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Tas Buence of botany is 10 «iHlife«iitly progrestlve m it is detightM and 
«iau>Umg. By recent cUsooteries it has been established on the besb ef 
indoctiye philosophy, and eleyated ahnost to the rank of an ezaet soMBoe. 
The theoiy of Hie floral stmcMxe niiich re^Ts each organ to the prinoiide 
€f the lea^ now enten into ahnost eveiy department of botany, and giTes 
t new aspect to the wbde; revealing move dearly than any other disoor- 
trf has ever done, the beauty and simpUcity of the plan on whidi OeattTO 
Pofwer is exerts in ikt prodnotion ef the coondess forms of yegetaUe 

The present treatise contains, first, the £lemeiitB of Botany, aooording 
to the latest antSiorities, written in the ^mn of simple propositions, briefly 
iIlTistitted, and broken into short paragraphs, with direct reference to tlie 
coDTenience of the learner. Brief as it is, it is hapeA that it will be found 
to embody all the established principles of the science contained in fozmer 
school treatises, together with those newly dsscorered principles in Oigan- 
qgn^hy and Fhysblogy, by whicb botany has been really enriched and 

The Fbra is adapted piBrticuIarly to tiiat seotion of the United States 
^hich Hes north of the Capiitol, that is, of the d9th parallel, tndading 
essentially the States lying north of the Ohio river and Marylandf It 
<)Qmprdkend8 all tiie Fhsnoganna, or flowering plants, with the Ferns, &e. 
which have hitherto been discovered and described as indigenous in tiiese 
^^Btes, together widi the naturalised exotics, and those which are more 
generally cultivated either as nseifol or ornamental. The deseriptions are 

*n»atiidesiftirlioalmfat«b» UghMt attdnmeitti idH by no mMfm Art HttriMwIfli 
"*<flinea,Ridiwt}arOmttB faeteMmlfeof. It aftirdB us plBMan to be ftUe to Mooiom«nd to all 
*>AiiiraDidadniueb^rondfb9l9Tiiieipkfl,tb»ftiUuid elaborate " T«xt Book " of Dr. Am 
^>Vf — a **Mii*i«* woik of Om bi^ieit malt 

tWIi||0Qnie«aDDep(ioiuhtheieftn«,ttiiB Flom wffl answer fbr fho a^tfaeont Stotat tf Drfswuvi 
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ftndL ]lDm.lfll«n 




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y ff 


2. &UO, 6tc, 


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3. rpeic. 


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4. reaoapiCi rtrpac. 


C B 


6. flrevre. 


17 5 


6. ^f 


^,6 th 


7. cITfB. 


i i 


8. OKTO, 




9. ewBO. 


X 1 


10. data. 


ft m 


11. ^vdcMO. 


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20. UKOQU 



Many, iroAvf • 


7r,o P 



P r 



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^ ph 


Upon, ewL 


X ch 


Aroond, tre^ 


^ ps 


Under, irro. 


c» o 



1. Erery Latin word has as many syllables as it has separate vowels and diph- 

2. The pentiU (last syllable but one) is always accented in words of two sylla- 
bles. In words of more than two syllables, me penult, if long in quantity^ is ac- 
cented ; if short, the antepenult (last syllable bat two) is accented. A word may 
have, idso, a secondary accent, &c. 

3. A vowel before another vowel, or the letter h, or marked with this C) char- 
acter, is short in quantity. A diphthong, a vowel before two consonants, or a 
double consonant, or the letter j\ or marked with this (~) character, is long in 

4. A vowel has its short, English sotrnd^ when followed by a consonant in the 
same syllable ; otherwise its long sound, without regard to quantity : a ai the end 
of an accented syllable, has an indistinct sound, as in Columbia. 

5. A single consonant or a mute and liquid between the vowels of the penult 
and final syllables, is joined to tlie latter j in other cases, the vowel of the accented 
syllable takes the consonant before and after it, except u, and the vowels a, e and 
0, before two vowels, the first of which is e or t ; when it takes the former only. 

6.^ Pronounce es final with the e protracted ; ck like k ; ct, ti, st, before a vow- 
el, like sh; ce, a, like e; qa like kw; gu^sit^ before a vowel in the same syllable, 
like <;iOi SIT. 



1, BoTAinr defined. ^2. It* departmanta. OrguKMrttphj. 3, Vegetsble ThjM^ 
ogT. 4, Glossology. 5, Systematic Botany. 6^ Belation to man— ultimate aim. 
77lta merits and claims. 8, Natural world — its dlTtsions, — a, mutual relations. 
9, Mineral defined. 10. Plant defined. 11, Animal defined,— i^ the three king^ 
doms blend in one. 12, Vegetation uniTersaL— 0, efi^cts ciflApA n]K>n it — and 
heat, — 6, elevation above toe sea — Peak of TeneriiTe, — e. soil, — d, moisture, — «^ 
extremes of beat — illnstrations,— / extremes of cold— iliustntions,— /^ Ug^t— 
iOustrations. 13, Varietv of Hie vegetable kingdom. 14. Causes which affect it^ — 
«, plants adapted to locaUtieSk 15, Cultivation, — 16, Cabbage, &0., for illustratknu 
17, Speciea dependent on cultivation, — a, conclusion. 


ORGANS— 18. 

liB, EmiMTo. 19, Axis,-«aaoending— dMcendioe. 20, Bud^-^ita dBV«k>pmant» 
fte. SUL Axillary buda, — univeraaiU 39^ Bud a mstinet individual,— a, iUustr^ 
tioB. 23, Branoiies, — a, plant compound,— 3|reproduatiTe. 24, Flower, origia 
0^—25, m natvia and cna,— i^ Ulutrstfoo. 26, Deeagr,— dk a leaf tba elemei^ 
tarj organ. 27. Leaf consisti of, —a, elemeDtary tisanes^ 28, Chamieal basis ef the 
tissues — oi^puno bases. — a, illustnmoiL 29, GeUular tisane— parenehyma, — a, 
pith of elder, — 6, 0, celralar tissue how colored,— d^ aiae of calk, — «, they become 
seUd.— / Baphides. 30. WoodT tissue— its deeign^— •, iUustratioD. 31, Glando^ 
lar fibre — fossil ccaL 32, Vasi/orm tissua,— a. articulated— oontinaona, —A, iUua- 
tmtioB. 33, Yaaenlar tiseae,— «, spiral vesseb,^— A, spiral thnad«— «, its siae,-^ 
d, sitaatioii of spval vesaels,— <^ what they coBtaiku— ?{ dnots^— g', closed — annu* 
lar — retieulaitaa — the office of these ducts. 34, LatMuArous tiasue,- a, siae, &o. 
3S^£pideEBais— whereitlaBOtfimadk 36, Stniotiirey— a, illustration. 37,Stomata. 
38, Fbrm. 39, Position, — a, size. 40, Surfaoa. 41, Haim — simple — branched, — 
a. position — downy — pubescent — hirsute — rough — tomentose — arachnoid — 8e> 
TKeeos— velvety- ciliate. 42. Stingk 43, Prkklee. 44, Clauds— eessUe— im- 
bedded, — a, glandular hairs. 45, Beceptades of secretion. 


E3NGD0M.— 26. 

46, Phmogamia — Cryptogamia, — 47, tfaehr distinctions of tissue, — 48, of cotyle- 
dons. 49, Further distinctions. fiO, A speeies, — «, illustration — number of species 
known. 61, VarietiBS, — a, where theyeccu. 52» Agenos, — a, iUuatCBtiQn,-»A, 



93, Paris of the flower enumerated, — «, essential oigans — perfect flower. — i^ im 
periect flower — sterile — fertile — neutraL 54, Perianth consists of— caivx — oo» 
loiia—aehlamvdeoas flowers. 56, Calyx defined — sepals. 56, Corolla defined — 
PJtek. 57. dtamens — definition of— ofiice— androscium. 58, Pistils— oflifie 
w— gyncscium. 59, Beceptacle — order of the organs upon it 60, Specimens. 
eli A complete and regular flower,— «» UieoreUeal number of tha parlfi — ^ iMt 


tfaeoroticalposiiAon, — r, mmoBsj — oomspondence between a flower and a leafy 
branch. 62, Apparent ezoe^ons — examples of symmetrical flowezB. 63, a, FSnt 
cause of doTiaUon, the development of one or more additional whorlB — exam- 
ples. — 3, Second cause, the suppression of entire whorls — examples. — c, Third 
canse, the suppression of piurts of^ whorls — examples. — d, Fourth cause, the union 
of parts of the same whorl — examples. — tf, Fifth cause, the union of omns of difiisp- 
ent whorls — examples.—/! Sixth cause, unequal development of similar omum — 
examples. — g. Seventh cause, reconversion of oi^gans — examples. — A, Eighth, 
cause, development of axis — examples. 



64) The stamens, basis of a classification — why. — 65, Definition — 66, parts — 
which essentiaL o7, Filament. 68, Anther — when sessile — connectile — anal- 
ogy* — a, cells — dehiscence, — 3, connectile, — «, stamen abortive. 69, Modes odT 
attachment of anther to filament, 1st, innate ; 2d, adnate ; 3d, versatue ; 4th, in- 
trorse — extrorse. 70, FoUen — forms, — a, structure — molecules. 71, Physio- 
logical structure — of the filament — connectile — anther — pollen. 72, Theoretical 
stnicture — proof from the transitions of stamens into pistUs — examples. 73, Cir- 
cumstances m which stamens vaxy — twenty-four Linnean Classes. 74. Number. — 
Etymology of the names of the Classes. Class 1st, 2nd, 3d, 4th, 5th, oth, 7th, 8th. 
9th, 10th; 11th. 2nd, Position,— 12th, 13th. 3d, BeUUve length, — 14th, 15th, 
4th. Connection, — 16th, 17th, Isth, 19th, 20th. 5th, Absence,— 2l8t, 22d, 23d, 



75, The pistil, its position — structure. 76, Ovary — ovules. 77. Ovary simple — 
compound — carpels. 78, The style — number — connection. 79, Stigma — sim- 

Sle — compound. 80, Number of styles, orders founded upon. Order 1st, 2nd, 3lrd, 
th, 5th. 6th, 7th, 8th, Oth, 10th, 11th, 12th. Note. — Orders of the class Didyna^ 
mia—Tetradynamia— Orders of the 16th, 17th, 18th, 20th, 21st, and 2!2d classes. 
Orders of Synjzenesia, Equalis — Superflua — Frustranea — Necessaria — Segre- 
ffata. Orders of Polygamia, Monoecia — Dioecia. Orders of the 24th, class. 81, 
Ovules. 82. Placenta — structure — direction. 83. Physiological structure — of the 
ovary — style — stigma — without epidennis. 84, Tneoretical structure enlained, — 
sutures — ventral — dorsal, — a^ illustration, — 5, £. illustrationB continued. 85, Pro- 

SMitions, — first — second — third — fourth. 86, These propositions when true. 87, 
entral placenta, — parietal placenta. 88, Free central placenta, — explanation. — 
a, Ovules proved to be analogous to buds. 89, Ovules enclosed — naJcea, — a, erect 
— ascending — pendulous — suspended. 90, Foramen — primine — secundine — nu- 
cleus — a, iUustration. 91, Funiculus— chalasa. 


92, Their specific office— how accomplished, — o, illustrations, — tulip — Ealmia, 
Stc 93, Action of pollen upon the stigma— tubes. 94, Molecules— their destina- 


9& OF THE CALYX.— 4S. 

95^ Calyx— etvmology— color. — 96, Sepals— monosepalous — polysepalous. — 
97, Calyx — inferior — superior, — 96, caducous — deciduous — persistent, — 99, re- 
duced ^ wanting — o, Pappus — pilose — plumose — setose — paleaceous. 


personate — galea. 105, Forms or polypetalous corollas, — 1, Cruciform. 2, Rosa- 
ceous. 3, Linaoeous. 4. Caryophyllaceous. 5, Papilionaceous ^vexillum — alss— - 
oaiiniB. 100, Physiological structure — colon. 




107, Definition,— a, Nectaiy— labdhim— ipiir,— 3, Disk— hypogyiiooi— epl- 
gynoas,— e, true chaxscter. 

}a OP JESSnYATION.— «0l 

lOB, Definitkm — Tvnatioii. — a» Oliutntioii. 1, iBitiTBtioii yBlTite, — 2, Gooyd> 
faito,— 3, QQincniicia],— 4, Contortod,— S^ Alternate,— 6> Yexillaiy,— 7,Ihdi9tt. 
cate^— 8^ Superrolnte. 


109, Be impofrtance — design, — a, utility.— 5, in respect to time— -defined. 110^ 
inakgooe to orazy — changes, — a, examples. 


4,Lega]iie. — 5, Follicle. — 6, Drape. — 7. Nnt. — CL Caryopsis. — 9, Acheniom.— 
10» Seaan.— 11, Fyxia.— 12, Pome.— i:^ Pepo.— 14, Beiiy— strawboxy- blaok- 
bflioy.— i«^ Strobile. 



117, The seed defined. — a, its parts, US. integuments — testa ^mesospenn— 
CDdopieiira, — o^ Testa, its sabstance — Buiace — fonn — appendages, — ^ Coma 
^k t- m y ii r h i tft 119, AnL 120, Hilnm. 121, Seed orthotropooa — anatropons. 122, 
AUnmen — where most abmidant — where wanting. 123, Embryo — 124, its 
pBiti, — >a. radicte, — 6, plnmnle — its direction. 125^ Cotyledon, — - a, the number, 
he. 120, Monocotyledons — endogens. 127, Dicotyledons — exogens distin 
ginahed. 128, Cotyledons many -~ none. 129, Embryos, number oL — Spores 

§8. OP OEBMmATION.— 00. 

130, The embryo, its in^Kniance. — a, germination defined^ — 131, the process ez 
^Uned. 1^ Ijie cotyledons. 133, Oonditions of germination, — a, heat — 5, 
mter—f, oxygen— d^ darkness. 134, Dnration of the yitality of seeds. NoU, 
Two exampiee ot, 


13S,Bemaric — examples, Erigeron — a, Wings, hooks ^3, Impatiens— Streama 
nd oceans — Sq;nirre]s, birds. 


136^ Its definition— origin,— tfy diTisions. 137^ Prone direction,— a, horizontal 
diRction. 138, Number and extent. 139, How distinguished from stems. 140, Ex- 
ceDtions — adventitious bads — snbterraneaa stems. 141 . CoUum — o, stationary. 
142, Parts of the root, — a, candex — b. fibres — c, spongioles. 143, Forms of roots. 
144, Ramose — 0, analogouB to brancnes — illustration, — 3, further illustration,— 
e, extent of roots. 145, Fusiform root — forked — tap root — premorse — napiform. 
146, Fibrous, — a, fasciculated. 147, Taberoos, — 0, palmate — 6, granolated. 148, 
Vk of fleshy roots. 149, Floating root 150, Epiphytes — parasites. 


151, Internal structnre. 152, Fibrils, structure — ftmction. 153, Growth of root 
154, Its most obvioos function — most important one — a, illustration. 155, Activity 
of slnorption dependent on. 156, Part which absorbs, &c. — a, illustration, — 6, 
transplanting. 157, Force of absorption, — a, illustration. 158, Cause of absorp- 
tion — not capillary attraction, — a, experiment in philosophy — exoemose — endoe- 
mose. 150. Keqaisite conditions, — a, how they exist in the root, — application. 
160, Use of abeorption, — a, power of cbdoe — iUostration. 

10 ooKrsim 'AKP 


161, Definition, — a, c&use of its ascent. 102, Direction faorizoot&l — ereet — 'pro- 
cnmbent — ascending — subterranean. 163, Annual — ' perenniaL 164, DistiiietioQ 
in regard to size, &o. — a, tree -^ h. ahnib -^ «, berb. 165, Most distinctive prapert^r 
of stem. 166, Buds. 167, Leaf-oud. 168, The scalj envelopes. . a, Scales not 
formed in hot climates, &e.— 'their design. 169, Bud terminal, devdops a^mplo 
axis, — &, axU]ary,deveIopes branches,-*^, adyeBtitions. 170, Branch. 171, 
Thom, — a. its nature, &c. — 6, distinguished from prickles. 172, Node — inter- 
node, — a, now formed — why • the aada dinunishes upwards. .173, Axrancement or 
branches, — 174, spiral, — a, modifications — circular, how caused. 175, Alter- 
Deta — *e|pposite — * whorled. 176, Some of -the branc2>ies. -- a, Two classes of stems. 
177. Subterranean — stemless plants— varieties. 178, Bulb,— ^o, tunicated — 
scaly, — 3, how renewed, — c, bulblets. 179, Corm. 180, Tuber. 181, Bhizoma. 
182, Creeper, — a, repent items, tfaahr me. 163, Yaiieties of aerial stems. 184, 
Caulis. 185, Runner. 186, Scu>e,— a. culm. 187. Vine — a, tendril. 188, Twin- 
ing stems — their direction. 189, Trunk — 0, its dimensions. Nate^ Illustrations, 
^ Its duration. iVbt#, Illxtstrations. 1^, Sucker. 191, OfiiMt. 192, Stdon. 183, 
PkmUity of trunks — a, Banyan — i Mangrove. 


194, S tru c ture of herbaoeoos stetas — 196, of the first year's growth of perenvial 
stems, — a, basis of the distinction of Ezogens and Endogens. 196, Exogens. 197, 
Endogens. 198. Parts of the exogenous structure. 199. Pith. 200, Itf eduUary 
sheath. 201, Wood — number of lay«rB. fi02. Layer oonsists of, — a, arrangement 
of its parts. 208, Alburnum — duransoB. 204. Medullary rays. 205, Bark, — its 
parts. — 206, its structure — cork — liber. 207, New layen how formea, — a, oater 
layers,- why shaggy — lioilaontallUbreS)«-^d, qoaiities nsiMat in,— ^ its pecvliar 


SXI6, Gonveyaoee of sq>,-*209, through what portion— its oouBe—- elabon^ 
tkm— doMoat. 


210, Its peculiarity. 211, Oompositioo. SIS, Eaob bandle coniistB of, — «, mode 


213, Its importance — character. 214, How distinguished. 215, Color — antaai- 
nil hues, — a, due to what — chlorophyll — changes, — ^, color of fiowers. 


216, Meaning of the tenn — leaf-bud how conupaoted,- «, iUustration. 217, 
Forms of vemaBon. — 1, Equitant — 2, Obvolnte — 3, Involute — 4, Bevolute — 5^ 
Convolute— 6, Plaited— 7, Cirofaiato. 

«9. ARRANGEMENT.— 83. 

SIS, hk the bud — after the axis is developed, — 1, Scattered — 2, Alternate — 3. 
Opposite — 4) Veiticillato — 5, Fasciculate. 219, How these forms may be reconciled 
with the spindf — a, illustration, — 6, Alternate explained, -^ c, Opposite or whorlad 
explained. 220, Leaves radical — oauline — nuniaL 


221, Nature of the leaf— lamina — sessile — petiolate. 222, Petiole — its form — 
1, Compressed — 2, Winged — 3, Amplexicaul. 2^, General form of the lamina — 
base— apex. 224, Leaf simple — compound. 225, Physiolagy. 226, Venation — 
fts organs. 227, Midrib — nerves. 228, Veins — veinlets. 2^, Modes of venation. 
1, Reticulate — 2, Parallel — 3, Forked. 230. Varieties of reticulate venation, — 1, 
Feather-veined — 2, Radiate-veined- 3, Varieties of parallel venation. 

231. Theory of— form dependent on venation. 232, Forms resoltiiig ftvm tfao 


tetlMr ▼siMtion — 1, Orbionkr— 2, EDiptio— 3, Oblong— 4, Ontta— 9^ Laoeeo- 
kte — 6, Obovate — 7, Spathulate — 8. Cordate — 9, Aancul&te — 10, Hastate — 11, 

Sagittate — 12, Bmuform — a, Forms aependent on the development of the tissne 

13, Buncinate — 14. Lyrate— 15, Pinnatifid — 16, Sinnate. 233, Forms resulting 
from radiate venation ~ 17, Palmate — 18, Digitate — 19, Pedate —20, Lacinate — 

21, Peltate — 22, Beniform, &c. 234, Forms of parallel-veined leaves — 23, Linear 

tif Oval, &c — 25, Cordate —26, Acerose. 

$0. MARGIN.— 90. 

235, How modified — 1, Entire — 2, Dentate — 3, Serrate —-4, Crenate — 5, Erase 
•^0^ undnUito — 7, Spinous — 8, Incised— 9, Laciniate — 10, Chnsped — 11, Bepand. 

(6. APEX.— 90. 

236| TerminBtkm of leaf — 1, Acuta— S, Obtosa— 3, Aeominata— 4, Enuogin* 
ite— 5^ Retnse — 6, Hncionate. 

§7. SURFACE— 9a 

237. Terms descriptive of the epidermis on the leaf or elsewhere — 1, Glabrons — 
2,Piibeaoent— 3, Bough— 4, Pilose— S, Hoary— 6, Villose— 7, Woolly— 8, To* 
iMntose — 9, Bngose — 10, Panctate. 


238. Leaf becomes compound on what principle. 239, Leaflets — articulated. 
340, Focms resulting finom tne feather-veined arrangement — 1, Pinnate — 2, Equally 
pioaate — unequally — cirrhose — 3, interruptedly — 4, Number of leaflets — trf- 
lirikite — single — 5, bipinnate — 6, tripinnate — 7, bitemate — 8, tritemate. 241. 
Forms resulting from radiate venation — 9, Quinate — 10, Sejptinate. 242. Leaf 
with ifsard to insertion — 1, Amplexicaul — 3. Perfoliate — 3, Deouirent — 4, Con- 
nate. 243, Combined terms, — a, the preposition su&. 


244. Leaves of Teaisel — Tillandsia — Arum. 245, Asoidia, — o, of the Sarracenia, 
haw fonned, &c. 246, Nepenthes. 247, Dischidia. 248, Dionsa. 249, Stipules,- 
▼vieties — poritions. 250. Their nature. 251, Leaves stipulate — exstipnlate — 
•tipels. 2S2,Bracts,— 253, their nature. 254, involucre— mvolucel, — 2d5, of the 
Componta. 255, Glume — awn — palsB — valves. 

flO. DURATION.— 98. 

397, Leaves temporary — 1, Fueacious — 2, Deciduous — 3, Persistent 858, Fall 
of the leaf — previous changes. ^, Cause of defoliation. 


360, Of the fWone-work, — «, of the lamina. 261, Parenchyma disposed in two 
Isyers,— a, bow covered. 262, Internal structure of the parenchyma. 263, Ar- 
nngement of the cells, — a, chlorophyll. 264, Stomata communicate with what — 
fimnd on which surface. 265, Ye»els of the latex — their course. 266, Leaf of 
Okaodsr — air cells. 


.267, Enumerated- result— latex. 268, Crude sap consists of. 269, Exhala- 
tion— 270, distinguished from evaporation — 271, takes place through the stoma- 
ta— occurs only in the ll^t — why — a, illustration. 272, Exhalation dependent 
oo absorption — quantity — illustration. 273, Absorption, — a, iUnstration. — 274, 
by their lower surface — illustration. 275, Respiration— 276, consists in— 277, 
MostsQt— the result— 278, illustration— 279, two periods of its neatest activity — 
•» in germination, — i, flowering — proportion of oxygen evolved. — JVbte, illustra- 
tion.— 260, Life of the plant dependent on. 281, Digestion — the process. 282, 
^^ubon — its sources, — a, illustration. — Plants blanched in the darl^ 263, Fixation 
Jf carbon— relative amount absorbed and evolved. —Experiments of Dr. Daubeny. 
3B4, Relation of animal to vegetable kingdom in regard to carbon — Reflections. 



285, Definition. 296, Position, — a. exceptions. 287, Pedanole— flower sessile. 
288, Peduncle simple— branched— Pedicel. 289, Scape. 290, Sachis. ^ Inflo 
rescence solitary, — 292, centrifagal — centripetal, resulting from what 293, Cen 
tri petal, — 2^j centrifugal, — a, how indicated — all the flowers terminal, why. 
29o, Both modes combined — examples. 296, Varieties of centripetal inflorescence. 
297, Spike— 298. Baceme — 299, Ament— 300, Spadix— 301, Corymb — 302, 
Umbel —303, Heaa — a, of the Composites — compound flowers — 304, Panicle — 906, 
Thyrse — a. Compound umbel — tjmbellet — Compound raceme, &o. 306, Varie- 
ties of centrifugal inflorescence^— 307, Cyme ^a> its normal stmctare and detel 
opment — ^, infeienoe,— 308, Fascacle — 309, Vertieillaster.— a, Peduncle oQa 
verted into a tendriL 


310, Four simple organic elements — their proportion. 31t, Carbon. 312, Mineral 
ingredients — Agricultural Chemistry. ol3, Sources of the simple elements. 
314, Air. 315, Soil. 316, Water. 317, Ammonia. 318, Air plants, — three con- 
ditions requisite. 319, Irrigation — Draining. 320, Tillage — Amendments. 
.%S1, Fallow ground^ Rotation of crops. 323, Light and Heat 323, Digestion, iuu 
324, Proper juice. 325, Products first developed. 326, Three genentl nntritive 
products — composition. 327, Sugar — Diastase. 328, Mutual transformations. 
329, Secretions. 



330. Systematic Botany defined. 331, Remarks on the extent of the field of 
botanic research. 332, Polly of studying individuals only. 333, Individuals gioaped 
into species, — a, illustrations — clover — pine. 334, Species grouped into genera,*- 
illustration. 335, Genera resolved Into orders and classes. 336, Two methods of 
classifying the genera, — artificial — its basis, — nataral — its basis. — 337, Com- 
parative merits of the two — use of the artificial. 338, Value of the natural — 
obscurities now removed. 339, Remaining difficulties — artificiid meUiod how and 
why retained in this work. 340, Artificial arrangement consists of. 


341, Its aim, — 342, distinguished from the Artificial — what characters em- 
ployed, — 343, advantages, — 344, yet to be fally consummated — some artificial 
characters yet necessary. 345, The first two srand divisions — Phsenogamia — its 
characters, — Cryptogamia— characters, — 34b, uncertainty of these characters, — 
approximation of groups. 347, Spwogens. 348, Subdivision of Phsenoffamia — 
Ezoeens — characters — Endogens — characters. 349, Classes, six — Exorens 
divided into two — Angiosperms — characters — 03rmosperms — characters. 350, 
Endogens divided into two — Aglumaceous, characters — Glumaceons, characters. 
351, Cryptogamia divided into two — Acrogens, characters — Thallogens, charac- 
ters. 3de. Affinities of the classes. 354, Sub-classes — Polypetalie, characters — 
Monopetalsft, characters — Apetalse, characters. 355, Orders — 356, how foimed. 
357, Alliances, groups, &c. 358, Extent of the orders. 359, Summary. 


360, Names of the orders Latin adiectives — derivation, — o, exceptions. 361, 
Etymology of generic names. 362, Of specific names, — 363, derivation — rules. 
4 2, Botanic Analysi s. 364. defined, — 365, proper state of plants for, — 366, im- 
portance of. 367, Process, ~ 3d8, with the learner. — Analytical tables. \ 3. Cot,- 
LBCTiifo AND Preskkvino Plants. 369, Importance of, — a, hortus siccus. 370, 
Apparatus. 371, Directions for gatheriiya;, — 372, pressing, — 373, changing. 
374, Arrangement of the specimens. 37«^ Genera arranged — how preserved. 
376, Fruit, seed, and wood, how preserved. 




1. BoTANT is the science wiiidh treats of the Vegetable 
Eingdom. It includes the knowledge of the habits, structure, 
and uses of plants, together with their nomenclature and dassi- 

2. like its kindred sd^aces, it is resolved into distinct depait- 
ments, according to the nature of the subjects to which it relates. 
Ihat part which investigates the organic structure of vegetables, 
is called Okganogiiaphy, corresponding to Anatomy, in the 
science of Zoology. 

3l That part of botany which relates to the phenomena of the 
vital functions of plants, is called Vbobtable Physioloot ; in- 
cluding the considemtion of their germination, growth, and 
reproduction. It has, therefore, a direct and practical bearing 
upon the labors of husbandry, in the propagation and culture of 
plants, both in the garden and in the field. 

4. Another department, of essential importance, is Gloss- 
OLooT, which relates to the explanation and application of 
botanical terms, whether nouns or adjectives, by which the 
organs of plants, with their numerous modifications, are desig- 

5. A fourth department, called Systbmatio Botany, arises 
from the consideration of plants, in relation to each other, their 
autaal affinities, and their endless diversities, whereby the 
100,000 species, supposed to exist, may be arranged, classified, 
«&d designated, by distinctive characters and names. 


6. Finally, in its extended sense. Botany comprehends, also, 
the knowledge of the relations of plants to the other depart- 
ments of nature, particularly to mankind. The ultimate aim of* 
its researches is, the development of the boundless resources 
of the vegetable kingdom for our sustenance, protection, and 
enjoyment ; for the healing of our diseases, and the alleviatioix 
of our wants and woes. 

7. This extensive department of Natural History, therefore, 
justly claims a large share of the attention of every individual, 
not only on account of the aid it afibrds to horticulture, to the 
employments of rural life, and to the healing art, but also for the 
intellectual and moral culture, which, among other kindred 
sciences, it is capable of imparting in an eminent degree. 

a. No science more effectuaUj combmes pleasure inth unproyement, iSbuk 
Botany. It condacts the student into the fields and forests, amidst tiie Terdiue 
of spring, and the bloom of summer;-— to the charming retreats of Nature, in 
her wild loxorianoe, or where she patientlj smiles nnder the improTing hand 
of cnltiYation. It fnznishes him with yigorons ezerdse, both of body and mind, 
which is no less salntary than agreeable, and its snlgectB of investigation are all 
such as are adi^ted to please the eye, refine the taste, and Improve the heart. 

8. The natural world, by distinctions sufficiently obvious, is 
divided into three great departments, commonly called the 
MiNEBAL, Vegetable, and Animal Kingdoks. 

a. Vegetables, or plants, hold an intermediate position between animals and 
minerals: while they are wanting in both the intelligence and instinct of the 
former, they are endowed with a physical oiganization, and a living principle, 
whereby they are remarkably distingoished above the latter; they constitute the 
ultimate nourishment and support of the one, the vesture and oinament of the 

9. A mineral is an inorganic mass of matter, that is, without 
distinction of parts or organs. A stone, for example, may be 
broken into any number of fragments, each of which will retain 
all the essential characters of the original body, so that each 
fragment will still be a stone. 

10. A plant is an organized body, endowed with vitality but 
not with sensation, composed of distinct parts, each of which is 
essential to the completeness of its being. A geranium is com- 
posed of organs, which may be separated or subdivided indefi- 


iiiftely, Imt no one of ^e firagments, alcne, will Still be a complete 


U. Ajumala, like plants, are oiganized bodies, endowed with 
^alality, and composed of distinct paxts, no one of which is com- 
|lete in itself; bat they are raised above either plants or min- 
oals, by the power of perception. 

' «. Thcw4iMiiiicti(0iif,kMv«iDce«^ggeited by Ihe immortal TiJuiiotm, are per- 
ktAj olmoas and dsfiinfe, in the hijglker gmdes of tiM animal and TCgetable 
Uagdoms; baft, in deeoeoding Che icale, ve lecognise a gradval and oonatanft 
tppMcfa, in boA, to inoigaiiic matter, and oomequently to eadi other; ao thai, 
is the loncst foaa$ of lift^ aQ tnuxi of oiganiwtion disappear, and the three great 
kimsdoma of aatwe, UIeo liqaee conTeqiing radii, meet, and Uend in a fowmoa 

12. Vegetation, in some of its forms, appears to be coespten 
rive with the surface of the earth. It springs up, not only fix>m 
the sonny soil, moistened with rain and dew, but even from the 
naked rock, amidst the arid sands of the desert, in thermal and 
solphnioBs springs, in arctic and alpine snows, and fhmi the beds 
of seas and oceans. 

c Among fb% midtiftode of nataral caneea ivhich dStot the growth of T^geta)* 
tioB, the aeCioa of the ean, dnongfa the light and heat whidi ift imparts, b the meet 
iAoent ^Ine is most poverfiil at the eqoator, and gtadnany diniinishfs in in- 
tnsifef, as ire proeeed from thence toiwaida cither pole. Vegetation, therelbra, 
anrires at its highest degree of faixnriance at the equator, and within the tropics. 
Ib die temperate zones it is less remarkable for the beanty and yariety of its 
flowers, end the ddidoasness of its frnits, than in the torrid ; yet it is bdiered to 
lie no less adapted to promote the arts of drflized life, and tiie well-being of man 
ia geneesL In still fcigfc*w \*^^a^ plants beoome few, and of stinted growtib, 
VBtil fiaslly, within the arctie eiidea, they i^parently, bat not absolntely, cease 

h. Sfaooe dimate is affected by elevation abore the level of the sea, in the same 
nmaer as by increase of latitade, we find a rimilar diminution of vegetable 
aeMty, in ascending hig^ monntains. Tha8,thepeak of Teneriffe, sitnated on 
a fertile idand, within the tropics, is clothed, at different elevations, with plants 
pecoUsr to every latitade, in snccession, from the torrid to the frigid aones, 
idnle the sommit, being always covered with snow, is as barren as the region of 
fhe poles. So also Ibe White lioantains, in New Hampshire, eidiibit upon their 
anmits a vegetation aimflar to that of Lebcador, or even Greenhmd. 

(.One of tiie first reqvmtes for liie growth of plants, is a soil, from whidi, by 
ntim of roots, they may derive their proper nutriment and sapporL Bnt nnmex^ 
ou species of lichens and mosses find their most congenial habitations upon the 
We Toch. The coral island no sooner arises to the snrface, tlian it arrests die 



floating gerau of vegetalioii, ^diich soon dotlie the rough rock vi& Terdnre of* 
humbler kind, and ultimately, hy the growth and decay of aaooeaaiTe generatioii8» 
form a soil for the sustenance of the higher fonns of Tegetable life. 

d. Another important requisite is moisture. But the arid sands of the great 
African desert are not absolutely destitute of Tegetable life. Bren there, oertam 
species of Stapelia are said to flouriflh, and those dreary regions, where neither nin 
nor dew ever falls, are occasionally enlivened by spots of Terdure, like islands in 
the ocean, composed of these and kindred plants. 

e. Extremes of heat are not always fetal to yegetalaon. In one of the GeyseiB 
of Iceland, which was hot enough to boil an egg in feur minutes, a species of 
Chara has been found, ui a growing and fruitful state. A hot spring at the 
Island of Luzon, which raises the thermometer to 187*, has plants growing in it 
and on its borders. But the most extraordinaiy case of all, is one recorded by 
Sir J. Staunton. 'At the island of Amsterdam a spring was found, the mud of 
which, fer hotter than boiling water, gave birth to a spedes of liTerwort' Other 
similar instances are on record. 

/ Nor are the extremes of cold fetal to eveiy form of vegetation. The rein- 
deer lichen, of Lapland, grows in vast quantities among almost peipetual snows. 
And fer in the arctic regions, the eternal snows are often reddened, for miles in 
extent, by a minute Tegetable of the Algse tribe, called red snow, of a stmctme 
the simplest that has yet been observed, consisting of a single round cdl contain- 
ing a fluid. 

g. Light is also a highly important agent in vegetation; yet there are plants 
capable of flourishing in situations where it would seem that no ray of it ever 
entered. Mushrooms, and even plants of higher orders, have been found growing 
amidst the perpetual midnight of deep caverns and mines. Sea weeds of a bright 
green color have been drawn up from the bed of the ocean, from depths of mote 
than 100 fethoms. 

13. The vegetable kingdom is no less remaxkable for its rich 
and boundless variety, than for its wide difiusion. Plants difier 
from each other in respect to form, size, color, habits, stnictoe, 
and properties, to an unlimited degree, so that it would be diffi- 
cult, indeed, to find two individuals, even of the same species, 
which should perfectly coincide in all tliese points. 

a. Yet this variety is never abrupt, never capricious; but here, as in other 
departments of nature, uniform resemblances are so blended with it, as to lay an 
adequate foundation for Systematic Botany. 

14. The same causes which afiect the geneml increase of 
plants, exercise, also, an important influence in determining their 
character. Hence, every chmate has not only its own pecuHar 
degree of vegetable activity, but also its pecidiar species. 

a. Other causes, besides temperature, are eflldent in determining the species of 


■jglfcttlocalitj, lax^MllidqiMlitMt of tike soil, the degree of moifltaiebo^ 
flttMith and dcies, the indiiuUioii of nufroe, rocks, ahadee, aad windt, die oom- 
biaed action of wliich often becomea an esLoeedinglj complkatod matter. Now 
to each of thcae uummeiaUe oombiaatioiis of drcomstanoes, tiie Creator haa 
a^lted llie oonatUntion of certain spedee of plants, so that each giren localit^r 
my be expected to prodnoe its own appropriate kinds. Bnt since some species 
nc also endowed with the power of accommodating themselTes to a wide range 
of circamstances, these are found more uUmmvdif d^frntd, idiile others, without 
tkB power, are comparativelT^ rmn. 

15. Vegetation is susceptible of important changes by culti- 
vation. Many plants are improved, in every desirable quality, 
lyy accommodatiiig themselves to the conditions of soils enriched 
and enlivened by art Examples are seen in almost every cal« 
tivated species. 

16. The cabbage, in its wild state, is a slender, branching herb, with no appear- 
SDoe of a head. The potatoe, in its natiye wilds of tropical America, is a rank, 
itnomg me, wi& scarcely a taber npon its roots. All the rich and delicate 
nrieties of the ^iple hare sprang, by artificial means, from an anstere forest- 
Mt. The nauMitms and splendid Taiieties of the Dahlia are the descendants 
of a oosne M^ ytf-»^n plant, wi^i an ordinary yellow flower, of a single circle of 
eoloied leares. GThe tulip and the geraniom afford similar examples. 

17. Changes, not only in the qualities of vegetation, are ef- 
fected by culture, but also in the species themselves, through the 
tabstitution of the useful or the ornamental for the native pro- 
ducts of the soil. Thus, in agricultural districts, almost the 
^aole face of nature is transformed, by human skill and industry, 
tiom the -wilderness to the fruitful field. 

& Hence it appears that there is scaroely a spot on earth wfaidi is not cansed, 
bj fte qoickeiiing eneigy of the Creator, to teem with Tegetable existence, in some 

cf Hi nomberless Ibrms, while his goodness is conspicoons in rendering those 
tribes whidi axe most snbsenrient to the wants of man capable of the widest dif- 




18. Tbb earliest and simplest state of the plant is an embryt? 
contained in a seed. This consists essentially of two pajrts, tlia 
radicle and pbamule; the fonner about to be developed into the 
iQOt, the latter into the ascending plant with its appendages. 

19. As soon as the process of gennination conunences, the 
radicle begins to extend itself downwards in the direction of tlie 
earth's centre, constantly avoiding the air and the light, forming 
the descending axis, or root The plumule, taking the opposite 
direction, extends itself upwards, always seeking the light, and 
expanding itself, to the utmost extent of its power, to the influ- 
ence of the atmosphere. This constitutes the €ucending aaoif, or 
trunk, around which the leaves and their modifications aie 

20. At the commencement of its growth, the ascending axis 
is merely a bud, that is, a growing point, enveloped in rudimen- 
tary leaves, or scales, for its protection. As this growing point 
advances, the enveloping scales expand into leaves below, while 
new ones are constantly appearing, in succession, above. Thus 
the axis is always terminated by a bud 

21. By this process the axis is elongated, simply in one direc* 
tion. But, besides this, there is also a bud (or buds), either 
visible, or in a rudimentary state, formed in the axil of eaeh 

a. These axillary bada are generallj visible, either before or after the leaf has 
fallen. In some plants, however, they seldom appear; bat their existence ia 
inferred from the fact, that even In snch cases, they are occasionally developed in 
extraordinary drcnmstances. 

22. Each bud is a distinct individucd, capable of an independ* 
ent existence, in favorable circumstances, although severed from 
the parent stock. 

a. The common practice of propagation by layers, offsets, engrafting, and 
budding, is both a resnlt and a proof of this principle. A plant may be, and 


ita 31, in tins nuomer, nmUipIied indefinitely, Ij fhe diflsevered paxti of itseU^ 
« wen as by the seed. 

23. But, remaining connected with the parent stock, axillary 
bods, a part or all of them, according to circumstances, are de- 
veloped into branches^ each of which may again generate bads 
and branchlets in the axils of its own leaves, in the same 

«. Tbiis, hj the lepedtion of this sonple process, the TegetaUe fabric is reared 
fiom die eairth, a compoimd bemg, formed of as manj united indiyidiials as there 
«e bods, and as manj bads as there are branches and leaves, ever advancing in 
the directioii of the growing points, by the deposition of matter derived ftom the 
ceDnlar tiasiie, clothing itsctf with leaves as it advances, and enlaiging the diam 
eler of its aads by the deposition of matter elahotated 1^, and descendhig from^ 
the lea;ve8 aheady developed, until it reaches the limits of the existence assigned 
it by its Creator. 

h. But the plant, reared by this process alone, would consist only of those parts 
nqniatte to its own individual existence, without reference to the continoance of 
its spedes beyond its own dissolution. It would be simply aa axis, expanded 
iato biaadies and leaves. But the Divine command^ which first cansed the tribes 
ef vegetatum, in tlieir diversified beauty, to spring from the eanh, required that 
eadk plant should have its 'seed within itself' for the perpetuation of its kind. 

24. At certain periods of its vegetation, therefore, a change is 
observed to occur in the plant, in regard to the development of 
some of its buds. From the diminished or altered supply of 
sap, received fiom the vessels below, the growing point ceases 
to lengthen in the direction of the axis, but expands its leaves 
in crowded and concentric whorls ; each successive whorl, pro- 
ceeding from the outer to the inner, undergoing a gradual trans 
foraiation from the original type (a leaf), according to the 
pmpose it is destined to fulfil in the production of the seed. 
Thus, instead of a leafy branch, the ordinary progeny of a bud, 
^fiawer is the result 

'25. A flower may, therefore, be considered as a transformed 
branch, having the leaves crowded together by the non-devel- 
opment of the axis, and moulded into more delicate stractures, 
and tinged with more brilliant hues, not only to adorn and 
beautify the face of nature, but to fulfil the important office of 

s. In die common peony, for example, as the leaves spproadi the summit of 
fte stem, die j giadnaSy lose their charaeteristic divisUms, and, at lengdi, Just 


below the flower, become simple bradi, stfll retaining trrery essential marlc of m 
leaf. Next, by an easy gradation, they appear in the aqtaU of tibe calyx, fte oofeer 
envelope of the flower, still essentially the same. Then, by a tranaitioa rather 
moie afarapt) they pass into the delicate and highly colored petcda of the oozolla, 
retaining still the form and organization of the Uaf, To the petals next succeed 
those slender organs called s^oiiMfu, known to be nndeveloped leaves fnmi thB 
&ct of thehr bdng often conTerted into petals. Lastly, thoae two oential ox^guia, 
termed insliZs, are each the result of tlie infolding of a leaf; the midrib and the 
nuted edges beioig yet discemiblo. 

26. When the flower has ueoomplished its brief but inip(M*« 
taut office in reproduction, its deciduous parts fall away, and 
tke remainixig energies of the plant are directed to the devel- 
opment of the gena into the perfect fruit This being accoia- 
plished, the whole plant speedily perishes, if it be an annnal, 
or, if not, it continues to put forth new branches, from other 
growing points, which, in their turn, are to be terminated by 
flowen and fimit the foUowiiig yeax. 

a. Snch is a very brief outline of the phm of veg eta tion, or the prooessef liatme 
in the germination, growth, frnctificBtion, and decay of plants. And it is impoa- 
sible to contemplate it, i^thont admiring that simplicity of design in the midst «f 
the most dWenified fesalts which eveiy where characterizes the works of God. 
Syery part of the Tc;geCable ftbric may be ultimately traced to one elementary 
eiganic form, of which the leaf is the type. The lamina, or blade, in ▼azioos 
stages of transition, constitutes the several organs of fructification, while Ibe 
united bases of aH Ibe lesfes eonstitote the axis itsel£ 

27. When we more minutely examine the internal organization of plants, we 
find their different parts, howerer Tarions in appearance, all consttnicted of the 
same materiab. liie leaf, for example, cmsistB «f a /•ot-aUUk porolonged into a 
fimnamrk af esias, a Jlmk^ mib$tmux filing up the interstioes, and a cutide^ or 
skin, eorering ihe whole. Now this fiaunewoik is camposed oiwoodjf ftbne^ agtu- 
dueU^ and otrmtteft, aU of which may be traced through the foot-stalk into the 
stem, where they equally exist, — this part of the leaf being only a prolongation 
of the stem. The ficshy substance is of the same natra« with the pith of the 
stem, or the pulp of the fiuit ; and, ^nafly, tiie outide oonesponds exactly to the 
tfain covering of the new^ finrned braadies, of the tarioiis parts of the fiowei« 
and even of the lools. 

& These sereral kinds of straetnie, of which the various 
organs ape composed, are called the elementary tissues. They 
are five in number ; — cellular tissue, woody tissue, vaeiform tissue^ 
wucular tissue, and Uuictferoue tissue. 

^. The chendceU basis of the vegetable tissues is proved by 


«mtysi8 to be axygea, faydeogen, and cnrbon, wilb tm ooeasional 
addition of nitrogen, the same simple elements as, by their 
TBiied combinations, constitute tiie air, water» and most ftnimfLl 
substances. The orgamc basis is simple membrane sndjibre 
Of one, or both, of these two fonns, all the tissues are oon- 

& tf tlie fleriiy portkm of tfw leaf abov^ mentknied, or fhe pulp of tiio fruit bo 
doadj ezAmined, they tnll be foand oompoted of numemis ruadeg of extreme 
m mitciiew, adhering togedier. Theie nmkM, or liiadden, oonaist of a delicate 
■•eii6iime endoang a finid, audi aa ia seen on a horige aeale in Ike palp of an 
ormge^ Now this membrane, comporing the walla of the odla or yesides, is one 
flf theAmoifaryfiDinnaofYegetabletiHao. Again, ifllie stalk ofa strawberry or 
goaniDm leaf be eat rnwrnd bat wal tknughy and the two pans be thos pidled 
anoder for a short space, a number of gUslening JWn$ will be seen running from 
one portion to the other. Thider a micioeoope t^ese appear to be spiral coils, par- 
tisDy straitened by being thos drawn ont from the membranous tabes in which 
tbey were lying coiled np. Thus are we able to distinguish the dementary nun^ 
Arawaad jflrs^of wfaidktfaoTaiiooafonBsafYegelaMeliaaBeam 

29. Cbllxtlar tissue is so called, from its being composed 
of separate ce]ls, or vesicles, adhering together. This kind of 
tissue is the most common, no plant being without it, and many 
being entirely composed of it The form of the little cells 
^^ch compose it, appears to be, at first globular or egg-shaped, 
but afterwards, being flattened at their sides, by their mutual 
pressure, they become cubical, as in the pith, or twelve-sided, 
the cross-section being six-sided; each ceU assuming a form 
more or less regular, according to the degree of pressure exerted 
upon it by those adjacent It is also called parenchtma. 

a The cuttings of &e p&h of elder, or those of any land of wood, wiD, nnder 
a microscope, exhibit in^^ar cells and partitions, resembling those of a honey- 
comh {Fig. 1, a.) 

h. The Tesides of cellalar tissoe have no yisible commnnicationi with each 
oto, bat transmit their floids by inyisible pores. 

c CeDolar tissue is transparent and colorless in itself, but exhibits the brilliant 
Ines of die eoroUa, or the rich green of the leaf, from tiio coloring matter con- 
tuned wiibin the cells. 

d- The vesicles of this tissoe are extremely yariable in size. They aane nsoally 
'^t ishr of an inch in diameter, but are found of all sizes, from mr to 30 oo ' 
tfan inch. 

c Although this tissue is usually soft and spongy, it sometimes acquires con- 
iiteiblehaidnesa by the deposition of ioUd instead of fluid matter in the cellf. 


lUi oeon in tha pridlea of th« IMC, the (tones i^ the plom, pMdi, Xfi, nd ta 
the albmneD of seeds. 

f. la tome plants, ta in th« Tnrkej riiabub, ks^ Utile bandlei of crjslala 
c&U«<] rofiAiiJu (from the Gr. pa^ti, sewing needlea,] are formed in (be cells. 

FIO. L— Panuofdme; a, emtlniafcldn'iillli — ccltnlu'; A, «n* finm ths grfttr eentn 
of Ihapm; c, fttmlhe iloDa of llw plBin — boih Rnn|:11ieiHd by tolid nuiur) d, woady 
Gbia \ I, ipinl veusl wilh ■ lingJc Bbn pantr dnwn out ; /, tshI willi a qaadrapU bbn. 

30. WooDT TISSUE, called also fibhe, consists of slender, 
transparent, membranous tubes, tapering to a point each way, 
and adhering together by their sides, the end of one tube ex- 
tending beyond that of another, so as to form continuous threads. 
It differs from cellular tissue, in the greater strength, and, at the 
same time, the greater tenuity, of its membrane. It seems de* 
signed for the transmission of fluid, as well as for giving firm- 
ness to those parts which need support (Fig. 1, d.) 

a. Tisane lA Ihis fona eoiutitntes Qie fibre of Sax, hemp, Ac, the li^neoni nib- 
•Mnce of the stems and nxiQi, the petioles, and reins of lesTes, Ac 

31. The most remarkable modification of the woody fibre, is 
Hiat called glandular. It consists of little glandular points, ar- 
ranged alcmg the walls of the woody tubes. It occurs only in 
resinous wood, chiefly of the fir tribe (Coni/era). It has fre- 
quendy been detected by the microscope, Jn fragments of fossil 
coal, whence it is inferred that coal-beds origmated from buried 
forests of the Conifene. Wbham on fossil vegetabUi, <^c. 

32. Vasifobx tissue consists of large tubes, called dotud 
duett, having numerous little pits, sunk in the thickness of its 

Ktimg When viewed by transmitted %ht, it appears as if 
nddled fiill of holes. 

A fiia of twokinda; Ist, Dticiiladrf, b*Tmg iu tabe* itUempted by joints uul 
fBIilioiu, a» in the oa^ vine, and in ihe monoco^ledooona eiems ; 3d, ddhCmmpiu, 
nAou join^ or putiIioD>i often foond in tbe rooU of pUna. 

k Theieare tlie laigei^vesseli in iheregetable fabric; and their open months 
KcpBtioilAii; dkcemible in the cnttinga of the oak, cane, Ac It b throngji 
Aae llMt the tap aiiseB to the item, and is coniejed to the learea. 

33. VtsccLAs. TISSUE cooBistsessentially of ^raJfe»e&, with 
theii modifications. 

a. The true spiral vessel mnch resembles the woody fibre in 
form, being a long, slender tabe, tapering each way, but is. thin- 
ner and weaker. Its peculiar mark is an elastic, spiral fibre, 
Coiled up within it, firom end to end. 

t. The f[uinl thieftd it nsnall; single, lometlmei donble, triple, tc In the 
QiiBese {Htcher plant, it is qtiadniple. (Fig. 1,/.) 

t. In lize, apinl vessels are variable. Generally their diameter ii about tvujj 
at •> inch ; odea not more than goSg - 

d. The rilnilion of spiral vessels is in the medullaiy sheath, that ia, just sronnd 
fte pith; also in every part which originates fram It, snch as the veins of leaves, 
petali, aad other modifications of kaves, and eapecially in the petioles, from 
irtikh it nay be nncoilcd, in the manner above dcsofbed. (IS, ■>■) 

L In their perfect stote Uiej coDlain air, nhich they tranimit, in some way, 
from one to another. 

/ Ducb are membranons tubes, with conical or rounded ex- 
tremities, their sides being marked with transverse bais, rings, 
or coils, incapable of being unrolled without breaking. 


; b, uplrHl and uidnli 
on, rf, d, gntn Mill 
r ot cpidcnnli and itoi 


g, JsL this iDiodification of q)iral vesselB the tube is much lengthened, and tbe 
coil within it is ei&er closed, that is, will not unroll, as in the ferns j or it is amut^ 
lar, that is, broken into distinct rings, as in the garden balsam ; or it is reticukUtt^ 
that is, branching, the branches crossing so as to form a net-work. The office of 
all these ducts is the same, — that of conveying fluid. It is only in the spixal 
vessel that we find air. (Fig. 2, a, b.) 

34. Laticifbrous tissub is so called, trom laiex, the true 
nutritious sap, which it is destined to elaborate and convey. It 
consists of branched anastomosing {a^a^ to and fro, oro^a, a pas- 
sage) tubes, lying chiefly in. the bark, and the under side of 
leaves. (Fig. 2, c.) 

a. These tubes aie very uregular in foim, direction, and position. They 
expand and contract at intervals, cross and recross the other tissues, and, proceed- 
ing from the inner parts, ramify upon the outer guifaoe, and upon the hairs, 
forming meshes of inconceiyable fineness. Their average diameter is about 
lAo of an inch. They are largest in plants which have a milky latex, or jnice. 

35. The EPIDERMIS, or skin, is a form of cellular tissue exter- 
nally enveloping the plant It is found upon every part exposed 
to the air, except the stigma of the flower, and the spongioles 
oi the roots. These it does not cover, nor is it found upon those 
parts which habitually live under water. And, where the bark 
of the stem is rugged with serins and furrows, this organ is not 

36. It consists of a tissue of flattened cells of various figures, 
filled with air. Usually there is but one layer of cells, but 
sometimes there are two or three, especially in tropical plants. 
The Oleander has foiur. Its office, in the economy of the plant, 
is, to check the evaporation of its moistiire. 

a. The delicate memhrane, which may he easily stripped off from the leaf of 
the house-leek or the garden iris, is the epidermis. It is transparent, colorless, 
and, under the microscope, reveals its cellnlar structure. 

37. The epidermis does not entirely exclude the tissues be- 
neath it from the external air, but is perforated by certain aper- 
tures, called STOMATA (mouths), which open or close under the 
influence of the hght (Fig. 2.) 

38. Stomata are usually of an oval form, bounded by a pair 
of kidney-shaped ceUs, containing a green matter. Sometimes 
they are round, and bounded by several cells. Many other 
vaiieties of form have been noticed. 



39. Stomata are always placed over, and commtiBicate with, 
the mtercelhdar passages, that is, the spaqps between the cells of 
the tissue. They are never found on the midrib, or veins, of 
the leaf, or over any ligneous part of the stracture. They are 
most abundant over the sofl, green tissue of the leaves, young 
shoots, and the part» of the flower. 

0. These organs are of a size so minnte, that more than 100,000 of them have 
been ooonted within the space of a square inch. The lai^gest known are about 
^ of an inch in length. Then: fimction is intimately connected with mputi- 


no. 8.— Bain and glands ; a, e, simple hairs ; ft, branched hair of the nmlleln ; if, gland 
■a n aooB t ed by a hair ; e, gland at the top of a hair ; /, prickles of the rose. 

40. The surface of the epidermis is either smooth, or furnished 
with numerous processes, originating from itself, or from the 
cellular jsubstance beneath it These are of several classes, 
namely, glands, hairs, pricJdes, stings, &c. 

41. Hairs are minute expansions of the epidermis, consisting 
each of a single lengthened cell, or of a row of cells, placed end 
to end, containing air. They are simple or branched. (Fig. 3.) 

0. Bairs are occasionally found npon the leaves, stem, and indeed npon anj 
odwr part In the cotton plant (Giossypinm) they enyclope the seed. They give 
Tarions names to the snrface, to which thej are appended, according to their 
natnie and appearance ; thus it is said to he downy ^ or jmbeicent^ when clothed 
^^ soft, short habs; — hirtute, with longer hairs; — rough, with short, stiff 
lisiTS;— tomaitofe, when they are entangled and matted*, arachnoid, when like 
cobwebs; — uriceous, when silky; — vetoety, when they are short, soft, and 
•fense; — dZto/e, when long and fringed, like the eyelash. 

42. Stings are tubular and acute hairs, fixed u|X)n minute 
I glands in the cuticle, which secrete an acrid fluid. By the 


slightest pressure this fluid is injected through the tube into the 
wound made by its pq^t Ex. nettle. 

43. Prickles (Fig. 3) are also expansions of the epidermis, 
consisting of hardened cellular tissue (29, e). They are appen- 
<ded to the cuticle alcme, and are stripped off with it Unlike 
the thorn (171), they have no connection with the wood, nor do 
they disappear by cultivation. Ex. rose, bramble. (Rubus.) 

44. Glands (Fig. 3) are minute bodies of cellular tissue, situ- 
ated on various parts of the plant, generally serving to elaborate 
and discharge its pecuhar secretions, which are oily, resinous, 
saccharine, acrid, &c. 

a. They axe either sessile, as in the cassia; or mounted upon a stipe, as in the 
passion flower; or imbedded in the leaf, causing it to appear punctate, as in the 
leaf of the lemon. Often the gland appears to be merely the expansion of a hair, 
either at its base or its summit Such are called glandular hairs, 

45. Analogous to glands, are those cavities formed in the cel- 
lular tissue, to serve as receptacles of secretion. Examples are 
seen in the rind of the orange and lemon, containing minute 
drops of a fragmnt volatile oil. The turpentine of the flr balsam 
is stored up in large reservoirs of this kind. 



46. The vegetable kingdom has long been considered by 
botanists under two great natural divisions, namely, Pblenooa- 
MiA, or Flowering Plants, and Cryptoqamia, or Flowerless 

47. Besides the obvious distinction made by the presence or 
the absence of the flower, these divisions are further distin- 
guished by their stnicture. The Phaenogamia abound with the 
ligneous and vascular tisstie, while thb Cryptogamia consist 
more generally of the cellular. Hence, the former are also called 
Vasculares, and the latter Cellularss. 

8P2CIES -— OSNVS. 27 

48. Again, the fonner are distingaished for producing seeds 
composed of determinate parts, as cotyhdgns (^25) and embryo, 
while the latter produce certain minute bodies, called spores, 
having no such distinction of parts. Thus the PhaBnogamia are 
also called Cotylbdonous and the Cryptogamia Acotyledo- 
ROUS plants. 

49. Lastly, we find in the Phaenogamia, a system of com- 
pound organs, such as root, stem, leaf, and flower, successively 
developed on a determinate plan (H8- 26), while in the Cryp- 
togamia, a gradual departure jQrom this plan commences, and 
they become simple expansions of cellular tissue, without sym- 
metry or proportion. 

0. In the foUoving pages we shall first direct our attention exclnsirelj to the 
Qompoimd oigans of FLOWESiNa Plaints ; and since, in our descriptions of these 
(Rgaos, frequent references will be made to particular species and genera, for 
Obtstnttions and examples, it seems proper to subjoin, in this place, a brief notice 
of these fundamental divisions also. 

^. A Spi:ci£S embraces all such individuals as may have 
originated &om a common stock. Such individuals bear an es- 
sential resemblance to each other, as well as to their common 
parent, in all their parts. 

0. Thus the white clover, ( Trifoliwn repetu) is a species^ embracing thousands 
of ooatemporary individuals, scattered over our hills and plains, all of a common 
descent, and producing other individuals of their own kind from their seed. The 
imramerable multitudes of individual plants which clothe the earth, are, so far 
as known, comprehended in about 80,000 species. 

51. To this law of resemblance in plants of a common 
origin, there are some apparent exceptions. Individuals from 
the same parent oflen bear flowers diflering in color, or fruit 
differing in flavor, or leaves differing in form. Such diflierences 
are called varieties. They are never permanent, but exhibit 
ft constant tendency to revert to their original type. 

0. Varieties occur chiefly in cultivated species, as the apple, potatoe, tulip, 
iSeraiiiam, ftc, occasioned by the di£ferent drcnmstances of soil, dimate, and 
AdtoR, to which tliej a» subjected. But they continue distinct only until left to 
nnltiply spontaneoubiy nom seed, in their own proper soil. 

52 A Genus is an assemblage of species, with more points 
of agreement than of diflference, and more closely resembling 
each other than they resemble any species of otlier groups. 


o. For example, tiie geniu IHfiiimn indndes tbe species T, rgmu^ T. praUmm, 
&c^ agreeing in stractnre and aspect so obYionsly, that the most hasty obserrer 
would notice thdr relationship. Also in the genus Hrim, no one wonld hesitate 
to include the white pine and the pitch pine (P. ttrobm and P. rigida)^ any move 
than he would &il to observe tiieir differences. 

h. Thus, the whole vegetable kingdom is, by the most obvious 
characters, distributed into species, and the species, by truly nat- 
ural affinities, grouped into genera. These divisions constitute 
the basis of all the systems of classification in use> whether by 
natural or artificial methods. 

«* « To the admirer of nature, flowers are among the first subjects of atten- 
tion, as mere objects of taste. They are conspicuous for their superior beauty, 
even in the yegetable kingdom, where all Is beantifuL Yet, as objects of scienoei 
they merit a still higher regard, whether we consider the Creative skill displayed 
in their construction, or their important agency in the reproduction of the plant 
But, to the practical botanist, an intimate knowledge of their oiganic stmctnre is 
one of \aAfirH requisites, on account of the indispensable use of the floral organs 
in classification. 



53. *A FLOWER may consist of the following members : -— 
1. The FLORAL ENVELOPES, Called, collectively, the feriantHi 
{rcfqi, around, av^og, a flower) ; 2. The stamens ; 3. The fistix.8 ; 
and, 4. The receftacle, or torus. 

a. Of these, only the stamens and pistils are regarded in sdenoe as essential 
parts. These, together with the receptacle, are said to constitute a ptrfict fimotry 
even when one or all other parts are wanting; because these two organs alone 
are sufficient for the perfection of the seed. In a popular sense, however, a per- 
fect flower must possess aJll the organs above mentioned. 

h. If the stamens or the pistils, either or both, be wanting, the flower is said to 
be imperfict. An imperfect flower is either itert2e, having stamens only, or ftrtUe, 
having pistils only, or neutralj having neither oigans complete. 

no. 4. — No. 1, LUy (LiUan Iiponiinun) ; 3, pink 

54. The FLOiUL envelopes, or peeiahth, consist of one or 
more drelea or whorls of leaves, surrounding the stamens. The 
oater of these whorls is called the calyx, and the other, if there 
be any, the corolla. The calyx may, therefore, exist without the 
osolla, but the corolla cannot exist without the calyx. If nei- 
ther of them exist, the flower is said to be naked, or achlamyde- 
MM («, privative, and z^P^s, a cloak). 

55. The CALYX (iteiuS, a cup), therefore, ia the external en- 
velope, the rupi of the flower, consisting of a whorl of leaves, 
with their edges distinct or united, usually green, but sometimes 
hi^y colored. The calyx-leaves are called sepals. . 

56. The COROLLA (Lat corolla, diminutiTe of corona, crown) 
ia the interior envelope of the flower, consisting of one oi more 
circles of leaves, either distinct, or united by their edges, usually 
of some other color than green, and of a more delicate structure 
thu the calyx. Its leaves are called petals 

57. The STAMENS are those thiead-hke o^ans, situated jnst 
within the perianth and around the pistils. Their number 
varies from one to a hundred, but the most common number 
is five. Their office is, the fertilization of the seed. They 
are collectively called the andracium {arSfn,* stamens, omo(, a 

IvoBadi, appliod id iha pjitll. 

s ihtory of ih« leiei of plsni 


58. The PISTILS occupy the centre of the flower. They are 
sometimes numerous, but often only one. They are destined to 
bear the seed. Collectively, they are called gynascium {y^^Vt 
pistil, oixog, a house). 

59. The EECEFTACLE is the summit of the flower-stalk, out of 
which the floral organs grow, and upon which they stand in 
concentric whorls, the gyncBcium in the centre, the andrascium 
encircling it, the corolla next without, and the calt/z embracing 
the whole. 

60. The principal parts of the flower are shown in the cats (Figs. 4, 6, 7, &c.), 
or better by apecifnau^ with which, both hat and throughout the work, the wtudemt 
dunUd always be provided. 

The slender, thread-like organs seen at a (Fig. 4, No. 1), are the stamens, sur- 
rounding the pistil 6 ; c is the perianth, consisting of two similar whorls, the outer 
one a calyx of three sepals, the inner a corolla of three petals, snrrounding or 
enveloping the stamens and pistil ; aid is the receptacle. At a (No. 2) is the 
inner envelope, the corolla; at 6 is the outer envelope, the calyx or cup, -wbkh 
seems to contain the rest of the. flower like a cup; at c, below the calyx, are 
certain leafy appendages called dmcfeo&s or bracts. 

a. Let the pupil compare specimens of these and other flowers, whose parts are 
well developed, until he becomes familiar with the appearance of each oigan, and 
can instantly apply its name. 

61. A complete and regular flower, therefore, is made up of 
four sets of organs, arranged in concentric whorls. In regard to 
the number and position of the individual organs composing 
these whorls, it is important to observe, 

a. First, that each set consists, theoreticaUy, of the same nrim* 
ber of organs, that is, if the sepals be 5, there should be 5 petals, 
5 stamens, and 5 pistils ; or, if 3 sepals, there should be 3 petals^ 
3 stamens, and 3 pistils, &c. 

h. Secondly, the position of the organs in each set alternates 
with those of each adjacent set, that is, the sepals alternate with 
the petals, the petals with the stamens, and the stamens with 
the pistils. 

c. Thus, in a word, the normal structure of the truly symmetrical flower, 
divested of all irregularities, consists of four concentric whoris of organs, the 
organs of each whorl being equal in ntimber, and alternate in position with those 
of the other whorls (^g. 5; 1). This structural arrangement, as will hereafter be 
seen, exactly coincides with that of the Uafy branch, agreeably to the beautiful 



tteny of the 'traasfonnaliofii of the leases into the floral ocguis,'* to ivMch eUii- 
sun has already been made (i 25). When the bud is developed into a branch, 
instead of a flower, the leaves are usually arranged in a simple spiral line. This 
^ire may be broken up into equal circles or whorls, from causes to be hereafter 
exphuned. In either case the leaves of one spire, or circle, do not issue from the 
Mem at points exactly over the leaves of &e next cirde below, but over the inUr^ 
foil between them. 

62. This simple normal structure of the flower is, however, subject to many 
apparent exceptions, so that few, comparatively, are found perfectly conformable 
to it Of these few the <»der linaceie affords good examples. In the flax 
(liimm) the flower is built upon the normal plan, consisting of 5 sepals, 5 petals, 
5 stamens, and 5 pistils (each with 5 double carpels), all alternating with each 
oOer, according to the diagram (Hg. 5 ; 1). 

no. 5.— Ptan of floweit ; 1, ora ngatmt and lymnfMtrieal flower, aa the flax (Linnm) ; 8, 
«f the cherry, tliDwioff the four whorta of ftamena ; 3, of the prhnroM, showing the position 
of the rappieMed row of etameM ; 4, of the Samolat, showing the position of the 5 abortive 
■tanens; S, of a labiate flower, as the hemp-nettle (Galeopsis), where one stamen and one 
oipel is wanting ; 6, of a cruciform flower, as mustard, where the stamens are in two 
vhoris, two of those in the ontar whorl and two carpels being suppressed. 

63. If, with this adopted standaxd, we compaxe the numerous 

* This theory was first suggested by Limuens, the founder of Systematic Botany, and sub- 
■apienily by Wolff and Goethe. Afler having been long unheeded by botanists, it has at 
1°^ been revired by modem writers of the highest merit, and shown to be perfectly coin* 
cidcatwithfacu. * The adoption of this theory, accordingly, has given a new aspect to 
botany, and rendered it one of the most philosophical and inductive of the natural scieneea.* 
^ Ony*s BoL Text-Book, Chap VIII, where this theory is clearly stated, and richly illoa- 


forms of floral structure which occur, we shall be able to trace 
out the features of the general plan, even among the widest de- 
viations, and to learn the nature and causes of these deviations. 
Some of them are the following. 

a. One or more cuiditional whorls of the same organ may have been devdoped. For 
example, the flower of the Trilliara, which, as in most liliaceous plants, is trim* 
orons (rgw, three, and /u<goc, part) in its parts, has 6 stamens, evidently in two 
whorls, and in the flower of the cherry (No. 2,) there are 20 stamens, wMch may 
be regarded as arranged in four whorls of flres. Other illastrations will occur 
to the student 

6. Some of the entire whorls may have been suppressed. For example, in the 
primrose there are 5 sepals, 5 petals, and 5 stamens, but ihe stamens are placed 
opposite the petals. This is to be attributed to the absence of an intermediate 
whorl of stamens, for in the Samolus, a plant of the same natural order, there is 
a circle of sterile filaments in the place of the absent stamens (Fig. 5 ; 3, 4). 

c. Some of the parts of a whorl may haoe been suppressed. Such deficiencies axe 
very eommon. In the sage, for example, and Monarda, three of the stamens are 
wanting, in place of which are two rudimentary filaments, and the third rudiment 
makes its appearance in some allied genera. In most of the Labiatis but one 
Btamen is wanting (Fig. 5 ; 5). In the carrot, caraway, and all the UmbellifersB, 
the pistils are reduced from 5, die normal number, to 2. 

d. The parts of the same whorl may have been united. Thus the sepals may be 
united at their edges in different degrees, as in the phlox, pink, &c Or the petals 
may be thus united, as in die morning ^oiy: or the stamens, as in the malloivi 
tribe ; or the pistils, which is extremely common. In short, scarcely a flower can 
be foimd in which some of these cohesions do not occur. 

e. The organs of different whorls may have been conjoined^ causing great disturb- 
ances in the symmetry of the flower. The calyx often, as in the currant, coheres 
with the whole surface of the ovarium (97), only becoming fret at the summit, so 
that it seems to stand upon it It is then said (but improperly) to be superior. 
Again, the stamens adhere to the petals in their lower part, so as to appear to 
grow out of them ; they are then said (improperly) to be i$^serted into the coroBa. 
In the Orchis tribe the stamens are consolidated with the pistil. The term fret 
is used in opposition to these adhesions, just as the term distinct is used in oppo- 
sition to the cohesion of the same organs with each other. 

/. The organs of tht samt whorl may have been unequally developed. This is the 
case in the corollas of the pea and bean tribes, called papilionaceous (Lat ptqriUo^ 
a butterfly), and in those of the mint tribe called labiate (Lat labium^ a lip). 

g. Again, organs of one kind may have been reconverted into those of another kind, 
or into leaves. Such monstrosities are of frequent occurrence among cultivated 
plants, and may be regarded as proofs of the present doctrine of the floral struc- 
ture. In all double flowers, as the rose, peony, tulip, &c., the stamens have been 
reconverted into petals. By still further changes, all parts of the flower tend 
towards a leafy character, rendering the resemblieuice of the flower to au underel- 


b raj obrioiis. Nsjr, in tome cuca, the yrbiik flowa>bnd, after havfng 
giTen a slight indic&liDii of a floral character, is iraDBformed into a le^j btandi, 
ibowing that all parts of the flowar are formed out of the lame elements u iho 

k. Sometimes the flower-stalk is not effcetoalty checked in lla grovth by the 
derelopmenc of (be flower, bat is prolonged lirough il, and produces secondary 
Aovera in the midst of the oigans of the flist. This ia not imfreqnent in the roaa. 
3eiaal instance* of Ae«e maUonnatloits an exhiMted below. (Fig. 6.) 

k. This mode of stadfhig (be floral stmctDre is deeply intensting and instnic 
tire, bat oar limits will not permit ns to dwell npon it, nor is it necessaiy. Tha 
■Mdligent sR^ent wiU be able (o extend die above illastnjjons by an examine 
tacm <tf ahnoat any flower, with reference to its deviationi &om the normal plan. 

Fia, a.— 1,FioinIiIikll«]ri— adownofwhitscliiigr, nreningU > Icsfy bmnch ; 9, hnn 
diawithmialiriiigipedmani^aiiiUpT^alcaf uiBingCAmibp podnnde, lakv iha pa«i- 
Aofl, ftmi, and cotor (in pan) of B Mpd ; 3, hen dcawnfRHn aU*lDg (peciiiian,— a ms (K. 
dftmuaaa) wilh tbe sxLa proloDgcd ijila iccondary rotv-buds. 

•*■ In onr detailed descripdon of the flower, wc sboU 
' organs wfaidi are deemed ruaitial, their mysteriona agency bdng 
I tbe petJectioQ of the seed. 





64. The stamens and pistils are situated within the floral 
envelopes, and since one or both are always present, in every 
species, at least, of the PhaBnogamous plants, they were seized 
upon by linnsBus* as the basis of his beautiful arrangement, 
called the Artificial System. 

2 3 4 5 



FIG. 7. — Forms of stamens, anthers, pollen, &«. 1. Stamens and pistil of a flower (Rho- 
dodendron Lapponicnm), in their natural position ; a, stigma, 6, anthers, e, style, <f, filamenta, 
«, orary, /, calyx and receptacle ; 2, stamen of ginger ; 3, sage ; 4, Berberis ; 5, Vacciniam 
amoenum, with the terminal pores ; 6, encumber, with the sinuous lobes of the anther ; 
7, Polygonum ; 8, Lemna, anther bursting vertically ; 9, lily ; 10 Magnolia ; 17, a four-celled 
anther; 18, anther of Alchemilla, bursting transversely. Nos. 11, 18, 13, 14, 15, 16, various 
(magnified) forms of pollen-grains. 

* Cdtl Von Linn6, or Linnseus, the most eminent of naturalists, was the son of a clergy- 
man, bom in 1707, at Rhceshult, in the province of Smaland, Sweden. In his sMth ycnr, 
while a member of the University of Upsal, he conceived the idea of that system of plants 
which bears his name. In 1741 he became professor of medicine in the same University, 
and in 1761, on account of his great literary attainments, was elevated to the ronk of nobility. 
He died in 1778. To him the natural sciences are under incalculable obligations, all of 
which he classified and arranged anew. But the science of botany, especially, is indebted 
to him for those discoveries and classifications, which have, more than any others, contri- 
buted to its general diffusion. In his * immortal work,* Species I^nUtrumj he enriched the 
language of botany by a new nomenclature of species, and many new terms in the tecb- 
nology of plants, for their more accurate description. 


65. The 8TAKBRS are those thread-like organs, seen in ihe 
midst of the flower, sitoated around the pistils and within the 
corolla, or the calyx, constituting the androecium. 

66. The stamen (Fig. 4, No. 3) consists of three distinct 
parts; namely, the Jilament, a; the anther, b; and the pollen^ c. 
The filament is sometimes wanting, the two latter are essen- 

67. The FILAMENT (Lat jUum, a thread) is the stem, sup- 
portizig the anther at or near its top, and is analogous to the 
stem of a leaf, or to the claw of a petal When it is wanting, 
the anther, like a leaf or a petal in a similar case, is said to be 

68. The ANTHsn is generally situated at the summit of the 
filament, and is composed of two parallel lobes or cells, con* 
nected to each other and to the filament by the connectUe, It is 
analogous to the blade of the leaf, each half blade being trans- 
fomied into a lobe, and the midrib into the connectile. 

0. Each oeU of the aniher usually opeiu by a longitadinal fissure, called the 
dektKoitt, bat sometiines, as in the potato, Pyrola, &c. by an apertnre (pore) at 
Ae sammit In the Polygala, mallow, &c. the two edit are reduced to one, 

h. The eotmecHU is usually a mere prolongation of the filament tenninadng, 
not at the base, bat at the snmmit of the anthers. I^ some cases it is prolonged 
ibore them, into a sort of appendage, as in the Tiolet, silk-weed, &c. 

c The anther is sometimes wanting, and the filament in sach cases cannot 
eooBtitDte a stamen, bat is said to be a^ortnw, or tterUe. 

€8. In regard to the modes of attachment between the antber and the filament, 
ve find the following raiiations ; the anthers are said to he, 

1. hmaie, when they are attached to the filament by the base of the connectile. 
1 Jdnaie, when they are attached to the filament by their back, so as to i^pear 

hteral; as in the Anemone, water-lily. 

S. FenatiU, when fixed by a single point to the connectile, from which they 
Hghtly swing ; as in the grasses. 

4. When the anthers are attached to the inntU of the filament, or connectile, so 
that the Une of dehiscence faces the pistils, they are called introne (tamed 
inward). Bat when they are attached to the oatside of the connectile, so that the 
Wsoence iaces the petals, they are caUed extroru (tamed oatward). Examples 
of the former are seen in the yiolet ; of the latter in the larkspur. These distinc- 
tioDs are Of importance, as wiU hereafter be seen. 


70. The POLLEN is, in appearance, a small, yellow dust, con* 
tained ia the cells of the anther. When viewed with a micro- 
scope, it appears to consist of grains (granules) of various forms, 




usually spherical, but in some plants cablcal, itt cfAern tnaagti- 
lar, in others still, polygonal, &c., ahvays being of the same fonn 
in the same species. (Fig. 7.) 

a. Each grain of pollen lias been ascertained to oonsiBt of a membranons saa 
containing a fluid. In this fluid are suspended molecules of inccmceivshte 
minnteness, possessed of a tremulous motkm. When the membraa* is ezposea 
to moisture, it swells and bursts, dischaiging its contents.' (1%> ^^) 

71. Fhysiohgical structure. The filament consists of a bundle 
of delicate ligneous tissue, with spiral vessels, surrounded by 
cellular tissue, the same tissues which compose the stem of the 
leaf (260). The same tissues have also been traced into th^ 
connectile. The anther consists almost wholly of cellular tissue, 
corresponding to the fleshy substance (parenchyma) of the Icai. 
The pollen consists of disintegrated bladders of the same tissue. 

72. Theoretieal atruetwt. Thus it is CTident, as we haT6 already seen, that 
howeyer much the stamen may difl^er in aspect from a leaf, they both have lh6 
same original plan. This is fbrther evident, from the gradual transition of ttar 
mens into petals, as seen in the water-lily or the double rose. In the former, tbe 
process is so gradual that the outer whorls exactly resemble petals, except in having 
the tops developed into yellow anthers, while in the rose we find otgans in eveiy 
coaoeivable state of transition from stamens to petals. That the petals are modi- 
fied lesves, will hereafter be more definitely shown (106). 

FIO. 8.— Stamens of the water-lOy gradually passing into petals. 

73. The stamens vary in the different kinds of plants, in re- 
spect to their number, position, relative length, connection^ ^^^ 
presence. Upon these five difierent conditions of the stamens, 
the TWENTT-FOUR ARTIFICIAL CLASSES of Linnasus are founded. 

74. 1st Number, The first eleven classes are founded upon 
the nurriber of the stamens — the stamens being also^ec (63, 
c), and of equal length. Their names arc derived from the 
Greek numerals combined with av6qeg (57, note), as follows t— 

Class I, MoNANDRiA {fiovog, sohtory,) includes all genera (52) 
of plants with one stamen to each fiower. 


Class II, DiAMDRiA {dtg, twice), with two stamens to each 
in, T&iANDKiA (T^*ff, thrice), with three stamens. 
IV, Tet&akd&ia (m^a, four times), with four stamens. 
V, PsjYZANDJUA (nsPTSj fivo), with fivo stameus. 
VI, Hkxakdiujl {iSf six), with six stamens. 
Vn, Hbftandiua (fiTTia, seven), with seven stamens. 
Vin, OcTAifDKiA (oxTw, eight), with eight stamens. 
IX, EifKBANDKiA (syvsa, nine), with nine stamens. 
X, Decandiua (dexa, ten), with ten stamens. 
XI, DoDSCANnat^ (dtttdsxa, twelve), with twelve stamens. 
2d. Position. The next two classes depend upon the posi- 
tioQ of the stamens, — the stamens being firee and equal 

XUf IcosAKDKiA (eutoaiy twenty), includes those genera 
of plants which have twenty or more stamens to 
the flower, seated on the calyx (perigynous). 
XTTT, PoLTANDRiA (ttoXv?, many), twenty or more stamens, 
seated on the receptacle (hypogynous). 
3d Relative length. The two following classes axe founded 
upon the relative' length of the stamens, together with theix 

XIV, DiDTNAHiA {9tg, twice, dva, two, ^vf^a, a filament), 

includes plants with four stamens, of which two 

are long, and two are short. 

XV, TEtjuiDTNAKiA {rsTQu, four times, ^fvta, yi^fia), with six 

stamens, dT which four are long, and two are short 

4th. Omnectian. The five succeeding classes depend upon 

the oonnection of the stamens, in various ways. 

XVI, MoNADELPHiA {fiopog, adskgiog, a brother), includes 
plants with the filaments united into one set or 
XVII, DiADBLPHiA {dv«), (id9Xq)og), into two sets or fraternities. 
XVm, PoLTAnELFHiA {nolvg, adahfos), into many sets or fra- 
XIX, Stnoenesia, (awy, together, yw^cr*?, origin), stamens 
imited by their anthers, into a tube. 
XX, Gynandbia (yvy^, f 67, note, o»'^?). stamens consoli- 
dated with the style. 



5tih. Absence, : The four remaining classes depend upon the 
absence of the stamens in a part or all of the flowers of the same 

XXI, MoNosciA ((iovog, oifcog, an abode), includes plants 
where the stamens and pistils are in separate flow- 
ers, on the same individual 
XXn, Dic&ciA (^»A oiKog), in separate flowers on diflerent 

XXin, PoLTGAMiA (rtohtgy many, ^a/uo;, marriage), -where the 
stamens and pistils are separate in some flowers, 
and united jn others, eith%r on the same or two or 
three diflerent plants. 
XXIV, Cryptooamia (xQvnros, concealed, yaftog)^ inclujjes 
those genera of plants where the stamens and pis- 
tils are wanting, or at least invisible, commonly 
called Flowerless Plants. (46 — 49.) 

a. Such are the twenty-four linnean dasses, in wliidi all the genera of the YQge- 
table kpigdom are included. Nothing could have been more simple than the first 
eleven. To distinguish them, we haye only to count the stamens. The odier 
dasses are founded upon distinctions less simple, though in general easj to bo 
nnderstood. A good specimen flower of each class should here be doselj exam- 
ined, to illustrate the definitions, and fix them in the memory. 

The following simple figures are emblematic of each class, to yAaiSi Uie pupil 
is required to apply the appropriate numbers and names. 


FIG. 9. — Sument. 




f. * 

no. 10.— 1, FSctn of a whortlebeny (Vaecininin Bmaenam) ; ft, the stigma ; e, atyle ; a, the 
<piC7Dow disk ; c, perpendicalar seetioii of the ovaiy oombined with the adherent (snpexior) 
calyx ; d, the ptefeenta with the orules ; S, the gynodom of a flower with 5 pistils, showing 
^ caipeb and styles distinct ; 7, cross section of the same ; 3, the carpels united and the 
scries distinct ; 0, cross section of the same ; 4, both carpels and styles nnited ; 5, cross section 
of lbs same ; 8, leaf of Biyophyllum, pmtiBg forth bvds ttom its maigin ; 9, carpel of the gar- 
des eheiry, rereiting to the form of the leaf} 10, two such carpels ; U, two perfect carpels. 

76. Thb pistil (or pistils) occupies the centre of the flower, at 
the teniiination of the aads. It consists of three parts, the ovary, 
or germ, a, (Fig. 4.) the style, h, and the stigma, c. The style is 
sometimes wanting, and the stigma then becomes sessile upon 
the ovary. (See also Figs. 10, 11.) 

76. The OVARY (Lat ovarium, a depository, from ovum, an 
^g) is the tumid and hollow part of the pistil, situated at its 
b&se, containing the ovules, or young seeds within its cavities, 
ttid destined to become the fruit 

77. The ovary is either simple or compound. When com- 
pound, it consists of two or more lobes or divisions, called 
CiKPELS (na^nof, firoit), united together more or less closely 



Sometimes these divisions are very evident, being but slightly 
connected, while in other cases, all external marks of them dis- 
appear. When simple, it of course consists of a single carpel 
(Fig. 10.) 

78. The STYLE is that prolonged columnar part of the ovary, 
or rather of each carpel, which bears the stigma at its top. The 
number of the styles, when they are not wanting, always equals 
the number of carpels : but when the carpels are closely united, 
the styles may be united also, into a single compound column, 
or they may even then remain distinct 

79. The STIGMA is the upper portion, or extremity, of the style, 
extremely various in form, but usually globular. Like the ovary 
and style, it is either simple or compoimd. When it is com- 
pound it consists of as many uniteii lobes as there are carpels. 

80. The number of distinct styles (or of stigmas, when the 
styles are wanting) constitutes the basis of the artificial orders, 
into which the first thirteen classes of linnseus are subdivided. 
They are named from the Greek numerals prefixed to the te^ 
mination gynia, {ywri^ 57, Note,) as follows. 

Order 1. Monogynia, includes all the genera of plants in 
either of the first thirteen classes, with one style 
to the flower. * 

2. Digynia, with two styles to the flower. 

3. Trigynia, with three styles. 

4. Tetragynia, with four styles. 

5. Pentagynia, with five styles. 

6. Hexagynia, with six styles. 

7. Heptagynia, with seven styles. 

8. Octogynia, with eight styles. 

9. Enneagynia, with nine styles. 

10. Decagynia, with ten styles. 

11. Dodecagynia, with eleven or twelve styles. 

12. Polygynia, with more than twelve styles.* 

* The orders of the remaining classes aze founded upon cfaaiucters not depend' 
ing npon the pistil, and are as follows: — 
The orders of class 14, Didynamia, are only two ; 

1. Gymnospermia, with seeds apparently naked. 

2. Angiospermia, with seeds eyidently in a seed-vessel, or pericarp. 


81. The oviTi.Es are certain little globular bodies, produced in 
die cells of the ovary, destined to become the seeds in the 
matured fiuit (Fig. 10; 1.) 

82. The PLACENTA is that part of the ovary from which the 
ovules arise, and to which Ihey are attached. It consists of a 
Hne, or fleshy ridge, placed in some angle of the cell. Its direc* 
tion is always vertical, that is, parallel with the axis of growth. 
(Fig. 10;1,£;.) 

83. Fhydologiad structure. The ovary and style are com- 
posed chiefly of one or more bundles of vascular tissue, imbed- 
ded in cellular tissue. The stigma consists of a loose cellular 
substance, called the conducting tissue, communicating with the 
placenta through the centre of the style. It is the only part of 
the ascending axis which is destitute of the epidermis (35). 

S4. Thtordieal ttructurt. The pistQ, as before stated (25, a), is the modifica- 
tion, of a leaf^ or of a whorl of leaves, each leaf oonstitatuig a caipeL Eacb 
carpel has its own style and stigma, and is formed of a leaf folded together in 
ndi a way that the npper surface becomes the inner, and is tamed towards tho 

» — 

The 15th dasa^ Tetradynamia, is diyided into two orders, which are distingnished 
by the fonn of the pod: — 

1. Sflicnlosa, the frait a silicle, or short pod* 

2. Siliqnosa, fruit a ^iliqne, or more or less elongated pod. 

The orders of the 16th, 17th, 18th, 20th, 21st, and 22d classes are of the same 
name and character as the first 13 classes themselves, that is, they are founded 
i9on the number of the stamens to the fiower, thus : — 

Order 1, Monaadria, inclndes all Monadelphons plants, Diadelphons plants, &c. 

with one stamen to each flower. 
2, Diandria, with two stamens to each flower, and so on. 
The orders of the 19th class, Syngenesia, are five : — 
Order 1. Eqnalis (eqnal), with the florets (flowers) of the head all perfect. 

2. Snperflna (superfluous), florets of the rays, or margin of the head pistil- 

late, the rest perfect. 

3. Fmstranea (frustrated), florets of the margin neutral, the rest perfect. 

4. Necessaria (necessary), florets of the margin pistillate and fertQe, the rest 

staminate and sterile. 
& Segregata (separated), each floret having its own proper calyx. 
The orders of class 23d, Folygamia, are two, founded upon the same characters 
•s the two preceding classes : — 

1. Monoecia, where both separated and perfect flowers are found in the same 


2. I)i(Bcia, where the diflbrent flowers occupy difierent individuals. 

The orders of class 24th, Cryptogamia, are nine, Uie same as the natural orders 
of Oda grand division, as FSieesj the ferns, Mtsei, the mosses, &o 

42 THS 7L0WXB. 

aads, lAiSLe the lower surfaoe becomes the outer. By this anangement the tivo 
edges of the carpel often appear like auttires (Lat suturtif a seam), of which the 
-OQter, formed by the midvein, is called the doracd, and the inner, formed by the 
wiited mai^ins, the ventral, 

a. This view of the pistil is remarkably confirmed and illnstrated by the flowen 
of the double cherry, where the pistil may be seen In every degree of transition, 
rererdng towards the form of the leaf. This carpdUary leotfCEi^. 10 ; 9) stands in 
the place of the pistil, having the edges infolded towards each other, the midvein 
greatly prolonged, and a little dilated at the apex. 

h. If this be compared with the pistil of the cherry, seen in the figure, no doubt 
can be entertained that the two sides of the leaf correspond to the walls of the 
ovary, the margins to the ventral sntnre, the midvein to the dorsal sntnre, and 
the lengthened summit of the leaf to the style and stigma. Sometimes the 
flower contains two such leaves, which always present their concave faces towards 
each other, as seen in the figure. This corresponds with the position of the troe 
carpels, in which the ventral sutures of each are contiguous. 

c. Many other plants, as the rose. Anemone, Ranunculus, &c. exhibit simifaur 
transformations of the pistil, so that there can be no doubt that the carpel is 
formed npon the same plan in all plants. The ovary^ there/ore, is the blade of a 
kkf; the style, the lengthened apex; and the stigma^ a tiiickened and denuded portifm 
^ the tipper margin of the leaf, 

85. From this doctrine of the structure of the single carpel, 
the student will be able and expected to demonstrate many 
propositions like the following. 

a. First. A compound ovary consists of a whorl of carpellary 
leaves, their united edges all meeting in the centre, and the 
cohering sides forming a kind of radiation from it (Fig. 9). 

b. Second. There must be as many cells as there are carpels. 

c. Third. The partitions between the ceUs, that is, the dis- 
sepiments {dissepio, to separate,) must each be double; they 
must be vertical ; they must be equal in number to the carpels, 
and alternate with t^e stigma, which is also double. 

d. Again, the single carpel can have no true dissepiment If 
any ever occur, it is regarded as an anomaly, and called spurious 
Ex. flax (Fig. 11). 

86. These propositions are true only when each carpellary 
leaf appears in its normal condition, that is, with its two edges 
mutually united. But cases occur where only the margins of 
adjacent leaves are united (Fig. 11 ; 1, 2, 3). In this case there 
will be no dissepiments, and the compound ovary will, of course, 
become one-celled. Ex. Primula, Gentiana. 



87. The placentae are developed at each of the two edges of 
the caipellary leaf. If these edges be in their normal condi- 
tions, that is, united, there will be apparently but one placenta 
to the carpel, and that central But if the edges be separate, 
there will necessarily be two placentas to each carpel, the one 
to the right and the other to the left of the dorsal suture and 
style. They are then said to be parietal {paries, a wall). 

FIG. 11.— 1, Cross fecdon of a one-eellttd, three-cupelled oTuy with parietal placentsB, 
the dissepimeiitB paniaBy obliterated ; 3, dissepiments wholly obliterated ; 3, dissepimenu 
cWiented, showinf a free central plaeenta ; 4, a fire-eeDed orary with B fidse dissepiments, 
Bs ia the flax; 5, Tertieal seetion of an orary with parietal placentas ; 6, with free central pla- 
eeots; 7, an ami^tropons omle ; 8, yertical section of the same ; a, fimioolns ; by raphe ; 
c, dukxa; d, andeos ; t, seeondine } /, primine ; f , micropyle ; 9, anatropotu orales at- 
tached to the ovary. ^ 

88. But the placentas are sometimes found in the common 
antre when there are no dissepiments (Fig. 11; 3, 6). This 
anomaly, which is called a free central placenta, is thus ex- 
plained. The dissepiments were at first actually formed in the 
iisnal manner, but afterwards, by the rapid expansion of the 
shell, they were torn away and obliterated. 

8- As die ontlefl are always developed by tiie placentA, they, of ooone, glow 
OQt of the margins of the caipellary leaf, and are, tixerefore, understood to be 
■nalogoos to buds. For, in tiie Bryophyllam, and some other plants, the true 
leaTes do hahitnally develop buds at their margins (Fig. 10 ; 8), and in the mign- 
lonette the ovules themselves have been seen transformed into leaves. 

89. The ovules are almost always enclosed in the ovary. In 
the mignionette they are partially naked, and in the fir tribe, 
Coaiferse, entirely so, the carpellary leaf being open or wanting. 


a. The OTule ia aud ta 1m met wben it groin from the baae of Uw onrjr 

MCBuiing, when it grows from a little sbore the baM ; ptndvlmt, ythca it haiigt 
from the eununit of the caritj, and tiuptndidt wbrai it hangs fiDm a little bcio* 

90. In their early state, the ovules are quite sofl, consisting of 
two sacks 01 integuments, containing a pulpy mass, and open 
only at their apex, where there is a passage left through both, 
called the foramen. The outer integument is called the primine, 
the other the ieam^ne, and the central pulpy mass the nuelem. 
(Fig. n;8.) 

a. 'Bie tanauea mtr be deteotad even tn the periect seed, bj wMking it in 
water, aod then presiiiig ost the fluid thw absorbed, vhidi will be seen lo inu 
front tUs hide orifice. It has an important agency in the fertilization of Ihe «Md, 
which at this earif period has no tracea of the eaihiTo (18). 

91. The stalk by which the ovule is connected to the pla- 
centa, is called the /wiiatku, and its point of attachment to the 
nudeufl of the ovule, the chalaza. Through these the ovule 
receives its nomishment {!k>m the placenta. (Fig. 11 ; 8, 9.) 


92. The specific use of 
the stamens and pistils is 
the fertilization of the 
seed (57. 58). This ap- 
pears to be effected in the 
following manner. At the 
proper season, the anthere 
' discharge the poller con- 
tained in their cavities 
through their dehiscence 
sr put of Iks •t;riB or poises, into tbe air. Some 
b. ptubc down of it thus falls upon the 

pofwsao uH c«u*; 3,3,4,6, vinoiu Ktmu of poUen, ■ 
ikmrlngikatDbea; B, pallenDfihe (SiuUuinitiieDiiIi, Bugli:'^ 
OM sf tn ub«i duMadlag BMoiic tb8 Hlb oftba KTla. 

a. The Antbor of natare makea ipcdal prnTinoo for Ihe accompliahment of 
tiiii ftmctioii. Tfans the anthers are geneiall; pluxd abore the Btigrno, the 
■tamenj being bt^r than the pirtilB when the flower is erect, aa in the tnlip, 
■nd ■tariff', when It dmopa, a« in wnnl iptdei of dte lily. In the moniitaiii 

CAXiTX. 4$ 

Ittfd (KtbB&E)i Hm aiiiiierim eonfixhed in tea cMties In tbe coi^dte; At Hm 
pnper season they are duengaged, and thrown fordbly againat the stigma, hj the 
liaitidty of the filaments. In Monoedons and DuBdoos plants, where the sta* 
mens are placed apart from the pistils in different flowers, the pollen is often con- 
Tejed to the pistil by insects in going from flower to flower in search of honey. 

93. Soon after the pollen fkUs upon the stigma, the outer coat 
of each granule bursts (70, a) at one or more points, allowing 
the inner coat to pass through it in the fonn of a tube. This 
tabe insinuates itself between the eells of^the stigma, and 
passes down between the loose cells of the style, extending 
itself until it reaches the ovary, even when the style is of con- 
siderable length. When these tubes reach the ovary, they 
direct themselves towards the ovules in different parts, and 
enter the foramen, which at this time is turned towards the 
base of the style, and brought in contact with its eonduoting 
tissue (83). 

94. As to the further action of the pollen grains, it is conjec- 
tured that the molecules which they contain (69, a) are conveyed 
by the tubes into each ovule, and that there developing them- 
selves into new cells, and becoming fixed in their places, they 
constitnte the embryo of the future plant. All that is certainly 
known, however, is, that the embryo first appears in the ovule 
shortly after the pollen tube enters it. 



95. The term calyx comes from the Greek, and signifies a 
cup. It is applied to the outer whorl of the floral envelopes, in 
reference to its common form and position. It is generally 
green, but is sometimes colored, that is, it is of some other coloi 
than green. It seems designed for the protection of the more 
delicate organs of the flower in 8Bstivation (in the bud). 

96. The divisions of the calyx are called s^xils, which are 


sometimes distinct, but generally cohere by their edges, to a 
greater or less extent, forming a cup as in the rose, or a tube as 
in the pink. The calyx is then said to be mojiosepahus, a term 
which must never be literally applied, since no true calyx can 
consist of merely a single sepal ; when the sepals are not united 
in any degree, the calyx is said to be pohfsepalous. 

1 2 3 

97. If the calyx is free, that 
is, distinct from the ovary, as 
in the pink, it is said to be in* 
/eriar, while the ovary is supe- 
rior ; but if the calyx be ac£^- 
rent to the sides of the ovary, 
so as to appear to grow out of 
its summit, as in the rose, it is 

fi 5 4 said to be ^u^ertor. (Fig. 13; 

FIG. 13.-3, Ovary, with adherent (soperior), j^ 3 \ 
penistent calyx ; 1, veitical sectton of the same, 

ahowing the epigynoiu (Or. vptm th* pi$ta) ata^ 98. In rCSpCCt tO duratlOD, 
men. ; 8, c^ free (ii^rior), at^ens hypogy- j^ jg coducoUS wheU it falls off 
nona (6r. umdir ths putQ)] 4, atamena on the ^^ ^ 

oalyx, that ia, perigynooa ( Qr. orowul tiUjiuKZ); as soon as the flower is eX- 
5, atamena on the coiolla (perigynoua); ^ ata- panded, Ex. poppy ; dcciduoiU, 
men with the eonnectile eontmned beyond the * . « „ Jt. , ^ 

anther. wheu it falls off as the flower 

decays, Ex. water lily; and persistent, when it remains upon 
the germ after the corolla has fallen ; Ex. rose, apple. 

99. The calyx is sometimes reduced to a mere rim, and some- 
times, when there is no corolla, the calyx is entirely wanting 

a. Again, the calyx is reduced to a whoil of mere hair-like 
processes, called pappus, or down. This kind of calyx is pecu- 
liar to the Composite, as the Asters, sunflower, &c., where the 
flowers are collected in heads so compact that the calyx has no 
room to develop itself in the usual manner. If the pappus con- 
sists of simple hairs, it is said to be pilose ; if the hairs are 
feathery, plumose; if they are stifi) like bristles, setose; if dilated. 
80 as to become chafiy, paleaceous. 


100. CorMi is a Latin diminutive, signifying a chaplet at 


crown. It is fitly applied to that whorl of the tioral envelopes 
situated between the calyx and the stamens, upon the deUcate 
texture and hues of which chiefly depend tlie beauty of the 

101. The divisions of the corolla are called petals. Like the 
sepals of the calyx, they are either distinct, or united by their 
adjacent edges to a greater or less extent, as in the morning 
^ory. When they are distinct, the corolla is said to be polypet- 
alous; otherwise, monopetalous, a term which is as greatly mis- 
applied in this case as monosepdlaus is to the calyx, since no truQ 
corolla can consist simply of a single petal. 

102. A petal consists of two parts ; the cIom, which is the 
narrow part at the base, answering to the stalk of a leaf, and 
the lamina^ which is the expanded portion supported by the 
daw, and answers to the blade of the leaf. The daw is some- 
times very long, as in the pink, and often is wanting, as in the 

103. When the petals are confluent into a monopetalous 
corolla, the imited claws form that part of it which is called the 
tubBf and the lamina constitute the upper, expanded portion of 
it, which is called the Imih or border. Both of these parts are 
exhibited in the Phlox. 

104. Monopetalous corollas are regular when all the parts 
correspond to each other in shape, size, and cohesion; and 
irregtdar when they do not Both these kinds assume various 
forms (Fig. 14), which have received appropriate names, as 
follows : 

1. CampanuUue (bell-shaped), having the tube wide, and 
swelling abraptiy at the base, as iii the bell-flower (Cam- 

2. JhfuTtdHnilifGrm (funnel-form), tubular at the base, but 
gradually enlarging towards the border. Ex. morning glory, 

3. M^crateriform (salver- form), the tube ending abruptly in 
a border spreading horizontally. Ex. Phlox. 

4. Rotate (wheel-form), limb regular, or nearly so, spreading, 
with a very short or imperceptible tube. Ex. muUein. 

5. Labiate (lipped). This corolla has its limb deeply cleft 


igW two irregular Segments, called the upper and loiwer lip- " 
"the lips be widely separate, they are said to be ringent (ringo, 
to grin). Ex. monkey-flower. If the upper and lower sides are 
pressed together, personate (persona, a mask) ; Ex. snap diagou. 
If the upper lip is arched, it is termed the helmet or gaiea. Ex. 
Laminm. This form of the corolla almost universaUy char- 
acterizes the plants of the large and important natural order 

105. Several forms of polypetalous corollas have also '^ 
ceived appropriate names, and are described as follows. The 
last only is irregular. 

1. Cruciform (crux, a cross), consisting of foiu- petals spread- 
ing at right angles to each other. Plants with this corolla con- 
stitute the lai^e natural order Craciferte, which corresponds W 
the 15th class in the artificial arrangement. Of this kind is the 
mustard (Sinapis). 

2. Rosaceous, like the rose. A regular corolla, consisting ol 
five or more petals, spreading horizontally, attached to the 
receptacle by very short cla'ws. Ex. rose, apple. 

3. izYiaccouj, like the iily. The Perianth consists of six f^^- 
each gradually bending outwaids in such a manner os to resem- 
ble the campanulate. Ex. lily, tuUp (Fig. 4). 

KECTA&T. 49 

4. CaryophyUaceouSj like the pink. This ooroUa consists of 
five petals, having long claws immersed in a tubiilar calyx. Ex. 
pink, cockle (Fig. 4). 

5. Papilionaceous, butterfly-shaped. This corolla consists of 
five dissimilar petals, which have received names as follows ; — 
the upper and largest is called the banner (vexUhim) ; the two 
hteial ones beneath this, the vnngs (ala) ; and the two lower 
ones cohering by their lower margins, the keel (carina). Exam* 
pies, pea, bean, locust Plants with this kind of corolla consti- 
tute the greater part of the Legnminosas, one of the most 
extensive and useful of the natural families. 

106. Phtsiologioal STancTusE. The floral envelopes are 
foond, in their physical organization, to agree with leaves, of 
which they are only modifications. They consist of thin expan- 
sions of cellular tissue, traversed by veins of delicate spiral 
vessels, all covered with an epidermis often having stomata. 
Their various oolors are produced by secretions contained in the 
little bladders of the cellular tissue. 


107. These are terms which have been applied to oertaiu 
anomiaons forms of the floral o]^;ans» and are very variable in 
stractoie and position. 

a. The kegtaht {nectwr, honey) is properly an apparatas for the secretion of 
honej. In the violet, hufapnr, colnmhine, &&, it consists of a prolongation of 
the petid into a tpwr. In the nastnrtinm it is a similar prolongation of the scpaL 
In the passion flower, grass pamassns, gold-thread, &c., the nectaries are merely 
abortiTe stamens passing into petals. In the lady's slipper and other Orchida- 
ttOQs plants, the lower petal being inflated and Uu^ger than the rest of them, was 
cilled nectary by the TJunAA^n school, bnt by modem writers the labellnm, or 

h. llie DISK is a term applied to certain little projections situated between the 
^ases of tiie stamens and the pistils. Its more common form is that of a raised 
nm, dther entire or yaiionsly lobed, snrnranding the base of the ovary, that is, 
^Vpogynout {lirZ, nnder, yun^ the pistil), as in the peony, or it appears at the top 
^ the orary when the calyx is superior, and is then said to be ^ngynoua {tn, 
vpoD, >v?«), as in the Comus. 

e. The true chancter of the disk is little understood. It is supposed .by 
I^oAey to consist of stamens in a rudimentary state, as it is sometimes sqNinied 
iBlo a drde of glandular bodies, alternating with the true stamens. 




108. ^Estivation (cestivus, of summer) is a term used by 
botanists, to denote the relative arrangement of the several 
organs of the flower while yet undeveloped in the bud. It is 
the same to the flower-bud as vernation {vermis^ of the spring) 
is to the leaf-bud. 

a. The difTerent modes of lestiyatioii may be best obeeired in sections of the 
bud, made by cutting it in a horizontal direction. The most common Tarietiea 
are the following. 

1. Vaivate; applied to each other by the margins only; as the 
petals of the UmbeUifersB, the valves of a capsule, &c. 

2. Convolute ; when one is wholly rolled in another, as in the 
petals of the wall-flower. 

3. Qumctmeial; when the pieces are five in number, of which 
two are exterior, two interior, and the flflh covers the interior 
with one margin, and has its other margin covered by the ex* 
teiior, as in Bosa. 

4. Contorted; each piece being oblique in figure, and over- 
lapping its neighbor by one margin, its other margin being, in ' 
like manner, overlapped by that which stands next it, as 
the corolla of Apocynum. 

5. Altematwe; when, the pieces being in two rows, the Inner 
is covered by the outer in such a way that each of the exterior 
rows overlaps half of two of the interior, as in the miacese. 

FtG. 15.— iBttirfttion of the corolla; 1, Hydrangea; S, Cheiranthiw; 8, Roie (slngi»); 
4, Oxalu; 0, Liliuin; 6, Piinm; 7, Lyiimachla; 8, Solanum; 9, calyx of the Roee. TIm 
last foxm, with 4 aod 6, are abo tenned inUincaU, 


6. YexUUzry; when one piece is much larger than the others, 
and is folded over them, they being arranged face to face, as in 
papilionaceous fowers. 

7. Induplicate; having the margins bent abruptly inwards, 
and the external face of these edges apphed to each other with- 
out any twisting ; as in the flowers of some species of Clematis. 

8. SupervoltUe; when one edge is rolled inwards, and is en- 
veloped by the opposite edge rolled in an opposite direction; aa 
Cbe leaves of the apricot 

Of these forms of aestivation, the 4th, 5th, and 9th, are fre- 
qnently designated by the general term imbficaUt that is, edge 
ovezlapping edge. 



109. The fntU appears to be the nltiinatie object and aim of the whole vegetabla 
oiganization ; accordingly, when this is perfected, the process of vegetation ceases, 
the foliage withers, and the whole plant, if it be an annual, soon dies. Bat in the 
fiy^ provision is made for the reproduction of the species, so that it is justly 
said to be * the tennination of the old indiyidaal, and the beginning of the new.* 

a. The fruit is, therefore, the most important part of the plant Although it 
does not, like the flower, serre to adorn the lace of natcov by the beanty of its 
fam and color, jet, besides its own peculiar office of perpetuating vegetable life, 
it affords one of the principal means of subsistence to animala and to man. 

h. The fructification, in respect to time, is subsequent to the flower, is always 
preceded by it, and, as has been sufficiently shown, is dependent upon it for its 
iBatority and perfection. After having imbibed the pollen from the anthers, the 
pistil, OT its ovary, continues to enlarge, and is finally matured in the form of the 
pecohar fmit of the plant The fruit is, therefore, properly speaking, the ovary 
^nughi to perftction. 

110. Such being the case, it follows that the fruk is constructed on the same 
general plan as the o-vury, and its structure may be inferred with much accuracy, 
^ the examination of the latter at the time of flowering. In many cases, how- 
ever, the fruit undergoes such changes in the course of its growth from the ovary, 
as to disguise its real structure ; so that an early examination would be even more 
*fe in its results than a late one. 

a* Por example, the oak-acorn is a fruit with but one cell and one seed, 
*^0Qgh its ovBxy had three cells and six ovules. The change is produced by 



the non-deyelopment of five of the ovules, while the eixth grows so rapidly as to 
obliterate the dissepiments and occapy the whole space. The same change also 
takes place in the hazle-nnt The ovary of the birch is two-celled and two- 
ovnled, but, by the suppression of one cell with its ovule, the fruit becomes one- 


111. The FRUIT consists of the pericarp and the seed; the 
former may be wantmg, but the latter is essential. 

a. Truly naked seeds are found in few plants, except the Coniferse, where the 
pollen Calls directly upon the ovules without the intervention of the pistiL The 
seeds of the sage and the borage, with their respective tribes, generally said to be 
naked, are not so in fact, for each seed being the product of an ovary with one 
ovule must necessarily be a one-seeded pericarp. 

112. The PERICARP (tisqi^ around, teagnog, fruit) is the covering 
or envelope of the seeds, of whatever nature it may be. It 
consists of three different parts. 1. The epicarp (fTi*, upon) is 
the outer integument, or skin. 2. The endocarp (ey^oy, within) 
called also putamen or shell, is the inner coat, and the sarco- 
carp (ora^l, flesh) is the intervening fleshy substance. 

0. Thus, in the peach, the skin is the epicarp, the fleshy pulp the sarcocarp, and 
the shell of the stone the endocarp. In the apple or pear, the endocarp forms the 
glazed lining of the cells, the epicaip the epidermis, and the sarcocarp the inter- 
yening pulp. 

113. The growth of the fruit depends upon the absorption of sap from the parts 
bdow. This fluid, finding no growing axU to be prolonged in the usual manner 
into a branch, is accumulated in the pistil and adjacent parts, is condensed by 
evaporation, and elaborated into cellular matter by the external surfaces, which 
stUl perform the functions of true leaves. Thus these pai-ts become gradually 
distended into the form and dimensions of the fruit 

114. The process of ripening consists of certain chemical changes, effected by 
the combined action of heat, light, and air. In its earliest stages, the pericaip 
consists of a structure similar to that of leaves, being composed of cellular and 
ligneous tissue, with an epidermis and stomata (35, 37). 

a. Secondly, the fleshy pulp, or sarcocarp, is developed, and becomes sour by 
absorbing from the air an excess of oxygen, which is the proper acidifjing prin 

b. Lastly, when the fruit has attained its full growth, the pulp becomes grada 
ally sweetened and softened, by the formation of sugar at the expense of the 
adds and of the ligneous matter, which before rendered it both sour and hard. 
These transitions are exemplified by the apple, plum, currant, &c^ where the 
greater portion of nutritive matter is stored up in the pericarp ; but in the fruit of 


fticwk, diestmiit, 0om6 of tbe grMseB, &c^ it is chiefly or entirely deposited in the 

■cf^ '& (h 

no. 16. — Modes of dehiscence ; 1, Locaiddal ; 9, flepdddil ; 3, SeptiflragaL The straight 
lises leptesent the dissepiments. 

115. JOehiscence. When the pencarp has airived at maturity, 
it either temains permanently closed (indehiscent) as the acorn, 
or it separates into parts forming openings. These parts are 
called valves, and these openings, the dehiscence, Eegular de- 
hiscence is alvrays vertical, and is called, 

1- LocuUcidal {hcuhts, a cell, cadoy to cut), when it takes 
place by the opening of the dorsal suture of each carpel directly 
into the celL Ex. lily. 

2. Septiddal {septum, a wall, and cado), when it takes place 
^iurough the dissepiments (which are doubled, {85, c). Ex. 

3. Septtfrctgal {septum, and frango, to break), when the valves 
separate from the dissepiments, which remain stQl united in the 
axis. Ex. Convolvulus. 

4. Sutural {sutura, a seam), when it takes place at one or 
^th sutures, in a fruit with a simple carpel. Ex. pea. 

5. An irregular dehiscence, called circumscissile {circumscindo, 
to cut around), occurs in the plantain, verbena, henbane, &c., 
where the top of the pericarp falls off Hke a lid. (Fig. 18 ; 16.) 

116. The forms of the pericarp are exceedingly diversified, and have been 
studied by botanists with great attention. The following varieties are generally 
^*®<*ibed in elementary works. 

1- Capsule (a casket), is a term applied to those pericarps 
wtich are of a hard and woody texture, proceeding from a com- 
pound ovary, dehiscing at the side or top, by valves, or some- 
toes by pores only. 

^ The capsule consists of only one cell, or is divided within 

by dissepiments (85, c) into many cells. The eentntl piUar, oi 
substance formed by the united placentse is called the colu- 
mella. 1V> this the seeds are generally attached. The seed- 
veasds of the Lobelia, mullein, pink, pSfpy, bloodioot ( San- 
guinaria), are capsules. 

PIO. n. — Fonna of ftnii: 1, oftnlt of BlwdDduidroa ; S, Nieoiluu; 3, Colnhicui 
4, fSuocherm ; C, uLiqns of Baphuiu ; ft, ulicla of C>phU& ; T, le^anie of the pan ; 8, jaiiiu4 
IflgDinfi (LomeatJ of DemiDdiiunf 9, ft>lliclfl at ApocyaiuB; 10, nut or ovk; 11, dinJH «f 

2. SiLiquK (a pod). This is a long, narrow pericajrp of tw-o 
valves, divided into two cells, by a false dissepiment fonned by 
the extended placentie. The seeds are attached to the edges 
of this dissepiment, alternating with its opposite sides. Ex. 
mustard, wallflower, aad other Crucifer®. 

3. SiLicLE (a little pod), differs from the sihque, by being 
shorter, and more nearly oval. Ex. pepper-grass, shepherd's 
purse (Thlaspi). The sihque and silicle are peculiar to plants 
with cruciform corollas. 

4. LEGttuE (also a pod), two-valved, onc-cellecl, consists of a 
simple carpel, and thus differs essentially from the siliqiie. H 
bears its seod^ attached to the margin of each valve aKemately. 
along the ventral suture only. Ex. pea, and all other plants of 
the great natural order Leguminoso!. The legume, therefon;. 
accompanies the papilionEiceouB corolla, 

6. Follicle (a bag) is a pericarp with one valve and one 


PEPO. 55 

cell, opening by a sutuial dehiscence on the inner side, and 
bearing seeds at the base, or along the suture. Ex. peony, col- 
mnbine, silk-weed^ 

6. Drupe (stone-fruit) is one-celled, one or two seeded, inde- 
hiscent, Tsrith a hard and bony endocarp (stone), and a moist and 
pulpy epicarp and saarcocarp. £x. plum, cherry, peach. It also 
includes those fruits which have a fibro-fleshy, or even coiia- 
ceons epicarp, as the wabiut, butternut, which kinds of fruit are 
called drupaceous. 

7. The Nut is a hard, dry, indehiscent shell, proceeding from 
an ovary which is two or more celled, and two or more ovuled, 
but becoming by suppression one-celled, and one-ovuled ( 1 10, a). 
It difiers from the Drupe, in wanting the sofl, succulent cover- 
ing. Instead of this it is seated in a kind of persistent involu- 
cre, called a cupule. Ex. chestnut, oak, beech, hazle. 

8. Cartopsis (kernel). This is a thin, dry, one-celled peri- 
carp, inseparable from the seed which it encloses. Ex. maize, 
wheat, Carex. When it is not inseparable from the seed, it is 
called a utricle, as in the pig- weed ( Chenopodium). 

9. An ACHENiuai is a small, dry, hard, one-celled pericarp, dis- 
tinct from the seed which it contains. Ex. Borago, Banun- 
culus. Aster, and the Compositae generally. 

10. Sahara (winged fruit). It consists of a dry, indehiscent, 
one-seeded pericarp, with a wing-like appendage. Ex. birch, 

11. A PTxis (box) is a capsule which opens by a circum* 
sessile dehiscence ( 115 ; 5), so as to appear hke a little cup with 
a lid. Ex. plantain (Flantago), purslane (Portulaca). 

IS. Pome (apple). This is a fleshy, indehiscent pericarp, 
formed of the permanent calyx, containing several cartilaginous 
carpels, or cells, which enclose the seeds. Ex. apple, pear, 

13. The PEPo (gourd) is an indehiscent, fleshy fruit, proceed- 
ing from a compound ovary, either one-celled, or entirely flUed 
with pulp. Ex. cucumber, melon, pumpkin. 

14. Berry (Bacca), a succulent, pulpy pericarp, holding the 
weds loosely within, with no other covering than its own soft 

mass. Ex. curnmt, wliortleberry. The orange and lemoD m 
swei this definitioQ, and axe therefore berries. 

FIG. I&— Ftiima offhiEtj 13, niked uhenu of FnguiaDo Iha raMhes of Oamhrftd, 
OMh)' naepliclc ; 14, diupaceoiu ■cbmUoTm Rubin on ■ OeihT, deeidDoiu nceplmeli; V, 
ouou* of Aoer ; IG, pfxii of HjotcjtMaa } IT, porno of Pynu (pear) ; U, bcnj of BAa 

(gnMBbarry} ; 19, HcUon of tbo Mmo ODlaiged^ 90, ilrobila of Piniu^ n, creaiDCBip oTiba 
Umbellileis, u Coninm. 

a. This d<!Giiitton cannot inclnde the strawbeny, irtiich cODEists of an v^ 
UagrA, flesby receptacle, bearing niuneioas ochema npon iu surface. Nor dM< 
it inclade the blackbeny, icbidi, like the other spedea of the Knbns, is an >ggrc- 
gate fruit composed of united dropcB. Theee frnita are caUed Btasiia, by Uiibd' 
(Fig. le; 13, U.) 

15, Stuobile (cone). This is an aggregate finit, consisting 
of scale-like carpels spread open, with naked seeds on their 
inner side, at base. Such is ^e fhiit of the fir tribe, which is 
on this account called Conifene. 

HII*17lf. S7 



1 17. The seed is the tiltiinate product of vegetation, and con- 
tains the rudiments of a new plant, similar in all respects to the 

a. The seed consists of three principal parts; — the integu- 
XENTS, the ALBUMEN, aud the embryo. 

118. The Integuments, or coverings, invest the seed immedi- 
ately exterior to all its other parts. Although apparently single, 
they consist of several membranes, to each of which an appro- 
priate name has been applied. * The first, or outer membrane, 
is the testa; the second, the mesosferm; the third, the endo- 
FLSURA, corresponding with the primine, &c. (90) of the ovule. 

a. The testa is either papery (membraaoas), leaiheiy (coriaoeoiu), homy (cms* 
taoeoos), bonj, fleahj, or woody. Its surface is generally smooth, somedmefl 
beantifally polished, as in the Indian shot (Canna), or columbine, and often 
highly colored, as in varieties of the bean, &c. It is sometimes expanded into 
wings, as in the Arabis, and sometimes into a toft of hfurs at one end, called 
etmoj 88 in the silk-weed, or it is entirely enveloped in hairs, as in the eotton. 

b. The coma must not be confounded with the pappus (99, a), which is a modi* 
ficallon of the calyx, appended to the pericarp, and not to the seed, as in the 

otthe thistle, dandelion, and other Compositse. 

119. The aril is an expansion, proceeding from the summit of 
the funiculus, or seed-stalk (91), (or from the placenta when 
the funiculus is wanting) either partially or wholly investing 
the seed. A fine example is seen in that gashed covering 
of the nutmeg, called mace. In the celastrus it completely 
envelops the seed. In other seeds it is a mere scale, and often 
it is wanting. 

120. The HiLUM, or scar, is that point or mark left on the coats 
of the seed, by its separation from the funiculus (stalk). It is 
commonly called the eye, as in the bean, pea, maize, &c, (Fig. 
11 ; 8, a.) 

121. The hilum of tlie seed sometimes corresponds with the chalasa of the 

58 THfi PRUIT. 

omle. In this case the ovale, or seed, is said to be orthoiropota (erect), Ex. can- 
dleberry (Myrica). More generally, however, the funiculus (91) extends beyond 
the hilum, passing under the integuments partly around the nucleus, before it 
is joined to it The point of this final juncture is always the cbalaza, and that 
part of the funiculus which then intervenes between the hilum and the chalaza is 
called the raphe. This form of the ovule, or seed, is called anatropous (inverted), 
and is exemplified in the apple. The raphe can, therefore, exist only in the anfl* 
tropous seed, and serves to distinguish it (See Fig. 11 ; No's 8 and 9.) 

122. The ALBUMfiN. Next within the integuments, there is a 
white substance called the albumen, consisting chiefly of starch- 
It constitutes the chief bulk of some seeds, as maize, wheat, 
rye, and serves to nourish the embryo in its nascent state. It 
abounds chiefly in those seeds which have but one cotyledon- 
It is wholesome and nutritious, even in poisonous plants. The 
albumen in some seeds is entirely wanting, particularly in the 
bean, pea, &c., the nutritious n\atter being all absorbed in the 

123. The EMBRYO is an organized body, the rudiments of the 
young plant, situated within the integuments. To the growth 
of this all other parts of the seed are subservient In some 
seeds the embryo is distinctly visible. Ex. bean, Convolvulus. 

124. The embryo is divided into three parts ; the radicle, the 
plumtde, and cotyledon. 

a. The radicU is the descending part of the embryo, destined 
to form the root (mdix). In respect to position, it always points 
towards the foramen.' 

h. The PLUMULE is the ascending part of the embryo, or the 
rudiment of the ascending axis of the future plant It is usually 
directed towards the chalaza. 

125. The COTYLEDON is the bulky, porous, and farinaceous 
part of seeds, destined to form the first or seminal leaves of the 
young plant, as well as to aflbrd nourishment to the plumule 
and radicle, before they can obtain it from the earth. In the 
bean, squash, cucumber, and most other plants, the cotyledons 
are conspicuous in rising above the ground. 

a. The number of cotyledons is variable ; and upon this cir- 
cumstance is founded the most important and distinct division 


126. MonoeotyledoDOos plants are those whose seeds have bat one cotyledom 

sroass. 09 

w, if two an imwint, one it mlnnte or •boniTfl. Snch i^uti iie tho called 
DDocENs (WoF, iosids, yosfiit, to origuue or grow], becanse their itmni inereaM 
bj iaKmal accretioiu (I9TJ. Sacb are the grasses, tbe palms, the LiliiceK, £c^ 
wbo» leaves bto mostly oinstracted with parallel veins. 

137. Dicotjlcdonous plants are such aa bear seeds with two cotyledons 
Tbeu are also called xiooens (ifa, outside), because their stems increase by 
dternal accrelioiu, incltidiiig tiie bean tribe, the melon tribe, all our forest trees, 
(c Theae are also distingiiished at a glance, by the straetnre of their leares, 
iriiich are reticalata-Tcined, that Is, with veins dividing and nniting again, liko 

Pie. »-StnuOT™ 


of a 

nrdcn beui; !, 

bs luna 



3,Ked<>f Ttlglcxhm(mi 


<, bugou clulua, ^ nphg, I, UliuD ; 1, embrya ; a 






S, TCrllcnl •Rlion of the ■ 

d, lb 

s Mdicle men be 

oiita 111* 

tasn ; e, *i!n 


c, ndicle ; T, Had 


■JbDinen, i, embryo ; 8, fnu 



i., .bo*l«| .bo w 




une, having ihrow 

t!6. The pine and Gr have seeds with from two to throe cotyledons, while tlie 
dodder {Coscata) is almost the only example known of an embryo with no cotj' 

119. A few plants, as the onion, orange, Conifcne, &c., occasionally have two 
wBvea aeversl embryos in a seed, while all the CRTPTOOiMiA, or flowerlesa 
plina, have no embryo at all, nor even seeds, but are reproduced from IPORB*, 
(18} bodiea analogous to the pollen gniiu of flowering pUnti. 

62 THE &OOT. 

conntiy. Thus, the ooooa, and tilie caahew-nnt, and llie seeds of the mahogsay, 
hare been known to perfonn lon^ voyages, withont faijniy to their vitality. Squir- 
rels, laying up their winter stores in the earth, birds, migrating from dime to 
clime, and from island to island, in like manner conspire to effect the same im- 
portant end. 



136. The koot is the basis of the plant, and the principal 
source of its nourishment It originates with the radicle of the 
seed ; the tendency of its growth is downwards, and it is gener- 
sQly immersed in the soil. 

a. When the radicle has burst the integuments of the seed, and penetrated the 
soil, its body becomes divided into branches, or fibres; each of these is again 
divided and sub-divided into fibres, often exceedingly numerous and minute, ever 
extending and multiplying, until the vegetable has attained its full growth. 

137. The prone direction of the root is accounted for by the extreme delicacy 
of the fibres, which renders them averse to the air and light, by their avidity for 
moisture, and by the effects of gravitation. 

a. Although the primaiy direction of the roots is downward, they are not 
kno>vn to extend to any great depth. After having descended to a certain dis- 
tance beneath the surface, they extend themselves horizontally, keeping at about a 
uniform depth, however great the irregularities of the surface. 

138. The number and extent of the roots must always correspond to the 
demands of the vegetable, both for affording it nourishment, and for maintaining 
it in its erect position. It follows, therefore, that for every expanding leal^ or 
extending twig, there must be a corresponding increment of the roots and fibres 
beneath the soiL 

139. Boots are generally distinguished from stems by their 
downward direction, by the presence of absorbing fibres, by the 
constantly irregular arrangement of their branches, and by the 

absence of buds, stomata, and pith. 


140. To all these characteristics there are, however, exceptions. Thus, buds, in 
peculiar drcnmstances, are developed by the roots, sending up shoots, or suckers, 
around the parent stem. This does not happen in the natural or healthy state 
of the plant, but only when the life of the upper axis is partially or wholly 
destroyed, the roots remaining in full vigor, and elaborating more nourishment 


spoMOiaiJBB. 63 

An tfMM m wunr deauid Ibr. Sneh buds ve, tberafon, mccely adMRtieiioiff. 
Ob this account it would 8«em that those rooU, oommonly so called, which do 
Bitonlly and nmfonnly produce buds, are with propriety described by modem 
vriters as ttdtttmmean ttaiu; as the rooi-ttaJOe of the sweet flag (Calamus), the 
hdh of tiie tcdip, or the fufrer of the potato. 

141. The summit of the root, or that part which coimects it to 
the ascending axis, is designated as the cdUum^ or neck. 

0. Strictly speaking, tiiis is the only stationary part of the plant Occupying 
the eentre of motion between &e ascending and descending axis, every enlarge- 
ment &at takes place upon its upper surface arises into the air, while all below it 
denends into the earth. 

142. The parts of the root which require especial notice, are 
the caudez, ^fibrils, and spongioles, 

a. The cavdex (stock) is the main body of the root 

b. The FIBRILS are the iQner branches of the root, sent off 
from the caudex. These are the true roots. 

c. The SFONGioLES are the tender and delicate extremities of 
the fibrils; and, since the latter lengthen only by accretions 
made to these extremities, these are their growing points. 

143. The form of the root is much diversified in difierent 
plants, but the principal varieties which have received distinct- 
ive names, are the following : — 

144. Ramose (branching). This root consists of ramifications 
seat ofi^ from the main root, like the branches of a tree, but in 
no determinate order. Such are the roots of most trees and 
shrabs. (Fig. 20.) 

a. Th^re is a strong analogy between the roots of a tree and its branches. In 
nuny instances they may be made to perform, each the ftmctions of the other ; 
Alt is, the tree may be tnoerttdy and the branches wUl become roots and the roots 
put forth leayes like the branches. The willow and the maple may be thus 
inverted without injuring their vitality. 

h. A branch may often be made to pat forth roots instead of leaves. If a 
Ijnmch (offset) of the willow or currant (llibes) be inserted into the ground, cither 
by the lower or the upper end, or by both at once, it will take root and flourish. 
Other titses, as the mulberry (Moms) may be multiplied by layers. A branch is 
bent and inserted into the ground by the apex. When it has taken root it is 
serercd from the parent stock, and becomes a perfect tree. 

c. The roots of a tree extend in all directions, and to considerable distances. 
This distance is at least equal to the extent of the branches, and often much 
gieater. Hiose of the elm embrace am area of 300 feet diameter, of the poplar, 



400. FoT«st traei, being leu exposed to the Mwnlti «f die nind, are mndi leM 
firmly rooted thaii thoss in open sitoatioiu. 

145. i^W/^f-m (spindle-sliaped). It consists of a tMcki fleshy 
caiidex, tapering downwards, and also, for a short space, up- 
wurds. It sends off from the sides and extremity, thread-like 
fibrils, which are in fact its true roots, since they alone absorb 
nourishment irom the ground. Ex. parsnip, radish. 

FIO. 90. — Fomu of Ihsrooi; T, bnoohliii mot* of Atnt; B, roMoCDiueu; B, OnGii 
ID, Onliil. 

a. When the fiisifbrm root dtndes into tm> prindpal branches, it is said to be 
fiirktd. When it lapeia ironi the coSvm doimwatda iU whole length, it it called 
a comad at tap root. Bat its most remaAable variety a the 

6. PremoTse, in which the caudex terminates abruptly belov, 
as if it had been tnlten off (prffimorsiis). This is due to the 
fact that the lower extremity perishes after the first year, Ei. 
Viola pcdata, and Scabiosa succisa. 

c. The napiform (turnip -shaped) root is another variety of the 
fiisifoim, where the upper portioa swells out, so that the diame- 
ter is greater than the length. Ex, ttumip. 

14G. The jOirmns root consists of numerous thread-like diTis- 
ions, scut off directly from the base without any caudex, Sucb 
are the roots of most grasses, which multiply their fibres exceed- 
ingly in a Ught sandy soil. 

a. A /asciculated root is a variety of the fibrous, with some of 
■ its fibres thickened, as in the crow-foot (Ranunculus), peony. 
Dahlia, &c. 

147. A tuberotts root consists of one or more fleshy knobs, or 


tmnoTS, aitnated at the base among the fibres. Ex. Orcfaia. 
This root must be distinguished from the tuber, vhich, like the 
potaloe, uniformly bears buds, and ia now classed among stems. 

a. A palmate (hand-shaped) root is a variety of the tuberous, 
where the knob is separated below into short, thickened pro- 
cesses, as in some species of the Orchis. 

b. A granuUUed toot consists of many small tubercular knobs, 
connected by fibres, as seen in the common iFood soneL Soiod 
wnlers call this variety monili/onn {momle, a necklace). 

148. All the above forms of fleshy roots appear to be reser- 
voirs where the superabundant nutriment secreted by the plant, 
ia accumulated and kept in store for the following year, or for 
the time of flowering. 

■■ To the TArietiea already mendoned, im maj add Mrend otbcn, trUch an 
nmulablj distingiuEhed b7 tJidr not being fixed in the aoil. 

149. The footing root is peculiar to plants which float loosely 
Qpon the surface of the water. Ex. Lemna, Callitriche. The 
latter, called wator starwort, floats upon the snrface only until 
flowering, after which it sinks to the bottom, fixes its roots iu 
the mud, and there ripens its seeds. 

150. Aerial roots are those which, instead of originating firom 
portions of the plant beneath the surface of the ground, are pro- 
duced from some portion in the open air. Of these roots, seve- 
ral varieties are remarkable. Ist, Those which are sent forth 

66 THS JL09T. 

firom the joints of careeping or prostrate plants; as the giound- 
ivy, ukd flie twin-flower (Lmneea). 2d, The roots of certain 
eueot plants of the endogenous structure, originating from the 
stem high in air, descending and entering the soiL Of this class 
the screw-pine (Ftodanus) is a remarkable example, whose 
aerial roots are often several feet in length before reaching tne 
ea«th. Such roots, a few inches in length, are also seen in the 
common maize ( Zea). 

6. A thikl dass of aerial roots is peculiar to the ^^^ i^"^^ ' 
upon, ywTOJ', a plant). These plants are fixed upon the trunk 
and l»ajMJhes of other species, and derive their nourishment 
chiefly fcom the air. Such ore the long moss (Tillandsia), pen- 
dent from lofty trees, and many of the Orchidaceae at the south. 
-4th, The joots of parasites are usually aerial. These are not 
only ittttacabed to other vegetables, but, penetrating their tissues 
they derive i^ourisdiment from their juices. The Cuseuta an 
Mistletoe axe examples. 


151. The internal structiire of the root is similar to that of tne 
stem (q. v.), except that there is often a greater proportion oi 
cellular, fleshy matter, as in the beet In Endogens the root 
is endogenous, in Exogens it is exogenous, but in the latter case 
it is always destitute of a pith. 

152. The fibrils are in fact but subdivisions of the caudex, or 
main root They consist of minute bundles of vasiform tissue 
(32), enclosed in a loose, cellular epidermis, except at the ex- 
tremities (35), where the tissue is naked and becomes exceed- 
ingly loose and spongy. These (spongioles) have the property 
of powerfully absorbing water. 

153. The growth of the root does not take place by the ex- 
pansion of the parts already formed, but simply by the addition 
of new matter at the extremities, and by the formation of nevr 
layers upon the surface. This accounts for the facility with 
which it penetrates the crevices of the soil, and forces its way 
into the hardest earth. 

154. The most obvious function of the root is the purely 
mechanical one oi fixing ike jplant in the earth, and maintaining 

AB80SPTI0N. $7 

its posture. But its peculiar and most important function is 
ABSOKFTioN, oi drawing from the soil that food and moisture 
which its growth absolutely requires. 

0. Let any email growing plant be taken from the earth, and immersed by its 
nwtB in a glass of water. If it be then exposed to the light of day, or especiany 
to the san, the water will disappear from the glass more rapidly than ooald be 
expected from evaporation alone. A plant of spearmint has thns been ibnnd to 
afanib water at the rate of more than twice its own weight per day. The water 
tbas sbiorfoed by the roots is mostly sent off again, or txhtded throngh the leaves 
(a process called sxhalation), only a small part of it, together with the salts 
wbich it held in solution, being retained for the nse of the plant 

155. The activity of absorption must, therefore, depend upon 
the activity of exhalation; and since the latter is dependent upon 
the presence of light and heat, it follows that absorption will, in 
general, be more active by day than by night. 

156. The root does not absorb moisture by its whole surface, 
indiscriminately, but only by the spongioles at the extremities 


of the fibrils, w^here the" pores are not obstructed by the epider- 
mis. From the spongioles it is conducted by the vasiform tissue 
of the fibril to the vessels of the main root, and immediately 
carried up the stem, and distributed to aU parts of the plant 

a. If a growing radish be placed in snch a position that only the fibres at the 
cod may be immersed in water, the plant will continue to flonrish. Bat if the 
nwt be so bent that the fibrils shall be cnrved up to the leaves, and only the 
cvred body of the root be immersed, the plant will soon wither, but will soon be 
again revived, if Ihe fibres be relaxed and again submerged. 

ft- Hence, in transplanting trees, too much care cannot be taken to preserve, 
uuBJored, as many as possible of these tender, absorbing fibres. 

157. The force with which plants absorb flidds by their roots 
is very great, as is proved by experiment 

>• If the stem of a vine be cut off when the sap is ascending, and a bladder be 
^ to the end of the standing part, it will in a few days become distended vrith 
^1 eren to bmsting. Dr. Hales contrived to fix a mercoiial gange to a vine thns 
*^^CRd, and fonnd the upward pretsure of the sap equal to 26 inches of mercury, 
* 13 lbs. to the square inch. 

158. The causes of the absorption of fluids, by the roots, have been the subject 
<"fnmch inquiry. It has generally been said to be due to capillary attraction; 
^ unfortunately for this theory, there arc no capillary tubes in the vegetable 
'^'^I'itiire, bat only dosed cells, more or less elongated, through the membranous 
**ns of which the fluids most force their way. There is, however, a phenomenon 


ia. Natural FbiloMphy, dlsooTerod by I>ntrodi6t» 'which bem fo stzooig a 
blanoe to absorptioa in I'hysiology, that late writers are geDerally agreed in ex* 
plaining the latter by the former. It is, briefly, as follows : 

a. Let the broad end of a tunnel-shaped glass be firmly covei-ed with a piece of 
bladder, and the cavity within be filled with a solution of gum or sugar. If now 
the o«ter surface of the bladder be immersed in water, a passage of fluid will take 
plaoe through the membrane into the glass, so that the Tolume of the sohitkoi 
will be muoh increased, while at the same time there will be a current in Aa 
opposite direction, the solution within passing into the water without, but in a 
much smaller quantity. If, on the other hand, the glass be filled with water and 
immersed in the solution, it will be partly emptied by this action. The principal 
current is termed emxk)skosb (flowing inwards), and the other ExoBMoes (flow- 
ing outwards). 

159. From the above experiment, and others of a similar nature, it is justly 
infeired, that the conditions requisite for the action of these two currents are, two 
JtvndM of diffema dmsitlu, separated by a porcut teptmn, or partition. Wherever 
these conditions exist, the current exists also. 

a. Now these conditions exist in the root The spongiole is the porous sep- 
tum ; the water around it is one of the fluids, and the other is the fluid within, 
rendered dense by the admixture of the descending sap elaborated by the leaves. 
Now if the absorption be the endosmou resulting from these conditions, there must 
be the counter current, the exotmose, also. That this is actually the case, is proved 
by the fact that the peculiar products of the species may always be detected ■ 
the soil about the roots of the plant, and also, that a plant grown in water, alwsfi 
communicates some of its peculiar properties to the fluid in which it is im- 
mersed. « 

160. The use of absorption in the vegetable economy is not merely the intnh 
duction of so much water into the plant, but to obtain for its growth those mis- 
end substances held in solution by the water, which constitute an important pait 
of its food. 

a. Now in accomplishing this object, the roots seem to be endowed with a cer- 
tain power of sdeetion or cAotce, which has not been satisfactorily explained. 
Thus, if wheat be grown in the same soil with the pea, the former will select the 
nlex along with the water which it absorbs, for the construction of the more solid 
parts of its stem ; while the latter will reject the silex, and appropriate to its use 
the cakanout matter which the water holds in solution. 

h. The flowing of the sap from incisions, in early spring, depends upon tie 
excess ofabaorptum over exhalation. After the decay of the leaves in autumn, and 
the consequent cessation of exhalation, — the rootlets, being deep in the ground, 
below the influence of the frost, continue their action for a time, and an accumu- 
lation of sap in the vegetable takes place. Also, in early spring, before the leaves 
are developed, this action recommences, and the plant becomes gorged with sap^ 
so that it will flow from incisions, as in the sugar-maple. But this flowing ceases 
M soon as the bads expand into leaves and flowers. 

Hisa 69 



161. That part of the plant which originates with the plum- 
ule (124, b), and arises above the surface, expanding itself to 
the influence of the air and the light, is called the ascendinq 


a. Tbe canse of its npward tendency is unknown (181, note), but is sai^osed 
lo be in some way due to tbe princii^es of light and graritation. 

162. Although the first direction of the stem's growth is verti* 
col, there are many plants in which it does not continue so, but 
extends in an obhque or hcHrizontal direction, either just above 
the surface of the ground, or just beneath it When the stem 
continues to arise in its original direction, it is said to be erect. 
When it grows horizontally upon the surface, it is said to be 
procumbent, creeping, trcdlingj &c. When it arises obhquely it 
18 an ascending stem, and when it continues buried beneath the 
soil it is a subterranean stem. 

1. Tbe subterranean stem, and some varieties of tbe creeping, have nsnaUy 
been described as roots. 

163. In regard to dumtion, the stem, Hke the root, is said to 
be annual when it lives but one season, afterwards dying, at 
least down to the root, and perennial when its existence is con- 
tinued beyond one season, to an indefinite period of time. 

164. In regard to the size and duration of the stem, plants are 
distinguished into trees, shrubs, and herbs. 

a. A TKEB is a plant with a perennial, woody stem, or trunk, 
which does not divide into branches for a certain distance above 
the ground. Ex. elm, palm. 

h. A SH&TTB is a plant of smaller dimensions than a tree, hav- 
ing a perennial, woody stem, which divides into branchos at or 
Hear the ground, like the alder. A shrub of diminished size is 
tcnned an undershrvh. Ex. whortleberry. 

c An HfiEB is a plant with an annual or perennial root, pro- 


ducing stems which, above the ground, are of annual duratioii 
only, and do not become woody. Ex. the grasses, mullein. 

165. The most distinctive property of the stem is the forma- 
tion and development of buds. At the commencement of its 
growth, the ascending axis is itself a bud. 

166. Buds are of two kinds, namely, the letif-bud, containing 
the rudiments of a leafy branch, and the flower-hud^ containing 
the same elements transformed into the organs of a flower, foi 
the purposes of reproduction. 

167. The leaf-bud consists of a minute, tender, growing point 
of cellular tissue, originating with the pith, surrounded cuid pro- 
tected by a covering of imbricated scales and incipient leaves. 
(Fig. 22; 1.) 

168. These scaly envelopes of the bud appear to be the rudimentaiy leaves of 
the preceding jear, formed late in the season, arrested in their development bjr 
the frosts and scanty nutriment, and reduced to a sear and hardened state. If 
the bud of the maple or horse-chestnut (.^culus) be examined, when swollen in 
spring, the student will notice a gradual transition from the outer sca/er to the 
evident Itavt^ within. 

a. It is an interesting illustration of designing Wisdom, that buds are famished 
with scales only in wintry climates. In the torrid asone, or in hot-houses, where 
the temperature is equalized through the year, plants develope their buds into 
foliage immediately after their formation, without clothing them in scales. In 
annual plants, also, the buds are destitute of scales, not being destined to surnve 
the winter. Hence it is evident that the transformation of autunmal leaves into 
scales, is a means ordained by the great Author of nature, to protect the youig 
shoots, in their incipient stages, from cold and moisture, — an office which thej 
effectually fulfil by their numerous downy folds, and their insoluble coat of 

169. The original bud (plumule) of the embryo is at firet 
developed into a simple stem, and being itself continually repro- 
duced, is always borne at the termination of that stem ; that is, 
the axis is cdways terminated by a bud, 

a. Besides this, the axis produces a bud (21, a) in the axil of each leaf, thatiii 
at the point just above the origin of the leaf-stalk. If these axillary buds remain 
inactive, the stem will still be timple^ as in the mullein. In general, however, 

* In many trees the icales of the bade are clothed with a thick down. In others, as in tks 
horse-chestnut, balm of Gilead, and other species of poplar, the bnds are covered with a 
visdd and aromatic resin, resembling a coat of varnish. A considerabte qaantity naj N 
separated from a handfal of snch bads in boiling water. 



ttne or all of them are developed) fonning leafy diTirions of the axis, which tiras 

teoooies oronched. 
h. Buds are taid to be advtHtitiout when they are neither terminal nor axillary. 

flach buds generally resolt from some unnatural condition of the plant, as maim- 
a^ or disease, and may be formed in the intemodes, or upon the roots (140), 
cr torn the tmnk, or even from the leaves, as in the BryqphyUnm. 

170. A BRANCH, therefore, is a division of the axis, produced 
by the development of an ajdllary bud. 

171. A THORN, or spine, is a leafless, haidened, pointed, 
iroody process, with which some plants are armed, as if for self- 
defence. Ex. Ciatsgus, locust. 

& The thorn appears to be an abortive growth of a bnd, resulting from the im- 
pedect development of the growing point only, while its leafy coverings perish. 
Some plants which natnrally produce thorns become thomless by cultivation. 
In sach cases the buds are enabled, by better tillage, to produce branches instead 
of thorns. Ex. iq>ple, pear, gooseberry. 

h. The thorn is distinguished from the prickle (43) by its woody structure, and 
its connection with the wood of the stem, while the prickle, as of the rose, consists 
of hardened cellular tissue, connected with the bark only. 

172. That point in the stem where the leaf, with its axillary 
bud, is produced, is called the node, and the spaces between 
them the inteknodes. 

' a. In the intemodes the fibres of the stem are parallel, but at the nodes this 
order is interrupted in consequence of some of the twur fibres being sent off later- 
ally info the leaf-stalk, occasioning, more or less, a jointed appearance. Hence, 
also, each intemode contains fewer fibres, and is of a less diameter than those 
bekm it, so that the axis gradually diminishes upwards. 

173. Since the branches arise firom axillary buds, their ar- 
rangement upon the stem will depend upon that of the leaves, 
which, in all young plants, at least, are arranged with great 
symmetry and order. 

174. It is a general law in the arrangement of the leaves and 
indeed of all other appendages, that they are disposed spiraUy^ 
^t is, in a line which winds around the axis like the threads 
of a screw. 

a. But this arrangement is often so much disg^sed by disturbing causes that it 
can scarcely be reoog^nized. The most common modification of it is the circular, 
^dnch is readily explained. The spiral Une is formed by the union of two 
oiDtions, the circular and the longitudinal. The latter is produced in the grow- 
ing plant by the advancement or lengthening of the axis. Now, if the latter be 


InkRuptad ftom tmj cmim, a dtcnUr amngcnMnt ii the DomeqBeiwe,— m 
arntagemeDt lO conBiucaoiu in the oikuis c^ tlie flower (BI, a, b, c], and in tbe 
learee of the Slell«t», and otlier plants. 

175. When a single leaf arises at a node the axnngement is 
more obviously spiral, and is said to be aliemate. When two 
arise at each node they are placed opposite to each other, and at 
right angles to the adjacent pairs. When three or more arise at 

«each node they are disposed, of course, in a circle, and are said 
to be vertitnliate, or ■whoried. 

176. In like manner, the arrangement of the branches, wfaea 
divested of all disturbing causes, is found to be spibal ; that is, 
abemate in most plants, apposite in the aah, tec, or vtrUaSeU 
in the pine, ko. 

a. The uceadm([ axis ii exceediDgif varions in fonn, size, posiUon, and Mm> 
tore, tiuUng in mry plant nnder aome one or other of its modificaliona. Il iM 
already been Btated, that although ila tendency is at Arst upwards, it does att 
always arise above the snifoce. Hence the primary diTiiion of this oie*i> InID 

mUtmuieaK tni atriaL 

177. The BVBTEttBANEAM STEM was deemed a root by the e»- 
lier botanists, and those plants which possessed such stems cuty 
'were called acaulescent or stemUss, terms still in use, denotiig 
merely the absence of aerial stems. The principal modifin- 
tions are the bulb, coim, tuber, rhizoma, and creeper. 

TtmxE. 73 

178. The BVLB partakes of the n&toie of the bnd. It consists 
of an oval mass of short, thickened scales, closely compacted in 
omcentric circles and layers, emittiiig a stem from theii midat, 
nd roots fiom the base or co2&m» (141). 

0. Bulbs are said to be tmntatti when &ej coiudst of concentric layen, each 
Mir, and endomng all within it, ai in the Onion. Bat the more common 
jtnttj it Ha teaijf bnlb, conuati^ of Uiickened concaTe icales, connected to- 
goba at th« base, ai the Tilj, tulip. 

(, The bulb is renewed annnallj, at the approach of winter, b; the derelop- 
nenl of Dew balba in the axils of the fCeJes, which inoeaae at the expense of the 

(. BitBiUli are small, aerial bnlbs, formed in the axib of the leaves upon the 
Mm, which, wben matured, fall to the ground, lake root, and prodoce a perfect 
plant The t^er-lilf {liliam bnlbifenim) is an example, also several species of 
b anhn. Sacfa jAuM are termed buHuferons. 

1 ; S, Anim ; 3, Solui 

im ; 4, Su- 

its. The coEH is the dilated, subterranean base of a stem, 
resembling the bulb in form and position, but difienng in struc- 
tme, being composed of a miiforra and solid mass, without dis- 
tincticm of layeis oi scales. < It has been improperly called a 
uSd buBi. Ex. Ainm, or lodian tnmip. 

180. The TUBES is an annual, thickened portion of a subter- 
nmean stem, provided with latent buds (called eyes), from 
vhidi new plants arise the succeeding year. It is the develop- 
ment of buds, and Ihe fact of its origin with the ascending axis, 
Ihat i^aces the tuber among stems instead of roots. The pota< 
toe is an example. 


181. The BHizoMA, or rootstock, is a prostrate, thickened, 
rooting stem, either wholly or partially subterranean, often cov- 
ered with scales, which are the rudiments of leaves, or marked 
with scars, which indicate the insertion of former leaves, and 
yearly producing both shoots and roots. Such is the thickened, 
horizontal portion of the blood-root ( Sanguinaria), sweet flag 
(Calamus), and the bramble (Kubus). 

182. The CR£BPEK differs from the above onlj in size, consisting of sleoder 
branches, exceedingly tenacious of life, extending horizontally in all directioDS, 
and to considerable distances beneath the surface, sending out roots and branches 
at intervals. The witch-grass (Triticum repens) is an example. Such plants 
are a sore evil to the garden. They can have no better cultivation than to be 
torn and cut in pieces by the spade of the angry gardener, since they are thus 
multiplied as many times as there are fragments. 

a. Repent stems of this kind are not, however, without their use. They fire- 
quently abound in loose, sandy soil, which they serve to bind down and secon 
against the inroads of water, and even of the sea itself. Holland is said to owe its 
very existence to certain repent stems, by which its shores are apparently bound 
together. Much of the surface of that country is well known to be even bekm 
the level of the sea. To protect it from inundation, dikes of earth have been 
built, with immense labor, along the coast These dikes are overspread with a 
thick growth of such plants as the mat-grass, or Arundo arenaria, the Carcx ai«> 
naria, and the Elymus arenarius, by the innumerable roots and creepers of wliidi 
they are enabled to resist the washing of the waves 

183. To AERIAL STEMS boloug the following varieties;^ — caulis, 
runner, scape, vine, trunk, sucker, offset, and stolon. 

184. Caulis (stem) is the term commonly applied to the aerial 
stems of herbaceous plants, which are annual in duration, and 
destitute of woody tissue. Caulescent and accadescent are con 
venient terms, denoting, the former the presence, and the latter 
the absence of the caulis, or aerial stem. 

185. RuNNEXL This is a prostrate, filiform stem, or shoot, ex* 
tending itself along the surface of^the ground, and throwing oat 
roots and leaves at its extremity, which become a new plant, 
soon putting forth new runners in its turn. Ex. strawberry. 

186. The scape is a stem which springs from the summit of 
the root, or rootstock, and bears the inflorescence of the plant, 
but not its foliage. Ex. Sarracenia, dafibdil, several species of 
the Orchis, &c. The foliage of such plants is usually radicdt 
that is, springing from the root or subterranean stem. 

TftVNX. 75 

c CouK {ewt m m) is « tenii by wliiGiL the peculiar stemi of the gruKS, and 
nular plants an nsuallj <1iwignatf<d in descriptiTe botany. It seems, bowerer, 
niinneoessaiy distinction. 

187. Vine. This is a term denoting those stems which, being 
too weak to stand erect, oreep along the ground, or any conven* 
ient support, and do not throw ont roots like the ronner. The 
Tine sometimes supports itself on other plants, or objects, by 
means of tendrUs, as the gourd, and most of its tribe ( Cucurbita- 
cese); the grape-vine, &c. Such plants are called climbers. 

0. The UndrU is a leafless, thread-like branch ; or an appendage growing ont of 
die petiole of the leaf; or it is the lengthened extremity of the midrib of the leaf. 
Its first growth is straight, and it remains so until it reaches some object, when it 
immediately winds and coils itself about it, and thns acquires a firm, though elastic 
bold. This beantifnl appenda^ is finely exemplified in the Cucurbitacen and 
grape, abore cited \ also in many species of the pea tribe (Leguminosse), where it 
ii appended to the leaves. 

188. The twimng vine, or stem, having also a length greatly disproportionate 
to its diameter, supports itself on other plants or objects, by entwining iUdf 
anrand diem, being destitute of tendrils. Thus the hop (Humulus) ascends into 
the air by foreign aid, and it is a curious fstct that the direction of its windings is 
shvajB the same, namely, with the sun, from right to left; nor can any artificial 
training canse it to reverse its course. This appears to be a general law among 
twimng plants. Every individual plant of the same species revolves uniformly in 
one direction although opposite directions may characterize different species. 
Thns the Cdnrolvulus revolves from left to right, against the sun. 

189. Trunk. This is the name given to the peculiar stems 
of trees. It is the central collum, or axis, which supports their 
hninching tops, and withstands the assaults of the wind by 
means of the great frmness and strength of the woody or ligne- 
ous tissue in which it abounds. 

«• The trunk often attains to great dimensions. The white pine (Pinus 
■trobns) of the American forest, with a diameter of 6 or 7 feet, sometimes attains 
the height of 180, or even 200 feet, with a trunk straight, erect, and without a 
bnneh for more than two thirds its length. * 

* At the fint ettsbluhmcnt of Dartmouth College, there was felled upon the college plain a 
tree of this species, measuring 210 feet in length. A Bombax of the South American forests, 
neasnred by Humboldt, was 120 feet in height, and 15 in diameter. The Dagon tree on the 
i*taad of Tenerifle, is ssud to be 16 feet in diameter. Treea of the genus Adansonia, in Sane- 
V^ snd the Cape Verd Islands, have been found of more than 34 feet in diameter. The 
ftnons Chestnut tree on Mt. Etna, often mentioned by traTellen, is 64 feet in diameter, and 
W cqueatly near SOO feet drcamferBaeo. 



b. laiqjMd todaritioiiilraBftdiStoinw^NaaMtHiiingdHirgKnnhinafew 
jtan lud unmediateLj deojing, wfaila od the eoatttij, Um oidioAry agg at tzeea 
U beTOod the age of mui, and Bome ondive'iiuui^ geneiatioDa, as tbe oak, piae. * 

190. The suczzais a bianeh proceeding from the atein. or 
root, beneath the Boiface, {Hroducisg leaves, tec, sod throwing 
ont rootB fioiu its own boae, becoming an independent plant 
Ex. rose, raspberry. 

191. An oFFBET is n, short, lateral blanch, terminated by a 
dust^ of leaves, and capable of taking root when separated 
from the parent plant Ex. house-leek ( Sempervivum). 

192. A STOLoK is a branch which proceeds from an elevated 
part of the Btem, and afrerwards, descending to the earth, takes 
root sends up new shoots, and finally becomes a new plant It 
differs from the sucker, in originating above the ground and not 
below it 

FIO. 3t.~Foniu oTUm Kan ) I, Fnfula ; I, Viiia ) », MtdriU ; 3, einkoHlnfcrPuBMi 

193. A plurality of stems, or trunks, is observed in a few spe- 
cies of trees growing in tropical regions. The Banyan (Fictu 

lOWyun; i pine in All* Hlnoi, IBOOysui; ■ Esdirw Ml. L«buoB, 11» jetit, ud Ik* 
gnal cbsiBiul on All. EIna, MOO jtnn, II U bIk nppcwail thu Ihera (n yel bving, ia Ite 
" garden of Octhieniine," lonig of the oUm vUdi wimuHd our StvJaDi>* pauton ; )■' 
u Temi, Italy, ia an olive |>laiitailon nppoeed id han ulitad daw Ibe aga of PUaj. 


Mca), and the black Mangrove {Rkizophora mangle) are men- 
tmed as examples of tins sin^olar confomiadon. 

& The fonner originally- arises with a smgle tnmk. "Fiom the prindpttl 
bnmcfaes, when they hare become M widdly clSLtended as to tieed addiliioiial nip* 
port, long, leafleai shoots are sent down* When these shoots leach the earth) 
they take root, aod beeeme tew trunks, la all inspects similar to the first The 
Inodies thus supported still continue to advance, and other tnmks to descend, 
mtO a single tree becomes a groye or forest There is, in Hindostan, a tiee of 
ibis kind, called tihe Banyan, which is said by trayelleis to stand upon more tb«^^n 
aooo tnmks, mbdA to eover sn area of 7 acres. The Mangrove tfee is a natire of 
the W(9t BacBee. The ikew t^mnks of this tPo» tat said to be formed from the 
seeds wfaicii getttiinste withont beconung detacbed from the branches, sending 
down i«markabiy long, tapering nidides to the earth. 


194. The sixlx^tanee of herbaceous dtems is soft and succu- 
lent, consisting almost wholly of cellulajr tissue, traversed longi- 
tudinally by some few bundles (strings) oi woody fibre and 
yascular tissud> which diverge from the main stem into the 

195. This is essentially the stracture.of the first year's growth 
of perennial plants alsa Cellular tissue constitutes the frame- 
work of the yearly shoots of the oak, as well as of the annual 
pea, but in the fonner it becomes strengthened and consolidated 
by the d^>osition of ligneous fibre in subsequent years. 

0. Flaots dififer in respect to the arrangement of these fibres and yessels, and in 
the mode of their- increase ; on this difference is based that first grand distinction 
of Fhamogamona plants into Exogens and Endogens, to which allusion has 
already been made ( 12S— 7 ). 

196. The division of Exogens (outside growers) includes all 
the trees and most of the herbaceous plants of temperate cli- 
mates, and is so named because the additions to the diameter 
of the stem are made extemaUy to the part already formed. 

197. The division of Endooens (inside growers), including 
the grasses, and most bulbous plants of temperate regions, and 
the palms, canes, &c. of the tropics, is named from the accre- 
tions of the stem being made uniMth the portions already 

198. In the exogenous structure, the stem consists of the pith, 
wood, and bark. 

199. The FiTH (medulla) occupies the centnl part, of the 
stem. It consists of a light, spongy mass of cellular tissue, is 
chiefly abundant in young plants, and appeais to be serviceable 
only in the earlier stages of growth. It is then pervaded by 
fluids ; but as the plant advances in age, it becomes dry, being 
filled with air only, and much diminished in volume. 

PIO. SS.— ElDgnu,— (wli,Er, ftci Endofaiu, palm (Americin), Agmn, &c. 

200. Lnmediately around the pith is formed the heddlubt 
SBBATH, vhich is a thin, delicate membrane of vascular tissue 
(33), sending off a portion of its spiral vessels to the stalk uid 
veins of each leaf. This, with the leaves, is the only part of 
exogenous stems which usually contains spiral vessels. 

201. The WOOD is composed of concentric zones, or layeB, 
pervaded and intersected by the medullary rays (204). Tbe 
first, or inner layer, together with the pith and medullary sheath, 
is the product of the first year. One new layer is formed each 
successive year, during the life of the plant ; hence the whole 


mnnbeE of layers, if counted at the base, will ctarectly indicate 
the Bge of the tree. 

202. Each broody layer is composed of ligneous fibre, vaai' 
ioim tissue, and ducts {33,/'). The first gives strength and solid- 
ity to the trank, and determines the direction of the cleavage. 

(. Tbe AkU in ahraja flnt forrned ud lie in tfa« inner part next the centre. 
vliile the fiira are produced lowudi the end of die KaMin, and an deposited in 
tbe oater parts of Ihe lone. The former are distingaiilied b; tbe large nie of 
Aeiropen ends, while tbe wood; fibn^ are more mioule and compact. This dr- 
CBDUtance renders the limits of each laj^i distinctly perceptible in a cross section 

; 1, 1, 3, boriionlal, t, G, Tenical. I, Eioganoni Rem of on* 

, (, medDllaiT "7', if, woodj bonillH DCBIm UHl TiHal*; 

a, ^Ih, I, Ittik, b, c, d, iBociHiTs uinnal lafan ; 1, n, pilh, b, 

■baaili, E, doncd dncu, d, vood^ fibn, a, baik ; 3, Endogen' 

voody fibn, ipiiaJ TcueU, ud dneu, tmfulkrly dbpoaad 

Uians, », ipiimi (hhIi on iniur lidg of (, dotted dncta, d, 

I, LalJcileiDU muli ef ihe bark, 

S03. Ttie <mter and more raeent portion of the layen constitalei tia albus- 
"mtfolhu.white), or tap-wood. This i( nsaallj of a softer itmctnra and lifter 
o*lor than the rest of tbe wood, and it is through the Teisels of these lafen alonei 
dot Ihe sap ascends. Tbe interior lajen of the allmrnnm gradnallf harden by 
(be depDeitioD of solid secrelioiu in their vessels, nntil tbe; can no longer aHoff 
Ae pase^e of Snids Ihroogh them. Thus tbe DXJKunii (i^HrM, bard), or heart- 
*ood is Ibnaed, the texture of wbkh is firm and dniahle. It is talj tha dnia- 
■Mnirlud] is ds«A>I in the arts. 

80 THE 8TB1L 

204. The medullabt rats are Uiose fine lines which appear in 
a cross section of the stem, radiating from the pith to the baxk, 
intersecting all the intervening layers. They consist of thin, 
firm plates of cellular tissue ; being, like the pith, the remains of 
that ^tissue, which at the first constituted the whole of the stem. 

& ThMe i»js are quite oonspicuoofl in vertical sectionfi of the oak, or the 
m^de, where they are sometimes called the nbrnr gram. 

205. The BAB£ is the external covering of the stem, consisting 
of several integuments, of which the outer is the epidermis (35), 
that next within the celhUar integument, and the inner the Ulfcr. 

206. The structure of the two outer integuments is chiefly 
cellular, and that of the inner, or liber, is both cellular and 
woody. The ceUular integument is very* thick in Quercus 
suber, and constitutes that useful substance cork. The liber 
(Lat the inner bark, hence a book, because it was manufactured 
into parchment) is usually thin, delicate, and strong, and has 
be^i often applied to usefUl purposes, as in those trees of Poly- 
nesia from which cloth, mats, and sails are made. 

107. At the end of the spring a portion of the sap, now transformed into a 
Tiseid, ghitinons matter caBed com^ttMi, is deposited between the Ubtr and the 
woodf becomes orgainzed into cells, and forms a new layer upon eadL Soon 
afterwards, the new layers are pervaded by woody tnbes and fibres, vrfaich can- 
menee at the leaves and grow downwaxds. Thns the number of layers formed 
in the bark and wood wHl always be eqoid. 

a. Since the giow& of the berk takes place by inUmal accretions^ it foDows 
that the older layers must be carried ontwaids and oontinnally expanded. T!iiis> 
although smooth and entire at firsts they at length become shaggy and rongfa, 
with hmgitadinal forrowB and ridges, and finally they are cast off, as in the hem- 
lock, spmee, walnut, ftc Not tmfroqnently, however, the older layers are ex- 
tended in horizonta! grains, or fibres, endrding the stem, as in the white birch 
(Betnla papyracea). 

h. The peculiar virtues or qualities of the plant reside in the baik rather than 
In the wood ; hence this is the part chiefly used for medicine, dyes, taimin, ftc 

c. That Tasenlar system which is peculiar to the baik, serving for ilie dreola- 
tkm of its flttidf , is called the latiHfanmi fistiM (34). It exists in the fotm of a 
OQO^ele networic of vessels, through which the sap moves in all directions. 


208. We have already stated (156) that the stem serves to 
convey the sap horn the roots to the opposite extremities of the 

209. That portion of the stem which serves this important 
purpose is the alburnum (203). Through its ducts and fibres 
the sap is elevated to the leaves, wilii the vessels of which they 
communicate. Having been there elaborated by exhalation and 
detxnnposition into a certain nutritious fluid called latex, it de* 
acends by the laticiferous tissues of the liber. Of this descend- 
ing sap a part is carried inuHtrd from the bark by the medullary 
myB, and thus diflbsed through the whole stem; the remainder 
descends to the roots, and is in the same manner difiiised 
thsough their substance, both for their nourishment, and for the 
purpose of maintaining the conditions requisite for endosmose 


210. In the endogenous stem there is no distinction of pith, 
wood, and bark, nor does a cross-section es^iibit any concentrio 
arrangement of annual layers. (Hg. 26 ; 3, 5.) 

211. It is composed of the same tissues and vessels as that 
of the exogen, that-is, of cellular tissue, woody fibre, spiral ves- 
sels, and ducts; the first existing equally in all parts of Hhe 
stem, and the rest imbedded in it in the form of bundles. 

212. Each bundle consists of one or more ducts, with spiral 
vessels adjoining their inner side next the centre of the stem, 
and woody fibres on their outer side, as in the exogen. 

a. A new Kt of these bundles is formed ammallj, or oftener, proceeding from 
tile leaves and passing downwards in tbe central parts of the stem, where the cel- 
blar tisoe is most idxmdani and soft After descending awhile in this manner, 
th^ tun OQtwazds, and interlace themselves with those which were previously 
fonned. Hence the lower and outer portions of the palms, and other endogens, 
iKcome exoeedingly dense and baid, even so as to resist the stroke of the axe. 

k. The age of most endogenoos trees, as the palms, wonid seem to be limited 
hj this pecnliarity of growth. The stem at length becomes incapable of farther 
increase in diameter, and the lower portions of it so densely filled with the de- 
scending fibres as to become impervious to all succeeding ones, and the tree 
laogoishes and dies. 

e Endogenoos stems, both herbaceous and woody, are often hollow* with solid 
joints ; as in the grasses and bamboo. 




213. The leaf constitutes the verdure of plants, and is by fiur 
the most conspicuous and beautifid object in the scenery of 
nature. It is also of the highest importance in the vegetable 
economy, being the organ of digestion and respiraUan. 

214. The leaf is characterized by a thin and expanded foim, 
presenting the largest possible surface to the action of the air 
and the light, which agents axe indispensable to the life and In- 
crease of the plant. 

215. The color of the leaf is almost universally green, which 
of all colors is the most agreeable to the eye ; but its intensity 
varies by infinite shades, and is often finely contrasted with the 
more delicate tints of the fiower. Towards maturity its verdure 
is changed, often to the most brilliant hues, as red, crimson, 
orange, yellow, giving pur autumnal forest scenery a gaiety, 
variety, and splendor of coloring, which the wildest fancy could 
scarcely surpass. 

a. The color of the leaf is due to minute globales, or gnuns, called chloropkj^ 
(green leaf), adheiing to the insides of the cells, jnst beneath the cuticle, and 
composed of caibon and hydrogen, with a small proportion of oxygen. Their 
change of color in antnmn, is stated by Macaire to depend upon their oxydatioiL 
As the leaves in automn absorb more oxygen by night than they eyolve by daj, 
an excess is gradnally added to the chlorophyll, which changes the green first to 
yellow, then to orange, red, and crimson snccessiyely, according to the qaaatitj 
absorbed. The saine effect may be produced by adds. 

6. As flowers are modifications of leaves, it is probable that their varioos and 
splendid coloring is due to the same source, namely, the modifications of the 
dilorophyll by various degrees of oxydation, or by the presence of adds or alkft* 
lies in the cells. 


216. A leaf-bud contains a collection of undeveloped leaves, 
folded together in such a manner as to occupy the least possible 
space. The particular manner in which the young leaves are 
folded in the bud, varies in dififerent species, and is called vee- 



& Hht tennfion of Hie leaf is eodiibited in a most intenstiiig maimer, bj 
Mkmg, with a keen instniment, a cross-Bection of the bad in its swoUen statei 
jut before its expansion ; or it may Be well obeerved by removing the scales. 

217. The forms of Temation are mostly similar to those of sestiyation (108), 
ad are expressed by similar terms. Some of the principal are ihe following: 

1. EquUamt^ oyeriapiung each 
other in a parallel manner, with- 
out any inyolotion, as in the 
leaves of the Iris. 

2. 06tN>Zu^oneof themaigina 
of each leaf interior and the 
other exterior to the margin of 
the leaf opposite. Ex. sage. 

no. 27.— Fonntorvernatioa. The aamben agree 3. SiooZtite, having the edg«i 
vnli the oorrespoDdiiig paiagraphM. rolled inwards. Ex. apple, violetk 

4. Bimltui^ the maigins rolled ontwards or badEwardB. Ex. willow, TOKmuj 

5. QmoolMU, the leaf wholly rolled up from one of its sides, aa in the cheny. 

6. FUsiUd, each leaf folded like a fan. Ex. vine, bhnch. 

7. Oereiiwte, when rolled downwards from the apex. Ex. sundew, fern. 


218. Id regard to their insertion upon the axis, the anange- 
ment of the young leaves in the bud is nearly or quite circular, 
but by the development of the axis, this arrangement is modi- 
fied in various ways, and the leaves are then said to be 

1. Scattered^ or irregular, as in the potatoe. 

2. Ahemate, one above the other, on opposite sides. Ex. pea. 

3. Opposite, two against each other at the same node (172). 

Ex. Hydrangia. 

4. Verticillate, or whorled, more than two in a circle at each 

node. Ex. meadow lily. 

5. Foiciculate, or tuiled, in crowded whorls, or spires. Ex. 


219 We have formerly shown how some of these modes of arrangement may 
^ reconcQed with the spiral (174, a), and we here add, that, in general, when the 
leaves are said to be scattered or alternate, they will be found, by the attentive 
*«enrer, to be strictly, though perhaps uregulorly, spiral; — always so in the 
•nnaal shoot 

«. Thus m the potato-vine, above dted, or in the honse-leek, poplar, &&, if wo 
^innmence at the lower leaf, and draw a line to the next above it, thence to the 
l^t and 80 on to the sixth leaf, we shall have gone just once aronnd the stem, 



describing one torn of an elongated spire, so that each nxlh leaf only u placed 
exactlj above the first 

b. In the strictly alternate airangement, we shall have made one complete tun 
on arriving at every third leaf. But this is rare. More commonly the third leaf 
is a little to the right or left of the perpendicular line on which the first is in- 
serted, so that several tarns mnst be made before we arrive at one -vrhidi is 
exactly in that line. 

c. The opposite, or whorled, arrangement may be referred to the non-deTelop- 
ment of some of the intemodes j bnt a better theory is that which sapposes seve- 
ral coordinate spires arising side by side : <too, when the leaves are opposite^ and 
tkretj or more, when they are whorled. For the leaves of the second paor, or 
whorl, are never placed exactly above those of the first, bnt above their tntervemtig 
spaceij in accordance with the alternation of the petals with the sepals, &c. (61, b), 

220. In regard to their position upon the plant, leaves are 
radical, when they grow out of the stem at or beneath, the sur- 
face of the ground, so as to appear to grow from the roots ; cem- 
Une, when they grow from the stem, and ravmal {ramus, a 
branch) when from the branches. 


221. A leaf may be regarded as an expansion of the two 
outer integuments of the bark (205) extended into a bioad, thin 
surface by a woody framework, or skeleton, proceeding from the 
medullary sheath (200). This broadly expanded part is called 
the LAMINA, or BLADE of the leaf, and it is either sessile, that is, 
connected to the stem by its base, or it is petiolate, connected to 
the stem by a foot-stalk called the petiole. 

222. The petiole, therefore, where it exists, is the unexpanded 
part of the leaf, but like the claws of the petals (102), it is not 
an essential part, and is oflen wanting. Its form is rarely cylin- 
dric, but is usually flattened or channeled on the upper side. It 
is said to be 

1. Compressed, when it is flattened in a vertical direction, so 
that it is agitated by the slightest breath of air, as in the aspen 

2. Winged (margined), when it is flattened or expanded later- 
ally into a border. Ex. orange. 

3. Amplexicaul (sheatliing), when it is dilated at the base into 
a margin which embraces or surrounds the stem, as in the Um* 

t J 

VEINS. 85 

223. The lamina is generally of a rounded oval outline, longer 
than wide^ with equal sides but unequal ends. It is, however, 
subject to variety almost infinite in this respect The end of 
the blade next the stem is the base, and that most remote, the 

224. A leaf is simple when its blade consists of a single piece, 
liowever cut, defl, or divided ; and compound when it consists 
of several distinct blades, supported by as many branches of a 
tompcund petiole. 

226. The frame-work, or skeleton, of the lamina above men- 
tioned, consists of the ramifying vessels of the petiole, while the 
Jamina itself is, of course, parencka/ma (29). These vessels are 
collectively called vetns^ from the analogy of their functions. 

226. The manner in which the veins are divided and distrib- 
"ttted is termed venation. The oigans of venation, difilering from 
each other only in size and position, may be termed the nUdvein^ 
veuw, veinlets, and veimdets. (The old terms nddrib and nerves, 
being anatomically absurd, are here discarded.) 

227. The nUdvein is the principal prolongation of the petiole, 
nmning directly through the lamina to the apex ; as in the leaf 
of the ^nrch. If there be several similar divisions of the petiole, 
ladiating firom the base of the leaf, they are appropriately 
termed the veins; and the leaf is said to be three-veined, five- 
veined, Jbc Ex. maple. 

228. The primary branches sent off from the midvein or the 
veins we may term the veinlets; and the secondary branches, or 
those sent ofiffrom the veinlets, are the veinulets, 

Si9. There are three prindpal modes of Yenation which are, in general, char> 
^cteistic of the three grand diyieions of the yegetable kingdouL 

Ist Reticulate or net veined, as in Exogens. The petiole is 
pioloDged into the leaf in the form of the midvein, or several pri- 
Diary branches, dividing and subdividing into branchlets, which 
nnite again, and by their frequent inosculations form a kind of 
network. Ex. maple, bean. 

2iid. FaraUelrveined, as in Endogens. In this kind of vena- 
^on file veins are all parallel, whether proceeding from the base 
of the leaf to the apex, or sent off laterally from the midvein, and 

sre alwafs connected by simple tnuurerBe veinlets. Ex. gnus 

3d. I'brited^vem^d, as in the CryptoguniR, when the veina 
divide and sabdi^de by finked diyisions which do not mutt 
again. Ex. fenur. 

330. Of Ih« first kind of renalioii, the rtticntaU, tben are two TsrieliEs lAoA 
iMen* Ibe most cncAtl attentioD. Tht jMUur^miiid mA the ra rf io fa tw i w rf . 

1. The Jiather^eined leaf is that in which the venaticm con- 
sists of a midvein, giving oS* at intervals lateral Teiolets utd 
branching vdnalets. Ex. beech, chestnut. 

2. In the radiate-veinid, the venation consists of several 
veina ( f 227) of nearly equal size, radiating from the base 
towards the circumference, each with its own system <^ Tetnlets 
and veinnlets. Ex. maple, crow-foot 

3. In parallel venation, the veins are either straight, as in the 
hneax leaf of the gntsses, curved, as in the oval leaves of the 
Orchis, or tramverse, as in the Canna, Calla, ice 

ft. FORM OR neuRB. 
S91. That infinitt Tarietf cS beanlifal and graceCnl fbnna fbr which the W i> 
fstingiiidied, become* iottUigible to the stndont only when viewed in conneelK* 
with ha Tenatioo. Since h it through the reins alone that nntiimenl is coDTered 
for die detelopment and Gxteniion of the parenchTma, it fotloHi that iheie wiS 
be the greatest extension of imtlmt when the veins are Iniseat and woei oanK*^ 
ons. Consequently, the form of the leaf vrill depend npon llic direction of ^ 
Teins, and the -rigor of their acUon, in developing the iotervening ti^me- '<' 
this iiUet«*linE theory we are indebted to Alpbonse De Candle. 



m, Xn our descfqition of indrndnal fbnuBi we shall seleet only the most mauk- 
dble, lesriog others for explanation in the Glossary. 

The most obvions arrangement is that which is founded npon the modes of Ad 
Tcming; bat it should be premised that different forms of Tenation often give rise 
ao the same outline. 

232. Of PEATHER-VEiNED Icavcs, the following forms depend 
on the length of the veinlets in relation to each other, and to the 
xmdvein. If the middle veinlets are longer than the rest, the leaf 
will be 

1, Orhiadar (ronndish), as in Pyrola rotimdifolia. 

FIG. IS. — FlgOTM of feather-^Ytined learet. The BUiaben reftr to pangnphs. a, daltata 
leafof Popnlas. 

2. EQiptical (oval), as in Lespedeza prostrata; or • 

3. Oblong (narrow-oval). Ex. Arenaria lateriflora. 

If the lower veinlets are longer than the rest,the leaf will be 

4. OvaU (egg-shaped), as in the Mitchella repens, or 

5. Lanceolate (lance-shaped), narrow, and tapering to each 
end. Ex. sweet-wilHam. 

When the veins are most developed towards the summit of 
the leaf, it becomes 

6. Ohovate (inversely egg-shaped), as in the walnut; or 

7. SpathtdcOe (shaped like a spathula), as in the daisy. 
Again, if the lowest veinlets are longest, sending off veinulets 

backwards, the leaf will be 

8. Cordate (heart-shaped), like the ovate fcrm, with a hollow 
(sinus) at the base, as in the lilac. 

9. AuricukUCt having ear-shaped lohes at the base. Ex. 



88 THE LEAr. 

10. Hdttate (halbert-shaped), hollowed out at the base no* 
sides. Ex. Bitter-sweet 

11. ^Si^tttate (arrow-shaped), with pointed, descending lobei 
at base. Ex. Polygonum sagittatum ; Sagittaiia \ Sea. 

12. Menifijrm (kidney-shaped), broad, rounded at the ap&K; 
and hollowed at the base, as in the Asanim Canadeiise. 

a. The following fonns depend less upon the proportioD of 
the veinlets than on the impetfect development of the tissue 

FIO, 90.— 13— IS, IjnntDfftitlMT-TdBtdluTMilhBraoubiduarndlaM-niiisiL 

13. Jtuncinate (re -uncinate), having the margin extended nt 
the veins into pointed segments, which curve backwards. Ex. 

14. Jjyrate (lyre- shaped), with several deep, rounded siuuses, 
occasioned by deficiency of tissue between the lower veinlets ; 
water-cress (Sisymbrium). 

15. Pinnatijid (fcathcr-cleft), with deep sinuses between the 
veinlets, separating each margin of the leaf into oblong, par- 
allel segments. Ex. Lojiidium, 

16. Sinitate, having deep, rounded openings between the 
veinlets, seen in the leaves of the white oak. 

233. Radiate-veined leaves assume many forms, depending 
apon the direction of the veins, and the quantity of the inter- 
vening tissue. Some of them are the following. 

17. I'alnuae (palm-shaped), haring five lobes, with as many 
veins (227) separated by deep divisions, so as to resemble the 
palm of the hand with the fingers. Ex. passion-flower. 


I 16. JXgtitiU (Bnget-titxped), having nanower and deeper 
I s^ments than the palmltte, aa in the hemp. 

19. FtdMe (foot-shaped). The same as palmate, except that 
Ihe two lateral lobes aie themselves subdivided, as in the 
peony and passion-flower. 

20. Lacimate (gashed), the veins and veinleta separate, as il 
lh« blaJe were cut and gashed with scissors. £x. Banunculua. 

21. febaU (shield-like), the veins radiating in all diiectioju, 
ind all connected by intervening tissne. This fonn is gener 
|lly also orbicular, and appears to resnit from the union of the 
base-lobes. Ex. Fodophylliun peltatum, Tropeolum, Biaaenia. 

22. S^fnifarm, broad-ovate, broad-cordate. Sec, may also result 
liom the radiate veining. 

234. The form of fasallel-vbinbd leaves is less diversified 
than that of the preceding classes, being 

23. Linear, when the veins (and Gbies) are straight, as in the 
grasses. This form may also occur in the feather- veined leaf 
by an equal development of all the veinleta as in IJoaiia vul- 
garis, kc 

FtO. 3L— 33, 94, SB, figsn* ol 

84. OtW, kmceoUde, oblong, or some kindred form, when the 
veins are curved, as in Carex, Cypripedium, Orchis, &c., or it 

25. Cordate, when some of tjie lower veins are curved back- 
wards and then npwards, as in Pontaderia, and even sagittate, 
'ten they are directed downwards at the base, as in the Sagit- 


26 Acerose (needle-shaped), when there is little or no distino- 
tion of lamina, petiole, or veins, as in the leaves of the pine. 

(6. MARGIN. 

235. The margin of the leaf is also modified ddefLy by die 
same causes which affect the form. It is said to be 

1. Entire, when eyen-edged. This may result from the frill derelopment of the 
tissae, or from a yein romiing parallel with the maigizL Ex. lilac, lily. 

2. Dentate (toothed), the tissue incomplete, having teeth with concave edges, 
pointing outwards from the centre. Ex. hawkweed. If the teeth are veiy fine, 
the margin is said to be denticulate. If the teeth are themselves toothed, it ii 
doubly dentate. 

3. Serratey having sharp teeth pointing forward like the teeth of a saw Ex 
Bosa. If the serratores are very small, it is eemdate. If they an tfaemsetTes 
serrate, it is dotMy eerrate. 

4. Crenatey notched with rounded or convex teeth, as in Glechoma. If such 
notches are veiy small, it is cremdate, 

5. Eirose (gnawed), having the maigin irregnlarly toothed, or Jagged, as if 
bitten by animab. 

6. I^wfuZate (wavy), the margin rising and falling like waves. Ex. Amaranthoa 

7. Spinougy when the veins project far beyond the tissue in sharp spines, as in 
the thistle. Such leaves are said to be armed^ and the opposite oonespondiBg 
term is iMuirmtti. 

8. inciMed (cut), margin divided by deep incisions. 

9. La£iniate (torn), divided by deep and irregular gashes. 

10. Critpedy margin much expanded and curled by a superabundance of tisnM. 
as in the mallows. 

11. iZgxifuf, having the margin slightly concave between the projecting veiu. 
Ex. Solannm nigrum. 

{6. APEX. 

236. In regard to the termination of a leaf at its apex, it if 
said to be 

1. JieuUy when it ends with an acute angle. 

2. Obtuuy when it ends with a segment of a ditde. 

3. jicumuuUe, ending with a long, tapering point 

4. £ymzf;gfnato, having a small notch at the end. 

5. Betuee, terminating with a round end, having the centre depressed. 

6. Mucronate, abruptly terminated by a short, hard, bristly pointy &e. 


237. The following terms are employed in descriptive botany, 
chiefly to denote the modifications of the surface (epideixnis) 



of tbe leaf. They are, however, equally applicable to the sur- 
ftce of any other organs. (41, a.) 

I. Glalmia, imoetJi ; denotmg Che absence of all hain or biiBtles. HjdnngM. 

1, iUarait, coror^d mth aoCi haia or down. LonicBrBi^^Ioetaaiil. 

S. BDygk, with haii, ihort, even points. Borago (rfOciiulis. 

4. KIdjc, with Abort, weak, thin hun. Pnmella Tulgatia. 

i. fibory, white, with Tcry abort, dense burs. Gnapbaltmn. 

& Fillow, with long, thin hain. Solidago altiuima. 

T. (KxiUy, with long, dense, matted burs. Mntlein. 

& TommtoM, with dense, short, and rather rigid hain. 6plR* tomentoaa. 

9. Aigote, Ibe tisme between the reticulated vein« convex, &om lis laperabim- 
Juce. Sage. 

10, Pumetatt, dotted with pellndd glands (44, «). Hypericum pnnctatom. 


S38. When a mnple leaf becomes a compound one, the divis- 
ion takes place upon the same principle as the separation of an 
entire leaf into segments, lobes, and teeth, namely, from a defi- 
dency of parenchyma; the number and airangement of the 
leaflets will therefore, in like manner, depend upon the mode of 

239. The divisions of a compoimd leaf are called leaflets, 
ud the same distinctions of outline, margin, ko., occur in them 
•> in simple leaves. In the truly compound leaf, each leaflet 


(whicli is usuedly supported on a distinct stalk), is articulated 
(artictUaj a joint), with the main petiole, and separates from it 
in decay. 

240. From the feather veined arrangement may result the 
following forms of compound leaves : 

1. Pinnate (winged), where the petiole (midvein) bears a row 
of leaflets on eax:h side, generally equal in number and oppo- 
site, as in the Acacia. 

2. A pinnate leaf is said to be eguaUy pinnate where the 
petiole is terminated by neither leaflet nor tendril, as the Cassia 
Marilandica, and unequally pinnate when it is terminated by an 
odd leaflet or by a tendril Ex. rose, locust, pea. In the latter 
case the leaf is called cirrhose. 

3. An interruptedly pinnate leaf hasHfte leaflets alternately 
small and large, as in the potato, avens. 

4. A pinnate leaf sometimes consists of as many as twenty or 
thirty pairs of leaflets, as in the Astragalus. Sometimes the 
number of leaflets is but three, and the leaf becomes temate or 
trifoliate, as in the ash ; and, finally, it is sometimes, by the non- 
development of the pinncB (pairs) reduced to a single terminal 
leaflet, as in the lemon. Such a leaf is known to be compound 
by the articulation of the leaflet to the petiole. 

6. A bipinnate leaf (twice pinnate), is formed when the leaf- 
lets of a pinnate leaf themselves become pinnate. Ex. Fuma- 
na officinalis. 

6. A tripinnate leaf (thrice pinnate), is formed when the leaf- 
lets of a bipinnate leaf become pinnate, Ex. Araha spinosa. In 
the leaf of the honey-locust ( Gleditschia), we sometimes find all 
these three degrees of division, namely, the pinnate, bipinnate, 
and tripinnate, curiously combined, illustrating the gradual tran- 
sition of the simple to the most compound leaf 

7. A bitemate leaf is formed when the leaflets of the temate 
leaf become themselves temate, as in Fumaria lutea. 

8. A tritemate leaf is formed when the leaflets of a bitemate 
leaf become again temate. Ex. Aquilegia, 

241. The following forms of compound leaves may result 
firom the division of a radiate'Veined leaf; the temate, bitemate^ 
&C., already mentioned ; 



9. Qidnate, when there are five leaflets radiating from the 
same point of the petiole, as in Fotentilla argentea. 

10. Sepiinate, when there are seven leaves ftom the same 
point in the petiole, and so oil 

242. With regard to insertion, the leaf is said to be 

1. Amplezicaul, when its base surrounds or clasps the stem. 

12 4 3 9 

FIG. 33. — Biodet of inMitkm. 

2. Ferfi}liate, when the base lobes of an amplexicaul leaf are 
muted together, so that the stem appears to pass through the 

3. Becurrent, "when the base lobes of the leaf grow to the 
stem below the point of insertion, so that the leaf seems to run 
doumwards (Lat decurro), 

4. Oownatey when the bases of two opposite leaves are united. 

5. SteUaUy verticillate, or whorled, when several leaves are 
arranged around the stem at the same node. 

243. It is (rflen fonnd necessary, in the description of a plant, to combine two 
or more of the terms abore mentioned, to express some intermediate figure or 
qnalitj; thus ovate4anctokUej signifying between ovate and lanceolate, &c 

0. The Latin preposition tub (under), prefixed to a descrxptiye term, denotes 
file quality which ^e term expresses, in a lower degree, as wubiosiU, nearly ses- 
iile, mk$erraU, somewhat serrate, &c 


244. In the teazel (Dipsacns) of onr own fields, and in the Tillandsia, or wild 
pine of Sonth America, there are hollows at the point of nnion between the leaf- 
stalk and the stem, capable of holding a considerable amount of water. The 
midnb and petiole of the leaves of the Aram, also, are channeled oat in sach a 
manner as to convey water to the axil. 

245. Bat the most remarkable of all leaves are those which are hollowed ont 
into the form of pitchers, called ascidia. 

a. In the Sarracenia, a plant common in oar own peat-bogs, these pitchers are 
evidently formed by the very deep channeling of the petiole, and the uniting 
together of the involute edges of its winged margin so as to form a complete 
va«e, with a broad expansion at the top, which may be regarded as the true leaf. 

(f4 THS LEAF. 

The ascidia thus formed are always foil of water, in which insects are drowned. 
being prevented from escaping by the deflexed hairs at the mouth. 

246. The Nepenthes is a native of tfae^East Indies. Its proper leaves are ses- 
sile and lanceolate. The midvein extends beyond the apex, like a tendxil, to Hie 
length of six or eight inches. The extremity of this tendril is inflated into a hol- 
low vessel similar to a pitcher, and usually contains about half a pint of pure 
water. It is furnished with a leafy lid, connected to it by a ligament which ex* 
pands or contracts according to the state of the atmosphere, so that the cup is 
open in damp weather to receive moisture finom the air, and dosed in diy weather 
to prevent its evaporation. 

FIG. 34. — Ascidia. 1, Saxracenia pnxpurea ; S, Nepenthes dirtillatoxia ; 3, Diichidia Ra^ 

247. Another wonderful provision of this kind is observed in a plant growing 
in the forests of India, called Dischidia. It is a twming plant, ascending the tsll 
trees to the distance of 100 feet from its roots, and destitute of leaves except near 
its top. These cannot, therefore, it would seem, derive much nourishment from 
llie earth. The pitchers seem formed of a leaf with its edges rolled towards each 
other, and adherent, and its upper end, or mouth, is open to receive whatever 
moisture may descend into it, of which there is always a considerable quanti^. 
But the greatest marvel in its structure is yet to be described. Several buodlei 
of absorbent fibres, resembling roots (142, 6), are sent out from the nearest parti 
of the stem and enter the pitchers and spread themselves through the cavitf. 
The design of this apparatus scarcely needs be mentioned. 

248. The leaf of Venus* fly-trap (DionsBa muscipula), native at the south, is 
also of a very curious construction. At the extremity of each leaf are two lobea 
bordered with spines. In the cavity between the lobes are several shaxp pointi 
projecting upwards, and a gland which secretes a liquor attractive to insects. But 
when an unlucky fly, in search of food, alights upon it, the irritable lobes instantly 
dose and impale him in their fatal embrace. 

249. Stipules are certain leaf-like expansions situated on 
each side of the petiole, at its base. They are membranous, 
leathery, or spiny. They do not occur in every plant, but are 
pretty uniformly present in each plan* of the same natural order 
Ex. pea, rose, Viola tricolor. 

250. Stipules are generally supposed to be acctuory leavet, altfaoiig^ their 

mvoLvoax. M 

Mion ia c«ittinl7 ofaflciiHi. Thoy are eul^ect lo the wme kwi of TCiutioD aod 

i>m, perform tlie ume ftutcdoiu, and are sometimea almost nndiatingnishable 
bom [be leaves themselves, Tbe; ako (very Tsrely) develop bads in (heir auls. 
0. Wlien Ibej grvir from the item itself, they inity, therefore, be regaided as 
ndnseDtary Iota, bal when from the base of the petiole, as ia molt eommcm, 
di^ an the nndereloped Ua^UU of a piimate leaf, aa in the rose. 

251. When leaves are furnished with stipules they are said 
lo be itipu/ate, and when without them they are exstipulaU. 
Ihe stipules which are situated at the btiae of kafleU are called 

252, Bracts, called also Jlorcd leaves, are leaf-like append- 
ages, intermediate between leaves and the floral oi^ans. From 
leaves they are generally distinguished by their being placed 
near the flower, their smaller size, their difference in form, and 
often in color. 

us. That bracts are of the same tuUnre as leaves is perfectly endeot, for so 
pvdul is the tcansition between them that no abeolnte limit) ctm be asugned. 
Tiul, thej hare a common origin with the sepals of the caljz also, is eqaally crl- 
^tat, — lo imperceptibly do the latter pass into bracts; afTording one of the 
■''Mgest proofi) of the doctrine of floral meiamoiphosis. 

a. Bracts have received diffenint names, according to their ammgement and 
dtnatioiL They eon&liliile )(□ 

254. Involucre, when they are nrrfinged in a whorl, and snr 
[onnd several flowers. In the Phlox, and generally, it is green, 

96 TUB tfeAF. 

but sometimes, as in the CornuSi it is eolored like petals. Stii* 
ated at the base of a compound umbel (305, a) it is called a 
general involucre, at the base of a partial umbel a partial invo- 
lucre, or in/volucel, both of which are seen in the Umbellifeia^. 

255. In the Composite the myolacre coimsts of imbricated bracts, often is 
seveiBl whorls surrounding the base of the heads (oompoiind flowers), as the 
ealyx sniroiinds a simple flower. 

266. In the grasses, the bracts subsist under the common name of husk or 
chaff, to which is attached the awn or beard. The bracts situated at the base of a 
spikelet of flowers, are called the ghane, corresponding to the involucre. ThoM 
situated at the base of each separate flower are paUa^ answering to the calyx, a 
corolla. The pieces, of which each glume or palea is composed (generallj two) 
are called voftwi. 

fia DVRATtON. 

257. Leaves, although so oniyersal an acG(«ipaniment of ycgelation, are only 
temporary appendages. They rapidly attain their growth, and in a great ms- 
jority of cases flourish but a single season, at the end of whid^ they pcridi, 
although the plant on which they grew may continue to flourish for ages. To 
mark their duration more accurately, leaves are said to be 

1. FugadatUy when they fall off early, before the end of summer. 

2. IkcidwmSf when they endure for a single season and fall in autumn. 

3. Pomttaity or evergree n ^ when they remain through all seasons, retaining thdr 
color until the new leaves of the following spring appear, so that the plant ii 
always verdant In accordance with the last two distinctions, plaats are said to 
be DECIDUOUS, or bvbrobbbn. 

258. The fall of the leaf in temperate climates, occurs near the end of autmnn, 
and marks an important era in the year. The first symptoms of decay are seen 
in the changes of color from green to various shades of gold and crimson. These 
gorgeous hues, gradually fading, at length give place to a pale russet, the com- 
mon color of the faded leaf. 

259. Defoliationy or the separation of the leaf from the stem, is due to sevenl 
causes. During the latter part of the summer, the vessels become clogged by die 
deposition of earthy and solid matter contained in the sap, until they can no lon- 
ger admit the free circulation of the fluids through them. The whole stmcton 
consequently loses its vitality, dries up, and withers, and is flnally cast off at the 
point of articulation, as a dead part is from the living body of an animaL 


260. Since the frame-work of the leaf is merely a divergent 
portion of the medullary sheath (200), it must consist essentially 
of the same tissues, namely, spiral vessels accompanied by 
woody fibre, that is, JSbro-vetscular tissue. 


a. The tissne of tbe lamina, in like raonaer, must essentially 
(WTTespond with the outer integuments of the bark, of which it 
is but an extension. That pecnliar fonn of cellular tiuue of 
which it is composed is called parenchyma. 

261. Tba parenchyma of the leaf exists in two layers, as 
rai^t be inferred &om the mannei' in which it is produced 
(221). In all those leaves which are oidinaiily horizontal in 
position, one surface being upwards and the other downwaids, 
these two layers are dissimilar in structure ; but in those leaves 
where the lamina is v^tical, as in the iiis, they do not mate- 
hally differ. 

a. The whole Btrnctnre is, of conrse, dothed with the epi- 

KL The fatamal itm c tuw ^tlM panediTm* li mon otnnplicaltd Ouu wonld 
b« *t Ant nppowd. A powMfoI microMope ii neceaurr for its ezuninuio^ 
Let *n emcdingl/ thm fMrmg be taken from a, rertickl aectioQ of the lunlnA 
■Dd mbnhied to die tolMi (or onnpoimd) nuCTowxqw, tn nch ft m&nner tliAt Aa 
raji «haI1 past from seclioii to section. Tig. 86 rapreaent* & niLgnlfled view o' 
ludi ft paring of the leaf of the lily, which raaj be ngaided u chancteriitie of 
letTca in general 

ne- «■ — I, UifiOHl MMiiia of ■ iMtf oflba lOr i S, of tb* (pMniBb wiifa uamMa. 

IW- 'nieappeTnuAee(a,a)lithniaeenlDconfistortheflftttenedceUioftIiG 
*t^^mm, airanged {n a single l»yer. Joat beneath thia (i, ft) ia the more com- 
TM pan <tf the pawuchynift, consadng of ft layer of oblone cella placed in mch a 
poolioa ibM ifaeir longer ftxis is perpendieolar to tbe leaf's snr&ce. Next below 
w« meet with the parenchyma of the lower sm&ce (e, e), composed of oblong 
tdk ananged longitudinally, and so loosely compacted aa to lea™ larger empty 
•paMa between. Lastly, we find again the epidennis (d, d) of the under aor&co 
"Jlh ttomftts (», (), opening Into air-ohambeta. 

a- Within all the resides of the parendiyma are seen adhering to die walla, 
•• Biwn i^bolea (chkwoph^) vUoh girt edor Ip die pmocliTma,— dark 


green above, where it is more compact; bat paler beneath, yrheie the oelhi an 
more loose and separate. 

264. The empty spaces between the cells, called intercellular, communicate 
with the external air by means of the stomata (37 — 39), which are generuQj 
found only in the lower smface. In those leaves, however, whose position is uit' 
urally vertical instead of horizontal, stomata are found equally on bath soi&oes. 
In other leaves, as in the Nymphsea, they are found upon the iqfper sui&oe alone^ 
the lower being in contact with the surface of the water. 

265. The ve89eU of the latex (34) are distributed through the under layer of tho 
parenchyma. These are prolongations of the ramiiled veins, which, haying 
reached the edge of the leaf, double back upon themselves, pervade the lower eun- 
face, and axe again collected into the petiole, through which they are fiosOy 
returned into the bark. 

266. A singular structure occurs in llie Oleander of Barbary, and other planto 
of hot and arid regions. The epidermis on the upper surfoce is double and Teiy 
compact, and there are few if any stomata on the lower snrfiBce, their pliees 
being supplied by cavities within its substance, opening outwards by a small wpa- 

tare J and covered within by minute hairs. These peculiarities are adapted to tbe 
conditions of the air and soil in which the Oleander flourishes. The hairs ahsoib 
moisture from the air, which the cavities readily retain, while the double e{iida> 
mis effectually restrains its evaporation. 


267. These are exhalation, absorption, respiration, and diges- 
tion, and the resiQt of their combined action is the conversion 
of the crude sap, absorbed from the soil by the roots, into the 
proper jidce or latex, for the nourishment and increase of the 
plant, with its various products. 

268. The crude sap consists of water holding in solution 
minute quantities of various kinds of solid and gaseous matter 
derived from the soil. In its passage from the root to the 
leaves, its composition is somewhat modified by dissolving the 
previously formed secretions, which it meets with on its way. 

269. Exhalation is the process by which the superabundant 
water of the sap is given ofi* to the atmosphere, so that the re- 
maining sap is reduced, as it were, by concentration, and con- 
tains a greater proportion of solid matter. It is analogous to 
perspiration in animals. ' 

270. It is to be distinguished from evaporation; the latter 
depending solely upon heat and the state of the air, and being, 
in plants, almost wholly restrained by the epidermis. 

271. Exhalation appears to take place through the stomata 


doae. But itiice these wte opened by the mfiaence of the light 
and dosed in its absence, it follows that exhalation can proceed 
only in the presence of thelight (155). 


a. Ka piste of glass be held near the tmdar smfooe of an acthre leaf of tta 
Hfdnngea, in a still air, it will soon be ooTcred with dew; but if the experiment 
he lepeated by holding the glass over the vpper 8nr£Eu», it will remain diy. 
Again, if the Ught be soddenly exdnded from the plant in a state of active 
growth, it will immediately cease to transpire, whatever be the temperatore ; and 
if the stomata be Ihen examined they wffl be found eUted, 

272. That exhalation and absorption by the roots are mntoaHy dependent npon 
each other, haa already been stated (155). The quemtity of flnid discharged by 
tiw former may therefore be inferred from that of the latter. This has also been 
confirmed by experiment A sunflower 3^ feet high, was ascertained by Hales 
to transjrire from 20 to 30 oz. of water daily; a cabbage from 15 to 25 oz., &e. 
£zperonents have alee been made upon single leaves, recendy plucked, with the 
petiole immersed in water. Thus a leaf of the sunflower, weighing 31 grains, 
abeoibed and exhaled its own weight of water in 6 hours. 

213. Absoxftion is pximanly the office of the roots (154), but 
in certain circumstances it is performed by the leaves also. 

0. When tha roots are imperfect, or wanting, or serve merely to fix the plant 
in its positbn, as in some aerial parasites, and in some of the Orehidaceai, it is 
evident that the plant must derive its nourishment chiefly from the absorption 
perfonned by the leaves. Experiment also proves that the leaves of plants in 
genenU are capable of this function. Every one knows how plants, when pardied 
and withered by drought, are revived by a shower which does not readi their 
roots, but only moistens their leaves. 

274. The lower surface of the leaf appears to be chiefly instrumental in absorp- 
tion. This is readily shown by experiment Leaves with their lower surfaces in 
contact with the water, remain fresh much longer than others with their upper 
■nr&ces thus placed. Leaves of the white mulberry, with the upper surface only 
in contact with water, faded in six days, while others, reversed in position, lasted 
as many months. 

275. Respiration in plants is analogous to respiration, or 
hrtaihmg, in animals. In both it is equally constant and equally 
necessary. It is performed principally by the leaves, but is not 
confined to them, being partially performed by other parts also, 
even by the roots. 

276. Bespiration consists of the absorption of oxygen from 
the atmosphere, accompanied by the evolution of carbonic add. 

a. This process must not be confounded with another which occurs, of a oon 
taaj nature, treated of under the head of digestion. 

9* - 

100 THE LEAF. 

277. Respiration appears to be going on oonstantly, by day 
and by night, during the life of the plant, even while it is act- 
ively engaged in the contravening process of the jt^atAon of car- 
bon. The result of it is, the removal of a certain superfluous 
portion of carbon, in a state of combination -with oxygen,*^ from 
the nutritive substances of the plant, just as the same deleteri- 
ous acid is removed from the blood of animals by breathing. 

278. Let a few healthy plants be placed under a beU-gUus containing air from 
which all the carbonic add has been preyionslj removed. After a few boon 
let the air be tested by shaking it with lime-water, and it will be found to contain 
carbonic add, rendering the lime-water tmrbid. This effect will be produced, 
whether the bell-glass stand in the sunshine or in darkness, but the quantity of 
add eyolved will be found to be mudi greater in the darkness. 

279. Respiration is carried on with peculiar activity during 
the two periods of germincUion and flowering, 

a. In germination pure oxygen is absorbed, dther from the air or water, or 
both, in the absence of light (133, d), and returned to the air combined with the 
superfluous carbon of the starch, whidi thus is conyerted into sugar for the noor' 
ishment of the young phmt 

6. It is also equally active at the lime of flowering, a large quantity of oxygen 
being converted into carbonic add by the flower. By this process it seems that 
the starch previously contained in the disk (107), or receptade (59), is changed 
into saccharine matter for the nutrition of the pollen and ovules (70, 81), the 
superfluous portion flowing off in the form of honey. And it has been a8oe^ 
tained that the quantity of oxygen evolved bears a direct proportion to the devel- 
opment of the disk, t 

2S0. The life of the plant depends upon the continuance of respiration, for if it 
be surrounded by an atmosphere with too great a proportion of carbonic add, or 
in a confined portion of air, which has become vitiated by its own action, and ex- 
cluded from the hght, its respiration is necessarily soon suspended, and it speedilj 
perishes. I 

281. Digestion, in plants, consists properly of all those 
changes effected by the leaves in rendering the crade sap fit for 
the purposes of nutrition. But that process which is more par- 

* Cartranic acid is oompoted of 6 parts (by weight) of oaibon, combined with 16 pam of 

t ThoB Saassnre found that the flower of the Aram, while in bad, connimed 5 or 6 times in 
own Tolarae of oxygen in 24 hoan ; during the expanaion of the flower, 30 times, and daxiaf 
ita withering, 5 times. When the flora] enrelopee were remored, he found that the quantltf 
of oxygen consumed by the stamens and pistils in M hours, was, in one instance, 138 times 
their own bulk. 

CARBON. 101 

ticalarly described under the head of digestion, consists in the 
decompos it ion of carbonic acid by the green tissties of the leaves, 
mder the stunuhis of the Ught, the fixation of the soUd carbon, 
and the evobttion of pure oxygen. 

282. Carbon is one of the principal ingredients in the vegetable stractore. The 
ddef source from which plants obtain it is the atmosphere, which always contains 
it ID die form of carbonic add, evolyed by eombostion, by the respiration of ani- 
mals, ftom the earth, &c. 

0. *Now if we place some fresh leaves in an inyerted bell-glass, containing air 
disiged with 7 or 8 per cent of carbonic add, and expose them to the direct light 
of the son for a few hours, it will be fonnd that a large proportion of the carbonic 
add wiU haTe di8iq)peared, and will be replaced by pare oxygen.* But this 
dhaoge win not be effected in the dark, or by any degree of artificial light Ac- 
cordiiig^ we find that plants which grow in the dark become blancked from the 
VBit of the proper supply of carbon, on which their green color depends. 

i83. We have before stated that diis ftxation of carbon in the substance of the 
plant, oontraTenes the process of respiration, in which carbon is given off. The 
fcnna oocors only in the lig^t of day, the latter by night as well as by day. But 
as to tibe ralafiw amount of carbon thus absorbed by the former process, and 
evolTed by the latter, there can be no reasonable doubt ; for when we consider 
how laige a portion of the tissues of every plant is solid carbon, and that too, 
denred diiefly from the atmosphere, it is evident that mudi more carbonic add 
is, on &e wliole, consumed by vegetation than is evolved. In accordance with 
tins are the results of the experiments of Dr. Daubeny, who has recently shown, 
that 'in fine weather, a plant, consisting chiefly of leaves and stems, if confined 
in a c^Midons vessel, and duly supplied with carbonic add during sunshine, as 
fist as it removes it, will go on adding to the proportion of oxygen present, as long 
as it continues healthy.' 

284. Thus are the two great kingdoms of nature rendered mutually subser- 
'nent, each to the well-being, and even the existence, of the other. Animals 
reipiirB an atmosphere comparatively pure, although, by their respiration and 
decay, they are continually adding to the proportion of its deleterious gases. 
Fboits, on the other hand, thrive by the decomposition of these gases and the res- 
toration of pure oxygen to the air in their stead. It is impossible not to admire 
this beautiful arrangement of Providence, by which, as in a thousand other cases, 
the means and ends are rendered redprocal, affording the highest proof of wis- 
dom and design. 

t Another Tlew of respiration, diOerent from the above, has been ablj maintained ; Tti. that 
f^^vA^ vital action J bat only a neoenaiy resnlt of a temporary su^iension at Tital action. 
Outaf die abaanoe of Hie vivifying ittmolas of the light, a part of the carbonic add abaorbed bj 
^ it lottf ftom the want of power to retain It, and a amall quantity of oxygen ia absorbed to 
xnombine with aome of th« carbon recently aet free. Bat as this theory doea not account for the 
iMcf eatboDie add fry day as well aa l^ night, and moreover aappoaes inqfetf4€tion In the oiigl- 
Ml daatgn of the Creator, I have not yet seen fit to adopt it 




2S6. Inflouscenge is a term denoting the aixangement of 
the flowers upon a stem or branch. 

286. In regard to position upon the stem, the inflorescence, 
like the leaf-bud, of which we have shown it to be a modifica- 
tion, is either terminal or aaHlary. 

a. It is, howerer, in some plants, particolarlj in the pcytaloe tribe (SoIbuoob), 
situated opposite to a leaf. This irregalaritj is acconnted for, if we suppose, vitk 
Lindley, that the flower-stalk, originatmg in the axil of the leaf next below, ad* 
heies to the intemode (172) in its lower part, and does not eeparata from it utfl 
it is opposite the succeeding leaf. 

287. The pedttnclb (flower«staIk) is that part of the stem en 
which the inflorescence is immediately suppOTted. It bears do 
leaves, or, at most, only such as are reduced in size, and altered 
in form, called bracts (252). If the peduncle is wanting, the 
flower is said to be sessile. 

288. The peduncle, like the stem of which it is a portion, may 
be either simple or branched. When it is simple it bears, ef 
course, a single flower, but when it is divided into branches it 
bears several flowers, and its final divisions, each bearing a sin- 
gle flower, are called pedicels. 

289. A scape is a flower-stalk which springs from a subter- 
ranean stem, in such plants as are called stemless (177). Ex. 
Sarracenia, Taraxacum, Hyacinthus. Like the peduncle, of 
which it is a jnodification, it is leafless, or with bracts only, and 
may be either simple or branched. 

290. The rachis {qox^s, the spine) is the axis of the inflores- 
cence, or the main stem of a compound peduncle, along which 
the pedicels are arranged, as seen in the Plantago, currant, 
grape, and grasses. 

291. The inflorescence is said to be soKtary when it consisis 
of a single terminal flower, as in Erythronium, or when but a 
single axillary flower is developed at the same node, as in Petu- 
nia, Convolvulus. 


292. In regard to the evolution of the inflorescence, that is, 
the mode of succession in the development of the flowers, bota- 
nists have recently observed two important distinctiotis, nconely, 
the eentripetal and the eentrifidgal, the former reeultiiig fiom 
aziU&ry,and the other from teiminat floweni. 

293. In CENTKIFETAL inflorettoeQce the evolution (blossoming) 
of the flowers commences with those of the eircun^trence (or 
the base) and proceeds towards the centre (or the summit), as 
in the Umbellifeite and the Ciucifene. 

0. The fltndent will readilj perceire that th« drtunifirma of ft depreued (flst- 
UB(d,nifloresteDa> coTKaponds to the btu* of a lengdunied one; and alio thU the 
t^n of Ae fonDcr Nuwen to die wtnw'l of the laiter. ?or when the axis, or 
ncfaji, u Icngflieiied, it ii tb« ctuln irbidi it bean along irilL it a( Us apex, Ubt- 
iag Ae aremnference at the base. 

294. In cBNTEiFnoAL inflorescence the blossoming com- 
mences with the terminal and central flower, and proceeds 
towards the lateral flowers, or those of the ciictuuference. Ex. 
Hydrangea, elder, and the pink tribe. 

0. "Tfaii mode of infloiMcence it generally indicated b; the prefence of aioU- 
tuj flower seated in the axili of the dichotomoiu (fbAed) branchet.' jUI th« 
ftmnn an considered terminal, became thef do in &et (except the fiiM which 
xis) lenoinate lattral bnmAet sncceuirelj produced at the node 

295. Sometimes we find these two modes of inflorescence 
ajmbined in the same plant In the Compositse, as Dr. Gray 
remaiks, the heads, which may be called the portal inflores- 

104 IlfFLOltSSCElfOE. 

cences, are centripetal, while the general inflorescence is centri* 
fugal, that is, the central head is developed before the lateral 
ones. But in the Labiatse the partial inflorescences (verdeflas- 
ters, 309) are centrifugal, while the general inflorescence is 

296. Of centripetal inflorescence the principal varieties aie» 
the spike, raceme, - ament, spadix, corymb, nmbel, head» 
panicle, and th3rrse. 

297. The spike is an inflorescence consisting of several ses- 
sile flowers arranged along a common peduncle (rachis). Ex. 
Plantago, Verbascum. 

298. The racbhe is the Same as the spike, bnt having tiie 
flowers raised on pedicels, each being axillary to a bract, and 
blossoming in succession from the base upwards. Tlie raceme 
may be either erect, as in Hyadnthus, P3^1a, or pendulautt as 
in the currant and black cherry. 

299. Hie AHENT, or catkin, is a spflce wliose flowers are cov- 
ered each with, a scaly bract, instead of a calyx and ooroUa, and 
fall ofi* together, all remaining still connected v^rith. the rachis. 
Ex. Salix, Betula. 

800. The SPADIX is a spike with a fleshy rachis enveloped in 
a large bract, called spathe. Ex. Arum, Calla. 

301. The coBTMB is the same as the raceme, having the 
lower pedicels so lengthened as to elevate all the flowers to 
nearly or quite the same leveL Ex. wild thorn ( Crataegus). 

302. An tTMnEL resembles the corymb, but the pedicels are of 
nearly equal length, and all arise firom the same point in the 
common peduncle. Ex. Asclepias, Aralia hispida, onion. 

303. A HEAD or CAPiTVLUM is similar to an umbel, but the 
flowers ore sessile or nearly so upon the summit of the pedun- 
cle. Ex. button-bUsh, clover, globe-amaranth (Gomphrena). 

€L But the more common kind of capiiulum is that where the 
summit of the peduncle (rachis) is dilated into a broad disk (re* 
e^tacle) bearing the sessile flowers upon its surface. This is 
the kind of inflorescence peculiar to the vast family of the 
Composites, and is equivalent to the compound fiowen of the 
earlier botanists. 

5. In the ctpitnliim there Is a general rawmblmoe to die simple flow, lbs 



Aose in the ontat mdi^ Jhnt$ of th€ rajf, and thoM of the oeoteid 

304. The panicle is a compound inflorescence, foimed by an 
inegiUflr branching of the pedicels of the raceme. Ex. oats^ 
Boa, and many other grasses. 

905. The ththse is the some as the panicle, baring the 
lower branches rather shorter than those in the midst, and all of 
Aem very compact, as in the lilac ( S3rring&)» horse-chestnut 

a. The nmbel becomes con^xmnd when each pedicel becomes 
itself an nmbel, as in most of the UmbellifersB. In these cases 
the secondary nmbels are called umbellbts, and sometimes 
partial umbels. See i 254. 

By a similar decomposition, a raceme becomes a compound 
raceme, a corymb a compound corymb, &c. 

na &->llbdM of inibxweaiM s 1, IM0IM; % aanrt ; 8, ipadiz ) 4, kaad ; S, pMl^ 

CiTedtetUMter; 7,tliyne. 

306. Of the centrifugal inflorescence, the following varieties 
are described ; namely, cyme, fascicle, and verticillaster. 

307. Cyme. This inflorescence has the general aspect of the 
corymb, but is remarkably distinguished from it by its centrifu- 
gal evolution, and by its branches being repeatedly 2-forked 
and 3-forked, as exemplified in Hydrangea, Vibvunum, chick 

A. The cyme is fonnd onlj in plants 'with opposite leaves, and its nonnal stntc^ 
tme and development are as foUowv. The terminal flower, which is the ilrit to 


be opened, is borne npon a peduncle of two or more nodes, which ate, of ooone^ 
txansTene to each other (219, c). From one, or two, or aU (tf these nodea, pain 
of secondary, opposite peduicles arise, each of wiiich, like the flnt, is binodal or 
mnltinodal, and terminated bj a flower. Again, in the nodes of these aecondarjr 
peduncles, maj arise, in the same manner as before, pairs of tertiary pednncks, 
each to be terminated by a flower, and peihi^ to bear still other pedmudea, and 

h. Hence it is evident, that in each axil of the foiked branches there ahoold be 
a soUtaiy flower. This, however, is often wanting. Lregnlarities may abo be 
occasioned by the absence of other parts. 

308. Fascicle. . This is a modification of the cyme, in whidi 
tlie flowers become crowded, and nearly sessile, as in sweet 
William, and other species of Dianthus. 

309. Vertioillastek or verticil, called also, though impiop- 
erly, tvhorl, is a term denoting those reduced cymes which are 
peculiar to the LabiatsB, where two such cymes occupy the 
opposite axils of each pair of leaves. 

a. Sometimes the pednnde^ instead of prododng flowers, is changed inta a to* 
dril, as in the yine. 



310. It has already been shown, m the preceding chapteif, 
that plants consist chiefly of four simple organic elements; viz. 
carbon, oocygen^ hydrogen, and nilrogen. The first mentioned 
exists in a larger proportion, the last in a smaller, than either of 
the others. These four elements constitute about 94 per cent 
of all vegetable matter. 

311. Cabbon (essentially charcoal) enters so largely into the 
composition of plants, that it retains the exact form and texture 
of the wood after the other ingredients have been expelled by 
heat On this element chiefly depends their solidity aad 
strength. Its proportion is from 40 to 60 per cent. NitkoobRi 
although perhaps equally essential, is less abundant in the 
tissues, and exists largely only in certain important vegetable 
products ; as gluten, leguraine, albumen. 


312. Besidea Aeae four aniversal elements, m9aj other iab- 
iteioes, wrthj and mineral, are found in quantities greater or 
leas in different species: thus forest trees and most other inland 
plants contain potassa ; marine plants, soda, iodine, &c. ; the 
grasses silex and phosphate of lime ; rhubarb and sorrel, oxalate 
of lime; the Xteguminosse, oarbonate of lime. Now all these 
ingredients, being found in plants, are inferred to be essential 
elements in the food which thej require for healthy yegetation; 
tod an inquirj into the sources from which they may be suj^lied, 
MQStitutes the chief object of AgricuUurdl CJiemistry. 

313. It is evident that plants do not creaU a particle of matter, 
tod therefore do not originide in themselves any of the ingre- 
dients whick compose them; consequently they must obtain 
them from sources without. These sources are obviously atV, 
tarthy and toater. Carbon is derived from the carbonic acid 
wkieh the atmosphere contains, and from the decaying vegetable 
matter of the soiL Oxygen is derived from the water, and from 
the carbonic add of the atmosphere ; hydrogen, from water and 
ammonia ; and nitrogen, from ammonia alone, either drawn from 
the air or the soiL 

314. The ATKOSPHEBE contains about xiAnr P^^^ of carbonic 
add, diffused throughout the whole extent ; and, as this gas con- 
tains 27 per cent of carbon, it may be demonstrated, that the 
whole atmosphere contains at least fourteen hundred billions of 
toDs of solid carbon, derived from the sources mentioned in 
{282, — an amount fully adequate to the vast and ceaseless drain 
made upon it by the vegetable kingdom. 

315. Soil consists of two classes of materials; viz. mineral 
and organic The former, called earths, consists of disintegrated 
and decomposed rocks, — all the various mineral substances 
which are found to enter into the composition of plants, as 
potassa, soda, silica, lime, &c, all of which are more or less 
solable in water. The organic materials consist of the remains 
of former tribes of plants and animals, mingled with the earths, 
which, having access to air, are decomposed, evolving carbonic 
ftcid and ammonia both to the air and the water. 

816. Water is composed of oxygen and hydrogen, in the pro- 
portion of 8 to 1 by weight. Having pervaded the atmosphere 



in the state of vapor and rain, and percolated througli the soil, 
it holds in solution carbonic acid, ammonia, and many of the 
various minerals above mentioned. 

317. Ammonia consists of nitrogen and hydrogen, in the pro- 
portions of 14 to 3 by weight. It arises from decaying animal 
and vegetable matter, as above stated, and is also generated in 
the atmosphere, during storms, by the flashes of the electno 

318. Thus it appears that the three compounds, water, car- 
bonic acid, and ammonia, may yield to plants their four essential 
organic elements. And, since all of them are contained in the 
air, some plants are capable of subsisting on air alone ; but most 
species are dependent on water, earth, and air, and demand a 
copious supply. The external circumstances, therefore, fint 
requisite to healthy vegetation are, — 

1. Free access to an atmosphere which is oflen agitated bf 

2. A proper supply of rain or river-water. 

3. A soil possessing the pecuUar minerals required by the 
species to be grown upon it, together with a certain proportion 
of vegetable mould. 

319. The first of these is everywhere abundantly supplied by 
nature, and asks no aid from man. The second and third are 
oflen deficient, and are to be supplied by the laboTS of agricul- 
ture. By irrigation, streams of water are turned from their 
natural channels to add to the scanty moisture of fields parched 
with drought; while, by drainage^ the inundated bog is con- 
verted into a luxuriant lawn. 

320. The object of tillage is to pulverize and lighten the too 
compact soil, and thus expose every part to the oxygen of the 
air in order to hasten its decomposition. The object of nuw^' 
ing is mainly to increase the quantity of organic matter. By 
various amendments, as gypsum, lime, and pulverized charcoal, 
ammonia is powerfully attracted from the air, and yielded again 
to the water. Marl promotes the decomposition of the soil, and 
ashes add to the potassa which exists naturally in it being 
derived from the decomposition of the rocks which contain ih 
as granite, clay-slate, basalt, &c. 


321. Soils are often improved by lying faXL&vo for a season, 
thus allowing time to form by decomposition a fresh supply of 
that particular ingredient which had been exhausted by previous 
crops. On the same principle is explained the beneficial effects 
of a rotation of such crops lis require different mineral substances 
in their composition. 

322. But when all these materials have been supplied to the 
plant, still two other agents are requisite, without which the great 
work of vegetation will not go on. These life-giving principles 
are light and heat, both of which emanate in floods from the sun. 
Under their influence the raw material is received into the ves- 
sels of the plant, and assimilated to its own substance, — a pro- 
cess which can be fully comprehended only by Him whose 
power is adequate to carry it on. 

323. Under the influence of solar light, and a temperature 
above the freezing point, water is imbibed by the roots and 
raised into the tissues of the stem, dissolving, as it passes, small 
portions of gum or sugar previously deposited there. In this 
state it is crude sap. But passing on it enters the leaves, and 
is there subjected to the action of the cMorophylle (215, a), which 
chiefly constitutes the apparatus of digestion. Here it is con- 
centrated by exhalation and evaporation, sending off quantities 
of pore water. Meanwhile the leaves are imbibing carbonic 
acid, decomposing it, retaining the carbon, and returning pure 
oxygen to the air. 

324. Thus elaborated, the sap is now termed the proper 
jiTicE, and consists of course of carbon and water, with a little 
nitrogen, and minute portions of the mineral substances men- 
tioned above. From this juice are elaborated the building 
fnaterial of the vegetable fabric, and all its various products and 

325. First, by the aid of light, chlorophyUe is developed, cloth- 
ing the plant in living green. Next Hgmn is produced, the 
pecnliar principle of tissue, whether cellular, vascular, or woody, 
consisting of carbon with the exact elements of water, viz. oxy- 
gen and hydrogen. 

326. Meanwhile gum, starch, and sugar, nutritive products 
common to all plants, are also developed from the proper juice, — 


not all to be immediately employed in building up the tissaesi 
but mostly to be stored away in reserve for future use. Such 
deposits are made in the root of the beet, tuber of the potato, and 
in the fruit of almost all plants. These three products, with 
lignin, are all composed of carbon with the elements of water,— 
gum and starch containing them in the same proportions. 

327. Sugar is sometimes produced directly fh)m the prefer 
juice, as in the root of the beet, stalk of the maize and sugv- 
cane ; but oftener, during germination, from the starch deposited 
in the seed. Its composition differs from that of starch, only in 
containing a lai^er proportion of the elements of water, or (what 
is the same thing) a smaller proportion of carbon. The tiBos- 
foimation of starch into sugar appears to be dependent on the 
presence of a certain substance called " dicutase ; minute quan- 
tities of which exist in seeds, and about the eyes of the potato." 

328. The similarity of these four general products, in chemical 
constituticm, accounts for the facility with which they are ccm- 
Terted into each other in the growing plant Thus gum is 
oonverted into starch (in which state it is best adapted for pre* 
servBtion), and starch is oonverted into sugar (131). In flowering, 
sugar is rapidly consumed by the flower, — a portion of it being 
reconverted into starch, and deposited in the seed. Both gam 
and sugar appear to be oonverted into Hgrdn during the giovth 
of the tissues ; and this substance, in the laboratory of the chemist, 
has been changed again into gum and sugar. 

329. Among the numerous secretions of plants which our limits 
foibid us to consider, are the vegetable adds, containing more 
oxygen than exists in water; and the oils and resins, containing 
less than exists in water, or none at all. These substances vaif 
in the diflerent species almost to infinity, taking into their con- 
stitution, in addition to the four organic elements, minute portions 
of the mineral substances introduced, by rain-water. Their 
peculiarities of flavor, odor, color, prc^erties, &c. although ao 
obvious to the senses, are occasioned by diflerences in constita- 
tion oflen so slight as to elude the most dehcate tests of the 




330. Systematic Botany relates to the airangemeixt of plants 
into groups and families, according to their characters, for the 
purpose of facilitating the study of their names, affinities, habits, 
history, properties, and uses. 

831. The student in botanical science is introduced into a boundless field of 
inqaiiy. The subjects of his research meet him at erery step : Ihej clothe the 
hill and the plain, the monntain and the valley. They spring up in the hedges 
and by the wayside ; they border the streams and lakes, and sprinkle over its snr- 
&ce-, they stand assembled in yast forests, and cover with verdure even the 
depths of the ocean ; they are innumerable in multitude, infinite in variety. Yet 
the botanist proposes to acquaint himself with each individual of this vast king* 
dom, so that he shall be able readily to recognize its name, and all that is either 
mtoesting, instructive, or useful concerning it, whenever and wherever it is pre- 
sented to bis view. 

332. Now it Is obvious, that if the student should attempt the accomplishment 
of this task by studying each individual plant in detail, whether with or without 
the aid <^ books, the longest life would scarcely be sufficient to make a begin- 

333. But such an attempt would be as unnecessary as fruitless. The Author 
of Nature has grouped Uiese myriads of individuals into species (50). When 
he called them into existence in their specific forms, he endowed each with the 
power of perpetuating itt own kind and no other ^ so that they have descended to us 
distinguished by the same difi^eiences of character and properties as at the begin- 
ning. When, therefore, the student has become acquainted with any one indi- 
Tidnal plant, he is also equally acquainted with aU others belonging to the same 

0. Thus a single stalk of white clover becomes a representative of all the mil- 
Boos of its kind that grow on our hills and plains, and a single description of the 
vkite pine will answer, in all essential points, for every individual tree of that 
ancient and noble species, in all lands where it is found. 

384. Again, the species themselves, although separated from each other by 
obrious difierences, still are found to exhibit many constant affinities, whereby 
they aie formed into Urger groups, called oekbra (52). Thus the white clover 
and the red (Trifolium repens and T. pratense) are universally recognized as of 
different species, bat of the same genus ; and a single generic description of any 



one plant of the genus Trifolinm wiU oonvey intdligeiioei to a certaia eztemty 
oonoeming eveiy other plant belonging to its ISO spedes. 

835. Thns the whole vegetable kmgdom is grouped into species, and the spe- 
cies themselves into genera. But natural affinities do not stop here. The genexm 
are stiU too nnmerons for the purpose <^ dear and systematic stndy. The 
ralist would therefore generalize still further, and reduce the genera to still fe 
and larger tribes or groups. Accordingly he finds, on comparing the genera with 
each other, that they stiU possess some characters in common, although, periiapi^ 
of a more general nature than those whidi distinguish them among each other. 
These general characters, therefore, serve to aseodate the genera into a aya- 
tematic arrangement of dasses and Otden. 

336. There are two independent and widely different methods 
of classifying the genera, which have generally been approved, 
namely, ^e Artificial System of Linnaeus, and the Natoral Sys- 
tem of Jussieu. The former has for its basis those characteis 
which axe derived fVom the organs of fractification, leaving all 
other natural aJffiinities out of view. The latter, on the contrary, 
is foimded upon all those natural affinities and resemblances of 
plants, by which Nature herself has distinguished them into 
groups and families. 

337. In i^egard to the relative merit of these two arrangements there is now bo 
longer room for comparison. That of Limueus is truly ingenious and heantiffl], 
and furnishes, perhaps, the readiest means for detennining the mamu of idaoli 
which has ever been devised ; but this must be regarded as its princqial nt 
^deed, its author himself did not design it for any hin^ier end, or daim for it aay 
higher merit 

388. But, in acquiring a thorough and accurate knowledge of the Ti^getaUe 
kingdom, the Natural System is not only the best, but it is the ovly method lAoA 
can be relied upon for this purpose. The obscurity and misconceptions wUcfc 
formerly embarrassed the science of the vegetable structure, so as to render tfaif 
system unavailable, have now been so far removed by the labors of De Candolh 
and Lindley , in Europe, and of Drs. Torrey and Gray, of our own country, that it 
is brought generally within the scope of the ordinary mind, and shown to be 
founded in true philosophy. Accordingly, it is now generally adopted. 

339. Still, the difficulties attending analysis * by the Natural System alooti 
are confessedly too great to be successfully encountered at the thr^hold of tbe 
sdenoe, by him who has it yet to learn. These arise, partly from the obscoii^ 
of the characteristic distinctions employed, and partly from the remaining ia^ 
curacies of their definitions. On this account it has been thought best to retaiBi 
in this work, the artificial characters of the ^*^^^^n Classes and Orders, in tke 

• Aiittlytis, u used in botany, denotes ihe dissection and examinnlioa of the oigaak iin^ 
tare ofplaats, in Older to learn their cbafaoieis,aftattie8,BaaBOs,*e. 8eei8M— MB. 

THB HATURAlr •VSVfiH. 113 

hmtimaistktditMe$jt»\muKdiatUfltf «i m golde in the aaaljtto of j^ts, 
to pakd the iMuner to thfl pkoe a the Natonl S^tem wlucli liis cpedmen 

340. 'Hie artificuU arrangemetU consists of dasies, orders, 
^awra, and species. The two latter are the same as in the nat- 
mal system (50, 51), and the two higher divisions, classes and 
orders, have already been seen (74> 80) to be founded upon 
the number, situation, and connection of the stamens and 




341. It is the aim of the Natural System to associate in the 
same divisioiis and groups, those plants which have the greatest 
general resemblance to each other, not only in ^upect and struc- 
Acre, but also in properties, 

342. While the artificial atiangement employs only a single 
character in classification, the natural seizes upon every charac- 
ter in which plants agree or disagree with each other. Thus, 
those plants which coirespond in the greatest number of points 
win be associated in the smaller and lower divisions, as species 
and genera, while those corresponding in fewer points wHl be 
assembled in divisions of higher mnk. 

343. By an acquaintance, therefore, with the characters of 
each of the families of the Natnxal System, we may at once 
determine to which of them any new plant belongs, what are 
its affinities with others, and what axe its poisonous or useful 

344. Although the aim of this System is as above stated, yet 
the fiiU consummaHon of it is still reserved for a future age. At 
present, though greatly advanced, we are still obliged to call in 
the aid of artificial characters, where Nature is as yet too pro- 
found for ordinary skill. Such aid is, for example, employed in 
the first subdivision of Angiosperms. 

114 TB£ NATURAL 8T8TB11. 

345. The first and highest division of the vegetable kingdom, 
namely, into the FhcBfu^anda or Flowering FUmts^ and the 
OrypU^amda or Flowerless Flants, has ahready been noticed, 
and its distinctions explained, in Chapter III., and elsev^here. 
These grand divisions lie at the foundation of both the System 
of linnaBus and of Jussieu, and axe truly founded in nature; 

The PhjEnooamia 

1. Consist of a regular axis of growth with leafy appendages. 

2. Thej possess a woody and vascnlar stmctoie. 

3. They develope flowers, and 

4. They produce seeds. On the other hand 


1. Are destitute of a regular axis and of true leayes. 

2. They possess a cellular structure only. 

3. They do not develope flowers, and 

4. They produce sponss (129) instead of seeds. 

346. These distinctiye characters must not, however, he regarded as dedart in 
all cases ; for the higher Cryptogamia, as the ferns, give indications both of a regt* 
lar woody axis and of a yascnlar structure, while some of the lower ¥bmaogutk 
can scarcely be said to produce flowers. And, universally, so gradual are diB 
transitions from family to family and tribe to tribe, that it is impossible to fix 
upon characters so definite as to completely circumscribe any one group, idiile tt 
the same time, they exclude every member of surrounding and approximaliiv 

347. There is a small and curious order of plants of oompanUively recent dii- 
covery, native chiefly of the East Indies, which appear, from the most antbeDtie 
accounts of them, to form the connecting link between the Flowering and Flow* 
erless plants, combining a part of the characters of each, so that botanists are it 
a loss to which it belongs. They possess a cellular structure, develope flowen 
immediately from the root, whence they are called Bhizanths (ittti, a root, t^ 
a flower) ; but their ovaries are said to be filled with gpont instead of seeds, lad 
hence they are also called Sporogens. Ex. Rafflesia. 

348. Again, the Phsenogamia are very naturally resolved into 
two subdivisions, depending upon their manner of growth, called 
ExoGENS and Endogens, whose distinctions are briefly as fol- 
lows: — 


1. Growing by external accretions (196). 

2. Bearing leaves which have reticulated veins (229) and whidi fall off by 
an articulation. 

3. Seeds with two or more cotyledons (127) or dicotyUdomm$, 

AosoaxRs. 115 

1. Onmbig by iDtenal aoeretioiyi (11^7). 

2. LesTW panlM-Teiiied (S29) And decaying without lalliiig 

3. Seeds with one oo^ledon (126) or monocUykdonom. 

349. Cbu$0t. The groups above mentioiied* ooznphsing the 
whole vegetable kingdom, are again subdivided into six dasses. 
The first two are formed from the subdivision Exogens, and are 
foimded upon the presence or absence of the pericarp ; namely, 

ClasB L Akoiosfebm§, (m ibe oek, rose,) 
1. OToles produced within an oravy, and 
S. Fertilised by the aeti(»i of the pollen throng^ the stigma. 
d. Becoming seeds enclosed in a p^carp. 

4. Embryo with two opposite cotyledotis. 
daas XL Gthkospebms, {ba tiie pine, yeW,) 

1. Ovnles produced naked beneath a scale-llke csrpeL 

5. Fertilized by the direct action of the pollen without the stigma. 

3. Becoming truly naked seeds, that is, destitate of a pericaip. 

4. 'Emhiyo mostly with seTeral whofled cotyledons. 

360. The next two classes axe formed itam the snbdivisioii 
Esdogens, and are (bunded upon ^e presence and absence of 
•glumes or husks ; namely, 


Plants of the endogenous structure wiih flowers constnictod on the 
nsoal pUm ; perianth nstfcSDate, of one or more whoris of petahnd 
oigans, or wanting. Ex. lily, orcUs, rash. 


Plants of the ex^ogenoua stmctoxe, the flowns Imtested in an imbri- 
cated perianth of glumes instead of a calyx; as the grasses, grahis, 

351. The Cryptogamia tre sep^urftted into two great classes, 
called AcTogens and Thsllogens; the fbrmer inchtding those 
tribes which make some approximation towards the Phanoga- 
mia, and the latter including the lowest tribes of the vegetable 
kingdom. As their names indicate, they nre distinguished from 
^u;h other by their manner of growth ; thus, 

(3asB Y. AcBOonrB (growing from au^oc, the sununSt or point) hsTe a regular 
stem, or axis, which grows by the extension of the point, or apex only, 
without increasing at aU in diameter, generally furnished with leaves, 
and composed of cellular tissne and ducts. Ex. feros, mosses, dub- 
moeses, and the EquiiMaeeift. 


Class YL Thallooshb, oonnstiiig merely of oeUvlar tissue, iridi a tendcpcy to 
grow into a flat expansion called ihaiku, but having no diatinrtion of 
root, stem, leaTes, or flowers. Ex. Tiichens, seaweeds, Uverwoctik 

352. ^fdties of the Six Ckuses. These may be represented 
to the sight by the following anrangement * 


Gymnospezms. Aglumaceffi. 

Adogens. GlumacefB. 



Angiosperms stand in the highest rank, as they justly merit, by their superior 
organization. These are nearly allied to Gymnosperms by their mode of growtii{ 
and, on the other hand, to AglomacecB by their mode of flowering. Gymnot- 
perms are intimately connected with Acrogens through EqnisetacesB of the Uito-» 
which stands intermediate; and the Aglnmaceie i^proach the Glmnaoese, afanoit 
indefinitely, through the Juice» (rashes). Between the Acrogens and Tballo- 
gens a dose relationship is established through the Masd (mosses), while the 
tporogmB form the connecting link between the Endogens and the lowest tribes 
ofTegetatioii,asliieEnngi Thus, from the highest rank we descend to Ifae low- 
est, throogh Gymnosperms and Acrogens on the one hand, and tfaroog^ ^^f'^ 
maoess and Glnmacee on the other, forming a cirdt of affinities. 

358. The mutual relations of the six classes with the higher diTisioos, are pI^ 
sented in the following synopsis : 


f-B^r^A^nmrn. (Class L Akoiosfbbxs. 

L EHDOOBNS , ^^^ jy GLUMAC.O08. 

ri«-«-ft« . -,. ) Chiss V. AcsooKNS. 

^^*™^^'°^' Chiss VL THAiiOowrs. 

354. Sub-classes. The classes are next to be broken np 
into smaller divisions. In eilecting this object most \imters 
have employed artificial methods, since no natural one, founded 
upon (dear and comprehensive distinctions, has yet been de- 
vised. Thus Angiosperms, which class is by far the largest of 
the six, is divided into three sub-classes, Poltf£Tal£, or polT' 
pETALous ExooENS, flowcrs with distinct petals ; Monopetal^i 
or KONOPETALons ExooENs, flowers with united petals ; Afet- 
ALiB, or APETALous ExoGENS, flowcr with no floral envelopes, or 
with a calyx only. 

355. Ordees, or Families, are the most important of all the 
natural associations. On the accuracy and distinctness of the 

08BSSS. 1)7 

dmacteis of these, botanists have bestowed the highest degree 
of attention, and the student's progress will depend chiefly upon 
his acquaintance with them. 

356. Orders are formed by associating together those genera 
which are the most nearly alhed to each other, or to some one 
genus previously assumed as the itfpe. Therefore, as the spe* 
des form genera, so genera form orders. 

357. In systematic works, the orders are also associated on 
natoial principles into alliances, groups, Sec, which are inter- 
mediate between these and the sub-classes, and are designated 
munehcally, thus, group 1st, group 2d, ice, at by names derived 
fiom a leading order. 

358. In regard to their extent,the orders differ very widely, 
some consisting of a single genus, as Sanaceniaces, while 
others comprehend hundreds of genera, as Compositas. For 
convenience' sake the larger orders are broken up into sub- 
orders, or tribes. 

359. The Natural System, with its classes and subordinate 
divisions, may be exhibited in one view ; 

The Vegetable Kingdom is separated 

Ist, into Grand Divisions and Subdivisions. 

2nd, " Classes. 

3d, " Sub-classes, Alliances, and Groups. 

4th, ^ Orders and Sub-orders. 

5th, " Genera and Sub-genera. 

6th, " Species and Varieties, and 

7th, " Individuals. 




860. Thb names of the OnUn are Latin a^jectiyes, (feminine, plural, to agree 
with pUmU^ plants, nndentbod,) nsoallj deriyed from the name ef the most 
prominent, or leading genus, In each, by changing or pndonging the termiiiatiaB 
Into ocMs, as Botacea, the rose tribe, Ftpmmmem, the p^py tiibe, ftorn BoaaaaA 

a. Batfier names, however, derund ftom some lesdjug cbamefter in the Otkt, 
and with Tarioos tenninations, are still retained. Thus, Govqwote, with 
pound flowecs J Labiaimi with lahiate flowen. 

sei. Gtaerv names are Iiatifi suhstantiTes, arbitrarily formed, often from 
medicinal virtae, either supposed or real, or from some obrious character of the 
genus ; sometimes firom tiie natiye country of the plants, or from Ihe name of 
some distinguished botanist, or patron of botany, to whom the genus is thai 
to be dedicated. Also the ancient classic names, either Latin or Chsek, a^ 
retained. IRramples of all these modes of Gonstruction will be hereafter sec& 

362. Spicifk names are Latin a^jectiYes, singular number, and agreeing in 
der with the name of the genus to which they bdong. They are mostly founded 
upon some distinctive character of ihe species; as Chrardia ifaitea, ghniooas- 
stemmed Genundia; O. pmpmtOf purple^owered Gerardia; O. fwmjbfia, sleodo^ 
leayed Gerardia. IVequenUy the species is named a£ter some other genus, whkh, 
in some respect, it resoDohles ; as iStrordia ^utnifc^ oak-leayed GemdisL OL 
dHpkmiJbliaj larkspur-leayed Geiardia. 

363. Species, like genera, are also sometimes named in commemoration of dis> 
tinguished persons. The mles giyen by Lindley, for the construction of tmk 
names, are, 1st, If the person is the disooyerer, the specific name is a substaatrre 
in the genitiye case, singular number; as, LobdU Kahm, Eahn*s Lobelia; Am 
JWum, Frasefs pine. 2d, If the name is merely conferred in honor of Ae pc^ 
son to whom it is dedicated, it is an a4jectiye ending in mm, no, mini; as JEHos 
Zmmwono, linnsnis's heath; Boia Lawrmciaiui, Miss Lawrence^s rose. In these 
cases, and in all others where the specific name is derived from proper names, or 
where it is substantiye, as it often is, it should begin with a capital letter. 


364. The appUcation of the rules of Systematic Botany to the 
natuial plant, in oider to ascertain its affinities, place, name, &c. 
is called botimical amUysis, 

365. In order to be in a proper state for this kind of examina- 
tion plants should be in full blossomi and fresh, that is, not with- 


ered or decayed A good lens is reqtiisite for the examination 
of the minute parts of the structure, or of the flower. 

366w The anfllysis of plants is a constant object of punnit ivith the practical 
botanist. Withont this exercise,the stadj of authors will be of litde arail. A 
more accnrate and useful knowledge of a plant can be acquired in a few minutes, 
hj a carefiil examination of the living specimen, or even of the dried, than by com- 
mitting to memory the most elaborate descriptions found in books. During the 
flowering months, the learner will often in his walks meet with plants in blossom, 
with whidi he is yet unacquainted. And he who is duly interested in his pursuit, 
win by no means fail to seize and analyze each specimen while the short hour of 
its bloom may last, and to store his memory with the knowledge of its names, 
haMts, and uses. Thus, in a few seasons, or even in one, he will have grown fa- 
miliar with nearly, or quite, eyeiy species of plants in his vidnity. 

367. Let UB now suppose the pupil in possession of a specimen of an unknown 
pbmt in full blossom. In order to study it by the aid of authors, a point immedi- 
ately reqnisite is its name. Kow, having learned by examination the oiganic and 
phygological structure of the flower, leaves, stem, &C., the experienced botanist, 
^fho has at his command the characters of all the Natural Families, will at once 
determine to which of them the plant belongs. 

36S. But this is not to be expected of the pupU who is supposed to be yet, in a 
measure, unacquainted with the characters of the orders. He must be guided to 
die place which his specimen holds in the classification, by a longer course of 
fiiquiry and comparison. For the assistance of the learner, therefore, and for the 
convenience of all, we are happy to be able to add a fuU series of Akalttical 
Tables, whidi, with proper use, will seldom fail of conducting them almost im- 
mediately, to the object of their research. See the directions. 


369. The student in botanical science should give an early and persevering at* 
tention to the collection and preservation of specimens of as many species of 
plants as he can procure. The advantages to be derived from such collections, 
tither in refreshing the memory by reviewing them, or in instituting a more 
thorough examination at one*s leisure, are such as will afford an abundant oom- 
pensation for all the labor requisite in preparing them. 

a. Such a collection of dried specimens of plants is called an hsrhasiitv, or 
by the more significant title, horius ticcus (dry garden). 

870. The apparatus requisite for the accomplishment of this object is, 1st, a 
dose tin box, 20 inches in length, and of a portable form ; 2d, a portable press, 
consisting of two boards of light material, 12 by 18 inches, opening and shutting 
\fj hinges, like the cover of a book, and secured by springs (even a large book is 
a good substitute) ; 3d, a quantity of smooth, bibulous paper, of large size (a 
dozen or more quires of printing paper) ; 4th, eight or ten boards of the same size 
u the paper; 5th, a small screw-press, or several lead weights of various sizes, 
from 15 to 80 pounds each. 



371. In gathering plants for this purpose, or qtecimms, as thej aro called, 
smaller and herbaceous plants should be taken up with a portion of the roots, 
while from larger plants there should be selected a shoot, with complete represen- 
tations of the leaves and flowers. They may be preserved for several days,wicb'- 
out withering, in the tin box, or they may at once be laid between several thick- 
nesses of the paper, and enclosed in the portable press. It is always desirable 
that they be gathered in a dry day ; if not, they should be freed from dampaesa 
before being committed to the paper and press. 

372. In drying the specimens, great care is required, that they may preserve 
well their natural appearance, form, and color. It is generally recommended 
that they be carefully spread out, as nearly in their natural position as possible, 
between 8 or 10 thicknesses of paper, and then submitted to pressure between the 
boards. The degree of pressure should never be such as to crush their parts, and 
may be easily regulated by the screw, or by the number and size of the weights 
used. Cotton batting may be used to equalize the pressure. 

373. As often as once a day they should be taken from the press, transferred to 
fresh and dry paper, and returned, until they are thoroughly dried, when they are 
ready to be transferred to the cabinet. The true secret of preserving specimens 
loith all their colors is to extract the moisture from them by pressure in an abond- 
ance of dry, bibulous paper as soon as possible. 

374. The next object with the collector is the arrangement of his specimens. 
For this purpose, each one is first to be fastened to a sheet of firm white paper, 
about 10 inches by 18, either by glne or with loops of paper of the same kind, or 
they may be stitched to the paper with a fine needle. The latter mode, if done 
skilfully, is preferable. Then let all those specimens which belong to the same 
genus be collected together and placed within a folded sheet of colored paper, 
with the name of the genus and each species written on the ontside. Each sheet 
should also be labelled with the names of the plant, the locality, time of gather 
ing, habits, &c. 

375. The genera are next to be collected together into orders, each order being 
wrapped or folded in a still larger sheet, of a difierent color from that which eih 
folds the genera, having the name of the order, with a catalogue of its genera oa 
the outside. Thus arranged, the orders are to be laid away upon the shelves of a 
cabinet, or packed in a chest. To protect the plants from the attacks of Insedi, 
pieces of camphor gum are to be placed among them, or a piece of spongo satu- 
rated with the oil of turpentine. To save them from decay, they should be kepi 
dry, and well ventilated. 

376. Fruits and seeds which are too large to be pressed with the plants, and 
also truncheons of wood, are to be preserved separately, in a cabinet 


«%T1iD flgnrw reftr to puagnplM. 

A ; («. priTstiTe) in oomposition eignifies 

Abcrtkm; an imperfect deralopment of 

wnj oraan. AborevUitionfl, 123. 
AbsorpdoD, 1S7, I5S, 272, 273, 274. 
AoinkHoent, i84L 
AooesMfy ; Knneihing added to the nsnaL 

AecT B t i ou; tlie growing of one thing to 

Aecnmbent; lying npon. In the Gn- 

cnferoB it deoiotes the radide lying upon 

tbe edgea of the cotyledona. 

Acheniimi, II61, 9. 

Aehlamydeoa% 54. 

Acicolar; needle-ahaped. 

Aeine ; a separate gnun or oazpel of a ool- 

leotiTB frnit. 
AeDtjrledanona, 48. 
Acrogeni, 3<n. 

Aculeate ; armed with priokles. 
Aenminate, 236, 3. 
Adherent, 97. 

Adnate; growing to ornpon, 69, 3. 
iEatiration, 106. 

Aggregate; assembled okiaely together. 
Agtnmaceons, 350. 
Ala, lOS, 6. 
Albumen, 122. 
Alteniatiye, 106, 5. 
AlYeolate ; with partitioiia like a homey- 

Ament^ 299. 
Amplejdeanl, 222. 3. 
Anastomosing; ib» uniting of Tessels; 

Anatropous, 121. 
Ancipital; two-adnd. 
Aadrocium, «77, 6£ 

Androgynous; with both stamens and 

Angiospenns, 349. 

AnUielmintio : expelling or killing wonns 
Animal, defimtion of, ll. 
Antiseptio; ef&caoious against putiefao 

Anther, 68. 

Apetale, 354. Apetalous, without petals. 
Appressed; pressed closely upon some- 
thing else. 
Apterous ; without wings (or margins). 
Aquatics ; growing in or belonging to the 

Arachnoid ; 41, 0. 
Arboreous; tree-like. 
Arborescent ; belonging to a tree. 
Areoln ; having the siuface diyided into 
* little spaces, or areas. 
Aridity; dryness. 
Aril, lid. 
Aristato; bearded, as in the glumes of 

Armed, 235, 7. 

Aroma ; the spic^ quality of a thing. 
Articulation; a jomt; me place where 

one thing is joined to another. 
Artificial Classes, 73. 
Artificial Orders, 80. 

Ascending; arising obliquely, assmgent. 
AsBurgent; arising in an obuque mreo- 

Attenuate ; rendered slender or thin. 
Anriculato, 232, 9. 
Awn, 256. 
Axil (arm-pitV, the angle between the 

petiole and oranch, on the npi>er side 
Axillary ; growins out of the axils. 
Axis, ascending, 19. 
Axis, descending, 19. 



Baccate ; berry-like, covered ivifh pulp. 

Banner, 105, 5. 

Bark, 205. 

Beak ; a hard, short point, like the beak 

of a bird. 
Bearded; with long awns or haus. 
Berry, 116, 14. 

Bicuspidate ; with two points. 
Bidentate ; with two teeth. 
Biennial ; of two years' duration. 
Bifid; two^left 
Bifoliate; with two leaves. 
Bilabiate; two-lipped. 
Bifurcate; two-forked. 
Binate ; growing two together. 
Bipinnate, 240, 5. 
Bipinnatind ; twice pinnatifid. 
Bisaccate ; with two tumors or sacks. 
Bitemate, 240, 7. 
Bivalved; two-valved. 
Botany defined. 1. 
Brachiate; with opposite spreading 

branches (arms). 
Bractento; havinc; bracts. 
Bracteolae; little oracts. 
Bracts, 252. 

Branchlets : small branches. 
Branch, 170. 
Bristles; rigid hairs. 
Bud, 20, 22. 165—169. 
Bulb, 178. 
Bulbiferous, 178, c. 
Bulblets, 178, e. 
Bulbous ; having bulbs. 

Caducous, 98. 

CsBspitose ; turfy, growing in tufts. 

Calycine ; of a calyx. 

Galyculated; havmg bracteoles resem- 
bling an external or additional calyx. 

Calyptra; (an extinguisher) applied to 
the cover of the theca of some mosses. 

Calyx^ 55, 95. 

Cambram, 207. 

Gampanulate, 104, 1. 

Campylotropous ; denotes that the ovule 
is curved upon itself. 

Canaliculate ; channelled, or f^urowed. 

Canescent ; hoary, approaching to white. 

Capillary ; very slender, hair-like. 

Capitate ; growing in a nead. 

Capsule, 116, 1. 

Carina, 105, 5. Caiinate. keel-flha]>ed. 

Caryopsis ; a small, 1-celled, Indehiscent 
pericarp, adhering to the seed which it 
encloses, as in the grasses. 116, 8. 

Carpels, 77. 

Carpophore ; the axis of the fnut in the 

Cartilaginous; gristly. 

Carropnyllaceous, 105, 4. 

Cathartic; purgative. 

Catkm, 299. 

Caudate ; with a tail-like appendage. 

Caudex, 142, a. 

Caulescent, 184. 

Cauline. 220. 

Caulis, 184. 

Cellular ; composed of ceUs. 

Cellular tissue, 29. 

Cellulares, 47. 

Cemuous; nodding. 

Chafiy; with chaff like processes. 

Chalaza, 91. 

Chemical basis of vegetable tiisae, VS. 

Chlorophyll, 215, o. 

Chromuls ; green coloring-matter or par 

CilisB ; hairs like those of the eyelash. 
Ciliate, 41, a, 
Circinate, 217, 7. 
Circumscissile, 115, 5. 
CuThose, 240. 2. 
Clavate; cluD-shaped. 
Chiw. 102. 
Climbers, 187. 
Cochleate; resembling the shell o# « 

Cohering; connected. 
CoUum, 141. 
Columella, 116, a. 
Colored ; not green. 
Columnar; formed like colnnms. 
Colunm; the consolidated stamena and 

pistils of OrehidacesB. 
Coma, 118, a. 
Commissure : the inner face of the car 

pels of UmbcllifersB. 
Compound leaves, 238. 
Comose ; a kind of inflorescence, having 

a tuft of sessile bracts on the tc^ of it 
Compound leaves; coDsistmg of seveial 

Compressed, 222, 1. 
Concave ; hollow. 
Concentnc ; points or lines at equal d^ 

tance from a common centre. 
Concrete ; hardened, or fonned into ooi 

Confluent ; running into one another. 
Conjugate ; joined m pairs. 
Connskte; joined together tX the base, 

Connectile, 68, b. 

Connivent ; converging. 
Conoid ; like a cone. 

Contorted; 106, 4, twisted. 

Convolute, 108, 2. 

Convex; rising spherically. 

Coral Islands, 12, e. 

Cordate, 234, 25. 

Coriaceous ; leathery, thick, and UxoA, 

Corm, 179. 

Comute; homed. 

Cordla, 56, 100. 

Corona (a crown): the expanded oop* 

like disk of the JNarcissus, &c 
Corymb, 301. 

Coiymbose; arranged like a corymb 
Costate; ribbed. 




Gotyledonous pfauito, 48. 

Creeper, 182. 

Crenate, 235, 4. 

Crenolato, 23r), 4. 

Crisi>ed, 235, 10. 

Cruciform, 105, 1. 

CrypUigamiiL, 345. 

Cocnllate; hooded, oorwtod. 

Culm, 1S6, a. 

CnltiTatioii, effects of, 15. 

Cnneate; wedge-shaped. 

Cnpnle; the cup, or iAToluere, of Hie 

acorn, and of all amentaceous plants. 
Cuspidate ; Uke the point of a spear. A 

leaf 19 cuspidate Yrhes suddsmj con- 
tracted to a point. 
Cuticle; the epidermis; scar^kln. 
Cjathiform; cup-shaped; ooncove. 
Cylxndraceous ; like a cylinder in fOfO.^ 
Cyme, 307. Cjmose, like a cyme, 
(^anic, of the blue series ; i. e. white, red, 

blue^niy color ?aive srello w or ootaoleuo* 
Decasdnnis; with 10 stameDS. 
Deciduous, dS. 

I>eelinate ; turned towards one side. 
Decompound ; more tluui onoe oOsttponn- 

ded, as bipinnate, &o. 
Decumbent; lying down, ct leaning on 

the ground. 
Deeorrent, iM2, 3. 
Decussate; Grossing each ofiier at right 

Deflated; bent downwards. 
Defoliation, 239. 
Deiiiscence, 66, 0, 115. 
Deltoid ; shaped like the Greek letter ^ 
Dentate. 235, 2. 
Denticulate, 235, 2. 
Dyeased; pressed inward or flattened 

nom aboYe. 
Diandrous ; with two stamens. 
Diadelphons ; haying the stamens united 

in 2 seta. 
Diaphanous; transparent. 
Dicnotomous; branching by two equal 

divisions; forked. 
Diclinous ; (stamens and pistils) in sepa- 
rate flowers. 
Dicotyledonous {dants, 127. 
Dtdymous; two united. 
Didynamous; having two long stamens 

and two short ones in the same flower. 
Diffuse; wide-spread, scattered. 
Digestion, 261. 
Dictate, 233, 18. 
Digynous ; with two pistils. 
DioBcious ; bearing staminate flowers on 

one individual, and pistillate on another. 
Discoid; in the CompositSB, when tiie 

flowers are all tul>ular in the same 

Disk, 107, 5 ; also, the centre of a head in 

the Compofiitse. 
Dissected; cut into 2 parts. 

Dissepiment; the p«rtitiOBS by which 
the cells of the pericarp are separated. 
Dissemination of seeds. 135. 
Distichous ; leaves or nowers in two op- 
posite rows. 
Distinct, 63, e. 

Divaricate; spreading in a straggting 
' manfier. 

Dodecandrous ; hanring twelve stamens. 
Dorsal, 84 (on the badt). 
Drupe, 116, 6. 
Dncts, 33, /. 
Duramen, 203. 

Echinate ; beset withprioUea. 

Elementary organs, 29, &c. 


Elongatea ; exceeding the oomBUttlangflu 

Emarginate, 236, 4. 

Embryo, 123, 124, 130. 

Emolnent; softening. 

Endocarp, 112. 

Endogenous structure 210, 211. 

Endogens, 126. 197, 348. 

Endopleura, 118. 

Endosmoee, 156, a. 

Endostome ; inner mouth or peifbratloa* 

Ensiform ; sword-shaped, two-^dfed. 

Entire, 235, 1. 

Epicarp, 112. 

Epidermis, 35. 

Epigynous, 107, 6, 

Epiphytes, 150, £. 

Equitant, 217, 1. 

Erose, 235, 5. 

Esculent; eatable. 

Etiolated ; blanched or whitened. 

Exhalation, 269, 271. 

Exogenous structure, 198, 199, &c. 

Exogens, 127, 196, 348. 

Exc^mose, ISS, a. 

Exotic; foreign; not native. 

Exserted; projecting or extending oak of 

the flower or sheath. 
Exsiccated; dried up. 
Exstipulate, 251. 
Extrorse, 68, 4. 

Fecula ; the nutritious part of wheat and 

other fruits. 
Falcate ; sickle-shaped ; linear and curved. 
Farinaceous; mealy. 
Fascicle, 308. 
Fasciculated, 146, a. 
Fastigiate ; having a flat or level top. 
Favose; deeply pitted. 
Feather-veined, ^0, 1. 
Febrifuge ; efficacious against fever. 
Fecundation ; the act of making fmitftU. 
Ferruginous; iron-colored; rus^. 
Fibrils, 142, 3, 152. 
Fibro-vascular tissue, 260. 
Fibrous, 146. 
Filament, 67. 
Filiform ; shaped like a thread. 



Fimbriate; fringed. 

Fistular or fistuloua ; tnbnlar. 

Flabellifonn ; fan-eliaped. 

Flexnoas ; bent in an undulating maimer. 

Floating root, 149. 

Floral envelopes, or perianth, 54. 

Floral leaves, 232, 

Florets. 303, 6, 

Flosculous; consisting of many tabular 

monopetalons flowers, or florets. 
Flower, origin of, 24. 
" consists of, 53. 

" physiological stmctnTe of^ 106. 

" normal stractnre of, 61, e. 
Flower-bnd, 166. 

Foliaceous ; having the fonn of leaves. 
FoUide, 116, 5. 
Foot-stalks; the stalks of either flowers 

or leaves. 
Foramen, 90. 
Fork-veined, 229, 3. 
Free, 97. 

Free central placenta, 88. 
Fringed ; having a border like a fringe. 
Frond ; the leaves of the fems,pa]ms, &c. 

have been generally so called. 
Fruit, 109, 110. 

" ^wth of, 113. 

" npenlng of, 114. 

" consists of, 111. 
Frutescent; shrubby. 
Fugacious, 257, 1. 

Fundus ; of the substance of the FungL 
Funiculus, 91. 
Furcate; forked. 
Fusiform, 145. 

Galea ; (104, 5) the arched upper lip of a 
labiate flower. 

Geminate; doubled. 

Genus, 52. 

Germ ; the old name of the ovary. 

Germination, 130—133. 

Gibbous ; swelled out, protuberant 

Glabrous, 237, 1. 

Glands, 44. 

Glandular flbre or tissue, 31. 

Glaucous; sea green; pale bluish green 
with a powder or bloom. 

Globose ; round or sphericaL 

Glossology, 4. 

Glumacese, 350. 

Glume, 256. 

Granular; 147, bj formed of grains or cov- 
ered with grams. 

Gregarious ; herding together. 

Grooved ; furrowed or cnannelled. 

Groups, 357. 

Gymnosperms, 349. 

Gynandrous; having the stamens and 
styles combined in one body. 

Gynoecium, 5S. 

Hairs, 41. 
Hastate 232, 10. 

Habit ; the general aspeet or extnnal 

features or a plant, by which it is 

known at sight. 
Head, 303. 

Helmet or Galea, 104^ 5. 
Herb, 164, e. 
Herbarium, 369, 370. 
Heterogamous ; flowers not all perfect, 

some being neutral or pistillate. 
Hexandrous : having six stamens. 
HUum, 120. 
Hirsute, 41, a. 

Hispid ; roudi, with stiff haixs. 
Hoary, 237, 5. 
Homogamous; flowers all tabular, simi' 

lar and perfect, as in some of the Com- 

Homogeneous ; having a uniform natim 

or composition. 
Hooded ; curved or hollowed at the sod 

into the form of a hood. 
Hot springs, 12, e. 
Hyalme; crystalline, transparenL 
^I>rid; partaking of the nature of t«o 

Hypocrateriform, 104, 3. 
Hypogynous, 107, 3. 

Imbricate ; placed one over anotfaet^ Cki 
the tiles upon a roof, 108, 8. 

Incised, 235, a 

Incrassated; becoming thicker by di- 

Indehiscent, 115. 

Indigenous ; native of. 

Induplicate, 108, 7. 

Incumbent; l3rin^ against or across, b 
the Orucifene it denotes that the radi- 
cle is applied to the back of one of tfas 

Indusium; the membrane that endosei 
the theca of ferns. 

Inferior, 97. 

Inflated; tumid and hoUow, blown up 
like a bladder. 

Inflexed; bending inward. 

Inflorescence, 285, &c. 

^* centripetal, 293. 

" centrifugal, 294. 

Infundibuliform, 104, 2. 

Innate, 68, 1. 

Inserted into ; growing out of. 

Integument, llo. 

Intercellularpassages, 39. 

Intemode. 172. 

IntTorse, o9. 4. 

Involucel, 254. 

Involucre, 254. 

Involute, 217, 3. 

Irregular; unequal in size or fignni. 

Keel, 105. 5. 

Kidney-shaped, 232, 12 (reniform). 

Labellum, 107, a. 



labiftte, 104. 5. 

Udmatej tS3, 20. 

Lactescent; milky or juicy. 

TjBninn^ 102. 

Lttisto; wooQt. 

Lanceolate, 2SQ, 5. 

LatosI ; rolating to the side. 

Latex, 265. 

Laticiferoiu tissue, 34, 207, e. 

Leaf consiBts oil 27. 

•* form of. 231. 

" color of, 215. 

" xnaigin o^235. 

** sniface of, 237. 

** ftmctione of, 267. 

" di2ntionof,2OT. 
Leaf4md, 167. 
Leaflets, 239. 

LesTss, amiDgemezit of, 218. 
Legnme, 116, 4. 
Lqiumiixms; having leroines. 
Lenticular; lens-shaped, 
liber, 205, 206. 
Ligneous; woody, 
lignla, or ligule : the membrane at the 

top of the uieatn of srasses, &o. 
Lignlate; strap-shapea. 
I&eeons, IOd, 3. 
Limb, 108. 
Unear, 234, 23. 
Lionean Classes, 73, 74. 
Linnean Orders, 80. 
Locnliddal, 115, 1. 
Loment ; a jointed legume. 
Lunate; crescent-shaped. 
Lyrate, 232, 14. 

Varescent; withering on the plant. 
Mamnal ; on the margin. 
MeduUa; pitli. 
Mednllaiy rays, 204. 
. UeduHaiy sheath, 200. 
Membranous, or membranaceous; with 

the texture of membrane. 
Mericarp; half-fruit. 
Meaosperm, 118. 
JCidrib, 226. Midveln, 226. 
Mineral defined, 9. 
Monadelphous ; stamens all united. 
Monandrous ; with one stamen. 
M^niliform, 147, 6, 
Monocotyledonous planto, 126. 
Monoscious ; stamens and pistils apart, in 

separate flowers on the same plant. 
MoiK>petalae, 354. 
Monopetalous, 101. 
M<xio8epalous, 96. 
Mncronate, 236, 6. 
Mnltifid; many-cleft. 
Mnricate ; with hard short points. 

Naked 0Yule8| or seeds. 111, a. 
Napiform, 145, e. 

Narcotic ; producing sleep or torpor. 
Natural System, 341. 

Nectariferous; producing honey. 

Nectary, 107, a. 

Nerves. 227. 

Net-vemed^ 229. 

Nodding; m a drooping position. 

Node, 172. 

Normal ; regular, according to rule. 

Nonnal structure of planto, 61. 

^ causes of deviation from, 63. 
Nucleus, 90. . 
Nut, 116, 7. Nutrition, principles of, 310. 

Ob, in composition implies inversion, as 
ooovateMnversely-ovate, Aec 

Oblong, 232, 3. 

Obovato, 232, 6. 

Obvolute; 217,2. 

Obsolete ; indistinct, as if worn out. 

Obtuse; blunt Ochrolencous, ydlowish- 

Octandrous ; with ei^t stamens, .[white. 

Octo^nous ; with eight styles. 

Officmal: used in or belonging to the 

Offset, 191. 

Oleagmous, oily. 

Operculum ; the lid to a pyxis, &c. 

Opposite, 218, 3. 

Orbicular, 232, 1. 

Orders, 355. 
^ names of, 360. 

Ordinal ; relating to the Orders. 

Organic bases, S^. 

Organography, 2. 

Oruotropous, 121. 

Oval, 23L 24. 

Ovary, 76, 77. 

Ovate ; e^-shaped (surface), as a leaf 

Ovoid ; egg-formed (solid), as a fruit. 

Ovules, 81, 89. 

Paleacious, 99, a, 

Paleee, 256. 

Palmate. 147, a, 

Pandiurlrorm ; fiddle-shaped, rounded at 
the ends, narrow in the middle. 

Panicle, 304. 

Papilionaceous. 105, 5. 

Papillose ; producing small glandular ex- 

Pappus, 99, a. 

Parasitic ; growing upon or nourished by 

ParaUel-vcined, 229, 2. 

Parenchyma, 29, 261. 

Parietal placentse. 

Pectinate ; comb-like, with long, narrow 

Pedate ; when the palmate leaf has the 
two lateral lobes cut into two or more 

Pedicel. 288. 

Pedicellate ; furnished with a pedicel. 

Peduncle, 287, 288. 

Pellucid: transparent. 

Peltete, 233, 21. 



Pendnloos; drooping, hanging down. 

Pentagooal ; with 5 sides and 5 angles. 

Pentandrous; with 5 stamens. 

Pepo, 116, 13. 

Perennial ; ondnring three years or snore. 

Perfoliate, 242, 2. 

Perianth, 54. 

Pericarp, 112. 

Perigyuous ; inserted into the cal jx. 

Peristome ; the rim or border surroonding 

the orifice of the theca of a moss. 
Permanent ; same as persistent. 
Persistent, 98. 
Personate, 104, $• 
Petal, 101. 

Petaloid; resembling petals. 
Potiolato, 221. 
Petiole, 221, 222. 
PhsMiOflsmia, 46, 34& 
Pilose, 99, a. 
* PinniB ; ( wings) the •egmeats of & pinnate 

Pinnate, 240. 1. 
Pinnatifid, 232, 15. 
Pistil, 58, 75. 


physiological stmctore of. 83. 
theoretical structure of, 84. 

Pistillate; bearing pistils. 
Pith, 199. 
Placenta, 87. 
PlaitedT^n, 6. 
Plant defined, 10. 
Plicate ; folded like ft fan. 
Plumose, 99, a. 
Plumule, 124, b. 
Pod ; legumes, siliqnes, Sec* 
Pollen, 70. 

Polyandrons ; with many stamens. 
Polyadelphous ; stamens united in seve- 
ral sets. 
Polygamous ; having staminate or pistO- 

late and pierfect flowers on the same 

Polygynous ; with many pistils. 
PolypetalsB, 354. 
Polypetalous, 101. 
Polysepalous, 9^ 
Polyspermous ; many-seeded. 
Pome, 116, 12. 
Pores; apertures of perspiration in the 

Premorse, 145, 6, 
Prickles, 43. 
Primine. 90. 
Prismatic ; formed like a prism, with 3 

or more angles. 
Procumbent ; trailing on the ground. 
Proliferous ; forming young plants about 

the roots. 
Prostrate ; trailing flat on the ground. 
Pubescent, 41, a. 
Pulp ; the soft, juicy, cellular substance 

found in berries and other fhuts. 
Pulverulent; powdery. 
Pnnctate, 237, 10. 

Pungent ; stingmg or pricking, 
Putamen, 112. 
Pyriform; pear-shaped. 
Pyxis, 116, 11. 

Quinate, 241, 9. 
Quincuncial, 106, 3. 

Raceme, 298. 

Racemose; resembling a raceme. 
Rachis, 290. 

Radiate ; when the outer^llowers of an in- 
florescence are largest, or foznisbed 

with rays. 
Radiate-veined, 230, 2. 
Radical, 220. 
Radicle, 124, o. 
Ramial, 220. 
Ramose. 144. 
Raphe. 121. 
Raphiaes. 29,^ 
Receptacle, 59. 

Recurved; bent or curved backwards. 
Reflexed; curved backwards and dow» 

Reniform, 232, 12. 
Repand, 235, 11. 
Respiration, 275 — 280. 
Resupinate; inverted. 
Reticulate. 229,1. 
Retrorse ; oent backwards. 
Retuse, 236, 5. 
Revolute, 217, 4. 
Rhizoma, 181. 
Rhomboid ; oval and angular in the add' 

Rib [costa] ; ridge caused by pnttgectital 

veins, &c. 
Ringent, 104, 5. 
Root, 136 — 160. 

^ srowth of. 153. 

« forms of, 143, &c. 

" use of, 154. 

" phyfeiol<M;ical structure of, 151. 
Rosaceous, 105, 2. 
Rostrate ; with a beak. 
Rosulate ; arranged in a radiant masoff, 

like the petals of a double rosei 
Rotate, 104, 4. 
Rugose, 237, 9. 
Runcinate, 232, 13. 
Runner, lo5. 

Saccate; with a bag or sack. 
Sagittate. 232, 11. 
Samara, 116, 10. 
Sap, 2^. 
Sapwood, 203. 
Sarcocarp, 112. 
Scabrous; rough. 

Scale ; the bracts of the GompositA. 
Scai>e, 186.289. 

Scarious ; arv, colorless, membranaesooi' 
Scorpoid ; when racemes are revolute b*' 
fore expansion, as Drosera, &c. 




Seennd; turned to one aide. 

Seaudiiie, 90. 

Sctobicnlate ; pitted or ftorowed. 

Seed, 117, &c 

« vitality of, 134. 
Segments ; parts or dlTinoxis. 
Seminal; oi the seed. 
Sepals. 96. 
Septifra^. 115, 3. 
Septinate, 241, 10. 
Se^rtnm; apartitiozu 
Sericeous, 41, o. 
SeiTste, 235, 3. 
Serralate. 235, 3. 

Setaeeons, or aetow ; bxistl j. 

Sheath; the lower pert of the leaf or leaf- 
stalk which SDxroimda the stem- 
Shrab,164,5. Signs, 128. 
SOide, 116, 3. 
SOiqQe, 116, 2. 
Sinnate, 232, 1& 
Sinns; the recesses formed by the lobes 

of leaTea^ &c. 
Soporific ; mdncing sleep. 
S(ni ; the patches of f mctificsdon on the 

back of the fronds of fexns. 
Spathe ; Uie sheath sanonndiog a spadiz 

or a single flower. 
Spathnlate; obovate, with the lower end 

moeh narrowed and tapering. 
Species, 30. 
Specific names, 362. 
Spermoderm; skin of a seed. 
Spike, 297. 
Sinnes, 171. 
Spinoas, 235, 7. 
Spiral vessels. 33, o. 
Spongioles. 142, c 
Spores, 129. 
Spoipcens, 347 
SponJes or spores, 129. 
Spar, 107, a. 
Stamens, 57, 65, 73. 
^ consist of, 66. 
** andpi8tUs,nseof,92. 
Staminate ; with stamens only, bairen. 
Studaid ; same as vexiUnm or banner. 
Stem, 161. 

** functions of, 208, 209. 
Sterile ; barren, nnfrnitfnL 
Sternutatory ; exciting to sneezing. 
Stigma, 79. 
Stings, 42. 

Stipe; the stalk of a p6d,of a fungoSi&o. 
Stipels,251. *^ 

Stipitate, bone on a stipe. 
Stipules, 249. 
Stipulate, 251. 
Stolon, ld2. 

Stoloniferous ; bearing stolons. 

Stomata, 37, 38, 39. 

Stnughtp-veined ; where the principal 

veins pass direct to the margin. 
StrisB ; small streaks, channels or furrows. 
Striate ; with stria, slightly furrowed, &c. 
Strigose; clothed wim uiort, stiff, and 

appressed hairs. 
StrobUe.116, 15. 
Style, 78. 
Stjrlopodium ; a kind of disk which is 

epigynous and confluent with the style. 
Sub ; m composition, it denotes a lower 

degree of the quality, as snb-sessile, 

neariy sessile, &c. 
Submersed; under water. 
Subulate; awl-shapeML 
Succulent ; thick, juicy, and fleshy. 
Suffrutescent ; somewnat shrubby. 
Snflruticose ; same as the last. 
Sulcate; funowed or grooved. 
Superior 97. 
Suture, o4. 
Symmetrical, 61, c» 
Syncarpous ; when the finiifc oonsists of 

united carpels. 
Synsenesious ; when the anthers are uni- 
ted into a tube, as in Compositss. 
Systematio botany, 330. 

Tap root, 145, e. 

Tendril, 187, a. 

Terete; rounded or cylindrio. 

Terminal J borne at the summit. 

Temate, 240, 4. 

Testa, 11& 

Tetradynamons; with 2 short and 4 long 

Tetragynoos ; with 4 pistils. 
Tetrandrous J with 4 stamens. 
Thallogens, 351. 
Thallus; that |>art of Lichens which 

bears the fructification. 
Theca; Uie vessels which contain the 

sporules of the Cryptogamia. 
Thorn, 171. 
Throat; the orifice of the tube of the 

Thyrse, 305. 
Tomentose. 41, a. 
Toothed; aentate. 
Torose ; uneven or undulating on the bws 

Torus ; receptacle, 59. 
Trailing ; creeping or lying on the groond. 
Transverse; cross-wise. 
Tree, 164, a, 

Triandrous ; with 3 stamens. 
Tricuspidate : having three points. 
Tridentate ; tnree-toothed. 
Trifid; three-cleft. 
Tripinnate, 239, 6. 
Tritemate, 239, & 

Truncate ; blunt, as if out square ofifl 
Trunk, 189. 




Tnberj 180. 

TubenferouB ; bMcing tobezB. 

TuberooB, 147. 

Tabular, 103. 

Tunicated, 178, a. 

Turbinate; sfai^dlike a top. 

Tmgid; swollen. 

Umbel. 302, 0. 

Umbellet, 305.0. 

tJmbilicate ; aepressed in the centre. 

Unarmed, 235, 7. 

Uncinate ; hooked at the end. 

Undulate; wavy. 

UnqntB ; the daw. aa of a petaL 

Unilateral: oiw-eided. 

Utricle, 116, & 

Valyate, 108, 1. 
Valves, lis. 
Varieties, 51. 
Vascular tisene, 33. 
Vaeonlares. 47. 
Vasifonn tusae, 33. 

Vegetable phyriology, 3. 

Vegetable kingdom, varietr of, 13. 

Vegetation, its diffnsicML 14, a. 


Veinlets, 228. Veinnlets, 22a 

Velvety; dothod with a deose, soft pvb 

Venation. 220. 
Ventral, 84. 
Vernation, 210. 
VerticillaBter, 309. 
Verticillate, 218, 4. 
Vesciciilar; bladdenr. 
Vexaiary, 108, 6. 
Vezillam, 105, &. 

Villose ; villous ; dothed with long haizs. 
Vine, 187. ^ 

Viscid; clammy, stid^. 
VittsB; receptacles or secretian in the 

seed of UmbeDifenB. 

Whorled, 175. 
Winged, 222, 2. 
WocS, 201, 202. 
Woody tissue, or fibre, 30. 



aeh, achenia. 
eBst, SKtivation. 
alter, alternate. 
amplex. ampIezioauL 
anth, anther. 
aantt. axillary. 
eoL calyx. 
eap«. capsule. 
eor, corolla. 
deeid. deciduous. 
diam. diameter. 
ellip, elliptical. 
mnarg, emarginate. 
wig. epigynous. 
J. or fi, feet. 

JU. 61aments. 

JL flower ; fis. flowers. 

fr, fruit. 

hd, head ; hds. heads. 

hyp. hypo^ynous. 

imbr. imbricate. 

inf. inferior. 

invol. involucre. 

inreg. irregular. 

U^. le^ame. 

(/Tleaf; Ivs. leaves. 

Ifts, leaflets. 

lorn. loment. 

opp. opposite. 

owo. ovary. 

ped. pedunde. 
pet. petals. 
jMT^. perigynoui. 
peng. perigynium. 
reeep. receptade. 
r^. regular. 
rh^z. rhizoma. 
rt, root. 
9ds. seeds. 
9€g. segments. 
sqp. sepals. 
sL stem. 
sta. stamens. 
stig. stigmas. 
sty. styles. 

The names of the numOuy and of states and e&untriesj are often abbraviated, and 
always in the same manner as in other works; thus, Apr. April; Jn. June; Ma» 
Massachusetts ; N. Y. New York ; la. or Ind., Indiana, &o. 

7%e foUotdng Signs are also in general use: — 
An annual plant 
ro A biennial plant 
. A perennial herb. 
h A plant with a woody stem, 
(f A staminate flower or plant 
9 A pistillate flower or plant 



Used only in the GrncifenB. 


9 A perf^ flower, or a plant bearing perfect flowers. 

8 Monoecioos, or a plant with stamiuate and pistillate flowers. 

9 (f Dioecious ; staminate and pistillate flowers on separate plants. 

V d (f Poljganions ; the same species with staminate, pistillate, and perfect flowers. 
Wanting or none. 

00 Indefinite, or numerous. 
Os Cotyledons accnmbent. 

1 Cotrledons incumbent 
0>> Cotyledons condnplioate 
i A naturalized plant, 
t A plant cultivated for ornament. 

i A plant cultivated for use. This, witlf the two last, are ptiaced at the end of a 
description. In other situations they have their usual signification as marks of 
division or reference. In measure of length, or other dimensions, ^e following signs 
are adopted in this work : — 

f (without the period) A foot. 

' (a single accent) An inch. 

" (a double accent) A line (one twelfth of). 
I The note of exclamation, now common in botanical works, is used in contraries 
t» the note of interrogation (?). It denotes^ in general, eertaifUy /ram personal o&sar" 
MOm*. Affixed to a locality, it denotes that the writer has examined specimens 
either in or firom that place. Afiixed to the name of an individual, it denotes that 
the writer has examined specimens supplied by him. In this work the note of affir- 
XBatioD is used only where the fact stated or implied is somewhat new, or might 
edienrise have been regarded as doubtful. 

Anthon' names, when of more than one syllable, are usually abbreviated by 

the next following or last consonant. The following 
abridged in this work : — 

writing the first syllable and 
are nearly all the names thus 

Adans. Adanson. 
Am. Araott 
Batt Barton. 
Beatti. Bentham. 
BerL Berlandier. 
Benh. BernhardL 
Brongn. Broogniart. 
Bigl. or Bw. Bigelow. 
Boehm. Boehmor. 
Boor. Bongazd. 
Br. Brown. 
Gais. Gassini. 
Gsv. (lavanilles. 
Btrl. Darlington. 
DC. De CandoUe. 
Desf. Desfontaines. 
Besv. Desvaux. 
Dew. Dewey. 
Boh. DuhameL 
£odl. Endlieher. 
Ehrfa. Ehrhart. 

Engel. Engelman. 
Forsk. Forskahl. 
Froel. Froelich. 
Gsert Gsortner. 
Ging. Gingins. 
Gmel. Gmelin. 
Gron. Gronovius. 
Hedw. Hedwig. 
Hofifm. Hoffmami. 
Hook. Hooker. 
Jiiss. Jussieu. 
Lam. Lamark. 
Lee. Le Conte. 
Lindl. Lindley. 
Linn.* Linnaus. 
Lk. Link. 
Lehm. Lehmann. 
Mart. Martins. 
Mentz. MentzeL 
Michx. Michanz. 
Mill. Miller. 
Mirb. Mirbel. 
Moench. Moenohausen. 
Muhl. Muhlenberg. 

Nutt Nuttall. 

Pers. Fersoon. 

Pall. Pallas. 

Pav. Pavon. 

Poir. Poiret. 

Ph. Pursh. 

B. Br. Robert Brown. 

Baf. Rafinesque. 

Rich. Richard. 

Schw. Schweniti. 

Scop. Scopoli. 

Sen Seringe. 

Schk. Schkuhr. 

Sm. Smith. 

Spr. Sprengel. 

Sw. Swartz. 

T. & G. Torrey & Giaj* 

Torr. Torrey. 

Toum. Toumefort. 

Traut Trautvetter. 

WiUd. Willdenow. 

Walt Walter. 


The object of scientifio tables is usually twofold. First, philosophical ; — ^ to ez« 
Ubit m one condensed view the affinities and difierences of the several subjects to 
which they relate, by bringing them into immediate comparison and contrast. 
Second, practical ; — to aid the student in his researches by affording him an 
abridged method of analysis. The analytical tables which accompany this flora 
nay subserve both these purposes, but they are designed chiefly for the latter; viz. 

* In tUs flora, wterevsr no authority is «dd«d to the genedo or spedflc name, Lbm, is to be 


M an expeditions method of botanical analysis. They are the result of much labor 
and investigation, since each character employed required a preTioos cxaminatkm 
of all the species mcladed under it The process of analysis by these tables consists 
of a simple series of dilgmmaa or alternatives ; the decision bein^, in almost all cases, 
to be made merely between tivo opposite or obvimisly distinct characters. These 
decisions or dilemmas being, moreover, few in number, conduct the student with 
absolute precision (provide a the tables be free from error, and the specimen a good 
one) to the order or genus to which his plant belongs, by once or a few times reading 
across the page. The advantages thus afforded will be duly appreciated, at least by 
'those who nave hitherto been subjected to the drudgery of reading through whole 
pages of dry generic descriptions, and that too, often, without arriving at any satis- 
lactory conclusion. 

In regard to the generic characters employed in the tables, it will be observed thst 
they are drawn from leaves^ fru^t flower^ or any portion of the plant which suited 
our convenience, — our only inauiry being after those which appear to us the most 
obvious and constant. It should be remarked, however, tiiat in many instanoei 
these characters are not strictly applicable to all the known species belonging to 
those particular orders or genera, but only to those which are desccibed in this work; 
that is, found in the United States, north of lat. 381'. In our choice of terms we havs 
always, of necessity, studied the utmost brevity of expression, but have used aoat 
but such as are explained in the glossary or in the body of the work. 

Although the manner in which these tables are to be used will in general be ob- 
vious at a glance, yet it may not be unprofitable to attend to the following directiooi 
and illustrations. We will suppose the student to be in possession of an unknown 
plant which he wishes to study by the aid of the Flora, in other words to analyze. 
To this end, he first determines to which of the six great classes of the natural sjv 
tem it belongs, — either by his previous knowledge of their characters, wfai'*h shooM 
be thoroughl3r understood, or by an appeal to the first synoptical view, page tSOi 
Thus he inquires, — 

1. Is the plant a flowering or flowerless one ? Ans, Flowering. It belor 39 then- 
fore to Phaenogamia. Turn next to the 2d couplet. 

2. Are the leaves net-veined, &c. or parallel-veined, &c. Ans, Net-veined, lad 
the flowers are not tokolfy trimerous ; that is, the petals, sepals, and stamens, an a 
in threes, but the carpels are single. The plant belongs, therefore, tc £xogs0> 
Turn to the 3d couplet. 

3. Stigmas present, &c. or stigmas 0, &c. Ans. Stigmas present The pIttC 
therefore belong to Class I. Angiospermous Exogena. Kext ascertain to which «f 
the sub-classes it belongs, by synopsis 2d. 

4. Are the petals distinct, or united, or 0, &c. ? Ans. Distinct. The plant wiH 
be found therefore among the Polypetalous Exogens. Now turn to the Cooapeetoi 
of the Orders of this subdivision, and inquire, — 

7. Is the plant an herb or a shrub ? Ans. A shrub. Turn then to couplet Si 
54. Leaves opposite, or leaves alternate ? Atis. Alternate. Turn to 6^ 
65. Stipules present, or stipules none ? Ans. Stipules none. 70. 
70. Flowers cf 9i or 5 ? Atis. $. Turn then to couplet 72. 
72. Stamens (00) indefinite, or 6, or 4, or 5 ? Ans. 6 ; and the plant bek>ngB tha^ 

fore to the natural order Berberidacem. The pupil now turns to Order vl and 
inouires in the Conspectus, — 

Is the plant an herb or a shrub ? Ans. A shmb, and therefore belongs to Beiberii^ 
genus 1st. Turn finally to that genus, and study the species. 

Again, suppose the plant to be an herb. Turn to couplet 8. 

8. Leaves alternate, &c. or opposite ? Ans. All radical. 9. 

9. Stipules present or ? A71S. Present (radical). 34. 
2r 1*°''®^ regular or irregular ? A7is. Beguhir. 35. 
35. Stamens monadelphous or distinct ? Ans. Distinct, and the Older aongbfi ii 

Rosaceas. Then turn to Order XL VIII. and inquire,— 
Ovaries free or adherent ? Atis. Free. ■ 

Naked or enclosed, &c. ? Ans. Naked. * I 

Are they 3—50 in number or 1 onlv ? Afts. 3—50. I 

Are they in fruit follicles, a compound berry, or achenia ? Ans. Achenia. 
On a dry receptacle or juicy ? Atis. Drv. 
Caudate with the persistent style or not V Ans. Not caudate. 
Leaves simple or compound ? Ans. Compound. 
Is the plant caulescent or acaulescent ? Ans. Acaulescent, and the genos ^ 

Waldateinia. Turn lastly to that genus, and learn the species. Further illustratiom 

are perhaps unnecessary. *^ 





§ 1. Classes and Subclasses. 

1 Flowering plants, or Phjbnogamia. ... 2 

I Flowerlesfl plants, or Csypto&amia. ... 5 - 

2 LeaTes net-veined. Flowers neVer comvUtely 3-parted. Exooens. ... 3 
2 Leaves parallel- (rarely net-) veined. Flowers 3-parted. Endooens. ... 4 

3 Stigmas present. Sds. enclosid in seed-veasds. ... 6. ANGIOSPRRMS. I. 

3 Sijg.O. Sds.nak. (Pine,Fir,«S^.)ComFEajE.CXXXI.GVMNOSPERMS. IL 

4 Fls. with no glumes. Perianth whorled or wanting 127. AGLUM ACE^E. 111. 

4 Fh. with green glumest no perianth and i-seedtid fr 147. GLUM ACE.'E. IV. 

5 Stems and leaves distinguishable. . . . 149. ACROGRNS. V. 

5 Stems and leaves confounded together. . . . 161. - -THALLOGENS. VI. 

6 Corolla with distinct petils. .r.. . 7 ----- - Polypetalous Cxogeus. 1 

6 Corolla with united petals. . . . 69 .- - - - - Mouopetalous Kxogeus. 2 

6 Corolla (and often the calyx also) wanting. ... 97 - - Apetalous Cxogeus. 3 

S 2. Orders of the Polypetalous Exogens, 

* 7 Herbs (I 164) 8r 

7 Shrubs, trees or under-shrubs. ... 48 
8 Leaves alternate or all radical. ... 9 
8 Leajres cauline, opposite at least the lower ones. ... 35 , 

^Leaves furnisned with stipules. ... 32 

'9 Leaves destftute of stipules. ... 10 
10 Poiyandrous — stamens 17—200, indefinite. ... 11 
10 Oli^odrous — stamens few and definite. ... 16 

II Stamens hypogynous — situated on the receptacle. ... 12 

11 Suunens perigynous — situated on the calyx or corolla. ... 15 
12 Sepals 3—5. Leaves centrally peltate, in water. ... 13 
12 Sepals 3 — 9. Leaves neither peltate nor tubular. ... 14 
12 Sepais5, persistent. Leaves tubular, pitcher-form. - - Sarsacbniacba. X. 

12 SeJMiis ^ deciduous. Juice usually colored. .... PAPAVBRAcCiB. XI. 

13 Petals 3 or 4, in one row. Lvs. oval, floating. - - Cadombackje. VII. 

13 Petals many, in several rows. Lvs. round, erect. - Nelumbiacba. VIII. 
14 Pistils (or pistil) simple and distinct, few or many. - - . Ranunculacb£. I. 
14 Pisul compouna, large 12 — 30-celled. (In w^r.) ... Nymphjbacbjb. IX. 

15 Petals 5. Styles several, distinct. ...... Rosaceje. XLVIII. 

16 Petals 5. Styles united into one. ....... Loasacbjb. LVI. 

15 Petals numerous, in several rows. Styles united. - - CACTACBii. LXI. 

16 Flowers very irregular, one-sided or two-sided. ... 17 
16 Flower regular or nearly so. . . . 19 

17 Filaments 6 — 8, united below into 2 sets. ... 18 

17 Filaments 6, united only at top. Balsaminacbjb. XXVIII. 

17 Filaments 8, distinct. Leaves simple, peltate. - Tbopjbolacejb. XXIX. 

17 Filaments 8, distinct. Lvs. bitemate, with tendrils. Sapindacejb. XLIV. 

18 Leaves much dissected and divided. FuMARiACBis. XII. 

13 Leaves simple, entire. Polyoalacb^. XVI. 

19 Ovary superior — free from the calyx or nearly so. ... 20 

19 Ovajy interior— wholly adherent to the calyx. ... 30 

20 Sepals 2. Fleshy herbs. Portulacace-b. XXIV. 

20 Sepals 3 or more. Herbs leafy, green. ... 21 

20 Sepals 3 or more. Herbs leafless and not green. ... 87 - - . (LXXVIII.) 

21 Stamens hypogynous— situated on the receptacic. ... 22 

21 Stamens perigynous— situated on the calyx or corolla. ... 28 
22 Sq>ais, petals and stamens symmetrical. ... 23 
22 Sepals, petals and stamens unsym metrical. Fruit a pod. ... 26 


23 Leaves simple. ... 24 

23 Leaves compound. ... 25 
24 Petals persistent. Ovary l-ce)led. Leaves radical. - - DsosEaACEJB. XVITI. 
24 Petals fugacious. Ovary 5 — 10-celled. Leaves cauline. - Linacbjb. XXVI. 
24 Petals deciduous. Ovary 5-celled. Leaves cauline. . . .87 - - (LXXVIIL) 

25 Juice acrid. Sepals valvate in the bud. - - - Limnanthacejb. XXX. 

2^ Juice acid. Sepals imbricate in the bud. - - - - Oxalidacejb. XXXI. 

25 Juice bitter Leaves pinnate, dotted. ----- Rutacbjb. XXXIV. 
26 Flowers cruciform, regular. Stamens tetradynamous. - - Ceucifebjb. XIIL 
26 Flowers rather irregular. Stamens not tetradynamous. ... 27 

27 Calyx closed in the bud. Pod closed until ripe. Cappakioacbjb. XIV. 

27 Calyx open in the bud. Pod open before ripe. - • - Rbsbdacbx. XV. 
28 Stamens 5. opposite to the five petals. ...78------- (LXXXV.) 

28 Stamens alternate with the petals when of the same nmnber. ... 29 

29 Styles 3 — 20, as many as the sepals. - . - . Cbassulacejb. LXIV. 

29 Styles 2, fewer than the sepals. ---.-- SAXirRAOACEiB. LXV. 

29 Styles 4, fewer than the sepals. Pamassia. - - Dbosbbacba. XVIIL 
30 Flowers 5-parted, in simple or compound umbels. ... 31 
30 Flowers 1, 2, 3 or 4-parted, not in umbels. ------ Onaoracbx. LV. 

31 Styles 2, forming a 2-pariible, dry fruit - - - Umbbllipbrjb. LXVU. 

31 Styles 3 or 4 (rarely 2), forming a berry or drupe, - Abauacejk. LXVIU. 
32 Flowers both regular and perfect. ... 33 
32 Flowers either irregular or moncecious. ... 34 

33 Stamens 00, united into a column with the 6 styles. Malvacejb. XXXVIL 

33 Stamens 10, united only at base, free from the styles. Oxalidacejb. XXXI. 

33 Stamens many or few, distinct, perigynous. - • • Rosaces. XLVIII. 
34 Ovary free, 3-celIed, forming a capsule. .--..-. Violacejb. XVII. 
34 Ovary free, 1 -celled, formini? a legume. - - - - - Leouminosjc. XLVIL 
34 Ovarv adherent, 3-celled. Flowers moncecious. - - - Bbooniacejk. LVIU. 

35 Leaves furnished with (either large or small) stipules. ... 36 

35 Leaves destitute of stipules. ... 37 
36 Petals 5, twisted in the bud, larger than the sepals. - GEBAiftACBJB. XXVIL 
36 Petals 5, not twisted in the bud, very small. - - - Illecebbace*. XXII. 
36 Petals 2 or 3, not twisted. Elatinacbjb. XXV. 

37 Flowers very irregular. Polygalack*. XVI. 

37 Flowers regular, or but slightly unequal. ... 33 
38 Ovary or ovaries superior— free from the calyx. ... 39 
38 Ovary wholly adherent to the calyx tube. ... 40 
38 Ovary adhering to the calyx tube by the angles only. - Mblastomacejb. LI. 

39 Ovaries many, distinct, simple, caudate. Ranctnculaceb. I 

39 Ovary 1, simple. Leaves 2 only in Podophyllum, - Bebbebidacejb. VL 

39 Ovary compound. ... 41 
40 Involucre 4-Ieaved, white, subtending the small cyme. - Cobnacejb. LXIX. 
40 Involucre none. Leaves numerous, simple. - - - . . Onagbaces. LV. 
40 Involucre none. Leaves 3 only, compound. Panax, Abaliacbx. LXVUL 

41 Sepals 2, fewer than the petals. - Pobtulacacej*. XXIV. 

41 Sepals 3—5. Style and stigma 1. ... 42 

41 Sepals 3 — 5. Styles and stigmas several. ... 43 . 

42 Sepals equal, combined into a tube. -------- JLvthbacbjk. LH. 

42 Sepals unequal, nearly distinct. ---------- 'Cistaceji. XlX. 

43 Stamens hypogynous — on the receptacle. ... 44 

43 Stamens perigynous — on the calyx. ... 45 
44 Stem tumid at the nodes. Leaves not punctate. - Cabtophyllaces. XXIIL 
44 Stem often ancipiial. Lvs. with pellucid and black dots. Hypericacex. XX. 

45 Stamens 20 or more, indefinite. Exotic. - - - Mesembbi^acejb. LXU- 

45 Stamens fewer than 20, definite. ... 46 
46 Pistils (follicles) distinct, as many as the sepals. - - Cbasbulacbjb. LXIV. 
46 Pistils 2—5, partly or completely united. ... 47 

47 Styles 3—5. Embryo coiled. Caryophyllacejs. XXIII. 

47 Styles 2. Embryo straight. Saxifbagacex. LXV. 

48 Leaves opposite. ... 49 
48 Leaves alternate- ... 58 

49 Flowers irregular. Hippocastanacejb. XLUI. 

49 Flowers regular. ... 60 



SO SttUDfiBB 4,— «fl many as the sepals and petals. ... 57 
fiO Stamens 6, — as many as the sepals and pcstals. ... 55 
50 Stamens 5—100, rnore than the sepals and petals. ... 51 

51 Ovary free (or half-free and 4-carpelled). ... 52 

51 Ovary adherent to the calyx tube. ... 56 
52 Stamens perigynous. Sticrmas 2 or 4. . . .54 

52 Stamens hypogynous. Stigmas 1 or 3. ... 53 

53 Stigmas distinct. Leaves not punctate. ----- Cistace«. XIX. 

53 Stamens polyadelphous. Leaves punctate. - - - Hvpsricace.s. XX. 
54 Leaves palmate- veined (or compound). Fruit a samara. Acekacejb. XL II. 
54 Leaves feather- veined, simple. Fruit a capsule. - - SAXiPBAGACEiE. LXV. 

65 Stamens opposite to the petals. Vines with tendrils. - - ViTACEiB. XLT. 

65 Stamens alternate with the sepals. Tendrils none. Celastracejb. XLV. 
56 Sepali, petals and stamens 00. ---...- Caltcanthacejb. XLIX- 
56 Sepals and petals 4, stamens 8. Fuchsia. ------ Onaorackjb. LV. 

56 Sepals and petals 5, stamens 00. ---...-..- MvnTAcE.B. L. 

57 Flowers in cymes. Large shrubs or trees. - - - Cobnacejb. LXIX. 

57 Flowers in spikes or fdscicles. Small parasites. LosANTHACEiB. LXX. 
58 Ol gandrous — stamens few and definite. ... 63 

53 Poiyandrous — stamens 20 or more. ... 59 

59 Sepals 5 (rarely more), as many as the petals. . . . 61 « 

59 Sepals 3, petals 6—9 60 

60 Petals imbricated in the bud. Stipules membranaceous. - Magnolia cejk. II. 
60 Petals vaJvate in the bud. Stipules none. -.---. Anoniacea. IV. 

61 Filaments united into a tube. ------- Malvacejb. XXXVII. 

61 Filaments distinct, perigynous. -----.- Kosacejb. XL VIII. 

61 Filaments distinct, hypogynous. ... 62 
62 Leaves with stipules, dotless, cordate. Flowers small. Tiliacea. XXXVIII. 
62 I^ieaves without stipules, dotless. Flowers large. Ternstrcemiacejb. XXXVI. 

62 Leaves without stipules, pellucid-punctate. - - - - Aubantiacea. XXXV. 

63 Ovary free from the calyx — superior. ... 64 

63 Ovary adherent to the calyx— inferior. (Flowers symmetrical). ... 68 
64 Corolla more or less irregular. Fruit a pod (legume). Leouminobx. XL VII. 
64 CoroUa regular. Fruit not leguminous. ... 65 

65 d\imbing without tendrils. Stamens 12 — 18. - - Menispebmacejb. V 
^ Climbing without tendrils. Stamens 5. - - - - Celastracejb. XLV. 
65 Climbing with tendrils. Stamens 5, with a crown. Passiplobacex. LVII. 

65 Erect shrubs or trees. ... 66 

66 Stamens 4 or 5, opposite the petals. --.---- Rhamnaceje. XLVI. 

66 Stamens 6, opposite the petals. - -------- Berberidacbjb. VI. 

66 Stamens 2 — 10, alternate with the petals if the same in number. ... 67 

67 Lvs. pinnate, punctate. Ov. separate or 2-celled. Zanthoxylacez. XXXII. 

67 Lvs. (mostly) pinnate, dotless. Ov l-celled,wiih 3 styles. ANACAnD.XXXIII. 

67 Leaves simple. Seeds 4 or 5. Nemopanihea. ... 81 - - - (LXXIX). 

67 Leaves simple. Seeds 8—12. § Escaluoneje. LXV. 

68 Flowers (in late autumn) 4-parted : petals linear. - - Hamamelacex. LXVI. 

63 Flowers (in June) 4-parted : petals lanceolate. - - - Cornacbjb. LXIX. 

68 Flowers 5-parted. Styles 2. Gbossulaceje. LX. 

68 Flowers 5-parted. Styles 5. Abaliace-e. LXVIII. 

S3. Orders of the Mouopetalous ISxogeus. 

69 Stamens as many as the lobes of the corolla. ... 70 

69 Stamens 6 — 12, — more numerous than the lobes of the corolla. ... 87 

69 Stamens 2 — 4, — ^fewer than the lobes of the corolla. ... 88 
70 Flowers in dense heads (compound) surrounded by an Involucre. ... 71 
TO Flowers aeparate. or not furnished with an involucre. ... 72 

71 Stamens 4, distinct. Dipsacejb. LXXIV. 

71 Stamens 5, united by the anthers. Compositje. LXXV. 

72 Calyx superior — adherent to the ovary. ... 73 
72 Calyx inierior — free from the ovary. ... 76 

73 Stamens cohering by the anthers. ... 74 

73 Stamens distinct. ... 75 

74 Flowers regular. Vines with tendrils. Cucurbit ace^.LIX. 

74 Fiowerainigttlar. Tendrils none. Lobbuacbu. LXXVI 


75 Leaves alternate. Flowers 5-parted. - - Campani7LAC»«. LXxvil 
75 Leaves opposite. Flowers 5-parted. - - - - Capbifoliacbjs. LXXL 
75 Leaves opposite. Flowers 4-parted. ----- Rubiackjk. L XXTI . 

76 Plants with a milky juice. Ovaries 2, follicular. ... 86 
76 Plants with a watery juice. Ovaries not follicular. . . 77 

77 Stamens opposite to the lobes of the corolla .... 78 

77 Stamens alternate with the lobes of the corolla. ... 79 
78 Ovary with 6 styles and but one seed. - - - PLUMBAGiNACEic. LXXXV. 
78 Ovary with 1 style and many seeds. ------ P& LXXXIL 

79 Shrubs, trees or under-shrubs. ... 80 

79 Herbs. Leaves opposite or all radical. ... 82 

79 Herbs. Leaves alternate, cauline 84 

79 Herbs (vines) leafless. § CuBcurraBJt. XCVIH. 

80 Stamens hypogynous or slightly cohering to the base of the corolla. . . .81 
80 Stamens inserted on the corolla tube inside. - - - - Solanackx. XCIX. 
60 Stamens inserted on the summit of the corolla tube. Diapensiacbjs. XCVIL 

81 Ovary forming a dry, many-seeded capsule. - - Ericacea. LXXVIIL 

81 Ovary forming a fleshy, 4 — 6-seeded drupe. - AQUiFOLiAcsjt. LXXIX 
82 Leaves with stipules. Corolla bud valvate. - - - - - Rubiacb.b. LXXU. 
82 Leaves without stipules. ... 83 

83 Ovary 1-celled, opening by a lid. Lvs. radteal. Plantaoinackjb. LXXXIV. 

83 Ovary 1-celled, opening by 2 valves. Leaves cauline. Gentiaivacbx. C. 

63 Ovary 3-celled, opening by 3 valves. Lvs. cauline. Polemoniacejb. XC?^L 
84 Ovary 4-parted, separating into 4 achenia. - - - - Bobragikacbjb. XCIV. 
84 Ovary compound, not separating, l-ccUed. - - - Htdsophtllacsa XCV. 
84 Ovary compound, not separating, 2- or 3-celled. ... 85 

85 Cor. bud twisted-imbricate. £^mbryo less than albumen. Polemon. XCH. 

85 Cor. bud twisted-plicate. Embryo larger than albumen. Convolv. XCVHI. 

85 Corolla bud imbricated, not twisted. Verbascum. Scbophulari acex. XCL 

85 Corolla bud plicate or induplicate-valvate. - - - - Solanacbjb. XCIX 
86 Flowers (in umbels) with a 5-lobed corona. - - - . Asclbpiadacks. CII. 
86 Flowers (in cymes, &c.) with no corona. ------ Apocynacbb. CI. 

87 Stamens distinct. Style 1. ------- Ebicacejb. LXXV'III. 

87 Stamens distinct. Styles 4. -------- EaENACBJi. LXXX 

87 Stamens united, all into one set. ------ Styracace*. , LXXXI. 

87 Stamens united into 2 equal sets (3 & 3). ... 18 (Xli) 

87 Stamens united into 2 unequal sets (9 & 1). ... 34 - - - - (XLVIL) 
88 Herbs. Calyx adherent to the ovary. . . 89 
88 Herbs. Calyx free from the ovary. ... 90 
88 Shrubs or trees. Calyx free from the ovary. ... 94 

89 Stamens 4. Linrusa. --------- Capripoliaceje. LXXl. 

89 Stamens 3. Valerianacejb. LXXIII. 

90 Plants brown, leafless. Orobanchacba. LXXXVIi 

90 Plants verdant, leafy. ... 91 

91 Leaves all radical and the corolla spurred. - Lkntibulacejb. LXXXVI. 

91 Leaves cauline, or if radical the corolla spurleas. . 92 

92 Ovary deeply 4-lobed, forming 4 achenia. Labi at jb. XCIIL 

92 Ovary entire, but splitting into 1—4 little nuts. - - - Verbbnacex. XCIL 
92 Ovary entire, capsular, 2-carpeIed. ... 93 

93 Corolla bud valvate. Capsule (falsely) 4-ceUed. Pedauacba. LXXXTX 

93 Corolla bud convolute. Capsule 2-celled. - - - - Acakthacejb. XG. 

93 Corolla bud imbricate. Capsule 2-celled. - - Scrophulariacbb. XCL 
94 Flowers regular, diandrous. ... 96 
94 Flowers irregular. ... 95 

95 Shrub dim bing or tree diandrous. - - - Bignoniaceje. LXXXVTll 

95 Tree tetridynamous. Pauloiryiia. - - - - Scropiiulariacsb. XCL 
96 Corolla imbricated and twisted in the bud. ----- Jasmikacbb. CIFL 
96 Corolla valvate in the bud. Olbacbb. CIV. 

§ 4. Orders of the Apetalous Exogeus. 

97 Herbs with alternate leaves, or leafless. ... 98 

97 Herbs with opposite or verticillite leaves. . . . 106 

97 Shrubs or treos. Leaves alternate. ... 115 

97 .Shrubs or trees. Leaves opoo^^ite. . . . 125 
93 Stipules sheatiiing the stem. Lvs. simple, entire. - - Poltqonaceb. CX- 
93 Stipules not sheathing, serrate. Le*ives pinnate. ... 15 - - - (XLVliL) 
98 Stipules 0, or if any, not sheathing or serrate. ... 99 

99 Flowers with a regular calyx or an involucre. . . . 100 


99 Plowers with no calyx or involucre. . . . 105 
100 Calyx adherent to the ovary. Stamens 6 — 12. - - Abistolocriacex. CV. 
100 Calyx adherent to the ovary. Stamens 6. - - - - Santalaceje. CXIII. 
100 C'llyx free from the ovary. . . . 101. 

101 Pistils entirely distinct. Stamens 00. ...14 ........ (I.) 

101 Pistils united into a compound ovary. . . . 102 

102 Ovary l^rellcd with 1 seed 103 

102 Ovary 3-ceHed with 3 seeds. -- Euphobbiac&k. CXXI. 

102 Ovary 5-celled with 00 seeds 29 (LXIV.) 

102 Ovary 6— lO-celled with 6 — 10 seeds. - - . - . Phytolaccacijb. CXI. 

103 Pistil 1. Embryo straight. Ubticace-b. CXXX. 

103 Pistils 2—5. Embryo coiled 104. 

lOi Calyx and imbricated bracts dry and scarious. - - Amaraktacea. CVIII. 
104 Calyx (and bracts also if any) green. ..... Cubnopooiacbjb. CVI. 

105 Flowers on a spadix with a spathe 130 (CXXXIV.) 

105 No spadix or spathe. Stamens 6 or 7. .... SAtrBAcEJs. CXVII. 

105 No spadix or spathe. Stamens 2 or 3. - - Pooostbmiacbx. CXX> 

lOB Calyx adherent to the ovary. ... 30 (LV.) 

IW Calyx for involucre) free 107 

106 Calyx 0. Involucre 0. Aquatic. ...... Callitbichacbjb. CXIX. 

107 Leaves verticillate. ----.... CBBATOPHVLLACBiB. CXVIII. 

107 Leaves opposite. . . . 108 
lOB Herbs with a milky juice. Fruit 3-8eeded. - - - Euphorbia cejb. CXXL 
108 Herbs with a watery juice. . . . 109 

109 Stipules present. Leaves lobed or compound. 9 Cannabinejb. CXXX. 

109 Stipules present. Leives simple, entire. ... 36 ..... (XXL) 

109 Stipules none. ... 110 

no Stamens 00, several times more than the sepals. ... 14 (I.) 

110 Stamens 8 — 10, twice more than the sepals HI 

110 Stamens as many as the sepals or fewer. ... 1 12 

111 Gilyx tubular, enclosing the l-seeded utricle. - Sclbbanthacejb. CVIL 

111 Calyx spreading;; capsule 00-s'jeded 30..----- (LV.) 

112 Calyx large, colored, funnel-form, Umb entire. - - Nyctaoinacejb. CIX. 
112 Calyx small or minute, 3— 5-lobed. ... 113 

113 Calyx and imbricated bracts dry and scarious. - Aharantaceji. CYIII. 

113 Calyx qot scarious nor bracted. ... 114 
114 Stamens alternate with the sepals. Flowers perfect. ... 78 - (LXXXIL) 
114 Stamens opposite to the sepals. Flovirers perfect. ... 44 - - . (XXIIL) 
114 Stamem opposite to the sepals. Flowers dioecious. - Urticacejb. CXXXl 

115 JRIbwerB not in aments, with a calyx and mostly perfect. ... 116 

115 Flowers imperfect, the sterile only in aments. . . . 120 

115 Flowers imperfect, both the sterile artd fertile in aments. . . . 121 

116 Stamens alternate with the sepals, of the i^ame number 117 

116 Stamens opposite to the sepals, or more numerous. ... 118 

117 Leaves serrate. ...66 -----■'-------- (XLVI^ 

117 Leaves entire, covered with whitish scurf. - . . Elbaonacejb. CXV. 

117 Leaves entire, smooth, evergreen. - . . - - Empetrace^s. CXXII. 

118 Sepals 3, with 6 stamens. Avine. Aristolochiace^. CV. 

118 Sepals 4, with 8 stamens. Erect shrubs. -, - - *;^ Thymelacejs. CXIV. 
118 Sepals 6, with 9 stamens in 3 rowg. - - -*- - -'- - Lauracea. CXIl. 
118 Sepals 5-— 9, with 5—9 stamens in one row. ... 119 

119 Leaves pinnately compound, punctate 67 - - - - - (XXXIL) 

119 Leaves simple. Calyx adherent to the ovary. - - Santalacea. CXIII. 

119 Leaves simpb. Calyx free froirt' the ovary. - - - Ulmacex. CXVI. 
120 Leaves simple. Nut or nuts in a cup or burr. - - CupuLiraajt. CXXIV. 
*20 Leaves pinnate. Nut naked. -----.- Juolandacea. CXXIII. 

121 Plants with a milky juice. Fruit fleshy. ... - $ More^. CXXX. 

121 Plants with a watery juice. Fruit dry. ... 122 

|<2 Aments globular, pendulous 123 

122 Aments cylindrical, or oval. ... 124 

123 Aments racemed. Nutlet 2-celled, several seeded.BAL8AMiFLUJ5. CXXVIII. 

123 Aments solitary. Nutlets 1-celled, l-seeded.. - Platanace«. CXXIX. 
124 Ovary 1-celled, 1-ovuled, l-seeded in fruit. ... - Mvricace*. CXXVI. 
124 Ovary 2-celled, 2-ovuled, l-seeded in fruit. . . - - BExuLACEiE. CXXV. 
124 Ovary many-ovuled, many-sosdcd in fruit. . - - Salic ace je. CXXVII. 

126 Calyx 3- or 4-parted 126 

125 Calyx 5-parted : fruit a double-samara. ... 54 (XLII.) 

126 Stamens 2. Fruit a single samara. ... 96 (CIV.) 


126 Stamens 4. Shrub evergreeD, in soil. Buxua. - Euphosbiacba. CXXI. 
126 Stamens 4. Parasite on trees, evergreen. ... 57 ....... (LXX^ 

126 Stamens 8. Shrubs with scurfy leaves. Eubaonackjb. CXV. 

§ 5. Orders of the Ag^lumaeeoiu Elndoseiis, 

127 Shrubs (climbing) 140 

127 Herbs 128 

128 Perianth complete, of 6 parts (or 4, white), never on a spadiiL . . . 132 
126 Perianth complete, but obscured in a small roundish head. . . . 146 
123 Perianth none or incomplete, mostly on a spadix. . . . 129 

129 Plants terrestrial (or on a thick scape). . . . 130 

129 Plants growing in water. . . . 131 

130 Spadix with a spathe, or on a scape. ...... Aracejb. CXXXIV. 

130 Spadix ? with no spathe and on a leafy stem. - - Typhacea. CXXXVL 

131 Root floating in water, plant on the surface. - - Lkmnacea. CXXXT. 

131 Root fixed in the mud. Plant submersed. -Naiadace^. CXXXVIL 
132 Perianth adhering to the ovary (in the perfect flowers). . . . 133 
132 Perianth free from the ovary. ... 138 

133 Fls. monoecious or dlcBcious. Aquatic. Hydbocharidacex. CXXXiX. 

133 Flowers perfect. Plants terrestrial. . . . 134 
134 Flowers irregular. . . . 135 
134 Flowers regular. . . . 136 

136 Stamens 1 or 2, adhering to the pistil (g\'nandrous). Ohchidacejb. CXL. 
135 Stamens 1, free from the pistil Indian aliot, - - Cannacea. CXLIV. 
135 Stamens 3, anthers extrorse. - Ibidacka. CXLIX 

136 Stamens 3. . . . 137 

136 Stamens 6. - Amabyllidacbji. CXLVII. 

137 Anthers introrse. Perianth woolly outside. Hjbmooobackjb. CXLV'IIL 
137 Anthers extrorse. Perianth smooth outside. - - iBiDACBiS. CXLIX. 

138 P^Uals and sepals similarly colored. . . . 139 
138 Petals and sepals dissimilarly colored. . . . 145 

139 Styles and stigmas 3, distinct. . . . 141 

139 Styles or sessile stigmas united into 1. . . . 142 
140 Flowers in spikes or panicles. Capsule 3-comered. - - Diobcobjeackjb. CL 
140 Flowers in umbels, feerhy globose. > q^,, ^ _ pi I 

141 Leaves net- veined, peiiolate. Fruit a berry. S " ' " ^m'^-acacb*. uu. 

141 Leaves parallel- veined. Capsule 00-seeded. - - Mblanthacex. CLV. 

141 Lvs. rush-like. Fruit splitting into 1 or 2-seeded parts. Alism. CXXXVIU. 
142 Perianth colored, juicy and withering. . . . 143 
142 Perianth dry, green ; or if colored, scarious. ... - Juncacejs. CLVl 

143 Flowers regular, hexandrous. . . . 144 

143 Flowers irregular or triandrous. Aquatic. - Pontideriacej^. CLIV. 
144 Perianth woolly or scurfy outside, tubular. - - HsMODOBAcSiB. CXLVIII. 
144 Perianth smooth outside, mostly 6-parted. Liliacea. CLIII. 

145 Styles or stigmas 3. Leaves net-veined. ... - Tbilliacejb. CLII. 

145 Style and stigma 1. Leaves parallel- veined. - Commeli27acba. CLVn* 

145 Styles many. Leaves somewhat net-veined. Alismacb^. CXXXVIII* 
146 Petals conspicuous, yellow. .-.-.---- Xyridacejk. CLVIII. 
146 Petals inconspicuous, white. .-..-... Eriocaulokacejb, CLli 

§ O. Orders of the Glamaceous Budosciis* 

147 Stems mostly solid. Sheaths of the leaves entire. - Cypebacbs. CLX. 

147 Stems hollow. Sheaths split to the joints. . . - Gramixec CLXI* 

§ T. Orders of the Cryptogamla. 

14B Plants consisting of woody and vascular tissue. ... 149 

148 Plants consisting of cellular tissue only. ... 150 

149 Fruit terminal, cone-like. Leaves sheath-like. - - Equisetaceje. CLXIL 
149 Fruit axillary or in spikes. Leaves 1-veined. - Lycopodiacejb. CLXH^* 
149 Fruit borne on the veiny, often contracted leaves. - - Filices. CLXI^* 
149 Fruit radical or nearly so, of two kinds. - - - - Marsileacejb. CIiXV. 

150 Leaves veinlesa, distinct from e:)ch other and from the axis. Musci. 

150 Leaves veiny, mostly confluent into one expansion. Hbpaticjb. 
151 Plants with no distinct axi!« of growth. . . . 152 
15) Plants having a distinct axis with whorlcd branches. Characea . CLXVi* 

152 Afirial, dry, crustaceous, on trees, rocks, &c. Lichens. 

152 Aerial, succulent, often ephemeral, never green. Fungi. 

152 Aquatic, consisting of simple vesicles or lobed fronds. Algje. 



PLuUs consisting of a regular axis of growth vnth leafy appendages ; 
ampcsed of a celhUa/r, vascular and ligneous structv/re; 
developing JUrwers and producing seeds. 



Stem composed of distinct bark and pith, with an intervening layer 
of woody fibre and vessels. Growth by annual, concentric, exter- 
nal lones or layers. Leaves mostly with reticulated veins, and fall- 
ing off by an articulation. Sepals and petals in 5s and 4s much 
oftener than in 3s. Embryo with 2 opposite, or several whorled 


Ovules produced within an ovary and fertilized by the pollen 

through the medium of the pistil, becoming seeds enclosed in a 
fericarp. Embryo with two opposite cotyledons. 

Floral envelops usually consisting of both calyx and ooroUa, the 
Utter composed of distinct petals. 

Order L RANUNCULACE^.— Crowpoots. 

%r5c, with an acrid, oolorien juice. 

Itaea mortlr alternale and much divided, with half-clBirpinff petioles. 

Gtfyx.— Semis mostly 5, sometimes 8, 4 or 6, roosUjr deciduous, and imbricated in sstivation. 

(%ro;[(L— Peiab 3— IS, hf pogynous, sometimes irregular or 0. 

ft ttHi ewsW, distinct, hyponrnous. Amhen, adnate or innate. 

''ssrkv 00, mrely solitary or feur, distinct. Heated on the torus. 

^riOt either dry achenia, or baccate, or follicular. 

^Kibryo minute, at the base of homy or fleshy albumen. 

Genera 41, species about looo iUndley), mostly natives of cold, damp climates. Europe is snppoeed 
<o«Qotain one fillh of the species, North America one-seventh, India one-twenty-fifth, South America 
*w-9evBOteenth. Africa very few, and New Holland but 18. 

Anerries.— Abnost all the geneia contain an acrid juice highly prqudieial to animal life, bnt easfly 
wmposed and deprived of its activity by a heat of 213 deg. Tbey also lose their poisonous qualities in 
■Hog. This order is rich in ornamental cultivated plants. 



Or. iV^/ia, llKidTiJ; cUmbinibrUnitrili.ortwlillilCPttkilalDnml. 

Calyx 4-(rftrely 5, 6 or 8-) sepaled, colored, pubescent; corolU 0, 
or smaller than the cidyz; filaments 00, shorter than the Bepali; 
ovaries 4 — 20; styles longer than the stamccH ; achenia caudate will) 
the long, plumose, permanent style. — % Mostly climinng. Leata 
vviUy cofnpmtud and opposite. 


§ Sepals 4. Petals several, minute. Atragenb. DC. 

1. C. YERTiciLLlRis. DC. (Atragene Americana, Sims,) Whori4eaved 
Virgin*s Bower. 

ClimbiDg; Ivs. in 48., verticillate, ternate; Ifts. cordate, nearly entire: 
pei. 1-flowered ; sepaU veiy large, acute. — A handsome climber in nighlana 
▼oods, Vt, (^Dr. Phelps^ to N. Car. W. to the Rocky Mts. Stem ascending trees 
I5f by means of its twisting petioles. At each node is a whorl of four 3-foliate 
leaves, and 2 large purple flowers. Leaflets acute, 1 — ^' by \ — 1^ Senals 
thick, 15^' \)Y &". Filaments about 24, outer ones (petals %) dilated, spatmate, 
tipped with imperfect anthers. May, Jn. 

§§ Petals 0. Clematis proper. 

2. C. ViRGiNiiNA. Virgin^s Bower. 

St. climbing ; Ivs. ternate ; Ifis., ovate, cordate, acuminate, lobed and cat- 
dentate; ^. often^cf, paniculate. — ^A common, hardy climber in hedges and 
thickets, Can. to Ga. and the Miss. Stem 8 — 15 f. in length, supporting itself 
on fences and brushwood by means of the long petioles. Leaflets 2 — 3' by 
1| — S', with mucronate teeth. Sepals 4, white, ovaJ-oblong, obtuse. Sta- 
mens 28 — 36. Panicles large, axillary, dichotomous. Fruit furnished with 
kog, plumose tails (cauds), appearing in large, downy tufls. Aug. f 

3. C. VioRNA. Lealker Mower. 

St. climbing; Its. pinnately divided ; Ifis. ovate-lanceolate, acute at each 
end, entire or 3-lobed ; JLs. solitary, campanulate ; sep. thick and leathery, acumi- 
nate.~In woods, Penn. to 111. (Je1vny^ and Ga. Stem 10 — 15f in length, cyl- 
indrical, striate. Leaves opposite, aecompound, consisting of d — 12 leaflets, 
Flowers axillary, purple, large, nodding. Peduncle 3 — 6' long, with a pair of 
small, simple, entire leaves neai the middle. Fruit with long, plumose tails, 
Jn. JLf 

4. C. 0CHR0LET7CA. Ait. (C. Bcricea. Michx.) Erect Clematis. 

St. herbaceous, erect, simple, silky-pubescent ; Ivs. undivided, ovate, entire, 
sQky beneath; fis. pedunculate, terminal, solitary, inclined to one side; col. 
silky outside.— Mts. and river banks, N. Y. to Ga. An erect species, 12—18' 
high. Leaves subsessile, 2 — i' long, two-thirds as wide, with prominent veins, 
upper surface becoming glabrous. Flowers yellowish white (ochroleucous), 
'camnanalate in form. May, Jn. 

5. C CRiBPA. Crisp-fi>owered Clematis. 

Si. climbing ; Irs. pinnate and ternate ; Ifts. ovate-lanceolate, very acute, 
3-lobed or entire ; Jls. solitary ; sep. acuminate, revolute, thick, with undulate 
and crisped margins.— Va. to Flor. Stem striate, 6--8f long. Flowers a 
third smaller than in C. Vioma, pale-purple, campanulate. Sepals spreading 
or revolute at the end. Peduncles axillary, shorter than the leaves. Achenia 
with naked (not plumose) candee. Jl. f 

B. C. Flammula. Sweet Virgin*s Bower. — I/vs.pumate ; Ifts. smooth, entire, 
orbicular-oval, oblong or linear, acute. — ^From Prance. A fine climber foi 
arbors, Ac., very ornamental and sweet-scented. Flowers white. Jl. — Oct. f 

7. C. FLORIDA. Large-Jloioered Virgin*s Bower. L/ds. 2-foliate and decom- 
poond ; segments ovate, acute, entire ; sep. acuminate, glabrous ; involucre 0.— 
Prom Japan. Vine 12f long, with large, white and yellow flowers. Jn. 
— Sept.t 

8. 0. VrriCELLA. Dvs. 3-foliate and decompound, lobes or segments entire ; 
Sep. obovate. — Prom Spain. This, as well as the preceding species, is often 
double-flowered. Vine 20f long. Flowers purple, f 

OtMrtNirCon.— AD the apecies are ornamental, and of eaay culture. Ther require only a eommoa mhI 
■Bd are ptapmgated bjr layen, cutting*, or from the seed. 

&r. avifioif wind ; meet of the species grow in elevated or windy plaeea. 

Involucre remote from the flower, of 3 divided leaves ; calyx regu- 
lar, of 5 — 15 colored sepals ; corolla ; stamens 00, much shorter 
than the sepals ; ovaries 00, free, collected into a roundish or oval 


head ; aohenia 00, macronate.r— '2|. jjfjs, radicoL Scapes mlh kef' 
like involucres. 

1. A. nemorOsa (and quinquefolia. IAnn.\ Wood Anemone. 

l/vs. ternate ; Ifts. undivided, or with the middle one 3-cleft, and lateral ones 
2-parted, incisely dentate ; invol. similar to the leaves, petiolate ; st, l-floxrered. 
— ^A common and interesting little plant, found in old woods, hedges, and some- 
times in open fields. Root creeping. Stem 6—9' high, erect. The involacre 
consists or 3 petiolate leaves, placed in a whorl near the top of the stem, its 
bracts cut-toothed and lobed, the lateral segments cleA, sometimes quite to the 
base, so as to render the leaf quinate. At the top of the stem is a single 
white flower, purplish outside. Apr. May. 

2. A. cYLiNDRicA. Gray. 

Whole plant pubescent ; Ivs, ternate, lateral Ifis. 2-parted to the base, mdSt 
tme deeply 3-cleft, segments all linear, cuneate below, tut-dentate and lobed at 
apex; Ivs. of invol. petiolate ; ped.'i — 6, rarely 1, all naked; sep. 5; tick. wiooUy, 
in a long, cylindric head. — Dry, hilly places, Mass. W. to la. Not commaa. 
Scape about 2f high. Leaves about 2 — 3' wide, and similar in their divistoss 
to those of Ran/UMculus cutis. Naked flower-stalks 8 — lO' long, umbellate, but 
little diverging. Flowers large, solitary. Petals pale yellow, obovate,obtwe. 
Heads of fruit li' long. May, Jn. 

3. A. ViROiNilNA. Virginian Anenume. 

JjDs. ternate ; Ifts. subpetiolate, ovate-lanceolate, cut-dentate, acumifiate, 
lateral ones 2-lobed, middle ones 3-lobed ; invol. fbliaceous, petiolate ; fr. is 
oblong heads. — ^A tall species in dry woods and hilly pastures. Can. to Car. 
Scape erect, 2 — 3 f. high, round, hairy, dividing above into about 3 long, 
parallel peduncles, middle one naked, lateral ones each with an involucel of i 
bracts. Leaves 2---3' by 3 — 4', on radical petioles 6—10' long, peti<iles of tkc 
bracts much shorter. Flowers solitary, yellowish-green. Fruit woolly, in 
heads V long. ' July. 
p. aiba. Oakes. Fls. larger ; sep. white. — ^Ledges, Vt. Lhr. Robhvns. 

4. A. HvDBONiANA. Rich. ("A. multifida, DC. and 1st edit.) 

Hairy ; Ivs, 3 — 5-parted to the oase, segments cuneate, laciniately dentate; 
scaipe 1, 2 or 3-flowered ; invol. and involucels similar, 2-leaYed, on short petiolis; 
sep. 5--8, oval, obtuse. — On rocky ledges, shores of Onion River, Colehesier 
and Burlington, Vt. Dr, RobHns. Watertown, N. Y. l>r. Crawe, Rare: 
Scape 6 — 10' high, simple, or dividing below the middle. Leaves mostly Id 5 
segments distinct te the base, about 1' diam., each segment ^' long, in 3 linear 
lobes, petioles 1 — 2^ long. Flower small, white, varying to purple. Heads rf 
fruit oval or globose. Jn. 

5. A. PBNNSYLVAificA. (A. aconitifolla. Mkhx. A. dichotoma. Lhat.) 
St. dichotomous ; Ivs. 3— ^-parted and incisely dentate ; invol. and invdiitai 

leaf-like, sessile, 3-parted, the lobes lanceolate, acute, incisely serrate; s». 5; 
fir. in globose heads. — Shores and rocky places, Penn. N. to Arctic Am. Rare 
Scape 15 — ^20' high, dividing above the middle into about 3 shortish peduncles, 
the middle one naked, the other 2 each with a 2-leaved involucel, tne inTnlo* 
ere at their base. Flowers white, 12 — 14" diam. Carpels hairy, compressed, 
as long as the curved style. Jn. Jl. 

6. A. PATENS. (A. Ludoviciana. NuU.) 

Silky-villous ; Ivs. 3-parted or divided, segments cuneiform, 3-cleft and 
incised, lobes lance-linear; invol. subulately dissected ; sep. 6 — 6, erect— Dry 
hills. III. ! W. to Rocky Mts. Stem 6 — 10' high. Leaves smoothish above, seg- 
ments 1 — 3' long, 1 — ^2" wide. The dissected involucre concav^e or cup-shaped. 
Sepals 1' long, silky outside, pale dull purple. Tail of the carpels near 2' long. 

7. A. CoRONARiA. Poppij'leaved Anemone. — Lvs. ternate, with multifid seg- 
ments and linear, mucroiiate lobes ; sep. 6, oval, close. — Prom Levant A 
hardy, flowering plant, with large, single or double variegated flowers. May f 

8. A. HORTENsia. Slar Anem^one. — l/vs. 3-parted, with crenate, cut-dentate 
lobes ; invol, sessile, of oblong, entire or cut leaflets ; sep. 10 — 12, oblong.— 

BisneirLva. I. RANUNCUULCEJB. 141 

Rom Italf. A &ke mden. species, with doable and aemi-dodble Taiietiet of 
Ted, white and blue flowers. May. f 

.. „. . -Mmmt ocher Ibralgii Bpadea «ie oiMinwitil, and perlitpt reie^ eoMvalad. TImj aJ 

3. HEPATlCA. DiU. 
Cfr. ihtartmsf oftheUver; from the Anded rommKhnoerf the leaf 

Inyolaere of 3 entire, ovate, obtuse bracts, resembling a calyx, 

atnated a little below the flower ; calyx of 5 — ^9 petaloid sepals, dis- 

pQsed in 2 or 3 rows ; corolla ; aohenia awnless. 

H TIUI.OBA. Chaix. (Anemone Hepatica. lArvn.^ Liverwort, 
Jjvs. trilobate, the lobes entire ; s€ape 1-floweied, nairy. — ^Woods, Can. to 
Car. This little plant is one of the earliest harbingers of spring, often pntting 
for^ its neat and elegant flowers in the neighborhood of some Imgering snow- 
bank. The root consists of numerous and strong fibres. Leaves all radical, 
OQ long, hairy petioles, smooth, evergreen, coriaceous, divided into 3 lobes, 
which suggests all its names. Flowers on scapes 3—4' long, solitary, numer- 
ous, generally blue, but frequently in varieties of white and nesh-color. In cul- 
tivation they become double. In respect to the form of the leaves there are two 
varieties: — 

a. otiusa, lobes obtuse, rounded. — ^Prefers the south side of hiUs. 
B, aaUa, lobes acute. — ^Prefers the north side of hills. 

Feigned tohfnwpfUDg flmn the blood of Adanu,wheDwoondedh7 the boar. 

Sepals 5, appressed ; petals 5 — 15, with naked claws ; aohenia in 
a Bpiie, ovate and pointed with the hardened, persistent style. 

A AirrcifNALis. Pkeasani*s Eye. 

<S^. branching; Jb. 5 — 8-petaled: carpels crowned with a very short style, 
and collected into an ovate or subcylinaric head; i^e^. longer than the calyx. — A 
fine, hardy annnal^ from Europe, naturalized in some parts of N. Y. Stem 
thick. Leaves pinnately parted, with numerous linear segments. Flowers 
crimson, 1}' diam. Seeds to be sown in autumn, in a light soil, f ( 

LbL rono, a floff ; ftom the aquatie habitat of lomaipeeiee. 

Calyx of 5 ovate sepals ; corolla of 5 roundish, shining petals, each 
with a nectariferous scale or pore at the base inside ; filaments 00. 
niiioh shorter than the petals ; achenia 00, crowded in a roundish or 
oblong head. — Herbs mosUy %^ with ydlow flowers, 

*Leaves aU undivided, 

1. R. Flamsiula. Small Spearwort. 

SL declinate ; hss, smooth, linear-lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, lower ones 
petiolate ; ped, opposite the leaves. — An aquatic herb, growing in ditches and 
swamps. Can. to rl. Car. W. to 111. I Root fibrous. Stem 6 — 18' long, more or 
less decumbent, succulent Leaves 3 — 6' in length, \ — 1' wide, entire or with 
a few teeth, thickened at the acute summit. Flowers solitary, of a golden yel« 
low, on peduncles | as long as the leaves. It abounds in a very acrid juiceu 
JiL — ^Aug. 

2. R. REPTANB. Creeping Qravofoot, 

Very small, smooth ; st. creeping, geniculate, rooting ; nodes 1-flowered ; 
iw. subulate, smooth, entire, remote. — A slender species, creeping on river banks 
and other wet places, Hanover, N. H., {Mr. T. Richard.) ST. to Oregon. Stem 
6—10' long, round, rooting at the jomts. Leaves fleshy, 6—12" in length, 
niostly very narrow, and acute at each end. Flowers on axillary peduncles. 
Sepals spreading, obtuse. Petals obovate, yellow, fading to white. Nectary 
^vered by a scale. Achenia very smooth. Jl. 
$. ovaUi. Bw. Jjos. oval and lanceolate ; pet, 5 — 10. 

149 I. RANTJNCULACKfi. RiximoiiLni. 

y. JUifonms. DC. (R. filiformis. MUhs,) St. filiform, very long, with 

linear leaves and small flowers. 

3. R. pusiLLua. Poir. 0. muHcus. T. & G. Pwny Crowfoot, 

Erect; Ivs. all petiolate, lower ones ovate, upper ones linear lanceolate; 
pet. mostly bat 3, scarcely lon^r than the calyx ; carpels ovate, pointless, smoodi, 
in small globose heads. — In wet grounds. N. Y. and Penn. Stems slender, 
weak, 6--12' high, dichotomously branchea. Lower leaves subcordate, | — 1' 
long, I as wide, petioles 1 — 3" long, upper ones 1 — \\" long, \ as wide, wiik 
minute, remote teeth. Flowers very small, yellow, on long peduncles. May. 

4. R. Ctmbalaria. Ph. Sea Crowfoot. 

Very small, smooth ; 5^. filiform, creeping, rooting at the joints ; lv%. reni- 
form-cordate, crenate-dentate ; ped. solitary, mostly 2-nowered ; pet. spatalate ; 
ach. oblong. — In salt marshes on the sea-coast, N. J. to Arctic Am. and at 
Salina, N. Y. Stem round, sending out runners from the ioints. Leaves radi- 
cal, \-^V diam., on long petioles. Scapes 2 — 6' high, each with 2 or 3 small, 
bright yellow flowers, and as many obtuse bracts. Nectary naked. Jn. 

* * Leaves divided. 

5. R. ABORTlvuB. Round-leaved Crowfoot. 

Smooth; ro^tcoZ Zt?5. roundish, cordate at base, crenate, petiolate; cauJksie 
Vm. temate or pedate, angular, with linear segments, upper ones sessile ; ccL a 
little longer than petals, reflexed. — A very pretty species in woods, Can. to Ark., 
remarkable for tne dissimilarity of the root and stem leaves. Stem 8 — 16 
high, nearly naked. Root leaves 8 — 18'^ diam., quite regularly margined wiib 
crenate divisions, and on petioles 2 — b' long. Lower stem leaves pedate, with 
a pentangular outline; upper in 3 deep segments. Flowers small, yeilcm. 
Fruit in globose heads. May. Jn. 

6. R. scELERlTUs. Ph. Celery Crowfoot. See also Addenda^ p. 638. 
Smooth ; lower Ivs. 3-parted, segments 3-lobed, crenately subincised ; stem 

Ivs. 3-parted, segments crenately incised, upper ones simple, lanceolate, entire; 
carpels in an oblong head. — Grows in wet places, Can. to Car. Stem rather 
thick, hollow, much branched, 1 — Uf high. Lower petioles 3 — 5' long, with 
rather large, palmatelv 3 — 5-parted leaves. Floral leaves or bracts mostly 
simple, lanceolate and entire. Flowers numerous, small, yellow. Calyx 
deflexed. This is one of the most acrid of the tribe, and will raise Uisteis 
upon the skin. Jn. Jl. 

7. R. RECURVATUs. Wood Crowfoot. 

St. erect, and with the petioles, covered with spreading hairs ; Ivs. 3-parted. 
hairy, segments oval, unequally incised, the lateral ones 3-lobed; eal. recurved; 
pet. linear-lanceolate ; ach. uncinatc^-About 1 f. high, in damp woods, Labi 
to Ga., pale green, branching above.' Leaves 1} — 2' long, 2 — 3i^wide,onpeti> 
oles i—S' long. Upper leaves subsessile and 3-partea quite to the base. 
Flowers small, with inconspicuous, pale yellow petals. Carpels ovate, tipped 
with minute, hooked beaks. May. — Jl. 

8. R. ACRis. Butter-cuvs. Crowfoot. Yellow Weed. 

St. erect, many flowere(i ; Ivs. more or less pubescent, deeply trifid, the seg- 
ments laciniate, upper ones with linear segments; ped. round; ad. haiiy, 
spreading ; carpels roundish, smooth, compressed ; beak short, recurved. — ^Thu 
is the most common species from Penn. to Hudson's Bay, in meadows and 
pastures, rapidly and extensively spreading. Stem 1— 2f high, round, hollow, 
mostly hairy. Leaves li — 3' diam., upper ones in 3 linear segments. Flowers 
large, golden yellow. Jn. — Sept. 
$. Fts. double, the pet. excessively multiplied. — Gardens. 

9. R. bulbOsus. Bulious Crowfoot. (Pig. 39.) 

Hairy ; st. erect, bulbous at the ; nulical Ivs. temate, Ifts. petiolate, 
incisely dentate, each about 3-cleft; ped. furrowed; col. reflexed. — This is 
another acrid species, very common in pastures, mow-lands, &c. Root fleshy. 
Stem leafy, furrowed, 6 — IS' high, hollow, thickened at the base into a sort 
of bulb, and dividing above into upright peduncles, with golden-yellow flowers. 
It is well distinguished from R. acris by its reflexed sepals, and its furrowed 

Ctfflu. I. RANUNCULACE^. 145 

jM^toneles. The lobes of the root leaves are also rounded rather than acute at 
apex. May, Jn. ^ 

10. R. PASCiciTLARis. Miihl. Early Crowfoot. 

81. erect, branched; Ivs. pubescent, ternate, the middle segments deeply 3- 
deft, lateral ones remotely 3-iobedj ccU. villous, spreading, shorter than the 
petals. — Rocky woods and nills, Penn. to Wiscon. "N. to Can. Root a fascicle 
of fleshy iibres. Radical leaves on petioles 3—8' long, so divided as to appear 
almost pinnate ; upper leaves 3-parted, nearly sessile. Flowers large. Petals 
jdlow, cuneate-obbvate, with a scale at base as broad as the transparent claw. 
A^. May. 

11. R. Pennsylvanicus. (R. hispidus. PA.) Bristly Crowfoot. 

St. erect, and with the petioles covered with stiff, spreading hairs ; Ivs. vil- 
lous;, temate, Ifts. subpetiolate, deeply 3-lobed, incisely serrate ; caL reflexed, 
rather longer man the roundish petals ; carpels tipped with a short, straight 
fitvle. — ^A very hairv species, in wet grounds, Can. and U. S. Stem IH-^i" 
high- Leaves 2 — 3' diam. ; leaflets strongly veined and with spreading seg- 
ments. Flowers numerous, small, bright yellow. Fruit in dense oblong or cy- 
lindrical heads. Jn. — Aug. 

12. R. BEPEN8. (R. intermedins. Eaton. R. Clintonii. Beck.) 

St. branching from the base, prostrate, radicating at the joints; Ivs. trifo- 
liate, Ifis. petiolate, cuneiform, 3-lob^ cntKlentate;^<^. rarrowea; caL spreading ; 
carpels with a broad, not recurved point. — In moist or shady places, Can. and 
U. S. Stems 1—3 or 4f long, generally nairy at base, the early flowering 
branches erect Petioles hairy, Long. Leaves hairy on the veins, dark green. 
Flowers middle size, bright yellow. Petals often emarginate. May — Jl. 

$. Unearilodus. 1X5. SI. very long, floriferous ; lobes of Ivs. very narrow. 

y. MarUandicus. T. & G. St. and petioles densely hirsute wim soft hairs ; 
Ifts. dittinctly petiolulate. 

13. R. PuRSHii. Richardson. Floating Crowfoot. 

Floating; st. long; stiimer ged Ivs. cie^mXo numerous capillary segments, 
emened ones reniform, 3— 5-parted, the lobes variously divided ; sep. reflexed, 
half as long as the petals ; carpels smooth, with a short, straight, ensiform style ; 
hds. globose.— Ponds, sluggish streams, and muddy places, Can., U. S. Stem 

fid ; /s. as large as in R. acris. 

14. R. aquatIlis. /?. capiUaceus. River Crowfoot. 

St. floating ; submersed Ivs. filiformly dissected ; pet. obovate, larger than the 
calyx, white ; cupels transversely rugose. — ^Ponds and sluggish streams, Arctic 
Am. to S. Car. W. to Rocky Mts. The whole plant is submerged except the 
fio^'ers, and perhaps a few of the upper leaves. Stem 1 — 2r or more in length, 
slender, weaK, round, smooth, jointed. Leaves divided dichotomously into 
nnmerous, hair-like segments, in outline roundish and i — V diam. Peduncles 
thick, 1 — 14' long. Flowers smaller than in R. acris. Petals rather narrow, 
white, except the yellow claws. Jl. Aug. 

CtaerT^on.—Beyen.] of the above mentioned vpedet are double-flowered in cultivation, u Noe. 8, 9, 
Mdl^ Ot ferei^ •pecieti. R. Aaiaticus, the {garden Ranunculus, with larjre double floweni varyinr to 
•verr am, and R. aoooitiiouuB, with white double flowers, are sometimes, but not generaUy, found in 

Cfr. KoKa^oSj a iroblet j the yellow calyx may well be compared to a golden cup. 

Caljz colored, of 5 orbicular sepals, resembling petals ; corolla ; 
stamens 00, shorter than the sepals ; follicles 5 — 10, oblong, com- 
pressed, erect, many-seeded. — % Aqvutic and very glabr<yu4i. 

C. PALU8TRIS. Marsh Marigold. Cowslips. 

St. erect; /w. cx>rdate, suborbicular, crenate. — Wet meadows, Can. to Car. 
W. to Oregon. Root large, branching. Stem abcut 11 high, hollow, roand, 

(44 1. ltAKUNGULAC£^« Gonii. 

dichotomovui. Lower leares d— 4' wide, on long semicyllndrle petioles, upper 
ones sessile, all of a dark shining green, veiny and smooth. Flowers ot a 
golden yellow in all their parts, IJ' diam., few and pedunculate. Outer rov 
of filaments clavate, twice longer than the inner. The young leaves are in ^ 
great request in spring, for greens. May. 

0. integerrima. (C. integerrima. Ph.) Lrs. entire ; sep. obovate, obtoae. 

y. pleiuif with double flowers. Cultivated in gardens. 

Genn. trol or trollen, globoiar ; alludinf to the fi>nn of the flowen. 

Sepals 5 — 10 — 15, roundish ovate, colored, deciduous; petals 5— 
'25, small, linear, tubular at base; stamens 00, much shorter th&ntiM 
sepals ; follicles 00, subcylindric, sessile, many-seeded. — % SmocAi 
with palmdUe leaves. 

1. T. LAXUs. Salisb. (T. Americanus MuM.) American Globe Flower. 

Sep. 5, oblong, spreading; pet. 15—25, shorter than the stamcn^-O 
swamps. Can. to Penn. Wot common. About If high. Leaves deeply cleft intoS 
segments, which are lobed and cut-dentate. Sepals yellow, resembling peuK 
4—5" long. Petals very small, orange-colored. Follicles about 10, crowned 
with the persistent styles. This is the only American species. Jn. 

2. E. EuROP-Eus. European Globe Flower. — ^Erect, branched, leafy ; ft». deqgf 
cleft or divided, segments cuneate at base, acute, incisely lobed and toothed; 
fis. solitary, erect, large, globular ; ped. long, naked ; sep. closeljr converging; 
pet, equaling the stamens. Native of Europe. Stem &— 3f high, ^^f^ 
of a rich yellow. A very ornamental plant, of easy culture from seeds or 
roots. May, Jn.f 

3. T. AsuTicus. Asiaiic Globe rUncer.-^Erect ; Ivs, deeply divided into 5 
broad segments ; segments laciniately lobed and toothed ; fis. terminal, aixh 
tary, pedunculate ; sep. spreading ; pet. longer than the stamens.— Native < 
Asia. Plan: about 2f high, with ample folis^e and large, deep orange^oW- 
ed flowers — yellow in some of its varieties. Jn.f 

a HELLEBORUS.— Adana. 
EXcty, to came death ; fiopa, &od ; Uie poiaonoui qualitiea are well snoini. 

Sepals 6, mostly greenish, persistent; petals 8 — 10, yery short, 
tubular, 2-lipped ; stamens 00; stigmas 3 — 10, orbicular; foM^ 
cohering at base, many-seeded. — % Lvs. coriaceous^ divided. ^ 
la/rge, nodding. 

H. viRiDis. — Green Hellebore. 

Glabrous ; radical lvs. pedately divided, segments lanceolate, acute, »■ 
rate ; catdine lvs. few, palmately parted, nearly sessile ; peds. often in Py i5 
roundish ovate, acute, green. — A European plant, % on Long Island. »^^ 
2—3 f. high, thick. Apr.f 

9. C O P T I S .—Salisb. 

Gr. iroirrw, to cut ; from the numeroua dtvuioni cX the leavei. ^ 

Sepals 5 — 6, oblong, concave, colored, deciduous ; petals 5--^ 
small, oucallate, obconic ; stameiva 20 — 25 ; follicles 5 — 10, ^tipj^jj 
rostrate, diverging in a stellate manner, 4 — 6-seeded. — t^ ^^ 
vnih radical leaves, and a long, slender, perennial, creeping rhizovt»- 

C. TRIPOLIA. — Goldthread. -^^ 

L/Ds. 3-foliate ; scape 1-flowered ; pet. much smaller than ^he sepals.^*^ 
N. to Arctic Am. Stem subterranean, extensively creeping, golden y^"**^!-,J. 
bitter and tonic. Leaves all radical, leaflets sessile, 4—8" long, crenat^"^, 
cronate, smooth, coriaceous, common petiole 1 — 2' long. Pednncles 
high, with a single, minute bract above tne middle, bearing a single white 
like flower. The 5 or 6 yellow petals are barely distinguishable by their cw 
among th« whita stamMis. May. Medicinal. 

DtummuM. I. RANUNCULACELfi. 145 


Sepals 5, petaloid, deciduoas ; petals 5, small, tubular, sometimes 

0; stamens 10 — 40; ovaries 3 — 20; follicles subsessile, acuminate 

with the style, 2-several-seeded. — Delicate herbs, with leaves 2 — Z-ter- 

nate^ segmerUs 2 — Z-lobed. Fls. pedunculate, axillary and terminal^ white. 

I I. BiTEKNlTUM. ToiT. and Gray. (Enemion. Baf.) 

Low, erect, glabrous ; petioles auricled at base ; Ivs. membranaceous ; pet. 

! •: carpels 3-— 6, broadly ovate, divaricate, sessile, strongly veined, 2-seeded ; sds. 

\ oboTatc, compressed, smooth and shining. — % Damp shades, Western States. 

loot fibrous. Stems several, 4— IC high. Leaves mostly bitemate, petiolules 

ionger than the petioles, segments cuneate-obovate, 4 — 6'' long. Flowers on 

ilender peduncles 1 — 2f long. May. 


Lat. at^tUa, the eagle ; the ipmred petaJa resemble the takme of a bird of prey. 

Sepals 5, equal, ovate, colored, spreading, caducous ; petals 5, tu- 
Valar^ dilated at the mouth, the outer margin erect, the inner 
attached to the torus, extending behind into a long, spurred nectary ; 
Stamens 30 — 40, the inner ones longer and sterile ; styles 5 ; fol- 
lieles 5, many seeded. — % Fls. nodding. 

1. A. Canadknbis. Wild Columbine. (Fig. 39.) 

Glabrous; divisiow of the leaves 3-partea, rather obtuse, incisely dentate; 
a«p. rather acote, longer than the corolla ; spurs straight, longer than the limb ; sta. 
and sty. cxserted.— -This beautiful plant grows wild in most of the States, in 
dry soils, generally on the sunny side of rocks. It is cultivated with the 
greatest ease, and is much more delicate in foliage and in the hues of its flowers, 
man the common blue Columbine. Stem branching, a foot high, with temate, 
lobed leaves. Flowers terminal, scarlet without and yellow within, pendulous, 
much embellished by the numeroua descending, yellow stamens and styles. 
Fruit erect. May. 

i!. A. vuLGlRis. Common Columbine. — Spurs incurved; sts. leafy, many- 
flowered ; Ivs. nearly smooth, glaucous, bitemate : sty. a little longer ihtm the 
stamens. — ^From Europe. Stem 1 — 2f high, with a profusion of handsome, 
smooth foliage, and large purple flowers. Leaflets bifid and trifid, with roimd- 
ed lobes. In cultivation the flowers become double by the multiplication of 
eke hollow, spurred petals. They also vary in color through all shades from 
purple to white. Jn.t 

Ch". StXfiv, a dolphin; from the ftneied rewmblance of the flower. 

Sepals 5, colored, the upper one spurred ; petals very irregular, 
the two upper ones terminating behind in a tubular, nectariferous 
qpor, encloeed in the spur of the cal^z ; styles 1 — 5 ; follicles 1 — 5. 
-^Skawy herbs^ with leaves much divided. Fls. blue, red or purple, 
mever ydhrw. 

1. D. CoNSOLinA. Branching Larkspur. 

St. suberect, smooth, with spreading branches yjls. few, loosely racemed , 
pcdL longer than the bracts ; sty. 1 ; carpel solitary, smooth. — The common 
bokqiar of the gardens, sparingly naturalized, fields and roadsides. Leaves 
In nninerons linear divisions. Jn. JI. It has numerous varieties of double 
md aemi-^ouble flowers of various colors.^ f 

2. D. EXALT ATUM. American Larkspur. 

Petioles not dilated at base ; Ivs. flat, 3-cleft below the middle, segments cu- 
Kiform, 3-cleft at the end, acuminate, the lateral ones oflen 3-lobed ; roc. 
Riaieht ; apwr longer than the calyx.— Native of the Middle States, rarely of the 
NovmerzL Stem 3— 4f high, straight, erect Flowers of a brilliant pfbxpliab 


Uoe. It is desenredly esteemed in the flower-garden, and is of the easiest cul- 
ture. Jl. Aug.f 

3. D. tricOrne. Michx. T%ree-fruited Larkspur. 

PeHoUs slightly dilated at base ; Ivs. 5-parted, divisions 3 — 5-cleft, lobes 
linear, acutish ; pet. shorter than the sepals, lower ones 2-cleft, densely bearded 
inside ; spur ascending, straight, as long as the calyx ; carpels 3, spreading in 
fruit. — Uplands, Penn. to AIo. and Ark. Plant 6— IS' high, nearly smooth. 
Leaves roundish in outline, on long petioles. Flowers ^-S, light blue, in a 
rather loose panicle. 

4. D. AZUREUM. Michx. Azure Larkspwr. 

Pubescent or nearly smooth ; st. erect ; Ivs. 3 — ^5-parted, many-cleft, with 
linear lobes ; petioles some dilated at base ; roc. strict ; pet. shorter than sepals, 
lower one densely bearded, 2-cleft : ^r ascending. — Native in Wis. and Ark. 
A very variable species, culUvated in gardens. Stem 2—i f. high. Flowers 

5. D. grandiflOrum. Large Blue Larkspur. — Lvs. palmate, many-parted, 
lobes linear, distant ; pedicels longer than bract ; pet. shorter than calyx.~A 
superb perennial species, from Siberia. Flowers double or single, in racemes, 
of orilliant dark blue, with a tinge of purplcf 

6. D. EI.ATUM. Bee Larkspur. — Lvs. downy, 5-lobed, lobes cuneate at base, 
trifid, cut-<lentate ; spur indexed. — Native of Siberia. Stem 5 or 6f lugfa. 
Flowers blue, and when viewed at a little distance, resembling the bee in form.t 

Ob§ervatlon.—A few oUior f pedei maj perhapa be found in gnrdeni. All an showy iilaali. of tte 
aaaieat culture. 

13. ACONlTUM. 

Cfr. OKOvtroff without doat; because the planta grow on diy rocka. 

Sepals 5, irregular, colored, upper one yaulted; petals 5, the 3 
lower minute, the 2 upper on long claws, concealed beneath the upper 
sepal, recurred and nectariferous at the apex ; styles 3 — ^5 - follicles 
3—5. — %Lvs. digitate or palmate, Fls. in terminal spikes, 
I. A. UNCiNATUM. American Wolps-Bane. 

St. flexuose ; panicle rather loose, with divergent branches ; lvs. palmate, 
3 — 5-parted, with rhomboidal-lanceolate, cut-dentate divisions; galea (upper 
sepal) exactly conical, rostrate ; spur inclined, somewhat spiral ; ova. villous.— 
A cultivated, poisonous plant, also native N. Y. to 6a. Stem 2f higL 
lieaves coriaceous, dark sreen, 4 — b^ wide. Flowers lai^, purple, 3 or 4 near 
th^ summit of each branch. Jl. Aug. 

2. A. Napellus. (A. delphinifolia. DC.) Mank^s-Hood. — jSS^. straight, ei«ct: 
lvs. deeply &-cleft, cut into Imear segments, furrowed above ; upper sep. arched 
at the back, lateral ones hairy in.side ; ova. smooth. — A poisonous plant, culti- 
vated among flowers. It is a tall, rank perennial, makmg quite a consequen- 
tial appearance. Stem 4f high, with a long spicate inflorescence at its termi- 
nation. Flowers dark blue, surmounted by the vaulted upper sepal, as if 
hooded in amcmk's cowl. Aug. — ^There are varieties with flowen wnite, rcse- 
eolored, &c. 

14. ACTiEA. 

Gr. axrtif the elder ; which plant these heibe reiemble in ttlince. 

Calyx inferior, of 4 roundish, deciduous sepals; corolla of 4 — 8 
spatulate, unguiculat^ petals; filaments ahout 30, dilated above; 
anthers 2-lobed, introrse ; stigmas sessile ; ovary ovoid ; berrj glo- 
bose, with a lateral furrow, 1 -celled; seeds many, smooth, com- 
pressed. — ■% with tematdy divided lvs. Fls. white. 

I. A. RUBRA. Bigelow. (A. Americana. Ph.) Red Bane-berry. 

Los. twice and thrice temate ; roc. hemispherical ; pet. acute ; pedicels of tke 
fruU slender; bcrriesr^A ovoid-oblong. — Not uncommon in rocky woods, Penn. 
to Lab. "W. to Rocky Mis. Stem li — ^i high, dividing into 2 branches, one 
of which usually bears leaves only, the other leaves and a cluster of flowers 

'IviucnuM. 1. RAI4l/NCULAC£iE. 147 

Leaves 2 or 3-tmiate, with orate-lanceolate leaflets, raiionslr lobed and ent. 
Petioles 4 — T ioDg, smooth, and slightly glaucous, like tne whole plant 
Flowers 20 — 40, in a short dense raceme. "Berries bright red, on slender pcdi- 
eds. May. 

2. A. ALBA. Bw. (A. Americana. 0. alba. PA.) Wkite Bane-berry. 

L/vs. twice and thrice temate ; roc. oblong ; pet. truncate ; pedicels of the fruit 
ttdcker than the peduncles : berries white. — Grows in rocky woods, common, 
Can. to Ga., much like the last in foliage. Plant li — ^ t'. high, bearing 2 com- 
pound leaves and a cluster of flowers. Leaflets 1 — 2' long, | as wide, acumi- 
nate. Raceme 1 — 3' long, I|' thick, the pedicels }' long, at length purple, and 
about as thick as the purple peduncles, — characters which, as well as the miJc* 
white fruit, readily distinguish this species from the last. May. 


LaL dmez, a hug.fugo, to drive away ; alladiog to ita oflTensiTe odor. 

Sepals 4 — 5 ; petals 3^ — 8, sometimes wanting ; stamens 00, 
anthers introrsc ; follicles 1 — 8, oblong, many-seeded. — % Jjos, ter- 
naidy divided. Fls. tohite, in long slender racemes. 

1. C. sacemOsa. Ell. (Actsea. Idnn. Macrotys. Raf) Black Snake-rooL 
Ijcs, temately decompound ; Ifts. ovate-oblong, incisely serrate ; rac. very 

long; pet. 2, forked, slender; sty. 1 ; capsule ioUicular, dry, dehiscent, ovate. — 
A tall, leafy plant, with the aspect of an Actaea, found in upland woods. Stem 
4 — 8 f. high, with long, panicled racemes of white sepaled and monogynous 
flowers. Petals 4 — 6, small. Stamens about 100 to each flower, giving the 
raceme the appearance ol a long and slender plume. Flowers very fetid. 
Jn. Jl. 

2. C. Americana. Michx. (C. podocarpa. EU. Actaea podocarpa. DC.) 
Glabrous ; Ivs. tritemate, segments ovate, terminal one cuneiform at base, 

3-parted or 3-clefl and incised ; pet. concave, sessile, 2-lobed, nectariferous at 
base; ova. 2—5, stiped, obovate and pod-shaped in fruit; sds. flat, scaly. — • 
Woods, Penn. to N. Car. Stem 3— 6f high. L.eaflets 2—4' long, with coarse, 
unequal, mucronate serratures. Flowers smaller than in C. racemosa, in a 
long panicle of racemes. Follicles abruptly beaked, &— 8-seeded. 

16. TRAUTVETTERIA. Fisch. and Meyer. 

Named io honor of Trautvetter, a German botanbt 

Sepals 4 — 5 ; petals ; stamens 00, pctaloid ; anthers introrso ; 

earpels 15 — 20, membranaceous and indeniscent, 3-carinate, 1 -seeded, 

tipped with the short, hooked style. — % Lvs. palmately lobed, 

T. PALMATA. Fisch. and Meyer. (Cimicifiaga. Hook.) 
St. slender, terete, smooth, branched above ; lvs. few, rugose and reticulate 
veined, palmately 5— 9-lobed, upper ones sessile, lower on long petioles, lobet 
lanceolate, acute, incisely serrate ; fls. cymose. — Prairies, la. S. to Tenn. Plant 
*-5f high. Radical leaves 4— 6^ wide, 3— S' long, the petioles twice as long. 
Stem leaves 2 — 4, remote. Flowers many. Sepals orbicular, concave, cadu- 
cous, white. Stamens conspicuous, white. Jl. Aug. 


Said to be fiom ^aXXw, to be green. 

Calyx colored, of 4 — 5 roundish, concave, deciduous sepals ; 
corolla ; filaments 00, compressed, dilated upwards, longer than 
the calyx; ovaries numerous (4 — 15), with sessile stigmas; achenia 
awnless, ovoid. — % I/vs. iernately divided. Fls. often 9 ^. 

1 . T. DioicuM. Early M^admo Rue. 

Very smooth ; lvs. decomDound ; Ifis. roundish, with obtuse lobes ; filaments 

fililbnn ; fis. 9 cf •— Herb 1— 2f high, meadows and woods, British Am. to 

Car. Stem striate, jointed. Leaflets paler beneath, with &— 7 rounded lobes 

w teeth. Flowers in long-stalked panicles. Sepals 5, obtuse, purplish. The 


148 I. RANUNCULAC£L£. HTmusm, 

barren flowers with numerous slender filaments and yellow anthers, the fertile 
ones smaller, with shorter stamens. Fruit oval, striate. May. 

2. T. CoRNUTi. (T. Corynellum. DC.) Meadow Rue. 

Lfts. obtusely S-looed, paler underneath \ fls. <i ^\ JUamerds clarate ; fr, 
sessile, striate. — A handsome herbaceous plant, common in meadows. Stem 
3— 4f high, smooth, hollow, jointed, furrowed. Leaves resembling those of the 
columbine (Aquilegia), green above, smooth, several times compounded. 
Leaflets 1 — 2' long, | as wide. Petioles sheathing at base. Panicles laigu 
and difluse. The barren flowers have numerous club-shaped stamens, with 
oblong yellow anthers. Fertile flowers smaller and less crowded. Jn. Jl. 

3. T. ANRMONdiDEs. Michx. (Anemone thalictroides. lAnn.) Rue Ant' 

Moral Ivs. petiolate, siinple, whorled, resembling an inyolucrum ; radical 
Ivs. bitemate ]fls. umbeled. — Woods and pastures, Northern, Middle, and West- 
ern States. The root of this little herbaceous plant consists of several obloDg 
tubercles. Stem erect, 6 — 8' high, slender, beanng several'whiie flowers at tq> 
in a sort of umbel. Leaves ^ — 1' long, | as wide, cordate at base, 3-lobed, on 
petioles | — IJ' longj radical common petioles 2— 4' long. Apr. May. 

18. MYOSORUS. Dill. 
(r/*. fivs, fivoSf mouse, ovpa^ tail ; alluding to the long spike of caipek. 

Sepals 5, produced downwards at base below their insertion; 
petals 6, with slender, tubular claws ; stamens 5 — ^20 ; achenia very 
closely spicate on the elongated torus. — (D JLvs. linear, entire, radical 
Scapes \-Jiowered. 

M. minTmus. (M. Shortii. Raf.) Mouse4ail. 

Prairies and bottoms, 111., Mead ! to La. and Oreg., NuUaXL A diminntire 
plant, remarkable for its little terete spikelet of fruit, which is oilen an inch 
long. Leaves 1 — 3' long, 1—2" wide. Scape a little taller, with a single 
minute pale-yellow flower at top. Apr. 


Gr. ^ay^os, yellow, /5i^a, root 

Sepals 5 ; petals 5, Of 2 roundish lobes, raised dn a pedicel ; sta- 
mens 5 — 10; ovaries 5 — 10, beaked with the styles,^ — 3-ovuled; 
follicles mostly 1 -seeded, seed suspended. — Siiffmiicose ; st. and bark 
yellow and bitter. Lvs. ^innately divided. Buc. axillary, compound, 
JFls. small, da/rk purple, often 9 5 c?- 

Z. APiiPOLiA. L'Her. (Z. simplicissima. Michx.) 
River banks, Penn. to Ga. Root thick. Stem short, woody, leafy above. 
Leaves glabrous, about 8' long, including the long petioles. Leaflets 5, 3—3' 
long, sessile, incisely lobed and dentate. Racemes many-flowered, appearifig 
with the leaves. Follicles spreading, IJ" long. March, April. 

Gr. vScjpf water; the plant grows in watery placet. 

Sepals 3, ovate, petaloid, equal ; corolla ; stamens 00, a little 
shorter than the sepals ; baccate fruit composed of numerous, aggre- 
gate, 1 -seeded acines. — % with 2 lvs. aiid 1 flower. 

H. Canadensis. Tiirmcric-root. 

The only species. It grows in bog meadows, Can. to Car. and Ky. ! Rare. 
Root of a deep yellow color internally. Stem 6---9' high, becoming purplish, 
hairy above. Leaves 3 only, alternate, on the upper part of the stem, petiolate, 
emarginate at base, palmate, with 3—^ lobes. Peduncle terminal, solitary, 
1-flowered. Sepals reddish white, of short duration. Fruit red, juicy, resem- 
bling the raspberry. Seeds nearly black. May, Jn. 


21. P^ONIA. 

TlejiivndaB Fibon^ aeoordinc to mytholoffXt fint used thi< plant in medicine, end cured Pluto witli iL 

Sepals 5, tineqaal, leafy, persistent ; petals 5 ; stamens 00 (mostly 
ehanged to petals by cultivation ) ; ovaries 2 — 5 ; style ; stigmas 
doable, persistent ; follicles many-seeded. — '2|. Rt. fasciculate. JLvs, 
bilenuUe. Fls. large^ terminal^ solitary. 

1. P. OFFICINALIS. Common Paony. — St. erect, herbaceous j lower Ivs. bipin- 
aately divided ; Ifts. ovate-lanceolate, variously incised ; fr. downy, nearly 
straight. — ^The splendid peeony has long been cultivated in every part of Europe 
and in this country. Tnis species is said to be native of Switzerland. It is a 
hardy perennial, requiring very little pains for its cultivation. Among its 
mieties the dovUe red is the most common. The vfkite is truly beautiful. 
Thitjle^^rcolored and the pink are also favorites. May, Jn. 

2. P. AI.BIFL6RA. White-fiawered Pesony, — Lfls. elliptic-lanceolate, acute, 
entile, smooth; follicles recurved, smooth.-^Native of Tartary. Whole plant 
dark, shining-green and smooth. Flowers smaller than the last, but truly ele- 
gant and fragrant. Petals white. Calyx brown, with 3 green, sessile bracts at 
base. Nine or ten varieties with lowers single and double, white, rose- 
colored, &c., are now mentioned in the catalogues of American gardeners. 

3. P. iNOMALA. Jasgedrleaved Siberian Paony. — Lfls, with many lanceo- 
late segments, smooth; foUides depressed, smooth; cat. bracteolate. — From 
Siberia. Distinguished by the long, narrow segments of the leaflets. Flowers 
concave, rose-colored. Follicles usually 5. 

4. P. MouTAN. Chinese Tree Paony. — S^ shrubby, '2J.; lfls. oblong-ovate, 
glaucous and somewhat hairy beneath, terminal one 3-lobea ; ova. 5, distinct, 
surrounded by the very large disk. — ^From China. The woody stem branches 
into a bush 3 — 4f high. Leaves large, on long stalks. Flowers very large, 
always double in cultivation, fragrant and truly splendid. This plant is re- 
marlable for producing the largest form of disk in the vegetable kingdom. 

5. P. PAP^vERicEA. CMne.^ Poppy-JUnccred Paony. — St. shrubby, % ; lfls. 
oblong-ovate, glaucous and slightly hairy beneath, terminal one 3-lobed ; ova, 
aboQt 5, closely united into a globose head. — ^From China. Resembles the 
last in foliage, but is remarkably distinguished irom all the other species by 
Us united carpels. Flowers white, with a purple centre, often single in culti- 
vation. Other species and varieties are cultivated, rarely in this country, 
amounting to about 150 in all. 

LkL Niger t blaek ; the color of the leeda, which ere ueed in oookenr. 

Calyx of 5 sepals, colored ; corolla of 5 3-cleft petals ; styles 6 ; 
capsules 5, follicular, convex. — European herbs. JLvs. in many line- 
ar and stihuUUe segments. 

1. N. DAHAScfeNA. Penv^l Flower. — Fb, in a leaiy involucre ; antk. obtuse ; 
carpdi 5, smooth, 2-celled, united as far as the ends mto an ovoid-globose cap- 
mile.—Ii^ative of S. Europe. A hardy annual of the gardens, to which have 
been applied the gentle names of " ragged lady," " devil in a bush," &c. 
Leaves twice and thrice pinnatifid, as finely cut as those of the Fennel. Flowers 
terminal, solitary, encompassed and over-topped by a circle of leaves divided 
like the rest. They are often double, white or pale-blue. Jn. — Sept. 

db N. SATlYA. Nutmeg Flower, — Si. hairy, erect ; Jls. naked ; anth. obtuse ; 
captules muricate. — ^From Egypt. Rather smaller than the last. Jn. — Sept. 

Order II. MAGNOLIACE^ffii— Magnoliads. 


19$. ekamate, eorieeeoni, rimple, entire m lobed, never senate. 

SM|F. aembcanaeeoaSi either convolute in the leaf-bud, or placeo facetofkoe. 

ra. nliliifr, large and ahowy, mottij odimnu and perlbct. 

150 H. MAGNOUACE^. UuixoBtmnt, 

Ool.— flepttb 8— e, deciduoiw, o^red like the petela. 
Oor.— Petal* 6—13, hniogfiiouB, in aeveral rowa, imbricate in vstivation. 
Bta. indefinite, hypof ynous, diitinct, with short filaqtenta, and adnate anthan. 
Ova. Mveml, in many rowa upon an elonsated torus. 
Ft. folliealar or kwiceate, 1— 9-ieeded. 

Bdt. attached to the inner suture of the carpels, Irom which (in MacnoUa) therara auipCBdad bf akai, 
delicate Ainiculus. 

An order oonsiatinf of 1 1 genera and 68 species, ineludinf some of the most splendid and maittUki fsfMt 
trees. The southern and western states seem to be the legioo of the most of them. China, Japan, ani 
the Indies contain a few 

ProfMrttet.— The bark of the species mentioned below contains an intensely bitter piindplet which ii 
tonic and stimulating, and the corollas are aromatic beyond almost all other flowert. 


Carpelsdehiscentby the dorsal suture, seeds pendulous MagnoUa. I 

Carpels indehiscent, seeds enclosed, not pendulous Lbi9dim!nu.t 

In honor of Pierre Macnol, a French botanist, author of ' Botanieum Montpeiiense/ Ae. 

Sepals 5, often or petaloid ; petals 6—12, oaducous ; carpels 
2-yalved, 1 — 2-seeded, imbricated into a cone ; seeds baccate, sob- 
cordate, and suspended, when mature, by a long funiculus. — A superi 
genus, consisting mostly of large trees with luxuriant foliage^ and large^ 
fragrant flowers, 

1. M. OLAUCA. White Bay- 

L/vs. oval, glaucous beneath ; pet. obovate, taperinr to the base. — ^Tbisqw- 
cies is native in N. Eng., particularly at Gloucester, Aiass., thence to La. and 
Mo. The tree is about 25r in height, remarkable only for the beauty of its 
foliage and flowers. The leaves are smooth,, entire, of a regular, eUiptical 
form, remarkably pale beneath. Flowers terminal, wliite, solitary, of 3 sepalft 
and several concave petals, appearing in July. 

3. M. ACUMINATA. Cucumber Tree. 

Ijvs. oval, acuminate, pubescent beneath ; pet. obovate, obtusish.— Orovs 
near the Falls of Niagara, but is more abundant in the Southern States. It is 
a noble forest tree. Trunk perfectly straight, 4— 6f diam., 60— 80f high, 

bearing some resemblance to a small cucumber. May. 

3. M. Umbrella. Lam. (M. Tripetala. Linn.) UmbreUa Tree. 
Ijvs. deciduous, cuneate-lanceolate, silky when young; sep. 3, reflexed; 

pet. 9, narrow-lanceolate, acute. — ^A small tree, 20--30f high ; common in the 
Middle and Southern States, extending north to southern N. Y. Branches inv- 
gular. Leaves 1&— 3(y hv 6--^', often appearing whorled at the ends of the 
branches in the fSrm of*^ an umbrella. Flowers terminal, white, 7 — 8' diam. 
Fruit conical, 4 — 6' long, of a fine rose-color when ripe. The wood is vA 
ind porous, and of little use in the arts. May, June. 

4. M. grandiflOra, 

Native of the Southern States, is the noblest species of the genus. Its 
great neight (80 f.), its shining, dark-green leaves, its fragrant, white floweraa 
foot in diameter, form a combination of rare magnificence.f 

Gr. \ttptov, a Uly ; Sevipovy a tree. 

Sepals 3, caducous ; petals 6 ; carpels imbricated in a cone, 1—2- 
seeded ; seeds attenuated at apex into a scale. — TVees, with large (ud 
fragrant flowers. 

L. tulipipera. Tulip Tree. Whif^ Wood. Poplar. 

A fine tree, one of the most remarkable of the American forests. Can. to 
La., especially abundant in the Western States. It is ordinarily about 80f 
high, with a diam. of 2 or 3f, but along the Ohio and Mississippi rivers it 
grows much larger. Near Bloomington, la,, I measured a tree ofthis species 
which had been recently felled. Its circumference, 4 feet from the ground. 

y. MENISP£RMAC£iB. 151 

vas 2Sf; 30 feet from the ground its diameter was 5f ; the whole height 
I'^f. The trunk is perfectly straight and cylindric. At top it divides rather 
abraptly into coarse, crookecl, rather unsightly branches. Leaves dark green, 
smooth, truncate at the end, with two lateral lobes, 3—5' in length and breadth, 
on long petioles. In May and June it puts forth numerous large and brilliant 
flowers, greenish-yellow, orange within, solitary, 4—6' diam. The wood is 
extensively used as a substitute for pine. 

Order IV. ANONACEiE.— Anonads. 


Im. alternate, aimple, entire, without stipuJes. 

¥!*■ otually sreen or brown, axillary, lar«B, iborter than the leayes. 

Ctt —Sepala 3—4, perai«tent, often united at baae. 

Gbt.— Petals 6, in two rowa, hrPOfTnoiw, vativation TaJvate. 

Sta. indefinite, densely crowdea. FU. short. Anth. adnate, extraae. 

Om: nmneroua.closetr packed. Sty. short or 0. 9tig simple. 

fy. dtyor auociuent, 1— many-Medea, distinct or aggregated. 8da. anatropoua. 

Gcaam ffl, apeeiea 800 , ohiefl/ native within the tropica of both hemiapherea. Four apeciea ara 
fcnad in the United Btatea, all of the following genua. Planta generally aromatic in all theii parte. 

LaL ttva, gimpe ; from the reaemblanee of the froitof aome apedea. 

Sepals 3, united at base ; petals 6, in 2 rows ; carpels oblong, 
biocate, often torolose, pulpy within ; seeds several — Aromatic shrubs 
or trees. 

IT. trtl5ba. Tott. and Gr. (Anona. Linn.') Patepaw. 

Z4». obovate-oblong, actiminate; ^.dark-porple. exterior orbictilar, 3 or 
4 times as long as the sepals. — A small and beaut]f\il tree, 15— 90f high, on 
banks of streams, Middle, Southern and Western States. Branches and leaves 
nearly glabrons, the latter 8—12' by 3 — i', very smooth and entire, tapering to 
very short petioles. Fmit about 1' thick and 3' long, ovoid-oblong, aboat 
S-s^ded, yellowish, fragrant, eatable, ripe in October. Flowers in March, 

Okder V. MENISPERMACE^.— Menispermadb. 

Skmit twining or climbing, with alternate, entire leaves. 

fir. smaU, in pani<^ or racemea, usually dicpcioua. 

dot.— SepaJaS— 8, in a double seriea. 9— 4 in each, imbricated in cativation, hypog., deddwnii. 

Cdt.— Petals 1—8, hrpogynous, uauamr as many as the sepala. rarely 0. [many. 

9tu. distinct or monadelphoua, eguai in number to the petals and opposite to them, or 8 (ff 4 times •■ 

Jntk, innale and consi»ting of 4 globose lobea. 

Om. uaoally aotitary, sometimes 9—4. Fr. a drupe, gMwee-rsnifiMn. 

Genera 11, species 175, most of them natives of tropical Asia and America. The only northern genus 
b Menispefmam. 

Pnperrtet. — A lew plants of this order contain a bitter principle in their roots. A foreign species 
cf Memspermum yields the oolumbo of the shops, which is a valuable tonic ; another genus, Anamirta 
Coa>4ilas,oir India, famishes the Indian cockle, so intoxicating to fishes. 


Gr. (itiinij the moon; nt^na^ seed; ftom the crescent form of the seed. 

Flowers 9 c? ; sepals 4 — 8, in a double row ; petals 4 — 7, minute, 
retuse; c? Stamens 12 — 20. 9 Ovaries and styles 2—4 ; drupes 
1 -seeded ; seeds lunate and compressed. 

M. Canadbnse. — Moon-seed. 

St. climbing ; Ivs. roundish, cordate, angular, peltate, the petiole inserted 
near the base ; rac. compound ; jfel. 6—7, small. — In woods and hedges near 
streams, Can. to Car. W. to the Miss. Stems round, striate, 8 — I2f long. 
Leaves 4 — y diam., generally 5-angled, smooth, pale beneath, on petioles 3 — 6' 
long. Flowers in axillary clusters, small, yellow. Drupes about 4" diam., 
black, resembling grapes. The root is perennial, and in medicine has the pro- 
perties of a tonic. Jl. 
0. luiafum, has the leaves lobed. 


Order VI. BERBERIDACE^.— Berrerids. 

Herbt or 8?irub9, with alternate, usually exstipulate, simi>le or compound leavei. 

FV». BolitauT, racemose or panicted, perfect. 

CtU.^Sepaia 3— 4— ••imbricate in Srowi, often reioibrced by petaloid leaiea. 

Oor. hyiHiffynouB. Jt^. 1—3 times as many as the sepals and opposite to thena. 

8tA. as many or twrice as many as the petald, and opposite to them. 

Anth. generally opening by recurved valves, extrorse. , ^ . , ,_^ 

Ova. l-celled, solitary, simple. Sty. often lateral. Stifr. often lateral or peltate. 

Fr. berried or capsular. „ _..jxi.ii_* 

8d». one or few, attached to the bottom of the cell, or many, attached to lateral piacents. 

Genem 19, species 100, inhabiting the temperate zones. Some genem.aB the Podophylhim and Jefttf* 
■onia, ponsow cathartic properties. Others, as the Berberis, contain m their iruits mauc ano OTalmafid. 

Conspedms of the Genera. 

\ Petals 8, flowers on a acape JeJSf^rmmia. t 

< Leaves not peltate. \ Petals 6, with a scale at base. . . Leontica. 4 

Iforbs peiemiial. X Leaves peltate ; stamens oo Podop^yllMii. S 

Shrubs, with yellow flowers and irritable filaments Berbait. I 

1. berb£ris. 

Calyx of 6, obovate, spreading, colored sepals, with the three oater 
ones smaller ; corolla of 6 suborbicular petals, with 2 glands at the 
base of each ; filaments 6, flattened ; anthers 2 separate lobes on 
opposite edges of the connectile ; style 0; berry oblong, 1 -celled; 
seeds 2 or 3. — Fine harrdy shrubs. 

B. VULGARIS. Berberry Bnsh. 

Spimes 3-forked ; Ivs. simple, serratures terminated by soft bristles : roe. 
pendulous, many-flowered ; pet. entire. — A well known bushy, ornamental sliruk 
in hard, gravelly soils. Northern States. Grows 3— 8f high. Leaves 1|— Sr 
long, i as wide, roimd-obtuse at apex, tapering at base into the petiole, and 
remarkably distinguished by their bristly serratures. Flowers yellow, a dorea 
or more in each hanging cluster. Stamens irritable, springing violently 
against the stigma when touched. Berries scarlet, very acid, forming an 
agreeable jelly when boiled with sugar. The bark of the root dyes yeUow. 

Or, irovf, To^of, afoot; ^eXXof, a leaf; alludinc to the lone, firm petioles. 

Sepals 3, oval, obtuse, concave, caducous ; petals 6 — ^9, oboyaie, 
concave; stamens 9 — 18, with linear anthers; berry large, ovoid, 
1 -celled, crowned with the solitary stigma. — % Low, ralher poisojuna 
herbs. I/vs. 2. Fl. solitary. 

P. peltAtum. May Apple. Wild Mandrake. 

In woods and fields, common in Middle and Western States, rare in N. 
Eng. Height about If. It is among our more curious and interesting plants. 
Stem round, sheathed at base, dividing into 2 round petioles, between which is the 
flower. Leaves oflener cordate than peltate, in 5—7 lobes, each lobe 6' long 
from the insertion of the petiole, 2-lobed and dentate at apex. Flowers pedtu- 
culate, drooping, white, about 2' diam. Petals curiously netted with veins. 
Fruit ovoid-oblong, large, yellowish, with the flavor of the strawberry. The 
root is cathartic May. 

In honor of President Jefibrsoo, a patron of science. 

Sepals 4, colored, deciduous ; petals 8, spreading, incurved ; sta- 
mens 8, with linear anthers ; stigma peltate ; capsule obovate, stipi- 
tate, opening by a circumscissile dehiscence. — Scape simple, l-fiowered. 
I/os. 2'parted or biruUe. 

J. DiPHYLLA. Barton. 

A singular plant, 8 — 14' high. Middle and Western States. Rhizoma 
horizontaL Each petiole bears at the top a pair of binate leaves, which are 
placed base to base, and broader than long, ending in an obtuse point, glaucom 


beneath. Scape as lonff as the petioles. Flowers large, regnlaTi white. The 
capsole opens only half round, and has thersfore a persistent lid. Apr. — ^This 
plant has in Ohio the repatation of a stimulant and antispasmodic, and is there 
significantly termed rkeumatistn rod. 

Cfr. Xuw, a lion t th0 leaf is likened to a Ikm'h iboi-tniek. 

Oalyz free from the oyary, of 3 — 6 green sepals; corolla of 6 
petals, each bearing a scale attached to the claw at base within ; sta- 
mens 6 ; cells of the anther dehiscent at edge ; pericarp membrana- 
oeoos (oBulacons), 2— 4-seeded ; seeds erect, globose. 

L. THAUcraolDBs. (Caulophyllum. MicAx.) Poppoose Root, 
Smooth ; Ivs. bitemate and tntemate ; UU. oval, petiofate, unequally lobed, 
the terminal one equally 3-lobed. — A smooth, handsome plant, in woods, Can. 
to Ky. Plant glaucous, piurple when young. Stem 1 — W l^igh, round, 
dxnding above into 3 parts, one of which is a 3-temate leaf-stalk, the other 
liears a 2-teniate leaf and a racemose panicle of greenish flowers. Leaflets 
paler beneath, 2 — 3' long, lobed like those of the Thalictrum or Aquilegia. 
Seeds 2 (mostly 1 by abortion), naked after having burst the caducous, tnin 
pericarp, resembling berries on thick stipes. May. 


Obder YII. CABOMBACEJS.— Watershzelds. 

g pte ay a tfi e, with floatuw, eoUre, eentnUy peltate leasee. 

Fit. tamuf, MilitaiT, •mail. Sep. 8—4, ooloced inaide. 

C^.— Pettk 9—4, aJteraate with the aepah. 

Sia. IqrpagTDOue, either «, or more than 17. Jnth. adnata. 

Om. I or mora. SMf . nmpfe. 

Fr. JnfchMctnt, tipped with the hardened ttsrle. 

A*, ^afafobr, peadakm*. Emiryo nuniate, 9-iobed, externa] to an abondant, fleahy albumen. 

Ocaen, s, ipeeiee 8. American water-plants, extending fhm Carenne, B. Amerira, to N. Eafflaad. 

Property— aftiKhtlf aatringent. 

BRASENIA. Schreb. 

Calyx of 3—4 sepals, colored within, persistent ; corolla of 3—4 

petals; stamens 18— -36; ovaries 6 — 18; carpels oblong, 2-(or by 

abortion l-)seeded. — % AqtuUic, The stem, peduncles^ and under mr 

face of the leaves are covered with a viscid jeUy. 

B. PELTATA. Pursh. (Hydropcltis purpurea. Mx.) Water Thrget, 
It inhabits muddy shores and pools, often in company with the water-lilj , 
Can. to Ga. and Ark. Leaves peltate, ellipUcal, entire, 3—3' by 1—1*', witii 
the long, flexible petioles inserteid exactly in the centre, floating on the surface 
of the water, smooth and shining above. Flowers arising to the surface, on 
long, slender, axillary peduncles. Petals purple, about 3'' long. July. 

Order VIII.-:-NELUMBIACE^.— Water-Beans. 

Berbt aqoUie. with pehate, fleahr, nu!ieal Iti. Rhbuma pioitrale. 

Fla. large, solitary, on lone, erect leapea. Sep. 4— «. 

Cv.—fetah 00, in many rows.aruiDf from without the disk. 

am. M, ia seveial lowi ; 6lameota oetaloid ; euUh. adnate, introne. 

Ofa. w. ■eparmte, each with a vimple style and itigma. 

JV.— Not* generaJiT l-«eeded, half sunk in hollowi of the very laife lomo. 

Si$. deetltate of albttmen, and with a highly developed enabryo. 

"me order eompriaet but a »lnf le cenus with 3 ipecieii, two of which inhabit the ttill waten of tropical 
KfMBe, and the other, of the U. 8. The nuts are eatable, and indeed all the other parts of the plant. 

Characters of the genns the same as those of the order. 

"^f T D'l' K UM 

i>a.'peltate* orbicular, entire ; anth. with a linear appendage.— A magnifl- 
cent flowering plant, peculiar to the stagnant waters of the south and west! 

l$4 IX. J^YMPHiBACE^. JXunuL, 

out occasiojDaUy met wiih in Ct. and N. Y. Rhizoma cxecpixkg in mud ia 
depths of water from 2 or 3 to 6 f From this arise the simple scapes and 
petioles to the surface. Leaves 10 — 18' diam., the petioles inserted on one side 
of the centre. Flowers several times larger than those of Nymphaea odofrata, 
and without fragrance. Petals concave, of a brilliant white, becoming yellow 
towards the base. The nuts imbedded in the torus are about the size of acoinB^ 
and are used for food by the Indians. June. 

Oeder IX. NYMPH^ACEiB.— Water Lilies. 

fferM aqnatic, with peltate or oordate leaTea from a proatrate rhiz oma. 

FlM. lam, sbo^vy, often tweet-acented. 

CM.— CSepola and petali numerotts, imbricated, gradQall^ pataing into eaeh other. Sdp. 

Car.-*- i Pet. insetted upon the diak which aurrounda the putil. 

'Bta. numerous, in several rowii upon the diiik. PH. petaloid. AntJi. adnate, introrae. 

Ova, mimy^celled, many-needed, anrrounded by a fleahy diak. 

8d». attached to the apongy placentie, and enveloped in a gelatinoua aril. 

Genera 5, apeciea 50, inhabiting the northern hemiaphere. Their general aapect ia that of an ^ . 

out fhe;^ have two foliaceous ootyledona. The atema of Nymphtea contain a powerful aatringvatpnod* 
pie, which ia removed by repeated waahing in water, after which they are talleleai and may be wed 


Flowera white or roae-oolor, M^fiifilh4BC I 

Flowera yellow , I fup hgr. t 

Tlie Greek Nymph or Naiad of the waters. 

Sepals 4 — 5 ; petals 00, inserted on the torus at its base ; stamou 
gradually transformed into petals; stigma surrounded with rajs; 
pericarp many-celled, many -seeded. — % Aquaiic. 

N. ODOBiTA. Water lAly. 

Jjvs. orbicular, cordate, entire, with veins prominent beneath; cai. im- 
paled, equaling the petals; sti^. 15— 20-rayed. — One of the loveliest of flowers, 
possessing beauty, delicacy and fragrance in the highest degree. Ponds and slug- 
gish streams, N. Am. E. of R. Mts. Rhizoma thick, in mud where the water 
is of 3 — 8 or lOf in depth, sending up leaves and flowers to the surface. 
Leaves 5 — 6' diam., dark shining green above, cleft at the base quite to the 
insertion of the long petiole. Sepals colored within. Petals lanceolate, 1|— S* 
long, of the most delicate texture, white, tinged with purple. Filaments vellov, 
dilated gradually from the inner to the outer series so as to pass insensibly into 
petals. ($ 72.) July. 
0. rosea. Ph. Petals stained with purple. Mass, 

3. NUPHAR. Smith. 

Sepals 5 or 6, oblong, concave, colored within ; corolla of numerous 
small pet-als furrowed externally, and inserted with the numerous, 
truncated, linear stamens on the torus ; stigma discoid, with promi- 
nent rays ; pericarp many-celled, many-seeded. — % Aqvaiic. 

1. N. Advena. Ait (Nymphaea Adv. M.v.) YeUmo Pond IMy. 
I/vs. oval, rounded at apex, with rounded, diverging lobes at base; «y. 6, 
pet, 00 ; stig. 13—15-rayed, margin crenate. — Very common in sluggish stream* 
and muddy lakes, Can. to Ga. vV. to Oreg. A well looking and very curioiH 
plant, but from its filthy habits it has been called, with some justice, the frf^e 
lily. The rhizoma is large, creeping extensively. Leaves large, dark green. 
shining above, and, when floating, pale and .slimy beneath. Petioles half 
round. Flowers rather large and globular in form, erect, on a thick, rigid 
stalk. Three outer sepals yellow inside, and the three inner entirely yellow, at 
well as the petals and stamens. Jn. Jl. 

/?. tomeniosa, T. & G. (N. tomentosa. NuU.) l/vs. canescently tomec- 
tose beneath. 

qii«m.^.t^ XL PAPATERACEJS. U5 

9. KAumiMA. ML (NymphsMi. KaJmiana. Mickx, Naphar latea» 

0. Kalmiana. T. ^ Q.) KalnCs Ptmd Lily. 

** Floating Ivs. oblong, cordate, lobes approximate ; submersed Ivs. membra- 
aaoeoDS, renifomirCOTdate, the lobe» divaricate, margin waved, apex retuse ; '* 
Mig. 8 — l^rayed, somewhat cienate. — ^A smaller species, witn small yellow 
flOTrers, growing in similar situations with the last N. States. — ^Dr. Bobbins, 
fiom whose MSS. the above is quoted, thinks it whoUv distinct from N. lutea, 
Smiik, or anv other species. Petiole subterete; upper leayes 3—^ long 11 — 2^^ 
vide, lower leaves 3---4' diam. Jl. 

O&DEa X. SABBACENIAOE^.— Water Fitchekb. 

Biriff •gootic, peietmial in bogi, urith fibrous roots. 

In. nmea], wtth » hoUow, urii-ihaped petkm and lamina articiUated at ranunit 

fin. kufSi •alitaiT, or aoTeral on acapM. 

CW.-6epals i. pentoteot, witli a s-teaTed mTcdaoel at baaa. JBif . imbricata. 

Or.— Petala 5, miffuiculate, hypogrnooa, ooncaye. 

Sm, n, b jpu p Mu m. Antk. obtom, adnate, intiorw. 

Om. S-eeued, plaeente centnU. atif. single. Stigr. dilated, peltate, S-anfled. 

fh capmlar. Swelled. 6-valvBd, crowned with the nraad pemiatent atifsaa. 

ain M, minute. 

An Older oauaatiog of onlj Sfenem, (one inhabitinc the bogs of N. Amariea, the othar in Oidana,) 
ad 7 species. 


In memory of Dr. Sairazen of Quebec, the discoverer of the genus. 

Calyx of 5 sepals, with 3 small bracts at base ; petals 5, deoidaooa; 
stigma very large, peltate, persistent, covering the ovary and sta- 
mens ; eapsule d-celled, 5-valved, many-seeded. 

S. PUR PORE A. Side-saddle FUnoer. 

Lc5.(ascidia) radical, decumbent, inflated, contracted at the mouth. winged 
on the inner side, ending in a broad-cordate, erect lamina. — One of tne most 
curious of plants. Grows in wet meadows and about mud lakes. Lab. to Flor. 
Leaves G—y long, rosulate, ever-green, composed of a hollow, pitcher-form 
petiole (t) swelling in the middle, with a wing-like appendage extending the 
whole length inside, from | — V wide, and extended on the outside of the mouth 
into a lamina (1), covered above with reversed hairs. Their capacity when 
of otdinary size is about a wine<glass, and they are generally full oi water 
vith drowned insects. Scape 14 — 20* high, terete, smooth, supporting a single 
large, purple, nodding flower, almost as curious in structure as the leaves. Jn. 
$. hderopk^la. Torr. (S. heterophylla. £?a<<w.V— Scape rather shorter; 
«p. yellowish-green; pet. yellow. — Northampton, Ms. Mr. R. M. Wright! 
Leaves scarcely difierent. 

Order XI. PAP AVERAGE^.— Popptworts. 

- _ .^.. - , fraeralljr with a colored ^uioe. 

Let. altemate, limpie or divided, without stipules. 

fb. aoljlBrr, on lonr p^iinclea, never blue. 

CU.— 8ep«b i, rarely 3, deciduous, imbricated in mUvation. 

Gar.— Petals 4, rarely 6 or 6. hrporynous. , ^ , ^ ^ ... • 

8ftL often 00, but some multiple of 4, rarely polyadelphous. Antn. innate. 

Ooo. sol^^. Stv. short or 0. 8tif. 2, or if more, stellate upon the flat apex of ovary. 

IV. either pod-shaped, with 2 parietal placeuts, or capsular with several. 

sib. OOl morale. Embryo minute, at the base of oily albumen. 

An ofder ooaelstanr of 18 cenom and 130 species, more than two-thirds of which are natives of Europe. 
ThB onier is characterized by active narcotic proportles, principally resident in the turbid ,juices. The 
SMda ere eommonty rich in fixed oil. Several or the species are highly ornamental in culuvation. 

Conspectus of the GeTiera. 

J StiCTttas concave. ; . . ^f^^""*^**^- • 
JLeavesanned with prickly teeth. (Stigmas convex. . . JfJ^^TSW^, J 

{FbBow. J Leaves unarmed, entirely green, cauline o-!-il!J2Sii2- T 
or«n«e-r«d. Leaves radical, reniform. Capsule terete KJfiST^ i 
white. Leaves unarmed, cauline. Capsule jrloboae. ,• • ■ • • £2S22S[j/w« k 
eolorlew. Leaves multifid with linear segmentH. Capsule toreto. . . EtetucruOtxIa. « 


Lat wngvU, blood : all parts abound in a red juice. 

Sepals 2, caducous ; petals 8. in 2 series, those of the outer series 

156 XI. PAPAVERACELfi. Mkovomw. 

longer ; Btameiui 00 ; stigma 1 — ^2-lobed, sessOe ; oapBole pod-like, 
oblong, 1 -celled, 2-valved, acute at each end, many-seeded. — % Jviee 
orange red, 

S. Canadensis. Blood^oat. 

An interesiing flower of woods, groves, Ac., appearing in cariy spring. 
Rhizoma fleshy, tut^rous, and when broken or brnlsed exudes a blooo-colorea 
fluid, as also <loes every other part of the plant. From each bud of the rool- 
Btalk there springs a single large, glaucous leaf, and a scape about & high, with 
a single flower. Whole plant glabrous. Leaf kidney-shaped, with roundish 
lobes separated by rounded sinuses. Flower of a quadrangular outline, white, 
scentless, and of sh«rt duration. The juice is emetic and purgative. Apr. May. 


Gr. XtkiioPf the swallow ; beiiw •vppoeed to flower with tlie airiyal of that bird, and to peinh wih 

Sepals 2, suborbicnlar ; petals 4, suborbioular, contracted at base; 
stamens 24 — 32, shorter tiian the petals ; stigma 1, small, sessile, 
bifid ; capsule silique-form, linear, 2-valved, 1 -celled ; seeds crested— 
% with yellow juice, 

C. MAJUs. Celandine, 

Lass, pinnate ; Ifts. lobed, segments rounded ; JU, in umbels. — A pale green, 
fleshy herb found under fences, by road-sides, &«c., arising 1 — 2{ hign. Leares 
smooth, glaucous, spreading, consisting of 2—4 pairs of leaflets with an odd 
one. Leaflets IH-ii' long, } as broad, irregularly dentate and lobed, the yu- 
tial stalks winged at base. Umbels thin, axillary, pedunculate. Petals ellip- 
tical, entire, yellow, and very fugacious, like every other part of the flower. 
The abundant bright yellow juice is used to cure itch and destroy waiti 
May. — Oct. ^ 


Chr, t^yt^a^ a disease of the eye, which Uub plant waa ■ui>poiod to care. 

Sepals 3, roundish, acuminate, caducous; petals 6, ronndish, 
larger than the sepals ; stamens 00, as short as the calyx ; stigna 
sessile, capitate, 6-lobed ; capsule obovoid, opening at the top by 
valves. — 2) Herbs with yellow juice, 

A. MEXicilNA. Horn Poppy, 

L/vs, repand-sinuate or pinnatifid, with spiny teeth ; JL solitary, erect, 
axillary *, col. prickly ; caps, prickly, 6-valved. — A weed-like plant, native at the 
south and west, ( at the north. Stem 2 — 3f high, branching, armed viih 
prickly spines. Leaves 5—7' or 8' long, sessile, spinose on the margin and 
veins beneath. Flowers axillary and terminal, on short peduncles, abont 9 
diam., yellow. The juice becomes in air a fine gamboge-yellow, and is 
esteemed for jaundice, cutaneous eruptions, sore eyes, fluxes, &c. July.( 
0. Fls. ochroleucous. — y. I>%s. larger, white. 

4. MECONOPSIS. Viguier. 
Chr. nfiKUVf a poppy; otf/ts, reKmblaooe. 

Sepals 2; petals 4; stamens 00; style distinct; stigmas 4—6. 
radiating, convex, free ; capsule obovate, 1 -celled, opening by 4 valves 
at apex. — %Herbs with a yellow juice. 

M. DiPHTLLA. DC. (Chelidoniura. Michx. Stylophorum. NiUt.^ 
Lvs. pinnately divided, glaucous beneath, segments 5 — 7, ovate-oolong, 
sinuate, cauliiu:2j opposite, petiolate ; ped. aggregated, terminal ; caps. 4-valved, 
echinate-setosc. — Woods, Western States ! Plant 12 — 18' high. Leaves large, 
8' by 6', on petioles about the same length ; terminal seerments somewhat con- 
fluent. Peduncle about H' lonp:. Petal."* deep yellow. May. 


Osltie, papei, pap; a aopoMc fbod for children, oompowd of poppyteeds, fte: 

8epal8 2, caducous; petals 4 ; stamens 00; capsule 1 -celled, open- 
ing bj pores under the broad, persistent stigma. — JExoiic herbsj mostly 
9, with while juice aJbownditig in opium, 

1. P. ■OMNiFERUM. Optum Pofpy. 

Glabrous and glaucous ; Ivs. clasping, incised and dentate; sep. glabrous; 
cap. globose. — ^A plant wiUx large, brilliantly white flowers, double in culti^a- 
tian. Stem 1 1 — 3f high. Leaves 4r-6' by ^—3^ with rather obtuse dentures. 
Erery part, but especially the capsule, abounds with a white juice powerfully 
narcotic, and whidi when hardened in the sun, forms the opium of the shops. 
For this drug, it is extensively cultivated in Europe and southern Asia. Jn. 

3. P. DCBiuH. Dubious Poppy. 


oblong, „ 

about sThigh. Flowers light red or scarlet. Jn. Jl. ^ 

3. P. Rh^as. Common Red Poppy. ^St. many-flowered, hairy; Ivs. incisely 
pinnatifid ; capsules smooth, nearly globose. — Distinguished Irom the last spe- 
cies chiefly liy its more finely divided leaves and its globular capsule. About 
2 f high. Flowers very large and showy, of a deep scarlet red. Varieties are 
produced with various sh^es of red and particolored flowers, more or less dou- 
ble. Jn. JLt 

4. P. oRiENTlLE. OrierUal Poppy. ^ St. 1-flowered, rough; Ivs. scabrous, 
pinnate, serrate ; capsules smooth. — Native of Levant. Stem 3 f high. 
Flowers very large, and of a rich scarlet color, too brilliant to be looked upon 
in the sun. Jn. f 


Kaaicdfcr I^chacholte, a Genoan botanist, well known for hi« retaaieliM in Califbraia; 

Sepals 2, cohering by their edge, caducous ; petals 4 ; stamens 00, 
adhering to tiie claws of the petals ; stigmas 4 — 7, sessile, 2 — 3 of 
them ahortiTe ; capsule pod-shaped, cylindric, 10-striate, many- 
seeded — (D Leaves pinnaHjid, glaucous. The juice, which is colorless, 
exhala the odor of hydrochloric acid. 

1. E. DouGLAsii. Hook. (Chryseis Califomica. of lAndl. and of \st edit.}— 
St. branching, leafy; t4rrus obconic ; col. ovoid, with a very short, abrupt acu- 
minaticm ; pet. bright yellow, with an orange spot at base. — A verv showy 
annual, common in our gardens. Native of California, Oregon, &c. The 
foliage is smooth, abundant and rich, dividing in a twice or thrice pinnatifid 
manner into linear segments. Flowers 3' broad, f 

2. E. Calipornica. Hook. (Chryseis crocea, lAndl. and of 1st edit.}— St. 
branching, leafy ; torus funnel-form, with a much dilated limb ; col. obconic. 
with a long acumination ; Jls. orange-yellow.— From California. Leaves and 
cdor of flowers as in the preceding, except the latter are more of a reddish- 
orange hue. f 

Order XII. FUMARIACE^.— Fumeworts. 

PbmtB hnlMoeoiia, with brittle itema and a watery jaioe. 
let. oraaOf atternate, multifid, often ftimiahed with lendnJa. 

fSfcinefnlar, purple, white or yellow. Sep. S, deciduous. ^K-^«-.t.n«, 

Qr.-f^tab 4, hypo«ynoua, parallel, one or both of the ojteriaecate.S inner «»herin»^^^ apex. 
Bta. f.diadelphouriU. dilated ; anth. adnate, cxtrorse,« outer I celled, middle 9-ocUed. 

09a. superior, l-cellod ; «fy. filiform ; atig. with one or naore points^ ^. .^ j 

Fr. either an indehinent nat l--9-ieeded, or a pod-shaped capsule many-seeaea. 
Bit. ihiniaf . aiiled. Atbuman fleahj. 
- m IS, apwMs no.-.«NDe of them beautiful and deliale , i nhabUinftoickcto i^ 

c/SeimSBrahemlqihera. They pcesese no remaAable action upon the ammalecowmiy. 

158 XII. FUMAAlACKfi. Gostdaui. 

Omspectms of the Genera. 

( Fruit a pod«<haped npfiik. . . Cbn^tdk I 

( only 1 of the outer, Race, or spurred. { Fruit a rab(k>boaenot . . . F mm U . 4 

(divtjnct.^ 8 outer equally saccate or spurred Dvlfffi. 1 

FetaJi ( united, oaM bigibboua, apex 4-lobed. Climbiog herbs. Jdbmk. I 

1. DIELYTRA. Borkhausen. 
Gr. SiSf double; tXvrpovj 'wittg-ease; in ailasioa to the two q;nini< 

Sepals % small ; petals 4, the 2 outer equally spurred or gibbons 
at the base ; stamens united in 2 sets of 3 in each ; pod 2-YalYed, 
many-seeded. — % 

1. D. CucuLLARiA. DC. (Corydalis Cucullaria. Pen.) IhUckmah 


Rt. bulbiferous ; roc. 4 — lO-flowered, second : spwn divergent, elongated, 
acute, straight. — Woods, Can. to Ky. A smooth, nandsome plant. Rhizoma 
bearing triangular, small, pale-red bulbs under ground. Leaves radical, mul- 
ttfid, somewhat tritemate, smooth, with oblong-linear segments, the petiolei 
rather shorter than the scape. Scape slender, &— 10' high. Flowers scentlett. 
nodding, whitish, at summit yellow. Pedicels short, udllary to a bract, am; 
with 2 minute bracteoles near the flower. Spurs about as long as the corolla 
April, May. 

3. D. Canadensis. DC. (D. ezimia. Beck. Coiydalis Canadenas. 

Chldie.) Squirrel Com. DiUckman*s Breeches, 

St. subteiranean, tuberiferous ; tfuiters globose ; roc. simple, secnnd, 4-^ 
flowered; spurs short, rounded, obtuse, slightly incurved. — ^A smooth, wtW 
plant, common in rocky woods. Can. to Ky. The rhizoma bears a nomoera 
roundish tubers about the size of peas, and of a bright-yellow color. Learn 
radical, subglaucous, bitemate, the leaflets deeply pmnatifid, segments lineir- 
oblong, obtuse. 5—6" lon^. Scape 6 — 8' high, bearing a few odd-lookinj 
flowers. Corolla white, tipped with yellow, 5" long. ()alyx minute. Stir 
mens 3 on each lip. May, Jn. 

3. D. ExiMiA. DC. (Corydalis formosa. PA.) Choice Diebftra. 

Rhizoma scaiy-bulbiferous ; Ivs. numerous ; roc. compound, the braoebei 
cymose ; spurs very short, obtuse, incurved ; stigma S^homed at apex.— A fitf 
species, on rocks, &c., found by Dr. SartweU^ in Yates Co., N. V. (S. to N. 
Car.^ Leaves radical, 10 — 15' high, somewhat tritemate, with inciselj pifl- 
natind segments, but ouite variable. Scape 8—12' high, with several (4--^ 
c)rmes, each with 6^10 purplish, nodding flowers. CoroUa 8—10" long, DTOtf 
at base. Bracts purplish, at base of pedicels. Jn.— Sept. f 

2. ADLUMIA. Raf. 

Named for John Adluin, Waahmcton, D. C, a cultivator of the vloe. 

Sepals 2, minute ; petals 4, united into a fungous, monopetaloitf 
corolla, persistent, bigibbous at base, 4-lobed at apex ; stamens united 
in 2 equal sets ; pod 2-Talved, many-seeded. — ® CUmbiTig. 

A ciRRROsA. Raf. (Fumaria fungosa. JViUd. Corydalis. Pers.) JMN»" 

tain Pringe. 

A delicate climbing vine, native of rocky hills. Can. to N. Car. Stemsfti- 
ate, many feet in length. Leaves decompound, divided in a pinnate maaaffi 
ultimate divisions 3-lobed, smooth, their foot^stalks serving for teiuln^ 
Flowers very numerous, in axillary, pendulous, cymose dusters, pale-pint 
Calyx minute. Corolla slightly cordate at base, of 4 petals united into * 
spongy mass, cylindric, compressed, tapering upwards, 2-llpped. Fine »^ 
arbors. Jn. — ^Aug.f 


Greek name of the Fumitory, from which fonna thb wai taken. 

-Sepals 2, small; petals 4, one of which ifl spurred at tb^ b^i 


stamens 6, diadelphoiui ; filaments united into 2 equal sets by their 
broad kiaes which sheath the OTary ; pod 2-yalYed, con^essedi many- 
leededk — Lxs. cavJiint. Pedicels racemose^ bractUss. 

1. C. GLABCA. Ph. (Fumaria glaaca. CurtisJ) Glaucous CorydaUs. 
St. etect, branched ; Ivs, glaucous, bipinnate, segments cuneate-olK)yate, 3- 

iobed ; potis Hnear, as long as the pedicels. — @. A smooth, delicate plant, in 
Bioontainous woods, Can. to N. Car., covered with a glaucous bloom. Root 
iiasiiann. Sfi»o 1 — 4f high. Leaflets nearly V long and i' wide, cut into 3 
obtuse lobes. Flowers terminal, on the subpaniculate branches. Cafyz of 2, 
orate, acuminate sepals, between which, placed crosswise, is b^anced the 
cylinarical, ringent corolla, beaotifiilly colored with alternating shades of red 
and yeOow. May-^Aug. 

2. C. AvasA. WiUd* (Fumaria aurea. Mkhl.) Golden CorydtUis, 

St» bcanching, difiuse; Ivs. glauccEus, bipinnate, lobed, the lobes oblong- 
linear, acute ; brads linear-lanceolate, dentate, 3 times as long as the peduncle ; 
foc secund, opposite the leaves and terminal ; pod terete, torulose. — (T) In rocky 
abides, Can. to Mo. S. to 6a. Stem 8—12' high, with finely divided leaves. 
Flowers bright yellow^ about half as long as the torulose poos which succeed 
them. May — ^Aug. 


Sepals 2, caducous ; petals 4, unequal, one of them spurred at the 
base, filaments in 2 sets each with 3 anthers ; nut oToid or globose, 
l-eeeded and yalveless. — Lvs, cavline^ finely dissected, 

F. omciNALis. PwnvUory. 

&. suberect, branched, and spreading ; lvs. bipinnate ; Ifts, lanceolate, cut 
into linear segments ; rac. loose ; sep. ovate-lanceolate, acute, about as long as 
the ^obose, retuse nut. — A small, nandsome plant, in sandy fields and about 
gaidiens, introduced from Europe. Stem 10—15' high, smooth as well as the 
feaves. Leaflets cut into segments dilated upwards. Flowers small, rose- 
colored, noddiog, the pedicels becoming erect in fruit, and twice as long as the 
bracts. Jnly, Aug. ^ 

Order XIIL CRUCIFERiE.— Crucxfers. 

Ftatfr herineeon, Tety nitXj •nflhitioMe. with alternate teaves. 

ru. fdlow <w wbhe. rarelr P«n>te, ^rithcmt bracts, generally in raoemea. ^^ 

Cor. af 4 ferukr petaSTfieir cbws imerted into the receptacle, and their limbs spwad/ng in the foim ot 
flte. •, a ofthem upon oppomte Men, shorter than the other 4. .. j . lBepnnent,-«rt^. two. 

Om. eonposed oftwo united carpels, with two parietal placenta united by a membranous iabe du- 
A'.aailiqueorsUicIe usuallyS-ceUed. . .. « ^ 

Bii. attached ui a single row to each side of the placentn ;-«lbumen 0. 
£Mftrvo, with the two cotyledons Tariously folded on the ndicle. 

Genera in. species i«oo.— This is a very natural order, larger than any of. the preoedinf . The greater 
put «f Ike 4iecies are found in the temperate Koues. About 100 are peculiar to this continenL 

Pnvirtfw.— The Crucifom as a class are of much importance to roan. They furiiwh several alunen- 
lay aitides whieh are very nutricious, as the turnip, cabbage, cauliflower: several others are usep as 
eondimentis ; as mustard, radish, cochlearia, Ac, They all posscm a peculiar acnd, votaulc P"nc'P'«. 
ifJSjiMsuJ through every part, often accompanied by an etherial oil abonnding m sulphur. They are aiso 
lenaikable for containing more nitrogen than other vegetables, for which reason .nnimoma «» «cneraay 
evolved in their putrefoction. In m^icine they are eminently stimulant and anuscorbutic. None aro 
nally poimdow, although very acrid. The root of Isatis tinctoria affords a blue oolormg maiier. 

Cuiwllt B. Aiibdi,-lT'cioi;n,ihowWlhen»iiowiii 
^MciIU inciunbnit <0 ■). 11. e«tka<ifawiii(eilHe>lof 

Ctmspeclvi a/t/u Genera. 
• Ornamental aiotica not culinary.' 

ION I. SILtCULOS^. (f 81 
1. THLASPI. Dill. 

Gt. fl*aw, lo c-mprcn ; o- orwunl of Ihe compraned or flaltdwd nticlu. 

Caljx equal at baae ; petals eqaal ; ailicle short, flat, emu^nttc 
at Uie apex, m any-seeded ; values carin&t«, often winged on tlM 
back; cotyledons accumbent (0=). — Let. undivided. FU. vhUe. 

I, T. ABVENSE. Fenvy Cress. 

Lvs. oblong, coarsely dcnlale, smoolhi tUicle ronndiih-DboTate, sb 

Ibe canlinc slightly ai 



at margin. Flowers small, in terminal racemes. Silicles large, flat| with 
dilated wings, l^e plant has a disagreeable flavor of garlic. Jnne.( 


i>t9. oblong, obtose, somewhat dentate, upper ones sagittate-amplexicaul, 
with acute auricles; siiicles ovate- ventricose ; slig. subseseile. — In cultivatea 
fields, Western States, not common. Stems fr— 10' high. Lower leaves petio- 
late. Flowers smaller than in T. arvense, in terminal racemes. This also 
savors of garlic. May — ^Jl. ( 

3. T. TUBEROSUM. Nutt. 

JU. tuberiferous and fibrous ; st. pubescent, simple, short : Ivs, rhomboid- 
orate, obscurely dentate, smooth and sessile, radical ones petioiate ; si^tcfe sub- 
orbicular. — "21. Penn. Stem not more than 4— 6^ high. Rowers rather large, 
rose-colored. Apr. May. 

2. CAPSELLA. Vent 

DiminntiTe from agma, « chest or box ; alliiding to Uie fruit 

Calyx equal at base ; silicles triangular-cuneiform, obcordate, com 
pressed laterally ; valyes carinate, not winged on the back ; septum 
Bublinear; style short; seeds 00; oblong, BmaH^ 0^.^^ Fls. white, 
A troublesome weed. 

C. Bursa-pastObis. Maench. (Thlaspi Bursa-pastoris. lAnn.') Skepherd^s 


Found everywhere, in fields, pastures, and roadsides. Stem 6 — S—1^ ^^g\ 
nearly smooth in the upper part, hirsute below, striate, branching. Root-leaves 
josulate, 2 — 5—8^ ^ong^ I as wide, cut-lobed, on maigined p&lioles ; segments 
about 13. These leaves are sometimes wanting, (when the weed is crowded,) or 
only dentate. Stem-leaves much smaller, very narrow, with two small, acute 
auricles at base, half clasping the stem. Flowers small, in racemes, which are 
finally 3—12' lon^ Silicle smooth, triangular, emarginate at the end, and tipped 
with the style. April — Sept. ^ 

Gr, XticiSj A icale : from Ute retemblanoe of ttie lilide. 

Sepals orate ; petals oyate, entire ; silicles oyal-orbioalar, emar- 
ginste ; septum very narrow, crossing the greater diameter ; yalyes 
carinate, dehiscent; cells 1 -seeded, 0^ or 0=r. — Fls. tokite. 

1. L. ViRGtwicUM. Wild Penper-grass. 

L/vs. linear-lanceolate, incisely serrate, smooth; <f. paniculately branched 
above; sta, 2 — 4; silicles orbicular, emarginate; seeds \i=.—^ In dry fields 
and road-sides, U. S. Stem rigid, round, smooth, If high. Leaves 1 — 9f 
by 1—3" , acute, tapering at base into a petiole, upper ones sessile, lower pinna- 
tifidly cut. Flowers and silicles very numerous, m a panicle of racemes. Fls. 
very small, mostly diandrous ; silicles lens-shaped, li" uiam., with a notch at the 
end. Taste pungent, like that of the garden pepper-grass. Jn. — Oct. 

2. L. CAHPESTRE, R. Br. (Thlaspi campestris. Linn.) Yellow Seed. 

Cauiine Ivs. sagittate, denticulate ; silicles ovate, winged, emarginate, scaly- 
punctate. — (D In waste places and dry fields, especially among flax. Stem 
strictly erect, round, minutely downy, 6 — KV high, brancning. Leaves 1' long, 
i as wide, acute, with 2 lobes at base, upper one clasping the stem, all minutely 
velvety. Flowers small. Silicles 1^'^ long, numerous, in long racemes. Jn. Jl.^ 

3. L. Rm>ERALE. 

L/vs. cauiine, incised, those of the branches linear, entire ; fls. apetalous, 
and with but 2 stamens ; silicles broadly oval or suborbicular, emarginate, wing- 
less; ctftf^. OH. — ^Dry fields, Mich., la.. Mo. Stem 10 — 15' high. Racemes 
many. Flowers remarkable for wanting the petals, which are always present 
in our other species. 

4. Li. sativum. JPeppergrass. — ^Z/r5. variously divided and cut ; ^rane/Us with* 
out spines; silicles orbicular, winged.— <X) Native of the East. Stems l--3i 

160 XUI. CRUCIFER^. Deaba. 

high, Ycry teaoching. Silides ^Z-^" broad, very numerous. A well known 
garden salad. July, f ^ 

4. DRABA. 
G^. ipafiiif aerid, bitiiiff ; fimn ttie taite of Uia pknt 

Calyx equal at base ; petals equal ; filaments vrithout teeth ; silide 

Dval-oblong, entire, the yalyes flat or conyez; cells 2, man j-Bceded ; 

seeds not margined. 

1. D. TERNA. (Eriophila vulgaris. DC) WkUlow Grass, 
Scape naked ; Ivs, oblong, acute, subserrate, hairy ; pet, bifid ; st^, sessile i 
siHcU oyal, flat, shorter than the pedicel. — (p A little early-flowering plant in 
grassy fields. Can. to Ya. Leaves all radical, lanceolate, i — H' long, | as 
wide, with a few teeth towards the end. Scape a few inches high, with a 
raceme of 5—15 small, white flowers. Calyx spreading. Petals cleft half 
way down. Silicles about a line wide and 3—4" long, widi deciduous valvea. 
Apr. May. 

3. D. ARABlsANs. Mlchx. (Arabis. Ph.) 

St. leafy, somewhat branched and pubescent ; Ivs. lanceolate, acutely dea- 
tate ; silide oblong-lanceolate, smooth, longer than the pedicel ; siy. very short^ 
Lake shores, among rocks, Vt, N. i ., Mich. Stems sevenil from the same 
root, 6 — 8' high. Rady^ leaves 1' or more in length, attenuate at base, with 
a few slender, spreading teeth ; cauline leaves somewhat clasping, flowen 
white, in a short raceme. Sillcle elongated (1|' long), acuminate, contorted, 
and might be called a silique. May. 

3. D. Carouniana. Walt (D. hispidula. MicAx.) 

St. leafy at base, hispid, naked and smooth at the top ; (vs. ovate-roundish, 
entire, hispid: 5t^ic^ linear, smooth, longer than the pedicels, corymbose.-H[2 
Sandy fields, Conn., Dr. Bobbins, R. I., Mr. G. Hunt, S. to Ga. Stem 1—3' hi^ 
very hairy. Leaves clustered on the lower part of the stem, very hauj. 
Petals white, twice as long as the sepals. Silicle ^' long, lance-linear, many- 
seeded. Stigma subsessile. Apr. Jn. 

4. D. RAMosissiMA. Desv. (Alyssum dentatum. Nutt.) 

Minutely pubescent ; sts. numerous ; Ivs. Unear-lanceolate, with remote and 
lender teeth, upper ones entire ; roc. corymbosely paniculate ; siiide lanceo- 
late, about the length of the pedicel, and tipped with the style i as long.— 7|. On 
rocks. Harper's Ferry, Va., west to Kv. Stems slender, 4— IC long, with 
tufted leaves at top. Leaves about 1' long, with 1 or 2 teeth on each side. 
Flowers white. Silicles 3—5" in length, ascending. Apr. May. 

5. D. NEMORALis. Ehrh. 

St. pubescent, branched ; Ivs. oval, hirsute, cauline lanceolate, toothed ; 
pet. emarginate : silicles oblong-elliptical, the length of tiie pedicels ; sds. nearly 
30.— '21- Mich. Mo. Plant slender, 8—10' high. Stem with few branches. 
Leaves mostly radical. Racemes much elongated in fruit, with veiy Iod|^ 
pedicels. Flowers minute, yellowish white. May. 


Hirsute-pubescent ; st. branching and leafy below ; Ivs. sparingly toothed, 
radical spatulate-oblong, cauline few, oblong, ovate, somewhat attenuate at 
base ; roc. rather elongated in firuit; silicles oblong-lanceolate, minutely hispid, 
twice as long as the pedicels ; pet. emarginate. T. 4* G. — % Grassy places 
about St. Louis, &c., NiUtall. Plant 3 — 8' high. Flowers much larger than 
in the preceding. Petals white, nearly thrice longer than the sepals. Silicles 
about i' long and 30-seeded. March, Apr. 


Minutely pubescent; radicallvs. rouQdish-ovate, petioiate ; eatritn« oblong 
or linear, slightly dentate or entire ; roc. many flower^, straight, elongated in 
fruit; pet. obovate, entire; silicU oval, glabrous, about as long as the pedicels, 
10— id-seeded. — % Grassy places near St. Louis. Stem much branched and 
leafy. Silicles ^—3" long, March, Apr. 


Lai. eoehimar, a ■poon ; nteting to tli« eooaave laavet. 

Calyx equal at base, spreading ; petals entire ; stamens without 
teeth ; silicle sessile, oblong or ovoid-globose, with ventrieose valves j 
seeds many, not margined ; 0=.— pS. white. 

1. C. Armoracia. Horse Badish. — Radical Ivs. oblong, crenate ; caidine long, 
lanceolate, dentate or incised, sessile ; sUicle elliptic. — % A common garden 
herb, native of Europe. Root fleshy, large, white, very acrid. Stem 2--3f 
high, angular, smooth, branching. Radical leaves near a foot long, ^ as wide, 
on long, channeled petioles. Lower stem-leaves often cut in a pinnatifid 
m a nn er, upper toothed or entire. Flowers small, in corymbose racemes. The 
root is a well known condiment for roast beef and other viands. Jn. 

fi. aguoHca. (C. aquatica. Eaton and 1st edit.) Lvs. all pinnatifid, the 
lower ones doubly and finely so. Wet places, often submerged.^ 

2. C. OFFICINALIS. Scwrvy Cfrass. — Radical Ivs. cordate, petiolate, cauline 
ovale, angular or dentate ; silicks oval-globose, half as long as the pedicel. — 
% Native of Europe and of Arctic Am. Stem &— 12' high. Root leaves 4 — 18' 
long, I as wide. Flowers racemed. Occasionally cultivated for its powerful 
antiscorbutic properties. Jn. 


Named in reference to the lineor-iubukte leaves. 

SOicle oval, valves turgid, cells many-seeded ; stigma sessile ; coty- 
^dons linear, carved. — C[) Aquatic^ cKaulescerU herbs, 

S. AdUATicA. Awlwort. 

A smaU plant growing on the muddy shores of ponds in Maine, NitU., 
mJid sear the White Mts., Pickering. Leaves all radical, entire, subulate, an 
s^ich in length. Scape 2--3' lugh, racemose, with a few minute, white flowers, 
tn slender pedicels only 2!' in length. Jl. 

7. CAMEUNA. Crantz. 
Gr, x'f "i <lwf : Xtyoy, flax. 

Calyx e<faal at base ; petals entire ; silicle obovate or snbgloboso, 
with yentncose valves and many-seeded cells ; styles filiform, persis- 
tent ; seeds oblong, striate, not margined, y . 

C. SATlVA. Crantz. (Myagmm. Ldnn.) Gold^f-pleasu/re, F\tlse Flax, 
Labs, lanceolate, sa^ttate at base, subentire ; sUide obovate-pyriform, mar- 
gined, tipped with the pointed style.— ><X) In cultivated fields. Stem 1^2^ f. 
nigh, straight, erect, branching. Leaves roughish, 1 — 2' long, clasping the 
stem with their acute, arrow-shaped lobes. Flowers small, yefiow, in panicu- 
lated racemes. Silicles 2 — 3'' long, on pedicels 2 — 3 times as long. — Baid to 
be cultivated in Germany for the oil which is expressed from the seeds. Jn.^ 

Chr, a. pffivatiTe ; Xvava, race ; •apposed bf the andeiita to aflaj anger. 

Calyx equal at base; petals entire; some of the stamens wifcli 
teeth ; silicle orbicular or oval, with valves flat or convex in the cen- 
tre ; seeds 1 — 4 in each cell 

1. A. BAXATiLB. Rock AlyssuTfi. Madwort. — St. suflruticose at base, subco- 
rymboee: h75. lanceolate, entire, downy ; silicle ovate-orbicular, 2-Beeded; sds, 
margined. — An early-flowering garden perennial, native ol Candia. Stem If 
high, with numerous yellow flowers in close corymbose bunches. Apr. May.f 

% A. MARrriMUM. Lam. Sweet Alyssum. — St. suflruticose and procumbent 
at base; Ips. linear-lanceolate, acute, somewhat hoary: pods oval, smooth. — 
'2|. A sweet-scented garden plant, with fine leaves and small white flowers. 
Stem a foot in length. Flowers from Jn. to Oct — All the species of Alyseiun 
are of easy culture in common loamy soils, f 

164 Xm. CRUCIFERJS. NAmnmuiL 


Lat hmot the moon ; fron the brood, loondailialef. 

Sepals somewhat bisaccate at base ; petals nearly entire ; Btameiui 
without teeth ; silicle pedicellate, elliptical or lanceolate, with flit 
valves ; funiculus adhering to the dissepiment. 

1. L. REDivlVA. Perennial SaUn FUruoer or Honesty. — St. erect, branrhyig: 
Ivs. oYate, cordate, petiolate, mucronately serrate ; sUtdes lanceolate, narrowea 
at each end. — 71- From Germany. Stem 2 — Sfhigh. Flowers light purple. Jn.f 

2. L. BIENNIS. DC. Honesty. — St. erect; Ivs, with obtuse teeth; siUcles oval 
obtuse at both ends. — @ These are large, hairy plants, native of Genuanj! 
Stems 3— 4f high. Leaves cordate. Flowers lilac-colored. The broad, 
round, silvery suicles are the most remarkable feature of the plants. May, Jn. f 

la ib£ri& 

Matt of the ipeeiM an native cilbtrta^ now Spain. 

The 2 outside petals larger than the 2 inner ; silioles compressed, 
truncate, emarginate, the cells 1 -seeded. — None of the species are K 

1. L uMBELLlTA. PwTpU Condy^ufi, — ^Herbaceous, smooth ; Ivs, linear-lan- 
ceolate, acuminate, lower ones serrate, upper ones entire; siUdes umbellate, 
acutelv globed. — This and the following species are very popular gaiden 
annuals, very pretty in borders, and of verv easy culture. L umoellata » fron 
S. Europe. Stem If high. Flowers purple, terminal, in simple umbeU, aad 
like the rest of the genus remarkable lor having the 2 outer petals laiger than 
the 9 inner ones. Jn. JL f 

2. I. AMlRA. BiUer Candy-tufU — ^Herbaceous ; Vos. lanceolate, acute, some- 
what toothed; fls, corymbed, becoming racemed: n/ic^ obcoraate, narrowly 
emaiginate.— <D Native of England. Stem If high. Flowers white. Jn. JLf 

3. 1. piNNlTA. WingedrUaved Candy-tuft. — Herbaceous, smooth ; Its, nn- ' 
natifid ; roc. corymbose, but little elongated after flowering. — From Sb Eft- 
rope. Plant If high. Flowers white. Jn. — Aug. -f 

4. I. BAXATiLis. Rock Candy-tufi. — Shrubby; Ivs. linear, entire, somewbat 
fleshy, rather acute, smooth or ciliate ; fis. in corymbs. — i0 JF^m S. Europe. 
Nearly If high. Flowers white. Apr.--Jn. f 

OBtL-^Tweaty-fottr species of Um Iberu have been deacribed, othen of whkh aie «ittaIbrorauM» 
tal with Uiose above mentioned. 

u. isAtis. 

Gr. <e«^a>, to make equal ; auppoaed to remove ronf hoen from the ricia. 

Silicle elliptical, flat, 1 -celled (dissepiment obliterated), 1 -seeded, 

withcarinate, navicular valves, which are scarcely dehiscent. — None (f 

the species are N. American. 

I. TiNCTORiA. Wood. — Silicles cuneate, acuminate at base, somewhat spam- 
late at the end, very obtuse, 3 tirt«s as long as broad. — (D The Woad is narire 
of England. It is occasionally cultivated for the sake of its leaves, which 
Yield a dye that may be substituted for indigo. The plant grows about 4 C 
high, with lar^e leaves clasping the stem with their broad bases. Floweis 
yellow, large, m terminal racemes. May — Jl. f 

Sections. SILIClUOSiE. (( 80, iMie.) 

Lat noma tortiu; from tlie effect of these acrimooious plants upon tbe noae. 

Sepals equal at base, spreading ; silique subterete, mostlj curved 
upwards, sometimes short so as to resemble a silicle ; yalTes yetnless; 
peeds in a double row, 0>". — AjgtuUic herbs. 

Tmnma. XIIL GRUCIFEIliB. 166 

1. N. OFPiciNlLE. R.Br. (SisymbrinmNast jLJim.) RngU$hWaUrO€st, 
lAa. pinnate ; Ifls. ovate, subcordate, repand ; pet. white, longer than the 

etijz. — % Brooks and ponds. Stems decumbent. If long, thick, with axillary 
hnnches. Leares of 3—7 leaflets ; leaflets broaa, oflen cordate, rather acute, 
obmsely toothed, terminal one largest. Flowers corymbed. Siliques less than 
r long. Jn. — It is beginning to he cultivated in the vicinity of our cities as a 

2. N. AMPHinnTM. R. Br. (Sisymbrium. Ldnn.) AmpkUdota Water Crea, 
Lvs. oblong-lanceolate, pinnatmd or serrate; rt. fibrous; jwtf. Idnger than 

the calyx; silioue elliptical, acute at base, tipped with themucronate style,— 
n^ Banks of the Mohawk, Dr. RMins. Rare. Stem 1— 3f high, fiirrowed. 
Leaves variable, immersed ones pinnatifid or pectinate, upper ones serrate. 
Flowers yellow, minute, in a long, dense raceme. Silique half as long as the 
spreading or reflexed peduncle, pointed with the short style. Jn. Jl. 

3. N. PALUSTRE. DC. Marsh Water Cress. 

Lvs. pinnately lobed, ainpkxicaul, lobes confluent, dentate, smooth ; ri. 
foaUona. ; peL as long as the sepals : siUqu£ spreading, turgid, obtuse at each 
end* — % In wet places. Stem 1 — 2i high, erect, branched above. Leaves 3 — 3' 
long, all more or less pinnatifid, smooth, except a few cllise at base. Flowers 
numerous, minute, yellow. Silique 3---4'' long, on pedicels of equal length. 
Jn. — ^Aug. 

4. N. BispimrM. DC. (Sisymbrium. Povret.) Hispid Water Cress. 

SL villous ; lvs. somewhat villous, runcinate-pinnatifid, lobes rather ob- 
tOMly denute; siHques (rather silicles) ovate, tumid, pointed with the style, 
•earcely more than half as long as the pcwlicels ; pel. scarcely as long as the 
ealyx.--a|. Banks of streams, Walpole, N. H., Conn, to Penn. Stem angular, 
hnmched, 1 — 3f high, with many paniculate racemes above. Leaves 3— C 
long. Flowers minute, yellow. Suicles 1'^ long, aa pedicels 3—3" long and 
somewhat spreading. 

5. N. KATANs. DC. fi. Americanvm. Gray. FfoaUng Water Cress. 
Emersed hss. serrate, oblong-linear, undivided, immersed ones doubly 

pinnatifid, with capillary segments ; pet. twice as long as the calyx ; siUqves 
oboTate, twice as long as the style.— T}. In water. Can. and U. S. Stem long, 
sahmeiged. Flowers white, middle size. Jl. 

6. N. 8TLVE8TRE. (Sisymbrium vulgare. Pers.^ Creeping Water Cress, 
l/ps. pinnately divided, segments lanceolate, incisely serrate ; pet. longer 

than the calyx ; siliques oblong, torulose ; sly. very short — Banks of the Dela- 
ware near Philadelphia. NtUtaU. ^ 

13. BARB AREA. R.Br. 
h booor of 8t Bubafa, who diaoorered (what no ono haa aince peroeiTed) Ha medicinal Tiitoaa. 

Sepals erect, subequal at base ; silique columnar, 2 — 4-cornered ; 
valves concave-carinate; seeds in a single series ; 0=. — Lvs. lyrately 
pinnatifid. Fls. yellow. 

B. VULGARIS. R. Br. (Erysimum Barbarea. lAnn.) Winter Cress, 
Lovrer lvs. lyrate, the terminal lobe roundish, upper oTies obovaie, pin- 
natifid at base, crenate or repand-dentate ; siUq^ies obscurely 4-comered. -'4 In 
old fields, also brook-sides, Northern States, W. to Oregon, common. Whole 

nuhal racemes. Siliqaes slender, i' long, curved upwards. May, Jn. 

14. TURR!TIS. DUlon. 
Lat tvrrUit, turreted ; from Uie pyramidal fonn of the plant 

IBep&ls erect, conyerging ; petals erect ; silique long, linear, 2-edged; 
nlres plane ; seeds in a double series, 0=. — Fls. cyanic. 


1. T. GLABBA. Smooth Tower Miutturd, 

St. erect; radical Ivs. petiolate, dentate, with ramoee hairs, candime ama 
hroad-lanceolate, sagittate, hall-clasping, glaucous, smooth; siUques erect—- 
Shores of Lake Superior, W. to the Rocky Mts. Naturalized abcmt New 
Haven. Eaton, Stem round, simple, iKhigh. X^eaves 1 — 2f Itaig, Siliquef 
8—3' long, very narrow. Flowers pale sulphur-yellow. May. 

fi'\ T. & 6. Lvs. all linear-lanceolate and glabrous, radical ones remotel} 
tepand-denticulate, cauUne entire.— Watertown, N, Y., on rocks. TTorrey ^ Graf, 

3. T. BRACHTCABPA. ToFT. & Gray. 

Glabrous and glaucous ; radical Ivs. spatulate, dentate, cauUne ones linear- 
lanceolate, sagittate and subamplexicaul ; silioues short, linear-oblong ; pediceb 
pendulous in nower, spreading in fniiL--® Lake shores, Mich. Stem 1 — ^ 
high, often purplish, as well as the Ibliage. Flowers rather large, pale purpJfr 
Siliques 1' long, spreading. 

15. ARABIS. 
Said to derive its name ttaok Jrabla,itB netmeoniitiy. 

Sepals erect ; petals unguiculate, entire ; silique linear, compressed; 
Talves 1 -veined m the middle; seeds in a single row in eaca celL — 
JFls. white. 

1. A. Canadensis. (A. falcata. Michx.) Sickle Pod, 

CauUne Ivs, sessile, oblong-lanceolate, narrow at base, pubescent; pedi- 
cds pubescent, reflexed in the fruit ; silique subfalcate, veined, pendulous : sdL 
winged. — % On rocky hills, Can. to Ga. W. to Ark. A plant remaikabM fir 
its long, drooping pods, which resemble a sickle blade, or rather a canrad 
sword blade. Stem 2 — 3f high, slender, round, smooth. Leaves 1 — 3' Icng, ( 
as wide ; the lowest early marescent, middle and upper ones sessile or claspiiig, 
with narrow bases, remotely denticulate. Flowers small, white. Pods ska- 
der, flattened, nearly 3' long. Jn. 

2. A. lyrata. (Sisymbrium arabidoides. Darl.'\ 

St. and upper Ivs, smooth and glaucous ; radical Ivs. Ijnrately pinnatifid, . 
often pilose ; st, branched at base ; pedicels spreading ; siliques erect— (S Oi 
locky nills. Can. to V a. Stems often many, united at base, i^l2f high. Rmt- 
leaves numerous, rosulate, 1 — 3' long, \ as wide, petiolate, lower stem-leavet 
pinnatifid or sinuate-dentate, upper ones sublinear and subentire. Flowen 
middle size. Siliques when mature lii — 2^ long, less than 1^' wide. Apr. May. 

3. A. LfviGATA. DC. (Turritis laevigata. Muhl.) 

Smooth and glaucous ; radical Ivs. obovate and oblong, tapering to a pe- 
tiole, dentate, stem Ivs. linear-lanceolate, amplexicaul, obtuse, upper ones eatiK; 
pedicels about as long as the calyx, erect ; siliques very long, linear, at length 
spreading and pendulous ; sds. winged. — % In rockjr woods and low grooiMb^ 
Can. to Ark. Stem 1 — 2f high, round, smooth, simple or branched above. 
Rootrleaves often purplish, f— -IJ' long, i as wide, with acute teeth. Stem- 
leaves 2—5' long, I as wide, up^r ones entire. Flowers in long racemea 
Siliques 2 — 3' long, scarcely 1" wide. May. 

4. A. HiRsuTA. Scop. (Turritis. Linn.) 

Erect, branching ; Irs. mostly dentate, hirsute, radical ones oblong-onie 
tapering to a petiole, cauline ones oval or lanceolate, sagittate ; ^tVt^u^s straight 
erect.— 5) Found in low, rocky grounds, Can. to Va. W. to Oregon. Stems 8 
or more from the same root, round, hairy at base, near a foot high, dividioe 
into very slender and parallel branches. Leaves scarcely dentate, sessile, wi4 
heart-shaped or arrow-shaped bases, upper ones acute. Flowers greenish- 
white. Siliques straight, 1—3' long. Jn. 


Nearly smooth ; radical Ivs. spatulate, toothed, upper ones linear, sessile, 
entire ; silique long and spreading ; pet. linear-oblong, exceeding the calyx.— 
Near Paris, Me., and the white Mts., N. H. RadiciU leaves somewhat pitoK 
with simple hairs, upper ones linear, about 2' long, and 1 — 2" wide. 8iri<j'KS 
about 3' long. Nuttxiil. 

norauuA. Xm. CRCJCIFERJS. 167 

6. A. DENTlTA. Torr. & Qray. 

Plant somewhat scabrous ; radical Ivs. obovate, petiolate, unequally and 
iharply dentate ; cauline ones oblong, amplexicaul ; pet. minute, spatulate, as 
hog as the sepals ; slig. subsessile ; silique short. — (D River banks, Western 
States ! Stem slender, ascending, 1 — ^3f high. Petals white, with a purplish 
tinge. Siliques 1' in length. Apr. 

Cfr. KopStUj ho&it, SafttitOf to itrenctheD ; fitxn iti Btomachie propertiet. 

Calyx a little spreading \ silique linear, with flat, yeinless yalyep, 
ntrrower than the dissepiment, and often opening elasticallj ; stigma 
entire ; seeds not margined, with a slender fanicnlnB, 0=». — Mostly %. 
FU white, 

1. C. HiRsuTA. (C. Pennsylvanica. MM.) Pennsylvanian Cardamine. 
Lvs. pinnate or lyrately pinnatifid ; Ifts. entire, or sparingly repand-den- 

ticniate, those of the radical leaves oval-oblong, of the cauline linear-oblong, 
the terminal one longest, about 3-lobed ; pet, oblong-cuneate ; siUqua erect, 
with a very short style.---(J) or Tj. A variable plant common in wet places 
tfanraghout the U. S. Stem 8—16^ high, mostly smooth. Leaflete 2—5 pairs, 
i-12" long, smoothish. Fls. small. Siliques about V long, 12—18 seeded. Jn. 

2. C ViROiNicA. (C. hirsnta. 0. Hook.) Virginian Cardamine. 

Ln. lyrately pinnate; Ifls. with a single tooth on one or both sides: pek 
nearly twice as long as the calyx; roc strictly erect; 5^. sessile; silique long, 
incomd, erect. — <g) A small and delicate species, much resembling the last, 
bat OTobably distinct. Found on dry hill-sides, Vt. Ct. to Ky. and Mo. Stem 
4—8' high, slender, leaf^. Leaflets 2—4 pairs with a trilobate odd one, oval, 
1—9^' in length, those of the upper leaves 3—6" long, but very narrow. Petals 
small Siliques filiform, 1' long. Jn. 

3. C. PRATENSis. Field Cardamine, 

St. erect or decumbent, simple ; lvs. pinnately 7 — l&-foliate ; Ifis. petio* 
late, SQbentire, lower ones suborbicular, upper linear-lanceolate ; stif, distinct—- 
% Swamps, N. Y. to Arctic Am. Whole plant smooth. Stem round, striate, 
10— IC high. Leaves few, 1^ — 2f long including the petiole. Leaflets of the 
root-leaves 1—3" diam., of the cauline 3—6'' by \", Flowers large, few, in a 
temiinal raceme. Petals white or rose-color. Siliques nearly 1' in length, 
erect Apr. May. 

4. C. HOTUNDipoLu. Michx. (C. rhomboidea. DC. Arabis. Pers. Nutt.") 
Glabrous or somewhat haiiy; lvs. entire or repand-toothed, radical ones 

orbicular-ovate, on long petioles, cavline oval or oblong-lanceolate, petiolate 
below, sessile above, dentate. — % Another variable species with rather large, 
white or reddish flowers. Stems 6—12' high, angular or striate, mostly erect 
Leaves of root 10—18" diam., on petioles 2 — 4' long. Racemes about 3' long, 
12— 90-flowered. Petals 2 — 4 times as long as the calyx. Siliques spreading, 
6—12" long. Apr. May. 

ft. T. &, G. Rf. mostly tuberiferous ; st. erect ; lower stem lvs. rhomboid-oval ; 
fet. large. — ^Wet meadows, Conn. Vt. Dr. Robbins. 

fi. T. &.. G. at. mostly fibrous ; st. decumbent, branching ; lvs, all petio- 
J*te; pet. smaller, purplish. — Shaded springs and rivulets, N. Y. 

4. C. BELLiDiPOLiA. (C. TOtundifoHa. Bw. not Michx.) 
Lcs. smooth, radical ones orbicular-ovate, nearly entire, petiolate ; cav^ 
, Ineones entire or 3-lobed; siliques erect. — A minute species on the summits of 
{he White Mts. Abel Slorrsl &c., also Arc. Am. to Calif. Stem li— 3' high. 
I^aTes mostly radical, broadly oval or ovate, \' long, on petioles as long as 
the stems. Fascicles corymbose, each of 3 or 4 white flowers. Petals oval, 
<*tttse, about twice as long as the calyx. Jl. 


Lat den*, a tooth ; from the toolh-Iike prajections of the rbJ2oma. 

Sepals converging ; silique lanceolate, with flat, veinless, revolute 

tes Xin. CRUCIFERJS. SuTKRim. 

valyes, opening elastically ; placental not winged ; seeds in a mff$ 
row, ovate, not bordered ; fiiniculus slender, 0=. — Rhiz<ma %. lot. 
divided^ often InU 2 or 3. I^^ls. white or purplish, 

1. D, DiPHTLLA. Pepper Root. 

St. 2-leayed; Ifls. ternate, snbovate, nneqnallj asd incisely dentate; 
rhiz. dentate. — In woods and wet meadows, Can. to Car. and to the Miss. Slea 
about If high, round, smooth, with 2, nearly opposite, temate leaves above tte 
middle. Leaflets on very short stalks, the lateral ones oblique, all with rounded, 
mucronate, unequal teeth. Flowers racemed, large, white ; the petals va/k 
larger than the calyx. The rootstock is long and large in proporticm tc tiK 
plant, beset with teeth, with a pungent, aromatic taste. May. 

2. D. LACiNiATA. Muhl. (D. concatenata. Michx.) 

i?At2r. moniliform ; caulinelvs. 3, 3-parted, the divisions lanceolate (f 
linear-oblong, incisely toothed or pinnatiM, lateral ones lobed. — In woods, CaL 
and U. S. The rootstock consists of several tubers of a pungent taste. Stem 
If high, smooth, simple. Leaves usually in a whorl about half-way op, the 
segments with very irregular; mucronate teeth, rarely subentire, lateral onei 
cut nearly to the base, rendering the leaf almost quinate. Root-leaves sooe- 
times 0. Flowers racemed, purplish. Apr. May. 

3. D. MAXIMA. Nutt. 

St, tall ; Ivs. alternate, 5—7, remote, the margin a little roofbened; j/k 
somewhat oval, incisely and acutely dentate, lateral ones lobed.— Weswj 
N. Y. and Penn. Tubers of the rhizoma concatenate. Stem often nearij a 
high. Flowers pale purple. 


Rhiz. moniliform, with oblong tubers ; radical Ivs, on long P^^^ 
deeply and obtuselv lobed, lobes crenate-dentate wiUi abruptly mucronate teen, 
cavMne Ivs, 2, rarely 3, alternate, petiolate, temately divided, segmeats lineir- 
lanceolate, entire or rarely toothed, rough-edged.— Woods, Penn. to Kf. Swj 
8-^19^ high. Caaline leaflets 1—2' long, 2—3" wide. Corymb with about 9 
pale pniple flowers. Jn. 

18. H£SP£RIS. 

Or, ioiesptSf eveninff: when the flower u most fiagrant 

Calyx closed, fnrrowed at base, shorter than tho^lawsof thepetibi 
petals bent obliquely, linear or obovate ; siliqne 4-Bided, 2-edged or 
subterete ; seeds not margined ; stigmas forked, with the apices ooo- 

1. H. MATRONlLis. Rocket. 

St. simple, erect; Ivs. lanceolate, ovate, denticulate; pet. cmarpM^ 
mneronate ; pedicels as longas the calyx. — ^A fine warden perennial, said to » 
found native about Lake ^uron. Stem 3 — 4f high. Flowers purple, »» 
double, and white in p. hortensis. -f* 

9. H. AFRICA. Siberian Rocket. — St. erect, simple, pubescent; Ivs, obl«ft 
obtuse, entire, ciliat^ispid ; pedicels as long as the calyx. — %. From Sibct* 
Stem a foot high. Flowers purple. May. Jn. f 

19. SISYMBRIUM. AUioni. 
^ Calyx mostly spreading, eqnal at base ; petals unguicniate, entire; 
siliqne subterete ; valves concave ; stylo very short ; seeds in » »* 
glo series, ovoid ; cotyledons Oj|, sometimes oblique. 

1. S. oppiciNALE. Scop. (Erj'simum. Linn.) Hcdsrc Mitsiard. 

Ijcs. runcinate ; rac. slender, virgate ; silignes subulate, erect, closely aP- 
pressed to the rachis. — (X) A common and troublesome weed, in fields, ro»»' 
sides, rubbish, &c., Can. and U. S. Stem 1— 5f high, round, more or lesshaJfJ; 
with spreading branches. Lower leaves 3—8' by 1—3', the lower segin»» 
placed at right angles to the midvein, or pointing backwards, the terminalKJ* 

QBBUimros. ZSSL C^UCIFER^. tet 

laigcBL Upper leaves in 3 laaceolaie segmenits placed at riffht angles. 
Fbven small, yellow, terminatiiig the raceme, which becomes 1— 3f long aod 
aviraned by the appressed, sessile pods. Jn.--Sept. Medicinal. ( 

S. & Thaliaka. Gay. (Arabis. Linn,) Thaiian Bedge Mustard, 
Lcs, snbdentate and pilose, radical oTies numerous and petiolate, oblong, 
SM^MK ones lanceolate ; col. much shorter than the pedicels ; sUiques ascending, 
vice longer than the pedicels.—-® Rocks and sandy fields, Vt to 6a. W. to 
Ky. Stem 4—19' high, erect, wim slender, erect branches, striate, pilose, often 
pvple at base. Root leaves rosulate, 1 — ^ long : cauline denticulate, ciliate, 
Ksole, ^—12" by 1 — 3". Pedicels spreading, 3 — 5" long. Flowers small, 
white. Siliques slender, straight, 7—10" long. Styles scarcely any. May. 

3. S. TEKES. T. &» G. (Cardamine. Michx.) 

SL erect, branched; Ivs. all somewhat lyrately pinnatifid; siUques short, 
linear, acuminate, on very short peduncles ; ll.~-(D Shores of Lake Cham- 
plain, Vt. Plant about 8' high, slightly scabrous with very short hairs. Sili- 
^es erect, terete, 4" in length, beaked with the short, slender style. Seeds 00. 

4. S. GANESCKNS. Nutt 

Lvs, bipinnately divided, canescentf lobes oblong or lanceolate, subden- 
tale or obtuse; pet. about equaling the calyx; siliques oblong-linear, shorter 
than the pedicels.— <D Arctic Sea to Flor. Plant 1— 2f high, often nearlr 
smooth. Leaves about 3' long, sessile, segments 5—7 pairs, finely (Uvided. 
Fls. verysmaU. Siliques often erect, on spreading pedicels, variable. 

Cfr, tpwj to eate ; fiom its •alutaiy medfeinal piopertiM. 

Caljx dosed ; siliques oolmnnar, 4-sided ; stigma capitate ; seeds 
in a smgle series ; oatyledous oblong, 0]. 


Pudtscence minute, amn^ssed, branched ; hjs. lanceolate, denticulate or 
entile; aU^m erect, spreatung, twice longer than the pedicels; sHg, smaU, 
neaibf aeS^le.— <D By streams and in wet grounds, U. S. and Can,, not con^ 
mem. Stem erect, 1 — ^Sf high, often branched, and, with the leaves, scabrous. 
Leaves acute at each end, 1 — 2f long, i as wide. Flowers small, yellow, in 
kng racemes. Siliques I' to near 1' in length, linear, and somewhat spread- 
ing. JL 

SL £. AsLKXHBkHvu, Nutt Yellow Phlox. False Wall-Flower. 

SeabcQus, with an ajppressed pubescence ; si. simple ; lvs. linear-lanceo- 
late, remotely dentate, sessile, lower ones runcinate-tootned ; infloresccTue race- 
mose, corjrmbed at summit ; siliques long, 4-angled, suberect ; sHg. capitate.—- 
A A fine plant with large, showy flowers, resembling the wall-flower. Banks 
ff Scioto, SuUicaiU. Arkansas, NuttaU, Bluffs of the Wabash! Wood, 111. 
Mkadl Stem 1 — 3f high, slender. Leaves 3—3' by 3— 6^'. Sepals straw-color. 
Petab large, bright orange-yellow. Siliques 3' long. Jn. Jl. 


Axabtc fcteyry, Uie name of a certain plaot, aad Gr. av^ot^ flower. 

Calyx elosed, 2 of the sepals gibbous at base ; petals dilated ; 
nli^e terete or compressed ; stigma 2-lobed ^ capitate ; seeds flat, 
m a single series, often margined, O^^. 

1. C. BEBPERinolDES. T. &• G. (Hespcris pinnatifida. Michx.) 
Glabrous ; Imper lvs. lyrate-pinnatifid, upper lanceolate, attenuate at base, 
unequally and sharply serrate-dentate, acuminate; pedicels ^s long as the calyx; 
fet. obovate-spatulate, obtuse; silique terete; stig. capitate; sds. margined.— 
% Penn. to m. t S. to Aric. Stem slender, furrowed, 3— 3f high. Leaves thin. 
3--^ long, k as wide, those of the stem scarcely petiolate. Racemes tenninal 
and aziUary. Calyx riiorter than the claws of the violet-colored petals. Siliques 
toniloae, 15— SO" long; seeds ol^ng, plano-convex, with a nazx0w border. 

170 Xm. CRUCIFERiB. Ssaurm. 

3. C. Cheiri. — WaU-Ftaiber. — fi!^. somewhat shrubby and decumbent at btse; 
Ivs, entire or slightly dentate, lanceolate, acute, smooth; brancka angular; ptL 
oborate; siUqiies erect, acuminate. — % From S. Europe. A popular garaen 
flower, admired for its agreeable odor and its handsome corym.D06e clusters of 
orange or yellow flowers. Plant 1 — ^2f high. Jn. 

22. MATTHIOLA. R. Br. 
In honor of P. A. Mottliioli, physician to Ferdinand of Aurtria, and botanic aathar. 

Calyx closed, 2 of the sepals gibbous at base; petals dilated; 
siliques terete ; stigmas conniyent, thickened or comute at the back. — 
Herbaceous or shrubby, oriental plants, clothed with a hoary, siellaie 

1. M. ANNUus. R. Br. (Cheiranthus. Lvmi.^ Tenr^weeks Stock. — St. herba- 
ceous, erect, branched; Ivs. hoary-canescent, lanceolate, obtuse, subdentate; 
sUique subcylindrical, without glands. — (D A flne garden flower from S. Earope. 
Stem 2f high, and, with the leaves, covered with a soft, stellate pubescence. 
Flowers variegated. . Jn. f • 

2. M. INCANX7S. R. Br. (Cheiranthus. ZAnn.) Purple July Ftower. — St. 
shrubby at base, erect, branched; Ivs. lanceolate, entire, hoary-canescent; 
siliques subcylindrical, truncate and compressed at apex^ without glands. — ^ 
One of the most popular flowers of the genus, native of England, &c. Stem 
2f high. Flowers purple. — Several varieties are enumerated, as the D<Mible- 
flowered, Brompton Stock, and Brompton Gtueen. Jn. -f- 

3. M. R. Br. (Cheiranthus. Linn.'\ Window July JFSower.— 
St. sufliTiticose, erect, simple; Ivs. crowded, recurvea, undulate, downy; siUques 
downy, without glands, broadest at base. — From S. Europe. Plant If h^ 
Flowers numerous, large, purple. Jl. Aug. f 

4. M. Grjbgus. R. Br. (Cheiranthus. JUnn.) Cfreeian Stocks — sar. heite- 
ceous, erect, branched ; Ivs. lanceolate, glabrous ; silioues somewhat compreaed, 
without glands.^KS) From Greece. Plant about If high, distinguished from 
the remainder of t^ genus by its smooth foliage. Flowers white, appearing 
all summer, f 


Sepals equal at base, spreading ; petals ovate, with straight daws; 
siliques subterete ; valves veined ; style short and subulate, or enai- 
form ; seeds in a single series, subglobose, ». — Fls. always yellov. 

1. S. NiORA. Black Mustard. 

Lower Ivs. lyrate, upper linear-lanceolate, entire, smooth ; sUique smooih, 
somewhat 4-angled, appressed to the rachis of the raceme.— (D In cultivated 
groimds and waste places. Stem 3 — 6f high, round, smooth, striate, branching. 
Leaves all petiolate, lower ones variously lobed and dentate, upper ones pen- 
dulous and entire. Sepals and petals sulphur-yellow. Pods very numeroos, 
nearly 1' long, beaked with the 4-sided styles. Seeds 00, small, globose, neaiij 
black, well known as a condiment. Jn. Jl. t$ 

2. S. ARVENsis. , JBmld Mustard. 

St. and Ivs. hairy; silique smooth, many-angled, torose, about 3 tinwa 
longer than the slender, ancipital style.— Naturalized in N. Y., T. 4- G^ 
and. in Vt., Dr. Robbi^ns. Lower leaves large, sublyrate-pinnalifid, upper ones 
oblong-ovate, all repand-toothed. Silique somewhat spreading, \\' long. Seeds 
large and black. Jn. — Aug. ^ 

3. S. ALBA. White Mustard.— I/DS. lyrate, smoothish ; siliques hispid, torose, 
shorter than the ensiform beak ; sds. large, pale yellow.-HD Native of Europe. 
8t^ 2 — 6f high, thinly hirsute. Leaves all lyrately pinnate, dentate, petiolate. 
Siliques spreading, about 4-seeded. The seeds are used for about the 
purposes as those of S. nigra, much esteemed in medicine. Jn. Jl. J 

aiAtNus. Xm. CRUCIFERiE. m 

Cehie, tretiCt the esbbace. 

Sepals equal at base, (mostly) erect ; petals oborate ; filaments 
without ieeUi ; silique subcompressed, valves concave, with a central 
?ein ; style short, subterete, obtuse ; seeds globose, in a single (often 
doable) rowj 0». — Fis. ydUm. 

1. B. CAM7E3TRIS. Colc. 

Lvs. somewhat fleshy and glaucous, the hwer ]3rTate-dentate, subciliate. 
tipper ones cordate-amplexicaul, acuminate. — (D Native of Sweden, naturalizea 
in cultivated fields and waste places. Stem 1) — 3f high, round, smooth ahove, 
with a few scattered, reversed hairs below. Lower leaves 3 — T long, i as 
wide, the terminal lobe ^atly exceeding the lateral ones ; upper smaller, en- 
tire, with rounded, clasping lobes at base, tapering to an obtuse point. Racemes 
1— 2f long. Sepals erect, spreading. Corolla yellow, 4 — 5" diam. Siliquea 
l^ long, with the style |'. Seeds small, dark brown. Jn. JL ^ 

fi. RiUabaga. ^Swedish T\i,mip.)—Rt, tumid, napiform, sufa^lobose, yellow- 
ish.— Cultivated like the common turnip; but after a thorough experiment it is 
conceded by farmers to be inferior in value to that root, although it grows to 
an enormous size. ^ 

S. B. Rapa. — Radical lvs, lyrate, rough, not glaucous, cavUne ones incised, 
tipper entire, smooth. X 

fi. depressa. (^Common Turnip!) — Rt. depressed-globose or napiform, con- 
tracted below into a slender radicle.—® Long cultivated for the table, &c., in 
eaidens and fields. Stem 2 — 4f high, and, with the leaves, deep green. Upper 
leares amplexicaul. Pods I' long. Seeds small, reddish-brown. Jn. X 

3. B. OLSRACEA. {CaJtha^e.)^^Ijr}s. very smooth and glaucous, fleshy, repand- 
toothed or lobed. — @ Native of Europe, where it grows on rocky snores and 
difls, with no appearance of a head, forming a surprising contrast with the cul- 
tivated varieties. The excellence of the cabbage as a pot-herb needs no en- 

d. h^^HoUk, {Savoy Cabbage.) — L/os. curled, subcapitate when young, finally 

Y' dotr^is-cauUJlora. (^Ca/uUflotcer.) — SL low; hds, thick, compact, terminal; 
/Is, abortive, on short, fleshy peduncles. J 

i. boirytts-atparagoides. (^Broccoli.) — St. taller ; hds. subramose ; branches fleshy 
at the summit, consisting of clusters of abortive flower-buds. J 

<. capUaia, (Head Oiobage. York Cabbage.^ — St. short ; lvs, concave, packed 
in a dense head before flowering; roc. paniculate. ^ 

Section 3.— LOMBHTACEf. 

25. CAKlLE. 
Silicle 2-jointed, the upper part ovate or ensiform ; seed in the up- 
per cell erect, in the lower pendulous, sometimes abortive. — Mari' 
Hme herbs, 

C. MARiTiMA. Scop. (Bunias edentula. Ri^-) Sea Rocket. 

Upper joint of the silicle ensiform or ovate-ensiform. — Native of the sea* 
coast! and of the lake shores of N. Y. A smooth, succulent plant, branching 
tad procumbent, 6 — IS' long. Leaves sinuate-dentate, oblong-ensiform, cadu- 
cous. Flowers on short, fleshy peduncles, in terminal spikes or racemes, co- 
lymbosely arranged. Petals purple, obtuse at end. Silicle smooth, roundish, 
lower joint clavate-obovate upper with one elevated line on each side. Jl. Aug. 


Gr. pa, quickly, ^aiyo), to appear fhnn its rapid rrowth 

Calyx erect; petals obovate, unguiculate; siliques terete, torose, 
not opening by valves, transversely jointed or divided into cells ; 
Meds large, subglobose, in a single scries^ >>. 


1. R. Raphanistrum. Wild Radiih* 
I/vs. lyrate ; silique terete, jointed, smooth, becoming in maturity 1-celled, 
longer than the style.---(D Naturalized in cultivated fields and by road-sidieBi 
bat rare. Stem glaucous, branching, 1 — 2f high, bristly. Leaves rough, de&> 
tate, petiolate or sessile. Calyx bristly. Pods yellow, blanching as they d»- 
cay. Jn. Jl. ( 

2, R. SATlVA. Garden Radish. — Lower Im. l^ate, petiolate; silique toRM, 
terete, acuminate, scarcely longer than the pedicels.~^ A welT-kiiown salad 
root, from China. Stem 2 — 4f high, very branching. Lower leaves 6 — W loog. 
Flowers white or tinged with purple, rods 1 — ^ long, thick and fleshy. Tm 
principal varieties are the twniip radish^ root subglobose; common, radisk^iOfA 
oblong, terete ; black Spanish radish, root black outside. Jn. Aug. ^ 

Order XIV. CAPPARIDACE^.— Capparids. 

Varte. cArifdfl or even free*, destitnte of true stipules. 

Ltm. alternate, petiolate, either undivided or palxnately divided. 

fU. aolitary or racemoce. Sep. 4. 

09r.— Petals 4, cruciate, unguieulate, hrpogynoos, more or less tinequaL 

BUL 6—13, or some multiple of four, almost perigynous. 

Tonu small, often elon^ted, bearing a sine le gland. 

Otm. often stlpitate. of 3 united carpels. Sty. united into one. Stig- disooid. 

fV. either pod-shaped, and dchisoent, or fleshy and indehisoent. Placenta usuaHj % 

Bda. many, reniform. Albuimn 0. anbfyo curved. Cotyl. foUaceous. 

Genem 98, species 840,— chiefly tropical plants. They are more acrid in their propertiea tban Oe On- 
eiftra, but otherwise much resemble them. One species of Polanisia is used as a venniAigew 

Conspechts of the Genera. 

c stamens 8 . CteoiML t 

Tora win irtw { Stamens %—iSL PotanMo. 1 

Torai linear and eloncated like a stipe. Stamens 6 (^uuMiiufili L 


OynanSriat a Lionean dan, orpit^ appearance. 

SepalB distinct, spreading ; petals 4 ; stamens 6, the filaments ad- 
nate oelow to the linear^ elongated torus its whole length ; pod linear 
oblong, raised on a long stipe, which rises from the top of the toraa 
— (D Jjvs. digitate, Fls. racemed. 

Q. PENTAPHTLLA. DC. (Cleomc. Linn.^ 

Middle Ivs. petiolate, 5-foliate, fioral ana lower ones 3-foliale ; Ifls. ooo- 
rate, entire or denticulate. — ^In cultivated grounds, Penn., &c. Stem simple, 
S^— 3f high. Flowers of a very singular structure. Pedicels about 1' lone, 
slender. Caljrx small. Petals white, i as lonft as their filiform claws. Sta- 
mens 1' long, spreading, apparently arisiiig from the midst of the long stjrioid 
torus. Pod 2f long. ^ 

Sepals sometimes united at base ; petals 4 ; toms minnte or round- 
ish ; stamens 6 — 4 ; pod subsessile or stipitate. — Herbs or shrubs. Lvs- 
simple or digitate. Fls. racemed or solitary. 

C. PUNGENs. Spidencort. — Glandular-pubescent ; st. simple, and with the peti- 
oles, aculeate; lvs. 5 — ^9-foliate, on long petioles; Z/25. elliptic-lanceolate, acoK 
at each end, obscurely denticulate; bracts simple; fis. racemed; sep. distinct; 
pet. on filiform claws ; sta. 6, twice longer than the petals. — A conmum ga^ 
den plant, with curious purple flowers. Stem 3— 4f nigh. Jl. Aug.f 


Sepals distinct, spreading ; petals 4, unequal ; stamens 8—32 ; fill* 
ments filiform or dilated at the summit, torus minute ; pods linear." 
(!) Strong-scented herbs. 


P. auAYK&LVSB. Raf. (Cleome dodecandria. Mickz,) 
Yiscid-pubeflcent ; Ivs, teniate ; Ifts, elliptic-oblong ; fts. axillary, solitary ; 
jte. 8 — IS ; capsule oblong, lanceolate, attennate at base.— A strong-scented plant, 
loond on erayely shores 1 Vt to Ark. Stem If high, branching, striate. Leaf- 
letB 1-^1 1' long, k as wide, nearly entire and sessile ; common petiole 1' long, 
flowers in. tenninal racemes. Petals yellowish-white, narrowed below into 
long daws. Filaments slender, exserted. Pods 2f long, glandular-pubescent, 
ailiqaose, Yiscid like every other part of the plant Jl. 

Order XV. RESEDACE.«L— Mionionettes. 

Jitrit vith aftaniate, entire or pinnate leaves, fif^. minote, cland*Iike. 

fb. in racemes or ipikei, nnall and often fiagrant. 

CU.— Sepak aomewhat united at baae, unequal, gieen. 

C^.— PMali laeeialed, unei^aaL 

fita. S-tt. inaerted on the disk. Tcrtu hjpogjpam, one-aided, glandular. 

Oea. warilr. 3-lobed, 1-ceIIed, awny-seeded. PiaeaUtt 8, parietal. 

St. a apaaWt 1-eelled, openinc bet%reen the ■tigma« befiirs maturity. 

Clneia •, species 41, inbabitinf the conntries around the MeditenanAn Sea, haTinf no Tory remaikabla 
pnpertiBs. ReMdaLuieolaoontainfl a yellow coloring matter, and other spedes are veiyfiacrant 

Lat retedOt to calm ; the plants are said toreUeTe pain. 

Sepals many, petals of an equal number, each bearing one or more 
stamens ; torus large, fleshy, bearing the ovary, with several stamens 
and styles. 

1. R. LuTEOLA. Dyer's Weed. 

Ia>s. lanceolate, entire, with a tooth on each side at base \cal. 4-cleft. — 
Nearly naturalized in Western N. Y. Stem about 2f high. The flowers are 
without petals, arranged in a long spike, which, as Linnseus observes, follows 
the coarse of the sun, inclining east, south and west by day, and north by 
night. — ^It affords a useful yellow dye, also the paint called Dutch-pink. ( 

2. R. ODORATA. Mignionette, — L/vs. entire, 3-lobed ; .tfp. shorter than the pe- 
tals. — A well known and universal favorite of the gajKlen, native of Egypt, 
The flowers are highly fragrant and no boquet should be considered complete 
without them. The Y^iiety fnUescens is bv a peculiar training raised to the 
height of 3 feet with the form of a tree. Tne species pkyteuma^ native of Pales- 
tine, has a calyx longer than the petals. 

Order XVI. POLYGALACEiE.— Milkworts. 

¥Umu herinoeoos or shmbby, sometimes twining. 

Lm. altensate, or rarelr opposite, mostly Rimple, always without stipules. 

fb. perfect, nnsymmetncal Pedicela with 3 bracts. 

Ost— Sepals i, very irregular, 3 exterior, 2 interior (wings) larger and petaloid. , ^ , ^ ^ 

Gsr.— Petals 8, hypogrnous. the anterior (keel) larger than the othen. [the elaws of the petals 

Sml— e— e. JtL emnoined in a tube which is split on the upper side, and ooherent to some extent with 

OMl superior, compreaaed, 9-eeUed, <»ie cell often abortive. Sty. curved and often cucullate. 

iV. loeuicidal or indehiacent. Sdt. pendulous. 

Geaeia 19, species 4S6, very equally distributed, each division of the globe having two or three geneva 
reeoliar to iL The properties of the Poiygalocen have not been well determined. Some of the genera 
possess a bitter matter and a milky juice which is emetic, expectorant and diuretic. Pdygala is the only 
northera genus. 

6r. iroXo, moeh, Y''^^'^i milk, said to &vor the lacteal secretions of animals. 

Sepals 5, persistent, 2 of them wing-shaped and petaloid ; petals 

3, cohering by their claws to the filaments, lower one carinate ; cap* 

snle obcordate, 2-celled, 2-valyed, 2-seeded ; seeds camnculate. — The 

2V. American species herbaceous. JLower petizl (keel) mostly tipped wUh 


♦ Spikes omaU^ globose or oblong^ dense^ obPuse. 

1. P. SANGViNEA. (P. puipurea. NuU.) Caducous Poiy^ala. 

St. branching at top ; Ivs. Linear, alternate ; fis, beardless, m alternate, ob- 

174 XVI. POLYQALACEJS. Poltoala. 

long spikes; calycine mngs obovate.— (D An erect plant, 6—19' lugli, fimnd in 
meadows and wet groancu, Mass. to La., and known at by ito short, led- 
dish, cylindric spike of flowers. Stem angular, with fiistigiate bcancbes^ each 
ending in a smailer spike than that of the main stem, but riaing abore it ia 
height Flowers purple, caducous. Jl. — Oct. 

9. P. NuTTALLii. T. & G. (P. sanguinea. NuU.) NrMaWs PoUfgtiA. 

St. erect, somewhat fastigiate; Ivs. linear; spikes rather looee, OToi<£glo- 
bose ; calyci'M wings elliptic-obovate, attenuate at base, twice longer than the 
fruit; crest minute. — (D Martha's Vineyard, Oakes. R. I. Olneyito La. Stem 
6—10' high. Leaves 6—8'' by 1—2", acute. Spikes 6—10" long, 4—6" diasL 
Wings of the calyx rose-red. Seeds black. Aug. 

3. P. CRUCiATA. Cro5s4eaved Pdygtda. 

Si. erect, somewhat fastigiate, wijQged at the angles; los, verticillate In 
4s, linear>oblong, punctate, spikes ovate, dense, obtuse, sessile or nearly so: 
crest minute. — (£) In sphagnous swamps and other low grounds. Stem 3 — 17 
high, very slender, smooth, slightly winged at the 4 angles. Leaves 9-^10^ or 
more long, 1 — ^* wide (upper ones the largest), obtuse, tapering to the base, 
with small, resinous dots. Spikes capitate, about the size of the last Wingi 
of calyx greenish-purple, much dilated at apex. Aug.' 

4. P. LUTEA. Yellow Polygala. 

St. simple or branching ; root Ivs. spatulate, obtuse, attenuate at tee, 
cavUne ones lanceolate, acute; roc. ovate, obtuse, dense ; ^. pedicellate; wh^ 
ovate, mucronate ; keel with a minute crest. — (g) Sandy plains, N. J. to Flor. 
Stem 8 — IS' high, generally with a few long spreading Inranches. Flowers 
bright yellow, longer than the bracts. Style dilated in Sie middle and "with a 
stipitate gland. Jn. — Oct. 

5. P. iNCARNATA. FUsh-coiored MUktoort. 

Glaucous; St. erect, slender, mostly simple; Ivs. few, scattered, linear- 
subulate; j^e oblong, terminal ; t^nVi^^ lanceolate, cuspidate ; claws of tkepddi 
united into a long, cleft tube.— <J) Dry soils N. J. to Flor. W. to Ark. Stem 
I — ^2fhigh. Leaves 4 — 6" long, remote. Spikes 1 — 1|' long. Flowers pale 
rose-color or flesh-color. The slender corolla tube nearly twice as long as the 
wings, the keel with a conspicuous crest Jn. JL 

• ♦ Spikes elongated or racemose, 

6. P. VERTiciLLATA. WhorUlcaved Polygala. 

St. branched, erect ; Ivs. linear, verticillate ; spikes linear, stalked ; jU, 
alternate, crested ; calycine wings roundish. — (J) Found on dry hills, U. S. and 
Can. Stem very slender, square, 6—8' high. Leaves in whorls ol 5 or 6, 
4 — 10" long, 1" wide, alternate on the branches. Flowers small, greenish- 
white, in very slender racemes 5 — 10" long, which are higher upon tiie brandies 
than upon the main stem. Jl. — Oct. 

7. P. AMBiouA. Nutt. Dubious Polygala. 

St. erect, with virgate branches ; Ivs. linear, laiccr ones verticillate, ^ffer 
alternate : spikes dense, on long peduncles ; calycine tcings roundish.— -<J) Dnr 
fields and woods, Mass. to Va. Stem 9--15' high, angular, smooth, much 
branched. Leaves sessile, tapering to the base, 4 — 10" by 1". Racemes spicate, 
acute, about 1' long, 30 — 30-flowered, on peduncles IJ— 2j' long. Flowers 
small, greenish- white, tinged with purple. JI. — Nearly allied to P. verticiUaia. 

8. P. Senega. Seneca Snake-root. 

St. erect, smooth, simple, leafy ; Ivs. alternate, lanceolate, tapering at 
each end; yZs. slightly crested, in a terminal, spike-form, slender raceme. — % 
Woods, Western States, rare in Eastern. Root ligneous, branched, ccmtoited, 
about \' thick, ash-colored. Stems 8 — 14' high, several from the same root 
Leaves 1-^' long, k as wide, numerous, scattered. Flowers white, in a filiform 
spike 1 — 3' long. Sepals obtuse, larger than the petals. The root has a sweet- 
ish, nauseous taste, soon becoming pungent and hot. Jl. — A valuable stimu- 
lating expectorant 

9. P. poLTOAMA. Walt. (P. rubella. WiUd.) Bitter Polygala. 

Sts, simple, numerous; Ivs. linear, oblong, mucronate, alternate below| 

ViOLk. XVn. VIOLACEiB. 175 

roe. teiminai and lateral; JU. sessile, those of the stem winged, those of the root 
apterous. — % Fields and pastures, Can. to Flor. and La. Stems crowded, 
laany from the same root, angular, smooth. Leaves smooth, lower obovate, 
upper linear-lanceolate, obtuse, sessile. Flowers, crested, purple, smaller than 
the lasL Wings of the calyx obtuse. Anthers 8, in 2 equal parcels. Bracts 
small, subulate, caducous. Terminal racemes with perfect flowei-s, radical 
racemes prostrate or subterraneous, wingless and nearly apetalous. Jn. Jl.~ 
Bitter and tonic. 

♦ ♦ • Flowers large ^ few, 

10. P. PAUCiFOLU. Fringed Polygala. 

Si. simple, erect, naked below ; Ivs. ovate, acute, smooth ; temUfuU JU. 
large, crested, radical ones apterous. — % A small, handsome plant, with a iew 
rather large puiple flowers. Woods and swamps, Brit. Am. to Ga. Stems 
3—4' high, with its acute leaves mostly near the top, 2 — i flowers above them. 
CaljTX of 5 leaves, the upper one gibbous at base. Corolla mostly purple, with 
a purplish crest on its middle lobe. The radical flowers are either close to the 
ground or subterraneous, smaller, greenish, wanting the wings oi the calyx. May. 

Order XVII. YIOLACE^.— VioLEra 


Lm. wmvkt, AJiernate, ■ome times <m>o>ito, stipulate, iDvoIitte in Teniattoo. 

CW.— Sepui 6, peniatcDt, litghtly united, elongated at base, the 8 lateral intarioK 

Gor.— Pelab S, ooauDonly unequal, ttae inferior usually spurred at base. 

fits, t, asusllr inserted on the hjrpocynous disk. FU. dilated, prolonged beyond the anth. 

Owl of s united carpels, with 3 parietal placentaa. Sty- 1. deielinate. Sti^. cucullate. 

Fr. a3>faNed oapauk. Sds. many, with a crustaceous testa snd distinct '•V'lf 

Oenefaii, spedea 300, mostly inhabitants of the Northern Temperate Zone. The roots of almost all 
the VMfaoea poasess emetic pn^>erties, and some are valued in medicine. Tl 

,- *. - . ' The Ipecac of tho shops ia 

partly the product of certain Bnuulian species of lonidium. Seveial species of the violet are cultivated 
nr the bewaty of their flowen. Of the 4 genera found in North America, only 2 are found in the Northern 


_ ^ . . jorleosaoiicledatbaM viola. 1 

Sepals neanyeqMl,BOtauiieled at baae. Soloa. a 

1. VIOLA. 
Sepals 5, oblong, acute, equal, anricnlar at base ; petals 5, irregular, 
ihe npper one (lower by resupination) broadest, spurred at base, the 
2 lateral equal, opposite ; stamens approximate ; anthers connate, the 
lobes diverging at base; capsule 1 -celled, 3-valyed, seeds attached to 
the yalyes. — % Low herbcuxous plants, ocaiUesceTU or caulesceni. Pe- 
duncles angular J solitary, I -flower ed, recu/rved at the summit so as tobea/^ 
the flowers in a resupinate position. 

• AcauiescerU, Fiawers M/ue. 

1. V. Selkirkii. Goldie. SeUnrk's Violet. 

Lcs. cordate, crenately serrate, minutely hirsute aboire, smooth beneath ; 
the sinus deep and nearly closed ; stig. triangular, margined, distinctly beaked ; 
spur nearly as long as the lamina, thick, very obtuse. — Grows on woody hills 
and momitains, Mass., N. Y., Can. A small, stemless riolet, with small pale 
Une flowers conspicuously spurred. The radical, heart-shaped leaves are 
rather numerous and longer than the peduncles. The lateral petals bearded, 
and with the upper one striate with deep blue. 

2. V. cucdllIta. Ait. (V. affinis. £#<? CorUe.^ Hood4eaved Violet. 
Smooth, sometimes more or less pubescent ; Ivs. cordate, cucullate at 

base^^renate; stip. linear; inferior and lateral petals bearded. — This is one of 
the more common kinds of violet, found in low, grassy woods, from Arctic Am. 
to Flor. Leaves on long petioles, heart-shaped, remarkably rolled at the base 
.into a hooded form. The late leaves are crenate-reniform. Flowers light blue 
or purple, with scapes somewhat 4-8ided, longer than the leaves. Petals twisted| 

178 XYU. VIOLAC&fi. YiouL 

yeiny, entire, vhite at the base, the lateral and upper ones mailced wiHi a few 
blue striae. Very variable in respect to pubescence. May. 

0. saroruL T. & G. (V. sorona. WiUd.) Nearly smooth; tos. exactly cor- 
date ; jUs. small. 

J^ reniformis. Pubescent ; Ivs. broadly reniiorm. 
. alba. T. & Q. Nearly smooth ; Jls. white.— R. I. Olneyl 

8. v. BAOiTTlTA. Ait. Arrovhleaved VioUt. 

Jjcs, oblong-lanceolate, sagittate-cordate, subacute, often incisely dentate 
at base, serrate-crenate, smooth or slightly pubescent: md. longer than the 
leaves ; lower and I^tteral pet. densely bearded. — On dry nills, Can. to Flor. W. 
to Ark. Leaves varying from oblong-sagittate to triangular-hastate, on mar- 
fldned petioles, acute or not. Scapes 3-> 5' long. Sepals lanceolate, acateL 
Petals entire, veiny, purplish-blue, white at base. Stigma rostrate, mar^^ined. 
Apr. — ^Jn. 

4. V. ovATA. Nutt. OvaU4eaved Violet. 

Los. ovate, crenate, ciliate, abruptly decurrent on the short petiole, pa> 
bescent; lateral pet. bearded ; stig. a little rostrate. — On dry hills, N. J. Jjexra 
many, mostly hairy on both sides^ sometimes nearly smooth, | as wide as long, 
acute or not, upper ones often lacmiate-dentate at Uise. Sepals ciliate, oblong 
ovate, deeply emarginate behind. Petals entire, veiny, pale>nurple, obovale, 
the lateral ones with dense white beard. Spur broad. Apr. May. 

5. V. PALMATA. Palniated Violet. 

Pubescent ; Ivs. cordate, lobed in a hastate or palmate manner, the lobes 
crenate and toothed, the middle one much the largest; lateral pet. bearded. — b 
upland pastures, Can to Ark. Stem 3--6' high. Root-stock scaly. Petioles 
hairy. The earlv leaves are ovate, entire, the later and perfect are often purpk 
beneath, variously lobed and deft, the middle lobe ^ways the largest and 
longest, with 2 or 3 each side. Peduncle sub-4-angled, S--^ long. Sdpoki 
lanceolate. Petals purple, entire, veiny, white at the base, upper ones smaller, 
lateral ones densely bearded, and marked with blue stris. May. 

6. V. PEDATA. Pedale Violet. 

Nearly glabrous; rt. premorse ; Ivs. pedate, 5— 9-parted, segments liaea^ 
lanceolate, mostly entire ; stig. large, obliquely truncate ; beak obscore. — Diy 
woods and pastures, Can. to III. and to Flor. Rhizoma fleshv, ending abrapdf 
as if cut or oitten off. Leaves thick, divided into about 7 obtuse, narrow se^ 
meats. Petioles with long, ciliate stipules at base. Peduncles 8ub-4-angled, 
much longer than the leaves. Petals pale blue, white at base, all of then 
beardless and entire. Apr. May. 

7. V. DELPHiNiPOLiA. Nutt. LarkspUT-leoved Vtdet. 

Nearly glabrous ; Ivs. pedate, 7 — ^9-parted, with linear 3— 3-cleft s^gmenH; 
stig. thick, distinctly beaked; 2 upper petals pubescent, 3 loioer emareinafie; 
tpuT. saccate, short. — % Prairies and bottoms. 111. I and Mo. Root thick. Leaves 
often finely divided with many dissected segments. Stipules acuminate, sab> 
entire. Peduncles a little longer than the leaves. Flowers rather smaller thaa 
iU the last, of a rich blue. Mar. Ap. 

6. y. PALU8TRI8. Mountain Violet. 

Idos. reniform-cordate ; sUp. broadly ovate, acuminate ; sUg. margined; 
sepals ovate, obtuse ; cavs. oblong-triangular; sds. ovate, dark green. — Summitt 
Ql the White Mts. About 3' high, pubescent. Leaves crenate, 1' by f . 
Flowers small, pale blue, on peduncles longer than the leaves and bibracteale 
near the middle. Rhizoma creeping, scaly. Jn. 

9. y. ODORlTA. Buiett or English Violet.— -Stolons creeping; Ivs. cordate 
crenate, nearly smooth; sep. obtuse ; lateral pet. with a hairy line. — ^Native at 
England. It is well characterized by its long, trailing, lea^ runners. The 
leaves are truly heart-shaped. Stipules lanceolate, toothed. Peduncles longer 
than the leaves, bracted. Flowers small, fragrant.— Several garden varieties 
are known, distinguished by the form and color of the flowers ; viz. the purple, 
white, ana blue flowered, the double white, double purple, and doabk Olae* 
flowered, and the Neapolitan with pale blue flowers. Apr. May. f 

VteA. XVH. VIOLAORfi. 1^ 

* * AeoukteetU, FVfwen vkUe, 

10. V. BLANDA. Willd. (V. clandestina. Ph. V. amcena. Le Conte.) 
Bland or Sweet-scented Violet, 

Lot, cordate, slightlrpabescent ; petwle pubescent; /s. white. — ^Fonndin 
meadowB, Can. to Penn. Tne rhizoma is slender and creeping. Leaves close 
*b the earth, nearly roond, cordate or ovate, and sometimes with a ronnded 
anus so as to appear reniform. Petioles half round. Pednncles sab-4-8ided, 
longer than the leaves. Petals white, greenish at base, upper and lateral ones 
Bimed with a few blue lines, generally beardless. Fls. small, fragrant May. 

11. V. lanceobAta. Lance-leaved Violet. 

Lcs. smooth, lanceolate, narrowed at base into the petiofe, obtnsish, snb- 
ocnate. Found in wet meadows, Can. to Tex. Rhizoma creeping. Leaves 
Tciy narrow, and, with the stalk, 3^5' long. Petioles half ronnd. Peduncles 
salh4-sided. Petals white, greenish at base, upper and lateral ones marked 
with blue liikes, generally beardless. Flowers small* May. 

I5L V^ FRUtfULfPOLiA. Primrose Violet. ■ 

Los. lance-ovate, abruptly decurrent at base; bracts lance-linear; pet. 
acute, nearly equal, beardless. — Found in damp soils, Mass. to Ky. Rhizoma 
creeping. L^eaves sometimes subcordate, rather obtuse, mostly smooth, longer 
than their stalks. Petals obovate, acute, flat, marked with purple lines at base, 
generally beardless, as long as the bracts. Flowers small, white, on sub-4-sided 
itaikB. May, in N. Eng. 

0. acuta. T. A Q. (V. acuta. A^.)— Smooth ; Ivs. ovate; pet. aente, lateral 
ones nearly beardless. Mass. 

*** AcaulescerU. Flowers yeUow. 

13. V. ROTUNDiPOLiA. Michx. RouTuUeaved Violet. 

Lvs. orbicular-ovate, cordate, slightly serrate, nearly smooth, with the 
sinus closed ; petiole pubescent ; col. obtuse. -A small yellow violet, found in 
woods, N. l^g. to Tenn. Leaves nearly round, with a deep, narrow sinus at 
base, obscurely and remotely serrated. Veins and petioles pubescent Pedun- 
cles as long as the claws, sub-4-sided, bracted in the middle. Petals yellow, 
marked at base with brown lines. Flowers small. 

♦ ••♦ Caulescent, 

14. V. Canadensis. Canadian Violet. 

Smooth; Ivs. cordate, acuminate, serrate; ped. shorter than the leaves; 
sHp. short, Entire. — A large species, found in woods, British Am. to Car., often 
a foot in height. Stem subsimple, terete, with lance-ovate, membranaceous 
stipules. Leaves alternate, the lower on very long petioles, acute or obtuse. 
Peduncles sttb-4-sided, terminal, with minute bracts. Flowers large, nearly 
regular. Petals white or light blue, yellowish at base, the upper ones purple 
without and marked with blue lines, lateral ones bearded. Flowering all 

15. V. PUBESCBNS. Ait Common Ydlow Violet. 
Villous-pubescent ; if, erect, naked below; Ivs. broad-cordate, toothed; 

itap. ovate, subdentate. — A large yellow violet, found in dry, stony woods, Can. 
to Ga, and Mo. Root fibrous. Stem simple, more or less pubescent, somewhat 
triangular and fleshy, bearing a few leaves at the top, leafless below. Leaves' 
broad-ovate, cordate, or deltoid ; obscurely dentate, obtuse, on short stalks. Sti- 
pules large, ovale, wavy. Flower-stalks rather shorter than leaves, downy, ax- 
illary, solitary, with 2 subulate bracts. Petals yellow, lateral ones bearded, and 
▼iih the upper one marked with a few brown lines. The plant varies in pu- 
bescence, sometimes even glabrous. Height very variable, 5 — ^QC. May— Jn. 

0. criocarpa. Nutt. (V. eriocarpa. Schw.) Capsule densely villose. 

y. ^abnuscula. T. &> G. (V. scabriuscula. Sckw.) St. decumbent, branch* 
ing Irom the root, and .with the smaller leaves somewhat scabrous. 

16. V. hastata. Michx. 

Smooth, simple, erect, leafy above; Ivs. deltoid-lanceolate, hastate or 
broadly ovate-acuminate, dentate; slip, ovate, minute, ciliate, dentate; lower 
ptt. dilated, obscurely 3-lobed, laUral ones slightly bearded ; sep. lanceolate, with 

178 XVn. yiOhACEM, BouA. 

B very short spur. — ^Pine woods, Penn. to Flor. Stem 6 — IC high. Peduncles 

shorter than the leaves. Flowers yellow. May. 

17. V. MuHLENBERGii. TorT. Muhlenberg*s VioUt. 

St. weak, assurgent; Ivs. reniform^ordate, upper ones crenate, rather 
acuminate ; stip. lanceolate, serrate, ciliate. — ^A spreading, slender s])ecies, in 
swamps, &c., U. S., N. to Lab. Stems branched below, &--8' long, with large 
stipules cut into fringe-like serratures. Leaves 6 -W diam., younger ones isk- 
volute at base. Petioles longer than the leaves, and shorter than the axillaiy 
peduncles. Bracts linear, alternate, on the upper part of the stalk. Petals en- 
tire, pael purple, the lateral ones bearded. Spur porrect^, very obtuse. Stig- 
ma rostrate. May. 

18. V. RosTRlTA. Beaked Violet. 

Smooth; st, terete, diffuse, erect; Ivs. cordate, roundish, serrate, upper 
ones acute ; slip, lanceolate, deepl/ fringed ; pet. beardless ; spur longer Uian 
the corolla. — A common violet in moi&t woods. Can. to Ky., well characterized 
by its long, straight, linear, obtuse nectary, which renders the large flowen 
similar to those of the larkspur. Stem 6—^' high, branching below. Petioles 
much longer than the leaves. Stipules almost pinnatiM. Peduncles slender, 
very long, axillary. Flowers pale blue. May. 

19. V. STRIATA. Ait. (V. ochroleuca. Schw.) Striped ViatH, 
Smooth ; St. branching, nearly erect ; Ivs. roundish-ovate, cordate, the im- 

per ones somewhat acuminate, crenate-serrate ; stip. large, ciliate-dentate, w* 
long-lanceolate; spur somewhat porrected. — Wet grounds, U. S. and Can. 
Stem 6 — 12' high, half round. Leaves 1 — \\' wide, on petioles 1 — V loQg. 
Stipules conspicuous, laciniate. Peduncles axillary, often much longer than 
the leaves. Cforolla large, yellowish- white or ochroleucous, lateral petals dense- 
ly bearded, lower one striate with dark purple. Stigma tubular. Jn. 

20. V. AHVENsis. Ell. (V. tenella. MuM. .V. bicolor. PA. V. tricokr. 
$. arvensis. DC.) 

St. 3-angled, erect ; Ivs. orbicxdar-spatulate, smooth, subdentate, npper 
ones ovate-spatulate ; stip. foliaceous, pinnatifid, very large ; pet. longer than 
the calyx, bluish- white.-— (J) A rare species, though widely dispersed from N. Y. 
South to Qa., and W. to Mo., on dry hills. Stem pubescent on the angles, si--4' 
high. Leaves 3—6" diam., shorter than the petioles, with about 5 obtuse teeth 
or angles ; cauline ones more narrow, sometimes entire. Stipular segmenis 
linear-oblong, as long as the leaves. Peduncles 4-angled, twice longer than 
the leaves. Petals twice longer (scarcely longer T. 4* &•) than sepals, lateral 
ones bearded, lowest with 5 striae. May. 

■ 21. V. tricSlob. TVicdored ViMet. Panseu. Hearths-ease. — £%. angular, di& 
fuse ; Ivs. oblong-ovate, lower ones ovate-cordate, deeply crenate ; stip. rund- 
nately pinnatifid or l3rrate, the terminal segment as large as the leaves; spvr 
short, thick. — Gardens, where its pretty flowers are earliest in spring, and latest 
in autumn. Flowers variable in size, the 2 upper (lower) petals purple, the 9 
lateral white and with the lower, striate, all yellow at base, f 

22. V. orandiflOra. GreaJt Purple Violet. — St. 3-comered, simple, procum- 
bent; Ivs. ovate-oblong, crenate, shorter than the peduncles ; stip. lyrate-pinnati> 
fid;/s. large. — Native of Switzerland. A large and beautiful species, with 
dark purple flowers, 1 — 'Hf diam. Whole plant smooth, 6— 12^ long. Stipules 
\ — 1' long. Ftowering all seasons but winter, f 

2. SOLE A. Gingins. 
Sepals nearly equal, not auriculate ; petals unequal, the lowest 2- 
lobed and gibbous at base, the rest emarginate ; stamens cohering, 
the lowest 2 bearing a gland above the middle ; capsnle sorrotyided 
at base by the concave torus ; seeds 6 — 8, very large. — % Lvs. ca»- 
line, alternate. 

S. coNcoLOR. Gingins. (Viola concolor. Ph.) Green Violet, 

A strictly erect plant, in woods, Western N. Y. to Mo., S. to Car. Stem 

DtoessA. XVm. DROSERACE^, - 179 

I— 2f high, simple, and, with the leaves, somewhat hairy. Leaves 4—6' by 
1*— 2^', lanceolate, acuminate, subcntire, tapering to short petioles. Pedmicles 
feiy short, 1 — 5-flowered, axillary. Flowers small, greenish white. Calyx 
about as long as the corolla. Lower petal twice larger than the others. Cap- 
sule nearly I' in length. Apr. May. 

Order XVIII. DROSERAOE^.— Sundews. 

nonfthertMceoai, delicate, often covered with glandn. 

Lw. alteznaie, with stipulary fnnires, circinate in vernation. 

Pad. wben jcmui, circinate. Sep. 6, penistent, equal, imbricate in aBstiTatioo. 

Or.— Petatt 5, hypogrnoiu, mareicent. 

Skk. diitiBet, marescent usuaUy equaJ in number to the petali. 

Om. linf le. Sty. 3—5, either wholly distinct or ilightly united, bifid or branched. 

Pr. a capaule, ( — 3-eeUed, tuiuaUy many-needed. Sas. sometimes ariled. 

Genera T, species 90, scattered over the whole globe, wherever manhes are ibund. Their leaves are 
wwti)f fitraished with (rlandular hairs, and are entire, alternate or crowded. Attached to this order is 
tte geoia Pamassia, regarded by eome as forming a separate order. It is variously located by di^rent 
bstaaiets. We follow Torrey and Gray, after De CandoUe, in placing it here. Some peculiarity ezista 
ia the ajiangement and structure of the stamens in this genus, which will be mentioned fluther on. 

Ko xemarkabJe properties have been discovered belonging to plants of this wder. 

Conspectus of ike Genera, 

(5 in number. Styles 9— 5 Dnmra. l 

(byponmous^ all perfect and {10— 15 in number. Style 1 XMofUBO. S 

Btuaens I perie7noiu»tnner row 6 perfect ones, outer row 6 groups of impeiftct ones. . ¥wtnamUk, % 

1. DROSfiRA. 

Gt, SpoeoSj dew ; from the dew-like secretion. 

Sepals 5, united at base, persistent ; petals 5 ; stamens 5, with ad- 
nata anthers; styles 3 — 5, each 2-parted; capsule 3 — 5-valved, 1- 
celled, many-seeded. — Sviall aqucUic herbs. 

1. D. ROTCNDiPOLiA. Rouvd-Uaved Simdew. 

L/cs. radical, nearly round, depressed ; petioles hairy ; scapes erect, bear- 
ing a simple raceme. — % This curious little plant is not uncommon in bogs 
and muddy shores of ponds and rivers. It is at once distinguished by the red- 
dish glandular hairs with which the leaves are beset, and which are usually 
tipped with a small drop of a clammy fluid, appearing like dew glistening in 
the son. Leaves small, lying flat on the ground, narrowed into the elongated 
petiole. Scape 5 — 8' high, at first coiled inward. Flowers arranged on one 
side, very small, white. Aug. 

2. LONGiPOLiA. Long-leaved Sundew. 

Lts. radical, spatulate and obovate, tapering at base into a lon^, smooth 
petiole ; scape bearing a simple raceme. — % A more slender and delicate spe- 
cies, in similar situations with the last. Leaves slender, ascending, cuneiform, 
oblonsr, crenate, beset with numerous hairs tipped with dew-like drops, — length 
including the petiole 1 — 3'. Scape ascending at base, bearing a cluster of 
small, yellowish-white flowers, and arising 3--^'. Jn. — Aug. 

3. D. PiLiPORMis. Threadr-leaved Sundae. 

Lcs. filiform, very long; scape nearly simple, longer than the leaves, 
many-flowered; pet. obovate, erosely denticulate, longer than the glandular 
calyx; sty. 2-p2Lrted to the base. — % Grow^s in wet sandy places, much larger 
thai the preceding species. The leaves are destitute of a lamina, are suberect, 
nearly as long as the scape, beset with glandular hairs except near the base. 
Scape about a foot high, with large, purple flowers. Aug. Sept. 

4. D. LINEARIS. Goldie. Linea^-leavcd Sundew.' 

Lvs. linear, obtuse ; petioles elongated, naked, erect ; scapes few-flowered, 
about the length of the leaves ; cat. glabrous, much shorter than the oval cap- 
'mle ; sds. oval, shining, smooth.— Borders of lakes, Can., Mich, to the Rocky 
Mt». Booker. T. <f» G. Scape 3—6' high, with about 3 small flowers. Leaves 
about 2" wide, clothed with glandular hairs, which are wanting on the petiole. 
J\. Aug. 


189 XIX. CISTACEJE. Lbckia, 

9. DIONJEA. Ellis. 
Dionira is one of the names of Venus. 

Sepals 5, ovate, oblong, spreading ; petals 5, obovate, 'with pellucid 

veins; stamens 10 — 15; style 1 ; stigmas 5, connivent, manj-cleft; 

eapsules indehiscent, breaking irregularly, I -celled, many-seeded. — 

% glabrous. Lvs. radical^ sejisitive^ closing amwlsively when Uuched. 

Scape umbellate. 

D. MusciPULA. Ell. Veniis^ Fly-trap. — Native of the Saathera States. Some- 
limes cultivated in a pot of bog earth placed in a pan of water. Leaves tosh- 
late, lamina roundish, spinulose on the margins and upper surface, instantlr 
closing upon insects ana other objects which light upon it. (See Part L ^ 2481} 
Scape 6 — 12' high, with an umbel of 8 — 10 white flowers. Apr. May. f 

3. PARNASSIA. Toum. 

Named for Mount Parnassus, the abode of the Muses, Graces, &e. 

Sepals 5, united at base, persistent; petals 5, persistent, nearly 
perigynous ; stamens perigynous, in 2 series, the outer indefinite in 
number, united in 5 groups, sterile, the inner 5 perfect ; capsule 1- 
eelled, 4-valved ; seeds very numerous, with a winged testa. — % htrk 
toith radical lvs. and l-flowered scapes. 

1. P. Caroliniana. Grass of Parrmssus. 

Sterile filaments in 5 clusters, 3 in each, distinct to near the base, sai- 
mounted with little spherical heads ; pet. much exceeding the calyx, marked 
with green veins; lvs. radical or sessile on the scape, broad-oval, with nosinm 
at the base. — An exceedingly elegant and interesting plant, growing in wet 
meadows and borders of streams, U. S. to Can. Root fibrous. Leaves aboot 
7-veined, broad-oval or ovate, smooth, leathery, radical ones long-stalked, caa- 
line ones sessile, clasping, a few inches above the root. Scapes about If high, 
with a handsome regular flower about 1' diam. Jl. Aug. 


Z/i?s. all cordate, the caul in e one (if any) sessile ; scales (bundles of sterile 
stamens) smooth, with numerous slender, pellucid setae. — Bogs and lakeshoits, 
Mich, to Lab. and W. to the Rocky Mts. Scapes about 6' high, naked or with 
a single clasping leaf near the base. Flowers white. Sepals oblong-lanceo- 
late. Petals marked with 3—5 green or purple veins. Each scale is distin- 
guished by 10^15 whitish hair-like bristles. 

Order XIX. CISTACEiE.— Rock Roses. 

Ftantt herbaoeoui or thrabbf . Branchea often viscid. 

L«ff. entire, opposite or alternate, usually feather- veined. 

Pl». white, yellow, or red» very fugacious, in one-iided raeemea. 

ObI.— 6epau S, unequal, the 3 inner with a twisted Bstivatioo. 

Oor,— Petal* 5, hypo^ynous, crumpled in activation. 

&a. indefinite, hypoffynous, distinct Ant?L innate. 

S?^*1l^l.ur*^ii^w'?^«tfi"5*^- -.f^- ■?".*•? ,^''«'- "^^^- tneedinf IVom the middle of the'.-™- 

FT. capsular, either 1-ceUed with panetal placenta, or impeifectly 3-6-celled, with diMepimeato |s»- 

««%?fi?-r'«!?S«i.®* *?• r?^^ "'"■^ abundant in the north of Afiioa or south of Europe. Ttaf pa«i* 
BO interest on account of their properties. «».w»^. « u«^ ' 

Conspectus of the Genera. 

Fjw..,|lSS;r'SS8Si7.J?a^- .- ::::•• gaKT*; 

Pf tals 8, hnear-knoeolato \ SSKu » 

In menoory of John Leche, a Swedish botanist 

Sepals 5, the 2 outer minute ; petals 3, lanceolate, small ; stamens 
3 — 12; stigmas 3, scarcely distinct; capsule 3-celled, 3-valved; pl»- 
^ntaB nearly as broad as the valves, roundish, each 1— 2-8eeded.— "* 
SuffTiauose, branching plants. Stip^iUs 0. 

HuMONii, XIX. CrSTACE^E. 181 

1. L. MjUor. Michx. (L. villosa. EU. L. minor. Linn.^ Larger Pinwced, 
Erect, hairy j brandies villous, radical ones prostrate j cavlme Ivs. ellipti- 
cal, mucronate, those of the radical branches roundish, minute ; JU. small, nu- 
merous, in fasciculate racemes, somewhat 1-sided. — In diy woods, U. S. and 
Can. Stem 1 — ^2f high, rigid, brittle, hairy, purple, paniculately branched. 
Leaves of the stem about 1' long, alternate, opposite, or even verticillate on 
the prostrate branches, crowded. Flowers Drownish-purple, inconspicuous. 
Capsule round^h, about the size of a large pin-head. jl. Aug. 

2. L. MINOR. Lam. Smaller Pinweed. 

Erect, smoothish, branched; 2fs. linear-lanceolate, acute; panicle leafy, 
iti branches elongated; /Zs. in nearhr simple racemes; caps, rather large.^-Grows 
in dry, sandy grounds, U. S. and Cfan. Stem 8 — 12' high, often decumbent at 
base. Stem leaves, 6—10" by 2 — 3", alternate, sparingly ciliate and revolute 
at the margin, those of the long slender branches minute. Flowers nearly 
twice as large as in L. major. Fetals brownish purple, cohering at apex. Cap- 
sale also ramer larger than in L. major. Jn.^-Sept. 

3. L. THYMiPOLiA. Ph. T%pne-leaved Pinweed. 

Fruteacent; sts. decumbent at base, hoary with appressed hairs, ver^ 
branchmg smd leafy ; root Ivs. on the short radical branches, imbricate, ellipti- 
cal, very small ; cavline Ivs. linear or oblanceolate, often whorled. Sea-coasts, 
Mass. \ to N. J. Stem about If high, rigid and very bushy. Upper leaves about 
I' long, erect and crowded. Flowers in terminal and axillary clusters, on very 
short pedicels. Petals thrown. Capsules globose. Jl. — Sep. 


Gr. //X(0(, ttie ittn, av^o^f a flower. 

Sepals 5y the 2 outer smaller ; petals 5, or rarely 3, sometimes 
abortive ; stamens 00 ; stigmas 3, scarcely distinct ; capsule triangu- 
lar, 3-TslYed, opening at top ; seeds angular. — Fh. yellow, 

1.H.CANADENSE. Michi. (Cistus Cauad. WiUd.') Prost Plant. Rock Rose. 

St. ascending; branches erect, pubescent; Ivs. alternate, without stipules, 
lanceolate, acute, hairy; petcdiferous Jls. few, large, terminal, flwte^(w« ones late- 
ral, solitary or racemose. — In dry fields and woods, Can. to Flor. Stem about 
If high, at length shrubby at base. Leaves 8—12" long, \ as wide, entire, sub- 
sessile. Flowers with large bright yellow petals, in a terminal corymb. The 
axillary flowers later, very small, with very small petals, or apetalous. Sta- 
mens (feclinate. Capsule smooth, shining, those of the apet. fls. not larger than 
a pin's head. Seeds few, brown. Jn. — Sep. 

2. H. cORYMBdsuM. Miclix. (Heteromeris cymosa. Spach.) 
St. branching, canescent, erect ; Ivs. lance-oblong, canescently tomentosc 
beneath ; fls. in crowded, fastigiate cymes, the primary ones on elongated, filiform 
pedicels, and with petals twice longer than the calyx ; sep. villous-canescent, 
outer ones linear, obtuse, inner ovate, acute. — Sterile sands, N. J. to Ga. Plant 
somewhat shrubby, very tomentose when young, at length diffusely branched, 
about If high. Primary flowers about 1' aiam. Secondary ones small, apeta- 
kna. Jn. — Aug. 


lu honor of Wm. Hudson, author of " Fl(Ha Anglica." 

Sepals 3, united at base, subtended by 2 minute ones at dase ; pe- 
tals 5; Stamens 9 — 30; style filiform, straight ; capsule 1 -celled, 3- 
valved, many-seeded. — Low shrvbs with very immerous branckesy and 
mintUe exstijmUUe Ivs. 

1. H. TOMENT63A. Nutt Dmcmj Hudsonla. 

Hoary-tomentose ; Ivs. ovate, imbricate, acute, shorter than the intervals 
of the stem; fls. subsessile \pet. obtuse. — Shores of the ocean and lakes, N. J. 
to N. H. 1 and Wise,, &c. Plant consisting of numerou« slender, ascending 

183 XX. HYPERICACEJE. Hypbrictm. 

stems from the same root, and a multitude of tufted branches, all coTcred with 
whitish down. Leaves about 1—2" in length, closely appresscd to the stem. 
Flower small, yellow, on pedicels not longer than the leaves. May. 

2. H. ERicOlDEs. Heaik-like Hudsonin. 

Hoary-pubescent; Ivs. acerose-subulate ; ped. longer than the leaves, fili- 
Ibrm, hairy ; sep. acutish. — A very delicate shrub, found in pine barrens, Mass. 
to Va. Stem if high, erect, with numerous short, compound, procumbenl 
branches. Leaves needle-like, scattered, 2 — i" long. Flowers yellow, shorter 
than the peduncles. Capsule oblong, pubescent. May. 

Order XX. HYPERICACE^.— St. John's-worts. 

JTerto, •hn»lb9 or treea, with a rennoui juice, and often wiUi angular branches. 

hv. opposite, entire, moatljr punctate withpellucid dots, and black glands. S^. Oi 

Fb. perfect, naostly yellow, with cymose iuflorescence. 

Co/.— ^ pais 4—5, distinct or ooherinff, persistent, unequal, dotted. 

Cor.— Petals 4—5, hypqgynous, estivation twisted, veins oblique, dqttM. 

Bta. hypqgynous, inaehnite, in 3 or more parcels. Anthen versatile. 

Ora. single, superior. S/yto slender. Sfirma simple. 

Ft, a capsule or berry, many-celled. Suds indenmte, minute. 

Genera 13, species 276, very generally distributed, presenting a very great variety in habit, and floaori^ 
iflC in all kinds of localities. The juice of many •species is oonsiderea pujcgative and fehnfugaL 

CoTispedus of the Genera. 

, < 5. HypogynoBS glands U". '.*.'.!!! I 1 ". JElSSfc^l 
Petals and sepalf( 4. HypQcmous glands 0. Jucyna^ i* 


Gr. a, privative, vKvpoSf loaghness; Le.,aimoottiplBat. 

Sepals 4, the 2 outer usuallj larger ; petals 4 ; filaments sliglitlj 
united at base into several parcels ; styles 2 — 4, mostly distinct ; cap- 
sule 1 -celled. — Plants suffruticose. Lvs. pwnctale toith black dots, 
Fls. yellow, 1 — 3, terminal on each branch. Pedicels bibracteolale, 

1. A. Crvx> Andre JE. (A. multicaule, Michx.) St. Peter's-work 

St. much branched at base ; branches suberect, ancipital above ; lvs. obo- 
rate or linear-oblong, obtuse ; i7tner sep. minute, roundish ; pet. linear-oblong; 
sty. 1 — 2. — Sandy woods, N. J. to La. Stem about If hign, thickly clothed 
with leaves which are J—li' long, of very variable width. Flowers pale-yd- 
low, on very short pedicels, with 2 bracteoles close to the calyx. Petals ex- 
ceeding the sepals and stamens. July. 

2. A. sTANs. Michx. (A. hypericoides. Ldnn.} 

St. straight, erect, ancipital or winged, branched above ; lvs. oblong, ob- 
tuse, sessile ; outer sep. cordate, orbicular, longer than the 2 lanceolate, interior 
ones; 5/y. 3. — Swamps in pine barrens, N. J. to La. Stem 1 — ^2f high. Leaves 
1 — U' long, } as wide, somewhat glaucous. Flowers usually 3 together, much 
larger than in the preceding. Yellow. Jl. Aug. 

Sepals 5, connected at base, subequal, leaf-like ; petals 5, oblique; 
Stamens 00 (sometimes few) united at base into 3 — 5 parcels, with 
no glands between them ; styles 3 — 5, distinct or united at base, pe^ 
sistent. — Herbaceous or shrubby plants. Lvs. punctate, with pdkcid 
dots, opposite, entire. Pis. solitary, or in cymose panicles, yellow, 

* Stamens 20 — 100, polyadelphous. Herbs. 

1. H. PYRAMiDlTUM. Ait (H. ascyToidcs. WiUd.) Giant ffyperieum. 

SI. branching, somewhat quadrangular ; Irs. sessile, oblong-ovate, acute, 
smooth ; sty. as long as the stamens. — iL A lar^e flowering .species, found on 
dry hills, also on river banks, Ohio and Penn. to Car. Stem 3 — 6f high, scarce- 
ly angular, smooth, rigid, herbaceous. Branches corymbose and erect, or late- 


ral, axillary, opposite. Leaves acute, not acuminate, those of the stem d} — & 
loDg, I as wide, of the branches about half these dimensions. Flowers 1 J' diam. 
Petek oborate, i — J' wide. Stamens capillary, 100 or more. Capsules 1' long, 
OToid-conical, tipped with tlie 5 styles. Seeds 00. Jl. Aug. 

2. H. PERFOBATUM. Common SI. JohfCs-wort. 

St. 2-edged, branched; Ivs, elliptical, with pellucid dots; sep. lanceolate, 
half as long as the petals. — % A hardy plant, prevailing in pastures and diy 
soils, Can. and U. S., much to the annoyance of farmers. Stem 1 — ^ high, 
brachiate, erect, round, with 2 opposite, elevated lines extending between the 
nodes. Leaves 6 — 10" long, \ as wide, ramial ones much sm?ller, all obtuse, the 
dots as well as veins best seen by transmitted light. Flowers numerous, deep 
yellow, in terminal panicles. Petals and sepals bordered with fine dark color- 
ed glands. Jn. Jl. % 

3. H. coRYMBdsuM. Muhl. (H. punctatum. Beck.) Spoiled St. Jokn^s, 
St. erect, round, smooth, branching ; Ivs. clasping, oblong'Oval, obtuse, 

corered with black dots ; ofmes terminal, brachiate, dense-flowered, corymbose ; 
Sep. ovate, acute. — 1\. In wet meadows and damp woods, N. En^. to Ark. Stem 
lh-2f high. Leaves 1 — 2' long, nearly § as wide, with pellucid punctures be- 
sides the black dots. Flowers small, numerous, pale-yellow, petals nearly 3 
times as long as the sepals, with oblong black dots. Stigmas orange-red, on 
distinct styles. Jn. Jl. 

4. H. itNGULdsuM. Michx. 

St. simple below, corymbosely branched above, sharply 4-angled ; Ivs. 
somewhat ovate, closely sessile, scarcely punctate ; cymes leafless, compound ; 
fs. alternate, solitary on the ultimate branches; sep. lanceolate, acute, half as 
long as the petals. — % Cedar swamps, N. J. to Flor. Stem nearly 2f high. 
Leaycs nearfy 1' long, J as wide, rather distant. Petals obovate, brownish-red, 
with a single lateral tooth near the apex. Jn. — Aug. 

5. H. ELLiPTicUM. Hook. (H sphserocarpon. Bart.") 

at base. 

Penn. Stem S-lS' high, slender, colored' at base. Leaves 8—13" by 3—4", 
somewhat erect, about as long as the internodes. Cymes of about a dozen 
flowers, generally 1—2' above the highest pair of leaves. Central flowers sub- 
sessile. Petals acutish, orange-yellow, 2—5" long; sepals shorter. Stigmas 
minute. July. 

♦ • StATnens 20 — 100, polyadelphous. Shrubs. 

6. H. Kalmiantjm. KalnCs St. John's-vwrt. ^ r v 

St. corymbosely branched; trranches somewhat 4-sided, two of the angles 
slightly winged; Irs. linear-lanceolate, very numerous, obtuse, attenuate at 
base; qfm£s §— 7-flowered, fastigiate ; sep. half as long as petals,— Rocks below 
Niagara Falls! &c. A shrubby species a foot or more in height. Leaves an 
inch in length, slightly revolute on the margin, 1-veined, minutely and thickly 
punctate, sessile. Branches slender and delicate. Flowers yellow. Stamens 
very numeroas. Aug. 


Branching; branches ancipilal, s)nooth; hs. oblong-lanceolate, obtuse, 
narrowed at base, crenulately waved at edge ; cymes compound, leafy ; sep. un- 
equal, leafy, ovate, cuspidate; peL obovate, a little larger than sepals; sty. at 
length distinct.— A highly ornamental shrub, 2— 4f high, prairies and creek 
shores, Mid. and West. Stales ! Leaves 2— 2i' long, 4— 6'^ wide. Flowers \' 
diam., orange-yellow, in an elongated inflorescence. Stamens 00. Jl. Aug.f 
0. T. & G. Lts. much smaller; capsuh attenuate at summit. 

8. H. ADPREssuM. Barlon. 

St. shrubby at base, 2-wingcd above ; Ivs. oblong-linear, sessile, with 
pellucid punctures ; p. l.>— 20, in a leafless cyme ; sep. unequal, half as long 
as the oblong-obovate petals ; sty. united ; caps. 3-celled. — Swamps, R. I. \ Pa. 


184 XX. HYPERICACE^. Elodia. 

to Ark. About 2f high. Leaves 1—2' by 2 — i", often somewhat lance-shaped. 
Flowers about 6" diam., with very numerous stamens. Aug. Sept. 

9. H. AUREUM. Bertram. (H. amoenum. Ph.) Golden Hypericum. 
Brandies spreading, ancipital ; lis. oblong, obtuse, attenuate at base, 

glaucous beneath; fis. few togetlier, subsessile; pet. coriaceous, reflexed ; j/y.3, 
connate, persistent on the ovoid- conic capsule. — A beautiful shrub, 2-Hlf high, 
native oi S. Car. and Ga. Flowers large, orange-yellow. Stamens 100 or 
more. Capsule red. Jn. — Aug. 

10. H. NUDIPL6RUM. Michx. 

St. shrubby at base ; branches winged ; Ivs. ovate-oblong, sessile, obtuse ; 
cymes leafless, pedunculate; central fis. shortly pedicellate ; pet. obovate, longer 
than the linear sepals ; sty. united. — Wet grounds, Penn. to La. Plant 1 — ^2f 
liifh, with numerous 4-siaed branches. Leaves thin, about 2' long, with minule 
reddish dots. Flowers small and rather loose in the cyme. Aug. f 

* ♦ • Stamens 5—20, distinct. 

11. H. MXTTiLUM. (H. quinquenervium. Wait.) SmaU St. John's-iport 
St. erect, usually much branched, often subsimple, quadrangular ; la. 

obtuse, ovate-oblong, clasping, 5-veined, minutely punctate ; cymes leafy ; pet. 
shorter than the sepals ; sta 6 — 12. — Damp, sanay soils, Can. to Ga, W. to 
la ! Stem 3 — 6 — ^9' high. Leaves closely sessile, apparently connate, 4 — 8" by 
2 — 5'^f outer veins obscure. Flowers minute. Jl. Aug. 

12. H. Canidense. Canadian St. Johv^s-wort. 

St. quadrangular, branched; Ics. linear, attenuated to the base, with pd- 
lucid and also with black dots, rather obtuse ; sep. lanceolate, acute, longer 
than the petals; sta. 5 — 10.— Wet, sandy soils, Can. to Ga. Stem 8—15' 
high, sligntly 4- winged. Lower branches opposite, upper pair forked. Leaves 
about 1' by 1 — ^2", sometimes linear-lanceolate, raoical ones obovate, short. 
Flowers small, orange-colored. Ovary longer than the styles. Capsule red, 
longer than the sepals. Jl. Aug. 

13. H. SAROTHRA. Michx. (Sarothra gentianoides. Linn.) 

St. and branches filiform, quadrangular; Irs. very minute, subulate: jEs. 
sessile.— Dry fields and roadsides, U. S. and Can. Stem 4—8' high, branched 
above into numerous, very slender, upright, parallel branches, apparently leaf- 
less, from the minuteness of the leaves. Flowers very small, yellow, succeeded 
by a conical, brown capsule which is twice the length of the sep. Jl. Aug. 

14. H. Drummondii. Tott. «S& Gray. (Sarothra. Grev. 4- Hook.) 
Branches alternate, square above ; Ivs. linear, very narrow, acute, longer 

than the intern odes ; /s. pedicellate; sta. 10—20; sep. lanceolate, shorter thafl 
the petals, but longer than the ovate capsule.— Near St. Louis, &c. Plani 
more robust than the last, nearly If high, very branching. Leaves *' long. 
Flowers about 4" diam. 

3. ELODfiA. Adans. 
Gr. e\ti)6tjii marahy; from the habitat of Uieplaota. 

Sepals 6, equal, somewhat united at base; petals 5, deciduous, 
equilateral ; stamens triadelphous, the parcels alternatiug with 3 hy- 
pogynous glands ; styles 3, distinct ; capsule 3-cclled.— '21- Herbs wiih 
pdliicid-punctaie leaves^ the axils leafless. 

L ^' "^i^^'^^^^- v^""- (E. campanulata. PA. Urpericum. Linn.) 
;S^. erect, somewhat compressed, branching; Ivs. dblong, amplexicanl; 
^. united b^low the middle, with 3 in each set.-lSwamps and ditclhes U. s! 
and Can. Whole plant usually of a purplish hue, 9— 20' high. Leaves li—Si' 
long, I as wide upper ones lanceolate, lower oblong-ovate, all verv obmsf, 
glaucous ^neath. Cymes terminal and axillary. Flowers 5" diam. orange^ 
yellow. Petals about twice longer than the calvx. Glands ovoid, orange^ 
colored. Capsules ovoid-oblong, acutish. Jl. Sept. 

2. E. PETioLATA. Pursh. (Hypericum. Walt.) 

Los. oblong, narrowed at base into a petiole ; fls. mostly in 3s, aiillarr. 

8f£iGULi. XXn. TT.T.RCEBRACEiE. 165 

nearly sessile ; fit. united above the middle ; capsules oblong, much longer than 
the sepals. — Swamps, N. J. to Ky. Stem about 2f high. Leaves 1-5' long, 
TDoiided-obtuse. Flowers smaller than in the last, of a dull orange-color, 
lug. Sept. 

Order XXII. ILLECEBRACE^.— Knotworts. 

?2Mi herfasfieous or mifihrtiooae. bnaching. 

Ln. WMiJe, eotire. Snpttiea ana braetM Kohous. Fto. minute. 

Ga<.— deput 6, dutioel or cobereot at baae, peravtent. 

Ctor.— Petab minute, inwrtad between the sepals, oAen wantinf , 

Sn equal in number to the sepaU («>metimea leas or more) inaerted into the perifTDone disk. 

Otc niperior, l-celled. Sty. 2—5, either partially or wholly combined. 

Ft. a ntride. ad. aolitair* attached to baae of cell ; or a many-eeeded caprale. 

. Gcaeia a, speeiea 100, found mostly around the Mediterranean. Seven of the geneim have been ibuod 
m It America. A alight aatringency is their only known property. 

Conspectus of the Qtnera, 

I (or sterile filaments none AnythUu 1 

{ minute, resembling sterile filaments FaronycMa. S 

FikhfeoaspieaoaB, white or tose-oolorcd. BpergiUa, > 

1. ANYCHIA. Michx. 

Gr. owv^f the finger nail ; a supposed remedy fat the maladies of that organ. 

Galjx of 5j ovate-oblong, connivent sepals, callous, subsaccate at the 
apex ; corolla ; filaments 2 — 5, distinct ; stigma suboapitate ; utri- 
cle enclosed in the sepals. — (D SmaU herbsj with dichotamous branches. 
Ltt. stipulate. 

A DicnoTOMA. Michx. (dueria Canadensis. Linn.) Forked Chickweed. 

St. at length much branched, erect ; Ivs. lanceolate, cauline ones oppo- 
site, ramial ones alternate ; fls. about as long as the stipules, terminal ones 
subfasciculate. — ^Dry woods and hills. Can. and N. Eng. to Ark. Stem 4—10' 
high, lomid, slender, pubescent above, with dichotomous, filiform branches. 
I^ves 2—8" by \ — ^2", acute or obtuse, with ovate-acuminate, scarious stipules 
at base situated at each fork of the stem. Flowers axillary, solitary, or in ter- 
minal clusters of 3 or more, very small, white. Jn. — Aug. 

0. capiUacea. Ton*. — Smooth ; branches capillary ; Ivs. oblong, obtuse, cunei- 
form at base. la. ! 111. ! 


Etymology similar to the foregoing. 

Sepals united at base, acuminate cuspidate at apex, the lining 
membrane colored and cucuUate or saccate at summit ; petals (sterile 
fiL?) very narrow and scale-like; stamens 5; styles more or less 
nnited; stigmas 2; utricle 1 -seeded included iu the calyx. 

1. P. Jamesti. Torr. & Gray. 

Caespitose, much branched; Ivs. linear-subulate, scabrous;/.*, few, in 
small, dense, dichotomous cymes, the central ones sessile ; pet. (or setae) alter- 
nate with the fertile filaments; sep. linear, with a minute cusp.— Prairies, 
Mason Co., 111. Mead. R. Mts. JaTnes. NuU. Stems about Jf long. Flowers 

2. P. dichotOma. Nutt. (Achyranthes. Linn.) 

Csespitose, densely branching ; Ivs. acerose-mucronate, glabrous, 2-grooved 
«ach side ; cymes compound, diffuse, without central fls. ; seta much shorter 
than the stamens.— Rocks, Harper's Ferry. Stems 6—12' high. Leaves 1' by 
r, crowded. Style bifid i its length. Jl.— Nov. 

Lat tpergo, to scatter; flom the dispersion of the seeds. 

Sepals 5, nearly distinct; petals 5, entire ; stamens 5 — 10; styles 
3 — 5 ; capsules superior, ovate, 3 — 5-valved, many-seeded. — (D Herbs 
wthjloioers in loose cymes. Lvs. stipulate. 


I. S. AHTENSl*. Com SpUTTO. 

Lrs verticillatc, linear-subnlale ; sta. 10; sty. B; ped. refleied iDftniti 
ids. reniform, angular, rough.— A common weed in cultivated grmuids, Cu.O 
Ga. Root small. Stem round, branched, with swelling joints, beiet wili 
copious whorled leaves, somewhat dorniy and viscid. Two minute itiMlfS 
under each whorl. Cvme forked, the terminal (central) peduncles bending 
down as the ihiil ripens. Pclala i»hite, longer than the calyi, cap»iile tww 
as long. Seeds many, wilh a membrauoua margin. May— Aug. <) 

S. S. KUBBi. T. & G. (Arenaria rubra. lAnit.) 

St. decumbent, much branched; Ivs. linear, slightly mocronwe; tiw*i 
ovate, membraaoua, cleft; scp. lanceolate, with scarious margins; peLit^jn 
rose-color; sly. 3; ids. compressed, angular, roughish.— A common and ni* 
ble Bpecies, fonnd in sandy fields! Can. lo Flor. &c. Stems a fewincbei a 
length, slender, sraooih, spreading on the ground, with small, nanowlMn' 
and diy, sheathing stipules. Piowerssmall, on hairy stalks. May— Oct 

Oeder XSIII. CAETOPHYLLAOEiE.— Clovewobw. 

I.w.gppsiiti,«itiie.dHtltu(sorniPDl«. FtLieiulu. 
CBl.--i«wb4-«,dbttiKl,otailM(iiwiBitiibe.pcnnunL . 
dr.— Fiah4-s,(Miniim« noHicMlHr uiiuiculuii ind.uuerted ui 
widian ilanuil inarted on Uh *aUMi (rfa til 

iV. t l-eelied oipiHilBoii '--■-- --"--■- 

UnperUB uidAii^ cbo^—.. « ..».«.».■..»» 
ohiflJOxbir thflbsauljQfftfew of Uie mttintlvd i 

CstuumvtL XXin. CARYOPHYLLACEiE. 187 

Trisb 1.— AliSINEJB. 

Sepdb distinct or nearly so. Petals witfumt daws inserted on the outside of (Ae 
disk. Stameru inserted on the margin of the disk. 

LaL tftflo, a itar r— from the stellate or itar like floweta. 

Sepals 5, connected at base ; petals 5. 2-parted ; stamens 10, rarelr 
fewer; styles 3, sometimes 4 ; capsule superior, 1 -celled, 3-valvedf, 
manj-seeded. — Small grass-like herbs, in moist, shady places. Fls. in 
forked cymes. 

1. S. MEDIA. Smith. (Alsine. Linn.) Chickweed. 

Dcs, ovate ; st. procumbent, with an alternate, lateral, hairy line ; sta. 
3—5 or 10. — A common weed in almost every situation N. of Mex., flowering 
from the beginning of spring to the end of autumn. Stems prostrate, branched, 
brittle, roond, jointed, leafy, and remarkably distinguished by the hairy ridge 
extending from joint to joint, in an alternate manner. Flowers small, while. 
The seals are eaten by poultry and the birds. ( 

2. 8. LONGiFOLiA. Muhl. (S. graminea. Bw.) 

Idvs. linear, entire; ctfme terminal, spreading, with lanceolate, scarious 
bracts; col. 3- veined, about equal to the petals. — U. S., N. to Arc. Circ. The 
Items are of considerable length, very slender and brittle, supported on other 
plants and bushes. Leaves alternate at base. Flowers in a divaricate, naked 
cyme, very elegant, white, appearing in 10 segments like the other species. 
Three acute, green veins singularly distinguish the sepals. Jn. Jl. 

3. S. PUBERA. Michx. 

St. decumbent, pubescent in one lateral or two opposite lines ; Ivs. ob- 
long-oval, acute, sessile, somewhat ciliate; /s. on short, filiform, recurved pedi- 
cels.— 'H In rocky places, Penn. and Ky. to Ga. Stem 6 — 12* long, often dif- 
fusely spreading. Leaves 1 — 2^' by 4--10", with minute, scattered hairs. 
Flowers }' diam., axillary and termmal, large, with 10 stamens and 3 styles. 
Apr. — ^Jn. 

4. S. LONGiPES. Goldie. • (S. palustris. Rich. Micropctalon. Pers.) 
Smooth and shining; st. more or less decumbent, with ascending 

branches ; Irs. linear-lanceolate, broadest at base, acute ; peduncles and pediceU 
filiform, cymose, with ovate, membranous bracts at base ; sep. with membran- 
ous margins, obscurely 3-veined, scarcely shorter than the petals. — % Lake 
shores. Is. Y. ! and Mich. Petals white, 3-parted. Flowers in loose cymes, the 
terminal peduncle, or the middle one, the longest. Jn. — Aug. 

6. S. BOREALis. Bigelow. (S. lanceolata. TVrr. Micropctalon. Pers.) 

St. weak, smooth ; lis. veinless, broad-lanceolate, acute ; ved. at length 
axillary, elongated, l-flowered ; pet. 2-parted (sometimes wanting), about equal 
to the veinless sepals.— (J) Wet places. N. H., JN^. Y., N. to Artie Am. A spread- 
ing flaccid plant. Stem G — 12—15' long, with diflfuse cymes both terminal and 
axillary. Leaves 8 — 15" long, 1-veined. Petals when present white, small, at 
length about as long as the lanceolate, acute sepals. Capsules longer than the 
calyx. Jn. Jl. 

6. S. AQUATiCA, Pollich. (S. borealis. Darl.) 

Nearly glabrous ; st. slender, decumbent ; Ivs. oblong, acute, with mani- 
fest veinlets ; sep. lanceolate, very acute, 3-veined, rather longer than the bifid 
petals ; cops, ovoid, about equaling the calyx ; sty. 3.—% Swampy springs, Penn. 
Dr. DaHin^tan. Md. Dr. Rnbbins. Also Rocky Mts. A very slender plant, 
6—12' long, with inconspicuous flowers. Leaves 6" by 2—3". May. 

Gr. MfM;, a horn ; ftom Lbe i«*emblance of the capsules of •ome of the spedei. 

Calyx of 5, ovate, acute sepals ; corolla of 5 bifid petals ; stamens 


10, sometimes 5 or 4, the alternate ones shorter; styles 5; capsule 
superior, cylindrical or roundish, 10-toothed; seeds numerous. 

* Petals scarcely longer than the cahfz. 

1. C. VULOATUM. Monse-ear Chickieeed. 

Hairy, pale green, c^spitose; Ivs. attenuated at the base, oyate, or obo- 
va e-obtuse ; fu. in subcapitate clusters ; sep. when young, longer than the pedi- 
celflw — Fields and waste grounds. Can. and U. S., flowering all summer. 
Stems — i2f long, ascending, mostly forked. Leaves 5 — 8" by 3 — 5", mostly 
very obtuse, lower ones tapering to the base. Flowers in dense, terminal clus- 
tei*s, the terminal (central) one solitary, always the oldest Sepals mostly green, 
a little shorter than the corolla. Petals white, appearing in 10 segments. 

2. C. YiscdsuM. (and C. semidecandrum. lAnnJ) SUcky Chictweed, 
Hairy, viscid, spreading; Ivs. oblong-lanceolate, rather acute; /s. in 

loose cymes ; sep. scarious and white on the margin and apex, shorter tlian the 
pedicels. — % Fields and waste grounds, U. S. and Can. Plant more deeply 
green than the last. Stems many, assurgent, dichotomously-cymose. Leaves 
5 — ^9'' ^^^M* i — i ^^ wide, radical ones subspatulate. Flowers white, in diffuse 
cymes. Petals hardly as long as the sepals, obovate, bifid. Jn. — ^Aug. 
/?. semidecandrum. T. & G. Stamens 5. — Mass. to la. ! 

•• Petals mvch longer than the calyx. 

3. C. ARVENSB. (C. tenuifolium. Ph.) Fidd Chickweed, 
Pubescent, somewhat csespitose ; Ivs. linear-lanceolate, acute, often looger 

than the intemodes; cyme on a long, terminal peduncle, few flowered;^ 
more than twice longer than the calyx ; cap. scarcely exceeding the aepaU— 
Rock^ hills. Stems 4 — W high, decumbent at base. Leaves 9 — 15" long, I— 
2" wide. Flowers white, rather large. Capsule usually a little longer than 
the calyx. May — Aug. 

4. C. OBLONOipoLiuM. TorT. (C. villosum. MuM.) 

Villose, viscid above: st, erect or declined; Ivs. oblong-lanceolate, m(A- 
ly obtuse, and shorter than the intemodes; Jls. numerous, in a spreading cyme; 
pel. twice as long as the sepals; cap. about twice as long as the calyx.— ^ 
Rocky places. Stems 6 — 10' high, thick. Leaves 9 — 12" by 3—6", tapering 
Irom base to an acute or obtuse apex. Flowers larger than either of the ioK- 
going, white, in two or three-lbrked cymes. Apr. — ^Jn. 

5. C. NUTANS. Raf. 

Viscid and pubescent ; 5^. weak, striate-sulcate, erect ; Ivs, lanceolate, 
narrow, shorter than the intemodes ; Jls. many, diffusely cymose, on loog. 
filiform, nodding pedicels ; pet. nearly twice as long as the calyx. — (J) Low 
grounds, Vt. to 111. ! and La. Pale green and very clammy. Stems 6 — 15' high, 
branched from the base. Leaves 1 — 2! long, i as wide. Flowers white. Cap- 
sules a little ctirved, nearly thrice longer than the calyx. May. 

Lat. arenOt und ; in which moat ipeciea grow. 

Sepals 5, spreading; petals 5, entire; stamens 10, rarely feirer; 
styles 3; capsule 3-valved, 1 -celled, many-seeded. — Fls. termnd. 
Sty. Tardy 2 (w 4. 

1. A. soarrOsa. Michx. 

Caespitose; $i. few-flowered; lower Ivs. squarrose-imbricate, crowded, 
upper ones lew, all subulate, channeled, smooth; pet. obovate, three times lonser 
than the obtuse, veinless sepals. — % In sandy barrens, N. Y. Robbins^ to ua. 
Stems 6 — 10' high, pubescent, much divided at base into simple branches. 
Leaves about \' long, obtuse, sessile. Flowers white, in small terminal cymei. 
Sepals green. Capsules obtuse. Apr.— Sept. 

3. A. STRiCTA. Michx. Strais^kt Sandwort 

Glabrous, diffuse ; st. branched from the base ; Ivs. subulate-linear, erect; 

pet. much longer than .the calyx ; sep. ovate-lanceolate, acute, 3-veined ; eyma 


few-flowered, with spreading branches.— T; Sterile grounds, Arc. Am, to Car. 
Stem 8— KK high. t.eaves 5—8" long, very narrow and acute, rigid, sessile, 
1-reined, much fasicled in the axils. Petals obovate-oblong, twice as long as 
the sepals, white. May, Jn. 

3. A. Greeni^andica. Spreng. (A. Glabra. Bw.) Greenland Saiuhomrt. 
Glabrous; ste. numeroos, low, filiform, suberect; Ivs, linear-sabnlate, 

flat, spreading; pcduds 1-flowered, elongated, divaricate; sep, reinless, ovate, 
obtuse, membrane-margined, much shorter than the petals. — % Summits of high 
mountains, N. H ! N. Y., N. to Greenland. It grows in tuiled maBses, con- 
sisting of exceedingly numerous stems about 3' high, and sprinkled over with 
large (8" diam.) white flowers with yellow stamens. Aug. 

4. A. SESPTLLIFOLIA. T%yfn£4eaved Sandwort, 

St. dichotomous, spreading ; Ivs, ovate, acute, subciliate ; eal. acute, sub- 
siriate ; pet. shorter than the calyx ; caps, ovate, 6-toothed.— <D By roadsides, 
and in sandy fields, Ms. to Ga. Stems numerous, downy, with rencxed hairs, 
a few inches in length. Leaves 3—3" long, | as wide. Flowers on axillary 
aad terminal peduncles. Petals white, oval, mostly mfuch shorter than the 3— 
&-reined, acuminate, hairy sepals. Jn. 

5. A. lateriplOba. Side-flowering Sandwort, 

Erect., slightly pubescent ; Ivs. oval, obtuse ; ped, lateral, 2 — 3-flowered. 
—% A slender, upright species, found in damp, shady grounds, N. States, and 
Brit. Am. Stem 6— 1(K high, nearly simple. Leaves elliptical, rounded at 
each end, 6 — 10" long, | as wide, on very short petioles. Peduncles terminal 
and lateial, 2 — 3' long, dividing into 2 or more filiform pedicels, one of them 
with 2 bracteoles in the middle. Flowers 4" diam., white. Petals more than 
twiee as long as sepals. Jn. 


Sepals 5, nnited at base ; petals 5, ungoionlate, entire ; stamens 
10, mseTted into a glandular disk ; styles 3 — 5 ; capsule 3 — S-Yalved, 
many-seeded. — (D Herbs cf the sea-coast^ with fleshy leaves. 

A. PEPLolDEs. DC. (Arenaria. Linn. Honckenya. 'EJvrh. and 1st. 

edit.) Sea Chicheeed. — Very fleshy ; st. creeping, with erect, subsimple 
branches; Ivs. ovate, obtuse, veinless, exceeding the petals. — Abundant on the 
Atlantic coa.^t ! N. J. to Lab. Upright stems a foot nigh. Leaves 5—7 — 10" 
long, \ as wide, abruptly pointed, clasping at base, shorter than the intemodes. 
Flowers small, white, axillary, on short pedicels. Jl. 

5. SAGlNA. 
Lat taginOj any kind oi food or nomiahmeBt, 

Sepals 4 — 5, nnited at base ; petals entire, 4 or 5, or ; stamens 
10 ; styles 4 — 5 ; capsule 4— 5-valved, many-seeded. — Fls. soliia/ry. 

1. S. PROCVMBENs. Creeping Pearlwort. 

St. procumbent ; glabrous ; pet. very short ; sta., sep. and pel. 4 or 5.— <g) 
A small weed, with slender, creeping stems 3 or i' long, ibund in damp places, 
R, I. ! N. Y. to S. Car., W. to Oregon. Leaves very small, linear, mucronate- 
pointed, connate or opposite. Flowers white and green, axillary, on peduncles 
Icmger than the leaves. Jn. 

2. S. DECiTMBENs. T. & G. (Spcrgula saginoides. Ldim.) Pearlwort. 
St. decumbent, ascending, mostly glabrous ; Ivs. linear-subulate, very 

acute ; ped. much longer than 3ie leaves ; pet. and sep. 5 ; sla. 10.— (J) Sandy 
fields, tJ. S. and Can. Stem 2 — 3' long. Flowers axillary and terminal. Pe- 
tals white, hardly as large as the sepak. Jl. Apparently a variety oi S. pro- 
cambens. § 1 


Erect and pubescent ; Ivs, linear-subulate ; ped. elongated, ascending in 
fruit} sep. and sta. 4; pet, very minute or 0. — Sandy fields, N. J., Penn. 


Steins numerous, filiform, 2 — 4' high. Sepals acute, shorter than the capsule. 
May Jn. 

6. MOLLt^GO. 
Calyx of 5 sepals, inferior, united at base, colored inside ; corolla 
0; stamens 5, sometimes 3 or 10; filaments setaceous, shorter than, 
and opposite to the sepals ; anthers simple ; capsule 3-celled, 3-TalYed, 
many-seeded ; seeds reniform. — Lvs. at length a/pparently verticillaUj 
each whorl consisting of I or 2 large, substiptdate leaves, wiih several 
axillary, smaller ones. 

M. VERTiciLLATA. Carpet^pced. 

Lvs. cuneiform, acute ; 5^. depressed, branched ; pedieds 1-flowered, sub- 
umbellate ; sta. mostly but 3.-— (J) A small, prostrate plant, in dry places through- 
out N. Am. Stems slender, jointed, branched, lying flat upon the ground. At 
every joint stands a whorl of wedge-shaped or spatulate leaves of xmequal size, 
usually five in number, and a few flowers, each on a solitary stalk which is 
very slender and shorter than the petioles. Flowers small, white. JL — Sep. 

Tribe 2.— SIIiEXEJE. 

Sepals wUied irUo a cylindrical tttbe. Petals clawedj inserted vntk the 

upon the stipe of the ovary. 

Silenui -wu a dranken divinity of the Greek$, covered with skver, as these planta an Mrith a ^ 

Calyx tubular, swelling, without scales at base, 5-toothed ; petals 5, 
nnguiculate, often crowned with scales at the mouth, 2-cleft *, stamens 
10 ; styles 3 ; capsule 3-celled, many-seeded. 

♦ Calyx veswul^irf inflated; petals scarcely croioned. 

1. S. ACACTLis. Stemless Campion. 

Low and densely csespitose ; lvs. linear, ciliate at base : ped. solitaiT, 
short, 1-flowered ; cal. campanulate, slightly inflated ; pet. obcordate, crowned. 
—% A little turfy plant, 1—3' high, on the White Mts., N. H., and throughout 
Arctic Am. Stems scarcely any. Leaves numerous, J' long. Flowers purple. 

2. S. STELLATA. Alt. (Cucubalus stellatus. Linn.) St^diate CampiM* 
Erect, pubescent; lvs. in whorls of 4s, oval-lanceolate, acuminate; cd. 

loose and inflated ; pet. fimbriate. — 7|. An elegant plant, woods and prairies, 
Can. to Car., W. to 111. 1 and Ark. Stem 2 — 3f high, paniculately cymose. Leaves 
2 — 3' long, i as wide, tapering to a long point, sessile. Calyx pale-green, with 
more deeply colored veins. Petals white, lacerately fringed, claws webbed 
at base. Jl. 

3. S. NivEA. DC. (Cucubalus niveus. Nutt.') Sn^nty Campion. 
Minutely puberulent, erect, simple or dichotomous above ; Irs. oblon^- 

lanceolate, acuminate ; fls. few, terminal ; cal. inflated, with short and obtuse 
teeth ; pet. &-cleft, with a small bifid crouii ; caps, stiped. — % in moist places, 
Penn., Ohio, near Cincinnati, {Clark \) 111. Stem slender, leafy. If— 3f hieb, 
generally forked near the top. Leaves 2—3' by Is — r, tapering to a very slender 
point, floral ones lance-ovate. Flowers 1 — 3. Calyx reticulated. Petals whitc- 

4. S. INFLATA. Smith. (Cucubalus Behen. Linn.) Bidder Campiii^ 
Glabrous and glaucous ; lvs. ovate-lanceolate ; /s. in cymose panicles, 

drooping: cal. ovoid-globular, reticulated "with veins. — % in pastures about 
fences, Charlestown, Ms. ! &c. Stem erect, about 2f high. Leaves 1^—3' long, 
i as wide, rather acuminate. Petals white, cleft half-way down. Calyx re- 
markably Inflated, and reticulated with pale purple vein's. Jl. — The young 
shoots and leaves may be used as a substitute for asparagus. 

*♦ Calyx not inflaUd. Petals crotoned. 

5. S. AnttrrhIna. Snap-dragon Catchrfly. 

Nearly smooth ; st. erect; lvs. lanceolate, acute, sub-ciliate; ped, trifid. 


Mowered; pa. emaiginate ; ad, ovate.— TJ. Road-sides and dry soils, CaiL and 
(T. S. Stem slender, branchings, with opposite leaves, about a foot in height. 
Leaves about Of long, the upper ones verv narrow, all sessile and scabrous on 
(he margin. A few of the upper intemodes are viscidly pubescent above their 
middle. Flowers small, red, in loose, erect cymes. Jl. 

6. S. NOCTURNA. Nocturnal CalcAr-fiy, 

St. branching, hairy below; Ivs. pubescent, with long ciliae at base, low- 
er ants spatulate, upper lance-linear ; fls. appressed to the stem, in a dense one- 
sided spike; col. cylindrical, almost glabrous, reticulated between the veins; 
ptt. narrow, 2-parted.--<D Near New Haven, Ct, Bobbins, to Penn. Va. Flowers 
vhite, greenish beneath. Jl. ( f 

7. S. noctiplOra. Night-flotoering CcUch-fiy. 
Viscid-pubescent; tt. erect, brancmng; lower Ivs. spatulate, tt/^p^ linear; 

cat. cylindrical, ventricose, the alternate veins veinletea ; teeth subulate, very 
\m%] pet. 2-parted. — ^From Europe, introduced into our cultivated grounds I 
Fioweis rather large, white, ei^anding only in the evening, and in cloudy 

8. S. Pennsylvanica. Michx. Permsylvanian Caichrfiu. 
Viscid-pubescent; sts. numerous; Ivs. from the root spatulate or cuneate, 

ef (he ttemr lanceolate; cyme feW-flowered ; ;)?^. slightly emarginate, sub-crenate. 
-^% Dryt sandy soils, N. £ng. I to Ky. and Ga. Stem decumbent at base, near- 
ly If high, with long, lanceolate leaves, and terminal, upright bunches of flow- 
ers. Calyx long, tubular, very glutinous and hairy. Petals wedge-shaped, 
led or purplish. Jn. 

9. S. ViROiNiCA. Virginian Catch-fly. 

Viscid-pubescent ; 5^. procumbent or erect, branching; fls. large, cymose ; 
col. large, clavate ; pet. bifid, broad, crowned. — Q\. Gardens and fields, Penn. to 
to Ga. Stem 1 — 2f high, often procumbent at base. Leaves oblong, a little 
rough at the margin. Cymes dichotomous. Stamens and pistils ezserted. 
Petals red, large. Jn. f 

10. S. REOiA. Sims. Splendid Catch-fly. 

Scabrous, somewhat viscid ; st. rigid, erect ; Ivs, ovate-lanceolate ; eymt 
pam'culate; pet. oblanceolate, entire, erose at the end ; sta. and stir, ezserted. — 
% A iai^e species, beautiful in cultivation, native Ohio, SuUtvantJ to La. 
Stems 3—4( high. Leaves 2—3', by 8—15". Flowers very laigei numerous. 
Calyx tubular, 10-striate, 1' long. Petals bright^scarlet, crowned. Jn. JLf 

11. S. Arbieria. Garden Catchfly. 

Very smooth, glaucous ; st. brancning, glutinous below each node ; Ivs. 
ovate-lanceolate ; fls. in corymbose cymes ; pet. obcordate, crowned ; cat. cla- 

long as calyx. Jl. — ^Sept. ^f 

6r. A4i;^i'0(, a lamp : come cottony ■pedes having been used aa lamp-vieki. 

Calyx tubnlar, 5-tootlied, ovoid or cylindrical ; scales ; petals 5, 
Tmguiculate, limb slightly cleft; stamens 10; pistils 5; capsule 1- 
oelled, or 5-celled at the base, with a 5-toothed dehiscence. — Corolla 
sometimes crowried. 

1. L. GiTHAGO. Lam. (Agrostemma Githago. Linn.) Com Cockle. 

Hairy ; st. dichotomous ; ped. elongated ; Ivs. linear ; col. longer than 
die corolla ; pet. entire, without the corona.—® A well known handsome weed, 
growing in fields of wheat, or .other grains, and of a pale green color. Stem 
5--3f high- Leaves 3—5' by |— *', fringed with long hairs. Flowers few, 
large, of a dull purple, on long, naked stalks. Seeds roundish, angular, purplish- 
hlask. Jl.^ 



58. L. CHJO^GEDONicA. SearUt Lyckfnis or Sioeet WBKow.— Smoothish; ^ftfr 
deulate: etd. cylindiic, clavate, ribbed; pet. 2-lobed.— Ql- A finegaidenrfloww, 
&atiye of RiiBsia. Stem l—2f high, with dark-green, ovate-lanceolate, acomi- 
aate leaves, and large, terminal, convex, dense fascieles of deep-scarlet floven. 
It has varieties with white JUnoprs^ and also with diwMe. Jn. Si. f 

3. L. FLOSCDcijLi. Ragged Robbin.—Smoothish; st. ascending, dichotomooi 
at summit; fis. fascicled: col, campanulate, lO-nhhed; pet. in 4 deej,ltoar 
segments.— 'Zf Native of Europe. Stem 1— 2f high, rough-angled, viadd abow. 
Leaves lanceolate, smooth. Flowers pink, very beautifol, with a brown, aaph 
lar, smooth calyx. Capsule roundish, 1-celled. Jl.— Sept. f 

4. L. coaoNiTA. Chinese Jjycknis. — Smooth ; ifa. terminal and arillaiy, 1-3: 
cal. rounded, clavate, ribbed ; yet. laciniate. — Native of China. Stem l-2f 
high. Petals of lively red, remarkable for their large siie. There are varietitt 
with cUnible red, and dovhle white flowers, f 

6. L. DrtfRKA.— *Sf. dichotomous-paniculate ; /s. J* 9 5 !**• l^atf-^J^ j*5 
narrow, diverging ; caps, ovoid-globose. — ^Native of Britain, almost na tn ialnw' 
Stems about 3f high, pubescent Leaves 1 — 3' long, elliptic-ovate, awfc 
Flowers light-purple, middle size. Jl. — Sep.f 

6. L. coRONARiA. DC. TAgrostemma coronaria. Linn.) JlWfewW*. 
Rote CflWMwwi.— Vfllose ; st. dichotomous ; ped. long, 1-flowered ; caL tMK^ 
!ate, veined. — %. Native of Italy. Whole plant covered with dense woflL Sen 
8f high. Flowers purple, large. Varieties are wkUe-floweredj red-dMlk^ 
ered, ic. f 

0»ff.— other ipeetM nrelF found in ooUeotk»f are L. ^gem with aoukt flDw«n; L. amlt,^ 
pjnkflowen ; L. alipinat low, with pink flowen, Ao. 


f ,fft. aapOf Map ; (he mucilacinoai juioe ia taid to make toap. 

Calyx tubular, 5-toothed, without scales ; petals 5, unguietlate ]^ 
mens 10 ; styles 2 ; capsule oblong, 1 -celled. Felals often tnmii 

1. S. OFPicmiLis. Comffum Soap^ort. , , 
X/E9. lanceolote, inclining to elliptical ; /s. in paniculate ftiicl»;» 

eylindrical ; oro»» of the petals linear.— QI By roadsides, New Eng. to Ga. * 
liardy, smooth, succulent plant, with handsome, pink-like flowers. Stem HJ 
high. Leaves 3—3' long, | or more as wide, very acute. FlowertmwjfPr 
colored, often double. The plant has a bitter taste, with a saponaceous jin* 
Jl. Aug. ( 

2. S. Vaccabia. Fly-trap. ^ 
Z/tw. ovate-lanceolate, sessile ; /j. in paniculate cymes; «»• Py*^ 

6-aD^ed, smooth ; brads membranaceous, acut* .— (j) G^urdens and cuiu^ 
grounds. Whole plant smooth, a foot or more high. Leaves broadest « ^ 

1 ^ long, i as wide, tapering to an acute apex. Flowers on longetaUM*'^ 

red. Capsule 4-toothed. Seeds globose, black. Jl. Aug. ^ f 


Qr. Aiof «vdof , the flower of Jore, aHadinK to ita preeminent beauty and IkaiovM*' 

Calyx cylindrical, tubular, striate, with 2 or more pairs of opP*?' 
imbricated scales at base ; petals 5, with long claws, limb ^^t^ 
notched; stamens 10; styles 2, tapering, with tapering, reToW* 
stigmas ; capsule cylindric, 1-celled. 

1. D. Armeria. Wild Pink. ur^ 

Lvs. lineaivsubulate, hairy ; fls. aggregate, fascicled ; scales of '*' ?E 
lanceolate, subulate, as long as the tube. — ® Our only native ^?^^^\.S 
pink, found in fields and pine woods, Mass. to^. J. I Stem erect, 1— » ^Jj 
branching. Leaves erect, 1 — 2' long, 1 — 3" wide at the clasping base, UJT 
ing to a subulate point. Flowers inodorous, in dense fascicles of 3 of^^' 

PoKTui^cji. XXiV. PORTULACACEjB. 19t 

Gi^ and its wales {' long. Petals small, pink-colored, sprinkled with wMtc, 
csaate. Aug. 

& O. BARBlTCS. Sweet WUUam or Bunch Pink, — Lvs. lanceolate ; Jb, aggr^ 
giie, fascicled ; scales of the calyx ovate-sabulate, as long as the talie. — ^4. An 

Flovers in &stigiate cymes, red or whitish, often greatly Tariegated. May. — ^JI. f 

3. D. Cbinensis. China Pink, — SL branched; Ivs. linear-lanceolate; Jt. 
solitary; scales linear, leafy, spreading, as long as the tube. — (g) Native of 
Odaou An el^ant species, well characterized by its leafy, spreading scales, 
nd its laige, t(»thed or crenate, red petals. The foliage, like the otner qie- 
des, vs erergreen, being as abundant and vivid in winter as in summer, t 

4. D. pLUMARius. Single Pink. Pheasant* s-eye, — Glaucous; st. 2— 3-flow- 
ered: /s. solitary j caiyx teeth obtuse; scales ovate, very acute; Ivs, linear; 
Rwgt at the edge; pet, many-cleft, hairy at the throat. — % Native of Europe. 
From this species probably originated those beautiful pinks calledpheasant*s 
<Te, of which there are enumerated in Scotland no less than 300 varieties, 
rlowers white and purple. Jn. — ^Aug. f 

5. D. CAKTonrriiLUfl. CamaJlMn. Bixaarres^ Picciees^ Flakes, 4^,'—Lvs. 
tinear-snbnlate, channeled, glaucous ; fis, solitary : scales very short, ovate ; pet. 
TOY broad, beardless, crenate.— Stem 3--3f high, branched. Flowers white 
and crimson; petals crenate. This q>ecies is sum>osed to be the parent of all 
the splendid varieties of the carnation. Over 400 sorU are now enumerated 
by florists, distinguished mostly by some peculiarity in color, which is crimson^ 
wkitc, rd, p^te, scarlet, yellow, and arranged in every possible order 01 
stripes^ dots, fla&es, and angles. 

6u D. auFBBBin. Superb Pink.^lJifS. linear-subulate; /s. fastigiate; scales 
sliort, ovate;'mucronate; pet pinnate.—^ A sinirularly beautiflil pink, native 
of Europe. Stem 2f high, branching, with manjr flowers. Petals white, gashed 
in a pinnate manner beyond the middle, and hairy at the mouth. Jl.--Sept. 

OI«.-Olhsr ipaein^rthis adminLbie leoiu are ooeaaioaaUy eultiTated. butthe jmrietiM of Not. 4 and 
tarelyAfUiewtooBimon, The " abwlWy PWf/' comniM in houM cutoratUm^ 
chaBadBd. ttaMr leavw^^ibort. oBapftoae ■tena. pinkfod, douUa flowen, affpeaa tohs avadiQrfllD. 

Order XXIV. PORTULACACE^.— Puksulnes. 

Arltraeealeator lleah7, with entire learea and no atfiralea. 
CSiC— -Sepab t, anted at baae. 

Or.-4^tafa S, aometuiies vera or leaa, imbricated in esUvatkm. 

Aa. tuiafele in mnaber. FOomanfy dutinet itnTAeri Tenattle ortotretw. 
(ha. anperior Keiled. Sfv. mvtn\, rtiraatwe alone the inner luriaee. ^^_. 
ft. a nrzia, dehndas br alid or capaule, loculicidal, with aa many nJYea aa Mgam . 
GeoBmis,af>ocieai84,lBhabitinf dnrptoceaineTeryqnajierofUieworld. Thej poawai no remaiks 


Conspectus of the Oenera, 
( CUwtde S-ralved ...••••••• TeHtninu I 

^«£e^S5r^-^T-^: :::::::: :SSSiS£J 

1. PORTULACA. Toum. 
S^mIs 2, the upper portion deciduous ; petals 5 (4 — 6), equal ; 
stamens 8 — ^20 ; styles 3 — 6-clefb or parted ; pyxis subglobose, dehisr 
cing near the middle, many-seeded, — Low, herbaceous, fleshy, Fls, 
expanding only in sunshine. 

1. P. OLEKACBA. Pwrdarte, j ^ ^^^^^ 

Lvs. cuneate : Jls. sessile.-^ A prostrate, fleshy weed more common 

In oar gardens than desirable. Stem thick and succulent, much branched, and 

tpreadinf , smooth. Leaves fleshy, sessile, rounded at the end. FIowcts yellow. 

'ftehertage of the plant is of a reddish-green color. Sometimes used as a pot- 


9. P. PiLOSA, 0. SearleUUfwered PuriUme. — Sts. ascending, much branched; 
branches suberect, enlargea upwards ; Ivs. linear, obtuse, the axils yillose with 
long, woolly hairs ; Jb. terminal, sessile, 1 or few together, surroonded hj aa 
irr^ular circle of leaves and dense tufts of wool ; pet. obovate ; sta. about 15.— 
A very delicate plant, with purple stems, and large, bright purple flowei&~ 
P. mu^o^with broader leaves and scarlet fls. is also popular in house col' 
tivation. The species are mostly natives of S. Africa, f 


In mexnonr of John Clayton, a botanist of Viiginia. 

Sepals 2, ovate or roundish ; petals 5, emarginate or obtuse ; sta- 
mens 5, inserted on the claws of the petals ; stigmas 3-clefl ; capsule 
3-valved, 2 — 5-seeded. — SmaM, fleshy, delicate, early flowering plants. 

1. C. CaroliniJLna. Michx. Spring Deauhf. 

Ijos. ovate-lanceolate ; sep. and pet. obtuse ; rt. tuberous. — % A delicate 
little plant, flowering in April, common in woods and rocky hills, Can. to N. 
Car. W. to the Miss. Root a compressed, brown tubercle, buried at a depth ih 
the ground, equal to the height of the plant Root-leaves very few, if aay, 
spatulate. Stem weak, 2--3' nigh, with a pair of opposite leaves half-way op, 
which are 1 — 2f by i— V) entire, tapering at base into the petiole. Flowers m 
a terminal cluster, white, with a sUght tinge of red, and oeautifidly penciled 
with purple lines. Apr. May. 

3. C. ViROiNicA. Virginian Spring Beauty. 

l/os. linear, or lance-linear; sep. rather acute; pet. obovate, mosd? 
emaiginate or retuse ; ped. slender, nodding. — %. In low, moist grounds, Mid. 
and S. States. W. to Mo., Everett ! rare in N. Eng. Tubercle or connus tf 
large as a hazelnut, deep in the CTOund. Stem 6 — 1(K long. weak, with a pair 
of opposite, very narrow leaves »— d' long. Flowers 5—10, roae-cdored, vith 
deeper colored veins, in a terminal cluster. Sepals acute or obtuae. Peiiis 
often elliptical, subacute. Apr. May. 

3. TALlNUM. Adans. 

Sepals 2, ovate, concave, decidaons ; petals 5, sessile ; stamens IQ 
— ^20, inserted with the petals into the torus ; style tnfid ; eapsule 
subglobose, 3-valved, many-seeded. 


St. simple or branched, short and thick ; Ivs, terete, subulate, crowded at 
the summit oi^ the stem, on short branches ; ped. elongated ; ^. in a dichoto- 
mous cyme; pet. purple. — %. An interesting little plant, on rocks, Penn. Dr. 
DarUngton I to Ark. Rhizoma or perennial stem firm and fleshy, with fibroos 
roots. Branches 1—3' long. Leaves I — ^S' long, incurved, fleshy. Bracts ovate- 
lanceolate, minute. Peduncles 5—8' high. Flowers small, ephemeraL Sta- 
mens about 20. Jn. — Aug. 

3. T. PATENS. — Spreading-flowered T\dinwn. — St. erect or decumbent at base, 
slsnder; Ivs. ovate, flat, fleshy; panicfe. terminal, with spreading, didiotomoaa 
peduncles. — n\. Native in S. Aimerica, A handsome plant, sometimes cultirat- 
ed. Stem 1— 2f high, round, purple, terminating in a naked, spreading pani- 
cle of small purple flowers. Leaves 2—3' long, tapering to the base. Ai|g.— Oct 

Order XXV. ELATINACEJS.— Water Peppers. 

ArfttnaalL umuj, with opposite loavM and membranaeooiii ttipales. FIb. miaate, udltar. 

CsL^fitepaJ* 9~S, diRtanct or lOiffht^ ooherent at bftie, penislont 

g^.— Petek hjpoffynous, as many a« the acpals. 

am. •qua] in number to, or twice •■ mony a* the petab. Anth. intrane. 

Ova. »--6;oolM. atlgmat it-b, capitate 5 placenta in the axii. 

G^en 6, tpeciee 22. found in cTcry part of the globe, growinr in "^fhftf. The following ia the «iill 

LlHOit. XXVl. UNAC&fi. t9 


Gr. tXunif fir; from the naemhlanee of the dsodwlaaw of nme f|Wdc«. 

Stigmas sessile, minute. 

£. AmbrioIna. Am. (Crypta minima. iV«/<. Peplys Americana. PA.) 
Jifiu2 RwrdoiM. — St. diniise, procumbent, striate, rooUng from the joints, 

vith assoigent branches; Ivs. cuneate-oval or obovate, obtuse, entire: jty. 0; 

Ji7.,pe<., sto. and Oig. d->3, as well as the cells and values of the capsule: x^9. 

Teiy minnte. — ^A small mud plant, on the borders of ponds and rivers 1 U. S. 

Fkwers axUlary, sessile, solitary. Corolla minute, closed. JL— ^ep. 

Order XXVI. LINAGE^.— Flaxwortb. 

1 or cofihitaMent 

. omio, aearile. alternate, MMnetimea neailj oppoaite. withoat stipalea. 
fk. tenainal, usually in cqiymbs or paniclea, reirul'U' and sjmmetrictu. 
COi.— Sepala 8, 4 or 6, dkUnet, or more or leaa united ; esativation atronf I7 imbrieated. 
C3pr.— Petals equal in oumber to aepals, hrpoffnous, unruiculate ; sativation twisted. 
SfesL 3, 4 or 5, united at base into a hypogynoas rinc, whicb is often toothed, oppoaite the petals. 
Om> « as many eells as sepals or styles, fitrte*. capitate. 
flit aalitavy in eaoh eeU, eompiessed, suspended. Alhvmen 0. 

teMia 3, apeeiea fP. A <wry important order in the arts. The Limim has a Twy tenacious fibre Is 
ha betk. which is wrought into thread and cloth, forming the Vtnen of commerce. Some species ate 
cBdHulw,«od yield fiomlheir seeds a fine mudlace. Only one genus need be mentioaed hem, via. : 


Cahieffte, a thread: heoeeXiyo*', Eng. Iinen,flu. 

Sepals, petals, stamens and styles 5, the latter rarely 3 ; oapsultti 
&Kselled ; cells nearly divided by a false disBeplment. (Fig. 11., No. 4. ) 

1. L. BioinuM. SUff-Uofoed FHax, 

St. angular, branching ; Ivs, alternate, rigid, linear, acute ; jKs. panicled ; 
xp, ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, and with the bracts, glandularly nmbriate- 
serrale on the margins ; cam. globose, shorter than the calyx.~H^ Near New 
Haven, Conn., RMinsJ R. I., found by the Prov. Bat. Assoc. Stem 10 — 16' 
high, erect, with many suberect branches above. Leaves 4—7'' by i — 1", sca- 
brous on the margin. Sepals 3-veined. Flowers 6—6" diam., sulphur-yellow. 

2. L. ViRCiNilNUM. .Virginian Flax. 

St. branching above, erect ; Ivs. alternate, linear-lanceolate, those of the 
root oblong, upper ones acute ; panicles corymbose, terminal, with tb**. flowers 
racemose on tne biranches ; sep. broad-ovate, mucronate ; caps, depressed, scarce- 
ly longer than the calyx. — (D Woods, hills, &c., U. S. and Can. Stem about 
St high, slender, leafy, terete, glabrous. Leaves 6 — 10" by 1 — ^2", with on^ 
distinct vein. Flowers 4 — 6" diam., yellow, on short pedicels. SepaU I- 
veined. Jl. 

0J? diffusum. Wood. — St. angular, diffusely branched ; bra^nches and UnvoeolaU 
Its. spreading; fis. very small (scarcely 2" diam.) — Wet prairies, la. ! Cluite 
diffeFent in ^bit and may prove a new species. 

3. L. rsFTATisslMUM. Camvum Flax, 

St. branching above; Ivs. alternate, linear-lanceolate, acute; panicle 
corymbose; sep. ovate, acute, 3-vcined at the base, membranaceous on the mar- 
Kin ; pet. crenate. — (J) Introduced and somewhat naturalized in fields. Stem 1 — ^9f 
nigh, with 3-veined leaves, and many large, handsome, blue flowers. Jn. Jl. — 
This important plant has been cultivated from remote antiquity, (see G^en. xli. 
42 ) for ue strong fibres of the bark, which are manufactured into linen. The 
seeds yield Unseed oil, so extensively used in mixing paint, printers* ink, dec. 
They are also medicinal. %% 

4. L. PEHENNE. Perennial Place. — Glabrous, with virgate branches ; Ivs. linear, 
acute, scattered ; fis. supra-axillary and terminal ; scpaXs oval, margins mem- 
branaceous, shorter than the globovse capsule : p*:iais retuse, blue, 3 or 4 times 
the loigth of the sepals.— 01. Native West of the Miss, (perhaps not within the 


196 XXYU. GERANIACEifi. Qbabbk 

limits of this Flora), also of Europe and Asia. Not uncommon in gtrdos. 
Flowers large, blue, -f 


fifiCimtheibaeeous or iitffiruteaoent, tumid and aeparable at the nodes. 

X/t». oppoiite. (at least the lower ones.) mostly stipulate, petJo]at«, palmatelf Teinad. 

Ft$. — Peduncles terminal or op[x>site the leav&s, sometimes axillary. 

Co/.-HSepals 5, persistent, veined, one sometimes saccate or spurred at baae. 

Cor. — ^Petals6, hypoxyuous or iierigyoous, unguiculaie ; aistivatiun twisted. 

Bta. usually roonadeiplious, hypo^noud, twice or Uirice as many aa the petals. 

Ov€L. ( of 3 united canwLi, 2-ovitled, alternate with sepals, upon an elotisated axk, from which tlMor 

Fr. — ) rate in fruit, curving upwards on the persistent style. 

Genem 4, species SOO. The Cape of fkiod Hope is the favorite habitation of some of the most 
tan. genera. Most species of the beautiful Pelargonia are native of that region alone. 

Conspectus of the Genera, 

aC perfect OarffiilKm. 1 

perfect, with 5 shorter and imperfect EndHsm. I 

perfect; corolla iiregtdar FeU ug i in lmnx I 


Gt. ytpavoi^ a crane ; the beaked fruit resemblea« cnuw*s bifl. 

Sepals and petals 5, regular; stamens 10, all perfect, the ^ alier 
nate ones longer, and each with a nectariferous gland at its base; 
fruit rostrate, at length separating into 5 long-styled, 1 -seeded cm- 
peb ; styles smooth inside, at length recurved from the base upwards 
and adhering by the point to the summit of the axis. — HerbaceoUj 
rarely shrubby at base. Peduncles 1,2 or ^-flowered. 

1. G. MACULATUM. Spotted Geranium. 

St. erect, an^lar, dichoiomous, retrorsely pubescent : Ivs. 3 — 5-parted, > 
lobes cuneiform and entire at base, inciscly serrate above, radical ones on long 
petioles, upper ones opposite, on short petioles; pet. entire; sep. mncrcmatt^ 
awned. — Woods, &c., U. S. and Can., but rare in N. Eng. A fine spfcies, 
worthy a place among the parlor " geraniums." Stem 1 — ^2f high. Leaves 
3 — 3' diam.. cleft | way down, 2 at each fork. Flowers mostly in pairs, oa 
nnequal pedicels, often somewhat umbelcd on the ends of the long pednndes. 
Root powerfully astringent. Apr. — Jn. 

2. G. ROBERTIANUM. JL lb Roh^fi. 

St: diffuse, hairy ; Irs. 3 — 5-parted to the base, the segments pinnatifid, 
and the pinnae inciselv toothed ; scp. mucronate-awned, half the length of the 
entire petals. — % Smaller and less interesting than the preceding, in dry, rockr 
places. Can. to Va. and Ky. It has a reddish stem, with long, diffuse, weak 
Dranches. Leaves on long petioles, somewhat hairy, outline 1|-— 3' diam^vith 
ninnatifid segments. Flowers small, pale purple. Capsules small, rugose, 
keeled. Seeds smooth. The plant has a strong disagreeable smell. May.— Sept 

3. Q. pcsiLTXM. WeaJc Crmie's-bUl. 
St. procumbent ; lv$. reniform or roundish, deeply 5— 7-parted, lobes 

3-cleft. linear; sep. hairy, acuminate, about as long as the emarginate petals.— 
(J) A delicate, .spreading .species, growing in waste ground.s, pastures, Ac, L. 1- 
and Western Pf. Y. Ttrrr. Stem weak, If long, branching, covered with short, 
deflected hairs. Leaves opposite, divided almost to the base into 5 or 7 lob©, 
these again variously cut. Peduncles axillarv, forked, bearing 2 purpli^-rai 
flowers in Jn. and Jl. 

4. G. Carolinianum. CarcUnian Crane's-bill. 
St. diffusely branched ; Ivs. deeply 5-parted, lolxjs incisely toothed; pe^ 

rather short and clustered on the ends of the branches ; sep, mucronate-awnei 
as long as the emarginate petals. — (X) Fields and hills throughout Can. and 
U. S. Stems pubescent, diffuse, 8 — 15' long, swelling at the joints. Leaves 
I — 1 J' diam., hairy. Flowers small, rose-colored, in pairs, and somewhat fas- 
ciculate. Seeds minutely reticulated, reddish brown, 1 in each hairy, bealwi 
carpel. Jl. — Perhaps too near the following species. 

VaLumunoL XXVU. 197 

5. O. DUSECTUif . WillcL Wbod Orane's-^U, 

St. diffose, pubescent; Ivs. deeply &-parted, lobes S-clefl^incisely dentate; 
pei. dicbotomoos ; pedicels hairy; sep. mucronately awned, scarcely as long as 
±e emarginate petals ; beak hairy ; carp, rugose. — (X) rocky places, N. Sts. ! 
A small spreading plan^ 8 — 12' long. Leaves pentagonal in outline, 1| — iif 
diam., dirisions and their segments oblong-linear, submucronate. Peduncles 
6—10" long, with 4 bracte at the fork. Pedicels 6—10" long. Sepals 3-veined. 
Petals purplish, deeply notched, a little longer than the sepals, in. Jl. 

6. G. •ANGuiNEOM. Bloody Geranium. — St. erect, diffusely branched; ped, 
kmser than the petioles ; Ivs. opposite, &-paxted, orbicular in outline, lobes tnfid, 
wiin linear seffments; carpels bristly at top. — A beautiful species natire of 
Eorope, deemed worthy of culture by many a florist. Grows aoout a foot high. 
Leares orbicular, deeply divided into 5 or 7, 3-fld lobes. Flowers large, round, 
of a deep red or bloodrcolor. f 

2. ERODIUM. L'Her. 
Cfr. eptaiiofy a henm ; flom the retemblanoe of the beaked fhiit to the henm's bOL 

Calyx 5'leaYed ; petals 5 ; scales 5, alternate with the filaments 
and nectariferous glands at the base of the stamens; filaments 10, 
the 5 alternate ones abortive ; fruit rostrate, of 5 aggregate capsules, 
etch tipped with the long, spiral style, bearded inside. 

1. £. MoscHATiTM. L^Hcritier. (Greranium moschatum. Linn.') MuskOera- 
nxuM. — St. procumbent ; Ivs. pinnated with stalked, ovate, unequally serrated 
segments ; ped. downy, glandular ; pet. equaling the calyx.— -<D Native of Eng- 
land. Sometimes cultivated for the strong, muskv scent of its herbage. A foot 
high. Leaves large. Flowers small, purple. May — ^Jl. 

2. E. cicoNiUM. L'Her. (G. ciconium. Ldnn.) Heron^s-biU Qeranivm. — St. 
ascending; Ivs. pinnate : Ifts. piimatifid, toothed ; ped. many-flowered ; pet. ob- 
long, obtuse.— h3) From S. Europe. Stem about If high. Flowers purple. 

Of. TcXepyof, ft stork; fhxn the retemblanoe of the beaked ftuit to the itork'i bill. 

Sepals 5, the upper one ending in a nectariferous tube extending 
down the peduncle with which it is connected; pet. 5, irregular, 
longer than the sepals; filaments 10, 3 of them sterile. — A large 
genus cf shrubby or herbaceous plants, embracing more than 300 species 
and innumerable varieties, nearly all natives of the Cape of Good Hope. 
Lower Ivs. {in plants raised from the. seed) opposite, upper ones aUernate. 

* Stem scarcely any. Root tiiberous. 

1. P. FLAVUM. Ca/rrotrleaved Oeranium. — St. very simple ; Ivs. decompound, 
faeiniate, hairy, segments linear; umbel many-flowered. — Flowers brownish- 
yellow. From the Cape of Good Hope, as well as the other species. 

2. P. TRisTE. Mourning Geranium. — Ijvs. hairy, pinnate ; Ifts. bipinnatifid^ 
divisions linear, acute. A foot high. Flowers dark green, in simple umbels. 

• • Stem elongated J herbaceous or svffruiicose. 

3. P. 0DORATIS81MUM. NiUnieg-scented Geranium. — St. short, fleshy: Ivs, 
roundish, cordate, very soft ; branches herbaceous, lon«r, difluse. — Valued cniefly 
for the powerful, aromatic smell of the leaves, the flowers being small, whitish. 

4. P. AlchemilloIdes. Lady^s-manUe Geranium. — St. villous ; Ivs. cordate, 
villous, 5-Iobed, palmate ; ped. few-flowered ; stig. sessile. — Stem 6^ high, dif- 
fi»e, very hairy, with deflexed bristles. Flowers pink-colored. 

5. P. TRICOLOR. T%ree-colored Geranium. — St. suffruticose, erect ; Ivs. lance- 
olate, villous, cut-dentate, trifid; upper pet. glandular at base.— Stem l^f high. 
This snecies is distinguished for its beautifully variegated flowers. Petals 
loundi^ and nearly uniform in shape, but very difl*erent In color ; the 3 lower 

t9B XXVIL 0fiItANUCR£. Fmjawtm. 

ones are white, slightly veined, the 3 upper of a ridh pniple, Bhnost Hick it 

6. P. coRiANDRiFOLiUM. Coriomder-leaved Oeranium, — St. herbaceoiu, UeB- 
nial, somewhat downy; Ivs. bipinnate, smooth, lobes Linear, snbpinnatl&L— 
Stem diffuse, If high. Distinguished by the finely divided leaTes and luge 
flowers. The 2 upper petals much the largest, oDovate, veined with pmple; 
the 3 lower, of which the middle one is often wanting, axe narrow aad of t 
pure white. 

*** Leaves neither divided nor angular} sUmJruHcose, 

7. P. OLAiHSUM. Qlameous4ea!oed Qeranivm, — ^Very smooth and gUncoat; 
Ivs. lanceolate, entire, acuminate; petL l^^flowered. — Stems 3f high, ahnbby 
and branched. The plant is remaricably distinguished by its leaves. Pedno- 
cles axillary, with 1 or 2 elegant flowers. Petals obovate, of a delicate bliab- 
color, with red veins. 

8. P. BBTULlNUM. Bvrch-Uaved Qeranimti. — Ijos. ovate, unequally ^^^^ 
smoothiah; stiip, ovate-lanceolate ; fed. 3— 4-flowered.— Stem shntbby, 3f higiL 
The plant is well named for its leaves. Flowers pide-pihk, with deep red tcids. 

9. P. acetOsum. SorrelrUaved Geraawwm,. — ^I/p«. very smooth. obo?ate,creMj, 
somewhat fleshy ; fed. few-flowered ; pet. linear.---Stem shrubby, 3f wg*- 
Named for the acid flavor of the leaves. Flowers pink. 

* * * * Leaves either angular or palmaJtely lobeds sUm fniikeu. 

10. P. zoNlLE. Horse-shoe Geranium. — Lvs. cordate-orbicular, obwl^ 
lobed, toothed, marked with a concentric zone.— Stem thick, shrublqr, Wf 
high. One of the most popular of all the species. Leaves always nanwl 
with a dark concentric stripe of various shades. The flowers are of a bripit 
scarlet, umbeled, on long peduncles. It has many varieties, of which theiw* 
remarkable is>^ 

0. marginale; silver-edged, the leaves of which are bordered with white. 

11. P. iNftulNAKs. Scarlet Geranium. — ^I/pj. round-reniform, scarcely dividej 
crenate, viscid ; umbels many-flowered ; pet. obovate, cuneate.— Justly >^5J5f 
for the vivid scarlet of its numerous flowers. The name alludes to the reddia, 
clammy moisture which stains the fingers in handling the soft, downy branch* 

12. P. PELTATtJM. Ivy-leaved Geranium. — Lvs. Mobed, entire, fleshy. awhA 
more or less peltate ; vmbds few-flowered. — Stem climbing, seven! feet ib 
length. Whole plant very smooth. A beautiiul species, with umbels of toT 
handsome purplish flowers. 

13. P. tetraoOnum. Square-stalked Geranium. — Branches i-comered, fle^^ 
lvs. cordate, bluntly lobed, somewhat toothed ; pet. 4, the upper ones V^^ 
with crimson veins, the 2 lower small, white. — Leaves small, rounded, notcW 
with scattered hairs. 

14. P. orandiflArum. Large-floufered Geranium. — Smooth, gl^^^^^'.!!^ 
5-lobed, palmated, cordate at base, the lobes dentate towards the cndj^jpjr 
times as long as the calyx.— Distinguished for the size and beautyw ^ 
flowers, which are white, the 2 upper ones elegantly veined, and tinged *i» 
red, larger than the rest. 

15. P. graveSlens. Rose-scenUd Geranium.— Lcs. palmately 7-lobed, ^ 
oblong, bluntly toothed, revolute, and very rough at the edge; uvtbdi owr 
flowered, capitatc—Nectaiy about half as long as calyx. Leaves vef>' »*■ 
grant Flowers purple. 

16. P. RADULA. Rasp4eaved Geranium. -^Lvs. palmate, rough; lobes naiTO|»i 
pinnatifid, revolute at edge, with linear segments; umbels few-flowered; a^ 
tary nearly as long as the calyx.— Distinguished for its large i^^Jf*J!!, 
deeply divided into Unear segments, and with a mint-like fragrance. Fiown' 

pwple- _^ 

17. P. aDERCiFOLiUM. OoMeaved Geranium.— Lvs. cordate, pinnatifid, ^ 
rounded recesses, lobes obtusely crenate ; branches and peHoles hispid.— I^'^ 
rough, oiten spotted. Flowers purplish. 


Mr— The above are among the more distinguished and popuiar speciei of this vaat and fltTOcite ttmm. 
hmunenble vaneJes produced from seeds and propagated by cuttings are equally common and oSton of 
npaior beaoiy. No feniu seema to be regarded with such onivenal favor for green>bouse plant* aa 
flw. The specie* and their multitudes of hybrid creations, produced by modem ingenuity, are cultivated 
with asaidaous attention by nearly every fuiiily which makes the kast prctensious to taste throufh- 
oat the dvibxed world. 

Order XXVIII. BALSAMINACE^.— Jewel Weeds. 

Arte anaoal, with auocuknt stems and a watery juice 

Im. simple, without stipules. Fia. very irregular and unsymmetrioal. 

CU.-H8epal> 5, deciduous, the 8 upper connate, the lowest spurred or gibbous. 

Obt.— Petals 4, hypogynous, united bv pairs, or mrely 5, distinct. 

Ai>> 9. hypogynotts. FUamenta subulate. Anther* 2-celIcd. 

Ota. 5-ceDed. com p ound. Stigma* sessile. 

Pr. capsular, S-celled, bursting elastically by 5 valves. Sd». several in each oelL Xlmtirvo straight 

Genem 2, species lio. With regard to its properties and uses, this order is of no importance, but somio 
of its species &re highly ornamental. 

Impatient, with respect to the irritable capsules. 

Sepals colored, apparently but 4, the 2 upper being united, the 
lowest gibbous and spurred ; petals apparently 2, each of the lower 
being united to the 2 lateral ones ; anthers cohering at the apex ; 
eapsule often 1 -celled by the obliteration of the dissepiments, 5- 
Talved, bursting elastically. — Stems smooth^ sucaUent, tender, sub-feUvr 
ad, vnih tumid joints. 

1. L PALLIDA. Nutt. (I. noli-tangere. Michx.) T^ouchr^-noL 

Los. oblong-ovate, coarsely and obtusely serrate, teeth mucronate; 
9ed. 2 — 4-flowered, elongated ; lower gibbous sep. dilated-conical, broader than 
ioDff, with a very short, recurved spur ; Jb. pale yellow, sparingly maculate. — 
(D Wet, shady places, U. S. ! and Can. Stem 2^f high, branched. Leaves 
2— g' long, I as wide, with large, obtuse teeth, eadi tipped with a very short 
mucTO. Flowers large, mostly in pairs. Two outer sepals pale green, callous- 
pointed, the rest pale yellow, the lower produced into a conic nectary, ending . 
m a spur i' long. Capsules oblong-cylindric, 1' long, bursting at the slightest 
touch when mature, and scattering the seed. Aug. 

2. I. PULVA. Nutt. CI. noli-tangere. 0. Mickx.) JeweUweed. 

Lvs. rhombic-ovate, ootusish, coarsely and obtusely serrate, teeth mucro- 
nate : ped. 2— 4-flowered, short ; lower gibbous sep. acutely conical, longer than 
broad, with an elongated, recurved spur ; fls. deep orange, maculate with many 

kngth, the recurved spur of the lower sepal 4' long. Capsule as in the last. Aug. 

3. I. BalsamIna. Garden Balsamine. — Ia:s. lanceolate, serrate, upper one» 
alternate; ped. clustered; spur shorter than the flower. — (J) From theE. Indies. 
It is one of the most beautiful of garden annuals, forming a showy pyramid of 
finely variegated, carnation-like flowers. The prevailing colors of the petals 
are red and white, but the former varies in every possible shade < ^ crimson, 
scarlet, porple, pink and flesh-color. The flowers are often double. ^ 

Order XXIX. TROPJEOLACE^.— Trofhyworts. 

PiamtK hertiaceous, smooth, dimbina or twining, with a punvoDt, watery juice. 

Xm. peltate or palmate. JFY*. irreguLiir. 

w/.— Sepals 5. colored, united, Uie lower one spurred. , ._ • 

Or.— Petals 6, the three lower ones stalked, the a upper inserted on the calyx. 

Aa. 8, dirtinct, unequal. 

Ono. of 3 united carpels. Style I. Sttgma$3. 

ft'.sspaiatingintoS indehiscont, l-seeded nuts. Sds. largo. Albumen 0. 

Genera 3, species 40, natives of 8. America. TheyrMPcas the same anH.i<»rbutic propeitiei as th» 
CmdliBra. The fruit of the fiollowing species is pica'cd aud used as a substitute for capers. 

$m XXXI. OXAUDACE^. Qzuia. 

Lat. tropeounit a trophy ; the leaf reaeinbles a shield, the flower an emptjr belmeL 

Character essentially the same as of the order. 

T. MAjus. Naslurtion. Indian Cress. — Lvs, peltate, rouDdish, repand on tiie 
margin, with the long petiole inserted a little one side of the centre ; pd, ob- 
tuse, the two upper diistant from the 3 lower, which are fimbriate at base, and 
contracted into long claws, — Native of Peru. Stem at length climbing by 
means of its long petioles several feet Leaves a fine example of the peltate 
form, about 2' diam. Flowers large and showy, orange-colored, with blotchei 
of deeper shade. They are eaten lor salad. June — Oct 


Berbt annual, with an acrid, watery juice. Lvs. alternate, pinnatifitl. 

Bttipuin 0. F^moen regular. 

Ca2.— Sepals 3—6, united at kue, peraistent, valvate in leativation. 

Oor.— Petals »--6, maresoent, inserted uiM>n an faypofsmous disk. 

Bta. twice as many as petalii and in^rtod with them. FUemAtUa opposite (lie sepals, with a small na- 

Ova. of 9— 6 distinct carpels. Bty. united. Stig. simple. (ob« 'ffm^kt tte bill. 

JFV. »— 6 aehenia, rather fleshy. Sccda solitary. 

Genera s, species 3, mostly natives of the temperate parts of North Atn^ r jf^ i. Tliey faave no i«r 
remarkable properties. Floerkea is the only nwthem genus. 

Named in honor of Flcsrke, a German botanist 

Sepals 3, loneer than the 3 petals ; stamens 6 ; ovaries 3, taber 
calate, style 2-cIeft. — (D small^ aqtuUic^ with pumaidy divided leaves. 

F. PHosBRPiNAColDEs. Liiidl. (P. uliginosa. MuM.) F'aise Mermad. 

Grows in marshes and on river and lie shores, Vt to Pcnn. W. to If a 
Stems decumbent, less than a foot in length, weak and slender. Leaves ahw- 
nate, upper ones, or those above the water, pinnately 5-parted, lower or sub- 
mersed ones mostly 3-parted, all on slender petioles 1—5' in length. Floven 
axillary, pedunculate. Petals white, small, about half as long as the aepak 
Aehenia large, 3 or 1, roundish. * 

Order XXXI. OXALIDACEA— Wood Sorrkia 

£S. low. herbaceous, with an add juice, and alternate, oompoond leaves. 

Snji. rarely present. F/«. regular and symmetrical. 

Cu.— Sepals 5, persistent, equal, sometimes slightly cohering at the base. 

Oor.— Petals 5, hypogynous, equal, unguiculate, deciduous, twisted in sesdvatJoo. 

MTo. 10, hypogynous, more or less monadelphous, those oppoaite the petals ioniesL 

Ova.— Carpels 5, united, opposite the petals. 

Vr. capsular, usually mennranous, 5-lobeU and 5-celled. 

Genemi, species 835, inhabiting hot and temperate regiona. The stem and leaves sanaalv i^i^ 
free oxalic acid. The order is represented in the Northern States by the f>lk>winff geawooS: 


Gr. o^Vf, sour; from the acid taste of most speeiea. 

Sepals 5, distinct or united at base ; petals much longer than tlie 
calyx ; styles 5, capitate ; capsule oblong or subglobose : earpeb 5, 
1— several-seeded.— ilfo5% % with trifoliate leaves. 

1. O. AcETOCELLA. Covtvum Wood Sorrd. 

Acaulescent; scape longer than the leaves, 1-flowered: Ifts. broad-^jbcor- 
^te, with rounded lobes ; sty. as long as the inner stamens ; H, dentate, scaJy.— 
Woods and shady places. Can. and Northern States. Leaves palmately S-foli- 
ate, on long, weak stalks, purplish beneath. Peduncles longer than the learea 
each with a nodding scentless flower whose petals are white. yellowisJi at the 
teM, ddicately veined with purple. The whole plant has ail agreeable, add 


flL O. viOLiCfiA. Violet Wood Sorra. 

Acaulescent, smooth; scape umbelliferoas ; pedicels subpubeacent; Jb, 
nodding; tips of tkt col, fleshy: sty, shorter than the outer stamens. — An elegant 
^Mcies, in rocky woods, &c., throughout the U. S. Bulb scaly. Scape nearly 
twice taller than the leaves, 5—8' high. Leayes palmately 3-u>liate, sometimes 
none ; leaflets nearly twice as wide as long, witii a yenr shallow sinus at the 
Tery broad apex. Umbel of 3— 9 drooping flowers. Petals lai^ge, violetFColozed, 
striate. May. 

3. O. sTRiCTi. Yellow Wood Sorrd, 

Caulescent ; st. branching, erect ; ped, nmbelliferoos, longer tlum petioles ; 
jty. as long as the inner stamens.— <p Fields, U. S. and Can. The plant yaries 
in height, from 3 — d' or more, accoraing to the soil. Stem leafy, round, smooth, 
looeulent. Leayes palmately 3-foliate, numerous, scattered on long stalks. 
Umbels on long, axillary stalks, about the length of the peti<4es. Flowers 
small, yellow, appearing all sujamer. Capsules sparingly hirsute, with spread- 
ing hairs. 

4. O. cornicuiJLta. Ldidies^ Wood Sorrd. 

Caulescent ; st. creeping, radicating, difiusely branching ; Ifis. pubescent ; 
fed. 2 or moie-flowered, shorter than the petioles ; pet. cuneiform, erose at the 
apex ; sty. hong as the inner stamens. — Grows in cultiyated grounds, U. S. and 
Can. Resembles the last, but ** Is undoubtedly distinct." RobUnt. Stems leafy, 
prostrate, a foot or more in length. Sepals pubescent, half as long as the emar- 
ginate, jrellow petals. Capsules densely and closely pubescent. May, and after. 


IVMt or afkrute, wittioat •tipulea. 

Im. ahonsto or oppoiite. pinnate, ramly ample, with peOueid dots. 

{k. lefolur, poljgiUMmi, fray, fieen, or pink. Sep. 9— f , •mall, ooberinff at the baae. 

Cm-.— Petak KMifer Uian the aepaJa, of the same number or 0. 

Bto. akeniaie with petaJa, of the aaroe number, aeldom twice aa many t in the pittilhtt flofwtn aitbtr 

^wwteaor inpeifect. Atuhen intnxM. 

OeAnmSjr of the lame number aa lepali, atipitate, diatinct or united. 

vT. baocale, ■Mabranaceona or drvpaceona, or S-nUved eapanlea. 

Genera », apedea lie, chiefly of tropical America, only 3 genera beinf natiTe in the United Stalea. 

/^(^wMflR,— Btaer, aromatic and atimubnt ; propertiea reaidinc chiefly in the baric 

Conspectus of ike Cfenera, 

(tnea,wiUkai-4l-tiliateleairea AOmUhm. S 

JaiinbBfWithfr^ftUateleaYea JPlalea. f 

duaba. Zanthomylvm. i 

Or. ^av^of , yellow, (vXop, wood ; from the color of the wood. 

9 Calyx inferior, 5-partQd ; corolla ; stamens 3 — 6 ; pistils 3 — 5 ; 
carpels 3 — 5, l-seedea; 9 like the $ but wanting the stamens; J 
like the 9 but wanting the pistils. — Leaves pinnately 3 — 5'foliaie. 

Z. Americanum. Miller. (Z. fraxineum. WUld.) Prickly Ash. 

Prickly ; Ifts. ovate, subentire, sessile, equal at the base j umbels axillary.— 
A shrub 10 or 1 2f high, found in woods in most parts of the U. S. The branches 
are armed with strong, conical, brown prickles with a broad base. Leaflets 
about 5 pairs with an odd one, smooth above, downy beneath; common petioles 
with or without prickles. Flowers in 8ma.4 dense umbels, axillary, greenish, 
appearing before the leaves. The perfect imd the staminate ones grow upon 
the same tree, and the pistillate upon a separate tree. The bark is bitter, aro- 
matic and stimulant, used for rneumatisni and to alleviate the tooth-ache. 
Apr. May. 


9 ? d* Sepals 3 — 6, mostly 4^ much shorter than the spreading 

petals ; c^ stamens longer than the petals and alternate with them, 

very short and impeifect in 9; oTary of 2 united carpels; styles 


united, short or ; stigmas 2 ; fruit 2-celled, 2-6eed6d 8amarae,vith 
a broad, orbicular margin. — Shrubs with 3 — S-foliate leaves. Fk. 

P. TRiPOLiiTA. Shrubby TVefoil. 

Ijvs. 3-fo)iate, Ifts. sessile, ovate, short-acuminate, lateral ones inequik- 
teral, terminal ones cuneate at base; ofmes corymb(»e; sla. mostly 4; j^. 
short.— An ornamental shrub, 6 — 8f high, Western States! rare in Wesien 
N. Y. Leaflets 3 — 4*' by 1^ — If, the peduncles rather longer. Flowers while, 
odorous, nearly ^' diam. Samara nearly 1' diam. 


$ 9 cf Sepals 5, more or less united at base ; petals 5 : $ stameiu 

2—3 ; ovaries 3 — 5 ; styles lateral ; fruit a 1 -celled, 1 -seeded Baman 

with oblong margins; d* stamens 10; 9 ovaries, styles and samaw 

as in 9. — OriefUal. Trees and shrubs with pinnate leaves, Fls.» 


A. glandulOsa. DesC TVee of Heaven. — Ia^s. glabrous, unequally pimiaiei 
Ifts. ovate or oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, shortly petlolulate, with one or wo 
obtuse, glandular teeth each side at base, termiruuone long-petidate.— A tne 
of large dimensions, and with extremely rich and luxuriant loliage, a^^^ 
China and Japan. Trunk straight, with a smooth, brown bark. Leaves 3--» 
in length, with 10— -20 pairs of leaflets and an odd one. Flowers in ten MBU 
panicles, greenish, perfecting seed in our climate. — ^The tree is of cxti«Bio' 
rapid growth, and is becoming common in our streets and shrubberies, f 

Order XXXIII. ANACARDIACE^.— Sumachs. 

Treet or thnOt, with a resiiioiM, rummy, caustic, or even milky juiee. 

Lv. alternate, limple or temate or unequally pinnate, without pelluoid dots. 

#Vv. terminal or axillary, with bracts, oomnxmly dimcioua. 

Go^— Sepals 3r~6, united at base, persistent 

Oor.— Petals same number as sepals, sometimes 0, imbricate in aetivatioa. 

Bta. as many as petals, alternate with them, distinct, on the base of the oalyz. 

Ova. l*ceUed, free. Ovule one. Styles 3 or o. StirmasS. 

Fr. a berry or drupe, usually the latter and l-seedeoT _0 

Genera 41, species 96, chiefly natives of tropical reffions, repieeented in the United StalM V 
Rhus only. ^^ iito^ 

Proverfles.—These plants abound in a resinous juice, which is often poisonous, ^'^i'JS^lfl^ipKii* 
ble ink in marking linen, and as an ingredient in varnish. Even the exhalations from '^""^SJ^ geik i^ 
are deemed poisonotu. The Cashew nut is the product of a small tree of both I^JfU'^Vk s eatfK^ 
kernel is full of a milky juice, and has a most delicious taste, but the coats are nliea wiw • 
which blisters the skin, and kills warts. 

5; eij\^ 


Said to be from ^<a>, to flow ; because used in hemwrhage. 

Calyx of 3 sepals united at base ; petals and stamenB^ ; fV "^ 

3, stigmas capit&te ; fruit a small, 1 -seeded, snbglobose, ^^^j^ 

— Small trees or shrubs. Leaves aXternaie^ mostly compound. ^^^"^ 

often by abortion 9 J* or 9 5 cT. 

* Leaves pinnate. 

1. R. GLABRA. Smooth SuMoch. inninS^ 

Lajs. and branches glabrous; Ifls. &— 15 pairs, lanceolate, acD» ^ 

acutely serrate, whitish beneath; /r. red, with crimson hairs.— TnicK^y. 

which'in the fruit becomes crimson, and contains malic acid (^''J ^ ^ 
lime. Prof. Rogers), extremely sour to the taste. Jn. Jl.— The »J|J*jj \a^ 
and other species may be used in tanning. The drupes dye red- l-w***' 
neglected are sometimes overrun by this shrub. 



9. R. TTPHlNA. Stag-kom Sunutck, 

Branches and petioles densely villous ; Ifls. 6 — 15 pairs, oblong-lanceolate, 
acuminate, acutely serrate, pubescent beneath ; fr. rea, with crimson hairs. — 
A lai^r shrub than the former, attaining the height of 20f, in rocky or low 
barren places, U. S. and Can. Stem with straggling, thick branches. Leaves 
at lengtn 2 — 3f long. Leaflets a— 4' long, i as wide, sessile, except the termi- 
nal odd one. Flowers in terminal, thyrsoid, dense panicles, yellowish-green, 
often 9 <^ or 9 9 cf- I^rupe« compressed, compact, the crimson down very 
add. Jn. — ^Tne wood is aromatic, of a sulphur-yellow, and used in dyeing. 

0, lacimata. — Lfts. very irregularly coherent and incised; panicles partly 
transibrmed into gashed leaves. Hanover, N. H. Richard. 

3. R. coPALLlNA. Mountain Sumac. 

Branches and petioles pubescent ; Ifls. 4 — 10 pairs, oval-lanceolate, mostly 
entire, unequal at base, common petiole winged ; fis. in dense panicles ; drupes 
fed, hairy. — ^A smaller shrub, not half the height of the last, in dry^ rocky piar 
oes, U. S. and Can. Common petiole about 6' long, expanding into a leafy 
margin, between each pair of leaflets. Leaflets l>--3^ long, near | as wide, 
dark green and shining on the upper surface. Panicles of flowers terminal, 
leasile, thyrsoid, 9 J*j greenish. Drupes acid. Jl. 
fi. Uafiks coarsely and unequally serrate. N. Y. BarraU. 

4. R. VENENATA. . DC. (R. vcmix. Linn.) Poison Sumac. Dog-wood, 
Very glabrous; l/ts. 3 — o pairs, oval, abruptly acuminate, very entire: 

panicles loose, pedunculate ; drupes greenish-yellow, smooth. — A shrub or small 
tree of fine appearance, 10-— 15t high, in swamps, U. S. and Can. Trunk seve- 
ral inches diam., with spreading branches above. Petioles wingless, red, 6 — lO' 
long. Leaflets about 3^ long, nearly^} as wide, sessile, except the odd one. 
Panicles axillary, 9 J', those of the barren tree more diff'use. Flowers very 
small, green. Drupes as large as peas. Jn. The whole plant is very poison- 
ous to the taate or touch, and even taints the air to some distance around with 
its pernicious effluvium. 

• ♦ Leaves temale, 

5. R. Toxicodendron. Poison Oak. Poison Ivy. 

Erect or decumbent ; Ivs. pubescent ; Ifts. broadly oval, acuminate, entire 
or sinuate-dentate ; jls. in racemose, axillary, subsessile panicles ; drupes smooth, 
roundish. — Can. and U. S. A small shrub, I — 3f hign, nearly smooth in all 
its parts. Leaflets 2—^ long, I as wide, petiolate, the common petiole 4 — & 
long. Flowers small, 9 (f • Drupes pale brown. Poisonous, but less so than 
the last 

0. radicans. Torr. (R. radicans. Linn, and of 1st edit.) Poison Ivy. 8k 
climbing 3 — ^30 or 50f ! by myriads of radicatinj^ tendrils.— It seems now gen- 
erally conceded that this is but a varietur. Certainly, if so, it is a very remark- 
able one. In damp, shady places. Poisonous. 

6. R. AROMATiCA. Ait. Swcet Sumac. 

lifts, sessile, incisel^ crenate, pubescent beneath, lateral ones ovate, ter- 
minal one rhomboid; Jls. m close amcnts, preceding the leaves; drupe globose, 
villous. — A small, aromatic shrub, 2 — 6f high, in hedges and thickets. Can. ana 
U. S. Leaflets 1 2' long, \ as wide, sessile, the common petiole an inch or 
two in length. Flowers yellowish, with a 5-lobed, glandular disk. Drapes 
ted, acid. May. 

• ♦ ♦ Leaves simple. 

7. R. CoTlNUs. Venetian Sumac. — Lvs. obovate, entire ; fls. mostly abor- 
tive; pedicels finally elongated and clothed with long hairs.— A small shrub, 6f 
hitfh, native in Ark. according to Nuttall, remarkable chiefly for the very sin- 
guar and ornamental appearance of its long, diffuse, feathery fruil-stalks, 
showing in the distance as if the plant were enveloped in a cloud of smoke. 
Flowers small, in terminal, compoimd panicles. Leaves smooth, entire, much 
nmnded at the end. In Italy the plant is used for tanning, f 



Order XXXIV. RUTACE^.— Rueworts. 

Berba, or generally shrabs and trees, with punctate Ivn. ood no stipulea. 

Ftt. perfect. Sep. 4—6. Pet. 4—5, mrely 0. ,^ .. i. 

Sta. as lUHtiy, or twire or thnro m many an pctula, inserted on the outside of a eup-uke diik. 

Ora. 3— 5-lobed, 3— 6-ceiled ; styled united or distinct uidy at base. 

JFV. usually aepaTalinjr into itji cumiKNieut, fev\'-»ecded car{>el9- 

Genen 47, apecieii 400, usually inhabitia^the warmer inuIs of the temperate zone on the East«noa» 
tinent, and the equatorial parts of 8. America. They aie characterized by a iwwerful odor and i i<ta» 
bittemesa, oAan wbrifucai and autheLmiotic. Dictomnus abouods in a volatile oil, diffuuac*o >n» 
mable gaa. 


Sepala permanent. Petals equal Kttfa 1 

Sepals deciduous. Petals unequaL XMcAMMii 

1. R a T A. 

Calyx of 4 — 5 sepals united at base ; petals 4 — 5, concaye, obo- 

yate, distinct; torus surrounded by 10 nectariferous pores; stam^ 

10 ; capsule lobed. — % Herba/xous or shrubby ^ mostly ^European. 

R. GRATEOLENs. Common Rue. — Suffruticose, nearly glabrous ; to. 2 and 3- 
pinnately divided, segments oblong, obtuse, terminal ones obovate-cuneaie, all 
entire or irregularly cleft ;^. terminal, corymbose ; pet. entire. — Native of 8. 
Europe. Stem branched, i— 4f high. Leaflets 6—10" by 2 — 4", conspicnoasly 
dottea. Corolla yellow, 6" diam. Jn. — Sept. ^ 

Calyx of 5 deciduous sepals ; petals 5, unguiculate, unequal ; fila- 
ments declinate, with glandular dots ; capsules 5, slightly united.—^ 
Herbs, native of Germany. 

D. iLBus. Willd. (and D. Fraiinella. Link.) FraxineUa.--Sl. simplei 
Ivs. pinnate, the rachis more or less winged; /s. in a large, terminal, erect pan- 
icle.— In gardens. Stems 1— 2f high. Flowers showy, white, varying to ro«- 
color and purple. The whole plant emits a lemon-scented, aromatic, volatik 
oil, which is so abundant in hot weather as to render the air around it inflaift- 
mable. t 

6. rubra. Flowers purple ; rachis of the leaves winged, f 

Order XXXV. AURANTIACE^.— Oranges. 

TrMt mthnUa, glabrous, abounding in little transparent receptacles of volatile oiL 

Lvt. alternate, aiuculatea with the petiole which \« frequently winged. 

Col. — Sepals 9—6, united into a short, urccolate or campanulate cup. 

CSor.— Petals »-«. 

Sta. as many as the petals, or some multiple of their number, io a single row, hypocynoos. 

Ova. compounded of several united airpels. Style 1. 

-fV. — A berry (orange), many-celled, pulpy, covered with a thick rind, 

Sda. attached to the inner angle of each airpei. Albumen 0. _^ 

Genera 90, species M^ nearly all natives of tropical Asia, and are natunliied througiioat ^^VS 
regions, and cultivated ui all civilized countries for their l)eauty and fragrance, both of flowenw*"*" 

^Pf'op'^f^—J^^^^ fruits contain free citric and mafic arid, and their pulp is grateAil tofcbe 'Jjj 
The rind contains an aromatic, volatile oil, which in tonic and Ntomachic. The rind of the luM f*^ 
the oU or Beryamot, and the flower of the orange the oii qf Neroli. 


Gr. Kirpia, the citron ; the fruit of one of the species. 

Sepals and petals in 6s ; anthers 20, or some other and high*' 
multiple of 5, versatile, the connectile articulated to the filament; 
filaments dilated at base, polyadelphous ; berry 9 — 18-celled.— i"** 
ble genus of trees and shrubs, all tropical, combining in its species, hee^ 
ofform,wUh shining, ever-green foliage, odoriferous floicers, andfrag^ 
and delicioUrS fruit. 

1. C. L1M6NUM. J>m(m Tree. -—Petioles somewhat win^d, articulated wjjj 
the lamina (which is thus shown to be the terminal or odd leaflet cf a rednc» 


eompoimd leaO; Ifi. oblong, acute, dentate; sta.2b]fr. oblong-spheroid vith 
a thm rind and very acid pulp.— A tree about 15f in height, which, when laden 
▼ith its golden fruit, suspended among its dark green leaves, makes a most 
beautiful appearance. It is a native of tropical regions, and is easily cultivat- 
ed in our climate if protected during winter, -f 

2. C. Lim£ti. Ldme Tree.-^Petioles not winged ; leaf (leaflet) ovate-orbicu- 
lar, serrate ; sto. 30; fr. globose, with a sweet pulp, and a protuberance at top 
This like most other species, is native of Asia. Height about 8f, with a crook- 
ed trunk, diffuse branches with prickles. Berry 1 J' diam of a greenish-yellow 
shining surface, f ^ * 

3. C. AcRANTiuM. Sweet Orange Tree. -^Petiole winged; leaf(leaileO oblouff 
acute, crenulate ; ste. 20 ; >. globose, with a thin rind and sweet pulp.--A mid- 
dle-sized evergreen tree, with a greenish-brown bark. When filled with its- 
large, round, golden fruit (sometimes to the number of 20,000, Ldridley) it is 
ooe of the most beautiful objects in nature. It is easily cultivated in the CTcen 
house, f ^ 

4. C. Medica. CUron TVee.—Prfwfes not winged ; leaf (leaflet) oblong acute* 
Ua. 40 i Jr. oblong-spheroid, rugose, with an acid pulp.— Commonly about s/ 
high. Fruit & in length, very Iragrant. f 

5. C. DECCMANA. Shoddock TYee.— Petioles winged; leaf (leaflet) obtuse 
emarginate; fr. very large, with a thick rind.— A tree 15f in height. Wings 
of the petioles as broad as the leaves. Fruit grows to the diameter of 7—8' 
weighs 14 pounds, and is of a yellowish-green color, f ' 

«2f^^Sf •Plendid 7«* entitled " The Natwal Hwtoiy «f Onnge;" written in French bj Rjm of 
Woe m 1818, tlMSfe are djMcnbed iCO truietiei, and lOSofthemfifured. Thojare KmngeduShieetOrJi 

aof wlucli than are deacnbed 43 vanetiea ; Bitter and Sour Oranret, ta : I^omoSs • z£^. s^ 
^^; Limm, 12s LemoM, 46; Ottrom, 17. The moat «S»d iSKS^'MltiStSS i^ 


Tnm mtkrvba, with alternate, ooriaoeoui, exatipolate havei. 

Ft9. azniBiT or tarmina], white, rarelf red or pink. 

CaL-Sepmh B or T, coneaTe, ooriaoeooi, decidoons. the inner often the lamiL 

Gor.-Petaii 5. < or 1. not equal in number to the lepala. «xien. 

Sta. 00, hri^otjooiu. FOaments distinct, or united into one or more leti. 

Om. supenor. with aeveral cells. BtylM 3-7, more or leai combined. 

rr. 9-7-eeIied, eapraiar. Bds. iarie, lew, attached lo the azi«. 

Gown 33. species 130. Beaatiftil flowerinc plante, 00 or 70 of them natives of a AmArfiM j «r w 
AmCTca, the remainder of China and E. Indfes!' Thiir piooertie. S?" SSJSj l&e kS?wn 'ThfrS: 

!?i5*'**^'"fiSl?'**''*^"*i'»*L5^^,«^^"'<» ""^ leaf of 3 Ss speS ff Sl it^ 
Jjmsape ciUiar extraeUve matter and a stmiulatinf. essential oil. which becoaSbLootio ilTsoi^ 


8oi»k{»i.5?'!SiqSrSeimH^roie.kriest (Shrub..)* I .' .' ! ! SSSSi 


In honor of James Gordon, a distinffuisbed nnneryman of London. 

Sepals 5, roundish, strongly imbricated ; petals 5 ; styles united 

into on« ; capsule woody, 5-celled ; cells 2-seeded ; seeds winged. 

Trees wUh large^ white flowers. 

G. PUBE8CEN8. L'Hcr. (Franklinia Americana. Marsh.) FS-a^linia.^Lcs. 
senate, dedduonB, oblong-cuneiform, shining above, canescent beneath : sep. and 
fd. sflky outside.— A tree 30— 50f high in Ga. and Flor., or an ornamental 
Jhnib in cnllivation at the north, admired for its large, white flowers, with yel- 
low stamens and rich fragrance. May — ^Aug. 


In honor of G. J. Kamel, a Jesuit, author of some botanical works. 

Sepals imbricated, the inner ones larger ; petals sometimes adher- 
ing at base, filaments 00, shorter than the corolla, united at base * 
styles united ; stigmas 3 — 5, acute. — Ornamental shrubs^ native of 
China and Japan, 


fit. lermimd and mostly solilarj ; yrt, obovate, of a firm teilore ; ita. abosl JS, 
mostly changed to petals in cultivation; Oig. UDequally S-clcft. A loAy mcii 
Jftpan, its Dative country, a splendid floweruig shrub with ns, of difficult culli- 
Tation, lequiiiog protection m our climale. Flowers TaiTiug fromTluieM 
red, resembling the rose but wanting its fragrance. Over 300 yarietiM «t 


SfAiDdeHmU. IncciBdelphDui. AjuHert l-ceUed. bun 

rt — _, -1 --jpeinmngfldmoneof OK "" " 

H oatpeli, «i(b« united or 
Ate HOPtiiiHfl tu In Qtmrvi^iaai tai/j. EKtbryo CDrred. 

Caljx 5-cIefl, the invDliicel moatlj S-lraved ; carpels 00, 1-mM 
1-M«ded, indehisoeDt, arraDged circidarlj. 

1. M. tOTDHDirOUA. LOK MoOoui. . 

St. proelrale; Ivs. ronndish, cordate, otitiisely ^-lobedj ped. in ft'"'^ 
ieiedj atr. twice sa long as the ca.lyi.—% Common in cnltirated P*""?; 
Root foBiform. Stems numerous, a foot or more long. Leavo of a fiae,*"" 
cats teiture, somewhat reniform, crenale, with 5 — 7 shallow lobes, and oaWJi 
haiiTf stalks. Pednnclesaiiilary, aegregale. Petals pale pink, deepl)[i»<M* 
Fruit depreased-globcse,conijiosed of the nnmerous carpels arranged ciRuluj'' 
The child sportively calls them cheext, a name which their form very natwuil 
n^gesia. Jn. — Oct. % 

9. M. sn-TEimtis. Bish MaOne. (Fig. 41, 5.) 

at. ei«ct; tei. (r— 7-lobed, lobea rather acnle ; jwd and petiole* htiT' 


% Native of England. A popular garden flower of the easiest cnltnre, often 
nrJDsinj^ np spontaneously m fields and roadsides, Mid. and W. States ! 
Height 3f. Flowers reddish purple, with veins of a darker hue. The whole 
piant, especially the root, abounds in mucilage. Jn. — Oct. ( f 

3. M. HouGHTONn. Torr. &• Gray. Houghton's Malva, 
St. erect, hirsute ; Ivs. strigose, ovate, truncate at the base, lower ones 
cordate, all undivided, coarsely crenate ; panicle terminal, diffuse, many-flow- 
end] pet. purple: iarpels 10 — 15. — Prairies and bottoms. 111. Mead J Ac. A 
handsome but rather rough species. 2 — 3f high. Root fusiform. Leaves 2 — 3' 
by 1—2', on long, hairy petioles, thick. Flowers nearly as large (IJ' diam.) 
as those of M. sylvestris. JI. Aug. 

4. M. MacritiIna. Iuy4eaced Mallow. — St. erect ; hfs, 5-lobed, obtuse ; peH- 
ties and pedicds smoothish, or downy on the upper side.— <D From S. Europe. 
A tall species, 4 — 6f high. Stem smooth. Flowers purple, with deeper colored 
veins, f 

5. M. MOscHlTA. Musk MaUow. — St. erect; radical Irs. renifojm, incised. 
cmdine ones many-parted, the segments linear ; ped. and col. hairy. — Native oi 
Britain. Stems 2f' high, branched. Flowers large and handsome, rose-colored. 
Tht whole herb gives out a musk-like odor in favorable weather. Jl. 

& M. CRisPA. Curled or Crisped4eaved Mallow. — St. erect ; Ivs. angular-lobed, 
dentate, crisped, smooth : Jls. axillary, sessile. — (p A tall, straight, simple, erect 
aUmt from Syria. Gardens, almost naturalized^ Stem 5 — 6( high. Leaves 
large, roundish, margins abundantly crisped and curled. Flowers white, not 
conspicuous. Jn. — ^Aug. f 


A word mid to be from the Arabic, gae, a n'lkj rabetaoee. 

Calyx obtoselj 5-toothcd, stirroanded by an involucel of 3 cordate 

leaves, deeply and incisely toothed ; capsule 3 — 5-celled ; seeds in- 

Tolved in cotton. — Fls. yellow. 

1. O. HERBACEUM. Common Cotton Plant. — Lvs. 5-lobed, with a single gland 
below, lobes mucronate ; cotton white. — This is the species commonly culti- 
vated in the Southern States. It is an herbaceous plant, about 5f high. The 
flowers like those of all the other species are yellow. Leaves cut half way 
down into 3 large and 2 small, lateral, rounded, pointed lobes. Gland on the 
midrein at its back, half an inch from the base. Jl. f 

2. G. Babbadense. Sea Island Cotton Plant.^Lrs. 5-lobed with 3 glands 
beneath, upper ones 3-lobed : seeds black ; cott4)n white.— <2) Native and culti- 
vated in the W. Indies. A larger plant than the foregoing. Sown in Sept. 
and Oct An acre pelds an average product of 270 poundiB of this cotton. — 
These plants are ornamental in cultivation, t 

3. LAVATfiRA. 

Named in honor of the two Lavaten, phrrictane of Zurich. 

Calyx onrronnded at base with a 3-cleft involucel; earpelfl 00, 1- 
celled, 1 -seeded, indehiscent, arranged circularly. 

1. L. ARBOREA. Dree Mallow.^Lvs. 7-angled, downy, plicate; pedicels axil- 
lary, 1-flowered, clustered, much shorter than the petiole. — ® A splendid plant 
fat borders or shrubberies, from Europe. Height about 6l Flowers purple. 
Sept Oct. t 

2. L. Thxtringiaca. Gay Mallow. — Z/i?5. somewhat downy ; lower ones angu- 
lar, upper ones 3-lobed, the middle lobe largest.— TJ. From Germany. Height 
It I^oweis light blue. Sept. • 

4. ALTHiEA. 

Gr. aXSbif to cure ; the mndlacinoua root is highly enteemed in medieiae. 

Calvx surrounded at base by a 6 — 9-cleft involucel ; carpels 00, 1- 
0eedea, indehiscent, arranged circularly around the axis. 

a08 XXXVU. MALVACEJB. Unncoi. 

1. A. OFFICINALIS. Marsh MaUow, 

I/Ds, soft-downy on both sides, cordate-ovate, dentate, somewhat 3-lobed, 
all entire; ped. much shorter than the leaves, axillary, many-flowered.— 'i). A 
European plant, naturalized on the borders of our salt marshes. Stem 3f high, 
erect, firm, covered with thick, woollv down, with alternate, velvet-like leayeSi 
Flowers large, axillary and terminal, pale purple. The root, as well as the 
other parts of the plant, abounds in mucilage, and in medicine is often used as 
an emollient to promote suppuration. Sept. \ 

3. A. ROSEA. Cav. (Alcea rosea. Linn.) HoUyhock. — St. erect, hairy; bi 
cordate, 5— 7-angled, rugose ; fis. axillary, sessile.--(J) Native of China! A tafl 
plant, very commonly cultivated in gardens. Numerous varieties hare been 
noticed, with .single, double, and semi-double flowers, of various shades of 
coloring, as white, rose-colored, flesh-colored, dark red, and even a purplii 
black, purple, yellow, straw-color, &c. f 

3. A. Fici FOLIA. Cav. rAIcea flcifolia. Linn.^ FHg-ieaved HoUijfkoek.—SL 
erect, hairy ; Ivs. palmate, 7-lobed beyond the miadle, lobes oblong, obtuse, la- 
gularly toothed.— i^ative of Levant. Stem tall as the above. Flowers orange- 
colored, f 


Oalyz 5-cleft, surrounded by a many-leayed involuoel; stigmu 5; 

capsule 5-oelled ; cells several-seeded. 

1. H. MoscHEUTos. T. & G. (H. Moscheutos and palustris. Lm.) 

Marsh Hibiscus. 

Herbaceous, simple, erect; Ivs. ovate, obtusely dentate, hoaiy-tomen- 
tose beneath ; ped. long, axillary, or connected with the petiole.— TL A tail, 
showy plant, in brackish marshes by the sea or near salt springs, and cd vet 
nrairies, U. S. and Can. Stem round, downy, 4-— 6f high. Lmlvcs 4-^ hf 
3 — 4', often with two lateral lobes. Flowers larger than those of the hoIlT- 
hock, rose-colored, purple in the centre. Peduncles usually distinct (lom the 

getiole, often some or them imited with it, and jointed above the middle, 
tyles 1' longer than the stamens. Aug. 
fi. (H. incanus, Wendl X) Ms. larger ; pet. (4r— 5' long) of a light snlphar- 
yellow with a purple base. Marshes, Indiana ! 

3. H. ViRGiNicus: Virginian Hibiscus. 

Los. acuminate, cordate-ovate, serrate-dentate, upper and lower ones nfr 
divided, middle ones 3-lobed; ped. axillary, and in terminal racemes ;^^.uid> 
ding ; pistils declinate. — % Marshes near the sea, L. I. to Ga. The whole plan' 
scabrous-tomentose, about 3f high. Leaves 2 — 2^' by 1 J', some of them soo^ 
what 3-lobed. Flowers 2 — 3' diam., red or rose-color. Capsule hispid, acafr 
angled. Aug. 

3. H. MiLiTARis. Cav. Haibert-leaved Hibiscus, 

Glabrous ; Ivs. hastately 3-lobed, lobes acuminate, serrate ; cor. tnbatar- 
campanulate ; caps, smooth, ovoid-acuminate. — Middle and Western Stales- 
Stem 3 — 4f high. Leaves cordate at base, 4 or 5' long, rendered somevtoj 
hastate by a small lobe each side at base. Petals flesh-color, with a puiplB^ 
base, 2—3' long. Peduncles with the joint above the middle. Jl. Aug. 

4. H. Manihot. Hand-leaved Hibiscus. 

Not prickly ; Ivs. palmately divided into 5 — 7 linear, acuminate, coane- 
ly dentate lobes; ped. and involucel hispid ; bracts of the involuccl 5—7, ovate or 
lanceolate, acutish, persistent, entire ; col. split on one side j capsuk den«lr 
hirsute, acuminate. — % Western States. A beautiful herb, 4 — 6f high. Leatf^ 
cordate, lobes 6 — 10' long, \ — \\' wide, separated to near the base, about ask*? 
as the petioles. Teeth largest near the summit. The flowers are of an ei- 
ceediBgly rich sulphur-yellow ; purple in the centre. Petals 3— 4' long. JL Aa?- 

5. H. cocciNEus. Walt. (H. speciosus. AH. and 1st. edit.) Scarlet ff^ 
cus. — Very smooth ; Irs. palmate, 5-parted; lobes lanceolate, acuminate, remo*" 
ly serrate above ; cor. expanding ; cap. smooth, ovoid. — % A splendid flo^cf' 
native of damp soils, in Georgia, &c., and is raised from seeds in our gardctf- 


Soot perennial. Stem herbaceous, 5— 9f high. Segments of the leaves & 
kng, rery acuminate. Flowers of a bright carmine red. Petals slender at the 
base, 4t-^ hsmg. Column still longer, slender and terete. Jl.— Oct.*!- 

& H. grandiflOrus. Michz. Great-Jlotoering Hibiscus, — L/vs, cordate, 3- 
lobed, coriaceous, tomentose, hoary beneath; ear. expanding; eaM. tomentote, 
tnmcaled. — % Southern States. Stems 5— 7f high. Leaves ana flowers yeiy 
luige, the latter, when expanded, nearly a £x>t in diameter. Petals flei^-color- 
ed, red at the base. Jl.— Oct. f 

7. H. Stbiacus. Sifrian Hihiscus. — Vos, cuneiform, ovate, 3-lobed, dentate ; 
ftdiods scarcely longer than the petiole ; invobueel about SMeared. — ^A beauti- 
ftj, hardy, free-flowering shrub, from Syria, 5 — lOf high. Flowers purple. 
There are varieties with white, red and striped flowers, both single and double, f 

8. H. TKidNUM. flower of an Hovir. — Los. dentate, lower undivided, upper 
3-paited, lobes lanceolate, middle one very long ; col. inflated, membranaceous, 
reined.--^ From Italy. An exceedingly beautiful flower, branching, 1— 2f 
high. Flowers large, numerous, but soon withering. Petals of a rich chlorine 
jrcUow, the base of a deep brown, f (Fig. 41, 1.) 

9. H. BscuLENTCs. Edible Hibiscus or Okro. — L/os. cordate, &-lobed, obtuse, 
debate ipeHole longer than the flower ; involucel about 5-leaved, caducous. — Na- 
tive of W . Indies. Plant herbaceous, 2 — 3f high, nearly glabrous. Petiole 
widi a hairy line on the upper side, nearly If in length. Lamina 8 — KV broad. 
The flowers 1 — 2f long, on a short peduncle. Petals greenish-yellow. The 
huge, mucilaginous pods are used for pickles, or served up with butter. 

Calyx Burroonded by a 3-leayed involacel ; carpels irregularly ag- 
gregated, l-seeded. 


"1^4. ovate, crenate; slip, oblong-linear; ped. axillary, 1-flowered. — (J) 
Penn. MuU. Stem 1 — Uf nigh, sparingly branched, clothed with white hairs 
above. Leaves hairy on the veins beneath, nearly glabrous above. Petioles 
1' long. Bracteoles setaceous. Carpels hispid, in a depressed, globular head. 
Petsis yeUow." T\frrey <f> Oray suppose it may prove a species of Malva. 


Calyx 5-cleft, without an involucel, often angular ; ovaries 5, many- 
seeded ; styles many-cleft ; capsule of 5 or more carpels, arranged 
circularly, each I -celled, 1 — 3-seeded. 

A. AviCEMNJE. (Sida Abutilon. Linn.) Indian MaJiow. 

Los. roundish-cordate, acuminate, dentate, velvety-tomentose ; ptd. shorter 
than the petiole, solitary ; carpels about 15, 3-seeded, inflated, truncate, 2-beaked. 
— (D Native in both Indies and naturalized in most of the states, inhabitinfr 
waste places, &c. Stem branched, 3 — 4f high. Leaves 4 — 6' diam., deeply 
cordate at base, abruptly acuminate at apex, very soft and velvety at surface. 
Flowers yellow, near 1' broad. Jl. % 

8. SIDA. 
Calyx 5-cleft, without ah involucel, ovary 5 — ^many-celled ; cap- 
sule of 5 or more 1 -seeded carpels ; radicle superior. 


SL rigid, branched, minutely pubescent ; Ivs. ovate-lanceolate, serrate, 
with a spinose tubercle at the base of the petiole ; slip, setaceous ; fis. axillary ; 
carpds birostrate.— ^ Sandy fields and roadsides, Middle, Southern and West- 
ern States ! Plant bushy, 8 — 16' high. Leaves 9—15" long, f as wide, most- 
ly obtuse at each end. Petals yellow, obovate, of short duration. Jl. Aug. 

2. S. Napjea. Cav. (Napaea laevis. Linn.) 

St. slender, glabrous ; hs. palmately 5-lobed, nearly glabrous, lobes ol>- 
long-linear, acuminate, coarsely toothed; ped. many-flowered; carpels 10, acn* 

310 XXXVm. TIUACRJE. Tui. 

minate. — % Shady places, Penn. to Ohio I Steins angular, S-4f high. Leara 
on short petioles, cordate, lobes 2 — if long, i — |' wide, floral leaves much soiat 
ler. Peouncies axillary and terminal, long and slender, somewhat leafy, tht 
divisions l~4-flowered. Flowers 4 — 6^' diam. Petals white, twice as long ai 
the calyx. Aug. 

3. S. DioicA. Cav. (Napasa dioica and scabra. Linn.) 
L/vs. palmatelv 7— 9-lobea, scabrous, lobes lanceolate, incisely dentate j 
/e^. many-flowered, bracteate, somewhat corymbose ; ^b- 9 cf i carpds B— 10 
pointless, in a roundish, depressed head. — % Ya., Penn. H/fiMenberg, Flowen 
small, wnite, in a crowded nead. Aug. 


Tree$ or tArifte, (very rarelif herbt,} witti timple, stipiikte, alternate, deatale lev 

Fla. axUlarf, uiuallr perfect 

Ga<.— Sepals 4— «, deciduous, valvate in »sli¥ation. 

Cor.— Petals 4—6. hypogimouB, elands 4—6, at their base. 

Sttu 00, distinct, hypocynous. Jnthen versatile. 

Oml— Carpeb 9—10, united. Style 1, compound. BtUnuu aa many aa cazpeto. 

lY. capsular, 3—6 celled, with numerous seeds. Cotyledong leafy. 

Genera 86, species 360, native in all regions, but especially within the tropiet. These . 
a wholesome, mucilaginous juioe. The inner bark is remarkable lor touf hoeaa, and ia nseftd te 
purposes, aa oshinc-unes, nets, lioe-bacs, Ac. 

Calyx of 5 united sepals, colored ; corolla of 5 oblong, obtuse petals, 
crenate at apex ; stamens 00, somewhat polyadelphous, each set in 
the N. American species with a petaloid scale (nectary, Idnn.^ trans- 
formed stamen, T. ^ G.) attached at base ; oyair superior, 5-oeUed, 
cells 2ovuled ; capsules globose, by abortion 1 -celled, 1 — ^2-seeded.— 
IVees. Lvs. cordate. Fls. cymose, vjvth the peduncle adncUe to the mvir 
vein cfa large^ leaf-like bra/i. 

1. T. Americana. Linden or Lime TYee. Bass-wood, Pumpkii^^weed. 
Lvs. alternate, diffuse, broad-cordate, abruptly acuminate, finely serrate, 

coriaceous, smooth ; pet. truncate or obtuse at apex. — ^A common forest tree in 
the Northern and Middle States. It often grows to the height of 80f, the trunk 
straight and naked more than half this height, and 2— 3f (Sam. Leaves 4-d' 
by 3---4'. those of the young shoots often twice these dimensions. Bract yef- 
lowish, linear-oblong. Petals yellowish-white, larger than the scales at their 
base. Fruit woody, greenish, of the size ofpeas. Jn. — ^The inner bark is rerj 
strong and is manufactured into ropes. The wood is white, soft and dear, 
much used in cabinet work and in the panneling of carriages. 

2. T. HETEROPHYLLA. Vent. Variatts4eavcd Linden. 

Lvs. obliquely subcordate, very white and velvety beneath, with darker 
veins, glabrous, shining and dark green above, coarsely and mucronatelv ser- 
rate ; pet. obtuse, crenulate ; transformed stamens or scales spatulate ; sty. haiiy 
at base, longer than the petals. — Banks of the Ohio and Miss. PursA. 5ol 
conunon. Tree 20 — 30f high. Leaves very oblique at base, 6—8' diam., well 
distinguished by the white surface beneatli, contrasted with the purplish veins. 
Torr. 4* Qtay, 

3. T. ALBA. Michx. White Lime or Linden. 

Lvs. obliquely-cordate, abruptly acuminate, whitish and thinly pubescent 
beneath, with veins of the same hue, glabrous above, acuminately serrate; peL 
emarginate; scales Bipatnlsde \ sty. nearly fflabrous. — ^Woods, Middle andWcsU 
em States ! Trunk 30 — 40f high, 1 — 1 |f diam., branches with a smooth, silvery 
bark. Leaves 3—6' diam., slightly oblique, and with reddish hairs in the axils 
of the veins beneath. Flowers larger and whiter than in the other species. Jn. 

4. T. MicROPHYLLA. (T. intermedia, ffamie.) Evrapean Lime-tree.-^LTS^ 
cordate, scarcely oblique, acuminate, glabrous both sides, twice as long as the 
petioles; axils of tke veins boarded beneath; staminate scale (S\ ft. membrana* 

^ttw. XLL VITACEiE. »11 

ceous, oblong, unequal, 2-seeded.— Native of Northern Enrope. TnmJc 4W 
high, with a pyramidal head. Jn. — Ang. f 

Order XLL YITACE^.— Gbape-vines. 

r dfmbiiiff by teodrib, with tumid, wpanUe joiota. 
£ml MiBple or oompoond, the lower opposite, upper alternate. 
FtM. racemoae, often polygamous or dicecioua. 

CaL minute, nearly entire or 5-toothed [and nadueoua. 

Oar.— Peiala 4— «, maarted oa the outaide of the diak, -wal vate and inflesMd in mt., oAen oohering abora 
Sax. 4—5, opposite the petab, inserted on the duk. 
Om. sqpenor, 9-oeIled. ficyXa 1, -very abort. IVtMi a beny, f lobote, pulpy. fil»«bbony. 

. Genera 7, apeciet 960, natirea of the warmer parts of both hemispheiea. <The cnP* <hiit ia the oolr 
iaaportaflt prodnctjon of this order. The acid of the f mpe is tartaric. It containa a sugar which diffen 
feooi the oamnaon aogar in containing a smaller quantJty of carbon. 

Tarns elai«tad into a ling surrounding the ovary. LeaTOS ooidate, &o. . • • . Tiffk. i 

Toms without a ring. Leavea digitately 6-loIiate Amp^oftU,^ 

1. VITIS. 
Cehie gwyd, a tree or shrub. 

Petals deeidaons, cohering at the top, or distinot and spreading ; 
ovary parti j enclosed within the torus, 2-celled ; cells 2-OTTiled ; stigma 
sessile, c&pitate; berry 1 -celled, 1— 4-seeded. — JPed. often changed 
tHto tendrils. 

1. ▼. Labbusca. 

Lvs. broad cordate, angular-lobed, tomentose beneath. — This Tine is na- 
tirethioagh the U. S., growing in woods and grores. Like most of the N. 
American species, the flowers are dicecious. Stem woody, rough-barked, 
ascending trees often to a great height, and hanging like cables fiuspended from 
the branches. Leares very large, somewhat 3-lobed, at first white-downy be- 
neath. Flowers small, green, in panicles with a leaf opposite. Fruit large, 
purple, often green or red. It is valued in cultiyation for its deep shade in * 
summer arbon, and its fruit which is pleasant in taste. The Isabella, and 
other sorts known in gardens, are yarieties of this species, j; 

2. V. coRDiFOLiA. Mx. (V. vulpina. Linn.) FVost Orape. Winter Cfrape. 
I/os. cordate, acuminate, somewhat equally toothed, smooth on both 

sides; roc loose, many-flowered ; berries small.— Grows in thickets, by rivers, 
Ac., aseending shrubs and trees to the height of 10 — 20f. Leaves large, mem- 
branous, often 3-lobed, with pubescent veins when young, and with a few 
mucronate teeth. Berries nearly black, rather small, late, acid, but well fla- 
vored after frosts of November. Jn. 


Jbvs. broadly cordate, 3 — 5-lobed or palmate-sinuate, coarsely dentate, 
with scattered, ferruginous hairs henesithijertile rac. long, panidedj berries 
small. — Grows in woods, by rivers, &c. Stem very long, slender, climbing, 
with very large leaves, which are sometimes with deep, rounded sinuses, 
clothed beneath when young, witii arachnoid, rust-colored pubescence. Ten* 
drils from the peduncles which are dense flowered, and with a leaf opposite. 
Petals cohering at summit. Berries deep blue, well flavored, but small, ripe 
in September. Flowers in June. 

4. V. RiPARiA. Michx. Winter Grape, 

Ijvs. incisely dentate, somewhat 3-lobed ; the petioles, veins and margins 
pabescent; berries small, in loose racemes. — Grows in thickets, on river banks, 
&c., Can. to Va., W. to Ark. Vine 15— 30f long. Leaves large, as long as 
▼idie, with coarse, unequal, acuminate teeth. Fruit dark-purple. 

5. V. viNTPERA. Cammon Wine Grape. — Lvs. cordate, sinuately 5^1obed^ 
glabrous or tomentose ;/5. all ^ . — Naturalized in nearly all temperate climates, 
but supposed not to be indigenous to this country. No plant in the vegetable 
lunsdom possesses more interesting attributes, is cultivated with greater care, 
or, let me add, has been worse perverted or abused by mankind, than the com-' 

Slil XUl. ACERACEJE. Acn. 

mon vine. By cultivation it sports into endless varieties, differing in liie fflra, 
color, size, and flavor oC the fruit, and in respect to the hardiness of its consti- 
tution. In N. England its cultivation is chiefly confined to the garden and as a 
dessert fruit; but there are extensive vineyards in the Middle and Western 
States, for the production of wine. The vine is propagated by cuttines. Va- 
rieties without end may be raised from the seed, which will bear frmt thefooith 
or fifth year. A vineyard, it is said, will continue to produce fruit flat 900 yeui. 

2. AMPELOPSIS. Michx. 
Or, afttrtXoff a vine, o<^i(, appearance ; Awn its reaemblanoe. 

Calyx entire ; petals 5, distinct, spreading ; oyarj 2-celled, cells 
2-oyiiled ; style v0j-y short ; berry 2-celled, cells 1 — ^2-seeded. 


Lvs. quinate, digitate ; l/fs. oblong, acuminate, petiolate, dentate, smooth. 
— A vigorous climber, found wild in woods and thickets. It has long been col* 
tivated as a eovering for walls, and is best known by the name of WooJhim. 
By means of its radicating tendrils, it supports itself firmly upon trees, ascod* 
ing to the height of 50f. m the same manner it ascends and overspreads ▼alls 
aim buildings. The lar^, quinate leaves constitute a luxuriant foliage of dazk; 
glossv men. Flowers inconspicuous, greenish, in dichotomous clustezB. Ber- 
ries dark blue, smaller than peas, acid. Jl. t 

Order XLII. ACER ACE ^.—Maples. 

TYvat or thruht yrith oppmite, uiualljr rimple and palmate-veined leaTea. 

Btifuln 0. Fit. often poiysamom. in axillair corymbs or racemes. 

GoL— flepals 5, rarely 4— «, naore or less united, <»lored, imbiicate in aattifatkio. 

Oor.— Petals 6, rarely 4— §, hypogynous ; sometimes 0. 

8ta. hypogypous, 9—19, usual ly 8. Ant/ten introrse or TenatOe. 

Ova. a-lobed, compounded of 8 united carpels. 

Fr. a double samara with opposite wings, thickened at the lower odgea. 

Genera S, spectet M. The sap of seTeial species of the Maple jiekta sagar br evipocalka. 


Flowers mostly polynaons. Leaves simple , ' . 4eir. I 
lowers dicBciotts. Leaves oompound, pinnate , . . . Numta i 

1. ACER. Moench. 
LaL aoer, sharp, Tigorous ; the' wood was anciently manuftctured into weapons of war. 

Calyx 5-cleft ; corolla 5-petaled or ; stamens 8 ; styles 2; 
rsa 2, winged, united at base, by abortion 1 -seeded. — Lvs, simple, 

§ Flowers corymbose, <f c TVees. 

1. A. RUBRUM. Red Maple. Swamp MapLe. 

La)5. palmately 5-lobed, cordate at base, unequally and incisely tooCfaed, 
the sinuses acute, glaucous beneath ; Jls. aggregate, about 5 together, on nther 
long pedicels ; ova. smooth. — The red maple is a common tenant of low woods 
and swamps throughout the Atlantic States. It is a tree somewhat abore the 
middle size. The trunk is covered with a smooth bark, marked with large, 
white spots, becoming dark with age. In spring, the appearance of the tn* is 
remarkable for the deep crimson flowers with which it is thickly clothed. Back 
bud nroduces a fascicle of about 5 flowers. Stamens much exserted. The fer- 
tile flowers are succeeded by a red fruit, furnished with a pair of wings resem- 
bling those of some insect. The wood is hard and compact, and is much n*d 
in cabinet work, particularly that well-known and handsome variety called 
cwrled maple. Mar. Apr. 

2. A. DASTCARPUM. Ehrh. (A. eriocarpum. Mx.) While Mapk. 
L/vs. palmately 5-lobed, truncated at base, unequally and incisly toothed, 

with obtuse sinuses, white and smooth beneath ; Jls. in crowded, simple umbclii 
with short pedicels and downy ovaries. — This species much resembles the last. 
but its leaves are larger, and the winged fruit is also larger than that of il« 
red maple or of any of the following species. It is a tall tree, 60f in height, not 
uncommon in the N. England forests. The flowers are of a yellowish F«e« 

SMUtmo. XUl. AG£RACK£. 9t3 

color, aa also the ftult. The wood is white, softer and less esteemed than that 
of other spepies. The sap yields sugar in smaller proportion than the sugar 

3. A. sACCHARlNUM. SugoT MwpU. Rock Maple. 

1/cs, palmately 5-lobed, subcordate at base, acuminate, remotely toothed, 
with rounded and shallow sinuses, elaucous beneath ; fis. pedunculate, pendo- 
I011&— This fine tree is found throughout U. S., but most abundant in theprimi- 
tire soils of N. England, constituting the greater part of some of its forests. 
It b a tree of lofty proportions, 70f in height, with a trunk Sfdiam. The bark 
is of a light-gray <iolor, rough and scaly. The branches become numerous and 
finely ramified in open situations, and in summer are clothed with a foliage 
of oncommoif luxuriance and beauty, on which account it is more extensively 
coltirated as a shade tree than any other, not even excepting the majestic and 
fayorite elm. Maple sugar, perhaps the most delicious of Sl\ sweets, is mostly 
the product of this species. An oitlinary tree will yield 5—10 pounds in a sea- 
son. The -wood is very strong and compact, and inakes the best of fuel. It is 
sometimes curled like the rea maple, but oftener presents that beautifiil ar* 
raoFement of fibre, called Hrd^Sreye mapUy which is nighly esteemed in cabinet- 
▼onc. The flowers are exceedingly abundant, and, suspended on long, thread- 
like pedicels, are most delicately beautiful. Apr. 

4. A. NIGRUM. Mich. f. BUuk MavU. Stigar Hree. 

Lcs. palmately &-lobed, cordate, witn the sinus closed, lobes divaricate, 
smnate-dentate, paler beneath, with the veins beneath and petioles pubescent ; fls, 
corynibose, on long, slender pedicels ; fr. glabrous, turgid at bsuse, the wings 
diverging. — A large tree, in mountainous situations, Vt. to la. I Resembles the 
last, but is distinct. Robbitis.y TuUy. Tnmk 30--50f high, with a shaggy 
bark. Leaves 3 — b' diam., dark-green above, the 2 inferior lobes much smaller. 
Flowers pendulous, on long peduncles, yellowish. Fruit with wings 1' in 
length, p^e-yellow, and more diverging than in A. saccharintun. The sap, 
like the last mentioned tree, yields sugar abundantly. Apr. 

§ § Flowers in racemes. Mostly shrubs, 

5. A. Pennsylvanicitm. (A. striatum. Lam.) Striped Maple. Whistle-toood, 
Lvs. with 3 acuminate lobes, rounded at base, sharplv denticulate, smooth : 
roc. simple, pendulous. — A small tree or shrub lO—lSf nigh. Can. to Ga., and 
Kv., but most abundant in our northern woods. The bark is smooth, and beau- 
timlly striped length-wise with green and black. Flowers large, vellowish- 
green, succeeded by long clusters of fruit, with pale-green wings. The smaller 
branches are straight and smooth, easily separated from the bark in spring, and 
are often manufactured by the boys into certain wind instruments. Hence it 
is called whistle-wood. In Europe it is prized in ornamental gardening. May. 

6. A. 8PICATUM. Lam. Mountain Maple Bush. 

L/vs. about 5-lobed, acnte, dentate, pubescent beneath ; roc. erect, com- 
pomid. — A shrub of smaller stature than the last, found in mountain or hilly 
woods throughout the country. The bark is a light gray. Leaves small, rough, 
divided into 3 or 5 lobes, which are somewhat pointed, with large, sharp teeth, 
and more or less cordate at base. Flowers greenish, numerous and minute, in 
cylindric, oblong, close, branched clusters, becoming pendulous with the winged 
fruit. Jn. 

7. A. Pseudo-Plitanus. Sycam/sre. — Ijvs. cordate, 5-lobed, glabrous and 
glaucous beneath, segments or lobes acute, unequally dentate ; ^. in long, 
pendulous racemes ; ^anuzra glabrous. — Native of Northern Europe. An orna- 
mental tree, 40 — 50f high, with very large, dark green leaves. A beautiful 
variety with striped leaves is also cultivated. Apr. May. f 

2. NEGUNDO. Mosnch. 
Flowers 9 c? ; corolla ; 9 flowers racemed, J* fascicled ; calyx, 
stamens and fruit as in the last genus. — Leaves compound^ pinnaielp 

1114 XLUI. HIPPOCA8TAKACEL£. Mbcolxm. 

N. iCEit6li>Es. Moench. (Acer Keg^do. Linn,^ AihrUofoed Mofk. 

Box Bldtr. 

Las. temate and 5-pinnate ; Ifls. ovate, acuminate, remotely and une- 
qually dentate ; 9 racemes long and pendulous, barren fis, corjrmbose ; fr. olh 
long, with large wings dilated upwaros. — A handsome tree, 30 — 30f in height, 
with irregular, spreading branches, growing in woods. The trunk is a foot or 
more in diameter, and when young, covered with a smooth, yellowish-green 
bark. Leaflets serrated above the middle, petiolate, the terminal one laigest, 
all slightly pubescent. Wings of the samara approximate, broadest towards 
the end. Apr. 


Trem or ^wb§. Leave* opposite, iwely alternate, oompoond, without itipulea. 

Fl». showy, with the pediceu articulated. 

Co/, campanulate, of 8 united Re twUi. 

Cor.— Petals 6, (one of thena sometimes abortive,) unequal, nypocTnous. 

Sta. •— 8, distinct, unequal, inserted upon a disk with the petals. 

Ova. roandish, 3-cornered, 3-ceIled, crowned with a single, filiform, oonical stTle. 

Ft. roandish, ooriaoeous, with 1—8 large, roundish, smooth seeds. 

Genera 3. native of N. America and Northern India. The speeiea are genenOy onwmeolaJ tiw 
astringent properties residine in the bark. The sends contain much stareh, and are nutritiTe hoc 
Only the following genus is found in the Nocthem States, and even this is not IndiceoouB in N. "" 

Calyx oampanulate ar tubular, 5-lobed; corolla irreffnlar, 
peCaled ; stamens, ovary and fruit, as expressed in the order. — Trm^ 
ixnth palmately 5 — l-foliale leaves. Flowers in ihyrse-like panides. 

1. JE. GLABRA. Willd. (Pavia pallida. Spach, P. Ohiensis. Mda.) 
Ohio Buckeye. 

Lfis. 5, oval or oblong, acuminate, serrate or serrulate ; fis, in laz, thf^ 
soid panicles ; cor. 4-petaled, spreading, with the claws as long as the calyx; 
sta. longer than the corolla ; fr. echinate. — A small, ill-scented tree, along the 
banks of the Ohio and its tributaries. Leaflets 3 — 6' long, k as wide, subsosile, 
or abruptly contracted at base to short stalks. Flowers yellowish-white, small, 
slightly irregular. Fruit about %' diam. 

2. M. FLAYA. Ait. (Pavia flava. DC.) Big Buckeye. Sweei BwcktfL 

Lfts. 5 — 7, oblong-ovate or elliptic-ovate, acuminate, semilate, pubcsceni 
beneath ; fl>s. in thyrsoid, pubescent panicles, about 6 on each division of the 
peduncle ; cal. campanulate, not half tne length of the corolla ; pet. very unequal, 
connivent, longer tnan the stamens ; fr. unarmed. — ^A large tree, 3(K— TOf hi^ 
common in the Western and Southern States. Leaflets 4--7', by 1--3'. 
Flowers pale yellow. Ftuit globose, uneven on the surface, but not prickly, 
2— 2|' diam, with 1 or 3 large brown seeds. Apr. May. 

3. JE>. PAVIA. (Pavia rubra. Lam.) Small Buckeye. — Lfis. 6, obloDg-I»* 
ceolate, cuneate at base, abruptly and shortly acuminate, finely serrate;/! 
very irregular, in a lax, thyreoid raceme, «»/.. 4, erect, as long as the stamoA- 
A beautiful shrub, 6 — lOf high, native ol^the Southern States. Flowers laifpe, 
red, glabrous. Apr. May. f 

4. JE, parviplOra, Walt (JE. machrostachya. Michx.) native at the Sooth, 
a beautiful shrub, with numerous small, white flowers, in a long, slender, thyr- 
soid raceme, is rarely cultivated. 

5. JE. HiPPOCASTANTJM. Horse Chestnut. — />5. digitate, of 7 obovate Ic^^ts; 
pet. 5; spreading; fr. prickly. — A noble tree, justly admired for its majestif 
proportions, and for the beauty of its foliage and flowers. It is a native of drt 
north of Asia, but is now known throughout Europe and in this countir, audi* 
a frequent ornament of courts aijd avenues. It is of rapid growth, ana attaiw 
the height of 40 or 50f. In June it puts forth numerous })3rramidal raccin«'J 
thyrses of flowers, ofpink and white, iinely contrasting with the dark green w 
its massv foliage. The leaves are digitate, with 7 obovate, acute, serrate kaf- 
lets. The fruit is large, mahogany-colored, and eaten only by deer. 



Oeder XLIV. SAPINDACE^.— Soapworts. 

Tmm, dirub9 cr htrtt, the ktter toniriMd with tendiih. 

Im. akeraate, usoalir oonipound and without stipules. 

Al nsMdi. usually polysmnioiu. Sep. 4—6, dutinct, imlmeated in attiiratioii. 

Ckr.— Petak as manjr as the Mpals, sometijnes l leu, (or rarely wanting.) ioseiled outside the hypofy- 

8ul 8 or 10 ; JU. distinct ; anth. introne. (nous disk which lies at the bottom of the oalyjc. 

te. of 1 ooited caniel* ; sty. partly or completely luited. 

Ft. a >-ceiled capeuJe or samara, or often fleshy and indehiscent. 

Ml 1—4 in each cell, usually anlled, without albumen. 


Cfr, Kapiia, heart, orrspfiaj seed ; the globose seeds marked with a large, cprdofe hilum. 

Sepals 4, the 2 outer smallest ; petals 4, each with an emarginate 
scale aboye the base ; the 2 lower remote from the stamens, their 
seales crested ; glands of the disk 2, opposite the lower petals ; sta- 
mens 8, unequal ; style trifid ; capsule membranous, inflated. — Climb- 
wg herbs with biternate leaves. Lower pair of pedicels changed to tendrils, 

C. Halucabum. Heart-seed. Balloon^vine, 

Plant nearly glabrous : leafiets ovate-lanceolate, incisely lobed and den- 
tate; fruU pjrriform-globose, large, bladder-like. — Native on the Missouri and 
its hranches. Dmrr. 4r Or. Naturalized in the W. States. Mead. A curious 
Tine, 4-— 6f in length, with remarkably large, inflated, membranous capsules. Jl. -f 

Order XLV. CELASTRACB-ZB.— Staff-trees. 

ShnAs. or rareiy frctf, with opposite or alteniate leaves. Ft*, not always perfiBct 

CW.— Sepals 4—6, united at base^ imbricated. (which snnounda the xtnxf, 

(^.—Petati as many as sepals, insetted bf a broad base vnder the manin of the flat» axptnded ditk 

filo. as many as the petals and alternate with them, inserted on the marcmof the disk. 

Om. s up erior , immersed in and adherinip tu the disk. 

Vr. a eapeole or beny. Seetft either with or wiUiout an azillus. 

GeoMa 37, BpeeiM 974« chiefly native of the temperate zone of both hemispheras. They poaseia acrid 
aad hitter propeitiea, aomecimes emetic and stimulant. 


(compound (temate) fllopJ^iea. l 

Sep pu e i te, \ sinmle. .•.....•.•. JBiMn^wMlt. t 
Mirabf with leaves (tftemate,Bimple Cfioifrvs. 9 

Tribe 1. STAPHYIiBJB. 

Leayeff pinnate, opposite. Seeds not ariled. Cotyledons thick. 


A Oieek word, meaninc a cluster of crapes ; from the foim of the fructification. 

PLs. 9 ; calyx of 5, colored, persistent sepals : petals and stamens 
5; styles 3 ; capsules 2 — 3, membranous and inflated. 

S. TRfPOLU. Bladder-md. 

Idcs. temate | roc. pendulous ; ^i. ciliate below ; fr. ovate. — A handsome 
shmb, 6 — 8f high, m moist woods and thickets. Can. to Car. and Tenn. Leaf- 
lets oval-acuminate, serrate, pale beneath, with scattered hairs. Flowers white, 
in a short, drooping raceme. The most remarkable feature of the plant is its 
large, inflated capsules, which are 3-sided, 3-parted at top, 3-celled, containing 
several hard, smadl nuts or seeds, with a bony, smooth and polished testa. May. 

Tribe 2. EUONYMBiE. 
Leaves simple. Seeds usually ariled. Cotyledons leafy. 


Flowers sometimes polygamous ; calyx flat, of 5 united sepals ; co- 
rolla spreading, of 5 sessile petals ; capsule subglobose, or 3-angled, 
3-eelled; seeds with an arillus, 1 — 2 in each coll. — Climbing shrubSj 
with deciduous leaves^ and mintUe, deciduous stipules. 
C. 8CANDEN8. Staff-tree. 

Unarmed; st. woody, twining^; Ivs. oblong, acuminate, serrate; rac. ter 


minal; fU. dioBcions. — A climbing shrub in woods and thickets, the 
twining abont other trees or each other, ascending to a great height Leaves 
alternate, stipiUate, petiolate, smooth. Flowers in small racemes, greenidi- 
white. Seeds covered with a scarlet aril, and contained in a S-yalred capsole, 
continuing upon the stem through the winter. Jn. 

Galjz flat, of 5, (sometimes 4 or 6) united sepals ; corolla flat, in- 
serted on the outer margin of a glandular disk : stamens 5, with 
short filaments; capsule colored, 5-angled, 5-oellea^5-yalyed ; aeedB 
ariled. — Shrubs^ erect or traUingy with opposile leaves. 

1. E. ATROPURPUREUs. Jscq. tSpindle TVee. Burning Dusk. 
Branches smooth ; Ivs. elliptic-lanceolate, acuminate, finely serrate, paberoleBi 
beneath; ped. compressea, manv-flowered: fis. usually pentamerous.— A 
smooth shrub, 4 — lOr high, in shady woods, fj . S. E. of the Miss. Leaves d— 
5' long, I as wide, mostly acute at base, on petioles | — I' long. Peduncles op- 
posite, slender, 1 — ^k' ^^^x ^^^ ^^ ^ cyme of 3—6 flowers. Corolla dan- 
purple, about 2\" diani. Capsule crimson, smooth. Seeds covered in a brigfat 
red aril. Jn. 

3. E. AMERiclinTS. Burning Bush, 

Branches smooth, 4-angled ; Ivs. oval and elliptic-lanceolate, subendic tt 
margin, acuminate, acute or obtuse at apex, smooth ; ped. round, about 3-flov- 
ered; fis. mostly pentamerous.-— Shrub ot smaller size than the preceding, wiik 
smaU leaves, in moist woods, U. S. and Can. Leaves I — 9f long, | as wide, 
coriaceous. Peduncles longer than the leaves, 2, 3, or 4-flowered. Flowers a 
little larger than in No. 1, yellow and pink, the parts in Ss, 4s or 5s. Capsak 
dark red, warty. Seeds with a bright red aril. Jn. 

,3. E. ExTROPJEtrs. — Lvs. oblong-lanceolate, serrate, glabrous ; ped, cam- 
pressed, 3-flowered ; fls. usually tetrandrous. — ^Native of £urope. A nandsome 
shrub, 4 — 12f high, sometimes found in shrubberies, although certainly not su- 
perior in elegance to K Americanus. May— Jl. 

Order XL VI. RHAMNAOE^.— Buckthorns. 

SArtt&t or trea, often fpin^f . Leaveg rimple, alternate. Stiptilet minuCe or 0. 

Fit. •mall, aziUaiy or terminal, gieennh, sometiraea dioBcioua. 

Gdi.— fiepala 4 or B, united at bue, TalYate in estivation. 

Cor.— Petals 4 or 6, distinct, eucullate or cooTolute, inserted into tlie orifiee of the ealrz, 

8ta. opposite the petals, 4 or 6. 

OtML superior, or half superior, with an eiect ovale in eaeh oelL 

Fr. a capsule, drupe or beny. 

Genera 49, species 9B0, distributed throughout all countries, except thoee in the fiigid 
■le native 01 the U. States. Ceanothus is peculiar to N. America. 

POfusrffes.—Tbe berries of manj species of RhamnuS'aie riolent purgativet. The ZunOnB J^ji^ 
yields the vnU-kaown Jujube pa$te of the shops. The leaves of Ceanothua have been nted aa a sab- 
aCitttte for tea. 

Calyx flee ftom the ovary; petals plane I flowers minute. ....'... ttkmmm. i 
Caljx adhereat Id the ovaor at base; petals unguiculate. Cmmtlkm.t 

Calyx nroeolate, 4 — 5-oleft ; petals 4—5, emarginaie, inserted upon 
the calyx ; ovary free, 2— 4-celled ; styles 2 — 4, more or less united ; 
fruit drupaceous. 3 — 4-8eeded. — Smadl trees or shrubs, Jjvs. mtfstif 
aJtemate. Fls. minute. 

1. R. CATHARTicus. BucJctkom. 

Shrub erect, with thorny branches ; lvs. ovate, doubly serrate ; its. tetro- 
drous, 9 9 d* ^^^ 9 cf > fasicled ; fr. subglobosc, 4-seeded. — A shrub, 10— Itf 
high, in mountains and woods, Mass. and N. Y., rare. Leaves nearly an oclh, 
1 — ^ long, i as wide, in crowded clusters at the ends of the branchlets. Flowas 
small, numerous, green. Sepals refleied, petals entire. Fruit black, globoet 
and with the ixmer bark, powerfully cathartic. This shrub is sometimes uses 
for hedges. ^ 



2. R. ALNiPOUUs. L'Her. (R. frangnloides. JItUkz.) Aldtr4ewoed 

Shrub erect, with tmanned branches; Ivs, oybI, acuminate, serrate, pa- 

^acent on the veins beneath: ped, aggregate, 1-flowered ; /s. mostly pentan- 

xms ; cdL acute; sty, 3, muted, reiy short ;/r. turbinate, black.— A shrub 3--4f 

itgfa, common in rough pastures and hills, Penn. to Can. Leaves 1 — 2f long 

I u wide, acute at base. Flowers mostly apetalous. Berries about as large 

as coirants, black, 3-seeded. May, Jn. 

Caljz tubular, campantdate, 5-cleft. separating transrerselj after 
ioweriiig ; petals 5, saccate-arched, with long claws ; stamens mostly 
exserted ; style mostly 3-cleft ; capsnle obtusely triangular, 3-celled^ 
3-fieeded, surrounded at base by the persistent tube of the calyx.-^ 
Shrubby and thomless, 

1. C. Amekicanus. Jersey Tea. Bedrroot. 

Lm. oblong-ovate, serrate, 3-veined; panicles axillary, elongated.— A 
small shrub, with a profusion of white blossoms, found in woods and groves, U. 
8. VeiT abundant on the barrens at the West Stems 3— If hifh, slenderj 
vith reddish, round, smooth branches: Leaves thrice as long as oroad, very 
downy, with soft hairs beneath. Flowers minute, white, in crowded panicles 
firom the axils of the upper leaves. Stamens enclosed in the curiously vaulted 
corolla. The root, which is large and red, is 9ometime8 used for coloring. 
The leaves have been used as a substitute for tea. Jn. 

2. C. ovAlm. Bw. Ooal4eaved Ceanatkus. 

Lcs. oval-lanceolate, with glandular serratures, 3-veined, veins pubescent 
beneath ; tbfrse corymbose, abbreviated.— Burlington, Vt, Bobbins, W. to Mich. 

larger than those of the last May. 

Oeder XLVIL LEGUMINOSiE.— Leguminous Plants. 

Bm%$.9knit» m tnm. £m.allenMte, anally ooinpoiind,inai|iiisfliitira. 
flf jl p ii y ti i; at the tumid b— e of the petioje., Ar^eUr ooonnoDlr 8. 

^.-..-...y— I fBMnllf S, more or lew united, often oaequaL 

Ctr.—Vitaim f, eitlier puNiioQaeeoiM or recnkr. pericynoos. 

Am. d ied el p to eui, moMoelpiMMM or dktinet Jnt/ien Teimtile. 

0m. ■ 1M— , Mfie end mnple. Sryto and m^wM drnple. 

fh e kfame, eitiier eontiniMMis (I'ceUed), or (e iomaitf) jointed into l neded 

BiL aoBtuf or mvecd, deatitnto of albamen. 

■pedee of thia vaat onier were eatimated hj Mr. Bantham, in ittf , aa iiUowB 
Snbordar l. Paptliooaeen, 880 senera, 4800apeeiea. 
^ & CMsIpinea, 88 " TOO ** 
a Mimoaea, 9 " 1800 " 

Tftlal. loT " iioo " 

_ je LecminoaeB are dlitributed thronfhovt all landa, with the exeeptkn of a ftw 
ialanda,lkQm tile equator to either of the fiisidaooaa. Ofilaosooapeeiea now known, abovt 
KB am nadvea of the United Statea and Territoriea. 

tfai.— No Amtbrof the ^^etable kingdom p oaneama a hifher claim to the attention of the 
w. than the LefununoMe. whether we ragard them aa olgeeta of ornament or utility. Of the 

we toixtatoaentioa the splendid ▼arietiea of Corns, with their jpniple floweta, tlie Acaeiaa, with 

fheiraiiT fbiiace and lilky alamena. the inide of India, Colutea and CsMipina, with a hoat of others, 
which, nke the sweet pea, are redolent with perAmie. Of the latter, the beans, peaa, lentils, clover ano 
», am too well known to require partieukr oommendation. Amonf timber trees the Rosewood (a 
iaa upfdaM e^ Mimosa), the Laburnum, whoae wood ia durable andof an olive-green eolor, and the 
(Rooinia) of our own oonntrir, are pre-eminent. 

The ioOowiiw are afcw of the important offleinal products of thla order. In medicine t UqucHee is the 
moimelt «f the root of Giyenrhiia ffabm of 8. Europe. The purgative §mma consists of the leaves of 
Okisia aanna, C. aeutilhlia, C. JEthiopiea and other species of Egypt and Ambia. C. Maiykndica is also 
ncBlhaitic bat more mild than the former. The sweet pulp tamarind^ ia the product of a laige and 
beSMtlM trae (Tamarindus Indica) of the E. and W. Indies. Resins and balsams : Gum tmhgai is 
yUded by Aeaeia Verek of the river Senegal; Qvm Arabic, by seveml speaes of Acacia of Cential 
Afltoas Qum Tnune^ntht by Astngalus verus, Ac, of Persia. Bal»am Coptdva is the product of 
Sanaa! apeelea of CoMiibm, nativea of Brazil and W. India ; Bottom Toht of Myoapemum toluiferum, 
of Fare, aad Mmm Peru of M. pemiferum of the same country. D^ea, *o. t btdi^o, the most valuable 
af ai, OMat a violent posioo,) is the product of several southern speores of IndigoAra, as I.amlof the W. 

AofEgypt BnaO^wnA, 6om Casalpina Brpriliensia. lof -woed ftom Hamatoay* 
>ef r a m i w a rti y,aiidEa*^Mii< « tic w p dftom PiBroo»ipBia>aialiiiiwofEgypt,to.,Aft 


CmupecUa of lit Genera. 
• Corolla pELpiUonac«ona. 

(*nteiti, . tmoprVJ.fetU 
riMOUMt 1-HHlcd. ■ . IsumEiu 10. 

\ tFb.m«iiud. ,. \en.\ 

(Htrta.. lLiiawill-10-jDLflliiirtiiumlHiuu. . 
(iiiuimi.d. (t^^" 'Jm' 

J . , ' ' i Cain bibisctaol 

.HMndeil, f Ctht 4 iddUwiL 

J llwIlMWr- (TiM«, 

i L«(. jUace or qp 
I Bttmeni di^ijElph. H*uJ Lef . loeluitoil in 1 

Unnm. XL VII. LEGUMINOS^. 219 


Corolla not papilionaceous. 

{ Uoanned and f labroufl BarlingUmla. 40 

( Corolla re^ar. { Annal with uncinate (piaea BOurankia. w 

BniM.<CbroUa irregular. . Camia, 8S 

flkmba. Corolk regular. Minuma. 86 

(unarmed. Ovmnodmiut. » 

Itea {anned withtnpwapines QkdUacMa. tf) 

Suborder 1. PAPII^IOKACE^. 
Petalfl papilionaceous, imbricate in sBstivation, the upper one exter- 
nal. Stamens mostly 10 and diadelphoud. 

1. LATHt^RUS. 

Calyx campannlate, the 2 upper sepals shortest ; stamens 10, dia- 
delphous (9 and 1 ) ; style flat, dilated above, ascending, bent at a 
right angle with the oyary, pubescent or villous along the inside next 
the free stamen ; legume oblong, several-seeded. — jSerbaceouSy mostly 
cUmbiiig. Iass ahrupily pinnaUy of 1 — several pairs of leaflets. Petioles 
froduced into tendHls. Feds. axUla/ry. 

.1. L. vENdsDs. Muhl. 

St. i-cornered, naked ; slips, semi-sagittate, lanceolate, very small ; ped. 
&— 16-flowered, shorter than the leaves j Ifts, 5 — 7 pairs, somewnat alternate, 
obtusish, mucTonate. — % In shady grouncis. Can. and U. S. Stem erect, 2 — 3f 
high, mostly smooth. Leaflets li — 2' long. Peduncles axillary, many-flow- 
ered, about the length of the leaves. Corolla purple. Legumes flat and nar- 
row. Jn. Jl. 

3. L. ocHROLEucus. Hook. (L. glaucifolius. Beck.) 
5X. slender ; ped. 7 — lO-flowered, shorter than the leaves ; upper segments 
of (he calyx truncate, angular ; Ifis, about 3 pairs, broadly ovate ; slip, semi-cor- 
cate. — % A small, delicate species, very rare, in shady places and on river banks, 
N. J. to Wise. ! N. to the Arctic circle. Stem 2 — 3f long, leaning or climbing 
on oiher plants. Leaflets 1 — li' long, f as wide, larger than the stipules. Pe- 
duncles axillary, shorter than the leaves. Corolla yellowish-white (ochiroleu- 
cous.) Jn. Jl. 

3. L. PALUSTRis. Marsh Latkyrus. 

St. winged ; slip, semi-sagittate, large, ovate, mucronate ; Ifls. in 2 pairs, 
oblong-ovate, mucronate j ped. 3— -5-flowerSd, larger than the leaves. — % A slen- 
der clLnber, found in wet meadows and thickets, N. Eng. to Or. Stem slender, 
square, broadly winged at the angles, supported by the tendrils. Leaves pin- 
nate-cirrhose, leaflets broad or narrow-ovate. Flowers drooping, rather large, 
▼aiiegated with blue and purple. Jn. Jl. 

4. L. MARiTiMUS. Bw. (Pisum maritimum. Ph.') Beach Pea. 

SI. quadrangular, compressed; petioles flat above; slip, sagittate; yb. 
Dmnerons, subaltemate, ovate; ped. many-flowered. — A pale green, creepmg 
plant, resembling the common pea, found on sandy shores, N. Y. to Lab., W. 
to Or. Stem rigid, 1 — 2f in length. Stipules connate. Leaves ending in a 
branching tendril, the lower pairs of leaflets largest. Flowers large, blue. Pod 
hairy. May — ^July. 

5. L. MYRTipoLius. Muhl. 

St. quadrangular, winged, weak andflexuous; slip, semi-sagittate, ovatc- 
lanoeolate, acuminate ; Ifts. 2 pairs, oblong-lanceolate, acute, mucronate, vein- 
fess ; ped. longer than the leaves, 4— 5-flowcred. — % A little climber, on river 
banks, Can. to Md, Robbins. Stem about 3f long. Leaflets 1 — 2' long, \ as 
wide. Flowers pale purple. Jl. Aug. 

6. L. LATiFOLius. Everlasting Pea. — Ped. many-flowered ; IJts. 2, lanceolate ; 
joifnls membranous, winged. — % A very showy plant for gardens and arbors, 
native of England. Stem 6f long, climbing, winged between the joints. Flow- 
ers large, pinK, clustered on a peduncle 6 — 10' in length. Jl. Aug. 

7. L. 0D0RATU8. Svoeet Pea.— Ped. 2-flo\vcred; Ifls. 2, ovate-oblong; leg,. 


390 XLVn. LEGUMINO&£. Vioi. 

nhsnte. — (X) A well known garden flower, native of Sicily. The flowen ap> 
pear in June, are large, variegated with red and white, very fragrant 

8. L, sATlvus. Chick Pea. — Peduncles l-flowered; Ifts. 3—4; leg, orate, 
compressed, with 3 winged margins at the back.— KX) Native of S. Europe, 
where it has been sometimes cultivated for food ; but it proves to be a ^ow poison 
both to man and beast, producing ultimately entire helplessness, by reDderia; 
the limbs rigid, but without pain. 

3. VICIA, 
Celtic gttOgt whence Or. fiiKiov^ LaL vida, Fr. ve$e6, and En|. wfdk. 

Calyx tubular, with the 3 inferior segments straight and longer 
than the 2 above ; vexillum emarginate ; stamens 10, diadelphoos 
(9 and 1) ; style filiform, bent at right angles with the ovary, viUoiis 
beneath the stigma on the outside (next the keel) ; legume oblong, 
several-seeded. — Herbaceous, mostly climbing. Leaves abruptly pk- 
naUy with several pairs of leafiets and a branching tendriL Pedunda 

1. y. Americana. MukL American Vetch. 

Smooth ; ped. 4— 8-flowered, shorter than the leaves ; stip. semi-sagitttte, 
deeply dentate ; Ifts. 10 — 14, elliptic-lanceolate, obtuse, mucronate, veined, some- 
what alternate ; legvmes oblong-linear, compressed, reticulated. — N. Y. W. to 
the R. Mts. Stems slender, 1-— 3f long. Leaflets 1' by 5", subsessile. Plov- 
ers blue or purple. Lower calyx teeth broad-lanceolate, much longer than tbe 
3 upper. Style very hairy at the summit. May. 

3. V. Caroliniana. Wall. Carolinian Vetch. 

Ped. many-flowered ; fls. distant ; teeth of the ccivz shorter than the tobe, 
the two upper very short ; sty. hairy at the summit ; Z/fa. 8—18, linear-oUoog, 
smoothish ; Us. not reticulated, oblong. — Woods and river banks. A slender 
climber, 4-— 6f long. Leaflets about 8" by 3—3". Flowers pale-blue, the taiH 
ner tipped with deep purple. May. 

3. V. CRACCA. Tufted Vetch. 

Fls. in imbricated spikes ; Uts. lanceolate, pubescent ; sUp. semi-«agit- 
tate, linear- subulate, entire. — ^A slender climber, 3— 3f lone, about fences, 
hedges, thickets, &c., lat. 39° to Can. Stem square, downy. Xeaves of many 
pairs of downy, mucronate leaflets, with a branched tendril at the end of Uile 
principal stalk. Leaflets 6 — W by 3 — 3", petiolulate. Flowers blue and pui|)le, 
m a long, dense, one-sided raceme. July. 

4. y. TETRASPERMA. Loiscl. (Y. pusllla. MuM. ErvunoL lAnn.) Sin^ 
der Vetch. 

Ped. about 3-flowered ; calyx teeth lanceolate, shorter than the tube ; itf- 
smooth, 4-seeded; Ifts. 4—6, small, linear; stip. lanceolate, semi-sagittate.—^ 
Slender and delicate plants, banks of streams, &c., Can. to Penn. Stems ih 
most filiform, 1 — 3f fong. Leaflets 5 — 10" by 1", acute or obtuse. Flowws 
very small, bluish- white, on filiform peduncles. Legumes 4—6" long, 4, some- 
times 5-seeided. Jl. 

5. V. SATlvA. Convnum Vetch. Tares. 

Fls. solitary or in pairs, subsessile ; Ifts. 10 — 13, oblong-obovate, often 
linear, retuse, mucronate; siip. semi-sagittate, subdentate, dotted; leg. ettO, 
roundish, reticulated, smooth .—-Q A slender, climbing plant, found in cultival- 
ed fields, introduced from Europe. Stem decumbent or climbing, 3— 3f loof. 
Leaflets 8 — 13" by 1 — 4", lower ones near the base of the petiole. Flbwei* 
pale purple, half as long as the leaves. Legumes 1 — 2^ long. Jn. ^ 

6. V. Faba. Willd. (Paba vulgaris. Mcsnch.) Coffee Bean. Windsor Bttn, 
<f»c. — St. rigidly erect, with axillary, manv-flowered racemes ; Ifts. 3—4, oral, 
entire, mucronate or acute ; tendrils obsolete ; slip, semi-sagittate, dentate at 
base. — Native of Egypt. This species is frequently found in gardens, but not 
so much admired as formerly for the table. Stem simple, 1—31 high. Flowers 


vliite, with a lam black spot on each of the alas. liegome toraloMi. Seedi 
rery large, with the large hilum at one end. (See Fig. 19, 1, S.) f 

3. ERVUM. 
Calyx deeply 5-olefb, the segmeBts acnte, linear, and nearly equal, 
about the length of the corolla ; stigma capitate, smooth ; style fili- 
form ; legume oblong, 2 — 4-seeded. — (2) JLvs. abrupil^ pinnaUj qfmanp 
leaJUis and a terminal iendriL 

E. HiRstJTUM. Hairy or Creeping Vetch. 

Jjfis. linear, truncate, mucronate; slip, semi-sagittate, narrow; ped. 
3— 6-flowered, shorter than the leaves; kg. hirsute, 2-seeded. — Acreepng weed 
in coltiyated fields, N. Y. to S. Car. Stem very slender. 1 — ^3f long. Leaflets 
8—30, 4—&' long, hardly 1'' wide, broadest above. Peduncles azillair, 3-^ 
flowered. Calyx segments rather shorter than the bluish-white corolla. lid- 
gnmes short, with roundish, compressed brown seeds. Jn. ^1 

4. PISUM. 
Celtio pl»t Lot ptntmt Eng. pea, Fr. pof*. 

Calyx segments leafy, the upper 2 shortest ; vexillum large, re- 
flexed ; stamens 10, diadelphous (9 and 1) ; style compressed, cari- 
nate, yiIIous on the upper side ; legume oblong, tumid, many-seeded ; 
seeds globose, with an orbicular hilum. — Herbaceous^ dimbing. Lvs. 
abruptly pinnate, eriding wiih branching tendrils, 

P. SATIVUM. Common Garden Pea. — Lfts. ovate, entire, usually 4; stip. 
ovate, semi-cordate at base, crenate ; pea. several-flowered. — (D One of the 
most valuable of leguminous plants, smooth and glaucous. Stem 2 — bi long, 
nearly simple, climbing by tendrils. Leaflets 3 — ^3' long, i as wide, obtuse, 
mucronate. Stipules rather larger than the leaflets. Flowers 2 or more, on ax- 
illary peduncles, large, white. This plant has been cultivated from time im- 
memorial, so that its native country is unknown. There are many varieties. 

Lat pfuueitUf a little boat ; which the pods may be nid to ratemble. 

Calyx sub-bilabiate, upper lip 2-tQothed, lower 3-toothed ; keel with 
the stamens and style spirally twisted ; legume compressed and fal- 
cate, or cylindric, many-seeded; seeds compressed, reniform. — Her- 
baeeimsj tvnmng or trailing. Jjos. pihnately trifoliate. I^s. stipellate. 


St. prostrate, diflfuse, scabrous with recurved hairs ; lfts. angular, 2—3- 
lobed or entire ; ped. longer than the leaf, few-flowered ; loioer tootH of the col, 
longer than the tube ; leg. pubescent, broadly linear, cylindric. — (J) A creeping 
or climbing plant, S—Sf long, on sandy shores and prairies. Can. and u. S. 
Leaflets 1 — v long, f as wide, with scattered hairs beneath, often variously 
and veiy obtusely lobed. Peduncles 2--8-flowered, 3 — & long. Corolla pur- 
plish. Legumes become black when ripe, 5— 7-seeded. Aug. — Oct. 

2. P. HELVOLUs. (and P. vexillatus. Ldnn.) 

St. slender, twining; lfts. between oblong-ovate and linear, entire; ped. 
slender, several times longer than the leaves, few-flowered; leg. straight, cylin- 
dric, 8— lO-seeded.— 7|. Sandy fields, N. Y. to Flor. and La. Stem 3--6f long. 
Leaflets 1—2' by \—V. Peduncles 4- -8' long, 4— 7-flowered. Calyx with 3 
bracts at base. Corolla purplish, vexillum large, roundish. Legume 2 — 3' 
long, very narrow, subfalcate. Aug. Sept. 

3. P. PERENNis. Walt. Wild Bean Vine. 

Twining, pubescent; rac. paniculate,' mostly in pairs, axillary; lfts. 
orate, acuminate, 3-veined ; leg. pendulous, falcate, broad-mucronate. — % A 
slender, twining vine, in dry woods, Can. and U. S., common. Stem 4--7f 
long, somewhat branching. Leaflets li — ^3^ long, |— equal width; termina' 

893 XLVU. L£GUMINOS£. Wiiriiu. 

one often snbcordate, lateral ones unequally enlarged at base outside, under 
surface scabrous. Racemes 1 — 3 together, &—l^ long, loose, often un&aitfiiL 
Corolla purple and violet. Legume about 2' long, i* wide, with compressed, 
renifcTm, dark purple seeds. July, Aug. 

4. P. LEiospERMus. ToH*. & Gray. 

St. slender, retrorsely hirsute ; Ifis. linear-oblong, not lobed, as long as the 
petiole, hirsute and reticulated on both surfaces ; stip. subulate ; ped, much lon- 
ger than the leaves ; Ads. few-flowered ; leg. very hirsute, about 5-8eeded. T. 
4- G. a*r.— Prairies, 111., Mead. Also Ark. and La. Stem 2— 4f long, prostrate. 
Leaflets 1 — ^ by 3 — 6". Pods about 1' long, i as wide. Aug. 

5. P. VULGARIS. Pole Bean. Kidney Bean. String Bean. — St. twining; 
Ifis. ovate-acuminate ; ro^^ solitary, shorter than the leaves; pedicels in pairs; caL 
as short as its 2 bracts at base ; leg. pendulous, long-mucronate ; seed renifono, 
variously, often brightly colored.—® Native of E. Indies. Universally colli- 
vated in gardens, not only for the mature fruit, but for the young pods, which 
constitute that favorite dish called string beans. Stem 5---8f long, rwiniDg 
against the sun. Flowers mostly white. July. 

6. P. MULTIPL6RUS. Scarlet Pole Bean.— St. twining ; Ifis. ovate-acute p«. 
solitary, as long as the leaves ; pedicels opposite ; col. longer than the 2 appressed 
bracts at base ; leg. pendulous ; seeds reniform. — (D Native of 8. America 
Stem 6^10f long, twining against the sun. Flowers scarlet, numerous aid 
very brilliant. Fruit not so generally admired as the last. July. 

7. P. LUNATus. LiToa Bean. — St. twining; Ifts. ovate, deltoid, acnte; r». 
shorter than the leaves ; ped. in pairs ; cal. longer than its 2 bracts at base; to. 
scimetar-shaped, or somewhat lunate ; seeds large, much compressed, purpish- 
whiie.— Native of E. Indies. Stem 6— 8f long. Flowers small, whitish. 
Much valued and cultivated. July. 

8. P. NANUS. Dwarf Kidney Bean. Bvsk Bean. White Field Beoh.-^ 
smooth, very branching, erect ; Ifls. broad-ovate, acute ; cal. shorter than its % 
bracts at base ; leg. pendulous, compressed, rugose. — Q) Native of India. Stem 
If high. Flowers white. Seeds white, small, but Sere are many varieti* 
Much cultivated. June. 

6. APIOS. 
Cr. name fixr the wild pear, which Uie root resembles in fbnn. 

Calyx oampanulate, obscurely bilabiate, the upper lip of 2 very 
Bhort, rounded teeth, the 2 lateral teeth nearly oDSolete, the lower 
one acute and elongated ; keel falcate, pushing back the broad, pB" 
cate vexillum at top ; ovary sheathed at base. — % Twining^ smooth. 
Root bearing edible t-ubers. Leaves pinruUely 5 — l-foliaU. 

A. TUBERosA. Ph. (Glycine Apios. Linn.) Ground Nut. 

St. twining ; Ivs. pinnate, of 7 ovate-lanceolate leaflets ; roc. shorter tnan . 
the leaves. — ^Thickets and shady woods. Can. and U. S., twining about otnff 
plants. Stem round; 2 — 4f in length. Leaves rather numerous, each consis- 
mg of 3 (rarely 2) pairs of leaflets and an odd, terminal one. These are ow 
narrow, more or less pointed, smooth, on short pedicels. Racemes *^"^^Jj 
solitary, 1 — 3' long, crowded. Flowers dark purple. To the root arc aPI^°°2 
oval, fleshy tubers, which are very nutritious, and would perhaps be cmtivaJ^ 
had we not the potato. Jl., Aug. 

7. WISTARIA. Nutt. 
In memory of Caspar Wistar, M. D., President of Am. PhiL See . 

Calyx bilabiate, upper lip emarginate, the lower one 3 sub^^ 
teeth ; vexillum with 2 callosities ascending the claw and separatiiJ^ 
above ; wings and keel falcate, the former adhering at top ; legtiD*^ 
torulose ; seeds many, reniform. — Twining, shrubby plants, icithf^' 
tuUe leaves. Rac large, %ciih large, colored bracts. Fls. lilac-colord 


Amfhicarfju. XLVn, LEGUMINOSiB. 233 

1. W. FRUTBscKNs. DC. (W. spcciosa. NuU. Glycine firatescens. XAin/n.) 
St. pubescent when young, at length glabrous ; IfU. 9—13, ovate or el- 
liptic-lanceolate, acute, sub-pubescent; icings with 2 auricles at base; ova, 
glabrous. — An ornamental, vigorous vine, in rich alluvion, Southern and West- 
cm Slates. Stems several yards long, climbing over bushes, &e. Leaflets 1 

y by \ — 1'. Flowers nearly as large as those of the sweet pea, numerous, in 
racemes 3 — 6 or W long, sheathed in very conspicuous bracts. Seeds spotted. 
Apr. May. f 

2. W. coNSEauANA. BcDth. Chinese Wistaria. — I^, 9 — 13, oyate-lanceolate, 
•ilky-|>ubescent; rac, terminal, nodding, loosely many-flowered.---A splendid 
flowering vine from China. Stem of rapid growth, 12f or more in length. 
Flowers in long, pendulous clusters. May. Jn. f 


Or. yaka,, milk : alluding to the juice of lome of the speeiea. 

Calyx bibracteolate, 4-cleft, the segments of nearly equal length, 
upper one broadest ; pet. oblong : vexillam broadest and incumbent ; 
keel petals slightly cohering at top. — Herbs prostrate or ttnningj tome- 
iisnes shrubby. Lvs. jnnnaidy trifoliate. Roc. axiUary. 

1. G. GLABELLA. MichZ. 

Si. mostly prostrate, nearly glabrous: Ifls. elliptic^oblong, emaOrginate at 
each end, sub-coriaceous, shining above, a little hairy beneath ; ro^;. peduncur 
late, about the length of the leaves : fis. pedicellate. — ^In arid soils, N. J; to Flor. 
Stem 3— 4f long. leaflets 10—30'^ by 5—10", varying in form from ellipUc 
through obloDg to ovate. Flowers rather large, reddish-purple, greenish exter- 
nally. Aug. Sept. 

9. 6. MOLLIS. Michz. 

S^ mostly twining, sofUy pubescent; Ifts. oval, obtuse, nearly smooth 
above, soflly villose and whitish bieneath; roc. longer than the leaves, pedun* 
culaie, fasciculate ; fis. on very short pedicels ; leg. villose.-— Dry soils, Md. to 
Ga. Stem several ieet long. Leaflets about 1' long, { as wide. Flowers about 
half as large as in the last Aug. 


Caljz bibracteolate, tubular, 5-toothed, segments acuminate ; yexil- 
him large, spreading, roundish, emarginate \ keel smaller than the 
wings, acute, on long claws ; legume linear-oblong, toruloae, many- 
seeded. — % Mostly tvjining. I/vs. piniuUely 3 — Spoliate. JFls. very 
large^ solitary or several together, 

C. Mariana. 
• Glabrous ; st. subereci or twining, suflfruticose ; Ifts. 3, oblong-ovate or 
lanceolate, obtuse, lateral ones petiolulate j ped. short, 1 — 3-flowered ; bracteoles 
and bracts very short ; leg. torulose, 3 — 4-seeded. — Dry soils, N. J. ! to Flor. 
Stem 1— 3f long, round, slender, branched. Leaflets rather remote, about 1' by 
k'. Corolla pale blue, 2— 3^' in length, calyx f, bracteoles 2^'. JL Aug. 


Cfr. afi^i, uouod, Kopirosj fruit; in reference to the orary sheathed at baee. 

Calyx tubular, campanulate, 4-toothed (er 5-toothed, the upper 2 
united) with nearly %qual segments; petals oblong; vezillum with 
the sides appressed ; stigma capitate ; ovary on a sheathed stipe ; 
legume flat, 2 — 4-seeded. — d) Slender, twining. Lvs. pinnaiely trifo- 
liate. The upper fis. complete^ but usiudly barren, the lower apetaUim 

A. MONOiCA. Nutt. (Glycine monoica. Lirm.) Pea Vine. 

St. hairy ; IJU. ovate, acute, smooth ; roc. of the stem with pendulous, 

S34 XLVn. LEGUMINOSJB. Tipnoni. 

petaliferotis, barren flowers ; radical ped. with apetaloos. fertile flowen.-i 
Terr slender vine, in woods and thickets, Can. and U. S. Stem twining, xoogk 
backwards, 4 — 8f in length. Leaflets very thin, 1—^' long, | as wide, laiml 
ones oblique at base. Racemes axillary, few-flowered. Flowers pale purpk. 
Cauline legumes smoothish, with 3-— 4 dark purple seeds. Radical legunes 
often subterraneous, with one iaige, compressed, brown seed. JL— ^pt 

lamemoiy of John Robin, herfanlfait to LfOvb ZIV. 

Calyx short, campanolate, 5-Gleft, the 2 upper segments more or 
less coherent; yezillam large; alis obtuse; stamens diaddphou 
(9 & 1) ; style bearded inside ; legume compressed, elongated, maoy- 
seeded. — ^ees afid shrubs toith stipvlar spines. Ia>s. unequaUyfii^ 
note. Fls, showy , in axillary racemes. 

I. R. PsEUDACACiA. Locust TYee. 

Branches armed with stipular prickles; Ifts, orate and oUoog-ovato; 
rac. pendulous, smooth, as well as the legumes. — Native in Penn. and theiDAt 
Soutnem and Western States, and abundantly naturalized in N. Eng. In the 
durability, hardness and lightness of its timber, and the beauty of its foliaie 
and flowers, it is exceeded by few trees of the American forest West of tw 
Alleghanies it sometimes attains the height of 80f with a diameter of 3 or i 
In N. England it seldom exceeds half these dimensions. The pinnate kiva 
have a beautiful symmetry of form, each composed of 8 — ^13 pairs of leaflet 
with one at the end. These are oval, thin, nearly sessile, and veir smooth. 
Flowers in numerous, pendulous clusters, diffVising an agreeable mgasf^ 
Pod narrow, flat, with 5 or 6 smaU brown seeds. When young, the tree ii 
armed with thorns which disappear in its maturity. May. 

3. R. YiscOsA. Vent CUmmy Locust. — SHpular spines very short; ire^ 
letSfpetwles and leg. glandular- viscid ; Ifis. ovate; rac. crowded-^This bavti- 
ful tree is from the South, where it attains the height of 40f. The floven 
numerous, rose-colored, in erect, axillary clusters, with the thick, dark gi^ 
foliage, render this tree one of the most brilliant ornaments of the puk or ne 
garden. Apr. 

3. R. HispiuA. Rase Acacia. — Stxptdar spines almost wanting; dtnikJif^ 
hispid ; r<K. loose, suberect. — A beautiful snrub, native of the ^uthern Stata . 
It IS cultivated in our gardens for the sake of its numerons, large, red ilovcn- 
Height 3— 6f. May. 

6. rosea has its branches nearly smooth. 

Oalyz 5-tootlied ; yezillam with 2 callosities, expanded, lai^ t^ 
tbe obtuse carina ; stisma lateral, under the hooked summit of w 
style, which is longitudinally bearded on the back side ; l^gnm® ^ 
flated, scarious. — Shrubs with unequally pinnate leaves. 

C. ARBORBscENs. Bladder Senna. — Lfis. elliptical, retuse ; vex. shortly p^ 
bous behind. — ^A hardy, free-flowering shrub, native of Italy, Ac., (p"*^ 
almost alone on the summits of Mt. Vesuvius. Stems 8 — m high. >^^ 
about 9. Flowers large, yellow, with a broadly expanded banner. In n^ 
cine the leaves are used instead of senna. Jn. — Aug. f 

€fr. Tt^Si adi-eoloredi inalliifioDtDttieeolororthelblisge. 

Calyx with 5, nearly equal, subulate teeth ; bracteoles ; yexfflj^ 
large, orbicular ; keel obtuse, cohering with the wings ; stamens <v' 
delphous (in the following species) or monadelphous ; legume linetf) 
much compressed, many-seeded. — Herbs and shrubs^ with vne^9 
pinnate leaves. 

Amorfba. XLVn. LEGUBimOSiB. 265 

T. YraoiNilNA. Pers. (Galega. Ldnn.) Goafs Rue. Cat-gut. 

Erect, yiUoUB ; IfU, numerous, oblong, acuminate; roe. terminal, rabses- 
«k; Ug. falcate, vUlous.— Qf. Plant l~2f high, with beautiful white and pur- 
vle flowers, found in dry sandy soils, Can., la., 111., S. to Flor. Stem simple. 
Leaflets 15—27, 10 — 13" by 2-^', mucronate, straight-veined, odd one oblong- 
obcordate, petiolules 1'' long. Stipules subulate, |' long, deciduous. Flowers 
laige, in a dense, terminal raceme. Calyx very villous. Banner white, keels 
roee-oolored, wings red. JL 

Chr, ^tti^aiktotj leprooiorMBlFi anadinc to tbe gludnltr dolfc 

Calyx 5-cleft, campannlate , segments aouminaie, lower one longest; 
sftamens diadelphous, rarely somewhat monadelphous ; legume as long 
as the calyx, 1 -seeded, indehiscent. — '^l- or h Often glarukUar, Jjot, 
various. SHp. xohering vsilh the base of the petiole. JPh. cyajiic 


Canescent, much branched, destitute of glands ; Ivt, palmately 3 — 5« 
foliate; ifts. oblcmg-obovate, var3ring to linear; slip, setaceous; roc, slender, 
40— ^50-flowered, twice longer than the leaves ; peduds as long as the flowers 
and longer than the small, ovate, acuminate bracts ; vex, roundish ; kg, smooth. 
—Alluvial soil. III. Mead. I and Ark. W. to the Rocky Mts. Stem d-^ high, 
the branches spreading. Leaflets 1 — & bv S— 4^^ common petiole i— >1' long. 
Flowers bluish purple, nearly as large {^' long) as in the two following. Jn. 

Sl p. escuuenta. Ph. 

Hirsute, erect, branching ; Ivs. palmately 5>foliate, IHs. lanceolate ; spikes 
axillary, dense ; caL seg. lanceolate, a little shorter than tne corolla ; leg, ensi- 
form, beaked; ri. thick and fusiform. 

B. (P. BscuLENTA. NuU.) Nearly acaulescent; Ws, oblong-obovate. — Mo. 
near the lead mines. Stem a few inches high. Leaflets 1 — SK long, nearlv 
half as wide. Flowers pale blue. The root is about 1' diam., rather insipid, 
but is eaten by the Indians, either raw or boiled. Jn. JL 

3. P. EGLANDULdsA. Ell. (P. mclllotoides. Michx,') 

St. much branched ; Ifis. oblong-lanceolate, finely dotted with glands ; 
siriies oUoDg; bracts broadly-ovate, acuminate, and with the calyx hainr : ler, 
roundish, transversely wrinkled. — Dry soils, la. 1 to Ark. Slender, Sn nign, 
spreadinF. Leaflets &— 2^' long, k as wide, obtuse, longer than the petioles. 
jAowers blue. Pods V diam. Jn. Jl. 

4. P. Onobrtchis. Nutt 

Pubescent; Ifls. ovate, acuminate; roe. elongated; col. much shorter 
than corolla, teeth small, obtuse, equal ; leg, ovate, transversely wrinkled. — 
Low grounds and thickets, Western States ! Stem rigidly erect, nearly simple, 
S--5f high. Leaflets 2—4' long, nearly \ as wide. Flowers small, pedicellate, 
blue. Pods exceeding the calyx, rostrate. Jn. Jl. 

Or. a, imvaliTe, ^op^v, Amn ; aUadinff to the defidandM of the oorallB. 

Galjx subcampanulate, 5-cleft; yexillam ooncave, ungaicalaie, 
erect ; wings and keel ; stamens exserted ; legume oblong, some- 
what carYCHi at the point, scabrous with glandular pointa, 1 — ^2-seeded. 
— Shrubs or half-shrubby American plants, Iajs. uTiequaUy pinnate^ 
punctate, Fls. bluish white^ in virgate racemes. 

1. A. FRuncOsA. 

Pubescent or nearly glabrous, shrubby or arborescent ; Ifls. 9 — 13, oval, 
petiolulate, very obtuse, the lower pair remote from the stem; col, teeth obtuse,* 
short, lower one acuminate and ratner the longest ; teg. 3-seeded. — A shrub or 
nnali tree, 6— 16f high, Wis. Laphaml to La. and Flor., W. to Rocky Mu. 
3— S' long, leaflets about 1' by i', rather remote firom each other and 


firom the stem, petiololes scarcely ^' long. Spicate racemes terminal, lolitaiy 
or fascicled, 3---4' long. Vexillum purple, emarginate. Jn. 

2. A. CANE8CENS. Nutt. Lead Plant. 

Suffruticose and canescentlyyillose ; IfU. small, numerous, and crowded, 
orate-elliptical, subseasile, mucronate ; spikes aggregate ; fls, subsessile ; caL 
teetk equfid, orate, acute ; vex. bright blue ; leg. 1-seeded. — A beautiful speciei. 
3 — 4f high, in dry, sandy soils ! Wis. to La. and Rocky Mts., and is supposed 
to prefer localities of leaa ore. Leaves 2 — 3' long. Leaflets coriaceous, 1&— Si 
pairs, obtuse at base, 4 — 6" by 1—2". Spikes 2—3' long. Jl. Aug. 

16. DALEA. 
In honor of Tliom&s Date, an Enfliih botanist of the lait centmy. 

Calyx sttbcdually cleft or toothed ; petals ungniculate, claws of tlie 

wings and keel adnate to the staminate tube half way up ; yexillum 

free, the limb cordate ; stamens 10, united into a cleft tube ; 0Tary2- 

OYuled ; legume enclosed in the calyx, indehiscent, 1 -seeded. — MMy 

herbaceoiLS and glandular -fundaie. Lvs. odd-pinnate. Slipels 0, stipda 

miniUe, setoMous. Spikes mostly dense. 

D. ALOPEcnaolDES. Willd. (D. Linnsi. Miehx. Petalostemon. Pk.) 
GBabrous and much branched ; IfLs. 8 — 14 pairs, linear-oval, obtuse or 
retnse, mucrbnate, punctate beneath'; spikes pedunculate, oblong-cylindric, ter- 
minal, silky ; bracts about equaling the acuminate segments of the calyz.HS 
Prairies and bottoms, 111. ! Mo., Car. Plant about 2f high, bushy and leafy and 
pale green. Leaflets not more than 4" by T', sessile, and neaiiy in mutual 
contact. Spikes 1 — 2f long. Yexillum white, wings sind keel pale violet 

Allttding to the union of the petaJa and atamena. 

Calyx 5-toothed, nearly equal ; petals 5, on filiform claws, 4 of 
them nearly equal, alternate with the stamens and united with the 
staminate tube ; stamens 5, monadelphous ; tube cleft ; legume 1- 
seeded, indehiscent, included in tbe calyx. — % Lvs. uneqttaliy pinnakf 
ex-stipeUate. Fls. in dense^ pedunculate^ terminal spikes or heads, 

1. P. CANDIDUM. Michx. (Dalca. Willd.) 

Glabrous, erect; Ifts. 7—9, all sessile, linear-lanceolate, mucronaie, 
glandular beneath ; spikes on long peduncles ; Inducts setaceous ; vex. broadly 
cordate, the other petals ovate. — A fine-looking plant, in dry prairies Soutben 
and Western States ! Stem 2— 4f high, sparingly branched, slender. Leafleii 
9 — 18" by 3 — 5", terminal one largest. Flowers small, white, crowded in dense 
spikes which are 1—3' long. Jl. 

2. P. vioLACEUM. Michx. (Dalea. Willd.) 

Minutely pubescent, erect; l/ls. 5, linear, glandular beneath; spiko 
pedunculate, oblon? or subglobose ; r^x. cordate, the other petals oblong, obtuse 
at base. — A beautiml plant, of similar habits with the last Stem slender, stri- 
ate, subsimple, lj| — Srhigh. Leaflets about 1' by 1", all sessile. Spikes 1-^ 
veiy dense, | — IJ' long. Petals of a bright violet purple. Jl. Aug. 

18. TRIFOLIUM. Toum. 

Gr. rpi^vWopf (three-leaved); Lat. ttifolhtm; Ft. tixfit; Edk. trefiiil. 

Calyx tubular or campanulato, 5-toothed, persistent ; petals more 
or less united at the base, withering ; yexillum reflexed ; alae oblong) 
shorter than the vexillum ; carina shorter than the alas ; stamens 10} 
diadelphons (9 & 1) ; legume short, membranous, mostly indehisceni) 
covered by and scarcely longer than the calyx, 2 — 4-8ecded ; seeds 
ronndish. — Herbs. Lvs, palmaiety trifoliate ; ^is. with straight, scarcdf 
reticulated veins. Flowers in dense heads or spikes. 


XupouuM. XLVn. LEQUMINOSjE. 297 

* Heads not iniicobiurait. I^Xowers pedieeUaUf deficTxd w/ien old, 

1. T. REPENS. Creeping or While Clover or Trefoil. Shamrock. 

St. creeping, diffuse; If is. obcordate, denticulate; stip. narrow, scarious; 
kds. subumbellate, on very long, axillary peduncles ; leg. about 4-seeded ; col. 
iedk shorter than the tube. — 7{. In all soils, mountainous, meadow or rocky, 
throughout N. Am. Stems several from the same root, extending 6 — 13', root- 
ing at the joints. Peduncle angular, much longer than the leaves. Flowers 
vhite. Mlay — Sep. — Highly valued for pasturage. 

3. T. RCPLEXUM., Buffalo Clover. 

Pubescent ; ascending or procumbent ; If Is. obovate or oblong-obovate, 
aermlate, some of them emarginate; stip. leafy, semi-cordate; hds. many-flow- 
ered; kg. about 4-seeded — l\.'i Prairies and meadows, Western! and Southern 
States. Stem 8—16' high. Leaflets subsessile, 7—8" by 4-^'; petioles 1—2^ 
long. Heads large and handsome. Pedimcles 1 — 3' long. Vexillum rose- 
red. Apr. — ^Jn. 

3. T. BTOLONiPERUM. Muhl. Running Buffalo Clover. 

Glabrous, creeping; branches axillary, ascending, short; Ifts. broadly 
obcordate, denticulate ; stip. leafy, ovate-lanceolate, acuminate ; fis. loose, um- 
bellate-capitate ; leg. about 2-seeded. — % Fields and woods. Western States ! 
Stems &— IS' long, several together. Branches 3 — if high, generally with one 
head, which is V diam. Leaflets 6 — 10" by 6—9". Flowers white, erect, but 
in fruit all reflezed. May, Jn. 

* * Heads not involucraie. Flowers never defleved nor yellow. 

4. T. ARVENSE. Hare^s-foot Trefoil. 

Hds. cylindrical, very hairy ; ceiyx teeth setaceous, longer than the corol- 
la; Ifts. narrow-obovate.— ® A low plant, abundant in dry, sandy fields. Stems 
mach branched, round, hairy, 6 — 12' high. Leaves hairy, on short petioles, 
of 3 narrow leaflets, \ — 1' long. Stipules ovate-lanceolate, acute, often red. 
Heads of white or pale red flowers, spiked, \ — 1|' long, Ytry soft and downy, 
the slender, e^ual calyx teeth being densely fringed with nne, silky, reddish 
haiis, and projecting far beyond the corolla. Jl. Aug. Common in N. Eng. 

5. T. PSATENBE. Common Red Clover. (Fig. 43, 7.) 
Slpikes dense ; sts. ascending ; cots, unequal; loicer tooth of the calyx lon- 
ger than the four others, which are equal ; Ifts. oval, entire.— <S) This is the 
common red clover, so extensively cultivated in grass lands, wi& herds-grass 
{Pkkum pralense) and other grasses, and often alone. Stems several from the 
same root, hairy. Leaves ternate, the leaflets ovate, lighter colored in the cen- 
tre, entire and nearly smooth. Stipules ovate, mucronate. Flowers red, in 
short, ovate spikes or heads, sweet-scented. Corollas monopetalous. Flowers 
all summer. § 

6. T. MEDiTM. Zig-Zag Clover. 

St. suberect, branching, flexuous, nearly glabrous; Ifts. oblong or ellipti- 
cal, subentire ; stip. lanceolate, acxuninate ; kds. ofjls. ovoid-globose, peduncu- 
late ; col. teeth setaceous, hairy. — % In meadows, Danvers, Mass. Oakes. Heads 
of flowers larger than in T. pratense. Corollas deep purple. Leaves of a uni- 
form green. ^ 

7. T. incabnItum. Flesh-colored Clover. — St. erect, flexuous ; Ifls. ovate- 
orbicular, obtuse or obcordate, sessile, crenate, villous ; spikes dense, oblong, 
obtuse, leafless ; col. teeth setaceous, villous. — (J) A fine species from Italy, oc- 
casionally cultivated as a border flower, and has been proposed (X>r. Dttoey, 
fiep. Herb. PI. Mass.) for cultivation as a valuable plant for hay. 

• ♦ * Heads not involucraie. Flowers never dcflcxedf yellow. 

8. T. PROCUMBENs. YcUow Clovcr or Trefoil. 

St. procumbent or ascending ; Ifts. obovatc-cuneate, or obovate-orbicular, 
obtuse or retuse, denticulate, terminal one petiolulate ; stip. ovate-lanceolate, acu- 
minate, much shorter than the petioles ; hds. small, subglobose, on shortish pe- 
duncles; ear. yellow; sty. 3 or 4 times shorter than the 1-seeded legumes.— (J) 
In dry soils, N. H. ! to Va. Stems many from the same root, slender, more or 



less pubescent, striate, 8 — 10' long, often suberect. Leaflets 4 — 8" lone, |— 
equally as -wide, lateral ones placed 1 — 2" below the terminal one, petioie |— 
IJ' long. Heads about 20-flowered, 2—3" diam,, on slender peduncles J— H* 
long. Flowers at length reflexed. Jn. Jl.^ 

9. T. AGRARiuM. Field or Hop Trefoil. YeUmo Clover. 

St. ascending or erect ; Ifts. obovate-oblong, or oblong-^^nneate, dentieo- 
late, all subsessile ; slip, linear-lanceolate, cohering with and longer than the 
petiole; hd^. ovoid-elliptic, on long peduncles j 2 upper col. segments shorter; 
cor. yellow ; sty. about equaling the 1-seeded legume.— (f) Sandy fields, N;EDfft 
Stems 6—15' high, branched, minutely pubescent. Leaflets 5—10" by 1—3*, 
Common petiole 3 — 10" long, the upper ones shorter than their stipules. Headi 
of flowers twice larger than in the last, on peduncles i l^' long. Flowers at 
length reflexed. Jl. Aug. ^ 

19. MELILOTUS. Toum. 

Lat mtl, honey, and lottu; in diy»f it exhale* a iweet odor. 

Calyx tabular, 5-toothed, persistent ; corolla deciduous, keel pe- 
tals completely united, shorter than the ahfi or yexillum ; stamew 
diadelphous (9 and 1); legume rugose, longer than calyz^ 1 — ^few- 
seeded. — Creniis taken from Trifolium. Lvs. pirmcUdy ir^oUaU^ vtXM 
of the leaflets simple, or forked. Fls. in racemes. 

1. M. OFFICINALIS. Willd. (M, vulgaris. Ea.) YeUoto MdUeL 

St. erect, with spreading branches ; Ifl^. obovate-oblong, obtuse, dentate; 
rcic. spicate, axillary, paniculate, loose; cal. half as long as the yellow ccHolU; 
leg. 2-seedea, ovoid. — ^Alluvial meadows. Stem sulcate, about 3f high. Lerf- 
lets smooth, with remote, mucronate teeth. Flowers in long, 1-sidra, slender 
racemes. Petals of nearly equal length. The whole plant is sweet-scented. Jb. \ 

2. M. LEUCANTHA. Koch. (THfolium officinale, fi. Linn. M. officinalis, 
p. alba, NiiU. and of I5/. edit.) White MelHot. Sweet-scented Gaver. 
St. erect, branched ; Ifts. ovate-oblong, truncate and mucronate at the 

apex, remotely serrate ; slip, setaceous ; cal. less than half as long as the white 
corolla; leg. 3-seeded, ovoid. — @ Alluvial soils. Stem robust, very brandiiDl', 
sulcate, 4--6f high. Leaflets 1 — 2^ long, more obtuse at the apex than at base, 
mucronately serrate. Flowers numerous, the racemes more loose and longer 
than in the last. Petals unequal, banner longer than wings or keel. Vciy fti- 
grant when dried. Jl. Aug. ^-f 


Name derrred from Mgdea, iti native coimtiy T 

Calyx 5-cleft, subcylindric ; keel of the corolla deflexed from ^ 
yexillum by the falcate or spirally coiled legume. — Herbs itnth fat- 
maidy trifoliate leaves. 

\. M. LUPiTLlNA. Nonesuch, 

Spikes ovate ; leg. reniform, 1-seeded, veiny, rugose ; sts, procumbent-' 
(J) Common in fields and road-sides, Can. to Flor. Stems angular, leafy, fr- I*' 
long. Leaves resembling those of clover. Leaflets obovate, serrulate, mucro- 
nate. Spikes small, of yellow flowers. Pods somewhat spiral, a form whick 
characterizes the genus. May — Oct. ^ 

3. M. SATlVA. Lucerne Medick. 

Ped. racemed ; leg. smooth, spirally twisted ; slip, entire ; Ifh. obkmp, 
toothed. — % A deep-rOoting plant, sending up numerous, tall and slender cIotw^ 
like shoots, with spikes of blue or violet flowers. Native of Europe, where it 
is highly valued as a forage plant. It has been naturalized and cultivatedto 
some extent with us, but has hitherto proved of less value than clover. Joly-^t 

8. M. iNTERTEXTA. ffedge-kog. — Ped. about 2-flowered ; leg. cochleate, onl, 
with downy, setaceous, pubescent, reflexed, appressed prickles; Ifls. rhomboidilt 
toothed.— (I) Native of S. Europe. Cultivated as a garden flower for the cori- 
o«ity ofitspods. About a foot in height. Flowers yellow. Jn.— An^ f 



4 M. •CDTSLLlTA. iSfMt^ — Ptd. 2-flowered; leg. uaanned, cochleate, or- 
bicalar, convex at the base, flat above, with concentric, sjiiral folds.— ^ Native 
of S. Europe. Cultivated among flowers for the coiiositj of its pocEs, which 
much resemble snail shells. July, f 

OlL-^etenl oUier apedea are eqoaUy eoriou wiUk Uie above, and an Mmet^^ 


Calyx 5-toothed ; keel of the corolla obtuse ; stamens diadelphous 
^9 &> 1) ; legumes 2-celled by the introfiexion of the lower suture. — 
SerboGums or svffndicosej vnfh unequally pinnaie leaves. *' Hairs often 
fixed by the middle." (T. ^ G.) 

1. A. Canadensis. Canadian Milk Vetch. 

Canescent, erect, difl\ise ; slip, broad-lanceolate, acuminate ; Ifls. about 
10 pairs with an odd one, elliptical, obtuse at both ends, the lowest ovate-obtuse ; 
fed, about as long as the leaves, when in fruit shorter ; spikes oblong ; lis. spread- 
ing, somewhat reflexed ; leg. ovate-oblong, terete, suberect, smooth, 2-celled, 
masy-aeeded, abrupt at the end and tipped with a permanent style. — %. River 
banks, dec., Can to Flor. At the ferry, Niagara FsQls 1 Stem bushy .about 3f 
high, very leafy. Flowers greenish-yellow, in short, dense spikes. Pods |Mn 
length, leathery. Jl. Aug. 


Nearly smooth, jnticumbent, branched; Ifts, 8 — 12 pairs, obcordate or 
obloog-obovate ; ped, alx>ut as long as the leaves; roc. 6—12 flowered, round- 
ish; kg, obloog, triangular, a little curied, acute at each end, the lower suture 
soleate. — Prairies ana bottoms, Ul. Me%:dl N. Car. to Flor. Baldwin. Plant 
but 4--^ long, branched at base. Leaves about 3' in length. Leaflets 3 — 6" by 
1— 1|'', lower ones roundish. Flowers blue, 4— 6^' long, fruit about 1'. 

22. PHACA. 
CrT, ^axtjf kntU, derived fton ^ay«i to eat 

Calyx Srtoothed, keel obtuse ; stamens diadelphous (9 d& 1) ; legume 
eoutinaouS) turgid, 1 -celled; placenta swelling, several-seeded. — % 
Lvs. wnequaUy pinnate. Fls. in axillary ^ pedunculate racemes. 

1. P. NEGLBCTA. ToiT. & Gray. 

Erect, branching, nearly smooth; Ifls. elliptical, 8 — 13 pairs (5 — ^9, T. & 
G.}; stip. minute ; roc. many-flowered, rather loose; leg. sessile, smooth, round- 
ishrovate, much inflated, with a deep groove at the ventral suture. — By streams 
and lakes. Western N. If. to Wiscon. Laphaml Plant resembling Astragalus 
Canadensis, but more slender and delicate. Stem 1 — 2i high, terete. Leaflets 
9—15" by Z—&', minutely puberulent beneath. Flowers white, 10—20 in a 
raceme. Pods about \' long, with many small seeds. Jn. Jl. 

2. P. RoBBiNsii. Oakes. 

St. erect, simple, striate ; Ifta. 5—11, elliptical, v^ obtuse, terminal one 
largest; stip. triangular-ovate; ped. long, erect, each with a short, ovate or ob- 
long raceme ; cor. horizontal, twice as long as the calyx ; keel obtuse, shorter 
than the other petals ; leg. tipped with the recurved, persistent s^le. — ^Ledges, 
banks of Onion River, Vt. Bobbins I Plant nearly smooth. Stem slender, 
&~14' high. Leaves remote, 3—4' long. Leaflets 4— B'' by 1 i— 3", petiolulate. 
Racemes surpassing the stem, on peduncles 5—10' long, 12^18-flowered. 
Corallafl white, about 5" long. Pods 1' long, 4— ^-seeded. May, Jn. 

33. STYLOSANTHES. Swartz. 

dr. «ToX«$, a 11710, Avdof, a flower, i. e. a flower with a eoDfpieuont ityle. 

Plowers of two kinds, cf Calyx somewhat bilabiate, bibracteolate 
ai base, the tube very long and slender, with the corolla inserted on 
its throat; yexillum very broad ; stamens 10, monadelphous ; ovary 
always sterile, with a yery long style. 9 Calyx and corolla ; oyarj 

230 XL VII. LEGUMINOS-fi. Hedtiahum. 

between 2 bracteoles ; legume 1 — 2-jointed, nneinate with the short, 
persistent style. — Lvs. ^innately trifoliate, 

S. ELATioR. Swartz. (Trifolium biflorum. Linn.) Pencil Flowr. 

St, pubescent on one side; l/ts, lanceolate, smooth, acute at each end; 
bracts lanceolate, ciliate; spikes 3— ^Aowered; loment 1 -seeded (lower joint 
abortire). — % Dry, gravelly woods. Long Isl. to Flor. and Ark. Stem mostly 
erect, branched, If in height, remarkable for being densely pubescent an. that 
side only which is opposite the insertion of each leaf, while the other side is 
smooth. Leaves on short stalks, leaflets 1' or more in length. Bracts fringed 
with yellow bristles. Flowers yellow. Jl. Aug. 


Lat oorona, a crown ; from the resemblance of the infloreseenee. 

Calyx bilabiate ; petals unguiculate ; loment somewhat terete, 

jointed ; seeds mostly cylindrical. — Mostly shrubs, JLvs. uneqvaUf 

finruUe. Fls, in simple^ fedunculate v/mbeU. 

1. C. Emerus. Scorpion Senna. — iS*. woody, angular ; ^^. about 3-flowered; 
da/uDS oj^ the petals about thrice as long as the calyx. — ^A beautiful, &ee-flowerin| 
shrub from France. Stem about 3f high, square, with opposite branches. Leaf- 
lets about 7, broadly obcordate. Flowers rose-colored, collected in little tofts 
on the ends of the subaxillary peduncles. Apr. — ^Jn. f 

S. C. YARiA. Purple CoroniUa. — St. herbaceous, erect, smooth, brandung; 
lvs. sessile, smooth; Ifls. II — 19, all subsessile, oblong, obtuse; umbels lopg- 
nedimculate, 10 — 16-flowered ; fls. pale purple. — ^An elegant EuroDean species^ 
2— 4f high, crowned with many hemispherical umbels 1' diam. Jl. — Sept f 

Gr. aurxyvofLat, to be modeit; alluding to ita Mnaitive prapeitr. 

Calyx bilabiate, bibracteolate ; upper lip bifid, lower trifid ; vexii- 
lum roundish; keel petals boat-shaped, distinct at base; stameBS 
diadelphous, 5 in each set; legume exserted; composed of seyend 
truncated, separable, 1 -seeded joints. — I/os. odd-pinnate. Stip, semi- 
sagittate. Roc. axillary, 

JE. BispiDA. Willd. rHedysanmi Virginicum. lAnn.) 
St. erect, scabrous-puoescent, as well as the petioles, peduncles, and 
legumes ; l^. very smooth and numerous (often as many as 49, NuU.% linear, 
obtuse ; stip. ovate, acuminate ; roc. 3— 5-flowered ; lornent compressed, 6— 9- 
jointed.—® Marshes, Penn. to Flor. Stem 2— 3f high. Leaflets about f lon^. 
Racemes usually bearing a leaf. Flowers yellow, reddish outside. Leguiae 
2' long, sinuate on one side. Aug. 

Cfr. ifSvSt •weet, apafta, nnell; some of the ■pedeetre fragiant 

Calyx cleft into 5, linear-subulate, subequal segments ; keel ob- 
liquely truncate, longer than the wings ; stamens diadelphous (9 & 1)) 
and with the style abruptly bent near the summit ; legume (loment) 
of several 1-seeaed joints connected by their middle. — % Mostly kerhar 
ieaus. Lvs. uneqiuilly pinnate. 

H. BOREALE. Nutt. Northern Bedijsarum, 

St. erect; lvs. subsessile, of 6 — 10 pairs of oblong, smoothish leaflets; 
sUp. united, sheathing, with subulate points ; rac. spicate, on long pedancles; 
fls. numerous, deflexed ; cal. teeth short, the lowest longest ; keel longer than th« 
banner or wings ; joints of the leewnie 1—4, flat, suborbicular, rugose-reticii- 
late.— On the precipitous sides of Willoughby Mt. Westmore, Vt 500f aboro 
the lake below ! N. to Hudson's Bay. Stem rigid, I— 2f high, very leafy. Lea^ 
lets 5 — 8" by 2 — 4", obtuse-mucronulate. Racemes 2 — 4' long, on rigid pedan- 
cles 3 — y. Flowers large and handsome, violet-purple. Jn. Jl. 


Grr. SurfMtf a bond ; in reftienoe to the sUebtly oonneetad jointi qf the looMitl 

Caljz 5-cleft, bilabiate, Bometimes bibracteolate at base ; Tezillnm 
Toundisb ; keel obtuse ; stamens diadelphous (9 & 1 ), sometimes 
monadclpbous ; legnme (loment) compressed, composed of several 
1 -seeded, separable joints. — Genus taken from Hedj/sarum. % Her' 
baceous or st^rttiicose. Ia>s. pinjuUely trifoliate. 

* Stamens all connected. Calyx toothed or eniire. 

1. D. NUDIPL6RUM. DC. (Hedjsarum. lAnn.) 

iJls. roandish-ovate, acummate, slightly glaucous beneath ; scape radical, 
paniclea, smooth; joints of ike loment obtusely trialtgtilar— Common in woods, 
17. S. and Can. It is remarkably distinguished by having its leaves and flow- 
en oa separate stalks, oAcn distant from each other. Stem 8—10' high, with 
several temate, long-stalked, smoothish, terminal leaves. Scape 2— 3f long, 
slender, smooth, leafless, panicled, with many small, purple flowers. Aug. 

2. D. ACUMnilTUM. DC. (Hedysarum. Linn.) 

Plant erect, simple, pubescent, leafy at top ; Ifls. ovate, long-acuminate, 
the odd one round-rhomboidal ; panicle terminal, on a very long peduncle. — 
Common in woods, U. S. and Can. Stem 8— IS' high, ending pi a slender 
panicle 1 or 2f long. leaves at the top of the stem and below the panicle. 
Terminal leaflet roundish, 3' diam., lateral leaflets smaller, all of them covered 
with scattered, appressed hairs and conspicuously pointed. Flowers small, 
flesh-colored. Pod of about 3 triangular joints. July. Aug. 

3. D. pauciflOrum. DC. (H. pauciflorum. NuU.') 

St. assm^nt, simple, or slightly branched, retrorseiy hairy; Ifls. mem- 
faranaceoos, pale beneath, scabrous-pubescent above, terminal one rhomboidal, 
lateral ones mequilateral-ovate, all rather acute, or subacuminate; roc. termi- 
nal, few-flowered ;yZs. in pairs; pet. all distinct! spreading. — Woods, Penn. 
to IlL and La. Root creeping, tubercular. Stems ollen clustered. If high. 
Petioles 2—3' long. Leaflets 1—3' long, f-^ as wide. Flowers 2—6, white or 
purplish. Legume of 2 — 3 obtusely triangular joints. Jl. Aug. 

♦ ♦ Stam/nis diadelphous or the teiUh stamsn nearly free. 

4. D. Canadgnse. DC. (Hedysarum Canadense. Ldnn.) Bush VrefoU. 
l^U. oblong-lanceolate, nearly smooth ; stip. filiform ; brads, ovate, long- 

acnminate ; fis, racemcd ; joints ofUic lorneiU obtusely triangular, hispid. — Ratn- 
er common m woods, Can. to Penn. and la. A handsome plant about 3f in 
height. Stem upright, striate. Leaflets 3' long, broadest at base, pointed, near- 
ly smooth. Flowers purple, in axillary and terminal racemes with conspicuous 
bracts. Pods about 5-jointed. Jl. 

5. D. CANEscENs. DC. (D. Aikinianum. Beck. H. canesc. Z/.J 
St. erect, branched, striate, scabrous ; Ifts. ovale, rather obtuse, scabrous 

on the upper surface, soft-villous beneath ; Uip. large, oblique, acuminate ; pwn. 
terminal, very long, densely canescent, naked ;^w/?^ of the loment triangular; 
vpper Up of the calyx nearly entire. — Woods, N. Eng. to Flor. An upright, 
branching plant, with very long panicles of flowers greenish externally, purple 
within. Stem 3f high, pubescent. Pods about 4-jointed. Aug. 

6. D. DiLLEN'ii. Darl. (D. Marilandicum. DC. H. Maril. Willd.) 
DUlenUis' DcsTiwdium. 

Plant erect, branching, hairy; Ifls. oblong, villose beneath; stip, subu- 
late: rac. panicled ; joints of thn loment 3, rhomboidal, reticulate, a little hairv. 
— ^Moist soils. Northern and Western States, Stem sulcate, scjibrous, 3 — 3f 
high. Leaflets 5^—3' by 1—2', smooth above. Panicle large, terminal, naked. 
Flowers purple. Jl. - 

7. D. cuspiOATUM. T. & G. (D. bracteosum. DC. H. bract. Mc.) 
Plant erect, smooth ; Ifts. oblong-oval or ovate, acnminate ; stip. lanceo- 

tate-aubulate ; rac. paniculate, terminal, lai-ge, with scattered flowers ; bracts 
ovate, acuminate, striate, smooth ; joints of the loment suboval. — ^A larger spc- 


332 XLVn. LEGUMINOS^. DMMomni. 

cies than either of the preceding, found in woods, U. S. and Can, StembraDcb> 
ing, erect, 4— 5f high. Leaflets 3' long, widest at base, smooth, entire, pdnled. 
Stipules of the leaves ovate, long-acuminate, of the leaflets awl-shaped. Flow- 
ers large, purple, with conspicuous bracts. Pods in about six joints, long, pen- 
dulous, rough. Aug. 

8. D. MarilandIcum. Boott. (D.oblusum. DC. H. Marilandicum. Lt»ii.) 
Plant erect, branching, hairy; Ifts, ovate, obtuse, subcordate at baacj 

sUp. subulate ; panicle terminal; joints of ike Unnewt roundish, reticulate, hispuL 
—Woods, N. States to Flor. Stem SJ— 3f high. Leaflets i— 1' long, | as wide. 
Flowers violet-purple, small. Loment 1 — ^3-jointed. Au^. 

9. D. ciLiARE. DC. (H. ciliare. WiUd.) Fringed Demodium, 
Plant erect, slender, subpubescent ; Zrs. crowded, on short, hairy pctiola; 

Ifls. small, ovate, short-sialked, |)Ubescent beneath, ciliate on the margin; jtif. 
filiform, caducous : ^flTt^cfe terminal, the lower branches much longer ;>«'«* 
of the lameTU 2 or 3, half-orbicular, hispid, reticulate.— Woods, N. Eng. tolA 
Height 2f. Flowers purple. Aug. 

10. D. RmiDCM. DC. (H. rigidum. EU.) 

Erect, branching, rough-pubescent; Ifls. ovate-oblong, obtuse, tcrmiBu 
one the longest; petiole short, hairy; stip. acuminate, ciliate, caducous; rat 
paniculate, very long ; leg. with 2 — 3 semi-oval or semi-obovate joints.— Hflb 
and woods, Mass. to La. Stem 2— 3f high, often with mimerous, long, erect, 
rigid branches. Leaflets 3 — 3' long, i as wide, rather coriaceous, reticulatdy 
veined. Flowers violet-purple. Aug. 

11. D. PANicuLATUM. DC. (H. pauiculatum. lAnn.^ 

Plant erect, smooth; Ifts. thin, oblong-lanceolate; slip, subulate; jjaawfe 
terminal, with long and slenaer pedicels ; bracts lanceolate ; joints of tki to««j 
rhomboidal. — A handsome species, near 3f in height, found m wooas, U. S. aufl 
Can. Stem slender, striate. Leaves of 3, smooth, narrow leaflets, broadest at 
the base, tapering to an obtuse point, about 3' in length, with subulate, decidu- 
ous bracts. Pods 4 — 5 jointed, large. Flowers purple, numerous. JL Aug. 

12. D. ROTUNDiPOLiuM. DC. (H. rotuudifoHum. lAnn.) 

St. prostrate, hairy; (/"ds. suborbicular, hairy on both sides: ^rodibroadlT 
ovate, acuminate; ra/^. few-flowered; joints of ike loment subrnomboidal.— A 
hairy, prostrate plant, 2 — 3f in length, found in rocky woods throughout the 
U. S. Leaves of 3 roundish leaflets, pale beneath, 1 — V diam., on hairy stallts. 
Stipules cordate, reflexed, hairy. Flowers purple, in axillary and lenninal 
racemes. Pods about G-jointed. Aug. 

13. D. HUMIFUSUM. Beck. (H. humifusum. MuKl,) Prorirate Desmodv^ 
St. procumbent, striate, nearly smooth ; Ifts. oval, sub-pubescent; rfif- 

persistent ; roc. axillary and terminal ; leg. of 2 — i obtusely 4-angled joints— 
Woods, Waltham, Mass. Bigclmp^ Penn. Muhl. A species much resembling 
the last, but the whole plant is much smoother, with smaller and narrower 
bracts. Stem 2— 3f long. Leaflets oval or ovate, subacute. Aug. 

14. D. viRiDiPLdRUM. Beck. (Hedys. virid. Linn.) 

St. erect, densely pubescent and scabrous above ; //25. ovate, mostly ob- 
tuse, scabrous above, soitly villous beneath ; slip, ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, 
caducous ; panicle vety long, leafless ; cal. very hair>', upper lip bifid ; leg. of^ 
triangular joints.— Alluvial soils, N. Y. to Flor. and La. Stem 3— If ^^ 
rigid, branched. Leaflets 3— 3' long. Corolla violet, turning green in withering. 
'Legume 1 — 2' long. 

15. D. LiEviQATUM 7 DC. (H. losvigatum. Nvtf.) 

Glabrous; st. simple, erect; Iv^. on long petioles; //fe. ovate or oblong- 
ovate, rather obtuse; ?tip. subulate, minute and deciduous; panicle tenninjd, 
nearly simple;^, in pairs, on elongated pcflicels; bracts ovate, very sm>*» 5 
upper lip of ca^yx emarginate, segments of the lower lip lanceolate, lowest cB< 
acuminate, half as long as the corolla. — Woods, N.J. NuLt. Harper's Ferrfj 
The smoothest of our Desmodia, 2 — 3f high. Leaflets rather coriaceous, l-^*! 
long, I — If wide. Pedicels 5—8'' long. Flowers purple. Sept.— My speci- 
mens, as well as those of Nuttall, are without fruit. 



16. D. ssaaiLiPOUUii. Torr. & Qny, (H. seasilifolinm. Torr.) 

St. exect, tomentose-pubescent ; Ivs. sessile ; Ifts. linear o^linear-obl<mg, 
obtuse at each end, scabroos above, softly tomentose beneath ;^Eio. subulate ; 
pamde of spicaierac. Yery long; bracts minute; leg. small, hiroid, of 3— 3 semi- 
orbicular joints. — ^Woods, Western Slates and Texas. Stem 2->3f high. Leat- 
kte about ^ by i'. Flowers small, numerous and crowded. Aug. 

17. D. STRicTOM. DC. (H. strictum. Pursh.) 

Elrect, slender, nearly glabrous and simple ; Ivs. petiolate ; Ifis linear, 
elongated, coriaceous and reticulately veined, mucronate ; sUp. subulate ; pant- 
fks slender, few-flowered ; leg. hispid, incurved, of 1 — 3 lunatelv triangular 
joints with a filiform isthmus. — Pme barrens, N. J. to Flor. ana La. Stem 
about 3f high. Leaflets ^—2f by 3—3'', longer than the petioles. Flowers 
small, purple, on very slender pemcels. Aug. 

38. LESP£D£ZA. Michz. 

In booor of Lespedez, (ovemor of Florida, who prolseted Miehauz in his tmveb Uiere. 

Calyx 5-parted, bibracteolate, segments nearly equal ; keel of the 
corolla very obtuse, on slender claws ; legame (loment) lenticular, 
compressed, small, nnarmed, indehiscent, 1 -seeded. — Geniis taken 
from Hedysarum. %■ Lvs. palmatdy trifoliate^ retiadate-veiTied. 

§ Flowers ail complete and fertile^ in denee spikes. Corolla ochroleucoua 
or ichiie^ with a purple spot on the vexiUum^ scarcely longer than the 


1. Li. cAPiTlTA. Mz. (L. fhitescens. EU. Hedysarum frutescens. WiUd.)BusA 
Clover . — iJis. elliptical, obtuse, silky-pubescent ; stip. subulate ; fascicles of 
fs. ovate, subcapitate, shorter tiian the leaves, axillary ; laments hairy, snorter than 
the villous calyx. — An erect, hair^, half-shrubby plant, in dry soils. Can. to Car. 
Stem nearly simple, villous, 3 — li high. Leaves numerous, on short petioles, 
consisting of 3 coriaceous leaflets. Leaflets 1 — 1^' by 3--6'', nearly smooth 
above, covered with silky pubescence beneat^. Aug. Siept. 
0. angust'folui. Ph. (L. angustifolia. EU.) — LJts. linear, smooth above. 

3. L. H1BTA. Ell. (Hedysarum hirtum. Linn.) 

Villous and pubescent ; Ifts. roundish-elliptic ; roc. capitate, axillary, ob- 
long, longer than the leaves ; car. and Itnnent about as long as the calyx. — ^Piant 
3~4f high, found in dry woods. Can. and U. S., erect, branching and very 
hairy. Leaves less numerous than in the last, on very short stalks, consisting 
of 3 oval leaflets hairy beneath. Peduncle hairy, becoming longer than the 
raceme. Flowers reddish- white, crowded. Aug. Sept. 

§ { Flowers of two kindsj complete and apetalous, the latter chiefly bear- 
ing the fndt. Corolla viout or purple^ much longer than the calyx. 
Lespbbezaria. T. &. G. 

3. L. PROCUMBENS. Michx. (Hedysarum repens. WHld.) 

St. procumbent, villose ; Ifls. oval, upper surface smooth ; roc. short, on 
very long, setaceous peduncles ; laments roundish, pubescent. — Dry woods and 
sandy fields, Mass. to La. Plant pubescent in all its parts. Stems several from 
the same root, slender, 3— 3f long. Leaves consisting of 3 oblong or roundish 
leaflets, on hairy stalks. Flowers purple, in short, raceme-like heads, axillary, 
the lower ones apetalous, and on short, the upper on very long, thread-like 
peduncles. Aug. 

4. L. RBPENs. Torr. & Gray. (H. repens. Linn.) Creeping Lespedeza. 
iSt. prostrate, difiuse, nearly smooth ; Ifts. oval or obovate-elliptical, smooth 

above, on very short petioles ; pcd. axillary, filiform, simple, few-flower«i, lower 
ones bearing apetalous flowers; leg. suborbicular, subpubescent. — Dry soils. 
Can., Booker, N. J. and Southern States ! Probably it will yet be found in N. Y. 
Stems very slender, numerous. Leaflets 5—9" by 3—6'', obtuse. Peduncles 
^-3' long. Aug. Sept. 

5. L. vioLACEA. Pers. (H. violaceum. Linn.) Violet Lespedeza. 
Erect or difiuse, branching ; Ifts. elliptic or oval-oblong, obtuse or emar- 

354 XLVU. LEGUMmOSJE. Cbotauiu. 

ginate, about equaling the petiole, more or less pubescent beneath ; r»c axillaiT, 
snbumbellate, lower ones with apetalous flowers \fis. in pairs ; leg, ovate, mootS- 
ish. much longer than the calyx. — Dry woods, Can. and U. S. Root creeping 
and woody. Stems clustered, slender, 8 — 14' long. Apetalous flowers few, the 
complete ones seldom producing fruit. Leaflets 6 — 19" by 4— (f-. Petioles 
9— lo'' long. Corollas small, violei, pedicellate. Legume rhomboidaL JL lug. 
$. divergens. TL. divergens. Ph.) P^i. filiform, divergent, much longer than 
the leaves, mostly unfruitful ; leg. reticulate. — Leaflets ovate. 

6. L. sessiliflOra. Michx. (L. violacea, 0. T, ^ Q.) 

St. erect, branching, puberulent; IfU. small, oblong-oval, obtuse, mocio- 
nate, longer thiin the petioles ; fis. glomerate, on peduncles miich shorter tfam 
the leaves, those at the base apetalous and fertile ; lower segment of ike edfft in 
the complete flowers much longer Uian the others ; leg. orbiculapKiTate, retto 
lated, smooth, much longer than the calyx. — Woods, Can. 1 to Flor., Ohio land 
La. Stem rigid, slender, 1 — 2f high, with numerous, crowded, small ktirei 
Leaflets rigid, 3—6 or 8" by 1—2". Flowers numerous, mostly apetalom 
Legume about 2" diam. Aug. Sept. 

7. L. rbticulJLta. Pers. (IL. vlolacea, y. T.i^ G.) 

SI. erect, rigid, simple, glabrous ; petioles neaiiy erect; Ifts. sabUnetr, 
strigose-pubescent beneath, strongly reticulated and mucronate ; JU. faBdcolate 
on short, axillary peduncles; segmerUs of the calyx of nearly equal length; kf. 
strongly reticulated, acute. — N. J. ! to 111. ! and La. Stem ^or more hii[h,sle>- 
der, rarely branched. Leaflets 10—18" by 1*— 3'', a little broadest in the mid- 
dle, acute at each end, upper ones smaller. Flowers all complete in somesfieei- 
mens, all apetalous in uchers. Corolla violet. Legume 1^'' diam. Ang. 

8. L. Stuvei. Nutt. 

Erect, branched, tomontose-pubescent; Ifis. oval or roundish, longer thin 
the petiole ; roc. axillary, many-flowered, equaling or exceeding the leaves ia 
length ; apetalous fis. few : leg. hairy, ovate, acuminate, longer than the saholale 
calyx teeth.— Dry soils, N. Y. to La. A variable plant, 5— 3f high. Letres 
always hairy beneath, generally so above. Corollas puq>le, much longer dm 
the calyx. Aug. Sept. 


Celtic gei^ Fr. genet ; a nnall ahnib. 

Calvx with the upper lip 2-parted and the lower S-toothed ; vexfl* 
lum oblong ; keel oblong, scarcely including the stamens and style; 
stigma involute ; stamens monadelphous. — Shrubby plants vritk ^ 
pie leaves and yellow fiowers. 

G. TiNCTORiA. Dyer's Broom. Wood-^axen. 

Branches round, striate, unarmed, erect ; lis. lanceolate, smooth ; ^ 
smooth. — % A naturalized species, found occasionally in dry, hilly ponm- 
Stems or branches numerous, ascending or erect, 1 f high, from long, woody, crcfp- 
ing roots. Leaves sessile, alternate. Flowers bright yellow, axillary, scfjifet 
or nearly so, solitary. The whole plant dyes yellow, and with woad, green. Aug. 

Gr. KporaXoVf a mttle ; from the iattlii« of lte Ioom leeds in the poda 

Calyx 5-cleft, somewhat bilabiate ; vexillimi cordate^ large; keelt* 
minate ; sta. 10, monadelphous ; filamentous sheath cleft on the npp^ 
side ; legume pedicellate, turgid.— .^eri* or shrubs. Lvs. often a9fk- 

C. saoittAlis. Rattle-box. 

Plant erect, branching, hairy; lvs. simple, lanceolate; sUp. opff^ 
acuminate, decurrent; roe. 3-iflowered, opposite to the leaves; cor, shorter thj 
the calyx.— <D Plant about a foot high, with a hairy aspect, and inflated po». 
in woods and sandy fields, N. H. to Ark. Stem herbaceous, rigid. Learw »• 
temate, entire, nearly sessile, roimded at the base. The plant is best distin- 
guished by its opposite, united, decurrent stipules so situated that each pair «P" 
pears inversely sagittate. Sepals long, hairy. Corolla small, yellow. Seeds 
few, rattling in the turgid pod, Jl. 

BipnsiA. XLVIl. LEGUMINOSiE. 285 

31. LUPIN US. Tourn. 

LaL lupuft a wolf; becauae it orerruns the field and devours its fertility. (Doubtful.) 

Calyx deeply bilabiate, upper lip 2cleft, lower entire or 3- toothed ; 
wings united towards the summit ; keel acuminate ; stamens mona- 
delphous, the filamentous sheath entire; anthers alternately oblong 
and globose ; legume coriaceous and torulose. — Herbs. Lvs. palmate- 
ly ^—-lb-foliate. 

1. L. PERENNis. ComTfum lAipmc. 

Rt. creeping, perennial ; Ifts. 7 — ^9, oblanceolate, mucronate ; fls. alternate ; 
uL without appendages, upper lip emarginate, lower entire. — TL Grows wild 
abaodantly in sandy woods and hills, Lake Champlain to Wis. Lapkam ! S. to Ga. 
It is a beautiful plant, much cultivated in gardens. It is often called sun-dial, 
irom the circumstance of its leaves turning to face the sun from morning till 
night Stem erect, soft, smoothish, a foot high. Leaves soft, downy, on long 
stalks. Lfts. H — 2^ by 4 — 6", lanceolate, broadest above the middle. Flowers 
Uqc, varying to white, in a terminal spike or raceme. May, June. 

2u L. POLTPHTLLU8. Liudl. Mantf-Uaved Lupine. — Tall ; Ifls. 11 — 15, lanceo- 
late, sericeous beneath ; /2s. alternate, in a very long raceme ; pedicels longer 
than the lanceolate, deciduous bracts ; caX. ebracteolate, both lips subentire : kg. 
denselv hairy. — %K splendid ornament of the - garden, from Oregon. Stem 
3-~6f high. Racemes a foot or more long. Flowers scattered (subverticillate 
in $. grandifoUus, Lindl.), white, purple or yellow in different varieties, f 

3. L. NooTKATENsis. Douii. Nootka Sownd Jjupine. — St. villous, with long, 
spzeading hairs ; IJh. oblong-lanceolate, mucronate, attenuate at base, sericeous 
beneath ; col. very hairy, both lips nearly entire : bracts linear, hairy, longer 
than the calyx. — A handsome species, from the rf . ^T. Coast, 2 — 31 high, in 
gardens. Leaflets about 7. Flowers purple, f 

4. L. ARBOREUS. TVee Impirbe. — Fruticose \Jls. in whorls ; cat. appendaged, 
lips acute, entire. — ^A handsome exotic shrub, 6f high, with large yellow flowers, f 

Ofct.- O e ^ en d uniual species are occasionally sown in cardens, as L. alhu», with white flowers ; L. pi- 
kmu»y with ros»«olored ooweis ; L. luteua, with yellow llowera, and L. Mrautut, with bioe flowers, and 
an appeodaced edyx. 

32. LABURNUM. Benth. 

Calyx campannlate, bilabiate; upper lip 2, lower 3-toothed ; yexil- 

lum ovate, erect, as long as the straight wings ; filaments diadelphous 

{9 6l\)] legume continuous, tapering to the base, several-seeded. — Ori- 

entaltkandess shrubs or trees. Lvs. palmaiely trifoliate. Fls. mostly yellow. 

1. L. vm^AsB. (Cytisus Laburnum. Linn.) Golden Chain. — ^Arborescent; 
Ws. oblong-ovate, acute at base, acuminate ; roc. simple, elongated, pendulous; 
Ug. hirsute. — A small, ornamental tree, 15f high, from Switzerland. Flowers 
nnmerons, large, in racemes If long, f 

2. L. iLPlNUM. (Cytisus alpinus. lAwn.) Scotch Lahum/iim, — ^Arborescent ; 
Ifli. oblong-ovate, rounded at base ; roc. long, simple, pendulous ; leg. glabrous. 
—A beautiful tree, 30f high, native of various alpine regions of Europe. Like 
the former, it develops numerous, brilliant yellow flowers, in long, drooping clu»- 
lers. — ^There are varieties with ochroleucous, white, and even purple flowers.')' 

33. BAPTISIA. Vent. 
Or. 0airrtay to dye ; a use to which some species are applied. 

Calyx 4 — 5-cleft half-way, persistent ; petals of about equal length, 
somewhat united ; vexillum orbicular, emarginate ; stamens 10, dis- 
tinct, deciduous : legume inflated^ stipitate, many (or by abortion 
few)-8eeded. — %■ Lvs. peUmately 3 foliate, or simple. 

1. B. TiNCTORiA. R. Br. (Sophora. lAnn. Podalyria. Lam.) Wild Indigo. 

Glabrous, branching ; lvs. palmately 3-foliate, subsessile ; Ifls. roundiiui- 

obovate, acute at base, very obtuse at apex; slip, setaceous, caducous; roc 


loose, terminal ; leg. subglobose. — ^A plant with bluish-green foliage, frequent ia 
dry soils, Can. and U. S. Stem very bushy, about 2f high. Leaflets about 7" 
by 4—6", emarginate, petiole 1 — 2" long. Flowers 6 — 12 or more in each ra- 
ceme. Petals b" long, yellow. Legume about as large as a pea, on a loo; 
stipe, mostly l-seeded. Jl. — Sept. 

2. B. LEUCOPHAEA. Nutt. OckroUucous Baptisia. 

Villous; petioles almost 0; IJls. oblanceolate, vanring to oboYate; sth. and 
bracts large, triangular-ovate, persistent ; roc. secuna, with numerous uowen 
droopin? on long pSiicels ; fc"-. ovoid or roundish, inflated. — Dry, rich soil, SoQtli- 
em ! ana Western States ! Stem 2 — 3f high, smoothish when old. Leaflets 3— 
5' by I — ^2', stipules more than half as large. Raceme 40 — 60-flowered. Pedi- 
cels 1 — 2' long. Corollas very large, ochroleucous. Apr. 

3. B. LEUCANTHA. Torr. & Gray. (B. alba. Hook.) Whiie-fiowerei, Bapt. 
GlabroiLs and glaucous ; Ivs. on short petioles ; Ifts. cuneiform-obovate, ob- 

ttise; rac. long, erect; brads caducous; leg, inflated, slipitate. — Very conspicu- 
ous in prairies, &c., Mich. la. \ to Ark. Stem tiiick, 2 — 3f high, branches 
about 3, towards the summit. Racemes terminal, of large, white flowers, 6— 
24' long, showy. Leaflets 1 — 2' long, ( as wide, turning bluish-black in dir- 
ing. Jn. Jl. 

4. B. AusTRALis. R. Br. (B. coerulea, NiUt.) Slue-flowered Baptida. 
Glabrous ; petioles short ; .Ifts, obovate, or somewhat oblong, obtuse ; stip. 

lanceolate, rather longer than the petioles, distinct at base ; roc. long, erect ; 
brads caducous ; pedicels rather shorter than the calyx ; kg. oblong-oval, stipe 
long as the calyx. — Alluvial soils, Ohio river, Cter/t/ Harper's Ferry! to G«. 
and La. Stem 2— 3f high, branched. Petioles 1—6" long. Leaflets 1|— 3' by 
I — 1', sometimes acute. Stipules J — 1' long. Flowers indigo-blue, large. Pod 
about 2' long. Jn. — ^Aug. 

34. CERCIS. 

Or. KcpKiff a weaver's shuttle ; ih»m the form of the tefqines. 

Calyx broadly campanulate, 5-toothed ; petals scarcely papilioiu- 
ceoos, all distinct ; wings longer than the vexillam and smaller tluui 
the keel petals ; stamens 10, distinct ; legume compressed, with (he 
seed-bearing suture winged ; seeds obovate. — Trees with simpU, cor- 
date leaves and rose-colored jlowtrs. 

C. CANADENSIS. Judos Tree. Red^ud. 

Ia)s. broadly ovate-cordate, acuminate, villous on the veins beneath.— A 
handsome tree, 20— 30f high, Mid. and W. States. The wood is finely Tme^. 
with black and ereen, and receives a fine polish. Leaves 3->4' by 4-^', entire, 
smooth, 7-veinea, on petioles 1 — 2' long. The flowers appear in advance of the 
leaves, usually in abundance, in smal], lateral clusters. Corolla bright poiple. 
May. — The young twigs will dye wool a nankeen color. The old author Geraitle 
in compliance with the popular notion of his time, says " This is the tree 
whereon Judas did hang himself, and not on the eider tree, as it is said." 

Suborder 2.— C JBSAIiPINiB. 

Corolla not papilionaceous, irregular. Stamens 10 or fewer, all distinct 

35. CASSIA. 

From the Hebrew word KatzUOh. 

Sepals 5, scarcely united at base, nearly equal ; petals 5, unequlf 
but not papilionaceous ; stamens 10, distinct; 3 upper anthers often 
sterile, 3 lower ones beaked; legume many-seeded. — Trees, shrubs or 
herbs. Lvs. simply ^ abruptly pinnate. 

1. C. Marii^andica. Ajtierican Senna. 

Plant smooth j IJts. 6 — 9 pairs, oblong-lanceolate, mucronate, an obowiJ 
gland near the base of the common petiole ; fl^. in axillary racemes and tenw- 
nai panicles.— 01. This beautiful plant is frequenUy met with in alluvial soih, 
(U. S.) growing in close masses, 3— df high. Stem round, striate, often with 

Glkoitschu. XLVn. LEGUMINOSiB. t97 

hairs. Petioles channeled above, and distinguished by the pedicelled 
dand near the base. Leaflets 1—2' by 4~-9''. Racemes in the upper axils, 
forming a leafvpanicle. Petals bright-yellow, 3 erect and 2 declined. In medi- 
cine it is a mua cathartic. Aug. 

2. C. Cham£cbi8Ta. SensiHve Pea, Dwarf Cassia. 

St. erect or decumbent; Ifts. 8 — 12 pairs, oblong-linear, obtuse, mucronate; 
gland on the petiole subsessife ; /osocZ^s of fiawers supra-axillary, subsessile; 
makers 10, all lertile.-HX) An elegant plant, m dry soil, Mass. Mid. W. and S. 
States. Stem i — ^2f high, round, pub^ent Leanets crowded, 4—S" by 1—2^'^ 
smooth, sabsessile. Flowers large, 2, 3 or 4 in each fascicle. Bracts lance- 
sabulate, as are also the stipules, persistent Petals bright yellow, the 2 upper 
ones with a purple spot. Aug. — ^The leaves possess considerable irritability. 

3. C. nictItans. Wild Sensiiioe Plant, 

St. erect or procumbent ; Ifls. 6 — 15 pairs, oblong-linear, obtuse, mucro- 
nate, sessile ; giaiid on tke petiole slightly pedicellate; fls. small, 2 or 3 in each 

.owest pair of leaflets. Flowers very small, pale yellow, on short pedicels. Jl. 
— ^The leaves are quite sensitive, closing by mght and when touches. 


Cfr. yv/iyof, naked, irXaJof, a ahoot; for iti coane, naked iboota in winter. 

Flowers 9 c^- <? Calyx tubular, 5-cleft, equal; petals 5, inserted 
into the summit of the tube; stamens 10, distinct 9 Calyx and 
corolla as above ; style 1 ; legumes l-ceUed, oblong, very large, pulpy 
within. — A slendery unarmed tree, toith unequally bipinnaie Ivs. Ifis, 
avate^ acuminate. 

Q. Canadensis. Lam. Coffee Tree. . 

Grows in Western N. Y., Ohio, la. I &c., on the borders of lakes and riv- 
ers. Heig;ht 501; with a trunk 15' diam., straight and simple to the height of 
25f, covered with a rough, scaly bark, and supporting a rather small, but regu- 
lar head. The compound leaves are 2— 3f long, and 15—20' wide, being doubly 
compounded of a great number of dull green leaflets. Single leaflets often oc- 
cupy the place of some of the pinnae. Flowers large and white, succeeded by 
large, curving pods containing several hard, gray seeds. The wood is reddish, fine- 
grained and strong, and is valuable in architecture, and cabinetrwork. May— Jl. 

IB booor of John G. GleditKh, a botanical wriler, Leipsic. about 1780. 

Flowers 9 9 cT.gepals equal, 3—5, nnited at base ; petals 3— 5 ; 
stamens 3—5, distinct, opposite the sepals, sometimes by abortion 
fewer or ; style short ; legume continuous, compressed, often inter- 
cepted between the seeds by a quantity of sweet pulp. — Trees, with 
supra-axillary, branched spines. Lvs. abruptly pinnate and bipinnaie 
often in the same specimen. 

G. TRiACANTHus. HoTiey Locust. 

Branches armed with stout, triple spines ; Ifis. alternate oblong-lanceo- 
late, obtuse: leg. linear-oblong, compressed, intervals filled with sweet pulp.-- 
This fine tree, native from Penn. to Mo. and La., is becoming common in cul- 
tivation. In favorable circumstances it attains the height of 70f, undivided half 
its length, with a diameter of 3— 4f. The thorns with which its branches are 
armed^in a most formidable manner, are 2-3' long ligneous, often leaving 2 
secondary ones branching from the sides. Foliage light and elegant, jf^^^ 
about 18; 1— U' long, i m wide, 1 , 2 or 3 of them frequentiy transformed, cither 
partly o^ whoUy, into smaller leaflets (^ 240 6). lowers small, ^^ite Jio- 
icedid by flat, CTooked, hanging pods li-lS' long, of a duU red. Seeds flat, 
hard brown Imbedded in a fleshy substance, at first sweet but becomes sour. Jn. 


SuBORDRR 3.— M I M O S £ JB . 

Sepals and petals valvatc iu aestivation, subregular. Stamens 5—200. 
Embryo straight. — Leaves abruptly pinnate or bipinnate. 

38. MIMOSA. 

Gr. ftiftoij a bufibon ; the leaves seemii aportinf with the hand that touche* theoi. 

Flowers 9 ? <^- ? Calyx 5-toothed ; corolla 0, or 5-toothed ; sU. 
4 — 15 ; legume separated into 1 -seeded joints ; cf like the perfect, but 
without ovaries or fruit. — % Hbs. and shrtibsj natives of tropical Amer. <fr. 

M. puDicA. Sensitive Plant. — SL prickly, more or less hispid ; Ivs. digiuue^ 
pinnate; pinna 4, of many (20 or more)pairb of linear leaflets. — ^Native of Bn- 
zil. Stem shrubby, about a foot high. Leaflets about 3'' long, very nomerous. 
Flowers small, capitate. — It is occasionally cultivated for the interest excited 
by its spontaneous motions, — the leaves bending, folding, and apparently shrink- 
ing away from the touch of the hand. 

39. SCHRANKIA. Willd. 

In honor of Francia de Paula Schrank, a Geiman botaniiL 

Flowers 5 c? ; calyx minute, 5-toothed ; petals utiited into a fdnnel- 
shaped, 5-cleft corolla; stamens 8 — 1 0,distinct or monadelphoiis; legume 
echinate, dry, 1 -celled, 4-valved, many-seeded; — % Prickly kerbs. St. 
procumbent. Lvs. sensitive, bipinnate. Fls. in spherical headSj purplish. 

S. UNCINATA. Willd. (Mimosa horridula. MicAz.) Sensitive Brier. 

SL angled, grooved; pinna 6 — 8 pairs; Ifls. numerous, minute, ellipticil, 
reticulated beneath; hds. solitary, on peduncles shorter than the leaves;^, 
very densely clothed with prickles. — Dry soils, Clark Co., Mo. Mtadj ind 
Southern States. Stem 2 — 4f long, and with the petioles and peduncles aimed 
with short, sharp prickles turned downwards. Leaflets about 2" by §". Pednn- 
cles 2—3' long, heads \ — |' diam. May — Jl. 


In honor of Hon. Wm. Oariincton, of Penn., author of Flora Ceatriea, Ac. 

Flowers 9 ; calyx campanulate, 5-toothed ; petals 5, distinct ; sta- 
mens 5, distinct; style filiform; stigma minute, funnel-shaped; 
legume lanceolate, dry, 2-valved, 4- — 6-seeded. — % Unarmed and gl^ 
brotis herbs. I/vs. abruptly bipinnaie ; Ifis. very numerous. Fls. wfuit^VL 
axillary, pedunculate heads. 

D. BRACHYLOBA. DC. (Dcsmanthus. Benth.) 

a. lUinoensis. T. &> G. (Mimosa Illinoensis. Michx.) Pinna 6—11 
pairs, with a gland between the lowest pair only; stems numerous^ diffuse; kf- 
slightly falcate. — ^Prairies and bottoms. 111. to La. Stems 2~-3f high, simple, 
striate. Leaves 2 — 4^ long. Leaflets linear-oblong, subfalcate, obtuse at each 
end, 2i" by i". Legumes crowded, |' long. Jn. Aug. — ^This genus is rednced 
by Benikam to Desmanthus, Willd.j but there are numerous genera based on 
less important distinctions than this ; e. g. Vicia and La^iyrus. 


Treet, aArute or turbt. Leavet aJtemate. 

Stipulet uBually larfe or conspicuous, sometimea none. 

fY«. recular. commonly showjr, rarely dicBcious. 

Cte/.— Sepau 6, rarebr fewer, united^ often reinforced by as man^ bracts. 

Cor.— Petab 5, reruuir, rarely wanting, inserted on the disk which lines the orifice of the ealn« 

Sta. 00, usually numerous, arising from the calyx, distinct. 

Oro. superior. 1 or several, distinct, i-celled, often coherent to the sides of the calyx and eaehothcE. 

Btytet distinct or united. Frutt a drupe, pome, achenia or iblliole. 

This order, as here constituted, consists of three suborders, which by Undley are lesaidedis) 
ofders t viz. Jmvfdo/etf, Pamea and Rotoce^R proper, to which is added CfaymtbalaneOy not r^ 
in this flora. The genera and species in each suborder are estimated by Lindley as IbUowi : 

Chrysobalanes, 11 genera, 60 species. 

AmygdolesB, 5 " HO " 

PomesB, 18 *" 900 " 

RosacesB proper, 60 ** 6» " 

Total. W " "JiS •• 


Pnrertlet.—A kiiUr i)aporUDloidtr.>betliii<nnfwiliIiilaHcniBftilt,ibi>AdictelMii4iieM,<r 

ftebcantrofimlDwcn, Konsof iti iiMdfi (4U«Mliic tbo« of tbe AlDHad uibvl m UBwIieiiiaaH. 
*• i^innAi* vrineivh eharuunia the hmllj. midiiw cbidlr m u>b b<ut ud tha inoli. Thg rm> ■■ 

•a. ■ « muinin. TIh pMili^RvadnueenLiiSliL ilia well knowq ftiimt dl. aU«l M^ q^ 
I1K Tba I Im !■<. P«h, *a., ■jimd Ij nni»ic »cul.« dttjly poiMii, ittidim thlito la tM tonali.-- 
or Ik* R^KBB, H — miiilil Amuint ■hniba. it k Kwcalr mmimt ta wnk. 

ki fiNJBcl (wpcb tn Ik* nlri ndie. 

Ink. itiBiciii. vrviFi, fte. ». Bilimii mtiT Ird lljl*. I. Maton 0"^- 
«,*i;, I. EntanJ aatxl. ■- Pmil. mmlituif of Ih« enluisd nniKicW 
1. PeTiitTiMMf ■uioenj dT Raboii IdsiWr 10- rTaiL tba DHhr earpeHMPV- 
' "- " -» ---'-*-- Tjtptome. IS. VsitKKj aveitHi of a n*a, ibowinc 

Coiapectia ojiit Oenera. 

DptBfle Itbeixnialantalrlfl- f P 

njtfhhnm. Prvnu 

f fDakad, Iprutadnva^tnncleqij 

I (Can«li1-4.lPcU 

I « Ibql enelMad in i(a luboa. f CanKl. nnmtn..!. 


340 XLVin. ROSACEA. Cbruci. 

Suborder I.— A MYGDALiEiB. 
Ovary solitary. Fruit a drupe. Seeds mostly solitary. Calyx decidnoos. 

1. CERAs CJS. Juss. 

Name fhnn Cerattu^ a town in Pootua, whence originated the farden oiieny. 

Calyx 5-cleft, regular, deciduous ; petals much spreading ; stamens 

15 — 30 ; drupe globose, succulent, yery smooth, destitute of a glaa- 

oous bloom ; nucleus subglobose, smooth. — Tree$ &r shrubs. Lvs, amr 

duplicate in astivatioji. 

* Ftovxn in racenus. 

1. C. sBROTlNi. DC. (C. Virginiana. Mchx, Prunus. Ehrk,) BUxk 
or Wild Cherry. — Ia)S. deciduous, oval-oblong, acumiDate, unequally serrate, 

smooth, shining above : petioles with 2—4 glands ; roc. spreading, elongaied.~A 
large forest tree, throughout the U. S. Trunk 50 — 80f high, of uniform size and 
undivided to the height of 20--30f, 2-4f diam. Bark black and rough. Leaves 
^—5' long, i^ as wide, with 1—2 pairs of reddish glands at base. In May and 
June it puts forth numerous cylindric clusters of white flowers. Fruit nearly 
black when mature, bitterish, yet pleasant to the taste, and is greedily devoiued 
by birds. — The wo(xi, extensively used in cabinet-work, is compact, fine-grained, 
and receives a high polish. Tne bark has a strong, bitter taste, and has been 
used in medicine as a tonic. 

2. C. Virginiana. DC. (C. serotina. Hook. Pmnus. lAnn.) Choke Ckerrj. 

Lvs, smooth, sharply serrate, oval, decidaous, the lower serratures glandu- 
lar, veins bearded on each side towards the base ; petiole with 2 glands; rac 
lax, short, spreading : pet. orbicular. — ^A small tree or shrub, 5 — 20f high, in 
woods and hedges. Bark grayish. Leaves 2 — 3' long, | aft wide, with a short, 
abrupt acumination, and spreading, subulate serratures. Flowers white, ap- 
peanng in May. The fruit (cherries) is abundant, of a dark red color, verj 
astringent to the taste, yet on the whole agreeable. 

* * Flowers subumibeUate or solitary. 

3. C. Pennstlvanica. Ait. (Prunus borealis. PA.) Wild Red Cherra. 
Iajs. oblong-ovate, acuminate, finely serrate, membranous, smooth ; wMs 

corymbose, with elongated pedicels ; drupe small, ovoid-subglobose. — ^A small 
tree, common in woods and thickets in the Northern States. The trunk rarely 
exceeds 25f in height, with a diameter of 6—8'. Bark smooth, reddish-brxwa 
Leaves 2—5' long, i as wide, the fine teeth mostly glandular, anex tapering to 
a long acumination. Flowers white, on long (2^0^ slender pedicels collected 
into a sort of umbel. Fruit red, very acid. — This tree is of rapid growth, and 
quickly succeeds a forest-clearing if neglected. May. 

4. C. PUMiLA. Michx. (Prunus depressa. Pk.) SandCherrv. 

l/vs. lanceolate, oval or obovate, acute, subserrate, smooUi, paler beneath; 
UTnbeh few-flowered, sessile ; drupe ovoid. — A small, trailing shrub, in gravelly 
soils, Can. and U. S. Branches ascending, 1 — 2f high. Leaves 2—3' long, \ 
as wide, very acute at each end. Flowers white, 3, 4 or 5 in each umbel, the 
pedicels smooth, 1' in length. Fruit small, dark red, acid but agreeable to the 
taste. May. 

5. C. Avium. Moench. (Prunus. Linn.) Duke Cherry. Ox-heart. BngBA 
Cherry. Bigareany <^c., <f»c. — Branches erect or ascending; Irs. oblong-obovatr, 
acuminate, hairy beneath ; umiels sessile, with rather long pedicels ; drupe ovoid- 
^lobose, subcordate at base. — Cultivated in gardens, fields, &c., common. Trunk 
So — 50f in height, with an oblong or pyramidal head. Leaves 3—6' long, | » 
wide, on petioles 1 — 2' long, often with 2 glands. Flowers expanding with the 
leaves, wnite. Drupes various shades of red, firm but juicy. May. — ^The fruil 
is well known and appreciated. About 75 varieties are published in Amencan 
catalogues, f 

6. C. VULGARIS. Mill. (Prunus Cerasus. Linn.) Sour Cherry. Large Rid 
Cherry. MoreUo^ <f»c. — Branches spreading; lvs. ovate-lanceolate, acute at apex, 
narrowed at base, nearly smooth ; vmbeh subsessile, with short pedicels; 

Frunub. XLVUL rosacea. 841 

globose.^A smaller tree than the preceding, much cultivated. Trunk 15— 20f 
high, with a roundish, compact head. Branches slender. Leaves &— 3' long, 
} as wide, unequally serrate, on petioles i as long, with 2 glands. Flowere 
white, expanding sooner than the leaves, 2 or 3 from each bud, on pedicels f 
long. Fruit large, various shades of red, acid or subacid. Apr. — la Prince's 
Catalogue, 1844, these two species are transposed (perhaps by mistake). About 
185 varieties are there published, of which 50 belong to the present species. ^ 

2. PR UN US. Toum. 
Calyx 5-cleft, regular, decidnons ; petals much spreading ; stamens 
15—30 ; ovary 2-oviiled ; drupe ovate, fleshy, smooth, generally cov- 
ered with a glaucous bloom ; nucleus compressed, smootL — Small 
trees or shrubs. Lvs. convohUe in vematiorh. 

1. P. Americana. Marsh. TCerasus nigra. Loisd.) Bed Plum. Yellow Plum. 
Somewhat thorny ; lvs. oolong-oval and obovate, abruptly and strongly 

acuminate, doubly serrate ; drupes roundish -oval, reddish-orange, with a thick, 
coriaceous skin. — ^Hedges and low woods, U. S. and Can., often cultivated for 
its sveet, pleasant fruit, which is about the size of the damson. Shrub 10 — 15f 
high. Leaves 2 — 3' long, } as wide, petioles { — ^' long, mostly with 2 glands at 
the summit. Flowers preceding the leaves, ^-A in each of the numerous um- 
bels, white. Drupes nearly destitute of bloom, ripe in Aug. Flowers in May. ^ 

2. P. INBITITIA. Wild BuUace TVee, 

JjDS. ovate-lanceolate or oblanceolate, tapering to the petiole, acute, serrate, 
pubescent^villous beneath ; branches somewhat spiny ; jls. naked, generally in 
pairs ; col, sclents entire, obtuse ; pet. obovate ; fruit globular. — A European 
shrub or small tree. 15— 20f high, naturalized " on the banks of Charles River, 
in Cambridge, road-sides at Cohasset, and other places in the vicinity of Bos- 
ton." Emerson^ Rep. trees and shrubs of Mass. The leaves and flowers are 
from separate, but adjacent buds, the former 1 — !(' long, with short petioles. 
Petals white. Fruit black, covered with a yellowish bloom. ^ 

3. P. MAaiTiMA. Wang. (P. littoralis. Bw.) Beach Plum. 

Ijcs. oval or obovate, slightly acuminate, sharply serrate ; petioles with 2 
glands ; umbds few-flowered ; pedicels short, pubescent ; fr. nearly round. — ^A 
smali shrub, abundant on the sea-beach, particularly on Plum Island ! at the 
mouth of Merrimac river. Very branching. Leaves 1 — 3' long, downy-canes- 
cent beneath when young, becoming at length nearly smooth. Flowers white, 
2—6 in each of the numerous umbels. Fruit globular, eatable, red or purple, 
iiule inferior in size to the common garden plum, ripe in Aug., Sept. Fl. in May. 

4. P. spmOsA. Black T%orn. Sloe. — Branches thorny ; fis. solitary ; cal. cam- 
panalate, lobes obtuse, longer than the tube ; lv$. pubescent beneath, obovate- 
elliptical, varying to ovate, sharply and doubly dentate ; drupe globose. — Hedge- 
rows and cultivated grounds, Penn. Pursh. A thorny shrub, 12 — 15f high, na- 
tive of Europe.^ 

5. p. Chicasa. Michx. (Cerasus. DC.) Chickasaw Plum.-^Branches spi- 
noae ; ivs. oblong-lanceolate or oblanceolate, glandular-serrulate, acute, nearly 
smooth; umbels 2— 3-flowered, pedicels short, smooth; drupe globose.->A fine 
friutp«hmb, native of Arkansas, &c., often cultivated. Height 8 — 12f, with a 
bushy head. Leaves 1 — ^ long, | as wide, petioles about i' lone. Flowers 
small, white, expanding with the leaves, in Apr. Fruit red, or yellowish-red, 
tender and succulent, npe in July. There are several varieties. ^ 

6. P. DOMESTiCA. Common Garden Plum. Damson Plj-^Branckes unarmed ; 
lvs. oval or ovate-lanceolate, acute ; pedicels nearly solitary ; drupe globose, oval, 
ovoid and obovoid. — This long cultivated tree or shrub is said to be a native of 
Italy. It rarely exceeds 15f in height. Leaves quite variable in form, 1—3' 
■ong, i as wide, sometimes obtuse, on petioles about 1' in length. Flowers 
white, generally but one from a bud, expanding while the leaves are but iia.i 
grown, in Apr. and May. Fruit black, varying through many colors to while, 
covered with a rich glaucous bloom, ripe in Aug. About 150 varieties are pub- 
* l^> t#iH in the catalogues of American gardeners. X 

242 XLVIII. ROSACEJE. Amycdalw 

3. ARMENlACA. Toum. 

Named from Anneoia, iU native County. 

Calyx 5-cleffc, deciduous ; petals 5 ; drupe succulent, pubeacent; 
nucleus compressed, smooth, margins sulcate, one obtuse and the other 
acute. — Small trees. I/vs. convoltue in aslivation. 

1. A. VULGARIS. Lam. (Prmius Armeniaca. WUld.) Common Apricot.— iM, 
broadly ovate, acuminate, subcordate at base, denticulate; slip, pahnate;^ 
sessile, subsolitary, preceding the leaves ; drupe somewhat compressed, suVglo- 

There are about 20 varieties. \ 

2. A. DASYCARPA. DC. (Pmnus. Ehrh.) Black Apricot^—lAJS. ovate, acumi- 
nate, doubly serrate ; petioles with 1 or 2 glands ; fls. pedicellate ; drufe subglj 
bose. — This species is from Siberia. The tree or shrub is about the size a 
the last, hardy and thrifty. Leaves smooth above, pubescent on the veins !»■ 
neath, 2—3' long, i as wide, on petioles near 1' long. Flowers white, preced- 
ing the leaves, distinctly pedicellate. Fruit dark purple when mature, in July- 
Ms. Apr. J Neither species is yet common. 

4. PERSlCA. Toum. 
Named from Persia, iti native ooantiT. 

Calyx 5-cleft, tubular, deciduous ; petals 5 ; drupe fleshy, tomen- 
tose or smooth ; nucleus somewhat compressed, ovate, acute, ragosely 
furrowed and perforated on the surface. — Small trees, Lvs. cond^ 
cate in astivation. 

1. P. VULGARIS. Mill. TAmygdalus Persica. Willd.) Common Peack—LU' 
lanceolate, serrate, with all the serratures acute ; Jls. solitary, subscssile, pre- 
ceding the leaves ; drupe tomen tose. — ^Tree or shrub, 8— 15f high. Leaves 3-5' 
long, i as wide, smooth, petioles short, with 1 or 2 fflands. Flowers rose-color, 
with the odor of Prussic acid. Fruit large, 1 — ^2^' diam., yellowish, tinged with 
purple, densely tomentose. — About 200 varieties of this delicious fruit are now 
named and described in the catalogues of American nurserymen. In order to 
attain its proper flavor in the Northern States, the peach requires protection ia 
the spring months. The double-flowered peach is a highly ornamental variety, 
blossoming in May. ^ 

2. P. LfviB. (Amygdalus Persica. WiUd.) Neciarine. — ^i>r5. lanceolate, 9cr« 
rate, the serratures all acute ; fls. solitary, subsessile, appearing before the leaTcs; 
drupe glabrous. — ^Closely resembles the peach tree in lorm, foliage and floweis. 
The fruit is 1 — 3' diam., smooth, yellow, purple, red, &c. Of its nnmerow 
(about 25^varietie8, about a fourth are clingstones^ — flesh adhering to the stone, and 
the remanndeT freestones or clearstones^ — flesh free, or separating from the sloiic4 

5. AMYGDALUS. Willd. 
Calyx 5-cleft, campanulate, deciduous ; petals 5 ; drupe not flesbj, 
compressed ; nucleus perforate and furrowed, ovate, compressed, 000 
edge acute, the other broad-obtuse. — TVees or shrubs. JLvs. ctnid»J^ 
cate in astivatum. 

1. A. COMMUNIS. Willd. Almond. — Lvs. lanceolate, serrate, with the lower 
serratures glandular; fls. .sessile, in pairs, appearing before the leaves.— Froo 
Barbary. Scarcely cultivated in this countiy for the fruit, which we reccite 
mostly from S. Europe. A double-flowered variety is highly ornamental ift 
shrubberies. •(■ 

M. A. NANA. Dwarf single-flaoerinff Almond. — Ijvs. ovate, attenuate at h**, 
siiuf IV and finely serrate; fls. .subseswle, appearing before the leaves. — A wj 
ornamental shrub, from Russia. Height about 3f, branching. Leaves 3-v 
long, i as wide, smooth, acuminate at each end. Flowers numerous. Peoli 
oblong, obtuse, rose-colored, often double. May, Jn. f 

CmATMon. XLVni. ROSACEiB. ilB 

3. A. PUBiiLA. Dwarf drnMe-JUnoering Almond. — Laos, lanceolate, doubly ser- 
rate j JU. pedicellate.— "Native of China. A low shrub, highly ornamental, 
OQmmoQ in cultivation. Stems 2 — 31* high, branching. Leaves 3 — 5' by ^ — r, 
acute at each end, smooth. Flowers very numerous, clothing the whole shrub 
in their roeeate hue, while the leaves are yet small. May, Jn. -f 

Suborder 2. — ^P O 91 E iB • 

Oraries 2 — 5 (rarely 1,) cohering with the sides of the persistent 
calyx and with each other. Fruit a pome. 

Gr. fffNirof , atreoffth t oo acoovnt of tbe ihnuMa of Cba wood. 

Calrjc nrceolate, limb 5-cleft ; petals 5 ; stamens 00 ; ovaries 1 — 5. 
with as many styles ; pome fleshy, containing 1 — 5 bony, I -seeded car- 
pels, and crowned at the summit by the persistent calyx and disk. — 
Trees or shrubs, armed w tk thorns. Lvs. simple^ often lobeeL Bracts 
subulaie^ deciduous. Fls. corymbose. 

1. C. cocciNEA. (C. Crus-galli. Bw. C. glandulosa. WiUd.) CWnu^n- 
firuited Thorn. White Th^. — Ijvs. broadly ovate, acutely serrate and 

sub (9)-robed, thin and smooth, subacuminate, abrupt at base ; petioles long, slen- 
der, and (with the c^z^ smooth and subglandular ; sty. 3 — ^5. — ^A thorny shrub 
or small tree, 10 — ^20f nigh, in thickets, by streams, &c., Can. and U. S. 
Branches crooked and spreading, branchlets and thorns whitish. Thorns stout, 
rigid, shan), a little recurved, about \\' long. Leaves \\ — ^* long, f as wide, 
lobed, or (rather) coarselv, doubly acuminate-serrate. Petioles very slender, | 
as long as the lamina. Flowers white, in paniculate, lateral corymbs of about 
12. Fruit 3— 5" diam., bright purple, eatable in Sept. Fls. May. 

2. C. Crus-oalu. (Mespilus. Lam. <f c.) Cock-spur T%om. 

Vm. obovate-cuneiform or oblanceolate, subsessile, serrate, coriaceous, 
shining above ; spines very long ; corymbs glabrous ; sen. lanceolate, subserrate : 
j^. 1 (2 or 3\— Hedges and thickets, Can. and U. S., rare. Shrub 10— 20r 
high, much branched. Thorns 2 — 3' long, straight, sharp, and rather slender. 
Leaves J— 2|' long, i — | as wide, tapering and entire at base, mostly obtuse at 
apex ; petioles 1 — 5" long. Flowers white, fragrant, in corymbs of about 15, 
oo very short, lateral branchlets. Fruit pyriform, dull red, 2—3" diam., per- 
sistent during winter, unless eaten by birds. Jn. 
0, pyracaifUkifdUa. Ait. — Lvs. oblong-lanceolate, petioles ^' long. 

3. C. PUNCTATA. Jacq. (C. latifolia. DC. Mespilus. Spach.) T%om, 
Ijvs. cunelform-obovate, doubly and often incisely serrate, entire at base 

and narrowed to a petiole, veins straight and prominent, pubescent beneath ; 
emymifs and cal. villose-pubescent ; 5fy. 3 (1 or 2); fr. globose, punctate. — Bor- 
ders of woods, U. S. and Can. Tree 12 — ^25f high. Branches wide-spreading, 
crooked, covered with cinerous bark. Thorns stout, sharp, 1 — ^ long, some- 
times wanting. Leaves \\ — ^' long, j^ as wide, acute or short acuminate : 
netioles i — 1' long. Flowers white, in somewhat leafy, compound corymbs or 
&— 15. Fruit 5—8" diam., red or yellowish, eatable in Sept. F%. May, Jn. 

4. C. tomentOsa. (C. p3rrifolia. Ait. C. lobata. Bosc. C. flava. Hook.) 
Black Tkom. — Lvs. oval, or elliptic-ovate, narrowed at base into a mar- 

gmed petiole, subplicate, incisely and doubly serrate, smoothish above, tomen- 
tose beneath ; corymbs large, tomentose when young ; stij. 3 — 5 ; /r. pyriform.— » 
Thickets and hedges. Can. S. to Ky. and Car. — A large shrub, 12-— 15f high, 
armed with sharp thorns 1 — 2* long. Leaves 3 — 5' long, i — } as wide, acute 
at apex: margined petiole ( — 1' long. Fls. large, fragrant,white, in a leafv corymb 
of »— 19L Fruit 4—6" diam., orange-red, eatable but rather insipid. iMay, Jn. 
/?. (Torr. & Gray.) Lvs. strongly plicate, nearly smooth, smaller. 

5l C. Oxycantha. Haiothom. EngUsh Thorn. 

i/vs. obovate or broad ovate, obtuse, 3 — ^7-lobed, serrate, smoothish, shining 
abore; slip, large, incisely dentate; corymbs glabrous; sty. 1—3; fr. ovoia, 



244 XLVm. ROSACELfi. Pnn. 

small. — Hedges, Ac., sparingly naturalized. Shrub very branching, S— 18f 
high. Thorns slender, very sharp, axillary, i' long. Leaves 1 1 — ^ long, nearly 
as wide, lower ones deeply lobed ; petioles i — 1' long, with 2 leafy stipoks at 
base. Flowers white. Fruit 3---3" diam., purple. — Used for hedges (exten- 
sively in Europe). There are several varieties. \ J 

6. C. parviflOra. Ait. (C. tomentosa. Michx. Mespiluslaciniata. WeU.) 
Thorns slender; Ivs. coriaceous, pubescent, cuneate-obovate,subse88ile,iA> 

cisely serrate ; fls. subsolitary ; col. with the pedicels and brtnuilds villoos-to- 
mentase; sep. laciniate, foliaceous; 5^y. 5 ;/r. large, roundish-obovoid, with S 
bony, 1-seeaed nuts. — Sandy woods, N. J. and Southern States. A much 
branched shrub, 4 — 7f high. Leaves I — 2^ by | — |', the upper surface shining 
and nearly glabrous when old. Fruit greenish-yellow, near i' diam., and eata- 
ble when ripe. Apr. May. 

7. G. coRDATA. Ait. (C: populifolia. Walt.) Washington 7%0n». 
T%om glabrous and glandless ; Ivs. cordate-ovate, somewhat deltoid, aco- 

minate, incise! v lobed and serrate, with long and slender petioles ; aep. shoit : 
Uy. 5; fr. small, globose-depressed. — Banks of streams, Va. to Ga., cultiralea 
in the Middle States for hedge-rows. Shrub 15— 30f high, the branches with 
very sharp and slender thorns 2 — 3' long. Leaves often deeply 3— 5-lobed, aboot 
fy by Ik'' Pomes i' diam., numerous, red. Jn. ^ j: 


Celtic peren; Angto-Suonperff; Fr. poire: iMLpyrut; Hog. pear. 

Calyx urceolate, limb 5-cleft; petals 5, roundish ; styles 5 (2 or 3), 
often united at base; pome closed, 2 — 5-carpeled, fleshy or baccate; 
carpels cartilaginous, 2-8eeded. — IVees or shrubs. Lvs. simple or f»- 
note. Fls. white or rose-colored, in cymose corymbs. 

§ Leaves simple. Cyme simple. Styles united at base, 

1. P. coRONARiA. (Mains. Mill.) Crab AppU. Sweet-scented Cfab4nt. 
Lvs. broad-ovate, rounded at base, incisely serrate, often sublobate, smootli- 

ish, on very slender ^tioles ; pet. unguiculate ; riy. united and wooly at the 
base; fr. as well as tneyfo. very fragrant, corymbose. — Borders of woods, Mii 
West, and South. States. A small tree, l0—20f high, with spreading braochei 
Leaves 2 — 3' long, | as wide, resembling those of Crataegus coccinea ; petiole 
i — 1' long. Flowers very large, rose-colored, in loose corymbs of &— 10. Frail 
as large (I — U' diam.) as a small apple, yellowish, hard and sour, but esteem- 
ed for preserves. May. J 

2. P. ANGU8TIF0LIA. Ait. (Malus. Mickx.) 

Glabrous; lvs. lance-oblong, acute at base, slightly dentate-serrate, shin- 
ing above; sty. distinct; fr. small. — Penn. and S. States. A tree 15— 90flugl», 
resembling the last, but with smaller leaves and fruit Apr. May. 

3. P. Malus. Common Apple TYee. — Leaves ovate, or oblong-ovatc, sciratei 
acute or short-acuminate, pubescent above, tomentose beneath, petiolate; tf- 
rymbs subumbellate : pedicels smd co/yx villose-tomentose ; pet. with short claw*: 
sty. 5, united and villose at ba.<«e ; poTne globose. — Native m Europe and almost 
naturalized here. Tree 20— 25f hiffh (in thickets 25-40). Branches ripdi 
crooked, spreading. Bark rough and blackish. Leaves 2—3' long, | as wide, 
petioles 4---I' long. Flowers expanding with the leaves, fragrant, laige, clothing 
the tree in their light roseate hue, making ample amends for its roughness and flf- 
fonnity. — The Romans had 22 varieties (Pliny) but the number is now greatly 
increased. Probably nearly 1000 varieties are cultivated in the U. S. J 

4. P. COMMUNIS. Pear Tree. — Leaves, ovate-lanceolate, subscrrate, glabrow 
above, pubescent beneath, acute oc acuminate; corymbs racemose; cid. and^ 
dicels pubescent; sty. 5, distinct and villose at base; pome pyri form.— Tree 
usually taller than the apple, 20— 35f high. Bark rough, blackish. Branches 
ascending. Leaves 2 — 3j' long, | as wide ; petioles 1 — 2' long. Flowcre whiK, 
small. — Native in Europe, where, in its wild slate, the fruit is small and io- 
palatable. The Romans cultivated 36 varieties ( Pliny), but, like the appl«i 
varieties without end ars now raised from the seed of this delicious fruit, i 


{ $ Leaves simple. Cymes compound. Styles united at base, 

3. P. ARBUTiPOLiA. Liiui. f. (Mespilus. lAnn, Aronia. Pen.) Choke Berry. 

Ijvs. oblong-obovate or oval-lanceolate, obtuse or acute, crenate-semilate, 
amooth above, tomentose beneath when young, attenuate at base into a short 
petiole; fed, and cal. when young, tomentose ; Jr. pyriform or subslobose, dark 
red. — ^Low, moist woodlands, U. S. and Can. A shrub 5 — 8f high. Leaves 1 
—2^ loog, \ as wide, ol^en subacuminate, subcoriaceous, serratures small, with 
a glandular, incurved point ; petioles 2~-i" long. Flowers white, in compound, 
terminal corymbs of 12 or more. Fruit astringent, as large as a corrant. May Jn. f 
0, melanocarpa. Hook. TP. melanocarpa. WiUd.y^Lvs.^ cal. and pea. gla^ 
broos or nearly so ; fr. blacKlsh-purple. — Swamps. Height 2— 4f. 

{ § § Leaves pinnate. Cymes compound. Styles distinct, 

6. P. Americana. DC. (Sorbus Americana. PA.) Mountain Ash. 

Lifts, oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, mucronately serrate, smooth, snbses- 
sfle ; cymes compound, with numerous flowers ; fame small, globose ; iby. 3 — 5. 
— ^A sinail tree in mountain woods, N. Eng. and Mid. States. Trunk l5~-20f 
high, covered with a reddish-brown bark. Leaves 8—12' long, composed of 9 
— 15 leaflets. Leaflets 2 — 3|' by i^-l', subopposite, often acute, on petioles \" 
in length. Flowers small, white, in terminal cymes, of 50 — 100 or more. Fruit 
scarlet, 3—3'' diam., beautiful. May.f 

/?. microcairpa. T. 9l G. (P. microcarpa. DC. Sorbus microcarpa. PA.)— 
Ft. smaller. 

7. P. AUcuPABiA. English Mountain Ash. — Lfts. as in P. Americana, except 
that they are always smooth on both sides, and, with the serratures, less acute 
at apex ; /s. corjrmbose ; fr. globose. — Native of Europe. A tree 20 — 40f high, 
often cultivated as well as the last species, for its ornamental clusters of scar- 
let berries. It is a tree of larger size and rougher bark than the last, but is 
hardly to be distinguished by the foliage, flowers or fruit, f 

8. CYDONIA. Toum. 

Named for Cydoniat a town in Crete, fh)m whence it waa brooffht 

Calyx urceolate, limb 5-clGft ; petals 5 ; styles 5 ; pome 5-carpeled ; 

carpels cartilaginous, many-seeded ; seeds covered with mucilaginous 

palp. — Trees or shrubs. JLvs. simple. Fls. mostly solitary. 

C. YUVQlaiB. Pers. (P3rrus Cydonia. Willd.) Quince. — I#r5. oblong-ovate, 
obtuse at base, acute at apex, very entire, smooth above, tomentose beneath ^ 
fed. solitary, and, with the co/., woolly ; pome tomentose, obovoid. — Shrub 8 — IS ' 
(rarely 20f ) high, with crooked, straggling branches. Leaves about as largu 
as those of the pear tree. Flowers white, with a tinge of purple, large, termi- 
nal. Fruit large, len^hened at base, clothed with a soft down, yellow whei. 
lipejiighly esteemed lor jellies and preserves. — The plant is reared trom layers. 

10. AMELANCHIER. Medic. 
Calyx 5-cleft ; petals 5, oblong-obovate or oblanceolate ; stamens 
tbort ; styles 5, somewhat united at base ; pome 3 — 5-celled ; cells 
partially divided, 2-8eeded. — Small trees or shrubs. Lvs. simple^ ser- 
rate. Fls. reuxmose^ white. 

A. Canadensis. Torr. & Gray. (Mespilus. Linn. Aronia. Pers. Pyrus 
Botryapium. Ijinn. f. Mespilus arborea. Mlchx.) Shad Berry. June 
Berry. Wild Service Berry. — Lvs. oval or oblong-ovate, often cordate at 
base, acuminate or cuspidate or mneronate, sharply serrate, smooth ; roc. loose, 
elongated; seg. of the cal. triangular-lanceolate, nearly as long as the tube; pet. 
linear-oblong or oblanceolate; fr. purplish, globose. — A small tree or shrub, 
loond in wood.**, U. S. and British Am., rarely exceeding 35f in height. Leaves 
alternate, 2 — 3' long, downy-iomentose when young, at length very smooth on 
both sides, very acute and finely serrate. Flowers large, white, in terminal 
racemes, appearing in April and May, rendering the tree quite conspicuous in 
the yet naked forest. Fruit pleasant to the taste, ripening in June. 


0. oNongifoUa, T. & G. (A.oTalis. Hook.)—ShrvLhby\ Zis. oblong'-ov«], mo- 
cronate, and with small, sharp serratures; roc. and JU. smaller; pel. obloDg- 
obovate, thrice longer than the calyx. 

y. rotundifolia. T. &G. (Pyrus ovalis. Willd.) — lAfS, broad-oral; |»<.Iinear- 
oblong.--Shrub 10— 201' high. 

i, alm/olia. T. &» G. (Aronia alnifolia. iVictf.)— Shrubby or arborescent; tei. 
orbicular-oval, rounded or retuse at each end, serrate only near the apex ; pet. 
linear-oblong ; sta. very short. 


Oyaries solitary or several, distinct ; fruit achenia or follicular. 

10. ROSA. 

Celtic rho$, red ; Or. poSov ; LaL ro$a; Eng. rote. 

Calyx tube urceolate, fleshy, contracted at the orifice, limb 5-clefi, 
the segments somewhat imbricated in aestivation, and mostly with a 
leafy appendage ; petals 5, (greatly multiplied by culture) ; achenia 
00, bony, hispid, included in and attached to the inside of the fleshy 
tube of the calyx. — Shrubby and prickly. JLeaves uruquaUy yinauUt. 
Siiptdes mostly adruUe to the petiole. 

* Native species. 

1. R. Carolina. (R. Caroliniana. Bw.) Carolina Rose. Swamp Base, 
St. glabrous, with uncinate, stipular prickles; i/2$.5^*9, oblong-lancecdale 

or elliptical, acute, sharply serrate, glaucous beneath, not shining above, ^eto- 
oles hairy or subaculeate ; fis. corymbose ; fr. depressed-globose, and with ite 
peduncles hispid. — A prickly (not hispid) snrub, m swamps and damp woods^ 
Can. and U. S., 4 — Sfhigh, erect and bushy, with reddish branches. Prickles 
mostly 3 at the base of the stipules. Leaflets 1 — 2' long, i as wide, rather vari- 
able in form. Flowers in a sort of leafy corvonb of 3 — 1. Petais oboonUte, 
large, varying between red and white. Fruit dark red. Jn. Jl. 

2. R. LUciDi. Ehrh. (R. Caroliniana. Mx. not Bw.) Shining or Wild Bate. 
St. armed with scattered, setaceous prickles, those of the stipules straight; 

Ifts. 5—9, elliptical, imbricate, simply serrate, smooth and shining above; peti- 
oles glabrous or subhispid ; fls. generally in pairs (1-^) ; Jr. depressed-globose, 
and with the peduncles, glandular hispid. — Shrub 1— 3f high, in dry woods or 
thickets throughout the U. S., slender, with greenish branches. Leaflets 1 — If 
long, I as wide, acute or obtuse, odd one petiolate, the others sessDe. Sepals 
often appendiculate, as long as the large, obcordate, pale red petals. Fruit 
small, red. Jn. Jl. 

/9. T. &. G. (R. parviflora. Ekrh.y-Lfis, ova , mostly yery obtuse, paler b^ 
neath ; petioles smooth or pubescent. 

3. R. NiTiDA. WiUd. Shining or Wild Rose. 

St. low, densely armed with straight, slender, reddish prickles ; Ifis. 5— 9> 
narrow-lanceolate, smooth and shining, sharply serrate ; sHp. narrow, often 
reaching to the lower leaflets ; /Is. solitary ; col. nispid; fir. globose. — ^In swamps, 
N. Eng. States. Stems 1 — 2f high, reddish from its dense armor of prickka. 
Leafleis 1 — H' long, i as wide, subsessile, odd one petiolulate. Stipules 5—6' 
long, adnate to the petiole, each side. Flowers with red, obcordate petals. Fruit 
scarlet. Jn. 

4. R. BLANDA. Ait. (K. gemella. Linn.) Bland Rose. 

Taller ; st. armed with scattered, straight, deciduous prickles ; Ifis. 5—7, 
oblong, obtuse, serrate, smooth, but not shining above, paler and pubescent oa 
the veins beneath, petiole unarmed; slip, dilated; fls. mostly in pairs (1 — 3); 
fr. globose, smooth, as well as the short peduncles. — Shrub found on dr>% sunny 
hills. Northern and Middle States. Stems 2—SC high, with reddish bait 
Flowers rather large. Sepals entire, shorter than the reddish, emarginate petals. 
Bracts large, downy. Jn. 

5. R. BETiGERA. Mlchx. (R. rubifoHa. /?. /?/.) Michigan or Prairie Rest. 
Branches elongated, ascending, glabrous; spines few, strong, stipular ; {/^ 

RcMi. XLVm. ROSACK£. 947 

l«ige, 3 — 5, ovate j stip. narrow, acmniiiate ;Jls, comnbose ; cal. glandular, seg- 
ments subentire J siy. united; fr. globose. — This splendid species is a native of 
Michigan, and other States W ! and S. About 20 varieties are enumerated in 
cultivation. They are hardy, of rapid growth, and capable of being trained 
19— 20f. Flowers in very large clusters, changeable in hue, nearly scentless, 
and of short duration. 

* • Naturalized species. 

6. R. RUBiGiNOsA. (R. suaveolens. Ph.) EglarUine, Sweet Brier. 

St. glabrous, armed with very strong, recurved prickles ; Ifis. 5 — 7, broad- 
oval, with ferruginous glands beneath ; fis. mostly solitarv ; fr. ovoid, oval or 
obovoid J ped. glandular-hispid. — A stout, prickly shrub, i—lOf high, natural- 
ized in fields and road-sides, throughout the U. S. The older stems are bushy, 
much branched, 1' diam., the younger shoots nearly simple, declined at top. 
Leaflets I — V long, f as wide, unequally and sharply serrate, acute, bright green 
above, rusty beneath, and when rubbed, very fragrant. Flowers light red, 1 — 
^ diam., flagrant. Fruit orange-red. Jn. — Of this beautiful species there are 
about 25 cultivated varieties, single and double. 

7. R. ciNNAMOMEi. Cinfutmon Rose. 

St. tall, with ascending branches ; spines of ike younger stems numerous, 
scattered, of the branches few, larger, stipular ; Ifts. &— 7, oval-oblong, rugose, 
cinerous-nubescent beneath ; stip. undulate ; sep. entire, as long as the petals ; 
fr. smootn, globose. — Native of Oregon. Stem 5— 12f high, with reddish bark. 
Flowers mostly double, purple. 

*** Exotic species, f Prickies straight^ mostly acerose. 

8. R. OALLicA. OnMium French Bose. — St. and petioles armed with numerous, 
fine, scattered prickles; Ifts. mostly 5, elliptical or broad-oval, thick; Jls. erect; 
pet. 5 or more, large, spreading: sep. ovate ; fr. ovoid, and with the ped.^ hispid. 
'-The common red rose of gardens, from which have originated not less than 
SOO varieties, known in cultivation, and registered in catalogues, as the velvet, 
carmime, avmation, Ac. Many of them are beautifully variegated, as the tri- 
eelar and pUcaUe. The dried petals are used in medicine, and from them are ex- 
tracted tinctures for cookery. Jn. Jl. 

9. R. PiMPiNELLiPOLiA. Scr. (R. spinosissima. Imm^^ Scotch or Burnet 
Rote. — St. densely armed with straight, acerose prickles : Z^. &— 9, roundish, 
obtuse, smooth, simply serrate ; Jls. small, usuallv roseate, but changing in the 
numerous varieties to white, red or yellow. — ^Native of Scotland and other parts 
of Europe. These shrubs are but 2— 3f high, with small, delicate leaflets. 
Flowers numerous, globular, very fine. May, Jn. 

10. R. EOLANTERiA. Scr. (R. lutca. Mill.) Yellow Rose. Austrian Eglantine. 
— St. with a cinerous bark, branches red, both armed with straight, slender, 
scattered prickles; Ifis. 5-— 7, small, broad-oval or obovate, smooth, shining 
above, sharply serrate ; cal. nearly naked and entire ; pet. large, broad-obcor- 
daie. — ^From Germany. Shrub about 3f high, bushy. Flowers numerous, of 
a golden-yellow, very fugacious, of less agreeable fragrance than the leaves. 
There are many varieties, both single and double, variegated with red. Jn. 

11. R. ALPlNA. Alpine or BoursauU Rosf. — Yownger shoots echinate with nu- 
merous weak^prickles, older ona smooth, rarely armed with strong prickles, 
IfU. 5— -11, ovate or obovate, sharply and often doubly serrate; sttp. narrow, 
apex dive^ing; ped. deflezed ailer flowering, and with the calyx hispid o. 
smooth; aep. entire, spreading; fr. ovoid, pendulous, crowned witn the conni- 
▼ent calyx. — Hardy, vigorous, climbing, with pink, red or crimson flowers. 

• • • Exotic species, f f Prickles fakate, strong, 

13l R. oamascena. Damask Rose. — St. branching and bushy, armed with un- 
equal spines, mostly stipular, cauline ones broad, falcate or hooked; Ifts. larp;e, 
broadly elliptical, aownv-canescent ; sep. reflexed ; fr. ovoid, elongated. — Native 
of the Levant. Shrub 3— 4f high. Flowers rather numerous, of a delicate, 
pale roseate hue, usually with very numerous petals, and a delicious fragrance. 
Among its numerous varieties is the common moTUhly, low, blooming at all 

d« XLVm. ROSAGEJE. Hoti. 

13. R, CANlNA. Dog Rose.^Prickles remote, strong, compressed, falcate ; yb. 

0. Burooniana. Ser. — Lfts. ovate, subcordate, simply dentate; Jb. pniple, 
double and semi-double ; peL concave ; sep. entire. — A splendid class of roses, 
of which more than 100 varieties are cultivated. They are hardy, with am- 
ple and glossy foliage. — 18 other varieties are described by Seringe in DC. 

14. R. CENTIPOLIA. Hundred-leaved OT Provcfhs Rose. — PricJbZes nearly straight, 
ficarcelv dilated at base ; lfts. 5 — 7, ovate, glandular-ciliate on the margin, sub- 
pilose beneath ; /«©«•- ^i/ short-ovoid ; sep, spreading (not deflexed) in flower; 
fr, ovoid ; cal. and ped. glandular-hispid, viscid and Iragrant. — ^From S. Europe. 
Shrub 2— -4f high, very prickly. Flowers usually of a pink color, but Taiying 
in hue, form and size, &c., through a hundred known varieties. 

15. R. MOscHATA. Musk Rose. — Shoots ascending and climbing; pricHescxtk- 
line, slender, recurved ; lfts. 5—7, lanceolate, acuminate, smoothish, discolored; 
slip, very narrow, acute ; fis. often very numerous ; ped. and cal, subhispid ; sep. 

subpinnatifid, elongated and appendiculate ; fr. ovoid, red. — Native of . 

Stems trailing or climbing 10 — I2f. Flowers peculiarly fragrant, rather large, 
white, produced in panicles. 

16. R. ALBA. WkUe Garden Rose. — Slightly glaucous ; prickles slender, re- 
curved^ sometimes wanting; lfts. roundish-ovate, shortly acuminate; pdida 
and veins subtomentose, glandular ; sep. pinnatifid ; pet. spreading ; fr. ovoid, 
nearly smooth. — ^From Gkrmany. Shrub 5— -8f high. Flowers large, 001710- 
bose, sweet-scented, generally pure white, but often, in its numerous varietiesi 
tinged'with the most delicate blush. 

17. R. MULTiFLdRA. Many-fl&wered or Japan Rose. — Branches^ ped. and etL 
tomentose ; ^loots very long ; prickles slender, scattered ; Ifis. 5 — 7, ovate-lanee- 
olate, soft and slightly rugose; slip, pectinate ; fis. cor3rmbose, often numeitNis; 
ftower-lntd ovoid-globose; sep. short; sty. exserted, scarcely cohering in an eloD- 

gated, pilose column ; vet. white, varying through roseate to purple. — ^JapaiL 
hrub with luxuriant snoots, easily trained to the height of i&--3(tf. 

18. R. Ikdica. Chinese Monthly or Bengal Rose. — Erect or climbing, pnr- 
pli^; prickles stiongf remote; Ifls. 3 — 5, ovate, acuminate, coriaceous, shining, 
smooth, serrulate, discolored; stip. very narrow; /i. solitary or panienlace; 
ped. often thickened, and, with the cal. smooth, or rugose-hispid ; sta. inflexed: 
fr. turbinate ?— Splendid varieties, blooming from Apr. to Nov. Flowezs 01 
every hue from pure white to crimson. 

0. Lawrendana. (R. Lawrenciana. Lindl. R. Ind. 1. acuminata. Ser.) Miss 
LMwrence^s Rose. — St. and bnmches aculeate, bristly and sul)glabrous ; yts. ofaie; 

Surplish beneath ; pet. obovate*acuminate. — A class of varieties with very small 
owers, puxk to aeep purple. 

19. R. BRACTEATA. Mocortney Rose. — Branches erect, tomentose ; pricUes re- 
curved, often double ; lfts. 5 — 9, olwvate, subserrate, coriaceous, smooth and siiiB- 
ing ; stip. fimbriate-setaceous ; fls. solitary, terminal ; ped. and caL tomentose ;fr. 
globose, large, orange. — Varieties with cream-colored, white, to scarlet Howm. 

20. R. BEMPERVlRENs. Evergreen Rose. — St. climbing; prickles subeqoal: 
lfts. persistent, 5—7, coriaceous ; ils. subsolitary or corymbose; sep. subentiir, 
elongated ; sty. coherent into an elongated column ; fir. ovoid or subglobose, jt^ 
low, and with the ped. glandular hispid. — Allied to the following, but its leaves 
are coriaceous and evergreen, persistent until January. 

21. R. ARVEN8I8. Ayrshire Rose. — Shoots very long and flexile; pridkks 

Sua], falcate ; lfts. 5— -7, smooth or with scattered hairs, and glaucous beneath, 
eciduous ; /s. solitary or cor3nnbo8e ; sep. subentire, short ; sty. cohering in a 

kmg, glabrous column ; fr. ovoid-globose, smoothish. — England. The 
grow 15 — ^20f in a season and are very hardy. Flowers white to blosh, eriiD- 
son and purple. 

♦ ♦ Exotic species, fft UnarTned. 
S3. R. BANKsiiB. Banks' Rose, — Smooth; Ifh, lanceolate, crowded, 

Roots. XLVUl. ROSAGEiE. 

soireely serrate; stip. decidtious; Jts. umbellate ; /r. globular, nearly black.^ 
Prom Cbina. Tbornless shrubs, with small, cup-shaped flowers. Not hardy. 

Obf.—ThiB beaotiful geaus includea, acoordiiic to Berinee, 146 speciea : but the varietiea pioduoed bir 
ntanxioa amoant to near 9000. 

11. RUBUS. 

Celtic rub, vad ; the color of the fniit of some speciee. 

Galjz spreading, 5-parted ; petals 5, deciduous ; stamens 00, in- 
serted into the border of the disk ; ovaries many, with 2 ovules, one of 
them abortive ; achenia pulpy, drupaceous, aggregated into a compound 
berry ; radicle superior. — % Half shrubby plarUs. Siems usually ®, and 
armed tcith prickles. Inflorescence imperfectly centrifugaL JFV. escultiU, 
{ Fruit inseparable from the juicy ^ deciduous receptacle. Blackberries. 

1. R. tillAsus. Ait High Blackberry. 

Pubescent, viscid and prickly; st. angular j Ifti. 3 — 5, orate, aeumisate^ 
serrate, hairy both sides ; petioles prickly ; col. acummate, shorter than the petals : 
f«c. loose, leiafless, about 90-flowered. — A well known, thorny shrub, Can. ana 
U. S. Stems tall and slender, branching, recurved at top, 3~-6f high. Leaflets 
Si— I' by li — 2^\ terminal one on a long petiolnle, the others on short ones or 
none. Pedicels slender, 1' long. Petals white, obovate or oblong, obtuse. 
Pmit consisting of about 20 roundish, shining, black, fleshy caipels, dosely col- 
lected into an ovate or oblozi^ head, subacid, well-flavored, ripe in Aug. and Sept 
$. Jrondosus. Torr. (R. frondosus. Bw.)—Lfls. incisely serrate ; r<u. with a 
few simple leaves or leafy bracts at base ; fls. about 10 in each cluster, the ter- 
minal one opening first, as in all the species, the lowest next, and the highest 
bat one last Fruit more acid and with fewer carpels. 

2. R. Hispiovs. (R. sempervirens. Bw.) Bristly Blackberry. 

St. slender, reclining or prostrate, hispid with retiorse bristles ; Ivs. 3-foliate, 
rarely quinate, smooth and green both sides ; Ifts. coarsely serrate, obovate, 
mostly obtuse, subcoriaceous ; ped. corymbose, many-flowered, with filiform 
pedicels and short bracts ; Jls. and fr. small. — In damp woods. Can. to Car. 
Stems slender, Q^iling several feet with suberect branches 8 — 12' high. Leaflets 
1 — 2' long, I as wide, nearly sessile, persistent through the winter, on a (1 — 3') 
long, commonpetiole. Flowers white. Fruit dusky-purple, sour. May, Jn. 
0. seiasus. T. & G. (R. setosus. Bw.y—Lfis. oblanceolate, rather narrow, 
li— 2|' long, tapering, and (like the variety a) entire at base, sharply serrate 
above. Frait red. - 

3. R. Canadensis. (R. trivialis. Ph.) Low Blackberry. Dewberry, 

St. procumbent or trailing, subaculeate ; Ivs. 3-foliate, rarely quinate ^ Ifls. 
elliptical or rhomboid-oval, acute, thin, unequally cut-serrate •, pedicels solit^, 
eiiongated^ somewhat corymbed ; fr. large, black. — Common in dry, stony fieldiB 
Can. to Va., trailing several yaros upon the ground. Leaflets light green and 
membranaceous, nearly sessile, 1—11' long, i as wide, common petioles 1—2' 
loDg, pubescent or a little prickly. Flowers large, on slender pedicels. Petals 
6bovate, white, twice as long as the calyx. Fruit i — 1' diam., very sweet and 
juicy, in July and Aug. Fl. May. 

4. R. cuNEiPOLius. Ph. Wedge-leaved Blackberry. 

St. erect, shrubby, armed with recurved prickles ; Ivs. 3-foliate, and with 
the young branches and petioles pubescent beneath ; l/ls. cuneate-obovate, en- 
tire at base, dentate above, subplicate, tomentose beneath ; roc. loose, few-flow- 
ered. — ^A low shrub, 2 — 3f high, in sandy woods, Long Island, 7>wT«y, to Flor. 
Petioles often prickly. Leaflets rarely 5, 1—2' long, | as wide, obtuse, or with 
a short acumination. Petals white or roseate, 3 times as long as the calyx. 
Fruit black, juicy, well-flavored, ripe in Jl. Aug. Fl. May. Jn. 

{ 5 FYuil concave beneath^ separating from the dry^ conical^ persisieni 

receptacle. Raspberries. 
* Leaves simple. 

5. R. ODORATUs. Rose-flowering Raspberry. Mulberry. 

St. erect or reclining, unarmed, glandular-pilose ; Ivs. palmately 3— S-lobed, 


oeo XLvm. rosacea k««* 

nneqii&llj serrate;^, larga, in tenzunal coiymbs; jw<. orbicular, poqile.— A 
fine flowering shrub, 3 — 5f high, in upland woods, U. S. and Brit Ain.,comiii<». 
Leaves 4—8' long, nearly as wide, cordate at base, lobes acuminate, petioles 
2 — 3' long, and, with the branches, calyx and peduncles, clothed with Tisdd 
hairs. Flowers nearly 2' diam., not very unlike a rose, save the (100—300) sta- 
mens are whitish. Fruit broad and thin , bright red, sweet, ripe in Aug. F%. Jn. Jit 

€. R. ChahjemOrus. Dwarf Mulberry. Cloudberry. 

Herbaceous; st. decumbent at base, erect, unarmed, 1-flowered; lo-car- 
date-reniform, rugose, with 5 rounded lobes, serrate ; sep. obtuse ; pet. oboTate, 
white. — An alpine species with us, found by Dr. Rabbins on the White Mil 
and by Mr. Oakes in Me, Flowers large. Fruit large, yellow or amber color, 
sweet and juicy, ripe in Aug. Fl. May, Jn. 

7. R. NuTKANUB. Mof ino. Nootka Sound Hubus. 

St. shrubby, somewhat pilose, with glandular hairs above ; ha. broad, 5- 
lobed, unequally and coarsely serrate; ped. few-flowered; sep. long-acuminate, 
shorter than the very large, round-oval, white petals. — A fine species, Michi 
Wis. to Oreg., &c., with very large, showy, white flowers. It has receivedsoM 
notice in cultivation, and a few other species of this section also, f 

• ♦ Leaves 3 — l-foliaie. 

8. R. Id£us. Garden Raspberry. * . a. 
Hispid or armed with recurved prickles ; Ivs. pinnatel^ 3 or 5-foliate; IJh. 

broad-ovate or rhomboidal, acuminate, unequally and incisely serrate, hoaij- 
tomentose beneath, sessile, odd one petiolulate ; fls. in paniculate corymls; 
pet. entire, shorter than the noary-tomentose, acuminate cai3rx.— Many varittiB 
of this plant are cultivated for the delicious fruit Stems shrubby, 3^-5f high. 
Leaflets smoothish above, 2—4' long, | as wide. Flowers white, in lax, teiffli* 
nal clusters. Fruit red, amber color or white. — Plants essentially agreeins 
with the above described were found at Cambridge, Yt, in woods, auo at Gol^ 
brook, Ct., by Dr Robbins. f 

9. R. sTRioOsus. Michx. (R. Idseus. NuU.) Wild Red Raspberry. 
Plant shrubby, strongly hispid ; Ivs. pinnatelv 3 or 5-foliate ; Ifls. obtof* 

ovate or oval, obtuse at base, coarsely and unequally serrate, cancsccnWomea- 
tose beneath, odd one often subcordate at base, lateral ones sessUe: cer. cup- 
shaped, about the length of the calyx. — In hedges and neglected fields, Cia- 
and N. States, venr abundant. Stem without prickles, covered with sir«f | 
bristles instead. Leaflets lj| — 2^' long, i — | as w^ide, terminal one disdocdT 
petiolulate. Flowers white. Fr. hemispherical, light red, and of a pccnlii' 
rich flavor, in Jn. — Aug. Ft. May. 

10. R. occiDENTALis. Block Rospberry. Thimbte-berry. 

Plant shrubby, glaucous, armed with recurved prickles; Ivs. pinnatdyS- 
foliate; Ifts. ovate, acuminate, sublobate or doubly serrate, hoary-tomcntoK 
beneath, lateral ones sessile ;^. axillary and terminal ^ fir, black. — ^A tall, slen- 
der bramble, 4 — 8f bigh, in thickets, rocky fields, &c.. Can. and U. S. Pi*"* 
not hispid. Leaflets 2f--3' long, J—i as wide, nearlv white beneath, odd one 
distinctly petiolulate, conmion petiole terete, long. Flowers while, lower one 
solitary, ujpper corymbose. Fruit roundish, glaucous, of a lively, agreeaw 
taste, ripe m July. M. May. ^ 

11. R. triplOrds. Rich. (R. saxatilis. Dw.) T%ree-JUnDered Rasfberr^' 
St. shrubby, unarmed, declined; ^ancAe; herbaceous, green; te.3or> 

foliate ; Ifls. nearly smooth, thin, rhombic-ovate, acute, unequally cut-deBtattf 
odd one petiolulate; stip. ovate, entire ; ped. terminal, 1 — 3-flowered; pet. cr«t> 
oblong-obovate.- Moist woods and shady hills, Penn. to Brit. AnL Stems ft^* 
nous, smooth, reddish. Petioles very slender, 1—2' long. Leaflets 1—2' bj |- 
1', lateral ones sessile, oblique or uneguallv 2-lobed. Petals white, rather ^ 
eer than the triangular-lanceolate, renexed sepals. Fruit consisting of t "^ 
large, dark-red grains, acid, ripe in Aug. F%. May. 

12. R. ROBJEPOLius. Rose-leaved Rubus or Bridal Rose. — ^Ereet, branchiflfr 
armed with nearly straight prickles; Ivs. pinnately a— 7-foliale; Uls. onW* 
lanceolate, subplicate, doubly serrate, smooth beneath, velvety aoove; ^ 


ninate, subulate ; sep. spreading, long-acuminate, shorter than the narrow>obo- 
yate, emarginate petals; sty. (K). — A delicate house-plant, with snow-white 
double flowers. ISative of Mauritius. 


Lat. potentie, power; in allusion fo itj 8up(H)scd iKitency in medicine. 

Calyx concave, deeply 4 — 5-clcft, witli an e({ual number of alter- 
nate, exterior segments or bracteolcs ; petals 4 — 5, obcordate ; sta- 
mens 00 ; filaments slender ; oTaries colleoted into a head on a small, 
dry receptacle ; styles deciduous ; achenia 00. — Herbaceotis or shrubby, 
Les. jfinnately or palmately compound. Fls. solitary or cymosc^ mostly 

* Leaves paXmatcly trifoUatc, 

1- P. NoRVEGicA. Norwegian PoleiUiUa ar Cinquef oil. 
Hirsute ; st. erect, dichotomous above ; l/ls. 3, elliptical or obovate, den- 
tate-serrate, petiolulate; q/mes leafy; col. exceeding the emarginate petals. — 
Old fields and thickets, Arc. Am. to Car. Stem l--4f high, covered with* silky 
hairs, terete, at length forked near the top. Cauline petioles shorter than the 
leaves. Leaflets 4 — 1|' by J — i', (lower and radical ones very small,) oAen 
incised. Stipules large, ovate, subentire. Flowers many, crowded, with pale 
yellow petals shorter than the lanceolate, acute, hairy sepals. Jl. — Sept. 

8. ? hirsttfa. T. & G. (P. hirsuta. Michx.) — Hairs loose, silky ; st. slender, 
erect, snbsimple ; l/^ccr and mi/Idle Ivs. equal, long-petiolate ; ijls. roundish-obo- 
Vfete, sessile, incisely dentate ; Jls. few, petals rather conspicuous, nearly as long 
as the calyx. — Dry fields. With reluctance I adopt the views of Torrey & Gray 
in regard to this plant. 

2. P. TRiDKNTATA. Ait. TYidciU or Man,niatn PotentiUa. 

Smooth; st. ascending, woody and creeping at base; Ifts. 3, obovate-cune- 
ate, evergreen, entire, with 3 large teeth at the apex ; cyvics nearly naked ; pet. 
twice longer than the calyx. — On the White Mis. ! and other alpine summits in 
the N. States. Flowering stems G — 12' high, round, often with minute, ap- 
pressed hairs. Petioles mostly longer than the leaves. Leaflets sessile, d---lo" 
by 4 — 6", coriaceous, smooth. Flowers with white, obovate petals. Carpels 
and achenia with scattered hairs. Jn. Jl. 

3. P. MINIMA. Haller. ** 

St. pubescent, ascending, roa<tly 1 -flowered ; Irs. trifoliate ; Ifts. obovate, 
obtuse, incLsely serrate, with 5—9 teeth above ; pet. longer than the sepals. — 
Alpine regions of the White Mts. Stems numerous and leafy, 1 — 3* high. 
Leaflets -with the margins and veins l)cneath hairy. Flowers small. Petals 
obcordate. Bractcoles oval-obtuse, narrowed at the base. 

♦ • Leaves palnuUely 3 or 5-folUUe. 

4. P. Canaoensis. (P. sarmentosa. WiUdS Common Ciiufvrfoil, 
Villose pubescent; 5^. sarmentose, procumnent and ascending; Zr5. pal- 

mately 5-foliate, the leaflets obovate, silky beneath, cut-dentate towards the 
apex, entire and attenuate towards the base ; siip^ hairy, deeply 2 or 3-cleft, or 
entire; pediccts axillary, solitary; brartcole^ of the calyx longer than the seg- 
ments, and nearly as long as the petals. — Common in fields and thickets, IT. S. 
and Can. Stems more or less procumbent at base, from a few inches to a foot 
or more in length. Flowers yellow, on long pedicels. Calyx segments lanceo- 
late or linear. Apr. — Aug. 

fi. pumiia. T. »S& G. (F. pumila. PA.)— Vcr}' small and delicate, flowering 
In Apr. and May. — I cannot perceive any difllrencc between this and the above, 
except its dimihiuivc size and early flowering. In dry, sandy soils. Stems 
about 3' high. 

y. simplex. T. & G. (P. simplex. Michx.) — Planl less hirsute ; st. simple, 
erect or ascending rt ln?e; ff's. o/al-cuneiform; flowering in June — Aug. — In 
.richer soils. Stems 8 — 1 i' liir,'h. Leaflets about 1' long, | as wide. 

5. P. arge.vtea. Silrery Clnqurfoil. 
Sf. aseendiner. tomf^ntosf^, branched above ; 7'^'.^. oblong-cuneiform, with a 

«C XLTIU. ROSACELC. Fkaoakli. 

few largCi incised teeth, smooth above, silTery-caneseent beneath, sessile; jU, 
in a cymoee corymb ; pet. longer than the obtusish sepals. — A pretty species, on 
dry or rocky hills, Can. and N. Stales, remarkable for the silvenr whiteness of 
the lower surface of the leaves. Stems 6 — lO' Icmg, at length with slender 
branches. Leaflets 5 — 9" by 1 — ^'\ with 2 or 3 slender, spreading teeth each 
side ; upper ones linear, entire. Flowers smalL Calyx canescent. Petals yel- 
low. Jin.^^pt. 

♦ ♦ ♦ Leavts pinnate. 

6. P. PRUTicOsA. (P. floribunda. PA.) Shrubby Cinquefoil, 

St. fruticose, very branching, hirsute, erect ; ifts. 5 — 7, linear-oWong, lU 
sessile, margin entire and revoluie ; pet. large, much longer than the calyx. — ^A 
low, bushy shrub, in meadows and rocky hills. Northern States and Brit. Am. 
Stems 1 — ^2f high, with a reddish bark ; petioles shorter than the leaves. LeaP 
lets f — li' (mostly 1') by 2 — 3'' wide, acute, crowded, pubescent. Stipoles 
nearly as long as the petioles. Flowers | — 1^' diam., yellow, in terminal clus- 
ters. Jn. — Aug. 

7. P. ANSERlNA. Silver-weed. Goose-grass. 

S^. slender, creeping, prostrate, rooting; lv$, interruptedly pinnate ; Ifit, 
many pairs, oblong, deeply serrate, canescent beneath ; ped. solitary, 1-flowered, 
very long. — A fine species on wet shores and meadows, N. Eng. to Arctic Am. 
Stems subterraneous, sending out reddish stolons 1 — ^2f long. Petioles mostly 
radical, 6—10' long. Leaflets 1 — 1|' by 3 — 6", sessile, with several minute 
pairs interposed. Peduncles as long as the leaves. Fls. yellow, 1' diam. Jn. — SepL 

8. P. ahgOta. Ph. (P. confertiflora. Hitchcock. Boottia sylvestris. Bit.) 
False Avens. White-fimcered PoicnUUa. — 5!^.. erect; radical Its. on long 

petioles, 7 — ^9-foliate, cauline few, 3 — 7-foliate ; Ifts. broadly ovate, cut-serrate ; 
fit. in dense, terminal cymes. — Along streams, ic., Can. and N. States, W. to 
the Rocky Mts. Stems 2 — 3f high, stout, terete, striate, and with neariy the 
whole plant very pubescent. Radical leaves If or more long. Leaflets 1—^ 
.ong, I as wide, sessile, odd one petiolulate. Fls. about 8'' diam. Petals round- 
ish, yellowish white, longer than the sepals. Disk glandular, &-lobed. May, Jo. 

9. P. PARADOXA. Nutt. (P. supina. Mr.) 

Decumbent at base, pubescent; Ivs. pinnate; lfts.l — ^9, obovate-oUoBg^ 
incised, the upper ones confluent; stip. ovate; ped. solitary, recurved in fruit; 
pet. obovate, about equaling the sepals; ach. 2-lobed, the lower portion chiedj 
composed of starch-lilre albumen. — ^River banks, Ohio to Oregon. NutZaU in 
T. &G. Fl.p.437. 

13. COM Arum. 

Gt. KOfiopoif the BtrawbeiT7 tree, which thia plant reiembla. 

Calyx flat, deeply 5-cleft, with bracteolcs alternating with the seg- 
ments ; petals 5, very small ; stamens numerous, inserted into the 
disk ; acnenia smooth, crowded upon the enlarged, ovate, spongy, per- 
sistent receptacle. — '^- Lvs. pinnate, 

C. PAT.usTRE. Marsh OinqvefoU. 

In spagnous swamps, N. States ! Wise. ! to the Arctic Circle. Stems creep- 
ing at base, 1 — 2f high, nearly smooth, branching. Leaflets 3,6 and 7, crowded, 
lj--2i' long, i as wide, oblong-lanceolate, hoary beneath, obtuse, sharply ser- 
rate, subsessile ; petiole longer than the scarious, woolly, adnate stipules al 
base. Flowers large. Calyx segments several times larger than the petalai 
Petals about 3" long, ovate-lanceolate, and, with the stamens, styles and upper 
surface of the sepals, dark purj.lo. Fruit permanent Jn. 

iMtfragrtau, fiagrent; on account of its pcrftimed fntit 

Calyx concave, deeply 5-cleft, with an equal number of alternate, 
exterior segments or bracteoles; petals 5. obcordate; stamens 00; 
achcnia smooth, affixed to a largo, pulpy, deciduous receptacle — '^ 
Stems stoloniferous. Lvs. trifoliatp. K/s. on (i arnpe^ whitr. 

OsDii. XLVm. ROSACEiB. fl&3 

1. F. YiBomilNA. Ehrh. (F. Canadensis. Michx.) Scarlet or WUd Straio- 
berry. — ^Pubescent ; cal. of the fruit erect-spreading ; ach. imbedded in pits 

to the globose receptacle ; pcd. commonly shorter than the leaves. — ^Fields and 
woods, U. S. and Brit. Am. Stolons slender, terete, reddish, often If or more 
bng, rooting at the ends. Petioles radical, 2—6' long, with spreading hairs. 
Xieaflets 3, oval, obtuse, coarsely dentate, subsessile, 1 — ^0^' long, { as wide, 
lateral ones oblique. Scape less hairy than the petioles, cymose at top. Flowers 
in Apr. and May. Fruit in Jn. JL, highly fragrant and delicious when ripened 
in the son. 

2. F. VESCA. Alpine^ Wood^ or English Strawberry. 

Pubescent; calyx of thefruU much spreading or reflezed ; ach. superficial 
on the conical or hemispherical receptacle which is vrithontpitB-jped. usually 
knger than the leaves. — ^Fields and woods, Northern States, &c. Stolons often 
ereeping' several feet Leaves pubescent, and flowers as in F. Yirginiana. — 
Numerous varieties are cultivated in gardens, where the fruit is sometimes an 
ounce or more in weight. M. Apr. May. I^Y. Jn. Jl. 

3. P. CnmENsis. Ehrh. Chili Strawberry. — Lfis. villose-silky beneath, ru- 
eoae, coriaceous, broadly obovate, obtuse, serrate ; ped. and cal. silky ; pet. 
uuge, spreading. — From Oregon and California. Not generally cultivated. 

Olr — other fpccies with varieties are 9ometlSaea fbumd in gardena ; at P. Potior, the hautboii 8., 
vilh tall, tkin leaves, tall and stnNiK.seapeB, nid fruit gieenish white tincetTwith purple ; F. grtmdiflora, 
the ptD6-apple 8. (made a synonym of F. Chilensis by DC.) with finn, creoate iMves, iazfe floweia aod 
la^Be. gfcmoae friat, vaiying from whitish to purple. 


Named by Linnena, in honor of Dalibard, a French botanist 

Calyx inferior, deeply 5- — 6-parted, spreading, 3 of the Begmenta 
larger ; petals 5 ; stamens numerous ; styles 5—8, long, deciduoofl ; 
fruit achenia, dry or somewhat drupaceous.— ^'2|. Jjno herbs, St. creep- 
ing. I/vs. undivided. Scapes 1 — 2-flowered. \ 

D. RXPEN8. JF'alse Violet. 

Difiuse, pubescent, bearing creeping shoots ; Ivs. simple, roundish-cordate, 
crenate ; slip, linear-setaceous ; cal. spreaidingin flower, erect in l^uit — ^In low 
woods, Penn. to Can. Creeping stems 1 or 2' to 10 or 12' in length. Leaves 
1 — S' diam., rounded at apex, cordate at base, vill08e-pubesceix.t, on petioles 1, 
S or 3^ long. Scapes 1-flowered, abotH^serlong as the petioles. PeUds white, 
obovate, longer than die sepals. Jn. 

16. WALD&TEINIA. Willd. *" u. 
Named by WiOdenow, in honor of Franx de WaldtUin, a Gennan botanist 

Calyx 5-clefbj with 5 alternate, sometimes minute and deciduous 

bracteoles ; petals 5 or more, sessile, deciduous ; stamens 00, inserted 

into the calyx ; styles 2 — 6 ; achenia few, dry, on a dry receptacle. 

~r^ AcatdescefU herbs^ with lobedor divided fadical Ivs., and yeUowJis. 

W. FRiGARidlDEs. Traut. (Dalibarda. Michx. Comaropsis. DC.) Dry 
Strawberry. — Lajs. trifoliate ; Ifts. broad-cuneiform, inciscly dentate-crenate, 
tSUite ; scapes roacteate, many-flowered ; cal. tube obconic. — A handsome plant, 
in hiUy woods, Can. to Ga., bearing some resemblance to the strawberry. Rhi- 
zoma thick, scaly, blackish. Petioles 3 — 6' long, slightly pubescent. Leaflets 
1—^ diam., nearly sessile, daik shining green above, apex rounded and cut 
into lobes and teeth. Scape about as high as the leaves, divided at top, bearing 
S>— 6 flowers |' diam. Petals varying from 5—10 1 Jn. 

17. GEUM. 

Or.ycvto, to tajrte veil ; in aUiuion to the taate of the rooti. 

Calyx 5-cleft, with 5 alternate segments or bracteoles, smaller and 
exterior ; petals 5 ; stamens 00 ; achenia 00, aggregated on a dry 
receptacle, and caudate with the persistent, mostly jointed, geniou- 
lale and bearded style. — %■ 


* Styles articulated and gefvicmlate, upper joint deciduous. 

1. G. niVALE. Water Avens. Purple avens. 

Pubescent; st. subsimple; radical Ivs. lyrate; stip. ovate, acute ;/s. nod- 
ding ; pet. as long as the erect calyx segments; upper joItU of the persistent sl^ 
plumose. — ^A fine plant, with drooping, purple flowers, conspicuous among 
ihe grass in wet meadows, Northern and Mid. States. Rhizoma woody, creep* 
ing. Stem 1 — 2£ high, paniculate at top. Root leaves interruptedly pionate, 
inclining to lyrate, 4-— 6' long, terminal leaflet large, roundish, lobed and ere* 
nate-dentate. Stem leaves 1 — 3, S-foliate or lobed, siibsessile. Flowers sub- 
glo^se. Calvx piirplish-brown. Petals broad-obcordate, clawed, purpUslb 
yellow, veined. Jn. — The root is aromatic and astringent 

2. G. 8TRICTUM. Ait. YeUow Averts. 

Hirsute ; radical Ivs. interruptedly pinnate ; cauHne 3 — 5-foliate ; Ifts. obo- 
vate and ovate, lobed and toothed ; slip, large and erect ; bractedes linear, sh(»ter 
than the sepals; pet. roundish, longer than the calyx; sty. smooth, upper joint 
hairy. — Fields moist or dry, N. States and Brit. Am. Stem hispid at base, 3— 
3f high, dichotomous, and with spreading hairs at summit. Root leaves fy-^ 
long, inclining to lyrate, the terminal leaflet largest, obovate and lobed. Flow- 
ers numerous, rather large, yellow. Receptacle densely pubescent JL Aug. 

3. G. ViBOiNiANUM. (G. album. Grrid.) White Avens. 

Pubescent ; radical Ivs. pinnate, ternate, or even rarelv synple ; cauline 
3 — 6-foliate or lobed, all unequally and incisely dentate, nearly smooth or softly 
pubescent; /Z$. erect; pet. not exceeding the calyx ; s^y. glabrous ; recep. denselv 
hirsute. — Hedges and thickets. Can. and U. S. Stem simple or branchea, 
smoothish above. Leaves very variable in form, lower ones often 3-foliaie, 
with long, (6—8') appendaged petioles. Stipules mostly incised. Upper leaves 
simple, acute, sessile. Flowers rather small, white. Peduncles in fruit Jong 
and diverging. Jl. 

4. G. MACROPHTLLUM. Willd. Large-teaved Yellow Avens. 

Hispid ; radical Ivs. interruptedly lyrate-pinnate, the terminal leaflet much 
the largest, roundish-cordate ; caulitie with mmute, lateral leaflets, and a large, 
roundish, lobed, terminal one, all imequally dentate ; pet. longer than the calyx : 
recep. nearly smooth. — White Mts. ! Stem 1 — 2{ high, stout, very hispid and 
lea^. Terminal leaflets 3—5' diam. Flowers yellow. Jn. Jl. 

5. G. VERNUM. T. & G. (Stylipus vemus. Raf.) 

Slender and slightlv pubescent ; st. ascending at base; radical Its. pia- 
nately 5 — ^9-foliate, with mcised leaflets, or often simple and cordate, incisely 
lobed and dentate; caiUine Ivs. 3 — 5-foliate or lobed; stip. large and incised; 
fls. very small : sep. reflexed ; head of carpels globose, raised on a slender stipe. 
—Shades and thickets, Ohio ! to ni. and Tex. Stem 8— 30* high, striate, di- 
or trichotomous at top, few-leaved and few7flowered. Petals yellow, and with 
the sepals hardly more than 1" in length. Stipe of the head of carpels i' loog. 
Apr. — ^Jn. 

* * Styles not articulated^ whoVy persistent. Sieversia. R. Br. 

6. G. triplOrum. Pursh. T%ree-fiuwered Geum. 

Villous ; St. erect, about 3-flowered ; Ivs. mostly radical, interruptedly pii»- 
nate, of numerous cuneate, inciselv dentate leaflets ; bracteoles linear, lonsw 
than the sepals ; s^y. plumose, very long in fruit. — Brit. Am. and the Westein 
States ! rare in the JSorthem. Stems scarcely a foot M^, with a pair of oppo- 
site, laciniate leaves near the middle, and several bracts at the base of the lonjf, 
slender petioles. Radical leaves 5—6' long, the terminal leaflet not Enlarged. 
Flowers rather large, purplish white. Styles 2' long in fruit May, Jn. 

7. G. Peckii. Pursh. PecJi^s Geiim. 

Nearly glabrous; 5^. erect, several-flowered, nearly naket}; radical Ir^ 
iyrate-pinnate, the terminal leaflet very large, roundish, truncate at base, t^ 
lateral ones minute ; pet. much longer than the calyx. — White Mts. ! Scaped 
high f4— 5, Bw. la— 18, T. <f» G.), with several small, incised bracls. Petioles' 
3 .5' long, bearing 4 or G, dentate, lateral leaflets 1 — i" lonjj, and ending in a 
half-round leaflet »— 4' wide, lobed and dentate. Flowers 8'' diam., yellow, ter- 
uinal on the elongated branches. JL Aug. 



LaL McniruiVt aortens, q. d. to alMorb blood ; the plant i» aitoemed a wahmuy. 

Galjz tube 4-8ided, 2 or 3-bracted at base ] limb 4parted ; petals 
; stamens 4, opposite the calyx segments ; filaments dilated upwards ; 
s^le 1, filiform ; achenium diry, included in the calyx. — Herbs with 
untquaUy pinnate leaves, 

S. Canadensis. Burnet Saxifrage. 

Glabrous J ijt^. oblong, cordate, obtuse, serrate; spikes dense, cylindrie, 
v«Ty long ; sta. much longer than the calyx. — 7L in wet meadows, U. S.^nd 
Brit Am., and cultivated in gardens. Stem 2— 3f high, smooth, striate, spar- 
ingly branched. Stipules leafy, serrate. Leaflets ^--4' long, \ — j^ as wide, 
petiolate, mostly stipellate. Spikes 3 — 6^ long, terminating the long, nakea 
branches. Bracteoles 3. Calyx greenish white, resembling a corolla. Aug. 


Literally a driokln« vessel, and hence a beverage ; from the «se of the plant 

Fls. S' Calyx tube contracted at the mouth, 3-braoteate, limb 4- 
parted ; petals ; stamens 20 — 30 ; ovaries 2 ; style filiform ; ache- 
nia dry, included in the calyx. — Herbs vnih unequaUf pinnate leaves, 

P. BANGVI80RBA. Bumet. 

Herbaceous; st. unarmed, angular, and with the leaves, smooth; Ifts. 
7 — ^11, ovate or roundish, deeply serrate ; tpikesor hds. subglobose, the lower 
flowers staminate. — % Occasionally cultivated as a salad, but is now less valued 
in medicine than formerly. It is said by Hooker to be native about Lake Huron. 

Or. ayposj a field, /cove;, alone ; a name of dignity for its medieinal qualities. 

Calyx tube turbinate, contracted at the throat, armed with hooked 
brifiiLes above, limb 5-cleft; petals 5 ; stamens 12 — 15 ; ovaries 2; 
styles terminid ; achcnia included in the indurated tube of the calyx. 
— 'ZJ. Xw. pinnately divided. Fls. yellow, in long, slender racemes, 

1. A. £uPATORiA. Agrimatiy. 

Hirsute ; Ivs. interruptedly pinnate, upper ones 3-foliate ; Ifts. ovate, oval 
or oval-lanceolate, coarsely dentate ; stip. large, dentate ; pet. twice longer than 
the calyx.— ^Road sides, borders of fields. Can. and U. S., common. Stem I — 3f 
high, branching, leafy. Leaflets 3, 5, 7, with small ones interposed, nearly 
<mooth beneath, 1| — 3' long, k as wide, sessile, terminal one with a petiolule 
1 — 3" long. Racemes 6^12' long, spicate. Flowers yellow, about 4" diam., 
on very short p^icels. Calyx tube curiously fluted with 10 ribs, and sur- 
mounted with reddish, hooked bristles. Jl. 
0, kirsuta. Torr. — Smaller and more hairy. 

y. parviflara. Hook. (A. parviflora. Z>C.)-— Less hairy; ^.smaller, on longer 

9. A. PARViPLdBA. Ait. (A. suavcolens. PA.) 

St. and petioles hirsute ; hs. interruptedly pinnate ; Ifts. numerous, crowded, 
pubescent beneath, linear-lanceolate, equally and incisefy serrate; stip. acutely 
incised ; roc. spicate-virgate ; fls. small ; pet. longer than calyx ; Jr. hispid. — 
Woods and dry meadows, Penn. ! to S. Car. W, to la. and Tenn. Stem 3 — it' 
high, the hairs spreading, brownish and glandular. Leaflets 2 — 3' by { — J', 
wuh smaller ones intermixed. Petals yellow. The plant has an agreeable 
balsamic odor. Augl 


Gr. vntipaf a oord or wreath ; the fiowen are, or may be iwed in garland*. 

Calyx 5deft, persistent; petals 5, roundish; stamens 10 — 60, 
exserted; carpels distinct, 3 — 12, follicular, 1-celled, 1 — 2-valved, 
1 — 10-seeded ; styles terminal.^ — % Unarmed shrubs or herbs. Branches 
and Ivs. alternate. Fls. white or rose-color, never yellow. 


S66 XLVm. ROSACEJIfi. Sfulma. 

• Leaves vnthout sHpules, 

1. S. TOBiBNTdSA. HoTcUuick. 

Ferruginous-tomentose ; Ivs. simple, ovate-lanceoiate, smoothish alMfre, 
unequally serrate ; rac. short, dense, aggregated in a dense, slender, terminal 
panicle ; carpels 5. — A small shnib, very common in pastures and low grounds, 
Can. and U. S. Stem very hard, brittle, consequently troublesome to the scythe 
ol the hay-maker. Leaves \\ — 2' long, | as wide, dark green abo^e, mstr white 
with a dense tomentum beneath, crowded, and on short petioles. Flowefs 
small, very numerous, with conspicuous stamens, light purple, forming a sien- 
der^yramidal cluster of some beauty. The persistent fruit in winter fnmishei 
foooior the snow bird. Jl. Aug. 

2. S. 8ALICIF0LIA. (S. alba. Bw.) Queenof the Meadow. Meadmc-^teed, 
Nearly glabrous ; Ivs. oblong, obovate or lanceolate, sharply serrate ; rac. 

forming a more or less dense, terminal panicle ; carpels 5. — A small shrub ia 
meadows, thickets, U. S. and Brit. Am. Stems 3 — 4f high, slender, purplish, 
brittle. Leaves smooth, IJ — 3' long, i — i as wide, acute at each end, petiolate, 
often with small leaves in the axils. Flowers white, oflen tinged with red, 
small, numerous, with conspicuous stamens, in a more or less spreading pani- 
cle. Jl. Aug. t 

3. S. Aruncus. Goat's Beard. 

Herbaceous ; lis. membranaceous, tripinnate ; IJls. oblong-Iajiceolate, aco- 
minate, the terminal ones ovate-lanceolate, doubly and sharply serrate; /b. 9 (f, 
very numerous ; carpels 3 — 5, very smooth. — On the Catskitl Mts., N. Y. to ui. 
Tbrrey <f» Gray. Stem 4— 6f high, branching. Flowers very small, while, 
in numerous, slender racemes, forming a large, compound panicle. Jn. JL 
0. JF^ls. in very long, virgate racemes. Georgetown, D. C. Robfnns. 

4. S. corymbOsa. Raf. (S. chamoedri folia. PA.) Corymbose Spiraea. 
I/cs. ovate or oblong-oval, incisely and unequally serrate near the apex, 

whitish with minute tomentum beneath ; corymbs large, terminal, pedancolate, 
fastigiate, compound,, often leafy ; sty. and carpels 3 — ^5. — Moantains, 
Penn. Fauquier Co., Va. Dr. Riliivs, to Ky. S. to Flor. Stem slightly pu- 
bescent, reddish, 1 — 2f high. Leaves nearly smooth above, entire towards me 
base, 2—3' by f — If'. Flowers innumerable, white or rose-colored, in a co- 
rymb 4 — & broad. May, Jn. -f 

5. S. HYPERiciPoiJA St. Peter's Wreath. — Lrs. obovate-oblong, obtoj*, ta- 
pering at base to a petiole, entire or slightly dentate, nearly smooth ; p. in 
pedunculate corymbs or sessile umbels; pedicels smooth or pubescent; segments 
of the calyx ascending. — Cultivated in 8:ardens and shrubberies. Shrub 3 — 5f 
nigh, nearly smooth in all its parts. Flowers white, in numerous umbeN, ler- 
mmating the short, lateral branches. Pedicels as long as the leaves. Alar, f 

• • heaves accompanied with stipvlcn. 

6. S. soRBiFOLtA. Sorb-leaved Spiraa. — S" i n^A s tout, with strajr^linglrar.cb^ 
and roup;h bark; Ivs. unequally pinnate; lateral lf;s. oblong-lanceolate; Unt^i- 
nal oTie larger, irregularly lobcd, all acuminate, sessile and doublv serraie;.!?- 
in thyrsoid panicles, large, numerous, white. — In .shrubberies. Height 4— -&• 
May. f 

S. 7. OPULiPOLiA. Niiu-bark. 

Nearly glabrous; Us. roundish, 3-lobed, petiolate, doubly-serrate; ccrmh 
pedunculate; carjwls 3 — 5, exceeding the calyx in fruit. — A beautiful i*hruh, 
3 — 5f. high, on the banks of streams, Caa. la.! Mo. S. to Ga., rare. Bark 
loose, outer layers deciduous. Leaves 1 — 2J' long, nearly as wide, sometime* 
cordate at base, with 3 lobes above, petioles 6—d" long. Corymbs re- 
sembling simple umbclSj^ hemispherical, 1 — 2i' diam. Flowers white, oft^a 
tinged with purple. Follicles diverging, smooth, shining, purple, 3-seedea. Ja-t 

8. S. LOBATA. S'brian /?v/ Spiuca. 

Herbaceous; Ivs. pinnately 3 — 7 foliate, often with smaller leaflets inter- 
posed, lateral Ifts. of 3, lanceolate lobes, cuneaie at base, terminal one \v?^ 
pedately 7— 9-paried, lobes all doubly serrate; stip. reniform; ptaUdeXst^* 
cymosely branched ; fis. large, deep rose-color ; carpels &— 8. An herb of «- 

Kbbbu. XLVIU. AOSACEJE, 9»7 

qmsite beauty, in meadows and prairies, Mich. la. ! to Car. Stem 4 — 8f high. 
Flowers numerous and exceedingly delicate. Jn. Jl. •f 

9. S. piLiPENDULA. Pride of the Meadow. — Herbaceous, smooth; Ivi. inter- 
niptedljr pinnate ; Ifts. pinnatifidly serrate, 9 — ^21, with many minute ones in- 
terposed ; slip, large, semiconlate, serrate ; corymb on a long, terminal pedun- 
cle. — A \eiy delicate herb, often cultivated. S^tcms 1 — 3f high. Leaves 3 — 6* 
long, leaflets 1 — 2,' long, linear, the serratures tipped with short bristles. Flow- 
ers white, 4 or &' diam. Petals oblong-obovate. Jn. 

10. S. Ulmaria. Double Mcadmc-stceet. — Herbaceous; Ivs, 3 — ^7-foliate, with 
minnte leaflets interposed; lateral Ifts, ovate-lanceolate; terminal one much 
larger, palmately 6 — 7-lobed,all doubly serrate, and whitish-tomentose beneath ; 
rf(p. reniform, serrate ; panicle corymbose, long-pedunculate. — In gardens, where 
the numerous white flowers are mostly double. Jl. -f — Other species of this 
beaotiftil genus are sometimes cultivated. 

22. GILLENIA. Mocnch. 
Gr. ytXatOf to lau^ ; oa account of its exhilamting qualities. 

Calyx tubular-campanulate, contracted at the orifice, 5-cleft ; pe- 
tals 5, linear-lanceolate, very long, unequal ; stamens 10 — 15, very 
short ; carpels 5, connate at base ; styles terminal, follicles 2-yalyea, 
2 — i-seeded. — % Herbs with trifoliate^ douJbly serrate leaves. 

1. G. TRIPOLI ATA. MoBnch. (Spirasa. Linn.') Indian Phync. 

Lfts. ovate-oblong, acuminate; slip, linear-setaceous, entire; /b. on long 
pedicels, in pedunculate, corymbose panicles. — In woods, western N. Y. to Ga. 
A handsome shrub, 2 — 3f high, slender and nearly smooth. Lower leaves pe- 
tiolate, leaflets 2—4' long, \ as wide, pubescent beneath, subsessile. Floweis 
axillary and terminal. Petals rose-color or nearly white, 8" by 2". Seeds 
brown, bitter. Jn. Jl. — Root said to be emetic, cathartic or tonic, according 
to the dose. 

2. G. anpuLACEA. Nutt. (Spirea. Ph.) Bovmiam's Root. 

JLfU. lanceolate, deeply incised ; radical Irs. pinnatifld ; stip. leafy, ovate, 
doubly incised, claspinis^; fls. large, in loose panicles. — Western N. i. to Ala. 
Readily distinguished from the former by the large, clasping stipules. Flow- 
ers fewer, rose-colored. Jn. — Properties of the root like the former. 

23. KERRIA. DC. 

In honor of Wm. Ker, a botanical collector, who sent plant* from China. 

Calyx of 5 acuminate, nearly distinct sepals ; corolla of 5 orbicu- 
lar petals ; ovaries 5 — 8, smooth, globose ; ovules solitary ; styles 
filiform ; acbenia globose. — A slender shrub, nalive of Japan. £,vs. 
simple^ ovatej acuminate, doubly serrate^ without stipules. Fls. terminal 
on the branches, solitary or few together, orange-yellow. 

K. Japonica. DC. (Corchorus Japonica. Willd.) Japan Globe Ftower. — 
Common in gardens, dec. Stems numerous, &— 8f high, with a smooth bark. 
Leaves minutely pubescent, 2 — 3' by 1 — 1 J', with a very sharp, slender point. 
Petioles 3 — b" long, Flowers double in cultivation, and abortive, globose, near 
L diam. f 

24. SIBBALDIA puocumbens. Linn. — Mts. of Vt. Pursh. Also Can. 
to Greenland. 

25. DRYAS iNTEQRiFOLiA. Vahl.— White Mts., N. H. Pursh. Also N. to 

2G. ALCHEMILLA alpIna. Linn.— White Mts., N. H., Green Mts., 
Vl, and Greenland, according to Pursh. These three species, whose leading 
characters are indicated in the " Conspectas of the Genera," have never, to my 
knowledge, been attributed to N. Eng. by any botanist except on the autliority 
of Pursh. which in this case, Drs. Torrey & Gray (p. 432) think to be " ex- 
tremely aoubtfuL" 

Si58 L. MYRTACBiE. Pmnoi. 


Shrubt with iquare itema exhibitinf 4 axon of growth ■nrroundinr the Ottatral < 

lA)§. oppoaitA, entire, simple, without stipules. Fit. solitary, axiDaiy. .... 

Cat.— f Sepals numerous, colored, in several rows, confounded with the petua, all mitM bdov talit 

Cor.— I fleshr tube or cup. 

8ta. 00, inserted into the fleshy rim of the calyx ; inner row sterile. 

Ova. indefinite, inserted on the disk which lines the calyx tube. 

IV.— Achenia hard, enclosed in the calyx tube as in srentu Rosa. 

The order consists of but 9 genem, Colycanthiia, American, and ChimoMUithoa of Japan. Tlia t^mim 
ara 6. The floweia are highly aromatic, and the same quality resides in the bark. 


Gr. ttaXv^, calyx, oy-^os, a flower; from the ehaiaetar. 

Lobes of the oaljx imbricated in many rows, lanceolate, somewhit 
coriaceous and fleshy, colored ; stamens unequal, about 12 outer onei 
fertile ; anthers eztrorse. The bark and {eaves exhale the odor of cam- 
phor. Fts. of a lurid purple, 

C. FLORions. CaroLiiui Allspice. Sweet-scented Shrub. 
Lvs, oral, mostly acute or acuminate, tomentose beneath j branches spread- 
ing ; flowers nearly sessile. — Fertile soils along streams, Va. and all the S. 
States. Not uncommon in gardens farther north. The species of WUldenov 
and Elliot are all referred to this of Linnaeus, by Torrey and Gray, as follows: 

0. (C. Iserigatus WiUd.) — Lajs. oblong or ovate-lanceolate, acnmimite or 
gradually acute, glabrous ; branches erect, "f* 

y. rC. glaucus WUld.) — Z/r5. oblong or ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, glaucous 
and glabrous beneath ; branches spreading, f 

i. (C. inodorus. EU) — Lvs. lanceolate, scabrous and shining above, smooth 
below ; branches spreamng. 

Order L. MYRTACEJS. — Mtrtlkblooms. 

Treea aod «Arcfte. without stipules. 

Lev. opposite entire, punctate, usually with a vein running eloee to the inaiiiii. 

Col. adherent below to the compound ovary, the limb 4— 6-cleft. valvate. 

Cor.— Petals as many as the segments of the calyx. 

St€L indefinite. Anthen introrae. Sry/eandsff^maaimple. 

Fir. with many seeds. 

A fine order, of 45 genera and 1300 species, native of wann or torrid oountriee, eepecialfar of 8. AoMioi 
and the E. Indies. 

Propertiea.—A fragrant or pungent volatile oil, rending chiefly in the pellucid datttng of the haves psr 
vades the order. The Carvophyllus aromatic us, native of Arabia, a tree about SO ftet in beifht, yiekb dis 
clove {clou Fr. a nail) which is the dried Jlmeer. Cajeptu oil is distilled from the leaves or the Mehiet- 
ea Cajeputi, native of the B. Indies. A kind of gimt Mnc is obtained fiom Eucalyptus lesiaifen, aliet 
native of India. The root of the Pomegranate yields an extract which is an excelleDt vermifuge.— Ail A* 
genera are exotic with us.— Many of them are highly ornamental in culture. 


Fruit 9--S-eeUed. Leaves evergreen, with a marginal vein. Ojfrtwt. I 

Fruit many-ooUed. Leaves deciduous, without the marginal vein Punioa t 

1. MYRTUS. Toum. 
Gr. fivpovj pertone. 

Calyx 5-cleft ; petals 5 ; berry 2 — 3-celled ; radicle and cotjle- 
Jons distinct. — Shrubs with evergreen leaves. 

M. commOnis. Common MirrtU. — Lvs. oblong-ovate, with a mar^nal Tdfi| 
fis. solitary; invol. 2-leaved. — This popular shrub is a native of S. Europe, b 
our climate it is reared only in houses and conservatories. Among the ancients 
it was a rreat favorite for its elegance of form, and its fragrant, evcrgrecfl 
leaves. It was sacred to Venus. The brows of bloodless victors were adorned 
with myrtle wreaths, and at Athens it was an emblem of civic ar«borirf- 
XiCaves about 1' by i'. Flowers white. Jl. Aug.-f 


Lat JHcniot, Carthagcnian, or, of Carthage, where it fintgrew. 

Calyx 5-cleft ; petals 5 ; berry many-celled, many-seeded ; seeds 
baocate ; placenta parietal. — Dcciduaus trees and shrubs. 


P. Granatum. Pomegranate. — ^Arborescent ; Irs. lanceolate, with no margin- 
al vein.— A thorny bush when wild, from S. Europe, where it is sometimes used 
for hedges like the hawthorn. Leaves lanceolate, entire, smooth, 2 — 3' by 
5— iO", The flowers are .scarlet, large, and make a fine appearance. 
The fruit i.s large, highly ornamental and of a fine flavor. Much care is icqui- 
site for its cultivation, it requires a rich loam, a sunny situation, protected by 
glass. In this way double flowers of great beauty may be produced, f 

P. NANA. Dwarf PomegraiuUe. — Shrubby; lis. linear-lanceolate, acute.— Na- 
tive of the W. Indies, where it is used as a hedge plant. Shrub 4— -6f high, with 
■mailer purple flowers, ollen double, f 

Order LI. 3IELAST0MACEJS.— Melastomes. 

Trem. 9hrub$ or herbt with square bmnche«, and usually exstipulate. 

Lm cHipcMJte. entire and undivided, without dola and with several veinn. 

Pc/.— Seinb 4— «. united, penistent, the tube urreolate, coheriiifr with only the anklet of the ovary. 

Oir— Peiab aa many as the tmgaienU of Uie calyx, twisted in wstivution. 

.S7& twKC as many aa the petals, sometimes of the same number, the filaments inflexed in aslhratian. 

Anth. before flowering contained in the cavity between the col. and Uie sides of ova. 

Ft. eaiisukror baccate. 

Geneo 1 19. species 1300. The order ia repreaented in the United States by a sinfle fenus, the remain 
4er being natives chiefly of India and tropical Ameiica. No plant of this order is poisonous. All an 
iUf htly astniicent. 

Gr. ^igf a rupture ; some of the species are good Tuioenriea. 

Calyx 4'Cleft, swelling at the base ; petals 4 ; stamens 8, 1 -celled ; 
style declined ; capsule 4-celled, nearly free from the investing calyx 
tube ; placentas prominent ; seeds numerons. — '^l. Xi75. opposite, exstipu- 
UUe, Z-veined. 

1. R. ViROiNicA. Meadow Beauty. Deer Grass. 

St. with 4- winged angles; Irs. sessile, oval-lanceolate, cilia te-serrul ate, 

and with the stem clothed with scattered hairs ; col. hispid Grows in wet 

grounds, Mass. to 111. ! and La. Stem If or more high, often 3-forked above. 
Leaves with 3 (rarely 5 or 7) prominent veins, 1 — 3' long, about i as wide, 
acme. Flowers large, in corvmbose cymes. Petals bright purple, obovate, his- 
pid beneath, caducous. Anthers long and prominent, crookeo, golden yellow 
above with a purple line beneath. St>'le somewhat longer than the stamens, a 
liitle declined. Jl. Aug. 

2. R. Mariana. Maryland Deer Grass. 

Si. nearly terete, covered with bristly hairs ; Irs. lanceolate, acute, atten- 
uate at base into a very short petiole and, with the calyx, clothed with scattered 
hairs. — In sandy bogs, N. J. lo Flor. The whole plant is hispid, even the pe- 
tals externally. Stem 1 — 2f high, slender, and generally without branches. 
Leaves often narrowly oblong, serrate-ciliate. Petals large, obovate, purple. 
Jn.— Sept. 

Order LII. LYTHRACEJE.— Loosestrifes. 

H*rb9, rarely thruba, frequently with 4-oornered branrhes. 

Lvt. orr'osite, mrely alternate, entire, Aviih neither atiimles nor inlands. 

Cai. tabular, the limb 4—7 lobed. Roinetimefi with an niany intermediate teeth. 

Ow.— Petjibi inserted into the calyx between the lobes, very decidiioua, or 0. 

fita equal in number to the petaU, or *i— 4 times a» many, inserted into the calyx. 

Oro. ■Ulterior, enclosed in the calyx-tuhe, *2— 4-cened. Sfy united into one. 

^.— Cap«ule memhranoua, enveloped in the calyx, usually by abortion Icelled. 

Sdt. imaU, 00, attached to a centrul placenta. Albumen 0. 

Gfnem aS. specie* 300. Rome of the speci«?<» nre found in fempernte climes, but most of them are tro* 
PtftA- I^ytbntm «aJinann. native of Europe, N. Holland and U. d., is luied for toiuiin^t where it abounda. 
All the specjes are astringent 

Con.^prrJvs of the Genera. 

iohcirns. Petals Htrpobrichfa. 6 

I with 4 tpoth nn<? >4 ""hort lioms" AfninrnuiO. I 

f cnmpnnukte, ; with 6 teeth and 5 ItiM? huriH Decndtm. # 

< cylindrical, with minute, intermediate homH. . I.j/tftrum, 9 

Ciiyz ( veotriooM, ctl>bot» at bato, intemaodiate homa Cup/ica. 4 


Named in honor of John Ammann, native of Siberia, ptoL of hot 8t Pelanbvv. 

Calyx'campanulaie, 4 — S-toothed or lobed, generally with as manj 
Aiorn-like processes alternating with the lobes \ petals 4 or 5, often ; 
ftamens as many, rarely twice as many as the calyx lobes ; capsule 
2 — 4-celled, many-seeded. — In wet places, Sts. square and Ivs. appth 
tUtj entire, Fls. axillary. 

1. A. HUMiLis. Michx. (A, ramosior. lAnn.^ Low Ammannia, 

Sf. branched from the basa, ascending ; Ivs. linear-oblong or lanceolate, 
obtuse, tapering at base into a short petiole ; fls. solitary, closely sessile, all the 
parts in 4s j sty. very short. — An obscure and humble plant in wet places, Cl to 
"Qa. W. to Oregon. Stems square, procumbent at base, 6 — IC high. Flowen 
minute, one in the axil of each leaf, with 4 purplish, caducous petals. Calyx 
with 4 short, horn-like processes, alternating witn the 4 short lobes of the limb. 
Aug. Sept. 

/J. (T. & G. A. ramosior. Michx.) — L/vs. subsessile, cordate-sagittate at base: 
fis. about 3 in each of the lower axils, solitary above. — ^In N. J., where, it is said 
by T. & G., to grow with and pass imo the other variety. 

2. A. LATiFOLiA. (A. ramosior. Linn.'S 

St. erect, branching; Irs. linear-lanceolate, dilated and auricula ted at the 
sessile base;^. crowded and apparently verticillate, upper subsolitaiy and 
pedunculate ; col. 4-angled, 4-horned ; sep., pet.^ sta. and cats ofcapsuU A. — Wet 
prairies, Western States. Stem l—2f high. Leaves 2—3' by a-6". Flowers 
purple. Jl. — Sept 


Gr. Xv^poy, black blood ; referring to the color of the flower. 

Calyx cylindrical, striate, limb 4 — 6-toothed, with as many inie^ 
mediate, minute processes ; petals 4 — 6, equal ; stamens as many, or 
twice as many, as the petals, inserted into the calyx ; style filiform ; 
capsule 2-celled, many-seeded. — Mostly %i with entire leaves. 

1. L. Hyssopipolia. (L. hyssopifolium. 2?tt7. and l5< erfti.) Grass-psbf. 
Glabrous, erect, branchmg ; Ivs. alternate or opposite, linear or oblong 

lanceolate, obtuse ; fls. solitary, axillary, subsessile ; pet. and sta. 5 or 6.-HD A 
slender, weed-like plant, found in low grounds, dried beds of ponds, &c, Masi 
and N. Y., near the coast, rare. Plant 6 — IC high, with spreading, square 
branches. Leaves sessile, acute at base, pale green, each with a single small 
flower sessile in its axil. Petals pale purple. Calyx obscurely striate, with 
abort lobes. Jl. 

2. L. ALATUM. Ph. Wing-stem Lythrum. 

Glabrous, erect, branched; st. winged below; Ivs. lance-ovate, sessfle, 
broadest at base, alternate and opposite ; fls. axillary, solitary. — Damp grounds, 
Southern and Western States, common f Stem 1— 2f high, striate, the wing* 
narrow. Leaves 1—2' long, i as wide. Calyx tube 12-stnate, 12-toothed, alter- 
nate teeth comute. Corolla purple, wavy, 6-petaled. Stamens 6, indaded. Jn- JL 

3. L. LiNEARE. Li7hear-Uav€d Uuthrurtt. 

St. slender, somewhat 4-angled, branched above ; Ivs. linear, mostly oppo- 
site and obtuse; /s. nearly sessile; pet. and sta. 6.~€wamps, near the coa«, 
N. J. to Flor. Stem 2— 4f high, the angle sometimes slightfy winged. LeaTO 
1—2' by 2—4", rather fleshy. Flowers small, nearly white. 

4. L. Salicaria. Loose-strife. 

More or less pubescent ; Ivs. lanceolate, cordate at base ; fls, nearly ses- 
sile. In a long, somewhat verticillate, interrupted spike; ;ic*. 6 or 7; sta. twice 
as many as the petals. — % An ornamental plant, native in wet meadows, Cai. 
and N. Eng., rare. Stem 2— 5f high, branching. Leaves 3—6' long, \ as wi^ 
gradually acuminate, entire, on a short petiole, opposite, or in verticils of S| 
Ripper ones reduced to sessile bracts. Flowers large, numerous and sliavT- 
Petals purple. Jl. Aug. f 



5. L. YiRGATUM. Austrian Lytkrum. — 9t. erect, branched, yirgate ; hfs, lan- 
eeolate, acate at each end, floral ones small ; fis. about 3 in each axil of the vir- 
|ate raceme ; sta. 12. — A fine species for the garden, native of Austria. Stem 
I— 4f high. Flowers purple. Jn. — Sept f 

3. DECODON. Gmel. ^ 
Chr. luca, ten, oioitSt ft tooch; from the bwn-Ilke teeth of the oaljrx* 

Calyx short, broadly campanulate, with 5 erect teeth, and 5 elon- 
gated, spreading, horn-like processes ; stamens 10, alternate ones very 
long ; style filiform ; capsule globose, included, many-seeded. — '^j. Jjos. 
opposiU or verticUlate^ entire. Fls. axiUa/ry^ purple. 

D. VERTiciLLATCM. Ell. (Lvthrum. Linn. NesaExa. Kuntk.^ 
Swamps throughout the U. S. and Can. Stem woody at base, often pros- 
trate, and rooting at the summit, 3 — 8f in length, or erect and 2 — 3f high, 4-^ 
angled. Lcsaves opposite or in whorls of 3, lanceolate, on short petioles, acute 
at base, 3-^ long, gradually acuminate and acute at apex. Flowers in axil- 
lary, subsessile umbels of 3 or more, apparently whorled, constituting a long, 
leafy, terminal and showy panicle. Petals 5 or 6, large, and of a fine purple. 
Jl. Aug. 

«. pvbescer^. — St. and Ivs. beneath pubescent. R. Island. 

^. lavigatum. — Glabrous and bright green. Most common in N. Eng, 

Or. KV^Sj curved or ribboiu ; m reftranoe to the capsule. 

Calyx tubular, ventricose, with 6 erect teeth, and often as many 

intermediate processes; petals 6 — 7, unequal; stamens 11 — 14, 

rarely 6 — 7, unequal ; style filiform ; capsule membranaceous, 1 — 2- 

ceUed, few-seeded. — Herbaceous or suffnUicose. JLvs, opposite, entire, 

Fls. axillary and terminal. 

C. viscosissiMA. Jacq. (Lythrum petiolatum. Ldnn.) 
Herbaceous, viscid-pubescent ; Ivs. ovate-lanceolate, petiolate, scabrous ; 
Jls. an short peduncles; ca/. gibbous at base on the upper side. 12-veined, 
$-toothed, very viscid.—® Wet grounds, Pittsfield, Mass., Hitchcock. Cam- 
bridge, N. Y., Stevenson, to Ga. and Ark. Stem 9 — 18' high, with alternate 
branches. Leaves somewhat repand, 1 — 2' long, ^ as wide, on petioles \ as 
long. Flowers solitary, one in each axil, irregular. Calyx often purple, ven- 
tricose. Petals violet, obovate. Stamens included. Capsule bursting length- 
wise before the seeds are ripe. Aug. 

5. HYPOBRICHIA. Curtis. 
Calyx 4-lobed, without accessory teeth ; petals ; stamens 2 — 4 ; 
ovary 2-celled ; stigma 2-lobed, suDsessile ; capsule globose, bursting 
irregularly, many-seeded. — A submersed aquatic herb. I/os. opposite^ 
crowded, linear. Fh. axillary, sessile, minute. 

H. Ndttallii. Curt. (Peplis diandra. Nutt.) 

A little inhabitant of ponds and sluggish streams, 111., Mead, Buckley, to 
Mo. and La. Its habit is similar to a Callitriche. Stem mostly ^submersed, 
10— 20' long. Leaves 10— 15" by 1 — ^2", very numerous. Jn. — Aug. 

Order LV. ONAGRACEiB.— Onagrads. 

P7arU9 herbaecous, KMnetimes xhrubby, with alternate or opposite leaves. 
jP?». aiillarr, or in terminal ipikes or racemes. ., , ^ . .... 

Co/.— Sepals 4, (a— 6) united below into a tube, the lobes valvate m tt«tivaUon. n^„^ 

Cor.— ^ Petal* 4, (»-6) inserted with the 4 or 8 (I— «~3— 8) rtamcn* into the throat of the calyx. Pollen 
Rra. — > trinnrular, often cohering by thread«. 
Ova. coherent with the tube of the calyx ; placenta in the axis. 
Vr. baccare or capaular, a— 4 celled, many-seeded. Albumen none, 
Geneni *!. ipecie^ S20. particnlarly abundant throufhoitt America, more mre in the Old "Workl Thay 




P08MW no lemarkaUe piopettica. Many eenora.are onrnmental, «i>d oiie» th0 well known Fncb^ atw 

to a high dejtrec. . . . _, r i j. -^ 

To lhi^ order is appended the subonler Haioragea. eonsistinff of aquatic hertM of a tow fade, ttm 
Oowen beinc imperfect or reduced to eolitary i)arts or orgiuM. 

PIO. 45.— I. Flower of Genottocra fhiticoia. 2. Plan of the flowei. 8. Section of the 4^M«^, eajwh 
of <£. biennis. 6. Hippiiris vulgaris ; 6, its flower, with l stamen, 1 ovoir. 1 ■tne- *• Vertical aeelioa 
of its l-seeded fruit. 7. Circeea Lutetiana. 8. The flower enlarged. 9. Plan of the flower. 10. Vertical 
flection of the S-celled and 3-aeeded fruit. 

ConspecUn of the Genera. 

\ Herbs. .. , ^ 

\ Sta. B: ; Beautiful green-house shrubs. 
( Fls.perf ; Stamens 4 ; styles united into 1. 
'by 43; {^Flowers monoecious ; aquatic ; leaves multifid. 
by 3s; flowers apetalous ; aquntic ; leaves pectinate. 
J bySs; flowera complete and regular; leaves dentate. . 
Paitsoffl.arranff*d Cbyls; flowers ape taloua ; aquatic; leaves verticillate. . 

r Pet scarcely \ Seeds oomose. E^floMiMi. I 

clawed; ? Seeds naked. CautUmu. t 

s Claws unarmed. Gaura. S 

. Pet. clawed; { Claws with 2teeth. CUakta. t 

FudmuL 4 

LuAtciftia. C 


1*1 UK I pf Htfgg. 8 

Tribe 1. O^TAGREiE. 

Flowers perfect, the parts arranged in 4s (rarely 3s); pollen connected by threads. 


Gr. tirif upon, \ofioVj a pod, lov, a violet ; i. e. a violet growinf upon a pod. 

Calvx tube not prolonged beyond the ovary, limb deeply 4-cleft, 4- 
parted and deciduous ; petals 4 ; stamens 8, anthers fiked near the 
middle; stigma often with 4 spreading lobes; ovary and capsule 
linear, 4-cornered, 4-celled, 4-valved ; seeds 00, comose, with a tuft 
of long hairs. — '4- 

1. E. ANQUSTiPOLiUM. (E. spicatum. Zxim.) WtUmD Herb. Rose-ioff. 
St. simple, erect ; Ivs. scattered, lanceol?ite, subertire, with a mar;^ai 

vein ; roc. long, terminal, spicate ; pet. unguiculate ; sta-. and sty. declined ; stiz. 
with 4 linear, revolute lobes. — In newly cleared lands, low waste grounds, 
Penn. to Arctic Am. Stem 4— 6f high, oflen branched above. Leaves sessile, 
smooth, 2 — 5' long, i as wide, acuminate, with pellucid veins. Fiowers nunns 
rous and showy, all the parts colored, petals deep lilac-purple, ovary and sepals 
(5 — 6" long) pale glaucous-purple. Jl. Aug. 

0. cariescens. — Flowers of a pure white in all their parts ; ovaries silvery- 
canescent. — Danville, Vt. Miss M. L. Tmnlc ! 

2. E. coLOUATUM. Muhl. Colored EpUobvm. 

St. subterete, pubcnilent, erect, very branching; Irs. mostly opposite, lan- 
ceolate, dent-serrulate, acute, subpetiolale, smooth, often with redaish veifl*; 
pH. small, 2-cleft at apex ; cal. campanulate ; sfy. included : sii^. clavale; /^rwto 
in a single row. — Ditches and wet, shady grounds, British Am. to Ga. W. w 
Oregon. Stem 1 — 3f high, becoming very much branched. Leaves 3—4' Ion?. 
4 as wide, with minute, white dots, upiwr ones alternate and sessile, lover oft 
short petioles. Flowers numerous, axillary. Pedicels 1 — ^2" in length, ovarlo 
4 — 6", cJipsules 20", very slender. Petals rose-color, twice longer than the 
sepals. Jl. — Sept. — Scarcely distinct from the next. 

3. E. PALUSTRB. Marsh Epil'obivm. 

St. terete, branching, somewhat hirsute ; Iva. sessile, lanceolate, subdeft* 


tjcnlate, smooth, attenuate at base, rather acute, lower ones opposite ; pd. amaU, 
obcordate, twice longer than calyx ; sty. included ; stig. davate ; caps, pubes- 
cent — ^In swamps and marshes, Fenn. to Artie Am., W. to Oregon. Stem 1 — 
2f high, very branching. Leaves mostly alternate, 1—^' long, | as wide, en- 
tire, or with a few minute teeth. Flowers numerous, aziUary. Petals rose- 
color. Capsules 1 — ^ long, on short pedicels. Aug. 

0. albMmm. Lichm. (£. lineare. Muhl.) St. slender, at first simple, 
bianchea at top; Ivs. linear, entire, margin revolute; capsules canescent 

4. E. MOLLE. ToTT. TE. strictum. MuM.) Soft EpUobivm. 

Plant clothed with a aense, soft, velvet-like pubescence ; sb. terete, straight, 
erect, branching above ; Ivs. opposite (alternate above), crowded, sessile, mostly 
entire and oblong-linear, obtusish ; pet. deeply emar^ate, twice longer than 
the cahrz ; sUg. large, turbinate ; caps, elongated, subsessile.^p Swamps, Mass. 
to N. J., rare. Stem 1 — ^2f high. Leaves numerous, 8 — 15" by 1—4". Flow- 
ers roae-color. Capsules 3' long. Sept. 

5. E. ALPlNUM. Alpine EpUobvwm. 

St, creeping at basie, usually with 3 pubescent lines, few-flowered; hjs, 
opposite, oblong-ovate, subentire, obtuse, sessile or subpetiolate, smooth ; sOg, 
undivided ; caps, mostly pedicellate. — ^Mountains, Northern States to Artie Am. 
Stem 6— Id' high. Leaves often slightly petiolate and denticulate, lower ob- 
tnse, middle acute, and upper acuminate. Flowers smaller than in E. moUe, 
0. natans. Homem. — St. large, nodding at the summit ; Ivs. oblong, denticulate. 

Gr. oiirof , wine, ^npta^ to hunt; the root ii laid to cauie a thint Ibr wine. 

Calyx tube prolonged beyond the ovary, deciduous, segments 4, 

reflezed ; petals 4, equal, obcordate or obovate, inserted into the top 

of the tube ; stamens 8 ; capsule 4-celled, 4-yalYed ; stigma 4-lobed \ 

seeds many, naked. — Herbs with aUemate leaves. 

1. CE. BiEifNTs. Common Evening Primrose. ScaMsh. (Pig. 45.) 
St. erect, hirsute ; Ivs. ovate-lanceolate, repand-denticulate ; Jls. sessile, in 
a terminal, leafy spike; califx tube 3 or 3 times longer than the ovary; sta. 
shorter than petals ; caps, oblong, obtuselv 4-angled.— (D and ® Common in 
fields and waste places, U. S. and British Am. Stem mostly simple, 3— 6f 
high, with whitish, scattered hairs. Leaves 3—6' by \ — U', roughly pubes- 
cent, slightly toothed, sessile on the stem, radical ones tapering into a petiole. 
Flowers numerous, opening by night and continuing but a single day. Petals 
large, roundish, obcoraate. Seeds very numerous, 3 rows in each cell. Jn. — ^Aug. 
fi. muricala. (CE. muricata. Ph.) St.. muricate or strigosely hirsute, red; 
pet. scarcely longer than the stamens. Stem 1 — ^3f high. 

y. grandidora. (CE. grandiflora. Ait.^ Pet. much longer than the stamens, 
rather deeply obcoraate. Stem branchea. f 

3. (E. PBUTicOsA: Perennial Evening Primrose. 

St. pubescent or hirsute ; Ivs. oblong-lanceolate, repand-denticulate ; roc. 
leafy, or naked below, corymbed ; caps, oblong-clavate, 4-angled, pedicellate. 
— % In sterile soils, Mass., Ct., N. Y. to Flor. and Western States. Stem hard, 
rigid, (not shrubby) branched, purple, 1 — 3f high. Leaves variable in pubes- 
cence, form and size., 1 — 3' by 3 — 8", sessile, minutelv punctate. Flowers few 
or many, 1^'diam. in a terminal, bracteate, mostly pedunculate raceme. Calyx 
tube longer than the ovary. Petals broad-obcordate, yellow. Jn. — Aug. 
0. amhigua. Lts. membranaceous ; pet. longer than broad. 

3. CE. PTTMiLA (&CE. pusillal Michx.) Dwarf Evening Primrose. 

Low, pubescent ; 5^ ascending ; Ivs. lanceolate, entire, obtuse, attenuate 
at base; spike loose, leafy, naked below; calyx tvhe shorter than the subsessile, 
oblong-clavate, angular ovary. — (g) A small, half-erect plant, common in grass 
lands. Can. to S. Car. Stem 6 — KV long, round, slender, simple. Leaves 1 — 
\\' by 3—3", radical ones spatulate, petiolate. Flowers yellow, 6" diam., open- 
ing in succession i or 3 at a lime. Jn.— Aug. 


96A LV. OJSAQMACBM. Gbuutu. 

4. .<£. OBRYBAKTOA. Michz. Qolde» Evmmg Primr&ti. 

St. ascending, slender ; fis, small, crowded, spicate ; calyx Vube equal ii 
length to the ovary, longer than the segments ; pet, broadly obovate, emaiginate, 
longer than the stamens ; aips, smooth, pedicellate, clavate, the alternate angles 
slightly winged.— <g) Western N. Y. to Mich. Stem Id— 18^ long, poi^ 
LiC^yes lanceolate, obtuse, attenuate at base, denticulate, radical ones spataUti^ 
Flowers bf* diam., orange-yellow. Jn. Jl. 

6. CB. LINEARIS. Michz. 

St, slender, often decumbent at base, much branched; Ivs, linear-lucetv 
late, obtuse, somewhat denticulate ; fis, laxige, in terminal corymbs ; cek/z twk 
longer than the ovary ; pet, longer than the stamens ; caps, canescent, with 
slightly winged angles, tapering at base. — % Montauk Point, L. L Torrefy to 
Flor. ! and La., rare. Stem 1 — 2f high. Flowers yellow, 1' diam. Capsoki 
obovoid, tapering to a slender pedicel. May — ^Jl. 

6. CE. 8INUATA. 

St. pubescent, diffusely branched or subsimple, assurgent; k». pabesoeot, 
oblong-oval, sinuatendentate or incised ; fis. axillary, solitary, sessile; col. vil* 
lous, tie tube longer than the ovar^ ; caps, prismatic. — (J) Fields, N. J. to La. 
Stems 3— 8^ high. Licaves often pmnatmd. Flowers about i' diauL, terminal, 

fi, minima, Nntt ((E. minima. Ph.) Low, simple, 1-flowezed; let. neaily 
entire. — ^Pine barrens, N. J., &c. 

7. (E. 8PBcr68A. Nutt — ^Minutely pubescent, mostly erect and bfanched; 
hfs, lanceolate, attenuate at base, lower ones petiolate ; fis, large, in a loof , 
loose spike ; calyx Pube longer than the ovarv ; caps, obovoid-clavate, pedim> 
late. % From Ark. and Tex. Stem S^— Sf higL flowers white or rose-coloied, 
fragrant, 'f 

8. (E. RIPARIA. Nutt. 

Nearly smooth ; j^. erect and virgately branched; Ivs. linear-lanceolate, 
obscurely and remotely denticulate, somewhat petiolate; yEs. in a long raceme; 
caJfx tube much longer than the ovary ; caps, oblong-ovoid, 8-grooved ; vahes 
dorsally ridged. — Swamps, Cluaker Bridge, N. J., &c. Stem 2^f high, slen- 
der, and often with virgate branches. Leaves 2--4' by 2 — i'\ almost entiie, 
thick,, obtuse. Flowers li' diam., yellow, scentless. 

9. CB. MissouRiENSis. Sims. 

Simple, decumbent; Ivs. coriaceous, lanceolate, acute, or short-acanu- 
nate, petiolate, subentire, downy-canescent when young ; fis. very large, axilla- 
ry ; calyx tube 3 or 4 times longer than the ovary; caps, very laige, oval, dfr* 
pressed, with 4 winged margins. — Dry hills. Mo. ! Remarkable for the ma^ 
nitude of its flowers and fruit. Petals yellow, 2 — 3' long. Calvx tube 4— r 
long ! Capsule 2' long. Seeds large, crested, in one row in each ceU. JL— Octf 

3. CLARKIA. Ph. 

In honor of Gen. Clark, Uie companion of Lewis acron the Rocky Mountaint. 

Calyx (deciduous) tube slightly prolonged beyond the ovary, limb 
4-parted ; petals 4, unguiculate, 3-lobed or entire, claws with 2 ni* 
nute teeth ; stamens 8 ; style 1, filiform ; stigma 4-lobed ; capsnle 
largest at base, 4-celled, 4-valved; many seeded. — Annual herbs (frc^ 
Oregon and California) with showy ^ axillary flowers. 

1. C. PULCHELLA. Ph. Beautiful Clarkia. Jjvs. linear4anceolate; f^ 
large, broadly cuneiform, tapering into a slender claw, with 2 reflexed teeth, 
limb with 3 spreading lobes ; alternate sta. abortive ; caps, pedicellate.— Gar- 
dens. A handsome annual, with lilac-purple or white flowers, of easy culture, t 

3. C. BLE0AN8. Lindl. Elegant Clarkia. — Iajs. ovate-lanceolate, dentictt- 
late, on short petioles ; pet. undivided, rhombic or triangular-ovate, with a 
toothless claw; sta. all fertile, with a hairy scale at the base of each; i^ 
hairy; cops, subsessile, hairy ^--Gardens. Flowers smaller than in the last. ^ 
tals and stigma purple. Hairs at base of stamens red. f 


In hoQor of Leooaid Foehi, an exceOent Gennon botanut of the ISth eentmy. 

Caljx tnbular-infundibTiliform, colored, deciduous ; limb 4-lobed ; 
j^tab 4, in the throat of the calyx, alternate with its segments ; disk 
glandular, S-furrowed; baccate capsule oblong, obtuse, 4-sided. — 
Mostly shrubby. S. American plants of great beauty. 

t F. coccTKEA. Ait. (F. Magellanica. Lam.^ Ladies^ Ear-drop. — 
Ranches smooth ; Ivz. opposite and in 7erticils of 3s, ovate, acute, denticulate, 
on short petioles ; jU. axillary, nodding ; tef. oblong, acute ; p^. conrolute, half 
as long as calyx. — Native of Chili. A very delicate and beautiful green-house 
shmb, 1 — 6f high. Flowers on long, filiform pedicels. Calyx scarlet, much 
longer than the included, violet-purple petals. Stamens crimson, much exsert- 
ed- Berry purple. 

2. F. GRACiLia. Lindl. — 8t. sufruticose, often simple ; Ivs. opposite, ovate, 
petiolate, slightly acuminate, glandular-dentate ; jLs. opposite, solitaryi pendu- 
ions, longer than the leaves ; pet. nearly as long as the sepals and muen oroad- 
er..~-Chiri. A beautiful parlor plant, quite conunon. Stem 2 — 3f high, thick. 
Flowers larger, but less elegant than in the former, with a red calyx and crim- 
son corolla, t 

5. GAURA. 
Gr» ya^fMff itiperb ; a tenn choiacteristio of the flowen. 

Calyx tnbe much prolonged above the ovary, c^lindrio ; limb 4- 
cleft; petals 4, nnguiculate, somewhat unequal, inserted into the 
tube; stamens 8, declinate, alternate ones a little shorter ; oTary ob- 
long, 4-celled, one only proving fruitful ; nut usually by abortion 
1-celled, 1 — 4-8eeded. — Herbaceous or shrubby. Los. aUemate. Fls. 
whde aid red, rarely trimeraus. 

1. 6. BiBNNiB. JHeimial Gavra. 

St. branched, pubescent; Ivs. lanceolate, remotely dentate; spike crowded] 
eaiyxtube as long as the segments ; pet. rather declinate and shorter than sepals; 
fr. sobsessile, 8-ribbed, alternate ribs minute. — ^A beautiful biennial, on the dry 
bulks of streams. Can. to Ga. rare. Stem 3 — 5f high. Leaves sessile, pale 
green, acute at each end. Flowers numerous, sessile. Calyx reddish. Corol- 
k at first rose-color, changing to deep red. Stigma 4-lobed. Fruit rarely ma- 
turing more than 1 seed. Aug. 

2. G. pn^iPES. Spach. SLender-staXked QoMra. 

St. pubescent, paniculate and naked above ; Ivt. ilnear-oblonff , repand-den- 
tate, lower ones almost pinnatifid ; branches of the panicle very slender, naked, 
with tufted leaves at theu base ; calyx canescent, longer than the petals— Dry 
giomids, S. and W. States ! Stem ririd, 3— 6f high, very leafy just below the 
panicle. Leaves 1—3' long, 2—6'' wide, tapering at each end. Petals oblong- 
qiatulate, rose-color, or white. July, Aug. 


In honor of C. D. Ludwif, prof of botany at Leipsic, about ITSa 

Calyx tube not prolonged beyond the ovary, limb 4-lobed, mostly 
persistent ; petals 4, equal, oboordate, often minute or ; stamens 4, 
opposite the sepals ; style short ; capsule short often perforated at 
top, 4-celled, 4-valved, many-seeded, and crowned with the persistent 
n^x lobes. — % Herbs, in wet grounds. Los. entire. 

1. L. ALTBRNiPOLiA. Seed-box. Bttstard IxMsestrife. 

Erect, branched, nearly or quite smooth ; Ivs. alternate, lanceolate, sessile, 
pale beneath; ped. axillary, solitary, 1-flowcred, a-bracted above the middle; 
ftt. scarcely as large as the spreading, acuminate seuals ; caps, large, with 4 
w^iged angles, crowned with the colored calyx.— Shady swamps. Stem 1— 3f 

LV. ONAGRACE£. Cncju. 

high, round, with a strong bark and several branches. Leaves vlth macgo- 
al yeins, 2—3* long, i — 1' wide. Capsule conrex at apex, the angles connio- 
uouslj winged. Sepals large, purplish. Petals large, yellow, showy. Jl ins. 

2. L. HiRTELLA. Raf. (L. hirsuta. PA.) 

Hairy, erect, sparingly oranched ; Ivs, alternate, orate-oblong, sessile, olv 
tuse; /. axillary, solitary, pedicellate, with two bractcoles below it ;irp.neariT 
as long as the petals ; cap. subgloboee, 4 angled and winged. — Moist soQt, N. 
J. to Flor. Stem 1— 3f high. Leaves numerous, haiiy both sides, §— If \fj 
2—8''. Flowers yellow, about f diam. Calyx ^readmg, and, wiui the cap- 
sule, villous. Jn. — Sept 

3. L. LiNEiRis. Walt. (Isnardia. DC.) 

Glabrous, slender, with angular branches ; Ivs. lance-linear, acute al each 
end ; JU. axillary, solitary, sessile ; pet. obovate-oblone, slightly longer than the 
sepals, but much shorter than the elongated, obovoid-cTavate, 44ided eapsolei— 
Swamps, N. J. and S. States. An erect, smooth plant, 1— S^ high, often send- 
ing out runners at the base with obovate leaves. Fls. sometimes apeiate 
JL— Sept 

4. L. SPHJEROCARPA. Ell. (Isuardia. DC.) 

Erect, smooth or nearly so ; Ivs. alternate, lanceolate, acute, attenuate at 
base ; Jls. axillary, subsoUtary, on very short pedicels ; pet. minute or wanting 
as well as the bracteoles ; sep. as long as the small, subglobose capsii]e.-4a 
water, S. to Ga., partly submerged, or in tbtj wet grounosy near Baton, Ifr 
Stem 2— 3f high, branching, angular. Margin of the leaves rough, somedDB 
remotely and obscurely denticulate. Fls. greenish, inconspicuous. JL— 8^ 

5. L. POLTCARPA. Short & Peter. 

Glabrous, erect, much branched and often stoloniierous; Ivs. lance-liBeir, 
gradually acute at each end ; fls. apetalous, axOlaiy, solitary, with two sobo- 
late bracteoles at base : caps. 4-angled, truncated above, tapering below, erova- 
ed with the 4-lobed stylopodium. — Swamps, Western States ! Stem 1— 3f higk. 
Leaves 2—3' by 2—4'', ten times longer than the flowers. Aug.— Oct 

6. L PALUSTRis. Ell. (Isnardia. lAnn.) Water PwrseUdn. 
Prostrate and cree])ing, smooth and slightly succulent; los. opposite, onte, 

acute, tapering at base into a petiole; ^. sessile, axillary, solitary; fef.O,or 
very small — ^m U. S. and Can., creeping in muddy places, or floatiog in water. 
Stem round, reddish, 10 — 18' long, otlen sparingly branched. Leaves, iaclo^ 
their slender petioles, about U' by |', ovate-spatulate. Calyx lobes and ^ 
verv short Petals when present, flesh-color. Capsule 1 — 2" long, ahni7t>^ 
each end, with 4 green angles. Jn. — Sept 

Tribe 2. CIRCJBES^. 

Flower regular, all its parts in Ss. 
7. CIRC-EA. 
Oiros waa tuppoted Co have med theM phnti in her enehaotnenta. 

Calyx slightly produced above the ovary, deciduous, limb2-p«rto^i 
petals 2, obcordate ; stamens 2, opposite the sepals ; capside obo- 
void, uncinate-hispid or pubescent, 2-celled, 2-seeded ; styles tmitei 
'^l Lvs. opposite. 

I. C. LuTETiANA. Larger Enchanter'S'Nightshade. (Fig. 45.) 

high, sparingly branched, tumid at the nodes. Leaves dark green, smooch j» 
slightly pubescent, 2-^' long, | as wide, petiole ft— 15" long. Flowers smw 
rose-color, in long, terminal and axillary racemes. Fruit dbcordate, with c* 
spicuous hooks. Jn. Jl. 

2. C. ALPlNA. Alpine Bnckanter's-Nigktshade. 
Smooth ; st. ascending at base, weak ; lvs. broad-cordate, membranacwsj. 
ientate, as long as the petioles; brads setaceous ; capsule pubesceDt—A amaU* 


delicate plant, eominon in wet, rocky woodlands in movntainoiu districts, N. 
En^., Bnt. Am. W. to Or. Stem diaphanous, juicy, 5—10' high. Leares 1— 
9 long*, I as wide, acute or acuminate, with small, remote teeth, pale green and 
Flowers white, rarely reddish, minute, in terminal racemes. Jl. 

Suborder,— H AliORAGEJB. 

Plants small, aquatic. Flowers minute, axillary, sessile. Calyx entire, or 
3— 4-lobed. Petals ^—4, often 0. Stamens 1 — 8, inserted with the petals into 
the summit of the calyx. Ovary inferior, \ — 1-celled. Fruit dry, indehiscent, 
l--4-celled. Seed pendulous, 1 in each cell. 


Lat. Prmerpbia^ a Roman godden ; from ■oine fluieied reMmUanoe. 

Galjz tube adherent to the oyary, S-sided, limb 3-parted ; petals 
; stamens 3 ; stigmas 3 ; fruit 3-angled, 3-celled, bony, crowned 
with the permanent calyx. — % Aquatic Jjos. aUemate. 

1. P. PALUSTRis. Spear4eaved Mcrmaidr^weed. 

Ia?s. linear-lanceolate, sharply serrate above the water, those below (if 
any) pinna tifid.-^Ditches, swamps and ponds, often partly submersed, N. Eng. I 
to ^k. Root creeping. Stems ascending at base, o— SO' high, striate, round- 
ish. Leaves 10 — W by 2 — 3", acute at each end, lower ones on short petioles, 
and if growing in water, pinnatifid with linear segments. Flowers greenish, 
sessile, 1 — 3 together in the axils of the upper leaves, succeeded by a very hard, 
triangular nut. Jn. Jl. 

S. P. PBCTiNACEA. Lam. (P. pailustris, 0. Mc,) Cvirkaved Murmaid-'meed, 
Lcs. all pectinate, with linear-subulate segments ; fr. obtusely 3-angled. 
—Sandy swamps, in Ms. ! (rare) S. to Flor. Stems 5—10' high, ascending at 
base irrai long, creeping roots. Leaves all finely and regularly divided mto 
very narrow segments. Styles 0. Stigmas attenuate above. Fruit rather 
smaller (less than V diam.) than in P. palustris, rugose when mature. Jl. Aug. 


Crr. fivpusj a myriad, ^XXoy, a leaf; framUie nmneroua diriiioiii of the leaf- 

Flowers <?, or frequently $; calyx 4-toothed in the 5 and 9, 4- 
parted in the c^ ; petals 4, often inconspicuous or ; stamens 4— -8 ; 
stigmas 4, pubescent, sessile ; fruit of 4 nut-like carpels cohering by 
their inner angles. — '^l. Submersed^ aqtiolic herbs. Submersed Ivs. parted 
into capiUa/ry segments. Upper fls. usually cf, middle ones 5 , lower $. 

1. M. SPICATUM. — SpiJted Water-MUfoil. 

Ijvs. in verticils of 3s, all pinnalely parted into capillary segments ; Jb, 
in terminal, nearly naked spikes ; floral lus. or bracts ovate, entire, shorter than 
the flowers ; i/ntesi ones subserrate and larger; vet. broadly ovate ; sla. 8; carpels 
tanooth. — ^N. Eng. to Ark., in deep water, the nowers only rising above the stir- 
face. Stems slender, branched, very long. Leaves composed of innumerable, 
hair-like segments, always submerged. Flowers greenish, sessile. Jl. Aug. 

2. M. VERTiciLLATTTM. Water- MllfoU. 

Ijos. in verticils of 3s, lower ones pinnately parted into opposite, capillary 
or setaceous segments : fi^, in terminal, leafy spites ; flnral Ivs, -pectinate-pin- 
natifid, much longer than the flowers; pet. oblong-obovate ; sta. 8: carpels 
smooth. — In stagnant water. Can. to Flor. W. to Oregon. Stem long, less slen- 
der than in the last, only the upper part emerging. Flowers small, green, ax- 
illary, with conspicuous floral leaves. Sepals acute. Anthers oblong. Jl. Aug. 

3. M. RETEROPHYLLUM. Mickx. (Potamogctott verticillatum. WaU.^ 
Ltvs. in verticils of 5s, the lower ones pinnately parted into capillaiy 

lobes ; j^ni^ terminal, nearly naked ; floral lis. ovate-lanceolate, serrate, longer 
than the flowers, crowded ; pet. oblong ; sta. 4—6 ; carpels scabrous, with 2 slight 
ridges CO the back.— In sluggish water. Can. to Flor. and Tex., rare. Stem 



thick, branching. Leares yery various, lowest floral ones pecfanaielT diTidnL 
Petals somewhat persistent Sepals minute. Bracteolessennlate. Jn.— Sepd 

4. M. AMBiouuM. Nutt. (M. natans. DC.) Water AfUfoiL 
Laos, alternate, submersed ones pinnate, with capiUaij segments, middk 
ones pectinate, upper linear, petiolate, toothed or entire \jU. mostly 9; jKi. db* 
long, somewhat persistent ; sla. 4 ; curpels smooth, not ridged on the back.— In 
poiMus and ditches, Penn. to Mass. 1 Stems floating, upper end emerged with 
the minute flowers, and linear floral leayes. But in other situations it vuies 
as follows : 

0. limosttm. Nutt. (M. procumbens. Bw^ — St. procumbent and rootiDg; 
leaves all linear, rigid, often entire. — ^Muddy places ! where it is a small, creep 
ing and branching plant. 

y. capiUaceum. Torr. — L/os. all immersed and capillary. — ^Ponds! 

5. M. TENELLUM. Bw. 

Erect and almost leafless ; floral Ivs. or brads alternate, minute, entire, ob- 
tuse; fls. ^; pet. linear; sla. 4; carpels smooth, not ridged. — About the edgei 
of ponds and rivers. Providence; R. I. Ohieyl northern part of N. Y. to Nev- 
foundland. Rhizoma prostrate, creeping, sending up several stems or scapes, 
which are simple, and 4 — IS' hie^h. Flowers small, purplish-white, sessile, al- 
ternate, a little shorter than the bracts, the upper ones J^. Jl. 

6. M. BCABRATUM. Michz. ^ 

Ijvs. pinnatifid, in whorls of 4s and 5s; fls. verticillate, axillary; uffff 
Us. (^, with 4 stamens ; lower ones 9 j fr- 8-angled,-the ridges tuberculate.— 
Plymouth, Mass. Ckikes. Block Island, Robbins^ S. and W. States. Stem 6- 
13' high. Segments of the leaves Unear-capillazy. 


Or. Inrof , a hone, ox>pa^ taiL 

Calyx with a minute, entire limb, crowning the ovary ; corolla ; 

stamen 1, inserted on the margin of the calyx; anther 24obed, 

compressed; style 1, longer than the stamen, stigmatio thevbole 

length, in a groove of the anther ; seed 1. — %• Aquatic herbs. SL 

simple. Lvs. verticillate^ entire. Fls. axiUa/ry^ minute. 

H. vuLQARis. Mare^SrtaU. (Fig. 45.) 

Los. in verticils of 8 — 12, linear, acute, smooth, entire ; fls, solitary, aftea 
^ ^. — In the borders of ponds and lakes, Penn. to Arctic Am., vciy raie. 
hizoma with long, verticillate fibres. Stem erect, jointed, 1 — ^ high. Tbe 
flowers are the simplest in structure of all that are called perfect, consistio^ 
merely of 1 stamen, 1 pistil, 1 seed in a 1-celled ovary, and with neither caljit 
lobes or corolla. May, Jn. 


Order LVL LOASACEJB.— Loasads. 

P/ontr taerbaoeoQs, hispid, with pungent hoira aecretiny an acrid juioe. 
JLrv. oppoatte or alternate, iniially more or lesi divided. Stipulea 0. 
Ped. axiliarjr, l -flowered. Sep. united, 6, persistent, equal. 
Cor.— Petals 5 or 10, cucuUate, inserted into the recesses of the calyx. 
Sta. 00, inserted with the petals, distinct or adhering in several seta. 
Oro. adherent to the calyx more or less, i-celled, with 3—6 parietal plaeentB. Stif. L 
6dff. many or few, anatropous. 
Genera 15, species 70, natives of America. 

Named by Linn, in honor of C. Mentzel, physician to the Electwof Brandenbvf. 

Calyx tubular, limb 5-parted ; petals 5 — 10, flat, spreading; str 

mens indefinite, 30 — 200 ; ovary inferior ; styles 3, filiform, connite, 

and often spirally twisted ; stigmas simple, minute ; capsule i-ctSi^ 

many-seeded. — Branching herbs. Lvs. alternate. 

I. M. LiNDLEYi. Torr. & Gray. (Bartonia aurea. lAndley.) Golden Bf^ 
nia. — ^Hispid; lvs. ovate-lanceolate, pinnatifid, lobes often dentate; fls. soUWJ 


or nearly 90, terminal ; pel, broadly obovate, ver^ abrapUy aenminate ; JUamenis 
fiUfonn, and, with the seeds, numerous.— (2) Native of California. Stems decum- 
bent, branching, 1 — 3f in length, with golden yellow flowers 2—3 inches in 
diameter, the beauty of which is greatly heightened by the innimierable thread- 
like, yellow stamens. 


Very rough with barbed hairs; st. dichotomous; Ivs, ovate-lanceolate, 
tapering to very short petioles, lobed or incisely dentate ; pet. entire, cuspidate, 
eraanding in simshine ; sta. 20 or more, shorter than the petals ; caps. 3—6- 
celkid. — %. Dtj or rocky places, Pike Co., 111., Mecid, and Mo. to Tex. Root 

Orber LVII. PASSIFLORACEiB.— Passionworts. 

Ptantt herbaeeooi or ahnibby, uraaUy climbinf . Ltw. alternate, often glandular. Blip. foUacooua. 

fit. azUkiT at terminal, often with a 8-lea-red lUTolucre. 

CW.— flepab 4-H}, united below into a tube, the iides and throat of which are Kned with a lioc of filar 

mentooa proeeaaea, which appear to be metamorphoaed petab. 
Cbr.— Petala 6. arisinf fiom the throat of the calyx outside the crown. 

£ta. t, mooadelphoaa, simiMindinc the itipe of the ovary. 
Cm. aimerior. on a lonf stipe, l-celled. Sty' 
iV. italied, within the calyx, many-aeeded. 

Genera IS, iseeiea Sio, nativea of tropical Amenca, but cultiyated in inan7 other ooontiiea aa amamen- 
tdflowera. The £ruitof the Granadilui (Paiaiflora multiibmua) ia eaten in the W. Indiea, and highly 
Tilaed aa a dcaiert, bat the root ia potsonooa. 

PASSIPLORA. t*.8.^p«i«. 

Lat jlpt patrianU ; the aeveial perta of the flower were fupetatitioualy compared to the inttrumenta of 

Calyx colored, deeply 5-parted, the throat with a complex, filamen- 
tous crown ; petala 5, sometimes ; stamens 5, connate with the stipe 
of the ovary ; anthers large ; stigmas 3, large, clavate, capitate ; fruit 
a pulpy berry. — Climbing herbs or shrubs, 

1. P. ccBRTJLEA. CcvifMn PcLssurti^flovjer. — Shrubby ; Ivs. palmately and deeply 
5-parted; segments linear-oblong, entire, lateral ones often 2-lobed; pet. glandu- 
lar, with a £bracteolate involucre near the flower ; bracieoles entire ; JU. of the 
erown shorter than the corolla. — Native of Brazil, where it grows to the thick- 
ness of a man's arm and the height of 30f. Flowers large and beautiful, blue 
eztemallv, white and purple within, continuing but one day. Fruit ovoid, yel- 
low. Admired in cultivation. 

2. P. iNCARNlTA. Flesh-colored Passion-fiower. 

Lcs. deeply 3-lobed, lobes oblong, acute, serrate ; petioles with 3 glands 
near the sumnut; Wacteoles of the involucre Z^otioYKie^ glandular; croum triple. — 
Native from Va. to Flor. Stem climbing 20 — 30f. Flowers large and showy. 
Petals white. Two outer rows of filaments long, purple, with a whitish band, 
the inner row of short rays, flesh-colored. Berry pale yellow, of the size of an 
apple, eatable. May — ^July. 

3. P. LUTEA. Yellow Passian^-fioioer. 

Lvs. glabrous, cordate, 3-lobea, obtuse ; petioles without glands ; ped. mostly 
in pairs ; pet. narrower and much longer than the sepals. — ^A slender climber, 
S— lOf long, in woods and thickets, Ohio and S. States. Leaves yellowish- 
green, nearly as broad as long. Flowers small, greenish-yellow. Corona in 3 
rows, the inner row a membranous disk with a fringed border. Fruit dark- 
purple. May— Jl. 

Oeder LVIII. BEGONIACEiB.— Begoniads. 

Berbaeeoas planti, or suoculent nndershmbs, with an acid juice. 

!««. Bheniate, toothed, rarely entire, oblique at the base. Sfipu/M large, acarioua. . 

^9. pink-eolored, in cymei, monoecious or diiBciouft. Cat. adherent, colored. finatillate. 

fiq». in the staminate % in the pintillate S or 4. Pet. xmaller than MpaJa, S in the staminata, 8 or 4 in the 

8Ut. (atam. fls.) indefinite, distiact or combined. Arah. collected into a head, 8-ceUed. 


Ova. (piaL fli.) wkiMd, 9H»Ued, with 8 lane plaoentemeetinf in the axli. Btig. •,»Med.MHtrbil 
fy. eapaolar, winged, 8-eeUed, many-aeedea. £>(b. minute, without albunum. [tpinL 

Genera S, ipeciea 159, common in the VTeat Indiea, S. America and Eait Indiea non e N. Anenaa. 
The roota are aatrinf eat and alighUj bitter. 


Or. 6i9\ootf doable, xXcirq, conch; alludinir to the doable idaeentB. 

Fls. ^•—J^Sepab orbicular, colored like the petals, bat larger; 

pet. oblong, acute ; sta. combined in a column ; anth. in a gklme 

head. 9 Sepals 3, lanceolate, larger than the 2 petals ; stig. lobes 

distinct, spiral, erect ; caps, wings unequal ; placentas doable, or two 

in each cell. — JSvergreen, stbcciUent UTidershrubs. 

D. Etansiancm. Lindl. (Begonia discolor. WUld. and Isi edU.)-Giiimm\ 
st, branched, tumid and colored at the joints, succulent ; Ivs. large, slightly an- 
gular, mucronate-serrate, cordate-ovate, very unequal at base, petioUte, with 
weak, scattered prickles, and straight, red veins, the under surface deeply ro^ 
dened ; fls. pink-colored in all their parts except the golden yellow anthers anfl 
stigmas ; 9 larger than the J* and on peduncles twice as long. — ^FTomChifla.t 

Order LIX. CUCURBJTACE.S1.— Cucurbitb. 

Herb9 auceulent, creeping or climbing by tendrils. 

XiW. aJtemaie, pakattteb-veined, rough. H». monflaeioitt or pobrgainoua, new blue. , . _. 

Cta. 5-loothed. Intic^^''^^ 

Cor.— Petals 6, united with each other and cohering to the calyx, Teiy cellular, ■troncly aiaMVB 

Bta. 6, distinct, more generally cohering in S sets. Jnth, very Iook and wavy or twilled. 

Ova. mferior, l-oelled, with 8 parietal luarentn often filling the celui. 

JV. a pepo or membranoui. Seeds flat, with no albumen, often ariled. 

Genera SS, species 370, natives of tropical re/rions, only a few being Ibond in the tempeiile *>***( 

uoneru 66, species Z70, natives 01 tropicAi re/rions, only a tew oeing fbond in tne lempewe^w^ 
Eurofw and America. ,A hiehly Important order of planta, affording some of the most dehcm ■■> 
nutritive of fruits. A bitter, laxative princii)le pervades the pt>up, which is so eoncenttated in ■ vv" 
to render them actively medicinal. The omcioal colocynth la prepared fiom the pulp of CacnPBH OW' 
cynthia, a powerful drastic poison. 

Conspectus of the Genera. 

(l-secded. ..... ,^ ^^ 

(\ Fruit membranaceous, echinate. \ 4-seeded JieAmoeyn' 

white. (Fruitapepo with a ligneous, smooth rind. lagtxm^ik. 

\ Seeds ihin at edge Cuchm'l 

( indehiacent { fc^uods thick at edge. .... CucttrMi 

( Fruit a pepo. ( dehiscing elasticallv on one side jHonurAM. 

yellow. \ Frtiit a iniall, ovul, many-seeded berry JfleMArte 

Qt, (nroo(, the ancient name of the encumber. 

Flowers <? . d* Calyx S-toothed ; corolla rotate, 5-petaled ; stamens 
5, monadelphous or at length triadelphous ; anthers contorted. 9 
Calyx 5-toothed, campanulate ; petals 5, united at base into % cub* 
panulate corolla ; styles 3, united at base ; firuit ovate, membwM- 
oeous, hispid or echinate, with 1 large, compressed seed. — (D C/if^ 
ing herhs^ with coinvpownd tendrils. Sterile and fertile fls. in the same tua^ 

S. ANGDLATDs. Single-Seed Cucvmber. 

St. branching, hairy ; Ivs. roundish, cordate with an obtuse sinus, 5-angW 
or 5-lobed, lobes acuminate, denticulate ; 9 much smaller than the (f •— ^ 
and XT. S. A weak, climbing vine, with long, spiral, branching tendrils. Uart* 
3 — i' broad, alternate, on long stalks. Flowers, marked with p««^ 
lines, the barren ones in long-pedunculate racemes. Fruit ft' long, ovate, ^ 
nous, 8 — 10 together in a crowded cluster, each with one large seed. Jl. 

2. ECHINOCYSTIS. Torr. & Gray. 
Gr. <;^(yos, aea urchin, avorif, bladder; ollnding to the spiny, inflated ftvit 

Flowers monoocious. Sterile fl.. — Calyx of 6 filiform-subulate «^ 
ments, shorter than the corolla ; petals 6, united at base into a rotat^ 
•ampanulate corolla ; stamens 3, diadelphous. Fertile fl — Cal. tf^ 


tot. u above ; abortiye fil. 3, distinot, minute ; Btyle Tei^' short; stig. 
2, krge ; fruit roundish, inflated, echinate, 4-seeded.— (f) A dimbing 
kerb wiih branched iendrUs. 

E. LOBlTA. T. & G. (Sicyos. MUkx, Momordica echinata. MuKL) 
A smoothish, miming vine, in rich riyer soils, Can. to Penn. and Mo. 
Stem deeply furrowed, with long, ^parted tendrils placed nearly opposite the 
long petioles. Leaves znembranaceoos, palmately 5-lobed, cordate at base, 
loba acuminate, denticulate. Flowers small, wnite, the barren ones reiy 
nomerous, in axillary racemes often If long; fertile ones solitary or several, 
situated at the base of the raceme. Fruit 1 — ^ in length, setose-echinate, at 
length dry and membranaceous, with 4 large seeds. Jl. — Sept. 


Chr, fai\»vj^ melon, ^p<os, a oertain ftwd. 

Flowers 9 9 c^or j^. Calyz infundibuliform-oampanulate, limb 
in 5 subulate segments ; petals 5, united into a oampanulate corolla, 
(f Stamens 5, tnadelphous. $ Stigmas 3 ; fruit a berry, ovoid, small, 
many-seeded. — Tendrils simple. 


lAfS. roundish-cordate, 5-Iobed or angled, slightly hispid ; Jls. axillary, the 
sterile in small racemes, the fertile solitary, on long peduncles. — N. Y. to Qa.. 
and La. A slender vine, climbing over other yegetables. Leaves small (1 — ^S^ 
diam.) Flowers small, yellowish. Style short, surrounded by a cup-snaped 
diric Fruit small, oval. Jl. 


Lat merdeo, numortttt to chew ; ftom ttie chewed appeuanoe ot the eeeda. 

Flowers f, ^ Oalyz 5-cleft ; petals 5, united at base ; stamens 5, 

tnadelphous. 9 Calyx and corolla as in the c^; style 3-olefb ; pepo 

fleshy, bursting elastically ; seeds compressed, with a fleshy arilfus. 

M. BalsamIna. Common Balsam Apple.^-I/vs. palmately 6-lobed, dentate, 
naked, shining ; ped. solitary, filiform, 1-flowered, with an orMcular-cordate, 
dentate bract above the middle ; fr. roundish-ovoid, an^lar, tuberculate, burst- 
ing elastically on one side. — From E. Indies. Occasionally cultivated for the 
balsamic and vulnenuj fruit. Stem slender, climbing by simple tendrils. 
Flowers pale-yellow. Fruit orange-color, as large as a goose-egg. Aug. 

5. CUCt^MIS. 

Said to be flam the Celtic cwee, a hoDowTeneL 

Flowers (f or 9 . Calyx tubular-campanulate, with subulate seg- 
ments ; corolla deeply 5-parted. (^Stamens 5, triadelphous. (Style 
short ; stigmas 3, thick, 2-lobed ; pepo fleshy, inaehiscent ; seeds 
ovate, flat, acute and not margined at the edge. — Creeping^ or climb- 
ing by tendrils, Fls. axillary j solitary, yellow. 

1. C. sATlvus. Cucumber. — St. prostrate, rough; tendrils simple; Ivs. sub- 
cordate, palmately 5-angled or lobed, lobes subentire. acute, terminal one long- 
est jTr. oblong, obtusely prismatic, prickly, on a short peduncle. -^ Native 
of Tartary and India, whence it was first brought to England in 1573. It Is 
now universally cultivated for the table, either fresh or pickled. Gathered and 
eaten before maturity. Jn.— Sept. — Many varieties. 

2. C. Melo. Musk Melon. — St. prostrate, rough ; tendrils simple ; Ivs. sub- 
cordate, roundish, obtuse, palmately Spangled, lobes rounded, obtuse, obscurely 
denticulate ; /$. 9 5 J*, the 5 on short peduncles ; fr. oval or subglobose, 
longitudinally torulose.—® Native of Asia, whence it was first brought to Eng- 
land in 1570. Generally cultivated for the juicy, yellowish, delicately flavoral 
flesh of the mature fruit. Jn. Jl. — Varieties numerous. 

.,-anff:e01 arcea.u -^ -^^lT>3nalate limb, m-" 

4GET(iBIA- ^^^^ ^ ^ 

W^w «ry l"'*;^,,!!^ . seeds tfiW, * 

Le ?«!>■' ii^'^fi!?;*"^i^Mir fry''*''* 

, . "-*—T„^tnd coherent «» 

'_ . ' - .- .v^ vi.«ihei upper p— 

west of ihc MtssiMufpi- •- 

QM lengthw^se.— NaU"^*™ 
rC. pepo, bat toB seawons- 


Order LX. GROSSULACE^.— Cdrbakts. 

OinAs diher uoanned or ipiiqr. Lv». altaniate, lobed, ptailed in venuUioQ. 

FbL in axiBary raeemes, with bmcta at their base. 

GBE/.-^upenor, 4— 6-cleft, ref idar, colored, marescent. imbricate in Bttiyation. 

Car— Retail ioaerted in the throat of the calyx, amaJl, distinot, as many aa aepali. 

Ao. as many ai petab and alternate with them, very short ; afiXA«r«introiae. 

Om, l-eellea, with a parietal placents ; ovtUea numeroua : ttylet S. 

ft. a 1-ceUed beny (the cell filled with Doip) crowned with the ramaini of tbe flower. 

Sb. anatrapoua, the embryo minute, radiele next the micropyle. 

Genem i, speriea S5. The gooaeberriea and enrrantt ve natives of (he N. tempemta aoos of botheoQ- 
tneata, botooknown in the tibpici or S. hemisphere, except 8. Anoerioa. 

Pm«rtlm.---Tb0 hexriea eontain a aweet, moeilaginoiia pulp, logethar wilh malic or dlrin >Rid. Ihir' 
m almyB wholeaome and unially esculent 


Chamoter the same as that of the Order. 

* Stems unarmed. Currants. 

1. R. FLOAiDUM. L'Her. Wild Black CmramJb. 

Jjcs, subcordate, 3 — 5-lobed, sprinkled on both sides with yellowish, resin- 
.008 dots; rac. many-flowered, pendulous, pubescent; ctd, cylindrical; bracti 
Hnear, longer than the pedicels ; ft, obovoid, smooth, black. — ^A handsome 
ihnib in woods and hedges, Can. to Ky. common, 3— 4f high. Leaves 1 — d' 
long, the width something more, lobes acute, spreading, 3, sometimes with 2 
small additional ones ; dots just visible to the naked eye. Petioles 1 — 2' long, 
flowers rather bell-shaped, greenish yellow. Fruit insipid. May, Jn. 

2. R. PROSTRATUM. L'Her. (R. rigens, Midtx^ Mountain Ouurant. 

St. reclined; Ivs. smooth, deephr cordate, 5— 7-lobed, doubly serrate, retic- 
olate-rogoae ; rac, erect, lax, many-flowered ; col. rotate ; berries globose, glan- 
Mar-hi^id, red. — ^A small shrub, on mountains and rocky hilLs, Fenn. to Can., 
ill-flcented, and with ill-flavored berries — sometimes called Skunk Currant. 
Prostrate sterna, with erect, straight branches. Leaves about as large as in 
No. 1, lobes acute. Petioles elongated. Racemes about 8-flowered, becoming 
erect in fruit. Bracts very short. Flowers marked with purple. Berries 
-' rather large. May. 

3. R. RTTBRUM. Common Red Cwrrant, 

Lcs. obtusely 3 — 5-lobed, smooth above, pubescent beneath, subcordate at 
base, mai^gin mucronately serrate ; roc. nearly smooth, pendulous ; col, short, 
rotate; brads much shorter than the pedicels; Jr. globose, glabrous, red. — 
Woods, St, Johnsbury, Vt. Mr. Carey ^ Wisconsin, LapkamI N. to the Arctic 
ocean. Cultivated imiversally in garaens. 
B. (White Currant.) JFV. light amber-colored, larger and sweeter. 

4- R. wiGRiTM. Slack Currant. — L/ds. 3— 5-lobed, punctate beneath, dentate- 
serrate, longer than their petioles ; rac. lax, hairy, somewhat nodding ; cat. 
campanulate ; bracts nearly equaling the pedicels ; fr, roundish-ovoid, nearly 
black. — Native of Europe, &c. Cultivated and esteemed for its medicinal,^e%. 
Rowers yellowish. — ^This species much resembles R. floridum. 

5. R. AUREUM. Ph. Missouri^ or Golden Cwrramt. 

Plant smooth ; Ivs. 3-lobed, lobes divaricate, entire or with a few large 
teeth ; petioles longer than the leaves ; bracts linear, as long as the pedicels ; 
^ac. lax, many-flowered ; col. tubulal", longer than the pedicels, segments ob- 
loog^ obtuse ; pet. linear ; fr. smooth, oblong or globose, yellow, finally brown. 
—Mo. W. to Oregon. A beautiful shrub, 6— lOf high, common in cultivation. 
Flowers numerous, yellow, very fragrant. Apr. May. 

** SpinesccTU or prickly, Goobebbrriss. 

6. R. Ctnosbati. Prickly Gooseberry. 

St. prickly or not ; subaxiUary spines about in pairs ; Ivs. cordate, 3—5- 
lobed, sonly pubescent, lobes iacisely dentate ; rac. nodding, 2— 3-flowered ; ca^ 
/Kr/ttAeovate-cylindric, longer than the segments; pet. obovate. shorter than 
the calyx segments ; berries prickly.— A handsome shrub, Northern and West- 
em States, about 4f high, in hedges and thickets, mostly without prickles, but 
armed with 1—3 sharp spines just below the axil of each leaf. JLiCaves Ijk— ^' 

874 LXI. CACTACEJE. Opomu. 

diam. Petioles downy. Flowers greenish-white. Fruit mostly covered vith 
long prickles, brownish-purple, eatable. May, Jn. 

7. R. ROTUNDiFOLiUM. Michx. (R. triflonim. WiUd.) WUd Goeaebern, 
St. without prickles; stUnixUlary spines mostly solitary, short; Ivs, round- 
ish, smooth, 3— d^obed, incisely dentate ; ped. smooth, 1 — ^flowered ; cd. zjV 
indrical, smooth; pet, spatulate, ung^iculate; sta. ezserted, smooth, mnch 
longer than the petals ; sby. hairy, exserted, deeply 2 — 3-cle(t ; berries smooth.— 
In woods, N. H. to N. Car. ana Mo. Shrub 3-l4f high. Stems with a vhit- 
ish bark. Leaves 1 — ^ diam. mostly truncate at base, shining above. Pe> 
tioles ciliate, 1 — 3' long. Petals white. Fruit purple, delicious, resembUDg 
the garden gooseberry. May. 

8. R. LACUSTRE. Poir. Swamp Oooseberrp, 

St, covered with prickles ; sudaaaUary spina several ; tos. deeply 3— 5-lobed, 
cordate at base, lobes deeply incised; rac, &—8-flowere^ pilose; coj. rotate; 
berries small, hispid. — ^In swamps. Northern States, and British Am. Shnib 
3— 4f high. Stems reddish from the numerous piickles. which differ from the 
spines only in size. Leaves shining above, \\-^^' oiam. Petioles dilate, 
hispid, longer than the leaves. Flowers green. Fruit covered with long prickles, 
darK-purple, disagreeable. May. — ^The older stems are unarmed, save with a 
few spines. 

9. R. HiRTELLDM. Michx. (R. triflorum. Bw, R. sazosum. Hook) 
St, unarmed, rarely prickly; subaxiUary spines short, solitary, or nearly 

so ; Ivs. roundish, cordate, 3 — 5-lobed, toothed, pubescent beneath ; ped. shoit, 
1 — ^9uflowered ; calyx tube smooth, campanulate ; segments twice loncer ihas 
the petals ; sta. lonser than either ; sty. hairy, 3-cleft ; fr, smooth.— m locbr 
woods, N. H. and Mass. to Wisconsin, N. to Hudson's Bay. Leaves 1^1* 
diam., generally cleft half way to the middle. Flowers nodding, greeaisL 
Fruit purple. May, Jn. 

10. R. UvA-CRisPA. (R. Grossularia. WtUd. and \si edit.) EngUsk or Go- 
den Qooseberry. — St. prickly ; Ivs. roundish, 3— 5-lobed, hairy beneath, on short, 
hairy petioles ; ped. hairy, I-flowered ; col. campanulate ; sty. and ova. haiiy; 
fr. smooth or hairy, globose. — Native in England, and long cultivated until 
there are several hundred varieties, with red, white, green and amber M 
often weighing an ounce or more each. Apr. 

Order LXI. CACTACE^.— Indian Figs. 

ST. nioculent and thrabbf, uranlly aofular or 9-edged. 
hv. alincMt alwnri wanting, when preaent, fleahy, amootii and entire. 
¥t». aeasUe, uauaOy ahowy and of ahoit duration. 

CaL— ( Sepala and petals numerous, often indefinite and confounded with each other, the mw* ''* 
Cor.— \ the suifiice. and the petab from the aummit of ovanr. 
Sta. indefinite. FiL lone and filiform. AnUi. ovate, venatile. 
Ova. inferioTi fleshjr, 1-ceued, writh parietal plaeentn. 
Sty. tingle, filiform, with aeveral antheia in a star-like clutter. 
ft. iueculent, l-oelled, many-seeded. 

Bda. without albumen, with thick, fbliaceous ootyledoos. or oflen with soaraely any. 
Genera 16, species about 800, all peculiarly Amonoui, no one having ever been fbobd in idT <^ 

gnarter of the globe. They are chiefly confined within the trapiea, only two or three apeou bt^ >*g 
found beyond them. The prickly Pear (Opuntaa vulgaris) is the ooly species found native as v >*" 
as New York. 

Conspeetms of the Genera, 

ctttbular«ampanulata.roae-ooIorBd,fte. {Axis globose. ! ! I I '. ''^''^Sl'^! 
Fkmen (somewhat rotate, yellow OfOH ^ ' 

1. OPUNTIA. Toum. 
GpttDtianawasaooimtirnearPhocis, where thia was said lobe natunliaad. , 

Sepals and petals namerons, adnate to the ovary, not P^^ 
into a tube above it ; stamens 00, shorter than the petals ; style «i" 
numerous, thick, erect stigmas ; berrj umbilicate at apex, *^^^ 
late ; ootjledons semiterete. — Shrubby plants^ with articulated bran^. 
the joints usually broad aTidJlaltenedj with fascicles of prickles reg^M 
arranged upon the surface. 


O. TtTLoXsM. Mill. (Cactus opontia. Linn.) Pricki^ Pear. 

Prostrate, creeping; joints ovafte; prickles nameroas in each fascicle, of- 
ten with several subulate spines ; fis. yellow. — A curious, fleshy plani, native 
iA rocky and sandy places, Mass. to Flor. W. to la. ! It is often cultivated. 
The singular form resembles a series of thick, fleshy leaves, 4—6' long, } as 
wide, growing from the tip or sides of each other, and armed with orange-col- 
ored spines. The flowers come forth from the edge of the joints, large, bright- 
yellow, and succeeded by a smooth, crimson, eatable fruit, f 


Sepals Tery nmneroTia, imbricated, adnate to the base of the oyary, 

and united into a long tube above it, the outer shorter, the inner pe- 

taloid ; stamens 00, coherent with the tube ; style filiform, with many 

stigmas; berry scaly, with the remains of the sepals; cotyledons 

none ? — Fleshy skrubs, with woody ^ cylindrical, grooved axes, armed 

vnth clusters of spines. Fls. from the dusters of spines. 

1. C. Phtllantrus. DC. (Cactus. lAnn.) Spteenwort. — Branches ensiform, 
compressed, serrate \fls. with the terete, slender tube much longer than the 
limb of the petals. — ^From S. America. The articulations of the stem are 2f 
or more long, V wide, weak, bordered with large, obtuse serratures, and trav- 
ersed lengthwise by a central, cylindrical, woody axis. Flowers white, 9 — l^ 
loDg^ exjSnding by night, fragrant, f 

%. C. PHYLLANTHolDBs. DC. (Cactus. Linn.) — Branches ensiform, com- 
pressed, obovate, with spreading, rounded teeth ; fis. arising from the lateral 
creoatures of the branches ; tube shorter than the limb of the petals, — From 
Mexico. A splendid flowerer, with leaf-like, fleshy joints, each 6— -10' long, 1 — 
S' wide. Flowers rose-colored, 4' in length, expanding by day. f 

3. C. TRUNCATus. (Cactus. />'n7i.)--Branching ; joints short-compressed, 
serrate, truncate at the summit ; fis. arising from the summit of the joints ; sty,. 
longer than the stamens or reflexed petals. — From Brazil. A very distinct spe- 
cies, a foot or more high. Joints i^--3' long, 1 — \\' wide, leaf-like. Flowers 
3—3' long, pink-colored, f 

4. C. gbakdiplOrus. DC. (Cactus. Linn.) — Creeping, rooting; st. with 
aboat 5 angles; fis. terminal and lateral, very large, nocturnal ; pet. spreading, 
shorter than the linear-lanceolate sepals. — From the W. Indies. Stems cylin- 
dric or prismatic, branching, the angles not verv prominent. Flowers expand- 
ing by night, and enduring but a few hours, 8 — 12' diam. Sepals brown without, 
yellow within ; petals white. — A magnificent flower, but of difficult culture, f 

5. C PLAGELLiPORMis. DC. TCactus. Linn.) SiMke Cactus. — fiK. creeping, 
with about 10 angles, hispid ; fis. lateral, diurnal ; lube slender, longer than 
the limb of the petals. — From S. America. Stem about the size of the little 
finger, cylindric, indistinctly articulated, 2— 6f long. Flowers of a lively pink 
color, smaller than those oi the last, and continuing in bloom several days, f 

0I».— Manr other Mwcaes of Uiia curious fenut are occasionally reared in tha parlor or the freen-honaa, 
—to inaiur that to notaee them iadividualty %rauld tnutscend our limits. 

Compounded ot melon and eaetw; tnm its form. 

Calyx tnbe adherent to the ovary, lobes 5 — 6, petaloid ; petals as 
many as sepals, united with them into a long cylindric tube ; stamens 
and style filiform ; stigma 5-rayed ; berry smooth, crowned with the 
withered calyx and corolla. — Sufruticose, fleshy, leafless. Spadixsim- 
pit, cravming the globular, deeply furrowed axis. Flowers terminal. 

M. COMMUNIS. Turk's Cap. Melon ThisOe.^Axis ovate-subglobose, dark 
green, 13— 
with deep 



with a spadix Tcephalinm), which is cylindric, tabeicnlate, demely tonentne, 
bearing the red flowers at summit, f 

Order LXII. MESEMBRYACE-ffi.— Ficoms. 

Plantt flMh7, of tioffttlar and vaxioua limni, vet often beautifuL 

Lv9. mostly opposite, thick and oddly shaped. [tws . 

Fta. sditary, axillary and tenninal, reniarkable for their profusion, numeroas, biiUlantt and of km on* 

Cki/.-~8epaIs varyinf fiona 4 to 8, but usually 6, somewhat ooonected Bt base. 

Oor.— Petals indefiojte, colored, in many rovrs. 

8ta. indefinite, distinct, arisini from the calyx. 

Oca. inferior or nearly superior, many-celleo. Sti^nuu nmneroaa. 

Caps, many -celled, openma in a stellale manner at the apex. 

Sm. more cammuoly iodemiite, attached to the inner angle of the cells. 

Genera 6, siwcies 875, chiefly natives of the arid, sandy plains of the Cape of Ckrni Hope. 11m Mptdm 
are modi cultiTated for ornament 

Gr, fuoTiiifipiay mid-day, a»^ ; floweia expanding at midday. 

Character essentially the same as that of the order. 

1. M. CRTSTALLlNUM. Ice-platU. — Rt. biemiial ; Ivs. large, ovate, acute, waff, 
frosted, 3-veined beneath. — A popular house plant, from Greece. It has a 
creeping stem, If or more in lengtn, and, with tine leaves, is covered over with 
frost-like, warty protuberances, giving the plant a very singular aspect Flowof 
white, appearing all summer, f 

2. M. coRDiFOLiuM. HeoH-leaved Jce-piant, — Procumbent, spreading; ^ 
petiolate, opposite, cordate-ovate ; col. 4-cleft, 2-homed. — % An interestingplaBt 
m house cultivation, from Cape Good Hope. The whole plant fleshj and soo- 
culent like others of i\a kind. Flowers pmk-colored. Csdyz thick, greoi, the 
horns opposite. Capsule translucent, marked at summit with cruciform lines, f 

Order LXIV. CRASSULACE^.— Houseleekb. 

Flantt herbaceous or shrubby, succulent Lv». entire or ptnnatifid. SMp. 0. 

9U. sessile, usually in cymes. 

OoiL— Sepals S— 90, more or less united at base, periistent 

Oor.— Petals as many as the sepals, distinct, rarely ooherinr. 

8ta. as many as the petals and alternate with them, or twice as many. 

Ova, as many as the petals and opposite them. Ftl. distinct Anth. 9-ceDed, borstinf lengthwiN' 

fV.— Follicles as many as the ovanes, each opening by the ventral suture, many-seeded. 

Genera SS, species 460. chiefly natives of the warmer regions of the irlobe, particularly the Cspe of (M 
Hope. About 90 are found in North America. They grow in the thinnest and diyeit •(>*'• ^"^ 
rocks, sandy deserts, Ac. They have no peculiar property except a alight acridity. Vmbj an ■V*' 

Conspectus of the Genera. 

(Stamens 4 rfl'*t„.- J 

In 4i:{ Stamens 8 JHy^ P *!' '* * ' 

( Carpels disUnct aOn tm^ \ 

_ < in 6s ; stamens 10 ; { Carpels united. Psw rtfln^^ * 

Fionloi|aDiarfaDfed{inl2i Swivarvnw*' 

1. TILLiEA. Michx. 
In memoiy of Mich. Aug. Tilli, an Italian botanist ; died 1740. 

Calyx of 3 or 4 sepals united at base ; petals 3 or 4, equal j f^ 
mens 3 or 4 ; caps. 3 or 4, distinct, folliciilar, opening by tlie ian^ 
surface, 2 or many-seeded. — ® Very minute^ aqualk herbs. Lvs. oppof^ 

T. SIMPLEX. Nutt. (T. ascendens. Eaton.) PigmtHweed. 

St. ascendinff or erect, rooting at the lower joints ; 'lvs. connate at W 
Hnear-oblong, fleshy ; >Zs. axillan% solitary, snbsessile, their parts in^sjP- 
oval or oblong; carpels 8— lO^seeded. — Near East Rock, New Haren, Ci. l*'^ 
Robdifis)y and Philadelphia, on muddy banks, rare. Stem 1 — 3' high. L^ 
2—3" long. Flowers as large as a pin's head. Petals oval, flat, acute, ^'J* 
as long as the oval, minute calyx, longer than the stamens and frtut, ana oi • 
greenish- white color. Jl. — Sept. 

2. SEDUM. 
Lat wdere, to sit ; the plants, rrowinj; on bare rocks, look as if sitting them. 

Sepals 4 — 5, united at base ; petals 4 — 5, distinct ; stamenB &- 


10; carpels 4 — 5, distanct, many-seeded, with an entire scale at the 
base of each. — Mostly herbsuxov^. Inflorescence cymose, Fls. mostly 

1. S. TELEPHldlDES. MichZ. 

Ia>s. broadly lanceolate, attenuate at base, subdentate, smooth; cymes 
dense, conrmbose; j/a. 10, the petals, sepals and carpels in 56. — Found on rocks, 
lake and river shores, N. Y., N. J., Harper's Perry, Va. I Ac. Stem a foot 
high. Ijeaves 1 — 2f long, } as wide. Flowers numerous, purple, in a terminal, 
branching cyme. Jn. — Aug. — Like the other species, very tenacious of life. 
My specimens, gathered several months since at Harper's Ferry, are still grow- 
ing in the dry papers. 

2. S. TERNilTUM. Michx. SUme-crop. 

Lrs. temately venicillate, obovate, flat, smooth, entire, the upper ones 
scattered, sessile, lanceolate ; cffme in about 3 spikes ; £s. secund, the central 
one with 10 stamens, the rest with only 8. — % In Can. West, Penn. the South- 
cm and Western States, Plummer ! Cultivated in N. Eng. Stems 3—8' long, 
branching and decumbent at base, assurgent above. Cyme with the 3 branches 
roreading and recurved, the white flowers loosely arranged on their upper side. 
A Aug. t 

3. S. Telephium. Common Orpine. Live-forever. — Rt. tuberous, fleshy, 
white; st. 1 or 2f high, erect; Ivs. flattish, ovate, obtuse, serrate, scatterea; 

^m« corymbose, leafy % From Europe. Cultivated and nearly naturalized. 

Stems simple, leafy, round, smooth, purplish. Leaves sessile, fleshy. Flowers 
white and purple, m dense, terminaJ, leafy tufls. Aug. f 

4. S. Anacampseros. Evergreen Slone-crop. — Rl. fibrous; st. decumbent; 
hs, cuneiform, attenuate at base ; cymes corymbose, leafy. — IL Native of Eu- 
rope, growing there in crevices of rocks. Stems reddish ana decumbent at 
base, erect and glaucous above. Lvs. fleshy, bluish green. Fls. purple. Jl. f 

5. S. ACRE. English Moss, Wall Pepper. — Procumbent, spreading, branch- 
ing fixnn the base; lvs. very small, somewhat ovate, fleshy, crowded, alternate, 
closely sessile, obtuse, nearly erect ; cyme few-flowered, trifid, leafy. — ^From 
Great Britain. In cultivation it spreads rapidly on walls, borders of flower- 
beds, &c. densely covering the surface. Flowers yellow. The whole plant 
abounds in an acrid, biting juice, f 

LaL temper vtvere, to live forever; io alluaioD to their tenadtjr of li£B. 

Sepals 6 — ^20, slightly cohering at base ; petals as many as sepals, 
acuminate ; stamens twice as many as petals ; hypogynons scales la- 
eerated ; carpels as many as the petals. — % Herbaceous plants or 
shrubsj propOfgaied by axillary offsets. 1/os, thick, fleshy. 

1. S. TECT6RUM. House4eek. — I/vs. fringed ; offsets spreading. — A well known 
plant of the gardens, with thick, fleshy, mucilaginous leaves. It sends out 
nmners with offsets, rarely flowering. It is so succulent and hardy that it will 
grow on dry walls, and on the roofs of houses (tectorum). It is sometimes 
placed in the borders of flower-beds. 

2. S. AKBOREUM. TVcc House-leck. — St. arborescent, smooth, branched ; lvs, 
cvmeiform, smoothirii, bordered with soft, spreading ciliae. — A curious and or- 
namental evergreen, from the Levant. Stem very thick and fleshy, branching 
into a tree-like form, 8— lOf high (1 — 3f in pots). Fls. yellow, rarely appearing. 

4. BRYOPHYLLUM. Salisb. 

Chr. Spvcif to craw, ^vXXoy, a leaf; i. o. geiminatinf firom a leaf. 

Oalyx inflated, 4-cleft scarcely to the middle ; corolla monopeta- 
louBj the tnhe long and cylindrical, 4-sided and ohtuse at hase ; limb 
in 4, triaDgolar, acute lobes ; seeds many. — An evergreen, fleshy, 

278 LXV. SAXIFEAOACRfi. B^ksfuma. 

guffruHcose pkaU, ncUwe of the E. Indies. Int, cfpenU^ lene^mllfi 

pinnate, part of them sometimes simple, Fls. greemsh-purptt, 

B. CALYclNUM. Salisb. — Not uncommon in house cultivation, requiiiag but 
little water, in a well-drained pot of rich loam. Stem thick, green, about 2f 
high. Leaves 3 — &-foliate, with thick, oval, crenate leaflets. Flowers in a 
loose, terminal panicle, pendulous, remarkable for the large, inflated calyx, and 
the long, tubular, exserted corollas. — This plant is distinguished in vegetable 
physiology.— See Fig. 10, 1, and ( 88, a. 


Gr. mvrt^ five; on account of the 5-paited, anffolnr eapnda. 

Calyx of 5 sepals united at base ; petals 5 or ; oapsnles of 5 
united carpels, 5-angled, 5-ceUed and 5-Deaked ; seeds 00, minute.— 
% Ered (not succrdent) herbs. Lvs. aUernaie, Fls. yeUowish, cymou. 

P. SEOolDEs. Virginia Stone-crop. 

St. branched and angular above \ lvs. nearlv sessile, lanceolate, acate at 
each end, unequally serrate ; fls. in unilateral, cymose racemes.— A hardj 
plant of little beauty, in moist situations, Can. and U. S. Stem 1(^16' higli, 
with a few, short branches. Leaves 2 — 3' by | — 1', membranaceous, smooth, 
sharply and unequally serrate. Racemes several, lecurved at first, at length 
8prea<ung, with tne flowers arranged on their upper side, constituting a 001710- 
bose, scentless, pale yellowish-green cyme. Pet. generally wanting. Jl— ^^ 

Order LXV. SAXIFRAGACEiE.— Saxitraobs. 

Herbt or iftrvbt. Lvs. Bltemate or opposite, sometimM itipulato. 

Cai.— SepiiU 4 or 6, cohering more or lesri, peraiatenL 

Oor.— Petal* aa many a« tbe aepak, inserted between the lobes of the calyx. 

8ta. 5—10. Anthem 3-celIed, opening longitudinally. 

Ova. inierior, usually of 9-cerpeis. cohering at base, diatmet and difeifent above. 

Fr. genemlly capsular, l— 9-oelled, manyseeded. 

Genera 38, species 440, native of temperate and Aigid climes in both oontioents. As a tribe didriMii 
are astriugeaL Seveml species are among our most ornamental, euiti vated pkiits. 

Conspectus of tke Genera, 

(stamens lo. 
Stamens 5. 


; Capeule 9-celled SoM^frtf. 

\ Capsule 1-celled TianUa. \ 

> Capsule 9-ce lied SuiiiranttM. ] 

,- . ,-.-,,,--' Capsule 1-celled. HeueMen. \ 

( Petab S, { pectinately pmnattiid MUfMa. * 

Herbs. (PetalaO. leaves opposite. Aquatic, depressed. CAryssqMlMMRl 

( Petals valvute in sestivation. HyvtuCfea. • 

( Leaves opposite. { Petals convolute in estivatioii. PMiode^pAW. > 

Shraba. { Leaves alternate i^aa. ' 

Suborder 1. SAXIFRAGEJE. 

Petals imbrioate in aestivation ; carpels united, the sommito dis- 
tinct, forming a beaked capsule. Herbs, 

1. saxifrAga. 

Lat saamm, a roek,./hmg«r», to break ; citen growing in the clefta of rocks. 

Sepals 5, more or less united, often adnate to the base of the ov** 
ry ; petals 5, entire, inserted on the tube of the calyx ; stamens 10; 
anthers 2-celled, with longitudinal dehiscence ; capsule of 2 coniutt 
carpels, opening between the 2 diverging, acuminate heaka (styles); 
seeds 00.— '2^ 

1. S, ViHQiNiENsis. Michx. (S. Virginica. JSw.) Early Saxifrage- 
I/vs. mostly radical, spatulate-obovate, crenately tootheci, pubescent, shortr 
er than the broad petiole ; scape nearly leafless, paniculately branched abW 
fls. many, cymose ; col. adherent to the base of the ovary ; peL oblong, mjjf" 
exceeding the calyx. — An early and interesting plant, on rocks and (iry ^o^ 
Can. and U. S. Scape 4 — 12' high, pubescent, annual. Leaves rather flw« 
9—13" by 6—12". Flowers in rather dense clusters, white or tinged with ^ 
Die, in early spring. 

Hecchera. LXV. SAXIFRAGAC£L£. <W9 

3. Pennstlyanica. Tall Saxifrage. 

Los. radical, oblong-lanceolate, ramer acute, tapering at ba^e, denticulate; 
tea^ nearly leafless ; branches alternate, with close cymes forming a diffuse 
panicle ; fis. pedicellate ; pet. linear-lanceolate, but little longer than the calyx. 
•—Larger than the foregoing, common in wet meadows. Me. to Ohio. Leaves 
fleshy, pale green, 6-— 8' by 1 -S', on a broad petiole. Scape 2— 3f high, gross, 
boUow, hairy and viscid, branched into a large, oblong panicle of yellowish 
green flowers of no beauty. May. 

3. S. AizooN. Jacq. 

Ijos. mostly radicsd, rosulate, spatulate, obtuse, with cartilaginous, white 
teeth, and a marginal row of impressed dots : fis. corymbose-paniculate ; cal. 
{andped. glandular-viscid) tube hemispherical, as long as the &>toothed limb; 
fd. obovate ; sfy. divergent, longer than the calyx.— Southern shores of Lake 
Sap. {Pitcher , in T. & Gr. 1. p. 566) on shady, moist rocks. Stem 6—10' high. 
Rs. white. Jl. 

4. S. AIZOlDES. 

Caespitose, leafy ; Ivs. alternate, linear-oblong, more or less ciliate, slight- 
ly mucronate, thick, flat, mostly persistent ; fi>owering stems annual ; /s. panicu- 
late, sometimes solitary ; sep. ovate, slightly coherent with the ovary ; pet. ob- 
long, longer than the sepals ; sUgnuzs depressed : caps, rather thick, as long as 
the styles. — In the clefts of rocks, Willoughby Mt., Westmore, Vt. 500f above 
W. Lake, Woody N. to the Arctic sea. Barren stems short, with densely crowded 
leaves; flowering ones ascending, 2 — i' long, with scattered leaves. Leaves 
4—6" long, about 2" wide. Pedicels bracteate. Flowers yellow, dotted. 

5. S. OPFOSITIFOLIA. Opposife-Uaved Saxifrage. 

Ijos. opposite, rather crowded, obovate, carinate, ciliate, obtuse, punctate, 
persistent; ju. solitary; cal. free from the ovary; pet. large, obovate, 5- veined, 
longer thaji the stamens. — ^In the same locality as the above, Wood. Stems 
purplish, very branching and difluse. Leaves bluish-green, 1 — ^' in length, 
narrowed and clasping at base. Flowering stems annual, 1 — 3' long. Flow- 
ers light purple, large and showy. 

Ofo.— I diaeoverBd thia and the fnegoinff i peciea in the above loealitr, in Aug. 1848, when they had 
' Btmexiat. 


St. weak, ascending, 3 — ^5-flowered ; radical Ivs. petiolate, reniform, cre- 
nately lobied ; eauUne lanceolate, snbentire ; calyx lobes broad-ovate, nearly as 
long as the ovate petals, but much shorter than the thick, short^beaked capsules. 
—White Mts., N H., Oakes^ N. to Arc. Am. A very small species, with white, 
bracteate flowers. Stems about 2f high, annual, with alternate leaves. 


In honor of Wm. 8. SuUiTsnt, author of Muaci Allechanenau, Ac. 

Calyx campanulate, coherent with the base of the ovary ; Begments 
OfVBte, acute ; petals oval-spatulate, unguioulate, inserted on the sum- 
mit of the calyx tube, ana twice as long as its lobes ; stamens 5, in- 
serted with the petals, shorter than the calyx ; capsule 2-beaked, 2- 
oelled ; seeds 00, ascending ; testa wing-like, not conformed to the 
nucleus. — % Iajs. rriostly radical^ palmate-veined. Fis. in a loose pani- 
de^ small, white. 

S. OhiAnis. Torr. 

A diffuse, weak-stemmed plant, first discovered in Highland Co., Ohio ! 
by him whose name it bears. Stem annual, very slender, 8—16' long, ascend- 
ing, glandular. Radical leaves roundish, cordate, lobed and toothed, 1 — 2' 
diam., on long petioles. Cauline leaves mostly very small, bract-like, cuneate 
at base, 3— 5-toothed at summit. May, Jn. 

3. HEUCHfiRA. 
In honor of Prof. Heueher, botanic author, Wittemberr, Germany. 

Calyx 5'Cleft, coherent with the ovary below, segments obtuse ; co- 


rolla inferior, of 5 Bmall, entire petals, inserted with the 5 stameni 
on the throat of the calyx ; capsule 1 -celled, 2-beaked, manj-fleeded 
— ^2^ Lvs. radical^ Umg-petioled, 

1. H. Americana. Alurnr^ooL 

Viscid-pubescent ; lvs. roundish, cordate, somewhat 7-lobed, lobes abort 
and roundish, crenate-dentate, teeth mucronate ; panicle elongated, loose; fn& 
eels divaricate ; cal. short, obtuse ; pet. 8|)atulate, about as long as the calyx : 
sta. much exserted. — A neat plant, rare in the southern parts of N. Eng. aad 
N. Y., frequent at the W. ! and S. Leaves all radical, 2--3i' diam., on pefr 
oles ^r—S' in length. Scape 2 — 4f high, paniculate, nearly k this length. Pe- 
dancles 3 — 3-flowered. Caiyx campanulate, more conspicuous than the puipM- 
white petals. May, Jn. — ^Koot astringent, hence the common name. 

3. H. puBEscENs. Ph. (H. grandiflora. Raf.^ 

Scape naked, minutely-pubescent above, and with the long petioles, gla- 
brous below ; lvs. glabrous, orbicular-cordate, 7 — 9-lobed, lob^ rounded, aod 
with rounded, mucronate, ciliate teeth : ped. cymose, dichotomous, joints flexv- 
ous, almost geniculate \fls. large ; pet. longer than the included stamens; ^. 
exserted.— Mts. Penn., Md ! Va. Scape 1— 2f high. Leaves 3— 5* diam., ihe 
veins beneath with a few scattered hairs. Flowers 5—6" long, purple. May, Jn* 

3. H. RiCHARDsdKi. R. Br. 

Scape (naked) and petioles hairy and rough ; lvs. orbicular-cordate, witi 
a deep sinus, 5— 7-lobed, lobes obtuse, incisely crenate, ciliate ; panicle nther 
contracted; cal. somewhat oblique; pet. ciliolate, somewhat unequal, about the 
.ength of the sepals ; sta. a little exserted : sty. included. — Prairies and bottooa, 
la. ! to Mo., N. to Can. Scape 1^2f high. ' Leaves glabrous above, veins be- 
neath hairy. Flowers 6 — 1" long. May. 

4, MITELLA- Toum. 
A Lat diminntiTe from mUrOt a mitre. See TianOtu 

Calyx 5-cleft, campanulate ; petals 5, pectinately pinnatiiid, iiueii' 
ed on the throat of the calyx ; stamens 5 or 10, included ; styles % 
short ; capsule 1 -celled, with 2 equal valves. — % 

1. M. DiPHTLLA. Curranl-leaf. Bishop's Cap. 

Lcs. cordate, acute, sublobate, serrate-dentate, radical ones on Iodf p^ 
oles, cauiine 2, opposite, subsessile. — Very common in the woods of N. Eag. tj 
Can. and Ky. Stem a foot or more high, bearing the pair of leaves near uw 
midst. Leaves 1 — 3' long, nearly as wide, hairy, on hispid petioles IJ— 6'loag- 
Flowers on short pedicels, arranged in a long, thin spike or raceme, and mo0| 
beautifully distinguished by the finely divided white petals. Seeds black aafl 
shining. May — ^Jn. 

2. M. NUDA. (M. prostrata, Mx. M, cordifolia. Lam.) Dwarf J^fUdls. 
Lcs. orbiculate-reniform, doubly crenate, with scattered hairs above isc^P* 

filiform, few-flowered, naked or with a single leaf; pet. pinnatifid with ^^ 
segments. — A very delicate species, growing in damp, rich, shady woodlaBW 
at Potsdam, N. V., and in r^orthem N. Eng. Leaves and stems light pe«i 
pellucid. Scape 4 — 6' high, terminating in a thin raceme of white llowe»> 
with finely pinnatifid petals. They are erect or prostrate, and send out crfcp- 
ing stolons from the base. Leaves \' long and of nearly the same width, t^ 

Lat Hara^ a mitre or some other head-dreM, from the raMmblanoe of the caprak- 

(3alyx 5-parted, the lobes obtuse ; petals 6 ; entire, the claws in- 
serted on the calyx ; st-amens 10, exserted, inserted into the ealjxi 
styles 2 ; capsule 1 -celled, 2-valved, one valve much larger. — % f^ 
ers white. 

T. CORDIFOLIA. MUre-^ort. Gem^fruit. 

Lvs. cordate, acutely lobed, mucronate-dentate, pilose ; scape 



giritms cieqnng. — Common in rocky woods Can. to Penn., and generally asso- 
ciated with MUeUa dipkylla^ which plant, in its general aspect, it much resem- 
bles. The scape arises from a creeping rooUstock about W nigh, often bear- 
ing a leaf. Leaves 2 — 3' long, -f- as wide, hairy, and on hairy petioles 4—6' 
long. Racemes 1 — 2J' long ; fls. wholly white, with minute bracts. May, Jn. 

Or. xfvvof , gold, wAqy, the apleen ; oo aooountof the OMdieioftl qnlitiei. 

Calyx adnate to the« ovary, 4 — 5-lobed, more or less colored inside ; 

eoroUa 0; stamens 8 — 10, superior, short; styles 2; capsule obcor- 

date, compressed, 1 -celled, 2-yalyed, many-seeded. — SmaU, aquatic 


C. Amemcanum. Schw. (C. oppositifoUum. Miehx.) Watet^carpet, 

Lcs, opposite, roundish, slightly crenate, tapering to the petiole. — A small 

n' t, in springs and streams, spreading upon the muddy surface. Stem square, 
inches long, divided in a dichotomous manner at top. Leaves oppc ^ite, 
i' in length, smooth. Calyx 4-cleft, greenish-yellow, with purple lines. C< ro<- 
la 0. Stamens 8, very short, with orange-colored anthers, which are the cnlK 
conspicuous part of the flower. The terminal flower is sometimes decandiOM. 
Apr. May. 

Suborder 3.— BSCAIiliONIE JE. 

7. I TEA. 
Gr. name tor Uie willow; fiom a reaembluee of fcUage. 

Calyx small, with 5, subulate segments ; petals 5, lance-linear, i^ 
flexed at the apex, inserted on the calyx ; stamens 5, inserted inf* 
the calyx ; styles united ; capsule 2-celled, 2-furrowed, 8 — 12-seedAcL 
— A shrub wiih alternate^ simple kavesj arid a simpUj spicate^ termifuu 
raame cf whiie flowers. 

\. YlROINlCA. 

Margins of swamps and sluggish streams, N. J. and Penn. to Floi 
Shrab about 6f high. Leaves li — S' long, oval-acuminate, serrulate, on shor* 
petioles. Capsule oblong, acuminate with the style, its two carpels separating 
m maturity. May, Jn. 

Suborder. 3.~H YDRANGCiB* 

Petals Talyate. Capsules 2-celled. Leaves opposite, exstipulate. Shkubs. 

€h, vit»p, water, ayyiov, a TeMel ; becaute the cnltiTated tpedea require ao copioua aaopply of water. 

Marginal flowers commonly sterile, with a broad, rotate, 4 — ^5-cleffc, 
colored calyx, and with neither petals, stamens nor styles. FertUefl, 
Calyx tube hemispherical, adherent to the ovary, limb 4 — 5-toothed, 
persistent ; petals ovate, sessile ; stamens twice as many as the petals ; 
capsule 2-beaked, opening by a foramen between the beaks ; seeds 
numerous. — Shrubs with opposite leaves. Fls. cymosey gen^aUy radiant, 

1. H. arborescens. (H. vulgaris. Michx.) Common Hydrangea. 

Ijvs. ovate, obtuse or cordate at base, acuminate, serrate-dentate, nearly 
smooth ; JU. in fastigiate cvmes. — An elegant shrub, native in the Middle and 
Western States ! cultivatea in the Northern, attaining the height of 5 or 6f on 
its native shady banks. Fertile flowers small, white, becoming roseate, very 
numerous. The cultivated varieties have either the marginal flowers radiate, 
or all sterile and radiate, t 

2. H. dUERCiPOLiA. Bartram. Oak4eaved Hydrangea. — L/vs. deeply sinuate- 
lobed, dentate, tomentose beneath ; cwnes paniculate, radiant, the sterile fiowen 
very large and numerous. — A beautiful shrub, native of Flor., not uncommon 


in gardens. Height 4 — ^5f. Leaves very large. Sterile flowers with roandiflh 
sepals, dnll white, becoming reddish, very showy, f 

3. H. HORTENsis. Changeable Hudrangea^-^JUps. elliptical, narrowed at each 
end, dentate-serrate, strongly veined, smooth ; cymes radiant ; fls, mostly steiile. 
— ^Probably native of China, where it has long been cultivated. Stems 1 — 3f 
high. Leaves large. Barren flowers very numerous and showy, at first green, 
passing successively through straw-color, sulphur-yellow, white, purple, and 
pink. The perfect flowers are central and much smaller. It thrives in laj^ 
pots of peat mixed with loam, abundantly watered. The flowers endure sever- 
al monttus. f 

Sdborder 4.— P HIIiADEIiPHEJB* 

Petals convolute in aestivation. Capsule 3 — 4-celled, loculioidal. Shrabe. 

Name ftom Philadelpfaus, kinc of Egypt 

Calyx 4 — 5-parted, half-superior, persistent ; corolla 4 — 5-petaled ; 
style 4-cleft ; stamens 20 — 40, shorter than the petals ; capsule 4- 
celled, 4-yalved, with loculioidal dehiscence ; seeds many, arilled. — 
Handsome flowerirtg skrubs. JLvs, opposite^ ezstiptdate. 

1. P. GRANDiFLdRUs. Willd. (P. inodorus. MicAx.) Large-Jhwered Syrin^ — 
lAfs. ovate, acuminate, denticulate, 3-veined, axils of the veins hairy ; sttg. A, 
linear ; sty. undivided. — A very showy shrub, 6f high, native at the South, cul- 
tivated in shrubberies. Branches smooth, long and slender. Flowers laige, in 
a terminal umbel of 2 or 3, white, nearly inodorous. Calyx divisions conspicu- 
ously acuminate, and much longer than the tube. Jn. — The upper leaves are 
often entire and quite narrow, "f* 

2. P. coRONARius. F^alse Svringa. — L/os. ovate, subdentate, smooth ; stv. dis- 
tinct. — Native of S. Europe. A handsome shrub, often cultivated in our shrub- 
beries. The flowers are numerous, white, showy, resembling those of the 
orange both in form and fragrance, but are more powerful in the latter respect. 
It grows &— 8f high, with opposite, smooth, ovate, stalked leaves, and opposite, 
reddish twigs bearing leafy clusters of flowers, f 


fiPkrute. Lv9. aJtemaie, dentate, the TeinletB ninning direct from the mid-Tein to the ma^niiL 8tb^. <!»• 

Cat. adherent to the ovary, 4-ele(t [rufiuw. 

Cur.— Petab 4, linear. 

Sta. 8, those opposite the petab bairen (or many and all fsrtile, with no petaU.) 

Ova. d-celled, ovules solituy. 

Jpy.— Capsaleooriaoeous, the iummit fliee from the caljx, S-beaked, s-celled. 

GeoetH 10, species 15, natives of N. America and Japan. No reooazkable pRq>artie8 hare been fi»- 


€/r. ifiaj with, jiriXoVj fruit; i. e. flowei^ and fruit tofether oo the tree. 

Calyx 4-leaved or cleft, with an involucel of 2 — 3 bracts at base ; 
petals 4, very long, linear ; sterile st-amens scale-like, opposite the 
petals, alternating with the 4 fertile ones ; capsule nut-like, 2-oelled, 
2-beaked. — Shnibs or small trees. 

H. ViRGiNiANA. WUch Hazel. 

L/vs. oval or obovate, acuminate, crenate-dentate, obliquely cordate at base, 
on short petioles ; fls, sessile, ^—4 together in an involucrate, axillary, subses- 
sile glomerule. — U. S. and Can. A large shrub, consisting of several crooked, 
branching trunks from the same root, as large as the arm, and 10 — I2f high. 
Leaves nearly smooth, 3—6' long, | as wide. Petioles |' long. Caljrx downy. 
Petals yellow, curled or twisted, f long. Capsule woody, containing 2 nuts. — 
This curious shrub is not unfrequent in our forests, and amidst the reigning 


jiieaeDce ol'the precious meula and of deep springs of water, and there are e*tji 
U this day, peisoiu who deem a denial of (hew vinues lo the witch hazel an 
nflence little short of heresy. 


DaCuidiUgkiuiiunHnBwilSS^uiuvolberHtbgrdiniled iSliniln into uiba uu) cmki. •m 
ttMT famited upon tkBDumHruiddevBlopiiwalaCUMrttt»tbflpnfeD«o'iLHvD»«f Uie BttucKta 



Conspeetius of the Genera. 
* Plants natiye or naturalized. 


rof entin biacta. 

' Fr. laterally comppeased. 
Fr. doraally compreased. 
.Fr. •carcelyoompieMed, 

Seeds flattiahinide. 
Seeds grooved ioade. 
Petals radiant. 
PetaU all equal . 
with smooth ribs. . 
with bristly ribs. . 
Rays 9— A. 
Raysmaoy. . 

( several. { Fnait not bristly. .... 
'InTolacre Lofcleftbncta, {ooeooly, bipinnatifid 

{( Cal. limb ( Leaves 8-paited, . 
< obsolete. { Leaves finely divided. 
Fr. laterally compressed. ( Calyx limb 5-toothed. 
V the margin singly winged. 
Fr. dorsally compressed, { the margin doubly winged. 
Fruit scarcely compressed, ovoid-globose 

( Lvs. linear. 
( with 4—80 pedieeUate or subsessile flowers. { Lvs. roundish. 
. Umbels simple, { densely capitate, with 60 or more sessile flowers. . 

i Carpels with 6 winged ribs. . « 

Carpels with 5 filiform ribs. 
Carpels smooth, ribs obsolete. 
Involuoeis very large. Leaves simple, perfoliate. . 
InvolucelsO. Fruit much compressed dorsaUy. 

Bhan. I 

OmtuOL a 
Heraeleum, S 
mytncum. 17 
OtmorlUxa. V 
BaiUculM. I 
Dauem. ■ 
Diaeopleunm t 
Erigeme, ^ « 



















* * Cultivated exotics, not naturalized. 

I Fruit laterally ( roundish, 
compressdd, { oval. 
Fruit not compressed. 

< of 1 entire bracL ( Petals radiant 

(white. (Involucre of a few cleft bracts 

Flowers (yellow. 

Suborder 1.— O RTH0SP£R]II^* 

jMum. ^ 

PtrnftHeOt- U 
Gorioidrusi. 8D 
Poenkulm. U 

The inner surface of the seeds and albumen flat or nearly bo. 

Gr. iiapf water, icorvXiT, a vessel ; the concave leaf often holds water. 

Calyx obsolete ; petals equal, ovate, spreading, entire, the poin* 
not inflected ; styles shorter than stamens ; fruit laterally flattened, 
the commissure narrow; carpels 3-ribbed, without vitW— -fi«^ 
ceous, creeping, usually aquatic plants. Umbels simple. Involucre fffo- 

1. H- AmericIna. PeTMywort. 

Smooth and shining: st. fiJifo'nn, procumbent : lvs. renifonn-orhLculai» 
slightly lobed, crenate ; umiels sessile, a— tflowered ; Jr. orbicular.— Tl- A small, 
delicateplant, growing close to the moist earth beneath the shade of other vege- 
tables, Cfan. to S. Car. Stems branching, &— 6' long. Leaves thin, 1—2' ^^ 
on petioles 3—3' long. Flowers greenish- white, small, nearly sessile, in axn- 
ple, capitate, sessile, axillary umbels. Jn.— Aug. 

2. H. interrdpta. Muhl. (H. vulgaris. Michx.) 

Smooth; lvs. peltate, orbicular, crenate; umiels capitate, proliferoas,sw- 
sessile, about 6-flowered ; fr. acute at base.— Tj. In wet places, New Bcdftrt, 
Mass. T. A. Greene^ rare. Root and /stem creeping. Leaves almost centiaiiy 
peltate, thin, 8—10" diam. Petioles 3—3' long. Peduncles longer than i» 
petioles. Flowers subsessile, in close umbels which become whorls in in^ 
runted spikes by other umbels being successively produced on the exlcwiBg 
peduncle. Jn. 

3. H. UMBELLATA. Umbellate Pennywort. ^. 

Smooth ; lvs. peltate, orbicular, crenate, emarginate at base, on long pr- 
oles ; scapes about as long as the petioles ; umbels simple, often prolifcrousj.^ 
pedicellate.— T; In ponds and bogs, Mass. ! to La., rare. Stems creeping, «» 
submersed, several mches long. Leaves 8—18" diam., notched at base so as » 
appear reniform. Petioles a little eccentric, and with the scapes sleader, f^ 
ing or erect, and 4—6' long. Umbels 30— dO-flowered, the upper pedicel «» 
prolcnged and umbellate. May— Jl. 


4. H. RANUircuLdlDn. Liim. f. (H. cymbnlarifolia. MM.) 

Glabrous ; Ivs. roundish-renifonn, 3 — ^S-lobed, crenate ; petides nrnch longer 

than the peduncles ; umbels 5 — 10-flowered, capitate ; fr. roundish, smooth. — In 

water, Penn. to Ga. Stems weak, 1 — 2f long. Leaves 1 — 2f diam., the middle 

lobe smaller than the others. Petioles 2 — 3' long. Peduncle about 1' long. Jl. Aug. 

2. C RANT Z I A. Nutt. 

In honor of Prof. Crantz, author of atnonoffmph on the Umbellifera). 

Calyx tube subglobose, margin obsolete ; petals obtuse j fruit sub- 
globose, the commissure excavated, with 2 vittae; carpels unequal, 5- 
ribbed, with a yitta in each interval. — Small, creeping herbs wUh line- 
ar arfiiybrm, entire leaves. Umbels simple^ invducrcUe. 

C. LiNEATA. Nutt. (Hydrocotyle. MichxJ) 

Ijcs. cnneate-linear, sessile, obtuse at apex, and with transverse veins, 
shorter than the peduncles. — Muddy banks of rivers, Mass. 1 to La. Stems sev- 
eral inches long, creeping and rooting in the mud. Leaves 1 — ^ by 1 — Stf\ 
often linear and appearing like petioles without laminae. Umbels 4 — 8-flower- 
cd. Peduncles \ longer- man the leaves. Involucre 4--6-leaved. Fruit with 
red vittsB. May— Jl. 

3. SANICt^LA. TounL 

LaL Mnore, to cure ; on aooount of the repnted Tirtuea as a TnlneraiT. 

Flowers 9 $ (^ ; calyx tube echinate, segments acute, leafy ; pe- 
tals obovate, erect, with a long, inflected point; fruit subglobose, 
armed with hooked prickles ; carpels without ribs ; vittse numerous. — 
% Umbel nearly simple. RaysfeWy with mMfiy-fiowered, capitate umbel- 
Jets. Involucre of few, often d^ leaflets, invduod cf several, entire. 

S. MABn«ANnicA. Sarricle, 

Lvs. 5-parted, digitate, mostly radical ; Ifts. or segments, oblong, inciaely 
serrate ; sterile fis. pedicellate, /er^ife sessile j calyx segments entire. — In low 
woods, thickets, U. S., and (Jan., common. Stem l--2f high, dichotomouslr 
branched above, smooth, furrowed. Radical leaves on petioles 6 — 12' long, 3- 
parted to the base, with the lateral segments deeply 2-parted. Segments §-—4' 
long, I as wide, irregularly and mucronately toothed. Cauline leaves few, 
nearly sessile. Involucres 6-leaved, serrate. Umbels oflen proliferous. Um- 
beUets capitate. Flowers mostly barren, white, sometimes yellowish. Fruit 
densely clothed with hooked bristles. Jn. 

4. ERYNQIUM. Toum. 

Or. tpvystVf to belch ; a supposed remedy for flatulence. 

Flowers sessile, collected in dense heads ; calyx lobes somewhat 
leafy; petals connivent, oblong, emarginate with a long inflexed 
point; styles filiform; fruit scaly or tuberculate, obovate, terete, with- 
out vittae or scales. — Herbaceous or svffnUicose. Fls. blue or white^ 
bracteale ; lower bracts involucrate^ the others sviaUer and paleaceous. 

1. E. AQDATictJM. Button Suake-rooi. 

l/vs. broadly linear, parallel-veined, ciliate with remote soft spines ; braae 
tipped with spines, those of the involucels entire, shorter than the ovate-globose 
heads. — Low grounds on prairies, la. ! 111., &c. A remarkable plant, appearing 
like one of the Endogense. Very glaucous. Stem simple, 1 — 5f high. Leaves 
often 1— 8f long, J— 1 h' wide. Heads pedunculate, J— 1' diam. Flowers white, 
inconspicuous. Jl. Aug. 

2. E. ViRQiNiANUM. Lam. (E. aquaticum. Michx.) 

Lvs. linear-lanceolate, uncinately serrate, tapering to both ends ; invd. of 
7— S.linear leaflets, longer than the heads, 3-cleft or spinosft-dentate ; scaks tri« 
cuspidate.— T|. Marshes, N. J. to Ohio, Prof. Lock! and La. Stem hollow, 
3— If high, branched above. Leaves 6—10' by 5—10'', upper ones much small- 


er. Heads numerous, leas tfaaa I' diam. Flowers pale bloe oi neailjr vhite. 
Jl. Aug. 


Gr. itcKott the disk ; vXcvfta, a rib ; i. e. the di»k and ribs (of the fruit) united. 

Calyx teeth subulate, persistent ; petals ovate, entire, with a mi- 
nute, inflexed point ; fruit ovate, often didymous ; carpels 5-ribbed, 
the 3 dorsal rios filiform, subacute, prominent, the 2 lateral united, 
^th a thick accessory margin ; intervals with single vittas, seeds sab- 
terete. — Lv8. miich dissected. Umbels compound. Bracts cf iheuir 
volucre defi. FU. white, 

D. CAPiLLACEA. DC. (AmmL Sprang.) Biskop-weed. 

Erect or procumbent ; umbels J— lO-rayed \ IftsoflJie invol. 3—5, mostly 3- 
clefl; fr. ovale. — In swamps near the coast, Mass. ! to Ga. Stem mudi 
branched, 1 — ^2f high. Leaves verv smooth, temately dissected, with subulate, 
spreading segments. Umbels axillary, pedunculate, spreading. Involucre leat 
lets about 3, with setaceous segments. Involucels fililorm, longer than the am- 
bellets. Jl. — Nov. 

6. BUPLEURUM. Toum. 

Chr, 0ovSt lui oz, wXnpopf a rib ; from the ribbed (veined) leaves of Mmie of &e qieeief. 

Calyx margin obsolete ; petals somewhat orbicular, entire, with t 
broad, closely inflexed point ; fruit laterally compressed ; carpels 5- 
ribbed, lateral ones marginal ; seed teretely convex ; flattish on the 
face. — Herbaceous or shrubby. Lvs. mostly simple. InvoL varms. 
Fls. yellow. 

B. ROTDNDiPOLiUM. Modesty. Tkoroughr^ax. ^ 

Lvs. roundish-ovate, entire, perfoliate ; invol. ; iwooliuds of 5, ovate, 
mucronate bracts ; fr. with very slender ribs, intervals smooth, mostly wiihom 
vittffi.— In cultivated grounds and fields, N. Y. and Penn. and la. I rare. Stem 
If or more high, branching. Leaves 1—3' long, | as wide, roonded at ba«, 
acute at apex, very smooth. Umbels 5— 9-rayed. Involucels longer than liie 
umbellets. Fruit crowned with the wax-like shining base of the styles (stylo- 
podium). Jl. Aug. 

7. CICtTTA. 
A Latin name need by Virgil (Ec 9d and 6th) but of unknown applicatioa. 

Calyx margin of 5, broad segments ; petals obcordate, the points 
inflected; fruit subglobose, didymoua; carpels with 5 flattish, cqoil 
ribs, 2 of them marginal; intervals filled with single vittie, com- 
missure with 2 vittae ; carpophore 2-parted ; seeds terete. — % Aqtiotui 
poisonous herbs. Leaves compound. Stems hollow. Umbels 'ptrjtd. 
Invol few-leaved or 0. Involu^cels many-leaved. FU. white. 

1. C. maculAta. Water Hemlock. Spotted CmcbaJie. 

St. streaked with purple ; Imcer Ivs. triternate and quinate ; upper bltH^ 
nate ; segments lanceolate, mucronately serrate ; umbels terminal and axillary. 
—Common in wet meadows, U. S. and Can. Stem 3— 6f high, smooth, striate, 
jointed, hollow, glaucous, branched above. Petioles dilated at' base into long, 

abrupt, clasping stipules. Leaflets or segments 1 — 3' long, \ |' wide, finfl/ 

serrate, the veins mostly running to the notches, rarely to the points ! UmbfB 
rather numerous, naked, 2—4' broad. Involucels of 5—6 short, narrow, acuie 
bracts. Fruit ij" diam., lO-ribbed, crowned with the permanent calyx aui 
styles. Jl, Aug,— The thick, fleshy root is a dangerous poison, but sometime* 
used in medicine. 

2. C. BULBiFERA. Bulbiftro^is Cicuta. Narrow-leaved Hemlock. 

Axils pf the branchts bulbilerous ; Ivs. bitemately divided ; Ifis, linear, Vitk 
lemote, divergent teeth; umbeU terminal and axillary.— In wet meadows, PeaB- 


to Can. Stem 3— 4f high, round, striate, hollow, green, branching. Leaves 
yarious, those of the stem generally bitemate, of the branches temate. Leaf- 
lets or segments 2—4' long, 1—4" wide, linear or lance-linear, smooth, with 
slender teeth. Bnlblets often numerous, opposite, and within the axils of the 
bracteate petioles. Umbels terminal. Involucre 0. UmbcUets of close, small, 
white flowers, and slight involucels. Aug. 

8. SIUM. 
Celtic 9iip, water ; that is, a i:eniu of aquatic plaota. 

Calyx margin 5-toothed or obsolete ; petals obcordate, with an in- 
flexed point ; fruit nearly oval ; carpels with 5 obtusish ribs, and 
fleyeral yittse in each interyal; carpophore 2-parted. — % Aquatic 
Jjvs. pinruUdy divided. Umbels ferfect^ with partial and general many" 
leaved involucra. Fls. white. 

1. S. LATIPOLIUM. Water Parsnep. 

St. angular, sulcate: If is. oblong- lanceolate, acutely serrate, acuminate; 
eal. teeth eton^ted. — A tall plant in swamps and ditches, N. J. to la. 1 and Can. 
Stem about 31 high, smooth, hollow, with 7 deep-furrowed and prominent an- 
gles. Leaflets or segments 4—6' long, 1 — 2' broad, equally serrate, in about 4 
nairs, with an odd one, those submerged, if any, pinnatifid. Petioles embrac- 
mg the stem. Umbels large, with many-flowerea rays. Flowers small, white. 
31. Aug. 

2. S. LiNEARE. MUhx. (S. latifoliam, (i. lineare. Bw.^ 

S^. angular, sulcate ; IJh. 9 — 11, linear and lance-linear, finely serrate, 
acute ; cal teeth obsolete. — More common than the last, in swamps, N. J. to 
la. ! and Can. Stem 2 — 4f high, smooth, witli 7 prominent angles. Leaflets 
S— 4' long, 2—4" (rarely 10'') wide, the odd and lower ones petiolulate, middle 
pairs sessile. Umbels IJ — 2r broad. Involucre of 5 or 6 linear bracts, i as 
long as the 15—21 rays. Umbellets with numerous, small, white flowers. 
Fruit roundish, crowned with the broad, yellowish stylopodium. JL Aug. 


Gr. Kpmma, to conceal, rafv<a, a wreath or border; from the obsolete bonier of calyx. 

Margin of the calyx obsolete ; petals with an inflexed point ; fruit 
linear-oblong or ovate-oblong ; ; carpels with 5 obtuse ribs ; carpo- 
phore free, 2-paTted ; vittae very narrow, twice as many as the ribs. 
— % Lvs. 3-parted, lohed o.nd toothed. JJmhels compound^ with very un- 
equal rays. Invol. 0. Involucels few-leaved. Fls. white, 

C. Canaden'sis. DC. (Sison Canadense. Linn.) Hone-wort. 

i;rr5. smooth; IJh. or segments rhomboid-ovate, distinct, entire or 2 — ^3- 
lobed, doubly serrate, lateral ones oblique at base ; umhels numeroas, irregular, 
axillary and terminal. — Common in moist woods. Stem erect, 1 — ^2f high. Lower 
petioles a— 6' long, clasping. Leaflets 3, 3—3' long, 1—2' wide, petiolulate. 
Umbels ]>aniculate, of 3—5 very unequal rays. Umbellets of 4 — 6 unequal 
pedicels and minute involucels. Flowers small, white. Fruit near 3" long, 
oblong-elliptic. Jl. 

10. ZIZIA. Koch. 
Calyx margin obsolete or minutely toothed ; petals carinate, apex 
acuminate, inflexed ; fruit roundish or oval, didymous ; carpels 5- 
ribbed, lateral ribs marginal ; intervals with I — 3 vittas, commis- 
sure with 2 — 4 ; carpophore 2parted ; seeds plano-convex. — %■ Lvs. 
divided. Umbels perfect. Invol. 0. Involucels few-leaved. Fls. yellow. 

1. Z. AUREA. Koch. (Smyrnium. Linn. Thaspium. Nutt. ?) Golden Alexanders. 

Z/DS. biternate ; Ifls. oval-lanceolate, serrate ; uynbellets with short rays. — 
Hills and meadows, U. S. and Can. Stems 1 — 2f high, branching above, rather 
slender, erect, hollow, angular-furrowed, smooth as well as every other part of 


288 LXVII. UMBELLIFERiB. Petroseuhuii. 

the plant, and furnished with few leaves. The lower leaves are on long peti- 
oles, the leaflets with coarse serraturcs, and sometimes quinate. The umbelf 
are about 2 inches broad, of 10 — 15 rays, the umbellets ^ inch broad, dense. 
Flowers numerous, orange-yellow. Fruii oval, brown, with prominent ribs. 
Root black, tulted. June. 

3. Z. iNTEGERRiMA. DC. (Smymium. Linn,) Golden Alexanders. 

Lvs. bitemate ; Ifts. oblique, oval, entire, smooth and glaucous. — ^Rocky 
woods, &c., N. Y. to Ohio and La., rare. Stem 1 — 2f high, branching above. 
Radical leaves olten triternate, cauline biternate, all petiolate. Segments 1 — 1^ 
long, i as wide, mucronate, lateral obliquef at base, odd one often 2— Globed. 
Umbels terminal, loose, on a long peduncle. Rays unequal, slender, spread- 
ing, 1 — 3' long, with minute involucels. Fruit roundish, compressed laterally. 
May, Jn. 

11. CARUM • 
Frotn Carta, the native coantir of the plant, according to Pliny. 

Calyx margin obsolete ; petals obovate, einarginate, the point in- 
iiexed ; styles dilated at base, spreading ; fruit oval, compressed lat- 
erally ; carpels 5-ribbed, lateral ribs marginal ; intervals with single 
vittsB, commissure with 2. — Herbs with dissected leaves. Umbels per* 
feet. Involucra various. Fls. white. 

C. Car VI. Caraway. — L/vs. somewhat bipinnatifid, with numerous linear 
segments ; inwl. 1-leaved or ; involucels 0. — Native of Europe, &c. Stem 
about 2f high, branched, smooth, striate. Lower leaves large, on long petioles, 
with tumid, clasping sheaths. Umbels on long peduncles, involucrate bracT, 
when present, linear-lanceolate. Jn. — Cultivated for its fine aromatic fruit, so 
well Imown in domestic economy. % 

Calyx limb obsolete ; petals obcordate, a little nneqnal ; disk ; 
flowers perfect or diclinous ; styles capillary, as long as fruit ; fruit 
ovate, ribbed, with convex intervals. — European herbs, mostly %, wilh 
pinnatcly, many-parted leaves, and white flowers. Umbels compound. 
Ihvol. 0. 

P. Anisum. Anise. — Radical Its. incisely trifid; cauline ones multlfid, 
with narrow-linear segments, all glabrous and shining; umbels large, many- 
rayed. — Native of Egypt. The aromatic and carminative properties of the 
fruit are well known. 

13. APIUM. 

Celtic apon, water ; the plants grow in Artery situations. 

Calyx margin obsolete; petals roundish, with a small, inflezed 
point; fruit roundish, laterally compressed; carpels 5-ribbcd, the 
lateral ribs marginal ; intervals with single vittae ; carpophore undi- 
vided. — European herbs. Umbels perfect, naked. 

A. GRAVEOLENs. Celery. — Lower lvs. pinnately dissected, on very long peti- 
oles, segments broad-cuneate, incised ; 'upper lvs. 3-parted, segments cuneate, 
lobed and incisely dentate at apex.— @ Native of Britain. Stem 2 — 3f high, 
branching, furrowed. Radical petioles thick, juicy, If in length. Umbels with 
unequal, spreading rays. Flowers white. — The stems when blanched by being 
. buried, are sweet, crisp and spicy in flavor, and used as salad. Jn. — ^Aug. ^ 

14. PETROSELlNUM. Hofim. 
Gr. mrpaj o-cXfyov, stone-panley : flrom its native habitat. 

Calyx margin obsolete ; petals roundish, with a narrow, inflexed 
point ; fruit ovate, compressed laterally ; carpels 5-ribbed ; intervalB 

fjioiwncuii. LXyn. UMBELLIFERiE. 289 

with single vittee, oommissnre with 2 ; carpophore 2-parted. — European 

kerbs. Umbels perfect. Invol. few-leaved. Involucel many-leaved. 

P. SATIVUM. Hoffm. (Apium Petroselinum. WiUd.) Parsley. — Lvs. decom- 
poond, segments of the lower ones cuneate-ovate, terminal ones trifid, all in- 
cised, cauline segments lance-linear, sabentire; involucels of 3—5 subulate 
bracts.—® From Sardinia and Greece. Stem 2 — 4f high, branched. Leaves 
smooth and shining, with numerous, narrow segments. Petals white. Jn. — 
C oltivation has produced several varieties. Esteemed as a pot-herb, for soups, &c.^ 

16. THASPIUM. Nutt 
From the lala of Thmpia^ which gave name to the ancient allied genai Thapeia. 

Calyx margin 5-toothed; petals elliptic, with a long, inflexed 

point ; fruit elliptical, not compressed laterally ; carpels convex, with 

5 winged ribs ; intervals with single vittse, commissure with 2. — '^l- 

Umbels vnlkojU an involucre. Involucels ^-leaved^ lateral, 

1. T. coRDATUM. Nutt. (Sm]nmium cordatum. Mz. Zizia cordatum. De.) 
RadiccU lvs. simple^ cordate, crenate, cauline ones ternate, stalked ; segments 
acute, serrate; umbels terminal. — Shady hills and barrens, U. S. and Can. 
Stem erect, slightly branched, smooth, 2— 31' high. Root leaves on long stalks, 
roondisb-heart-shaped, the rest ternate, becoming only 3-parted above, all light 
green. Umbels dense with yellow flowers. Fruit black, oval, with 3 promi- 
nent, paler, winged ridges on each side. May, Jn. 
0. alropurpureum. (Thapsia trifoliata. Linn.) Fls. dark purple. — N. J., Penn. 

3. T. barbinOde. Nutt. (Ligusticum barbinode MicAx.) 
St. pubescent at the nodes ; U^toer lvs. tritemately divided, tt;^per bitemately, 
segments cuneate-ovate, acute or acuminate, unequally and incisely serrate, 
emUre towards the base ; umbels terminal and opposite the leaves ; /r. elliptical, 
the rihe alternately broader. — River banks, Can. and U. S. Stem 2-^i high, 
angular and grooved, branching above. Leaves smooth, upper ones suboppo- 
site; segments l—2f by i — li'. Rays about 2f long, each about 20-flowered. 
Petals deep yellow. Jn. 

16. ^THOSA. 
Cfr. atBttf to burn ; on aooount of its poiaonout aerfditr* 

Calyx margin obsolete ; petab obcordate, with an inflexed point ; 
fruit globose-ovate; carpels with 5 acutely carinated ribs; lateral 
ones marginal, broader ; intervals acutely angled, with single vittsa, 
commissure with 2. — (D Poisonous herbs. Invol. 0. Involucels l-sided. 
Fls. white. 

M. CTXAPiUM. FooVs Parsley. 

Lvs. bi- or tripinnately divided, segments cuneate, obtuse ; involucels 3- 
leaved, pndulous, longer than the partial umbels. — In waste grounds, Ms., rare. 
Stem about 3f high, green, striate. Leaves with numerous, narrow, wedge- 
shaped segments, uniform, dark green, flat. Leaflets of the involucels linear, 
long, deflected, and situated on the outside. Jl. Aug. — The plant somewhat re- 
sembles parsley , but is distinctly marked by the involucels, and by its disagree- 
able odor. It is said to be poisonous. 

One ipedei waa taid to be native of lAguria; hence the name. 

Calyx teeth minute or obi^olete ; petals obovate, emarginat'O, with 
an inflexed point ; fruit nearly terete, or slightly compressed late- 
rally; carpels 5-ribbed, with numerous vittae. — % Lvs. ternately 
divided. Involucels many-leaved. Fls. white. 

1. L. ScoTicDM. Sea Lavage. 

Stem, Vvs. bitemate, the upper ones ternate; laJtertd Ifts. oblique, the termvud 
am rhomboid ; brads of the invoiucres numerous, linear.— Sea coast Root thick, 

390 LXVn. UMBELUFERiEl. Abchamcuuca. 

tapering. Stem a foot high, nearly simple, striate, smooth. LeaTes petiolate. 
Leaflets 1 — 2^' long, dark green, smooth and shining, entire at base, serrate 
above. Fruit 4—5" long. Jl. 

2. L. ACTiEPOLiuM. Michx. (Thaspium. NuU.) 

I/vs. triternale, with ovate, dent-serrate leaflets ; uTitifls numerous, panic a- 
late ; invoL and involuceU of about 3, short, subulate leaves. — Banks of the St. 
Lawrence. Michx. Topsfield and Scituate, Mass. Oakei. Russd. S. Slates, 
rare. Plant 3— 6f high. Leaflets 3— 3' long, lateral ones trapeziform. Umbels 
on long, verticillate peduncles, terminal one abortive. 

18. CONIOSELlNUM. Fisch. 
Name compounded of Conitim and BeUnum. 

Calyx teeth obsolete ; petals obovate, with an inflected point ; fruit 
compressed on the back ; carpels with 5 winged ribs, lateral ones 
marginal and much the broadest ; intervals with 1 — 3 yitta), commis- 
sure with 4 — 8.—® Smooth. St, hollow, ■ Lvs. on very large, tJificUed 
petioles. Invol. various. Involucels 5 — 7 -leaved, 

C. 7 ciNADENSE. ToTT. & Gray. (Selinum. Michx. Cnidium, Spr.') 
I/»s. temately divided, divisions bipinnate, with oblong-linear lobes : invol^ 
0, or 2— 3-leaved ; Jr. oblong-oval ; vitta solitary in the dorsal intervals, 3—3 in 
the lateral. — In wet woods, Maine to Wisconsin I but not common. ^Stem 3 — 5f 
high. Leaves much compounded, the ultimate segments pinnatifid with linear- 
oblong lobes. Umbels compound. Petals white, spreading. Styles slender, 
diverging. Fruit about 2" long. Aug. Sept. 

19. FCENICtJLUM. Adans. 
Lat diminiitive of/onum, hay ; lirom the resemblanoe of ita odor. 

Calyx margin obsolete; petals revolute, with a broad, retuse apex ; 
fodt elliptic-oblong, laterally subcompressed ; carpels with 5 obtuse 
ribs, marginal ones a little broader ; intervals with single yittas, com- 
missure with 2. — Umbels perfect, with no invol. or involucels. 

F. vuLGARE. Gaert. TAnethum. WiUd.) Fejvnd. — Jjci. bitemately dissect- 
ed, sec^ments linear-subulate, elongated; rays of thd umbel numerous, unequal, 
spreading; carpels turgid, ovate-oblong. — ^Native of Elngland, &c. Cultivatea 
in gardens. Stem 3— -5f high, terete, branched. Leaves large and smooth, 
finely cleft into numerous, very narrow segments. Flowers yeUow. Jl. — ^The 
seeds are warmly aromatic. % 

20. ARCHANGELlCA. Hoffm. 
So named fiv iti preeminence in aize and yirtuea amonf the UmbeDiftiiB. 

Calyx teeth short ; petals equal, entire, lanceolate, acuminate, with 
the point inflezed ; fruit dorsally compressed, with 3 carinate, thick 
ribs upon each carpel, and 2 marginal ones dilated into membrana- 
ceous wings; vitt8B very numerous. — % Umbels perfect. Involucels 

1. A. ATROPURPUREA. Hofim. (Angelica triquinata. Mx.) Angelica, 

St. dark purple, furrowed: petioles 3-parted, the divisions quinate ; Ifts. in- 
cisely toothed, odd leaflet of the terminal divisions rhomboidal, sessile, the 
others decursive.— Among the largest of the umbelliferae, well known for its aro- 
matic properties, common in fields and meadows, Northern and Western States. 
Stem 4— 6f high, 1— 2*' in thickness, smooth, hollow, glaucous. Petioles large, 
inflated, channeled on the upper side, with inflated stipules at base. Leaflets 
cut-serrate, the terminal one sometimes 3-lobed, the lateral ones of the upper di- 
vision decurrent Umbels 3, terminal, spherical, 6—8' diam. without Uie in- 
volucre ; umbellets on angular stalks ana with involucels of subulate bracts 
longer than the rays. Flowers greenish white. 

2. A. HiRstJTA. Torr. &Gray. (Angelica. AImAZ.) 

St* striate, the summit with the umbels tomentose-liirsute; Im, bipinnate- 


\j divided, the dtvisions qtuoate, segments oblong, acutSsh, the npper pair con- 
nate but not decurrent at base. — Drj' woods, N. Y. to Car. Stem simple- erect, 
straight, 3 — 5f high. Leaves on petioles 6 — 10' long. Leaflets I — 24' long, ^ 
as wide, mostly ovate-oblong, ollen tapering at base. Umbels 3 or 4, on long, 
velvety peduncles, 2 — i' broad. Rays unequal, spreading, densely tomentose. 
Involucre 0. Involucels of 4 — 6 bracts, about as long as the rays. Jl. Aug. 

3. A. PEREGRlNA. Nutt 

St. striate, pubescent at summit; Ivs, temately divided, the divisions 
quinate, segments incisely serrate ; 1^771^/ with many slender rays ; invd. ; in^ 
voiucels of many leaflets, as long as the umbellets. — Sea coast, Me. and Mass., 
JHckering. Marginal ribs of the fruit thick and obtuse. 

4. A, OFFICINALIS. Hoffm. (Angelica, Linn.) Oarden Angelica, 
St. smooth, round, striate ; lis. bipinnately divided into lobate, subcordate, 
acutely serrate segments, the terminal one 3-lobed ; skealAs large and saccate. 
Said to be native in Labrador, &c. Cultivated in gardens occasionally for the 
sake of the stalks, which are to be blanched and eaten as celery. | 


A ftncifU name fipom JrcAamoru* , who, aoconlinf to mytholoity, died by iwallowuif a bee 

Calyx limb 5-toothed ; petals obcordate with an inflexed point ; 
frtut oval, lenticular, compressed on the back ; carpels with 5 ribs, 
marginal ones broadly winged ; intervals with single large vittee, 
commissure with 4 — 6 ; seeds flat. — % Invol. 0. or few-leaved. Invol- 
ucels many-leaved. 

A. BiGiDA. DC. (CEnanthe. NvU.) Waier Dromoort. Cologne. 

St. rigid, striate, smooth ; Ivs. pinnately divined, smooth, IJts. 3—11, ob- 
long-lanceolate or ovate, entire or remotely toothed, sessile ; uvwels spreading, 
smooth.— Swamps, Mich, to Flor. and La. Stem 2 — 4r high, slender, terete. 
Leaflets 2—4' by i— 9", varying in outline in the same plant. Umbels 2—^. 
of many slender rays. Petals white. Fruit with subcqual greenish ribs, and 
large, purple vittse filling the intervals. Commissure wnite. SepL — Said to be 
$. (CEnanthe ambigua. NuU.) Lfts. long-linear, mostly entire. 

22. PASTINACA. Tourn. 

Ltt poiUUf ibod or rejMuit { from the nutritire properti6i of the root 

Calyx limb 5-toothed ; petals broad-lanceolate, with a long inflexed 
point ; fruit much compressed, oval, with a broad margin ; carpels 
with 5 nearly obsolete ribs ; intervals with single vittse ; carpopbortt 
2-parted ; seeds flat. — ® Rt. fudform. Invol. mostly ; involucels 
or few-leaved. Fls. yelUnc. 

P. sATlVA. Common Parsnep. Wild Parsnep. 

Lvs. pinnate, downy beneath ; Ifls. oblong, incisely toothed, the upper ont 
3-lobed.— <fe The parsnep is said to have been introduced, but it grows wila abun- 
dantly in nelds, by fences, &c. The root is fusiform, large, sweet-flavored, 
esculent, as evcr>' one knows, in Ub cuhivated state, but in its wild state becomes 
bard, acrid and poisonous, and much dwindled in size. Stem 3f high,,erect, fur- 
rowed, smooth, branching. Umbels large, terminal. Flowers yellow, small. 
Fruit large, flat. The abundance of saccharine matter in the cultivated root, 
renders it wholesome and nutritious. Jl. 

Named aAer the hero Ilcrraloa ; it bciiiff a rank, mbust plant 

Calyx limb of 5 small, acute teeth ; petals obcordate, with the point 
inflexed, often radiant in the exterior flowers, and apparently deeply 
2-clefit ; fruit compressed, flat, with a broad, flat margin, and 3 ob- 
tuse, dorsal ribs to each carpel ; intervals with single vittsd ; soodfl 


998 LXYU. (JMBELLIFEItffi. Cbxaopbtllum. 

fiat. — Stout herbs, ttnth large umbels. Invd, deciduous. Iwwducels 


L/vs. ternate, petiolate, tomentose beneath ; Ifts. petioled, round-cordate, 
lobed; Jr. orbicular.— Penn. to Lab. W. to Oreg. A large, coarse-looking, um- 
belliferous plant, growing about moist, cultivated grounds. Stem about 4r high, 
thick, furrowed, branching, and covered with spreading hairs. Leaves very 
large, on channeled stalks. Leaflets woolly unaemeath, irregularly cut-lobed 
and serrated. At the top of the stem and branches are its huge umbels, often a 
foot broad, with spreading rays, and long-pointed, lanceolate involucels. In- 
volucre of lanceolate, deciduous leaflets. Petals deeply heart-shaped, white. Jn. 

' Calyx limb 5-toothed ; petals with a long inflexed point ; fruit oval, 
glabrous, lenticularly compressed on the back, with a thickened, 
corky margin ; ribs obscure or obsolete ; commissure with 4 — 6 vittod ; 
seeds plano-convex. — A smooth herb, with bipinn^Udy divided leaves. 
Jnvol. 0. Involucel of setaceous bracts. 


Prairies and barrens, "Western States ! &c. Stem furrowed, scabrous or 
nearly smooth. Lower leaves on long petioles, segments incisely toothed, upper 
ones 3-cleft, lobes entire or w^ith lateral teeth. Umbels terminal and opposite 
the leaves, about 2' broad. Fruit lar^e, (3" long) tumid and smooth, with a 
thick, corky pericarp, and the flavor of turpentine. May. 

25. DAUCUS. Toum. 

AavKoif the ancient Greek name of the carrot. • 

Calyx limb 5-toothed, petals emarginate with an inflected point ; 
the 2 outer often largest and deeply 2-cleft ; fruit oblong ; carpels 
with 5 primary, bristly ribs, and 4 secondary, the latter more promi- 
nent, winged, and divided each into a single row of prickles, and hay- 
ing single vitt» beneath ; carpophore entire, free. — (§) Invol. pinnati- 
fid. Involucels oferUire or d-cleft bracts. Central Jl. abortive. 

D. Car6ta. Carrot. 

St. hispid ; petioles veined beneath ; Ivs. tripinnale or pinnatifld, the seg- 
ments linear, acute ; umbels dense, concave. — The word kar in Celtic signifies 
redf hence carrot. Naturalized in fields and by roadsides, abundant in the Mid. 
States. Root fusiform. Stem 2 — 3f high, branching. Leaves numerour, 
divided in a thrice pinnatifid manner, pale green. Umbels large and very com- 
pact, with white flowers blooming all the summer. Cultivation has produced 
several varieties. Jl. — Sept. ^ ^ 

Suborder 2.—C AMPYIiOSPERMiE. 

The inner surface of the seed deeply furrowed, or with involute margins. 


Calyx limb obsolete ; petals obovate, emarginate, point inflexed ; 
fruit laterally compressed ; carpels with 5 obtuse, equal ribs ; inter- 
vals with 2 vittoe, commissure deeply sulcate. — Lr^s. bi- or trilerttate^ 
segments incisely cleft or toothed. I/ivol. 0, or few-leaved. Involucel 

C. PROCUMBENS. Lam. (Scandix procumbens. Linn.) 

Decumbent or assurgent, nearly glabrous ; segments of the Irs. pinnatifid, 

with oblong, obtuse lobes ; vvibels diffuse, lew-flowered, olien simple ; invol. ; 

j^. linear-oblong.— (1) or (g) Moist woods, Ohio, Clark I Ky. Sfu/rt, to N. J. 

Stems l-»2f long, pubescent when young, diffuse, slender. Segments of the 


leaves about ^" by 1''. Umbels quite irregular, often with leaves i& the place 
of the involucre. B[a7s 1—4, 1 — 4-flowered, about S' long. Petals white. Apr. May. 

27. OSMORHIZA. Raf. 

Of. offfiiif perfume, f>I^a, root; fitMn the Bnimte, aromatic root 

Calyx margin obsolete ; petals oblong, nearly entire, the cuspidate 
point inflexed ; styles conical at base ; fruit linear, very long, clavate, 
attenuate at base ; carpels with 5 equal, acute, bristly ribs ; intervals 
without vittflB ; commissure with a deep, bristly channel — % Lvs, 
biltmately divided^ with the umbels opposite. Invol. few-leaved ; involtb- 
eels 4 — 7 -leaved. Fls. white. 

1. O'. LONGiSTYLis. DC. (Uraspermum. Claytoni. Nutt.) Sweet Cicely, 
Stp. filiform, nearly as long as the ovary ; Jr. clavate. — A leafy plant, 

very common in woods, Can. to Va., 1 — 3f high, with inconspicuous umbels 
of white flowers. Root branching, fleshy, of an agreeable, spicy flavor. Stem 
erect, branching above, nearly smooth. Root leaves on long, slender stalks, the 
upper stem leaves sessile, both decompound, the ultimate divisions often pin- 
nate ; leaflets irregularly divided by clefts and sinuses into lobes and teeth, the 
lobes broadly ovate, slightly pubescent. Involucres of linear bracts longer than 
the rays. Fruit blackish, an inch in length, much more acute at the base than 
at the summit, crowned with the persistent styles. May, Jn. 

2. O. BREVI8TYL1S. DC. (Q. hirsutum. Bw.) SAart^stijled Cicely. 

Sty. conical, scarcely as long as the breadth of the ovary; fr. somewhat 
tapering at the summit. — Common in woods, Can. to Penn. W. to Greg. The 
general aspect of this species is very similar to that of the precedinc^, but the root 
is destitute of the anise-like flavor of that species, being disagreeable to the taste. 
The plant is more hairy, and with more deeply clett divisions in the leaves. 
Involucre deciduous. Umbels with long, diverging rays, of which but few 
prove fertile. The fruit is similar to the last, but crowned with convergent, not 
with spreading styles. May, Jn. 

28. CONlUM. 
Gr. KWtioVf hemlock, from Kcavo; , a top ; because it cauaea dizxineaa. 

Calyx margin obsolete ; petals obcordate, with an acute, inflected 
point ; fruit ovate, laterally compressed ; carpels with 5, acute, equal, 
undulate-crenulate ribs, lateral ones marginal ; intervals without vit- 
tao ; seeds with a deep, narrow groove on the face. — ® Poisonous herbs. 
JjVs* decompound. Invol. and involucels 3 — 5-leaved, the latter unilate- 
ral. Fls. white. 

C. MACULATUM. Poisou Hemlock. 

St. spotted ; Irs. tripinnate; Ifts. lanceolate, pinnatifld ; ^r. smooth. — Grows 
in waste grounds, way-sides. A well known poisonous plant. Stem much 
branched, about 4f high, very smooth, round, hollow, with purplish spots. The 
lower leaves are very large, several times pinnate, bright green, on long, sheath- 
ing foot-stalks. Umbels terminal, the involucre of &— 8 lanceolate bracts, the 
involucels with the inner half wanting. Flowers small, white. Fniit with un- 
dulate or wrinkled ribs. The plant is a powerful narcotic, exhaling a disa- 
greeable odor when bruised. Used in medicine. Jl. Aug. ^ 

Suborder 3.— C CBIiOSPERMiE* 

Seeds incurved at base and, apex. 

29. ERIGENlA. Nutt. 
Or. i}f»tyeyeia, daughter of Uie earl]rfprin«; jfor its earljr floweriDff. 

Calyx limb obsolete ; petals flat, entire ; fruit contracted at the 
oommiasore ; carpels 3-ribbed, ovate-reniform. — % Rt. tuberous, Radi- 

2H LXVm. ARAIiACEJS. Arax«u 

col leaf trUematdy decompound. InvducraU Ivs. soUiMrff, hUemai^ 
compound. Involucds of 3 — 6 entire^ linea/r-spaiuUde bracti. 

E. BULB68A. Nutt. (Sison. Miekc. Hydrocotylc comMsita. -P*) 
A small, early-flowering herb, along the shady banks of streuns, Wcrtcm 
N Y. ( Torr. 4* Gray.) W. to Ohio I and Mo. Plant 4—6' high, with 8—4 
leaves, the lower one radical, numeronsly divided, the divisions incisely cleft 
into narrow segments ; the upper ones bract-like, similarly divided, each sob- 
tending a 3-rayed umbel of wnite flowers. March, Apr. 

Gr, kopttf a buc ; oa aoeount of the noell of tba loftVM. 

Calyx with 5 conspicuous teeth ; petals obcordate, inflexed at the 
point, outer ones radiate, bifid ; fruit globose ; carpels cohering, with 
6 depressed, primary ribs, and 4 secondary, more prominent ones ; 
seeds ooncave on the face. — (D Smooth, invoL or l4eavaL Jkvo- 
lucds d'Uaved^ unilateral. 

C. SATIVUM. Cariander.-'Ijcs, bipinnate, lower ones with broad-cuneate 
leaflets, upper with linear ones ; carvels hemispherical. — Native of Europe, dec. 
This well known plant is cultivated chiefly for the seeds, which are used as a 
spice, as a nucleus for sugar-plums, &c. Stem 2f high. Leaves numerously 
divided, strong-scented. Umbels with only the partial involucnu Flowers 
white. Jl. X 

Order LXVIII. ARALIACEJS.— Araliads. 

Treu, thrubt or herbt, with the habit of umbelliftn. 

Col. •uperior, entire or toothed. 

Cor.-'Petah 5—10. deciduous, mrely 0. Talvate in iMtiTation. 

Sta. equal in number to the petals , ana alternate with them. JntK. intnine. 

Ova. erowned with a disk, s or many-celled. Ovules solitarr. Btylei as manj ai eelb. 

Fr. baccate or drupaceous, of several one-seeded cells. 



latter is ■ometimes subatitutod for the sarsapaiillaof the shops. 

Conspectus of the Cfenera. 

( Flowers perfect Jratim. l 

( oompomid. ( Flowers polygamous Punas, s 

Leaves { simple, ancular and lobed. Bedera. s 

Calyx tnhe adherent to the ovary, limb short, 5-toothed or entire ; 
petals 5, spreading, apex not inflexed ; stamens 5—10 ; styles 5, 
spreading ; berry crowned with the remains of the calyx and styles, 
mostly 5-oelled and 5-seeded. — Lvs. compound. Fls. in simple, solitary 
or racemose panicles. 

1. A. NUDiCAULis. Wild Sarsaparilla. 

Nearly stemlcs.s ; Jf. solitary, decompound ; scape naked, shorter than the 
leaf; umbels few. — % A well known plant, found in woods, most abundant in rich 
and rocky soils, Can. to Car. and Tenn. It has a large, fleshy root, from which 
arise a leaf-stalk and a scape, but no proper stem. The former is long, sup- 
porting a single, large, compound leaf, which is either 3-ternate or 3-quinate. 
Leaflets oval and obovate, acuminate, finely serrate. The scape is about a fool 
high, bearing 3 simple umbels of greenish flowers. Jn. Jl. 

2. A. RACEMdSA. Pdhjmnrrel. Spikenard. 

St. herbaceous, smooth ; lvs. decompound; pcd. axillarv, branchmg, um- 
belled. — % In rocky woods, Can. to the S. States. Stem 3 — 4f high, dark green 
or reddish, arising from a thick, aromatic root. The leaf-stalks divide into 3 
partitions, each of which bears 3 or 5 large, ovate, serrate leaflets. Umbels 
nnmerons, arranged in branching racemes from the axils of the leaves or 

Hedxra. LXVUI. ARAIiAC£L£. 295 

Dranches. The root is pleasant to the taste, and highly esteemed as an ingre- 
dient in small beer, &c. July. 

3. A. HispiDA. Wild Elder. Bristly Aralin. 

SI. shrubby at base, hispid ; Irs. bipinnate ; Ifts. ovate, cut-serrate ; umbels 
on long peduncles. — % Common in fields, about stumps and stone-heaps, N. Elng. 
to Va. Stem 1 — 2t' high, the lower part woody and thickly beset with sharp, 
stiff bristles, the upper part branching, herbaceous. Leaflets many, ending in 
a long i)oint, ovate, smooth. Umbels many, simple, globose, axillary and ter- 
minal, followed by bunches of dark-colored, nauseous berries. The plant ex- 
hales an unpleasant odor. Jl. Aug. 

A. bpinOsa. Angelica TVee. 

Arborescent ; st. and petioles prickly ; Ivs. bipinnate ; Ifls. ovate, acuminate, 
sessile, glaucous beneath ; umbels numerous, iorming a very large panicle: 
invol. small, few-leaved. — Damp woods, Penn. to Flor. and La. Shrub 8 — 12r 
high, with the leaves- all crowded near the sunmiit. Flowers white. Aug. — 
Emetic and cathartic. ^ 

2. PANAX. 
Gr, iray, all, mcoSj a remedy ; i. e. a panacea^ or univenal remedy. 

Dioecionsly polygamous. $ Calyx adnate to the ovary, limb short, 
obsoletely 5-toothed ; petals 5 ; stameos 5, alternate with the petals ; 
styles 2 — 3 ; fruit baccate, 2 — 3-celled ; cells 1 -seeded, d Calyx 
limb nearly entire ; petals and stamens 5. — Herbs or shrubs. Lvs, 
3 {in the herbaceous species), palnuUeli/ compouTid. Fls. tn a soliia/ri/y 
simple umbel. 

1. P. TRiPOLiuM. Ground Nut. DitarJ Ginseng. 

Rl. globose, tuberous ; lvs. 3, verticillate, 3 — 5-foliate ; Ifls. wedge-lanceo- 
late, serrate, subsessile ; rfy. 3 ; berries 3-seeded. — Common in low woods, Can. 
to S. States. The globular root is deep in the ground, and nearly ^' diam., 
connected with the stem by a short, screw-like ligament. The stem arises 3— 
G' above the surface, smooth, slender, simple. At the summit is a whorl of 3 
compound leaves, with a central peduncle terminating in a little umbel of pure 
white flowers. Leaflets generally 3, nearly or quite smooth. Barren and fer- 
tile flowers on difi*erent plants, the latter without stamens, succeeded by green 
berries, the former with a single, abortive style. May. 

2. P. ftviNauEFOLicM. • Ginseng. 

Rt. fusiform ; lvs. 3, verticillate, 5-foliate ; Ifls. oval, acuminate, serrate, 
petiolate ; ped. of the umbel rather shorter than the common petioles. — Not un- 
common in rocky or mountainous woods, Can. to the mountains of the South- 
ern States. Root whitish, thick and fleshy. Stem round, smooth. If high, 
with a terminal whorl of 3 compound leaves, and a central peduncle bearing 
a simple umbel. Leaves on round and smooth foot^stalks, consisting of 5, 
rarely 3 or 7 obovate leaflets. The flowers are small, vellowish, on short pedi- 
cels. The barren ones borne on separate plants have larger petals and an en- 
tire calyx. The fertile ones are succeeded by berries of a bright scarlet color 
The root is in little estimation as a drug with us, but it enters into the compo 
sition of almost every medicine used by the Chinese and Tartars. Jn. Jj. 

3. HEDfiRA. 

Cehie hedrttt a cord ; from the vine-like habit 

Calyx 5-toothed ; petals 5, dilated at the base ; berry 5-seeded, 
surrounded by the permanent calyx. — European shrubby plants, climb- 
ing or erect, with simple, evergreen leaves and green flowers. 

H. HELIX. English Ivy. — St and branches long and flexible, attached to the 
earth or trees or walls by numerous radicating fibres ; lvs. dark green, smooth, 
with white veins, petiolate, lower ones 5-lobed, upper ovate ; As. in numerous 
umbels, forming a corymb; ^i^rry black, with a mealy pulp. — Native of Britain. 
There are several varieties in gardens, f 


Order LXIX. C ORN ACE iE.— Cornels. 

Tree* and «ftr«6(», seldom herht^ without stipules. • j. j u ». _^., 

Ixi. opposite (alternate in one cpecieH), with pinnate veinleta. Haira fixed bj toe centre. 

Co/.— -iSepiiid aidherent to the ovary, the limb miuute. 4 or 5-toothed w lobed. 

Cor.— PeUls 4 or 5, distinct, altenmte with the teeih of the calyx. 

St<L of the same number as petals and alternate with them. 

Owl. 1 or Swelled. ttuU a oaccate drupe, crowned with the calyx. 

Oenera 9, species 40. They are natives throughout the temperate sone of both conttoeDtB. Tlw^ander 
is distinguished for its bitier and astringent bark. That of Cornus florida is an excellent tome, sunilar in 
its action to the Peruvian bark. Cornus is the only N. American genus. 

LaL tanw.^ a hora ; frain the hardness of the wood of some species. 

Calyx 4-toothed, segments small ; petals 4, oblong, sessile ; sta- 
mens 4 ; style 1 ; drupe baccate, with a 2 or 3-oelled nut.— 7V««, 
thrvibt or perennial herbs. Lvs. (mostly opposite)^ entire. Fls. in cymes^ 
often involucrate. Floral envelops valvate in (Estivation. 

• Flowers cymase. Involucre 0. Shrubs. 

1. O. BTOLONiPERA. Michx: (C. alba. Wang.) WUte-berried Camd or 
Dog'Wood. — St. often stoloniferous ; branches spreading, smooth; shoots rir- 

gate ; Ivs. broad-ovate, acute, pubescent, hoary beneath; cymes naked, flat; ber- 
ries white.— A small tree, N. and W. Sutes, and Can., 8— lOf in height, with 
smooth, slender, spreading branches, which are commonly red, especially 
in winter. It oAen sends out from its base prostrate and rooting stems, 
with erect shoots. Leaves distinctly veined, minutely pubescent, and whitish 
tomentose beneath, petiolate and pointed. Flowers in terminal cymes, white, 
followed by bluish- white drupes. According to Dr. Bigelow, it sometimes blos- 
soms twice a year. May, Jn. 

2. C. 8BRICEA. Red Osier. 

Branches spreading ; braruMds woolly ; Ivs. ovate, rounded at base, aci»- 
minate, ferruginous, pubescent beneath ; cymes depressed, woolly ; drupes bright 
blue. — U. S. and Can. A variety has leaves taperinep at base. A shrub about 
8f high, with opposite, dusky, purple branches, and dark-red shoots. Leaves 2 
— 4' long,.i as wide, varying from ovate and oval to lanceolate, nearly smooth 
above, with rather prominent veins ; petioles \ — 1' long. Flowers yellowish- 
white appearing in June. 

3. C. ciRCiNATA. Roundrleaved Cornel or Dogrwood. 

Branches verrucose ; Ivs. orbicular or very broadly oval, white tomentose 
beneath; cym£5 spreading, depressed; dmpes\i%\L\AA\XQ. — A shrub some 6f high, 
Can. to Md., W . to la. Stem greyish, upright, with opposite, cylindrical, 
green, spotted or warty branches. Leaves large, about as broad as long, oppo- 
site, acuminate, covered with a white, thick down on the under side. Flowers 
white. Berries hollowed at base, soil, crowned with the remains of the style. Jn. 

4. C. PANicuLATA. White or Panicled Cornel. 

BraTidies erect, smooth ; Ivs. ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, acute at base, 
scabrous above, hoary beneath; c^mes paniculate; drupes white. — A handsome 
shrub, lOf high, common in low woodlands and thickets, N. and W. States and 
Can. It has numerous and very branching stems, covered with a greyish bark, 
the shoots chestnut-colored. Leaves small, (1 — ^ long, ^ — |' wide). Petioles 
1—4" long. Flowers small, white in all their parts, in many small, conical 
cymes, succeeded by small drupes. 


Jjvs. alternate, oval, acute, hoary beneath ; branches alternate, verrucose ; 
drupes purple, globose. — A small tree, N. and W. States and Can., about twice 
the height of the last, in moist woods. The branches are smooth, even, spread- 
ing from the upper part of the stem, and forming a depressed summit Bark 
greenish, marked with warty streaks. Leaves irregularly scattered along the 
branches, oval-lanceolate, acute, entire, veined, whitish underneath, oa rather 
long stalks. Flowers pale buff-color, in a loose cyme. Jn. 

VucraL LXX. LORANTHACRfi. 997 

* * F%nffers umieUate. Inwflucre 44ea!vedf petaloid. 

6. C. FLORIDA. F^oioering Dog-wood. 

Arboreu8;it;«. opposite, ovate, acuminate, entire ; /s. small, in a close, 
cjmose umbel or head, surrounded by a very large, 4-leaved, obcordate involu- 
cre. — A tree from 20 — 30f in height, very ornamental when in flower. Woods, 
IT. S. and Can. The wood is very hard and compact, covered with a rough 
bark, which is extremely bitter, and used in medicine as a tonic. The leaves, 
which at flowering-time are but partially expanded, are acutely ovate, nearly 
smooth, veinv, pale underneath. The true flowers are inconspicuous, greenislib- 
yellow, but the involucre is very large and showy, of veiny, white, obovate 
leaves, ending in a callous point, which is turned up or down so abruptly as to 
give an emarginate appearance to the leaf. Drupe red. May. 

7. C Canadensis. Low Cornel or Dog-wood, 

Herbaceous, low ; upper Ivs, whorled, v«iny, on short petioles ; 5f . simple. 
— A small, handsome plant, common in woods, nearly throughout N. Am. N. 
of lat 39% remarkable fo* its large, white involucre. Rhizoma creeping, woody. 
The flowering stems erect, 4 — 8' high, bearine 2 small stipules in the middle, 
and a whorl of 6 leaves at the top, two of which are larger, placed a little lower 
and opposite. An umbellate cyme of flowers arises from the centre of the whorl, 
and with its large, showy involucre of 4 white leaves, might easily be taken for 
a single flower. They are succeeded by a bunch of red berries. The barren 
stems support a whorl of 4 equal leaves. May, Jn. 

Order LXX. LORANTHACEJB.— Loranths. 

SL paiuitieal, balf-ahrubby, dichotomoua. 

Lv». eTergreen, opposite, ifeiihy, without stipules. 

FtM. dioBCHHis and unall, whitish or irreenish-yellow, sometimea perfect and brilUanL 

CaL adnate to the ovary in perrect nower, limb 8— 6-cleft or obsolete. 

Cor. of 8— 4t»r 8 petals, ooheriog in a tube, sometimes distinct, inserted into the epifTDOia ditk. 

8ta. as many as the petals and opposite to them, or to the sepals when the pet. are 0. 

Ova. i-iellea, with a single suspended ovule. Sty. simple or 0. 

Fr. baccate, with one anatropous seed. 

Genera 83, species 413. about equally distributed throughout the tropical regions of Asia and Ainenca. 
They possess the remarkable property of rooting fiimiy on oUier pJaots and livuig upon their juieca. 
They are sbghtly astringent 

VIS CUM. Toum. 
f or 9 <^. — (^ Calyx with 4 (3 — 5) triangular, erect segments, val- 
▼ate in sestivation ; anthers as many as the sepals, and inserted on 
them ; corolla D. 9 Limb of the calyx obsolete ; petals 4, fleshy, epi- 
gynous ; stamens ; stigma sessile ; berry fleshy, 1 -seeded. — Lvs. very 
rarely dUerruUe or scale-like. 

V. PLAVEscENs. Ph. (V. album. WaU. V. verticillatum. NuU.) MisseUee, 
Branches opposite, sometimes verticillate, terete ; lvs. cuncate-obovate, 3- 
veined, obtuse; spikes axillary, solitary, about as long as the leaves; berries 
white, semi-transparent. — A yellowish g^n, succulent parasite inserted on the 
branches of a^ed trees, N. J. W. to la. and the Southern States ! Stems 1— Uf 
high, rather thick, much branched. Leaves 9—16" by 4—9", smooth and enti>, 
on short petioles. Flowers small, sterile ones mostly 3-parted. Berry with a 
viscous pulp. Apr. May. 

998 LXXI. CAPRIFOLIACEL£. Lonicbra. 


Floral envelops consisting of both calyx and corolla, the latter com- 
posed of petals more or less united (monopetalous). • 


Order LXXI. CAPRIFOLIACE^.— Honeysuckles. 

Shrttbt mrely furbf, often twinioff, with oppoaita leavea and no stipulea. 
Ft*, cymose and often fragrant ..... , ^ ^ , 

Col. adherent to the ovaiy (superior), the limb 5- (rarely 4) cleft or toothed. 

Cor. tubularor rotate, re^lar or irregular. ,, ... ... ,. [the tube. 

sua. at many, or one less than as many as the lobes of the ooroUa, utemate with them and inserted oa 

Oea. s- (rarely 4 or 6) celled. Style I. Sttg. i—4. . ,, ^ . 

Fr. baccate, fleshy or dry, crowned with the persistent calyx lobes. Seeda pendulous. 

(Senera 14, species 220. chiefly natives of the northern temperate regions, and occasionally found in tho 
alpine parts of the tropical zone. 

Propertie9.—The fever-root (Trioatenm perfoliatum) is a mild cathartic, and in larce dnses emetie : tba 
dried and roasted berries are sometimes substituted for coffee. The leaves and bark of tae eider are both 
emetic and cathartic ; the flowers are sudorific, and the berries laxative. The beauty and fiagnncd of 
the honeysuckles in cultivation are well known to every one. 

The oruer consists of two distinct tribes ; Lonicercae and Sambuceo). 

Conspectus of the Genera. 

(few-seeded Lanicera. i 

; Berry I— 3-ce lied, {many -seeded DUrvUla. • 

: Berry 4-celled, 3 seeded Syrnpfur iemp m . 4 

Stamens 4. Trailing, evcnrreen. Untuea. 5 

Stamens 5. Stem erect, simple Triotteum. 8 

< i simple leaves Vibttmum. 7 

Corolla ( rotate, regular. Shrubs with > pinnate leaves Sambuctit. f 

Tribe 1. L.ONICEREJB. 

Corolla tubular, the limb often irregular. Style filiform. 

1. LONICfiRA. 
In honor of Adam Lonicer, a physician of Frankfort, in the 18th century. 

Calyx 5-toothed, tube subglobose ; corolla infandibnliform or cam* 
panulate, limb 5-cleft, often labiate ; stamens 5, cxserted ; ovary 2 — 3 
celled ; berry few-seeded ; stigma capitate. — A genus of dinihing or 
erect shrubs^ with opposite and qflen connate leaves. 

§ Stems climbing. Flowers sessUe^ verticillate. Capri folium. 

1. L. HiRSUTA. Eaton. (C. pubescens. Goldze.) Hairy Honeysuckle. 

L/vs. hairy above, sott-viliose beneath, veiny, broad-oval, abruptly acumi- 
nate, the upper pair connate-perfoliate ; /$. in verticillate spikes; cor. ringent; 
Jll. beardea. — A shrubby climber, rather rare, in woods, N. Eng. to Mich, and 
Can., twining about trees to the height of 15-— 20f. The whole plant is more 
or less hairy. Leaves pale green, not shining, the edges and tne upper side 
ciliate with scattered hairs. The flowers are large, numerous, greenish-yellow, 
in whorled, axillary and terminal clusters. Limb of corolla spreading. Style 
and stamens exsert. Jn. 

2. L. parviplOra. Lam. (C. parviflorum. PA.) SmaH-Jlowered Honetfsvclle. 

L/vs. smooth, shining above, glaucous beneatn, oblong, all sessile or con- 
nate, the upper pair perfoliate ; fis. in heads of several approximate whorls ; 
cor. ringent ; tvl)e short, gibbous at base ; fit. bearded. — A small, smooth, shrubby 
climber, in rocky woods, Can. and (J. S. Stem &— lOf long. Leaves wavy anil 
revolute on the margin, very glaucous on the under side. Flowers rather small. 
Corolla 1' in length, yellow, tinged with dull red, gibbous at the base, the short 
limb in curled segments. Stamens and style exserted. Berries orange-colored. 
May, Jn. 

$. 1 SuUivantU. Lrs. pubescent beneath, all except the upper pair distinct, 
the lower ones petiolate.^Ohio, W. S. Suliivant! S. Car. Miss Carpenter I Per- 
haps distinct. 


3. L. FLA VI. Sims. ^C. Fraseri. PA.) Yell&w Honeysuckle. 

Lvs. ovate, glaucous oeneath, with a cartilaginous margin, upper pair 
connatc-perfoliate ; sjrikcs terminal, of close whorls ; cor. smooth, tut^ slender, 
gibbous at base, limb somewhat ringent* fll. smooth. — A beautiful shrub, 
scarcely twining, mountains, N. Y. to Ga. W . to Wisconsin. Often cultivated. 
Licaves deciduous, obtuse, abruptly contracted at base, except the upper perfo- 
liate pair. Flowers in heads of about 10, fragrant. Corolla ^n inch or more 
in length, the tube much longer than the limb, bright yellow. Upper lip much 
broader than the lower, in 4 segments. Jn. Jl. f 

4. L. GRATA. Ait. (C. gratum. Ph.) Evergreeiv Honeysuckle. 

Jjvs. evergreen, obovate, smooth, glaucous beneath, the upper pair con- 
nate-perfoliate ; fis. in sessile, terminal and axillary whorls ; cor, ringent, tube 
long, slej|^er, not gibbous at base. — A beautiful climbing species, damp wood- 
lands, NtY., Penn. and Western States. Leaves opposite or in 3s, margin 
revolute. Flowers large and very fragrant, 5 or 6 in each whorl. Corolla pale 

? el low within, becoming reddish without. Stamens exscrted. Berries red. 
'he leaves are very obtuse, ending in a short, abrupt point Jn. 

5. L. SF.MPERVlRENS. Ait (C. sempervireus. MicJix.) TVumpet Honeysuckle, 
L/Ds. oblong, evergreen, the upper ones connate-perfoliate ; fis. in nearly 

naked spikes of distant whorls ; cor. trumpet-shaped, nearly regular, ventricose 
above. — In moist groves and borders of swamps, N. Y. to Flor. and La. Com* 
mon in cultivation, where few flowers are found more beautiful, although they 
are deficient in fragrance. Stem woody, twining with the sun. Leaves ovate 
or elliptical, ol a dark, perennial green above. Corolla trumpet-shaped, nearly 
2' long, dilated at the mouth, wiln 5 short, nearly regular segments, of a fine 
scarlet without and yellow within. May — Aug. f 

6. L. Pericltmencm. Toum. (C. Pericljinenum. Ldwn.) Woodbine Honey- 
suckle. — Ia}s. deciduous, all distinct, elliptical, on short petioles; fla, in ovate, 
imbricate, terminal heads ; cor, ringent. — A woody climber, native of Europe, 
cultivated and nearly naturalized. Flowers yellow and red, fragrant, sacceeoea 
by retl berries. May — Jl. f 

$. qnercifolia. {Oak-leaved Honeysuckle.) I/P5. sinuate-lobed. 

7. L. Caprifolium. (Caprifolium Italicum. H. 4* S.) Italian Honajsiickle. — 
Ijvs. deciduous, the upper pair perfoliate-connate; fis. in a terminal verticil; 
cor. ringent. — Native ol Europe. Greatly admired in cultivation for its beauty 
and fragrance. Flowers of various hues, red, yellow and white. Jn. — Aug. f 

§ § Stem erect. Flowers pedunculate^ geminate, Xylostedm. 

8. L. ciLiATA. Muhl. (Xykjstoum ciliafum. Ph.) Fly Honeysuckle. 
£/vs. ovate, subcordate, ciliale ; corolla limb with short and subequal lobes; 

Uibe saccate at base ; sty. exscrted ; berries distinct. — A branching, erect shrub, 
3 — 4f high, found in woods, Me. to Ohio and Can. Leaves thin, oblong-ovate, 
often cordate at the base, somewhat ciliate on the margin, and villose beneath 
when young. Flowers pale straw-yellow, in pairs at the top of the peduncle, 
with an obtuse spur turned outwards at the base. Berries ovoid, red, in pairs, 
but not connate, 3 — ^5-seeded. June. 

9. L. OBI.ONGIPOLIA. Hook. (X. oblong! folium. Gohh'r.) 

L/DS. oblong or oval, velvety-pubescent beneath; cirroUa limd deciply bila- 
biate; tube gibbous at base; pc/. long, filiform, erect; berries connate or united 
Into one, globose, purple, bi-umbilicale.— A shrub :^— If hi^h, in swamps, Can. 

calyces. Jn. 

10. L. coERULEA. (X. villosum. il/r. X. Solonis. Eat.) Hive-fruited 

Honeysuckle. — Lvs. oval-oblons:, ciliate, obtuse, villous Ix^th sides, at length 

smoothish; ped. short, reflexed in fruit; bnicls longer than the ovaries; berries 

connate or united into one, deep blue. — A low shrub, in rocky woods, Mass. 

and N. Y., N. to Hudson's Bav. Stem 2f high, with small loaves and pairs ol 



small, yellow flowers, which are longer than their pedancles. Leaves ovate, 
oval, oDovate and oblong, ending abruptly. May, June. 

11. L. T/RTAHiCA. Tartarian HoncymKkk. — Stems erect, much branched; 
h>s. ovate, cordate, obtuse, smooth, shining and dark green above, paler beneath, 
entire, on short petioles ; peduncles axillary, solitary, 'i-flowered ; segnieiUs oftht 
corolla oblong, obtuse, equal. — An elegant and much admired shrub, from Kus- 
sia. Grows from 4 to 101* high. Leaves 1 — 2' by } — IJ', coriaceous. Flowers 
small, pale purple, varying to pure white, fragrant. Apr. — Jn. f 

2. DIERVILLA. Tourn. 
In honor of Dierville, a French surgeon, ducoverer of the original Bpecie*. 

Calyx tube oblong, limb 5-cleft; corolla twice as long, fannel- 
shaped ; limb 5-cleft and nearly regular ; stamens 5 ; capsi^ur fruit 
2'celled (apparently 4-celled from the projecting placentaB), many- 
seeded. — ShrubSj wvth opposite^ serrate^ deciduous leaves. 

D. TRiFiDA. Mcench. (D. Toumefortii. Michx. D. Canadensis. Mtihl.) Dusk 
Honeysuckle. — L/vs. ovate, acuminate, on short petioles j ped. axillary and 
terminal, 1—3 flowered ; caps, attentiate above. — A low shrub, not uncommon 
in hedges and thickets, Can. to Car. Stem about 2f high, branching. Leaves 
3 — 4' by 1 — 1^', finely serrate, ending in a long, njirrow point. Ovaries slender. 
4 — 6" long, about half the length of the greenish yellow corolla. Stamens and 
style much eiseried. Stigma capitate. Jn. 

Or. rpeiff three, otrreov, s bone ; from the thiee bony leedf. 

Calyx tube ovoid, limb 5-parted, segments linear, nearly as long as 
the corolla ; corolla tubular, gibbous at base, limb 5-lobed, subequal ; 
stamens 5, included ; stigma capitate, lobed ; fruit drupaceous, crown- 
ed with the calyx, 3-celled, 3-seeded ; seeds ribbed, bony. — % Herba- 
ceous, rarely suffnUicose. 

T. PERPOLiATUM. Fever-^ori, 

L/cs. oval-acuminate, connate ; fis. axillary, verticillate or clustered. — ^A 
coarse, unattractive plant, growing in rocky woods. Stem simple, stout, erect, 
round, hollow, 3 — 4f high, covered with soft, clammy hairs. Leaves 6' by 3', 
entire, abruptly contracted at base, yet always connate, nearly smooth above, 
pubescent beneath. Flowers sessile, in clusters of 5 or 6. Corolla dull pur- 
ple, viscid-pubescObt, the limb in 5 rounded lobes. Fruit a rather dry drupe, 
somewhat 3-sided, crowned with the long, leafy, spreading .calyx segments, 
orange-colored when mature, containing 3 bony nuts or seeds. June. — The 
root is large and fleshy, and in much repute in medicine, having many of the 
properties of Ipecacuanha. 

(3r. ffvy, tof ether, ^cp», to bear, Kopwos, fruit; bearing frait in ck»e cIiiBteri. 

Caljrx tube globose, limb 4 — 5-toothed ; corolla funnel-shaped or 
bell-shaped, the limb in 4 — 5 subequal lobes ; stamens 4 — 5, inserted 
on the corolla ; stigma capitate ; berry globose, 4-celled, 2-seeded 
(2 opposite cells abortive). — Small shrubs^ icith entire Ivs. and small Jls. 

1. S. RACEMdst's. Michx. (SjTnphoria. Pers.) Snow-berry, 

Pis. in terminal, loose, interrupted, often leaty racemes ; cor. campanu- 
late, densely bearded within ; sty. and ."5/^. included. — A smooth, handsome shrub, 
2 — 3f high,' common in cultivation, and native in Western N. Y., Canada, Ac 
Leaves oval or oblong, the margin oUen wavy, nearly or quite smooth, paler 
beneath, on short petioles. Corolla rose-color, the throat filled with hairs. Ber- 
ries large, round or ovoid, of a snowy white, and very ornamental when ma 
ture. July, Aug. 

2. S. occiDENTALTs. R. Br. Wolf-berry. 

Tjh, evate, obtus ish ; spiArs dens«, axillary and terminal, snbtessile, nod 

Vniimxini. LXXL CAPRIFOLIACEiB. 301 

ding; cor. somewhat funnel-form, densely bearded inside ; sta. and bearded style 
exserted. — Woods, Mich, to Wis. Lapham! and Can. Shrub 2 — 4f high. 
Xjeaves 1 — 3' by | — 2'\ pubescent or nearly glabrous, paler beneath. Corolla 
rather larger and more expanded than in tne last, purplish-white. Berries 
white. July. ' 

3. 8. VULGARIS. Michx. (Lonicera symphoricarpus. lAnn, Sjnnphoria 
glomerata. NuU.) — I/vs. roundish-oval ; spikes axillary, subseseile, capi- 
tate and crowded ; cor. campanulate, lobes nearly glabrous ; sta. and bearded 
style included. — River banks, Penn. to Mo. and S. States. Shrub 2— 3f high. 
Branches purplish and often pubescent Leaves 1 — ^ by | — 1|', somewhat 
pubescent CoroUa greenish-red. Berries purple. 

5. LINN ^ A. Gron. 
In honor of Carl y<tn IdnnCj the moat profound of nattxraluts, ancient w modem. 

Calyx tube ovate, limb 5-parted, deciduous ; bracteoles at base 2 ; 
corolla campanulate, limb subequal, 5-lobed ; stamens 4, 2 longer 
than the other 2 ; berry dry, 3-celled, indehiscent, 1 -seeded (2 cells 
abortive). — A trailing^ evergreen herb^ widely disseminated throughcvi 
the northern temperate zone. 

L. BOR£ALis. Gron. ThDiiir-fiower. 

The only species, native of moist^ «hady, rocky soils, generally in evergreen 
woods, from lat 39^ to the Arc. Sea. It has long, creeping, filiform, brownish 
stems, rooting and branching their whole length, and covering the ground in 
large patches. Leaves smalL opposite, petiolate, roundish, with obtuse lobes or 
teeth, and scattered hairs. Peduncles filiform, slightly hairy, about 3' high 
(the only erect part of the plant^, the lower part leaiy, the upper furnished with 
a pair of minute, linear, opposite bracts, and terminating with 2 pedicellate, 
nodding flowers. The coroUa is roee-colored and very fragrant Jn. 

Tribe 3. SAMBUCEiE. 

Corolla regular, rotate. Stigmas 3 — 5, nearly sessile. 


L«L MOTduQS, a oraiieal inatrament, Mud to have baen nade of fha elder. 

Oalyz small, 5-parted ; corolla 5-cl6f6, segments obtuse ; stamens 
5 ; stigma obtuse, small, sessile ; berry globose, pulpy, 3-seeded. — 
Shrvhs or perennial herbs^ with pinnate^ or bipinnaU Ivs. Fls, in cymes, 

1. S. Canadensis. Common Elder. 

St. shrubby ; cymes 5-parted ; Ivs. nearlv bipinnate ; Ifls. oblong-oval, acu- 
minate, smooth. — A common, well known shrub, 6 — lOf nigh, in thickets and 
waste grounds, U. S. and Can. Stem filled with a light and porous pith, espe- 
cially when young. Leaflets in 3 or 4 pairs with an odd one, serrate, the lower 
ones oAen binate or trifoliate. Petioles smooth. Flowers numerous, in very 
large (2f broad in la I) level-topped cymes, white, with a heavy odor. Beiriea 
dark purple. May— Jl. 

2. S. puB^Ns. Michz. Panided Elder. 

St. shrubby ; cymes paniculate or pyramidal ; Ifls. oval-lanceolate, acumi- 
nate, in 3 or 3 pairs, with an odd one, and, with the petiole, pubescent beneath. 
— A common snrub, in hilly pastiues and woods, Huason's Bay to Car., growing 
about 6f high,^ often more or less. Leaves simply and unequally pinnate, 
l^eaflets sharply serrate, very pubescent when young. Flowers in a close, ovoid 
thyrsus or panicle. Corolla white. Berries scarlet, small. Jn. 
fi. leucocarpa. Berries white. — Catskill Mountains. T. 4r G^- 


Lat vitrt, to tie ; for the pliancy of the twigs of some of the ipedea. 

Calyx small, 5-toothed, persistent ; corolla limb 5-lobed, segments 
obtoBe ; stamens 5, equal, longer than the corolla ; stigmaa moatlj 

302 LXXl. CAPRIFOUACEiE. Viburndii. 

sessile ; dmpe 1 -seeded. — Shrubs or small trees. Lvs. simpU^petioUUe, 
Fls. cymose, sometimes radiant. 

♦ Cymes radiant j the marginal floiccrs muck larger than tht others and neutral. 

1. V. LANTANolDES. Hobblc-bush. Wayfaring Tree. 

Lvs. orbicular-cordate, abruptly acuminate, unequally serrate ; pet. and 
veins covered with a ferruginous down ; cymes sessile ; jr. ovate. — A shrub, veiy 
ornamental when in flower. It is rather common in the rocky woods of N. 
Eiig. and N. Y., which it adorns in early spring with its large cymes of bril- 
liant white flowers. Height about 5fl Branches long and crooked, oilen trail- 
ing and rooting. Leaves very large, covered with a rusty pubescence when 
young, at length becoming green, the dust and down remaining only upon the 
stalk and veins. The radiant, sterile flowers of the cyme are near 1' diam., from 
a greenish color becoming white, flat, with 5 rounded lobes. Inner flowers 
much smaller, fertile. May. 

2. V. opuLUs. $, Americana, Ait. T. & G. (V. Oxycoccus. Ph.) High 
Cranberry. — Smooth,* lvs. 3-lobed, 3-veined', broader than long, rounded at 

base, lobes divaricate, acuininate, crenatel3r toothed; petioles glandular; cymes 
pedunculate. — A hanusome shrub, 8— 12f high, in woods and borders of fields, 
N. States and Brit. Am. Stems several from the same root, branched above. 
Leaves with large, remote, blunt teeth, the stalks with 3 or more glands at base, 
channeled above. Cymes bordered with a circle of large, white, barren flow- 
ers, like the preceding species. Fruit resembles the common cranberry in fla^ 
vor, and is sometimes substituted for it. It is red, very acid, ripens late, re- 
maining upon the bush after the leaves have fallen. June. 

0. roseum. Guelder Hose. Snovhball. — Ijvs. rather acute at base, longer than 
broad, lobes acuminate, with acuminate teeth ; petioles glandular ; fls. all neu- 
tral, in globose cjrmes. — Native of Europe. This variety is the popular shrub 
so generally admired and cultivated as a companion of the Lilac, Snowberry, 
Phuadelphus, &c. Its dense, spherical cymes are wholly made up of barren 

• * Cym£S not radiant. Flowers all similar and fertile. Leaves lobed or incised, 

4. y. ACERiPOLiuM. Maple-leaved Vibwmum, Dockmackie, 

Los. subcordate, acuminate, 3-veined, 3-lobed, acutely serrate ; pet, with- 
out glands ; cymes on long pedun'cles. — ^A shrub, 4— 6f high, with yellowish 
green bark, growing in woods, Can. and U. S. Leaves^ broad, rounded and 
sometimes cordate at base, divided into 3 acuminate lobes with sharp serra- 
tures, a form not very unlike that of the maple leaf, the under surface, as well 
as the younger branches a little downy. Branches straight, slender, very flexi- 
ble, ending with a pair of leaves and a long-stemmed, cymose umbel of white 
flowers. Fruit oval, compressed. Stamens much exserted. June. 

5. V. pauciplOrum. Pylaie. Ftio-flmoered Vibumum. 

Nearly smooth in all its parts ; (vs. roundish, slightly 3-lobed or incised 
at summit, mostly &- veined from the base; cyincs small and pedunculate, termi- 
nating the very short lateral branches ; fll. much shorter than the coroMa. — A 
small shrub, with white flowers, Mansfield Mt., Vt. Macrae^ White Mts., N. H. 
Bobbins, N. to Newfoundland. 

6. V. Lentaoo. Sioeet Vibumum. 

Lts. ovate, acuminate, acutely and finely uncinate-serrate ; petiole with 
undulate margins. — A common, tree-like shrub, in rocky woods. Can. to Ga. 
and Ky. Height 10 — I5f Leaves smooth, conspicuously acuminate, about 3' 
long and half as wide, their petioles with a curled or wavy, dilated border on 
each side. Flowers white, in broad, spreading cymes, succeeded by well-fla- 
vored, sweetish berries of a glaucous black. Jn. 

7. V. NUDUM. Naked^staUced Vibumum. Withe Rod. , 
Smooth; lvs. oval-oblong, revolute at the edge, subcrenulate ; pet. naked; 

mies pedunculate. — A shrub or small tree, 10— I5f high, in swamps, IX. S. 
Leaves eUiptical, punctate, coriaceous, the margin more or less rolled, nearly 
entire, smooth as well as every other part, and when full grown, 3 or 4 inches 


JbDg. Cymes large, on peduncles an inch or two in lenrth, with eadueoas bracts. 
Flowers numerous^ white. Bjsxries dark bine, covered with a glaucoas bloom, 
sweetish when ripe. June. 

(9. cassinoides. (V. pyrifolium. Lam.) Z/175. ovate, oval or often rhomboidal, 
acominate, acute, obtuse or even emarginate on the same twig; margin finely 
serrate ; fr. oblong-ovoid, 

8. v. PRUNiFOLiuM. Black Haw. Sloe. 

l/os. smooth, roundish-obovate, acutely serrate, with uncinate teeth ; fetU 
nks margined with straight, narrow wings. — In woods and thickets, N. Y. to Ga. 
A. shrub or small tree, 10 — Q0£ high, the branches spreading, some of them often 
stinted and naked, giving the plant an unthrifty aspect. Leaves about 3' long 
and nearly as wide, on short petioles, slightly margmed. Cymes rather large, 
terminal, sessile. Flowers white, succeeded by oval, blackish berries which are 
sweet and eatable. June. 

9. V. DENTATUM. ArrovMJDood, 

Nearly smooth ; Ivs. roundish-ovate, dentate-serrate, subplicate, on long 
stalks; cymei pedunculate. — A shrub, 8 — 12f high, not uncommon in damp 
woods and thickets, Can. to Ga. It is called arrow- wood from the long, straight, 
slender branches or young shoots. Leaves roundish, 2 — 3' diam., the upper 
pair oval, the veins beneath prominent, parallel and pubescent in their sjUIb. 
Flowers white, succeeded by small, roundish, dark blue berries. June. 

10. V. puBESGENs. Downy Viburnum. 

Ijvs. ovate, acuminate, dentate-serrate, subplicate, villous beneath and 
somewhat hairy above, on short stalks ; stipules 2, subulate ; crrmes pedunculate ; 
fr, oblong. — In dry, rocky woods and thickets, Can. to Car. rare. A shrub, 
about 6f high. Leaves about 2^ long, each with a pair of short, hairy, subulate 
appendages (stipular 1> at the base of the very short petiole. Cymes small, few- 
flowered. Flowers ratncr larger than those of the foregoing species,, white. Jo. 

11. V. TiNCs. Lavrestine. — Ia's. ovate, entire, their veins with hairy tofts 
beneath. — An exceedingly beautiful evergreen shrub, from Europe. Height 
4— 6f. Leaves acute, veiny, dark shining green above, paler beneath. Flowers 
white, tinged with red, very showy. Degrees of pubescence variable. 

Ordeil LXXII. RUBIACEiE.— Madde&wobts. 

Tree$. thrubt^ and herbs. LV9. opposite, •otnutimca vcrticiHate, entiie. 

Btip. between the petioles, aomelimes rescmblins the leHvci. 

Cat — Tulte more or less adherent (superior or half-RUperiur), limb 4— 5-cIeft 

Cor. regular, inserted upon the calyx tube, and of the same number of divisions. 

Bta. inserted upon the tube of corolla, eaual in number and alternate with its secmanta. 

Ova. 8- (nuely more) ceiled. Style single or partly divided. 

Ft. vahouB. Seed* one, few or many in each cell. 

Genen S99. species 2tez It is generally divided into two Suborders, viz., Stellatat and C0tdb9fM«, to 
which a third, Lnranieai (which has no repre.-<entativea at the North) is appended byTorrey and Gmy. 

llie aperies of the first Suborder. Stellats. are common in the northern parts of both continents ; the 
two other Suborders chiefly prevail in warm or torrid regions. 

Pi v per t kf.—Ji very important family, fumi'hinir many useful products. The madder, one of the moat 
important of dyes, is fumwhed by the wot of Rubia tinctorin. A Kimilar coloring matter is possessed br 
Mveral species of Galium. Amons[ thu CinrhonriewB tind Cinchona and Ceunielis fumiflhiqr two or 
the most vnJJHable of all medicines. Peruviaix borkr, a powerful Ahrifiiffe, well known and appreciated 
■▼eiywhere. is the produ**! of wvcral spt'cio^ of the former, vi?:.. Cinchona micranthia, C. condaminea, 
C. lanceolaia. C. macniftilia. &c., all nativoii of Peru. Their febrifugal prooerties depend upon the pres- 
ence ol two alkalies. Cinchonia nnd Qvinia. both combined with Kinfcacfd. Iprcantanhfk, the prinoo 
of all emetics, is the product of the root of Cephaelislpccacuanha, a little shrubby phuit with creepinf 
foote,in the damp forests of Bra/ii. Several other speciod of Cinchonee aflbrd substitutes for the true 

Cqffee\» the hard albumen of the scerN of CoflVa Arabica, a tree of moderate size, with a li'sht brown 
tmnK and a conical sbaiNid hend. L^!lve.^ shinin?, liirht p'-fen. Flower* white, fnwrant. The berriat 
aro black when ripe. Coflee is said to have bc«»n ti>c-(l in Kthiopiu from time immemorinl. In Paris and 
lioiidofi it seems not to have been in cencml u!*e eniier th:tn the year 1700, but since that time, enough 
l»a been tbank in Europe and America to (lout tht) British unvy. 

Co7bspcctns of the Genera. 

I Leases (and inttrpetiohr jrnf like ^tipt'Ioi) in verticil.^. . . QalUun. 1 

rOvary wiih Jrornllu-!! MItchella. 9 

! ( Ciipjiule -2 relied, manjr-sccded. . JJedyotU. a 

uDvary < Carpeli) a, l-sccdetl, I mdchi^cent. . Sp^rmaooce. 4 

Leaves (Hrrbs. rsimple. ( Can)cls '2. isecded, both indehtscent. Diodta. 5 

iadberent C opposite. (Shrubs, with flowers in clubosc hcadii Ceiphaitmthu*. t 

Owiy (iMlriy free from the calyx. Leaves optMMite Ppkt^ia. 7 


904 LXXll. RUBIACEiE. Galium. 

Suborder 1. — & TEIiliATJB. 

Calyx wholly adherent (superior) to the ovary which is two-celled, 
two-seeded. Leaves verticillate. Herbs. 


Gr. yaXoy milk; tho flowers of ono species (G. veram) are used in eoagulatniff mi^ 

Calyx minute, 4-toothed ; corolla rotate, 4-cleft ; stamens 4, short* 
styles 2 ; carpels 2, united, 1 seeded, indehiscent. — Herbs^ with slenr 
deTy A-angled stems. Lvs. verticiUnte. 

♦ Fruit smooth. 

1. G. ASPRELT.UM. Michx. Rout^k Cleavers or Clivers. 

SI. diffuse, very branching, rough backwards ; lvs. in 6s, 5.« or 4s, lanceo- 
late, acuminate or cuspidate, margin and midvein retrorsely aculeate ; ped, 
short, in 2s or 3s. — 'Zj.Common in thickets and low grounds, Can. and Northern 
States. Stem weak, 2 — 51" long, leaning on other plants, and clo.sely adhering 
to them by its minute, retrorsc prickles. Leaves 5 — 8" by 2 — 3". Flowers 
white, small and numerous. Fruit minute, smooth, often slightly hispid when 
young. Jl. 

2. G. TRiFiDUM. Dycrs^ Cleavers. Goose-grass. 

St. decumbent, very branching, roughish with retrorse prickles; lvs. in 5s 
and 4s, linear-oblong or oblanceolatc, obtuse, rough-edged ; parts of the ficnccr 
mostly m 3s. — % In low, wet grounds. Can. and U. S. It is one of the smallest 
of the species. Leaves 3 — G" by 1 — 2", ofton cuneate at base. Peduncles 
mostly in 3s, and axillary. Flowers small, white. Jl. 

/?. tinctorium. Torr. (G. tinctorium. Linn.) — S/. nearly smooth j lvs. of the 
Btem in Gs^ of the branches m 'Is; ped. 2 — 3-flowered ; parts ofthefloirer m 4s. — ^A 
somewhat less slender variety than the first. The root is said to dye a perma- 
nent red. 

y. laUfolium. Torr. (G. obtusum. Bw.) — Dvi. in 4s, oblanceolatc, obtuse ; 
fed. 3-flowered ; parts of the flower in 4s. 

3. G. VERUM. Ydlmn Bedsfraw. 

Erect ; /r5. in 8s, grooved, entire, rough, linear ; fls. densely paniculate. — 
'Zl. Found in dry, open grounds, in the vicinity of Boston, probably introduced. 
Bigelow. Root long, fibrous. Stem slender, erect, 1 — 2f nigh, with short; op- 
posite, leafy, unequal branches. Leaves deflexed, linear, with rolled edges. 
Flowers numerous, small, yellow, in .small, dense, terminal panicles. Jn. — 
The roots dye red. The flowers are used in England to curdle milk. § 

4. G. coNciNNUM. Torr. & Gray. 

St. decumbent, diffusely branched,' retrorsely scabrous on the angles; lvs, 
in 6s, linear, glabrous, 1-veined, scabrous upwards on ihe margins ; ped. fili- 
form, twice or thrice trichotoraous, with short pedicels; lobes of the corolla 
acute. Dry woods and hills, Mich., Ky. T. (^ G. la. ! Stems very slender, 
10 — 15' high. Leaves in numerous whorls, 5—8'' by 1", slightly broader in the 
middle. Flowers minute and numerous, white. Jn. • 

*♦ Prnit hi^piff. 

5. G. aparIne. Ci^nnon Ck^nrrs. 

St. weak, procumbent, retriirscly prickly; lvs. in 8s, 7s or6s, lincar-oblan- 
ceolate, mucronate, rough on the midvein and margin; ped. axillary, 1 — 2-flow- 
ered. — (2) In wet thickets, Can. and Northern States to la. Plummerl Stems 
several feet long, leaning on other plants, arid closely adhering by their hooked 
prickles to everything in iheir way. Lcr.ves 12 — 20'' by 2 — 3". Flowers nu- 
merous, small, white. Fruit rather large, armed with hooked prickles. Jn. — 
The root will dye red. The herbage is valued as a domestic remedy. ^ 1 

6. G. TRIPL6RUM. Michx. Trl-flaircrini: Galimn. 

St. weak, often procumbent, smoothish,VhiRing; lvs. in 5s and Gs, lanceo- 
late, acuminate-cuspidate, 1-veined, scarcely ciliate on the margin ; ped. elon- 
gated, axillary, S- (rarelv 2 ) flowered at 'the extremity;/.*, pedicellate; /r. 

Hedtotis. LXXII. RUBIACE^. 305 

hispid with hooked hairs. — Tj. Grows in moist thickets and woods, Can. and 
U. S. Stem 1 — ^3f long, slightly branched. Leaves 1 — SH long, \ as broad, often 
obovate. Flowers greenlsh-wKite, small. Fruit whitish with its uncinate 
clothing. JI. 

7. G. BOREALE. (G. septentrionale. Bw.) Northern Oalium. 

St. erect, smooth ; Ivs. in 4s, linear-lanceolate, rather acute, 3-veined, 
smooth ; fls. in a terminal, pyramidal panicle. — % Grows in rocky, shady places, 
Northern States and Brit. Am. Stems If or more high, several together, 
branched above. Leaves 12 — 20" by 2 — 9"^ tapering to an obtusish point. 
Flowers, small, white, in a thyrse-like panicle at top of the stem. 
Fruit small. Jl. 

8. G. pilOsum. Ait. (G. puncticulosum. Michx.) Hairy Oalium. 

St. ascending, hirsute on tne angles : Ivs. in 4s., oval, indistinctly veined, 
hirsute both sides and punctate with pellucid dots ; ped. several times forked, 
each division 2 — 3-flowered ; fls. pedicellate. — % A rare species, found in dry 
woods and sterile soils, Mass. I to la. ! and Tex. Stem 1 — 2f high, acutely 4- 
angled, mostly with few, short, spreading branches, sometimes much branched. 
Leaves 9 — 12'' by 4 — 8", obtusish, very hairy as well as the stem and fruit. 
Flowers purplish. Jn. 

9. G. cmcfZANS. Michx. Circaea'like Galium. 

St. erect or ascending, smooth ; Ivs. in 4s, oval or ovate-lanceolate, 3- 
veined, smoothish, ciliate on the margins and veins ; ped. divaricate, few-flow- 
ered; yr. subsessile, nodding. — %. Grows in woods, U. S. and Can. Stem about 
If in height, with a few short branches near the top, or simple. Leaves 1 — ^ 
by 4—8". Flowers on very short, reflexed pedicels, scattered along the (usually 
S) branches of the dichotomous peduncle. Fruit covered with litUe hooks as in 
Circsea. Jl. — The leaves have a sweet taste like liquorice. 

0.'i lanceolatum. Torr. CG. Torreyi. Bw.) Very smooth: Ivs. lanceolate; 
fr. sessile. — A fine variety ) with larger leaves (2' or more in length). Flowers 

y. 1 Tuontanum. T. & Q, (G. Littelli. Ckikes.) Dwarf; hs. obovate.— White 
Mts. Oakes. 

Suborder 2.— C INCHOXISiE. 

Calyx adherent to the ovary. Leaves opposite (rarely verticillate). 
Stipules between the petioles, often united with theminto a sheath. 


In honor of Dr. John MitcheU, an Eaglinh resident in Virginia. 

Flowers 2 on each double ovarj ; calyx 4-parted ; corolla funnel- 
shaped, hairy within ; stamens 4, short, inserted on the porolla ; stig- 
mas 4 ; berry composed of the 2 united ovaries. — Evergreen herbs, 
smooth and creeping^ with opposite haves. 

M. REPKNS. Partridge Berry. 

Sf. creeping; Ivs. roundish-ovate, peilolale. — A little prostrate plant found 
in woods throughout the U. S. and Can. Stem furnished with flat, coriaceous, 
dark green leaves, and producing small, briglit red berries, remarkably distin- 
guished by ihcir double structure, and remaining on the plant through the win- 
ter. The corollas are white or tinned with red, very fragrant. Fruit well fla- 
vored bat dry and full of stony seeds. Jn. 

Gr. r/ivif iweet, (avf) oro;, thoear; said to cure deafiieis. 

Calyx tube ovate, limb 4-parted ; corolla 4-lobed ; stamens 4, in- 
serted on the corolla ; stigma 2-lobed ; capsule 2-celled, many-seeded. 
— Herbs, rarely shrubs. Lvs. opposite. Stip. coniuUe with the petiole. 

306 LXXII. RUBIACE^. Spsriucocb. 

§ CoroUa hypocrater-iform, with a long tube^ limb glabrow. Peduncles 

l-Jiowered. Houstonia. Linn. 

1. H. coBRULEA. Hook. (Hous. coeralea. Lin^n.) Dwan-f Pink. Innocence, 
Radicallcs. ovate-spatulate, petiolate; sis. erect, numerous, dichotomoos; 
ped. filiform, 1 — 2-flowered. — An elegant little plant, found in moist grounds, 
fields and road-sides, Can. and (J. S. Its blossoms appear early, and are usu- 
ally found in patches of considerable extent, covering the surface of the ground 
with a ccandean hue. The cauline leaves are small, opposite, lance-ovate. 
Stems very slender, forked, S— 6^ high, each branch bearing a flower. Corolla 
pale blue, yellowish at the centre. May — Aug. 

3. H. MINIMA. T. & G. (Houstonia. Beck.) 

Glabrous, simple or dichotomouslv branching; Vos. linear-spaiulate, much 
attenuated to the base ; ped. axillary and terminal, often longer than the leaves ; 
sds. 10 — 15 in each cell, oval, smooth, concave on the face. — Prairies, &c., Mo. ! 
Tenn. ! to La. Very small and delicate, l-rS' high. Lieaves about 6" by l'". 
Flowers rose-color. Mar. — May. 

§ § CoroUa vnfundibtUifomiy often hairy inside. Flowers in terminal 

racemes. Amphiotis. DC. 

3. H. ciliolAta. Torr. (Hous. Canadensis. MuM,) Clustered DtoarfPink, 
Radical Ivs. ovate, obtuse, narrow at the base, ciliate on the margin ; can- 
line ones ovate-spatulate, sessile; corymbs terminal, pedicellate ; ped. tricho- 
tomous ; divisions of the calyx lance-linear. — Biuiks of^ lakes and rivers, Onta- 
rio ! Niagara I W. to Ohio. A little plant, stouter than the last Rootrleaves 
numerous, stem-leaves few. Stems smooth, 4-angled, branched above, and 
bearing a corymbose cluster of numerous pale purple flowers. Calyx half-ad- 
herent, its lol^es about half as long as the tube of the corolla. May — ^July. 

4. H. LONGIPOL1A. Hook. THoustonia longlf. Cfaert.) Long-leaved Dtoarf 
Pink. — Radical Ivs. oval-eUiptic, narrowed to each end ; ^luUne linear or 

lance-linear, 1-veined ; fls. in small, paniculate cymes. — % Dry hills, N. and 
Mid. States ! to Ark. and Flor. Much more slender than the next, Stems 
erect, 5 — 12' high, 4-angled, smooth or ciliolate on the angles. Leaves 9— 15" 
by 2--3", cauline sessile, rather acute at each end, all smooth. Flowers 2 or 3 
together, on very short pedicels, pale-purple, with deeper-colored strife in the 
throat Jn. Jl. 

0.'i (H. tenuifolia, NuU.) Si. very branching; Ivs. very narrow; ped. fili- 
form ; fls. smaller. 

5. H. PURPUREA. Torr. & Gray. (Houstonia. lAnn.) 

St. ascending, clustered, branching, 4-anglcd; Ivs. ovate-lanceolate, 3— S- 
veined, closely sessile ; cynics 3 — 7-flowered, often clustered ; calyx segments 
lance-linear, longer than the capsule. — Mid. and W. States ! in woods and on 
river banks. A very delicate flowcrer, about M* high. Leaves 1 — 2' long, | as 
wide. Corolla (purple, T. 4* G) white, scarcely tinged with purple. May — ^Jl. 

§ § § CoroUa rotate^ tube very short. Seeds 50 — 60 in each ceU, Plowerw 
mostly glomerate in the axils of the leaves. Elatinella. Torr. <f Gray, 

6. H. GLOMERATA.. Cvecphig Grccn-head. 

St. assurgent, branching; Ivs. oblong-lanceolate, pubescent, narrowed at 
the base into a short petiole or sessile ; fls. glomerate in the axils and terminal. 
A plant varying in size from 1—2' to as many feet, found in swahips, &c., N. 
Y. to La. Leaves \' in lenjjth, apparently connate from the stipules adhering 
to each side of the petiole. Stipules 2-clell into narrow subulate divisions. 
Cal)rx in 4 deep, lealy divisions which arc much longer than the white, rotate 
corolla. Stamens scarcely exserted. Style very short Capsule opening cross- 
wise. Jn. — Sept 


Gr. OTTcpfia, seed, ukukti^ a point; alluding to tho pointed Kcds. 

Calyx tube ovoid, limb 2 — 4-parted ; corolla tubular, limb spread- 
iDg, 4-lol)ed ; stamens 4 ; stigma 2-clcft ; fruit dry, 2-oelled, crowned 


with the calyx ; seeds 2, peltate, furrowed on the face. — Mostly her- 
baceotis and tropical. JFls. smaM, axillary^ sessile^ whorled. 

S. GLABRA. MichX. 

Glabrous, procumbent at base; Irs. opposite, lanceolate, entire; whorh 
many-flowered ; col. 4-toothed (rarely 5) ; a/r. lunnel-form, short, hairy in the 
throat; atUhcrs included in the tube; 5//^'-. subscssile. — River banks, Western 
States! Stem 1 — 2i' long, terete, with 4 prominent lines, branched. Leaves 
3 — 3' bv \ — 1' , tapering to each end. Flowers white, 8—20 in a whorl, sub- 
tended \}y the subulate bracts of the stipules. Jl. Aug. — Resembles some of 
the Labiatse. 

Gr. SiSi twice, oiovs, tooth s alluding to the two calyx teeth crowning the ovary. 

Calyx, corolla, stamens, style and fruit, as in Spermacoce, except 
that the (2 or 3) 1 -seeded, separable carpels are both indehiscent ; 
seeds oval, peltate. — American, chiefly tropical herbs, with the habit of 
Spervuicoce in aU respects save the indehisceiU carpels, 

1. D. ViRGiNiANA. (Spermacoce. A. Rich.) 

Procumbent, nearly glabrous or hirsute ; Ivs. lanceolate-linear, sessile, 
entire ; bristles of the stipules longer than the sheaths ; fls. solitary, opposite ; co- 
roUa tube thrice longer than the calyx ; sta, exserted ; sty. deeply 2-clell, the 
lobes filiform. — %. Damp places, 111. to Ga. ! and La. Stem 1 — 2f long, some- 
what 4-sided. Leaves 1 — 2' by 2 — i'\ 1 -veined, often with smaller ones fasci- 
cled in the axils. Corolla y long, hairy inside. May — Sept. 

2. D. TBREs. Walt. (Spermacoce diodina. Mickz.) 

procumbent or«nduig, hairy or scabrous; ^r*. linear-lanceolate, sessile, 
rough-edged, acute, much longer than the sheaths or fruit ; fls. solitary or several 
in each axil ; cor, funnel-form, with a wide tube, twice longer than the calyx ; 
fr. somewhat hairy and 4-sided. — Sandy fields, N. J. to 111. Mead ! and South- 
em States. Stems rather rigid, much branched, 5 — 18' long, brownish. Leaves 
about V by 2". Corolla reddish-white, shorter than the reddish-brown bristles. 


Gr. Ke^aXiif a head, av^ogj a flower ; flowers growing in denite heads. 

Calyx limb 4-toothed ; corolla tubular, slender, 4-cleft ; stamens 4 ; 
style much exserted. — Shrubs with opposite leaves and short stipules. 
Fls. in globose heads, without an invol. 


tA^s. opposite, and in 3s, oval, acuminate, entire, smooth; hds. peduncu- 
late. — A handsome shrub, frequenting the margins of ponds, rivers and brooks, 
U. S. and Can. It is readily distinguished by its spherical heads of flowers, 
which are near 1' diam., resembling the globular inflorescence of the sycamore 
(Platanus occiden talis). Height about 6f. Leaves spreading, entire, 3—6' by 
2 — 3'. The flowers are tubular, with long, projecting styles, and are inserted 
on all sides of the round receptacle. July. 


Calyx persistent, almost entirely free from the ovary. Leaves oppo- 
site, with intermediate stipules. 


In honor of Adrian Spigcliua, Prof, of Anat and Smt^. at Padua, IS78— 1625. 

Calyx 5-parted, segm. linear-subulate ; cor. narrowly funnel-form, 
limb 5-cleft, equal ; stam. 5 ; anth. convergent ; caps, didymous, 2- 
celled, few -seeded. — Ilerbacjious or svffmtcsci'nt. Lvs. opposite. Stip 
ules smaU, interpetiolar. Fls. sessile, in terminal spikes. 


S. MarylandIca. Pink-root. Worm^grass, 

Erect, simple, nearly glabrous ; st. square ; Irs, sessile, ovate-lanceolate, 
acute or acuminate, margin and veias scabrous-pilose; spikes 3 — 8-flowered; 
car. tube 4 times longer than the calyx; anth. exserted; Lobes of the cor. lance- 
olate ; caps, glabrous, shorter than llie calyx. — % In woods, Penn. to Flor. W. 
to 111. Mead, and Tenn. Miss Carpenkri An elegant dark ^reen herb, a foot 
high. Leaves 3 — i' by U — "'^k't entire, often ovate-acummate, the stipules 
scarcely perceptible. Flowers 1 i — 2' long, somewhat club-shaped, scarlet with- 
out, yellow within. Style exserted. J une. — A celebrated anthelmintic. 

Order LXXIII. VALERIANACE^.— Valerians. 

Hfrfif , withoppoaito loaves and no stipules. 

CaL adherent, the hmb either membranous or rMembliiiff a pappui. 

Cor. tubular or lunnei-form, 4— 5 lobed, sometimes spurred at base. ... 

Sta. distinct, inserted into the corolla tube, alternate with, and genendlf ftwer thaa m lobML 

Om. inferior, with one perfect cell, and two abortive ones. 

8d*. Solitary, pendulous, in a dry, indehiscent pericarp. 

Genera 19, species 185. widely diiTiised in temperate climates The true vaterimn of Una shopa, used ia 
hysteria, epilepsy, A:c., is a product of Valeriaiid otficinaiis. The roots of several other species possess ■ 
heavy odor, and are toiiic. antispasmodic, fcbriflt^, &c The tpVcenarddobn ziL 8, Ac) of on, vaiaod 
as a perfume and a stimulant, is from the root ol Nardostachys JatamaiisL 


Limb of the calyx at \engtb a plumose pappiu, deciduous. • . FoferunM. I 

Limb of the calyx toothed and persistent, or obsolete. . . « • • • • " " ~ 


Dedicated to Idnf Valcritu, a patron and friend of botanists. Linn. 

Calyx at first very small, at length forming a plumose pappus j 
corolla funnel-form, regular, 5-clcft ; stamens 3 ; fruit 1 -celled, 1- 
seeded. — '^i. Xt?;. opposite, mostly pimuiUly divided. Fls. in dose cymes. 

1. V. SYLVATICA. /?. vXiginosa. Wild Valerian, 

SI. erect, striate, simple ; radical Ivs. ovate or subspatulate, undiyided ; 
cauline ones pinnately dirided, segments ovate-lanceolate, entire or subserrate, 
the terminal one often dentate ; U^es of the stig. minute, 2 or 3: fr, ovate, com> 
pressed, smooth. — Stem 1 — 2f high. Swamps, Vt. ! to Mich., very rare. 
Plant nearly smooth. Leaves ciliate with scattered hairs ; those of the root 
petioled, sometimes auriculate at bas^, those of the stem with 4 — 8 lateral 
segments and a large terminal one. Flowers numerous, rose-colored, appear- 
ing in July. 

2. V. pauciflOra. Michx. 

Glabrous, erect or decumbent, often stoloniferous at base; radical Ivu 
ovate, cordate, slightly acuminate, on long petioles, crenate-serrate ; cauUne 

S innately 3 — 7-partedj Ifls. ovate, terminal on^much the largest; cymules few- 
owered, corymbose ; corolla tube long and slender. — ^Ohio ! to Va. and Tenn. 
Stem mostly simple, 1 — 2f high. Leaves of the succors mostly undivided, 1 — 
If by I — Iji'y petioles 1^4' long. Flowers pale purple, f in length. Jn. Jl. 

3. V. ciLiATA. Torr. & Gray. 

Simple, smooth and somewhat fleshy; Ivs, lance-linear, some of them 
pinnately cleft into 3 — 7 lance-linear, acute segments, margins densely and 
minutely ciliate, mostly attenuated to the base ; cavline ones few, with linear 
segments ; panicle compound ; Jr. compressed, 4-ribbed, crowned with the late 
calyx limb of 10 or 12 plumose setae. — Low grounds, Can., Wis.! Ohio! Root 
yellowish, fusiform. Stem 1 — 3f high. Rootr-leaves many, 3—8' long, seg- 
ments 2—4'' wide. Flowers white, in a close panicle, which is greatly expand- 
ed in fruit June. 

2. FEDIA. Adans. 

Poihaps fiom/oNlus ; on accoant of the strong odor of some of the spedes. 

Calyx limb 3 — 6-tootlied and persistent, or obsolete ; corolla ta- 
bular, 5-lobed, regular ; stamens 2 or 3 ; fruit 2 or 3 -celled, 1 -seeded. 
— Lvs. opposite^ sessile. One or two cells of tkefruii abortive. 


1. P. PAOoptRUM. Torr. A Gray. (Valerianella radiata. Mtmeh.) WUd 
Com-aalad or Lawb Lettfiux. — St. dicnotomoas, nearly smooth ; hn, oblong- 

spatnlate, subentire ; fr. 3-sided, obscurely a— 3-toothed at the summit.— West- 
em N. Y. to Ohio I Stem 8—18' in height. Bracts lanceolate, acute. Fruit 
resembling that of buck-wheat {Polygonum Fagopyrum) in form, containing 
one lai^ seed' and two empty cells. Flowers white. June. 

2. F. radiAta. Michz. 

Lvi. entire, or toothed towards the base, obtuse ; fls. white ; fr. oyoid, pu- 
bescent, somewhat 4-angled, obscurely 1-toothed at apex ; empty cells not di- 
vergent, but with a groove between them ; fertile cell fl(attish, broader than the 
other 3.— Low grounds, Mich. I Ohio I to La. Stem 6—12' high, dichotomous 
like the other species, smooth. Leaves oblong, more or less tapering to the 
base, 1—2' by 2 — 4". Fruit less than 1" long, at length nearly smooth. May. 

3. P. OLiTORiA. Vahl. Pawnee Lettuce. 

FV. compound, oblique, at length broader than long, not toothed at apex ; 
fertile cell larger than both the others : empty cells united, but with a groove 
between ; Ivs. spatulate-obtuse, radical ones petiolate ; fls. pale blue. — Natural- 
ized in some portions of the IT. S. Stem smooth, 8—12' high, dichotomous. 
Leaves mostly entire. Flowers in dense cymules. Fruit 1' £am. June, -f, 

4. F. uMBiLiCATA. W. S. Sullivaut. 

.Fruit subglobose, inflated, apex 1-toothed, the anterior face deeply umbili- 
cate, sterile cells several times larger than the fertile one; bracts suospatulate- 
linear, not ciliate. — Columbus, Ohio, SuUivantl Plant smooth in all its parts. 
1 — ^2f high, many times dichotomous. Leaves oblong, obtuse, clasping, dilatea 
and coarsely dentate at base, l\' — 3' by 3 — 10". Flowers in numerous cjnaiules, 
corymbosely arranged. Fruit nearly 1" diam., with 1 rib at the back produced 
into a tooth at apex, and a conspicuous depression in front. 

Order LXXIV. DIPSACEJE.— Teaselworts. 

Sarbt or Una »hrub», with whorled or apposite leaTei. 

FA. odleoted upon a oommon receptacle and surrounded bf a manr^leaved inToIucre. 

CaL adhereot, often pappus-like, surrounded by a scarious UTolucel. 

Cor. tubular, somewhat irregular, the limb 4— 5- parted. 

ata. 4. alterraite with the lobes of the corolla, often unequal. AfUher* distinct 

Om. inferior. ooe-ceUed, one-ovuled. Styleoat, simple. 

fV. diT, indehisoent, with a single suspended seed. 

Genera 9, spedee IBO. The order is nearly allied to the CompositsB. The speeiee are aO natiTes of 
the temperate regions of the Eaaiem continent, none of them American. Their propeities are ummpor* 
taot One of the species below is useful in dressing cloth. 


Chr. 6i\^Kua^ to thirat ; alluding to the water held in the axils of the leaToi . 

Flowers in heads ; involucre many-leaved ; involucel 4-sided ; calyx 
superior ; corolla tubular, 4-cleft ; fruit 1 -seeded, crowned with tne 
calyx. — ® Plants large^ hairy or prickly. I/ds. opposite, eonruUe {some- 
times distinct) at base. 

1. D. flYLTESTRis. Mill. Wild Teasel. 

L/vs. connate, sinuate or jagged; kds. cvlindrical; bracts of the involucre 
longer than the head of flowers, slender and pungent, bent inwards. — A tall, 
naturalized, European plant, growing in hedges and by road-sides, Mass. to la. ! 
Stem about 4f high, angled and prickly, with the opposite, lance-shaped leaves 
united around it. Flowers bluish, in a large oval or cylindrical head whose 
bracts or scales are not hooked as in the next species, but straight. July. ( 

2. D. FullOnum. JPiiUers^ Teasel. — Zycj. connate entire or serrate ; A^^. cylin- 
drical ; bracts hooked ; invol. spreading. — A cultivated, European plant. Root 
fleshy, tapering. Stem erect, furrowed, prickly, hollow, about 5f high. Leaves 
two at each node, united at their bases around the stem in such a way as to 
hold a quantity of water. Flowers whitish, in large, oval or ovoid heads, Cul- 


tirated for the use of the clothiers (fuHonum), who employ the heads with their 
hard, hooked scales to raise the nap upon woollen cloths. For this purpose 
they are fixed around the circuralerence of a revolving drum. Flowers in July. J 

LaL scabiea, lepixMy ; plants mid to be useful in cutaneous diseases. 

Flowers in heads ; involucre many-leaved ; involucel nearly cylin- 
drical, with 8 little excavations ; calyx limb consisting of 5 setaB, 
sometjmes partially abortive. — % LaTge^ mostly European herbs toith 
opposite leaves. 

1. S. succlsA. DeviVs-bit. — RL prcmorse ; stem Ivs. remotely toothed ; hds. 
offls. nearly globose ; cor. in* 4 equal segments. — In gardens, though rarely cul- 
tivated. The stem is about If high. Corolla violet, f 

2. S. ATROPURPUREA. MmiTiibig Bride. — Lvs. pinnatifid and incised ; kds. of 
fi$. radiant ; receptacle cylindric ; (ruicr cnrmn. of the seed short, lobed and crenate. — 
A beautilul species, 2--4f high, with dense heads of dark purple flowers, -j" 

Order LXXV. COMPOSITE— Asterworts. 

t'lanit herbaceous or shnibbf . 

Lv». alternate or opposite, without stipules, simple though oAen much divided. 

Ft9. collected into a dense bead (capitulum;, upon a common receptacle, surrounded by an inTolacre of 

many bracts (scales). 
Cal, closely adherent lo the ovary, the limo wanting, or membranaceous and divided into briatlw, liaixs, 

Ac, called papptu. 
Cor. su|icrior, consisting ofS united petals, either ligulate or tubular. > 

Sta. 6, aliemute with the lobes of the corolla. Anth. cohering into a cylinder. 

Ova. interior, I -celled. 1-ovulud. Sti/le 2-clet\, the inner margins of the branches occupied by the stigmM. 
Pr. an achcnia, dry, indehiscent, 1-seeded, crowned with Uie pappus. 

This is the most extensive and most natural of all the oroers of the vegetable kingdom, always distin- 
guished at sight by the capitate flowers and the united anth<;rs. It comprehends 1005 genera (at present 
known. 1846), and about 90i)0 s)>ccie3 ; being nearly one-ninth of all the stiecies of tlowering plants. The 
•^nenu inflorescence is rentntugol, that is. the central o: lemiinol heads are first develofied. while the 
mflorescence of the heads is centnpetol, the outer flo\Kers flriit expanding. In color the flowers are vari- 
ous ; sometimes those of the disk aiul ray arc of difl'erent colors, again they are all of the same, but in the 
former case the disk florets are almost always vellow. 

Thio immense order is difliised throughout oil countries of the globe, but in very different proportJoofL 
According to HumlraldL they constitute about one-seventh of the Phienogamous Flora of <Jemiany, one- 
eifrhth, of France, one-nf^eenth, of Lapland, one-sixth, of North America (north of Mexico), and one-half, 
oi Tropical Amcnca. In New Holland they are in the proportion of about orve-sixteenth, according to 
Brown, while in the island uf Hirily they are one-half The Liiriiliflors* are said to lie most abundant in 
cold regions, and the Tubuliflora> in hot regions. The I^biatiflone are almost exclusively confined to 
South America. In the northern ports of the world the Conipositie are uniTorvally herbaceous, but towards 
the tropics they gradually become frutescent and even trees. In Chili they are generally shrubs, and on 
the island of St lleJena tliey are trees. 

Propertla, ^c— The Composita; furnish comparatively few useful products. A bitter principle per- 
vailes the whole, which, when combined with resin and astringent mucilage, becomes tonic uidjfbrifu- 
gal, OS in the camomile, colt's-foot, thomughwort, goldenrod, dec. Some are antheltninticn from the 

Crevalence ot the resinous principle, as tansey, Artemisia, Veraonia. Others are oiomatic and extremely 
itter, as wormwood and all the species of Artemisia. Other s|)ecie3 are very acrid, as mayweed, rho 
Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus), the vegetable oyster (Tragopogon), the true arUchokc 
(Cynaru), lettuce, dandelion and a few other<t, arc the only species useful for food. The onler abounds in 
oronmcntal plants of the hifrliest interest to the florist, and of easy culture. Among these are the splcn* 
did Dahlias and Chinese Chryitanthema, with the numerous progenyof Aster, Helianllius, Xeranthcmum, 
Coreopsis and multitudes ot'olhers, constitutiiiK the richest ornaments of tlie autumnal flower garden. 

The inflorescence of the CompoNitffi is pecuiiar, and its real nature often complex and obscure. Tlie 
foUowinedeflnitionsjaf terms ore given with reference to tliis order onl/, and if understood, will ivmove 
many ditnculties that lie in the stiuiont's wny in the investnmtion of this subject. 

Capitulum or h^ad (com pound Jlmcer of the earlier botanists) ; » collection of flowers ifiorett') on a 
common receptacle (rachtn), as in Aster. HeliMnthus, diC 

Involucre (calyx by analogy) is the lowt r and outer envelope of the head. 

ficalea; the modified leaves or bracts roinp«».-*ing the involucre. 

MonaphytUntt involucre ; where the scales nre united by their edges. 

Poli^hjfllous involucre; where the .sctileH rue distinct. 

Simple involucre ; where the scales nre equal and arranged in a single row. [short ones. 

Calyculate involucre ; where a sindc row of scales is surrounded at base by an outer row of ^-eiy 

Imbricated involucre ; where the spurs are in several rows, the outer ones becominc gradually shorter. 

The Rectpfcc'e or rachia is tlie diluted extremity of tiie peduncle, inclosed by the mvolucro, and upon 
which the flowers stand. It ia 

Volumnar, fiat, conical or deprrvied, occordinr to its form ; 

Paleacfou* or cftoj^i/, where the flowers nre ti.uitten<lod by chafly scales wliich arc analogous to bracts ; 

Alveolate, where it pres<.>nts the appearance of a honey-comb.each flower having been surrounded by a 
membronouK rim or involurel ; 

AreolatB, where the alveoli are reduced to a mere line ; 

FfnUtrUlate, where the alveoli are split into teeth or brisUes ; 

Naked, M-tien smoothuh, being destitute of chafl* alveoli, bristlas, drc. 


JftM^Sc, whvm ther fund tn or iku thfl « 

unliienn oTOie head ; 


Oowefi nrikv diik uc pailDct or tbuniuUi, wbUe tfai 

em rhe lune bud hu Wh ■uminhU um piiTflbilfl dow«ii i 

r, when IJiemneiDdiTidml plant huHmeDfiu hudiwliolLroratuioiBa1fl,u 

re, Uul is. pioloived at Uu MinnUt IdU 

FIO. 47.— I. Rellanttiia ttranmui— luad 
•fUH inTDliiciv. and a linrla dbk-Oower rei 

A perfect diik-Oower 

'anJat lecliini oT tha bead, ihowliii ih 
a linffla dbk-nowec remauuiwupon Uia con»en rr"-~* — ■- ■ ■ — «^— j^-i 

l««ii«- Br A pcd^l, lifulate fl. 9. A^ciiiuiD, with iti kin| beak and plurnaao pbppui. id. a (ndianU 

MinlbUa. u, SUmiiiiila head enkwcd. It. PiUJUale invaliKia Enlancd. a. Tbe feiitle Oawa. 
Onupeclas of the Gcnrra. 

iConillBi eritnlc- 1 Laavei oppoiiLe H TCTticUtabe. f s 
Caollaa;«Uow 1 1 

(Ruiieltaw. , ^Ut^on^laoiiillnidlaK Is 

i iLaavNoppaainoiailnidlcal. I« 

ladiala. ( Baji crinh!. . { Leavoi allonmla. ... IT 


( Pappus cMtoQaxy. 
Scales much imbricated. ( Pappus plumose. 

\ sprcaaing, petalcnd. 
Scales in 2 series, . . { oreci. greenish. . . El^haniopua. 
r Flowen all perftct C Scales in 1 row or iierics. ... . Cataiia. 





Tla- Dotall perfect 


i Receptacle \ Heads hetcrogamoua. 
r Scales < not chafiV. I Heads dicucious. 

colored. ( Receptacle chafl'y 

\ Fls. all \ In vol. imbricated. . 
< equal. ( Invol. caJyculate. . 
Scales ( Herbs. ( Ray flowers lar|;er, sterile. . 
green. ^Shrubby. Heads dioecious, 
i Scales acute- ^ Achenia cmooth. 
'withspinoae < cuspidate. . . ( Acheiua ru^rnse, 4-anffled. 

leaves ( Scales emarginate-mucronate 

( Heads homogaroous. 
.with QMiiose heads caky. < Heads heteroceplialous. . 

( Receptacle flat 
( homogamous. { Receptacle oonicaL 

















( Heads many, I heteiucephalus Ambrotia. 

(erect 2 Head solitary, terminal Sclerolepk. 

\ Stem herbaeeoua, { climbing and twining MikanUi. 

IS. (Stem shrubby. Heads moooecious Iva> 

\ Heads corymboae. . Tanaoetum. 

{( erect. \ Heads racemose. . . Artemlaia. 
dry, { spreading, petaloid, yellow. . XeTonth&mmm. 
\ green. Senedo. 
(erect close, (yellowish. BigetovUu 
herbaceous, { spreading aind loose. . Carthatmm. 

all equal. ^Scales of the involucre doubly spinoee Cnictu. 

Outer corollas enlarged and sterile Jmberboa. 

( Awns of the achenia retrorsely hispid BidefU. 

Laavea oppgaite. { Awns ofthe achenia upwardly hispid. . • . • „• Coreoptit. 

( Heads smaB. Bolldago. 
( Involucre ( Pappus simple. ( Hds. very laige./istite. 
J imbricated. ^Pappus double. Hds. midl. size.CAnmqwit. 
fflat or I Involuc. not V Outer scales very short or 0. . Serudo. 
] convex, (.imbricated. I Outer scales equal to the inner. Culeiidula, 
I ( Ray flowers pistillate. . 

'RaosplBdeootebafiy, I conical or globose. . . ( Rar flowers neutral. 

( Achenia quadrangular. . 

{Pappus minute orO.( Achenia compressed. 
Pappus of 2 caducous awns. Achenia wingless. 
Pappus of 2 persistent awns. Achenia winged. 
Rays fertile. Ach. obcomprcssed (parallel with the scales). 

\ Awns of ach. retronsely hispid. 
( Involucre double. ( Awns of ach. erectly hispid. . 
'Rayasteiilft. (Involucre imbricate in 3 or mo'e rows. . 

I Achenia obovoid, thick. 

cbofiy. . . 











.Rayi ftrtile. 


disk sterile. 

disk perfect 

( pinnate. 

( Lvs. opposite, < undivideo. 

LXtoeept notehafly* c Leaves radical, appearing ailer the solitary head. 

Achenia obcompressed, winged. St/jaMum. 
Receptacle nearly flat . . Verberineu 
Receptacle conical. . . . HeHoptiB. 
Scales 5, united in 1 row. . Tageie». 
Sc. in 9 rows, outerrow distinct Dyiodio. 
Scales distinct . . Arnica. 

^ , Tuuilago. 

Rays white, shorter than •calas. lEeHpta, 
( Receptacle flat ^ Rays rose color. .... Coreopsk. 
(simple. (Receptacle conical, with large paleie. . . Zinnia. 

(Lecvesoppoaite,CPinnately divided. Inner invol. of 8 united scales. . Dahlia. 

( Reads corymbose yardoanua, 

, I Head solitary, hctcrogamous. Beilig. 

( Achenia silky. Rays about s. . Serieoearpm. 

(Pappus ( copious. (Achenia smoothish. Rays 6—100. Aster. 
simple, ( of 8 short bi.stles and several minute ones. 
( Hesds middle size. 
Pappus double. ( Heads very Inrse. 
( Pappus capillaiy. Invol. subeimpTe. Rays 90—900. 
( Involucre depressed, bnoad. 
( Involucre hemispherical. . 

( Rays pistillate. . 
( Disk fls. yellow. ( Rays neut^. 
LvB. finely divided. ( Disk fls. white. Rays pistillate 













1 1. ( Loavoa oil ladieaL 

smoothish. ( Pappus none. 








(3 or 4. 

( Rays very short, white 
Roeoptaewehafly. (.Leaves undivided. ( Rays very large, purple. 

( in 9—3 rows, 
( Scales of the invol. equal. ( in i row. 
( Flowers yellow. ( Outer srales shortest, pappus eapiHary. . . _ 

'Lvi. ladicaL (Flowers white; pappus phunoBc Lenntodon 

< Pappus single, bristly. Hierttdtun. 
( Lvs. unarmed. (Pap. double, outer scaly. Cynthia. 
(Fls. yellow. (Lvs spino«e-dentate ; pappus very white, ftmc^os. 



'Achenla< Flowers blue. Pappus small, scaly Cirhorlum. 

rot rest ( Pis. whiti.<ih or cream color. Pnp. ropiona, capillary. Snhafiu. 

iwith a fili* ( Involucre with calyculate scales. . . taetuea. 

form beak. ( Involucri without cab'culato scales. . Tragopogon. 

with a short, thick beak ; involucre imbricate. . . Mulg*dium. 













Anthemlt. 87 

MantUL 80 

AcMIlea. 80 

Vnitetina. 47 

ParthentUHk. 90 

EeMnaeea. 81 

Troxfmon. 81 

KrUria. ft 

Taraxteum. 09 










Suborder 1. — T tTBUIilFIiORJE* 

Corolla of the perfect or disk flowers tubular, regular, the limb 5-cleft, 

or lobed. 


Heads discoid, homogamous. Branches of the style subulate, hispid throughout 

1. VERNONIA. Schreb. 
Named iu Wm. YernoD, on Engluh botaaut who traveled in America in aeaich ofplanta. 

Flowers all tubular ; involucre semicjliudric, of ovate, imbricated 
scales ; receptacle naked ; pappus double, the exterior chaffy ; the 
interior capillary. — % Herbs or shruhs. Lvs. mostly altemcUe. 

1. V. NovEBORACENsis. Wllld. Neio York Vemonia. Iron-ieeed. 

Lass, numerous, lanceolate, serrulate, rough; cyme fastiglate; scaies of 
involucre filiform at the ends. — A tall, showy plant with numerous large, dark 
purple flowers, found in meadows and other moist situations, U. S. Stem 
branching at top, reddish, 3 — 6f high. Leaves crowded, paler beneath, radical 
ones often lobed. Cymes terminal, flat-topped, compound. Scales and corollas 
deep purple, the former ending in long, thread-like appendages. Sept. 

fi. frteaUa. Less. (V. pra>alta. WiUd.) St. and ^r5. oeneaih pubescent ; s<;a/ef 
nearly destitute of the filiform appendages. — Rather taller than the preceding. 

2. V. PAscicuLiTA. Michx. IroTirweeeU 

St. tall, striate or grooved, tomentose ; lvs. narrow-lanceolate, tapering to 
each end, serrulate, lower ones petiolate ; kds. numerous, in a somewhat fas- 
tigiate cyme; invol. ovoid-carapanulate; scales appressed, mucronulate or 
obtuse. — Woods and prairies Western States, very common ! A coarse, pur- 
plish-green weed 3 — I Of high. Leaves 4 — 8' by 1 — ^8', smooth above. Cymes 
compact, or loose. Heads large, or small. Corollas showy, dark purple, twice 
longer than the involucre. Jl. Aug. 
0, Taller and more branching, with smaller heads. — ^Woods, la. ! 

Or. tk^aif elephant, irovf , Ibot; aOudinc to the form of the leavea in lome tpedea. 

Heads 3 — ^5-flowered, glomerate ; flowers all equal ; involucre com- 
pressed, the scales about 8, oblong, dry, in 2 series ; corolla palmate- 
ligulate, 5-cleft, segments acuminate ; achenia ribbed, hairy \ pappus 
chaffy-setaceous. — % Erect, with alterTuUe, subsessile leaves. CoroUa 

£. CaroliniInus. Willd. 

St. branched, leafy, hairy ; lvs. scabrous and somewhat hairy, ovate or 
oval-oblong, obtuse, crenate-serrate, lower ones on petioles, upper ones subses- 
sile ; hds. terminal and subterminal. — Dry soils, Penn., Ohio ! to Flor. and La. 
Stem 20—^' high, flexuous, the branches divaricate. Lower stem leaves 5—7' 
by 3-^', upper about 2^ by li', the highest oblong, smaller, subtending the 
small heads in the form of an involucre. Jl. — Sept. 


Heads discoid or radiate. Branches of the style much elongated, obtuse, 
minutely pubeseent towards the summit outside. Anthers not eordate. 
Ltcaves mostly opposite. 

Section 1. Heads discoid, homogamous. 

3. SCLEROLfiPIS. Cass. 

Gr, cii\jipoSf bard, Xnrc;, aacale. 

Head many-flowered ; scales of the involucre equal, limear, in 2 

314 LXXV. COMPOSlT-ffi. Eupatomum. 

series; receptacle naked ; corolla 5-tootlied, enlarged at the throat ; 
branches of the style much exserted ; achenia 5-angled, crowned with 
a cup-shaped pappus of 5, obtuse, horny scales. — % Aquatic, glairrous^ 
simple, with 1 — 3 terminal heads. I/vs. verticUlate. Fls. purpk. 

S. VERTiciLLATA. Cass. (Sparganophorus. Michx.) ^ ^. ^ 

In shallow water, N. J. to Flor. Stem decumbent at base, 1— 2f high. 
Leaves in numerous whorls of about 6, linear-setaceous, entire, 1' in length. 
Head commonly solitary, at top of the stem. Jl. Sept. 

Dedicated to Eupater, king of Pontus, who first u»ed the plant in medicine. 

Flowers all tubular ; involucre imbricate, oblong ; style much ex- 
serted, deeply cleft ; anthers included ; receptacle naked, flat ; pappus 
simple, scabrous ; achenia 5-angled. — % Herbs, vnth opposite or verti- 
ciUate leaves. Hds. corymbose. Fls. of the cyanic series, thai is, whiie^ 
blue, red, ^c. riever yellow. 

* Leaves verOcUlate. Flowers pwrple.-f 

1. E. pistulOsum. Barratt. (E. purpureum. WilM. in part E. macu- 
latum. Linn, in part. E. purpureum. y. angustifolium. T. ^ G.) TVwmr 
pet-weed.— St. fistulous, glabrous, glaucous-purple, striate or fluted ; Ivs. 

in about 12 whorls of 6s, largest in the middle of the stem, rather finely glan- 
dular-serrate : midvein and veinlets livid purple j corymb globose, with whorled 
peduncles.— Thickets, U. S. and Can., very abundant in the Western States ! 
Height 6— lOf, hollow its whole length. Leaves, including the 1' petiole, & by 
Sy. Corymb often If diam. Flowers purple. The glaucous hue and suffused 
redness of this majestic plant are most conspicuous m flowering-time. It does 
not appear to possess the acrid properties of^E. maculatum. July— Sept 

2. E. MACULATUM. (E. puTpUTCum, 0. Dorl.) Spotted EupaJUfriwn. 

St. solid, striate, hispid or pubescent, greenish and purple, with numoouB 
glands and purple lines: the glands on the stem and leaves give out an acrid 
efliuvium in flowering-time: Ivs. tripli-veined, 3 — 5 in a whorl. — Low grounds, 
U. S. and Can. Stem 4— 6r high. Leaves petiolate, 6—7' by 3—4', strongly 
serrate. Flowers purple. July — Sept 

/?. wiicafolium. Barratt Height 4— 6f ; st. solid, slender j Ivs. thin, much 
longer than the usual form of E. maculatum. 

3. E. PURPUREUM. Linn, not of DC. WiUd. nor Ph. fE. verticillatum. WiUd.} 
St. solid, glabrous, green, sometimes purplish, with a purple band at the 

joints ab6ut 1' broad ; Ivs. feather-veined, in whorls of 3, 4 and 5, smooth above, 
with a soft pubescence beneath along the midvein and veinlets, coarsely serrate. 

^Dry woods or meadows, common, U. S. and Can. Stem 6f high. Leaves 

thin and soft, 9—12' (including the 1' petiole) by 3—4'. Corymb lax, pale pur- 
ple, varying to whitish. Aug. Sept 

0. allntm. Barratt. (E. triioliatum. Darl.) J^. dull white ; iw. 5 in a whorl, 
large and distant. — It occurs also with 4 leaves in a whorl— a tall variety, 
upper leaves subfalcace ; also with 3 leaves in a whorl — tall and slender. 

4. E. TERNiPOLiuM. Ell. (iu part) 

St. solid, somewhat hispid and glandular, greenish, with purple dots and 
lines ; Ivs. mostly 3 in a whorl, the upper and last whorls smooth and finely ser- 

0. vesiculosum. Barratt. St. striate, purplish, solid, 2 — 3f high. — Abundant 
in meadows and pastures. A handsome variety, with a proftision of purple 
flowers in a large, spreading corymb. The leaves present a vesicular appear- 
ance in a remancable degree on their upper surface. 

* • Leaves opposite. Heads 3 — 6-flowered. 

5. R HTSSOPiPOLiUM. Narror(?4eaved Eupatorivm, 

Lvs. opposite (the upper ones alternate), often verticil late, linear-lanceo- 

t Thii Beetkm aooopdioff to Dr. Banatt. See prefiwe. 

Eqtatokiuu. LXXV. G0MF08ITJE. 315 

late, trjpli-yeined, punctate, lower ones subserrate, upper ones entire. — ^A more 
delicate species, smooth in all its parts, or minutely pubescent, in dry fields, 
Mass. ! to La. Stem about 2f high, branching, with numerous narrow leaves, 
which are mostly opposite, and a spreading corymb at the summit. Heads 
5-flowered. Outer scales shortest, the others shorter than ^e purplish flowen. 
Aug. Sept. 

6. E. LEUGOLEPis. T. &> G. (E. glaucescens. /?. Uucolepis. DC. E. 
linearifolium. Mz,'^ — St. mostly simple ; Ivs. lanceolate or linear, obtuse, 

closely sessile, serrate, lower ones obscurely tripli- veined ; corymb fastigiate, 
canescent ; hds. 5-flowered ; scales 8 — 10, scarious at the summit, as long as the 
flowers.— Sandy fields, N. J. to La. Stem 2 — 3f high. Leaves l\ — 2^ by \ — |', 
glaucous-green both sides, divaricate with the stem, upper ones linear and en- 
tire. Corolla dilated at mouth, with short, obtuse lobes, white. Aug. — Oct. 

7. E. ALTissiMUM. (Kuhnia glutinosa. DC.) Goldenrod Eupatorivm. 
St, pubescentntomentose, tall, corymbose at the summit ; Ivs. lanceolate, 

acutely serrate above the middle, pubescence tapering to each end, subsessile, 
conspicuously 3- veined; kds. 5-nowered; scales 8 — 12, obtuse, pubescent- 
Woods and sandy soils, Penn. and Western States, Plvmmer! Stem round, 
striate, 3— 7f high. Leaves 3— -4' by k—^', much resembling those of Solidago 
Canadensis ; small ones often fascicled in the axils. Conrmb compound, con- 
sisting of many simple, subcapitate ones. Corollas whitish, nearly twice as 
long as the scales. Sept. Oct 

8. E. ALBUM. (E. glandulosum. MicKx.) White-flowered Evpatorium. 
St. pubescent; Ivs. ovate-lanceolate, strongly serrate, sessile, scabrous or 

r'lescent, acute, obscurely 3- veined; c&ri/mb fsLStigiate] ids. 5-flowered; scales 
14, lance-linear, setaceously acuminate, Fcarious on the margin, and much 
longer than the flowers; ach. glandular. — Sandy fields, Penn. to La. Stem 
about 2f high, numerously divided above. ' Leaves 2 — 3' by i — 1', upper ones 
entire and alternate. Involucre concealing the flowers, and with them copious- 
ly sprinkled with resinous dots, whitish. Aug. — Oct. 

9. E. TEUcRiPOLiuM. WiUd. (E. verbensBfolium. Mx. E. pubescens. Pers.) 
Hairy Eiipalorium. — I/vs. opposite, sessile, distinct, ovate, rough, veiny, 

the lower ones doubly serrate, the upper ones subserrate or entire ; st. panicu- 
late, pubescent, with fastigiate, corymbose branches above. — Mass. ! to La. 
Plant hairy, 2---3f high, with a somewhat panicled corymb of white flowers. 
The upper leaves are often entire. Involucre 5-flowere3, with twice as many 
scales in two rows. Closely all ied to the following, but is much more rough. Aug. 

10. E. sEssiLiPOLiDM. Se$sile4eaved Eupaiorium. 

I/DS. opposite, sessile, distinct, amplexicaul, ovate-lanceolate, rounded at 
the base, very smooth, serrate ; st. smooth. — Plant 2 — 4f high, in rocky woods, 
Mass. to la. ! and Ga. Stem slender, erect, branching at top into a corymb 
with white flowers. Leaves large, tapering regularly from the somewhat trun- 
cate base to a long point, with small serraturcs, paler beneath. Flower-stalks 
downy. Heads 5-flowered, with twice as many scales in two rows. Sept 

11. E. ROTUNniPOLiuM. WiUd. Hoarh/mnd. 

Jjvs. opposite, sessile, distinct, roundish-ovate, subcordate at base, 3-veinett 
and veinleted, coansely serrate, scabrous above, pubescent beneath ; hds. about 
5-flowered, inner scales acuminate, as long as the flowers. — A slender species, 
in dry fields, N. J. and S. States. Stem 2— 3f high, roughish. Leaves 1 — 2|' 
long, i as wide, mostly obtuse. Heads fastigiate-corymbose. Involucre very 
pubescent, outer scales shorter than the inner. Flowers white. Pappus longer 
than corolla. Styles much exserted. Aug. Sept. 

12. E. PUBESCENS. Muhl. (E. ovatum. Bw.) Hairy Eupatorium. 

St. hirsute; Ivs. opposite, sessile, ovate, acute, obtu.sely dentate, rough, 
pubescent; corymJh fastigiate; invol. about 8-flowered. — A large, rough plant, 
3— 4fhigh, growing in dry grounds, N. H. ! to Penn. Distinguished by its 
opposite, broadly ovate leaves, and its strong pubescence. Involucre of about 
12 pubescent scales, the outer much the shortest. Aug 


S16 LXXV. GOMPOSITJB. Conocukicm. 

• ♦ ♦ lAOxes ofposite. Heads &—^0-JUnpcred. 

13. E. perpoliXtum. Thoroughwort. Boneset. 

Lajs. connate-perfoliate, ver}' pubescent. — A common, well known plant, 
on low grounds, meadows, U. S. and Can. Abundant. Stem 1 — 5f nigh, 
round, rough and hairy. Each pair of leaves are so united at the base as to 
eonstitute a single lamina, centrally perforated by the stem, and placed at right 
angles to it ; they are rough, rugose, serrate, tapering to a long point, and both 
combined, are 8--14' in length. Heads about 12-flowered, clustered in large, 
terminal corymbs. Corollas white. Aug. — The plant ia bitter, and is used in 
medicine as a tonic. 

14. £. resinOsum. Ton*. 

St. minutely tomentose ; Ivs. linear-lanceolate, closely sessile, tapering to 
a long acumination, divaricate with the stem, slightly vlscidly glandular both 
sides; coryvib fastigiate, compound: hdi, 10 — l&-flowered; scales obtuse, hoary- 
tomentose. — Wet, sandy soils, N. JT., Penn. Stem 2 — ^3f high, growing intuitu 
Leaves 3 — 6' by 3 — 6". Aug. Sept. — This singular species appears to be nearly 
conJ&ned to the pine barrens of N. J., where it was first found by Dr. TTwrey. 

15. E. AGERATolDBs. Nettle-Uoxed Eupatorium. 

St. smooth, somewhat branched ; Ivs. on long petioles, sabcordate, orate, 
acuminate, dentate, 3-veincd, nearly smooth : corymbs compound ; inrol. simple, 
smooth. — Rocky hills and woods, Can. and U. S. Stem round, 2—41' high^ 
and with the wnole plant nearly smooth. Leaves large, 3—6' lon^, 3—4' broail 
at base, coarsely toothed, pctiofes 1 — 2' long. Heads numerous, in small clus- 
ters, constituting a compound corymb. Involucre scales mostly in a row, con- 
taining 12 or more flowers of a pure white. Aug. Sept. 

16. E. AROMATicuM. ArovuUic Eupatorium. 

St. rough, pubescent, corymbose at summit; Irs. petiolate, opposite, sub- 
cordate, lance-ovate, acute, 3-vcined, obtusely serrate, smoolhish; invd. simple, 
pubescent. — A handsome species, in low woods, Mass. to La. Whole {)lant 
slightly pubescent, about 2f high. Leaves 2 — i' long, ( as wide, on petioles 
less than an inch long. Heads of the flowers large, 10— 15-flowered, white and 
aromatic, in small corymbs. Scales about equal. Aug. Sept. 

17. E. sEROTlNUM. Michr. 

St. pubcrul/Tit, diffusely branched ; Zr5. petiolate, lancc-ovate, acute, sharp- 
ly serrate, tripK- veined, nearly glabrous; corymbs compound; hds. 12 — 15- 
nt»wered; scales 10 — 12, scarious-cdgcd, very pubescent. 111. Mead^ to Ga. 
Stem 4 — 6f high, somewhat paniculate above. Leaves 4 — 6' by | — li', upper 
ones nearly entire, and somewhat scattered, lower ones opposite, with laige, 
irregular serratures. Sept. Oct. 

5. MIKANIA. Willd. 

In honor of ProfesBor Mikan, of Prafuo. 

Flowers all tubular ; involucre 4 — 6-leaved, 4 — 6-flowered ; recep- 
tacle naked ; pappus capillary, simple, scabrous ; anthers partly ex- 
serted ; achenia angled. — Mostly climbing herbs. Lvs. opposite. 

M. scANDENS. Willd. Climbing D(/ncs(t. 

St. smooth ; lvs. cordate, repana-toolhcd, acuminate, the lobes divaricate, 
rather unequal ; luls. in pedunculate, axillary corymbs. — A climbing plant of 
wet thickets, Mass. ! to Ga., rather rare. Every part smooth. Leaves 2 — 3' by 
1 — ^2', on petioles 1 — 2' long, apex tapering to a long point. Branches short, 
nearly naKcd, each bearing a small corymb of whitish, or pink-colored flowers. 
Aug. Sept. , ^J* 


Gr. Ktavos, cono, kXiki?, bed or receptacle. 

Heads many-flowered ; receptacle conical. Character otIier\\ise as 
in Eupatorium. — % Herbaceous or suffruticose. Lvs. opposite, petiaUUe, 
serrate. Fls. bltie or purple, in crowded corymbs. 

Uatbib. LXXV. composite. S17 

C. ccBLRSTlNTTH. DC. (CcBlestiiia ccsralea. Spreng. Eupatorinm oele»- 
tinum. J>tii7i..)^Herbaceous, nearly glabrous, much branched ; Ivs. deltoid- 
ovate, truncate or subcordate at base, tapering to an obtusish a|ysz, crenate- 
serrate, veiny ; petioles slender, about half as long as the lamina ; corymbs nu- 
merous, subumbellate ; scales numerous, setaceous. — Hedges, thickets, roadsides, 
&C., Penn. and S. and W. States ! Stem 1 — ^2^f high, terete, with opposite 
branches. Leaves 1 — 2|' long, i as wide. Flowers 20—50 in a head, of a 
light or sky-blue, reddish in lading. Aug. Sept. 


Gr. Xi, an emphatic prefix, arptas, ioTulnemblei wed aa a Tuhemir- 

Flowers all tabular ; inyolucre oblong, imbricate ; receptacle naked ; 
pappus plumose, copiouB ; achenia oboonio, 10-striate; styles much 
exserted. — % kerbs or shrubs. Root tuberous. Si. simple. Los. 
aUemate. FLs. cyanic. 

• Heads 16 — GQ-Jlowered. * 

1. L. bquarbOsa. Willd. Blazing Star. 

Smooth or scabrous-nubescent ; Ivs. linear, lower ones attenuated at base ; 
rac. flexuons, leafy ; hds. lew, sessile or nearly so; invol. ovate-cylindric; scales 
large, squarrose-spreading, outer larger, leafy, inner mucronate-acuminate, 
scarcely colored ; fls. numerous j pappus plumose. — A splendid plant, native 
(in N. V. according to Prof. Eaton) Penn. to Flor. and W. States ! Stem 3 
— 3f high, thickly beset with long, linear leaves. Heads 5—20, with brilliant 
purple flowers. Aug. f 

2. L. CTLINDRACBA. Michx. 

St. low, slender and very leafy, smooth or somewhat hirsute ; Ivs. rigid, 
linear, mostly 1-veined ; hds. few. sessile or pedicellate, cylindrical, 15--W- 
flowered ; scales short, close, rounded or obtuse and abruptly mucronate at apex. — 
Prairies and barrens, Mich, to Mo. Stem 6 — 18' high. Leaves 2 — 6' by 2—4''. 
Heads 1' long, rarely solitary, sometimes 10 or 12, mostly about 5. Flowers 
bright purple. 

3. L. scARiOsA. Oay JF^eatAer. 

Scabrous-pubescent ; Ivs. lanceolate, lower on long petioles, upper linear 
and much smaller ; hds. remotely racemed ; invol. glob(»e-hemispherical ; scales 
obovate, very obtuse, purplish ; Jls. numerous ; pappus scabrous. — A beautiful 
plant, 4— 5f high, in woods and sandy fields, Mass. (RickardQ to 111. I and La. 
Stem rather stout, whitish above. Leaves numerous, entire, lower 3 — 9' long, 
upper 1—3' bv 1—3", rough-edged. Heads 5—20, 1' diam., in a long raceme, 
each 20 — 40-nowered. Corolla purple. Aug. f 

• • Heads 5 — 15-JUncered, 

4. L. ORAMiNTPOLiA. Willd. Torr. & Gray. Cfrass4eaved Ldatris. 
Glabrous or with scattered hairs ; st. slender and simple ; Ivs. linear, 1- 

veined; hds. 7 — l^flowered, spikes or racemes sometimes paniculate below; 
involucre acute at base ; scales many, obtuse, appressed, outer row shorter; ach. 
hairy. — N. J. to Ala. 

0.1 dubia. (L. pilosa. 0. dubia. Ph. L. dubia. Bart.) fnjloresoence 
sometimes compound below, or partly paniculate. — Pine barrens, N. J. Stem 
2— 3f high. Leaves 3—6' by 2—4". Heads rather small. Sept. Oct. 

5. L. 8PICATA. Willd. Slender-spiked Liatris. 

I/vs. lancc-linear, smoothish, punctate, ciliate, lo^er ones narrowed at 
base ; hds. in a long, terminal spike, nearly sessile ; Ifts. of the invol. oblong, 
obtuse ; fls. about 8 ; papvus scabrous-plumose. — Native from N. J. and Mich. ! 
to Flor. and La. Abunoant in prairies. A beautiful species, often cultivated. 
Stem 2— 5f high. Heads numerous, with bright purpte flowers. Aug. f 

0. resinesa. T. & G. (L. resinosa. NuU.) PlarU smaller; hds. about 5- 

6. L. PYCNOBTACHTA. Michx. TTUck-spiked Liatris. 

Simple, more or less hirsute, very leafy ; Ivs. rigid, ascending, straight^ 

818 LXXV. COBiPOSIT^. Atmu 

lower ones long, lanceolate, veined, obtuse, upper short, narrow-linear ; .^m^ 
dense and thick, long and bracted below ; kds. numerous, cylindrical, sessile, 
5-flowered ; scales appressed, with acute, scarious and colored squarrose tips* — 
Prairies, 111. ! to Tex. A stout species, disting^uished from L. spicata chi^y by 
its acute, squarrose scales and few-flowered heads. Stem 3 — 5f high. Spikes 
cylindrical, 10 — ^20' long. 
fi. T. Sl G. (L. brachjTstachya. NvU,) SL and invcl. nearly glabrous. 

Seetion %* Heads radUiAe* 

Altered fiom the Lat t%mU, oouffh ; oooaidared a good expeetonmL 

Heads manj-flowered ; flowers of the ray 9) those of the disk dT; 
involacre simple ; receptacle naked ; pappus capillary. — % Z/os. radi- 
cal. Fls. yellow, with very naa-row rays. 

T. Farfara. CoWs-foot. 

A low plant, in wet places, brook sides, N. and Mid. States, and Db a cer- 
tain indication of a clayey soil. Scape scaly, about 5' high, simple, appearing 
with its single, terminal, many-rayed, yellow head, in March and April, long 
before a leaf is to be seen. Leaves arising after the flowers are withered, &— v 
by 3 — 6', cordate, angular, dentate, dark green above, covered with a ootton- 
like down beneath, and on downy petioles. ^ 1 

9. NARDOSMIA. Cass. 
Gt. vapSoif spikenard, 09^j}, melli from Uie fivcnuioe of the flowen. 

Heads many-flowered, somewhat $ c^; flowers of the ray 9> of the 
disk $ I but abortive in the sterile plant ; involucre simple ; recep- 
tacle flat, naked ; pappus capillary. — % Jjvs. radical. JFls. cyamc 
The ray flowers of the sterile heads a/re in a single row ; of the fertile 
heads in several, out very na/rrow. 

N. PALMATA. Hook. (Tussilago. AU.) 

Scape with a fastigiate th3rrse or corymb j Ivs. roundish-cordate, 5— 7-lobed, 
tomentose beneath, the lobes coarsely dentate. — In swamps, Fairhaven, Vt, 
Bobbins. Sunderland, Mass., Hitchcock. W. to R. Mts. Very rare. A coarse, 
acaulescent plant, with large, deeply and palmately-lobed leaves, and a stout 
scape covered with leaf-scales and 1 — 2f high. The heads are fragrant, nume- 
rous, with obscure rays, those of the barren plants almost inconspicuous. May. 

Tribe 3. ASTKROIDB^. 

Heads radiate, rarely discoid. Branches of. the ^yle more or less flattened and 

linear, equally pubescent above outside.* 'Leaves mostly alternate. 

Section 1. Heads radiate. Rays oyanio* 

10. ASTER. 

Gt. aorntp, a ttar ; fiom the radiated flowen. 

Involucre oblong, imbricate ; scales loose, often with green tips, 
the outer spreading ; disk flowers tubular, $ ; ray flowers 9, in one 
row, generally few (6 — 100), ligulate, oblong, 3-toothed at apex, 
finally revolute ; receptacle flat, alveolate ; pappus simple, capillary, 
scabrous ; achcnium usually compressed. — A large geniis of %■ herbs, 
very abundant in the V. S.,floicering in late summer and auinmn. Lvs. 
alternate. Disk fls. yellow, changing to purple, ray flowers blue, purple 
or white, never yellow. 

J Scales imbricate^ with appressed^ greenvih tips. Bays 6—15. Ijower 
leaves cordate, peiiolale. Heads corymoose. Biotia. DC. 

1. A. coRTMBOscs. Ait. (Eurybia corymbosa. Cass.) Corymbed Aster. 
St. corymbose-fastigiate, smooth; branches hairy; lvs. ovate, acutely ser- 

Aster. LXXV. COMPOSITE. 319 

rate, acuminate, the lower ones cordate, petiolate ; petioles naked ; invol. oblong, 
imbricate with closely appressed, obtuse scales. — ^Common in dry woods, N. and 
Mid. States. Stem 2f high, smooth, often reddish, more or less flexuous. 
Leaves large, mostly smooth, lower ones cordate-acuminate, with sharp serra- 
tures, middle ones ovate, upper ones becoming lanceolate. Flowers in a broad, 
flat-topped corymb, large, very open, with about 6 long, narrow, white rays. Aug. 

2. A. MACROPHYLLus. Willd. (Eurybia macrophylla. Cass.) Laree-leaved 
Aster. — St. branched, diffuse ; Irs. ovate, petiolate, serrate, rough, upper 

ones ovate-lanceolate, sessile, lower ones cordate, petiolate ; petioles somewhat 
winged ; invol. cylindric, closely imbricate with oblong, acute scales. — Distin- 
gnisned for its very large root leaves which are 6—10' by 3 — 5'. Grows in 
woods, N. States and Can. Stem furrowed, 1 — ^2f high. Leaves nearly smooth. 
Rays about 13, white or pale blue. Sept. 

§ § Scales imbricated, with spreading^ green tips. Rays 12 — 30. Pap- 
pus bristles rigid, some of tliem, thickened upwards. Heads largCy 
corymbose. Lower leaves never cordate, cavline sessile, rigid, Calli- 
ASTRUM. T. & G. 

3. A. RadCla. Ait Rasp-leaved Aster. 

St. erect, simple below, angular ; Ivs. lanceolate, acuminate, narrowed 
towards the base, sessile, serrate, rugose and rough ; invol. imbricate, scales 
appressed, with small, spreading green tips. — Moist eroves and hedges, Me. to 
Penn. ! Not common. Height 1 — 3f. Distinguished for its stiff, narrow, 
sharplv serrate leaves which abundantly clothe the straight, smooth stem. 
Branches nearly naked, undivided, each having a single large head, rarely 
more. Rays numerous, short, white or purplish. The lower leaves are somo- 
times ovate-lanceolate. Aug. Sept 

4. A. BPECTABiLis. Ait Skoioy Aster. 

St. erect ; Ivs. somewhat scabrous, oblong-lanceolate, sessile, entire, lower 
ones serrate in the middle ; branches corymbose ; hds. hemispherical, with nu- 
inerous, squarrose-spreading, ciliate scales. — A low Aster of pme barrens, Mass. ! 
to Ky. Stem straight, 1 — 2( high, branching above into a nearly simple co- 
irmb of 10 — 15 heads, which are large and showy, with many long, blue rays. 
»ept — Nov. 

5. A. aRAGiLis. Nutt. SleTider Aster. 

St. minutely-pubescent, cor}''mbose at summit ; Ivs. oblong-lanceolate, in- 
cisely and remotely serrulate, narrowed to the sub-clasping base; corymb 
loose, spreading; scoks linear-oblong, whitish, with green, spreading tips; rays 
about 13. — Pine barrens, N. J. Stems clustered, 12 — 14' high, purplish, leaiy, 
slender. Leaves 1 — ^' long, glabrous, opaque, lower ones somewhat spato- 
late. Corymb simple or compound. Ra3rs pale violet, about as long as the 
involucre. Sept 

§ § § Scales green^ or with green tips. Rays 00. Pappus brisiles sqftj 

none qfth^ thickened upwards. Achenia compressed. Aster proper. 

* Loioer leaves cordate, petiolate. Heads paniculate. 

6. A. coRDiFOLiUB. HeortrUaved Aster. 

St. paniculate, smoothish ; kncer Ivs. cordate, hairy beneath, sharply sei- 
rate, acuminate, petiolate ; petioles winged ; invol. closely imbricate, the scales 
with short, green tips. — Common in Toc]cf woods, N. and W. States. Stem 
smooth below, more or less pubescent above, a little flexnons, striate, 2f high, 
with a handsome panicle of racemes at top of numerous, rather small flowers. 
Rays 10 — 15, pale blue varying to white. Lower leaves large, cordate, with a 
deep kinva at base, the serratures very acute, the sununit ending in a long, 
acute point, slightly rough above, hairy and paler beneath. Petioles more or 
less wmged, hairy. Above, the leaves are gradually reduced to small or mi- 
nute bracts. Sept 

7. A. 8AGITTIP0LIU8. ArTotD-lcavcd Aster. 

St. with racemose branches above, smooth ; Ivs. oblong-lanceolate, acumi- 
nate, sessile, serrate in the middle, radical ones ovate, oblong, cordate-sagittate, 

380 . LXXV. COMFOSITiE. Amm. 

serrate, petiolate ; invol scales loose, lanceolate. — Low woods, N. and W. States 
and Can. Stem 2 — 4f high, dividing into many ascending, rigid branches, with 
numerous and crowded heads, forming a compound panicle of racemes. Heads 
small, each with about 12 rays, which are white or with various shades of 
blue. Leaves becoming smaller above, lanceolate and even linear. Sept 

8. A. UNDULATUs. Wavc-lcaf Aster. 

St, paniculate, hispid; brandies secund, leafy, 1-flowered; Ivs. oblong- 
cordate, amplexicaul, very entire, hairy, somewhat undulate or crenate-serraie, 
lower ones ovate, cordate, subserrate, with winged petioles. — ^Native of diy 
woods, U. S. Plant rough, about 2f high, with slender branches. Lower 
leaves on lone winged petioles, cordate, acuminate, upper ones becoming nar- 
row-ovate and clasping. Flowers pale blue, solitary, torming a loose panicle 
of somewhat one-sided racemes. Aug. Sept. 

9. A. AZUREUs. Lindl. (A. Oolentangiensis. RiddelL) 

Scabrous ; st. and racemuse panicuUiU branckes rigid ; &s. lance-ovate, cor- 
date, slightly serrate, on hairy petioles, middle and upper ones lanceolate and 
linear, acute at each end, sessile, entire, highest subulate; A^. broadly obconic ; 
scales oblong-linear, acute, appressed. — Woods and prairies, Western States. 
Stem about 2f high. Leaves of several forms between the lowest cordate to 
the small, subulate, numerous floral ones of the siender branches. Racemes 
rather remote, panicled, with middle-sized heads. Rays blue. 

10. A. Shobtii. Hook. SfurrCs Aster. 

Slender and nearly glabrous, simple o( somewhat branched above; tes. 
lance-ovate, cordate, petiolate, long-acuminate, subentire, upper ones sessile 
and obtuse at base ; kds. middle-size, racemose or racemose-paniculate, rather 
numerous ; invU. broad-campanulate; scales scarious, close, green-tipped, shorter 
than the disk flowers. — A distinct and beautiful species, on rockv banks of 
streams, Ohio 1 to Ark. Stem a little flexnous, 2 — it high. Lower leaves about 
& by li\ the others successively diminished upwards to the flowers where they 
are minute. Rays violet blue. 

• * Lower leaves never cordate. CknUine leaves dasping and cordate or 

auriculate at base. 

11. A. PATENS. (A. amplezicaulis. WUld.) Spreading Aster. 

St. simple, paniculate above, pubescent ; Ivs. lanceolate, cordate, clasping 
the stem, acuminate, scabrous on the margin, pubescent; panicle loose, few- 
flowered ; scales imbricate, lanceolate, lax, the points herbaceous.—- Grows in 
moist grounds, Northern States. Stem 2---3f high, slender, branching abovo 
into a loose, terminal panicle. Leaves large, (3-^6' long) on the stem, becom- 
ing small and bracteate on the branches. Heads solitary on the ends of the 
lealy branchlets, large, with 20—30 violet-colored rays. Aug. — ^Nov, 

12. A. L£vis. (A. mutabilis. Linn. A. amplezicaulis. Mukl.) Smooth Aster. 
Very smooth; st. angular; branches simple, 1-flowered; Ids. subamplexl- 

caul, remote, oblong, entire, shining, radical ones subserrate ; invol. closely 
imbricate, the scales broadly-linear, rigid, thickened and herbaceous at the 
apex. — A very smooth and beautiful species, 2 — 3f high, growing in low grounds. 
Stem polished, green, often somewhat glaucous. Leaves rather fleshy, broadest 
at base, the lower ones tapering to a winged petiole. Flowers laige and showy, 
with numerous ravs of a fine bine, becoming purple. Sept. — Nov. 

0. levigatus. (A. laevigatus. Willd.) Lvs. long, linear-lanceolate. 

y. cffaneus. (A. cyaneus. PA.) Si. and Zts. conspicuously glaucous. — ^These 
are beautiful varieties, especially the latter, which is perhaps the most beauts 
ful of all the asters. 

13. A. coNCiNNUs. Willd., not of Nees. Elegant Aster. 

St. simple, paniculate at the summit, pubescent; lvs. lanceolate and lance- 
linear, narrowed and clasping at the base, remotely serrate, upper ones entire ; 
invol, closely imbricate, scales green at the tip. — Woods, Northern States I 
A slender species, l~2f high. Branches of the panicle rather short and re- 
mote. Leaves S-'-fr' long, acuminate, varying from 1 — 1' in width, smooth ex- 

Arroi. L2LXV. COMPOSITE ^ S3t 

cept the mid-vein beneath ; branch leaves few and much smaller. Heads mid- 
dle-size, with 10—15 bluish purple rays. Sept.— Nov. 

14. A. PUNICEUS. RedsUdked Aster. 

SI. hispid, paniculate ; Ivs. amplexicaul and more or less auriculate at 
base, lanceolate, serrate, roughish above ; invol. loose, longer than the disk, 
the scales linear-lanceolate, long and revolute, nearly equal and 2^rowed.— A 
large, handsome aster, common in swamps and ditches, sometimes in dry soils, 
N. States and Can. Stem 4r— 6f high, generally red, (at least on the south side), 
furrowed, hispid. Lower leaves with remote serratures, rough-edged and rough 
on the upper surface, all acuminate and narrowed at base. Flowers large and 
showy. Rays 50 — 80, long and narrow, pale purple. Aug. — Oct. 

15. A. PRENANTHolDEs. Muhl. PrenafUho^ike Aster, 

St. hairy or pubescent above, corymbose-paniculate ; Ivs. oval-lanceolate, 
serrate, acuminate, attenuate at base mto a long winged petiole which is au- 
riculate at the insertion ; invol. imbricated with several rows of linear, men* 
tipped, spreading scales. Grows in low woods, N. Y. to Ky. Stem 2--3f high, 
with a terminal, corvmbose panicle of large heads on short peduncles. Ra3rs 
showy, pale blue. — ^Leaves remarkable for the long, winged petiole, which is 
dilated at its base into rounded, auriculate segments. Branca leaves smaller, 
nearly entire. Sept. — ^Nov, 

16. A. AMETHTSTlNns. Nutt. Amethystine Aster. 

Hirsute; st. racemose-paniculate; Ivs. linear-lanceolat