn in the 
fame manner, and they are equally enflaved by the habit of 
chewing betel. 

The merchants carry on their bufinefs here with lefs 
trouble perhaps than in any other part of the world : every 
manufacture is managed by the Chinefe, who fell the pro- 
duce of their labour to the merchant, refident here, for they 
are permitted to fell it to no one elfe ; fo that when a fliip comes 
in, and befpeaks perhaps a hundred leagers of arrack, or 
any quantity of other commodities, the merchant has no- 
thing to do but to fend orders to his Chinefe to fee them de- 
livered on board : he obeys the command, brings a receipt 
ligned by the mailer of the fliip for the goods to his employer, 
who receives the money, and having deducted his profit, 
pays the Chinefe his demand. With goods that are im- 
ported, however, the merchant has a little more trouble, for 
thefe he muft examine, receive, and lay up in his warehoufe, 
according to the practice of other countries. 

The Portuguefe are called by the natives Oranferahe, or 
Nazareen men, (Oran, being Man in the language of the 
country,) todiftinguiih them from other Europeans; yet they 
are included in the general appellation of Caper, or Cafir., an 
opprobrious term, applied by Mahometans to all who do not 



profefs their faith. Thefe people, however, are Portuguefe 
only in name; they have renounced the religion of Rome, 
and become Lutherans : neither have they the leaft commu- 
nication with the country of their forefathers, or even know- 
lege of it: they fpeak indeed a corrupt dialect of the Portu- 
guefe language, but much more frequently ufe the Malay: 
they are never fuffered to employ themfelves in any bue 
mean occupations : many of them live by hunting, many 
by waffling linen, and fome are handicraftfmen and arti- 
ficers. They have adopted all the cuftoms of the Indians, 
from whom they are diftinguifhed chiefly by their features 
and complexion, their fkin being confiderably darker, and 
their nofes more fharp ; their drefs is exactly the fame, ex- 
cept in the manner of wearing their hair. 

The Indians, who are mixed with the Dutch and Portu- 
guefe in the town of Batavia, and the country adjacent, are 
not, as might be fuppofed, Javanefe, the original natives of 
the iiland, but natives of the various iflands from which the 
Dutch import ilaves, and are either fuch as have themfelves 
been manumized, or the defcendants of thofe who formerly 
received manumiffion ; and they are all comprehended 
under the general name of Oranjlam, or Ifalam, fignifying Be- 
lievers of the true Faith. The natives of every country, 
however, in other refpeets keep themfelves diftinct from the 
reft, and are not lefs ftrongly marked than the ilaves by the 
vices or virtues of their refpeclive nations. Many of thefe 
employ themfelves in the cultivation of gardens, and in 
felling fruit and flowers. The betel and areca, which are 
here called Siri and Pinaag, and chewed by both fcxes and 
every rank in amazing quantities, are all grown by thefe 
Indians : lime is alfo mixed with thefe roots here as it is in> 
Savu, but it is lefs pernicious to the teeth, becaufe it is firft 
flaked, and, befides the lime, a fubftance called gambir 




i77o« which is brought from the continent of India ; the better fort 
«_, - - J. of women alfo add cardamum, and many other aromatics, 
to give the breath an agreeable fmell. Some of the Indians, 
however, are employed in fifliing, and as lightermen, to 
carry goods from place to place by water; and fome arc 
rich, and live with much of the fplendour of their country, 
which chiefly confifts in the number of their flaves. 

In the article of food thefe Ifalams are remarkably tem- 
perate : it confifts chiefly of boiled rice, with a fmall propor- 
tion of bufFalo, fifh, or fowl, and fometimes of dried fifh, 
and dried mrimps, which are brought hither from China ; 
every difh, however, is highly feafoned with Cayan pepper, 
and they have many kinds of paftry made of rice flower, 
and other things to which I am a ftranger ; they eat alfo a 
great deal of fruit, particularly plantanes. 

But notwithftanding their general temperance, their feafts 
are plentiful, and, according to their manner, magnificent. 
As they are Mahometans, wine and flrong liquors profefTedly 
make no part of their entertainment, neither do they often 
indulge with them privately, contenting themfelves with 
their betel and opium. 

The principal folemnity among them is a wedding, upon 
which occafion both the families borrow as many ornaments 
of gold and filver as they can, to adorn the bride and bride- 
groom, fo that their drefles are very fhowy and magnificent. 
-The feafts that are given upon thefe occafions among the rich, 
laft fometimes a fortnight, and fometimes longer; and 
during this time, the man, although married on the firfl 
day, is, by the women, kept from his wife. 

The language that is fpoken among all thefe people, from 

what place foever they originally came, is the Malay; at 

leaft it is a language fo called, and probably it is a very 

9 corrupt 


corrupt dialect of that fpoken at Malacca. Every little ifland 
indeed has a language of its own, and Java has two or three, 
but this lingua franca is the only language that is now fpoken 
here, and, as I am told, it prevails over a great part of the 
Eaft Indies. A dictionary of Malay and Englifh was pub- 
limed in London by Thomas Bowrey, in the year 1701. 

Their women wear as much hair as can grow upon the 
head, and to increafe the quantity, they ufe oils, and other 
preparations of various kinds. Of this ornament Nature has 
been very liberal ; it is univerfally black, and is formed into 
a kind of circular wreath upon the top of the head, where it 
is fattened with a bodkin, in a tafte which we thought inex- 
preffibly elegant: the wreath of hair is furrounded by an- 
other of flowers, in which the Arabian jefTamine is beautifully 
intermixed with the golden ftars of the Bonger Tanjong. 

Both fexes conftantly bathe themfelves in the river at lead 
once a day, a practice which, in this hot country, is equally 
necefTary both to perfonal delicacy and health. The teeth of 
thefe people alfo, whatever they may fuffer in their co- 
lour by chewing beetle, are an object of great attention : 
the ends of them, both in the upper and under jaw, are 
rubbed with a kind of whetflone, by a very troublefome and 
painful operation, till they are perfectly even and flat, fo 
that they cannot loie lefs than half a line in their length. 
A deep grove is then made crofs the teeth of the upper jaw, 
parallel with the gums, and in the middle between them and 
the extremity of the teeth; the depth of this groove is at 
leaft equal to one-fourth of the thicknefs of the teeth, {o 
that it penetrates far beyond what is called the enamel, the 
leaft injury to which, according to the dentifts of Europe, is 
fatal; yet among thefe people, where the practice of thus 
wounding the enamel is univerfal, we never faw a rotten 

Vol. II. 5 D tooth; 


1770. tooth; nor is the blacknefs a ftain, but a covering, which 
may be wafhed off at pleafure, and the teeth then appear as 
white as ivory, which however is not an excellence in the 
eftimation of the belles and beaus 6f thefe nations. 

Thefe are the people among whom the practice that is 
called a mock, or running a muck, has prevailed for time im- 
memorial. It is well known, that to run a muck in the 
original fenfe of the word, is to get intoxicated with opium, 
and then rufh into the ftreet with a drawn weapon, and kill 
whoever comes in the way, till the party is himfelf either 
killed or taken prifoner ; of this feveral inftances happened 
while we were at Batavia, and one of the officers, whofe bu- 
finefs it is, among other things, to apprehend fuch people, 
told us, that there was fcarcely a week in which he, or fome 
of his brethren, were not called upon to take one of them 
into cuftody. In one of the initances that came to our know- 
lege, the party had been feverely injured by the perfidy of 
women, and was mad withjealoufy before he made himfelf 
drunk with opium; and we were told, that the Indian who 
runs a muck is always firft driven to defperation by fome out- 
rage, and always firft revenges himfelf upon thofe who have 
done him wrong: we were alfo told, that though thefe un- 
happy wretches afterwards run into the ftreet with a weapon 
in their hand, frantic and foaming at the mouth, yet they 
never kill any but thofe who attempt to apprehend them, or 
thofe whom they fufpect of fuch an intention, and that who- 
ever gives them way is fafe. They are generally flaves, who 
indeed are mod fubjecT: to infults, and leaft able to obtain 
legal redrefs: freemen, however, are fometimes provoked 
into this extravagance, and one of the perfons who run a 
muck while we were at Batavia, was free and in eafy circum- 
ftances. He was jealous of his own brother, whom he firft 
killed, and afterwards two others, who attempted to oppofe 
2 him.: 


hirii: he did not, however, come out of his houfe, but en- 
deavoured to defend himfelf in it, though the opium had fo 
far deprived him of his fenfes, that of three mufkets, which 
he attempted to ufe againft the officers of juflice, not one 
was either loaded or primed. If the officer takes one of 
thefe amocks, or mohawks, as they have been called by an 
eafy corruption, alive, his reward is very confiderable, but 
if he kills them, nothing is added to his ufual pay ; yet 
fuch is the fury of their defperation, that three out of four 
are of neceffity deflroyed in the attempt to fecure them, 
though the officers are provided with inflruments like large 
tongs, or pincers, to lay hold of them without coming with- 
in the reach of their weapon. Thofe who happen to be 
taken alive are generally wounded, but they are always 
broken alive upon the wheel, and if the phyfician who is ap- 
pointed to examine their wounds, thinks them likely to be 
mortal, the punifhment is inflicted immediately, and the 
place of execution is generally the fpot where the firil mur- 
der was committed. 

Among thefe people, there are many abfurd practices and 
opinions which they derive from their Pagan anceftors: they 
believe that the devil, whom they call Satan, is the caufe of 
all ficknefs and adverfity, and for this reafon, when they 
are lick, or in diftrefs, they confecrate meat, money, and 
other things to him as a propitiation. If any one among 
them is rcdlefs, and dreams for two or three nights fuccef- 
fively, he concludes that Satan has taken that method of 
laying his commands upon him, which if he neglects to 
fulfil, he will certainly fufler ficknefs or death, though they 
are not revealed with fufficient perfpicuity to afcertain their 
meaning : to interpret his dream, therefore, he taxes his 
wits to the uttermoft, and if, by taking it literally or figu- 
ratively, directly or by contraries, he can put no explanation 

5 D z upon 


upon it that perfectly fatisfies him, he has recourfe to the 
cawin or prieft, who affifts him with a comment and ilmf- 
trations, and perfectly reveals the myfterious fuggeftions of 
the night. It generally appears that the devil wants victuals 
or money, which are always allotted him, and being placed 
on a little plate of cocoa-nut leaves, are hung upon the 
branch of a tree near the river, fo that it feems not to be the 
opinion of thefe people, that in prowling the earth the devil 
u walketh through dry places." Mr. Banks once afked, 
whether they thought Satan fpent the money, or eat the vic- 
tuals ; he was anfwered, that as to the money it was con- 
iidered rather as a mulct upon an offender, than a gift to him 
who had enjoined it, and that therefore if it was devoted by 
the dreamer, it mattered not into whofe hands it came, and 
they fuppofed that it was generally the prize of fome ftranger 
who wandered that way; but as to the meat they were 
clearly of opinion that, although the devil did not eat the 
grofs parts, yet, by bringing his mouth near it, he fucked 
out all its favour without changing its pofition, fo that after- 
wards it was as taftelefs as water. 

But they have another fuperflitious opinion that is fiill 
more unaccountable. They believe that women, when they 
are delivered of children, are frequently at the fame time 
delivered of a young crocodile, as a twin to the infant : they 
believe that thefe creatures are received moll carefully by 
the midwife, and immediately carried down to the river, 
and put into the water. The family in which fuch a birth is 
fuppofed to have happened, conftantly put victuals into the 
river for their amphibious relation, and efpecially the twin, 
who, as long as he lives, goes down to the river at itated 
3'eafons, to fulfil this fraternal duty, for the neglect of 
which it is the univerfal opinion that he will be vilited with 
ficknefs or death, What could at firft produce a notion fo 


hound the world. 757 

extravagant and abfurd, it is not eafy to guefs, efpecially as 
it feems to be totally unconnected with any religious myftery r 
and how a fact which never happened, mould be pretended 
to happen every day, by thofe who cannot be deceived into 
a belief of it by appearances, nor have any apparent intereft 
in the fraud, is a problem ftill more difficult to folve. No- 
thing however can be more certain than the firm belief of 
this ftrange abfurdity among them, for we had the concur- 
rent teftimony of every Indian who was queftioned about it, 
in its favour. It feems to have taken its rife in the iflands of 
Celebes and Boutou, where many of the inhabitants keep 
crocodiles in their families j but however that be, the opinion 
has fpread over all the eaftern iflands, even to Timor and 
Ceram, and weftward as far as Java and Sumatra, where, 
however, young crocodiles are, I believe, never kept. 

Thefe crocodile twins are called Sudaras, and I mail relate 
one of the innumerable ftories that were told us, in proof of 
their exiftence, from ocular demonftration. 

A young female Have, who was born and bred up among 
the Englifh at Bencoolen, and had learnt a little of the lan- 
guage, told Mr. Banks that her father, when he was dying, 
acquainted her that he had a crocodile for his Jkdara, and 
folemnly charged her to give him meat when he mould 
be dead, telling her in what part of the river he was 
to be found, and by what name he was to be called up. 
That in purfuance of her father's inftructions and command, 
fhe went to the river, and ftanding upon the bank, called 
out Radja Ponti, white king, upon which a crocodile came 
to her out of the water, and eat from her hand the pro virions- 
that fire had brought him. When fhe was defired to defcribe 
this paternal uncle, who in fo ftrange a fhape had taken up 
Iris dwelling in the water, fhe faid, that he was not like 
8 other 


other crocodiles, but much handfomer ; that his body was 
fpotted and his nofe red ; that he had bracelets of gold upon 
his feet, and earrings of the fame metal in his ears. Mn. 
Banks heard this tale of ridiculous falfehood patiently to the 
end, and then difmifTed the girl, without reminding her, that 
a crocodile with ears was as flrange a monfter as a dog with 
a cloven foot. Some time after this a fervant whom Mr. 
Banks had hired at Batavia, and who was the fon of a Dutch- 
man by a Javanefe woman, thought fit to acquaint his maf- 
ter that he had feen a crocodile of the fame kind, which 
had alfo been feen by many others, both Dutchmen and 
Malays : that being very young, it was but two feet long, 
and had bracelets of gold upon its feet. There is no giving 
credit to thefe ftories, faid Mr. Banks, for I was told the other 
day that a crocodile had earrings ; and you know that could 
not be true, becaufe crocodiles have no ears. Ah Sir, faid 
the man, thefe Sudara Oran are not like other crocodiles ; 
they have five toes upon each foot, a large tongue that fills 
their mouth, and ears alfo, although they are indeed very 

How much of what thefe people related they believed, 
cannot be known ; for there are no bounds to the credulity 
of ignorance and folly. In the girl's relation, however, there 
are fome things in which fhe could not be deceived ; and 
therefore rauft have been guilty of wilful falfehood. Her 
father might perhaps give her a charge to feed a crocodile, 
in confequence of his believing that it was his Sudara ; but 
its coming to her out of the river, when flie called it by the 
name of White King, aad taking the food lhe had brought 
it, mud have been a fable of her own invention ; for this 
being falfe, it was impofuble thatihe mould believe it to be 
true. The girl's ftory, however, as well as that of the man, 
is a flrong proof that they both firmly believed the exig- 



ence of crocodiles that are Sudaras to men ; and the girl's 1770 
fiction will be eafily accounted for, if we recollect, that the 
earned defire which every one feels to make others believe 
what he believes himfelf, is a ftrong temptation to fupport 
it by unjuftifiable evidence. And the averring what is 
known to be falfe, in order to produce in others the belief of 
what is thought to be true, mull, upon the moft charitable 
principles, be imputed to many, otherwife venerable charac- 
ters, through whofe hands the doctrines of Chriftianity palled 
for many ages in their way to us, as the fource of all the 
filly fables related of the Romifli faints, many of them not 
lefs extravagant and abfurd than this ftory of the White 
King, and all of them the invention of the firft relater. 

The Bougis, MacafTars, and Boetons, are fo firmly per- 
fuaded that they have relations of the crocodile fpecies in 
the rivers of their own country, that they perform a periodi- 
cal ceremony in remembrance of them. Large parties of 
them go out in a boat, furniilied with great plenty of provi- 
fions, and all kinds of rnufic, and row backwards and for- 
wards, in places where crocodiles and allegators are moil 
common, finging and weeping by turns, each invoking his 
kindred, till a crocodile appears, when the mufic inflantly 
flops, and provifions, betele, and tobacco are thrown into the 
water. By this civility to the fpecies, they hope to recom- 
mend themfelves to their relations at home; and that it will 
be accepted inilead of offerings immediately to themfelves, 
which it is not in their power to pay. 

In the next rank to the Indians fland the Chinefe, who in 
this place are numerous, but poflefs very little property ; 
many of them live within the walls, and keep mops. The 
fruit-fellers of PafTar PifTang have been mentioned already; 
but others have a rich fhow of European and Chinefe goods : 



the far greater part however live in a quarter by themf elves, 
without the walls, called Campang China. Many of them are 
carpenters, joiners, fmiths, taylors, flipper makers, dyers of 
cotton, and embroiderers ; maintaining the character of in- 
■duftry that is univerfally given of them : and fome are fcat- 
tered about the country, where they cultivate gardens, fow 
rice and fugar, or keep cattle and buffaloes, whofe milk they 
bring daily to town. 

There is nothing clean or dirty, honefl or difhoneft, pro- 
vided there is not too much danger of a halter, that the Chi- 
nefe will not readily do for money. But though they work 
with great diligence, and patiently undergo any degree of 
labour ; yet no fooner have they laid down their tools than 
they begin to game, either at cards or dice, or fome other play 
among the multitude that they have invented, which are al- 
together unknown in Europe : to this they apply with fuch 
eagernefs, as fcarcely to allow time for the neceflary refrefh- 
ments of food and fleep ; fo that it as rare to fee a Chinefe 
idle, as it is to fee a Dutchman or an Indian employed. 

In manners they are always civil, or rather obfequious ; 
and in drefs they are remarkably neat and clean, to what- 
ever rank of life they belong. I fhall not attempt a defcrip- 
tion either of their perfons or habits, for the better kind of 
China paper, which is now common in England, exhibits a 
perfect reprefentation of both, though perhaps with fome 
flight exaggerations approaching towards the caricatura. 

In eating they are eafily fatisfied, though the few that are 
rich have many favory diflies. Rice, with a fmall propor- 
tion of flefh or fifti, is the food of the poor; and they have 
^reatly the advantage of the Mahometan Indians, whofe re- 
ligion forbids them to eat of many things which they could 
moil eafily procure. The Chinefe, on the contrary, being 



under no reftraint, eat, befides pork, dogs, cats, frogs, lizards, 
ferpents of many kinds, and a great variety of fea animals, 
which the other inhabitants of this country do not confider 
as food : they eat alfo many vegetables, which an European, 
except he was perifhing with hunger, would never touch. 

The Chinefe have a fingular fuperftition with regard to 
the burial of their dead ; for they will upon no occafion open 
the ground a fecond time, where a body has been interred. 
Their burying grounds, therefore, in the neighbourhood of 
Batavia, cover many hundred acres, and the Dutch, grudging 
the wafte of fo much land, will not fell any for this purpofe 
but at the moft exorbitant price. The Chinefe, however, 
contrive to raife the purchafe money, and afford another in- 
ftance of the folly and weaknefs of human nature, in tranf- 
ferring a regard for the living to the dead, and making that 
the object of folicitude and expence, which cannot receive 
the leaft benefit from either. Under the influence of this 
univerfal prejudice, they take an uncommon method to pre- 
ferve the body intire, and prevent the remains of it from 
being mixed with the earth that furrounds it. They inclofe 
it in a large thick coffin of wood, not made of planks joined 
together, but hollowed out of the folid timber like a canoe ; 
this being covered, and let down into the grave, is furrounded. 
with a coat of their mortar, called Chinam, about eight or 
ten inches thick, which in a fhort time becomes as hard as- 
a ftone. The relations of the deceafed attend the funeral 
ceremony, with a confiderable number of women that are 
hired to weep : it might reafonably be fuppofed that the 
hired appearance of forrow could no more flatter the living: 
than benefit the dead ; yet the appearance of forrow is 
known to be hired among people much more reflective 
and enlightened than the Chinefe. In Batavia, the law re- 

Vol. II, 5 E quires 


quires that every man fliould be buried according to his 
rank, which is in no cafe difpenfed with; fo that if the de- 
ceafed has not left fufficient to pay his debts, an officer takes 
an inventory of what was in his poffeflion when he died, and 
out of the produce buries him in the manner prefcribed, 
leaving only the overplus to his creditors. Thus in many 
inftances are the living facrificed to the dead, and money 
that fliould difcharge a debt, or feed an orphan, laviflied in 
idle proceflions, or depofited in the earth to rot. 

Another numerous clafs among the inhabitants of this 
country is the Haves ; for by Haves the Dutch, Portuguefe, 
and Indians, however different in their rank or fituation, 
are conftantly attended ; they are purchafed from Sumatra, 
Malacca, and almoft all the eaftern iflands. The natives of 
Java, very few of whom, as I have before obferved, live in 
the neighbourhood of Batavia, have an exemption from fla- 
very under the fan&ion of very fevere penal laws, which I 
believe are feldom violated. The price of thefe flaves is from 
ten to twenty pounds fterling ; but girls, if they have beauty, 
fometimes fetch a hundred. They are a very lazy fet of 
people ; but as they will do but little work, they are content 
with a little victuals, fubfifling altogether upon boiled rice, 
and a fmall quantity of the cheapeft fifli. As they are na- 
tives of different countries, they differ from each other ex- 
tremely, both in perfon and difpofition. The African negroes, 
called here Papua, are the worfl, and consequently may be 
purchafed for the leafl money : they are all thieves, and all 
incorrigible. Next to thefe are the Bougis and Macaflars, 
both from the ifland of Celebes ; thefe are lazy in the high- 
eft degree, and though not fo much addicted to theft as the 
negroes, have a cruel and vindictive fpirit, which renders 
diem extremely dangerous ; efpe daily as, to gratify their 
i refentment, 


refentment, they will make no fcruple of facrificing life. 1770- 
The befl flaves, and confequently the deareft, are procured »_ eC -™ c ^, 
from the ifland of Bali : the moft beautiful women from 
Nias, a fmall ifland on the coaft of Sumatra ; but they are 
of a tender and delicate conftitution, and foon fall a facrifice 
to the unwholefome air of Batavia. Befides thefe, there are 
Malays, and Haves of feveral other denominations, whofe 
particular characteriflics I do not remember. 

Thefe Haves are wholly in the power of their mafters with 
refpecl: to any punifliment that does not take away life ; but 
if a flave dies in confequence of punifliment, though his 
death mould not appear to have been intended, the mafler 
is called to a fevere account, and he is generally condemned 
to fufFer capitally. For this reafon the matter feldom inflicts 
punifliment upon the flave himfelf, but applies to an officer 
called a Marineu, one of whom is Rationed in every di£lri6t. 
The duty of the Marineu is to quell riots, and take offenders 
into cuitody •, but more particularly to apprehend runaway 
flaves, and punifli them for fuch crimes as the mailer, fup- 
ported by proper evidence, lays to their charge : the punifli- 
ment however is not inflicted by the Marineu in perfon, but 
by flaves who are bred up to the bufinefs. Men are puniihed 
publicly, before the door of their mailer's houfe; but women 
within it. The punifliment is by ilripes, the number being 
proportioned to the offence ; and they are given with rods 
made of rattans, which are fplit into flender twigs for the 
purpofe, and fetch blood at every flroke. A common pu- 
nifliment coils the mafler a rixdollar, and a fevere one a du- 
catoon, about fix {hillings and eight pence. The mailer is 
alfo obliged to allow the flave three dubbelcheys, equal to 
about ieven pence half-penny a week, as an encouragement, 
and to prevent his being under temptations to ileal too flrong 
to be refilled. 

5 E z. Concerning 


1770. Concerning the government of this place I can fay but 

fc JU^ L^ j little. We obferved however a remarkable fubordination 
among the people. Every man who is able to keep houfe 
has a certain fpecific rank acquired by the length of his fer- 
vices to the company ; the different ranks which are thus 
acquired are diftinguifhed by the ornaments of the coaches 
and the drefles of the coachmen : fome are obliged to ride in 
plain coaches, fome are allowed to paint them in different 
manners and degrees, and fome to gild them. The coach- 
man alfo appears in clothes that are quite plain, or more or 
lefs adorned with lace. 

The officer who prefides here has the title of Governor 
General of the Indies, and the Dutch Governors of all the 
other fettlements are fubordinate to him, and obliged to re- 
pair to Batavia that he may pafs their accounts. If they ap- 
pear to have been criminal, or even negligent, he punifhes 
them by delay, and detains them during pleafure, fome- 
times one year, fomenimes two years, and fometimes three ; 
for they cannot quit the place till he gives them a difmiffion. 
Next to the Governor are the members of the council, called 
.here Edele Heeren, and by the corruption of the Englifh, Ido- 
leers. Thefe Idolecrs take upon them fo much Itate that 
whoever meets them in a carriage, is expected to rife up and 
bow, then to drive on one fide of the road, and there flop till 
they are part : the fame homage is required alfo to their 
wives and even their children ; and it is commonly paid them 
by the inhabitants. But fome of our Captains have thought 
fo flavifh a mark of refpect beneath the dignity which they 
derived from the fervice of his Britannic Majefty, and have 
refufed to pay it ; yet, if they were in a hired carriage, no- 
thing could deter the coachman from honouring the Dutch 
Grandee at their expence, but the moft peremptory menace 

of immediate death, 



Juftice is adminiftered here by a body of lawyers, who mo- 
have ranks of diftindtion among themfelves. Concerning t ec !™, e ^ 
their proceedings in queflions of property, I know nothing ; 
but their decifions in criminal cafes feem to be fevere with 
refpect to the natives, and lenient with refpecl to their own 
people, in a criminal degree. A Chriftian always is in- 
dulged with an opportunity of efcaping before he is brought 
to a trial, whatever may have been his offence ; and if he is 
brought to a trial and convicted, he is feldom punifhed with 
death : while the poor Indians on the contrary are hanged, 
and broken upon the wheel, and even impaled alive with- 
out mercy. 

The Malays and Chinefe have judicial officers of their 
own, under the denominations of Captains and Lieutenants, 
who determine in civil cafes, fubject to an appeal to the 
Dutch court. 

The taxes paid by thefe people to the Company are very 
confiderable ; and that which is exacted of them for liberty 
to wear their hair, is by no means the leafl. They are paid 
monthly, and to fave the trouble and charge of collecting 
them, a flag is hoifted upon the top of a houfe in the middle 
of the town when a payment is due, and the Chinefe have 
experienced that it is their intcreft to repair thither with 
their money without delay. 

The money current here confifts of ducats, worth a hun- 
dred and thirty-two ftivers ; ducatoons, eighty flivers ; im- 
perial rixdollars, fixty; rupees of Batavia, thirty; fchellings, 
fix; double cheys, two flivers and a half; and doits, one 
fourth of a fliver. Spanifh dollars, when we were here, were 
at five millings and five pence ; and we were told, that they 
were never lower than five millings and four pence, even at 
2 the 


1770. the Company's warehoufe. For Englifh guineas we could 

December. , • n .„■ 

i_ --,_> never get more than nineteen millings upon an average ; 
for though the Chinefe would give twenty millings for fome 
of the brighteft, they would give no more than feventeen 
ihillings for thofe that were much worn. 

It may perhaps be of fome advantage to ftrangers to be 
told that there are two kinds of coin here, of the fame de- 
nomination, milled and unmilled, and that the milled is of 
moft value. A milled ducatoon is worth eighty ftivers j but 
an unmilled ducatoon is worth no more than feventy-two. 
All accounts are kept in rixdollars and ftivers, which, here at 
leaft, are mere nominal coins, like our pound fterling. The 
rixdollar is equal to forty-eight ftivers, about four Ihillings 
and fix pence Englifh currency. 




The Pajfage from Batavia to the Cape of Good Hope : 
Some Account of Prince s Ijland and its Inhabitants ^ and 
a comparative View of their Language with the Malay 
and Javanefe, 


N Thurfday the 27th of December, at fix o'clock in the 1770- 


morning, we weighed again and flood out to lea. At- 1 „-__/ 

ter much delay by contrary winds, we weathered Pulo Pare un ay 2; * 
on the 29th, and flood in for the main ; foon after we fetched Saturday 29. 
a fmall ifland under the main, in the midway between Ba- 
tavia and Bantam, called Maneater's Ifland. The next day, Sunday 30. 
we weathered firft Wapping Ifland, and then Pulo Babi. On 
the 31ft, we flood over to the Sumatra fliore; and on the Monday 31; 
morning of New Year's day, 177 1, we flood over for the Java 1771. 

n January. 

more. Tuefday 1. 

We continued our courfe as the wind permitted us till 
three o'clock in the afternoon of the 5 th, when we anchored Saturdays. 
under the fouth eaft fide of Prince's Ifland in eighteen fa- 
thom, in order to recruit our wood and water, and procure 
refrefhments for the fick, many of whom were now become 
much worfe than they were when we left Batavia. As foon 
as the fhip was fecured, I went afliore, accompanied by Mr. 
Banks and Dr. Solander, and we were met upon the beach by 
fome Indians who carried us immediately to a man, who, 
they faid, was their King. After we had exchanged a few 
compliments with his Majefly, we proceeded to bufinefs; but 



i77 r « in fettling the price of turtle we could not agree: this how- 
. Jan _"^_ y, _, ever did not difcourage us, as we made no doubt but that 
Saturday 5 . ^ e ^ ou ]d buy them at our own price in the morning. As 
foon as we parted, the Indians difperfed, and we proceeded 
along the more in fearch of a watering-place. In this we 
were more fuccefsful; we found water very conveniently 
fituated, and, if a little care was taken in filling it, we had 
reafon to believe that it would prove good. Jufl as we 
were going off, fome Indians, who remained with a canoe 
upon the beach, fold us three turtle ; but exa&ed a promife 
of us that we mould not tell the King. 

Sunday 6. The next morning, while a party was employed in filling 

water, we renewed our traffic for turtle: ar firft, the In- 
dians dropped their demands flowly, but about noon, they 
agreed to take the price that we offered, fo that before night 
we had turtle in plenty : the three that we had purchafed 
the evening before, were in the mean time ferved to the 
Ihip's company, who, till the day before, had not once been 
ferved with fait provifions from the time of our arrival at 
Savu, which was now near four months. In the evening, 
Mr. Banks went to pay his refpecfts to the King, at his palace, 
in the middle of a rice field, and though his Majefly was 
bufily employed in dre fling his own fupper, he received the. 
ftranger very gracioufly. 

The next day, the natives came down to the trading-place, 
with fowls, fiih, monkies, fmall deer, and fome vegetables, 
but no turtle, for they faid that we had bought them all the 
day before. The next day, however, more turtle appeared 
at market, and fome were brought down every day after- 
wards, during our flay, though the whole, together, was 
not equal to the quantity that we bought the day after our 



On the nth, Mr. Banks having learnt from the fervant 1771. 
whom he had hired at Batavia, that the Indians of this ifland , ^fej 
had a town upon the fhore, at fome diftance to the weftward, Ftld * y ll ' 
he determined to fee it: with this view he fet out in the 
morning, accompanied by the Second Lieutenant, and as he 
had fome reafon to think that his vifit would not be agree- 
able to the inhabitants, he told the people whom he met, as 
he was advancing along the fhore, that he was in fearch of 
plants, which indeed was alfo true. In about two hours 
they arrived at a place where there were four or five houfes, 
and meeting with an old man, they ventured to make fome 
enquiries concerning the town. He faid that it was far 
diftant ; but they were not to be difcouraged in their entcr- 
prife, and he, feeing them proceed in their journey, joined 
company and went on with them. He attempted feveral 
times to lead them out of the way, but without fuccefs ; and 
at length they came within fight of the houfes. The old man 
then entered cordially into their party, and conducted them 
into the town. The name of it is Samadang, it confifls of 
about four hundred houfes, and is divided by a river of 
brackifh water into two parts, one of which is called the old 
town and the other the new. As foon as they entered the 
old town, they met feveral Indians whom they had feen at 
the trading-place, and one of them undertook to carry them 
over to the new town, at the rate of two pence a head. When 
the bargain was made, two very fmall canoes were pro- 
duced, in which they embarked ; the canoes being placed 
alongfideof each other, and held together, a precaution which 
was abfolutcly necefTary to prevent their overfetting, the 
navigation was at length fafely performed, though not with- 
out fome difficulty; and when they landed in the new town, 
the people received them with great friendfhip, and mowed 
them the houfes of their Kings and principal people, which 
Vol. II. <; F are 


1771. are in this diftrift: few of them however were open, for 
._ " ary lf at this time the people had taken up their refidence in the 
Fnday 1 1. r i C e -grounds, to defend the crop againft the birds and mon- 
kies, by which it would otherwife have been deftroyed. 
When their curiofity was fatisfied, they hired a large failing 
boat. for two roupees, four millings, which brought them 
back to the fhip time enough to dine upon one of the fmall 
deer, weighing only forty pounds, which had been bought 
the day before, and proved to be very good and favory meat. 

We went on fhore in the evening, to fee how the people who 
were employed in wooding and watering went on, and were 
informed that an ax had been ftolen. As the pairing over 
this fault might encourage the commiflion of others of the 
fame kind, application was immediately made to the King, 
who after fome altercation promifed that the ax mould be 
Saturday 1 2. reflored in the morning; and kept his word, for it was 
brought to us by a man who pretended that the thief, being 
afraid of a difcovery, had privately brought it and left it at 
his houfe in the night. 

We continued to purchafe between two and three hundred 
weight of turtle in a day, befides fowls and other neceffaries ; 
§uaday 13. and in the evening of the 13th, having nearly completed 
our wood and water, Mr. Banks went afliore to take leave 
of his Majefty, to whom he had made feveral trifling pre- 
fents, and at parting gave him two quires of paper, which 
he graciouily received. They had much converfation, in the 
courfe of which his Majefty enquired, why the Englifh did 
not touch there as they had been ufed to do. Mr. Banks 
replied, that he fuppofed it was becaufe they found a defi- 
ciency of turtle, of which there not being enough to fupply 
one fhip, many could not be expected. To fupply this de- 
fect, he advifed his Majefty to breed cattle, buffaloes, and 



fhecp, a meafurc which he did not feem much inclined to I 77'» 

i January. 

adopt. i '_f 

On the 14th we made ready to fail, having on board a Monday 14. 
good flock of refrefhments, which we purchafcd of the na- 
tives, confifting of turtle, fowl, fifh, two fpecies of deer, 
one as big as a fheep, the other not larger than a rabbit j 
with cocoa-nuts, plantains, limes, and other vegetables. The 
deer however ferved only for prefent ufe, for we could fel- 
dom keep one of them alive more than four and twenty 
hours after it was on board. On our part, the trade was 
carried on chiefly with Spanifh dollars, the natives feeming 1 
to let little value upon any thing elfe ; fo that our people, 
who had a general permiffion to trade, parted with old 
fTiirts and other articles, which they were obliged to fubfti- 
tute for money to great difadvantage. In the morning of 
the 15th, we weighed, with a light breeze at N.E. and flood Tuefday i S , 
out to fea. Java Head, from which I took my departure 
lies in latitude 6° 49' S., longitude 255 ° 12' \V. 

Prince's Ifland, where we lay about ten days, is, in the 
Malay language, called Puh Selan ; and in the language of. 
the inhabitants, Pulo Paneitan. It is a fmall ifland, fituated in 
the weflern mouth of the Streight of Sunda. It is woody, 
and a very fmall part of it only has been cleared: there is 
no remarkable hill upon it, yet the Englifh call the fmall 
eminence which is juft over the landing-place the Pike. It 
was formerly much frequented by the India mips of many 
nations,' but efpecially thofe of England, which of late have 
fofffakcn it, as it is faid, becaufe the water is bad ; and touch 
either at North Ifland, a fmall iiland that lies on the coafl of 
Sumatra, without the eaft entrance of the Streight, or at 
New Bay, which lies only a few leagues from Prince's 
Ifland, at neither of which places any confiderable quantity 

5 F 2 of 



1771. of other refrefliments can be procured. Prince's Ifland is, 
anuary^ U p 0n t h e w hole, certainly more eligible than either of them ; 
Tuefday 15. an( j though the water is brackifh, if it is filled at the lower 
part of the brook, yet higher up it will be found excellent. 

The firfl and fecond, and perhaps the third fhip that comes 
in the feafon may be tolerably fupplied with turtle ; but thofe 
that come afterwards muft be content with fmall ones. Thofe 
that we bought were of the green kind, and at an average coil 
us about a half-penny or three farthings a pound. We were 
much difappointed to find them neither fat nor well fla- 
voured ; and we imputed it to their having been long kept 
in crawls or pens of brackifh. water, without food. The 
fowls are large, and we bought a dozen of them for a Spa- 
nifh dollar, which is about five pence a piece : the fmall 
deer cofl us two pence a piece, and the larger, of which two 
only were brought down, a rupee. Many kinds of fifh are 
to be had here, which the natives fell by hand, and we found 
them tolerably cheap. Cocoa-nuts we bought at the rate of 
a hundred for a dollar, if they were picked ; and if they 
were taken promifcuoufly, one hundred and thirty. Plan- 
tains we found in great plenty; we procured alfo fome pine 
apples, water melons, jaccas, and pumpkins ; befides rice, 
the greater part of which was of the mountain kind, that 
grows in dry land ; yams, and feveral other vegetables, at a 
very reafonable rate. 

The inhabitants are Javanefe, whofe Raja is fubject to the 
Sultan of Bantam. Their cuftoms are very fimilar to thofe 
of the Indians about Batavia ; but they feem to be more 
jealous of their women, for we never faw any of them during 
all the time that we were there, except one by chance in the 
woods, as fhe was running away to hide herfelf. They pro- 
fefs the Mahometan religion, but I believe there is not a 
2 mofque 


mofque in the whole ifland: we were among them during 177' 

the faft, which the Turks call Ramadan, which they feemed 
to keep with great rigour, for not one of them would touch 
a morfel of victuals, or even chew their betel till fun-fet. 

Their food is nearly the fame as that of the Batavian In- 
dians, except the addition of the nuts of the palm, called 
Cycas circbialis, with which, upon the coaft of New Holland,. 
ibme of our people were made fick, and fome of our hogs 

Upon obferving thefe nuts to be part of their food, we en- 
quired by what means they deprived them of their deleterious 
quality; and they told us, that they firft cut them into thin 
flices, and dried them in the fun, then fteeped them in frefh 
water for three months, and afterwards, preffing out the 
water, dried them in the fun a fecond time ; but we learnt 
that, after all, they are eaten only in times of fcarcity, when, 
they mix them with their rice to make it go farther. 

The houfes of their town are built upon piles, or pillars, 
four or five feet above the ground : upon thefe is laid a floor 
of bamboo canes, which are placed at fome diftance from 
each other, fo as to leave a free pafTage for the air from be- 
low : the walls alfo are of bamboo, which are interwoven 5 
hurdlewife, with fmall flicks, that are fattened perpen- 
dicularly to the beams which form the frame of the build- 
ing: it has a floping roof, which is fo well thatched with: 
palm leaves, that neither the fun nor the rain can find en- 
trance. The ground over which this building is erected, is 
an oblong fquare. In the middle of one fide is the door, 
and in the middle between that and the end of the houfe, 
towards the left hand, is a window : a partition runs out 
from each end towards the middle, which, if continued,, 
would divide the whole floor into two equal parts, longitu- 



i?7 l - dinally, but they do not meet in the middle, fo that anopen- 
■ a """ ' ' ing is left over-againft the door; each end of the houfe 
therefore, to the right and left of the door, is divided into 
two rooms, like Halls in a liable, all open towards the paf- 
fage from the door to the wall on the oppofite iide : in that 
next the door, to the left hand, the children ileep ; that op- 
pofite to it, on the right hand, is allotted to ftrangers; the 
mailer and his wife fleep in the inner room on the left hand, 
and that oppofite to it is the kitchen. There is no difference 
between the houfes of the poor and the rich, but in the fize ; 
except that the royal palace, and the houfe of a man, whole 
name is Gundang, the next in riches and influence to the 
King, is walled with boards inftead of being wattled with 
flicks and bamboo. 

As the people are obliged to abandon the town, and live 
in the rice-fields at certain feafons, to fecure their crops from 
the birds and the monkies, they have occafional houfes there 
for their accommodation. They are exactly the fame as the 
houfes in the town, except that they are fmaller, and are 
elevated eight or ten feet above the ground inftead of four. 

The difpofition of the people, as far as we could dis- 
cover it, is good. They dealt with us very honeflly, except, 
like all other Indians, and the itinerant retailers of fifh in 
London, they afked fometimes twice, and fometimes thrice 
as much for their commodities as they would take. As what 
they brought to market, belonged, in different proportions, 
to a confiderable number of the natives, and it would have 
been difficult to purchafe it in feparate lots, they found out 
a very eafy expedient with which every one was fatisfied : 
they put all that was bought of one kind, as plantains, or 
cocoa-nuts, together, and when we had agreed for the heap, 
they divided the money that was paid for it, among thofe 




of whofe fcparate property it confifted, in a proportion cor- 
refponding with their contributions. Sometimes, indeed, 
they changed our money, giving us 240 doits, amounting to 
five (hillings, for a Spanifh dollar, and ninety-fix, amount- 
ing to two (hillings, for a Bengal roupee. 

They all fpeak the Malay language, though they have a 
language of their own, different both from the Malay and 
the Javanefe. Their own language they call Catta Gunung, 
the language of the mountains ; and they fay that it is 
fpoken upon the mountains of Java, whence their tribe ori- 
ginally migrated, firfl to New Bay, and then to their prefent 
flation, being driven from their firfl fettlement by tygers, 
which they found too numerous to fubdue. I have already 
obferved, that feveral languages are fpoken by the native Ja- 
vanefe, in different parts of their ifland ; but when I fay that 
the language of thefe people is different from the Javanefe, I 
mean that it is different from the language which is fpoken 
at Samarang, a place that is diftant only one day's journey 
from the refidence of the emperor of Java. The following is 
a lift of correfponding words in the languages of Prince's 
Ifland, Java, and Malacca. 

Javanefe, Malay. 

Oong Lanang, Oran Lacki Lacki. 
OongWadong, Parampuan. 




A man, 
A ivoman, 
A child, 
The head, 
The nofe, 
The eyes, 
The ears, 
The teeth, 
The belly, 

Prince's Ifland. 










The Backfide, Sent, 
























Prince's Ifland. 



The thigh, 




'The knee, 




"The leg, 




A nail, 




A hand, 





Ramo Langan, 



In this fpecimen of the languages of places fo near to each 
other, the names of different parts of the body are chofen, 
becaufe they are eafily obtained from people whofe language 
is utterly unknown, and becaufe they are more likely to be 
part of the original ftamen of the language, than any other, 
as types of the firft objects to which they would give names. 
It is very remarkable that the Malay, the Javanefe, and the 
Prince's Iiland language, have words, which, if not exactly 
fimilar to the correfponding words in the language of the 
iflands in the South Seas, are manifeflly derived from the 
fame fource, as will appear from the following table : 

Englifh. South Sea. Malay. Javanefe. Prince's Ifland. 

An eye, 





To eat, 




To drink, 




To kill, 




A lonfe, 







Bamboo cane 

, Owhc, 


A breajl, 




A bird, 








The foot, 



A lobjler, 












South Sea. Malay. Javanefe. 

To bury, Etannou, Tannam, Tandour. 
A mofchito, Enammou, Gnammuck. 
To f cratch, Hearu, Garni, Garu. 

Coccos roots, Taro, Tallas, Talas. 

In-land, Uta, Utan. 

This fimilitude is particularly remarkable in the words 
expreffing number, which at firit fight feems to be no in- 
confiderable proof that the fcience at leaft of thefe different 
people has a common root. But the names of numbers in 
the iiland of Madagafcar, are, in fome inflances, fimilar to 
all thefe, which is a problem Hill more difficult to folve. 
That the names of numbers, in particular, are in a manner 
common to all thefe countries, will appear from the follow- 
ing comparative table, which Mr. Banks drew up, with the 
afMance of a negro flave, born at Madagafcar, who was on 
board an Engliih fhip at Batavia, and fent to him to gratify 
his curiofity on this fubject. 

Englifli. S. Sea Ifland3. 

One, Tahie, 
Tnvo, Rua, 
Three, Torou, 
Four, Haa, 
Five, Reina, 
Six, Wheney, 
Seven, Hetu, 
Eight, Warn, 
Nine, Iva, 
Ten, Ahouroa, 














Li mo, 

Prince's Ifland. 






Nunnam, Gunnap, 
Pern, Tudju, 
Wolo, Delapan, 
Songo, Salapan, 










Sapoulou, Sapoulou, Tourou. 

In the language of Madagafcar, there are other words 
fimilar to words of the fame import in the Malay. The nofe 
in Malay is called Erung, at Madagafcar Ourou; Lida, the 

Vol. II. 5 G tongue. 


1771- tongue, is Lala; Tangan, the hand, is Tang; and Tanna, the 

January. . 

i_. -,— _» ground, is laan. 

From the fimilitude between the language of the Eaftern 
Indies, and the iflands of the South Sea, conjectures may be 
formed with refpect to the peopling thofe countries, which 
cannot eafily be referred to Madagafcar. The inhabitants of 
Java and Madagafcar appear to be a different race j the Java- 
nefe is of an olive complexion, and has long hair ; the native 
of Madagafcar is black, and his head is not covered with 
hair, but wool; and yet perhaps this will not conclude 
againfl their having common anceftors fo ftrongly as at firft 
appears. It does not feem lefs difficult to account for the 
perfonal difference between a native of England and France, 
as an effect of mere local fituation, than for the difference 
between the natives of Java and Madagafcar ; yet it has never 
been fuppofed, that England and France were not peopled 
from common anceftors. If two natives" of England marry 
in their own country, and afterwards remove to our fettle- 
ments in the Weft Indies, the children that are conceived and 
born there will have the complexion and caft of countenance 
that diftinguifh the Creole ; if they return, the children con- 
ceived and born afterwards, will have no fuch characteriftics.. 
If it be faid that the mother's mind being impreffed with dif- 
ferent external objects, impreffes correfponding features and 
complexion upon the child during her pregnancy, it will be 
as difficult to refer the effect into this caufc, upon mere 
phyfical principles, as into the other ; for it can no more be 
fliewn how a mere idea, conceived in the mother's imagina- 
tion, can change the corporeal form of her infant, than how 
its form can be changed by mere local fituation. We know 
that people within the fmall circle of Great Britain and Ire- 
land, who are born at the diftance of two or three hundred 
miles from each other, will be diftinguilhed by the Scotch 



face, the Wclfh face, and the Irifh face ; may we not then 1771 

reafonably fuppofe, that there are in nature qualities which 
act powerfully as efficient caufes, and yet are not cognizable 
by any of the five modes of perception which we call fenfes? 
A deaf man, who fees the firing of a harpfichord vibrate, 
when a correfponding tone is produced by blowing into a 
flute at a diftance, will fee an effect of which he can no more 
conceive the caufe to exifl in the blowing air into the flute, 
than we can conceive the caufe of the perfonal difference of 
the various inhabitants of the globe to exifl in mere local 
fituation ; nor can he any more form an idea of the caufe it- 
felf, in one cafe, than we can in the other: what happens to 
him then, in confequence of having but four fenfes inftead 
of five, may, with refpect to many phenomena of nature, 
happen to us, in confequence of having but five fenfes in- 
Head of fix, or any greater number. 

Poffibly, however, the learning of ancient ^gypt might 
run in two courfes, one through Africa, and the other 
through Afia, diffeminating the fame words in each, efpe- 
cially terms of number, which might thus become part of 
the language of people who never had any communication 
with each other. 

We now made the befl of our way for the Cape of Good 
Hope, but the feeds of difeafe which we had received at Ba- 
tavia began to appear with the mofl threatening fymptoms in 
dy ferneries and flow fevers. Left the water which we h^d 
taken in at Prince's Ifland fliould have had any mare in our 
ficknefs, we purified it with lime, and we warned all parts 
of the fhip between decks with vinegar, as a remedy againfl 
infection. Mr. Banks was among the fick, and for fome 
time there was no hope of his life. We were very foon in 
a mofl deplorable fituation 5 the fhip was nothing better than 

5 G 2 aa 



1771. an hofpital, in which thofe that were able to go about, were 
■ too few to attend the fick, who were confined to their ham- 
mocks; and we had almoft every night a dead body to com- 
mit to the fea. In the courfe of about fix weeks, we buried 
Mr. Sporing, a gentleman who was in Mr. Banks's retinue, 
Mr. Parkinfon, his natural hiftory painter, Mr. Green the 
aflronomer, the boatfwain, the carpenter and his mate, Mr. 
Monkhoufe the midlhipman, who had fothered the fhip 
after Ihe had been ftranded on the coaft of New Holland, our 
old jolly fail-maker and his affiftant, the lhip's cook, the 
corporal of the marines, two of the carpenter's crew, a mid- 
shipman, and ninefeamen; in all three and twenty perfons, 
befides the feven that we buried at Batavia. 




Our Arrival at the Cape of Good Hope ; fome Remarks on 
the Run from Java Head to that Place ; a Defcription 
of the Cape, and of Saint Helena ; With fome Account of 
the Hottentot s y and the Return of the Ship to England. 

ON Friday the 15th of March, about ten o'clock in the i 77 i. 
morning, we anchored off the Cape of Good Hope, in ^ Mar ch ' 
feven fathom with an ouzey bottom. The weft point of the Friday '* 
bay, called the Lion's Tail, bore W. N. W. and the caftle 
3. W. diftant about a mile and a half. I immediately waited 
upon the Governor, who told me that I fhould have every 
thing the country afforded. My firft care was to provide a 
proper place afhore for the lick, which were not a few ; and 
a houfe was foon found, where it was agreed they mould be 
lodged and boarded at the rate of two millings a head per 

Our run from Java head, to this place, afforded very few 
fubjects of remark that can be of ufe to future navigators ; 
fuch as occurred, however, I mail fet down. We had left 
Java Head eleven days before we got the general fouth eaft 
trade-wind, during which time, we did not advance above. 
5 to the fouthward, and 3 to the weft, having variable 
light airs, interrupted by calms, with fultry weather, and 
an unwholefome air, occafioned probably by the load of va- 
pours which the eaftern trade-wind, and wefterly monfoons,- 
Bring into thefe latitudes, both which blow in thefe feas at 
the time of year when we happened to be there. The eaft- 
*• erly 


1771- erly wind prevails as far as 10 or 12 S. and the wefterly as 
■ far as 6 or 8° ; in the intermediate fpace the winds are vari- 
m y l S' able, and the air, I believe, always unwholefome; it cer- 
tainly aggravated the difeafes which we brought with us 
from Batavia, and particularly the flux, which was not in 
the lead degree checked by any medicine, fo that whoever 
was feized with it, confidered himfelf as a dead man; but 
we had no fooner got into the trade-wind, than we began to 
feel its falutary effects: we buried indeed feveral of our 
people afterwards, but they were fuch as had been taken 
on board in a ftate fo low and feeble that there was fcarcely 
a poffibility of their recovery. At firft we fufpected that this 
dreadful diforder might have been brought upon us by the 
water that we took on board at Prince's Ifland, or even by 
the turtle that we bought there ; but there is not the leaft 
reafon to believe that this fufpicion was well grounded, for 
all the mips that came from Batavia at the fame feafon, fuf- 
fered in the fame degree, and fome of them even more 
feverely, though none of them touched at Prince's Ifland in 
their way. 

A few days after we left Java, we faw boobies about the 
fhip for feveral nights fucceffively, and as thefe birds are 
known to rooft every night on more, we thought them an 
indication that fome ifland was not far diftant ; perhaps it 
might be the ifland of Selam, which, in different charts, is 
very differently laid down both in name and fituation. 

The variation of the compafs off the weft coaft of Java is 
about 3 W. and fo it continued without any fenfible varia- 
tion, in the common track of fhips to the longitude of 2 88° 
W. latitude 22 S. after which it increafed apace, fo that in 
longitude 295 , latitude 23 , the variation was io° 20'W. : in 
feven degrees more of longitude, and one of latitude, it in- 


creafed two degrees ; in the fame fpace, farther to the weft, 177 *• 
It increafed five degrees: in latitude 28 , longitude 31 4 , it < — ^ — L/ 
was 24° 20', in latitude 29 longitude 317 , it was 26 10', 
and was then ftationary for the fpace of about ten degrees 
farther to the weft; but in latitude 34 , longitude 333 , we 
obferved it twice to be 28°-L W. and this was its greateft varia- 
tion, for in latitude 3jr°f> longitude 337 , it was 24 , and 
continued gradually to decreafe; fo that off Cape Anguillas 
it was 22 30', and in Table Bay 20 30'W. 

As to currents it did not appear that they were at all con- 
fiderable, till we came within a little diftance of the meridian 
of Madagafcar ; for after we had made 52 of longitude from 
Java Head, we found, by obfervation, that our error in lon- 
gitude was only two degrees, and it was the fame when we 
had made only nineteen. This error might be owing partly 
to a current fetting to the weftward, partly to our not making 
proper allowances for the fetting of the fea before which we 
run, and perhaps to an error in the aflumed longitude of 
Java Head. If that longitude is erroneous, the error muft be 
imputed to the imperfection of the charts of which I made 
ufe in reducing the longitude from Batavia, to that place 
for there can be no doubt but that the longitude of Batavia 
is well determined. After we had patted the longitude of 
307 , the effects of the wefterly currents began to be con- 
fiderablej for in three days, our error in longitude was 
1" 5' : the velocity of the current kept increafing, as we pro- 
ceeded to the weftward, in fo much that for five days fuc- 
ceffively after we made the land, we were driven to the S. W. 
or S. W. by W. not lefs than twenty leagues a day; and this 
continued till we were within fixty or feventy leagues of the 
Cape, where the current fet fometimes one way, and fome-- 
times the other, though inclining rather to the weftward. 

* After. 


177T- After the boobies had left us, we faw no more birds till we 

«___!^L_j got nearly abreafl of Madagafcar, where, in latitude 27 1 S. 
Friday 15. we f aw an a ibatrofs, and after that time we faw them every- 
day in great numbers, with birds of feveral other forts, par- 
ticularly one about as big as a duck, of a very dark brown 
colour, with a yellowifh. bill. Thefe birds became more nu- 
merous as we approached the fhore, and as foon as we got 
into foundings we faw gannets, which we continued to fee 
as long as we were upon the bank which itretches off An- 
guillas to the diflance of forty leagues, and extends along 
the fhore to the eaftward, from Cape Falfe, according to 
fome charts, one hundred and fixty leagues. The real ex- 
tent of this bank is not exactly known ; it is however ufeful 
as a direction to fhipping when to haul in, in order to make 
the land. 

While we lay here, the Houghton Indiaman failed for 
England, who, during her Hay in India, loft by ficknefs be- 
tween thirty and forty men; and when fhe left the Cape had 
many in a helplefs condition with the fcurvy. Other fhips 
fullered in the fame proportion, who had been little more 
than twelve months abfent from England; our fufferings 
therefore were comparatively light, confidering that we had 
been abfent near three times as long. 

Having lain here to recover the fick, procure flores, and 

perform feveral necefTary operations upon the fhip and rig- 

rU ging, till the 13th of April, I then got all the fick on board, 

Saturday 13. f cvera l G f whom were ftill in a dangerous ftate, and having 

Sunday 14. taken leave of the Governor, I unmoored the next morning 

and got ready to fail. 

The Cape of Good Hope has been fo often defcribed, and is 
fo well known in Europe, that I mail mention only a few 



particulars, which in other relations are omitted or mifrc- ifirr. 
prefented. •">——>, — -j 

Notwithftanding all that has been faid to the contrary, no 
country that we faw during the voyage makes a more for- 
lorn appearance, or is in reality a more flerile defart. The 
land over the Cape, which conftitutes the peninfula formed 
by Table Bay on the north, and Falfe Bay on the fouth, con- 
fifts of high mountains, altogether naked and defolate : the 
land behind thefe to the eaft, which may be confidered as 
the ifthmus, is a plain of vaft extent, confining almoft wholly 
of a light kind of fea fand, which produces nothing but 
heath, and is utterly incapable of cultivation. All the 
fpots that will admit of improvement, which together bear 
about the fame proportion to the whole as one to one thou- 
fand, are laid out in vineyards, orchards., and kitchen grounds ; 
and moil of thefe little fpots lie at a confiderable diftance 
from each other. There is alfo the greateft reafon to believe, 
that in the interior parts of this country, that which is ca- 
pable of cultivation does not bear a greater proportion to 
that which is incorrigibly barren ; for the Dutch told us, 
that they had fettlements eight and twenty days journey up 
the country, a diftance equal to at leaft nine hundred miles, 
from which they bring provifions to the Cape by land ; fo 
that it feems reafonable to conclude that provifions are not 
to be had within a lefs compafs. While we were at the Cape, 
a farmer came thither from the country, at the diftance of 
fifteen days journey, and brought his young children with 
him. We were furprifed at this, and afked him, if it would 
not have been better to have left them with his next neigh- 
bour : Neighbour ! faid the man, I have no neighbour within 
lefs than five days journey of me. Surely the country mud 
be deplorably barren in which thofe who fettle only to raife 
.Vol. II. 5 H provifions 


1771. provifions for a market, are difperfed at fuch distances from 
._ Ap " ' • each other. That the country is every where destitute of 
wood appears to demonftration ; for timber and planks are 
imported from Batavia, and fuel is almoft as dear as food. 
We faw no tree, except in plantations near the town, that 
was fix feet high ; and the ftems, that were not thicker than 
a man's thumb, had roots as thick as an arm or a leg, fuch 
is the influence of the winds here to the disadvantage of ve- 
getation, fetting the fterility of the foil out of the queftion. 

The only town which the Dutch have built here is, from 
its fituation, called Cape Town, and confifts of about a thou- 
fand houfes, neatly built of brick, and in general whited on 
the outfide ; they are however covered only with thatch, for 
the violence of the fouth eaft winds would render any other 
roof inconvenient and dangerous. The ftreets are broad and 
commodious, all croffing each other at right angles. In the 
principal ftreet there is a canal, on each fide of which is 
planted a row of oaks, that have flourished tolerably well, 
and yield an agreeable made: there is a canal alfo in one 
other part of the town, but the flope of the ground in the 
courfe of both is fo great, that they are furnifhed with flood- 
gates, or locks, at intervals of little more than fifty yards. 

A much greater proportion of the inhabitants are Dutch, 
in this place than in Batavia ; and as the town is Supported 
principally by entertaining Strangers, and Supplying them 
with neceSSaries, every man, to a certain degree, imitates the 
manners and cuftoms of the nation with which he is chiefly 
concerned. The ladies however are fo faithful to the mode 
of their country, that not one of them will Stir without a 
chaudpied or chauffet, which is carried by a Servant that it 
may be ready to place under her feet whenever She Shall fit 
down. This practice is the more remarkable, as very Sew of 
4 theSe 


thefe chauffets have fire in them, which indeed the climate »7J«. 
renders unneceffary. < P t .l'-/ 

The women in general are very handfome; they have fine 
clear fkins, and a bloom of colour that indicates a purity of 
conftitution, and high health. They make the bed wives in 
the world, both as miftreffes of a family and mothers ; and 
there is fcarcely a houfe that does not fwarm with children. 

The air is falutary in a high degree ; fo that thofe who 
bring difeafes hither from Europe, generally recover perfect 
health in a fhort time ; but the difeafes that are brought 
from India are not fo certainly cured. 

Notwithftanding the natural fterility of the climate, induf- 
try has fupplied this place with all the neceffaries, and even 
the luxuries of life in the greateft profufion. The beef and 
mutton are excellent, though the cattle and fheep are natives 
of the country; the cattle are lighter than ours, more neatly 
made, and have horns that fpread to a much wider extent. 
The flieep are clothed with a fubftance between wool and 
hair, and have tails of an enormous fize ; we faw fome that 
weighed twelve pounds, and were told that there were many 
much larger. Good butter is made of the milk of the cows, 
but the cheefe is very much inferior to our own. Here are 
goats, but they are never eaten, hogs, and a variety of poul- 
try. Hares are alfo found here, exactly like thofe of Europe; 
antelopes of many kinds, quails of two forts, and buftards, 
which are well flavoured, but not juicy. The fields produce 
European wheat and barley, and the gardens European ve- 
getables, and fruit of all kinds, befides plantains, guavas, 
jambu, and fome other Indian fruits, but thefe are not in per- 
fection ; the plantains in particular, are very bad, and the gua- 
vas no larger than goofeberries. The vineyards alfo produce 
wine of various forts, but not equal to thofe of Europe, ex- 

5 H 2 cept 


177 1 ' cept the Conftantia, which is made genuine only at one 
* — v" ',/ vineyard, about ten miles diftant from the town. There is 
another vineyard near it, where wine is made that is called 
by the fame name, but it is greatly inferior. 

The common method in which ftrangers live here, is to 
lodge and board with fome of the inhabitants, many of 
whofe houfes are always open for their reception : the rates 
are from five fhillings to two millings a day, for which all 
neceflaries are found. Coaches may be hired at four and 
twenty millings a day, and horfes at fix millings ; but the 
country affords very little temptation to ufe them. There 
are no public entertainments ; and thofe that are private, to- 
which ftrangers of the rank of Gentlemen are always ad- 
mitted, were fufpended while we were there by the break- 
ing out of the meafles. 

At the farther end of the High flreet, the Company have 
a garden, which is about two thirds of an Englifh mile long;, 
the whole is divided by walks that interfect each other at 
right angles, and are planted with oaks that are dipt into 
wall hedges, except in the center walk, where they are fuf- 
fered to grow to their full fize, and afford an agreeable 
made, which is the more welcome, as, except the planta- 
tions by the fides of the two canals, there is not a fingle tree: 
that would ferve even for a fliepherd's buiH, within many 
miles of the town. The greater part of this garden is kit- 
chen ground ; but two fmall fquares are allotted to botani- 
cal plants,, which did not appear to be fo numerous by one- 
half as they were when Oldenland wrote his catalogue. At 
the farther end of the garden is a menagerie, in which there 
are many birds and beafts that are never feen in Europe. j 
particularly a beaft called by the Hottentots Coe Don, which 
is as large as a horfe, and has the fine fpiral horns which 



are fometimes feen in private and public collections of curi- r 77 T - 

r . April. 

ofities. ■ « « 

Of the natives of this country, we could learn but little 
except from report ; for there were none of their habitations, 
where alone they retain their original cufloms, within lefs 
than four days journey from the town ; thofe that we faw 
at the Cape were all fervants to Dutch farmers, whofe cattle 
they take care of, and are employed in other drudgery of 
the meaneft kind. Thefe are in general of a Aim make, and 
rather lean than plump, but remarkably ftrong, nimble, and 
active. Their fize is nearly the fame with that of Europeans, 
and we faw fome that were fix feet high: their eyes are dull 
and without expreffion : their fkins are of the colour of foot, 
but that is in a great meafure caufed by the dirt, which is fo 
wrought into the grain that it cannot be diftinguiihed from 
complexion ; for I believe they never wafli any part of their 
bodies. Their hair curls ftrongly, not like a negroe's, but 
falls in ringlets about feven or eight inches long. Their 
clothing coniifts of a fkin, generally that of a fheep, thrown 
over their fhoulders ; befides which, the men wear a fmall 
pouch in the middle of the waiit, and the women, a broad 
leather flap, both which hang from a girdle or belt that is 
adorned with beads and fmall pieces of copper. Both men 
and women wear necklaces, and fometimes bracelets, of 
beads ; and the women wear rings of hard leather round, 
their ancles, to defend them from the thorns, with which 
their country every where abounds : fome of them have a 
fandal, made of wood or bark; but the greater part of them 
are unihod; 

To a European, their language appears to be fcarcely arti- 
culate ; befides which it is diftinguiihed by a very remark- 
able Angularity. At very frequent intervals,, while they are 

fpeaking F 



1771. fpeaking, they cluck with the tongue againfl the roof of the 

2ji^J> mouth : thefe clucks do not appear to have any meaning, 

but rather to divide what they fay into fentences. Moil of 

thefe Hottentots fpeak Dutch, without any peculiarity of 


They are all modeil, even to fheepiihnefs ; for it was not 
without the greateft difficulty that we could perfuade any of 
them to dance, or even to fpeak in their own language to 
each other, in our prefence. We did however both fee them 
dance, and hear them fing ; their dances are by turns active 
and fluggifli to excefs; fometimes confiding of quick and 
violent motions, with itrange diitortions of the body, and 
unnatural leaps backwards and forwards, with the legs crof- 
fing each other ; and being fometimes fo fpiritlefs that the 
dancer only flrikes the ground firft with one foot and then 
with the other, neither changing place nor moving any 
other part of his body: the fongs alfo are alternately to quick 
and flow movements, in the fame extremes as the dance. 

We made many enquiries concerning thefe people of the 
Dutch, and the following particulars are related upon the 
credit of their report : 

Within the boundaries of the Dutch fettlements there are 
feveral nations of thefe people, who very much differ from 
each other in their cuftoms and manner of life : all how- 
ever are friendly and peaceable, except one clan that is fet- 
tled to the eaflward, which the Dutch call Bofch ?nen, and thefe 
live entirely by plunder, or rather by theft ; for they never 
attack their neighbours openly, but ileal the cattle privately 
in the night. They are armed however to defend them- 
felves, if they happen to be detected, with lances or afTagays, 
and arrows, which they know how to poifon by various 
ways, fome with the juice of herbs, and fome with the ve- 



nom of the ferpent called Cobra diCapeloy in the hands of 1771. 
thefe people a ftone alfo is a very formidable weapon, for ._. /_' 
they can throw it with fuch force and exactnefs as repeatedly 
to hit a dollar at the diftance of a hundred paces. As a defence 
againft thefe freebooters, the other Indians train up bulls, 
which they place round their towns in the night, and which, 
upon the approach of either man or beaft, will afTemble 
and oppofe them, till they hear the voice of their mailers 
encouraging them to fight, or calling them off, which they 
obey with the fame docility as a dog. 

Some nations have the art of melting and preparing cop- 
per, which is found among them, probably native ; and of 
this they make broad plates, which they wear as ornaments 
upon their foreheads. Some of them alfo know how to 
harden bits of iron, which they procure from the Dutch, 
and form into knives, fo as to give them a temper fuperior to 
that of any they can buy. 

The Chiefs, many of whom are pofTeflbrs of very nume- 
rous herds of cattle, are generally clad in the fkins of lions, 
tygers, or zebras, to which they add fringes, and other orna- 
ments in a very good tafte. Both fexes frequently anoint the 
body with greafe, but never ufe any that is rancid or foetid? 
if frefli can be had. Mutton fuet and butter are generally 
ufed for this purpofe ; butter is perferred, which they make: 
by making the milk in a bag made of the ft in of fome 

We were told that the pried certainly gives the nuptial 
benedi&ion by fprinkling the bride and bridegroom with his 
urine. But the Dutch universally declared that the women' 
never wrapped the entrails of fheep round their legs, as they 
have been faid to do,, and afterwards make them part of 
their food. Semicaftration was alfo abfolutely denied to be 



177?- general ; but it was acknowledged that fome among the par- 
i_ — V-—J ticular nation which knew how to melt copper had fuffered 
that operation, who were faid to be the beft warriors, and 
particularly to excel in the art of throwing (tones. 

"We were very defirous to determine the great queftion 
among natural hiflorians, whether the women of this coun- 
try have or have not that flefhy flap or apron which has been 
called the Sinus pudoris, and what we learnt I fhall relate. 
Many of the Dutch and Malays, who faid they had received 
favours from Hottentots women, pofitively denied its exift- 
ence ; but a phyfician of the place declared that he had 
cured many hundreds of venereal complaints, and never faw 
one without two flefhy, or rather fkinny appendages, pro- 
ceeding from the upper part of the Labia, in appearance 
fomewhat refembling the teats of a cow, but flat ; they hung 
down, he faid, before the Piukndum, and were in different 
fubjects of different lengths, in fome not more than half an 
inch, in others three or four inches: thefe he imagined to be 
what fome writers have exaggerated into a flap, or apron, 
hanging down from the bottom of the abdomen, of fuffkient 
extent to render an artificial covering of the neighbouring 
parts unneceflfary. 

Thus much for the country, its productions, and inhabitants. 
The bay is large, fafe, and commodious ; it lies open indeed 
to the north weft winds, but they feldom blow hard ; yet as 
they fometimes fend in a great fea, the flaps moor N. E. and 
S. W. fo as to have an open hawfer with north weft winds : 
the fouth eafl winds blow frequently with great violence, 
but as this direction is right out of the bay, they are not 
dangerous. Near the town a wharf of wood is run out to a 
proper diflance for the convenience of landing and fhipping 
goods. To this wharf water is conveyed in pipes, from which 



feveral boats may fill water at the fame time; and feveral *77*- 
. large boats or hoys are kept by the Company to carry {lores i . Ap . nJ * _r 
and provifions to and from the fhipping in the harbour. 
The bay is defended by a fquare fort, fituated clofe to the 
beach on the eaft fide of the town, and by feveral outworks 
and batteries extending along the fhore, as well on this fide 
of the town as the other ; but they are fo fituated as to be 
cannonaded by fhipping, and are in a manner defencelefs 
againft an enemy of any force by land. The garrifon confifts 
of eight hundred regular troops, befides militia of the coun- 
try, in which is comprehended every man able to bear arms. 
They have contrivances to alarm the whole country by fig- 
nals in a very fliort time, and the militia is then to repair 
immediately to the town. 

The French at Mauritius are fupplied from this place with 
faked beef, bifcuit, flour, and wine : the provifions for 
which the French contracted this year were 500,000 lb. 
weight of fait beef, 400,000 lb. of flour, 400,000 lb. of bif- 
cuit, and i,qoo leagers of wine. 

In the morning of the 14th, we weighed and flood out of Sunday H . 
the bay ; and at five in the evening anchored under Penquin, 
or Robin Ifland : we lay here all night, and as I could not 
fail in the morning for want of wind, I fent a boat to the 
ifland for a few trifling articles which we had forgot to take 
in at the Cape. But as foon as the boat came near the fhore, 
the Dutch hailed her, and warned the people not to land at 
their peril, bringing down at the fame time fix men armed 
with mufquets, who paraded upon the beach. The officer 
who commanded the boat not thinking it worth while to 
rifle the lives of the people on board for the fake of a few 
cabbages, which w T ere all we wanted, returned to the fliiD. 
At firfl we were at a lofs to account for our repulfe, but we 

Vol. II. 5 1 afterwards 



177.1- afterwards recollected, that to this ifland the Dutch at the 
«_, -- p ".'_i Cape banifh fach criminals as are not thought worthy of 
Sunday i 4 . ^ eat ] lj f or a certain number of years, proportioned to the 
offence ; and employ them as flaves in digging lime-ftone, 
which though fcarce upon the continent is plenty here : and 
that a Danifh fhip, which by ficknefs had loft great part of 
her crew, and had been refufed afliftance at the Cape, came 
down to this ifland, and fending her boat aihore, fecured the 
guard, and took on board as many of the criminals as me 
thought proper to navigate her home : we concluded there- 
fore that the Dutch, to prevent the refcue of their criminals 
in time to come, had given order to their people here to 
fuffer no boat of any foreign nation to come aihore. 

Thurfday 25. On the 25th, at three o'clock in the afternoon, we weighed, 
with a light breeze at S. E. and put to fea. About an hour 
afterwards, we loft our Mafter, Mr. Robert Mollineux, a 
young man of good parts, but unhappily given up to intem- 
perance, which brought on diforders that put an end to his 

We proceeded in our voyage homeward without any re- 
Monday wg. markable incident; and in the morning of the 39th, we 
crofted our firft meridian, having circumnavigated the globe 
in the direction from eaft to weft, and consequently loft a 
day, for which we made an allowance at Batavia. 

May. At day-break, on the ift of May, we faw the ifland of St. 

Wednef. i. He i ena . anc j at noonj we anchored in the road before James's 


We ftaid here till the 4th, to refrefh, and Mr. Banks im- 
proved the time in making the complete circuit of the 
ifland, and vifiting the molt remarkable places upon it. 

2 It 


It is fituatcd as it were in the middle of the vaft Atlantic 1771. 

ocean, being four hundred leagues diftant from the coaft of < "_'_, 

Africa, and fix hundred from that of America. It is the WedlK ' f - '• 
fummit of an immenfe mountain rifing out of the fea, 
which, at a little diflance all round it, is of an unfathomable 
depth, and is no more than twelve leagues long, and fix 

The feat of volcanoes has, without exception, been found 
to be the highefl part of the countries in which they are 
found. JEtna and Vefuvius have no land higher than them- 
felves, in their neighbourhood ; Hecla is the highefl: hill in 
Iceland; volcanoes are frequent in the highefl part of the 
Andes in South America ; and the pike of TenerifTe is known 
to be the covering of fubterraneous fire : thefe are flill burn- 
ing, but there are innumerable other mountains which bear 
evident marks of fire that is now extinct, and has been fo 
from the time of our earlieft traditions : among thefe is Saint 
Helena, where the inequalities of the ground, in its exter- 
nal furface, are manifeftly the effect, of the finking of the 
earth, for the oppofite ridges, though feparated always by 
deep, and fometimes by broad vallies, are exactly fimilar 
both in appearance and direction ; and that the finking of 
the earth in thefe parts, was caufed by fubterraneous fire, is 
equally manifeft from the flones, for fome of them, efpe- 
cially thofe in the bottom of the vallies, are burnt almoft to 
a cinder: in fome there are fmall bubbles, like thofe that are 
feen in glais which has been urged almofl to fufion, and 
fome, though at firft fight they do not appear to have been 
expofed to the action of great heat, will be found, upon a 
clofer infpection, to contain fmall pieces of extraneous bo- 
dies, particularly mundick, which have yielded to the power 
of fire, though it was not fufficient to alter the appearance 
of the fione which contained them. 

5 I 2 It 


1771. It appeared, as we approached it on tlie windward Me f 

<_JS^-> like a rude heap of rocks, bounded by precipices of amazing 
Wedaef. 1. height, an d confiding of a kind of half friable ftone, which 
fliows not the leaft fign of vegetation ; nor is it more pro- 
mifmg upon a nearer view : in failing along the more, we 
came fo near the huge cliffs, that they feemed to over-hang 
the fhip, and the tremendous effect of their giving way, 
made us almoft fear the event : at length we opened a valley,. 
called Chappel Valley, which fefembles a large trench ; and 
in this valley we difcovered the town. The bottom of it is 
flightly covered with herbage, but the fides are as naked as 
the cliffs thar are next the fea. Such is the firft appearance 
of the ifland in its prefent cultivated ftate, and the firft hills 
muft be paffed before the vallies look green, or the country 
difplays any other marks of fertility. 

The town ftands juft by the fea fide, and the far greater 
part of the houfes are ill built; the church, which originally 
was a mean ftructure, is in ruins, and the market- houfe is 
nearly in the fame condition. 

The white inhabitants are all Englifh, who, as they are 
not permitted by the Eaft India Company, to whom the 
iiland belongs, to carry on any trade or commerce on then- 
own account, fubfift wholly by fupplying fuch mips as touch 
at the place with refrefhments, which, however, they do 
not provide in proportion to the fertility of the foil, and the 
temperament of the climate, which would enable them, by 
cultivation, to produce all the fruits and vegetables both of 
Europe and India. This ifland indeed, fmall as it is, enjoys 
the different advantages of different climates, for the cab- 
bage trees which grow upon the higheft ridges, can by no 
art be cultivated upon the ridges' next below, where the red- 
wood and gum-wood both nourifh, which will not grow 
3 upon 



upon the ridges above, and neither of the three are to be *77'« 
found in the vallies, which, in general, are covered with 
European plants, and the more common ones of India. 

Here are a few horfes, but they are kept only for the 
Saddle, fo that all labour is performed by Haves 5 nor are 
they furnifhed with any of the various machines which art 
has invented to facilicate their talk. The ground is not 
every where too fteep for a cart, and where it is, the wheel- 
barrow might be ufed with great advantage, yet there is no 
wheelbarrow in the whole ifland; every thing ia conveyed 
from place to place by the flaves, and they are not furnifhed 
even with the fimple convenience of a porter's knot, but carry 
their burden upon their heads. They are indeed very nume- 
rous, and are brought from almoft' every part of the world, 
but they appeared to be a miferable race, worn out partly 
by exceflive labour, and partly by ill ufage, of which they 
frequently complained ; and I am forry to fay, that inftances 
of wanton cruelty are much more frequent among my coun- 
trymen here,, than among the Dutch, who are, and perhaps 
not without reafon, generally reproached with want of hu- 
manity at Batavia and the Cape. 

Among the native products of this ifland, which are not 
numerous, muft be reckoned ebony, though the trees arc 
now nearly extinct, and are not remembered to have been 
plenty: pieces of the wood are frequently found in the val- 
lies, of a fine black colour, and a hardnefs almoft equal to 
iron: thefe pieces, however, are always fo fhort and crooked, 
that no ufe can be made of them. Whether the tree is the 
fame with that which produces ebony upon the ifle of Bour- 
bon, or the iflands adjacent, is not known, as the French 
have not yet pubiifhed any account of it. 


Wednef. i 


I77 1 - There are but few infects in this place, but there is a fpe- 

cies of fnail found upon the tops of the higheft ridges, which 
probably has been there fince the original creation of their 
kind, at the beginning of the world. It is indeed very dif- 
ficult to conceive how any thing which was not depofited 
here at its creation, or brought hither by the diligence of 
man, could find its way to a place fo fevered from the reft of 
the world, by feas of immenfe extent, except the hypothecs 
that has been mentioned on another occafion be adopted, 
and this rock be fuppofed to have been left behind, when a 
large tract: of country, of which it was part, fubfided by 
fome convulfion of nature, and was fwallowed up in the 

Saturday* At one o'clock in the afternoon, of the 4th of May, we 
weighed and flood out of the Road, in company with the 
Portland man of war, and twelve fail of Indiamen. 

We continued to fail in company with the fleet, till the 
Friday 10. loth in the morning, when, perceiving that we failed much 
heavier than any other fhip, and thinking it for that reafon 
probable that the Portland would get home before us, I made 
the fignal to fpeak with her, upon which Captain Elliot him- 
felf came on board, and I delivered to him a letter for the 
Admiralty, with a box, containing the common log books of 
the ihip, and the journals of fome of the officers. We con- 
Thurfday23. tinucd in company, however, till the 23d in the morning' 
and then there was not one of the (hips in fight. About one 
o'clock in the afternoon, died our Firft Lieutenant Mr. Hicks, 
and in the evening we committed his body to the fea, with 
the ufual ceremonies. The difeafe of which he died, was a 
confumption, and as he was net free from it when we failed 
from England, it may truly be faid that he was dying during 



the whole voyage, though his decline was very gradual till i77 x « 


we came to Batavia : the next day, I gave Mr. Charles Clerk ■ -.- _j 
an order to act as Lieutenant in his room, a young man who n ay z *' 
was extremely well qualified for that ftation. 

Our rigging and fails were now become fo bad, that fome- 
thing was giving way every day. We continued our courfe, 
however, in fafety till the ioth of June, when land, which June. 
proved to be the Lizard, was discovered by Nicholas Young, ° n ay I0 * 
the fame boy that firfl faw New Zealand ; on the i ith we run Tuefday m 
up the channel, at fix in the morning of the 12th we pafTed Wednef. jz. 
Beachy Head, at noon we were abreaft of Dover, and about 
three came to an anchor'in the Downs, and went afhore at 

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