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VOL. in. 

The priest's lips ibould keep knowledge, Mid tbe; iIioDld seek the law at hb 
mouth ; for be b the messenger of the Lord of Hosts. Bat ye are departed 
out of tbe way : ye have caused man; to stumble at the law ; je have cor^ 
rupted the corenaot of Levi . Mal. ii, 7, 8. 

Every acRiBB which ii instructed unto the kingdom of heaven, is like unto a 
man that is an hooseholder, which bringeth forth oat of his treaaure things 
new and old. Matt. liil. 5S. 






\ ri 

f ^J 


























PART n. 







DiRKcTiONH about Marriage for Oiolco and Contract l 

O. MlieLlier Marria^ be inilificrent? Who are called to 

marry } Who may not many ? < 

Q. Whit if jiarentf command it to one that it will be a hurt 
to ! What if I have a corporal nccMsity, when yet Mar- 
riage id like to be a great hurt to my aoul f Of parents' 

prohibition .. * 

Q. ^Vhat if pnrenlH forbid Marriage to one that cannot live 

chastely without it! orivheo aOcctions ure uncoDqatrsble ? 6 
Q. What if the chilil have promised MBrriage, and the pa- 
rents be ogoin.^t it? Of the seme of Numb. XXX. Uow&r 

8uch promise must be kept } 9 

Q. What if the parttefi be actually married nithoDt parents' 

consent ? II 

Q. filny the aged marry that arc frigid, impotent, sterile i .. 19 
The incommoditieB of a married life to be consiilereil by tbun 

that need restraint 13 

Kfipccially to ministers W 

KurUier Directions 24 

How to cure lu&tful I^ove M 

Several cases about murrying with tin ungodly pcrWD 95 




Q. I. What rule to Tollow cibout prohibited degrees of coa- 
aanguinity. Whether the law of Moses, or of nature, or 
the liiw3 of llielandorchinvh,&c 39 

Q. 2, What to do if the law of the land forbid more degrees 

than Moses's law 33 

Q. 3. or tha Mftrriage of cousin gonuajis, beforehand. ..... ibid. 

Q. 4. What such shoold do after the; are married 34 

Q. 5, AVIial must they after do that are married in the de- 
grees not forbidden hj naiuc> Lev. svili. and yet of the 

auinc ncurness and reason iUd. 

U. 6. If they marryiiiadegree forbidden. Lev, xTiii, maynot 
ntecrssity make it lawful to continue il, as it made lawful the 

tnarriB^ of Adam's sons nnd daughters S& 

Q, 7- Whether n Vow of Chastity orCelibatemaybcbrokeB, 
null in what cases 34 


Directions for th« choice of I. Servants.. 
M. Masters 



AIF. Proved ugainHt the cavlla of the profane, and nome aecta- 

ries 48 

What solemn Worship is ibid. 

What a Fbmily , 50 

Ptoof as to Worship in general &1 

Family ndrautngcs for Worship yt 

The nntural obli^tlon on Families to worship God M 

FitniilieH mu«l he aanctilied societies 67 

InBtruding' Families is a duty OS 

J^mily disdplinc is a duty ., 06 

, Eiolemn prayer and praise are Family thitle* ffj 

Ol^'ectioiiB answered 83 


Of the irequeDC]- and seasons of Family Worship. 1. Whe- 
ther it should be erery day. S. Whether twice a day. 3. 
Whether morniDg and evening 88 


General Urectioos fcr the Holy OoTernment of FamBiefl .... 90 

Hov to keep up authority ibid. 

Of skill in Governing « 

Of holy willineness 94 


Special Motives to persuade men to the Holy Governittent of 
their Families 96 


Motives for a bed; «id iMMfiil ^um^ at GbiHran .... IW 


^ The matual Ihiti«B of Uusbandt and Wirm tovnurtfa MCb 

other 1 16 

How to maintain due coqjugal Love }17 

Of Adultery l^O 

Motives and means against Dissention ISS 

Motives and means to fiirther each otben' HlvstioQ 187 

Further duties I^IO 

The special PKtief of Hitfbaods to tMrV^ive? 1*J 




The apecini Duly of Wives to their Husbands 145 

Q. How far mny n wife give, witbout her husband's consent ? 1 50 

«. Of Wives' propriety 161 

Q. Ib a Wife guilty of her Husband's unlawful getting, if 

she keep it : Anii is she bound to reveal it, <as in robbing)) 1&2 
Q. May a Wife go to hear seraioiis when her Husband iur- 

biddethber? liSS 

Q. Mu&t a woroan proceed to odmontsh a wicked Husband 

Mien it mokcth him worse? 154 

Q. What she must do in controverted cases of religiuHj when 

her judgment nndher Husband's differ 155 

Q. How loDg, or ia what coaes may Husbandii and A^Tca be 

distant ibid. 

Q. Msytlie bore con^mandanf princes separate Husbands and 

Wives, (as ministcrsj judges, soldientr) , I&fi 

U. Mny Ministers leave their Wives to go abroad tu preach 

the Gospe) > 157 

Q. May one lenvc a Wife to aavo hia life In case of personal 

persecution or danger ^ 1&8 

Q. May Husband and Wife part by consent, if they find il to 

bcfor the good nf both ? ibid. 

Q. May Lheycotiient to bcdivnrccd,sndto many others? . . 159 

Q. Doth Adultery dissolve Marriage > ibid- 

Q. Is tlie iiyurcd person bound to divorce Ihc other, or left 

ffM ' - \m 

Q. !s it the proper privilege of the man to put away an adul- 
terous Wife, or is it also In the woman's power to depart 

from an adulterous Husband r ibid. 

Q. May there be putting away, or departing witbout the Ma- 

)>istrute's divorce or licence? 161 

Q. What if both parties be adult«nniB ? 161 

Q. n'hat if ons purposely commit adultery to be separate from ! 

the. oilier' 103 

Q. DolMnRdclity dissolve the relation ? ibid. 

Q. Dolh the desertion of one party disoblige the other ? . . . ibid. 
Q, Must a vroiiinn follow a malignant Husband that goeth 

from the niean^ of grace ? iliiil. 

O- Must fttw follow him. if it be but to poverty or beggary ■ IW 



Q. What to do in case of known inteotioD of one to murder 
the other } 165 

Q. Or if there be a fixed hatred of each other ? ibid. 

Q. What if a man will not suffer his wife to hear, read, or 
pray : or do beat her bo, as to unfit her for duty : or a wo- 
man will rail at the Husl>and in prayer time ! &c 166 

Q. Who may marry after parting or divorce ? 167 

Q, Is it lawful to suffer, yea, or contribute to the known sin 
materially of Wife, Child, Servant, or other relations ? 
Where is opened what is in ourpower to do against un, and 
what not ibid. 

Q. If a Gentleman have a great estate by which he may do 
much good, and his Wife be so proud, prodigal, and peevish, 
that if she may not waste it all tn housekeeping and pride, 
she will die or grow mad, or give blm no quietness, what is 
his duty in so sad a case! 173 


The Duties of Parents for their Children. Where are twenty 
special Directions for their education ITS 

The Duties of Children towards thetr Parents 190 


The special Duties of Children and Youth towards God 1 99 


The Duties of Servants to their Masters 203 

nt. 1. Itic Duly of Masters towards iVir Senants 209 

Tit. 2. The Duty of Mastere to Slaves in the Plualutiona . . 312 
U' 1- Is it lawful for n Cbristuui to bu> aait use a mnA %* & 

Slave? ,.. 3»5 

Q. 2. la it lawfU to use a Christian as a Slave > 216 

(J. 3. Ai^Hiut dlBcrvace must vr« make between a Scnrtvnt and 

a Slave! , 917 

Q, 4. What if men buy Negroes, or other Slaves, of aitcli as 

w« may tliink did steal them, or buy them of Bobbers and 

Tyrants, and not by consent? 918 

Q. 5. May I nnt sell auch again and make my money of ihem? ibid. 

Q. 6. May 1 tkot return them to him that I bought ihem of ) S19 

TbiG Duties of ChildreQ and FgIIqw Sfirvanta to one aaothe; } 2S0 


Dirceiiona for Holy Couferonce of Fellow Servants and others 

Ci. May we spca.k good when the heart is not affected with it ! 

Q. Is that the fruit of the Spirit which we force our tongues 




Directions for every Mentber of the Family, how to efiend 
ereryordinary day of the Week , 230 


TU. 1 . Dlrectioiu for the Holy ^Spending of llie Lord's day in 
Faiailies «|0 



Whether the whole da; should be kq>t holy > IMS 

Tit. 2. More particular I>ii«ctiODs for the order of hcAj dutwa 
on that day *« 


IHrections for profitable Hearing God's Word preached ... 351 
7?*. 1, Directions for Understanding the Word which you 

bear iUd. 

Tit. 2. Directions for Remmnbering what you bear ...... 254 

Tit. 3. DirectioDsfor Holy Resotutloas and AlfectioiuiQhearing 267 
Tit. 4. Directions to bring what we bear into practice .... il&9 

IMrectioQS for profitable Reading the Holy Scriptures .... 263 


Directions for Reading other Books 266 


Directions for right Teaching Cliildren and Servants, so as is 
most likely to have success. The sum of Christian Religion 270 


Tit. 1. Directions for Prayer in general 281 

A Scheme or brief Explication of the Exact Method of the 

Lord's Prayer 28T 

Tit. 2. Cases about Prayer 289 



Q. 1. Is the Lonl'E I'rayer Co be used lu a form of words, or 

only as a Directory fnr Matter anJ Method ibid. 

Q. S. What needUthercof anyotliorPmyer, ifthisbeperfect? 290 

Q. 3. Ib it lawful to pray in a set form of words • S91 

Q. 4. Arc thoae romis lawful whicli are pivscnbed liy man, 

and not by <iod ? ibid. 

Q. 5. Is free Praying, called extempore, lawful} SOB 

Q. 6. Which is the better ! ibid. 

Q. 7. Must wc ever follow tlie Method of the Lord's Prayer ? 293 
Q. 8. Must we pray only when the Spirit nioveth us, or as 

reason guidctli us ? 2M 

Q. 9. Ma.y lie pruy for grace, who desireth it not } 296 

Q. lo. May he pray that doubteth of his interest in God, nnd 

dare not calUiimFiillier as his child ? ibid. 

Q. II. May a wicked mnn prey, or ishe e\'eruccpptedK. .. 298 

Q. 12. May a wiekcd man use the Lorrl's prayer? ibid. 

Q. 13, la it idolatry orsia a^lways lo pmy l«sai(itsoraogela> S97 

Q. 14. Isn manbound lo pruy ordinarilyin hi» family ?.. .. 29H 
Q. 15. Mtist the same man pray secretly, that hath, before 

prayed in his family? ibid. 

Q. IG. Is it best to keep set hours for prayer ^ ibid, 

Q. 1*. May wcjoin iu family proycrs with ungodly pereous? ibid. 

Q. 18. Whatif themasternrspeakerbe iiiigcidly ora heretic? 59!l 
Q. 19. May we pray absolutely for outward mercies^ or only 

conditionally ? 300 

U- *iO. May we pray for nil thai we lawfully desire ' 301 

Q. 21. How may we pmy fur the salvation of alt the world ? ibid. 

Q. 33. Or for the conversion of oil natioiu } S02 

Q. 23. Or Ihnia whole kingdiim may beconvertod andaaved? ibid. 
Q. 24. Or fur the destruction uf the enemies of Christ, or the 

kiDgdoui ? ibid. 

Q. 25. What iA to bvjudgciloPa particular faith ? Ibid. 

Q. 23. Isevery lawful praycracccptcd? 303 

Q, 9t7- With what faith muett I pray for the EOids or bodies 

of other* ? ibid. 

Q. 28. With what faith may wc pray for the continuance of 

the church or Gospel } 304 

Q. S9. How to know when our prayers are heard ibid. 

Q, 30. How lu hove fulness and con^taut supply of matter in 

our prayers .>••■■(* t ibid. 

Q. 31. How to keep up fervency in prayer •••■<«••• 309 



Q. 3S. May wc look to speed ever tlie better for adjf thing' io 

oaisdvesorcurpm)^^ ? Ornitywepulaoy tniBlin tbcm? 308 
Q. 33. How mnst that perMW »nd pmjref he cgualiBed, which 

God will accept i ,,,,,,.......,.. 309 

Til.S. Specinl Directionn fnr Family Prayer ibM. 

TU- 4. Special Directions for Secret Prayer • • 311 


Directions for Families nboiit the Sacmnient of tlie Lord'* 
Supper 312 

What are the findsof theSacraiuent? What arc the parts of it* ihid. 

Q. 1, Should not the Sacnunent hare more ](reparat4on than 
the other parts of worship } • 318 

Q. H. How oft sHouM it be nduiinistcred ? ••••*••>••><•• 31d 

Q. 3. Miist nil tocmbcn of UicvisiUc churcli cotiimunivivte * 3S0 

Q. 4. May any man receive it, that knnweih hintself uiisanc- 
ti6ed? ibiil 

Q. 5. May an ungodly nian receive it, that kaoweth not him- 
8elf to be ungwilly ? iUd. 

Q. 6. Musta Christian receive whodoubtetliof his «iiic<>rUy? 331 

Q. 7. What if superiors compel a doubtitig Christian to re- 
ceive it, by excommunieation or imprisonment : what 
should he chonee ' 989 

Q. H. Is not the case of an hypocrite that knowelli not him- 
itelf to b« an hypocrite, and nf the sincere who knoweth not 
himself to be sincere, all one, ug to coram uni eating ? . . . . 333 

Q. 9, Wherein lieth tht- ain of an ungodly peraon if be receive? ibid. 

Q. 10. Poth all unworthy receiving make one liable to dam- 
nation } or what ? •••.• si4 

Q. II. What is the particnlor preparation needfyil to a fit 
coDunualcant J • 395 

Marks of sincerity ibid. 

Prepanng duties ••••• • ■ • ••• 397 

U. I. May we receive from on ungodly minister? 999 

Q. 9. May we eomtnunicnte with unworthy persona in an 
undisciplin^ church? ibid. 

Q. 3. What if I cannot cammunicatc unless I confonn to an 
imposed gesture, as sitting, standing, or kneeling ? 331 




U, 4. Whttt if I cannot receive it, but uadministeml b; the 

CoBimnn Pmyer ? *i...... *. asi 

Q. 5. If my eonsciencetjenotSfltisfiedfmBy l«)incdwubUng! 33M 

Obj , Is it not a tluly to fullow <-oii3cieiice as God's uiBcc^ f • • 333 

Wliat to do in tlie time of administration ! iliji), 

I. \Vhnt gmcftfi must b« cxerci£cd! -...•••...*".*•.•••-■ SS4 

B. On what objects • ibid. 

a. The Season and Order of Sacramenlal Duties 336 


Directions for fearful, troubled Christians who are perplexed 

with duiibts of their sincerity and justiBcation • • S418 

Causes and Cure ••■••■ 343 


TU. 1 . Directions for declining, backsliding Clirifitianx : and 

about Perseveranec 351 

The several sorU of backsliders ibid. 

Tile way of falling into EectB, and heresies, and errors .... 35B 

And of declining in heart and life 353 

Signs of declining 3b€ 

SigDfl of a graceless state 368 

Dangerous signs of imiwnitency S59 

False signs of declining 360 

Motives against declining 361 

Dtrectiuns against it tt^ 

Tit.^. Directions for pcrscvcrunce, or to prevent backsliding ilud. 
Antidntes against tlioee doctrine:! of presumption which would 

liiitder our perseverance 2F73 


DIrecilons for the Poor . 

The 'IWiplationt of the Poor 3fb 

The Biwclal DutieB of the Poor 386 

^^^^^^; CHAPTER 



399 H 

396 ^^H 

403 ^^H 

ibid. ^^B 
411 ■ 
4H H 
414 H 
416 H 
490 B 

433 ^^H 
419 S 

443 ^^H 


f Directions ft»r the Aged and Wesik 


Tit. 1. Directions for a anfc death, to secure salvation . . . . 

T. For the unconverted in their sickness. (A end caae.) 1. 
For examinntton { 2. For repentance: 3. For failh in 
Christ; 4- For a now faifart, lovetuGodjUnd reMilution for 

Q. Wai kte repentance serve the turn, in eueh a case? . , 
II. Directions to the godly for a safe departure .• 

Til. 3. Directions for a comfortaiilc or peaceable death . . . 
Dtrections for resisting tlie temptations of Satan in time of 

Tit. 4. Directions for doing good to others in our sickness 



1 Directions Xo the friends of the siiJi that arc nbuut thein . 
1 Q. 1. Is it meet to moke known to the sick their danger 

K Q. 2, Must we tell bad men of their sin and misery wlien 




Q. S. What can be done in so short a time ? 447 

Q. 4. What to do in doubtful cases? 448 

Q. 5. What order should be observed in counselling the ig- 

Dorant and ungodly when time is so short ? ibid. 

Helps against excessive sorrow for the death of friends ; yea, 

of the worst 451 

A Form of Exhortation to be read in sickness to the ungodly, '- 

or those that we justly fear are such 452 

A Fonn of Exhortation to the godly in sickness, for their com- 
fort. Their dying groans and joys 465 



frTAMiiY DmF/rroRY. containing DiitEcrioNS fob the 



Dirtctiom about Marriage: for Chaire and Contrart. 

As the persons of Chriatians in their most priratc capaci- 
ties arc hoty, as being dedicated aud sepaxated unto God, so 
also must Ibeir famUies be : HOLINESS TO TUK LORD 
must be aa it were written on their duors, and on tlieir rela- 
tions, their posseaaionB and afiairs. To which it iit requi- 
site. I- That there be a holy contititution of their families. 
2. And a holy gorerumeat of tbem. end discharge of tlie 
several duties of the members of the family. To the right 
coDfltituting of a family, btloupeth, (1.) The right contract- 
ing of marriage, and (2.) The right choice and contract be- 
twixt masters and their r^ervania. For the first. 

Direct. 1. ' Take heed that neither luct nor rashnirss du 
thrust yoa into a married condition, before you see such 
reasons to invite you to it, as may cusure you of the call and 
approbation of God." For, 1. It ia God that yoii iiiusl 
serve in your married Ktate, and therefore it ig meet that 
VOL. >v. B 

c:nkiktian i>iRK<"roR\. [part II. 

you take hi^ counsel before yoti rusli upon it : for he 
knoweth best himself, what belougeth to his service. 2. 
And it is God tliat you must still depend upon, for the bles- 
sing and comforts of your relation : and therefore therein 
very great reaeon that you take his advice and ronst^nt, as 
the chief things requisite to the uiLilch. If the consent of 
parents be necessary, much more is the consent of God. 

Qiiesl. 'But how shitU n man know whether God call 
him to marriage, or consent unto it? Hath be not here left 
(ill men to their liberties, as in a thing indifferent?' 

Answ. God halh not made any universal law command- 
ing or forbidding naarriage; but in this regard hath left it 
indilferent to mankind : yet not allowing all to marry (for 
undoubtedly to some it is unlawful). But he hath by other 
general laws or rules directed men to know, in what cases it 
is lawful, and in what cases it ih a sin. As every roan iK 
bound to choose that condition in which he may serve God 
with the best advantages, and which tendeth most to his 
spiritual welfare, and increase in holiness. Now there is no- 
thing ill niorriage itself which maketh it commonly incoo- 
Hlstent with these benefits, and the fulfilling of these laws: 
and therefore it is said, that " he tha.t marrieth doth well"," 
that is, he dotli that which of itself is not unlawful, and 
which to some is the most eligible state of life. But there 
is something in a single life which maketh it, especially to 
preachers and persecuted Christians, to be more usually the 
most advantageous state of life, to these ends of Christian- 
ity ; and therefore it is said, that " he thaf. marrieth not. 
doth better." And yet to individual persons, it ie hard to 
imagine how it can choose but be either a duty or a sin ; 
Stleaftt except in aouie unusual cases. For it is a thing of 
to great moment as to the ordering of our hearts and lives, 
that it is hard to imagine that it should ever be indifierent 
Bs a means tn our main end, but must either be a very great 
help or hindrance. Bat yet if there be any persona whose ^ 
caae may be so equally poited with accidents on both sides, ■ 
that to the most judicious man it is not discernible, whv- 
iher a single or manied state of life, is like to conduce more 
to their peiaooa) holiness or public nsefulness. or the good 

■ 1 Con rIL r. »> 



of Others, to mch persona marriilge in the indiTiiliiil circbid- 

stantiated act is a thing incliHerent. 

By these conditions followinir yo" may know, what pti- 
sons have a call from God to marry, and who hav« not his 
call or approbation. 1. If there be the peremptory will Ot 
command of parents to chiMi^n ihai are onder their powW 
and goTerament, and no greater matter on the contniry to 
hinder it, the command of piifCBlH aigtiifleth the command 
of God: but if patents do bot persuade and no! command, 
though iJieir tleBJfeB must m»t \te cfluseleBsly refufiwd, yet a 
smaller itapedimeitt may preponderate tlian id case of a Jier- 
emptory oommaiid. 2. They arc called to noarry who hare 
not the gift of continence, and cannot hy the use of Inwrol 
itieans attain it, atld hare no impediment which Olabeth it 
unlawfnl to them to marry. " Bnt if they cannot contain, 
let them marry; for it is bett*r to marry than to hnro V 
Bat here the divers degrees of the urgent and the hindeffing 
Canses miial he cottipated, and the weightiest rfinst prerffil. 
For Some that have very ettotig iuiit» mdy yet have stton^t 
impediments r and though they cannot Iteep that chastity In 
their thoughts fls fhey desire, yet in ntich a case they nfust 
abstain. And there is lio man hut thay keep hit: bodj' th 
chastity if he will do his part: yea. and thoiight:* theiri- 
selres may be commonly, and for the mo&t putt kept pure', 
and wanlon imaginations quickly checked, tf men b* god(y, 
and will do what thflv can. But on the o(her side there are 
Bome that have a more tameable measore of concupiscence, 
and yet have no considerable hindrance, whose doty it may 
be to marrj-. as the most certain and Successful m^ttrts 
a^^inat that small degree, as long as there is nothing to for- 
bid it. 3. Another catiAe thai warrsinteth marriage is, ithen 
upon a wise casting np of allaccountg, it ixapparenlly mogt 
probable thai in a manied state, one may be rnoet service- 
able to God and the public g6od : that there' <*ill be hi it 
greater helps and fewer hindrances to the great ends of <rtiT 
lives; the glorifying of God, and the saving of our^ftlves artd 
othevs. And whereas it mvist be expected that every con- 
dition should be more helpful to ns in one respect, and hin- 
der us more in another rt-specl ; and that in one wo have 
most helps for a contemplative life, and in another we are 


[part ii. 

better furniehfid for an active, serviceable life, the great 
skill therefore in the discerning of our duties, lieth m the 
prudent pondering and comparing of the commodities and 
diBcommodities. withuut the seduction of fantasy, lu^t or 
paseion, and in a true discerning -which side it is that hath 
the greatest weight*^. 

Here it must be carefully observed, 1 . That the two first 
reasons for marriage (coacupisr.eiice and the will of parentti), 
or any such like, have their strength but in HubDrdiualiou 
to the third (the Anal cause, or interest of God and our sal- 
vation). And that this last reason (from the end) is of it- 
self sufficient without nny of the other,but none of the other 
are sufBcient without this. If it be clear that in a married 
state you have better advantages for the service of God, 
and doing good to otliers, and saving your own souls, than 
you can have in a single state of life, then it is undoubtedly 
yourduty to marry : for our obligation to &eek our ultimHte 
ond i» the moat constant, indispensable obligation. Though 
parents command it not. though you have no corporal ne- 
cessity, yet it is a duty if it certainly make most for your 
ultimate end. 2, But yet observe aJso, that no pretence of 
your ultimate end itself will warrant you to marry, when any 
other accident hath AtsI made it a thing unlawful, while 
that accident continueth. For we must not do evil that 
good may come by it. Our salvation is not furthered by 
sin : and though we saw a probability that wc might do more 
good to oCherH, if we did but commit such a sin to accomplish 
it, yet it is not to be done. For our lives aiul mercies being 
all in the hand of God, and the successes and accf^ptance 
of all our endeavour!^ depending wholly upon him, it can 
never be a rational way to attain them, by wilful offending 
bim by our «in ! It in a likely means to public good for 
able and good men to be magistrates and ministers : and yet 
he that would Ue. or be perjured, or commit any known 'sin 
that he may be a tuagistrate. or that he may preach the Gos- 
pel, might better expect a cumo on himself and his endea- 
vours, than God's acceptance, or bis blessing and nucceKs : 
*o he that would sin to change his state for the better, would 

< Unmuriril aien aretltobMI frlcndi, Ihr beti iiiutrr*,ihe bo«l ivmnw; hm 
net tUiiyi (tir beat uibjcrli : for Ihcj Bnti|h| laninBwuy.aDd Ihercfora vcntnmut, 
ttt- 1»nl Bacwi, £«•> S. 


UlAf. 1.] 



Hticl that he chnnged it for the worae; or if it du good to 
odierH. he may expect no good but ruia to himself, if repen- 
tance picvcnt it not. 3. ObHerTt-. al^io tltat ifUie quesliod 
be only vrhich Htute oflift: it is (tnurricd or Ainglt;) which beat 
condaceth to this uttimate end, then toy one of the subor- 
dinate reasons will prove tbatwe have a call, if there be not 
greater reasons on tb« contrary side. As in cu»e you have 
no corporal necessity, the will of piirents alone may oblige 
you, if Uiere be no greutei thing a{^nat it: or if parents 
obiige you not, yet corporal necessity alone may do il: or if 
neither of these invite you, yet a clear probability of the at- 
taining of fiuch an eittute or opportunity, as nmy make you 
more fit to relieve many others, or be 8«rvlc«able to the 
church, or the blessing of children who may be devottd to 
God, may warrant your marriage, if no greater reasons lie 
againet it : for when the scales ore equal, any ono of lh«8e 
may turn them. 

By UiiB also you may perceive who they be that have no 
call to marry, and to whom it is a sin. As I. No man hath 
a call to marry, who laying all the commodities and diucum- 
modiliee together, may clearly discern that a married atale 
is like to be a greater hindmnceof his salvation, or to his 
aervinj; or honouring God in the world, and so to diKadvan- 
tage him as to his ultimate end. 

Quest. ' But what if parents do command it? ur will set 
against me if I disobey V 

Amm. Parents hare no authority to command you any 
thing against God or your salvation, or your ultimate end. 
Therefore here you owe them no formal obedience : but yet 
the will of parents with all the consequenta. must bo put in- 
to the scales with all other considerations, and if they make 
the discommodities of a single life to become the greater, as 
to your end, then tliey may bring you under a duty or obli- 
gation to marry : not' necessitate praBcepli,' as obedience to 
their command; but' necessitate medii,' as a means to your 
ultimate end, and in obedience to that general command of 
Ood, which requireth you to " seek first" your ultimate end, 
even " the kingdom of God, and his righteousness '^." 

Quett. ' But what if 1 have a corporal ueoessity and yet 

' ittflil. <i. %s. 



I can foresee that marriage will greatly disadvaQtihgt; me ait 
to th« @«l'vice of God and my salvation V 

Au^^. I. You must understand that no uor|)oral neces- 
nity i^ absolute : for there is no man so lustful but may pus- 
»itily bridle his lust by other lawful aieane : by diet, labouf, 
eiober coaipany, diverting butiiness, solitade, watching the 
thoughts aad senses, or at least by the pbyaician'& help; 60 
that thp necessity is but ' setundutn quid," or an urgency 
mlhur than a simple uecessity. And then 2. This measiire 
of utceiisity must be itself laid in the balance with the other 
accidents: und, if IIiib necessity will tnrn the scales by 
utalcing a hin^le life more disadvantageous to your ultimate 
«!ld> ypur lust being a (i^eater impediment to you, than all 
the ii^conveniences of mnrriagG will be, then the case is ro- 
fiotved, " it is better to marry than to burn." But if the Uio- 
drances in a married state are like to be greater, than the 
hindrances of your concupiscence, then you must &et your- 
self to the curbing and curing of that concupi^icenccj and 
in the n&n of God's means expect his blessing. 

2. Children are not ordinarily, called of God to ntarry, 
when their parents do iibftolutely and peremptorily forbid it- 
Fur though parents' commands cannot make it a duty, when 
we are sure it would hinder the intereitt of God our ultimate 
«nd*, y<!t parents' prohibitions may al^]lie it n sin, when there 
i» a clear probability that it would most conduce to our ul- 
timate end, were it not prohibited. Be^riuse(l.) AiHrma- 
tivee bind not ' Kemper et ad. semper' aa negatives or prohi- 
bitions do. (2.) Beeause the sin of disobedience to parent* 
will cro&ii the tendency of itiinto good, and do more again^tj 
otft ultimate end, than all tl>e advantages of piarriage con do 
for it. A duty is then to us uu duty, when it cannot be per- 
formed without a chosen, wilful sin. In many cases we are 
bound to forbear what a governor forbiddeth, when we aw 
not bouad to do the contrary if he command it. It m cosiei- 
to make a duty to be no duty, than to make a sin to be no 
•ill' One bad ingredient may turn a duty into a sin, wheii 
one good it^redient wilt not turn a sin into a duty, or into 
no sin. 

<iu€tl. ' But may not a goreroov'a prohibition be ovei- 
ncighed by some great degrees of incotnmodity f ll is bet- 
ter to luaiiy than u> bum. I. What if pureuts forbid chU- 

THAI*. I.] 


dren to oiarry absolutely until detth, and no dephv« them of 
the lawful remedy againat lust ? 2. And if they do not M)* 
ffet if they forbid it them when it is to them most Bcasoiiable 
yand necessury. ttfteemetli little better. 3. Orifthey forbid 
[tliem to marry where thutr atTectiunu are no eii|faged, iis thai 
' liey cannot be lakeo off witliout tlieir mutual ruin? May 
itol children iimiTy in such caaea of neceMily aa the«e. with- 
out aiid »^*aii)3t the will of tlittir parents V 

Ansii). 1 cannotdeny but some ca»«» may be imagined or 
&1I out, iu whicii it is lawful to do what a governor forbid- 
deth, and to marry a)^iuKt the will of parents : for they havo 
their power to edification, and not unto destruction. As if 
& son be qualilicd with emioent gifts for the work of the mi- 
ni r try, in a time and pkce that needetb much help; if a ma- 
lignajit parent, in hiitred of that sacred olhce, khould never 
BO peremptorily forbid htm, yet may the son devote himself 
to the bleiised work of saving souls : even as a sun may not 
forbear to relieve the poor (with llmt which is his ovra) 
though hiti parents should forbid bim; nor forbear to put 
himself in ton capacity to relieve tbem for the future ^ nor for- 
bear hie own necessary food and raiment thuugh he be for- 
bidden. As Daniel would nut forbear praying openly in hia 
house, when he was forbidden by the king and law. When 
ftny in&eparal>le accident doth make a thing, of itself in- 
diftetent, become a duty, a governor's prohibition will not 
discharge us from tliat duty, unless the. accident he smaller 
than the accident of the ruler's prohibition, and then it may 
be overweighed by it ; but Lu determine what accidents are 
greater or less is a difficult task. 

And as to the particular <inestions, to the tirst i an«w«r, 
if parents forbid their children to marry while they live, it 
is convenient and safe to obey Uieni until death, if no greater 
obligation to the contrary forbid it ; but it Is uucessury to 
obey them during the lime that tb^ children live under thu 
government of their paieutti, us in tlieir houses, in their 
younger years (except in some few extraurdinaiy cases). 
But when pai'ents are dead (though they leave conimuiids in 
their wills) or when age or tbrmer marriage Imtli removed 
children from under their government, a smaller matter will 
serve to justify their disobedience here, than wiien the chil- 
dren in minority are lei>s tit to govern themselves. For 



though we owe parents a limited obedience still, yet at full 
age the child is more at his own dispose than he was before. 
^Nature hath given us a hint of her intention in the instinct 
of brutes, who are all taught to protect, and lead, and pro- 
vide for their young ones, while the young are insufficient 
for themselves i but when they are grown to self-sufficiency, 
they drive them away or neglect them. If a wise son that 
hftth a wife and many children, and great atfairs to manage 
in the world, should be bound to as Absolute obedience to 
his aged parents, as he was in his childhood, it would rtiin 
their alTairs, and parents' government would pull down that 
in their old age, which they built up in their middle age. 
'" And to the second question I un»wcr, that, I. Children 
that pretend to uncon<juerahlp lust or love, must do all they 
can to subdue such inordinate affections, and bring their 
lusts to stoop to reason ami their parents' wills. And if 
they do their best, there are either none, or not one of many 
hundreds, but may maintain their chastity together with 
their obedience. 2. And if any nay, ' 1 hare done my best, 
and yet am under a necesitity of marriage; and am I not 
then bound to marry though my parents forbid me?' I an- 
swer, ills not to be believed : either you have not done yowr 
best, or else you arc not under a necessity. And your ur- 
gency being your own fault (seeing you should subdue it), 
Ood still obligelh you both to subdue your vice, and to 
obey your parents. 3. But If tJiere should be any one that 
hath such an (incredible) necessity ofmarriage,he isto pro- 
cure some others to solicit his parents for their consent, and 
if he cannot obtain it, some say, it is his duty to marry with- 
out it: I should rather say that it is ' minus malum,' ' the 
lesser evil ;' and that having cast himself into some necessity 
of sinning, it is still his duty to avoid both, and to choose 
neither; but It Is the smaller sin to choose to disobey his 
parents, rather than to Irve in the flames of lust and the filth 
of unchaxtity. And some divineu say, that in such a casea 
son should ap|>eAl to the mngistrale, as a tmperior authority 
above the father. But others think, I. That this leaveth it 
as diRirult to resolve what he shall do, if the magistrale also 
bonsentnot: and 2. Thatit doth hut resolveone difGcuUy 
by a greater : it being very doubtful whether in rlonuistic 
cases the authority of the parent or the magislnttu l>i' the 


CHAP. I.] 


3. The same antiwcr iierv«lh lui to the lliinl (juration, 
wlien parents forbid you to mnrry the pcreoiis tliat you ar« 
most tbnd of. For such fondncsK (whether you call it lust 
or love) as will not stoop to reason and your parttit^* wills; 
is inordinate and sinliil. And therefore the thing that Ciud 
bindeih you to. is by his appointed ineaiifi to subdue it. 
and toobey : but if you canuot, the ac-cidents and probablv 
conxcqiunUi must tell you which in the Ipssit evil. 

Cii/«f. ' But what if the child have ptomifted iiaarriag«;. 
and the parents be against it?' Anxw. If the child «s 
under the parents' government, and short of years ofdis-' 
cretion also, the promise Is void for want of capacity. And 
if the child was at age, yet the promise was a siuful pro- 
mise, as to the promising act. and also aR to the thin^ 
promised during the parents' disRenl. If the ' actuit pro- 
mittendt' only had been sinful (' the pTomiae making') the 
promise might nevertlieless oblige (unlenH it were null aa 
well an Kinful). But tht; 'materia promisea' beiug aiuful 
(' the matter promiaed*) to marry while parents do dissent^ 
Dtich a child la bound to forbear thu fulfiUiug of that pro- 
mine till the parents do consent or die. And yet he ig 
bound from marrying any other (unless he be disobtic^^ 
by the person that he made the promise to), becaugu he 
kDOW«th not but his parcntit may consent lierealler; and 
whenever thrv coniient or die, tlie promise then is obIigH-< 
tory, and must be performed. 

The third Chapter of Numberti cnufaleth parents to diso- 
blige a daughter that is in their house, from a vow made Lo 
God. so be it they disavow it at the first hearing. Hence thera 
; tre two doubts ariHe ; I. Whether this power extend not to 
tJie disobliging of a promise or r.ontniet of matrimony ? 2. 
Whether it extend not to u son us well as u daughter. And 
most expositors are for the affirmative ofbothcufics. Bui 
I have shewed before that it is upon uncertain grounds. 
1, It is uncertain whether God, who would thus give up his 
town right ill case of rowing, will also give away the right 
of others witliout their consent in case of promises or con- 
tracts. And 2. It is uncertain wbetlicr IhiH be not un in- 
dulgence only of the weaker sex, seeing many words in the 
t«xt aeem plainly to intimate so mucli. And it is danget- 
ous upon our own pio^umptiouti to Hiretch God's laws !<■ 




every thing we imag^ine there is the same reason for : iic<!iog 
our itnogi nations may so easily be deceived ; und God cuuld 
have expressed such particulars if he would: and therefore 
(when there IB uot ckar ground for our inferenceB ia the 
t«xt) it is but to Bay, * Thus aud tha» God should have said,' 
when we cannot say, 'Thu&he hath said.' We nmst not 
make laws under pretence of expounding tlieni : whatso- 
ever God conimandeth thee, take beed that thou do it; 
thou shuH add notliing thereto, nor take aught there- 

Quett. If the questioD therefore be not of the sinfulness. 
but the nullity of eucb promiees of children, becan&e »f the 
dissent of parents, fur my part I am uot able to .prove any 
suuh nulHty. It is said, that they are not * «ui J uris/ ' their 
own,' and tlierefore their promises are null. But if they 
have attained to years, and u^e of discretion, they are na- 
turally tto far ' sui jurib' as to be capable of disposing even 
vf tbeir aouls, and therefore of their fidelity. They can 
oblige thenueLves to God or wan: though they arc not tio 
far 'sui juris' as to bo ungoverned. For ho no child, no 
subject, no man is ' eui juris ;' seeing all are under the go- 
vcruincnt of God. And yet if a man promise to do a thiug 
sinful, it is not a nullity, but a bin : not no piomiHe, but a 
sinful promise. A nullity is when the ' actus promittuudi' 
is ' rcpiilative nullus, vel non actus.' And when no pro- 
mise IB made, then none can be broken. 

Quext. But if the question be uidy how far such pro- 
miHCH muKt be kept? I answer, by summing up what 1 have 
said : I . If the child had not the use of reason, the want of 
natural capacity, proveth the promise null : here ' iguorantta 
non eat consensus.' 2. If be waii at age and use of reason, 
then 1. If the prowiKing act only was sinful (as before I 
said of vows,) the promise must be both repented of, and 
kept. It must be repented of because it wars u »in : it must 
b« kept because it was a real promise, and the matter law- 
ful. 2. If the promising act was not only a sin, hut a nul- 
lity (by any other reason) then it ik no obligation. 3. If 
not only the promisiug act be sin, but also the matter 
promised (bh is marrying without parents' consent), then it 
must be repented of, and uot performed until it become 
■ Dnii. lii. 33. 




lawful i liecau8« an o»tb or proiuis9 conuut buid u mim la' 

viulutc UiG lai>'H oi Godi 

U»£<'/ But what if the parties b«ikc(uaUynH(rrieclirit)iuut> 

thppiueuts' vounend Must tlieyliv«!U)getht:r,or be ti«p«nil- 
; aAV Antw- !• irmaniagelwcouituiuiuutecl 'pcrcvnuJeuacoo* 
Buliitum,' ' by ihu carual kiiuwledgc uf eucU other,' 1 wa 
BO reanan to inmgiiic that pureut» cui) dUftolvc it, or pro- 
hibit their cohabitation. For the marriage, for aiii^ht [ 
evtT i^aw, ib not proved » nuUily, hut only a kid, unci Uieif 
' concuhitux' i« not forniostion: and purenu cannot for* 
bid husband nnd wife to live togL-tJitr: and in marriaga 
tUey (Jo (really though Biiifully) forftrtke father aod moth«t 
«ud cleave to each other, and so are now from under th«ii 
goverametit, though nut ditiobligt;d from ull obedience. 3< 
But if mairiuge he otdy hy vt^rbul cuiij unction, divioes aitt 
disagreed what is to be done : some think that it la no per^ 
foot marriage ' ante concubitutn,* and oIho that their cuti-^ 
jun Clio a hath hut the nature of a prtimi&i: (to b« faithful 
to each other as husband and wife): and therefore the mat- 
ter promitied is unlawful till parents consent, and so not va-i 
he done. But I rather think, a» moat do, that it hath 
that is essential to marriage 'ante concubitum ;' and that] 
this marriage is more tlian a pruuiiM: of fidelity ' du futuro** I 
even an actual delivery of themselves to one another 'd*i 
prwsenti' al^ : and that the tiling promiiied in marriage tsj 
law-ful : for though it be a aiu tu uiarry without parental i 
tunsL-nt, yet when that ia paat. it is lawful for married pcr•^ . 
aoiia to come together though parents consent not: and 
therefore tl\at such marnogc in valid, aud to be continued 
though it was sinfully made. 

3. A third sort that are nut called of God to marry, are> 
they that have absolutely vowed not tu oiarry : siichniajtj 
uot many, unless Providence disoblige them, by making ttj 
become ail iiuli»peu6able duty: and I can remember hub I 
two ways by which thie may be doue. 1. In ca»e there btf 
qqy of so strong lust, as no other lawful means but majv* | 
riage can suffice to maintain their chastity ; to liuch. mart 
riage is as great u duty as to eat or drink, or cover one's 
uakedneefi, or to hinder another from uucleannees, or lying, 
or stealing, or the like. And if you should make a vow 



[fart II. 

thilt yuu will never eat or drink, or that you will go naked. 
or that you will never hinder any one from uncleanneas, ly- 
ing, or stealing, it is unlawful to fulfil this vow. But nil the 
doubt is, whether there be any such persons that cannot 
overconie, or reatrain their lust by any other lawful means? 
1 suppose it is |)ossib)e there may be such ; but 1 believe 
it IB not one of an hundred : if they will but jiractise the 
directions before given, Part i. Chap. viii. Part v. Tit. I, 
and'2. I Etnppose their lust may be restrained: and if 
that prevail not, the help of a physician may. And if that 
prevail not, some think the help of a surgeon may be law- 
ful, to keep u vow, in case it be not an apparent hazard of 
life. For Chiiat seemeth to allow of it, in mentioning it 
without reproof. Matt. xix. 12. if that text be to be under- 
Btood of castration: but most expositors think it is meant 
only of a noniirmed resolution of chastity. And ordinarily 
other meant) mny nuiku this nt;edless. And if it be either 
D«edlea8 or p«rilouti it is unlawful without doubt. 

2. The aecond way by which God may dispense wiili a 
vow of chastity is, by making the marriage of a person b«- 
conitt of apparent uvcessity to the public safety. And 1 am 
able to discern but one inf^itance that will reach th* cane ; 
and that id, if a king have vowed chastity, and in caeie he 
marry not, his next heir being a professed enemy of Chris- 
tianity, the religion, safely and huppinestt of the whole na- 
tion are apparently in danger to be overthrown. I think the 
case of such a king is like ihe case of a father that had 
vowed never to provide food or raiment for his children. 
Or as if Ahab had vowed that no well should be diggt^ in 
the land; and when the drought cometh, it ie become ne- 
ceKsary to the saving of the people's lives. Or as if the 
ship-master should vuw tbut tlic nhip shall not l>e pumped ; 
which when it leaketh dotli become necessary to save their 
livea. In thege cases God diKohligeth you from your vow 
by a mutation of thu matter ; and a pastor may dispense 
with it declaratively. But for the pope or any mortal man 
to pretend to more, is impiety and deceit. 

Qual. 'May the aged marry that are frigid, impotent, 
aud ancnpablc i»f procicalion?' Anaw. Vch, God bath not 
forbidden them : and ih&rc ore other lawful ends of mnr- 



ria^, OS mutunl betp and comfort, &c. which mav mak* it 
lawful '. 

Direct. II. 'To restrain yoiir inordinate forwatdDi-^ts to 
inarriagE;, ki;cp the ordinary- inconvenicnciuri t>r it in me- 
moiy.' Rush not iiito u stutu of lifo, the inconTeniencies of 
which you never ttioiight on. If you have a call to it, the 
kiiowlb-dge of the dinicultie» and duties will be necessary to 
yoTir preparation, and i'aithliil undergoing them: if you have 
no oui!, this knowledge in utsctiisary to keep yuu utf. I 
lihull first oajue the incouveuieuciet! common to all, and 
then some that are proper to the ministerii) of the Gospel, 
which have a greater reasou to avoid a married life than 
other men have. 

1. Marriage ordinarily plungeth men into excess of 
[worldly cares: it muUiphctti their busiiieaft, and usually 
'(heir wants. There are mtiny thing* to mind and do: tJiere 

eie many to provide for. And many pHtKoiis you will have 
to do with j who have all of th«m u ><e.lfisli disposition and 
intereut, and will judge of you but according a« you fit 
tbeir euds. And among many persons and husineas^B, 
some things will frequently fal) cro»s: you muitt louk for 
many rubs and disappointment. And your natures are 
not Ko strong, content and patient, as to bear all these 
without molestation. 

2. Yonr wants in a married state are hardlier supplied, 
than in a single life. You will want so many things which 
before you never wanted, and have ao many tu provide fur 
and content; that all will seem little enough, if you had 
never so much. Then you will be often at your wit's end, 
taking thought for the future, what you shall cat, and what 
you shall drink, and wherewith shall you and yours be 

3. Your wants in a married stale arc far hardlier borne 
than in a single Htate. It is far easier to bear personal 
wants ouTselTes. than to &ee the wants of wife and chil- 
dren : ufiectioo will make their sufierings pinch you. And 
ingenuity will make it a trouble to your mind, to need the 
help of servaots, aud to want that which is fit for servaule 

' Wiru arc youuf jiicr'i m'ulrcuca, iaiiPi>iitiioiia liM ilic luiddlD ^c, kudolil' 
mm't nurvfc Su ilMt ■ tnnn may haof n <]u«ri«l lo marry nbtm he »ill. ion) 
Bacon, Eimj B. 


fpART I 


to expect. But especially the discontent and imjiaLiencc; 
of yotir familywill more discontent you than all their wants. 
Yon cannot he3p your wife, and children, and servants to 
contented minds. O what a htart- cutting trial is it, *o 
hear them repining, murmuring, and complaining ! To hear 
them call for that which you have not for ihera ; and giieve 
at their conditioh, and exclaim of yon, or of the providcacfc 
of God, because they have it not! And think not thai 
riches will frte you from these discontents : for aa the rich 
are bat few, so they that have miich have much to do with 
it. A great foot must have a great shoe. When poor men 
want Home smdll supplies, rich men may want great sums, 
or larger provUions, which the poor can do ^vithout. AitS 
their condition lifting them up lo greater pride, doth tor- 
ment them with greater discontents. How few in all the 
world that have families, are content with their estates ! 

4. Hcrenpon a married life conlninefh far more tcmp£n- 
tiona to K-orldUuess or coYctouaness, than a single state 
doth. For when yon think you need more, you will dcsirt 
more: and when yoa find all too little to satisfy those thdt 
yon provide for, ynu will measure your estate by their de- 
aires, and be apt to think that you have never enough. 
Birds and beasts that have yniing ones to provide for, ate 
moat faungrj- and rapacious. You have so many nort- (o 
fcrapfi for, that ymi will think you are stil! in want : it i« 
not only till death that you imist now lay up ; but yoa 
innst provide for children that MUrrire you. And while you 
take ihein to he as yourBelvCs. you have two gt- ncratiomt now 
to make provisions for: and most men are as covetous for 
their posterity, as if it were for themselves. 

6. And hereopon vou are hindered from works of cha- 
rity to others : wife and children are the devouring gulf 
that Bwftlloweth all. If you had but yourselves to provide 
for, a little would serve ; and you coidd deny your own 
desires of uaneceasary things; and so might have plentiful 
]irovt8ion for good worke. But by that time wife and chil- 
dren are provided for, and all their importunate dejiires sa- 
tittfled. there is nothing considerable left fur pious or cha- 
ritable uses, l^amentable experience proclaimeth thi«. 

6. And hereby it appeareth how much a married state 
doth ordinarily hinder men from honouring their profession. 

CHAP. I.] 



It is their tows of ainglc life that hftth occasioned tlw 
Pnpist* to do so miiny work* of public charity, as is boa«ed 
of for the honour of their aect. For when they have no 
children to bequeath it to. aud cubnot keep it themselveK. 
it is easy to them to leave it for such ueeft as will pacify 
their coiiscieiices most, and advance Iheir aames. And if it 
should prove as ^ooda work and as acceptable to God, to 
educate your own children piously for hin serrice, a« to re- 
lieve the children of the poor, yet is it nut no much regardpd 
in the world, nur bringeth no much honour to religion. One 
hundred pounds given to the poor aball more advance the re- 
putation of your liberality and virtue, than a thousand pounds 
given to your own children, thotigli it be with as pious an 
end, to irftin them up for the service of the church. And 
though this is inconsiderable, as your own honour in con- 
cerned in it, yetit is considerable, as the honour rff religion 
and the good of bouIs are concerned in it. 

7. And it is no miiall patience which the natural imbe- 
cility of the female sex requireth you to prepare. 'Except 
it be very few that are patient and manlike, women are com- 
monly of potent fanlastes, and lender, paA8ionate, ioipatirnt 
Bpiriti, easily cast into anger, or jealousy, or discontent; 
and of weak underdtandinga, and therefore unable (o reform 
themselves. They are betwixt a man and a child: some 
few have more of the man, and many have more of the chitd^ 
hut moat are hnt in a middle slate. Weakness naturally 
inctineth persona to be froward and hard to please ; as we 
see in children, old people, and sick persuns. They are like 
a sore, distempered body ; you can scarce touch them but 
you hurt them. With too many you can scarce tell how to 
riipeek or look but you displease Uiem, If you should be 
vef>' well versed in the art of p)easing. and set yoorwelves to 
it with all your care, as if you made it your very busiuesa 
and had little else to do, yet it would put you bard to it, to 
please some weak, impatient pentonn, if not quite surpnsi 
your ability aud skill. And the more you love them. (h« 
more ^evous it will be, to see them still in discontents, 
weary of their condition, and to hear the clamorous expres- 
Bfone of their disquiet minds. Nay the very multitude vf 
wordK that very many are addicted to, doth make Kome men's 
lives a continual burden to them. Mark what the Scripture 



onitli ; " It IK better to tlwell in a comer of the housotop. 
tlian with a brawling womuii in a. wide house. — It is better 
to dwell in the wtldernegBj than with a contentiuus and an 
nngry woman. — A continual dropping in a very rainy day, 
and a contentious woman are alike. — One man among a 
thousand huve I fouud : but a woman among all those liave 
InotfoiindV' r - .,. 

8. And there ie such a meeting of feults and imperfec- 
tions on both Hides, that makethit much the harder to bi>ar 
the infirmitit^s of others aright. If one party only were fro- 
ward and impatient, the stedfttstnetiH of the other might 
make ittbe (acre tolerable : but we are all sick in some mea- 
sure, of the same disease. And when weakness meeteth with 
weakness, and pride with pride, and pa»tt>ion with pasgion, 
itexaspeniteth the disease a,nd donbleth the tiuHering. And 
our corruption is such, that though our intent he to help one 
another in our dutie», yet we are aplcr fitr to stir up one 
another's distempers. 

9. The businesei, care, and trouble of n married lite, ia a 
great temptation to call down your thoughts from Ood, and 
to divert them from the " one tliingnecessary V' a»dto dis- 
traut the mind, aad make it indisposed to holy duty, and to 
serve God with a divided heart, as if we served him not. 
How hard is it to pray, or meditate with any serious ferven- 
cy, when you come out ufa crowd uf cares and busine&aeB ! 
Hear what St. Paul aaith, " For i would that all men were as 

I myself I say to the unmarried and the widuwa. It is 

good for them if they abide even as I.~l suppose there- 
fore that thia is good for the present di&tresii, that it is good 

for a man so to be : such shall have trouble in the f)e«h. 

But I would have you be witlimit carefulness: he that is 
unmarried, caieth for tlie things of tlie Lord, how he may 
plcaiie the Lord ; but he that \a married, careth for the things 
of the world, how he may please his wife. The unmamed 
womaa caretli for the things of the Lord, that shv may be 
holy, both in body and in epirit: but she that is married 
careth for the things of the world, how she may please her 
husband. And this I npeuk for your own profit, not that I 
may cast a Boaru upon you, but for that which is coinely* 

I Lufccx. 41. 



and that you may attend upon th« Lonl without diitniction. 
He that stiindoth stedfast mhiti h«art, liaviug nu neccsiiily, 
but hath pow«r ovbt his own will, and hatli ho decreed in hin 
heart, that ho wtll^keep his virgin, docth well. 80 then he Lhnt 
marriethdoetb wei], but he tliut mariieUinotdQcth better*." 
And mark Christ's own words, '* discipk* wy unto him, 
if the case of a tnau b« &o with hia wife, it is not good lo 
marry. But he said untu them, All tnen cannot receive this 
saying, save tJiey to wboiii it \s given. — lie Oiat it> »ble to 
receive it, let him receive it'." 

10. The business of a married state dotb commonly de- 
vour nlmost all your time, »o tbnl little ik letl for holy con> 
t«[Q{jlations, or serious tJiouglitH of the life to come. Alt 
God's sen-icf is contracted *nd thrust into a corner, and 
done as it vrere on the bye : the world vrill scarce allow vuu 
time to meditate, or pray, or read the Scripture : you think 
yourselves (as Martha) undera greater necettflity of dispatch- 
ing your buiiiness, tlian of fitting at Christ's feet to hear his 
Word. O that hvngle persons knew (for the most part) the 
preciouBDess of their leisure, and how free they are to attend 
the service of God, and learn bis Word, in comparison cf 
the married ! 

11. There is so great a diversity of temperamenu and 
degrees of understanding, that there are scarce any two per- 
sons in the world, but there is some unsuitoblcncss between 
them. Like stoneK that have some unevenness, that maketh 
them lie crooked in the building; some crossness ttiere will 
be of opinion, or disposition, or interest, or will, by nature, 
pr by custom and education ; which will stir up frec]uent 

12. There ih a great deal of duty which husband and 
wife do owe to one auotlier ; as to iitstruct, admonish, pray, 
watch over one another, and to be continual helpers to each 
other in order to their everlasting happiness ; and patiently 
to bear with the infirmities of each other. And to the weak 
and backward heart of man, the addition of so much duty 
doth add to their weariness, how good soever the work be in 
itself: and men should feel tlieir strength, before (hey un- 
dertake more work. 

13. And the more they love each other, the more they 

* 1 Cw.Ta.T.a. M— M.3t— SS.3T,M. ' M««. .i».H. H- 

VDL. tV. O 


pftrtioipate iu each other's ^riefn: and one or other will be 
frequently under somt sort of suffering. If one be i»ick, or 
Ituiie, or pajiied, or defamed, or wronged, or disquieted id 
uiind, or by teiuplatjan fall ioto any wounding sin, the other 
boaretb part of the difilress. Therefore before you under- 
take to bear all the burdens of another, aiid Burteriiiall 
aiiothirr's hurts, it concerneUi you to observe your strength, 
how much more you have than your own burdens do require. 

14. And if you should marry one that jirovttli ungodly, 
how exceeding gieat would the affliction be! If you loved 
them, your liouls would be in continual dejiger by them : 
t\wy would be the most powerful iiiHtniraeiitH in the world 
to ]>ervert your judgments, to deaden your hearts, to take 
you oil' from a holy life, to kill your prayers, to corrupt your 
lives, and to damn your souls- And if you should hiive the 
grace to escape the snare, aud save yourselves, it would be 
by so much the greater dif&cuUy and BuHering. as the temp- 
tation is the greater. Aud what u heart-breaking would ii 
be to converHc so nearly with a child of the devil, thai is 
like to lie for ever io hell! 'i'hv daily thoughts of it would 
be a daily deatla to you. 

15. WuuR'u es.pecially must expert so muck Bulfcring 
in a married life, that ifOod had not put into them a natural 
inclination to it, and 60 atrong a lore to their children, u 
Diaketh them patient under the moRt annoying troubles, tJie 
world would ere thiK have been at an end, Uirough tlieir refusal 
of HO colamilouet a life. Their sieknesa in breeding, their 
pain in bringing forth, with tlie danger of their lives, the te- 
tlioua trouble night and day, which tbey bare with tb<nr 
children in their nursing and their childhood j besides their 
subjection to tlieir husbands, and continual care of family 
afiiur&; being forced to consume their lives in a mnltitode 
of low and troublesome busincsseti : all tliis, and much more 
would have utterly deterred that aex from m&rriage. if nature 
itself had not inclined them to it. 

16. And O what abundance of dnty ia incumbent upon 
both the parentR towarda every child for the saving of tlieir 
aontii'! What incessant labour ia neceasary in teaching 
them the doctrine of salvation! which cinde God twice over 

* An tlKHi diMuiilnUi^ villi ih^ chihlli^ia Halcf lUinrmlirr Ihtt of all Ilic 
Hramn l>tog«, tto> an«c4 ihpiu Ivli ilo cnwiinlihwiii. PlaUrcli 6e irsuq.Milm. 



CHAP. I.] 


charge them to teach hia wcTrd dihgently {m sh^ryen tbein) 
■ " unto their chilth-tn. and to talk of them whpn thi-y «it in 
[their houses, and when ihey walk by the way. and when 
Ithey lie down, and wbea Ihey ri^e uj**." Whtit abundance 
lof obKtinnlc, rooted eomiptionB ai* in the hearti* of children, 
'*hicb parents must by all poasibke diligence root up! O 
how great and hard a work is It, to speak (o them or their 
ains and Saviour, of their Ood, their aouU. and the lilr to 
come, with that reverence, gravity, Kerionenesfi, and unwea- 
ried constancyas the-vrcightofthcmntterdoth require '. and 
to suit all their actinnR and carrine;* to the Rnme end« ! Lit- 
tle do nio»t that hare children know, what abundance of 
core and labour God will require of tJiem, for the sanctifying 
jSnd Raving of their children's soula. Consider your fttiiew 
for BO great a work before you undertake it. 

17. It is abundance of affliction that is ordinarily to be 
eJtpected in the miscuiriagca of children, when you have 
done your best, much more if you neglect your duty, aaevcn 
godly parents too often do. After all yow pniiia, ai>d care, 
and labour, yoa muflt look that the foufishnns of some, and 
the obstinacy of others, and the onthankfulness of thorn 
that you have loved best, shuuhl even pii;rcc your hetirtn. 
You mu»t look that many vices should spring up and trou- 
ble you ; and be the more grievous by bow much your chil- 
dren are the mora dear. And O what a grief it in to breed 
up & child to he a servant of the devil, and an enemy of God 
»nd goclline»H,and a per»ecatorof the church of God! And 
to tliink nf lyini; in bell for ever ! And aloe ! how ?reat i» 
the number of such ! 

, 18. And it is not a little care and trouble, that nervants 
will pnt you to : so difficiUt is it to get thn^w that urr good< 
much m»rc to nmke them good; sa gruat i» yoar duty in 
tMohiikg thett, and minding them of the matters of their sal- 
vation ; ao frequent will be the diapleasureEt about your work 
and worldly business, and every one of thutie diupittanure^ 
will hinder them for receiving your iuatructionH ; that tno»A 
iiuniiies arc houses nf rorrecdon nr affliction. 

19. And thtMc marriage crosses are not for a year, bat 
duriti); life : they deprive you of all hope of relief while you 
live toother. There in no room for repentance, nop cAsting 

> D«ui(.>i.$,7. li. 19. 



about for a way tn escape tiiem. Deuth only must he youF 
relief. Aii<{ tlierrfure such a clmnge of your conditioQ' 
stiould be seriously forethought on, and ail the troubles be 
foreseen and pondarcd. 

20. And if love moke you d«ar to one another, your part- 
ing at death will be tlm more grievous. Aad when jiou first 
come together, you know that such a parting you miutt have : 
through all the course of your lives you may foresee iL : one 
of you niuslsee the body of your b«love(l, turned intoacold, 
and ghastly clod : you must follow it weeping to the grave, 
and leare it there in dust and darkness : there it must lie rot- 
ting as a loathsome lump, whoi^e alt^ht or smet! you cannot 
endure i till you shortly follow it, and lie down yountelf in 
the xame condition. All these ar« the ordinary concomi- 
tantM and consequents of marriage; easily and quickly 
spoken, but long and hard to be endured! No fictions, 
but realities, and less than most have reason to expecU 
And should tmch a life be vainly ventured on in a pang of 
lust ? or such a burden be undertaken without forethongbt? 

But especially the ministers of the Gospel should think 
what they do, and think again, before they HUt«r upon a 
married life. Not that it ia simply unlawful for them, or 
thut they arc to b« tied from it by a law, as tliey are in 
the kingdom of Rome, for carnal enda and with odious 
«ftecl«. But so great a hindrance ordinarily i^ this troD- 
bicHomc state of life to tlie sacred aiinistrntion which they 
undi-rlake, tluit a very clear call should be expected for 
their satiisfaction. That I bv not tedious, consider well but 
of these four tliingR. 1. How well will a life of so much 
oare and busineas agree to you, that have time little enough 
for the greater work which you have undertaken? Do you 
know what you have to do in public and private? in read- 
ing, meditating, praying, pret^bing, inatmcting pcnsonally,' 
and from bouse to honxe 1 And do you know of how great 
importance it is? even for the saving of men's Kuuh>.' 
And have you time to spare for so much worldly caivsand 
busineaH? Are you not charged, "Meditate on them 
thtnga: give thyself wholly to them"." "Ho man that 
warreth, entAngleth himself with the affairs of thialire, Uial 
he may please him that bath chosen him to be a soldier'." 

» ITmd. i«. t&. 

■ t "nm. >i. 4. 



Is iiot tbiic plain f Soldiers U8« not to look lo farnia and 
[■errant*. If yon nre faithful ministers. I dare confidently 
■ay. ynu will tind all your time an Utile for your proper 
work, that many n time you Vi-iU groan and soy, O how ahort 
and Hwift is time! and O, how great and kIow in my work 
and duty i 2. Consider bow w«U a life of ko grvat diver- 
tiions, avocations and distractions, doth suit with a mind 
devoted lo God, that lihauld be always free and ready lor 
bis service. Your studies are on such great and mysterious 
stibjects, lha.t lliey require the whole mind, and all too little. 
To resolve the many dirtiunltieg that are before you. to pre- 
pare those snitable, conrincing wordu, which may pierce 
and persuade the hearerH* hearts, to get wiUiin the bosom 
of an hypocrite, to follow on the Word till it attain it« effect, 
and to deal with poor souls according to their great neces- 
sity, and handle God's Word according to its holiness and 
majesty, the»e are tilings that re<juire a whole man, and are 
not employments for a divided or diotracted mind. The 
talking of women, and the crying of children, and the 
cares and baHioe»»i of the world, are ill preparations or at- 
LendanU on these »tudies°. 3. Consider well whether a 
life of so great disturbance be agreeable to one whose af- 
fections should be taken np for God ; and whose work mast 
be all done, not formally and nflectedly with the lips alunc, 
but seriouslv with all tlie heart. If your heart and warm 
affections be at any time left behind, the life and power, the 
beauty and glory of your work are lost. Howdead will your 
utadiea, and praying, and preaching, and conference be ! 
And can yon keep tho^ti aHec^ions warm and vigorous for 
Ood,*nnd taken up witJi heaven and heavenly things, which 
are disturbed with the cares and the crosses of the woild, 
and taken up with carnal matlen; j 4. And cuttKidcr also 
how well that indigent life will agree to one that by charity 
and good works should second his doctrine, and win men's 
souls to the love of holinesH ''. If you feed not the bodies 

"Noa bene lie (|u[»d<iccu|iatuBniiTicifil. Hicnin. E]i1)l. fiOS. tul Pnulb. 

t' A tingle tirr ilnlli itrll wtlli chiircliinrn , ftir cljerli.y will hiintl,v n»<cr ilie 
j^nniiul, olivi* )i ii)i]«l fill ii iHiol. Lord B^icoii^ fjaiiy H. 'Fht pn-iiic%i works fliid 
IbanilaUaiii have Ihth froni cliijillm n«n,wlKi l>ot< Miiitllit In >'i^ivu >>>c imogpiir 
flieir iniiHli, llial liLivi^ iiani'. uf llicii IhkI^ ^ f llic uii» (if pu4lvrll_Vi 1'Uli Ikcii mutt 
ia llii-ni iljHtliad no pusturily. Ixirii Bacon, Ehdv T. He iliat Imili a vrifo and 
diildrcn linth given iKniagc* to (<irtune : far ilic; an; imptdinicnb to frc*! ainr> 



orU)v jioor, they will leaa rclisb the food of tJie aoul. Nay, 
if you abaund not shore others in good works. th« blind, 
malicious world will see nolhing that is good in you; but 
will ftsy, Yoit liQve good words, but where are your ^uod 
worke'^ What abuudance have 1 known h&riletied against 
tliu Uuiifial and reli^ioa, by a uonunon fame, that t)ics« 
preachera arc a^ corotous. and worldly, and uDcharitabl« as 
Hiiy otlitir» : and it uiuet b« soiuetbiiig extraordinary tbat 
uiu^cunfiiUi Hiich fame. And what abundance uf Kuccesa 
bave I tHjeo uf tli« labouni of those miaifttera, who give all 
t])«y have in works of charity! And though a ridi and 
fMioUed Ulan may do some good lu a married state, yet 
tiooimonly it is nc^t tu nothing, w to tb« eads uuw nt«a- 
tioiied : wife, and children, and family iiec«H«iti«-s devour 
all, if you have nev«r bo much. Aiid some proviNion muat 
Ih: niadc for thoin, whun you are deud : and Uiv maintenance 
of the ministry \i not so gr«at as to »uttice well for all (his, 
much lubB for any emineuL works of rharity buaides ! Never 
reokon upon tlie doing of much good lu lh« pour, if you 
have wivea and ohildreu of your own ! Such instances are 
raritiea and wonders. All will be too little for yxmrselvesi 
Whereas if all ibat w«ro givi;n to the poor which gocth to the 
luainteoonee of your familiea, yoa little know how much it 
would reconcile tjie uiituls of tlie ungodly, and further the 
awxeas of your ministerial work. 

Dirat. III. 'If God call yoa to a married lite, expect »U 
theae troubles, or most of then -, ood make a [MirticuUr 
pre|>aration for each temptation, craan and duty whieh you 
muat expect.' Think not that you are entering iuto a state 
of mere delight ; test it proy« but a fool'a paradise to you. 
See that yuu be furnished with marriage atrcngth and |>a- 
tieuce, for the dutit:s and Huderinga of a married state, be- 
fore you veatare on it. £8p«ciaUy, 1. Be well provided 
against teraptatioaE to a worldly mind and life: for here 
you are like to be rao«t viuleiitly and dangemusly assuulU 
ed. 2. Si'c that you be well provided witli conjugal all'ec- 
tions: for they are nece»&ary both to the duties and sulfer- 
ings of a married life. And you should not enter upon the 
state witliuut the iiece^aary preparations. 3. See that yoit 

■ Tlie twtt wiirU »iul oT ^cuicM lucrii, kir UkiiuUii'i Imw fnxMdctl 







bti well providerl with mnrriiigi* prudaiic*^ and timlersliuuJing, 
ibat you may be itble to instnict aad tdify your faini)ie%- 
nnd may live with them eft meu of knowlndge^, and may 
■uana^e all your buKiiicKii witli discrutiuti'. 4. Sec^luit yi<u 
be provided with reeolvednesa aad constancy, thai yo« re* 
not yourself and relations by too late repenting ; nnd come 
not utt' with ' had I wi«t,' or ' noii putamni.' I.evity and ma- 
tahility iH no fit preparative for u atnt« ihut only death can 
chani^e. Let th« love and resolutions which brougbi jroit 
into tJiftt Htnte, continue with you to th« last. &. See thai 
you be provided with a diligence answurBble to thu ^r«at* 
ue»H of your iindertiiken dnti«8. A slothful mind is ualat 
Cor one thutentereth himself voliiutuiily npon so much bu»i- 
ne&s; an a cowardly mind is unht for him that liiitctJt him- 
twlf a goldici' for the wars. 6. See that you are well pro- 
vided witii mnrringe patience ; to bear with tiie infirmiltes 
of others, und uudeq^o the daily croiscn of your life, which 
your bu&iness, and necvesitieit, and your own inlirniitiefi 
will unavoidably infer. To marry without all thi« prepa- 
ration, id ax roolivh aa to go to sea without tlie necessary 
preparation for your voyage, or to go to war without ar- 
mour or allien uuition. or to an to work without tools or 
Ktrength, or to go to buy meat in the market whirn you liavo 
no money. 

Dh-fct.iv. 'Take epecinl care, that fancy and passion 
overrule not reason, and friendfi' advice, in the choice of 
your condition, or of the person.' 1 know you must have 
love to ihost; that you match with: but that love luuft be 
rational, and such as you can justify In the severest trial, 
by the evidences of wortli and fttnc^a in the person whom 
you love. To nay you love, but you kuuw not why, is 
more beseeming chtldnni or mad folkH, than those that are 
soberly entering upon a change of life of ao great import- 
ance to them. A blind love which uiaketh you think a 
person excellent and amiable, who in the eyes of the wisest 
tint are impartial, is nothing so, or maketh you overvalue 
the penion whom you fancy, and be fond of ouc aa aomo 
admirable creature, that in tlie eycH of othcix in next to 
contemptible, this in but the index uud evidence of your 
folly. And though you plcoae yoitrselvoK in it, and honour 

•> I Prt. iJL ». 

f ff*»:.txu. I.S. 




it with tlie name of love, there is none that i* acquainted 
with it, that will give it any belter name than lust or Inncy. 
And ihe raarriage that is made by l»st or fancy will never 
tend to solid content or truefehcity; but either will feed 
till death on the fuel that kindled it, and then go out in 
everlasting Khame : or else more ordinarily it proveth hut a 
blaze, and tunieth into loathing and weariness of each other. 
And because this passion of lust (called love) is such a be- 
sotting, blinding thing, {like the longing of a woman with 
child) it is the duty of all that feel any touch of it ia kindle 
upon their hearts, to call it presently tn the trial, and to 
quench it effectually, and tdl that be dom: (ifthey have any 
relics of wit and reason) to suspect their own apprehen- 
sions, and much more to trust the jndgmeiit and advicv of 

The means to quench this lust called love, 1 have largely 
opened before. I shall unw only remember you of these 
few. 1. Keep asunder, and at a sutiicicnt distance from 
the person that you dote upon. The nearnesi) of the tiro 
and fuel causeth the combastion. Faney and lusL art- in- 
Hamed by the seniles. Keep out of sight, and in time the 
fever luoy abate. 2. Overvalue not vanity. Think not 
highly of a silken coat, or of the great names of anceBtors, 
or of money, or lands, or of a painted or a spotted face, nor 
of that natui-al comeliness called beauty : judge not of 
tilings Jis children, but as men : play not the fooU iu mag- 
nifying ti'iBes, and overlooking inward, real worth. Would 
you foil in love with a flower or picture iit this rate? Be- 
think you what work the pox, or any other witlieriug sick- 
ness will ronke.with that silly beauty which you so admire : 
think what a spectacle death will make it. And how many 
thousands once nioru beiiutiful, arc turned now to common 
earth! And how many tlioiisand souIh arc now in hell, 
that by a beautiful body were drowned in luHt, and tempted 
to neglect themselves ! and how few in tlie world you can 
name that were ever much ike better for it ! nhat a cliildlsh 
thing it is to date on a book of tales and lies, becaust- it 
bath a beautiful, gilded cover '. and to undervalue the writ- 
ings of tlie wise, because ibey have a plain and homely oul- 
Hide ! 3. Rule your thoutjh t&, ami let them not run nKuiter- 
Icits an fancy shall coumiand tlicm. If rvaaoii cammt cull 

CHAP. 1.] 



off your thoii^htR from folloning a laxtful dcHire and iina- 
gifiittion, no wonder if one that rideth on such an unbridled 
colt be cnftt into the dirt. 4. Live nut idly, but let the bu- 
ainois of your calling take u^ yout time, and employ your 
tlioH^hts. An idle, HcKhly mind le the cnrcase wh«re the 
vermin of lust doth rmwl, nnd the nest where the devil 
halcheth both this and many other perniciouV ains. 5. 
LoiiUy and chietly, forget not the concernmenta of yoitr 
RonU : remember how near you are lo eternity, and what 
work you hare to do for your salvation : for^tet nut the pre- 
sence of God, nor tile ajiproach of deutli. Look oft by faith 
into hearen and hell, and keep conscience tender ; and then 
1 wuiTant you, you will find something else to mind tbaa 
,.UiBt; and greater matters than a silly carcase to tnke upyuur 
' thoughts, and yon will fe«l that heavenly love within ynu, 
which will extinguish earthly, carnal love. 

Direct, V. 'Be not too hasty in your choice or retiolu- 
liuu. but deliberate well, and throughly know the peraon 
on whom so much of the comfort or sorrow of yo«r life 
will necessarily dejiend.' Where repuntancv hatli no place, 
theru 18 the greater care to be used to prevent it. Reason 
requireth you to be well acquainted with tho»e that you 
trust but with an important secret, much more with all your 
honour or estates : and moat of oil, with one whom you 
must trust with so much of the comfort of your lives, and 
your advantages for a better life. No care and caution can 
be too great in a matter of so great importance. 

Direct, vt. ' Let no carnal motives persuade you to join 
yourself to an ungodly person; but let the holy fear of 
GimI be preferred in your choice before all worldly excel- 
lency wliatsoevtr.' Marry not a nwln« for a golden lrou;§h : 
nor an ugly »oul for a comely body. Consider. I. You 
will dee give cause of great suspicion that you are your- 
selves unt;odly : for they that know truly the mi&ery of an 
luireuewed soul, and the exceilcncv of the image of God, 
can never be iudiffereut whether they be joined to the godly 
or the ungodly- To prefer things temporal, before things 
spiritual habitually, and in the piedomimtnt actu of heart 
and life, is the certain character of a graceless soul! And 
he that in so near a cose doth deliberately prefer riches or 
conielines.s in another, before the iniu^e and fear of God, 



[part II. 

(lotli ^ive H v«ry dangerous sign, uf »uch a grucelesK h«arl 
aiid will, ir you set more by beauty or riches than by god- 
liness, you have the Burest mark that you ore ungodly. 11 
you do not aet more by them, how come you deliberately 
to prtttur thum'f How could you do a thing tha.t detectcth 
your ungoclliiie&&, and condemnt^th you more clearly i Auii 
do you not shew that you either believo nol the Word of 
Gud, ot ebb thut you luve him uol, and re^^ard not his in- 
tsnut ? Otherwiee you would liike his friends as your 
frieods, and his encniies as your enenaiea. Tell me. would 
yoii marry an enemy of your own, beline any change ainil 
reconciliation J 1 am conhdent you would not. Andean 
you BO easily marry nn enemy of God? If you know not 
that all the unfrodly and uiiHanctitiud arc hi»i cnmuius, yuu 
know not, or believe not the Word of Ood : which telleth 
you that " The carnal miml is enmity against God : for it 
is not unbjcct to the law of Ood, nor indeed can be. so then 
tbey that ere in the Besh eannot plea»eOod^" 2. If you fear 
God yourselves, your chief end in marriiige will be to have 
one that will be a helper to your uoul, nnd further you in 
the way t4i heaven : but if you marry with a person that is 
ungodly, either yon have no such end, or eW you may 
easily know you have no more winely chosen the means, than 
if you had chosen water to kindle the hre, or a bed of wnow 
to keej) you wnnu. Will an ignorant or ungodly person 
assist you in prayer or holy watchfulneaa. and stir you up 
to the love of Uod, and a heavenly mind .' And can you 
30 willingly lose all the spiritual beiieBt, which you should 
principally desire and intend *. i. Nay, instead of a helper, 
you will have a continual htnderer : when you should go 
to prayer, you will have one to pull you back, or to fill 
your minds with diversions or disquielmenls! When you 
should keep cIokc to Uod in holy meditations, you will 
have one to cast in worldly thoughts, or trouble your minds 
with vuiiity and vexation. When you should discourse of 
God and heavenly things, you will have one to stiHe such 
discourse.and 1)11 your oars with idle, impertinent, or worldly 
talk. And one such a hindrance so near you, in your bo- 
som, will be worse than a thouiand further oH'. As* an un- 
godly benri which is next of all (o us, is nur greatest hin- 

* Raik. viii. 7, 8. 


druiiGCi so an luigoiily hu»bau<l or wife, which in itext to 
Lhiit, is woriie Ui uit than uiany ungodly neighboufB. And 
if vou tlituk. that you oau well enough OYerooine ftuch hia- 
druDcus, and your hctut U bo good, thai no such clo(;s cab 
keep it down, you do but sbei^' that you have a proud, uii- 
Uumbled heart, that U prcpanxl for a fall. If you Lnow 
yourselves, and the bndnesB of your hearts, you will kooir 
that you huvu iiu need of bindntuoes in any holy work, and 
tiiat all the helps iu the world are little mioiigh, and too 
litUe La keep your soul» in the love of God. 4. And Hack 
aa ungodly companiou will li« to you a conlinual Irmpta- 
ciou to SID. Instead of stirring you up to good, you will 
have one to fitir you op to evil, to passion or discontent, or 
covetousness. or pride, or reveo^e, or sensuality. And can 
you nut sill enough without such a tempter i H. And what 
a continual grief nill it be to you, if you are helieven, lo 
har4.> a child of the devil in your bosom ! nnd to think bow 
far you must be sseparated at death 1 and in nhat toraientu 
those must Lie for eve.v. tliat are so dear unto you now ! I>. 
Yea such companions will be unutpablc of the firincipal 
part of your love You may love tliem aa husbands or 
wiveit, but you cannot love them as saints or members of 
Christ. And how gr&at a want this will bo iu your love, 
tboiie know that know what this holy love is. • i 

Qiuat. ' But how can I tell who are godly, when there ia 
tio much hypocrisy in U)c world?' Ansui. At WmI you 
may know who is ungodly if it be palpably discovered. 1 
take not a barren knuwled);^ fur tuij^odliuiiss, nor a uiniblu 
tongue for godlinesK : Judge of them by their love : such lu 
a man's love is, sucJi is the man : if they love tlie Word, and 
servants, and worship >ii God, uud tove a holy Ufe, and hato 
the contrary, you may close with such, though Ibt-ir kiiow- 
Udge be small, and their parts be weak. But if they have 
uo love to tltese, but had rather live a connuon, careless, 
carnal Life, you luay well avoid them as ungodly. 

Qiu»t. ' But if ungodly persous may marry, why maynot 
I marry with OU'O that is ungo^y Y Amw. Though do^ 
and iiwine may join in generating, it foltowetli not, men or 
women may join witll them. Pardon the comparison 
(while Christ calleth the wicked doga and awiue'), it doth 

> Matt.tii, 6. 



but shew the badness of your consequence. Unbelievers 
may many, aud yet we may not marry with unbelievers. 
" Be ye not unequally yoked together with unbelievers: 
for what fellowship hath righteouBuefts with utirighteous- 
nesK? and what communion hath light with darkness ? and 
what concord hath Christ with Beliul '.' or what part hath he 
that bdievelh with an infideH and what agreement hath 
the temple of God with idols? For ye are the temple of 

the living God ■ wherefore come out From among them, 

and be ye separate saith the Lord, and touch not the unclean 
thing. &c."" 

iiaesi. ' But I make no doubt but they may be con- 
verted : God can call them when he will : if there be 
but love, they will easily be won to be of the mind as 
those they love are?' Atisw. 1. Then it seeraa becanse 
you love an ungodly person, you will he easily turned to be 
ungodly. It'«o, you are not much better already. If love 
will nntdraw you to their mind to be ungodly, why should 
you think love will draw them to your mind to be godly? 
Are you stronger in grace than they are in sin? 2. If you 
know well what grace is. aud wliuta siuful, unrenewed Aonl 
m, you would not think it so easy a matter to convert a soul. 
Why arc there so few converted, if it be so easy a thing? 
You cannot make yourBelves belter by adding higher de- 
grees* to the grace you have: much leas can you make 
another better, by ^ving them the grace which they have 
not. 3. It in true that God Is able to convert them when he 
will : and it is true that foraught I know it may be done." 
But what of that? Will you in so weighty a case take «]» 
with a mere possibility? Ood can make a beggar rich, and 
for auglit you know to the contrary, he will do it: and yet 
you will not therefore marry a bt^^arl nor will you many 
a leper, because <iod can heal him i Why then should you 
marry an ungodly perHon, because Ood can convert him? 
See it done first, if yon love your peace aud ttafety. 

Que»t. ' But what if my parents command me to marry 
ftQ ungodly person ? * Amte. Ood baring forbidden it, no 
pirent hath authority to command you to do »o great a mis. 
chief ro yourself, no more than to cut your own throatA, or 
to diunembor your bodies. 

■ » Cor.w. 14— !«■ 




Qafst. ' But vf hut if I liavc a necessity of miurying, and 

can get none but an ungodly penoar Answ. If that rciUly 
be your case, that yuur neueyuity be real, mid you cau gel 
[no other, I think it itt lawful. 

Quest. ' But ia it not better liave a good-natured ]>er8on 
I tliat ia imgodly, than an ill-natured person that is religiouH, 
I «8 many sucb are t And may not a bad man b« a good 
husband V Atisw. 1. A bad tn»n may be a good tailor, or 
slioe-maker, or carpenter, or 8eantan, becauHe there in do 
moral virtue necessary to the wcll-<loing of their work. But 
a bad man cannot In; simply a good n)ut:islratt;, or luiiuster. 
or husband, or parent, because there in mu(;li moral virtue 
nocvHBary to their duties. 2. A bud nature umnorUOed and 
untamed is inconsistent with true godliness: such personn 
may talk and profess what they pleaHe; but "if any man 
among you seem to be religiouit and bridleth not his tooguc, 
but deceipeth his own heart, thifi man's religion is vain *.** 
3. 1 did not say that godlinu^s alone is all that you aiuBt 
look afier : though thin be the first, yet more is neceiisary. 
Direct, vn. ' Next to the fen.r of Go<l, make choice of a 
nature, or temperament that is not too much unsuitable to 
you.' A crossness of dispositioim will be a continual vex- 
ation : and you will have a domestic war instead of love, 
especially make eure of these following qualities.' 1. 
That there be a loving, and not a selfish nature, tliat hiith 
no regard to another but for their own end. 'J. That Uierr 
be a nature competently quiet and patient, and not intolera- 
bly froward, and unpleasable. 3. That there he a vumpe- 
teiicy of wit: for no one can live lovingly and comfortably 
with a fool. 4. That there be a competent humility : for 
there is no quietness to be expected with the proud. 5. 
That there he a power to be silent, as well as to speak : for 
Bl>abblingtongue is a continual vexation. 

Direct. VIII. ' N^xt to grace and nature, hare a due and 
moderate respect to person, education and estate.* 1. So 
far have respect to the person as that there he no uthealth- 
fulnese to make your condition over-burdensome ; nor any 
such deformity as may hinder your aHcctionf.. 2. And so 
lar have respect to parentage and education a» that there be 
no great uoauitableuess of miud, uor any prejudicate opin- 



ions in religion, vihich may nmk« you too unequal- Diffcir- 
ing opinions in religion are much more tolerable in per- 
sons more distant, than in bo near rolations. And thoRe 
that are bred too high in idleiiasa and luxury, must have a 
tliorough work of grace to make them lit for a low condition, 
snd cure the pride and sensuality which are taken lor the 
honourable badges of their gentility ; and it is Bcarce con- 
sKlerabie how rich such nre : for th^ir priil* anil luxury will 
make even with ail, and be still in greater want, than hon- 
««t, contented, temperate poverty. 

Dinet. ix. 'IffJod call yon t.n mamage, take notice of 
tiM hetp« and comforts of that condition, as well as of the 
hindrances and troubleit; that yon may cheerfully serve 
Ood in it, in the eitpectatioii of his bles^in^.' Thnngh 
man's corruption have ftltrd that at:d every stat«- of life with 
anorca and Ironbles, yet from the beginning it was not so; 
God appointed it for mutual help, and a» snch it may be 
■Bed. Asa married Iit«liaLh itu temp tatiouH and afflictioiia, 
so it hath its peculiar benefits, which you are thankfully to 
ao»-pt and acknowledge uiitu God'. I. Fl is a mirrcy in 
order to the projkagaling of a people on earth to love and 
honour their Creator, and to surre God in the world and en- 
joy him for over. It ia no Bmall mercy to be the parents of 
a godly seed ; and this is tb« end of the institution of 
marriage'. And thin parents may tfX[>ect, if they bt* not 
wanting on their part; however sometimes their children 
prove Mgodly. '2. It is a mercy to have « foithful ftivnd, 
that Jo V el h yon entirely, and ih an true to y«ni as ToutHelf, 
to whom you may open your mind and communicatL- your 
aAnirs, and who wonid be ready to strengthen yon. and di^ 
vide tlui cares of your affairB and family witlt yon, and help 
you to bear youi- burdens, and comfort you in your sorrcnr^^ 
and be the daily comfMUiion of your lives, and partaker of 
jvas joys and sorrows. 3. And it is a mercy to hnvb so 
near a friend to be a helper to your soul ; to join with you in 
pri.ycraiKl other holy exercises; to watch over yno and tdl 
yon of your tnnaand dangers, and tostir up in you thegrac« 
of Ood, and rememb«- you of the life to oomet and flheerfol- 
ly accompany you in the ways of h<^inetis. " A prudent wifit 


> Sec GcdM. n. 10— If. 

• Ud. n. t». 



is from the Lord ■.'* Thus il ifi mid, " Wliofto findeth a wif« 
lindetji a ^jrood tiling, and obtain«th favour of the Lord '." 

Direct. X. ' Let your matriago covcaant be made under- 
elaadingly, deliberately, heartily, iu the fear of God, witik » 
fixed T«golution foiLlifiillr toperfoi-m it.' (Jad«rHtaiul wall 
all die duties of your relation before you enter into it : and 
run nut upon it u boys to a play. but with the seuse of your 
duty, as tboee that cngagv tliemaelves to a great deal of 
work of gr«at, imirartanoe towards God and towmrdB each 
other. AddreBS yourselves therefore beforehand to Ood 
for counsel, and earncictlv beg his j^iidniirf!, and hia blet- 
^ing. Hi id nut not without hitn, or before him. Hfckon 
npon th<! wont, and foresee oil temptutions which would 
diiuiaish your afiectioas, or otakc you uufaJthful to ondl 
other: and see that you be fortified at^nst them all. 

Direct, xt. ' He sure that God be the ullinmte end of 
your marriage, and thut you principally choose that state of 
life, that iu it you may be most serviceable to him; and 
thai you heartily devolt; yourselves, and your familiea unto 
God; that so it may be lo you a i;unctificd conditiou.' It is 
nothing but making God our guide and end that can sancti- ,J 
fy our state of life. Tliey thut unfeignedly follow OinI'h 
couiifiel, aud aim at hi& glory, and do it to please him, wilt 
fiud God owning aud bleasing their relatioa. iiut they 
that do it priucipally topleoae the Hesh, to Bali^ty hmt, aud 
increatte their estates, and to have children nurviving them 
to receive the fruit of their pride and covetouHnes*, can ex- 
pect to reap no better than they aow ; and to have the flesh. 
the world, and the devil the masters of their family, accord- 
ing to their own desire aud choice. 

Direct. XII. ' Ac your fin^t conjunction (aud through the 

rest of your liveH) remember ttic day of your separation.* 

And Uiiuk not that you are settling yourselves in a statu of 

rest, or felicity, or continuance, but only assumioga com- 

f anion iu your travels. Whether you live in a married or 

ftn unmarried life, remember that you axe hasting to th« 

everlasting life, where there is neither "marrying nor giving 

iu marriage ^" You are going as fast to another world in 

one state of life as in tlie oltier. You are but to help each 

* Fm. xkM. 14, •• Pitw. K*«i. tt. fit* ProT. vixl. lO— II, itc 

' 1 Cor. «U. SD. 30. 



Other in your way, that your joiipney may be the easier to 
you, and that you may hajJiiily meet again in the heavenly 
.leroaalem. WTien worldlings marry, they take it for a set- 
tling themselves in the world ; and as regenerate persons 
begin the World anew, by beginning to lay up a treasure in 
heaven ; so worldlings call their marriage, their beginning 
the world, because then as engaged servant* to the world, 
they set ihemaelves to seek it with greater diligence than 
ever before. They do but in marriage begin (as seekers) 
that life of foolery, which when he had found what he 
sought, that rich man ended with a " This I will do: I will 
pitll down my barns, and build greater, and ther« will I be- 
8t.t)w all ray fruits and my goods : »itd I will !>ay to my kouI, 
Soul thou haat much gooda laid up for muny years, take 
thine eaae, eat. drink and be merry : but God eaid unto him. 
Thou fool, this night shall thy soul be n^qtiirt^J of thee: 
then whutie shall those things he, which thou ha^t pro- 
vided'' I" If you would not die such foots, do not many 
and live such worldlingrs. 


ZHf. 2. Cases <tf' Marriage. 

Qiaat. I. ' What should one follow as a c«rtaiii rule, about 
the prohibited degrees of consanguinity or affinity? seeing 
I. The law ofMitaes is not in force to ns. 2. And if it 
were, it is very dark, whether it may by parity of reason be 
extended to more degrees than are named in the text. 3. 
And seeing the law nf nature in no hardly legible in this 
case *?* 

Aittw. 1, It is certain that the prohibited degrees are 
not 80 statedly and nuivtirsalty unlawful, as that such mar- 
mge may nol be made lawful by any necessity. For 
Adam's son's did lawfully marry their own sisters. 

2. But now the world is peopled, such necessities as will 
warrant such marriages muat needs he very rare, and such 
as we nre never like to meet with. 

3. The law of nature is it which prohlbiteth the degrees 

* Luke ili. 19. to. 

* Th««w« nrPolvgani; *•«> fully »nd plainly w»oli-cd by Clir»l, ihitt 1 liio il 
twi t» he mteettuj lo Avddt il, ajwclUly wliilc tli« Uw •>( (he laiid do* makt il 



that are now unlawful ; and though tbio taw be JaHi as to 
some degrees, it is not so as to others. 

4. Tho law of God to the .lew.*', doth not prohibit those 
degrees there named, because of any reason proper to the 
Jews, but a& an exposition of the law of nature, and ho <m 
reasons cutnmon to all. 

5. Therefore, though the Jewish law ceftBe (yea, never 
bound other nations) formally as that political national law ; 
yet as it was God's expooitiun of hU own law of natare, it 
is of use. and consequeiiLial obligation to all men. even to 
this day ; for if God once had told but one man, ' This is 
the senee of the law of nature,' it rcmain«th true, and nil 
raufit believe it; and then the law of nature itself, so ex- 
pounded, will still oblige. 

0. The world is so wide for choice, aJid a nccesaity of 
doubtful marriagL- is so rare, and the trouble bo great, Uiat 
prudence telleth every one that it in their sin, without flat 
necessity, to many in a doubtful degree i and therefore it is 
thns safest, lo avoid all degrees thsLt seem to he e<}ual to 
those named Lev. xviii. and to hare the same reason, 
though they be not named. 

7, But because it is not certain that indeed the unnamed 
CftSes have the same reason, (while God Juth not acquaint 
us with all the reasons of his law) therefore when the thing 
is done, we must not censure othvrs too deeply, nor trouble 
ountelves too much about those unaamed. doubtful cases. 
We niuat avoid them beforehand, because else we »hall cast 
ourselves into doubts and troubles unnecessarily ; but when 
it IS past, the case most be considered of as I Bholt after 

(hiesl. II. ' What if the law of the land forbid more pr 
fewer degrees thaii Lev. xviii. doth?* 

Answ. If it forbid fewer, the rest are nevertheless to be 
avoided as foibidden by God. If it forbid more, the for- 
bidden ones must be avoided in obedience to our ruler. 

Quest, in, ' Is the marriage of cousiu-gfrmaiis, that is, 
of brothers' children, or sisters' children, or brothers' and 
sisters' children, unlawful ? ' 

Aimc. I tliinit not ; 1. Becau«e not forbidden by God. 
2. Because none of that same rank are forbidden^ tl\al\.%, 

VOL. rv. 




none that on hoth aides are two degrees from the rool. 1 
refer the reader for my reaBons to a Latin Treatise of Charles 
Butl«r on this subject, for in those I rest. As all the chil- 
dreo of Noah's sons did marry thdr cousia-germane, (for 
they could act marry iu any remoter degree) bo have Others 
since without reproof, and none are forbidden. 3. But it 
is safest to do otherwise, because there is choice eiioHgh be- 
side, and because many divines being of the contrary opin- 
ion, may make it matter of scruple and trouble afterwards. 
to those that venture upon it without need. 

Queit.iy. 'What would you have tliose do that have 
married cousin-gerioans, and now doubt whether it be law- 
ful &o to do? ' 

Afmo. I would have them cast away such doubtu, or at 
least conclude that it is now their duty to live peaceably in 
the state in which they are : and a great sin for them to be 
separated oa such Bcruples. The reason is, because, if it be 
not certain, that the degree is lawful, at least no man can be 
certain that it is unlawful. And for husband and wife to 
break their covenants and part, without a necessary cause, 
is a great gin: and that which no man can prove to be a 
sin, ia no necessary or lawful cause of a divorce. Marriage 
duties are certainly commanded to the married, but the 
marriage of coufiin-germans is not certainly forbidden. 
Therefore if it were a sin to marry so, to them that 
doubted i or if they are since fallen into doubt whether it 
wa»nota sin; yet may Uiey be sure that the continuance 
of it ift a duty, and that all they have to do is to repent of 
doing a doubtful thing, but not to part, nor to forbear their 
covenanted duties. \o, nor to indulge or sufFer tbose troa- 
bleaome scruples, which would hinder the cheerful dis- 
charge of their duties, and the comfortable serving of God 
in their relations. 

Quest. V. 'What should those do that are married in 
those degrees which arc not forbidden by name in Lev. xviii. 
and yet are at the same distance from the root with those 
that are named, and seem to have the same reason of untaw- 
fulncits V 

Atisk. If tliere be clearly n parity of degree and also of 

the reason of the prohibitioD, tticn no doubt but they must 

part as incestuous, and not continue in a forbidden state. 

But becauHe dirincs are disagreed iNhvtKct there be in all in- 



stances a parity of tbe reason of the prohibition, whcri> there 
in an eqiisil distamv^ nit to dt';![rci's ; niul so in tJiOM' raises 
Kouie think it a tiuty to be separatf^l, und otliers think it 
enough to repent of their coitjuiicttou anil not to be iiepnm- 
ted, bticatisu the cauc in doubtful (as ihe caDtrovemy shew- 
eth), I shall not venture to cost in my judgment in a ca&t, 
where so many and such mun uru ditingreed ; but slmll only 
adviite nil to prevent such troublesome doiibtit beforehand, 
find not by ra-stiness to run themselves into pcrpUxiLiLii. 
wJieu there is no necessity^ uidess they will call ihtsir cai> 
nnl ends or sinful passions, a necetmity. , ,, 

Quest. VI. ' Hut if ft man do marry in a degree cxpreHKly 
there forbidden, in it in all cases a sin to continue in ihut 
state? If necessity made such niarriugc a duty to AdamV 
children, why may notnece»sity niuke the cunlinuancr law- 
ful to otliers? As guppose tlie king or parents commnod 
it ? suppose the woman will tlie or hfs dUtracted with ^ief 
else 1 suppose one hath made a vow to marry no other. an<l 
yet cannot live single, ^v,'l ' Here I shall Huppoite. tliaL if 
a lustful person marry a kinswoman that he may have, 
change, as foreknowing tliat he mu«t be divorced, punish- 
ment, and not continuance in the sin most be his sonteutM;: 
and if one that hnth married a kiniiWomBii Im glad to be di- 
vorced, be<:.aiise lie hateth her or lovelli chiui;^c, punish- 
ment must rebuke him, but he must not continue in inccHt. 

Antw. 1. Natural necessity justified Adam's thildreo, 
and such would now justify you. Yea, the benedictiun 
"Increase and multiply," did not only allow, but oblige 
them then to marry, to replvniKh the earth (when else man- 
kind bad ceased); but so it doth nut us now when ihevarth 
IB replenished. Yet I deny not, but if a man and hi» sister 
were cast alone upon a. foreign wilderness, where they jnstly 
despaired of any other company, if God should bid Uieni 
there " increase and multiply," it would wsrmnt them to 
marry. But el»e there is- no necesinty of it, and therefore 
DO lawfulness. For 2. A viciou.s neccs.sity juatifieth not flu- 
sin. If the man or woman that Hhould abKtBin will he mad 
or dead with pawtion. rather than obey God. and deny and 
mortify their lust, it is not one sin that will justify them ju 
another. The thing that is necessary, is to conform Uww 
wiUk Uf the law of God, and if tUey w\U nol, -iwOk \Xvtxv *»^ , 



•They cannot,' they must bear what tliey get by it. 3. And 
it IB no necessity ihat in imposiid by that command of king 
or parents, which is against the law ot'God. 4. No, nor by 

0. vow neither : for a vow to break God's law is not an obli- 
gation to be kept, but to be repented of ; nor is the necessi- 
ty remediless which such a one bringeth on himself, by vow- 
ing never to marry any other ; seeing chastity may be kept. 

Quest. VI t. ' Is it lawful for one to marry, that hath 
vowed chastity during life, and not to marry, and afterward 
findeth a neceeaity of marrying, for the avoiding lust and 
fornication ? ' 

Aiuw. I know that many great divines have ca&Jly ab- 
solved those, that undtr Popery vowed chastity. The prin- 
cipal part of the solution of the question, you must fetch 
from my solution of the Case of Vows, Part iii. Chap. v. 
Tit. 2. At the present this shall Buflicc to be added to it. 

1. Such vowfi of chajn.ity that are absolute, without any ex- 
ceptions of after alterations or difficulties that may arise, are 
Hinfully made, or are unlawful ' quoad actum jurandi '.' 

2. If parents or others impose such oaths and tows on 
their children or subjects, or induce them to it, it is Hinfnlly 
done of them, and the ' actus impernntium' is also unlawful. 

3. Yet aalong as the ' materia jurata' ' the matter vowed' 
'remainctli lawful, the vow dutli bind, and it is perfidious- 

iwm to break it. For the sinfulness of the imposcr'e uct 
[>rovetli no more, but that such a command did not oblige 
you to vow. And a vow made arbitrarily witlioutany com- 
mand, doth oeverthelesg bind. And the Binfulneas of tJie 
making of the vow, doth only call for repentance ; {as if you 
made it causelessly, rashly, upon ill motives, and to ill ends, 
or in ill circumstaRces. 8lc.) But yet that vow which you 
repent that ever you made, must be neverthclesB kept, if thir 
thing vowed b« a lawful thing, and the uct of vowing be not 
ntade a nullity (though it was a sin). And when it i» a nul- 
lity, 1 have shewed iu the forccitcd place. 

4. A vow of celebate or chastity during life, which bath 
^^tbis condition or exception expressed or implied in the true 

intent of the votary (unless any thing fall out wbicU shall 
make it a sin to me not to marry), may in some cases be a 

' Bjr Ihat JON nkyiecbow to fnolre Che CMetabaal >«m«ndco«nai>(* oliMi 
«fVfArgftii(leMKn>*cf*it*oflhi»lime ntnoTie*"- 




CHAf. I.] 



lawful vow ; as to one that foreseeth great incoDveiiieuces 
'in marriage, and would by Grm resolution fortify hioiaelf 
[Bgainst tt'mptatinns and mutability. 

5. If there were no such exccjitiiig thought iii the person 
Nowing, yet when the thinj; becotneth anlawfnl. the vow in 
Hlot to be kept; though il oblif^e us under guilt for Kiuful 
'inaluiig it, yet God commandeth us not to keep it, h«L-au8e 

we vowed that which he furbad uk not outy to vow but to do. 

6. Either the Papists aufipose such «xcepttona to bf 
always impHed by their votaricB, or at least tlmt they are 
contained in tiie law of God, or else sure they durst never 
pretend that the pope buth power to dispense with nacb 
towb; (as they have oil done for princes, men and womep, 
that th«y might be taken from a monastery to a crown.) For 

^if they suppose, that the persons before the disponi^ntion are 
under the obligation of their vow, and bound by God to 
keep it, then it would be too grtisa and cnliuiis blasphemy 
for the pope to ulaim a power of diftubliging them, and dis- 
solving God's commands ; and not only antichristianity, 
but aiititheistical, or a setting bimaelf above God Almighty, 
under pretence of his own commidsioii. Bnt if they only 
pretend to dissolve such vows judicially or decisively, by 
judging when the person is no longer obliged lo keep them 
by God's law, then they suppose, that the obligation of God's 
law is ceased, before they judicially declare it to be ceai«ed. 
And if that were all that the pope undertook, he had no 
powci' to do it out of his own pari&h, nor morr: than any 
lawful bishop hath in his proper charge. 

7. Tht matter of a vow of celibate or chastity is then un- 
lawful, when it cannot be kept" without greater sin than that 
life of chastity escapeth, and which would be escaped if it 
were forsaken ; or without the omission of greater duty, 
and amission of greater good, than that life of chastity con- 
taineth or attuinelh. For the further opening of this, let it 
be noted, that, 

9. It IB not every degree of sin which marriage would 
cure, that will warrant the breach of a vow of chastity. As 
if 1 had some more lustful thoughts or ini^iigations and irri- 
tations in a single life than I should have if I marrivd. The 
reason is, because, 1 . ^o man liveth without Rome siu, and 
it is supposed that there arc greater uluk of viiQ^^t Vy^^, 



whicb by n life of chn«tity 1 avoid. And the breach of the 
vow itself IS. a greater matter tlian a lustful thought. 

9. So it is not every degree of good which hy marriagie I 
may nttftiu or do, that will warrant it against avow of chas- 
tity. Because I may do %ud get n greater good by chastity, 
and becaune the evil of perjury is not to be done that good 
may be done by it ; till I can prove, that it is not only good 
iu itself, but a duty ' hie et nunc' to me. 

10. A man should rather break his vow of celehate, 
than once coiuuiit ftiriiieatton, if there were n oecesiiity that 
he ouist do the one. Becavise fornication is a sin which no 
vow will warrant any man to commit. 

11. A man should rather break bis vow of celebatu, than 
lioe iu such constant or ordinary lust, as unfitteth him for 
prayer, and a holy life, sind keKpeth biin in ordinary danger 
of fbrnicstion, if there were a necessity that he muiit do the 
one. The reason is also because now the matter vowed is 
become unlawful, and uo vow can wnrrant a man to live in so 
great sin, (unless there were some greater sin on the other 
side which could not be avoided in a married life, which is 
hiirdly to be supposed, however pupisli priests think dis- 
obedience to the pope, and the inconunodity and dix^race of 
amarried life, &c. to be a greater sin than fornication ilHclf.) 

12. If a prince vow chastity, when it is like to endanger 
the kingdom for want of a safe nnd sure sacccssion, he Is 
bound tn break that vow ; because he may not lawfully gi»e 
away the pi:ople'H right, nor do that which is injuiious to ao 

13. Whether the command of a parent or prince may 
diBsoWc the obligation of avow of celibate, 1 have answered 
already. I now say but tliis, I. When parentii ur princes 
may justly command it, wcmayjutttly obey tliem. But this 
ia not one of tbost accidental evils, which may be lawfully 
done, though unlawfully commanded. 2. U is parents that 
God hath committed more of tbiit cnre and power to, about 
children's marriage, than to princ«s. 3. Parente nor prin- 
ces may not lawfully command the breach of such a tow, 
(uoL nullified at firat) except in such cases as disoblii^e us, 
wlielhur they do it or not; so that the weolvinp of Ihe main 
case doth sulhce fur all. 

14. He tliat by lawful means cau OTercome his liut, to 





thv measure before mentioned, i» uwler no neceaaiiy of 
violntiiig* hiB vow of single life. 

15. I tliiuk that it is not one of twenty thnt have bodies 
80 unavoidably prone to liwt. hut tlmi by due lutiiiw it might 
be BO fur (thougli not totally) overcome, vifithout maniage, 
fornication, wilfiil self-polIutioQ, or TioU-nt, vexatious, lust- 
ful thoughts. That iti, I. If they employ themselves con- 
Ktitntly and diligently in a lawful calling, and he not guilty 
of HUl^h idleneas, as leaveth room in their minds and imagi- 
nations for vain and filthy (Jioughts. If they follow such a 
calling as shall lay a necessity upon them to keep their 
thoughts closie employed about it. 2. If they use such ab- 
stinence and coarseness in their diet, as is meet to tame in- 
ordiniLlo lusts, without cte&troying health : and not only 
avoid fullness and gulosity, and vain spurts and pleasures, 
but also use coovenieat fasting, and tame the body by ne- 
cessary austerities. 3. Ifthey sufficieutly avoid all tempt- 
ing company and sights, and keep at a meet distaucu from 
them. 4. If they set such a restraint upon their tfaonghta 
us they may do. 6. If they use such a quality of diet and 
physic, OB is most apt for the altering of those bodily dis- 
tempers, which are the cause. 6. AikI lastly, If they are 
eamestiu prayer to God, and live in mortifying meditations, 
especially in a constant familiarity with a crucified Chriitt, 
and uith the grave, and with the heavenly society. He that 
brcaketh his vow to save himself the labour and sufiering 
of iheiie ungrateful means, I take to be pertidious, though 
perhaps he sinfully made that vow. And no greater a num- 
ber are excusable for continence after such a vow, than these 
that iiBve bodies so extraordinary lustful, as no such other 
means can tame, and those foremcutioucd that have cxtraor- 
^ary accidents to make a single life unlawful. 

16. It must aot be forgotten here, that if men trust to 
'miirriage itself alone as the cure of tlieir lu»l, without other 

means, such violent lusts as nothing else will cure, may 
possibly be much uncured afterwards. For adulterers are as 
violent in iheir lusls as the inininrricd, and ofttimes fnid it 
a£ hard lo rei^train them. And therefore the married as well 
a^ others have need to be careful to overcome their lust. 
itid the rather because it is in tbem a double sin. 



17. But yet when, all other means do fail, marriage i» 
Ood'n appointed means, to quench those tiamee from which 
iue»'c vowsciLODOtiin caaeaof true necessity, disobUgB thciu. 


Direciioitsjhr the right Choice of Servants andMaskri. 

Din^iomftrr the right Choiu of ServanH. 

lEHVANTs being intrgml parts of the ra.inily. who contri- 
bute much to the holiueas or unholiness of it, and to the 
happiness or misery of it, it much concerneth masters to be 
cnrefiil in tlieir choice. And the harder it is to find snch as 
are indeed desinihle, the more careful und diligent m it 
should you he. 

Direcl. t. ' To bid you choose auch as are fittest for your 
service) is a direction which natiirf. and iutereitt will ^ive 
you» without any persuusiuus of mine.' And indeed it in 
not mere honesty or piety that will make a good ttenant, 
nor do your work. Three thinga are neceH»ary to make a 
iserraDt fit fof you: 1. Strength. 2. Skill. 3. Willing- 
nesH. And no two uf tht>9e will serve without tlie third. 
Strength and nkitl without wil lingnesK, will do nothing: 
skill and williugnirss without strength, can do nothing: 
Htrength and willinguciis without skill, will do aa bad, or 
worse tbuu notbtng. No less than all wilt make you a good 
servaut. Therufure chooae one, 1. That is healthful. 2. 
That hath been used to such work au you mu8t employ him 
ia: Bod, 3. One that ia not of a flesh pleasing, or lazy, 
ftlugytah diiipo&ilion. For to exact labour fi'om one that ia 
sickly will seem cruelty : and to expect labour from one that 
iii umkilful and unexercised will seem folly: and heavy, 
fleslUy, slotliful persons, will do all with bo much unwilling- 
ncM, and pain, and weariness, that they will think all loo 
much, and thnir service will be a continual toil and displea- 
sure to them, and they will think you wrong them, or deal 
hiLfdty with tlium, if you will not allow lliem in their fiesh- 



liness and idlenens. Yea, though they should have grace, 
a phlegmatic, sIuggiKh, heavy body, will never be fit for di- 
ligent service ; any more than a tired hoFRe for travel. 

Direct, n. ' If it be poHsible, chooiie Ruch an have the 
fear of God, or at least such as are tractable aiid willing to 
be taught] and not such as are ungodly, seaitual. and pro- 
fane." For, 1. " God haleth all the workers of iniquity V 
And it teadelh not to the bleaaing ur iiafety of your family, 
to have in it Buch as are enemies to God, and bated by him. 
You cannot espect an c«iual blc8i>ing on tlieir labouns, as 
you may on the service of those thnt fear him. The wicked 
may briug a curse on the families where they are (if you 
wilfully entertttin them): when a Joseph may be a blessing 
even to tlie house of on unbeliever, A wicked man will l>c 
renewing those crituej, which will be the ehame of your fa- 
mily, and a grief to your hearts, if you have any love to God 
yourselves : when a godly servant will prav for a blessing 
from God upon his labnura, and is hinuelf under a promise, 
that "whatever he doth shall prottper." 3. Ungodly ser- 
fanfci for the most part will be mure cyc-»Mvunt» : they will 
do little more than they find necessary to escape reproof 
and blame: some few of them indeed out of love to their 
masters, or out of a desire of praise, or to make their plac«s 
the belter to theraselveji, will be diligent and trusty : but or- 
dinarily they are deceitrul, and study more to seem good 
servants, tlian to be such, and to hide their faults, tlian to 
avoid them : for they make no great matter of conscience of 
it, nor do they regard the eye of God : whereas a truly godly 
servant will do all your service in obedience to God, as if 
God himself had hid him do it, and as one that is always in 
the presence of that master, whose favour he preferrelh be- 
fore all the world ; he la more careful to picaue God, who 
commandeth him to be faithful, tliaji lo please you by seem- 
ini: better than he is : he is moved more to his duty by the 
reward which God hath promised him, than by the wages 
which he expecteth from you : he hath a tender, ptirified 
conscience, which will hold him to his duty, as well when 
you know it not, as when you stand by. 3, Ordinarily, un- 
godly servants will be false, if they Imve but opportunity to 
enrich themselves by deceiving you : especially thoBc Uiat 



arc inlnisted in laying out money, in buying and sellii^. 
As loiig as I iiaoif do particular perHODM, I think it no uo-. 
trustiness, but my duty, to warn masters whom they trust, 
by my experience from tbe confesttioiiit of tiu»se that have 
beea guilty. Many servants whom God hath converted to 
hiB love and fear, have told me how constantly they de- 
ceived their maulers in buying and selling beforf their con- 
version ; even of so great sums of munvy, tliat some of them 
were not able Lo restore it (when I uuule them know it was 
their duty so for as they were able) : and uome of them had 
»o much umpiietnces of conscience till it wti»i restored, that 
t have been fain to give tliem money to restore, when I have 
convinced tbem of it : so that 1 know by such confeK^ions, 
that f>uch deceit itiuf robbing of their masters i& a very or- 
dinary thing among ungodly eervantg that have opportunity, 
that y«t pass for very trusty Hervants, and are never dis- 
covered. 4. AUo an nngodly servant will be a tempter to 
(he rest, and will be drawing them to sin : especially to se- 
cret wantonneHH, and uncivil carriage, if not lo actual for- 
nication i and to revellings, olid merriments, and fleshly 
couraea : by ewearing, and taking God's name in vuin, and 
curHUig, and lying they will teach your children and other 
servants tndo the like; and so to be an infectious pestilence 
In your families. 6. And they will binder any good wbicti 
you would do on otbem. If there be any in your family 
under conrictione, and in a hopeful way to a better condi- 
tion, they will (|iiench all, and discourage them and hinder 
their couversion ; partly by their contradicting cavils, and 
partly by their scornti, and partly by their diverting, idle 
talk, and partly by their ill exampleH. and alluring them to 
accompany them in their sin. Whereas on the contrary a 
godly servant will be drawing the rest of your family tu god- 
liness, and hindering them from sin, and persuading tbem 
to be faithful in their duty both to Gnd and you. 

Dirtcl. 111. ' Yet measure not the godliness of a servaDt 
by his bare knowledge or words, but by his Love and Cou- 
seience.' A great deal of «elt'-ronceited talkutivL-nites about 
religion mav stand with an unsanctitied heart and life : and 
much weakness in knowledge and ultvrauce. luuy stand with 
siueofily. Bui you may cafely jUilgu those tu be truly 
godiy, J. Who love godliness, and love the Word and s«r- 




vautit of God, tuad hate all wick(-dne<u<. 2. And IhoiHi that 
make conscieooe to do ttieir duty, and to avoid koown ain 
botb openly and in secret. 

Dirtci.w. ' If necessity coustniiQ you to UikeUioaetliot 
ve unfit and bad, remember that there is ihc greater duty 
iucutub«ut ou you, to cnrry youn(i.>lf towards them ia a vi- 
g^ilant, convincing uianver, ko ati teudelli luuiil to oiake tlieoi 
bettei.* Taki; iheoi not an you buy a horse or an ox, witb u 
purpose only to u&c ihem for your work : but riiucinber 
they have immortal souU wliicb yoti take charge of. 


Directmts J'or t/te right Choief of Masten. 

Seeing the happineftti of a servant, the aofety of his soul, 
and the comfort of hi» life, depend very much u|(on the fa- 
mily and pluoc which he livetli in. it much cuiicvnicth <?very 
prudent servant to be very careful in what place or family be 
take up his abode, ond to make the wisest choice he can, 

jyireci. I. 'Above all be sore that you choose not fur 
mere fleshly ease and sensuality, and take not that fur the 
beat place for you, where you may hare most of your own 
carnal will and plca»iirv.' 1 know that fleshly, graceleAS 
servants, will hear \im Direction with as ill a will, us a do^ 
when he is forbidden his meat or carrion. ( know I speak 
agaiusL thuir very nalui-e, and tlierefore against their very 
heartii, and therefore they will think I speak against their 
interest and good : and tiicrcforu I may persuade them to 
this course a hundred times, before Ibey will believe me. or 
obey my cuunftel. All ungodly, lleshly servants, do make 
these the only signs of a good place, or desirable servieo for 
tJiem: I. If tbey may do what work they will, and avoid 
that which they di»Uke; if they may do that which is easy, 
and not that which is bard: and that which is an honour to 
them, and not that which seemetb inferior and base. 2. If 
tliey may work wlien they will, and give over when tliey 
ivill. 3. If they may rise when they will, and go to bed 
when Uity will. 4. If Ihuy may eat and drink what tbey 
will, und fare well to the pleasing of their uppeliles. 3. If 
they may tpcak when they will, and wliat tlv<s^ Ivwtt a. touxA. 



to speak. 6. If they may have leave when they will to 
upon, atid play, and be wanton ant) vain, and waste their 
time, which tliey call being merry. 7. If they may wear 
the best agiparel and go fine. 8. If their masters will b« li- 
beral to them, to maintain all this, and will give them what 
they would have. 9. If their masters and fellow Bervaots 
carry it n?6j)ectful ly to them, and praise them, and make 
somebody of them, and do not dishonour them, nor give 
them any displeasing words. 10. And if they are not 
troubled with the precepts of godliness, nor set to leujn the 
Scripture, or catechized, nor called to account about the 
state of their souls, or the ground of their hope for the life 
to come, nor troubled with much praying, or repeating 
sermons, or religious exerci&c or dUcouiee, or any thing 
that lendcth to their salvation : nor be restrained from any 
sin, wbieti they have a mind to ; nor reproved for it when 
they have done it. These are an ungodly, carnal per&on'x 
ooivdilions,or si^is of a good service. Which is, inaword, 
to have their own wills and Heslily detjireu, and not to be 
crosaed by their maaters' wilU, or the will of God: which 
in tiSect is, to have the greatest hdps to do the devil's will, 
and to be damned. 

Ihrect. 11. ' 8ee that it be your first and principal core, 
to live in such a place where you have the greatest helps 
and snmllcttt hindrances to the pleasing of God, and the sav- 
ing of your kouIk : and in nucha place where you shall 
hsTC uo liberty to xlu, nor have your flcKhly will fulfilJed. 
but shall be best instructed to know and do the will of God, 
and under him the will of your superiors.' It is tlie mark of 
those whom God forsaketh, to be given up to their own 
wilts, or " to their own hearts' lusu, io walk in their own 
counnelsV " To live after the fltsh," is the certain way 
iu endless misery*. To be most subject lo the will of God, 
with tlic- greatest mortificution aad dental of our own 
wilU, is the mark of the most obedient, holy soul. Seeing 
then that holiness and self-denial, the loving of God, and 
tlie mortifying of the fiesh, are the life of grace, and the 
ht'olth and rectitude of the suul. and the only way (under 
Christ) to our salvation f you have great readon to think 
thai place tlio best for you, in which you have moat helps 

* PmI. Iiial. U. ^ Kmu. «iiL &, 13. 





for holincoR nnd Kelf-deninl : nnd not onlv to bear piili(>ntly 
the strictiiMji of your superiors, and the labour which they 
put you upon for your aouls, but also to desire ai\d xeck 
after such helps, as the greatest tuercien upon earth. " First 
seek the kingdom of God and his righteoastMst : labour 
not (tirni) for thi? food that peritiheth, but for that which 
«ndur«th to everlastiug Vife''." Take care first t)iat your 
souU be provided for, and take that for the best Mrrice 
which helpetit yoii mo«t in the acrvice of God, to your Hal- 

Direct, iii. ' If it be |Mi8siblOj lire where Ihero is a faith- 
fol, powerful, convincing minixtRr. whrtKe public teaching, 
and private counsel you may luake use of for your unuis." 
Live not, if you can avoid il, under an ignorant, dead, un- 
profitable teacher, that will never afford you any coniiider- 
able help to lift up your hearts to a heavenly conversation. 
But seeing you muBt tip«>nd the six days in your labour, 
live where you ha,ve the be»t helps, to Mpend tite LordV day, 
for the quickening and comforts of your bouU ; that in Uic 
strength of thnf. holy food, you may cheerfully perform your 
sanctified labours, oo the week dayK following. He not 
like thoiie brutifih persona, that live as if there were no life 
but this ; and therefore take care to get a place, where 
their bodie8 may be well fed and clothed, and may have 
ease, and pleasure, and preferment for the world; but care 
not much what teacher there is, to be their guide to heaven ; 
nor whether ever they be seriously foretold of the world to 
come, or not. 

Direct. IV. * Live, if you can obtain ao great a mercy, 
with superiors that fear God, and will have a care of your 
BOttls, 88 well as of your bodies, and will require you to do 
God's service as well as their owu : and not with worldly, 
ungodly masters, that will use you as they do their beaa^, 
to do their work, nnd never take care to further your sal- 
vation.' For, 1. The curse of God is in the families of the 
ungodly, and who would willingly live in a Iiouhe that Oud 
lath cursed, any more than in a house that ts haunted with 
6vil spirits ! But God himself doth dwell with the godly, 
and by many promises batJ) assured them of his love and 



'The curse of the Lord is in the house of the 
* John »i «r» 



[part II. 

wickeil; but he Wesaeth tlie habilatioii of the just'," "The 
wicked are overthrown, and arc nol; but the house of the 
righteous ghnil stnlld^" " The house of the wicked shaU 
b« overthrown; but the tabernacle of tlie upright shall flou- 
rish"." "The righteous man wisely coiisidereth the houtte 
of the wicked : God overthroweth the wicked for their 
wickedness''." Go not into a fallin<t house. 2. A muster 
thftt feareth God, will help to sive you from sin and hell, 
and help your hohU to life eternal : he may do more for you^ 
than if he make you kings iuid rulers of the earth, lie will 
hinder you from sin : he will teach you to know God, and 
to prepare for your salvation. Whereas ungodly muKtcrs 
vrill rather discourage you, and by mocks or threateDingit, 
seek to drive you from a holy life, and nee their wit, and 
work, and authority, to hinder your salvation: or at be^tt 
will take littlu care of your auuls but think if they provide 
you food and wages, they have done their parts. 3. AroaA- 
terthat feareth God will do you no wrong, but will love you 
as a Christian, and his fellow-survaiit of Christ, while he 
Gommandeth and eniployeth you as his own servant, whitrli 
cannot be expected from ignorant, ungodly, worldly men. 
Direct, v. ' Yot choose euch a service as you are fit to 
undergo, with the least hindrance of the service of God, and 
of your souls.' Neither a life of idleness, nor of exce*it of 
biuineas should be chosen, if you have your choice. For 
when the mind is ovcnv helmed with theca res of your service. 
and your bodies tired with excessive labour, you will have 
little time, or heart, or power, to mind the matters of your 
BoaU with any seriousnesji. Yea, the Lord's day will be 
spent with little comfort, wh«n the toil of the week dayx 
hath left the body tit for nothing but to sleep. A service 
which allowcth you no time at all to pray, or read the 
Scripture, or mind yonr everlasting etatc, is a life more fit 
for beasts than men. 

JHrtet. VI. ' If you can attain it. live where your fel' 
low-itervantK fear God, as well as the muster of the family.' 
For frllow-servants usually converse with one nnothnr 
more frequently and familiarly than their masters do with 
of them. And therefore if a master eive von the moat 






hcavenljr instruct) ohb, the idle, frothy talk of fellow-tier- 
vaiits may blot out all from your memoriefi and hcnrtM. And 
tlif^ir derision of a holy life, or th<?ir bad oxampleSf may do 
more hurt, than the precepts of Uie governoni can do good. 
WhcreaB when a master'n counseU are seconded by the 
, good discourse and practice of fcllow-aervantd, tt is a great 
encouragement to good, and keepctli tho heart in a con- 
tinual warmth and resolution. 

Dirtct. VII. ' If you want any one of these accommoda- 
tionfi, be the more diligent in such au improvement of tho 
rest, as may make up your want.' If you have a good 
teacher and a bad master, improve the helps of your teacher 
the more diligently. Ff you have a bad maHter and good 
fellow-servants, or a good master and bad fc How-servant*, 
thank God for that wlitch you hare, and make the best of it. 
Direct, viii. ' If you would be accommodated yoursclve* 
with the beat master and UHage, labour to be the bent ser- 
vants ; and then it is two to one but you may have your 
choice.' Good 8er>-anta are bo scarce, and so much valued, 
that the be»t places would strive for you, if you will 
strive to be such. £xcel others in labour and diligence, 
and trustiness, and obedieDce,and geotlenens, and patiencOj 
and then you may have almost what places you desire. But 
if yon will yourselves be idle, and (ilulhrul. and deceitful, 
and false, and disobedient, and unmaunerly, and »elf-willed, 
and contentious, and impatient, and yet think that you mu»t 
be respected, and used as good and faithful servants, it 
is but a foolish expectation. For wha-t obligation in there 
upon otheTH, in point of justice, to give you that which you 
deserve not? Indeed if any be bound to "keep you in uKtre 
charity, then you may plead charity witli them and not 
desert: but if they take you but a-s Kervantti, tlicy owe you 
nothing bntwhat your work and virtues Hhall deserve. 





A Disputatiuii, ur Argurttenta to prnve the Necesisitif of FoHoly 
Worship and Hothias, or Directiom against the Cavils of' 
the Profane, and some Sectaries, who timy it to be a Tkiug 
required tjf Ood. 

Whether the solemn Worslttp of God, in andl'f/ Families as such , 
bi of Vivim Appointment ? Aff. 

That excellent speech of Mirandula la oft in mind, ' Vcri- 
tatcin philosophia quacrit, theologia invenit, religio possi- 
det.* I do therefore with greater alacrity aiid delight dis- 
pute lliese pointd that aire directly religious, that is, iinme- 
diately practical, than thuHe that are only remotely such : 
and though 1 am loath we should see among ua any wider 
division* intvr phtloBophum theologum ct rcU^iosum' than 
between the fantasy, the intellect, and the will, which never 
are found disjunct in any act; or rather than between the 
habits of practical natural knowledge, and the habits of prac- 
tical Bupernatural knowledge, and the practical reaclutions, 
affections and endeavours, into which both the former are 
devolved; yet may we safely and proiitahly diftiiiguish, 
where it would be mortal to divide. If, diKpnting in onr 
present case, do but tend to, and end in. a rtligiauB per- 
formance, we shall then be able to »ay, we disputed not in 
Vain ; when by experience of the delight and profit of God'a 
worlt, we perceive that wc do not worship hiiu tn vain : 
otherwise to evince by a dispute, that Ood ehould be wor- 
xhipped ; and not to worship him when we have done, {■ 
hut to draw forth our learning, and abarpuu our wita to 
plead our condemnation \ as if the accuser wanted our help, 
or the Judge of all the world did want evidence and argu- 
ments againiit us, unleKH he bad it from our own mouth. 
Concerning the aense of the terma, I shall say aomewhat, 
both a» to the subject, and the predicate, that we contend 
not iu the dark ; and yet but little, leet I trouble my&clf and 
you with needless Inbours. 

1. Ily 'the worship of God' we mean not only, nor 
pnacipaliy, obedience as such : or service in common tilings. 




called 'AvAtia:' but wemcaDare^iouspcrfonnonccof some 

Bacreti actions, withan intenlionof tionotiring GikI as God; 

rand that more directly than in common works of olwdieoce. 

VThis lieing comraouly called ' Aarptin is by Austin and 
since him by all the orthodox, appropriated toOod alone, and 
indeed to give it to any other is contrary to its definition. 
I This worship is of two sorts, whereof the firf>t is by an 
excellency called 'worship,' viz. When the honour of God is 
so directly the end and whole business of the work, thatoor 
own advantage falls in but impliedly, and in evident subor- 
dination : such are the blessed works of praise and thanks- 
giving, which we here begin and shall in heaven perpetuate. 

I Yet see a more admirable mystery of true religion ; we in- 

' deed receive more largely from God. and enjoy more fnlly 
our own felicity in him, in the^e acts of worsliip, thai give 
all to God, than in the other wherein we more directly seek 
for somewhat from him. And those nre the second sort of 
worship-actions, viz. When the Kiibstance or matter of the 
work is a seeking, or receiving iiomcwtmt from God. or de- 
livering something religiously in his name, and so is more 
directly for ourselves; though it is God that should be our 
ultimate end in this too. You niny perceive 1 make this 
of three sorts. Whereof the first consisteth in our religious 
addresses to God for nomelhing that we want; and is called 
prayer. The second consisteth in our religioiiH addresses 
to God to receive somewhat from him ; viz. I. Instructions, 
precepts, promis(>s, threateuings, from bis mouth, meBsen- 
gerH, See. 2. The sacramentnl signs of his gmcu in baptism 
and the Lord's supper. The third is, when th« ofBcers of 
Christ do in his name solemnly daliver either his laws or 
sacraments. His laws either in general by ordinary preach- 
ing, or by a more pnrticular application in acts of discipline. 
'2. The word ' solemn' HigniGes sometimes any thing 
usual and so some derive it, ' Solenne est quod fieri solet-' 
Sometimes that which is done but on one set day in the 
year ; and so some make ' golcnne' to be ' quasi solum semel 
in anno.' But vulgarly it is taken, and so wc take it here, 
for both ' celebre et tisitatum,' that is, a thing that is not 

-accidentally imd seldom, but statedly und ordinarily to ht- 
done, and that with such gravity and honourable seriooa- 
nesABs beseomss busin^sit of itnr.h weight. 




3. By' family* we mean, nol a tribe or stock of kindred, 
dwotling in many houses as the word is takea oft in Scrip- 
ture, hul I mean a household. 

' Domus et farailia.* a ' househoid and fainily.' are indeed 
in economics somewhat different notioiiB, but oue thing. 
•Domus' is to ' familia' as ' ci vitas' to ' respublicn," th« 
former is made the subject of the latter, the latter the 'finis 
internus' of the former. And so 'Domtis est societaa na- 
turae conBentanea, e personia domesticity, vilte in dies omnea 
commode sustentand^ causa, collecta. Famitia est ordo 
domtiii per regimen patrie-tamilias in personas sibi sub- 

Where note, that to a complete family must go four in- 
tegral parts ' Pater fajuillas, mater familias, liliuis, scrrus.* 
' A father, mother, son, and servant.' But to lh« csseuce of 
a family it sufliceth if there be but the ' para imperanH, et 
pars Bubsida', one head or goverror, either father, mother, 
master, or mistress; and one or more governed under this 

Note therefore that the governor is aa essential part of 
the family, and 80 are some of the governed (viz. that such 
there be) but not each member. If therefore twenty thil- 
dreo, or servantB shaJl worship God without the father, or 
master of the family either present himself, or in some re- 
presentative, it isnol a family worship in strict sense. But 
if the head of the family in biniBelf(or delegate or repreaen- 
tfttive) be present, with any of his children or iiervantit, 
though all the rest be is yet a family duty ; thuugh 
the family be incomplete and maimed (and so is the duty 
therefore, if culpably so performed). 

4. When I say ' in and by* a family, I mean not that 
each must do the same parts of the work, but that one (ei- 
ther the head or some one deputed by him, and represent- 
ing him) be the mouth, and the rest performing thoir parts 
' by receiving instructions, or mentally concurring in the 
prayers and praise by him put up. Lastly, by ' divine ap- 
pointment' I mean any signification of God's will, that It is 
men's daty to pcrfonn tbis. Whether a signification by 
natural means or supernatural, directly or by conB4!q^uence, 
so we may be sure it is Ood's will. The sum of the ques- 
tion then is. ' Whether any sacred actions religiously and 




i or<luiarUy to be performed to God's honour by the head o( 
tlie family, with the rest, be by GoiI'm appoiulinent made 
our duty?" My thoughts of Ihis (^uefttion I shiUl rcducs 
to tlieee faetids, aud propound in this order- I. 1 shall 
speak of family wocsbip in geu«raL 2. Of th« aorU of that 
worship ID special. 3. Of the time. 

1. Conceroing the lir»t. Hay down my thoughts inthesa 
Propoaitione folluwiiig, for limitation and caution, andthca 
prove the uma coucluitiuu. 

Prop. I. It is not all sorts of Ood'a worship which he 
hath appointed to be performed by families as «ucli ; there 
being some proper to more public axsembtiRS. 

2. More particularly the adaiiniHtr&tion of the sacra- 
ments of baptism and the Lord'a ttupper, are proper to the 
miniBterial or organized churches, and not comnion lo ftuni- 
lies : fur as they are both of them c^mmittad only to minis- 
ters of the Gospel, and have bctn only used by them fgr 
many hundred years in the church : (except that some p«i>- 
mitted others to bapti7.e in cane of necessity.) So the Lord's 
supper was appointed for a symbol and meauK of a mure 
public communion tliau that of familicn. And though some 
conjecttu'e the contrary, from its lirst injstitution, aud think 
that as there is a family prayer and church prayer, family 
teaching and church teaching} so there should be family, 
sacrameuts aud church sacrameuts, yet it is a mistake. For 
though Christ administered it to his family, yet it was not 
as a fiunily, but as a church. For that which in but one fa- 
mily may possibly be a church abo. Tlu» e^po^tiou we 
have from the doctrine aud practice of the apostles, and con- 
stant custom of all the churches which have never thought 
tlie Lord's supper to be a family duty, but proper to larger 
asaemblies, and administrablo only by ordained miaisters. 
Nor will the reasons drawn from circumcision, and the pass- 
over prove the contrary j both because particular churches 

fere not then instituted as now j and therefore families had 

'pie more to do: andbecauHC there were some duties proper to 

femilies in the very institution of those aacrameutH. And 

because God gave thera a power in those, which lie hath 

not given to masters of families now in our sacraments. 

3. Many thousands do by their own viciouBnesa and 
negligence disable themselves; so that ihey cannot perform 



what God hath made their duty: yet it remains their duty 
stili : some dUahiUty may excuse them in part, but not in 

I shall now proTe, that the solemn worship of Qod in 
and by families as such, is of Divine appointment. 

jtrgumi'-iit I, If families are societies of God's instttu- 
tion, furnished with special advantages and opportunities 
for God's Bolemn worship, having no prohibition so to U!«e 
them i then the solemu worship of God in and by families an 
such, is of Divine appointment. But the antecedent ib true ; 
therefore so is the consequent. 

For the parts of the antecedent, 1. That families are so- 
cieties of God's instituKon, needeth no proof. 

2. That they are furnished with special advantages and 
opportunities may appear by an enumeration of particulars. 
(1.) There is the ndvantage of authority in the ruler of the 
family, whereby he may command all that are under him in 
God's worship, yea, and may inflict penalties on children 
and servants that refuse j yea, may cast some out of the fa- 
mily if they be obstinate. (2.) He hath the advantage of a 
singular interest in wife and children, by which he may 
bring them to it willingly, that so they may perform a right 
evangelical worship. (3.) He hath the advantage of a .siu- 
galar dependanceof all upon htm for daily provisions; and 
of his children for their portions for livelihood in the world, 
whereby he may yet further prevail with them for obedience ; 
he having a power to reward, as well as to punish and com- 
mand. (4.) They have the opportunity of cohabitation, and 
80 are still at hand, and more together, and so in readiness 
for such employments. (5.) Being nearest in relation, they 
are more strongly obliged to further each other's salvation, 
and help each other in jierving God. (6.) Tliey have hereby 
an advantage against all prejudices and jealousies, which 
strBDgenesa and miutakus may raine and cheriah among those 
that live at a greater distance, and so may close more he4r- 
tily in God's worship. And tlicir neamess of relation and 
natural afTections do singularly advantage them for a mure 
affectionate conjunction, and so for a more forcible and ac- 
ceptable worship of God, when they are in it as of one heart 
and soul. (7.) If any misunderstanding or other impedi- 
inent arise, they being stilt at hand, have opportunity to re- 





pmove them, and to natisly eacb oUier ; and if any diiiteiaiwnt 
jf undcrstuuding, heart or life be in the family, the ruler, 
by familiarity and daily converat, in enabled more particu- 
larly to fit his reproofit and exhortation it, confL'»»ioiiK uud 
petitioutt accordingly, which even ministers in the congregB* 
ttnuK cannot so well do. So tliitl I have made it evident in 
this uaumeration, that ramiliea have advantages, yea, spe- 
cial and most excellent advantages and opportunities for 
the solemn worship of God. 

3. The last part of the antecedent was, that Uiey have no 
prohibition to use llic&e advantages and opportunities to 
God't) solemn worship. I add this, lest any should say, 
though they have such advantages, yet God may restrain 
pthem for the avoiding some greater inconveniencies another 
rivay ; as he hath restrained women IVom speaking in the 
F«8semblies. But (1.) God huth neither restrained them in 
the law of nature, nor in the written law; therefore not at 
all. lie that can ;«hi>w it in either, let him do it. (3.) 1 ne- 
ver yet read or heard any knowing Christian once affirni that 
God hath forbidden families aolemuly to worship him, and 
therefore 1 think it needless to prove a negative, when no 
tmaa is known to hold the atfirmattre. Indeed for some 
'Vinda of worship, aa preaching and expounding' Scripture, 
some have prohibited them; but not reading, catechijcing, 
all Instructing, praying, praises, singing psiUma, much less 
all solemn worship wholly. So much for the antecedent. 

luow come to prove the consequence. 1. The foret^aid ad- 
vantages and opportunities are talents given by God, which 
they that receive, are obliged faithfully to improve for God ; 
therefore families having such advantages and opporttuiities 
for God's solemn worehip, are bound to improve them faith- 
fully for God, in the solemn worshipping of him. For the 
antecedent, I. It is unquestionable that these are lalents, 
tliat is, improvable mercies given by God. For as none 
dare deny them to be mercies, so none dare (I hope) say 
that God is not the giver of them. And then 2. That ^och 
talents must be improved faithfully for God, from whom they 
are received, is plain, fl.) From Malt, xxv, tliroii.ghaut, es- 
pecially from verse 14. to verae 31. And Luk.e xx. 10. he 
rcquirctb the fruitH of hit* vineyard, and M.att. x. 4*2. if he 
iulruat us with a cup of cold water. In; expecLcth it for 



[part II. 

a prophet when he calleth for it. Aud if he iotruHt us 

,iwiLh outward riches, he expecteth that " we give to him 

■ 'ttiat asketh"." His stewards must give an account of 

I'tbeir stewardships. Chri&t telleth u& of all out talents 

in general, that, " Unto whomsoever much is given, of him 

,eh,M be much required : luid to wlioin men have committed 

.iff^uch, of him will they ask tlie more''." And of uur words 

in particular Christ teJIs us, that " of every idle word men 

shall give an account at the day of judgment'." Much 

more for denying to use hoth our tongui^s and heart.i In 

God's worship, when he gives us such opportunities. " It 

is required in Htewardii, that a man be found faithful**." 

" As every man hath received the gift, even eo mioi&ter the 

, same one to another, as good stewards of the manifold j^race 

jiOf God. If any man speak, l&t him epeak as the oraclcK of 

(,God","&c. Many more of the like Scriptures prove the 

J ijutecedent of the enthymeme. and the consequent need» no 


Arg. .It. The ^lemn worehip of God in and by fumi- 
.lies aa such, is required by the very law of nature, tliere- 
,,fore it is of Divine institution. The consequence can be 
deuitid by no man that letiouncctli not reason ;iJid nature it- 
self j denying the law of nature to be God's law, which is 
, ,ind(^ed partly presuppogcd in the law supernatural, and part- 
^Xy rehearsed iu it. but never gubveited by it. Positives are 
more niiitahie than natundti are. 

The antecedent is thus laanifesLed. 1. Pjatural reason 
(or the law of nature) requircth that all men do faithfully 
improve all the taleutit that God hath intrusted tliem with, 
,Jto hiahonour : therefore natural reason (or the law of nature) 
doth require, that God be aolemuly worshipped in families ; 
^e having given them such advantages a» aforesaid there- 
into. 2. The law of nature requireth, that all societiefi that 
,J^Te God for their founder and iu^titutor, should, to their 
utmost capacities, be devoted to him tluit founded and in- 
. stjtuted them : but that God is the founder and institutor of 
families, is known by the light of nature iteeif : therefore 
the law of nature requireth, that familieK be to the utmost of 
their capacities devoted to God; and consequently, that 

*M*iLv.4i. Luku *l. 30, Sa. ■ lii. 5S. 
' ' * lake an. I. ui. 48. ' Malt. lU. S6. 


t f. 



Ui«y solemnly worahip bim, they being capable of ao doing. 
I need not prove the iiiBJor, because I Kpeak only lo mefl- 1 
that are pusH^KHed of Uie law of nature mentioned in it : and 
therefore tbey know it themselves to be true. Yet let me no far 
stayon ttic illii8trstion,aH to tell you the grounds of it. And,. 

1. OoclistUeAlpbaandOmegR,tiiefirstandthelaRt,theprin- 
uipal efficient and ultimate end of all : and therefore of fami- 
lies. And therefore they should be for him, as well as they 
arc from him : for " of him, and tiiruugU him, and to him are , ] 
all tbtugs." Tliis argument I draw from oature, which can< 
have no beginniug but Ood, nor any ead but God. Tb«< 

2. I draw from the Divine intention, in the fabrication aii 
ordination of all things. God made all thingB for liimitelf*^ 
and can have no ultimate end below himjself. The 3. I drair 
from his 'jus dominii,' his right of propriety which he halli> 
over all thinjrs, and so over families as such : they are ail ab- 
solutely his own alone. And that which m solely or abso-^ 
LuLely a man's own, should be for his use, and employed tori 
hiti honour and ends : much more thai which is God's, (ieein;; 
man i* not capable of Kuch a plenary propriety of any tiling 
i^ the world, as God hath in all things. 4. 1 argue a * jura^l 
imperii,' from God's right of government If he have a fuUlf 
right of government of families, as families, then fomilien^ 
as famitied must honour and worship him according to theii 
utmost capacities. But he bath a full right of absolute gc 
vetnment over families, as families ; therefore — The conse^l 
quence of tlie major is gromided ou these two things : lA 
That God himself is the end of his own government : this it] 
proper to his regimen. All human government is Kiud bi 
politicians to be terminated ultimately in the public good 
of the sot:iety. But God's pleasure and glory ia the end oC 
bis government, and ie, as it were, the public or universal' 
good. 2. in that nature teacheth us, that supreme honour 
18 due to all that are supreine governors; therefore they are 
to have the most honourable titles, of majesty, highnesfi, 
excellency, inc., and actions answerable to those titles, " If 
I be a fatlier, where is mine honour? if I be a master, where 
ismy fear'?" Fear is oft put for all God's worship. If then 
there be no family whereof God is not the Father or Foun- 
der, aod the Master, or Owner and Governor, then there is 

« M«l. i. 6. 



[part II 

none but should honour and fear him, or worship him, and 
that not oDiy as single men, hut aa fnniiUea : because he is 
not only the Father and Master, the Lord and Ruler of them 
as mem, but also as families. Honour is as due to the rec- 
tor, ai protection to the subjects, and in our case much 
more. God is not a mere titular bat real Oovemor. All 
powers OH earth are derived from him, and are indeed his 
power. All liiwfiil governors «re his officers, aud hold their 
places under him, and act by him. Aa God therefore is the 
proper Sovereign of every cooimonwealtb, and the Head of 
the churcih ; so la he the Head of every family. Therefore 
ax every commonwealth should perform such worship or ho- 
nour to their earthly sovereign, a» is due to man; so each 
society :ihouId, according to their capacities perform Divine 
worship and honour to God. And if any object. That by 
ihiR nile commonweailhs, as such, must meet together to 
wunship God, which is impossible; I answer. They must 
worship him according to their natural capacities ; and so 
must families according to theirs. The same general pre- 
cept obligeth to a diverse manner of duty according to the 
divers capacities of the subject. Commonwealths must in 
their representatives at least, engage themselves to God as 
commonwealth!*, and worshipliim inthemostconvenientway 
that theyare capable of. Families may meet together for pray- 
er, though a nation cannot. As an asRociution of churches 
called a provincial or national church, is obliged to worshij) 
God, as well us particular congregatinnK. yet not in one 
place; because it is impossible: nature Umiteth and maketh 
the difference. 

And that the obligation of families to honour and wor- 
ship God, may yet appear more emiueatly, euiiKider that 
God'ii righlof propriety and rule is twofold, yet each title 
plenary alone. I. lie is our Owner and Ruler npon his 
title of creation. '2. So be is by his right of redemption. 
By both these he is not only Lord and Ruler of persons, bat 
families; nil societien being his. And the regimen of per- 
sons being chiefly exercised over thtm in societies. " All 
power in heaven and earth is given unto Christ' :" " and all 
judgment comniiltcd unto him":" " and all thing* delivered 
into hiii hands':" "aud therelbie to him sliall cvorv knee 

i .Mill iiiu. 19. * JohiiT.M. ' Juiiii»iii.S. 



bow, both of things in heaven, and things in earth, and 
things under the earth :" (either with a bowing of wonhip, 
or of forced ackiiowledgiDeot:) and " every tongue bIiiJI 
cuiifesH that Jesus Ch rial is Lord to the glory of God the 
Father'." Bowing to and confessing Climt roltintAnly to 
God's glory, is tnie worship : all miist do tbiti according to 
their several capacities : and therefore famUiea according to 

A third consideration which 1 thought to have added 
but for illustration, may well xtand an an nr^nient itself; 
and it is this : 

Arg. III. If besides all the forementioned opportu- 
nities and obligations, families do live in the presence of 
God, and ought by faith to apprehend that presence, then is 
it God's will that families as ^uch xbcinld Rolennily wonthlp 
him. But the former i^ true, therefore the latter. 

The consequence of the major, which alone requircH 
pruyf, I prove by an argument ' a fortiori,' from the honour 
due to all earthly governors. Though when a king, a father, 
a maHter are absent, such actual honour, to be presented to 
them is rot due, because they are not capable of receiving 
it (furtlier than 'mediante aliqiia prrHona, vel re,' which 
beareth some reprcseutation of the superior, or relation to 
him] ; yet when they stand by, it is a contemptuous sub- 
ject, a disobedient child, that will not perform actual hon- 
our, or human worship to Ihem. Now God is ever prer,ent 
not only with each person as»uch, butalsowith every fam- 
ily as such. As he ia said to walk among the golden can- 
dliititickit in his churches, so doth he in the families of all 
by hi ft common presence, and of his servants by hia gra- 
cious presence. This they easily find by his directing; them, 
aud blestitu^ the affairs of their famlliee. If any say, ' We 
see not God, else we would dally worship him in our fam- 
ilies.* Ajisw. Faith seetb him who to sense is invisible. 
If one of yiiu hud a son that were blind and could not »ee 
bis owu father, would you think him therefore excuHable, 
if be would not honour hia father, when he knew him to be 
present/ We know Gcd to be present, thou^jh flesh be 
blind and cannot see him. 

Arg. iY. If Chriiitiau families (besideK all the foremen- 

' I'hII. it. IR. 

UlKGCl'ORV. [part II. 

tioiicil adrantages and obligations) are also HovietieH sanc- 
tified to God, then is it God'B will tlmt fniuilit^K, oh Huch, 
slinuld solemnly worship hini ; bat Christian families are ko- 
oieties Baactitied to God: Therefore, &,c. 

The reason of the conseqaence is, because things t>anc- 
titietl mast in the most eminent sort, ttiat they are capable, 
be uHcd for God. To Aunctify a person or tbuig. is to act it 
upurt, and separate it from Ji common or unclean use, aad 
to dtivute it to God, to be employed m his service. To alie- 
nate this from God, or nut to use it for God, when it is da- 
dicated tn hiiu. or sanctified by hiF^ own election and iirpa- 
ration of it from comiDon use, issacrilcgc. God Ualb a duu- 
ble ri{;ht (of creation and redemptioo) to all persona. JBui 
a treble- right to the sanctified. Antmiaii hi^ fearful judg- 
ment was a sad example of God's wralJi, ou tliote that witli- 
hold from him what was devoted to him. IfChnstiuji Ginf 
ilies aa eucb, be sanctified to God, they must as such wor- 
ship him in their besL capacity. 

That Chriistian families are sanctified to God, I prove 
tliuK ; 1 . A society of holy persons must needs be a holy ao- 
ciely. But a family of ChriRtianH is a society of holy per- 
sons ; tliercfore, 2. We find in Scripture not only aiuglc 
persons, but the societies of aucb sanctified to God. " Thou 
art an holy people unto the Lord lliy God, he hath chosea 
tlice to be a special people to himself above all |>eopie tliat 
arc upon tlic fuce of the earth'." So the body of tbut 
coDunonwealtb did all Jointly enter into covenant with God, 
and God to them. "Thou bant vouched the Lord this day 
to be thy God, and to walk in his ways ; and the Lord haUi 
vouched thee this day to be his peculiar people, that thou 
mayst be an holy people to the Lord*"." JG«hua (cJiap. 
xxiv.) devotetli hiuui^lf and his house to tlie Lord i " I oud 
my house will serve the Lord." And Abmham by circum- 
cision (the covunant, or seal of the covenant of God) conse- 
crated bis whole bou&chnid to God ; and so were all fam- 
ilies after him to do (as to the males in whom the whole was 
consecrated). And whether be&ides Uie typify*i]^ intent, 
there were not something more in tlie sanctifyini; of all th« 

OruL liLii. So Dcul.u«.tV, Zl.. 
■ Ono. uU. ut. utL ir— 1». uilil. 9. 

Dill. •tii. 94. ui. 7. 


firet-born to Qod, who if thoy lived, were to be the beads of 
fsiiiiliM, may be queslioneri. 

The pa^sover H'ati a family duty, by which they were yel 
furtlier sanctified to God. Vca, it is tapL-cially to be ob- 
eerved how in the New Teatanient the Holy Ghost dotJi im- 
ftate theluDguage of the Old, and speak of GodV people, lu 
of huly societies, a« the Jews were. Aft in many prophe- 
cies it was foretold that nationK and kitigdomn bbould scttc 
him (of which 1 hare spoken moni in my Book of Baptimu) j 
and among those who should " tiiouiti over him whom Uiey 
have pierced" in goepel times, when the spirit of grace and 
euppUcatiun in poured forth,are " the family of the huiue uf 
-David apart, and their wiven apart, Uie family of tlia bouse of 
ilf^athan apart, and ilieir wives apart; every family, even aJl 
the families that remained apart, and their wives apart"." 
i&o Christ sendeth his disciples to " baptize) nations," having 
discipled them ; ajid " the kingdoms uf the world xhall be- 
come the kingdoms uf ttic Lord and his Christ." And as 
God saith of the Juwh, " Ye shall be a peculiar treasure to 
me above nil people ; and ye shall be unto meu kii\j>domuf 
priests, and a holy nation" ; " so doth Peter say of all Chris* 
tians; "Ye also as living stones are built up a spiritual 
houae, a holy priesthood, to offer up spiritual sacri&ces ac- 
ceptable to God by Jesus Clm«t. Bat ye are a clio- 
Ben generation, a royal prie&thood, an holy nation, a pecu- 
liar people, that you should uhew fortl] the praises of him 
that hath called you out of darkness into his marveUous 
light I" ." Mark how fully thin text doth prove all that we 
are about. It speaks of Christiaus culluctively, as in socie- 
ties, and in societies of all the most eminent sorts ; " a ^eu- , 
eration ;" which seems especially to refer to tribes and fam- 
ilies : "a priesthood, nation, people ;" which comprehcnd- 
eth all the orders in the nation ofttimes. And in all these 
respects they are holy, and peculiar, and chosen, to shew, 
that God's pcoplu art- sanctified in these relations and socie- 
ties. And then mark the end of this sanclification, "to of- 
fer up BpirituaJ sacrifices acceptable to God by Jesus 
Christ'); to tdiew forth the pia-ises of him that hath culled 
you '," 8lc. 

■> SSech. »i. 1«— 14. 
■I Vrr. 5. 

" EjMd. lii. S, e. 

' V<T. 9. 

r I Pci.ii.>-7. 9. 



Yea, it seems that there was a special Jedicatioii of fatn- 
ili«s to God. And therefore we read bo fretjuently of 
households converted and bapti7.edi though none at age 
were baptized, but such as seemed believers ; yet when they 
profe3aed faith, they were all together initiated as a houBe- 
hold. And it seems, the master's interetst and duty were 
laVen to be so great for the conversion of the rest, that as 
he was not to content himself with hia own conversion, but 
to labour presently even before hia baptism, that his house- 
hold should join with him, that so the whole family at once 
might be devoted to God : bo God did bless this his own or- 
der and ordinance to that end : and where he imposed duty 
on masters, he usually gave success, so that commonly the 
whole family was converted and baptized with the ruler of 
of the family. So Acts xviii. 8. " Crispus believed on the 
Lord with all his howse, and they were baptized :" and Acts 
x?i. 32. Paul promiseth the gaoler, " Believe on the Lord 
Jesus Christ, and thou shalt be saved and thy house ; and 
he and all his were baptized straightway : for he believed in 
God with all his house," ver. 33, 34. And Lydiais descrihefl 
a " worshipper of God *:" " Slie was baptized and her house- 
hold." And the angel told Cornelius, that Peler should 
tcU him "words whereby he and all his houscHnld nhould 
be saved :" who were baptized accordingly'. And I Cor. i. 
16. Paul baptized the household of Stephnnus. And Christ 
told Zaccbcus, salvatinn was come that day unto his house, 
"and be and oil Itis housdiould believed." So that noble- 
man, John iv. -53. Therefore when Christ sent forth his 
disciples, ho saith, " If the house be worthy, let yourpeac* 
come upon it, but if it be not worthy, let your peace return 
to you." So that as it in apparently the duty of every 
Christian 80vcret<;;n, to do what lie is able to make all his 
people God's people ; and so to dedicate them to God as n 
holy nation, in a national covenant, as the Israelites were : 
so is it the unquestionable duty of every Christian nder of 
a family, to improve his interest, power, and parts to Uie ut- 
termoat, to bring all his family lobe the people of Christ in 
the baptismal covenant, and so to dedicate nil his family to 
Christ. Yet farther I prove this, in thai believers them- 
lelves being all sanctified to God, it must needs follow, that 
• AcltxtLlt. Ifl, • Adiii. l«. 




all their lawful retattonit, nnd especially all coininiuuled 
states of reli»lioii arcalso sanctified to God ; for wliuii tbetn- 
sekes are dedicated to God. it in alnulutely without reserre, 
to serve him with all that they have, and in erery relation 
and capacity that he i^hall set them. It ni-rc a madDcsa to 
think, that a Christian totally devoted anto God when he is 
a private man. if he were after made a ftoldier, a minister, a 
magiistratc, a king, w«re not hound by his dedication, now 
to serve Qod au u. soldier, a minister, a iiiugistratc, a king. 
So he that is devoted to God in a single atate, is bound to 
serve him as a husband, a father, a maater, when he comes 
into tliat state ; we do devote all that we have to Ood, 
when wc devote ourseires to him. 

Moreover the Scripture tells us, that to " the pure all 
things are pure'." And "all lliiags are sanctified to them 
by the word and prayer ';"^ which is in that tliey are made 
the goods, atid enjoyiueut». actions and relations of a sanc- 
tified people; who are themselves devoted or aanctified to 
God : so that all ^aiictiBcatiun rcferveth uitlmntvly and prin* 
cipally to God : ' Quod sanctum Deo aanctum, est ;' though 
itmay be eaid sabordinately to be sanctified to us. Seeing 
then it is past all doubt, that every Christian is a man sanc- 
tified and devoted to God, and thatwlieii every man is so devo- 
ted to God, he is devoted to serve him to the utmost capacity 
ineverystate, relation or condition that he is in, and with all 
the faculties he poBHesseth, it followeth, that those relations 
are sanctified to God. and in them he ought to worithip him 
and honour him. 

Yet further we find in Scripture, that the particular fam- 
ily relations are expressly sanctined; the family complete 
consiateth of three pairs of relations : husband and wife, 
parents and children, masters and servants. Husbands must 
love their wives with an holy love in Iht; Lord, even as " the 
Lord loved the church, who gave himself for it, lo sanctify 
and cleanse it by the washing of water by the word, that he 
iinight present itto himself a glorious chLrch"." " Wive« 
must submit themselves to their husbands as unto the Lord; 
and be subject to them, as the church is to Christ "." " Chil- 
dren must obey their parents in the Lord '." " Parents must 
bring up their children in tlie nurture and admonition of the 

• lit. i, 15. 16. ' 1 Ttm-lf. J. " f-X'h. f. fS— «. 

» K|ili. V. 21— «l. ' EpI.. ". I. 


Lord'." " Servants must be obedient unto their masters aft 
iinio CUrist, and ns the servauts of Christ, doing the will of 
God I'rom their hearts with good will, doing serfice as to tbe 
Lord, aod not to man ; knowing that what good thing any 
man datb, the same shall he receive of the Lord, whetlier he 
be bond or free; and masters must do the same to tbem, 
knowing that their master is in heavtn "." So that it id evi- 
dent that every distinct fajuily relation Ib dedicated or holy 
to God, and to be UH«d to the utmost for God. I lihalt liave. 
occasion to make further use anon of these texts for thr par- 
ticular aorts of worship, though I now make use of them as 
for worship in geaeral. 

Arg. V. The several Borts of solemn worship in and by 
Christitui familiL-s, are found, appointed, used, and com- 
maiLded in the Scripture, therefore it may well be concluded 
of worship in the general : seeing the genus is in each spe- 
cies. But this argument brings me to die second part of 
my undertaking: viz. to prove the point an to Home special 
kinds of worship; which I the more hasten to, because in 
su doing. 1 prove the general also. 

U. Concerning God's worship io special, i shall speak 
to two or three of the chief parts of it, which belong ta 

And 1. of Teaching, und«r which I cumprise, 

1. Teaching tlie tetter of the Scripture, (1.) By reading 
it. (2.) By teaching others to read it. (3.) Causing them 
to learn it by memory, which i» a kind of catechising. 

2. Teaching the sense of it. 

3. Applying what ia so taught by familiar reproofu, ad- 
monitions and exhortaiiona. 

prop. II. 'It is the will of God that the rulers of fam- 
ilies should teach those that are under them the doctrine of 
■alvatiou:' i. e. the doctrine of God concerning salvation, 
and the terniH on which it is to he had, and the means to be 
uBod for attaining it, and all tbe duties requisite on our 
parts in order tliereuuto. 

Before 1 come to thtf proof, take these cautions: I. 
Whei'e I say men muxt thun teach, 1 imply they must bti able 
to teach, and not tvocb before they are able : and if they be 
Dot able it is their own sin, God having vouchsafed them 

* Eph. *l. 4- * £pli t\. !f~9. 


mefLns for enablement. '2. Men must measare tfa«ir tciich- 
itig accoriliiig tu Uioir abilities, aad not prcl^^Dtl to more 
than they have, nor attempt that whicli they cannot perform, 
thereby incurring the guilt of proud Rvlf-Conceitcdness, pro- 
fanation, or other abuse of holy things For cxaunple, men 
that are not able judictoualy to do it, muiit not presume tt> 
int«rpret iKe original, or to pve the sense of dark prophe- 
cies, and otlier obscure texts of Scripture, nor to detennine 
cuDttoversies beyond tlt«ir reach. 3. Yet may Kucb conv&< 
niently study whet more learned, able men eay to soch cams ; 
and tell their families, this is the judgment of Fathers, or 
Councils, or such and such learned diviiie!«. 4. But ordi- 
narily it ia the safest, humbleet. wisest, and mottt orderly 
way for the master of the family to let controversies ami ob- 
scure Scriptures alone, and to tench the plain, few necessary 
doctrines commonly contained in catechiKmR, nnd to direct 
ill matters of necessary practice, b. Family teaching mast 
stand in a subordination to minUterial teaching, ad &miliea 
arc subordinate to church ea : and therefore (1.) Family 
teaching must give way to miniKttirial tvacbing, and never 
be set against it ; you must not be hearing the maiiter of a 
family, when you should be in a church hearinii; the pastor : 
and if the pastor send for servautis. or children to be cate- 
[tihieed in any fit place orat any lit time, the master is not 
then to be doing it himself, or to hinder them, but they must 
go first to the pastor to be taught; also if a pastor come in* 
to a family, Uie master is to give place, and the family to 
hear him ^r»t. (2.) And therefore when any hard text, or 
contzoversicB fall in, the maeter should consult with the 
pastor for their exposition, unless it fall out that the master 
of the family be better learned in the Scripture than the 
pastor is, which is rare, and rarer should he, seeing unwor- 
thy ministers should be removed, and private men tlmt are 
worthy should he made ministeis. And the pastors should 
be the ablest men in the congregation. Now to the proof, 
(remembering still that whatsoever proves it the ruler'i^ duty 
to teach, must needs prove it the families' duty to Ivuru, 
and to hearken to bis teaching that they may learn. 

Jt^.i. FromDeut. xi. 18—21. "Tiierefore shall you 
lay up these my words in your hearts, and in your soul, and 
bind them for a sign upon your hand, that ihey may be a« 


frontleU between your eyes, and yju shall tt-ach them your 
children, speaking of them when thou sitteel in thy house, 
and when thou walkest by the way. and wIirh thou lies! 
down, and when ihou risest up, and thou shalt write theni 
upon the door-posts of thy house, and upon your gates, that 
your days may be multiplied, and the days of your chil- 
dren." The like words are in Deut. vi, (J — 8, where it is 
said, " And thou shall teach them diligently unto tby chil- 
.dren." So Deut. iv, 9. " Teach them tliy sons, and thy 
sons' sons." 

Here there is one part of family duty, viz. Teaching chil- 
dren the laws of (lod, as plainly commnnded as wordu can 
express it. 

yirg. II. From these texts which commend this. Oet». 
xviii. IH, 19. " All the nations of the earth shall be bleased 
in him. Tor t know him that he will command hi^ children 
and his household nfter him : and tliey sliall keep the way 
of the Lord :" and it wan not only a command at his death 
what tliey should do when he was dead, for 1. It cannot be 
imagined that eo holy a man should Jiegtect a duty all his 
lifetime, and perform it but at death and be commended for 
that. 2. He might then have great cause to question the 
efficacy. 3. As God commandeth a diligent inculcating 
precepts on children; ko no doubt it i» a practice answer^ 
able to Huch precepts, that is here commended, and it i» not 
bare teaching, but commanding thai is here mentioned, to 
shew that it must be an improvement of authority, as well as 
of knowledge and elocution. ■ 

So 2 Tim. iii. !fi. From n child Timothy knew the 
Scripture by the teaching of his parents, ax uppeareth, 
2 Tim. i. 6. 

^f^. III. Eph. vi. 4. " Bring them up in the nurture 
and admonition of the Lordi" VaiSMa' translated ' nurture,' 
signifieth botJi instruction and correction, shewing that 
parents must uso both doctrine and authority, or force, with 
their children for the matters of the Lord; and ' iuBfcta 
translated * admonition,' eignilieth such inxtniction as put- 
teth doctrine into the mind, and char^eth it on them, and 
fully storcth their minds therewith : and it also signifi- 
eth chiding, and somettnies correction. And it is to be 
noted that children must be brought up in this : the word 



' (NTfM^^rt' Etgnifying 'carefully to nouritvU,' imporUth that 
aH you ft>«d tliciii wit)) milk and bodily food, so you must •■ 
carefully and constantly feed and nourish them, with the 
nurture and adiuoDiLiou of Uie Lord. It i» called the nur- 
ture and admonition 'of the Lord,' because the Lord com- 
iDandeth it, aad because it in the doctrine couceniiiii^ the 
Lord, -dad the doctrine of bia teuching. and the doctrine that 
leadcth to him. 

j-trg. IV. Prov. xiui.6. "Tiain up a child m Uie way 
where he should go, and when he is old he will not depart 
from it." 

.4rg. V. From all tbost- placvti tiiat charge children to 
" htiirken to the instriictiouH of their parents," Prov. i. 9. 
" My son hear the instruction of thy father, and foraakc not 
the law of thy mother." Prov. vi. 20. is the like ; and iii. 
2'2. with many the like. Yea, the sou that ia stuhboni and 
rebellious against the inntruction and correction of a father 
or mother in gluttony. driiakvuDess, ficc. was to b« brought 
forth to the magietratu, and stoned to dcatlt, Dtut. xxi. 
'18 — ^20. Now all the Scriptares that require children to 
hear their parents, do imply that the parents must tuacb 
their children} for there ia no hearing and learning without 

But lest you say that parents and children are not the 
whole family, (though thcymuy be, and in Abraham's case 
•before mentioned, the whole household is mentioned,) the 
oexl shall apeak to other relations. 

^rg. VI. 1 Pet. iii. 7. " LikewiBeyehuabandR dwell with 
tliem (your wives) according to knowledge ;" and Eph. v. 
25, 2(>. "Love your wives as Christ luvcd the church and 
gave himself for it. that he might sanctify and cleuniie it." 
And this plainly implies that this knowledge must b« used 
for the instruction and sanotificationoftlie wife, I Cor. xiv, 
34, 3S. Women must " keep silence in the church, for it is 
not permitted unto them to speak, but they are to be under 
flhedience, as also saith the law, If theywill learn any thing, 
klet them ask their husliaudii at liome." Which shews that 
at borne their husbands must teach them. Col. iii. 22—25. Eph. ri. 5— S. " Servants 
must be obedient unto their mastcni as unto Christ, and 




■erve them as serving the Lord Chriet," and thereibre miu- 
isters must comma.Qd tn Christ. 

Arg, VIII. ' A lorLiori/ fellow ChmttanB muBt " exhort 
one iitioOier daily while it ia called to-day, lest any be haiv 
dened by the deceitf^ilneBS of »in," much more muitt the 
fillers of families do so to wives, children aiid Hervaut*. " If 
ftny speak, it must be tis the oracl«s of God ''," much i»or« 
to our own ruriiilitif;. " Let the Word of God dwell in you 
richly in all wisdom, teaching and admonishing one 
aaother'i" and much more must a man do this to wife, cliil- 
drcn und servants, than to those more remote. 

Arg. ix. Those that are to be chosen deacons or hiehopa, 
must be gucb as rule their own children and their own 
household well ''. Now mark, 1. Tiiat. ihis is one of those 
Christian virtueev which they were to have before tJicy were 
made officers, therefore other Chriatians must have and per- 
form itas wellas they. 2. Ilia a religious, holy governing, 
such as a minister ia to exercise over hia Bock, that ia heie 
mentioned, which is in the things of God nud nalvatiou, tnr 
else the comparison or argument would not suit, vcr. 5. 
•' For if a man know not how to rule his own houue, how 
ahnll he rule the church of God V' But of thin more befortt. 
I would say more on this (toint, hut that I think it is so clew 
in Scripture aa to in ike it needlcaa •■, 1 pass Uiereforc to 
the next. 

Pr<tp. 111. ' Family discipline is part of God's solemn 
worship or service appointed in hia Word ;' thlH is not cal- 
led wonibip in ko near a sense as some of the rest, but more 
remotely ; yet so it may well be called, in that 1. It is an 
authoritative act done by eomuiissiuii from God ; 2. Tpon 
such as disobey him, and as such. 3. And to bis glory, 
yea, and it should be done with a« great aolemuity and reve- 
rence, a& other parts of worship. 

The acts of this discipline are first denying the ut^od- 
ly enlraucf into the family. 2. Correcting ; 3. Or casting 
out those that are in. I shall be but brief on these. 

1. The first you bare 2 John x. " U there come any to 
you and bring not this doctrine, receive htm not into your 
house, neither hid him God ^peud; lor he that hiddelh him 
God speed is paitaker of his evil deeds." 

^ I P«l. b. II. < Col. U . Ifi. « I 'I'lm. lit. «. If. 


2. The duty of correctine either by corporal, sensible 

pnnixhinent, or by withdrawing Rome brnclit, is ho cmo- 

ttoiilv required in Scripture, especinlly towards children, 

i:fllat I will noi etaad on it l«st 1 »peak in vnin what you all 

know already ; ftnd how Eli fullered for neglecting it. yoif 

3. The discipline of uastin^ the wicked out of the funily 
(Berrantu 1 mean who are ecparnblc mcniberH), vou may find 
Psal. ci. 2, 3. 7, 8. " 1 will walk within my houHC with a 
perfect heart, 1 will set no wicked thing^ before mine eyeii. 
H« that wnrkcth drrrit shall not dwell within my house, b« 
thattelleth lies shall not tarry in my si^ht/' 

Prep. IV. 'Solemn prayer and praiHeB of God in and by 
[CltriBtian l^miliei! is of divine appointment.' 

I, For proof of this, I must dcisin; yon to look bnok to 
all the ar&;uments which proved the duenesa of womhip in 
general, fur they will yet more especially prove this sort of 
worship, seeing prayer and praise, are most immediately 
and eminently called God's worship of any ; (under prat)ie» 
I comprehend psalms of praise, and under proyer, psalms of 
prayor); yet let us add some more. 

Arg. I. 'It is God's will that ChristianK who have fit 
occasions and opportunities for prayer and pruiacH should 
improve them, but Christian families have fit occasions and 
opportunities for prayer and praise, therefore it m Ood's 
will Lliuy fibould Improve them. 

The major is evident in many Scripture precepts. "I 
will therefore that men pray every where, lifling up holy 
hands, without wratli and doubting'." " Pray withoutcea»- 
ing: in every tliiug give thnnkK, for thiR is the will of God 
concerning you'." " Continue in prayer, and watch in th« 
same with thanka^ving"." "Teaching and admonishing 
One another in psalms, and hynuia, and spiritunl nonps, 
singiDf^ with grace in your hearts imto the liird, and what- 
Roever ye do in word or deed, do all in the name of the 
LordJesuu; giving thanks »nto Ooil and the Father by 
hiitt''." " Continuing instant irt prayer'." " Praying always 
with ail prayer and supplication in the apirit, and watching 
therennto with all perseierance and anppHcation for all 

■ 1 tUa. ii. a. 
> CM. 111. 1«, 17. 

' 1 TlicBs. «. it. 18. 
> Ron. tiU 1% 

* CoL iv. y. 


Mtiiitft ; aad for me that utterance may be given nieV 
Many the like texts might be named, ev«ry one of which 
afibrd au argument for family praises most effectual. 

1. If men must pray every where (that is convenient) 
then sure in tbeir fumilies. But, Sac, Erg. 2. If men must 
pray without ceasing, then sure in their fumilies. 3. If nien 
moBt in every thing give thanks, then sure in family mer- 
cies, and then, according to the nature of them, together. 
4. If men must continue in prayer and walch in it (for tit 
advantages and against impediments), and in thanksgiving, 
then donbtletis they must not omit the oingnlar advantages 
which are administered in tainilies. 5. 1/ we must con- 
tinue inatant in prayer and fiuppltcation, Slc. then doubtless 
jn family prayer, in our families, uiilcB» thatbi; no place and 
no ptayer. Object. But this binds us no more to prayer in 
our families than any where else. Anxm. Yes, it binds nt 
to take all fit opportunities.; and we have more fit oppor* 
tunities in oiu- own families than in other men's, or than in 
occasional meetings, or than in any ordinary societiee, ex- 
cept the church. 

And here let me tell you, that it is ignorance to call for 
particular express Scripture, to require praying in families, 
us if we thought the general coitunandn did not coiiiprchund 
this particular, end were not sufficient. God doth in much 
wisdom leave out of his written law the express dfter- 
minatiou of some of those circumstantials, ur the applica- 
tion of general precepts to some of those Rnbjecta to which 
common reason and the tight of nature eutficeth to deter- 
mine nnd apply them. The Scripture giveth us tiie genera) 
" Pray alway with all manner of prayer in all places." that 
i«, omit no fit advantages and opportunities for prayer: 
What if God had said no more than thia about prayer in 
Scripture? It seems some men would huve (said God hath 
not required ni to pray at all (when he rec|uireth us to pray 
alw&ys). because he tells an not when and where, and how 
oft, and with whom, and in what words, &c. And so they 
would have concluded God no where bids us pray in secret, 
Dor pray in families, nor pray in assemblies, nor pray with 
the godly, nor with the wicked, nor pray every day, nor 
once a week : nor with a book, nor without a book, and 


therefore not at ail. As if the general ' Pr«y on all fit 

occiusioim' ^rer<^ nuthing'. 

But these men must know that nature nitw and rvason 
areGod's light, and Providence oft detenninet]» of such suh- 
, JRcta finri adjuncts : and the general law, and these togetlier, 
do put all out of doubt. What if God tellctli you. ' He 
tliat provideth not for bis own, especially those of bJii 
household, hath denied the failh, and is worse than an in6< 
del.'uud do not tell you eitherwhoarv your fuiuilicB.und who 
not, nor what provision you shall make for them, what 
food, what clothes, or how oft they mu8t feed, Sic. Will 
you Kay God hath not bid you feed or clothe this child, or 
that servant? It is enough that God chargethyou to provide 
for your fa-tnilies, in the Scripture ; and that in nature he 
tell you which are your fuiuilicB, and what proriiiion to 
make for them, and how ofl, and in what (juuntity, &c. 
And so if God bid you pray in all placeK, and at all times, 
on all occasions (that are fit for prayer"), and experience 
and common reason tell you that J"nniili«a ntford moat fit 
timee, place, and occasions for prwyer, is not this enough, 
that there are such seasons, and opportunities, and ocot- 
sions for family prayer'.' I refer you to the particular 
discoveries of tfaeui in the beginning wh^re I proved the 
ducnesft of worehip in general to be there perfonoed. And 
I refer you aiao to common reason itself, not fearing tile 
contradiction of ajiy man whnHe impiety hath not made 
him unreasonable, and prevailed against the common light 
of nature. Thin Unt general argument were enough, if men 
were not eo averse to their duty that they cannot know, 
becaase tliey will not : but let us therefore add gome more. 
■^''g- Ji- ' If there be many blessings which the family 
neetleth, and which they do actually receive from God. then 
it is the will of God that the family pray for tlmac blcRsings 
ilfhen they need them, and give thanks for them when they 
[ "have received them : but there are many blessings which the 
liaraily {a.s conjunct) needeth and receiveth of God. Titere- 
^forc the family conjunct, and not only particular member* 
secretly, should pray for them and give thanks for ihom. 

The antecedent is past question; I. The continuance of 
the family a& ijuch in being. 2. In well being. 3. And SA 
the preservation and direction of the esaential membeii. 



[I'ART ir. 

4. And the prospering of aLl family alTairs arit evident in- 
Htuncfs: anj to descend to more particulars would be 
needless tediuusnesa. The consequence is proved i'rnm 
many Scriptures, which require those that want merciea to 
ask them, and those that have receireil them, to he thank- 
ful for them. Ohjcct. So they may do singly. Anmc. It i« 
not only a» single persons but as a society that they re- 
ceive the mercy: tlicrefure not only »s sin2:le persons, but 
as a society should they pfay and give thanks : therefore 
ahouM limy do il in that mannier, as may be most fit for a 
aociety to do it in. and that is, together coujunctly, that 
it may he iudeed a family sacrifice, and tlint each part may 
ace that the rest joiii with them. And capeciaJly that the 
ruler may he t^atistied in tliis, to whom the oversight of the 
rest is committed : to see that they all join in prayer, which 
in secret he cannot see, it being not fit that secret prnyer 
should bare spectators or witueaa -, that i», should not tc 
secret. But this I intended to make another argument by 
itself; which becauw we are fallen on it. 1 will add next. 

Arg. III. If God liatli given charge to the ruler of a 
family to see that the rest do worship him in that family, 
then ou{{ht the ruler to cause them solemnly or openly to 
join in that worship. But God luitb given charge to the 
ruler of a family, to sec tliat the rest do worship him in tliaL 
family: therefore, &c. 

The rcuBon, of the consequence is. because otherwise 
be can with no convenience see that they do it. For, I. 
It tK not lit that he should stand by while they pmy se- 
cretly. 2. Nor are they able vocally to do it, in nionit fami- 
lies, but have need of a leader; it being not a thin^ tu bo 
expected of every woman, end child and servant (that had 
wanted good education), that they should be able to pray 
without a i^uidc, so as is fit for othe-rsto hear. 3. It would 
lakeupalmotl all the time of the rtiler of many faiuihtss. 
to go to them one nftcv another, and stand by them wlule 
they pray till all have done; what man in hiit wits can 
think this to be so fit a course, a« for the f^imily to join to- 
gether, the niler being tlie mouth I 

The antecedent I prove thus, I. The fourth commandoicnt 
reqaireth the ru lex of the family not only to see that himself 
sauctiiietb iJie sabbatli (lay, but si&o that bis son and daugb- 

CUAP. lit.] 



ter, and inan-«ervaDt, aud maid-iiervant. hix cattle (that ia 
»0 fur an ihey arv capable), yea, and the Btxangcr tbat ia 
witliiii his gates should do it. '2. It wa» comiuitted to Abra- 
ham's charge to see that all ia liis fauiiiy weru circiuucised ; 
fio was iL aft&rwardH tutvury ruler ofa family; insomncb as 
^« aiig«l tluealeiied Moses, when bi» »on was uacircum- 
ciaed. 3. The ruler of tltc family vias to t»ee that the " pass- 
over" wiL» kept by every one in hi« family', and so the. 
" feast of week^"." All that in said before teudetJi to, i 
pruve this, and much tuuie might be said, if 1 thoushl it 
would be denied. 

Arg, IV. If Gud prefer, and would have us prefer, choj 
prayers and praiucs of many cuiijunci, before the prayt^ra,] 
and praises of tlu)«6 persons dtvndedly, theu is it hi^willtJiat 
the piirLicular persons of Christian families should prefer- 
conjunct prayer and praisf^s before disjunct: but the ante- 
cedent is true, therefore so is the con«e<]uent. Or thusr] 
take it for the eajoe argumeat or another. If it be ths-J 
duly of neighbours, when they have occasion and oppor- 
tunity, ralher to join together, ia prsLiMB of common con- 
cernment, than to do it dividediy, then much more is thi« tb« 
duty of famiJieB : but it is tlae duty of neighbours: tb«r«-)] 
fora, &c. 

In the fornaer argument the reasou of the consequence 
is, b«cau8e that way is to be taken that Qod is beat pleased' 
with. The reason of tlie consequence in the latter is, b« 
cause family meniberit are more nearly related than neigh-i1 
baurs, and have niucb more advantage and opportunity for 
conjuactloas and more ofdinaiy reasons to urf;e them to it 
from the cmijuiicliuii of their interest and atlairg. 

There is nothing needs proofbut ihi' autmjedent, whichli! 
shall put past all doubt by these Arguments. l.CoI, iii. 16. i 
"Te,achingandadmoni3hingon«auollier in psalms and bymns, 
aud spiritual eoiigs, singiny with grace in your hearts unto 
the Lord." Here is one duty of praise required to be done 
together and not apart only. I shall yet make further use 
of ihih test anon. 2. Acta xii, 12. " Many were gathered 
together praying in Mary's house, when, Peter came to the 
door." Thin was not an assembly of the whole church bub< 
a small part: they judged it better to pray together than. 

> Exod. xii. 1, S. 

B Dial. smi. ll.lf. 



alone. 3. Acta xx.36. Paul prayed together with all the 
elderi; of the cburch of Ephesus, when he had them with 
him; and did not choose rather to let tJiem pmy each man 
alone. 4. Jnmes v. IS, 16. James comniarids tlie sick to 
" send for the elders of the church, and let them pray over 
him, and the prayer of the faithful shall save the sick, &.c." 
He dotli not bid send lo thein to pray for you; bnt he 
would have them join together in doing it. 5. Church 
prayeraare prefeiied befoie private on this ground, and we 
imanded not to forsake the asaembling of ourselves fo^e- 
l«r, Heb.x. 25. 0. Striving together in prayer is desired, 
Horn. XV. 30, 7. Matt, sviii. 20. " For where two or tlirce 
are gatbcitil together in my name, there am 1 in the midst 
of them." 8. Therefore Christ carae among the disciptex 
when they were gathered together, after hie resurrection. 
.And sent down tlie Holy Ghoat when they were gathered 
together. Acta ii. " And they continued with one accord in 
prayer and supplication," Acts 1. 14.24, ii. 42. " And 
when they had prayed, the place was shaken where they 
had assembled together, and they were all filled with the 
Holy Cj host, &c." Acta iv. 31. 9. Is not thiM implird. in 
Christ's directing fain disciples to pray in the plural num- 
ber "Our Fatlier, 84c. Give us this day, &«-" 10. The very-- 
necessity of the persons proves it, in that few societies are 
such but that most are unable to express their own wants 
ao largely as i.o aAect their hearts, so much a^ when otherS' 
do it that are T>elter stored with affection and expression. 
And tliis is one of God'n wayii for communion and commu- 
nication of grace : that those that have much may help to 
warm and kindlt those that have less. Experience tellelh 
us the benefit of this. As all the body is not an eye or 
hand, so not a tongue, and therefore the tongue of the 
church, and of the family must speak for ihe whole body ; 
not but that each one ought to pray in secret too : but.(l.) 
There the heart without the tongue may better »ctvc turn. 
(2.) They still ought to prefer conjunct prayer. And (3.) 
The communion of sainte iA an article of our creed, which 
binds us to uckuowledgt^ it fit to do as much of God's work 
as we can in commuiitun with the saintA, not going beyond 
Dur callings, nor into confusion. 

Arg. V. It is a duty to receive all the mercien thnt 



God ofieivtli UB : but for a family to hare access to God in 
joint prayers and praises, is a mercy that God ofFereth thetn : 
therefore it is their duty to accept it. The mnjor is clear 
in nature and Scripture. ' Because 1 have otfered aod ye re- 
fused/ is God's great aggraTation of the sin of the rebel- 
lions. "How oft would I have gfttliCTed you together, ar»d 
y« would not ? All the day long have I stretched out my 
hand, Si.c." To refuse an oflered kindness, is rontempl and 
ingratitude. The minor in iindeninble by any Chrintiiui, 
that ever kiitw what family prayers ami praises wer*. Who 
dare say that it is no mercy to have such a joint acteM to 
Ood ? Who feels not conjunction somewhat help his own 
affections, who makes conscience of watching his heart? 

Arg. Ti. Part of the duties of fomilies are such that 
they apparently lose their chiefeet life and excellency if 
thev be not performed jointly: therefore they are so to be 

' ''(Koeau, singing of pttalnis which I before proved an or- 
dinary duty of conjunct ChriHtiane, therefore of fmniliea. 
The melody and harmony are lost by our separation, and 
conseqtiently the alacrity and ijuickening which our affec- 
tions should get by it. And if part of God's praises must 
be performed together, it is easy to see that the rest mast 
be 60 too. (Not tospealc of teaching which cannot be done 

Arg, VII. ' Family prayer and praises are a duty owned 
by the teaching and sanctifying work of the Spirit : there- 
fore they are of God. 

I would not argue backwards from the Spirit's teaching 
to the worda commanding, but on these two suppositions, 

1. That the experiment is very general, and undeniable. 

2. That many texts of Scripture are brought already for 
family prayer ; and that this argument is but to second them 
and prove them truly interpreted. The Spirit and the 
Word do always agree : if therefore I can prove that the 
Spirit of God doth commonly work men's hearts to a love 
and favour of these duties, doubtless they are of God. 
Sunctiflcation is a. transcript of the precepts of the word on 
the heart, written, out by the Spirit of Ood. So much for 
iJie consequence. 

The antecedent consixteth of two parts, I. That the 

CHRISTIAN pibuctoby. [pari* II- 

»aiictitied have in them iaclinallous to these duties. 3. 
That these inclinaLlons are from the Spirit of God, The 
firat needs no proof being a. matter of experieoce. I ap- 
peal to the heart of every sound and stable Christian, whe- 
ther he feel not a convictloQ of this dwty and au inclina- 
tion to the performance of il. I never met with one such 
to my kuovrledge tJiatwus othefwise minded. Object. Many 
in our times are c^uite against family prayer, who are good 
ChriHtians. Amw. I know none of them. I confess 1 once 
thought i<ionie very good Christiana that now are against 
them, bat now Uiey appear otherwi&e, not only by this but 
by other things. 1 know none that cast otf these duties, 
hut they took up vile mm in their «tead, and cat^t off othet 
duties a:) well as Uickc : let others observe and j udge an ttiey 
find. 1. The power of delusion may for a lime make a 
Christian forbenr na unlawful, that which hii# very new na- 
ture is inclined to. Ag Kome think it unlawful to pray 
in our aitnemblies. and some to join in sacraments : and yet 
they have a spirit within them that mclinetli their hearts to 
it still, and therefore Uiey love it, and wish it were lawful, 
even when tjiey forbear it upon a conceit that it is unlawful. 
And so it is possible for a time some may do by family 
duties: but as I expect that these ere long recover, bo for 
my part 1 take all the rest to be graceless: prejudice and 
error aa a temptation may prohibit the exercise of a duty, 
when yet the Spirit of God doth work in the heart au incli- 
nation to that duty in gauctifying it. '2. And that theM^ iu- 
clinulions arc indeed from the Spirit is evident. 1. la 
that they conw in with all other grace. '2. Aud by tbe 
same means. 3. And are preserved by the same means, 
standing or falling, incrt'Asin^ or decreasing with the rest. 
4. And are to the ituoic end. 5. And are so generally in all 
the eaints. G. And so resisted by flesh and bluud. 7. Aud 
ao agreeable to the Word, that a Christian aina ag«io(it his 
u«w nature, when he neglects lamiW duties. And God 
doth by his Spirit create a desire afVer them, and an esliuut- 
tion of them in every gracious aoul. 

Arg. VIII. Family prayer and praises are a duty, ordina- 
rily crowned with admirable, divine aud special ble&snigM : 
> therefore it ia of God; the consequence is evident. For 
though oommon, outward prosperily may be given to the 






wicked, who have their [lortion in thia life, yet so is oot 

prosperity of soul. 

For the aDl^cedtnt J willingly appeal to the experience 
of nil the holy fiuniU«8 in the world. Wbo ercr used these 
duties seriously, aud found not the benefits ? What families 
be they, in wliich grace and lieaveiily-mindeiiuess prusper, 
but those that use these duties'? Comiiare in all your 
towns, cities, and villages, the funilies that read Scriptures, 
pray, and pi-aise God, with those that do not, and see the 
(lit)t:reii('e : which of them abound more with impiety, with 
oatlis, and cur&tiige. aud mthugA. and druukenQess, and 
wliorcdouis, aud worldlinea^, ^c. : aud which abound most 
witli faith, and patienct?, and leniperance, and charity, iuid 
repentance, and hope, &c. The contruveray i^ not hard to 
decide. Look to the nubility aud gentry of England ; see 
you no diH'ereuce between those tliat have been bred iu 
praying families and the re^t J I nacan, takiu)^ them (as we 
i>ay) one with another proportionably. Look to the tninis- 
trrn of Bngland ; is it praying familiex or prayerlesfl families 
that have done moat to the weU furniahin>;; of the univentities. 
Arg. IX. All uhurcheg ought soleomly to pray to God and 
praiHL- hiai : a Christian family is a church: therefore &c. 
The major is past doubt, the minor I prove from the na- 
ture of a church in general, which is a aociety of Christiana 
combined for the better worshipping and serving of God. 
1 &ay not that a family, formally as n family, is a church ; but 
ever)' family of Christians ought moreover, by such a cooi- 
hiimtioQ to be a church : yea, aa Christians they are so com- 
bined, seeing Christianity tieth them to serve God conjunctly 
together in their relatione). 2. Scripture expresseth it. 1 Cor. 
xvi. 19. " Aquila and Pnscilla salute you much tn the Lord, 
willi the church that is in their bouse." He saith nut which 
meetelh in their houet, but which is in it. So Philemon 3. 
" And to the church in thy house." Rom. xvi. 6. " Like- 
wise yrtct the ehurch that is in their honee." Col. iv. 16. 
" Salute the brethren that are at Laodiceu and Nymphas, 
and tlie church which is iu hitthouiie." Though some learn- 
ed men take these to be meant of part of the chuiehea, as- 
sembling in these houses, yet Beza. Grotius, and many 
otheni acknowledge it to be meant of a lamily or domestic 
church, according to that of TertuUian, ' abi tres licet lalci 



ibi Ecciesia,' yet I say out thst such a family-cburch U of 
the same species witli a particular organized chiircli of many 
fiunilies. Bui it could not (so much as analogically) be 
called a church if they might not and must not pray to- 
getlier, and praise God togetlier ; for these therefore it fully 

Arg. X. If rulers must teacli their families the Word of 
God, then must they pray with them, but they must teach 
them : therefore, &c. The antecedent is fully proved by ex- 
press Scripture already ; see also Psal.lxxviii. 4 — 6. MiniK* 
ters must teach from house to house : therefore ruler»lhein- 
selvemiiuat do it. Acts v. 42. xx. 20. 

The consequence is proved good, I. The apostles prayed 
when they preached or instructed Christiautt in private as- 
aemblies. Acts xx. 36. and other places. 3. We have spe- 
cial need of God's asaixtance in reading the Scrtpturea to 
know his mind in them, and to make them profitable to us ; 
therefore we must seek iL 3. The revei-ence due to so holy 
a business requireth it. 4. We are commanded " id all 
things to make our requests knowr to God with prayers, 
supplications, and thanksgiving, and timt with nil manner 
of prayer, in all places, without ceasing ;" therefore cepe- 
cially on euch occa»ious as the reading of Scriptures and in- 
structing others : and I think that few men that are con- 
vinced of the duty of reading Scripture and solemn instnict- 
ing their familiee, will question the duty of praying for 
God's hlessing on it, when they set upon the work. Yea, a 
Christian's own conscience will provoke him reverently to 
begin all with God in the imploring of his acceptance, and 
aid, and blessing. 

Arg. XI. If rutem of families arc bound to tench their fa- 
milies to pray, tfaen are they bound to pray with them : but 
they arc bound to teach them to pray : therefore. &.c. 

lu the foregoing urgumeat I speak of teaching in gene- 
ral: here I speak of teaching to pray in special. The an- 
tecedent of the major I prove thus. 1. They are bound to 
bring " them up in the nurture and admonition of the Lord **:" 
therefore to teach them to pray and praise God : for " the 
nurture and admnnitiun of tlie Lord" eonlaineth that- '3. 
Tbey ore bound to " teach them the fear of the Lord," and 
■ Eptw*. n.4«. 





" train them up in the way that they Hbould go." and that 
is doubtless in the wny of prayer aitd praising God. 

The consequence appeareth here to be sound, in that men 
Cfthnot be well and effectually taught to pray, without pray- 
ing with them, or in their hearins ; therefore they that niuat 
leach them to pray, must pray with Ihem. Itia like mu«ic, 
which you cannot well teach any man, without playing or 
singing to him; Reeing leaching must be by practising: 
and in most practical doctrines it is so in some dt:^ee. 

If any question this, I appeal to experience. I never 
knew any man that was wi^U taught by man to pray, without 
practising it before thera. They that ever knew any auch, 
JBaj have the more colour to object ; but I did not : or if 
riliey did, yet so rare a thing is not to be made the ordinary 
way of onr endeavours, any more than we should forbear 
I teaching men the most ctiriouii artiliceii by ocular demon- 
stration, because some wits hurt: learnt tliem by few words, 
or of their own invention : they are cruel to children and 
servants that teach them not to pray by practice and 

Arg. XII. From I Tim. tv. 3 — 6. " Meats which Qod 
hath created to I>e received with thonkBgiving — — for it is 
sanctified by the Word of God and prayer." 

Here mark, 1. That all our meat is to be received witli 
tbanksgivino; j not only with a disposition of thaiikrubie^B. 
9. That this is twice repeated here together expre»sly, yea, 
thrice in sense. 3. That God created them so to bu re- 
ceived. 4. That it is made a coadition of the goodnesii, that 
is, the bleesing of the creature to our use. 5. That the 
creature is said to be sanctified by God's Word and prayer ; 
and so to be unsanctihed to mt before. 6. That the same 
thing which is called thanksgiving in the two former verses, 
is culled prayer in the laat ; else the consequence of the 
apostle could not hold, when he thus argues, It is good if 
it be receiveii with thanksgiving, because it is sanctilied 
by prayer. 

Hence 1 will di'aw theae two arguments : 1. If families 
must with thanksgiving receive their meat as from God, then 
is the thanksgiving of families aduty of God'sappointment: 
but the former is true, therefore so is the latter. The ante- 
cedent i« plain: all must receive their meat with thanks- 


grviog: therefore fiimiUesi must. Th«y eot to);(>ther t there- 
fore they must give thanks together : anrl that prayer is in- 
cluded in thanktigiring in tliis text, I inaui I'eoted bufon;. 

S. It it) the duty of f&miliea to use means chat all God^i 
CKatureft may be sanclitied tfl them : prayer i» the means M 
be ined that nil God's creaturvs may be lianctiCied to them : 
(lierefore it in the duty of fainilie» to use prayer. 

Arg. XIII. From 1 Pel. iii. 7. " Likewise ye husbandn 
dwell with them according to knowledG;e, giving hononr to 
the wife as to tliR weaker veasel, and an bein^ lieim togriher 
of the grace of hfe, that your prayer* be not hindcn'd." 
That prayer which is especially hiuderod by i|:^onu)t and 
unkind converse it ir, that w especially meant here in tbis 
t«xt. But it id conjtutct prayer that is Kspucially so hin- 
dtred : therefore, &c. I know that .lecrct, personal prayer, 
in altto hindered by the same ciiuse»; but not »o directly 
and notably as conjunct prayer is. With what heart* can 
huuband and wifo join together a^ onesuul in prayer to God, 
when they abuse and exasperate each other, and come hot 
from chidiugs and di»i>eutions? This Beenielh the true 
meaninft of the text. And eo, tlic conj unct prayer of hus- 
band and wife being proved a doty, (who BometimeH con- 
stitute a family,) the ioroe reasons will include the rest of 
the family also. 

Arg. xiT. From Col. iii, 16, 17. to tv. 4. " Let the 
Word of Ood dwell in yon richly in nil wiMlom, teachin({ 
and admoninhing one another in p«alms, and hymna, and 
apiritual ttoogii, singiog witli grace in your hearts to the 
Lord : and whaUoever ye do in word or deed, do all in the 
name of the Lord Jeana; giving thanke to God and the 
Father by him, WiveR submit yourselves, &c. iv. '2. 
Continne in prayer, and watch in the same witli thanks- 

Hence I may fotth many argument* for family-prayetn. 
1. It appeereth to be family prayers principally that the 
apostle here speaketh of: for it is families that he speoka 
to: for in vemc 16, 17. he speaketh of prayer and thanks- 
givint;, ftnd in the next words he spekketh to each family 
relation, wives, husbands, children, pnrents, aervantFi, mas- 
ters : and in the next words, continuing his speech to the 
same persons, he bids tliem, " continue in prayer, and watch 



in the same, icc." 3. If Deighbours are bonnd toipekk to- 
gether iu psaJms, nnd hymns, and spiritual songs, with 
grace in their heaitR to the Lnrd, and to cooliaue iu pnyer 
and thanksgiTing: theo families tnnch more, who are more 
nearly related, and have mnre neccfisities and opportunitiea, 
aBia said before. 3, Ef wb«t«VRr we do in word ordwd, w« 
must do alt in the name of th« Lortl Jesus, giving thank*; 
then families inuHt needs join in giving thanks. For they 
have much daily business in word and deed to be done to- 
gether and asunder. 

Arg. XV. From Dan. vi. 10. " When Daniel knew that 
*he writing was signed, he went into his house, and his win- 
,dow being open in his chamber tovnirds Jerusalem, he 
kneeled upon his knees three timea a day, and prayed, and 
gave thanka before hiu God, as ho did aforetime. Then the»e 
men aijsenibled, and found Daniel pravin;:; and making sup- 
plication before his God." Here note, I. The nature of 
the duty, 2. The oecefisity of it. 1. Kit had not been 
open, family- prayer which Daniel heire performed, how could 
they have known what he aaid ] It is not probable that he 
would speak so loud in secret i nor is it like iht-y would 
hare found him at it. So ^reat a prince would have bad 
some serrants in his outward tonms, to have stayed them 
before they had come bo near. 2. And thenecefciity oflhia 
pmyer is auch, that Daaiel would not omit it for a few days 
to save hie life. 

Arg. XV [. From Josh. xxiv. 16. " But as for me and my 
house we wilt serve the Lord." Here note, 1. That it ia a 
household that is here engaged : for if any would prove that 
it extendeth further, to all Joahua'B tribe, or inferior kin- 
dred, yet his household would be moet eminently included. 
it That it is the same thing which Joshua promiseth for his 
house, which he would have aJl Israel do for their's : for be 
maketh himaelf an example to move them to it. 

If houueholds must serve the Lord, then households mn«it 
pray to him and pntiae him : but honseholds must serve him : 
therefore, fti,c. The consequence i& proved, in that prayer 
and praise are so necessary parts of God's service, that no 
fiunily or person cau be »oid in general to be devoted to 
derve God, that are not devoted to them. Calling upon 
God, IB oftputin Scripture forall God's worship, as being a 



most eminent part : and atheists are described to be 4ucb u 
" call not upon tlie Lord"," 

Arg. XVII. The slory of Cornelias Acts x. proveth that 
he performed fa-mily worship: for observe, 1. Thiit ver, 2. 
he if) said to be " a devout mau, and one that feared God 
with all his house, which gave mnch alms to the people, and 
prayed to Qod always :" and ver. GO. he aatth "at the ninth 
hour I prayed in ray house :" and ver. 24. " he called to- 
gether his kindred and near friends :" so ver. 11. 14. " thou 
and all thy bouse shall be saved :" bo that in ver. 2. fearing 
God compiehendeth prayer, and is usually put for all God's 
worship : therefore when he ia said to fear God with all his 
house, it is included that he worshipped God with all his 
house: and that he used to do it conjunctly with ihemiB im- 
plied, in his gathering together his kindred and friends when 
Peter came, not mentioning the calling together his house- 
hold, as being usual and supposed. And when it is said 
lliat he prayed ' iv ry oikw,' in his house, it may signify his 
household, as m Scripture the word is often taken. How- 
ever the circumstaoces shew that he did it. 

Arg. xviii. From 1 Tim. iii. 4. 5. 12. "One that rulcth 
well hiii own house, having his children in aahjection, with 
all gravity: for if amaukuownothowto rule his uwd house, 
how .shall he take care of the church of God : let the dea- 
cunii be the huahands of one wife : ruling their children and 
their own houses well." Here mark, that it is such a ruling 
of their houses, as is of the 6ame nature as the ruling of the 
church, ' mutatis mutandis,' and that is, a training theoi up 
in the worship of God, and guiding them therein: for the 
•postle inakcth the defect of the one, to be a sure discovery 
of their unfitness for the other. Now tu rule the church, is 
to teach and guide them as their mouth iu prayer and pmisea 
unto God, as well as to overt^ee their livL'H : tlicrcfore it is 
such a ruling of their houces aa i» prerequisite to prove 
them lit. 

They that mu&t so rule well their own houses, as may 
partly prove them not unht to rule the church, muxt rule 
them by holy inetructious, and guiding them as theirniouth 
in the worship of God. But those mentioned 1 Tim. iii. 
must so rule their housea : therefore, &c. 

• pMt •)*. 

CHAV: 111. 


The pftstom ruling of the church doth moat consist in 
goiD^ before them, and guiding them in God's worship ; 
thereTom so dotli the ruling of ttieir own houaeii, which ia 
made a trj-iog qiialificiLtiDu of lln?ir fitness hereunto. Though- 
yet it reach not »o high, nor to so many things, and the 
conclusion he not alhrmative ' He thatrulctll his own houftfi 
well is fit to rule the church of God;' but negwtiTe, 'Ha 
that ruletli not his own hotiite well, l» not fit tu rule the 
church of God;' but that is, because, I. Thia is a lower 
degree of ruling, which will not prove him fit for a higher, 
2, And it is but one qualification of many that arc rcqui' 
site. Yet it is apparent tliat some degree of aptitude ii 
proved hence, and that from a »imillludo of the tiling. 
When Paul compareth ruliugthe house to ruling the church, 
he catuiot he thought to take them to be wholly heleroge- 
ncouB : he would never have said, * He that cannot rule an 
Atmy, or regiment, or a city, how shuU he rule the church of 
God'?' 1 conclude therefore that this text doth shew tb»t 
it is the duty of masters of families, to rule well their own 
families in the rightworshi^pingofGod, ' mutatis mutandis,' 
as miniateru must rule the church. 

Arg. XIX. If families have special necensity of family- 
prayer conjunctly, which cauDotbe supplied otherwise ; then 
it is God's will that family prayer should be in use: but 
families have such necessities ; therefore, ^c. The con- 
eeqnent needs no proof; the antecedent is proved by in- 
etanee. FamilieB have family necessities, which are larger 
than to be confined to a closet, and yet more private than to 
be brought atiUintotheassembliesof the church. I. There 
are many worldly occasioua about their callings and rela- 
tions, which it is fit for them to mention among themselvee, 
but unfit to mentioQ before iM the congregation. 2. Ther« 
are many distempers in the hearts and liveH of the members 
of the families, and many miscarriages, and disagrccnienta 
which must be taken up at home, and which prayer must do 
much to cure, and yet are not fit to be brought to the eara 
of the church-assemblies. 3. And if it were fit to mention 
them all in public, yet the number of such cases would be 
so great, as would overwhelm the minister, aud confound 
the public worship ; nay, one half of them in most chnrches 
could not be mentioned. '1. And such cusei: are of ordinary 




[part 11. 

occurrence, and therefore wouUl ordinarily have all these 

And yet there are many such cases that are not j^t U> be 
confined to our aecret prayers each one by himselfj be- 
cause, 1. They often so sin together, as maketh it 6t that 
they confess end lament it together. 2. And some mer- 
ciee wbich they receive together, it is fit they seek aud give 
thanks for together. 3. And many works which they do to- 
gether, it is fit they seek a. blessing on together. 4. And 
the presence of one another in confession, jietition, and 
thanksgiving dotJi tend to the increase of their fervour, a.nd 
IrarmiDg of their hearts, and engaging them the more to 
duty, and against sin ; and is needful on the grounds laid 
down before. Nay, it is a kind of family schism, in ituch 
cases to sejiarate from one another, nnd to pray in secret 
only; as it is church schism to (separate from the church* 
aBHemblies.and to pray in families only. Nature and grace 
delight in unity, and abhor division. And the light of na- 
ture and grace engageth us to do as much of the work of 
God in unity, and concord, aud communion as we can. 

Arg. XX. ' If before the giving of the law to Moaes, God 
was worshipped in families by his own appointment, and 
this appointment be not yet reversed, then God is to be woe- 
shipped in faiullies still. But the antecedent t» certain : 
therefore ho is the consequent. 

1 think no luau dcuictli the first part of tlui antecedent g 
that before thu flood in the families of the righteous, and af- 
ter till the establifthmetit of a priesthood, God waa worship- 
ped in families or households : it is a greater doubt whether 
then he had any other public worship. When there were 
few or DO chuTch-asscmblics that were larger than families, 
no doubt Godwai ordinarily worshipped in families. Eve- 
ry ruler of a family then was as a priest to his own family. 
Cain and Abel offered their own sacrifices; so did Noab, 
Abraham, and Jacob. 

If it be objected, that all this ceased, when the office of 
the priest was instituted, and so deny the latter part of my 
antecedent, I reply. I. Though some make a doubt of i^ 
whether the oi&cv of tht; pric&thuud was instituted befort 
Aaron's time, 1 think there is no great doubt to be made of 
it; seeing we fmd a prifistJiood then among otlier utions. 



who Jiad it eitli«r by tiiu light of nature, or by IraJiIion 
from the church; and Melchi2e<J«i;'s |)rie»thoi>d (who wat » 
type of Cbt'iet,) is expresuly meiiltonod. So ihnt thoogh 
^uuily-worsbip wan then the moHt urhbI, yet Bome nior* 
public woruhip there was. 2. ATutt the inatitulioit uf Aa> 
RHi's prie&thoodfaniily'WonihipcoDtinued, Sb I havC' prov«<l 
before; yea, the two sucre-iuents of circuracioion luiil the 
passover, weie celebrated in {amilies by Ibt; DutKt«r of tlie 
house i therefore pruyt^r vi>ts ceriaiuly continued in i«n)ilioti. 
3. If that part of wor&Jiip that was allcnft-iird perfurmvd m. 
synagogues and public asBcmblics was appropriated to them, 
that no whit provetli, th^t the pint nhtch agKod tu laiuilies 
L.^iich. was truiisferred to tho»e :itMic!mbltes. Nay, it ia a 
' certain proof that part was left to fatuilie« still, bet^auso wc 
find tliat the publicast«eiublies ncrer undertook it. Wc find 
among them no prayer but church-prayer ; and not that 
which was fitted to families as liuch at all. Nur in there a 
word of Scripture that »;peak«th of God'» reversing of his 
command or order for family prayer, or other proper family 
wcwbip. Therefore it is proved to continue obli^tury »iil|. 
. Had I not been too long already, I sliould have urged lo 
tlilft end the example of Job, in sacriflcln^ daily fur hio 
HonR; and of Kather's keeping a fast with hfcv maids, EbI. 
iv. 1& And Jer. x. 25. " Pour out thy fury oa the heathen 
that know thee not, and on the ^milies that call not on thy 
name." It it; true that by " families" here is meant trib«H 
of people, and by *' calling on hi* name," i& meant their 
.worshipping the true God. But yet this i» spokca of all 
■ tribes without exception, great, and smaJi : and tribett In the 
be^jnuiug, (a* Ahraliam'a, Isaac's, Jacob's, 6tc.) were con- 
fined to families. And ihu arguuientholdcth from parity of 
neason, to a proper family : and tliat calling on Ood's name, 
iis put for his worship, doth more confirm us, because it i>ro- 
veth it to be the most eminent part of worship, or eLie the 
wfaoU would not be ;^i^nified by it ; at IcaEt no reaMiii cnn 

Ljaiagiue it excluded. So much for the proof of the fourth 


Objecliont Atmeend. 
Ob^Kt. 1 . ' Ilad it been a duty under- the G<wpel 10 pray 



in families, w« should certainly hav« fouiid it more expressly 
required in the Scripture.' 

Amw. 1. 1 huve already shewed you, that it ie plainly 
required in the Scripture : but men must not teach God how 
to speak, nor oblige him to make all plain to blind, perverted 
minds. 2. Those thinga which were plainly revealed in the 
Old Teatament, and the church then held without any con- 
tradiction, even from the pereecutovH of Christ themFielvea, 
might well be past ovei- in the Gospel, and taken ae sup- 
posed, acknowledged things. 3. The geneml precepts (to 
" pray alway, — with all prayer, — in al! places," &c.) being 
expressed in the Gospel, uiid the light of nature making 
particular application of them to families, what need there 
anymore! 4. This reason is apparent why Scripture speak- 
eth of it no more expressly. Before Christ's time the wor- 
ship of God was less spiritual, and more ceremonial than 
afterward it was: and therefore you find ofler mention of 
circumcision and aacriticiu^, than of prayer ; and yet prayer 
was still Bupposed to concur. And aft*r Christ's time on 
earth, most Christian families were disturbed by persecu- 
tion, and Cbristians sold up all and lived in community : 
and also the Scripture history was to describe to u* the 
state of the churches, rather than of particular fiamilies. 

Ofijeet. ti. ■ Christ himself did not use to pray with his 
family ; as appeareth by the disciples Bskin|; him to teach 
them to pray, and by the ailencu of the Scripture in thia 
point : therefore it is no duty to us,' 

Answ. 1. Scripture eilence is no proof thai Christ did 
not use it. All things are not written which he did. 2. 
Hi« teaching them the Lord's prayer, and their desire of a 
commou rule of prayer, might consist with his usual pray- 
-ing with them : at least with his using to pray wifh Uit-m af- 
ter that, though nt first he did not use it. 3. But it is the 
consequence that I principally deny. (I.) Because Christ 
'did afterwards caU his servants to intny dutieK, which he 
put them not on at first, aa sacraments, discipline, preach- 
ing, frequenter praying, &,c.i especially after the coming 
down of the Holy Gliofit, As tliey understood not raaoy 
artirleg of the faith till then, so no wonder if they under- 
stood not many duties till then : for Christ would have them 
thue (luddenly io&tructed and more fully saDctified by a mi- 



racle, that their ministry might he more credible, their mi»- 
sion being ei-ideiitly diymc. und ihey being past the suspi- 
cion of forgery and deceit, (,2.) And though it is evident 
that Christ did use to bless the meal, and sing hymus to 
God with his disgiples'', mid therefore it in rery probable, 
pmytd with tliem often, aa John xvii. Yet it. could not be 
expected, that he lihould ordinarily be their mouth in &uch 
prayers as they daily needed. HIb case and ours are ex- 
cuedingly diflferent. Hi» disciples luurit d»ily confess their 
sinH, and be humbled for theoi. and ask forgiveness : but 
Chnef. had none of this to do. Thtiy must pray for moTti- 
fying grace, and helpogaiDst sin; but he had no sin to mop- 1 
tify or pray against. They mast pray for the Spirit, and lh»^ 
increase of their imperfect graces ; hut Christ had fnlneM 
and peifcctioa- They must pray lor many mcani> to the 
ends, and for help in using them, and a blessing on theokt 
which ho had no ui^e for. They muttt givu thaIlk)^ for pardon • 
and conversiou, EiLc. which had no occasion to give 
thanke for. So that having a High-prieHtKu much separate' 
from HLiiners, they had one Uiut (nayed for them; but uotj 
one tit to join with them n» their mouth to God, in ordioaiyj 
(amily prayers, such as they needed ; aa luaatisrK niuiit dol 
with their ramilies. 

Object. III. ' God doth not require either vaiu and abo- 
mitiable prayers : but family prayers are ordinarily vain andj 
abomiiiabk : therefore, &c> The minor is proved thug;— | 
The prayem of the wicked are nbominahle: moiit families 
are wicked, or have wicked peisouH : tlierufore, &c.' 

Atisw. 1. This is confessedly nothing against the prayer 
of godly families. 2. The prayern of a godly mstster aw' 
not abominable nor vain, becnnec of the pres^ence ofotherft 
that are ungodly. Else Christ's prayers and bleHsings be- 
fore-mentioned should have been vain or abomiimhlc, hc- 
cauae Judas was there, who was a thief and hypocrite. And ', 
the apostles and all ministers' prayers uboidd be so in all 
such churcheK. as those of Corinth, fJalatia. Ephesus arer] 
described lo have been. 3. I refer you to my " Method for ■ 
Peace of Conscience," how far the prayer* of the wicked;! 
are, or are not abominable. The prayera of the wicked asij 
wicked are abominable; but not as tbey eJtpress their re-v[ 

P Ukv u'<3. 17, IB- UMh i». 3V, f3. 96. Uall. ixvi. S7, $a 3n. 



tarn to Ood, and repenting of th«ii' wiekedtieBa. It is not 
tJie abomlnabk prayer thai GoU commiindplh, but the faith* 
fill, penitent, prayer. You mistake it, aa if tbe wicketl man 
wtre not the persnncommundei) to pray ; whereas yoa Hhould 
ralliei-say, It is not Ui« abominable prayei' that is commanded 
him. Hg i»cnmtiian<lti(itupi'ay Hueh jirayerBannrenot abomi- 
nable; even as Simon MaguB'i, to "iwpent" and "pray." and 
" to seek the Lord while lie may be found, and call upon 
bim while he id near, and to forsake his wayV Sic. Let 
the wicked pray thus, and but jirayi^r will not be ahoniinR- 
ble. The coQiniand of pr-dyinginiplietli the command of re- 
peating and departing fruui his wickedness; for "what is il 
to pray for grace, but to express to God their desircn of 
jfTiiLce! (It is not to tell God a lie, by saying they desire 
that which they hate.) Therefore when we exhort Ihcm to 
pray, we exhort them to«iich deiires. 

Objert. IV. ' Many maater;* of fuiniHex eonnot pray in 
their familien withouta book, and that is ualawful/ 

Aruvy. 1. If their disability be natural, as in idiot«, they 
are not tit tu rule liimilies ; if it he moral and culpable, they 
are bound to use the means to overcome it ; and In the 
mean lime to use a book or form, rather than not to pray in 
their families at all. 

<)/' tht fretfuewif and Stamm of Family Wurship. 

Th« la»t part of my work ia to Kpeak of the fit times of 
family worship. I. Whether it ftbnuld be tTery day ? 2. 
Whether twioe a day ? -t. Whether morning and ereiiiug? 
jIjuhi. 1. Ordinarily it bboutd he everv day and twice aday : 
mad the morning and evening are ordinarily the fittest sea- 
80QS. 2, But extraordinarily some greater duty may inter- 
▼ene, which may for tbat time diaoblige us. And the occa- 
sions of Home fiiiiiilieK may make that hour fit to one, which 
i» unfit to another. For brevity I will join all together in 
the proof. 

Arg. I. We are bound to take all fit occMions and op- 
portunitiea to worship God. Familiea bate daily (moniing 
and evening) such occaaionn and opportunities ; therefot* 
tb«y are bound to take thein. 

< AmtM. ' bi. if.«,T. 



BoUi major and minur are prored btifore. EiEperienoe 
proreth that family itias are dftily cMnmitted, and famrly 
meroif^H daily received, and family necessities daily do oc- 
cur. And reasgn tells us, 1, That it is xvusoiiabte every 
morning to gtve Ood thanks for tlie rest of the aight paAt. 
2, And to beg direction, protection, and (}t07i8ions, and 
blessing for the foUowing day. -i- And that then our mindK 
ure freest from weariness uiid worldly care. And bd reason 
telleth lis that the evening is » fit season to give Ood thanks 
for the mercies of the dny, nnd to confcsR the bios of the 
day, and ask forgiveness, and to pray for rest and protection 
in the night. As nature and reason tell ub how oft a man 
should eat and drink, and how long he shooM sleep, and 
whiit cloathiDg he should wear ; and Scripture need not tcH 
you the particulars: eo if ^^cripture command you prayer 
in general, God may by proTidence tell you when and how 
oft you mu8t pray. 

Arg. II. The Lord's prayer directetli ua daily to put np 
sach prayere as belong to fanLilies ; therefore, &cc. " Oitb 
us this day oiir daily bread." It run«i nil in the plural num- 
ber. And the reason of it will oblige families as well as in- 
dividual persons. 

Arg. Ill, From 1 Thes. v. 17r " Pray without ceasing; 
in ail tilings give thanks." CoKiv. I, 2. " Masters give to 
youT servants that which is just and equal, knowing that y« 
nifio have a Master in heaven. Continue iu prayer, and 
watch in the same with thanksgiving." Col.iti. 17. "Wbart- 
Boever ye do in word or deed, do all in the name of the Lord 
Jesus i giving thanks to God and the Father by him. PhiL 
IT. 6. *' Be careful fornothing, but in every thing by pray- 
er and supplication with thanksgiving, let your requests be 
made known to God." It is easy for a man tbat is willing 
to see, that less than twice a day, doth not answer the com- 
mand of praying *' without ceasing, — continually, — in every 
thing, — -whatsoever ye do," &c. The phrase* seeming to 
go much higher. 

Arg. IV. Daniel prayed in his house thrice a day i there- 
fore leas than twice under the Gospel is to us unreasonable^ 

Arg. V. I Tim. iv. 6. " She that is a widow indeed and 
d«solare, tnisteth in God, and coutinuetJi in RUpphcation* 
and prayer night and day." Night and day can be no leni 



[part II. 

than momitif; aad eveniuE^. And if you say. this is oot fo- 
mily pmyer, I answer, 1. It is all kind of prayer belonpng 
to her. 2. And if it commend th*^ Wx». much more the 

Afg.rt. From Luke vi. 14. ii. 37. xviii. 17. Acts 
xxvi. 7. I Th«s. iii. 10. 2 Tim. i. S. Rev. vii. 15. Neh. 
it 6f PkoJ. Ixxxviii. 1. Josh. i. 8. P«al. i. 2. which ebew 
Ihttt night and day Christ himself prayed, and his gervants 
prayed, and mrditatcd. and read tJic Scripture 

Ar/r. vii. Deut. vi. 7. xu l\}- U is expressly commaud- 
ed that parents teacli th4>ir uhildrt^n (he Word of God, whun 
they " lie down, and when ihey rise up ;" and the parity of 
Tcasuii. lujd conjunction of tlit- Word and prayer will prove, 
that they should alao pray with them lying down and ris- 
ing up. ' 

Arg, viii. For brevity fiftkc 1 otfijr you together, Psal. 
cxix. 164. DaWd praised Ood seren times b day ; and 
cxiv. 2. " Every day will I bless thee." Psal. v. 3. " My 
voice ohalt thou hear in the morning, O Lord ; in the morn- 
ing will 1 direct my prnyor to thee end will look up." lix. 
Id. " I will slug aloud of thy mercy in the mornings." 
Ixxxviii. 13. " In llie morning shall my prayirr prevent thee." 
xcli. 12. " It in good lo ^iva tliankti unto the Lord, and to 
sing praises to thy name, O Most High : to shew forth thy 
loving kindness in the morning, and thy faithfulness every 
night." cxix. 147, 148. " I prevented the dawning of the 
morning and cried, I hoped in thy word : mine eyes prevent 
the night watches, that I might meditate on thy word." 
cxxx. 6. " My soul waitcth for the Lord more than they 
that watch for the morning, I say more than they that watch 
for the morning." The priests were to oflei "sacrifices" 
and " Ihankn to Ood every moniiug :" 1 Chron. xxiii. 30. 
Bxod. XXX. 7. xxxvi. 3. Lor. vi. 12. 2 ChroD. xiii. II. 
Ezek. xlvi, 13 — 15. Amos iv. 4. And ChriKtians are a 
" holy priesthood, to offer op sacrifices to God. acceptable 
through Jesns Christ." 1 Pet. ii. o,9. luxpretuily saith Da- 
vid, Psal. Iv. 17. " Evening, and raoruing. und at noun, will 
t pray and cry aloud, and he shall bear my voice." So 
morning and evening were sncriliees and burnt offerings 
offered to the lx>rd ; and there is at letutt equal reason that 
Gospel worship iihoald be as frequent: 1 Chron. xvi. 40. 


U Chron. ii. 4. xiii. II. xxxi. 3. Ezra iii. 3, '2 Kings 
xvi. IS. 1 Kings xviii. 29. 36. Ezra ix. 5. And no doubt 

but tti«-y prayed with the sacrifices. Which David inlimat^ 
eth in coni|>»ring theoi, Psal. cxli. 2. " Let my pruyer be 
set forth before Lhcc an iiiceii&«, and tlte lifUog up of my 
hands as the evening sacrifice." And God calleth for prayer 
niid pmist: as better than sncrifice, Psal. I. 14, 15. 23. 

All these 1 heap together (qr dispatch, which fully shew. 
how frequently God's servants have been wont to wursbip 
him, and how often God expecteth it. And you will all 
confess that it is reason that in Gospel timeM of greater 
light and holiness, we should not come behind them in the 
times of the law : especially when ChnBt hinwelf doth pray 
all night, that had so little need in comparison of uh. 
And you may obfierve that these Scriptures xpeuk of prayer 
in general, and limit it not to secresy : and therefore they 
extend to all prayer, according to opportunity- No rea- 
son call limit all these examples to the moAt secret, and 
least noble sort of prtiycr. If but two or three arc gathered 
together in his name, Christ is especially among them. 

If you nay. that by this rule we must as frequently pray 
ill the church aesembliea ; I answer, the church cannot or- 
dinarily HO nft BKsemble : but when it can be withont a 
greater inconvenience, 1 doubt not but it would be n good 
worl:, for many to meet the minister daily for piayer, as in 
snme rich and populous cities they may do. 

1 have been more tedious ou this subject than a holy, 
hungry Christian possibly may think necessary, who need- 
eth not so many argiimeDts to persunde him to feitst hia- 
Boul with God, and to delight himself in the frequent ex-l 
ercises of faith and love ; and if I have said less than the 
other sort of readers shall think necessary, let them know 
that iftheywiU open their eyes, and recover their appetites, 
and feel their sins, and observe tlieir daily wants and dnn- 
gern. and get but a heart that loveth God, these rc-asuuH then 
will seem sufficient to convince them of so sweet, and profit- 
able, and necessary a work : and if Ihcy observe the ditFer- 
ence between praying and prayerless families, and care for souIh and communion with God, much fewer words 
than these may serve their turn. It is a dead, and grace- 
lesa, carnal heart, that mmst be cured before the«e men 



will Iw well Rfttistied ; a better appetite wtrald help their 
reacon. If Qod sliould say ia general to all men. You shall 
cat as often &.<( will do you good: the ^ick stomach would 
»ay. Once a day, and that but a. Httte, is enough, and as 
much as Ood requitetli ; when nnother would say; Thrice a 
day ia little enough. A good and healthful heart in a great 
help, iu the expounding of God's Word, especially of hia 
general cnmmand meats. That which men love not. but arc 
weary of, they will not easily believe to be their duty. The 
new nature, and holy love, and deeires, and experience of a 
sound believer, do so far make all these reasonings needless 
to him, that I must contVss I liave writtfin them principally 
to oonvtuce the carnal hypocrite, and to stop the monlhft 
of wrany^ling enemiea. 


Gaierai Virerliomjhr the holif Gowriimeitt of I'mmliti. 

The principal thing requiiiite to the right governing of 
fatnilivH is the jitotas of the governors and the governed 
thereto, which in spoken of before in the Directinns lor the 
Constitution. But if persons unfit tor their relations, hare 
joined thumselvea together in atamily, their flrst dnty is to 
repent of their former sin and ra-iluieiid, and pret^enlly to 
turn to Ood, and seek ai'ter tJiat fitiiess which is nereftKary 
to the right discharge of the duties of their several placea: 
und in the governors of families, these thrc* things are of 
j^realcst necessity hereunto. I. Authority. II. Skill. 111. 
llolinewf and readiness of will. 

I. lien. Dinri. ' Let governors maintiiia their authority 
ID their faoiilies.' For if once that be Inst, and you arc de- 
spised by those you should rule, your word will be of no 
etfect with them ; you do but ride without ■ bridle; your 
power of goveniing is gone, when your authority is lost. 
And here you must first understand the imtiire, niie. and 
extent of your iuitJiimly : for m your relatione are difi'erent 
<o your wife, your children and your oervanta, so alio is yonr 



autliority. Your authority oter your ^ife. in butcuch ■■ 
n necedkuy to the order of your ftnaily, the kafe and pru- 
dent management of yoitr afTairii, and your cnoiforlalilc co- 
habitation. The powt-T of love and complicated iuterent 
must di> more than magiRterial commands. Your authority 
'Ov«T vour .children in murh greater; but yet onir Kuch or 
conjunct witb love, is netful to their good eilucalion and 
felicity. Your authority ov<'r your servante in to be me»- 
Burcd by yotir contract n'ith thi-m (iQ these coontriec tvherc 
there we no slaves) in order to your serrice, and the honuar 
of God. In other matters, or to othrr ends yon havw no 
authuritv over them. For the rauiiilaintug uf Hiin your au- 
ftoiity obsenre these following sub-directions, 

Ditett. 1. ' Let your fAUiity undersUind that vour autho- 
rity is of God, who is the God of order, and that In obe- 
dience to him they are obliged to obey you.' • There ia Do 
power but of God : aikd there is none that the inLetli^;eiit 
creature can so much revarencc as that which ia of God. 
All bonds arc easily broken and cast nway (by the soul al 
least, if not by the body), which are not perceixed to be 
Divine. An enlightened conscience will say to ambttioiia 
usur|>ert!, Ciod 1 know, and hia Son Jesus I know, but who 
are ve i 

f^Dirtet. ii. ' The more of Qod nppeareth upon you, in 
your knowledge, and holiness, and unblamableness of life, 
the greater will your uutliority be i» the eyes of all yoar 
inferiors thai fear God.* Sin wiU make you contemptible 
BDd Tile ; and holinesB, being the image of God, will make 
■yon honourable. In the eyes of the faithful a ' vile person 
is contemned; but they honour them that fear the Lont\" 
"Righteousness exalteth a nation," (and a pcroon) "hut 
em is a reproach to any peoplft"." " Those that honour 
Gud he will honour, and those that despise him nhnll be 
lightly esteemed ^'' They that give up themselves to " vile 
affections" and conversations'', will seem vile when they 
hare made themselves so. " Eh's sons made tllcmselves 
vile by their sin'." I know men should discern and honour 
a person placed iu authority by God, though they are mo- 
rallyand naturally Tile : bat this is so hard that it is seldom 

■ fxA. IV. 4. 
* Rotn.i. «b. 

* Prov. ii». 5*. 
< I Sam. ill. 13. 

1 Sam- li' iO. 



well doue. And God is so severe against proud offenders, 
that he usually punistieth them by making them vile in the 
eyes of others; at least when they are dead and men date 
freely speak of them, their nainea will rot'. The infttancee 
of the greateBt emperors id the world, both Persian, RomaD 
and Turkish do tell us, that if (by whoredom, drunkenness, 
gluttony, pride, and especially persecution) they will make 
themselves vile, God will permit them by uncovering their 
nakediiees, to become the >ih'ame and scorn of men; and 
ghall a wicked master of a family think to maiutaii) his au- 
thority over others, while he rebelleth against the autho- 
rity of God ? 

Direct, in. 'Shew not yonr natural weakness by past- 
Biunfi, or imprudent words or deeds.' For if they think 
contemptuously of your pcrAons, u little thing will draw 
them further, to despise your words. There is naturally id 
man so high an «steem of reason, thnt men are hardly pt^r- 
siiaded that they should rebel against reason to be governed 
(for order's sake) by folly. They are very apt to think that 
rightest reason should bear rule. And therefore any silly, 
weak expressions, or any inordinate passions, or any im- 
prudent actions, are very apt to make yoa contemptible in 
your inferiors' eyes. 

Dirtri.w. ' tose not your authority by a negtvct of 
uiing it.' If you fauH'cr children and serrauta but a little 
while to have the head, and to have, and say, and do what 
they will, your government will be but a uame or image. 
A muderate courai; betweeo a lordly rigour, and a soft sub- 
jection, or neglect of exercising the power o( your pUce, 
will best preserve you from your inferiors' contempt. 

Direct. V. 'Lose not your authority by too much fami- 
liarity.' If you make your children and servants your play- 
fellows, or equals, and talk to them, atid suH'er them to talk 
to you as your companions, they will quickly grow upon 
you, and hold their custom ; and though another may go- 
Tem them, they will scarc« ever endurt: to be governed 
by you, but will scorn to be subject, where they have onca 
been as equal. 

II. (ien. Direct. ' Lalwur for prudence and skiifulneM 
in governing.' He that undertaketh to be a master of afa- 

' Plot. I. 7. 



mily, imdertakelb to be their goronior; and it is no small 
Bin or folly to uudertajte such a place, as you arc utterly 
unfit for, when it is a matter of ho ){r«al importance. Vou 
could discern this in a case that is not your own; as if a 
man undertake to be a schoolmaster tliat cannot read or 
ivrite ; or lo be a physician, who knowetii neither diseases 
nor their remedies ; or to be a pilot tliat cannot tell hovr to 
do a pilot's work ; aiid why cannot you much more diacern 
it in your own cast;? 

Direct, i. ' To get the skill of holy governing, it is need- 
ftil that you be well studied in the Word of God :' there- 
fore God cnmrnandeth kingg tlieai&elve& that " they read in 
the law all the days of their lives" ;" and that " it depart 
not out of their mouths, but that they meditate in it day 
and night". And all parents must be able to "teach it 
their children, and talk of it both at home and abroad Jying 
[' down and rising up'." All government of men is but sub- 
aenrient to the government of God, to promote obedience 
to his laws. And it is necessary thai we understand the 
lawfi which all laws and precepts most give place to and 

Direct. i\. 'Understand well the different tempers of 
your inferiors, and deal with them as they are, and as they, 
can bear; and not with all alike.* Some are more intelli- 
gent and some more dull : some of tender, and some 
of hardened dispositions ; some will be best wrought upon 
by love and genilenesa ; and some have need of sharpnesa 
and severity : prudence muBt 6t yonr dealings to their dia*' 

Direct, m, 'You must put much difference between 
their different faults, and accordingly suit your reprehen- 
aions.' Those must be most severely rebaked that have 
most wilfulness, and those that are fo-ulty in matters of< 
greatest weight. Some faults are bo much through mere 
disability and unavoidable frailty of the flesh, that there is 
but little of the will appearing in them. Thf^e must be' 
more gently handled, as deserving mure compassion than 
reproof. Some are habituate vices, and the whole nature '\i 
more desperately depraved than in others. These mu«t havtf | 
more than a particular correction. They must be held trf' 
r »«bt «W1. IB, 19. "JmL.LB. »Dmtf.»I.6,r. d. U, 19. 



[part II. 

auch & course of life, an nuLy be most efftivLual to destroy 
and cliaoge those habits. Aod some tbere are upright at 
the heart, aiitl ia the maia and mast momeotou!. things, are 
guilty but of 8on)e actuiil faullsi and of these, some mora 
seldom, and Bonie more fret^uent; and if you do not pru- 
deiitJy diveriiify your rebukee according to theii faults, you 
will but harden them, and miDs of your ends : fo/ there in 
a family-justice tliat umut uot be overthrown, unle^ you. 
will overthrow your families : as there is a. more public jus- 
tice jiecesfeary to the j^ublic good. 

Direct. IV. ' Be a good husband loyourwife.andaf^ood 
father to your children, and a good ma9ler to youi'sen'finta, 
and let love have doiiiiniuu in all your government, that 
your inferiors may eattily Hiid, tliat it is their ictercBt to 
obey you.' For interest aiid aeEf-love aae the uatural rulers 
of the world. And it is the most etfectual way to procure 
obedience or any good, to make men perceive that it is for 
their own good, and to engage self-love fur yoa; that ihey 
may see that tlie benefit ia like to be tJi«ir owu. If you do 
thcmnogood. but are »our. and uncourteoua, and close- 
handed to them, few will be ruled by you. 

Direct. V. ' If you would be nkilfnl in governing othen:, 
learn first exactly to command yourselves.* CaJi youeverex- 
pect to have others more at your will and goverumuit than 
^QUTselveH ? U he fit to rule his family in the fear of God anil 
8.holylife, who is unholy and fcarcth not God himselfl 
Or is he 6t to keep them firom |mtinion or drunkeunms, or 
gluttony, or tuskt, or any way of senouality. thai caimot 
keep him&eir from it? Will not iuferiora despise auch re- 
proofs which are by yourselven contradicted iu your lives? 
You know tiiii; true of wicked preachers ; and in it not as 
true of otJier govemora ? 

111. Oeii. Dtrecl. ' You must be holy ptrsoos, if you 
would be holy governar^ of your faiuilieB.' Men's actions 
follow the bent of their dispositions. They will do as th«y 
are. An enemy of God will not govern a family for God : 
nor an enemy of holinesfr (nor a struugec to it) Met up a holy 
order in his hoiiiie, and iu aholy mannur nmoagv his uiliur». 
I know it is cheaper and ea»ier to the tlesb to call othura lo 
oiottifieation and holiness of life, than to brinf; ourselves to 
it : but yet when it is not a bare command or wish that ia 




neceetaary.buta course ofbolyaad induKtftoiu govcmmeot, 
uuholy persons (though flomc of them may go far) have not 
the euJs aud principles which ^ach a wurk requtrtith. 

Direct. I. 'To this «ad, b« »ure that your own souls be 
entirely subjected to God, and that you more accurately 
obey hU Iuwk, tlum you expect any inferloc Kbould obey 
your commands.' If you daje diiobey God, why Rhould 
they fear diiiobeyiiig yuuf Can you more severely r«renge 
disobedience; or more bountifully reward obedienc«, than 
God cau do? Are you greater luid better Uiaii Qod hitor 

Ihitci. II. ' Be sure that you lay up your treasure in 
[heaven, and make the enjoymt-ut of God in glory to be the 
l&Uimatc cooiQiandiiig end, both of the afikirs and govern- 
Iveut of your family, atul all things ebie with which yon 
are intrusted/ Devote yourselves and all to God, and do 
all for him: do all as pasaeogers to another world, whoa« 
business oneactb is but to provide for heaven, ajid prooiote 
their everlasting interest. If tbuH you are separated unto 
God, you are sanctified: and then you will 9ei>&rute all that 
you have to \\\& use and service, and thia, with his accept- 
ance, will sanctify all. 

Direct. III. ' Maintain God's authority in your family 
■More carefully than your own.* Your own is but for his. 
lore tharply rebuke or correct them Umt wrong and dia- 
hoQour God, than those that wrong and dishonour your* 
selves. Reraeniher Eli's sad example: make not a small 
matter of any of the sins, especially the great sins, of your 
children or aervaata. It is an odious thing to slight God's 
cause, and put up all with 'His cot well done,' when you 
are fiercely passionate for the lo^s of some small commodity 
of your own. God's honour must be greatest in you; (^ 
mily : and his service must hare the pre-eminence of yours ; 
and sin against him, must be the most intolerable offence. 

Direct. IV. ' Lft spiritual love to your family be predo- 
-ninant, and let your care be grente&t for the saving of their 
l>ouk), and your compassion greatest in their spiritual mise- 
liea.' Be first careful to provide them a portiou in heaven, nod 
to save them from whatsoever would deprive ihem of it ; and 
oerer prefer tb« trantitory peJf of earth, before th«ir 
Usliag riches, Kever be so cumbered about many things. 


as to forget that one thing ia ueceHsary ; but choose for 
yourselves and them the better part'". 

Direct. V. ' Let your family he neither kept in idlcnesa 
and flesh-pleasing, nor yet overwhelmed with such a mul- 
titude (if business, as sIi^lII take up and distract their miuda, 
diverting and unfitting them for holy things." Where God 
layeth on you a necessity of excessive labours, it must pa- 
tiently and cheerfully be undergon« : but when you draw 
them unnecessarily on yourselves for the love of riches, you 
do but become the tempters and tormentors of yourselves 
and others; forgetting the terrible examples of them, that 
have this way fallen off from Christ, and pierced themscivtB 
through with many sorrows '. 

Direct, vi. 'As much as is possible, settle a constant or- 
der of all your businesses that every ordinary work may 
know its time, and confusion may not shut out godliness.' 
It is a great assistance in every calling to do all in a set and 
constant order: it maketh it easy: it reraoveth impediments; 
and prumoteth i^uccess: distraction in your business cau»- 
eth a distraction in your minds in holy duty. Some callings 
I know CUD hardly be cast into any order or method; but 
others may, if prudence and diligence be used. God's ser- 
vice will thus be better done, and your work will he better 
done, to the ease of your aervantt), and quiet of your own 
minds. Foresight and skilfuhiess would save you abun- 
dance of labour and vexatiou. 


Special Motivet to persuade Men to the Ao/y Oovemhig of iheir 


If it were but well uuderstuod what benefils come by the 
holy governing of families, and what mischiefs come by its 
nei^ect, there would few that walk the street* among iu, 
appear soodiou!; an those cJtreless, ungodly goTeniors that 
know not nor mind a duty of Kucb exceeding weight. 
Whik we lie all as overwhelmed with the calamitous fruits 


> iTliD. vLia 


of this neglect. I think tn«et to try, if with KOiiie, the cuIbC)^ 
lauy be removed ; by awakeniug Hlu^ish souls, to tlo th«Ir 
undertaken work. 

Motive I. 'Consider that the holy government of fanii- 
lien, is a conttiderabli.' part uf Gud'tionn govvrument of tha 
world, and the contrary t» a great part of the dcvil'ii go* 
veriuuent.' It hath pleased God to settle as a natural, so 
a political order in tlie world and to honour hiH creatures 
to be the iu^ttrumenU of his own operttUuns; and ihougb 
he could have produced all e0ect8 without any inferior 
causes, and could have governed the world by himself alone 
without any instruments (lie being uut as kings, constrain* 
ed to make use of deputies and officers, because of tJicir 
own naturui confiucmcut and inmifKcicncy), yet is he pleased 
'(|6fmalte inferior causes partakers in such excellent effects, 
and tiiketh delight in the fnime and order of causes, by 
which his will among his creatures is accompllHhed. So 
that as the several justices ia the countries do govern aa 
officers of the king, so every magistrate and master of ft 
fhniily, doth govern as an oiKcer of God. And if his go^i 
vernment by his officers be put down or neglected, it Is a i 
coDteinpt of Qod himself, or a rebellion against him. What 
Is all the practical atheism, and rebellion, and ungodliness 
of the world, but a rejecting of the government of God? It' 
is not against the being of God in Itself considered, tliafc j 
his enemies rise up wllli malignant, rebellious opposition: 
but It is against God as the holy and righteous governor! 
uf the world, and especially of themselves. And as in aAi 
army, if the corporals, sergeants, and lieutenants, do all] 
neglect iheir offices, the government of tlie general or coIo-J 
nets IS defeated andof Itttle force; so if the rulers of fa-j 
milies and other officers of God vrill corrupt or neglect tlieir) 
pnrt of government, they do their worst to corrupt or cast 
out God's government from the earth. And if God shall 
not govern in your families, who ahati? The devil is al- 
ways the governor where God's government is refused; the 
world and the flesh are the instruments of his government; 
worldliness and fleshly living are his service: undoubtedly 
he is the ruler of the family where these prevail, and where 
faith and godlmess do not take place. And what can you 
expect from such a master'? 

VOL. IV. n 

■: Motive 11. ' Consider also tliat an uugoverned, ungodly 
family i» a powerful means to the dBmiiation ofall the oiem- 
bers of it :' it is the cooiuionliOBt or ship that buiTieth souls 
to hell ; that is bound for the devouring gulf ; he that is in 
the devipH coach or boat h like to go with the rest, ns the 
driver or tlit boatman pleaseth. But a well-goveraed family 
is ail excellent help to the saving of all the souU that aie in it. 
Ae in an ungodly family there are continunl temptations to 
URgodlineiis, to swearinir, and lying, and railing, and wnn- 
tonuesa, and contempt of God ; »o in a godly family there 
are continual prorocatious to a holy life, to faith, and lore, 
and ohedience, and heavenly -minded nesB : temptationg to 
flin are fewer there, thstn in (he devil's t^hops and work- 
houees of sin ; the authority of the governors, tlie conversa- 
tion of the test, the examples of all. are i^reat inducements 
to a holy life. As in a well-ordered army of valiant men, 
every coward is »o linked in hy order, that, he cannot o-h(>o6« 
bat Bght and stand to it with the rest, and in a confused 
rout the valiautest man is borne down by the disorder, and 
must perish with tJie reel; even ao in. a weU-ord«red, holy 
ftimily, a wicked mon can searoe tell how to live wickedly, 
but 8c«inetli to be nlnioat a ttaint, while he is continually 
among saintK, and heareth no word« that are profsnu or 
filthy, attd i^ kept in to the constant exercises of religion, 
by the authority and company of those he Hveth with. 
liow easy and clean in the woy to hsaven, in xuch a fifracious, 
well-ordered fiiiully, in comparison of what it is to tljem 
that dwell in the distracted familirs of profane and senKual 
worldlings! As there is greater probability of the ttalvation 
of souls in England where the Gonpel is protiched and pro- 
fesBed, than in Hetitlmn or Mahometan countries; so is 
thereagrealcr probability of their salvation that live in the 
houses and company of the godly, than of the ungodly. Id 
one the advantages of instruction, command, example, and 
credit, are all on God'ii side; and in the other th«y are on 
llie deviPs side. 

,*. Moiitx 111. 'A holy, woll-gnvemed family tendeth not 
only to the safety of the members, hut also to the «aec and 
pleasure of their lives.' To live where God's law is the 
principal rule, and where you may be daily taught the oiys- 
teries of his kingdom, and have the Hcriptiires opened u< 

CHAP, v.] 



you, aad be led lut by tbe liaad ui the patba of life; where 
the praises of Ood are daily celebrated, and his name is 
called upon, nnd where alL do spuuk. thu heavenly language, 
and whcrt: God, and Christ, and heaven are both their daily 
work and recreation ; where it is the greatcfit honour to be 
most-holy and heavenly, and tbe greatest cooteutiuii is,, 
who shall be most humble, and godly, and obedient to God] 
and their BUperiont, and where tliere is nc reviling scorns a%j 
godliness, nor any profone and sciirrilous talk ; what a sweet 
and happy life is this! Is it not likes t tohearcu of anything 
upon earth ? But to live where worldliness, and profane- 
ness, and wantoniiess, aud senKuntity bear all the eway, and 
where God is unknown, and holiness and all religious ex- 
ercises are matter of contempt and scorn, and where he 
that will not awear and live profonely doth make himself 
the hatred and derision of the rest, and where men are 
known but by their shape anil Mpeaking-faculty to be men, 
nay where men take not themselves for men hut for hrutes^l 
and live as if they had no rational eouU, nor any expccta-J 
tiona of another life, nor any higher employments orde-| 
lights than the transitnjy concernments of the flesh, what] 
a sordid, loathHome, tiltby, miserable life is this! made upl 
by a mixture of beastly and devilish. To lire where ther* 
is no communion with God, where the marks of death and 
damnation are written, sh it were, upon the doors, in thft] 
face of their impious, worldly lives, and where no man un- , 
derstandeth the holy language; and where there ia not the] 
least foretaste of the heavenly, everlasting Joys; what i»| 
this but to live as the serpent's seed, to feed on dust, and] 
■to be excommunicated from the face and favonr of God,] 
and to be chained up in the prison of concupiscence and.] 
malignity, among his enemies, till the judgment come that] 
is making haste, and will render to all men according to,] 
their works. 

Molhr IV. 'A holy and well-governed family, doth- 
tend to moke a holy posterity, and bo to propagate the fear 
of God from generation to generation.' It is more comfor- ' 
table to have no children, than to beget and breed up chiUl 
dren for the devil. Their natural corruptioo is advantage 
-enough to a&tau, to engage them to himself, (md use them 
for his service : but when parentK shall also take the devil's 




part, find teach their children by precepts or example how 
to serve him, and shall eslrange them from God and a holy 
life, and fill their minds with false conceits and prejudice 
against th« msans of their sidvatioii, as if they had sold their 
children to the devil ; no wonder then if they have a black 
posterity that are trained up to be heirs of hell. He that 
will train up children for God, must begin betimes, before 
aensitive objects take too deep possession of their hearts, 
and custom increase the pravity of their nature. Original 
sin is like the arched Indian fig tTe«, whose branches turn- 
ing downwards and taking rool, do all become as trees 
themselves : the acts which proceed from this habitual vi- turn again into vicious habits : and thus sinful 
nature doth by its fruits increase itself: and when oOier 
things consume themselvesbybreeding, all tbatsin brcrdctJi 
is added to it:ieif, and its breeding is its feeding, and every 
act doth conBrm the habit. And therefore no means in all 
the world doth more effectually tend to the happineRS of 
soula, than wise and holy education. This dealeth nith Hin 
before it hath takcQ the deepest root, and bowetb nature 
while it is but n twig: it prevonteth the increase of natiiTal 
pravity, and keepeth out those deceits, corrupt opinions, 
and carnal fanta.siet> and hiitts, which else would he service- 
able to Bin ajid Bataa ever after ; it delivereth up the heart 
to Christ betime, or at least doth bring him a disciple to his 
adiool to learn the way to life eternal ; and tn upend those 
years in acc^uainting himself with Uic ways of God, which 
others spend in growing worse, and in learning that whicJi 
must be again unlearned, aad in fortifying sntan'g garrison 
in their hearts, and defending it against Christ and his sav- 
ing grace. But of this more anon. 

Motive V, ' A holy, well-governed family, is the prepara- 
tive to a holy and well-governed church.' If masters of fa- 
milies did their parta, and sent such polished materials to 
tlie churches, as tbey ought to do. the work and life of the 
pMtors of the church would be unspeakably more easy and 
delightful : it would do one good to preach to auch un au- 
ditory, and to catechise them, and instruct them, and 
examine tlicm, and watch over tlicm. who are prepared bym 
wise wul holy education, and understand and love ibe doc- 
trine which they hear. To lay such polished alones in the 


CHAI>. v.] 



building is an easy and delightful work ; how teachable and 
tractable will such be! and how prosperously will the 
hours of their pastors be laid out upon them ! and bow 
comely and beautiful the churches be, which are compoaed- 
of such persons ! and how pure and comfortable will their 
communion be ! But if the diurche^ be sties of unclean 
beELsts; if they are made up cf ignorant and ungodly per- 
sona, tliat savour nothing but thetbings of the Heidi, and use 
to worship they know not whtit, we may thank ill-governed 
familieB for all thia. It is lonfi^ of them that mintHtera preach 
as to idiots or bnrbiiriaus that catmot uiider^limd tlirm ; and 
that they must be always feeding their auditorii with milk, 
and teaching them the principles, and catecliiaing thein in 
the church, which should have been done at home : yea, it 
is luog of them that there are rni many wolves and swiue 
among the sheep of Christ, and that holy things are ad- 
ministered to the enemies of holiness, and the godly live in 
eommuniuii with the haters of God and godlinesa ; and that 
the Christian religion is dishonoured before the heathen 
world, by the worse than heathenish lives of the profeKSors ; 
and the pollutions of the churches do hinder the conversion 
of the unbelieving world ; whilst they that ciui judge of our 
religion no way but by the people that profess it, do judge 
of it by the lives of them that are in heart the enemies of it; 
when the haters of Christianity and godliness arc the Chris- 
tians by whose conversations the intidel world must judge 
of Christianity, you may easily conjecture what judgment 
they are like to make. Thu» pastors are diacouroeed, the 
cbuiches deliled, religion disgraced, and intideU hardened, 
through the impious disorder and negligence of families .' 
What Universities were we like tu have, if all the grammar- 
schooU should neglect their duties, and send up their 
scholarii untaught as they received them'! and if all tutors 
must teach their pupiU first to spell uud read? Kven such 
churches we are like to have, when every pastor must first 
do the work which uU the muslcrs of families should have 
duiic. and the part of many score, or hundreds, or ihoui^ands, 
must be performed by ooc. 

Motive VI. 'Well-governed families tend to make a 
happy state and commonwealth; u good education ia the 
fint and greatest work to make good magi&tratcit and good 



[I'ART U. 

Hubject«, because it lends to make good men.' Though a 
good man may he a faa.d magieLrale, yet a bad maD cannot 
be a very gOod magisti'ate. The ignoraaoe, or woiidliness, 
iir senBuality, or enmity to godliness, wbich grew up with 
them in their youth, will shew itself in all the places and re- 
latious that ever they shall come into. When an ungodly 
family hath once confirmed them in wickedness, Ihey will do 
wickedly in every state of life : when a peHidiouB parent 
hatii betrayed bis children into the power and service of tlie 
devil, they will serve him in all relations and conditions. 
Thift is the school from whence come all the iujustioe, and 
orueUie«, and persecutions, and impieties of magisti-ates, and 
aU the murmurings and rebellions of subjects : thia is the 
aoil and seminary where the seed of the devil is first sown, 
and where he nurseth up the plants of covetonsDess, and 
pride, and ambition, and revenge, malignity, and sensuality, 
till he transplant them for his service into several ofiicee in 
church and state, and into all places of inferiority, where 
they may disperse their venom, and resist all that is good, 
and contend for the interest of the flesh and hell, against the 
interest of the S'pirit and of Christ. But O ! what^a blessing 
to the world would they be, that shall come prepared by a 
holy education to places of government and Rubjectipn I 
And how happy ia that land that is ruled by such superiors, 
and consisteth of such prepared eubjecta, as have firut leamt 
to be subject to God, and to their parents ! 

Motive vii. ' If the governors of farailiea did faithfully 
perform their duties, it would be a great supply as to any 
defects in the pastor's part, and a singular means to propon 
gate and preserve religion in times of public negligence 
or persecution.' Therefore Christian faniities are called 
churches, because they consiut of holy persons, that worship 
God, and learn, and love, and obey his Word, If you lived 
among the enemies of religion, tliat forbad Christ's ministers 
to preach his Gospel, and forbad God's servants to meet in 
charch-as&emhlies for bi^ worship; the support of religion, 
and the comfort and edification of beliercrs, would then He 
almost all upon the right performance of family dutiec. 
There masters might teach the same trnth to their lmus«- 
faotda, which ministers are forbidden to preach in the aa- 
•embliei : there you niight pray together as fervently and 



Spiritually tut you can : ihare you may keep up as holy con- 


▼efse and communion, and an atnct 
please : there you may celebrate the praises of your Creator, 
Redeemer, and Sanctitier, and obserre the Lord's day in an 
exact, nad spiritual a miinDeT nti you arc able: you may 
there provoke one another to tove and to f^ood works, and 
rebuke erery Mia, and mind each other to prepare for death, 
and live together as passengers to cternul liic. Thaa holy 
famiUea may keep up religion, and keep up the life and com-i 
fort of believers, and supply the want of public prear.hing, 
in those conntrics where persecntors prohibit and itslfain 
it, or where unable or unfatlliful pastora do neglect it. 

Motive viti. * The duties of your famili«8 are 8Uch na 
you may perform with greatest peace, and least exception 
or opposition from others." When you go further, and 
would be instructing others, they will think ynu go beyond 
your call, and many will he suspicious that you take too 
much upon you; and tf you do but gently admouisli a rout 
of such as the Sodomites, perhaps they will say, "This one 
fellow came in to Bojoam, and he will needs be a judge." 
Bat your own house ih your castle; your family is your 
cbarge ; you may teach them as oi\ and as diligently ax you 
will. If the ungodly rabble acorn you for it, yel no Muber 
person will condemn you, nor trouble you for it (if you 
teach them no evil). Alt men must confess that nature and 
Scripture oblige you to it as your unqueationable work. 
And therefore you may do it (iiQiong sober people) with ap- 
probation and quietness. 

Motwe IX. * Well-goverbed faOiiliee arc bonourublc and 
ex«mplary unto oUiers.' Even the worldly and ungodly use 
to bear a certain reverence to them; for holiness and order 
have some wituesa that coramendeth them, in the conscien- 
ceaof many that never practised tliem. A worldly, ungodly, 
disordered family, is a den of snakes, a place of hiaaing. 
tailing, folly and confusion : it is like a witdemess over- 
grown with briarA and weeds ; but a holy family ia a garden 
of God : it IS beautified with his graces, and ordered by his 
government, and fruitful by the showers of his heavenly 
blessing. And ab the very sluggard, that will not be at the 
cott and p^ns to make a garden of his thorny wilderness, 
Diay yet confeas that a garden ia more beautiful, aud fruits 



Itil, luid ddigfatful, and if wishing would do it, hid wilder- 
nesfl should be sucht; even bo the ungodly, that will not b« 
at (he cost and :pains to urder their souls tuid fumilies in 
holiness, may yet &ee ik beauty in those that are so ordered, 
and wish for the happini^ss of anch, if thvy could hare it 
without the lahour and cost of aelf-denial. And, no doubt, 
the beauty of Kuch holy and weU-goveroed familien hath 
convinced many, and drawn them to a great ap|irobation of 
religion, and occasioned tiiciu at last to imitate them. 

Motive X. • Lastly, consider, ' That holy, well -governed 
familieH arc blessed with the special presence and favour nf 
God.' They are his churches where he is worshipped j his 
houses where he dwelleth : be is engaged both by lovr and 
promise to bless, protect, and prosper them. It is safe to 
Roil in that ship which is bound for heaven, and where Chriat 
is the pilot. But when you reject his government, you re- 
fuse his company, and contemn his favour, and forfeit hia 
blessing, by deapisiog bt» presence, his interest, and his 

So that it is an evident tnilh, that most of the mischiefs 
that now infest or seize upon mankind throughout the earth, 
consi&t in, or are caused by the disorders and ill-govcrned- 
uvse of families. These are the schools and shops of satan, 
from whence proceed the beastly ignorance, lust and aen- 
■nality, the devilish pride, malignity, and cruelty against the 
holy ways of Ggd, which have so unmanned the progeny of 
Adam. These are the ncets in which the serpent doth hatch 
the eggs of covetousneaa, envy, sUnfe, revenge, of tyranny, 
disobedience, wars and bloodshed, and all the leprosy of 
sin that hath so odiously contaminated human nature, and 
all the miseries by which thoy make the world calamitous. 
Do you wonder that there can be persons and nations so 
blind and barbarous as we read of the Turks, Tartarians, 
Indians, and most of the inhabitants of the earth ? A wicked 
edacattou is the cause of all, which iinding nature depraved, 
doth sublimate and increase the venom which should by 
education hav« been oured ; and from the wickedness of fa- 
milies doth national wickedness arise. Do you wonder that 
ao much ignorance, and voluntary deceit, and obstinacy in 
«mrs, contrary to all men's common senses, can be fowid 
among professed Cliristians, as great and small, high snd 



low through all the Pupal kingdom do discover? Though 
the pride, and covetousness, and wickednesB of a worldly, 
carniLi clergy, is avenr great cause, yet the siofut negligence 
of pareots and masterti lu their families is as great, if not 
much greater than that. Do you wonder that even iu the 
reformed churches, there can be so ntuny uurefomied sinncrH, 
of beastly lives, that hate the serious practice of the religion 
which themselveH profess? It is ill education in ungodly 
families that is the cause of all this. O therefore how greai 
and necessary a work ia it, to cast salt into these corrupted 
fountains i Cleanse and cure these vitiated families, and 
you may cure almost all the calamities of the earth. To 
tell what the emperors and princes of the earth might do. if 
they were wise and good, to the remedy of this comniuu 
miser)', is the idle talk of those negligent persons, who coa- 
demi) themselves in condenuiitig others. Kven those rnlera 
and princes that are the pillars and patrons of heathenism, 
Mabometanism, Popery, and uugodliness iu tlte world, did 
themselves receive that venom from their pnreuts, in their 
birth and education, which inclineth tliem to all this mis- 
ohief. Family reformatiou is the easiest and the mont likely 
way to a common reformation : at lea&t to send many souls 
to heaven, and train up multitudes for God, if it reach not %q 
national reformation. 


More special Moeioet for a Hoty and Careful Education of . 

Children. ' ' 

Bbcavse the chief part of family care and government con-J 
siateth in the right, education of children, I shall adjoin here] 
some more special Motives to quicken considerate parents I 
to this duty : and though most that I have to say for it MI 
already said in my '* SaintH* Rest," Part iii. Chap. 14. Sect.! 
11. &c., and therefore shall be here omitted, yet something 
Rhall be inserted, lest the want here should appear too greats I 
Motive 1. ■ Consider how deeply nature itself doth en*-i 
gage you to the greatest care and diligence for the holif 
education of your children." They are, as it were, parts of 


[part 11. 

yourselves, and those tliat nature teacheth you to love nod 
provide for, and take most care for, next yourselves: and 
will you be regardless oftheirchicfconceniuieula ? and neg- 
lective of their souls? Will you no other way abew your 
lo»e to your children, than every beast or bird will to their 
young, to cherish them till they can go abroad and shift 
for themselves, for corporal sustenance? It is nut dogK or 
beaatft that yon bring into the vrorld, but children that hare 
immoital souls ; and therefore it i<i a care and education 
fluitable to their natures which you owethem : even such as 
conduceth most eftectiially to the happiness of their suulii. 
Nature teacbetli them Rome natural things without you, as 
it doth the bird to fly; but it hath committed it. to your 
trust and care to teach them the greatest and most necessary 
things : if you should think that ynu have nothing to do 
but to feed them, and leave all the rest to nature, then they 
would not learn to epenk : and if nature it«>elf M'ould con- 
(l*mn yotl, if you teach them not to speak, it will much more 
condemn you, if you teach thorn not to understand both 
what they ought to sp(>ak and do. They hax'e an everlasting 
inheritance of happiness to attain: and it is that which you 
must bring them up for. They have an endlet^s misery to 
escape ; and it is that which you mustdiiigently teach them. 
If you teach them not to eHcape the flames of hell, what 
thanks do they owe you for teaching them to Hpeak and 
go? if you teach them not the way to heaven and bow they 
may make sure of their salvation, what thanks do they owe 
you for teaching them how to get their livings a little while 
in a miserable world? If you teach them not to know God, 
and how to HCrve liim, and be saved, ynu teach them notliing, 
or worse than nothing. It is in your hands to do them the 
greatest kindness or cruelty in all the world : help them to 
know God and tn be saved, and you do more for them than 
if you helped tliem to be lords or princes : it you neglect 
tbeir «ouU, and breed thera in ignorance, worldliness, un- 
godlineas and sin, yon betray them to the devil, the eiiemy 
of soula ; even aa truly as if you sold ifaem to him ; you sell 
them to be slaves to aatan ; you betray them to him that 
will deceive them and abuae them in this life, and torment 
them in the next. If you saw but a baraing furnace, much 
more the flames of hell, would yon not think that man or 



womaa more fit to be called a <l«Til than a pareut, that could 
6ml in their hearts to cast tbeir child iato it, or to put bim 
into the hands ofooe that would do it? What moneters then 
of inhumanity are you, that read in Scripture which is th« 
tray to bell, and who they b« that God will delirer up to 
Hatau, to b'e tormented by him; and yet will bring up your 
children in that very way, and will not take pains to aftv* 
them from it? What a stir tlo you wake to provide them 
food and raiment, and a competmu niaint«tiauco in tbei 
world when you are dead ! And how little pains take yoi 
to prepare their souls for the heavenly inheritance! If yoiii 
seriously believe that tliere are such joys or torments foi 
your chilttreD (and yourselves) aa soon as death removetbJ 
you hence, is it poHsihle that you should take this for the:J 
IcUHl of their concernments, and make it the least and last i 
of your careH, to assure them of an endless happiness? If J 
you love th«ni, shew it in those things on which their ever- 
lasting welfare doth depend. Do not say you love them, 
and yet kad them \into hell. If you love tbcm not, yet b«i 
not so unmci'cit'ul to them as to damn them : it is not your J 
saying', 'God forbid,' and ' we hope better,' that will mak4 
it better, or be any excuse to you. What can you do mor« 
to damn them, if you studied to do it as maliciously as the 
devil himself? You cannot possibly dn more, than to bring 
them up iu ignorance, cOFeLessDess, worldliness, sensuality 
and ungodliness. The devil can do nothing else to damn 
either them or you, but by tempting to sin, and drawing yon 
from godliness. There is no other way to hell. No man is 
damned for any thing but tliis. And yet will you brin^ 
them up in such a life, and say, ' God forbid, we do not de 
sire to damn them?' But it is no wonder ; when yon do by 
your children but as you do by yourselves ; who can look 
that a man should be reasonable for his child, that is so ua-i 
reasonable for himself? Or thatthose parents should havt an;^i 
mercy on their children's soqIb, that have no mercy on their 
own ? You desire not to damn yourselves, but yet you do i^J 
if you live ungodly lives : and so you will do by your children,! 
ifyoutraia tbctn up in JgnoHuaceofGod, and inthe service of 
the flesh and world. You do like one that should set fire on 
bis house, and say, ' God forbid, I intend not to burn it:' or 
like one that caateth his child into the sea. and saith, he in- 



tendetb aot to drown him ; or trainetli him up in robbing or 
thievery, and saitli, be inlendeth not lo have him hanged; 
but ir you intend to make a thief of him, it ia all one in ef- 
fect, as if you intended his hanging ; forth* law determineth 
it, and the judge will intend it. So if you intend to train up 
your children in ungodliness, as if they had no God, nor 
houIh to mind, you may as well say, you intend to have them 
damned. And were not &n enemy, yen, and isnot the devil 
more excusable, for dealing thus cruelly by your children, 
thun you that are their jiareiits. that are bound by nature to 
love them, and prevent their misery '. It is odiouH in minis- 
ters that take the charge of souls, to betray them by negli- 
gence, and be guilty of theif everlasting^ misery ; but la pa- 
rents it is more unnatural, and therefore more inexcusable. 

Motive II. ' Consider th!i.t God is the Lord and owner of 
your children, both by tbc title of creation and redemption : 
therefore in Jtutice you mit«t resign them to him, and edu- 
cate them for him.' Otiierwiiie you rub God of his own 
creaturcB, and rob Christ of those for vrhom he died, and 
this to give them to the dovll, the enemy of <iod and them. 
It was not tile world, or the flesh, or the devil tliat created 
them, or redeemed them, but Gad ; and it is not possible for 
Buy right to be built upon a fuller title, than to make them 
of nothing, and rcdi^cm them from n atal^ far worse than 
nothing. And after all this, shall the very parents of euch 
children steal them from their absolute Lord and Father, 
und sell tliein to slavery andturinvnt? 

Motive 111. ' Hemember that iu their baptism you did 
dedicate them to God ; you entered them into a solemn vuw 
and covenant, to be wholly his, andto hve to him.' There- 
in they renounced the flesh, the world and the devil ^ there- 
in you promised to bring them np virtuously to lead a godly 
and Christian life, that they might obediently ke«p God's 
hoty will and commandmcnu, and walk in the same all the 
days of their lives. And ai^er all this, will you break so sol- 
emn a promise, and cause tbcm to break such a vow and 
covenant, by briogiog them up in ignoraoce and ungudli- 
ness'f Did you understand nnd consider what youthen 
did ? How solemnly you yourselve* engaged them in a vow 
to God, to live a mortihed and holy life? And will you 




fto solemnly do dint in an Hour, which all their life after wiUi 
you, you will endeavour todt-Rtroy? 

Mntive iv. ' Consider how great power the education 
chihlren hath upon all their following lives ;' except natur*^ 
and grace, there is nothing th^it usually doth prevail no rauclt^ 
with them. Indeed the obstinacy of natural viciousnvsti 
doth of^n frustrate a good education; but if any means bA'i 
like to do good, il 'm this; but ill education in more con^j 
fltftntly successful, to make them evil. This cherishcth' 
those seeds of wickedness which itpring up when they coma 
to age; thitt inaketh so many to be proud, and idle, and 
flesh-pleasers. and liccntiou.<), and lustful, and covetous, and 
all that is naught. And he hath a liard ta«k that comcth 
after to root out theae vices, which an ungodly education 
hath so deeply radicated. Ungodly parents do serve the 
devil so eCTectually in the Urst imprcKsions on th«ir chil- 
dren's minds, that it is more than magistrates and ministers 
and nil reforming means can afterwards do, to recover them 
from that sin to God. WhereaHif you would first engage their 
hearts to Godbyareligiousediicatton, piety would then have 
alltho3eadvantages,tliat sin hatli now. "Train up a child in 
the way he should go, and when he is old he will not depart 
from it'." The language which you teach them to speak 
when tliey are children, they will use all their life after, if 
they live with those that use it. And so the opinions which 
they first receive, and the customs which they are used to 
at first, are very hardly changed afterward. I doubt not to 
afiirm, that a godly education is God's first and ordinary ap- 
pointed means, for the begetting of actual faith, and other 
graces in the children of believers : many may have seminal 
grace before, but they cannot sooner have actaal faith, re- 
pentance, love, or any grace, than they have reason ilselfin 
act and exercise. And the preaching of the Word by pub- 
lic ministers is not the first ordinary means of grace, to any 
but those that were graceless till they come to hear such 
preaching: that is, to those on whom thti firsi appointed 
means hath been neglected, or proved in vain : that is, it is 
but the second means, to do that which waw not done by the 
first. The proof is undeniable : because God ajipointeth 
parents diligently to teach their children the doctrine of his 
• Pro*. \%'a 6. 





holy Word, before they come to the public tniuistry : pK- 
renta' teaching;; is the first teaching : and parents* teaching 
is for this ^nd, as well an public teaching, even to beget 
faith, and love, and holiness : and Qcxi appoiuteth no means 
to be used by us, on (vhicli we may not expect his bleeaing. 
Therefore it is apparent, that the ordinary appointed means 
for the first actual grace, is parents' godly instruction and 
education of their children. And public preaching is ap- 
pointed for the conversion of tlio&e only that have missed 
the bkasiug of the first appointed mcuns. Therefore if you 
deny your children religious education, you deny them the 
first appointed means of tJieir actual faith and sanctifica- 
tion; und then the second com(->th upon diRadvantege. • 
Motive V. 'Consider also how many aud great are yniir 
advantages above all others for yoor- children's good.' As 
I. Nothing doth take HO much with any one, as that which 
ia known to come from iuve : the greater love in discerned 
in your instruction, the greater Buccess may you expect. 
Now your children are more confident of their parents* love, 
than of any oUiei-^ ; whether miiiiKtent and strangers speak 
to them in love, they cannot tell ; but of their parents' love 
they make uo doubt. 2. And their love to you h as great a 
preparative to your HucceHa. We all hearken to them that 
v/c dearly love, with greater attention and willingnefta than 
to othens. They love not the minister as they do their pa- 
rent*. 3. You have them in hand betime, before they have 
received any false opinions, or bad imprc««ions : before 
they have any sin but that which was born with them : you 
are to make tJie first impressions upon them : you have them 
while they are moRt teacliabtc.and fiexihle, and tender, and 
make least resistance against instruction : they rise not ap 
at Brat against your teaching with aetf-coDceitedneu and 
proud objections, But when they come to the minister, 
they are as paper that is written on or printed before, nnapt 
to receive another impression ; they have much to be un- 
taught, before they can he taught : and come with proud 
and stiff resistance, to strive against instruction, rather than 
readily to receive it. 4. Your ehildrea wholly depend on you 
for their present maintenance, and much for their future live- 
lihood and portions : and therefore they know that it is 
their interest to obey aod please you ; and as interest is the 




commoQ bias of Lha world, »o is it with yoor cbildren ; you 
may more easily nile theui that have this handle to hold 
them by, than any other cait do tliut hare nut this lulvaii- 
lage. They know they serve you not for nought. 5. Your 
authority over your children is uio&t unquestionable. Thoy 
will dispute the aathnrity of imni»ters, yea, und ormagia>i 
trairst and ask them who gave them the povrer to teavlk| 
them, nnd to command them i Dot the parent's autliohty] 
is beyond ail dispute. They will not cull you tyrants orl 
usurpers, nor bid you prove the validity of your ordinatioR^j 
or the uninterruptrdncss (if your fiucccseioui Thtrtfore fa-' 
ther and mother as the first natural power, are mentioned 
rather thnn kJitga or queens in the fifth commaudni«nt. 6. 
You have the power of the rod to force them. " FoolishueaB 
18 bound in the heart of a child, but the rod of correction 
shall drive it far from him V And your correction will be 
better understood to come firom love, than that of the magis- 
trate or any other. 7. You have best opportunity to know 
both the diaenses and temperature ofyour children : which 
ie a great advantage for the choosing and applying of the 
best remedy. 8- You have opportunity of watching 
over them, and diitcernin^ ail their faults in time : but if 
a minister speak to them, he can know no more what fault 
to reprehend, than others tell him, or the party will cunfemt. 
You may also discern what success your former exborta- 
tiond had, and whether they umend or utill go on in sin, aud 
whether you should proceed to more severe remedies- 9* 
You have opportunity of speaking t'> tlicm in the most fam- 
iliar manner ; which is better understood than the set spc«ch 
of a minister in the pulpit, which few of them mark or un- 
derstand. You can quicken their attention by questions 
which pat them upon answering you, and bo awaken them 
to a serioua re^rd of what you say. 10. You are so fte- 
queutly with them, that you can repeat your instructiouB, 
and drive them home, that what is not done at one time, 
may be done at another : whereas other men can soldom 
»peak to them, luid what la fto seldom spoken is easily neg- 
lected or forgotten. 1 1. You have power to place them un- 
der the best means, and to remove many impediments out of 
their way which usually frustrate other men's endeavoura. 
<• Pro*. iiU. i>. 


12. Your example le nenrthem ajid continually id theirsiglit, 
which is a continual and powerful sennon. By all tliese 
advantages God hath enabled you above all others, to be in- 
struments of your children's good, and the licat and greatest 
promoterB of their salvation. 

Motive VI. ' Consider how ^reat a comfort it would be to 
you, to have your children such aa you m&y confidently 
hope are the children of God, being brought to know him, 
and lovCj and serve him, through your own endeavours in a 
pious education of them,' 1. You may love your children 
upon an higher account than a» they arc yours; uvcu us 
they are God's, adorned with his ima^, and quickened with 
a divine celeetiallife ^ and this iKtn love them wrth a hi^^h- 
er kind of love, than mere natural affectjon is. It would re- 
joice you to sec your children advanced to be lords or 
princes; but O how much greater cause of joy is it, to see 
tbeui made the memberK of Christ, and quickened by his 
Spirit, and scaled up for life eternal ? 2. VVhtu ont^ your 
children are made the children of God, by the regcnvnitioii 
ofthe t^pirit, you may bo much more free from care and 
trouble for them than before. Now you may boldly trust 
them on the care ofyour heavenly Father, who i8 able to do 
more for them than you are able to desire ; he lovetli them 
better than you can love them: he is hound by promise to 
protect them, and provide for them, and to see thnl all 
thing* work together for their good. Ue that cloatheth the 
liliea of the fieldt;, and suffcreth not the young lions or ra- 
Tftna to be unprovided for, will provide convenient food for 
his owu children, (though he will have you also do your du- 
ty for them, a& they are your children). While they are the 
children ofsatan, and llic iicrvantii of^in, you^ave cause to 
fear, not only lest they be exposed to miseries in this world, 
but much more leut they be snatched away in their sin to 
hell: yonr children while they arc ungodly are worse than 
among wolves uiid tigers. But when once tbey are renewed 
by the Spirit of Chrinl, they are the charge of all the bletised 
IVinity. and imder God the cliarge of angels : living or dy- 
ing tliey are safe : for the eternal Qud in their portion and 
defence. 3. It may be a continual comfort to you to ibiuk 
what a deal of drudgery and caliunity your child w freed 
from : to thick how many oaths be would have xwom, and 




how many lies and curses be would have utu^red, and how 
beastly and fleshly a life he would hart liv«H, how much- 
wrong he would have done lo God nnd men, and how much 
lie would have pleased the devil, and what tonnents in hell 
he must have tndured aa the rewn/d of all; and then to 
thinL how mercifully God hath prevented all this ; and what 
service he may do God in the wnrki, and finally live with 
Chritit in glory : what a joy la ihitt to a comtiderlug. believ- 
ing parent, that taketh the mercies of his children as hia 
own ? 4. Religion will teach your children to be more du- 
tiful to yourselves, than natnrc can teach them. It will 
teach them to love you, even when you have no more to 
give them, as welt as if you had the wealth of all the world :> 
it will teach them to honour you, though you are poor andi 
contemptible in the eyes of others. U will teach them to> 
obey you, and if you fall into want, lo relieve you according 
to their power : it will fit ihcni to comfort you in the time of 
your sickness and diHtress ; when ungodly children will be 
as thoms in your feet and eyes, oi- cut your hearts, and 
prove a greater grief than any enflniies to you, A gracious 
child will bear with your weaknesscB, when a Ham will not 
cover his father's nakedness: a gracious child can pray for 
you, and pray with you, and be a blesaing to your hoase|_ 
when an ungodly child is litter to curse, and prove a citrs^ 
to Ihoaehe lives with, 5. And iaitnot an exceeding joy to 
think of the everlasting happiness of your child? and that 
you may live together in heaven for ever? When the fore- 
seen misery of a graceleaa child may grieve you whenever 
you look him in the face. 6. Lastly, it will be a great ad-i 
dition to your joy, to think that God blessed your diligent 
instructions, and made you the instrtiment of all that 
good that is done upon your children, and of all that good 
that is done hy them, and of all the happiness they have for 
ever. To think that this was conveyed to them by your 
means,- will give you a larger share iu the delights of it. 

Motive VII. • Remember that your children's original sin 
and misery in by you ; and therefore in jutiticeyou that have , 
undone them, are bound to do your best to save them.' If 
yoti had but conveyed a leprosy, or some hereditary disease 
to their bodies, would you not have done your best to cute 
thetal O that you could dothem bnt as much good nflyou 

VOL. IV. " J 




do them hurt ! It is more than Adam's sin that runneth 
down into the natures of your children, y^a, and that bring-: 
eth judgnienta on them : and even Adam's Bin cometh not 
to them but by you. 

Motive viii. Lastly, 'Consider what exceeding great 
need they have of the utmost help you can afford them.' It 
ia not a corporal diaeaae, an easy enemy, a tolerable misfry. 
that we cal! unto you for their help: but it is against sin. 
and satan, and hell-fire. It is against a body of sin : not 
one, but many; not small, but pernicioua, liuTing seized on 
the heart: deep-rooted sins, that are not easily plucked up. 
All the teaching, and diligence, and watchfulness that you 
tiau use, !B little enough, and may prove loo little. They 
are obstinate vices ihat have possessed them : they arc nut 
quickly nor easily cast out : and the remnants and roots are 
apt to he still springing up again, when you thought they 
had been quite destroyed : O then what wisdom and dili- 
gence is requisite to so great and necessary a work ! 

And now let me seriously speak to the hearts ofthnw 
careless and ungodly parcntti, that neglect the holy educa- 
tion of their children ; yea, and to those profcuors of godli- 
neas, that slubber over so great a work with a few customary 
formal duties and worda, that are next to a total omission of 
it. O he not so unmerciful to the souU that you hare help- 
ed to bring into the world I Think not bo basely of them, 
as if they were not worth your labour. Make not your 
children bo like your beasts, as to make no provision but 
only for their 6e«h. Remember still that it is not beasts 
but men, that you have begotten and brought forth : edu- 
cate them then and use them as men for the love and obedi- 
ence of their Maker ; O pity and help the kouIb that you 
have de&led and undone ! Have mercy on the sooli; that 
must periHh in hell, if they be not saved in this day of aal- 
vutiun ! O help them that have so many enemies to aasauU 
tliem ! Help them that have so many temptations to paan 
throtigh ; and so many difficulties to overcome ; and so se- 
vere a judgment to undergo ! Help them that are iw weak, 
and so ea&ily deceived and ovnthrown < Help them speedi- 
ly while yonradvantageH continue; before sin have harden- 
ed them, and grace have forsaken Ihem, and sntan place a 
stronger garrison in their hearts. Help them while they 
are tractable, before they are grown up to despise your 



help : before you and they are sepnrated asunder, ani) yuiir 
opportunities he at an end . You think not yonr pains ftom 
year to yew, too much to make provision for their bodies: 
O be not eniel to their kouIh I Sell them not to satan, ami 
that for naught ! Betray theia nut by your ungodly nr^li- 
^nceto bell. Oi if any of them will perish, let it not he 
by you, ttiat are so much hound to do tbeu good : the un- 
doing of your children's souls i« a work roach filler for sa- 
Cau, than for their purouLm. Remember how comfortable a 
thing it 18, to work with Chnst for the saving ofsoulii. You 
think the calling ofminiBters honourable and happy ; and bo 
it is. because they aerre Christ in so high a work : but if 
you will not neglect it, you may do for your children more 
than any minister can do- Tiih id your preaching place: 
here God callelh yuu to extrciae your part*; even in the 
holy instruction of yonr families : your charge is small in 
comparison of the minister's, he hath many hundred souls 
to watch over, that arc RcaLlt<?v<;fl all abroad the parish : and 
will you think it much to insiruotand watch over those few 
of your own that are under your roof? You can speak odi- 
ously of unfeithful, soul -betraying ministers; and do you 
not consider how odious a soul-betraying parent is ? If 
God intiust you but -Nvith earthly talents, take heed how you 
use them, for you must be accountable for your trust; and 
when he hath intrusted you with souls, even your children*!! 
souls, will you betray them? If any rulers should but for- 
bid you the instructing and well-governing of your families, 
and restrain you by a law, as they would have testmined 
Daniel from praying in his house', then you would think 
them monsters of impiety and inhumanity : and you would 
cry out of a sataiiical persecution, that would make men 
traitors to their children's soids, and drive away all religion 
from the earth. And yet how easily can you neglect such 
duties, when none forbid ihem you, and never accuse your- 
selves of any such horrid impiely or iuhuuiaiiity .' What 
hypocrisy, aud blind partiality in this? Likealazy miniater 
that would cry out of persecution, if he were silenced by 
others, and yet wi!l not be provoked lobe laboiioiis, but 
onlinarily by his slothfulness xtlence liiniself, and make no 
such raatterofit: would it be so heinous a sin in another 

" Dan. ri. 



to reBtr&in you ? And in it not aa heinous for you, that are 
80 much oWiged to it, voluntarily to restrain yourselvesf 
O then deny not this necessary diligence to your necessi- 
tous children, as you love their soutu, as you love Oie happi- 
ness of the church or commonwealth, as you love the ho- 
nour and interest of Clmst, and as yoH love your present 
und everlasting peace. Do not see your children tlie slaves 
of ^atan here, and the ftrebranclx of hell for ever, if any dili- 
gence of yours may contiibute to prevent it. Do not give 
conscience such matter of accusation against you, as to say, 
'AH this was long of thee! If thou hadat instructed them 
diligently, and watched over them, and corrected them, and 
done thy part, it is like they had nvvvr come to thiti.' You 
tilt your hclds ; you weed your gardens : what painn take 
you about your grounds and cattle i And will you not 
take more for your children's souls ? Alas, what creatures 
will they be if yon leave them t<i themselves? How igno- 
rant, careless, rude and beastly 'J O what a lamentable ca»c 
have ungodly parents brought the world into? Ignorance 
and selfishness, beastly sensuality, and devilish malignity 
have covered the face of the earth as a deluge, and driven 
away wisdom, and self-denial, and ]>iety, and charity, and 
justice, and temperance almost out of the world, confining 
them to the breasts of a few obscure humble eouls, that 
love virtue for virtue's sake, and look for tbeir reward 
from God alone, and expect that by abstaining from in- 
iquity, they make themflelvcB a prey to wolvce''. Wicked 
education hath unmanned the world, and subdued it to 
satan, and made it almoBt like to hell. O do not join with 
the Rons of Belial in this unnatural, horrid wickednetw j 



TV mutval Duties 0/ 1 liabaitds and WiveA towards eatk other. 

It iit the pernicious subversion of all societies, and so of 
the world, tJiat selfish, ungodly persons enter into all rela- 
tions with a desire to serve themselves there, and hsli out 
alt that gratifietb their flesh, but without any sen»e of the 

* iw. lb. ly 


duty ortheir relation. Tbey bethink ttit^m what honour, or 
profit, or pleasure their relation will ftflbrd them, hut not 
what God and man reqiiirt- or expect from thetn'. All 
their thought is, what they ahnli have, but not what they 
shall be, and do. They are verj' seniiible what others should 
be, aat) do to Ihem^ but not what they should be, and do 
to others- Thus It is with magistrates, and with people, 
with too many pastors and their flocke, with husbands and 
wivea, with pai'ents andehildreii, with isutitcrs and Hervants. 
and all other relations. WherooB our first rare should be 
to know and perform the duties of our relationtt, and pltase 
God in them, and then look forhlH blessing by way of en- 
couraging reward. Study and do your parts, and God will 
certainly do his. 

Direct. 1. ' The first duty of huebanda is to love tlieir 
wives (and wives their husbands) with a tnie, entire conju- 
gal love.' "Huabands love your wivus, even as Christ aJso 

loved the church, and gavehimacU" forit, So ought men 

to love their wives as their own bodies ; he that loveth hh 
wife, loveth himself. For no man ever yet bated his own 
Hesh; but nourisheth and cherisheth it, even as the Lord 

the church. Let every one of you in particular so love 

biB wife, even as himself V It is a relation of love that 
you have entered. God hath made it your duty for your 
mutual help and comfort : that you may be as willing and 
ready to succour one another, as the hand is to help the eye 
or other fellow member, and that your couverae may be 
Bweet, and your burdens easy, and your lives may he com- 
fortable. If love be removed b«i for an hour between hus- 
band and wife, they are so long an a bone out'*of joiut ; 
there is no ease, no order, no work well done, till they arc 
restored and set iu joint again, Therefore be sure that con- 
jugal love be constantly maintained. 

The Bub-directions for maintaining conjugal love are 
such as these. Direct. 1. Choose one at first that is tnUy 
amiable, especially in the virtues of the mind. 2. Marry 
not till you are sure that you can love entirely. Be not 
drawn for sordid ends, to join with one that you have but 
ordinary affections for. 3. Be not too hasty, but know be- 
forehand, all the imperfccttoUK, which may tempt you after- 
■ Pro*, siiii. M. ^Sp\>.i.tb.tB,t9.3S, finGcn.B.tZ. 




wards tu loulliiiiiT. Jlut it' tUcse duties have been KiniiiUy 
neglected, yet -J. Rtuieiuber Uiwt justice cwaiuiandelh you 
tu love one that liath, as it were, forBakeii ull the wurtd I'ur 
you, and ia contented to be the coiupauJon of your labours 
and sutferings, and be an equal sharer in all oonditicinti with 
you, and that must be yuur companion uutil deitlh. It is 
woree thaa barbarous inhumanity to entice such a one into 
H bond ol' low, ami Bcciety with you, and then to i>ay, you 
cannot love her. This wa)« by perfidionsQess to draw her 
into iL linare to her undoing. Wbut comfort can she have 
in her converse wiUi you, and care, and labour, and neces- 
sary sufferings, if you deny her conjugal love ! Especially', 
if she deny not love to you. the inhumanity is the greater, 
5. Remember that women are ordinarily nHectionute, paasiou* 
ate creatures, and as they love much tlwrmaelves, so they ex- 
pect much love from you. And when you joined yourself 
to Budi a nature, you obliged yourself to answerable duty: 
and if love cause not love, it is ungrateful and uujuHt cnn- 
tempt, (i. Rememher that you are under Gud's cominaud ; 
y and to deny cotijugul love to yotir wives, is to deny a. duty 
which God hath urgently imposed on you. Obtdienco 
therefore should command your love. 7. Remember that 
you are relatively, an it were, one fleidi; you have drawn 
her to forsake father and mother, to cleave to you; you are 
conjoined fur procreation of euch children as munt bear 
the image and nature of you both; your poseeMsion* and 
interests are in a manner the name. And therefore such 
nearness should command afiection ; they that are as yonr- 
aelves. «lmuld b« most easily loved as younelven. H. Take 
more notice of the good, (hat is in your vrives, than of the 
evil. Let not the observation of their faults make you 
forget or overlook their virtues. Love is kindled by the 
■ight of love or goodneoii. 9. Make not inlirmiLies to seem 
odiou9 faults, but excutie tliein ajt fax os lawfully you may, 
by coujeidcring the frailty of th« sex, and of th«ir tempers, 
and considering alsn your own infirmities, and how much 
your wives mu&t bear with you. 10, Stir up that mutit in 
them into exercise which v* best, and stir not up that which 
is cvilj and then the good will moot appear, and the evil 
will he as buried* and you will mure easily maintaiu your 
love. There is some uncleanneHs in the be»t on curth ; and 



if you will be daily etitring in the tilth, no wonder if ynu h&Te 
the annoyance ; and for that you muy tliauk youniclvcK : 
draw out the tragrancy of that which is good and delectable 
in them, and do not by your own imprudence or peevish- 
ness stir up the worst, and then you shall find that even your 
faulty wivcH will appear mote amiable to you. It. Over- 
come them with love; and then whatever they are in Ihein- 
aelves, they will be lovinj» to yoii, and conHe(|uently lovely. 
Love will cause love, as firt kindleth fire. A good husband 
i» the best means to make a good and loving wife. Make 
them not froward by your froward cuiriagc, and thon say, 
we cannot love them. 1^. Give them examples of amiable- 
neas in yourselves ; set tbem the pattern of a prudeutj lowly, 
loving, meek, aelf'^lenying, patient, hamilees, holy, heavenly 
life. Try this a while, and see whether it will not shame 
tbem from their faults, and make them walk more amiably 

Direct. II. ' Another duty of husbands and wives is, coha- 
bitation and (where ag« prohibiteth not) a sober and modetit 
conjunction for procreation.' Avoiding lasciviousneKS, un- 
aeasonableneas, and whatever tendeth to corrupt the mind, 
and make it vain and filthy, and hinder it from holy em- 
ploymenL And therefore lust must not be cherished in the 
oiBiried; bat the mind be brought to a moderate, chaste, 
and sober frame; and the remedy must not be tunied Into 
an increase of the disease, but used to extinguish iL For 
if the mind be left to the power of lust, and only marriage 
trusted to for ttie cure, with many it will be found an in- 
aufficient cure ; and lust will rage still as it did before, and 
will be so much the more desperate and your case the more 
miHerable, »s your sin prevaileth against the i-emedy. Yet 
marriage being appointed for a remedy u^ainst lust, for the 
avoiding all unlawful congress, the apostle hath plainly de- 
scribed your duty. " It is good for a man not to touch a wo- 
man : neverthele&s to avoid fornication, let every man have his 
own wife, and let every woman have her own husband; let 
the husband renderunto the wife due benevolence ; and like- 
wise also the wife unto the husband. The wife hath not 
power of her own bodv. but the husband ; and likewise also 
the husband hath not power of hia own body, but the wife. 
Defraud you not one th^ other, except it be with consent for 






a timB, ttiat you may give younelvea Ui faiitiDg and prayer, 
and come together again, that satati tempt you not for your 
iDcontinency." Therefore thotio puriionB live contrary to 
the nature of their relation, who live a great part of their 
Lives asunder, a& many do for worldly respecisi wheu tliey. 
have several houseBt poascssioos or trades, and the hui«bnii<l 
must live at one, and the wife nt another, for their commo- 
dity ttuke; and only come together ouce ui a week, or in 
many weeka; when this is done %vithout great neocHiiity, it is 
B coniitant violation of their duttcs. And no it i« fbi' men 
to go trade or lire beyond sea. or in anutlier land, aitd 
their wives behind them; yea, though they have their wives' 
coa»ent; it is an unlawful course, except in a case of mere 
necessity, or public eervioe, orwh«n they are able on good 
grounds to say, that the benefil» are hke to be greater to 
soul and body than the Iokk; and that they are confirmed 
against the danger of incontinence. The otfices which bua- 
baud and wife arc bound to perform for one another ai-u 
such at), for the uioat pait, suppose their cohabitation, like 
the ofiict'!! of thu mcuiber» of the body for each oihvt, 
which they cannot perform, if they be dismembered and 

Direct, in. ' Abhor not only adultery itaclf, but all that 
teudeth to unchaflteneBs and the violation of your marriage* 
covcnanf.* Adultery in so contrary to the conjugal bond 
and Htate of life, that though ' de facto' it do not actually 
diftsolve the bond, and nullify the marriage; yet it so far 
disobligoth the wronged innocent party, that ' dc jure' it is 
to such a sufficient ground to warrant a divorce. And God 
required, that it be puniahed hy death*. When lust is the 
cbiefetit c&u»« of marriage, and when married pcnwm* live 
not in the fear uf God, but pamper the flesh and live licen- 
tiously, no wonder if mani»ge prove an inHufiicieut remedy 
againut euch clifriBhed iu»t. Such carnal, beastly persons 
are still casting fuel on the lire; by wanton, unbridled 

• I Cor. »3. «— 5. 

4 BUtt. «. SI. 32. xU. 9. Join >)IL 4, i. OC Adalif/y. Heb. >ni. 4. 
P»v.«ii.l+. IlM.hf,«,S. Prot.iLiT. I iA.Jtf. Mil.ii.15. Pw». 
VhM,35. Dwi.uiii.S' ■>*' »i-9. oiti.tS. KumUuT, 9. Jcf.*.7~ 
TrttL *l. f . 3, Etc t 4iH. lili. tv. sll. 10. Judg. It. 10. Jrri 
uW. 14. 

• Ltn. XB. lU 



tlioughte and speeches, by gluttony, drinlting, sports, and 
idteness, by vain, enticing coinpHiiy, and not SToiding oo 
cosions, opportunitiet), and temptations, they bnm as much 
when they are married qs they did before. And the devil 
tliat blowDth ttp this 6rc. tn their flesli, dotli conduct and 
accommodate them in the satiRfying of their lusttij to thai 
their brutish concupiscence is like a iirQ burning in the wa;'' 
wat«r itaeU'wiU notquenchit. One woman will not satisfyil 
their beetiality ; and p«rhaps they loatlie their own wive 
and run after others, though their own (in the eye of anj 
impartial man) he the moi'e comely and amiable, and tlieir 
whoree he never so deformed, or impudent, tilthy lump? of 
dirt. So that one would think that they had no other rea- 
Kon, to love and follow such unlovely things, but only be- 
cause God forbiddeth it j as if the devil did it to shew hit 
power over them, that he can make them do that, as in de- 
spite of God, which else they would abhor themselres. 
When once their si-nsuahty and their forsaking of Gnd,hath 
provoked God to forsake them, and give them up to the 
rage of that sensuality, an unclean spirit sometimes t^kes 
possesBion of them, and wholly inclineth them to wallow in 
uncleanliness : they can scarce look a comely pemon in the 
face, that ia of the other sex, but uncleaa ihought!* are ris- 
ing in their hearts ; they tlnnk of filthiness when they arc 
alone; they dream of filthiness in the night; they talk of 
filthiness with others : the tongues of the dogs that licked 
L&xarus his sores, were not used in such a filthy employ- 
ment as theire are. "They arc as fud horses in the morn- 
ing ; every one neigheth after his neighbour's wife '." " They 
declare their sin as Sodom, and hide it not '." And usually 
when they are given over to this filthy sin, it utterly de- 
baucheth their consciences, and maketh them like bloclt» 
or beasts, inBensibk- of their misery and the wrath of God, 
and given over to all other villanies. and even to hute and 
persecute godliness, if not civility itflelf". Some few adul- 
terers I have known, that sin so much against their con- 
sciences, that they live in continual deapuir ; tormented in 
the sense of tlibir own unhappiness, and yet sinning stdl, 
m if the devil would make tliem a derision: and yet these 

' Jej. ¥.8. • It».i".9. 

«• R«w. »1.& Prov. ?.«). IlMiHicfnrcPMli. Cli"p.8. Pm. v.XB. I. 



are Uie better Bort, because thera is aome lesUnioay for h 
better life remaining in their minds; but others of theiu 
" being past feeling, h»ve given themselvea over tu lasci* 
viousoess, to work all uncleanncBS willi greedioeKK'." 
" They have eyes fuU of adulter^' that caiinut cease from 
sin, — As uatunU brute beasti thai arc made to be taken 
and de^troyed^." Take heed therefore of the causeii of this 
odious Bin, and of alt appearance of it; suffer not your eye 
or thought to go after a stranger, nor to begin a breach in 
your coTenant aud conjugal fidelity. 

Dirett. IV. ' lluBband and wife muet take delight in the 
love, and oompanVi and cnnv<?rse of each other.' There is 
nothing that man's beart ih lui inordinately set apon as de- 
light; and yet the lawful delight allowed tliera by God. 
tliey can turn into loathing aud disdain. The delight which 
would entangle you in Kin, aud turn you from your duty and 
from God, is it that i« forbidden you : but this ib a debght 
that is helpful to yoo in your duty, and would keep you 
from flin. When husband aud wife takt.- plem-ure in each 
other, it uniteth them in duty, it helpeth them with ease to 
do their work, and bear their burdens ; and it oot the least 
part of the comfort of the married state. " llejoice witJi 
the wife of thy youth, ax tlie lo«iiig hind and pleiuant roe, 
let her breaata sstisfy thee at all times, and be thou ravish- 
ed always with her love'." Therefore a wife is called ' The 
desire of the eyes'"." Avoid therefore all ihingn that may 
repreiwnt you unpleasant or nnlorely to each other; and 
ase all lawful meantt to cherish complacency and delight: 
not by foolish, ridiculous, or proud attire, or immodest ac- 
tions ; butby cleanness, and decency, and kind deportment. 
Nantineiis, and uncleanness, and unseemly carriage, and 
foolish Kpeech, and whatever is loathsome in body ormiod, 
must be shunned ua tcmptatiomi which would binder yuu 

tfrom that love, and pleasure, and content, which husband 
and wife should hare in one another. And yet it is a foolish, 
fleshly pemon, that will continue lore no longer than it is 
cherished with all this care. If there be any deformity of 
the body, or any thing unaeetoly in behaviour, or if God 
should visit them with any loathsome sores orsickneas, they 
' EpI.. Iv. 19. * J PcL iL lO— 11. ' pro*, f . IB, 19. 

■ EpIi.lT. 19. 
' Eatk. iti*. U. 


must for all that love each other, jrea, and take pleasure iu 
their converse. It in not a true frieod that leaveth yuu a 
adversity ; nor ia it true conjugal affection which is blasted' 
by a loathsoin« gickne»8. The love of mothei* to their chil- 
dren will make thum take pleasure in tlieni, notwithstanding 
their BickuexK or uncleauuHss ; and tto tdiould iheir love do 
between a husband imd his wife. He that considereth that 
his own tleKh la liable to the aaine disea»ea, and like era 
long to be au loathsome, will do as he would be done by, an<bj 
not turn away in time of her affliction from her that ia be 
come his Regh. Much less excusable is the crime of then 
Uiat. when they have nothing extraordinary to difitaste or 
dinaffect them, are weary of the company of one another, 
and had rather be in their neighbours' houses, than in tlieir 
own, and find more pleatture tn the company of a tttiuugex, 
than of one another. 

Direct, v, ' It is a great duty of huebauda and wives to 
live in qiiietneftit and pence, and avoid nil occaaiong of wrath 
and discord.' Because this i« a duty of so great importance, 
1 shall first open to you the great neceasity of it, anil then 
give you more particular Directions to perform iu 

1. It id a duty which your union or near relation doth 
especially require. Will you fall oat with yourvelveii ? Can- 
not yon agree with your own flesh ? 2. Your discord will 
be your pain, and the vexation of your livea. Like a bile, 
or wound, or fracture in your own bodies, which will pain 
you till it is cured \ you will hardly keep peace in your 
raindfj, when peace is broken so near your own family. As 
you would take heed of hurting yourseives.and asyou would 
hasten the ciin: when you are hurt ; so Kbould you take heed 
of any breach of peace, and quickly seek to heal it when it 
is broken. 3. Dissention tends to cool your love ; oft fall- 
ingout doth tend to leave a habit of distaste and aversenesa 
on the mind. Wounding is separating; and to be tied to- 
gether by any outward bonds, when your huurts ure scpa- 
ratad. is but to be toinmented^ and to have the iu«ides of 
Ddversaries, wliile you have conjugal outsides. As the dif- 
ference between my house and my prison is that 1 willingly 
and with delight dwell in the one. but am unwillingly con- 
fined to the othiX, auch will be the diHcrence between a 
quiet iiud an unquiet life, in your married utate: it turneth 




your dwelling luid Ut-ligbt into a prison, where you are chain- 
ed to those calamitiea, which in a free condilioit you might 
overruD. 4. Dissention between the husband and the wife, do 
disorder all tlieir family affairs ; they are like oxen un«^ual- 
ly yolied, that can rid no work for striving with one another. 
Nothitig 18 weli done because of the vanance of those tlmt 
should do it, or oversee it. 5. It exceedingly unlitteth you 
for the worship of God; you are not fit to pray togethtr, 
nor to confer together of heavenly things, nor to be helpers 
to each other's souls : [ need nottel) you this, you feel it. by 
experience. Wrath and bitterness will not allow you so 
much exercise of love and holy compeaedness of mind, as 
every one of thoite duties do require. 6. IMssentiun dis- 
ablcth you to govern your families aright. ¥our children and 
servantA will take example by you; or tbiuk they are at li- 
berty to do what they lint, when tfaey lind you taken up 
with such -work between yourselves : and they will think, 
you unfit to reprove them for their feults, when ihey 8e« 
you guilty of kucIi faults and folly of your nWn ; nay you 
will become the sbitmc and secret deri&iou of your family. 
and bring yourselves into contempt. 7. Your dissentiontt 
will expose yon to the malice of salan, and give him Advan- 
tage for manifold temptulions. A houMe divided cannot 
Stand: an army divided ia easily coniiaered, and made a 
prey to the enemy. You cannot foresee what abundance 
of sinyou put younielve&iu danger of. l)yulllhit> you may 
see what disAenliomt between husband and wife do tend to, 
and how they ithould be avoided. ' 

II. For the avoiding of them obaervo thtiw: eub-direc- 
eioQS. 1. Keep up your conjugal love in a constant heat 
and vigor. Love will suppress wrath : you cannot have a 
bitter mind npon small provocations, against those that you 
dearly love; much less can you proceed to reviling wordii 
or to aversenesa and eatnuiKcdness, or any abuse of one 
another. Or if a breach and wound be imhappily made, 
tlie baUamic quality of love will heal it. But when love 
once cooleth, ^mall matters exasperate and breed distaste. 

2. Both husband and wife must mortify their pride 
and pasgion, which are the causes of impatiency ; and muxt 
pray and labour for u humble, meek, and quiet spirit. For 
it is the diseaMid temper of the heart, that causcth di&sea- 




tions, more than the occasions or matter of otfenc« do. A 
proud heart is troubled and provoked by every word or 
carriage that seemeth to tend to their uoderraluing. A pee- 
Tish, froward mind is like a. sore and ulcerated member, 
that will be hurt if it be touclied. He tiiat must lire near 
such a aore, diseased, impatient mind, must live even ati ihe 
nurse doth with the child, that maketh it her business to 
rock it, and lull, and »ing it c|uiet when it crieth ; for to he 
angry with it. will do no good : and if you have married one 
of auch a. sick or childiBK temper, you must tchoIvq to bear 
and use tliem accordingly. But no Christian should bear 
with &\ich a vexatious malady in themselveti; nor be pa- 
tient with such impatieocy of mind. Once get the victory 
over yourselves, and get the cure of your own impatience, 
and you will easily keep peace with one another. 

3. Remember etili that you are both diseased persons, 
full of infirmities; and therefore expect the fruit of those 
infirmities in each other; and make not a strange matter of 
it. aa if you had never known of it before. If you had mar- 
ried one that is lame, would you b« angry with her for halt- 
ing? Or if you had married one that bad a putrid ulcer, 
would you fall out with her because it stiukt^tli ? Did you 
not know beforehand, that you married a. person of such 
weaknesses, as would yield you some matter of daily trial 
and oSeuce? If you could not bear this, you should not 
have married her ; if you resolved that you could bear it 
then, you are obliged to bear it now. Retiolve therefore to 
hear witli one another; as remembering that you took one 
another aa sinful, frail, imperfect persons, and not as angeU, 
or as blameless and perfect. > 

4. Remember etill that yon are one flesh ; and therefore 
be no more offended with the wordsor failings of each other, 
than you would be if they were your own. Fall out no 
more with your wife for her faults, than you do with your- 
self for your own faults; and than you would do, if hers had 
been your own. This will allow you such mi anger and dis- 
pleasura against a fault, as teudetli to heal it; but not nuch 
as tendeth but to fester and vex the diseased part. This 
will turn anger into compassion, and speedy, tender dili- 
gence for the cure. 

£. Agre>e together beforehand, that when 0))e is in the 



diseased, angry lit, the other sbnll iilenlly and gently bear, 
till it be paat and you are come to yoiirsE^lve); again. Be 
not angry both at once; when tlm lire is kindled, quciirh it 
with geatle words uud carriage, and do not cast on oil or 
foei, by answering provokingly and nharply, or by maltiply- 
ing nords, aud by answering wrath with wrath. 13ut re* 
member that now the work that yoa are called to in to mol- 
li^-, Eiad not to exasperute, to hi^lp, and not to hurt, Co cure 
tuiolher rather than to right yourttelf ; as if another fall and 
hurt him, your business i« Co help him up, and not to tread 
upon htm. 

6. Look before you. and remember that you must Mvt 
together UDtil death, and murtt be the companions of each 
others fortunes, and the comforts of each others lives, and 
then you will see how abciird it is for yon to disngrce and 
vex each other. Anger in the principle of revenge, and 
felling out doth tend to separutioti. Therefore thoKc that 
must not revenge, should not give way to anger ; and those 
that know they must not part, should not fall out. 

7. As far as ynii are able, avoid all occasions of wrath 
end &lling out, about the matters of your inmilies. Some 
by their Hlothfulnesa bring thrmsclvus into want; and tJien 
being unable to bear it, they contract a diftconbeutcd. peevish 
habit, and ia th«ir itnpationcy they wrangle and disquivt 
one anotlter. Some plunge tliemaelves into n mu1titud« of 
buune»s, and have to do with so many things and persons, 
that one or other is still ofli-nding them, and then they are 
impatient with one another. Some huvc neither skill nor 
diligence to manage their businesses aright ; and do things 
fall cruHs, and go out of order, and th4.n1 their impatienoy 
tumeth itself against each other. Avoid these occaMonfi. if 
yoa would avoid the sin, and free that yon be not unfamisfa- 
ed of patience, to bear that which cannot be aroided. 

B. If yuu cannot <^uickly quench your passion, yet at 
leaat refrain your tonguea; speak not reproachful or pro- 
Tokitig words: talking it out hotly doth blow the fire, and 
increase tliu Uiuue; be but silent., aud you will the sooner 
return to yoar serenity and peact. Foul words tend to 
more displi^aBare. As Socrates said when his wife first 
railed at Uim. and next tlirew a vessel of foul water upon 
him, " I thought when t heard the thunder, there would 






Ro yon may portend worse following, when 
foul, tiiueemly words b(>|^n. If you caunot easily allay 
your nralL, you may hold your tongucft, if you &re truly 

9. Let tht Rober party condescend to speak fair and to 
entreat tbc other, (uiiicsij it b« with a person so iueolent aa 
will be the worse.) Usually a few sober, grave admonitionv, 
will prove as water to the boiHiig pot. 8ay lo your aogry 
wife oi' hufibitnd, ' You know this ahoiild not be betwixt 
us ; love must aUay it, and it must be rcp«iit^ of. Ood 
dotli not approve it, and we shall not approve it when this 
heal is orer. This frame of mind is contrary to a praying 
frame, and this language contrary lo a praying language; 
we ninst pray together anon ; let us do nothing contmry to 
prayer now : sweet water and bitter come not front one 
spring,' 8tc. Some calm and condescending words of rea- 
son, may stop th» torrent, and revive the reason which 
passion had overcome. 

10. Confess your fault to one another, when pa».iion 
hfttb prevailed against yoa; and ask forgiveness of each 
other, and join in prayer to Ood for pardon; and this will 
lay a greater engagement on you, the next time to forbear: 
you will Kure be ashamed todo thatwhich you have so confess- 
ed and asked forgiveness for of God and man. If you wilt 
but practise the»e ten directions, your conjugal and family 
peace may be preserved . 

Direct, vi. ' A principal duty between husband and wife, 
is, with special f»re, and skill, and diligence, to help each 
other in the knowledge, and worship, and obedience of God 
in order to their salvation.' Because this is a duty in which 
you are the greatest helps and bleHsings to each other, if you 
perform it. I shall 1. Endeavour to quicken you to make 
conscience of it; and then 2. Direct you how to do it. 

1. Consider, 1. How little it can stand with rational love, 
to neglect the souls of one another 1 I suppose you believe 
that you have immortal souls, and an endless life of joy or 
misery to live; and then you cannot choose but know that 
your great concernment and business is, to make sure pro- 
vision for those souls, and for the endless life. Therefore 
if your love dcf not help one another in thin which ie your 
main concernment, it is little worth, and of little use. Eve- 




[part 11. 

ry thing ut this world is vsluable as it is useful. A D8«te88 
or unprofitable lore, is a wortbleHi* love. It ik a trifling, or 
a childisb, or a bepistly love, which helpeth you but in trifiing. 
childicth, or beaatly thirigB. Do you love your wife, and 
yet will leave her in tlie power of satan, or will n^thelp to 
gave her soul 1 What ! love her, and yet let her go to hell ! 
ftnd rather let her be damned than you will be at the putius 
to endeavour her salvation ! If she were but iu bodily pain 
or misery, and you refused to do your part to succour her, 
she would take it hut for cold, unprofitable love, though 
you were never so kind to her in compliments and trifles. 
The devil hitneelf inaketh ehew of such a love as tha.t ; he 
can vouchsafe men pleaeuree, and wealth, and honour, so 
lie may but see the perdition of their souls. And if your 
love to yotir wife or husband, do tend to no greater mattent 
than the pleasures uf thia life, whUe the soul is leH. to pe- 
rish in »in, bethink yourselvea seriously how little more 
kindness you shew them than the devil doth. O can you 
see the danger of one thai you love so dearly, and do no 
more to save them from ili Can vou think of the damna- 
lion of 80 dear a friend, and nut do all that you arc able to 
prevent It? Would you be sepa-rated from them in the 
world that you art; going to? Would you not live with 
them in heaven for ever? Never say you love them, if you 
wilt not labour for their salvation. If ever they com^- to 
hell, or if ever youece tbcm there, both they and you will 
then confess, that you behaved not yourselves like such as 
loved them. It doth not deserve the name of love, which 
can leave a soul to endless misery. 

Wliat then shall we say of them that do not only deny 
their help, but are hiudercrs of the holiness and tialvution 
of each otiier"! And yet {the Loi-d have mercy on the poor 
miserable world !) how cominon a thing ■>' LhiK among us! 
If the wile bi: ignorant and ungodly, she wilt do her wornl to 
make or keep her husband &ucb as she i» hereelf : and if 
Ood put any holy inclinations into his heart, she will be to 
itas water to the fire, to quench itur to keep it under. And 
if he will not be as sinful and miserable as herself, he shall 
have little quietness or rest. And if God open the eyes of 
the wife of a bad man, and shew her the- amiablenesM and 

* I Kinp li. 1. Ad* t. 9. Rre t* Adnni'i 

CHAP. Tll.l 



necesait}' of a holy lite, and she du but resolre to obey tlie 
Lord, and Havo her soul, what hii euumy and tyrant will bar 
husband prove to her, (if Ood restrain him not!) so thatJ 
tile devil himself doth scarce do more againut the Having of] 
their bouIa, than ungodly huiibands and wives do ugainsti 
each other. 

2. Consider also tlmt you live nol up to the endK at mar- , 
riage, nor of humanity, if you are nol helpers to each other'* , 
souIb. To help each other only for your bellies, is to livej 
together but like beasts. You are appointed to live toge- 
ther as "heir&of the grace of life"," " Aud liuuhaiid&mugt ' 
love their wives as Christ loved liis church, who gave hin>>j 
^elffor it that he might sanctify it and cIcaUHc it. that h^. 
might present it to himself a glorious church, 'without spot , 
or wrinkle, holy and without blemish f." Thxt which is th* 
end of your very life and btlug, must he the end of your re* 
lationB. and your daily converse. 

3. Consider also, if you neglect each other's souls, what 
enemies you are to one another, and how you prepare for 
your everlasting sorrows : when yon should be preparing for 
your joyfnl meetuig in heaven, you are laying up for your- 
selves everlasting horror, Wlxat a dreadful meeting and 
greeting will you have at the har of Christ, or in the flamat I 
of hell, when you shall find there how perversely you have I 
done''? Is it not better tobepraiaing God together iu glory, 
than to be raging against each other in the horror of your 
consciences, and flying in the facus of one anotlier with 
such accusations as these? — " O cruel husband ! O raerci-^ 
less, deceitful wife ! It was long of you tlmt I came to (his 
miisertthle, woeful end ! 1 might have lived with Christ aud j 
his saints in Joy, and now I am. tormented in thei^e flames ia' 
desperation! Yon were commanded by God to have given.) 
toe warning, and told me of my sin and mif*ery, and never j 
to let me rest in it, but to have instructed and entreated me» 
till 1 bad come home by Christ, that 1 might not have comej 
to this place of torment: but you never sn much as spakei 
to me of God, and my salvation, unless it were lightly in jest I 
or in your common talk ! If the house had been on tirsij 

" 1 pel. tli. 7. I" EphM. V. ts- 17. 

J- 4 iThm. V. 11. H»b. xil. 15. Col. ii. 19. Epli. i*. !(<• 1 t^r. iH. &] 
Cni.Mi*.9. 4- tr*. lb. 17. 

vol.. IV. K 


I PART n. 

you would b«eii more earnest to have quenched il, 
than you were to save my soul from hell ! Ypu nerer told 
m^ seriously of the misery of a oalural, unrenewed state! 
Nor of the great neeeasity of regeneration aad a holy lifel 
Nor erer talked to me of hc-aren and hell, as matters of 
such consequence should have been mentioned ; but mom- 
isg and ni^ht, your talk was itothiug hut about t}]e world, 
and the things of the world'. Your idle talk, and jei^ting, 
and froward, uid carnal, ajid uuprotitable discourse, %vbis it 
that 5llcd up all the time; and ne had not one sober word 
of our salvation. You never seriously foretold me of thi* 
day : you never prayed with me, nor read the Scripture luid 
good bookH to me. You took do pains to help me to know- 
ledge, nor to humble my hardened heart for my sins, nor to 
lave me from them, nor to draw m« to the luve of Qod and 
holiness by faith in Christ: you did not go before toe, with 
the good example of a holy and heavenly conreriiation : but 
with the evil example of an ungodly, fleshly, worldly life. 
You neither cared for your own »nul, nor mine ; nor I for 
yours or mine own. And now we are justly condemned to> 
^ther, that would not lire in holiness together !" O foolish, 
misGrable souls, that by your ongodlineRH and negligence in 
thii life, will prepare each otherfor suoh a life of endless wo« 
and horror ! 

O therefore resolve without delay, to live together at 
heirs of heaven, and to be helpers to each other's souls. 
To which end I will (pve you these following Sub-directions, 
which if you will faithfully practise, roav make you to bo 
special blessingK to each other. 

Dind. I. ' If you would help to save each other's aonlc, 
you must each of yon be sure that you have a oare of your 
•wn i and retain a deep and lively apprehension of those 
grau and everlasting matteiv, ol which you are to spxak 
to othera*.' It cannot be reaAonahly expected thai be 
should hav^ a due oompaHsion to another's soul, that hath 
none to his own ; and that he should b« at the pains tfatt is 
needful to help another to salvation, that setteth so little by 
his own, as to sell it for the base and momentary ea»>e and 
pleasure of the ticsh. Nor is it to be cxprctnd tliai a man 
should speak with any suitable weight and ttenousness about 
' N'uiiib. K'l. tv. St. • 0«a. H, It. 



tlKHte matters n-liose weight his heart did never fee), and 
ftbout which lie was never serioufi himself. Pirnt nee thai 
yoa feel throughly, that which would sp«iik prolilubly; and 
that you be what you perauade auuUier to he^ awl that «U 
yoDf counsel may be perceived to ariite from the botlo^i o( 
your hearts, and that you speak of tbingH whirh by expe* 
hence you are well ac«]uaiuted with. 

Direct, ii. ' Take lho»e opportiinitios which vo«r ordt- 
nary neanies!4 and familiarity aflordeth yoa. tn bespeaking 
seriously to each cither about the mutten of Ood, aikd yom 
saJvatioo.' Wlien you li« down and rise tog:«ther, let not 
your worldly bosiness have all your talk; but let Uod and 
your souIk huve the fimt and thv last, and at le^at the fVeest 
and sweetest of your speech, if not ihe most. When you 
have said so much of your common business as the nature 
and dispatch pf it requireth, lay it by, and Ulk together of 
the state and duty of your souls ton-arda God, and of voiir 
hopes of heaven, as those that take these for their greateal 
bnniness. And apeak not lightly, or unreverently. or in a 
rude and wrangling manner ; but with gravity and sobiiet^ij 
as those that are advising together about thej^reateitt malt 
that ever they had to do in the world. 

Dirrrt. in. ' When either husband or wife is speaking 
seriously about holy thiitg:», let the other be careful to che- 
rish, and not to exlinguigli and put an end to the discouriie.* , 
There are two ways to cherish such discourse : the first ia^ 
by taking your turn, and bearing a due proportion in the 
discouise with wisdom &nd g-iavity ; hut all cannot do tliia, 
some are but learners, and thoae must take the second way, 
which is, to ask for resolution in matters of which they doubt, 
or are nninstructed, and to draw on more by pertinent ques- 
tions. Thc3 two ways by which such discourse iH silenced 
are these : the 6rat is, by the constant sulence of the hearer; 
when a man talketh as to a post, that giveth him no answer, 
nor puttetli any pertinent question, lie will he wearied out 
at last, and will give orer : the aeuoud is, by u cross, coa- 
ttadicting. capilling, wrangliog against what is spoken, 
by interruptions and diversinns : when yon come in pre- 
sently with some worldly or impertinent talk, and wind 
about from sober contierence to something that is unedify- 
ing : and wme that wilt not seem merely profane, and vain. 


[part II. 

and vrorldly, will destroy all tioly, fruitful conference, even 
by a kind of religious talk ; presently carryLsg you away 
from heart-searching and heavenly discourse, to some con- 
troversy, or doctriaal, oi formal, or historical matter, that ia 
sufficiently distant from the heart and heaven- Take heed 
of these coureeg, if you vrould help each other. 

Direct, iv. ' Watch over the hearts and lives of one 
another, and labour to diacem the state of on« another's 
Bouls, and the strength or weakness of each otiier'a bins and 
graceii, and the failingn of each other's lives, that so you may 
be able to apply to one another the most niiitable help.' 
What you are unacquainted with, you cannot be very help- 
ful in'; you cannot cure unknown diseases; you cannot 
give wiee and safe advice, about the Ktate of one another's 
souIb, if you are mistaken in them. God hath placed you 
nearest to each other, that you might have so much interest 
in each other, ua to quicken you to a loving care, and so 
much acquaintance with each othex, as to keep you from 
misunderstanding, and so from neglecting or deceiving one 
another. And you should be always provided of those fit 
remedies, that are most needful and suitable to each uther'n 
r.a«e, If that preacher be like to be dull and unsuccessful 
that is all upon mere doctrine, and little or nothing in close 
and lively application, you may conceive that it will be so 
also with your familiar conference. 

Dinri. v. ' See that you neither flatter one another 

through fond and foolish love, nor exasperate one another 

by a passionate or contemptuous kind of reprehension.' 

Some persons are so blinded with fond affection, that they 

can scarce see in husband, wife, or children any aggravated 

' sin or misery ; but they think all is well that they do, or not 

lao ill as in another they would perceive it; but this is the 

itame course that self-loving sinners take with their own 

souls, to their delusion and perdiiioo. This flattering of 

■yourselves or others, is but the devil's charm to keep vou 

from etfectual repentance and salvation : and the ease of 

such anodynes and narcotics doth endure but a little while. 

• On the other side, some cannot speak to one another of their 

'fisults, without such bitterness of passion, or contempt, as 

wndeth to make the stomach of the receiver to loathe the 

■ MmI. xxtII 19. 




medicine, and do to refuse -it, or to oast it up. if common 
re|>ri>afk to strangers must all he offered in love, much more 
between the nearest relationit. 

Direct, vt. ' Be sure thatyou keep up trne-coitju^ lore 

to ojic another, and that you grow not to di»aflt;ct the per- 
Hon& of L'ach other.' For if you do, you witl i)eHpit>4i each 
other's counsels and reproofs. They tliat slight, or loathe, 
or are weary of each other, will disdain reproofs, and scorn 
advice from one another ; when entire aHection greatly di»- 
poseth to the right entertainment of iniitrucliun. 

Dirtxt. VII, ' Discourage nut each other from inalniction 
or reproof by takini^ it ill, or by churliith reflections, or by 
obstinnte «nreformi'dtie««,' When you will not learn, or 
will not amend, you discguiage your imttructor and re- 
prover. Men will be apt to give over, when they are re- 
quited with lugratitudc, und snappish retortious, or when 
they perceive that their labour is all in vain. And as it is 
the heaviest judgment of God that befalleth any upon earth, 
when he wilhdraweth his advice and help, and leaveth sin- 
ners wholly to themselves ; so it is the saddest condition in 
your relations, when the ignomnt and sinnmg party is for- 
saken by the other, and left to their own opinions and ways; 
though indeed it should not be so, because while there is 
life there is hope. 

Direct, viti. 'So far as yon are able to instruct or quicken 
one another, call in for better helps : engage each other in 
(he reading of the most convincing, quickening hooks, and 
in attendance on the most powerful ministry, and in profi- 
table converse with the holiest persons.' Not ao as to neg- 
lect your duty to one another ever the more, but that all 
helps concurring may be the more effectual. When they 
find you iipeak to them but the same things which ministers other Christians apeak, it witl be the more easily received. 

Direct. IK. * Conceal not the state of your souls, nor hide 
your faults from one unother.' You are as one ffesb, and 
should have one heart : and as it is most dangerous for 
aman to be unknown to himself, lo is it very hurtful to haa- 
band or wife to be unknown to one another, in those cases 
wherein they have need of help. It is foolish tendemesB of 
yourselves, when yoii conceal your disease from your phy- 
sician, or your helpful friend ; and who should be so tender 



of you, and helpful to you, ae you ohoiild he to one another ? 
Indf<«<l in Rome few casfls, where the opening of a fault or 
secret will but tend to quench nJi'ection, and not to get ass- 
BiBtanoe trom another, it i» wisdouQ to coitccal it ; but that 
is not the ordinary caee. The opening your hearts to eech 
other is necesanry to your mntuoJ help. 

Direct, x. ' ATotd an much as may be, contrariety of 
opimons in reii^on :' for if once you he of different jodg- 
iu«nts in malt*ri4 which yon talt« to be of p-eat conccrnnient, 
you will he Tempted to disafiVct, cont«mn, or undermine 
one another i and &o to despite the help whicli yuu might 
receive : and if you fall into several sect*, and follow ftover&l 
teachers, you will hardly a*oi<l that conteation and confn- 
Bion, which will ptxjve a great advantage to the devil, and a 
grt«t impediment to your spiritual good. 

Dirtct. XI. ' If difference in judji^mentio mattere of re- 
ligiou do fail out between you, be snre that it be manRged 
witli hoUnesa, bomility, love, and peace, and not with car- 
nality, pi-idv. uiichuritiiblerie^tt, or contention.' 1. To ma- 
nage your differences holUy, is to take God for the judge, 
and tOK^ the matter to hin Word, and to aim at Iuk glory, 
and the pleasing of his will, and to UKe his means for the 
concord of your judgments ; which is, to search the Scrip- 
ture, and cunHult with the faithful, able pa&tors of the church, 
and suberly and p«ti«ntly to debate the ca^c, and pray lo- 
getber for the illumination of the Spirit. On the contrary- 
year diderencctt an- carmJty managed, when carnal rtrnMoni) 
breed or feed them ; ami when you run after thi» or that 
sect or party, through admiration of the persons, and v&lae 
not the pitrsoDa fbt the aak* of the truth, but meanure truth 
by the opinion and estimate of the perttons ; and wbi-o you 
end your difierence^a by s«lfiitb, caraal priuciplea and res- 
p«ots : and hetice it comes to paaa, that if the huAband be a 
Papiat«r othenrine erroiieouB, it is two to one that tht wife 
bccnmerii of his erroneous religion, not beotoae wf wiy co- 
gent evidence, but becanse he in of the Btrottgor ^ftrta, and 
baUioonstaM orpportuoity toperBQade.and beoauae love pre- 
fwneth «nd ioclineth hc^r to be of hi« opinion : and thus man 
nialc«d of Gud, is thv niaskr of tin- fuith of muay. 2. Your 
diflerenoee areiuan*(»ed in hnmiiity,when y*« have ajtist and 
.simltwt Kiwpicion of your own imderstunding*, and d«batv 




and (>ractise your difiereucee witb meekness and Kubmi*- 
sioit ; aod do not proudly overvaliie all youi own apprcheii- 
■ions, and despise anutlutv's rbasoQa as if they were Dot 
worthy of your consideration. 3. Yuur difivrvuces must Ix 
fto faj" managed ia lore, not that nier« love sbould make you 
tuni to unoLher's opinion be it true or (also, but that you 
must be very dettiious to be of the »ame mind, and if you 
cannot, must lake it I'ur a sore nSliction, und must bear with 
the tolemble mistakes ol' one another, as you bear with 
your own intirmities; that they cool not love, nor alienate 
your heails from one another, but only provoke you to a 
tender, healing, cooipusKionate care, and endeavour to du 
«ach other good. 4. And you must manage your diB'erencei 
in quietness, without any passionate wranglings and dis- 
seotions, that no bitter fruits may be bred by it in your fa- 
mitiea, among yourselvett. Tiius all true Christians must 
manage thvir diU't^rcDcos in matters of religion i but mniTitd 
persons above all. 

Direct. XII. ' Be not either blinilly indulgent to each 
other's faults, nor yet too censorious of each other's stttte, 
lest satan thereby get advantage to alienate your atfectiooo 
from one another.' To make nothing of the tanlta of thoM 
whom yon love, is to love them foolishly, to their hurt, and 
to shew that it is not for their virtues that you love them. 
And to make too great a niattei of one another's faults, is 
but to help the tempter to quench your love, und turn your 
hearts from one another. Thus many good women that have 
busbftud^ that are guilty of too muoh coldness in religion, 
or worldly mindedness, or falling into ill cumpuny, and mis- 
ftpending their lime, are hr&t apt to overlook all possibility 
of any seed of grace that may be in th^m, and then looking 
on them as ungodly persons, to abate too much their love 
and duty to them. There is great wLsdom and watchfulness 
requisite in this case, to keep you from being carried into 
cither of the extremes. 

Dirtet. XIII. * Ifyouare married to one that isindeedaa 
iniidel. or an ungndly person, yet keep up all the conjugal 
lovewhiuh ie due fortlie relation's sake.' Thouj^h you can- 
not lore them as true Christians, yet lore them »s huaband 
or wife. Even heathens arc bound tn fore tltoae that an 
thus related to them. The apontle hath determin»d the 




ease, 1 Cor. vii. that ChristmiDi must [icrform their duties to 
husbands or wives that are unbelievers. The faults of 
another discharge you not from your duty. As sataa hath 
deceiYcd some by separating principLea about church com- 
munion, to deny nlmost sill God's ordinances to many, to 
whom they are due ; so doth he thus deceive Kome persona 
III family relations, and draw them from the duties which 
they owe for owe auotlier';* good. 

Direct, xtv. ' Join together in frequent atid fervent 
prayer.' Prayer dolU force tlie mind into some cumpoBed- 
netis and Hohriety. and aHecteth the heart with the presence 
aiid mupeiity uf God. Fray also for each other when you 
are in secret, that God may do that work which you most 
desire, upon each other's UearUt. 

Direct. XV. Lastly, ' Help each other by an exemplary 
life.' B« that yourselves which you desire your husband or 
wife should be : excel in meekness, and huuulity, and cbanty, 
and dutifulne«N, anddili>reiice, and self-denial, and patience, 
&8 far iia you do excel in profession of religion. St. Peter 
Eaith, Uiat even tho^e that will not be won by the Word, 
may be won withoat it by the conversation of their wives : 
that is, the excellency of religion may so far appear to 
them, by llie fruits of it in their wives' conversations, ag 
may first incline them to tliink well and honourably of it, 
and so to inquire into tlie nature and reason of it, and to 
hearken to their wives ; and all this witJiout the public mi- 
nistry. A life of undisKembled lioliness. and hearenliness, 
and self-denial, and meekness, and love, and oiortificution. 
IS a powerful sermon ; which, if you be constantly preaching 
before those that are Ktill near you. will hardly miss of 
good effect. Works are more palpably si^nilicant and per 
suasive, than words alone. 

Dirttt. VII. • Another great conjugal duty is, tobobelp-'^ 
ful to each other for the health and comfort of their bodieK".^ 
Not to pamper each other's flesb, or cherinh the vices of 
pride, or slotli, or gluttony, or vuluptuniisiicss in each other \ 
but to further the health and cheerfuhiess of the body, to fit 
it for the service of the soul and God. Such cherishing or 
pleasing of the 6esh, whicli in unlawful in each person to 
himself, is also unlawful (ordinarily) to use toanother. But 
" Hmn. iSl 13. I*. Ejifan. t. t9. 31. G«i. iL IS. 


CHAK Vll.] CM'ftlSflAN KCONOH1C8. 


such ns you muy um for yourself, you muy use ilso for your 
wife or husband. Not to live above your estates, uor i 
servants lo your guts, to serve the appetites of one another'' 
by Jelicious fare ; but to be careful of that heulth, without 
which your Uvet? will be made unserviceable or uncomforta- 
ble : a.nd this must proceed Irom such a love to one another 
as you have lo yourselves : 'and that both in time of healths 
and sickness. 

1. Ill health, you must be careful tu provide for each 
other (not «o much pleasing as) wholeaome food, and to'J 
keep each other from that which in hurtful to your health ^.l 
dissuading each other from gluttony and idlenesit, the two' 
great murderers of mankind. If the bodies of the poor, lai 
hunger, and cold, and nakedness must be relieved, tnuclLi 
more of those that are become as your nwD flesh. 

2. Also in sickness, you are to be tenderly regardful of\ 
each other i and not to be sparing of any costs or pains, by ' 
which the health of each otker may be restored, or your' 
souls confirmed, and your com.forts cherished". You must' 
not loathe the bodies of each other in the most loathsome' 
eickness, nor shun them through loathing ; no more than 
you would do your own?^. " A triend ioveth at all tiraea, 
and a brother is born for adversity':" much more those 
that are so nearly bound for sickness and health, till death i 
shall eeparatc them. It ie aa odious sin to be weary of a 
sick or Buffering friend, and desirous that God would take 
them, merely that you may be eased of the trouble. And 
usually such y.ersons do meet with such measure as they' 
measured to others; and those that they look for help and' 
comfort from, will perhaps be as weary of them, and as glad^ 
to be rid of them. 

■•(( i>iV«f(. viii. ' Another duty of husbands and wives ii ' 
to be helpful to each otlier in their worldly business, and 
estates*.' Not for worldly ends, nor with a worldly mind ; ■ 
but in obedience to God who will have them labour, as well 
as pray, for their daily bread, and haLh deLermiiied that in 
the sweat of their brows they shall eat their bread i and that 
iix days they shall labour and do all that they have to do; 
and that he that will not work must not eat. The care of 

*G«Luvil.l4. »Ep1i.».a9.SI. jDh.tlx.l7. ii.9. ■ 
• See Pnrr. nmI. Oen.s»l. 40. IK. ii.A. 111m. v. 14. f B, 



their affairs doth lie upon Uiem boUi, aud ueither of tbem 
iuu»t cant it oS anil live iu idleness (unlr»s one of tbeui 
be an idiul, or no Hitlers, as to be until Tor car«, or so sick 
or kme, as to be unfit for Ubour). 

Direct. IX. 'AlBoyoutuustbecarefuloftheUwrul honour 
and good uauieit of one aoother''.' You must not divulge 
but conce^ the dinhonoumblo failingtf of eacb other: (b« 
Abigaiil, except iu uuy case compassion or justice recjuire 
yOu to open tbem to any one for n cure, or to clear the 
truth.) The reputation of each other must l>e hk dear to 
you as your own. It is a itmfuli and unfaithful practice of 
many, both husbauda and wireHj who amoo^ th«ir compa- 
nions are opening the fnulM and intirniitieii of each other, 
H-hich they are bound in t«ndt.-rn«isK Iu corer. Ah if they 
perceived oot that by dishonouring one another, they dis- 
faonour themselves. Love will covvr a multitude of fanltti. 
Kay, many disntiecled, peevish personii will aggravate 
all the faults of one another behind their backa to stranger*; 
and Kometimea slander theJS, and speak more than ic 
truth. Many n uiiin batli been put to clear his good 
nam« from the Zanders of a jcalouii or a passionate wife : 
and an open enemy is not capable of doing one so much 
wroitg as she that is in his bosom, becnufic slie will easily 
be beliered. aa being supposed to know him better than any 

Dinei. x. 'It is alao a great pnrt oS the dnty of haa- 
bands and wives, to be helpful lo one uuuther in tlie educa- 
tion of their children, und in the government oftlit- inferiors 
of the family'.' Some men cast all the care of their cfaiL- 
dr«n while they are young upou their wives : and many wo- 
men by tlieir passion and indiscretion do make lliemselves 
nnbt to help their huabandx in the gorermiieat either of 
tbflir children or Mrvants : but this ia unv uf the greatort. 
partK of their employment. As to the mnn's part, to gVTW* 
his houKR well, it is ^ duty unquestinnable. And it it not 
fcu be denied uf the wife. " I will that tin* younger women 
many, bear children, guide the boused" Uathsheba taiighl 

■■iSatu. UT.ty MitL XTiii. i6. UaD. L 19. tBta.»Lr. Pnir, sssi 
M. Gectci. *ll. S. 1*Nrr. ixll. I. t Stm. vl. «0. Gm. '». ft.tlt. 

" iTiiu. uL 4. It. Ocs.iviii. I*. »ti».t, fcc. Jvt, xiiv. 14. PmUcL 
* ITmi. t. It. 



Solomon'. Abig«il took better care ofKabal's house Uiaa 
be did himself. They that have a joint interest, and are 
one fleah, must have a joint part iu goveramvat; although 
their power be not equal, and one may better oversee some 
btiBine», and the other, other busiuess ; yet iu their ptacM i 
they miisi divide tbc care, and help each otlier : and not' 
as it is with many wicked persons, vrbo are the most unruly 
part of the family tlieiusel\r^. and the chitfest cauBc that 
i!. is ungoveriied and ungodly, or uuc party hindereili the 
other from keeping order, or dmng any good. , 

Direct. XI. ■ Another part, of their duty is, to Iiclp each 
oth«r in worka of charity and hospitality^' While they 
hare opportunity to do good Co all, but especially to them 
of the houaehnid of iaith ; and to sow to the Spirit, that of 
the Spirit tbey may reap everlasting life : yea, to sow plcu- 
tifiiUy that they may reap plentifully^, that ii'they are abl« 
their bouses may allbrd relief and entertainment for th« 
needy ; especially for Christ's servanta for their inastvr'ft'j 
sake; wlio hath promitted that "He that rercireth a pro-] 
phet in the name of n prophet sliuU receivv a propliet'a rtK 
ward : and he that receiveth a righteous man in the name of 
a righteous man, shall receive a righteous man's reward: 
and whosoever shall give to drink unto one of these little 
ones, a cup of cold water, in the name of a disciple, verily 
I say unto you, lie shall in no wise lo&e his reward ''," Ihe 
woman of Shuneui lost notliing by the enterlaiiiment of 
Klisha, when she said to her busbancl, " Behold, now 1 per- 
ceive that this is an holy man of God which passeth by us 
continually : let tis make him a little chamber I pnty thee on 
the wall, and let ua set for him there a bed, and atahle, and 
a stool, and a candlestick: and it ttbaJI be wheu he cometh 
to Qs, that he shall turn in thither'." But now how cotDr 
mon is it for the people to think all too little for them- 
selves ; and if one of them be addicted to works of charity, 
the other is covetons and is always hindering them. 

Jhrect. XII. ' Lastly, itis a great part of the dutyof hu^j 

• Vtav. XXK.\. L 

'Htb.xiii.X. Gon. aviii. d, &c. Ami. sil^ IS. tC»r.a.6> LuLa iTi.l 
1 Tijn. iu. X. *. 10. Prov. xi. KO. iS. l^ch. vlH. 10. Pni*. xU. 17. Job kxi) 
IS. >iil. fU. nen XI. 35. 

*Ual.»l. MJUalt.*. •I.«l. •SlUn|iiT.«,iO. 

[part II. 

bunds and wires, to be helpers and comfortent of each other 
in order to a safe and happy deith.' 1. In the lime of 
health, you niuat often and seriously remember each other 
of the time when death will make the separation; and live 
together in your daily conTcrse, as tliose that are otill ex- 
pecting the parting hour. Help to awaken each other's 
souls, to make r«ady all those graceH which then will prove 
necessary, and to live in a constant preparation for y«ur 
change. Reprove all that in one another, which will be 
unsavoury and ungriiteful to your review at disath. If you 
see each other dull and bIow in your preparations, or to live 
in vanity, worldline^^s, or sloth, as if you had forgotten that 
you muKt shortly die, atir up one another to do all that 
mthout delay which the approach of such a day requiretb. 
2. And when death in at hand, O then whnt abundance of 
tendtrmes^, aud, and skill, and diligence, is 
needful for one, that hath the last oftice of love to perform, 
to the departing *ouI of so nearafneud! O then what 
need will there he of yuur muHt wise, and faithful, and dili- 
gent help! When Uiiture fail>oth, and thtf pains of Aesh di- 
vert the mind, and temptations are stroDge^t while the body 
is weakest ; when a languishing body, and u doubting, fear- 
ful, troubled mind, do call for your compassion and help, O 
then what akill and holy seriousnesN will be neceRisaiy ! O 
what a calamity in it to have a carnal, un»anctiiied hnaband 
or wife, which will neither help you to prepare for death, 
nor can speak a serious word of coudbvI or comfort to 
you at a dying hour : that can do nothing but stand bv aud 
weep over yon ; but have not a sensible word to say, aboal 
the life that you are going to, nor about the duty of u de- 
parting Roul, nor ngaimtt the temptationit and fears which 
then niay be ready to overwhelm you. Tliey that are ut- 
terly unprepared and unlit to die themselves, can do little 
to prepare or help another. But IhtT,- that live together 
as the heini of heaven, and coHverse ou earth as fellow-tra- 
vellers to the land of prunuae. may help and encourage the 
souls of one another, and joyfully part at death, as expect- 
ing C|uickly to meet again in life eitmal. 

Were it not le«t I be over-tinlious, I should nest speak 
of the manner how husbands and wives must perform their 
duties to each other: &k 1. Thai it should be all done in 



such entire love, as tnaketh the case of one another to you 
8s your own, 2. That therefore nil mtjet be done in patience 
and mutual forbearance. 3. And in famitiarity, and not 
with strtingeneas, distance, sourness, oor aHccted complt- 
ment. 4. And io secrecy; where I should have shewed you 
in what cases Kecrecy may be broken, and in vrhnt not. 6^ 
And in confidence of each other's fidelity, and not in bus* 
picion, jealousy, and distrust, fi. And in prudence to ma- 
nage things aright, and to foresee and avoid impediments 
and inconvenienciefi. 7. And in holiness that God may b« 
the first and last, and all in all. 8. And in constancy that 
you cease not your duties for one another until death. Bat] 
necessary abbreviation allowetli me to say no more of | 


The special Duties of Huifmnds to their Wives. 

He that will expect duty or comfort from his wife, must be 
faithful in doing the duty of a husband. The failing of 
yourselves in your own duty, may cuuB>e the failing of ano- 
ther to you, or at least will some other way aa much afllict 
you., and will be more bitter to you in the end, than if an 
hwiulred failed of their duty to you, A good husband will 
either make a good wife, or easily and profitably endure a 
bad one. 1 shall therefore give you directionB for your own 
part of duty, ae that which yonr happiness is most coQcem- 
ed in. 

Direct. I. 'The husband must undertake the principal 
part of the government of the whole family, even of the 
wife herself.' And therefore 1. He mu8t labour to be fit 
and able for that government which he undertaketh : tlitti 
ability conKisteth I. In holiness and spiritual wisdom, that 
he may be acquainted with the end to which he is to con- 
duct them, and (he rule by which he is to guide thera; and 
the principal works which ibey are to do. An ungodly, 
'irreligtouR man is both a stranger and an enemy to the 
■chiefewt part of family-government. 2. His ability consist- 

rtli in a due acquaintance vrith the works of his calling, 
and the labours io which hie Rervanu nre to be employed. 
For he that is utterly unac<][uainted with thtir buntnefw, 
will be very unfit to govern them in it: unless hp commit 
that part of their goTernioent to his wife or h steward that 
ia acquainted with it. 3. And Ue must be acquainted both 
with the common tftmpfr and inAratities of njnntiiKl. thai 
he may know how much is to be borne with, and also with 
the particular tecnper, and faults, and virtue* of those whom 
he is to govern. 4. And he must have prudence to direct 
himself in all his carriage to thetu: and jiintit* to deal with 
KTeryoneas ihey deserve; and love todo them all the good 
he can, for soul and body. 11. And being thus able, he 
must make it his daily work, and eHpt^cially be sure that 
hi) govern himself well, that his example may be part of his 
government of otliers. 

Direct, II. 'The husband must so unite authority and 
love, that neither of them may be omitted or concealed, but 
both he exercised and maintained.' Love must not be ex- 
ercised so ituprudeutly as to destroy tlie exercise of author- 
ity : and authority mutit not be exeici&ed over a wife so ma- 
giatenally and imperiously, ae to destroy the exercise oS 
love. As your love must be a governing luve, ao your ootu- 
maadamuat all be loving commaDd^. Lo^e not your author- 
ity} for that will but disable you frooi doing the olhce of a 
husband to your wife, or of a ntaator to your servauts. Yet 
tnuBt it bemainlained by no raeana iacoaaisteulwith conju- 
gal love } and tlierefore not by fierceness or cruelty, by 
threatenings or stripes (unless hy distraction or loss of lea- 
aoD. they ccaae to bu incapable of the carriage otbcrwisc due 
to awife). There are many cases of equality in which au- 
thority i)i not to be exercised ; but there is no case of iueqiiul- 
ity or unwortbiness so great, in whicli conjugal lovo la not 
to be exercised; and tbereforo aothiog must exclude it. 

Direct, iki. ' It ia the duty of husbands to preserve the 
authority of their wives, over the children and servants of 
the Gunily.' For Uiey are joint goveruors with them over 
bU the ioTeriors. Aad the iofimiitias uf women are apt 
many timee to expose them to contempL : so that, servants 
and children will be apt lutdigfal them, and disobey tbesn, jf 
the husband interpose riot to preserve their honour and 





anthoritjr. Vet this must I>e done with Kueh caniHXK a# i 
tbese: 1. Justify nut nay error, vice or weakneflH u( yon^j 
wives. They may he concealed and excnued ns ior us maTJ 
b«, bal never owned 0( defended. 2, Urge not obedience' 
to any unlawful commnnd of theirs. No one hath authority < 
to contradict the law of Qod, or disoblige any from hivi 
government. You will hut diminish your own fluthority] 
mtli persons of any undvristundiag, if you justify any thirip' 
that is against God'saulbority. Bat if the thing eommaod- 
«d be lawful, though it may have some inconTt^niencefl, yool 
must rebuke the disobRdience of inferiors, and not sufle 
them to illicit the commands of your VfiTen, nor to set theiH 
own reason and wills against them, and siy, ' We will noCi 
do it.' How can they htlp you in government, if you Ruffei^j 
them to be disobeyed. 

Direct, iv. ' Also you must ppenerve the honour an well'j 
as the authority of your wives.' If they have any dia 
honourable infirmities, thc-y are not to be mentioned by 
children or servantit. A» in the DRtural body we cover mont 
carefully the most dia honourable parts (for our cnmefy parts 
have no need '), ho must it he here. Children or servants 
must not be suffered to carry tbraiaelvefl contemptuously or 
rudely towards them, nor to despiaa them, or speak unman- 
nerly, proud or disdainful worda to them. The hunband 
must vindicate them fixira all such injury and contempt. 

Direct. V. 'The husband is to excel the wife in know*! 
ledge, and be her teacher in the matters that belong to her 
salvation.* He mnnt instruct her in the Word of Gtjd, and 
direct her in particular duties, and help her to subdue her 
own corruptions, and labour to confirm her ngaimit tempta- 
tions -y if she doubt of any thing that be can Ksolve her in, 
she ia to ask his resolntion, »nd he to open to her at home, 
the things which she understood not in the congregation ''. 
But if the husband be imieect an ignorant sot, or have made 
himself imable to instruct hia wife, she i» not bound to ask 
him in vain, to teach her that which he underatandeth not 
himself. Those husbands that despise the Word of God, 
and live in wilful ignorance, do not only despise their ovrA 
sonta, bat their familieA also ; and making (hemselvea on- 
nble for their duties, they arc nstwily themselvee despised 

* I Cor. lii. C9, H- 

* I Cor. ■■• ■ Si. 


[PART If. 

by their inferiorB : for God hath told such in hie message to 
Bit, " Them that bonoui' me, I will honour; and they that 
despiHC mc. shall be lightly esteemed'." 

Direct vi, 'The husband luuat be the principal teacher 
of the family.' He must instruct theui, and examine them, 
and rule them about the matters of God, as well as his own 
service, and see that the Lord's day and worship be observed 
by all tba.t are within his gate8. And therefore he must la- 
bour for such understanding and ability as i« oeceBsary 
hereunto. And if he be unable or negligent, it is his sin, 
and will be his shame. If the wife he wiser and abler, and 
it. be caat upon her, it itt his diehonour : but ifncilberof 
them do it, the aio, and shame, and sutfering, will be com- 
mon to tbem both. i- 

Direct. VII. 'The husband is to be the mouth of the fa- 
mily, in their daily conjunct prayers unto God.' Therefore 
he must be able to pray, and aUo have a praying heart. He 
must be as it were the prieutt of the houfii-hold; and there- 
fore should be the most holy, that he may be fit to stand 
between them and God. aud to offer up their prayers to 
him. IftJiiB be cast on the vrife, It will be his dishonour. 

Direct, viii. ■ The husband is to be the chief provider 
for the family (ordinarily).' It is supposed that he is most 
able for mind sOid body, and is the chief disposer of the es- 
tate. Therefore he must be specially careful, that wife and 
children want nothing that is fit for them, so far as he can 
procure iU 

Direct. IX. 'The husband must be strongest in family-pa- 
tience ; bearing with tlie weakiie»s and passious of the wife : 
not so as to make light of any sin against God, but so as 
not to make a great matter of any frailty as against himself, 
a]]d BO as to presf^rve the love and peace which is to be as 
the natural temper of their relation.' 

Dirtct. X. ' The manner of all these dutiea must also be 
carefully regarded.' As 1. Tliatthey be done in prudence, 
aodDOtwitb folly, rashness, or inconsiderateness. 'i. Thai 
all be done in conjugal love, and tenderness, as over one 
that is tender, and the weaker vessel ; and that he do not 
t«ach, or command, or reprove a wife, in llie same imperious 
manner as a child or servant. 3. That due familiarity be 
• 1 iUin. H. sa.- 




matntained, and that he keep nut at b distance and strange- 
nc8B from his wife. 4. That love Lb confident, without 
base suspicions, aad causeless JcaJousica. 6. That all be 
done in gentleness, and not in pnKsioii, roughneu* and sour- 
ness. 6'. That there be no uojust and caus«leiis concftal- 
ment of secret^, which ahouM be common to them both. 7. 
That there be no foolish opening of &ucb Mcrcts to h«r a« 
may become her snare, and she is not able to benr or keep. 
8. That none of their own matters, which should be kept se- 
cret, be made known to others. His teaching and reproving 
her, should be for the most part secret. 9. That he be 
constant, and not weary of his love or duty. I'bis briefly 
of the manner. •■ 


The special Dutm of Wives to Husbands. 

The wife that expecteth comfort in a husband, must make 
conscience of all her own duty to her husband : for though 
it be his duty to be kind and faithful to her, though she . 
prove unkind and froward, yet I. Men are frail and apt to 
fail in such difficult duties as well as women. 2. And it is 
«o ordered by God, that comfort and duty shall go together, 
and you shall miss of comfort, if you cast off duty. 

Direct, i. ' Be specially loving to your husbands;' your 
natures give you the advantage in thia ; and love feedcth 
love. This is your epecial requital for all the troubles that 
your infirmities put them to. 

Direct. II. ' Live in a voluntary subjection and obedience 
to them.' If their softness or yieldingness cause them to 
relinquish their authority; and for peace they are fain to 
let you have your wills ; yet remember that it is God that 
hath appointed them to be your heads and governors. I 
they are so silly as to be unable, yi>u should not have clio- 
Kcn such to rule you as are unfit: but having chosen them, 
you must aasiet them with your better understanding, in a 
aubmissive, and not a ruling, roasterly way. A servant that ' 
bath a foolish master, may help him without becoming mas* ' 
ter. And do not deceive yourselves by giving the bare titles 

VOL. IV. t 



of govercunent to your husbands, when yet you must oeedft 
in all things have your onn wills ; for this is but mockery, 
and not obedience. To b« subject and obedient, is tu lake 
the understanding aiid will of another to govern you, before 
(though not without) your own ; and to make your uudcr- 
stundings and wills to follow the conduct of his that goveni- 
eth you. Sclf-willedness is contrary to subjection and obe- 

Direct, in. ' Learn of your husbando as your appointed 
teachers, and be not self-conceited and wi8e in your own 
cyca. but ask of them such iustiuctioas an your ca»e rcqui- 
reth.' " Let your women keep silence in the churches : for 
it is not permitted to them to 6peak ; but tliey are couijnond- 
ed to be under obedience, as also enith the law: and if tiicy 
will learn any thing, let them, ask their husbands at home ";" 
(unle&s when the husband is $o ignorant as to be utterly un- 
able; which is his ain and shame. For it is vain to auk 
that of them which they know not.) 

Direct, iv. 'Set yourselves seriously to amend all those 
faults which they reprove in you.' Do not take it 111 to be 
reproved; swell not against it, as if they did you harm o]r 
wrong : it is a very ill sign to *' hate reproof ••." And what 
dutEi their government of you signify, if you will not ajnend 
the faults that arc reproved in you, but continue impenitent 
and grudge at the reproof/ It is a miserable folly to desire 
to be flattered, and soothed by any, but especially by one 
that is bound to be faithful to you, and whoiic intimacy 
should make you as ready to hear of your faults from him, 
if to be acquainted with them yourselves; and especially 
Iflien itconcernclh the safety or benefit of your souls. 

Direct. V, • Honour your husbands according to their su- 
periority.' Behave not yourselves towards them with unre* 
vereucc and contempt, in titles, speeches, or any beba- 
Tionr : if the wortli of their persona deserve not honour, yet 
their place deserveth it. Speak not of their infinnitiee to 
others behind tbeir backs ; as some twattling gossips use to 
do, that know not that their husband's dishonour is theif 
own, and that to open it causeleHsIy to others, is their dou* 
ble shame. Those that silently hear you, wilt tell others be- 
hind your back, bow foolislily and shamefully you spoke to 
, I.,' XCw.iiT.U,SS. I' Pnir. sii. 1. M.KKSi.St. ivUii^. 




them against your husbands. irOod hare made your ucm> 
eat fiicntl an affliction to jou, why nhoold you complain to 
one that is farther off? (Uolcss it be to some special, pru- 
deut friend, in case oftruc necessity for advice.) 

Direct. VI. ' Live in a cheerful contentednens with youp, 
conditio!); and take heed of an impatient, murmuring ^i' 
lit.* It is a continual burden to a man to have an impa^ 
tient, discontented wife. Many a poor man can easily bear^ 
his poverty himself, tliat yet is notable to bear his wife's im- 
patience under it. To hear her night and day complainir^j 
and speaking distrustfully, and see her live di&quictedly, ifl 
larheavierthauhispoverty itself. If hiHwifecould bearitas 
patiently as he, it would be but light to him. Yea, in case 
of sitiFering for righteouaness' sake, the impatience of a wife 
is a greater trial to a man than all the aufiering itself; and 
many a man that could easily have suffered the loss of hi« 
estate, or banishment, or impriionment for Christ, hath be- 
trayed his cooBcience, and yielded to sin, because hia wife 
hath grieved bira with impatiency, and could not bear what 
he could bear. Whereas a contented, cheerful wife doth 
help to make a man cheerful and contented in every ttftte. 

Direct, VII. 'In a special manner strive to subdue your 
paasuone, and to speak and do all in meekuesfi and sobriety.' 
The rather because that the weakness of your sex doth usual- 
ly subject you more to passions than men: und it in the 
common cauKC of the husband e disquictuc^s, and the calam- 
ity of your relation. It is the vexation and sickness of your 
own minda; you find not yourselveK at case within as long 
OS you are passionate. And then it is the grief and dJsqui* 
etuesft of your hnsbanda : and being provoked by you, they 
provoke you more ; and so your disquietneaa increateth-, 
and your lives ai'e made a weary burden to you. By all 
means therefore keep down passion, and keep ■ composed, 
patient mind. 

Direct, viii. 'Take heed of a proud and contenlioui! diM- 
position i and maintain a humble, peaceable temper.* Pride 
will make you turbulent and unquiet with your husbands, 
and contentious with your neighboms: it will make you 
foolish and ridic^loiiH, in Htriving for honour and preceden- 
cy, and envying those that exceed you, or go before you* 
in a word, it is the deril's sin, and would make you a shame 


and trouble to the world. But humility is the heslth, the 
petict*. and the ornament of the souL " A meek and qtii«t 
spirit is in the sight oCGod nf great price ^" (Write those 
words in your bed-chamber on the walls where they may be 
daily before your eyes.) " Put on as the elect of God, holy 
and beloved, bowels of mercy, kindDess, humbltneas of 
mind, meekness, long-Buffering, forbearing one another, aud 
forgiving one another''." If this be the duty of all to one 
another; much more of wives to husbands. "Yea, all of 
you be subject one to vinother, and be clothed with humili- 
ty ; for God resistcUi the proud, and givelh grace lo the 
humble'." Proud women ofi. ruin their huabmid^' estates, 
and quietneBS, and their own souls. 

Hirtcl, IX. 'Aflect not a cbtldiiih gaudinese of apparel, 
nor a vain, or coatly, or troublesome curiosity iji any thing 
about you.' Uncleanness and nuDtineifs is a fault, but very 
small in comparison of tbis pride and curiosity. It disho- 
Doureth your sex and selves to be ao childish, aa to over- 
mind such toyiah things. If you will needs be proud, be 
proud of somewhat that i« of worth and proper to a man : 
to be proud of reason, or wisdom, or learning, or goodneiw. 
la bad enough; hut this is to be proud of something. But 
to be proud uf fashions and fine clothes, of spots and naked- 
ne»a, of sumptuous entertaiameots, aod neat rooms, is to be 
proud of your ghame. and not your virtue ; and of that 
which you are not so much as commendable for. And the 
cost, the time (O precious lime !) which themselvca and 
their servants must lay out, upon their dressings, entertain- 
mentit and other curiosities, trill be the shame and sorrovr 
of their snuLi, whenever God shall open their eyes, and make 
them know wliat time was woitb, and what greater matters 
they had to mind, If vain and empty peraoiut like your- 
Beives, commend you for your bravery or cutioaity, no wiU 
not any judicious, sober person, whose commendation is 
much wortti. And yet 1 must here with grief take notice, 
that when some few that in other matters »eem wise and re- 
ligious, are themselves a littlu tainted with ihia childish cu- 
riosity and pride, and let fiUl words of disparagement 
Kgunst those whose dress, and dwellings, and entertnin- 
HLBDts, are not ao curious as their own ; this proves the 




greatest maiiitainer of this siu, and the most notable %er* 
vice to tile devil: for then abundance will plead this for 
this sinful curiosity and pride, and Bay, ' 1 shall elfie be ao 
counted base or s^irdid ; even aucb and such will Kpeak 
against me.' Take heed, if you will needs be such yoar- 
selves, that you piutc not against others that are not aa vain 
and curious aa you : for the nature of man is more prone to 
pride and vanity, than to humility, and the iiupruvemeni of 
their time and cost in greater matters ; and while you think 
that you speak hut against indecency, you become the de- 
vil's preachers, and do him, more service than you consider 
of. Ytiu may as wisely apeak aE;ain8t people for using to 
eat or drink too little, whuu them is not one of a mnlti- 
tude that liveth not ordinarily in excess ; and so excess will 
get advantage by it. 

■^ Direct. X. ' Be specially careful in the governn»ent of 
■ your tongues ; and let your words be few, and well consi- 
dered before you speak them.' A double diligence is needful 
in this, because it is the most common miscarriage of your 
sex: & laxative, running tongue, is so great a dishonour to 
you, that 1 never knew a woman very full of worda, but she 
was the pity of her friends, and thecontempt of others; who 
behind her hack will make a scorn of her, and talk of her as 
some crack-brained or half-witted person; yea, though 
your talk be good, it will be tedious and contemptible, if tt 
be thus poured out, and be too cheap. " In the multitude 
of words there wanteth not sin ; but he that refraiueth his 
lips is wise'." You must answer in judgment for your 
" idle rtords^." Vou will take it ill to be accounted fools, 
and made the derision of those that talk of you: judge by 
the Scripture what occasion you give them. " A dream 
cometh by the multitude of business, and a fool's voice is 
known bya multitude of words: in the multitude of dreams, 
and many words, there are divers vanities." "The worda 
of a wise man's mouth are gracious j but the lips of a fool 
will swallow up himself. The bijginuing of the words of 
his mouth is foolishness ; and the end of his talk is mis- 
obievoua madness : a fool also is full of words *■." Whereas 
a woman that is cautcJoua and sparing of her words, is 
commonly reverenced and supposed to be wise. So that if 
' Pnr. a, 19, 1 1VU«. sil. «. BccIm- ». S. T. » P-e*l~. t 1«— 14. 




yOQ bad do higher design io it, but merely to be well thought 
of, uid honoured hymen; you can scarcely take a tjurcr 
way, than to let your words be few and weighty ; though 
the avoiding of sin, and unqoietQess, tibould prevail with 
you much more. 

Direct. XI. ' Be williug aud diligent in. your proper part, 
of the care and labour of thu family.' As the primary pro- 
viiiioQ of maintenauce betongeth most to the husband, so 
the secondary provision within doora belongetb specially to 
4he wife. Read over and over the thirty-Bret chapter 
of Proverbsi especially the care of nursing your own 
children, and teaching them, and watching over tliRmwben 
they are yciung; and also watching over the family at home, 
when your husbands are abroad, is your proper work. 

Direct, xii. 'Dispose not of your husband'seatate, with- 
out his knowledge and conaent.' You are not only to con- 
sider, whether the work be good that you lay it ont upon, 
but what power you have to do it. Quest. But may a wo- 
man give nothing, nor lay out nothing in the house, with- 
out her husband's conseot? Amxo. 1. If she have his ge- 
neral or implicit coasent, it may suiBce ; that vt, if he allow 
her to follow her judgment ; or. if he commit such a pro- 
portion to her power, to do what she will with it. Or, if 
ahe know, that if he knew it, h« would not be Lgainiit it, 
3. Or, if the law, or his coDseat, do give her any propriety 
in any pari of his estate, or make her a joiut'proprietor, she 
may proportionably diapose of it in a necesftary case'. The 
hosbaod is considerable, cither as a proprietor, or as her 
governor. As a proprietor, he only may dispose of the 
estate, where he is the sole proprietor: but where consent 
or the law of the land doth make tlie woman joint-proprie- 
tor, she ia not disabled from giving for the want of a pro- 
priety. But then no law excmpteth her from his govern- 
ment; and therefore she is not lo give any thing tn a way 
of disobedience, though it be her own : except when he for- 
biddeth that which ia her duty, or which he hath no power 
to forbid. So that in case of joint^propriuly »he may give 
without him, so be it she exceed not her proportion, and 
also if it be in a case of duty, where he may not hinder 
her. As to save the lives of the poor in extreme necessi^, 
' Sm ih. ClMgc 00 Fnoiily Hclntlun). who miiS Ibe moM apiut wmtrtit ^tmr. 



fomine, or imprisonment, or the like. 'i. Bnt if the thing 
be wholly her own, exceptc^l from his propriety, and she be 
sole proprietor, then she need not ask his consent at all, 
any other way than as he is her guide, to direct her to the 
best way of disposing of it : which, if he forbid her, itwtead 
of directing her to it, she is not thereby exciiitable before 
Ood, for tlie abosing of her trnst and talent. 4. I con- 
ceive that * ad ali(iuid' as to certain absohttely n»ce»nnry 
uses, the very relation niaketh the woman aa a joint-pro- 
prietor'': as if her husband will not allow her sach food 
and raiment as is necessary to preserve the lives and health 
of herself, and all her children ; she is bound to do it with- 
out or against hia will (if aho can, and if it be not to a 
greater hurt, and the estate be his own, and he be able) 
rather than let her children contract such diseases, as appa- 
rently will/oilow to the hazard of their lives. ¥ea, and to 
save the life of another that in famine is ready to perish : 
for she is not ns a stranger to his estate- But out of these 
cases, if a wife shall secretly waste or give, or lay it out on 
bravery or vanity, or set her wit against her husband's ; 
and because she thinks him too strait or penurious, there- 
fore she will dispose of it, without his consent. Thia is 
thievery, disobedience, and injustice. 

Que$(. I. ' But as the case standeth with us in England, 
hath the wife a joint-propriety, or not?' 

Aiisw. Three way^ (at least) she may have a propriety. 
1. By a reserve of what was her own before ; which (how- 
ever some question it) may in some cases be done in tlieir 
agreement at marriage. 2. By the law of the land. 3. By 
the husband's consent or donation. What the law of the 
land Baith in case, I leave to the lawyer;^: but it seemeth to 
ttie, that hia words at marriage ' With all my worldly ^oodit 
I thee endow,' do signify his consent to make her a joint- 
proprietor : and his consent is sufficient to the collation of 
a title, to that which was his own. UnteBH any can prove 
that law or custom, doth otherwise expound the tvords (as 
an empty formality), and that at the contract, thi-t was or 
should be known to her to be the sense. And the law's al^ 


^ ;Sani. ii>. 18. j^..^). Vttiv. ixsi. 11— 13. 90- iliM,vi.6. MnU. [i.l3. 
xti. 7, i K\n^\ 1v. 0. 73. 


cMKisTiAN uitttcroRr. [fart II. 

lowing ttie nit'e the third part upon death or separation, 
dotli intimate a joint-propriety before. 

Quest. II. 'If the husband live upou unlawful gain, m 
cheating, stealing, robbing by the highway, &c. is not the 
wife guilty asBJoint-proiirietor, in retaining such ill-gotten 
goods, if she know it? And is she bound to accuse her 
husband, or to restore euch goods?' 

Answ. Her duty in Arst to admonish her huubuud of his 
tun and danger, und eudcavour his repentance, in the mean 
time disclaiming all consent, and reception of the goodv. 
And if »he cHniiot prevail fur his repcnUnce, restitution, 
and reformution, she halh a double dutyto perlbnii ; the one 
tft to help them to their goodii whom he hath injured and 
robbed (by prudent und just means): the other is to prevent 
his robbing of oUtera for the time to come, liut How these 
raimt be done is tlic great difficulty. 

I. If she foresee (or may do) that either by her hus- 
band's ditipleasure. or by the cruel revenge of the injured 
party, the Imrt of discovering the fraud or robbery, will l>e 
grcuter than the good, then 1 think tliat ebc in not bound 
to discover it. But by some secret, indirect way, to help 
the owner to hia own ; if it may be done williout a greater 

W'- 2. To prevent his sin and other men's future sufleriiig 
by him, she sccmctli to me to be bound to reveal her hub- 
band's sinful purposes to the magistrate, if she can no 
other way prevail with him to forbear. My reasonii are, he- 
cnuKe the keeping of God's law, and the law of the land, 
aud the public order und good, and the preventing of our 
neighbours' hurt by robbery or fraud ; and &o the interest 
of honesty and right, is of greater importance than any duty 
to Iter husband, or preservation of ber own peace, which 
seemeth to be against it. But then 1 must suppose that 
she livcth under a magiittrate. wbo will lake but a just re- 
venge. For if she know the laws and magistrate to be bo 
unjuel, as to punish a fault with death, whic-h deRervrth it 
not, she is not to tell such a tuagtslrate. but to preserve her 
neighbours' safety by some other way of intimation. 

If any one think that a wife inay in no case, accuse a 
huttband, to tlie hazard uf his life or estate, let them, 1. 






Remember what Qod obliged parents to do against tbe 
live* of incorrigible children, Deut. xxi. 2. And that the 
honour of God, and the lives of our neighbours, should be 
prefen-ed before the life of one offender, and iheir eBtatea 
before bia estate alone. 3. And that the light of reason 
telleth us, that a wife is to reveal a treason against the 
king, which is plotted by a huetband ; and therefore alH4^1 
the robbing of the king's treasury, or deceiving him in any 
matter of great concernmf>iit. And therefore in due pro- 
portion, the laws and common good, and our neighbonra' 
welfare, are to be preserved by us, though against thenear^ 
est relation : only all due ttndeniess of the life and reputa- 
tion of the husband ir to be preserved, iu the manner of 
proceedings, as far as will stand with the interest of justice, 
and the common good. 

Quat. III. 'May the wife gu hear sermons when the 
buuband forbiddeth her?' 

Amw. There are some sermons which must not be heard ; 
there are some sermons which may be heard, and mtiNt when 
no greater matter doth divert an ; luid there are some sermnns 
which must be heard, whoever shall forbid it. Those which 
must not be heard are such us are heretical (ordinarily) and 
such as are superfluoiis.and at such times when greater duties 
call us another way. Those which may be heai'd, are either 
occasional sermoii^, or 9uch leoturesasare neither of neccs* 
sily to ourselves, nor yet to the owning of God and his pub- 
lic worship. One that liveth where there are daily or hourly 
sermons, may hear them as oft as suiteth with their condi- 
tion, and their other duties : but in this case, the command 
ofa huF^bund, with the iuconTeniences that will follow dis- 
obeying hira, may make it a duty to forbear. Bnt that we 
do sometimes publicly own God's worship, and church or> 
diuances, and receive ministerial teaching for our edifica- 
tion, is of double necessity; that we deny not God, and 
that we betray not, or desert not our own soula. And this 
is especially necessary- (ordinarily) on the Lord's days, 
which are appointed for these necessary uses. And here 
the husband hath no power to forbid the wife, nor should 
she (formally) obey Ins prohibition. But yet as affirmativt-s 
bind not ' ad acmpcr,' and uo duty is a duty at every sea- 
son; BO it is possible that on the Lord's day, it may extra- 




ordinarily become uduty to forbear sermons or sacramenu. 
or oUier public worship. As when nay greater duty caJleth 
as away : as to quench a fire ; and to save men's lives ; and 
to save our country flrom an enemy in the time of war; and 
to nave our own lives (if we knew the assembly would be 
anssalted), or to preserve our liberty for greater service. 
Cfarist set us to learn the moaning of this lesson ' 1 will have 
mercy and not Hacritice.' In such a case also a mischief 
may be avoided, even from a husband by tiie omission of a 
duty at that time (when it would be no duty) for tlus is but 
a tnm»position of it. But this is but an act of prudent self- 
preservation, and not an aot of formal obedience. 
1- Qtiat. tv. * If a woman have a husband so incorrigible 
in vice, as that by long trial she findeth that speak- 
ing against it, makcth him worse, and causctli him to 
abusti her, is she bound to continue her disauasion, or to 

Ansiv. That is not here a duty which is not a means to 
do jsomu good; and that ia no niciins which ww know before- 
hand is like, if not certain, to do no good, or to do more 
harm. We must not by wearbess, laiiness, or ceusorious- 
ness, take a case to be desperate, which is not ; nor must 
we 80 easily deaist with so near a relation, a» with >i atrungur 
or a neighbour. But yel Christ's indulgence of not expos- 
ing ourselves to be torn by dogs, and big word trodden in 
the diit by swiue, doth extend to relntion-s ns well as others. 
But then you must observe that she that ia Justly discou- 
raged from sharp reproofs, may yet have hope tliat gentle 
and humble persuasions may succeed. And she that is 
discouraged from op«n, or frequent, or plain reproofs ; may 
yet have hope that secret, or more seldom, or more distant 
ujid general admonitions may not be lost. And she that 
is from one way of doing biui good, may yet 
have many other ways (as to set some caiiustcr whom he 
reTerenceth, to speak to him; to put some suitable book 
into his hand, &c.) And she that is discouragrd at the pre* 
sent, ought not totally to despair, but may make Home more 
atlemptfi hereafter* either in some sickness, or time of mor- 
tality, or danger, or affliction, or when possibly lime and 
considuralion may havt l>otl«r prepared him to lipar. And 
iu ibe mean time she is to continue all conjugal atfection 



Hnd duty, find a coDvincint;, winning course of lifej which 
may prove the ni'>at effectual reproof. 

Quest, V.' What should a woman doin controvcrtedcases 
of religion, when her jndgment and her husband's differ?' 

Atuw, 1, Some moke a controversy of that which with 
all good Christians or sober pentonSi should be p««t coti- 
iroversy; and some controTerBreB are indeed of real, if not 
inBiipernble dtflictiUy, 2. Some controTcraies are abdut 
impoitant, neceMstary things, and some about things of les- 
ser moment. 3. Some ai« about mere opinion, or other 
men's practic*, and some about our own practice. 

(1.) In all differences of judgment the wife must exer- 
cise such self'Suspicion, and modesty, and submisAion, as 
may si^ify her due aense, both of the weakness of her 
ncx, and of her subjection to htr husband. ('2.) In things 
indifferent ahe must in practice obey her husband ; unless 
when superior powers do forbid it, and that in cases where 
their authority ia greater. (3.) She may modestly give her 
reasons of dissent. (4.) She must not turn it lo an uii- 
pcaceable quarrel, or matter of disaffection, or pretend any 
differences against her conjugal duties. (6.) In dark and 
difficult cases ahe should not be peremptory, and self- 
conceited, uor importunate; but if she have faith (that 
is, some more knowledge than he) have it to herself, id 
quietness and silence ; and seek further information lest 
she err. (6.) She must speak no untruth, nor commit any 
known aiu, in obedience to her husband's jud<rment. (7.) 
When she strongly aumpecteth it to be Kin, she must not 
do it merely in obedience to Lira, hut seek for better sa- 
tisfaction. For she i& sure that he hath no power to 
force her to sin; and therefore hath no more assurance 
of his power in that point than she hath of the lawfiiliiesBi 
of the thing. (8.) But if she prove to be in the error,: 
she will sin on either side, till she recover. (9.) If a'| 
husband he in dangerous error, she must wisely, bat un-^ 
weariedly seek his reformation, by herself or others. 

Cases about Dhorce and SeparaiioR. 

Quext. I. ' Is it lawful for husband and wife to be long J 

absent ftum euch otltcr ? and how long, aud iu what cases V 






Antvt. It is luwful to be absent either id tJie case of 
prayer which Paul mentioneth, or iu case of the needful af- 
fairs of their estateB, so long as m&y be no danger to eillier 
of them as to mental or corporal incontinency, nor to any 
Other hurt which will be grtattr than the benefits of Iheir 
ftbneiice, nor cause them to be guilty of the neglect of any 
real duty. Therefore the coses of several personR do much 
differ according to the different tempers of their minds, and 
bodies, and affairs. He that hath a. wife of a chast*. con- 
tented, prudent temper, may ntay many months or yearfi in 
&ome cases, when, all things considered, it tendeth to more 
good than hurt : iis lawyers by tlieir callings are often ne- 
cedsitated to follow their callings at terms and ansizes: and 
tnerchants may be Home years absent in some tvcighLy caseii. 
But if you ask, whether the f^ettiug of money be a sufficient 
cause ? I answer, that it is sufficient to thiiRe whose familieit 
must he so maintained, and their wives are easily continent, 
(ujd so the good of their gain is greater than any lotiB or dan- 
ger that uonieth by it. But when covetonsneHs puts them 
upon it needlvH^ly, and their wives cannot bear it, or in any 
case when the hurt that is like to follow is greater thitD 
the good, it is unlawful. 

Quest. II. ' May hnsband and wife be separated by the 
bare command of princes, if they make a Inw tliut in certain 
cases they shall part: au suppose it to ministers, judges, 
or soldiers Y' 

Atisw. Vou must distinguish between the bare command 
or law, and the reasons and ends of that command : and so 
bctwcci) a lawful cominiind andan nnlawfiil. InsomecA»ea 
a prince may justly command a. separation for a time, or 
such as is like to prove for perpetuity, and in Rome cases ht- 
may not. If a king command a separation without Hufii- 
cient cause, ko that you have no motive but his uutbortty, 
and the question in, whether formally you are bound to 
obedience : I answer. No ; because what God hath joined, 
no man hath power to put asunder. Nor can either prince, 
pope, or prelutf diKpense with your marriage covenant. In 
Kucb a case, it is as tt private net, because Ood hatli gireu 
them no authority for it; and therefore their commands or 
laws are nullities : only if a prince Kny, he that will be a 
judge or n justice shall part with his wife, it is lawful to leave 



Uie officfl, ftDiJ HO obey the law. But if \w say to all miniB- 
tei« of the ^o»>pcl, you sball I'omake yuur wives or your luU 
nistry, they should do neither, because they ate divinely; 
obliged to both, and he Imth no power to forbid th«iu, or to 
dispense with that obligation. 

But it may fall oiilj tJmt the ends of the command amy 
be so great as to make it lawful, and then it mmt be obeyed 
both rornially foF the authority of the prince, and 6ualty for 
the reasons of the thing. As if the safety of the common- 
wealth fihonld require, that miLiried persons be soldiers, and 
that they go far off"; yea, though there be no likelihood of 
leturniog to their fuiniliee, and withal they cannot take their 
wives with them, without detriment or danger to their ser- 
vice; in thift case men must obey the magistrate, and are 
called by God to forsake their wivee, as if it were by death. 
Nor is it any violation of their marriage covenant, because 
that was intended or meant to supiiose the exception ofany 
such call of God, which cannot be resiBted when it will make 
a SApamtioQ. 

Quest. 111. ' May ministers leave their wives to go abroad 
to preach the Goitpel V 

Ansu). If they can neitJierdo God's work so well at home, 
nor yet take their wives with them, nor be excused from 
doing that part of aervtce, by other men's doing it who have 
DO such impediment; they may and must leave their wives 
to do it. In, the interest nf the church, and of the 
souls of many, must over-rule tlie interest of wife and fa- 
mily. Those pastors who have iixed stations, must neitlicr 
leave flock or family without necessity, or a clear call from 
God. But in several cases a preacher may be uecetiKilated 
to go abroad ; as in case of persecution at home, or of some 
necessity of foreign or remote parts, which cannot be other^ 
wise supplied : or when aonie door is opened for the conver- 
sion of infidels, heretics, or idolaters, and none else so lit to 
do that work, or none that will. In any such case, when Uie 
cause of God in any pari of the world ' consideratls consi- 
derandis' dotli require his help, a miiiiHter must leave wife 
and fftmily, yea, and a particular flock to do it. For our 
obligation* an? greatest to the Catholic church, and public 
good ; and the greatest good must be preferred. If a king 
command a subject to be au ambassador in (he most remote 






I>art of the world, nn<l the public fi;DOcl withal requireth it, 
if wife and children cannot be taken with liim, they must b«> 
left behind, and he must go. So must a consecrated miniH- 
ter of ChnBt for the service of the church refuse all entan-' 
gletnents, which would more hinder hit work than the con- 
trary beneflu will countervail. And tliis exception also wan 
Bopposed in the marriage contract, that family iuterestM anil 
comforts must gire way to the public interest, and to God's 

And therefore it is, that ministers should not rashly ven- 
ture upon marriage, nor any woman tiiat is whe venture to 
marry a minister, til) she is first well prepared fur such ac- 
cidents as may separate them for a shorter or a lon^r time. 

Queit' IV. ' May one leave a wife to savt; hie life, in 
case of personal persecution or danger V 

Answ. Yea, if she cannot be taken with him ; for the 
means which ai'e for the helps of life, do suppose the pre- 
serration of life itself: if he live, he may further serve God, 
and possibly ri^turn to his wife and family ; butif hcdie, he 
is removed from them all. 

Queit. V. ' May husband and wife part by mutual con- 
sent, if they find it to be for the good of both ?* 

AtuiP. If yoa speak not ofa di.'isolving the bond of their 
relations, but withdrawing as to cohabitation, 1 answer, 1 . 
It is not to be done upon pnsxiong and discontents, to feeil 
and gratify each other's vicious distempers or interest ; for 
then b«th the consent and the separation are their sins : but 
if really such au nncurable unsuitableness he between them, 
as that their lives must needs be miserable by their cohabi- 
tation, I know not but they may live asunder; so be it, that 
(after all other means used in vain) they do it by deliberate, 
free consent. But if one of them should by craft or cruelly 
constrain the other to consent, it is unlawful to the con- 
strainer. Nor must impatience make either of them un- 
groundedly despair of the cure of any unsuitableness which 
ifl really canible. But many sad iiutancu might be given, 
in which cohabitation may be a constant calamity to both, 
and distance may be their relief, and farther them both in 
God's service, and in their cofporal concernments. Yet I 
say not that this is no sin; for their unsuitablen^HS is their 
sin : and God still obiigeth them to lay down that siu which 



maketb ihem uusuitable ; and therefore doth not allow them 
to lire asuader, it being still their duty to ]ive togetlier in 
love and peace : und Haying they caimot. freeth thein not 
from the duty. But yel that moral impoteucy may make 
such a separntion as aforesaid, to be a lesser sin thaa thdr 
uapeaceabte cohabitation. 

Quest. VI. ' May not the ■'elation itself be dissolved by 
lOutuai, free consent, so that they may marry others V 

Answ. As to the relation, they will still be related u 
those that did covenant to live in conjugal society, and ara 
sttll allowed it and obliged to it. if the impedimcntR were 
hut removed : and it is but the exercihe nhicb is hindered. 
And they may not consent to marry others ; 1 . Because the 
contracted relation was for life, Rom. vii. 2. and God's law 
accordingly obligoth them. Marriages ' pro tempore,' dia- 
itoluble by consent, are not of God's institution, but contra- 
ry to it. 2. Tliey know not but their impedimenta of co« 
habitation may be removed. 3. If he that morrieth an in- 
nocent divorced woman commit adultery, by parity of reason 
(with advantage) it will be >*o here. If you say, what if 
either of them cannot contain? I answer, he tliat will Dot 
take heed before, must be patient afterwards, and not mako 
advantage of his own folly, to the fulfilling of his lusts. If 
he will do what he ought to do in the uae of all means, he 
may live chastely. And 4. The public interest must over- 
rule the private, and that which woidd be uujuat in private 
respects, may for public good become a duly; itseeuietli 
unjust here with us, that the innocent country ehould repay- 
every man his money, who between sun and sun is robbed 
on the road ; and yet because it will engage the country to 
watchfulness, it i» just, us for the common good : and lie 
that consenteth to be a member of a commonwealth, dotli 
thereby consent to submit his own right to the common in- 
terest. So here, if all should have leave to luarry others 
when they consent to part, it would bring utter confusion, 
and it would encourage wicked men to abuse their wives. 
till they foiced them to consent. Therefore some must bear 
the trouble which their folly hatli brought on thetneelveii; 
rather than the common order should he confounded. 

Qaal. VII. ' Doth adultery dissolve the bond of mar- 
riage, or not? Amesins saith it doth : and Mr. Whateley 




[PAKT ir. 

Iiaving said so, afterward reuanted it by the persuusion of 
other divines.' 

Answ. The difference is only about the atuae and Dot 
nbout the matter itself. The reason which moved Dr. Ames 
IB, because the injured person is free ; therefore uotbound ; 
therefore the bond is dissolved. The reason which Mr. 
Whateley could not answer is, because it ia not fornication, 
but lawful, if they continue their conjugal familiarity after 
adultery ; therefore that bond ia not dieaolved. in all whli^h 
it is easy to perceive, that one of them taketh the word ' vin- 
culum' or bond iu one sense, that is, ' For their covcnuiit- 
obUgation to continue their relation and mutual duties. 
And the otiicr taketh it in anothe^r seniie, that is, ' For the 
relation itoelf, as by it they are allowed eonjugnl familiarity, 
if the injured person will cootinue it.' The first ' vinculum' 
or bond ia dissolved, the second is not. In the matter we 
arc agreed, that the injured man may put away an adulter- 
ous wife (in a regular way) if he please ; but withal that he 
may continue the relation if he please. So that hid con- 
tinued consent, shall suffice to continue it a lawful relation 
nud exercise ; and hia will on the contrary shall suQice to 
dissolve the relation, and disoblige him. (Saving the public 

Quest, viir. ' But is not the injured party at nil obliged 
to separate, but left free V 

Answ, Considering the thing simply in itself, he is wholly 
free to do as be please. But for all that, accideuta or cir- 
cumstances may make it one man's duty to divorce, and 
another's duty to continue the relation ; accordiof; as it is 
like to do more good or hurt. Sometimes it may be a duty 
to expose the sin to public shame, for the prevention of it 
in others ; and also to deliver one'sself from a calamity. 
And somutimes there may bo so great repentance, and hope 
of bett<:r effects by forgiving, that it may be a duty to for- 
give : imd prudence niu«t lay one tbtag vrith anotlier, to dis- 
cern on which side the duty lieth. 

Quett. IX. * U it only the privilege of the man. that he 
may put away an adulterous wife ? or also of the woman, to 
depart from an adulterous husband ? The reaaon of the 
doubt is, becauae Christ mentioneth the man's power only. 
aiau. V. xix.' 




Amto. 1. The reason why Christ Bpuaketh ouly of the 
man's case is, bficause lie was occasioned only to restrain 
tile vicious custom of meu'ii causeless putting away their 
wives ; having no occasion to restrain wi>men from leaving 
their husbands. Men having the rule did abuse it to the 
woman's injury, which Chrint forbiddeth. And a» it is an 
act of power, it concerneth the man alone ; but tut it is an 
net of liberty, it aeemeth to me to be 8uppi>i>e(i, that tlie 
voman hath the same freedom ; seeing the covenant i» 
violated to her wrong. And the apostle in I Cor. vii. doth 
make the case of the man and of the woman to be ei^ual in 
the point of infidelity and desertion. I confess tliat it in 
unsafe, extending the sense of Scripture beyond the impor- 
tance of the words upon pretence of a parity of reason (as 
many of the perjured do by Lev. xxx. in caee of vowb); lent 
man's deceitful wit should make a law to itself as divine. 
upon pretence of interpreting Ood's lawH ; but yet when the 
plain text doth speak but of one case (that is, of men's put- 
ting away their wives,) he tlint will thence gather an ex- 
clusion of the woman's liberty, doth seem by addition to be 
the corrupter of the law. And where the context plainly 
sheweth a parity of reason, and that reason ia made the 
ground of the determination in the text, there it is safe to 
expound the law extensively accordingly. Surely ilif cove- 
nant of marriage hath its conditions on both parts; and 
some of those conditions are necessary to the very being of 
the obligations, though others are but needful to the well- 
being of the parties in that state. And therefore, though 
putting away be only the part wf the husband, us being the 
ruler, and usually the owner of the habitation, yet departing 
muy be the liberty of the wife. And I know no reason to 
blunie those countries, whose laws allow the wife to Kue out 
a divorce, aa well as the husband. 

Quext. X. ' May the husband put away the wife without 
the magistrate, or the wife depart from the husband without 
a public legal divorce or licence'!* 

Answ. Where tlie laws of the land do take care for the 
prevention of injuries, and make any determination in tha 
case (not contrary to the law of God.) there it is a Chris- 
tian's duty to obey those laws : therefore if you live under a 
law which forbiddetli any putting away or departing, with- 




out public senteueeorallowance, you may not do it privately 
upon your own will. For the civil goveniorii tire lo pioride 
against the private injuries of any of the subjects. And if 
pereons might put away or depart at pleasure, it would in- 
troduce both injury and much weakness into the world. 
But where the lawnt of men do leave persons to tlieir liberty 
ia lliis case, they need then to look no further than to the 
laws of Qod alone. But usually the sentence of the civil 
power, is necessary only in case of appeal, or compluintof 
the party injured : and a separation may be made without 
such a public divorce, ao thut each party may make use of 
the magitstratt: to tight themselves if wrougt^d. A» if the 
adultery be not openly known, and the injuring party desire 
rather to be put away privily than publicly, {am Joseph pur- 
poHed to do by Mary) I see nut but it in lawful so to do, in 
case that the law, or the necessity of making the oSeuder uii 
example, rcqairo not the coDtrary, nor scandal or other acci- 
dentH forbid it not. See Grotius's learned Notes on Matt. 
V. 31, 32. and on Matt. xix. and I Cor. vU. about these 

Qui-si, XI. 'What if both parties commit adultery? 
may either of them put away the other, or depart ; or rather 
must they forgive each other V 

Aitsv}. If they do it both at once, they do both forfeit the 
liberty of seeking any compensation for the injury ; because 
the injury \a equal (however some would give tlie advan- 
Caf^e to tlie man) : but if one commit adultery first, and the 
other after; then cither the last offender knew of the first, 
or not. If not, then it voemeth ull one as if it had been 
done at once. But if yea, then they did it either on a sup- 
position of the dissolution of the matrimonial obligation, as 
being loosed from the first adulter<;r. ur else upon a purpose 
of continuing in the first relation : in the Utter case, it is 
■till all one as if it had been done by them at once, and it ia 
a forfeiture of uny satisfaction : but in the former case, 
though the last adulterer did sin, yet being before s«tat li- 
berty, it doth not renew the matrimonial obligation : but 
yet, if the tirst offender desire the continuance of it, and th« 
return of the ttrst-injuretl party; shame and conscience of 
their own sin. will much rebuke them, if they plead that in- 
jury for continuance of the separation. 



Qitesi. xiu '<But wbttt if one ilo purposely commit lulul- 
tery, to be laporatcd from the other V 

Answ. It is in (he other's power and choicr, wliether to 
be divorced And depart, or iiot» as thty find the f^d or evil 
consequentx preponderatevi .^ij.l Uui .f . ,•• 

Qtiext. XIII. ' Dotb nut infidelity disHolve tlie retatioii or 
obligation ; seeing tbere ia iio «:ijuiiuiuiioii bnlween light 
And darkness, a believer ftod lui iofidel V 

Ansv). It maketh it unlawful for h believer to lurrv an 
in Adel (except ia case of true nec(*S!iity); bec»iiKe they can 
hare no communion in religion. But it nullifietl) nut a 
marriage already made, nor maketh it lawful Lo depart or 
divorce ; because they iiiny have mere conjugal communion 
fltil). As the spostle purpoftely Uetenniueth the case, in 
-1 Cor. vii. 

^•: Quest. xiT, ' Doth not the deaeftion of an« party, dis- 
oblige the other V 

Amw. 1. It must be considered, what is true de»ertioa. 
2. Whether it be a desertion of the relatioo itsRlf for con- 
tinuance, or only a temporary desertion of co>habitation, or 
congress. 3. What the temper and state of the deserted 
party ift. It is sometimes easy, uid eometimcs hard la din- 
ccm which is the deaRrtiugJ p^i'ty- If the wife go away 
from the husband uowairantably, though she require him to 
follow her, and say that she doth not desert him. yet it may 
be taken for a detiertiou, because it is the man who is to 
rule and chooae the habitation. But if the man go away, 
and the n-omMi reliiae to follow him, it is not he that in 
therefore the denerWT. 

(ifiai(. ' But what if the matn have not aulEcieot cause to 
go away, aud the woman hath great and nn^unX reasons not 
to go? As suppo!iEi that the man will go away in hatred of 
an able preacher, and good company, and the woman if she 
Ibllow him, mustlpave all those helps, and go amr>n» igno- 
rant, profane, heretical persona, or inhduls ; which is thts tl«- 
Rerter ihen'^* *,- 

Amiv. If she be oue that ia either like to do good to Uic 
faifideU, heretics, or bad persons whom they must 
with, ahc may suppose that God calleth her to receive good 
by doing good : or if she be a confirmed, well-settled Chris- 
tian, and not very like, eithei by infection, or by want of 




helps, to be unsettled and miscarry, it seemeth to me to be 
the safest way to follow her husband. She must lose in- 
deed Ood's public ordinances by following him : but it is,] 
not imputable to her, as being out of her choice ; and ihm.\ 
must lose the beuetits, and neglect the duties of the conjo*] 
gal ordinance, if she do not follow him. But if she be a per-j 
son under such weaknesBes, ae make her remove apparently* 
dangerous as to her perseverance and salvation, and her has- 
band will by no means bepreraited with to change hia mind, 
the case then is very difficult what in her duty, and who ia 
the deserter. Nay, if he but lead her into a country ivherftj 
her life were like to be taken away, {as under the SpaiuBh 
Inquisition,) unless her suffering were like to be as service- 
able to Christ as her life. Indeed these caaes are ao diffi-- 
cult, that I will not decide them : the inconveniences, (or^ 
mischiefs rather) are great, which way soever she take : bat 
Imost incline to judge as followeth : viz. It in conBidernble 
first, what marriage obtigeth her to, simply of its own na- 
ture ; and what it may do next, by any nuperodded con«j 
tract, or by the law or custotu of the land, or any other ac- ' 
cidcnt. As to the first, it seemeth to me, that every one'a^ 
obligation is bo much ftret to God, and then to their own 
souls and lives ; that marriage as such, which is for mutual. 
help, as a means to higher ends, doth not oblige her to for-' 
(take all the communion of saints, and the place or country 
where God is lawfully worshipped, and to lose all the helpa 
of public worship, and to expose her soul both to KpiritualJ 
famine and infection, to the apparent hanard of her salva- 
tion (and perhaps bring her children into the suae misery); 
nor bath God given her husband any power to do her so 
much wrong, nor i» the marri age-covenant to be interpreted 
to intend it. But what any human law or contract, or other 
aocident which is of greater public conaequence, may do 
more than marriage of itself, is a distinct ease, which must 
have a particular discussion. 

Quest. ' But what if the husband would only have her 
follow him, to the fontaking of her estate, and undoing her- 
self and children in the world, (as in the case of Galeacius 
Caracciolus, Marquisof Vicum ;) yea,and ifit were without 
just cause?' 

Atuw, Ifit be for grentcr spiritual gain, (as in his case,) 



she 18 bound to follow him : but if it be apparently foolish, 
to the undoing of her aiid ber children without any c«ub«, 
I' it«e not that mam&ge aimply obli(;eth a woman so U> fol- 
low a fool in beggary, or out of a calling, or u> her ruin- 
But if it be at all a controvtrtible case, whether the cause 
be juat or not, then the husband beiug governor must be 
judge. Th« laws of the i&tid are euppcMted to be just, which 
allow a woman by trustees to secure some part of her for- 
mer estate from ti«r husband'a disposal ; much more may 
she beforehajid secure herself aud children from beiug ruin- 
ed by big wiU'ul foUy: but she can. by no contract except 
herself from his true government. 

Yet still she must consider, whether she can lire conti- 
nently in his absence : otherwise the greatest sufieringa 
must be endured, to avoid incontinency. 

2. Moreover, in all thetie cases, a. temporary* removal may 
be further followed, than & perpetual trans migration, be- 
cause it hath fewer evil couaequeuts. 

And if either party renouuce the relation itself, it is a 
fuller desei'tion, and clearer diHcharge of the other party, 
than a mere removal is. 

Quest. XV, ' WhaL if a man or wife know that the other 
in hatred doth really intend by poison or other murder, to 
take away their life f May they not then depart 1' 

Answ. They may not do it upon a gronndleas or rash sur- 
mise j nor upon a danger which by other lawful means may 
be avoided ; (as by vigilancy, or the magistrate, or especial- 
ly by love and duty.) But in plain danger, which is not 
<*tberwise like to be avoided, I doubt net, but it may be 
done and ought. For it is a duty to preserve our own lives 
t» well as oar neighbours. And when marriageis contract- 
ed for mutual help, it is naturally implied that they shall 
have no power to deprive one another of life ; (however 
some barbarous nations have given men power of the livc« 
of their wiven.) And killing is the grossest kind of deser- 
tion, and a greater injury and violation of the mamage-co- 
renant than adultery; and maybe prevented by avoiding 
the murderer's presence i if that way be necessary. None 
of the ends of marriage can be attained, where the hatred is 
BO great. 

Quat. xvi, ' If there be but fixed hatred of each other. 



U it inconsistent with the euds of i 

ing lawful in itucli a case ?' 

marriage i And is part- 

Antw. The injuring party ia bound to love and nnt to 
separate; and can have no liberty by his or her sin. And 
to ssy, f cunntil love, ur my wife or husband Is not amiable, 
is no eufficienlrxcuse; because every person hath sotiiewha( 
Uiai i« umiublt-. if it be but human nature; and that ^houli^l 
have been foreseen before your choice. And as it is no ex.- 
cuse to a dnuukard to say, 1 cannot leave my drink ; so it is 
none: to fto adulterer, or hnter of auotber, to say, I cnnnot 
love them : for that is bnt In aay. I lun ho wicked, thiit my 
htart or will is a^aiiiet my dniy. Hut the innoceiiL pHrty'a 
ome w harder (though commonly both parties are faulty, 
anil therefore both are obliged to returu to love, :ind nnt tO{ 
Ht.'pai'ute). Dut if hatred proceed not to udtiltery. or mur*' 
der, or intolerable injuries, yon mnfit romembei' that mar- 
riage is not a contract for years, but for hfe, and that it is 
possible that hatrtd may be nured (how unlikely itoevcr it 
may be). And therefore you must do your duty, and wail,* 
and pray, and strive by love and goodne«H to recover lovej 
jind then stay to see what God will do ; for tuiatakes in yoi 
choicv wUI not warrant a separation. 

Quest, i:\ii. 'What tl' a woman have a husband that 
will not suffer her to read the Scriptures, nor go to God'a 
worship public or private, or that so beateth or abuseth htT, 
lu that it caiitiot be expecLud that human outun; should he 
iaaut^ a case kept fit for any holy action ; or if a man have 
a wife that willKCold at him when he is praying or instructing 
his fuinily. UQiJ louki' it impos-iible to him to senre tiodwilh 
freedom, or peace, and comfort V 

Antw. The woman must (at necessary seasons, thniit^h 
dot when she would) both read tlie Hcriptureii, and worship 
Crod.aud sufier patiently what is inflicl«d on her. Martyr- 
dom may beae comfortably auBered from a hoxband, as from 
a princo. But yet if neither her own kive, and dnty, aitd 
patience, nor Irirnd'a persuasion, nor the mais^istnitu's jus- 
tice, can free her from naeh Liihumun cruelty, as quite dis- 
abletli her for her daty to God and maa, I aea not but s) 
■n^ ilspurt from such u tyrant. Hut the man hath mote 
means to restrain hts wife I'nmi Itcatiag him, or duinff twch 
isldkrable Ibioga; either by the ma^strale, or by denying 

<:HAP. IX.J christian tt'ONOUlCti. 

Iier what else mIm might have, or by bis own violuDl ree- 
training ber, as belongeth to « coitjugnl niler, and as cir- 
cumstances shall direct a prudent mau. But yet in case 
that iinsuitablenestj or sin be tto great, that after long Lrtul, 
there is no likelihood of any other co- habitat) on, but what 
will tend to their spintual hurt %iul calamity, it is their lesser 
sin to live asunder by mutual conxonl. 

Qiteiil. XVIII. 'Who be they iliat may or may not marry 
ugaiji when they me parted ?' 

AnsiB. 1. They that are released by divorce upon the 
other*3 adultery, 8i.c. may marry again. 2. The case 
of all the rest is harder. They that part by couseut. to 
avoid mntnal hurt, may not mairy again : nor the party 
that departeth for self-preserratiou, or for the prcstrration 
of estate, or children, or comforts, or for liberty of woi'ship, 
as aforesaid : because it is but an intermission of conjugal 
fruition, and not a total dissolution of the relation : and the 
innocent party muet wait to see whether thcie be any hope 
of a return. Yea, Christ seemetb to resolve it, Matt. v. 31, 
32., that lie la an adulterer that marrielh the innoeent party 
that is put away ; because the other living in adultery, their 
first contracted relation seemelh to be still in being. But 
Grotius and Eome others think, that Christ meoiieth this 
only of the man that over-hastily marrieth the innocent di- 
vorced woman, before it be seen whether he will repent and 
re-assume her. But liuw can that hold, if the husband after 
adultery free her ! May it not therefore be meant, that the 
woman mu&t stay mmiarricd in hope of his reconciliation, 
till Huch time as hiii adultery with hia next married wife doth 
disoblige her. But then it tniist be taken at; a law for Chria- 
tians: for the Jew that might have many wives, diaobligeih 
not one by taking another. 

Iv A short desertion must be endured in hope : but in case 
of a very long, or total desertion or rejection, if the injured 
party should have an untaoieable lust, the case is dilKcult. 
I think there are few but by just means may abstain. But 
if there be any that cannot, (after all means,) without such 
trouble as overtlirowetli their peace, and plainly haaardeth 
their continence, I dare not say that marriage in that case 
is unlawful to the innocent. 

Quest. 1 ' is it lawful to sutler or tolerate, yea, or conlri- 



bute to the mnttcr of known xin in a fiunily, ordinarily, in 
wife, child or getrant : and consequently in any other rela- 
tions. "!' 

Amw. In this Bome lakewann men are apt to run into 
the extreme of remiaaness ; and Home unuxperienced young 
men, that never bad families, into the extreme of censorious 
rigour, as not knowing what they talk of. 

I. It is nnt lawful either in family, commonwealth, 
church or any where, to allow of sin, nor to tolerate it, or 
leave it uucuced, when it is truly in oui power to cure it. 
2. So that all the question n, when it is, or is not in 
our power? Concerning which, I shall answer by some in- 

1. It is not in oar power to do that which we are na- 
turally unable lo do. No law of God bindelh ub to im- 
posiiihiliues. And natural impotency liere is found iu these 
several cages. I. When we ore overmatched inntrength; 
when wife, chiMren, or servants are too strong fur the mas- 
ter of the house, so that ho cannot correct them, nor re- 
move them. A king Is not bound to punish rebellious or 
ojl'eoding .subjects, when ttiey are too strong for him, and 
he is unuhlt: : either by their numbers or otlter advuntHgee. 
If a pastor censure an offender, and all the church be a^unt 
ihe censure, he cannot procure it executed, but must ac- 
quiesce in having done his pail, and leave their guilt upon 

2. When the tiling to be done is an impossibility, at 
least moral. As to hinder all the persons of a family, churcli 
or kingdom from over sinning : it ia not in their own power 
aa far to reform themselves; much less in a raler so far to 
refonu them : even as lo ourselves, perfection is but desired 
in thiit life, but not attained ; much less for others. 

3. When the pnnci pal causes co-operate not with u», and 
we are but subservient moral causes; we can but persuade 
men to repent, believe, and love God and goodness. We 
cannot save men without and against themselveB. Their 
hearts are out of our reach ; therefore in all these caaea we 
are naturally unable to hinder sin ! 

II. It is not in our power to do anv thing which God 
I'urbiddeth us. That which in siufu) is to l>e accounted out 
or our power lu thin sense. To cure Uic sin of a wife, by 


uich cruelty or har&liness as is contrary to our cot^ugal 
relation itniJ to the office of neces&aiy lore, is out of our 
power, because fotbiddeo. as coatniry to our duty ; and no 
of other. 

III. llioEe nctioDd aro out of our power, which &r« acts 
of higher authority than we have. A subject canoot refortn 
by such actions an are proper to the aorereign, nor a lay- 
man by actions proper to tlie pa»tor, for want of autliorily. 
So a schoolmaster coimot do that which is proper to a pa- 
tient; nor the maBter of a family that which is proper to the 
magistrate <a« to punish witli death, &c.) 

IV. We have not power to do that which a superior 
power forbtddeth us (uuleas it be that which Qod indispcn- 
sably commandeth us.) The wife may not correct a chiUl 
or servant, or turn him away, when Llie husband furbidduth 
it. Nor the master of a family so puni«h a sin, as the lung 
and laws forbid ou the accouitl of public interest. 

V. We have not power to do that for the power of sin, 
whicli is like to do more hurt than good; yea, perhaps to 
prove a pernicious mischief. If my correcting a serraat, 
would make him kill me, or $et my house on fire, I may not 
do it. If my sharp reproof is like to do more hurt, or leaa 
good than milder dealing; tf 1 have reason to believe that 
correction will make a servant worse, I am not to use it; 
because we have our power to edification, and not to de> 
struction. God hath not tied us just to speak such and 
such words, or to use tliis or that correction, but to use re- 
proofs and corrections only in that time,mcaf;un> and man- 
ner as true reason telleth us, is likest to attain their end. 
To do it, if it would do nererso much hurt with a 'fiat jus- 
titia etui pereat mundue,' is to be righteous overmuch. 

Yea, grea,t and heinous sins may be endured in families 
sometimes, to avoid a greater hurt, and because there is no 
otlier means to cure them. For instance, a wife may be 
guilty of notorious pride, and of malignant deriding the 
exercises of religion, and of raihog, lying, slandering, back- 
biting, covetousness, swearing, cursing, &.c. and the hub- 
band be necessitated to bear it; not so far as not to re- 
prove it, but so far as not to correct her. much less cure her; 
divines use to say, that it is unlawful for a man to beat bis 
wife ; but the reaaon is not, that he wantcth uulhority to do 




it; bat, I. B«cau)ie he is by his relation obliged tn a life of 
love wilh her ; and ihereCore niDHt so rule, as teudeth not 10 
destroy Iovb : and 2. Because it may often do otherwise 
moie hurt to herself and the family, tha.a good. It may 
mkke her furious and despeiute, and make her contemptible 
in the family, aud diminish the reverence of inf«rior8, both 
to wife and husband, for living so uncomely a life. 

Quest. ' But is there any cusc iu whigh a man may etilently 
bear the sins uf a wife, or otber inferior witliout reproof, or 
tuf^ng theiu to amend ? ' 'J 

Amw. Yes: in case. 1. That reproof ha(h been tried to 
the utmost: 2. And it is most evident by full experience. 
tJiat it is like to do a great deal more hurt than i<ood. 

The rule given by Christ, extendelh ns well to families, 
as toothers; nut to cast pearls before swine, nor tn give 
that which is holy to dogs': because it is more to the dis- 
conipo»ui*c of a man's own peace, to have a wife turn a^in, 
and all to rend him, than a alrnnger. As the church may 
cease admonishing a sinner, after a certain time of obsti- 
nacy, when experience hath ended their present hopes of 
bringing the person to repentance, and thereupon may ex- 
oommunicate him : fio a husband ntay be brought to the 
same despair with a wife, and may be disobliged IVom or- 
dinary reproof, though the iiearnesti. of the relation foiitid 
him to eject her. And in such a case where the family and 
nctghbuufhood know the totractublcnefis and obstinacy 
of the wife, it no scandal, nor sign of approbation, or neg- 
lect of duty, for a man to be >;ileut at her sin°; beexuse 
they look npon her at present as incorrigible by that means: 
and it is the sharpest reproof to such a one, to be uarepror- 
ed, and to be lei alone in her ein; as it is God's greatest 
Judgment on a sinner, to leave him to himself, and cay, ' be 
filthy stiU.' 

And there are some women whose fantasies and pas- 
aiomc are naturally so strong, as that it seemeth to me that 
in many cases they have not so much as natural free-will 
or power to resti^in them : hut if in all other cases they 
acted as in some, 1 should take iheni for mere brutes, thai 
had no (rue reason : thev nuera outurallv necessitated to do 



OS they do. 1 have known the long profeiiRion of piety, 
which i» other rvspecte hath seemed sincerv. to consiHt in 
a wife, with such nnmastered, t'nrious pasaion, that »ht coutd 
not before strangers forbear throwing what was io her haud 
in her Kuijiiiuid'.s (wcc:, or thrusting the burning cundle into 
hit* face; and slandering bim of (he fUthieHtnins; uudwhca 
the p'dS»ion wan over, confess alt Co be false, and her rage 
to be the fpuaon of her speech and actions: aud the man 
though a minister, of more than ordinary wit and strtngtbi 
yet fain to endure all without returns of violence till btir 
death. They that never knew such a case by trial, can teW 
how all might be cured easily ; but so cannot they tliat are 
put upon the cure. 

And there are some other women of the same uncurable 
strength of iinaginutioii and pasRion, who in other rexpecta 
are very pious and prudent too, uud loo wise and can&cion- 
able to wrong their husbamU with their hands or tonguen, 
who yet are utterly unable to forbear an injury of the high- 
eat nature to themselves ; but are so utterly impatient of 
being crossed of their wills, that it would in all likctihood 
cast tliem into melancholy or madness, or some mortal 
sicknefte : and ao reason eignilictji any thing to abate hucIi 
passions. In case of pride, or some sinful custom, tliey are 
not able to bear reproof, and to be hindered In the sin, 
without apparent danger of distraction or death. 1 suppose 
these cases are but few ; but what to do in such cases when 
they coroe, is ihe present question. > 

Kay, the question ia still harder, ' Whether to avoid such 
inconvenience, one may contribute towards another's sin, by 
afTording them the means of committing it?' 

Answ. I. No man may contribute to sin as sin, formally 
conHidered. 2. No man may contribute to another's 9in, 
for sinful ends, nor in a manner forbidden or sinful in him- 
Mlf. 3. No man may contribute to another's sin, when he 
is not naturally or morally necessitated to it, but might for- 
bear it. 

But UH it is consietent with the holiness of God to con- 
tribute those natural and providential mercies, which he 
knoweth men will abuse to sin, so is it in some cases with 
us hiii creatures to one another. Cod giveth all men their 
lives «.»d time, their reason and free-will, wliich he know- 



eUi they will abuse to sin : he giveth them that meat, and 
drink, and riclics, a.nd health, and vigour of senses, which 
are the usual means of the sin and undoing of the world. 

Oftjtct, ' But Qod is not under any law or obligation &.& 
we are.' 

AnsiB. His own perfection is above alllaw. and will not. 
constat with a consent or acting of any thing that i& con- 
trary to holiness and |>erfection. But this I confess, that 
many things ure coulrary tu the order and duty of the crea- 
ture, which are not contruy to the place and perfection of 
the Creator. 

1, ^Vhen man doth generate man, he knowingly contri- 
buteth to a sinful nature and life : for he kiioweth it is un- 
avoidable, and that which is born of the flesh is fleRh", 
And yet he einneth not by bo doing, because he is not 
bound to prevent sin by the forbearance of generation. 

2. When one advanceth another to the office of magis- 
tracy, ministry, &c. knowing that he will »in in it, he con- 
tributeth accidentuUy to bia MU j but so as he is not culpa- 
ble for BO doing. 

. 3. A physician liath to do vith a firoward and intem- 
perate patient, who will pleatie bis appetite, or else if he be 
denied his passion, will increase his diaease and kill him. 
In this case he may lawfully say, let him take a Httle, ra- 
ther than kill him; though by so doing he contribute to 
his sin. Becautie it is but a not-hiudering that which he 
cannot hinilcr without a greater evil. The sin is only bta 
that ckooBcth it. 

And it is specially to bo noted, thai that which physi- 
cally is a positive act and contributing to the matter of the 
ain, yet morally is but a not-hindering tlie sin by such a 
withholding of materials as we are not obliged to withhold 
(which is the case alao of God'ti contributing to the matter 
of sin). If the physician in such a case, or the parcDt of a 
sick and froward child, do-actually give them that which 
they sin in desiring, that giving is indeed such a furthering 
of the sin as cannot be lawfully forborne, lest we do hurt, 
and therefore is morally but a not-hindering it, when we 
cannot hinder iu 

4. If u man liave a ulfe so proud that she will go mad, 
■ J«lmW.&, i:|>li«*.U.t,3. 




or disturb him and hiti family by rage, if her pride be ncrt 
gTftttfied. by some sinful fashions, curiosities, or excesses, if 
he give her mnney or materials to do it with, to prevent her 
didlraction, it is but like the foresaid case of tlie phytician, 
or parents of a sick child. 

I Q these cases I will give you a rule to walk by for yoar^ ' 
selves, anda caution howtojudge of others. 

1. Be Hiire that you leave nothing undone that vou ci 
lawfully do, for the cure and prevention of otJiera' sins ; and- 
tliot it be not for want of zeal against sin, through indif- 
ference or slothfulnesa, that you forbear to hinder it, but 
merely through disability. 2. See that in comparing th« 
evil that is like to follow the impeditiun, you do not mis-1 
take, but be sure that it be indeed a greater evil which you 
avoid by not hindering that particular sin. 3. See therefore 
that your own carnal interesl weigh not with you more than 
there ia cause ; and that you account not mere fleshly suf- 
fering a greater evil than sin. 4. I3ut yet that diKhonour 
which may be cast upon religion, and the good of souls 
which may be hindered by a bodily auflering, may come 
into the comparison. 5. And your own duties to men's 
bodies (as to save men's lives, or health, or peace) are to be 
numbered with spiritual things, and the materials of a sin 
may in some cases be administered for the discharge of 
such a duty. If you knew a man would die if you give 
him not hot water, and he will be drunk if you do give it 
him ; in this case you do but your duty, and he commits 
the sin: you do that which is good, and are not bound to 
forbear it, because he will turn it to sin, unless you see tliat 
the hurt by that sin is like to be so great (besides the sin 
itself) as to discharge you from the duty of doing good. 

'2. As to otliers, (1.) Put them on to their dutv and 
spare not. (2.) But censure them not for the nins of their 
families, till you ere acquainted with all the case. It is 
usual with rash and carnal censurers, to cry out of some 
godly ministers or gentlemen, that their wives are as proud, 
and their children and servauts as bad as oilier^. Diit are 
you sure that it ia in their power to remedy it? Mulicc and 
rashness judge at a dietaace of things which men under- 
stand not, and sin in speaking against sin. . 

Quest. II. ' If a gentleman, e. g. of i^^fJU, or XIQOO. or 


CHBiinriAN niRRr-roRY. [paKt ti. 

£2000, or ^000, per annum, could tiparc honestly half 
hiH yearly rents, for hie children and for chnritable uees, 
nnd his wife be «o proud and prodigal, that she will waste 
it all in liousekeeping and Excesses, and will rage, btr un- 
quiet, or gn mad, if she be hindered, what is a man's duty 
in such a case?' 

Amw, It iB but an tnstatice of the fore-mentioned case, 
and must thence be unswered. 1. It 'i% aapposed that she 
is incurable by ull wine and rutiuiial means of persuasion. 
2. He is wisely to compare the greatness of the evil thai 
will come by crossing her, with the good that may come 
by the improvement of bis eBtate, and the forbearance of 
tl]ose exct-»»es. Jf her rage, or distraction, or unquietneas 
were like by any accident to do more hurt thau bis rstate 
may do good, he might take himself disabled from hiuder- 
ing the sin ; and though he give her the money which she 
mi&spendeth, it is not sinning, but only not hindering sin 
when he is unable. 3. Ordinarily some small or tolerable 
degree uf sinful waste uiid excess may be tolerated to aroid 
such tuischiefs as else would follow; but not too much. 
And though noju^t measure can be assigned, at what rate 
a man may lawfully purchase fain own peace, and conw- 
quently his liberty to serve God, or nt what rate he msy 
Have bis wife firom madncsti, urBomc mortal mischiefs of her 
divcofttent, yet the case must be resolved by such consider- 
ations; and a prudent, man, that kuowetb what is like to 
be the consequent on both Hides, may and must accordingly 
detcimiue it. 4. But ordinarily the life, health, or prener- 
vatioR of ao proud, luxurious, and passionatB a woman, is 
not worth the saving at so dear a rate, as the wastling of a 
considerable estate, which might be used to relieve a mul- 
titude of the poor, and perhaps to save the IJi'es of many 
that are worthier to live. And, (1.) A nuio's duty to relieve 
the poor and provide for his family is so (jreut. (2.) And 
the account that all men must give of the o»o oftheirt»]eat4 
is 80 strict, that it must be a great reason indeed, that must 
allow him to give way to very great waatefnlneHs. And 
unless there be somewhat extnuirdlnar)- in UiecAse. it were 
better deal with such a woman asa bedlam, and ifshe will be 
mad, to use her n» the mad are used, than for a steward of 
Ood to sufier the devil to be served with bis master's goods. 



!i_ Lastty, r must charge the reader to retutimber, that both 
these cases are very rare; and it is but few women that are 
BO liahle to so great nuschitr^, which may nut be prevented 
at cheaper raUft i anti therefore UiiiL the ii)duli;eiiue given 
tn these decision!*, is nothing to the greater part of met), 
nor is to be extended to ordiunry cases. But cuinmouly 
men every where sin by oiuissioii of a stricter government 
of their families, and by Eli's sitiful indulgence and n:mi«- 
nesB : and though a wife must be governed as a wife, aiid 
a child an a child, yet all must be governed a» welt ax ntcr- 
vtuits. And though it mayb« truly said, that a man cuuuut 
hinder tJiat sin, which he cajinot hinder but by sin, or by 
contributing to a greater hurt, yet it is to be concluded, 
that every man is bound to hinder sin whenever he is able 
lawfully to hinder it. 

And by the same measures, tolerations, or not-binderiug 
errors and siii» about religion in church and commonwealth, 
is to be judged of : None must couuuit them lM' approve 
thera ; nor forbem* any duty of their own to cure them : but 
that in not a duty which is destructive, which would be a 
duty when it were a means of edifying. 


T/u Dutiet of Parents/or their ChUdnn. 

pT how great importance the wine and holy education of 
children is, to the saving of their souls, and thr comfort of 
tlie parents, and the good of churcii and state, and the hap- 
pinees of the world, I have partly told you before; but no 
man is able fully to express. And how great that calamity 
is, which the world is fuUcii into through the neglect of that 
duty, no lienrt can conceive; but tliey that think what a 
case the heathen, iuiidel, and migodiy nations are in, and 
how rare true piety iii grown, and how many inilliotiK muRt 
lie in hell for ever, will know so much of this inhuman negli- 
gence, as to abhor it. 

Oireft I. ' Understand and lament the corrupted and 



[part tl. 

mi«€rable state of your children, which they have derived 
from you, and thankfully accept the offera of a Saviour for 
yourselves aod them, and abttolutely resign, and dedicate 
them to God id Christ in the sacred covenant, and soUtn- 
nize this dedication and covenant by their baptism". And 
to thie end understand the command of Ood for entering 
your children solemuly into covenant with him, and the co- 
veaaQt-mercieH belonging to them thereupon''.* 

You cannot sincerely dedicate yonrselvea to God, 
but you must dedicate to him all that is yours, and in 
your power; and therefore your children as far as they 
are in your power. And a8 nature hath taught you your 
power and your duty to enter them in tJieir infancy into any 
covenant with man. which is certainly for their good ; (and 
if they refuse the conditions when ihey come to age, they 
forfeit the benefit ;) so nature teacheth you much more to 
oblige them to God for tht-ir far greater good, in case he 
will admit titem into covenant with him. And that be will 
admit them into hiK covenant, (and that you ought to enter 
them into it,) is past doubt, in the evidence which the Scrip- 
ture giveth Its, that -from Abraham's time till Christ it was 
so with all the children of his people : nay, no man can prove 
that before Abialiam's time, orsince, God had ever a church 
on earth, of which the infants of his servants (if they had 
any) were not members dedicated in covenant to God, rill 
of late times that a few began to scruple the lawfulnesB of 
this. As it 18 a comfort to you, if tlie king would bestow 
upon your infant children, (who were tainted by their fa- 
ther's treason,) not only u full diKchurge from the blot of that 
offence, but also the titles and estates of lords, though they 
tindcretand none of this tilt they come to age ; so is it much 
more matter of comfort to you, on their behalf, that God in 
GbriHt will pardon their original sin, and take them as his 
children, and give them title to ererlaflting life; which are 
tb« mercies of his coveuauU 

Direct, ii. 'As soon as they are capable, tench them 
what a covenant they an* in. and what are the benefits, and 
what the conditions, that their soula may gladly consent to 

• Src my TrtatiMi far Tnbiit-b«!)il>m. 

*1Uni r. ir.ll^— Ifi. Eplin.ll. l.S. Cm. ktiI. 4.13. !«. iMnl. iili. 
10— If. Kota. ti 17. to. Jotm m. S. i. AUtt. i». 13, 14. 



it when they undcratand it ; and you may bring them se- 
riously to renew their covenant with Goirt in their own per- 
sons." But the whole order of leacliiug both children and 
Bervants, I shall give you after by itself; and therefore shall 
here paa» by all that, except thai which i« to be douc more 
by your familiar converse, than by niuri! sukmn tBucUiiig. 

Direct, iii. ' Train them up in exact obedience to your- 
aelves, and break them of their own wilU.* To tliat end, 
sufl'er them not to carry thciujielves untevorciitly or con- 
temptuously towards yuu ; but to keep their distance. For 
too much familiarity breetteth contempt, and euiboldenetb 
to disobedience. The common course of parents is to 
please their children so loag, by letting them liuvc whul 
they crave, and what they will, till their wills are ho used to 
be fultillej, that they cannot endute to have theiu deoicd; 
and so can endure no government, because they endure no 
crossing of their wills. To be obedient, is to renounce their 
own wills, and be ruled by their parents' or governor's wills ^ 
to use tbem therefore to have their own wills, is lo tench 
them disobedience, and harden and use them to a kind of 
impossibility of obeying. Tell them oft familifirly and lov- 
ingly of the excellency of obedience, and how it pleascth 
God, and what need they have of government, and how un- 
fit they are to govern tliemselvee, and how dangerous it \» 
to children to have their own wills; speak often with great 
disgrace of self-wiLlednetis and stubbornness, and tell otherR 
in their hearing what hath befallen self-willed children. 

Dirfct. IV. ' Make them neither too bold with you, nor 
too strange or fearful; and govern them not as servauts, 
but as children, making them perceive that yoii dearly love 
them, and that all your commands, restraints and correc- 
tions are for their good, and not merely because you will 
have it so.' They must be ruled as rational creatures, that 
love iheniselveSf and those thai love them. If tliey per- 
ceive that you dearly love Lliem, they will obey you the 
more willingly, and the easier be brought to repent of their 
disobedience, and they will as well obey you in heart as in 
outward actions, and behind your back as before your faca. 
And the love of you (which must be caused by your love to 
them,) must be one of the chiefest means to bring them to 
the love of all that good which you commend to them ; and 

vol. IV. N 



90 to form their wilU sincerely to th« will of God, a.nd make 
them holy. For If yon are too strange to theui. aod loo 
terrible, they will fear you only, and not much love you; and 
then they will love no books, no practices, that you com- 
mend to them, but like hypocrites they will seek to please 
you to your face, and care not wliHl they are in secret and 
behind yuur backH. Nay. it will tempt them to loathe your 
government, and all that good which you persuade tbcni to, 
Wnd make them like birds in a cnge. thnt watoh for an op- 
poiliinity tn get away and {jet their liberty, TJjey will be 
the more in the company of hiervnnts and idle children, be- 
cauBe yonr terror and Btrungeiieas niaketli them take no de- 
light in yours. And fear will make them liars, as oft as u. 
lie seemoth necessary to their e^^cnpe. Parent)! that shew 
much love to their children, may safely shew severity when 
they commit a ffiult. For then they will see, that it is their 
fault only that displc&ecth you, and not their persons ; and 
yoor lovcrcconeileth them to you when they arc corrected ', 
when less correction from parents that nrp always atrarrte or 
angry, and shew no lenderlove tutheircliiidren.will alienate 
tliem, and do no good. Too much boldnesi^ of children 
leadeth them before yon arc aware, to contempt of parent* 
and all disobedience; and too much fear and strangencKs 
depriveth them of most of the bencfitH of your care and go- 
Tcnimeot : but tender love, with severity only when tliey 
do ami«E, and thite at a reverend, convenient distance, la the 
only way to do them j^ood. 

Dirtd. V. ' Labour much to posaesi* their tieartti with the 
fear of God, and a reverence of die Holy Scriptures; and 
thett whatsoever duty you command them, or wbatsovvrr sin 
yoQ forbid them, shew them aome plain and ui^ent texttt of 
Scripture for it; and cause them to learn them and oft r»- 
pe«t them; that so they may find reanon and Divine autho- 
rity in your commauds.' Till their obedience begin to be 
rational and Divine, it will be but formal and hypocritical. 
It is conscience that ma«t watch tliem in private, when you 
Bee them not ; and conscience is Ood'e ofBcer and not yours; 
and will say nothing to thera, till it speak io the name of 
God. This i« the way to bring the heart itself into bubjec- 
tion ; and also to reconcile them to all your commands, when 



tliey see that they arc tirial the conini»i>ilB oT God : («f which 
more uoon.) 

Direel. vi. ' lu uU your Kpeecb uf God, aod of Jesus 
Christ, aud of Lhe Holy Scripture, or th« life to come, or o#^ 
any holy duty, Hpvak ulways with gravity, Kt.-rioustie:!««, bvA 
revercincti, as of the moM great, and di'eadful, and most &a*. ' 
cred tbiogx.' For before cbildreii come to have an<f dis-. 
tinflt understaiidiug of particulars, it is a hopeful iMi^iuuhm, i 
to have their hearts [toaaest vrilh a general reverence and' 
high esteem of holy matters : fur tliut will contiouully awk , 
their couBcieaces, aeid help their judgments, and Beltlutbc-m 
against pTejudice and profane cootcmpt, aud be a» a iteed of 
holineHs ia tiiem. For " the feaj of God i% the begintiitig of 
wisdom*^." Aud the very manner of tjie puiciite' itpeeclt 
and carriage, expresMcg ^at reTerence to the thinf^s of 
God, hath a veij great power to leave the like impression on 
a child : most childri:n of godly parents, that ever cune to 
good, I am persuaded cut teU you ttiia by experience, (if 
their parents did their duty tu this point,) that the 5i-ut i;uod 
that ever they felt upon Uieir hearts, was a reverence to lioly 
things, which tlie speech andcarriageoftbeir parents taught 

Diretl, VII. ' Speak always before them with great ho- 
nour and praise of holy ministers and people, and with dis- 
praise and loathing of every sin, and ©f ungodly man '' * 
For tliiit i& also a thiug that children will qiiicVly and eaail 
receive &om their parents. Before they can undcrstaiift 
paitic4ilaT doctriucs, they can learn in general what kind o€ 
peraone ace moathappy ot mostmiBtrable, and tlieyare rery 
apt to receive such a liking or disliking from their parents' 
judgment, which hath a great hand in all the following good 
or evil of their lives- If you poaness theuo with good and 
honourable thoughts of them that fear God. they will ever 
aXtei be inclined to think well of them, and to dislike those 
that ttpeak evil of them, and to bear such preachers, and to 
uinh tlit-niselves »uch Christi^nit ; so that io thiK and the 
foregoing point it is that the fir»t atirrings of grace in cliil' 
dren are ordinarily felt. And therefore on the other aide, it 
ij»,a. ntoi^t pernicioue thing to children, when they hi'»r th«ir 

- I'tiit.eii.l0. pMv.fx,10. I.r. 

' Im. lUi r— 9. IL. ct. X. S~>. 



p&renta speak contemptuously or lightly oftioly things and 
persona, antl irreverently talk of God, and Scripture, and 
the life to come, or speak, difipraisingly or scornfully of godly 
ministeDt or people, or make ajestof the particular duties of 
a religious life : these chiltlrenare like to receive that preju- 
dice or profane contempt into their hearts betimes, which 
may bolt the doors against the love of God and holiness, 
and make their fialvatioii a work of much greater difficulty, 
and much smaller hope. And therefore still L say. that 
wicked parents are the most notable servants of the devil in 
all the world, and the deudliest enemies to their children's 
souls. More souls are damned by ungodly parents (and 
next them by ungodly ministers and magistrntcfi) than by 
any instruments in the world besides. And hence it is also, 
thai whole nations are so generally carried away with enmity 
against the ways of God: tbc heathen nations against the 
true God, and the infidel notions against Chri»t, and the 
papist nations agiLlnst reformation and spiritual worshipperB : 
because the parents speak evil to the children of all that 
they themselves dislike; sjid so possess them with the same 
dislike froro generntion to generation. " Woe to them that 
call evil good, snd good evil, that put darknesii fur light, 
and light for darkness, that put bitter for sweet, and sweet 
for bitter'." 

Direct, viii. • Let it be tbc principal part of your care 
and labour in all their education, to make holini^s appear 
to them tlie moat necessary, honourable, gainful, pleasant, 
deiiglitful, amiable stHtu of life ; and to keep them from ap- 
prehending it either as needless, diRhonourable. hurtful, or 
uncomforlable.' Especially draw them to the love of it. by 
representing it as lovely. And therefore begin witb that 
which is easiest and most grateful to them (as the history 
of the Scripture, and the lives of the martyrs, and other 
good men, and some short, fumiliur lessons). For though 
in restraining them from ein, you must go to the highest step 
at first, and not think to draw them from it by altowing them 
the least degree (for every degree disposcth t«i more, and 
none is to be allowed, and a general reformation is the ea- 
siest as well ax absolutely necestiary). Yot in putting them 
Upon the practice of religious duties, you muat carry thirm 

• ta. ». «a 


CHAP. X.] 



on by d^rees, aud put them at first upou no more than 
they can bear ; either upon the learning of doctrines too 
high and spiritual for them, or upou such duty for quality 
or quantity as is over-burdeneome to them: for if you onc« 
tuni their hearts »galntit religion, and make it seem a sla- 
very and a tedious life to them, you take the course to har- 
den them against it. And therefore all children must not 
be used alike ; as all etomachs muet not be forced to eat 
alike. If you force some to take ho much as to become a 
aurfeit, they will loathe that sort of meat as long; an they 
lire. 1 know that nature itself^ aa corrupt, hath already an 
enmity to holiness, and I know that this enmity ia not to b» 
indulged in children at all ; but witliat I know that niiitre- 
pre^entaciong of religion, and imprudeut education is the 
way to iucrcase it, and that the cumity being in the heart, 
it is the change of the mind and love that is the overcoming 
of it, and not any such constraint as tendeth not to recon- 
cile the mind by love. The whole skill of parents for the 
holy education of their children, doth consist in this, lo 
make them conceiveof holiness as the most amiable and de- 
itirahle life ; which is by representing it Co them tu words 
;ind practice, not only aa most necessary, hut also as most 
profitable, honourable, and delightful. " Her ways are 
ways of pleasantness, and all her paths are peace, 8cc'." 

Direcl.ix. ' Speak often to them of the brutish baseness, 
ajid sinfulness of Hesh- pleasing sensuality, and of tlie greater 
excellency of the pleasures of the mind ; which cousist in 
wisdom, and in doing good." For your cfaiefest care must 
beta save them fvom flesh-pleasing; which is not only in 
general the sum of all iniquity whatsoever, but that which 
in special children are most prone to. For their flesh and 
aeose la as quick as others ; and they want not only faith, 
but clear reason to resist it : and so (besides their natnral 
piavity) the custom of obeying sense (which m in streug(h) 
without reason (which is in infancy aud almost u6€leas)doth 
much increase this pernicious sin. And therefore still la- 
bour to imprint in their minds an odious conceit of a flesh- 
pleasing life; npeak bitterly lo them againat gluttony, and 
drunkenness, and excess of sport ; and let them often hear 
or read the parable of the glutton and I^zarus in the six- 
' Pnv. iii. IT. 


teeoth irf Laku; aad lot thcni loani without book, Uom-viii. 
1. 6 — ti. 13. xiii. 13, 14. and oil repeat them. 

Direct, x. ■ To this end, and also for the healtli of their 
bodies, keep a. strict giuird upon theii appetites (which they 
ure notable to guard thein»elTes) ; keep them s« exactly aa 
you con to the rulers of tcacion, both in the qnuntity and 
quality of their food.' Yet tell tliem the reason of yonx 
reatraint, or else they will Bt-cietly strive the more to brtok 
their bounds. Moat parcjita that ever 1 kuuw, or had any 
jj[ood account of in that poiot, are guilty of the gr«at hiui. 
and danger uf thuir children's health and souls, by [deatcing 
and glutting theni with meat and drink, if 1 should call 
them devds and niurdererH tu tlieir own children, they would 
think i spake too barably i but I would not have them give 
so great occasion for it, as by destroying (as farns Ueth in 
theoi) the auul^ mid budibs of their cliildren. They deKlroy 
their (ionla by accustoming them to gluttony, and to hi; 
roled by their appetites; which uU the teaching in the 
world will hardly eT*r after ov*rcom«, without the special 
grace of God. What is all the vice und villany in the world, 
but the pleasing of the deairea of the flesh? And when 
they are liabiUiated to this, they are rooted in th«ir bid and 
misery. And thty destroy their bodies, by KuHeriuti; them 
to please their appetites, with raw fruits and other hurtful 
thingti ; but enpertally by drowning and overwhelming na- 
ture by ezceos : and all this is through that beastly igno- 
renoe joined with self-conccitcdness, which maketh them 
alfiO overthrow them«elrea. They think tlial their appetite 
is the meaaure of their eating and drinking, and that if they 
drink but when they are thirsty (»» some dninkardo are con- 
tinually) ; and eat but when they are hungry, it is no exovM : 
uid because they are not pi^HUitly aick, or vonit it not up 
again, the beast* think it doth them no hann, but good. 
^^^ Yott nhall hear them like mad peoplu say, * i warrant them, 
HH it will do ihom oo harm to eat and drink when they have 
^^" list, it will make them strong and healthy ; I see not that 
B ihoaethat are dieted sostrictly are uny healthier than others.* 

H When as all ihifv while they are burdening nature, and dea- 

B troy ing -digcstimi , and vitiating all llic huau>ur»of the body. 

fl and turning theinintoadunghillof phlegmand iillh; which 

H is the fuel that breedeth and fcodeth almost all tlie diseascK 







that after Heize iipun them while they lircj and u&uallf 
bringeth thc-m to nu untimely cud, (as I have more fully 
opened before, Part i. in the Dirt^ctioiiii aj^uinst OluUany). 
It Lherefoie you love eithur iho r^uuls or bodies of youT chil- 
dren, use them to ieui^evance from their infancy, and let 
oot their appetites ur craving wills, but yuut own rcosou be 
the choo8<ar and tlie measure of their diet. Us« tlieni lu bat 
spariitgly, aud (90 it moderately please their »p|)ettle, or be 
out such as nature loatheth) let it be rather of the coarser 
thaji the filter »ort of diet ; see it measured to them your- 
selves, and suffer uo servant to give tliera more, nor to let 
them eat or drink between meals and out uf season : and bo 
you will help to overcome their sensual inclinations, and 
give reiLiton the mastery of their lives ; and you wdl under 
God, do as tuuch as any one thing can do to help them to a 
healthful temper of body, which will be a very great mercy 
to them, and fit thera for iheir duly all their lives, 

Diixct. XI. * For sportH and recitations. IlI them be such, 
and so much, as may b« needful to their health and uhecr- 
fubie-»!i ; but not so much a.i; may cnrry away their minds 
from belter things, and draw them from their bouks ur other 
duties, nor such as may tempt them to gaming or covetous- 
ne6R>' Children must have convenient sport for the health 
of the body, and alacrity of the mind ; »uch as well exercis- 
elh their bodies is best, and not such as little fitineth them. 
Card!! and dice, and such idlesports are every way most un- 
fit, as tending to hurt both body and mind. Their time 
also must be limited them, tliat their play may not be their 
work; aj< soon as ever they havi^ the use of any reason and 
Mpeeuh, they should be taught some better things, and not 
left till they are hve or six years of age, to do nothing, but 
get a custom of wasliiij^ all their time in play. Children 
are very early capa-bleof learning something which may |) re- 
pare them for more. 

Direct. XII. ' Use all your wisdom and ditigence to root 
out the sin of pride. And to that end, do not (oi in ut^ual 
with foolish parents, that) please them with making them 
5ue, and then by telling them how fine tliey are ; but use to 
commend humility und plainness to them, and speak dia- 
gracefully of pnde and tinene!^^, to breed an averseneas to- it 
in their mindji.' Cause them to learn such texU of Scrip- 


[part II.*. 

ture a9 spftak oTOod's abhorring and resisting the proud, 
and of liis loving and honuuriiig the humble : when they 
««« other children that are finely cloUied, sjieak of it to them 
as their sbumc, that tliey muy not desire to be like theta. 
Speak against boasting, and every other way of pride «hich 
ihey are liable to : and yet give them the pruiue of all that 
is well, for that is but their due encoii ragement. 

Direct, xiit. '' Speak to them disgracefully of the gallan' 
try, and pomp, and riches of the world, and of the sin of 
selSshncse and covetoneneBS, nnd diligently watch ngainst 
it, and all that may tempt them to it.' When they nue great 
houHcs, and attetidauce, a.nd gallantry, tell them that these 
urc the devirtt bailn, to entice poor sinnera to love thiH •- 
world, that they amy lose their aouls, and the world to come. 
Tell them how mucli heaven excelletti all this ; and that the 
lovers of llie world must, never come thither, but (he hum- 
ble, and meek, and poor in Hpirit. Tell them of the rich 
glutton iu Luke xvi. that was thus clothed in purple and 
silk, aud fared deliciouuly every day; but when he came to 
hell, could not get a drop of water to cool his tongue, Mhen 
LazaruK was in the juyB of paradise. Du not us the wicked, 
that entice their children to worldliness aud covetousnesH, 
by giving them money, and letting them game and play for 
money, and promising theiu to make them fme ur rich, and 
speaking highly of all that arc rich and great in the world ; 
but tell them how much happier a poor believer is, and with- 
draw all th»t umy tempt their minds to coretousncds. Teach 
them how good ii is. to hive their brctliren as themselves, 
and to give them part of what Uiey hare, and praise them 
for it: and dispraise them when tliey are greedy to keep or , 
heap up all to themselves. And all will be little enough to 
care this pernioions sin. Teach them such texts as Psal. 
X. 3. *' They ble-ss the covetous whom the Lord abhorreth/ 

Direct. XIV. ' Narrowly watch their tongues, especially 
against lying, railing, ribbald ulk, and t«king the name of 
God in vain.' Aud pardon them many lighter faults about 
common niattcra. sooner than one soch sin against G(hI. 
Tell them of the odiousne&a of all these sins, and teach them 
such texts as most expressly condemn them ; and never pass 
it by or make light of it. when you find them guilty. 

Direct. XV. ' Keep Lhcm ait much as may be from ill 

CMAP. X.] 



oompRny, especially of unj^oilly play-fellows.' It is one of 
the greatest dangers tor the nndoiQ); of children in the 
world ; especially when they are ttent to comDnon HchouU : 
for there are scarce any of tho«e schools no good, but h»th 
many rude, and ungodly, tU-tuught children in it, that will 
spttuJc profanely, and Btthity, and mnke their ribbald uud 
railing speeches n matter of boaBting, besides fighting, and 
giLiuing, and scorning, and neglecting their lessons; and 
they wilt make a scorn of him that wilt not do as they, if not 
beat and abuse him. And there is auch tinder in nature for 
these sparks to catch upon, that there are very few children, 
but when they hear others take God's name in vain, or ning 
wanton songs, or talk filthy words, or call one another by 
reproachful names, do quickly imitate them : and when you 
have watched over them at home as narrowly as you can, 
they are infected abroad with such beastly rtces. ai they 
are hardly ever after cured of. Therefore lei those tliat are 
able, either educate their children most at home, or in pri- 
vate and well-ordered schools ; and those that cannot do so, 
must be (he more exceeding watchful over them, and charge 
them to associate with the best ; and speak to them of the 
odiousness of theae practices, and the wickedness of those 
that tise them ; and speak very disgracefully of such un- 
godly children : and when all is done, it is a great mercy of 
God, if they be not undone by the force of the contagion, 
notwithstanding all your antidotes. Those therefore that 
venture their children into the rudest schools and company, 
and after that to Rome, and other profane or Popish coun- 
tries, to learn the ^abioua and customs of the world, upon 
pretence, that else they will be ignorant of the course of the 
world, and ill-bred, and not like others of their rank, may 
think of themselves and their own reasonings as well as tliey 
please ; for my part, I had rather make a chtmncy-Bweeper 
of my son (if 1 had any) than be guilty of doing 90 much, to 
sell or betray him to the davil. 

Qtiesl. ' But is it not lawful for a man to send his son 
to travel r 

.■fiisw. Yes, in these cases : 1 . In caae he be a ripe, con- 
firmed Christian, that is, not in danger of being perverted, 
but able to resist the enemies of Ihc truth, and to preach 
the Gotspel, or do good to others : aud withal have sufficient 



business to iavite him. 2. Or if he go in the compauy of 
wino Aiid godly peri^oos, fuid such be IiIk com|iauiutiH, and 
(ho prububilicy of bta gain be greatrr, thun of his los^ and 
diuigcr. 3. Orif h.« go only into religtouBcoujatrieB.iunoog 
more wiae and learned men than he conver«eth with at hoiu«, 
ajid have viutiicieiil motives for his course. But tu s«Dd 
young, raw, unsettled peraoos among Papistu, and profane, 
lictiiitiuus peupli; (though perhaps some itubur person bti in 
compauy with Lh«a)) and tliu only to tiee thu countries and 
fiutliiona of'tho world, i* an action unbc««oiniDg any Chri»- 
tian that kooweth the pravity of human nuturo. und thtt mu- 
tability of young, uufuniiahed heads, and tlie Hubll«ty of d^ 
oeii-ars, and the contii^iouftnesa of sin and vrror, and tJic 
worth of a suul, and will not do as some conJurv» or witchea, 
eren mU a aoul to the devil, on condition he may ae« ami 
know the faahions of the world ; which alas, I can quickly 
know enough of to grieve my heart, without travelliiij; »o 
fu to Bue them. If auothur country have more of Chriat, 
and be nearer henven, the invitation in (^rwnti but if it have 
mora of sin und bell, I bad rather know hell, nud the nub' 
urbs of it Loo, by the map of tixv Word of God, than by 
going thither. And if auch children return not the conhrui- 
«d children of the devil, and prove not the calamity of tJieif 
country uud the church, let ihem tJiank apt'cial grace, djul 
nut their pareul« or lli<m«elvee. They urervuliu: Umt vanity 
wliich they call breeding, who will haurd the flubstauce, 
(evan hehvenly wiadom, hotioess, und lialvution,) to go au 
far for so vuiii a ahadow. 

Dirtet. Xvi. ' Teach your children to know tbe preciou*- 
neskof time, and suffer them not to uus^peud an hour.' B« 
often speiUting to tlleUQ huw precious a tiling ttu)« is, and 
how tdiort maii'it Ufa nt, end how gruat bin work, and iiow 
ourcndlvM life of joy or miaery dupcndeth on thin btlJt^ 
iiiuei speak odiously to theiu of the un of Uiosc: Ihiil piny 
and idle away iheir time ; and keap account of all tlieir 
hour*, and auHer them not to lou any by excesn of liteep, or 
excess of play, or any other way ; but t-ngiige them still iji 
sniuc employment that ia wurtli theii' time- 
Train up your chiblren iii » life of ddigonce and Ubour, 
tuid UM them not to eAM and idlmuKs when they are young'- 



Our traadpring begf^n, and too tnany of tfae gentry utterly 
uiidu thcii uliildrcQ by this meaaa, oipcciuUy Uie femulc sex. 
They are tan^ht no calliag, nor exercised in any cmp loy- 
meiit, but only Ruchna tsineetforDoUiiikg but ornament and 
recreation at the best; and itierefore sliuuld have but r«cr«- 
atjon hours, whirl] is but a Bmall proportion of Uteir tjoie. 
So that by the sin of their pcrentA, they are betimes enga- 
ged in u life of idleness, which ancrwurd it is woudrouHhard 
for them to overcome; and they are taught to live, like 
swine or irennia, that live only to live, and do small good in 
tiie world by living : to ri«^., and dre«3, and adorn them- 
selves, and take a walk, and so to dinui«, and thence to 
cards or dice, or chat and idle talk, or some play, or visit, 
or reorealion, and so to supper, and to chat again, and to 
b«l, in the lamrntablK lif« of too majiy that have great obli- 
gatioliB to Ood, and ^eater matters to do, if they were ac- 
quaiated with thimi. And if they do bnt interpose a few 
hypocritical, heartlegN worda of prayer, they think they 
have piously spent the ilay: yea, the beallh of many is ut- 
terly ruined, by snch idle, fleshly education. So that dis- 
nse doth disable them from any eonsiderable motion or ex- 
erciBe, which is necessary to preserve their health. It 
would move une's heart with pity, tu see bow the houtiCK of 
some of the higher sort are like hospitals; and education 
hath, especially, the females tike the lame, or sick, or 
bedrid ; so that one part of the day that should be spent in 
some profitable employment, is spent in bed, and the rest in 
doing nothing, or wotBC than nothing ; and most of their 
life h made miserable by diseases, so that iftli&ir legs bn 
but used to carry them about, they arc presently out of 
breath, and are a burden to themselves, and few of Uicm live 
out little more than half their days. Whcreos, poor cres- 
turea, if their rtwn parents hcid not betrayed them into the 
sins of Sodom, pride, tuinesK of breuii, and abundante of 
idleness, they might have been in health, und lived like lio- 
nest Christian people, and their legs and arms might have 
served theui tor use, as well ns for integrality and ornament. 
Dirtit.^vu. 'Let necessary correction be used with 

cufln, fWciB riWB nccwurt* noprmtaW. k^a^vi jwWirtw nulrW ooii}<nr: ' Axiii 
thai h IWKhl 1W inulc W Sve by. AflU iwt W bo««l w keep ■•'■* pW«DH in *»iil, Lut 
otlwn tliall.' EmL. &*I. M. 

diiKi'etion, according to tbeae following rules.' I. Let it 
not be so seldom (if necessary) as to leave thctn fearlestt 
and BO make it ineft'ectual ; and let it not be so frequent ut 
to di&couTRge them, or breed in thein a. hatred of tbeir pa- 
rents. 2. Let it be different according to the different tem- 
pers of your chddren : some are so tender and timorous, aud 
apt to be discouraged, that little or no correction may be 
best; and some are so hardened and obstinate, that it must 
be much and sbarp correction that must keep them from 
dissolutenesa and contempt. 3. Let it be more for sin 
againut God (as lying, railing, iilchy speaking, profaiienesc, 
8(,c.) than for fnults about your worldly bueineMs. 4. Cor- 
rect them not in passion, but stay till they perceive that you 
are calmed ; for they will think ettie, that your anger rather 
than your reason is the cause. 5. Always shew them the 
tenderness of your love, and bow unwilling you are to cor- 
rect them, if they could be reformed any easier way ; and 
convince them that you do it fortheir gouil. (j. Make theiu 
read those texts of Scripture which condemn their sin, and 
thenthone wbich comuiaiid you to correct t}iem. As for ex- 
ample, if lying be their sin, tiun them first to Prov. xii. 22- 
" Lying tipit areuboiuiiiation to the Lord, but they that deal 
truly are his delight." And xiii. 6. " A righteous man ha- 
teth lying." John viii. 44. Ye are of your father the devil, 
—when he speaketh a lie, he speaketh of his ow n ; for he ir 
a liar, and the fatlier of it." Rev. xxii. 15. " For without 

are dogs and whosoever lovcth and makcth a lie." And 

next turn him to Prov. iciii. 24. " He that sparcth his rod, 
hateth his son ; but be that ^veth him, chaKteneth him "be- 
times." Prov. xxix. 15. The rod and reproof give wisdom ; 
but a child kll to himseli' bringcth his mother to shame." 
Prov. xxii 15. " Foolishness is bound in the heart of a 
child ; but the rod of correction shall drive it far from him." 
Prov. xxiii. 13, 14. " Withhold not correction from the 
child; for if thou beatosthim with the rod, he shall not die; 
thou Khalt beat him with the rod, and shult deliver hit> soul 
from hell." Prov. xix. 18. " Chaoten thy son while ther<> 
is hope, and let not thy soul spare for hie crying." Ask 
him whetherhc would have you by sparing him, to disobey 
God. and hate him, and destroy his soul. And when hi* 



reason is oonvinced of the reftsonabluncas of correcting htm, 
it will be the more successful. 

DirrcC. XVIII. ' Let yuur own example teach your chit 
dren that holineas, and heavenlineas, and blamclF.SHne»8 of^ 
tongue and lif^, which you dci^iru them to leani and prac- 
tise.' The example of parents U most powerful with chil- 
dren, both for good and evil. If they see you live in thv 
fear of God, it wdl do much to persuade them, that it ig the 
most necessary and excellent course of lift-, and that the 

must do so too: and if they nee you live a carnal, voluptuou 
and ungodly life, (iitd hear you carse or swear, or talk Pithi- 
ly, or railingly, it will greatly embolden them to Imitatei 
you. If you speak never eo well to them, they will sooner 
believe your bad lives, than your good words. 

Direct, xm. 'Choose eueh a calling and course of life 
for your children, as tendeth mofit to the saving of Uietr* 
souU, and to their public usefulness for church or state.' 
Choose not a calling tliat ie moet liable to temptations and 
hindrances to their salvation, thougli it may make iheur' 
rieb : but acalling which alloweth them some leiiiure for the 
remembering tlie tttings of everlasting consequence, and lii 
opportunities to get good, and to do good. If you bind» 
them apprentices, or servants, if it be possible, place them, 
with men fearing God; and not with such as will bardeib 
them in their sin. 

Direct. XTC. ' When they are marriageable, and you find 
it needful, look out such for them as are suitable betimes.' 
When parents stay too long, and do not their duties in this, 
their children often chooae for themselves to their own un- 
doing : for they choose not by judgment, but Wind afteo 
tion. ^ 

Having thua told you the common duties of parents for 
their children, 1 should next have told you what specially be- 
longeth to each parent ; but to avoid prolixity. I shall onl 
desire you to remember these two Directions. 1. That the 
mother who is still present with children when they are 
young, be very diligent in teaching them, and minding them 
of good things. Wlien the fathers are abroad, the mothers 
have more frequent opportunities to instruct them, and be 
still speaking to them of that which i» moat necessary, and 
•watching Over them. This is the greatest service that most 

women can do for God in the world : fuany n church that 
liutli been ble&sed with a good minieter.may thaiik the pioua 
culucataoo ormot>ier8 ; and many a thoasand souU in he«vrn 
may thaak the holy care uid diligence of mothers, ts the 
liret effectual meaiiA, Good women this way (by the good 
education of their children) are ordinarily great blei^siiigg 
both to church and state. (And so some understand 1 Tint, 
ii. 16. by "cbild-bearing,"* meaning bringing up children 
for God; but I ntther think it is by Mary's bearing Christ, 
the promised aeed.) 

2. By all means tet children be tanght to reed, ifyouate- 
iiever u> poor, and whatever shift you make ; or else ynu div- 
privethcm ofa singular help to their instroction and salva- 
tion. It is a tltouBFind pities that n Bible should signify no 
more than a chip to a rational creature, as to their reading it 
themselves : and that &o many excellent books as be in Lbe 
world, should be as sealed, or insiguificant to tlicm. 

But if God deny yon children, and Hare you all this cnrei 
aitd kbour, repine not, but be tliankful, believing it is bent 
for you. Remember 'what a deal of duty, and paimi, and 
heart's griefhe hath freed you from, and how fcvHpeed well 
when parents have done their beat- What a life of misery, 
ohildreo must here pass through, and how sad the fear of 
their Bin and damnation would hawe been to you. 



TlieapeeitdDittie$ ofCkUdten totaanb tA«*r Parmit. 

Though precepts to children are not of so much force as to 
them wf riper age, because of their natural incapacity, and 
their childish paaaioufl and pleasures which bear down theii 
waak degree of reason ; yet .lomcwhat is to be *aid to them, 
because that measure of reason which they have ib to be ux- 
erciacd, and by exercise to be improved : and because even 
tliDM of riper years, while they have parents, must ktuiw and 
do their duty to them; and because Cod useth to bieHseven 
children as they perform tbeir duties. 

Direct. 1. ' Be sure that you dearly love your parents:' 



delight to b« in their compauy ; be not like those unnktaial 
children, that lore eli» company of their idle- play-(<illowH 
better than tht^ir parentB, and had rather he abroad ahoub' 
their sports, than in their pareots' wight. Remeiubsr that 
you have your heing from tliem, and come out oftheir loins: 
retntftober whut sorruvr you have coat them, and what care 
they am at fnr your education -aiid provision; and remember 
how teudeHr they have loved you, and trhac grief it will b« 
to their hearts if you miocGkiTy, and how much yourhappi*.' 
neflK will make thtni glad: remember what love you ovre:| 
them both by nature and in justice, for all their lore to yuo,! 
and all that they have dnne for you: they take your happi-j 
ness or misery to be one of the greatest parta of the happiueu^ 
or misery of (iitiir own lives. Deprive them nut tlurn of thuirij 
happiness, by depriving yourselves of your own ; mnkc notj 
their lives miKentblt', by undoing youraelves. Though the] 
chidu you, and re»traiii you, luid correct you. do nut thens^l 
fore abate your love to tJicm. For this is theirduty, whiclrl 
God reijiiireth of tliem, and they do it for ynur good. It iij 
a sign of a wicked child thtit loveth his parents the \em, be-J 
oause they correct Him, and will not let him have his owAJ 
will. Yea, though your parents have mnny faults themsel 
y*^t you mustlovn them as your parentaBtiU. 

liirert. ii. * Honour your parent* botli in yuur tViuug'hte, 
and speeches, ami behaviour.* Think nut dishonourably or 
contemptuously of them in your hearts. Spoak not dieho- 
notirably, rudely, unreverently or saucily, either to them or 
of them. Behave not youraelves rudely and unrererentLy 
before them. Yea. though your parents be never ao poor in 
the world, or weak of understanding, yea, though they were 
ungodly, you must honour them notwithstanding all this; 
thougliyon cannot hononrthem as rich, or wise, or godly, 
you must honour them as your [mrents. Remember that 
the fiflh commandment liath a Hpecial promise of temporal 
blesain^ ; " Honour thy father and mother that thy days may 
be long in the land," Sic. And consequently the dialmnour- 
en of parents hare a special onrse even in thifi Hfe : and tbe 
justice of God iH ordiniiiily seen in the cxccotioii of it i the 
deapisers and dishonourers of their parents i»ldom prosper 
in the world. There amftre aorta of sinners t}iat Oadaa<^ 
to overtake with vengeance even in this life. 1. Perjvrad 



persons aad lalse witnesses. 2. Murderers. 3. Per»ecu> 
tunt. 4. Sacrilegious persons. And 5. The abusers and 
dialionourers of their parents. Remember Uie curse on Ham, 
Qen. ix. 22. 26. It is a fearful thing to see and hear how 
HOinc^ illbred, ungodly children will talk contemptuously 
and rudely to their parents, and wrangle and contend with 
litem, nnd contradict them, and speak to them as if they 
were their equals : (aud it is commonly long of the parents 
that breed them to it.) And at last they will grow even to 
abiiee and vilily them. Read Prov. xxx. 17. "The eye 
thut raocketh at his father, and dcepiscth to obey his mother, 
the ravens of the valley kIwII pick it out, and the young 
»^les shall eat it." 

Direct, in. 'Obey your parents in all tilings (which 
God forbiddeth not).' Remember that as nature hath made 
you unfit to govern youFBelveR, ho God in nature hath mer- 
cifully provided governors for you. Here I shall firiit tell 
you, what obedience is, and then tell you, why you must be 
thus obedient. I. To obey your parents is to do tliat which 
they command you, and forbear that which they forbid you. 
because it is their will you should do so. You must 1- 
Have in your minda a desire to please them, and be glad 
when you can please them, and sorry when you oHund them ; 
and then 2. You must not set your wit or your will against 
theirs, but rendily obey their commands without unwilling- 
ness, murmurini;. or disputing : though you think your own 
way is best, and your own desires are but reasonable, yet 
your own wit and will must be subjected unto theirs, or else 
how do yon obey them? II. And for the renRonx of your 
obedience, I. Consider it is the will of Ood that it should 
be so, aud he hath made them as his officers to govern you ; 
.and in disobeying them, you disobey him. Read Kphes. vi. 
I— a. " Children obey your pftrents in the U>rdi for this in 
Tight. Honour thy father and mother, (which is tlie Brst 
commandment with promise) that it may be well with thee, 
and thou maystlive long on Uieuarth." Col. iii. 20. " Chil- 
dren obey your parentB in all things, for this is well-pleas- 
ing in the l^rd." Prov. xxiii. 22. " Hearken to thy father 
that begat thee, and despise not tliy motherwhen nhe is old." 
Prov. xiii. 1. " A wi»e son heareth his father's instruction." 
. ProT, i. 6, 9. " My son. hear the instruction of thy hXber. and 


forsake not the lawof'tliy muther; lor they shall be an orna- 
ment uf grace unto thy head, and chains about thy neclc." 
2. Consideralso, that your parents' goverument is necessary 
to your own good -, udiI it U a govcrnracot of lore : as your 
bodies would have perished, if your parent* or some others 
had not taken caro for you, wheu you could not help Your- 
selves ; so your mJads would be nntaught and jguorant, even 
like to brutes, if you had not otherit to teach and govern 
you. Nature teacheth the chickc-us to follow the hen, and 
all things when ttiey are young, to be led and ^ided by 
their dam:K, or eixe what would become of thttm 'I 3. Con- 
sider also, that they must be accountable to God for you ; 
and if they leave you to yourselves, it may be their destruc- 
tion as well as yours, an the yad example of Eli t«llcth you. 
Rebel not therefore against those that God by nature and 
Scripture hath setovei' you ; though the flfth commandment 
require obedience to princes, and masters, and pastors, und 
Other superiors, yet it nnmeth your father and mother only, 
because they are the first of all your goveruors, to whom by 
nature you are most obliged. 

But perhaps you will say, that though little irhildren 
must be ruled by their parents, yet you are grown up to 
riper age, and are wise enough to rule yourselves. I an- 
swer, God doth not think so ; or eltm he would not have eet 
governors over you. And are you wiaer than he ? It is but 
few in the world that are wise enough to rule themselven; 
else God would not have set princes, aad magistrates, and 
{KUtors, and teachers over them, as he hath done. The ser- 
vants of the family are as old as you, and yetare unfit to be 
the rulers of themselves. God loveth you belter tlian to 
leave you masterle.^s, a» knowing that youth in rash and un- 

Quest. ' But how long are ehildreo under the command 
and goverument of their parents ?' 

Ausw. There are several acts and degrees of parents* go- 
vernment, according to the several ends ajid u»eit of it- 
Some acts of their government are but to teach you to go 
and speak, ami some to teach you your labour and ca.lling, 
aud some (o teach yon good manners, and the fear of God, 
or the knowledge of the Scriptures, and some axe to settle 
yon iu sueh a course of living, in wliich you shall need their 





nearer oversight no more. When atij* one of these endears 
fully attained, and jou hare all that your parents' govern- 
ment can help you to, then you are past that part of their 
gOTernment. But etiH you owe them, not only love, and 
bonour, and reverence ; but obedience also in all things in 
which they are still appointed for your help and guidance : 
even when you are married from them, though you have a 
propriety in your 5wn estates, and they have not so strict a 
charge of you as before i yet if they command you your duly 
to God or them, you are still oldiged to obey them. 

Direct. IV, ■ Be contented with your parents' provixion 
for you, and disposal of you.' Do not rehelliously mumiur 
against them, and complnin of their uaage of you; much 
less take any thing against their wills. It is the part of a 
fleshly rebel, and not of an obedient eJiild, to be discouteul 
and murmur because they fare not better, or becanse they 
are kept froin sports and play, or because they hare not 
better clothes, or because they have not money allowed 
them, to spend or use at their own diacrction. Are not you 
under government'! and the government of parento, and not 
of enemies? Are your lusts and pleasures fitter to govern 
yoii, than your parents' discretion f Be thankful for what 
you have, and remember that you deserve it not. but have it 
freely : it is your pride or your fleshly sensuality that maketh 
you thus to murmur, and not any wisdom or virtue that i« 
tn you. Get down that pride and lletthly mind, and then 
you will not be so caijer to have your wills. What if your 
parents did detil tt>o hardly with you, in your food, or rai- 
ment, or expences '! What harm doth it do you 1 Nothing 
but a eelflsh, sensual mind would make so great a matter of 
it. It ifi ft hundred timeR more dangerous to your souls and 
bodies to be bred too high, and fed too full and daintily, 
thui to be bred too low, and fed too hardly. One teudeth 
to pride, and gluttony, and wantonness, and the ov«rthrow 
of health and life; and the other tendeih to n humble, mor- 
tified, self-denying life, and to tlie health and aoundntaa of 
the body. Remember how ihe earth oi^ned, and awallowcd 
all those rebellious murmui-erc that ^udi^ed against Moses 
and Aaron, Num. xvi. ; read it, and apply it to ynur caae : 
and remember the story of rebellious Absalom; and the 
folly of the prodigal. Luke xv. ; and desire not to be at your 



own ili8pi>ae ; nor be ea^r to have the v»in deiiirc!i of your 
heftrts fulftll-e'd. While yoVi cont«nteilly submit lo your pa- 
rents, you nre in God's way, and may expect his ble-tsing ; 
but when you will needs be carvers for younelves, you may 
expect the punishment of rebels. 

Direct. V. ' Hutnble youraelvea and Bubmit to any la- 
bour that your parents shall appoint you to.' Take heed a» 
you love your souls, lest titlier a pruud biiart make you inar- 
mur and say, ' This work is too low and baKe a drudgery 
for me ;' or lest a laty mind and body make you say^ ' This 
work is loo hard and toiiflome forme;' or else a foolish, 
playful mind do make you weary of your book or labour, 
that you may be at your sports, and say, ' This id too te- 
dious for me.' It is little or no hurt that is like lo befal you 
by your labour and diligence ; but it is a dangerous thing; 
to get a habit or custom of idleness and voluptvousness in 
your youth. 

Direct. VI. 'Be willing and thankfwlto be instrur-ted by 
yotir parents, or any of your teachet-s. but especially about 
the fear of God, and the matters of your salvation.* Tbcse 
are the matters that you are born and live for ; these are the 
things that your parents hare first in charge to teach you. 
Without knowledge and Lollness all the riches and honours 
of the world are nothing worth : and all your pleasures will 
but undo you "* O what a comfort is it to understanding pa- 
rents to see their children willing to learn, ajid to love the 
Word of Ood, and lay it up in their hearts, and talk of it, 
and obey it, and prepare betime for everlasting life ! If such 
children die before their parents, how joyfully may they 
part with them as into the arms of Christ, who hath said, 
" That of such is the kingdom of heaven''." And if the 
parents die first, how joyfully may they leave behind them 
a holy seed, that is like to serve God in their generation, 
and to follow them to heaven, and live with them for ever. 
But, whether they live or die, what a heart-breaking to the 
parents are ungodly children, that love not the Word and 
way of God, and love not to be taught or restrained from 
their own licentiouti courses. 

Direct, vii. ' Patiently submit to the correction whieh 
your parents Iny upon you.' Consider, that God hatli com- 

• Rttd Mr. T. While'. IHtIc b«A fnr link chiWren. Mark it. 3$. x. 1*. IS. 
" Uall, lib It. 




maiided th«m to do it, aiid that to t>ave your uouls from 
hell ; and tliat tbey hate you, if they correct you not vvheo 
thwe is cause, and that they iniist not ^pui'e for your crying '. 
It is not their delight, but for yotir own Deceasity. Avoid 
the foutt, and you may escupe the correction. How much 
rather had your parentB see youobedient, than hear you cry. 
It is iiut Long of tliem, but of yourselves, thai you are cor- 
reeled. Be angry with yourselres, and not with tliem. It 
is a wicked child, that instead ol' being better by correction, 
will hate his parents for it, and so grow worse. Correction 
is a means of God's own appointment ; iind tlierffore gu to 
God on your knees in prayer, and entreat him to blesi and 
sanctify it to you, that it may do you good. 

Direct, viii. ' Choouc not your own company, but use 
■Qch company as by your porentt; is appointed you.' Bad 
company is the first imrioiiig of a child. When for the love 
ofxport you choose such play-ftUows ixs arc idle, and licen- 
tious, and disobedient, and will teach you to curse, and 
swear, and lie, and talk filthily, and draw you from your 
book or duty ; this is the devil's highway to hell. Your pa- 
rents are fittest to choosie your company. 

Direct, ix. ' Chuose not your own colling or trade of 
tif«, without the choice or consent of your parents.' You 
may ttll th«m what you are most inclined to, but it belong- 
eth more to them than to you to make the choice : and it in 
your part to bring your wills tothcirtf. Unless your parents 
choose a calling for you that is unlawful ; a4id tlien you may 
(witli humble Bubmissivenese) refuse it. But if it be only 
inconvenient, you have liberty afterward to change it for a 
better, if you can, when you itrc from under their dispose 
and goTcrnnicnt. 

Direct. X. ' Marry not without your parents' oonsent,' 
Nay, irit may be, let their choice determine first of the per- 
son, and not your own : unexperienced youth doth choose 
by fancy and paFsion. when your experienced parL'nts will 
choose by judgment. But if they would force you to join 
yoaraelves to such as are ungodly, and like to make your 
lives either sinful or miserabl«, j-ou may humbly refuse them. 
But you must remain uumiirried, while by the use of riulit 
means you can Jive in chastity, till your parents mn in a 
better mind. But if indeed yoa hare a flat uecesxity of 
• Pro*. aO. tt. ua. 16. ixia. IS. iiiti. I4, 1*. tu. is. 



marrying, and your parents will consent to none bat on« of 
a false religioD, or one (hat ia utterly unlit for you; in such 
a case they forfeit their authoiity in tltat point, which is 
given them for your edification, and not far youv dentru 
tion ; aud then you should advise witli other frii-nds tbat 
are more wise and fajthful : but if you au(f«r your fond af- 
fectioHB to contradict your parents' wilU, and pr«tend ar ne- 
cessity (that you cannot change your affections) an if your 
folly were uucuiuble : this is but to enter sinfully intutbut 
state of life, which should hare been sanctified to God, th 
he might ha,ve blessed it to you. 

Direct, ii. ' If your parents be in want, it is your dut 
to relieye tliem according to your ability ; yea. and wholly 
to maintain them, if there be need.' For it la not po8sibl« 
by all thnt you can do. that ever you can be on even termi 
with them ; or ever requite them for what you have receivedi 
of them. It is base inhumanity, when parents come tn po* 
verty, for children to put theui oB'with some short allowance., 
and to make them live almost like their gervanti^, when you 
have riches and plenty for yourselves. Your parents should 
still be maintained by you as your superiors, and not as 
your inferiors. See that they fiire as well aa yourselves; 
yea, though you got not your riches by their means, yet cvail 
for your being, you are their debtors for more than that. 

Direct. xi\. 'Imitate your parents in all that ie good, 
both when they are living, and when they are dead.' If 
they were lovers of God, and of his Word and service, and 
of those that fear him, let their example provoke you, and 
let the love that you have to them, engage you in this imi- 
tation. A wicked child of godly parents is one of the most 
miserable wretches in the world. With what horror do I 
look on such a person! How near is aucb a wretch to hell! 
When fattier or mother were eminent for godliness, and 
daily instructed them in the matters of their saUution, and 
prayed with them, and warned them, and prayed for theiUj 
and after all thia the chiltlren shall prove covetous, or 
drunkards, or whoremongers, or profane, and eueraiea to 
the servants of God, and deride or neglect the way of their 
religious parents, it would make one tremble to took such 
wretchea in the face. For though yet there is some hope 
of them, alae, it is so little, that they are next to desperntci 



when they ure hardeneil under the most excelkut meaiu, 
and the light halit bliuded them, and thuir acquaitituiice 
with the waya of God liuth but turned their h«iLrl8 more 
against them, wliat lueaiia is left to do ^ood to such re- of the grace of God as th«se ? The likeliest is some 
heavy, dreadful judgment. O what a wtiuful day will it W 
to them, when all the prayers, and tears, and teachiugs. uiid 
tod exaiLiplet^ uf their religious parents shall witness 
itnst them! How will they be ci>ufounded before the 
Lord ! And how sad a thought i^ it to the heart of holy, 
diligent parents, to think that all their prayers and pains 
muAt witness against their ^'aceless children, and sink 
them duupur into hell ! And yi:t aU», how many such woe- 
ful apectacka are there before O'Ur eyes! nnd how deeply 
doth the church of God BU0er hy the malice and wicked- 
ness of the children of those pai'ents that taught them bet- 
ter, and walked before them In a holy, exemplary life! 
Butif pareatfi be ignorant, guperstitiouR, idolatrous, popiBh, 
or profane, their children are forward enough to imitatt 
th«m. They can say, Our forefatherB wore of this mind ; 
and we hope tliey are saved, and we will rather imitate them, 
than such innovating reformers as yon. As they said to 
Jeremy, " As fi3r the word that thou hast npoken to us in 
the name of the Lord, we will not hearken to thee. But we 
will — Inirn incense to the queen of heaven— as we have 
done, we and our father», oar kings, and our princes in the 
citiejt of Jadub, anil in tlie streets of Jemaalem ; for 
then we hud plenty of victuals, and were well, and saw no 
evil: but since we left off to bum incense to the queen of 
heaven, — we have wanted all things, and have been consumed 
by the sword and by the famine''.*' Thna they walk " after 
the imagination of their bcarta, and attcr Baalim <the false 
worship) which their fi»ther» taught them'." " And they 
fui^et God's name as their fathers did forget it '." " They 
and their lathers have transgressed to this day*." Yea, 
•'They harden their necks, and do worse than their fa- 
thers*." Thus in error and sin they can imitate their fore- 
fothers, when they should rather remember^ that it cost 
Christ his blood "to redeem men from their vain conver- 

• in. (til. 16— 1& 


'Jrr. luii. ST. 



sation received by tradition from their ialhcrti." And ihvy 
sliauld penitently confess, as Dan. ix. 8. " Lord, to ub be- 
longeth contusion of (ace, to our kingH, to our {inuccs, and 
to our fattier^, because we hnvv KtDOcd uguinet llie«," Vtrse 
16. And as Psal. cvi. 6. " We liave sbned wilJi our fa- 
thers, &c." Suith God: "Behold your i'lLlhora have for- 
saken me and have not kept my law ; and ye have done 

worse than your fathers: therefore I will cust youout',8tc." 
" Have ye forgotten the wickedneaa of your fatherit, and 
the wickedness of the kings of Judah, and your own wick- 
edness f Tli^y are not humbled even unto this day""." " B« 
not as your fathers, to whom the former prophets have cried, 
saying. Turn ye now (iom yonr evil ways, but they did oot 
hear'." " Even from the days of your fathers ye are gone 
away from mine ordinances, and have not kept them. Re- 
turn unto me, and I will return unto you""." " Walk ye 
□ot iu the Blatutes of your fatherH"." "Follow not your 
bthers in their &in and error, but follow them where they 
follow Christ'. 


The .tpeciai Duties of Children and Youth towanh God. 

Trouom 1 put your duty to your parents first, because it 
is first Learned, yet your duty to Cod immediately is your 
greatest and moBt necessary duty : learn these following 
precepts well. 

Direct. I. * Learn to understand the covenant and vow 
which in yonr baptism you mnde witli God the Father, the 
Son, and the Holy Ghost, your Creator, Redeemer, and Re- 
generator : and when you well understand it, renew that 
covenant with God in your own persons, and absolutely de- 
liverup yourselves to God, as your Oi-eator, Redeemer, and 
Sancti6er. your Owner, your Ruler, and your Father and 
felicity.* Baptism is not an idle ceremony, but the solemn 
*ntering into covenant with God, in which you roeeive the 

Mrr.xvi. 11^15. 
'"Niil.iii. 7. 

* J.T. iliv. Ji, 10. 

■EaFli.ii.t8. SoVtT.3r.9).M. 

'ZFdi.l, 4. 

' 1 Cof-ai. I. ''I 



greatest mercies, und bind yourselves to the greaitest dutiei. ' 
If is but entering into that ■way which )'ou must walk in 
ull your lives, and avowing that to God which you mnst be 
ntilj performing. And chough your parents had authority 
to promise for yon. it is you that must perforin it; for it 
was you that they obliged. If you ask by what authority 
they obliged you tn covenant to Ood, 1 tuiswcr, by the au- 
thority which God had given them in nature, and in Scrip- 
ture ; na th«y oblige you to be subjects of the l^^ing, or as 
they enter your names into any covenant, by lease or other 
contract which is for your benefit; and they do it for good, 
that you may have part in the blessings of the covenant: 
and if you grudge at it, and refuse your own conBont when 
you come to age, you lose the beneBts. If you think they 
did you wroii^, yon may be out of covenant when you will; 
if yon will renounce the kingdom of heaven. But it ia 
much wJFicrto be thankful to God, that your parents were 
the meana of sto great a bleHsing to you, and to dn thai: 
agatu mor<> expressly by yourselves which they did for youjj 
und opL'nly with thankfulness to own the covenant in which' 
you are engaged, and live in the performance and in the 
comfGrttt of it all your days. 

Direct, ti. ' Remember that you are entering into the 
way to everlasting life, -.ind not into a place of happiiie^K 
or continuance. Presently therefore set your hearts on 
heaven, and make it tbc design of oil your lives, to live in 
heaven with Christ for ever.' O happy you, if God betimeB 
will throughly teach you, to know nliat it is that must 
make yoa happy; and if at your first setting out, your end 
be right, and your facers be heavenward '. Remember tbul 
as soon aa you begin to live, you arc hasting towards the 
end of your live»} even &b & candle as soon as itbeginneth 
to bum, and the bour-glasft ag «ooii as it is turned, is wast- 
ing, und banting to its end : so as soon as yuu begin to Jive, 
your lives are in a consuoiption, and posting towards your 
final hour. Att a runner, ns Aoon aa he beginneth hin ruco. 
U ha&ling tn [he end of it; so arc your lives even in your 
youngest time. It is another kind of life that you must live 
for ever, than tliin tiiHiug. pitiful, lleahly life. Prepare 
Ihcrcfoie speedily for that ivhicb God sent you bjther to 
prepare for. O happy you, if you begin hetime, and go on 

CHAP. XI 1.1 


with cheerful resolution to the end! It is blessed wisdom 
to be wise betime, nnd to know the worth of time in child- 
hooc). before any of it be wasted and lost upon the fooleries 
of the world. Then you way grow wise indeed, and b« 
tl'€!L&unng up uudera landing, and growing tip in sweet ao 
quaiiitance with tie Lord, when otherif are going back- 
wards, and dnily making work for Bad repentance or finni 
desperation. " Uemember now thy Creator in the days of 
thy youth, while the evil days come not, nor the years draw 
nigh, when thou shall say, (of all things here below) I have 
no pleasure in Lheui." 

Direct. 111. ' Remember that yon have corrupted natnre* 
to he cured, and that Christ is the physician that must cure 
thenit and the Spirit of Christ must dwell within you, and 
make you holy, and give you a new heart and nature, which 
Dhftll love God and heaven above all the honourand pleasures 
of the world: rest not therefore till you Snd that you are 
born anew, and that the Holy Ghost iiath made you holy, 
and (juickened your hearts with tlie love of God, and of 
your dear Redeemer".' The old nature loveth the things 
of this world, and the pleasures of this flesh; but the new 
nature lovetb the Lord that made you, and redeemed and 
renewed you, and the endless joys of the world to come, 
and that holy life which is the way thereto. 

Direct, iv. ' Take heed of loving the pleasures of the 
flesh, in overmuch eating, or drinking, or pl&y-' Set not 
your hearts upon your belly or your sport; let your meat,, 
and sleep, and play be moderate. Meddle not with cards 
or dice, or any bewitching or riotous sports : play not for 
money, lest it stir up covetous desires, and tempt you to b9 
over-eager in it, and to lie, and wrangle, and fall out wit 
others. Use neither food or sports which are not for yourl 
heiLlth ; a greedy appetite enticeth children to devour raw] 
fruits, and to rob their neighbours' orchards, and at onc«] 
to undo both soul and body. And fui excessive love of 
play, doth cause them to run among bad companions, and' 
lose tbeir time, and destroy the love of their books, and 
their duly, and their parents themselves, and all that i$. 
good. You must cat, and sleep, and play for health, and 
not for utieletui, hurtful pleasure. 

> S Cm. *. ir. Ran. «iu. 9- ii. J"liii iiL S. ^.6. 



Direet. v. 'Subdue your own wills and dcsiros to tbe 
wUl of God ami yi>ur superiors, and be not eagerly set upon 
aay thing, which God or your parentu do deny you.' Re 
not like those aelt-wiUed, Heshly children, that oie impor- 
tunate for ai]y thing which their fancy or appetite would 
have, aod ciy or are diecontent if tUey have it not. Say 
not thiit I mvat hnve this or tluit, but be contented with any 
thing which is the will of God and your superiors. It is 
the {i;F«atest miaery and danger in tb« world, to have all your 
own wiIIb, and to be pvcn up to your hearts' deeiro. 

Direct. \i. 'Take he«d of a custom of foolish, filthy, 
railing, lying, or any other sinful words.' You tliiak it is a 
timalt matter, but God thiuketh not no ; it it uoi a jedtiag 
matter to am against thu God that made ynu : it is fools 
thftt Doake a sport with 8iIl^ One lie, one cunc. one oath, 
one ribbald, or railing, or deridinj^ word, is wurHe than alt 
the pain that ever your flesh eudur«d. 

Direct. Til. 'Take heed of »tuch company and play-fel- 
lowK, as would entice and tempt you to any of these sins, 
•nd choose such company as U'ill help you in the fear of 
God.' And tf others mock nt you, cnre nooiore for it, than 
fortlie lilmking of a leaf, or the barking ofadog. Take heed 
of lewd and wicked company, as ever you care for the Having 
of your souls, if you h<?urtht;m ruil.oTliv, ur twcar, or talk 
filthily, be not ashained to tell them, that God forbiddeth 
you to keep company with such as tb«y'. 

D'lTKt. viii. *Take heed oF pride and covetouaueas.' 
Deaire not to be fine, nor to ^t all tn youraelvcM; but b« 
bumbU, and meek, and love one anolhcr, and be aa glad 
that uthera are pleased aa yourselves. 

THretl. IX. "Love the Word of God, and all good books 
which would make yon wiser and better \ and read not play- 
booka, Dor laJc-book», nor loT«-books, nor any idle stories.' 
When idle children are at play and fowUiritB. Itt it be your 
pleasurt! to read nmi leara lli« myateriefi of your salvation. 

Direct. X. ' Remember that you keep holy the Lord's 
du]r.' Spend not any of it tu play or idlcneaB : peverence 
the nunisters of Gbriat, and mark what Ihvy tuttch you, and 
cemembvt it &»& wessaf^ UomGod about the saviugof your 

■•Pmr.iit.*. X.M. MfklSi *PmLtait.OS. PMr.iiiI.yo. itHLT. 
1 Cor, ■. it. I^fbwK*. II. 



sools- Ask your parents when you come home, to help 
youT understaodings and memories in any thing which you 
UQderstood uot or forgot. Love all the holy exurciu-is of 
the Lord's day, and let tliem be more pLeanant to you than 
your ni^at or play. 

Direct. XI. ' Be as cai^ful to practiao all, as to hear and 
Htad it.* Remember all is but to make yoa holy, to love 
Uod. aod obey him: take heed of sinaiug against your 
kao\>'lt;dge, and au^a'uist tlie warningb that are given you. 

Direct, xii. 'When you grow op, by the direction of 
your parents choose »ucK a. trade or calling, asallowelfa you 
the greatest helps for heaven, and hiitli the fewest hin- 
drances, and in which you may be most serviceable to God 
before you die.' It' you will but piactise theae few J>irec- 
tions (wlucli your own hearts must say, have no barm in 
any of them) what happy persons will you be for ever. 


The Vutiet ofServoJitt to their Matters, 

If servants would haT« comfortable liv«B, they muBt ap- 
prove themselvt's and thei^ service unto God, because ftom 
him they must hfive their comforts^ which may be (loii« 
by following these Directions. 

Direct. I. ' Reverence the providence of God which call- 
elh you to a servant's life, and munnur not at your la- 
bour, or your low coniHtion j but know your mercies, and 
be tliaukful for them.' Though perhaps you have more 
labour than your masters, yet, have you not less care than 
they? Most servants may have quieter Uvea, if it were not 
for their unthankful, tligcont«.'Bt(;d hearts. You are not 
troubled with the care of providing your landlord's rent, or 
meat, and drink, and wages for your servants, nor with the 
Tvouts and desires of wives and children, nor with the faults 
and nnnghtiDeBs of BUch as you must use or trust ; uorwith 
the losses and croiu>eK which your mastem are liable to. JDe 



[part ITj 

thankful to God, who for a little bodily labour, doth free 
you from the burden uf ail the«e carea. 

Direct. II. ' Take your condition as cboseo for you by 
God, and take yourselvc* as hi» servants, and your work 
&8 hiw. and do all as to the Lord, aud not only for mnn ; 
and expect from God your chief reward.' You will be clue 
but eye-servants aad hypocrites, if the fenr of God do not 
awe your conscieoces : and if you were the best &ervani« to 
your masters in the world, and did not all in oltedience to 
God, it wei* buta low, uiiprofitableservice : if you believe 
that there is aa tntinite distance between God and man, 
you may conceive what a difference there ift between serving 
God and man : your wages i& all your reward from man, but 
eterual life is God's reward : and the very same work and 
labour which one man hath but his years' wages fur. another 
hat}] everlaeting life for (though not of merit, yet of the 
bounty of our Lord)". Because he doth itin love and obe- 
dience to that God who hath promised thiti reward. " Ser- 
vants, obey in all things your uiasterg according to the flesh : 
not with eye-service, as men-pleaserft, but in singleness of 
heart, fearing God : and whatsoever ye do, do it heartily 
aft to the Lord, and not unto men ; knowing that of the 
Lord ye shall leceive the reward of the inheritance ; for ye 
servethe Lord Christ: but be that doeth wrotii;, shall receive 
for the wrong which he hath done: and there is no respect 
of persons"." The like is in Ephes. vi. 5 — 8. So much 
doth God respect the heart, thet the rery some octioBi 
hath such different niicccfl^es and rewai'ds, as. it is done to* 
different ends, and from dilfierent principles: your lowest 
iiervice may be thus aanctifit-d aud Biceptabie to God. 

Direvi. tti. ' Be conscionabte and faithful in performii 
all the labour and duty of a ««rricDL' Neglect not suoll^ 
buKiness an you are tn do: neither do it lazily, and deceit 
fully, and by the halves. An it in thievery or deceit for s< 
iiuui in the market to sell another the whole of his commodi< 
ty, and when he hath done, to keep back and defraud him 
of a part; m> m It iiu less fur u 8«rvnntt)mt selleth his time 
and labour to another, to defraud him of part of that time 
and service which you ttold biui- Think not therefore that 
it i« no ma, to idle away ait hour which is not your owa, or 




to »lubber over the work nrhicb you undertake to do. Sloth- 
fulntfss and uncungcioniibletieiiB makt? Mervaiitbi deceitful; 
Hucli care not how they do their work., ifthvy cau but maktfj 
their maHters believe that it id done well : they are hypo**] 
critciiia their service, that take more care to aeetn painfiilf 
trusty servants, ttian to be so ; and to hide their faults ant 
BlQthfulu«88, than to Avoid them. As if it were as easy ttf.1 
bide them ulso from God. who hath resolved to [ttiniHli »1l'l 
thewroiig they do their uiasters*^. If they cun but loiterl 
and take their ease, and their mastera know it uot, they 
never troubled at it tiu a »in against God : laziuctisaud Hesl^i 
lymiDdedness do ho blind them, that they think il. is no 
sin to take as much ease an they can, «o they carry it fair 
and smoothly with their masters, and to slubber orer their 
business any how, so that it will but serve the turn ; where- 
as if their masters should keep back any of their wagen, or 
put more work upon them tlian is meet, they would easily be 
persuaded that this were a sio. If your labour be such aa 
would hurt your health (aa by wet or cold, 8tc.) you may 
foresee it, and avoid it in your choice of places : but if it 
18 only tiie labour that you grudge at, it is a sign of a fleshly 
and unfaithful person ; as long as it is not excessive to wrong 
your health, nor hurt your souls, by denying you leisure for 
your duty to God. The Lord hims.elf commandeth yoo to 
"be obedient in singleness of heart, aa unto Christ, not »« 
eye-servants ; and whatever you do, to do it heartily, know- 
ing that whatever good thing- any man doth, the same shall 
he receive of the Lord ''." 

Direct. IV, ' Be more careful about your duty to your 
masters, than about, their duty or carriage to you.' Re 
much more careful what to do, than what to receive ; and to 
be good servauts, than lo be used aa good servants. Not 
but you may modestly expect yoiu' due, and to be used OS 
servants should he used; but your duty is much more to be 
regarded ; for if your master wrong you, that is his sin, and 
none of yours : God will not he offended with you for 
another's faults, hut for your owu; not for being wronged. 
but for doing wrong : and it is better sujfer the greatest 
wrong, than offend God by committing the smallest sin. 
Direct. V. ' Be true and faithful in alt that is committed 
' Col.iii.». ■• Rph, •.1.5,6.8. Cul. lU.tS. 



to your iruet : difiposc not of nny thinjr Uiat ie yout masler's 
witlmut liis consent :' tiiough you mity think it ever so rea- 
sonable, or well done, yet remtimber that it is none nf your 
OWD ; if you would raliETe the poor, or please a fellow-sef- 
vatitt or do a kindiiess to a neighbour, do it of your own, 
and not of another's, unless you huve hia allowance. Be as 
thrifty for your masters, as you would be for yoorielres. 
Waste no more of hiu goods, than you would do if it were 
your own. Say ndt as fulet: servants do, my maRter ia rich 
enough, and it will do him no harm, and therefore we may 
make bold, and nut bv ho sparing and niggardly. Tlie qiies> 
tiou in not, what he should do, but what yon should do! 
If you take any ofyour rich ueighboura' goods or money, to 
givt lo the poor, you may be hanged a» tliieres, as well aa 
if you stole itforyourflelTes. To take any thing of another'a 
against his will, Ir to rob or steal : let the Talue be never so 
small, if it be but the worth of a pcnuy that you steal or de- 
fraud another of. the sin ia not small : nay, it aggraTSteth 
the ain, that you will presume to break God's taw for auch a 
trifle, and venture your aoul for so sraall a thing; though it 
be taken from one that may never so well spare it, that n no 
excuse to you i it Is none of yours. Especially let those ser- 
vants look to thi8> that are trusted with buying and etliing, 
or with proriitions. If you defraud your masters, becauae 
you can conceal it; belit<re it, Ood that knoweth it will re- 
real it; and if you repent of it, you must make restitution 
of all that ever you thus robbed tlium of, if you have any 
thing to do it with ; and if you have nothing, you rauHt with 
Rorrow and shame confess it to tliem, and ank forgiveneits ; 
but if you reppnt not, yon must pay dearer for it in hell, 
than this comea to. Object. ' But did not the l>ord com- 
mend th« tuij u.'»t steward * V Amie. Yea, for Itis wit in pnV- 
viding for him»eir, but not for biti unjustness. He only 
teachethyuu there, that if tlie wicked worldlings have wit 
to provide for this life, much more should you have the wit 
to make provision for the life to come. It is faithfuhieitH 
that is n atewanl's duty '. 

Direct, vi. * Honour your masivrB, and behave yourselvea 
towards them with that respect and reference au ynur place 
requireth'.' Behave not yourftelves rudely or contcmptuous- 

• Lnkein,!!. 'iCor. iv.r. ( Exod. xt. It. Roni. xiii.T. 



ly towards them, in word or dsod. B« not ho proud ab to 

diddiiiu to keep the distance and ri>verenc« which ie dae> 
You should Bcom to be servants, if" you ncnm to behare 
yourftelves fts Bervaritti. Give them not Kaucy, provoking ur 
contemptuous langurttje; not wording it out with them in 
bold contending, aud justifying yourfielves whoii your fuulta 
are reprehended. Mark the apostle's words. Tit. ii. 9, 10* 
" Exhort servants to be obedient to tbeir own luftBtem. and 
to please Uiem well in all things, not Answering aguin ; not 
purloining, but shewing nil good fidelity, that they may 
adorn the doctrine of God our Saviour in all things." And 
1 Tim. vi. ] — 4. " Let as nmny semiiits as are under the 
yoke, count their own masters worthy of all honour;" (yea> 
though they were infidels or poor) " that the name of God 
and his doctrine be not blasphemed." (For wicked m«n 
will nay, ' la this your relijjiou?' when servnnts professing 
religion, ore disobedient, wnreverent. and unfaiihful.) "And 
they that have believing lOBEters, let them not denpiee fhem, 
because they are brethren ; but rather do them service, be- 
cause they are faithful and beloved, paitakeDi of the benefit. 
These tilings teach and exhort : it* any man teach otherwise, 

and coni^eut not to wholesorae words he is proud, 

knowing nothing." 

Direet.vii, ' Go not unwillingly or murmuring;ly about 
your business, but take it ae your delight." An unwilling 
mind doth lose God'^ reward, and man's aiiceptance. 
Grudging and unwillingness maktth your work of little va- 
lue, be it never ao well done. "Do service hearlily, and 
with good will as to the Lord*"." 

Direct, viii. ' Obey your masters in all things' (which 
Ood forbiddeth not, and which their plaoe enablelh them to 
command you;) ' aad set not your own conceits and wills 
aj^ainst tJicir commandn '.' It i» not obedience, if you will 
do no mole of tlieir commands, than what agreeth with your 
own opinions imd wills. What if you think another wtiy 
best, or another work best, or another time best ; art you to 
govern or obey / If the work be not your's, but another's, 
let his will Olid not your'a be fulfilled, and do hi» Bervice in 
his own way. It is God's command, " Servants obey your 
masters in all things'"." 

b Eph. Yi.7. Cul. ill. 3^. 'Act«i.r. ^C()l.iii.ty. 


[part II. 

Direct. IX. ' Heveal not any of the secrets of your vaas- 
tere*. or of tlie family '.' Talk not to others of what is said 
or done at home ; be not over familiar at other men's houHPR, 
where you may be tempted to talk of your mafiters' busi- 
Desses ; many words may have mischievous etfects, which 
were well intended. That servant is <infit for a wise man's 
family, that hath some famiHtu- abroad, to whom he muBt tell 
all that he hearelh or tieeth at home; for his familiar hath 
anothtir familiar, and t,o n man shall be betrayed hy those of 
his own household'", as Christ by Judas. 

Direct. X. ' Grudge not at tlie meamieBS of the provisions 
of the family.' Ifyoa have not that which is needful to your 
health, remove to another place as soon as you can, with- 
out reproaching tlie place where you are. But if yo» have 
your daily bread, that is, your necesBary. wholesome fcxid, 
how coarse soever, your tQurtnuring for want of more de- 
licious fare, is but your shame, and ^heweth that your hearts 
are sunk into your hellies, and that you are Aeshly- 
mindcd persons ". 

Direct. XI. 'Pray daily for a blessing on your laboura 
and on the family, both privately and with the rcH.' A 
]>r&yii]g servant may prevail with Ood, for more than all 
their labour cometh to ; and their labours aro liker (o be 
ble^ed, than the labours of a prayerless, ungodly person. 
You are not worthy to partake of the mercies of the family, 
if you will not join in prayers for those mercies. 

Direct, xn. ' Willingly submit to the teaching and go- 
vernment of your ma.ster8 about the right wnrshipping of 
Ood, oud for the good of your own souls.' Bless God, if 
you live with religious masters that will instruct you uiid 
catechise you, and pray wiili you, and restrain you from 
breaking the Lord's day. and other sins, and will examine 
you of your proBting, and watch over yoursouls, and sharp- 
ly rebuke you when you do that which is evil. Be glad of 
their instructions, and murmur not ignorant, un- 
godly servanu do. These few Directions carefully followed 
will make your service better to you, than lordships and 
kingdoms arc to the ungodly. 


' Prav.txv.V. ■*• 13. 11. IV. 


•• PliiLiii.ll,: 


The Duties nf Masters towardt (heir .Servanin. 

Ip you would liave good servanU, see tliatyuii be i^oodmaHr 
lers, and do your own duly, and then either your servants 
will do theirs, nr else iill their Tailings (iiiall turn tu your 
greater good ". 

Direct. J. ' Remember that in Christ they are your bre- 
thren and fellow-servants , and therefore rule them not ty- 
raiuiically, but in teuderne&s and love; and command them 
nothing that ia agciinst the laws of God, or the good of their 
souls.' Use not wrath and unmaalikc fury with them ; nor 
uny over-severe or unnecessEiry rebnIceB or chaKttiieini^ntis. 
Find fault in season, with prudence and sobriety, whtiiyour 
passions are down, and when it is most likely to do good. 
If it be too little, it will embolden them in doing ill ; if it be 
too much, or frequent, or passionate, it will make them Blight 
it aad despise it, and utterly hinder their repentance : they 
will be taken up ld blaming you for yuiir rashness and riof, 
lence, instead of blaming theiufielves for the fault. 

Direct. II. 'Provide Uitxa work coarenient for tUei 

and such as they are fit for; not such or so much as tol 

wrong them in their health, or binder theui from the necessaiy] 

means of their salvation; noryet solittle asmay cherish their ' 

idleness, or occasion them to lose their precious time,' It. 

is cruelty to lay more on your horse than he can carry ; oil 

to work your oxen to skin and bones. " A righteous mwn 

regardeth the life of his beast''," much more of his servant.' 

Especially put not your servants on any labour which ha.- , 

zardeth their health or life, withotit true necessity to soni« 

greater end. Pity and spare them mure in their heallh than io 

their bare labour. Labour maketh the body sound, but to 

take deep colds, or go wet of their feet, do tend to their sick- j 

ntm and death. And should another man's life be cast 

away for your commodity ? .po as you would be done by, 

if you were servants yuurselveis and in their case; and I«t 

nut their labours be so great, at» nhall allow them no time to 

pray before they go about it, or as shall so tire them as lu 

" IUiin.Tlli.tB. ^ Piow.xii. 10. 

VOL. IV. 1' 



lRt Mi 

unfit thiiiii for prayer, ot instruction, or the worship of the 
Lord's da)-, and shall lay them like blocks, as litter to liu to 
sleep or rest themselves, than to pray, or hear, or mind any 
thing that ia good. And yet take heed that you suiTer tliem 
not to be idle, as many great men use their serving men, to 
the undoing of their souls and bodies. Idiensas is no Bmall 
sin it«elf, and it breedelh and cherisheth many olherii : their 
time is lost by it; and they are made unfit for any houest 
employment or course of life, to help tberaaelves or nny 

Direct, tn. ' Provide them fiuoh wholesome food and 
lodging, and such wage« as their ftervicedoth deserve, or as 
you have promised them '.' Whether it be pleasant or unpleu- 
fiant, let their, food and lodging^ be healthful. It is »o odious an 
oppreaRion and injustice to defraud a uenrant or labourer of 
his ivQgeft, (yea, or to give him less than he deservetb,) that 
metbinkH I bhould nut need to speak much against it among 
Christiana. Read James v, 1 — b. and I hope it will be 


Direel. iv. * Use not your servants to be so bold and fa- 
miliar with you, as may tempt them to despise you; noryet 
so strange and di»itant. as may deprive you of opportunity 
of speaking to them tor their spiritual good, or justly lay 
you open to be eenaured ai^ too magielerial and proud.' 
Both tlie^e extremes have ill effects; but the first ia com- 
monestt, and ia the disquiet of many families. 

Direct. V. 'Remember that you have a charge of the 
souIb in your family, and are ait a prieet and teaeher in your 
own house, and therefore aee that you keep them to the con- 
stant worshippmg of Qod, especially on the Lord*s day, iu 
public and private ; and that you teach them the ihiiii^ that 
concern their salvatton,' (as is afterward directed.) And 
pray for them daily, as well as for yourselves. 

Direct, vi. • Wntch over them that they offend not God •' 
bear not with ungudlineBH or gross ein in your ^mily. 
Read P^al. ri. Be not like those ungodly masteni. that look 
only that their own work be done, and bid God look after 
his work himself, and care not for their servants' souls, be- 
cause they care not for thnir own; and mind notwhetber 

> Cbl. h. 1. 




God be served by others, because th«y serve him not (un- 
less witli hypocritiual lip-service) tht^mii«lv<>y. 

Direct. Tii. ' Keep your servutite froinevil ccimpany,iui(l 
from being temptations to other, as fer aR you can.' 
If you suffer them to frequent alehouBCK, or riotous asBcm- 
blies, or wantou or muligDant company, when they ^re in- 
fected themeelvea, they will bring home the Infection, and 
all the house may fare the worse for it. And when .ludaii 
groweLb familiar with the Phari:«ees, be will ho Hcdur^d by 
them ixi betray his Master. You cannot be accoimlable for 
your servants if you suffer them to be much tibro»d. 

Direct. \iii. ' Go before th';m as examples of holinesay 
and wisdom, and all those virtues and duties which ynuj 
would teach them.' An ignorant or a swearing, cursing, 
railing, ungodly mae^ter, doth actually tetich his servants to 
be such; and if his words teach them the contrary, he can 
expect but little reverence or success. 

Direct. IX. * Patiently bear with those tolerable (ruilties 
which their unskilfulness, or bodily tem^peraturc, or other 
infirmity make them liable to again&t their wilU.' A will- 
ing mind ie an excuse for many frailties ; much must be put 
up with, when it is not from wilfulness or ^oss neglect : make 
not a greater matter of every infirmity or fault, than there is 
canse. Look not that any should be perfect upon earth ; 
reckon upon it, that you must have servants of the progeny 
of Adam, that have corrupted natures, anil bodily wealt- 
nesses ; and many things that must be borue with. Consi- 
der bow faultily you serve your heavenly Master, and how 
much he daily heareth with that which is amins in you, and 
how many faults and oversightsyou are guilty of in yourown 
employment, and how many you should be overtaken with 
if you were in their stead. " And ye masters, do the same 
things to them, forbearing threatening, knowing that your 
Master also is in heaven, neither is thtre respect of persons 
with him''." " Masters give unto your servanU that which 
is just and equa)%"&c. 

Direct, x. ' See that they behave themselves well to 
their feliow-servants : of which I shall speak anon.' 

* Eph. ri. 9. 

• Ori-ir. 1. 



Til. 2. Directions to those Masicrs in foreign Plantations v>h»' 
tavc Negroes and otfter •SVutws; being a sofutioti o/'ieveral 
emts abuvf l/ietN. 

Direct. I. ■ Understand well how far your power over 
your slaves extenJeth. and what limits God halli set tliertto.' 

As. 1. Sufficiently difference between men and brutes. 
Remember that they arc of as good a kind as you; that is, 
they ate reasonable creatures as well ns you, and born to as 
ranch natural liberty. li" their sin have enslaved them (o 
you, yet nature made them your' equals. Remember thai 
they have immortal souls, and are e(]tially capable of salva- 
tion with yourselres. Aud therefore you have no power ta 
do any thing which shall hinder their salvation. No pre- 
tence of your bueineiis, necessity, conunodity or power, can . 
warrant you to hold them so hard to work, bh not to allot 
them due tjine and ^ea&otiB for that which God hath made 
their duty. 

2. Remember that God is their absolute Owner, and rhat 
you bave none but a derived and limited propriety in them.' 
They can be no further yours, than you hare God's consent, 
who IB the Lord of them and you; and therefore God's in- 
terest in theui and by them mutil he served first. 

3. RDmember that they and you are equally under the 
government and law» of God. And therefore all God's laws 
must be first obeyed hy thtni, and you have no power to. 
command tliem to omit any duty which God commiuidetli 
tbeia. oor to commit any sin which God forbiddeth them; 
nor can you without rebellion or impiety expect, that youc. 
work or commands should be preferred before God's. 

4. Remember that God is their reconciled, tender Father, ' 
and if they be as good, doth love them as well as you. And 
therefore you must use the meanemt of them no otherwise, 
tban bese«metli the beloved of God to be used ; and no 
otheruise than may stand with the due signification of your 
love to Ood, by lovin;^ those that are his. 

6. Remember that they are the redeemed ones of Clirist. 
and that he bath not sold you his title to them. As he 
bought their soaU at a price invaluable, »ohe bath not given ' 
the puTchatte of hi* blood to be ahBolutely at your dispotal. 



Therefore so use th«m, a» to preserve ChrisC'K right and id' 
terest in them. 

Direct, ir. ' Remember that you are Christ's trustees, or 
tile guardians of their souIk ; und that the j^reater your 
power is over them, the greater your cliarge in o( thera, and 
your duty for them.' As you owe more to a child than to 
a day-labourer, or a. hired servant, because being more your 
own. he is more intrusted to your care ; so also by the same 
reason, you owe more to a jslave, because he is more your 
own; and power and obligation gu together. Ae Abraham 
was to circumciae all his servanf^ that were bought with 
mouey, and the fourth commundmeiu requireth maBtcrs to 
see that all within their gates observe the sabbath dav ; so 
must you exercise both your power and love to bring them 
to the knowledge and the faith of Christ, and to the just 
obedience of God's commands. 

Those therefore that keep their negroes and slaves frou '\ 
hearing God's Word, and from becoming Chrii^tians, be- / 
cause by the law they shall then be either madt^ free, or they I 
shall lose part of their service, do openly profess rebellion 
a^inst God, and contempt of Christ the Redeemer of ROulSi 
and a contempt of the souls of men, and indeed they de- 
clare, that their worldly profit is their treasure and their 

If this come to the hands of any of our natives in Bar- 
badoes, or other islands or plantations, who are said to bo 
commonly guilty of this most heinous sin, yes and to litre 
upon it, I entreat them further to conRider as followetb, 
1. How cursed a. crime is it to equal men and beasts! fs 
not this your practice? Do you not buy thera and use 
thera merely to the same end, as you do your horses? to 
labour for your commodity. &s if they were baser than you, 
and made to serve you? 

2. Do you not see how you reproach and condemn your- 
selves, while you vilify them as savages and barbarous 
wretches! Did they ever do any thing more savage, than 
to use not only men's bodies as beasts, but their souU as if 
they were mode far nothing, but to actuate their bodies in 
your worldly drudgery? Did the veriest cannibals ever do 
any thing more cruel or odious, than to sell so many souls 
to the devil for a little worldly gain '. Did ever the cnrsedest 




miscreants on earth, do any thing more rcbeUious. and con- 
trary lo the will of the moat iiitrciful God, than to keep 
tlioaa HOuls fi'OiuCliriRt, and hoUui;iiK, and heaven, for a little 
money, who were made and redeemed for the same ends, and 
itt tilt! name pn:cioii8 price as yours '.' Dtd your poor slaves 
ever commit aucb rillanies as these'.' is not he the basest 
wretch and tlie most barbarous savage, who committeth the 
gHutest and roost inhuinnn wickednexx ? And ar« tlieira 
compttrable to these of yonrs ? 

3. Doth not the very example of such cruelty, besides 
your keeping them from Christianity, directly tend to tench 
them and nil others, to hate Chrietinnity, as if it taught men 
to be tio umcli wurse than dogs and tigers ! 

4. Do you not murk bow Ood hath followed you mbh 
plngucs ! and may not conscience tell you that it is foryoor 
inhumanity to the BOuls and bodice of so many'! Remem- 
ber tite late fire at the bridge in BarbadoeK : remember the 
drowning of your governor and Khips at ttea, and the 
nmny judj^enis that have overtaken you ; and at the pre- 
sent the terrible mortality that i» among you. 

&. Will not the example and warning of neighbour coun- 
tries rise up in judgment against you anri condemn you t 
You cannot but hear how i:idiouK the Spanish name is made 
(and thereby alas the Christian name also, among the West 
Indians!) for their mottt inhuman cruelties in Hispaniola, 
Jamaica, Cuba, Peru, Mvxico, and oilier places, which io 
describvd by Josep. a Coata,. a Jesuit of their own ; aod 
though [ know that their cruelty who murdered milliouB, 
ejtceedeth youra, who kill not men's bodies, yet yours is of 
the same kind, in the merchandize which you make with 
the ddvil for their iiouIh, nhiUt you that should help them 
with all your power, do hinder them from the means of 
their sulvation. And on the contrary, what an honour is it 
lo thoM of New Eughmd, that they take not so much luUtu 
Dative soil from tliem, but by purchase ! that they enslave 
none of them, nor n^e them cruellv. but shew them mercy, 
and are at a great deal of care.and cost, and labour for their 
salvation! how muchdiffercnce between holy Mr. Elliot's 
life and yours! His, who hath hibourcd so many years to 
save th(;m, and bath translated the whole Bible into tlieir 
langaage, with other books; and thnse good men'n in Lon- 



dun who are a corporation tor the furtherance r>f his work; 
And theirs that have contributed so largely towards it; and 
yours that sell men's soiila for your commodity ' 

6. And what comfort are you like to have at laat, in that 
money that is purchased at such a price '! Will not your 
money and you perish together.' will you not have wonie 
than Gthazi'a leprosy with it; yea worse than Aclian'x 
death by etoning , and as bad an Judas his banging bimaelf, 
luiLess repentance shall prevent it V Do you not remember 
the terrible words in Jude 2. " Woe unto them, for they 
have gone in the way of Cain, and ran greedily after the 
errora of Balaam." And 2 Pet. ii. 3. U, U. " Through co- 
vttou&nesft — they make merohandize of you — ~- An hesrt 
they have exercised with covetous practices ; cursed chil- 
dren (or children of a curse) which have forsaken the right 
way, and are gone astray, fotlowint^ the way of Balaam, the 
aoD of Bosor, who loved the wages of unrighleuustiesit, but 
was rebuked for hib iniquity ; the dumb ass speaking with 
maa'a voice forbad the mtidness of the prophet." When 
you fibull every one hear, "f hou fool, this night shall thy 
soul be required of thee, and then whose shall those things 
be which thnu hast provided'?" Will it not then cut deep 
in your perpetual torments, to remember that you got that 
little pelf, by betraying so many souls to hell ? What men 
in the world doth James speak tu, if not to you! "Go to 
now, ye rich men. weep and hotvt for your miseries that shall 
come upon you. Yoiirrichee are corrnpted, and your gar- 
ments are moth-eaten: your gold and silver are cankered; 
and the rut^t of them shall be a witness aguinst you, and shall 
eat your flesh an it were fire : ye have heaped treasure to> 
gether for tile Inst days. Behold, the hire of tlie labourers 
which have reiiped down your helds, which Is of you kept 
back by fraud, crieth : and the cries of thera which have 
reaped, are entered into the ears of the Lord of Salv 
aoth *." How much more the cry of betrayed souls I 

And here we may seasonably answer these caseK. Quest. 
1. ' Is it lawful for a Christian to buy and use a man as a 
slave?' Q,uesl. 2. 'Uit lawful to use a Christian ns a glare?* 
Quest. 3. ' What difference must vre make between a free 
servant a»d a slave?' 
^ * Lultciii.l9-«1. « Jwn. V. 1—41 



To Quae. 1 . I answer. There is a slavery to which Home 
men mny be lawfully pul, and there iit a slavery to which 
none may be put; and there is a slavery to which only the 
criminal may be put, by way of pcnnlty. 

1. No man may be put to such a slavery a.» under 
the first Direction is denied, that is, such as shall injure 
God's interest aud service, or the man's salvation. 2. No 
man, but as a just punishment for his crimes, maybe so 
euslaved, ok to be deprived of those liberties, benefits and 
comforti^, which brotherly love obligeth every man to grant 
to another for his good, as far as is within our power, all 
things considered. That ii^. the eaoie luau is a servant and 
a brother, and therefore must at once be UHed as both. 3. 
Though poverty or nece&riity do make a man consent to sell 
himself to a life of lesaer misery, to escape a greater, or death 
itMlf; yet is it not lawful for any other ao to take advuii- 
tage by his necesBity, as to bring him into a condition that 
shall make him miserable, or in which we Rhall not exercise 
so much love, as may lend to his sauctiticutiuu, comfort and 
aalviition. Hecaiise no justice is beseeming a Christian or 
a mnn, which is not conjoined with a due measure of 

But 1. He that deeervelli it by way of penalty may be 
penally used. '2. He that litote and cannot restore may b« 
forced to work it out as a nervant ; and In both these casett 
more may be done against another's ease or liberty, than by 
mere contract or consent. He that may hang a t)agitiou« 
offender doth him no wrong if he put him to n slavery, 
which i* less penal than death. 3. More also may be done 
against enemies taken in a lawful war. Ihao could be done 
against the innocent by necessitated consent. 4. A certain 
degree of servitude or slavery is lanfiil by the necflssitaled 
consent of the innocent. That is so much, (1.) As wroiigclh 
no interest of God. ('3.) Nor uf mankind by breaking the 
laws of nations, (3.) Nor the person himself, by hindering 
hissalvation, or the needful means thereof; nor those com- 
forts of life, which nature giveth lo man as man. (4.) Nor 
the commonwealth or society where we live. 

Quest. 2. To the second Question, I answer. I. As men 
mui*t be variously loved according to the varioun degrees 
of luniabk-nesH in them; so varions degrees of Love must ht 



a 17 


uwrcteed towards thom : iherefore good and real Clmeitianii 
must be used with more love and brotherly teudemess Lbaii 
otliers. 2. It is meet also, tliat irifideU have so much mercy 
ahefved them iit order to the aaving of thiiir eouU, as that 
they should be invited to Chriistianity by fit encouraiiB- 
ments : and bo, that they nhould know that if they will turn 
ChriBtiuns, they shall have more privileges and emoluments 
ttinn the enemies of truth and piety shall liuvc It in ihere- 
fore well done of princes who make laws that infldel -slaves 
shall be freemen, when they are duly Chriiitened. 3. But 
yet a nominal Christian, who by wickedness forfeitelh hig 
life or freedom, may penally be mad« a alave as well as in- 
fidels. 4. And a. poor and needy Christian may sell bim- 
self into a hnrder state of servitude tban he would choose, 
or we could otUerwi&e put him into. But 5. To go aa pi- 
rates and catch ay poor negroes or people of another land, 
that never forfeited life or liberty, and to make them slaves, 
and sell theoi, ia one of the worst kinds of thievery in the 
world ; and tiuch persons are to be taken fur the common 
enemies of mankind , and they that buy them and use them 
as beasts, for their mere commodity, and betray, or destroy, 
or neglect their souls, are fitter to be called incarnate devils 
than Christians, though they lie no Christiana whom they 
BO abuse. 

QiiE^t. 3. To the third Question, 1 answer, That the 
solution of this catte. is to be gathered from what is said al- 
ready. A servant and a voluntary-slave were both freemen, 
till they sold ov hired themselvea ; and a criminal person 
was a freemna till he forfeited his bfe or liberty. But after- 
wards the difference is this; that 1. A free servant is ray 
servant, no further than his own covenant made him so; 
which is Bupponed to be,(l.) To ac«rtain kind.andraeasure 
of labour according to the meaning of his contract. (3.) 
Pora limited time, expressed in the contract, whether ft year^ 
or two, or three, or sL-ven. 

2. A slave by mere conliaci i» one that, (I.) Usually 
Kelleth himself absolutely to the will of another as to his la- 
bour both for kind and measure; where yet the limitationH 
of God and nature after (and before) named, are supp<))^ed 
among ChriHtian« to take place. (2.) He ie one that selleth 
hiraitulf to such labour, during life. '" 



!■ 3. Aelavebyjuit pennlty.iK liable to bd much s«rv)- 
tode as the magistmte doth judge him to, whidi may be, 
(1.) Not only such labour, a& aforesaid, an pkasnUi his mas- 
ter to impose. (2.) And tiiat for life. {^.^ But tt may be 
also to stripes and severities which might not lawfully bo 
inflicted on another. 

1. The limitations ofa necessitated-slavery by cooUract 
or consent through poverty are these, (1.) Such a one'8 
soutiuiislbe cared for and preserved, though he should 
consent to tlie contrary. He muet have time to learn the 
Word of God, and time to pray, and he muat rest on the 
Lord'K day, and employ it in God's service ; he must be 
ioHtrucled. and exhorted, and kept from sin. (2.) He may 
not be forced to commit nnysin agaiaalGod. (3.) lie may 
not (though he forcedly consent) be denied such comforts 
of this life, as are needful to his cheerful serving of God in 
love and thankfulness, according to the peace of the Gos- 
pel state; and which are calked by the naine of our daily 
bread. No man may deny a alave any of this, tbat is not 
a criminal, punished slave. 

2, And the must criminal slave may not be forced to sin, 
nor denied nece&sary helps to his salvation. But be may 
penally be beaten and denied part of his daily bread; bo it 
be not dune more rigorously than true justice doth require. 

Quest. ' But what if mou buy ^e^oM or other slaves of 
such as w(! have jutit onuste to believe did steal them by pi- 
racy, or buy them of tboMt that have no power to sell ihem, 
and uot hire or buy them by tbeir own consent, or by the 
consent of those that had power to si^ll tliuoi, nor take them 
captives in a lawful war, what must tliey do wiUi them after- 
wardti ?' 

Arate. I, It is their heinous ain to buy tbcm, unless it 
be in charity to deliver them. 2. Having done it, undoubt- 
edly they are pr««enlly bound tu deliver Lhem: becauKe by 
light the man is his own, and therefore no man cUe can 
have just title to him. 

Qutsl. ' But may I not sell him again and make my mo- 
ney of him, seeing I leave him butas I found himr 

Anstv. Xo; because when you have takt^n possession of 
him, and a pretended proprii^ty, then the injury that is done 
him is by you ; which before was only by another. And 





though the wroug be no greater than the oUier did bim, y«t 
being now done by you, it is your sin. 

Quest. ' But may I not rotucu him to him that I bought' 
him of?' 

Aiisu!. No: for that is but injuring him by deliverir^i 
bim to another to continue the injuvy. To say aa PiUto^j 
" I am innocent of the blood of this just man," wiJl b« no 
proof of your innocency, yea, God's law blndeth you t*-l 
love, and works of love, and therefore you should do your 
bi>st to free him : he that is bound to help to (iave a niaa, 
that ia fallen into the hands of thievee by the highway, if h« 
should buy tlmt man as a ttlave of the thieves, mav notf 
after give him up to the thieves again. But to proceed inj 
the Directions. 

Direct. iiT. 'So serve your own uecesaities by yoar 
slaves as to prefer God's interest, and their spiritual and 
everlasting happiness.' Teach them the way to heaven, and) 
do all for their souls which I have before directed you to ' 
do for all your other servants. Though you may raakesome , 
ierence in their labour, and diet, and clothing, yet none 
to the furthering of their salvation. If they be infidela, ) 
"uBe them so as teadelh to win them to Christ, and the lova ,. 
of religion, by shewitig them that Christians are lesi 
worldly, less cruel and passionate, and more wise, and cha- 
ritable, and holy, and meek, than any other persons are. 
Woe to them that by their cruelty and covetousneaa do 
seandalize even alavea, and hinder their coDverxion and sal- 

Direct, iv. "By how much the hardness of their con- 
dition doth make their lives uDComfortable, and God hath 
cast them lower than yourselves, by so much the more let 
your charity pity them, and labour t« abate their burden, 
and sweeten their lives to them, as much as your condition 
will allow.' And remember that even a slave may be one 
of those neighbours that you are bound to love as your- 
selves, and to do to as you would be done by, if your case 
were his. Which if you do, you will need no more direction 
for his relief. 

Direct. V. ' Remember that you may require no more of 
an innocent slave, than you would or might do of an ordi- 
nary servant, if he were at your will, and did not by con- 



fpART ir. 

tr&ct except souiethii^ as to labour or usage, wbich else 
you woiiltl think juat and meet to have required of him.' 

Direct. VI. * If they are infidels, neither bL' too )iasty in 
baptizing them, when ihey desire it, nor too slow.' Not 
BO hasty as to put tbem on it, before they uiiderntiiiid what 
tbe baptistiial covenant is ; or before you bcc any likelihood 
that they should be aerJoas in making such a covenant. 
Nor yet so slow «« to let them a.lone to linger mit their lives 
in the state of those without the church. But linntL'ti ihcm 
to leant, and stir up their deeires, and look after them, as 
the ancient churchei; did after their cateehuniens; and when 
you see them fit by knowledge, belief, desire, ajid resolii- 
lion, to vow theniselveii to Ood on the; terms of the holy co- 
venant, then put them on Lo be baptized. But if ynii should 
feel an abatement of your desires of th*ir conversion, because 
yon Bhall loKe their service (much more if cvlt you had a 
wish that they might nut be cuuverted. winch is plain de- 
viliam), let it be tbe matter of your deep humiliBtion and 

Dirftt. V 1 1, Make it your chief end in buying; and using 
slaves, to win them to Christ, and save their suuls. D» tiut 
only endeavour it on the by, when you have first consulted 
yourowu commodity, but niuke this more of your end, than 
your commodity itself; and let their t^alvntiou be far more 
TiJucd by you than their service; and carry ytmrselves lo 
them, as those that art- scusihlc that they are redeemed with 
them by Christ from the slavery of satan, and may live with 
them in the liberty of the saints in glory. 

'IUi<* ixil* 


The Duties of' Chiidreit and I'eUow-ier%->tmts to wtr atioifier. 

(t is not eatiy to resolve. Whether good i»ovcmoni, or good 
fel low-servants, in « family, be the greater help and benefit, 
to each of the inferiors. For servants are no much togetltcr, 
and so free and familiar with each other, that they have the 
more iipportunity to he ustcl'ul tu each ulhei. if they have 
but ahilitivit and hrurt^. It in needfnl iherefiin;, that you 



know your duty to one aoother, both for doing 9tn<l gettia^ 
that good which otherwise will be lost, ( 

Direct. I. ' Love one another unfeiguedly an younelves*' 
aroid all contention and falling out with one another, oranjf 
thing that would weaken your love to one another; espe- 
cially difl'ei'ences about your personal interests, in point oV\ 
profit, provision, or reputation.' Take heed of the spirit ■ 
envy, which will make your hearts rise a^ain^t those that ar^ ' 
preferred bel'ore you, or that are used better than you. Ue- 
member the shi and misery of Cain, and lake warning by 
him. Give place to othurs, and in honour prefer others^ 
and seek notto be preferred before them". God deliglitetU' 
to exali the humble that abase themselves, and to cast down 
thotie that exalt themselves. When the interest of your 
flesh ca.n make you hate or fall out with each other, what 
a fearful sign is it of a fleshly mind''.' 

Direct. II. ' Take heed uf using provokiagwords against' 
each other.' For these are the bellows to blow up that^ 
which the apostle calleth " the fire of hell'." A foul tongue 
aetteth on fire the course of nature; and therefore it may* 
set a family on fire"*. " Where envying and strife is, there 
is confusion and every evil wnrk '." " If ye be angry, re- ' 
frain your tongues, and sin not, and let not the sun go down ' 
upon your wrath : neither give place to the devil '." " Let* 
all bittemesB, and wrath, and anger, and clamour, and evil' 
Speaking, be put an^ay from you, \vitli all malice ; and be yo' 
kind one to another, tender-hearted, forgiving one anotherjl 
even as God for Christ's sake hath forgiven you*." " Re-' 
vilers shall not inherit the kingdom of God**." 

Direct. III. ' Help one another with love and willing--* 
ness in your labours; and do not grudge at one another, am) 
say 8uch a one doth lesa than 1 : but be as ready to help' 
another, as you would he helped yourselves.' It is very 
amiable to see a family of such children and servants, that 
all take one anuther's conceniments as their own; and are 
not i4el6sh against each other. " Behold, how good aiicl 
how pleasant il is for bretliien to dwell together in unity*!" 

Direct. IV. • Take heed that you prove not tempters Ut 

RoiiJ. lii. 10. l(i. 

Xaniuiii. i, d, 
f Epii. EV.Sl.M: 

>• Rom.iiii.e. \s. 
' Ver. 13, 16, 
• I Cw. tl.lft 

' Jumoiiii A, 
' Eph. iv. SG, ST. 
•PwU. cKiKi. IV '■' 



draw each other to sin and misery.' Either by joining to- 
gether ill riotousness, or wronging your masters, or secret 
rereUing, and then in lying to conceal it: or lest immodest 
fitmiliarity draw those of different Rexes into a snare. Akuif 
dance of sin and misery hath followed such tempting fami- 
liarity of men and maids that were fellow servants. Their 
nearoesfi giveth Ihem opportunity, »nd the devil provoketli 
them to take their opportunity; and from immodest, wan- 
tun dalliance, and unchaste worda, iJiey proceed at last to 
more lasciviousness, to their ovfxi undoing. Bring not the 
straw to thelirs, if you would not have it bum. 

Dirixt, V. 'Watch over one another for mutuul preser- 
vation against the ein and temptations which you are most 
in danger of.' Agree to tell each other of your faults, not 
proudly or passionately, hut in love ; and resolve to take it 
thanki'ully from ea,cli other. If any one talk, foolishly oi 
idly, or wemtonty and immodeBtly, or tell a lie, or take God's 
name in vain, or neglect th«ir duty to God or man, or deal 
unfaithfully in their truat or labour, let the other seriously 
ielJ him of hta sin. and call him to repentaucc. And let not 
him that is guilty tcdie it ill, and angrily snap at the repio- 
ver, or justify or excutie the fault, or hit him presently in the 
teeth with his own^ but humbly thank him and promiM 
ami^ndmcnt. Oliow happy might servants be, if they would 
faithfully watch over one another ! 

Direct, vy. ' When you are together, ntid your work wiU 
allow it, let your discuuriic. be surh as tendeth to edifica- 
tion, and to the spiritual ^'ood of the speaker or tlie hearers.' 
Some work there ia that must be thought on, and talked of 
wbil« it is doing, aoid will not allow you leisure to think or 
speak of other tilings, till it i? done: but very much of the 
work of most servants may be as well done, though they 
tJlink and speak together of heavenly things; besides all 
other time» whvu their work \» over. O take tbi:s time to be 
speaking of good to one another: it is like, that some one 
of you hath more knowledge than the rest ; let the rest he 
asking bis coun&el and iastrvctiont», and let him bend him- 
self to do them good ; or if you arc oquul in know ledge, yet 
stir up the grace that is in you, if you have any; or stir up 
yourdesires afterit, if you have none. Waste notyour pre- 
ciouH time in vanity ; multiply not the sin of idle words. O 




what a load doth lie oumany a soul that feeleth it not, in the 
gttilt of these two sins, loss of time, and icll« words ! To be 
gnilty of the same sins oveT and over, cvtrj' diiy, and make 
a coustajit practice of them, uud Uiitt against your owu kuow- 
ledge and conscience, is a more grievous case thftn many 
think of ; whereas, if you would live together as the heirs 
of heaven, and provoke one another to the love of God. aud 
holy duty, and delightfully talk of ihe Word ofOod, and 
the life to come, what blesBings nolgbt you be to one 
another? and your service and labour would be a sanctitied 
and comfortable life to yon all. " Let no corrupt cummu- 
nicfttion proceed out of your mouth, hut Ihot which is good 
to the UBfi of edifying, and may miniitter grace to tlie hear- 
ers, and grieve not the holy Spirit of Ood '." " But fornica- 
tion and all uncleannesss, or covetnustneHR (or ratiier, inordi- 
nate, fletthly dt'Hire) ;let it not be onc(> namvd ^rnong you, as 
becometh najnts ; neither filthiue»8, nor foolish talking, nor 
jesting, which are not convenieni; but rather giviag of 
tlianka"." Of this more anon. 

Direct. VI!. 'Patiently b«ar with the failings of one 
aoothertowaixls yourselre!i,end hide those laults, the open* 
ing of which will do no good, but stir up strife: but conceal 
not those faults wtiich will be cherished by concealment, or 
whose concealment tendeth to the wrong of your master, or 
any other.' For it is in your power to forgive a fault against 
yourselves, but not against God, or anot}ier. And to know 
when you should reveal it, and when not, you must wisely 
foreknow which way is like to do more good or hnrro. And 
if yet yon be in doubt, open it first to soma seoret friend, 
that is wise to advise you, whether it should be further 
opened or not. 

Direct, viii. ' If weakness, or sickness, or wont afflict a 
brother, or sister, or fellow-Bervant, be kind and helpful to 
them according to your power. "Love not in word only, 
but in deed and truth '.** 

( %h. iv. 19. 

" Epli.v.5, 4. 

' iJobuiil. l&. J& 





DirectitMU for Holy Con/ereitce nf FeUoto-servantx or olhtrs. 

Bbcavsb this is a duty so frequently to be performed ; and 
tlierefore the p«ace and edification of Christians is very 
much concerced in it. I shall give a few brief DirectionK 
about it. 

Direct. \. ' Labour moHt for a full and lively heart, which 
liath tile feeling of those things which your tongues Rhntild 
:^peak of.' For t. Such a heart will be like a spring which 
in alvfays runninfc, end will continually feed the streams. 
Forced and feigned thingt* are of abort continuance ; the by 
pocrites afi€ct«d, forced speech, ie exercised but among 
those wliereit may serve his prideaud carnal *■ uds : atother 
times, aud in other company, be liath another tongue like 
Other men. It lui like a laud-flood that is quickly gone .' or 
like the bending of a bow, which rcturaeth to its place, ae 
soon aB it is loosed. 2. And timt which cometh from yotir 
hearts, will be serious and hearty, and likelieat to do good to 
others : for wordci do their work upou u:i, not only by sigoi- 
fying the matter which is spoken, but also by signifying tlie 
ttffcctioDii of the 3])eaker. A nd that which will work affec- 
tions, must expreNK atfectioii ordinarily. If it cume not 
from the heart of the speaker, it h not ao like to go tn the 
licarta of the hearers. A hearty pruachei-, and a hearty, 
feeling discourse of holy thingf;, do pierce heart-deep, and 
do that good, which better composed words that are beart- 
lesB do not. 

Direct, ti. 'Yet for all that, when your hearts are cold, 
ajid dull, and barren, do not think that your tf>ngucd oiust 
therefore neglect theirduty.und be silent from all good, till 
your hearts be better, but force your tongues to dotlieirdu- 
ty, if they will not do It freely without constraint.* For 
1. Duty is duty whether you be well-dinposed to it or not : 
if all duty should cease when men are ill-disposed to it, no 
wicked man would bo Iwund to any thing that is truly holy. 
3. And if heart and tongue he both obliged, it is wonw to 
omit both than one. 3. And there may be sincerity in a. du- 
ty, wheu the heart is cold and dull. 4. Aud beginning to 




do your duty as well as you can, is the way to overcome 
yourdullncsa and unlilnetidi when you lurcc your toaguen 
at first to speak of ihaL which is good, ih? words whic;h you 
speak or hear, may help to bring you Into a better frame. 
Many a man hath begun to pray with coldness, that hiith 
got him heat before he had done ; and many a muu huth 
gone unwillingly to hear a xermon. that hadi come home a 
converted soul. 5. And when you set yourselves in the way 
of duty, you are in the way of promiBed grace. 

Object. ' But is not this to play the hypocrite, to let my 
tongue go before my hc^ait'J And speak the things which 
my heart is not atFected with V 

Answ. If you apeak falsely and dissemblingly, you play 
the hypocrite : but you may force yourselves to speak of 
good, without any faUebood or hypocrisy. Word*, signify 
fls I told you, the matter spoken, and the speaker's mind. 
Now your speaking of the things of God doth tell no more 
of your mind but this, that you take them to be true, and 
that you desire those that you speak to, to regard them: 
and nil this is so; and therefore there is no hypochsv <n it. 
Indeed if you told the hearers, that you are deeply affected 
with these things yourselves, when it is not so, this were hv- 
jiocrisy. But a man may exhort another to be good, with- 
out professing himself to be good; yea, though he confess 
himself to be bad. Tlierefore all the good discourses of a 
wicked man are not hj-pocrisy: much lesB the good dis- 
course of a sincere Christian, that is dull and cold in that 
discourse. And if a duty had some hypocrisy in it, it is 
not the duty but the hypocrisy that God disliketb, and you 
must forsake: as if there be coldness iu a duty, it is the 
coldness, and not theduty thatis to be blamed and forborne. 
And wholly to omit the duty, is worae than to do it with 
some coldness or hypocrisy, which is not the predominate 
complexion of the duty. 

O^ect. ' But if it be not the fruit of the Spirit, it is not 
acceptable to Ood; and that which 1 force my tongue to, is 
none of the fruits of the Spirit. Therefore I must stay till 
the Spirit move me.* 

Answ. 1. There are many duties done by reason, and, the 
oommon a«sistuncea of God. that are better than the total 
omission of them is. Else no unsanctitied mau should hear 

VOL. tV. Q 

the Word, or pray, or relieve tUe poor, or obey hU priuce or 
governors, or do any dvity lowards children or neighboura, 
because whatsoever is out Lite fruit uf itie special grac« of 
ttw ^fiirit, IB sin; and wiUiout faith it is impositible to 
please Ood; and M men have not faith". 2. It is a dia- 
tmcted conceit of the Quakers and otlier fanatics, to think 
Uitit reason and the Spirit of God are not conjunct princi- 
ples in the same act. I>otb the Spirit work on n man as on a 
beaetor a*itonc ^ and cause you to itpc&k ns a clock that stri- 
keth itkmiwethiiot what; i>r jiliiy uiiumn'x soul, an un an iii- 
struiucnt ofmusic that hath neither knowledge of th<^ melody, 
nor any pleasure in it? No, the Spirit of God suppotiv^ 
DUlure, and workcLh on man adman; by exciting your own 
underBtanding and will to do thuir pnrts. So ibat when, 
against all th« rtmnant of dullness and backwardness that 
18 ill yon, you can force yourselves to do your duty, it is be- 
cause the Spirit of God as&iatetb you to take that reaolu- 
Uon, and uaelhatforce. Forthus the Spiritetriyeth against 
the tlesh ''. Though it is confessed, that there is more of 
tfae Spirit, where there is no backwardness, or reciataace, oi 
Deed of forcing. 

Direct. III. 'By all meojis labour to be fumiahed with 
underetacdini; in the mattem of God.' For, I. An under- 
standing person hath a mine ofboty matter in biuiself, and 
never is quite void of matter for good discouriic: be is tbe 
good scribe, that in " instructed to tbe kingdom ofG»4, 
that bringeth out of his trtosury things new and old." 2. 
And an underutanding person will »peak disareetly, and wo 
will much further the succ«sa of his discounte, and not 
make it ridiculous, contemptuous or inefrectual through his 
indiscretion. But yet if you are ignorant and wanting in 
understanding, do not therefore be silent: for though yonr 
ability is least, your necessity ik greatest. Let necessi- 
ty therefore constrain you to ask instruction, as it constrain- 
eth the needy to beg for what they wanL But spare no 
p&ins to increase your knowledge. 

Direct. IV, ' If your own understandiij^a and hearts do 
not furnish you with matter, have recourse to those niso^ 
fold helps that God vauchsafcth you.' As 1. You may dis- 
course of the last ftermon that you heard, or some one lately 




preached that nenrly touciled y<Ki. 2. Or of soriKthinq in 
the last book you read. 3. Or ol'some text of Seripturti ub- 
tioiaa tn yo«r thoughts. 4. Or of some notitMe (yuft, or or- 
dinary) provi(1t![ice whicli dUl lately occur. 5. Or of tiome 
examples of good or evil that are tresU before ymt. 6. Or 
of the right (ioin^^ of the tiutf thnt y^eu aco About, or any 
8uch like helps- 

Direrl, ». 'Talk not of vain, improtilftble controversies, 
noroi^eti ofsiiwJl ar(!tuuiitiuitial iitiittc-rs that make but little 
to edificaflioii.' For there may be idle Lttlking about matters 
of religion, as weN as about othct smalltr things. Especial- 
ly ^& thnt the qunrrel.'t of the times engage not your 
tlioiighta and apctchttn too fnr. into a eourat: of unproBtable- 
nesH and contention. 

Dirert, vi, ' Furnish youraelven beforehand with matter 
for the mofit edifying discourse, and never go abroad empty.' 
Anil let the matter be asually, 1. Things of weight, and not 
smalt matlers. 2. Thinga of certniuty, and not uncertaio 
things. Partitttliwly the BtteBl subjects fur your ordinary 
diacouraeareUiese: 1. God himself, with hlaattribuUs, rela- 
tioD»i and worke. 2. Tiiio great niystwry of man's Pedemptioo 
by Christ ; his person, ollftcek liu^eriiigH, doctrine, example 
And work ; hid I'c&HFreobion, nscenniont glory, intercession 
anrt all the priTilegea of liis Baiants. 3. Ths corenant of 
grace, the promises, the HatieB, thft conditions aad the 
threatenings. 4. The workings of the Spirit of Christ upon 
the soul, and every grace of the Spirit in us ; with all the 
aisM, and helps, and bindranuett of it. 6. The ways and 
wUm 0f s&tftn, and all our spiritnal enemien; the particular 
temptations whieb we ai'e in danger of; what they are, and 
how to avoid them, and what arc the most poiterful helps 
xgainst tbem. S. The corruption and deoeitliilnees of the 
heart; the nature and wotkinga. etfects aud si^s of igno- 
ra.nce, uubelief.hypocriBy, pride, sensuality, worldliness, im- 
piety, injustice, intempei'ance, uncliaritable.iejss and every 
olhetsin; with all the belpH against them all. 7. The many 
duties to God nnd niln vrhich we hnVe to perform; botli io- 
teroal and external, and how to do them, and vi-hat are the 
chiefeat hindrti-nc^-a anrl hi>lps. (As in readinjj. bearing, me- 
ditatingi prayer, giving ainiBj &c.) And the daticB of oar 
relatiuuB. and several places, with the contrary siiks. 8. Tlitj 




vanity of the world, and deceitfuluess of all earthly thuiga. 
9. The powerful reasons used by Christ to draw ua to holi- 
ness, and the unreasonable madness of all that is brought 
agaiiiftt it, by the devil or hy wicked men. 10. Of the suf- 
ferings which we must expect and be prepared for. 11, Of 
death, and the preparations that will then be found necev 
sary ; and how to make ready for so great a change. 12. 
Of the day of judgment, and who will be then justified, aud 
who condemned. 13, Of ibe joys of heaven, the employ- 
ment, the company, the nature and duration. 14. Of tlic 
miseries of the damned, and the thoughts that then they will 
have of their former life on earth. 15. Of the state of the 
i^hui'ch on earth, and what we ought to do in our places for 
il.i welfare. Is there not matter enough in all thetie great 
and weighty points, for your hourly meditation and confe- 

Direct, vii, 'Take heed of proud self-conceitedneiiH in 
your conference.' Speak not with aupercilioua, censorious 
contidence. Let not the weak lake on them to be wiser 
than they are. Be readier to speak by way of question as 
learuere, than as teachers of others, imless you are sure that 
they have much more need to be taught by you, than you 
hy them. It is ordinary for novices in religion to cast all 
llieii' dificourse into a teaching strain, or to make themselves 
preachers before they understand. It is a moet loathsome 
and pitiful hearing (and yet too ordinary) to hear h raw, 
self-conceited, ungrounded, unexperienced person, to prate 
magisterially, and censure confidently the doctrine, or pmc- 
tices, or persons of those that are much better and wiiier 
than themselves. If you meet with this proud, censorious 
Kpirit, rebuke it first, and read to tbem Jamea iii.; and if 
they go on, turn away from them, and avoid them, for they 
know not what manner of spirit Ihcy are of: they »rrve not 
the Lord Jeans, whatever they pretend to think theniRelveB, 
butaje proud, knowing nothing, but doting about qut-acions, 
and making divinions in the churrJi of God, and ready to 
fall into the condemnation of the devil'. 

Direet. viii. ' Let the wis«8t in the company, and not 
the weakest, have most of tlie discourse: but yet if any on*, 
that is of an abler tongue than the rest, do make any deter-' 
• 1 Tin. IM. 4. vf. ^—S. R«n. xrl. ir. LuU ii. S!L 

CHAP. XVI.] can 

minationti in doubtful, coDtroverted points, take h««d of a 
hasty receiving liis judgraeut, let his reasons seem nerwr no 
plausible or probable ; but put down all 8iiv:h opinions as 
doubts, and move th«m to your teachers, or some other im> 
partial, able men, before you entertain them.* Otherwise, he 
that hath must wit and tongue in the company, might carry 
away all the rest into what error or heresy he please, and 
subvert their faith when he stops their mouths. 

birect. IX. * Let the matter of your speech be suitable to 
your end, even to the good of yourselves or others, which 
you Keelt.' The lianie subject that is fit for one company is 
very uiitit for otiiers. Learuedmenand ignorant men, piouH 
men and profane men, are not fit for the same kind of dis- 
couree. The medicine must be cu«fully fitted to the dis- 

Diirect. X. ' Let your speech he seasonahle, when pru- 
dence telleth you it ia not like to do wore harm than good.* 
There is a season for the prudent to be silent, and refrain 
even from good talk'^. " Cast not pearls before swine, and 
give not holy things to dogs, that you know will turn again 
and lend you V Yea, and among good people themselves, 
there is a time to speak, and a time to be silent ^ There 
may possibly be such excess as tendeth to the tiring of the 
hearers ; and more may be crammed in than they can digest; 
and surfeiting may make them loathe it afterwards. You 
must give none more than they csm bear ; and also the mat- 
ters of your business and callings, mu&t be talked of in their 
time and place. 

Dired. xi. ' Let all your speech of holy things be with 
the greatest seriousness and reverence that you are able.' 
Let the words be never so good, yet levity and rudeness may 
make them to be pmfaue. God and holy things should not 
be talked of in a common manner : but the gravity ofyourl 
speech should tell the hearers, that you take them not for- 
small or common matters. If servants and others that live.] 
near together would converse, and speak as the oracles of ^ 
God, how holy, and heavenly, and happy would such fe.- 
milies or societies be ? 

* AiOM r. \t, P,J. ,„ij, I, J, 

Mall. tU. 6> 

Eeclc*. lii. T. 




tiirectioM for each parlicuiar Memhi-r of the Family how ta 
spend every ordinary day o/' the ^Veek. 

!t Bomewhat Undeth to make a holy life more easy to 
when we know tht- ordinary courae and methttd of our du- 
ties, and every thing falleth into its proper yilace. An it 
helpeth the luisbandinan or Lmdeaman to kiiuvr the ordinary 
course of hia work, that he need not go out of it, unleus in 
cictraordinnry cages. Therefore I Ehad here give you seme 
brief Directions for tlie holy spending of every day. 

Direct, i, ' Proportion tlie time of your sleep aright {if 
it be iu your power) that you waste notyourprecioua mom- 
iDg hours sluggishly in your bed.' Let the time of your 
^leep he rationally fitted to your health and faliotir, and not 
sen»uiilly to your slothful pleasure. About six houra is 
meet for healthful people, and seven houm for the lew 
healthful, and eight for the more weak nnd a^cd, ordinarily- 
The morning hours are to most, the most precious of all th« 
dqy, for all our duties ; especidly flervaats that are scanted 
of time, must take it then for prayer. If possible, lost rfwy 
have none at all. 

Direct. II. ■ Let Ood have your first nwakintr thou^htb : 
lift up your hearts to him reverently and thankfully for the 
rest of the night past, and briefly cast yourselveii upon htm 
for the following day ; and use yourselves so constanthr to 
this, that your confictcnccs may check you, when conimnn 
thoughts shall first intrude.' And if you hare a bed-fellow 
to speak to, let your first speech be agreeable to v««r 
thoughts. It will be a great help agsinnt the temptations 
that may eke Burprise you, and a holy engagement of yoor 
hearts to Qod, for all the day. 

Direct. III. ' Resolve, that pride an** th« fanhion^* of the 
tfm«i> shall never tempt you into mich a garb nPattire, as will 
tnake you long in dressing you in the morning ; but wear 
«uch clothing as ia aoon put on.' It is dear-bought bravery 
(or decency ttg they will needs call it) which most cost every 
day an hour's or a quarter of an hour's time extraordinary ; 
I had rather go a» the wild Indians, thui have tlioae morn- 



iug hoiin tit BOKWCT far, an too mauy ladieftaiid oUier gftl- 
[&ats have. ' 

I}irerl. i\-. ' I^you ari* persons of quality you may «iil- 
ploy a child or servant to read a. ctia)Uer in th<: Hi1>l«, whi)« 
you are dressing you. uad Bating your brcuklaBt (if you eat 
any). Else you may employ thai time in some fruitful m«- 
ditatioa, or conference with those about you, ait far an your 
necesgaiy occaaioos do give leave." As to think or speak of 
the mercy of a nigiit's rest, and of your Tcueweil lime, and 
how many epent tJiat night in hell, and how mauy iu prison, 
and how many in a colder, harder lodging, and how many 
111 gi'icvaua pain and sickueaii, weiiry of their hedt> and of 
their lives, and how many in distracting terrorB of their 
mmilH i and how many souIh that night were called from 
their bodies, to appear before th« dreadful God : and think 
how fast days and nifflits roll on ! and how speedily your 
last night and day will cotne ! And observe what is want*- 
iog in the readiness of your soul, tor Huch a time, and sv*^ 
it presently without delay. 

Dirict. V. ' If moie necessary dutdes call you not away, 
let secret prayer by yourself alone, or with yom- chamber- 
fellow, or both,gol)efore the common prayers of the family; 
and delay it not cuuarkssly. but if il may be, let it be first, 
before any other work of the day.' Yet be not formal and 
superetitioud to your hoiir^, as if God had absolutely tied 
you to such a time : nor think it not your duty to pray onoe 
in Secret, and once with your chamber-fellow, and once with 
the family every mormng. when more necesaarj' dutifs call 
you off. That hour is best for one, which is worst for 
another : to most, private prayer in mORt reasonable as ^oon 
as they are up and clothed ; tti othei-s some other hour may 
be more free and tit. And thone personet that have not more 
ueoesGary dnties, may do well to pray at all the opportuni- 
tiea be fore- mentioned ; but reading and meditation mnsl he 
allowed their time also; and the labours of your callings 
must be painfully followed ; and servants and poor people 
that are not at libertYi or that have a necessity of providing 
for their families, may not lawfully take so much time for 
prayer, an some others may; especially the iiged and weak 
that cannot follow a calling, may tnkc longer time. And 
miaistcrs, that have many souls to look after, and pnblic 




work to do. must', take heed of iieglecting any of this, that 
thev may be longer and oftener in private prayer. Always 
remember that when two duties are at once before you, and 
one must be omitted, that you prefer that which, ali things 
conxidered. is the ^^reatest; and understand what makath a 
duty greateitl. Usually that is greatest which tendeth to 
the greatest ^ood i yet Eouictimes tliat is greatest at that 
time, which cannot be done at another time, when others 
may. Fmyiiig, in itself considered, is better than plough- 
ing, or marketting, or conference ; and yet these may be 
greater than it In their proper Heasona ; because prayer may 
be done at another time, when these cannot. 

Direct, vi. ' Let family worship he performed constantly 
aud sefutonably, twice a day, at that hour whicb is freest in 
regard of inteniLptions ; not dehiying it without junt cause. 
But whenever it ia performed, be sure it be reverently, se- 
riously, and gpiritually done.' If greater duty hinder not, 
begin with a brief invocation of God's name, and craving of 
his help and blessing through Christ; and then read some 
part of the holy Scripture in order; and either help tlie 
hearer^ to uuderstund it and apply it, or if you are unable 
for thut, then read some profitable hook to them fur such 
ends ; and sing a pnalm (if there be enough to do it fitly.) 
and earnestly pour out your souls in prayer. But if tui< 
avoidable occasions will not give way to all this, do what 
you can, especially in prayer, and do the rest another time ; 
but pretend not neceisity against any duty, when it ia but 
unwillingness or negligence. The lively performance of fa- 
mtly-dutieu, i& a principal ineunK to keep up the power and 
interest of godliness in the world ; which all decayn when 
these grow dead, uud ulight, and formal. 

Direfi. vii. ' Renew the actual intention and remem- 
brance of your ultimate end, when you Hct your»elvc» to 
your doy'D wi^rk, or ttet upon any notable business in the 
world. Let HOUNESS TO THK LORD h« written upon 
your heHila in all that ynu do.' Do no work which you 
ctuiiiot entitle God to, and truly aay he set you about ; and 
do nothing in the world for any other ultimate end, than to 
please, and glorify, mid oiijoy him. And remember that 
whatever yuu do. uiuM be done h» a ineauii to thene, and um 
by oae that ia that way going on to heaven. All yuur U- 



hour must be as the labour of a traveller, which iu all for his 
jouniej''s end ; and all your respect or affection to any plac*' 
or tiling in your way, must be in respect to yourattainiuent 
of the end ; as a traveller loveth a good way, a goud iiorfte, 
a good inn, a dry cloak, or good company ; but nothine 
mutit be loved here an your end or home. Lift up your 
hearts to heaven und say. Ml" this, work and way did not 
tend thither directly or indirectly, it were no work or way 
for me." Wlmterer you do, do all to the glory of God, 

Direct, viii. ' Follow the labours of yuur calling pain-^ 
fully and diligently,' FVhu hence will follow many com-' 
modities. 1. Vou will shew thul you are not sluggish, and 
servants to your fiesh, as those that caimot deny its ease; 
and you will further the mortification of all fleshly lusts and 
dtsires, which are fed by ease and idleness. 2. You will 
keep out idle thoughts from your mind, which swarm in the 
minds of idle peraona. 3. You will escape the loss of pre- 
cious time, which idle persona are daily guilty of. 4. Yoa 
will be in a course of obedience to God, when the slothful 
are in a constant sin of omission. 6. You may have the 
more time to spare for holy exercises, if you follow your la- 
bour close when you are at it; when idle persons can have 
no time for prayer or reading, because they lose it by loiter- 
ing at their work, and leave their business still behind-hand. 
fi. You may expect God's blessiri|; for the comfortable pro- 
vision for yourselves and famiUea, and to have to give to 
thcro that need, when the slothjiil are in want themselves, 
and cast by their want into abundance of temptations, and 
have nothing to do good with. 7. And it will also tend to 
the health of your bodies, which will make them the filter 
for the service of your eoula. When alothfulness waateth 
time, and health, and estate, and wit, and grace, and all*. 

Direct. IX. 'Be throughly acquainted with your corrup- 
tions and temptations, and watch against them all the day ; 
especially the most dangerous sort of your corruptioa«, and 
those temptations which your company or business will un- 
avoidably lay before you ''. Be still watching and working 

■ E)ihci. It. Sa. Prov. I. 4. lii. 34. tT. liii. 4. iii, 5. xiii. t9, 
tvUi. 9. K>i. t!t. ixiv. 30. 

b AiitK|u>in dumo i|iiiin«Hi, ()iiiclicturuf>it, apurt » jwrtnciit. Riintu cum 

iwjirnli <yU\ rgtrit, rcn>git«l. (.'Irnbiilui iii Dk)(;. Lanl. lib. J. utt. 97. p> iT. 



ugainst the master, radical sins of unbelief, hypoorisy, wlfiali- 
ncBs, pride, eeiisuality, or HcuhpleasiDg. and the iitordiuute 
lOTe of earthly things. Take heed, lest nuder ]>retenoe of 
diligence in your catling, ynu be drawn to earthly-miiidod- 
ness, and eiccetwive cares or covetous detiigua for rising in 
the world. If you arc to trade or deal with others, Uiku 
he«d of selfiahaess, which desireth to draw or save from 
others, UH much as you can foryourselves and yonrown ad- 
voiita^; take heed of all that KuvouroUi uf iiijuatice or un- 
charitablenes^ in all your dealings with ndiers. If you cun- 
verBc with vain-talktars, be»till provided agutiwt the tempUi- 
tioD of vanity of talk. If you converse with angrj' persons, 
be Blill tbrtitied a^itist their provncations. If yuu couveran 
with wanton persons, or such an are tentpting tho«e uf the 
other sex, maintain that modesty and necessary dintauce 
and clcanncfis ofspccch which the laws of chantity require. 
If you hnvQ servants that are fttill faalty, be so provided 
agaiuAt the temptation, that their faults may not make you 
fnulty. and you may do nothing that is imsnenily or urijuBt, 
hat only that which teiidcLh to their aiuendinent. If you are 
poor, be still proridod againat the temptations of povcrt.y, 
that it bring not upon you an evil far ^eater than ilself. 
If you ate rich, be moHt diligent in fortifying yoiir hoartE 
aguinat those more dangeious temptulions of richc*. which 
very fuw escape, if you converse with flatterers or (hone 
that much admire yoa, be fortifiod u^uiuat swelling pride. 
If you converse with tho«e that deiipise and injure you. be 
fortified against impatient, lervcnguful pride. These worka 
at Brat will h<s very difficult, tt^ile sin is in uoy abicngtii ; 
but when you have ^ot an habitual appreliensioii of the poir 
sonons dan^r of every one of these i^inb, and uf thu tenden- 
cy of all temptations, your heortti will readily and eaMly 
avoid Ihuin. without much tinuy;, thaiig^ttrulnt;»^, and rare ; 
Qven as a mnn will pass by a house infected with the phtf^ue, 
ar fjo out of the nvay if hcmcetn cart or any thing that would 
hurl him. 

Direct. X. ' When you arc alone in your Inhours, im- 
proTc the time in practical, fruitful (not speculative and 
barren) meditations: especiaMy in heart-work and heaven- 
work :' let your chiefest meditatioUH be un the intinite good- 
oe&a and perfectiona of God, and the lite of glory, which in 




tlie love praiM of him. yuu must live for ever : and nvxt 
let Clirist mid tlie raystenes of grace in man's redeinptioB, 
be the iDaIt4» of yotir thoughts : uiid next that your own 
haartu and Iwes, and the rest before «xpiiH»»etl, Chop. xvi. 
Direct. €. Ifyou are able to manage muditalions methodi- 
cally it will Ijc htrst; but ifyou caimot do that, without hi 
much etvivitig a» will confoiiiwJ yuu, luid tliatmct you, aiid 
cni^t you into melancholy, it is bctltr let your meditations l>e 
more short and easy, like ejaculatury praytirH ; but let thtsm 
usually he upi-mtive to do some good upon youi hearts. 

Direr/, xi. ' Ifyou Inbour in coiupauy with others, be 
provided with matter, akill, resolution, and zeal, to improve 
th« time in profitable conference, and to avoid divereions,' 
as is directed. Chap. xvi. 

Direet. xii. " Whatever you are doiof;, in company or 
alone, jet the day bu ^pcnt in the inward excitation and ex- 
ercise of the graces of the soul, as well as in externa! bodily 
duties.' And to that end know, that there is no external 
duty, but must have some internal grace to animate it, or 
else it is but an image or carcase, and unacceptable to Ood. 
When you are praying mid reading, there are the graces of 
faith, desire, love, repentance, &c. to be exercised there: 
when you ore alone, meditation may help to actuate any 
grace a^ you ttntl mo&t needful ; when you are conferring 
with otherit, you must exercise love to them, and love to 
that truth about which yoti do confer, and other graces aa 
the subject shall require : when you are proroked or under 
BuH'ering, you have patience to exercise. But especially it 
tnuHt be your principal daily busin^s^K, by the exercise of 
faith, to keep your hearts warm in tlic love of God and your 
dear Redeemer, and in the hopes and delightful thoughts of 
heaveu. As the means are v3.riousaadadmit of deliberation 
andi choice, becauee ihey are to he used but as means, and 
not all at once, hut sometimes one and sonietimein anutber. 
when the end is etUl the same and past deliberation or 
choice ; so all thoae graces which are hut meatti: mui^t be 
Ufted thuH variously, and with deliberation and chuicu ; when 
the love of Ood and of eternal life must be the coustajit 
tenor and constitution of the mind, as being the tinal grace, 
which consiatetb with the exeixise of every otlier mediate 
grace. Never lake up with lip-labour or bodily exercise 





aloue, nor barren thoughts, unless your hearts be also em- 
ployed in a course of duty, and holy brcathinga after Uod» 
or motion lowaidshim, or in the ainc*re internal part of the 
duty which you perform to men : Justice and Love are 
graces which you must still exerciae towards all that you 
have to deal with in the worliL Love la called the iultilling 
of the laws because the Love of God and man is the soul 
of every outward duty, and a cause that will bring forth 
these as its effects. 

Direct, xiii. ' Keep up a high esteem of time ; aiid be 
every day more oareful that you lose aone of your time, than 
yva are that you lose none of yuur gold <jr uilv^'r: utid if 
vain recreations, dressings, feuKtings, idle talk., unprofibible 
company, or sleep, he any of them temptationii to rob you 
of any of your time, accordingly heighten your watchfulueKs 
aod firm resolutions against thetn.' Be not more careful to 
escape thieves and robbers, than to escape that person or 
action, or course of life, that would rob you of any of your 
time. And for the redeBming of time, especially aee, not 
only that you be never idle, but aUo that you be doing Lh« 
greatest good that you can do, and prefer not a IcBS before a 

Direct, xiv. * Eat and drink with temperance, and 
thankfulness: for health and nut for utiprofitublc pleasure.' 
For quantity, moitt carefully avoid excess ; for many exceed. 
for one that taketh too little. Never please your appetite 
in meat or drink, when it tendeth tu tli« detriment of yoar 
health. "Jt IK not for kings to drink wine, nor for prioces 

strong drink. Give stroug drink to him that is ready 

to perish, and wtue to those that be of heavy hearts "." 
" Woe to thee, O land wheo thy king is a child, and tliy 
princes eat ill ihe inaniing. Ble»ited art thou, O land, when 
thy king is the son of nobles, and thy princes eat in due 
season, for strength and not for drunkenness '." Then muitt 
poorer men also take heed of intemperance and excess. 
Let your diet incline rather to the coarser tiian the Bner 
sort, and to the cheaper tiiuii the costly sort, and to sparing 
abstincau; than to fulness. 1 would adrise rich men es- 
pecially, to write in great letters on the tvalU of their dining , 
rooms or parlvurs thexe two sentences : " BEHOLD THiSi 
•R««i.xni.ia • PMir.utL4.A. • Ectlet. z. IS, 17. 



NESS WAS IN HER. neithei did she strengthen the hand 
of the poor and needy '." " There was a certain rich man 
FARED SUMPTUOUSLY eveiy day. Son remem- 
ber that thou in thy litelime receivedst thy good things"." 
Paul wept when he mentioned them, " whose end is destruc- 
tion, whose God is their belly, and whose glory is in their 
shsme, who mind earthly things, being enemies to the 
cross ''." O live not after the fiesh, lest ye die '." 

Direct. XV. ' If any temptation prevail against you, and 
yoo fall into any sins besides common infirmities, preaontlj 
lament it, and confess not only to God, but to men, wheal 
confesBion conduceth more to good than harm ; and rise by 
a true and thorough repentance, immediately without delay.* ; 
Spa,re not the flesh, and daub not over the breach, and do 
not by excuses palliate the sore, but speedily rise whatever it! 
cost : for it will certainly cost you more to go on or to re- 
main impenitent. And for your ordinary infirmities, make 
not too light of them, but confess them, and daily strive 
against them ; and examine what strength you get agaiost 
them, and do not aggravate them by impeDitence and con- 

Direct. XVI. 'Every day look to the special duties of ' 
your several relations :' whether you are husbands, wives, 
parents, children, masters, servants, pastors, people, magis- 
trates, subjects, remember that every relation hath Ita spe- 
cial duly, and its advantage for the doing of some good ; .1 
and that Ood requlretb your taithfulaess in these, as well 
as in any other duty. And tliat in these a man's sincerity 
or hypocrisy is usually more tried, than in any other parts 
of our Jives. 

Direct. xviT. ' In the evening return to the worshipping 
of God, in the family and in secret as was directed for the 
morning.' And do all with aeriouaness as in the sight of '1 
God, and in the sense of your necessities ; and make it your 

' Ewt ivi. 49. f I-ukc '"■ 19. <5. 

<■ Phil. ill. II. ig. See Dr. Hammond's Annutat. 
■ BiMn. *iii. tS. aftl.n.8. *. «1.9S,M. 


delight to receive iivRtruutiunit from the huly Scripture, and 
praise God, and call upon, his naine through Chrifil. 

Direct, xviii. ' Ji you Uavt- any exUii ordinary impetlK 
iu«iits one day to hinder you in yonr duty to God and man, 
nake it up by diligetice the ntxt; «iid if yoii have nay ex- 
IraordiDary help^, make use oi' tliem, and let tJiem &ut uvlt- 
nVip you.* Ah, if it be a lecturu-day, or a fiiAerai Bermou, 
or you ha.TG opportunity of converiie with n)on of anUwXft- 
dinary worth ; or if it be a dny of humtliutiuti or tliai^sgiv- 
ing ; it ma.y he expected tliat yon get a douhle laeasuni of 
strength by such extraordinary helps. 

Dirfjct. XIX. ' Btlbrc you betake yourselves to eleap. it 
M ordinorily a safe and needful counie, to take a review of 
the actions and ni«rci«H of tbe paftt day ; tliat you may be 
specially tJianktul tor all special mercies, and humbled for 
your sins, ttnd niay renew your rep«ntiuice luid resulutifitis 
for obedience, and amy oxamiae yoar-^lveti, whetJier your 
souls (^w better or worse, and whclJier sin go down, and 
grace tncrense. and whether you iirr any lietter prepared for 
auB'eringB and df ;U.h.' tint yel wapte not too mucli ttine in 
IJm ordintiry accotmts of your life, as ChoEe that neglect 
their duty while they are examining theniMf lve» how they 
perform it. iind perplexing theaiHelvM with the long pemstU 
of their ordinary infirmitieis. But by a geneml (yel Minoere) 
repentance, bewail your unavoidable daily failiu;rH, ntiilliave 
recouTse to Christ for a daily par^lon and reni.>w«d grace; 
aod in case of cictraordinaT^ nn* or niereie», be sure to be 
eitraordinsrily hnmblod orthaokfal. Some think itheglto 
keep a dally catalogue or diurnal of their sins and mercies. 
If you do so, be not too particular in the rBimieration oi 
those that are the matter of evei^ day's return; for it wiU 
be but a temptation to waste your time, and neglect greater 
duty, and to innke you grow cuRtomary and KenHeleaa of 
«ucb sins and mercies, when tbe same come to he recited 
oftir and over from day to day. But lut tbe coinnion tner- 
oies be more generally mcord'-d, and the romnion oin* gs- 
nerally confesiied (yet neitlier of them therefore flighted) ■ 
and let the extraordinary mercien, and greater itinii, have a 
more particular observation. And yet remember, that im& 
and mcrciett, which it is not fit that others be acquainted 
with, are more Hafely committed to memory than to writing : 




and m«tli.i nks, a. well bumbled aiid a tlmiikful heart, iibould 
not pfisily let the aiciuory of tlietn slip. 

Direct, xx, ' When you comiioae yourselves to sleep,' 
a^n coaunit yauriielvea to Ciud ibroiiglt Christ, and crave 
liis protection, aud closu up the day with some holy exercise 
of faith and love." And if you are persona thai mii^t tieccls 
Ue waking in the lught, l«t yuur uiedltklious \k hnly, bdcI 
exercised upon that suhject that is most profitable to your 
itouU. But 1 caiiutiL ^ivctluB us to. oidiiuiry direction, be- 
cause that the boUy must bare sleep, or cIbc it will be- anfit 
for labour, and all thoughts of holy thiikgs must be serious ; 
mid all serious thou|rhts will hinder nleep, und tlumu that 
I make itt the uLght, do wakt; uitwilliiigly, and would uot put 
tlMmi^elve^ out of ho)>«» of sleep, which such f>«r)oui» medir 
tatJoiui would do. Nor can L advise you (or<linarily) to rise 
in. thHiiLght to prayer, as the papists* vubarieK do. For thin 
is hut to serve God with ivvational and hurtful ceremony 
luid it is a wonder how far such meu will gs iu ceremony, 
that will not be drawn to iilife of love and spiritaat wortbip: 
uuless men did irrationi^lly place the service of God in pray- 
ing this hour rather tlian another, they might see how ini- 
providently and siiii'uUy tliey loee their time, in Lwic^ dre»it- 
iu^ aud undressing:, 'in^^' in the iatervak of their sltap, when 
they might spare all that time, hy sitting up the lunger, or 
rifting the eurlier, for the siune employnatnt. CeBiden what 
tet»lency it hath to the destructiooiof healthy hy cold aud 
iQterruptioa of necessary rest; whe»God approveth not of 
the disnhlitig of the body, or destioyiu); our ht^alth, or 
ahort«nin»HI'e(no moru than of murder or cruelty to othum); 
but only caUeth a*, to deny our unnecessary, sen.<iual delightK, 
and use the body so as it muy be most serviceable to the 
soul and him. ' 

I have briefly laid together the^e twenty Directions for 
the ri^ht spi^nding of every day, that tho&e that need thorn, 
and cannot remcmher the larger more particular Directions, 
may at least pet these few engraven on Iheirminds. and make 
them the daily practice of their lives; which if yiMi will 
sincerely do, you cannot conceive how much it will conduce 
to the hoTinesR.fniitfiilness, and quietness of your lives, and 
tu your peaceful and comfortable death. 



[part II. 

TV/. 1. 


Directiom for Ike hot}/ spending of the Lord's Day 
in FamHies. 

Direct, i. * Be well resolved against the cavils of those 
caiaat men, that would make you believe that the holy 
spending of the Lord's day is a needless thing'.' For the 
name whether it shall be called the Chriatian aabbatli, ie 
not much worth coutenditig about: undoubtedly the name 
of' The Lord's Day," is that which was given it by the Sjiirit 
of God'', and the wncieut Christians, who sometimes called - 
it, ' The Sabbath,' by allusion, as they used the names, Sa- 
crifice and Altar : the question is not so much of the name 
OS the thiug; whether we ought to spend the day in holy 
exercises, without unnecessary divertisements ? And to 
settle your consciences in this> you have all tlieee evidences 
at hand. 

1. By the confession of all, you have the law of nature 
to tell yon, that Ood must be openly worshipped, and that 
8ome set time should be appointed for hi» worship. And, 
whether the fourth eomniandmeut be formally in force or 
abrogated, yet it is commonly agreed on that the parity of 
ceBKon, and general equity of it. serveth to acquaint us, that 
it is thi: will of God that one day in seven he the least that 
we deatinate to this use ; this being then judged a meet pro- 
portion by God himself, (even from the creation, and on the 
account of commemorating the creation,) and Chrietians be- 
ing uu less obliged to take as large a space nf time, who 
have both the creation and redemption to commemorate, 
and a more excellent manner of worship to perform. 

2. It is confessed by all Christians that Christ roM on 
the 6rst day of the week, and appeared to his congregated 
disciplot on that day, and poured out the Holy Uhoat on 
them on that day. and that the apostles appointed, and the 
Christian churcheti obHerred, their nsKemblies and commu- 
nion ordinarily on that day ; and that these apostles were 
filled with tiic extraordinary gifts uf the Holy Ghost, that 

• SInM Ihc vriting of thif. t h>«*|>ublubMl >Tr«atiw of lh«'>U»]r. 

• RtT. i. lA 


they might infallibly ac^ualot the church with the doctrine 
and will of .lesug Chriml, and leave it on Kcord for Kaeceed- 
■tig age»'; and ko were intrusted by office, and enabled by 
^ifts, to aetUe the ordeia of the Go»pel-church, as MoKca 
did the matteio of the tabernaclb and worship then; and no 
that their laws or orders thus settled, were the lows or or- 
ders of the linly GhosL''. 

3. It in ulno confessed, that tlie UDivenal church from 
the du.ya of the apoatles down till now, hath cODstantly ke[)t 
boly the Lord's day in the memorial of Christ's resurrection, 
and thai an by the will of Christ delivered to tliem by or from 
the apostles: ineomueh that I remember not either any or- 
thodox Christian, or heretic, that ever opposed, questioned. 
or scrupled it, till of late ages. And as a hiatoricaE disco- 
very of the matter of fact, this Js a good evidence that in- 
deed it was settled by the ap^Btles ', and conseqiaently by 
Christ who gave them their oommisfiiou, and iiiapired them 
by the Holy Ghost. 

4. It is confessed, that it is utiU the practice of the tini- 
versal church ; and those that take it to be but of eccIeiiiaH- 
tical appomtment. some of them mean it of such extraordi- 
nary ecclesiastics as inspired apostles, and all of them take 
the appointment as obligatory to all the members of the 

5. The laws of the land where we live command it, and 
the king by proclamation urgeth the execution; and tlie 
canons, and homilies, and liturgy shew that the holy ob- 
servation of the Lord's day, ia the judgment and will of 
the governors of tlm church. Read the homilies for the 
time and place of worship. Yea, they require the people to 
suy whet) the fourth commandment is read, " Lord, have 
mercy upon U8, and incline our hearts to keep this law." 
And the command of authority is not a contemptible obli- 

G. It is granted by all, that more than this is due to God. 
and the life that is m every CbriUian tclt&tb him, that it 
a very great mercy to a» ; not only to servantii, but even to 
all men, that one day in seven they may disburden them- 

' Mark i>tt.S. 9. IjiLo xniv. 1. 

' John IX. I. 19. 8«. Aeu ii. I- x». T. I Cur. «»i. I. S Bev. i. 19. 
Uaiu ixiilL 19, W. Mn it). 19— IS. Itoni.4Ti.lA. iTItckii. 1& 
KOI.. IV. R 




Atilresof all the cares and biiBincss of the world, which may 
hindc-T their holy communion with God and one another, 
ftnd wholly apply theuisf Ives to lekrn tht< will of God. And 
nature teacheth ub to accept nf metcy wl-.en it h offered to 
us, and not dispute against our happiness. 

7. Common experience telleth ur, that where-the Lord's 
day is more holily and carefully observed, knowledge and 
religion prosper heot; and that more sonls are converted on 
thoKe days, than on all the other days besides ; ttiid that the 
people are accordingly more edified; and that wherever the 
Lord's day te ordinarily neglected or misspent, r«ligioh And 
civility decay, and there is a visible, laraeTituble ditference 
between those places and fKmilies, and the other. 

8. Reason and experience tell us, that if men were 
I6fi to themsclveft, what time they should appoint for God's 
public worship, in most places it would be so little, and 
disordered, and unceitain. that religion would be for t\\v 
most part banished out of tlie now Christian world. Tlirre- 
fore there being need of a universal law for it, it is probable 
that such a law them is ; and if so, it can bo by noue hot 
Ood, the Creator, Redeemer, and Holy Ghost, there being 
no other universal Governor and Lawgiver to impose it. 

'* ' 9. All must confess, that it is more desirable for unity 
and concord sake, that all Christians hold their holy aasem- 
hlies on one and the same day, and that all at once through- 
all the world, do worship God and seek his grace, than that 
they do it some on' one day. and some on another, 

10. And ail that ever I have conversed with, confess. 
that if the holy spending of the l-ord's day be not neceseary 
it is lawful ; and therefore when there in so mnch to be said 
for the necessity of it too, to keep it holy w the Kafest way. 
seeing this cannot be a sin, but the contrary may ; and li- 
cence ia encouragement enough to accept of so great a mer- 
cy. All this set together will satisfy a man, that hath any 
spiritual sense of the concernments of his own and others* 

" Object. But you will say, * That besides the name, it is 
yet a controversy whether the whole day should he .tp^^nt in 
holy exercieeB, or only so much as is laeel fur public com- 
munion, it bein^ not found in antiquity, that the churches 
Qited any further to observe it.' 




I' Amw, No sober mnn denieth that workit of ne«eRf«ity for 
tile preeervation of our own ur othtr niviiV liveH, or health, 
or goods, may be done on the Ixird's dny : so thai wlwii 
we say, that the whole day is to bti ftjxiDt liolily, vrc exclude 
noteftting and sleeping, no? the n&cessary actions about 
wurtihip ; ok the pneats tn the temple ore i^aid to brf^sk th« 
sabbath, (that is. the external rest.) and to be bUmeleMi 
But otherwise, that it is the whole day, is evident in thtf 
arguments produced : the ancient historieB and canoos of 
the churcli speak not of one part of the day only, bnt the 
whole: all confess, that when labour or sinful K)>urta are 
forbidden, it is on the whole Jay, and not only on a part. 
And for what is alleged of the custom of iht ancient church, 
I answer, I. The ancientest cburches spent almost al) the 
day ill public worship and conmiuaion : they begun in the 
morning, and continued wiUiout parting till the evening* 
The first part of the day being spent in teaching the uate* 
obumens, they were then dismissed, and the church conti- 
nued together in preaching a.nd praying, but especially in 
thoHB laudatory, eucharistical offices, which acoomptin-y the 
celebration of the sacrament of the body and blood of Chriet. 
Tbey did not then, (as gluttons do now,) account it fHstiog 
to forboar a dinner, when they supped, yea, feasted at night; 
it being not usual among the Romans to eat any dinnera at 
all. And they that spent all the day together in public wor- 
ship and communion, you may be cure spent not part of it 
in dancing, norsUigfe-pIaye.noruorlflly busineasee, 2. And 
church history giveth uk bnt little account what partieular 
perKons did in private, nor can it be expected. 3. Who 
Mtb brought u8 any proof that ever the church approv- 
ed of spending any part of the day in aporta, or idleness, or 
Dnnecessnry, worldly busiaeas ? Or that any churches (or 
personii regardable) did actually so spend it? 4. UnleBH 
their proof be from those many canons of our own and other 
churches, that command the holy ohHsrvation of it, and fbr- 
lud these plays and laboim on it; which I confess doth in- 
timate, that some there were that nt>eded laws to resti^ih 
them from the violation of it. 6. Again 1 say, Uiateeeiog 
few men will have the face to say tliat plays and games, 
or idleoem-ara a duty on that day, it will suffice a holy, 
thankful Christian, if hs have but leave, to spend all thb 




day tbr llie good of lii» t^oul and tlioge about him ; and if he 
may be reading and meditating on the Word of God, nnd 
praying and praising him, and instructing hist family, while 
others waste that time in vanity ; eHpecialiy to scpvanls and 
poor men that hare but little other leit^nr« all thf^ year, to 
seek for knowledge, or use any such help* for their salva- 
tion. As to a poor man that is kept hungry all tl'ie week, a 
bare liberty of feasting with his landlord on the Lord's day, 
would satisfy him without a law to coufttrain bioi to it; ao 
ia it here with a hungry soiil. 

Direct, ii. ' Reuieniber that the work of the day is, in 
general, to keep up knowledge and religion id the world, 
and to own and honour our Creator, Redeemer, and Rcgr- 
nerator openly before all; andtohave communion with God 
through Christ in the Spirit, by receiving and cKercieing his 
grace, in order to onr communion with him in glory. Lei 
these therefore (well understood) be your eiids.and in these 
be you exercised all the day. and stick not hypocritically in 
bodily rest and outward dutieu.' Remember that it ia a day 
for heart-work, a.s well as for tlie exercise of the tongue, 
and ear, and knees ; and that your principal busine»«t is 
with heaven; follow your hearts therefore all the day, and 
Ree thftt tliey he not idle while your bodica are exercised : 
nothing is done if the heart do nothing. 

Direct, iii. 'Remember that the special work of the 
day is to celebrate the memorial of Christ's resnirection, 
and of the whole work of man's redemption by him. La- 
bour therefore with all diligence in the senile of your na- 
tural sin and miti^y, to stir up the lively sense of the won* 
derful love of Ood and our Redeemer, and to spend all the 
day in the special exercises of faith and love. And seeing 
it is the Christian weekly festival, or day of thanksgiving 
for the greatetit mercy in the world, spend it as a day of 
thanks^ving shmdd be spent, especially in joyful praises of 
our Lord; ajid let the humbling and instructing exercises 
of the day, ho all subordinate to these laudatory exercise^.' 
I know that much time miut be spent in teaching and warn- 
ing the ignorant and ungodly, because their {Ktvfriy and 
labours hinder tlium from other such opportunities, and we 
must epeak to them then or not all. But if it were not for 
their mere necessity, and if we could as vrelJ speak to then 





other days of the week, the churches khould spend all th« 
the Lord's day iti sucii praises uud tbiuikNgiviugii as mr 
suitable to the end»i of the inHitiition. Hiit )<,eeiiig that caa-! 
not be expttitvd, mi:tlii»ks it io dcsintblc that the Bncienb 
custom of the churches were more imitated, luid Lhu iiiora- 
ing sermon being aiiitcd to the »itatu of the more ignorant 
and unconvL'rtud. that the re^t of the day were spent iu ths* 
exercises of Lhankisgiviog to the joy and L'ncounigcment of 
believers, and in doctriue suited to their state. And yet I 
must add, that a Bkilful preacher will do both logpthcr, and 
»0 declare the luve and grace of nur Hcdeeraer, as by a meet'j 
appUcHlJon may both di'aw in the ungodly, and comfort thosftj 
that arc already sanctified, and raise their hearts in praise 

Direct. %v. ' Rtmember that the Lord's day i» appoint^ 
ed specialty for public worship and personal communioD ol 
the churcbeH llierein : see therefore tliat you spend as niuct^ 
of the day as you can in this public worship and churclt- 
communion ; especially in the celebration of that eacranieuKj 
wbich is appointed fur the memorial of the death of Chrisl^ 
until his coining '/ This sacrament in the primitive church 
was celebrated every Lord's day; yea, and oftcr, even ordi* ■ 
narily on every other tlay of the week when the churches a*- , 
sembled for communion. And it might be su now without- 
any hinilrance to preaching or prayer, if all things were ofr^ 
dered as they 8houIdbe; forthnse pra.yei's.andiDati'uctions, : 
and eshortatioiie which are moist suited to Lliis eucliaristical'j 
action, would be the most suitable prayers and Kcmions fori 
the church on the Lord's days. In the mean time see tliatj 
BO much of the day as is ttpent in churclwcomm union andj 
puhlic worship, be accordingly improved by you ; and bcnotl 
at that time about your secret or family servicciR, bat take , 
only those hours for siieh private duticB, iu which the church] 
is not assembled ; and remember how nmch the love of 
aaints is to be exercised in this commuuiun, and tbi-rcfore] 
labour to keep alive that love, without which no man con 
celebmte tlie Lord's day according to the end of the insti-| 

Direct. V. • Understand how great a mercy it ict, thati 
you have leave thus to wait upon God for the receiving and 
• I Cor. &i. i». t& 



ex«rcise of grace, and to cast oft' the distracting ttiuugbie 
and businesses of the world, and what an opportunity is put 
into your band, to get iiioie in one day, than thie world urna 
aftbrd you all your Uvea. And therefore come with gladneas 
a» to the receiv ing of bo giea.t a mercy, and with db&iire afler 
it, undwith hope to speed, and act with uiiHillingResaas to 
at) un|)lea8aiit task, as carnal hearts that love not God, ur 
his grace or seTvice, and are weary of all ihey do, and glad 
when it 13 done, as the? ox that is unyoked.' '* If thoa turn 
away thy foot from theealibath, from doing thy pleaaure »n 
my holy day, and call the tialibath a delight, the holy of the 
Lord, honourable ; and shall honour bim, not doing thiiH; 
own ways, nor finding tltine own pleasure, nor speaking 
thine own words, then shalt thou delight thyself id the 
Lo^d^" The affection that you hav-e to the Lord'* day, 
iiiucli shewetfa the temper of the heart : a holy person is glad 
when it cometh, a^ loving it for the holy exercises ofthu 
dny ; a wicked, carnal heart U glad of it only for his camstl 
ease, but iveary of thespiritual duties. 

Direct. V'l. ' Avoid both tlie extremes of profanenees and 
Huperstition in the pointof your external rtst;' and to tba4. 
«id, obacrve 1. That the work is not for the day. but tbu 
day for the lioly work : as Christ naith, " The »abbath w«A 
made Cor man. and not muu for the Babbalhi'." It is a|i- 
poinied for our gofid. and not for our hurt. 2. The outward 
real is not appointed for itself, but as a means to the fretnlom 
of the mind for inward aud spiritual employments : and 
therefore all thone outward and common labourti and dis- 
courses are unlawful, which any way distract the mind, and 
hinder either our outward or inward attendance upon God, 
«biul our ediAcatloti. 3. And (whatever it wo^ to tbc Jews) 
uo common words or actions are unlawful, which are no hin- 
drance to diis commuuioti. aud wortiliip, and ttpiritual edifi- 
utttion. 4. Yea, thoae things that are necessary to the sup- 
port ofnaturc, aud the saviag of the life, or health, or eatatc 
and goods of ourwives or our neighbours, are ut'cdful duties 
onthat dny: not all thostt works that are truly charitable, 
(for it may be a work of mercy to build hospitals, or uiake 
f|;«rmant5 for the poor, or till iheir ground) but liiich works 
of niercy as cannot be put off to another day, and SHcb w 
'[w.iri>i. ts,ii. • Miriiii.ff. 



bwider not tlie duties of Lbe day. 6. The dani« word or ap- 
tjon on the Lord's day which is unlawrul to one man m»y be 
kwful to another; as being im hiuUraiice, yea. a duty to 
him: a« Christ saitb, " The priests in the temple break or 
profane the sabbath, (that ii;, the outward rest, but not thL- 
cnujuuuid) and are blameless ''." And the cook may be law- 
fuily employed in dressing meat, when it were a sin in 
another to do it voluntarily nitboat need. 6. The Lord's 
day being to be kept as a diiy of thanksgiving, the dressing 
of such meat as is fit for a day of thanksgiving in not to be 
Kcrupled : the primitive Christians in the apostles' time, 
had their love-feasts constantly (with the Lord's supper, or 
after) on the evening of the day ; and they could not feast 
without dressing meat 7. Yet that which is lawful in itAal^ 
must be so done as consisteth with care and compa&sioa of 
the souIb of servants that are employed about it, that they 
may h<a deprived of no more of their spiritual benefit than 

iLeed^. 8. AUo that which is lawful mustsometimes be forr I 
home, when it may by scandal tempt others that are loose 
or weak, to do that which isiiolawful: nut that the mere 
displeasing of the erroneous should put us out of the riglii] 
way; but the scandal which i* spoken against in Scripture, 
is the Laying a temptation before men that are weak Lo make 
them sin. 9. Take heed of that hypocritical an J censor! oub 
temper which turneth the holy observation of the day, into a 
^ceri^monious abstinence from lawful tilings i and ceiisuretii 
those as ungodly thatarfenot of the same mind, and forbear 
uoL such things as well && they. Mark the ditlerence be^ 
L tween Christ and the Pharisees in this point : much of their 
contention with him was about the outward observation of 
the sabbath ; because hisdixciples rubbed out corn to eat 
ou the sabbath-day ; and because he healed on the sabbalh, 
and bid the healed man. " Take up his bed and walk :" ajid 
they said," There are six days in which men ought to work ; 
they might come and be healed on them ^" And a maa 
.that U of their spirit will think ihat the Pharlsccu were inth« 
right : uo doubt Christ might have chosen anotlier day to 

■ MaU. xii. J3, 

' IJikc vL 1. 5, 6. xill, 12 H—U.. John v, 1!, 18, ^Miyk i. f IL M, 

:i. SS— SB. iii. 2, 3. 5, vi. S. •,. Liiko .W. J. 3., 4, «. Jotm ». 9, 10. Id. 
■ ■■,.«—§»■ "- 14. 16- 



[part II- 

heal oaj but he kuew that the works which most declared 
the power of God, and honoured him before n!!, and con- 
firmed the Gospel, were fittest for the sabbath day. Take 
heed therefore of the Pharisees' ceremonioufiness and censo- 
rioueueas. If you nee a. man walking abroad on the Lord's 
day, censure him not litl you know that he doth it from pro- 
faneness or negligence : you know not but it may be neces- 
sary to his health, and he may improve it in holy medita- 
tion ? If you hear some speak a word more than you think 
needful, of common things, or do more about meat and clo- 
thing than you think meet ; cenHnre them not till you hear 
their reason. A scrupulousness about such outward obser— 
vmnces, when the holy duties of the day are no whit hiudei^ 
ed by that thing, and a ceosoriouaness toward those that arc 
not as scrupulous, is too Pharisaical and ceremonious a reli- 
gion for spiritual, charitable Christians. And the extremes 
of some godly people in this kind, have occasioned the Quht 
kers and Seekers to taJce and use all days alike, and the 
profane to contemn the sanctifying of the Lord's day. 

1ft. 2. More Pnrlicutar Direcliom for the Order of Hoitf 


Direct. I. • Remember the Lord's day before U cometh, 
and prepare for it, and prevent those disturbances thai 
would hinder you, and deprive you of the benefit.' For pre- 
paration : I. " Six days you muitt labour, and do all that 
you have to do.'* Dispatch all your busineKS, tbut you may 
not have it then to hinder and disturb you j and see that 
yonr Rcrvants do the ftitme. 2. Sliiike oil' tlie thoughts nf 
worldly things, and clear your niiudai of worldly delight« and 
cares. 3. Call to mind the doctrine taught you th« last 
Lord's day, (and if you have servants, cause them to remem- 
ber it) that you may be prepared to receive the next. 4. 
Qo seasonably to bed, that you and your servants may not 
b« constrained to lie long the next morning, or be sleepy on 
the Lord's day. 5. Let your meditations be preparatory for 
the day. Repentof the sinsof the iveek past as particularly 
and seriously as you can i and seek for pardon and peace 
through Christ, that you come not with guilt oi trouble up- 
on your consciences before the Lord. 



Direct. U. ' Let your firm thoughts be not only holy, but 
suitable to the occasious of the day.' With gladness re^ 
member what a day of raeroies you awake to, and how early 
your Rt^deemer rose from the dead that day, and what ex- 
cellent work you are to be employed in. 

Direet. iii. ' Rise full as early that day as you do orx 
other days.' Be not like the carnal generation, that sancti- 
fy the Lord's day but as a awiue doth, by sleeping, and idle- 
ueas, and fulness. Think not your worldly business more 
wortJiy of your early rising, than your spiritual employ- 
ment is. > 

Direct, iv. ' Let your dressing time be spent in Bom« 
fruitful meditation, oi conference, or hearing some one lead 
a chapter :* and let it not be long, to detain you from your 

Direct. V. 'If you can have leisure, go first to secret 
ptayer:' and if you are scrvanta, and have any necessary 
business to do, dispatch it quickly, that you may be free for 
better work. » 

Direct, vi. ' Let family-woihip come next, and not ba 
slubbered over slightly, but be serious and reverent, and 
suit all to the nature or end of the day.* Especially awakcit 
yourselves and servants to consider what you have to do in ' 
public, and to go with prepared, sanctified hearts. 

Direct. VII. ' Enter the holy assembly ivith reverence 
and joy, and compose yourselves as those that come thither 
to treat with the living God, about the matters of eternal 
life.* And watch your hearts that they wander not, or sleep 
not, nor slight the sacred matters which you are about. And 
guard your eyes, that they carry not away your hearts ; and 
let not your hearts be a moment idle, but seriously employ' 
ed all the time: and when hypocrites and distempered 
Christians are quarrelling with the imperfections of the 
speaker, or congregation, or mode of worship, doyou rather 
make it your diligent endeavour, to watch your hearts, and ' 
improve what you hear. 

Direct, viti. * As soon as you come home, while dinner 
is preparing ; it will be a seasonable time, either for secret' 
prayer or meditation ; to call over what you heard, and urge 
it on your hciirts, and beg God's help for the improvement 
of it, and pardon for your public failings. 



,1. Mirtet. IX. ' Let yotir titm: atmeat be spent in tbe cfae«r- 

ful teiDembraiicc ot mcotion of the love of your RedeeniJ^.} 
or somewliat suitable to tliK cempiiny aiul the day.' 

Dirtct. X. ' After dinner call your iamUies tngeUier, oud 
uirig a psalm of jiraiee, and by exaoxination or repetition, 
or botli, cause them to remember whB,t was publicly taught 

Dirtct. XI. • Then go again to the congregation (to tlie 
beginning) and behave yourselves as before.' 

Direct, xit. ' When you come home call your fiuniUes 
together, and tirut crave God's usaiHtauce and acceptance; 
and then ning a pEalm of praise ; aud then repeat tlie oennoii 
wliich you heard ;' or if there was none, read one out of 
some lively, profitable book \ taid then pray and praise 
God ; and all with the holy seriousness and joy winch is 
suitable to tbe work, and day. 

Direct, xiii. ' Thuu while supper is preparing, betake 
yourwlves to secret prayer and meditation ; either in your 
cbamberH nr walking xi» yr>u find most prnfitahle :' and let 
your servants, bare no more to hinder them from tbe tame 
pnrilege, than what is of tieccsaity. (• 

Dirtrt. xiv. ' At supper spend tb(> time an \% nl'oresnid 
(at dinner) :' always renieniberJiig that though it be a day nf 
fhankngiving, it is ndta day of gluttony, and that you munt 
not use too full a diet, leet It make you heavy, and dn>u'8y. 
and unlit for haiy duty. 

Direct. XV. ' After supperexamineyour children and ser- 
vuiitA what they have learnt all day, aud fting a psulmof 
praiav, and concludt: with pruyuraad thanks^ tving.' 
I' Direct, xvi, ' If tiere be time alter, both you and thjey 
may in tieuret review the duties, and mercies, and fajling« qS 
the day, and rwcommeud youraelvea by prayer into th« 
hiinda of God for the night following :' and so betake- your- 
selves to your rest. 

Direct. XV 1 1 . ' And to shut up aU, let your lart thoughts 
be holy, in the thankful senxe of the mercy you havt: receiv- 
ed, and the goodness of CJod revealed by our Aledialor. and 
Comfortably tlutittngyour kouIs and bodies into hiit hands, 
and longing for your nmr^r Approach unto his glory, ond ihc 
h<'h<tU(iiig and full enjoying nfhim forever.* 

I hare briefly named tliis order of duties, for the memory 


of those that have opportunity to observe it: but if any 
man's place and condition deny him crpportunity for soin* of 
these, he must do what he can: but see, that carnnl negli- 
gence cause not his nmission. And now I appeal to rewon, 
oonsoience and experience, whether this employment be not 
more liuitable to the pHmiiplea, end* and hopes of u ChriisttAn, 
than idlefieas, or vain talk, or tartls, or dice, or dancing, or 
ale-house haunting, or worldly bueineaa ordiscourae? And 
whether this would not exceedingly conduce to the increaw 
of knowledge, holiness nnd honesty? And whether there 
be erer u worldling or voluptuous sensuahst of them all, 
that had not rather be found thus at death ; or look, back 
when time 18 pa»t and gone, upon the Lord'H day thuB spent, 
than as the idle, fleshly and nngodly spend them ? 


Directions/or prqfitab/e Hearing the Word PreatJitd. 

Omitting thoEc Directions which coucera the external 
modes of worship (for the rea.sons mentioned Part, iii, and 
known to all that know me, and the time and place I live in) 
I shall give you such Jiirectioii8 about the personal, internal 
management of your duty, as I think most necessary to your 
editication. And aeeiog that your duty and benefit lieth id 
these four general points: 1- Tliat you hear with under- 
standing. 2. That you remember what you hear. 3. That 
yuu be duly aSected with it. 4. And that you sincerely 
practice it, I shall more particularly direct you in order to 
all Ihe^e ends and duties. 

.Tii.\. Directions for tfie Vndtntatiding ike Word whkk you 


Dirtct, I ' Read and meditate on the Holy Scriptures 
much in private, and then you will be the better able to un- 
derstand what ie preached on it in public, and to try the 
doctrine, whether it be of God.' Whereau if you are uuac- 



quainted with the iScriptures, all that is treated of ur allag 
ed from them, will be so strange to you, that you will be 
but little edified by it'. 

Direct. 11. * Live under the clearest, distinct, convincing 
tcacliing that possibly you can procure.' There is an un- 
speakable (litference as to the edification of the btarerH, be* 
tween a judicious, clear, distinct and useful preacher, und 
one that is ignorant, confuaed, general, dry, and only scrap- 
eth together a cento or raiugltj-mangU of some undigeat«d- 
Bsyings to fill up the hour with. If in philosophy, physic, 
gramtuar, law, and every art and science, there be so great 
a difference between one teacher and another, il must needs 
be 80 ill divinity also. Ignornnt teachers that understand 
not wha.t they say Lliemselved, :iru unlike to make you moo 
of understanding : as erroneous teachers are unlike to make 
you orthodox and sound. 

D'lrtct in. * Come not to hear with a careless heart, as if 
you were to hear a matter that little concerned yon, but 
come with a sense of the unspeakable weiglit, nfcessity and 
consequence of the holy Word which you are to hear: and 
when you understand how much you are concemetl in it, ai.d 
truly love it, as the Word of life, it will greatly help your 
uodertitanding of every paitlculur truth.' That which a man 
Icivelh oot, and perceivelh no necessity of, he wJtl hear with 
so little regard and heed, tliiit it will make no considenible 
impression on his mind. But a good understanding of the 
excellency and necessity, exciting love and serious atten- 
tion, would make the particulars easy to ba understood; 
when else you will he like a stopped or narrow moulhed bot- 
tle, that keepeth out that which you desire to put in. I 
know that understanding tuust go before affeclionx; but 
yet tile understanding of the concernments and worlli of 
your own souls, must first procure such a serious care nf 
your salvation, and a general regard to the Word of Gml. as 
is needful to your further understanding of the particular 
instructions, which you shall after hear. 

DtTtct.i^'. 'Sufl(:r not vain thoughts or drowsy n<^li- 

gence to hinder your attenlion.' If yon mark not what is 

tftiight you, how should you understand and leorn ? Set 

yourtielve* tn it, as for your liven : be as earnest and diligent 

'P»l-».«. Eli*. t>ti>k*,ir. 



in attending; and learning, as you would ImTc ttic preachei be,] 
in teat'hiiig". If a drowsy, car ele«fl prftacherbe bud. a drowsy,; 
careless hearer is not good. Saitli Moses, " Set your li«irt% i 
t« all the words which I testify among you this day." — '* For, 
it is not a vain thing for you, because it is your life''." Yom 
would have God attentive to your prayers in yourdistreaacs, 
and why will you not then be attentive to his words; when 
'" the prayers of liim are abominable to God, tJiat turncth 
away his ear from hearing the law T' "All the people were 
vary attentive to hear Christ^" When Ezia read the law 
"from niuniing till mid-day, the ears of all the people were 
attentive to it''." WheD Paul continued hiB Lord's day 
exercise, and speech until midnight, one young man t)iut 
fell ast«ep, did fall down dead iL» a warning to them, that 
will sleep when they should hear the message of Christ*^ I 
Therefore you are exciiited that day from worldly business, 
"that you may ultend on the Lord without distraction'." 
Lydia's attending to the w»rdt< of Paul, accompanied the 
opening of her heart ajid her conrersion ". 

Direct. V. ' Mark especially the design and drift, and prin 
cipal doctrine of the sermon.' Both because that is the chief | 
thing that the preacher would hare marked; and because 
the understaodiog of tliat will much help yOH to nndenstand 
all the rest which dtpendeth on it, and relateth to it. , 

Direct. VI. 'Mark most those things which are of great- 
est weight and conceromeiit to your soub.' And do not 
fix upon some little saying-s, and by-discourees, or witty 
Bcntencea ; like children tJial briug home some scraps and 
worda which they do but play witli. . j. 

Direct. VII. 'Learn first your catechisms at home, an^ 
the great eitsentiat points of religion, contained in the creedj, 
the Lord's prayer, and the ten commandments. Aurl in 
your hearing, first labour to get a clearer understanding of ^ 
these ; and then tlie lesser branches which grow out of 
these, will be the better understood,' You can ftcarca bo-" 
stow too much care and pains in learning these great essen- 
tial points. It is the fruitfuUest of all your studies. Two, 
things further I here advise yon to avoid. 1. The hasty 

• PrUT.iv. L m ». I, 
"Dcut-iwii. 46.47. 
' Acti tti, H, IK. 9. 

vii.f4. Nirli. 11. pMil,cix>.t. Pniv. atiiiiSk 

< I.nhp iix.48. "* Nr'i. viii. 3, 

< 1 Cuf.vii. Si. • Acu In. It. 


r<:fiRisnAN DiftEdTouY. [pari- It. 

dimbing up to smaller poihle (which some call higher) b«-' 
fore you have well received these, and the receiving of those 
hTglier points, independently, without their due respect, lo" 
thefle which they depend upon. 2. The fetidirig upon dr^ and 
harren controversies, and delighting in the ch&ff of jingling 
words, and itnpertinent, unedifying things, or diBcourseS 
dhoiit formalitieft and circoatBtanceB. 

Dirtft. viii. 'Meditflte on what you hear when you 
come home, till you hetteruDderHtandit''. 

Direct. IX. 'Infjuire where you douht, of those that cftQ 
resolve and teach you.' It sheweth a carelesa mind, and a 
ci^ntcmpt of the Word of God, in most people and !ierTnnU> 
diat never tome to ask the resolution of one douht, from 
one weelc's or year's end to another, though ihey have pM- 
tora or muHtem that have ability, and leisure, and willibg- 
nes9 to help them. " When Christ was alone, they that 
were about him with the twelve, naked htm. the meaiiiil); of 
faiB payable'." t 

Direct. X. 'Read much those holy books which treat 
best of the doctrine which you would understand.' 

Direct. XI. * Pray earnestly for wisdom, and the illumi- 
nation of the Spirit''.' 

Direct, xn. 'Conscionable practicing what you knew^ 
i)ian excellent helti to understanding'.' 

jR*. H. Directions for Rtmtmbering what you Hear. 

That want of memory, which cometh from age and de- 
cay of nature, is not to be cared : nor abould any servant 
of Christ bcovermueh troubled at it; seeing Chrirt will no 
more cast off his nervantft for that, then be will for age oi- 
any sickness : but for that want of memory which'ii) cura- 
ble^ and ia a fault, I shall give you Ihese Directions fol- 

Direct, i. * It greatly helpeth memory to have a full on- 
derstandiug of the matter spoken, which you would remem- 
ber.' And ignorance is one nf the greatest hindrance»io 
memory. Common expt^rieoce telleth you this, how easily 
you can remember any discourse which you Uiurvughly un- 

»PmLL«. •Mwkk.lO. 
•JduidLT. 17. 

*.Bpli.1.18. AcnuvLlS. JanMl.5. 



derstaiid (for your very knowledge by invenlion will reviye 
ynor memory) ; and how hard it \» to rem«mbfir any words 
whith are iiiBignificaut, or which w« uudunstajid not. There- 
fore labour moat for a clear underfttandincr nceordiofi; to the 
iMt Directions: 

Dirrct. ii. ' A deep, awakenftd affection ift a »eiy {loweifa 
ful help to memory.' We easily remember uny thing whicli 
our estates or Vitcs lie on, when trifles are ncKlected and 
aoon forgotten. Therefore labour to get all to your heartc,t 
according to the next following Directions. 

Dirtet. III. ' Method is a very great hel)> ia memoryt'l 
Therefore be acquainted with the preachtr'e method; and] 
then yoH ar* put into a path or tract, which yoiicnnnnt: 
easily go out of. And therefore it is, that niintBt«rs mustj 
not only b(> me4,hodical, and avoid prolix, confused, and ir 
Tolved diacouraew, and that niftUcioiis prid« of hiding their 
method, but mast be aa oft in the use of the same method, 
aR the iiubjcct will bear, and choone that method which is 
■boat e&sy to the hearers to understand and r&member,- and 
labour to mnlie them perceive your tract. 
'^^■Dinti. IV. * Numbeis are a great help to memory.' As 
IftJie resaona, the uses, the motives, the bignK, the riireo six, or seven; or eight) when jau kuowjunt the 
number, it belpeth yon much' to 'retnember* which, was the 
first; second, third, &c. 

•"J Diret^. v. 'NameBaUoand signal words are agrart help 
to memory.' He may remember one word, that cannot re- 
member all the sentence; and that one' word may help him 
to remember much of the rest. TberefWe preaohefs should 
contrive the force of every reason, use, directt^o, 8£c. an 
muoh ae ma.y be into some one emphatiealword. -(And 
some do very profitably contrive each of those words to b&- 
^in with the same letter, which is good for memory, so it he 
not too much etrained, and put them notu^n greater iikor- 
veniences); as if I wore to direct you to the cfaiefe«t helps 
b> your salvation, and should name, 1. Powerfiil preaching. 
%. Prayer. 3. Prudence. 4. Piety. 6. Painfulness. 6. 
Patience. 7. Perseverance. Though I opened every one 
of these at large, the very names would help the heercrs' 
memory. It ie this that raaketh ministers thut care more for 
their people's souls, than the pleasing of cnriouB ears, to 

^0 in tbe common road of doctrine, reason, U8«8, motires, 
helps, &c. and to give their u»e& the same titles of inibnoa- 
lion, reproof, exhortation, Stc. And yel when the subject 
• iihall direct us to some other method, the hearera munt not 
he offended with us : for on« method will not serve exactly 
for every subject, and we must he loath to wrong the te^it or 

Direct. VI. ' It is a great help to memory, often in the 
time of hearing to call over and rcprat to yourselves the 
names or heads that have been spoken.' The mind of man 
can do two things at once : Vou may both hear what ia said, 
and recal and repeat to yourselves what is past: not to 
iitantl lon^ upon it, hut oft and quickly to nnme over, e. g. 
The reasons, uses, motives, &.c. To me, this hath been 
(next to understanding and aiFection) the greatest hel[) of 
any that I have used ; for otherwise to hear a head but once, 
and think of it no more till the sermon is done, would never 
serve my turn to keep it. 

Direct, vii. 'Grasp not at more than you are able to hold, 
lest thereby you lose all.' If there be more particulars than 
you can possibly remember, lay hold on some which moKt 
concern you, and let go the rest; perhaps another may rather 
take up Uiose, which yon leave behind. Yet say not that it is 
the preacher's fault to name more than you can carry away ; 
for, I. Then he must leave Out his enlargement much more, 
and the most of his sermon ; for it ia like you leave the 
most behind. 2. Another may remember more than you. 
:). All is not Ingt when the words arc forgotten ; for it may 
breed a habit of undertstunding, and promote resolution, af- 
fcclion, and practice. 

Direct. VIII. 'Writing is au cany help for memory, to 
thoso that can use it.' Some question whether they should 
use it, because it hindereth their aflection. But that muxl 
be diflerendy determined according to the difierence of 
bubjectit, ami of hearers. Borne sermons are all tu work 
upon the aU'ections at present, and the present advantage is 
to be preferred before the after perusal : but some must 
more profit uk in after digestion and review. And some 
hearers can write much with case, and little hinder their 
iiHcction i and some write so little and arc hindered so 
much, that it recompenseth not their loss. Some know so 



fiilly all that is keuiJ, that tbey need no notes; and some 
that are ignorant need them for perusal. 

Direct, ix. ' Peruse what you remember, or write down; 
when you come home ; and fix it speedily before it is loot ; 
and hear others that can repeat it better.* Pray it overt 
and confer of it with others. 

Direct. X, ' If you forget the very words, yet remember 
the main drift of ail; and get those reBolutions and afleo 
tions which they drive at.' And (hen yon have not lost the 
sermon, though you have lost tbe words; as he hnth nut 
lost his food, that hath digested it, and turned it into deah 
and blood. 

Tit. 3. Directions for holtf Resolativiis and Afftctions in 

Th« understanding and memory are but the passage to 
the heart, and the practice h but the expression of the heart: 
therefore how to work upon th« heart is the principal buai- 

Direet. i. ' Lire under the moat convincing, lively, se- , 
rious preacher that possibly you can.' It is a matter of ] 
great concernment to all, but especially to dull and sense* 
less hearts. Hearken not to that earthly generation, that.1 
tell you. because God can bless the weakest, md because] 
it is your own fault if you profit not by the weakest ; that 
therefore you should make no difference, but sit down un- 
der an ignorant, dumb, or senseless man. Try first whe- 
ther they had as willingly have a bad servant, or a bad phy- i 
siciau as a good one, because God can bless the labours of* 
the weakest? Try whether they would not have their chil- 
dren duly reproved or corrected, because it is their owa 
faults that they need it ( And whether they would not take 
physic after a surfeit! though it be their own fault that 
made them sick. It iK true, that all our sin is our owQ' 
fault ; but the question is. What is the most effectual cnre t'* 
Whmtman that is alive and awake, doth not feel a very great '^ 
difference between a dead and a lively preacher? 

Direct. 11. ' Remember that ministers are the messengers 
of Christ, aud come to you on his business and in his name. 
Hear them therefore as his officers, and bb men that have 
roL. iv. s 



[part II, 

more lo do. with God hinoBelf, than with the speaker".* It 
ia the phrase of the Holy Ghost, " All tilings are naked 
and opened to the eyes of liim with whom we have to do "." 
It is God with whom you have to do, and therefore* accord- 
ingly behave yourselves ". 

Direct, in." Remember that this God is instructing you, 
and warning you, and treating with you, about no less than 
the Baving of your souls. Come therefore to hear wt for 
yonr salvation.* Can that heart he dull that well consider- 
eth, that it U heaven and hel] that is the matter that God is 
treating with him about? 

Direct, iv. ' Remember that you have but a little time 
to hear in ; and yon know not, whether ever you shall hear 
again. Hear therefore an if it were your last." Think when 
you hear the calls of God, and the oifers of Grace, I know 
not but this may be my last : how would I hear if I were sure 
to die to-morrow? I am sure it will be ere long, and may 
be to-day for aught I know. 

Direct. V. ' Remember that all these days and sermong 
must be reviewed, and you must answer for all that you 
have heard, whether you heard it with love, or with unwil- 
lingness and weariness { with diligent attention or with 
carelessness ; and the Word which you hear shall judge you 
at the list day. Hear therefore as those that are going to 
judgment, to give account of their hearing and obeying''. 

Direct. \i. 'Make it your work with diligence to apply 
the Word a» you nre hearing it, and to work your own hearts 
to ihcwie suitable resolutions and atfectiuns which it h«- 
bpeaketh.' Caitt not all upon the minister, »» those that 
will go tio further thnu they nre carried as by force : this is 
fitter for the dead than for the living. You have work to 
do as well an the preacher, and should all the while be as 
busy an he; as helpless as the infant is, he must suck when 
the aiothcr onVreth him tlie breast: if you munt l>e fed, yet 
you muift open your mouths, and digest it, for another can- 
not digeflt it foi yuu i nor can the holiest, wiseet, powerful 
jxunifitor, convert or snve you without yourselves, nor deliver 
a people from sin and hell, tliat will not stir for tlicir own de- 
livenuice. Therefore be all the while at work, and abhor 
an idle heart iu hearing, an well as an idle wimsur. 

- 4Cor,.j. 1. " 

"ScrLokc>.S. iCur.lT'.l. rJotuuLM. 



Dirtct. VII. ' Cliew tbfi cud,, and call up all wheo you 
com« liomi? in secret, ^ud by mfcdiutiou prt!»ch it over lo 
yourselves.' If it were coldly delivered by the 
you consider of the great weight of the matter, aiid preach 
it moj'e tni'iiestly over to your own bearU. You should loy« j 
yoursulves best, nnd best be ac^iutiiiitcd with your own coiir j 
ditiou and necessities. 

Direct, vi 1 1 . ' Pray it over all lo Ciod> and there liiment 
a Stupid heart, aiu) put up your complaints to heaven aj^ainat,, 
iu' The naoie and presence of God hath a quickening aoijLi 
aivaking power. 

.1 Diitft. IX. ' Go to Christ by faith, for the quickening* | 
of his Spirit.' Your life is hid in him, your root and head \ 
and from him all must be conveyed : he that hath the Soa , 
bath life; and because he Hvelb, we »hall live also. Eii*>j 
treat him to glorify the power of his resurrection, by raiaiug 
the dead ; and to open your hearts, and speak to you by hi» 
Spirit, that you may be taught of God, and your hearts may 
be hi(i epiatles, and the tablea where the everlasting law ia 

Direct. %. ' Make conscience of teaching and provoking 
others.' Pity the iiouU of the ignorant about you. God 
often blcKfieth the grace that is most improved iu doiug him 
service; and our stock is like the woman's oil, which in- 
creased as long asshu poured out, and wats gone when she 
stopped'. Doing good ia the heat way for receiving good: 
be that in pity to a poor man that it> almost starved, will 
but fall to rubbing him, shall get himselfhcat. and both be 

Tit. 4. Direciiom to bring what we Hear, into Practice. 

Without thie the rest is vain or counterfeit, and there- 
fore somewhat mu«t be said lo this. 

Direet. i. ' Be acquainted with the failings of your heartf | 
and lives, and come on purpose to get directions and helpj^J 
against those particular failings.' You will not know what' 
medicine you need, much less how to use it, if you knoftl 
not what aileth you. Know what duties you omit or care-- 
lessly perform, nnd know what sins you are most guilty of. 

1 Col. iii. S. 4. J«hn xr. 1—3. «i- «S. iiv. 19. Phil. I'l. 7. 8. Acli I*^. 
14. John vl. 4A. t Cor. iii. 3. $. IT, 1». EI«ti. «>!>. !<>■ >- 1$. Jer. laa. S9. 
' I Kinglivii. If-li. Ifi. 




and s&y when you go out of doore, 1 go to Christ forphyitic 
for my own disease. I hope to hear something before I 
come hack, which may help Die mciie agiiiiisl this sia, and 
fit me better for ray duty, or provoke me more effectually. 
Are those men like to practise Christ's directions, that ei- 
ther know not their disease, or love it and would not have 
it cured ? 

Direel.ii. 'The three foremeationed are 8lill presup- 
posed, viz. That the Word have first d'One its paat upon your 
understaiidinge, memory and hearts.' For that Word.can- 
not be practised, which is not understood, nor at all remem- 
bered, nor bath procured res>o)utions and affections. It 
in the due work upon the heEirt that muat prevail for the re- 
fomaation of the life. 

Direct, iii. 'When you understund what it is in point 
of practice that the preacher driveth at. observe especially 
thfc uses and the moving reasons, ajid plead them witb your 
own hearts; and let conscience be preaching over all that 
the minister preacheth to you.' You take them to be soul- 
murderers that silence able, faithful preachers, and aIbo 
those preachers that silence thecnBetvea. and feed not the 
flock cummitted to their care : and do you think it a small 
matter to silence your own conscience, which must he the 
preacher that must set home all, before it con come to re- 
Rolution or practice? Keep conscience all the while at 
work, preaching over all that to your heartii, which yon 
hear with your ears ; and ur<rr yourselves to a speedy resolu- 
tion- Remember that the whole body of divinity is practical 
in it» end and tendency, and therefore be not a mere notional 
hearer; but consider of every word you hear, what practice 
it is that it tendetb to, and place that deepest in your me- 
mory. If you forget all the words of the reasons and mo- 
tives which you hear, be sure to remember what practice 
they werK brought to urge you to. As if you hoard a ser- 
mon against unchjuitableness, censorionsness. or hurting 
others, though you should forget all the reasons and mo- 
tives iu partir-ular, yet still remember that you were con- 
vinced in the hearing, that censorious and hurtful unchari- 
tableness is a great sin. and that you beard reason enough 
to make you re»olvc iU And let conscience preach out the 
sermon to the end, anil not let it die in bare conviction i but 
resolve, and be past wav.eriag before you stir : and above all 




the semon, remembei- the directioae and heipa for practiuc, 
with which the truest mi>tho(l usuaJly shuts up the Hermon. 

Direct, iv. 'When you come home, let couscienc« in 
seuret also repeal Lhe sermon to you.' Between Qod and 
yourselves, consider what thei-e was delivered to you in the 
Lord's message, that your souls were moat concerned in. 
What sin reproved which you are guilty of! What duty 
prea»ed which you omit? And there meditate seriously 
on the weight and reasons of the thing; and reaist nut the 
light, l>ut yet bring all to a fixed resolution, if till then you 
were unresolved : nut etunaring yourselves with dangerous 
vows about things doubtful, or peremptory vows without 
dependence on Christ for strength : but fimily resotvini^ and 
Cftutelously en^ging yourselves to duty; not with carnal 
evasions and reserves, but with humble dependence upon 
grace, without which of yourselves you are able to do no- 

Direct. V. ■ Hear the most practical preachers you can 
well get.' Not those that huvc the Hnest notions, or the 
cleanest style, or neatest words; but those tliat arc still 
urging you to holiness of heart and life, and driving home 
every truth to practice: not that false doctrine will at all 
bear up u holy life, but true doctrine must not he lefl in 
the porch, or at the doors, but be brought home and used 
to its proper end, aud seated in the heart, and placed as the 
poUe upon the cloclc, where it may set all the wheels in 
motion. ■ 

Direct. VI. 'Take heed especially of two sorts of iaise 
teachers. Antinoinian libertines, ajid autonomiau phariseex.' 
The first would build their sini, on Christ; not pleading for 
sin itself, but takiug down many of the chief helps ngainst 
it, and disarming us of the weapons by which it should be 
destroyed, and reproaching the true preachers of obeditnce 
as legalists, that preach up works and call men to doing, 
when they preach up obedience to Christ their Kin^, upon 
the terms and by the motives which are used by Christ him- 
aelf, and his apostles. Not understanding aright the true 
doctrine of faith in Christ, and justilication, and free^grace 
(which they think none else understand but they), llicy 
- pervert it and make it an «nemy to the kingly office of 
Christ, and to sane ti Beat ion. and the necessary duties of 




The other sort do make void Ihe comniEindmentg of God 
by their traditions, and instead of the lioly practice of ilia 
laws of Cliiist. they would drive the wurJd with fire and 
»word to practise all their euperetiliouB fopperies; so that 
the few plain and necessary precepts of the law of the oni- 
vei'snl King, are drowned in the greater body of their canoo 
law, and the ceremonies of the pope's imposing are so many 
in comparison of the institutions of Christ, that the worship 
of God, and work of Christianity is corrupted by it, and 
made as another thing. The wheal is lost in a heap of 
chtttf. by til era that will be law-givers to thentseWes, and 
all the church i>f Christ. 

Diirct. VII. 'Associate yourselves with the moat holy, 
seriouR, practical Christiana,' Not witii the ungodly, nor 
with barren opinionists, that talk of nothing bat their con- 
troversies, and the way or interest of their sects (which they 
call the church), nor with outside foi'ina! ceremonious pha- 
risecB, that are pleading for the washing of cupa, and tithing 
of mint, and the tradition of their ftthers, while they hate 
and persecute Christ and his disciples. Bui walk with the 
most holy, and blameless, and cliari table, that live upon that 
(ruth which others talk of, and are seeking to please God 
by the ** wisdom which is first pure, and then peaceable and 
gentle'," when others are contending for their several secte, 
or seeking to pleaaeCbrist, by killing him, or censuring 
him, or slandering him in his servants'. 

Dirpft. viii. ' Keep njiifltaccount of your practice; ex- 
amine yourselveH in the end of every day and week, how 
yon have spent your time, and practised what you were 
taught; aitd judge yourselves before God according ns you 
tiiu) it.' Yea, you must call yourseU-es to accottnl every 
hour, what you arc doing, and how you do it; whether you 
are upon God's work, or not; and your beajtii muBt be 
wgitchedand followed like unfiuthfui servanta, and like loit- 
ering scholars, and driven on to every duty, like a dull or 
tired honw. 

Dittci.xx. 'Above all s«t your hearts to the deepest 
contemplations of the wonderful love of God in Christ, and 
the i*«eetnei-s and escetlenry of a holy life, and the certain 
incomprehensible glory which ittendeth to, that yoaraonls 
may l>e in love with your dear Redeemer, and all (hat if^ 

' J*m, 111. IT, IS. ■ Joliii ivi. }, 3, .MalT. itr. 40. 4.y 

CHAf . XK. 



holy, and love and obedience may be as natural to yon.* And 
theii the practice of holy doctrine, will be easy to yoo , when 
it is your delight. 

Dinrl. x-Tfike heed that you receive not ungrounded, or 
unnecessary prejudices agttiiist the penion of the preacbci'.' 
For that wiLl turn your heart, and lock it up against tbe doc- 
trine. And therefore abhor the spirit of uncharitableneAS, 
cruelty, and faction, which always beiideth to the suppressing, 
or vilifying and disgracing all those, that are not of their way 
and for their interest : and be not so blind as not to obBcrve, 
that the very deaign of the devil, in ruiHitig up diviaioni 
among ChriKtiaus is, that he may use the tongues or bunds 
of oue another to vilify th«m all, and make them odious to 
one another, and to di.iiable one another from hiudering his 
kingdom, and doing any considerable service to Christ. 
So that when a minister of ClirtRt should be winning i^ouU, 
either he is forbidden, or he is despised, and the hearers 
are saying, ' O, he is ^uch, or such a one,' accordiug to the 
nameg of reproach which the enemy of Christ and love hath' 
taught them. 


Directicns/or projtiable Rvading ihf Ho/i/ Scriptures. 

Seeing the diversity of men's tempers and uudereLaiidings 
is so exceedingly great, that it is impossible that any thing 
should be pleasing and suitable to some, which shall not 
he di^iliked and quarrelled with by others; and seeing ia 
the Scriptures there are many things hard to be understood, 
which the unlearned and unstable wrest to their own de- 
Atruction*. And the word ii! to some tbe »uivour of death 
unto death''. You have therefore need to be careful in 
reading it. And' as Christ saith. "Take beed how you 
hear' ;" so I any. Take heed how you read. 

Direct. J. ' Bring not an evil heart of unbelief. Open 
the Hible with holy reverence as tbe book of God, indited 
hy the Holy Ghost. Remember that the doctriue of the 
New Teatament was revealed by the Son of God, who was 

•SPM. iu. Id. • ."ilnik iv. M- 111. ' I.iiki; tJII. 18. 



purposely sent from heaven to be the light of the world, aud 
to known to men the will of God, and the matters of 
their salvation''.' Bethink you well, if Qod should but 
send a book or letter to you by an angel, how revereutly 
you would receive it ? How carefully you would peruse itj 
and regard it above all tbe books in the world 'i And how 
much rather should you do so, by that book which is in- 
dited by the Holy Ghoat, and reeordeth the doctrine of 
Christ himself, whose authority is greater liiuji all the aii- 
gels ? Head it uot therefore as a couuuoii book, with a com- 
mon and unreverent lieart; but in the dread and love of 
God the author. 

Direct. II. ' Rtniember that it is the very law of God 
which you must live by, and be judged by at last. And 
therefore read witli a full resolution to obey whatever it 
CO mm an de til, though desh, and men, and dfivils contradict 
it.' Let there be no secret exceptions in your heart, to 
baulk any of its precepts, aud shift off thut part of obe- 
diflucc, which the flesh accounteth difficult or dear. 

Direct. III. ' Remember thai it is the will and testament 
of your Lord, and the coveuant of most full and gracious 
promi^tni ; which all your comforts, and all your hopes of 
pardon and everlasting life are built upon. Read it there- 
fore with love and great delight.' Value it a thunttand 
fold more than you would do tlie letters of your dearest 
friend, or the deeds by which you hold your lauds; or any 
thing elso of low concernment. If the law wub sweeter to 
David than honey, and better than thousands of gold and 
silver, and was his delight and meditation all the day, O 
what shuuld the sweet and precious Gospel be to uu! 

Direct, iv. * Remeit\ber that it'is a doctrine of unseen 
tilings, and of the greatest myetciies ; and therefore come 
not to it with arrogance as a judge, but with humility as a 
learner or diMciplu : and if any thing uvem difficult or impro- 
bable to you.xuiipectyoui own unfurnished understanding, 
uod not the sacred Word of God.' If a learner in any ai-t 
oracicnce, will suspect his teacher and his books, whenever 
he is stalled, or meeteth with that which «cenicth unlikely 
to him, hiK pride would keep possession for his ignorance, 
nnd his folly were like lo be uncurabk*. 

" RtiKi CliBji. tii, Dincut. i. (Viid ucBimi I'uttcllcr, Pm I. 



Direct. V. ' Remember that it is an universal taw and 
doctrine, written for tbe moat ignorant a» well as for the., 
curious i and therefore luust be suited ta plajnneiis to thei 
capacity of the simple, aud yet have matter to exercise tb«.1 
most iidbtle wits ; and that Ood would have the style, to bo* 
your more of ihe iiiiioc«nt weakness of the intitrumeiitti, than 
the matter.' Therefore be not offended or troubled n'heu> 
the style doth seem less polite thaii. yuu might think be-^j 
seemed the Holy Ghoet ; nor at the plainness of some porcs^j 
or the mysterioufinesfi of others : but adore the wisdom audi] 
tender condescension of God to his poor creatures. 

Direct, vi. ' Bring not a uarnal mind, which gavouretb] 
only fleshly things, and is en&laved to those eins which th< 
Scripture doth coiidenm :' " For the carnal mind is enmity 
against God. and neither is, nor can be subject to his law *.'^] 
" And the things of God are not discerned hy the mere na* 
tural ina», for they are foolishness to him, and they muat 
be spiritually discerned^:" and enraity is aii ill expositor. 
It willl be quarrelling with all, and making faults in the 
Word which findeth so many faults in yuu. It will hate 
that Word which cometh to deprive you of your most sweet 
and dearly beloved sin. Or, if you have such a carnal mind 
and enmity, believe it not, any more than a partial and 
wicked enemy should be believed against God himself; who 
belter understandeth what he hath written, than any of bis 
foolish enemies. 

Direct, vu. ' Compare one place of Scripture with 
another, and expound the darkest by the help of the plain- 
est, and the fewer expreseions by the more frequent and Of* 
dinary, and the more doubtful points by those which are 
moat certain ;' and not on the contrary. 

Direct, vui. ' Presume not on the strength of your own 
understanding, but humbly pray to God for light; aud he- 
foru and after you read the Scripture, pray earnestly that 
the Spirit which did indite it, may expound it to you, and 
keep you from unbelief and erior, and teaxl you into the 
truth «.' I 

Dirtct. IX. ' Read some of the beat annotations or ex- 
positors;' who being better acquainted with the phrase of 

• Rom, *iii. 7. ». '2 Cor. ii- U. 

( 1 Ccr. if. X9. 1«. Kii. B— 10. 

the Scripture than yourselves, may help to clear your un- 
derstanding. When Philip aeked llie euiiiich that read Tsa. 
liii. " Understandest thou what thou readest ? he said. How 
can I except some man should guide me "^l" Make use of 
your guides, if you would not err. 

Direct, x. ' When you are stalled by any difficulty which 
ovcr-oiatchtth you, note it down, and propound it to your 
pftstor, and crave his help, or (if the minister of the place be 
ignorant and unable) go to some one that God hath fur- 
nislied for such work.' And if after all, some things remain 
still dark and difficult, remember your imperfection, and 
wait on God for further light, and thankTutly make use of 
all the rest of the Scriptitre which is plain. And do not 
think aa the papists, that men muBt forbear reading it for 
fear of erring, anymore than that men must forbear eating 
for fear of poison, or than subjects must be kept ignorant 
of the lawG oi' the king, for fear of misunderstanding or 
abusing them. 


iHreetioM for Reading othtr Bookx. 

Bbcaosb God hath madetlie excellent, holy writings of hiti 
»ervants, the singular bleKsing of thi& land and age ; and 
many an one may have a good book, eveu any day or hour 
of the week, ^at cannot at all have a good preacher' i 1 
aHvise all God's servants to be thankful for so great a mercy, 
and to make use of it, and be much in reading ; for rpjiding 
with most doth more conduce to knowledge than hearing 
doth, because you may choose what eubjoct* and the moat 
excellent treatitces you please ; and may be often at it, and 
may peruKe again and again ivhat you forget, and may tuke 
time 08 you go to Rx it on your mind ; and n-ith very many 
it doth mor« than hearing also to move the heart, though 
hearing of itself, in this hath the advantage ; because lively 
books may be more easily had, than lively preachers : e^ 

•■ Aeii riil.*), SI. 

* Xciuiittiitu jirinua omn'iun qun dioetMatari nutu ucc^ta iu (lublieUDi cdidit* 
Ol0K< Imen, lib. )). ted. 4ft. p. tOO. 




peoially these sorts of men should be much in reading." 
Masters of families, that have more souls lo care for thaif * 
iheir own, 3. People that live where there is no preaching; I 
orHH bad or worse than none. 3. Poor people, and serTants,'^ 
and children, that are forced on many Lord's days to stay 
at horae, whilst othem have the opportunity lo hear. 4. 
And vacant persons thot have more leisure than other* hdve.] 
To all these, but especially masters of families, 1 shall hertf' 
give a frw Directions. 

Direct. I. ' I presuppose that you keep the dcvirahook*^ 
out of your ha.nd8 and house.' 1 mean cards, and idle tales',) 
and play-books, and romances or love-books, and false, he-^ 
witching stories, and the seducing books of all faUtt 
teachers, and the railing or scorning books which the men 
of several sects and factions write against each other, on 
purpose to teach men to hate one another, and banish love ; 
for where these are sulfered lo corrupt the mind, all grave 
and uaeiul writings are forestalled. And it ix n wonder %b 
see, how powerfully these poison the minds of children, and 
many other empty heads : also books that are written by 
the sonE of Corah, to breed ditttanttes and discontents in the 
minds of the people against their governors, both magis- 
trates and ministers. For there is something in the best 
rulers, for the tongues of seditious men to fasten on, and to 
aggravate in the people's ears; and there is something even 
in g>>dly people, which tempteth them too easily to take fire 
and be distempered before they are aware ; and they foresee 
not the evil to which it tendeth. 

Birett, ii. ' When you read to your family, or othen, 
let it be seasonably and gravely, when silence and atten- 
dance encourage you to expect eucceas ; and not when 
children are crying or talking, or servants hustling to dis- 
turb you.' Distraction ie worst in the greatest busine^sos. 

Direct, iti. * Choose such hooks «8 are most suitable to 
your state, or to those you read to''.' It ie worse than un- 
profitable to read books for comforting troubled minds, to- 
those that are hlockiahly secure, and have liardened, obstii'l 
nate, anhumbled hearts. It is as bad as to give medicinea 

'' Saith Ar>£tippus> in Dicg. Lacit. A^ the; nrc uot <lir JieKlibluitvi that («t 
luoat, so OK lijcy iiut ilir mnii learned itinl Trad iiiiosi \ but X\\ty llintrmtl i)ih1 whicb 
!» mtftt nrcfuary uid profitable. 



[part II. 

or planters coutrary to the patieiit'o need, and such as che- 
rish the disease. So is it to read boolts of too high a style 
or BubjecL, to dull and ignorant hearers. We use to say. 
• That which is one man's meat, is another man's poison.' 
It is not enough that the matter be good, but it mast be 
agreeable to the case for which it is used. 

Direct, iv. ' To a common family, begin with those 
books, which at oace inform the judgment about the fun* 
dameiitals, und awaken the afliectious to entertain them and 
improve them.' Such as are treatises of regeneration, 
cxinversion, or repentance : to which purpose 1 have writ' 
ten myself, The Call to the Unconverted ; — The Treatise 
of Conversion; — Directions for a Sound Conversion; — A 
Treatise of Judgment j— A Sermon against making Light 
of Christ ; — True Chriatianity ; — A Sermon of Repeotanoe ; 
— Now or Kever;— A Saint or a Brute j with others; 
which I mention, not as equalling them with others, but 
as those which I am more accountable fur. On thia sub- 
ject these are very excellent. Mr. R. Allen's Works; — Mr. 
Whateley on the New Birth ; — Mr. Swinnock of He- 
genoration ; — Mr, Pinka'i) five Sermons ; — moat of Mr. 
Hooker's Sertnons j — Mr. J. Rogers's Doctrine of Faith ; — 
Mr. Dent's Plain Man's Pathway to Heaven ; — most of Mr. 
Perkins', and Mr. Bolton's Works, and many the like. 

Dirtct. V. ' Next these, read over those books which 
are more suited to the state of young Chritstiiuis for their 
growth iu gi-ucc, and for their cxoicisL' of faith, and love, 
and obedience, nnd for the niorlifyiug of selfishness, pride, 
sensuality, worldliness, and other the most dangerous sins.' 
My own on this subject arc, my Dirrctiona for Weak 
Chrtfitiunet ; — my Saints' Rest ; — A Treatifte of Self-de- 
uial ;— another of The Mischiefs of Self-ignorance;— Life 
of Faith ; — Of Crucilying the World ; — The Unreason* 
ableuess of Infidelity ; — Of Right Rejoicing. &c. To 
Uu3 u»e these are excellent, Mr. Kildersham's Works ; 
— Dr. Preston '«) ;— Mr. Pcrkinti' ;— Mr. Bolton's ;— Mr. 
Fenner*s; — Mr. Gurnall's; — Mr. Anthony Burgess's Ser- 
monii ; — Mr. Lockier un the Colossiana, with abundance 
more that God hath blessed us with. 

Direct. VI. ' At the same lime labour to methodise your 
knowledge, and to that end read first and learn u>me sliort 


cRtechism, and tlien some largvr (a& Mr. Ball'i), or the As- 
semblies, larger); and next some body of diviaity, (as 
Amesius's Marrow of Divinity, and Casea of Con»cieuce. 
which are Englished).' And Let the catechism be kept in 
memorywhjle you live, and the rest be throughly understood. 

Direct, vii. ' Nest read (to yourselves or families) the 
larger expositions of the Creed. Lord's Prayer, and Ten 
Commandments.' Such as Perkins, Bishop Andrews on 
the CommandmerLts, and Dod, iic- That your understand- 
ing may be more full, particular, and distir^t; and your 
families may uot stop in generals, which are not understood. 

Direct, Tin. ' Read much tho^e hooks which direct you 
in a course of daily conaiannion with God, and ordering all 
your conver»attoDti.' As Mr. Reyner's DirectionH ; — The 
Practice of Piety ; — Mr. Palmer's ; — Mr. Scudder's; — Mr. 
Bolton's Directions ; — and my Divine life. 

Direct. IX. ' For peace, and comfort, and increoes nf 
the love of God, read Mr. Symmond's Deserted Soul, &c, ; 
—and his Life of Faith :— all Dr. Sibhs's Works;— Mr. 
Harsnet's Cordials ; — Bisbop Hall's Works, 2tc. ; my Me- 
thod for Peace, and Saints' Rest, &c. 

Direct. X. ' For the understanding of the text of Scrip- 
ture, keep at hand either Deodate's, or the Assembly of Di- 
vines, or the Dutch Annotations; with Dr. Hammoud's, or 
Dickson's and Hutchinson's brief observations. 

Direct, xi. ' For securing you agatnut the fever of un- 
charitable zeal and schism, and contentious wran^linga and 
cruelties for religion sake, Read diligently Bishop Hall't 
Peacemaker (and other of his books) ^ — ^Mr. Bu.rrough'«<^ 
Ireniconi — Acontius's Stratagems of Satan ; — and my Ca- 
tiiolic Unity ; — Catholic Church ; — Universal Concord, Stc.* 

Direct, xn. ' For establishing you against Popery, od 
the ftoundest grounds, not running in the contrary extreme; 
read Dr. Challoner's Credo Ecclesiam. &.C.; — Chilling. 
worth ; — Dr. Field of the Church. &c. ; — and my True 

t Catholic ; — and my Key for Catkoliui ; — and ray Safe 
Religion; — and Wiuding-sheet for Popery j — and Dispu- 
tation with Mr. Johnson.* 
Direct. X11I. ' For especial preparation for affliction, 
Bofferings. sickness, death : read Mr. Hughes's Rod ;— Mr. 
Lawrence'o Christ's Power over SicknosacB;— Mr. S. Ru- 
^ - • 


therford'a Letters, &c. ; — ^my Treatise of Self-denial j — the 
Believer's Last Work; — the Last Eaemy Death i — and tlie 
Fourth Fart of my Saints' Rest. I will add do more, lest 
they seem too maiiy.' 


Dirtctions for the Right Tmehing of Children and Serr<inii, 
so Kit mai/ be most (ikeii/ to have Success, 

I HSKE sappose them utterly uutaut^ht that you have to do 
with i and therefore shall direct you what to do, from the 
very tiist beginning of your teaching, and their learning. 
And 1 beseech yoa study tlti» Chapter more tliao many of 
the rest ; for it ia an unspeaVable loss tliat befallft the church, 
and the soulu of men, for want of ^kill, and will, and dili- 
gence, in parents and masters in this matter. 

Dirfet. i. * Causo your younger ehildrcn to learn the 
words, tliongh they be not yet capable of understanding the 
matter.' And do not think as some dci. that this is hut to 
make them hypocrites, and to teach them to take Qod'a 
name in vain : for it is neither vanity nor hypocrisy to help 
them ftrst to undertjEand the words and signs, in order Co 
their early uuderstaading of tbe matter and si^itioutioii. 
Otherwise no man might teach them any lauguaE!^, nor 
teach them to read any words that be good, bvcau&c thcy 
must first understand the words before the meaniii£. If a 
child learu to read in a Bihli>, it is not taking God's name or 
Word in vain, though he understand it not : for it is in or- 
der to hi? learning to understand it; and it is not vaiD 
which is to so good a use : if you leave them untaught till 
they come to he twenty years of age, they must tlien learn 
the words before they can understand die matter. Do not 
therefore leave them tlie children of darknces, for fear of 
making them hypocrite*. It will be an excellent nay to 
redeem their time, to teach them first that which they arc 
capable of learning: a child of five or six years old can 
learn the worda of a catecJiiam or Scripture, before they are 
capable of understanding them. And tb«n when they como 
to years of understanding, that part of tlieir work is done. 



ftnd they hov* nothing to do but to study the meamog 
and use of those words which they have learned already. 
Whereas if you leave them utterly untaught till "then, they 
must then be wasting a long time to learn the same voixls 
which they might have learned before; and th« lona of so 
much time ie no small loes or stn. 

Direct. II. ' The moat natural way of teaching children 
the meanin;^ of God's Word, and the matterti of their salra- 
tion. is by fiuuiliar talk with tiieni suited to their capacities : 
begin thiri betimes with them while they are on their mo- ' 
ther's laps, and use it frequently. For they are quickly ca-i 
pable of some understanding about greater matters as weUj 
aa about less : and knowledge must come in by slow d«> 
grees : stay not till their minds are po39es6ed with vanity, 
and toys. 

Direct. III. ' By all means let your children learQ to read,! 
though you be never so poor, whatever shift you makct**] 
And if you have servants that cannot read, let them Icami 
^et, (at spare hours.) if they be of any capacity and wilting 
ness. For it is a vei-y great mercy to be able to read the 
Holy Scripture, and any good books themselves, and a very 
great misery to know nothing but what they hear from, 
others. They may read almost at any time, when they caor*! 
not hear. 

Direct, iv. ' Let your children when they are little ones 
read much the history of the Scriptures.' For though this, 
of itself, is not sufficient to breed in them any saving know- 
ledge, yet it enticeth them to delight in reading the Dible, 
and then they will be often at it when they love it ; so that 
all these benefits will follow. 1. Itwill m»ke them love the 
book (though it be hut with a common love). 2. it will make 
them impend their time in it, when else they would lalher be 
at play. 3. It will acquaint them with Scripture history, 
which will afterwards be very useful to tlieni. 4. It will 
lead them up by degrees to the knowledge of the doctrina, 
which isall along interwoven with the history. 

Direct, v. ' Take heed thiit you turn not all your family 
instruction* into a customary, formal course, by bare read- 
ings and repeating sermons from day to day, without familiar 
personal apptication.' For it is ordinarily seen that they 
will grow »■ Bleepy, and seueeless, and customary> under 



such a dull and distant course of duty, (though the matter 
be good,) almost as if you had said nothing to them. Your 
bnBiueBS therefore must be to get within them, and awaken 
their conaciences to know that the matter doth most nearly 
concern them, and to force them to make application of it 
to themselves. 

Direct. VI. ' Let none affect a, formal, preaching way to 
their families, except they be preachers themBeKes, or oxea 
ttiatare able for the ministry : but rather spend the lime in 
reading to them the most powerful hooks, and epeaking to 
them more familiarly about the stale and matters of their 
HouU.' Not that I think it unlawful for a man to preach to 
his family, in the same method that a minister doth to bis 
people ; for uo doubt but he may teach them in the profita- 
blest manner he can. And that which is the best method 
for a set speech in the pulpit, is usually the best method in 
8 family. But my reasons agaiimt thi» preaching-way or- 
dinarily, ave these : — 1. Because it ia very few masters of 
families that are able for it, (even among them that think 
they are ;) and then they ignorantly abuse the Scripture, so 
a« teutts much to God's dishonour. 2. Becautie there is 
scarce any of them all, but may read at the same time, such 
lively, profitable books to their families, as handle those 
things which they have most need to bear of, in n far more 
edifying manner than they theraselveii are able, (except they 
be &o poor that they can get no such books.) 3. Be- 
cause the familiar way is most edifying : and to talk serious- 
ly with children and servants about the great concernments 
of tJieir Bouls, doth commonly more move them than aer- 
mons or set speeches. Yet because there is a season for 
both, you may sometimes read some powerful book to them, 
and sDmetimes talk familiarly to them. 4. BocauBC it often 
comes from pride, when men put theirspeecb into a preach- 
ing mc^thod to shew their parto, and as often uourisheth 

Dirttt. VII, ' Let the manner of your teaching them bo 
veiy often interlocutory, or by way of queations.' Though 
when you have so many or such persons present, as that 
Buch familiarity is not seasonable, then reading, repeating, 
or set speeches may do best; but at other times, when tbe 
number or quality of the company hindereth not. you will 



Had tha.t>(fueHtian» and familiar discourae are besU Forji 
Jt keepeth ibem awake and attentive, when they know they 
musl mftke some answer tu yuur c^uestioiis ; which set 
K;)eec!ies, with the dull and sluggish, will hardly do. 2. 
-And it mightily heipelh them in the application; so that 
they much more easily take it home, and perceire ilitsnl- 
eelves concerned in it. 

Dtreci. VIII. ' Yet prudently take heed that you tipt/ak 
nothiug to any in the presence of others, that tends to open 
their ignorance or sia, or th^ secrets of their hearts, or Ibut 
any way tendeth to shame them' (except in the necesnary 
reproof of the obstinate). If it he thsir commoa ignora&ce 
that will be opened by questioning them, you may do it bcr 
fore your servants or children themselves, that are fajDiliar 
with each other, hut not when any utifiiigcrs arc present- 
But if it be about the secret state of their souls that you ex~ 
amine them, you must do it singly, when the peroon is alone. 
Lest fthamtng and troubling make thetu hate inatructioD, 
and deprive them of all tht: beneht of it. 

Direct, ix. 'When you come to teach them the doc 
t.rine of religion begin with the baptismal covenant, as the 
sum of all that is essential to Chrisdaaity : and here teach 
ihem brietly all the substance of this at once.' For though 
anch general knowledge will be obscure, and not dii^linct 
and Batisfactory, yet it is necessary at firat; because thay 
must sue truths oet together : for they will uuderMtand no- 
thing truly, if they understand it but independently by bro- 
ken parts. Therefore open to them the sum of tlie cove- 
nant or Chri&tian religion all at once, though you aay bkt 
little at tirst of the several parts. Help them to understand 
what it is to be baptized into the nutne of the Father, Son, 
and Holy Ghost. And here you must open it to them in 
this order. You must help them to know who are the <K(r 
venanters. God and Man: and ■first the nature of man i« to 
be opened, because he is first known, and God in him who 
is his image- Familiarly tell them. " Tliat man i» not like 
a beast Uiai hath no reason, nor ireewill, nor any knowledge 
of another world, nor any other life to live but thid : but he 
hath an understanding to know God, and a will to c^oMe 
good and refuse evil, and an immortal soul that rauiit live 
for ever : and that all inferior creaturea were made for his 




Bcrricc, ae he was made for the service of his Creator. Tell 
, them that neither man, nor any thing that we see, could 
'■toake itself; but God is the Maker, Preserver, and Disposer 
of all the world. That this God is infinite in power, and 
wisdom, and goodness, and is the Owner, and Ruler, and 
Benefactor, Felicity, and End of man. That man was made 
lo he wholly devoted and resigned to God a& his Owner, and 
to he wholly ruled by him as his Governor, and to be wholly 
given up to his love ajid praise as his Father, his Feli- 
city, and End. That the tempter having drawn man from 
thii) blessed state of Ufe, in Adam'a fell the world fell under 
the wrath of God, and had been loist for ever, but that God 
of his Diercy provided ub a Redeemer, even the eternal Son 
of God; who being one with the Father, was pleased to 
take the nature of man, and go is both God and man in one 
person ; who being bom of a virgin, lived among men, and 
ful61ted the law of God, and overcame the tempter and the 
world, and died as a sacrifice for our sins, to reconcile us 
onto God. That all men being bora with corrupted natares, 
and living in sin till Christ recover them, there is now no 
hope of salvation but by him. That he hath paid our debt, 
and made satisfaction for our sins, and risen from the 
dead, and conquered death and satan, and is ascended and 
glorified in heaven; and that he la the King, and Teacher, 
and High-priest of the church. That he hath made a new co- 
venant of grace and pardon, and offered it in his Scriptures, 
and by his ministers to the world; and that those that are 
sincere and faithful in tliis covenant shall be. saved, and 
those that are not shall remedilessly be damned, b«cau8« 
they reject this Christ and grace, which is the last and only 
remedy. And here open to them the nature of this cove- 
nant: that God doth offer to be our reconciled God, and Fa-' 
ther, and Felicity, and Christ to be our Saviour, to forgivo ■ 
our sins, and reconcile us to God, and renew us by his Spi-I 
rit, and ihe Holy Spirit to be our Sanctitier, to illuminnte, 
and regenerate, and confirm us ; and that all that is required ^y 
on our part, is such an unfeigned coniMrnt, as will appear in ^M 
the pprformance in our serious endea^-oura. Even that we ~ 
wholly give up ournelves to be renewed by the Holy Spirit, 
to b« justified, taught, and governed by Christ, and by him 
lo be brought again to the Father, to love him u our Qod 




and End, and to lire to him, and with htm for ever. But 

whereas the temptations of the d«vil, and the alluremeuts of 
this deceitful world, and the desires of the flesh, are the 
great enemies and hindrances in our way, we muetaUo con- 
sent to renounce all these, nnd let them go, and deny our- 
selves, and take up with God alone, and what he seeth meet 
to give us, and to take him in heaven for all ouu portion. 
And he that consenteth unfeignedly to this covenant, is a 
member of Christ, a justified, reconciled child of God, and 
an heir of heaven, and ao continuing, shall he saved ; aad 
he that doth not shall he danined. This is the covenant, 
that in baptism we solemnly entered into with God the Fa- 
ther, Son, and Holy Ghost, as our Father and Felicity, cor 
Saviour, and our Sanctifier." This in some etich brief ex- 
plication, you must familiarly open to tbem again and 

Direct, K. ' When you have opened the baptismal cove- 
nant to theni. and the essentials of Christianity, cause tbem 
to learn the creed, the Lord's prayer, and tlie ten command- 
ments.' And tell them the uses of them; that man having 
three powers of sent, his understanding, his will, and his 
obediential or executive power, all these must be sanctiHed, 
and therefore there must be a rule for each ; and that accord- 
ingly the creed is the suaimary rule to t«ll us what our un- 
derstandings must believe; and the Lord's prayer is the 
summary rule to direct ua what our wills must desire and 
our tongues must ask ; and the ten commandments are the 
summary rules of ourpractice : and that the Holy Scripture, 
in general, is the more large and perfect rule of all ; and that 
all that will be taken for true Christians, must have a gene- 
ral, implicit belief of all the Holy Scriptures, and a particu- 
lar, explicit belief, desire, and sincere practice, according 
to the creeds. Lord's prayer, nnd ten commandments. 

Direct, xi. ' Next teach them a short catechism (by me- 
mory), which openeth the»e a little more fully, and then a 
larger catechism.' The shorter and larger catechisms of the 
Assembly are very wfiU fitted to this use. I have published 
a very brief one myself, which in eight articles or answers 
containeth all the essential points of belief, and in one an- 
twer, the covenant-consent, and in four articles or answers 
more, containeth all the substantial parts of Christian duty : 


Tha answers &re ftome of them long for children'; but if 

I kaew of any otJier that had so niucli in so few words, I 
would not offer this to you, because ] am conscious of its 
imperfections. But there are very few catechiam^ that dif- 
fer in the substance ; whichever they leam, let them as they 
go have your help to under&taud it, aod let them keep it in 
memory to the last. 

Direct. XII. ' Next open to them more dUtinctly the par- 
ticular part of the covenant and catechism.' And here l 
think this method moat protitable for a family; !■ Rend 
over to them the best expositions that you ca^n get on the 
creed, the Lord's prayer, the ten coramaudmenls, which are 
not too large to confound them, nor too brief, so as to be 
hardly understood. For a summary, " Mr. Brinsley'n True 
Wfltch"is good ; but thus to rend to them, such aa " Mr. Per- 
kins on the Creed," and" Dr. King on the Lord's Prayer, "and 
" Dodd on the Commandmeuts," are fit ; so that you may read 
one article, one petition, and one commandment at a time ; 
and read the^e over to them dtvera timen. 2. Besides this 
in your familiar discourse with them, open to them plainly 
one head or article of religion at a time, and another the 
next time, and so on till you come to the end. And here 
(1.) Open in one discourse the nature of man and tlie crea- 
tion. (2.) In another (or before it) the nature and attri- 
butes of God. (3.) In another the fall of man, and especi- 
ally the corruption of oor nature, as it consisteth in an in- 
ordinate inclination to earthly and fleshly thingit, and a 
backwardness, or aversenesB, or enmity to God and holiness, 
and the life to come; and the nature of ain; and the im- 
posgibility of being saved till thia sin be pardoned, and these 
tiaturei) renewed, and restored to the love of God and holi- 
ness, from this love of the world and fleshly pleaauie*. (4.) 
In the next discourse, open to them the doctrine of redemp- 
tion in general, and the incarnation, and natures, and person 
of Christ, particularly. (6.) In the next, open the life of 
Christ, his fulfilling the law, and bis overcoming the temp- 
ter, his humble lift;, and contempt of the world, and the end 
of all, aod how he is exemplary and imitable unto us. (0.) 
In the next, open the whole humiliation and sullering of 
Christ, and the pretences of his persecutors, uad tlie ewls 
■ III) h a/ VoirerMl CotMOfd. and b.v ItMlf. 




aiid uses of huiauffering, deatb, and burial. (7.) In the next, 
open hisresurrectiuii. the prt>ofs. and the uses of it. (8.) Ittj 
the next, open his ascension, glory, and intcrccft»ii>a for usf] 
and ttje uses of all. (9.) In the next, open his kiugl;> and] 
prophetical offices in general, and his making the coveDantj 
of grace with vanu, (ind the nature of tlmt covenant, and Jta I 
effects, (10.) In the next, open the works or office of the 
Holy Ghost in general, as given by Christ to be his agent 
ie men on etuih, and his great witne^B to the world ; and 
particularly open the extraordinary gift of the Spirit to tlie 
prophets and apostles, to plant the churches, and indite, 
and »ea] the Holy Sciiptures ; and shew them the authority 
uud use of the Holy Scriptures. (11.) In the next, open to 
them the ordinary works of the Holy Ghost, as the illumi- 
nator, renewer, and sanctiher of souls, and in what order he 
doth all this, by the ministry of the Word. (12.) In the 
next, open to them the otfice, and use, and duty of the ordi- 
nary ministry, and their duty toward them, especially as 
henrers, and the nature aud use of public worship, and the 
nature and communion of saints and churches. (13.) In 
the next, open to them the nature and use of baptism, ant] 
the Lord's supper. (14.) In the next, open to them tlie 
shortness of life, and the state of aouU at death, and after 
death, and the day of judgment, and the Justification of the 
righteoije,and the condeninatloii of the wicked at that day. 
■(15.) In the next, open to them the joys of heaven, and the 
' tniseries of the damned. (16.) In the next, open to them 
the vanity of all the pleasure, and profits, and honour of 
I lliis world, and the method of temptations, and how to over- 
|.feome them. (17.) In the next, open to theui the reason and 
. ttse of liutfering for Chriet, and of self-denial, and how to 
iprepare for sickness and death. And after this, go over al- 
'bo the Lord's prayer, and the ten commandments. 

Direct, xiii. 'After all your instructions make them 

brie6y give you an account in their own words of what they 

understand suid remember of all ; or else the next time to 

(give an accotmt of tlie former.' And encourage them forall 

' that is well done in their endeavours. 

Direct, xiv. ' Labour in all to keep up a wakened, scri- 
i-OuH attention, and still to print upon their hearts the great- 
tflt thinga.' And to that end, for the matter of your teach- 



ing and discourse, Ut nothinK be so much in your mouths, 
as 1. The nature uud relations of God. 2. A cmcified and 
a gloiified Christ, with all his grace and privileges. 3. Tlie 
operations of llie Spirit on the soul. 4. The inadiiefts of 
Binnera, and the vanity of the world, o. And endltus glory 
and joy of saints, and misery of the ungodly after death. 
Let these five points be frequeutly urged, and be tlie life of 
all the rust of your discourse. And then for lIic uiauuer of 
your speaking to them, let it be always with such a mixture 
of faoiiliority and seriousness that may carry along their se- 
rious attenUous, whttht-r ihey will or no. Speak to them an 
if tht-y or you were dying, and &a if you saw God, and hea^ 
ven, and hell. 

Dirett. XV. 'Take each of them BometimcB by them- 
eelveSi and there describe to tlKiu the work of renovation, 
ood ask them, whether ever such a work was wrought upon 
them.' Sliew tliem the true markK of grace, and help tliem 
to try themitelves : urge them to tell you truly, whether their 
love to God or the creature, Lo heaven or earth, to holiness 
or Htish-pluutiiug be more : and what it la thai hnth their 
hearts, and cart^, and chief endeavour ; and if you find them 
regenerate, help to strengthen them. If you find them 
too much dejected, help to comfort tbeui; and if you find 
them unrftgenerate, help to convince them, and then to hutn- 
ble thorn, and (hen to shew Ihciu the remedy in Chrif>t, and 
then shew them their duty that they may have part ia Christ, 
and drive all home to the end that you desire to see: but do 
all this with love, and gentleness, and privacy. 

Direct. XVI. * Some pertinent queetions which by tlie an- 
swer will engage them to teach tliemselveK, or to judge 
themselves, will be sometimes of veiy great use.* As such 
u these ; " Do you not know that you must shortly die f 
Do you not believe that iromcdiatcly your souU must enter 
upon an endless life of joy or misery? Will worldly wealth 
and honours, or Heslily pleasures, be pleasant to you then? 
Had you then rather be a ^aint. or an ungodly sinner i Had 
you not theo rather be one of the holiest that the world des- 
pised and abused, than one of tlie greate.4t and richest of 
the wicked ! When time is past, aud you must give account 
of it, had you not then rather it had been spent in holines*, 
KOd obedience, and diligent preparation for the life to uoinn. 




than in pride, and pleasure, and pampering the fleith * How 
could you make shift to forget your endlesB life so long? 
Or to Bleep quietly in an unregenemte state? What if you 
had died before conversiin, whut think you lind become of 
you, and where had you now been ? Do you think that any 
of tho&e in hell are glad that they were ungodly ? Or hatt 
now any pleasure in their formermerrimeuts and sin? What 
tliink you they. would do, if it were all todo again? Do 
you think, if an angel or saint from heaven should come to 
decide the controversy between the godly and the wicked, 
that he would speak against a holy and heavenly life, or 
plead for a loose and Beshly lifcl Or which side think you 
he would take? Did not God know what he did when he 
made the Scriptures ? Is he, or an ungodly scomer to be 
more regarded ? Do you think every man in tlie world, will 
not wieb at last that he had been a saint, whatever it had 
cost him?" Such kind of questions urge the conscience, 
and much convince. 

Direct, xvii, ' Cause them to learn Bome one most plain 
and pertinent text, for every great and necessary duty, and 
against every great and dangerous sin ; and often to repeat 
them to you.* Ab Luke xiii. 3. 6. " Except yc repent, ye 
shall all perish." John iii. 5. " Except a man be born again 
of water and the Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of 
heaven. So Matt, xviii. 3. Rom. viii. 9. Heb. xii. 14. 
John iii. 16. Luke xviii. 1. &«. So against lying, swear- 
ing, taking God'tt name in vain, tieeh •pleasing, gluttony, 
pride, and the rest. 

Direct, xviii, * Drive all your convictions to a resolu- 
tion of endeavour and amendoient, and make them some- 
tiinea promise you to do that which you convinced them of;' 
and sometimes before witnesses. But let it be done with 
these necessary cautions. 1. That you urge not a promise 
in any doubtful point, or such aa you have not first con- 
vinced them of. 3. That you urge not a promise in things 
beyond their present strength : as you must not bid them 
promise you to believe, or to love God, or to be tender- 
hearted, or heaven lyminded ; but to do those duties which 
tend to these, as to hear the Word, or read, or pray, or mo- 
ditote, or keep good company, or avoid temptations, Slc.- 
3. That yon h« not too o^en upon this, ^or upon on« and 



the same «triua iu the other loethods) leet they take them but 
for words of coiirse, and custom teach them to contemn 
them. But seasoiiahly and prudently done their promises 
will lay a great engagement on them. 

nirtit. Jtix. • Teach them how to pray, by forms or 
without, as is moet suitable to their case and parts: and 
either yourself, or some that may inform you, should hear 
them pray sometimes, that you njay know their spirit, and 
how they ptoht.' 

Direct. XX. ' Put such books into their hands as are 
meeteet for them, and engage them to read them when they 
we alone ; and ask them what they understand or remember 
of them.' And hold them not without necessity eo hard to 
work, an to allow them no time for reading by themseLvea : 
but drive them on to work the harder, that they may have 
some time when tlieir work is done. 

Direct, XXI. 'Cause them to teach one another when 
they are together.* Let their talk be profitable. Let those 
that read best, be reading sometimes to the rest, and in- 
structing them, and furthering their edification. Their fa- 
miliarity might make them very useful to one another. 

Direcl. 5XII. 'Tire them not out with too much at onc«; 
but give it them as Ihcy can receive it.' Narrow-mouthed 
bottlea, mu6t not be filled as wider vcsaels. 

< Direct. X.XUI. ' Labour to make all Eweet and pleasant 
to them: and to that end sometimes mix the reading of 
some prolit&hio history :* as the " Book of Martyrs," aad 
" Clarke's Martyrology," and his " Lives." 

Direct. XXIV. ' Lantly, entice them with kindnesses and 
rewards.' Be kind to your children when they do well, and 
bctaaUberal to your servants as your condition will allow 
yDUi For this maketli your pcr&oni) acceptable first, oud 
then your instructions will be much more acceptable. Na- 
ture teactietli them to love those that love them, and do 
tit^ good. and. to hearken willingly to tho^ they love. A 
fuuall gift now luid Uicn, might signify much to the further 
beuefit of Lheir souls. 

b Direct. xx\. If auy Ahull aay, that hvrois oo much ado 
in all these Directions, as that few con (bllow them : I en- 
treat them to considt with Christ that died for them, whe- 
ther souls be not precious, and worth all tJiis ado ? And to 



consider how small a labour alt this ib, in comparison of the 
eperlasciii.g end ; and (o r(inieinh«r, that all is gnin and pt«a- 
sure, and a delight to those that have holy beartn ; and to 
remember, that the effects to the church aud kingdom, of 
such holy governraent of familieH, would quite over-compen- 
Gate all the pains. 


,, Kf. 1, Diredioits Jbr Prater m General. 

Ub that handlelh this duty of prayer as it dcserveth', must 
make it the second pari in the body of divinity, and allow it 
n larger and more exact tractate than I heve intend ; for 1 
have before told you, that as we have three natural fecul- 
ties, an understanding, will, and executive power, so these 
are qualified in the godly, with faith, love, and obedience ; 
aud have three particular rulea: the creed, to shew us. what 
■we must believe, and in what order: the Lord's "prayer, to 
shew us what, and in what order, we must desire and love : 
and the decalogue, to tell us what, and in what order we must 
do ; (though yet these are so near kia to one another, that 
the &a.w.e actions In several respects belong to each of the 
lulea). As the commandments must be believed and loved, 
as well aa obeyed, and the matter of the Lord's prayer rauat 
be believed to be good and necessary, as well as loved and 
desired ; aud belief, and love, and desire, are commanded, 
and are part of our obedience ; yet for all this, they are not 
formally the same, but divers. And as we any, that the 
heart or will is the man, as being the commanding faculty ; 
so morally the will, the love or desire is the Christian ; and 
therefore the rule of desire or prayer, is a, principal piirt of 
tiue religion : the internal port of this duty, I partly touch- 
ed before Part i. chap, 3. And the church part I told you, 
why I passed by Part ii. it being not lefl by the goveni- 
nwut where we live, to private ministers' discussion (save 

■ Thr Sioicitay, Onbit tapteiii at voIh t'liciM liuiiu s dlli pusiiilnDi. Lmti. 
hi Zvnnni?. Su tliut wlitii Sei)ec:i uitlli. Cur De>» jirpctbui rnligali*, tii:. lie only iii< 
teniii^th tn r«pr»Tc the ilniht'iii, tliui thiiik (u have nil dfinn ti; pr«v«r ainnf . whll* 
ilicy arc idle and neglccl ihc mcwiiw 


ouly to persuade men to obey wliat is established and cotn- 
manded). Tticrefore because 1 have omitted the latter, and 
but a little touched upon the former, 1 shall be the larger on 
it ia this place, to which (for eereral reasons) 1 have reserv- 
ed it. 

Direct. 1. 'See that yoa understand what prayer is. 
Even the expreBsing or acting of onr desires before another, 
to move, or some way procure him to grant them. True 
Chriatian prayer is, tlie believing and serious expressing or 
acting of our lawful desires before God, through Jesus our 
Mediator, by the help of the Holy Spirit, as a means to pro- 
cure of him, the grant of these desires.* Here note, 1. That 
iowai'd de»ire is the soul of prayer. 2. The expressions or 
inward actiuga of them, is as the body of prayer. 3. To 
men it must be desire so expressed, as tliey may understand 
it; but to God the inward acting of desires is a prayer, be- 
cause he understandetb it^ 4. But it is not the acting of 
desire, simply in itself that is any prayer: for he may .have 
desires, that oiTereth them not up to God with heart or 
voice, but it n desires, as &ome way offered up to God, or 
repreaeuied, or acted towards him, as a means tu procure his 
blessing, that is prayer indeed. 

Direct. II. ' See that you unilerstand the end»and use of 
prayer.* Some think that it is of no use, but only to move 
God to be willing of that which he was before unwilling of j 
and therefore because that God is immutable, they think 
that prayer isa useless thing. But prayer is useful. 1. As 
an act of obedience to God's command. 2. As the perfor- 
mance of a condition, without which he liath not promised 
us his mercy, ami to which he hath promised it. 3. As & 
means to actuate, and express, and increa»e our own humit- 
ity^ dependance, desire, tru-st and hope in God, nod so to 
make us capable and At for mercy, who eUe should be inca- 
[Htble and unfit. 4. And so, though God be not changed. 
by it in himself, yet the teal change that is made by it an 
ourselves, doth infer a change in God by mere relation or 
extrinsical denomination ; he being one that is, according 
to the tenour of his own established law and covenant, en- 
gaged to disown or punish the unbelieving prayerlcsH and 
disobedient, and after engaged to own or pardon Uiem that 

^ Ptrruiwiuc hociirenllnii) |i1ii> [([piiKilniO gciiiiTtbut qiM«i (rnniinlbin tj^nir, 
Au(u«. KpiiU ni. (Aiiri»i.O(«f.B<iirtlici. Edit. Y«i1. i.E|ii«. ISO. [.. .WO. T. C.} 



are faithfully de»iroua and obedient : and so this is a rela- 
tive, or at least a denominative cfaajige. So that, iu prayer, 
faith acii fervency, are 6o far from being useless, that they as 
much prevail for the thing desired by qualifying ourselves 
for it, as if indeed they moved the mind of God, to a real 
change : even as he that is in a boat, and hyhis hook layelh 
hold of the bank, doth as ti'uly by bis labour get nearer the 
baiik, as if he drew the bank to hiiu. 

Direct, in. ' Laboui' above all to know that God to whom 
you pray.' To know him as your Maker, your Redeemer, 
and your Regenerator; as your Owner, your Ruler, aad 
your Father, Felicity and Knd ; as all-sufficient for your re- 
lief, in the infinitenetiH of his power, his wisdom and hia 
goodness; and to know your own dependance on him; and 
to understand hie covenant or promises, upou what terms he 
ia engaged and resolved either to give his mercies, or to de- 
ny them. " He that comeUi to God, must believe that He 
Is, and that he is the rewarder of them that diligently seek 
him'." " He that callelh on the name of the Lord shall he 
saved: but how shall they call on him, on whom they have 
not believed ^." 

Direct, iv. * Labour when yon are about to pray, to stir 
up in your souk the most lively and serious belief of thostf 
unseea thlags that your prayers have respect to ; and to 
pray as if you saw them all the while: even as if you saw 
God in his glory, and eaw heaven and hell, the glorified and 
the damned, and Jesus Christ your Mediator interceding for 
you in the heavens.' As you. would pray if your eyes be- 
held all these, so strive to pray while you believe them : 
and Bay to yourselves, Are they not as sure as if I saw them? 
Are they not made known by tlie Son and Spirit of God! 

Direct. V. 'Labour for a constant acquaintance with 
yourselves, your sine and manifold waote and uecessities; 
and also to take an actual, special notice of your case, wheo 
you go to prayer.' If you get not a former constant au- 
quaintance with your own case, you cannot ejcpect to know 
it aright upon a sudden as you go to pray : and yet if yott-j 
do not actually survey your hearts and lives when you go 
to prayer, your souls will be unhumbled, and want that 
lively sense of your necessities, which must put life into 
jfour prayers. Know well what sin is, and what Cod's 
< Hell. a. «. * Bam. 1. 13. 14. 


CMltlSl'IAM UllttiC'roUY. [PAHt t/. 

wradi, and hell, and judgment are, and what sin you hare 
roiwmitted, and what duly you have omitted, and Tailed in, 
and what wants and corruptions are yet within ycni, and 
M^at mercy and grace you stand in need of, and then all 
ihia will make yau pray, and pray ta purpose with all yonr 
hearts. But when men are wilful strangers to themselreti, 
and never seriously look backwards or inwards to see what 
inauiiss and wanting; nor look forwards, to see the danger 
that is before them, no wonder i f their henrtt; be dead and 
dull, and if they ere as unlit to pray, as a. sleeping man to 
work •. 

Diivtt. VI. 'See that you hate hypocrisy, and let not 
your lip« go againet or without your hesirts ; but that vour 
hearts be the spring of all your word^ : that you lore not 
flin, and be nut loatl) to leure it, when you fieem to pray 
against it; and that you truly desire the grace which you 
risk, and auk not fur tliat which you would not have : and 
thnt you be ready to use the lawful means to get the mer- 
cies which you ask;' and be uot like those lazy wishers, 
thikt will pray God to give them increase aiharrest. when 
tbey lie in bed, and will neither plough or sow ; or that pray 
him to uave them from fire, or water, or danger, white they 
run tuto it, or will not he at the pains to go out of the viay, 
O what abundance of wretches do offer up hypocritic<J, 
mock prayers to Ood ! blaspheming him thereby, as if he 
were an idol, and knew not their hypocrisy, and seurcbetl 
not the hearts i Alas, how commonly do men pray in pub- 
lic," that the rest of their lives hereafter may be pure and ho- 
ly," that hate purity and holiness at the heart, and deride 
and oppose that which they seem to pray for? As Austin 
confesseth of lnm*elf before he was converted, that he pray- 
ed against his filthy sin, and yet was afraid lest Ood should 
grant his prayers. Romany pray against llie sins which they 
would nut be deli>cred from, or would not use the means 
that » necessary to their conquest and dclivctance." " Let 
him that nameth the name of Christ, depart from iniquity '." 
"ir I regard iniquity in my heart, the Lord will not hear 
me «." Alas, how easy is it for an ungodly person to Icam to 

* ButiMvipb*! iilii|u>iKfi> cam iiiipija. el quuin luiiiii lcMi|mi*lo, <]iiiil«rttii^ 
AMt, ini|i>'>i, n« voi lik llli ii»H|i;tr« tcndmii. Divg. Ucn* 

MUt.NCt. 80. p.Sl3. 
' S Ttm. M 19, 

Pwl.lsoi IIL »r<-£*.9,4. 14. 




say a few words by rot«, utd to run them ov«r, n-ithoatany 

sense of wkut he speaketh ; while the tongue is asUiuiger 
to the heart, and apeaketb uut according to itii desires. 

Direct, vii. ' Search yonr hearts and watch them care' 
fully, lest Bome beloved vanity alienate them ftom the worL 
in hand, and turn away your thoughts, or preposMSB yonr 
atfectionB, «o that you want them when you ahuuld use 
them-* If the mind be set on other matters, jirayer will be a 
hoartlesB. lifeless thing. Alas, what a dead and pitiful work, 
is the prayer of one that hath hie heart enenatcd ruiUi« tove 
of money, ur in any ambitious or covetous desigu f !l'ibtt 
thoughts will easily follow theaSections. 

Direct, vni. ' Be sure that you pray for nothing that is 
disBigreeable to the will of God, and that is not for the good 
of yourselves or others, or for the honour of God: and. there^ 
fore take heed, lest an en-iiig j udgaieut, or carnal desirsfi, or I 
passions should corrupt your prayers, and turn them into 
sin.' If meu will iguorantly pray to God lo do them burt,^ 
it ia a mercy to them if God will but patxlon and deny such 
prayers, and a judgment to grant them. And it is an easy 
thing for Beshly interest, or pari'iality, or passion to blind 
the judgment, and coiisetjuently to corrupt men's prayers. 
An ambitious or covetous man will easily be drawn lo prayi' 
fur the grant of his sinful desires, and think it would he for 
bia good. And there is scarce an heretical or erroneous peiy 
son, but thinketh that it would begood that the world were 
all reduced to his opinion, and all the opposers of it were< 
bonie down : there are few Kealous Antinomiaiis, Aoabapr, 
tists, or any other dividers of the church, but they put their 
opinions usually into their prayers, and plead with God foiHi 
the interest of their sects and errors : and it is like that th* ; 
Jews that had a persecuting zeal for God ''. did pray accor- 
ding to that zeal, ^s well ax. persecute : as it iji like that 
Paul himself prayed against the Clu-jstians, while he igno- 
rantly persecuted them. And tbey that think they do God 
service by killing hisi servants, no doubt would pray against 
them, as the Papiata and others do at this day. Br. utipt 
cially careful therefore that your judgments and deaipes bej* 
sound and holy, before you offer them up to God in prayor»j 
For it is a most vile abuse of God, to begof liim tn do tbaj' 
devirn work ; and, as most malicious and erroneous persons 

* Rom. ». t. 



[part II. 

do, to call faim to their help against himself, hie eervants 
and his cause. 

Direct, ix. 'Come always to God in th« humility that 
beseemeth a condemned sinner, and in the faith and bold- 
nesH fchat beseemeth a son, and a member of Chriot : do QO- 
thiag in the least conceit and confidence of a worthiness in 
youraelTes ; but be as confident in eveiy lawful request, as 
if you saw your glorified Mediator interceding for you with 
his Father.' Hope is the life of prayer and all endeavour, 
and Christ is the life of hope. If you pray and think you 
shall be never the better for it, your prayers will have little 
life. And there is no hope ofsuccesii, but through our pow- 
erful Intercessor. Therefore let both a crucified and glori- 
fied Christ, be always before your eyes in prayer; not in a 
picture, but in the thoughts ofa believing mind. Instead of& 
crucifix, let some swch sentence of Holy Scripture, be writ- 
ten before you, where you use to pray, as John xi. 17. " Go 
to my brethren aod say unto them, 1 ascend unto my Fa- 
ther and your Father, to my God and your God." Or Heb. 
IT. 14. " We have a great high priest that 18 passed into 
the heavens, Jesus tho Son of God :" ver. 13, 16. "that was 
in all points tempted as we are, yet without Hin : let us there- 
fore come boldly to the throne of grace, that we may ob- 
tain mercy''," &,c. " Which hope we have m an anchor of 
the Boul both sure and stedfast, and that entereth into that 
within the vail i whither the fore-runner is for us entered,'* 
•' He tit able to sare to the uttermost them that come to Ood 
by him, seeing he ever livelh to make irtrrcession for 
them '." " If ye ask any thing in my name, I will do il^:" 
ChriHt and the promise must be the ^ound of all your con- 
fidence and hope. 

Dimt. X. 'Labour hard with your hearts all the while 
to keep them In a reverent, aeriouH, fen-ent frame, and suffer 
them not to grow remiss and cold, to turn prayer into lip- 
labour, and lifeless formality, or into hypocritical, affected, 
seeming fervency, when the heart is senseless, though tho 
voice be earnest.' The heart will easily grow dull, and cug- 
tomary, and hypocritic»l if it be not carefully watched, and 
diligently followed and stirred up. "The effectual, fervent 
prayer ofa righteous man uvaileth much'." A cold prayer 
sbeweth a heart that is cold in desiring that which is prayed 

* Heb. rl. 9.30. 'Ileb.»ii. « ^ Joliii m. 13, 14. ' Juiwi r. |6. 

.V «i^r^ 



for, and therefore in unfit to receive the mercy ; God will 
make you know that his mercy is not contemptible, but 
vrurthy your most earnest prayers. 

Jhrect. XI. ' For the matter and ordtr of your desires 
and prayers, take the Lord's prayer as your special rule j 
and labour to uuderstand It wel)*".' For those that 
can make use of so brief an explication, I shall give a 
litUe help. 

A Brief Explication of the Method of the lAtrrfs Praj/er, 

Tlio Lord'i 

uiai^lh. 1. 
The lull! rciR 
or iwcfiicp 
■jr impli-Ml 

I. T<i whoiD 
the pmyer 
il mnde. 

1. Who he it : GO D : not Crpuiarcs, SsiiiH, uf Angeti. 


n. Who 

■M tbio pn- 
litinnnni — 

i. Hot rclot^ 
(am. he is OUR 
wliich cu^pn.*- 
beiidelli I'ucxlii- 

lUDIllull^, tlltft 

3. What he 
is in his nl- 
tribulct : 
Which iig- 
iiiliflh ibui 
iliorcfore he 

1, Our Ovrurr, or 

Abiuluiu Lord. 

3. Oui HuJui-, Of So- 

pr^niL' King. 

3. Our Beiipfttclor 

mid chief GocHJ. Odd 
«i fiiir Felicity mill 
uur £nd. 

1, Our CrT»- 


fc Out Re- 

3 Our H«^i 

neialof. (.lo 

[he (cgcuc 

1. Aloiishly jBlid.blpio f^^ „,i, ^^^ 
gniiit nil Itml wraiiK,Knd 
to reliovc and help lu in 
every ulniil. 

liimrts., ai;d wsnis, itid all 
thingi bfiing open m his 
liglit. i 

S. Mail Good : iiom \_ 
'whom, and bj iviiom, aiid 
Co ivliom Bie oil ihi'igs ; 
thci'uuntmn, the Diipo- 
mit.aiicllhtEiidof nil. ui> 
wh<i»o bouinj arid iullu- 
cncf all suMst. And 
IliP pnocnl lensc ' ART' 
doth iulimatchis Etrfmiy 

■utd is 
nol only implied nJl 
lUtac ultiibnlci of 
Gnd, bui Dim our 
hcarti ant dirfcled 
whitlier la louk for 
iticii* Tclirl' and di- 
recriun now, and 
their fclicily ti.'trTBr, 
and culled iiff I'rom 
Mirthl^ dc|ii>ii<luncca, 
uiid Mpeeialions of 
1iDp]iiiicM nnd mat : 
atiil lu look lor ii> 
fniiii liL-uven, nikd at 
h»l iiihcUVPIl. 

I. Msii! M to hii Being. 

1. By CrratKin; so «" nr* • 

111 therefore nil miiy lhii«lhr | 
e»ll hiia Fathar. 
i. By Rcdrniiiiiiin : ns 
HPP »! to ihe sufficient priM< 
and lalisfncliiin. 
3. By lUgecemiion ; and an | 
onlj ihfl RegeDeratBarpchil-l 

3. B,v Rein' 
liun, Gnd* 

I. HliOwn; 
i. 111!) Sub- 

jecl? : 

S. HUUeW- 
rdaiid tleno- 
fiiLiBriet, ihni 
I'li-e ujHiii him 
■nd M him. 
,B3 lliclr End. 

3. By 

1, Dcpcii- 

daut on Owl* i 

t. Xcceui' 


3. fiiiutcn. 

'■"8t''*^'="f All which 
F.iher. I i, ^i„j6- 

'^■\»cWe». »"«"■■.■ ^„t,rd 

J 3. Loving oihers, I q^j^ 

^BS hrclhteii. \_ 

rl. Lai' 
\ iheir F«l^ 
. 1 1 

» Of the niethod of thcLonls PfBjrr. «c B->n«. 'i' n^lig, ChriM. lih. iii.cap. 
3. ^ Ludolphtti de riuChrlMl.P«rt i. cap. 37. wiJ P*'''"" '" "'-'-•'on'- '^'^ "'• 
Iloyi on Iho I.iiurgy, pp. 5—7. 



tt. Tht 
Prewr, or 
Pfililniu. In 

two n«t> 
of whichr 

2. Fortltceni] 
r»ppetively in / 
the ioterrtt of' 

God, and tlist 

[. Tliclini 

Pjirl ia oc- 

conlinc to. 
the ufdcT of 
■nd Jttirc 


n. TTicSf. 

ttind Pact U 
Ibt otAvx i>f 

nriil !• I'lif 

the lu''nt,( 
inci w ct i il- 
ing. till llie 
f lu) Itni ro. 
(rlKtrd. be 
\tM Miuin- 
*■] : mul it 

/'j. F<jrtlioen<i«im|>lj;. wUcliliGOD; in the ■wd * TflV * 
repealed in eTt.-rj* twiilioo. 

'I. The liigfaMi iir utllmatr. tli«i U. ifarl^ 
n. rii»hij;1>Nt mmiunrhiiiglof?, ■ TTTY 
KtNGDOM COME;' llaiie. kl the 
worirltc subject \o tliirtlieirCn^aloTHiil 
n<:dpcmrr; tbo tiiiJTCCtal King. 
lil, Tlie next mt^ii", bcii« W't rffnct of 
iliij; -THY WrLL BK DONF-.tlu't 
it, Ice Iby likwt tic riulfiUod, nnd llijrdb- 
(, potals tuibminril Xa. 
3. For ihc Inwer eiiil, «von ihr iiibircl oflhoe means; 
wbicb ■ the iiublrc Eonl of miuiltiud, the worid umI 
flmrcli ! ' IN EARra,' tUt i», let Ilic wurlrf U* »i>b- 
jrciiri lo Ihce, iiiiit tlic duirch otwy th«* ; ""hleli nil! be 
'hp );n-iilVHl blruinB to tlic-m : ounrl w^, Mne included 
In ilie niirld. And ilic niriuujT utitl psilprn ii adilrd, 
■ AS IT IS IN Hli^AVEN,' liiul n. Icf tlic ewth be eun- 
ftirmcd *» iicar u nay be la ilif lioivciily pattcro. So 

^^atthl. part of (be Laird's Pmjrr, [JKiceedini; in the or- 
der of pie^-lJpntj mud mlmrinii, dircclcth ui 1 . To tnall« 
Gud Mir iitllniale, higheM eitd ; hiuI to doaie bii tnloreu 
Knt.Mid tnlhliatdcr,(l.)ili>E'fi7.(<'^ Hii kin^ont, 
(S.y Obndicii(« in M) Inwii. 11. To mako the public 
giKid ef tlic world (ind the cliurch, u-ur tiKt «ni] w being 
llio nnbJeil iDO«nK III, To indudc unr u«n intereit in 
and under Ihi., «itUe lout oT alii tkrofetdngfiM vat 

. own euiinEnt to that wliicli we deaiK ifnt for oliict). 

I. For ilK iiippori of our nature by iiecpuary meati) : 

Ixiii); God't tint gift, pceiupiitincil UjIJi to ^ace aad^o- 
ry. ' GIVE,' Mgoificih our depeudmic* on God for all. 
' VS,' imt charity, that *rdmm n'ltrffar oorseUeaand 
oiJiem. 'JJAILV (nr nititlantiMl)'RRE-UJ'' «ar too- 
dcialian; lliat ne desire not tinnecruattei or iiipat)iii> 
ticu -Tills DAY'.' tlw eoiwUiucj of o«r depciidaooe. 
Mild IhatHcdcilteoot, or cVBttKunutb for tl» future, and 
pRioiiH- nut tninelees long lile. 

3. ForcleaTui^ HI fiuui tliE |{uilt of all tin M>t(repaitanee 
anil ^itli being luTTP nmiipprited) ( nrhere b (1 .) The 
Tetitioii: 'AXD FORGIVE US OUR DEBTS "(tret- 
piiM(.-3 oriiiiO. (S.) TIjc tuiilive (romfliir uualificalion 
for farBircncM: ■ AS WEFORGH'E OtJRDESTDRS.' 
Witfioot irhrch Gixl "ill "ol furei*i: u». 

3. Forfotare preaenatiuii: <]-) From Ihe ineaNf, ' LEAD 
US NOT IKTO TEMPTATION ■' ibal i*, though then 
ira,*tt juilly try iw, yel fn"? •>"' (niilty, and nekher 
caawcrpernul u> mlo be tried, ai may leinpl ualo sia 
andrvbi. (t.}Ff^m Ihe e nd. ' BVT DELIYER US 
FROM THE EVIL;' thai i., 1. riie One, Salan 
(aiid l« iialiumciili). K. The evil thing: I. Hia. f. 
IVtimv. wtiieharr ^Blairaetid, He thai would be «««d 
rr<:<ni hell aiiil initerr. inuit be iBml rromllti: and he 
llint would be ivnd fruiu Lulti.niiiil be aared from ulaD 
anil rrMDlmqitatiuf. Qitt*4, But where areihc m^ttw 
fer|iatit!ic hsJuN**, ki«cc and heairn: Antte.t. Rr- 
pen^oeD utd faitb an aof pMcd in the petiikmer. f. 
, WlBlhe«i«M«ltiia»ik«ttn ilicDiree pelilioni of ihallrN 
Put, thai w« witti othm may uinrtify Gutft luiDr, and 

be Uw Mifajed) a^ Ilia kingdalu. and dti b!) «(ll, &<• 
Oiriil and a ilate ol inner, ire Gimlly in ibe Itrtt peliliva, 
* lurmll} iiitbe lecviid.MideafireMn-ly in tb«IhM> 


m, Tlw 

tba Kuon 
•Dd tcmti- 
dedrci. in 
thrir ulri< . 
atole cuj / 
•len; pmis-* 
ed : begin- 
niiiS St tlic 
lowrn. niid 
Mcrniling ro 
Ills liighni : 

L Wliall 
we i>nii«> ; 
or ihc nint-^ 
tcri orlnlc- 

11. Wlium i 
we [iraiiii>t \ 

m. The) 
duralkui: f 

1. Hii uiihenal reiri. 'TOR THINE ISTHEKIKO" 
DOM,' aJaiJiiiLsicrcd miiautly, afjetrrMy lo tliir mV 
jccla : uH uwc tliii abwlkitc obi-diciKC ^ wlwcoiunuuiil* 

«. Hiinwn pMiVctiojii, 'THF. I'OWF-R:" bcrtli rijflit und 
all-tuniciriir> : including liii DninticiciiccHiul i;c>ix)iitM, 
u well 01 (juitiipulriicc. 

3. His inmEn[ircljt-iuibIa cinrllcnc; Bud blcmtilije'**, m he 
ia t!iu uliininic rml "fin and all tbing» t 'AND TJIK 
GLORY.' Rom. li. .16. I Cor. x. 31. 

GOD, in the word ' THINK;" in him, Iho first tfliciiMit 
cnuM <if oil Ibingi, H< begin: bU hdp u llic ilirJi-rnt 
caiiiCi no Kvb : uiid in liiiii si tlic final cbuki wc tcr. 

• FOR EV£R AND EVER,' to rl«nilly : uid ' AMKK* 
ii llie eipTcBJon ofDurroiui-nt. For nrHiro, iiid llirdunh 
Him, uiul to liiin mte all ihiiigt : ri> Him b« glory lor 
cvirr, Aniea. Rojn.u. A6. 

So that it IB apparent that the method of the Lord's 
prayer is circular, partly nnalytical, and partly syiithetica] : 
beginning with God, and ending in God: beginning with 
8uch acknowledgments as are prerequisite to petition, and 
ending in those prai»ea nhich pHitiou and grace bestowed 
tend to : beginning our petitions for Ood's interest and the 
public good, according to the order of eatimalion and inten- 
tion, till we come to the mere means, and then beginning at 
the loweat. and ascending according to the order of oAecu- 
tion. Ai9 the blood passing Irom the greater to the smaller 
numerous vesgele, ia there received by the like, and repas- 
seth to its foimtain; euch a circular method mercy 
and duty, and consequently our desiree. 

THt. 2. Sojne Questions about Prayer answered. 

The refit of the general c^uestions ahout prayer, I think 
will be beet contrived into the rcftolviug of these following 

Quest. 1. ' In the Lord'tt prayer a directory only, or a 
form of words to be used by us inpraycr?' 

Answ- 1. It is principally the rule to guide our inward 
dcsircB. and outward expressions of them ; both for the 
matter, what we must desire, and for the order, which we 
must desire Britt and moiit. 2. But this rule in given iu a 
form of words, most apt to express the said matter and or- 
der. 3. And this form may fitly be used in due season by 
all, (ind more necessarily by aome. 4. But it was never in. 




tended to be the only words which we must use, no more 
thiut the creed ia the only words that we must use to expresB 
the doctrine of faith, or the decalogue the only words to •x- 
prtifis our duty by'". 

Quest. II. 'What need is there of nny other fonn of 
pmycr. if the Lord's prayer be perfect?' 

Atisw. BecauRcit is only a perfect summary, contwning 
but the general heads : and it is needful to be more particu- 
lar in our desirea; for univereals exist in particulars; 
and he that only namelh the general, and then another and 
another general, doth remember but few of the particulani. 
lie that shall eay, " 1 have sinned, and broken all thy com- 
mandments," doth generally coofesa every sin ; hut it is not 
true repentance, if it he not particwlar, foT this, and that, 
and the other sin ; at least as to the greater which may be 
rvmembered. He that shall say, " I believe all the Word of 
God, or I believe in God the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost," 
may know little what is in the Word of God, or what tlicse ge- 
nerals sigrufy, and therefore our faith must be more particu- 
lar. So must desires after grace he particular also: other- 
wise it were enough toaiik for mercy in the general. If yon 
say, that God km>weth what those general words sipiify, 
though we do not ; 1 answer, this is the PapistH* silly argu- 
ment for Latin prayera, God knoweth our desire* without 
liny expressions or prnyers at all, and he knoweth our wants 
without our deeirps. But it foUoweth not that prayers or 
desires are unnecessary. The exercise of our own repen- 
tance and desire doth make «a persons fit to receive for- 
giveness, and the grace desired ; wlieu the impenitent and 
those that desire it not are unAt. And it is no true repen- 
tance, when you say, " I nm sorry that 1 have sinned," but 
you know not, or remember not. wherein you have sinned, 
nor what your sin is ; and so repent not indeed of any one 
Bin at all. And 6o it is no true desire, that reacbelh not to 
the particular, necessary graces, which we must deiirvi 
though 1 know some few very quick, comprehensive minds 

•• bidcu bt Eut>>cliii AL-ianitr. Orig. p. 4), 4.1 thrwcih ihw titft(« Eos lk« 
Jwn pnjpd wiibonl liinnii, kikI thAl tira kiid the rlilm wtiii him, iCMyinl tiMM 
K furm which hftd cigliltpn bvncdklion* anil jiclitiuui, Uut a, Uic lliiw: (km ant) Om 
Ihrcrlui <oT t\ii! gUtr'tifin^ OihI. anijilie ml Imcrtucdlxc ibr pcnuiul u>d pabBc 
bcndiis. Ami pii|« 48. Tli*i rlitj ifilglu umit nmrorihcH, bui might add otWra. 



can in B tdoment tliink nf many particuiarn, when thc^ (ine 
bat general words : and I know tbiit sutnc ttmBlIer, leas ne- 
cessary tliiogB, may be f^Qeralty pasBed orer ; and ^eater 
ni»tter8 in a time of liaste, or when we, besides thoB« g(?»^ 
rals, do al^o uae particular Fe<[ue8ts. 

Quest. II). ' (b it lawful to pray in a feet form of ■wtfrds ? 

Amw. Nothing but very gi^eat igftorauoe can make you 
realty doubt of it ". Hath God any where forbid it? Yoa 
will say, that itis enough thathehath not commanded it. I 
answer, That in general he hath commondetl it t« all whose 
edificatiou itteniieth to, whr^n he commaiideth yoti, thai all 
be done to edification ; bat he hath given no particular com- 
mand, nor prohibition. Mo more he bath commanded 
you to pray in English, French, or Latin; nortosingpitatms 
in thia tune or that ; nor after thie or that version i>r trans- 
lation ; nor to preach in this method pai-ticularly or that ; 
nor always to preach upon a text ; nor to use written nnteu ; 
nor to compose a form of wortU, and learn thvin, and preach 
them aftertheyaiecomposed, with a hundred auchlike, which 
are undoubtedly lawful t yea, and needful to »otii«, thuuck 
not to others. If yoa mnkc «p all yourprayer of Scriptnre 
sentances, this is to pray in a form of prescribed wori^K, and 
yet M.& lawful and fit as any of your own. The pBalmn are 
most of them forms of prayer or praiae, which the Spirit of] 
Ood indited for tlie use of the church, andof parlicuiar per- 
soQfi. It Would he eaey to i\l\ many pages with larger roa- 
flonings, and Hnswern to all the fallaciauB iibjections that 
are brought against tbini but I will not so far weary the 
reader and myself. 

Quest. IV. ' Bnt tu-e those fonna lawfnl which are pic- 
ftoribed by others, and not by God?' 

Armp. Yea ; or else it would be unlawful for a child or 
aoholar to use a form preacrihed by hia parents or master. 
And to think that a thing lawful doth presently become nn- ' 
lawful, because a parent, master, pastor, or prince doth pre- 
scribe it or command it, is a conceit that I will not wrong 
my reader »o far, as to Bnppose him guilty of. Indeed if | 
an usurper, that hath no authority over us in tiuch matters, 

■ Rre SrUku abl tupni, |inn-ing thnt the Jew* had atbdnuf prsjrr)3iKf Ein>'» 
linir: Iherefufe H wu in Chriil'i ciin«. Y«l lir uid lilmpcnllo JinumI with tiirm, 
and neTiCr coiitniilictrd or blanwd ibam Top Ibrint. 




do prescribe it, we are not bouod to fonnn) obeflience, that 
i«, to do it therefore because he commandelh it; bot jet I 
majr be bound to it on some other accounts ; and though 
bU command do not bind me, yet it maketb not the thing it- 
self uolavful. 

Quat. V. ' But is it lawful to pray extempore without a 
premeditated form of words V 

Ansa. No Christian of competent understanding doiibt- 
etb of it. We must premeditate on our w&nti, and sine, 
and the graces and mercica we deeire, and the God we speak 
to; and we must be iible to express these things without 
any loathsome and unfit expresgions. But whether thr 
words are fore-contrived or not, is a thing that God hath no 
more bound you to by any '»""■ than whether the speaker or 
heareritehnll use sefmon-nutes, or whether your Bibles shall 
be written or in print. 

Quest. VI. ' If both ways be lawful, which is better?' 

Atiatc. If you are Lo join with others in the church, that 
is better to you which the pastor then useth : for it is his 
office and ant yours to word the prayers which be put« up 
to God. And if he choose a form, (whetlier it be as most 
agreeable to his parts, or to his people, or for concord with 
other churohes, or for obedience to governor)), or to avoid 
some greaterinconvenience,)yocimu8t join with him, or not 
join thereat all". But if it be in private, where you are the 
speaker yourself, you must take that way that is most 
to your own edification, (and to others, if you hare auditors 
joining; with you). One man is so unused to prayer (being 
ignorantly bred,) or of such unready memory or erpression, 
that he cannot remember tbe tenth pert so much ofhis par- 
ticular wants, without the help of a form, as with it; iKir 
caii he enpress it no aflectingly for himself or others; nay, 
perhaps not in tolerable words. And a form to such a msut 
may be a duty ; as to a dim-sighted man to read by spec- 
tacles, or tu an unready preacher to use prepared words and 
notes. And unotlicr man may have need of no such helps ; 
niLy.wheniieiii habituated in the understanding and feeling of 
his sins and wonts, and halli a tongue that is used to ex- 

" Thnc or Ibui of iIkk cwo m to cbnrdi-prijon mn men \»iseiy uawMMt 
■dcrmuri, Pati ill. SocMlot aliw Oiu* ikorDin pmukmci, InvocalkaieMfiw onh- 
HiJpdu Ubc- iMien. ill Sirratc. tU>. iLitcl. tr. |> 109. 



press his mind even in these niatLers, witb readiness and fa^ 
ciliCy. it will greatly hinder the fervor of such a man's afTec-tj 
tiona, to tie himself to premeditated words ; to say the con*'] 
ti'ary, is to speak against the coouuon sense and experlencA ' 
of 8uch speakers and their hearers. And let them that yeC 
deride this as uncertain and inconsiderate praying, but mark 
themselves, whether they cannot if they be hungry beg for 
bread, or ask help of their phytsician, or lawyer, or landlord, 
or any other, as well without a learned or studied form, an 
with it? Who knoweth not that it is true which the neWi 
philosopher saith ; Cartes, de Passion, part i. art. 44. ' Et 
cum inter loqiiendam solum cogitanius de sensu illiuK rei, 
quam dicere volumus, id facit ut moveamus linguam et labra 
celerius et melius, q^uam si cogitaremus ea movere oiiinibua 
modis reqiuBitis ad prolerenda eadem verba; quia habitus 
quern acquisivimus cum disceremus loqui,' tk.c. Turning 
the thoughts too solicitously from the matter to the words, 
doth not only mortify the prayers of many, and turn them' 
into a dead form, but also maketh them more dry and bar-' 
ren even as to the words themselves. The iieavy charge aud- 
bitter, scornful words which have been too common in this 
age, against praying without a set form by some, and against 
praying with a book or form by others, is so dishonourable 
a symptom or diaguostic of the church's sickness, as must 
needs be matter of shame and sorrow to the sounder, under- 
standing part. For it cannot be denied, but it proveth 
men'» understandings and charity to be both extremely low. 

Quest, vn. ' Must we always pray according to the me- 
thod of the Lord's prayer, and is it a sin to do otherwise?" 

Answ. I. The Lord's prayer is first a rule for your de- 
sires: and it U a sin, if your desires foLloiv not that me- 
thod. If you do not begin in your desires with God, as 
your ultimate end, and if you first desire not his glo- 
ry, and then the flourishing of his kingdom, and then 
the obeying of his taws, and herein the public welfare of the 
world, before and above your particular benefit. . And it is 
a sin if you desire not your daily bread (or necessary sup- 
port of nature), as a lower mercy in order to your higher spi- 
ritual mercies ; and if you deeirc not giurdon of s'la, as a 
means to your future sanctity, duty, and felicity i and if you 
desire not these, hb a means to the glory of Godj and tak« 



nut his praisesas tbohigheat part of your prayers. But for 
the expreaaiog of these desirest paitioulor occasions may 
warraot you ofttimes to hegiu in anQtl:ker order: as wht-u 
yon pray for the sick, or pray for diseclions, or a blessiug 
before a sermon or some particular work, you may begin 
iukI end wilh the subject tbsit is before you, as the pruyura 
ofhoLy naeD in all agesbavedone. 2. YoamQatdistmguisJi 
also, RK between deslreaaod ^preasions, sobeLwetinan uni- 
versal niid a particular pmyar. The one contaioetli all tb« 
inrts of prayer, aod the otlicr is but about some one aubjcui 
or pnrt, or but aoiue few ; this last being but one or few, paf- 
tiouUr petitions caimot pOitaibLy be uU^red ia the method 
of an untver^ prayer which hath aJl the parts. Tbeie is 
no one petiticiti in tliu Lurd's piayer, but may be madi: a 
pruycritaelf ; aud tlieu it cannot have the other petitions aa 
parte. 3. And you must distint^ish between the even and 
ordinary cast; of a Christian, and hii^ extraordinary oase, 
Vflien soTue Hpecial reason, afiucttDU. or accident call- 
»tli hiu) to look Eoofti to aoDie one particular. lu his eveu 
aud ordinary case, ev^ry uitiverttal prayer should be ex- 
presBcd in tho mt-thod.of the Lord's prayer ; but in caaea of 
special reason and inctiivement it may be otherwise. 

Qitesi. VIII, ' Must »e pray alwny:) when (lift Spirit uiuv- 
cUt UB, and only then, or as rea&on guideth uo V 

Amw> There are two sorts of the Spirit'b laotioos ; the 
onu lit by extraordiiiiiry luidpiratiun or impuit>e, i^it he lotuvet} 
ttw prophets aitd apostles, to reveal new laws, oi prec«ptaj 
Of events, or t<i do some actimis without respect tu auy other 
commantl than tlm int>ptmtinn it)>«lf. This Christiana are 
not now to expeot, because experience tcUeth us that it ia 
ccavcd ; or if any should pretend to it us not yet ceased, in 
the predictiun of evenljj, and direction iu some tbiugs uthur- 
wiiw iQdillcrcnt,yet it is most certain that it iit cca^^td an to 
legislation ; lor the Spirit it«ctf hath already given iis those 
Ian», which be hath declared to be perfect, and uiwh&a{;e> 
able till the end of the world. The otlier sort of the Spirit's 
working, ia not tonaakvnew tawa or duties, but to guide and 
quicken us to the doing of that which is our duty before by 
the lawfiuhready made. Alul theae are tbe motionn thul all 
true ChiiiiLr4nii> wust now expert. By which you ui»y >)««, 
that the Spirit and reaaon are not to be here diajoined, much 



tsas opposed. Afi reason gufficeth not williouL ihe bpirii. 
being daik ajkd ^aeep ^ so th« Spirit worketh not on the. 
will but by the reason : he movoth aot a man as a beast ot 
stone, to do a thing be knoweth not why, but by illumiaa" 
tioa giveth btm tbe fioimdesL i-easou for the doing: of it. 
And duty is first duty bt-fbro we do it i and vihfnx by one 
own sin we forfeit the special notions or help of the Spirit, 
duty doth not thereby cea^c to be duty, nor our omiiision to 
be ain. ]f the Spirit of God teach you to discern the meet- 
Gst season for prayer, by considering youi afiairs, and when 
yuu are moat ft&f^ tbi^ is not to be denied to be the work of 
the Spirit, because it is cattotial, (an fujiatic t;uthu»i«Bts 
imagine). And if you are morcd to pray in a crowd of bu- 
avnesfi, or »A aay time wh«a reuaoti eau prove Chat it in not 
your duty but your ain, the same r«a»OQ proveth that it was 
not the Spirit of God tbnt moved you to it : for tbe Spirit 
in tbe heart is not ciintrary to> the Spirit in the Scripture. 
Set upon tbe duty which the Spirit in the Scnptsre com* 
niandeth you, and then you may be 6ute that you obey the 
Spirit: otherwiaeyoii disobey it. Yea, if yourhenrlB be'cold, 
pruyer is a more likely means to warm them, than the omis- 
aion ofit. To ask whether you iiiuy pray while your tiearla 
are cold and backward, is as to A»k whether ynu otay labour 
or coDkc (o tJie See l>eJore you arc warm. God's Spirit is 
more likely to help you in duty, than in the neglect of it. 

Qual. IX. ' May a man pray that hath no desire at all 
of (he grace which he prayeth fori' 

Aiaw. No ; because it ia no pvuyei but diE&emblingf 
and dissembling is no duty. He that asketb for tiiac which 
he would uot, doth lie to God in his hypocrisy. But 
if a maa bavu but coUl and conwion desires (though they 
reach uot to that which, will prove them evidences of true' 
grace), be may pray aiid express thot^e desires wbich tlf 

Quest. X. ' May a man pray that donbteth of his intereiil 
in Qod, and dare not call him tbthcr ax his cbild ?' 

Atttw, I- There ia a common intereiit in God, which all 
^^B< Stankind have, an he h good to all, and a£ hia mercy through 
^^^^ Christ iu offered to all: and ihiis those that are not rcgenc- 
B rate iire his children by creation, and by participation of 

I his mercy i aud they nuty both call him father nod pray to 


himBcir, though yet they are unregenerate''. 2, Ood hath 
an interest in you, when you have no special interest in 
him : therefore his command must be obeyed, which bids 
you pray. 3. Groundleaa doubts will not disoblige you 
from your duty ; else men might free themselves from almost 
all their obedieuce. 

Quett, XI. *May a wicked or unregenerate man pray,: 
and 18 he acoepted? Or is not his prayer abonuBahle to 

Aiisic. 1. A wicked man aa a wicked man, can pray no 
how hut wickedly, tha.t is, he askelli only for things unlaw- 
ful to be iisked, or for lawful things to unlawful ends; und 
this 15 still abominable to God". 3. A wicked man may 
hare in him i*orae good that proc.«cdeth from common 
grace, and this he may be obliged to exercise4 and (to by 
pr*yev to express his desires so far as tliey are good. 3. A 
wicked man's wicked prayers are never accepted ; but a 
wicked maD's prayers which Ate for good thiii^,ftom cona— 
mon grace, ore so fai' accepted as tliat they are some meant^ 
conducing to hi^ reFormaliou, and though his person b« 
still uDJustified.and these prayers sinful, yet the total omia- 
sioi) of them is a greater sin. 4. A wicked man is bounti 
at once to repent and pray '. And whenever God bids hiiu 
twk for grace, he bida him desire grace; and to bid hitu 
pray, is to bid liim repent and be of a better mind: there- 
fore thoBc that reprove ministers for persuading wicked 
men to pray, reprove them for persiuading them to lepeu-' 
tance and good desires. But if they pray wttboui that re- 
p«»tanc6 which God and man exhort tJiem to, the itin in 
theirs: hut all tJieir labour is not lent if their desires fall 
short of buviiig eiucerity ; tfa<;y are under obligations to 
many duUcu, which tend to bring them nearer Christ, and 
which they may dn without special, saving grace. 

Quesl.xii. ' May a wicked man pray the Lord's prayer. 
or be uxhortcd to use it V 

Aific. 1. The Lord's prayer in it» full and proptr sens*, 
must be spoken by a penitent, believing, justilied person*; 

r ]>Ml.iltt.9. ziiLl, JoJiiili.i. Jn.i«u.». UaL 
ii. 10. 

«Acui«. 17. Kvii. 17. «iil.«9. lU. ki«. 4. 
' Adi >iu. vt. Ih- >▼' 6, 7. 
Iktr-ii. 6. Rom, i. H> 



for in the full seuse no one el&e can r.alt him 'Our Father,* 
(though in a limited sense the ivicked may) ; and they can- 
not desire the glory of God, niid the comtiig of his king- 
dom, nor the doing of his will on eartli as it is in heaven, 
and this sincerely, without true grace : (especially those ene- 
mies of holiness, that think tt too much stiictueBs to do 
God's will on earth, ten thnnsiind dcgreen lower than it is 
done in heaven). Nor can they put up one petition of that 
prayer sincerely according to the proper sense; no not to 
pray for their duily bread, as a means vf their support while 
they are doing the will of God, and seeking first his glory 
and his kingdom. But yet it is possible for theui to speak 
these words from such common desires as are not so bad as 
none at all. 

Qttest.xiti. 'Hit idolatry to pray tc» saints or angels! 
or 18 it always sinful?' 

Amw. 1 love not to be too nuarrelsorae with other men's 
devotions; but). I see not how praying to en u.ngel or tf 
departed saint can be excused from sin '. Because it sup- 
pofleth' them to be every where present, or to be omniscient, 
and to know the heart, yea to know at once the hearts of all 
men ; or else the speaker pretendcth to know when the 
saint or angel is present and heareth him, and when nut : 
and because the Scripture doth no where signify that God 
would have us pray to any such saints or angels ; but sig- 
nifieth enough to satisfy us to the contrary. 2. But all 
prayer to them is not idolatry, but some is, and therefore 
we must diBtinguish, if we will judge righteously. (1.) To 
pray to saints or angeU as supposed omnipresent, omnis- 
cient, or omnipotent, is flat idolatry. (2.) To pray to them 
to forgive us our sins against God, or to justify, or sanctify, 
or redeem, or »ave us from hell, or any thing which belong- 
eth to God only to do, is no better than idolatry. (3.) But 
to pray to them only to do that which belongeth to the 
guardian, or charitable ofHce that ia committed to them, 
and to think that though they are not omnipresent nor om- 
niscient, nor you know not whether they hear you at thie 
time or not, yet you will venture your prayers at uncer- 
tainty, it being hut s.o much labour lortti this* 1 take to bu 

■ I'mI-IxlV. Iu. lilii. 16. Vaal. r.ilr. 10. t Kiiiy» vuJ.Si). Xttai.ti- 
Rum. viii. iff. \. 14. FmI, \»\i. A. Mull. I*. 9 



ttiafully supcn^litiouB, hut not idolatry ". (4.) But to pray 
to living saints or sianere, fortbai which bulung<;Gi U> Uiem 
to give, in nu sin at alt. 

Quest. XIV. ' Is B m&Q bouEul to pray ordinncily ia bit 
iamily V 

Ansui. 1 have aoswered this affirmatively before, and 
proTcd it; one grain of grace vrould answer it b«tler than 
atgumeiita caa do. 

Qtteni, XV. ' Must the same man pray secretly that hath 
prayed with his family or with others ?' 

Atisfg}. \. Diytinj^tJKh between those tlmt were Lho ep«ak- 
L-nt,aQd those that were not; and 2. Between tho»e that haw 
Leisure from greater or more urgent duties, and those that 
have not. And so, (1.) Those that are free from the ui- 
goncy of all other duties, which at that time are greater, 
Hhoutd pray both in the family and in secret^ espentally iS 
they were not themselves the speakers, a^ually they will 
irare the more need of secret prayec; because their hearts 
in public may more easily flag, and much of their case tuny 
be omitted. (2.) But those that have more- urgent, greater 
duties, may take up at that time" with fuuiily-prayer alooe 
(with secret eiaciilationo; especially if they were the speak> 
era) ; having there put up the aame requests as tliey would 
do in aecret. 

Qag$t. x.vt. ' la it best to ke«p net hours, fur prayer, oc to 
take the time which is littutit ut present.'' 

Antw^ Ucdiuartly set timea will prove the iilte&i tinkcsi 
and to U'ftve the time undetermined and uncertain, will put 
all out of order, and multiply iutpe^linKotM, ajid hinder duty. 
Bat yet when extraurdinary cuKeci make the ordinary tima 
unfit, a fitter tiuu: niUBt be (akeu. 

Qucit. xvii. ' Ls it Uwful to join iu t^ttily (o« cht»tch> 
prayors with ungodly men/' 

Anna. I join both tou;eUier, becati»e the cases little dif- 
fer; iiC the pastor hath the govenimeut of the people ta 
church-vporship> lus tlie tuaatcrof the faiaily hath in fauiily- 
worship : you may dioose at firat whether you will heft 
momher of the church or fiunily <if you wcr« oot bora, t* it 
aa your privilege). But when yuu are a member of either, 
you uuiat be govemcd a^ mcuib<^r£i. And to the caae, 1. 

• tW«.xiit.S,9. CuLti.10. ■ AlMkiktrliiv bvi- ■iilMtin*.' 



You must (liatin^iHh between professed wicked men, vad 
those tbat sin against tbe profemuon. 2. And between a 
faniily (ov churcJi) that is totally wicked, and that which is 
mixfd of good and bad. 3. And b«tw«eu ttiosc wicked 
meu whose preseuoe is your Bin, because you have power 
tu remove them, and those whuM» pnistutue is not your sin, 
nor the matter in your power. 4. And between ore that 
may yet choose of whatfanuly he will be, aad one that may 
not. And ao I answer, (1.) 11' Ltbdthe fault of the iuai>t«r 
of the family (or th« pastors of tbe church) that such wicked 
men are there, and not c^aat out, then it is their siu to joia 
with them, because it i» their duty to remove thtim ; but 
that ia not the ca«e of the fellow-sorvants (or people), Uiat 
have no power. (2.) If thai wicked men profess their wick- 
edness, after sufficient admonition, you must professedly 
disown communion with theui; and then you are tuorally 
separated and discharged, wh«a you hfcve no power locally 
to Bcparate. (3.) It is your sin to fly from your duty, be- 
cause a wicked man is there, whom you have no power to 
remove. (4.) There are many praycifi that a wicked man is 
bound to put up to God ; and you must not omit your duty, 
because he ptfrforraetli his, though faultily: melhiidis you 
BbuuM more scruple joining or conversing with uue that 
forsakeUi prayer (which is the greater sin) than with one 
that prnyetb. (.5.> But if you are fi'ee to choose, you are to 
be blauicd if you will not choose a better family (orchurch) 
(other things being equal): especially if all tlie company 
be wicked. 

QkcsI. xviit. ' But what if tlie master of a family (oi 
pastor) be a heretic or ungodly Y 

A>»i?s. You mui^t dintinguish between hi& personal faults, 
and tbe faults of hi& performance or worslii]). His pergonal 
faultN (euchas swearing or drunkenness. &c.) you miiU dis- 
own, and must not chooae a mafttfr (or pastor) that is such, 
while you have your choice^ and may have better: but 
oUierwioe it is lawful to Join with him in doing good, though 
not iuevil. Butif the faultof his duty itself be intolerable 
you must not join with him: now it ia intolerable in thvse 
cases. 1. In caiio he be utterly unable to express a prayer, 
and so make it no prayer. 2. In ca»e lie bend his prayers 
against godliness, and known truth, and chaxity, and peace, 



and so make hia prayers but tli« in^truiucaU of iiiischicr, to 
vent heresy, or malice, and do more hurt tlian good to others. 

Quest. XII. ' May we pray absolutely for outward mer- 
cies, or oitly conditionally V 

Amos. You must diBtiDguish, 1. Between a condition 
spoken of the subject, when we are uncertain whether it be 
a mercy or not, and an extrinsic conditiuti of the grant, 2. 
Between a condition of prayer, and a coudition of expecta- 
tion. 3. Between submission to God';* will, and a condi- 
tional desire or prayer. And »o I Enswer, (1.) It i» neces- 
sary when we are uncertain whether the thingitself b« i^ucd 
or not, that we pray with a sabjcclive conditioiialily. ' Grant 
this if it be good:' or ' If it be not good I do not pray for 
it,' For it is presupposed in prayer that we know the thing 
prayed for to be good. (2.) But when we know the thing 
tu be a mercy and good, we may pray for it abiiolutely. (3.) 
But we may not believe that we tthall receive ail with an al>- 
soUite expectation, which wc absolutely pray for. For 
prayer being the expregsion of desire, that which may be 
abitolutely desired, though not absolutely promised, maybe 
absolutely prayed for. (As our increase or strength of grace, 
or the conversion of our relations, &c.) (4.) But yet alt 
anch muHt be asked with a eubmiiiiiion to the will of God : 
but that maketh it not properly a conditional form of pray- 
ing ; fur when the nature ofpraycr is as it were to move the 
will of God, it is nut bo proper to nay, ' Kord, do this if it 
be thy will already;' or * Lord, be pleased to do this if il 
be thy pleasure,' as to say, 'Lord, grant this mercy i 
but if thou deny it, it is my duty to submit.' So Christ 
mcntioncth both the auhjectiTc uonditionality and the sub- 
mission of bis will. " If it be possible let thi4 c»]) paan from 
me : nevertheless not as 1 will, but as thou wilt^ As il' 
h« had said. Nature requiretb me with a simple nolition to 
he unwilling of the Buffering, and if il be consistent with 
the desired end of my mediatorBbip, to be deKtroua to avoid 
it: but seeing that cannot be, my comparing will comuuDd- 
etb this simple will of self-protervation to submit to tby 
most perfect wilL But if any call this Csubmission) a con- 
dition, Uiu tualtvr ift not i;rcaL 



Quist. XX. * May wc pray for all that we may lawfully 

Aww. No: for prayer is UDt only an eicpresMioti of de- 
sire, but also a means to attain the thing deaiicd. And 
some thingB may be lawfully desired (at least willi a siuiijle 
velleity), wliich may not be sought, because they muxt not 
be hoped for, where God hath said that he will not grant 
them. For it is vain to seek, that which you have no hope 
to hnd: as to desire to see the conversion of the whulu 
world, or to pass to heaven as Enoch without dying, are 
lawful (by a simple velleity) : but all things compared, it 
h not lawful peremptorily to desire it, without submission ; 
and therefore not to aak it. It is the expression of a com- 
parate, determinate desire, which is properly called prayer, 
being the use of means for the obtaining of that desire; and 
whatsoever I may so desire, I may pray for ; for if there be 
no hope of it, I may not so desire it. But the desire by 
way of simple velleity may not be put into a proper prayer, 
when there is no hope. I must have a simple desire (with 
euhmission) to attain a sinless perfection here, even this 
hour ; but because theie is no hope, I may not let it pro- 
ceed to a determinate peremptory deuire upon a compar- 
ing jud^^ent, uor into a proper prayer. And yet these vel- 
leities may be expressed in prayer, though they have not 
the full nature of a prayer. Ottject. ' But was not Christ's a 
prayer?* Amw. Either Christ as a man was certain thai 
the cup must not pass frum him, or uncertain. If you could 
prove him uncertain, then it is a proper prayer (with Bubmin- 
sion to his Father's will;) but if he was certain tliat it wan 
not to pass from him, then it was analogically only a prayer, 
it bein^ but a. representing of his velleity, to bis Fattier, 
and not ofhis determinate will, nor was any means to attain 
that end : and indeed such it was, as if he had said, Father 
if it had stood with the ends of my office and thy will, I 
would have aaked this of thee ; hut hecauae it doth not, I 
submit. And tliis much we may do. 

Qiust. XXI. ' How then can we pray for tlie salvation of 
all the world? must it be for all men collectively? or only 
for some, excluding no numerical denominate person?' 

Aasw. Juat as Christ prayed here in tliis text, we must 
express our simple velleity of it to God, as a thing that in 



itxelf is mottt desirable (ns the passing of thi- cuf) wan nnto 
Christ) : but we caonot express a determinate volition, by 
a liilt |]rs]rer, nuch zs has any tendency an a Diean» io attain 
tiiulend; because we are certain that God's %rill ia ftgaioftt 
it, or that it will not be. 

Qma. stxii. 'May we pray for the oonvemion of all 
the natioDH of the world to Christianity, with a hopeful 

A71S10. Yes: For we are not certain tiittt «vn'y nation 
Bhall not bo so converted, though it be improbable. 

Quest, xxiii. ' May we pray in liope of a proper prayer 
(as a means to obtain it) that a whole kingdom may be ail 
Iraly conyerted and saved?' 

kMSW. Yes: for Ood hath on wuy told ufl that it shall 
not be ; though it bo a thing improbable, it is not impniwi- 
ble; and therefore being greatly desirable may be prayed 
for. Though Clirist bus told us that bin flnck ia little, and 
few find the way of life, yet that may stand with the aaJra- 
tion of a kingdom. 

Quest. XXIV. • May wt! pray for the destruction of Uic 
enemies of Christ, or of the Gospel, or of the king ?* 

Arutp, Not with respect to tliat which is culled God's 
antecedent will, for KO we ought first to pray for tlieir coo- 
version (and reHtraint till then); bnt with respect to tiitt 
called his coofiequeut will wc may ; that is, we must Ant 
pray tliat thuy may be restrained and convorted, and sc- 
oondly, that if not, they may be destroyed. 

Qntst. XXV. • What is to be thoup;ht ofthot which some 
call a particular faith in prayer f If 1 can hnnly believe 
that a lawful prayer shall be granted in kind, may I not be 
sure by a divine faith ttmt it shall be so V 

Attsw, Belief hath relation to a tefitioiony or revelation. 
Prayer may be warranted as lawfal, if the thing be desirable, 
and there W any possibility of obtaining it, though there be 
no certainty, or flat promise; but faith or expectutioo muiit 
be warranted by the promise. If God have prou^ised you 
the thin(;prfty«d for, you may believe that you shall receive 
it : otherwise your particular faith is a fancy, or a believing 
of yourselves, and not a believing God that never proraiiM] 
you the thing. OAfvcf. Matt. xxi. 22. " And all things 
wbatsoerer you ask in prayer, believing, ye shall receive." 



Ansm. Th«re are rvro Horts of ftiith : the one n. belief tbnt is 
ordinaiy, having respect to oriiioary promlnoi aiul mercies: 
the text can be uadeiBtood of tJits in no other seiue thua 
this : * All ^iiigft which I hnvt^ prouiisod yon, you sball re- 
ceive, if you ask tliein believiiigly.' 'Bat thi» in nothing to 
that which is not promised. The other laith vnts extraor- 
dinary, in order to ths working of miracles : and this faith 
was a poteiit inward confidence, which was nut in the power 
of the person when he pleased, but waa given like an iospi- 
ration by the . Spirit of God, when a inLraote was to be 
wrought ; and tliis seemelh to be it that is spuktrn ofin the 
text. And this wa^ built on this extraordinary prouuse, 
which was made not to nil men in all Kges, but to those 
limes when the Gospel was to be sealed and deLirered by 
miracles ; and especially to the apostles. So that in theite 
tioKs, there is neither such a promise of our working mira- 
cles ae they had to boheve, nor yet ft power to exercise that 
Bort of extraordinary I'oitb. Therefore a strong conceit 
(though it conie in a fervent pray«r) UkU any thing shall 
come to pass, which we cannot prove by any promise or 
prophecy, is not lu be called any act of diTine fuith at aU> 
nor to be trusted to. 

Quest. XXVI. ' But must we not believe tlmL every law- 
Ail prayer ii accepted and heard of God ?' 

Anfio. Yes: but not that it should be granted in tlie 
very thing, unless ao promised : but you may believe that 
your prayer ie not lost, and that it shall be a meana of that 
which tendethto your good". 

Utiieil. KXVI1. ' With what faith must I pray ibrthe souls 
or bodies ofother meni for their conversion or their lives?* 
Anew. A godly man may pray for wicked relntiani; OT, 
others, with more hope tlian they can pray for themselves,' 
while they remain ungodly : but yet not with any certainty 
of prevailing for the thing he a^iketh; for it is not peremp- 
torily promised him. Otherwise Samuel had prevailed far 
Saul, and Isaac for Elsau, and David for Absalom, and the 
good people for all the wicked; and then no godly part^uts 
would have their children lost; no nor any in the wrorld 
would perish, for godly persons pray for tliem alh I^ut, 
those praycn ore not lost to him tbat puta them up. 
• Kom. viii. 38. Im. xh- IS. 



Quest, XXVIII. ' With what t'ailJi may wc pray for the 
continmnoc of the churcU ajid Gospel to any nation V 

Answ. The former answer eerveth to this ; our hope may 
be according to the degrees of probability : but we cannot 
believe it as a certainty by divine faith, because it ia not 
prooiised by God. 

Qu«g;. ixix. * How may we know when our prayers are 
heard of God, and when not T 

Answ. Two ways : sometimes by experience, when the 
thing itself is actually given us ; and always by the pro- 
mise: when we ask for tliat which God connuaudeth us to 
ask, or promiseth to grant; for we are sure God's pro- 
mises are all fulfilled. If we ask for the objects of Bense 
(as food, or raiment, or health, £cc.). sense will tell us whe- 
ther our prayers be granted in the same kind that we asked 
for; but if the questions be of the objects of faith, it is faith 
that must tfeU you that your prayers are granted; but yet 
faith and reason make use of evidences or signs : as if I pray 
for pardon of sin, and salvation, the promise aseun;tl) mc 
that this prayer is granted, if I be a penitent, believing, re- 
generate person, otherwise not ; therefore faith only assureth 
me that suoh prayers are granted, supposing that I discern 
the evidence of my regeneration, repentance, and faith in 
Christ. So if the question be, whether my prayer for otlicra. 
or for temporal mercies, be answered io some other kind, 
and conduce to my good some other way, faith only must 
tell you this from the promise, by the help of evidences : 
there ore millions of prayers that will all be found answered 
at death and judgment^ which we knew not to be answered 
any way but by believinj;; it. 

Qaext. XXX. ' What should aChristianof weak pari* do, 
tliat in dry and barren of matter, and can scarce tell what to 
say in prayer, but is ready ti> rise ofi* bis knees almost as 
eoon as ho hath begun V 

Answ. I. He must not be a stranger to biniHelf, but 
study well btH heart and life ; and then he will find such a 
multitude of iuward corruptions to lament, and such a mul- 
titude of wanl8 to be supplied, and weaknesses to be 
Btreiigtheiied, and disorders to be rectified, and actual ttins 
to be forgiven, that may find him work enough for confea- 
Mons, couiplaints, and petitions many days together, if ex- 



prcKHion be but as ready aa matter. 2. Let Kim study God, 
and get tbe knowledge of hia ntilure. attribates, and workn. 
and theu be will find inaUer enough to aggravate hU sin, and 
to furnish bim with the hoiy pmise of God from day to day. 
As be that h acrjuainted with all that ia in any book, can 
copiously discourse of it, when he that kuowcth not what is 
in it, hath little to eay of it: bo he that knowetli God and 
bis works, aud himself, and his sins and wants, is acquainted 
with the beat prayer book; and hath always a full heap of 
matter before him, whenever he cometh to apeak to God, 
3. Let him study the mystery of man'a redemption, and the 
person, and office, aad covenant, and grace of Christ ; and 
he need not want matter for prayer or praise. A very child 
if he sees but a pedlar's pack opened, where there are abun- 
dfknce of things which he desireth, will learn without book 
to say, ' O father, buy me this, aud give me that, Sec' So 
will the soul that seeth the treasuries and riches of Christ*. 

- 4. Let him know the extent of the law of God, and the 
meaning of the Ten Commandaients : if he know but what 
sins aro forbidden in e.acb comiria.ndment, and what duties 
are required, he may find matter enough for confession and 
petition: and therefore the view of such a brief exposition 
of the commandment, a& you may find in " Mr. Brinsley's 
True Watch," and in " Dr. Downam's" and " Mr. Whateley'a 

* Tables," will be a present furniture for such a use, especially 
in days of humiliation. So it wJtl also to have a particular 
understanding of the Creed and the Lord's prayer, which 
will furnisli you with much matter. .5. Study well the 
temptations which you carry about you in your flesh, and 
meet with in the world, aud are suggeated by the tempter; 
and think of the many duties you have to do, and the many 
dangers and sufferings to undergo, and you will never b« un- 
furnished for matter for your prayera. 6. Observe tb« 
daily passages of providence, to yourselves and others : 
mark how things go with your souls every day, and hearken 
how it goeth with the church of God, and mark also how it 
goeth with your neighbours, and sure you will find matter 
enough for prayer, 7. Think of tlie heavenly joys that yoii 
are going to, and the streets of the New Jerusalem will be 
large enough for faith to walk in. 8. For wnrdfi, be ac- 

■ fUr.Iil. 17. i». 
VOJ.. IV. X 


[part II. 

quainted with the phrase of Scripture, and you will find pro- 
viaions for all occasions. Read Dr. Wilkins' book, called 
'■ The Gift of Pray«r." or " Mr. Brinsley's Watch," or " Mr. 
E. Parr'e Abba Father." 9. Keep up the heart in a revereiit, 
serious, lively frame, and it will be a rontinu&t spring to fur- 
nish you witli matter : wheu a dead and barren heart hath a 
dry and sleepy tongue. 10. Join as oft as you caji with 
those that are full and copionB in prayer ; for example and 
u-se will be very great helps. U. Quench not the Spirit of 
God that must aasiat you. 12. In case of iiocesBity, uso 
those books or forms vvliich are more full than you can be 
youraelveB till you come to ability to do better without them. 
Read further the Directions Part i. Chap. 6. Tit. 2. for more. 

Qutit. XXXI. ' How should a Chri!*tian keep up an or- 
dinary fervency in prayer?' 

Amw. I. See that knowledge and faith provide you 
matter : for aa the fire will go out if there be not fuel, ho 
Ten-ency will decay, when you are dry. and scarce know 
what to say ; or do not well believe what you understand. 
2. Clog not the body either with overmuch eatioji; and 
drinking, or over-tiring labours : for an active body lielpetfa 
much th^ activity of the mind : and the holiest person will 
be able but poorly to exercise his fervency, uudir a dull 
or languishing body. 3. Rush not suddenly upon prayer, 
out of a crowd of other buxinettaes, or before your last 
worldly cares or discourses be washed clean ont of your 
minds. In study and prayer how certain a truth is il, that 
' N on bene Ht quod occupalo tuiimo6t.' Hieron. Epist. 143. 
ad Paulin. That work is not well done, which is done witti 
a mind that i» preposessed, or buciied about other matters : 
that mind must be wholly free from all otlier pnisent 
thoughts or business, that will either pray or study well. 
4. Keep a tender heart, and conscience that is not senseleos 
of your own concemmentn; for all your prayers munt needs 
be sleepy, if the heart and tonacience be once hardened, 
seared, or fallen asleep. 5. Take more pains with your 
hearts than with your tongues. Remember that the success 
of your work lieth most on them. Bear not with their slug- 
gishnesR ; do by them as you would do by your child or 
servant Uiat sleepetli by you at prayer ; you will not let 
them snort on. but J0f( them till you have awakened them. 





Sudo by yotir hearts mhcQ you find them dull. 6. Live m 
in the continual presence of God ; but labour to apprehend 
his special presence when you are about to Kpe»k to him : 
ask your hearts how they would b«have themsHlveB^ if liiey 
saw the Lord, or but the lowest of his holy angels? 7. Let 
f&itb be called up to see heaven nnd hell an opeo all the 
while before you ; and SQch a sight will surely keep you 
aerious. 8. Keep death and judgment in youv continual 
renaembrance and expectation : remember how :i)l your 
prayers will be looked back upon. Look not for long life: 
reoiember that this prayer for ought you know may be your 
lasit; but certainly you have not long to piay : pray there- 
fore as a dying man should do. 9. Study well ttie iin- 
gpeakable necessity of your soal». If you prevail nnt fur 
pardon, and grace, and preservation, you are undone and 
loBt for ever. Remember that oeccasity ia upon you, and 
heaven or hell are at the end, and you are praying for more 
than a thoutiaiid liTea. 10. Study well the unspeakable 
excellency of those mercies which you pray for: O think 
bow blesaed a life it would be, if you could know God more, 
and love him more, and live a blameless, heavenly life, and 
then live with Chri^it in heaven for ever ! Study these mer- 
cies till the flames «f love pnt life into your prayers. 11. 
Study well the exceeding encouragements (huL you have to 
pray and hope: if your hope decay your fervour will decay. 
Think of the inconceivable love of God, the astonishing 
mercy shewed to you in your Redeemer, and in the helps (rf 
the Holy Spirit, and how Christ la now interceding for you. 
Think of these till faith make glad your heart ; and in this 
gladness, let praise and thanksgiving have ordinarily no 
small share in your prayers ; for it will tire out the heart to 
be always poring on its own distempers, and discourage it 
to look ou nothing but its infirmities : and then, a ead. di8- 
cour^ed temper will not be so lively a temper, as a thank- 
ful, praiseful. joyful temper is : for ' Laetitia loc|uax res est, 
otquft ostentatrix sui :' ' Gladness is a very expressive thing, 
and apt to shew itself ^' But ' tristesnoneloquentes sunt: 
maxime ai ad tegritudinemanimiaccedat corporis agritudo.' 

eEpist. 31. ad Theoph. Alexand. * Sad men are sel- 
[juenl : especially if the body be sick as well ax the 
*• )>yiniiM«h. EpUt. 31. Ub. 1. ad Aiuun. 



Tnind.* 12. Let the image of a praying and a bleeding 
Christ, and of his praying snints be (not on a wall bufore 
your eyes, but) engraven on yoar minds : is it not desireable 
to be eonfonued to them ? Had tbey more need to l>r*y inv 
portunately than you ? 13. Be very caiitelous in the use of 
forms, lest you grow dull and cuBtoDiary, and before you ore 
aware your tongues use to go without your hearts. The 
heart is apt to take its ease when it feeletb not some nrgent 
instigation. And though the presence of God should serve 
the turn without the regard of man, yet with imperfect men 
the heart is beiit held to its duty when both concur. And 
therefore moat are more cautelous of their words, than of 
tlieir thoughts : as children will learn their lesson bettefj 
when they know their masters will hear them it, than when 
they think he will not. Now in the use of a form of prayer, 
a eleepy heart is not at all discerned by man, but by God 
only; for the words are all brought to your hand, and may 
be said by the moat dull and careless miml ; bnt when you 
are put to express your own desire, without such helps, ynn 
are necegsitated to be so mindful of what you do, as to fonu 
your desires into apt espresBions, or else your dulnesa or in- 
attentiveness will be observed even by men; and you will 
be like one that hath his coach, or horse, or crutches taken 
offhim, tliat if he have legs must use them, or else lie still. 
And to them that are able, it is often a great benefit to be 
neceseitated to use the ability they have ; though to others 
it is aloss to be deprived of their helps'. I speak not this 
against the lawfulness of a form of prayer; hut lo warn you 
of the temptations which are in that way. 14. Joinoftwith 
the most Rerioua, fervent Christians ; for their fervour will 
help your hearts to bum, and carry you along with them. 
15. Destroy not fervency by adulterating it, and turning it 
into an affected earneetneris of speech, and loudness of voice. 
Lichen it is but an hypocriticai cover for a frozen, empty 

Quest, xxrii. ' May we look to speed ever the better 
Pfor any thing in ourselves, or in our prayers t Is not that 
[to trust in them, when wc should truiit on Christ alone V . 

Anste. We must not trust in them for any thing thai is 
Christ's part and not their's : but for their own part it is a 
' See Mf. Haja't DtMctioiu o» ihi* com). 



duty to trust in tbem, (bowerer quarrelsome pentons may 
abusi! or cavil at the words :) and he that diHtrualf^th prayer 
in that which is its proper oAice. will prayt« little pur|)08e: 
aad he that thinks that faiLht'ul. tbrreut, itnportuuatc, iia- 
derstanding prayer, is no more eliectual with God for mercy, 
than ihe babbling of the hypocrite, or the ignorant, careless, 
unbelieving, sleepy prayers of the negligent, will either not 
care how he prayeth, or whether he prayctli at all or not. 
Though our persons and prayers have nothing that is meri- 
torious with God, in point of commutative juBtice, nor an in 
co-ordinate with the merits of Christ, yet have they condi- 
tions witliout which God will not accept them, and are me- 
ritorious in subordination to the merit of Christ, in point of 
paternal governing justice according to the covenant of 
grace ; as an obedient child deserveth more love, and praise, 
and reward from his father than the disobedient: us the an- 
cient fatkersi commonly used the word merit''. 

Qufsf. XX3CI1I. ' Uow must that person and prayer be 
qualified that shall be accepted of Godi' 

Aiuio, There are severul degrees of God's acceptance. 
I. That whicli is but from common grace, may be accepted 
as better than none at all. 11. That which hath a promise 
of some success, eepecially as to pardon and salvcition must 
be, I. From a penitent, believing, holy person, 2. It must 
proceed from true desire, and be sincere ; and have renewed 
faith and repentance in gome measure. 3. It must he put 
up in confidence ou the merit and interceasiou of Christ. 
4. It must be only for things lawful. 5. And to a lawful 
end. III. That which is extraordinarily accepted and suc- 
cessful, must be extraordinary in all these respects ; in the 
person's holiness, and in renewed faith and fervent impor- 
tunity, and holy love. 

Tit. 3. Special Directions Jhr Familif Prayer. 

Direct, i. ' Let it be done rather by the master of the 
family himself than any other, if he be competently able, 
though others be more able; but if h© be utterly unfit, let 
it rather be done by another tliau not at all.' And by such 

' Sep Diy " Conlcuion" ttC llii* st iurge. 



an one as is most acceptable to the retit, and like to do 
most good. 

Direct, ii. 'Let prayer be suited to Uie case of tfaose 
that joia m it, aud to the condition of the family :' and not 
a few general words spoken by rote, that serse all times and 
persona alike. 

l>ireet. m. ' Let it neither be so short as to end before 
their hearts can be warm and their wants expressed (as if 
you had an unwilling task to slubber over, and would fain 
have done); nor yet so tedious as to make it an ungrateful 
burden to the family.' 

Direct. IV. • Let not the coldness and dulness of the 
speaker rock the family asleep:' but keep awake yonr own 
heart, tbat you may keep the rest awake, and force them to 

Direct, v. • Pray at such hours as the family may be 
leant difitractcdj sleepy, tired, or out of the way.' 

Direct. VI. ' Let other duties concur, as oft as may be, 
to assist in prayer :' as iea(3ing, and singing psalms. 

Direct. VII. ' Do all with the greatest reverence of God 
that possibly you can :' not seeming reverence, but real ; 
that HO more of God than of man may appear in every wonl 
you Bpeak. 

Direct, viii. ' The more the hearers are concerned in it, 
the more regard you must have to the fitness of your ex- 
pressione :' for before others, words mast be regarded, lest 
they be scandalised, and Ood and prayer be ditshonoured. 
And if you caimot do it competently witliout, use a well 
composed form. 

Direct, ix. ' Let not family prayer be used at the time 
of public prayer in the church,* nor preferred before it, but 
prefer public prayer, though the manner were more imper- 
fect than your own, 

Dirett. x. ' Teach your children and servants how to 
pray themselves,' that they may not be prayerletis when they 
cotiie uuiung those that cannot pray. Jolm and Christ 
taught their diitciptcK to pruy. 


Tit. 4. Special Directions Jitr Secret Prater. 

Hirecl. I. ' Let it be in as secret a place as conveniently 
you can ; that you may not he disturbed.' Let it be dune 
60 that otkera may nut be wituessfs of it, if you can avoid 
it; and yet take it not for your duty, to keep it unknown 
that you pray secretly at all: for thut will be a snare aad 
scandal to them. 

Direct. II. • Let your Toice be suited to your own lielp 
and benefit, if none elac hear you/ If it be needful to the 
orderly proceeding of your own tbougbts^orto the wanning 
of your own affections, you may use a voice; but if others 
be withiu heariug, it is very unfit. 

Direct, iii. ' la secret let the matter of your prayere be 
that which is. moet peculiarly your owu conceriimeut, or 
those secret things that are not fit for public prayer, or aie 
tliere passed by;' yet never forgettiug the higheal interest 
of Chrifit, aad the Gospel, and the world and church. 

Direct. IV. ' Be less solicitous about words in secret 
than with others, and lay out your care about the heart.' 
For that is it that God most esteemeth hi your prayers. 

Direct, v. ' Do not through carnal unwiUiDgneBs grow 
into a ueglect of secret prayer, when you have time: nor 
yet do not supers titiously tie yourselves to just no loog time, 
whether you are fit, or at leisure from greater duties or not.' 
fiut be the longer when you are most (it and vacant, and 
the shorter when you are not. To give way to every carnal 
backwardness, is the sin on one isidtt; and to resolve tu 
spend so loug time, when you do but tire yourselves, and 
sleep, or business, or dintemper maketh it a lifeless thing, is 
,a oin on the other side. Avoid them both. 

. Direct, vt. ' A melancholy person who is unfit for much 
solitariness and heart-search ings, must be much shorter, if 
not aUo seldomer in secret prayers, than other ChriKtiiuis 
that are capable of bearing it:' and they must instead of 
that which they cannot do, be the more in that which they 
can do; OH in joining with others, and in shorter ejacula- 
tions, besides other dulies; but not abating their piety in 
the main uponcuiy pretence of curing melancholy. 


fpART If. 


Brief Hirectiota for Families, ahont the Sacrament oj'l/ie Body 
and Blood of Christ. 

Omitting those thin^ which concern the pnblic adminis- 
trntion of this sacrameot, (for the reaaoas before tntimntMl 
Part ii.) I shall here only give yoa some brief Dtrections 
for your private duty herein. 

Direct. I. ' Understand well the proper ends to which 
thifl Bacrament wa^ instituted by Christ; and take heed that 
you use it not to ends, for which it never was appointed."" 
The true ends are these, I. To be a. solemn commemoration 
of the death and passion of Jesus Christ, to keepit, as it were, 
in the eye of the church, in his bodily absence till he cotue". 
2. To be a Bolemn renewingof the holy covenant which waa. 
first entered in baptism, between Christ and the receiver^ 
and in that covenant it is on Christ's part, a Molemn delivery 
of himself firett, aud with himself the benetite of pardon, re- 
conciliation, adoption, and right to Hfe eternal. And on 
man's part, it is our solcDin acceptance of Christ wiUi bis 
benefits, upon his lerms, and a detivering up of ourselves to 
him, as his redeemed ones, even to the Father, as our recon- 
ciled Father, and to the Son as our Lord and Saviour, and to 
the Holy Spirit as our Sanetifier, with professed thankful- 
ness for so great a benefit. 3. It in appointed to be a lively 
objective means, by which the Spirit of Christ should work 
to stir up, and exercise, and increRse the repentance, faith, 
desire, love, hope, joy, thank fulaesH, and new obedience of 
believers; by a lively representation of the evil of sin, tlie 
infinite love of CJod in Christ, the firmness of the covenant 
or promise, the greatness and sureness of the mercy given, 
and the blessedneea purchased and promised to us, aitd the 
great obligations that are laid upon us*'. And that herein 
believera might be solemnly called out to the most aertons 
exercise of (ill these graces, and might be provoked and as- 

• 1 Cor. xi. e«— tt. 

<• U&it. iivi. vi. Mini. x'tt. ««. Vvkw uil. tO. 
IJk — IB. I Cot. 1. 16, $4. Juhii *i. 31. 35. 51. SO- 

1 Cor. xi. «&. tteb. u. 



8tEtt«il to fltir up themselves to thi& communion with God in 
CliriHt, and to pray for morcuH through a Kacriliced Christ'. 
4. [t is appointed tg be the Holcmn profession of believera, 
oF their ftuth, and love, and gratitude, and obedi«uce to God 
the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, and of continuinj^ firm in 
the ChriHtian religion. And a badge of the church before 
the world. 5. And it is appointed to be a sign und meaiut 
of the unity, love, and conununtoii of eaints, und their rea- 
dinees to communicate to each other. 

The false, mistaken ends which you must avoid are tlieaa. 
1. You must not with the Papists, think that the end of it iii 
to turn brcud into no bread, and wine into no wine, ukI to 
make them really the tnte body and blood of Jesus Chriet, 
For ifeensc (which ttitleth all men that it is still bread and 
wine,) lie not to be believed, then we cannot believe that 
ever there was a Gospel, or an apostle, or a pope, or a man, 
or any thing in the world. And the apostl* expressly call- 
eth it bread three times, in three veraee together, after the 
consecration"^. And he tetleth us, that the use of it i>t (not 
to make tlie Lord's body really present, but) " to shew the 
Lord's death till he come ;'' that is, as a visible representing 
and commemorating sign, to be instead of hie bodily pre- 
sence till he come. 

2. Nor must you with the Papists use this sacrament 
to sacrifice Christ again really unto the Father, to propi- 
tiate him for the quick and dead, and ease souls in purga- 
tory, and deliver them ont of it. Fop Christ having died once 
dieth no more, and withoat killing him, there is no sacrifi- 
cing him. By once offering up himself, he hath perfected 
for ever them that are sanctified, and now there remaineth 
no more sacrifice for sin : having Biiii^htid the sacrificing 
work on eartli, be is now passed into the heavens, to ap- 
pear before God for hie redeemed ones*. 

3. Nor is it any better than odious impiety to receive 
the sacrament, to confirm some confederacies or oaths of 
secresy, fur rebellions or other unlawful designs; as the 
powder-plotters in England did. 

« 1 Cor. il, tr— «9. 31. i.lS,tT.II. *1.14. Acts ii. 41. 4<^ 
xt. 7. 

« I Cor, It. «6— ». 

• Rom. H, ?. t Cur. it. d. 1 Cor. *. U, 14. HH'- !»• 16- «• H- «.- 




' '4. Nof 18 it auy other Ihan impious profanation of these 
s&cred mysteries, lor the prieaL to coDstrein ui Buffer ooto- 
riously tgiioraiit, aud ungodly persomt, to receive tliem'i 
eitlier to make themselves believe that tlvey are indeed the 
children of Gotl, or to be a ueaiis which itngodly meu 
should use to mitke them godly, or which iulidels or impe- 
nitent persons iuu»t U8e to help them to re|)entance aod 
liaith in Christ. For though there is that in it which tutiy 
become a means of tlieir conversion, (as a thief that dtcaleth 
a bible or eenuoa book, may bo converted by it,) yet is it 
not to be need by the receiver to that end. For that were 
to tell God a He, as the means of their conversion ; for who- 
soever Cometh to receive a sealed pardon, doth thereby pro- 
fees repentance, as also by tlic worda adjoined he must do > 
and nhosoever taketb, and eat>;tli, and drinketli the bread 
Hud wine, doth actually profesa Lliereby. lliat he takellt and 
applieth Christ himself by faith: and therefore, if he do 
neither of these, he lieth openly to God; and Lies and false 
covenants are not the appointed means of converBion. Kol 
that the minister is a liar in his delivery of it: for he dotli 
but conditionally seal and deliver God's covenant aud bene- 
fits to the receiver, to he his, if he truly repent and believe : 
but the receiver himself lieth, if he do tiot actually repeat 
and believe, as he there profeaseth to do. 

5. AUoitis an impious profanation of the sacrament, if 
any priest for the love of fUtliy lucre, shall give it to those 
that ought not to receive it, that he may have his fees ox 
oflTeringR ; or, that the priest may have so much money that 
is bequeathed for saying a masa for Kiich or such a soul. 

6. And it is an odious profanation uf the su(Tumt;ui. to 
use it as a league or bond of factiou, to ^tlicr perHous into 
the party, and tie them fk»t to it, that they may depend upon 
the priest, and his faction and interest may thereby be 
strengtbeued. and he may seem to have many followers. 

' Noi)Bt«qur probaliun? tt ezaniiiip pmrin llliini ^mr-briKlum tine iiMgiw iiovm 
i,M)iiv vflcribui Clirutianu. QiiiwH liquia cm fumiciiluT, But cbriumi. aui idolit t^i- 
tifiu, cum r|uiiiH>di rliairn cuiiiniuncu ciltuiu cuptrr ic<uil B|Hnloh», iM<fun> cwliiBrt 
mcnw cwiiiuuiiicwviMiilli a Jotiii, Acvals. lib. u. cap.iu Aiid al'li-', Nf^u« riuM 
uU ^m|KtU I'll luiicnlitiuiila mitjijun.- sir) ilifliMllnlJt, mil liciiir raiiiui-tuJinU nn- 
cula, ml allan' Iililui llclicl niliiiilli, ititl cuulrario o|H.-ni illaiu iiiiiii|l(Mr el rilliicrlilpr 
dutttl.— ^CliriMiuiii cuiiLvtlBlur i ici) Kiiii.ClirulutHt, tliguia nwtibui wblnliolw. 



7. And it is a dangerous abase of it, to receive it, that 

you may be (>ardoned[, or sanctified, or saved, barely by the 
work done, or by the outward exercise alone. A b if God 
were there obliged to give you gca<;e, while you strive not 
with your own hearts, to slir Ihem up to love, or dasire, or 
faith, or obedience, by the means tlial are before you; or, 
Sk if God would pardoa and save you for eating so much 
brend and drinking ao much wine, when the canon biddeth 
you ; or, ns if the sacrament conveyed graee, like aa charms 
are supposed to work, by saying over so many words. 

8. Lastly, It is no apjMiinted end of this Bocnuneitt, that 
the receiver thereby profess himself certain of the sincerity 
of his own repentance and fiuth : (for it is Dot managed ob 
the ground of such certainty only by the receiver; much 
less by the minister that delivereth it.) But only he pro- 
■fesaeth, that as far as he can discern by observing his own 
heart, he is truly willing to have Christ and hie benefits, on 
the terms that they ore offered ; and that he doth consent 
to the covenant which he is there to renew. Think not 
therefore that the sacrament is instituted for any of these 
(mistaken) ends. 

Direct, ti. ' Distinctly understand the parts of the sa- 
crament, that you raay distinctly use them, and not do you 
know not what.' Thi8 sacrament containeth these three 
parts. I. The consecration of the bread and wine, which 
maketh it the representative body and blood of Christ- 
2, Tiie representatiou and commemoration of the sacrifice 
of Christ. 3. The communion: or. communication by 
Christ, and reception by the people. 

I. In the consecration, the church doth first offer the 

creatures of bread and wine, to be accepted of God, to thin 

sacred use. And God accepteth them, and blesseth them 

to this use i which he siguifieth both by the words of his 

owo institution, and by the action of hia ministers, and their 

' bencdic-tioTi. They being the agents of God to the people 

'in this accepting and blessing, as they are the agents of the 

people to God, in offering or dedicating the creaturen tti 

this use. 

^^^ This consecration having a sptciaJ respect to Ood the 

^^B Father, in it w*' acknowledge his tbiee grand relatioim. I. 

J That he i* the Creator, and no the Owner of alt the crea- 



turea ; for we offer them to him a» hia own. 2. TJiat he is 
our righteous Governor, whose law jt was, that Adam and 
we have broken, and who required satisfaction, aiid hath 
received the sacrifice and atonement, and liath dispensed 
with the Btiict and proper execution of that law, and will 
rule us hereafter by the law of grace. 3. That he is our Fa- 
ther or Benefactor, who hath fr&ely given us a Redeemer, 
and the covenant of grace, whoae love and favour we have 
forfeited by sin, but desire and hope to be reconciled by 

As Christ himaelf waB incarnate and true Christ, before 
h^ was sacrificed to God, and was sacriBced to God before 
that sacrifice he communicated for Hfe and nouriBhmcut to 
Kouls; bo in the sacrament, consecration unxsi finit make 
the creature to be the ftcsh and blood of Christ representa- 
tive; and then the sacrificing of that flesh and blood muBt 
be represented and commemurated ; and then the aacriliccd 
flesh and blood communicated to the receiverft for their epi- 
rituol life. 

II. The conimemoratiou, chieily (but not only) respect' 
eth God the Son. For he hath ordained, tliat these cOD* 
secrated representations should in their manner and mea- 
sure, supply the room ofhis boddy presence, while his body 
iftin heaven: and that thus, as it were, in ethgy, in repre- 
sentation, he might be still crucified before the church's 
eyes ; and they might be affected, as if they had seen him 
on the cross. And that by faith and prayer, tliey might, 
ae it were, oBcr him up to God; that is, might shew the 
Father that sacrifice, once made for sin, in which they trust, 
and for which it is timt tliey expect all the ucc<-ptnncc of 
their pelrsons with God, and hope for audience when they 
beg for mercy, and offer up prayer or praises to him. 

III. Id the communication, though the sacrament have 
respect to llie l-atlier, as the principal Oivcr, and to the Sou, 

,,a6 both the Gift and Giver, yet luttfa it a special respect to 

.the Holy Ghost, as being that Spirit given in the fiesh and 

blood, which c|uickeneth souls; without which, the flesh 

will profit noiliiii;^ ; mid whose operations mutit convey and 

apply Christ's saving benefita to us*. 

I John vi. (». »il.S9- Hi. 1*. I Cur. >1L It. |«. >*. 46. Gak iB. 14- 
■«. fi. Bph.ri.n. 



These three being the parts of the Bacraraent in nliole, 
as coiupieheDding that sacred action and participation which 
IB essential to it. The material parts, called the relate and 
correlate, are, 1. Suhstantial and qunlitative. 2. Actire 
and passive. 1. The first, are the bread and wine as signs, 
and the body and blood of Christ, with his gru.ceB and bene- 
fits, as the things signified and given. The second, ajre the 
actions ofbreakitif^, pouring out, and delivering on the mi- 
nister's part, (after the consecration,) and the taking, eating, 
and drinking, by the receivers as the sign. And the thing 
signified is the crucitying or sacrificing of Christ, and the 
delivering himself wit)i hi^ benefits to the believer, and the 
receiver's thankful accepting, and u^ing the said gift. To 
these add the relative form, and the ends, and you have the 
definition of this sacrament. Of which see more in my 
" Universal Concord," p. 46, )Jtc. 

Direct. Hi. ' Look upon the minister as the agent or 
officer of Cliriftt, who is commissioned by him to seal and 
deliver to you the coveniint and its benefits ; and take the 
bread and wine, as if you heard Christhimself saying to you, 
' Take of my body and blood, and the pardon and gmce which 
is thereby purchased.' It ia a great help in the application, 
to have mercy and pardon brought us by the hand of a 
commissioned oSicer of Christ. 

Direct, iv. In yoar preparation beforehcjid, take heed 
of these two extremes: I. That you coine not profanely and 
carelessly, with common hearts, aa to a common work''. 
For God will be sanctified in them that draw near him' : 
and they that eat and drink unworthily, not discerning the 
Lord's body from common bread, but eating aa if it were a 
common meal, do eat death to themselves, instead of life. 
2. Take heed lest your mistakes of the nature of this sacra- 
ment, should possess you with such fears of unworthy re- 
ceiving, and the following dangers, as may quite discompose 
and unfit your souls for the joyful exercises of faith, and 
love, and praise, and thanksgiving, to which youare invited. 
Many that are scrupulous of receiving it in any, save a feast- 

•i Quiiuia oiiCein indigni, ineptife mnr, qulbiiM Angclamm paiiit poebelur, «». 
ccnJtiiixin ipsoniniBiidiiiicvQrijssioae, (:nncrlK|Ue pen|>«ctli Jtidkciom esto. Acmla, 
lib. *I. c»p. IC. ptfif H9. 



ing getitOTe, are too little careful and scnipnlouB of receir- < 
iDg it in any, save a feagtiog frame of mind. 

The first extreme ie caused by profaiiciDess and negli- 
gence, or by gross ignorance of the nature of the sacismen- 
tal work. The latter extreme is frequently caused as follow- 
eth: 1. By Betting this sacrament at a greater distance from 
otber parts of God's worship, than there is cause; so that 
the excess of reverence doth ovenv-htlm the minds uf somo 
with terrors. 2, By atudyiug more the terrible words of 
eftitng and drinking damnation to themselves, if they do>U 
unworthily, than all the expresaions of love and mercy, 
which that blessed feast is furnished with. Ho that when 
the views of infinite love should ravish them, they are Kta- 
dying wratb and vengeance to terrify them, aa if they came 
to Moaes, and not to Christ. 3. By not lutdeTBtandiog 
what maketh a receiver worthy or unworthy, bat taking 
their unwilling infirmities for condemning uuworthinesa. 

4. By receiving it so seldom, as to make it strange to them, 
whereas if it were admin is ttred every Lord's day, as it was 
til the primitive churches, it would better ucquainl them 
with it, and cure that feur that cometh from strangeness. 

5. By imagining, that none that want assurance of their own 
Bincerity, can receive in faith. 6. By contracting an ill ha- 
bit of mistaken religiousness, placing it all in poring on 
themselves, and mourning for their corruptions, and not in 
Btudj-irg the love of God in Christ, and living in the daily 
pnises of his name, and Joyfiill thanksgiving fbr his exceed-^ 
ing mercies. 7. And if besideH all thexo the body contract 
a weak or timoroaa, melancholy distemper, it wUl leave the 
mind capable of almost nothing, but fear and trouble, even 
in the sweetest works. From many such onseii it cometh to 
pass, that the sacrament of the Lord*H supper is become 
more terrible, and uncomfortable to abundance of 8ucb dia- 
tempered Christians, than any otlier ordinance of God; and 
that which should moRt comfort them, doth troubl« them 

Quest. ' But is not this sacrament more holy and drend- 
fol. and. should it not have more preparation than other parta 

Answ. For the degree indeed, it should have very care- 
ful preparation : and we cannot well compare it with otlier 



parts of worship; as pr&ie«j thanksgiving, covenontingwith 
God, prayer, &c. because that all these other paru are here 
comprised and performed. But doitlttlesx, God must aUo 
be sanctified in all hJB other irorship, and bis name must 
Dot he taken in vaiu. And when this sacrament wna re- 
ceived every Lord's day, and often in the week besides. 
Christians were supposed to live continually in a state of 
general preparation, and not to be so far iVom a due parti- 
ciilnr preparittion, as many poor Chriatians think they are. 

Quest. It. ' [low often should the sacrajnent be now ad- 
miniatered, that it neither grow into contempt or strange- 

Ansio. Ordinarily in well disciplined churches it should 
be still every Lord's day: for I. We have no reason to 
prove, that the apoBtles' eicaraple and appointment in thiB 
case, was proper to thoise times, any more than that praise 
and thanksgiving diiily i& proper to them : and we may as 
well deny the obligation of other institutions, or apostolical 
orders as that. 2. It is a part of the settled order for the 
Lord's day worship; and omitting it, maimeth and altereth 
the worship of the day; and occasioncth tlie omisBioo of 
Ihe thanksgiving and praise, and lively cooimemorationB of 
Christ which should be then moat perfcirmed : and so 
Cbriatians by use, grow habituated to sadneaa, and a mourn- 
ing, melancholy rftligion, and grow unacquainted with much 
oftlie worship and spirit of the goepel. 3. Hcrel^y the Papists* 
lamentable corruptions of this ordinance have grown up, 
even by an excess of reverence and fear, which seldom re- 
ceiving doth increase, till they are come to worship bread 
as their God. 4, By seldom communicating, men are se- 
duced to think all proper communion of churches lieth iu 
that sacrament, and to he more profanely bold in abusing 
many other parts of worship. 5. There are better means 
(by teaching and discipline) to keep the sacmment from 
contempt, than the omitting or displacing of it. 6. Every 
Lord's day is no oftener than Christians need it. 7. The 
frequency will teach them to live prepared, and wot only to 
make much ado once a month or quarter, when the same 
work is neglected all the year besides ; even as one that 
liveth In continual expectation of death, will live in contin- 
ual preparation : when he that expecteth it but in some gne- 



vouB sickness, will then be frightened into som« seeming 
preparations, wklch are not tht; habit of his soul, but laid by 
LBgain when the disease is over. 

p 2. But yet I muGt add, that in some undisciplined 
* churches, and upon some occasiona it may be longer omit- 
ted or seldoraer used ; no duty is a duty at all times : and 
therefore extraordinary cases may raise such impediments, 
as may hinder us a long tims from thie, and many other 
privileges. But the ordinary faultiness of our imperfect 
hearts, that are apt to grow customary and dull, is no good 
reason whj it should be seldom ; any more than why other 
special duties of worship and church-communion should be 
seldom. Read well the Epistks of Pawl to the Corinthians, 
and you will tind that they were then as bad as the true 
Christians are now, and that even in this sacrament they 
were very culpable; and yet Paul seekcth not to cure them 
by their seldomer coinraiinicating. 

Quest. III. 'Are all the members of the visible church to 
be admitted to this sacrament, or communicate?' 

A71S711. All are not to seek it, or to take it, because many 
may know their own unfitness, when the church or pastoDi 
know it not: but all that come to seek it, are to bcadmitted 
by the pastors, except such children, idiot»), ignorant per- 
sons, or heretics, as know not what they are to receive and 
do, and such as are notoriously wicked or scandalous, and 
have not manifested their repentance. But then it is pre- 
supposed, that none should be numbered with the adult 
members of the church, hut those that have personally own- 
ed their baptismal covenant, by a credible profeMioa of 
true Christianity'. 

Quest. IV. • May a man that halh knowledge, and civili- 
ty, and common gifts, come and take this Bacrament, if b« 
know that he is yet void of true repentance, and other sa^ 
viog grace V 

Anm. No; for he then kooweth himself to be one that 
Is incapable of it in bis present state. 

Quett. v. ' May aji ungodly man receive this ftacrameat, 
who knoweth not him^iclf to be ungodly V 

Answ. No \ for he ought to know it, and his sinful igno- 
rance of his own condition, will not make his sin to be bia 
duty; Dor excuse his other faults before God. 



Quest. VI. ' Must a HlQcere Cliristian receive, that is un- 
certain of his sluuerity, and iii continual doubting ?* 

Arms. Two preparations are necessary to tfiia sacra- 
ment ; the geneial preparation, which is a stale of grace, 
and this the doubting Christian hath ; and the particular 
prBpiiratii>[i, which coii>ii»teth in Kin t^reseiit actual litneas: 
and all the question 19 of this. And to know tliis, you tnuBt 
further distinguish, between immediate duty and more re- 
mote, and between the degrees of doubtruhiess in Chris- 
tians, ]. The nearest immediate duty of the doubting 
Christian is, to use the means to have his doubtb rtsolved, 
till be know his case, and then bis next duty is, to receive 
the sacrament ; and both tliese still remain his duty, to be 
performed in this order ; and if lie say, ' I cannot be resolv- 
ed, when 1 bare done my best ;' yet certainly it is some sin 
of his own that keepeth him iu the dark, and hinderetfa bia 
assurance ; and therefore duty ceaseth not to be duty. The 
law of Chriat still obligeth him. both to get assurance, and 
to receive : and the want both of the knowledge of hia state, 
And of receiving the sacrament, arc his continual sin, if he 
lie in it never &o long through these scruples, though it be 
an infirmity that God will not condemn him for. (For he is 
supposed to be in, a state of grace.) But yon will say, 
•What if still he cannot be resolved whether he have true 
&itb and repentance, or not? what should he do while he ia 
in doubt V I aaawev, it is one thing to ask, what in his du- 
ty in this case; and another tiling to ask, which is the 
smaller or less dangerous eio ? Still his duty is both to get 
the knowledge of bis heart, and Co communicate : but while 
he sinneth (through infirmity) in failing of the fit»t, were he 
better also omit the other or not? To be well resolved of mast discern, 1. Whether his judgment of himself, 
do rather incline to think and hope that he is sincere in his 
repentance and faith, or that be is not. '2. And whether the 
consequents are like to be good or bad to him. If hi^ 
hopes that he is sincere, be as great or greater than Iiim 
fears of the contrary, then there is no such ill consequent to 
be feared as may hinder his communicating; but it is bin 
best, way to do it, and wait on God in llie use of his ordi- 
aance. But if the persua&ion of l)l& graceleitsneiis be great- 
er than the hopes of his sincerity, then he muet observe how 



rrART II. 

be i» like to be aflected, it' be do corauiuiiiaitte. If he find 
tbut it is like to clear up bia mind, and increase bis hopea 
by the actuating of his grace, he is yet best to go : but tf he 
find that his heart ia like to be overwhelmed with horrur, 
and ttunk into despa'tr, by running into the suppo^d guilt 
of unworthy receiving, then it will be worse to do it, than to 
omit it- Many such tearful Christians i have known, that 
are fain many yearfi to absent tbemeelv^s from the naopft- 
ment; because if they iibould receive it while they art; per- 
BUaded of their utter uiiworthine»a, they would be swallow- 
ed up of desperation, and think that they had titken their 
own damnation, (as the twenty-tiftb Article of the ehurch £^ 
England saith, the unworthy receivers do.) So that the 
chief sin of such a doubtiag receiver, \s not Ihat he receiT- 
eth, though he doubt; for donbting will not excutte im fo? 
the liinful omivtsion of a duty (namore of this than of prayer 
or thauksgiving): but only prudence requiretli auch a one 
to forbear that, which through hie own diBtempei woahl be 
a means of hi* dettpair oi- ruin : as that physic or food, how 
good eoever, i» not to be taken, whioh would kill the taker: 
Qod's ordinances are not appointed for our destruction, bat 
for our edification ; and 80 must be used an lendelh thereun- 
to. Yet tu those ChrlHttaUB, who are in thin caxe, and dare 
not communicate. I must put this question. How dare youiw 
tong refuae il? He that cont^enteth to the coTcnant, nrny 
iKtIdly come and signify his consent, and receive the eealett 
covenant of God ; for consent is your prfparHtion, ur the 
neceHSary condition of your right: if you consent not, jon 
refnsc all the mercy of the covenant. And dare you lire in 
such a state? Suppose a pardon be ofl'ered to a condemned 
thief, but »o, that if he after caa it in the dirt, or tnm trai- 
tor, he shall die a sorer death ; will' he rather choose feo die 
than take it, and ssay, 1 am afraid I Hhall abuse hi To re- 
fuse Ood'e covenant \s certiitn death: but to consent is 
yoar preparation and your life. 

Quest. VII. ' But what if superiors «ompel auchaObria- 
ttian to conimuiHcate, or else they will excommunicnie and 
imprison him: what then should he choose'.'' 

Ahsw. If he could do it without hiK own soul's hurt, he 
should obey them (ftuppoHing that it ia nothing but that 

CHAP. XXIV.] CHKlSttAN fc<:oNoHlOB. 


frhich in ttneH* is good that they oOmitaand bim^)i Btt( they 
have their power Ui vdiBoatlcm, (mtt not to destruction, and 
he must value bis soul above his body ; and therefor^ it JA 
past quesiion, that it is a smallur burt to be excotsmnnifiit'^ 
ted, and lie and die in prison, than to cnM hiK soul intod^R* 
pair, by doing that vrliich he Uiiiik«lh in & gYieVoiifl aln, and 
tvotild be hift damnation. But all meant) muHt he uaed M 
curu tire mistake of his own understanding. 

Quest, viii. ' la not the case of kq hypocrite that kAdfr- 
eth uot hinis^fto be ao hypoorite, aad of ft sincete Ohris* 
tian thatknoweth not himself to be sincere, all one aii w 
comniunieating : when botb are equally in doubt?' 

/lum'. No : for being and ageing; are things th»t must be 
difttiuguished. The one hath ^rftce \a bein^, though he rite 
it not; and therefore bath a right to the bleaeinga of UttA ' 
covenant ; and therefore at once remaineth obligwi both to 
discern ht» title, and to come and take it: and therefore if 
he com« doubtingly, hia sin is nob thabhe reoeivetfa, bttt iti 
the manner of receiving, that h« doth i( doubtingly; and 
therefore it will be a greater sin tKit to receive al all, unless 
in the last mentioned case, wherein the conseqnenta afalik^ 
to be worse to him. But the other hath no true repentAnce 
or faith, or love in being; and therefore hath no right to (he 
blesftinga of the ooyenant, aad therefore, at preoeiA, is 
obliged to die«wn that he is gmcelegs, and to repent of it ; 
and it is not bis sin that he doubteth of his title, but ^at h4 
^enandeth and taketfa what lie iMth no title to';- and there^ 
fore it is a greater sin in him to take it, than to delay in or^ 
der fco his reeoTCnr and preparation. Yea, «ven in point of 
comfort, there is soma disparity; for though the true Chri»t 
tian hath far greater terrors than hypocrites, when he taketh 
bim«elf to be an onwovthy receiver (a« being more sentoihle 
and regardfal of the weight of the mutter), yen uoually i» 
the midee ofaUbis feans, lher« are aome secrut tostimoniaa 
m hi* heart of the love of God, which are u cordial of bop« 
that keep^him from sinking into despair, tmd have more htfs 
and power in thrm, than ull the hypo&ritOs' false pcrsuaBiom 
of his own aincerity^ <:j 

QMe»t. IK. ' Wherein lieth the sin of aa bypocrit«y dM 
ungodly person, if be do receive? ' 

k X Cur. liii. to. MitL x. 2(1. 



[part IK 

Answ. His ain ie. 1. In lyiog and hypocrifiy ; in that he 
profesgeth to repent, un feignedly of his ein, and to be resolv- 
ed for a holy life, and to believe iu ChnBt, and to accept 
him oo his covenant terms, and to give up himself to God, 
as his Father, his Saviour, and his Sanctiher, aud to forsake 
the flesh, the world, and the devil: when indeed, lie never 
did any of this, but secretly abhorreth it at his heart, and 
will not he persuaded to it: and so all thia profession, and 
h)9 very covenanting itself, and his receiving, as it ia apro- 
fesfling-covenaating sign, is nothing but a very lie. And 
what it is to lie to the Holy Oboat, the case of Ansnias and 
Sapphira telleth us. 2. It is usurpation to come ^nd lay 
claim to those beueBte, which he hath no title to. 3. It ia 
aprofaoatioQ oftheee holy myeteriee, to be thus used; aud 
' it is a Caking of God's name in vain, who is a jealous God^ 
and will he sanctified of all that draw near unto him'- 4>] 
And it is a wrong to the church of God, and the comniunion 
of saintH, and the honour of the Christian religion, liiat 
such ungodly hypocrites intrude as members : as it is to the 
king's army, when the enemies' spies creep in amongat 
them; or to his marriage-feast to have a guest in rags ^* 

Object. ' But it is no lie, because they think they say 
true in their profession.' 

Amur. That is through their sinful ncgligeace and self- 
deceit: and he is a liar that speaks a falsehood, which he 
may and ought to know to be a falsehood, though he do not 
know it. There is a liar in ra&lmess and negligence, as well 
u of set purpose. 

\. : Quest, X, ' Doth all unworthy receiving make a man lia- 
ble to damnation? Or, what tinworthiness is it thai ia so 

Amw. There are three sorts of unworthinesn (or un6t^ 
neas) and three sorts of judgment answerably to be feared. 
1. There is the utter unworlUiaesa uf an infidel, or impeni- 
tent, ungodly hypocrite. And damaatioa to hell fiie, is 
the puniribment that such muRt expect, if canversion pre- . 
vent it not. 2. There is an unwoTthioess throngfa sobM'' 
great and scandalous crime, which a regenerate person 
fallvth into ; and tliis should stop him from tlie sacrament 

> Cummwiiluwnl ii, ui. Lev. z. 9, 9. > MotLuii. II, It. ' 

' 1 C<>r.xi.ta,tfl. 


for a time, till he hare repented and cant away his nia. And 
if hfc come before he rise from his fall by a particular repents 
ance (as the Corinthiani; that sinned in the very use uf the 
sacnuneot itself), they may expect some notable temporal 
judgment at the present'; and if repentance did notprcveat 
it, they might fear etevnal puaisbment. 3. There is that 
measure of unworthinesB which consietelli in the ordinary 
infirmiueB of a saint ; and this should not at all deter them 
from the sacnunent. because it is accompanied with a greater 
worthiness ; yea, thougli their weakness appear in the time 
and manner of their receiving: but yet oi-dinary corrections 
may follow these ordinary infirmities. (The grosser abuse 
of the sacrament itself, I join under the second rank.) 

Qacst, XI. ' What is the particular preparation ueedfui 
to a fit commnnicant V 

Amw. This briogeth me up to the next Direction. 

Direct. V. ' Let your preparation, to this sacrament con- 
sist of these particulars following. 1. In your duty with 
your own consciences and hearts. 2. In your duty towards 
God. 3. And in your duty towards your neighbour.' 

I. Your duty with your hearts consistet}! in these par- 
ticulars. 1. That you do your best in tEie cloBe examina- 
tion of your hearts about your states, and the sincerity of 
your faith, repentance and obedience: toknow whetheryout 
heartdaretruetoGod.intbe covenant whichyau are to renew 
and to seal. Which may be done hy these inquiries, and 
discerned hy these signs, (1.) Whether you truly loathe your- 
selves for (lII the sins of your hearts and lives, and ore a 
greater offence and burden to yourselves, because of your 
imperfections and corruptions, than all the world beside 
is"'. (2.) Whether you have no sin but what you are truly 
desirous to know; and no knoiro sin, but what you are 
truly desirous to be rid of; and so desirous, as that you 
had rather be perfectly freed from sin, than from any affiic- 
tiou in the world". (3.) Whether you love the searching 
and reforming light, even the most searching parts of the 
Word of God, and the most searching books, and searching 
sermons, that by them you may be brought to know your- 

' Vide Sjnod Dorldnbl. tnlTriii;. Tlicd. BrilUn> in Artio. 5- 

■° Eieb^ri. 9. *i.4S. iiivl.51. Row. ■U.S^ 

" Il«tii. tU. IB. It- 14. till. IS. ^^ - 

Kelves. io order to your settled peace and refoiiQaticui ". 
(4.) Whether you truly love tliat degree of holiaeSH in 
others which you Have nol yet attained youraelvee. and love 
Chriftt in his children, with eiLch an unfeigned Iove> aa will 
cause you to relieve them according to your abilitieB, and 
RufTer for their sftkee, when it m your duty?. (6.) Whetlier 
you can truly say, that there \a no degree of holiuaaa so 
high, but you desire it, and bad rather be perfect in ihc 
love of God, and the obedience of his will, than have all Ibu 
riches and pleasures of this worldi. And had rather be one 
of the holiest Kaints, than of the moat renowned, proajMcrous 
princes npon earth '. (G.) Whether you have so far laid 
up your treasure, and your hopes in heaven, aa that you are 
resolved to take that only for your portion ; and thai the 
hopea of heaven, and interest of your souU, hath the pre- 
eminence in your hearts against all that Btands in competi- 
lion with it '. (7.) Whether the chiefent care of your h^rts, 
and endeavour of your lives, be to Kerrs and please God* 
and to snjoy him for ever, rather than for any worldly 
thing*. (8.) Whether it be your daily desire and eiideavuur 
to moFlify tlie flesh, and master itaicbalUoui opposition to 
the Spirit; and you no far prevail, a» not to live, and walk, 
and be led by the fle^h, but that the course and drift uf 
your life is spiritual". f9.) Whether the world, and all il« 
honour, wealth and pleasure appear to you so amall and 
contemptible a thing, as that you esteem it a.^ dung, and 
nothing in comparison of Christ, and the love of God and 
ffUftry I and are resolved, that you will rather kt go all. than 
your part in Cbrist? And, which useth to earry it in the 
time of trial, in your deliberate choice'? (10.^ Wfaetbitc 
you are reeolved upon a course of holineM and obedience. 
and to \ue those means which Ood dutli make known to 

* Johii iu.19— ei. 

■> 1 Ma 111. 14. 16. LP«teikH. 111.8. J^m* >>• in— 15. kUtt. u«. 

t KoiB. rlU 18. il. 84. P>*lui cilx. S. Had. *. (. 
'PmlniiT. 4. ivi. I. ndmlinh. 10. lit. 4. 
kC<>1.9i.L. 3.«. Mut-iiaa, fi. 
■ MMt. vi.93. John v.«(S. aCoi. t. 1.6— 9. 

• Ruin., viu. 1. IS— to. li Ual. V. 17. m , 99, 

< rbu. iu. r— SI, IS. iftr-ita. i >hii a, i^ ut^ «*. «6. w. as. Matt. 
■111. \9. ti. 



you, to be the way to please turn, and to sabdue your cor- 
ruption ; and yet feeliug ihe friuUloii of your lu'iLrtti, and lliti 
burden of your sius, do tnwt iu Christ as your riglitcnui^ness 
before God, and in the Holy Qhost, whose grace olonc can 
iiluminat«. aanctify, and oonfinn you''. By these sigiu yoK 
may safely try your aLates. 

2. When ihie is done, you are alito to try the RtreDgth 
and measure of your grace i thut you may perceive your 
weakneea, and know for what help you should eeek. to Chribt. 
And to find out what inward corruptions and sinful incli- 
nations are yet Btrongest in you, that you may know what to 
l&ment, and to ask forgireneas of, aiid help a^inst. My 
book called " Directions for Weak Christians," will give 
you fuller advice in thU, 

3. Yon are alao to take a strict account of your' Uvea ' ^ 
and to look over your dealings with God and men, in aecretj 
Olid in public, especially of late, oiuuo the la»t renewal of 
yoar covenant with God, and to hear what God and con- 
science have to Bay about your sins., and all their aggrava- 
tions •- 

■4. And you must labour to get your hearts affected with 
your condition, aa you do dincover it. To be humbled fur' 
what is sinful, and to be desirous of help against your wcak- 
nefs, and thankful for the grace which you disceri^,. 

5. Lastly, you must consider of all the work that yon 
are todo, and all the niercieB wbich you are going to receive, 
and what gtacea are necessary to nil this, and how they 
must be lued; and accordingly look up ail those graces, and 
prepaxe them for the exercise to which they are to be called 
out. I sliall name you the particulars anon. 

II. Your duty towards God in your preparation for this. 
sacrament, is, I. To cast down yourselven before him in 
humble, penitent confession, and lamentation of all the 
gins which you discover; and to beg hi» pardou in secret, 
before you come to have it publicly sealed and delivered. 
'i. To look tip to him with that thankfulness, love, and 
joy, as becomes one that i» going tn receive ao great a 

lAcMii. )!S. PmIoi eux.ST.4a 69.106, iCur.LA). Roni. vlii. ». Joba 
«». S. tCut. x\\.9- 

' ISniui it. 4 — fl. 

• PMlmciMh.M. 1 C«r. iiL<8. 



mercy from him; and humbly to beg that gra,ce which may 
prepare you, and quicken you to, and in the work. 

HI. Your duty towards others in this your preparation, 
[is, 1. To forgive those that hav« done you wrong, and to 
'confess your fault to thoae whom you have wronged, and 
Bsk. tiietn fargiv^enees, and make them amends and restitu- 
tion so far as is in your power; and to be reconciled to 
those with whom you are fallen out ; and to see, that you 
love your neighbours as yourselvea. 2. That you seek ad- 
vice of your pastors, or some fit persons, in cases that are 
too hard i'or yourselves to resolve, and where you need their 
epcciul help. 3. That you lovingly admonish th«ta that 
[you know do intend to conmiuntctite unworthily, and to 
come thither in their ungodliness, and gross sin unrepeuted 
[of: that you shew not such hatred of your brother, as to 
ir Mu upon him: but tell him his f&ults, as Christ hath 
Sted you. Matt, xviii. 15-^17. And do your parta to 
I promote Christ's discipline, and ke«p pure the uhurch. See 
1 Cor. V. throughout. ' When you come to the holy commiuiioor 
let not the over-scrupulous regard of the person of the mi- 
Ixiietcr, or the company, or the imperfections of the minta- 
Itrdtiou, disturb your nrn dilations, nor call away your mindu 
I Jrom the high and serious employment of the day.' Hypo- 
icritus who place their religion iu bodily- exerciscH, have 
.taught many weak Christians to take up unnecessary scru- 
iples, and tn turn their eye and observation too much to 
I things without them. 

It Quest. ' Bui should we have no regard to the due cele- 
^on of ttieao sacied tuysteries, and to the mimater, uud 

lunicants, and manner of administration^ 

Answ. Yea : you lihould have so much regard to them, 

I J. As to see that nothing be amiss through your default, 

I vrhicb is iu your power to amend. 2. And that you join not 

[in the commrtting of any known sin. But (I.) Take not 

every sin of another fur your sin, and think not that you are 

guilty «f that in otherii, which you cannot amand ; or. that 

you must forsake the church and worship of God, for these 

eoreuptious which you are not guilty of, or deny your own 

mercies, because others unnrp them or abuse them. (2.) If 

you suspect any thing imposed upon you to b« sinful to you. 



try it before you come thither; and leave not yonr minds 
open to ilisturbance, when they should be wholly employed 
with Cfarist. 

Quest. I. ' May \(e lawfully receive this sacrament from 
an ungodly and unworthy minister?' 

Amw. Whoever you may la-wfully commit the guidance 
of yoursoulB lo as your pustor, you may lawfully receive the 
8acramt>nt froin, yea, and in some cases from some others; 
for in case you come into a church that you are no member 
of, you may lawfully join in communion with that church, 
for that present, as a stranger, though they have a pastor 
so faulty, as you might not lawfully commit the oidinaty 
conduct of your soul to. For it is their fault and not yours, 
that they chose no better; and, in some cases, such a fault 
as will not warrant you to avoid communion with them. 
But you may not receive, if you know it, from a heretic, 
that teacheth any error against the essence of Christianity. 
2. Nor from a man so utterly ignorant of the Chriatiaa faith 
or duty, or so utterly unable to teach it to others, as to be 
notorioaaly uncapable of the minielry. 3. Nor from a man 
professedly ungodly, or that settetli himself to preach down 
godliness itself. These you must never own as ministers of 
Christ, that are utterly uncapable of it. But see that you 
take none for such that a,re not s«ch. And there are three 
sorts more, which you may not receive from, when you 
have your choice, nor take them for your pastors: but 
in ease of necessity imposed on you by others, it is law- 
ful and your duty. And that is, (1.) tTsacpera that make 
themselves your pastors, without a lawful call, and perhaps 
do forcibly thrust out the lawful pastorsof the church. (2.) 
Weak, ignorant, cold and lifeless preachers, that are tole- 
rable in case of ueceseity. but not to be compared with 
worthier men. (3.) Ministers of scandalous, vtcioun lives. 
It is a sin in you to prefer any one of these before a better, 
and to ohoose them when you have your choice ; but it is a 
sin on the other side, if you rather submit not to one of 
these, than be quite without, and have none at all. You 
' own not their faulta in such a case, by submitting to their 

I ministry. 

I Quest. II. * May wo communicate with unworthy per- 

I sons, or in an undisciplined church V 



[part II. 

Atuw, You must here dJstingui&h if you will not en*i\ 
lind that, I. Betiireen persone so unworthy f%» to be no 
Christians, atid those that are culpable, scandalous Chrii 
tiaoB. 3. Between a few members, n.nd the whole societyj 
or the denoaiJoat'iDg part. 3. Between sin pTofenscd and 
owned, and sin disowned by a seeming penitence. 4. And 
between a caae of liberty, when I have iny choice of « bettcrj 
iiocJety ; and a case of necessity, when I must communicate 
with the worser eociety, or witli none : and so I answer, 

1. Vou ought not to communicate at all in thi» sacra- 
ment with a society tltjit professetb not Christianity : if tlie 
whole body, or denominating part be such; that is, I. With 
aach as never made profession of Gliristianity at all. 2* Or 
have apostatized from it. 3. Or, that openly own ODy he- 
resy inconeiHtent with the essential faith or duty of a Cbri*- 
tian. 4. Or, that are notoriously ignorant what Chris- 
tianity is. 

2. It is the duty of the pastors and ^ovemora of the 
church, to keep away notorious, scandalous ofTendert, till 
they shew repeiLtaiicc ; mid the puople'n duty to a«»iHl them 
by priTOte reproof, and informing the churcli when there b 
cdUBc, ThoTclore, if it be through the neglect uf your own 
duty, that tlie church ia corrupted and uu disci pi iued, the atn ^j 
» yours, whether you receive with them or not. fl 

3. If yoo rather choose a corrupted, undisciplined ^^ 
. church to communicate with, when you hare your choice of 
' B better, ' caiteris paribus.' it in your fault. 

But on the contraj-y, it ie not your sin, but your duty to 
commuuicate witti that church which bath a true pastor, and 
where the denominating part of the membem are capable of 
church communion, though there may some infidels, or hea- 
thens, or iocapable persons violently intrude, or acandaloat 
I persons are admitted throuc^h the ae£;lcct of discipline; in 
cwK jou have not your chaiee to hold personal cooununioD 
with a better church, and in ca»e also you be aot guilty of 
the corruption, but by seasonaJilc and modest profeaaing 


* UMu ie lUwM. Bniu ■pntvih Ibm i« the b«ltt« tort of ^Mn 
IJult i^nam ot «iniiliuin ■nDlignaiiiliviu, cl cum ini|iiit iiuu iciltl i Qui 
liUucliu Mc* (luc nl, iniuc E«iJciia,> iiuUuui Vm wlixiuntrm ui tiiK dUuvU 
puri', nun ■■Im'iiii, nl priipituc Kimuirurciuc iiuii uui uuiuiiui vrl ponilmtck •pe- 
K'bh. ui ilnniiincii iloniu me Anherr^ JmuA'mt'i Kl. p|h 6(, 61. 



your dtsDent, do eluar yout'self of the f^ilt of such intnisioQ 
aud corrnplion. For here the reason<« and ends of a lawful 
fteparation are removed ; because it tendeth not to God's 
hooour, or their reformation, or your benefit: for all the^e 
are more crossed by holding communion with no church. 
than with such a corrupted chiircli. And this is to te pre- 
ferred before none, a» much aa a better before thig. * 
Qveit. 111. ' Bat what if I cannot communicate oideaal 
conform to an impo&ed gesture, aa kneelint; or sittiug V i 
Answ. I . For sitting or standing, no doubt it ia lawful in 
itself: for else authority were not to be obeyed, if tbey 
sliouLd comiuAud it ; and else the church had sinned in for- 
heatia^ kneeling iu the act of receiying. bo many himilred 
ye^rs at^r Christ ; as is plain tbey did, by the canons of 
general couucils (Nic. i. and Trull.) that universally forbade 
to adore kneeling, any Lord's day in the year, and any week 
duy between Easter and Whitsuntide ; and by the fathers, 
Tertallian, Epipbanius, &c., that make this an apostolic or 
universal tradition. 2. And for kneeling, I never yet heard 
any tiling to prove it unlawful ; if there be any thing, it 
must b« either eome Word of God, or the nature of the or- 
dinance, which is supposed to be contradicted'. But 1. 
There is no Word of God for any gesture, nor against any 
gesture : Christ's example can never be proved to be intend- 
ed to oblige us more in Ibis, than in many otlier circum- 
stances that are confessed not obligatory : as that he deli- 
vered it but to oiinisters, and but to a family, to twelre, and 
titer supper, and on a Thursday night, and in an upper 
room. &,c. : and his gesture was not &uch a Bitting; as ours. 
3. And for the nature of the ordinanc*, it \n mixed : and if 
it be lawful to take u parduo from the king upon oar knees, 
I know not what can mako it unlawful to take a sealed par^ 
don from Christ (by his ambassador) upon our kneen. 

Qutat. IV. ' But what if I cannot receive it, but accord- 
ing to the administration of the Common prayer-book f or 
some other imposed form of prayer? Is it lawfiil so to 
take it V 

Answ. If it be unlawful to receive tl, when it is adminis- 
, tered with tlw; Conunon prayer-book, it is either. 1. Be-' 

I cause it is a form of prayer. 2. Or becauBs that form hath 

K ' Mr. PaybwIVs bode. I tfiink ununtwcratili-. 


some forbidden matter ia it. 3. Or because that form ia ^M 
imposed. 4. Or because It is iraposed to Hoine evil ent) and 
coii8e<{ueDt. 1. That it is not uatawful. because a form, is ^^ 
proved before, aud indeed need» no proof with any that is^l 
judicious. 2. Nor yet for imy evil in this particular form: 
for in this part the Common Prayer is geuerally approved. 
3- Nor yet, because it ia imposed : for a command maketb 
not that . unlawful to us. which is lawful before; but it 
maketh many things lawful and duties, that else would have 
been unlawful accidentally. 4. And the intentions of tbe 
commanders, we have little to do with ; and for (he coase- 
quents they must be wejglird on both sides ; and the come- , 
queuti) of our refusal will not be found ligbt. ^M 

In the general, 1 must here tell ell the people of God, in ^^ 
the bitter sorrow of my soul, that at last it is time for them 
to discern that temptation, that hath in all agea of the 
churcit almost, made tliis sacrament of our union, to be tbe 
grand occasion or instrument of our divisions ; and that true 
humility, and Rct|uaintftnce with ourselves, and sincere love 
to Christ and one another, would shew ttome men, that it 
was but their pride, and prejudice, and ignorance, that 
mode them think so heinously of other men's manner of 
-worship : and that on all &ides among true Christians, tbs 
manner of their wori^hip is not so odious, as prejudice, Bud 
iaction, and partiality representelb it: and that God aooept- 
eth tliat vrhicb they reject. And tlicy should see how th« 
devil hath undone the common people by tliis means; bjr 
teaching them every one to expect salvation for being of 
tliat party wkich he taketh to be the right church, aud for 
Worshipping in that maimer which he and his puity tlunketh 
beat : and so wonderful a thing is prejudice, thatevery party 

I by thig is brought to account that ridiculou* aud vile, which 
the other party accounted best. 

Qutiit. V. ' liut what if my conscience be not satisfied, 
but I am still iu doubt, oiust I not forbear? Seeing he 

I th&t doubteth is coudemn«<l if he eat, because be eatcth not 

I in faith ; for whatsoever ik not of faith la aiu ".' 

Aiuw. The apuatle there speaketh not of eating in the 

ftnorameut, but of eating meats which he doubteth of i 

I Vheihei lliey are lawful, but is sure that il ijt lawful to for- 

' Rom. ah. M, 





bear them. And in case of doubting about tbings indif)*e- 
reot, the fturer side is to forbear them, because there may be 
Biu indoiug i but there cadi be tione on the other aide, in 
forbearing. But in case of duties, your doubting will not 
disoblige you; else men might give over praying, and 
hearing God's Word, and believing, and obeying their 
rulers, and maintainiag their fauxilies, when they are but 
blind enough to doubt of it. 2. Your erring conscience is 
uota law maker, and cannot make it your duty to obey it: 
for God is your king, and the ofSce of conscience is to dig- 
cern his law, and ui^e you to obedience, and not to make 
you laws of its own : so that if it speak falsely, it doth not 
oblige you, but deceive you : it doth only ' ligare,' or in- 
snare you, but not 'obligare,' or make a sin a duty: it 
casteth you into a necessity of sinning more or less, till you 
relinquish the error ; but in the ca&e of such duties as these, 
it is a sin to do them with a doubting conscience, but (or- 
dinarily) it is a greater sin to forbear. 

Object. ' But some dtrines write, that conscience being 
God's officer, when it eneth, God himself doth bind mn by 
it to follow that error, and the evil which it reqaireth bc- 
cotneth my duty.' 

Atisvt. A dangerous error tending to the subversion of 
&ou)s and kingdoms, and highly dishonourable to Ood. 
God hath made it your duty to know hta will, and doit : and 
if you igiiorantly mistake him, will you lay the blame on 
him, and dra.w him into participution of your sin, whcu be 
forbiddeth you both the error and the sin 1 And doth he at 
once forbid and command the same thing? At that rery 
moment, God is &o far from obliging you to follow your 
error, that he &lill obligeth you to lay it by, and do the con- 
trary. If you say, ' You cannot,* 1 answer, youi impotency, 
is a sinful impotency ; and you cau use the means, in which 
hi» grace can help you : and he will not chajige his law, 
nor make you kings and rulers of yourselves instead of him, 
because you are ignorant or impotent. 

Direct. VII. ' In the time of the administratioD.goalong 

with the minister throughout the work, and keep your 

, hearts close to Jesus Christ, in the exercise of all those 

I graces which are suited to the several parts of the adminis- 

I tratkon.' Think not that all tbe work must be the minis- 



ter'a: it should be a bosy day with yon, and your hrartx 
should be taken up with as much diligence, as your hands 
be ill your common labowr ; l>ut not in a toilsome, weary 
ciiligeuce, but in such delig;htf'ul business as bccometh the 
guestt; of the God of heaven, at so sweet a feaat, and tn the 
receiving of such invaiiiable ^fts. 

Hen: 1 sliould distinctly ehewyoa, 1. What graces they 
be that yoo most there exercise. II. What there i» ob- 
jectively presented before you in the Sacrament, to exercise 
all these gracet. III. At what seaaooe in the achninistrft- 
tion tiiMzh of these inward works are to be done. 

i. The graces to be exercised are these, (beiides that 
holy fear and reverence coioraon to all worship,) I. A btim- 
ble sense of the odiousuess of sin, and of our undone coadt* 
tion as in ourselves, and a displeasure against ourselves, and 
loathing of ourselves, and melting repentance for tb* sins 
we have committed ; qb against our Creator, and as o^hist 
the love and mercy of a Redetnuer, and against the Holy 
Spirit of Grace. 2. A hungering and thirsting desire after 
the Lord Jeaus. and bis grace, and the favour of God antf 
communion with biu, which arft there represenlcd aact 
oflered to the soul. 3. A lively faith in our Kedeetner, hhr 
death, fesurreetion, and intercession; and a trustht^' our 
misernble souU upon him, an onr KufHcient Saviotir and 
help ; omd a hearty acceptance of him and his benefits upon 
hia otiiered terms. 4. A joy and gladness in the senaeof 
that luispeatable mercy which is here offered us. 6^ A 
thankful heart towards him from whom we do receire H. 
6. A fervent love to hrin that by snch love doth seek our 
love. 7. A triumphant hope of life eternal, which is pnr^ 
chased for us, and sealed to us. 8. A willin^ess and reso^ 
lotion to deny ouiselvcs, and all thin world, nnd suffer for 
him that hath suflered for our redemption. 9. A lore to 
unr brethren, our neighbours, and our enemies, with areadi' 
neas to relieve them, and to forgive them when they <to tis 
wrong. 10. And a 6rm resolution for future obedience, to- 
our Creator, and R«deeraer. and Sanctifier, accordiiTg to 
our covenant. 

11. In the naaoiag of Uiesc graces, I have oamed their 
objacu, which you should observe as distinetly as you cut 
tbat they may be operative. 1. To betp-year humiliatifln 



and repentance, you bring thither a loaden irtMerable soul, 
to receive a parJon and relief: and ynu see before yon the 
sacrificed Son of God, who made his soul nnofl'ering'forsin, 
and became a curse for oi to save us who were accursed. 
2. To dfftw out your des^ires^ you have the most excellt^nl 
gifts and the most needful mercies presented tn you that 
this world is cupuhlc O'f; evcti the pardon of aia, the lore of 
God, the Spirit of grace, and the hopes of glory, and Christ 
himself with whom all this lu given. 3. To exercise your 
faith you hare Christ here tirst repreaented as crucified ht- 
fore your eyes : and then with his benefits, freely given yon,' 
and offered to your acceptance, with a command that you 
refuHc tlieiii not. 4. To exereiseyourdclight and gladne-es, 
you have this Saviour and this salvation tendered to you ; 
and all that your souls can well deaire set before you. 5. To 
exercise your thank fulnea», what could do more than bo 
great a gift, so dearly purchased, no surety sealed, and so 
freely ortered f 6. To exerciiie your love to God in Christ, 
you have the tiillest manifestation of bis attractive love, 
even offered to your eyes, and tafite, and heart, that ft utoul 
on earth can reasonably expect; in such woitdeiful con- 
descension, that the gFeatnesa and strangeness of it sur- 
passeth a natural man's belief. 7. To exercise your hopes 
of life eternal, you have the price of it here set before you; 
you have the gift; of it here sealed to you ; and you have- 
that SsTiour represented to you in bis suffering, who is now 
there reigning, that you may remember him as expectants 
of hia glorious coming to judge the world, and glorify yuu 
with himself. 8. To exercise yonr self-denial and rssohition 
for suffering, and contempt of tb« world and Seshly plea- 
sures, you have before you both tlie greatest example nnd 
obligation, that ever could he offered to the world; when 
you nee and receive a crucified Christ, thftt so strangely de- 
nied himself for you, and set so httle by the world and 
flesh. 9. To exercise your love to brethren, yea, and ene- 
mies, yon hiivc his example before your eyes, that loved 
you to the death when you were enemies: and you have 
liis holy servants before your eyes, who are amiable in him 
through the workings of hi)i Kpint, aud on whom he will 
have you shew y<>Qr love to himself. 10. And to excite yovr 
rceointion for future obedience, you see his double tide to 



the government of yon, as Creator and as Redeemer; and 
you I'eel the obligations of mercy and gratitude ; and you 
are lo renew a covenant with him to that end ; eren openly 
where all the church are witnesses. So that you see here 
are powerful objects before you to draw out aJl these grace*, 
and that they are all but such as the work requireth you then 
to exercise. 

111. But that you may be the readierwhen it cometh fo 
practice, I shall as it were lead you by the hand, through all 
the parts of the administration, and tell you when and how 
to exercise every grace, and those that are to be joined to- 
gether I shall take together, that needless distinctness do 
not trouble you. 

1. When you are called up and going to the table of the 
Lord, exercise your humility, desire, and thankfulness, and 
euy in your hearts, ' What, Lord, dost thou call such a 
wretch as t? What! me, tliat have so oft despised thy 
mercy, and wilfully offended thee, and preferred the filth of 
this world, and the pleasures of the flesh before thee 1 Alaa, 
it is thy wrath in bell that is my due : but if love will chooae 
such an unworthy guest, and mercy will be honoured upon 
such sin and misery, ! come Lord at thy call: 1 gladly 
come : let thy will be done j and let that mercy which in- 
riteth me, make me acceptable, and graciously entertain 
me i and let me not come without tlie wedding gartuent, 
nor unreverently rush on holy things, nor turn thy mercies 
to my bane.' 

2* When the minister is confessing sin. prostrate yotir 
Tery souls in the sense of your unwortbiness, and let youti 
particular sins be in your eye, with their heinous aggrava- 
tions. The whole need not the physician, but the siok.. 
But here I need not put words into your mouths or minda,, 
because the miuister goeth before you, and your hearta must 
concur with his confeasioos, and put in ab>o the secret &in& 
which he omitteth. 

3. When you look on the bread and wine which is pro- 
vided and offered for this holy u»«, remember that it Js the 
Creator of all things, on whom you live, whose laws you did 
offend J and say in your hearts, * O Lord, how great is my, 
offence! who bave broken the laws of him that made m( 
ond 00 whom tlie whole creation dotli depend t 1 had my 



1»etQg From thee, and my daily bread ; and should 1 have |-e- 
quited thee with disobedience ? Father, I have sinned 
agatiiKl heaven and before thee, and am no more worthy to 
be callnd thy son." " 

4. When the words of the inatitutian art; rend, und the 
bread and wine art: solemnly consecrated, by septtratiDg 
them to that sacred use, and the acceptance and blcesinj^ of 
God is desired, admire the mercy ihnt prepared us a Re*- 
deemer, and say, " God, how wonderful is thy wisdom 
and thy love I How strangely doat thou glorify thy mercy 
over those sins that gave thee advantage to glorify thy jus- 
tice! Even thou our God whom we have olFended, hast 
out of thy own treasury satistied thy own jnstice, and given 
us a Saviour by &uch a miracle of wisdom, love, and con- 
deacenBion, as men or angels shall never be able fully tu 
comprehend : eo didst thou love the sinful world, as to give 
thy Son, that whosoever btlioveth on him, should not pe- 
riah, but have everlasting life. O thou ibat hast prepared 
us so full u remedy, and eo precious a gift, sanctify ihexe 
creatures to be the representative body and blood of Christ, 
and prepare my heart for so great a gift, and so high, and 
holy, and honourable a work." 

5. When you behold the consecrated bread and wine, 
discern the Lord's body, and reverence it as the representa- 
tive body and blood of Jesus Christ ; and take heed of pro- 
faning it, by f coking on It as common bread and wine; 
though it be not transubstantiate, but Btill is very bread 
and wine in its natural being, yet it Ib Christ's body and 
blood in represieutation and effect. Look on it as the con- 
secrated bi:eud of Hfe, which with the (juiokening Spirit 
must nourish you to bfe eternal. 

G. When you see the breaking of the bread, and the 
pouring out of the wine, let repentance, and love, and de- 
sire, and tliaukfulness, thus work within you: "O won- 
drous love! O hateful ain! How merciful, lord, hast thou 
been to sinners ! and how cruel have we been to ourselves 
and thee! Could love stoop lower? Could God be merci- 
ful at a dearer rate? Could my sin have done a more hor- 
rid deed, than put to deatli the Son of God ? Ilow small a 
matter hath tempted me to that, which must cust so dear 
fapfore ir w«8 forgiven ! How dear payed my Saviour for 
VOL. IV. ..■ ■■— •■ z 



that which I might have avoided at a rery cheap rate ! At 
how low « price have I vahi«d hi»t blood, when I have sinned 
and sinned again for uotUiiig 1 This ie my doing ! My sins 
were the thorns, the nails, the Rpear! Can a murderer of 
Christ he a amall offeuder? O dreadful justice ! It was I 
and such other siunere thatdeserved to bear the punishment, 
who were guilty of the sin ; and to have heen fuel for the 
unquenchable ftames for ever. O precious sacrifice! O 
hateful fiin! O gracious Sa.viour! How can man's dull and 
narrow heart be duly affected with &uch traneceudent things ? 
or heaveu make its due imprettsion upon an inch of flesh? 
Shall I ever again have a diUl apprehension of such lore? 
ot ever have a favourable thought of sin? or ever have a 
fearless thought of justice? O break or melt this hardened 
heart, that it may be gomewbat conformed to my crucified 
Lord ! The tears of love and true repentance are easier than 
tl)e ilames from which I am redeemed. O hide me in these 
wounds, and wash me in. this precious hlood ! Thia is tlic 
Bacri6ce iu which I trust: thia is the HghtcousncK$ by 
which 1 must be justified, and saved from the curse of thy 
violated law ! Aa thou hast accepted tliis, O Father, for 
the world, upon the cross, behold it still on the behalf of 
sinners ; and hear bis blood that crieth unto thee for mercy 
to the miserable, and pardon us, and accept ua as thy re- 
conciled children, for the sake of this cruafied Christ 
olune! We can offer Lbee no other sacrifice for sini and 
^veneed no other." 

7. When the minister applieth himself to God by prayer, 
for the efficacy of this sucrajuent, that in it he will give ua 
Chiiat and his beuefils, and pardon, and justify us, and ac- 
cept us as his reconciled children, join heartily nnd ear- 
nestly in tlie&e requests, as one that knowutlt the need and 
worth of such a mercy. 

8. When the minister dclivereth you the conaccrated 
bread and wine, look upon him as the messenger of 
Christ, and hear him as if Christ by him said to you, 
" Take this my broken body and blood, and feed on it 
to everlasting life : and take with it ray sealed corenaob 
and therein the sealed testimony of my love, and the sealed 
pardon of your uins, and a sealed gift of life eternal ; so b« 
it, you unfeigncdly consent unto my covenant, and give np 
/oui-ifelves to me as my redeemed ones." Even aa in deliver- 



ing the [losBHsioD of house or lands, the dHiverer giseth a 
key, and a. twig, and a turf, and saith, " 1 deliver you this 
house, and I deliter you this land ;" so doth the mlnieter by 
Christ's authority deliver you Christ, and pardon, and title 
to eternsil life. Here is an iraage of a sacrificed Chrirt 
of God's own appointing, which you may lawfully use : and 
raore than an image ; even an investing inatnimcnt, by wh ich 
these highest niercicB are solemnly delivered to yo« in the 
name of Christ. Let your hearts therefore nay with joy and 
thankfulness, with faith and love, " O matchless hoiinty of 
the eternal God ! what a gift is this ! and unto what unwor- 
thy sinners! And will God stoop so low to man? and come 
80 aear htm.' and thus reconcile hiH worthless enemies? 
Will he freely pardon all that I have done? and tate me 
into his family and love, and feed me with the flesh and 
blood of Christ? I believe; Lord, help niioe unbelief. I 
humbly and tlmnkfuUy accept thy gifts! Open thou my 
heart, that 1 may yet more joyfully and thankfully accept 
them. Seeing God will glorify his love aud mercy by nach 
incomprehensible gifts as these, behold, I^rd, a wretch 
that needeth all this mercy ! And seeing it is the offer of 
thy grace and covenant, ray soul doth gladly take thee for 
my God and Father, for my Saviour and my Sanctifioi. 
And here I give up myself unto thee, as thy created, re- 
deemed, and (I hope) regenerate one; && thy own, thy sub- 
ject, and thy child, to be saved and sanctified by thee, to be 
beloved by thee, and to love thee to everlasting. O seal 
up this covenant and pardon, by thy Spirit, which thoo 
Healest and deliverest to me in thy sacraii)«nt; that without 
reserve I may he entirely and for ever thine !" 

9. When you see the communicants receiving with you, 
let your very hearts be united to tlie saints in love, and say, 
" How gaodly ore thy tents, O Jacob ! How aminble is the 
iomily of the Lord ! How good and pleai>aQt is the unity of 
brethren! How dear to me are the precious members of my 
Lord ! though they have yet all their spotis and weakuesaes 
which he pardoneth and so must we. My goodness, O 
Lord, extendeth not unto thee; but unto thy saints, the exp 
cellent ones on earth, in whom is my delight. What por- 
tion of my estate thou requirest, I willingly give unto the 
poor, and if I have wronged any man, I am willing to rcB- 



tore it. And Keeing thou hast loved rae an enemy, and for- 
given me so great a debt, 1 heartily forgive those that have 
done me wrong, and love my enemies. O keep me in thy 
family all my days, for a day in thy courts is better than a 
thousand, and tlie door-keepers ia thy house are happier 
tlian the most prosperous of the wicked'." 

10. When tlie minister returnetli thanks and praise lo 
God, fltir up your souls to the greatest alacrity ; and aap- 
poae you aaw the heavenly hosts of saints and angels prais- 
ing the same God in the presence of his glory ; and think 
with youreelves, that you belong to the same family and so- 
ciety as they, and are learning their work, and must shortly 
arrive at their perfection : strive therefore to imitate them 
in love and joy; and let your very aouls be poured out in 
praises and thanksgiving. And when you have the next 
leisare for your private thoughts, (as when the minister !b 
exhorting you to your duty,) exercise your love, and Uianks. 
and faith, and hope, and self-denial, and resolulioa for fu- 
ture obedience, in some such breathings of your souls as 
these ; " O my gracious God, thou hast auipassed all hu- 
man comprehension in thy love! Is thia thy usage of un- 
worthy prodigals? 1 feared lest thy wrath as a coosuming 
fire would have devoured such a guilty soul ; and thou 
wouldnt have charged upon me all my folly. But while I 
condemned myself, thou hast foTgiven and jUHiificd me ; and 
Burpriaed me with the sweetest embraceraents of thy love! 
I see now that thy thoughts are above our thoughts, and 
thy ways above our ways, and thy love excelleth the lore of 
man, even more than the heavens are above the earth. 
With how dear a price hasi thou redeemed a wretch that 
deserved thy evt'riasting venjjeance I with how precious and 
sweet a feast hast thou entertained me, who deserved to be 
ca«tOQtifith tlie workers of iniquity ! Khali 1 evermore 
slight such love as this ? nhall it not overcome my rebel- 
liousneas, and melt down my cold and hardened heart? 
shall I be saved from hell, and not be thankful? Angels 
are admiring tlieiie mirucleH of love? and shall not I admire- 
them? Their love to us doth ihem to rejoice, while 
they stand by and see our heavenly feast; and should il not 

• Nuuth uW. i. F«l. t^iiiin. tf. 4. )ti. «, i. Ijuks sit. S. IW. 




be sweeter to us that are the guests that feed upon it? My 
God, how dearly liasl thou purchased my love ! how sLnuige- 
ly h[iat thou deeeived and ttoaght it ! Nothing is bo luuch 
my grief and shame, as tha,t 1 can answer each love with no 
more fervent, fruitful love. O what an addition would it be 
to alt this precious nievcy, if thou wouldet give me a heart 
to answer these thine iav^tAtione, that thy love, thus poured 
out, might draw forth mine, and my soul might flame by 
ita approaching unto these thy flamps I and that love, drawn 
out by the sense of love, might b« all my life; O tliat 1 
could love thee as much as I would love thee ! yea, as much 
as thou wouldet have me love ihee ! But this is loo great 
a happineeti for earth ! But thou hast shewed me the place 
where I may attain it '. My Lord iu there, in full possession : 
who hath left me these pledges, till he come and fetch ub to 
himself, and feast us thtre in our Master's joy. O blesaed 
place ! O happy company that see his glory, and are filled 
with the streams of those rivers of consolation ! yea, happy 
we whom thou hast called from our dark and miserable 
stale, and made us heirs of that felicity, and passengers to 
■t, and expectants of it, under the conduct of so Sure a 
guide! O then we shall love thee, without these sinful 
pauses nnd defects ; in another meai;ure and in another man- 
ner than now we do : when thou shalt reveal and communi- 
cate thy attractive love, in another measure and manner 
than now ! Till then, my God, I am devoted to thee , by 
right and covenant I am thine ! My soul here beareth wit- 
nesa against myself, that ray defects of love have no excuse i 
thou de»ervest all, if I bad the love of all the saints in hea> 
veit and earth to give ihee. What hath the world to do with 
my afiections { And what is thiA sordid, corruptible flesh, 
that its desires and pleasures should call down my soul, and 
tempt it to neglect my God'? What is there in all the suf- 
ferings that man can lay upon ine, that I should not joyfully 
accept them for his sake, that hath redeemed me from hell, 
by such unmatched, voluntary suflerings? Lord, seeing 
thou regardest, and so regardest, so vile a worm, my heart, 
my tongue, ray hand confess, that I am wholly thine. O 
let me Uve to none but thee, and to thy service, and thy 
saints on earth! And O let me no more roturn unto ini- 
quity! nor venture on that siu that killed my Lord.! And 

■ i|Lui.y ; 




DOW thou hast chosen ao low a. dwelliog. O be not Htrangc 
to the heart that thou haet so freely chosen! O make it 
the datiy residence of thy Spirit ! Quicken it by thy gruce ; 
adorn it with thy gifts; employ it io thy love; delight it in 
ita attendance on tliec ; retresh it. with thy joys and the light 
of tJiy countenance ; and destroy this carnality, BelfeshueB.*, 
aud unbelief: and let the wotIcI see that God will make a 
palace of the lowest hesut, when he chooaeth it for tlie place 
of his own abode." 

Diroct. vtii. ' When you come home review the mercy 
which yon have received, and the duty which you hare duuv, 
and the coTenaot you have made : aud 1. Betake yourselve» 
to Ood in praise and ]>rayer, for the perfecting of his work. 
And 2. Take heed to your hearts that they ^^ow not cold, 
and that worldly things or diverting tiiflea, do not hlol vut 
tile iiacred impressions which Chri&t hath made, and that 
they cool nut <juickly into their former dull and sleepy frame. 
3- And gee that your lives be actuated by the gruce that 
you have here received, that even they that you converse 
with may perceive that you have been with God/ Espe- 
cially wheo temptations would draw you again to sin ; and 
when the injurie» of friendii or enemies would provoke you, 
and when you ate called to testify your love to Christ, by 
any costly work or&ufltrinp; remember then what was ao 
lately before your eyet^, and upon your heart, aud what you 
resolved ou, aud what a covenant you made with God. 
Yet judge not of the fruit of your receiving, so much by 
feeling, na by faith; for uorc ii> iiromibed thau you yet 


liretiionsfQr Fearful, Troubled Vhrisliam that are perpttj<4 
vntk Doubts of their Sincerity and Juitijkalwn. 

Havino directed faiiiilit.-)t in the duties of their relatioiu. 
and in the ri^ht worshipping of Qod, I shall Kpcak soiae- 
tbin^ of the special duties of aome ChriRtiaop, who in t«- 
gard of their state of soul and body, have special need of 



help and counsel. Ah 1. The doubting, troubled Chris- 
tian. 2< Th« deullningr or baclcsllding Christian. 3. The 
poor. 4. The aged, 5. The slclt. 6, And those that are 
about the sick and dying. Though these aiight Eeem to 
belong rather to the first Part", yet bccayae I would have 
tfause directions lie here together, which llie several aorta 
of persons in f&miUes m08t need, I have chosen to reserre 
them rather to this place. The special duties of the atrong, 
the rich, and the young and healthful, 1 omit, because I lind 
the book grow big, and you may gather them from tvhat is 
snid before, on Geveral such subjects. Aad the Directions 
which I shall first give to doubting Christians, shall be but a 
few brief memorials, because 1 have done tliatwork already, in 
my " Directions or Method for Peace of Conscience and Spi- 
ritual Comfort;" and much is here said before. In the Di- 
rections against Melancholy ami Despair, '' 

Direct, I. * Find out tlie special cause of your doubts 
and troubles, and bend most of your endeavours to remoTC 
that cause.' The same cure will not serve for every doubt- 
ing Boul, no, nor for every one that bath the very same 
doubts. For the causes may be various, though the doubts 
should be the same : and the doubts will be continued while 
the cause remainetl). 

1 . In Bome persons the chief cause is a timorous, weak, 
and passionate temper of body and mind; which in some 
(especially of the weaker sex) is so natural a disease, that 
there U no hope of a total cure ; though yet we must direct 
and support such a& we are able. These persons have so 
weak a head, and such poweritil passions, that pasoion is 
their life; and according to passion [they judge of them- 
selves, and of all their duties. They are ordinarily very 
high or very low; full of joy, or sinking in despair ; but 
usually fear i^ their predominant passion. And what an 
enemy to quietness and peace strung fear is, is easily ol>- 
served in all that have it. Assuring evidence w»ll not quiet 
such fearful minds, nor any reason satisfy them. The di- 
rections for these persons must be the same which I have 
before given against melancholy ond despair. Especially 
that the preaching, and books, and means, which they make 
use of, be rather auch as tend (o inform the judgment, and 

* Sm Parti.ChB]>.?. 'I'H. 10. OfDupair. 


rpAKT IT. 

settle (he will, and guide the life, tliansucb as by the great- 
I est fervency tend to awaken them to such passions or affeo- 
I tioQs which they are unable lio nia-nage. 

2. With others the causes of their troubles is melancho- 
ly, trliicb I have long obaerved to be the commonest cause, 
with godly jjeople thai remain in long and grievous 
doubts ; where this is the cause, till it be removed, other 
remedies do but little : but of thiii I have spoken at large 

3. In others the cause is a habit of dtscont^iit, sad 
peevishness, and impatient-y ; because of some waiita or 
croBseg in the world : because they have not what they 
would have, their minds grow ulcerated, like a body that is 
eick or sure, that carrieth about with them tbe paiii and 
■mart f and they are still complaining of the pain they feel ; 
but not of that which makelh the 5ore,and cau»eththe pain. 
The cute of these is either iu pleasing them that they may 
have their will in all thinga (as you rock childi-en and give 
them that which they cry for to 'i^uiet them) ; or rather to 
help to cure their impatiency, and settle their luiiids ag^ust 
their childieh, sinfiil diHContents (of which before). 

4. Id others the caase is error or great igi\orance about 
the tenor of the covenant of grace, and the redemption 
wrought by Jesiim Christ, and the work of sancUiicatiun, 
atid evidences thereof; they know not oiiwhat terms Christ 
dealcth with sinners in the pardoning of sin, nor what are 
the infallible signs of ftanctiticatioD: it is sound teaching, 
and diligent learning that must be the cure of these. 

5. Id others the cause is a careless life or frequent sin- 
ning, and keeping the wounds of conscience still bleeding : 
Uiay are still fretting the t^oro, and will not sutler it to skin : 
either they live in railing and contention, or n)nlic«j or soma 
secret lust, or fraud, or some way stretch and wrong tbeir 
consciences : and God will not give liitt peace and comfort to 

Ilbem till tliuy refunu. It is a mercy that they aro disquiet- 
; ed and not given over to a seared contcieace, which is 
' past feeling. 

6. la others the cause of their doubts is, placing the«r 
religion too much in humiliation, and in a continual poring 
on their hearts, and overlooking or neglecting the high and 
fhiefewt parts of religioa. even the daily studies of the lovo 



of GoJ, and the riches of grace in Jghuk Chriiit. and hereby 
stirring np the soul to love and delight in God. When they 
make this ftiore of their religion and business, it will bring' 
their souk iiit& a sweeter relish. 

7. Ill others the cause is such wvaknesK of jmrts and 
confusion of thoughts, and darkness of mind, that they are 
not able to examine themselves, nor to know what is in 
them: when they ask theraaelvea any question, about their 
repentance or love to God, or any grace, they are fain to 
answer like strangers, and say, they cannot tell whether 
they do it or not. These persons must make more U8« 
than others, of the judgment of some able, faithful guide. 

8. But of all others, the commonest cause of uncertainty,! 
is the weakness or littleness of grace; when it is so little', 
as to be next to none at all, no wonder if it be hardly and 
seldom discerned: therefore I 

Direct, n. 'Be not neglecters of Belf-examtnation, but 
labour for «kill to manage aright so great a work ; but yet 
let your care and diligence be much greater Ici g«t grace 
and use it. and increase it, than to try whether you havt^it 
already or not.' For in elimination, when you have once 
taken a right course to be resolved, and yet are in doubt as 
much as before, your overmuch poring upon these trying 
questions, will do you but little good, and make you but 
little the better, but the time and labour may be almost 
lost ; whereas all the labour which you bestow in getting', 
and using and increasing grace, is beetowed profitably to 
good purpose; and tendeth first to your safety and salva- 
tion, and next that, to your easier certainty and comfort. 
There is no such way in the world to be certain that you 
have grace, as to get so much as is easily discerned and 
will shew itself, and to exercise it much that it may come 
forth into observation : when you have a strong belief you 
will easily be sure that you believe: when you have a fer» 
vent love to Christ and holiness, and to the Word, and 
waya, and servants of God, you will easdy be assured that 
you love them. When you atrongly hate sin and live in 
universal, constant obedience, you will easily discern your 
repentance and obedience. But weak grace will have but 
weak assurance and little consolation. 

Direct, iii. * Set yourselves with all your skill and dill- 



gence t9 destroy every siB of heart aud life.aiid nuikcityour 
priucipal care aad basiuess to do your duty, tiiid please, 
and honour God in your place, and to do all the good you 
can in the world: and trust God with your souU, aa long 
ait you wait upon hini in his way." If you live in wilful sin 
und negligence, t'C not unwilling to be reproved and deli* 
vered! If you cherish your gen&ual, fleshly lusts, and set 
your hearts too eagerly on the world, or defend your un- 
peaceableness and passion, or neglect your own duty to 
God or man, and make no conscience of a true reforma- 
tion, it is not any enquiries after signs of grace, that will 
help you to assurance. You may complain long enough 
before you have ease, while such a thorn ts in your foot. 
Cunacience must be better used before it will speak a word 
of sound, well-grounded peace to you. But when you 
set yourselves with all your care and skill to do your du- 
ties, and please your Lord, h« will not let your labour be In 
vain; be will take care of your peace and comfort, while 
you take care of your duty : aud in this way you may boldly 
trust him : only think not hardly and falsely of the good- 
uetw of that God whom you study to xerre and please. 

Direct, i v. 'Be sure whatever condition you are in, that 
you understand, and hold fast, aud improve the general 
grounds of comfort, which are common to mankind, so far 
as they are mode known to them : and they are three, wtncti 
arc the foundation of all our comfort. 1. The goodnesc 
and mercifulneas of God in his very nature. 2. The suf- 
ficiency of the satisfaction or sacrifice of Christ. 3. The 
univetsality, and freeness, and sureness of the corenonL or 
promise of pardon and salvation to all, that by final iiope' 
nitence and uubelief do not continue obstinabcly to reject 
it:' (or to all that unfeignedly repent and helieTe.) (1.) 
Think not poorly and meanly of the infinite goodness of 
God'': even to Moses he proclaimeth his name at the se- 
cond delivery of the law, " The Lord, the Lord God, toei- 
ciful and gracious, long-suffering and abundant in goodness 
and truth, keeping mercy for thousands, forgiving iniquity. 
and tran8c:re8sion, and sin *" His mercy ib over ull his 

^ pMlnidlI.8. 11.17. Uuii.ii. [sit«i. A. 15. iiv. 10. «li.64. esinnt. 
* Band. mut. 6» 7. 



works; it U grc«t and rcachetb to the beaveuH^ it is firm 
and encliir«lh for ever ; " And he hath pleasure in those that 
hope in his mercy'', (2.) Extenuate not the merits and 
sai^rilice of Christ ; but know that never man was damned 
foi' want of a. Christ tu die and be a sacrifice for his sin, but 
only for want of repentance and faith in him'. (3.) Deny not 
the universality of the conditional promise of pardon and 
Kulvatioa, to all that it is offered to. and will accept it on iJie 
olTtiitiir'sterma. And if you do but feel these three founda- 
tions firm and stedfast under you, it will encourage «rety i 
willing sou!. The love of God was the cause of our redemp- 
tion by Christ: redemption was the foundation of ihe pro- 
mise or new covenant: and he Lhat buildeth on this thre«- , 
fold foundation is safe. 

Ihrect. V. 'When you come to try your particular title 
to the blessings of the covenant, be sure that you well uu- 
derstiUid the condition of the covenant; and look for the 
performance of that condition in yourselves, as the infaUi- 
bLe evidence of your title i and know that the condition ia 
nothing but an unfeigned consent unto the covenant.' Or 
such a belief of the Gospel, as maketb you truly willing of 
all the mercies ofiered in the Gospel, and of the duties re- 
quired in order to those mercies. And thut nothing depnv- 
eth any man that heareth the Goapel of Christ, and pardon. 
and salvation, but obstinate unwillingnesu or refusal of the 
mercy, and the necess'jry annexed dutieit. Understand tluK 
wtll. and then peruse the covenant of grace (which is. but 
to take God for your God and happiness, your Father, your 
Saviour, and your Sanctifier) : and then ask your hearts^ 
whether any thing be here that you are unwilling of; and 
unwilling of in a prevailing degree, when it is greater than 
your willingness: and if truly you are wilting to be in covo- 
nant with your God. and Saviour, and Sanctifier upon 
these terms, know that your conaent, or willingness, or ao- 
Ceptauce of the mercy offered you, is your true performance 
of the condition of your title, and consequently the infal- 
lible evidence of your title; even as marriage consent is a 
title-condition to the pfirsoa and privileges : and therefor« 
if you find this, your doubts are answered : you have found 

• JubnULK. 

iiiiii. in. [vii. 10. crB. «. 



as good an evidence as Scripture doth acquaint ua with; 
and if thiB will not quiet and satisfy you, you understand 
not Llie busiiicit^t; nor is it reason orevideuce that can satis- 
fy you, till you are better prepared to understand them. 
But if really you are unwilling, aiul will not consent to tbe 
terms of the covenant, then instead of doubting, be paat 
doubt that yoL are yet unsanctified : and your work is pre- 
sently to consider better of the terms and benefits, and of 
those unreasonable reasons that make you unwilling : till 
you see that your happiness lieth upon the business, and 
that you have all the reason in the world to make you wil- 
ling, and no true reason for the withholding of your con- 
Kent : and when the light of theme cousiderfttioiiB hath pre- 
vailed tor your consent, tlie match is made, and your evi- 
dence is sure. 

Direct, vi. ' Judge not of your hearts and evidences upon 
every sudden glanc« or feeUng, but upon a sober, deliberate 
examination, when your minds are in a. clear, composted 
frame: and as then you find yourselves, record the judg- 
ment or discovery: and believe not every sudden, incon- 
siderate appearance, or passionate fear, ngninst that record.' 
Otherwise you will never be quiet or resolvtid ; but carried 
up and down by present sense. The case is weighty, and 
not to be decided by a sudden aspect, nor by a scattered or 
a discomposed mind ; if you call your unprof idcd or your 
distempuriid understandings suddenly to so great a work, 
no wonder if you are deceived. You must not judge of co- 
lours when your eye is blood-shotten, or when you look 
through a coloured glaas, or when the object is far oH". It 
is like casting up a loDg and difHcult account, which must 
be done deUberaluly aa ti work of time; und when it is bo 
done, and the sumft subscribed, if afierwarda you will ques- 
tion that account again, you must take as full a time to do 
it, and that when you are as caliu und vacant ais before, and 
not unsettle an exact account upon a audden view, or a 
thought of some one particular. Thus must yuu IruEttu no 
examinations and decit^ions about the state of your sonla. 
bat those that in long and calm deliberation, have brought 
it to an issue. 

Direct, vii. ' And iu doing this, neglect not to make use 
nf the askislunce of an able, faithful guide, tto far as your 



own weakness makes it necesaary.' Your doubting uliew- 
eth that you are not sufficient to dispatcli it satisfactorily 
yourselves: the question then is, what help a wiser man 
can give you? Why, he can more clearly opan to you the 
true nature of grace, and the innrks that are infallible, and 
the extent of the grace and tenor of the covenant; and he 
can help you how to trace your hearts, and obficrve the dis- 
coveries of good or evil in them^ he can shew you your 
mistake!«, and help you iu the application, and tell you much 
of his own and others' experiences ; and he can paB» & 
strong conjecture upon your own case in particular, if he 
be one that knoweth tlie course of your lives, and is inti- 
mately acquainted with yoii ; for sin and grace are both ex- 
pressive, operative things, like life that ordinarily will etir, 
or fire that will be seen ; though their judgment cannot be 
infallible of you, and though forawhile hypocrisy may hide 
you from the knowledge ai' another, yet ' ficla non diu.&c' 
ordinarily nature will be seen, and that which is within you 
will shew itself; so that your familiar acqutiinttvnce that see 
your lives in private and in public, may pasH a very strong 
conjecture at your state, whether you set yourselves indeed 
to please in sincerity God or no. Therefore, if possible, 
choose such a man t" help you, as is 1. Able. 2. Faithful; 
and 3. Well acquainted with you ; and underva-hie not 
his judgment. 

Direct, viir. ' When you cannot attain to a certainty of 
your case, undervalue not and neglect not the comforts 
which a bare probability may afford you.' I know that a 
certainty in ho weijrhty a case, should be earnestly desired, 
and endeavoured lo the utlenuo&t. But yet it is no small 
comfort which a likelihood or hopefulness may yield you. 
Husband and wife are uncertain every day, whether one of 
them may kill the other; and yet they can live comfortably 
together, because it is an unlikely thing; and though it be 
possible, it is not much to he feared ; all the comforts of 
Christiane dependeth not on their assurance ; it is but few 
Chriatians in the world that reach to clear assurance ; for 
all the Papists, Lutherans, and Arminians are- without any 
certainty of tlicir salvation; because they tliink it cannot 
be had ; and all tho^ie Jausenists, or I'roiestants that are of 
Augustine's judgment are without asburancr of salvation, 



Uiougli they may Imve asBurajic* of their justification and 
saiictification ; becaase their judgment is that the justified 
and Ranctifiud (ihoiigh not tlie elect) m»y fall away. And 
of those that hold the doctrine of perecTerance, how few do 
w« find, thiit can say. they are certain of their sincerity and 
ualvation. Alas, pot one of very irmny. And yet mauy 
tllouBaude of theiw do live in Home peace of conscience, and 
qui«lneH8 , and comfort, in the hopefulness, andpTobabilitien 
to which they hare attained. 

Direct. IX. ' Resolve to be much in the Ki'^ai, dolightfot 
duties of thanksgiving and the praise of Cod ; and to speod 
a considerable part (ordinarily) of all your prayers herein; 
especially to spend the Long's day principally in these.' 
And thus you will have three great advajitages ; 1 . The very 
actings of love, and thanks, and joy, will help you to com- 
fort in a nearer way, than argument* and eelf-examination 
will do ; even in a way of feeling, an the fire maketh you 
warm. 2. The castum of ex«rci(iing those sweetest graceti, 
will habituate your souls to it, and in time wear ont tbe 
sadder impreB&ion. 3. God will most own you in tboae 
highest datiea. 

Direct X. 'Mark well how far your doublings do help 
or hinder you in your sane titi cation : So far as they turn 
your heart from God, and from the lore and sweetneis of a 
holy life, and unfit you fur thankfulness and cheerful obe- 
dience ; 8o far you may be sure, that satan is gratified by 
them, and Ood displeased, and therefore they aliovld b« r»- 
aisted : but so far, as they keep you humble and obedient, 
and make you more tenderly afraid of sin, and quicken your 
desires of Christ and grace, i>o far God useth them for your 
benefit.' And therefore be not too impatient under them, 
but wait on GoH in the une of his meitns, and he will giva 
his comforts in the fittest seaicon. Many an one hath sweet 
assurance ai his death, or in his sufferings for Christ when 
he needed it most, that was fain to live long before without 
it. Especially take care, 1. Thatyou miss not of aBsurance. 
through your own neglect. 2. And that your doubtjngfl 
work uo ill effects, in turning away your heartM from God, 
or discouraging you in his service, and thvn you may taks 
them as a trial of your patience, and tbey will certainly 
have a happy end. 




Directions for Declvnng or Baclaliding Cftriatians : and about 

The cSLse orBfLcketiders is bo terrible, nnd yet tlie mitEtakeit 
of many Christians ho common in thtaking uujuHtiy, that 
they are backsliders, that tliis subject must be handled with 
the greater care. Aad when I have first given some Direc- 
tions for the cure, I shall next gire some to others for pre- 
ventioi), of so »nd a state. 

Direct, i. ' Understand well wherein backsliding' doth 
coiKtiat, the aorta, and the degrees of it, that so yon may 
the more certainly and exactly discern, whether it be indeed 
your case, or not.' To this end, I shall here open to you, 
I. The Beveral M)rts of backsliders, tl. The several steps 
or degrees of backsliding. III. The aigna of it. 

I. There are in general three eorts of backsliders. 1. 
Such as decline from the truth by the error of their under- 
standing. 2. Such as turn from the goodness of Ood and 
holiness, by the corraption of their will and affections. 3. 
Such as turn from the obedience of God. and an npright 
conversation, by the eiiifuluess of their lives. 

The flrat sort contain«th in it, 1. Such as decline to infi- 
delity from faith; and doubt of the truth of the Word of 
Ood. 2. Such an decline only to error, about the mean- 
ing of the Scriptures, though they doubt not of the truth 
of them. This corrupted judgment will presently corrupt 
both heart aad life. 

The second sort ^backsliders in heart) containeth, Ji 
Such aa only lose their affections to good ; their compla- 
cency and desire ; and lose their averfieness and xea! against 
ain. 2- Aud such as lose the very resolution of the will al- 
so, and grow unresolved what to do, if not resolved to do 
evil, and to omit that which is good. 

The third sort (backsliders in life) comprehendeth, I. 
Those that fall from duty, towards Ood or man. 2. And 
those that fall into positive i'mti, and turn to eensuality, in 
voluptuousness, worldlLnesa, or pride. 




II. Backsliders ia judgment, do sometimes fall by slow 
degrees, and somt^tinies suddenly al once. Those that fall 
by dtjgrees, do some of them begin in ihe failing of the un- 
derstanding ; but most of them, begin at the failing or false- 
ness of the heart, and the corraptvd wilt coixupteth the un- 

1. Those that fall by degrees through the faiUng of the 
nnderstanding, are those simple aou]» that never wtim well 
grounded in the truth : and some of them reason themselvea 
into error or unbelief; and others of them (which is most 
usual) are led into itby the cunning and diligence of sedu- 
crrs. And for the degrees, they grow first to doubt of BontE 
arguments whi^h formerly seemed valid to th«m; and theo 
they doubt of the truth iteelf ; or else they hear some argu- 
meat from a seducer, which, through their own weakness, 
ihey are unable to answer ; and tiien they yield to it, b5 
thinking that it is right, because they see not what is to b« 
said against it ; and know uot what others know to the con- 
trary, nor how easily another can confute it. And when 
once they are brought into a suspicion of one point, which 
they formerly held, they quickly suspect uU the rest ; and 
grow into a suspicion and disaffection to the persons whom 
thoy did before most highly value. And then they grow ia- 
to a high esteem of tlie persons and party that seduced 
them; and think that they that are wiser in one thing, are 
wiser in the rcat : and so are prepared to receive all the 
errors which follow that one, which they hrst recmred : 
and next they embody with the sect that seduced them [ 
and separate from the sober, united part of tlie church : and 
BO they grow to a zealous importunity for the incrtaae of 
their party, and to lose their charity to those that are against 
their wray ; and to corrupt their morals, in thinking all dis- 
honesty lawful, which seemeth necessary to promote the in- 
terest of their sect, which they think is the interest of the 
truth and of God. And at last, it is like they will grow 
weary of that sect, and hearken to another, and another; 
till in the end, they come to one of these periods ; cither to 
Kettle in Popery, m the easiest religion : and being tak«n 
with their pretence of antiquity, stability, unity, and univer- 
sality ; or else to turn U> uthcism ur inlidelity. and take all 
religion for a mere deceit j ot else, (if they rcUiiued uu ho- 



oeet heart in their former wauderings) God sheweth them 
their folly, aud brlQ^eth tliem back to unity tind charily, 
and oiukelii them at^e the vanity of tlioae reasonings which 
before reduced thetn, and which oace they thmi^ht were 
some spiritual, celestial light. This is the common coiinte 
of error ; wh«n the uiiderstaiidiDg is the luoat notable 
cause. But sometimea a deceiver prevaileth with, them on 
a sudden, by such false appearances of truth which they are 
unable to confute. But stilL an ill-pieparcd. unfuriiisbed 
miud is the chiefest cause. 

2. But those whose judgiueata are conquered by the per* 
v«rse iucUnation of their wills, are usually cftrno I, worldly hy- 
pocrites*, who never conquered the fleshly mind and bitcrest, 
uyr overcame the world, nor ever were acquainted with the 
heavenly nature and life, uor with the power of divine love ; 
and theBe having made a cliange of their profession, through 
the mere conviction of their understandings, and benefit of 
education or government, or the advantages of religion in 
the country where they live, without a renewed, holy heart, 
the bias of their hearts doth easily prevail against the light 
of their luiderstandtngs: and because they would fain have 
those doctrines to be true, which save them from suHerings, 
or give them liberty for a fleshly, ambitioue, worldly life, 
therefore they do by degrees prevail with their uaderetand- 
ings to receive them. 

II. Backsliders in henrt, do fall by divers degrees and 
means : for satan's methods are not always the same. Some 
of them (all through the corruption of their judgments ; for 
every error hath much iafloence on the heart. Some arc 
tempted suddenly into some gross or scnsunlsin; and so 
the errors of tiieir lives call away their hearts from God. 
Kot but that some sin of the heart or will, doth still go first, 
but yet the extraordinary declension and pravity of the 
heart, may sometimes be caused by the errors of the judg- 
ment, or tlie life. But sometimes the beginning and pro- 
gress is almost observable in the appetite and will itself: 
and here the iaclining to evil, (that is. to »cnstia,l di' carnal 
good) and the dccliDing from true, spiritual good, du almost 
always go together. And it is most usually by this method, 
and by these degrees. 

I. The devil usually beginneth with the fantasy and ap- 


A A 




oetite, and repre&enteth some worldly, fleshly thing, aa very 
pleasant and desirable. 2. Next that, he causeth this com- 
placercy to entice the thoughts ; so that they are much and 
oft ill thiuking on this pleasure. 3. Next that, the will it 
drawn into a. liking of it, and he wisheth he might enjoy it 
(whether it be riches, or pleasant dwellings, or pleasant com- 
pany, or pleasant meats or drinks, or fleshly Bccooimodations, 
or apparel, or honour, or command, or ease, or lust, or sporte 
and recreations, or whatever else). 4. Next that, the un- 
derstanding is drawn into the design, and is casting and con* 
triviiig how it may he obtained, and all lawful means are 
first considered of, that if possible, the huaineits might be 
nccompLi&hed without the hazard of the soul. 5. Nest to 
that, endeavours are used to that end, by i^uch means ns Are 
supposed lawful, and the conscience quieted with the con- 
ceit of the harmlessness and security. 6. By this time the 
man is engaged in hii! carnal caua« and course, and so tlic 
difficulty of returning is increased : and the inclination of 
the heart groweth stronger to the sensual pleanure than be- 
fore. 7. And then he is drawn to prosecute hiet design by 
any means how sinful soever ; ifit he possible, making him* 
««lf believe by some reasonings or other, that all i» lawful 
■■till, or if the case be too palpable to be 90 cloaked, con- 
science, at last, is cast asleep, and seared, and stupifled. 
that it may be silent under all; till either grace or ven- 
gennce awake the sinner, and make bim ama-/cd at his mad- 
nesfi and stnprdity. Thie is the most usual method of the 
Ticarl'* relapw to ponitire eTil. 

2. And by such degrees doth the heart decline from the 
love of God and goodness : as 1. The thoughts arediferted 
to some camaJ vanity that ia over-loved : and the thoughts 
of God are Beldomer and shorter, than they were wont to be. 
8. And at the same time, the thoughts of Ood dogroiv leU 
serious and pleasing, and more dead and lifeless. 3. And 
then the means which should kindle love, ore used with more 
dulness, and remissness, and indiftcrency. 4. And then 
conscience being galled with the guilt of wtlfal omissiona 
and commisaions (being acquainted wttli the fleshly designs 
of the heart), doth raiae a secret fear of God's displeaaure. 
And this being not strong enough to restrain the man from 
sin, doth make his sin greater, and moketh him very back- 



wai'd to draw near to Qod, or aeriousJy lo thiiik of liiai, o( 
call upon him; ajid turneth love into terror and (iT«rsioQt 
6. AndifOod da not stop and recover tlie fcinuer, he will 
next grow quite wciuy of God, and out of love with a holy 
liiV*, fttid change him for his worldly, fieehly plciiaurea. 6. 
And next that, he will entertain some infidel, or atheistical, 
or libertine doctrine, which may quiet him in his courne of 
ain. by justifying it, and will confurm his judgment to bis 
hea.rt. 7. And next tliat, he will hate God, and hitt waye, 
and servants, and Hirn a pentecutor oC them ; till vengeance 
lay him in hell, where paiu and desperation will increime hig 
hatred ; but his fleshly pleasure, and malicious per&ecutLuo 
shall be for ever at an end. 

(II. Baclcslidera in life and practice, do receive th& 6rst 
infection at the heart; and the life dvcliueth no furtlier than 
the heart declineth : but yet i distinguish this sort from the 
oth'Sr, as the efl'ect from the cause ; and the rather, because 
some few do much decHne in heart, that yet aeem to keep 
muchblanielessneAtt of life in the eye of men: and it is usuat- 
ly done hy these degrees. 

1. [nthe man's bncksliding into positive sin (as sensual- 
ity or worldliness) the heart being prepared as before. 1. 
The judgment doth reason more remissly against sin, than 
it did before ; and the will doth oppo&e it with less resolu- 
tion, and with greater faintneas and indiHerency. 2. Then 
the sinner ta^tetli of the bait, and hrat dmweth as near to sin 
as he dare, and embraceth the occasiona and opportunities 
of sinning, while yet he thinketh to yield nu further. And 
in this case, he is so long disputing with the tempter, and 
hearkening to him. and gazing on the bail, tili at lastha 
yieldeth; and having long been playing at the pit's britili, 
his violent lust or appetite doth thrust him in. 3. When 
he hath once ninned (against knowledge) he is troubled 
awhile, and this he takelh for true repentance: and when 
he is grown into some hope, that the first ain is forgiven 
him, he is the holder to venture on the like again; and 
thinketh, that the second may be as well forgiven as the first. 
4. In the same order he talletb into it again and agaip, tilt 

Lit come to a custom. O. And by this time he loveth it 
more, and witshcth it were lawful, and there were no danger 
by it. 6. And then be thinketh hira»elf concerned to proys 




it lawful to quiet conscience, that it may not torment hiin; 
Mid therefore he gladly heareth what the Justifiers of hiit 
»in can say for it. &ndheiiiaketh himseU" believe that the rea- 
iM>n» are of weight. 7. And then he siiineth without re- 

2. So in men's backsliding from the practice of religion. 
I. The heart is alienated and undisposed o aforesaid. 3. 
And then the life of the duty doth decay, and it dwindl«U» 
towaids a dead formality ; like a body in a consumption, 
the vivid complexion, and strength, and activity decay. 
3. Xext this, he can frequently omit a duty, especially in 
secret where no man knoweth it; till by degrees lie grow 
more eeldomin it. 4. All thi» he taketh for a pardoned io- 
firmity, which confiisteth with a state of grace ; and there- 
fore he is little troubled about it. 5. Next this, he loii«th 
all the life and comfort of religion, and mtsseth not any du- 
ty when he hath omitted it, but is glad that he escapeuL it, 
and when it is at an end, as aa ox Is when he is out of the 
yoke. 6. Next, he begiimeth to hearken to them that speak 
agaiuBt ao much ado in religion, as if it were a needless, 
unprohtable thing. 7. And if God forsake him, he next 
repRnteth of bin former diligence, and Rctlleth him»elf, 
either in a dead course of such customary lip-service as 
doth coat him nothing, or elee in utter worldliness and 
ungodliness, and perhaps at la&t in malignity and perse- 

III. Though the signs or symptoms of declining may be 
gathered from what ia said already, I iihall add some more. 
1. You are declinimg when you grow bolder with sin, or 
with the occasioim of it, and temptations to it, than you 
were in your more watchful istate. 2. When you make a 
small matter of those inward corruptions and infirmities, 
which once it«emed grievous to you, and almost intolerable. 
3. When you settle in a course of profession or religious- 
ness, that putteth your Besh to little coat, in labour, re- 
proach, or suffering from the ungodly, but leave out the 
hard and costly part, and seem to be very religious in the 
resU 4. When you are quiet and contented in tJie daily, 
caBtoooary tise of ordinances, though yon find no proht or 
increase in grace by it or communioo with God. S. When 
]rou grow strange to God and Jesus Christ, and hare little 



converse with him in the Spirit; and your thoughts of him 
ere few, and cold, and lifeless ; and your religion lieth all 
in conversing with good men, and good booVtt, and outward 
duties. G. When you giow neglectero of your hcarLs, and 
strangera to them, and find little work about them from day 
to day, either in trying them, ot watching them, or stirring 
them up, or mortiiyiiig their corruptions ; but your buHtness 
in religion is nio^t abroad, and In outward excrcisea- 7. 
Yea, though your own hearts and duties he much of your 
care and thoughts, you are on tlie losing hand, if the won- 
ders of love and grace in Christ ha\e not more of your 
thoughts, or, if you set not yourselves more to the study of 
a crucified and glorified Chriel, than of your own distem- 
pered hearts. 8. All is not well with you, when epirilual 
helps and advantages are iess relished and valued, and you 
grow more indlDerent to the sermons, and prayers, and sa- 
craments, which once you could not live without , and use 
them but as bare duties for necessity, and not ns meanii, 
with any great hope of benefit and 8ucce?ts. 9. When you 
grow too regardful of the eye of man, and too regardless of 
the eye of God ; and are much more careful about the wordo, 
and outside of your prayers and discourses, than the spirit 
and inward part and manner of them ; and dress yourselves 
accurately when you appear abroad, as 'those that would 
seem very good to men, but go at home in the most sordid 
garb of a cold and careless heart and life. 10. When you 
grow hottestabout some controverted, smaller matters In re- 
ligion, or studious of the interest of some private opinion 
and party which you have chosen, more than of the interext 
of the common truths and cause of Christ. 11. When in 
joining with others, you relish more the Oneness of the 
speech, than the spirit, and weight, and excellency of the 
matter ; and are impatient of hearing of the most wholesome 
truths, if the speaker manifest any personal infirmity in the 
delivery of them ; and are weary and tired, if you be not 
drawn on with novelty, variety, or elegancy of speech. 12, 
When you grow more indifiereot for your company, and set 
leas by the company of serious, godly Christians than you 
did, and are almost as well pleased with common company 
and discourse. 13, When you grow more impatient of re- 
proof for sin. and love not to be told of any thing in you 



Hiat 18 araias ; but lov« those best that most highly applaud 
you. 14. When the renewing of your repentance is grown 
a lifeless, cursory work ; when in preparation for the Lord's 
day, 01 Sacrament, or other occaaions, you call youraelvea 
to no considerable account, or make no greater a matter of 
the aine which you find on yonr account, than if you were 
almost reconciled to them. 15. When you grow more un- 
chniilable and censorioHS to brethren that differ from yon 
io tolerable points ; and less tender of the names or wel- 
fare of others, and love not your neighbours as yourselves, 
and do not as you would be done by. 16. When you grow 
losa compaesionate to the ungodly world, and less regard- 
ful of the common interest of the universal church, and of 
Jesus Christ throughout the earth, and grow more narrow, 
private spirited, and confine your care to yourselves, or to 
your party. 17. Wlien the hopes of heaven, and ike love 
of Qod, cannot content you, but you are thirsty after some 
worldly contentment, and grow eager in your desireR, and 
the world groweth mote sweet to yon, and more nminbie in 
your eyes. 18. When sense, and appetite, and fleshly plea- 
Bore are ^rown more powerful with you, and you make a great 
matter of them, and cannot deny them, without a gT<*nt deal 
of striving and regret, as if you had done aome great ex- 
ploit, if you live not like a beast. 19. Whtsu you are more 
proud and impatient, and are less able to bear disesteem, 
and slif^hling, and injuries Irom men, or poverty, or suffer- 
ings for Christ; and make a greater matttir of your lussvs, 
and croaseB, or wrongs, than beseemeth one that in dead to 
tlie flesh, and to Uie world. '2t>. Lastly, when you had ra- 
ther dwell on earth than be in heaven ; and ajre more on- 
willing to think of ripAth, or to prepare for it, end expect it, 
and are loss in love with the coming of Christ, and are ready 
to «ay of this sinful life in flesh, it i^ good to b« here. All 
Lfaesc am signs of a declining atatc, though yet you arc not 
come to apostacy. 

But the sigiiH of a mortal, damnable state inricod, are 
found in tiieiie following degrees : 1. When a man hud ra- 
ther have worldly prospeiity, than the favour and fruitioD 
ofOod in heaven. 2- When the intercHt of the Bc!«h oaii 
do more witlt him, tliun the interest of God and hi-i mouI, 
and doth more rule and dispose of his heart and life^' iZ, 



When be had rather live it) sensuality, than in bolinfisd : and 
bad ratber have leave to live as he list, than hav€ a Christ 
aiid Holy Spirit to sanctify and cure him ; or, at least, will 
not be cured on the terms proposed in tlie Gospel. 4* 
When h« lov«th not the meaus thut would recover him (as 
such). The nearer you come to this, the more dangerous i» 
your caae. 

And these following aigns, are therefore of a very dan- 
gerous signiQcation. 1. When tlie pleasuro of siiiful pros- 
perity and delighte, doth so far overtop th« pleaaurea of 
holiness, that you ore under trouble and weariiieBu iu holy 
duties, and at ease and m^rry, when you have your sinful 
delights. 2. When no persuasion of a minister or a friend, can 
bring you no thoroughly to repent of your open, scaadalou* 
sins, as to lake shame to yourselves in a free confession of 
tliem (even in the open aasembly, if you arejustly called to 
it), to condemn yourselves, and give warning to others. 
and glorify the most holy God : but you will not believe 
that any such disgraceful confession is your duty, because 
you will not do it. 3. When you cannot bring your hearts 
to ;a. full reaolutioa to let go y one sin; but though coiir 
science worry and condemn you for it, you do but slightly 
gurpoBe hereiaJler to amend, but will not presently resolve. 
4. When you will not be persuaded to consent to the ne- 
cessary, etfectual meaus of your recovery ; as to abstain 
from the bait, and temptation, and occasion of sin. Many 
a drunkard hath told me, he was willing to be reformed ; 
but when 1 h^ve desired them then to consent to drink no 
wine or ale, for 80 many months, and to keep out of tbe 
place, and to commit the government of themaclves for so 
many months to their wives, or some other friend that liv 
eth with them, and to drink nothing but what they give 
them ; they would not conseait to any of this, and so shewed 
the hypocrisy of their professed willingness to amend. 6- 
When sin becometh easy, and the conscience groweth pa- 
tient with it, and quiet under it. 6. When the judgment 
taketh part with it, and the tongue will plead for it, and 
justify or extenuate it, instead of repenting of it. 

These are dangerous signs of an impenitent, unpardoned, 
miserable soul. And the man is in a dangerous way to this, 
1. When he hath plunged himself into such engagement* (fl 



[part it.' 

sin, that he cannot leave it, but it will cost Iiim very dear : 
as it will be his shame to confess it, or his undoing in the 
world to forsake it, or a great deal of cost and labour must 
be lost, which his ambitious or covetous projects have cost 
him: it will be hard breaking over so great difficulties. 2. 
When God letteth him alone in sin, and prospereth him in 
it, or doth not much disturb him or afflict him. This also 
is a dangevouB case. 

By all this yon may perceive, that those are no signs of 
a backsliding state, which some poor Christians are afraid 
are such. As, 1. When poverty uRceBsitateth thetu to lay 
out more of their time, and thoughts, and words about th« 
labours of their caUings, than some richer persons do. 3. 
When age or sickness cau«eth their memories to decay ; bo 
that they cannot remember a sermon as well as heretofore. 
3. When age or sicknesti takelh olf the quickness uad vi- 
gour of their spirits ; so that they have not the lively affec- 
tions in prayer, or holy conference, or meditation, or read- 
ing, or hearing, as formerly they had. But (though they 
are as much as ever resolved for Qod, against sin and vauity. 
yet) they are colder and duller, and have less zeal, and fer- 
vency, and delight in holy exercises, 4, Whiin ago, or 
weakness, or melancholy, hath decayed orconfounded their 
imaginations, and ravelled their thoughts, so that they can- 
not order them, and command them, us formerly they could. 
5. And when age or melancholy hath weakened their parte 
and gifts ; so that they are of slower understandings, and more 
unable in prayer, or preaching, or conference to express 
themselves than heretofore. All these are but bodily changes, 
and such hindrances of the soul as depend thereon, and 
not to be taken for sigatt of a soul that declineth in holiness, 
and is less accepted of God. 

Direct. 11. 'When you know the marks of a bnckslider, 
come into the light, and he willing to know yourselves, whe- 
ther this be your couditioo, or not, and do not foolishly co- 
ver your disease.' Inq^nire whether it be with you as in 
former times, when the light of God did xhiae upon you, 
and you delighted in his ways : when you bated «iu, and 
loved holiness ; nnd were glad of the company of the hetrs- 
of life : when llie Word of God was pleasant to yon ; and 
when you poured out your souls to turn in pniyer ami 



thanksgivings : when yon were glad of the Lord's day, and 
were quickened and confirmed under the teaching and ex- 
hortation of Ilia niiaisters: when you toO'k worldly wealth 
and pleasures, as elilldlsh toys and fooleries, in ODniparinoii 
of the content of holy souls : when you hungered and thirst- 
ed after Christ and righteoiisnes*; and had rather have heen 
in heaven to enjoy your God, and be free from sinning, than 
to enjoy all the pleasures and prosperity of this world. 
And when it waa your doily business to prepare for death, 
and to live in expectation of the everlasting rest, which 
Christ hath promised. If this were once your case, inquire 
whether it be so still ? Or, what alterations are made upon 
your hearts and iires'! 

Direct. III. * If yon find yOuraelves in a backsliding c&ste, 
by all means endeavour the awakening of your eouU, by the 
serious consideration of the danger and misery of such a 
state.' To which end I shall here set some such awaken- 
ing thoughts before you (for security is your greatest 

1. Consider that to fall back from God, wa» the sin of 
the devils. " They are angels that kept not their first estate, 
but left their own habitations, and are now reserved in 
chains under darkness, to the judgment of the great day '." 
And sha.ll they entice you into their own condemnation "i 

2. It was the sin of our hnt parents Adam and Kre, tc 
revolt from God, and lose their holiness. And is there any 
ein that we should more carefidly avoid, than that which 
ail tbe world bath ho much aullered byT Every one of the 
creatures that you look'on, and every pain and misery you 
feel, doth mind you of that ain, and call to you to take heed 
by the warning of your first parents, that you suffer not 
your hearts to be drawn from God. 

3. It is a part of hell that you are choosing upon earth. 
" Depart from me ye cursed ''," is the sentence on the damn- 
ed. And will you damn yourselves by departing from God, 
and that when he callcth you and obligeth you to him f To 
be separated from God, is one half of the misery of the 

4. You are drawing back towards the case thut you were 
in the dayx of your unconverted state, And what a stntv 

■Judeo- >M«ti.>xv.41. vii,it3. 



of darkneas, and folly, and delusion, and ain, and miaety, 
vrtts that'.' Jf it were good or tolerable, wby turned you from 
it? And, why did you ho lament it? And, why did yoa 
so earnestly cry out for deliverance ! But if it were as bad 
as you then apprehended it to he, why do you again turu to- 
wards it'^ Would you be again, in the case you were? 
Would you perish in it ? Or, would you have all those 
tieart^bre likings «nd terrors to p»ss through a<^aiii f May I 
not 8ay to you, as Paul Lo the Galatians i " O roolish sid- 
ners ! who hath bewitched you. lliat you are so soon luracd 
back ' 1 Who have seen that of sin, and of God, and of Christ, 
aud of heaven, and of hell, as you have done? 

d. Yea. it i& a far mure doleful state that you are draw- 
ing towards, than that which you were in before. For the 
gtiilt of an ai>o«tate is much greater than if he had never 
known the tcuUi. And his recovery is more dithcult, and 
of smaller hope : becauii^ he is " twice dead and plucked 
up by the root"*." " For if after they have escaped lh.e pol- 
lutions of the world, through the knowledge of the Lord 
and Saviour Jeaus Christ, tiiey are again entangled therein, 
and ovevcomc, the latter eud is worese with them than the 
beginning; for it had been better for tbeni, not to have 
known tile way of righteousness, iban after llity have kuuw^ 
it, to turn from the holy commandment delivered unto them. 
But it is happened unto them according to tlie true pro- 
verb. The dog is turned to his own vomit again ; and the su« 
that was washed to her wallowing in the mire'." " For if 
we am wilfully (by apostaoy) after that we have received the 
kuowledgeofthe truth, there remaineth no more sacrifice for 
sins, but a certain fearful looking for of Judgmeat, oud fiery 
indignatioi) which shall devour the adverxaries '■" I know 
this npcuketh only of total ajiostacy from Christ (such being 
wortliy " of far oorer (lunishment, than he that deapiaeth 
Mo«es's law"). But it is a terrible thing to draw towards so 
tieeperale a iitatc. A habit is eauier introduced upon a ne- 
gation thnn a privation ; iu him that never had it, than in 
him that Uulh totally lost it. 

6. What abundance of experience do you sin against iu 
yourbackaliding? You have had experience of the evil of 
fliu. and o( the smarl of re|>«ujtaoce, mid of the deceitfulueeis 



• tr«— s*. 



of all thut can be Raid of sinDing ; and of the goodness of 
God. and oftlie safety and swectuess of religion: aud will 
you sin against eo great expeneiice i If your bortie fall 
once into a quicksand, he will scarce be forc«d into it again. 
And will you be less wise? 

7. What abundance of promises aud covcnsjitii, which 
you have made to God, do you violate in your backsliding? 
ti.ow often in your fears, and datigors, nod ttickncgges, at tOr 
craments aud days of humiliation, have you buund your- 
selves afreali to God ! And will you forget all these, and 
sin against them? 

8. By what a multitude ofnierciea kathOodobli£;edyou? 
Mercies before your repentance, aud niercieB tluit drew you 
to repent, and mercifB since ? How mercifully liutU he kept 
you out of hell ? Uow mercifully hatli he borne with you in 
all your singf and maintained you while you provoked 
him? and pardoned all that you have done ag'&inst him ^if 
you were truly penitent believers)'! How mercifully hath 
he taught you. a]id sanctified you. and comforted yon; aud 
plentifully provided I'or yon ? And yetdo you forsake him, 
and retucn to folly t For which of all hie mejcies is it that 
yon thus unworthily requite hiin ! Can you remember how 
he hath dealt with yon, and not be ashamed of your baekslid- 
iugs ? Doth it not melt your heart to look back on his love, 
and to think of your uugiatefnl dealing? 

9. Nay what a multitude of present mercieB do&t thou 
run away from ? Doth not thy coiiacience tell thee, that it 
is safer and better for liiee to be true to Christ, than to re- 
Imn to aiu? Wilt tho" take thy leave of thy God, and thy 
Kedecuer, and thy Comforter '. Wilt tbon quit thy title to 
pardon and protection, and all the promises of grace? Wilt 
tJiou bid faiewell to all the comforts of a saint ? Dost thou 
not tremble to think of such a day? Thou forsakest all these 
when tliou forsakest God. 

10. Yea look before thee man, and consider what greater 
things are promised thee, than yet thou ever diddt enjoy. 
iChrift is conducting thee to eternal happin«si>, in ihe sight 

..■O! QoA. And wilt thou forsake thy guide, and break away 
4:trom him, and quit all thy hopes of everlasting life i 

11. Consider for what it is, that thou art about to run 



KO great a Iiazurd? Ib it not for some worldly gain or bi>- 
nour. or some fleshly pleasure, sport, or ease ? And hast 
thou not known long ago what all these are '! What hare 
they done for thee ? or what will they ever do ? Can any 
tiling in the world be more causeless and iinrea&onablv, than 
thy forsaking God, and turning back from the way of holi- 
ness? Will the world or sin give more for thee, than God 
will? Orbebettcr to thee here aiid hereafter? What wouldst 
thou have in God, or in thy Saviour, that tliou think^st 
wanting in him? Is it any thing that the world can make 
up? Which hath nothing itself but what is from him? 
What wrong hath God, or bis service done thee, that thou 
shouldfit now forsake him, and turn back ? For thy fionl's 
sake, man, think of some reasonabl« answer to such ques- 
tions, before thou venture thyself upon n course, which thou 
ha»t found so bad and penlous heretofore] Let all the ma- 
lice of earth or hell, say the worst it can againsit God and 
bolineBs, it shall never justify thy revolt! 

IS.Considerwhat abundance oflabourandsutfering.i&all 
lost, if thon fall away- Irom Christ. Is all thy hearing, and 
meditation, and prayer, come to this? Is all thy Helf-denial, 
and sufferings for Chiiat, and godliness, come to this ? 
" Call to remembrance the former days, in which, after ye 
were illuminated, ye endured a great fight of afflictions; 
partly, whilst ye were made a gazingstock both by re- 
proaches and afflictions ; and partly, whilst ye became com- 
paniouB of them that were bo used.- Cast not away there- 
fore your confidence, which hath great recompense of re- 
ward*." You should have let Christ alone, if you would 
not follow him to the end : he is less foolish that nitteth 
still, than he that hrsL liretli himself, and then turnoth afnuo. 
The idle beggar i» not no foolixh, as the husbaodmiui that 
will plough andeow. and at last lose hie crop for the want 
of tlie labour to reap it, and carry it home. Shall all thy 
pains and &ufierin|;H, be lout at laat, for nothing? 

13. Ood is not so forward to cast you off, who hath just 
cause: and why then alumld you be forward to turn from 
him? [f he had, what had become of you long ago? Tea 
what abundant occasion have you given him, when he never 
gave you any at all i Thy Aiuti have tesftififd and ciied 
> H«b. >. MS4. 



agsioat thee ! Abused taerciex have nitnesKed againtit Uiec ! 
And yet he )mth uot cast thee oif ! Sittaa haCh stoad ap be> 
fore God to accuse thee ; and glad he would be to sec thee 
utterly forsaJten of God, and yet he bath not utterly for- 
saken thee! Even while ihou art forsaking him, he U pro- 
tecting and supporting thee, and providing for thee! Did 
he forsake tbee wheii thou wast in sicliaess, waul, and dan- 
get ! W he had, thou hadat not dow been heru. And wilt 
thou begin, and run away from him? AVhal if Christ should 
offer thee a bill of divorce, and say, 'Seeing thou bant ao 
little mind of tne, or of my service, take thy course, and 
Aeek another master, I discharge thee from all tliy relations 
to me ; follow thy own way, and take what thou getteet by 
it.' Would this be welcome tidings to thee '. Or durst 
thou accept of it, and be gone ? 

14. If thou do turn back for the pleaaureR of the flexli, 
or the preferments or profits of the world, thou wilt have 
leBB pleasure in tliem now, than thoo hadst heretofore, or 
than the unconverted have. For they that sin in the dark, 
do not know their dauger. and therefore sin not with so 
mucli tenor, as thou wilt hereafter. Thou hast known the 
danger, thou baet confcBged the folly ; the rca«onH of Gud'n 
Word will never be forgotten, nor thy conviction ever to- 
tally blotted out: thou wUt be remembering the ancient 
kindnesses of Christ, and thy former purposes, and pro- 
mit^e^, and ways ; and thou wilt be thinking both of the days 
that are past, and the days that are to come, and foreseeing 
thy terrible account: so that thou wilt sin in such terrors, 
that thou wilt bare a taste of hell in the very exercise of thy 
sin, and be tormcntfd before the time. And will the world 
and sin, be worth the enjoying oil such terms as these ^? 

15. Either thou hopest to recover frDm thy backslidlag 
by A second repentance, or eUe thou purposest to go on. 

" III ibi- Vfcmlil*' jiooccution, Epitlophorui «ii alMdtate, wiulhc meal crurl pcr- 
kTCutnr; nllnai ii c&me \o lilstucu la toriucnt MJrilii, (hat lind ba|>Ii(«d liirn, nha 
»|i<Tud brlutc liiL'mnll iliftliiriu in wUJcti he wni haplixcd, invlng, ' Hki: le m^tiiM- 
bunt dum iiiajruiiu vrnc^rk jmllcnutl*. CiitluilicQliir illligciUla itira ad Iritimoiiluiu 
luvfH-rdUioiil*, 111 nirr|>di<tumic in alij'HUiD putcl sulphuriiiiMi. Hdrc ir ucrius jwn^ 

ijiiriitur finiuiuanUiD Hchciinam '.ntn cactcrli piHdidcntrm . (Jurd liicl>iru«<?s inii«t 

cuict vrvi piiiriH taibiiliH* nA rn-jiurii rrpniii i^an^rrgur? co^jirriiit inviln^jii I Ugblc 
eiini tnB(ilbuspc(libQW|iic, &c Hcc ci alU Mcriu diccnr*, ignc cun«cn:ntu «nlc 
igncmnicniuiiiubmuitKCinEpidopbuiut torrelMlur- Vicim' Uilc. p>466. 



It' thou sboiLldst he so happy, as lo be recovered, dosttbou 
know with how miioh pain and terror it is like to be accom- 
plinhed ! When thou thinkest of thy b&ckslidingB, and 
whatthoa hast done in revolting after such convictions, &nd 
proiuiiies, ajid mercies, and experiences, ihoa wilt be very 
hardly kept from desperation. Thon wilt read such pa*> 
sages, ae Heb. -ri. 4 — 6. x. 26 — 29. mtk so much horror, 
that thou wilt hardly be persuaded that there is any hope : 
thou wilt be rendy to think that Ihou hnst sinned agaioflt 
the Holy Ohost. and that thou hast trampled under foot the 
blood of the covenant, and done despite to the Spirit of 
Grace. And thou wilt think, that there is no betag twice 
born again! Or, if thou be restored to life, thou wilt hardly 
ever be restored to thy comforts here ; if thy backsliding 
should he very great. But indeed, thit danger is exceeding 
great, lest thou never be recovered at all, if once thott be 
" twice dead, and plucked up by the roots '. And lest God 
do finally forsake thee ! And then how deRperat4> will be 
thy case ? 

Id. U not the example of Backsliders very terrible, 
which Olid hath set up for the warning of his serTantn, as 
monuments of his wrath 1 Remember LoC'a wife, saith 
Christ'", to them thnt nrc about to lose their estates, or 
goods, or lives, by saving them? How frightful is tho re- 
membrance of a Cain, a Judas, a Saul, a Joash ", aJulianl 
How sad is it to hear but such a one &s Spira, espectslly at 
bis death, crying out of his backsliding in the horror of his 
soul? and to tteesuch ready to make away with theind«tve8T 

17. Considei', thatthere isnone that so much dishonour- 
eth God as a backslider; others are supposed to sin in 
ignorance. But yon dn by your lives as bad na speak such 
blasphemy as this against the Lord : tw if you should aay, 
■ I thought once that Qod had been the beat master, and his 
servants the wisest and happiest men ; and godliness the 
best and safest life : but now I have tried both, and I find 
by experience thut the derd is a better master, and hh »er* 
vants are the happiest men, and the world and the Hesh do 
give the truest contentntent to the mind.* This is the plain 
blasphemy of your Uvcs. And bethink thee how Qod 
should bear with this 1 


Lake k*U. St. 

■SOiKM. ulr. f. 



IS. Tbere is none thst so much hardanetli th« wicked in 
his Bin, and furthereth the damnfttioo of soiiU, as the back- 
filider: if you would but drive your sheep or cattle into a 
house, those that go in first, do draw th« rest after them; 
but tboBe tha.t ruu out ^uin, make all the rest afraid, and 
runaway: one apostate that hath be«n noted for religion, 
and afterwardB turnetb otf again, doth discourage many that 
would come in: for he doth, as il were, say to them by his 
practice, 'Keep offhand meddle not with a religious life ; 
for 1 hftve tried it, and found that a life of worldlinees and 
fleshlinees, is better.' And people will think with them- 
selves, ' Such a man hath tried a religious Itfu. and he hath 
forsaken it again ; and therefore he had some reason for it, 
and knew what he did.' "Woe to the world, because of 
offences; and woe to him, by whom the offence tthall 
come"." How dreadful a thing is it to think that men's 
souls ahould lie in hell, and you be the cause of it? " Tt 
were ^ood for that man, that amillEtoiie were hanged uboul 
his neck, and he were drowned in the depth of the sea*." 

19. There is none that are so great a terror to wenk 
Christians, as these backsliders. For they are thinking how 
ftir such went before they fell away; and those that think 
that true grace may be lost, ar« saying;, ' Abis, how shall I 
stand, when such that were better and strouf^er than I have 
(alien away.' And thoBe that think that, true grace cannot 
be lost, are as much perplexed, and say. ' How far may an 
hypocrite go, that after falleth away ! How piously did 
this man live! How sorrowfully did he repent! How 
blamelegsty did he walk? How fervently and constantly 
did he pray! How savourity did he speak! How charita- 
bly and usefully did he live ! And I that come far short of 
him, as far as I can discern, can have no asswrance that 1 
am sincere, till I am sure that 1 go further, than everhedid.' 
Woe to thee, that thus perplexest the consciences of the 
weak, and hinderest the comforts of believers. 

20. Thou art the greatest E;rief to the faithful ministerHof 
Christ. Thou canst not conceive what a wound it giveth to 
the heart and comforts of a minister, when he hath taken a 

^^L great deal of pains for thy conversion, and after that rejoiced 
^^V when he saw thee come to the flock of Christ i and after 
I •Matt. (rililT. i-MNiL.(ii'Ui.6,T. 



that, laboured many a year to build thee up, and suflered 
many a frown from (.he ungodly, for thy sake ; to see all 
hU labour u.( last come to nought, and all his glorying of 
thee, turned to hia shame, and all his hopes of tliee tlisap- 
pointed r 1 telL tbee, this is more doleful to liis heart, thai), 
any outward loss or croBs that could have befallen him : it is 
not perBecution that is hie greatest grief, as long as it hin- 
dereth not the good of souU : it is such as thou that are his 
sorest persecutors, that frustrate hi* labours, and rob him 
ofhiBJoysi and Uis sorrows shall one day cost thee dear. 
The life and comforts of your faithful pastors, in much in 
your hands. " Now we live, if ye gland fastiu the Lord"*." 

21. Thou art more tieaclierous lo Christ, than thna 
wouldnt be to a common friend. Wouldst thou forsakt: tUy 
friend without a cause? cBpecially an old and tried friend / 
And especially, when in forRalting hiui, thou dost forsake 
thyself! " Thy own friend, and thy father's friend forsake 
aof." "A friend lovelh at all tiniesj and a brother is 
born for adversity \" If thy friend were lu distress, wouldat 
tllou forsake him? And wilt thou forsake thy God, that 
needi thee not, but supplieth thy needs? Ruth was more 
faithful to Naomi, that resolved. "Whither thou goest I 
will go ; and where thou lodgest, 1 will lodge : where Uiou 
diest,! will die' — ." And hath Goddcserved worse of Uiee? 

22. Nay, thou dealest worHe with God, than the devil'* 
servants do with him: alas, they are too constant to him, 
Ucasoii will not change them, nor the commaods of God, 
nor the ofters of eTerlaating life, nor the fears of hell ; no- 
thing will change them, till the Spirit of God do it. And 
wilt thou be less constant to thy God I 

23. Consider also that tby end is no near, that thoa 
hadst but a little while longer to have held out; and thou 
mi^htst have known that thou couldst keep thy worldly 
plea&urfH but n little whde. And it h a pitiful thing to see 
a man that hath borne the sorest brunt of the battJe, and 
run till he is almost at the end of the race, to lose all for Oxe 
wont of a little more ; and to see a man tiell his Gud, and 
sold, and heaven for tieshly pleasure, when perhaps be hath 
not a year or a month, or for aught he knowelh a day 

1 tCor. fILS. tTh««.Ui.a. ■'Pro*. u«a. 10. • rtor. x*iL 17. 




more u> enjoy it. For a man to be weary and give orer 

prayer, jusl. when the mercy is ut hand! ami t.o be weary 
ajid give over a liolj iiie, when his labour and sufferings are 
eliuoEit at an end J How gad will (his day be to ttiee, if 
death this ni^ht be sent to fetch away thy soul ! Then 
whose will all thoae pluauures be, that tliou voidest thy soul 
for? If thou knewest that tliou hadst but a moiitb or 
yeur to live, wonldst thou uol have held out that one year? 
Thou kuowe»t not thitt it elmll be on« week. This is like 
the sad etory of a student at one of our Umvergilies, who 
wanting money, and hiii father delaying to send it btm, he 
staid so long, till at last lie resolved to stay no longer, but 
steal for it rather than be without: and so went out, and 
robbed, and murdered the first man he met, who proved to 
be his father's mcsKenger, that was bringing liim the money 
that he robbed and killed him for: which when he perceived 
by a letter which he found in his pocket, he confessHd it 
through remorse of conscience, and was hanged. When a 
few hours' patiencemore might have (taved his tniiocency.iLud 
his life. And sn is it with manya bucksliding wretch, that 
is cut oiT, if not like ZLmri and in the act of tlieir&in, 
yet (juickly after ; and enjoy ihe pleasure which tliey for- 
sook their God for, but a tittle while. 

Direct, iv* * When you are awakened to see the terribl«> 
ness of a relapsed elate, presently return and fly to Christ, 
to reconcile your guilty souIk to God, and make a i^top and 
go not one step further in your sin, nor make any delays in 
returning to your fidelity. ' It in too sad a case to be con- 
tinued in. If thou darest delay yet longer, and wilfully sin 
again, thou art yet impenitent, and thy heart ii hardened j 
and if the Lord have not mercy on thee, to recal thee 
mpeedily, thuu art lost for ever. 

Direct. Y, ' Make haste away from the occasions of thy 
sin, and the company which ensnnreth thee in it.' if thou 
knewest that they were robbers that intended to murder 
thee, thou wonldst be goue : if thou knewest that tliey had 
plague-sores running on ttieni, tliou wouldstbu gone. And 
wtlt thou not be gone, when thou knowcst that they are the 
servants of the devil, that would infect tliee with sin, and thee of iby salvation I Say nut. Is not this company 

tiawfnl, and that pleasure lawful ? &c. If it lie like to eii- 
VUl.. IV. iJ B 



[pAR'r It. 

tic« thy Keart to »in, it ia unlawful to thee, whatever it is to 
others ; it is not lawful to undo thy bouI. 

Direct. VI. 'Come off by sound and deep repentaace, 
and shame thyself by free conression^and mince not the aiai- 
tev, and deal not gently with thy sin, and be not lendir of 
thy fltshly interest, and ekin not over the sore, but go to the 
bottom, and deceive not thy&elf with a seeming cure"*! 
Many a one is undone, by repenting by the halves, and refu- 
sing to take shame to themselTes by a free confession, oad 
to engage themaelveft to a tliorough reformation by an open- 
ly profcesed resolntion. Favouring th«inBclves and tipariiig 
the deBh, when the sore ithould be lanced and searched to 
the bottom, doth cause ranny to perish, while they sup- 
posed that tliey had been cured. 

Direct. VII. 'Command thy senses, and at least forbear 
the outward act« of sin, while thy couKcienco eonaiderelh 
further of the matter.* The drunkard cannot say, that be 
hath not power to shut hia mouth ; let the forbidden cap 
alone ; no one compelleth you; you can forbear it if you 
will. The same 1 may say of other such sins of spneaaliiy. 
Commaiid thy hand, thy mouth, thy eye, and guard these 
entrances and instruments of sin. 

Dirert. viii. ' Engage some faithful friend to axsistthee 
in thy watch.' Open all thy case to some one, that is fit to 
be thy guide or helper ; and renolve that whenever thou art 
tempted to the sin, tliuu wilt go presently and tell them be- 
fore thou do commit it ; and entreat them to deal plainlj 
with you; and give them power to use any advajitages that 
may be for your good. 

Direct, jx. ' Do your first works, and set yourselves ae- 
riouflly to all the duties of a holy life : and incorporate your 
aelves into the society of the saints : * for holy employment 
and holy company, are very great preservatives against 
every sin, 

Dirtei. x. ' Go presently to your companions In sin, and 
lament that you have joined with them, and earnestly warn 
and entreat them to repent; and if they will not, renounce 
their course and company, and tell them what God bath 
■hewed you of the sin and danger'.' If really you will re- 

• Jan. *, t«. Ndi.h. t,3. Mut. iUlirii. 18. 

* Mm. ml r$. Uiki xM. 6t. , 



turn, tts with Peter you have fallen, so with Peter, go out 
and weep bitterly ; and when you are cfinverted, ettrengthftn 
your brethren, and help to rcuov«T tliose that you have sinned 
with *. 

I have suited moBt of these Directions to those that re'- 
lapse into sins of sensuality, rather than to them that fall 
into atheism, infidelity, or heresy; because 1 have spoken 
against theee sinsi^ already ; and the Divections there given, 
shew the v^ay for the recovery of such. 

Til. 2. Directions far preventing Backsliding, or for Ptnt' 


Apostacy and backsliding \% a fitat« that is more easily 
prevented than cured : and therefore I shall desire those 
that stand, to use the&e following Directions, lest they 

Oirect. I, ' Be well grounded in the natarc and reasonK 
of your religion." For it is not the highest zeal and resolu- 
tion that will cause you to persevere, if your judgments be 
not furnished with sufficient reasons, to confute gains^yera, 
and evidence the truth, and tell you why you ehould perse- 
verc. I speak that with grief and shame which cannot be 
concealed : the number of Christians lk so Small that are 
well seen in the reasons and methods of Christianily, and are 
able to prove what they hold to be true, and to confute op- 
poscrfr, that it j^reatly afflicteth me to think, what work the 
athetets and inlideln would make, if they once openly play 
their game, and be turned loose to do their worst I If they 
deride and oppose the ioiiaortality of the soul, and the life to 
come, and the truth of the Scriptures, and the work of re- 
demption, and oBice of Christ; alas, how few are able 
to withstand them, hy giving any sufficient reason of their 
hope? We have learnt of the Papists, that he hath the 
strongest faith that believeth with least rea.son ; and we 
have been (truly) taoght tliat to deny our foundations, is tht 
horrid crime of intidelity : and therefore because it is so hor- 
rid a crime to deny or que&tio» them, we thought we aeed 
not study to prove them : and so most have taken their 

tition upon trust (and indeed are scarce able to bear 
• Luke (lii. S3. 



[part II. 

Uie trial of it), and have apeiil their days about the supej- 
stnicture, and iu learning to prove the coiitro verted, less ne- 
cessary points, (nsoniiich, that 1 fear there are more that 
are able to prove the points which an Anlinomian, or an 
Anabaptist do deny, than t» prove tlie immortality of the 
soul, or the truth of Scripture, or ChriaLiamty; and to die- 
pote about a ceremony, or form of prayer, or church govern- 
meut, tlian todispul:e fur Christ against an inlidel. So that 
tht^ir work is prepared to their hiiiids, and it is no great vic- 
tory to overcome auch raw, uneettled eools. 

Direct. II. ' Get every sacred truth which you beticTe, in- 
to your very hearts and lives ; and sec that alt be digested 
into holy love and practice.' When your food is turned in- 
to vital nutriment, into fleah and blood, it ia not cast up by 
every thing that iiiaketh you eick, and turneth your Hto- 
machs ; as it may be before it is concocted, distributed and 
incorporated. Tiiith that is but barely known, is but like 
meat that is undigested in the stomach : but truth, which is 
turned into the love of God, and of a holy life, is turned into 
a new nature ; and will not so easily be let go. 
.k Direct. III. 'Take heed of doctrines of presumption and 
security, and take heed leat you fall away, by thinking it »o 
impoatiible to fall away, that you are pas^t all daiigerV 
The covenant of grace doth sufficiently encourage you to 
obey and hope, against temptations to despair and casting 
off the tueuig : but it encourageth no man to preeumcwr sin, 
or to cast off means as needless things. Remember that if 
ever you will stand, the fear of falling must help you to 
stand : and if ever you will persevere, it must be by 8e«ing 
I the danger of backsliding, so far as to maku you al'raid.and 
' qnicken you in the means which ire necessary to prevent it. 
It is no more certain that you shall persevere, riian it is cer- 
tain that you shall use the means of persevering : and on« 
means is, by seeing your danger, to be stirred up to fear 
and caution to escape iL Because it in my meaning in this 
Direction, to save men from perishing by security upon the 
abuse of the doctrine of perseverance, 1 hope none will be of- 
fended that I lay down thesB antidotes. 

* Vinulmi L')ii>*i^|)u* iiiuitil po>i>f, Ckunllm TPit) nnn jjiinF ait; ill« dmm 
luntaM*, be. 8«^ Diog. lM*n. IJK. >ti. wri. fl9. 



1. CoiiHidtir, that the doctrine of pcMeveiancu hath no- 
thing in it to encourage security. Ttie wry controveixies 
about it, may cause you to conclude, that a certain sin is 
not to be built upon a controverted doctrine. Till Augus- 
tine's time, it ia hard to find any ancient writers, that clearly 
asserted the certain perseverance of any at ail. Augustine 
and Prosper maintain the certaio perseverance of all the 
elect, but deny the certain perseverance of all that are re- 
generated, justified, or sanctified: for they thought thftl 
more were regenerate and juntified than were elect, of whom 
some stood (even all the elect) and the rest fell away : bo 
that I confess. I never read one ancient Father, orCbriBtimi 
writer, that eyer maintained the certainty of the jj^erseve- 
rance of all the justified, of many hundred, if not a thou- 
awnd years after Christ. And adoctriiie, that to the church 
was BO long unknown, hatb not that certainty, or thatueces- 
sity, aa to encourage you to any presumption or security. 
The churches were saved many hundred years without be- 
lieving it. 

2. The doctrine of perKeverancc is against security, be- 
cause it uniteth together the end and ttie meaus: for they 
that teach, thai the justified shall never totally fall from 
grace, do also teacii.. that ibey t^hall never totally fall into 
security, or into any reigning sin. For this ie to fall away 
from grace. And they teach that they shall never totally lall 
from the use of the necessary means of their preiiervatioa ; 
nor from the cautious avoiding of the danger of tlicir kouIx : 
God doth not simply decree that you shall peraevero; but 
that you shall be kept in perseverance by tlie fear of your 
danger, and the careful use of meauit; and that you shall 
persevere in these, as well as in other graces. Therefore if 
yon fall to security aud sin, you fall away from grace, and 
shew that God never decreed or promised, that you should 
never fall away. 

h 3. Consider how far many have gone that have fallen 
away : the instances of our timei> are much higher than any 
1 can name to you out of history. Men that have neeiued 
to walk humbly and holily, fearing all sin, blameless in their 
lives, zenlouH in religion, twenty or thirty years lngethet_ 
have fallen to deny the truth, or certainty of the Scriptures, 
the Godhead of Christ, if not Christianity iljielf. And many 


,^.'. . -^ i : 


tliat bave not quite fallen away, have yet fallen into such 
grievous sins, as make theiu a terrible waniiug to us all, to 
take heed of preeuinptioa and carnal aecurity. 

4. Grace ia uot in the nature of tt, a thiug that caniiot 
perish or be lost. For, 1. It ir) a separable quality. 2. 
Adaui did lose it. 3. We lose a great degree of it too oft; 
and the remaining degr«oB are of Uie eameuature. li i^uot 
only possible in ttaelf to lose it, but too easy ; and not pos- 
sible without co-operating grace to keep it. 

a. Grace la not natural to ua; to love our ease, and hu- 
DOur. and friends, is natural ; but to love Christ, and hi» ho- 
ly way« and servants, is not natural to us : indeed when we 
do it, it i» our natural powers that do it ; but not as natural- 
ly disposed to it, b ut as inclined by the cure of supernatural 
grace. Eating, and drinking, and sleeping we forget not, 
because nature itselfremembereth us of ihent; but learning 
and acquired habits may be lost, if not very deeply radica- 
ted ; and it ib commonly coucluded as to the nature oftlieoit 
that ' Habitus infuni habent se iid modum acquiMtoruiD :' 
' lufased habits are like to acquired ones.' 

5. Grace Is, as it were, a stranger, or new comer in us. 
It hath been there hut a little while ; and therefore we are 
but raw, and too unatquainted with the right usage and im- 
provement of it; and arc the apter to fofget our duty, or to 
neglect it, or ignorantly to do thai which tendeth to its de- 

7. Grace dwelleth in a hirart. which is not wholly di»poet- 
M&eod of ihoee objectB whicli are agalue^t its work, nor de- 
livered from thoijc principles which bare an enmity a^^uinsl 
it. The love of the world and lle^th wa» in the heart, befuK 
the lore of God and holiiienK : and ignorance was before 
knowledge, and pride before humility, and seltitibncMs before 
«elf-deuial. And these are not wholly rooted out ; wc have 
dealt BO gently with them, (as the Israelites with the Caniion- 
ites, Jebutiitea and other inhabitants of the land^ tliul they 
are left to try us, and to be thorns in our xides. And tL« 
garrison is not free from danger, that hath an enemy always 
lodged within: our enemiea are in the house with us; tliey 
lie down and rise up with wt, and arc as near as ourfieiah 
and bonex : we chu never bu where tliey are not, nor leave 
them behind us, whilhenfoevcr we go. or whatever if« do. 



No marvel, if brotlier be agninxt brother, and the fatfaer 

ugninst the non; when we are bo much Bgainst ourselv««^ 
And are we yet secure ? 

8. And the number of snaree thai are still before us, and 
of die subtle, tualicious enemies uf our souls may eusily 
convince us that we are not wholly free from danger. How 
subtle and diligent is the devil 1 How much do bis fiervant* 
imitate him '.' Every creature or person that we have to do 
with, and every cooLinoi) mercy which we receive, haih 
matter of danger in it, which calleth ua to feur and watch. 

9. Perseverance ib nothing else but our continuance in 
the grace which we received : and this grace con^isteth in 
act as well as in habit : and the habit is for action ; and the 
act is it that increaseth and continueth the habit. And the 
feax of Ood. and the belief of his threateningii, and repent- 
tance, anil watcbfulness, and diligent obedience, are a great 
pai-t of this grace. And the acts are ours, performed by 
ouraelvee. by the helps of God : God doth not believe, and 
repent, and obey in uti, but cauiieth uc* ourselves to du lU 
Therefore to grow cold, aud secure, aud sinful, upon pre- . 
tence that we aie sure to perseverfl, this is to cease perse-/ 
vering, and to fall away, because we are sure lo persevere, 
and uot to fall away : which is a mere coutradiction. 

10. Lastly, Bethink you well what is the meaning of all ' 
these texts of Scripture, and the reason that the Holy Ghost 

doth speak to ub in this manner. " And you hath 

he reconciled, to present you holy : — —if ye continue in 

the faith, grounded and settled, and be not moved away 
from tile hope of the Gospel ■=." " Abide in me, and 1 in 
you. If a man abide not in me, he is cast forth as abrancfa 
and withered. If ye abide in me, and my words abide ip 
you, ye shall ask what ye will^." "' Lei us therefore fear, 
lest a promise being lefl us of entering into his rest, any of 
you should seem to come short of it'." *' Keep yourselves 
in the love of Godf." " They drank of that spintual rock 
that followed them, and that rock was Christ ; but with 
many of them God was not well pleased : wherefore let him 
thatthinketh be standeth take heed lest he fall*." " Be 
not higbminded, but kss; for if God spared not the natural 

>■ Mali. lill. It, %, tl. 

' Col. i. «1— JS. 
' Jvdctl. 

' John yw. 4 — 7. 
■ 1 Cor. X. i, 6. 13. 




branches, take heed lest he spare not thee *'." " Ye are fal- 
len from grace'." " He that endureth to the end sHbII be 
saved '^." " Whose house are we, if we hold fast the confi- 
dence, and the rejoicing of the hope finnuiito the end. For 
we are partakers of Christ, if we hold the begioning of oor 
confidence stedfaet^nto theend'." " Let us labour therefore 
to enter into that rest, Jest any man fall after the same ex- 
ample of uiil}elief'°." "Hold fasttill Icoiiie"." " Andbe 
that uverconieth and keepeth my words unto the end, tu liJin 
will I give power over the nations"." 

Take heed therefore of that doctrine which tellcth you, 
that sins to come are all pardoned to you before tliey are 
committed, and that you are jusLitied from them, and that 
it is unlawful to be afraid offalliog away, because it is im- 
possible. &.C. For no sin is pardoned before it is comtnii- 
ted, (though the remedy be provided :) for it is then no 
sin; and yon are justified from no sin, any farther than it 
is pardoned. Suppose God either to decree, or but to fore- 
know the freest, most contingent act, and there will be a 
logical impoBsihIlity in order of couBeqnence, that it should 
be otherwise than he so decreetb or foreseeth. Bat that 
inferreth no natural impossibility in the thing itself: for 
God doth not decree or foresee that snch a man's fall shall 
be impossible, but only ' non fulurum.* 

Direct. IV. ' lu a special manner take heed of the conopa- 
ny and dotilrine of deceivers ; yea, though they &ee;ui dioaI 
religious men, and are themselves fir&t deceived, and tliiok 
they are in the right. And tnke heed nffiUling into a di- 
viding party, which scpamteth from the generality of the 
truly wise and godly ijeopleP.' For this hath been an ordi- 
nary introduction to backsliding ^ fidac doctrine halh a 
mighty power on the heart. And he that can separate one 
of the sheep from the rest of the flock, hath n fair advantage 
to carry him awayi. 

Diivtl. V. ' Be very watchful against the sin of prid«-^ 
especially pride of gifts, or knowledge, or holiness, whicli 
some call spiritual pride ;* for God is engaged to cast down 

•■ Ran. (i. ft), f 1. 
■ Itcb.iil.G.14. 

Hw. tii, i,3. Hi. 
^ &c«Koni.«i). lo. IJ. 

• G*l.v.4. 
■• llth.iv. 11. 

* M«|I. t. ft, 

1 Tlli;ji. V. K, 13. 



the proud. " PiiJe goeth before dostrtiotion. and an haugh- 
ty spirit before a fall'." Satan assaulted our tinst partnts 
by that way that he fell himself; and his biicci^sh tmcou- 
rag^th bim to try the. same way with their posterity. And, 
alus, how greatly liath he succeeded through all ages of tlie 
world till now! 

Direct, vi. * Take heed of a divided, hypocritical heojt, 
whicli never wus finiily resolved fur God, upon expectation 
of the worst, nnd upon terms of self-denial, nor was ever 
well loosed from the love of this present vorld, nor firmly 
believed the life to come.' For it Ib no wonder tbaLhe fall- 
eth from grace, who never had any grace but common, 
which never reneweJ hts soul. It is no wonder tliat fal«e- 
hearted friends forsake ns, when their interest rvquinsth it; 
nor that the seed which never bad depth of earth, doth bring 
forth no fruit, but what will wither when persecution shall 
arise, or that which is sown among thorns be choked '. Sit 
down and count wha.t it will cost you to be Christiann, and 
receive not Christ, npnn mistakes, or with rcRerves. 

Direct, vii. ' Take heed lest the world, oruiiy thing in it, 
steal again into your hearts, and seem too sweet to you.' 
if your friends, or dwellings, or lands and wealth, or ho- 
nours, begin to grow too pleaaant, and be overloved, your 
thoughts will presently be carried after them, and turned 
away from God, and all holy afl'ection will be damped and 
decay, and grace will fall into a consumption. It is the 
love of money that is the root of all evil ; and the love of 
this world which is the mortal enemy of the love of God. 
Keep the world from your hearts, if you would keep your 

Zfired. vrii. • Keep a strict goveruraent and watch over 
your fleshly appetite and sensed' For tJie loosing of the 
reins to carnal lusts, and yielding' lo the importunity of sen- 
sual desires, is the most ordinary way of wasting grace, and 
falling off from God. 

Dired. IX. ' Keep as far a& you can from temptalious, 
and all occasions and opportuuitieK of sinning.' Trust not 
to your own strength ; and be not so foolhardy as to thrust 
yourselves into needless danger. No man is long safe that 

' Pruv. iLvi. 18. ' Mul.Aiii. Lute .L.te. 89.33. 

■ Rtmii •ill. 19. iiii.i3, 14. 




staodeth al the brink of ruin ; if the tire and straw be long 
near together, some spark U like to catch H.t last. 

DtTtcl. X. ' Incorporate youiBelvcs into the coinmunioi) 
of Baiiite, and go along with them that go towards heaven, 
and engage yourselves m the constant use of all those uiciuts 
which God bath appninted you to ut^e for your perseverance; 
especially take heed of aa idle, slothful, unprofitable life: 
and keep your graces in the most lively exercise; for the 
slothful ia brother to the vra&ter ;' and idleness cotutumctii 
orcorrupt«th our spiritual health and streagth, as well us 
our bodily. Set yourselves diligently to work while it is 
day, and do all the good in your places, that you arR able; 
for it is act8 that preserve and increase the habits ; tuid a 
religion which consigteth only in doing no hurt, ia m> bfc- 
lese And corrupt, that it will quickly perish. 

Direcl. XI. ' Keep always in thine eye th« doleful caw 
of a backslider' (which I opened before). O what horror w 
waiting to seise on their consciences ! How many of tbem 
hnvc we known, that on their deathbeds have lain ruuriogin 
the ongoish of their souU, crying out, " 1 ftni utterly forsa- 
ken of Ood, becaUBS 1 have forsaken him I There is no 
mercy for such an apostate wretch : that I had never 
been born, or had been iiny thing rather tlian a man ! Cur- 
sed he the day tiiat ever I hearkened to the counsel of the 
wicked, ami that ever I pleaned tliis corruptible flesh, to the 
utter undoing of my soul ! O that it were all lo do again ! 
Take warning by a mad, besotted sinner, that have lost my 
soul for that which I knew would never make roe satisfac- 
tion, and have turned from God when 1 had found him to he 
good and graciouH." O prepare not for such pang« as Iheu, 
or worse than tlieee in endless desperation. 

Direct. 'S.M. ' Make not a small matter of the be}>;iDniaub 
of your backsliding.' There are very few that fail quii« 
away at once, themisery creepeth ou by inseu»ible degrecA. 
You think it Q small matter to cut short one duty, and omit 
another, and be negligent at another; and to entertain some 
pleasing thoughts of the world; or first to look on the for- 
bidden fiuit, and then to touch it, and then to taste it ; but 
this is the way to that which is not small. A tliought, or u 
look, or » taste, or a delight halli begun that with many, 
which never stopt, till it had shamed them here, and damned 
them forever. 



. ^-(f 


DireclUmsJur the Poor. 

Thkeb Lb ou condition of life eo low or poor, but may be 
sauctified, and fruitful, and comfortable to us, if our owa 
mistmderatanding, or sin and negligence, do uot pollute i( 
or irabitter it to us: if we do the duty of our conditiou 
faithfully, we shall have do cause to murmur ut it. Ther&' 
fore I shall here direct the poor in the special duties of their 
condition ; and if they ^vilL but conscionably perform them, 
it will prove a greater kindness to them, than if I could de- 
liver them from their poverty, and give them as much riches 
as they detsire. Though L doubt thiti would be more plea»- 
ing to the most, and they would give me more thanks for 
money, th^n for teaching them how to want it. 

Direct, i. ' Understand first the use and estimate of gdl 
earthly things : that they were never made to be your |>o(>- 
lion and felicity, but your provision and helps in the way to 
heaven".' And therefore tliey are neither to be e&timated 
nor desired simply for themselves, {i'oT so there is nothiag 
good but God,) but only aa they are meana to the greatest 
good. Therefore neither poverty nor riches are aimply to 
he rejoiced in for themselves, bs any part of our huppinenH ; 
but tKat condition is to be desired and rejoiced in, which af- 
fordeth lis the greatest helpj* for heaven, and that condition 
only is to be lamented and digliked, which hindereth us 
most from heaven, and from our duty. 

Direct. II. 'See therefore that you really tnke all tbetie 
things, as matters in themselves indiffereat, and of small 
concernment to you ; and as not worthy of much love, or 
care, or sorrow, further than tliey conduceto^jreaterthings--' 
We are Hke runners in a race, and heaven or hell will be oWr 
endj and therefore woe to ua, if by looking aside, or turn* 
ing back, or stopping, or trifling about these matters, or 
burdening ourselves with worldly trash, we should lose the 
race, and lose uur ^iouU. O sirtt. what greater matters thun 

* Pror, ixviii.6. Jamciii, 3. 



poverty or riches liave wB to ramd ! Can those soiiU that 
must filiortly he in lieaven or lieH, have time to beHtow any 
serious thoughts upon these imiiertinencies? Shall we ko 
mucli as " look at the temporal thiiige which are »een, tii> 
etead of the things eternal that are unseen''.'" Or shall we 
whine under thoi^e li[rht afflictions, which may be no improv- 
ed, as to " work for us a far more exceediug and i^temal 
weight of glory '^T' Our preeent " life is not in the abim- 
dance of the things which we possess '^j" much less is our 
eternal life. 

Direft. in. 'Therefore take heed th^t you judge not of 
God's love, or of your happinesa or misery by your licht^s or 
poverty, prosperity or adversity, a* knowing that they cunuf 
alike to aU%' aud love or hatred i$ uot to be discerned by 
them ; except only God's couimon love, an they are com- 
mon mercies to the body. If a Kurgeou ir> oot to be taken 
lor a hater of you, because he letteth you blood, nor a phv- 
Bician btxau&G he purgeth his patient, uot a father becaose 
he correcteth his child; much less i» God to bejud(*ed au 
enemy to you, or unmerciful, because his wiKdom and not 
your folly di^poseth of you, and proportiuneth yourestatoe. 
A carnal mind will judge of its own happineus aud the love 
of God by carnal things, because it savoureth nut spiritual 
mercies: but grac^ giveth a Christian another jud^^eut, 
relish and desire : ns nature Ketteth a man above the food 
and pleasures of a beast. 

Direct. IV. 'Stedfastly believe that Ood is everyway 
fitter than you to dispose of your estate and you ^' He ia 
infinitely wiBe, and knowcth whotis best and fittest for you; 
he knoweth beforehand what ^ooH or hurt ony »itat« of plen- 
ty or want will do you: he kuoweth all your corniptiona, 
and what cotiditlon will most conduce to tstivngthen them 
or destroy them, and which will be your greatent t«mpta> 
tions and snares, and which will prove your safest stale; 
much better than any physician or parent Icnowcth how to 
diet his palieut or his child. And liis love and kindiieaa 
are much greater to yon, than year's are to yourself; and 
therefore he will not be wanting id willingness Ln do you 
good : and his authority over you is absolute, and Ihereforc 

* »Cor.i». ts. • Vtr.n. ■• UUxO. ti. 

*BodM.a 1*. it. 9, 3. 'PmLi.I*. lSuii.U.7. 



his diRpt^sal of yon muet be unquestionable. " It is the 
Lord : l€l him do what sceineth Iiini good *." " TIil* will of 
God should be the vest and satisfactioo of your wills ''." 
; Direct, v. ' Stedfastly believe that, ardtnorily, ricliee arc 
fiiriBOre dangerous to the eoul than poverty, and a greater 
hihdmnce to men's i^alvatiuii.' Believe I'xperii^nce ; huw 
few of the rich and rulers of the earth are holy, heavenly, 
self-denying, mortified men? Believe your Suvioiir. "How 
hardly eball they that have riches enter into the kiugdou 
of God ! For it is enitier for a camel to go through n needle's 
eye, thun for a rich man to enter into the kingdom of God. 
And they that heard il said, who then can be saved? And 
he said. The thiiige which are impossible with men, are pos- 
sible with God'." So that you tjec the difficulty is 60 gl^t 
of saving such ab arc rich, that to men it is n thing impoaai- 
ble, but to God's omnipotency only it in pusiiible. So 1 
Cor. i. 26. " For ye see your cttlliiig, brethren, how that not 
many wise men after the Hesb, not muny mighty, not many 
noble are called." Believe thia, and it will prevent many 
.dangerous mistakeB. 

1 Direct. ¥ii ' Henue you may perceive, that though no 
man must pray absolutely either for riches or poverty, yet 
of the two it i^ more rational ordinarily to pray againat 
riehea thiin for them, and to be mlher troubled when God 
Tuaketh uh rich, than when he nmketh us poor.*' {I mean it, 
in respect to ourselves, as either of them eeemeth to con- 
duce to our oWD good or hurt: though to do good toothers, 
riches are mote desirable.) This cannot be denied by any 
man that believeth Christ : for no wise man will long for the 
hindrance of his salvation, or pray to God to make it as 
hard a thing for him to be aaved, us lor u camel to go through 
a. needle's eye; when salvation is a matter of eucb unspeak- 
able moment, and our strength is so email, and the difiicul- 
tieti so many and great already. 

Object. ' But Christ doth not deny but the difficulties to 
the poor may be as great.' Ahsw. To some particular per- 
sons upon other accounta it may he so ; but it ia clear in the 
text, that Christ speakvth comparatively of such dilficuUieit 
lut the rich had more than the poor. 

Object. ' But theu how are we obliged to be thankful to 
I I I Stm. ill. IR. ^ Adaui. 14. ■ LiikciviiL li,1S.«7. 

G*hI for giviojf usriclies, or biessing our labours^ ?' Aasie. 
I. You musl be tbankful for tliem, because in their own na- 
ture they are good, and it is by accidiCiit, througb your own 
corruption, thattbey 1>ccame so dangerous. 2. Because you 
may do good with them to others, if you have hearts to ase 
them well. 3. Because God in giving ihcni to you rather 
than to others, doth signify (if you are his children) that 
they are fitter for jou than for others. In Bedlam atMl 
umoog foolish children, it is a kindne&s to keep 6re, and 
swords, and knives out of their way : but yet they are ueefii] 
tu people that have the use of reason. But our fully in Rpi< 
ritual matters is so gieat, that we have little cause to be too 
eager for that which we are inclined no dangerously to abase, 
and which proves the bane of moat that hare it. 

Direct, vn. ' See that your poverty be not the fruit of 
your idleness, gluttony, drunkenness, pride, or any other 
flesh-pleaaing «in ^' For if you bring it thus upon your- 
selves, you can never look that it should be sanctified to 
your good, till sound repentance have titrucd you from the 
Hin : nor are you objects worthy of mucJi pity from man 
(except as you are miserable sinners). He that mther 
chooseth to have liis ease and pleasure, though with want, 
than to have plenty, and to want his ease nud pleasure, it is 
pity that he should have any better than he chooseLh. 

1. Slothfulneaii and idleness are sins that naturally teod 
to want, and God hath cauiied them to be punished with po- 
verty ; as you may see Prov. xii. 24. 27. xviii. 9. xxi. 26. 
xxiv. 34. xxvi, 14, 16. vi. 11. xx. 13. Yea, he com- 
mandetb that if any (that is able) " will not work, neither 
should he eat"'." In the sweat of their face must they eat 
their bread : and " six days must they labour and do ktl 
that they have to do "." To maintain yotir idlenesB is a bid 
in otheri*. If you will please your fiesh with ease, it niual 
be displeased with want \ and you must sufier what you 

2. Gluttony and drunkenneRR are such heastlv devouren 
of mercy, and abusers of mankind, that shame and poverty 

■are their punishment and cure. " Be not among wine-bib- 

^ SBil^ Ariilippui to Diiiiiyinii, QiiMidn lupicnla t^bam, ail'ii Soenitm \ nww 
pnunUrnm egFiM.«il t> trtA. Dicg. La«r1. lib. ii. wcl. 78. pL ltd, 

> I Cor.i^S.1. " iTttcM-iii. in. • 0«n.8L IVl 




bers, aaionget riotous eaters of flesh : for the tlruiikard mid 
the glutton shall come to poverty, and drowsiness shall 
clothe a man with rags "." It in not lawful for any man to 
feed the greedy appetites of such : if they choose a shoit 
excess heforfe a longet coinpetency, let fhem have their 

^ 3. Pride also is a most conEuming-, wasteful sin : it sa* 
crificeth God's mercien to the devil, in serving him by them, 
in his firstborn sin. Proud persons must lay it out in pomp 
Riid gaudinesH, to set forth themselves to the eyes of othen ; 
in buildings, and entertainments, and iine clothes, and curio- 
fiities : and poverty is also both the proper pimiMhiiient and 
cure of this sin ; and it is cruelty for any to save them from 
it, and resist God, that by abasing them takes the way to 
do them good''. 

4. Falsehood aUo and deceit, and unjust getting tend tc 
poverty ; for God doth often, cv«n in this present life, thus 
enter into judgment with the unjust. Ill-gotten wealth is 
like fire in the thatch, and bringeth ofttimes a secret curse 
and destruction upon all the rest. The same may be said 
of tinmerciftiliieas to the poor; which is oft cursed with po- 
verty, when the liberal are blest with plenty''. 

Itirect. \i\i. * Be acquainted with the special tempta- 
tions of the poor, tliat you may be furnished to resist them.* 
Every condition hath its own temptations, which persons in 
that condition must specially be Fortified and watch against i 
and this is much of tlie wisdom and s«.fety of a Christian.' 
Tempt. 1. One temptation of poverty will be to draw y6u 
to think more highly of riches and honours than you ought; 
to make you think that tlie rich are much happier than they 
are. For the world is like all other deceivers ; it is moflt es- 
teemed where it is least known. They that neventried a 
life of wealth, and plenty, and prosperity, are apt tn ad- 
mire it. and think it braver and better than It is. And so 
you may be drawn as much to overlove the world by want, 
as other men by plenty. Against this remember, that it is 
folly to admire that which you never tried and knew ; and 
mark whether all men do not vilify it, that have tried it<tio 
the last : dying men call it no better than vanity aad deceit. 

" Prw».»«in,J«,ai. PpmT.M.S. iiii. S3, ivi. la. 

« Prav. kI. «*,!$■ In.»ni. 8. Pnl. IkiI». 91, ««. f3, (fi. S4, SS. 



[part ii; 

And it is rebelliouB pride in you ao far to contradict the 
wisdom of God, as to think most highly of that conditioD, 
which he halh judged worst for you ; and to fall in love with 
that which he detiieth you. 

Tempt. II. The poor will aUo be tempted to overmuch 
cart' about their wants aud worldly matters '; they will think 
that necessity requtreth it in them, and will excuse tliem. 
80 much care is your duty, as \& needful to the rlj^ht doint^ 
nf your work. Take care how to discharge your owo du- 
ties ; but be not too careful about the event, wbich belongs 
toOod. If you will care what yon should be do, Ood 
will ca.i'e suKicieiitly what you sliall have*. And so be it 
yuu faithfully do your buMinexs, your other care will add no* 
thing to the success, nor make you any richer, but only vei 
and disquiet your minds. It is the poO'r as well aa tbc ricb, 
that Gfld hath commanded to be careful for nothiug, and to 
cast all tlii:ir care on liim. 

Tempt. III. Poverty also will tempt you to repining, im- 
patience and discontent, and t.(> fall out with others; which 
becuu&e it is one of the chief temptations, ! will speak to by 
itseJf anon. 

TewjH. IV. • Also you will be tempttd to be coveting 
after more ; natan malceth poverty a tinare to draw many 
needy creatures, to greater covetouBuesa than many of tbb 
rich arc guilty of; none thirst more eagerly after moref 
and yet their poverty blindeth them, so that th<;v cannot 
xee that they are covetouii, or else excuRe it an a justifikble 
thing. They think thattheydesire no more but necesuBrie*, 
and Uiut it is uot covetouencss, it' they desire not sapor* 
flaitie». Bat do you not covet more than Ood allotteth 
you r And are you not diecoDtent with his allowance ? And 
doth not he know best what is uece»aary for you. luid what 
superfluous? What then in covetou»ne»s, if this be not? 

Tempt. V. Also you will be tempted to envy the rich, 
and to censure tliern in matters wliere yon are incompet«ot 
judges. It is usual with the poor to apeak of tlie ricb with 
envy and censonousness ; they call them covetous, m«rely 
because they are rich, especiallyif they give them nothing; 
when they know not what ways of necessary exp^nce 
they have, nor how many othero they are liberal to. 

riMlECB.*!. •lUtu ri. iPel-*. r. PliiLi*.«. 



that theyaie unacquainted with. Till youttve their accounts 
you are unfit to censure them. 

Tempt. Yi. The poor also will be tempted to use unlaw- 
ful means to supply their vant« '. How many by the temp- 
tation of necessity hn,ve been tempted to comply with siu- 
n«rti, and wound their coD&ciences, and lie and flatter for 
favour or preferment, or to cheat, or steal, or overreach! 
A dear price! to buy the food that periBhetli. with, tbe loss 
or hiuard of everlttsting life ; and loi^e their bouU to provide 
tor their flesh! 

Tempt. V II, Also you will be tempted to npglect your 
souls, and omit your spiritual duties, and as Martha, to be 
troubled about many things, while the one thing needful is 
forgotten; and you will think that necessity will excuse 
all this; yen, !«ome think to he snved, because tbey are 
poor, and say, God will not punish them in this life and an- 
other too. But alas, you are more inexcusable than tha 
rich, if you are ungodly and mindless of the liiit: to come. 
For lie that will love a life of poverty and misery better than 
heaven, deserveth indeed to go without it mm-b more than 
he that preferred! a life of plenty and prosperity before it. 
God hath taught you by his provideace to know, that you 
must either be happy in heaven, or no where;— if you would 
be worldlings, and part with keaveu lor your part on earth, 
how poor a bargain are you like to make? To love rags, 
and toil, and want, and sorrow, better than eternal joy and 
happiness, i» the most unreasonable kind oi ungodiiness in 
the world. It is true, that you are not called to spend so 
many hours of the week-days, in reading and meditation, as 
somethatharegreater leisure iire; butyou have reason to seek 
heaven, and set your hearts upon it, as much as they; and 
you must think of it when you are about your labour, and 
take those opportunities for your spiritual duties, which are 
allowed you. Poverty will excuse ungodliness in none! 
Frothing is so necessary as the liervice of God and your sal- 
vation ; and therefore no necessity can excuse you frnni it". 
Head the caise of Mary and Martha: one would think that 
your hearts should be wholly set upon heaven, who have 
nothing else but it to tru&t to. The poor have few^r hin- 
I drances than the rich, in the way to lite eternal ! And God 

I ■Pn».>ni.e,9. J«Ui>>L)iT. « l^kc t.4l.4«. 





will aave no man becauBC he is poor; but contlemn poor 
and rich thai are ungodly. 

Tentpt. vtii. Another ^eat temptalion of the poor, is 
to neglect the boly education of tbeil' children; bo tbat io 
most pluces, there stre none %o ignorant, and rude, and hea- 
theniah, and unwilling to learn, as the poorest people and 
their children; they never teach them to read, nor teach 
them any thing for the saving of th«ir souls ; and they titiaJi 
that their pov«rCy wtU be ;in excuse for all. When reason 
telleth them, that none should be more careful to help their 
children to heaven, thua they that can give them iiotiung 
upon earth. 

Direct. IX. ' Be acquainted with the special duties of 
the poor; and carefully perform them.' They are theDe, 

1. Let your autferings teach you to contemn the worhl; 
it will be a happy poverty if it do but help to wean yOM 
affe<^tionH from all things, below ; that you ml as little b] 
the world as it deserveth. 

3. Be eminently heaveulyminded ; the less you havt 
or hope for in thin life, the more fervently seek a better*. 
Yoa are at least as capable of the heavenly trcasurea aa ilte 
greatest princes ; God purposely i^traiteneth your condition 
in the world, that ht; may force up your hf^arls uitto lumaelt, 
and teach you to «e«k first for that which indeed in worth 
yonr seeking'. 

.. 3. Learn to live apou God alone; study hia goodocM, 
and fnithfiilne»», and nlUi^uliiuiency ; when you have not i 
place nor a frieud in tlie world, that you can comfortably 
betake youraetveB (o for relief, retire unto God, aiid tnut 
bim, and dwell the more with hiok'. If your poverty have 
bat this elfect, it will be better to you than all the richea in 
ihe world. 

4. Be laboriouft and diligent in your callings; both pre- 
cept and nec4-suity call you unto thi^i ; aiu) if you cheerfully 
serve him in the labour of your liandii, witli a heavenly and 
obedient mind, it will be as acceptable to him, as if you had 
spent all that lime in more spiritual exercisea ; for he bad 
rather have obedience than sacriftue ; atud all things are 

« Phil. ill. 1&.«0,«. tC«r.*.7,8. 

> Hati. ri. S3. 19— tl< 

»G«l.U.fa. PHl.liiBr. SS— XK. tCaLklO. 



purBimd ssmctif)«<l to thf! pure; if yon cheerfully serve Ood 
iu the meniiest wOTk, il la tbe moFe acceptuble to him, by 
how much the more subjection and submifflion there is la 
your obediencfi*. 

5. Be humbte and aiibntiBsive unto all. A poor man 
proud is doubly hateful : and if poverty core yoitr pride, 
and help you to be trely humble, it will be no small iJieicy 
to you''. 

6. You are specially obliged to mortify the flefth, aad 
keep your senses and appetites in subiectioti; b(reaus« you 
have greater helps for it than the rich : you have not bo many 
baits of luat, and wantonness, and glnttony, and voluptuous- 
ness as they. 

7. Your corporal wants muat make you more sensibly 
remember your spiritual wants ; and teach you to valae 
inpiiittial blessings ; think with yourselves, if a hungry, cold 
and naked body, be so great a calamity, how much greater 
is s guilty, graceless soul ! a dead or a diseai^ed heart? K 
bodily food and neceaaariea t£te &o desirable, O how desir- 
able is Chriat, and his SfpLrit, and the love of God and life 
eternal ? 

8. You mu«t above all men be careful redeeraerg of yonr 
time; especially of the Lord's day; your labours take up 
so much of your time, that yon must be the mote carcfiil 
to catch every opportnnity for your souls! Rise earlier to 
get haJf an hour for holy duty ; and meditate on holy things 
in your labours, and spend the Lord's day in special dili- 
gence, and be glad of such seasons ; and let scarcity pYo- 
ierveyoM appetites. Tji- i •'^« ■ ■" ' ,i-..^. Vi-'''-<' '* »^' 

9. Be willing to die; seeing the world giveth you 
80 cold entertainment, be the more conteQt to let it go, 
when God ahaJl call yoa ; for what is here to detain yoor 

10. Above sJl men, you should be most fearless of suf- 
ferings from men, a,nd therefore true to God and conscience': 
for you have no great matter of honour, or riches, or pTea- 
snre to lose ; as you fear not a thief, when you have nothing 
for him to rob you of. ' ' 

11. Be specially careful to fltyour children al^ofor Kii!- 

> EpIii>B.i'. as. Procnl-fa. 1 Sw*.»«. 83. i! Thru. iii.S. UK 
' Proi'. iTiii. ?S. 

rt«4 • 




ven : provide thetn a portion wliicb i» better than a king- 
doot; for you cati provide but liltte for them in the world. 

12. Be exemplary in patience and coDteQt«dDeft8 witb 
your state: for that gra.ce should be tlie strongcfit in uh, 
which is most exercised i and poverty caJleth you to the 
frequent exercise of this. 

Direct, x. 'Be specially furnished with those reasons 
which should keep you in a cheerful contentedoess with 
your state ; and may auppreas every thought of aiixiety and 
discontent.' As 1. Consider as aforesaid, that that is the 
.best condition for you which hclpeth you bctit to heaven ; and 
God best knoweth what will do you good, or hurt. 2. That 
it is rebellion to grudge at the will of God ; which must dis- 
pose of US, and fihould be our rest. 3. Look over the life 
of Christ, who chose a life of poverty for your eakes ; and 
had not a place to lay his head. He was not one of the rich 
and voluptuous in the worldj and are you grieved to be 
conformed to hiin°. 4. Look to all bis apostles, and most 
holy servants and mnvtyrs. Were not they as ^reat sufferers 
an you .' o. Couhider that the rich will shortly be alias 
poor aa you. Naked they cainc into the world, and naked 
ihey must go out; and u little time makes little diHer- 
cncc. b'. It i» no more comfort to die rich than poor; but 
oftually much less : because the more pleasant the world is 
to them, the more it grievetli them to leave it. 7. All man 
cry out, that the world is vunity at last. How little is it 
valued by a dying man? And how sadly will it coHt him 
off! 8. The time is very short and uncertain, in which yoM 
must enjoy it : we have but a few days more to walk aboai, 
and we are gone. Ala», of how Muall concernment is it, whe- 
ther a man be rich or poor^ that is ready to step into another 
world? 9. The lore of tliis world drawing the heart from 
God, i8 the common cause of men's damnation: and ia 
not the world more likely to be over-loved, when it enter- 
taineth you with prospeiity, than when it usetli you like ao 
enemy f Are youdispleased. that (lud thus hrlpeth to save 
you from the most damning sin .' Andtlialhi- maketh not your 
way to heaven more dangerous? 10. You little know the 
troubles of the rich. He that hath much, hath much to do 
ivilli it, and much to care for ; and many perRonR to dftal wltht 
* put »l 7—9. 



and more vexations than you imagine. 11. It is but tbe 
fleah that ttufi'ereth ; and it furtbert'th your mortiBcation of 
it, 12. You pray but for your daily bread, and therefore 
should be contented with it. 13. Is not God, and Christ, 
and heaven, enough for yovi1 Should that man be discon- 
tent that must live in heaven ? 14. Is it not your lust, ra- 
ther than your well-informed reason that repineth? I do 
but name aJl tliese reasons for brevity: you may enlarge 
thera in your meditations. 


Directions for Ike Rich. 

I HAVE said so much of this already, Part j, about co- 
vetousness or worldliness, and about good worltB, and in my 
bonk flf " Self-denial." and that of " Crucifying the World ;*' 
that my reason commandeth me brevity in this place *. 

Direct, i. ' Remember that ttuhes are no part of your fe- 
licity ; or, that ifynu have no belter, you are undone meo.' 
Dare you say. that they are fit to make you happy ? Dare 
you say, that you will take them for your part? and be con- 
tent to be turned off when they forsake you? They recon- 
cile not God ; they save not from his wrath; they heal not 
a wounded conscience; lliey may please your flesh, and 
adorn your funeral, but they neither delay, nor sanctify, nor 
sweeten death, nor make you either better or happier than 
the poor. Riches are nothing but plentiful provision for 
tempting, corruptible flesh. When the flesh is in the dust, 
it is rich no more. All that abounded in wealth, ainoe 
Adam's days, till now, are levelled with the lowest in the 

Direct. 1 1. ' Yea. remember that riches are not the small- 
est temptation and danger to your souU.' Do they delight 
and pleaMc you? By that way they may destroy you. If 
they be but loved above God, and make earth seem better 
for you than heaven, they have undone you. And if God 

■ .Scr nioTF In in j ' Life of Faith.' 





recover yoji not, it had been better for yoa to have be«ai 
worms or brutes, Oian such deceifed, luiserable souls. It 
is not for nothing, tJial Christ giveth you ko many i«rrible 
wwpingg about richfis.aQd so describ^th the folly, the dan- 
ger, and the misery of the worldly rich^ And telleth you 
how hardly the rjcU are saved. Fire bumeth most, when ii 
ha-th nio^t fuel ; and riche» are the fuel of worldly lore, and 

fleshly lu»t% 

Dirtcl. 111. * Underewind what it iB to lo»e and tmrt in 
worldly prosperity and wealth,' Many here deceive tbcia> 
selves to their destruction. They persuade themselven. 
that they desire and use their riches but for necessity ; but 
that they do not love them, nor trust in them, because they 
can say that heaven i^ better, ftad wealth ^ill leave a% lo a 
grave ! But do you not love that ease, that greatnifas. that 
domination, that fulnetts, that satisfaction of your appetite, 
eye, and fancy, which you cannot have without your wealth f 
It i& fleshly lust, and will, and pleasure, which camal world- 
lings love for itself; and then they love their wealth foi 
these. And to trust in richeg. is not to trust that they will 
neier leave you ; for every fool doth know Oie (^uutruj* 
But it is to rest, and quiet, and comfort yourmiqda in tbetn, 
ais that which most pleas^th you, ojid makelh you well, or 
to be as you would be. Like him in Luke xii. 18^ It), that 
said, " Soul take thy ease, eat, drink, and be merry, thou 
hastenough laid up for many years." Thta is to lovu and 
truKt in riches. 

Direct, iv. 'Above all the deceits and dangera of Ihii 
world, take heed of a secret, hypocritical hope of recouuiliitg 
the world to heaven, so as to make yoii a felicity of both; 
and dreaming of a compounded portion, or of iterviug (iod 
and mammon.' The true 8t4te of the bypocnte's heart utd 
hope is, ' To love his worldly prosperity beat, am) detfirv to 
keep it as long m he can, for the enjoyment of his flesbJy 
pleasures ; and when he must leave this world agatnol hu 
W(U> he bopeth then to have heaven as his reserve; bec«UKe 
he tbifiketJi it better than hell, and hi-t tongue can &ay. III* 
better than earth, ihou(^h his ivUl itnd atfection« wy tbi 
contrary.* If lliis be your ca»c, llie Lgtd have mercy 

« UUilUl?—]!). *n.i»-ai.JM. xtSl. vi— w, i*. 
' 1 jDkn U. 15. IIS. Hai».iHi. 19, tfc 


upnn you, and gire vnD a more believing, MpirituBl mind, 
or else you are lost, aud yon and your treaswre will (lensh 

Direct. V. ' AccordiDf^ly take heed, lent when you neem 
to resign yourselvcR, and all that you have to Ood. tlierv 
should be a eecjet piirpn«e at the huart, that you will never 
be undone in the world for Christ, nor for the hopes of a 
bett«r world.' A knowing hypociite is iiol i(rnonmt, that 
the terniH of Chnnt, proposed in the Gotspel, are no low«r 
than Ibniaking all ; and that in baptism, and our corcnaat 
with Christ, all mnst he designed and devoted to him, and 
th« cross taken up inntead of all, or else we are no Chria- 
tians, as being not in covenant with Christ. But the hypo- 
crit4?'s hope is, that thongh Chrixt put him upon these pro- 
miHei^j he will never put him to the trial tor pcrforniRnce. 
nor erei' call him to forsake a.11 indeed : and therefore, if 
ever he be put to it, he will not perform the promise which 
he hath made. He is like a patient that promixeth to be 
wholly ruled by his physician, as hoping that he will put him 
U|>on nothing which he cannot bear. But when the bitt«r 
potion or the vomit cometh, he aaitb, ' I cannot take it, 1 had 
hoped you would have ^ven ms -gentler physic' 

Direct. v\. 'And accordingly take heed lest while you 
pretend to live to God. and to u«e all that you have aa his 
atewarde for his service, you should deceitfully put him oil' 
with the leavings of your lusts, and give him only so much 
as your fleah can spare.' It is not likely that the damned 
gentleman, Luke xvi. was neverused togive any thing to the 
poor; else whatdid beggars use his doors for? When Christ 
promiseth to reward men for a cup of cold water, the mean- 
ing is, when they would give betterif they had it. lliere are 
fewrich men of all that go to hell, that were so void of human 
compassion, or of the sense of their own reputation, as to 
give nothing at all to the poor: but God will haveall, though 
not all for the poor, yet all employed as he commandeth ; 
and will not be put off with your tithes or scraps. His 
stewards confess that they have notliing of their own. 

Ihrtet.wu 'Let the use of your riches in proepenty 
•hem, that you do not dissemble when you promise to for- 
sake all for Christ in trial, rather than foraake him.' Vou 
Diay know whether you ate true or false in your covenant 



with Chriet, and what you would do in n d«y of trial, by 
what you do in your daily course of life. How can that 
man leave all at oqc*.' for Cliri^t, that caniioL daily serve him 
with Ills rich«s, nor leave that little which God refiuirctb* 
in tli€ discharge oC his duty in pious and charitable works ? 
What i»itto leave all for God, but to leave all lather thau to 
sin agaiust God 1 Aod will he do that, who daily »ianelb 
against God by oniiasion of good works, because lie cannot 
leavv some part ? Study as faithful stewards, to serve God 
to ^le utmost, with what you have now, and tlien you may 
expect that his grace ehoiild enable you to leave all in tnal, 
and not prove willioriTif; hypocrites and apostates. 

Direct viri. ' Bu not rich to yourselves, or to your fletih- 
ly wills and lusts : but reuit-mber that the rich are bound to 
be ftpii'itual, and to mortify the dcsh, as well as the poor/ 
Let lust fare never the letter for all the fulness of yourev 
tates. Fast, and humble youi souIk never the less; please 
an inordinate appetite never the more in meat and drink ; 
live never the more in unprwfitable idleness. The rirh muKt 
labour as constantly as the poor, though not in the same 
kind of work. The rich must live soberly, temperately, and 
heavenly, and must as much mortify all fleiihly desires ag the 
poor. Yuu have the »anie law and maitter, and have no more 
liberty to indulge your IusIk; but if you live after the tlesli, 
you aholl die ds well as »Qy other. O the partiality of car- 
nal minds ! They can see the fault of a poor man, that g;o- 
elh sometimes to an alarhouse, who ptrhupH drinketfa water 
(or that which ia next it) all the week; when tliey never 
blame themselves. who scarce miss a meal without wine, and 
strong drink, and eating that which their appetite desireth. 
They think it a crime in a poor man, to spend but one day 
in many, in ttncb idleness, as they themselves spend most of 
their Itvei! in. Gentlemen think that their riches allow them 
to live without any profitable kibour, and to gratify their 
Hesh, and fnredelicioutily every day : ax if it were their pri- 
vilege to be sensual, and to he damned''. 

Dirert. tx. ' Nay. remember that you are called to lar 
greater iielf-denial, and fear, and wa(clifulne»s a^nst sen- 
Huality, and wealthy vices than the poor are.' Mortiticn- 
lionieas neceHkary to your Kalvation, as lu theirs, but much 
< Ram.«iiLl.5— 9kl3v 



more difficult. If you live after the fleeh, you Ahall die at* 
well aa they. And how much stronger are your tcmpta- 
Lioii9 ! Is not he more easily drawn to gluttony or excess 
in (quality or quantity, who lialh daily a tabl<* of plenty, and 
enticing delicious food, before liira, than he that never 8eeth 
such a. temptation once in half a yevki'i Is it uot harder for 
him to deny bis appetite who hath the baits of pteasuit 
meatt) and drinks daily set upon his table, than fur hicu that 
i)t seldom iti aight of them, and perhaps iu no possibility of 
procuring them ; and therefore hath nothing to solicit his 
appetite or thoughts.' Doubtless the rich, if ever they will 
be aaved, must watch more constantly, and set a more reso- 
lute guard upon the Hesh, and live more in fear of sensnati- 
ty than the poor, as they live in greater temptations and 

Direct, X. ' Know therefore particularly what are tli« 
temptations of prosperity, that you may makv ;i particular, 
prosperous reaistance/ And they are especially these, 

1. Pride. The foolish heart «f man is apt to swell upon 
the acce»&iou of ao poor a matter a.a wealth ; and men think 
they are got above their neighbours, aad more honour and 
obeisance is their due, if they be but richer. 

2. Fulness of bread. If they do not eat till they are 
sick, they think the constant and costly pleasing of their ap- 
petite in meats and drinks, is lawful. 

'S. Idleness. They think he is not bound to labour, that 
can live without it, and hath enough. 

4. Time-wasting sporl» and recreationti. Tliey think 
their hours may be devoted to the flesh, when all their lives 
are devoted to it : they think their wealth alloweth them to 
play, and court, and compliment a.way that, precious time, 
which no men have no more need to redeem ; they tell God 
that he hath given them more time than they have need of; 
and God will shortly cut itolf, and tell them tirnt they shall 
have no more. 

5. LuFtt and wantonness, fulness and idleness, cherish 
both the cog^ltations and inclinations unto filthiness : they 
that live in gluttony and drunkenness, are like to live in 
chambering and wantonness. 

fj. Curiosity, and wasting their lives in a umltit^ide of 
little, ceremonious, unprofitable thingx. to the exclusion of 



Uie great btiHineHsea of life. Well may we say, that tuca's 
iitatii are their jailors, und their feLlers, whea we see to what 
a wretched kind of life, a. multitude of the Hub (especiaUjr 
ladiett and ^eiitl«womea) do condeiuu themK«lves. I should 
pity one in bridewell, that were but tied so to spend their 
time ; when they have poor, ignorant, proud, worldly. 
pe«rish, hypocritical, ungodly souls to be healed, and a life 
off^raat arid weighty business to do for eternity, ihey have 
so many little things all day to do, that leave them liule 
time to converse with God, or with their coiisciences. or to 
do any thi ng that ib really worth the living for : they have ea 
many Ane clothes and omamenlo to get, and ufre ; and »o 
many rooms to beDutify and adorn, and ho many servants to 
talk with, that attend them, and so many dinheH and sauc#s 
to hetipeak, and so many flowers to plant, and dress, and 
walks, and places of pledsaro to nntnd ; and so many visitor.' 
to trntertaiti with whole hours of unprotitnhle talk ; and su 
many gr«at persons accordingly to vinit; and so many laws of 
uercniony aiid coniptimeDl^to observe ; nnd so maiiy gameK 
to play (perhaps) and »o many hours to sleep, that the day, 
the year, their Utcs are gone, before they could have wbtW 
to kuow what they lived for. And if God had but damned 
them to spend their days in pickmg Btrawe or filling a bot- 
tomless vessel, or to spend their days as tlicy choose them* 
aelve» to »pend them, it would have tempted ue to think 
him unmerciful to hiscrcatures. 

7. Tyranny and oppresition: when men are above others, 
how commonly do they think that their wilk must hv fulfil- 
led by all men, and nonemuekt cross them, and they live a» 
if all otliers below them were as their heastK. that are made 
for them, to serve and please them. 

IXrecl. Ki. ' Let your fruitfidness to God, and th« public 
good, be proportionable to your possessions.' Do as mnch 
more good in the world tlian the pour, as ynu are better fur- 
nished for it than they. Let your servantji have more time 
for the learning of God's Word, and let your families be 
the more religiously itmtructed and governed. To whom 
Ood ^v«th mucli, from them he doth expect much. 

Dirfti, XII. ' Do not only lake occamont^ of doing good. 
when theyare thru*tupon you; but study how to do oU the 



b«r8, amongst riotous «at«rs of fleah : for the drunkard and 
the glutton shall come to poverty, and drowsineas shall 
clotlie a man with rags °." It is not lawful for any man to 
feed the greedy appetites of such : if they choose a »hort 
excess before a longer competency, let ihem have their 

3. Pride also ii a most consuming, wast^fnl sin: il sa- 
crificeth God's oierclcB to the devil, in ser\-ing him by them, 
in hishratbom sin. Proud personmnust lay it out in pomp 
nnd gaudinetsK, to set forth themselves to the eyes of others ; 
in buildings, and entertainments, and tine clothes, and curio- 
sities : and poverty is also both the proper punishment and 
cure of this sin ; and it is cruelty iior any to save them from 
it, and resist Qod, that by abasing them takes the wa.y to 
do thera goodP. 

4. Falsehood also and deceit, and unjust getting tend to 
poverty ; for God doth often, even in this present life, thus 
enter into judgment with the unjust. Ill-gotten wealtli is 
like fire in the thatch, and bringeth ofttimeB a secret curse 
and deatniction upon all the rest. The same may be said 
of unmerciful nesB to the |ioor; which is oft cursed with po- 
verty, when the liberal are blest with plenty*". 

Direct, viji. ' Be acquainted with the special tempta- 
tione of the poor, that you may be fumisthed to resist them/ ■ 
Kvery condition hath its own temptations, which persona in 
that condition must specially be fortified and watch against; 
and this ismuch of the wisdom and ealety of a Christian. 

Tempt. 1. One temptation of poverty will be todrnw yOu 
to tbink more highly of riches and honours than yon ought ; 
to mak« you think that ihe rich are much happier than they 
are. For the world is like all other deceivers ; it is mo^t es- 
teemed where it is least known. They that nererdried s 
life of wealth, and plenty, and prosperity, are apt to ad- 
mire it, and think it braver and better than it is. And so 
you may he drawn as much to overlove the world by vrant. 
aa other men by plenty. Against this remember, that it ia 
folly to admire that which you never tried and knew; and 
mark whether all men do not vilify it, that have tried it to 
the last : dying men call it no better than vanity and deceit. < 

■ PiMT. liiS. fO, tl. P P™», ji. 1. mil, M. x.i. 18. 



And it is rebellious pride in yoa so far to contradict the 
widdoni of God, ae to think most highly of that condition, 
wbich lie hatbjudgcd worst for you; and to fall iii love with 
thai which he denieth you. 

'J'empl. II. The poor will also be tempted to overmuch 
care nbout their wauts mid worldly matters ' ; they will think 
that necessity reqnireth it in tliem, and will excuse them. 
So much care is your duty, as is needftd to the right doing 
of your work. Take care how to discharge your own du- 
ties ; hut he not too careful about the event, which helonga 
to God. If yoii will care what you should he and do. God 
will care sufficiently what you shall have'. And so be it 
yon faithfully do your busineas, your other care will add no- 
thing to the success, nor ruake you any richer, hut only vex 
and discjitiet yoiir niindei. It is the poor as well as the rich, 
that God hath coiimianded to be careful for nothing, and to 
cast all their care on him. 

Tempt. 111. Poverty also will t«niptyou to repining, iin- 
pntienceand discontent, and to fall out with others; which 
because il is one of the chief temptationn, I will speak to by 
itself anon. 

Tempi, iv, ' Also you will be tempted to be coveting 
afler more; satan maketh poverty a enare to draw many 
pe«dy creatures, to greater covetousnesH than many of the 
rich are guilty of; jionc thirst more eagRrly after more; 
and yet their poverty blindeth them, so that they cannot 
see that they are covetous, or else e^icuee it as a justifiable 
thing. They think that they desire no more but necest^aries, 
and that it is not covetousnestt, if they demre not <inper- 
fluities. But do you not covet more than God atlotleth 
you? And are you not discontent with his allowance ? And 
doth not be know best what is neceitsary for you, and what 
auperfluonit? What then is covetousuess. if this be not? 

Tempt. T. Also you will be tempted to envy the rich, 
and to censure them in matters where you are incompetent 
judges. It is usual with the poor to epeak of the rich with 
envy and censoriousiiess ; they call them covetous, merely 
because they are rich, especially if they give them nothings 
when they know not what ways of necessary expent^e 
they have, nor how many others they are liberal to, 

• Lukt X. 41. ■ UhU. ri. 1 Prt- T. 7. Pliil, iv. 6. 



that they are unacqiiiunted with. Till yoii sec their accouuts 
you are unfit to censure them. 

Tempt. VI. Tht poor also will be tempted to use unl&w- 
fiil means to supply their wants'. How many by the temp- 
tation of necessity have been tempted lo cauiply with sin- 
ners, and wound their conS'Ciences, and lie iuid llatler for 
favour or preferment, or to cheat, or steal, oi overreach! 
A dear price! to buy the food chat perieheth, with the loss 
or hazard of everlasting life j and lose their souls to provide 
for their Hesh! 

Tempt. V It, Also you will be tempted to neglect your 
souls, and omit your spiritual duties, and as Martha to be 
troubled about many things, while the one thing needful ia 
forgotten; and you will think that necessity will excuse 
all thifi ; yea, Home think to be saved, because they are 
poor, and aay, God will not punish them, in this life and an- 
other too. But alas, you are more inexcusable Uian the 
rich, if you are ungodly and inindlexit of the life to come. 
For he that will love a life of poverty and misery better ttimi 
heaven, deserveth indeed to go without it much moie than 
he that preferreth a life of plenty and prosperity before it. 
God hath taught you by his providence to know, tliat yon 
must either be happy id heaven, or uo where; — if you would 
be worldlings, and part with heaven for your part on earth, 
how poor a bargain are you like to make* To love rags, 
and tod, and want, and sorrow, better than eternal joy and 
happlne^, is the most iinTeasonable kind of ungodliness in 
the world. It is true, that you arc not called to spend bo 
many hours of the week-days, in reading and meditation, as 
some that havegreater leisure are; butyou have reason loseek 
heaven, and net your hearts upon it, as much as they ; and 
you must think of it when you are about your lubour, and 
take those opportunities for your ftpiritual duties, which are 
allowed you. Poverty will excuse ungodliness in none! 
Nothing is so nece»8ary as the service of God and your sal- 
vation ; and therefore no necessity can excuse you from it". 
Head the case of Mary and Martha: one would think that 
your hearts should be wholly set upon heaven, who have 
nothing eUe but it to trust to. The poor have fewer hia- 
drances than tlie rich, in the way to life eternal ! And God 

■Prov. iia. B,P. Jolmii. tt. » Lulbr x. 41,4V. 

vol. IV. c c 



will 8aY€ oo man because he ts |HH>r ; bat cuudentu poor 
and rich that are ungodly. 

Tetapt. vnt. Another great temptation of the poor, is 
to neglect the holy education of their children^ so that in 
most places, there are none so ignorant, a.nd rude, and hea- 
theuish, aud unwilling to learu, as the poorest people and 
their children; they never teach them to read, nor teax:h 
them any thing for the siLving of their souls \ and they think 
that their poverty will be an excuse for all. When reason 
telleth them, that none fihould be more careful to help their 
children to heaven, than they tliat can givv them nothing 
upon earth. 

DirtU. IX. ' B«t acquainted with the Npecial duties of 
the pour; and carefully perform lliem.' They are these, 

1. Let your auffcrings teach you lo contemn the worldj 
it wilt be a happy poverty if it do but help to wenn your 
atfectiuuH from all things below \ ttiat you set as ULtle by 
the world as it deserveth. 

2. Be eminently beaveniyniinded; the Jess you have 
or hope for in thin life, the more fervently seek a better'. 
Yon are at least as capable of the heavenly treaitures ai) tlu 
greatest princes^ God purposely straiteneth ytiur condition 
in the world, that he may force up your hearts unto himself, 
and teach you to seek firat for that which indeed ia worth 
your seeking'. 

3. Learn to lire upon God alone; stady his gooduesa, 
and faithfulnenH, and all-nufhcien-cy ; when you have not a 
place nor a friend in tlie world, that you can comfortably 
betake youraelves to for relief, retire unto God, and Irwit 
him, aud dwell the luore with him'. If your poverty hare 
but this elTect, it will be better to you than all the riches in 
Uie world. 

4. Be laborious and diligent in your callings ; both pre- 
c«pt and necessity call you unto this; and if you cheerfully 
serve him in the labour of your bands, with a heavenly and 
obedient mind, it will be aa acceptable to him, a* if yon had 
spent all that time in more spiritual exerci^s , fur he had 
rather have obedience than sacri^ce ; and all things are 

< fliU. 10,tl. tCor. t.T, ». 
1 Matt m.SS. 1»— tl' 

< PMl.iiiiiii.99— fB. iC« 




pure tiiitl gamctiliec) to tbe pure; if you cbeeriulW serve Ood 
ill the meanest work, it is the more acceptable to him, by 
how much the mora Aubiection And aubmi^ion there is In 
your obedienct'. 

5. Be Uumbte and subnrissiTe unto all. A poor man 
proud ia doubly hateful; and if pOTerty core yoof pride, 
and help you to be truly haoible, it will be no small mercy 
to you". 

6. YoQ are specially obliged to mortify the B«sfa. aod 
keep your senses and appetites in subjection ; because you 
have gr«ftter belp^ for it than th« rich : yo'u have not nO rnndy 
baits of lust, and wnntonneim, and glnttony, andvolvptuous- 
nnsa as they. 

7. Your corporal wants must make you more aensibly 
remember your spiritual wants; and teach you to Tdlue 
epiritual bleaaiaga ; think with yourselvea, if a hungry, cold 
and uaked body, be ao great a calamity, bow much greater 
is a guilty, gracelesft soul ! a dead or a diseased heart? If 
bodily food ami necessaries are so desimble, O how desif- 
sble is Christ, and his Spirit, and the love of God and life 
eteraa.1 ? 

8. You must ftbopc all men be careful redeemers ofyour 
time; especially of the Lord's day; your labours take up 
sc much of your time, that you inust be the more careftil 
to catch eyery opportunity for your aouls! Rise earlier to 
get half an hour for holy daty ; and meditate ou holy things 
in your labours, and spend the Lord's day in special dili- 
gence, and be glad of such seasons ; and ]«t scarcity pre- j. 7 
serve yonr appetites. . iS,J / .- : ^ h,w^^- jn»<*<( .* »M. tW^ ' 

9. Be willing lo die; seeing the worM ^Teth you 
8o co4d entertaiament, be the more content to let it go, 
when God shall call you ; for what i» here to detain yoor 

10. Above all men, you should be most fearless of silf- 
foringi from men, and therefore true to God and conscience': 
for you Irave no great matter of honour, or riches, or pFea- 
snre u» lose : aa you (ear not a thief, when you have nothing^ 
for him to rob you of. 

11. Be specially careful to fit your children aHoforbeft- 

■ EphM.iv. in. Prov.ixl.l5. 
' Pro*, ivili. «3. 

I Sui*. I*, a. X Then. iiJ.& in. 



Ten : provide tb«in a portion which is butter tlian a king- 
dom ; for you can provide but little for Lhem ia lite world. 

12. B« exemplary in patience and con tented ii ess with 
your state: for that ^race should be the strongest in us, 
which is most exercised; and poverty calleth you to the 
frequent exercise of this. 

Direct. X. 'Be Kpecially furnished with those reasouH 
which should keep you in a cheerful coiitentedneas n-ith 
your stutc ; uid may suppress erery thought of anxiety aud 
discontent.' Ab 1. Consider ns Bfaresnid, thiit thnl is the 
best condition for you which helpeth you best to heaven; nud 
God beat knoweth what will do you good, or hurt. 2. That 
it i.s rebellion to grudy;e at the will of God ; which must dis- 
pose of us, and should bo our rest. 3. Look over the life 
of Christ, who chose a life of poverty for your sokes ; and 
had not a place to lay his head. lie was not one of the rich 
and voluptuous iu iht- world; and arc you grieved to b« 
conformed to liim^. 4. Look to all his apostlee, and ntoiii 
holy servants and martyrs. Wt-re not they aa great safterers 
ac you f a. Consider that the rich will Hhuitly be all as 
poor as you> Naked they canie into the world, and naked 
they must go out; »nd u little time maken little dilier- 
eocc. a. It is DO more comfort to die rich than poor; but 
ueually much lees : beeuutie the more pleasant the world is 
to them, the more it grieveth them to leave it. 7. All men 
cry out, tbut the world iit vanity at last. How little is it 
vulucd by a dying man ? And how sadly will it cast him 
off! 8. The time is very short and uncertain, in which you 
must enjoy it: we have but a few days more to walk abottt, 
and we are gone. Alas, of how small concernment is it. whe- 
ther a man be rich or poor, thatie ready to step into anotlier 
world? 9. The loTC of thie world drawing the heart from 
God, is the common cause of men's damnation : and ig 
not the world more likely to be over-loved, when it enter- 
taineth you with protuperit^'. than when it useth you like aa 
enemy 1 Arc you displeased, that God tlius helpeth to save 
yon from the most daoioing si n t And that he maketh not yoar 
way lo heaven more dangerous? 10. You little know the 
troubles of the rich. He tbat hath much, hath much to do 
with it, and much to care for ; and many persona to deal with, 
■ Phil, iii- T— ». 



and more vexations than you Imagine. II. It is but the 

fieeh that suffereth ; and it furtliereth your raortificntion of 
it, 13. You pray but for your daily bread, and therefore 
should be coateDted with it. 13. Is not God, and Christ, 
and heaven, enough for you ? Should that man be discon- 
tent that must live ja heaven? 14. Is it not your lust, ra- 
ther than your weli- in formed reason that repinetli? 1 do 
but niLme all these reasona for brevity: you may enlarge 
them in your meditations. 


Directions J'or ike Mich. 

I HAVE said so much of thU already. Part i, about co- 
vetouaness or w&rldliness, and ahout good works, and in my 
book of " Self-denial," and that of " Crucifying the World ;" 
that my reason commandeth me hrevity in this place '. 

Dinci. I. * Remember that liches are no part of your fe- 
licity; or, that ifyou have no better, you are undone men.' 
Dare you say, that they are fit to make you hap|)y? Dare 
you say, that you will take them for your part? and be cou- 
tent to be turned otf when they forsake youf They recon- 
cile not God ', they save not from his wrath; they heal not 
a wounded conscience; they ruuy pleuse your flesh, and 
adorn your funeral, but they neither delay, nor sanctify, nor 
sweeten death, nor make you either better or happier than 
the poor. Riches are nothine but plentiful provision for 
tempting, corruptible flesh. When the flesh is in the dust, 
it ia rich no more. All that abounded in wealth, since 
Adam's days, till now, are levelled with the lowest in the 

Direct, 1 1. ' Yea, remember lliat riches are not the small- 
est temptation aiid danger to your kouIu.' Do they delight 
and please you? By that way they may destroy you. If 
they b* but loved above God, and make earth seem better 
for you than heaven, they have undone you. And if God 

* See fDOrr in my ' Lilc nf Fahh.* ' 


[part II* 

iftcovet yop oot> it bod been betier for you to liuvc beea 
worms or bruWs, than sucli deceived, miserable kouIh. It 
is not for nothiag, that. Christ giveth you so many torribJe 
warping^ about riches, and eg de^cribeth the folly, the dan- 
ger, and the miisiery of the worldly ricb^ And lelleth you 
huiv hardly the rich are saved. Fire buraeth most, wbtui it 
bath most fuel ; and riches ore the fuel of worldly love, and 

Direct, 111. 'Understand wbatit is to love and trust in 
worldly prosperity and wealth.' Many here deceive them- 
ftelvcs to their destruction. They persuade themselves, 
that they desire and use their riches but far necessity ; but 
tliat tbey do not love them, nor trust in them, becauKe they 
can say that hcavpa iq better, and wealth Vfill leave us tu a 
gTarel But do you not love that case, that gieatuess, that 
dominB.tion, that fulness, that satisfaction nf your appetite, 
eye, and fancy, which you cannot have without your wealth? 
U is fleshly lust, and w>d, and pleasure, which carnal world- 
lings love for itself; and then they lov« their weaJth fai . 
the^e. And to trust iit riches, is not to trust that they wi.D'' 
never leave you ; for every fool doth know the contrary. 
But it is to rest, and quiet, and oorafort your minds in them. 
^s that which most pleaseth you, and mnketh you well, or 
to be as you vfould be. Like him in Luke xii. 18, 19. that 
said, " Sou) take thy ea&e, eat, drink, (lud be nierry, tUou 
hast enough laid up for many years.'' This is to love wad 
trust in riches. 

Direct. i\. 'Above all the deceits and dangers of iIiIb 
world, t^ke heed of a secret, hypocritical hope of reconciliiw 
the world to heavtu, no as to make yoi( a felicity of both; 
«nd dreaming of a compounded porlioQ. or of serviug God 
and mammon.' The true state of th« hypocrite's heart and 
hope is, * To love his worldly prosperity best, and dcfjire to 
keep it as long wt he can, for the enjoyment of hiH lie«hly 
pleasures ; and when he must leave this world against his 
will, he hopeth then to have heaven as his reserve ; becQusL- 
ho ihipketh it better than heU, and his longu* can say, It ia 
fetter than earth, though his wiU and adectton^ »ay tlw 
contrary." If this he your case, the Lord have titorcy 

• I John li. 15. 16. 

x«j,i9— ai,£iE. 
nora. liii. 1$, 14. 

x>iil. Vl— lid, &r. 

CHAP. XXVlll.] CHKIVriAN troNOMKri!. 


upon yoB, and giT« ynti a more believmg, spiritual mind, 
or else you are lost, and yo« and your treasure will periiih 

Direct- V. ' Accordingly tnicr heed, leet when you se«ni 
to resign yoaraelves, and all that you have to God, there 
should be a secret purpose at the heart, that you will never 
be undone in the world for Christ, nor for the hopes of a 
better world.' A knowing hypocrite is not ignorant, that 
the ternia of Christ, proposed in the Goepel, are no low«r 
than forsaking all ; and that in baptism, and our covenant 
with GhriHt. all must be deai^ed and dsroted to him, and 
the cross taken up instead of all, or else we are no Chris- 
tians, as being not in covenant with Christ. But the hypo- 
crite's hope is, that though Christ put him upon these pro- 
mi»e&, he will never put him to the trial for performance, 
nor ever call him to forsake all indeed : and therefore, if 
ever he be put to it, h« will not perform the promise which 
he hath made. He is Ukc a patient that prominwth to be 
wholly nded by his phytticiati. as hoping that he will put him 
Upon nothing which he cannot bear. But when tlie bitter 
potion or the vomit coraeth, he fiaith, * I cannot take it, 1 had 
ho)>ed you would have given me gentler physic.' 

Direct. VI. ' And accordingly take heed lest while you 
pretend to live to Gx>d, and to use all that you h&Te a& his 
stewards for hia service, you ohould deceitfully put him off 
with the leaving^ of your lusts, and give him only 80 much 
as your ftesh can spare.' It ia not likely that the damned 
gentleman, Luke xvi. was never used to give any thingto the 
poor; elsewhatdid beggars use his doors fori When Christ 
promi&etb to reward men for a cup of cold water, the mean- 
ing is, when they would give belter if they had it. There arc 
fewrichmen of all that go to hell, that were so void ofhumaii 
compassion, or of the sense of their own reputation, as to 
give nothing at all to the poor: but God wdlhaveall, tiiough 
not all for the poor, yet all employed as he conimandeth ; 
and will not be put off with your tithes or scraps. His 
stewards oonfess that thcy have nothing of their own. 

Direct, vti. 'Let the use of your riches in prosperity 
shew, that you do not dissemble when you prumi&e to for- 
sake all for Christ in trial, rather than forsake him." Yqu 
may know whether you are true or false in your covenant 



with CliriHt, and what you would do in a day of trial, by 
what you Jo iii your tluily ctmrite of Hfe. How can that 
man leave all nt onrr for Chrint, that cannot daily serve bun 
witJi his riches, uor k-ave that UtUe which God requirethr 
in th6 discharge of his duty in piouH and charitable works I 
What 18 it to leitve all for God, but to leave all latherthan to 
I ain agaiuflt God? And will he do that, who daily sinnetb 
iigatnst God by omiasion of good works, because lie cannot 
leave some part ? Stady aa faithful stewards, to serve God 
to the utQiDst, with what you have now, and then you may 
expect that hii« grace .should enable you to leave all in trial, 
and not prove withering hypocrites and apostates. 

Direct viii. * Be not rich to yourselven, or to your flesh- 
ly wilUiuid lants : but lemouiber that the rich are bnund to 
be siiiiitual, and to mortify the Besh, as well as the poor.* 
Let lust fare never the better for all the fulness of yourcs^ 
tates. Fast, and hamble your aouLs never the less; please 
an inordinate appetite never the more in luettt and drink ; 
live never the more in unprofitable idleness. The virh must 
labour as constantly a& the poor, though not in the same 
kind of work. The rich must live soberlvi tetnper^tely, ntid 
tieavenly, andniuft as much mortify all fleshly desires as the 
poor. Yon have t)i« Rame law and master, and have no more 
liberty to indulge your luHts; but if you live after the flesh, 
you ahsll die as well a» any other. O the partiality of car- 
nal minds ! Tbev can see the fault of a poor man, tjittt ^o- 
eth someliroes to an alehouse, who perhaps driuketh water 
(or that which is next it) all the week ; when they never 
blame themi^tveg, who scarce miss a meal without wine, and 
strong drink, and eating that which their appetite de^iretli. 
They think it a crime in a poor man, to npend but one day 
in many, in snob idleness, as they themselves spend moKt of 
their lives in. Gentlemen think that their riches allow them 
to live without any protitable labour, and to gratify their 
flesh, and fare deliciously every day : ns if it were their pri- 
vilege to be tienAual, and to be damned''. 

Direct. IX. ' Nay, remember tiiat you are called to far 
greater Hclf-dcnial, and fear, and watchfulness ugainat sea- 
tnmltty, and wealthy vices than the poor are.' Mortifica- 
tiun in OR ueceKsary tu your salvation, -as, to theirs, bnt inuth 
< Rom.vHl. |.«— 9.19.. 



mure diffiuult. If you live after the flesh, you shall die us 
well as they. And how much stronger are your tempta- 
tion*! Is not he more easily drawu to gluttony or excess 
iji quality nr quantity, who liath daily a table oi'pleuty, and 
enticijig delicious food before him, than he that never aeeth 
Kuch a tetnptatiou once la half a year j in it not hardec for 
him to d«uy his appetite who hath the baiU of pleasant 
meats aiid drinks daily set upon hh table, than for him thai 
is seldom in sight of them, and perhaps in no po^ibjlity of 
procuring them ; and theiefovc hath nothing to solicit his 
appetite or thoughts? Doubtless the rich, if ever they will 
be saved, must watch more constantly, and set a more i*»o- 
lute guard upon the ilesh, and live more in fear of sensuali- 
ty than the poor, as they live ia greater temptations and 

XHrect. i. ' Know therefore particularly what are the 
temptations of prosperity, that you may make a particular, 
prosperous resistauce.' And they are especially theae, 

1. Pride. The foolish heart af man ifl apt to swell upon 
the accession of so pour a matter as wealth ; and men think 
they are got above theirneigbbours, and more honour and 
obeisance is their due, if they be hut richer. 

2. Fulness of bread. Ifthiey do not eat tilt they are 
sick, they think the constant and costly pleasing of their ap- 
petite ill meats and drinks, is lawful. 

3. Idleness. They think he is not bound to labour, that 
can live witliout it, and hath enough. 

4. Time-wasting sporift and recreations. They think 
their hours may be devoted to the flesh, when all their Uvea 
are devoted to it : they think their wealth allowetli them to 
play, and court, and compliment away that precious time, 
which DO men have no more need to redeem ; they tell God 
that lie hath given them more time than they have need of; 
and God wilt shortly cut itoff, and tell them that they shall 
have no more. 

5. Lust and wantonness, fulness and idleness, cherish 
l|buth the cogitaLJons nnd inclinations unto tilthiness : they 
I that live in gluttony and drunkenness, are like to live in 

Lcliambering and wantonness. 

6. Cariosity, and wasting their lives in a multitude of 
little, ceremonious, unproAtabIc things, to the exclusioo of 



the gKiit buMneBses of Itfu. Well nmy vt say, thftt luen's 
litslH are tbijirjsilnnt. and their fetters, tvhen we see to M^at 
a wreU'hed liind of life, a multitude of tbe rich (especiuliy 
Udiea and gcullewomea) do coQdeniu themselves. 1 should 
pity one in Imdcwell, that were but tied so to spend their 
time : when ihey liave poor, ignorant, proud, wuildly. 
peevish, hypocritical, ungodly nouts to be healed, and a life 
of ^rettt and weighty busiiiesB to do for etei'uity, they have 
HO Biaiiy bttle things all day to do, that leave them liule 
time to converse with God, or with their consciences, or to 
do any thing that is really worth the living for : they have so 
many fine clotlies and ornaments to get. and use^ and so 
laany rooius to beautify and adorn, and uo many a«r\-«utx to 
talk with, that attend thein, nnd so mniiy dmhes and sauci^B 
to bexpeak, and so many flowers to plant, and dress, and 
walks, and pluceg of pleasure to mind ; and so many visitors 
to entertain with whole hours of unprofitable talk ; and ho 
many groat persona accordingly to visit; and so many laws of 
ceresnony and compli meu^to observe; and so nxany gamuei 
tn play (perhaps) and so many hours to sleep, that the day, 
tile year, their liven are gone, before they could have while 
to know what they lived for. And if God had but damned 
tliem to spend their days in picking straws or filling a boi- 
tomless Vessel, or to spend their days as they choose theiu- 
selvee to spend them, it would have tempted us to think 
him unmerciful to his creatures. 

7. Tyranny and oppresRion : when men are above others, 
how conimunly do they think that Uieir wills must be fulfil- 
led by all men, and none must cto&« them, and they live as 
if all others below them were as their beastK, that are made 
for them, to serve and please them. 

Dirwi. XI. ' Let your friiitfulness to God, and the public 
good, be proportionable to ymir possessions.' Do ax much 
more good in tbe world than the poor, as you are belter fur- 
nished for it than they. Let your servants have more time 
for the learning of God's Word, and let your families be 
the more religiously instructed and governed. To whom 
God giveth much, firoiii tlieu he doth expect much. 

Dired. xii. 'Do not only take occasions of doine pood, 
when they are thrust upon you; hut mudy how to do all the 



good youcan.&fi Uiose "that areTealouiD of good works." 

Zeal of good works will you. 1. Plot and contriTBfor 
them. 2. Coneult, and ask advice for tiiem. 3. It will 
make yoa gUd when you meet with a hopeful opportunity. 
4. It will make you do it largely, and not sparingly, and by 
the halves. 6. It will make you do it speedily, without Hn- 
tvilling backwardness and delay. tJ. It will nmke you do it 
«0ii3tantly to your lives' end. 7. It will nmke you piocli 
your own flesh, and sutTer somewhat yourselves to do good 
to others. 8. It will make you labour in it as your trade, 
and not only consent, that others do good at your cliarge. 
9. It will make you glad, when good i» done, and not to 
grudge at what it cost you. 10. In a word, it will make 
your neighbours to he to you as yourselves, and the pleas- 
ing of God to be above yourselves, and therefore to be as 
glad to do good, as to receive it. 

Direct, xiii. * Do good both to men's souls and bodies; 
but always let bodily benefits be conferred in order to thosv 
of the soul, and in due subordination, and not for the body 
alone. And observe the many other rules of good works, 
more largely laid down. Part i. Chap 3. Direct. 10. 

D^irecL X]v. ' Ask yourselves often. How you shall wish 
at death and judgment, your estates had been laid out ; and 
accordingly now use them.' Why should not a man of rea 
sou do that which he knoweth beforehand he shall vehe- 
mently wish that he had done? 

OtrecU XV. ' As your care mu»t be in a special manner 
for your children and families ; so take heed of the common 
error of worldlings, who think their children must have mo 
much, as that God and their own souls have very little.* 
When selfish men can keep their wealth no longer to them- 
selves, they leave it to their children, who are as their sur- 
viving selves. And all is cast into this gulf, except some 
inconsiderable parcels. 

Direct. XVI. ' Keep daily account of your nse and im- 
provement of your master's talents.' Not that you should 
too much lemember your own good works, but remember to 
do them; and therefore ask yourselves. What good have 1 
done with all tli^it I hiive, this day orweek? 

Dirett. XVII. ' Lutik not fur long life ; for tlieu you will 
think that a long journey needeth great provisions ; but die 




daily, and live as ihoae that are going to give ap their ac- 
count:' and then conscience will force you to ask, whether 
you have been fuithful stewards, and to lay up a treasure in 
heaven, and to make you friends of the mammon that olherx 
use to unrighteousness, and to lay up a good foundation for 
the time to come, and to be glad that God hath given you 
that, the improvement of which may further the good of 
others, and your salvation. Living and dying. l«t it be 
your care and business to do good. 


DireeiMmfor the Aged (and Weak). 

Hat I NO before opened the duties of children to God, and to 
their parents, I shall give no otiier particular Directiona to 
the young, but shall next open the special duties of the 

Direct, i. ' The old and weak have a louder call from 
God, than othertt, to be accurate in examining the tttat** of 
their souls, and making their calling and election sure*.* 
Whether they are yet regenerate and RancUfied or not, is a 
most important question for every man to get resolved ; but 
especially for them that are nearest to their end. Ask coun- 
sel, therefore, of aouie able, faithful minister or friend, and 
set yourselvea diligently to try your title to eternal life, and 
to cast up your accounts, and ^ee how all things ctand be- 
tween Ood and you : and if you shoul