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"A knowledge of the commonplace, at least, of Oriental literature, philo 
sophy, and religion is as necessary to the general reader of the present day 
as an acquaintance with the Latin and Greek classics was a generation or so 
ago. Immense strides have been made within the present century in these 
branches of learning ; Sanskrit has been brought within the range of accurate 
philology, and its invaluable ancient literature thoroughly investigated ; the 
language and sacred books of the Zoroastrians have been laid bare ; Egyptian, 
Assyrian, and other records of the remote past have been deciphered, and a 
group of scholars speak of still more recondite Accadian and Hittite monu 
ments ; but the results of all the scholarship that has been devoted to these 
subjects have been almost inaccessible to the public because they were con 
tained for the most part in learned or expensive works, or scattered through 
out the numbers of scientific periodicals. Messrs. TuiJBNER & Co., in a spirit 
of enterprise which does them infinite credit, have determined to supply the 
constantly-increasing want, and to give in a popular, or, at least, a compre 
hensive form, all this mass of knowledge to the world." Times. 

Second Edition, post 8vo, pp. xxxii. 748, with Map, cloth, price 2is. 


By the HON. SIR W. W. HUNTER, K. C.S.I., C.S.I., C.I.E., LL.D., 

Member of the Viceroy s Legislative Council, 
Director-Geueral of Statistics to the Government of India. 

Being a Revised Edition, brought up to date, and incorporating the general 
results of the Census of 1881. 

" It forms a volume of more than 700 pages, and is a marvellous combination of 
literary condensation and research. It gives a complete account of the Indian 
Empire, its history, peoples, and products, and forms the worthy outcome or 
seventeen years of labour with exceptional opportunities for rendering that labour 
fruitful. Nothing could be more lucid than Sir William Hunter s expositions of the 
economic and political condition of India at the present time, or more interesting 
tnan his scholarly history of the India of the past." The. Times. 


Third Edition, post 8vo, cloth, pp. xvi. 428, price i6s. 




Late of the Universities of Tubingen, Gottingen, and Bonn ; Superintendent 
of Sanskrit Studies, and Professor of Sanskrit in the Poona College. 

To which is added a Biographical Memoir of the late Dr. HAUG 

by Prof. E. P. EVANS. 
I. History of the Researches into the Sacred Writings and Religion of the 

Parsis, from the Earliest Times down to the Present. 
IT. Languages of the Parsi Scriptures. 

III. The Zend-Avesta, or the Scripture of the Parsis. 

IV. The Zorosistrian .Religion, as to its Origin and Development. 

" Essays on the Sacred Language, Writings, and Religion of the Parsis, by the 
late Dr. Martin Haug, edited by Dr. E. W. West. The author intended, on his return 
from India, to expand the materials contained in this work into a comprehensive 
account of the Zoroastrian religion, but the design was frustrated by his untimely 
death. We have, however, in a concise and readable form, a history of the researches 
into the sacred writings and religion of the Parsis from the earliest times down to 
the present a dissertation on the languages of the Parsi Scriptures, a translation 
of the Zend-Avesta, or the Scripture of the Parsis, and a dissertation on the Zoroas- 
trian religion, with especial reference to its origin and development." Times. 

Post 8vo, cloth, pp. viii. 176, price 75. 6d. 



With Accompanying Narratives. 

Translated from the Chinese by S. BEAL, B.A., Professor of Chinese, 
University College, London. 

The Dhammapada, as hitherto known by the Pali Text Edition, as edited 
by Fausboll, by Max Mtiller s English, and Albrecht Weber s German 
translations, consists only of twenty-six chapters or sections, whilst the 
Chinese version, or rather recension, as now translated by Mr. Beal, con 
sists of thirty-nine sections. The students of Pali who possess Fausboll s 
text, or either of the above-named translations, will therefore needs want 
Mr. Beal s English rendering of the Chinese version ; the thirteen above- 
named additional sections not being accessible to them in any other form ; 
for, even if they understand Chinese, the Chinese original would be un 
obtainable by them. 

"Mr. Beal s rendering of the Chinese translation is a most valuable aid to the 
critical study of the work. It contains authentic texts gathered from ancient 
canonical books, and generally connected with some incident in the history of 
Buddha. Their great interest, however, consists in the light which they throw upon 
everyday life in India at the remote period at which they were written, and upon 
the method of teaching adopted by the founder of the religion. The method 
employed was principally parable, and the simplicity of the tales and the excellence 
of the morals inculcated, as well as the strange hold which they have retained upon 
the minds of millions of people, make them a very remarkable study." Times. 

"Mr. Beal, by making it accessible in an English dress, has added to the great ser 
vices lie has already rendered to the comparative study of religious history." Academy. 

"Valuable as exhibiting the doctrine of the Buddhists in its purest, least adul 
terated form, it brings the modern reader face to face with that simple creed and rule 
of conduct which won its way over the minds of myriads, and which is now nominally 
professed by 145 millions, who have overlaid its austere simplicity with innumerable 
ceremonies, forgotten its maxims, perverted its teaching, and so inverted its leading 
principle that a religion whose founder denied a God, now worships that founder as 
a god himself. Scotsman. 


Second Edition, post 8vo, cloth, pp. xxiv. 360, price los. 6d. 



Translated from the Second German Edition by JOHN MANN, M.A., and 
THEODOU ZACHAKIAK, Ph.D., with the sanction of the Author. 

Dr. BUHLER, Inspector of Schools in India, writes: "When I was Pro- 
;ssor of Oriental Languages in Klphinstone College, I frequently felt the 
want of such a work to which I could refer the students." 

Professor COWELL, of Cambridge, writes : " It will be especially useful 
to the students in our Indian colleges and universities. I used to long for 
such a book when I was teaching in Calcutta. Hindu students are intensely 
interested in the history of Sanskrit literature, and this volume will supply 
them with all they want on the subject." 

Professor WHITNEY, Yale College, Newhaven, Conn., U.S.A., writes : 
" I was one of the class to whom the work was originally given in the form 
of academic lectures. At their first appearance they were by far the most 
learned and able treatment of their subject ; and with their recent additions 
they still maintain decidedly the same rank." 

" Is perhaps the most comprehensive and lucid survey of Sanskrit literature 
extant. The essays contained iu the volume were originally delivered as academic- 
lectures, and at the time of their first publication were acknowledged to be by far 
the most learned and able treatment of the subject. They have now been brought 
up to date by the addition of all the most important results of recent research." 

Post 8vo, cloth, pp. xii. 198, accompanied by Two Language 
Maps, price ys. 6d. 



The Author has attempted to fill up a vacuum, the inconvenience of 
which pressed itself on his notice. Much had been written about the 
languages of the East Indies, but the extent of our present knowledge had 
not even been brought to a focus. It occurred to him that it might be of 
use to others to publish in an arranged form the notes which he had collected 
for his own edification. 

" Supplies a deficiency which has long been felt." Times. 

" The book before us is then a valuable contribution to philological science. It 
passes under review a vast number of languages, and it gives, or professes to give, in 
every case the sum and substance of the opinions and judgments of the best-informed 
writers." Saturday Review. 

Second Corrected Edition, post 8vo, pp. xii. 116, cloth, price 53. 



Translated from the Sanskrit into English Verse by 

" A very spirited rendering of the Kumdraxambhava, which was first published 
twenty-six years ago, and which we are glad to see made once more accessible." 

" Mr. Griffith s very spirited rendering is well known to most who arc at all 
interested in Indian literature, or enjoy the tenderness of feeling and rich creative 
imagination of its author." Indian Antiquary. 

" We are very glad to welcome a second edition of Professor Griffith s admirable 
translation. Few translations deserve a second edition better." Athenaum. 


Post 8vo, pp. 432, cloth, price i6s. 




Late Professor of Hindustani, Staff College. 

"This not only forms an indispensable book of reference to students of Indian 
literature, but is also of great general interest, as it gives in a concise and easily 
accessible form all that need be known about the personages of Hindu mythology 
whose names are so familiar, but of whom so little is known outside the limited 
circle of savants."^- Times. 

" It is HO slight gain when such subjects are treated fairly and fully in a moderate 
space ; and we need only add that the few wants which we may hope to see supplied 
in 3iew editions detract but little from the general excellence of Mr. Dowsou s work." 
Saturday Review. 

Post 8vo, with View of Mecca, pp. cxii. 172, cloth, price gs. 


Translator of " The Thousand and One Nights ; " &c., &c. 
A New Edition, Revised and Enlarged, with an Introduction by 


"... Has been Ion? esteemed in this country as the compilation of one of the 
greatest Arabic scholars of the time, the late Mr. Lane, the well-known translator of 
the Arabian Nights. . . . The present editor has enhanced the value of his 
relative s work by divesting the text of a great deal of extraneous matter introduced 
by way of comment, and prefixing an introduction." Times. 

" Mr. Poole is both a generous and a learned biographer. . . . Mr. Poole tells us 
the facts ... so far as it is possible for industry and criticism to ascertain them, 
and for literary skill to present them in a condensed and readable form." English 
man, Calcutta. 

Post 8vo, pp. vi. 368, cloth, price 143. 



lldii. LL.D. of the University of Calcutta, Hon. Member of the Bombay Asiatic 

Society, Boden Professor of Sanskrit iu the University of Oxford. 
Third Edition, revised and augmented by considerable Additions, 

with Illustrations and a Map. 

" In this volume we have the thoughtful impressions of a thoughtful man on some 
of the most important questions connected with our Indian Empire. . . . An en 
lightened observant man, travelling among an enlightened observant people, Professor 
Monier Williams has brought before the public in a pleasant form more of the manners 
and customs of the Queen s Indian subjects than we ever remember to have seen in 
any one work. He not only deserves the thanks of every Englishman for this able 
contribution to the study of Modern India a subject with which we should be 
specially familiar but he deserves the thanks of every Indian, Parsee or Hindu, 
Buddhist and Moslem, for his clear exposition of their manners, their creeds, and 
tludr necessities." Times. 

Post 8vo, pp. xliv. 376. cloth, price 145. 


With an Introduction, many Prose Versions, and Parallel Passages from 

Classical Authors. 

BY J. MUIR, C.I.E., D.C.L., LL.D., Ph.D. 
"... An agreeable introduction to Hindu poetry." Timrs. 

"... A volume which may be taken as a fair illustration alike of the religious 
and moral sentiments and of the legendary lore of the best Sanskrit writers." 
Edinburgh Daily Jieview. 


Second Edition, post 8vo, pp. xxvi. 244, cloth, price ics. 6d. 


Translated for the First Time into Prose and Verse, with an Introductory 
Preface, and a Life of the Author, from the Atish Kadali, 


" It is a very fair rendering of the original." Times. 

" The new edition has long been desired, and will be welcomed by all who take 
any interest in Oriental poetry. The Gulistan is a typical Persian verse-book of the 
highest order. Mr. Eastwiek s rhymed translation . . . has long established itself in 
a secure position as the best version of Sadi s finest work." Academy. 

" It is both faithfully and gracefully executed." Tablet. 

In Two Volumes, post 8vo, pp. viii. 408 and viii. 348, cloth, price 283. 



Late of the Bengal Civil Service ; Corresponding Member of the Institute ; Chevalier 
of the Legion of Honour ; late British Minister at the Court of Nepal, <kc., &c. 


SECTION I. On the Kocch, B6do, and Dhimal Tribes. Part I. Vocabulary. 
Part II. Grammar. Part III. Their Origin, Location, Numbers, Creed, Customs, 
Character, and Condition, with a General Description of the Climate they dwell in 

SECTION II. On Himalayan Ethnology. I. Comparative Vocabulary of the Lan 
guages of the Broken Tribes of Ne*pal. II. Vocabulary of the Dialects of the Kiranti 
Language. III. Grammatical Analysis of the Vayu Language. The Viiyu Grammar. 
IV. Analysis of the Balling Dialect of the Kiranti Language. The Balling Gram 
mar. V. On the Vayu or Hayu Tribe of the Central Himalaya. VI. On tne Kiranti 
Tribe of the Central Himalaya. 


SECTION III. On the Aborigines of North-Eastern India. Comparative Vocabulary 
of the Tibetan, B6d6, and Garo Tongues. 

SECTION IV. Aborigines of the North-Eastern Frontier. 

SECTION V. Aborigines of the Eastern Frontier. 

SECTION VI. The Indo-Chinese Borderers, and their connection with the Hima- 
layaiis and Tibetans. Comparative Vocabulary of Indo-Chinese Borderers in Arakan. 
Comparative Vocabulary of Indo-Chinese Borderers in Tenasserim. 

SECTION VII. The Mongolian Affinities of the Caucasians. Comparison and Ana 
lysis of Caucasian and Mongolian Words. 

SECTION VIII. Physical Type of Tibetans. 

SECTION IX. The Aborigines of Central India. Comparative Vocabulary of the 
Aboriginal Languages of Central India. Aborigines of the Eastern Ghats. Vocabu 
lary of some of the Dialects of the Hill and Wandering Tribes in the Northern Sircars. 
Aborigines of the Nilgiris, with Remarks on their Affinities. Supplement to the 
Nilgirian Vocabularies. The Aborigines of Southern India and Ceylon. 

SECTION X. Route of Nepalese Mission to Pekin, with Remarks on the Water- 
Shed and Plateau of Tibet. 

SECTION XL Route from Kathmandu, the Capital of Nepal, to Darjeeling iu 
Sikim. Memorandum relative to the Seven Cosis of Nepal. 

SECTION XII. Some Accounts of the Systems of Law and Police as recognised in 
the State of Nepal. 

SECTION XIII. The Native Method of making the Paper denominated Hindustan, 

SECTION XIV. Pre-eminence of the Vernaculars; or, the Anglicists Answered ; 
Being Letters on the Education of the People of India. 

" For the study of the less-known races of India Mr. Brian Hodgson s Miscellane 
ous Essays will be found very valuable both to the philologist and the ethnologist." 


Third Edition, Two Vols., post 8vo, pp. viii. 268 and viii. 326, cloth, 
price 2is. 


The Ways to Neibban, and Notice on the Phongyies or Burmese Monks. 

Bishop of Ramatha, Vicar- Apostolic of Ava and Pegu. 

"The work is furnished with copious notes, wnich not only illustrate the subject- 
matter, but form a perfect encyclopaedia of Buddhist lore." Times. 

"A work which will furnish European students of Buddhism with a most valuable 
help in the prosecution of their investigations." Edinburgh Daily Review. 

"Bishop Bigandet s invaluable work." Indian Antiquary. 

" Viewed in this light, its importance is sufficient to place students of the subject 
under a deep obligation to its author." Calcutta Review. 

" This work is one of the greatest authorities upon Buddhism." Dublin Review. 

Post 8vo, pp. xxiv. 420, cloth, price i8s. 


Author of "China s Place in Philology," "Religion in China," &c., &c. 

"It contains a vast deal of important information on the subject, such as is only 
to be gained by long-continued study on the spot. " A t henceum. 

"Upon the whole, we know of no work comparable to it for the extent of its 
oi-iginal research, and the simplicity with which this complicated system of philo 
sophy, religion, literature, and ritual is set forth." British Quarterly Review. 

" The whole volume is replete with learning. ... It deserves most careful study 
from all interested in the history of the religions of the world, and expressly of those 
who are concerned in the propagation of Christianity. Pr. Edkins notices in terms 
of just condemnation the exaggerated praise bestowed upon Buddhism by recent 
English writers. "Record. 

Post 8vp, pp. 496, cloth, price ics. 6d. 


Late Member of Her Majesty s Indian Civil Service ; Hon. Secretary to 

the Royal Asiatic Society; 
and Author of " The Modern Languages of the East Indies." 

" We know none who has described Indian life, especially the life of the natives, 
with so much learning, sympathy, and literary talent." Academy. 

" They seem to us to be full of suggestive and original remarks." 52. James s Gazette. 

" His book contains a vast amount of information. The result of thirty-five years 
of inquiry, reflection, and speculation, and that on subjects as full of fascination as 
of food for thought." Tablet. 

" Exhibit such a thorough acquaintance with the history and antiquities of India 
as to entitle him to speak as one having authority. "Edinburgh Daily Review. 

" The author speaks with the 
constant association with the coi 
to many of the pages." Athenwur 

" The author speaks with the authority of personal experience It is this 

constant association with the country and the people which gives such a vividness 

4-rt wrmT rtf fl.rt -n.^rmr, " A */,,., 


Post 8vo, pp. civ. 348, cloth, price i8s. 


The Oldest Collection of Folk-lore Extant : 


For the first time Edited in the original Pali. 


And Translated by T. W. RHYS DAVIDS. 

Translation. Volume I. 

" These are tales supposed to have been told by the Buddha of what he liad seen 
and heard in his previous births. They are probably the nearest representatives 
of the original Aryan stories from which sprang the folk-lore of Europe as well as 
India. Tne introduction contains a most interesting disquisition on the migrations 
of these fables, tracing their reappearance in the various groups of folk-lore legends. 
Among other old friends, we meet with a version of the J udgment of Solomon. " Times. 

" It is now some years since Mr. Rhys Davids asserted his right to be heard on 
this subject by his able article on Buddhism in the new edition of the Encyclopaedia 
Britannica. " Leeds Mercury. 

" All who are interested in Buddhist literature ought to feel deeply indebted to 
Mr. Rhys Davids. His well-established reputation as a Pali scholar is a sufficient 
guarantee for the fidelity of his version, and the style of his translations is deserving 
of high praise." Academy. 

" No more competent expositor of Buddhism could be found than Mr. Rhys Davids. 
In the Jataka book we have, then, a priceless record of the earliest imaginative 
literature of our race ; and ... it presents to us a nearly complete picture of tho 
social life and customs and popular beliefs of the common people ot Aryan tribes, 
closely related to ourselves, just as they were passing through the first stages of 
civilisation." St. James s Gazette. 

Post 8vo, pp. xxviii. 362, cloth, price 143. 



Compiled and Translated by PAUL ISAAC HERSHON, 

Author of " Genesis According to the Talmud," &c. 

With Notes and Copious Indexes. 

" To obtain in so concise and handy a form as this volume a general idea of the 
Talmud is a boon to Christians at least." Times. 

" Its peculiar and popular character will make it attractive to general readers. 
Mr. Hershoii is a very competent scholar. . . . Contains samples of the good, bad, 
a7id indifferent, and especially extracts that throw light upon the Scriptures." 
British Quarterly Review. 

" Will convey to English readers a more complete and truthful notion of the 
Talmud than any other work that has yet appeared." Daily News. 

" Without overlooking in the slightest the several attractions of the previous 
volumes of the Oriental Series. we have no hesitation in saying that this surpasses 
them all in interest." Edinburgh Daily Review. 

" Mr. Hershoii has . . . thus given English readers what is, we believe, a fair set 
of specimens which they can test for themselves." The Record. 

" This book is by far the best fitted in the present state of knowledge to enable the 
general reader to gain a fair and unbiassed conception of the multifarious contents 
of the wonderful miscellany which can only be truly understood so Jewish prido 
asserts by the life-long devotion of scholars of the Chosen People." Inquirer. 

" The value and importance of this volume consist in the fact that scarcely a single 
extract is given in its pages but throws some light, direct or refracted, upon those 
Scriptures which are the common heritage of Jew and Christian alike." John Bun. 

" It is a capital specimen of Hebrew scholarship ; a monument of learned, loving, 
light-giving labour." Jewish Herald. 


Post 8vo, pp. xii. 228, cloth, price ys. 6d. 


Author of " Yeigo Henkaku Shiran." 

" A very curious volume. The author has manifestly devoted much labour to the 
task of studying the poetical literature of the Japanese, and rendering characteristic 
specimens into English verse." Daily News. 

" Mr. Chamberlain s volume is, so far as we are aware, the first attempt which has 
been made to interpret the literature of the Japanese to the Western world. It is to 
the classical poetry of Old Japan that we must turn for indigenous Japanese thought, 
and in the volume before us we have a selection from that poetry rendered into 
graceful English verse." Tablet. 

"It is undoubtedly one of the best translations of lyric literature which has 
appeared during the close of the last year." Celestial Empire. 

"Mr. Chamberlain set himself a difficult task when he undertook to reproduce 
Japanese poetry in an English form. But he has evidently laboured con amore, and 
his efforts are successful to a degree." London and China Express. 

Post 8vo, pp. xiL 164, cloth, price IDS. 6d. 

THE HISTORY OF ESARHADDON (Son of Sennacherib), 

KING OF ASSYRIA, B.C. 681-668. 

Translated from the Cuneiform Inscriptions upon Cylinders and Tablets in 
the British Museum Collection ; together with a Grammatical Analysis 
of each Word, Explanations of the Ideographs by Extracts from the 
Bi-Lingual Syllabaries, and List of Eponyms, &c. 


Assyrian Exhibitioner, Christ s College, Cambridge. 

" Students of scriptural archseology will also appreciate the History of Esar- 
haddon. " Times. 

" There is much to attract the scholar in this volume. It does not pretend to 
popularise studies which are yet in their infancy. Its primary object is to translate, 
but it does not assume to be more than tentative, and it offers both to the professed 
Assyriologist and to the ordinary non-Assyriological Semitic scholar the means of 
controlling its results." Academy. 

"Mr. Budge s book is, of course, mainly addressed to Assyrian scholars and 
students. They are not, it is to be feared, a very numerous class. But the more 
thanks are due to him on that account for the way in which he has acquitted himself 
in his laborious teak." Tablet. 

Post 8vo, pp. 448, cloth, price 2 is. 



Book the First. 
Together with some Account of the Life and Acts of the Author, 

of his Ancestors, and of his Descendants. 
Illustrated by a Selection of Characteristic Anecdotes, as Collected 

by their Historian, 

Translated, and the Poetry Versified, in English, 
" A complete treasury of occult Oriental lore. " Saturday Review 
"This book will be a very valuable help to the reader ignorant of Persia, who is 
desirous of obtaining an insight into a very important department of the literature 
extant in that language." Tablet. 


Post 8vo, pp. xvi. 280, cloth, price 6s. 



Member of the Bengal Asiatic Society, F.R.G.S. 

" We regard the book as valuable, and wish for it a wide circulation and attentive 
reading." Record. 

" Altogether, it is quite a feast of good things." Globe. 
" It is full of interesting matter." Antiquary. 

Post 8vo, pp. viii. 270, cloth, price 73. 6d. 

Containing a New Edition of the "Indian Song of Songs," from the Sanscrit 
of the "Gita Govinda" of Jayadeva ; Two Books from "The Iliad of 
India" (Mahabharata), "Proverbial Wisdom " from the Shlokas of the 
Hitopadesa, and other Oriental Poems. 
BY EDWIN ARNOLD, C.S.I., Author of "The Light of Asia." 

" In this new volume of Messrs. Triibner s Oriental Series, Mr. Edwin Arnold does 
good service by illustrating, through the medium of his musical English melodies, 
the power of Indian poetry to stir European emotions. The Indian Song of Songs 
is not unknown to scholars. Mr. Arnold will have introduced it among popular 
English poems. Nothing could be more graceful and delicate than the shades by 
which Krishna is portrayed in the gradual process of being weaned by the love of 

Beautiful Radha, jasmine-bosomed Hadha, 

from the allurements of the forest nymphs, in whom the five senses are typified." 

" No other English poet has ever thrown his genius and his art so thoroughly into 
the work of translating Eastern ideas as Mr. Arnold has done in his splendid para 
phrases of language contained in these mighty epics." Daily Telegraph. 

" The poem abounds with imagery of Eastern luxunousness and sensuousnt ss; the 
air seems laden with the spicy odours of the tropics, and the verse has a richness and 
a melody sufficient to captivate the senses of the dullest." &tand<ir<l. 

" The translator, while producing a very enjoyable poem, has adhered with toler 
able fidelity to the original text." Overland Mail. 

"We certainly wish Mr. Arnold success in his attempt to popularise Indian 
classics, that being, as his preface tells us, the goal towards which lie bends his 
efforts." Alien s Indian Mail. 

Post 8vo, pp. xvi. 296, cloth, price los. 6d. 




Translated from the Original Texlj and Classified, with 
Comments and Explanations, 

By the REV. ERNST FABER, Rhenish Mission Society. 

Translated from the German, with Additional Notes, 
By the REV. A. B. HUTCHINSON, C.M.S., Church Mission, Hong Kong. 

" Mr. Faber is already well known in the field of Chinese studies by his digest of 
the doctrines of Confucius. The value of this work will be perceived when it is 
remembered that at no time since relations commenced between China and the 
West has the former been so powerful we had almost said aggressive as now. 
For those who will give it careful study, Mr. Faber s work is one of the most 
valuable of the excellent series to which it belongs." Nature. 

A 2 


Post 8vo, pp. 336, cloth, price 163. 



Translated from the French with the authority and assistance of the Author, 

The author has, at the request of the publishers, considerably enlarged 
the work for the translator, and has added the literature of the subject to 
date ; che translation may, therefore, be looked upon as an equivalent of J 
new and improved edition of the original. 

" Is not only a valuable manual of the religions of India, which marks a distinct 
step in the treatment of the subject, but also a useful work of reference." Academy. 

"This volume is a reproduction, with corrections and additions, of an article 
contributed by the learned author two years ago to the Encyclopedic des Sciences 
Religieuses. It attracted much notice when it first appeared, and is generally 
admitted to present the best summary extant of the vast subject with which it 
deals." Tablet. 

This is not only on the whole the best but the only manual of the religions of 
India, apart from Buddhism, which we have in English. The present work . . . 
shows not only great knowledge of the facts and power of clear exposition, but also 
great insight into the inner history and the deeper meaning of the great religion, 
for it is in reality only one, which it proposes to describe." Modern Review. 

" The merit of the work has been emphatically recognised by the most authoritative 
Orientalists, both in this country and on the continent of Europe, But probably 
there are few Indianists (if we may use the word) who would not derive a good deal 
of information from it, and especially from the extensive bibliography provided in 
the notes." Dublin Revieic. 

" Such a sketch M. Earth has drawn with a master-hand." Critic (New York). 

Post 8vo, pp. viii. 152, cloth, price 6s. 


An Exposition of the System of Kapila, with an Appendix on the 
Nyaya and Vais eshika Systems. 

BY JOHN DAVIES, M.A. (Cantab.), M.R.A.S. 

The system of Kapila contains nearly all that India has produced in the 
department of pure philosophy. 

"The non-Orientalist . . . finds in Mr. Davies a patient and learned guide who 
leads him into the intricacies of the philosophy of India, and supplies him with a clue 
that he may not be lost in them. In the preface he states that the system of 
Kapila is the earliest attempt on record to give an answer, from reason alone, 
to the mysterious questions which arise in every thoughtful mind about the origin of 
the world, the nature and relations of man and his future destiny, and in his learned 
and able notes lie exhibits the connection of the Sankhya system with the philo 
sophy of Spinoza, and the connection of the system of Kapila with that of Schopen 
hauer and Von Hartinann. "Foreign Church Chronicle. 

" Mr. Davies s volume on Hindu Philosophy is an undoubted gain to all students 
of the development of thought. The system of Kapila, which is here given in a trans 
lation from the Sankhya Karika, is the only contribution of India to pure philosophy 
. . . Presents many points of deep interest to the student of comparative philo 
sophy, and without Mr. Davies s lucid interpretation it would be difficult to appre 
ciate these points in any adequate manner." Saturday Review. 

"We welcome Mr. Davies s book as a valuable addition to our philosophical 
library." Notes and Queries. 


Second Edition. Post 8vo, pp. x. 130, cloth, price 6s. 


Translated, with copious Annotations, 

Bombay Staff Corps ; Inspector of Army Schools. 

The design of this little work is to provide for missionaries, and for 
others who, like them, have little leisure for original research, an accurate 
summary of the doctrines of the Vedanta. 

" The modest title of Major Jacob s work conveys but an inadequate idea of the 
vast amount of re>eurch embodied in his notes to the text of the Vedantasara. So 
copious, indeed, are these, and so much collateral matter do they bring to bear on 
the subject., that the diligent student will rise from their perusal with a fairly 
adequate view of Hindu philosophy generally. His work ... is one of the best of 
its kind that we have seen." Calcutta Review. 

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IN this work an endeavour has been made to supply the 
long-felt want of a Hindu Classical Dictionary. The late 
Professor Wilson projected such a work, and forty years 
ago announced his intention of preparing one for the 
Oriental Translation Fund, but he never accomplished his 
design. This is not the first attempt to supply the void. 
Mr. Garrett, Director of Public Instruction in Mysore, 
published in India a few years ago a " Classical Dic 
tionary of India," but it is of a very miscellaneous char 
acter, and embraces a good deal of matter relating to the 
manners and customs of the present time. It has not 
obtained favour in Europe, and it cannot be considered 
as any obstacle in the way of a more complete and 
systematic work. 

The main portion of this work consists of mythology, 
but religion is bound up with mythology, and in many 
points the two are quite inseparable. Of history, in the 
true sense, Sanskrit possesses nothing, or next to nothing, 
but what little has been discovered here finds its place. 
The chief geographical names of the old writers also have 
received notice, and their localities and identifications are 
described so far as present knowledge extends. Lastly, 
short descriptions have been given of the most frequently 
mentioned Sanskrit books, but only of such books as 



are likely to be found named in the works of European 

It must be understood from the first that this work 
is derived entirely from the publications of European 
scholars. I have not resorted to original Sanskrit autho 
rities. My remaining span of life would at the best be 
quite insufficient for an investigation of their manifold 
and lengthy volumes. But I have gleaned from many 
European writers, and have sought to present a summary 
of the present condition of our knowledge of the religion 
and mythology of Ancient India. 

The work is no doubt very defective. The full harvest 
of Sanskrit learning has not yet been gathered in, but 
the knowledge which has been stored by former labourers 
ought to be made readily available for the service of their 
successors, to lighten their labours and strengthen them 
for onward progress. There is nothing in this book for 
which authority is not to be found in some one or more 
of the many works upon Hindu literature and religion, 
but the aim has been to condense and bring together in 
a compact form that information which lies scattered in 
many volumes. Hindu mythology is so extensive, and 
the authorities are often so at variance with each other, 
that I cannot but feel diffident of the success of my 
labours. I have worked diligently and carefully, I hope 
also intelligently, but mistakes have no doubt been made, 
and it may be that matters have been passed over which 
ought to have been recorded, and others have been printed 
which might well have been left unnoticed. But while 
I have no expectation of any near approach to perfection, 
I do hope that a good beginning has been made, and 
that a basis has been laid on which a greater and more 
worthy structure may hereafter be raised. If the work is 


received with anything like favour, I shall be constantly 
on the watch to improve it, and honest criticism will be 
welcomed and carefully considered. 

The book would be more valuable and interesting were 
it well illustrated with plates and cuts, but the work is a 
speculative one, and does not directly appeal to a large 
field of students and readers. The expense of befitting 
illustrations would be heavy, too great to be at once 
ventured upon. But if the work is approved, and illus 
trations are desired, an attempt will be made to supply 
the want by a series of plates containing a selection of 
subjects from the stores of our museums and from other 

It is unnecessary to specify all the works that have 
been used in the compilation of this book. Some have 
been referred to occasionally, but the mainstays through 
out have been the " Original Sanskrit Texts " of Dr. Muir 
and the works of the late Professor H. H. Wilson, includ 
ing his translation of the .Zfo g-veda, and more especially 
that of the Vislmu Pura^a, republished with additional 
notes by Dr. FitzEdward Hall. I have also levied 
numerous contributions from the writings of Williams, 
Max Miiller, Roth, Bohthlingk, Lassen, Weber, Whitney, 
Wollheim da Fonseca, and many others too numerous to 


THE Aryan settlers on the banks of the Indus and in the land 
of the Five Rivers were possessors of a large number of hymns 
addressed to the elements and powers of nature. Some of these 
hymns they no doubt brought from their earlier homes in the 
West, but others were composed after they had reached the 
land of their adoption. These ancient hymns cover a long 
period, the length and the era of which can only be conjectured, 
but fifteen hundred years before Christ is about the mean of 
the various ages assigned to them. The hymns form what is 
called the Tfrg-veda Sanhita, a collection which embraces all the 
extant compositions of the early Aryans. It is the 2&g-veda 
which is of primary importance in Hindu religion and mytho 
logy; the other Yedas are later in date, and the second and 
third Yedas consist almost exclusively of hymns derived from 
the Rig, but specially arranged for religious purposes. The 
fourth or Atharva-veda borrows less from the ^ g-veda, but it 
is considerably later in date, and is of a different character. 

The Aryan hymns of the Veda embody the ideas of the 
Indian immigrants. These ideas were inherited from their 
forefathers. They were originally the property of the united 
progenitors of the Aryan races, and the offshoots of this great 
human stock have spread their primitive ideas over a large por 
tion of the earth. In the Vedic hymns the ideas and myths 
appear in their simplest and freshest forms, directly connected 
with the sources from which they sprang by clear ties of lan 
guage. Comparative philology and mythology go hand in hand ; 
and as the language of the Vedas has proved the great critical 
instrument in the construction of the science of philology, so the 


simple myths of the Yedic hymns furnish many clues for un 
ravelling the science of mythology. For where the etymology 
of a mythic name or term yields a distinct sense of its mean 
ing, the origin of the myth is not far to seek. The language of 
the Vedas has in many instances supplied this clue, and led 
to a definite comprehension of what was previously hidden and 
obscure. The Vedic hymns have preserved the myths in their 
primitive forms, and, says Max Miiller, " Nowhere is the wide 
distance which separates the ancient poems of India from the 
most ancient literature of Greece more clearly felt than when we 
compare the growing myths of the Yeda with the full-grown 
and decayed myths on which the poetry of Homer is founded. 
The Veda is the real Theogony of the Aryan races, while that of 
Hesiod is a distorted caricature of the original image." 

The Aryan settlers were a pastoral and agricultural people, 
and they were keenly alive to those influences which affected 
their prosperity and comfort. They knew the effects of heat 
and cold, rain and drought, upon their crops and herds, and 
they marked the influence of warmth and cold, sunshine and 
rain, wind and storm, upon their own personal comfort. They 
invested these benign and evil influences with a personality; 
and behind the fire, the sun, the cloud, and the other powers of 
nature, they saw beings who directed them in their beneficent 
and evil operations. To these imaginary beings they addressed 
their praises, and to them they put up their prayers for temporal 
blessings. They observed also the movements of the sun and 
moon, the constant succession of day and night, the intervening 
periods of morn and eve, and to these also they gave personali 
ties, which they invested with poetical clothing and attributes. 
Thus observant of nature in its various changes and operations, 
alive to its influences upon themselves, and perceptive of its 
beauties, they formed for themselves deities in whose glory and 
honour they exerted their poetic faculty. They had no one 
god in particular, no superior deity guiding and controlling the 
rest, but they paid the tribute of their praise to the deity whose 
bounties they enjoyed, or whose favours they desired for bodily 
comfort. They lauded also in glowing language the personifica 
tions of those beauties of nature which filled their minds with 


delight and kindled the poetic fire. So each of the deities in 
turn received his meed of praise, and each in his turn was the 
powerful god, able to accomplish the desires of his votary or to 
excite a feeling of awe or admiration. 

Thus there were many distinct deities, and each of them had 
some general distinctive powers and attributes ; but their attri 
butes and characters were frequently confounded, and there was 
a constant tendency to elevate now this one now that one to the 
supremacy, and to look upon him as the Great Power. In 
course of time a pre-eminence was given to a triad of deities, 
foreshadowing the Tri-murti or Trinity of later days. In this 
triad Agni (Fire) and Surya (the Sun) held a place, and the 
third place was assigned either to Vayu (the Wind) or to Indra 
(god of the sky). Towards the end of the jR/g-veda Sanhita, in 
the hymns of the latest date, the idea of one Supreme Being 
assumed a more definite shape, and the Hindu mind was per 
ceiving, even if it had not distinctly realised, the great con 

As the Yedic hymns grew ancient, ritual developed and 
theological inquiry awoke. Then arose what is called the Brah- 
marza portion of the Veda. This consists of a variety of com 
positions, chiefly in prose, and attached to the different Mantras. 
Ritual and liturgy were the chief objects of these writings, but 
traditions were cited to enforce and illustrate, and speculation 
was set at work to explain, the allusions of the hymns. The 
simplicity of the Vedic myths gradually became obscured, the 
deities grew more personal, and speculations as to the origin 
of the world and of the human race invested them with new 
attributes. Later on, in the Aranyakaa and Upanishads, which 
form part of the collective Brahmawa, a further development 
took place, but principally in a philosophical direction. 

Between the times of the Sanhita and of the Brahma?za the 
conception of a Supreme Being had become established. The 
Biahmanap recognise one Great Being as the Soul of the Uni 
verse, and abound with philosophical speculations as to the work 
of creation and the origin of man. A golden egg was produced 
in the universal waters, from which in course of time came 
forth Prajapati, the progenitor or, the quiescent Universal Soul, 


Brahma, took a creative form as Brahma the Prajapati. From 
the Prajapati, or great progenitor, there was produced a daughter, 
and by her he was the father of the human race. The explana 
tions and details of this connection vary, but there is a general 
accord that the Prajapati was the progenitor of all mankind by 
a female produced from himself. Before the times of the Brah- 
marcas some of the old myths of the hymns had crystallised, the 
personifications had become more distinct, and the ideas from 
which they had been developed had grown hazy or were quite 
forgotten. Philosophy speculated as to the origin of the world, 
theories were founded upon etymologies, and legends were in 
vented to illustrate them. These speculations and illustrations 
in course of time hardened into shape, and became realities 
when the ideas which gave them birth were no longer remem 
bered and understood. The priestly order had advanced in 
power, and had taken a more prominent and important position, 
but the Kshatriya or second class held a high place, and asserted 
something like an equality with the Brahmans even in matters 
of learning. 

Another interval elapsed between the days of the Brahmarca 
and of Manu. The theory of the golden egg is held by Manu, 
and he calls the active creator who was produced from it Brahma 
and Narayana, the latter name being one which was afterwards 
exclusively appropriated by Vishrai. But the most remarkable 
change observable in Manu is in the condition of the people, in 
the great advancement of the Brahmanical caste, the establish 
ment of the four great castes, and the rise of a number of mixed 
castes from cross intercourse of these four. In a hymn called 
Purusha-sukta, one of the latest hymns of the Tfrg-veda, there 
is a distinct recognition of three classes, Brahmans, Kshatriyas, 
and Vaisyas, and these appear more distinctly in the Brahma?za, 
but no mention of the Siidras and mixed castes has been found 
before the work of Manu. 

The Ramayarca and Maha-bharata are poems of the heroic 
age, and though they are full of marvels, they deal more with 
the actions of mortal men and romantic creations than the might 
and majesty of the gods. The old deities of the Vedas have 
retired into the background, .and some have disappeared alto 


gether. Indra retains a place of some dignity; but Brahma, 
$iva, and Vishnu have, in the Epics, risen to the chief place. 
Even of these three, the first is comparatively insignificant. 
His work of creation "was over, and if he was ever an object of 
great adoration, he had ceased to be so. Vishnu and /Siva both 
appear in these poems; and although Vishnu is the god who 
holds the most prominent place, still there are many passages in 
which /Siva is elevated to the supreme dignity. The Vishnu 
who, in the Vedas, was the friend and companion of Indra and 
strode over the universe, has become the great deity of preserva 
tion, and the terrible and howling Kudra is now /Siva, the deity 
of destruction and renovation. Each of these two gods in his 
turn contends with and subdues the other ; now this, now that, 
receives the homage of his rival, and each in turn is lauded and 
honoured as the chief and greatest of gods. 

The Avataras or incarnations of Vishnu assume a prominent 
place in the poems, and still more so in the Puranas. The first 
three, the Fish, the Tortoise, and the Boar, have a cosmical cha 
racter, and are foreshadowed in the hymns of the Vedas. The 
fourth, or Man-lion, seems to belong to a later age, when the 
worship of Vishnu had become established. The fifth, or 
Dwarf, whose three strides deprived the Asuras of the dominion 
of heaven and earth, is in its character anterior to the fourth 
Avatara, and the three strides are attributed to Vishnu in 
the Veda, The fifth, sixth, and seventh, Parasu-rama, Rama- 
chandra, and Knshna, are mortal heroes, whose exploits are 
celebrated in these poems so fervently as to raise the heroes to 
the rank of gods. The ninth Avatara, Buddha, is manifestly 
and avowedly the offspring of the preaching of Buddha ; and 
the tenth, Kalki, is yet to come. 

When we reach the Puranas there is found a very different 
condition of things. The true meaning of the Vedic myths is 
entirely lost, their origin is forgotten, and the signification and 
composition of many of the mythic names are unknown. Mar 
vellous legends have gathered round the favourite divinities, and 
many more have been built upon fanciful etymologies of the old 
names. The simple primitive fancies suggested by the opera 
tions of nature have disappeared, and have been supplanted by 

xiv IN TROD UCT10N. 

the wild imaginings of a more advanced civilisation, but of a 
more corrupt state of society and religion. The Tri-murti or 
triad of deities has assumed a distinct shape, and while Brahma 
has quite fallen into obscurity, Vishrai and /Siva have each 
become supreme in the belief of their respective followers. 
Vishmi, in his youthful form Krishna, is the object of a sensuous 
and joyous worship. The gloomy and disgusting worship of 
$iva, in his terrible forms, has grown side by side with it. The 
worship of his fierce consort, Devi, has become established, and 
the foundation has been laid of the obscene and bloody rites 
afterwards developed in the Tantras. 

The Veda, in modern Hinduism, is a mere name, a name of 
high authority, often invoked and highly reverenced, but its 
language is unintelligible, and its gods and rites are things of 
the past. The modern system is quite at variance with the 
Vedic writings out of which it grew, and the descendant bears 
but few marks of resemblance to its remote ancestor. 

The Pura?2as and later writings are the great authorities of 
modern Hinduism ; their mythology and legends fill the popular 
mind and mould its thoughts. The wonderful tales of the great 
poems also exercise a great influence. The heroes of these 
poems are heroes still ; their exploits, with many embellishments 
and sectarial additions, are recounted in prose and verse, and the 
tales of Kama and the PtwcZavas, of Hanumat and Eavana, are 
still read and listened to with wonder and delight. A host of 
legends has grown up around the hero Krishna - } they attend 
him from his cradle to his pyre ; but the stories of his infancy 
and his youth are those which are most popular, and interest all 
classes, especially women and young people. The mild and 
gentle Rama, " the husband of one wife," pure in thought and 
noble in action, is in many places held in the highest honour, and 
the worship paid to him and his faithful wife Sita is the purest 
and least degrading of the many forms of Hindu worship. 

This later mythology, with its wonders and marvels, and its 
equally marvellous explanations of them, is the key to modern 
Hinduism. It is curious to trace its descent, to contrast such 
legends as are traceable with their simple beginnings in the 
Yedic hymns, and so to follow the workings of the mind of a 


great people through many centuries. Such a survey supplies 
important and interesting matter for the history of religion, 
and gives a clear and complete view of the degradation of a 
mythology. But for the purposes of comparative mythology 
the Pauranik legends are of trifling importance. The stories of 
the Epic poems even are of no great value. It may be, as has 
been maintained, that they " are simply different versions of one 
and the same story, and that this story has its origin in the 
phenomena of the natural world and the course of the day and 
the year ; " but still they are of later date, and afford no direct 
clue for unravelling the mythology of the Aryan nations. 

The most ancient hymns of the ^ g-veda are the basis upon 
which comparative mythology rests, and they have already sup 
plied the means of unfolding the real source and signification 
of several Greek and Zoroastrian myths. The science is young, 
and has a wide field before it. Some of its results are beyond 
doubt, but there are other deductions which have not advanced 
as yet beyond conjecture and speculation. In the present work 
some of the more obvious identifications, or proposed identifica 
tions, have been mentioned as occasion offered ; in a work of 
reference like this it would be out of place to have done more. 
The reader who wishes to pursue the study must consult the 
writings of Max Miiller and the " Aryan Mythology " of the 
Kev. Sir George Cox. In them and in the books to which they 
refer he will find ample information, and plenty of materials for 
investigation and comparison. 


IF tliis work answers the purpose for which it is intended, it 
will be used by students who are acquainted with the alphabet 
in which Sanskrit is written, and by readers to whom that 
alphabet is unknown. Its system of transliteration ought then 
to be such as to enable a student to restore any word to its 
original letters, but the ordinary reader ought not to be em 
barrassed with unnecessary diacritical points and distinctions. 
The alphabet of the Sanskrit is represented on the following 
plan : 



a as in America. a as in last, 

i ,, pin. I ,, police, 

u ,, put. u ,, rule. 

ri ,, rill. rl ,, chagrin. 

The vowel Iri will not be met with. 






Semi- vow els y 

Sibilants s 


e as in ere or fe"te. 

ai ,, aisle. 

o ,, so. 

au as ou in house. 


kh g 


chh j 


th d 


th d 


ph b 


r 1 

v, w 

sh, s Aspirate h V 

isarga h 



Anuswara u 


To the uninitiated Englishman the chief difficulty lies in the 
short a, the primary inherent vowel of the Sanskrit, pro 
nounced as in the word America. The English alphabet has 
no distinct letter for this sound, but uses every one of its vowels 
in turn, and some even of its double vowels to represent it ; so 
it is the a and e in servant, the i in bird, the o in 
word, the u in curd, the y in myrtle, and the ea in 
heard. The Sanskrit short a has this sound invariably, and 
unaffected by any combination of consonants ; so Sanskrit barn 
must be pronounced not as the English barn but as burn. 
The pronunciation of the other vowels is sufficiently obvious. 
The vowel t ri t is represented in italics to distinguish it from 
the consonants r and i. 

Of the consonants, the cerebral letters /, th, } d, } dh, and 
w, the palatal sibilant 5, and thevisarga A, are represented in 
italics. Practically these are the only distinctions necessary. 
The guttural nasal is used only in combination with a guttural 
letter ( nk or ng ) ; the palatal nasal is used only with 
palatals ( nch and nj ), and no other nasal can be combined 
with these letters. The anuswara, and the anuswara only, is 
used before the sibilants and h, so in ns, nsh, ns, and nh, 
the nasal is the anuswara. The letter m before a semi- vowel 
may be represented either by m or anuswara. In all these 
instances the combinations distinctly indicate the proper nasal, 
and no discriminative sign is necessary. 

Of the pronunciation of the nasals it is only necessary to 
notice the anuswara. This, with a sibilant, is a simple n, but 
before h it is like ng or the French n in Ion; so the Sanskrit 
Sinha, in the modern derivative tongues, is written and pro 
nounced Singh. 

The aspirates are simple aspirations of their respective con 
sonants, and make no other change of their sounds ; so th is 
to be pronounced as in the words at home, and ph as in up 
hill, never as in thine and in physic. The letter *g is 
always hard as in gift. The palatals are the simple English 


sounds of ch and j as in church and just. The cerebrals 
and the dentals are similar letters, but the former are drawn from 
the roof of the mouth and the latter from the tips of the teeth. 
In train and drain we have cerebrals; in tin and due 
we have dentals, or an approach to them. The ordinary English 
t and d are more cerebral than dental, and the natives of 
India in transcribing English names use the cerebrals for our t 
and d. The palatal sibilant l s has a sound intermediate 
between *s and sh, resembling the double ss in session. 
The visarga, the final h, has no distinct enunciation, but it 
is nevertheless a real letter, and changes in certain positions into 
s and r. Thus the name $unaAsephas is sometimes written 

[In French the palatal ch is represented by tch and the 
j by dj. In German the ch is expressed by tsch and 
the j by dsch. These very awkward combinations have 
induced Max Miiller and others to use an italic k and g 
instead of them.] 

Some words will be found with varying terminations, as 
Hanumat and Hanuman, Sikharaftn and Sikha^L The 
explanation of this is that Sanskrit nouns have what is called 
a crude form or stem independent of case termination, and the 
nominative case very frequently differs from it. So Hanumat 
and SikhaTztZin are crude forms ; Hanuman and Sikhawdi 
are their nominative cases. There are other such variations 
which need not be noticed. 

The letters b and v are often interchanged, so words not 
found under the one letter should be sought for under the other. 


ABHASWAKAS. A class of deities, sixty-four in number, 
of whose nature little is known. 

ABHIDHANA. A dictionary or vocabulary. There aro 
many such works. One of the oldest of them is the Abhidhdna 
ratna-mdld of Halayudha Bha/ta (circa yth cent.), and one of 
the best is the Abhidhdna Chintd-mam of Hema-chandra, a Jaina 
writer of celebrity (i3th cent.). The former has been edited by 
Aufrecht ; the latter by Colebrooke and by Bohtlingk and Rieu. 

ABHIMANI. Agni, the eldest son of Brahma, By his 
wife Swaha he had three sons, Pavaka, Pavamana, and /Suchi. 
" They had forty-five sons, who, with the original son of Brahma 
and his three descendants, constitute the forty-nine fires." See 

ABHIMANYU. Son of Arjuna by his wife Su-bhadra, and 
know r n by the metronymic Saubhadra. He killed Lakshmawa, 
the son of Dur-yodhana, on the second day of the great battle 
of the Maha-bharata, but on the thirteenth day he himself fell 
fighting heroically against fearful odds. He was very hand 
some. His wife was Uttara, daughter of the Raja of Virata. 
His son, Parikshit, succeeded to the throne of Hastinapura. 

ABHIRA, ABHlRA. A cowherd ; according to Manu the 
offspring of a Brahman by a woman of the Ambash/ha or 
medical tribe. A people located in the north of India along 
the Indus. There has been a good deal of misapprehension 
respecting this people. Hindu writers have described them as 
living in the north and in the west, the quarter varying accord 
ing to the locality of the writer, and translators have mixed 

A * 


them up with a neighbouring people, the Sudras, sometimes called 
/Suras, with whom they are generally associated, and have called 
them Surabhiras. Their modern representatives are the Ahirs, 
and perhaps there is something more than identity of locality 
in their association with the /Sftdras. It has been suggested 
that the country or city of the Abhiras is the Ophir of the 

ABHIRAMA-MA./VT. A drama in seven acts on the history 
of Kama, written by Sundara Misra in 1599 A.D. "The com 
position possesses little dramatic interest, although it has some 
literary merit." Wilson. 

ACHARA. Rule, custom, usage. The rules of practice of 
castes, orders, or religion. There are many books of rules which 
have this word for the first member of their titles, as Achdra- 
chandrikd, moonlight of customs, on the customs of the udras ; 
Achdrddarsa, looking-glass of customs; Achdra-dipa, lamp 
of customs, &c., &c. 

ACHARYA. A spiritual teacher or guide. A title of Drona, 
the teacher of the Pawcfevas. 

ACHYUTA. Unf alien; a name of Vishnu or Knsh?2a. 
It has been variously interpreted as signifying " he who does 
not perish with created things," in the Maha-bharata as " he 
who is not distinct from final emancipation," and in the Skanda 
Purafta as "he who never declines (or varies) from his proper 

ADBHUTA-BRAHMAM. The Brahma?ia of miracles. 
A Brahmawa of the Sama-veda which treats of auguries and 
marvels. It has been published by Weber. 

ADHARMA. Unrighteousness, vice; personified as a son 
of Brahma, and called "the destroyer of all beings." 

ADHIRATHA. A charioteer. The foster-father of Kama , 
according to some he was king of Anga, and according to others 
the charioteer of King Dhritarash/ra : perhaps he was both. 

ADHWARYU. A priest whose business it is to recite tho 
prayers of the Yajur-veda. 

ADHYATMAjST. The supreme spirit, the soul of the uni 

ADHYATMA RAMAYANA. A very popular work, which 
is considered to be a part of the Brahmamfa Purawa. It has 
been printed in India. See Ramaya/za. 


ADI-PUKAA A. The first Pura??a, a title generally con 
ceded to tlie Brahma Pura?ia. 

ADITI. Tree, unbounded. Infinity; the boundless heaven 
as compared with the finite earth ; or, according to M. Miiller, 
"the visible infinite, visible by the naked eye; the endless 
expanse beyond the earth, beyond the clouds, beyond the sky. :) 
In the Tti g-veda she is frequently implored " for blessings on 
children and cattle, for protection and for forgiveness." Aditi is 
called Deva-matri, mother of the gods, and is represented as 
being the mother of Daksha and the daughter of Daksha. On this 
statement Yaska remarks in the Nirukta : " How can this be 
possible 1 They may have had the same origin ; or, according to 
the nature of the gods, they may have been born from each 
other, have derived their substance from one another." "Eight 
sons were born from the body of Aditi ; she approached the 
gods with seven but cast away the eighth, Marttarzda (the sun)." 
These seven were the Adityas. In the Yajur-veda Aditi is 
addressed as " Supporter of the sky, sustainer of the earth, 
sovereign of this world, wife of Vishmi ; " but in the Maha- 
bharata and Kamayarca, as well as in the Puranas, Vishmi is 
called the son of Aditi. In the Vishmi Purana she is said to be 
the daughter of Daksha and wife of Kasyapa, by whom she was 
mother of Vish?iu, in his dwarf incarnation (wherefore he is 
sometimes called Aditya), and also of Indra, and she is called 
"the mother of the gods" and "the mother of the world 
Indra acknowledged her as mother, and Vishmi, after receiving 
the adoration of Aditi, addressed her in these words : " Mother, 
goddess, do thou show favour unto me and grant me thy bless 
ing." According to the Matsya Purarca a pair of ear-rings was 
produced at the churning of the ocean, which Indra gave to 
Aditi, and several of the Pura?2as tell a story of these ear-rings 
being stolen and carried off to the city of Prag-jyotisha by the 
Asura king ISTaraka, from whence they were brought back and 
restored to her by Krishna. Devaki, the mother of Krishna, is 
represented as being a new birth or manifestation of Aditi. See 
Max Miiller s Rig Veda, i. 230; Muir s Texts, iv. n, v. 35. 

ADITYA. In the early Yedic times the Adityas were six, 
or more frequently seven, celestial deities, of whom Tarawa was 
chief, consequently he was the Aditya. They were sons of 
Aditi, who had eight sons, but she approached the gods with 


seven, having cast away the eighth, MarttaWa (the sun). In 
after-times the number was increased to twelve, as representing 
the sun in the twelve months of the year. Aditya is one 
of the names of the sun. Dr. Muir quotes the following from 
Professor Eoth : " There (in the highest heaven) dwell and 
reign those gods who bear in common the name of Adityas. 
"We must, however, if we would discover their earliest character, 
abandon the conceptions which in a later age, and even in that 
of the heroic poems, were entertained regarding these deities. 
According to this conception they were twelve sun-gods, bearing 
evident reference to the twelve months. But for the most 
ancient period we must hold fast the primary signification 
of their name. They are the inviolable, imperishable, eternal 
beings. Aditi, eternity, or the eternal, is the element which 
sustains or is sustained by them. . . . The eternal and inviol 
able element in which the Adityas dwell, and which forms their 
essence, is the celestial light. The Adityas, the gods of this 
light, do not therefore by any means coincide with any of the 
forms in which light is manifested in the universe. They are 
neither sun, nor moon, nor stars, nor dawn, but the eternal 
sustainers of this luminous life, which exists, as it were, behind 
all these phenomena." 

The names of the six Adityas are Mitra, Aryaman, Bhaga, 
Yaru?za, Daksha, and Daksha is frequently excluded, 
and Indra, Savitri (the sun), and Dhatn are added. Those of 
the twelve Adityas are variously given, but many of them are 
names of the sun. 

ADITYA PUEAJVA. One of the eighteen Upa-pura?zas. 

AGASTI, AGASTYA. A Bishi, the reputed author of several 
hymns in the Jtzg-veda, and a very celebrated personage in 
Hindu story. He and Yasish/ha are said in the T^ig-veda to be 
the offspring of Mitra and Yaruwa, whose seed fell from them at 
the sight of Urvasi; and the commentator Sayawa adds that 
Agastya was born in a water-jar as "a fish of great lustre," 
whence he was called Kalasi-suta, Kumbha -sambhava, and 
Ghafodbhava. From his parentage he was called Maitra-vanmi 
and Aurvasiya ; and as he was very small when he was born, 
not more than a span in length, he was called Mima. Though 
he is thus associated in his birth with Yasish/ha, he is evidently 
later in date, and he is not one of the Prajapatis. His name. 


Agastya, is derived by a forced etymology from a fable which 
represents him as having commanded the Vindhya mountains to 
prostrate themselves before him, through which they lost their 
primeval altitude; or rather, perhaps, the fable has been invented 
to account for his name. This miracle has obtained for him the 
epithet Vindhya-kufa; and he acquired another name, Pltabdhi, 
or Samudra-chuluka, Ocean drinker/ from another fable, 
according to which he drank up the ocean because it had 
offended him, and because he wished to help the gods in their 
wars with the Daityas when the latter had hidden themselves in 
the waters. He was afterwards made regent of the star Canopus, 
which bears his name. The Purawas represent him as being the 
son of Pulastya, the sage from whom the Rakshasas sprang. He 
was one of the narrators of the Brahma Purima and also a writer 
on medicine. 

The Maha-bharata relates a legend respecting the creation of 
his wife. It says that Agastya saw his ancestors suspended by 
their heels in a pit, and was told by them that they could be 
rescued only by his begetting a son. Thereupon he formed a 
girl out of the most graceful parts of different animals and 
passed her secretly into the palace of the king of Vidarbha, 
There the child grew up as a daughter of the king, and was 
demanded in marriage by Agastya. Much against his will the 
king was constrained to consent, and she became the wife of the 
sage. She was named Lopa-mudra, because the animals had 
been subjected to loss (lopa) by her engrossing their distinctive 
beauties, as the eyes of the deer, &c. She was also called 
Kausitakl and Yara-prada. The same poem also tells a story 
exhibiting his superhuman power, by which he turned King 
Kahusha into a serpent and afterwards restored him to his 
proper form. See Kahusha. 

It is in the Kamaya?2a that Agastya makes the most distin 
guished figure. He dwelt in a hermitage on Mount Kunjara, 
situated in a most beautiful country to the south of the Vindhya 
mountains, and was chief of the hermits of the south. He kept 
the Eakshasas who infested the south under control, so that the 
country was "only gazed upon and not possessed by them." 
His power over them is illustrated by a legend which represents 
him as eating up a Rakshasa named Yatapi who assumed the 
form of a ram, and as destroying by a flash of his eye the 


Rakshasa s brother, Ilvala, who attempted to avenge him. (See 
Vatapi.) Rama in his exile wandered to the hermitage of 
Agastya with Sita and Lakshma?ia. The sage received him with 
the greatest kindness, and became his friend, adviser, and pro 
tector. He gave him the bow of Vishmi ; and when Rama was 
restored to his kingdom, the sage accompanied him to Ayodhya. 

The name of Agastya holds a great place also in Tamil litera 
ture, and he is " venerated in the south as the first teacher of 
science and literature to the primitive Dravicfaan tribes;" so says 
Dr. Caldwell, who thinks " we shall not greatly err in placing 
the era of Agastya in the seventh, or at least in the sixth cen 
tury B.C." Wilson also had previously testified to the same 
effect: "The traditions of the south of India ascribe to Agastya 
a principal share in the formation of the Tamil language and 
literature, and the general tenor of the legends relating to him 
denotes his having been instrumental in the introduction of the 
Hindu religion and literature into the Peninsula." 

AGHASURA. (Agha the Asura.) An Asura who was Kansa s 
general. He assumed the form of a vast serpent, and Krishna s 
companions, the cowherds, entered its mouth, mistaking it for a 
mountain cavern : but Kn shna rescued them. 

AGXAYI. Wife of Agni. She is seldom alluded to in the 
Yeda and is not of any importance. 

AGNEYA. Son of Agni, a name of Karttikeya or Mars ; 
also an appellation of the Muni Agastya and others. 

AGNEYASTRA. < The weapon of fire. Given by Bharad- 
waja to Agnivesa, the son of Agni, and by him to Drowa. A 
similar weapon was, according to the Vishmi Purawa, given by 
the sage Aurva to his pupil King Sagara, and with it "he 
conquered the tribes of barbarians who had invaded his patri 
monial possessions." 

AGNEYA PURA^A. See Agni Purawa. 

AGK1. fN"om. Agnis = Ignis.) Fire, one of the most ancient 
and most sacred objects of Hindu worship. He appears in three 
phases in heaven as the sun, in mid-air as lightning, on earth 
as ordinary fire. Agni is one of the chief deities of the Vedas, 
and great numbers of the hymns are addressed to him, more 
indeed than to any other god. He is one of the three great deities 
Agni, Vayu (or Indra), and Surya who respectively preside 
over earth, air, and sky, and are all equal in dignity. " He is 

AGNI. 7 

considered as the mediator between men and gods, as protector 
of men an 1 their homes, and as witness of their actions ; hence 
his invocation at all solemn occasions, at the nuptial ceremony, 
&c. Fire has ceased to be an object of worship, but is held in 
honour for the part it performs in sacrifices." Agni is repre 
sented as having seven tongues, each of which has a distinct 
name, for licking up the butter used in sacrifices. He is 
guardian of the south-east quarter, being one of the eight loka- 
palas (q.v.), and his region is called Pura-jyotis. 

In a celebrated hymn of the Tiig-veda attributed to Yasishflia, 
Indra and other gods are called upon to destroy the Kravyads 
the flesh-eaters, or Rakshas enemies of the gods. Agni himself 
is also a Kravyad, and as such he takes an entirely different 
character. He is represented under a form as hideous as the 
beings he is invoked to devour. He sharpens his two iron tusks, 
puts his enemies into his mouth and swallows them. He heats the 
edges of his shafts and sends them into the hearts of the Rakshas. 

"He appears in the progress of mythological personifica 
tion as a son of Angiras, as a king of the Pitns or Manes, 
as a Marut, as a grandson of Sandila, as one of the seven 
sages or Ttishis, during the reign of Tamasa the fourth Manu," 
and as a star. In the Maha-bharata Agni is represented as hav 
ing exhausted his vigour by devouring too many oblations, and 
desiring to consume the whole Khawdava forest as a means of 
recruiting his strength. He was prevented by Indra, but having 
obtained the assistance of Krishna and Arjuna, he baffled Indra 
and accomplished his object. In the Vishwu Purana he is 
called Abhimani, and the eldest son of Brahma, His wife was 
Swuha; by her he had three sons, Pavaka, Pavamana, and $uchi, 
and these had forty-five sons; altogether forty-nine persons, 
identical with the forty-nine fires, which forty-nine fires the 
Vayu Pura/za endeavours to discriminate. He is described in 
the Hari-vansa as clothed in black, having smoke for his stan 
dard and head-piece, and carrying a flaming javelin. He has 
four hands, and is borne in a chariot drawn by red horses, and 
the seven winds are the wheels of his car. He is accompanied 
by a ram, and sometimes he is represented riding on that 
animal. The representations of him vary. 

The names and epithets of Agni are many Vahni. Anala, 
Pavaka, Vuiswanara, son of Yiswanara, the sun; Abja-hasta, 


1 lotus in hand ; Dhuma-ketu, whose sign is smoke ; Hutasa 
or Huta-bhuj, < devourer of offerings ; uchi or $ukra, the 
bright ; Rohitaswa, having red horses ; Chhaga-ratha, ram- 
rider; Jatavedas (q.v.); Sapta-jihva, seven-tongued; Tomara- 
dhara, j avelin-bearer. 

AGNI-DAGDHAS. Pitn s, or Manes, who when alive kept 
up the household flame and presented oblations with fire. Those 
who did not do so were called An-agni dagdhas. See Pitn s. 

AGISTI PURA7VA, This Purawa derives its name from its 
having been communicated originally by Agni, the deity of fire, 
to the Muni Yasishftia, for the purpose of instructing him in the 
twofold knowledge of Brahma. Its contents are variously 
specified as " sixteen thousand, fifteen thousand, and fourteen 
thousand stanzas." This work is devoted to the glorification 
of $iva, but its contents are of a very varied and cyclopaedical 
character. It has portions on ritual and mystic worship, 
cosmical descriptions, chapters on the duties of kings and the 
art of war, which have the appearance of being extracted from 
some older work, a chapter on law from the text-book of 
Yajnawalkya, some chapters on medicine from the Susruta, and 
some treatises on rhetoric, prosody, and grammar according to the 
rules of Pingala and Pawini. Its motley contents " exclude it 
from any legitimate claims to be regarded as a Purarca, and prove 
that its origin cannot be very remote." The text of this Pura?za 
is now in course of publication in the Bibliotheca Indica, edited 
by Rajendra Lai Mitra. 

AG!N T ISHWATTAS. Pit?is or Manes of the gods, who 
when living upon earth did not maintain their domestic fires 
or offer burnt-sacrifices. According to some authorities they 
were descendants of Maiichi. They are also identified with the 
seasons. See Pitris. 

AGNIYE^A. A sage, the son of Agni, and an early writer 
on medicine. 

AHALYA. Wife of the Piishi Gautama, and a very beautiful 
woman. In the Ramayawa it is stated that she was the first 
woman made by Brahma, and that he gave her to Gautama. 
She was seduced by Indra, who had to suffer for his adultery. 
One version of the Ramayawa represents her as knowing the 
god and being flattered by his condescension ; but another ver 
sion states that the god assumed the form of her husband, and 


so deceived her. Another story is that Indra secured the help 
of the moon, who assumed the form of a cock and crowed at 
midnight. This roused Gautama to his morning s devotions, when 
Indra went in and took his place. Gautama expelled Ahalyii 
from his hermitage, and deprived her of her prerogative of being 
the most beautiful woman in the world, or, according to another 
statement, he rendered her invisible. She was restored to her 
natural state by Kama and reconciled to her husband. This 
seduction is explained mythically by Kumarila Bha^/a as Indra 
(the sun s) carrying away the shades of night the name Ahalyii, 
by a strained etymology, being made to signify night. 

AHI. A serpent. A name of Vn tra, the Vedic demon of 
drought : but Ahi and Vn tra are sometimes " distinct, and mean, 
most probably, differently formed clouds." Wilson. 

AHI-CHHATRA, AHI-KSHETRA. A city mentioned in 
the Maha-bharata as lying north of the Ganges, and as being the 
capital of Northern Panchala. It is apparently the Adisadra of 
Ptolemy, and its remains are visible near Ram-nagar. 

ALNDRI. Son of Indra. An appellation of Arjuna. 

AIR AY ATA. A fine elephant. An elephant produced at 
the churning of the ocean, and appropriated by the god Indra. 
The derivation of this name is referred to the word Iravat, 
signifying produced from water. He is guardian of one of the 
points of the compass. See Loka-pala. 

AITAREYA. The name of a Brahma??a, an Arawyaka, and 
an Upanishad of the 7^/g-veda. The Brahmawa has been edited 
and translated by Dr. Haug ; the text of the Arawyaka has been 
published in the Bibliotheca Indica by Rajenclra Lala, and there 
is another edition. The Upanishad has been translated by Dr. 
Roer in the same series. " The Aitareya Arawyaka consists of five 
books, each of which is called Ara?zyaka. The second and third 
books form a separate Upanishad, and a still further subdivision 
here takes place, inasmuch as the four last sections of the second 
book, which are particularly consonant with the doctrines of the 
Vedanta system, pass as the Aitareyopanishad." Weber. 

AJA. Unborn. An epithet applied to many of the gods. 
A prince of the Solar race, sometimes said to be the son of 
Raghu, at others the son of Dilipa, son of Raghu. He was 
the husband chosen at her swayam-vara by Indumati, daughter 
of the Raja of Vidarbha, and was the father of Dasaratha and 


grandfather of Kama. The Raghu-vansa relates how on his way 
to the swayam-vara ho was annoyed by a wild elephant and 
ordered it to be shot. When the elephant was mortally wounded, 
a beautiful figure issued from it, which declared itself a gand- 
harva who had been transformed into a mad elephant for derid 
ing a holy man. The gandharva was delivered, as it had been 
foretold to him, by Aja, and he gave the prince some arrows 
which enabled him to excel in the contest at the swayam-vara. 
When Dasaratha grew up, Aja ascended to Indra s heaven. 

AJ AGAVA. The primitive bow of iva, which fell from 
heaven at the birth of Pn thtL 

A JAMIL A. A Brahman of Kanauj, who married a slave and 
had children, of whom he was very fond. 

AJATA-/SA.TRU. One whose enemy is unborn. i. A 
king of Kasi, mentioned in the Upanishads, who was very 
learned, and, although a Kshatriya, instructed the Brahman 
Gargya-balaki. 2. A name of $iva. 3. Of Yudhi-shftdra. 4. 
A king of Mathura who reigned in the time of Buddha. 

AJAYA-PALA. Author of a Sanskrit vocabulary of some 

AJlGARTTA. A Brahman Hisbi who sold his son /Suna/i- 
sephas to be a sacrifice. 

A JIT A. Unconquered. A title given to Vishmi, $iva, 
and many others. There were classes of gods bearing this name 
in several Manwantaras. 

AKRURA. A Yadava and uncle of Kn shrca. He was son 
of /Swa-phalka and Gandini. It was he who took Kn shwa and 
Rama to Mathura when the former broke the great bow. He is 
chiefly noted as being the holder of the Syamantaka gem. 

AKSHA. The eldest son of Ravawa, slain by Hanuman. 
Also a name of GarucZa. 

AK SHAM ALA. A name of Arundhati (q.v.). 

AKULI. An Asura priest. See Kilatakuli. 

AKUPARA. A tortoise or turtle. The tortoise on which the 
earth rests. 

AKUTI. A daughter of Manu Swayambhuva and 5ata-rupa, 
whom he gave to the patriarch Ruchi. She bore twins, Yajna 
and Dakshina, who became husband and wife and had twelve 
sons, the deities called Yamas. 

ALAKA. The capital of Kuvera and the abode of the 


gandharvas on Mount Mcru. It is also called Yasu-dliara^ 
Vasu-sthali, and Prabha. 

ALAKA-NANDA. One of the four brandies of the river 
Gangii, which flows south to the country of Bharata, This is 
said by the Vaishwavas to be the terrestrial Ganga which $iva 
received upon his head. 

ALAMEUSHA. A great Rakshasa worsted by Satyaki in 
the great war of the Maha-bharata, and finally killed by Gha/ot- 
kacha. He is said to be a son of .Stshyamnga. 

ALAYUDHA. A Rakshasa killed after a fierce combat by 
Gha/otkacha in the war of the Maha-bharata (Fauche, ix. 278). 

AMARA-KANTAKA. Peak of the immortals. A place 
of pilgrimage in the table-land east of the Vindhyas. 

AMARA-KOSHA. This title may be read in two ways the 
immortal vocabulary, or, more appropriately, * the vocabulary of 
Amara or Amara Sinha. " The oldest vocabulary hitherto known, 
and one of the most celebrated vocabularies of the classical 
Sanskrit" It has been the subject of a great number of com 
mentaries. The text has been often printed. There is an 
edition published in India with an English interpretation and 
annotations by Colebrooke, and the text with a French transla 
tion has been printed by Deslongchamps. 

AMARA SINHA. The author of the vocabulary called 
Amara-kosha. He was one of the nine gems of the court of 
Vikrama. (See Xava-ratna.) "Wilson inclines to place him in the 
first century B.C. Lassen places him about the middle of the 
third century A.D., and others incline to bring him down later. 

AMARAVATI. The capital of Indra s heaven, renowned for 
its greatness and splendour. It is situated somewhere in the 
vicinity of Meru. It is sometimes called Deva-pura, city of the 
gods, and Pusha-bhasa, sun-splendour. 

AMARESWARA. Lord of the immortals. A title of 
Vishnu, $iva, and Indra, Kame of one of the twelve great 
Hugos. See Linga. 

AMARU-&ATAKA. A poem consisting of a hundred stanzas 
written by a king named Amaru, but by some attributed to the 
philosopher /Sankara, who assumed the dead form of that king 
for the purpose of conversing with his widow. The verses are 
of an erotic character, but, like many others of the same kind, a 
religious or philosophical interpretation has been found for them. 


There is a translation in French by Apudy with the text, and 
a translation in German by Kiickert. 

AMBA. Mother/ i. A name of Durga. 2. The eldest 
daughter of a king of Kasi. She and her sisters Ambika and 
Ambalika were carried off by Bhishma to be the wives of Yichitra- 
virya. Amba had been previously betrothed to a Eaja of /Salwa, 
and Bhishma sent her to him, but the Eaja rejected her because 
she had been in another man s house. She retired to the forest 
and engaged in devotion to obtain revenge of Bhishma. Siva, 
favoured her, and promised her the desired vengeance in another 
birth. Then she ascended the pile and was born again as $ik- 
ha?zcfon, who slew Bhishma. 

AMBALIKA. The younger widow of Yichitra-virya and 
mother of Pandn by Yyasa. See Maha-bharata. 

AMBAEISHA. i. A king of Ayodhya, twenty-eighth in 
descent from Ikshwaku. (See $unaAsephas.) 2. An appellation 
of Siva. 3. Name of one of the eighteen hells. 

AMBASHTHA. A military people inhabiting a country of 
the same name in the middle of the Panjab ; probably the 
Afi.(3a,<rrai of Ptolemy. 2. The medical tribe in Manu. 

AMBIKA. i. A sister of Eudra, but in later times identified 
with UmiL 2. Elder widow of Yichitra-virya and mother of 
Dhn ta-rashfra by Yyasa. See Maha-bharata. 

AMBIKEYA. A metronymic applicable to Ganesa, Skanda, 
and Dhnta-rash/ra. 

AMNAYA. Sacred tradition. The Yedas in the aggregate. 

AM^/TA. Immortal. A god. The water of life. The 
term was known to the Yedas, and seems to have been applied 
to various things offered in sacrifice, but more especially to the 
Soma juice. It is also called IsTir-jara and Piyusha. In later 
times it was the water of life produced at the churning of the 
ocean by the gods and demons, the legend of which is told with 
some variations in the Eamayawa, the Maha-bharata, and the 
Purawas. The gods, feeling their weakness, having been worsted 
by the demons, and being, according to one authority, under the 
ban of a holy sage, repaired to Yishwu, beseeching him for 
renewed vigour and the gift of immortality. He directed them to 
churn the ocean for the Amnta and other precious things which 
had been lost. The story as told in the Yish?iu Purawa has been 
rendered into verse by Professor Williams thus : 


The gods addressed the mighty Vislmu thus 

Conquered in battle by the evil demons, 

We fly to thee for succour, soul of all ; 

Pity, and by thy might deliver us ! 

Hari, the lord, creator of the world, 

Thus by the gods implored, all graciously 

Eeplied Your strength shall be restored, ye gods ; 

Only accomplish what I now command. 

Unite yourselves in peaceful combination 

With these your foes ; collect all plants and herbs 

Of diverse kinds from every quarter ; cast them 

Into the sea of milk ; take Mandara, 

The mountain, for a churning stick, and Vasuki, 

The serpent, for a rope ; together churn 

The ocean to produce the beverage 

Source of all strength and immortality 

Then reckon on my aid ; I will take care 

Your foes shall share your toil, but not partake 

In its reward, or drink. th immortal draught. 3 

Thus by the god of gods advised, the host 

United in alliance with the demons. 

Straightway they gathered various herbs and cast them 

Into the waters, then they took the mountain 

To serve as churning-staff, and next the snake 

To serve as cord, and in the ocean s midst 

Hari himself, present in tortoise-form, 

Became a pivot for the churning-staff. 

Then did they churn the sea of milk ; and first 

Out of the waters rose the sacred Cow, 

God- worshipped Surabhi, eternal fountain 

Of milk and offerings of butter ; next, 

While holy Siddhas wondered at the sight, 

With eyes all rolling, Varmil uprose, 

Goddess of wine. Then from the whirlpool sprang 

Fair Parijata, tree of Paradise, delight 

Of heavenly maidens, with its fragrant blossoms 

Perfuming the whole world. Th Apsarasas, 

Troop of celestial nymphs, matchless in grace, 

Perfect in loveliness, were next produced. 

Then from the sea uprose the cool-rayed moon, 

Which Maha-deva seized ; terrific poison 

Next issued from the waters ; this the snake-gods 

Claimed as their own. Then, seated on a lotus, 

Beauty s bright goddess, peerless /Sri, arose 

Out of the waves ; and with her, robed in white, 

Came forth Dhanwantari, the gods physician. 


High in his hand lie bore the cup of nectar 
Life-giving draught longed for by gods and demons. 
Then had the demons forcibly borne off 
The cup, and drained the precious beverage^ 
Had not the mighty Vishnu interposed. 
Bewildering them, he gave it to the gods ; 
Whereat, incensed, the demon troops assailed 
The host of heaven, but they with strength renewed, 
Quaffing the draught, struck down their foes, who fell 
Headlong through space to lowest depths of hell ! " 
There is an elaborate article on the subject in Goldstucker a 
Dictionary. In after-times, Vishwu s bird Garuda is said to 
have stolen the Amnta, but it was recovered by Indra. 

ANADKRISHTI. A son of Ugrasena and general of the 

ANAKA-DIJKDUBHI. Drams. A name of Yasu-deva, who 
was so called because the drums of heaven resounded at his birth. 
AN AND A. Joy, happiness. An appellation of /Siva, also 
of Bala-rama. 

ANANDA GIRL A follower of $ankaracharya, and a 
teacher and expositor of his doctrines. He was the author of a 
Sankara-vijaya, and lived about the tenth century. 

ANANDA-LAHARI. The wave of joy. A poem attributed 
to $ankaracharya. It is a hymn of praise addressed to Parvati, 
consort of $iva, mixed up with mystical doctrine. It has been 
translated into French by Troyer as L Onde de Beatitude. 

ANANGA. The bodiless. A name of Kama, god of love. 
ANANTA. The infinite. A name of the serpent esha. 
The term is also applied to Vishnu and other deities. 

ANARAJVYA. A descendant of Ikshwaku and king of 
Ayodhya. According to the Ramayawa, many kings submitted 
to Rava?za without fighting, but when Anara?iya was summoned 
to fight or submit, he preferred to fight. His army was over 
come and he was thrown from his chariot. Ravawa triumphed 
over his prostrate foe, who retorted that he had been beaten by 
fate, not by Rayawa, and predicted the death of Rava?2a at the 
hands of Rama, a descendant of Anararcya. 

ANARGHA RAGHAVA. A drama in seven acts by Murari 
Misra, possibly written in the thirteenth or fourteenth century. 
Raghava or Rama is the hero of the piece. " It has no dramatic 
merit, being deficient in character, action, situation, and interest 


As a poem it presents occasionally poetic thoughts, but they are 
very few, and are lost amid pages of flat commonplace, quaint 
conceit, hyperbolical extravagance, and obscure mythology." 
Wilson. It is also called, after its author, Murari Xa/aka, 

AX-AEYA. Unworthy, vile. People who were not Aryans, 
barbarians of other races and religion. 

AXASUYA. < Charity. Wife of the Tfrshi Atri. In the 
Ramayana she appears living with her husband in a hermitage 
in the forest south of Chitra-kufo. She was very pious and 
given to austere devotion, through which she had obtained 
miraculous powers. When Sita visited her and her husband, 
she was very attentive and kind, and gave Sita an ointment 
which was to keep her beautiful for ever. She was mother of 
the irascible sage Durvasas. A friend of $akuntala. 

AXDHAKA. i. A demon, son of Kasyapa and Diti, with a 
thousand arms and heads, two thousand eyes and feet, and called 
Andhaka because he walked like a blind man, although he saw 
very well. He was slain by $iva when he attempted to carry 
off the Parijata tree from Swarga. From this feat iva obtained 
the appellation Andhaka-ripu, foe of Andhaka. 2. A grand 
son of Krosh^n and son of Yudhajit, of the Yadava race, 
who, together with his brother Vnshwi, is the ancestor of the 
celebrated family of Andhaka- Vrishnis. 3. The name was borne 
by many others of less note. 

AXDHKA, AXDHEA. Xame of a country and people in 
the south of India, the country of Telingana. It was the seat 
of a powerful dynasty, and the people were known to Pliny as 
gens Andarce. 

AXDHEA-BILR/TYA. A dynasty of kings that reigned in 
Magadha somewhere about the beginning of the Christian era. 
The name seems to indicate that its founder was a native of 
Andhra, now Telingana. 

ANGA. i. The country of Bengal proper about Bhagalpur. 
Its capital was Champa, or Champa-purL (See Anu.) 2. A sup 
plement to the Yedas. See Yedanga. 

AXGADA. i. Son of Lakshma?za and king of Angadi, 
capital of a country near the Himalaya. 2. Son of Gada (brother 
of Kn shwa) by VriliatL 3. Son of Bali, the monkey king of Kish- 
kindhya. He was protected by EFuna and fought on his sido 
against Eavaua. 


AXGIRAS. A Bishi to whom many hymns of the Tiig-veda 
are attributed. He was one of the seven Maharshis or great 
Tt/shis, and also one of the ten Prajapatis or progenitors of man 
kind. In later times Angiras was one of the inspired lawgivers, 
and also a writer on astronomy. As an astronomical personifica 
tion he is Bn haspati, the regent of the planet Jupiter, or the 
planet itself. He was also called " the priest of the gods," and 
"the lord of sacrifice." There is much ambiguity about the 
name. It comes from the same root as agni, fire, and resembles 
that word in sound. This may be the reason why the name 
Angiras is used as an epithet or synonyme of Agni. The name 
is also employed as an epithet for the father of Agni, and it is 
found more especially connected with the hymns addressed to 
Agni, Indra, and the luminous deities. According to one state 
ment, Angiras was the son of Uru by Agneyi, the daughter of 
Agni, although, as above stated, the name is sometimes given to 
the father of Agni. Another account represents that he was 
born from the mouth of Brahma. His wives were Smnti, 
memory, daughter of Daksha ; $raddha , faith, daughter of 
Ivardama and Swadha oblation, and Sati, truth, two other 
daughters of Daksha. His daughters were the Delias or Vaidik 
hymns, and his sons were the Manes called Havishmats. But he 
had other sons and daughters, and among the former were 
Utathya, Brihaspati, and Markawc?eya. According to the Bhaga- 
vata Pura?ia " he begot sons possessing Brahmanical glory on the 
wife of Rathi-tara, a Kshatriya who was childless, and these 
persons were afterwards called descendants of Angiras." 

AXGIRASAS, ANGIRASES. Descendants of Angiras. 
" They share in the nature of the legends attributed to Angiras. 
Angiras being the father of Agni, they are considered as 
descendants of Agni himself, who is also called the first of 
the Angirasas. Like Angiras, they occur in hymns addressed to 
the luminous deities, and, at a later period, they become for the 
most part personifications of light, of luminous bodies, of divi 
sions of time, of celestial phenomena, and fires adapted to 
peculiar occasions, as the full and change of the moon, or to 
particular rites, as the Aswa-medha, Raja-siiya, &c." Goldstiicker. 
In the Satapatha Bralimawa they and the Adityas are said to 
have descended from Prajiipati, and that " they strove together 
for the priority in ascending to heaven." 


Some descendants of Angiras by the Kshatriya wife of a 
cliildless king are mentioned in the Purimas as two tribes of 
Angirasas who were Brahmans as well as Kshatriyas. 

The hymns of the Atharva-veda are called Angirasas, and the 
descendants of Angiras were specially charged with the protec 
tion of sacrifices performed in accordance with the Atharva-veda. 
]-Yom this cause, or from their being associated with the descen 
dants of Atharvan, they were called distinctively Atharvangirasas. 

AXGIRASAS. A class of Pitm (q.v.). 

AXILA. < The wind. See Vayu. 

ANILAS. A ga?ia or class of deities, forty-nine in number, 
connected with Anila, the wind. 

AXIMISHA. AYho does not wink. A general epithet of 
all gods. 

ANIRUDDHA. Uncontrolled. Son of Pradyumna and 
grandson of K?-2 sh?m. He married his cousin, Su-bhadra, A 
Daitya princess named Usha, daughter of Btma, fell in love with 
him, and had him brought by magic influence to her apartments 
in her father s city of Sonita-pura. Barca sent some guards to 
seize him, but the valiant youth, taking an iron club, slew his 
assailants. Ba?ia then brought his magic powers to bear and 
secured him. On discovering whither Aniruddha had been 
carried, K?v sh?2a, Bala-rama, and Pradyumna went to rescue 
him. A great battle w r as fought ; Bawa was aided by /Siva and 
by Skanda, god of war, the former of whom was overcome by 
Kn sh?2a, and the latter was wounded by Garuda and Pradyumna. 
Ba/za was defeated, but his life was spared at the intercession 
of iSlva, and Aniruddha was carried home to Dw T araka with 
Usha as his wife. He is also called Jhashanka and Usha-pati. 
He had a son named Yajra. 

AXJAXA. i. The elephant of the west or south-west quarter. 
2. A serpent with many heads descended from Kadru. 

AXJAXA. Mother of Hanumat by Vayu, god of the wind. 

AXXA-PUR A r A. Full of food. A form of Durga, worshipped 
for her power of giving food Cf. the Eoman Anna Perenna. 

AX-SUMAT, AX/SUMAIST. Son of Asamanjas and grandson 
of Sagara. He brought back to earth the horse which had been 
carried off from Sagara s Aswa-medha sacrifice, and he discovered 
the remains of that king s sixty thousand sons, who had been 
killed by the lire of the wrath of Kapila. 


AXT AK A. The ender. A name of Yama, judge of the dead. 

ANTARIKSHA. The atmosphere or firmament between 
heaven and earth, the sphere of the Gandharvas, Apsarases, and 

AXTARYEDI. The Doab or country "between the Ganges 
and the Jumna. 

ANU. Son of King Yayati by his wife Sarmish/ha, a Daitya 
princess. He refused to exchange his youthful vigour for the 
curse of decrepitude passed upon his father, and in consequence 
his father cursed him that his posterity should not possess 
dominion. Notwithstanding this, he had a long series of de 
scendants, and among them were Anga, Banga, Kalinga, &c., 
who gave their names to the countries they dwelt in. 

ANUKRAMA^I, ANUKEAMA^IKA. An index or table 
of contents, particularly of a Yeda. The Anukrama?ds of the 
Vedas follow the order of each Sanhita, and assign a poet, a 
metre, and a deity to each hymn or prayer. There are several 

ANUMATI. The moon on its fifteenth day, when just short 
of its full. In this stage it is personified and worshipped as a 

AXU$ARA. A Rakshasa or other demon. 

ANUYINDA. A king of Ujjayim. See Yinda. 

APARANTA. On the western border. A country which 
is named in the Yish?m Pura??a in association with countries in 
the north; and the Yiiyu Pura?za reads the name as Aparita, 
which Wilson says is a northern nation. The Hari-vansa, how 
ever, mentions it as "a country conquered by Parasu-rama from 
the ocean," and upon this the translator Langlois observes : 
" Tradition records that Parasu-rama besought Yaruwa, god of 
the sea, to grant him a land which he might bestow upon the 
Lrahmans in expiation of the blood of the Kshatriyas. Yaru^a 
withdrew his waves from the heights of Gokar?za (near 
Mangalorc) down to Cape Comorin" (As. Researches, v. i). 
This agrees with the traditions concerning Parasu-rama and 
Malabar, but it is not at all clear how a gift of territory to 
Bralimans could expiate the slaughter of the Kshatriyas by a 
Brahman and in behalf of Brahmans. 

APAR7VA. According to the Hari-vansa, the eldest daughter 
of Himavat and Mcna. She and her two sisters, Eka-parwa and 


Eka-pu/ala, gave themselves up to austerity and practised 
extraordinary abstinence ; but while her sisters lived, as their 
names denote, upon one leaf or on one paMa (Bignonia) re 
spectively, Aparwa managed to subsist upon nothing, and even 
lived without a leaf (a-parna). This so distressed her mother 
that she cried out in deprecation, U-ma, Oh, don t. Aparwa 
thus became the beautiful Uma, the wife of $iva. 

APASTAMBA. An ancient writer on ritual and law, 
author of Sutras connected with the Black Yajur-veda and of a 
Dharma-sastra. He is often quoted in law-books. Two recen 
sions of the Taittiriya Sanhita are ascribed to him or his school. 
The Sutras have been translated by Biihler, and are being re 
printed in the Sacred Books of the East by Max Miiller. 

APAVA. Who sports in the waters. A name of the 
same import as Karayawa, and having a similar though not an 
identical application. According to the Brahma Pura?*a and the 
Hari-vansa, Apava performed the office of the creator Brahma, 
and divided himself into two parts, male and female, the former 
begetting offspring upon the latter. The result was the produc 
tion of Vislwu, who created Viraj, who brought the first man 
into the world. According to the Maha-bharata, Apava is a name 
of the Prajapati Vasish/ha. The name of Apava is of late intro 
duction and has been vaguely used. Wilson says : " According 
to the commentator, the first stage was the creation of Apava or 
Vasishftia or Viraj by Vishwu, through the agency of Brahma, 
and the next was that of the creation of Manu by Viraj." 

APSAKAS. The Apsarases are the celebrated nymphs of 
Indra s heaven. The name, which signifies moving in the water, 
has some analogy to that of Aphrodite. They are not prominent 
in the Vedas, but Urvasi and a few others are mentioned. In 
Manu they are said to be the creations of the seven Manns. In 
the epic poems they become prominent, and the Kamayawa and 
the Purawas attribute their origin to the churning of the ocean. 
(See Amrzta.) It is said that when they came forth from the 
waters neither the gods nor the Asuras would have them for 
wives, so they became common to all They have the appella 
tions of Suranganas, wives of the gods, and Sumad-atmajas, 
* daughters of pleasure. 

" Then from the agitated deep up sprung 
The legion of Apsarases, so named 


That to the watery element they owed 
Their being. Myriads were they born, and all 
In vesture heavenly clad, and heavenly gems : 
Yet more divine their native semblance, rich 
With all the gifts of grace, of youth and beauty. 
A train innumerous followed ; yet thus fair, 
Nor god nor demon sought their wedded love : 
Thus Eaghava ! they still remain their charms 
The common treasure of the host of heaven." 

(Mdmdyana) WILSON. 

In the Pura?zas various ga?ias or classes of them are mentioned 
with distinctive names. The Yayu Pura??,a enumerates fourteen, 
the Hari-vansa seven classes. They are again distinguished as 
being daivik^ divine, oilauklka, worldly. The former are said 
to be ten in number and the latter thirty-four, and these are the 
heavenly charmers who fascinated heroes, as Urvasi, and allured 
austere sages from their devotions and penances, as Menaka and 
Eambha, The Kasi-khaneia says " there are thirty-five millions 
of them, but only one thousand and sixty are the principal." 
The Apsarases, then, are fairylike beings, beautiful and volup 
tuous. They are the wives or the mistresses of the Gandharvas, 
and are not prudish in the dispensation of their favours. Theii 
amours on earth have been numerous, and they are the rewards 
in Indra s paradise held out to heroes who fall in battle. They 
have the power of changing their forms ; they are fond of dice, 
and give luck to whom they favour. In the Atharva-veda they 
are not so amiable ; they are supposed to produce madness (love s 
madness 1 ?), and so there are charms and incantations for use 
against them. There is a long and exhaustive article on the 
Apsarases in Goldstiicker s Dictionary, from which much of 
the above has been adapted. As regards their origin he makes 
the following speculative observations : " Originally these 
divinities seem to have been personifications of the vapours 
which are attracted by the sun and form into mist or clouds ; 
their character may be thus interpreted in the few hymns of the 
jR ig-veda where mention is made of them. At a subsequent 
period . . . (their attributes expanding with those of their 
associates the Gandharvas), they became divinities which repre 
sent phenomena or objects both of a physical and ethical kind 
closely associated with that life " (the elementary life of heaven). 

AKA^VYAKA. Belonging to the forest. Certain religious 


and philosophical writings which expound the mystical sense 
of the ceremonies, discuss the nature of God, &c. They are 
attached to the Brahma??as, and intended for study in the 
forest by Brahmans who have retired from the distractions of the 
wi.rld. There are four of them extant : i. Bn liad ;_2. Taittirlya; 
3. Aitareya ; and 4. Kauslritaki Arawyaka. The Ara?*yakas are 
closely connected with the Upanishads, and the names are 
occasionally used interchangeably : thus the jBnliad is called 
indifferently Bn had Arawyaka or Bnhad Aranyaka Upani- 
shad ; it is attached to the /S atapatha Brahmawa, The Aitareya 
Upanishad is a part of the Aitareya Brahmawa, and the Kaushl 
taki Ara?iyaka consists of three chapters, of which the third is the 
Kaushltaki Upanishad. "Traces of modern ideas (says Max 
Miiller) are not wanting in the Arawyakas, and the very fact 
that they are destined for a class of men who had retired from 
the world in order to give themselves up to the contemplation of 
the highest problems, shows an advanced and already declining 
and decaying society, not unlike the monastic age of the 
Christian world." " In one sense the Ara?iyakas are old, for they 
reflect the very dawn of thought ; in another they are modern, 
for they speak of that dawn with all the experience of a past 
day. There are passages in these works unequalled in any 
language for grandeur, boldness, and simplicity. These passages 
are the relics of a better age. But the generation which became 
the chronicler of those Titanic wars of thought was a small race ; 
they were dwarfs, measuring the footsteps of departed giants." 

ARANYAA T I. In the 7?ig-veda, the goddess of woods and 

ARBUDA. Mount Abu. Xame of the people living in the 
vicinity of that mountain. 

ARBUDA, * A serpent. ISTame of an Asura slain by Indra. 

ARDHA-NARI. Half-woman. A form in which $iva is 
represented as half-male and half-female, typifying the male and 
female energies. There are several stories accounting for this 
form. It is called also Ardhanarlsa and Parangada. 

A KISHIA. A Daitya, and son of Bali, who attacked Kr/slma 
in the form of a savage bull, and was slain by him. 

ARJUNA. White. The name of the third Pandu prince. 
All the five brothers were of divine paternity, and Arjuna s 
father was Indra, hence he is called Aindri. A brave warrior, 


high-minded, generous, upright, and handsome, the most pro 
minent and the most amiable and interesting of the five brothers. 
He was taught the use of arms by Diona, and was his favourite 
pupiL By his skill in arms he won Draupadi at her Swayam- 
vara. For an involuntary transgression he imposed upon him 
self twelve years exile from his family, and during that time 
he visited Parasu-rama, who gave him instruction in the use of 
arms. He at this period formed a connection with Ulupi, a 
Naga princess, and by her had a son named Iravat. He also 
married Chitrangada, the daughter of the king of Mawipura, by 
whom he had a son named Babhru-vahana. He visited 
at Dwaraka, and there he married Su-bhadra, the sister of 
Krishna. (See Su-bhadra.) By her he had a son named 
Abhimanyu. Afterwards he obtained the bow Ga?icftva from 
the god Agni, with which to fight against Indra, and he assisted 
Agni in burning the Khawrfava forest. "When Yudhi-sh/hira 
lost the kingdom by gambling, and the five brothers went into 
exile for thirteen years, Arjuna proceeded on a pilgrimage to 
the Himalayas to propitiate the gods, and to obtain from them 
celestial weapons for use in the contemplated war against the 
Kauravas. There he fought with /Siva, who appeared in the 
guise of a Kirata or mountaineer ; but Arjuna, having found 
out the true character of his adversary, worshipped him, and /Siva 
gave him the pasupata, one of his most powerful weapons. 
Indra, Vanma, Yama, and Kuvera came to him, and also pre 
sented him with their own peculiar weapons. Indra, his father, 
carried him in his car to his heaven and to his capital Amaravati, 
where Arjuna spent some years in the practice of arms. Indra 
sent him against the Daityas of the sea, whom he vanquished, 
and then returned victorious to Indra, who " presented him 
with a chain of gold and a diadem, and with a war-shell which 
sounded like thunder." In the thirteenth year of exile he 
entered the service of Eaja Virata, disguised as a eunuch, and 
acted as music and dancing master, but in the end he took a 
leading part in defeating the king s enemies, the king of Trigarta 
and the Kaurava princes, many of whose leading warriors he 
vanquished in single combat. Preparations for the great struggle 
with the Kauravas now began. Arjuna obtained the personal 
assistance of Krishna, who acted as his charioteer, and, before 
the great battle began, related to him the Bhagavad-glta. On 


the tenth day of the battle he mortally wounded Bhishma , on 
the twelfth he defeated Susarman and his four brothers, on 
the fourteenth he killed Jayadratha ; on the seventeenth, he 
was so stung by some reproaches of his brother, Yudhi-shfliira, 
that he would have killed him had not Kn slma interposed. 
On the same day he fought with Kama, who had made a vow 
to slay him. He was near being vanquished when an accident 
to Kama s chariot gave Arjuna the opportunity of killing him. 
After the defeat of the Kauravas, Aswatthaman, son of Drowa, 
and two others, who were the sole survivors, made a night attack 
on the camp of the Pawc/avas, and murdered their children. 
Arjuna pursued Aswatthaman, and made him give up the 
precious jewel which he wore upon his head as an amulet. 
When the horse intended for Yudhi-shfliira s Aswa-medha sac 
rifice was let loose, Arjuna, with his army, followed it through 
many cities and countries, and fought with many Rajas. He 
entered the country of Trigarta, and had to fight his way through. 
He fought also against Yajradatta, who had a famous elephant, 
and against the Saindhavas. At the city of Mampura he fought 
with his own son, Babhru-vahana, and was killed ; but he was 
restored to life by a Kaga charm supplied by his wife Ulupi. 
Afterwards he penetrated into the Dakshiwa or south country, and 
fought with the Nishadas and Dravirfians : then went westwards 
to Gujarat, and finally conducted the horse back to Hastinapura, 
where the great sacrifice was performed. He was subsequently 
called to Dwaraka by Krishna, amid the internecine struggles 
of the Yadavas, and there he performed the funeral ceremonies 
of Yasudeva and of Krishna. Soon after this he retired from 
the world to the Himalayas. (See Maha-bharata.) He had a 
son named Ira vat by the serpent nymph Ulupi ; Babhru-vahana, 
by the daughter of the king of Manipura, became king of that 
country ; Abhimanyu, born of his wife Su-bhadra, was killed 
in the great battle, but the kingdom of Hastinapura descended 
to his son Paiikshit. Arjuna has many appellations : Blbhatsu, 
Guda-kesa, Dhananjaya, Jislmu, Kirl/in, Piika-sasani, Phalgima, 
Savya-sachin, $weta-vahana, and Partha. 

ARJUXA. Son of Knta-vlrya, king of the Haihayas. He 
is better known under his patronymic Kiirta-vlrya (q.v.). 

ARTHA-SASTRA. The useful arts. Mechanical science. 

AKILYA. Red, rosy. The dawn, personified as the charioteer 


of the sun. This is of later origin than the Vedic Uslias (q.v.). 
He is said to be the son of Kasyapa and Kadru. He is also 
called Kumra, ( tawny, and by two epithets of which the mean 
ing is not obvious, An-uru, thighless, and Asmana, stony. 

ARUNDHATl. The morning star, personified as the wife of 
the Rlshi Yasish/ha, and a model of conjugal excellence. 

ARUSHA, ARUSHL Ked. < A red horse. In the Eig. 
veda the red horses or mares of the sun or of fire. The rising sun. 

ARYAN", ARYA. A horse. One of the horses of the 
moon. A fabulous animal, half-horse, half-bird, on which the 
Daityas are supposed to ride. 

ARYAYASU. See Raibhya. 

ARYA, ARYAN". Loyal, faithful. The name of the im 
migrant race from which, all that is Hindu originated. The 
name by which the people of the Ji/zg-veda " called men of their 
own stock and religion, in contradistinction to the Dasyus (or 
Dasas), a term by which we either understand hostile demons 
or the rude aboriginal tribes " of India, who were An-aryas. 

ARYA-BHAIA. The earliest known Hindu writer on alge 
bra, and, according to Colebrooke, " if not the inventor, the 
improver of that analysis," which has made but little advance in 
India since. He was born, according to his own account, at 
Kusuma-pura (Patna), in A.D. 476, and composed his first astro 
nomical work at the early age of twenty-three. His larger work, 
the A rya Siddhdnta, was produced at a riper age. He is pro 
bably the Andubarius (Ardubarius ?) of the Chronichon Paschale, 
and the Arjabahr of the Arabs. Two of his works, the Dasaglti- 
sutra and Arydshtasata, have been edited by Kern under the 
title of Aryabha/iya. See "Whitney in Jour. Amer. Or. Society 
for 1860, Dr. Bhau Dajl in /. E. A. S. for 1865, and Earth in 
Revue Critique for 1875. There is another and later astronomer 
of the same name, distinguished as Laghu Arya-bha/a, i.e., Arya- 
bha/a the Less. 

AKYAMAN. A bosom friend. i. Chief of the Pitn s. 2. 
One of the Adityas. 3. One of the Yiswe-devas. 

ARYA SIDDHANTA. The system of astronomy founded 
by Arya-bha^a in his work bearing this name. 

ARYAYARTA. The land of the Aryas. The tract between 
the Himalaya and the Yindhya ranges, from the eastern to tlia 
western sea. Maim. 


ASAMAXJAS. Son of Sagara and Kesini. lie was a wild 
and wicked young man, and was abandoned by his father, but 
he succeeded him as king, and, according to the Hari-vansa, ho 
was afterwards famous for valour under the name of Panchajana. 

ASAXGA. Author of some verses in the AVg-veda. Ho was 
son of Playoga, but was changed into a woman by the curse of 
the gods. He recovered his male form by repentance and the 
favour of the fiishi Medhatithi, to whom he gave abundant 
wealth, and addressed the verses preserved in the Veda. 

ASARA. A Riikshasa or other demon. 

ASHTAVAKRA. A Brahman, the son of Kahoc/a, whose 
story is told in the Maha-bharata, KaliofZa married a daughter 
of his preceptor, Uddalaka, but he was so devoted to study that 
he neglected his wife. When she was far advanced in her 
pregnancy, the unborn son was provoked at his father s neglect 
of her, and rebuked him for it. Kaho<:?a was angry at the 
child s impertinence, and condemned him to be born crooked ; so 
he came forth with his eight (ashia) limbs crooked (vakra) ; hence 
his name. Kahoc/a went to a great sacrifice at the court of 
Janaka, king of Mithila. There was present there a great 
Buddhist sage, who challenged disputations, upon the under 
standing that whoever was overcome in argument should be 
thrown into the river. This was the fate of many, and among 
them of Kahorfa, who was drowned. In his twelfth year Ash- 
tavakra learned the manner of his father s death, and set out to 
avenge him. The lad was possessed of great ability and wisdom. 
He got the better of the sage who had worsted his father, and 
insisted that the sage should be thrown into the water. The 
sage then declared himself to be a son of VaiTma, god of the 
waters, who had sent him to obtain Brahmans for officiating at 
a sacrifice by overpowering them in argument and throwing 
them into the water. When all was explained and set right, 
KahocZa directed his son to bathe in the Samanga river, on doing 
which the lad became perfectly straight. A story is told in the 
Yislmu Puriiwa that Ashtavakra was standing in water perform 
ing penances when he was seen by some celestial nymphs and 
worshipped by them. He was pleased, and told them to ask a 
b^on. They asked for the best of men as a husband. lie came 
out of the water and offered himself. When they saw him, 
ugly and crooked in eight places, they laughed in derision. lie 


was angry, and as he could not recall his blessing, he said that, 
after obtaining it, they should fall into the hands of thieves. 

ASIKNI. The Vedic name of the Chinab, and probably the 
origin of the classic Akesines. 

A-ASTKAS. Headless. Spirits or beings without heads. 

A$MAKA. Son of Madayanti, the wife of Kalmasha-puda 
or Saudasa. See Kalmasha-pada, 

AOKA. A celebrated king of the Maurya dynasty of 
Magadha, and grandson of its founder, Chandra-gupta. " This 
king is the most celebrated of any in the annals of the 
Buddhists. In the commencement of his reign he followed the 
Brahmanical faith, but became a convert to that of Buddha, and 
a zealous encourager of it. He is said to have maintained in 
his palace 64,000 Buddhist priests, and to have erected 84,000 
columns (or topes) throughout India. A great convocation of 
Buddhist priests was held in the eighteenth year of his reign, 
which was followed by missions to Ceylon and other places." 
He reigned thirty-six years, from about 234 to 198 B.C., and 
exercised authority more or less direct from Afghanistan to 
Ceylon. This fact is attested by a number of very curious Pali 
inscriptions found engraven upon rocks and pillars, all of them 
of the same purport, and some of them almost identical in words, 
the variations showing little more than dialectic differences. 
That found at Kapur-di-giri, in Afghanistan, is in the Bactrian 
Pali character, written from right to left ; all the others are in 
the India Pali character, written from left to right. The latter 
is the oldest known form of the character now in use in India, 
but the modern letters have departed so far from their proto 
types that it required all the acumen and diligence of James 
Prinsep to decipher the ancient forms. These inscriptions show 
a great tenderness for animal life, and are Buddhist in their 
character, but they do not enter upon the distinctive peculiarities 
of that religion. The name of Asoka never occurs in them ; the 
king who set them up is called Piyadasi (Sans. Priya-darsi), the 
beautiful, and he is entitled Devanam-piya, * the beloved of the 
gods. Buddhist writings identify this Piyadasi with Asoka, and 
little or no doubt is entertained of the two names represent 
ing the same person. One of the most curious passages in 
these inscriptions refers to the Greek king Antiochus, calling 
him and three others " Turamayo, Antakana, Mako, and A:ika- 


sunari," which represent Ptolemy, Antigonus, Magas, and Alex 
ander. " The date of Asoka is not exactly that of Antiochus 
the Great, but it is not very far different ; and the corrections 
required to make it correspond are no more than the inexact 
manner in which both Brahmanical and Buddhist chronology 
is preserved may well be expected to render necessary." See 
Wilson s note in the Vishmi Purawa, his article in the Journal 
of the Royal Asiatic Society, vol. xii., Max Miiller s Ancient 
Sanskrit Literature, and an article by Sir E. Perry in vol. iii. of 
the Journal of the Bombay Asiatic Society. 

ARAMA. There are four stages in the life of a Brahman 
which are called by this name. See Brahman. 

ASTlKA. An ancient sage, son of Jarat-karu by a sister of 
the great serpent Vasuki. He saved the life of the serpent 
Taksliaka when Janamejaya made his great sacrifice of serpents, 
and induced that king to forego his persecution of the serpent race. 

ASURA. Spiritual, divine. In the oldest parts of the Jt/ g- 
veda this term is used for the supreme spirit, and is the same as 
the Ahura of the Zoroastrians. In the sense of god it was 
applied to several of the chief deities, as to Indra, Agni, and 
Vanwza, It afterwards acquired an entirely opposite meaning, 
and came to signify, as now, a demon or enemy of the gods. 
The word is found with this signification in the later parts of the 
Jtz g-veda, particularly in the last book, and also in the Atharva- 
veda. The Brahmarcas attach the same meaning to it, and 
record many contests between the Asuras and the gods. Accord 
ing to the Taittirlya Brahma?ia, the breath (asu) of Prajapati 
became alive, and "with that breath he created the Asuras." 
In another part of the same work it is said that Prajapati " be 
came pregnant. He created Asuras from his abdomen." The 
Satapatha Brahma?za accords with the former statement, and 
states that " he created Asuras from his lower breath." The 
Taittirlya Aranyaka represents that Prajapati created "gods, 
men, fathers, Gandharvas, and Apsarases " from water, and that 
the Asuras, Rakshasas, and Pisachas sprang from the drops 
which were spilt. Manu s statement is that they were created 
by the Prajapatis. According to the Vishmi Pura?2a, they were 
produced from the groin of Brahma (Prajapati). The account 
of the Yayu Pura??a is : " Asuras were first produced as sons 
from his (Prajapati s) groin. Asu is declared by Bmhmans to 


mean breath. From it these beings were produced ; hence they 
are Asuras." The word has long been used as a general name 
for the enemies of the gods, including the Daityas and Dfmavas 
and other descendants of Kasyapa, but not including the 
Eakshasas descended from Pulastya. In this sense a different 
derivation has been found for it : the source is no longer asu, 
breath, but the initial a is taken as the negative prefix, and 
a-sura signifies not a god ; hence, according to some, arose the 
word sura, commonly used for a god. See Sura. 

ASUEL One of the earliest professors of the Sankhya 

ASWALAYANA A celebrated writer of antiquity. He 
was pupil of $aunaka, and was author of ySrauta-sutras, Gnhya- 
siitras, and other works upon ritual, as well as founder of a 
ukha of the 72/g-veda. The Sutras have been published by Dr. 
Stenzler, and also in the Bibliotheca Indica. 

ASWA-MEDHA. The sacrifice of a horse. This is a sacri 
fice which, in Yedic times, was performed by kings desirous of 
offspring. The horse was killed with certain ceremonies, and 
the wives of the king had to pass the night by its carcase. 
Upon the chief wife fell the duty of going through a revolting 
formality which can only be hinted at. Subsequently, as in the 
time of the Maha-bharata, the sacrifice obtained a high, import 
ance and significance. It was performed only by kings, and 
implied that he who instituted it was a conqueror and king of 
kings. It was believed that the performance of one hundred 
such sacrifices would enable a mortal king to overthrow the 
throne of Indra, and to become the ruler of the universe and 
sovereign of the gods. A horse of a particular colour was con 
secrated by the performance of certain ceremonies, and was then 
turned loose to wander at will for a year. The king, or his 
representative, followed the horse with an army, and when the 
animal entered a foreign country, the ruler of that country was 
bound either to fight or to submit. If the liberator of the 
horse succeeded in obtaining or enforcing the submission of all 
the countries over which it passed, he returned in triumph with 
the vanquished Eajas in his train ; but if he failed, he was dis 
graced and his pretensions ridiculed. After the successful 
return a great festival was held, at which the horse was sacri 
ficed, either really or figuratively. 


ASWA-MUKHA. Horse faced. See Kinnnra. 

ASWA-P ATI. Lord of horses. An appellation of many k in gs. 

A5WATTHAMAN". Son of Drowa and Kripii, and one of 
the generals of the Kauravas. Also called by his patronymic 
Draiwayana. After the last great battle, in which Dur-yodhana 
was mortally wounded, Aswatthaman with two other warriors, 
Ivr/pa and Krita-varman, were the sole survivors of the Kaurava 
host that were left effective. Aswatthaman was made the com 
mander. He was fierce in his hostility to the Pa?zc?avas, and 
craved for revenge upon Dhnshfa-dyumna, who had slain his 
father, Drowa. These three surviving Kauravas entered the 
Pfi//(/ava camp at night. They found Dhrish/a-dyumna asleep, 
and Aswa//haman stamped him to death as he lay. He then killed 
/S ikhandin, the other son of Drupada, and he also killed the five 
young sons of the Piuzrfavas and carried their heads to the dying 
Dur-yodhana. He killed Parikshit, while yet unborn in the 
womb of his mother, with his celestial weapon Brahmastra, by 
which he incurred the curse of Kn shwa, who restored Parikshit 
to life. On the next morning he and his comrades fled, but 
DraupadI clamoured for revenge upon the murderer of her 
children. Yudhi-sh/hira represented that Aswatthaman was a 
Brahman, and pleaded for his life. She then consented to 
forego her demand for his blood if the precious and protective 
jewel which he wore on his head were brought to her. BhTma, 
Arjuna, and Knsh??a then went in pursuit of him. Arjuna and 
Krishna overtook him, and compelled him to give up the jewel. 
They carried it to DraupadI, and she gave it to Yudhi-sh/hira, 
who afterwards wore it on his head. 

Horsemen. Dioskouroi. Two Vedic deities, twin sons of the 
sun or the sky. They are ever young and handsome, bright, 
and of golden brilliancy, agile, swift as falcons, and possessed of 
many forms ; and they ride in a golden car drawn by horses or 
birds, us harbingers of Ushas, the dawn. " They are the earliest 
bringera of light in the morning sky, who in their chariot hasten 
onwards before the dawn and prepare the way for her." Roth. 
As personifications of the morning twilight, they are said to be 
children of the sun by a nymph who concealed herself in the 
form of a mare ; hence she was called AswinI and her sons 
Aswins. But inasmuch as they precede the rise of the sun, 

30 AS WINS. 

they arc called his parents in his form Pushan. Mythically 
they are the parents of the Piwdu princes Nakula and Sahadeva. 
Their attributes are numerous, but relate mostly to youth and 
beauty, light and speed, duality, the curative power, and active 
benevolence. The number of hymns addressed to them testify 
to the enthusiastic worship they received. They were the 
physicians of Swarga, and in this character are called Dasras 
and Xasatyas, Gadagadau and Swar-vaidyau ; or one was Dasra 
and the other uSTasatya. Other of their appellations are Abdhi- 
jau, < ocean born; Pushkara-srajau, wreathed with lotuses; 
Badaveyau, sons of the submarine fire, BaY/ava, Many instances 
are recorded of their benevolence and their power of healing. 
They restored the sage Chyavana to youth, and prolonged his 
life when he had become old and decrepit, and through his 
instrumentality they were admitted to partake of the libations 
of soma, like the other gods, although Indra strongly opposed 
them. (See Chyavana.) The Aswins, says Muir, "have been 
a puzzle to the oldest commentators," who have differed widely 
in their explanations. According to different interpretations 
quoted in the Nirukta, they were " heaven and earth," " day 
and night," " two kings, performers of holy acts." The follow 
ing is the view taken of them by the late Professor Goldstiicker, 
as printed in Muir s Texts, voL v. : 

" The myth of the Aswins is, in my opinion, one of that 
class of myths in which two distinct elements, the cosmical and 
the human or historical, have gradually become blended into 
one. It seems necessary, therefore, to separate these two 
elements in order to arrive at an understanding of the myth. 
The historical or human element in it, I believe, is represented 
by those legends which refer to the wonderful cures effected by 
the Aswins, and to their performances of a kindred sort ; the cos 
mical element is that relating to their luminous nature. The 
link which connects both seems to be the mysteriousness of the 
nature and effects of the phenomena of light and of the healing 
art at a remote antiquity. That there might have been some 
horsemen or warriors of great renown, w r ho inspired their con 
temporaries with awe by their wonderful deeds, and more 
especially by their medical skill, appears to have been also the 
opinion of some old commentators mentioned by Yaska [in the 
Kirukta], for some legendary writers, he says, took them for 


* two kings, performers of holy acts/ and this view seems like 
wise borne out by the legend in which it is narrated that the 
gods refused the Aswins admittance to a sacrifice on the ground 
that they had been on too familiar terms with men. It would 
appear, then, that these Aswins, like the TZibhus, were originally 
renowned mortals, who, in the course of time, were translated 
into the companionship of the gods. . . . 

" The luminous character of the Aswins can scarcely be matter 
of doubt, for the view of some commentators, recorded by Yaska, 
according to which they are identified with heaven and earth, 
appears not to be countenanced by any of the passages known 
to us. Their very name, it would seem, settles this point, since 
Aswa, the horse, literally the pervader, is always the symbol of 
the luminous deities, especially of the sun. . . . 

" It seems to be the opinion of Yaska that the Aswins repre 
sent the transition from darkness to light, when the intermin 
gling of both produces that inseparable duality expressed by the 
twin nature of these deities. And this interpretation, I hold, 
is the best that can be given of the character of the cosmical 
Aswins. It agrees with the epithets by which they are invoked, 
and with the relationship in which they are placed. They are 
young, yet also ancient, beautiful, bright, swift, &c. ; and their 
negative character, the result of the alliance of light with dark 
ness, is, I believe, expressed by dasra, the destroyer, and also by 
the two negatives in the compound ndsatyci (na + a-satya) ; 
though their positive character is again redeemed by the ellipsis 
of enemies, or diseases to dasra, and by the sense of nasatya, 
not untrue, i.e., truthful." 

ATHAKVA, ATHARYAK The fourth Yeda. See Yeda. 

ATHARYAN. Name of a priest mentioned in the Big- 
veda, where he is represented as having " drawn forth" fire and 
to have " offered sacrifice in early times." He is mythologically 
represented as the eldest son of Brahma, to whom that god 
revealed the Brahma-vidya (knowledge of God), as a Prajapati, 
and as the inspired author of the fourth Yeda. At a later 
period he is identified with Angiras. His descendants are 
called Atharvanas, and are often associated with the Angirasas. 

ATHARYAXGIRASAS. This name belongs to the descen 
dants of Atharvan and Angiras, or to the Angirasas alone, 
who are especially connected with the Atharva-veda, and these 


names are probably given to the hymns of that Veda to confer 
on them greater authority and holiness. 

ATMA-BODHA. Knowledge of the soul. A short work 
attributed to $ankaracharya. It has been printed, and a 
translation of it was published in 1812 by Taylor. There is a 
French version by Neve and an English translation by Kearns 
in the Indian Antiquary, vol. v. 

ATMAX, ATMA. The soul. The principle of life. The 
supreme soul. 

ATREYA. A patronymic from Atri. A son or descendant 
of Atri ; a people so called. 

ATRI. An eater. A Bishi, and author of many Yedic 
hymns. " A Maharshi or great saint, who in the Yedas occurs 
especially in hymns composed for the praise of Agni, Indra, the 
Aswins, and the Viswa-devas. In the epic period he is con 
sidered as one of the ten Prajapatis or lords of creation engen 
dered by Manu for the purpose of creating the universe ; at a 
later period he appears as a mind-born son of Brahma, and as 
one of the seven Jt/shis who preside over the reign of Swayam- 
bhuva, the first Manu, or, according to others, of Swarochisha, the 
second, or of Vaivaswata, the seventh. He married Anasuya, 
daughter of Daksha, and their son was Durvasas." Goldstiicker. 
In the Ramayam an account is given of the visit paid by Rama 
and Sita to Atri and Anasuya in their hermitage south of Chitra- 
kufci. In the Purawas he was also father of Soma, the moon, 
and the ascetic Dattatreya by his wife Anasuya. As a Ttishi 
he is one of the stars of the Great Bear. 

AURVA. A Ttishi, son of Urva and grandson of Bhn gu. 
He is described in the Maha-bharata as son of the sage Chyavana 
by his wife Arushl. From his race he is called Bhargava. The 
Maha-bharata relates that a king named Knta-virya was very 
liberal to his priests of the race of Bhn gu, and that they grew 
rich upon his munificence. After his death, his descendants, 
who had fallen into poverty, begged help from the Bhrigus, and 
met with no liberal response. Some of them buried their money, 
and when this was discovered the impoverished Kshatriyas were 
80 exasperated that they slew all the Bhn gus down to the chil 
dren in the womb. One woman concealed her unborn child in 
her thigh, and the Kshatriyas being informed of this, sought the 
child to kill it, but the child " issued forth from its mother s 


thigh with lustre and "blinded the persecutors. From being 
produced from the thigh (uru), the child received the name of 
Aurva, The sage s austerities alarmed both gods and men, 
.11 id he for a long time refused to mitigate his wrath against the 
Kshatriyas, but at the persuasion of the Pitns, he cast the lire 
of his anger into the sea, where it became a being with the face 
of a horse called Haya-siras. While he was living in the forest he 
prevented the wife of King Bahu from burning herself with her 
husband s corpse. Thus he saved the life of her son, with whom 
she had been pregnant seven years. "When the child was born 
he was called Sagara (ocean) ; Aurva was his preceptor, and 
bestowed on him the Agneyastra,. or fiery weapon with which he 
conquered the barbarians who invaded his country.. Aurva had 
a son named //ichlka, who was father of Jamadagni. The 
Hari-vansa gives another version, of the legend, about the oil- 
spring of Aurva. The sage was urged by his friends to beget 
children. He consented, but he foretold that his progeny would 
live by the destruction of. others. Then he produced from his 
thigh a devouring fire, which cried out with, a loud voice, " I 
am hungry; let me consume the world." The various regions 
were soon in flames, when Brahma interfered to save his 
creation, and promised the son of Aurva a suitable abode and 
maintenance. The abode was at Bac?ava-mukha, the mouth 
of the ocean ; for Brahma was born and rests in the ocean, and 
he and the newly produced fire were to consume the world 
together at the end of each age, and at the end of time to devour 
all things with the gods, Asuras, and Rakshasas. The name 
Aurva thus signifies,, shortly, the submarine fire.. It is also 
called Ba^avanala and Samvarttaka. It is represented as a 
flame with a horse s head, and is also called Kaka-dhwaja, from 
carrying a banner on which there is a crow. 


AUTTAMI. The third Manu, See Maim.. 

AVANTl, AVANTIKA. A name of UjjayinI, one of the 
seven sacred cities. 

AVATAR A. A descent. The incarnation of a deity, espe 
cially of Yislmu. The first indication, not of an Avatara, but 
of what subsequently developed into an Avatara, is found in 
the 72/g-veda in the " three steps " of " Yislwu, the unconquer 
able preserver," who "strode over this (universe)," and "in 


34 A VA TARA. 

three places planted his step." The early commentators under 
stood the " three places " to be the earth, the atmosphere, and the 
sky ; that in the earth Vishmi was fire, in the air lightning, 
and in the sky the solar light. One commentator, Aumavabhn, 
whose name deserves mention, took a more philosophical view 
of the matter, and interpreted " the three steps " as being " the 
different positions of the sun at his rising, culmination, and 
setting." Sayawa, the great commentator, who lived in days 
when the god Vishwu had obtained pre-eminence, understood 
"the three steps" to be "the three steps" taken by that 
god in his incarnation of Yamana the dwarf, to be presently 
noticed. Another reference to "three strides" and to a sort 
of Avatara is made in the Taittiriya Sanhita, where it is 
said, " Indra, assuming -the form of a she-jackal, stepped 
all round the earth in three (strides). Thus the gods ob 
tained it." 

Boar Incarnation. In the Taittiriya Sanhita and Brahmawa, 
and also in the $atapatha Brahmawa, the creator Prajapati, 
afterwards known as Brahma, took the form of a boar for the 
purpose of raising the earth out of the boundless waters. The 
Sanhita says, " This universe was formerly waters, fluid. On it 
Prajapati, becoming wind, moved. He saw this (earth). Be 
coming a boar, he took her up. Becoming Viswakarman, he 
wiped (the moisture from) her. She extended. She became 
the extended one (Pnthvi). From this the earth derives her 
designation as the extended one. " The Brahmawa is in accord 
as to the illimitable waters, and adds, "Prajapati practised 
arduous devotion (saying), How shall this universe be (de 
veloped) 1 He beheld a lotus leaf standing. He thought, 
There is somewhat on which this (lotus leaf) rests. He, as a 
boar having assumed that form plunged beneath towards it. 
He found the earth down below. Breaking off (a portion of 
her), he rose to the surface. He then extended it on the lotus 
leaf. Inasmuch as he extended it, that is the extension of the 
extended one (the earth). This became (abhut). From this 
the earth derives its name of Bhumi." Further, in the Tait 
tiriya Aranyaka it is said that the earth was " raised by a black 
boar with a hundred arms." The $atapatha Brahmawa states, 
" She (the earth) was only so large, of the size of a span. A 
boar called Eniuslia raised her up. Her lord, Prajapati, in 


consequence prospers him with this pair and makes him com 
plete." In the Ramayana also it is stated that Brahma "be- 
became a boar and raised up the earth." 

Karma or Tortoise. In the /Satapatha Brahmana it is said 
that "Prajapati, having assumed the form of a tortoise (kurma), 
created offspring. That which he created he made (akarot) 
hence the word Kurma." 

Fish Incarnation. The earliest mention of the fish AvatFira 
occurs in the /Satapatha Biahmana, in connection with the 
Hindu legend of the deluge. Manu found, in the water which 
was brought to him for his ablutions, a small fish, which spoke 
to him and said, " I will save thee " from a flood which shall 
sweep away all creatures. This fish grew to a large size, and 
had to be consigned to the ocean, when he directed Manu to 
construct a ship and to resort to him when the flood should 
rise. The deluge came, and Manu embarked in the ship. The 
fish then swam to Manu, who fastened the vessel to the fish s 
horn, and was conducted to safety. The Maha-bharata repeats 
this story with some variations. 

The incarnations of the boar, the tortoise, and the fish are 
thus in the earlier writings represented as manifestations of 
Prajapati or Brahma. The " three steps " which form the germ 
of the dwarf incarnation are ascribed to Vishmi, but even these 
appear to be of an astronomical or mythical character rather 
than glorifications of a particular deity. In the Maha-bharata 
Vishnu has become the most prominent of the gods, and some 
of his incarnations are more or less distinctly noticed ; but it is 
in the Puranas that they receive their full development. Ac 
cording to the generally received account, the incarnations of 
Vishmi are ten iii number, each of them being assumed by 
Vishmi, the great preserving power, to save the world from 
some great danger or trouble. 

i. Matsya. The fish. This is an appropriation to Vishmi 
of the ancient legend of the fish and the deluge, as related in 
the Satapatha Brahmawa, and quoted above. The details of this 
Avatura vary slightly in different Purawas. The object of the 
incarnation was to save Vaivaswata, the seventh Manu, and 
progenitor of the human race, from destruction by a deluge. 
A small fish came into the hands of Manu and besought his 
protection. Ho carefully guarded it, and it grew rapidly until 


nothing but the ocean could contain it. Mann then recognised 
its divinity, and worshipped the deity Vishmi thus incarnate. 
The god apprised Manu of the approaching cataclysm, and bade 
him prepare for it. When it came, Manu embarked in a ship 
with the fiishis, and with the seeds of all existing things. 
Vishmi then appeared as the fish with a most stupendous horn. 
The ship was bound to this horn with the great serpent as with 
a rope, and was secured in safety until the waters had subsided. 
The Bhagavata Purarca introduces a new feature. In one of 
the nights of Brahma, and during his repose, the earth and the 
other worlds were submerged in the ocean. Then the demon 
Haya-grlva drew near, and carried off the Veda which had 
issued from Brahma s mouth. To recover the Yeda thus lost, 
Vishwi assumed the form of a fish, and saved Manu as above 
related. But this Purawa adds, that the fish instructed Manu 
and the Tfe shis in "the true doctrine of the soul of the eternal 
Brahma;" and, when Brahma awoke at the end of this dis 
solution of the universe, Vishmi slew Haya-griva and restored 
the Yeda to Brahma. 

2. Kurma. The tortoise. The germ of this Avatara is found 
in the $atapatha Brahmawa, as above noticed. In its later and 
developed form, Vislmu appeared in the form of a tortoise in 
the Satya-yuga, or first age, to recover some things of value 
which had been lost in the deluge. In the form of a tortoise 
he placed himself at the bottom of the sea of milk, and made 
his back the base or pivot of the mountain Mandara. The gods 
and demons twisted the great serpent Vasuki round the moun 
tain, and, dividing into two parties, each took an end of the 
snake as a rope, and thus churned the sea until they recovered 
the desired objects. These were (i.) Amnta, the water of 
life; (2.) Dhanwantari, the physician of the gods and bearer of 
the cup of Anm ta; (3.) Lakshmi, goddess of fortune and 
beauty, and consort of Vish?iu; (4.) Sura, goddess of wine; 
(5.) Chandra, the moon; (6.) Eambha, a nymph, and pattern 
of a lovely and amiable woman ; (7.) Uchchai/i-sravas, a won 
derful and model horse; (8.) Kaustubha, a celebrated jewel ; 
(9.) Parijata, a celestial tree; (10.) Surabhi, the cow of plenty; 
(IT.) Airavata, a wonderful model elephant; (12.) $ankha, a 
shell, the conch of victory; (13.) Dhanus, a famous bow; and 
(14.) Yisha, poison. 


3. Variiha. The boar. The old legend of the Brahmanaa 
concerning the boar which raised the earth from the waters has 
been appropriated to Vishnu. A demon named Hiranyaksha 
had dragged the earth to the bottom of the sea. To recover it 
Vishnu assumed the form of a boar, and after a contest of a 
thousand years he slew the demon and raised up the earth. 

4. Xara-sinha, or ]SYi-sinha. * The man-lion. Vislmu assumed 
this form to deliver the world from the tyranny of Hiranya- 
kasipu, a demon who, by the favour of Brahma, had become 
invulnerable, and was secure from gods, men, and animals. This 
demon s son, named Prahlada, worshipped Vishnu, which so 
incensed his father that he tried to kill him, but his efforts were 
all in vain. Contending with his son as to the omnipotence and 
omnipresence of Vishnu, Hiranya-kasipu demanded to know if 
Vishnu was present in a stone pillar of the hall, and struck 
it violently. To avenge Prahlada, and to vindicate his own 
offended majesty, Vishnu came forth from the pillar as the 
Xara-sinha, half -man and half -lion, and tore the arrogant Daitya 
king to pieces. 

These four incarnations are supposed to have appeared in the 
Satya-yuga, or first age of the world. 

5. Vamana. The dwarf. The origin of this incarnation is 
" the three strides of Vishnu," spoken of in the jfa g-veda, as 
before explained. In the Treta-yuga, or second age, the Daitya 
king Bali had, by his devotions and austerities, acquired the domi 
nion of the three worlds, and the gods were shorn of their power 
and dignity. To remedy this, Vishnu was born as a diminutive 
son of Kasyapa and Aditi. The dwarf appeared before Bali, 
and begged of him as much land as he could step over in three 
paces. The generous monarch complied with the request. 
Vishnu took two strides over heaven and earth ; but respecting 
the virtues of Bali, he then stopped, leaving the dominion of 
ITiiala, or the infernal regions, to Bali. 

The first five incarnations are thus purely mythological ; in 
the next three we have the heroic element, and in the ninth 
the religious. 

6. Parasu-rama. Eama with the axe. Born in the Treta, 
or second age, as son of the Brahman Jamadagni, to deliver thu 
Biiilnnans from the arrogant dominion of the Kshatriyas. See 


7. Kama or Rama-chandra. The moon-like or gentle Rama, 
the hero of the Ramiiyafta, He was the son of Da^aratha, king 
of Ayodhya, of the Solar race, and was born in the Treta-yuga, 
or second age, for the purpose of destroying the demon Ravana, 

8. Krishna. The black or dark coloured. This is the most 
popular of all the later deities, and has obtained such pre 
eminence, that his votaries look upon him not simply as an 
incarnation, but as a perfect manifestation of Vishwu. When 
Kr/shwa is thus exalted to the full godhead, his elder brother, 
Bala-rama takes his place as the eighth Avatara. See Kn shwa 
and Bala-rama. 

9. Buddha. The great success of Buddha as a religious 
teacher seems to have induced the Brahmans to adopt him as 
their own, rather than to recognise him as an adversary. So 
Yislmu is said to have appeared as Buddha to encourage demons 
and wicked men to despise the Yedas, reject caste, and deny the 
existence of the gods, and thus to effect their own destruction. 

10. Kalki or Kalkin. The white horse. This incarnation 
of Vishnu is to appear at the end of the Kali or Iron Age, 
seated on a white horse, with a drawn sword blazing like a 
comet, for the final destruction of the wicked, the renovation of 
creation, and the restoration of purity. 

The above are the usually recognised Avataras, but the number 
is sometimes extended, and the Bhagavata Purawa, which is the 
most fervid of all the PuraT&as in its glorification of Yishwu, 
enumerates twenty-two incarnations: (i.) Purusha, the male, 
the progenitor; (2.) Varaha, the boar; (3.) Narada, the great 
sage; (4.) Kara and Karayawa (q.v.); (5.) Kapila, the great 
sage; (6.) Dattatreya, a sage; (7.) Yajna, sacrifice; (8.) jR/shabha, 
a righteous king, father of Bharata; (9.) Pn thu, a king; (10.) 
Matsya, the fish; (n.) Knrma, the tortoise; (12 and 13.) 
Dhanwantari, the physician of the gods; (14.) Xara-sinha, the 
man-lion; (15.) Yamana, the dwarf; (16.) Parasu-rama; (17.) 
Yeda-Yyasa; (18.) Rama; (19.) Bala-rama; (20.) Krishna; (21.) 
Buddha; (22.) Kalki. But after this it adds "The incarna 
tions of Yishmi are innumerable, like the rivulets flowing from 
an inexhaustible lake. 7&shis, Manns, gods, sons of Manns, 
Prajapatis, are all portions of him." 

AVATARAJVA. An abode of the Rakshasas. 

AYODHYA. The modern Oiulc. The capital of Ikshwaku, 


the founder of the Solar race, and afterwards the capital of 
Kama. It is one of the seven sacred cities. The exact site lia.s 
not been discovered. 

AYUR-VEDA. The Veda of life. A work on medicine, 
attributed to Dhanwantari, and sometimes regarded as a supple 
ment to the Atharva-veda. 

AYUS. The first-born son of Puriiravas and Urvasi, and the 
father of Xahusha, Kshattra-v?iddha, Rambha, Raji, and Anenas. 

BABHRU-VAIIAXA. Son of Arjuna by his wife Chitran- 
gada. He was adopted as the son of his maternal grandfather, 
and reigned at Mampura as his successor. He dwelt there in a 
palace of great splendour, surrounded with wealth and signs of 
power. When Arjuna went to Mawipura with the horse intended 
for the Aswa-medha, there was a quarrel between Arjuna and 
King Babhru-vahana, and the latter killed his father with an 
arrow. Repenting of his deed, he determined to kill himself, 
but he obtained from his step-mother, the Xaga princess UlupT, 
a gem which restored Arjuna to life. He returned with his 
father to Hastinapura. The description of this combat has been 
translated from the Maha-bharata by Troyer in his Raja 
Taranginl, tome i. p. 57 8. 

BADARAYAJVA. A name of Yeda Yyasa, especially used 
for him as the reputed author of the Vedanta philosophy. He 
was the author of the Brahma Sutras, published in the Biblwtheca 

BADARI, BADARlKAtfRAMA. A place sacred to Vishmi, 
near the Ganges in the Himalayas, particularly in Vishnu s dual 
form of Nara-Narayatia, Thus, in the Maha-bharata, /Siva, 
addressing Arjuna, says, " Thou wast Xara in a former body, 
and, with Xarfiya-na for thy companion, didst perform dreadful 
austerity at Badarl for many myriads of years." It is now 
known as Badarl-natha, though this is properly a title of Vishnu 
as lord of Badarl. 

BADAVA. A mare, the submarine fire. In mythology it 
is a flame with the head of a horse, called also Ilaya-siras, 
horse-head. See Aurva. 

BAHlKAS. People of the Panjab, so called in Pfi?zini and 
the Maha-bharata. They are spoken of as being impure and out 
of the law. 

BATIU, BAIIUKA. A king of the Solar race, who was van- 


quished and driven out of his country by the tribes of Haihayas 
and Talajanghas. He was father of Sagara. 

BAHUKA. The name of Nala when he was transformed 
into a dwarf. 

BAHULAS. The K?ittikas or Pleiades. 

BAHV72/CHA. A priest or theologian of the 7i%-vedu 

BALA-BHADEA. See Bala-rama. 

BALA-GOPALA. The boy Krishna. 

BALA-EAMA. (Bala-bhadra and Bala-deva are other forms 
of this name.) The elder brother of Krishna. When Krishna 
is regarded as a full manifestation of Vishnu, Bala-rama is 
recognised as the seventh Avatara or incarnation in his place. 
According to this view, which is the favourite one of the 
Vaishnavas, Krishna is a full divinity and Bala-rama an incar 
nation ; but the story of their birth, as told in the Maha-bharata, 
places them more upon an equality. It says that Vishnu took 
two hairs, a white and a black one, and that these became Bala- 
rama and Krishna, the children of Devaki. Bala-rama was of 
fair complexion, Krishna was very dark. As soon as Bala-rama 
was born, he was carried away to Gokula to preserve his life 
from the tyrant Kansa, and he was there nurtured by Nan da as 
a child of Eohinl. He and Krishna grew up together, and he 
took part in many of Krishna s boyish freaks and adventures. 
His earliest exploit was the killing of the great Asura Dhenuka, 
who had the form of an ass. This demon attacked him, but 
Bala-rama seized his assailant, whirled him round by his legs 
till he was dead, and cast his carcase into a tree. Another Asura 
attempted to carry off Bala-rama on his shoulders, but the boy 
.beat out the demon s brains with his fists. When Knslma went 
to Mathura, Bala-rama accompanied him, and manfully supported 
him till Kansa was killed. Once, when Bala-rama was intoxicated, 
he called upon the Yamuna river to come to him, that he might 
bathe ; but his command not being heeded, he plunged his 
ploughshare into the river, and dragged the waters whithersoever 
he went, until they were obliged to assume a human form and 
beseech his forgiveness. This action gained for him the title 
Yamuna-bhid and Kalindi-karsha?2a, breaker or dragger of the 
Yamuna. He killed Eukmin in a gambling brawl. When 
$amba, son of Krishna, was detained as a prisoner at Hastinapur 
by Dur-yodhana, Bala-rama demanded his release, and, being 


refused, he thrust his ploughshare under the ramparts of the 
city, and drew them towards him, thus compelling the Kaura- 
vas to give up their prisoner. Lastly, he killed the great ape 
Dwivida, who had stolen his weapons and derided him. 

Such are some of the chief incidents of the life of Bala-rama, 
as related in the Purfmas, and as popular among the votaries of 
Kr/shwa. In the Maha-blmrata he has more of a human cha 
racter, lie taught both Dur-yodhana and Bhima the use of the 
mace. Though inclining to the side of the Paw/a vas, he refused 
to take an active part either with them or .the Kauravas. Ho 
witnessed the combat between Dur-yodhana and Bhima, and 
beheld the foul blow struck by the latter, which made him so 
indignant that he seized his weapons, and was with difficulty 
restrained by Kr/shna from falling upon the Pawc?avas. He 
died just before K? /shna, as he sat under a banyan tree in the 
outskirts of Dwaraka. 

Another view is held as to the origin of Bala-rama. Accord 
ing to this he was an incarnation of the great serpent $esha, and 
when he died the serpent is said to have issued from his mouth. 

The " wine-loving " Bala-rama (Madhu-priya or Priya-madhu) 
was as much addicted to wine as his brother Krishna was 
devoted to the fair sex. He was also irascible in temper, and 
sometimes quarrelled even with Krishna : the Purawas represent 
them as having a serious difference about the Syamantaka jewel 
He had but one wife, Kevati, daughter of King Kaivata, and 
was faithful to her. By her he had two sons, Nisa/ha and 
Ulmuka. He is represented as of fair complexion, and, as Nila- 
vastra, clad in a dark-blue vest. His especial weapons are a club 
(khetaka or saunanda), the ploughshare (halo), and the pestle 
(musala), from which he is called Phala and Hala, also Hala- 
yudha, plough-armed; Hala-bhnt, * plough-bearer ; Langali 
and Sarikarshawa, ploughman; and Musali, pestle-holder. 
As he has a palm for a banner, he is called Tala-dhwaja. Other 
of his appellations are Gupta-chara, who goes secretly; Kam 
pala and Samvartaka. 

1 > A L A-R AMAYAJVA. A drama by Kaja-sekhara. It has been 

BALEYA. A descendant of Bali, a Daitya. 

BALHL A northern country, Balkh. Said in the Maha- 
bharata to be famous for its horses, as Balkh is to the present time. 


BALHIKAS, BAHLIKAS. "Always associated with th 
people of the north, west, and ultra-Indian provinces, and usually 
considered to represent the Bactrians or people of Balkh." Wilson. 

BALI. A good and virtuous Daitya king. He was son of 
Yirochana, son of Prahlada, son of Hiraftya-kasipu. His wife 
was Vindhyavali. Through his devotion and penance he defeated 
Iiidra, humbled the gods, and extended his authority over the three 
worlds. The gods appealed to Vishrai for protection, and he be 
came manifest in his Dwarf Avatara for the purpose of restrain 
ing Bali. This dwarf craved from Bali the boon of three steps 
of ground, and, having obtained it, he stepped over heaven and 
earth in two strides ; but then, out of respect to Bali s kindness 
and his grandson Prahlada s virtues, he stopped short, and left to 
him Patala, the infernal regions. Bali is also called Maha-bali, and 
his capital was Maha-bali-pura. The germ of the legend of the 
three steps is found in the Jtig-veda, where Vishmi is represented 
as taking three steps over earth, heaven, and the lower regions, 
typifying perhaps the rising, culmination, and setting of the 
sun. _ 

BALI, BALIIST. The monkey king of Kishkindhya, who was 
slain by Kama, and whose kingdom was given to his brother 
Su-griva, the friend and ally of Kama. He was supposed to be 
the son of Indra, and to have been born from the hair (bdla) of 
his mother, whence his name. His wife s name was Tara, and 
his sons Angada and Tara. 

BAA^A. A Daitya, eldest son of Bali, who had a thousand 
arms. He was a friend of Siva, and enemy of Vishwu. His 
daughter Usha fell in love with Aniruddha, the grandson of 
Knshwa, and had him conveyed to her by magic art. Kn shwa, 
Bala-rama, and Pradyumna went to the rescue, and were resisted 
by BaTia, who was assisted by $iva and Skanda, god of Avar. 
$iva was overpowered by Ivn slma ; Skanda was wounded ; and 
the many arms of Bawa were cut off by the missile weapons of 
Krishwa. $iva then interceded for the life of Ba?za, and Krishna 
granted it. He is called also Yairochi. 

BAXGA. Bengal, but not in the modern application. In 
ancient times Banga meant the districts north of the Bhagirathi 
Jessore, Ivn shwagar, &c. See Aim. 

BARBARAS. Name of a people. " The analogy to bar 
barians is not in sound only, but in all the authorities these are 


classed with borderers and foreigners and nations not Hindu." 

BAEHISIIADS. A class of Pitr/s, who, when alive, kept 
up the household flame, and presented offerings with fire. Some 
authorities identify them with the months. Their dwelling is 
Vaibhraja-loka. See Pit?*is. 

BAUDIIAYANA. A writer on Dharma-sfistra or law. He 
was also the author of a Sutra work. 

BHADEA. Wife of Utathya (q.v.). 

BIIADEACHAEU. A son of Krishna and EukminL 

BIIADEA-KALI. Name of a goddess. In modern times 
it applies to Durgil 

BILVDEA6WA. i. A region lying to the east of Meru. 2. 
A celebrated horse, son of Uchchai/i-sravas. 

I lFAGA. A deity mentioned in the Vedas, but of very 
indistinct personality and powers. He is supposed to bestow 
wealth and to preside over marriage, and he is classed among 
the Adityas and Viswedevas. 

BHAGA-NETEA-GHNA (or -HAN). < Destroyer of the eyes 
of Bhaga. An appellation of Siva, 

BHAGAVAD-GITA. The song of the Divine One. A 
celebrated episode of the Maha-bharata, in the form of a metrical 
dialogue, in which the divine "Krishna, is the chief speaker, and 
expounds to Arjuna his philosophical doctrines. The author of 
the work is unknown, but he " was probably a Brahman, and 
nominally a Vaishrcava, but really a philosopher and thinker, 
whose mind was cast in a broad mould." This poem has been 
interpolated in the Maha-bharata, for it is of much later date 
than the body of that epic ; it is later also than the six Darsawas 
or philosophical schools, for it has received inspiration from 
them all, especially from the Sankhya, Yoga, and Vedanta. The 
second or third century A.D. has been proposed as the probable 
time of its appearance. Krishna, as a god, is a manifestation of 
Vishmi; but in this song, and in other places, he is held to 
be the supreme being. As man, he was related to both the 
lYmrfavas and the Kauravas, and in the great war between these 
two families he refused to take up arms on either side. But he 
consented to act as the Pant?ava Arjuna s charioteer. When 
the opposing hosts were drawn up in array against each other, 
Arjuna, touched with compunction for the approaching slaughter 


of kindred and friends, appeals to KHshwa for guidance. This 
gives the occasion for the philosophical teaching. " The poem 
is divided into three sections, each containing six chapters, the 
philosophical teaching in each being somewhat distinct," but 
"undoubtedly the main design of the poem, the sentiments 
expressed in which have exerted a powerful influence throughout 
India for the last i6oo years, is to inculcate the doctrine of 
Bhakti (faith), and to exalt the duties of caste above all other 
obligations, including those of friendship and kindred." So 
Arjuna is told to do his duty as^a soldier without heeding the 
slaughter of friends. " In the second division of the poem the 
Pantheistic doctrines of the Vedanta are more directly inculcated 
than in the other sections. Knshf&a here, in the plainest lan 
guage, claims adoration as one with the great universal spirit 
pervading and constituting the universe." The language of this 
poem is exceedingly beautiful, and its tone and sentiment of a 
very lofty character, so that they have a striking effect even in 
the prose translation. It was one of the earliest Sanskrit works 
translated into English by Wilkins ; but a much more perfect 
translation, with an excellent introduction, has since been pub 
lished by Mr. J. Cockburn Thompson, from which much of the 
above has been borrowed. There are several other translations 
in French, German, &c. 

BHAGAVATA PUKA7VA. The Purarca "in which ample 
details of duty are described, and which opens with (an extract 
from) the Gayatri ; that in which the death of the Asura V?itra 
is told, and in which the mortals and immortals of the Saraswata 
Kalpa, with the events that then happened to them in the 
world, are related, that is celebrated as the Bhagavata, and 
consists of 18,000 verses." Such is the Hindu description of 
this work. " The Bhagavata," says Wilson, " is a work of great 
celebrity in India, and exercises a more direct and powerful 
influence upon the opinions and feelings of the people than 
perhaps any other of the Ptirawas. It is placed .fifth in all the 
lists, but the Padma ranks it as the eighteenth, as the extracted 
substance of all the rest. According to the usual specification, 
it consists of 18,000 slokas, distributed amongst 332 chapters, 
divided into twelve skandhas or books. It is named Bhagavata 
from its being dedicated to the glorification of Bhagavata or 
Vislmu." The most popular and characteristic part of this 


is tlic tenth book, which narrates in detail tlie liistory 
of K?ishwa, and has been translated into perhaps all the ver 
nacular languages of India. Colebrooke concurs in the opinion 
of many learned Hindus that this Purawa is the composition of 
the grammarian Vopadeva, who lived about six or seven cen 
turies ago at the court of Hemadri, Raja of Deva-giri (Deogurh 
or Daulatabad), and Wilson sees no reason for calling in 
question the tradition which assigns the work to this writer. 
This Purfwa has been translated into French by Burnouf, and 
has been published with the text in three volumes folio, and 
in other forms.. 

BHAGIRATHI. The Ganges. The name is derived from 
Pihaglratha, a descendant of Sagara, whose austerities induced 
/Siva to allow the sacred river to descend to the earth for the 
purpose of bathing the ashes of Sagara s sons, who had been 
consumed by the wrath of the sage Kapila. Bhagiratha named 
the river Sagara, and after leading it over the earth to the sea, 
he conducted it. to Patala, where the ashes of his ancestors were 
laved with its waters and purified. 

BHAIRAVA (mas.), BHAIRAYI (fern.). The terrible. 
Xames of $iva and his wife Devi. The Bhairavas are eight in 
ferior forms or manifestations of iva, all of them of a terrible 
character: (i.) Asitanga, black limbed;. (2.) Sanhara, destruc 
tion; (3.) Ruru,adog; (4.) Kala, black; (5.) Ivrodha, anger; 
(6.) Tamra-chuY/a, red crested; (7.) Chandra-chu^a, moon crested ; 
(8.) Mahii, great. Other names are met with as variants : Ka- 
piila, Rudra, Bhlshana, Un-matta, Ku-pati, &c. In these forms 
$iva often rides upon a dog, wherefore he is called <SwaV\va, 
whose horse is a dog. 

BHAMATl. A gloss on /S ankara s commentary upon the 
Brahma Sutras by Yachaspati Mkra. It is in course of publi 
cation in the Bibliotheca Indica. 

BHANTJMAlL Daughter of Bhanu, a Yadava chief, who 
was abducted from her home in Dwaraka, during the absence of 
lici- father, by the, demon Kikumbha. 

B1IARADAYAJA. A JKishi to whom many Yedic lij mns are 
attributed. He was the son of Br/haspati and father of Dro-/a, 
the preceptor of the Pfwrfavas. The Taittirlya BralimaTza says 
that " he lived through three lives " (probably meaning a life of 
great length), and that " he became immortal and ascended to 


the heavenly world, to union with the sun." In the Maha- 
bharata he is represented as living at Hard war ; in the Eamayawa 
he received Kama and Sita in his hermitage at Prayaga, which 
was then and afterwards much celebrated. According to some 
of the Pura?ias and the Hari-vansa, he became by gift or adop 
tion the son of King Bharata, and an absurd story is told about 
his birth to account for his name : His mother, the wife of 
Utathya, was pregnant by her husband and by Brihaspati. 
Dlrgha-tamas, the son by her husband, kicked his half-brother 
out of the womb before his time, when Brihaspati said to his 
mother, Bhara-dwa-jam, Cherish this child of two fathers. 

BHAEADWAJA. i. Drowa. 2. Any descendant of Bharad- 
waja or follower of his teaching. 3. Kame of a grammarian and 
author of Sutras. 

BHAEATA. i. A hero and king from whom the warlike 
people called Bharatas, frequently mentioned in the .Z^g-veda, 
were descended. The name is mixed up with that of Viswami- 
tra. Bharata s sons were called Viswamitras and Viswamitra s 
sons were called Bharatas. 

2. An ancient king of the first Manwantara. He was 
devoted to Vishwu, and abdicated his throne that he might 
continue constant in meditation upon him. While at his 
hermitage, he went to bathe in the river, and there saw a doe 
big with young frightened by a lion. Her fawn, which was 
brought forth suddenly, fell into the water, and the sage rescued 
it. He brought the animal up, and becoming excessively fond 
of it, his abstraction was interrupted. " In the course of time 
he died, watched by the deer with tears in its eyes, like a son 
mourning for his father ; and he himself, as he expired, cast his 
eyes upon the deer and thought of nothing else, being wholly 
occupied with one idea." For this misapplied devotion he was 
born again as a deer with the faculty of recollecting his former 
life. In this form he lived an austere retired life, and having 
atoned for his former error, was born again as a Brahman. But 
his person was ungainly, and he looked like a crazy idiot. He 
discharged servile offices, and was a palankin bearer; but he 
had true wisdom, and discoursed deeply upon philosophy and 
the power of Vishmi. Finally he obtained exemption from 
future birth. This legend is " a sectarial graft upon a Pauramk 


3. Son of Dasaratlia by his wife Kaikeyi, and half-brother 
of Rama-chandra. He was educated by his mother s father, 
Aswa-pati, king of Kekaya, and married Mawrfavi, the cousin 
of Sita. His mother, through maternal fondness, brought 
about the exile of Kama, and endeavoured to secure her own 
son s succession to the throne, but Bharata refused to supplant 
his elder brother. On the death of his father Eharata per- 
formed the funeral rites, and went after Rama with a complete 
army to bring him back to Ayodhya and place him on the throne. 
He found Kama at Chitra-ku/a, and there was a generous con 
tention between them as to which should reign. Kama refused 
to return until the period of his exile was completed, and 
Bharata declined to be king; but he returned to Ayodhya 
as Kama s representative, and setting up a pair of Kama s 
shoes as a mark of his authority, Bharata ruled the country in 
his brother s name. " He destroyed thirty millions of terribla 
gandharvas " and made himself master of their country. 

4. A prince of the Puru branch of the Lunar race. Bharata 
was son of Dushyanta and /Sakuntala. Ninth in descent from 
him came Kuril, and fourteenth from Kuru came Santanu. 
This king had a son named Vichitra-virya, who died child 
less, leaving two widows. Knshwa DwaipFiyana was natural 
brother to Vichitra-virya. Under the law he raised up seed to 
his brother from the widows, whose sons were Dlmta-rash/ra 
and PMu, between whose descendants, the Kauravas and 
Kfldavas, the great war of the Maha-bharata was fought. 
Through their descent from Bharata, these princes, but more 
especially the PMavas, were called Bharatas. 

5. A sage who is the reputed inventor of dramatic entertain 

6. A name borne by several others of less note than the 

BIIARATA. A descendant of Bharata, especially one of the 
T\\ml\\ princes. 

BHAKATA-VARSHA. India, as having been the kingdom 
of Bharata. It is divided into nine Khaw/as or parts : Indra- 
dwlpri, Kaserumat, Tamra-varwa, Gabhastimat, Kaga-dwlpa, 
8;niinyn, Gandharva, Vanma. 

BHARATl A name of Saraswatl 

BIIAKGAYA. A descendant of Bhr/gu, as Chyavana, >Sau- 


naka, Jamad-agni, but more especially used for the latter and 

BHARTjR/-HARI. A celebrated poet and grammarian, who 
is said to have been the brother of Vikramaditya. He wrote 
three /Satakas or Centuries of verses, called (i.) /SY/ngara-sataka, 
on amatory matters; (2.) Mti-sataka, on polity and ethics; (3.) 
Vairagya-sataka, on religious austerity. These maxims are said to 
have been written when he had taken to a religious life after a 
licentious youth. He was also author of a grammatical work of 
high repute called Yakya-padiya, and the poem called Bha//i- 
kavya is by some attributed to him.. The moral verses were 
translated into French so long ago as 1670. A note at the end 
of that translation says, "Trad, par le Brahmine Padmanaba en 
flamand et du flamand en frangais par Th. La Grue." The text 
with a Latin translation was printed by Schiefner and Weber. 
There is a translation in German by Bohlen and Schiitz, in 
French by Fauche, and of the erotic verses by Regnaud; in 
English by Professor Tawney in* the Indian Antiquary.. 

BHASHA-PARICHCHHEDA. An exposition of the Nyaya 
philosophy. There are several editions. 

BHASKARACHARYA. (Bhaskara + Acharya.) A cele 
brated mathematician and astronomer, who was born early in 
the eleventh century A.D. He was author of the Bija-gawita on 
arithmetic, the LllavatI on algebra, and the Siddhanta /Slromawi 
on astronomy. It has been claimed for Bhaskara that he "was 
fully acquainted with the principle of the Differential Calculus." 
This claim Dr. Spottiswoode considers to be overstated, but he 
observes of Bhaskara : " It must be admitted that the penetration 
shown by Bhaskara in; his analysis is in the highest degree 
remarkable ; that the formula which he establishes, and his 
method of establishing it, bear more than a mere resemblance 
they bear a strong analogy to the corresponding process in 
modern astronomy ; and that the majority of scientific persons 
will learn with surprise the existence of such a method in the 
writings of so distant a period and so distant a region." Jour. 
E. A. S., 1859. 

BHA7TACHARYA. See Kumarila Bhatfa. 

BHAriT-KAYYA. A poem on the actions of Rama by 
Bha//i. It is of a very artificial character, and is designed to 
illustrate the laws of grammar and the figures of poetry and 



rhetoric. The text has been printed with a commentary, and 
part has been translated into German by Schlitz. 

BHAUMA. Son of Bhumi (the earth). A metronymic of 
the Daitya Xiiraka. 

BHAUTYA. The fourteenth Manu. See Manu. 

BHAVA. i. A Yedic deity often mentioned in connection 
with iS arva the destroyer. 2. A name of Kudra or >Siva, or of 
a manifestation of that god. See Rudra. 

BHAVA-BHUTI. A celebrated dramatist, the author of 
three of the best extant Sanskrit dramas, the Maha-vlra Charita, 
Uttara Rama Charita, and MalatI Madhava. He was also 
known as >SrI-kan/ha, or throat of eloquence. He was a Brah 
man, and was a native either of Beder or Berar, but Ujjayini or 
its neighbourhood would seem, from his vivid descriptions of the 
scenery, to have been the place of his residence. The eighth 
century is the period at which he flourished. His three plays 
have been translated by Wilson in blank verse, who says of 
MalatI Madhava, " The author is fond of an unreasonable display 
of learning, and occasionally substitutes the phraseology of 
logic or metaphysics for the language of poetry and nature. At 
the same time the beauties predominate over the defects, and 
the language of the drama is in general of extraordinary beauty 
and power." 

BHAYISHYA PURAJVA. "This Purawa, as its name im 
plies, should be a book of prophecies foretelling what will be." 
The copies discovered contain about 7000 stanzas. The work 
is far from agreeing with the declared character of a Purarai, 
and is principally a manual of rites and ceremonies. Its deity 
is /Siva, There is another work, containing also about 7000 
verses, called the Bhavishyottara Purima, a name which would 
imply that " it was a continuation or supplement of the former," 
and its contents are of a similar character. Wilson. 

BHAYISIIYOTTARA PURA^A. See Bhavishya Purawa. 

BHAWANI. One of the names of the wife of Siva. See 

BHELA. An ancient sage who wrote upon medicine. 

BHIKSHU. A mendicant. The Brahman in the fourth 
and last stage of his religious life. See Brahman. 

Any mendicant, especially, in its Pali form, Bhikkhu, a Bud 
dhist mendicant. 

50 BHIMA. 

BHIMA, BHIMA-SENA. The terrible. The second of 
the five ParaZu princes, and mythically son of Vayu, the god of 
the wind. He was a man of vast size, and had great strength. 
He was wrathful in temper, and given to abuse, a brave warrior, 
but a fierce and cruel foe, coarse in taste and manners, and a 
great feeder, so that he was called Vnkodara, * wolfs belly. 
Half of the food of the family was allotted to him, and the other 
half sufficed for his four brothers and their mother. The weapon 
he generally used was a club, which suited his gigantic strength, 
and he had been trained in the use of it by Drowa and Bala- 
rama. His great strength excited the envy of his cousin Dur- 
yodhana, who poisoned him and threw his body into the 
Ganges ; but it sank to the realm of the serpents, where it was 
restored to health and vigour, and Bhima returned to Hastina- 
pura. At the passage of arms at Hastinapura, he and Dur- 
yodhana engaged each other with clubs ; but the mimic combat 
soon turned into a fierce personal conflict, which Drowa had to 
put an end to by force. It was at this same meeting that he 
reviled Kama, and heaped contempt upon him, increasing and 
converting into bitter hatred the enmity which Kama had pre 
viously entertained against the Para?avas. When he and his 
brothers were in exile, and an attempt was made, at the instiga 
tion of Dur-yodhana, to burn them in their house, it was he who 
barricaded the house of Purochana, the director of the plot, and 
burnt him as he had intended to burn them. Soon after this 
he met the Asura Hi^imba, whom he killed, and then married 
his sister Hi(iimba. He also slew another Asura named Vaka, 
whom he seized by the legs and tore asunder ; afterwards he 
killed his brother, Kirmira, and other Asuras. This brought the 
Asuras to submission, and they engaged to refrain from molest 
ing mankind. After the PMu princes were established at 
Indraprastha, Bhima fought in single combat with Jarasandha, 
king of Magadha, who had refused to recognise their supremacy. 
As son of the wind, Bhima was brother of Hanuman, and was 
able to fly with great speed. By this power of flight, and with 
the help of Hanuman, he made his way to Kuvera s heaven, 
high up in the Himalayas. When Jayadratha failed in his 
attempt to carry off Draupadi, he was pursued by Arjuna and 
Bhima. The latter overtook him, dragged him by the hair from 
his chariot to the ground, and kicked him till he became sense- 

SHIM A. 51 

less. At Arj una s remonstrance Bhima refrained from killing 
him ; but he cut off all his hair except five locks, and compelled 
him to acknowledge publicly that he was the slave of the 
Pari^avas. Bhima refused to listen to his brother s plea for 
Jayadratha s release, but at Draupadi s intercession he let him 
go free. In the second exile of the Parafavas, they went to the 
Raja of Vira/a, whose service they entered. Bhima, holding a 
ladle in one hand and a sword in the other, undertook the duties 
of cook ; but he soon exhibited his prowess by fighting with and 
killing a famous wrestler named Jlmuta. Draupadi had entered 
into the service of the queen as a waiting-maid, and attracted 
the admiration of the king s brother-in-law, Kichaka. When she 
rejected his advances, he insulted and brutally assaulted her. 
Her husbands did not seem disposed to avenge her, so she 
appealed to Bhima, as she was wont when she sought revenge. 
Draupadi made an assignation with Kichaka, which Bhima kept, 
and after a sharp struggle with the disappointed gallant, he 
broke his bones to atoms, and made his body into a large ball 
of flesh, so that no one could tell how he had been killed or 
who had killed him. Draupadi was judged to have had a share 
in his death, and was condemned to be burnt alive ; but Bhima 
drew his hair over his face, so that no one could recognise him, 
and, tearing up a large tree for a club, he rushed to the rescue. 
He was taken for a mighty Gandharva, the crowd fled, and 
Draupadi was released. Kichaka had been the general of the 
forces of Yira/a and the mainstay of the king. After his death, 
Su-sarman, king of Trigartta, aided and abetted by the Kauravas 
and others, determined to attack Vira/a. The Raja of Vira/a 
was defeated and made prisoner, but Bhima pursued Su-sarman 
and overcame him, rescued the prisoner, and made the conqueror 
captive. In the great battle between the Kauravas and Pawrfa- 
vas, Bhima took a very prominent part. On the first day he 
fought against Bhishma ; on the second he slew the two sons of 
the Raja of Magadha, and after them their father, killing him 
and his elephant at a single blow. In the night between the 
fourteenth and fifteenth day of the battle, Bhima fought with 
Drowa until the rising of the sun ; but that redoubted warrior 
fell by the hand of Dh?ish/a-dyumna, who continued the combat 
till noonday. On the seventeenth day he killed Duh-sasana, 
and drank his blood, as he had long before vowed to do, in 

52 BH1MA. 

retaliation of the insults Duh-sasana had offered to Dranpadu 
On the eighteenth and last day of the battle Dur-yodhana fled 
and hid himself in a lake. "When he was discovered, he would 
not come out until he had received a promise that he should not 
have to fight with more than one man at a time. Even then 
he delayed until he was irritated by the abuse and the taunts 
of the Pawrfavas. Bhima and Dur-yodhana fought as usual 
with clubs. The battle was long and furious ; the parties were 
equally matched, and Bhima was getting the worst of it, when 
he struck an unfair blow which smashed Dur-yodhana s thigh, 
and brought him to the ground. Thus he fulfilled his vow and 
avenged DraupadL In his fury Bhima kicked his prostrate 
foe on the head, and acted so brutally that his brother Yudhi- 
sh/hira struck him in the face with his fist, and directed Arjuna 
to take him away. Bala-rama was greatly incensed at the foul 
play to which Bhima had resorted, and would have attacked 
the Pam/avas had he not been mollified by K>ishwa. He de 
clared that Bhima should thenceforward be called Jihma-yodhin, 
the unfair fighter. After the conclusion of the war, the old 
king, Dhn ta-rash/ra, asked that Bhima might be brought to him. 
Krishna, who knew the blind old man s sorrow for his son, 
whom Bhima had killed, and suspecting his intention, placed 
before him an iron statue, which Dh?ita-rashfra crushed in his 
embrace. Dh? ita-rashfra never forgave Bhima, and he returned 
the ill feeling with insults, which ended in the old king s retir 
ing into the forest. Bhima s last public feat was the slaughter 
of the horse in the sacrifice which followed Yudhi-sh/hira s 
accession to the throne. Apart from his mythological attributes, 
the character of Bhima is natural and distinct. A man of burly 
form, prodigious strength, and great animal courage, with coarse 
tastes, a gluttonous appetite, and an irascible temper; jo vial and 
jocular when in good humour, but abusive, truculent, and brutal 
when his passions were roused. His repartees were forcible though 
coarse, and he held his own even against Krishwa when the 
latter made personal remarks upon him. See Maha-bharata. 

By his Asura wife HkZimba he had a son named Ghafotkacha ; 
and by his wife Balandhara, princess of Kasi, he also had a son 
named Sarvatraga or Sarvaga. Other appellations of Bhima are 
Bhima-sena, Bahu-salin, the large armed, Jarasandha-jit, < van 
quisher of Jarasandha. 


BIIlMA. Kame of the father of DamayantL A name of 
Kudra or of one of his personifications. See Rudra. 

BHIMA SANKARA, BHLMEtf \VARA. Same of one of 
the twelve great Lingas. See Linga. 

BHIMA-SENA. A name of Bhima. 

BHISHMA. < The terrible. Son of King antami by the 
holy river goddess Ganga, and hence called iSantanava, Gangeya, 
and Xadi-ja, the river-born. When King $antanu was very 
old he desired to marry a young and beautiful wife. His son 
antanava or Bhishma found a suitable damsel, but her parents 
objected to the marriage because Bhishma was heir to the throne, 
and if she bore sons they could not succeed. To gratify his 
father s desires, he made a vow to the girl s parents that he 
would never accept the throne, nor marry a wife, nor become 
the father of children. /Santanu then married the damsel, whose 
name was Satyavati, and she bore him two sons. At the death 
of his father, Bhishma placed the elder son upon the throne, but 
he was headstrong and was soon killed in battle. The other 
son, named Yichitra-viryya, then succeeded, and Bhishma acted 
as his protector and adviser. By force of arms Bhishma obtained 
two daughters of the king of Kasi and married them to Vichitra- 
viryya, and when that prince died young and childless, Bhishma 
acted as guardian of his widows. By Bhlshma s arrangement, 
Krishna Dwaipayana, who was born of Satyavati before her 
marriage, raised up seed to his half-brother. The two children 
were Pac?u and Dlm ta-rashfra, Bhishma brought them up and 
acted for them as regent of Hastina-pura. He also directed the 
training of their respective children, the Pa?ie?avas and Kauravas. 
On the rupture taking place between the rival families, Bhishma 
counselled moderation and peace. When the war began ho 
took the side of the Kauravas, the sons of Drmta-rash/ra, and 
he was made commander-in-chief of their army. He laid down 
some rules for mitigating the horrors of war, and he stipulated 
that he should not be called upon to fight against Arjuna, 
Goaded by the reproaches of Dur-yodhana, he attacked Arjuna 
on the tenth day of the battle. He was unfairly wounded by 
/Sikhandin, and was pierced with innumerable arrows from the 
hands of Arjuna, so that there was not a space of two fingers 
breadth left unwounded in his whole body, and when he fell 
from his chariot he was upheld from the ground by the 
arrows and lay as on a couch of darts. He was mortally 


wounded, but he had obtained the power of fixing the period 
of his death, so he survived fifty-eight days, and delivered 
several long didactic discourses. Bhishma exhibited through 
out his life a self-denial, devotion, and fidelity which remained 
unsullied to the last. He is also known by the appellation 
Tarpawechchhu, and as Tala-ketu, palm banner. See Maha- 

BHISHMAKA. i. An appellation of Siva. 2. King of 
Yidarbha, father of Eukmin and of Eukmini, the chief wife of 

BHOGAYATI. The voluptuous. The subterranean capital 
of the Nagas in the Naga-loka portion of Patala. Another name 
is Put-kari. 

BHOJA. A name borne by many kings. Most conspicuous 
among them was Bhoja or Bhoja-deva, king of Dhar, who is said 
to have been a great patron of literature, and probably died 
before 1082 A. D. 2. A prince of the Yadava race who reigned 
at Mnttikavatl on the Pamasa river in Malwa; he is called 
also Maha-bhoja. 3. A tribe living in the Yindhya mountains. 
4. A country ; the modern Bhojpur, Bhagalpur, &c. 

BHOJA-PKABA?s T DHA. A coUection of literary anecdotes 
relating to King Bhoja of Dhar, written by Ballala. The text 
has been lithographed by Pavie. 

BH72/GU. A Yedic sage. He is one of the Prajapatis and 
great Eishis, and is regarded as the founder of the race of the 
Bhngus or Bhargavas, in which was born Jamad-agni and Parasu 
Rama. Manu calls him son, and says that he confides to him 
his Institutes. According to the Maha-bharata he officiated at 
Daksha s celebrated sacrifice, and had his beard pulled out by 
Siva, The same authority also tells the following story : It is 
related of Bhn gu that he rescued the sage Agastya from the 
tyranny of King Nahusha, who had obtained superhuman 
power. Bhngu crept into Agastya s hair to avoid the potent 
glance of Xahusha, and when that tyrant attached Agastya to 
his chariot and kicked him on the head to make him move, 
Bhngu cursed Nahusha, and he was turned into a serpent. 
Bhngu, on Nahusha s supplication, limited the duration of his 

In the Padma Purfrna it is related that the Bishis, assembled 
at a sacrifice, disputed as to which deity was best entitled to the 


homage of a Brahman. Being unable to agree, they resolved to 
send Bhrigu to test the characters of the various gods, and he 
accordingly went. He could not obtain access to $iva because 
that deity was engaged with his wife ; " finding him, therefore, 
to consist of the property of darkness, Blirigu sentenced him to 
take the form of the Linga, and pronounced that he should have 
no offerings presented to him, nor receive the worship of the 
pious and respectable. His next visit was to Brahma, whom he 
beheld surrounded by sages, and so much inflated with his own 
importance as to treat Bhn gu with great inattention, betraying 
his being made up of foulness. The Muni therefore excluded 
him from the worship of the Brahmans. Repairing next to 
Vishnu, he found the deity asleep, and, indignant at his seeming 
sloth, Blmgu stamped upon his breast with his left foot and 
awoke him ; instead of being offended, Vishnu gently pressed 
the Brahman s foot and expressed himself honoured and made 
happy by its contact ; and Bhngu, highly pleased by his humi 
lity, and satisfied of his being impersonated goodness, proclaimed 
Vishnu as the only being to be worshipped by men or gods, in 
which decision the Munis, upon Bhrigu s report, concurred. "- 

BHTt/GUS. Roasters, consumers. "A class of mythical 
beings who belonged to the middle or aerial class of gods." 
Roth. They are connected with Agni, and are spoken of as 
producers and nourishers of fire, and as makers of chariots. 
They are associated with the Angirasas, the Atharvans, Bib- 
hus, &c. 

BHU, BHUMI. The earth. See Pnthivl. 

BHUR. See Vyalmti. 

BHURI-SRAVAS. A prince of the Balhlkas and an ally of 
the Kauravas, who was killed in the great battle of the Maha- 

BHUR-LOKA. See Loka. 

BHUTA. A ghost, imp, goblin. Malignant spirits which 
haunt cemeteries, lurk in trees, animate d^ad bodies, and delude 
and devour human beings. According to the Vishnu Purana 
they are " fierce beings and eaters of flesh," who were created by 
the Creator when he was incensed. In the Vayu Parana their 
mother is said to have been Krodha, anger. The Bhutas are 
attendants of Siva, and he is held to be their king. 


BHUTESA, BIIUTESWAEA. Lord of beings or of 
created things. A name applied to Vishwu, Brahma, and 
Knshrat; as lord of the Bhutas or goblins, 7 it is applied to 

BHUVANESWAEA. A ruined city in Orissa, sacred to 
the worship of Siva, and containing the remains of several 
temples. It was formerly called Ekanira-kanana. 

BHUYAE. See Vyahnti. 


BIBHATSU. Loathing. An appellation of Arjuna. 

BIXDUSAEA. The son and successor of Chandra-gupta. 

BEAHMA, BEAHMAN (neuter). The supreme soul of the 
universe, self-existent, absolute, and eternal, from which all things 
emanate, and to which all return. This divine essence is incor 
poreal, immaterial, invisible, unborn, uncreated, without begin 
ning and without end, illimitable, and inappreciable by the sense 
until the film of mortal blindness is removed. It is all-pervading 
and infinite in its manifestations, in all nature, animate and in 
animate, in the highest god and in the meanest creature. This 
supreme soul receives no worship, but it is the object of that 
abstract meditation which Hindu sages practise in order to 
obtain absorption into it. It is sometimes called Ivala-hansa. 

There is a passage in the Satapatha Brahma^a which repre 
sents Brahma (neut.) as the active creator. See Brahma, 

The Veda is sometimes called Brahma. 

BEAHMA (masculine). The first member of the Hindu 
triad; the supreme spirit manifested as the active creator of 
the universe. He sprang from the mundane egg deposited by 
the supreme first cause, and is the Prajapati, or lord and father 
of all creatures, and in the first place of the jRishis or Praja- 

When Brahma has created the world it remains unaltered for 
one of his days, a period of 2, 1 60,000,000 years. The world and 
all that is therein is then consumed by fire, but the sages, gods, 
and elements survive. When he awakes he again restores crea 
tion, and this process is repeated until his existence of a hundred 
years is brought to a close, a period which it requires fifteen 
figures to express. When this period is ended he himself expires, 
and he and all the gods and sages, and the whole universe are 
resolved into their constituent elements. His name is invoked 


in religious services, but Puslikara (liodie Pokhar), near Ajmlr, 
is the only place where he receives worship, though Professor 
Williams states that he has heard of homage being paid to him 
at Idar. 

Brahma is said to be of a red colour. He has four heads ; 
originally he had five, but one was burnt off by the fire of Diva s 
central eye because he had spoken disrespectfully. Hence he is 
called Chatur-anana or Chatur-mukha, four-faced, and Ash/a- 
karwa, eight-eared. He has four arms; and in his hands he 
holds his sceptre, or a spoon, or a string of beads, or his bow 
Parivlta, or a water jug, and the Veda. His consort is Saraswati, 
goddess of learning, also called Brahml. His vehicle is a swan 
or goose, from which he is called Hansa-vahana. His residence 
is called Bralima-vrinda. 

The name Brahma is not found in the Vedas and Brahmawas, 
in which the active creator is known as Hirawya-garbha, Praja- 
pati, &c. ; but there is a curious passage in the $atapatha Brah 
man a which says : " He (Brahma, neuter) created the gods. 
Having created the gods, he placed them in these worlds : in this 
world Agni, Vayu in the atmosphere, and Surya in the sky." 
Two points connected with Brahma are remarkable. As the 
father of men he performs the work of procreation by incestuous 
intercourse with his own daughter, variously named Vach or 
Saraswati (speech), Sandhya (twilight), $ata-rupa (the hundred- 
formed), &c. Secondly, that his powers as creator have been 
arrogated to the other gods Vishmi and Siva, while Brahma has 
been thrown into the shade. In the Aitareya Brahmawa it is said 
that Prajapati was in the form of a buck and his daughter was 
Eohit, a deer. According to the $atapatha Brahmana and Manu, 
the supreme soul, the self-existent lord, created the waters and 
deposited in them a seed, which seed became a golden egg, in 
which he himself was born as Brahma, the progenitor of all the 
worlds. As the waters (nara) were " the place of his movement, 
he (Brahma) was called Narayarca." Here the name Karayawa is 
referred distinctly to Brahma, but it afterwards became the name 
of Vishnu. The account of the Ramayarca is that " all was water 
only, in which the earth was formed. Thence arose Brahma, the 
self-existent, with the deities. He then, becoming a boar, raised 
up the earth and created the whole world with the saints, his 
sons. Brahma, eternal and perpetually undecaying, sprang from 

5 3 BRAHMA. 

the ether ; from him was descended Marichi ; the son of Marichi 
was Kasyapa. From Kasyapa sprang Yivaswat, and Manu is 
declared to have been Yivaswat s son." A later recension of 
this poem alters this passage so as to make Brahma a mere 
manifestation of Vishmi. Instead of "Brahma, the self-exis 
tent, with the deities," it substitutes for the last three words, 
"the imperishable Vishmi." The Vishmi Pura^a says that the 
" divine Brahma called Narayaraa created all beings," that Pra- 
jfipati "had formerly, at the commencement of the (previous) 
kalpas, taken the shape of a fish, a tortoise, &c., (so now), 
entering the body of a boar, the lord of creatures entered the 
water." But this "lord of creatures" is clearly shown to be 
Vishmi, and these three forms, the fish, the tortoise, and the boar, 
are now counted among the Avataras of Vishmi. (See Avatara.) 
This attribution of the form of a boar to Brahma (Prajapati) 
had been before made by the $atapatha Brahmawa, which also 
says, " Having assumed the form of a tortoise, Prajapati created 
offspring." The Linga Purawa is quite exceptional among the 
later works in ascribing the boar form to Brahma. The Maha- 
bharata represents Brahma as springing from the navel oi 
Vishmi or from a lotus which grew thereout ; hence he is called 
Nabhi-ja, navel-born; Kanja, the lotus; Sarojin, having a 
lotus; Abja-ja, Abja-yoni, and Kanja-ja, lotus-born. This 
is, of course, the view taken by the Vaishwavas. The same 
statement appears in the Eamayawa, although this poem gives 
Brahma a more prominent place than usual. It represents 
Brahma as informing Kama of his divinity, and of his calling 
him to heaven in "the glory of Vishmi." He bestowed boons 
on Rama while that hero was on earth, and he extended his 
favours also to Rava?ia and other Rakshasas who were descen 
dants of his son Pulastya. In the Purawas also he appears as a 
patron of the enemies of the gods, and it was by his favour that 
the Daitya King Bali obtained that almost universal dominion 
which required the incarnation of Vishnu as the dwarf to repress. 
He is further represented in the Ramaya?ia as the creator of the 
beautiful Ahalya, whom he gave as wife to the sage Gautama. 
Brahma, being thus inferior to Vishmi, is represented as giving 
homage and praise to Vishmi himself and to his form K?*/shwa, 
but the Vaishwava authorities make him superior to Rudra, 
who, they say, sprang from his forehead. The /Saiva authorities 


make Maha-deva or Rudra to bo the creator of Brahma, and 
represent Brahma" as worshipping the Linga and as acting as 
the charioteer of Rudra. 

Brahma was the father of Daksha, who is said to have sprung 
from his thumb, and he was present at the sacrifice of that 
patriarch, which was rudely disturbed by Rudra. Then he had 
to humbly submit and appease the offended god. The four 
Kumaras, the chief of whom was called Sanat-kumara or by the 
patronymic Yaidhatra, were later creations or sons of Brahma, 

Brahma is also called Vidhi, Yedhas, Druhiwa, and Srash/n, 
* creator ; Dhatn and Yidhatn, sustainer ; Pitamaha, the 
t father ; Lokesa, lord of the world ; Paramesh/a, 
supreme in heaven; Sanat, the ancient; Adi-kavi, the 

t poet ; and Dru-ghawa, the axe or mallet. 

BRAHMACHARI. The Brahman student. See Brahman. 

BRAHMADIKAS. The Prajapatis (q.v.). 

BRAHMA -GUPTA. An astronomer who composed the 
Brahma-gupta Siddhanta in A.D. 628. 


BRAHMAN". The first of the four castes; the sacerdotal 
class, the members of which may be, but are not necessarily, 
priests. A Brahman is the chief of all created beings ; his per 
son is inviolate ; he is entitled to all honour, and enjoys many 
rights and privileges. The #atapatha Brahmam declares that 
" there are two kinds of gods ; first the gods, then those who 
are Brahmans, and have learnt the Yeda and repeat it : they are 
uman gods." The chief duty of a Brahman is the study and 

,ching of the Yedas, and the performance of sacrifices and 
ther religious ceremonies ; but in modern times many Brahmans 

tirely neglect these duties, and they engage in most of the 

upations of secular life. Under the law of Manu, the life 
f a Brahman was divided into four asramas or stages : 

1. Brahmacharl. The student, whose duty was to pass his 
ys in humble and obedient attendance upon his spiritual 

preceptor in the study of the Yedas. 

2. Grihastha. The householder ; the married man living 
with his wife as head of a family engaged in the ordinary duties 
of a Brahman, reading and teaching the Yedas, sacrificing and 

sisting to sacrifice, bestowing alms and receiving alms. 

3. Vanaprastha. The anchorite, or " dweller in the woods," 


who, having discharged his duties as a man of the world, has 
retired into the forest to devote himself to self-denial in food 
and raiment, to mortifications of various kinds, to religious 
meditation, and to the strict performance of all ceremonial 

4. Sannyasl. The religious mendicant, who, freed from all 
forms and observances, wanders about and subsists on alms, 
practising or striving for that condition of mind which, heedless 
of the joys and pains, cares and troubles of the flesh, is intent 
only upon the deity and final absorption. 

The divisions and subdivisions of the Brahman caste are almost 
innumerable. It must suffice here to notice the great divisions 
of north and south, the Pancha GaucZa and the Pancha Dravit/a. 
The five divisions of Gauc?a, or Bengal, are the Brahmans of 
i. Kanyakubja, Kanauj 2. Saraswata, the north-west, about the 
Saraswati or Sarsuti river; 3. Gam/a; 4. Mithila, North Bihar; 
5. Utkala, Orissa. The Pancha Dravi^a are the Brahmans of 
i. Maha-rash/ra, the Mahratta country ; 2. Telinga, the Telugu 
country ; 3. Dravic?a, the Tamil country ; 4. Karna/a, the Cana- 
rese country ; 5. Gurjjara, Guzerat. 

BEAHMA^VA. Belonging to Brahmans. "Works composed 
by and for Brahmans. That part of the Veda which was intended 
for the use and guidance of Brahmans in the use of the hymns 
of the Mantra, and therefore of later production ; but the Brah- 
mawa, equally with the Mantra, is held to be $ruti or revealed 
word. Excepting its claim to revelation, it is a Hindu Talmud. 
The Brahmawa collectively is made up of the different Brahmawas, 
w r hich are ritualistic and liturgical writings in prose. They con 
tain the details of the Yedic ceremonies, with long explanations 
of their origin and meaning ; they give instructions as to the use 
of particular verses and metres ; and they abound with curious 
legends, divine and human, in illustration. In them are found 
" the oldest rituals we have, the oldest linguistic explanations, 
the oldest traditional narratives, and the oldest philosophical 
speculations." As literary productions they are not of a high 
order, but some "striking thoughts, bold expressions, sound 
reasoning, and curious traditions are found among the mass of 
pedantry and grandiloquence." Each of the Sanhitas or collec 
tion of hymns has its Brahmanas, and these generally maintain 
the essential character of the Yeda to which they belong. Thus 


the Briilimawas of the 7?ig arc specially devoted to tlie duties of 
the Hotr/, who recites the n chas or verses, those of the Yajur to 
the performance of the sacrifices by the Adhwaryu, and those of 
the Saman to the cliaunting by the Udgiitr/. The Rig has the 
Aitareya Brahmawa, which is perhaps the oldest, and may date 
as far back as the seventh century B.C. This is sometimes called 
Aswalayana. It has another called Kaushitaki or >Sankhayana, 
The Taittiriya Sanhita of the Yajur-veda has the Taittiriya 
Brahmawa, and the Yajasaneyi Sanhita has the /Satapatha Brah- 
ma?za, one of the most important of all the Brahmawas. The 
Sama-veda has eight Brahmawas, of which the best known are 
the Praueftia or Pancha-vinsa, the Tandya, and the SliarZ-vinsa. 
The Atharva has only one, the Gopatha Brahmawa. In their 
fullest extent the Brahmawas embrace also the treatises called 
Arawyakas and TJpanishads. 

BRAHMANASPATI. A Yedic equivalent of the name Bri- 

BEAHMA NDA PURAA T A. " That which has declared, in 
12,200 verses, the magnificence of the egg of Brahma, and in 
which an account of the future kalpas is contained, is called 
the Biahxnanda Purawa, and was revealed by Brahma." This 
Purawa, like the Skanda, is "no longer procurable in a collective 
body," but is represented by a variety of "Kh&ndaa and Mahii- 
tmyas professing to be derived from it. The Adhyatma Ramu- 
yaTza, a very popular work, is considered to be a part of this 

BRAHMAN! The female form, or the daughter of Brahma, 
also called /Sata-rupa (q.v.). 

BRAHMA-PURA. The city of Brahma. The heaven of 
Brahma, on the summit of Mount Meru, and enclosed by the 
river Ganga, 

BRAHMA PURAJVA. In all the lists of the Purawas the 
Brahma stands first, for which reason it is sometimes entitled 
the Adi or " First " Purawa. It was repeated by Brahma to 
Marlchi, and is said to contain 10,000 stanzas, but the actual 
number is between 7000 and Sooo. It is also called the Saura 
Purawa, because " it is, in great part, appropriated to the worship 
of Surra, the sun." " The early chapters give a description of 
the creation, an account of the Manwantaras, and the history 
of the Solar and Lunar dynasties to the time of Krishna in a 


summary manner, and in words which are common to it and 
several other Purawas. A brief description of the universe 
succeeds ; and then come a number of chapters relating to the 
holiness of Orissa, with its temples and sacred groves, dedicated 
to the sun, to iva, and Jagan-natha, the latter especially. These 
chapters are characteristic of this Purarai, and show its main 
object to be the promotion of the worship of Krishna as Jagan- 
natha. To these particulars succeeds a life of Krishna, which is 
word for word the same as that of the Vishmi Purawa ; and the 
compilation terminates with a particular detail of the mode in 
which Yoga or contemplative devotion, the object of which is 
still Vish/m, is to be performed. There is little in this which 
corresponds with the definition of a Pancha-lakshawa Pura^a, and 
the mention of the temples of Orissa, the date of the original 
construction of which is recorded, shows that it could not have 
been compiled earlier than the thirteenth or fourteenth century." 
This Purawa has " a supplementary or concluding section called 
the Brahmottara Purawa, which contains about 3000 stanzas. 
This bears still more entirely the character of a Mahatmya or 
local legend, being intended to celebrate the sanctity of the 
Balaja river, conjectured to be the same as the Banas in Marwar. 
There is no clue to its date, but it is clearly modern, grafting 
personages and fictions of its own invention on a few hints from 
older authorities." Wilson. 

BKAHMAKSHI-DEtfA. " Kurukshetra, the Matsyas, the 
Panchalas, and the Surasenas. This land, which comes to 
Brahma vartta, is the land of Brahmarshis." Manu. 

BKAHMAESHIS. JUshis of the Brahman caste, who were 
the founders of the gotras of Brahmans, and dwell in the sphere 
of Brahma. See liishi. 

BEAHMA-SAVAE/VI The tenth Manu. See Manu. 

BRAHMA SUTEAS. Aphorisms on the Vedanta philosophy 
by Badarayawa or Vyasa. They are also called Brahma Mimansa 
Sutras. They are in course of translation by the Eev. K M. 
Banerjea in the BiUiotlieca Indica. 

is related by Savarwi to Narada, and contains the account of the 
greatness of Krishna, with the occurrences of the Eathantara- 
kalpa, where also the story of Brahma-varaha is repeatedly told, 
is called the Brahma Vaivarta Purawa, and contains 18,000 


stanzas." The copies known rather exceed this number of 
stanzas, but the contents do not answer to this description. 
" The character of the work is so decidedly sectarial, and the 
sect to which it belongs so distinctly marked that of the wor 
shippers of the juvenile Krishna, and Radha, a form of belief of 
known modem origin " that it must be a production of a com 
paratively late date. A specimen of the text and translation has 
been published by Stenzler. 

BRAHMA YAKTTA. "Between the two divine rivers, 
SaraswatI and Drishadwati, lies the tract of land which the 
sages have named Brahmavartta, because it was frequented by 
the gods." Manu, ii. 17. 

BRAHMA- VEDA. A name given to the Atharvan or fourth 
Veda, the Veda of prayers and charms. 

BRAHMA-YUGA. The age of Brahmans. The first or 
Kr/ta-yuga. See Yuga. 

BRAHMOTTARA PURAA r A. See Brahma Pmawa. 

Br/had Ara^yaka Upanishad belongs to the $atapatha Brah- 
mafta, and is ascribed to the sage Yajnawalkya. It has been 
translated by Dr. Roer, and published in the BiUiotheca Indica. 
See Ara??yaka and Yajnawalkya. 

B72/HAD-DEVATA. An ancient work in slokas by the 
sage /Saunaka, which enumerates and describes the deity or 
deities to which each hymn and verse of the J?ig-veda is 
addressed. It frequently recites legends in support of its attri 

B7/HAD-RATHA. The tenth and last king of the Maurya 
dynasty, founded by Chandragupta, 

B^/HAN NAEADIYA PURA7VA. See ffarada Puiawa. 

B^/HASPATI In the J2ig-veda the names Brthaspati 
and Brahmanaspati alternate, and are equivalent to each other. 
They are names " of a deity in whom the action of the wor 
shipper upon the gods is personified. He is the suppliant, the 
sacrificer, the priest, who intercedes with gods on behalf of men 
and protects mankind against the wicked. Hence he appears as 
the prototype of the priests and priestly order; and is also 
designated as the Purohita (family priest) of the divine com 
munity. He is called in one place the father of the gods, and 
a widely extended creative power is ascribed to him. He is 


also designated as the shining and the gold-coloured/ and as 
having the thunder for his voice. " 

In later times he is a 7^ shi. He is also regent of the planet 
Jupiter, and the name is commonly used for the planet itself. 
In this character his car is called Mti-ghosha and is drawn by 
eight pale horses. He was son of the fiishi Angiras, and he bears 
the patronymic Angirasa. As preceptor of the gods he is called 
Animishacharya, Chakshas, Ijya, and Indrejya. His wife, Tara, 
was carried off by.Soma, the moon, and this gave rise to a war 
called the Taraka-maya. Soma was aided by Usanas, Kudra, and 
all the Daityas and Danavas, while Indra and the gods took the 
part of Bnhaspati. "Earth, shaken to her centre," appealed to 
Brahma, who interposed and restored Tara to her husband. She 
was delivered of a son which Bnhaspati and Soma both claimed, 
but Tara, at the command of Brahma to tell the truth, declared 
Soma to be the father, and the child was named Budha. There 
is an extraordinary story in the Matsya and Bhagavata Purawas 
of the jfrishis having milked the earth through Brihaspati. (See 
Vishnu Purawa, i. pp. 188, 190.) Bnhaspati was father of 
Bharadwaja by Mamata, wife of Utathya. (See Bharadwaja.) 
An ancient code of law bears the name of Bnhaspati, and he is 
also represented as being the Yyasa of the " fourth, Dwapara 
age." There was a Rishi of the name in the second Manwan- 
tara, and one who was founder of an heretical sect. Other epi 
thets of Bnhaspati are Jiva, the living, Dldivis, the bright, 
Dhisharai, the intelligent, and, for his eloquence, Gish-pati, 
lord of speech, 

B^/HAT-KATHA. A large coUection of tales, the original 
of the Katha-sarit-sagara (q.v.). 

B^/HAT-SANHITA. A celebrated work on astronomy by 
Varaha Mihira. It has been printed by Kern in the Bibliotlieca 
Indica, who has also published a translation in Jour. E. A. S. 
for 1870 and following years. 

BUDDHA. Gotama Buddha, the founder of Buddhism. 
Vishnu s ninth incarnation. See Avatara. 

BUDHA. Wise, intelligent. The planet Mercury, son of 
Soma, the moon, by Bohim, or by Tara, wife of BHhaspati. (See 
Bnhaspati) He married Ha, daughter of the Manu Vaivaswata, 
and by her had a son, Pururavas. Budha was author of a hymn 
in the TZig-vecla. (See Ha.) From his parents he is called 


Saumya and Rauliineya. He is also called Praharshawa, Rod- 
liana, Tunga, and /Syamanga, black-bodied. The intrigue of 
Soma with Tara was the cause of a great quarrel, in which the 
gods and the Asuras fought against each other. Brahma com 
pelled Soma to give up Tara, and when she returned to her 
husband she was pregnant. A son was born, who was so beau 
tiful that Bn haspati and Soma both claimed him. Tara for a 
long time refused to tell his paternity, and so excited the wrath 
and nearly incurred the curse of her son. At length, upon the 
command of Brahma, she declared Soma to be the father, and 
he gave the boy the name of Budlia. This name is distinct 
from Buddha, 

CHAITANYA-CHAKDRODAYA. The rise of the moon 
of Chaitanya. A drama in ten acts by Kavi-kaim-pura. It is 
published in the Bibliotheca Indica. Chaitanya was a modern" 
Yaislmava reformer, accounted an incarnation of Krishna. 

CHAITRA-RATHA. The grove or forest of Kuvera on 
Mundara, one of the spurs of Meru; it is so called from its being 
cultivated by the gandharva Chitra-ratha. 

CHAKORA. A kind of partridge. A fabulous bird, supposed 
to live upon the beams of the moon. 

CHAKRA-VARTI. A universal emperor, described by the 
Vishwu Purawa as one who is born with the mark of Vishmi s 
discus visible in his hand; but, Wilson observes, "the gram 
matical etymology is, He who abides in or rules over an exten 
sive territory called a Chakra. " 

CHAKSHUSHA. The sixth Mann. See Manu. 

CHAMPA. Son of Pnthu-laksha, a descendant of Yayati, 
through his fourth son, Ann, and founder of the city of 

PA-PURL The capital city of the country of Anga. Traces of 
it still remain in the neighbourhood of Bhagalpur. It was also 
called Malim, from its being surrounded with champaka trees 
as with a garland (mala). It is said to have derived its name 
from Champa, its founder, but the abundant champaka trees 
may assert a claim to its designation. 

CHAMILYDA. An emanation of the goddess Durga, sent 
forth from her forehead to encounter the demons ChamJa and 
MuwJa. She is thus described in the Miirkarat/cya Purawa : 



" From the forehead of Ambika (Durga), contracted with wrath- 
ful frowns, sprang swiftly forth a goddess of black and formid 
able aspect, armed with a scimitar and noose, bearing a ponde 
rous mace, decorated with a garland of dead corses, robed in the 
hide of an elephant, dry and withered and hideous, with yawning 
mouth, and lolling tongue, and bloodshot eyes, and filling the 
regions with her shouts. " When she had killed the two demons, 
she bore their heads to Durga, who told her that she should 
henceforth be known, by a contraction of their names, as Cha- 

CIIAJVAKYA. A celebrated Brahman, who took a leading 
part in the destruction of the Nandas, and in the elevation of 
Chandra-gupta to their throne. He was a great master of finesse 
and artifice, and has been called the Machiavelli of India. A 
work upon morals and polity called Chsmakya Sutra is ascribed 
to him. He is the chief character in the drama called Mudrii- 
rakshasa, and is known also by the names Vishmi-gupta and 
Kau/ilya. His maxims have been translated by Weber. 

CHAJTOA, CHAJTOL The goddess Durga, especially in the 
form she assumed for the destruction of the Asura called 

same as the ChaTzeZlpa/ha. 

CHAJVDIPA7 1 , CRANDIPATKA. A poem of 700 verses, 
forming an episode of the Markam?eya Purarca. It cele 
brates Durga s victories over the Asuras, and is read daily in 
the temples of that goddess. The work is also called Devi- 
mahatmya. It has been translated by Poley and by Burnouf. 

CHANDKA. The moon, either as a planet or a deity. See 

CHANDRA-GUPTA. This name was identified by Sir W. 
Jones with the Sandracottus or Sandrocyptus mentioned by 
Arrian and the other classical historians of Alexander s cam 
paign ; and somewhat later on as having entered into a treaty 
with Seleucus Nicator through the ambassador Megasthenes. 
The identification has been contested, but the chief writers on 
Indian antiquities have admitted it as an established fact, and 
have added confirmatory evidence from various sources, so that 
the identity admits of no reasonable doubt. This identifica 
tion is of the utmost importance to Indian chronology; it is the 


only link by which Indian history is connected with that of 
Greece, and everything in Indian chronology depends upon the 
date of Chandra-gupta as ascertained from that assigned to San- 
dracottus by the classical writers. His date, as thus discovered, 
shows that he began to reign in 315 B.C., and as he reigned 
twenty-four years, his reign ended in 291 B.C. Chandra-gupta is 
a prominent name in both Brahmanical and Buddhist writings, 
and his accession to the throne is the subject of the drama 

"When Alexander was in India, he learned that a king named 
Xandrames reigned over the Prasii (Prachyas) at the city of 
Palibothra, situated at the confluence of the Ganges and another 
river called Erranaboas (the Sone). At this time, Sandracottus 
was young, but he waged war against Alexander s captains, and 
he raised bands of robbers, with whose help he succeeded in 
establishing freedom in India. 

Hindu and Buddhist writers are entirely silent as to Alex 
ander s appearance in India, but they show that Chandra-gupta 
overthrew the dynasty of the Nandas, which reigned over 
Magadha, and "established freedom in India by the help of 
bands of robbers." He established himself at Pa/ali-putra, 
the capital of the Xandas, which is identical with the Greek 
Palibothra, and this has been shown to be the modern Patna, 
That town does not now stand at the confluence of two rivers, 
but the rivers in the alluvial plains of Bengal frequently 
change their courses, and a change in the channel of the Sone 
has been established by direct geographical evidence. There is 
a difficulty about Xandrames. This is no doubt the Sanskrit 
Chandramas, which some consider to be only a shorter form of 
the name Chandra-gupta, while others point out that the Greek 
references indicate that Xandrames was the predecessor of San 
dracottus, rather than Sandracottus himself. 

The dynasty of the Nandas that reigned over Magadha are 
frequently spoken of as the " nine Pandas," meaning apparently 
nine descents ; but according to some authorities the last Nandu, 
named Maha-padrna, and his eight sons, are intended. Maha- 
padma Nanda was the son of a >Sudra, and so by law he was a 
/Sudra himself. He was powerful and ambitious, cruel and avari 
cious. His people were disaffected; but his fall is represen 
ted as having been brought about by the Brahman Clutwakva. 


Chandra-gupta was then raised to the throne and founded the 
Mauryan dynasty, the third king of which was the great Asoka, 
grandson of Chandra-gupta. The Brahmans and Buddhists 
are widely at variance as to the origin of the Maurya family. 
The drama Mudra-rakshasa represents Chandra-gupta as being 
related to Maha-padma Nanda, and the commentator on the 
Vishnu Pura/ia says that he was a son of N"anda by a woman of 
low caste named Mura, wherefore he and his descendants were 
called Mauryas. This looks very like an etymological invention, 
and is inconsistent with the representation that the low caste of 
Nanda was one cause of his deposition ; for were it true, the 
low-caste king w r ould have been supplanted by one of still lower 
degree. On the other hand, the Buddhists contend that the 
Mauryas belonged to the same family as Buddha, who was of the 
royal family of the $akyas. The question of the identification 
of Sandracottus and Chandra-gupta has been discussed at length 
by Wilson in the preface to the Mudra-rakshasa in his Hindu 
Theatre, and in the Yishmi Purawa, voL iv. p. 185 ; also by. 
Max Mu ller in his History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature. 

CHANDEA-HASA. A prince of the south, who lost his 
parents soon after his birth, and fell into a state of destitution, 
but after going through a variety of adventures came to the 
throne. See Wheeler, vol. i. p. 522. 

CHANDEA-KANTA. < The moon-stone. A gem or stone 
supposed to be formed by the congelation of the rays of the 
moon ; a crystal is perhaps meant. It is supposed to exercise a 
cooling influence. So in the Megha-duta 

" The moon s white rays the smiling night illume, 
And on the moon-gem concentrated fall, 
That hangs in woven nets in every hall ; 
Whence cooling dews upon the fair descend, 
And life renewed to languid nature lend." 

It is also called Mam-chaka. 

CHANDEA-KETU. i. A son of Lakshmawa. 2. A king 
of the city of Chakora. 3. A country near the Himalayas. 

CHANDEA-YANA. The Lunar race. The lineage or 
race which claims descent from the moon. It is divided into 
two great branches, the Yadavas and Pauravas, respectively 
descended from Yadu and Puru. Knshfta belonged, to the line 
of Yadu, and Dushyanta with the Kuru and Pandu princes to 



the line of Puru. The following is a list of the Lunar race as 
given in the Yishwu Purawa, but the authorities vary : 


Atri, the Jv^ shi. 
Soma, the Moon. 
Budha, Mercury. 
Ayu, Ayus. 

Nahusha (and 

3 others). 

Yayati (and 5 





Kings of Kdsi. 

Yadu, eldest. 

Puru, youngest (and 3 

Kshatravn ddha. 

Kroshlu (and 3 others) 






Pr/thusravas (one of a 



million sons). 










Riteyvi (and 9 others). 


Ruchaka. ) 






/S atrujit. 


Bharadwaja J 

jfo tadhwaja 


or } adopted. 


Vitatha ) 



Brthatkshatra (and 



many others). 




Sannati ^ 



Hfistin (of Hastinapur). 
Ajamldha (and 2 

or > 


Ji^ ksha (and others). 
Sam varan a. 

Santati. ) 





Jahnu (and many 















THE LUNAR ~RACEContiiiud. 

Yddavas. Pauravas. Kings of Kaal. 

Ansu. Ayutayus. Vainahotra. 

Satwata. Akrodhana. Bharga. 

Andhaka (and 6 others ). Devatithi. ,_ . 

Bhajamana. ^/ksha. BMrga- bhumi. 

Viduratha. Dilipa. 

Sura. Pratlpa. 

/S amin. 5antanu (and 2 others). 

Pratikshattra. ~Pandu* 

Swayambhoja. Dhrttarasli^ra. 

Hrt dika. Yudhi-sh^hira. 

Devami^husha. Parikshit. 

^Qra. Janamejaya. 

Vasudeva (and 9 others). /S atanlka. 
Krishna, and Bala- Aswamedhadatta. 
rama. Adhisimakr/shwa. 

(Extinct.} Ushwa. 














Bn hadratha. 






CHA^TUEA. A wrestler in the service of Kansa, who was 
killed by Krishna. 

CHAKAKA. A writer on medicine who lived in Vedic 
times. According to his own statement, he received the 
materials of his work from Agnivesa, to whom they were de 
livered by Atreya, A legend represents him as an incarnation 
of the serpent esha. The work was translated into Arabic 
before the end of the eighth century. The text has been 
printed in India. 

* See Table under MaUa-Llmrata. 


CTIARAKA. One of the chief schools of the Yajur-veda. 

CHARAKA-BRAHMA^A. A Biahmawa of the Black 

CHARA7VA. A Vedic school or society. It is explained by 
a commentator as " a number of men who are pledged to the 
reading of a certain /Sakha of the Yeda, and who have in this 
manner become one body." 

CHARAJVAS. Panegyrists. The panegyrists of the gods. 

CHARMAJVYATI. The river Chambal. 

GUPTA. Sons of Knshwa and Rukmim. 

CHARU-DATTA. The BrShman hero of the drama Mn ch- 

CHARU HASLNT. Sweet smiler. This epithet is used for 
Rukmim and for Lakshmawa, and perhaps for other wives of 

CHARU-MATI. Daughter of Krishna and Rukmim. 

CHARYAKA. i. A Rakshasa, and friend of Dur-yodhana, 
who disguised himself as a Brahman and reproached Yudhi- 
sh/hira for his crimes, when he entered Hastina-pura in triumph 
after the great battle. The Brahmans discovered the imposture 
and reduced Charvaka to ashes with the fire of their eyes. 2. 
A sceptical philosopher who advocated materialistic doctrines. 
He probably lived before the composition of the Ramayarca, and 
is perhaps identical with the Charvaka of the Maha-bharata. 
His followers are called by his name. 

CHATUR-YARNA. The four castes. See Yarwa. 

CHEDI. Name of a people and of their country, the modern 
Chandail and Boglekhand. The capital was $ukti-mati, and 
among the kings of this country were Dama-ghosha and $isu-pala. 

CHEKITANA. A son of Dhnsh/a-ketu, Raja of the Kekayas, 
and an ally of the Pa?iC?avas. 

CHERA. A kingdom in the south of the peninsula, which 
was absorbed by its rival the Chola kingdom. 

CHHANDAS, CHHANDO. Metre. One of the YedSngas. 
The oldest known work on the subject is " the Chhanda/i-siistra, 
ascribed to Pingala, which may be as old as the second century 
B.C." It is published in the BiUiotlieca Indica. The subject is 
one to which great attention has been given by the Hindus from 
the earliest times. 


CHHANDOGA. A priest or chanter of the Siima-vecla. 

CHHANDOGYA. Name of a Upanishad of the Sama- 
veda. (See Upanishad.) It has been printed by Dr. Roer, and 
it has been translated into English by Rajendra Lai, and pub 
lished in the BiUiotheca Indica. There is also another printed 
edition of the text. The Chhandogya Upanishad consists of 
eight out of ten chapters of the Chhandogya Brahma^a ; the first 
two chapters are yet wanting. This work is particularly dis 
tinguished by its rich store of legends regarding the gradual 
development of Brahmanical theology. 

CHHAYA. Shade. A handmaid of the sun. Sanjna, wife 
of the sun, being unable to bear the fervour of her lord, put her 
handmaid Chhaya in her place. The sun, believing Chhaya, to 
be his wife, had three children by her : $ani, the planet Saturn ; 
the Manu Savami ; and a daughter, the Tapati river. As mother 
of Saturn, Chhaya is known as ani-prasu. The partiality 
which she showed for these children provoked Yama, the son of 
Sanjna, and he lifted his foot to kick her. She cursed him to 
have his leg affected with sores and worms. This made it clear 
that she was not Sanjna and mother of Yama, so the sun went 
in search of Sanjna and brought her back. According to one 
Purima, Chhaya was a daughter of Viswakarma, and sister of 
Sanjna, the wife of the sun. 

CHINTA-MA^I. The wish-gem. A jewel which is sup 
posed to have the power of granting all desires. The philo 
sopher s stone. It is said to have belonged to Brahma, who is 
himself called by this name. It is also called Divya-ratna. 

CHIRA-JIVIN. Long-lived. Gods or deified mortals, who 
live for long periods. 

CHITRA-GUPTA. A scribe in the abodes of the dead, 
who records the virtues and vices of men. The recorder of 

CHITRA-KUrA. Bright-peak. The seat of Valmiki s her 
mitage, in which Kama and Sita both found refuge at diffe 
rent times. It is the modern Chitrakote, on the river Pisuni, 
about fifty miles south-east of Banda in Bundelkhand. It is a 
very holy place, and abounds with temples and shrines, to which 
thousands annually resort. " The whole neighbourhood is Rama s 
country. Every headland has some legend, every cavern is con 
ncctcd with his name." Oust in " Calcutta Review" 


CHITRA-LEKHA, A picture. Name of a nymph who 
was skilled in painting and in the magic art. She was the 
friend and confidante of Usha. See Usha. 

CHITRANGADA. The elder son of King antanu, and 
brother of Bhishma. He was arrogant and proud, and was 
killed in early life in a conflict with a Gandharva of the same 

CHITRANGADA. Daughter of King Chritra-vaha?za of 
Mam-pura, wife of Arjuna and mother of Babhru-vahana. 

CHITRA-RATHA. Having a fine car. The king of the 
Gandharvas. There are many others known by this name. 

CHITRA-SENA, i. One of the hundred sons of Dhn ta- 
rlislifra, 2. A chief of the Yakshas. 

CHITRA-YAJNA. A modern drama in five acts upon the 
legend of Daksha. It is the work of a Para/it named Yaidya- 
natha Yachaspati. 

CIIOLA. A country and kingdom of the south of India 
about Tanjore. The country was called Chola-mawrfala, whence 
comes the name CoromandeL 

CHYAYANA, CHYAVANA. A sage, son of the Jtishi 
Bh?-?gu, and author of some hymns. 

In the 7?%-veda it is said that when " Chyavana had grown 
old and had been forsaken, the Aswins divested him of his 
decrepit body, prolonged his life, and restored him to youth, 
making him acceptable to his wife, and the husband of 
maidens." This story is thus amplified in the /Satapatha Brah- 
marza : The sage Chyavana assumed a shrivelled form and 
lay as if abandoned. The sons of /Saryata, a descendant of 
Manu, found this body, and pelted it with clods. Chyavana 
was greatly incensed, and to appease him Saryata yoked his 
chariot, and taking with him his daughter Su-kanya, pre 
sented her to Chyavana. The Aswins endeavoured to seduce 
her, but she remained faithful to her shrivelled husband, and 
under his direction she taunted them with being incomplete 
and imperfect, and consented to tell them in what respect they 
were deficient, if they would make her husband young again. 
They directed that he should bathe in a certain pond, and 
having clone so, he came forth with the age that he desired. She 
then informed them that they were imperfect because they 
were excluded from a sacrifice the other gods were performing. 


They departed and succeeded in getting admitted to join the 
other gods. 

According to the Maha-bharata, Chyavana besought Indra to 
allow the Aswins to partake of the libations of soma. Indra 
replied that the other gods might do as they pleased, but he 
would not consent. Chyavana then commenced a sacrifice to 
the Aswins ; the other gods were subdued, but Indra, in a rage, 
rushed with a mountain in one hand and his thunderbolt in 
another to crush Chyavana. The sage having sprinkled him 
with water and stopped him, " created a fearful open-mouthed 
monster called Mada, having teeth and grinders of portentous 
length, and jaws one of which enclosed the earth, the other the 
sky; and the gods, including Indra, are said to have been at the 
root of his tongue like fishes in the mouth of a sea monster." 
In this predicament " Indra granted the demand of Chyavana, 
who was thus the cause of the Aswins becoming drinkers of the 

In another part of the Maha-bharata he is represented as 
exacting many menial offices from King Kusika and his wife, 
but he afterwards rewarded them by " creating a magical golden 
palace," and predicted the birth of " a grandson of great beauty 
and heroism (Parasu-rama)." 

The Maha-bharata, interpreting his name as signifying the 
fallen, accounts for it by a legend which represents his mother, 
Puloma, wife of Bhr/gu, as having been carried off by the demon 
Puloman. She was pregnant, and in her fright the child fell 
from her womb. The demon was softened, and let the mother 
depart with her infant. 

The version of the story as told in the Maha-bharata and 
Purawas is that Chyavana was so absorbed in penance on the 
banks of the Narmada that white ants constructed their nests 
round his body and left only his eyes visible. Su-kanya, daughter 
of King aryata, seeing two bright eyes in what seemed to be 
an anthill, poked them with a stick. The sage visited the 
offence on $aryata, and was appeased only by the promise of the 
king to give him Su-kanya in marriage. Subsequently the 
Aswins, coming to his hermitage, compassionated her union with 
so old and ugly a husband as Chyavana, and tried to induce her 
to take one of them in his place. When their persuasions failed, 
they told her they were the physicians of the gods, and would 


restore her husband to youth, and beauty, when she could make 
her choice "between him and one of them. Accordingly the three 
bathed in a pond and came forth of like celestial beauty. Each 
one asked her to be his bride, and she recognised and chose her 
own husband. Chyavana, in gratitude, compelled Indra to admit 
the Aswins to a participation of the soma ceremonial. Indra at 
first objected, because the Aswins wandered about among men 
as physicians and changed their forms at will. Eut Chyavana 
was not to be refused ; he stayed the arm of Indra as he was 
about to launch a thunderbolt, and he created a terrific demon 
who was on the point of devouring the king of the gods when 
he submitted. 

According to the Maha-bharata, Chyavana was husband of 
Arushi or Su-kanya and father of Aurva. He is also considered 
to be the father of Harita. 

The name is Chyavana in the 7?/g-veda, but Chyavana in 
the Brahrnarza and later writings. 

DADHYANCH, DADHICHA. (Dadhicha is a later form.) 
A Vedic 72ishi, son of Atharvan, whose name frequently occurs. 
The legend about him, as it appears in the J&g-veda, is that 
Indra taught him certain sciences, but threatened to cut off his 
head if he taught them to any one else. The Aswins prevailed 
upon Dadhyanch to communicate his knowledge to them, and, 
to preserve him from the wrath of Indra, they took off his own 
head and replaced it with that of a horse. When Indra struck 
off the sage s equine head the Aswins restored his own to him. 
A verse of the 7?ig-veda says, " Indra, with the bones of Dadhy 
anch, slew ninety times nine Vritras ;" and the story told by the 
scholiast in explanation is, that while Dadhyanch was living on 
earth the Asuras were controlled and tranquillised by his appear 
ance; but when he had gone to heaven, they overspread the 
whole earth. Indra inquired for Dadhyanch, or any relic of 
him. He was told of the horse s head, and when this was 
found in a lake near Kuru-kshetra, Indra used the bones as 
weapons, and with them slew the Asuras, or, as the words of 
the Vedic verse are explained, he " foiled the nine times ninety 
stratagems of the Asuras or Vr/tras." The story as afterwards 
told in the Maha-bhilrata and Puriiwas is that the sage devoted 
himself to death that Indra and the gods might be armed witli 
his bones as more effective weapons than thunderbolts for the 


destruction of Vntra and the Asuras. According to one account 
he was instrumental in bring about the destruction of "Daksha s 
sacrifice." See Daksha. 

DAITYAS. Titans. Descendants from Diti by Kasyapa. 
They are a race of demons and giants, who warred against the 
gods and interfered with sacrifices. They were in turn victorious 
and vanquished. They and the Danavas are generally associated, 
and are hardly distinguishable. As enemies of sacrifices they 
are called Kratu-dwishas. 

jDAKINl. A kind of female imp or fiend attendant upon 
Kali and feeding on human flesh. The Dakinis are also called 
Asra-pas, blood drinkers. 

DAKSHA. Able, competent, intelligent. This name 
generally carries with it the idea of a creative power. Daksha 
is a son of Brahma; he is one of the Prajapatis, and is some 
times regarded as their chief. There is a great deal of doubt 
and confusion about him, which of old the sage Parasara could 
only account for by saying that "in every age Daksha and 
the rest are born and are again destroyed." In the .T^g-veda it 
is said that " Daksha sprang from Aditi, and Aditi from Dak 
sha." Upon this marvellous mutual generation Yaska in the 
Nirukta remarks, " How can this be possible 1 They may have 
had the same origin ; or, according to the nature of the gods, 
they may have been born from each other, and have derived 
their substance from each other." Roth s view is that Aditi is 
eternity, and that Daksha (spiritual power) is the male energy 
which generates the gods in eternity. In the $atapatha Brah- 
mawa, Daksha is identified with Prajapati, the creator. As son 
of Aditi, he is one of the Adityas, and he is also reckoned 
among the Viswadevas. 

According to the Maha-bharata, Daksha sprang from the right 
thumb of Brahma, and his wife from that deity s left thumb. 
The Purawas adopt this view of his origin, but state that he 
married Prasuti, daughter of Priya-vrata, and grand-daughter of 
Manu. By her he had, according to various statements, twenty- 
four, fifty, or sixty daughters. The Ramayawa and Maha- 
bharata agree in the larger number ; and according to Manu and 
the Maha-bharata he gave ten of his daughters to Dharma and 
thirteen to Kasyapa, who became the mothers of gods and de 
mons, men, birds, serpents, and all living things. Twenty-seven 

DAKS HA. 77 

were given in marriage to Soma, the moon, and these became 
the twenty-seven Nakshatras or lunar mansions. One of the 
daughters, named Sati, married /Siva, and killed herself in con 
sequence of a quarrel between her husband and father. The 
Kasi Khawc?a represents that she became a sati and burnt 

Another legend of the Maha-bharata and Purawas represents 
Daksha as being born a second time, in another Manwantara, 
as son of the Prachetasas and Marisha, and that he had 
seven sons, " the allegorical persons Krodha, Tamas, Dama, 
Vikn ta, Angiras, Kardama, and Aswa." This second birth is 
said to have happened through his having been cursed to it by 
his son-in-law $iva. Daksha was in a certain way, by his 
mother Marisha, an emanation of Soma, the moon ; and as 
twenty-seven of his daughters were married to that luminary, 
Daksha is sometimes referred to as being both the father and 
the offspring of the moon, thus reiterating the duality of his 

In the Hari-vansa Daksha appears in another variety of his 
character. According to this authority, Vislimi himself became 
Daksha, and formed numerous creatures, or, in other words, he 
became the creator. Daksha, the first of males, by virtue of 
yoga, himself took the form of a beautiful woman, by whom 
he had many fair daughters, whom he disposed of in marriage 
in the manner related by Manu and above stated. 

An important event in the life of Daksha, and very fre 
quently referred to, is " Daksha s sacrifice," which was violently 
interrupted and broken up by iva, The germ of this story 
is found in the Taittiriya Sanhita, where it is related that the 
gods, having excluded Eudra from a sacrifice, he pierced the 
sacrifice with an arrow, and that Pushan, attempting to eat 
a portion of the oblation, broke his teeth. The story is found 
both in the Ramayafta and Maha-bharata. According to the 
latter, Daksha was engaged in sacrifice, when /Siva in a rage, 
and shouting loudly, pierced the offering with an arrow. The 
gods and Asuras were alarmed and the whole universe quaked. 
The 72/shis endeavoured to appease the angry god, but in vain. 
" He ran up to the gods, and in his rage knocked out the eyes 
of Bhaga with a blow, and, incensed, assaulted Pushan witli 
Lis foot and knocked out his / teeth as he was eating the offer- 

7 3 DAKS HA. 

ing." The gods and fiishis humbly propitiated him, and when 
he was appeased " they apportioned to him a distinguished share 
in the sacrifice, and through fear resorted to him as their refuge. " 
In another part of the same work the story is again told with 
considerable variation. Daksha instituted a sacrifice and appor 
tioned no share to Eudra (Siva). Instigated by the sage Dad- 
hlchi, the god hurled his blazing trident, which destroyed the 
sacrifice of Daksha and fell with great violence on the breast 
of Narayawa (Vishmi). It was hurled back with violence to 
its owner, and a furious battle ensued between the two gods, 
which was not intermitted till Brahma prevailed upon Eudra 
to propitiate Naraya^a. That god was gratified, and said to 
Eudra, " He who knows thee knows me ; he who loves thee 
loves me." 

The story is reproduced in the Pura^as with many embellish 
ments. Daksha instituted a sacrifice to Vishmi, and many of 
the gods repaired to it, but $iva was not invited, because the 
gods had conspired to deprive him of sacrificial offerings. The 
wife of $iva, the mountain goddess Uma, perceived what was 
going on. Uma was a second birth of Satl, daughter of Daksha, 
who had deprived herself of life in consequence of her father s 
quarrel with herself and her husband, /Siva. Uma urged her 
husband to display his power and assert his rights. So he 
created Yira-bhadra, " a being like the fire of fate," and of most 
terrific appearance and powers. He also sent with him hundreds 
and thousands of powerful demigods whom he called into exist 
ence. A terrible catastrophe followed ; " the mountains tottered, 
the earth shook, the winds roared, and the depths of the sea 
were disturbed." The sacrifice is broken up, and, in the words 
of Wilson, "Indra is knocked down and trampled on,Yama has 
his staff broken, SaraswatI and the Matn s have their noses cut 
off, Mitra or Bhaga has his eyes pulled out, Pushan has his 
teeth knocked down his throat, Chandra (the moon) is pummelled, 
Vahni s (fire s) hands are cut off, Bhngu loses his beard, the 
Brahmans are pelted with stones, the Prajapatis are beaten, and 
the gods and demigods are run through with swords or stuck 
with arrows." Daksha then, in great terror, propitiated the 
wrathful deity and acknowledged his supremacy. According to 
some versions, Daksha himself was decapitated and his head 
thrown into the fire. /Siva subsequently restored him and the 


other dead to life, and as Dakslia s head could not be found, it 
was replaced by that of a goat or ram. The Hari-vansa, in its 
glorification of Vishnu, gives a different finish to the story. The 
sacrifice was destroyed and the gods fled in dismay, till Vishnu 
intervened, and seizing /Siva by the throat, compelled him to 
desist and acknowledge his master. 

" This," says Wilson, " is a legend of some interest, as it is 
obviously intended to intimate a struggle between the worship 
pers of /S iva and Vishnu, in which at first the latter, but finally 
the former, acquired the ascendancy." 

Daksha was a lawgiver, and is reckoned among the eighteen 
writers of Dharma-sastras. 

The name Daksha was borne by several other persons. 

DAKSHA-SAVAKNA. The ninth Manu. See Maim. 

DAKSHAYA.VA. Connected with Daksha. A son or de 
scendant of that sage. 

DAKSHAYAM. A name of Aditi as daughter of Daksha. 

DAKSHLVA. A present made to Brahmans; the honora 
rium for the performance of a sacrifice. This is personified as a 
goddess, to whom various origins are assigned. 

DAKSHLATACHAKIS. Followers of the right-hand form of 
/Sakta worship. See Tantra. 

DAMA. A son, or, according to the Vishnu Purana, a grand 
son of King Marutta of the Solar race, He rescued his bride 
Su-mana from his rivals, and one of them, named Vapushmat, 
subsequently killed Marutta, who had retired into the woods 
after relinquishing his crown to his son. Dama in retaliation 
killed Vapushmat and offered his blood in the funeral rites of 
Marutta, while he made an oblation of part of the flesh, and with 
the rest fed the Brahmans who were of Rakshasa descent. 

DAMA-GHOSHA. King of Chedi and father of Sisu-pala. 

DAMAYANTI. Wife of Nala and heroine of the tale of 
Nala and DamayantL She is also known by her patronymic 
Bhaiml. See Nala. 

DAMBHODBHAVA. A king whose story is related in the 
Maha-bharata as an antidote to pride. He had an overweening 
conceit of his own prowess, and when told by his Brahmans that 
he was no match for Xara and Narayana, who were living as 
ascetics on the Gandha-madana mountain, he proceeded thither 
with his army and challenged them. They endeavoured to elk- 


suade him, but lie insisted on fighting. Nara then took a hand 
ful of straws, and using them as missiles, they whitened all the 
air, and penetrated the eyes, ears, and noses of the assailants, 
until Dambhodbhava fell at Nara s feet and begged for peace. 

DAMODAEA. A name given to Kr/slma because his foster- 
mother tried to tie him up with a rope (ddma) round his belly 

DANAVAS. Descendants from Danu by the sage Kasyapa. 
They were giants who w T arred against the gods. See Daityas. 

DANJ9A-DHAEA. The rod-bearer. A title of Yama, the 
god of death. 

D A-/VDAKA. The arawya or forest of Damfaka, lying between 
the Godavarl and Narmada. It was of vast extent, and some 
passages of the Eamayawa represent it as beginning immediately 
south of the Yamuna. This forest is the scene of many of Rama 
and Slta s adventures, and is described as "a wilderness over 
which separate hermitages are scattered, while wild beasts and 
Eakshasas everywhere abound" 

DAXTA-VAKTEA. A Danava king of Karusha and son of 
Vriddha-sarma. He took a side against Krishna, and was even 
tually killed by him. 

DANU. A Danava. Also the mother of the Danavas. The 
demon Kabandha (q.v.). 

DAEADA. A country in the Hindu Kush, bordering on 
Kashmir. The people of that country, " the Durds, are still 
where they were at the date of the text (of the Vishmi Purawa) 
and in the days of Strabo and Ptolemy ; not exactly, indeed, at 
the sources of the Indus, but along its course above the Hima 
laya, just before it descends to India." Wilson. 

DAEBAS. Tearers. Eakshasas and other destructive 

DAEDUEA. Name of a mountain in the south ; it is 
associated with the Malaya mountain in the Maha-bharata. 

DAExVANA. Demonstration. The Shad-darsanas or six 
demonstrations, i.e., the six schools of Hindu philosophy. All 
these schools have one starting-point, ex nihilo nihil fit; and all 
have one and the same final object, the emancipation of the soul 
from future birth and existence, and its absorption into the 
supreme soul of the universe. These schools are : 

i. Nyiiya, founded by the sage Gotama. The word nyaya 


means propriety or fitness, the proper method of arriving at a 
conclusion by analysis. This school has been called the Logical 
School, but the term is applicable to its method rather than to 
its aims. It is also said to represent " the sensational aspect of 
Hindu philosophy," because it has " a more pointed regard to 
the fact of the five senses than the others have, and treats the 
external more frankly as a solid reality." It is the exoteric 
school, as the Vedanta is the esoteric. 

2. Vaiseshika, founded by a sage named Kamida, who lived 
about the same time as Gotama. It is supplementary to the 
ISTyaya, and these two schools are classed together. It is called 
the Atomic School, because it teaches the existence of a transient 
world composed of aggregations of eternal atoms. 

Both the Nyaya and Vaiseshika recognise a Supreme Being. 

3. Sankhya. The Sankhya and Yoga are classed together 
because they have much in common, but the Sankhya is atheis 
tical, while the Yoga is theistical. The Sankhya was founded 
by the sage Kapila, and takes its name from its numeral or dis 
criminative tendencies. The Sankhya-Karika, the text-book of 
this school, has been translated by Colebrooke and Wilson, and 
part of the aphorisms of Kapila were translated for the E Mio- 
theca Indica by the late Dr. Ballantyne. 

4. Yoga. This school was founded by Patanjali, and from 
his name is also called Patanjala. It pursues the method of the 
Sankhya and holds with many of its dogmas, but it asserts the 
existence not only of individual souls, but of one all-pervading 
spirit, which is free from the influences which affect other souls. 

5. Purva-mimansa. 6. Uttara-rnimansa. The prior and later 
Mimansas. These are both included in the general term Vedanta,, 
but the Purva-mimansa is commonly known as the Mimansa and 
the Uttara-mimansa as the Vedanta, the end or object of the 
Vedas. The Purva-mimansa was founded by Jaimini, and the 
Uttara-mimansa is attributed to Vyasa, the arranger of the 
Vedas. " The object of both these schools is to teach the art of 
reasoning with the express purpose of aiding the interpretation 
of the Vedas, not only in the speculative but the practical por 
tion." The principal doctrines of the Vedanta (Uttara) are that 
" God is the omniscient and omnipotent cause of the existence, 
continuance, and dissolution of the universe. Creation is an act 
of his will ; he is both the efficient and the material cause of the 



world. " At the consummation of all things all are resolved into 
him. He is " the sole-existent and universal soul," and besides 
him there is no second principle ; he is adwaita, without a 
second. $ankaracharya was the great apostle of this school 

The period of the rise of these schools of philosophy is uncer 
tain, and is entirely a matter of inference, but they are probably 
later than the fifth century B.O. The Vedanta (Uttara-mlmansa) 
is apparently the latest, and is supposed to have been evoked by 
the teachings of the Buddhists. This would bring it to within 
three or four centuries B.C. The other schools are to all appear 
ance older than the Vedanta, but it is considered by some that 
all the schools show traces of Buddhist influences, and if so, the 
dates of all must be later. It is a question whether Hindu 
philosophy is or is not indebted to Greek teaching, and the later 
the date of the origin of these schools the greater is the possi 
bility of Greek influence. Mr. Colebrooke, the highest authority 
on the subject, is of opinion that " the Hindus were in this 
instance the teachers, not the learners." 

Besides the six schools, there is yet a later system known as 
the Paurawik and the Eclectic school. The doctrines of this 
school are expounded in the Bhagavad-gita (q.v.). 

The merits of the various schools have been thus summed up : 
" When we consider the six Darsanas, we shall find that one of 
them, the Uttara-mlmansa, bears no title to be ranked by the 
side of the others, and is really little more than a mystical 
explanation of the practical injunctions of the Yedas. We shall 
also admit that the earlier Vedanta, very different from the 
school of Nihilists now existing under that name, was chiefly a 
controversial essay, seeking to support the theology of sacred writ, 
but borrowing all its philosophical portions from the Yoga school, 
the most popular at the time of its composition. Lastly, the 
Nyaya is little more than a treatise on logic, introducing the doc 
trines of the theistic Sankhya; while the Vaiseshika is an essay on 
physics, with, it is true, the theory of atoms as its distinguishing 
mark, though even to this we feel inclined to refuse the imputa 
tion of novelty, since we find some idea of it lurking obscurely 
in the theory of subtile elements which is brought forward in 
Kapila s Sankhya. In short, the basis of all Indian philosophy, 
if indeed we may not say the only system of philosophy really 
discovered in India, is the Sankhya, and this forms the basis 


of the doctrines expounded in the Bhagavad-glta." Cucklurn, 

Colebrooke s Essays are the great authorities on Hindu philo 
sophy. Ballantyne has translated many of the original aphorisms, 
and he, Cockburn Thomson, Hall, Banerjea, and others have 
written on the subject. 

DARUKA* Krishna s charioteer, and his attendant in his 
last days. 

DASA-KUMAKA-CHARITA. Tales of the ten princes, 
by Sil D&ndl. It is one of the few Sanskrit works written in 
prose, but its style is so studied and elaborate that it is classed 
as a Kavya or poem. The tales are stories of common life, and 
display a low condition of morals and a corrupt state of society. 
The\text has been printed with a long analytical introduction 
by H. H. Wilson, and again in Bombay by Biihler. There is an 
abridged translation by Jacobs, also a translation in French by 
Fauche, and a longer analysis in vol. iv. of "Wilson s works. 

DASANANA. Ten faced. A name of Havana. 

DA>S A-RATHA. A prince of the Solar race, son of Aja, a de 
scendant of Ikshwaku, and king of AyodhyH He had three wives, 
but being childless, he performed the sacrifice of a horse, and, 
according to the Ramayarca, the chief queen, Kausalya, remained 
in close contact with the slaughtered horse for a night, and the 
other two queens beside her. Four sons were then born to him 
from his three wives. Kausalya bore Kama, Kaikeyl gave birth 
to Bharata, and Su-mitra bore Lakshmawa and /Satru-ghna, Rama 
partook of half the nature of Vishnu, Bharata of a quarter, and 
the other two shared the remaining fourth. The Ramayawa, in 
explanation of this manifestation of Yislmu, says that he had 
promised the gods to become incarnate as man for the destruction 
of Rava?ia. He chose Dasa-ratha for his human parent; and 
when that king was performing a second sacrifice to obtain pro 
geny, he came to him out of the fire as a glorious being, and 
gave him a vessel full of nectar to administer to his wives. 
Dasa-ratha gave half of it to Kausalya, and a fourth each to 
Su-mitr<! and Kaikeyl. They all in consequence became preg 
nant, and their offspring partook of the divine nature according 
to the portion of the nectar each had drunk. There were several 
others of the name. See Rama-chandra. 

DASARHA, DASARHA. Prince of the DasSrhas, a title of 
Krishna. The Dasarhas were a tribe of Yudavas. 


DA#A-KUPAKA. An early treatise on dramatic com 
position. It has been published by Hall in the Bibliotheca, 

DAS AS. Slaves. Tribes and people of India who opposed 
the progress of the intrusive Aryans. 

BASK AS. Beautiful The elder of the two Aswins, or in 
the dual (Dasrau), the two Aswins. 

D AS YUS. In the Vedas they are evil beings, enemies of the 
gods and men. They are represented as being of a dark colour, 
and probably were the natives of India who contended with the 
immigrant Aryans. It has, however, been maintained that they 
were hermits and ascetics of Aryan race. In later times they 
are barbarians, robbers, outcasts, who, according to some autho 
rities, descended from Viswamitra. 

DATTAKA-CHAKDRIKA. A treatise on the law of adop 
tion by Devana Bha^/a. Translated by Sutherland. 

DATTAKA-MlMANSA. A treatise on the law of adoption 
by Nanda Pa?wftta. Translated by Sutherland. 

DATTAKA-SIROMANI A digest of the principal treatises 
on the law of adoption. Printed at Calcutta. 

DATTATREYA. Son of Atri and Anasuya. A Brahman 
saint in whom a portion of Brahma, Vishnu, and /Siva, or more 
.particularly Vishrai, was incarnate. He had three sons, Soma, 
Datta, and Dur-vasas, to whom also a portion of the divine 
essence was transmitted. He was the patron of Karta-virya, and 
gave him a thousand arms. 

DAYA-BHAGA. Law of inheritance. This title belongs 
especially to the treatise of Jimuta Vahana, current in Bengal 
Translated by Colebrooke. 

DAYA-KRAMA-SANGRAHA. A treatise on the law of 
inheritance as current in Bengal, by Sri Kn shwa Tarkalankiira. 
Translated by Wynch. 

DAYA-TATWA. A treatise on the law of inheritance as 
current in Bengal, by Raghunandana Bha^/acharya. 

DEYA, (Nom. Devas = Deus, from the root Div, to shine.) 
God. A deity. The gods are spoken of as thirty-three in num 
ber, eleven for each of the three worlds. 

DEVAKA. Father of Devaki and brother of Ugrasena. 

DEYAKI. "Wife of Yasu-deva, mother of Krishna, and 
cousin of Kansa. She is sometimes called an incarnation of 


Aditi, and is said to have been born again as PHsnl, the wife of 
King Su-tapas. 

DEVALA. A Yedic .fiishi, to whom some hymns are attri 
buted. There are several men of this name ; one was author 
of a code of law, another was an astronomer, and one the grand 
father of Pamni. 

DEVALA. Music, personified as a female. 

DEVA-LOKA. The world of the gods, i.e., Swarga, Indra s 
heaven. Mother of the gods. An appellation of 
Aditi (q.v.). 

DEVA-KATA. i. A royal fiishi of the Solar race, who dwelt 
among the Videhas, and had charge of /Siva s bow, which de 
scended to Janaka and was broken by Kama. 2. A name given 
to /Suna/i-sephas. 

DEVARSHIS. (Deva-rishis.) .Zfo shis or saints of the celes 
tial class, who dwell in the regions of the gods, such as Narada. 
Sages who have attained perfection upon earth and have been 
exalted as demigods to heaven. 

DEVATA. A divine being or god. The name Devatas 
includes the gods in general, or, as most frequently used, the 
whole body of inferior gods. 

of the Sama-veda. The text has been edited by BurnelL 

DEVAYANL Daughter of tfukra, priest of the Daityas. 
She fell in love with her father s pupil Kacha, son of Br/haspati, 
but he rejected her advances. She cursed him, and in return 
he cursed her, that she, a Brahman s daughter, should marry a 
Kshatriya. Devayani was companion to Sarmish/ha, daughter 
of the king of the Daityas. One day they went to bathe, and 
the god Vayu changed their clothes. When they were dressed, 
they began to quarrel about the change, and Devayani spoke 
" with a scowl so bitter that Sarmish/ha slapped her face, and 
pushed her into a dry well." She was rescued by King Yayati, 
who took her home to her father. ukra, at his daughter s 
vehement persuasion, demanded satisfaction from Sarmish/ha s 
father, the Daitya king. He conceded Devayani s demand, that 
upon her marriage Sarmish/ha should be given to her for a ser 
vant. Devayani married King Yayati, a Kshatriya, and Sar- 
mish/ha became her servant. Subsequently Yayati became 


enamoured of SarmisMia, and she bore him a son, the discovery 
of which so enraged Devayani that she parted from her husband, 
and went home to her father, having borne two sons, Yadu and 
Turvasa or Turvasu. Her father, /Sukra, cursed Yayati with the 
infirmity of old age, but afterwards offered to transfer it to any 
one of Yayati s sons who would submit to receive it. Yadu, the 
eldest, and progenitor of the Yadavas, refused, and so did all the 
other sons, with the exception of Sarmishftia s youngest son, 
Puru. Those who refused were cursed by their father, that their 
posterity should never possess dominion; but Puru, who bore 
his father s curse for a thousand years, succeeded his father as 
monarch, and was the ancestor of the Pa?ic?avas and Kauravas. 

DEVA-YOM. Of divine birth. A general name for the 
inferior gods, the Adityas, Vasus, Viswadevas, and others. 

DEVI. The goddess, or Maha-devi, the great goddess/ 
wife of the god /Siva, and daughter of Himavat, i.e., the Hima 
laya mountains. She is mentioned in the Maha-bharata under 
a variety of names, and with several of her peculiar character 
istics, but she owes her great distinction to the Purawas and 
later works. As the $akti or female energy of $iva she has two 
characters, one mild, the other fierce; and it is under the latter that 
she is especially worshipped. She has a great variety of names, 
referable to her various forms, attributes, and actions, but these 
names are not always used accurately and distinctively. In her 
milder form she is Uma, light, and a type of beauty ; Gauri, 
the yellow or brilliant ; Parvati, the mountaineer ; and 
Haimavati, from her parentage ; Jagan-mata, the mother of the 
world ; and Bhavani. In her terrible form she is Durga, the 
inaccessible ; Kali and $yama, the black ; Cha?zc?I and Chaw- 
t?ika, the fierce; and Bhairavi, the terrible. It is in this 
character that bloody sacrifices are offered to her, that the bar 
barities of the Durga-puja and Charak-puja are perpetrated in 
her honour, and that the indecent orgies of the Tantrikas are 
held to propitiate her favours and celebrate her powers. She 
has ten arms, and in most of her hands there are weapons. As 
Durga she is a beautiful yellow woman, riding on a tiger in a 
fierce and menacing attitude. As Kali or Kalika, the black, 
" she is represented with a black skin, a hideous and terrible 
countenance, dripping with blood, encircled with snakes, hung 
round with skulls and human heads, and in all respects resem- 

DEVI. 87 

bling a fury rather than a goddess." As Vindhya-vasiiri, * the 
dweller in the Vindhyas, she is worshipped at a place of that 
name where the Vindhyas approach the Ganges, near Mirzapnr, 
and it is said that there the blood before her image is never 
allowed to get dry. As Maha-maya she is the great illusion. 

The Chaw^I-mahatmya, which celebrates the victories of 
this goddess over the Asuras, speaks of her under the fol 
lowing names : i. Durga, when she received the messengers 
of the Asuras. 2. Dasa-bhuja. Ten-armed, when she 
destroyed part of their army. 3. Sinha-vahini. Riding on a 
lion, when she fought with the Asura general Rakta-vlja. 4. 
Mahisha-mardinL Destroyer of Mahisha, an Asura in the 
form of a buffalo. 5. Jagad-dhatri. Fosterer of the world, 
when she again defeated the Asura army. 6. KalL The 
"black. She killed Rakta-vlja. 7. Mukta-kesL With dis 
hevelled hair. Again defeats the Asuras. 8. Tara. Star. 
She killed Kumbha. 9. Chhinna-mastaka. Decapitated, 
the headless form in which she killed Nisumbha. 10. Jagad- 
gaurL World s fair one, as lauded by the gods for her 
triumphs. The names which Devi obtains from her husband 
are : Babhravl (Babhru), Bhagavati, Isani, Iswaii, Kalanjarl, 
Ivapalini, Kausiki, Kirati, Maheswari, Mnda, Mndfam, Rud- 
raTii, /Sarvam, iSiva, Tryambaki. From her origin she is called 
Adri-ja and Giri-ja, mountain-born ; Ku-ja, earth-born ; 
Daksha-ja, sprung from Daksha. She is Kanya, the virgin ; 
Kanya-kumari, the youthful virgin; and Ambika, the 
mother ; Avara, the youngest ; Ananta and Mtya, the ever 
lasting; Arya, the revered; Yijaya, victorious; 7?iddhi, 
tlie rich ; Sati, virtuous ; Dakshirai, right-handed ; Pinga, 
tawny, dark ; Karburi, spotted ; Bhramari, the bee ; 
Ko^ari, the naked ; Karna-moti, pearl-eared ; Padma-lanch- 
hana, distinguished by a lotus ; Sarva - mangala, always 
auspicious ; akam - bhari, nourisher of herbs ; /Siva - duti, 
/Siva s messenger; Sinha-rathi, riding on a lion. As addicted 
to austerities she is Aparrai and Katyayani. As Bhuta-nayakl 
slie is chief or leader of the goblins, and as Gawa-nayaki, the 
leader of the Garm. She is Kamakshi, wanton-eyed; and 
Kamakhya, called by the name of Kama, desire. Other 
names, most of them applicable to her terrible forms, are Bhadra- 
kuli, Bhima-devi, Chaniu?^a, Maha-kali, ^lahamari, Mahasuri, 


MatangI, Rajasi, the fierce; and Rakta-danti, red or bloody 

DEVI BHAGAVATA PURA^A. A /Skiva Purawa, which 
is by some placed among the eighteen Purawas instead of the 
/Sri Bhagavata, which is devoted to Vishnu. This is devoted to 
the worship of the $aktis. 

DEVI MAHATMYA. The greatness of Devi. A poem 
of 700 verses, which celebrates the triumphs of Devi over 
various Asuras. It is the text-book of the worshippers of 
Devi, and is read daily in her temples. It is an episode of the 
Markarafeya Purawa, and is also called Chamftpaftia. 

DHAISTA-DA. Giver of wealth. Kuvera, the god of riches. 

D HAN AN- JAY A. Conqueror of riches. A title of Arjuna 
and of several others. 

DHANANJAYA VIJAYA. Victories of Dhananjaya 
(Arjuna). A drama in one act on the exploits of Arjuna when 
in the service of the Raja ViraYa. 

DHANA-PATL Lord of wealth. Kuvera 

DHANEWARA. Lord of wealth, i.e., Kuvera. 

DHANUR-VEDA. The science of archery, the military art. 

DHANWANTARI. i. Name of a Vedic deity to whom offer 
ings at twilight were made in the north-east quarter. 2. The 
physician of the gods, who was produced at the churning of the 
ocean. He was a teacher of medical science, and the Ayur-veda 
is attributed to him. In another birth he was son of Dirgha- 
tamas, and his " nature was exempt from human infirmities, and 
in every existence he had been master of universal knowledge." 
He is called also Sudha-pam, carrying nectar in his hands, and 
Amnta, the immortal. Other physicians seem to have had 
the name applied to them, as Bhela, Divo-dasa, and Palakapya, 
3. A celebrated physician, who was one of " the nine gems " 
of the court of Vikrama. See Nava-ratna. 

DHARAM. The earth. The wife of Parasu-rama. 

DHARMA, DHARMA-RAJA. Justice. A name of 
Yama, the judge of the dead. 

DHARMA. An ancient sage, sometimes classed among the 
Prajapatis. He married thirteen (or ten) of the daughters of 
Daksha, and had a numerous progeny ; but all his children " are 
manifestly allegorical, being personifications of intelligences and 
virtues and religious rites, and being therefore appropriately 


wedded to the probable authors of the Hindu code of religion 
and morals, or the equally allegorical representation of that code, 
Dharma, moral and religious duty." Wilson. 

DHARMA-PUTRA. < Son of Dharma. A name of Yudhi- 

DHARMARA^YA. A sacred grove, i. A forest in Mad- 
hyadesa into which Dharma retired. 2. A city mentioned in 
the Ramayarca as founded by Amurta-rajas, son of Kusa. 

DHARMA-RAJA. i. Yama, king of the dead. 2. A title of 
Yudhi-sh/hira, who was mythically a son of Yama. 

DHARMA-/SASTRA. A law-book or code of laws. This 
term includes the whole body of Hindu law, but it is more 
especially applicable to the laws of Manu, Yajnawalkya, and other 
inspired sages who first recorded the Smnti or " recollections " 
of what they had received from a divine source. These works 
are generally in three parts : (i.) Achara, rules of conduct 
and practice; (2.) Yyavahara, judicature; (3.) Prayaschitta, 

The inspired lawgivers are spoken of as being eighteen in 
number, but the names of forty-two old authorities are men 
tioned. Manu and Yajnawalkya stand apart by themselves at the 
head of these writers. After them the eighteen other inspired 
sages are recognised as the great authorities on law, and the 
works ascribed to them are still extant, either wholly or par 
tially, or in an abridged form: (i.) Atri; (2.)Yish?m; (3.) 
Harita; (4.)Usanas; (5.) Angiras; (6.) Yama; (7.) Apastamba; 
(8. ) Samvarta ; (9. ) Katyayana ; ( i o. ) Bnhaspati ; ( 1 1 . ) Parasara ; 
(12.) Yyasa; (13, 14.) $ankha and Likhita, whose joint trea 
tise is frequently quoted; (15.) Daksha ; (16.) Gotama; (17.) 
atatapa; (18.) YasisMha. But there are others who are 
more frequently cited than many of these, as Narada, Bhngu, 
Marichi, Kasyapa, Yiswamitra, and Baudhayana. Other names 
that are met with are Pulastya, Gargya, Pai/hmasi, Sumantu, 
Lokakshi, Kuthumi, and Dhaumya. The writings of some 
of these lawgivers have appeared in different forms, and are 
referred to with the descriptive epithets of Ynddha, old ; 
Brthat, c great ; and Laghu, light or small. 

A general collection of the Snmtis or Dharma-sastras has been 
printed in Calcutta under the title of Dharma-sastra-sangraha, by 


DHARMA-SAVAR^L The eleventh Mann. See Maim. 

DHARMA-SUTRAS. The Samayacharika Sutras are so 
called "because they had among them maxims of a legal nature. 

DHARMA-VYADHA. The pious huntsman. This man 
is represented in the Maha-bharata as living by selling the flesh 
of boars and buffaloes, and yet as being learned in the Yedas 
and in all the knowledge of a Brahman. This is accounted for 
by his having been a Brahman in a former birth, and cursed 
to this vile occupation for having wounded a Brahman when 

DHAT^J. Maker, creator. In the later hymns of the 
JRz g-veda, Dhatn is a deity of no very defined powers and func 
tions, but he is described as operating in the production of life 
and the preservation of health. He promotes generation, brings 
about matrimony, presides over domestic life, cures diseases, 
heals broken bones, &c. He is said to " have formed the sun, 
moon, sky, earth, air, and heaven as before." He appears also 
as one of the Adityas, and this character he still retains. In 
the later mythology he is identified with Prajapati or Brahma 
the creator ; and in this sense of " maker " the term is used as 
an epithet of Vishnu and Kn shwa. Sometimes he is a son of 

DHAUMYA. i. The younger brother of Devala and family 
priest of the Piwdavas. There are several others of the same 
name. 2. Author of a work on law. 

DHENUKA. A demon killed by Bala-rama. Krishna and 
Bala-rama, as boys, picked some fruit in a grove belonging to 
Dhenuka, when he took the form of an ass, and running to the 
spot began to kick Bala-rama. The young hero seized him by 
the heels, whirled him round till he was dead, and cast his 
carcase on to the top of a palm-tree. Several of his companions 
who ran to his assistance were treated in the same way, so 
that " the trees were laden with dead asses." 

DHJ27SHTA-DYUMKA. Brother of Draupadi, and com- 
mander-in-chief of the Pimtfava armies. He killed, somewhat un 
fairly in combat, Drorca, who had beheaded his father, and he in 
his turn was killed by Drowa s son, Aswatthaman, who stamped 
him to death with his feet as he lay asleep. 

DHTtfSHTA-KETU. i. A son of Dhnshta-dyumna. 2. 
A son of isu-pfila, king of Chcdi, and an ally of the Para/a- 


vas. 3. A king of the Kckayas, also an ally of the Purw/avaa. 
4. Son of Satyadhriti. 5. Son of Nnga. 

DIITtfTA-RASHTRA. i. The eldest son of Vichitra-virya 
or Vyiisa, and brother of ~Pandu. His mother was Ambika. He 
married Gandhari, and by her had a hundred sons, the eldest of 
whom was Dur-yodhana. Dhnta-rash/ra was blind, and ~P&ndu. 
was affected with a disease supposed, from his name, "the pale," 
to be a leprous affection. The two brothers in turn renounced 
the throne, and the great war recorded in the Maha-bharata was 
fought between their sons, one party being called Kauravas, 
from an ancestor, Kuru, and the other Paw6?avas, from their 
father PawJu. Dhnta-rashfra and his wife were burned in a 
forest fire. (See Maha-bharata.) 2. An enormous serpent of 
many heads and immense strength. 

DHRUVA. The polar star. According to the Vishmi 
PuraTia, the sons of Manu Swayam-bhuva were Priya-vrata and 
Uttanapada. The latter had two wives ; the favourite, Suruchi, 
was proud and haughty; the second, Suniti or Sunn ta, was 
humble and gentle. Suruchi had a son named Uttama, and 
Suniti gave birth to Dhruva, While quite a child Dhruva was 
contemptuously treated by Suruchi, and she told him that her 
own son Uttama would alone succeed to the throne. Dhruva 
and his mother submitted, and he declared that he wished for 
no other honours than such as his own actions should acquire. 
He was a Kshatriya, but he joined a society of 72/shis, and 
becoming a jftishi himself, he went through a rigid course of 
austerities, notwithstanding the efforts of Indra to distract him. 
At the end he obtained the favour of Vishmi, who raised him 
to the skies as the pole-star. He has the patronymic Auttana- 
padi, and he is called Grahadhara, the stay or pivot of the 

DHUMA-VARATA. Smoke coloured. A king of the ser 
pents. A legend in the Hari-vansa relates that Yadu, the 
founder of the Yadava family, went for a trip of pleasure 
on the sea, where he was carried off by Dhuma-vama to the 
capital of the serpents. Dhuma-var?ia married his five daugh 
ters to him, and from them sprang seven distinct families of 

DHUNDHU. An Asura who harassed the sage Uttanka in 
his devotions. The demon hid himself beneath a sea of sand, 


but was dug out and killed by King Kuvalaya-swa and his 
21,000 sons, who were undeterred by the flames which checked 
their progress, and were all killed but three. This legend pro 
bably originated from a volcano or some similar phenomenon. 
From this exploit Kuvalayaswa got the name of Dhundhu- 
mara, slayer of Dhundhu. 

DHUNDHU-MARA. See Dhundhu and Kuvalayaswa. 

DHUR-JAjTI. Having heavy matted locks. A name of 
Eudra or /Siva. 

DHURTA-NARTAKA. The rogue actors. A farce in two 
parts by Sama Raja Dikshita. " The chief object of this piece 
is the ridicule of the aiva ascetics." 

DHURTA-SAMAGAMA. _ Assemblage of rogues. A 
comedy by $ekhara or Jyotir Iswara. "It is somewhat indeli 
cate, but not devoid of humour." It has been translated into 
French by SchoebeL 

DIG-AMBARA. * Clothed with space. A naked mendi 
cant. A title of $iva. 

DIG-GAJAS. The elephants who protect the eight points 
of the compass: (i.) Airavata; (2.) Puftdarika; (3.) Va- 
mana; (4.) Kumuda; (5.) Anjana; (6.) Pushpa-danta ; (7.) 
Sarva-bhauma ; (8.) Su-pratika. 

DIG-YIJAYA. 4 Conquest of the regions (of the world). 
i. A part of the Maha-bharata which commemorates the con 
quests effected by the four younger Pa?^ava princes, and in 
virtue of which Yudhi-sh/hira maintained his claim to uni 
versal sovereignty. 2. A work by /Sankaracharya in support 
of the Vedanta philosophy, generally distinguished as /Sankara 

DIK-PALA. Supporters of the regions. The supporters 
of the eight points of the compass. See Dig-gaja. 

DILlPA. Son of Ansumat and father of Bhagiratha. He 
was of the Solar race and ancestor of Rama, On one occasion 
he failed to pay due respect to Surabhi, the cow of fortune, 
and she passed a curse upon him that he should have no 
offspring until he and his wife Su-dakshiwa had carefully 
tended Surabhi s daughter Nandinl. They obediently waited 
on this calf NandinI, and Dillpa once offered his own life to 
save hers from the lion of /Siva, In due time the curse was 
removed, and a son, Raghu, was born to them. This story is 


told in the Raglm-vansa. There was another prince of the 
name. See Kha/wanga, 

DIRGHA-RAVAS. Son of Dirgha-tamas, and therefore a 
7?/slii, but as in a time of famine he took to trade for a liveli 
hood, the Jt/g-veda calls him " the merchant." 

A son of Kim-raja, according to the Maha-bharata ; of Uchathya, 
according to the jfr/g-veda; and of Utathya and Mamata in 
the Purawas. His appellations of Auchathya and Mamateya 
favour the latter parentage. He was born blind, but is said to 
have obtained sight by worshipping Agni (K V. iii. 128). He 
was father of Kakshivat and Dhanwantari ; and he is said (in 
the V. P.) to have had five children by Su-deshwa, wife of 
Bali, viz., the countries Anga, Banga, Kalinga, Puwdra, and 

DITI. A goddess or personification in the Yedas who is 
associated with Aditi, and seems to be intended as an antithesis 
or as a complement to her. 

In the Ramayawa and in the Purawas she is daughter of 
Daksha, wife of Ka^yapa, and mother of the Daityas. The 
Vishnu Purawa relates that having lost her children, she begged 
of Kasyapa a son of irresistible prowess, who should destroy 
Indra. The boon was granted, but with this condition : "If, 
with thoughts wholly pious and person entirely pure, you care 
fully carry the babe in your womb for a hundred years." She 
assiduously observed the condition ; but Indra knew what was 
preparing for him. So he went to Diti and attended upon her 
with the utmost humility, watching his opportunity. In the 
last year of the century, Diti retired one night to rest without 
washing her feet. Indra then with his thunderbolt divided the 
embryo in her womb into seven portions. Thus mutilated, the 
child cried bitterly, and Indra being unable to pacify it, became 
angry, and divided each of the seven portions into seven, thus 
forming the swift-moving deities called Maruts, from the words, 
* Ma-rodiA, Weep not/ which Indra used to quiet them. 

DIVO-DASA. i. A pious liberal king mentioned in the jR-ig- 
veda, for whom it is said that Indra demolished a hundred stone 
cities, meaning perhaps the mythological aerial cities of the 
Asuras. 2. A Brahman who was the twin-brother of Ahalyu. 
He is represented in the Veda as a "very liberal sacrificer," 


and as being delivered by the gods from the oppressor 
/S ambara. He is also called Atithi-gwa, he to whom guests 
should go. 3. A king of Kasi, son of Blmna-ratha and father of 
Pratardana. He was attacked by the sons of King Vita-havya 
and all his sons were slain. His son Pratardana (q.v.) was born 
to him through a sacrifice performed by Bharadwaja. He was 
celebrated as a physician and was called Dhanwantari. 

DKAUPADI. Daughter of Drupada, king of Panchala, and 
wife of the five Paftcfri princes. Draupadi was a damsel of dark 
complexion but of great beauty, " as radiant and graceful as if 
she had descended from the city of the gods." Her hand was 
sought by many princes, and so her father determined to hold a 
swayam-vara and allow her to exercise her own choice in the 
selection of a husband. The swayam-vara was proclaimed, and 
princes assembled from all parts to contend in the lists for the 
hand of the princess ; for although in such contests the lady was 
entitled to exercise her swayam-vara or own choice, it generally 
followed that the champion of the arena became her husband. 
Most astonishing feats of arms were performed, but Arjuna out 
shone all by his marvellous use of the bow, and he became the 
selected bridegroom. When the five brothers returned to the 
house where their mother, Kunti, was staying, they told her that 
they had made a great acquisition, and she told them to share it 
among them. These words raised a great difficulty, for if they 
could not be adroitly evaded they must be obeyed. The sage 
Vyusa settled the matter by saying, " The destiny of Draupadi 
has already been declared by the gods ; let her become the wife 
of all the brethren." So she became their common wife, and it 
was arranged that she should stay successively two days in the 
house of each, and that no one of them but the master of the 
house should enter it while she was there. Arjuna was 
her favourite, and she showed her jealousy when he mar 
ried Su-bhadra. In the great gambling match which the 
eldest brother, Yudhi-sh/hira, played at Hastina-pura against 
his cousins, the Kauvaras, he lost his all his kingdom, his 
brothers, himself, and their wife Draupadi. So she became 
a slave, and Dur-yodhana called her to come and sweep the 
room. She refused, and then Duh-sasana dragged her by 
the hair into the pavilion before all the chieftains, and taunt 
ingly told her that she was a slave girl, and had no right to 

DRA UP AD I. 05 

complain of being touched by men. He also abused her 
and tore off her veil and dress, while Dur-yodhana invited her 
to sit on his thigh. Krishna took compassion upon her, and 
restored her garments as fast as they were torn. She called 
vehemently upon her husbands to save her, but they were 
restrained by Yudhi-shfliira. Bhima was in a rage of passion ; 
he was prevented from action; but he vowed in loud words 
that he would drink the blood of Duh-sasana and smash the 
thigh of Dur-yodhana in retaliation of these outrages, which 
vows he eventually fulfilled. DraupadI vowed that her hair 
should remain dishevelled until Bhima should tie it up with 
hands dripping with the blood of Duh-sasana. The result 
of the gambling match was that the PaftJavas, with DraupadI, 
went into exile for twelve years, and were to dwell quite 
incognito during another year. The period of thirteen years 
being successfully completed, they were at liberty to return. 
Twelve years of exile were passed in the jungle, and in the 
course of this period Jayad-ratha, king of Sindlm, came to the 
house of the Pa?ic?avas while they were out hunting. He was 
courteously received by DraupadI, and was fascinated by her 
charms. He tried to induce her to elope with him, and when 
he was scornfully repulsed, he dragged her to his chariot and 
drove off with her. When the PiMavas returned and heard 
of the rape, they pursued Jayad-ratha, and pressed him so close 
that he put down DraupadI, and endeavoured to escape alone. 
Bhima resolved to overtake and punish him; and although 
Yudhi-sh/hira pleaded that Jayad-ratha was a kinsman, and 
ought not to be killed, DraupadI called aloud for vengeance, 
so Bhima and Arjuna continued the pursuit. Bhima dragged 
Jayad-ratha from his car, kicked and beat him till he was sense 
less, but spared his life. He cut off all Jayad-ratha s hair except 
five locks, and made him publicly acknowledge that he was a 
slave. Draupadf s revenge was then slaked, and Jayad-ratha was 
released at her intercession. In the thirteenth year, in which 
her husbands and she were to live undiscovered, they entered 
the service of the king of ViraYa, and she, without acknowledg 
ing any connection with them, became a waiting-maid to the 
queen. She stipulated that she should not be required to wasli 
feet or to eat food left by others, and she quieted the jealous 
fears which her beauty excited in the queen s mind by represent- 


ing that she was guarded by five Gandharvas, who would prevent 
any improper advances. She lived a quiet life for a while, but 
her beauty excited the passions of Kichaka, the queen s brother, 
who was commander-in-chief, and the leading man in the king 
dom. His importunities and insults greatly annoyed her, but 
she met with no protection from the queen, and was rebuked for 
her complaints and petulance by Yudhi-shiftiira. Her spirit of 
revenge was roused, and she appealed as usual to Bhima, whose 
fiery passions she well knew how to kindle. She complained of 
her menial position, of the insults she had received, of the in 
difference of her husbands, and of the base offices they were 
content to occupy. Bhima promised revenge. An assignation 
was made with Kichaka which Bhima kept, and he so mangled 
the unfortunate gallant that all his flesh and bones were rolled 
into a ball, and no one could discover the manner of his death. 
The murder was attributed to Draupadl s Gandharvas, and she 
was condemned to be burnt on Klchaka s funeral pile. Then 
Bhima disguised himself, and tearing up a tree for a club, went 
to her rescue. He was supposed to be the Gandharva, and 
every one fled before him. He released Draupadi, and they 
returned to the city by different ways. After the term of exile 
was over, and the Paft^avas and she were at liberty to return, 
she was more ambitious than her husbands, and complained to 
Krishna of the humility and want of resolution shown by 
Yudhi-sh/hira. She had five sons, one by each husband 
Prati-vindhya, son of Yudhi-sh/hira ; $ruta-soma, son of Bhima ; 
$ruta-kirtti, son of Arjuna; /Satanika, son of JSTakula; and 
$ruta-karman, son of Saha-deva. She with these five sons was 
present in camp on the eighteenth and last night of the great 
battle, while her victorious husbands were in the camp of the 
defeated enemy. Aswatthaman with two companions entered the 
camp of the Pawcfavas, cut down these five youths, and all whom 
they found. Draupadi called for vengeance upon Aswatthaman. 
Yudhi-shfliira endeavoured to moderate her anger, but she appealed 
to Bhima, Arjuna pursued Aswatthaman, and overtook him, but 
he spared his life after taking from him a celebrated jewel which 
he wore as an amulet. Arjuna gave this jewel to Bhima for 
presentation to Draupadi. On receiving it she was consoled, 
and presented the jewel to Yudhi-shftiira as the head of the 
family. When her husbands retired from the world and went 


on tlieir journey towards the Himalayas and Indra s heaven, she 
accompanied them, and was the first to fall on the journey. See 

Draupadl s real name was Krishna, She was called Draupadi 
and Yajna-sem, from her father ; Parshati, from her grand 
father Pnshata; Panchall, from her country; Sairindhii, the 
maid-servant of the queen of Yira/a ; PanchamI, having five 
husbands ; and Nita-yauvam, the ever-young. 

DRAVIZ)A. The country in which the Tamil language is 
spoken, extending from Madras to Cape Comorin. According 
to Maim, the people of this country were originally Kshatriyas, 
but sank to the condition of $udras from the extinction of 
sacred rites and the absence of Brahmans. As applied to the 
classification of Brahmans it has a much wider application, em 
bracing Gujarat, Maha-rash/ra, and all the south. 

DJ2ISHADWATL A common female name. i. The wife of 
King Divo-dasa. 2. A river forming one of the boundaries of Brah- 
mavarta, perhaps the Kagar before its junction with the Sarsuti. 

DROiVA, A bucket. 7 A Brahman so named from his 
having been generated by his father, Bharadwaja, in a bucket. 
He married Kripa, half-sister of Bhishma, and by her was father 
of Aswatthaman. He was acharya, or teacher of the military 
art, both to the Kaurava and Pa?i<fava princes, and so he 
was called Dro?iacharya. He had been slighted by Drupada, 
king of Panchala, and became his enemy. Through the in 
strumentality of the Paftt/avas he made Drupada prisoner, and 
took from him half of his kingdom ; but he spared his life 
and gave him back the other half of his country But the 
old animosity rankled, and ended in the death of both. In the 
great war Drorca sided with the Kauravas, and after the death 
of Bhishma he became their commander-in-chief. On the fourth 
day of his command he killed Drupada, and in his turn he was 
unfairly slain in combat by Dlmsh/a-dyumna, who had sworn 
to avenge his father s death. In the midst of this combat 
Drcwa was told that his son was dead, which so unnerved him 
that he laid down his arms and his opponent decapitated him. 
But Drowa was a Brahman and an Acharya, and the crime of 
killing him was enormous, so it is glossed over by the statement 
that Drowa " transported himself to heaven in a glittering state 
like the sun, and Dlm sh/a-dymnna decapitated merely his life- 



less body." Drowa was also called Ku/a-ja. The common 
meaning of Ku/a is mountain-top, but one of its many other 
meanings is water-jar. His patronymic is Bharadwaja. 

DEUHYU. Son of Yayati, by Sarmish/ha, daughter of the 
Daitya king Yn sha-parvan. He refused to exchange his youth 
for the curse of decrepitude passed upon his father, and in conse 
quence Yayati cursed him that his posterity should not possess 
dominion. His father gave him a part of his kingdom, but his de 
scendants became "princes of the lawless barbarians of the north." 

DRUPADA. King of Panchala and son of Pn shata. Also 
called Yajna-sena. He was schoolfellow of Drowa, the preceptor of 
the Kaurava and Papaya princes, and he mortally offended his 
former friend by repudiating his acquaintance. Drowa, in pay 
ment of his services as preceptor, required his pupils to make 
Drupada prisoner. The Kauravas attacked him and failed, but 
the Paw^avas took Drupada captive and occupied his territory. 
Drowa spared his life and restored the southern half of his 
kingdom to him. Drupada returned home burning for revenge, 
and, to procure it, he prevailed upon two Brahmans to perform 
a sacrifice, by the efficacy of which he obtained two children, 
a son and a daughter, who were called " the altar-born," be 
cause they came forth from the sacrificial fire. These children 
were named Dhnsh/a-dyumna and Kr/shwa, but the latter 
is better known by her patronymic DraupadL After she had 
chosen Arjuna for her husband at her swayam-vara, and she had 
become, with Drupada s consent, the wife of the five Pam?avas, 
he naturally became the ally of his sons-in-law. He took an 
active part in the great battle, and on the fourteenth day he 
was killed and beheaded by Drorca, who on the following day 
was killed by Dhnsh/a-dyumna, the son whom Drupada had 
obtained for wreaking his vengeance on Dro.^a. Besides the 
two children mentioned, Drupada had a younger son named 
and a daughter *Sikha?2^inL 

The only daughter of Dhnta-rashfra and wife 
of Jay ad-rath a. 

DILET-tfASANA. Hard to rule. One of the hundred sons 
of Dhnta-rashfra. When the Pawdavas lost their wife Draupadi 
in gambling with Dur-yodhana, DuA-sasana dragged her forward 
by the hair and otherwise ill-used her. For this outrage Bhima 
vowed he would drink his blood, a vow which he afterwards 
performed on the sixteenth day of the great battle. 


DUR-GA. A commentator on the Xirukta. 

DUR-GA Inaccessible. , Tlie wife of Siva. See Devi. 

DUR-MUKHA. Bad face. A name of one of Dhr/ta- 
rushfra s sons. Also of one of Rama s monkey allies, and of 
several others. 

DUR-YASAS. < Ill-clothed. A sage, the son of Atri and 
Anasuya, but, according to some authorities, he was a son or 
emanation of /Siva. He was noted for his irascible temper, and 
many fell under his curse. It was he who cursed Sakuntala 
for keeping him waiting at the door, and so caused the separa 
tion "between her and King Dushyanta. But it was he who 
blessed KuntI, so that she became a mother by the Sun. In 
the Vislrmi Pura?za he is represented as cursing Indra for treat 
ing with disrespect a garland which the sage presented to him. 
The curse was that " his sovereignty over the three worlds 
should be subverted," and under it Indra and the gods grew 
weak and were overpowered by the Asuras. In their extremity 
they resorted to Yish?m, who directed them to churn the ocean 
of milk for the production of the Amrita (water of life) and 
other precious things. In the Maha-bharata it is stated that on 
one occasion Knshrca entertained him hospitably, but omitted 
to wipe the fragments of food from the foot of the sage. At 
this the latter grew angry and foretold how Krishna should be 
killed. The Yishwu Pura??a states that Kn shwa fell according 
to " the imprecation of Dur-vasas," and in the same work Dur- 
vasas is made to describe himself as one " whose nature is 
stranger to remorse." 

DUR-YASASA PURAJVA. One of the eighteen Upa Pu- 
rarcas. See Purarca. 

DUR-YODHAKA. Hard to conquer. The eldest son of 
King Dhnta-rashfra, and leader of the Kaurava princes in the 
great war of the Maha-bharata. His birth was somewhat mar 
vellous. (See GandharL) Upon the death of his brother Parc<fu, 
Dhn ta-rash/ra took his five sons, the Pa7irfava princes, to his own 
court, and had them educated with his hundred sons. Bicker 
ings and jealousies soon sprang up between the cousins, and 
Dur-yodhana took a special dislike to Bhima on account of his 
skill in the use of the club. Dur-yodhana had learnt the use of 
this weapon under Bala-rana, and was jealous of any rival. He 
poisoned Bhima and threw his body into the Ganges, but Bhima 

I oo D UR- YODHA NA . 

sank to the regions of the Xagas, where he was restored to health 
and vigour. When Dlmta-rashfra proposed to make Yudhi- 
sh/hira heir-apparent, Dur-yodhana strongly remonstrated, and 
the result was that the Pa?ic?avas went into exile. Even then 
his animosity pursued them, and he laid a plot to burn them in 
their house, from which they escaped and retaliated upon his 
emissaries. After the return of the Pam/avas from exile, and 
their establishment at Indra-prastha, his anger was further 
excited by Yudhi-shz hira s performance of the Kaja-suya sacrifice. 
He prevailed on his father to invite the Pawrfavas to-Hastina- 
pura to a gambling match, in which, with the help of his 
confederate $akuni, he won from Yudhi-sh/hira everything he 
possessed, even to the freedom of himself, his brothers, and his 
wife DraupadT. Dur-yodhana exultingly sent for Draupadi to 
act as a slave and sweep the room. "When she refused to come, 
his brother, Du/i-sasana, dragged her in by the hair of her head, 
and Dur-yodhana insulted her by inviting her to sit upon his 
knee. This drew from Bhima a vow that he would one day 
smash Dur-yodhana s thigh. Dhn ta-rash/ra interfered, and the 
result of the gambling was that the Pa?if/avas again went into 
exile, and were to remain absent thirteen years. While the 
Pa%c?avas were living in the forest, Dur-yodhana went out for 
the purpose of gratifying his hatred with a sight of their poverty. 
He was attacked and made prisoner by the Gandharvas, probably 
hill people, and was rescued by the Pa?26?avas. This incident 
greatly mortified him. The exile of the Pa?ic?avas drew to a 
close. War was inevitable, and both parties prepared for the 
struggle. Dur-yodhana sought the aid of Krishna, but made 
the great mistake of accepting Krishna s army in preference to 
his personal attendance. He accompanied his army to the field, 
and on the eighteenth day of the battle, after his party had been 
utterly defeated, he fled and hid himself in a lake, for he was 
said to possess the power of remaining under water. He was 
discovered, and with great difficulty, by taunts and sarcasms, was 
induced to come out. It was agreed that he and Bhima should 
fight it out with clubs. The contest was long and furious, and 
Dur-yodhana was getting the best of it, when Bhima remembered 
his vow, and, although it was unfair to strike belo\v the waist, 
he gave his antagonist such a violent blow on the thigh that the 
bone was smashed and Dur-yodhana fell. Then Bhima kicked 


him on the head and triumphed over him. Left wounded and 
alone on the field, he was visited "by Aswatthaman, son of 
Dro?za, and two other warriors, the only survivors of his army. 
He thirsted for revenge, and directed them to slay all the Pa>2- 
rfavas, and especially to bring him the head of Bhima. These 
men entered the camp of the enemy, and killed the five youthful 
sons of the Paw/a vas. The version of the Maha-bharata used 
by Wheeler adds that these warriors brought the heads of the 
five youths to Dur-yodhana, representing them to be the heads 
of the five brothers. Dur-yodhana was unable in the twilight 
to distinguish the features, but he exulted greatly, and desired 
that Bhlma s head might be placed in his hands. With dying 
energy he pressed it with all his might, and when he found 
that it crushed, he knew that it was not the head of Bhima. 
Having discovered the deception that had been played upon 
him, with a redeeming touch of humanity he reproached Aswat- 
thiiman for his horrid deed in slaying the harmless youths, 
saying, with his last breath, " My enmity was against the 
PfiTZ^avas, not against these innocents." Dur-yodhana was 
called also Su-yodhana, good fighter/ 

DUSELAJVA. A Rakshasa who fought as one of the generals 
of Eava?za, and was killed by Kama. He was generally asso 
ciated with Havana s brother, Khara. 

DUSIIMAXTA, DUSHYANTA. A valiant king of the 
Lunar race, and descended from Puru. He was husband of 
/Sakuntala, by whom he had a son, Bharata. The loves of Dush- 
yanta and /Sakuntala, her separation from him, and her restora 
tion through the discovery of his token-ring in the belly of a 
fish, form the plot of Kali-dasa s celebrated play Sakuntala. 

DUTA^GADA. The ambassador Angada. A short play 
founded on the mission of Angada to demand from Havana the 
restoration of Situ. It is attributed to a poet named Subhafa, 


DWAPARA YUGA. The third age of the world, extending 
to 864,000 years. See Yuga. 

DWARAKA, DWARAYATI. The city of gates. Krzsliwa s 
capital, in Gujarat, which is said to have been submerged by 
the ocean seven days after his death. It is one of the seven 
eacred cities. Also called Abdhi-nagaii. 

DVriJARSIIIS. (Dwija-n shis.) See Brahmarshis. 


DWIPA. An insular continent. The Dwipas stretch out 
from the mountain Mem as their common centre, like the leaves 
of a lotus, and are separated from each other by distinct circum 
ambient oceans. They are generally given as seven in number : 
i. Jambu, 2. Plaksha or Go-medaka, 3. almala, 4. Kusa, 5. 
Krauncha, 6. $aka, 7. Pushkara; and the seas which surround 
them are i. Lavawa, salt water; 2. Ikshu, sugar-cane juice; 
3. Sura, wine ; 4. Sarpis or Ghn ta, clarified butter; 5. Dadhi, 
curds; 6. Dugdha or Kshira, milk; 7. Jala, fresh water. In 
the Maha-bharata four Dwipas are named: i. Bhadraswa, 2. 
Ketu-mala, 3. Jambu-dwlpa, 4. Uttara Kuru. Jambu-dwlpa 
has nine varshas or subdivisions: i. Bharata, 2. Kim-purusha, 
Kin-nara, 3. Hari-varsha, 4. Ila-vnta, which contains Meru ; 

5. Ramyaka, 6. Hira^-maya, 7. Uttara Kuru, 8. Bhadraswa, 9. 
Ketu-mala. According to the Vishwu Purawa, Bharata-varsha or 
India is divided into nine Dwipas or portions: i. Inclra-dwipa, 
2. Kaserumat, 3. Tamra-var^a, 4. Gabhastimat, 5. Naga-dwipa, 

6. Saumya, 7. Gandharva, 8. Yaru?za ; 9. is generally left without 
a name in the books, but Bhaskara Acharya calls it Kumaraka, 

DWIVIDA. i. An Asura in the form of a great ape, who 
was an implacable foe of the gods. He stole Bala-rama s plough 
share weapon and derided him. This was the beginning of a 
terrific fight, in which Dwivida was felled to the earth, and 
" the crest of the mountain on which he fell was splintered into 
a hundred pieces by the weight of his body, as if the Thunderer 
had shivered it with his thunderbolt." 2. A monkey ally of Kama. 

D YAUS. The sky, heaven. In the Yedas he is a masculine 
deity, and is called occasionally Dyaus-pit?i, heavenly father, 
the earth being regarded as the mother. He is father of Ushas, 
the dawn. Of. Z-ug, Dens, Jovis, Ju-piter. Dyava-pnthivi, 
heaven and earth, are represented as the universal parents, 
not only of men but of gods; but in other places they are 
spoken of as having been themselves created; and then, again, 
there are speculations as to their origin and priority. In one 
hymn it is asked, "Which of these two was the first and 
which the last? How have they been produced? Who 
knows 1 " The Datapaths Brahmawa declares in favour of the 
earth, saying, " This earth is the first of created beings." 

EKA-CHAKRA. A city in the country of the Kichakas, 
where, by advice of Yyasa, the Panrfavas dwelt for a time during 


their exile. General Cunningham has identified it with the 
modern Ara or Arrah. 

EKA-DANSHTRA, EKA-DANTA. Having one tusk. A 
name of Gawesa. 

EKALAVYA. Grandson of Deva-sravas, the brother of Vasu- 
deva. He was brother of /Satru-ghna. He was exposed in 
infancy, and was brought up among the Kishadas, of whom he 
became king. He assisted in a night attack upon Dwaraka, and 
was eventually killed by Krishna, who hurled a rock at him. 

EKAMRA, EKAMRA KANAKA. A forest in Utkala or 
Orissa, which was the favourite haunt of /Siva, and became a 
great seat of his worship as the city of Bhuvaneswara, where 
some very fine temples sacred to him still remain. They have 
been described by Babu Rajendra Lala in his great work on 

EKA-PADA. One-footed. A fabulous race of men spoken 
of in the Purawas. 

EKA-PARM, EKA-PATALA. These, with their sister 
Aparna, were, according to the Hari-vansa, daughters of Himavat 
and Mena, They performed austerities surpassing the powers 
of gods and Danavas, and alarmed both worlds. Eka-parwa 
took only one leaf for food, and Eka-pa/ala only one pa/ala 
(Bignonia). Aparwa took no sustenance at all and lived a-parna, 
without a leaf. Her mother being distressed at her abstinence, 
exclaimed in her anxiety, " U-ma " " don t." Through this 
she became manifest as the lovely goddess Uma, the wife of 

EKASHTAKA. A deity mentioned in the Atharva-veda 
as having practised austere devotion, and being the daughter of 
Prajapati and mother of Indra and Soma. 

EMUSHA In the Brahmana, a boar which raised up the 
earth, represented as black and with a hundred arms. This 
is probably the germ of the Varaha or boar incarnation. See 

GAD A. A younger brother of Krishna 

GADHI, GATHIK A king of the Ktisika race, and father 
of Viswamitra. He was son of Kusamba, or, according to the 
Vishnu Puriiwa, he was Indra, who took upon himself that form. 

GAI.AVA. A pupil of Viswamitra. It is related in the 
Maha-bharata that at the conclusion of his studies he importuned 


his master to say what present he should make him. Vi-swa- 
mitra was annoyed, and told him to bring 800 white horses, each 
having one black ear. In his perplexity Galava applied to 
Garuc?a, who took him to King Yayati at Pratish/hana. The 
king was unable to provide the horses, but he gave to Galava his 
daughter Madhavi. Galava gave her in marriage successively 
to Haryaswa, king of Ayodhya, Divo-dasa, king of Kasi, and 
Usinara, king of Bhoja, receiving from each of them 200 of the 
horses he was in quest of, upon the birth of a son to each from 
Madhavi. Notwithstanding her triple marriage and maternity, 
Madhavi, by a special boon, remained a virgin. Galava pre 
sented her and the horses to Viswamitra. The sage accepted 
them, and had a son by Madhavi, who was named Ash/aka. 
"When Vi.swamitra retired to the woods, he resigned his her 
mitage and his horses to Ashtaka, and Galava having taken 
Madhavi back to her father, himself retired to the forest as his 
preceptor had done. The horses were first obtained by the 
Brahman 72/chika from the god Varwza. They were originally 
1000 in number, but his descendants sold 600 of them, and 
gave the rest away to Brahmans. 

According to the Hari-vansa, Galava was son of Vi.swamitra, 
and that sage in a time of great distress tied a cord round his 
waist and offered him for sale. Prince Satyavrata (q.v.) gave 
him liberty and restored him to his father. From his having 
been bound with a cord (gala) he was called Galava. 

There was a teacher of the White Yajur-veda named Galava, 
and also an old grammarian named by Pa?iini. 

GA7VA-DEVATAS. Troops of deities. Deities who gene 
rally appear, or are spoken of, in classes. Nine such classes are 
mentioned: (i.) Adityas ; (2.) Yiswas or Yiswe-devas ; (3.) 
Yasus ; (4.) Tushitas ; (5.) Abhaswaras ; (6.) Anilas ; (7.) 
Maharajikas; (S.)Sadhyas; (9.) Eudras. These inferior deities 
are attendant upon $iva, and under the command of Ga^esa. 
They dwell on Gawa-parvata, i.e., Kailasa. 

GAJVA-PATI. See Gaercsa. 

GAJVAPATYA. A small sect who worship Gawa-pati or 
Ganesa as their chief deity. 

GAYAS. See Gawa-devatas. 

GAFDAKI. The river Gandak (vulg. Gunduk), in Oude. 

GANDHA-MADANA Intoxicating with fragrance. i. A 


mountain and forest in Havrita, the central region of tlie world, 
which contains the mountain Meru. The authorities are not 
agreed as to its relative position with Meru. 2. A general of the 
monkey allies of Kama. He was killed by Havana s son Indra-jit, 
but was restored to life by the medicinal herbs brought by Hanu- 
man from Mount Kailiisa. 

GANDHARA, GANDHARA. A country and city on the 
west bank of the Indus about Attock. Mahomedan geographers 
call it Kandahar, but it must not be confounded with the 
modern town of that name. It is the Gandaritis of the ancients, 
and its people are the Gandarii of Herodotus. The Vayu Pur- 
a??a says it was famous for its breed of horses. 

GANDHARI. Princess of Gandhara. The daughter of Su- 
bala, king of Gandhara, wife of Dhnta-rash/ra, and mother of 
his hundred sons. Her husband was blind, so she always wore 
a bandage over her eyes to be like him. Her husband and she, 
in their old age, both perished in a forest fire. She is also 
called by the patronymics Sauball and Saubaleyl. She is said 
to have owed her hundred sons to the blessing of Vyasa, who, 
in acknowledgment of her kind hospitality, offered her a boon. 
She asked for a hundred sons. Then she became pregnant,- and 
continued so for two years, at the end of which time she was 
delivered of a lump of flesh. Vyasa took the shapeless mass 
and divided it into 101 pieces, which he placed in as many 
jars. In due time Dur-yodhana was produced, but with such 
accompanying fearful portents that Dlmta-rash/ra was besought, 
though in vain, to abandon him. A month afterwards ninety- 
nine other sons came forth, and an only daughter, DuA-sala. 

GANDHARVA. The heavenly Gandharva of the Veda 
was a deity who knew and revealed the secrets of heaven and 
divine truths in general. He is thought by Goldstiicker to 
have been a personification of the fire of the sun. The Gand- 
harvas generally had their dwelling in the sky or atmosphere, 
and one of their offices was to prepare the heavenly soma juice 
for the gods. They had a great partiality for women, and had 
a mystic power over them. The Atharva-veda speaks of " the 
6333 Gandharvas." The Gandharvas of later times are similar 
in character; they have charge of the soma, are skilled in 
medicine, regulate the asterisms, and are fond of women. Those 
of Indra s heaven are generally intended by the term, and they 


are singers and musicians who attend the banquets of the gods. 
The Puranas give contradictory accounts of the origin of the 
Gandharvas. The Vishnu Purarca says, in one placej that they 
were born from Brahma, " imbibing melody. Drinking of the 
goddess of speech (gam dhayantah), they were born, and thence 
their appellation." Later on it says that they were the offspring 
of Kasyapa and his wife Arish/a. The Hari-vansa states that 
they sprang from Brahma s nose, and also that they were de 
scended from Muni, another of Kasyapa s wives. Chitra-ratha 
was chief of the Gandharvas ; and the Apsarases were their 
wives or mistresses. The " cities of the Gandharvas " are often 
referred to as being very splendid. The Yishmi Purtwa has a 
legend of the Gandharvas fighting with, the Nagas in the in 
fernal regions, whose dominions they seized and whose treasures 
they plundered. The N"aga chiefs appealed to Vishmi for relief, 
and he promised to appear in the person of Purukutsa to help them. 
Thereupon the Nagas sent their sister Narmada (the ISTerbudda 
river) to this Purukutsa, and she conducted him to the regions 
below, where he destroyed the Gandharvas. They are sometimes 
called Gatus and Pulakas. In the Maha-bharata, apparently, a 
race of people dwelling in the hills and wilds is so called. 


GANDHARVA-VEDA The science of music and song, 
which is considered to include the drama and dancing. It is 
an appendix of the Sama-veda, and its invention is ascribed to 
the Muni Bharata. 

GAKDINL i. Daughter of Kasl-raja ; she had been twelve 
years in her mother s womb when her father desired her to 
come f orth. The child told her father to present to the Brahmans 
a cow every day for three years, and at the end of that time she 
would be born. This was done, and the child, on being born, 
received the name of Gandim, cow daily. She continued the 
gift as long as she lived. She was wife of $wa-phalka and 
mother of_Akrura. 2. The Ganga or Ganges. 

GA7VDIVA. The bow of Arjuna, said to have been given by 
Soma to Varuwa, by Yariwa to Agni, and by Agni to Arjuna. 

GA^ESA (Gana + Isa), GA.VA-PATI. Lord of the Gawas 
or troops of inferior deities, especially those attendant upon 
Siva. Son of $iva and Parvati, or of Parvati only. One 
legend represents that he sprang from the scurf of Parvati s 

CANESA. 107 

body. He is the god of wisdom and remover of obstacles ; 
hence he is invariably propitiated at the beginning of any im 
portant undertaking, and is invoked at the commencement of 
books. He is said to have written down the Maha-bharata from 
the dictation of Vyasa. He is represented as a short fat man 
of a yellow colour, with a protuberant belly, four hands, and 
the head of an elephant, which has only one tusk. In one hand 
he holds a shell, in another a discus, in the third a club or 
goad, and in the fourth a water-lily. Sometimes he is de 
picted riding upon a rat or attended by one ; hence his appel 
lation Akhu ratha. His temples are very numerous in the 
Dakhin. There is a variety of legends accounting for his 
elephant head. One is that his mother Parvati, proud of her 
offspring, asked $ani (Saturn) to look at him, forgetful of the 
effects of /Sani s glance. ani looked and the child s head was 
burnt to ashes. Brahma told Parvati in her distress to replace 
the head with the first she could find, and that was an elephant s. 
Another story is that ParvatI went to her bath and told her son 
to keep the door. $iva wished to enter and was opposed, so he 
cut off Ga?iesa s head. To pacify ParvatI he replaced it with an 
elephant s, the first that came to hand. Another version is that 
his mother formed him so to suit her own fancy, and a further 
explanation is that iva slew Aditya the sun, but restored 
him to life again. For this violence Kasyapa doomed Diva s 
son to lose his head ; and when he did lose it, the head of Indra s 
elephant was used to replace it. The loss of one tusk is ac 
counted for by a legend which represents Parasu-rama as coming 
to Kailasa on a visit to $iva. The god was asleep and Gawesa 
opposed the entrance of the visitor to the inner apartments. 
A wrangle ensued, which ended in a fight. " Ga?zesahad at first 
the advantage, seizing Parasu-ruma with his trunk and giving 
him a twirl that left him sick and senseless. On recovering, 
Parasu-rama threw his axe at Ga?zesa, who, recognising it as his 
father s weapon (Siva, having given it to Parasu-rama), received 
it with all humility on one of his tusks, w r hich it immediately 
severed ; hence Gawesa has but one tusk, and is known by the 
name of Eka-danta or Eka-danshJra (the single-tusked). These 
legends are narrated at length in the Brahma Yaivartta Purarca. 
Gawesa is also called Gajanana, Gaja-vadana, and Kari-mukha, 
elephant-faced; Ileramba; boastful; Lamba-karrza, long- 


eared ; Lambodara, pendant - bellied ; Dwi - dclia, double- 
bodied; Vighnesa, Vighna-hari, remover of obstacles. A pecu 
liar appellation is Dwai-matura, having two mothers/ in allusion, 
it is said, to his birth from the scurf of Parvatl s body. 

GAJVEA-GlTA. The Bhagavad-gita, but with the name 
of Gawesa substituted for that of Krishna, It is used by the 
Ganapatyas or worshippers of Ga^esa. 

GAATE$A PUKAJVA. An Upa Purawa having especial refer 
ence to the glory and greatness of Gawesa. 

GANGA. The sacred river Ganges. It is said to be mentioned 
only twice in the ^ig-veda. The Purawas represent the Viyad- 
ganga, or heavenly Ganges, to flow from the toe of Vishmi, and 
to have been brought down from heaven, by the prayers of the 
saint Bhagiratha, to purify the ashes of the sixty thousand sons 
of King Sagara, who had been burnt by the angry glance of the 
sage Kapila. From this earthly parent the river is called 
Bhagirathi. Ganga was angry at being brought down from 
heaven, and /Siva, to save the earth from the shock of her fall, 
caught the river on his brow, and checked its course with his 
matted locks. From this action he is called Ganga-dhara, 
upholder of the Ganges. The river descended from Siva s 
brow in several streams, four according to some, and ten accord 
ing to others, but the number generally accepted is seven, being 
the Sapta-sindhava, the seven sindhus or rivers. The Ganges 
proper is one of the number. The descent of the Ganges dis 
turbed the sage Jahnu as he was performing a sacrifice, and in 
his anger he drank up the waters, but he relented and allowed 
the river to flow from his ear, hence the Ganges has the name 
of Jahnavi. Personified as a goddess, Ganga is the eldest 
daughter of Himavat and Mena, and her sister was Uma. She 
became the wife of King $antanu and bore a son, Bhishma; who is 
also known by the metronymic Gangeya. Being also, in a peculiar 
way, the mother of Kartikeya (q.v.), she is called Kumara-su. 
Gold, according to the Maha-bharata, was borne by the goddess 
Ganga to Agni, by whom she had been impregnated. Other 
names and titles of the Ganges are Bhadra-soma, Gandini, 
Kirati, Deva-bhuti, produced in heaven; Hara-sekhara, crest of 
/Siva; Khapaga, flowing from heaven; Mandakini, gently 
flowing ; Tri-patha-ga or Tri-srota/z, triple flowing, running in 
heaven, earth, and hell 


GAXGA-DIIAKA. A name of iva. See Gangii 

GAXGA-DWARA. The gate of the Ganges. The opening 
in the Himalaya mountains through which the river descends 
into the plains, now known as Hardwar. 

GAXGA-SAGARA. The mouth of the Ganges, a holy 
bathing-place sacred to Visk/ra. 

GAXGEYA. i. A name of Bhishma, from his reputed mother, 
the river goddess Ganga. 2. Also of Karttikeya. 

GAEGA. An ancient sage, and one of the oldest writers on 
astronomy. lie was a son of Vitatha. The Vishwu Purawa 
says, " From Garga sprang ma (or /S ini) ; from them were de 
scended the Gargyas and $ainyas, Brahmans of Kshatriya race." 
Tke statement of tke Bhagavata is, " From Garga sprang >Sina ; 
from them Gargya, who from a Kshatriya became a Brahman." 
There w r ere many Gargas ; one was a priest of K?isk??a and 
the Yadavas. 

GARGAS, GARGYAS. Descendants of Garga, who, 
" although Kshatriyas by birth, became Brahmans and great 
.A /shis." 

GARGYA, GARGYA BALAKI. Son of Balaki. He was a 
Brahman, renowned as a teacher and as a grammarian, who dealt 
especially with etymology, and was well read in the Yeda, but still 
submitted to receive instruction from the Kshatriya Ajata-satru. 

GARUDA. A mythical bird or vulture, half-man, half-bird, 
on which Vishmi rides. He is the king of birds, and descended 
from Kasyapa and Yinata, one of the daughters of Daksha. 
He is the great enemy of serpents, having inherited his hatred 
from his mother, who had quarrelled with her co-wife and 
superior, Kadru, the mother of serpents. His lustre was so 
brilliant that soon after his birth the gods mistook him for Agni 
and worshipped him. He is represented as having the head, 
wings, talons, and beak of an eagle, and the body and limbs of 
a man. His face is white, his wings red, and his body golden. 
He had a son named Sampati, and his wife was Unnati or 
Yinayaka. According to the Maha-bharata, his parents gave 
him liberty to devour bad men, but he was not to touch Brah 
mans. Once, however, he swallowed a Brahman and his wife, 
but the Brahman so burnt his throat that he was glad to dis 
gorge them both. 

Grauc/a is said to have stolen the Arnn ta from the gods in 


order to purchase with it the freedom of his mother from Kadru. 
Indra discovered the theft and fought a tierce battle with 
Garurfa. The Amn ta was recovered, but Indra was worsted in 
the fight, and his thunderbolt was smashed. 

Garut/a has many names and epithets. From his parents he 
is called Kasyapi and Vainateya. He is the Suparwa and the 
Garutman, or chief of birds. He is also called Dakshaya, S&L- 
malin, Tarkshya, and Yinayaka, and among his epithets are 
the following : Sitanana, white faced ; Rakta-paksha, red 
winged ; /Sweta-rohita, * the white and red ; Suvarfta-kaya, 
1 golden bodied ; Gaganeswara, lord of the sky ; Khageswara, 
king of birds ; Nagantaka, and Pannaga-nasana, destroyer 
of serpents ; Sarparati, enemy of serpents ; Taraswin, the 
swift ; Rasayana, who moves like quicksilver ; Kama-charin, 
who goes where he will ; Kamayus, who lives at pleasure ; 
Chirad, eating long ; Vislmu-ratha, vehicle of Ylshwu ; 
Amrtahara??a and Sudha-hara, stealer of the Am?ita ; Suren- 
dra-jit, l vanquisher of Indra ; Vajra-jit, subduer of the thun 
derbolt, &c. 

GARUZ>A PURA^V r A. The description given of this Pura^a 
is, " That which Vishnu recited in the Garuc^a Kalpa, relating 
chiefly to the birth of Garuc/a from Yinata, is called the Garuc?a 
Pura?ia, and in it there are read 19,000 stanzas." The works 
bearing this name which were examined by Wilson did not cor 
respond in any respect with this description, and he considered 
it doubtful if a genuine Garu^a PuraTia is in existence. 

GATHA. A song, a verse. A religious verse, but one not 
taken from the Yedas. Yerses interspersed in the Sanskrit 
Buddhist work called Lalita-vistara, which are composed in a 
dialect between the Sanskrit and the Prakrit, and have given 
their name to this the Gatha dialect. The Zend hymns of the 
Zoroastrians are also called Gathas. 

GATU. A singer, a Gandharva. 

GAU.DA, GAILftA. The ancient name of Central Bengal ; 
also the name of the capital of the country, the ruins of which 
city are still visible. The great northern nation of Brahmans. 
See Brahman. 

GAUPAYANAS. Sons or descendants of Gopa. Four 
7?/shis, who were the authors of four remarkable hymns in the 
72/g-veda. One of them, named Su-bandhu, was killed and 


miraculously brought to life again. The hymns have been 
translated by Max Miiller in the Journal E. A. S., vol. ii. 1866. 

GAUEL The yellow or brilliant, a name of the consort 
of /Siva. (See Devi.) Varuwa s wife also is called GaurL 

GAUTAMA, i. A name of the sage /Saradwat, as son of 
Gotama. He was husband of Ahalya, who was seduced by 
Indra. This seduction has been explained mythologically as 
signifying the carrying away of night by the morning sun, Indra 
being the sun, and Ahalya being explained as meaning night. 2. 
Author of a Dharma-sastra, which has been edited by Stenzler. 
3. A name common to many men. 

GAUTAMEtfA. < Lord of Gautama. Name of one of the 
twelve great Lingas. See Linga. 

GAUTAMI. i. An epithet of Durga. 2. Name of a fierce 
Rakshasi or female demon. 

GAY A. A city in Bihar. It is one of the seven sacred cities, 
and is still a place of pilgrimage, though its glory has departed. 

GAYATRI. A most sacred verse of the ^ g-veda, which it 
is the duty of every Brahman to repeat mentally in his morning 
and evening devotions. It is addressed to the sun as Savitn, 
the generator, and so it is called also Savit?v. Personified as a 
goddess, Savitft is the wife of Brahma, mother of the four Vedas, 
and also of the twice-born or three superior castes. Colebrooke s 
translation of the Gayatri is " Earth, sky, heaven. Let us medi 
tate on (these, and on) the most excellent light and power of that 
generous, sportive, and resplendent sun, (praying that) it may 
guide our intellects." Wilson s version is, in his translation of 
the ^ig-veda, " We meditate on that desirable light of the 
divine Savitri who influences our pious rites." In the Vish?zu 
Purana he had before given a somewhat different version, " We 
meditate on that excellent light of the divine sun : may he 
illuminate our minds." A later version by Benfey is, " May we 
receive the glorious brightness of this, the generator, of the god 
who shall prosper our works." 

Wilson observes of it: " The commentators admit some variety 
of interpretation ; but it probably meant, in its original use, a 
simple invocation of the sun to shed a benignant influence upon 
the customary offices of worship ; and it is still employed by the 
unphilosophical Hindus witli merely that signification. Later 
notions, and especially those of the Vcdfmta, have operated to 


attach to the text an import it did not at first possess, and have 
converted it into a mystical propitiation of the spiritual origin 
and essence of existence, or Brahma." It is considered so holy 
that copyists often refrain from transcribing it. 

The name given to $ata-rupa (q.v.), Brahma s female half, 
daughter, and consort, as " the declarer of sacred knowledge." 
It is also applied to the consort of $iva in the Hari-vansa. 

GHAIA-KARPARA. A poet, who was one of the " nine 
gems " of the court of Vikramaditya. There is a short artificial 
poem, descriptive of the rainy season, bearing this name, which 
has been translated into German by Dursch. The words mean 
potsherds, and form probably an assumed literary name. 

GHArOTKACHA. A son of Bhima by the Eakshasi 
Hi^imba. He was killed in the great battle by Kama with the 
fatal lance that warrior had obtained from Indra. 

GHOSHA. It is said in the Veda that the Aswins " bestowed 
a husband upon Ghosha growing old," and the explanatory 
legend is that she was a daughter of Kakshivat, but being a 
leper, was incapable of marriage. When she was advanced in 
years the Aswins gave her health, youth, and beauty, so that she 
obtained a husband. 

GELB/TACHL An Apsaras or celestial nymph. She had 
many amours with great sages and mortal men. She was mother 
of ten sons by Eaudraswa or Kusa-nabha, a descendant of Puru, 
and the Brahma Vaivartta Purawa attributes the origin of some 
of the mixed castes to her issue by the sage Viswa-karman. The 
Hari-vansa asserts that she had ten daughters as well as ten sons 
by Eaudraswa. Another legend represents her as mother by 
Kusa-nabha of a hundred daughters, whom Vayu wished to 
accompany him to the sky. They refused, and in his rage he 
cursed them to become deformed; but they recovered their 
natural shape and beauty, and were married to Brahma-datta, 
king of Kampila. 

GIRI-JA. Mountain born. A name of Parvati or Devi. 
See Devi. 

GIRI-VRAJA. A royal city in Magadha, identified with 
Eaja-grtha in Bihar. 

GIT A. The Bhagavad-gita (q.v.). 

GlTA-GOVINDA. A lyrical poem by Jaya-cleva on the 
early life of Knslitta as Govinda the cowherd. It is an erotic 


work, and sings the loves of Krishna with Riidlia, and other of 
the cowherd damsels, but a mystical interpretation has been put 
upon it. The poems are supposed to have been written about 
the twelfth or thirteenth century. There are some translations 
in the Asiatic Researches by Sir W. Jones, and a small volume 
of translations has been lately published by Mr. Edwin Arnold. 
There is also an edition of the text, with a Latin translation and 
notes, by Lassen, and there are some others. 

GOBIIILA. An ancient writer of the Sutra period. He was 
author of some Grihya Sutras, and of some Sutras on gram 
mar. The Gr/hya Sutras have been published in the Bibliotheca 

GO-KAR./VA. Cow s ear. A place of pilgrimage sacred to 
$iva, on the west coast, near Mangalore. 

GO-KULA. A pastoral district on the Yamuna, about Ma- 
thura, where Krishna passed his boyhood with the cowherds. 

GO-LOKA. The place of cows. Krishna s heaven; a 
modern addition to the original series of seven Lokas. 

GO-MANTA A great mountain in the Western Ghats. 
According to the Hari-vansa it was the scene of a defeat of 
Jara-sandha by Krishna. 

GO-MATI. The Gumtl river in Oude ; but there are others 
which bore the name. One fell into the Sindhu or Indus. 

GO-PAL A, GO-VINDA. Cow-keeper. A name of the 
youthful Krish?ia, who lived among the cowherds in Vnnda- 

GOPALA-TAPANI. An Upanishad in honour of Krishna, 
Printed in the Bibliotheca Indica. 

GO-PATH A BRAHMAAA. The Brahmana of the Atharva 
or fourth Veda. It has been published by Rajendra Lala in the 
Bibliotheca Indica. 

GOPATI-jR/SHABHA. < Chief of herdsmen. i. A title of 
iva, 2. A demon mentioned in the Maha-bharata as slain by 

GOPlS. The cowherd damsels, and wives with whom 
Krishna sported in his youth. 

GOTAMA The founder of the Nyaya school of philosophy. 
He is called also $atananda, and is author of a Dharma-sastra 
or law-book, which has been edited by Stenzler. He is fre 
quently called Gautama, 


GO-VAKDIIANA. A mountain in Ynndavana, which 
Krishna induced the cowherds and cowherdesses to worship 
instead of Indra. This enraged the god, who sent a deluge 
of rain to wash away the mountain and all the people of the 
country, but, held up the mountain on his little finger 
for seven days to shelter the people of Vnndavana. Indra 
retired baffled, and afterwards did homage to K>shwa. 

GO VARDH ANA-DHAKA. Upholder of Govardhana. A 
title of Krishna. 

GO-VTNDA. Cow-keeper. A name of Knshwa. 

GEAHA. Seizing. i. The power that seizes and obscures 
the sun and moon, causing eclipses ; the ascending node, Ralm. 
2. Evil spirits with which people, especially children, are pos 
sessed, and which cause sickness and death. They are supposed 
to be amenable to medicine and exorcism. 

GJ2/HA-STHA. Householder. A Brahman in the second 
stage of his religious life. See Brahman. 

G^/HYA SUTRAS. Rules for the conduct of domestic 
rites and the personal sacraments, extending from the birth to 
the marriage of a man. (See Sutra.) The Grihya Sutras of 
Aswalayana have been printed in the Bibliotheca Indica. 

G^/TS A-MADA. The reputed fiishi of many hymns in the 
second Mawefala of the .Rig-veda. According to the Vishmi 
PuraTia he was a Kshatriya and son of $una-hotra, being de 
scended from Pururavas of the Lunar race. From him sprang 
$aunaka, the eminent sage versed in the J^g-veda " who origi 
nated the system of four castes." The Vayu Puraw-a makes 
$unaka to be the son of Gntsa-mada, and $aunaka the son of 
$unaka : this seems probable. " It is related of him by Sayawa 
that he was first a member of the family of Angiras, being the 
son of $una-hotra. He was carried off by the Asuras whilst 
performing a sacrifice, but was rescued by Indra, under whose 
authority he was henceforth designated as Gntsa-mada, the son 
of $unaka or $aunaka of the race of Blm gu. Thus the Anukra- 
mamka says of him : He who was an Angirasa, the son of 
/Suna-hotra, became /Saunaka of the race of Blm gu." According 
to the Maha-bharata, he was son of Vlta-havya, a king of the 
Haihayas, a Kshatriya, who became a Brahman. (See Vita- 
havya.) The Maha-bharata alludes to a legend of his having 
assumed the semblance of Indra, and so enabled that deity to 


from the Asuras, who were lying in wait to destroy him. 
There are several versions of the story, but they all agree that 
after Indra had escaped Gritsa-mada saved himself by reciting 
a hymn in which he showed that Indra was a different person. 

GILDA-KESA. Whose hair is in tufts. An epithet of 

GUHA. Secret. i. A name of the god of war. (See 
Karttikeya.) 2. A king of the Mshadas or Bhils, who was 
a friend of Rama. 3. A people near Kalinga, who possibly 
got their name from him. 

GUHYAKAS. Hidden beings. Inferior divinities atten 
dant upon Kuvera, and guardians of his hidden treasures. 

GUPTAS. A dynasty of kings who reigned in Magadha. 
The period of their ascendancy has been a subject of great con 
tention, and cannot be said to be settled. 

GURJJARA. The country of Gujarat. 

HAIHAYA. This name is supposed to be derived from 
haya, a horse. i. A prince of the Lunar race, and great-grandson 
of Yadu. 2. A race or tribe of people to whom a Scythian origin 
has been ascribed. The Vishnu Purima represents them as de 
scendants of Haihaya of the Yadu race, but they are generally 
associated with borderers and outlying tribes. In the Vuyu and 
other Pura?zas, five great divisions of the tribe are named : Tala- 
janghas, Yiti-hotras, Avantis, Tu?zf/ikeras, and Jatas, or rather 
Su-jatas. They conquered Balm or Balmka, a descendant of 
King Ilari.s-chandra, and were in their turn conquered, along with 
many other barbarian tribes, by King Sagara, son of Balm. 
According to the Maha-bharata, they were descended from /Sar- 
yuti, a son of Manu. They made incursions into the Doab, and 
they took the city of Kasl (Benares), which had been fortified 
against them by King Divo-dasa ; but the grandson of this king, 
Pratardana by name, destroyed the Haihayas, and re-established 
the kingdom of Kasl. Arjuna-Kurtavirya, of a thousand arms, 
was king of the Haihayas, and he was defeated and had his 
arms cut off by Parasu-rama. 

The Vindhya mountains would seem to have been the home 
of these tribes ; and according to Colonel Todd, a tribe of Hai 
hayas still exists " near the very top of the valley of Sohagpoor, 
in Bhagclkliand, aware of their ancient lineage, and, though 
few i". number, still celebrated for their valour." 


HAL A-BKR/T. Bearing a plough. Bala-rama. 

HALAYUDHA. Who has a ploughshare for his weapon/ 
i.e., Bala-rama. 

HANSA. i. This, according to the Bhagavata Purarca, was 
the name of the " one caste," when, in olden times, there was 
only " one Veda, one God, and one caste." 2. A name used 
in the Maha-bharata for "Krishna. 3. A mountain range north 
of Mem. 

HANSA. Hansa and Dimbhaka were two great warrior- 
brothers mentioned in the Maha-bharata as friends of Jara-sandha. 
A certain king also named Hansa was killed by Bala-rama. 
Hearing that " Hansa was killed," Dimbhaka, unable to live 
without him, committed suicide, and when Hansa heard of this 
he drowned himself in the Yamuna. 

monkey chief. He was son of Pavana, * the wind, by Anjana, 
wife of a monkey named Kesari. He was able to fly, and is 
a conspicuous figure in the Eamaya?za. He and the other 
monkeys who assisted Kama in his war against Eavawa were of 
divine origin, and their powers were superhuman. Hanuman. 
jumped from India to Ceylon in one bound ; he tore up trees, 
carried away the Himalayas, seized the clouds, and performed 
many other wonderful exploits. (See Surasa.) His form is "as 
vast as a mountain and as tall as a gigantic tower. His com 
plexion is yellow and glowing like molten gold. His face is as 
red as the brightest ruby ; while his enormous tail spreads out 
to an interminable length. He stands on a lofty rock and roars 
like thunder. He leaps into the air, and flies among the clouds 
with a rushing noise, whilst the ocean waves are roaring and 
splashing below." In one of his fights with Kavawa and the 
Eakshasas, they greased his tail and set it on fire, but to their 
own great injury, for with it he burnt down their capital city, 
Lanka. This exploit obtained for him the name Lanka-dahi. 
His services to Eama were great and many. He acted as his 
spy, and fought most valiantly. He flew to the Himalayas, 
from whence he brought medicinal herbs with which he restored 
the wounded, and he killed the monster Kala-nemi, and thou 
sands of Gandharvas who assailed him. He accompanied Eama 
on his return to Ayodhya, and there he received from him the 
reward of perpetual life and youth. The exploits of Hanuman 


are favourite topics among Hindus from childhood to age, and 
paintings of them are common. He is called Marut-putra, and 
he has the patronymics Anili, Maruti, &c., and the metronymic 
Anjaneya. He is also Yoga-chara, from his power in magic or 
in the healing art, and Kajata-dyuti, the brilliant. Among his 
other accomplishments, Hanumat was a grammarian ; and the 
Kiimiiyawa says, "The chief of monkeys is perfect; no one 
equals him in the sastras, in learning, and in ascertaining the 
sense of the scriptures [or in moving at will]. In all sciences, 
in the rules of austerity, he rivals the preceptor of the gods. 

... It is well known that Hanumat was the ninth author 
of grammar." Muir, iv. 490. 

HANUMAX-XATAKA. A long drama by various hands 
upon the adventures of the monkey chief Hanuman. This 
drama is fabled to have been composed by Hanuman, and in 
scribed by him on rocks. Valmiki, the author of the Eamayawa, 
saw it and feared that it would throw his own poem into the 
shade. He complained to the author, who told him to cast the 
verses into the sea. He did so, and they remained concealed 
there for ages. Portions were discovered and brought to King 
Bhoja, who directed Damodara Misra to arrange them and fill 
up the lacunae He did so, and the result was this drama. 
" It is probable," says Wilson, " that the fragments of an ancient 
drama were connected in the manner described. Some of the 
ideas are poetical, and the sentiments just and forcible ; the 
language is generally very harmonious, but the work itself is, 
after all, a most disjointed and nondescript composition, and the 
patchwork is very glaringly and clumsily put together." It is a 
work of the tenth or eleventh century. It has been printed in 

HAEA. A name of $iva. 

HAEL A name which commonly designates Vishnu, but it 
is exceptionally used for other gods. 

HAEI-D AVAEA. < The gate of Hari. The modern Hardwar. 
The place where the Ganges finally breaks through the moun 
tains into the plains of Hindustan. It is a great place of 

HAEI-HAEA. A combination of the names of Vishmi and 
$iva, and representing the union of the two deities in one, a 
combination which is differently accounted for. 

1 1 8 HA RIS- CIIA NDRA . 

HAKIS-CHANDKA. Twenty-eighth king of the Solar race, 
and son of Tri-sanku. He was celebrated for his piety and 
justice. There are several legends about him. The Aitareya 
Brahmawa tells the story of his purchasing $unaA -sephas to be 
offered up as a vicarious sacrifice for his own son. (See una/i- 
sephas.) The Maha-bharata relates that he was raised to the 
heaven of Indra for his performance of the Raja-suya sacrifice 
and for his unbounded liberality. The Markara?eya Purlwa 
expands the story at considerable length. One day while Haris- 
chandra was hunting he heard female lamentations, which pro 
ceeded " from the Sciences, who were being mastered by the 
austerely fervid sage Viswamitra, and were crying out in alarm 
at his superiority." Haris-chandra, as defender of the distressed, 
went to the rescue, but Viswamitra was so provoked by his 
interference that the Sciences instantly perished, and Haris- 
chandra was reduced to a state of abject helplessness. Viswa 
mitra demanded the sacrificial gift due to him as a Brahman, 
and the king offered him whatever he might choose to ask, 
" gold, his own son, wife, body, life, kingdom, good fortune," 
whatever was dearest. Viswamitra stripped him of wealth and 
kingdom, leaving him nothing but a garment of bark and his 
wife and son. In a state of destitution he left his kingdom, 
and Viswamitra struck $aibya, the queen, with his staff to hasten 
her reluctant departure. To escape from his oppressor he pro 
ceeded to the holy city of Benares, but the relentless sage was 
waiting for him and demanded the completion of the gift. 
With bitter grief wife and child were sold, and there remained 
only himself. Dharma, the god of justice, appeared in the 
form of a hideous and offensive Chaw/ala, and offered to buy 
him. Notwithstanding the exile s repugnance and horror, 
Viswamitra insisted upon the sale, and Haris-chanclra was 
carried off "bound, beaten, confused, and afflicted," to the 
abode of the ChawcZala. He was sent by his master to steal 
grave-clothes from a cemetery. In this horrid place and de 
grading work he spent twelve months. His wife then came 
to the cemetery to perform the obsequies of her son, who had 
died from the bite of a serpent. They recognised each other, 
and Haris-chandra and his wife resolved to die upon the funeral 
pyre of their son, though he hesitated to take away his own life 
without the consent of his master. After all was prepared, he 


gave himself up to meditation on Vishnu. The gods then 
arrived, headed by Dharma and accompanied by Viswamitra. 
Dharma entreated him to refrain from his intention, and Indra 
informed him " that he, his wife, and son, had conquered heaven 
by their good works." Haris-chandra declared that he could not 
go to heaven without the permission of his master the ChawZala. 
Dharma then revealed himself. When this difficulty was 
removed, Haris-chandra objected to go to heaven without his 
faithful subjects. " This request was granted by Indra, and 
after Viswamitra had inaugurated Rohitaswa, the king s son, to 
be his successor, Haris-chandra, his friends, and followers, all 
ascended in company to heaven." There he was induced by 
the sage ISTarada to boast of his merits, and this led to his 
expulsion from heaven. As he was falling he repented of his 
fault and was forgiven. His downward course was arrested, 
and he and his followers dwell in an aerial city, which, accord 
ing to popular belief, is still visible occasionally in mid-air. 

HARITA, HARITA. i. A son of Yuvanaswa of the Solar 
race, descended from Ikshwaku. From him descended the 
Harita Angirasas. In the Linga Purima it is said, " The son of 
Yuvanaswa was Harita, of whom the Haritas were sons. They 
were, on the side of Angiras, twice-born men (Brahmans) of 
Kshatriya lineage ; " or according to the Vayu, " they were the 
sons of Angiras, twice-born men (Brahmans), of Kshatriya race," 
possibly meaning that they were sons raised up to Harita by 
Angiras. According to some he was a son of Chyavana. 2. 
Author of a Dharma-sastra or law-book. 


HARITS, HARITAS. Green. In the JKg-veda the horses, 
or rather mares, of the sun, seven or ten in number, and typical 
of his rays. " The prototype of the Grecian Charites." Max 

HARI-VAN3A. The genealogy of Hari or Vishrcu, a long 
poem of 16,374 verses. It purports to be a part of the Maha- 
bharata, but it is of much later date, and " may more accurately 
be ranked with the Pauramk compilations of least authenticity 
and latest date." It is in three parts ; the first is introductory, 
and gives particulars of the creation and of the patriarchal and 
regal dynasties ; the second contains the life and adventures of 
Kn sh/ia ; and the last and the third treats of the future of the 


world and the corruptions of the Kali age. It contains many 
indications of its having been written in the south of India. 

H ARSHAiYA. A deity who presides over the $raddha offerings. 

HARYA$\YA. A grandson of the Kuvalayaswa who killed 
the demon Dhundhu. The country of Panchala is said to have 
been named from his five (pancha). sons. There were several 
others of this name. 

HARYASWAS. Five thousand sons of the patriarch 
Daksha, begotten by him for the purpose of peopling the earth. 
The sage Narada dissuaded them from producing offspring, and 
they " dispersed themselves through the regions and have not 

HASTIKi-PURA. The capital city of the Kauravas, for 
which the great war of the Maha-bharata was waged. It was 
founded by Hastin, son of the first Bharata, and hence, as some 
say, its name ; but the Maha-bharata and the Yislmu Purawa 
call it the " elephant city," from hastin, an elephant. The ruins 
are traceable near an old bed of the Ganges, about 57 miles 
X.E. of Delhi, and local tradition has preserved the name. It 
is said to have been washed away by the Ganges. 

HASYARYAYA. Ocean of laughter. A modern comic 
piece in two acts, by a "Pandit named Jagadisa. "It is a severe 
but grossly indelicate satire upon the licentiousness of Brah- 
mans assuming the character of religious mendicants." Wilson. 

HAVIR-BHUJ, HAYISH-MATA. Pitris or Manes of the 
Kshatriyas, and inhabitants of the solar sphere. See Pitn s. 

HAYA-GRlYA. Horse-necked. According to one legend, 
a Daitya who stole the Yeda as it slipped out of the mouth of 
Brahma while he was sleeping at the end of a kalpa, and was 
killed by Yislmu in the Fish Avatara. According to another, 
Yislmu himself, who assumed this form to recover the Yeda, 
which had been carried off by two Daityas. 

HAYA-SIRAS, HAYA-lRSHA. Horse-head. In the 
Maha-bharata it is recorded that the sage Aurva (q.v.) "cast the 
fire of his anger into the sea," and that it there " became the 
great Haya-siras, known to those acquainted with the Yeda, 
which vomits forth that fire and drinks up the waters." A form 
of Yislmu. 

In the Bhagavata Purawa Brahma is represented as saying, 
" In my sacrifice Bhagavat himself was Haya-sirsha, the male of 


the sacrifice, whose colour is that of gold, of whom the Vedns 
and the sacrifices are the substance and the gods the soul ; 
when he respired, charming words came forth from his nostrils." 

HEMA-CHANDEA. Author of a good Sanskrit vocabulary, 
printed under the superintendence of Colebrooke. 

HEMADEI. The golden mountain/ i.e., Mem. 

HEMA-KUIA. Golden peak. A chain of mountains re 
presented as lying north of the Himalayas, between them and 
Mount Meru. 

HLDIMBA (mas.), HLDIMBA (fern.). A powerful Asura, 
who had yellow eyes and a horrible aspect. He was a cannibal, 
and dwelt in the forest to which the Pa?zd r avas retired after the 
burning of their house. He had a sister named Hic/imba, whom 
he sent to lure the PaT^avas to him; but on meeting with Bhima, 
she fell in love with him, and offered to carry him away to 
safety on her back. Bhima refused, and while they were par 
leying, Hirfimba came up, and a terrible fight ensued, in which 
Bhima killed the monster, Hk/imba was at first much terrified 
and fled, but she returned and claimed Bhima for her husband. 
By his mother s desire Bhima married her, and by her had a 
eon named Ghafotkacha. 

HIMACHALA, HIMADEI. The Himalaya mountains. 

HIMAVAT. The personification of the Himalaya mountains, 
husband of Mena or Menaka, and father of Uma and Gangii. 

HIEA^YA-GAEBHA. Golden egg or golden womb. 
In the 7?/g-veda Hirawya-garbha " is said to have arisen in the 
beginning, the one lord of all beings, who upholds heaven 
and earth, who gives life and breath, whose command even the 
gods obey, who is the god over all gods, and the one animating 
principle of their being." According to Manu, Hira^ya-garbha 
was Brahma, the first male, formed by the undiscernible eternal 
First Cause in a golden egg resplendent as the sun. " Having 
continued a year in the egg, Brahma divided it into two parts 
by his mere thought, and with these two shells he formed the 
heavens and the earth ; and in the middle he placed the sky, 
the eight regions, and the eternal abode of the waters." See 

HIEANYAKSHA. Golden eye. A Daitya who dragged the 
earth to the depths of the ocean. He was twin-brother of Hira- 
wyakasipu, and was killed by Vishnu in the Boar incarnation. 


HIKAYYA-KAtflPU. < Golden dress. A Daitya who, ac 
cording to the Maha-bharata and the Purawas, obtained from /Siva 
the sovereignty of the three worlds for a million of years, and 
persecuted his son Prahlada for worshipping Vishwu. He was 
slain by Vislmu in the Nara-sinha, or man-lion incarnation. He 
and Hirawyaksha were twin-brothers and chiefs of the Daityas. 

HITOPADE/SA. Good advice. The well-known collection 
of ethical tales and fables compiled from the larger and older 
work called Pancha-tantra. It has been often printed, and there 
are several translations; among them is an edition by Johnson 
of text, vocabulary, and translation. 

HOTEL A priest who recites the prayers from the fiig- 

Hjft/SHIKE/SA. A name of Kn shna or Yislmu. 

HUA T AS. According to Wilson, " the White Huns or Indo- 
Scythians, who were established in the Panjab and along the 
Indus at the commencement of our era, as we know from Arrian, 
Strabo, and Ptolemy, confirmed by recent discoveries of their 
coins," and since still further confirmed by inscriptions and 
additional coins. Dr. Eitzedward Hall says, "I am not pre 
pared to deny that the ancient Hindus, when they spoke of 
the Hunas, intended the Huns. In the Middle Ages, however, 
it is certain that a race called Hu?ia was understood by the 
learned of India to form a division of the Kshatriyas." V. P. 
ii. 134. 

HUN-DE$A. The country round Lake Manasarovara. 

HUSHKA HUYISHKA. A Tushkara or Turki king, whose 
name is mentioned in the Raja Tarangiwi as Hushka, which has 
been found in inscriptions as Huvishka, and upon the corrupt 
Greek coins as Oerki. He is supposed to have reigned just at 
the commencement of the Christian era. See Kanishka. 

IDA. In the Ttfg-veda Ida, is primarily food, refreshment, or 
a libation of milk ; thence a stream of praise, personified as the 
goddess of speech. She is called the instructress of Manu, and 
frequent passages ascribe to her the first institution of the rules 
of performing sacrifices. According to Saya??a, she is the goddess 
presiding over the earth. A legend in the atapatha Brahmawa 
represents her as springing from a sacrifice which Manu per 
formed for the purpose of obtaining offspring. She was claimed 
by Mitra-Varu?ia, but remained faithful to him who had pro- 

1DAINDRA. 123 

duced her. Mann lived with her, and praying and fasting to 
obtain offspring, he begat upon her the race of Manu. In 
the Pura?ms she is daughter of the Manu Yaivaswata, wife of 
Budha (Mercury), and mother of Purfiravas. The Manu Yaivas 
wata, before he had sons, instituted a sacrifice to Mitra and 
Vanma for the purpose of obtaining one; but the officiating 
priest mismanaged the performance, and the result was the birth 
of a daughter, Ida, or Ila. Through the favour of the two 
deities her sex was changed, and she became a man, Su-dyumna. 
Under the malediction of iSiva, Su-dyumna was again turned into 
a woman, and, as Ila, married Budha or Mercury. After she had 
given birth to Pururavas, she, under the favour of Yishwu, once 
more became Su-dyumna, and was the father of three sons. 
According to another version of the legend, the Manu s eldest 
son was named Ila. He having trespassed on a grove sacred 
to Parvati, was changed into a female, Ila. Upon the supplica 
tions and prayers of Ila s friends, $iva and his consort conceded 
that the offender should be a male one month and a female 
another. There are other variations in the story which is appa 
rently ancient. 

LDAVLDA. Daughter of Trwabindu and the Apsaras Alam- 
busha. There are different statements in the Puranas as regards 
her. She is represented to be the wife of Yisravas and mother 
of Kuvera, or the wife of Pulastya and mother of Yisravas. 

IKSHWAKU. Son of the Manu Yaivaswat, who was son 
of Yivaswat, the sun. " He was born from the nostril of the 
Manu as he happened to sneeze." Ikshwaku was founder of the 
Solar race of kings^ and reigned in Ayodhya at the beginning of 
the second Yuga or age. He had a hundred sons, of whom the 
eldest was Yikukshi. Another son, named Niini, founded the 
Mithila dynasty. According to Max Miiller the name is men 
tioned once, and only once, in the 72/g-veda. Respecting this 
he adds : " I take it, not as the name of a king, but as the name 
of a people, probably the people who inhabited Bhajeratha, the 
country washed by the northern Ganga or BhaglrathL" Others 
place the Ikshwakus in the north-west. 

ILA, ILA. See Ida. 

ILAYILA. See L/avirfa. 

ILYALA. See Yatapi. 

INDKA. The god of the firmament, the personified atmo- 

124 INDRA. 

sphere. In the Vedas he stands in the first rank among tho 
gods, but he is not uncreate, and is represented as having a 
father and mother : " a vigorous god begot him ; a heroic female 
brought him forth." He is described as being of a ruddy or 
golden colour, and as having arms of enormous length ; " but 
his forms are endless, and he can assume any shape at will." 
He rides in a bright golden car, drawn by two tawny or ruddy 
horses with flowing manes and tails. His weapon is the thun 
derbolt, which he carries in his right hand ; he also uses arrows, 
a great hook, and a net, in which he is said to entangle his foes. 
The soma juice is his especial delight; he takes enormous 
draughts of it, and, stimulated by its exhilarating qualities, he 
goes forth to war against his foes, and to perform his other 
duties. As deity of the atmosphere, he governs the weather 
and dispenses the rain; he sends forth his lightnings and 
thunder, and he is continually at war with Vn tra or Ahi, the 
demon of drought and inclement weather, whom he overcomes 
with his thunderbolts, and compels to pour down the rain. 
Strabo describes the Indians as worshipping Jupiter Pluvius, no 
doubt meaning Indra, and he has also been compared to Jupiter 
Tonans. One myth is that of his discovering and rescuing the 
cows of the priests or of the gods, which had been stolen by an 
Asura named Pawi or Yala, whom he killed, and he is hence 
called Yala-bhid. He is frequently represented as destroying the 
"stone-built cities" of the Asuras or atmospheric demons, and of 
the Dasyus or aborigines of India. In his warfare he is sometimes 
represented as escorted by troops of Maruts, and attended by his 
comrade Vishmi. More hymns are addressed to Indra than to any 
other deity in the Yedas, with the exception of Agni. For he 
was reverenced in his beneficent character as the bestower of rain 
and the cause of fertility, and he was feared as the awful ruler 
of the storm and director of the lightning and thunder. In 
many places of the J&g-veda the highest divine functions and 
attributes are ascribed to him. There was a triad of gods 
Agni, Vayu, and Surya which held a pre-eminence above the 
rest, and Indra frequently took the place of Vayu. In some 
parts of the Veda, as Dr. Muir remarks, the ideas expressed of 
Indra are grand and lofty; at other times he is treated with 
familiarity, and his devotion to the soma juice is dilated upon, 
though nothing debasing is perceived in his sensuality. Indra 

INDRA. 125 

is mentioned as having a wife, and the name of Iiulriiwi or 
Aindrl is invoked among the goddesses. In the tfataputha 
Bmlimawa she is called India s beloved wife. 

In the later mythology Indra has fallen into the second rani;. 
He is inferior to the triad, but he is the chief of all the other 
gods. He is the regent of the atmosphere and of the east 
quarter of the compass, and he reigns over Swarga, the heaven 
of the gods and of beatified spirits, which is a region of great 
magnificence and splendour. He retains many of his Vedic 
characteristics, and some of them are intensified. He sends the 
lightning and hurls the thunderbolt, and the rainbow is his bow. 
He is frequently at war with the Asuras, of whom he lives in 
constant dread, and by whom he is often worsted. But he slew 
the demon Vntra, who, being regarded as a Brahman, Indra had 
to conceal himself and make sacrifice until his guilt was purged 
away. His continued love for the soma juice is shown by a 
legend in the Maha-bharata, which represents him as being com 
pelled by the sage Chyavana to allow the Aswins to partake of 
the soma libations, and his sensuality has now developed into 
an extreme lasciviousness. Many instances are recorded of his 
incontinence and adultery, and his example is frequently referred 
to as an excuse in cases of gallantry, as by King JS"ahusha when 
he tried to obtain Indra s wife while the latter was hiding in 
fear for having killed the Brahman in the person of the demon 
Vntra. According to the Maha-bharata he seduced, or endea 
voured to seduce, Ahalya, the \vife of the sage Gautama, and 
that sage s curse impressed upon him a thousand marks resem 
bling the female organ, so he was called Sa-yoni; but these 
marks were afterwards changed to eyes, and he is hence called 
Ketra-yoni, and Sahasraksha the thousand-eyed. In the 
Ramaya?za it is related that Ravawa, the Rakshasa king of Lanka 
or Ceylon, warred against Indra in his own heaven, and that 
Indra was defeated and carried off to Lanka by Ravawa s son 
Megha-nada, who for this exploit received the title of Indra-jit 
(q.v.), * conqueror of Indra. Brahma and the gods had to sue 
for the release of Indra, and to purchase it with the boon of 
immortality to the victor. Brahma then told the humiliated 
god that his defeat was a punishment for the seduction of 
Ahalya. The Taittiriya Bralimawa states that he chose Indra //i 
to be his wife in preference to other goddesses because of her 

126 INDRA. 

voluptuous attractions, and later authorities say that he ravished 
her, and slew her father, the Daitya Puloman, to escape his 
curse. Mythologically he was father of Arjuna (q.v.), and for 
him he cheated Kama of his divine coat of mail, but gave 
Kama in recompense a javelin of deadly effect. His libertine 
character is also shown by his frequently sending celestial 
nymphs to excite the passions of holy men, and to beguile them 
from the potent penances which he dreaded. 

In the Pura?zas many stories are told of him, and he appears 
especially in rivalry with K?ishwa. He incurred the wrath of 
the choleric sage Dur-vasas by slighting a garland of flowers 
which that sage presented to him, and so brought upon himself 
the curse that his whole dominion should be whelmed in ruin. 
He was utterly defeated by the Daityas, or rather by their ally, 
Eaja, son of Ayus, and grandson of Pururavas, and he was 
reduced to such a forlorn condition that he, " the god of a hun 
dred sacrifices," was compelled to beg for a little sacrificial 
butter. Puffed up by their victory, his conquerors neglected 
their duties, and so they became the easy prey of Indra, who 
recovered his dominion. The Bhagavata Pura?ia represents him 
as having killed a Brahman, and of being haunted by that crime, 
personified as a Chaw^uli. 

Indra had been an object of worship among the pastoral 
people of Vraja, but K? ishwa persuaded them to cease this 
worship. Indra was greatly enraged at this, and sent a deluge 
of rain to overwhelm them; but K? ish%a lifted up the mountain, 
Govardhana on his finger to shelter them, and so held it for 
seven days, till Indra was baffled and rendered homage to 
Kn slma. Again, when Kn slma went to visit Swarga, and was 
about to carry off the Parijata tree, Indra resented its removal, 
and a fierce fight ensued, in which Indra was worsted, and the 
tree was carried off. Among the deeds of Indra recorded in 
the Purawas is that of the destruction of the offspring of Diti 
in her womb, and the production therefrom of the Maruts (see 
Diti) ; and there is a story of his cutting off the wings of the 
mountains with his thunderbolts, because they were refractory 
and troublesome. Indra is represented as a fair man riding on 
a white horse or an elephant, and bearing the vajra or thunder 
bolt in his hand. His son is named Jayanta. Indra is not the 
object of direct worship, but he receives incidental adoration, 


and there is a festival kept in his honour called /Shkia-dhwajot- 
thana, the raising of the standard of Indra. 

India s names are many, as Mahendra, $akra, Maghavan, 
7i/bhuksha, Vasava, Arha, Datteya. His epithets or titles also 
are numerous. He is Vn tra-han, the destroyer of Witra ; 
Vajra-pam, of the thunderbolt hand ; Megha-vahana, f borne 
upon the clouds ; Paka-sasana, the subduer of Paka ; 
$ata-kratu, of a hundred sacrifices ; Deva-pati and Sura- 
dhipa, chief of the gods ; Divas-pati, ruler of the 
atmosphere ; Marutwan, lord of the winds ; Swarga-pati, 
lord of paradise ; Jishrai, leader of the celestial host ; 
Puran-dara, * destroyer of cities ; Uluka, * the owl ; Ugia- 
dlianvv r an, of the terrible bow, and many others. The heaven 
of Indra is Swarga; its capital is AmaravatI; his palace, Vaija- 
yanta ; his garden, Nandana, Kandasara, or Parushya ; his 
elephant is Airavata; his horse, Uchchai/i-sravas ; his chariot, 
Vimana ; his charioteer, Matali ; his bow, the rainbow, /Sakia- 
dhanus ; and his sword, Paran-ja. 

INDKA-DYUMNA. Son of Su-mati and grandson of 
Bharata, There were several of the name, among them a king 
of Avanti, by whom the temple of Vishmi was built, and the 
image of Jagan-natha was set up in Orissa. 

INDKA-JIT. Megha-nada, son of Ravawa. When Havana 
went against Indra s forces in Swarga, his son Megha-nada 
accompanied him, and fought most valiantly. Indra himself 
was obliged to interfere, when Megha-nada, availing himself of 
the magical power of becoming invisible, which he had obtained 
from Siva, bound Indra and carried him off to Lanka. The 
gods, headed by Brahma, went thither to obtain the release of 
Indra, and Brahma gave to Megha-nada the name Indra-jit, 
conqueror of Indra. Still the victor refused to release his pri 
soner for anything less than the boon of immortality. Brahma 
refused, but Indra-jit persisted in his demand and achieved his 
object. One version of the Ramayawa states that Indra-jit was 
killed and had his head cut off by Lakshmawa, who surprised 
him while he was engaged in a sacrifice. 

INDRA-KILA. The mountain Mandara, 

INDRA-LOKA. Indra s heaven, Swarga, See Loka. 

INDRAxYl. Wife of Indra, and mother of Jayanta and 
JayantL She is also called achl and Aindii. She is men- 


tioned a few times in the .7^ g-veda, and is said to be the most 
fortunate of females, " for her husband shall never die of old 
age." The Taittirlya Brahma^a states that Indra chose her for 
his wife from a number of competing goddesses, because she 
surpassed them all in voluptuous attractions. In the Ramayafta 
and Purawas she appears as the daughter of the Daitya Puloman, 
from whom she has the patronymic Pauloml. She was ravished 
by Indra, who killed her father to escape his curse. According 
to the Maha-bharata, King Nahusha became enamoured of her, 
and she escaped from him with difficulty. Indraft! has never 
been held in very high esteem as a goddess. 

IKDRA-PRAMATI. An early teacher of the T^g-veda, who 
received one Sanhita direct from Paila. 

INDRA-PRASTHA. The capital city of the ParaZu princes. 
The name is still known, and is used for a part of the city of 

LNDRA-SEINTA (mas.), INDEA-SENA (fern.). Names of tho 
son and daughter of Nala and Damayanti. 

IKDU. The moon. See Soma. 

INDU-MATL Sister of Bhoja, king of Yidarbha, who chose 
Prince Aja for her husband at her swayam-vara. She was 
killed by Narada s garland falling upon her while asleep in an 

INDU-MAJVT. The moon gem. See Chandra-kanta. 

IRAVAT. A son of Arjuna by his Naga wife UlupL 

IRAYATI. The river Ravi or Hydraotes. 

ISA. Lord. A title of /Siva. Name of a Upanishad 
(q.v.) which has been translated by Dr. Roer in the Bibliotheca 

I/SANA. A name of $iva or Rudra, or of one of his manifes 
tations. (See Rudra.) He is guardian of the north-east quarter. 

ISHTI-PASAS. Stealers of offerings. Rakshasas and 
other enemies of the gods, who steal the oblations. 

IS WAR A. Lord. A title given to #iva. 

ISWARA KBIS HNA. Author of the philosophical treatise 
called Sankhya Karika. 

ITIHASAS. Legendary poems. Heroic history. " Stories 
like those of Urvasi and Pururavas." The term is especially 
applied to the Maha-bharata, 

JABALI, JAVALI. A Brahman who was priest of King 


Da.9a-ratha, and held sceptical philosophical opinions. lie is 
represented in the Rumaya^a as enforcing his views upon Rama, 
who decidedly repudiated them. Thereupon he asserted that 
his atheistical arguments had been used only for a purpose, 
and that he was really imbued with sentiments of piety and 
religion. He is said to have been a logician, so probably he 
belonged to the Nyaya school 

JAGAD-DHAT^/ (DHATA). Sustainer of the world. 
An epithet given to both Saraswati and Durga. 

JAGAN-MAT^/ (MATA). Mother of the world. One of 
the names of /Siva s wife. See DevL 

JAGAN-NATHA. < Lord of the world. A particular form 
of Vishmi, or rather of Krishna. He is worshipped in Bengal 
and other parts of India, but Puri, near the town of Cuttack, in 
Orissa, is the great seat of his worship, and multitudes of pil 
grims resort thither from all parts, especially to the two great 
festivals of the Snana-yatra and Ratha-yatra, in the months of 
Jyaish/ha and Asharfha. The first of these is when the image is 
bathed, and in the second, or car festival, the image is brought 
out upon a car with the images of his brother Bala-rama and 
sister Su-bhadra, and is drawn by the devotees. The legend of 
the origin of Jagan-natha is peculiar. Krishna, was killed by 
a hunter, and his body was left to rot under a tree, but some 
pious persons found the bones and placed them in a box. A 
devout king named Indra-dyumna was directed by Vishnu to 
form an image of Jagan-natha and to place the bones of Krishna, 
inside it. Viswa-karma, the architect of the gods, undertook to 
make the image, on condition of being left quite undisturbed 
till the work was complete. After fifteen days the king was 
impatient and went to Viswa-karma, who was angry, and left off 
work before he had made either hands or feet, so that the image 
has only stumps. Indra-dyumna prayed to Brahma, who pro 
mised to make the image famous, and he did so by giving to it 
eyes and a soul, and by acting as high priest at its consecration. 

JAHNAVL The Ganges. See Jahnu. 

JAHNU. A sage descended from Pururavas. He was dis 
turbed in his devotions by the passage of the river Ganga, and 
consequently drank up its waters. He afterwards relented, and 
allowed the stream to issue from his ear, hence Ganga is called 
Jalmavl, daughter of Jahnu. See Ganga. 



JAIMINT. A celebrated sage, a disciple of Yyasa. He is 
said to have received the Sama-veda from his master, and to 
have been its publisher or teacher. He was also the founder 
of the Purva-mimansa philosophy. The text of Jaimini is 
printed in the Bibliotheca Indica. 

philosophy by Madhava. It has been edited by Goldstiicker 
and Cowell. 

JAJALI. A Brahman mentioned in the Maha-bharata as 
having by ascetism acquired a supernatural power of locomotion, 
of which he was so proud that he deemed himself perfect in 
virtue and superior to all men. A voice from the sky told him 
that he was inferior to Tuladhara, a Yaisya and a trader. He 
went to this Tuladhara and learnt wisdom from him. 

JALA-RUPA The fish or the Makara on the banner of 

JALA-$AYIN". Sleeping on the waters. An appellation 
of Yishmi, as he is supposed to sleep upon his serpent couch on 
the waters during the rainy season, or during the submersion of 
the world. 

JAMAD-AGNL A Brahman and a descendant of Bhr/gu. 
He was the son of Jtichika and Satya-vati, and was the father 
of five sons, the youngest and most renowned of whom was 
Parasu-rama. Jamad-agni s mother, Satya-vati, was daughter of 
King Gadhi, a Kshatriya. The Yishmi Purawa relates that 
when Satya-vati was pregnant, her Brahman husband, 72/chlka, 
prepared a mess for her to eat for the purpose of securing that 
her son should be born with the qualities of a Brahman. He 
also gave another mess to her mother that she might bear a 
son with the character of a warrior. The women changed the 
messes, and so Jamad-agni, the son of TZichlka, was born as a 
warrior-Brahman, and Yiswamitra, son of the Kshatriya Gadhi, 
was born as a priest. The Maha-bharata relates that Jamad- 
agni engaged deeply in study and " obtained entire possession 
of the Yedas." He went to King Re?iu or Prasena-jit of the 
Solar race and demanded of him his daughter Remika. The 
king gave her to him, and he retired with her to his hermitage, 
where the princess shared in his ascetic life. She bore him five 
sons, Rumawwat, Sushena, Yasu, Yiswavasu, and Parasu-rama, 
and she was exact in the performance of all her duties. One 


day she went out to bathe and beheld a loving pair sporting and 
dallying in the water. Their pleasure made her feel envious, 
so she was " denied by unworthy thoughts, and returned wetted 
but not purified by the stream." Her husband beheld her " fallen 
from perfection and shorn of the lustre of her sanctity." So he 
reproved her and was exceeding wroth. His sons came into the 
hermitage in the order of their birth, and he commanded each 
of them in succession to kill his mother. Influenced by natural 
affection, four of them held their peace and did nothing. Their 
father cursed them and they became idiots bereft of all under 
standing. "When Parasu-rama entered, he obeyed his father s 
order and struck off his mother s head with his axe. The 
deed assuaged the father s anger, and he desired his son to make 
a request. Parasu-rama begged that his mother might be 
restored to life in purity, and that his brothers might regain 
their natural condition. All this the father granted. 

The mighty Karta-virya, king of the Haihayas, who had 
a thousand arms, paid a visit to the hermitage of Jamad-agni. 
The sage and his sons were out, but his wife treated her guest 
with all proper respect. Unmindful of the hospitality he had 
received, Karta-virya threw down the trees round the hermi 
tage, and carried of the calf of the sacred cow, Surabhi, which 
Jamad-agni had acquired by penance. Parasu-rama returned 
and discovered what had happened, he then pursued Karta- 
virya, cut off his thousand arms with arrows, and killed him. 
The sons of Karta-virya went in revenge to the hermitage of 
Jamad-agni, and in the absence of Parasu-rama slew the pious 
sage without pity. When Parasu-rama found the lifeless body 
of his father, he laid it on a funeral pile, and vowed that he 
would extirpate the whole Kshatriya race. He slew all the sons 
of Karta-virya, and " thrice seven times " he cleared the earth of 
the Kshatriya caste. 

JAMADAGNYA. The patronymic of Parasu-rama. 

JAMBAVAT. King of the bears. A celebrated gem called 
Syamantaka had been given by the Sun to Satra-jit. He, fear 
ing that K? zshwa would take it from him, gave it to his brother, 
Prasena. One property of this jewel was to protect its wearer 
when good, to ruin him when bad. Prasena was wicked and 
was killed by a lion, which was carrying off the gem in its mouth, 
when he was encountered and slain by Jambavat. After Pra- 


sena s disappearance, Krishna was suspected of having killed 
him for the sake of the jewel. Krishna, with a large party 
tracked the steps of Prasena, till it was ascertained that he had 
been killed by a lion, and that the lion had been killed by 
a bear. Krishna, then tracked the bear, Jambavat, into his 
cavern, and a great fight ensued between them. After waiting 
outside seven or eight days, Knslma s followers went home and 
performed his funeral ceremonies. On the twenty-first day of 
the fight, Jambavat submitted to his adversary, gave up the 
gem, and presented to him his daughter, Jambavati, as an 
offering suitable to a guest. Jambavat with his army of bears 
aided Kama in his invasion of Lanka, and always acted the part 
of a sage counsellor. 

JAMBAVATL Daughter of Jambavat, king of the bears, 
wife of Krishna, and mother of /Samba. 

JAMBHA. Name of several demons. Of one who fought 
against the gods and was slain by Indra, who for this deed was 
called Jambha-bhedin. Also of one who fought against Arjuna 
and was killed by Krishna. 

JAMBU-DWlPA. One of the seven islands or continents 
of which the world is made up. The great mountain, Meru, 
stands in its centre, and Bharata-varsha or India is its best part. 
Its varshas or divisions are nine in number : (r.) Bharata, south 
of the Himalayas and southernmost of all. (2.) Kim-purusha. 
(3.)Hari-varsha. (4.) Ila-vrita, containing Meru. (5.) Eamyaka, 
(6.) Hira?i-maya. (7.) Uttara-Kuru, each to the north of the pre 
ceding one. (8.) Bhadraswa and (9.) Ketu-mala lie respectively 
to the east and west of Ila-vnta, the central region. 

J AMBIT-MALI. A Eakshasa general of Kavawa. He was 
killed by Hanuman. 

JANAKA. i. King of Mithila, of the Solar race. When 
K"imi, his predecessor, died without leaving a successor, the 
sages subjected the body of Nimi to attrition, and produced 
from it a prince " who was called Janaka, from being born 
without a progenitor." He was the first Janaka, and twenty 
generations earlier than Janaka the father of Sita. 

2. King of Yideha and father of Sita, remarkable for his 
great knowledge and good works and sanctity. He is called 
ira-dhwaja, he of the plough banner, because his daughter 
Sita sprang up ready formed from the furrow when he was 


ploughing the ground and preparing for a sacrifice to obtain 
offspring. The sage Yajnawalkya was his priest and adviser. 
The Brahmawas relate that he "refused to submit to the hier 
archical pretensions of the Brahmans, and asserted his right 
of performing sacrifices without the intervention of priests." 
lie succeeded in his contention, for it is said that through 
his pure and righteous life he became a Brahman and one of 
the Rajarshis. He and his priest Yajnawalkya are thought to 
have prepared the way for Buddha. 

JA^TAKI. A patronymic of Sita (q.v.). 

JANA-LOKA. See Loka. 

JANAMEJAYA. A great king, who was son of Parikshit, 
and great-grandson of Arjuna. It was to this king that -the 
Maha-bharata was recited by Vaisampayana, and the king lis 
tened to it in expiation of the sin of killing a Brahman. His 
father, Parikshit, died from the bite of a serpent, and Janema- 
jaya is said to have performed a great sacrifice of serpents 
(Nagas) and to have conquered the Naga people of Taksha-sila. 
Hence he is called Sarpa-sattrin, serpent-sacrificer. There 
were several others of the same name. 

JANAKDDAKA, The adored of mankind. A name of 
Knslwza, but other derivations are offered, as extirpator of the 
wicked, by Sankaracharya. 

JAXA-S.THAKA. A place in the Dawcfaka forest where 
Kama sojourned for a while in his exile. 

JAEAS. Old age. The hunter who unwittingly killed 

JAEA-SAIS T DHA. Son of BnTiad-ratha, and king of Ma- 
gadha. Bnliad-ratha had two wives, who after being long barren 
brought forth two halves of a boy. These abortions were re 
garded with horror and thrown away. A female man-eating 
demon named Jara picked them up and put them together to 
carry them off. On their coming in contact a boy was formed, 
who cried out so lustily that he brought out the king and his 
two queens. The RakshasI explained what had happened, re 
signed the child, and retired. The father gave the boy the 
name of Jara-sandha, because he had been put together by Jarfu 
Future greatness was prophesied for the boy, and he became an 
ardent worshipper of Siva. Through the favour of this god lie- 
prevailed over many kings, and he especially fought against 


Krishna, who had killed Kansa, the husband of two of Jara- 
eandha s daughters. He besieged Mathurii, and attacked Kn sh??a 
eighteen times, and was as often defeated ; but Kr/srma was so 
weakened that he retired to Dwaraka. Jara-sandha had many 
kings in captivity, and when Krishna returned from Dwaraka, 
he, with Bhima and Arjuna, went to Jara-sandha s capital for 
the purpose of slaying their enemy and liberating the kings. 
Jara-sandha refused to release the kings, and accepted the alter 
native of a combat, in which he was killed by Bhima. 

JARAT-KARU. An ancient sage who married a sister of the 
great serpent Yasuki, and was father of the sage Astlka. 

JAR IT A. A certain female bird of the species called iSarn- 
gika, whose story is told in the Maha-bharata. The saint 
Manda-pala, who returned from the shades because he had no 
son, assumed the form of a male bird, and by her had four sons. 
He then abandoned her. In the conflagration of the Khac?ava 
forest she showed great devotion in the protection of her chil 
dren, and they were eventually saved through the influence of 
Manda-pala over the god of fire. Their names were Jaritari, 
Saris?ikta, Stamba-mitra, and Drowa. They were " interpreters 
of the Yedas;" and there are hymns of the 72/g-veda bearing 
the names of the second and third. 

JArASURA. A Rakshasa who disguised himself as a Brah 
man and carried off Yudhi-sh/!hira, Saha-deva, ^akula, and 
Draupadi. He was overtaken and killed by Bhima. 

JATA-YEDAS. A Vedic epithet for fire. " The meaning is 
explained in five ways : (i.) Knowing all created beings ; (2.) 
Possessing all creatures or everything existent ; (3.) Known by 
created beings; (4.) Possessing vedas, riches; (5.) Possessing 
vedas, wisdom. Other derivations and explanations are found in 
the Brahmaflas, but the exact sense of the word seems to have been 
very early lost, and of the five explanations given, only the first 
two would seem to be admissible for the Yedic texts. In one 
passage a form, Jata-veda, seems to occur." Williams. This 
form of the term, and the statement of Manu that the Yeclas 
were milked out from fire, air, and the sun, may perhaps justify 
the explanation, producer of the Yeclas. 

JA2AYU, JArAYUS. According to the Ramaya^a, a bird 
who was son of Yish?iu s bird Garuc/a, and king of the vultures. 
Others say he was a son of Aru?m. He became an ally of 

7 A TILAJA YAD-RA Til A. 135 

Rama s, and he fought furiously against Ravaa to prevent the 
carrying away of Sita. Ravaa overpowered him and left him 
mortally wounded. Rama found him in time to hear his dying 
words, and to learn what had become of Sita. Rama and 
LakshmaTia performed his funeral rites to "secure his soul 
in the enjoyments of heaven," whither he ascended in a 
chariot of fire. In the Purawas he is the friend of Da-va-ratha. 
When that king went to the ecliptic to recover Sita from Stim 
(Saturn), his carriage was consumed by a glance from the eye of 
the latter, but Ja/ayu caught the falling king and saved him. 
The Padma Pura?za says Dasa-ratha assailed Saturn because of a 
dearth, and when he and his car were hurled from heaven, 
Ja/ilyu caught him. 

JA7ILA. A daughter of Gotama, who is mentioned in the 
Maha-bharata as a virtuous woman and the wife of seven hus 

JAYA-DEYA. A poet, author of the Glta-govinda (q.v.). 

JAYAD-RATHA. A prince of the Lunar race, son of Br/han- 
manas. He was king of Sindhu, and was "indifferently termed 
Raja of the Sindhus or Saindhavas, and Raja of the Sauvlras, 
or sometimes in concert Sindhu-sauvlras," the Saindhavas and 
Sauvlras both being tribes living along the Indus. Jayad-ratha 
married DuA-sala, daughter of Dhn ta-rash/ra, and was an ally of 
the Kauravas. When the Pa?^avas were in exile he called at 
their forest abode while they were out hunting and DraupadI 
was at home alone. He had with him six brothers and a largo 
retinue, but the resources of the Pa^t/avas were equal to the 
occasion, and DraupadI was able to supply five hundred deer 
with accompaniments for breakfast. This is explained by the 
statement that Yudhi-sh/hira, having worshipped the sun, ob 
tained from that luminary an inexhaustible cauldron which was 
to supply all and every viand that might be required by the 
Piiw/uvas in their exile. Jayad-ratha was captivated by the charms 
of DraupadI, and tried to induce her to elope with him. When 
he was indignantly repulsed he carried her off by force. On 
the return of the Pawdfavas they pursued the ravisher, defeated 
his forces, and made him prisoner. His life was spared by 
command of Yudhi-shfliira, but Bhima kicked and beat him 
terribly, cut off his hair, and made him go before the assembled 
Pa?w/avas and acknowledge himself to be their slave. At the 


intercession of Draupadi he was allowed to depart. He was 
killed, after a desperate conflict, by Arjuna on the fourteenth 
day of the great battle. 

JAYANTA. Son of Indra, also called Jaya. 

JAYANTI. Daughter of Indra. She is called also Jayam, 
Deva-sena, and Tavishi. 

JlMUTA. A great wrestler, who was overcome and killed 
by BhTma at the court of Yira/a. 

JlMUTA-YAHANA Whose vehicle is the clouds. A 
title of Indra. A name borne by several persons, and among 
them by the author of the Daya-bhaga. 

JTSH.YU. A name of Arjuna, 

JUSHKA. A Turushka or Turki king, who ruled in Kash 
mir and in Northern India. See Kanishka. 

JWALA-MUKHI. Mouth of fire. A volcano. A cele 
brated place of pilgrimage in the Lower Himalayas, north of the 
Panjab, where fire issues from the ground. According to the 
legend, it is the fire which Sat!, the wife of $iva, created, and in 
which she burnt herself. 

JYAMAGHA A king of the Lunar race, proverbial as 
"most eminent among husbands submissive to their wives." 
$aibya, his wife, was barren, but he was afraid to take another 
wife till, having overcome an enemy and driven him from his 
country, the daughter of the vanquished king became his cap 
tive. She was beautiful, and Jyamagha desired to marry her. 
He took her in his chariot and carried her to his palace to ask 
the assent of his queen. "When $aibya saw the maiden, she 
was filled with jealousy, and angrily demanded who the " light- 
hearted damsel " was. The king was disconcerted, and humbly 
replied, " She is the young bride of the future son whom thou 
shalt bring forth." It had ceased to be with /Saibya after the 
manner of women, but still she bore a son who was named 
Yidarbha, and married the captive princess. 

JYOTISHA. Astronomy. One of the Yedangas. The object 
of this Yedanga is to fix the most auspicious days and seasons 
for the performance of sacrifices. There has been little dis 
covered that is ancient on this subject ; only one " short tract, 
consisting of thirty-six verses, in a comparatively modern style, to 
which scholars cannot assign an earlier date than 300 years B.C." 

KA The interrogative pronoun " who ? " This word has 


"been raised to the position of a deity. In the words of Max 
Miiller, "The authors of the Brahma^as had so completely 
broken with the past, that, forgetful of the poetical character of 
the hymns (of the Veda) and the yearning of the poets after the 
unknown god, they exalted the interrogative pronoun itself into 
a deity, and acknowledged a god Ka or Who ? In the Taittirlya 
Brahmawa, in the Kaushitaki Brahmawa, in the Ta?zc?ya Brahmana, 
and in the /Satapatha Brahmawa, wherever interrogative verses 
occur, the author states that Ka is Prajapati, or the lord of 
creatures. Nor did they stop here. Some of the hymns in 
which the interrogative pronoun occurred were called Kadvat, 
i.e., having had or quid. But soon a new adjective was formed, 
and not only the hymns but the sacrifice also offered to the god 
were called Kaya or Who-ish. ... At the time of Pamni, this 
word had acquired such legitimacy as to call for a separate rule 
explaining its formation. The commentator here explains Ka 
by Brahman. After this we can hardly wonder that in the later 
Sanskn t literature of the Purawas Ka appears as a recognised 
god, as a supreme god, with a genealogy of his own, perhaps 
even with a wife; and that in the laws of Mann one of the 
recognised forms of marriage, generally known by the name of 
the Prajapati marriage, occurs under the monstrous title of 
Kaya." The Maha-bharata identifies Ka with Daksha, and the 
Bhagavata Purawa applies the term to Kasyapa, no doubt in 
consequence of their great generative powers and similarity to 

KABANDHA. i. A disciple of Su-mantu, the earliest teacher 
of the Atharva-veda. 2. A monstrous Kakshasa slain by Kama. 
He is said to have been a son of the goddess STL He is de 
scribed as " covered with hair, vast as a mountain, without head 
or neck, having a mouth armed with immense teeth in the 
middle of his belly, arms a league long, and one enormous eye 
in his breast." He was originally a Gandharva, and his hideous 
deformity arose, according to one account, from a quarrel with 
Indra, whom he challenged, and who struck him with his thun 
derbolt, and drove his head and thighs into his body. According 
to another statement, his deformity arose from the curse of a 
sage. When mortally wounded, he requested Rama to -burn 
his body, and when that was done he came out of the fire in 
his real shape as a Gandharva, and counselled Rama as to 


the conduct of the war against Kavawa, He was also called 

KACHA. A son of Bnhaspati. According to the Maha- 
bhiirata he became a disciple of $ukra or Usanas, the priest of 
the Asuras, with the object of obtaining from him the mystic 
power of restoring the dead to life, a charm which ukra alone 
possessed. To prevent this the Asuras killed Kacha again and 
again, but on both occasions he was restored to life by the 
sage at the intercession of Devayani, his daughter, who had 
fallen in love with Kacha, They killed him a third time, burnt 
his body, and mixed his ashes with $ukra s wine, but Devayani 
again implored her father to bring back the young man. Unable 
to resist his daughter s importunity, $ukra once more performed 
the charm, and to his surprise heard the voice of Kacha come 
out from his own belly. To save his own life, $ukra taught his 
pupil the great charm. He then allowed himself to be ripped 
open, and Kacha, upon coming out, performed the charm, and 
restored his master to life. This incident is said to have caused 
ukra to prohibit the use of wine to Brahmans. Kacha resisted 
the proposals of Devayani, and refused to make her his wife. 
She then cursed him, that the charms he had learnt from her 
father should be powerless, and he in return condemned her to be 
sought by no Brahman, and to become the wife of a Kshatriya, 

KADAMBAKI. A daughter of Chitra-ratha and Madira. 
Her name has been given to a well-known prose work, a kind of 
novel, written by Va^a or Bawa-bha//a, in the seventh century. 
The work has been printed at Bombay. 

KADKU. A daughter of Daksha, and one of the thirteen 
that were married to Kasyapa. She was mother of "a thousand 
powerful many-headed serpents, the chief amongst whom were 
$esha, Yiisuki, . . . and many other fierce and venomous ser 
pents." The Yishftu Purawa, from which this is taken, names 
twelve, the Yayu Purawa forty. Her offspring bear the metro 
nymic Kadraveya, 

KAHODA. A learned Brahman, father of Ash/avakra, He 
with many others was overcome in argument at the court of 
Janaka by a Buddhist sage, and as a penalty was thrown into 
the river. Some years afterwards he was recovered by his son, 
who overcame the supposed Buddhist sage, and thus brought 
about a restoration. See Ash/avakra. 


KAIKASI. Daughter of the Rakshasa Su-mali and his wife 
Ketu-mati, wife of Visravas and mother of Ravawa. Muir, iv. 
487, 488. 

KAIKEYA. Name of a country and of its king. He was 
father-in-law of Krishna, and his five sons were allies of the 
Puwfavas. His real name appears to have been Dhrish/a- 

KAIKEYAS, KEKAYAS. The people of Kaikeya, one of 
the chief nations in the war of the Maha-bharata. The Kamii- 
yawa places them in the west, beyond the Saraswati and Byas. 

KAIKEYI. A princess of Kaikeya, wife of King Dasa-ratha, 
and mother of Bharata, his third son. She carefully tended 
Dasa-ratha when he was wounded in battle, and in gratitude he 
promised to grant any two requests she might make. Urged by 
the malignant counsels of Manthara, a female attendant, she 
made use of this promise to procure the exile of Rama, and to 
promote the advancement of her own son, Bharata, to his place. 
See Dasa-ratha, Rama. 

KAILASA. A mountain in the Himalayas, north of the 
Mimasa lake. $iva s paradise is said to be on Mount Kailasa, 
so also is Kuvera s abode. It is called also Gana-parvata and 
Rajatadii, silver mountain. 

KAI7ABHA. Kai/abha and Madhu were two horrible 
demons, who, according to the Maha-bharata and the Puranas, 
sprang from the ear of Vishwu while he was asleep at the end of 
a kalpa, and were about to kill Brahma, who was lying on the 
lotus springing from Vishnu s navel. Vishnu killed them, and 
hence he obtained the names of Kai/abha-jit and Madhu-siidana. 
The MarkarwZeya Pura?ia attributes the death of Kai/abha to 
Urna, and she bears the title of Kai/abha. The Hari-vansa 
states that the earth received its name of MedinI from the 
marrow (medas) of these demons. In one passage it says that 
their bodies, being thrown into the sea, produced an immense 
quantity of marrow or fat, which Narayawa used in forming the 
earth. In another place it says that the medas quite covered 
the earth, and so gave it the name of MedinI. This is another 
of the many etymological inventions. 

KAKSHlVAT, KAKSHlVAX. A Vedic sage, particularly 
connected with the worship of the Aswins. He was the son of 
Dlrgha-tamas and Usij (q.v.), and is author of several hymns in 


the J2/g-veda. He was also called Pajriya, because he was of 
the race of Pajra. In one of his hymns he lauds the liberality 
of King Swanaya. The following legend, in explanation, is 
given by the commentator Sayawa and the Mti-manjara : Kak- 
shlvat, having finished his course of study, took leave of his 
preceptor and departed homewards. As he journeyed night 
came on, and he fell asleep by the roadside. In the morning 
he was aroused by Raja Swanaya, who, being pleased with his 
appearance, treated him cordially and took him home. After 
ascertaining his worthiness, he married him to his ten daughters, 
presenting him at the same time with a hundred nislikas of gold, 
a hundred horses, a hundred bulls, a thousand and sixty cows, 
and eleven chariots, one for each of his ten wives, and one for 
himself, each drawn by four horses. With these he returned 
home to his father, and recited the hymn in praise of the muni 
ficence of Swanaya. 

KAKUDMIK A name of Raivata (q.v.). 

KAKUT-STHA. See Puranjaya. 

KALA. Time. A name of Yama, the judge of the dead. 
In the Atharva-veda Time is addressed as the source and ruler 
of all things. " It is he who drew forth the worlds and encom 
passed them. Being their father, he became their son. There 
is no other power superior to him." The Yishmi, Bhagavata, 
and Padma Pura^as state that Brahma existed in the form of 
Time, " but the Purawas do not generally recognise Time as an 
element of the first cause." 

KALAKA. A wife of Kasyapa. According to the Rama- 
yawa and Maha-bharata she was a daughter of Daksha, but 
the Vish?zu Purawa states that she and her sister Puloma were 
daughters of the Danava Vaiswanara, " who were both married 
to Kasyapa, and bore him 60,000 distinguished Danavas, called 
Paulomas and Kfilakanjas, who were powerful, ferocious, and 
cruel." The Maha-bharata states that she obtained from the 
deity, in reward for her severe devotion and penance, the 
privilege of bringing forth children without pain. The giants 
or Diinavas were called after her Kalakeyas. 

KALAKANJAS, KALAKEYAS. Sons of Kasyapa by his 
wife Killakii. There were many thousands of them, and they 
were " distinguished Danavas, who were powerful, ferocious, 
and cruel." 


KALA-MUKHAS. Black faces. People who sprang from 
men and Rakshasa females. 

KALAKAS. (Kalyawa.) A Brahman who yielded to the 
inducements of Alexander the Great and left his native country 
to accompany the court of the conqueror. He afterwards re 
pented of what he had done and burnt himself at Pasargada. 

KALA-NEMI. i. In the Ramayawa a Rakshasa, uncle of 
Rava/za. At the solicitation of Ravawa, and with the promise 
of half his kingdom, he endeavoured to kill Hanuman. Assum 
ing the form of a hermit-devotee, he went to the Gandha-madana 
mountain, and when Hanuman proceeded thither in search of 
medicinal herbs, the disguised Rakshasa invited him to his 
hermitage and offered him food. Hanuman refused, but went 
to bathe in a neighbouring pond. Upon his placing his foot 
in the water it was seized by a crocodile, but he dragged the 
creature out and killed it. From the dead body there arose a 
lovely Apsaras, who had been cursed by Daksha to live as a 
crocodile till she should be released by Hanuman. She told 
her deliverer to be beware of Kala-nemi; so Hanuman went 
back to that deceiver, told him that he knew him, and, taking 
him by the feet, sent him whirling through the air to Lanka, 
where he fell before the throne of Rava?za in the council-room. 
2. In the Purawas a great Asura, son of Virochana, the grandson 
of Hirawya-kasipu. He was killed by Vish?iu, but was said to 
live again in Kansa and in Kaliya. 

KALA-YAVANA. (Lit. Black Yavana, Yavana meaning 
a Greek or foreigner.) A Yavana or foreign king who led an army 
of barbarians to Mathura against Krishna. That hero lured 
him into the cave of the mighty Muchukunda, who being dis 
turbed from sleep by a kick from Kfda-yavana, cast a fiery 
glance upon him and reduced him to ashes. This legend 
appears to indicate an invasion from the Himalayas. Accord 
ing to the Vislmu Purawa and Hari-vansa, Kala-yavana was the 
son of a Brahman named Garga, who had an especial spite 
against the Ytidavas, and was begotten by him on the wife of 
a childless Yavana king. 

KALHANA PANDIT. Author of the Raja Tarangim, a his 
tory of Kashmir. He is supposed to have lived about 1 148 A.D. 

KALI. The Kali-yuga, personified as the spirit of evil. In 
playing dice Kali is the ace, and so is a personification of ill luck. 

1 42 KALIKAL 1-DASA . 

KALI. The black. In Yedic days this name was asso 
ciated with Agni (fire), who had seven nickering tongues of 
flame for devouring oblations of butter. Of these seven, Kali 
was the black or terrific tongue. This meaning of the word is 
now lost, but it has developed into the goddess Kali, the fierce 
and bloody consort of Siva,. See Devi. 

KALI-DASA. The greatest poet and dramatist of India. 
He was one of " the nine gems " that adorned the court of King 
Vikramaditya at UjjayinL Wilson inclines to the belief that 
this was the Vikramaditya whose era begins in 56 B.C., but Dr. 
Ehau Dajl argues in favour of Harsha Vikramaditya who lived 
in the middle of the sixth century, so the date of Kali-dasa is 
unsettled. "Williams thinks that Kali-dasa wrote about the 
beginning of the third century. Lassen places him half a 
century earlier. Some believe that there was more than one 
poet who bore this name as an honorary title. Kali-dasa was 
author of the dramas $akuntala and Vikramorvasi, and a third 
drama Malavikagnimitra is attributed to him. $akuntala was 
translated by Sir W. Jones, and first brought Sanskrit literature 
to the notice of Europe. Wilson has translated Vikramorvasi, 
and given a sketch of Malavikagnimitra. The following poems 
are ascribed to Kali-dasa : Kaghu-vansa, Kumara-sambhava, 
Megha-duta, Ttitu-sanhara, Nalodaya, but his authorship of all 
these, especially of the last, may well be doubted. He was also 
author of the $ruta-bodha, a work on prosody. The merits of 
Kali-dasa as a poet are well attested by his great popularity 
in India, as well as by the great favour with which iSakuntala 
was received in Europe, and the praise it elicited from Goethe : 

" Willst du die Bliithe cles friihen, die Friichte des spiiteren Jahres, 
Willst du, was reizt und entziickt, willst du, was sattigt nnd nahrt, 
Willst du den Himmel, die Erde, mit einem Namen begreifen, 
Nenn ich akuntala dich, und so ist Alles gesagt." 

" Wouldst thou the young year s blossoms and the fruits of its decline, 
And all by which the soul is charmed, enraptured, feasted, fed ? 
Wouldst thou the earth and heaven itself in one sole name combine 1 
I name thee, akuntala ! and all at once is said." 

Lassen in his Indische Alterthumskunde says, " Kali-dasa may 
be considered as the brightest star in the firmament of Hindu 
artificial poetry. He deserves this praise on account of the 


mastery with which he wields the language, and on account of 
the consummate tact with which he imparts to it a more simple 
or more artificial form, according to the requirements of the 
subjects treated by him, without falling into the artificial dic 
tion of later poets or over-stepping the limits of good taste ; 
on account of the variety of his creations, his ingenious con 
ceptions, and his happy choice of subjects ; and not less on 
account of the complete manner in which he attains his poetical 
ends, the beauty of his narrative, the delicacy of his sentiment, 
and the fertility of his imagination." Many of his works have 
been translated, and there is a French translation of the whole 
by Fauche. 

KALIKA. The g_oddess Kali. 

KALIKA PURiJVA. One of the" eighteen Upa Purilrcas. 
"It contains about 9000 stanzas in 98 chapters, and is the 
only work of the series dedicated to recommend the worship of 
the bride of $iva, in one or other of her manifold forms as 
Giri-ja, Devi, Bhadra-kali, Kali, Maha-maya. It belongs, there 
fore, to the $akta modification of Hindu belief, or the worship 
of the female powers of the deities. The influence of this 
worship sliows itself in the very first pages of the work, which 
relate the incestuous passion of Brahma for his daughter, San- 
dhya, in a strain that has nothing analogous to it in the Vayu, 
Linga, or $iva Pura?ias. The marriage of /S iva and Parvatl is a 
subject early described, with the sacrifice of Daksha and the 
death of SatL And this work is authority for Diva s carrying 
the dead body about the world, and the origin of the Pi/ha- 
sthanas, or places where the different members of it were scat 
tered, and where Lingas were consequently erected. A legend 
follows of the births of Bhairava and Vetala, whose devotion to 
the different forms of Devi furnishes occasion to describe, in 
great detail, the rites and formula of which her worship consists, 
including the chapters on sanguinary sacrifices translated in the 
Asiatic Researches (vol. v.). Another peculiarity in this work is 
afforded by very prolix descriptions of a number of rivers and 
mountains at Kamarupa Tirtha, in Assam, and rendered holy 
ground by the celebrated temple of Durga in that country, as 
Kamakshi or KamakshyiL It is a singular and yet uninvesti- 
gated circumstance, that Assam, or at least the north-east of 
Bengal, seems to have been, in a great degree, the source from 


which the Tantrika and $akta corruptions of the religion of the 
Yedas and Purawas proceeded." Wilson. 

KALINDL A name of the river Yamuna, as daughter of 
Kalinda (the sun). 

KALIXGA. The country along the Coromandel coast, north 
of Madras. The Calingae proximi mari of Pliny. The Purawas 
absurdly make it one of the sons of Bali. 

KALIYA. A serpent king who had five heads, and dwelt in 
a deep pool of the Yamuna, with numerous attendant serpents. 
His mouths vomited fire and smoke, and he laid waste all the 
country round. K>islma, while yet a child, jumped into his 
pool, when he was quickly laced and entwined in the coils of 
the snakes. His companions and friends were horrified, but 
Bala-rama called upon him to exercise his divine power. He 
did so, and the serpents were soon overcome. Placing his foot 
on the middle head of Kaliya, he compelled him and his 
followers to implore mercy. He spared them, but bade Kaliya 
and his followers to free the earth from their presence, and to 
remove to the ocean. The Asura Kala-nemi is said to have been 
animate in him. 

KALI YUGA. The fourth or present age of the world, which 
is to endure for 432,000 years. It commenced in 3102 B.C. 
Sw Yuga. 

KALKI, KALKIK The white horse. Vishmi s tenth 
incarnation, which is yet to come. See Avatara. 

KALMASHA-PADA. A king of the Solar race, son of 
Su-dasa (hence he is called Saudasa), and a descendant of 
Ikshwaku. His legend, as told in the Maha-bharata, relates 
that while hunting in the forest he encountered $aktri, the 
eldest son of Vasishftia, and as this sage refused to get out of 
his way, he struck him with his whip. The incensed sage 
cursed him to become a cannibal. This curse was heard by 
Yiswamitra, the rival of Yasishftia, and he so contrived that the 
body of the king became possessed by a man-eating Rakshasa. 
In this condition he caused human flesh to be served up to a 
Brahman named Mitrasaha, who discovered what it was, and 
intensified the curse of $aktri by a new imprecation. One of 
Kalmasha-pada s first victims was $aktri himself, and all the 
hundred sons of Yasishftia fell a prey to his disordered appetite. 
After remaining twelve years in this state, he was restored to 


his natural condition by Vasiskflia. The Vishnu Purawa tells 
the story differently. The king went out to hunt and found 
two destructive tigers. He killed one of them, but as it expired 
it was changed into a Rakshasa. The other tiger disappeared 
threatening vengeance. Kalmasha-pada celebrated a sacrifice at 
which Vasish/ha officiated When it was over and Vasish^ha 
went out, the Rakshasa assumed his appearance, and proposed 
that food should be served. Then the Rakshasa transformed 
himself into a cook, and, preparing human flesh, he served it to 
Vasish/ha on his return. The indignant sage cursed the king 
that henceforth his appetite should be excited only by similar 
food. A wrangle ensued, and Vasish/ha having found out the 
truth, limited the duration of his curse to twelve years. The 
angry king took water in his hands to pronounce, in his turn, a 
curse upon Vasish/ha, but was dissuaded from his purpose by 
his wife, MadayantL " Unwilling to cast the water on the 
ground, lest it should wither up the grain, and equally reluctant 
to throw it up into the air, lest it should blast the clouds and 
dry up their contents, he threw it upon his own feet," and they 
were so scalded by it that they became black and white, and 
so gained for him the name of Kalmasha-pada, spotted feet. 
Every day for twelve years, at the sixth watch of the day, he 
gave way to his cannibal appetite, " and devoured multitudes of 
men." On one occasion he devoured a Brahman in the midst 
of his connubial happiness, and the Brahman s wife passed upon 
him a curse that he should die whenever he associated with his 
wife. At the expiration of Vasish/ha s curse, the king returned 
home, but, mindful of the Brahma?ii s imprecation, he abstained 
from conjugal intercourse. By the interposition of Yasish/ha, 
his wife, MadayantI, became pregnant, and bore a child in her 
womb for seven years, when she performed the Caesarean opera 
tion with a sharp stone, and a child came forth who was called 
Asmaka (from Asman, a stone ). 

KALPA. A day and night of Brahma, 4,320,000,000 years. 
See Yuga, 

KALPA, KALPA SUTRAS. Ceremonial; one of the 
Vedangas. A ceremonial directory or rubric expressed in the 
form of Sutras, short technical rules. 

KAMA, KAMA-DEVA. The god of love. Eros, Cupid 
In the 7?/g-veila (x. 129) desire is said to have been the first 


146 KAMA. 

movement that arose in the One after it had come into life 
through the power of fervour or abstraction. " Desire first arose 
in It, which was the primal germ of mind ; (and which) sages, 
searching w r ith their intellect, have discovered in their heart to 
be the bond which connects entity with non-entity." " It is 
well known," observes Dr. Muir, " that Greek mythology con 
nected Eros, the god of love, with the creation of the universe 
somewhat in the same way." " This Kama or desire, not of 
sexual enjoyment, but of good in general, is celebrated in a curi 
ous hymn of the Atharva-veda," which exalts Kama into a 
supreme God and Creator : " Kama was born the first. Him 
neither gods, nor fathers, nor men have equalled. Thou art 
superior to these and for ever great." In another part of the 
same Veda Kama appears to be first desire, then the power 
which gratifies the desire. Kama is also in the same Veda often 
identified with Agni, and when " distinguished from each other, 
Kama may be looked upon as a superior form of the other 
deity." According to the Taittirlya Brahmawa, he is the son of 
Dharma, the god of justice, by #raddha, the goddess of faith; 
but according to the Hari-vansa he is son of Lakshmi. Another 
account represents him as springing from the heart of Brahma. 
A fourth view is that he was born from water, wherefore he is 
called Ira-ja, the water-born; a fifth is that he is Atma-bhu, 
self-existent, and therefore he is called, like other of the gods, 
A-ja, unborn/ or An-anya-ja, born of no other. In the Puranas 
his wife is Eati or Reva, the goddess of desire He inspired 
$iva with amorous thoughts of Parvatl while he was engaged in 
penitential devotion, and for this offence the angry god reduced 
him to ashes by fire from his central eye. Siva, afterwards 
relented and allowed Kama to be born again as Pradyumna, son 
of K?ishwa and Rukmiwi or Maya, delusion. He has a son 
named Aniruddha, and a daughter, Trisha. He is lord of the 
Apsarases or heavenly nymphs. He is armed with a bow and 
arrows : the bow is of sugar-cane, the bowstring a line of bees, 
and each arrow is tipped with a distinct flower. He is usually 
represented as a handsome youth riding on a parrot and attended 
by nymphs, one of whom bears his banner displaying the Makara, 
or a fish on a red ground. 

The mysterious origin of Kama and the universal operation 
of the passion he inspires have accumulated upon him a great 


variety of names and epithets. Among his names are Ishma, 
Kanjana and Kinkira, Mada, Kama or Ramawa, and Smara. 
As produced in the mind or heart he is Bhava-ja and Mano-ja. 
As Pradyumna, son of K?t shwa, he is Karshni, and as son of 
Lakshml he is May! or Maya-suta and $rl-nandana. As reduced 
to ashes by $iva he is An-anga, the bodiless. He is Abhi-rupa, 
the beautiful; Darpaka and Dipaka, the inflamer ; Gada- 
yitnu, Gn dhu, and Gn tsa, lustful or sharp; Kamana and 
Kharu, desirous ; Kandarpa, the inflamer of Brahma; Kantu, 
the happy; Kalakeli, the gay or wanton ; Mara, destroyer; 
Mayl, deluder ; Madhu-dipa, the lamp of honey or of spring; 
Muhira, the bewilderer; Murmura, the crackling fire; Raga- 
vrz nta, the stalk of passion ; Rupastra, the weapon of beauty; 
Rata-naricha, the voluptuary; ^amantaka, destroyer of peace; 
Sansara-guru, teacher of the world; Smara, remembrance; 
$rmgura-yoni, source of love; Titha, fire; Varna, the 
handsome. From his bow and arrows he is called Kusuma- 
yudha, armed with flowers; Pushpa-dhanus, whose bow is 
flowers; and Pushpa-sara, whose arrows are flowers. From 
his banner he is known as Makara-ketu ; and from the flower 
he carries in his hand he is Pushpa-ketana. 

KAMA-DHENU. The cow which grants desires, belonging 
to the sage Yasish/ha. She was produced at the churning of 
the ocean. Among the examples of her supernatural powers 
was the creation of a host of warriors who aided Vasish/ha 
against Karta-virya. She is called also Kama-duh, $avala, and 

KAMAKSHI. A form of Devi worshipped at Kamarupa- 
tirtha in Assam. See Kalika Purawa. 

KAMANDAKI. Author of a work known by his name on 
"The Elements of Polity." The text has been printed in the 
Bibliotlieca Indica by Rajendra Lala Mittra. 

KAMARUPA. The north-eastern part of Bengal and the 
western portion of Assam. The name still survives as Kam- 

KAMBOJAS. A race or tribe always associated with the 
tribes living to the north-west, and famous for their horses. 
They were among the races conquered by King Sagara. 

KAMPILYA. The city of King Drupada in the country 
of the Panchfdas, where the swayam-vara of Draupadi was held. 


It corresponds with, the Kampila of modern times, situated 
in the Doab on the old Ganges, between Badaun and Farrukh- 

KAMYAKA. The forest in which the Pawc?avas passed their 
exile on the banks of the Saras wati. 

3LAJVADA. The sage who founded the Vaiseshika school of 
philosophy. See Darsana. 

KANCHI. One of the seven sacred cities, hodie Conjeveram. 

KANDAEPA, The Hindu Cupid. See Kama. 

KAjVDAESHI. A Ri&hi who teaches one particular "KiLnda, 
or part of the Vedas. 

KAjYDU. A sage who was beguiled from long and severe 
austerities by Pramlocha, a nymph sent from heaven by Indra 
for this purpose. He lived with her some hundreds of years, 
which seemed to him only as a day, but he at length repudiated 
her and " went to the region of Vish?m." Pramlocha gave birth, 
in an extraordinary manner, to his daughter Marisha (q.v.). 

KANISHKA. " Hushka, Jushka, Kanishka." These are the 
names recorded in the Raja Tarangim! of three great Turushka, 
that is Turk or Tatar, kings, who were of the Buddhist religion. 
It may, perhaps, be taken for granted that Hushka and Jushka 
come in their natural succession, for the names might be trans 
posed without detriment to the metre; but the short syllable 
of the name Kanishka is required where it stands by the ruleg 
of prosody, so that the position of the name in the verse is not 
decisive of his place in the succession of kings. Nothing is 
known of Jushka beyond the simple recital of his name as 
above quoted, but the names of Kanishka and Hushka (or 
Huvishka) have been found in inscriptions and upon coins, 
showing that their dominions were of considerable extent in 
Northern India, and that they were, as the Raja Tarangiwi re 
presents, great supporters of the Buddhist religion. The name 
of Kanishka has been found in inscriptions at Mathura, Manik- 
yala, Bhawalpur, and Zeda, while his name appears on the 
corrupt Greek coins as Kanerki. Huvishka s name has been 
found at Mathura and on a metal vase from "VVardak in 
Afghanistan ; on the coins his name is represented as Oerki. 
Kanishka preceded Huvishka, and it is certain that their reigns 
covered a period of fifty-one years, and probably more. The time 
at which they reigned seems to have been just before the Chris- 


tian era. A Roman coin of the date 33 B.C. was found in the 
tope of Manikyala, which was built "by Kanishka. 

KANA. A tyrannical king of Mathura, son of Ugra-sena 
and cousin of Dcvaki the mother of Krishwa ; so he was the 
cousin, not the uncle, of Krishna, as he is often called. Ho 
married two daughters of Jara-sandha, king of Magadha. He 
deposed his father. It was foretold that a son born of Devaki 
should kill him, so he endeavoured to destroy all her children. 
But Bala-rama, her seventh son, was smuggled away to Gokula, 
and was brought up by Rohim. When Krishiia the eighth was 
born his parents fled with him. The tyrant then gave orders 
for a general massacre of all vigorous male infants. Kansa 
became the great persecutor of Krishwa, but was eventually 
killed by him. Kansa is also called Kalankura, crane. He is 
looked upon as an Asura, and is in some way identified with 
the Asura Kala-nemi. 

KAXSA-BADHA. A drama in seven acts upon the de 
struction of Kansa by K?ishwa. The author is called Krishna 
Kavi, and the play was probably written about two centuries 
ago. It is weak as a drama, but " the language is in general 
good, although highly elaborate." Wilson. 

KAJVAVA. See $atapatha Brahmawa. 

KAA T WA. Name of a fiishi to whom some hymns of the 
7?/g-veda are ascribed ; he is sometimes counted as one of the 
seven great fiishis. The sage who brought up $akuntala as his 
daughter. There are several others of the same name. 

KAJVWAS. The descendants or followers of Kawwa. 

KANYA-KUBJA. The modern form of the name is Kanauj 
or Kinnauj, spelt in a variety of ways. i. An ancient city 
of Hindustan on the Kall-nadi, an affluent of the Ganges, and 
lying a little to the west of the latter. It was once the capital 
of a powerful dynasty. It was known to classical geographers 
as "Canogyza," The name means "humpbacked damsel," and 
refers to a legend relating to the hundred daughters of King 
Kusa-nabha, who were all made crooked by Yayu for refusing 
to comply with his licentious desires. 2. A great national divi 
sion of the Brahman caste. See Brahman. 

KAXYA-KTJMAKL The virgin-damsel. A name of 
Durga. Her worship extended to the southernmost extremity 
of India in the days of Pliny, and Kumurl still appears in the 
name Cape Comcrin. 


KAPAEDIN. Wearing the kaparda, a peculiar braid or 
knot of hair. This epithet is applied to /Siva, to one of the 
Rudras, and some others. 

KAPI-DHWAJA. An epithet of Arjuna, "because he "bore 
an ape (Jcapi) on his standard (dhwaja). 

KAPILA. A celebrated sage, the founder of the Sankhya 
philosophy. The Hari-vansa makes him the son of Vitatha. 
He is sometimes identified with Vishrai and sometimes with 
Agni. He is said to have destroyed the hundred thousand sons 
of King Sagara with a glance. See Sagara. 

KAPILA, KAPILA-VASTU. A town on the river Eohira, 
an affluent of the Eapti, which was the capital of uddhodana, 
the father of Gotama Buddha. 

KAPILA PURA7VA. See Purawa. 

KAPLSA. Mother of the Pisachas, who bear the metro 
nymic Kapiseya. 

KARALI. Dreadful, terrible. In Vedic times one of the 
seven tongues of Agni (fire), but in later days a name of the 
terrible consort of $iva. See Devi. 

KAED AMA. According to the Maha-bharata and Eamaya?ia, 
he is one of the Prajapatis who sprang from Brahma. Accord 
ing to other authorities, he, or another sage of the same name, 
was a son of Daksha or a son of Pulaha. 

KARMA-MIMA1S T SA. The Purva-mimansa. See Darsana. 

KARMA -MIMANS A -SUTRA. A work on the Vedanta 
philosophy, ascribed to Jaimini. 

KARiVA. Son of Pn tha or Kuntl by Surya, the sun, before 
her marriage to Pam?u. Kama was thus half-brother of the 
Paftctavas, but this relationship was not known to them till 
after his death. Kuntl, on one occasion, paid such attention 
to the sage Dur-vasas, that he gave her a charm by virtue of 
which she might have a child by any god she preferred to 
invoke. She chose the sun, and the result was Kama, who 
was born equipped with arms and armour. Afraid of censure 
and disgrace, Kuntl exposed the child on the banks of the 
Yamuna, where it was found by bandana or Adhiratha, the 
suta or charioteer of Dhnta-rashfra. The charioteer and his 
wife, Eadha, brought him up as their own, and the child passed 
as such. When he grew up, Indra disguised himself as a Brah 
man, and cajoled him out of his divine cuirass. He gave him 


in return great strength and a javelin charged with certain death 
to whomsoever it was hurled against. Kama became king of Anga 
or Bengal Some authorities represent his foster-father as having 
been ruler of that country, but others say that Kama was made 
king of Anga by Dur-yodhana, in order to qualify him to fight 
in the passage of arms at the swayam-vara of Draupadi. This 
princess haughtily rejected him, saying, " I wed not with the 
base-born." Kama knew that he was half-brother of the Pa/i- 
davas, but he took the side of their cousins, the Kauravas, and 
he had especial rivalry and animosity against Arjuna, whom 
he vowed to kill. In the great battle he killed Ghafotkacha, 
the son of Bhima, with Indra s javelin. Afterwards there was a 
terrific combat between him and Arjuna, in which the latter was 
nearly overpowered, but he killed Kama with a crescent-shaped 
arrow. After Kama s death his relationship to the Para/avas 
became known to them, and they showed their regret for his 
loss by great kindness to his widows, children, and dependants. 
From his father, Yikarttana (the sun), Kama was called Vaikart- 
tana ; from his foster-parents, Vasu-sena ; from his foster-father s 
profession, Adhirathi and Suta; and from his foster-mother, 
Radheya. He was also called Anga-raja, * king of Anga ; Cham- 
padhipa, king of Champa; and Kanma, the bastard. 

KARTVA-PRAVARAjVAS. Men whose ears served them 
for coverings. They are mentioned in the Maha-bharata, Rama- 
yana, and other works. 

KARYAJA, KARiYlrAKA. The country where the 
Canarese language is spoken, in the central districts of the 
Peninsula, including Mysore. The name " Carnatic" is derived 
from this. 

KARTA-VlRYA. Son of lOita-vIrya, king of the Haihayas. 
This is his patronymic, by which he is best known ; his real 
name was Arjuna. " Having worshipped a portion of the divine 
being called Dattatreya, sprung from the race of Atri, he sought 
and obtained these boons, viz., a thousand arms and a golden 
chariot that went wheresoever he willed it to go ; the power of 
restraining wrong by justice ; the conquest of the earth and the 
disposition to rule it righteously ; invincibility by enemies, and 
death at the hands of a man renowned over the whole world. 
By him this earth was perfectly governed," and of him it is 
said : " Xo other king shall ever equal Karta-virya in regard 


to sacrifices, liberality, austerities, courtesy, and self -restraint." 
"Thus he ruled for85,ooo years with unbroken health, prosperity, 
strength, and valour." V.P. He visited the hermitage of Jamad- 
agni, and was received by that sage s wife with all respect; but he 
made an ill return for her hospitality, and carried off by violence 
"the calf of the milch-cow of the sacred oblation." For this 
outrage Parasu-rama cut off his thousand arms and killed him. 
In another place a different character is given to him, and more 
in accordance with his behaviour at Jamad-agni s hut. "He 
oppressed both men and gods," so that the latter appealed to 
Vishmi for succour. That god then came down to the earth as 
Parasu-rama for the especial purpose of killing him. Karta- 
virya was the contemporary of Kavawa, and when that demon 
monarch came " in the course of his campaign of conquest to 
MahishmatI (the capital of Karta-virya), he was captured with 
out difficulty, and was confined like a wild beast in a corner of 
his city." The statement of the Vayu Purarca is that Karta- 
virya invaded Lanka, and there took Kavawa prisoner. 

KAKTTIKEYA. The god of war and the planet Mars, also 
called Skanda. He is said in the Maha-bharata and Kamayawa 
to be the son of /Siva or Eudra, and to have been produced 
without the intervention of a woman. $iva cast his seed into 
fire, and it was afterwards received by the Ganges : Kartti- 
keya was the result ; hence he is called Agni-bhu and Ganga-ja. 
He was fostered by the Pleiades (Knttika), and hence he has 
six heads and the name Karttikeya. His paternity is some 
times assigned to Agni (fire) ; Ganga (the Ganges) and Parvati 
are variously represented to be his mother. He was born for 
the purpose of destroying Taraka, a Daitya whose austerities had 
made him formidable to the gods. He is represented riding on 
a peacock called Paravam, holding a bow in one hand and an 
arrow in the other. His wife is Kaumari or Sena. He has 
many titles : as a warrior he is called Maha-sena, Sena-pati ; 
Siddha-sena, c leader of the Siddhas ; and Yudha-ranga ; also 
Kumara, the boy ; Guha, the mysterious one ; $akti-dhara, 
spear-holder ; and in the south he is called Su-brahmawya. 
He is Ganga-putra, son of the Ganges ; ara-bhu, born in 
the thicket ; Taraka-jit, vanquisher of Taraka ; Dwadasa-kara 
and Dwada-saksha, twelve-handed and twelve-eyed ; 
kaya, straight-bodied. See Krauncha. 


KARUSHAS. A people of Mulwa, inhabiting the back of 
the Yindhya mountains. They are said to be descended from 
Karusha, one of the sons of the Manu Yaivaswata. 

KAL Benares. 

KA/SI KHAYDA. A long poem, forming a part of the 
Skanda Purana. It gives a very minute description of the 
temples of /Siva in and around Benares, and is presumably an 
terior to the Mahomedan conquest. See Skanda Purawa. 

KAjSTAPA. A Vedic sage to whom some hymns are attri 
buted. All authorities agree in assigning to him a large part 
in the work of creation. According to the Maha-bharata, the 
Ramayawa, and the Pura?ias, he was the son of Marlchi, the son 
of Brahma, and he was father of Yivaswat, the father of Manu, 
the progenitor of mankind. The $atapatha Brahmafia gives 
a different and not very intelligible account of his origin 
thus : " Having assumed the form of a tortoise, Prajapati 
created offspring. That which he created he made (akarot) ; 
hence the word kurma (tortoise). Kasyapa means tortoise; 
hence men say, All creatures are descendants of Kasyapa. 
This tortoise is the same as Aditya." The Atharva-veda says, 
"The self-born Kasyapa sprang from Time," and Time is 
often identical with Yishmi. The Maha-bharata and later 
authorities agree in representing that Kasyapa married Aditi 
and twelve other daughters of Daksha. Upon Aditi he 
begat the Adityas, headed by Indra, and also Yivaswat, and 
"to Yivaswat was born the wise and mighty Manu." The 
Ramayawa and Yishwu Pura^a also state that "Yislmu was 
born as a dwarf, the son of Aditi and Kasyapa," By his 
other twelve wives he had a numerous and very diversified 
offspring: demons, nagas, reptiles, birds, and all kinds of 
living things. He was thus the father of all, and as such is 
sometimes called Prajapati. He is one of the seven great Ti/shis, 
and he appears as the priest of Parasu-rilma and Rama-chandra. 

KA-TANTRA. A Sanskn t grammar by Sarva-varman. 
Edited by Eggeling for the BiUiotlieca Indica. 

KATA-PRU. Worm. A class of beings similar to or iden 
tical with the Yidya-dharas. 

KATHA. Name of a Upanishad (q.v.). It has been 
translated by Dr. Roer in the BiUiotheca Indica. 

KAniAKA. A school or recension of the Yajur-veda, 


occupying a position between the Black and the White. It is 
supposed to be lost. 

KATHAjRJVAYA. Sea of stories. A compilation of mis 
cellaneous stories in four books ; the first two are the originals 
of the Hindi Baital Pachisi and Singhasan Battisi. 

KATHA-SARIT-SAGAEA. The ocean of the rivers of 
stories. A collection of popular stories by Soma-deva-bha^a of 
Kashmir, made about the beginning of the twelfth century A.D. 
It is drawn from a larger work called Brihat-katha. Thet ext 
has been printed and in part translated by Brockhaus. 

KATYAYANA. An ancient writer of great celebrity, who 
came after Pawini, whose grammar he completed and corrected 
in what he called Yarttikas, supplementary rules and annota 
tions. He is generally identified with Vararuchi, the author of 
the Prakrita Prakasa. Max Miiller places him in the second 
half of the fourth century B.C. ; Goldstiicker in the first half 
of the second century B.C. ; Weber about twenty-five years 
B.C. Besides his additions to Pawini s Grammar, he was the 
author of the /Srauta-siitras which bear his name, and of the 
Yajur-veda Pratisakhya. His Sutras have been edited by Weber. 
A story in the Katha-sarit-sagara makes him the incarnation of 
a demigod named Pushpa-danta. A Katyayana was author also 
of a Dharma-sastra. 

KATYAYANL A name of Durga. See Devi. 

KAUMAEA. The creation of the Kumaras (q.v.). 

KAUMODAKL The mace of Krishna, presented to him by 
Agni when engaged with him in fighting against Indra and 
burning the Khaw/ava forest. 

KAUISTDLYYA. An ancient sage and grammarian. He 
offended $iva, but was saved from that god s wrath by Yishwu : 
he was hence called Yishfiu-gupta, saved by Yishmi. 

KAUNTEYA. Son of Kunti. A metronymic applicable to 
Yudhi-sh/hira, Bhima, and Arjuna, but commonly applied to 

KAUEAYAS. Descendants of Kuru. A patronymic espe 
cially applied to the sons of Dhnta-rash/ra. See Maha-bharata. 

KAUSALYA (mas.), KAUSALYA (fern.). Belonging to 
the Kosala nation. There are several women known by this 
name. The wife of Puru and mother of Janamejaya. The 
wife of Dasa-ratha and mother of Rama. (See Dasa-ratha.) The 


mother of Dhr ita-raslifra and the mother of Parcrfu both were 
known by this name, being daughters of a king of Ivasl. 

KATLSAMBI. The capital of Yatsa, near the junction of the 
Ganges and Jumna. An inscription found at Karra on the Ganges 
mentions that place as being situated in Kausambi-maft^ala, the 
circle of Kausambi; but General Cunningham identifies the 
place with the village of Kosam, said to be still called Kosambi- 
nagar on the Jumna, about thirty miles above Allahabad. It is 
the scene of the drama Ratnavali. 

KAUSHITAKI. i. A sakha of _the 7^ g-veda. 2. (Kaushi- 
taki) the name of a Brahmawa, an Arawyaka, and a Upanishad. 
(See those terms.) The Brahma^a has been published with a 
translation by Professor Cowell in the Bibliotheca Indica. 

KATLS1KA. A devotee mentioned in the Maha-bharata as 
having gone to a hell of torment for having pointed out to 
robbers a road by which they pursued and killed some persons 
who fled from them. 

KAU$IKAS. Descendants of Kusika (q.v.). In one of the 
hymns of the Itig the epithet is given to Indra. 

KAU/S IKI. The river Kosl in Bihar, but there were more 
rivers than one bearing this name. Satyavati, mother of Jamad- 
agni is said to have been changed into a river of this name. 

KATJSTUBHA. A celebrated jewel obtained at the churn 
ing of the ocean, and worn by Vishrcu or Kr/shwa on his bosom. 

KAUTILYA. Another name of Charaikya, the minister of 
Chandra-gupta. See Chawakya. 

KATJTSA. A rationalistic philosopher, who lived before the 
days of Yaska the author of the Nirukta. He regarded " the 
Veda as devoid of meaning, and the Brahmawas as false inter 
pretations." Yaska replied to his objections. 

KAUTUKA-SARYASWA. A modern farce, in two acts, 
by a Pa?2c?it named Gopi-natha. "It is a satire upon princes 
who addict themselves to idleness and sensuality, and fail to 
patronise the Brahmans." Wilson. 

slave girl. He was author of several hymns in the tenth book 
of the Tt/g-veda. The Aitareya Brahmawa relates that the 72-j shis 
were performing a sacrifice on the banks of the Saraswati, and 
that Kavasha was with them ; but they drove him from among 
them because he was the son of a slave, and therefore unworthy 


to drink the water of the SaraswatL When he was alone in the 
desert, a prayer was revealed to him by which he prevailed over 
the Saraswati, and its waters came and surrounded him. The 
Piishis saw this, and knowing that it was by the special favour 
of the gods, they admitted him to their society. 

KAYI-RAJA. Author of a poem of studied ambiguity 
called Raghava-PawfZaviyam (q.v.). 

KAYYA-DARSA. Mirror of poetry. A work on the 
Ars Poetica by /Sri DandL It has been printed in the Biblio- 
theca Indica. 

KAYYA-PRAKA/SA. A work on poetry and rhetoric by 
Mamma /a Bha//a of Kashmir. It has been printed at Calcutta. 

KAVYAS, KAYYAS. A class of Pitns ; according to some 
they are the Manes of men of the third caste. 

KAYAYYA. The son of a Kshatriya by a Nishada female, 
who is related in the Maha-bharata to have risen by virtue, 
knowledge, and devotion from the state of a Dasyu to perfection, 

KEDARESA, KEDARA-KiTHA. A name of iva. Name 
of one of the twelve great Lingas. It is a shapeless mass of 
stone at Kedara-natha in the Himalayas. See Linga. 

KEKAYA. See Kaikeya. 

KELI-KILA. A demigod attendant upon /Siva. 

KENA, KENOPANISHAD. Name of a Upanishad (q.v.) 
translated by Dr. Roer for the Bibliotheca Indica. 

KEKAKAS. One-footed men who live in forests, according 
to the Maha-bharata. 

KERALA The country of Malabar proper on the western coast. 

KESAYA. Having much or fine hair. A name of Yishftu 
or "Krishna. 

KEI, KE/SIN In the Maha-bharata, .a demon who fought 
with and was defeated by Indra. In the Purawas, a Daitya who 
took the form of a horse and attacked Krishna, but was killed 
by that hero s thrusting his arm into his jaws and rending him 

KE$INI. Wife of Yisravas and mother of Ravawa ; also 
called Kaikasi. 

KE&I-DHWAJA. Son of Knta-dhwaja. Kesi-dhwaja "was 
endowed with spiritual knowledge," and he had a cousin, Khaw- 
rfikya, who " was diligent in the way of works and was renowned 
for religious rites." There was contention and hostilities be- 


tween them, and Khamfikya was driven from his dominions. 
But they subsequently became useful to each other and friendly. 
Khandfikya by his practical religion enabled Kesi-dhwaja to 
make atonement for the killing of a cow, and Kesl-dhwaja 
initiated Kha?it?ikya in the mysteries of spiritual meditation 

KETU. The descending node in astronomy, represented by 
a dragon s tail ; also a comet or meteor, and the ninth of the 
planets. He is said to be a Danava, and son of Yiprachitti and 
Sinhika. He is also called A-kacha, hairless; Aslesha-bhava, 
cut off; Murcrfa, bald. See Rahu. 

country on the banks of the Yamuna, which the PiMavas 
received as their moiety when Dhn ta-rashfra divided his king 
dom. In it they built the city of Indra-prastha and made it 
their capital. The forest was consumed with fire by the god 
Agni assisted by KHsh/za and Arjuna. 

KHAJVDIKYA. See Kesi-dhwaja. 

KHARA. A man-eating Rakshasa, the younger brother of 
Ravana. He was killed by Rama-chandra. 

KHARYA. A dwarf. See Yalakhilya. 

KHASA. A daughter of Daksha, wife of Kasyapa, and 
mother of the Yakshas and Rakshasas, called after her Khasat- 

border people classed with the /Sakas and other northern tribes. 
Professor Wilson thought that traces of them might be sought 
among the barbarous tribes on the north-east of Bengal, the 

KHAT WANGA (also called Dilipa). i. A prince of the Solar 
race. In a battle between the gods and the demons he rendered 
great assistance to the former, who desired him to ask a boon. 
He begged that he might know the duration of his life, and the 
answer was, " Only an hour." He hastened to the world of 
mortals, and by earnest prayer he became united with the sup 
reme being, Yislmu. " Like unto Kha^wanga will there be no 
one upon earth, who, having come from heaven and dwelt an 
hour amongst men, became united with the three worlds by his 
liberality and knowledge of truth." V. P. 2. A club; the club 
of iva ; it is also called Khinkhira and Pansula. 


KICHAKA. Brother-in-law of the king of Vira/a, who was 
commander of the forces and general director of the affairs of 
the kingdom. He made love to Praupadi, and was slain by 
Bhima, who rolled his bones and flesh into a ball, so that no one 
could tell how he was killed. 

KIKATA. A country inhabited by people who were not 
Aryans ; it is identified with Magadha or South Bihar. 

KILATAKULI. (Kilata + Akuli.) Two priests of the Asuras, 
who, according to the $atapatha Brahmana, exercised a special 
influence between Manu and an " Asura-slaying voice." 

KIM-PURUSHA. < What man V An indescribable man ; 
one of a low type, partaking of the nature and appearance of 
animals. In later times it is synonymous with Kin-nara. Name 
of a region between Himavat and Hema-ku/a. (See Jambu-dwipa.) 
Also of a king of the latter region. 

K1N-NAEAS. What men? Mythical beings with the 
form of a man and the head of a horse. They are celestial 
choristers and musicians, dwelling in the paradise of Kuvera on 
Ivailasa. They sprang from the toe of Brahma with the Yakshas, 
but according to others, they are sons of Kasyapa. They are 
also called Aswa-mukhas Turanga-vaktras, horse-faced, and 

KIKATABJUNIYA. A poem descriptive of the combat 
between $iva in the guise of a Kirata or mountaineer and the 
Paw?u prince Arjuna. The story is first told in the Maha- 
bharata, and has been worked up in this artificial poem of 
eighteen cantos by Bharavi. Part of it has been translated into 
German by Schu tz. There are several editions of the text. 
See Arjuna. 

KIRATAS. Foresters and mountaineers living in the moun 
tains east of Hindustan. (There is a tribe in the Central Hima 
layas called Kirantis.) They are described in the Ramaya?ia as 
" islanders, who eat raw fish, live in the waters, and are men- 
tigers " (men below and tigers above, according to the commenta 
tor). Their females are described as " gold-coloured and plea 
sant to behold," and as having "sharp-pointed hair-knots." 
They are perhaps the Cirrhadae placed on the Coromandel coast 
by classic writers. 

KIKITIK Crowned with a diadem. A title of India 
and also of Arjuna. 


KIRMIRA. A monster Rakshasa, brother of Yaka. Ho 
opposed the entrance of the Pawcfavas into the Kamyaka forest, 
and threatened that he would eat Bhima. A furious combat 
ensued, in which Bhima and he hurled large trees at each other, 
but the demon was at length strangled and had all his bones 
broken by Bhima. 

KISHKINDHYA. A country in the peninsula, thought to 
be in the Mysore, which was taken by Rama from the monkey 
king Bali, and given back to his brother Su-grlva, the friend 
and ally of Rama. The capital city was Kishkindhyii. 

KOIIALA. An ancient sage, to whom the invention of the 
drama is attributed ; also a writer on music. 

KOSALA. A country on the arayu river, having Ayodhya 
for its capital. The name is variously applied to other 
countries in the east, and in the south, and in the Vindhya 
mountains. It probably widened with the dominions of its 
rulers, and part of Birar is called Dakshirca-Kosala, the Southern 

KOTAVI, KOTARI, K07TAVI. A naked woman. A 
mystical goddess, the tutelary deity of the Daityas, and mother 
of BaTia the demon. The name is sometimes applied to Durga. 

KRAMA-PlrHA. See Patha. 

KRATU. One of the Prajapatis, and sometimes reckoned 
among the great Tfo shis and mind-born sons of Brahma. (See 
7?ishi.) The Vishmi Purawa says that his wife Samnati brought 
forth the 60,000 Valikhilyas, pigmy sages no bigger than a joint 
of the thumb. 

KR AUNCHA. i . A pass situated somewhere in the Himalayas, 
said to have been opened by Parasu-rama with his arrows to 
make a passage from Kailasa to the southwards. The Vayu 
Purawa attributes the splitting of the mountain to Karttikeya. 
Indra and Karttikeya had a dispute about their respective 
powers, and agreed to decide it by running a race round the 
mountain. They disagreed as to the result, and therefore 
appealed to the mountain, who untruly decided in favour of 
Indra. "Karttikeya hurled his lance at the mountain and 
pierced at once it and the demon Mahisha." 2. A confede 
rate of the demon Taraka, against whom Karttikeya led the 
gods and triumphed. 3. One of the seven Dwipas. See 


KKAVYAD. c A flesh-eater. A Kakshasa or any carnivo 
rous animal. In the Veda, Agni is in one place called a Kravyad 
of terrible power. Fire is also a Kravyad in consuming bodies 
on the funeral pile. See Agni. 

K72/PA. Son of the sage $aradwat, and the adopted son of 
King $antanu. He became one of the privy council at Hastina- 
pura, and was one of the three surviving Kuril warriors who 
made the murderous night attack upon the camp of the PanJavas. 
He was also called Gautama and /Saradwata. See Knpa and 

Kjft/PA, K^/PI Wife of Drona and mother of Aswattha- 
man. The sage /Saradwat or Gotama so alarmed Indra by his 
austerities that the god sent a nymph to tempt him. Though 
she was unsuccessful, two children were found born to the sage 
in a tuft of grass. King $antanu found them and brought them 
up out of compassion (kripd), whence their names, Krtpa and 
Kripa. The children passed as $antanu s own. Diona, was a 
Brahman and $antanu a Kshatriya : the myth makes Kripl a 
Brahmam, and so accounts for her being the wife of Drowa. 
The Vishnu Purawa represents them as children of Satya-dhnti, 
grandson of /Saradwat by the nymph Urvasi, and as being exposed 
in a clump of long grass. 

KK/SELZVA. Black. This name occurs in the ^/g-veda, 
but without any relation to the great deity of later times. The 
earliest mention of Krishna, the son of Devaki, is in the Chhan- 
dogya Upanishad, where he appears as a scholar. There was a 
Piishi of the name who was a son of Viswaka. There was also 
a great Asura so named, who with 10,000 followers committed 
fearful devastation, until he was defeated and skinned by Indra. 
In another Vedic hymn, 50,000 Krishnas are said to have been 
slain, and it is added in another that his pregnant wives were slain 
with him that he might leave no posterity. This is supposed 
to have reference to the Eakshasas or to the dark- coloured 
aborigines of India. 

The modern deity Krishna is the most celebrated hero of 
Indian mythology, and the most popular of all the deities. 
He is said to be the eighth Avatara or incarnation of Vishnu, 
or rather a direct manifestation of Vishnu himself. This hero, 
around whom a vast mass of legend and fable has been gathered, 
probably lived in the Epic age, when the Hindus had not ad- 


vanccd far beyond their early settlements in the north-west. He 
appears prominently in the Maha-bhurata, where his character 
is invested with a certain degree of mysticism. Additions and 
interpolations have raised him to divinity, and it is in the 
character of the " Divine One " that he delivered the celebrated 
song, Bhagavad-gita, a production of comparatively late date, 
now held to be part of the great epic. In this work he dis 
tinctly declares himself to be the Supreme Being. He says : 
" All this universe has been created by me ; all things exist in 
me;" and Arjuna addresses him as "the supreme universal 
spirit, the supreme dwelling, the eternal person, divine, prior 
to the gods, unborn, omnipresent." The divine character of 
Krishna, having thus been established, it was still further deve 
loped in the Hari-vansa, a later addition to the Maha-bharata ; 
and in the Purawas, especially in the Bhagavata Purawa, it 
attained full expansion. There the story of the life of K? ish?za, 
from his earliest days, is related with minute details, and it is 
upon this portion of his life that the popular mind delights 
to dwell. The mischievous pranks of the child, the follies of 
the boy, and the amours of the youth, are the subjects of 
boundless wonder and delight. All these stories, as told in the 
Bhagavata Purawa, have been made accessible and popular by 
the Hindi translation known by the name Prem Sagar, ocean 
of love, and by other versions. Much of the story of the early 
days of Krishna is thus of comparatively modern invention, 
while the incidents of his relations with the Para/ava princes are 
among the most ancient. 

Kn shwa was of the Yadava race, being descended from Yadu, 
one of the sons of Yayati. The Yadavas of old were a pastoral 
race, and dwelt on the river Yamuna (Jumna), in Yrindavana, on 
the western side, and in Gokula on the other. In those days, 
Kansa, Raja of the Bhojas, having deposed his father, Ugrasena, 
ruled in the city of Mathura, near Yn ndiivana. Ugrasena had a 
brother named Devaka, and Devaka had a daughter named De- 
vaki, who married Yasu-deva, son of *Stira, also a descendant of Yadu. 
The history of E>/shwa s birth, as given in the Maha-bhfirata and 
followed by the Yishwu Purawa, is that Yislmu plucked out two of 

this own hairs, one white, the other black. These two hairs entered 
;he wombs of Rohini and Devaki ; the white liair became Bala- 
:uma and the black (krishnd) hair (kcsd) became Kr/slma orKwuva. 


His reputed father, Yasu-deva, was brother of Kunti, the wife of 
IPandu, and so Krishna was cousin of the three elder Pan rfava princes. 

The Maha-bharata gives two summaries of his exploits, of 
which the following are abridgments : " While "Krishna, was 
growing up as a high-souled boy in the tribe of cowherds, the 
force of his arms was rendered famous by him in the three 
worlds." He slew the king of the Hayas (horses), dwelling in the 
woods of the Yamuna. He slew the direful Danava, who bore 
the form of a bulL He also slew Pralambha, Naraka, Jambha, 
and Pitha, the great Asura, and Muru. He overthrew and 
slew Kansa, who was supported by Jara-sandha. With the help of 
Bala-rama he defeated and destroyed Su-naman, brother of Kansa 
and king of the /Surasenas. He carried off the daughter of the 
king of the Gandharas at a swayam-vara, and princes were yoked 
to his car. He secured the death of Jara-sandha and slew $i.<?u- 
pala. He overthrew Saubha, the self-supporting or flying city 
of the Daityas, on the shore of the ocean. He conquered the 
Angas and Bangas, and numerous other tribes. Entering the 
ocean filled with marine monsters, he overcame Yaruwa. In 
Patala he slew Panchajana, and obtained the divine shell Pan- 
chajanya. With Arjuna he propitiated Agni in the Khaw^ava 
forest, and obtained the fiery weapon the discus. Mounted on 
GarucZa, he alarmed Amaravati, the city of Indra, and brought 
away the Parijata tree from thence. 

In another passage, Arjuna rehearses some of Krishna s ex 
ploits. He destroyed the Bhoja kings in battle, and carried 
off Rukmim for his bride. He destroyed the Gandharas, van 
quished the sons of Nagnajit, and released King Su-darsana, 
whom they had bound. He slew Pamfya with the fragment of 
a door, and crushed the Kalingas in Dantakura. Through him 
the burnt city of Benares was restored. He killed Ekalavya, 
king of the Nishadas, and the demon Jambha. With the aid of 
Bala-rama he killed Su-naman, the wicked son of Ugrasena, and 
restored the kingdom to the latter. He conquered the flying 
city of Saubha and the king of the /S alwas, and there he 
obtained the fiery weapon $ata-ghni. jSTaraka, son of the earth, 
had carried off the beautiful jewelled earrings of Aditi to 
Prag-jyotisha, the impregnable castle of the Asuras. The gods, 
headed by Indra, were unable to prevail against ]N"araka, so 
they appointed Krishna, to slay him. Accordingly he killed 


Muru and the Rakshasa Ogha ; and finally he slew Xaraka and 
brought back the earrings. 

It further appears in different parts of the Maha-bharata that 
Krishna, prince of Dwaraka, was present at the swayam-vara of 
Draupadi, and gave his judgment that she had been fairly won 
by Arjuna. While the Pa^avas were reigning at Indra-prastha, 
he paid them a visit, and went out hunting with them in the 
Ivhrutffava forest. There he and Arjuna allied themselves with 
Agni, who was desirous of burning the Khandava forest, but 
was prevented by Indra. Agni having secured the help of 
Krishna and Arjuna, he gave the former the celebrated chakra 
(discus) Vajra-nabha, and the club Kaumodaki. Then Indra 
was defeated and Agni burnt the forest, Arjuna afterwards 
visited Krishna at Dwaraka, and was received with great 
demonstrations of joy. Arjuna, with the connivance of Krishna, 
eloped with Su-bhadra, Krishna s sister, much to the annoyance 
of Eala-rama, her elder brother. "When Yudhi-sh/hira was 
desirous of performing the Raja-suya sacrifice, Knshwa told 
him that he must first conquer Jara-sandha, king of Magadha. 
Jara-sandha was attacked and slain, and Krishna was thus 
revenged upon the enemy who had forced him to leave Mathura 
and emigrate to Dwaraka. Krishna attended the Eaja-suya 
sacrifice performed by Yudhi-sh/hira, and there he met $isu-pala, 
whose betrothed wife he had carried off. $isu-pala reviled him 
and acted very violently, so Krz shfta cast his discus and cut off his 
enemy s head. He was present at the gambling match between 
Yudhi-sh/hira and the Kauravas. "When Draupadi had been 
staked and lost, she was dragged into the public hall by Du&- 
sasana, who tore off her clothes, but Krishna pitied her, and 
renewed her clothes as fast as they were torn away. After the 
close of the exile of the Pa/w/avas, "Krishna, was present, and took 
part in the council which preceded the great war, and strongly 
advised a peaceful settlement. Then he returned to Dwaraka. 
Thither Arjuna and Dur-yodhana followed him with the object of 
enlisting his services in the coming war, but he refused to take 
any active part because he was related to both parties. He 
gave them the choice of his personal attendance or of the use 
of his army. Arjuna, who had arrived first, and therefore had 
the first choice, asked for Kr/sliwa himself, and Dur-yodhana 
joyfully accepted the army. Krishna then became the charioteer 


of Arjuna. After this, at the request of the Pa?ic?avas, he went 
in splendid state to Hastina-pura as a mediator, but his efforts 
were unavailing, and he returned. Preparations for action were 
then made and the forces drawn out. On the eve of the battle, 
while acting as Arjuna s charioteer, he is represented as relating 
to Arjuna the Bhagavad-gita or divine song. He rendered 
valuable services to Arjuna throughout the battle, but on two 
occasions he suggested unfair dealing. He prompted the lie by 
which Yudhi-shiftiira broke down the prowess of Dro^a, and he 
suggested the foul blow by which Bhima shattered the thigh of 
Dur-yodhana. He afterwards went to Hastina-pura with the 
conquerors, and he also attended their Aswa-medha sacrifice. 
On returning to Dwaraka he issued a proclamation forbidding 
the use of wine. Portents and fearful signs appeared, and a 
general feeling of alarm spread among all in Dwaraka. Kr/shwa 
gave directions that the inhabitants should go out to Prabhasa 
on the sea-shore and endeavour to propitiate the deity. He 
gave permission also that wine might be drunk for one day. 
A drunken brawl followed, in which his son Pradyumna was 
killed in his presence, and nearly all the chiefs of the Yadavag 
were slain. Bala-rama went out from the fray and died peace- 
fully under a tree, and K?ish%a himself was killed unintention 
ally by a hunter named Jaras, who shot him with an arrow, 
mistaking him at a distance for a deer. Arjuna proceeded to 
Dwaraka and performed the obsequies of Krishna. A few 
days afterwards the city was swallowed up by the sea. Five 
of Knsh7&a s widows were subsequently burnt upon a funeral 
pile in the plain of Kuru-kshetra. 

"Among the texts of the Maha-bharata," says Dr. Muir, 
" there are some in which Knsh?za is distinctly subordinated to 
Maha-deva ($iva), of whom he is exhibited as a worshipper, and 
from whom, as well as from his wife Uma, he is stated to have 
received a variety of boons. Even in these passages, however, 
a superhuman character is ascribed to Krishna." 

The popular history of Krishna, especially of his childhood 
and youth, is given in the Pura^as, and is the subject of many 
a story. The Bhagavata Purawa is the great authority, and from 
that the following account is condensed : 

The sage Narada had foretold to Kansa that a son of Devaki, 
his brother s daughter, should destroy him and overthrow his 


kingdom. To obviate this danger, Kama kept his cousin Devakl 
confined in his own palace, and six children that she bore he 
caused to be put to death. She conceived a seventh time, but 
the child was an incarnation of Vishmi, and was miraculously 
preserved by being transferred from the womb of Devakl to that 
of Kohml, who was Yasu-deva s second wife. This child was 
Eala-rama. Devakl again conceived, and her eighth child was 
born at midnight with a very dark skin, whence he was called 
Kr/shwa. He had a peculiar curl of hair, called srl-vatsa, upon 
his breast. The gods interposed to preserve the life of this 
divinely begotten child. The guards of the palace were over 
powered with sleep, and bolts and barriers were removed. Yasu- 
deva took up the child and escaped with him from Mathura. 
He repaired to the bank of the Yamuna (Jumna), and, crossing 
the river, went to the house of ]N"anda, a cowherd, whose wife, 
Yasoda, had on that very night been delivered of a female child. 
Yasu-deva secretly changed the infants, and carried back the 
daughter of Yasoda to his wife DevakL Kansa discovered that 
he had been cheated, and in his wrath he ordered that every 
male infant that gave signs of vigour should be put to death. 
Yasu-deva and Devakl, being no longer dangerous, were set at 
liberty. Xanda, alarmed by the order for the massacre, took the 
young child and removed with Yasoda and with Kohi?zi and 
Eala-rama to Gokula. Here Krishfia was brought up, and wan 
dered about in company of his elder brother Eala-rama. They 
played many pranks and passed many practical jokes ; but they 
exhibited such marvellous strength and such godlike powers 
that they soon became famous. Kansa was continually forming 
schemes for the death of Kr/shwa. The female demon Putanii 
assumed a lovely form, and tried to kill him by suckling him, 
but the child sucked away her life. Another demon tried to 
drive a cart over him, but he dashed the cart to pieces. A 
demon named Tri/iavartta took the form of a whirlwind and 
flew off with him, but the child brought the demon to the 
ground with such violence that he died. One day Knsh?*a 
broke the vessels of milk and curds and ate the butter, which 
made Yasoda angry. She fastened a rope round his body, and 
tied him to a large bowl, but he dragged the bowl away till it 
caught between two trees and uprooted them. From this feat 
he got the name of Damodara (rope-belly). He had a terrible 

1 56 KRISHNA. 

conflict with the great serpent Kaliya, who lived in the Yamuna, 
and he compelled him to go away. On one occasion, when the gopls 
or milkmaids were bathing, he took away all their clothes and 
climbed up a tree, and there he remained till the damsels came 
to him naked to recover them. He persuaded Nanda and the 
cowherds to give up the worship of Indra, and to worship the 
mountain Govardhana, which sheltered them and their cattle. 
Incensed at the loss of his offerings, Indra poured down a heavy 
rain, which would have deluged them, but Krishna, lifted up the 
mountain Govardhana, and held it upon his finger as a shelter 
for seven days and nights, till Indra felt that he was foiled. 
From this feat he obtained the name of Govardhana-dhara and 
Tungisa. As he had protected the kine, Indra expressed his 
satisfaction, and gave him the title of Upendra. He was now 
approaching manhood, and was very handsome. The gopls were 
all enamoured of him, and he dispensed his favours very freely. 
He married seven or eight of them, but his first and favourite 
wife was Eadha. At this period of his life he is represented 
with flowing hair and with a flute in his hand. One of his 
favourite pastimes was a round dance, called Maw^ala-nr itya or 
Easa-maw^ala, in which he and Eadha formed the centre whilst 
the gopls danced round them. But his happiness was inter 
rupted by the machinations of Kansa, who sent formidable 
demons to destroy him Arishifa in the form of a bull, and 
Kesin in the form of a horse. These attempts having failed, 
Kansa sent his messenger, Akrura, to invite Krishna and Bala- 
rama to Mathura to attend some games, and he formed several 
plans for their destruction. They accepted the invitation, and 
went to Mathura. Near the city they found Kansa s washer 
man engaged in his calling. They threw down some of his 
clothes, and he addressed them insolently, upon which they killed 
him, and took such clothes as they liked. In his progress he met 
Kubja, a crooked damsel, who gave him some unguent, and he 
repaid her gift by making her straight. In the games he killed 
Chawura, the king s boxer. Afterwards he killed Kansa himself, 
and replaced Ugrasena on the throne. He remained in Mathura 
and studied the science of arms under Sandipani. He went 
down to the infernal regions and brought back his six brothers, 
whom Kansa had killed, and these, having tasted the milk of 
their mother, ascended to heaven. During this period he killed 


a demon named Pancliajana, who had attacked the son of his 
teacher. This demon lived in the sea in the form of a conch- 
shell, and Krishna afterwards used this shell, called Pancha- 
janya, as a trumpet. Kansa s two wives were daughters of 
Jara-sandha, king of Magadha. This king assembled his forces 
and marched against Mathura to chastise Krishna, but he was 
defeated He renewed his attacks eighteen times, and was as 
often defeated. A new enemy then threatened Krishna, a 
Yavana or foreigner named Kala-yavana, and Krishna had "been 
so weakened that he knew he must succumb either to him or to 
his old enemy the king of Magadha, so he and all his people 
migrated to the coast of Guzerat, where he built and fortified 
the city of Dwaraka. [The Maha-bharata makes no mention 
of this foreign king, and says that Krishna retired before the 
eighteenth attack of Jara-sandha. The foreign king would, 
therefore, seem to be an invention of the Puriinas for saving 
Krishna s reputation.] 

After his settlement at Dwaraka, Krishna carried off and 
married Rukmini, daughter of the Raja of Vidarbha, and the 
betrothed of $isu-pala. An incident now occurred which brought 
him two more wives. A Yadava chief named Satrajit had a 
beautiful gem called Syamantaka, which Krishna wished to 
possess. Satrajit, for the sake of security, gave the gem into 
the charge of his brother Prasena, and Prasena was killed in the 
forest by a lion, who carried off the jewel in his mouth. This 
lion was killed by Jambavat, the king of the bears. Satrajit 
suspected Krishna, of taking the jewel, and he, to clear himself, 
went out into the forest, ascertained the manner of Prasena s 
death, fought with Jambavat, and recovered the jewel. Krishna 
then married Jambavati, the daughter of Jambavat, and Satya- 
bhama, the daughter of Satrajit. But the number of his wives 
was practically unlimited, for he had 16,000 and a hundred or 
so besides, and he had 180,000 sons. By Rukmini he had a son 
Pradyumna and a daughter Charumati. His son by Jambavati 
was amba, and by Satya-bhama he had ten sons. Indra came 
to visit Krishna at Dwaraka, and implored him to suppress the 
evil deeds of the demon Karaka. Krishna accordingly went to 
the city of Naraka, killed the demon Muru, who guarded the 
city, and then destroyed Naraka himself. Krishna next went 
to pay a visit to Indra in Swarga, taking with him his wifo 


Satya-bhama. At her request lie requited the hospitality shown 
him by carrying off the famed Parijata tree, which was produced 
at the churning of the ocean. The tree belonged to $achi, wife 
of Indra, and she complained to her husband. India drew out 
his forces and tried to recover it, but was defeated by Kr/shna. 
Pradyumna, son of Krishna, had a son named Aniruddha, with 
whom a female Daitya, Usha, daughter of Bana, fell in love. 
She induced a companion to carry off the young man, and 
Krishna, Bala-rama, and Pradyumna went to rescue him. Bana, 
with the whole Daitya host, and assisted by /Siva and Skanda, 
the god of war, encountered them. Krishna, " with the weapon 
of yawning, set /Siva agape," and so overpowered him. Skanda 
was wounded. Bawa maintained a fierce combat with Krishna, 
and was severely wounded, but Krishna spared his life at the 
intercession of /Siva, and Aniruddha was released. 

There was a man named Pauntfraka, who was a Vasu-deva, or 
descendant of one Yasu-deva. Upon the strength of the identity 
of this name with that of Vasu-deva, the father of Krishna, this 
man Pauw^raka assumed the insignia and title of Krishna, and he 
had the king of KasI or Benares for an ally. Krishwa slew Paun- 
c?raka, and he hurled his naming discus at Benares and destroyed 
that city. Such are the principal incidents of the life of Krishna 
as given in the Hari-vansa, the Puiiiwas, and the Prem Sagar. 

Similarity in the sound of the name, and some incidents in 
the life of Krishna, have led some to believe that the legend of 
Krishna had its origin in the life of Christ, but this is not the 
general opinion. 

Krishna has many appellations derived from his family rela 
tions, his exploits, and personal characteristics ; and there are 
many which apply both to the full deity, Vishnu, and his incar 
nation, Krishna. 

KRISHNA. The personal name of DraupadL 


Ktf/TANTA. A name of Yama, the god of death. 

KTt/TA-VAKMAN". A Kara warrior, one of the last sur 
viving three who made the murderous night attack upon the 
camp of the Pancfcivas. (See Mahii-bharata.) He was killed in 
a drunken brawl at Dwarakil He was also called Bhoja. 

K7Z/TA-VIKYA. Son of Dhanaka and father of the 
Aijuna who is better know by his patronymic Ivarta-viryo. 


Knta-virya was a great patron of the Bhrigus, and according 
to the Purawas, "he ruled over the whole earth with might 
and justice, and offered 10,000 sacrifices. Of him this verse 
is still recited, The kings of the earth will assuredly never 
pursue his steps in sacrifice, in munificence, in devotion, in 
courtesy, and in self-control. " 

Kft/TA YUGA The first age of the world, a period of 
1,728,000 years. See Yuga. 

KK/TTIKAS. The Pleiades. The six nurses of Karttikeya, 
the god of war. They were daughters of a king according to 
one legend, wives of Tfo shis according to another. 

KRIYA-YOGA-SARA A portion of the Padma Purarca 
treating of rites and ceremonies. See Padma Purawa. 

KRODHA, KRODHA-VASA. One of the many daughters 
of Daksha and sister-wives of Kasyapa. She was the mother 
" of all sharp-toothed monsters, whether on the earth, amongst 
the birds, or in the waters, that were devourers of flesh." 

KSHANADA-CHARA. Night walkers. Ghosts of evil 
character, goblins, Rakshasas. 

KSHAPAJVAKA. An author who was one of " the nine 
gems " at the court of Vikramaditya. See Nava-ratna. 

KSHATRIYA The second or regal and warrior caste. 
See Yarna. 

KSIIATTRI. A name by which Yidura was familiarly 
called The term, as explained in Manu, means the son of a 
Sudra father and Brahman mother, but Yidura s father was a 
Brahman and his mother a slave girL 

KSHEMAKA. Son of Mra-mitra or JSTimi, and the last 
prince of the Lunar race. There is a memorial verse quoted in 
the Vishnu Purawa which say, "The race which gave origin 
to Brahmans and Kshatriyas, and which was purified by regal 
sages, terminated with Kshemaka in the Kali age." 

KSHEMA-VR/DDHL A general of the /Salwas who had 
a command in the army which attacked Dwaraka, and was 
defeated by Krishna s son, /Samba. 

KULA-PARYATAS. Family mountains. A series or sys 
tem of seven chains of mountains in Southern India, They are 
Mahendra, Malaya, Sahya, $uktimat, 72iksha (for which Gan- 
dha-madana is sometimes substituted), Yindhya and Paripatra. 
Mahendra is the Orissa chain ; Malaya, the hills of Malabar 


proper, the south part of the Western Ghats ; Sahya, the 
northern parts of the "Western Ghats ; *Sriktiniat is doubtful ; 
jRiksha, the mountains of Gondwana ; Vindhya is here applied 
to the eastern division of the Vindhya mountains ; and Paripatra, 
or Pariyatra as it is frequently written, applies to the northern 
and western portions of the same range. The classification seems 
to have been known to Ptolemy, for he specifies seven ranges of 
mountains, but his names are not in accord. 

KULIKA, One of the eight serpent kings, described as 
of a dusky brown colour and having a half-moon on his head 

KULLNT)AS. A people living in the north-west. 

IOJLLUKA-BHA2TA. The famous commentator on 
Manu, whose gloss was used by Sir W. Jones in making the 
translation of Manu. 

KUMARA. A name of Skanda, god of war. In the Brah- 
ma^as the term is applied to Agni. 

KUMARAS. Mind-born sons of Brahma, who, declining to 
create progeny, remained ever boys and ever pure and innocent. 
There were four of them, Sanat-kumara, Sananda, Sanaka, and 
Sanatana ; a fifth, 7?ibhu, is sometimes added. See Vishmi 

KUMARA-SAMBHAVA. The birth of the war god (Ku- 
rnara). A poem by Kali-dasa. The complete work consists of 
sixteen cantos, but only seven are usually given, and these have 
been translated into Latin by Stenzler. Parts have been ren 
dered into English verse by Griffiths. There are several editions 
of the text. 

KUMARI. The damsel. An epithet of Slil, also of 
Durga. Cape Comorin. 

brated teacher of the Mimansa philosophy and opponent of the 
Buddhists, whom he is said to have extirpated by argument and 
by force. He was prior to /Sankaracharya, in whose presence he 
is recorded to have burnt himself. 

KUMB1IA-KAR7VA. Son of Visravas by his Rakshasa wife 
Kesini, and full brother of Ravawa, A monster who, under the 
curse of Brahma (or, as otherwise represented, as a boon), slept 
for six months at a time and remained awake for only a single 
day. When Ravana was hard pressed by Rama he sent to 
arouse Kumbha-kama. This was effected with great difficulty ; 


After drinking 2000 jars of liquor lie went to consult with his 
brother, and then took the field against the monkey army. He 
"beat down Su-griva, the monkey chief, with a large stone, and 
carried him a prisoner into the city of Lanka, "When he 
returned to the battle he encountered Rama, and after a stout 
fight he was defeated, and Rama cut off his head. 

KUMUDA. A lotus. A Naga or serpent king whose 
sister, Kumudvati, married Kusa, son of Rama. 

KUMUDYATI. A Naga or serpent princess whose mar 
riage to Kusa, son of Rama, is described in the Raghu-vansa. 

KILYZ)INA-PURA. The capital of Yidarbha. It survives 
as the modern Kundapur, situated about 40 miles east of Ama- 
ravati, in Birar. 

KUNTALA. A country in the Dakhin, about Adoni ; the 

KUNTI (also called Pntha and Parshwl). i. Daughter of the 
Yadava prince ura, king of the /Surasenas, whose capital was 
Mathura on the Yamuna. She was sister of Yasu-deva, and was 
given by her father to his childless cousin Kunti-bhoja, by whom 
she was brought up. In her maidenhood she showed such 
respectful devotion to the sage Dur-vasas, that he gave her a 
charm by means of which she might have a child by any god 
she pleased to invoke. She called upon the sun, and by him 
had a son named Kama, but without any detriment to her vir 
ginity ; still, to keep the affair secret, the child was exposed on 
the banks of the Yamuna. Subsequently she married ParaZu, 
whom she chose at a swayam-vara, and bore three sons, Yudhi- 
sh/hira, Bhima, and Arjuna, who were called Pawc?avas although 
they were said to be the sons of the gods Dharma, Yayu, and 
Indra respectively. This may have happened, as is stated, from 
the potency of the old charm, but if so, it is strange that Madri, 
the second wife of Pamfri, should have enjoyed the same privilege, 
and have borne twin children to the Aswins. This difficulty, 
however, is got over by a statement that KuntI imparted to her 
the charm. KuntI was a discreet and devoted mother, and 
although rather jealous of Madri, she was a kind mother to her 
children after Madri was burnt on her husband s pyre. After 
the end of the great war she retired into the forest with Dlirita- 
rash/ra and his wife Gandhaii, and there they all perished in 
a forest fire. 2. Name of a people and country in Upper India. 


KUNTI-BHOJA. King of the people called Kuntis. The 
adoptive father of Kunti. 

KUBMA-AVATAB. The tortoise incarnation. See Avatura. 

KUEMA PUEAA A. " That in which Janardana (Vishnu), 
in the form of a tortoise, in the regions under the earth, ex 
plained the objects of life duty, wealth, pleasure, and libera 
tion, in communication with Indra-dyumna and the fiishis, in 
the proximity of $akra, which refers to the Lakshmi Kalpa, 
and contains 17,000 stanzas, is the Kurma Purafta." The 
account which the Purawa gives of itself and its actual con 
tents do not agree with this description. " The name being 
that of an Avatara of Vishrra, might lead us to expect a Vaish- 
?zava work; but it is always and correctly classed with the 
/Saiva Purawas, the greater portion of it inculcating the worship 
of /Siva and Durga. The date of this Purawa cannot be very 
remote." Wilson. 

KUBTJ. A prince of the Lunar race, son of Samvarana by 
Tapati, a daughter of the sun. He ruled in the north-west of 
India over the country about Delhi. A people called Kurus, 
and dwelling about Kuru-kshetra in that part of India, are con 
nected with him. He was ancestor both of Dlmta-rash/ra and 
Pa?zc?u, but the patronymic Kaurava is generally applied to the 
sons of the former. 

KUBU-JANGALA. A forest country in the upper part of 
the Doab. 

KUBU-KSHETEA. The field of the Kurus. A plain 
near Delhi where the great battle between the Kauravas and 
Paw^avas was fought. It lies south-east of Thanesar, not far 
from Panipat, the scene of many battles in later days. 

KU/SA. One of the twin sons of Eama and Sita. After the 
death of Eama, his two sons Kusa and Lava became kings of 
the Southern and Northern Kosalas, and Ku.m built Kusa-sthall 
or Kusavati in the Vindhyas, and made it his capital See Eama. 

KU^A-DHWAJA. A brother of Janaka, king of Mithila, 
and consequently uncle of Sita. His two daughters, Maftc/avl 
and $ruta-k!rtti, were married to Bharata and $atru-ghna, the 
sons of Janaka. Some make him king of Sankasya, and others 
king of Kasi, and there are differences also as to his genealogy. 

KTLSAMBA. Son of Kusa and a descendant of Pumravas. 
He engaged in devout penance to obtain a son equal to Indra, 


and that god was so alarmed at liis austerities, that he himself 
became incarnate as Gadhi, son of Kusamba. 

KILSA-STHALI. i. A city identical with or standing on the 
same spot as Dwaraka. It was built by Raivata, and was the 
capital of his kingdom called Anarta. When Raivata went on 
a visit to the region of Brahma, his city was destroyed by 
Pimya-janas, i.e., Yakshas or Rakshasas. 2. A city built by Kusa, 
son of Rama, on the brow of the Vindhyas. It was the capital 
of Southern Kosala. Also called Kusa-vati. 

KTLSA-VATI. The capital of Southern Kosala, built upon 
the Vindhyas by Kusa, son of Rama. 

KUSHMAJVDAS. Gourds. A class of demigods or de 
mons in the service of $iva. 

KU$IKA. A king who, according to some, was the father 
of Viswamitra, or, according to others, the first of the race of 
Kusikas from whom Gadhi, the father of Viswamitra descended. 

KUSUMA-PURA. The city of flowers. 5 Pa/ali-putra or 

KUSUMAYUDHA. A name of Kama, or Cupid as the 
bearer of the bow (ayudha) of flowers (kusuma). 

KUTSA. A Vedic Rishi and author of hymns. He is re 
presented as being persecuted by Indra, but on one occasion he 
was defended by that god against the demon SushmL It is 
said that Indra took him to his palace, and that they were so 
much alike that $achl or Pushpotkafa, Indra s wife, did not 
know which was her husband. 

Solar race, who, according to the Vishwi Purawa, had 21,000 
sons, but the Hari-vansa numbers them only as 100. Attended 
by his sons he attacked the great Asura, Dhundhu, who lived 
in a sea of sand, and harassed the devotions of the pious sage 
Uttanka. They unearthed the demon and slew him, from which 
exploit Kuvalaswa got the title of Dhundhu-mara, slayer of 
Dhundhu ; but all his sons except three perished by the fiery 
breath of the monster. 

KUVALAYAPIDA. An immense elephant, or a demon in 
elephantine form, belonging to, and employed by him to 
trample the boys "Krishna, and Bala-rama to death. The attempt 
failed and the elephant was killed. 

KUVERA. In the Vedas, a chief of the evil beings or spirits 

1/4 KUVERA. 

living in the shades : a sort of Pluto, and called by his patronymic 
Yaisravana. Later he is Pluto in another sense, as god of wealth 
and chief of the Yakshas and Guhyakas. He was son of Yisravas 
by Ic?avi?a, but he is sometimes called son of Pulastya, who was 
father of Yisravas. This is explained by the Maha-bharata, accord 
ing to which Kuvera was son of Pulastya, but that sage being 
offended with Kuvera for his adulation of Brahma, " reproduced 
the half of himself in the form of Yisravas," and had Havana 
and other children. (See Yisravas.) Kuvera s city is Alakii 
(also called Prabha, Yasu-dhara, and Yasu-sthali) in the Hima 
layas, and his garden Chaitra-ratha on Mandara, one of the spurs 
of Mount Meru, where he is waited upon by the Kinnaras. 
Some authorities place his abode on Mount Kailasa in a palace 
built by Yiswa-karma. He was half-brother of Ravawa, and, 
according to the Ramayawa and Maha-bharata, he once had 
possession of the city of Lanka in Ceylon, which was also built 
by Yiswa-karma, and from which he was expelled by Ravawa. 
The same authority states that he performed austerities for 
thousands of years, and obtained the boon from Brahma that he 
should be immortal, one of the guardian deities of the world, 
and the god of wealth. So he is regent of the north, and the 
keeper of gold and silver, jewels and pearls, and all the trea 
sures of the earth, besides nine particular Kidhis, or treasures, 
the nature of which is not well understood. Brahma also gave 
him the great self-moving aerial car Pushpaka (q.v.). His wife 
is YakshI, Charvi, or Kauverl, daughter of the Danava Mura. 
His sons are Mam-griva or Yarwa-kavi and Nala-kubara or 
Mayu-raja, and his daughter Minakshi (fish-eyed). He is repre 
sented as a white man deformed in body, and having three legs 
and only eight teeth. His body is covered with ornaments. 
He receives no worship. The name Ku-vera, as also the variant 
Ku-tanu, signifies vile body, referring to his ugliness. He is 
also called Dhana-pati, lord of wealth; Ichchha-vasu, who 
has wealth at will ; Yaksha-raja, chief of the Yakshas ; Mayu- 
riija, king of the Kinnaras ; Rakshasendra, chief of the Rak- 
shasas ; Ratna-garbha, belly of jewels ; Raja-raja, king of 
kings; and Kara-raja, king of men (in allusion to the power 
of riches). From his parentage he is called Yaisravarca, Paulas- 
tya, and Aidavida or Ailavila. As an especial friend of $iva he 
is called Isa-sakhi, &c. 


LAGHU-KAUMUDI. A modern and very much simplified 
edition of Pa?iini s Grammar by Yarada Raja. It has been edited 
and translated by Dr. Ballantyne. 

LAKSHMA7VA. i. Son of King Dasa-ratha by his wife Su- 
mitra. He was the twin brother of $atru-ghna, and the half- 
brother and especial friend of Rama-chandra. Under the pecu 
liar circumstances of his birth, one-eighth part of the divinity 
of Vishwi became manifest in him. (See Dasa-ratha.) But 
according to the Adhyatma Ramaya/ia, he was an incarnation of 
/S esha. When Rama left his father s court to go to the hermi 
tage of Viswamitra, Lakshnwia accompanied him, and after 
wards attended him in his exile and in all his wanderings. He 
was also very attached to Rama s wife Sita, which gave rise to 
the reproach that the two brothers were husbands of one wife. 
On one occasion, indeed, Sita reproached Lakshmawa that he 
did not hasten to rescue Rama from danger, because he wished 
to obtain herself. His own wife was Urmila, the sister of Sita, 
and he had two sons, Angada and Chandra-ketu. While Rama 
and Lakshmarca were living in the wilderness, a Rakshasi 
named $urpa-nakha, sister of Ravawa, fell in love with Rama 
and made advances to him. He jestingly referred her to Laksh- 
ma?ia, who in like manner sent her back to Rama. When she 
was again repulsed she attacked Sita, whom Rama was obliged 
to defend. Rama then called upon Lakshmawa to disfigure the 
Rakshasi, and accordingly he cut off her nose and ears. The 
mutilated female called upon her brother to avenge her, and 
a fierce war ensued. When Sita was carried off by Havana, 
Lakshma?ia accompanied Rama in his search, and he ably and 
bravely supported him in his war against Eavawa. Rama s 
earthly career was drawing to a close, and Time was sent to 
inform him that he must elect whether to stay longer on earth, 
or to return to the place from whence he had come. While 
they were in conference, the irascible sage Dur-vasas came and 
demanded to see Rama instantly, threatening him with the 
most direful curses if any delay were allowed to occur. To save 
his brother Rama from the threatened curse, but aware of the 
consequences that would ensue to himself from breaking in upon 
Rama s interview with Time, he went in and brought Rama out. 
Lakshmawa knowing his fate, retired to the river 5hrayu and 
resigned himself. The gods then showered down flowers upon 


him and conveyed him bodily to heaven. 2. A son of Dur- 
yodhana, killed by Abhimanyu. 

LAKSHMI. The word occurs in the ^/g-veda with the 
sense of good fortune, and in the Atharva-veda the idea has 
become personified in females both of a lucky and unlucky char 
acter. The Taittiriya Sanhita, as explained by the commenta 
tor, makes Lakshml and Sn. to be two wives of Aditya, and the 
$atapatha BrahmaTia describes Sil as issuing forth from Pra- 

Lakshmi or Sri in later times is the goddess of fortune, wife 
of Vish?iu, and mother of Kama. The origin ascribed to her by 
the Kamayana is the one commonly received. According to this 
legend she sprang, like Aphrodite, from the froth of the ocean, in 
full beauty with a lotus in her hand, when it was churned by the 
gods and the Asuras. Another legend represents her as floating 
on the flower of a lotus at the creation. "With reference to this 
origin, one of her names is Kshirabdhi-tanaya, daughter of the 
sea of milk. From her connection with the lotus she is called 
Padina. According to the Pura?ias, she was the daughter of 
Bhngu and Khyati. The Vishnu Purawa says, " Her first 
birth was the daughter of Bhngu by Khyati. It was at a sub 
sequent period that she was produced from the sea at the churn 
ing of the ocean. . . . When Hari was born as a dwarf, Lakshml 
appeared from a lotus (as Padina or Kamala). When he 
was born as Rama of the race of Bhrigu (or Parasu-rama), she 
was Dharam. When he was Eaghava (Kama-chandra), she was 
Sita. And when he was Knshwa she became Rukmim. In 
the other descents of Vishwu she is his associate." One version 
of the Ramayana also affirms that " Lakshml, the mistress of 
the worlds, was born by her own will, in a beautiful field 
opened up by the plough," and received from Janaka the name 
of Sita. 

Lakshml is said to have four arms, but she is the type of 
beauty, and is generally depicted as having only two. In one 
hand she holds a lotus. " She has no temples, but being god 
dess of abundance and fortune, she continues to be assiduously 
courted, and is not likely to fall into neglect." Other names of 
Lakshml are Hira, Indira, Jaladhi-jil, ocean born ; Chancnala 
or Lola, the fickle/ as goddess of fortune ; Loka-mata, mother 
of the world. 


LALITA-VISTARA. A work in Sanskrit verse on the 
life and doctrines of Buddha. It has been printed in the 
Bihlioiheca Indica. 

LAXGALI. Armed with a ploughshare. Bala-rama. 

LANKA, i. The island of Ceylon or its capital city. The 
city is described in the Ramaya?ia as of vast extent and of great 
magnificence, with seven broad moats and seven stupendous 
walls of stone and metal. It is said to have been built of gold 
by Yiswa-karma for the residence of Kuvera, from whom it was 
taken by Bavawa. The Bhagavata Purawa represents that the 
island was originally the summit of Mount Mem, which was 
broken off by the god of the wind and hurled into the sea. 2. 
Name of one of the /Sakinls or evil spirits attendant on Siva, 
and DevL 

LATA. A country comprising Kandesh and part of Guze- 
rat about the Mhye river. It is also called Lar, and is the 
AaeiKyj of Ptolemy. 

LArYAYANA. Author of a Sutra work. It has been 
printed in the Bibliotheca Indica. 

LAVA. One of the twin sons of Kama and Sita. He 
reigned at $ravasti. See Kama. 

LAYAJVA. A Rakshasa, son of Madhu by Kumbhmasi, the 
sister of Ravawa and daughter of Visravas. He inherited from 
his father an invincible trident which had been presented to 
him by $iva. He was surprised without his weapon and killed 
by $atru-ghna. Lavawa was king of Mathura and $atru-ghna 
succeeded him. 

LIKHITA. Author of a Dharma-sastra or code of law. 

LILAYATI. Charming. The fanciful title of that chapter 
of Bhaskara s Siddhanta-siromawi which treats of arithmetic 
and geometry. It has been translated by Colebrooke and Dr. 
Taylor, and the text has been printed. 

LINGA, LINGAM. The male organ. The phallus. The 
symbol under which $iva is universally worshipped. It is of 
comparatively modern introduction and is unknown to the Yedas, 
but it receives distinct notice in the Maha-bharata. " The 
emblem a plain column of stone, or sometimes a cone of 
plastic mud suggests no offensive ideas. The people call it 
/Siva or Maha-deva, and there s an end." In the $iva Puruwa, 

and in the Nandi Upa-pura/ia, iva is made to say, "I am 



omnipresent, but I am especially in twelve forms and places. 1 
These are the twelve great Lingas, which are as follow : 

1. Soma-ndtha. Lord of the moon/ At Somnath Pattan, a 
city which still remains in Guzerat. This was the celebrated 
" idol " destroyed by Mahmud of Ghazni. 

2. Mallikarjuna or Bn-saila. The mountain of $rl. On a 
mountain near the river Krishna. 

3. Mahd-Mfa, Maha-kdleswara. At Ujjain. Upon the capture 
of Ujjain in the reign of Altamsh, 1231 A.D., this deity of stone 
was carried to Delhi and there broken up. 

4. Omkdra. This is also said to have been at Ujjain, but it 
is probably the shrine of Mahadeva at Omkara Mandhatta, on 
the Narmada. 

5. Amareswara. God of gods. This is also placed at Ujjain. 

6. Vaidya-natlia. Lord of physicians. At Deogarh in Bengal. 
The temple is still in being, and is a celebrated place of pil 

7. lidmesa or Rdmeswara. Lord of Rama. On the island of 
Ramisseram, between the continent and Ceylon. This Lingam, 
whose name signifies Rama s lord, is fabled to have been set 
up by Rama. The temple is still in tolerable repair, and is one 
of the most magnificent in India. 

8. Bhlma Sanhira. In Dakini. This is in all probability the 
same with Bhimeswara, a Lingam worshipped at Dracharam, in 
the Riijamahendrl (Rajamundry) district, and there venerated as 
one of the twelve. 

9. Viswesivara. Lord of all. At Benares. It has been for 
many centuries the chief object of worship at Benares. Also 
called Jyotir-lingam. 

10. Tryambaka, Tryaksha. Tri-ocular. On the banks of the 

11. Gautamesa. Lord of Gautama. 

12. Kedaresa, Keddra-ndtha. In the Himalaya. The deity is 
represented as a shapeless mass of rock. 

Naga-natha or NSga-nathesa and Vameswara are other names, 
probably of No. 6 and No. n. 

LINGA PURAJVA. "Where Maheswara (/Siva), present in 
the Agni Linga, explained (the objects of life), virtue, wealth, 
pleasure, and final liberation, at the end of the Agni Kalpa, that 
Purawa, consisting of 11,000 stanzas, was called the Linga by 


Brahma himself." The work conforms accurately enough to 
this description. " Although the Linga holds a prominent place 
in this Pura?za, the spirit of the worship is as little influenced 
by the character of the type as can well be imagined. There is 
nothing like the phallic orgies of antiquity : it is all mystical 
and spiritual. The work has preserved, apparently, some $aiva 
legends of an early date, but the greater part is ritual and mysti 
cism of comparatively recent introduction." Wilson. It is not 
likely that this Purawa is earlier than the eighth or ninth cen 
tury. This Purima has been lithographed in Bombay. 

LOHA-MUKHAS. Iron-faced men. Described in the 
Maha-bharata as swift, one-footed, undecaying, strong men-eaters. 

LOKA. A world, a division of the universe. In general 
the tri-loka or three worlds are heaven, earth, and hell. Another 
classification enumerates seven, exclusive of the infernal regions, 
also seven in number which are classed under Patala. The 
upper worlds are : (i.) Bhur-loka, the earth. (2.) Bhuvar-loka, 
the space between the earth and the sun, the region of the 
Munis, Siddhas, &c. (3.) Swar-loka, the heaven of Indra, be 
tween the sun and the polar star. (4.) Mahar-loka, the usual 
abode of Bhr/gu and other saints, who are supposed to be co 
existent with Brahma, During the conflagration of these lower 
worlds the saints ascend to the next, or (5.) Jana-loka, which 
is described as the abode of Brahma s sons, Sanaka, Sananda, 
and Sanat-kumara. Above this is the (6.) Tapar loka, where the 
deities called Yairagis reside. (7.) Satya-loka or Brahma- 
loka, is the abode of Brahma, and translation to this world 
exempts beings from further birth. The first three worlds are 
destroyed at the end of each kalpa, or day of Brahma; the 
last three at the end of his life, or of a hundred of his years ; 
the fourth loka is equally permanent, but is uninhabitable from 
heat at the time the first three are burning. Another enumeration 
calls the seven worlds earth, sky, heaven, middle region, place 
of birth, mansion of the blest, and abode of truth ; placing the 
sons of Brahma in the sixth division, and stating the fifth, or 
Jana-loka, to be that where animals destroyed in the general 
conflagration are born again. The Sankhya and Ycdiinta schools 
of philosophy recognise eight lokas or regions of material exist 
ence : (i.) Brahma-loka, the world of the superior deities; 
(2.) Pitn -loka, that of the Pitr/s, 7i/shis, and Prajapatis ; (3.) 


Soma-loka, of the moon and planets; (4.) Indra-loka, of the 
inferior deities; (5.) Gandharva-loka, of heavenly spirits ; (6.) 
Rakshasa-loka, of the Rakshasas ; (7.) Yaksha-loka, of the 
Yakshas ; (8.) Pisacha-loka, of the Pisachas or imps and fiends. 

LOKALOKA. A world and no world, A fabulous belt 
of mountains bounding the outermost of the seven seas and 
dividing the visible world from the regions of darkness. It is 
" ten thousand yojanas in breadth, and as many in height, and 
beyond it perpetual darkness invests the mountains all around, 
which darkness is again encompassed by the shell of an egg." 
It is called also Chakra-vaWa or Chakra-vala. 

LOKA-PALAS. Supporters or guardians of the world. 
The guardian deities who preside over the eight points of the 
compass, i.e., the four cardinal and four intermediate points of 
the compass : (i.) Indra, east ; (2.) Agni, south-east ; (3.) Yama, 
south; (4.) Surya, south-west; (5.) Vanina, west; (6.) Yayu, 
north-west; (7.) Kuvera, north; (8.) Soma, north-east. Nimti 
is by some substituted for No. 4, and Pn thivl or /Siva, especially 
in his form Isana, for No. 8. Each of these guardian deities 
has an elephant who takes part in the defence and protection of 
the quarter, and these eight elephants are themselves called 
Loka-palas : (i.) Indra s elephant at the east is Airavata. He 
is also called Abhra-matanga, elephant of the clouds ; Arka- 
sodara, brother of the sun ; Naga-malla, the fighting ele 
phant; Sada-dana, always in rut; Madambara, covered with 
ichor. His wife s name is Abhramu. (2.) Agni s elephant at 
the south-east is Pondaifka and his female Kapila. (3.) Yama s 
at the south is Yamana and his female Pingala. (4.) Surya s at 
the south-west is Kumuda and his female is Anupama. (5.) 
Vaniwa s at the west is Anjana, whose female is Anjanavati. 
(6.) Yayu s at the north-west is Pushpa-danta, whose female is 
$ubha-danti. (7.) Kuvera s at the north is Sarva-bhauma ; and 
(8.) Soma s elephant at the north-east is Su-pratlka. The two 
other females are Anjana and Tamra-karwi, whose spouses are 
doubtful. AnjanavatI is sometimes assigned to Su-pratlka. In 
the Ramaya?ia (T.) Indra s eastern elephant is called Yirftpaksha ; 
(2.) Yanrna s elephant at the west, Saumanasa; (3.) Yama s at 
the south is Maha-padma, and (4.) Kuvera s at the north is 

LOMA-HARSIIAYA (or Roma-harshawa). A bard or pane 
gyrist who first gave forth the Purawas. 


LOMA-FADA (or Roma-pada). A king of Anga, chiefly 
remarkable for his connection with 7?ishya-sr/nga (q.v.). 

LOPAMUDRA. A girl whom the sage Agastya formed 
from the most graceful parts of different animals and secretly 
introduced into the palace of the king of Vidarbha, where the 
child was believed to be the daughter of the king. Agastya 
had made this girl with the object of having a wife after his 
own heart, and when she was marriageable he demanded her 
hand. The king was loath to consent, but was obliged to yield, 
and she became the wife of Agastya. Her name is explained 
as signifying that the animals suffered loss (lopa) by her engross 
ing their distinctive beauties (mudrd), as the eyes of the deer, 
&c. She is also called Kaushitaki and Yara-prada. A hymn in 
the Tv/g-veda is attributed to her. 

MAD A. Intoxication. Described in the Maha-bharata as 
" a fearful open-mouthed monster, created by the sage Chyavana, 
having teeth and grinders of portentous length, and jaws one 
of which enclosed the earth and the other the sky," who got 
Indra and the other gods into his jaws "like fishes in the 
mouth of a sea monster." 

MADAYAXTI. "Wife of King Saudasa or Kalmasha-pada. 
She was allowed to consort with the sage Yasish/ha, According 
to some this was a meritorious act on the king s part and a favour 
to Yasish/ha ; according to others it was for the sake of obtaining 
progeny. See Kalmasha-pada. 

MAD HAY A. A name of "Krishna, or Vishnu. 

MADHAYA, -MADHAVACHARYA. A celebrated scholar 
and religious teacher. He was a native of Tuluva, and became 
prime minister of Yira Lukka Raya, king of the great Hindu 
state of Yijaya-nagara, who lived in the fourteenth century. He 
was brother of Saya?za, the author of the great commentary on 
the Yeda, in which work Madhava himself is believed to have 
shared. "Wilson observes, " Both the brothers are celebrated as 
scholars, and many important works are attributed to them ; 
not only scholia on the Sanhitas and Lrahmawas of the Yedas, 
but original works on grammar and law ; the fact no doubt 
being, that they availed themselves of those means which 
their situation and influence secured them, and employed the 
most learned Lrahmans they could attract to Yijaya-nagara 
upon the works which bear their names, and to which they 
contributed their own labour and learning; their works were 


therefore compiled under peculiar advantages, and are deservedly 
held in the highest estimation." Among the works of Mad- 
hava are the Sarva-darsana-sangraha and the Sankshepa /Sankara- 
vijaya. Madhava was a worshipper of Yish?m, and as a re 
ligious philosopher he held the doctrine of dwaita or dualism, 
according to which the supreme soul of the universe and the 
human soul are distinct. Thus he was opposed to the teaching 
of $ankaracharya, who was a follower of /Siva, and upheld the 
Yedanta doctrine of a-dwaifa, " no duality," according to which 
God and soul, spirit and matter, are all one. 

MADHAYI. A name of Lakshmi. 

MADHU. i. A demon slain by Kn sh/ia. (See Kai/abha.) 
2. Another, or the same demon, said to have been killed by 

MADHU-CHHANDAS. A son of Yiswamitra, who had 
fifty sons older and fifty younger than this one ; but they are 
spoken of as "a hundred sons." He is the reputed author of 
some hymns of the 7?/g-veda. 

MADHU-KAiSA. Described in the Atharva-veda as "the 
brilliant grand-daughter of the Maruts, the mother of the Adityas, 
the daughter of the Vasus, the life of creatures, and the centre 
of immortality." She " sprang from the sky, the earth, the air, 
the sea, fire, and wind ; " and it is added, " all creatures, worship 
ping her who dwells in immortality, rejoice in their hearts." 

MADHUEANIEUDDHA. A drama in eight acts by a- 
yani Chandra /Sekhara. It is quite a modern work. " The sub 
ject is the secret loves of Usha, daughter of the Asura Bua 
and Aniruddha, grandson of Kn shwa. The piece abounds too 
much with description to be a good play ; the style has con 
siderable merit." Wilson. 

MADHU-SUDANA. < Slayer of Madhu. A name of Krishna. 

MADHYA-DESA. The middle country, described by Maim 
as " the tract situated between the Himavat and the Yindhya 
ranges to the east of Yinasana and to the west of Prayaga 
(Allahabad)." Another authority makes it the Doab. 

MADHYAXDIXA. A Yedic school, a subdivision of the 
Yajasaneyi school, and connected with the /Satapatha Brali- 
mawa. It had also its own system of astronomy, and obtained 
its name from making noon (madhya-dlna) the starting-point of 
the planetary movements. 


MAD IRA. A name of Varum, wife of Varuwa, and goddess 
of wine. 

MADEA. ISTame of a country and people to the north-west 
of Hindustan. Its capital was /Sakala, and the territory ex 
tended from the Biyas to the Chinab, or, according to others, 
as far as the Jhilam. 

MADRI. A sister of the king of the Madras, and second 
wife of Pam/u, to whom she bore twin-sons, Xakula and Saha- 
deva ; but the Aswins are alleged to have been their real father. 
She became a satl on the funeral pile of her husband. 

MAGADHA. The country of South Bihar, where the Pali 
language was spoken. 

MAGHA. A poet, son of Dattaka, and author of one of the 
great artificial poems called, from its subject, $isupala-badha, or, 
from its author, Magha-kavya. 

MAGHAVAT, MAGHAVAN. A name of Indra. 

MAIIA-BALI. A title of the dwarf Bali, whose city is 
called Maha-bali-pura, which name is applied to the Tamil 
" Mamallai-pura," or Seven Pagodas near Madras. See Bali. 

MAHA-BHARATA. The great (war of the) Bharatas. 
The great epic poem of the Hindus, probably the longest in the 
world. It is divided into eighteen parvas or books, and con 
tains about 220,000 lines. The poem has been subjected to 
much modification and has received numerous comparatively 
modern additions, but many of its legends and stories are of 
Vedic character and of great antiquity. They seem to have long 
existed in a scattered state, and to have been brought together 
at different times. Upon them have been founded many of the 
poems and dramas of later days, and among them is the story 
of Rama, upon which the Ramayawa itself may have been based. 
According to Hindu authorities, they were finally arranged and 
reduced to writing by a Brahman or Brahmans. There is a 
good deal of mystery about this, for the poem is attributed to 
a divine source. The reputed author was Krishwa Dwaipayana, 
theVyasa, or arranger, of the Vcdas. He is said to have taught 
the poem to his pupil Vaisampiiyana, who afterwards recited it 
at a festival to King Janamejaya. The leading subject of the 
poem is the great war between the Kauravas and Pimt/avas, who 
were descendants, through Bharata, from Puru, the great an 
cestor of one branch of the Lunar race. The object of the 


great struggle was the kingdom whose capital was Hastina-pura 
(elephant city), the ruins of which are traceable fifty-seven miles 
north-east of Delhi, on an old bed of the Ganges. 

Knslma Dwaipayana Yyasa is not only the author of the poem, 
but the source from whom the chief actors sprung. He was the 
son of the Rishi Parasara by a nymph named Satyavati, who, 
although she had given birth to a son, remained a virgin. There 
was a king, a descendant of Bharata, named $antanu, who had 
a son called $antavana, better known as Bhishma. In his old 
age $antanu wished to marry again, but the hereditary rights of 
Bhishma were an obstacle to his obtaining a desirable match. 
To gratify his father s desire, Bhishma divested himself of all 
rights of succession, and $antanu then married Satyavati. She 
bore him two sons, the elder of whom, Chitrangada, succeeded 
to the throne, but was soon killed in battle by a Gandharva 
king who bore the same name. Yichitra-virya, the younger, 
succeeded, but died childless, leaving two widows, named Am- 
bika and Ambalika, daughters of a king of Kasi. Satyavati 
then called on Krishna Dwaipayana Yyasa to fulfil the law, and 
raise up seed to his half-brother. Yyasa had lived the life of 
an anchorite in the woods, and his severe austerities had made 
him terrible in appearance. The two widows were so frightened 
at him that the elder one closed her eyes, and so gave birth to 
a blind son, who received the name of Dhrita-rash/ra ; and the 
younger turned so pale that her son was called Pam?u, the 
pale. Satyavati wished for a child without blemish, but the 
elder widow shrank from a second association with Yyasa, and 
made a slave girl take her place. From this girl was born a 
son who was named Yidura. These children were brought up by 
their uncle Bhishma, who acted as regent. "When they became 
of age, Dlmta-rashfra was deemed incapable of reigning in con 
sequence of his blindness, and Pa%6?u came to the throne. The 
name Para?u has suggested a suspicion of leprosy, and either 
through that, or in consequence of a curse, as the poem states, 
he retired to the forest, and Dhnta-rashfea then became king. 

Pa?i<fu had two wives, Kunti or Pntha, daughter of Sura, king 
of the $ura-senas, and Madri, sister of the king of the Madras ; 
but either through disease or the curse passed upon him, he did 
not consort with his wives. He retired into solitude in the 
Himalaya mountains, and there he died ; his wives, who accom- 


panied him having borne him five sons. The paternity of these 
children is attributed to different gods, but Pawrfu acknowledged 
them, and they received the patronymic of Paftdava. Kuntl was 
the mother of the three elder sons, and Madri of the two younger. 
Yudhi-sh/hira (firm in fight), the eldest, was son of Dharma, the 
judge of the dead, and is considered a pattern of manly firmness, 
justice, and integrity. Bhima or Bhlma-sena (the terrible), the 
second, was son of Yayu, the god of the wind. He was noted 
for his strength, daring, and brute courage ; but he was coarse, 
choleric, and given to vaunting. He was such a great eater that 
he was called Y? ikodara, wolfs belly. Arjuna (the bright or 
silvery), the third, was son of Indra, the god of the sky. He is 
the most prominent character, if not the hero, of the poem. He 
was brave as the bravest, high-minded, generous, tender-hearted, 
and chivalric in his notions of honour. Nakula and Saha-deva, 
the fourth and fifth sons, were the twin children of Madrl by the 
AswinI Kumaras, the twin sons of Surya, the sun. They were 
brave, spirited, and amiable, but they do not occupy such pro 
minent positions as their elder brothers. 

Dhnta-rash/ra, who reigned at Hastina-pura, was blind. By 
his wife Gandharl he had a hundred sons, and one daughter 
named Du/j-saliL This numerous offspring was owing to a bless 
ing from Yyasa, and was produced in a marvellous way. (See 
Gandharl.) From their ancestor Kuru these princes were known 
as the Kauravas. The eldest of them, Dur-yodhana (hard to 
subdue), was their leader, and was a bold, crafty, malicious man, 
an embodiment of all that is bad in a prince. While the Pa?w/u 
princes were yet children, they, on the death of their father, 
were brought to Dhnta-rash/ra, and presented to him as his 
nephews. He took charge of them, showed them great kindness, 
and had them educated with his own sons. Differences and dis 
likes soon arose, and the juvenile emulation and rivalry of the 
princes ripened into bitter hatred on the part of the Kauravas. 
This broke into an open flame when Dhnta-rashfra nominated 
Yudhi-sh/hira as his Yuva-raja or heir-apparent. The jealousy 
and the opposition of his sons to this act was so great that 
Dlm ta-rash/ra sent the PaTiJavas away to Yara?zavata, where 

I they dwelt in retirement. While they were living there Dur- 
yodhana plotted to destroy his cousins by setting fire to their 
bouse, which he had caused to be made very combustible All 


the five brothers were for a time supposed to have perished in 
the fire, but they had received timely warning from Vidura, and 
they escaped to the forest, where they dressed and lived in dis 
guise as Brahmans upon alms. 

While the Pa^cfcivas were living in the forest they heard that 
Draupada, king of the Panchalas, had proclaimed a swayam-vara, 
at which his daughter DraupadI was to select her husband from 
among the princely and warlike suitors. They went there, still 
disguised as Brahmans. Arjuna bent the mighty bow which 
had defied the strength of the Kauravas and all other compe 
titors, and the Para/avas were victorious over every opponent. 
They threw off their disguise, and DraupadI was won by Arjuna. 
The brothers then conducted DraupadI to their home. On their 
arrival they told their mother KuntI that they had made a great 
acquisition, and she unwittingly directed them to share it among 
them. The mother s command could not be evaded, and Vyasa 
confirmed her direction ; so DraupadI became the wife in com 
mon of the five brothers, and it was arranged that she should 
dwell for two days in the house of each of the five brothers in 
succession. This marriage has been justified by a piece of 
special pleading, which contends that the five princes were all 
portions of one deity, and therefore only one distinct person, to 
whom a woman might lawfully be married. 

This public appearance made known the existence of the 
Pattdavas. Their uncle Dhnta-rash/ra recalled them to his court 
and divided his kingdom between his own sons and them. His 
sons received Hastina-pura, and the chief city given to his 
nephews was Indra-prastha on the river Yamuna, close to the 
modern Delhi, where the name still survives. The close proxi 
mity of Hastina-pura and Indra-prastha shows that the territory 
of Dhfita-rash/ra must have been of very moderate extent. The 
reign of Yudhi-shfliira was a pattern of justice and wisdom. 
Having conquered many countries, he announced his intention 
of performing the Kaja-suya sacrifice, thus setting up a claim to 
universal dominion, or at least to be a king over kings. This 
excited still more the hatred and envy of the sons of Dlmta- 
riishfra, who induced their father to invite the Piwrfavas to 
Hastina-pura. The Kauravas had laid their plot, and insidiously 
prevailed upon Yudhi-sh/hira to gamble. His opponent was 
/Sakuni, uncle of the Kaurava princes, a great gambler and a 


cheat. Yudlii-sli/liira lost his all : his wealth, his palace, his king 
dom, his brothers, himself, and, last of all, their wife. Draupacll 
was brought into the assembly as a slave, and when she rushed 
out she was dragged back again by her hair by DuA-sasana, an 
insult for which Bhima vowed to drink his blood. Dur-yodhana 
also insulted her by seating her upon his thigh, and Bhima 
vowed that he would smash that thigh. Both these vows he 
afterwards performed. Through the interference and commands 
of Dhrita-rash/ra the possessions of Yudhi-sh/hira were restored 
to him. But he was once more tempted to play, upon the con 
dition that if he lost he and his brothers should pass twelve 
years in the forest, and should remain incognito during the 
thirteenth year. He was again the loser, and retired with his 
brothers and wife into exile. In the thirteenth year they en 
tered the service of the king of Vira/a in disguise Yudhi-sh/hira 
as a Brahman skilful as a gamester ; Bhima as a cook ; Arjuna 
as a eunuch and teacher of music and dancing; Naktila as a 
horse-trainer ; and Saha-deva as a herdsman. Draupadl also took 
service as attendant and needlewoman of the queen, Su-deslwa. 
The five princes each assumed two names, one for use among 
themselves and one for public use. Yudhi-sh/hira was Java in 
private, Kanka in public ; Bhima was Jayanta and Ballava ; 
Arjuna was Vijaya and Bf flian-nala ; K~akula was Jaya-sena and 
Granthika ; Saha-deva was Jayad-bala and Arish/a-nemi, aVaisya. 
The beauty of Draupadl attracted Kichaka, brother of the queen, 
and the chief man in the kingdom. He endeavoured to seduce 
her, and Bhima killed him. The relatives of Kichaka were about 
to burn Draupadl on his funeral pile, but Bhima appeared as a 
wild Gandharva and rescued her. The brothers grew in favour, 
and rendered great assistance to the king in repelling the attacks 
of the king of Trigartta and the Kauravas. The time of exile being 
expired, the princes made themselves known, and Abhimanyu, 
son of Arjuna, received Uttara, the king s daughter, in marriage. 
The PaWavas now determined to attempt the recovery of 
their kingdom. The king of Yira/a became their firm ally, and 
preparations for the war began. Allies were sought on all sides. 
Krishna and Bala-rama, being relatives of both parties, were re 
luctant to fight. Krishna, conceded to Arjuna and Dur-yodhana 
the choice of himself unarmed or of a large army. Arjuna chose 
Krishna, and Dur-yodhana joyfully accepted the army. Krishna, 


agreed to act as charioteer of his especial friend Arjuna. It was 
in this capacity that he is represented to have spoken the divine 
song Bhagavad-gita, when the rival armies were drawn up for 
battle at Kuru-kshetra, a plain north of Delhi. Many battles 
follow. The army of Dur-yodhana is commanded in succession 
by his great-uncle Bhishma, Drowa his military preceptor, Kama, 
king of Anga, and $alya, king of Madra and brother of Mudri. 
Bhishma was wounded by Arjuna, but survived for a time. All 
the others fell in succession, and at length only three of the 
Kuru warriors Kn pa, Aswatthaman, and Krita-varma were 
left alive with Dur-yodhana. Bhima and Dur-yodhana fought in 
single combat with maces, and Dur-yodhana had his thigh broken 
and was mortally wounded. The three surviving Kauravas fell 
by night upon the camp of the PiMavas and destroyed five 
children of the Pimc?avas, and all the army except the five bro 
thers themselves. These five boys were sons of Draupadi", one 
by each of the five brothers. Yudhi-sh/hira s son was Prati- 
vindhya, BLima s was $ruta-soma, Arjuna s was $ruta-kirtti, 
Xakula s was $atanika, and Saha-deva s was $ruta-karman. 
Yudhi-sh/hira and his brothers then went to Hastina^-pura, and 
after a reconciliation with Dhnta-rash/ra, Yudhi-shftiira was 
crowned there. But he was greatly depressed and troubled at 
the loss of kindred and friends. Soon after he was seated on 
the throne, the Aswa-medha sacrifice was performed with great 
ceremony, and the PaWavas lived in peace and prosperity. 

The old blind king Dhrita-rashfra could not forget or forgive 
the loss of his sons, and mourned especially for Dur-yodhana. 
Bitter reproaches and taunts passed between him and Bhima ; 
at length he, with his wife Gandhari, with Kunti, mother of 
the PaMavas, and with some of his ministers, retired to a 
hermitage in the woods, where, after two years residence, they 
perished in a forest fire. Deep sorrow and remorse seized 
upon the Paft^avas, and after a while Yudhi-sh/hira abdicated 
his throne and departed with his brothers to the Himalayas, in 
order to reach the heaven of Indra on Mount Meru. A dog 
followed them from Hastina-pura. The story of this journey is 
full of grandeur and tenderness, and has been most effectively 
rendered into English by Professor Goldstiicker. Sins and 
moral defects now prove fatal to the pilgrims. First fell Drau 
padi : "too great was her love for Arjuna." Next Saha-deva : 
"he esteemed none equal to himself." Then Kakula : "ever 


was the thought in his heart, There is none equal in beauty to 
me." Arjuna s turn came next : "In one day I could destroy all 
my enemies." " Such was Arjuna s boast, and he falls, for he 
fulfilled it not." "When Bhima fell he inquired the reason of his 
fall, and he was told, " When thou gazedst on thy foe, thou hast 
cursed him with thy breath; therefore thou fallest to-day." 
Yudhi-shfliira went on alone with the dog until he reached the 
gate of heaven. He was invited by Indra to enter, but he 
refused unless his brothers and DraupadI were also received. 
"Not even into thy heaven would I enter if they were not 
there." He is assured that they are already there, and is again 
told to enter "wearing his body of flesh." He again refuses 
unless, in the words of Pope, " admitted to that equal sky, his 
faithful dog shall bear him company." Indra expostulates in 
vain. " Never, come weal or come woe, will I abandon yon 
faithful dog." He is at length admitted, but to his dismay he 
finds there Dur-yodhana and his enemies, but not his brothers or 
DraupadI. He refuses to remain in heaven without them, and 
is conducted to the jaws of hell, where he beholds terrific sights 
and hears wailings of grief and anguish. He recoils, but well- 
known voices implore him to remain and assuage their sufferings. 
He triumphs in this crowning trial, and resolves to share the 
fate of his friends in hell rather than abide with their foes in 
heaven. Having endured this supreme test, the whole scene is 
shown to be the effect of mdya or illusion, and he and his brothers 
and friends dwell with Indra in full content of heart for ever. 

Such is the leading story of the Maha-bharata, which no 
doubt had a basis of fact in the old Hindu traditions. Different 
poets of different ages have added to it and embellished it by 
the powers of their imagination. Great additions have been 
made in later times. The Bhagavad-gita and the episode of 
Xala, with some others, are the productions of later writers ; the 
Hari-vansa, which affects to be a part of the Maha-bharata, is 
of still later date, and besides these, it cannot be doubted that 
numerous interpolations, from single verses to long passages, have 
been made to uphold and further the religious opinions of sects and 
individuals. To use the words of Max Miiller, "The epic character 
of the story has throughout been changed and almost obliterated 
by the didactic tendencies of the latest editors, who were clearly 
Brahmans brought up in the strict school of the laws of Manu." 

The date of the Maha-bharata is very uncertain, and is at best 

1 90 MA HA-BHARA TA . 

a matter of conjecture and deduction. As a compiled work it is 
generally considered to be about a century later in date than the 
Bamaya^a, though there can be no doubt that the general thread 
of the story, and the incidents directly connected with it, belong 
to a period of time anterior to the story and scenes of that epic. 
The fact that the scene of the Maha-bharata is in Upper India, 
while that of the Bamayawa is in the Dakhin and Ceylon, is of 
itself sufficient to raise a strong presumption in favour of the 
superior antiquity of the former. "Weber shows that the Maha- 
bharata was known to Dion Chrysostom in the second half of the 
first century A.D. ; and as Megasthenes, who was in India about 
315 B.C., says nothing about the epic, Weber s hypothesis is that 
the date of the Maha-bharata is between the two. Professor 
Williams believes that " the earliest or pre-brahmanical composi 
tion of both epics took place at a period not later than the fifth 
century B.C.," but that "the first orderly completion of the two 
poems in their Brahmanised form may have taken place in the 
case of the Bamayawa about the beginning of the third century 
B.C., and in the case of the Maha-bharata still later." Lassen 
thinks that three distinct arrangements of the Maha-bharata are 
distinctly traceable. The varied contents of the Maha-bharata 
and their disjointed arrangement afford some warrant for these 
opinions, and although the Bamayawa is a compact, continuous, 
and complete poem, the professed work of one author, there are 
several recensions extant which differ considerably from each 
other. Taking a wide interval, but none too wide for a matter of 
such great uncertainty, the two poems may be considered as having 
assumed a complete form at some period in the six centuries pre 
ceding the Christian era, and that the Bamayarai had the priority. 
The complete text of the Maha-bharata has been twice printed in 
India, and a complete translation in French by Fauche has been 
interrupted by his death. But M. Fauche s translations are not 
in much repute. This particular one, says Weber, "can only 
pass for a translation in a very qualified sense." Many episodes 
and portions of the poem have been printed and translated. The 
following is a short epitome of the eighteen books of the Maha- 
bharata : 

i. Adi-parva, Introductory book. Describes the genealogy 
of the two families, the birth and nurture of Dlmta-rash/ra and 
Pawc?u, their marriages, the births of the hundred sons of the 
former and the five of the latter, the enmity and rivalry between 


the young princes of the two branches, and the winning of 
DraupadI at the swayain-vara. 

2. Sablid-parva, Assembly book. The assembly of the 
princes at Hastinu-pura when Yudhi-shfliira lost his kingdom 
and the Puwefavas had to retire into exile. 

3. Vana-parva, Forest chapter. The life of the PuWavas in 
the Kiimyaka forest. This book is one of the longest and con 
tains many episodes : among them the story of Nala, and an 
outline of the story of the Kamayana. 

4. Viraia-parva, Vira/a chapter. Adventures of the Paft d- 
avas in the thirteenth year of their exile, while they were in the 
service of King Vira/a. 

5. Udyoga-parva, Effort book. The preparations of both 
sides for war. 

6. Bhlshma-parva, Book of Bhishma. The battles fought 
while Bhishma commanded the Kaurava army. 

7. Drona-parva, The Book of Dro?za. Drowa s command of 
the Kaurava army. 

8. Kama-parra, Book of Kama. Karwa s command and his 
death at the hands of Arjuna, 

9. Salya-parva, Book of $alya. alya s command, in which 
Dur-yodhana is mortally wounded and only three Kauravas are 
left alive. 

10. Sauptika-parva, Nocturnal book. The night attack of 
the three surviving Kauravas on the Pam?ava camp. 

11. Strl-parva, Book of the women. The lamentations of 
Queen Gandhari and the women over the slain. 

12. Sdnti-parva, Book of consolation. A long and diffuse 
didactic discourse by Bhishma on the morals and duties of kings, 
intended to assuage the grief of Yudhi-sh/hira. 

13. Annsdsana-parva, Book of precepts. A continuation of 
Bhishma s discourses and his death. 

14. Asiva-medhika-parva, Book of the Aswa-medha. Yudhi- 
sh/hira s performance of the horse sacrifice. 

15. Asrama-parva, Book of the hermitage. The retirement 
of Dhn ta-rash/ra, Gandhari, and Kuntl to a hermitage in the 
woods, and their death in a forest fire. 

1 6. Mausala-parva, Book of the clubs. The death of 
Krishna and Bala-rama, the submersion of Dwuraku by the sea, 
and the mutual destruction of the Yadavas in a fight with clubs 
(musala) of miraculous origin. 

I 9 2 


17. Mahd-prasthdnika-parva, Book of the great journey/ 
Yudhi-shfliira s abdication of the throne, and his departure with 
his brothers towards the Himalayas on their way to Indra s 
heaven on Mount Meru. 

1 8. Swargdrohana-parva, Book of the ascent to heaven. 
Entrance into heaven of Yudhi-shftiira and his brothers, and of 
their wife Draupadl. 

The Hari-vawsa (q.v.), detailing the genealogy, birth, and life 
of "Krishna, at great length, is a supplement of much later date. 


Atri, the Mishi. 

Soma (Chandra or Indu), the Moon. 

- I 

Devayani + Yayati + SarmishJha. 

Yadu (and another son). 






Puru (and two other sons). 

| Pauravas. 
Dushyanta + akuntala. 




Ganga + ^antanu + Satyavati. 
Bhishma. | 

Krishna. Bala-rama. 

(Line extinct.) 

Chitrangada. Yichitra-virya. 


Vyasa + the two widows of 


Dhrita-rashZra + Gandharl. 

-Kunti + Pandu -f Madrl. 
I I 

Dur-yodhana and Kama. | 
99 other sons. 

Yudhi-shZhira. Bhima. Arjuna. Nakula. Saha-deva. 




(See Chandra-vansa for the intervening and following names.) 


MAHA-BIIASIIYA. A commentary by Patanjali on the 
Grammar of Pafiini, in answer to tlie criticisms of Katyiiyana. 
A fine photo -lithographed edition has been produced, under the 
superintendence of Professor Goldstiicker, at the expense of the 
Indian Government. The work has received a long notice in 
Weber s Indische Studien, vol. xiii., and has been the subject of 
much discussion in the Indian Antiquary. Other editions have 
appeared in India. 

MAHA-BIIOJA. See Bhoja. 

MAHA-DEVA. The great god. A name of iva. One 
of the Rudras. 

MAHA-DEVI. The great goddess. A name of Devi, the 
wife of $iva. See Devi. 

MAHA-KALA. Great Time. i. A name of /Siva in his 
destructive character. (See Siva.) 2. One of the twelve great 
Lingas. (See Linga.) 3. In the caves of Elephanta this form of 
/Siva is represented with eight arms. In one hand he holds a 
human figure ; in another, a sword or sacrificial axe ; in a third, 
a basin of blood ; in a fourth, the sacrificial bell ; with two he 
is drawing behind him the veil which extinguishes the sun ; and 
two are broke_n off. 4. Chief of the Gawas or attendants on /Siva. 

MAHA-KAVYAS. Great poems. Six are classified under 
this title: (i.) Raghu-vansa ; (2) Kumara-sambhava ; (3.) 
Megha-duta ; (4.) Kiratarjuniya ; (5.) isupala-badha ; (6.) 

MAHA-MAYA. See Maya. 

MAHA-KArAKA. The great drama. The Hanuman- 
nii/aka (q.v.). 

MAHA-PADMA STAND A. The last of the Nanda dynasty. 
See Chandra-gupta. 

MAIIA-PRALAYA. A total dissolution of the universe at 
the end of a kalpa, when the seven lokas and their inhabitants, 
men, saints, gods, and Brahma himself, are annihilated. Called 
also Jahanaka, Ksliiti, and Sanhara. 

MAHA-PURA^AS. The great Purawas. The Vislmu 
and the Bhagavata, the two great Purawas of the Vaishnavas. 

MAHA-PURUSHA. The great or supreme male; the 
supreme spirit A name of Vislmu. 

MAHAKAJTKAS. A Gawa or class of inferior deities, 236 
or 220 in number. 



MAHAE. See Vyahnti. 

MAHA-EASHTEA. The land of the Mahrattas. 

MAHAE-LOKA. See Loka. 

MAHAESHIS (Maha-nshis). Great ishis. The great 
J^ shis or Prajapatis. See JKishi. 

MAHA-SENA. The great captain. A name of Kartikeya, 
god of war. 

MAHAT. The great intellect produced at the creation. 
See Vish?iu Pura^a, i. 29. 

MAHATMYA. Magnanimity. A legend of a shrine or 
other holy place. 

MAHA-VlEA CHAEITA. The exploits of the great hero 
(Eama). A drama by Bhava-bhuti, translated into English by 
Pickford. There are several editions of the text. " The situa 
tions and sentiments of this drama are of a stirring and martial 
description, and the language is adapted with singular felicity to 
the subject from which it springs." Wilson. 

M AH A- YOGI. The great ascetic. A name of Siva. 

MAHA-YUGA. A great Yuga or age, consisting of 
4,320,000 years. See Yuga. 

MAHENDEA. A name of Inclra. One of the seven moun 
tain ranges of India ; the hills which run from Gondwana to 
Orissa and the Northern Circars. See Kula-parvatas. 

MAHESWAEA. A name of Siva. 


MAHISHA, MAHISHASUEA. i. The great Asura or de 
mon killed by Skanda in the Maha-bharata. (See Krauncha.) 
2. Also a demon killed by Chan^a or Durga. 

MAHISHMATI, MAHISHMATI. The capital of Karta- 
virya, king of the Talajanghas, who had a thousand arms. It 
has been identified by Colonel Tod with the village of Chuli 
Maheswar, which, according to him, is still called " the village 
of the thousand-armed." 

MAHODAYA. A name of the city of Kananj. 

MAHOEAGA (Maha + uraga). Great serpent. The serpent 
/S eslia, or any other great serpent. 

MAIXAKA. A mountain stated in the Maha-bharata to be 
north of Kailasa ; so called as being the son of Himavat and Me- 
nakiL "When, as the poets sing, Inclra clipped the wings of the 
mountains, this is said to have been the only one which escaped. 


This mountain, according to some, stands in Central India, and, 
according to others, near the extremity of the Peninsula. 

MAITKEYA. A jfrishi, son of Kusarava, and disciple of 
Parasara. He is one of the interlocutors in the Vishwu. and 
Bhagavata Purarcas. 

MAITKEYL Wife of the fiishi Yajnawalkya, who was in 
doctrinated by her husband in the mysteries of religion arid 

MAITRI, MAITRAYAA T I. An Upanishad of the Black 
Yajur-veda. It has been edited and translated by Professor 
Cowell for the Billiotlieca, Indica. 

MAKANDL A city on the Ganges, the capital of Southern 

MAKARA. A huge sea animal, "which, has been taken to be 
the crocodile, the shark, the dolphin, &c., but is probably a 
fabulous animal. It represents the sign Capricornus in the 
Hindu zodiac, and is depicted with the head and forelegs of 
an antelope and the body and tail of a fish. It is the vehicle 
of Yaruwa, the god of the ocean, and its figure is borne on the 
banner of Kama-deva, god of love. It is also called Kaw/aka, 
Asita-dansh/ra, black teeth, and Jala-rupa, water form. 

MAKARAS. The five m s. See Tantra. 

MAKHAYAT. A name of Indra. 

MALATI-MADHAYA (MalatI and Madhava). A drama by 
Bhava-bhuti, translated by Wilson. "This drama," says the 
translator, " offers nothing to offend the most fastidious delicacy, 
and may be compared in this respect advantageously with many 
of the dramas of modern Europe which treat of the passion (of 
love) that constitutes its subject." 

MALAYA. The country of Malwa. 

MALAYIKAGXIMITRA (Malavika and Agnimitra). A 
drama ascribed to Kali-dasa, and although inferior to his other 
productions, it is probably his work. The text, with a translation, 
has been published by Tullberg. There is a German translation 
by Weber, an English one by Tawney, and a French one by 
Eoucaux. The text has been printed at Bombay and Calcutta. 

MALAYA. The country of Malabar proper ; the moun 
tains bordering Malabar. See Kula-parvatas. 

MALIXA-MUKHA. Black faced. Rakshasas and other 
demons, represented as having black faces. 


MALINI. Surrounded with a garland (mala) of Champa 
trees. A name of the city of Champa. 

MALLIKARJUNA. A name of iva. One of the twelve 
great Lingas. See Linga. 

MALLINATHA. A poet, and author of commentaries of 
great repute on several of the great poems, as the Raghu-vansa, 
Megha-duta, $isupala-badha, &c. 

MAN AS A. The intellectual. A name of the supreme being. 
Thus defined in the Maha-bharata : " The primeval god, with 
out beginning or dissolution, indivisible, undecaying, and im 
mortal, who is known and called by great jRishis Manasa." 

MANASA, MANASA-SAROVARA. The lake Manasa in 
the Himalayas. In the Vayu Purawa it is stated that when the 
ocean fell from heaven upon Mount Meru, it ran four times 
round the mountain, then it divided into four rivers which ran 
down the mountain and formed four great lakes, Anmoda on the 
east, Sitoda on the west, Maha-bhadra on the north, and Manasa 
on the south. According to the mythological account, the river 
Ganges flows out of it, but in reality no river issues from this 
lake, though the river Satlej flows from another and larger lake 
called Ravawa-hrada, which lies close to the west of Manasa. 

MANASA, MANASA-DEVI. Sister of the serpent king 
$esha, and wife of the sage Jarat-karu. She is also called Jagad- 
gauri, Mtya (eternal), and Padmavati. She had special power 
in counteracting the venom of serpents, and was hence called 

MANASA-PUTRAS. c Mind (born) sons. The seven or ten 
mind-born sons of Brahma. See Prajapati. 

MANAS-TALA. The lion on which Devi rides. 

MANAVA DHARMA-SASTRA. The code of Manu. See 
Manu Sanhita. 

MANAVA KALPA-SUTRA. Manu s work on Vaidik rites. 
Part of it has been published in facsimile by Goldstiicker. 


MANAVI. The wife of Manu. Also called Manayi. 

MANDA-KAR^I. A sage who dwelt in the Da?^aka forest, 
and is said in the Ramayawa to have formed a lake which was 
known by his name. His austerities alarmed the gods, and 
Indra sent five Apsarases to beguile him from his penance of 
"standing in a pool and feeding on nothing but air for 10,000 


years." They succeeded, and became his wives, and inhabited a 
house concealed in the lake, which, from them, was called Pan- 

MANDAKINI. The heavenly Ganges. The Ganges. An 
arm of the Ganges which flows through Kedara-natha. A river 
near the mountain Chitra-ku7a (q.v.) in Bundelkhand. It was 
near the abode of Kama and Sita, and is mentioned both in the 
Kiimayawa and Maha-bharata. It would seem to be the modem 

MAJV.DALA. A circle, orb. A circuit or territorial division, 
as Chola-marafala, i.e., CoromandeL According to one arrange 
ment, the Sanhita of the Tiig-veda is divided into ten Ma?zc?alas. 

MAJV2>ALA,NJRJTYA. A circular dance. The dance of 
the Gopis round Krishna and Kadha. 

MANDA-PALA. A childless saint, who, according to the 
Maha-bharata, after long perseverance in devotion and asceticism, 
died and went to the abode of Yama. His desires being still 
unsatisfied, he inquired the cause, and was told that all his 
devotions had failed because he had no son, no putra (put, 
1 hell, tra t drawer ), to save him from hell. He then assumed 
the form of a species of bird called $arngika, and by a female 
of that species, who was called Jarita, he had four sons. 

MANDAKA. The great mountain which the gods used for 
the churning of the ocean. It is supposed to be the mountain 
so named in Bhagalpur, which is held sacred. See Kurma- 
avatilra, under Avatara. 

MANDAVL Daughter of Kusa-dhwaja, cousin of Sita, and 
wife of Kama s brother Bharata. 

MANDEHAS. A class of terrific Kakshasas, who were hos 
tile to the sun and endeavoured to devour him. 

MANDHAT72/. A king, son of Yuvanaswa, of the race of 
Ikshwaku, and author of a hymn in the 7^ g-veda. The Hari- 
vansa and some of the Purarcas make Mandhatri to have been 
born in a natural way from his mother Gauri, but the Vishmi 
and Bhagavata Purawas tell an extraordinary story about his 
birth, which is probably based upon a forced derivation of his 
name. Yuvanaswa had no son, which grieved him much. 
Some holy sages near whom he lived instituted a religious rite 
to procure progeny for him. One night they placed a conse 
crated vessel of water upon an altar as part of their ceremony, 


and the water became endowed with prolific energy. Yuvan- 
aswa woke up in the night thirsty, and finding the water, he 
drank it. So he conceived, and in due time a child came forth 
from his right side. The sages then asked who would suckle 
the child, whereupon Indra appeared, gave his finger for the 
child to suck, and said, " He shall suck me," mam ayam dhds- 
ll&ti. These words were contracted, and the boy was named 
Mandhatn. "When he grew up he had three sons and fifty 
daughters. An old sage named Saubhari came to Mundhat? i 
and asked that one might be given him to wife. Unwilling 
to give one to so old and emaciated a man, but yet afraid to 
refuse, the king temporised, but at length yielded to the sage s 
request that the matter might be left to the choice of the girls. 
Saubhari then assumed a handsome form, and there was such 
a contention for him that he had to marry the whole fifty, 
and he provided for them a row of crystal palaces in a most 
beautiful garden. 

MANDODARI. Havana s favourite wife and the mother of 

MAiVDUKEYA. A teacher of the ^tg-veda, who derived 
his knowledge from his father, Indra-pramati. 

MAJVDUKYA. Name of an Upanishad translated by Dr. 
Roer in the Bibliotheca Indica. 

MANGALA. The planet Mars, identified with Kartikeya, 
the god of war. He was son of $iva and the Earth, and as son 
of the Earth is called Angaraka, Bhauma, Bliumi-putra, Mahi- 
suta. He is also called ASiva-gharma-ja, born of the sweat of 
$iva ; Gaganolmuka, the torch of the sky ; Lohita, the red ; 
Navarchi, the nine-rayed ; Chara, the spy; Jtmantaka, ender 
of debts, patron of debtors. See Kartikeya. 

MAJVI-BHADRA. The chief of the Yakshas and guardian 
of travellers. 

MA7VB1AT. A Rakshasa slain by Bhima. 

MATVI-PURA. A city on the sea-coast of Kalinga, where 
Babhru-vahana, the son of Arjuna, dwelt. "Wheeler identifies it 
with the modern Munnipur or Muneepore, east of Bengal ; but 
this is very questionable. 

MANMATHA. A name of Kama, god of love. 

MANTHARA. An ugly deformed slave, nurse of Queen 
Kaikeyi, who stirred up her mistress s jealousy against Rama 


cliandra, and led her to persuade King Dasa-ratha, to banish 
Rama from court. $atru-glma beat her and threatened to kill 
her, but she was saved by his brother Bharata. 

MAXTRA. That portion of the Veda which consists of 
hymns, as distinct from the Biahmanas. See Yeda. 

MANU. (From the root man, to think.) The man. This 
name belongs to fourteen mythological progenitors of mankind 
and rulers of the earth, each of whom holds sway for the period 
called a Manwantara (manu-antara), the age of a Manu, i.e., a 
period of no less than 4,320,000 years. The first of these Maims 
was Swayain-bhuva, who sprang from Swayam-bhu, the self- 
existent. The self-existent, as identified with Brahma the 
creator, divided himself into two persons, male and female. 
From this pair was produced the male Viraj, and from him 
sprang the Manu Swayani-bhuva. As the acting creator, this 
Manu produced the ten Prajupatis or progenitors of mankind, 
called also Maharshis (mahd-rishis). According to another ac 
count, this Manu sprang from the incestuous intercourse of 
Brahma with his daughter and wife, $ata-rupa. Brahma created 
himself Manu, " born of and identical with his original self, and 
the female portion of himself he constituted $ata-rupa," whom 
Manu took to wife. The law-book commonly known as Manu is 
ascribed to this Manu, and so also is a Sutra work on ritual bear 
ing the same name. The Manu of the present age is the seventh, 
named Yaivaswata, sun-born, who was the son of Vivaswat, the 
sun, and he is a Kshatriya by race. He is also called Satya-vrata. 
There are various legends about his having been saved from a 
great flood by Vishwu or Brahma. The names of the fourteen 
Manus are (i.) Swayam-bhuva, (2.) Swarochisha, (3.) Auttami, 
(4.) Tamasa, (5.) Raivata, (6.) Chakshusha, (7.) Vaivaswata or 
Satya-vrata, (8.) Savama, (9.) Daksha-savanza, (10.) Brahma- 
savarwa, (n.) Dharma-savarwa, (12.) Savarrca or Rudra-savama, 
(13.) Rauchya, (14.) Bhautya, 

The sons of Manu Yaivaswata were Ikshwaku, Nabhaga or 
Kriga, Dhnshfa, $aryati, Xarishyanta,, X;TbhFiganedish/a 
or Nabhanedish/a, Karusha, and Pn shadhra. But there is some 
variety in the names. 

With the seventh Manu, Vaivaswata, is connected the very 
curious and interesting legend cf the deluge. The first account 
of this is found in the atapatha BrFilmia?za, of which the fol- 

200 MANU. 

lowing is a summary : One morning, in the water which was 
brought to Manu for washing his hands, he caught a fish which 
spake, and said, " Take care of me and I will preserve thee." 
Manu asked, " From what wilt thou preserve me 1 " The fish 
answered, " A flood will carry away all living beings ; I will save 
thee from that." The fish desired Manu to keep him alive in 
an earthen vessel, to remove him to a dyke as he grew larger, 
and eventually to the ocean, " so that he might be beyond the 
risk of destruction." The fish grew rapidly, and again addressed 
Manu, saying, " After so many years the deluge will take place; 
then construct a ship and pay me homage, and when the waters 
rise, go into the ship and I will rescue thee." Manu did as he 
was desired, he built the ship, conveyed the fish to the ocean, 
and did him homage. The flood rose, and Manu fastened the 
cable of the ship to the fish s horn. Thus he passed over the 
northern mountain (the Himalaya, as the commentator explains). 
The fish then desired Manu to fasten the ship to a tree, and to 
go down with the subsiding waters. He did so, and found that 
the flood had swept away all living creatures. He alone was 
left. Desirous of offspring, he offered sacrifice and engaged in 
devotion. A woman was produced, who came to Manu and 
declared herself his daughter. " With her he lived, worshipping 
and toiling in arduous religious rites, desirous of offspring. With 
her he begat the offspring which is the offspring of Manu." 

The story, as told in the Maha-bharata, represents Manu as 
engaged in devotion by the side of a river, and the fish craving 
his protection from the bigger fish. Manu placed the fish in a 
glass vase, but it grew larger and larger till the ocean alone could 
contain it. Then it warned Manu of the coming flood, and 
directed him to build a ship and to embark with the seven 
Piishis. He did so, and fastened his ship to the horn of the fish. 
Then, according to the rendering of Professor Williams 

" Along the ocean in that stately ship was borne the lord of men, 

and through 
Its dancing, tumbling billows and its roaring waters ; and the 

Tossed to and fro by violent winds, reeled on the surface of the 

Staggering and trembling like a drunken woman : land was seen 

no more, 


Nor far horizon, nor the space between ; for everywhere around 

Spread the wild waste of waters, reeking atmosphere, and bound 
less sky. 

And now, when all the world was deluged, nought appeared above 
the waves 

But Manu and the seven sages, and the fish that drew the bark. 

Unwearied thus for years on years that fish pulled on the ship 

The heaped-up waters, till at length it bore the vessel to the peak 

Of Himavan ; then, softly smiling, thus the fish addressed the 

* Haste now to bind thy ship to this high crag. Know me, the lord 

of all, 

The great creator Brahma, mightier than all might, omnipotent. 
By me, in fish-like shape, have you been saved in dire emergency. 
From Manu all creation, gods, Asuras, men, must be produced ; 
By him the world must be created, that which moves and moveth 

not. " 

The commentators on this legend of the Maha-bharata give a 
metaphysical turn to the legend, and endeavour to illustrate it by 
philosophical and allegorical interpretations. The same story is 
reproduced with variations in the Matsya, Bhagavata, and Agni 
Purawas, and Muir has given translations of the passages in 
vol. i. of his Sanskrit Texts. 

In the Ramayawa mention is made of a female Manu, and 
it appears that the word is sometimes used for " the wife of 

MANU-SAIffllTA. The well-known law-book, the Code 
of Manu, or Institutes of Manu. It is attributed to the first 
Manu, Swuyam-blmva, who existed nearly thirty millions of years 
ago, but it bears the marks of being the production of more than 
one mind. This is the first and chief of the works classified as 
Smnti, and is a collection or digest of current laws and creeds 
rather than a planned systematic code. It is the foundation of 
Hindu law, and is held in the highest reverence. The work 
belongs to a period later than that of the Vedas, when tho 
Brahmans had obtained the ascendancy, but its deities are 
those of the Vedic rather than the Epic or Purfmic age. It is 
apparently anterior to the philosophical schools. The fifth cen 
tury B.C. is supposed to be about the time when it was composed, 
but the rules and precepts it contains had probably existed as 


traditions long before. It is commonly called the Code of Manu, 
and was current among the Manavas, a class or school of Brali- 
mans who were followers of the Black Yajur-veda; but it deals 
with many subjects besides law, and is a most important record 
of old Hindu society. It is said to have consisted originally of 
100,000 verses, arranged in twenty-four chapters; that Narada 
shortened the work to 12,000 verses; and that Sumati made a 
second abridgment, reducing it to 4000, but only 2685 are extant. 
It is evident that there was more than one redaction of the laws 
of the Manavas, for a Brihan or Vnhan Maim, great Mann/ and 
Vnddha Manu, old Mann/ are often referred to. Sir W. Jones s 
translation, edited by Haughton, is excellent, and is the basis of all 
others in French, German, &c. The text has often been printed. 

MANWANTARA (Manu-antara). The life or period of a 
Manu, 4,320,000 years. 

MARlCHA. A Rakshasa, son of Taraka, According to the 
Ramaya^a he interfered with a sacrifice which was being per 
formed by Yiswamitra, but was encQuntered by Rama, who 
discharged a weapon at him, which drove him one hundred 
yojanas out to sea. He was afterwards the minister of Rava??,a, 
and accompanied him to the hermitage where Rama and Sita 
were dwelling. There, to inveigle Rama, he assumed the shape 
of a golden deer, which Rama pursued and killed. On receiv 
ing his death-wound he resumed a Rakshasa form and spake, 
and Rama discovered whom he had killed. In the meanwhile 
Rava^a had carried off Sita. 

MARICHL Chief of the Maruts. Xarne of one of the 
Prajapatis. (See Prajapati.) He is sometimes represented as 
springing direct from Brahma. He was father of Kasyapa, and 
one of the seven great Eishis. See Hishi. 

MARISHA. Daughter of the sage KamZu, and wife of the 
Prachetasas, but from the mode of her birth she is called 
" the nursling of the trees, and daughter of the wind and the 
moon." She was mother of Daksha. Her mother was a celestial 
nymph named Pramlocha, who beguiled the sage KaTzJu from 
his devotions and lived with him for a long time. When the 
sage awoke from his voluptuous delusion, he drove her from his 
presence. " She, passing through the air, wiped the perspira 
tion from her with the leaves of the trees," and " the child she 
had conceived by the Eislii came forth from the pores of her skin 


in drops of perspiration. The trees received the living dews, 
and the winds collected them into one mass. Soma matured 
this by his rays, and gradually it increased in size till the ex 
halations that had rested on the tree-tops became the lovely 
girl named Marisha." Vishnu Purdna. According to the same 
authority Marisha had been in a former birth the childless 
widow of a king. Her devotion to Vislmu gained his favour, 
and he desired her to ask a boon. She bewailed her childless 
state, and prayed that in succeeding births she might have 
"honourable husbands and a son equal to a patriarch." She 
received the promise that she should be of marvellous birth, 
should be very beautiful, and should have ten husbands of 
mighty prowess, and a son whose posterity should fill the 
universe. This legend is no doubt an addition of later date, 
invented to account for the marvellous origin of Marisha. 

MARKAjVDEYA. A sage, the son of Mrikarwfe, and reputed 
author of the Markatufeya Purawa. He was remarkable for his 
austerities and great age, and is called Dirghayus, the long-lived. 

MAKKA^DEYA PURA7VA, "That Purarca in which, 
commencing with the story of the birds that were acquainted 
with right and wrong, everything is narrated fully by Mar- 
kawc?eya as it was explained by holy sages in reply to the 
question of the Muni, is called the Markawtfeya, containing 
9000 verses." This Purarca is narrated in the first place by 
Marka?^eya, and in the second by certain fabulous birds pro 
foundly versed in the Vedas, who relate their knowledge in 
answer to the questions of the sage Jaimini. " It has a character 
different from all the other Purawas. It has nothing of a 
sectarial spirit, little of a religious tone ; rarely inserting prayers 
and invocations to any deity, and such as are inserted are 
brief and moderate. It deals little in precepts, ceremonial or 
moral Its leading feature is narrative, and it presents an un 
interrupted succession of legends, most of which, when ancient, 
are embellished with new circumstances, and, when new, par 
take so far of the spirit of the old, that they are disinterested 
creations of the imagination, having no particular motive, being 
designed to recommend no special doctrine or observance. 
Whether they are derived from any other source, or whether 
they are original inventions, it is not possible to ascertain. 
They are most probably, for the greater part at least, original ; 


and the whole has "been narrated in the compiler s own manner, 
a manner superior to that of the Purarcas in general, with ex 
ception of the Bhagavata." The popular Durga Mahatmya or 
Chaw^ipaflia is an episode of this Purawa. In the absence of 
any guide to a positive conclusion as to the date, it may con- 
jecturally be placed in the ninth or tenth century. Professor 
Banerjea places it in the eighth century. This Purawa has been 
published in the Bibliotheca Indica, and translated by the Rev. 
Professor K. M. Banerjea. 

MARTTANDA. In the Yedas the sun or sun god. 

MARTYA-MUKHA. * Human-faced. Any being in which 
the figures of a man and animal are combined. 

MARUTS. The storm gods, who hold a very prominent 
place in the Yedas, and are represented as friends and allies 
of Indra. Yarious origins are assigned to them. They are sons 
of Rudra, sons and brothers of Indra, sons of the ocean, sons of 
heaven, sons of earth. They are armed with lightnings and 
thunderbolts, and "ride on the whirlwind and direct the storm." 
The number of them is said in one place to be thrice sixty, and 
in another only twenty-seven. In the Ramayawa they are repre 
sented to have their origin in an unborn son of Diti, whom 
Indra dashed into forty-nine pieces with his thunderbolt, and in 
compassion converted into Maruts. This is also the story 
told in the Purawas, and they are said to have obtained their 
name from the words ma rodlh, weep not, which Indra ad 
dressed to them. A scholiast on the Yeda says, that after their 
birth from Diti, as above told, $iva and Parvati beheld them in 
great affliction, and the latter asked $iva to transform the lumps 
of flesh into boys ; he accordingly made them boys of like form, 
like age, and similarly accoutred, and gave them to Parvati as 
her sons, whence they are called the sons of Rudra. Other 
legends are, that Parvati, hearing the lamentations of Diti, 
entreated $iva to give forms to the shapeless births, telling them 
not to weep (ma rodlli) ; and another, that he actually begot 
them in the form of a bull on Pnthivi, the earth, as a cow. 
(See Diti.) All these legends have manifestly been invented to 
explain those passages of the Yedas which make the Maruts 
the sons of Rudra. The world of the Maruts, called Maruta, is 
the appointed heaven of Yaisyas. 2. The god of the wind, and 
regent of the north-west quarter. 


MARUTTA. i. A descendant of Manu Vaivaswata. He was 
a ChakravartI, or universal monarch, and performed a celebrated 
sacrifice. "Never," says the Vishmi Pura?m, "was beheld on 
earth a sacrifice equal to the sacrifice of Marutta. All the im 
plements and utensils were made of gold. Indra was intoxicated 
with the libations of soma juice, and the Brahmans were en 
raptured with the magnificent donations they received. The 
winds of heaven encompassed the rite as guards, and the assembled 
gods attended to behold it." According to the Vayu Purawa, 
Marutta was taken to heaven with his kindred and friends by 
Samvarta, the officiating priest at this sacrifice. But the Mar- 
ka?i6?eya Purarca says he was killed after he had laid down his 
crown and retired to the woods. 2. A king of the Solar race, 
who was killed by Yapushmat, and fearfully avenged by his son 
Dam a (q.v.). 

MATALI. Charioteer of Indra. 

MATANGA. * An elephant. A man who was brought up 
as a Brahman but was the son of a Chawc/ala. His story, as 
told in the Maha-bharata, relates that he was mercilessly goading 
an ass s foal which he was driving. The mother ass, seeing this, 
tells her foal that she could expect no better, for her driver was 
no Brahman but a Chafttiala. Matanga, addressing the ass as 
" most intelligent," begged to know how this was, and was in 
formed that his mother when intoxicated had received the 
embraces of a low-born barber, and that he, the offspring, was a 
Chaftf/ala and no Brahman. In order to obtain elevation to the 
position of a Brahman, he went through such a course of aus 
terities as alarmed the gods. Indra refused to admit him. He 
persevered again for a hundred years, but still Indra persistently 
refused such an impossible request, and advised him to seek 
some other boon. Nothing daunted, he went on a thousand 
years longer, with the same result. Though dejected he did not 
despair, but proceeded to balance himself on his great toe. He 
continued to do this for a hundred years, when he was reduced 
to mere skin and bone, and was on the point of falling. Indra 
went to support him, but inexorably refused his request, and, 
when further importuned, "gave him the power of moving 
about like a bird, and changing his shape at will, and of being 
honoured and renowned." In the Ramayarca, Rama and Sltil 
visited the hermitage of Matanga near ./frshya-muka mountain. 


MATARL/SWAN. An aerial being who is represented in the 
.Rig-veda as bringing down or producing Agni (fire) for the 
Bhn gus. By some supposed to be the wind. 

MATHURA. An ancient and celebrated city on the right 
bank of the Yamuna, surviving in the modern Muttra. It was 
the birthplace of Kn shwa and one of the seven sacred cities. The 
Vishmi Purawa states that it was originally called Madhu or 
Madhu-vana, from the demon Madhu, who reigned there, but 
that when Lavawa, his son and successor, was killed by $atru- 
ghna, the conqueror set up his own rule there and built a city 
which he called Madhura or Mathura. 

MATTt/S. * Mothers The divine mothers. These appear 
to have been originally the female energies of the great gods, as 
Brahmam of Brahma, Maheswari of #iva, Vaishwavi of Vishmi, 
Indrawi or Aindrl of Indra, &c. The number of them was 
seven or eight or sixteen, but in the later mythology they have 
increased out of number. They are connected with the Tantra 
worship, and are represented as worshipping $iva and attending 
upon his son Kartikeya. 

MATSYA. A fish. i. The Fish Incarnation. (See Avatara.) 
2. Name of a country. Wilson says, "Dinajpoor, Rungpoor, 
and Cooch Behar ;" but there was more than one country of this 
name, and one would appear to have been situated in Northern 
India. Manu places Matsya in Brahmarshi. According to the 
Maha-bharata, King Yira/a s capital was called Matsya, his people 
also were called Matsyas, and he himself was styled Matsya. 
General Cunningham finds it in the neighbourhood of Jaypur, 
and says that the town of Viratf or Baira, 105 miles south of 
Delhi, was its capital. 

MATSYA PURANA. This Purawa is so called from its con 
tents having been narrated to Manu by Vishwi in the form of a 
fish (matsya). It consists of between 14,000 and 15,000 stanzas. 
This work " is a miscellaneous compilation, but includes in its 
contents the elements of a genuine Purawa. At the same time, 
it is of too mixed a character to be considered as a genuine work 
of the Paurawik class. Many of its chapters are the same as 
parts of the Vish/ra and Padma Purawas. It has also drawn 
largely from the Maha-bharata. " Although a aiva work, it is 
not exclusively so, and it has no such sectarial absurdities as the 
Kurma and Linga." 


MAUNEYAS, A class of Gandharvas, sons of Kasyapa, 
who dwelt beneath the earth, and were sixty millions in num 
ber. They overpowered the Nagas, and compelled them to flee 
to Vishnu for assistance, and he sent Purukutsa against them, 
who destroyed them. 

MAURYA. The dynasty founded by Chandra-gupta at 
Pu/ali-putra (Patna) in Magadha. According to the Vishmi 
Purfma, the Maurya kings were ten in number and reigned 137 
years. Their names were (i.) Chandra-gupta, (2.) Bindu-sara, 
(3.) Asoka-vardhana, (4.) Su-yasas, (5.) Dasa-ratha, (6.) Sangata, 
(7.) $ali-suka, (8.) Soma-sarman, (9.) /Sasa-dharman, (10.) Bn- 
had-ratha. The names vary in other Purawas. See Chandra- 

MAYA. A Daitya who was the architect and artificer of the 
Asuras, as Viswa-karma was the artificer of the Suras or gods. 
He was son of Yiprachitti and father of Vajra-kama and Mando- 
dari, wife of Ravarca. He dwelt in the Deva-giri mountains not 
very far from Delhi, and his chief works were in the neighbour 
hood of that city, where he worked for men as well as Daityas. 
The Maha-bharata speaks of a palace he built for the Pawdavas. 
In the Hari-vansa he appears frequently both as victor and van 
quished in contests with the gods. 

MAYA. Illusion, deception. i. Illusion personified as a 
female form of celestial origin, created for the purpose of beguil 
ing some individual Sometimes identified with Durgu as the 
source of spells, or as a personification of the unreality of worldly 
things. In this character she is called Maya-devi or Malia- 
nmya. 2. A name of Gaya, one of the seven sacred cities. 

MAYA-DEVI, MAYA-VATI. Wife of the demon Sambara. 
She brought up Pradyumna, the son of Krishna, and subse 
quently married him. Pradyumna is represented as being a 
revived embodiment of Kama, the god of love ; and in accord 
ance with this legend Maya-vatI is identified with his wife Rati, 
the Hindu Venus. See Maya. 

MAYU. Bleater, bellower. The Kinnaras are called MFiyus. 

MEDHATITHI. K"ame of a Ka/iwa who was a Vedic Ri&\\\. 
There is a legend in one of the Upanishads that he was carried 
up to heaven by Indra in the form of a ram, because the god had 
been pleased with his austerities. Cf. Ganymede. 

MEDIXL The earth. See Kaifobha. 


MEDINI, MEDINI-KOSHA. A well-known Sanskrit 
vocabulary. There are printed editions. 

MEGHA-DUTA. Cloud messenger. A celebrated poem 
by Kali-dasa, in which a banished Yaksha implores a cloud to 
convey tidings of him to his wife. It has been translated into 
English verse by Wilson, and there are versions in French and 
German. The text has been printed with a vocabulary by 

MEGHA-NADA. A son of Ravawa. See Indra-jit. 

MEKALA. Name of a mountain from which the Narmada 
river is said to rise, and from which it is called Mekala and 
Mekala-kanya, daughter of Mekala. There was a people of 
this name, who probably lived in the vicinity of this mountain. 
Their kings were also called Mekalas, and there appears to have 
been a city Mekala. 

MENA, MENAKA. i. In the J^g-veda, a daughter of 
V?ishan-aswa. A Brahmawa tells a strange story of Indra 
having assumed the form of Mena and then fallen in love with 
her. In the Purawas, wife of Himavat and mother of Uma and 
Ganga, and of a son named Mainaka. 2. An Apsaras sent to 
seduce the sage Yiswamitra from his devotions, and succeeding 
in this object, she became the mother of the nymph $akuntala. 

MERIT. A fabulous mountain in the navel or centre of the 
earth, on which is situated Swarga, the heaven of Indra, con 
taining the cities of the gods and the habitations of celestial 
spirits. The Olympus of the Hindus. Regarded as a terrestrial 
object, it would seem to be some mountain north of the Hima 
layas. It is also Su-meru, Hemadri, golden mountain ; Ratna- 
saim, jewel peak; Karnikachala, lotus mountain; and 
Amaradri and Deva-parvata, mountain of the gods. 

MERU-SAVAR^AS. The ninth, tenth, eleventh, and 
twelfth Manns, said to be the "mind-engendered sons of a 
daughter of Daksha by himself and the three gods Brahma, 
Dharma, and Rudra, to whom he presented her on Mount 
Meru." The signification of the appellation Meru is obvious ; 
that of Savarwa or Savanzi signifies that they were all of one 
caste (varnci). 

MIMANSA. A school of philosophy. See Darsana. 

MIMANSA-D AR3ANA. A work on the Mimansa philo 
sophy. Printed in the BiUiothcca Indica. 


MlMANSA-VARTTIKA. A work on the Mimansa philo 
sophy by Ivumarila Bha//a. 

MINJIKA (mas.) and MINJIKA (fern.). Two beings who, 
according to the Maha-bharata, sprang from the seed of Rudra, 
which was spilt upon a mountain. They are to be worshipped 
by those who desire the welfare of children. 

MITAKSHARA. A commentary by Vijnaneswara on the 
Smriti or text-book of Yajnawalkya, The authority of this 
book is admitted all over India, with the exception of Bengal 
proper. The portion on inheritance has been translated by 
Colebrooke, and into French by Orianne. The text has been 
printed in India. 

MITHILA. A city, the capital of Videha or North Bihar, 
which corresponds to the modern Tirhut and Puraniya, between 
the GandakI and Kosi rivers. It has given its name to one of 
the five northern nations of Brahmans (see Brahman), and to a 
school of law. It was the country of King Janaka, and the 
name of his capital, Janaka-pura, still survives in " Janakpoor," 
on the northern frontier. 

MITRA. Probably connected with the Persian Mithra, A 
form of the sun. In the Vedas he is generally associated with 
Varuwa, he being the ruler of the day and Varu?za the ruler of 
the night. They together uphold and rule the earth and sky, 
guard the world, encourage religion, and chastise sin. He is 
one of the Adityas or sons of Aditi. 

MITRA-SAHA. A king called also Kalmasha-pada (q.v.). 

MLECHHAS. Foreigners, barbarians, people not of Aryan 

MOHA-MUDGARA. { Hammers for ignorance. A poem 
in explanation of the Yedanta philosophy. It has been printed 
and translated by Neve. 

M^/CHCHHAKATl The toy-cart. A drama in ten acts 
by King udraka, supposed to be the oldest Sanskrit drama 
extant, and to have been written in the first or second century 
A.D. The country over which udraka reigned is not known. 
This play, says Wilson, its translator, " is a curious and interest 
ing picture of national manners . . . free from all exterior 
influence or adulteration. It is a portrait purely Indian. It 
represents a state of society sufficiently advanced in civilisation 
to be luxurious and corrupt, and is certainly very far from 



offering a flattering similitude, although not without some 
attractive features." Williams observes, " The dexterity with 
which the plot is arranged, the ingenuity with which the inci 
dents are connected, the skill with which the characters are 
delineated and contrasted, the "boldness and felicity of the 
diction, are scarcely unworthy of our own great dramatists." 
There are translations in French and several editions of the 

M^/GANKA-LEKHA. A play in four acts, written by 
Viswa-natha at Eenares. The piece takes its name from the 
heroine, a princess of Kamarupa. It is a comparatively modern 

M^/TYU. Death. A name of Yama, the god of the dead. 

MTJCHUKUKDA. In the Purarcas, son of Mandhatn , and 
called king of men. He rendered assistance to the gods in 
their wars with the Asuras or demons, and he asked and 
obtained as a reward the boon of a long uninterrupted sleep. 
Whosoever disturbed him was to be burnt to ashes by fire 
issuing from his body. Kala-yavana was lured into his cave 
by Kr/shwa and woke the sleeper, who cast a fiery glance upon 
the intruder which destroyed him. Muchukunda then paid 
laud and honour to Kn shwa, who gave him power to go to 
whatever celestial region he wished, and to enjoy all heavenly 
pleasures. Muchukunda left his cave and went to Gandha- 
madana to perform penance. The Maha-bharata says he was 
reproved by Kuvera for trusting to his priest more than to his 
own prowess for success in war, but he replied that the religious 
aid of Brahmans was as necessary as the warlike powers of 

MUDGALA. A Vedic Rishi from whom the Maudgalya 
Brahmans sprang. There were several other Brahmans named 
Mudgala. A sage of this name is recorded in the Maha-bharata 
to have " lived a life of poverty, piety, and self-restraint, offer 
ing hospitality to thousands of Brahmans, according to his 
humble means, with the grain which he gleaned like a pigeon, 
and which (like the widow of Zarephath s oil) never underwent 
diminution, or rather increased again, when it was required." 
The choleric sage Dur-vasas went to test the patience of Mudgala, 
and six times devoured all the food which his host possessed 
without ruffling his temper. Dur-vasas in his admiration de- 


clared that Mudgala would go bodily to heaven, and the mes 
senger of the gods arrived with his heavenly car. The sage, 
"before accepting the invitation, desired to be informed of the 
joys and ills of heaven. After hearing a full explanation, ho 
found that the enjoyments of heaven must come to a close, so 
he declared that he " had no desire for heaven, and would seek 
only that eternal abode where there is no sorrow, nor distress, 
nor change." He dismissed the messenger of the gods, and 
began to practise ascetic virtues, becoming indifferent to praise 
and blame, regarding clods, gold, stones, and gold as alike. 
Pure knowledge led to fixed contemplation ; and that again 
imparted strength and complete comprehension, whereby he 
obtained supreme eternal perfection in the nature of quietude 

MUDEA-EAKSHASA. < The signet of the minister. A 
drama by Yisakha-datta. This play has an historical interest, for 
Chandra-gupta, the Sandracottus of Greek writers, is a leading 
character in it. The date of its production is apparently the 
eleventh or twelfth century A.D. It is one of the dramas trans 
lated by Wilson, who says, " The author was not a poet of the 
sphere of Bhava-bhuti or Kali-dasa. His imagination rises not to 
their level, and there is scarcely a brilliant or beautiful thought 
in the play. As some equivalent for the want of imagination, 
he has a vigorous perception of character and a manly strain of 
sentiment, that are inferior only to elevated conception and deli 
cate feeling. He is the Massinger of the Hindus. The language 
of the original partakes of the general character of the play; it is 
rarely beautiful or delicate, but always vigorous, and occasion 
ally splendid." 

MUGDHA-BODHA, A standard Grammar by Yopadeva, 
written towards the end of the thirteenth century. It has been 
edited by Bohtlingk, and there are several Indian editions. 

MUKA. A Danava, son of Upasunda. He assumed the form 
of a wild boar in order to kill Arjuna, but was himself killed by 
$iva in his form of the Kirata or mountaineer. 

MUKHAGNL Fiery-faced. Spirits or goblins with faces 
of fire, perhaps meteors. 

MUA^DA. Bald. An appellation of Ketu. Name of a 
demon slain by Durga. 

MUJVDAKA. Name of a Upanishad (q.v.) translated by 


Dr. Koer in the Billiotheca Indica and by Kammohun Roy. 
There are several editions of the text. 

MUNI. " A holy sage, a pious and learned person, endowed 
with more or less of a divine nature, or having attained to it by 
rigid abstraction and mortification. The title is applied to the 
jR/shis, and to a great number of persons distinguished for their 
writings considered as inspired, as Pawini, Yyasa." Their super 
human powers over gods and men have been often displayed in 
blessings, but more frequently in curses. 

MUEA, MURU. A great demon who had seven thousand 
sons. He was an ally of the demon Naraka, who ruled over 
Prag-jyotisha, and assisted him in the defence of that city 
against Krishna. He placed in the environs of the city " nooses 
the edges of which were as sharp as razors," but Knslma cut 
them to pieces with his discus, slew Muru, " and burnt his seven 
thousand sons like moths with the flame of the edge of his discus." 

MURARI. The foe of Mura. An appellation of Kn shwa. 

MURARI MLSRA Author of the drama Murari Na/aka or 
Anargha Raghava (q.v.). 

MUSALA The pestle-shaped club carried by Bala-rama. It 
was named Saunanda. 

Armed with a pestle. An appellation of Bala-rama. 

MUSHTIKA. A celebrated boxer in the service of Kansa, 
who directed him to kill Krishna, or Bala-rama in a public en 
counter, but Bala-rama overthrew him and killed him. 

NEDISHTHA. A son of Manu, who, while he was living as 
a Brahmachari, was deprived of his inheritance, by his father 
according to the Yajur-veda, by his brothers according to the 
Aitareya Brahmawa. He subsequently acquired wealth by im 
parting spiritual knowledge. 

NACHIKETAS. The story of Nachiketas is told in the 
Taittiriya Brahmawa and Katha Upanishad. Vaja-sravasa or 
Arura, the father of Nachiketas, desirous of attaining heaven, 
performed great sacrifices, and was profuse in his gifts to the 
priests. The son told him that he had not given all, for that 
he, his son, was left, and said, " To whom shall I be given ? " 
On repeating the question, the father angrily replied, "To death." 
So the son departed to the abodes of death, and, after staying 


there three nights, Yama was constrained to offer him a boon, 
lie prayed to see his father again and be reconciled. This boon 
was granted and another offered. All kinds of blessings were 
proposed, but the youth refused to be contented with anything 
but a true knowledge of the soul. Yama then proceeded to 
instruct him. The story has been done into verse by Muir 
(Texts, voL v. p. 329). 

NAGA. A snake, especially the cobra-capella. A mythical 
semi-divine being, having a human face with the tail of a ser 
pent, and the expanded neck of the cobra. The race of Nagas 
is said to be a thousand in number, and to have sprung from 
Kadru, the wife of Kasyapa, for the purpose of peopling Patala, 
or the regions below the earth, where they reign in great 
splendour. From the name of their mother they are called 
Ivadraveyas. Their mother is sometimes called Su-rasa. This 
dominion was taken from them by the Gandharvas, but they 
recovered it through their sister, the Narmada river, who induced 
Vishmi to send Pratardana to their assistance. Their females 
were handsome, and some of them intermarried with men, as 
Ulupl with Arjuna. 

The Nagas, or a people bearing the same name, are historical, 
and have left many traces behind them. There were mountains so 
called, and Naga-dwipa was one of the seven divisions of Bharata- 
varsha. Kings of this race reigned at Mathura, Padmavati, &c., 
and the name survives in the modern Kagpur. There are various 
speculations as to who and what they were, but it seems clear 
they were a race distinct from the Hindus. The mythological 
accounts are probably based upon the historical, but they have 
been mixed up together and confused. The favourite theory is 
that they were a Scythic race, and probably obtained their name 
from worshipping serpents or holding them in awe and reverence. 

NAGA-LOKA. Patala, the residence of the Nagas. 

NAGA-NANDAN A. A Buddhist drama in five acts by ri 
Harsha Deva. It has been translated by Boyd. The text has 
been printed. 

KAGAKA. A city. There are seven sacred cities which 
confer eternal happiness (i.) Ayodhya, (2.) Mathura, (3.) Maya 
(Gaya), (4.) Kasi (Benares), (5.) Kanchi (Conjeveram), (6.) 
Avanti or Avantika (Ujjayini), (7.) Dwaraka or Dwaravatl. 

NAHUSHA. Son of Ayus the eldest son of Pururavas, and 


father of Yayati. This king is mentioned by Mann as having 
come into conflict with the Brahmans, and his story is repeated 
several times with variations in different parts of the Maha- 
bharata as well as in the Purawas, the aim and object of it 
evidently being to exhibit the retribution awaiting any man who 
derogates from the power of Brahmans and the respect dne to 
them. " By sacrifices, austere fervour, sacred study, self-restraint, 
and valour, Nahusha acquired the undisturbed sovereignty of 
the three worlds. . . . Through want of virtuous humility the 
great king Nahusha was utterly ruined." Manu. One version 
of the story says that he aspired to the possession of Indian!, wife 
of Indra, when that god had concealed himself for having killed 
a Brahman, A thousand great ^ishis bore the car of Nahusha 
through the air, and on one occasion he touched with his foot 
the great Agastya, who was carrying him. The sage in his anger 
cried out, "Fall, thou serpent," and Nahusha fell from his 
glorious car and became a serpent. Agastya, at the supplication 
of Nahusha, put a limit to the curse ; and according to one ver 
sion, the doomed man was released from it by the instrumentality 
of Yudhi-sh/hira, when he threw off "his huge reptile form, 
became clothed in a celestial body, and ascended to heaven." 

NAIKASHEYAS. Carnivorous imps descended from K"i- 
kasha, mother of Ravawa. They are called also Mkashatmajas. 

NAIMISHA, NAIMISHAEA^YYA A forest (aramja) near 
the Gomati (Gumt!) river, in which the Maha-bharata was 
rehearsed by Sauti to the assembled Bishis. 

NAIR72/TA. Belonging to the south-west quarter; the 
regent of that quarter. An imp, goblin, or Rakshasa. 

the life of Nala, king of Nishadha, by /Sri Harsha, a great scep 
tical philosopher who lived in the eleventh or twelfth century 
A.D. It is one of the six Maha-kavyas, There are several 
printed editions. 

IsTAKSHATRAS. Mansions of the moon, lunar asterisms. 
At first they were twenty-seven in number, but they were 
increased to twenty-eight. They are said to be daughters of 
Daksha who were married to the moon. See Daksha. 

NAKULA. The fourth of the PaTidu princes. He was the 
twin son of Madri, the second wife of Pa^du, but mythologically 
he was son of the Aswins, or more specifically of the Aswin 

NALA. 215 

Nasatya. He was taught the art of training and managing 
horses by Dro^a, and when he entered the service of the king 
of Virata he was master of the horse. He had a son named 
Kir-amitra by his wife Karewi-mati, a princess of Chedi. See 

NALA. i. King of Nishadha and husband of Damayantl. 
The story of Nala and Damayantl is one of the episodes of the 
Maha-bharata, and is well known from having been translated 
into Latin by Bopp and into English verse by Dean Milman. 
Damayantl was the only daughter of Bhima, king of Yidarbha 
(Birar), and was very lovely and accomplished. Nala was brave 
and handsome, virtuous, and learned in the Yedas, skilled in 
arms and in the management of horses, but addicted to the vice 
of gambling. They loved each other upon the mere fame of their 
respective virtues and beauty, and Damayantl pined for the 
presence of her unknown lover. Bhima determined that his 
daughter should hold a swayam-vara. Rajas nocked to it in 
crowds, and among them Nala. Four gods, Indra, Agni, 
Yaruwa, and Yama, also attended. Nala met them on the 
way, and reverently promised to do their will. They bade him 
enter the palace and inform Damayantl that they would pre 
sent themselves among the candidates, and that she must choose 
one of them. Nala reluctantly performed his task, but his 
presence perfected his conquest, and the maiden announced her 
resolve to pay due homage to the gods, but to choose him for 
her lord. Each of the four gods assumed the form of Nala, 
but the lover s eye distinguished the real one, and she made her 
choice. They married and lived for some time in great happi 
ness, a son and a daughter, named Indrasena and Indrasena, 
being born to them. Kali, a personification of the Kali or iron 
age, arrived too late for the swayam-vara. He resolved to be 
revenged, and he employed his peculiar powers to ruin Nala 
through his love of gambling. At his instigation, Pushkara, 
Kala s younger brother, proposed a game of dice. Kali charmed 
the dice, and Nala went on losing ; but he was infatuated ; the 
entreaties of friends and ministers, wife and children, were of 
no avail ; he went on till he had lost his all, even to his clothes. 
His rival Pushkara became king, and proclaimed that no one 
was to give food or shelter to Nala, so the ruined monarch 
wandered forth into the forest with his wife, and suffered great 

216 NALA. 

privations. Some birds flew away with, his only garment. He 
resolved to abandon his wife in the hope that she would return 
to her father s court, so he divided her sole remaining garment 
while she slept and left her. Thus left alone, DamayantI 
wandered about in great distress. She did not go home, but 
she at length found service and protection with the princess of 
Chedi. Nala fell in with the king of serpents, who was under a 
curse from which Nala was to deliver him. The serpent bit Nala, 
and told him that the poison should work upon him till the evil 
spirit was gone out of him, and that he should then be restored 
to all he loved. Through the effects of the bite he was transformed 
into a misshapen dwarf. In this form he entered the service of 
/tituparwa, king of Ayodhya, as a trainer of horses and an 
accomplished cook, under the name of Bahuka. DamayantI 
was discovered and conducted to her father s home, where she 
found her children. Great search was made for Nala, but in 
vain, for no one knew him in his altered form. One Brahman, 
however, suspected him, and informed DamayantI. She re 
solved to test his feelings by announcing her intention of hold 
ing a second swayam-vara. King jftitupar?ia determined to 
attend, and took Nala with him as driver of his chariot, fiitu.- 
parwa was skilled in numbers and the rules of chances. On 
their journey he gave a wonderful proof of this, and he in 
structed Nala in the science. When Nala had acquired this 
knowledge the evil spirit went out of him, but still he retained 
his deformity. DamayantI half penetrated his disguise, and 
was at length convinced that he was her husband by the flavour 
of a dish which he had cooked. They met, and, after some 
loving reproaches and the interference of the gods, they became 
reconciled, and JsTala resumed his form. He again played with 
Pushkara, and staked his wife against the kingdom. Profiting 
by the knowledge he had obtained from J?itupama, he won 
back all and again became king. Pushkara then humbled him 
self, and Nala not only forgave him, but sent him home to his 
own city enriched with many gifts. The text of this poem 
has been often printed, and there are translations in various 

2. A monkey chief, said to be a son of Viswa-karma. Accord 
ing to the Ramayawa, he had the power of making stones float 
in water. He was in Rama s army and built the bridge of 


stone called Rama-setu, or Nala-sctu, from the continent to 
Ceylon, over which Rama passed with his army. 

NALA-KUYARA. A son of Kuvera. 

NALODAYA (Nala + udaya). The rise of Xala. A poem 
describing the restoration to power of King Nala after he had 
lost his all. It is ascribed to a Kali-dasa, but the composition 
is very artificial, and the ascription to the great Kali-dasa may 
well be doubted. The text has been printed, and there is a 
metrical translation by Yates. 

NALOPAKHYANA. The story of Kala, an episode of the 
Maha-bharata. See Xala. 

NAMUCHL A demon slain by Indra with the foam of 
water. The legend of Namuchi first appears in the J2/g-veda, 
where it is said that Indra ground " the head of the slave 
Kamuchi like a sounding and rolling cloud," but it is amplified 
by the commentator and also in the $atapatha Brahmawa and 
Maha-bharata. When Indra conquered the Asuras there was one 
]S"amuchi who resisted so strongly that he overpowered Indra 
and held him. Namuchi offered to let Indra go on promise not 
to kill him by day or by night, with wet or with dry. Indra 
gave the promise and was released, but he cut off Namuchi s 
head at twilight, between day and night, and with foam of 
water, which was, according to the authorities, neither wet nor 
dry. The Maha-bharata adds that the dissevered head followed 
Indra calling out " wicked slayer of thy friend." 

NANDA. i. The cowherd by whom Krishna was brought 
up. 2. A king, or dynasty of kings, of Magadha, that reigned 
at Pa/ali-putra, and was overthrown by Chandra-gupta the 
Maurya about 315 B.C. See Chandra-gupta. 

JSTAiSFDAJSTA. The grove of Indra, lying to the north of Meru. 

NANDI. The bull of #iva. The Yayu Purawa makes him 
the son of Kasyapa and Surabhi. His image, of a milky white 
colour, is always conspicuous before the temples of /Siva. He is 
the chamberlain of jSiva, chief of his personal attendants (ganas), 
and carries a staff of office. He is guardian of all quadrupeds. 
He is also called $alankayana, and he has the appellations of 
Xadi-deha and Tawc/ava-talika, because he accompanies with 
music the tandfava dance of his master. 

NANDI-MUKHAS. A class of Pitn s or Manes, concerning 
whose character there is a good deal of uncertainty. 


The cow of plenty belonging to the sageVasish- 
flia, said to have "been born of Surabhi, the cow of plenty that 
was produced at the churning of the ocean. 

NAKDI-PUKA^VA. See Purarca. 

NANDLSA, NAKDLSWARA. Lord of Nandi. A title of 
/Siva. It is related in the Eamayawa that Eavawa went to the 
$ara-vana, the birthplace of Karttikeya, and on his way through 
the mountains he beheld " a formidable, dark, tawny-coloured 
dwarf called Nandlswara, who was a follower of Maha-deva, or 
rather that deity himself in another body. This being desired 
Eavawa to halt, as /Siva was sporting in the mountain, and no 
one, not even a god, could pass. Eavawa asked derisively who 
/Siva was, and laughed contemptuously at ISTandlswara, who had 
the face of a monkey. NandLswara retorted that monkeys hav 
ing the same shape as himself and of similar energy should be 
produced to destroy Eavawa s race. In reply to this menace, 
Eavawa threatened to pull up the mountain by its roots and let 
/Siva know his own danger. So he threw his arms round the 
mountain and lifted it up, which made the hosts of /Siva tremble 
and ParvatI quake and cling to her husband. /Siva then pressed 
down the mountain with his great toe, and crushed and held 
fast the arms of Eava^a, who uttered a loud cry which shook 
all creation. Eava?^a s friends counselled him to propitiate /Siva, 
and he did so for a thousand years with hymns and weeping. 
/Siva then released him, and said that his name should be Eavawa 
from the cry (rava) which he had uttered. The origin of this 
story is sufficiently manifest, it has been built up on the name 
Eavawa, to the glory of /Siva, by a zealous partisan of that deity. 

NAEA. Man. The original eternal man. 

NARAD A. A Eishi to whom some hymns of the T^g-veda 
are ascribed. He is one of the Prajapatis, and also one of the 
seven great jRj shis. The various notices of him are somewhat 
inconsistent. The ^g-veda describes him as "of the Kamva 
family." Another authority states that he sprang from the 
forehead of Brahma, and the Vishwu Purawa makes him a son 
of Kasyapa and one of Daksha s daughters. The Maha-bharata 
and some Puraftas state that he frustrated the scheme which 
Daksha had formed for peopling the earth, and consequently 
incurred that patriarch s curse to enter again the womb of a 
woman and be born. Daksha, however, relented at the solici- 


tation of Brahma, and consented that Niirada should be born 
again of Brahma and one of Daksha s daughters ; lie was hence 
called Brahma and Deva-brahma. In some respects he bears a 
resemblance to Orpheus. He is the inventor of the vma (lute), 
and was chief of the Gandharvas or heavenly musicians. He 
also went down to the infernal regions (Putala), and was de 
lighted with what he saw there. In later times he is connected 
with the legend of Kr/sh?a. He warned Kansa of the imminent 
incarnation of Vish?m, and he afterwards became the friend and 
associate of KHshrau 

The Xarada-pancha-ratra relates that Brahma, advised his 
son Narada to marry, but Karada censured his father as a false 
teacher, because devotion to Kn shwa was the only true means 
of felicity. Brahma then cursed Narada to lead a life of sen 
suality, in subjection to women, and Narada retorted the curse, 
condemning Brahma to lust after his own daughter, and to 
be an object unworthy of adoration. Narada has the appella 
tions, Kali-karaka, strife-maker; Kapi-vaktra, monkey-faced; 
Pisuna, messenger or spy. 

Narada was also one of the great writers upon law. His 
text-book, called " Naradiya Dharma-sastra," has been translated 
into English by Dr. Jolly. 

NARADA PANCHA-RATRA. A ritualistic work of the 
Vaishnavas. It has been printed in the BiUiotheca Indlca. 

Narada has described the duties which were observed in the 
Brihat Kalpa, that is called the Karadiya, having 25,000 
stanzas." But the only copy that Wilson analysed contained 
not more than 3000 stanzas. There is another work called the 
Bn han or Great Naradlya, but this extends only to 3500 verses. 
These Purawas, says Wilson, bear " no conformity to the defi 
nition of a Purana ; both are sectarial and modern compilations, 
intended to support the doctrine of Bhakti or faith in Vishnu." 
They are modern compositions, possibly even of so late a date as 
the sixteenth or seventeenth century. One of them refers to 
the " killers of cows " and " contemners of the gods," meaning, 
no doubt, the Mohammadans, so that the passage would seem 
to have been written after India was in their hands. 

NARAKA. Hell ; a place of torture to which the souls of 
the wicked are sent. Manu enumerates twenty-one hells : 


Tamisra, Andha-tamisra, Maha-raurava, Raurava, Karaka, Kala- 
sutra, Maha-naraka, Sanjlvana, Maha-vlchi, Tapana, Samprata- 
pana, Sanhata, Sakakola, Kucfanala, Puti-mnttika, Loha-sanku, 
jRfjisha, Panthana, almali, Asi-patra-vana, and Loha-dfiraka. 
Other authorities vary greatly as to the numbers and names of 
the hells. See Vishmi Pura?ia, ii. 214. 

NARAKA. An Asura, son of the Earth. In the Malia- 
bharata and Yishmi Purawa he is said to have carried off the 
ear-rings of Aditi to the impregnable castle of Prag-jyotisha, but 
Krishna, at the request of the gods, went there and killed him 
and recovered the jewels. In the Hari-vansa the legend differs. 
According to this, Naraka, king of Prag-jyotisha, was an implac 
able enemy of the gods. He assumed the form of an elephant, 
and having carried off the daughter of Viswa-karma, he subjected 
her to violation. He seized the daughters of the Gandharvas, and 
of gods and of men, as well as the Apsarasas themselves, and 
had more than 16,000 women, for whom he built a splendid 
residence. He also appropriated to himself jewels, garments, and 
valuables of all sorts, and no Asura before him had ever been 
so horrible in his actions. 

JSTARA-lSTARAYAjVA. Two ancient 7^ shis, sons of Dharma 
and Ahinsa. The names are sometimes applied to Knshwa 
and to Krishna and Arjuna. The Vamana Purarca has a 
legend about them which is alluded to in the drama of Yik- 
ramorvasi. Their penances and austerities alarmed the gods, 
so Indra sent nymphs to inspire them with passion and disturb 
their devotions. Naraya?za took a flower arid placed it on his 
thigh. Immediately there sprung from it a beautiful nymph 
whose charms far excelled those of the celestial nymphs, and 
made them return to heaven filled with shame and vexation. 
Narayawa sent this nymph to Indra with them, and from her 
having been produced from the thigh (uru) of the sage, she was 
called Urvasi. 



NARA-VISHWANA. <A man-devourer; a Rakshasa or 
other malignant being. 

NARAYA^VA. i. The son of Kara, the original man, and 
often identified or coupled with K"ara. 2. The creator Brahma, 
who, according to Mann, was so called because the waters (nara) 


were his first ayana or place of motion. The name is found for 
the first time in the aSatapatha Biahmawa, The name as com 
monly used applies to Vislmu, and is that under which he was 
first worshipped. 

NARMADA. The Nerbudda river, which is esteemed holy. 
The personified river is variously represented as being daughter 
of a Eishi named Mekala (from whom she is called Mekala and 
Mekala-kanya), as a daughter of the moon, as a mind-born 
daughter of the Somapas, and as sister of the Nagas. It was 
she who brought Purukutsa to the aid of the Nagas against the 
Gandharvas, and the grateful snake-gods made her name a charm 
against the venom of snakes. According to the Vishnu Purarca, 
she had a son by Purukutsa who was named Trasadasyu. The 
Matsya Pura?ia gives Du/i-saha as the name of her husband. 
The Hari-vansa is inconsistent with itself. In one place it 
makes her wife of Purukutsa and mother of Trasadasyu ; in 
another it makes her the wife of Trasadasyu. She is also called 
Keva and Purva-ganga, and, as a daughter of the moon, Indu-ja 
and Somodbhava. 

NASATYA. Name of one of the Aswins. It is also used 
in the plural for both of them. 

NAVA-RATNA. The nine gems : pearl, ruby, topaz, dia 
mond, emerald, lapis lazuli, coral, sapphire, and one not identified 
called Go-meda. The nine gems of the court of Vikrama, pro 
bably meaning Vikramaditya, whose era the Samvat begins in 
56 B.C. A verse gives their names as Dhanwantari, Kshaparaaka, 
Amara Sinha, &mku, Vetala-bhafta, Gha/a-karpara, Kali-dasa, 
Varaha-mihira, Vararuchi. The date of Vikramaditya is by no 
means settled. Bhau Daji endeavours to identify Vikrama with 
Harsha Vikramaditya, who lived in the middle of the sixth 

NIDAGHA. A Brahman, son of Pulastya, who dwelt " at 
Vira-nagara, a large handsome city on the banks of the Devika 
river " (the Gogra). He was a disciple of the sage Tftbhu, and 
when PiMm went to visit his disciple, Nidagha entertained him 
reverentially. Eihhii instructed him in divine knowledge until 
he learned to " behold all things as the same with himself, and, 
perfect in holy knowledge, obtained final liberation." 

NID ANA-SUTRA. An old work upon the metres of the Veda? 

NIDHI. A treasure. Nine treasures belonging to the god 


Kuvera. Each, of them is personified or has a guardian spirit, 
which is an object of worship among the Tantrikas. The nature 
of these Nidhis is not clearly understood. See a note by Wilson 
on verse 534 of the Megha-duta, Collected Works, iv. 379. 
Their names are Kachchhapa, Mukunda, JSTanda (or Kunda), 
Kharba, Makara, Mia, tfankha, Padma, and Maha-padma. The 
Nidhis are called also Nidhana, Nikara, and $evadhi. 

NIDRA. Sleep. Sometimes said to be a female form of 
Brahma, at others to have been produced at the churning of the 

NIGHAATU, NIGHA7VTUKA. A glossary, especially of 
synonyms and obsolete and obscure Yedic terms. There was 
at least one work of this kind before the days of Yaska. See 

NIKASHA. A female demon, the mother of Ravawa. The 
mother of the carnivorous imps called Pisitasanas, or by their 
metronymic Naikusheyas and Nikashatmajas. 

NIKUMBHA. i. A Rakshasa who fought against Rama. He 
was son of Kumbha-kama. 2. An Asura who, according to the 
Hari-vansa, received the boon from Brahma that he should die 
only by the hands of Yishmi. He was king of Sha/-pura and 
had great magical powers, so that he could multiply himself into 
many forms, though he commonly assumed only three. He car 
ried off the daughters of Brahma-datta, the friend of Krishna, 
and that hero attacked him and killed him under different 
forms more than once, but he was eventually slain outright by 
Ivr/sh?za, and his city of Sha^-pura was given to Brahma- 

NlLA. Blue. i. A mythic range of mountains north of 
Meru. 2. A mountain range in Orissa. 3. A monkey ally of 
Rama. 4. A Paw/ava warrior killed by Aswatthaman. 

NILA-KANmA. < Blue throat. An epithet of Siva. See 

NIMI. Son of Ikshwaku, and founder of the dynasty of 
Mithila. He was cursed by the sage Yasish/ha to lose his cor 
poreal form, and he retorted the imprecation upon the sage. 
Both abandoned the bodily condition. Yasish/ha was born 
again as the issue of Mitra and Varuwa, but " the corpse of 
Nimi was preserved from decay by being embalmed with fra 
grant oils and resins, and it remained as entire as if it were 


immortal." The gods were willing to restore him to bodily life, 
but Nimi declined, declaring that the separation of soul and 
body w r as so distressing that he would never resume a corporeal 
shape and become liable to it again. " To this desire the gods 
assented, and Nimi was placed by them in the eyes of all 
living creatures, in consequence of which their eyelids are ever 
opening and shutting." Vishnu Purdna. A wink of the eye 
is called nimisha, and the legend was probably built upon the 
resemblance of the two words. 

NIRJVAYA-SINDHU. A work on religious ceremonies and 
law by Kamalakara. It has been printed at Bombay and Benares. Death, decay. Death personified as a god 
dess ; sometimes regarded as the wife and sometimes as the 
daughter of A-dharma. One of the Rudras. 

NIRUKTA. Etymology, glossary. One of the Vedangas. 
The Nirukta is devoted to the explanation of difficult Vedic 
words. The only work of the kind now known to us is that of 
Yaska, who was a predecessor of Pamni ; but such works were 
no doubt numerous, and the names of seventeen writers of 
Kiruktas are mentioned as having preceded Yaska. The 
Nirukta consists of three parts : (i.) Naighaw/uka, a collection of 
synonymous words ; (2.) Kaigama, a collection of words peculiar 
to the Vedas ; (3.) Daivata, words relating to deities and sacri 
fices. These are mere lists of words, and are of themselves of 
little value. They may have been compiled by Yaska himself, 
or he may have found them ready to his hand. The real Nirukta, 
the valuable portion of the work, is Yaska s commentary which 
follows. In this he explains the meaning of words, enters into 
etymological investigations, and quotes passages of the Vedas 
in illustration. These are valuable from their acknowledged 
antiquity, and as being the oldest known examples of a Vedic 
gloss. They also throw a light upon the scientific and religious 
condition of their times, but the extreme brevity of their style 
makes them obscure and difficult to understand. The text of 
the Nirukta has been published by Roth. 

NISHADA. A mountain tribe dwelling in the Vindhya 
mountains, said to have been produced from the thigh of VeTia ; 
the Bhils or foresters, and barbarians in general (See Ve^a.) 
Any outcast, especially the offspring of a Brahman father and 
Sudra mother. 


NISHADHA. i. A mythic range of mountains lying south of 
Meru, but sometimes described as on the east. It is north of the 
Himalaya, 2. The country of Nala, probably the Bhll country. 

NISH1TGRL In the jRig-veda, the mother of Indra. 

NISUMBHA. An Asura killed by Durga. See Kumbha. 

NITI-MANJARL A work on ethics by Dya Dwiveda, 
exemplified by stories and legends with special reference to the 
Yedas. Some specimens are given in the Indian Antiquary, 
vol. v. 

NlTI-tfASTKAS. Works on morals and polity, consisting 
either of proverbs and wise maxims in verse, or of stories and 
fables inculcating some moral precept and illustrating its effects. 
These fables are generally in prose interspersed with pithy 
maxims in verse. 

NIYATA-KAYACHAS. < Clothed in impenetrable armour. 
A class of Daityas descended from Prahlada, " whose spirits 
were purified by rigid austerity." According to the Maha- 
bharata they were 30,000,000 in number, and dwelt in the 
depths of the sea. They were destroyed by Arjuna. 

N.S/-SINHA. The Nara-sinha or man-lion incarnation. Set 


NBLSINRA TAPANI. An Upanishad in which Yishwu is 
worshipped under his form Nn -sinha. Published with the com 
mentary of /Sankaracharya in the BiUiotheca Indica. 

NYAYA. The logical school of philosophy. See Darsana. 

of Gotama on the ISTyaya philosophy. They have been printed. 

ODEA. The country of Orissa A man of that country. 

OM. A word of solemn invocation, affirmation, benediction, 
and consent, so sacred that when it is uttered no one must hear 
it. The word is used at the commencement of prayers and re 
ligious ceremonies, and is generally placed at the beginning of 
books. It is a compound of the three letters a, u, m, which are 
typical of the three Yedas ; and it is declared in the Upanishads, 
where it first appears, to have a mystic power and to be worthy 
of the deepest meditation. In later times the monosyllable re 
presents the Hindu triad or union of the three gods, a being 
Yishmi, u $iva, and m Brahma. This monosyllable is called 


OMKARA. The sacred monosyllable Om. Name of one of 
the twelve great lingas. See Linga. 

OSHADHI-PRASTHA. The place of medicinal herbs. 
A city in the Himalaya mentioned in the Kumara-sambhava. 

OSHTHA-KARZVAKAS. A people whose lips extended to 
their ears, mentioned in the Maha-bharata. 

PAD A. The Pada text of the Vedas, or of any other work, 
is one in which each word (pada) stands separate and distinct, 
not joined with the next according to the rules of sandhi (coali 
tion). See Pa/ha, 

PADMA, PADMAYATL A name of Lakshml. 

PAD MAY ATI Name of a city. It would seem, from the 
mention made of it in the drama Malati Madhava, to lie in the 
Yindhya mountains. 

PAD MA- K ALP A. The last expired kalpa or year of Brahma. 

generally stands second in the list of Purawas, and is thus de 
scribed : " That which contains an account of the period when 
the world was a golden lotos (padma), and of all the occurrences 
of that time, is, therefore, called Padma by the wise. It con 
tains 55,000 stanzas." The work is divided into five books or 
Kharufos : " (i.) Sn sh/i KhamZa, or section on creation ; (2.) 
Lhumi Kham/a, on the earth ; (3.) Swarga Kha?*c?a, on heaven; 
(4.) Patala Kha?^a, on the regions below the earth; (5.) Uttara 
Ivhaw6?a, last or supplementary chapter. There is also current 
a sixth division, the Kriya-yoga-sara, a treatise on the practice 
of devotion." These denominations of the various divisions 
convey but an imperfect and partial notion of their heterogene 
ous contents, and it seems probable that the different sections 
are distinct works associated together under one title. There is no 
reason to consider any of them as older than the twelfth century. 
The tone of the whole Purawa is strongly Yaish?iava ; that of the 
last section especially so. In it $iva is represented as explain 
ing to Parvati the nature and attributes of Vishwu, and in the 
end the two join in adoration of that deity. A few chapters 
have been printed and translated into Latin by AVollheim. 

PAHLAYA. Name of a people. Manu places the Pahlavas 
among the northern nations, and perhaps the name is connected 
with the word Pahlavi, i.e., Persian. They let their beards grow 
by command of King Sagara. According to ]\Janu, they 

i_ P 


Kshatriyas who had become outcasts, but the Maha-blmrata says 
they were created from the tail of Vasish/ha s cow of fortune ; 
and the Ramayarca states that they sprang from her breath. 
They are also called Pahnavas. 

PAIJAVANA. A name of the King Sudas, his patronymic 
as son of Pijavana. 

PAIL A. A learned man who was appointed in ancient days 
to collect the hymns of the .Rig-veda. He arranged it in two 
parts, and must have been a coadjutor of Veda Vyasa. 

PAKA-$ASANA. A name of Indra, and of Arjuna as de 
scended from Indra. 

PALAKAPYA. An ancient sage who wrote upon medicine, 
and is supposed to have been an incarnation of Dhanwantari. 

PAMPA. A river which rises in the jR/shyamuka mountain 
and falls into the Tungabhadra below Anagundi. Also a lake 
in the same locality. 

PANCHA-CHtLDA. A name of Rambha. 

PANCHAJANA. i. Name of a demon who lived in the sea 
in the form of a conch-shell. He seized the son of Sandipani, 
under whom Kn sh?ia learnt the use of arms. Krishna rescued 
the boy, killed the demon, and afterwards used the conch-shell 
for a horn. 2. A name of Asamanjas (q.v.). 

PANCHAJANYA. K>ishwa s conch, formed from the shell 
of the sea-demon Panchajana. 

PANCHALA Name of a country. Prom the Maha- 
bharata it would seem to have occupied the Lower Doab ; Mann 
places it near Kanauj. It has sometimes been identified with 
the Panjab, and with " a little territory in the more immediate 
neighbourhood of Hastinapur." Wilson says, "A country ex 
tending north and west from Delhi, from the foot of the Hima 
layas to the ChambaL" It was divided into Northern and 
Southern Panchalas, and the Ganges separated them. Cunning 
ham considers North Panchala to be Rohilkhand, and South 
Panchala the Gangetic Doab. The capital of the former was 
Ahi-chhatra, whose ruins are found near Ramnagar, and of the 
latter Kampilya, identical with the modern Kampila, on the old 
Ganges between Baclaun and Farrukhabad. 

PANCHA-LAKSHAJVA. The five distinguishing character- 
istics of a Purana. See Pura?ia. 

PANG HALL Draupadi as princess of Panchala. 


PANCHANANA. Five-faced. An epithet applied to 

PANCHAPSABAS. Kanio of a lake. See Manda-karwi. 

PANCHA-SIKHA. One of the earliest professors of the 
Sunkhya philosophy. 

PANCHA-TANTBA. A famous collection of tales and 
fables in five (pancha) books (tantra). It was compiled by a 
Brahman named Vishwu-sarman, about the end of the fifth 
century A.D., for the edification of the sons of a king, and was 
the original of the better-known Hitopadesa. This work has 
reappeared in very many languages both of the East and West, 
and has been the source of many familiar and widely known 
stories. It was translated into Pahlavi or old Persian by order 
of ]X"aushirvan in the sixth century A.D. In the ninth century 
it appeared in Arabic as Kalila o Damna, then, or before, it was 
translated into Hebrew, Syriac, Turkish, and Greek ; and from 
these, versions were made into all the languages of Europe, and 
it became familiar in England as Pilpay s Eables (Fables of 
Bidpai). In modern Persia it is the basis of the Anwar-i 
Suhaill and lyar-i Danish. The latter has reappeared in Hin 
dustani as the Khirad-afroz. The stories are popular through 
out Hindustan, and have found their way into most of the lan 
guages and dialects. There are various editions of the text and 
several translations. 

PANCHA VATL A place in the great southern forest near 
the sources of the Godavarl, where Bama passed a long period 
of his banishment. It has been proposed to identify it with 
the modern Nasik, because Lakshmawa cut off Siirpa-nakha s 
nose (nasika) at PanchavatL 

PAXCHAVIXSA. See PraiuZha Brahinawa. 

PANCHA-V22/KSHA. Five trees. The five trees of 
Swarga, named Mandara, Parijataka, Santana, Kalpa-vriksha, 
and Hari-chandana. 

PANCHOPAKHYANA. The Pancha-tantra. 

PAJVDAVAS. The descendants of Paw^u. 

PAJVZ>U. The pale. Brother of Dhrita-rash/ra, king of 
Hastina-pura and father of the Pawc?avas or Pam?u princes. See 

PiJVDYA. Paw^ya, Chola, and Chera were three kingdoms in 
the south of the Peninsula for some centuries before and after the 

228 PAN1NL 

Christian era. Pa?wfya was well known to the Romans as the 
kingdom of King Pandion, who is said to have sent ambassadors 
on two different occasions to Augustus Ca3sar. Its capital was 
Madura, the Southern Mathura. Paw^ya seems to have fallen 
under the ascendancy of the Chola kings in the seventh or 
eighth century. 

PAJVINI. The celebrated grammarian, author of the work 
called Pam niyam. This is the standard authority on Sanskrit 
grammar, and it is held in such respect and reverence that it is 
considered to have been written by inspiration. So in old times 
Pamni was placed among the Jtishis, and in more modern days 
he is represented to have received a large portion of his work by 
direct inspiration from the god /Siva. It is also said that he 
was so dull a child that he was expelled from school, but the 
favour of /Siva placed him foremost in knowledge. He was not 
the first grammarian, for he refers to the works of several who 
preceded him. The grammars which have been written since 
his time are numberless, but although some of them are of great 
excellence and much in use, Pamni still reigns supreme, and 
his rules are incontestable. " His work," says Professor Wil 
liams, " is perhaps the most original of all productions of the 
Hindu mind." The work is written in the form of Sutras or 
aphorisms, of which it contains 3996, arranged in eight (ashta) 
chapters (adhyaya), from which the work is sometimes called 
Ash/adhyayi. These aphorisms are exceedingly terse and com 
plicated. Special training and study are required to reach their 
meaning. Colebrooke remarks, that " the endless pursuit of 
exceptions and limitations so disjoins the general precepts, that 
the reader cannot keep in view their intended connection and 
mutual relations. He wanders in an intricate maze, and the key 
of the labyrinth is continually slipping from his hand." But it 
has been well observed that there is a great difference between 
the European and Hindu ideas of a grammar. In Europe, gram 
mar has hitherto been looked upon as only a means to an end, 
the medium through which a knowledge of language and litera 
ture is acquired. With the Paw^it, grammar was a science ; it 
was studied for its own sake, and investigated with the most 
minute criticism ; hence, as Goldstiicker says, " Pamni s work is 
indeed a kind of natural history of the Sanskrit language. 31 
Pamni was a native of iSalatura, in the country of Gandhara, 


west of the Indus, and so is known as /Salottariya. He is 
described as a descendant of Pawin and grandson of Devala. 
His mother s name was Dakshi, who probably belonged to the 
race of Daksha, and he bears the metronymic Daksheya. He 
is also called Ahika. The time when he lived is uncertain, but it 
is supposed to have been about four centuries B.C. Goldstiicker 
carries him back to the sixth century, but "Weber is inclined 
to place him considerably later. Paftini s grammar has been 
printed by Bohtlingk, and also in India. See Goldstlicker s 
1 dnini, his Place in Literature." 

PANIS. Niggards. In the ^ g-veda, a the senseless, false, 
evil-speaking, unbelieving, unpraising, unworshipping Pawis were 
Dasyus or envious demons who used to steal cows and hide them 
in caverns." They are said to have stolen the cows recovered by 
/Sarama (q.v.). 

PANNAGA. A serpent, snake. See Naga. 

PAPA-PURUSHA. Man of sin. A personification of all 
wickedness in a human form, of which all the members are great 
sins. The head is brahmanicide, the arm cow-killing, the nose 
woman-murder, &c. 

PARADAS. A barbarous people dwelling in the north-west. 
Manu says they were Kshatriyas degraded to be udras. 

PAKAMAKSHIS (Parama-r/shis). The great Tttsliis. See 

PARAMATMAN. The supreme soul of the universe. 

PARAMESHTHIK Who stands in the highest place. 
A title applied to any superior god and to some distinguished 
mortals. A name used in the Vedas for a son or a creation of 

PARA/SARA. A Yedic Eishi to whom some hymns of the 
jftig-veda are attributed. He was a disciple of Kapila, and he 
received the Vishwi Purawa from Pulastya and taught it to 
Maitreya. He was also a writer on Dharma-sastra, and texts of 
his are often cited in books on law. Speculations as to his era 
differ widely, from 575 B.C. to 1391 B.C., and cannot be trusted. 
By an amour with Satyavati he was father of Krishna, Dwaipii- 
yana, the Yyasa or arranger of the Vedas. According to the 
JSirukta, he was son of Yasish/ha, but the Maha-bharata and 
the Vishnu Purawa make him the son of Saktri and grandson of 
Vasishflia. The legend of his birth, as given in the Mahfi-bharata, 


is that King Kalmasha-pada met with $aktri in a narrow path, 
and desired him to get out of the way. The sage refused, and the 
Raja struck him with his whip. Thereupon the sage cursed the 
Raja so that he became a man-eating Rakshasa. In this state 
he ate up aktri, whose wife, Adnsyanti, afterwards gave birth to 
Parasara. When this child grew up and heard the particulars 
of his father s death, he instituted a sacrifice for the destruction 
of all the Rakshasas, but was dissuaded from its completion by 
Vasish/ha and other sages. As he desisted, he scattered the 
remaining sacrificial fire upon the northern face of the Himalaya, 
where it still blazes forth at the phases of the moon, consuming 
Rakshasas, forests, and mountains. 

PARA^ARA-PURA^VA. See Parana. 

PARA$IKAS. Parsikas or Farsikas, i.e., Persians. 

PARA&U-RAMA. Rama with the axe. The first Rama 
and the sixth Avatara of Vishmi. He was a Brahman, the fifth 
son of Jamad-agni and Remika. By his father s side he descended 
from Bhngu, and was, par excellence, the Bhargava; by his 
mother s side he belonged to the royal race of the Kusikas. He 
became manifest in the world at the beginning of the Treta- 
yuga, for the purpose of repressing the tyranny of the Kshatriya 
or regal caste. His story is told in the Maha-bharata and in the 
Purawas. He also appears in the Ramayawa, but chiefly as an 
opponent of Rama-chandra. According to the Maha-bharata, he 
instructed Arjuna in the use of arms, and had a combat with 
Bhishma, in which both suffered equally. He is also represented 
as being present at the great war council of the Kaurava princes. 
This Parasu-rama, the sixth Avatara of Yish?zu, appeared in 
the world before Rama or Rama-chandra, the seventh Avatara, 
but they were both living at the same time, and the elder incar 
nation showed some jealousy of the younger. The Maha-bharata 
represents Parasu-rama as being struck senseless by Rama- 
chandra, and the Ramaya?ia relates how Parasu-rama, who was 
a follower of $iva, felt aggrieved by Rama s breaking the bow 
of Siva, and challenged him to a trial of strength. This ended 
in his defeat, and in some way led to his being " excluded from 
a seat in the celestial world." In early life Parasu-rama was 
under the protection of $iva, who instructed him in the use of 
arms, and gave him the parasu, or axe, from which he is named. 
The first act recorded of him by the Maha-bharata is that, by 


command of his father, he cut off the head of his mother, 
She had incensed her husband by entertaining impure thoughts, 
and he called upon each of his sons in succession to kill her. 
Parasu-rania alone obeyed, and his readiness so pleased his father 
that he told him to ask a boon. He begged that his mother 
might be restored pure to life, and, for himself, that he might be 
invincible in single combat and enjoy length of days. Parasu- 
rama s hostility to the Kshatriyas evidently indicates a severe 
struggle for the supremacy between them and the Brahmans. 
He is said to have cleared the earth of the Kshatriyas twenty- 
one times, and to have given the earth to the Brahmans. The 
origin of his hostility to the Kshatriyas is thus related : Karta- 
vlrya, a Kshatriya, and king of the Haihayas, had a thousand 
arms. This king paid a visit to the hermitage of Jamad-agni in 
the absence of that sage, and was hospitably entertained by his 
wife, but when he departed he carried off a sacrificial calf be 
longing to their host. This act so enraged Parasu-rama that he 
pursued Karta-virya, cut off his thousand arms and killed him. 
In retaliation the sons of Karta-virya killed Jamad-agni, and for 
that murder Parasu-rama vowed vengeance against them and the 
whole Kshatriya race. " Thrice seven times did he clear the 
earth of the Kshatriya caste, and he filled with their blood the 
five large lakes of Samanta-panchaka." He then gave the earth 
to Kasyapa, and retired to the Mahendra mountains, where he 
was visited by Arjuna. Tradition ascribes the origin of the 
country of Malabar to Parasu-rama. According to one account 
he received it as a gift from Vara/ia, and according to another 
he drove back the ocean and cut fissures in the Ghats with blows 
of his axe. He is said to have brought Brahmans into this 
country from the north, and to have bestowed the land upon 
them in expiation of the slaughter of the Kshatriyas. He bears 
the appellations Kha/w/a-parasii, who strikes with the axe, and 
Kyaksha, inferior. 

PARAVASU. See Raibhya and Yava-krlta. 

PARIJATA. The tree produced at the churning of the 
ocean, " and the delight of the nymphs of heaven, perfuming the 
world with its blossoms." It was kept in Indra s heaven, and 
was the pride of his wife /Sachi, but when Krishna visited Indra 
in Swarga, his wife Satya-bhama induced him to carry the tree 
away, which led to a great fight between the two gods and tlu-ir 
adherents, in which Indra was defeated. The tree was taken to 


Dwaraka and planted there, but after Krishna s death, it returned 
to Indra s heaven. 

PARIKSHIT. Son of Abhimanyu by his wife Uttara, 
grandson of Arjuna, and father of Janamejaya. He was killed 
by Aswatthaman in the womb of his mother and was born dead, 
but he was brought to life by Krishna, who blessed him and 
cursed Aswatthaman. When Yudhi-sh/hira retired from the 
world, Parikshit succeeded him on the throne of Hastina-pura. 
He died from the bite of a serpent, and the Bhagavata PuraTia 
is represented as having been rehearsed to him in the interval 
between the bite and his death. Also written Parikshit. 

PARIPATRA. The northern part of the Vindhya range of 
mountains. According to the Hari-vansa, it was the scene of the 
combat between Krishna and Indra, and its heights sank down 
under the pressure of Krishna s feet. Also called Pariyatra. 

PAEISHAD. A college or community of Brahmans asso 
ciated for the study of the Yedas. 

PARLS ISHrA. A supplement or appendix. A series of 
works called Parisish/as belong to the Vedic period, but they 
are the last of the series, and indicate a transition state. They 
" supply information on theological or ceremonial points which 
had been passed over in the Sutras, and they treat everything in 
a popular and superficial manner, as if the time was gone when 
students would spend ten or twenty years of their lives in 
fathoming the mysteries and mastering the intricacies of the 
Brahma?? a literature." Max Muller. 

PARIVRAJAKA. A religious mendicant. A Brahman in 
the fourth stage of his religious life. See Brahman. 

PARJANYA. i. A Yedic deity, the rain-god or rain per 
sonified. Three hymns in the jRig-veda are addressed to this 
deity, and one of them is very poetical and picturesque in de 
scribing rain and its effects. The name is sometimes combined 
with the word vdta (wind), parjanya-vdta, referring probably to 
the combined powers and effects of rain and wind. In later 
times he is regarded as the guardian deity of clouds and rain, 
and the name is applied to Indra. 2. One of the Adityas. 

PARSHADA. Any treatise on the Vedas produced in a 
Parishad or Vedic college. 

PARTHA. A son of Pntha or Kuntl. A title applicable to 
the three elder Para/avas, but especially used for Arjuna. 


PARVATL The mountaineer. A name of the wife of >Siv;u 
See Devi. 

PASU-PATI. Lord of creatures. A name of Eudra or of 
one of his manifestations. See Kudra. 

PATALA. The infernal regions, inhabited by Xiigas (ser 
pents), Daityas, Danavas, Yakshas, and others. They are seven 
in number, and their names, according to the Vishmi Purawa, are 
A tula, Yitala, Nitala, Gabhastimat, Mahatala, Sutala, and Patala, 
but these names vary in different authorities. The Padma 
Purawa gives the names of the seven regions and their respective 
rulers as follow : (i.) Atala, subject to Maha-maya ; (2.) Vitala, 
ruled by a form of $iva called Hatakeswara; (3.) Sutala, ruled 
by Bali; (4.) Talatala, ruled by Maya; (5.) Mahatala, where 
reside the great serpents; (6.) Easatala, where the Daityas and 
Danavas dwell; (7.) Patala, the lowermost, in which Vasuki 
reigns over the chief Nagas or snake-gods. In the $iva Pura??a 
there are eight : Patala, Tala, Atala, Vitala, Tala, Yidhi-patala, 
Sarkara-bliunii, and Vijaya. The sage Narada paid a visit to 
these regions, and on his return to the skies gave a glowing ac 
count of them, declaring them to be far more delightful than 
Indra s heaven, and abounding with every kind of luxury and 
sensual gratification. 

PlrALI-PUTEA. The Palibothra of the Greek writers, and 
described by them as being situated at the confluence of the 
Erranaboas (the Sone river) with the Ganges. It was the capital 
of the Kandas, and of the Maurya dynasty, founded by Chandra- 
gupta, which succeeded them as rulers of Magadha. The city 
has been identified with the modern Patna ; for although the 
Sone does not now fall into the Ganges there, the modern 
town is smaller in extent than the ancient one, and there is 
good reason for believing that the rivers have changed their 

PATAXJALA. The Yoga philosophy. See Darsana. 

PATAXJALI. The founder of the Yoga philosophy. (See 
Darsana.) The author of the Maha-bhashya, a celebrated com 
mentary on the Grammar of Pa?iini, and a defence of that work 
against the criticisms of Katyayana. He is supposed to have 
written about 200 B.C. Earn Krishwa Gopiil Bhaiuforkar, a late 
inquirer, says, " He probably wrote the third chapter of his 
Lhashya between 144 and 142 B.C." "\Yeber, however, makes 


his date to be 25 A. D. He is also called Gonardiya and Gowika- 
putra. A legend accounting for his name represents that he fell 
as a small snake from heaven into the palm of Pawini (pata, 
fallen ; anjali, palm ). 

PlrH A Reading. There are three forms, called Paflias, 
in which the Yedic text is read and written : (i.) Sanhita- 
paftia, the ordinary form, in which the words coalesce according 
to the rules of Sandhi; (2.) Pada-pa/ha, in which each word 
stands separate and independent; (3.) Krama-pai!ha, in which 
each word is given twice, first joined with the word preceding 
and then with the word following. 

PATTAISTA City. Several great places have been known 
as Pattan or the city. Soma-natha was Pattan; Anhalwara 
is still known as Pattan, and there is also Patna. 

PAULOMAS. Kasyapa by his wife Puloma had many 
thousand " distinguished Danavas called Paulomas, who were 
powerful, ferocious, and cruel." They were killed by Arjuna. 

PAILYDRA, PAILYDRAKA. Belonging to the country of 
Pun^ra. The conch-shell of Bhishma. 

PAILVDRAKA A pretender who, on the strength of being 
a Yasu-deva, or descendant of one named Vasu-deva, set himself 
up in opposition to Knshwa, who was son of Yasu-deva, and 
assumed his style and insignia. He was supported by the king 
of Kasi (Benares), but he was defeated and killed by Krzshrca, 
and Benares was burnt. 

PAURAYAS. Descendants of Puru of the Lunar race. See 

PAYANA. Wind. The god of the wind. See Yayu. 

PHALGUNA i. A name of Arjuna. 2. Kame of a month. 

PLYZ)ARAKA A watering-place on the coast of Gujarat, 
near Dwaraka, resorted to occasionally by Kn slma. It still 
survives as a village, and is held in veneration. It is about 
twenty miles from the north-west extremity of the Peninsula. 

PING ALA. i. The great authority on the Chhandas or 
Prosody of the Yedas. He is supposed to have written about 
two centuries B.C. 2. Name of one of the serpent kings some 
times identified with the foregoing. 

PIPPALADA. A school of the Atharva-veda, founded by a 
sage of that name. 

PLSACIIAS (mas.), PISACHI (fern.). Fiends, evil spirits, 


placed by the Yedas as lower than Eakshasas. The vilest and 
most malignant order of malevolent beings. Accounts differ as 
to their origin. The Brahmawa and the Maha-bhiirata say that 
they were created by Brahma, together with the Asuras and 
Eaksliasas, from the stray drops of water which fell apart from 
the drops out of which gods, men, gandharvas, &c., had been 
produced. According to Manu they sprang from the Prajilpatis. 
In the Purawas they are represented as the offspring of Kasyapa 
by his wife Krodhavasa, or Pisacha, or Ivapi&L 


PLSITASANAS, PLSITAASTKS. Carnivorous and cannibal 
imps descended from Nikasha. 

PITA-MAHA. A paternal grandfather. A name of Brahma 
as the great father of all. 

PITAMBAEA. < Clothed in yellow garments. A name of 

PirHA-STHANA. Seat, or lit. place of a scat/ " Fifty- 
one places where, according to the Tantras, the limbs of Sati 
fell when scattered by her husband $iva, as he bore her dead 
body about and tore it to pieces after she had put an end to her 
existence at Daksha s sacrifice. This part of the legend seems 
to be an addition to the original fable, made by the Tantras, as 
it is not in the Purawas. (See Daksha.) It bears some analogy 
to the Egyptian fable of Isis and Osiris. At the Pi/ha-sthanas, 
however, of Jwala-mukhi, Vindhya - vasini, Kali-gha/, and 
others, temples are erected to the different forms of Devi or 
Sati, not to the phallic emblem of Maha-deva, which, if present, 
is there as an accessory, not as a principal ; and the chief object 
of worship is a figure of the goddess a circumstance in which 
there is an essential difference between the temples of Durga 
and the shrines of Osiris." Wilson. 

PITTi/S. Patres ; the fathers ; the Manes. This name is 
applied to three different classes of beings : i. The Manes of 
departed forefathers, to whom pindas (balls of rice and flour) 
and water are offered at stated periods. 2. The ten Prajapatis 
or mythical progenitors of the human race. 3. " According to 
a legend in the Hari-vansa and in the Vayu Purawa, the first 
Pitn s were the sons of the gods. The gods having offended 
Brahma by neglecting to worship him, were cursed by him to 
become fools; but, upon their repentance, he directed them to 


apply to their sons for instruction. Being taught accordingly 
the rites of expiation and penance by their sons, they addressed 
them as fathers ; whence the sons of the gods were the first 
Pitn s." The account given of the Pitn s is much the same in 
all the Purawas. " They agree in distinguishing them into seven 
classes, three of which are without form, or composed of intel 
lectual, not elementary substance, and assuming what forms they 
please ; and four are corporeal. When the Purawas come to the 
enumeration of the particular classes, they somewhat differ, and 
the accounts in all the works are singularly imperfect." The 
incorporeal Pitn s, according to one enumeration, are the Vaira- 
jas, Agnishwattas, and Barhishads. The first of these seem also 
to be called Subhaswaras, Somasads, and Saumyas. The cor 
poreal are the Su-kalas or Su-kalins, Angirasas, Su-swadhas, and 
Somapas. The Sukalas are also called Manasas ; the Somapas 
are also called Ushmapas ; the Angirasas seem also to be called 
Havishmats, Havirbhujas, and Upahutas ; and the Su-swadhas 
are apparently the same as the Ajyapas and Kavyas or Kavyas. 
The Vairajas are the Manes of great ascetics and anchorites, 
the Agnishwattas are the Pit?is of the gods, the Barhishads of 
demons, the Somapas of Brahmans, the Havishmats of Ksha- 
triyas, the Ajyapas of Vaisyas, and the Su-kalins of the $udras ; 
but one authority, the Hari-vansa, makes the Somapas belong 
to the $udras, and the Su-kalins to the Brahmans, and there 
appears to be good reason for this. Other names are given by 
Dr. F. Hall from various authorities (Vishwu Purawa, iii. 339) : 
Rasmipas, Phenapas, Sudhavats, Garhapatyas, Ekasringas, Cha- 
turvedas, and Kalas. Besides these there are the Vyamas, 
fumes, the Pitn s of the barbarians. The Tifg-veda and Manu 
make two independent classes, the Agni-dagdhas and the An- 
agni-dagdhas, those who when alive kept up (or did not keep 
up) the household flame, and presented (or did not present) 
oblations with fire. The Vish?iu Purawa makes the Barhishads 
identical with the former, and the Agnishwattas with the latter. 
Yama, god of the dead, is king of the Pitns, and Swadha, 
oblation, is sometimes said to be their mother, at others their 
wife. Wilson, Vishnu Pur ana, iii 157,339. See Manu, iii. 192. 

PIT7?/-LOKA. See Loka. 

PITA 7-PATL The lord of the Manes. Yama, judge of 
the dead. 


PIYADA.SL See Asoka. 

PRABHASA. A place of pilgrimage on the coast of Gujarat, 
near to Dwiiraka, and also near to the temple of Soma-natha. 

PRABHAVATL Wife of Pradyumna (q.v.). 

PRABODHA-CHANDRODAYA. The rise of the moon 
of knowledge. A philosophical drama by K>/sh?za Misra, who 
is supposed to have lived about the twelfth century. It has 
been translated into English by Dr. Taylor, and into German 
by Rosenkranz and by HirzeL 

PRACHA^VDA-PAJV7)AVA. The incensed Pawdavas. A 
drama in two acts by Raja $ekhara, the main incident in which 
is the outrage of Draupadi by the assembled Kaurava princes. 

PRACHETAS. i. One of the Prajapatis. 2. An ancient sage 
and lawgiver. 3. The ten Prachetasas were sons of Prachina- 
barhis and great-grandsons of Pnthu, and, according to the 
Vishnu Pura/za, they passed ten thousand years in the great 
ocean, deep in meditation upon Vishnu, and obtained from him 
the boon of becoming the progenitors of mankind. They took 
to wife Marisha, daughter of Kawc?u, and Daksha was their son. 
See Daksha. 

PRACHYAS. The people of the east; those east of the 
Ganges ; the Prasii of the Greeks. 

PRADHANA. Matter. Primary matter, or nature as opposed 
to spirit. 

PRADYUMXA. A son of Knshwa by Kukmim. When a 
child only six days old, he was stolen by the demon ambara 
and thrown into the ocean. There he was swallowed by a fish, 
which was afterwards caught and carried to the house of $ambara. 
When the fish was opened, a beautiful child was discovered, and 
Maya-devi or Maya-vati, the mistress of $ambara s household, 
took him under her care. The sage Narada informed her who 
the child was, and she reared him carefully. When he grew up 
she fell in love with him, and informed him who he was and 
how he had been carried off by $ambara. lie defied the demon to 
battle, and after a long conflict slew him. Then he flew through 
the air with Mayavati, and alighted in the inner apartments of his 
father s palace. Krzshwa presented him to his mother Rukmirci 
" with the virtuous Miiyavati his wife," declaring her really to 
be the goddess Rati. Pradyumna also married KakudmatI, the 
daughter of Rukmin, and had by her a son named Aniruddha. 


Pradyumna was killed at Dwaraka in the presence of his father 
during a drunken brawl Though Pradyumna passed as the 
son of Knsh?za, he was, according to the legend, a revival or 
resuscitation of Kama, the god of love, who was reduced to ashes 
by the fiery glance of /S iva, and so the name Pradyumna is used 
for Kama. (See Kama.) The Yishmi Purawa puts the follow 
ing words into the mouth of Narada when he presented Prad 
yumna to Rukmim : " When Manmatha (the deity of love) had 
perished, the goddess of beauty (Rati), desirous to secure his 
revival, assumed a delusive form, and by her charms fascinated 
the demon ySambara, and exhibited herself to him in various 
illusory enjoyments. This thy son is the descended Kama ; 
and this is (the goddess) Rati, his wife. There is no occasion 
for any uncertainty ; this is thy daughter-in-law." In the Hari- 
vansa he has a wife named Prabhavati, daughter of King Vajra- 
nabha. When he went t^ae her for the first time, he changed 
himself into a bee and lived in a garland of flowers which had 
been prepared for her. According to the Maha-bharata, he was 
Sanat-kumara, the son of Brahma. 

PRADYUMXA-YIJAYA. Pradyumna victorious. A 
drama in seven acts upon the victory of Pradyumna over the 
Daitya Yajra-nabha, written by ankara Dlkshita about the 
middle of the last century. " The play is the work of a Pawrfit, 
not of a poet." Wilson. 

PRAG-JYOTISHA. A city situated in the east, in Kania- 
rupa on the borders of Assam. See Naraka. 

PRAHLADA, PRAHRADA. A Daitya, son of Hirawya- 
kasipu and father of Ball Hirawya-kasipu, in his wars with the 
gods, had wrested the sovereignty of heaven from Indra and 
dwelt there in luxury. His son Prahlada, while yet a boy, 
became an ardent devotee of Yish?m, which so enraged his 
father that he ordered the boy to be killed ; but not the weapons 
of the Daityas, the fangs of the serpents, the tusks of the 
celestial elephants, nor the flames of fire took any effect, and his 
father was constrained to send him back to his preceptor, where 
he continued so earnest in performing and promoting the wor 
ship of Yishmi that he eventually obtained final exemption 
from existence. According to some accounts, it was to avenge 
Prahlada, as well as to vindicate his own insulted majesty, that 
Yislwu became incarnate as the Xara-sinha, man-lion, and slew 


Hiraya-kafiptL After the death of liis father, Fralilfula be 
came king of the Daityas and dwelt in Patala ; but, according 
to the Padma Purawa, he was raised to the rank of Indra for 
life, and finally united with Vishnu. The Padma Purawa 
carries the story farther back to a previous birth. In this pre 
vious existence Prahlada was a Brahman named Soma-sarman, 
fifth son of $iva-sarman. His four brothers died and ob 
tained union with Vislwu, and he desired to follow them. 
To accomplish this he engaged in profound meditation, but he 
allowed himself to be disturbed by an alarm of the Daityas, and 
so was born again as one of them. He took the part of his 
race in the war between them and the gods, and was killed by 
the discus of Vishwu, after that he was again born as son of 

PRAJA-PATI. Lord of creatures, a progenitor, creator. 
In the Veda the term is applied to Indra, Savitn, Soma, Hir- 
a?iya-garbha, and other deities. In Manu the term is applied to 
Brahma as the active creator and supporter of the universe ; so 
Brahma is the Praja-pati. It is also given to Manu Swayam- 
bhuva himself, as the son of Brahma and as the secondary 
creator of the ten 72/shis, or "mind-born sons" of Brahma, from 
whom mankind has descended. It is to these ten sages, as 
fathers of the human race, that the name Praja-pati most com 
monly is given. They are Marichi, Atri, Angiras, Pulastya, 
Pulaha, Kratu, Vasishftia, Prachetas or Daksha, Blm gu, and 
XFirada. According to some authorities the Praja-patis are only 
seven in number, being identical with the seven great Eisliis. 
(See fiishi.) The number and names of the Praja-patis vary in 
different authorities : the Maha-bharata makes twenty-one. 

PRAKA$AS. Messengers of Vish?iu, also called Vish?m- 

PRAK^/TA. The Praknts are provincial dialects of the 
Sansk? it, exhibiting more or less deterioration from the original 
language; and they occupy an intermediate position between 
that language and the modern vernaculars of India, very similar 
to that of the Romance languages between the Latin and the 
modern languages of Europe. They resemble the European 
languages also in another respect : they have in them a small 
proportion of words which have not been affiliated on the original 
classical language, and are apparently remnants of a different 


tongue and an older race. The Prakrits are chiefly known from 
the dramas in which kings and Brahmans speak Sanskrit, while 
characters of inferior position speak in different Prakrits. 
Sometimes these Prakrit passages are so very debased that it 
hardly seems possible for them to be specimens of really spoken 
vernaculars. Such passages may perhaps be comic exaggerations 
of provincial peculiarities. The Prakrits have received careful 
study, and the Prakrita-prakasa, a Grammar by Vararuchi, 
translated by Professor Cowell, was probably written about the 
beginning of the Christian era. See Katyayana. 

PRAKJi/TI. Nature ; matter as opposed to spirit. The per 
sonified will of the Supreme in the creation, and the prototype 
of the female sex, identified with Maya or illusion. The $akti 
or female energy of any deity. 

PRALAMBA. An Asura killed by Kn shwa, according to 
the Maha-bharata. His story as told in the Vishmi Purima is, 
that he was an Asura and a dependant of Kansa. With the 
object of devouring the boys Krishna and Bala-rama, he joined 
them and their playmates in jumping. Pralamba was beaten 
by his opponent Bala-rama, and by the rules of the game had 
to carry the victor back on his shoulders to the starting-place. 
He took up Bala-rama and then expanded his form, and was 
making off with his rider when Bala-rama called upon Krislma 
for assistance. Krishna made a long speech, and ended by tell 
ing him to suspend awhile his mortal character and do what was 
right. Bala-rama laughed, squeezed Pralamba with his knees, 
and beat him on the head with his fists till his eyes were knocked 
out and his brain forced through his skull, so that he fell to the 
ground and expired. 

PR AL AY A. A dissolution of the world at the end of a kalpa, 

PRAMATHAS. A class of demi-gods or fiends attendant 
upon $iva. 

PRAMLOCHA. A celestial nymph sent by India to beguile 
the sage KawZu from his devotion and austerities. She lived 
with him for some hundreds of years, which were but as a day to 
the sage. When he awoke from his delusion he drove the nymph 
from his presence. The child with which she was pregnant by 
him came forth from her body in drops of perspiration, which 
she left upon the leaves of the trees. These drops congealed 
and became eventually the lovely nymph Marisha (q.v.). 


PRA7VA. Breath or life. In the Atharva-veda it is per 
sonified and a hymn is addressed to it. 

PRASANNA-RAGHAYA. A drama by Jaya-deva in seven 
acts. It has been printed at Benares. 

PRASEISTA. Son of Niglma and brother of Satra-jit or 
Sattrajita. He was killed by a lion. jSee Syamantaka. 

PRA/tflSrA. Name of an Upanishad (q.v.). 

PRASUTI. A daughter of Maim and wife of Daksha. 

PRATARDANA. Son of Divodasa, king of Kaa, The 
whole family of Divodasa was slain by a king named Yita-havya. 
The afflicted monarch through a sacrifice performed by Blm gu 
obtained a son, Pratardana, who became a mighty warrior, and 
avenged the family wrongs upon his father s foe. Yita-havya 
then flew to the sage Blm gu for protection, and was by him 
raised to the dignity of a Brahmarshi. 

PRATLSAKHYAS. Treatises on the phonetic laws of the 
language of the Yedas, dealing with the euphonic combination 
of letters and the peculiarities of their pronunciation as they 
prevailed in the different $akhas or Yedic schools. These 
treatises are very ancient, but they are considerably later than 
the hymns, for the idiom of the hymns must have become 
obscure and obsolete before these treatises were necessary. Four 
such treatises are known : 

Rlg-veda. One which is considered to belong to the S&kh&la- 
sakha of this Yeda, and is ascribed to aunaka. It has been 
edited and translated into German by Max Muller, and into 
French by M. Regnier. 

Yajur-veda. Taittiriya-pratisakhya, belonging to the Black 
Yajur, printed in the Eibliotheca Indica and also in the Journal 
of the American Oriental Society, with a translation by Professor 

Fdjasaneyi-prdtisdkhya. Belonging to the White Yajur. It 
is attributed to Katyayana, and has been edited and translated 
by Weber. 

Atharva-veda. The /Saunaklya Chaturudhyayika, i.e. , aunaka s 
treatise in four chapters. Edited and translated into English 
by Whitney. 

No Prati.sakhya of the Sama-veda has been discovered. 

PRATI-SHTHAXA. An ancient city, the capital of the 
early kings of the Lunar race ; " it was situated on the eastern 



side of tlie confluence of the Ganges and Jumna," opposite to 
the modern Allahabad. The capital of $alivahana on the Goda- 
vari, supposed to be the same as "Pattan" or "Pyetan." 

PKATJDHA-BEAHMAA T A. One of the eight Brahmawas of 
the Sama-veda. It contains twenty-five sections, and is there 
fore also called Pancha-vinsa. 

PEAYAGA. The modem Allahabad. The place where the 
Ganges, Jumna, and the fabled subterranean Saras wati unite, 
called also Tri-vem, the triple braid. It has always been a 
celebrated place of pilgrimage. 

PRETA. A ghost ; an evil spirit animating a dead carcase, 
and haunting cemeteries and other places. 

P7?/SHADHBA. A son of Mann Vaivaswata, who, accord 
ing to the and the Purarcas, became a ./Sudra because 
he killed the cow of his religious preceptor, 

P72/SHATA. Drupada s father. 

PBISNI. In the Yedas and Purawas, the earth, the mother 
of the Maruts. The name is used in the Yedas also for a cow. 
There were several females of this name, and one of them is 
said to have been a new birth of Devakl. 

PRITHA. A name of Kunti. 

P7?/THI, P^/THU, P^/THI - YAIYYA. Pnthi or 
Pr/thi-vaiwya, i.e., Pnthi, son of Yewa, is mentioned in the 
jftig-veda, and he is the declared Hishi or author of one of the 
hymns. The Atharva-veda says, " She (Yiraj) ascended : she 
came to men. Men called her to them, saying, Come, Iravati. 
Manu Yaivaswata was her calf, and the earth her vessel. Ppithi- 
vaiwya milked her ; he milked from her agriculture and grain. 
Men subsist on agriculture and grain." The $atapatha Brahma na 
refers to Pnthi as " first of men who was installed as a king. " 
These early allusions receive a consistent form in the Purawas, and 
we have the following legend : PHthi was son of Yerca, son of 
Anga. He was called the first king, and from him the earth 
received her name Pn thivi. The Yishmi Purawa says that the 
.Zftshis " inaugurated YeTia monarch of the earth," but he was 
wicked by nature and prohibited worship and sacrifice. Incensed 
at the decay of religion, pious sages beat Yewa to death with blades 
of holy grass. In the absence of a king robbery and anarchy arose, 
and the Munis, after consultation, proceeded to rub the thigh 
of the dead king in order to produce a son. There came forth 


" a man like a charred log, with flat face and extremely short." 
This man became a Nishada, and with him came out the sins of 
the departed king. The Brahmans then rubbed the right arm 
of the corpse, " and from it sprang the majestic Pn thu, Vena s 
son, resplendent in body, glowing like the manifested Agni. . . . 
At his birth all creatures rejoiced, and through the birth of this 
virtuous son Vewa, delivered from the hell called Put, ascended 
to heaven." Pn thu then became invested with universal 
dominion. His subjects, who had suffered from famine, be 
sought him for the edible plants which the earth withheld. 
In anger he seized his bow to compel her to yield the usual 
supply. She assumed the form of a cow and fled before him. 
Unable to escape, she implored him to spare her, and promised 
to restore all the needed fruits if a calf were given to her, through 
which she might be able to secrete milk. " He therefore, hav 
ing made 5wayam-bhuva Manu the calf, milked the earth, and 
received the milk into his own hand for the benefit of mankind. 
Thence proceeded all kinds of corn and vegetables upon which 
people subsist now and perpetually. By granting life to the 
earth P? itlm was as her father, and she thence derived the 
patronymic appellation P? ithivl." This milking the earth has 
been made the subject of much allegory and symbolism. Tho 
Matsya Purawa specifies a variety of milkers, gods, men, Nagas, 
Asuras, &c., in the follow style: "The Jft shis milked the 
earth through Brihaspati ; their calf was Soma, the Vedas were 
the vessel, and the milk was devotion." Other Pura?ms agree with 
only slight deviations. "These mystifications," says Wilson, "are 
all, probably, subsequent modifications of the original simple alle 
gory which typified the earth as a cow, who yielded to every class 
of beings the milk they desired, or the object of their wishes." 

P^/THIYI. The broad. The earth or wide world. In 
the Vedas the earth is personified as the mother of all beings, and 
is invoked together with the sky. According to the Vedas there 
are three earths corresponding to the three heavens, and our 
earth is called Bhumi. Another name of the earth is Urvi, * wide. 
In the Vislmu Purawa she is represented as receiving her name 
from a mythical person named Pn thu, who granted her life, 
and so was to her as a father. See above, Pn thi or Pn thu. 

P72/THU. A king of the Solar race, a descendant of Iksh- 
wfiku. There are many Pr/thus. See IV/tlii. 


PRIYA-DARSI. See Asoka. 

PRIYAM-YADA. A Yidya-dhara, son of the king of the 

PRIYA-YRATA. One of the two sons of Brahma and 
ata-rupa ; or, according to other statements, a son of Manu 
Swayam-bhuva. " Priya-vrata being dissatisfied that only half 
the earth was illuminated at one time by the solar rays, followed 
the sun seven times round the earth in his own flaming car of 
equal velocity, like another celestial orb, resolved to turn night 
into day." He was stopped by Brahma, " The ruts which 
were formed by the motion of his chariot wheels were the seven 
oceans. In this way the seven continents of the earth were 
made." Bhagavata Purdna. In the Yislmu Purawa his wife is 
stated to be Kamya, daughter of Kardama, by whom he had 
ten sons and two daughters. Three of the sons adopted a re 
ligious life, and Priya-vrata divided the seven continents 
among the others. 

PULAHA. Name of one of the Praja-patis and great 72/shis. 
His wife was Kshama, and he had three sons, Kardama, Arva- 
rivat, and Sahishwu. A Gandharva (q.v.). 

PULASTYA. One of the Praja-patis or mind-born sons of 
Brahma, and one of the great J^ shis. He was the medium 
through which some of the Purawas were communicated to man. 
He received the Yish?ai Purawa from Brahma and communi 
cated it to Parasara, who made it known to mankind. He was 
father of Yisravas, the father of Kuvera and Rava?za, and all 
the Rakshasas are supposed to have sprung from him. 

PULIXDAS. Barbarians ; barbarous tribes living in woods 
and mountains, especially in Central India ; but there were 
some in the north and on the Indus. 

PULOMAN. A Danava and father of $achi, wife of Indra. 
He was killed by Indra when he wished to curse that deity for 
having ravished his daughter. 

PII/raARIKAKSHA. The lotus-eyed; a name of Yishmi. 

PU7VDRA. A country corresponding u to Bengal proper, 
with part of South Bihar and the Jungle Mahals." A fabulous 
city between the Hima-vat and Hema-kufa, 

PTLYYA . SLOKA (mas.), PILYYA - SLOK A (fern.). 
Hymned in holy verse. An appellation applied to Krishna, 
Yudhi-sh/hira, and Nala, also to Draupadi and Sita. 

PURANA. 245 

PUKAiYA. Old, hence an ancient legend or tale of olden 
times. The Pura?ias succeed the Itihasas or epic poems, but 
at a considerable distance of time, and must be distinguished 
from them. The epics treat of the legendary actions of heroes 
as mortal men, the Purawas celebrate the powers and works of 
positive gods, and represent a later and more extravagant deve 
lopment of Hinduism, of which they are in fact the Scriptures. 
The definition of a Purana by Amara Sinha, an ancient Sanskrit 
lexicographer, is a work "which has five distinguishing topics : 
(i.) The creation of the universe ; (2.) Its destruction and reno 
vation; (3.) The genealogy of gods and patriarchs; (4.) The reigns 
of the Manus, forming the periods called Manwantaras. (5.) 
The history of the Solar and Lunar races of kings." These are 
the Pancha-lakshanas or distinguishing marks, but no one of the 
Pura?ias answers exactly to the description ; some show a partial 
conformity with it, others depart from it very widely. The 
Vishwu Pura?za is the one which best accords with the title. 
Wilson says, " A very great portion of the contents of many is 
genuine and old. The sectarial interpolation or embellishment 
is always sufficiently palpable to be set aside without injury to 
the more authentic and primitive material; and the Purunas, 
although they belong especially to that stage of the Hindu reli 
gion in which faith in some one divinity was the prevailing 
principle, are also a valuable record of the form of Hindu belief 
which came next in order to that of the Vedas, which grafted 
hero-worship upon the simpler ritual of the latter, and which had 
been adopted, and was extensively, perhaps universally, estab 
lished in India at the time of the Greek invasion." According 
to the same authority, Pantheism " is one of their invariable 
characteristics," and underlies their whole teaching, " although 
the particular divinity who is all things, from whom all things 
proceed, and to whom all things return, is diversified according 
to their individual sectarian bias." The Punmas are all written 
in verse, and their invariable form is that of a dialogue between 
an exponent and an inquirer, interspersed with the dialogues and 
observations of other individuals. Thus Pulastya received the 
Vishnu Purana from Brahma ; he made it known to Parasara, 
and Parasara narrated it to his disciple Maitreya. The Pura?zas 
are eighteen in number, and in addition to these there arc 
eighteen Upa Puriwzas or subordinate works. The Puranas are 

246 PURANA. 

classified in tlirce categories, according to the prevalence in them 
of the qualities of purity, gloom, and passion. Those in which 
the quality of Sattwa or purity prevail are (i.) Vishwu, (2.) 
Naradiya, (3.) Bhagavata, (4.) Garurfa, (5.) Padma, (6.) Varaha. 
These are Vaishrcava Purawas, in which the god Vishwu holds 
the pre-eminence. The Purcmas in which Tamas, the quality of 
gloom or ignorance, predominates are (i.) Matsya, (2.) Karma, 
(3.) Linga, (4.) Siva, (5.) Skanda, (6.) Agni. These are devoted 
to the god $iva. Those in which Rajas or passion prevails 
relate chiefly to the god Brahma.. They are (i.) Brahma, (2.) 
Brahmawda, (3.) Brahma-vaivarta, (4.) Markawc/eya, (5.) Bhavi- 
shya, (6.) Vamana. The works themselves do not fully justify 
this classification. None of them are devoted exclusively to one 
god, but Vislmu and his incarnations fill the largest space. One 
called the Vayu Parana is in some of the Purarcas substituted 
for the Agni, and in others for the Siva. This Vayu is appa 
rently the oldest of them, and may date as far back as the sixth 
century, and it is considered that some of the others may be as 
late as the thirteenth or even the sixteenth century. One fact 
appears certain : they must all have received a supplementary 
revision, because each one of them enumerates the whole 
eighteen. The Marka?w?eya is the least sectarian of the Pur- 
awas ; and the Bhagavata, which deals at length with the incar 
nations of Vishmi, and particularly with his form E>? shwa, is the 
most popular. The most perfect and the best known is the 
Vishnu, which has been entirely translated into English by 
Professor Wilson, and a second edition, with many valuable 
notes, has been edited by Dr. F. E. Hall. The text of the Agni 
and Marka7M?eya Purawas is in course of publication in the 
BiUiotheca Indica. The Purfmas vary greatly in length. Some 
of them specify the number of couplets that each of the eighteen 
contains. According to the Bhagavata, the sum total of couplets 
in the whole eighteen is 400,000 ; the Skanda is the longest, 
with 81,000, the Brahma and the Vamana the shortest, with 
10,000 couplets each. 

TheUpaPurimas are named (i.) Sanat-kumara, (2.) K"ara-sinha 
or Nn-sinha, (3.) Naradiya or Vn han (old) Naradiya, (4.) $iva, 
(5.) Dur-vasasa, (6.) Kapila, (7. ) Manava, (8.) Ausanasa, (9.) Varuwa, 
(10.) Kalika, (n.) /Samba, (12.) Nandi, (13.) Saura, (14.) Para- 
sara, (15.) Aditya, (16.) Miiheswara, (17.) Bhagavata, (18.) 


Vasisli/lia, These works are not common. Other nmdi-ru 
works exist to which the term Purana has been applied. 

An account of each of the eighteen great Purawas is given 
under its own name. 

PURAX-JAYA. * City-conqueror. A prince of the Solar 
race, son of Vikukshi.. His story, as told in the Vishnu Purii/<a, 
is that in the Treta age there was war between, the gods and 
the Asuras, in which the former were worsted. They had re 
course to Vishnu for assistance, and lie directed them to obtain 
the aid of Puran-jaya, into whose person he promised to infuse 
a portion of himself. The prince complied with their wishes, 
and asked that their chief, Indra, would assume the form of a 
bull and carry him, the prince, upon, his hump.. This was done, 
and thus seated Puran-jaya destroyed all the enemies of the 
gods. As he rode on the hump he obtained the cognomen of 
Kakut-stha. In explanation of his title Puran-jaya, the Bha- 
gavata Purana says that he took the city of the Daityas situated 
in the west. 

PUROCHANA. The emissary of Dur-yodhana who at 
tempted to burn the Pandavas in their house and was burnt in 
his own house by Bhlma. See Maha-bharata. 

PURU. The sixth king of the Lunar race, youngest son 
of Yayati and Sarmish/ha. He and his brother Yadu were 
founders of two great branches of the Lunar race. The descen 
dants of Puru were called Pauravas, and of this race came the 
Kauravas and Pa6?avas. Among the Yadavas or descendants of 
Yadu was Knshna. See Yayati. 

PURUKUTSA. A son of Mandhatn , into whose person 
Vishnu entered for the purpose of destroying the subterranean 
Gandharvas, called Mauneyas. He reigned on the banks of the 
Karmada, and that river personified as one of the Xagas was his 
wife. By her he had a son, Trasadasyu. The Vishnu Purana 
is said to have been narrated to him by " Daksha and other 
venerable sages." 

PURU-RAVAS. In the Vedas, a mythical personage con 
nected with the sun and the dawn, and existing in the middle, 
region of the universe. According to the 72/g-veda he was son 
of Ila, and a beneficent pious prince; but the Maha-bharata 
says, "AYe have heard that Ha was both his mother and his 
father. The parentage usually assigned to him is that he was 


son of Budlia by Ha, daughter of Manu, and grandson of the 
moon." Through his mother he received the city of Pratish/hana. 
(See Ha.) He is the hero of the story and of the drama of 
Yikrama and Urvasi, or the " Hero and the Nymph." Puru-ravas 
is the Yikrama or hero, and Urvasi is an Apsaras who came 
down from Swarga through having incurred the imprecation of 
Mitra and Yarima. On earth Puru-ravas and she became ena 
moured of each other, and she agreed to live with him upon 
certain conditions. " I have two rams," said the nymph, 
" which I love as children. They must be kept near my bed 
side, and never suffered to be carried away. You must also 
take care never to be seen by me undressed ; and clarified butter 
alone must be my food." The inhabitants of Swarga were 
anxious for the return of Urvasi, and knowing the compact 
made with Puru-ravas, the Gandharvas came by night and stole 
her rams. Puru-ravas was undressed, and so at first refrained 
from pursuing the robbers, but the cries of Urvasi impelled him 
to seize his sword and rush after them. The Gandharvas then 
brought a vivid flash of lightning to the chamber which dis 
played the person of Puru-ravas. So the charm was broken and 
Urvasi disappeared. Puru-ravas wandered about demented in 
search of her, and at length found her at Kuru-kshetra bathing 
with four other nymphs of heaven. She declared herself preg 
nant, and told him to come there again at the end of a year, 
when she would deliver to him a son and remain with him for 
one night. Puru-ravas, thus comforted, returned to his capital. 
At the end of the year he went to the trysting-place and received 
from Urvasi his eldest son, Ayus. The annual interviews were 
repeated until she had borne him five more sons. (Some autho 
rities increase the number to eight, and there is considerable 
variety in their names.) She then told him that the Gandharvas 
had determined to grant him any boon he might desire. His 
desire was to pass his life with Urvasi. The Gandharvas then 
brought him a vessel with fire and said, " Take this fire, and, 
according to the precepts of the Yedas, divide it into three fires ; 
then, fixing your mind upon the idea of living with Urvasi, offer 
oblations, and you shall assuredly obtain your wishes." He did 
not immediately obey this command, but eventually he fulfilled 
it in an emblematic way, and " obtained a seat in the sphere of 
the Gandharvas, and was no more separated from his love." As 


a son of Ha, his metronymic is Aila. There is a hymn in the 
Tt/g-veda which contains an obscure conversation between Puru- 
ravas and UrvasL The above story is first told in the Siitapathu 
Bruhmawa, and afterwards reappears in the Purawas. The 
BhFigavata PurFwa says, "From Puru-ravas came the triple 
Veda in the beginning of the Treta (age)." 

The story is supposed to have a mythic origin. Max MiilU-r 
considers it " one of the myths of the Yedas which expresses 
the correlation of the dawn and the sun. The love between the 
mortal and the immortal, and the identity of the morning dawn 
and the evening twilight, is the story of UrvasI and Puru-ravas. " 
The word UrvasI, according to the same writer, " was originally 
an appellation, and meant dawn." Dr. Goldstiicker s explanation 
differs, but seems more apposite. According to this, Puru-ravas 
is the sun and UrvasI is the morning mist ; when Puru-ravas is 
visible UrvasI vanishes, as the mist is absorbed when the sun 
shines forth. UrvasI in the story is an Apsaras, and the Apsa- 
rases are " personifications of the vapours which are attracted 
by the sun and form into mists or clouds." 

PURUSHA. * Man. i. The original eternal man, the Sup 
reme Being, and soul of the universe. 2. A name of Brahma. 

PURUSHA-NARAYAJVA. The original male. The divine 
creator Brahma, 

PURUSHA-SUKTA. A hymn of the 7^ g-veda in which 
the four castes are first mentioned. It is considered to be one 
of the latest in date. See Muir s Texts, i. p. 7. 

PURUSHOTT AMA. Literally best of men ; but the word 
Purusha is here used in its mythic sense of soul of the universe, 
and so the compound means the "supreme soul." It is a title 
of Vishmi, and asserts his right to be considered the Supreme 
God. So the Hari-vansa says, " Purushottama is whatever is 
declared to be the highest, Purusha the sacrifice, and everything 
else which is known by the name of Purusha." 

PURUSHOTTAMA - KSHETRA. The sacred territory 
round about the temple of Jagannatha in Orissa. 

PURVA-MIMANSA. A school of philosoph}-. See Darsana. 

PUSIIAN". A deity frequently mentioned in the Vedas, but 
he is not of a distinctly defined character. Many hymns are 
addressed to him. The word comes from the root push, and 
the primary idea is that of " nourisher or Providence. So the 


Taittiriya Brahmana says, " When Prajiipati formed living 
creatures Pushan nourished them." The account given in Boh- 
tlingk and Eoth s Dictionary, and adopted by Dr. Muir, is as 
follows : " Pusham is a protector and multiplier of cattle and 
of human possessions in general. As a cowherd he carries an 
ox-goad, and he is drawn by goats. In the character of a Solar 
deity, he beholds the entire universe, and is a guide on roads 
and journeys and to the other world.. He is called the lover of 
his sister Surya, He aids in the revolution of day and night, 
and shares with Soma the guardianship of living creatures. He 
is invoked along with the most various deities, but most fre 
quently with Indra and Bhaga." He is a patron of conjurors, 
especially of those who discover stolen goods, and he is connected 
with the marriage ceremonial, being besought to take the bride s 
hand and bless her. (See Muir s Texts, v. 171.) In the 
Kirukta, and in works of later date, Pushan is identified 
with the sun. He is also called the brother of Indra, and is 
enumerated among the twelve Adityas. Pushan is toothless, 
and feeds upon a kind of gruel, and the cooked oblations offered 
to him are of ground materials, hence he- is called Karambhad. 
The cause of his being toothless is variously explained.. Accord 
ing to the Taittiriya Sanhita, the deity Rudra, being excluded 
from a certain sacrifice, shot an arrow at the offering and pierced 
it. A portion of this sacrifice was presented to Pushan, and it 
broke his teeth. In the Maha-bharata and in the Puifmas the 
legend takes a more definite shape. " Rudra ($iva), of dreadful 
power, ran up to the gods present at Daksha s sacrifice, and in 
his rage knocked out the eyes of Bhaga with a blow, and, in 
censed, assaulted Pushan with his foot, and knocked out his 
teeth as he was eating the purotfasa offering." In the Purfmas 
it is not iva himself, but his manifestation the Rudras, who 
disturbed the sacrifice of the gods and knocked Pushan s teeth 
down his throat. Pushan is called Aghn?ii, splendid ; Basra, 
Dasma, and Dasma-varchas, of wonderful appearance or power, 
and Kapardin (q.v.). 

PUSHKARA. A blue lotus. A celebrated tank about five 
miles from Ajmir. One of the seven Dwipas. (See Dwipa.) 
The name of several persons. Of the brother of ]S T ala to whom 
Kala lost his kingdom and all that he possessed in gambling. 
Of a son of Bharata and nephew of Rfima-chandra, who reigned 
over the Gundharas. 


PUSIIKARAVATI. A city of the Gandharas not far from 

the Indus. It is the TIivHt katoris of Ptolemy, and the Pouse- 
kielofati of Iliouen Thsang. 

PUSHPA-DANTA. Flower-teeth. i. One of the chief 
attendants of Siva. He incurred his master s displeasure by 
listening to his private conversation with Ptirvati and talking of 
it afterwards. For this he was condemned to become a man, 
and so appeared in the form, of the great grammarian KFityiiyana. 
2. One of the guardian elephants.. See Loka-pfda. 

PUSHPAKA. A self-moving aerial car of large dimensions, 
which contained within it a palace or city. Kuvera obtained it 
by gift from Brahma, but it was carried off by Rfiva^a, his 
half-brother, and constantly used by him.. After Rama-chandra 
had slain Ravarca, he made use of this capacious car to convey 
himself and Sita, with Lakshmana and all his allies, back to 
Ayodhya ; after that he returned it to its owner, Kuvera, It is 
also called Ratna-varshuka, " that rains jewels." 

PUSHPA-KARAYDmi. A name of Ujjayini. 

PUSHPA-MITRA. The first of the tfunga kings, who suc 
ceeded the Mauryas, and reigned at Pfi/ali-putra. In his time 
the grammarian Patanjali is supposed to have lived. 

PUSHPOTKArl. A Eakshasi, the wife of Visravas and 
mother of Ravawa and Kumbha-karna. 

PUT. A hell to which childless men are said to be condemned. 
"A name invented to explain the word puttm, son (hell-saver)." 

PUTANA. A female demon, daughter of Bali. She attempted 
to kill the infant Kn shwa by suckling him, but was herself 
sucked to death by the child. 

RAD HA, i. Wife of Adhiratha and foster-mother of Kar/za. 
2. The favourite mistress and consort of Ivr? sh??a while he lived 
as Go-pala among the cowherds in Yrmda-vana. She was wife 
of Ayana-ghosha, a cowherd. Considered by some to be an in 
carnation of Lakshmi, and worshipped accordingly. Some have 
discovered a mystical character in Radha, and consider lior as 
the type of the human soul drawn to the ineffable god, Krishna, 
or as_that pure divine love to which the fickle lover returns. 

RADHEYA. A metronymic of Karwa, 

RADHIKA. A diminutive and endearing form of the name 

RAG A (mas.), RAGINl (fern.). The Ragas are the musical 


modes or melodies personified, six or more in number, and the 
Baginis are their consorts. 

BAGHAYA. Descendant of Baghu, a name of Kama. 

BAGHAYA-PANDAYIYA. A modern poem by Kavi 
Baja, which is in high repute. It is an artificial work, which 
exhibits extraordinary ingenuity in the employment of words. 
As its name implies, the poem celebrates the actions of Baghava, 
i.e., Kama, the descendant of Baghu, and also those of the Pap 
aya princes. It thus recounts at once in the same words the story 
of the Bamayawa and that of the Maha-bharata ; and the com 
position is so managed that the words may be understood as 
applying either to Bama or the PamZavas. It has been printed. 

BAGHAYA-YILASA. A poem on the life of Bama by 
Yiswa-natha, the author of the Sahitya-darpawa. 

BAGHU. A king of the Solar race. According to the 
Baghu-vansa, he was the son of Dilipa and great-grandfather of 
Bama, who from Baghu got the patronymic Baghava and the 
title Baghu-pati, chief of the race of Baghu. The authorities 
disagree as to the genealogy of Baghu, but all admit him to be 
an ancestor of Bama. 

BAGHU-PATI. See Baghu. 

BAGHU-YANSA. The race of Baghu/ The name of a 
celebrated poem in nineteen cantos by Kali-dasa on the ancestry 
and life of Bama. It has been translated into Latin by Stenzler, 
and into English by Griffiths. There are other translations and 
many editions of the text. 

BAHU. Bahu and Ketu are in astronomy the ascending and 
descending nodes. Bahu is the cause of eclipses, and the term 
is used to designate the eclipse itself. He is also considered 
as one of the planets, as king of meteors, and as guardian of the 
south-west quarter. Mythologially Bahu is a Daitya who is 
supposed to seize the sun and moon and swallow them, thus 
obscuring their rays and causing eclipses. He was son of Yipra- 
chitti and Sinhika, and is called by his metronymic Sainhikeya. 
He had four arms, and his lower part ended in a tail He was 
a great mischief-maker, and when the gods had produced the 
Amn ta by churning the ocean, he assumed a disguise, and in 
sinuating himself amongst them, drank some of it. The sun 
and moon detected him and informed Yishwu, who cut off his 
head and two of his arms, but, as he had secured immortality, 


his "body was placed in the stellar sphere, the upper parts, re 
presented by a dragon s head, "being the ascending node, and the 
lower parts, represented by a dragon s tail, being Ketu the de 
scending node. Rahu wreaks his vengeance on the sun and 
moon by occasionally swallowing them. The Vishnu Purarca 
says, " Eight black horses draw the dusky chariot of Rahu, and 
once harnessed are attached to it for ever. On the Parvans 
(nodes, or lunar and solar eclipses) Eahu directs his course from 
the sun to the moon, and back again from the moon to the sun. 
The eight horses of the chariot of Ketu, swift as the wind, are 
of the dusky red colour of lac, or of the smoke of burning 
straw." Eahu is called Abhra-pisacha, the demon of the sky ; 
Bharanl-bhu, born from the asterism Bharawi; Graha, the 
seizer ; Kabandha, the headless. 

RAIBHYA. A sage who was the friend of Bharadwaja. 
He had two sons, Arvavasu and Paravasu. The latter, under 
the curse of Bharadwaja, killed his father, mistaking him for an 
antelope, as he was walking about at night covered with an 
antelope s skin. Arvavasu retired into the forest to obtain by 
devotion a remission of his brother s guilt. When he returned, 
Paravasu charged him with the crime, and he again retired to 
his devotions. These so pleased the gods that they drove away 
Paravasu and restored Eaibhya to life. See Yava-krita. 

EAIYATA. i. Son of Eeva or Eevata. Also called Kakud- 
min. He had a very lovely daughter named EevatI, and not deem 
ing any mortal worthy of her, he went to Brahma to consult 
him. At the command of that god he bestowed her upon Bala- 
rama. He was king of Anarta, and built the city of Kusasthali 
or Dwaraka in Gujarat, which he made his capital 2. One of 
the Maims (the fifth). 

EAIVATA, RAIVATAKA. The range that branches off 
from the western portion of the Yindhya towards the north, 
extending nearly to the Jumna. 

RAJA-GTZfflA. The capital of Magadha, Its site is still 
traceable in the hills between Patna and Gaya. 

RAJ ANY A. A Vedic designation of the Kshatriya caste. 

RAJARSHI (Raja-?-2shi). A Jftshi or saint of the regal 
caste ; a Kshatriya who, through pure and holy life on earth, 
has been raised as a saint or demigod to Indra s heaven, as 
Yiswa-mitra, Puru-ravas, &c. 


RAJA /SEKHARA. A dramatist who was the author of the 
dramas Viddha->Salabhanjika and Pracha^a-Paw^ava. He was 
also the writer of Karpura-Manjarl, a drama entirely in Prakrit. 
Another play, Bala-Ramayawa, is attributed to him. He appears 
to have been the minister of some Rajput, and to have lived 
about the beginning of the twelfth century. 

RAJA-SUYA. A royal sacrifice. A great sacrifice per 
formed at the installation of a king, religious in its nature but 
political in its operation, because it implied that he who in 
stituted the sacrifice was a supreme lord, a king over kings, and 
his tributary princes were required to be present at the rite. 

RAJA-TARANGIM. A Sanskrit metrical history of Kash 
mir by Kalhana PamZit. It commences with the days of fable 
and comes down to the year 1027 A.D. The author probably 
lived about 1148 A.D. This is the only known work in Sans 
krit which deserves the name of a history. The text has been 
printed in Calcutta. Troyer published the text with a French 
translation. Wilson and Lassen have analysed it, and Dr. 
LUliler has lately reviewed the work in the Indian Antiquary. 

RAJI. A son of Ayus and father of 500 sons of great 
valour. In one of the chronic wars between the gods and the 
Asuras it was declared by Brahma that the victory should be 
gained by that side which Raji joined. The Asuras first sought 
him, and he undertook to aid them if they promised to make 
him their king on their victory being secured. They declined. 
The heavenly hosts repaired to him and undertook to make 
him their Indra. After the Asuras were defeated he became 
king of the gods, and Indra paid him homage. "When he re 
turned to his own city, he left Indra as his deputy in heaven. 
On Raji s death Indra refused to acknowledge the succession of 
his sons, and by the help of Brihaspati, who led them astray 
and effected their ruin, Indra recovered his sovereignty. 

RAKA. A RakshasI, wife of Visravas and mother of Khara 
and Surpa nakha. 

RAKSHASAS. Goblins or evil spirits. They are not all 
equally btid, but have been classified as of three sorts one as a set 
of beings like the Yakshas, another as a sort of Titans or enemies 
of the gods, and lastly, in the common acceptation of the term, 
demons and fiends who haunt cemeteries, disturb sacrifices, 
harass devout men, animate dead bodies, devour human beings, 


and vex and afflict mankind in all sorts of ways. These last 
are the Rakshasas of whom Ravawa was chief, and according to 
some authorities, they are descended, like Ravawa himself, from 
the sage Pulastya. According to other authorities, they sprang 
from Brahma s foot. The Vishmi Purima also makes them de 
scendants of Kasyapa and Khasa, a daughter of Daksha, through 
their son Rakshas ; and the Ramayarca states that when Brahma 
created .the waters, he formed certain "beings to guard them who 
were called Rakshasas (from .the root raksh, to guard, but the 
derivation from this root may have suggested the explanation), 
and the Vislmu Purawa gives a somewhat similar derivation. 
It is thought that the Rakshasas of the epic poems were the 
rude barbarian races of India who were subdued by the Aryans. 

AVhen Hanuman entered the city of Lanka to reconnoitre 
in the form of a cat, he saw that " the Rakshasas sleeping in 
the houses were of every shape and form. Some of them dis 
gusted the eye, while some were beautiful to look upon. Some 
had long arms and frightful shapes ; some were very fat and 
some were very lean : some were mere dwarfs and some were 
prodigiously tall. Some had only one eye and others only one 
ear. Some had monstrous bellies, hanging breasts, long pro 
jecting teeth, and crooked thighs ; whilst others were exceedingly 
beautiful to behold and clothed in great splendour. Some had 
two legs, some three legs, and some four legs. Some had the 
heads of serpents, some the heads of donkeys, some the heads of 
horses, and some the heads of elephants." (Piamayana.) 

The Rakshasas have a great many epithets descriptive of their 
characters and actions. They are called Anusaras, Asaras, and 
Ilanushas, killers or hurters ; Ish/i-pachas, stealers of offer 
ings; Sandhya-balas, strong in twilight ; KshapaYas, Xaktan- 
charas, Ratri-charas, and /S amam-shadas, night-walkers; Nn- 
jagdhas or KYi-chakshas, cannibals ; ? Palalas, Paladas, Palan- 
kashas, Kravyads, carnivorous; Asra-pas, Asrtk-pas, Kauna- 
pas, Kllala-pas, and Rakta-pas, blood-drinkers; Dandasukas, 
biters; Praghasas, gluttons; Malina-mukhas, black-faced; 
Karbfiras, &c. But many of these epithets are not reserved 
exclusively for Rakshasas. 


RAKTA-VlJA. An Asura whose combat with the goddess 
Cliiinnwf/a, (Devi) is celebrated in the Devl-muhatmya. Each 

256 RAMA. 

drop of his blood as it fell on the ground produced a new Asura, 
but Chamuwfia put an end to this by drinking his blood and 
devouring his flesh. 

KAMA. There are three Ramas : Parasu-rama, Rama-chan- 
dra, and Bala-rama ; but it is to the second of these that the 
name is specially applied. 

KAMA, RAMA-CHAXDRA Eldest son of Dasa-ratlia, a 
king of the Solar race, reigning at Ayodhya. This Rama is the 
seventh incarnation of the god Vishmi, and made his appearance 
in the world at the end of the Treta or second age. His story 
is briefly told in the Yana Parva of the Maha-bharata, but it is 
given in full length as the grand subject of the Ramayam. 
King Dasa-ratha was childless, and performed the aswa-medha 
sacrifice with scrupulous care, in the hope of obtaining offspring. 
His devotion was accepted by the gods, and he received the pro 
mise of four sons. At this time the gods were in great terror 
and alarm at the deeds and menaces of Ravawa, the Rakshasa 
king of Lanka, who had obtained extraordinary power, in virtue 
of severe penances and austere devotion to Brahma. In their 
terror the gods appealed to Vishwu for deliverance, and he 
resolved to become manifest in the world with Dasa-ratha as 
his human father Dasa-ratha was performing a sacrifice when 
Yishmi appeared to him as a glorious being from out of the 
sacrificial fire, and gave to him a pot of nectar for his wives to 
drink. Dasa-ratha gave half of the nectar to Kausalya, who 
brought forth Rama with a half of the divine essence, a quarter 
to Kaikeyi, whose son Bharata was endowed with a quarter of 
the deity, and the fourth part to Su-mitra, who brought forth 
two sons, Lakshmarca and /Satru-ghna, each having an eighth 
part of the divine essence. The brothers were all attached to 
each other, but Lakslimawa was more especially devoted to 
Rama and /Satru-ghna to Bharata. 

[The two sons of Su-mitra and the pairing off of the brothers 
have not passed without notice. The version of the Ramayawa 
given by Mr. "Wheeler endeavours to account for these circum 
stances. It says that Dasa-ratha divided the divine nectar be 
tween his senior wives, Kausalyii and Kaikeyi, and that when 
the younger, Su-mitra, asked for some, Dasa-ratha desired them 
to share their portions with her. Each gave her half, so Sumitra 
received two quarters and gave birth to two sons: "from the 

RAMA. 257 

quarter which she received from Kausalya she gave birth to 
Lakshma/ia, who became the ever-faithful friend of Rama, and 
from the quarter she received from Kaikeyi she gave birth to 
/S atru-ghna, who became the ever-faithful friend of Bharata." 
This account is silent as to the superior divinity of Rama, and 
according to it all four brothers must have been equals as mani 
festations of the deity.] 

The four brothers grew up together at Ayodhya, but while 
they were yet striplings, the sage Yiswamitra sought the aid of 
Rama to protect him from the Rakshasas. Dasa-ratha, though 
very unwilling, was constrained to consent to the sage s request. 
Rama and Lakshmana then went to the hermitage of Viswa- 
mitra, and there Rama killed the female demon Taraka, but it 
required a good deal of persuasion from the sage before he was 
induced to kill a female. Viswamitra supplied Rama with 
celestial arms, and exercised a considerable influence over his 
actions. Viswamitra afterwards took Rama and his brothers to 
Mithila to the court of Janaka king of Videha. This king had 
a lovely daughter named Slta, whom he offered in marriage to 
any one who could bend the wonderful bow which had once 
belonged to $iva. Rama not only bent the bow but broke it, 
and thus won the hand of the princess, who became a most 
virtuous and devoted wife. Rama s three brothers also were 
married to a sister and two cousins of Sita. 

This breaking of the bow of Siva, brought about a very curious 
incident, which is probably an interpolation of a later date, in 
troduced for a sectarian purpose. Parasu-rama, the sixth incar 
nation of Vishmi, the Brahman exterminator of the Kshatriyas, 
was still living upon earth. He was a follower of /S iva, and was 
offended at the breaking of that deity s bow. Notwithstanding 
that he and Rama were both incarnations of Vislmu, he chal 
lenged Rama to a trial of strength and was discomfited, but 
Rfima spared his life because he was a Brahman. 

Preparations were made at Ayodhya for the inauguration of 
Rama as successor to the throne. Kaikeyi, the second wife of 
Dasa-ratha, and mother of Bharata, was her husband s favourite. 
She was kind to Rama in childhood and youth, but she had 
a spiteful humpbacked female slave named Manthara, This 
woman worked upon the maternal affection of her mistress until 
she aroused a strong feeling of jealousy against Rama. Kaiki-yl 

258 RAMA. 

had a quarrel and a long struggle with her husband, but he at 
length consented to install Bharata and to send Kama into exile 
for fourteen years. Kama departed with his wife Sita and his 
brother Lakshmawa, and travelling southwards, he took up his 
abode at Cliitra-kutfa, in the Dawc?aka forest, between the Yamuna, 
and GodavarL Soon after the departure of Kama, his father 
Dasa-ratha died, and Bharata was called upon to ascend the 
throne. He declined, and set, out /for the forest with an army 
to bring Kama back. "When the brothers: met there w^as a long 
contention. Kama refused to return until the term of his 
father s sentence was completed, and Bharata declined to ascend 
the throne. At length it was arranged that Bharata should 
return and act as his brother s vicegerent. As a sign of Kama s 
supremacy Bharata carried back with him a pair of Kama s 
shoes, and these were always brought out , ceremoniously when 
business had to be : transacted. Kama passed ten years of his 
banishment moving from one hermitage: to another, and went at 
length to the hermitage of the sage Agastya, -near the Vindhya 
mountains. This holy man recommended Kama to take up his 
abode at Panchavati, on the Driver Godavarl, ;and the party 
accordingly proceeded thither. This district was infested with 
Rakshasas, and one < d f them named Surpa-nakha, a sister of 
Ravawa, saw Kama and fell in love with him. He repelled her 
advances, and in her jealousy she attacked Sita. This so en 
raged Lakshmawa that he cut off her ears, and nose. She brought 
her brothers Khara and ; Busha?ia with an army of Rakshasas to 
avenge her wrongs, but they were all destroyed. Smarting under 
her mutilation and with spretce injuria fornm, she repaired to 
her brother Ravawa in Lanka, and inspired him by her descrip 
tion with a fierce passion for Sita. Ravawa proceeded to Rama s 
residence in an aerial car, and his accomplice Maricha having 
lured Rama from home, Ravawa assumed the form of a religious 
mendicant and lulled Sita s apprehensions until he found an op 
portunity to declare himself and carry her off by force to Lanka. 
Rama s despair and rage at the loss of his faithful wife were 
terrible. He and Lakshma?za went in pursuit and tracked the 
ravisher. On their way they killed Ivabandha, a headless 
monster, whose disembodied spirit counselled Rama to seek the 
aid of Su-griva, king of the monkeys. The two brothers accord 
ingly went on their way to Su-grlva, and after overcoming some 

RAMA. 259 

obstacles and assisting Su-grlva to recover Kishkindhya, his 
capital, from his usurping brother Balin, they entered into a firm 
alliance with him. Through this connection Rama got the 
appellations of Kapi-prabhu and Kapi-ratha. He received not 
only the support of all the forces of Su-griva and his allies, but 
the active aid of Hanuman, son of the wind, minister and 
general of Su-griva. Hanuman s extraordinary powers of leap 
ing and flying enabled him to do all the work of reconnoit 
ring. By superhuman efforts their armies were transported to 
Ceylon by "Rama s bridge," and after many fiercely contested 
battles the city of Lanka was taken, Ravana was killed and 
Sita rescued. The recovery of his wife filled .Rama with joy, 
but he was jealous of her honour, received her coldly, and 
refused to take her back. She asserted her purity , in touching 
and dignified language, and determined to prove her. innocence 
by the ordeal of fire. She entered the flames in the presence of 
men and gods, and Agni, god of fire, led her forth and placed her 
in Rama s arms unhurt. Rama then returned, taking with him 
his chief allies to Ayodhya. Re-united with his three brothers, 
he was solemnly crowned and began a glorious reign, Lakshmaraa 
being associated with him in the government. The sixth section 
of the Ramayawa here concludes; the remainder of the story is 
told in the Uttara-ka?wfoi, a subsequent addition. The treatment 
which Sita received in captivity was better than might have 
been expected at the hands of a Rakshasa. She had asserted and 
proved her purity, and Rama believed her ; but jealous thoughts 
would cross his sensitive mind, and when his subjects blamed 
him for taking back his wife, he resolved, although she was 
pregnant, to send her to spend the rest of her life at the hermi 
tage of Yalmlki. There she was delivered of her twin sons 
Kusa and Lava, who bore upon their persons the marks of their 
high paternity. When they were about fifteen years old they 
wandered accidentally to Ayodhya and were recognised by their 
father, who acknowledged them, and recalled Sita to attest her 
innocence. She returned, and in a public assembly declared her 
purity, and called upon the earth to verify her words. It did so. 
The ground opened and received " the daughter of the furrow," 
and Rama lost his beloved and only wife. Unable to endure life 
without her, he resolved to follow, and the gods favoured his 
determination. Time appeared to him in the form of an ascetic 

260 RAMA. 

and told him that he must stay on earth or ascend to heaven and 
rule over the gods. Lakshmawa with devoted fraternal affection 
endeavoured to save his brother from what he deemed the 
baleful visit of Time. He incurred a sentence of death for his 
interference, and was conveyed bodily to Indra s heaven. Rama 
with great state and ceremony went to the river ^arayu, and 
walking into the water was hailed by Brahma s voice of wel 
come from heaven, and entered "into the glory of Vishnu." 

The conclusion of the story as told in the version of the 
Ramayawa used by Mr. Wheeler differs materially. It repre 
sents that Sita remained in exile until her sons were fifteen or 
sixteen years of age. Rama had resolved upon performing the 
Aswa-medha sacrifice ; the horse was turned loose, and $atru- 
ghna followed it with an army. Kusa and Lava took the 
horse and defeated and wounded $atru-ghna. Rama then sent 
Lakshmawa to recover the horse, but he was defeated and left 
for dead. Next Bharata was sent with Hanuman, but they 
were also defeated. Rama then set out himself to repair his 
reverses. "When the father and sons came into each other s 
presence, nature spoke out, and Rama acknowledged his sons. 
Sita also, after receiving an admonition from Yalmiki, agreed to 
forgive her husband. They returned to Ayodhya. Rama per 
formed the Aswa-medha, and they passed the remainder of theii 
lives in peace and joy. 

The incidents of the first six kam?as of the Ramayana supply 
the plot of Bhava-bhuti s drama Maha-vira-charita. The Uttara- 
kMa is the basis of his Uttara-rama-charita. This describes 
Rama s jealousy, the banishment of Sita, and the birth of her 
sons ; but the subsequent action is more human and affecting 
than in the poem. Rama repents of his unjust treatment of his 
wife, and goes forth to seek her. The course of his wanderings 
is depicted with great poetic beauty, and his meeting with his 
sons and his reconciliation with Sita are described with exquisite 
pathos and tenderness. The drama closes when 

" All conspires to make their happiness complete." 

The worship of Rama still holds its ground, particularly in 
Oude and Bihar, and he has numerous worshippers. " It is 
noteworthy," says Professor Williams, " that the Rama legends 
have always retained their purity, and, unlike those of Brahma, 


Krishna, Siva, and Durga, have never been mixed up with inde 
cencies and licentiousness. In fact, the worship of Kama has 
never degenerated to the same extent as that of some of these 
other deities." This is true ; but it maybe observed that Rama 
and his wife were pure; there was nothing in their characters sug 
gestive of license ; and if " the husband of one wife " and the 
devoted and affectionate wife had come to be associated with 
impure ideas, they must have lost all that gave them a title to 
veneration. The name of Rama, as Ram ! Ram ! is a common 
form of salutation. 

RAMAYAJVA, The Adventures of Rama. The oldest of 
the Sanskr/t epic poems, written by the sage Valmlki. It is sup 
posed to have been composed about five centuries B.C., and to have 
received its present form a century or two later. The MSS. of 
the Ramaya?za vary greatly. There are two well-known distinct 
recensions, the Northern and the Bengal. The Northern is the 
older and the purer ; the additions and alterations in that of 
Bengal are so numerous that it is not trustworthy, and has even 
been called " spurious." Later researches have shown that the 
variations in MSS. found in different parts of India are so 
diverse that the versions can hardly be classed in a certain 
number of different recensions. Unfortunately the inferior 
edition is the one best known to Europeans. Carey and Marsh- 
man translated two books of it, and Signer Gorresio has given 
an Italian translation of the whole. Schlegel published a Latin 
translation of the first book of the Northern recension. The 
full texts of both these recensions have been printed, and Mr. 
AVheeler has given an epitome of the whole work after the Ben 
gal recension. There is also a poetical version by Griffiths. 

Besides the ancient Ramayawa, there is another popular work of 
comparative modern times called the Adhyatma Riimayawa. The 
authorship of it is ascribed to Yyasa, but it is generally con 
sidered to be a part of the Brahmamfa Puriwa. It is a sort of 
spiritualised version of the poem, in which Rama is depicted as 
a saviour and deliverer, as a god rather than a man. It is divided 
into seven books, which bear the same names as those of the 
original poem, but it is not so long. 

The Ramayawa celebrates the life and exploits of Rama 
(Rama-chandra), the loves of Rfuna and his wife Sitii, the rape 
of the latter by Ravawa, the demon king of Ceylon, the war 


carried on by Rama and his monkey allies against Rava?za, end 
ing in the destruction of the demon and the rescue of Sita, the 
restoration of Rama to the throne of Ayodhya, his jealousy and 
banishment of Sita, her residence at the hermitage of Yalmlki, 
the birth of her twin sons Kusa and Lava, the father s discovery 
and recognition of his children, the recall of Sita, the attesta 
tion of her innocence, her death, Rama s resolution to follow 
her, and his translation to heaven. 

The Ramayawa is divided into seYen kafhias or sections, and 
contains about 50,000 lines. The last of the seven sections is 
probably of later date than the rest of the work. 

1. Bala-kawf?a. The boyhood of Rama. 

2. Ayodhya-ka?i<:?a. The scenes at Ayodhya, and the banish 
ment of Rama by his father, King Dasa-ratha. 

3. Arawya-ka?Z6?a. Forest section. Rama s life in the forest, 
and the rape of Sita by Rfivawa. 

4. Kishkindhya-ka^t?a. Rama s residence at Kishkindhya, 
the capital of his monkey ally, King Su-grlva. 

5. Sundara-kawda. Beautiful section. The marvellous passage 
of the straits by Rama and his allies and their arrival in Ceylon. 

6. Yuddha-kam/a. War section. The war with Ravawa, 
his defeat and death, the recovery of Sita, the return to Ayod 
hya and the coronation of Rama. This is sometimes called the 
Lanka or Ceylon Kawt/a. 

7. Uttara-kawc?a. Later section. Rama s life in Ayodhya, 
his banishment of Sita, the birth of his two sons, his recognition 
of them and of the innocence of his wife, their reunion, her 
death, and his translation to heaven. 

The writer or the compilers of the Ramayawa had a high esti 
mate of its value, and it is still held in very great veneration. 
A verse in the introduction says, " He who reads and repeats 
this holy life-giving Ramayawa is liberated from all his sins and 
exalted with all his posterity to the highest heaven;" and in 
the second chapter Brahma is made to say, "As long as the 
mountains and rivers shall continue on the surface of the earth, 
so long shall the story of the Ramayawa be current in the world. " 
(For the age of the Ramayafla, see p. 190.) 

RAMA-GIRI. The hill of Rama. It stands a short dis 
tance north of Nagpur. 

RAMA-SETU. Rama s bridge, constructed for him by his 


general, Xala, son of Viswa-karma, at the time of his invasion 
of Ceylon. This name is given to the line of rocks in the 
channel between the continent and Gey Ion, called in maps 
"Adam s bridge." 

RAMATAPAMYOPANISHAD.. An Upanishad of the 
Atharva-veda, in which Rama is worshipped as the supreme god 
and the sage Yajnawalkya is his glorifier. It has been printed 
and translated by Weber in his Indische Studien, vol. ix. 

RAMBHA. An Apsaras or nymph produced at the churn 
ing of the ocean, and popularly the type of female beauty. She 
was sent by Indra to seduce Yiffwaxnitfca, but was cursed by that 
sage to become a stone, and remain so for a thousand years. 
According to the Ramayarat, she was seen by Ravarca when he 
went to Kailasa, and he was so smitten by her charms that he 
ravished her, although she told him that she was the wife of 
Nala-kuvara, son of. his brother Kuvera. 

RAME5WARA.. Lord of Rama. Kame of one of the 
twelve great Lingas set up, as is said, by Rama at Rfimeswaram 
or Rumisseram, which is a celebrated place of pilgrimage, and 
contains a most magnificent temple. 

RAMOPAKHYANA.. The story of Rama, as told in the 
Vana-parva of the Maha-bharata. It relates many, but far from 
all, of the incidents celebrated in the Ramayawa ; it makes no 
mention of Vfilmiki, the author of that poem, and it represents 
Rama as a human being and a great hero, but not a deity. 

RANTIDEVA. A pious and benevolent king of the Lunar 
race, sixth in descent from Bharata. He is mentioned in the 
Maha-bharata and Purawas as being enormously rich, very reli 
gious, and charitable and profuse in his sacrifices. The former 
authority says that he had 200,000 cooks, that he had 2000 
head of cattle and as many other animals slaughtered daily 
for use in his kitchen, and that he fed innumerable beggars daily 
with beef. 

RATI. Love, desire. The Venus of the Hindus, the god 
dess of sexual pleasures, wife of Kama the god of love, and 
daughter of Daksha. She is also called Reva, Kami, Prlti, 
Kama-patni, wife of Kama; Kama-kalii, part of Kama; Kama- 
priya, * beloved of Kama ; Raga-la/a, vine of love ; Miiyuvall, 
deceiver ; Kelikila, wanton ; $ubhangl, fair-limbed. 

RATXAYALI. The necklace. A drama ascribed to a 


king of Kashmir named Sn Harsha Deva. The subject of the 
play is the loves of Udayana or Yatsa, prince of KausambI, and 
Yasava-datta, princess of UjjayinT. It was written between 
1113 and 1125 A.D., and has been translated by Wilson. There 
are several editions of the text. 

EAUCHYA. The thirteenth Manu. See Mann. 

EAUDEA. A descendant of Eudra. A name of Karttikeya, 
the god of war. 

EAYAA 7 A. The demon king of Lanka or Ceylon, from 
which he expelled his half-brother Kuvera. He was son of 
Yisravas by his wife Mkasha, daughter of the Eakshasa Su-mali. 
He was half-brother of Kuvera, and grandson of the Eishi Pula- 
stya ; and as Kuvera is king of the Yakshas, Eava^a is king of 
the demons called Eakshasas. Pulastya is said to be the pro 
genitor, not only of Eavawa, but of the whole race of Eakshasas. 
By penance and devotion to Brahma, Eava^a was made invul 
nerable against gods and demons, but he was doomed to die 
through a woman. He was also enabled to assume any form he 
pleased. All Eakshasas are malignant and terrible, but Eavawa 
as their chief attained the utmost degree of wickedness, and was 
a very incarnation of evil. He is described in the Eamaya/ia as 
having " ten heads (hence his names Dasanana, Dasa-kan/ha, 
and Pankti-grlva), twenty arms, and copper-coloured eyes, and 
bright teeth like the young moon. His form was as a thick 
cloud or a mountain, or the god of death with open mouth. He 
had all the marks of royalty, but his body bore the impress of 
wounds inflicted by all the divine arms in his warfare with the 
gods. It was scarred by the thunderbolt of Indra, by the tusks 
of Indra s elephant Airavata, and by the discus of Yishmi. His 
strength was so great that he could agitate the seas and split the 
tops of mountains. He was a breaker of all laws and a ravisher 
of other men s wives. . . . Tall as a mountain peak, he stopped 
with his arms the sun and moon in their course, and prevented 
their rising." The terror he inspires is such that where he is 
" the sun does not give out its heat, the winds do not blow, and 
the ocean becomes motionless." His evil deeds cried aloud for 
vengeance, and the cry reached heaven. Yish/iu declared that, 
as Eava^a had been too proud to seek protection against men 
and beasts, he should fall under their attacks, so Yishrcu became 
incarnate as Eama-chandra for the express purpose of destroying 

RAVANA. 265 

Havana, and vast numbers of monkeys and bears were cn-ati-d 
to aid in the enterprise. Rama s wars against the Riikshasas 
inflicted such losses upon them as greatly to incense Riiva//a. 
Burning with rage, and excited by a passion for Sita, the wife 
of Rama, he left his island abode, repaired to Rama s dwelling, 
assumed the appearance of a religious mendicant, and carried off 
Sita to Lanka. Ravana urged Sita to become his wife, and 
threatened to kill and eat her if she refused. Sita persistently 
resisted, and was saved from death by the interposition of one of 
Havana s wives. Rama called to his assistance his allies Su-griva 
and Hanuman, with their hosts of monkeys and bears. They 
built Rama s bridge, by which they passed over into Lanka, and 
after many battles and wholesale slaughter Ravana was brought 
to bay at the city of Lanka, Rama and Ravana fought together 
on equal terms for a long while, victory sometimes inclining to 
one sometimes to the other. Rama with a sharp arrow cut off 
one of Havana s heads, " but no sooner did the head fall on the 
ground than another sprang up in its room." Rama then took 
an arrow which had been made by Brahma, and discharged it at 
his foe. It entered his breast, came out of his back, went to the 
ocean, and then returned clean to the quiver of Rama. " Ravana 
fell to the ground and expired, and the gods sounded celestial 
music in the heavens, and assembled in the sky and praised 
Rama as Vishnu, in that he had slain that Ravana who would 
otherwise have caused their destruction." Ravana, though he 
was chief among Rakshasas, was a Brahman on his father s side ; 
he was well versed in Sansk?it, used the Vedic ritual, and his 
body was burnt with Brahmanical rites. There is a story that 
Riiva??.a made each of the gods perform some menial office in his 
household : thus Agni was his cook, Varuna supplied water, 
Kuvera furnished money, Vayu swept the house, &c. The 
Vishnu Purana relates that Ravana, " elevated with wine, came 
on his tour of triumph to the city of Mahishmati, but there he 
was taken prisoner by King Karta-virya, and confined like a beast 
in a corner of his capital." The same authority states that, in 
another birth, Ravana was isu-pala. Havana s chief wife was 
Mandodari, but he had many others, and they were burnt at his 
obsequies. His sons were Megha-nada, also called India-jit, 
Riivani, and Aksha; Tri-sikhaor Tri-siras, Devfmtaka, Narantaka, 
and Atikaya. Sec Nandisa. 


RAVI. The sun. See Surya.. 

REVUKA. Daughter of King Prasenajit or Remi, wife of 
Jamad-agni, and mother of Parasu-rama. A sight of the connubial 
endearments of King Chitra-ratha and his wife inspired her with 
impure thoughts, and her husband, perceiving that she had 
"fallen from perfection," desired her sons to kill her. Ru- 
mamvat, Su-shena, and Yasu, the three seniors, declined, and 
their father cursed them- so that they became idiots. . Parasu- 
rama, the fourth son, cut off her head, which act so gratified his 
father that Jamad-agni promised him; whatever blessings he de 
sired. Among other things, Parasu-rama asked that his mother 
might be brought back to- life in ignorance of her death and in 
perfect purity. He also- desired that his brothers might be 
restored to their senses.. All this Jamad-agni bestowed. She 
was also called Konkana. 

REVA. The Narmada river.. 

REV A. i. Wife of Kama.. 2. A name of Rati.. 

REV ANT A. A son of Surya and Sanjna, He is chief of 
the Guhyakas, and is also called Haya-vahana.. 

REV ATI Daughter of King Raivata and wife of Bala-rama. 
She was so beautiful that her father, thinking no one upon earth 
worthy of her, repaired to the god Brahma to Consult him about 
a husband Brahma delivered a long discourse on the glories of 
Vish?iu, and directed Raivata to proceed to Dwaraka, where a 
portion of Vishnu was incarnate in; the person of Bala-rama. 
Ages had elapsed while Raivata was in heaven without his 
knowledge. When he returned to earth, " he found the race of 
men dwindled in stature, reduced in vigour, and enfeebled in 
intellect." He went to Bala-rama and gave him Revati, but 
that hero, "beholding the damsel of excessively lofty height, he 
shortened her with the end of his ploughshare, and she became 
his wife." She had two sons. Revati is said to have taken 
part with her husband in his drinking, bouts. 

72/BHAVAS. See Tttbhus. 

T^/BHU. <_Clever, skilful. An epithet used for India, 
Agni, and the Adityas. In the Pura?iic mythology, jRiblm is a 
" son of the supreme Brahma, who, from his innate disposition, 
was of a holy character and acquainted with true wisdom." 
His pupil was Nidagha, a son of Pulastya, and he took especial 
interest in his instruction, returning to him after two intervals 


of a thousand years " to instruct him further in true wisdom." 
The Vishmi Punuza, " originally composed by the 7frshi (Nfim- 
ya/za), was communicated by Brahma to jRtblm." He was one 
of the four Kumuras (q.v.). 

Tt/BHUS. Three sons of Su-dhanwan, a descendant of An- 
giras, severally named jR-ibhu, Vibhu, and Yiija. Through their 
assiduous performance of good works they obtained divinity, 
exercised superhuman powers, and became entitled to receive 
praise and adoration. They are supposed to dwell in the solar 
sphere, and there is an indistinct identification of them with 
the rays of the sun ; but, whether: typical or not, they prove the 
admission, at an early date, of the doctrine that men might 
become divinities. Wilson.. They are celebrated in the ^i g-veda 
as skilful workmen, who fashioned Indra s chariot and horses, 
and made their parents young again.. By command of the gods, 
and with a promise of exaltation to divine honours, they made 
a single new sacrificial cup into four. They are also spoken of 
as supporters of the sky. 

7?/BHUKSHAK The first of: the three tfibhus. In the 
plural, the three jRibhus. 

7^/CHlKA. A Iliahi descended from Bh? igu and husband 
of Satyavati, son of Urva and father of Jamad-agni. (See 
Viswiimitra.) In the Maha-bharata and Vishwu Puriwa it is 
related that 72/chika was an old man when he demanded in 
marriage Satyavati, the daughter of Gadhi, king of Kanya-kubja. 
Unwilling to give her to so old a man, Gadhi demanded of him 
i ooo white horses, each of them having one black ear. 7?/chika 
obtained these from the god Yaruwa, and so gained his wife. 
According to the Ramayawa, he sold his son $una/i-6 ephas to be 
a sacrifice. 

PJDDHI. Prosperity. The wife of Kuvera, god of wealth. 
The name is also used for Parvati, the wife of /Siva, 

tf/G-YEDA. See Veda, 

^/G-YIDHANA. Writings which treat of the mystic and 
magic efficacy of the recitation of hymns of the ///g-veda, or 
even of single verses. Some of them are attributed to /Saunuka, 
but probably belong only to the time of the Pura^as. Weber. 

.E/SHABHA. Son of Nabhi and Mem, and father of a 
hundred sons, the eldest of whom was Bharata. He gave his 
kingdom to his son and retired to a hermitage, where he led a 


life of such, severe austerity and abstinence, that he became a 
mere " collection of skin and fibres, and went the way of all 
flesh." The Bhagavata Purawa speaks of his wanderings in the 
western part of the Peninsula, and connects him with the estab 
lishment of the Jain religion in those parts. The name of the 
first Jain Tirthakara or saint was ./^ shabha. 

7^/SHL An inspired poet or sage. The inspired persons to 
whom the hymns of the Yedas were revealed, and under whose 
names they stand. "The seven Jfo shis" (saptarshi), or the 
Praja-patis, " the mind-born sons " of Brahma, are often referred 
to. In the $atapatha Brahma wa their names are given as Go- 
tama, Bharadwaja, Yiswamitra, Jamad-agni, Yasish/ha, Kasyapa, 
and Atri. The Maha-bharata gives them as Marichi, Atri, 
Angiras, Pulaha, Kratu, Pulastya, and Yasish/ha. The Yayu 
Purawa adds Bhr/gu to this list, making eight, although it 
still calls them " seven." The Yishmi Purawa, more consistently, 
adds Bhr/gu and Daksha, and calls them the nine Brahmarshis 
(Brahma-rishis). The names of Gautama, Kawwa, Yalmiki, 
Yyasa, Manu, and Yibhaw6?aka are also enumerated among the 
great jRzshis by different authorities. Besides these great 7?zshis 
there are many other Eishis. The seven Bishis are represented 
in the sky by the seven stars of the Great Bear, and as such are 
called T^ksha and Chitra-sikha?i<iinas, having bright crests. 

7?JSHI-BEAHMA^VA. An old Anukramam, or Index of the 

72/SHYA-MUKA. A mountain in the Dakhin, near the 
source of the Pampa river and the lake Pampa. Kama abode 
there for a time with the monkeys. 

^/SHYA-^/NGA. The deer-horned. A hermit, the son 
of Yibha%c?aka, descended from Ka.syapa. According to the 
RamayaTia and Maha-bharata he was born of a doe and had a 
small horn on his forehead. He was brought up in the forest by 
his father, and saw no other human being till he was verging upon 
manhood. There was great drought in the country of Anga, and 
the king, Lomapada, was advised by his Brahmans to send for 
the youth J?ishya-snnga, who should marry his daughter $anta, 
and be the means of obtaining rain. A number of fair damsels 
were sent to bring him. He accompanied them back to their 
city, the desired rain fell, and he married $anta. This Santa 
was the adopted daughter of Lomapada; her real father was 


Dasa-ratha, and it was 72/shya-srmga who performed that sacri 
fice for Dasa-ratha which brought about the birth of Rama. 

jR/TU-PARTVA. A king of Ayodhya, and son of Sarva- 
kama, into whose service Xala entered after he had lost his 
kingdom. He was "skilled profoundly in dice." 

7^/TU-SANHAKA. The round of the seasons. A poem 
attributed to Kali-dasa. This poem was published by Sir AV. 
Jones, and was the first Sanskrit work ever printed. There are 
other editions. It has been translated into Latin by Bohlen. 

ROHL/VT. i. Daughter of Kasyapa and Surabhi, and mother 
of horned cattle, including Kama-dhenu, the cow which grants 
desires. 2. Daughter of Daksha and fourth of the lunar as- 
terisms, the favourite wife of the moon. 3. One of the wives 
of Vasu-deva, the father of K>tsh?ia and mother of Bala-rama. 
She was burned with her husband s corpse at Dwaraka. 4. 
Knshwa himself also had a wife so called, and the name is 

ROHITA. Red/ A red horse; a horse of the sun or 
of fire. i. A deity celebrated in the Atharva-veda, probably 
a form of fire or the sun. 2. Son of King Haris-cliandra. He 
is also called Rohitaswa. The fort of Rohtas is said to derive 
its name from him. See Haris-chandra. 

ROMA-HARSHANA. See Loma-harshawa. 

RUDRA. A howler or roarer; terrible. In the Vedas 
Rudra has many attributes and many names. He is the howl 
ing terrible god, the god of storms, the father of the Rudras 
or Maruts, and is sometimes identified with the god of fire. 
On the one hand he is a destructive deity who brings diseases 
upon men and cattle, and upon the other he is a beneficent 
deity supposed to have a healing influence. These are the germs 
which afterwards developed into the god Siva. It is worthy of 
note that Rudra is first called Maha-deva in the "White Yajur- 
veda. As applied to the god $iva, the name of Rudra generally 
designates him in his destructive character. In the Bn luul- 
ara?iyaka Upanishad the Rudras are " ten vital breaths (prdna) 
with the heart (manas) as eleventh." In the Yisliwu Purawa 
the god Rudra is said to have sprung from the forehead of 
Brahma, and at the command of that god to have separated his 
nature into male and female, then to have multiplied each of 
these into eleven persons, some of which were white and gentle, 


others black and furious. Elsewhere it is said that the eleven 
Eudras were sons of Kasyapa and Surabhi, and in another 
chapter of the same Purirna it is represented that Brahma 
desired to create a son, and that Kudra came into existence as a 
youth. He wept and asked for a name. Brahma gave him the 
name of Kudra; but he wept seven times more, and so he 
obtained seven other names : Bhava, $arva, Isana, Pasupati, 
Bhima, Ugra, and Maha-deva. Other of the Purawas agree in 
this nomenclature. These names are sometimes used for Eudra 
or $iva himself, and at others for the seven manifestations of 
him, sometimes called his sons. The names of the eleven 
Eudras vary considerably in different books. 

EUDEA-SAVAENA. The twelfth Manu. .See Mann. 

EUKMIN. A son of King Bhishmaka and king of Vidarbha, 
who offered his services to the Pawc?avas and Kauravas in turn, 
but was rejected by both on account of his extravagant boast 
ings and pretensions. He was brother of Eukmim, with whom 
Knshfia eloped. Eukmin pursued the -fugitives and overtook 
them, but his -army was defeated by Krishna, and he owed his 
life to the entreaties of his sister. He founded the city of 
Bhoja-ka/a, and was eventually killed by Bala-rama. 

EUKMIM. Daughter of Bhishmaka, king of Yidarbha. 
According to the Hari-vansa she was sought in marriage by 
K>islma, with whom she fell in love. But her brother Eukmin 
was a friend d f Kansa, whom Krishna had killed. He therefore 
opposed him ;-and thwarted the match. Eukmi^i was then 
betrothed to K isu-pala, king of Chedi, but on her wedding day, 
as she was going to the temple, " Krishna saw her, took her by 
the hand, and carried her away in his chariot." They were 
pursued by her intended husband and by her brother Eukmin, 
but Knshwa defeated them both, and took her safe to Dwaraka, 
where he married her. She was his principal wife and bore him 
a son, Pradyumna (q.v.). By him also she had nine other sons 
and one daughter. "These other sons were Charu-deshwa, 
Su-deshwa, Charu-deha, Su-shena, Charu-gupta, Bhadra-charu, 
Charu-vinda, Su-charu, and the very mighty Charu ; also one 
daughter, Charu-matl." At Kmh?za s death she and seven other 
of his wives immolated themselves on his funeral pile. 

EUMA Wife of the monkey king Su-grlva. 

/S ABALA/S WAS. Sons of Daksha, one thousand in number, 


brought forth after the loss of the Harya.swas. Like their pre 
decessors, they were dissuaded by Narada from begetting off 
spring, and " scattered themselves through the regions " never 
to return. 

.SACHL Wife of Indra. See Indram. 

SADHYAS. A Gana or class of inferior deities ; the per 
sonified rites and prayers of the Vedas who dwell with the 
gods or in the intermediate region between heaven and earth. 
Their .number is twelve according, to one authority, and seven 
teen according to another, and ,the Purawas make them sons 
of Dharma and Sadhya, daughter df Daksha. 

SAGARA. A king of Ayodhya, of the Solar race, and son 
of King Bahu, who was driven out of his dominions by the 
Haihayas. Bahu took refuge in the forest with his wives. 
Sagara s mother was .then pregnant, and a rival wife, being 
jealous, gave her a drug to prevent her delivery. This poison 
confined the child in ,the womb for seven years, and in the 
.interim Bahu died. The pregnant wife -wished to ascend his 
pyre, but .the sage Aurva forbad her, predicting ; that she would 
.give birth to a valiant universal monarch. When the child was 
born, Aurva gave him the name of Sagara (sa, with, and gara, 
poison ). The child grew up, and having heard his father s 
history, he vowed that he would exterminate the Haihayas and 
the other barbarians, and recover .his ancestral kingdom. He 
obtained from Aurva the Agneyastra or fire weapon, and, armed 
with this, he put nearly , the whole of .the Haihayas to death 
and regained his throne. He would also " have destroyed the 
$akas, Yavanas, Kambojas, Paradas, and Pahlavas," but they 
applied to Vasishflia, Sagara s family priest, and he induced 
Sagara to spare them, but "he made the Yavanas shave their 
heads entirely ; the $akas he compelled to shave (the upper) 
half of their heads ; the Paradas wore their hair long ; and the 
Pahlavas let their beards grow in obedience to his commands. " 
Sagara married two wives, Su-mati, the daughter of Kasyapa, and 
Kesim, the daughter of Raja Yidarbha, but having no children, 
he besought the sage Aurva for this boon. Aurva promised 
that one wife should have one son ; the other, sixty thousand. 
Kesim chose the one, and her son was Asamanjas, through 
whom the royal line was continued. Su-mati had sixty thou 
sand sons. Asamanjas was a wild immoral youth, and his 


father abandoned him. The other sixty thousand sons followed 
the courses of their brother, and their impiety was such that 
the gods complained of them to the sage Kapila and the god 
Vishrai. Sagara engaged in the performance of an Aswa-medha 
or sacrifice of a horse, but although the animal was guarded by 
his sixty thousand sons, it was carried off to Patala. Sagara 
directed his sons to recover it. They dug their way to the 
infernal regions, and there they found the horse grazing and the 
sage Kapila seated close by engaged in meditation. Conceiving 
him to be the thief, they menaced him with their weapons. 
Disturbed from his devotions, " he looked upon them for an 
instant, and they were reduced to ashes by the (sacred) flame 
that darted from his person." Their remains were discovered 
by Ansumat, the son of Asamanjas, who prayed Kapila that the 
victims of his wrath might be raised through his favour to 
heaven. Kapila promised that the grandson of Ansumat should 
be the means of accomplishing this by bringing down the river 
of heaven. Ansumat then returned to Sagara, who completed 
his sacrifice, and he gave the name of Sagara to the chasm 
which his sons had dug, and Sagara means * ocean. The son of 
Ansumat was Dilipa, and his son was Bhagiratha. The devo 
tion of Bhagiratha brought down from heaven the holy Ganges, 
which flows from the toe of Vislmu, and its waters having laved 
the ashes of the sons of Sagara, cleansed them from all impurity. 
Their Manes were thus made fit for the exequial ceremonies and 
for admission into Swarga. The Ganges received the name of 
Sagara in honour of Sagara, and Bhagirathi from the name of 
the devout king whose prayers brought her down to earth. (See 
Bhagirathi.) The Hari-vansa adds another marvel to the story. 
Sagara s wife Su-mati was delivered of a gourd containing sixty 
thousand seeds, which became embryos and grew. Sagara at 
first placed them in vessels of milk, but afterwards each one had 
a separate nurse, and at ten months they all ran about. The 
name of Sagara is frequently cited in deeds conveying grants of 
land in honour of his generosity in respect of such gifts. 

SAHA-DEVA. The youngest of the five Pa?z^u princes, 
twin son of Madri, the second wife of Pa?ic?u, and mythologically 
son of the Aswins, or more specifically of the Aswin Dasra. 
He was learned in the science of astronomy, which he had 
studied under Dro?ia, and he was also well acquainted with the 


management of cattle. (See Mahii-bharata.) He had a son 
named Su-liotra "by his wife Vijayfi. 

SAHASKAKSHA. Thousand - eyed. An epithet of 

SAIIITYA-DAKPAJVA. < The mirror of composition. A 
celebrated work on poetry and rhetoric by Yiswanatha Kavi 
Kaja, written about the fifteenth century. It has been trans 
lated into English for the Jjtbliutheca Indica. There are several 
editions of the text. 

/SAIBYA. Wife of Haris-chandra (q.v.) ; wife of Jyamagha 
(q.v.) ; wife of $ata-dhanu (q.v.). 

SAINDHAVAS. The people of Sindhu or Sindh, of the 
country between the Indus and the Jhilam. 

AIVA PUKAJVA. Same as iva Purarca. 

$AKA An era commencing 78 A.D., and called the era of 
/Salivahana. Cunningham supposes its epoch to be connected 
with a defeat of the Sakas by $alivahana. 

/SAKALA. The city of the Bahlkas or Madras, in the Pan- 
jab. It has been identified with the Sagala of Ptolemy on the 
Ilyphasis (Byas), south-west of Lahore. Cunningham says it is 
the Sangala of Alexander. 

$AKALYA. An old grammarian and expositor of the Yedas 
who lived before the time of Yaska. He is said to have divided 
a Sanhita of the Veda into five, and to have taught these por 
tions to as many disciples. He was also called Veda-mitra and 

tfAKAPUJVI, AKAPtJT&ZVT. An author who arranged a 
part of the Ttig-veda and appended a glossary. He lived before 
the time of Yaska. 

$AKAS. A northern people, usually associated with the 
Yavanas. Wilson says, " These people, the Sakai and Sacse of 
classical writers, the Indo-Scythians of Ptolemy, extended, about 
the commencement of our era, along the West of India, from the 
Hindu Koh to the mouths of the Indus." They were probably 
Turk or Tatar tribes, and were among those recorded as con 
quered by King Sagara, who compelled them to shave the upper 
half of their heads. They seem to have been encountered and 
kept back by King Yikramaditya of Ujjayini, who was called 
tfukuri, foe of the tfakas. 

AKA JAY ANA An ancient grammarian anterior to Y;i. ku 



and Pfmini. Part of his work is said to have been lately dis 
covered by Dr. Biihler. 

/SAKHA. Branch, sect. The akhas of the Vedas are the 
different recensions of the same text as taught and handed 
down traditionally by different schools and teachers, show 
ing some slight variations, the effect of long-continued oral 
tradition. See Yeda. 

/SAKINIS. Female demons attendant on Durga. 

$AKKA. A name of Indra. 

SAKKAM. Wife of Indra. See Indram. 

5AKKA-PKASTHA. Same as Indra-prastha. 

SAKTA. A worshipper of the aktis. 

$AKTL The wife or the female energy of a deity, but 
especially of $iva. See Devi and Tantra. 

tfAKTI, SAKTKL A priest and eldest son of Vasish/ha. 
King Kalmasha-pada struck him with a whip, and he cursed 
the king to become possessed by a man-eating Kakshasa. He 
himself became the first victim of the monster he had evoked. 

tfAKTJNL Brother of Queen Gandhari, and so uncle of the 
Kaurava princes. He was a skilful gambler and a cheat, so he 
was selected to be the opponent of Yudhi-sh/hira in the match 
in which that prince was induced to stake and lose his all He 
also was known by the patronymic Saubala, from Su-bala, his 

5AKUNTALA. A nymph who was the daughter of Yiswa- 
mitra by the nymph Menaka. She was born and left in a 
forest, where she was nourished by birds until found by the 
sage Kamva, She w T as brought up by this sage in his her 
mitage as his daughter, and is often called his daughter. 
The loves, marriage, separation, and re-union of $akuntala and 
King Dushyanta are the subject of the celebrated drama akun- 
tala. She was mother of Bharata, the head of a long race of 
kings, who has given his name to India (Bharata-varsha), and 
the wars of w r hose descendants are sung in the Mahu-bharata. 
The story of the loves of Dushyanta and ^akuntala is, that 
while she was living in the hermitage of Ka?iwa she was 
seen in the forest by King Dushyanta, who fell in love with 
her. He induced her to contract with him a Gandharva mar 
riage, that is, a simple declaration of mutual acceptance. On 
leaving her to return to his city, he gave her a ring as a pledge 


of his love. When the nymph when back to the hermitage, she 
was so engrossed with thoughts of her husband that she heeded 
not the approach of the sage Dur-vasas, who had come to visit 
Karcwa, so that choleric saint cursed her to be forgotten by her 
beloved. He afterwards relented, and promised that the curse 
should be removed as soon as Dushyanta should see the ring. 
A$ukimtalfi, finding herself with child, set off to her husband ; 
but on her way she bathed in a sacred pool, and there lost the 
ring. On reaching the palace, the king did not recognise her 
and would not own her, so she was taken by her mother to the 
forest, where she gave birth to Bharata. Then it happened that 
a fisherman caught a large fish and in it found a ring which he 
carried to Dushyanta. The king recognised his own ring, and 
he soon afterwards accepted /Sakuntala and her son Bharata. 
Kali-dasa s drama of >Sakuntala was the first translation made 
from Sanskrit into English. It excited great curiosity and 
gained much admiration when it appeared. There are several 
recensions of the text extant. The text has been often printed, 
and there are many translations into the languages of Europe. 
Professor Williams has published a beautifully illustrated trans 

/SALAGRAMA. A stone held sacred and worshipped by the 
Yaishwavas, because its spirals are supposed to contain or to be 
typical of Vishnu. It is an ammonite found in the river Gan- 
dak, and is valued more or less highly according to the number 
of its spirals and perforations. 

&ALIVAHANA. A celebrated king of the south of India, 
who was the enemy of Vikramaditya, and whose era, the /Saka, 
dates from A.D. 78. His capital was Prati-sh/hana on the 
Godavari. He was killed in battle at Karur. 

/SALWA. Name of a country in the west of India, or Raja- 
sthan ; also the name of its king. 

&ALYA. King of the Madras, and brother of Madri, second 
wife of Panc?u. In the great war he left the side of the Paw6?a- 
vas and went over to the Kauravas. He acted as charioteer of 
Karwa in the great battle. At the death of Kar??a he suc 
ceeded him as general, and commanded the army on the last day 
of the battle, when he was slain by Yudhi-shfliira. 

SAMA-VEDA. The third Veda. See Veda. 



of the Sama-veda. It has been edited and translated by Bur- 

SAMAYACHARIKA SUTRAS. Rules for the usages and 
practices of everyday life. See Sutras. 

SAMBA. A son of Kn slma by Jambavati, but the Linga 
Pura^a names Rukmim as his mother. At the swayam-vara of 
Draupadi he carried off that princess, but he was pursued by 
Dur-yodhana and his friends and made prisoner. Bala-rama 
undertook to obtain his release, and when that hero thrust his 
ploughshare under the ramparts of Hastina-pura and threatened 
it with ruin, the Kauravas gave up their prisoner, and Bala- 
rama took him to Dwaraka, There he lived a dissolute life and 
scoffed at sacred things. The devotions of the three great sages, 
Yiswamitra, Dur-vasas, and Narada, excited the ridicule of Samba 
and his boon companions. They dressed Samba up to represent 
a woman with child and took him to the sages, inquiring 
whether he would give birth to a boy or a girl. The sages 
answered, " This is not a woman, but the son of Kn shwa, and 
he shall bring forth an iron club which shall destroy the whole 
race of Yadu, . . . and you and all your people shall perish by 
that club." Samba accordingly brought forth an iron rlub, 
which Ugrasena caused to be pounded and cast into the sco-. 
These ashes produced rushes, and the rushes when gathered 
turned into clubs, or into reeds which were used as swords. 
One piece could not be crushed. This was subsequently found 
in the belly of a fish, and was used to tip an arrow, which 
.arrow was used by the hunter Jaras, who with it unintentionally 
killed Knslma. Under the curse of Dur-vasas, Samba became a 
leper and retired to the Panjab, where by fasting, penance, and 
prayer he obtained the favour of Surya (the sun), and was cured 
of his leprosy. He built a temple to the sun on the banks of 
the Chandra-bhaga (Chinab), and introduced the worship of that 

SAMBA-PURA^VA. See Purawa. 

SAMBARA. In the Yedas, a demon, also called a Dasyu, 
who fought against King Divodasa, but was defeated and had 
his many castles destroyed by Indra. He appears to be a 
mythical personification of drought, of a kindred character to 
V?itra, or identical with him. In the Pura^as a Daitya M T !IO 
carried off Pradyumna and threw him into the sea, but was 


subsequently slain by him. (See Pradjumna.) He wan also 
employed by Hiianya-kajipu to destroy Prahlada. 

&AMBHTJ. A name of /Siva ; also one of the Rudras. 

*SAMBUKA. A /Sudra, mentioned in the Raghu-vansa, who 
performed religious austerities and penances improper for a man 
of his caste, and was consequently killed by Rama-chandra. 

iSAMI. The Acacia suma, the wood of which is used for 
obtaining fire by friction. So Agni, or fire, is called /Sami- 
garbha, having the /Saml for its womb. It is sometimes per 
sonified and worshipped as a goddess, /Sami-devi. 

SAMP ATI. A mythical bird who appears in the Ramayarca 
as son of Yishmi s bird Garuc/a, and brother of Ja/ayus. Ac 
cording to another account he was son of Arurca and $yeni. 
He was the ally of Rama. 

SAMYARAJVA. Son of jfr/ksha, fourth in descent from 
Ikshwaku, and father of Kuru. According to the Maha-bharata 
he was driven from Hastina-pura by the Panchalas, and forced 
to take refuge among the thickets of the Indus. When the 
sage Yasish/ha joined his people and became the Raja s family 
priest, they recovered their country under Kuru. 

SAMYARTA. Writer of a Dhanna-sastra or code of law 
bearing his name. 

SAMYAT, SAMYATSARA Year. Tlie era of Yikrama- 
ditya, dating from 57 B.C. 

tfANALS -CH AR A. < Slow-moving. A name of /Sani or Saturn. 

The four Kumaras or mind-born sons of Brahma. Some specify 
seven. Sanat-kumara (or Sanat-sujata) was the most prominent 
of them. They are also called by the patronymic Yaidhatra. 
See Kumara. 


SAXDHYA. Twilight. It is personified as the daughter 
of Brahma and wife of iva. In the $iva Purarca it is related 
that Brahma having attempted to do violence to his daughter, 
she changed herself into a deer. Brahma then assumed the form 
of a stag and pursued her through the sky. /Siva saw this, and 
shot an arrow which cut off the head of the stag. Brahma then 
reassumed his own form and paid homage to *Siva. The arrow 
remains in the sky in the sixth lunar mansion, called Ardrli, 
and the stag s head remains in the fifth mansion, Mriga-siru.% 


SAKDHYA-BALA. Strong in twilight. 7 Kakshasas anl 
other demons, supposed to be most powerful at twilight. 

SANDILYA. A descendant of Sandilei. A particular sage 
who was connected with the Chhandogya Upanishad ; one who 
wrote a book of Sutras, one who wrote upon law, and one who 
was the author of the Bhagavata heresy : two or more of these 
may be one and the same person. The Sutras or aphorisms 
have been published in the Bibliotheca Indica. 

SANDlPANT. A master-at-arms who gave instruction to 
Bala-rama and Knslma. 

SANDRACOTTUS. See Chandra-gupta. 

SANGITA-KATNAKARA. A work on singing, dancing, 
and pantomime, written by $arngi Deva. 

SANHITA. That portion of a Veda which comprises the 
hymns. See Yeda. 

SANHITOPA1NTSHAD. The eighth Brahmarca of the Sama- 
veda. The text with a commentary has been published by 

/SANI The planet Saturn. The regent of that planet, re 
presented as a black man in black garments. Sam was a son of 
the sun and Chhaya, but another statement is that he was the 
offspring of Bala-rama and Revati. He is also known as Ara, 
Korca, and Kroda (cf. Koovo;), and by the patronymic $aura. His 
influence is evil, hence he is called Krura-dn s and Krura-lochana, 
the evil-eyed one. He is also Manda, * the slow ; Pangu, the 
lame; Sanais-chara, slow-moving; SaptarchI, seven-rayed; 
and Asita, the dark. 

SANJAYA. i. The charioteer of Dhnta-rashfra. He was 
minister also, and went as ambassador to the Pimc?avas before 
the great war broke out. He is represented as reciting to Dlm ta- 
rash/ra the Bhagavad-gita. His patronymic is Gavalgara, son of 
Gavalgarca. 2. A king of Ujjayini and father of Vasava-datta. 

SANJNA. Conscience. According to the Purawas, she 
was daughter of Yiswa-karma and wife of the sun. She 
had three children by him, the Manu Yaivaswata, Yama, and 
Yarn! (goddess of the Yamuna river). " Unable to endure the 
fervours of her lord, Sanjna gave him Chhaya (shade) as his 
handmaid, and repaired to the forests to practise devout exer 
cises." The sun beheld her engaged in austerities in the form 
of a mare, and he approached her as a horse. Hence sprang the 


two As wins and Revanta. Sfirya then took Sanjna back to his 
own dwelling, but his effulgence was still so overpowering, that 
her father, Viswa-karma, placed the sun upon his lathe, and cut 
away an eighth part of his brilliancy. She is also call Dyu- 
mayi, the brilliant, and Maha-virya, the very powerful. 

/SANKARA. Auspicious. A name of /Siva in his creative 
character or as chief of the Rudras. 

/SAKKARACHARYA (Sankara + acharya). The great reli 
gious reformer and teacher of the Vedunta philosophy, who lived 
in the eighth or ninth century. He was a native of Kerala or 
Malabar, and lived a very erratic life, disputing with heretics and 
popularising the Yedanta philosophy by his preaching and writ 
ings wherever he went. His travels extended as far as Kashmir, 
and he died at Kedaranath in the Himalayas ab the early age of 
thirty-two. His learning and sanctity were held in such high 
estimation and reverence, that he was looked upon as an incarna 
tion of $iva, and was believed to have the power of working 
miracles. The god $iva was the special object of his worship, and 
he was the founder of the great sect of Smartava Brahmans, who 
are very numerous and powerful in the south. He established 
several maths or monasteries for the teaching and preservation 
of his doctrines. Some of these still remain. The chief one is 
at Sr/nga-giri or Sn ngiri, on the edge of the Western Ghauts 
in the Mysore, and it has the supreme control of the Smartava 
sect. The writings attributed to him are very numerous ; chief 
among them are his Bhashyas or commentaries on the Sutras or 
aphorisms of Yyasa, a commentary on the Bhagavad-gita, some 
commentaries on the Upanishads, and the Ananda-lahari, a 
hymn in praise of ParvatI, the consort of Siva,. 

/SAXKARA-VIJAYA, The triumph of -Sankara. A bio 
graphy of 6 ankaracharya relating his controversies with here 
tical sects and his refutation of their doctrines and superstitions. 
There is more than one work bearing this name ; one by Ananda 
Giri, which is published in the BtUiotheca Indica ; another by 
Madhavacharya ; the latter is distinguished as the Sankshepa 
ankara-vijaya. The work of Ananda Giri has been critically 
examined by Kashinath Trimbak Telang in the Indian Anti 
quary, vol. v. 

SANKARSHAA r A. A name of Bala-rama, 

&ANKHA. Writer of a Dharma-sastra or law-book bearing 


his name. He is often coupled with Likliita, and the two seem 
to have worked together. 

SANKHAYANA. i. }s~ame of a writer who was the author 
of the Sankhayana Brahmana of the jRtg-veda, and of certain 
$rauta-sutras also called by his name. 2. He is the oldest 
known writer on the Ars Erotica, and is author of the work 
called Sankhayana Kama-sutra. 

SANKHYA. A school of philosophy. See Darsana. 

SANKHYA-DARSAJVA. Kapila s aphorisms on the San- 
khya philosophy. They have been printed. 

SANKHYA-KARIKA. A work on the Sankhya philo 
sophy, written by Iswara Krishna, ; translated by Colebrooke 
and Wilson. 

SANKHYA-PRAVACHANA. A text-book of the Sankhya 
philosophy, said to have been written by Kapila himself. 
Printed in the Bibliotheca Indica. 

SANKHYA-S ARA. A work on the Sankhya philosophy by 
Vijnana Bhikshu. Edited by Hall in the Bibliotheca Indica. 

SANNYASl. A Brahman in the fourth and last stage of his 
religious life. (See Brahman.) In the present day the term has 
a wider meaning, and is applied to various kinds of religious 
mendicants who wander about and subsist upon alms, most of 
them in a filthy condition and with very scanty clothing. They 
are generally devotees of /Siva. 

SANTA.. Daughter of Dasa-ratha, son of Aja, but adopted 
by Loma-pada or Roma-pada, king of Anga. She was married 
to ^ shya-snnga. 

tfANTANU. A king of the Lunar race, son of Pratipa, 
father of Bhishma, and in a way the grandfather of Dlm ta- 
rashfra and Pa?i^u. Regarding him it is said, " Every decrepit 
man whom he touches with his hands becomes young." (See 
Maha-bharata.) He was called Satya-vach, truth-speaker, and 
was remarkable for his "devotion and charity, modesty, con 
stancy, and resolution." 

$ANTI->SATAKA. A century of verses on peace of mind. 
A poem of repute writen by $rl $ihlana. 

SAPTARSHI (Sapta-r/shi). The seven great ^shis. See 

SAPTA-&ATI. A poem of 700 verses on the triumphs of 
Durga, It is also called Devl-mabatmya, 


SAPTA-SIXDIIAYA. The seven rivers. The term fre 
quently occurs in the Yedas, and has been widely known ami 
somewhat differently applied. It was apparently known to the 
Komans in the days of Augustus, for Yirgil says 

* l Ceu septem surgens sedatis amnibus altus 
Per taciturn Ganges." Eneid, ix. 30. 

They appear in Zend as the Ilapta-heando, and the early Mu- 
hammadan travellers have translated the term. But their Saba 
Sin, seven rivers, according to Blruni, applies to the rivers which 
flow northwards from the mountains of the Hindu Koh, and 
"uniting near Turmuz, form the river of Balkh (the Oxus)." 
The hymn in which the names of the rivers have been given 
has the following description : " Each set of seven (streams) 
has followed a threefold course. The Sindhu surpasses the 
other rivers in impetuosity. . . . Eeceive favourably this my 
hymn, Ganga, Yamuna, Saraswati, $utudri, Parushm; hear, 
Marud-vridha, with the Asiknl and Yitasta, and thou, Arjikiya, 
with the Sushoma. Unite first in thy course with the Trish/ama, 
the Susartu, the Rasa, and the Sweti ; thou meetest with the 
Gomati, and the Krumu with the Kubha and the Mehatnu." 
According to this, the " seven rivers " are (i.) Ganga (Ganges) ; 
(2.) Yamuna (Jumna) ; (3.) Saraswati (Sarsuti) ; (4.) Sutudri 
(Satlej); (5.) Paruslm ; (6.) Marud-v?idha ; (7.) Arjikiya (the 
Yipa-sa, Hyphasis Eyas). Wilson says " the Parushwi is iden 
tified with the Iravati " (Hydraotes, Kavi), but in this hymn it 
is the Marud-vridha which would seem to be the Iravati, because 
it is said to unite with the Asikni (Akesines, Chandrabhaga, Chi- 
nab) and the Yitasta (Hydaspes or Jhilam). This would leave 
the Parushni unsettled. The other names, with the exception of 
the Gomati (Gumti), are not identified. Sushoma has been 
said to be the Sindhu, but in this hymn the Sindhu is clearly 
distinct. In the Maha-bharata the seven rivers are named in 
one place Yaswokasara, Nalim, Pavani, Ganga, Sita, Sindhu, 
and Jambu-nadi ; and in another, Ganga, Yamuna, Plakshaga, 
Eathastha, Saryu (Sarju), Gomati, and Gandaki (Gandak). In 
the Kamayawa and the Purawas the seven rivers are the seven 
streams into which the Ganges divided after falling from the 
brow of Siva, the Nalini, Hladinl, and Pavani going east, the 
Chakshu, Sitii, and Sindhu to the west, while the Ganges proper, 


the Bhagirathi, flowed to the south. The term is also used 
for the seven great oceans of the world, and for the country of 
the seven rivers. 

SAPTA-VADHRI. A Yedic Eishl In a hymn he says, 
" Aswins, by your devices sunder the wickerwork for the libera 
tion of the terrified, imploring Eishi Sapta-vadhri." Concerning 
this the following old story is told. Sapta-vadhri had seven 
brothers who determined to prevent his having intercourse with 
his wife. So they shut him up every night in a large basket, 
which they locked and sealed, and in the morning they let him 
out. He prayed to the Aswins, who enabled him to get out of 
his cage during the night and to return to it at daybreak. 

&ARABHA. i. A fabulous animal represented as having 
eight legs and as dwelling in the Himalayas. It is called also 
Utpadaka and Kunjararati. 2. One of Kama s monkey allies. 

&ARA-BHANGA. A hermit visited by Kama and Sita in 
the Dam/aka forest. When he had seen Rama he declared that 
his desire had been granted, and that he would depart to the 
highest heaven. He prepared a fire and entered it. His body 
was consumed, but there came forth from the fire a beautiful 
youth, and in this form ara-bhanga departed to heaven. 

$ARADA-TILAKA. i. A mystic poem by Lakshmawa. 2. 
A dramatic monologue by Ankara, not earlier than the twelfth 
century. 3. Name of a Tantra. 

/SARADWAT. A Bishi said to be the father of Krzpa. He 
is also called Gautama. See K?ipa. 

SARAMA. i. In the #ig-veda the dog of Indra and mother 
of the two dogs called, after their mother, Sarameyas, who each 
had four eyes, and were the watchdogs of Yama. Sarama is 
said to have pursued and recovered the cows stolen by the Pawis, 
a myth which has been supposed to mean that Sarama is the 
same as Ushas, the dawn, and that the cows represent the rays 
of the sun carried away by night. 2. The wife of Yibhishawa, 
who attended upon Sita, and showed her great kindness when 
she was in captivity with Ravawa. 3. In the Bhagavata Purarca, 
Sarama is one of the daughters of Daksha, and the mother of 
wild animals. 

SARAMEYAS. The two children of Sarama, India s watch 
dog ; they were the watchdogs of Yama, and each had four eyes. 
They have been compared with the Greek Hermes. 


SARAVYU. The fleet runner. A daughter of Twash/ri. 
She has been identified with the Greek Erinnys. The begin 
ning of this myth is in a hymn of the 72Jg-veda, which says 
" i . Twashfri makes a wedding for his daughter. (Hearing) this, 
the whole world assembles. The mother of Yama, the wedded 
wife of the great Vivaswat (the sun), disappeared. 2. They 
concealed the immortal (bride) from mortals. Making (another) 
of like appearance, they gave her to Vivaswat Sarawyu bore 
the two Aswins, and when she had done so she deserted the two 
twins." In the Nirukta the story is expanded as follows : 
" Sarawyu, the daughter of Twash^n, bore twins to Vivaswat, 
the son of Aditi. She then substituted for herself another 
female of similar appearance, and fled in the form of a mare. 
Vivaswat in like manner assumed the shape of a horse and 
followed her. From their intercourse sprang two Aswins, while 
Manu was the offspring of Savarrai (or the female of like appear 
ance)." The Bnhad-devata has another version of the same 
story : " Twash^n had twin children, (a daughter) Sarawyu and 
(a son) Tri-siras. He gave Sarawyu in marriage to Vivaswat, to 
whom she bore Yama and Yami, who also were twins. Creat 
ing a female like herself without her husband s knowledge, and 
making the twins over in charge to her, Sarawyu took the form 
of a mare and departed. Vivaswat, in ignorance, begot on the 
female who was left Manu, a royal Eishi, who resembled his father 
in glory ; but discovering that the real Sarawyu, Twashfrf s 
daughter, had gone away, Vivaswat followed her quickly, taking 
the shape of a horse of the same species as she. Recognising 
him in that form, she approached him with the desire of sexual 
connection, which he gratified. In their haste his seed fell on 
the ground, and she, being desirous of offspring, smelled it. 
From this act sprang the two Kumaras (youths), Nasatya and 
Dasra, who were lauded as Aswins (sprung from a horse)." 
Muir^s Texts, v. 227. See the Purawic version under " Sanjna." 

SARAS WAT A. i. In the Maha-bharata the Rishi Saraswata 
is represented as being the son of the personified river Saraswati. 
In a time of great drought he was fed with fish by his mother, 
and so was enabled to keep up his knowledge of the Vedas, 
while other Brahmans were reduced to such straits for the means 
of subsistence that study was neglected and the Vedas were 
lost. When the drought was over, the Brahmans flocked to 


liini for instruction, and 60,000 acquired a knowledge of the 
Vedas from him. " This legend," says Wilson, " appears to 
indicate the revival, or, more probably, the introduction of the 
Hindu ritual by the race of Brahmans, or the people called 
Saraswata," who dwelt near the Saraswati river. Saraswata 
Brahmans still dwell in the Panjab, and are met with in many 
other parts. 2. The country about the Saraswati river. 3. A 
great national division of the Brahman caste. 

SAKASWATI. Watery, elegant. In the Vedas, Saras 
wati is primarily a river, but is celebrated in the hymns both as 
a river and a deity. The Saraswati river was one boundary of 
Brahmavartta, the home of the early Aryans, and was to them, 
in all likelihood, a sacred river, as the Ganges has long been to 
their descendants. As a river goddess, Saraswati is lauded for 
the fertilising and purifying powers of her waters, and as the 
bestower of fertility, fatness, and wealth. Her position as Vach, 
the goddess of speech, finds no mention in the J^ g-veda, but is 
recognised by the Brahma^as and the Maha-bharata. Dr. Muir 
endeavours to account for her acquisition of this character. He 
say, " When once the river had acquired a divine character, it 
was quite natural that she should be regarded as the patroness 
of the ceremonies which were celebrated on the margin of her 
holy waters, and that her direction and blessing should be in 
voked as essential to their proper performance and success. 
The connection into which she was thus brought with sacred 
rites may have led to the further step of imagining her to have 
an influence on the composition of the hymns which formed so 
important a part of the proceedings, and of identifying her with 
Vach, the goddess of speech." In later times Saraswati is the 
wife of Brahma, the goddess of speech and learning, inventress 
of the Sanskrit language and Deva-nagari letters, and patroness 
of the arts and sciences. " She is represented as of a white 
colour, without any superfluity of limbs, and not unfrequently 
of a graceful figure, wearing a slender crescent on her brow and 
sitting on a lotus. " Wilson. The same authority states that " the 
Vaislmavas of Bengal have a popular legend that she was the wife 
of Vishmi, as were also Lakshml and Ganga. The ladies dis 
agreed; Saraswati, like the other prototype of learned ladies, 
Minerva, being something of a termagant, and Vish?iu finding 
that one wife was as much as he could manage, transferred 


SaraswatI to Brahma and Gaiigii to Siva, and contented himself 
with Lakshmi alone. (See Vach.) Other names of SaraswatI 
are Bhiirati, Brfdimi, Put-kiiri, Sarada, Vagiswari. The river is 
now called Sarsuti. It falls from the Himalayas and is lost in 
the sands of the desert. In ancient times it flowed on to the sea. 
A passage in the Jt/g-veda says of it, " She who goes on pure 
from the mountains as far as the sea." Max Mutter, Veda, 45. 
According to the Maha-bharata it was dried up by the curse of 
the sage Utathya (q.v.). See Sapta-sindhava. 

SAEASWATI KAATHABHAEAA r A. A treatise on poeti 
cal and rhetorical composition generally ascribed to Bhoja Eaja. 

SAEAYU. The Sarju river or Gogra. 

SAEMISHTHA. Daughter of Vr/shaparvan the Danava, 
second wife of Yayati and mother of Puru. See Devayam. 

SAENGA. The bow of Krz shwa. 

SAEVA, SAEVA. A Vedic deity ; the destroyer. After 
wards a name of Siva and of one of the Eudras. See Eudra, 

SAEVA-DAESANA SAKGEAHA. A work by Madliavii- 
charya which gives an account of the Darsarcas or schools of 
philosophy, whether orthodox or heretical. It has been printed. 

SAEVAEL A woman of low caste, who was very devout 
and looked for the coming of Eama until she had grown old. 
In reward of her piety a sage raised her from her low caste, and 
when she had seen Eama she burnt herself on a funeral pile. 
She ascended from the pile in a chariot to the heaven of 

SAEYA-SAEA. ]S T ame of an Upanishad. 

SASADA. Hare-eater. A name given to Yikukshi (q.v.). 

SASI, SASIN. The moon, so called from the marks on the 
moon being considered to resemble a hare (sasa). 

/SASTEA. A rule, book, treatise. Any book of divine or 
recognised authority, but more especially the law-books. 

SATA-DHANU. A king who had a virtuous and discreet 
wife named Saibya. They were both worshippers of Vislimi. 
One day they met a heretic, with whom Sata-dhanu conversed ; 
but the wife " turned away from him and cast her eyes up to 
the sun." After a time Sata-dhanu died and his wife ascended 
his funeral pile. The wife was born again as a princess with a 
knowledge of her previous existence, but the husband received 
the form of a dog. She recognised him in this form and placed 


the bridal garland on his neck. Then she reminded him of his 
previous existence and of the fault which had caused his degra 
dation. He was greatly humiliated and died from a broken 
spirit. After that, he was born successively as a jackal, a wolf, 
a crow, and a peacock. In each form his wife recognised him, 
reminded him of his sin, and urged him to make efforts for 
restoration to his former dignity. At length " he was born as 
the son of a person of distinction," and /Saibya then elected him 
as her bridegroom ; and having " again invested him with the 
character of her husband, they lived happily together." When 
he died she again followed him in death, and both " ascended 
beyond the sphere of Indra to the regions where all desires are 
for ever gratified." "This legend," says Wilson, "is peculiar 
to the Vishwi Purawa, although the doctrine it inculcates is to 
be found elsewhere. 

SATA-DHANWAN, >SATA-DHANUS. Having a hundred 
bows. A Yadava and son of Hr/dika. He killed Satrajit, 
father of Satya-bhama, the wife of Krishna, in his sleep, and 
was himself killed in revenge by Krishna, who struck off his 
head with his discus. 

SATA-DKU. Flowing in a hundred (channels). The 
name of the river Sutlej, the Zaradrus of Ptolemy, the Hesudrus 
of Pliny. 

tfATA-GIINL Slaying hundreds. A missile weapon used 
by Krishna. It is described in the Maha-bharata as a stone 
set round with iron spikes, but many have supposed it to be 
a rocket or other fiery weapon. 

/SATA-KKATU. The god of a hundred rites Indra. 

/SATAPATHA-BKAHMAJVA. A celebrated Brahmawa at 
tached to the White Yajur-veda, and ascribed to the Rishi 
Yajnawalkya. It is found in two Sakhas, the Madhyandina 
and the Ka?iwa. This is the most complete and systematic as 
well as the most important of all the Brahma?ias. It has been 
edited by Weber. 

/SATA-RUPA. The hundred-formed. The first woman. 
According to one account she was the daughter of Brahma, and 
from their incestuous intercourse the first Manu, named Swayam- 
bhuva, was born. Another account makes her the wife, not 
the mother, of Manu. The account given by Manu is that 
Brahma divided himself into two parts, male and female, and 


from them sprang Mann. She is also called Savitii. See Virfij 
and Brahma. 

tfATATAPA. An old writer on law. 

SA.TA-VAHANA. A name by which /Sali-vahana is some 
times called. 

SATI. A daughter of Daksha and wife of Rudra, i.e., Siva. 
The Vishnu Purana states that she " abandoned her body in 
consequence of the anger of Daksha. She then became the 
daughter of Himavat and Mena; and the divine Bhava again 
married Uma, who was identical with his (Diva s) former 
spouse." The authorities generally agree that she died or killed 
herself in consequence of the quarrel between her husband and 
father ; and the Kasi Khan6?a, a modern work, represents that 
she entered the fire and became a Sati. See Piftia-sthima. 

SATRAJIT, SATRAJITA. Son of Nighna. In return for 
praise rendered to the sun he beheld the luminary in his proper 
form, and received from him the wonderful Syamantaka gem. 
He lost the gem, but it was recovered and restored to him 
by Krishna. In return he presented "Krishna, with his daughter 
Satya-bhama to wife. There had been many suitors for this 
lady s hand, and one of them, named $ata-dhanwan, in revenge 
for her loss, killed Satrajit and carried off the gem, but he was 
afterwards killed by "Krishna,. 

ATRTJ-GHNA. * Foe destroyer. Twin-brother of Laksh- 
mana and half-brother of Rama, in whom an eighth part of 
the divinity of Vislmu was incarnate. His wife was jSruta-kirti, 
cousin of Sita. He fought on the side of Rama and killed the 
Riikshasa chief Lavana. See Dasa-ratha and Rama. 

SATYA-BHAMA. Daughter of Satriijita and one of the 
four chief wives of Krishna. She had ten sons, Bhanu, Su- 
bhami, Swar-bhanu, Prabhanu, Bhanumat, Chandrabhanu, Bri- 
hadbhanu, Atibhanu, tfribhaim, and Pratibhanu. K?-ishna took 
her with him to Indra s heaven, and she induced him to bring 
away the Parijata tree. 

SATYA-DM7TL Son of Saradwat and grandson of the 
sage Gautama. According to the Vishriu Purawa he was fatlicr 
by the nymph Urvasi of Kr/pa and Kr/pT. 

SATYAKI. A kinsman of Krishna s, who fought on the 
side of the Pawrfavas, and was Krishna s charioteer. He assassi 
nated K?-ita-varma in a drinking bout at Dwaraka, and was him- 


self cut down by the friends of his victim. He is also called 
Daruka and Yuyudhana ; and $aineya from his father, Sim. 

SATYA-LOKA. See Loka. 

SATYAVAK See Savitrl. 

SATYA-VATI. i. Daughter of Uparichara, king of Cliedi, by 
an Apsaras named Adrika, who was condemned to live on earth 
in the form of a fish. She was mother of Yyasa by the Rishi 
Parasara, and she was also wife of King $antanu, mother of 
Yichitra-virya and Chitrangada, and grandmother of the Kaur- 
avas and PawZavas, the rivals in the great war. The sage 
Parasara met her as she was crossing the river Yamuna when 
she was quite a girl, and the offspring of their illicit intercourse 
was brought forth on an island (dwlpa) in that river, and was 
hence called Dwaipayana. (See Vyasa.) She was also called 
Gandha-kali, Gandha-vati, and Kalangam; and as her mother 
lived in the form of a fish, she is called Dasa-nandim, Daseyi, 
Jhajhodari, and Matsyodarl, fish-born. 2. A daughter of King 
Gadhi, wife of the Brahman .Richlka, mother of Jamad-agni and 
grandmother of Parasu-rama. She was of the Kusika race, and 
is said to have been transformed into the KausikI river. See 
liichika, and Viswamitra. 

SATYA-YEATA. i. Name of the seventh Mann. See 

2. A king of the Solar race, descended from Ikshwaku. He 
was father of Haris-chandra, and is also named Yedhas and Tri- 
sankn. According to the Ramayawa he was a pious king, and 
was desirous of performing a sacrifice in virtue of which he 
might ascend bodily to heaven. Yasish/ha, his priest, declined 
to perform it, declaring it impossible. He then applied to 
Yasishftia s sons, and they condemned him to become a Chawc?ala 
for his presumption. In his distress and degradation he applied 
to Yiswamitra, who promised to raise him in that form to 
heaven. Yiswamitra s intended sacrifice was strongly resisted 
by the sons of Yasishftia, but he reduced them to ashes, and 
condemned them to be born again as outcasts for seven hundred 
births. The wrathful sage bore down all other opposition, and 
Tri-sanku ascended to heaven. Here his entry was opposed by 
Indra and the gods, but Viswamitra in a fury declared that he 
would create " another Indra, or the world should have no Indra 
at all." The gods were obliged to yield, and it was agreed that 


Tri-sanku, an immortal, should hang with his head downwards, 
and shine among some stars newly called into being by "Vi.s\v;i- 

The Vishwu Purawa gives a more simple version. While 
Satya-vrata was a Cha^fda, and the famine was raging, he sup 
ported Viswamitra s family by hanging deer s flesh on a tree on 
the bank of the Ganges, so that they might obtain food without 
the degradation of receiving it from a Chawdala : for this charity 
Viswamitra raised him to heaven. 

The story is differently told in the Hari-vansa. Satya-vrata 
or Tri-sanku, when a prince, attempted to carry off the wife of a 
citizen, in consequence of which his father drove him from home, 
nor did Vasishftia, the family priest, endeavour to soften the 
father s decision. The period of his exile was a time of famine, 
and he greatly succoured the wife and family of Viswamitra, 
who were in deep distress while the sage was absent far away. 
He completed his twelve years exile and penance, and being 
hungry one day, and having no- flesh to eat, he killed Vasish/ha s 
wondrous cow, the Kama-dhenu, and ate thereof himself, and 
gave some to the sons of Viswamitra. In his rage Vasish/ha 
gave him the name Tri-sanku, as being guilty of three great 
sins. Viswamitra was gratified by the assistance which Satya- 
vrata had rendered to his family; "he installed him in his 
father s kingdom, . , . and, in spite of the resistance of the 
gods and of Vasish/ha, exalted the king alive to heaven." 

/S ATYAYANA. Name of a Brahmawa, 

SATYA-YAUVANA. A certain Vidya-dhara. 

SAUBHA. A magical city, apparently first mentioned in 
the Yajur-veda. An aerial city belonging to Ilaris-chandra, and 
according to popular belief still visible occasionally. It is 
called also Kha-pura, Prati-margaka, and Tranga. In the 
Maha-bharata an aerial or self-supporting city belonging to the 
Daityas, on the shore of the ocean, protected by the $ahva 

SAUBHARL A devout sage, who, when he was old and 
emaciated, was inspired with a desire of offspring. He went 
to King Mandhat?i, and demanded one of his fifty daughters. 
Afraid to refuse, and yet unwilling to bestow a daughter upon 
such a suitor, the king temporised, and endeavoured to evade 
the request. It was at length settled that, if any one of the 


daughters should accept him as a bridegroom, the king would 
consent to the marriage. Saubhari was conducted to the pre 
sence of the girls ; but on his way he assumed a fair and hand 
some form, so that all the girls were captivated, and contended 
with each other as to who should become his wife. It ended 
by his marrying them all and taking them home. He caused 
Viswa-karma to build for each a separate palace, furnished in the 
most luxurious manner, and surrounded with exquisite gardens, 
where they lived a most happy life, each one of them having her 
husband always present with her, and believing that he was 
devoted to her and her only. By his wives he had a hundred 
and fifty sons ; but as he found his hopes and desires for them 
to daily increase and expand, he resolved to devote himself 
wholly and solely to penance and the worship of Vishnu. 
Accordingly, he abandoned his children and retired with his 
wives to the forest. See Vishwi Purawa. 

SAUDASA. Son of King Sudas. Their descendants are 
all Saudasas. See Kalmasha-pada. 

SAUNAOT)A. A club shaped like a pestle, which was one 
of the weapons of Bala-rama. 

/SAUNAKA. A sage, the son of 5unaka and grandson of 
Gn tsa-mada. He was the author of the Bn had-devata, an Anu- 
kramam, and other works, and he was a teacher of the Atharva- 
veda. His pupil was Aswalayana. There was a family of the 
name, and the works attributed to $aunaka are probably the 
productions of more than one person. 


SAURASHTRAS. The people of Surashfra. 

SATJTI. Xame of the sage who repeated the Maha-bharata 
to the Osiris in the Naimisha forest. 

SAUVIRAS. A people connected with the Saindhavas or 
people of Sindh, and probably inhabitants of the western and 
southern parts of the Panjab. Cunningham says that Sauvira 
was the plain country. 

SAVAR^VA, SAVAR7VT The eighth Manu. The name is 
used either alone or in combination for all the succeeding Manus 
to the fourteenth and last. See Manu. 

SAVARJVA. Wife of the sun. " The female of like appear 
ance," whom Sarawyu, wife of Vivaswat, substituted for herself 
when she fled. (Set Sarawyu.) Manu was the offspring of 


SavarwH This is the version given in the Nirukta. In tho 
Vishnu Purawa, Savarwa is daughter of the ocean, wife of 
Prachmabarhis, and mother of the ten Prachetasas. 

SAYIT72/. Generator. i. A name used in the Vedas for 
the sun. Many hymns are addressed to him, and he is some 
times distinguished from that deity. 2. One of the Adityas. 

SAYITRI. i. The holy verse of the Yeda, commonly called 
Gayatri. 2. A name of /S ata-rupa, the daughter and wife of 
Brahma, who is sometimes regarded as a personification of the 
holy verse. 3. Daughter of King Aswa-pati, and lover of Sat- 
yavan, whom she insisted on marrying, although she was warned 
by a seer that he had only one year to live. When the fatal 
day arrived, Satyavan went out to cut wood, and she followed 
him. There he fell, dying, to the earth, and she, as she sup 
ported him, saw a figure, who told her that he was Yama, king 
of the dead, and that he had come for her husband s spirit. 
Yama carried off the spirit towards the shades, but Savitrl 
followed him. Her devotion pleased Yama, and he offered her 
any boon except the life of her husband. She extorted three 
such boons from Yama, but still she followed him, and he was 
finally constrained to restore her husband to life. 

SAYYA-SACHIX. Who pulls a bow with either hand. 
A title of Arjuna. 

SAYAJVA. Sayawackarya, the celebrated commentator on 
the jRzg-veda. " He was brother of Madhavacharya, the prime 
minister of Yira Bukka Raya, Raja of Yijaya-nagara, in the 
fourteenth century, a munificent patron of Hindu literature. 
Both the brothers are celebrated as scholars, and many important 
works are attributed to them ; not only scholia on the Sanhitas 
and Brakma/zas of the Yedas, but original works on grammar 
and law ; the fact, no doubt, being that they availed themselves 
of those means which their situation and influence secured them, 
and employed the most learned Brahmans they could attract to 
Yijaya-nagara upon the works which bear their name, and to 
which they also contributed their own labour and learning; 
their works were, therefore, compiled under peculiar advantages, 
and are deservedly held in the highest estimation." Wilson. 

ESHA, SESHA-NAGA. King of the serpent race or XH-as, 
and of the infernal regions called Patiila. A serpent with a 
thousand heads which is the couch and canopy of Visliwu whilst 


sleeping during the intervals of creation. Sometimes $esha is 
represented as supporting the world, and sometimes as upholding 
the seven Patalas or hells. Whenever he yawns he causes earth 
quakes. At the end of each kalpa he vomits venomous fire 
which destroys all creation. "When the gods churned the ocean 
they made use of $esha as a great rope, which they twisted round 
the mountain Mandara, and so used it as a churn. He is repre 
sented clothed in purple and wearing a white necklace, holding 
in one hand a plough and in the other a pestle. He is also 
called Ananta, the endless, as the symbol of eternity. His 
wife was named Ananta-sirsha. He is sometimes distinct from 
Vasuki but generally identified with him. In the Pura?zas he 
is said to be the son of Kasyapa and Kadru, and according to 
some authorities he was incarnate in Bala-rama. His hood is 
called Mam-dwipa, the island of jewels, and his palace Mam- 
bhltti, jewel-walled, or Mawi-mam?apa, jewel palace. 

SETU-BAj^DHA. Kama s bridge. The line of rocks be 
tween the continent and Ceylon called in maps "Adam s bridge." 
It is also know as Samudraru. There is a poem called Setu- 
bandha or Setu-kavya on the subject of the building of the 
bridge by Kama s allies. 

SHAD-DAKSANA. See Darsana. 

SHAD-VIN/SA. Twenty-sixth. One of the Brahmarcas of 
the Sama-veda. It is called " the twenty-sixth " because it 
was added to the Prau^ha Brahman a, which has twenty-five 

SHAT-PUKA. The sixfold city, or the six cities granted 
by Brahma to the Asuras, and of which Nikumbha was king. 
It was taken by K?ishwa and given to Brahma-datta, a Brahman. 

SIDDHAS. A class of semi-divine beings of great purity 
and holiness, who dwell in the regions of the sky between the 
earth and the sun. They are said to be 88,000 in number. 

SIDDHANTA. Any scientific work on astronomy or mathe 

SIDDHANTA KAUMUDI. A modern and simplified form 
of Pamni s Grammar by Bha//oji Dikshita. It is in print. 

SIDDHANTA-STROMAAa A work on astronomy by 
Bhaskaracharya. It has been printed, and has been translated 
for the Bibliotheca Indica. 


SIKKANDIS, SIKKANDISl. Sikhandini is said to have 
been the daughter of Raja Drupada, but according to another state 
ment she was one of the two wives whom Bhlshma obtained for 
his brother Vichitra-virya, " She (the widow) perished in the jun 
gle, but before her death she had been assured by Parasu-rama that 
she should become a man in a future birth, and cause the death of 
Bhishma, who had been the author of her misfortunes." Accord 
ingly she was born again as $ikhamZin, son of Drupada. Ehlshma 
fell in battle pierced all over by the arrows of Arjuna, but ac 
cording to this story the fatal shaft came from the hands of 
$ikhaM6?in. See Amba. 

/SIKSHA. Phonetics ; one of the Vedangas. The science 
which teaches the proper pronunciation and manner of reciting 
the Vedas. There are many treatises on this subject. 

ILPA-ASTRA. The science of mechanics ; it includes 
architecture. Any book or treatise on this science. 

SIXDIITJ. i. The river Indus ; also the country along that 
river and the people dwelling in it. From Sindhu came the 
Hind of the Arabs, the Hindoi or Indoi of the Greeks, and 
our India. 2. A river in Malwa. There are others of the 
name. See Sapta-sindhava. 


SIXHASAXA DWATRIX&AT. The thirty-two stories 
told by the images which supported the throne of King Vikra- 
maditya. It is the Singhasan Eattlsl in Hindustani, and is 
current in most of the languages of India, 

SIXHIKA. i. A daughter of Daksha and wife of Kasyapa; 
also a daughter of Kasyapa and wife of Viprachitti. 2. A Rak- 
shasl who tried to swallow Hanuman and make a meal of him. 
He allowed her to do so and then rent her body to pieces and 
departed. Her habit was to seize the shadow of the object she 
wished to devour and so drag the prey into her jaws. 

$IPRA. The river on which the city of Ujjayini stands. 

SlRA-DHWAJA. < He of the plough-banner. An epithet 
for Janaka. 

&LSUMARA. A porpoise. The planetary sphere, which, as 
explained by the Vislmu Purawa, has the shape of a porpoise, 
Vishnu being seated in its heart, and Dhruva or the pole star in 
its tail. " As Dhruva revolves, it causes the sun, moon, and 
other planets to turn round also ; and the lunar asterisms follow 


in its circular path, for all the celestial luminaries are, in fact, 
bound to the polar star by aerial cords." 

$LSTJ-PALA. Son of Dama-ghosha, king of Chedi, by $ntta- 
deva, sister of Vasu-deva ; he was therefore cousin of Krishna, 
but he was Krishna s implacable foe, because "Krishna, had car 
ried off Rukmmi, his intended wife. He was slain by Krishna 
at the great sacrifice of Yudhi-shftiira in punishment of oppro 
brious abuse. The Maha-bharata states that iSisu-pala was born 
with three eyes and four arms. His parents were inclined to 
cast him out, but were warned by a voice not to do so, as his 
time was not come. It also foretold that his superfluous mem 
bers should disappear when a certain person took the child into 
his lap, and that he would eventually die by the hands of that 
same person. "Krishna, placed the child on his knees and the 
extra eye and arms disappeared ; Krishna also killed him. The 
Yishwu Purawa contributes an additional legend about him. 
" isu-pala was in a former existence the unrighteous but valiant 
monarch of the Daityas, Hirawya-kasipu, who was killed by the 
divine guardian of creation (in the man-lion Avatara). He was 
next the ten-headed (sovereign Ravawa), whose unequalled 
prowess, strength, and power were overcome by the lord of the 
three worlds (Rama). Having been killed by the deity in the 
form of Raghava, he had long enjoyed the reward of his virtues 
in exemption from an embodied state, but had now received 
birth once more as $isu-pala, the son of Dama-ghosha, king of 
Chedi. In this character he renewed with greater inveteracy 
than ever his hostile hatred towards Puwc?arikaksha (Vishmi), 
. . . and was in consequence slain by him. But from the cir 
cumstance of his thoughts being constantly engrossed by the 
supreme being, isu-pala was united with him after death, . . . 
for the lord bestows a heavenly and exalted station even upon 
those whom he slays in his displeasure." He was called Su- 
nitha, virtuous. 

SLSUPAL A-B ADH A. The death of Sisu-pala ; an epic poem 
by Magha, in twenty cantos. It has been often printed, and has 
been translated into French by Fauche. 

SlTA. A furrow. In the Yeda, Sita is the furrow, or hus 
bandry personified, and worshipped as a deity presiding over 
agriculture and fruits. In the Ramayana and later works she is 
daughter of Janaka king of Yidcha, and wife of Rama. The 

S1TA. 295 

old Vedic idea still adhered to her, for she sprang from a furrow. 
In the Ramayana her father Janaka says, " As I was ploughing 
my field, there sprang from the plough a girl, obtained by me 
while cleansing my field, and known by name as Sita (the fur 
row). This girl sprung from the earth grew up as my daughter." 
Hence she is styled Ayonija, not born from the womb. She 
is said to have lived before in the Krita age as VedavatI, and to 
be in reality the goddess Lakshml in human form, born in the 
world for bringing about the destruction of Ravarza, the Rftk- 
shasa king of Lanka, who was invulnerable to ordinary means, 
but doomed to die on account of a woman. Sita became the 
wife of Rama, who won her by bending the great bow of /Siva. 
She was his only wife, and was the embodiment of purity, ten 
derness, and conjugal affection. She accompanied her husband 
in his exile, but was carried off from him by Rava?ia and kept 
in his palace at Lanka. There he made many efforts to win her 
to his will, but she continued firm against all persuasions, threats, 
and terrors, and maintained a dignified serenity throughout. 
When Rama had slain the ravisher and recovered his wife, he 
received her coldly, and refused to take her back, for it was hard 
to believe it possible that she had retained her honour. She 
asserted her purity in touching language, and resolved to estab 
lish it by the ordeal of fire. The pile was raised and she entered 
the flames in the presence of gods and men, but she remained 
unhurt, and the god of fire brought her forth and placed her in 
her husband s arms. Notwithstanding this proof of her inno 
cence, jealous thoughts passed through the mind of Rama, and 
after he had ascended his ancestral throne at Ayodhya, his people 
blamed him for taking back a wife who had been in the power 
of a licentious ravisher. So, although she was pregnant, he 
banished her and sent her to the hermitage of Valmiki, where 
she gave birth to twin sons, Kusa and Lava. There she lived 
till the boys were about fifteen years old. One day they strayed 
to their father s capital He recognised and acknowledged them 
and then recalled Sita. She returned and publicly declared her 
innocence. But her heart was deeply wounded. She called 
upon her mother earth to attest her purity, and it did so. Tho 
ground opened, and she was taken back into the source from 
which she had sprung. Rama was now disconsolate and resolved 
to quit this mortal life. (See Rama.) Sita had the appellations 

296 SIVA. 

of Bhumi-ja, Dharawi-suta, and Parthivi, all meaning daughter 
of the earth. 

SIVA. The name Siva, is unknown to the Vedas, but 
Kudra, another name of this deity, and almost equally common, 
occurs in the Yeda both in the singular and plural, and from 
these the great deity $iva and his manifestations, the Kudras, 
have been developed. In the J?*g-veda the word Eudra is used 
for Agni, and the Maruts are called his sons. In other passages 
he is distinct from Agni. He is lauded as " the lord of songs, 
the lord of sacrifices, who heals remedies, is brilliant as the sun, 
the best and most bountiful of gods, who grants prosperity and 
welfare to horses and sheep, men, women, and cows ; the lord 
of nourishment, who drives away diseases, dispenses remedies, 
and removes sin ; but, on the other hand he is the wielder of 
the thunderbolt, the bearer of bow and arrows, and mounted on 
his chariot is terrible as a wild beast, destructive and fierce." 
In the Yajur-veda there is a long prayer called *Satarudriya which 
is addressed to him and appeals to him under a great variety of 
epithets. He is " auspicious, not terrible ; " " the deliverer, the 
first divine physician ; " he is " blue-necked and red-coloured, 
who has a thousand eyes and bears a thousand quivers ; " and in 
another hymn he is called " Tryambaka, the sweet-scented in- 
creaser of prosperity ; " "a medicine for kine and horses, a medi 
cine for men, and a (source of) ease to rams and ewes." In the 
Atharva-veda he is still the protector of cattle, but his character 
is fiercer. He is " dark, black, destroying, terrible." He is the 
" fierce god," who is besought to betake himself elsewhere, "and 
not to assail mankind with consumption, poison, or celestial fire." 
The Brahmawas tell that when Eudra was born he wept, and his 
father, Prajapati, asked the reason, and on being told that he 
wept because he had not received a name, his father gave him 
the name of Eudra (from the root rud, weep ). They also relate 
that at the request of the gods he pierced Prajapati because of his 
incestuous intercourse with his daughter. In another place he is 
said to have applied to his father eight successive times fora name, 
and that he received in succession the names Bhava, Sarva, Pasu- 
pati, Ugradeva, Mahandeva, Eudra, Isana, and Asani. In the 
Upanishads his character is further developed. He declares to the 
inquiring gods, " I alone was before (all things), and I exist and 
I shall be. No other transcends me. I am. eternal and not 



eternal, discernible and undiscerniblc, I am Brahma and I am 
not Brahma." Again it is said, "He is the only Kudra, he is 
Isana, he is divine, he is Maheswara, he is Mahadeva." " There 
is only one Rudra, there is no place for a second. He rules 
this fourth world, controlling and productive ; living beings 
abide with him, united with him. At the time of the end he 
annihilates all worlds, the protector." " He is without begin 
ning, middle, or end ; the one, the pervading, the spiritual and 
blessed, the wonderful, the consort of Uma, the supreme lord, 
the three-eyed, the blue-throated, the tranquil. . . . He is 
Brahma, he is /S iva, he is Indra; he is undecaying, supreme, self- 
resplendent ; he is Vish?m, he is breath, he is the spirit, the 
supreme lord ; he is all that hath been or that shall be, eternal. 
Knowing him, a man overpasses death. There is no other way 
to liberation." In the Ramayawa /Siva is a great god, but the 
references to him have more of the idea of .a personal god than 
of a supreme divinity. He is represented as fighting with 
Vish?iu, and as receiving worship with Brahma, Vish/m, and 
Indra, but he acknowledges the divinity of Rama, and holds a 
less exalted position than Yishwu. The Maha-bharata also gives 
Vishnu or K>ishm the highest honour upon the whole. But it 
has many passages in which /S iva occupies the supreme place, 
and receives the homage and worship of Vishwi and K?*ishwa. 
" Maha-deva," it says, "is an all-pervading god yet is nowhere 
seen; he is the creator and the lord of Brahma, Vishmi, and 
Indra, whom the gods, from Brahma to the Pisachas, worship." 
The rival claims of /S iva and Vishmi to supremacy are clearly 
displayed in this poem ; and many of those powers and attributes 
are ascribed to them which were afterwards so widely developed 
in the Purawas. Attempts also are made to reconcile their con 
flicting claims by representing Siva, and Vishmi, /S iva and 
Kn sh?za, to be one, or, as it is expressed at a later time in the 
Hari-vansa, there is "no difference between /Siva who exists in 
the form of Vishmi, and Vishmi who exists in the form of /Siva." 

The Purarcas distinctly assert the supremacy of their particular 
divinity, whether it be /S iva or whether it be Vislmu, and they 
have developed and amplified the myths and allusions of the 
older writings into numberless legends and stories for the glori 
fication and honour of their favourite god. 

The Rudra of the Vedas has developed in the course of ages 

298 SIVA. 

into the great and powerful god $iva, the third deity of ilia 
Hindu triad, and the supreme god of his votaries. He is shortly 
described as the destroying principle, but his powers and attri 
butes are more numerous and much wider. Under the name of 
Rudra or Maha-kala, he is the great destroying and dissolving 
power. But destruction in Hindu belief implies reproduction ; 
so as /Siva or $ankara, the auspicious, he is the reproductive 
power which is perpetually restoring that which has been dis 
solved, and hence he is regarded as Iswara, the supreme lord, and 
Maha-deva, the great god. Under this character of restorer he 
is represented by his symbol the Linga or phallus, typical of re 
production ; and it is under this form alone, or combined with 
the Yoni, or female organ, the representative of his $akti, or 
female energy, that he is everywhere worshipped. Thirdly, he 
is the Maha-yogI, the great ascetic, in whom is centred the 
highest perfection of austere penance and abstract meditation, by 
which the most unlimited powers are attained, marvels and 
miracles are worked, the highest spiritual knowledge is acquired, 
and union with the great spirit of the universe is eventually 
gained. In this character he is the naked ascetic Dig-ambara, 
clothed with the elements, or Dhur-ja^i, * loaded with matted 
hair, and his body smeared w^ith ashes. His first or destructive 
character is sometimes intensified, and he becomes Bhairava, the 
terrible destroyer, who takes a pleasure in destruction. He is 
also Bhuteswara, the lord of ghosts and goblins. In these char 
acters he haunts cemeteries and places of cremation, wearing 
serpents round his head and skulls for a necklace, attended by 
troops of imps and trampling on rebellious demons. He some 
times indulges in revelry, and, heated with drink, dances furiously 
with his wife Devi the dance called Taft^ava, while troops of 
drunken imps caper around them. Possessed of so many powers 
and attributes, he has a great number of names, and is represented 
under a variety of forms. One authority enumerates a thousand 
and eight names, but most of these are descriptive epithets, as 
Tri-lochana, * the three-eyed, MLa-kantha, the blue-throated, 
and Panch-anana, the five-faced. $iva is a fair man with five 
faces and four arms. He is commonly represented seated in 
profound thought, with a third eye in the middle of his fore 
head, contained in or surmounted by the moon s crescent ; his 
matted locks are gathered up into a coil like a horn, which bears 

SIVA. 299 

upon it a symbol of the river Ganges, winch he caught as it fell 
from heaven ; a necklace of skulls (imuzcfa-mfdii), hangs round his 
neck, and serpents twine about his neck as a collar (nagfr-ktuufola); 
his neck is blue from drinking the deadly poison which would 
have destroyed the world, and in his hand he holds a tri.sula or 
trident called Pinaka. His garment is the skin of a tiger, a deer, 
or an elephant, hence he is called Kritti-vasas ; sometimes he is 
clothed in a skin and seated upon a tiger-skin, and he holds a deer 
in his hand. He is generally accompanied by his bull Xandi. He 
also carries the bow Ajagava, a drum (^amaru) in the shape of 
an hour-glass, the Kha^wanga or club w r ith a skull at the end, or 
a cord (pasa) for binding refractory offenders. His Pramathas 
or attendants are numerous, and are imps and demons of various 
kinds. His third eye has been very destructive. With it he 
reduced to ashes Kama, the god of love, for daring to inspire 
amorous thoughts of his consort Parvati while he was engaged 
in penance ; and the gods and all created beings were destroyed 
by its glance at one of the periodical destructions of the universe. 
He is represented to have cut off one of the heads of Brahma 
for speaking disrespectfully, so that Brahma has only four heads 
instead of five. $iva is the great object of \vorship at Benares 
under the name of Visweswara. His heaven is on Mount 

There are various legends respecting iva s garments and 
weapons. It is said that " he once visited a forest in the form 
of a religious mendicant, and the wives of the 7?zshis residing 
there fell in love with his great beauty, which the J?/shis, per 
ceiving, resented ; in order, therefore, to overpower him, they 
first dug a pit, and by magical arts caused a tiger to rush out of 
it, which he slew, and taking his skin w r ore it as a garment ; 
they next caused a deer to spring out upon him, which he took 
up in his left hand and ever after retained there. They then 
produced a red-hot iron, but this too he took up and kept in 
his hand as a weapon. . . . The elephant s skin belonged to an 
Asura named Gaya, who acquired such power that he would 
have conquered the gods, and would have destroyed the Munis 
had they not fled to Benares and taken refuge in a temple of 
/S iva, who then destroyed the Asura, and, ripping up his body, 
stripped off the (elephant) hide, which he cast over his shoulders 
for a cloak." Williams. 


Other names or epithets of /Siva are Agliora, horrible; 
Babhru, Bhagavat, divine; Chandra-sekhara, moon-crested; 7 
Ganga-dhara, bearer of the Ganges; GirLsa, mountain lord ; 
Hara, seizer; Isana, ruler; Ja/a-dhara, wearing matted 
hair; Jala-murtti, whose form is water; Kala, time; Kalan- 
jara; Kapala-malin, wearing a garland of skulls; Maha-kala, 
great time; Mahesa, great lord; Mntyunjaya, vanquisher 
of death; Pasu-pati, lord of animals; /Sankara, /Sarva, 
Sadasiva or tfambhu, the auspicious; /Sthanu, the firm; 
Tryambaka, three-eyed ; Ugra, fierce ; Virupaksha, of mis- 
formed eyes ; Viswanatha, lord of all 

SIVA PURANA. See Purana. 

/SIVL Son of Usinara, and king of the country also called 
Uslnara, near Gandhara. The great charity and devotion of 
/S ivi are extolled in the Maha-bharata by the sage Markarccfeya. 
Agni having assumed the form of a pigeon, was pursued by Indra 
in the shape of a falcon. The pigeon took refuge in the bosom 
of /S ivi, and the falcon would accept nothing from /S ivi instead 
of the pigeon but an equal weight of the king s own flesh. /S ivi 
cut a piece of flesh from his right thigh and placed it in the 
balance, but the bird was the heavier. He cut again and again, 
and still the pigeon drew the scale, until the king placed his 
whole body in the balance. This outweighed the pigeon and 
the falcon flew away. On another occasion Vishwu went to 
/S ivi in the form of a Brahman and demanded food, but would 
accept no food but /Sivi s own son Vrzhad-garbha, whom he 
required /S ivi to kill and cook. The king did so, and placed 
the food before the Brahman, who then told him to eat it him 
self. /S ivi took up the head and prepared to eat. The Brahman 
then stayed his hand, commended his devotion, and restoring 
the son to life, vanished from sight. 

SKAMBHA. The supporter. A name sometimes used in 
the ^ig-veda to designate the Supreme Deity. There is con 
siderable doubt and mystery about both this name and deity. 
"The meaning of the term," says Gold stiicker, "is the fulcrum/ 
and it seems to mean the fulcrum of the whole world in all its 
physical, religious, and other aspects." Mull s Texts, v. 378. 

SKANDA. God of war. See Karttikeya. 

SKAKD A PURANA. " The Skanda Purarca is that in which 
the six-faced deity (Skanda) has related the events of the 


Tatpnruslia Kalpa, enlarged with many tales, and subservient to 
the duties taught by Maheswaia, It is said to contain 81,800 
stanzas : so it is asserted amongst mankind." " It is uniformly 
agreed," says Wilson, " that the Skanda Puriiwa, in a collective 
form, has no existence ; and the fragments, in the shape of 
Sanhitas, Kharcd as, and Mahatmyas, which are affirmed in 
various parts of India to be portions of the Purawa, present a 
much more formidable mass of stanzas than even the immense 
number of which it is said to consist. The most celebrated of 
these portions in Hindusthan is the Kasi Khaft/a, a very minute 
description of the temples of /jiva in or adjacent to Benares, 
mixed with directions for worshipping Maheswara, and a great 
variety of legends explanatory of its merits and of the holiness 
of KasL Many of them are puerile and uninteresting, but 
some of them are of a higher character. There is every reason 
to believe the greater part of the contents of the Kasi Khawc/a 
anterior to the first attack upon Benares by Mahmud of Ghazni. 
The Ka5i Khawda alone contains 15,000 stanzas. Another con 
siderable work is the TJtkala Kharzda, giving an account of the 
holiness of Orissa." A part of this Purarca has been printed at 

SMABTA. Appertaining to the Smnti. The Smarta-sutras. 
See Sutras. 

SM72/TL What was remembered. Inspiration, as dis 
tinguished from $ruti, or direct revelation. What has been 
remembered and handed down by tradition. In its widest 
application, the term includes the Yedangas, the Sutras, the 
Eamayana, the Maha-bharata, the Purawas, the Dharma-sastras, 
especially the works of Manu, Yajnawalkya, and other inspired 
lawgivers, and the Niti-sastras or ethics, but its ordinary applica 
tion is to the Dharma-sastras; as Manu says, " By $ruti is meant 
the Veda, and by Smn ti the institutes of law," ii. 10. 

SM/f/TI-CHANDKIKA. A treatise on law, according to 
the Dravidian or Southern school, by Devana Bliatfa. 

SOMA. The juice of a milky climbing plant (Asclcpias acida), 
extracted and fermented, forming a beverage offered in libations 
to the deities, and drunk by the Brfilimans. Its exhilarating 
qualities were grateful to the priests, and the gods were repre 
sented as being equally fond of it. This soma juice occupies 
a large space in the /iVg-veda ; one Mamfola is almost wholly 

302 SOMA. 

devoted to its praise and uses. It was raised to the position of a 
deity, and represented to be primeval, all-powerful, healing all 
diseases, bestower of riches, lord of other gods, and even iden 
tified with the Supreme Being. As a personification, Sorna was 
the god who represented and animated the soma juice, an Indian 
Dionysus or Bacchus. 

" The simple-minded Arian people, whose whole religion was 
a worship of the wonderful powers and phenomena of nature, 
had no sooner perceived that this liquid had power to elevate 
the spirits and produce a temporary frenzy, under the influence 
of which the individual was prompted to, and capable of, deeds 
beyond his natural powers, than they found in it something 
divine : it was to their apprehension a god, endowing those into 
whom it entered with godlike powers ; the plant which afforded 
it became to them the king of plants ; the process of preparing 
it was a holy sacrifice; the instruments used therefor were 
sacred. The high antiquity of this cultus is attested by the 
references to it found occurring in the Persian Avesta ; it seems, 
however, to have received a new impulse on Indian territory." 

In later times, the name was appropriated to the moon, and 
some of the qualities of the soma juice have been transferred to 
the luminary, who is Oshadhi-pati, or lord of herbs. So Soma 
is considered the guardian of sacrifices and penance, asterisms 
and healing herbs. 

In the Puramc mythology Soma, as the moon, is commonly 
said to be the son of the Bishi Atri by his wife Anasuya, 
but the authorities are not agreed. One makes him son of 
Dharma ; another gives his paternity to Prabhakara, of the race 
of Atri; and he is also said to have been produced from the 
churning of the ocean in another Manwantara. In the Vish?iu 
Purawa he is called " the monarch of Brahmans ; " but the 
BHhad Arawyaka, an older work, makes him a Kshatriya. He 
married twenty-seven daughters of the Bislni Daksha, who are 
really personifications of the twenty-seven lunar asterisms ; but 
keeping up the personality, he paid such attention to Kohiwi, the 
fourth of them, that the rest became jealous, and appealed to 
their father. Daksha s interference was fruitless, and he cursed 
his son-in-law, so that he remained childless, and became affected 
with consumption. This moved the pity of his wives, and they 


interceded with their father for him. He could not recall his 
curse, but he modified it so that the decay should be periodical, 
not permanent. Hence the wane and increase of the moon. 
He performed the Raja-siiya sacrifice, and became in consequence 
so arrogant and licentious that he carried off Tara, the wife of 
Bnhaspati, and refused to give her up either on the entreaties 
of her husband or at the command of Brahma. This gave rise 
to a wide-spread quarrel. The sage Usanas, out of enmity to 
Brihaspati, sided with Soma, and he was supported by the 
Panavas, the Daityas, and other foes of the gods. Indra and 
the gods in general sided with BnTiaspati. There ensued a 
fierce contest, and " the earth was shaken to her centre." Soma 
had his body cut in two by $iva s trident, and hence he is called 
Bhagnatma. At length Brahma interposed and stopped the 
fight, compelling Soma to restore Tara to her husband. The 
result of this intrigue was the birth of a child, whom Tara, 
after great persuasion, declared to be the son of Soma, and to 
whom the name of Budha was given : from him the Lunar race 

According to the Purawas, the chariot of Soma has three 
wheels, and is drawn by ten horses of the whiteness of the jas 
mine, five on the right half of the yoke, and five on the left. 

The moon has many names and descriptive epithets, as 
Chandra, Indu, /SasI, marked like a hare; Nisakara, maker 
of night; Xakshatra-natha, lord of the constellations; $Ita- 
marlchi, having cool rays ; Sitansu, having white rays ; Mn- 
gilnka, marked like a deer; iva-sekhara, the crest of $iva; 
Kumuda-pati, lord of the lotus ; $weta-vaji, drawn by white 

SOMADEYA BHA7TA. The writer or compiler of the 
collection of stories called Katha-sarit-sagara. 

SOMAKA. Grandfather of Drupada, who transmitted his 
name to his descendants. 

SOMA-LOKA. See Loka. 

SOMA-NATHA, SOMESWAEA. Lord of the moon. The 
name of a celebrated Lingam or emblem of $iva at the city of 
Somnuth-pattan in Gujarat. It was destroyed by Mahmud of 

SOMAPAS. Soma-drinkers. A class of Pitri s or Manes 
who drink the soma juice. See Pitn s. 


SOMA-YANSA. See Chandra-vansa. 

SRADDHA. i. Faith, personified in the Yedas and lauded 
in a few hymns. 2. Daughter of the sage Daksha, wife of the 
god Dharma, and reputed mother of Kama-deva, the god of 

by the former name in the Brahmaftas, and by the -latter in the 
Maha-bharata. The latter is commonly applied to Yama. 

SRAUTA. Belonging to the Sruti. See Sruti and Sutra. 

SRAIJTA-SUTRA. See Sutra and Yedangas. 

SRAYASTI. An ancient city which seems to have stood 
near Faizabad in Oude. 

SRI. Fortune, prosperity. i. The wife of Yish?m. (See 
Lakshml.) 2. An honorific prefix to the names of gods, kingSy 
heroes, and men and books of high estimation. 

SRI BHAGAYATA. See Bhagavata Purarca. 

SHI DAMA CHARITRA. A modern drama in five acts by 
Sarna Raja Dikshita, on the sudden elevation to affluence of Sri 
Daman, a friend of Kr/shwa. It is not a good play, " but there 
is some vivacity in the thoughts and much melody in the style." 

SRI-DHARA SWAML Author of several commentaries of 
repute on the Bhagavad-glta, Yistmu Pura?ia, &c. 

SRI HARSHA. A great sceptical philosopher, and author 
of the poem called Naishadha or Kaishadhiya. There were 
several kings of the name. 

SRI HARSHA DEYA. A king who was author of the 
drama Ratnavali. 

SBINGA-GIRI. A hill on the edge of the Western Ghats 
in Mysore, where there is- a math or monastic establishment of 
Brahmans, said to have been founded by Sankaracharya. 

S^/XGARA TILAKA. The mark of love. A work by 
Rudra Bha//a on the sentiments and emotions of lovers as exhi 
bited in poetry and the drama. 

STt/JSTGA-YERA. The modern Sungroor, a town on the 
left bank of the Ganges and on the frontier of Kosala and the 
Bhil country. The country around was inhabited by Nishadas 
or wild tribes, and Guha, the friend of Rama, was their chief. 

SRI-SAIL A. The mountain of Sri, the goddess of fortune. 
It is a holy place in the Dakhin, near the Kr/shwa, and was 


formerly a place of great splendour. It retains its sanctity but 
has lost its grandeur. Also called ri-parvata. 

$RI-YATSA. A particular mark, said to be a curl of hair 
on the breast of Vish?iu or Knslma, and represented by 

3RUTA-BODHA. A work on metres attributed to Kuli-dasa. 
It has been edited and translated into French by Lancereau. 

SRUTA-KIRTTI. Cousin of Sita and wife of tfatru-ghna, 

tfRUTARSHL A Bislii who did not receive the Sniti 
(revelation) direct, but obtained it at second-hand from the 
Vedic liishis. 

RUTL <What was heard. The revealed word. The 
Mantras and Brahmarcas of the Yedas are always included in 
the term, and the Upanishads are generally classed with them. 

STHALI-DEVATAS, DEYATAS. Gods or goddesses of 
the soil, local deities. 

STHANU. A name of iva. 

STHAPATYA-YEDA. The science of architecture, one of 
the Upa-vedas. 

STHtLYA, STHILYA-KARJVA. A Yaksha who is repre 
sented in the Maha-bharata to have changed sexes for a while 
with $ikhawrfim, daughter of Drupada. 

SU-BAHU. Five-armed. i. A son of Dhn ta-rfish/ra and 
king of Chedi. 2. A son of atru-ghna and king of MathuriL 

STJ-BALA. i. A king of Gandhara, father of Gandhari, wife 
of Dlm ta-rashfra. 2. A mountain in Lanka on which Hanuman 
alighted after leaping over the channel. 

SU-BHADRA. Daughter of Yasu-deva, sister of Kr/shm, 
and wife of Arjuna. Bala-rama, her elder brother, wished to 
give her to Dur-yodhana,but Arjuna carried her off from Dwarakil 
at Krish??a s suggestion, and Bala-rama subsequently acquiesced 
in their union. She was mother of Abhimanyu. She appears 
especially as sister of Knshwa in his form Jagan-natha, and 
according to tradition there was an incestuous intimacy between 
them. When the car of Jagan-natha is brought out the images 
of Su-bhadra and Bala-rama accompany the idol, and the inti 
macy of Jagan-natha and Su-bhadra is said to provoke taunts and 

SUBHANGI. Fair-limbed. An epithet of Rati, wife of 
Kama, and of Yakshi, wife of Kuvera. 

SU-BIIAXU. Son of Kr/sh/za and Satya-bhamil 



SU-BODIIIXI. A commentary by Yisweswara Bha//a on the 
law-book called Mitakshara. 

STJ-BEAHMANYA. A name of Karttikeya, god of war, 
used especially in the South. See Karttikeya. 

SU-CHAEU. A son of Krishna and Eukmim. 

SU-DAE/SAXA A name of Kn shwa s chakra or discus 
weapon. See Yajra-nabha. 

SUDAS. A king who frequently appears in the 7?/g-veda, 
and at whose court the rival jRi shis Yasish/ha and Yiswamitra 
are represented as living. He was famous for his sacrifices. 

SU-DESHXA. Son of Knshwa and Eukmi?H. 

U-DESHNA. Good-looking. i. Wife of the Eaja of 
Yira7a, the patron of the disguised ParaZavas, and mistress of 
Draupadi. 2. Also the wife of Balin. 

SU-DHAEMA, SU-DHAEMAK The hall of Indra, " the 
unrivalled gem of princely courts," which Kn shwa commanded 
Indra to resign to Ugrasena, for the assemblage of the race of 
Yadu. After the death of Krishna it returned to Indra s 

$UDEA. The fourth or servile caste. See Yama. 

/SlJDEAKA. A king who wrote the play called Mnchchha- 
ka/i, the toy-cart, in ten acts. 

SU-DYUMXA. Son of the Manu Yaivaswata. At his birth 
he was a female, Ila, but was afterwards changed into a male and 
called Su-dyumna. Under the curse of $iva he again became 
Ila, who married Budha or Mercury, and was mother of Puru- 
ravas. By favour of Yish?iu the male form was again recovered, 
and Su-dyumna became the father of three sons. This legend 
evidently has reference to the origin of the Lunar race of kings. 

SU-GEIYA. Handsome neck. A monkey king who was 
dethroned by his brother Balin, but after the latter had been 
killed, Su-grlva was re-installed by Eama as king at Kishkin- 
dhya. He, with his adviser Hanuman and their army of 
monkeys, were the allies of Eama in his war against Eavawa, in 
which he was wounded. He is said to have been son of the sun, 
and from his paternity he is called Eavi-nandana and by other 
similar names. He is described as being grateful, active in aiding 
his friends, and able to change his form at will. His wife s 
name was Euma\ 

SUIIMA A country _said to be east of Bengal. 



SUKA-SAPTATI. The seventy (tales) of a parrot. This 
is the original of the Tuti-namah of the Persian, from which 
the Hindustani Tota-kahani was translated. 

#UKRA. The planet Venus and its regent. $ukra was son 
of Bhngu and priest of Bali and the Daityas (Daitya-gtiru). He 
is also called the son of Kavi. His wife s name was $usuma or 
$ata-parwa. His daughter Devayanl married Yayati of the 
Lunar race, and her husband s infidelity induced $ukra to curse 
him. $ukra is identified with Usanas, and is author of a code 
of law. The Hari-vansa relates that he went to $iva and asked 
for means of protecting the Asuras against the gods, and for 
obtaining his object he performed " a painful rite, imbibing the 
smoke of chaff with his head downwards for a thousand years." 
In his absence the gods attacked the Asuras and Vishmi killed 
his mother, for which deed $ukra cursed him " to be born seven 
times in the world of men." $ukra restored his mother to life, 
and the gods being alarmed lest $ukra s penance should be 
accomplished, Indra sent his daughter JayantI to lure him from 
it. She waited upon him and soothed him, but he accomplished 
his penance and afterwards married her. $ukra is known by 
his patronymic Bhargava, and also as Bhngu. He is also Kavi 
or Kavya, the poet. The planet is called Asphujit, Appo5/V?j ; 
Magha-bhava, son of Magha; Shodasansu, having sixteen 
rays ; and $weta, the white. 

SUKTA. AVedichymn. 

SU-MANTRA. The chief counsellor of Raja Dasa-ratha and 
friend of Riima. 

SU-MANTU. The collector of the hymns of the Atharva- 
veda ; he is said to have been a pupil of Veda Vyasa, and to 
have acted under his guidance. 

SUMBHA and NISHUMBHA. Two Asuras, brothers, 
who were killed by Durga. These brothers, as related in the 
MiirkawZeya Purawa, were votaries of $iva, and performed severe 
penance for 5000 years in order to obtain immortality. /Siva 
refused the boon, and they continued their devotions with such 
increased intensity for 800 years more, that the gods trembled 
for their power. By advice of Indra, the god of love, Kama, 
went to them with two celestial nymphs, Rambhil and Tilottama, 
and they succeeded in seducing the two Asuras and holding them 
in the toils of sensuality for 5000 years. On recovering from their 


voluptuous aberration they drove the nymphs hack to paradise 
and recommenced their penance. At the end of 1000 years 
$iva "blessed them " that in riches and strength they should 
excel the gods." In their exaltation they warred against the 
gods, who, in despair, appealed in succession to Brahma, Vishmi, 
and iva, hut in vain. The latter advised them to apply to 
Durga, and they did so. She contrived to engage the Asuras in 
war, defeated their forces, slew their commanders, Champa and 
Murce?a, and finally killed them. See Sunda. 

SU-MEEU. The mountain Meru, actual or personified. 

SU-MITRA. Wife of Dasa-ratha and mother of Lakshmawa 
and $atru-ghna. See Dasa-ratha. 

STJ-MUKHA. Handsome face/ This epithet is used for 
Garu^a and for the son of Garuc?a. 

/STJNTA.ff-AS EPHAS. The legend of #una/*-sephas, as told in 
the Aitareya Brahmarai, is as follows : King Haris-chandra, of 
the race of Ikshwaku, being childless, made a vow that if he 
obtained a son he would sacrifice him to Yaruwa. A son was 
born who received the name of Rohita, but the father post 
poned, under various pretexts, the fulfilment of his vow. When 
at length he resolved to perform the sacrifice, Rohita refused 
to be the victim, and went out into the forest, where he lived 
for six years. He then met a poor Brahman Bishi called 
Ajigartta, who had three sons, and Rohita purchased from 
Ajigartta for a hundred cows, the second son, named 
sephas, to be the substitute for himself in the sacrifice. Vanma 
approved of the substitute, and the sacrifice was about to be per 
formed, the father receiving another hundred cows for binding 
his son to the sacrificial post, and a third hundred for agreeing 
to slaughter him. /Suna/i-sephas saved himself by reciting verses 
in honour of different deities, and was received into the family of 
Viswamitra, who was one of the officiating priests. The Ramii- 
yawa gives a different version of the legend. Ambarisha, king 
of Ayodhya, was performing a sacrifice when Indra carried off the 
victim. The officiating priest represented that this loss could be 
atoned for only by the sacrifice of a human victim. The king, 
after a long search, found a Brahman Itishi named Jt/chika, who 
had two sons, and the younger, $una/i-sephas, was then sold by 
his own consent for a hundred thousand cows, ten millions of gold 
pieces, and heaps of jewels. $una/i-sephas met with his mater- 


Hal uncle, Viswiimitra, who taught him two divine verses which 
he was to repeat when about to be sacrificed. As he was bound 
at the stake to be immolated, he celebrated the two gods Indra 
and Vishmi with the excellent verses, and Indra, being pleased, 
bestowed upon him long life. He was afterwards called Deva- 
ruta, and is said to have become son of Viswamitra. The Maha- 
bharata and the Purawas show some few variations. A series of 
seven hymns in the J^ g-veda is attributed to $unaA-sephas. See 
Muir s Texts, i. 355, 407, 413 ; Vishnu Purana, iv. 25 ; Miiller s 
Sanskrit Literature, 408 ; Wilson s Pdg-veda, i. 60. 

SU-NAMAN. Son of Ugrasena and brother of Kama. He 
was king of the /Surasenas. "When Kansa was overpowered in 
battle by Krishna, Su-naman went to succour him, but was en 
countered and slain by Bala-rama. 

S TJVNANDJL A princess of Chedi who befriended Dama- 
yanti when she was deserted by her husband. 

SUNDA. Sunda and Upasunda, of the Maha-bharata, were 
two Daityas, sons of Nisunda, for whose destruction the Apsaras 
Tilottama was sent down from heaven. They quarrelled for her, 
and killed each other. See /S unibha. 

SU-PARNAS. Fine-winged. " Beings of superhuman char 
acter, as Garucfa, and other birds of equally fanciful description ; 
one of those classes first created by the Brahmadikas, and in 
cluded in the daily presentation of water to deceased ancestors, 
&c." Wilson. 

SU-PARSWA. A fabulous bird in the Kamayawa. He was 
son of Sampati and nephew of Ja/ayus. 

SU-PEIYA. Very dear. Chief of the Gandharvas. 

$URA. A Yadava king who ruled over the $urasenas at 
INIathura ; he was father of Vasu-deva and Kunti, and grand 
father of K?ish?ia. 

SURA. Wine or spirituous liquor, personified as Sura-devi, 
a goddess or nymph produced at the churning of the ocean. 

SURABHL The cow of plenty, produced at the churning 
of the ocean, who granted every desire, and is reverenced as " the 
fountain of milk and curds." See Kama-dhenu and KandinL 

SURAS. In the Yedas, a class of beings connected with 
Surya, the sun. The inferior deities who inhabit Swarga ; a 
god in general. According to some, the word is allied to swar, 
heaven; others think it to have sprung from the deriva- 


tion assigned to asura, and as a-sura is said to signify not a 
god, sura has come to mean god. 

SU-RASA. A Rakshasi, mother of the Nagas. When Hanu 
man was on his flight to Lanka against Rava?ia, she tried to save 
her relative by swallowing Hanuman "bodily. To avoid this. 
Hanuman distended his body and continued to do so, while she 
stretched her mouth till it was a hundred leagues wide. Then 
he suddenly shrank up to the size of a thumb, darted through 
her, and came out at her right ear. 

$URASENAS. Name of a people, the Suraseni of Arrian. 
Their capital was Mathura on the Yamuna, which Manu calls 

/SURPA - IsTAKHA. * Having nails like winnowing-fans. 
Sister of Ravawa. This Rakshasl admired the beauty of Rama 
and fell in love with him. When she made advances to Rama 
he referred her to Lakshmam, and Lakshmawa in like manner 
sent her back to Rama. Enraged at this double rejection, she 
fell upon Sita, and Rama was obliged to interfere forcibly for the 
protection of his wife. He called out to Lakshmawa to disfigure 
the violent Rakshasl, and Lakshmana cut off her nose and ears. 
She flew to her brothers for revenge, and this brought on the war 
between Rama and Ravawa. She descanted to Ravaraa on the 
beauty of Sita, and instigated his carrying her off, and finally 
she cursed him just before the engagement in which he was 

SURYA. The sun or its deity. He is one of the three chief 
deities in the Yedas, as the great source of light and warmth, 
but the references to him are more poetical than precise. Some 
times he is identical with Savitn and Aditya, sometimes he is 
distinct. " Sometimes he is called son of Dyaus, sometimes of 
Aditi. In one passage, Ushas, the dawn, is his wife, in another 
he is called the child of the dawns ; he moves through the sky 
in a chariot drawn by seven ruddy horses or mares." Surya has 
several wives, but, according to later legends, his twin sons the 
Aswins, who are ever young and handsome and ride in a golden 
car as precursors of Ushas, the dawn, were born of a nymph 
called Aswini, from her having concealed herself in the form of 
a mare. In the Ramayawa and Purawas, Surya is said to be the 
son of Kasyapa and Aditi, but in the Ramayawa he is otherwise 
referred to as a son of Brahma. His wife was Sanjna, daughter 


of Viswa-karma, and by her he had three children, the Manu 
Yaivaswata, Yama, and the goddess Yami, or the Yamuna 
river. His effulgence was so overpowering that his wife gave 
him Chhaya (shade) for a handmaid, and retired into the forest 
to devote herself to religion. While thus engaged, and in the 
form of a mare, the sun saw her and approached her in the form 
of a horse. Hence sprang the two Aswins and Revanta. Surya 
brought back his wife Sanjna to his home, and her father, the 
sage Viswa-karma, placed the luminary on his lathe and cut 
away an eighth of his effulgence, trimming him in every part 
except the feet. The fragments that were cut off fell blazing to 
the earth, and from them Viswa-karma formed the discus of 
Vishnu, the trident of $iva, the weapon of Kuvera, the lance of 
Karttikeya, and the weapons of the other gods. According to 
the Maha-bharata, Kama was his illegitimate son by KuntL He 
is also fabled to be the father of $ani and the monkey chief Su- 
grlva. The Manu Vaivaswata was father of Ikshwaku, and from 
him, the grandson of the sun, the Surya-vansa, or Solar race of 
kings, draws its origin. In the form of a horse Surya commu 
nicated the White Yajur-veda to Yajnawalkya, and it was he 
who bestowed on Satrajit the Syamantaka gem. A set of terrific 
Rakshasas called Mandehas made an attack upon him and sought 
to devour him, but were dispersed by his light. According to 
the Vishrai Purawa he was seen by Sattrajita in " his proper 
form," " of dwarfish stature, with a body like burnished copper, 
and with slightly reddish eyes." Surya is represented in a chariot 
drawn by seven horses, or a horse with seven heads, surrounded 
with rays. His charioteer is Aruwa or Vivaswat, and his city 
Vivaswati or BhaswatL There are temples of the sun, and he 
receives worship. The names and epithets of the sun are number 
less. He is Savitn, the nourisher ; Vivaswat, the brilliant ; 
Bhaskara, light-maker ; Dina-kara, day-maker ; Arha-pati, 
1 lord of day ; Loka-chakshuh, eye of the world ; Karma - 
sakshi, witness of the deeds (of men) ; Graha-raja, king of 
the constellations ; Gabhastiman, possessed of rays ; Sahasra- 
kirawa, * having a thousand rays ; Vikarttana, * shorn of his 
beams (by Viswa-karma); Maitafkia, descended f rom Mn ta //(/a/ 
&c. Surya s wives are called Savama, Swati, and Maha-vlryu. 

SURYA-KANTA. The sun-gem. A crystal supposed to 
be formed of condensed rays of the sun, and though cool to the 


touch, to give out heat in the sun s rays. There is a similar 
moon-stone. It is also called Dahanopala. See Chandra-kanta. 

SURYA SIDDHANTA. A celebrated work on astronomy, 
said to have been revealed by the sun (Surya). It has been 
edited in the Bibliotheca Indica by Hall, and there are other 
editions. It has been translated by Whitney and Burgess. 

SURYA- VAK/SA. The Solar race. A race or lineage of 
Kshatriyas which sprank from Ikshwaku, grandson of the sun. 
Kama was of this race, and so were many other great kings and 
heroes. Many Rajputs claim descent from this and the other 
great lineage, the Lunar race. The Rana of Udaypur claims to 
be of the Surya-vansa, and the Jharejas of Cutch and Sindli 
assert a descent from the Chandra-vansa. There were two 
dynasties of the Solar race. The elder branch, which reigned at 
Ayodhya, descended from Ikshwaku through his eldest son, 
Vikukshi. The other dynasty, reigning at Mithila, descended 
from another of Ikshwaku s sons, named Nimi. The lists of 
these two dynasties on the opposite page are taken from the 
Vishmi Purawa. The lists given by other authorities show some 
discrepancies, but they agree in general as to the chief names. 

STJ-SARMAK A king of Tri-gartta, who attacked the Raja 
of Virata, and defeated him and made him prisoner, but Bhirna 
rescued the Raja and made Su-sarman prisoner. 

SUSHENA. i. A son of Krishna, and Rukmim. 2. A phy 
sician in the army of Rama, who brought the dead to life and 
performed other miraculous cures. 

USEL/VA. An Asura mentioned in the Jftg-veda as killed 
by Indra. 

SILSRUTA. A medical writer whose date is uncertain, but 
his work was translated into Arabic before the end of the eighth 
century. The book has been printed at Calcutta. There is a 
Latin translation by Hepler and one in German by Vullers. 

SUTA. Charioteer. A title given to Karraa. 

SU-TIKSH7VA. A hermit sage who dwelt in the Da^aka 
forest, and was visited by Rama and Sita. 

SUTRA. A thread or string. A rule or aphorism. A verso 
expressed in brief and technical language, a very favourite 
form among the Hindus of embodying and transmitting rules. 
There are Sutras upon almost every subject, but " the Sutras " 
generally signify those which are connected with the Yedas, viz., 




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the Kalpa Sutras, relating to ritual; the Gnhya Sutras, to 
domestic rites ; and the Samayacharika Sutras, to conventional 
usages. The Kalpa Sutras, having especial reference to the Veda 
or $ruti, are called /S rauta; the others are classed as Sniarta, being 
derived from the Snrnti. The Sutras generally are anterior to. 
Manu, and are probably as old as the sixth century B.C. Several 
have been published in the BiUiotheca Indica. 

/SUTUDKI. The river Satlej. See ata-dru. 

SU-YAHU. A Rakshasa, son of Taraka. He was killed by 

SU-VELA. One of the three peaks of the mountain Tri- 
ku7a, on the midmost of which the city of Lanka was built. 

SU-YODHANA. < Fair fighter. A name of Dur-yodhana. 

SWADHA. Oblation. Daughter of Daksha and Prasuti 
according to one statement, and of Agni according to another. 
She is connected with the Pitn s or Manes, and is represented 
as wife of Kavi or of one class of Pitr/s, and as mother of 

SWAHA. Offering. Daughter of Daksha and Prasuti. 
She was wife of Yahni or Fire, or of Abhimani, one of the 

SWA-PHALKA. Husband of Gandini and father of Akrura. 
He was a man of great sanctity of character, and where " he 
dwelt famine, plague, death, and other visitations were un 
known." His presence once brought rain to the kingdom of 
Ivasi-raja, where it was much wanted. 

SWAR See Vyahnti 

SWARGA. The heaven of Indra, the abode of the inferior 
gods and of beatified mortals, supposed to be situated on Mount 
Meru. It is called also Sairibha, Misraka-vana, Tavisha, Tri- 
divam, Tri-pish/apam, and Urdhwa-loka, Names of heaven or 
paradise in general are also used for it. 

SWAR-LOKA. See Loka. 

SWAROCHISHA. Name of the second Manu. See Manu. 

SWASTIKA. A mystical religious mark placed upon per 
sons or things. It is in the form of a Greek cross with the ends 

bent round 

SWAYAM-BHU. The self-existent. A name of Brahma, 
the creator. 


SWAYAM-BHUVA. A name of the first Maim (q.v.). 

SWETA-DWIPA. The white island or continent. Colonel 
Wilford attempted to identify it with Britain. 

S WETA-KETU. A sage who, according to the Maha-bharata, 
put a stop to the practice of married w r omen consorting with 
other men, especially with Brahmans. . His indignation was 
aroused at seeing a Brahman take his mother by the hand and 
invite her to go away with him. The husband saw this, and 
told his son that there was no ground of offence, for the practice 
had prevailed from time immemorial. $weta-ketu would not 
tolerate it, and introduced the rule by which a wife is forbidden 
to have intercourse with another man unless specially appointed 
by her husband to raise up seed to him. 

SWETAtfWATAKA. An Upanishad attached to the Yajur- 
veda. It is one of the most modern. Translated by Dr. Koer 
for the B iblwtheca Imlica. 

SYALA. A brother-in-law. A Yadava prince who in 
sulted the sage Gargya, and was the cause of his becoming the 
father of Kala-yavana, a great foe of Krishna and the Yadava 

SYAMA. The black. A name of Siva s consort. See 

SYAMAXTAKA. A celebrated gem given by the sun to 
Satrajita, " It yielded daily eight loads of gold, and dispelled 
all fear of portents, wild beasts, fire, robbers, and famine." But 
though it was an inexhaustible source of good to the virtuous 
wearer, it was deadly to a wicked one. Satrajita being afraid 
that Krishna would take it from him, gave it to his own brother, 
Prasena, but he, being a bad man, was killed by a lion. Jam- 
bavat, king of the bears, killed the lion and carried off the gem, 
but Krishna, after a long conflict, took it from him, and restored 
it to Satrajita. Afterwards Satrajita was killed in his sleep 
by Sata-dhanwan, who carried off the gem. Being pursued by 
Krishna and Bala-rama, he gave the gem to Akriira and con- 
tinued his flight, but he was overtaken and killed by Krishna 
alone. As Krishwa did not bring back the jewel, Balu-ranm 
suspected that he had secreted it, and consequently he upbraided 
him and parted from him, declaring that he would not be im 
posed upon by perjuries. Akrura subsequently produced the 
gem, and it was claimed by Knshna, Bala-rama, and Satya- 


bhama. After some contention it was decided that Akrura 
should keep it, and so " he moved about like the sun wearing a 
garland of light." 

/SYAYA$WA. Son of Archananas. Both were Yedic 7?ishis. 
In a hymn he says, " $aayasl has given me cattle, comprising 
horses and cows and hundreds of sheep." The story told in 
explanation is that Archananas, having seen the daughter of 
Raja Rathaviti, asked her in marriage for his son $yavaswa. The 
king was inclined to consent, but the queen objected that no 
daughter of their house had ever been given to any one less 
saintly than a .Z&shi. To qualify himself $yavaswa engaged in 
austerities and begged alms. Among others, he begged of /Sasi- 
yasi, wife of Raja Taranta. She took him to her husband, with 
whose permission she gave him a herd of cattle and costly orna 
ments. The Raja also gave him whatever he asked for, and 
sent him on to his younger brother, Purumilha. On his way he 
met the Maruts, and lauded them in a hymn, for which they 
made him a Bishi. He then returned to Rathavlti, and received 
his daughter to wife. 

TADAKA. See TarakE. 

TAITTIRIYA. This term is applied to the Sanhita of the 
Black Yajur-veda. (See Yeda.) It is also applied to a Brah- 
mawa, to an Arawyaka, to an Upanishad, and a Pratisakhya of 
the same Yeda. All these are printed, or are in course of print 
ing, in the Bibliotheca Indica, and of the last there is a transla 
tion in that serial. 

TAKSHA, TAKSHAKA. Son of Bharata, and nephew of 
Rama-chandra. The sovereign of Gandhara, who resided at and 
probably founded Taksha-sila or Taxila, in the Panjab. 

TAKSHAKA. * One who cuts off; a carpenter. A name of 
Yiswa-karma. A serpent, son of Kadru, and chief of snakes. 

TAKSHA-/SILA. A city of the Gandharas, situated in the 
Panjab. It was the residence of Taksha, son of Bharata and 
nephew of Rama-chandra, and perhaps took its name from him. 
It is the Taxila of Ptolemy and other classical writers. Arrian 
describes it as " a large and wealthy city, and the most populous 
between the Indus and Hydaspes." It was three days journey 
east of the Indus, and General Cunningham has found its 
remains at Sahh-dhaii, one mile north-east of Kala-kisariii. 

TALAJAXGHA. Son of Jaya-dhwaja, king of Avanti, of 


the Ilailiaya race, and founder of the Tala-jangha tribe of Ilai- 
liayas. See Haihaya. 

TALA-KETU. Palm-banner. An appellation of Bhishma ; 
also of an enemy killed by Krishna. Bala-rama had the synonym 
ous appellation Tala-dhwaja. 

TALAM. The throne of Durga. 

TALAVAKARA. A name of the Kena Upanishad. 

TAMASA. The fourth Mann. See Manu. 

TAMASA. The river " Tonse," rising in the jfriksha moun 
tains, and falling into the Ganges. 

TAMRA-LIPTA. The country immediately west of the Bha- 
girathi ; Tamlook, Hijjali, and Midnapore. Its inhabitants are 
called Tamra-liptakas. 

TAMRA-PARJVA, TAMRA-PARM. Ceylon, the ancient 
Taprobane. There was a town in the island called Tamra-parm, 
from which the whole island has been called by that name. 

TAiVDU. One of $iva s attendants. He was skilled in music, 
and invented the dance called Ta?^?ava. See Siva. 

TA^VDYA, TA7VZ)AKA. The most important of the eight 
Brahmawas of the Sama-veda. It has been published in the 
Bibliotheca Indica. 

TANTRA. Rule, ritual. The title of a numerous class of 
religious and magical works, generally of later date than the 
Purawas, and representing a later development of religion, 
although the worship of the female energy had its origin at an 
earlier period. The chief peculiarity of the Tantras is the pro 
minence they give to the female energy of the deity, his active 
nature being personified in the person of his /Sakti, or wife. 
There are a few Tantras which make Vishnn s wife or Radhii 
the object of devotion, but the great majority of them are 
devoted to one of the manifold forms of Devi, the $akti of $iva, 
and they are commonly written in the form of a dialogue between 
these two deities. Devi, as the $akti of $iva, is the especial 
energy concerned with sexual intercourse and magical powers, 
and these are the leading topics of the Tantras. There are five 
requisites for Tantra worship, the five Makaras or five m s (i.) 
Maclya, wine; (2.) Mansa, flesh; (3.) Matsya, fish; (4.) Miidrii, 
parched grain and mystic gesticulations; (5.) Maithuna, sexual 
intercourse. Each akti has a twofold nature, white and black, 
gentle and ferocious. Thus Uma and Gauii are gentle forms of 


the $akti of Siva, while Durga and Kali are fierce forms. The 
$aktas or worshippers of the $aktis are divided into two classes, 
Dakshinacharis and Yamacharis, the right-handed and the left- 
handed. The worship of the right-hand $aktas is comparatively 
decent, but that of the left hand is addressed to the fierce forms 
of the $aktis, and is most licentious. The female principle is 
worshipped, not only symbolically, but in the actual woman, 
and promiscuous intercourse forms part of the orgies. Tantra 
worship prevails chiefly in Bengal and the Eastern provinces. 


TAP ATI. The river Tapti personified as a daughter of the 
Sun by Chhaya. She was mother of Kuru by Samvarawa. 

TARA. Wife of the monkey king Balm, and mother of 
Angada. After the death of Balin in battle she was taken to 
wife by his brother, Su-griva. 

TARA, TARAKA. Wife of Bnhaspati. According to the 
Pura?ias, Soma, the moon, carried her off, which led to a great 
war between the gods and the Asuras. Brahma put an end to 
the war and restored Tara, but she was delivered of a child 
which she declared to be the son of Soma, and it was named 
Budha. See Br/haspati. 

TARAKA. Son of Yajranaka. A Daitya whose austerities 
made him formidable to the gods, and for whose destruction 
Skanda, the god of war, was miraculously born. 

TARAKA. A female Daitya, daughter of the Yaksha Su-ketu 
or of the demon Sunda, and mother of Marlcha. She was 
changed into a Rakshasi by Agastya, and lived in a forest called 
by her name on the Ganges, opposite the confluence of the Sarju, 
and she ravaged all the country round. Yiswamitra desired 
Rama-chandra to kill her, but he was reluctant to kill a woman. 
He resolved to deprive her of the power of doing harm, and cut 
off her two arms. Lakshma?ia cut off her nose and ears. She, 
by the power of sorcery, assailed Rama and Laksnmawa with a 
fearful shower of stones, and at the earnest command of Yiswa 
mitra, the former killed her with an arrow. Edmdyana. 

TARAKA-MAYA. The war which arose in consequence of 
Soma, the moon, having carried off Tara, the wife of Bnhaspati. 

TARKSHYA. An ancient mythological personification of 
the sun in the form of a horse or bird. In later times the name 
is applied to Garurfa. 


TATTYA SAMASA. A text-book of the Sankhya philo 
sophy, attributed to Kapila himself. 

TELINGA. The Telugu country, stretching along the coast 
from Orissa to Madras. 

TILOTTAMA. Name of an Apsaras. She was originally a 
Brahman female, but for the offence of bathing at an improper 
season she was condemned to be born as an Apsaras, for the 
purpose of bringing about the mutual destruction of the two 
demons Sunda and Upasunda. 

TIMIN, TIMIN-GILA. The Timin is a large fabulous fish. 
The Timin-gila, swallower of the Timin, is a still larger one ; 
and there is one yet larger, the Timin-gila-gila or Timi-timin-gila, 
swallower of the Timin-gila. Cf. the Arabic Tinnm, sea-serpent. 
It is also called Samudriiru. 

TISHYA. The Kali Yuga or fourth age. 

TITTIRL * A partridge. An ancient sage who was the pupil 
of Yaska, and is an authority referred to by Pamni. Some attri 
bute the Taittlriya Sanhita of the Yajur-veda to him. See Yeda. 

TOSALAKA. An athelete and boxer who was killed by 
Krishna in the public arena in the presence of Kansa. 

TRAIGARTTAS. The people of Tri-gartta (q.v.). 

TRASADASYU. A royal sage and author of hymns. Ac 
cording to Sayawa, he was son of Purukutsa. When Purukutsa 
was a prisoner, " his queen propitiated the seven Osiris to obtain 
a son who might take his father s place. They advised her to 
worship Indra and Yanma, in consequence of which Trasadasyu 
was born." He was renowned for his generosity. According to 
the Bhagavata Purawa he was father of Purukutsa. 

TRETA YUGA. The second age of the world, a period of 
1,296,000 years. See Yuga. 

TRI-BHUYANA, TRI-LOKA. The three worlds, Swarga, 
Bhiimi, Patala heaven, earth, and hell 

TRI-DA&A. < Three times ten, thirty. In round numbers, 
the thirty-three deities twelve Adityas, eight Yasus, eleven 
Rudras, and two Aswins. 

TRI-GARTTA. The country of the three strongholds/ 
lately identified with the northern hill state of Kotoch, which is 
still called by the people " the country of Traigart." Wilson. 
General Cunningham, however, clearly identifies it with the 
Jalandhar Doab and Kangra. 


TRI-JAJA. An amiable Rakshasi who befriended Sita 
when she was the captive of Ravawa in Ceylon. She is also 
called Dharma-jna. 

TRI-KAJVDA ESHA. A Sanskrit vocabulary in three 
chapters, composed as a supplement to the Amara-kosha. It 
has been printed in India. 

TRI-KUTA. Three peaks. i. The mountain on which 
the city of Lanka was built. 2. A mountain range running 
south from Meru. 

TRI-LOCHANA. Three-eyed, ie., Siva. The Maha-bharata 
relates that the third eye burst from diva s forehead with a great 
flame when his wife playfully placed her hands over his eyes 
after he had been engaged in austerities in the Himalaya. This 
eye has been very destructive. It reduced Kama, the god of 
love, to ashes. 

TRI-MURTI. Triple form. The Hindu triad. This was 
foreshadowed in the Yedic association of the three gods Agni, 
Vayu, and Surya. The triad consists of the gods Brahma, iva, 
and Vishrai, the representatives of the creative, destructive, 
and preservative principles. Brahma is the embodiment "of 
the Eajo-gUTza, the quality of passion or desire, by which the 
world was called into being ; $iva is the embodied Tamo-guwa, 
the attribute of darkness or wrath, and the destructive fire by 
which the earth is annihilated ; and Vishnu is the embodied 
Satwa-gima, or property of mercy and goodness by which the 
world is preserved. The three exist in one and one in three, as 
the Yeda is divided into three and is yet but one ; and they 
are all Asrita, or comprehended within that one being who is 
Parama or supreme, Guhya or secret, and Sarvatma, the soul 
of aR things. "Wilson. 

The Padma Purafta, which is a Vaish?mva work and gives the 
supremacy to Vislmu, says, " In the beginning of creation, the 
great Yishrai, desirous of creating the whole world, became three 
fold : creator, preserver, and destroyer. In order to create this 
world, the supreme spirit produced from the right side of his 
body himself as Brahma ; then in order to preserve the world he 
produced from the left side of his body Yishmi ; and in order to 
destroy the world he produced from the middle of his body the 
eternal $iva. Some worship Brahma, others Vishnu, others /Siva; 
but Vish/ra, one yet threefold, creates, preserves, and destroys, 


therefore let the pious make no difference between the three." 
The representation of the Tri-murti is one body with three 
heads : in the middle Brahma, on the right Yislmu, and on the 
left /Siva. The worship of Brahma is almost extinct, but Vish/m 
and Siva, receive unbounded adoration from their respective 
followers, and each is elevated to the dignity of the supreme 

T^/JVAVAKTTA. A demon who assumed the form of a 
whirlwind and carried off the infant Kn shwa, but was over 
powered and killed by the child. 

TRI-PADA. Three-footed. Fever personified as having 
three feet, symbolising the three stages of fever heat, cold, and 

TRI-PURA Triple city. i. According to the Hari-vansa 
it was aerial, and was burnt in a war with the gods. 2. A name 
of the demon Bawa, because he received in gift three cities from 
$iva, Brahma, and Yishmi. He was killed by $iva. His name 
at full length is Tripurasura. The name is also applied to /Siva. 

TEI-PUKI. The capital city of the Chedis, now traceable 
in the insignificant village of Tewar, on the banks of the Nar- 

TRI-/SAXKU. See Satya-vrata. 

TRI-/STRAS. < Three-headed. i. In the Yedas, a son of 
Twash/n; also called Yiswa-rupa. 2. Fever personified as a 
demon with three heads, typical of the three stages of heat, cold, 
and sweating. 3. Kuvera, god of wealth. 4. An Asura killed 
by Vishnu. 5. A son or a friend of Ravarca killed by Rama. 

TRI-^ULA. < A trident. The trident of /Siva. 

TRITA, TRITA APTYA. A minor deity mentioned occa 
sionally in the 7?ig-veda, and generally in some relation to India. 
Thus " Indra broke through the defences of Yala, as did Trita 
through the coverings (of the well)." In explanation of this and 
similar allusions, a legend is told by the commentator to the 
effect, that Ekata, Dwita, and Trita (first, second, and third), 
were three men produced in water by Agni, for the purpose of 
rubbing off the remains of an oblation of clarified butter. Agni 
threw the cinders of the offerings into water, and from them 
sprang the three brothers, who, from their origin in water (/>), 
were called Aptyas. Trita went one day to draw water from a 
well and fell into it. The Asuras then heaped coverings over 



the mouth of it to prevent his getting out, but he broke through 
them with ease. The Nitl-manjarl tells the story differently. 
Ekata, Dwita, and Trita were travelling in a desert and suffered 
from thirst. They came to a well from which Trita drew water 
and gave it to his brothers. In order to appropriate his pro 
perty the two brothers threw him into the well, placed a cart 
wheel over it, and there left him. Trita prayed earnestly to the 
gods, and with their help he escaped. 

TTt/TSUS. A people frequently mentioned in the Veda. 
Sayawa says they were " priests who were Vasish/ha s disciples." 
Vasish^ha himself is said to have belonged to the tribe. 

TKI-VEM. < The triple braid. A name of Prayaga. It is 
so called because the Ganges and Jumna here unite, and the 
Saraswati is supposed to join them by an underground channel. 

TKI-VIKRAMA. A name of Yishwi used in the T^g-veda, 
and referring to three steps or paces which he is represented as 
taking. These steps, according to the opinion of a commentator, 
are "the three periods of the sun s course, his rising, culminating, 
and setting. " An old commentator says, V ishwu stepped by sepa 
rate strides over the whole universe. In three places he planted 
his step, one step on the earth, a second in the atmosphere, and 
a third in the sky, in the successive forms of Agni, Vayu, and 
Surya." The great commentator Saya?ia, a comparatively modern 
writer, understands these steps as being the three steps of Vishwu 
in the Vamana or dwarf incarnation, and no doubt they were 
the origin of this fiction. 

TKYAMBAKA. < Three-eyed/ or Having three wives or 
sisters. i. A name of Siva. 2. One of the Eudras. 3. Name 
of one of the twelve great Lingas. See Linga. 

TKYAKUYA. A king, son of Trivnshan, of the race of 
Ikshwaku. He was riding in a chariot which Vrisa, his puro- 
hita or family priest, was driving. The vehicle passed over and 
killed a Brahman boy, and a question arose as to who was 
responsible for the death. The question was referred to an 
assembly of the Ikshwakus, and they decided it against 
The purohit by his prayers then restored the boy to life, and 
being very angry with them for what he deemed partiality, " fire 
henceforth ceased to perform its functions in their dwellings, 
and the cooking of their food and other offices ceased. " The 
Ikshwakus appeased him, and upon his prayers the use of 


fire was restored to them. This story is told by Sayawa in 
elucidation of a Vedic allusion, and he quotes the /Satyayana 
Brahmawa as the authority. 

TUKHARAS. A northern tribe from whom Tukharistan 
obtained its name. They are probably the tribe of $akas, by 
whom Bactria was taken from the Greeks. They are also called 

TULADHARA. A trading Vaisya mentioned in the Malia- 
bharata as very virtuous and learned, to whom Jajali, an 
arrogant Brahman, was sent by a voice from the sky to learn 

TULTJNGA. Tuluva, or the country where the Tulu lan 
guage is spoken, on the western coast below Goa. 

TUMBURU. Name of a Gandharva. See Viradha. 

TIL/YD A. A demon slain by Nahusha, the son of Ayus. 
He had a son named Vitu?ic?a, who was killed by BhagavatI 

TURANGA-VAKTRA. < Horse-faced people. See Kinnaras. 

TURUSHKAS. Turks; the people of Turkistan. Tho 
Indo-Scythians, who, under Kanishka and other kings of the 
race, held Northern India. 

TURVASA, TURVAU. Son of YaySti by Devayam. He 
refused to bear the curse of premature decrepitude passed upon 
his father, and so his father cursed him that his posterity should 
" not possess dominion." His father gave him a part of his 
kingdom, but after some generations, his line merged into that 
of his brother Puru, who bore for a time the curse passed upon 
his father. 

TUSHARA. See Tukhara. 

TUSHITAS. A gafta or class of subordinate deities, thirty- 
six in number, but sometimes reduced to twelve, and identified 
with the Adityas. 

TWASH772/. In the Jftg-veda this deity is the ideal artist, 
the divine artisan, the most skilful of workmen, who is versed 
in all wonderful and admirable contrivances, and corresponds in 
many respects with Hephaistos and Vulcan. He sharpens and 
carries the great iron axe, and he forges the thunderbolts of 
Indra. He is the beautiful, skilful worker, the omniform, the 
archetype of all forms, the vivifier and the bestower of long life. 
He imparts generative power and bestows offspring. He forms 


husband and wife for each, other, even from the womb. He 
develops the seminal germ in the womb, and is the shaper of 
all forms, human and animal. He has generated a strong man, 
a lover of the gods, a swift horse, and has created the whole 
world. As the $atapatha Brahmawa expresses it, " He has pro 
duced and nourishes a great variety of creatures ; all worlds (or 
beings) are his, and are known to him ; he has given to heaven 
and earth and to all things their forms." He created Brahmanas- 
pati above all creatures, and generated Agni along with heaven 
and earth, the waters and the Bhngus. He is master of the 
universe, the first-born protector and leader, and knows the 
region of the gods. He is supplicated to nourish the worshipper 
and protect his sacrifice. He is the bestower of blessings, and 
is possessed of abundant wealth, and grants prosperity. He is 
asked, like other gods, to take pleasure in the hymns of his 
worshippers and to grant them riches. He is associated with 
the jfribhus, and is represented as sometimes envying and some 
times admiring their skill. He is represented as being occa 
sionally in a state of hostility with Indra, and he had a son 
named Yiswa-rupa (omniform) or Tri-siras, who had three heads, 
six eyes, and three mouths, who was especially obnoxious to 
Indra, and was slain by him. He had a daughter, Sara/iyu, 
whom he married to Yivaswat, and she was the mother of the 
Aswins. In the Purawas Twash^n is identified with Yiswa- 
karman, the artisan of the gods, and sometimes also with Praja- 
pati. One of the Adityas and one of the Rudras bear this name, 
as also did a prince descended from Bharata. 

UCHCHAIff-SRAVAS. The model horse. The white 
horse of Indra, produced at the churning of the ocean. It is 
fed on ambrosia, and is held to be the king of horses. 

UCHCHHISHTA. The remains of a sacrifice, to which 
divine powers are ascribed by the J?/g-veda. 

TJDAYA-GIRI PARYATA The eastern mountain from 
behind which the sun rises. 

UDAYANA i. A prince of the Lunar race, and son of Sahas- 
ranika, who is the hero of a popular story. He was king of 
Yatsa, and is commonly called Yatsa-raja. His capital was 
Kausambi. Yasava-datta, princess of Ujjayim, saw him in a 
dream and fell in love with him. He was decoyed to that city, 
and there kept in captivity by the king, Cha?^t/asena ; but when 


he was set at liberty by the minister, he carried off Vasava-dattl 
from her father and a rival suitor. 2. A name of Agastya. 

UDDHA V A. The friend and counsellor of Krishna. Ac 
cording to some he was Krisli?za s cousin, being son of Deva-;, 
bhaga, the brother of Vasu-deva. He was also called Pavana- 

UDGAT72J. A priest whose duty it is to chaunt the prayers 
or hymns from the Sama-veda. 

UDRANKA. Haris-chandra s aerial city. See Saubha. 

UGRA. A name of Rudra, or of one of his manifestations. 
See Rudra. 

TJGRASENA. A king of Mathura, husband of Kami, and 
father of Kansa and Devaka. He was deposed by Kansa, but 
Knshwa, after killing the latter, restored Ugrasena to the throne. 
See Kansa. 

UJJAYANI. The Greek O^jjvjj and the modern Oujein or 
Ujjein. It was the capital of Vikrarnaditya and one of the 
seven sacred cities. Hindu geographers calculate their longitude 
from it, making it their first meridian. 

ULUKA. An owl Son of Kitava. He was king of a 
country and people of the same name. He was an ally of the 
Kauravas, and acted as their envoy to the Paw/a vas. 

ULUPl. A daughter of Kauravya, Raja of the Kagas, 
with whom Arjuna contracted a kind of marriage. She was 
nurse to her step-son, Babhru-vahana, and had great influence 
over him. According to the Vishnu Purana she had a son 
named Iravat. 

UMA. Light. A name of the consort of /Siva. The 
earliest known mention of the name is in the Kena Upanishad, 
where she appears as a mediatrix between Brahma and the other 
gods, and seems to be identified with Yach. See Devi. 

UMA-PATI. Husband of Uma, that is to say, iva. 

UPANISHADS. Esoteric doctrine. The third division 
of the Yedas attached to the Brahmana portion, and forming 
part of the ruti or revealed word. The Upanishads are generally 
written in prose with interspersed verses, but some are wholly in 
verse. There are about 150 of these works, probably even more. 
They are of later date than the Brahmanas, but it is thought that 
the oldest may date as far back as the sixth century B.C. The 
object of these treatises is to ascertain the mystic sense of the 


text of the Veda, and so they enter into such abstruse questions 
as the orgin of the universe, the nature of the deity, the nature 
of soul, and the connection of mind and matter. Thus they con 
tain the beginnings of that metaphysical inquiry which ended 
in the full development of Hindu philosophy. The Upanishads 
have " one remarkable peculiarity, the total absence of any 
Brahmanical exclusiveness in their doctrine. They are evidently 
later than the older Sanhitas and Brahmawas, but they breathe 
an entirely different spirit, a freedom of thought unknown in 
any earlier work except the ^ig-veda hymns themselves. The 
great teachers of the higher knowledge and Brahmans are con 
tinually represented as going to Kshatriya kings to become their 
pupils." Professor Cowell. The .Kzg-veda has the Upanishad 
called Aitareya attached to the Aitareya Brahmawa. The 
Taittirlya Sanhita of the Yajur has an Upanishad of the same 
name. The Vajasaneyi Sanhita has the Isa, and attached to 
the $atapatha Brahmawa it has the Brihad Arawyaka, which is 
the most important of them. The Sama-veda has the Kena and 
Chhandogya. All these have been translated into English. The 
Atharva-veda has the Ka/ha, Prasna, Muwc?aka, Mandukya, and 
others, altogether fifty-two in number. These are the most im 
portant of the Upanishads. Many of the Upanishads have been 
printed, and several of them translated in the Bibliotheca Indica, 
and by Poley. There is a catalogue by Muller in the Zeitsclirift 
des D. M. G., vol. xix. 

UPAPLAVYA. Matsya, the capital of the king of ViraYa. 

UPA-PURA^VAS. Secondary or subordinate Purawas. See 

UPARICHARA. A Vasu or demigod, who, according to the 
Maha-bharata, became king of Chedi by command of Indra. He 
had five sons by his wife ; and by an Apsaras, named Adrika, 
condemned to live on earth in the form of a fish, he had a son 
named Matsya (fish), and a daughter, Satya-vatI, who was the 
mother of Vyasa. 

UPA$RUTI. A supernatural voice which is heard at night 
revealing the secrets of the future. 

UPASUNDA. A Daitya, son of Nisunda, brother of Sunda, 
and father of Muka. See Sunda. 

UP A- VEDAS. Subordinate or inferior Vedas. These are 
sciences which have no connection whatever with the $ruti or 


revealed Veda. They are four in number (i.) Ayur-vcda, 
medicine; (2.) Gandharva-veda, music and dancing; (3.) Dha- 
nur-veda, archery, military science; (4.) Sthtipatya-veda, archi 

UPEXDRA. A title given to Krishna by India, 

URAGAS. The Nagas or serpents inhabiting Patala. 

URMILA. Daughter of Janaka, sister of Sita, wife of Laksh- 
mawa, and mother of Gandharvl Somada. 

URYA. Father of jRichika and grandfather of Jamad-agni. 

URYA$I. A celestial nymph, mentioned first in the Rig- 
veda. The sight of her beauty is said to have caused the gene 
ration, in a peculiar way, of the sages Agastya and Yasish/ha by 
Mitra and Yaru??a. A verse says, " And thou, Vasishlha, art 
a son of Mitra and Vanma." She roused the anger of these two 
deities and incurred their curse, through which she came to 
live upon the earth, and became the wife or mistress of Puru- 
ravas. The story of hen amour with Puru-ravas is first told in 
the /S atapatha Brahmawa. The loves of Puru-ravas, theVikrama 
or hero, and of Urvasi, the nymph, are the subject of Kali- 
dasa s drama called Yikramorvasi. See Puru-ravas. 

TLSANAS. i. The planet Yenus or its regent, also called 
jSfakia (q.v.). 2. Author of a Dharma-sastra or law-book. 

USHA, A Daitya princess, daughter of Ba?za and grand 
daughter of Bali. She is called also Priti-jusha. She fell in 
love with a prince whom she saw in a dream, and was anxious 
to know if there were such a person. . Her favourite companion, 
Chitra-lekha, drew the portraits of many gods and men, but 
Usha s choice fell upon Aniruddha, son of Pradyumna and 
grandson of Knshrca. Chitra-lekha, by her magic power, brought 
Aniruddha to Usha. Her father, on hearing of the youth s 
being in the palace, endeavoured to kill him, but he defended 
himself successfully. Bana, however, kept Aniruddha, " binding 
him in serpent bonds." Krishna, Pradyumna, and Bala-rama 
went to the rescue ; and although Barca was supported by $iva 
and by Skanda, god of war, his party was defeated, and Aniruddha 
was carried back to Dwaraka with his wife Usha. 

USHAS. The dawn, the %&$ of the Greeks and Aurora of 
the Latins. She is the daughter of heaven and sister of the 
Adityas. This is one of the most beautiful myths of the Ycdas, 
and is enveloped in poetry. Uslias is the friend of men, she smiles 


like a yonng wife, she is the daughter of the sky, she goes to 
every house, she thinks of the dwellings of men, she does not 
despise the small or the great, she brings wealth ; she is always 
the same, immortal, divine, age cannot touch her; she is the 
young goddess, but she makes men grow old. " All this," adds 
Max Miiller, " may be simply allegorical language. But the 
transition from Devi, the bright, to Devi, the goddess, is so 
easy ; the daughter of the sky assumes so readily the same per 
sonality which is given to the sky, Dyaus, her father, that we can 
only guess whether, in every passage, the poet is speaking of a 
bright apparition or of a bright goddess, of a natural vision or a 
visible deity." She is called Ahana and Dyotana, the illumer. 

USHMAPAS. The Pit?-z s or a class of Pitns (q.v.). 

ILSTJ. Mentioned in the j^ g-veda as the mother of Kak- 
shlvat. A female servant of the queen of the Kalinga Eaja. 
The king desired his queen to submit to the embraces of the 
sage Dirgha-tamas, in order that he might beget a son. The 
queen substituted her bondmaid TJsij. The sage, cognisant of 
the deception, sanctified Usij, and begat upon her a son, Kak- 
shivat, who, through his affiliation by the king, was a Kshatriya, 
but, as the son of Dirgha-tamas, was a Brahman. This story is 
told in the Maha-bharata and some of the Pura^as. 

UTATHYA. A Brahman of the race of Angiras, who 
married Bhadra, daughter of Soma, a woman of great beauty. 
The god Varu^a, who had formerly been enamoured of her, car 
ried her off from Utathya s hermitage, and would not give her 
up to Narada, who was sent to bring her back. Utathya, greatly 
enraged, drank up all the sea, still Varuwa would not let her go. 
At the desire of Utathya, the lake of Varuwa was then dried up 
and the ocean swept away. The saint then addressed himself to 
the countries and to the river : " Saraswati, disappear into the 
deserts, and let this land, deserted by thee, become impure." 
" After the country had become dried up, Varuwa submitted 
himself to Utathya and brought back Bhadra. The sage was 
pleased to get back his wife, and released both the world and 
Varuwa from their sufferings." 

UTKALA. The modern Orissa. It gives its name to one of 
the five northern nations of Brahmans. See Brahman. 

UTTAMAUJAS. A warrior of great strength, and an ally 
of the Piiwdtavas. 


UTTAXA-PAD. Outstretched, supine. In the Vcdas, a 
peculiar creative source from which the earth sprang. Sup 
posed to refer to the posture of a woman in parturition. 

UTTAXA-PADA. A son of Manu and tfata-rupfi. By his 
wife Su-nrita he had four sons, Dhruva, Kirtiman, Ayushmiin, 
and Yasu. Some of the Pura?zas gave him another wife, Su-ruchi, 
and a son, Uttama. See Dhruva. 

UTTARA (mas.), UTTARA (fern.). A son and daughter of 
the Raja of YiraYa. Uttara was killed in battle by alya. The 
daughter married Abhimanyu, son of Arjuna. 

UTTARA-KURU. A region lying far to the north. (See 
Jambu-dwipa.) (Plural) The inhabitants of this region. 

UTTARA MIMAXSA. A school of philosophy. feDarsana. 

UTTARA-XAISHADA-CHARITA. A poem on the life 
of Xala, king of Xishada, written about the year 1000 A.D. by 
/Sri Harsha, a celebrated sceptical philosopher. It has beer* 
printed in the BiUiotheca Indica. 

UTTARA-RAMA-CHARITA. < The later chronicle of Rama. 
A drama by Bhava-bhuti on the latter part of Rama s life. The 
second part of King Rama, as the Maha-vira-charita is the first. 
The drama is based on the Uttara Kam/a of the Ramayawa, 
and quotes two or three verses from that poem. It was pro 
bably written about the beginning of the eighth century. It has 
been translated in blank verse by Wilson, and more literally by 
Professor C. H. Tawney. There are several editions of the text. 

VA. A name of Varurca ; also name of his dwelling. 

VACH. ( Speech. In the jfrig-veda, Vach appears to be the 
personification of speech by whom knowledge was communicated 
to man. Thus she is said to have " entered into the .Ri shis," 
and to make whom she loves terrible and intelligent, a priest 
and a jfrishi. She was " generated by the gods," and is called 
" the divine Yach," " queen of the gods," and she is described 
as " the melodious cow who milked forth sustenance and water," 
" who yields us nourishment and sustenance." The Brahmawas 
associate her with Prajapati in the work of creation. In the 
Taittirlya Brahmawa she is called " the mother of the Yedas," 
and " the wife of Indra, who contains within herself all worlds." 
In the $atapatha Brahmafta she is represented as entering into 
a sexual connection with Prajapati, who, " being desirous of 
creating, connected himself with various spouses," and among 


them, " through his mind, with Vach," from whom " he created 
the waters \ " or, as this last sentence is differently translated, 
" He created the waters from the world [in the form] of speech 
(Vach)." In the Kathaka Upanishad this idea is more distinctly 
formulated : " Prajapati was this universe. Vach was a second 
to him. He associated sexually with her ; she became pregnant ; 
she departed from him ; she produced these creatures ; she again 
entered into Prajapati." 

The Aitareya Brahmawa and the $atapatha Brahmawa have a 
story of the Gandharvas having stolen the soma juice, or, as one 
calls it, "King Soma," and that as the Gandharvas were fond of 
women, Vach was, at her own suggestion, " turned into a female" 
by the gods and Ilishis, and went to recover it from them. 

In the Atharva-veda she is identified with Viraj, and is the 
daughter of Kama (desire). " That daughter of thine, Kama, 
is called the cow, she whom sages denominate Vach- Viraj." 

The Maha-bharata also calls her " the mother of the Vedas," 
and says, " A voice derived from Brahma entered into the ears 
of them all ; the celestial Saraswati was then produced from the 
heavens." Here and "in the later mythology, Saraswati was 
identified with Vach, and became under different names the 
spouse of Brahma and the goddess of wisdom and eloquence, and 
is invoked as a muse," generally under the name of Saraswati, 
but sometimes as Vach. 

The Bhagavata Pura^a recognises her as "the slender and 
enchanting daughter " of Brahma, for whom he had a passion, 
and from whom mankind was produced, that is the female Viraj. 
(See Viraj and $ata-rupa.) Saraswati, as wife of Brahma and 
goddess of wisdom, represents perhaps the union of power and 
intelligence which was supposed to operate in the work of crea 
tion. According to the Padma Purawa, Vach was daughter of 
Daksha, wife of Kasyapa, and mother of the Gandharvas and 

VAZ>AVA, VADAVANALA. The submarine fire which 
" devours the water of the ocean," causing it to throw off the 
vapours which are condensed into rain and snow. The word is 
also written Vadava and Barfava. See Aurva. 

VAHANA. A vehicle. Most of the gods are represented as 
having animals as their vahanas. Brahma has the Hansa, swan 
or goose ; Vishmi has Garuc/a, half eagle, half man ; $iva, the 


bull Nandi; Indra, an elephant; Yama, a buffalo ; KfirttikcyM, 
a peacock ; Kama-deva, the marine monster Makara, or a parrot ; 
Agni, a ram; Yaruwa, a fish; Ganesa, a rat; Yayu, an antelope; 
$ani, or Saturn, a vulture ; Durga, a tiger. 

YAHNI. Fire. See Agni 

YAHUKA. * Charioteer. A name and office assumed by 
Nala in his time of disguise. 

YAIBHOJAS. The Maha-bharata says, " The descendants of 
Druhyu are the Yaibhojas." "A people unacquainted with the 
use of cars or beasts of burthen, and who travel on rafts ; they 
have no kings." Wilson. 

YAIBHKAJA. A celestial grove ; the grove of the gods on 
Mount Suparswa, west of Menu 

YAIDARBHA. Belonging to the country of Yidarbha or 
Birar. The people of that country. 

YAIDEHA. Belonging to the country of Yideha or Tirhoot, 
&c. The king or the people of the country. Janaka was called 
Yaideha and Sita was Yaidehl. 

YAIDYA-NATHA. Lord of physicians. A title of Siva. 
Name of one of the twelve great Lingas. See Linga. 

YAIJAYANTA. The palace or the banner of Indra. 

YALTA YANTL i. The necklace of Yishnu, composed of five 
precious gems, pearl, ruby, emerald, sapphire, and diamond; it " is 
the aggregate of the five elemental rudiments." 2. A law-book 
current in the south. It is a commentary by Nanda PancZita on 
the Yishwu Smnti. 

YAIKARTTANA. A name of Kama from his putative 
father, Yikarttana, the sun. 

YAIKUNTHA. The paradise of Yishwi, sometimes de 
scribed as on Mount Meru, and at others as in the Northern 
Ocean. It is also called Yaibhra. Yishmi himself is sometimes 
designated by this term. 

YAINATEYA. A name of Yishmi s bird Garurfa, 

YAIRAJ. Manu the son of Yiraj. 

YAIRAJAS. Semi-divine beings or Manes unconsumable by 
fire, who dwell in Tapo-loka, but are capable of translation to 
Satya-loka. The Kasi-khawda explains this term as the Mnnr.s 
of "ascetics, mendicants, anchorets, and penitents, who have 
completed a course of rigorous austerities." See Pitris. 

YAIROCHANA. A name of Bali. 


YALSALI. A city founded by Visala, son of Tnwabindu. 
This is " a city of considerable renown in Indian tradition, but 
its site is a subject of some uncertainty." It was a celebrated 
place among the Buddhists, and would seem to have been situated 
on the left bank of the Ganges. General Cunningham places 
it about 27 miles north of Patna. It is frequently confounded 
with Yisala, i.e., Ujjayim. 

YALSAMPAYANA. A celebrated sage who was the original 
teacher of the Black Yajur-veda. He was a pupil of the great 
Yyasa, from whom he learned the Maha-bharata, which he after 
wards recited to King Janamejaya at a festival. The Hari-vansa 
is also represented as having been communicated by him. 

YALSESHIKA The Atomic school of philosophy. See 

YAItfKAYANA. Patronymic of Kuvera. 

YALSWAISARA. A name by which Agni is occasionally 
known in the J2ig-veda. 

YAI$YA. The third or trading and agricultural caste. See 

YAITANA SUTRA. The ritual of the Atharva-veda. The 
text has been published by Dr. Garbe. 

YAITARAA/1. (The river) to be crossed, that is, the river 
of hell, which must be crossed before the infernal regions can 
be entered. This river is described as being filled with blood, 
ordure, and all sorts of filth, and to run with great impetuosity. 
A second river stated by the Maha-bharata to be in the country 
of the Kalingas ; it must be the river of the same name (vulg. 
" Byeturnee ") somewhat higher up in Cuttack. 

YAIYASWATA. Name of the seventh Manu ; he was son 
of Surya and father of Ikshwaku, the founder of the Solar race 
of kings. 

YAJASAKEYI-SANHITA. The body of hymns forming 
the White Yajur-veda. See Yeda. 

YAJIN. A priest of the White Yajur-veda. 

YAJRA. i. The thunderbolt of Indra, said to have been 
made of the bones of the Jt/shi Dadhichi. It is a circular 
weapon, with a hole in the centre, according to some, but others 
represent it as consisting of two transverse bars. It has many 
names: Asani, Abhrottha, sky-born; Bahu-dara, much cleav 
ing; Bhidira or Chhidaka, the splitter; Dambholi and Jasuri, 


destructive; Ilrildin, roaring; Kulisa, axe; Pavi, pointed; 
Phena-vahin, foam-bearing; Sha^-kona, hexagon; $ambha and 
Swam. 2. Son of Aniruddha. His mother is sometimes said 
to be Aniruddha s wife Su-bhadra, and at others the Daitya 
princess Usha. Kr/shwa just before his death made him king 
over the Yadavas at Indra-prastha. See the next. 

VA JKA-NABHA. The celebrated chakra (discus) of Krishna. 
According to the Maha-bharata it was given to him by Agni for 
his assistance in defeating Indra and burning the Kham/ava forest. 

VAKA. A crane. A great Asura who lived near the city 
of Eka-chakra, and forced the Kaja of the place to send him 
daily a large quantity of provisions, which he devoured, and 
not only the provisions, but the men who carried them. Under 
the directions of Kunti, her son Bhima took the provisions, and 
when the demon struck him, a terrific combat followed ; each 
one tore up trees by the roots and belaboured the other, till 
Bhima seized the demon by the legs and tore him asunder. 
Ivuvera is sometimes called by this name. 

VALA-KHILYAS. i. Eleven hymns of an apocryphal or 
peculiar character interpolated in the /^g-veda. 2. " Pigmy 
sages no bigger than a joint of the thumb, chaste, pious, resplen 
dent as the rays of the sun." So described by the Vish?iu 
Purawa, which says that they were brought forth by Samnati 
(humility), wife of Kratu, and were 60,000 in number. They are 
able to fly swifter than birds. The Jftg-veda says that they sprang 
from the hairs of Prajapati (Brahma). They are the guards of 
the chariot of the sun. They are also called Kharwas. Wilson 
says " they are not improbably connected with the character of 
Daumling, Thaumlin, Tamlane, Tom-a-lyn, or Tom Thumb." 

VALMIKI. The author of the Kamayawa, which he in Yedic 
phrase is said to have "seen." He himself is represented as 
taking part in some of the scenes he describes. He received 
the banished Sita into his hermitage at Chitra-ku/a, and edu 
cated her twin sons Kusa and Lava, " Tradition has marked a 
hill in the district of Banda in Bundlekand as his abode." Tho 
invention of the sloka is attributed to him, but it cannot be his, 
because the metre is found in the Yedas. 

YAMACHARIS. Followers of the left-hand sect. See Tantra. 

VAMA-DEVA. i. A Yedic Jftslii, author of many hymns. 
In one of his hymns he represents himself as speaking before his 


birth, saying, " Let me not come forth by this path, for it is 
difficult (of issue) : let me come forth obliquely from the side." 
Sayawa, the commentator, says in explanation, "The iftshi 
Vama-deva, whilst yet in the womb, was reluctant to be born in 
the usual manner, and resolved to come into the world through 
his mother s side. Aware of his purpose, the mother prayed to 
Aditi, who thereupon came with her son Indra to expostulate 
with the Bislii." [This story accords with that told by the 
Buddhists of the birth of Buddha.] In the same hymn Vama- 
deva says, " In extreme destitution I .have cooked the entrails of 
a dog," and Manu cites this to show that a man is not rendered 
impure even by eating the flesh of dogs for the preservation of 
his life. In another hymn he says, " As a hawk I came forth 
with speed ; " and a commentator explains, " Having assumed 
the form of a hawk, he came forth from the womb by the power 
of Yoga, for he is considered to have been endowed with divine 
knowlege from the period of his conception." 2. A Vedic sage 
mentioned in the Maha-bharata as possessor of two horses of 
marvellous speed called Vamyas. 3. A name of Siva ; also of 
one of the Rudras. 

VAMANA. The dwarf incarnation of Vishnu, See Ava- 

YAMAHA PURAA T A. "That in which the four-faced 
Brahma taught the three objects of existence, as subservient to 
the greatness of Tri-vikrama (Vislmu), which treats also of the 
Siva, kalpa, and which consists of 10,000 stanzas, is called the 
Vamana Pura/ia." It contains an account of the dwarf incarna 
tion of Vish?iu, and "extends to about 7000 stanzas, but its 
contents scarcely establish its claim to the character of a Purawa." 
" It is of a more tolerant character than the (other) Purawas, and 
divides its homage impartially between Siva, and Vishmi with 
tolerable impartiality. It has not the air of any antiquity, and 
its compilation may have amused the leisure of some Brahman 
of Benares three or four centuries ago." Wilson. 

VANA-PRASTHA < A dweller in the worlds. A Brahman 
in the third stage of his religious life, passing his time as an 
anchorite in the wood? See Brahman. 

VANA-CHARAS (mas.), VANE- CHARTS (fern.). Wan 
derers of the woods. Fauns, Dryads, or sylvan guardians, 

A race or family. Lists of the Itisliis or successive 


teachers of the Yedas which are found attached to some of the 
Brahmanas are called Vansas. 

VANtfA-BRAHMAJVA. The eighth Bruhmana of the Sama- 
veda. It has been edited by BurnelL 

VAPUSHMAT. A man who killed King Marutta of the 
Solar race. Dama, son or grandson of Marutta, in retaliation 
killed Vapushmat. With his blood he made the funeral offer 
ings to the Manes of Marutta, and with the flesh he fed the 
Brahmans who were of Rakshasa descent. 

VARA-DA. Bestower of boons. A name of Devi, also of 

VARAHA. The boar incarnation of Vishnu. See Avatara. 

VARAHA-KALPA. The present kalpa or year of Brahma. 
See Kalpa. 

VARAHA MIHIRA. An astronomer who was one of " the 
nine gems" of the court of Vikramaditya. (See Nava-ratna.) 
He was author of Bn hat-sanhita and Bn haj-jataka. His death 
is placed in $aka 509 (A.D. 587). 

VARAHA PURAVA. "That in which the glory of the 
great Varaha is predominant, as it was revealed to Earth by 
Vishnu, in connexion, wise Munis, with the Manava kalpa, and 
which contains 24,000 verses, is called the Varaha Purawa ; " 
but this description differs so from the Purawa which bears the 
name in the present day, that Wilson doubts its applying to it. 
The known work " is narrated by Vishnu as Varaha, or in the 
boar incarnation, to the personified Earth. Its extent, how 
ever, is not half that specified, little exceeding 10,000 stanzas. 
It furnishes also itself evidence of the prior currency of some 
other work similarly denominated." " It may perhaps be 
referred to the early part of the twelfth century." 

VARAJVASL The sacred city of Benares ; also called Kiisi. 

VARAJVAVATA. The city in which the Pawdavas dwelt in 

VARARUCHI. A grammarian who is generally supposed to 
be one with Katyayana (q.v.). There was another Vararuchi who 
was one of " the nine gems " at the court of Vikramaditya. 

VARDDHA-KSHATRI. A patronymic of Jayad-ratha. 

VARKSHI Daughter of a sage, who is instanced in the 
Maha-bhfirata as being a virtuous woman, and wife of ten 


VAKA 7 A. Class or caste. The Chatur-varwa, or four castes, 
as found established in the code of Manu, are 

1. Brahman. The sacerdotal and learned class, the members 
of which may be, but are not necessarily priests. 

2. Kshatriya. The regal and warrior caste. 

3. Vaisya. Trading and agricultural caste. 

4. /Sftdra. Servile caste, whose duty is to serve the other 

The first three castes were called dwi-ja, " twice born or rege 
nerate," from their being entitled to investiture with the sacred 
thread which effects a second birth. The Brahmans maintain 
that their caste alone remains, that the other three have been 
lost or degraded, and it is generally believed that there are no 
pure Kshatriyas or Vaisyas now existing. The numerous castes 
which have sprung up from the intercourse of people of different 
castes or from other causes are called Varwa-sankara, mixed 

VAESHA. A region. Nine varshas are enumerated as 
situated between the great mountain ranges of the earth : (i.) 
Bharata-varsha, India ; (2.) Kim-purusha or Kin-nara ; (3.) 
Hari; (4.) Ramyaka; (5.) Hirarc-maya; (6.) Uttara-kuru ; 
(7.) Ilavnta ; (8.) Bhadraswa ; (9.) Ketu-mala. 

VAESH^VEYA. A name of Krishna as a descendant of 
Vnshm. Name of King Nala s charioteer. 

VARTTIKAS. Supplementary rules or notes to the gram 
mar of Paftini by later grammarians, as Katyayana, Patanjali, 
&c. Katyayana is the chief of these annotators, and is called 
Varttika-kara, the annotator. 

VAKILZVA. Similar to O-jsavo s. The universal encom- 
passer, the all-embracer. One of the oldest of the Yedic deities, 
a personification of the all-investing sky, the maker and up 
holder of heaven and earth. As such he is king of the universe, 
king of gods and men, possessor of illimitable knowledge, the 
supreme deity to whom especial honour is due. He is often 
associated with Mitra, he being the ruler of the night and Mitra 
of the day ; but his name frequently occurs alone, that of Mitra 
only seldom. In later times he was chief among the lower 
celestial deities called Adityas, and later still he became a sort of 
Neptune, a god of the seas and rivers, who rides upon the 
Makara. This character he still retains. His sign is a fish. 



He is regent of the west quarter and of one of the Xakshatras 
or lunar mansions. According to the Maha-bhiirata he was son 
of Kardama and father of Pushkara. The Mahu-bhiirata relates 
that he carried off Bhadra, the wife of Utathya (q.v.), a Brah 
man, but Utathya obliged him to submit and restore her. He 
was in a way the father of the sage Vasishflia (q.v.). In the 
Vcdas, Varuwa is not specially connected with water, but there 
are passages in which he is associated with the element of water 
both in the atmosphere and on the earth, in such a way as may 
account for the character and functions ascribed to him in the 
later mythology. 

Dr. Muir thus sums up in the words of the hymns the func 
tions and attributes of Varurai : " The grandest cosmical func 
tions are ascribed to Varwza. Possessed of illimitable resources 
(or knowledge), this divine being has meted out (or fashioned) 
and upholds heaven and earth, he dwells in all worlds as sove 
reign ruler ; indeed the three worlds are embraced within him. 
He made the golden and revolving sun to shine in the firma 
ment. The wind which resounds through the atmosphere is his 
breath. He has opened out boundless paths for the sun, and 
has hollowed out channels for the rivers, which flow by his com 
mand. By his wonderful contrivance the rivers pour out their 
waters into the one ocean but never fill it. His ordinances are 
fixed and unassailable. They rest on him unshaken as on a 
mountain. Through the operation (of his laws) the moon walks 
in brightness, and the stars which appear in the nightly sky 
mysteriously vanish in daylight. Neither the birds flying in 
the air, nor the rivers in their ceaseless flow can attain a know 
ledge of his power or his wrath. His messengers behold both 
worlds. He knows the flight of birds in the sky, the paths of 
ships on the ocean, the course of the far-travelling wind, and be 
holds all the things that have been or shall be done. ]STo creature 
can even wink without him. He witnesses men s truth and false 
hood. He instructs the Eishi Vasishftia in mysteries ; but his 
secrets and those of Mitra are not to be revealed to the foolish." 
" He has unlimited control over the destinies of mankind. He 
has a hundred thousand remedies, and is supplicated to show his 
wide and deep benevolence and drive away evil and sin, to untie 
sin like a rope and remove it. He is entreated not to steal away, 
but to prolong life, and to spare the suppliant who daily trans- 


grosses his laws. In many places mention is made of tlie "bonds 
or nooses with which he seizes and punishes transgressors. 
Mitra and Vaiuwa conjointly are spoken of in one passage as 
"being barriers against falsehood, furnished with many nooses, 
which the hostile mortal cannot surmount ; and, in another 
place, India and Yaruwa are described as binding with bonds 
not formed of rope. On the other hand, Vaiuwa is said to be 
gracious even to him who has committed sin. He is the wise 
guardian of immortality, and a hope is held out that he and 
Yama, reigning in blessedness, shall be beheld in the next world 
by the righteous. " 

" The attributes and functions ascribed to Yanma impart to 
his character a moral elevation and sanctity far surpassing that 
attributed to any other Yedic deity." 

The correspondence of Yarima with Ouranos has been already 
noted, but " the parallel will not hold in all points. There is 
not in the Yedic mythology any special relation between 
Vanma and Pnthivi (the earth) as husband and wife, as there 
is between Ouranos and Gaia in the theogony of Hesiod ; nor is 
Yaru?m represented in the Yeda, as Ouranos is by the Greek 
poet, as the progenitor of Dyaus (Zeus), except in the general 
way in which he is said to have formed and to preserve heaven 
and earth" (Muir s Texts, v. 58). Mann also refers to Yarima 
as "binding the guilty in fatal cords." 

In the Purawas, Yaruwa is sovereign of the waters, and one 
of his accompaniments is a noose, which the Yedic deity also 
carried for binding offenders : this is called Naga-pasa, Pula- 
kanga, or Yiswa-jit. His favourite resort is Pushpa-giri, flower 
mountain, and his city Yasudha-nagara or Sukha. He also 
possesses an umbrella impermeable to water, formed of the hood 
of a cobra, and called Abhoga. The Yishmi Purawa mentions 
an incident which shows a curious coincidence between Yanma 
and Neptune. At the marriage of the sage .K-icluka, Yanma 
supplied him with the thousand fleet white horses which the 
bride s father had demanded of him. Yaruwa is also called 
Prachetas, Ambu-raja, Jala-pati, Kesa, lord of the waters ; 
Ud-dama, the surrounder ; Pasa-bhrit, the noose-carrier ; 
Yiloma, Yari-loma, watery hair ; Yada/i-pati, king of aquatic 
animals. His son is named Agasti. 

VARIIZVANI, YAKUiM. Wife of Vanma and goddess of 


wine. She is said to have sprung from the churning of the 
ocean. The goddess of wine is also called Mada and Sura. 

YASANTA. Spring and its deified personification. 

YASAXTA-SEXA. The heroine of the drama called Mrich- 
chhaka/i, the toy cart. 

YASAYA-DATTA. A princess of UjjayinI, who is the heroine 
of a popular story by Subandhu. The work has been printed 
by Dr. F. Hall in the Billiotlieca Indica. He considers it to have 
been written early in the seventh century. See Udayana. 

YASISH7TIA. Most wealthy. A celebrated Yedic sago 
to whom many hymns are ascribed. According to Mami he 
was one of the seven great fiishis and of the ten Prajapatis. 
There was a special rivalry between him and the sage Yiswa- 
mitra, who raised himself from the Kshatriya to the Brahman 
caste. Yasish/ha was the possessor of a " cow of plenty," called 
Xandini, who had the power of granting him all things (vasu) 
he desired, hence his name. A law-book is attributed to him, 
or to another of the same name. Though Yasish/ha is classed 
among the Prajapatis who sprang from Brahma, a hymn in the 
Jt/g-veda and the commentaries thereon assign him a diileivnt 
origin, or rather a second birth, and represent him and the sage 
Agastya to have sprung from Mitra and Yanma. The hymn says, 
" Thou, Yasish/ha, art a son of Mitra and Yaruwa, born a Brfih- 
man from the soul of TJrvasi. All the gods placed in the vessel 
thee the drop which had fallen through divine contemplation." 
The comment on this hymn says, "When these two Adityas 
(Mitra and Yaruwa) beheld the Apsaras Urvasi at a sacrifice their 
seed fell from them. ... It fell on many places, into a jar, into 
water, and on the ground. The Muni Yasish/ha was produced 
on the ground, while Agastya was born in the jar." 

There is a peculiar hymn attributed to Yasish/ha in the 7?/g- 
veda (Wilson, iv. 121), beginning "Protector of the dwelling," 
which the commentators explain as having been addressed by 
him to a house-dog which barked as he entered the house of 
Yaruwa by night to obtain food after a three days fast. By it 
the dog was appeased and put to sleep, " wherefore these verses 
are to be recited on similar occasions by thieves and 1 tin- la is." 

In the same Yeda and in the Aitareya Brahmana, Yusish/ha 
appears as the family priest of King Sudas, a position to which 
his rival Ywwamitra aspired. This is amplified in the Muliu- 


bharata, where he is not the priest of Sudas but of his son 
Kalmasha-pada, who bore the patronymic Saudasa. It is said 
that his rival Yiswamitra was jealous, and wished to have this 
office for himself, but the king preferred Yasish/ha. Yasish/ha 
had a hundred sons, the eldest of whom was named $aktri. 
He, meeting the king in the road, was ordered to get out of the 
way ; but he civilly replied that the path was his, for by the 
law a king must cede the way to a Brahman. The king struck 
him with a whip, and he retorted by cursing the king to be 
come a man-eater. Yiswamitra was present, but invisible, and 
he maliciously commanded a man-devouring Rakshasa to enter 
the king. So the king became a man-eater, and his first victim 
was $aktri. The same fate befell all the hundred sons, and 
Yasish/ha s grief was boundless. He endeavoured to destroy 
himself in various ways. He cast himself from the top of 
Mount Meru, but the rocks he fell upon were like cotton. He 
passed through a burning forest without harm. He threw 
himself into the sea with a heavy stone tied to his neck, but the 
waves cast him on dry land. He plunged into a river swollen 
by rain, but although he had bound his arms with cords, the 
stream loosened his bonds and landed him unbound (vipasa) on 
its banks. From this the river received the name of Yipasa 
(Eyas). He threw himself into another river full of alligators, 
but the river rushed away in a hundred directions, and was con 
sequently called $ata-dru (Sutlej). Finding that he could not 
kill himself, he returned to his hermitage, and was met in the 
wood by King Kalmasha-pada, who was about to devour him, 
but Yasish/ha exorcised him and delivered him from the curse 
he had borne for twelve years. The sage then directed the king 
to return to his kingdom and pay due respect to Brahmans. 
Kalmasha-pada begged Yasish/ha to give him offspring. He 
promised to do so, and " being solicited by the king to beget 
an heir to the throne, the queen became pregnant by him and 
brought forth a son at the end of twelve years." 

Another legend in the Maha-bharata represents Yiswamitra 
as commanding the river Saraswati to bring Yasish/ha, so that 
he might kill him. By direction of Yasish/ha the river obeyed 
the command, but on approaching Yiswamitra, who stood ready 
armed, it promptly carried away Yasish/ha in another direction. 

The enmity of Yasish/ha and Yiswamitra comes out very 


strongly in the RFimiiyawa. Viswamitra riilod the oarth for 
many thousand years as king, but he coveted the wondrous cow 
of plenty which he had seen at Vasishflia s hermitage, and 
attempted to take her away by force. A great battle followed 
between the hosts of King Viswamitra and the warriors pro 
duced by the cow to support her master. A hundred of Viswa- 
mitra s sons were reduced to ashes by the blast of Vasishflia s 
mouth, and Viswamitra being utterly defeated, he abdicated and 
retired to the Himalaya. The two met again after an interval 
and fought in single combat. ViswFimitra was again worsted by 
the Brahmanical power, and " resolved to work out his own ele 
vation to the Brahmanical order," so as to be upon an equality 
with his rival. He accomplished his object and became a priest, 
and Vasishflia suffered from his power. The hundred sons of 
Vasish/ha denounced Viswamitra for presuming, though a 
Kshatriya, to act as a priest. This so incensed Viswamitra that 
lie " by a curse doomed the sons of Vasish/ha to be reduced to 
ashes and reborn as degraded outcasts for seven hundred births." 
Eventually, " Vasishftia, being propitiated by the gods, became 
reconciled to Viswamitra, and recognised his claim to all the 
prerogatives of a Brahman Eishi, and Viswamitra paid all hon 
our to Vasish/ha. 

A legend in the Vishwi Purawa represents Vasish/ha as being 
requested by Nimi, a son of Ikshwaku, to officiate at a sacrifice 
which was to last for a thousand years. The sage pleaded a 
prior engagement to Indra for five hundred years, but offered to 
come at the end of that period. The king made no remark, 
and Vasish/ha, taking silence as assent, returned as he had 
proposed. He then found that Nimi had engaged the Rishi 
Gautama to perform the sacrifice, and this so angered him that 
he cursed the king to lose his corporeal form. Nimi retorted 
the curse, and in consequence " the vigour of Vasishflia entered 
into the vigour of Mitra and Varuwa. Vasishflia, however, 
received from them another body when their seed had fallen 
from them at the sight of UrvasL" 

In the Markawc/eya Purawa he appears as the family priest of 
Ilaris-chandra. He was so incensed at the treatment shown to 
that monarch by ViswFimitra, that he cursed that sage to be 
transformed into a crane. His adversary retorted by dooming 
him to become another bird, and in the forms of two monstrous 


birds they fought so furiously that the course of the universe 
was disturbed, and many creatures perished. Brahma at length 
put an end to the conflict by restoring them to their natural 
forms and compelling them to be reconciled. 

According to the Vishmi Purana, Vasishftia had for wife 
Urja, one of the daughters of Daksha, and by her he had seven 
sons. The Bhagavata Purana gives him Arundhati for wife. 
The Vishnu Purana also makes him the family priest " of the 
house of Ikshwaku ; " and he was not only contemporary with 
Ikshwaku himself, but with his descendants down to the sixty- 
first generation. " Vasish/ha, according to all accounts (says 
Dr. Muir), must have been possessed of a vitality altogether 
superhuman," for it appears that the name Vasish/ha is " used 
not to denote merely a person belonging to a family so called, 
but to represent the founder of the family himself as taking 
part in the transactions of many successive ages." 

"It is clear that Vasishflia, although he is frequently designated 
in post-vedic writings as a Brahman, was, according to some 
authorities, not really such in any proper sense of the word, as 
in the accounts which are given of his birth he is declared to 
have been either a mind-born son of Brahma, or the son of 
Mitra and Varuna and the Apsaras Urvasi, or to have had some 
other supernatural origin" (Muir, i. 337). Vasishflia s descen 
dants are called Vasish/has and Vashkalas. 

VASTOSH-PATI. < House protector. One of the later gods 
of the Veda, represented as springing from Brahma s dalliance 
with his daughter. He was the protector of sacred rites and 
guardian of houses. 

VASU. The Vasus are a class of deities, eight in number, 
chiefly known as attendants upon Indra. They seem to have 
been in Vedic times personifications of natural phenomena. 
They are Apa (water), Dhruva (pole-star), Soma (moon), Dhara 
(earth), Anila (wind), Anala (fire), Prabhasa (dawn), and Pra- 
tyusha (light). According to the Ramayawa they were children 
of Aditi. 

VASU-DEVA. Son of $ura, of the Yaclava branch of the 
Lunar race. He was father of Krishna, and Kunti, the mother 
of the Pant?ava princes, was his sister. He married seven 
daughters of Ahuka, and the youngest of them, Devaki, was the 
mother of Krishna. After the death of Kr/shna and Bala- 


rama lie also died, and four of his wives "burnt themselves with 
his corpse. So says the Mahfi-bhiirata, hut according to the 
Vishnu Purana he and Devakl and Rohim burnt themselves at 
Dwaraka. He received the additional name of Anaka-dunduliLi, 
because the gods, conscious that he was to be the putative 
father of the divine Krishna, sounded the drums of heaven at 
his birth. He was also called Bhu-kasyapa and Dundu, drum. 

VASU-DEVA. A name of Kn shwa, derived from that of his 
father, Yasu-deva ; but as that is incompatible with his claims 
to divinity, the Maha-bharata explains that he is so called " from 
his dwelling (vasanat) in all beings, from his issuing as a Yasu 
from a divine womb." The name was assumed by an impostor 
named Pann&aka, who was killed by Kn shna. See PaunJraka. 

VASUKL King of the Nagas or serpents who live in Pfitala. 
He was used by the gods and Asuras for a coil round the moun 
tain Mandara at the churning of the ocean. See /Sesha, 

VASU-/SEETA. A name of Kama. 

VATA. Wind. Generally the same as Vayu, but the 
name is sometimes combined in the Veda with that of Parjanya, 
and Parjanya-vata and Vayu are then mentioned distinctively. 

VAT API. Vatapi and Ilwala, two Rakshasas, sons either of 
Hrada or Viprachitti. They are mentioned in the Ramaya/za 
as dwelling in the Da/z^aka forest. Vatapi assumed the form 
of a ram which was offered in sacrifice and afterwards eaten by 
Brahmana Ilwala then called upon him to come forth, and 
accordingly he tore his way out of the stomachs of the Briih- 
mans. He tried the same trick upon Agastya, but that austere 
sage ate and digested him. Ilwala, as before, called his brother 
to come forth, and assaulted the sage, who told him that his 
brother would never return. Then Ilwala w r as burnt up by fire 
from the eyes of Agastya. The Maha-bharata s story varies 

VATA-VASIN. < Dwelling in fig-trees (vaia). Yakshas. 

VATSA, VATSA-RAJA. King of Vatsa, the capital of 
which was Kausambi. A title of the prince Udayana, There 
are many persons named Vatsa. 

VATSYAYANA. A sage who wrote upon erotic subjects, 
and was author of the Kama-sutras and Xyuyu-bhiisha. He is 
also called Malla-niiga. 

VAYU. Air, wind. The god of the wind, Eolus. In the 


Yedas he is often associated with Indra, and rides in the same 
car with him, Indra being the charioteer. The chariot has a 
framework of gold which touches the sky, and is drawn by a 
thousand horses. There are not many hymns addressed to him. 
According to the Nirukta there are three gods specially con 
nected with each other. " Agni, whose place is on earth ; 
Vayu or Indra, whose place is in the air; and Surya, whose 
place is in the heaven." In the hymn Purusha-sukta Vayu is 
said to have sprung from the breath of Purusha, and in another 
hymn he is called the son-in-law of Twash/?i He is regent of 
the north-west quarter, where he dwells. 

According to the Vish?ra Purana he is king of the Gandhar- 
vas. The Bhagavata Pura^a relates that the sage JSTarada in 
cited the wind to break down the summit of Mount Meru. He 
raised a terrible storm which lasted for a year, but Vishrai s bird, 
G-arurfa, shielded the mountain with his wings, and all the 
blasts of the wind- god were in vain. Narada then told him 
to attack the mountain in Garu^a s absence. He did so, and 
breaking off the summit of the mountain, he hurled it into the 
sea, where it became the island of Lanka (Ceylon). 

Vayu is the reputed father of Bhima and of Hanumat, and he 
is said to have made the hundred daughters of King Kusanabha 
crooked because they would not comply with his licentious 
desires, and this gave the name Kanya-kubja, hump-backed 
damsel, to their city. 

Other names of Vayu (wind) are Anila, Marut, Pavana Vata, 
Gandha-vaha, bearer of perfumes ; Jala-kantara, whose gar 
den is water ; Sada-gata, Satata-ga, ever moving, &c. 

VAYU PUBAJVA. " The Purawa in which Vayu has de 
clared the laws of duty, in connection with the /Sweta kalpa, 
and which comprises the Mahatmya of Eudra, is the Vayu 
Purawa ; it contains twenty-four thousand verses." No MS. con 
taining this number of verses has yet been discovered, but there 
are indications of the work being imperfect. The Purawa is 
divided into four sections, the first beginning with the creation, 
and the last treating of the ages to come. It is devoted to the 
praise of /Siva, and is connected with the $iva Pura?za, for when 
one of them is given in a list of Purawas the other is omitted. 

VEDA. Boot, vid, know. Divine knowledge. TheVedas 
are the holy books which are the foundation of the Hindu reli- 

VEDA. 345 

gion. They consist of hymns written in an old form of Sanskr/t, 
and according to the most generally received opinion they were 
composed between 1500 and 1000 B.C. But there is no direct 
evidence as to their age, and opinions about it vary considerabl v. 
Some scholars have thought that the oldest of the hymns \\\\\\ 
be carried back a thousand years farther. It seems likely that 
some of the hymns were composed before the arrival of the 
Aryan immigrants in India, and there is no doubt that the hymns 
vary greatly in age and spread over a very considerable period. 

There are various statements as to the origin of the Vedas. 
One is that the hymns emanated like breath from Brahma, the 
soul of the universe. It is agreed that they were revealed orally 
to the T&shis or sages whose names they bear ; and hence the 
whole body of the Veda is known as $ruti, what was heard. 

The Vedas are now four in number: (i.) 72/g, (2.) Yajur, 
(3.) Sama, (4.) Atharva; but the Atharva is of comparatively 
modern origin. The other three are spoken of by Manu as the 
" three Vedas," and are said by him to have been " milked out, 
as it were," from fire, air, and the sun. In reality the Tftg-veda 
is the Veda, the original work ; for the Yajur and the Sama are 
merely different arrangements of its hymns for special purposes. 

Each Veda is divided into two parts, Mantra and Brahmafia. 
The Mantra, or instrument of conveying thought, consists of 
prayer and praise embodied in the metrical hymns. The-Brah- 
mawa, a collective term for the treatises called Brahmawas, is of 
later date than the Mantra. It is written in prose, and contains 
liturgical and ritualistic glosses, explanations, and applications of 
the hymns illustrated by numerous legends. To the Brahmanas 
are added the Arawyakas and Upanishads, mystical treatises in 
prose and verse, which speculate upon the nature of spirit and 
of God, and exhibit a freedom of thought and speculation which 
was the beginning of Hindu philosophy. All the Vedic writings 
are classified in two great divisions, exoteric and esoteric: the 
Karma-kaw?a, department of works, the ceremonial ; and the 
Jnana-kar^a, department of knowledge. The hymns and pray* TS 
of the Mantra come under the first, the philosophical specula 
tions of the Brahmarcas, and especially of the Upanishads, under 
the second division. All are alike /Sruti or revelation. See 
Brahma?? a, Upanishad, &c. 

The Mantra or metrical portion is the most ancient, and the 

346 VEDA. 

book or books in which the hymns are collected are called San- 
hitas. The 7^g-veda and the Sama-veda have each one Sanhitaj 
the Yajur-veda has two Sanhitas. 

As before stated, the .Rig-veda is the original Veda from 
which the Yajur and Saman are almost exclusively derived. It 
consists of 1017 Suktas or hymns, or with eleven additional 
hymns called Valakhilyas of an apocryphal character, 1028. 
These are arranged in eight Ashfakas, octaves, or Khawdas, 
sections, which are again subdivided into as many Adhyayas, 
chapters, 2006 Vargas or classes, 10,417 fiiks or verses, 
and 153,826 Padas or * words. There is another division, which 
runs on concurrently with this division, in ten Manilas, 
circles or classes, and 85 Anuvakas or sections. The total 
number of hymns is the same in both arrangements. It is a 
generally received opinion that the hymns of the tenth Manifela 
are later in date than the others. 

A few hymns of the .Rz g-veda, more especially some of the 
later hymns in the tenth Mawrfala, appear to contain some 
vague, hazy conception of one Supreme Being ; but as a whole 
they are addressed directly to certain personifications of the 
powers of nature, which personifications were worshipped as 
deities having those physical powers under their control. From 
these powers the Vedic poets invoked prosperity on themselves 
and their flocks ; they extolled the prowess of these elemental 
powers in the struggles between light and darkness, warmth and 
cold, and they offered up joyous praise and thanksgiving for the 
fruits of the earth and personal protection. Chief among the 
deities so praised and worshipped were Agni, Indra, and Sfirya. 
More hymns are addressed to Agni (Ignis), fire, than to any other 
deity, and chiefly in its sacrificial character, though it receives 
honour also for its domestic uses. Indra was honoured as the 
god of the atmosphere, who controlled the rains and the dew, 
so all-important to an agricultural people. Surya, the sun, 
was the source of heat, but he shared this honour with 
Agni, the sun being considered a celestial fire. Among the 
most ancient of the myths was that of Dyaus-pitar, heavenly 
father, the regent of the sky. Others were Aditi, the infinite 
expanse; Varima (Ouaavog), the investing sky, afterwards 
god of the waters ; Ushas (fe), the dawn, daughter of the 
sky ; the two As wins, twin sons of the sun, ever young and 

VEDA. 347 

handsome, and riding in a golden car as precursors of the 
dawn. Pnthivi, the broad one/ as the earth was called, re 
ceived honour as the mother of all beings. There were also the 
Maruts or storm-gods, personifications of the wind, the especial 
foes of Vn tra, the spirit of drought and ungenial weather, who 
was in constant conflict with Indra ; Eudra, the howling, furious 
god, who ruled the tempest and the storm ; Yama, the god of 
the dead and judge of departed spirits, also received his meed of 
reverence ; last, though apparently not least in the estimation of 
the Aryan worshippers, was Soma, the personification of the fer 
mented juice of the plant so named. This exhilarating liquid 
was alike acceptable to the gods and their worshippers, and many 
hymns are addressed to it as a deity. 

To each hymn of the .fltg-veda there is prefixed the name of 
the .Z^ shi to whom it was revealed, as Yasishflia, Viswamitra, 
Bharadwaja, and many others ; and these sages are frequently 
spoken of as authors of the hymns bearing their names. It is 
quite unknown when the hymns were first committed to writing. 
They were transmitted orally from generation to generation, and 
continued to be so handed down even after they had been 
collected and arranged by Kr/shwa Dwaipayana, the arranger. 
The oral teaching of the Vedas produced what are called the 
/Sukhas or schools of the Vedas. Different learned men, or 
bodies of men, became famous for their particular versions of 
the text, and taught these versions to their respective pupils. 
These different versions constitute the /Sakhas ; they present, as 
might be expected, many verbal variations, but no very material 

" The poetry of the jRig-veda," says Professor Cowell, " is 
remarkably deficient in that simplicity and natural pathos or 
sublimity which we naturally look for in the songs of an early 
period of civilisation. The language and style of most of the 
hymns is singularly artificial . . . Occasionally we meet with 
fine outbursts of poetry, especially in the hymns addressed to 
the dawn, but these are never long sustained ; and as a rule we 
find few grand similes or metaphors." A similar opinion is 
expressed by Professor "Williams, who finds them " to abound 
more in puerile ideas than in striking thoughts and lofty 

The Yajur or second Yeda is composed almost exclusively of 

348 VEDA. 

hymns taken from the Rig, but it contains some prose passages 
which are new. Many of the hymns show considerable devia 
tions from the original text of the Rig. These differences may 
perhaps be attributable either to an original difference of the 
traditional text or to modifications required by the ritualistic 
uses of the Yajur. The Yajur-veda is the priests office-book, 
arranged in a liturgical form for the performance of sacrifices. 
As the manual of the priesthood, it became the great subject of 
study, and it has a great number of different /Sakhas or schools. 
It has two Sanhitas, one called the Taittiriya Sanhita, the other 
Vajasaneyi Sanhita, commonly known as the Black and White 
Yajur. Of these, the former is the more ancient, and seems to 
have been known in the third century B.C. These .Sanhitas 
contain upon the whole the same matter, but the arrangement 
is different. The "White Yajur is the more orderly and sys 
tematic, and it contains some texts which are not in the Black. 

The Sanhita of the Taittiriya or Black Yajur is arranged in 
7 Kawrfas or books, 44 Prasnas or chapters, 651 Anuvakas or 
sections, and 2198 Kandikas or pieces, "fifty words as a rule 
forming a Ka?idfika." The Sanhita of the Vajasaneyi or White 
Yajur is in 40 Adhyayas or chapters, 303 Anuvakas, and 1975 

How the separation into two Sanhitas arose has not been 
ascertained. It probably originated in a schism led by the sage 
Yajnawalkya; but if it did not, it produced one, and the 
adherents of the two divisions were hostile to each other and 
quarrelled like men of different creeds. In later days a legend 
was invented to account for the division, which is thus given by 
the Vishmi and Vayu Puranas : The Yajur-veda, in twenty-seven 
branches ($akhas), was taught by Vaisampayana to his disciple 
Yajnawalkya. Vaisampayana had the misfortune to kill his 
sister s child by an accidental kick, and he then called upon his 
disciples to perform the appropriate expiatory penance. Yajna 
walkya refused to join the " miserable inefficient Brahmans," 
and a quarrel ensued. The teacher called upon the disciple to 
give up all that he had learnt from him ; and the disciple, with 
the same quick temper, vomited forth the Yajur texts which he 
had acquired, and they fell upon the ground stained with blood. 
The other pupils were turned into partridges (Tittiri), and they 
picked up the disgorged texts ; hence the part of the Yeda 

VEDA. 349 

which was thus acquired was called Taitthiya and Black. 
Yajnawalkya sorrowfully departed, and by the performance of 
severe penances induced the Sun to impart to him those Yajur 
texts which his master had not possessed. The Sun then 
assumed the form of a horse (Vajin), and communicated to him 
the desired texts. The priests of this portion of the Veda were 
called Vajins, while the Sanhita itself was called Vajasaneyl, 
and also White (or bright), because it was revealed by the sun. 
The statement that Yajnawalkya received this Veda from the 
sun is, however, earlier than the Purawas, for it is mentioned by 
the grammarian Katyayana. A more reasonable and intelligible 
explanation is, that Vajasaneyl is a patronymic of Yajnawalkya, 
the offspring of Vajasani, and that Taittiriya is derived from 
Tittiri, the name of a pupil of Yaska s. Weber, the man best 
acquainted with this Veda, says, " However absurd this legend 
(of the Puranas) may be, a certain amount of sense lurks beneath 
its surface. The Black Yajur is, in fact, a motley undigested 
jumble of different pieces; and I am myself more inclined to 
derive the name Taittiriya from the variegated partridge (Tittiri) 
than from the Bishi Tittiri." Goldstiicker s view is, that the 
" motley character of the Black Yajur-veda arises from the cir 
cumstance that the distinction between the Mantra and Brah- 
mawa portions is not so clearly established in it as in the other 
Vedas, hymns and matter properly belonging to the Brahma /r.\< 
being there intermixed. This defect is remedied in the White 
Yajur-veda, and it points, therefore, to a period when the mate 
rial of the old Yajur was brought into a system consonant with 
prevalent theories, literary and ritualistic." 

The Sama-veda Sanhita is wholly metrical. It contains 1549 
verses, only seventy-eight of which have not been traced to the 
7fo g-veda. The readings of the text in this Veda frequently 
differ, like those of the Yajur, from the text as found in tin; 
Rig, and Weber considers that the verses "occurring in the Sfun.i 
Sanhita generally stamp themselves as older and more original 
by the greater antiquity of their grammatical forms." But 
this opinion is disputed. The verses of the Siima have been 
selected and arranged for the purpose of being chaunted at the 
sacrifices or offerings of the Soma. Many of the invocations are 
addressed to Soma, some to Agni, and some to Indra. The 
Mantra or metrical part of the Sfuna is poor in literary and 

3 ;o VEDA. 

historical interest, but its Bralimawas and the other literature 
belonging to it are full and important. 

There were different sets of priests for each of the three 
Vedas. Those whose duty it was to recite the #ig-veda were 
called HotHs or Balrmchas, and they were required to know the 
whole Yeda. The priests of the Yajur, who muttered its formu 
las in a peculiar manner at sacrifices, were called Adhwaryus, and 
the chaunters of the verses of the Saman. were called Udgatn s. 

The Atharva-veda, the fourth Yeda, is of later origin than the 
others. This is acknowledged by the Brahmans, and is proved 
by the internal evidence of the book itself. It is supposed to 
elate from about the same period as the tenth MamMa of the 
7vg-veda, and as Manu speaks of only " the three Yedas," the 
Atharva could hardly have been acknowledged in his time. 
Professor Whitney thinks its contents may be later than even 
the tenth Maw^ala of the Big, although these two " stand nearly 
connected in import and origin." There are reasons for suppos 
ing it to have had its origin among the Saindhavas on the banks 
of the Indus. One-sixth of the whole work is not metrical, 
" and about one-sixth (of the hymns) is also found among tho 
hymns of the .frig-veda, and mostly in the tenth book of the 
latter; the rest is peculiar to the Atharva." The number of the 
hymns is about 760, and of the verses about 6000. Professor 
"Whitney, the editor of the Atharva, speaks of it thus : " As to 
the internal character of the Atharva hymns, it may be said 
of them, as of the tenth book of the Big, that they are pro 
ductions of another and a later period, and the expressions of a 
different spirit from that of the earlier hymns in the other 
Yedas. In the latter, the gods are approached with reverential 
awe indeed, but with love and confidence also ; a worship is 
paid them that exalts the offerer of it ; the demons embraced 
under the general name Rakshasa are objects of horror whom 
the gods ward off and destroy ; the divinities of the Atharva are 
regarded rather with a kind of cringing fear, as powers whose 
wrath is to be deprecated and whose favour curried, for it knows 
a whole host of imps and hobgoblins, in ranks and classes, and 
addresses itself to them directly, offering them homage to induce 
them to abstain from doing harm. The. Mantra prayer, which 
in the older Yeda is the instrument of devotion, is here rather 
the tool of superstition ; it wrings from the unwilling hands 



of the gods the favours which of old their good-will to men in 
duced them to grant, or by simple magical power obtains the 
fulfilment of the utterer s wishes. The most prominent charac 
teristic feature of the Atharva is the multitude of incantation* 
which it contains ; these are pronounced either by the person 
who is himself to be benefited, or more often by the sorcerer 
for him, and are directed to the procuring of the greatest variety 
of desirable ends ; most frequently perhaps long life or recovery 
from grievous sickness is the object sought ; then a talisman, 
such as a necklace, is sometimes given, or in very numerous 
cases some plant endowed with marvellous virtues is to be the 
immediate external means of the cure ; farther, the attainment 
of wealth or power is aimed at, the downfall of enemies, success 
in love or in play, the removal of petty pests, and so on, even 
down to the growth of hair on a bald pate. There are hymns, 
too, in which a single rite or ceremony is taken up and exalted, 
somewhat in the same strain as the Soma in the Payamanya 
hymns of the 7?? g. Others of a speculative mystical character 
are not wanting; yet their number is not so great as might 
naturally be expected, considering the development which the 
Hindu religion received in the periods following after that of 
the primitive Veda. It seems in the main that the Atharva is 
of popular rather than of priestly origin ; that in making the 
transition from the Yedic to modern times, it forms an inter 
mediate step rather to the gross idolatries and superstitions of 
the ignorant mass than to the sublimated Pantheism of the 
Brahmans." Such is the general character of the fourth Veda, 
but Max MUller has translated a hymn in his Ancient Sanskrit 
Literature, of which Professor Wilson said in the Edinburgh 
Review, "We know of no passage in Vedic literature which 
approaches its simple sublimity." This hymn is addressed to 
Varwia, " the great one who rules over these worlds, and be 
holds all as if he were close by ; who sees all that is within and 
beyond heaven and earth/ c. 

This Yeda is also called the Brahman Veda, " because it 
claims to be the Veda for the chief sacrificial priest, the Brah 
man." It has a Brahmawa called Gopaftia and many Upanisliads. 
An entirely new recension of this Veda has lately been found 
in Kashmir. It is in the hands of Professor Roth, and is 
believed to show many important variations. 


The whole of the Ti^g-veda, with the commentary of Sayam, 
has "been magnificently printed in six large quarto vols. under the 
editorship of Max Miiller, at the expense of the Government of 
India. Editions of the text separately in the Sanhita and in the 
Pada forms have been published by him ; also another edition 
with the Sanhita and Pada texts on opposite pages. There is also 
a complete edition of the text in Eoman characters by Aufrecht, 
and a portion of the text was published by Roer in the Bibliotheca 
Indica. Dr. Rosen published the first Ash/aka of the text, with 
a Latin translation, in 1838. Four volumes of Wilson s incom 
plete translation have appeared. There is a French translation 
by Langlois, and Max Miiller has printed a critical translation 
of twelve hymns to the Maruts. There are other translations of 
portions. Translations by Ludwig and by Grassmann have also 
lately appeared. The text, with an English and Mara/hl trans 
lation, is appearing in monthly parts at Bombay. 

The Sanhita of the Black Yajur-veda has been published by 
Roer and Cowell in the Bibliotheca Indica. The White has been 
printed by Weber, and another edition has been published in 

Of the Sama Sanhita, the text and a translation have been 
published by Dr. Stevenson. Benfey has also published the 
text with a German translation and a glossary ; and an edition 
with the commentary of Sayawa is now coming out in the Biblio 
theca Indica (vol. i.). 

The text of the Atharva-veda Sanhita has been printed by 
Roth and Whitney, and a part of it also by Aufrecht. < Mother of the Yedas. The Gayatrl. 

VEDANGAS. (Veda + angas.) Members of the Veda. The 
Sharf-aiigas or six subjects necessary to be studied for the reading, 
understanding, and proper sacrificial employment of the Vedas : 

1. SiJcshd. Phonetics or pronunciation, embracing accents, 
quantity, and euphony in general 

2. Chhandas. Metre. 

3. Yyakarana. Grammar. Said to be represented by Pamni, 
but rather by older grammars culminating in his great work. 

4. NiruJcta. Etymology or glossary, represented by the glos 
sary of Yaska. 

5. Jyotislia. Astronomy. Such knowledge of the heavenly 
bodies as was necessary for compiling a calendar fixing the days 


and hours suitable for the performance of Yedic sacrifices and 

6. Kalpa. Ceremonial Eules for applying the Yedas to the 
performance of sacrifices. These rules are generally written in 
the form of Sutras or short aphorisms, and so they are known as 
the Kalpa-sutras or /Srauta-sutras. 

VEDANTA. The orthodox school of philosophy. See Darsana. 

VEDANTA-PARIBHASHA. A modern text-book on the 
Vedanta philosophy. 

VEDANTA-SARA. Essence of the Vedfmta, A short 
popular work on the Yedanta philosophy. It has been trans 
lated by Ballantyne, and also by Bohtlingk, Roer, and Frank. 

VEDANTA-SUTRA. The aphorisms of Badarayawa on the 
Yedanta philosophy. They are commonly called Brahma-sutras, 
and a translation under that name by the Rev. K. M. Banerjea 
is progressing in the BiUiotheca Indica. There is a French 
translation by Poley. 

VEDARTHA-PRAKASA. Elucidation of the meaning ot 
the Veda, This is the name of Sayawa s great commentary on 
the Tfrg-veda. Also of a commentary on the Taittirlya Sanhita 
by Madhavacharya. 

VEDAVATI. The vocal daughter of the llislu Kusa-dhwaja, 
son of Brihaspati. When Ravawa was passing through a forest 
in the Himalaya he met with Vedavati, a damsel of great beauty 
dressed in ascetic garb. He fell in love and tried to win her. 
She told him that gods and Gandharvas had sought to woo her, 
but her father would give her to no one but Vislwiu, whom ho 
desired for his son-in-law. Provoked at this resolution, 
bhu, king of the Daityas, slew her father; but she remained 
firm to her father s wish, and practised austerities to gain Vishwu 
for her spouse. Nothing daunted, Rava?za urgently pressed his 
suit, and boasted that he was superior to Vishrai. He then 
touched her hair with the tip of his finger. This greatly 
incensed her, and she forthwith cut off her hair, and said she 
would enter into the fire before his eyes, adding, " Since I have 
been insulted in the forest by thee who art wicked-hearted, I shall 
be bom again for thy destruction. " So she entered the blazing fire, 
and celestial flowers fell all around. It was she who was born 
again as Sita, and was the moving cause of Ravarca s death, 
though Rama was the agent. Muir s Texts, ii. 498, iv. 458. 



YEDA-YYASA. The arranger of the Yedas. See Yyusa, 

YEDODAYA. Source of the Yeda. An epithet of the 
sun as the source of the Sama-veda. 

YEGAYAT. Swift. i. A son of Krishna. 2. A Danava 
who fought on the side of the /Salwas against Knshwa, and was 
killed by $amba. 

VEJVA. Son of Anga, and a descendant of Manu Swayam- 
bhuva. When he became king he issued this proclamation : 
" Men must not sacrifice or give gifts or present oblations. Who 
else but myself is the enjoy er of sacrifices ? I am for ever the 
lord of offerings." The sages remonstrated respectfully with 
him, but in vain ; they admonished him in stronger terms ; but 
when nothing availed, they slew him with blades of consecrated 
grass. After his death the sages beheld clouds of dust, and on 
inquiry found that they arose from bands of men who had taken 
to plundering because the country was left without a king. As 
Ye?ia was childless, the sages, after consultation, rubbed the 
thigh (or, according to the Hari-vansa, the right arm) of the dead 
king to produce a son. From it there came forth " a man like 
a charred log, with flat face, and extremely short." The sages 
told him to sit down (Mshlda). He did so, and thus became 
a JSTishada, from whom " sprang the Mshadas dwelling in the 
Yindhya mountains, distinguished by their wicked deeds." The 
Brahmans then rubbed the right hand of Ye^a, and from it 
" sprang the majestic PHthu, Yewa s son, resplendent in body, 
glowing like the manifested Agni." The above is the story as 
told, with little variation, in the Maha-bharata, the Yishrcu and 
Bhagavata Puraraas, and the Hari-vansa. The Padma Purawa 
says that Yewa began his reign well, but fell into the Jaina 
heresy. For this the sages pummelled him until the first of the 
Nishadas came forth from his thigh and Pnthu from his right 
arm. Being freed from sin by the birth of the Mshada, he 
retired to a hermitage on the Narmada, where he engaged in 
penance. Yishwi was thus conciliated, and granted him the 
boon of becoming one with himself. See Pnthi. 

YEM-SANHAKA. The binding of the braid. A drama 
by Bha^a Narayawa. The plot is taken from the Maha-bharata. 
Draupadi, the wife of the Paftdu princes, was dragged by the 
hair of her head into the hall of the Ivauravas by Duh-sasana, 
and she vowed that it should remain dishevelled until the insult 


was avenged. After the death of the Kauravas she again braided 
her hair. Wilson has given an analysis of the drama. There aro 
several editions of the text. 

VENKATA, VENKATADRI. A hill which was a seat of 
the worship of Yishwu. It is the modern Tripati. 

VETALA. A ghost or goblin; a sprite who haunts cemeteries 
and animates dead bodies. 

VETALA-PANCHAVINSATI. The twenty-five stories of 
the Vetala. It is the Baital PachisI of Hindustani, and has been 
translated into all the languages of India. The work is ascribed 
to an author named Jambhala-datta. 

VETRAVATI. The river Betwa, which rises in the Vind- 
hyas and falls into the Jumna below Kalpi. 

VIBHAJVDAKA. Son of Kasyapa. An ascetic who retired 
from the world and lived in the forest with his infant son 
.A /shya-snnga (q.v.). A sage of this name is sometimes classed 
among the great Jfo shis. 

VIBHISHANA. Terrible. A younger brother of Ravawa, 
He, like his brother, propitiated Brahma, and obtained a boon. 
His was that he should never commit an unworthy action even 
in the greatest extremity. He was virtuous, and opposed to the 
practices of the Rakshasas. This led to a quarrel between him 
and Ravawa, who kicked him from his seat. He flew off to 
Kailasa, and under the advice of $iva he went and allied himself 
with Rama-chandra, who received and embraced him as a friend. 
After the defeat and death of Ravawa he was raised by Rama to 
the throne of Lanka. 

VICHITRA-VIRYA. Name of a king. See Maha-bharata. 

VIDAGDHA-MADHAVA. A drama in seven acts by Rupa 
on the loves of Knshraa and Radha, written in 1533 A. D. "It 
is weak as a drama, and its literary merits are small" 

VIDARBHA. Birar, and probably including with it the 
adjoining district of Beder, which name is apparently a corrup 
tion of Yidarbha. The capital was KuT^ina-pura, the modern 
" Kundapur," about forty miles east of AmaravatL 

VIDDHA-tfALABHANJIKA. < The statue. A comedy of 
domestic intrigue by Raja $ekhara. It was probably written 
earlier than the tenth century. 

VIDEHA. An ancient country, of which the capital was Mi- 
thila. It corresponds with the modern Tirhut or North Bihar. 


YIDHAT^/. Creator. A name of Brahma, of Yishmi, 
and of Yiswa-karma. 

YIDURA. A son of Yyasa by a $udra slave girl, who took 
the place of his consort. Yidura was called Kshattri, a term 
ordinarily applied to the child of a $udra father and Brahman 
mother. He enjoyed the character of the "wisest of the wise," 
and gave good advice to both Kaiiravas and Pawc?avas, but in 
the war he sided with the latter. See Maha-bharata. 

YIDURA. A mountain in Ceylon, probably Adam s Peak. 

YIDYAN-MODA-TARANGIYL Fountain of pleasure to 
the learned. A philosophical work by Rama-deva, translated 
into English by Raja Kali Knsh??a. 

YIDYA-DHARA (mas.), YIDYA-DHARI (fern.). < Pos 
sessors of knowledge. A class of inferior deities inhabiting the 
regions between the earth and sky, and generally of benevolent 
disposition. They are attendants upon Indra, but they have 
chiefs and kings of their own, and are represented as inter 
marrying and having much intercourse with men. They are 
also called Kama-rupin, taking shapes at will; Khechara and 
Nabhas-chara, moving in the air; Priyam-vada, sweet-spoken. 

learning. A title of Madhavacharya, as patron of the city of 
Yidya-nagara, afterwards altered to Yijaya-nagara, the capital of 
the last great Hindu dynasty of the Dakhin. 

YIJA-GANITA. A work on algebra, translated by Cole- 
brooke and by Strachey. It is a chapter of the work called 
Siddhanta-siromawi, written by Bhaskaracharya. There are 
several editions of the text. 

YIJAYA-NAGARA, The capital of the last great Hindu 
dynasty of the south. It was originally called Yidya-nagara, 
city of learning, after the great scholar and minister Madha- 
vacharya, entitled Yidyarawya, forest of learning. But in the 
days of its glory the Yidya was altered to Yijaya, victory. 

YIJNANEtfWARA. Author of the law-book called Mitak- 

YIKARYA. A son of Dhnta-rashfra. 

YIKRAMADITYA. A celebrated Hindu king who reigned 
at Ujjayinl. He is said to have been the son of a king named 
Gardabhila. His name has been given to the Samvat era, com 
mencing 57 B.O. He was a great patron of learning, and his 


^ourt was made illustrious by the Nava-ratna, or nine gems of 
literature, who flourished there. He is a great hero of romance, 
and many improbable stories are told of him. His real position 
is uncertain. He appears to have driven out the #akas, and to 
have established his authority over Northern India. He is said 
to have fallen in battle with his rival /Salivahana, king of the 
Dakhin, who also has an era called aka dating from 78 A. D. 

VIKR AMOK VAST. < The hero and the nymph. A cele 
brated drama by Kalidasa, translated in Wilson s Hindu Theatre. 
There are many editions and translations. See Puru-ravas. 

VIKUKSHL A king of the Solar race, who succeeded his 
father, Ikshwaku. He received the name of asada, hare-eater. 
He was sent by his father to hunt and obtain flesh suitable for 
offerings. Being weary and hungry he ate a hare, and Vasishflia, 
the priest, declared that this act had denied all the food, for what 
remained was but his leavings. 

YIMADA. In the 72ig-veda it is said the Aswins gave 
a bride to the youthful Vimada, and the commentator explains 
that Yimada had won his bride at a swayam-vara, but was stopped 
on the way home by his unsuccessful competitors. The Aswins 
came to his succour, repulsed the assailants, placed the bride in 
their chariot, and carried her to the home of the prince. 

VINATA. A daughter of Daksha, one of the wives of 
Kasyapa, and mother of Garuc?a. According to 1 the Bhagavata 
Purawa she was the wife of Tarkshya or Garu^a. 

YINDA. Yinda and Anuvinda were joint kings of Avanti, 
and fought in the great war. 

VINDHYA. The mountains which stretch across India, and 
divide what Manu calls the Madhya-desa or middle land, the 
land of the Hindus, from the south, that is, they divide Hindustan 
from the Dakhin. The mountain is personified, and according to a 
legend he was jealous of the Himalaya, and called upon the sun to 
revolve round him as he did round Meru. When the sun refused 
the mountain began to raise its head to obstruct that luminary, 
and to tower above Himalaya and Menu The gods invoked the 
aid of Agastya, the spiritual guide of Yindhya. That sage called 
upon the mountain to bow down before him, and afford him an 
easy passage to and from the south. It obeyed, and Agastya 
passed over. But he never returned, and so the mountain remains 
in its humbled condition, far inferior to the Himalaya. 


YINDHYAYALI. Wife of Eali the Asura. 

YINDHYA-YASINI. The dweller in the Yindhyas. The 
wife of Siva. See Devi. 

YIPA#, YIPA/SA. The river Eyas, the Hyphasis or Bibasis 
of the classical writers. A legend relates that it obtained its 
name through the sage Yasish/ha, who, wishing to commit 
suicide, bound his limbs with cords and threw himself into the 
water. The river, declining to drown him, cast him unbound 
(vipdsa) on its bank. 

YIPKACHITTI Son of Kasyapa and Danu. He is chief 
of the Danavas. 

YlEA-BHADEA. A son or emanation of $iva, created from 
his mouth, and having, according to the Yayu Purawa, " a thou 
sand heads, a thousand eyes, a thousand feet, wielding a thou 
sand clubs, a thousand shafts ; holding the shell, the discus, the 
mace, and bearing a blazing bow and battle-axe; fierce and 
terrific, shining with dreadful splendour, and decorated with the 
crescent moon ; clothed in a tiger s skin, dripping with blood, 
having a capacious stomach and a vast mouth armed with for 
midable tusks," &c., &c. The object of his creation was to stop 
Daksha s sacrifice, and harry away the gods and others who were 
attending. He is an especial object of worship in the Mahratta 
country, and there are sculptures of him in the caves of Ele- 
phanta and Ellora, where he is represented with eight hands. 

YIRA-CHARITA. A book of tales by Ananta, which de 
scribes the feuds between the descendants of Yikramaditya and 

YIRADHA. A horrible man-eating Rakshasa, son of Kala 
and $atahrada. Ey penance he had obtained from Brahma the 
boon of invulnerability. He is described as "being like a 
mountain peak, a man-eater, loud-voiced, hollow-eyed, large- 
mouthed, huge, huge-bellied, horrible, rude, long, deformed, of 
dreadful aspect, wearing a tiger s skin, dripping with fat, wetted 
Avith blood, terrific to all creatures, like death with open mouth, 
bearing three lions, four tigers, two wolves, ten deer, and the 
great head of an elephant with the tusks, and smeared with fat, 
on the point of an iron pike, shouting with a loud voice." Rama, 
with LakshmaTia and Sita, encountered him in the Daw<&ika 
forest, when he foully abused and taunted the brothers, and 
seized upon Sita. The brothers proved with their arrows that 


he was not invulnerable, but lie caught tlicm, threw them over 
his shoulders, and ran off with them as if they had been chil 
dren. They broke both his arms, threw him down, beat him 
with their fists, and dashed him to the earth, but they could not 
kill him, so they dug a deep hole and buried him alive. After 
his burial there arose from the earth a beautiful person, who 
said that he w r as a Gandharva who had been condemned by 
Kuvera to assume the shape of a Rakshasa, from which Rama 
had enabled him to escape. He was also called Tumburu. 

VIRAJ. Manu thus describes Viraj : " Having divided his 
body into two parts, the lord (Brahma) became with the half a 
male, and with the (other) half a female ; and in her he created 
Viraj. Know that I (Manu), whom that male Viraj himself 
created, am the creator of all this world." (See Manu.) One 
passage in the Tfo g-veda says, "From him (Purusha) sprang 
Viraj, and from Viraj (sprang) Purusha " (Muir s Texts, v. 50, 
369), like as Aditi is said to have sprung from Daksha, and 
Daksha from Aditi Viraj, the male half of Brahma, is sup 
posed to typify all male creatures ; and $ata-rupa, the female 
half, all female forms. 

VlRA-MITRODAYA, A law-book by Mitra-misra, of autho 
rity in the Benares School. It is in the form of a commentary 
on the Mitakshara. The text is in print. 

VIRATA. A country in the vicinity of the modern Jaypur. 
The present town of Baira^ is 105 miles south of Delhi. Its king 
was called Raja of ViraYa or Raja Virata. It was at his court 
that the Paw?ava princes and Draupadi lived in disguise. They 
rendered him great services against his enemies, and he fought 
on their side in the great war and was killed by Drowa. See 

VIROCHANA. A Danava, son of Prahlada, and father of 
Bali. He is also called Drisana. When the earth was milked, 
Virochana acted as the calf of the Asuras. See Pn thi. 

VIRUPAKSHA. < Deformed as to the eyes. A name of 
$iva, who has three eyes. Also one of the Rudras. Also a 
Danava, son of Kasyapa. 

VISAKHA-DATTA. Author of the drama Mudra-rak- 
shasa," He is said to be of royal descent, but his family has 
not been identified. 

VISALA. A name of the city UjjayinL 

360 VISHNU. 

VISHNU. Eoot, vish, to pervade. The second god of the 
Hindu triad In the T^g-veda Vishmi is not in the first rank of 
gods. He is a manifestation of the solar energy, and is described as 
striding through the seven regions of the universe in three steps, 
and enveloping all things with the dust (of his beams). These 
three steps are explained by commentators as denoting the three 
manifestations of light fire, lightning, and the sun ; or the three 
places of the sun its rising, culmination, and setting. In the 
Yeda he is occasionally associated with Indra. He has very 
little in common with the Vishmi of later times, but he is called 
"the unconquerable preserver," and this distinctly indicates the 
great preserving power which he afterwards became. 

In the Brahmawas Vislmu acquires new attributes, and is in 
vested with legends unknown to the Yedas, but still very far dis 
tant from those of the Purawas. In Manu, the name is men 
tioned, but not as that of a great deity. In the Maha-bharata 
and in the Purawas he is the second member of the triad, the 
embodiment of the Satwa-gu^a, the quality of mercy and good 
ness, which displays itself as the preserving power, the self- 
existent, all-pervading spirit. As such, his votaries associate 
him with the watery element which spread everywhere before 
the creation of the world. In this character he is called Nara- 
ya?ia, moving in the waters, and is represented pictorially in 
human form slumbering on the serpent $esha and floating on 
the waters. This, too, is the position he assumes during the 
periods of temporary annihilation of the universe. 

The worshippers of Vishmi recognise in him the supreme 
being from whom all things emanate. In the Maha-bharata and 
in the Purawas he is the Prajapati (creator) and supreme god. 
As such, he has three Avasthas or conditions : i. That of 
Brahma, the active creator, who is represented as springing from 
a lotus which grew from Vishnu s navel while he was sleeping 
afloat upon the waters. 2. Vishmi himself, the preserver, in an 
Avatara or incarnate form, as in Kn shwa, 3. $iva or Kudra, 
the destructive power, who, according to a statement of the 
Maha-bharata, sprang from his forehead. But though the Maha- 
bharata generally allows Vishmi the supremacy, it does not do 
so invariably and exclusively. There are passages which uphold 
$iva as the greatest of the gods, and represent Vishmi as paying 
him homage. The $aiva Purawas of course make $iva supreme. 

VISHNU. 361 

Vishnu s preserving and restoring power has been manifested 
to the world in a variety of forms called Avataras, literally * de 
scents, but more intelligibly incarnations, in which a portion 
of his divine essence was embodied in a human or supernatural 
form possessed of superhuman powers. All these Avataras 
became manifest for correcting some great evil or effecting some 
great good in the world. The Avataras are ten in number, but 
the Bhagavata Purana increases them to twenty-two, and adds 
that in reality they are innumerable. All the ten Avataras are 
honoured, but the seventh and eighth, Rama and Knshwa, are 
honoured as great mortal heroes and receive worship as great gods. 
Krishna is more especially looked upon as a full manifestation 
of Vishnu, and as one with Vishnu himself, and he is the object 
of a widely extended and very popular worship. See Avatara. 

The holy river Ganges is said to spring from the feet of 

As preserver and restorer, Vishnu is a very popular deity, 
and the worship paid to him is of a joyous character. He has 
a thousand names (Sahasra-nama), the repetition of which is a 
meritorious act of devotion. His wife is Lakshml or $ri, the 
goddess of fortune, his heaven is Vaikunflia, and his vehicle 
is the bird Garuda. He is represented as a comely youth of a 
dark-blue colour, and dressed like an ancient king. He has four 
hands. One holds the Panchajanya (q.v.), a ankha or conch- 
shell ; another the Su-darsana or Vajra-nabha, a chakra or quoit 
weapon ; the third, a Gada or club called Kaumodaki ; and the 
fourth, a Padma or lotus. He has a bow called arnga, and a 
sword called Nandaka. On his breast are the peculiar mark or 
curl called $ri-vatsa and the jewel Kaustubha, and on his wrist 
is the jewel Syamantaka, He is sometimes represented seated 
on a lotus with Lakshml beside him, or reclining on a leaf of 
that plant. Sometimes he is portrayed reclining on the serpent 
$esha, and at others as riding on his gigantic bird Garu^Za. 

Of the thousand names of Vishmi the following are some of 
the most common : Achyuta, unf alien, imperishable ; Ananta, 
the endless ; Ananta-sayana, who sleeps on the serpent 
Ananta; Chatur-bhuja, * four-armed; Damodara, bound round 
the belly with a rope, as Krishna ; Govinda or Gopala, thn 
cowkeeper (Krishna); Hari; Hn shikesa, lord of the organs 
of sense ; Jala-sayin, { who sleeps on the waters ; Janfirddana, 


whom men worship ; Kesava, the hairy, the radiant ; Kiri- 
tin, wearing a tiara ; Lakshmlpati, lord of Lakshmi ; Madliu- 
sudana, * destroyer of Madhu ; Madhava, descendant of Madhu; 
Mukunda, deliverer; Murari, the foe of Mura; Nara, the 
man; ISTarayawa, who moves in the waters; Panchayudha, 
armed with five weapons; Padma-nabha, lotus-navel; Pltam- 
bara, clothed in yellow garments ; Purusha, the man, the 
spirit; Purushottama, the highest of men, the supreme spirit; 
$arngin or Sarngi-para, carrying the bow $arnga ; Vasudeva, 
Knslma, son of Vasudeva; Varshweya, descendant of Vn slmi; 
Vaikun/ha-natha, lord of Vaikun/ha (paradise) ; Yajnesa, 
Yajneswara, lord of sacrifice. 

VISEL/VU. Author of a Dharma-sastra or law-book. 

VISHNU PUKAJVA. This Purawa generally stands third 
in the lists, and is described as " that in which Parasara, begin 
ning with the events of the Varaha Kalpa, expounds all duties, 
is called the Yaish?iava, and the learned know its extent to be 
23,000 stanzas." The actual number of stanzas does not amount 
to 7000, and there is no appearance of any part being wanting. 
The text is in print. 

Wilson, the translator of this Purawa, says, "Of the whole 
series of Purawas the Vislmu most closely corresponds to the 
definition of a Pancha-lakshawa Purawa, or one which treats of 
five specified topics (Primary Creation, Secondary Creation, 
Genealogies of Gods and Patriarchs, Keigns of the Manus, His 
tory). It comprehends them all ; and although it has infused 
a portion of extraneous and sectarial matter, it has done so with 
sobriety and judgment, and has not suffered the fervour of its 
religious zeal to transport it to very wide deviations from the 
prescribed path. The legendary tales which it has inserted are 
few, and are conveniently arranged, so that they do not distract 
the attention of the compiler from objects of more permanent 
interest and importance." The whole work has been translated 
with numerous elucidatory notes by Wilson, and a second edi 
tion has been published with additional valuable notes by Dr. 
P. Hall 

VISMAPANA Astounding. The aerial city of the Gand- 
harvas, which appears and disappears at intervals. 

VI$RAVAS. Son of the Prajapati Pulastya, or, according 
to a statement of the Maha-bharata, a reproduction of half 


Pulastya himself. By a r>rahmanl wife, daughter of the sai^ 
Bharadwaja, named Irfavirfa or Ilavirfa, he had a son, Kuvera, th--. 
god of wealth. By a Eakshasi named Nikasha or KaikusT, 
daughter of Sumali, he had three sons, Ravarca, Kumbha-kawia, 
and Vibhishana and a daughter named Surpa-nakha. Tlio 
Vishnu Purawa substitutes Kesim for Nikasha. The account 
given by the Maha-bharata is that Pulastya, being offended with 
Kuvera for his adulation of Brahma, reproduced half of himself 
as Visravas, and Kuvera to recover his favour gave him three 
Eakshasi handmaids : Pushpotka/a, the mother of Eavana and 
Kumbhakarwa ; Malini, the mother of Vibhishana; and Eakii, 
the mother of Khara and Surpa-nakha. 

the Vedas they form a class nine in number. All the deities of 
inferior order. They are addressed in the Veda as " preservers 
of men, bestowers of rewards." In later times, a class of deities 
particularly interested in exequial offerings. The accounts of 
them are rather vague. They are generally said to be ten in 
number, but the lists vary, both as to the number and the names. 
The following is one list: (i.) Vasu, (2.) Satya, (3.) Kratu, 
(4.) Daksha, (5.) Kala, (6.) Kama, (7.) Dliriti, (8.) Kuru, (9.) 
Puru-ravas, (10.) Madravas. Two others are sometimes added, 
Eochaka or Lochana and Dhuri or Dhwani. See Vishnu Purawa, 
Hall s edition, vol. iii. pp. 178, 188, 189. 

name seems to have been originally an epithet of any powerful 
god, as of Indra and Surya, but in course of time it came to 
designate a personification of the creative power. In this cha 
racter Viswa-karma was the great architect of the universe, and 
is described in two hymns of the 7i/ig-veda as the one " all-seeing 
god, who has on every side eyes, faces, arms, and feet, who, 
when producing heaven and earth, blows them forth (or shapes 
them) with his arms and wings ; the father, generator, disposer, 
who knows all worlds, gives the gods their names, and is beyond 
the comprehension of mortals." In these hymns also he is said 
to sacrifice himself or to himself, and the Nirukta explains this 
by a legend which represents that " Viswa-karma, son of Blm- 
vana, first of all offered up all worlds in a Sarva-medlia (general 
sacrifice), and ended by sacrificing himself." 

In the Epic and Purawic periods Viswa-karma is invested 


with, the powers and offices of the Vedic Twash/rt, and is some 
times so called. He is not only the great architect, but the 
general artificer of the gods and maker of their weapons. It was 
he who made the Agneyastra or " fiery weapon," and it was he 
who revealed the Sthapatya-veda, or science of architecture and 
mechanics. The Maha-bharata describes him as " the lord of 
the arts, executor of a thousand handicrafts, the carpenter of the 
gods, the fashioner of all ornaments, the most eminent of artisans, 
who formed the celestial chariots of the deities, on whose craft 
men subsist, and whom, a great and immortal god, they continu 
ally worship." 

In the Eamayana, Viswa-karma is represented as having built 
the city of Lanka for the Kakshasas, and as having generated 
the ape Nala, who constructed Kama s bridge from the continent 
to Ceylon. 

The Purawas make Viswa-karma the son of Prabhasa, the 
eighth Yasu, by his wife "the lovely and virtuous Yoga-siddha." 
His daughter Sanjna was married to Surya, the sun ; but as she 
was unable to endure his effulgence, Yiswa- karma placed the sun 
upon his lathe and cut away an eighth part of his brightness. 
The fragments fell to the earth, and from these Viswa-karma 
formed " the discus of Vishnu, the trident of $iva, the weapon 
of Kuvera the god of wealth, the lance of Karttikeya god 
of war, and the weapons of the other gods." Viswa-karma 
is also represented as having made the great image of Jagan- 

In his creative capacity he is sometimes designated PrajapatL 
He also has the appellations Karu, * workman ; Takshaka, 
woodcutter ; Deva-vardhika, the builder of the gods ; Su- 
dhanwan, having a good bow. 

VLS WAMITKA. A celebrated sage, who was born a Ksha- 
triya, but by intense austerities raised himself to the Brahman 
caste, and became one of the seven great J^ishis. According to 
the .7^ g-veda he was son of a king named Kusika, a descendant 
of Kusa, but later authorities make him the son of Gathin or 
Gadhi, king of Kanya-kubja, and a descendant of Puru; so 
Viswamitra is declared in the Hari-vansa to be " at once a Pau- 
rava and a Kausika" by lineage. According to some, Gadhi was 
of the Kusika race, descended from Kusika. Viswamitra ia 
called Gadhi-ja and Gadhi-nandana, son of Gadhi. The story 


of^ Viswamitra s birth, as told in the Vislwu Puruna, is that 
Gadhi had a daughter named Satyavati, whom he gave in mar 
riage to an old Brahman of the race of Bhrigu named Tfcclilka. 
The wife being a Kshatriya. her husband was desirous that she 
might bear a son having the qualities of a Brahman, and he gave 
her a dish of food which he had prepared to effect this object. 
He also gave her mother a dish intended to make her conceive a 
son with the character of a warrior. At the instigation of the 
mother the dishes were exchanged, so the mother gave birth to 
Viswamitra, the son of a Kshatriya with the qualities of a 
Brahman ; and Satyavati bore Jamad-agni, the father of Parasu- 
rama, the warrior Brahman and destroyer of the Kshatriyas. 

The most noteworthy and important feature in the legends of 
Viswamitra is the active and enduring struggle between him 
and the Brahman Eishi Vasishtfia, a fact which is frequently 
alluded to in the 7^ g-veda, and is supposed to typify the con 
tentions between the Brahmans and the Kshatriyas for the 
superiority. Both these .Kz shis occupy a prominent position in 
the Tftg-veda, Viswamitra being the Rishi of the hymns in the 
third MamMa, which contains the celebrated verse Gayatri, and 
Vasishflia of those of the seventh. Each of them was at differ 
ent times the Purohita or family priest of King Su-das, a position 
of considerable importance and power, the possession of which 
stimulated if it did not cause their rivalry. The two sagos 
cursed each other, and carried their enmity into deeds of vio 
lence. Viswamitra s hundred sons are represented as having 
been eaten or burnt up by the breath of Vasishflia. On the 
other hand, the hundred sons of Vasish/ha were, according to 
one legend, eaten up by King Kalmasha-pada, into whom a 
man-eating Rakshasa had entered under the influence of Viswa 
mitra, or, according to another legend, they were reduced to 
ashes by Viswamitra s curse " and reborn as degraded outcasts 
for seven hundred births." The Aitareya Brahmawa states that 
Viswamitra had a hundred sons, but that when he adopted his 
nephew unaA-sephas he proposed to make him the eldest of his 
sons. Fifty of them assented, and them Viswamitra blessed 
that they should " abound in cattle and sons ; " the other and 
elder fifty dissented, and them he cursed "that their progeny 
should possess the furthest ends (of the country)," and from 
them have descended many of the border tribes and most of the 


Dasyus. Tlie Maha-bharata has a legend of Yiswamitra having 
commanded the river Saraswati to bring his rival Yasish/ha that 
he might kill him, and of having turned it into blood when it 
flowed in another direction and carried Yasish/ha out of his 

Yiswamitra s relationship to Jamad-agni naturally places him 
in a prominent position in the Kamaya%a. Here the old animo 
sity between him and Yasish&a again appears. He as a king 
paid a visit to Yasish/ha s hermitage, and was most hospitably 
entertained ; but he wished to obtain Yasish/ha s wondrous cow, 
the Kama-dhenu, which had furnished all the dainties of the 
feast. His offers were immense, but were all declined. The 
cow resisted and broke away when he attempted to take her by 
force, and when he battled for her, his armies were defeated by 
the hosts summoned up by the cow, and his "hundred sons were 
reduced to ashes in a moment by the blast of YasisMia s mouth." 
A long and fierce combat followed between Yasish^ha and 
Yiswamitra, in which the latter was defeated; the Kshatriya 
had to submit to the humiliation of acknowledging his infe 
riority to the Brahman, and he therefore resolved to work out his 
own elevation to the Brahmanical order. 

While he was engaged in austerities for accomplishing his 
object of becoming a Brahman he became connected with King 
Tri-sanku. This monarch was a descendant of King Ikshwaku, 
and desired to perform a sacrifice in virtue of which he might 
ascend bodily to heaven. His priest, Yasish/ha, declared it to 
be impossible, and that priest s hundred sons, on being applied 
to, refused to undertake what their father had declined. When 
the king told them that he would seek some other means of 
accomplishing his object, they condemned him to become a 
Chaft^ala. In this condition he had resort to Yiswamitra, and 
he, taking pity on him, raised him to heaven in his bodily form, 
notwithstanding the opposition of the sons of Yasish/ha. The 
Hari-vansa version of this story is different. Tri-sanku, also 
called Satya-vrata, had attempted the abduction of the young 
wife of a citizen. For this his father banished him, and con 
demned him to " the performance of a silent penance for twelve 
years." During his exile there was a famine, and Tri-sanku 
succoured and supported the wife and family of Yiswamitra, 
who were reduced to the direst extremity in that sage s absence. 


Vasish/ha, the family priest, liad done nothing to assuage tho 
wrath of the aggrieved father, and this offended Tri-sanku. At 
the end of his penance, being in want of meat, he killed Vasish- 
flia s wonder-working cow and partook of her flesh; for this 
act Vasishflia gave him the name of Tri-sanku, guilty of three 
sins. Viswamitra was grateful for the assistance rendered by 
Tri-sanku, and gave him the choice of a boon. He begged that 
he might ascend bodily to heaven. Viswamitra then installed 
Tri-sanku in his father s kingdom, " and in spite of the resist 
ance of the gods and of Vasish^ha he exalted the king alive to 

The Maha-bharata and the Eamaya?ia tell the story of Viswii- 
mitra s amour with Menaka, His austerities had so alarmed the 
gods that Indra sent this Apsaras to seduce Viswamitra "by the 
display of her charms and the exercise of all her allurements." 
She succeeded, and the result was the birth of /S akuntala. 
Viswamitra at length became ashamed of his passion, and " dis 
missing the nymph with gentle accents, he retired to the northern 
mountains, where he practised severe austerities for a thousand 
years." He is said also to have had an amour with the nymph 

The result of the struggle between Vasish/ha and Viswamitra 
is thus told in the Eamayawa : " Vasish/ha, being propitiated 
by the gods, became reconciled to Viswamitra, and recognised 
his claim to all the prerogatives of a Brahman Rishi. . . . Viswa- 
mitra, too, having attained the Brahmanical rank, paid all honour 
to Vasish/ha," 

The Eamayarza gives many particulars of Viswamitra s con 
nection with Eama. It was Viswamitra who prevailed upon 
King Dasa-ratha to send his son Eama for the protection of the 
Brahmans against the attacks of Eavawa and his Eakshasas. He 
acted as his guru, and returned with Eama to Ayodhya, where 
the prince obtained the hand of Sita. 

In the MarkaTW/eya and other Purawas the story is told of 
Viswamitra s implacable persecution of King Haris-chandra (xc" 
Ilaris-chandra), one result of which was that Vasish/ha and 
Viswamitra cursed each other so that they were turned into 
birds, and fought together most furiously till Brahma put an 
end to the conflict, restored them to their natural forms, and 
compelled them to be reconciled. 


VLS WA-RUPA. Wearing all forms, omnipresent, universal ; 
a title of Vishnu. 

YISWAYASU. A chief of the Gandharvas in Indra s 

YISWESWARA. Lord of all A name of iva. The 
celebrated Linga or emblem of $iva at Benares. See Linga. 

YlTA-HAYYA. A king of the Haihayas. His sons attacked 
and slew all the family of Divodasa, king of Kasi. A son, 
named Pratardana (q.v.), was subsequently born to Divodasa, 
and he attacked the Haihayas and compelled Yita-havya to fly 
to the sage Bhn gu for protection. Pratardana pursued him, and 
demanded that he should be given up. Then " Yita-havya, by 
the mere word of Bhngu, became a Brahman Eishi and an 
utterer of the Yeda" (Maha-bharata). His son, Gritsa-mada, 
was a highly honoured Rishi, and author of several hymns in 
the .Z&g-veda. He was the founder of the tribe of Haihayas 
called Yita-havyas. 

YITASTA. The classic Hydaspes, the Behat of later days, 
and the modern Jhelam. 

YIYADA-BHANGARYAYA. A code of Hindu law ac 
cording to the Bengal school, composed by Jagan-natha Tarka- 
lankara at the end of the last century. It has been translated 
by Colebrooke, and is commonly known as Colebrooke s Digest. 

YIY ADA-CHANDRA. A law-book of the Benares school 
by Lakhima Devi, a learned lady. 

YIYADA-CHINTAMAYI A law-book of the Mithila 
school by Yachaspati Misra. The text is in print. 

YIYADA-RATNAKAR A A law-book of the Benares school 
by Chandeswara, who lived about 1314 A.D. 

YIYADA-TAJVDAYA. A law-book of the Benares school 
by Ratnakara. 

YIYASWAT. The bright one. The sun. (See Surya.) 
Used sometimes perhaps for the firmament. 

YIYINDHAYA. A Danava killed in battle by Charu- 
deshna, son of Knahwa, See Maha-bharata. 

YOPA-DEYA. A grammarian of great repute, who lived 
about the thirteenth century A.D. at Deva-giri, and wrote the 

YRAJA A pastoral district about Agra and Mathura, where 
Kn shwa passed his boyhood with the cowherds. 


YE AT Y A. " Persons whom the twice-born beget on women 
of their own classes, but who omit the prescribed rites and 
have abandoned the Gayatri, are to be designated as Yriityas." 

VjR/DDHA, Old. An epithet frequently found prefixed 
to the books of ancient writers, and evidently implying that 
there are one or more versions or recensions as Vnddha 
Manu, Vnddha Harita. See Dharma-sastra. 

V^HAT-KATHA. Great story. A large collection of tales 
from which the Katha-sarit-sagara was drawn. There is a 
critical examination of this work by Dr. Biihler in the Indian 
Antiquary, vol. i. 

Vfl/HAT-SANHITA. The astronomical work of Varuha 


V72/HASPATL See Bn haspati. 

V^/KODARA. Wolf belly. An epithet of Bhima, 

V.Z2/!NDA-VA]SrA. A wood in the district of Mathura where 
Krishna passed his youth, under the name of Gopfda, among the 

V.&ZSELZVI. A descendant of Yadu, and the ancestor from 
whom Krishna got the name Varshweya. 

V-RISILVIS, V12/SHAAYAS. The descendants of Vr/sh i, 
son of Madhu, whose ancestor was the eldest son of Yadiu 
Krishna belonged to this branch of the Lunar race. 

VZt/TRA. In the Yedas he is the demon of drought and 
ungenial weather, with whom Indra, the god of the firmament, 
is constantly at war, and whom he is constantly overpowering, 
and releasing the rain. Sometimes called Vritrasura. 

Y^/TRA-HAK The slayer of Yritra. A title of Indra. 

VYAZ>L An old grammarian and lexicographer, somewhat 
later in time than Panini. A story in the Ynhat-katha repre 
sents him as contemporary with YararuchL 

VYAH#/TIS. Three mystical words said by Manu to 
have been milked from the Yedas by Prajapati the word bhur, 
from the Jfog-veda ; the word bhuvah, from the Yajur-veda; and 
the word swar, from the Sama-veda (Manu, ii. 76). The /Skta- 
patlia Briihinawa defines them as "three luminous cssi-:. 
which Prajapati produced from the Yedas by heating them. 

2 A 


He uttered the word bhur, which became this earth ; bhuvah, 
which became this firmament; and swar, which became that 
sky." A fourth word, mahar, is sometimes added, and is pro 
bably intended to represent the Atharva-veda. See Loka. 

VYAKAKAJVA. Grammar. 1 One of the Vedangas. The 
science of grammar has been carefully studied among the Hindus 
from very ancient times, and studied for its own sake as a science 
rather than as a means of acquiring or regulating language. The 
grammar of Pamni is the oldest of those known to survive, but 
Pamni refers to several grammarians who preceded himself. One 
of them was named $akaayana, a portion of whose work is 
said to have been discovered lately. 

YYASA. An arranger. This title is common to many old 
authors and compilers, but it is especially applied to Veda-vyasa 
the arranger of the Vedas, who, from the imperishable nature of 
his work, is also called $aswatas, the immortal The name is 
given also to the compiler of the Maha-bharata, the founder of 
the Vedanta philosophy, and the arranger of the Purawas ; all 
these persons being held to be identical with Veda-vyasa, But 
this is impossible, and the attribution of all these works to one 
person has arisen either from a desire to heighten their antiquity 
and authority, or from the assumed identity of several different 
" arrangers." Veda-vyasa was the illegitimate son of the Eishi 
Parasara and Satyavati, and the child, who was of a dark colour, 
was brought forth on an island (dwipa) in the Yamuna. Being 
illegitimate he was called Kanlna, the bastard ; from his com 
plexion he received the name Krishna, and from his birthplace 
he was called Dwaipayana. His mother afterwards married King 
$antanu, by whom she had two sons. The elder was killed in 
battle, and the younger, named Vichitra-virya, died childless. 
"Krishna Dwaipayana preferred a life of religious retirement, 
but in accordance with law and at his mother s request, he took 
the two childless widows of her son, Vichitra-virya. By them 
he had two sons, Dhnta-rashfra and Pa?idu, between whose 
descendants the great w T ar of the Maha-bharata was fought. 

The Purarcas mention no less than twenty-eight Vyasas, 
incarnations of Yishmi or Brahma, who descended to the earth 
in different ages to arrange and promulgate the Yedas. 

YYAYAHAE -A-CHINTAMAJVL A law-book of the Benares 
school by Yachaspati Misra. 


YYAYAHARA-MAYUKHA. A law-book of the Muhratta 
Bcliool by Nllakan/ha Bha//a. Translated by Borroduilr. 

YYAYAHARA-TATAYA. A modern work on law accord 
ing to the Bengal school by Raghunandana, who is also called 

YADAYA. A descendant of Yadu. The Yadavas were the 
celebrated race in which Kr/slma was born. At the time of his 
birth they led a pastoral life, but under him they established a 
kingdom at Dwaraka in Gujarat. All the Yadavas who were 
present in that city after the death of Krishna perished in it 
when it was submerged by the ocean. Some few were absent, 
and perpetuated the race, from which many princes and chiefs 
still claim their descent. The great Rajas of Yijaya-nagara 
asserted themselves as its representatives. The Yishmi Purawa 
says of this race, " "Who shall enumerate the whole of the mighty 
men of the Yadava race, who were tens of ten thousands and 
hundreds of hundred thousands in number ? " 

YADU. Son of King Yayati of the Lunar race, and founder 
of the line of the Yadavas in which Kn shwa was born. lie 
refused to bear the curse of decrepitude passed upon his father 
by the sage $ukra, and in consequence he incurred the paternal 
curse, "Your posterity shall not possess dominion." Still he 
received from his father the southern districts of his kingdom, 
and his posterity prospered. 

YAJA. A Brahman of great sanctity, who, at the earnest 
solicitation of King Drupada, and for the offer of ten millions of 
kine, performed the sacrifice through which his " altar-born " 
children, Dhnsh/a-dyumna and Draupadi, came forth from the 
sacrificial fire. 

YAJNA. Sacrifice. Sacrifice personified in the Purfirzns 
as son of Euchi and husband of Dakshi/ia, He had the head 
of a deer, and was killed by Yira-bhadra at Daksha s sacrifice. 
According to the Hari-vansa he was raised to the planetary 
sphere by Brahma, and made into the constellation Mr/ga-*iws 

YAJ:N T A-DATTA-BADIIA. The death of Yajna-ilatta. An 
episode of the Kamaya?za. It has been translated into French 
by Ch6zy. 

YAJ^A-PARIBHASHA. A Sutra work by Apastambha, 

YAJNA-SEXA A name of Drupada. 


YAJNAWALKYA. A celebrated sage, to whom is attri 
buted the White Yajur-veda, the $atapatha Brahmawa, the 
Bnhad Ara^yaka, and the code of law called Yajnawalkya- 
smn ti. He lived before the grammarian Katyayana, and was 
probably later than Manu; at any rate, the code bearing his 
name is posterior to that of Manu. He was a disciple of Bash- 
kali, and more particularly of Vaisampayana. The Maha-bharata 
makes him present at the Kaja-suya sacrifice performed by 
Yudhi-shftiira ; and according to the $atapatha Brahmawa he 
flourished at the court of Janaka, king of Videha and father of 
Slta. Janaka had long contentions with the Brahmans, in which 
he was supported, and probably prompted, by Yajnawalkya. 
This sage was a dissenter from the religious teaching and prac 
tices of his time, and is represented as contending with and 
silencing Brahmans at the court of his patron. A Brahman 
named Vidagdha akalya was his especial adversary, but he 
vanquished him and cursed him, so that " his head dropped off, 
and his bones were stolen by robbers." Yajnawalkya also is 
represented as inculcating the duty and necessity of religious 
retirement and meditation, so he is considered as having been 
the originator of the Yoga doctrine, and to have helped in pre 
paring the world for the preaching of Buddha. He had two 
wives, Maitreyi and Ivatyayani, and he instructed the former in 
his philosophical doctrine. Max Miiller quotes a dialogue be 
tween them from the $atapatha Brahma wa (Ancient Sanskrit 
Literature, p. 22), in which the sage sets forth his views. 

The White Yajur-veda originated in a schism, of which 
Yajnawalkya was a leader, if not the author. He was the ori 
ginator and compiler of this Yeda, and according to some it was 
called Vajasaneyi Sanhita, from his surname Yajasaneya. See 

What share Yajnawalkya had in the production of the $ata- 
patha Brahmawa and Bnhad Arawyaka is very doubtful. Some 
part of them may, perhaps, have sprung directly from him, and 
they were probably compiled under his superintendence ; but it 
may be, as some think, that they are so called because they treat 
of him and embody his teaching. One portion of the Bnhad 
Arawyaka, called the Yajnawalkiya "Kanda, cannot have been his 
composition, for it is devoted to his glorification and honour, and 
was probably written after his death. 


The Smriti, or code of law which bears the name of Yiijna- 
walkya, is posterior to that of Maim, and is more precise and 
stringent in its provisions. Its authority is inferior only to that 
of Manu, and as explained and developed by the celebrated 
commentary Mitakshara, it is in force all over India except in 
Bengal proper, but even there the original text-book is received. 
The second century A.D. has been named as the earliest date of 
this work. Like Manu, it has two recensions, the Brihad and 
Vn ddha, perhaps more. The text has been printed in Calcutta, 
and has been translated into German by Stenzler and into Eng 
lish by Roer and Montriou. 

YAJUR or YAJUSH. The second Veda, See Veda, 

YAKSHAS. A class of supernatural beings attendant on 
Kuvera, the god of wealth. Authorities differ as to their origin. 
They have no very special attributes, but they are generally 
considered as inoffensive, and so are called Puwya-janas, good 
people, but they occasionally appear as imps of evil. It is a 
Yaksha in whose mouth Kali-dasa placed his poem Megha-duta 
(cloud messenger). 

YAKSHI, YAKSHItfL i. A female Yaksha. 2. Wife of 
Kuvera. 3. A female demon or imp attendant on Durgu. 

YAM A. * Restrained Pluto, Minos. In the Yedas Yama 
is god of the dead, with whom the spirits of the departed dwell, 
lie was the son of Vivaswat (the Sun), and had a twin-sister 
named Yarn! or Yamuna* These are by some looked upon as 
the first human pair, the originators of the race ; and there is a 
remarkable hymn, in the form of a dialogue, in which the femnlo 
urges their cohabitation for the purpose of perpetuating the 
species. Another hymn says that Yama " was the first of men 
that died, and the first that departed to the (celestial) world." He 
it was who found out the way to the home which cannot be taken 
away : " Those who are now born (follow) by their own paths 
to the place whither our ancient fathers have departed." 
says Dr. Muir, " Yama is nowhere represented in the 11 
as having anything to do with the punishment of the wicked." 
So far as is yet known, "the hymns of that Veda contain no 
prominent mention of any such penal retribution. . . . lama is 
still to some extent an object of terror. He is represented as 
having two insatiable dogs with four eyes and wide nostrils, 

374 YAMA. 

which, guard the road to his abode, and which the departed are 
advised to hurry past with all possible speed. These dogs are 
said to wander about among men as his messengers, no doubt 
for the purpose of summoning them to their master, who is in 
another place identified with death, and is described as sending 
a bird as the herald of doom." 

In the epic poems Yama is the son of the Sun by Sanjna 
(conscience), and brother of Yaivaswata (Manu). Mythologically 
he was the father of Yudhi-sh/hira. He is the god of departed 
spirits and judge of the dead. A soul when it quits its mortal 
form repairs to his abode in the lower regions ; there the re 
corder, Chitra-gupta, reads out his account from the great 
register called Agra-sandham, and a just sentence follows, when 
the soul either ascends to the abodes of the Pitns (Manes), or 
is sent to one of the twenty-one hells according to its guilt, or 
it is born again on earth in another form. Yama is regent of 
the south quarter, and as such is called Dakshinasa-pati. He 
is represented as of a green colour and clothed with red. He 
rides upon a buffalo, and is armed with a ponderous mace and a 
noose to secure his victims. 

In the Pura??as a legend is told of Yama having lifted his 
foot to kick Chhaya, the handmaid of his father. She cursed 
him to have his leg affected with sores and worms, but his 
father gave him a cock which picked off the worms and cured 
the discharge. Through this incident he is called $ima-pada, 
shrivelled foot. 

Yama had several wives, as Hemamala, Su-sila, and Vijaya. 
He dwells in the lower world, in his city Yama-pura. There, in 
his palace called Kalichi, he sits upon his throne of judgment, 
Vichara-bhu. He is assisted by his recorder and councillor, 
Chitra-gupta, and waited upon by his two chief attendants and 
custodians, Chanda or Maha-chanda, and Kala-pursusha. His 
messengers, Yama-dutas, bring in the souls of the dead, and the 
door of his judgment-hall is kept by his porter, Yaidhyata. 

Yama has many names descriptive of his office. He is Mn tyu, 
Kala, and Antaka, death ; Kntanta, the finisher ; $amana, 
1 the settler ; } Dandl or Dawda-dhara, the rod-bearer ; Bhima- 
sasana, of terrible decrees ; PasI, the noose-carrier ; Pitr i- 
pati, lord of the manes ; Pr eta-raj a, king of the ghosts ; 
$raddha-deva, god of the exequial offerings; and especially 


Dharma-raja, king of justice. He is Audumbara, from Udum- 
bara, the fig-tree, and from his parentage he is Vaivaswala. 
There is a Dharma-sastra which bears the name of Yama. 

YAMA-VAIVASWATA. Yama as son of Vivaswat. 

YAML The goddess of the Yamuna river. Sister of Yama 

YAMUNA. The river Jumna, which rises in a mountain 
called Kalinda (Sun). The river Yamuna is personified as the 
daughter of the Sun by his wife Sanjna. So she was sister of 
Yama. Bala-rama, in a state of inebriety, called upon her to 
come to him that he might bathe, and as she did not heed, he, 
in a great rage, seized his ploughshare-weapon, dragged her to 
him and compelled her to follow him whithersoever he wandered 
through the wood. The river then assumed a human form and 
besought his forgiveness, but it was some time before she could 
appease him. Wilson thinks that " the legend probably alludes 
to the construction of canals from the Jumna for the purposes ol 
irrigation." The river is also called Kalindl, from the place of 
its source, Surya-ja, from her father, and Tri-yama. 

YASKA. The author of the Nirukta, the oldest known gloss 
upon the text of the Vedic hymns. Yaska lived before the 
time of Pamni, who refers to his work, but he was not the first 
author who wrote a Mrukta, as he himself refers to several 
predecessors. See Kirukta. 

YASODA. Wife of the cowherd Nanda, and foster-mother 
of Krishna. 

YATUS, YATU-DHANAS. Demons or evil spirits of various 
forms, as dogs, vultures, hoofed-animals, &c. In ancient times 
the Yatus or Yatu-dhanas were distinct from the Rakshasas 
though associated with them, but in the epic poems and 
Pura?zas they are identified. Twelve Yatu-dhanas are named 
in the Vayu Pura??a, and they are said to have sprung from 
Kasyapa and Su-rasa, They are associated with the Dasyus, and 
are thought to be one of the native races which opposed the 
progress of the immigrant Aryans. 

YAVA-KRI, YAVA-KRITA. Bought with barley. Son 
of the sage Bharadwaja. He performed great penances in order 
to obtain a knowledge of the Vedas without study, and having 
obtained this and other boons from Indra, he became arrogant. 
and treated other sages with disrespect. He made love to the 


wife of Paravasu, son of his father s friend, Eaibhya. That saga 
in his anger performed a sacrifice which brought into being a 
fearful Eakshasa who killed Yava-krita at his father s chapel. 
Bharadwaja, in grief for his son, burnt himself upon the funeral 
pile. Before his death he cursed Paravasu to be the death of 
his father, Eaibhya, and the son killed his father in mistake 
for an antelope. All three were restored to life by the gods in 
recompense of the great devotions of Arvavasu, the other son of 
Eaibhya (q. v. ). Mahd-bhdrata. 

YAVANAS. Greeks, Idovec, the Yavans of the Hebrew. 
The term is found in Pamni, who speaks of the writing of the 
Yavanas. The Purawas represent them to be descendants of 
Turvasu, but they are always associated with the tribes of 
the north-west frontier, and there can be no doubt that the 
Macedonian or Bactrian Greeks are the people most usually in 
tended by the term. In the Bactrian Pali inscriptions of King 
PriyadarsI the word is contracted to Yona, and the term Yona- 
raja " is associated with the name of Antiochus, probably Antio- 
chus the Great, the ally of the Indian prince Sophagasenas, 
about B.C. 210." The Purawas characterise them as "wise and 
eminently brave." They were among the races conquered by 
King Sagara, and "he made them shave their heads entirely." 
In a later age they were encountered on the Indus by Pushpa- 
mitra, a Mauryan general, who dethroned his master and took 
the throne. In modern times the term has been applied to 
the Muhammadans. 

YAYATI. The fifth king of the Lunar race, and son of 
Nahusha. He had two wives, Devayam and SarmisMia, from 
the former of whom was born Yadu, and from the latter Puru, 
the respective founders of the two great lines of Yadavas and 
Pauravas. In all he had five sons, the other three being 
Druhyu, Turvasu, and Anu. He was a man of amorous dis 
position, and his infidelity to Devayam brought upon him the 
curse of old age and infirmity from her father, $ukra. This 
curse $ukra consented to transfer to any one of his sons who 
would consent to bear it. All refused except Puru, who under 
took to resign his youth in his father s favour. Yayati, after a 
thousand years spent in sensual pleasures, renounced sensuality, 
restored his vigour to Puru, and made him his successor. This 
story of Puru s assuming Yayati s decrepitude is first told in the 


Maha-bharata. The above is tlie version of the Vislmu Pura//a. 
In the Padma it is told in a different manner. Yayati was in 
vited to heaven by India, who sent Mfitali, his charioteer, to 
fetch his guest. On their way they held a philosophical dis 
cussion, which made such an impression on Yayati that, when 
he returned to earth, he, by his virtuous administration, rendered 
all his subjects exempt from passion and decay. Yama com 
plained that men no longer died, and so Indra sent Kama-deva, 
god of love, and his daughter, Asruvindumati, to excite a pas 
sion in the breast of Yayati. lie became enamoured, and in 
order to become a fit husband for his youthful charmer he made 
application to his sons for an exchange of their youth and his 
decrepitude. All refused but Puru, whose manly vigour his 
father assumed. After awhile the youthful bride, at the insti 
gation of Indra, persuaded her husband to return to heaven, and 
he then restored to Puru his youth. The Bhagavata Purana and 
the Hari-vansa tell the story, but with variations. According to 
the latter, Yayati received from Indra a celestial car, by means 
of which he in six nights conquered the earth and subdued the 
gods themselves. This car descended to his successors, but was 
lost by Jamamejaya through the curse of the sage Gargya. 
Yayati, after restoring his youth to Puru, retired to the forest 
with his wife and gave himself up to mortification. Abstaining 
from food, he died and ascended to heaven. He and his five 
sons are all called Rajarshis. 

YAYATI-CHARITRA. A drama in seven acts on the life 
of Yayati. It is attributed to Rudra-deva. The subject is 
Yayati s intrigue with Sarmish/ha. 

YOGA. A school of philosophy. See Darsana and Yajna- 

YOGA-NIDRA. The sleep of meditation. Personified 
delusion. The great illusory energy of Yishmi and the illusory 
power manifested in Devi as Maha-maya, the great illusion. 

YOGIXL A sorceress. The Yoginis are eight female demons 
attendant on Durga. Their names are MarjanI, Kaqmra-tilaka, 
Malaya-gandhim Kaumudika, Bheruftrfa, Matali, Nayakl, and 
Jaya or $ubhachara ; Su-lakshawa, Su-nanda. 

YONI. The female organ. Alone, or in combination with 
the Linga, it is an object of worship by the followers of the 


YUDHI-SHTHIRA The eldest of the five Kndu princes, 
mythologically the son of Dharma, the god of justice. With 
the Hindus he is the favourite one of the five brothers, and 
is represented as a man of calm, passionless judgment, strict 
veracity, unswerving rectitude, and rigid justice. He was re 
nowned as a ruler and director, but not as a warrior. Educated 
at the court of his uncle, Dhnta-rashfra, he received from the 
family preceptor, Drorca, a military training, and was taught the 
use of the spear. When the time came for naming the Yuva-raja 
or heir-apparent to the realm of Hastina-pura, the Maha-raja 
Dhnta-rash/ra selected Yudhi-sh/hira in preference to his own 
eldest son, Dur-yodhana. A long-standing jealousy between 
the Paw^ava and Kaurava princes then broke forth openly. 
Dur-yodhana expostulated with his father, and the end was that 
the Paftdfavas went in honourable banishment to the city of 
Vara^avata. The jealousy of Dur-yodhana pursued them, and his 
emissaries laid a plot for burning the brothers in their dwelling- 
house. Yudhi-sh/hira s sagacity discovered the plot and Bhima 
frustrated it. The bodies of a Bhil woman and her five sons 
were found in the ruins of the burnt house, and it was believed 
for a time that the Pawc?avas and their mother had perished. 
When Draupadi had been won at the swayam-vara, Yudhi- 
sh/hira, the eldest of the five brothers, was requested by his 
juniors to make her his wife, but he desired that she should 
become the wife of Arjuna, by whose prowess she had been won. 
Through the words of their mother, Kunti, and the decision of 
the sage Yyasa, the princess became the common wife of the five 
brothers. An arrangement was made that Draupadi should 
dwell in turn with the five brothers, passing two days in the 
separate house of each, and that under pain of exile for twelve 
years no one of the brothers but the master of the house should 
enter while Draupadi was staying in it. The arms of the 
family were kept in the house of Yudhi-sh/hira, and an alarm 
of robbery being raised, Arjuna rushed there to procure his 
weapons while Draupadi was present. He thus incurred the 
pain of exile, and departed, though Yudhi-shftiira endeavoured 
to dissuade him by arguing that the elder brother of a fatherless 
family stood towards his juniors in the position of a father. 
After the return of the Pam?avas from exile and their establish 
ment at Indra-prastha, the rule of Yudhi-sh/hira is described as 


having been most excellent and prosperous. The Raja " ruled 
his country with great justice, protecting his subjects as his own 
sons, and subduing all his enemies round about, so that every 
man was without fear of war or disturbance, and gave his whole 
mind to the performance of every religious duty. And the Raj a had 
plenty of rain at the proper season, and all his subjects became 
rich ; and the virtues of the Raja were to be seen in the great 
increase of trade and merchandise, in the abundant harvests and 
the prolific cattle. Every subject of the Raja was pious ; there 
were no liars, no thieves, and no swindlers ; and there were no 
droughts, no floods, no locusts, no conflagrations, no foreign 
invasions, and no parrots to eat the grain. The neighbouring 
Rajas, despairing of conquering Raja Yudhi-sh/hira, were very 
desirous of securing his friendship. Meanwhile Yudhi-sh/hira, 
though he would never acquire wealth by unfair means, yet 
prospered so exceedingly that had he lavished his riches for a 
thousand years no diminution would ever have been perceived." 
After the return of his brother Arjuna from exile, Yudhi-sh/hiru 
determined to assert his supremacy by performing the Raja-su ya 
sacrifice, and this led to a war with Jarasandha, Raja of Maga- 
dha, who declined to take part in it, and was in consequence 
defeated and killed. The dignity which Yudhi-sh/hira had 
gained by the performance of the sacrifice rekindled the jealousy 
of Dur-yodhana and the other Kauravas. They resolved to 
invite their cousins to a gambling match, and to cheat Yudhi- 
sh/hira of his kingdom. Yudhi-sh/hira was very unwilling to 
go, but could not refuse his uncle s invitation. Sakuni, maternal 
uncle of Dur-yodhana, was not only a skilful player but also a 
dexterous cheat. He challenged Yudhi-sh/hira to throw dice 
with him, and Yudhi-sh/hira, after stipulating for fair-play, 
began the game. He lost his all, his kingdom, his brothers, 
himself, and his wife, all of whom became slaves. When 
Draupadi was sent for as a slave and refused to come, Duh- 
sasana dragged her into the hall by the hair, and both he and 
Dur-yodhana grossly insulted her. Bhima was half mad with 
rage, but Yudhi-sh/hira s sense of right acknowledged that 
Draupadi was a slave, and he forbade Bhima and his brothers to 
interfere. When the old Maha-rfija Dlm ta-rash/ra was informed 
of what had passed, he came into the assembly, and declaring that 
his sons had acted wrongfully, he sent Draupadi and her hus- 


bands away, imploring them to forget what had passed. Dur- 
yodhana was very wroth, and induced the Maha-raja to allow 
another game to avoid war, the condition being that the losers 
should go into exile for thirteen years, and should remain con 
cealed and undiscovered during the whole of the thirteenth year. 
The game was played, and loaded dice gave Sakuni the victory, 
so the PamZavas went again into exile. During that time they 
rendered a service to Dur-yodhana by rescuing him and his com 
panions from a band of marauders who had made them prisoners. 
"When Jayad-ratha, king of Sindhu, was foiled in his attempt 
to carry off Draupadi, the clemency of Yudhi-sh/hira led him 
to implore his brothers to spare their captive s life. As the 
thirteenth year of exile approached, in order to keep themselves 
concealed, the five brothers and Draupadi went to the country 
of Vira/a and entered into the service of the Eaja. Yudhi- 
shfliira s office was that of private companion and teacher of 
dice-playing to the king. Here Yudhi-sh/hira suffered his wife 
Draupadi to be insulted, and dissuaded his brothers from inter 
fering, lest by so doing they should discover themselves. When 
the term of exile was concluded, Yudhi-sh/hira sent an envoy to 
Hastina-pura asking for a peaceful restoration to the PaWavas 
of their former position. The negotiations failed, and Yudhi- 
shfliira invited Krishna to go as his representative to Hastina- 
pura. Notwithstanding Yudhi-shftiira s longing for peace the 
war began, but even then Yudhi-sh/hira desired to withdraw, 
but was overruled by Krishwa. 

Yudhi-sh/hira fought in the great battle, but did not distin 
guish himself as a soldier. The version of the Maha-bharata 
given in Mr. Wheeler s work makes him guilty of downright 
cowardice. At the instigation of Kn shwa he compassed the 
death of Drowa by conveying to that warrior false intelligence of 
the death of his son Aswatthaman, and his character for veracity 
was used to warrant the truth of the representation. His con 
science would not allow him to tell a downright lie, but it was 
reconciled to telling a lying truth in killing an elephant named 
Aswatthaman, and informing the fond father that Aswatthaman 
was dead. He retreated from a fight with Kama, and after 
wards reproached Arjuna for not having supported him and 
Bhima. This so irritated Arjuna that he would have killed him 
on the spot had not Krishna interposed. After the great battle 

YUGA. 38 r 

was over Krishna saluted him king, but he showed great disin 
clination to accept the dignity. His sorrow for those who had 
fallen was deep, especially for Kama, and he did what ho could to 
console the bereaved Dlmta-roslifra and G fun limn, as well as the 
many other sufferers. He was made king, and was raised to the 
throne with great pomp, he acting as ruler under the nominal 
supremacy of the old King Dhrita-rfishfra. There, after an inter 
val, he asserted his universal supremacy by performing the great 
Aswa-medha sacrifice. The death of Krishna at Dwfirakfi and 
regrets for the past embittered the lives of the Pa/w/avas, and 
they resolved to withdraw from the world. Yudhi-shfliira 
appointed Parikshit, grandson of Arjuna, to be his successor, 
and the five brothers departed with Draupadi to the Himalayas 
on their way to Swarga. The story of this journey is told with 
great feeling in the closing verses of the Maha-bharata. See 

Yudhi-sh/hira had a son named Yaudheya by his wife Dcvikil ; 
but the Vishwu Purawa makes the son s name Devaka and the 
mother s Yaudhovi. 

YUGA. An age of the world. Each of these ages is preceded 
by a period called its Sandhya or twilight, and is followed by 
another period of equal length called Sandhyansa, portion of 
twilight, each being equal to one-tenth of the Yuga, The 
Yugas are four in number, and their duration is first computed 
by years of the gods : - 

I. Kn ta Yuga, . 

. . 4000 

Sandhya, . . 


Sandhyansa, . . 

. 400 


2. Tretca Yuga, . 


Sandhya, . . . 

. 300 

Sandhyansa, . . , 



3. Dwapara Yuga, . , 

. . 2OOO 


. . 2OO 

Sandhyaiisa, . , . 

. . 200 


4. Kali Yuga, . 

, . IOOO 


. . ioo 

Sandhyansa, . . 





382 YUGA. 

But a year of the gods is equal to 360 years of men, so 

4800 x 360 = 1,728,000 

3600 x 360 = 1,296,000 

2400 x 360 = 864,000 

1200 x 360 = 432,000 

Total, . 4,320,000 

years, forming the period called a Maha-yuga or Manwantara. 
Two thousand Maha-yugas or 8,640,000,000 years make a Kalpa 
or night and a day of Brahma. 

This elaborate and practically boundless system of chronology 
was invented between the age of the .Rig-veda and that of the 
Maha-bharata. No traces of it are to be found in the hymns of 
the Rig, but it was fully established in the days of the great 
epic. In this work the four ages are described at length by 
Hanumat, the learned monkey chief, and from that description 
the following account has been abridged : 

The Knta is the age in which righteousness is eternal, when 
duties did not languish nor people decline. ISTo efforts were 
made by men, the fruit of the earth was obtained by their mere 
wish. There was no malice, weeping, pride, or deceit ; no con 
tention, no hatred, cruelty, fear, affliction, jealousy, or envy. 
The castes alike in their functions fulfilled their duties, were 
unceasingly devoted to one deity, and used one formula, one rule, 
and one rite. Though they had separate duties, they had but 
one Veda and practised one duty. 

In the Treta Yuga sacrifice commenced, righteousness decreased 
by one-fourth; men adhered to truth, and were devoted to a 
righteousness dependent on ceremonies. Sacrifices prevailed 
with holy acts and a variety of rites. Men acted with an object 
in view, seeking after reward for their rites and their gifts, and 
were no longer disposed to austerities and to liberality from a 
simple feeling of duty. 

In the Dwapara Yuga righteousness was diminished by a half. 
The Yeda became fourfold. Some men studied four Yedas, 
others three, others two, others one, and some none at all 
Ceremonies were celebrated in a great variety of ways. From 
the decline of goodness only few men adhered to truth. "When 
men had fallen away from goodness, many diseases, desires, and 
calamities, caused by destiny, assailed them, by which they were 


severely afflicted and driven to practise austerities. Others 
desiring heavenly bliss offered sacrifices. Thus men declined 
through unrighteousness. 

In the Kali Yuga righteousness remained to the extent of 
one-fourth only. Practices enjoined by the Yedas, works of 
righteousness, and rites of sacrifice ceased. Calamities, diseases, 
fatigue, faults, such as anger, &c., distresses, hunger, and fear 
prevailed. As the ages revolve righteousness declines, and the 
people also decline. When they decay their motives grow 
weak, and the general decline frustrates their aims. Muir, i. 

In the Kn ta Yuga the duration of life was four thousand 
years, in the Treta three thousand, in the Dwapara two thou 
sand. In the Kali Yuga there is no fixed measure. Other pas 
sages of the Maharbharata indicate " that the Kn ta Yuga was 
regarded as an age in which Brahmans alone existed, and that 
Kshatriyas only began to be born in the Treta." 

YUGAN-DHAKA. A city in the Panjab. A people dwell 
ing there and in the vicinity. 

YUVANAWA. A king of the Solar race, father of Man- 
dhatri. A legend represents this son as being conceived by and 
born of his father. 

YUVA-KAJA. Young king. The heir-apparent to a 

YUYUDHANA. A name of Satyaki. 

YUYUTSU. A son of Dlmta-rashfra by a Vaisya handmaid. 
On the eve of the great battle he left the side of the Kaurava- 
and joined the Parafavas. When Yudhi-shfliira retired from 
the world he established Yuyutsu in the kingdom of Indra- 


Abdhi-jau = Aswins. 
Abdhi-nagari = D waraka. 
Abhayada, 69. 
Abhimani Swaha. 
Abhi-rupa = Kama. 
Abhoga Varima. 
Abhra-matanga Loka-pala. 
Abhramu Loka-pala. 
Abhra-pi-sacha = Rahu. 
Abhrottha = Vajra. 
Abj a = Brahma, 58. 
Abja-hasta = Agni. 
Abja-yoni = Brahma, 58. 
A-dharma NirritL 
Adhiratha Kama. 
Adhirathi= Kama. 
Adhisima Krishna,, 70. 
Adhwaryu Veda 350. 
Adhyaya Veda 346. 
Adi-Kavi = Brahma. 
Adi-parva, 190. 
Adityas Daksha. 
Adri-ja = Devi. 

Adrika Satyavati, Uparichara. 
Adn syanti Parasara. 
Adwaita Madhava. 
Adwaita, 82. 
Agasti Varuwa. 
Agastya Bhr/gu. 

Aglm m Pushan. 
Agiieyastra Viswa-karma. 
Agneyi A ngiras. 
Agni Angiras, Twash^rt. 
Agni-bhu = Karttikeya. 

Agnivarna, 313. 
Agnivesa Agneyiistra. 
Agra-sandhani Yarna. 
Ahamyati, 69. 
Ahana = Usha3. 
Ahi Indra. 
Ahinagu, 313. 
Ahmara, 70. 
Ahinsa= Nara-Narayana. 

AilavUa - 
Aila Pum-ravas. 
Aindri= Indrawi, Mat>-/s. 
A- j a = Kama. 
Ajamic^ha, 69. 
Ajyapas Pitri s. 
A-kacha = Ketu. 
Akhu-ratha= Gane^a. 
Akrod liana, 70. 
Aksha = Havana. 
Alambusha Idavida. 
Alarka, 69. 
Amaradri = Mem. 
Amarsha, 313. 
Amaru Amaru 5ataka. 
Ambika Chfimuc?a. 
Ambu-raja = Varuwa 338. 
Anm ta = Dhanwantari. 
Amre taharaa = Garm/;u 
Amurta- rajas Dharuiara/jya, 
Anala = Agni, Vasu. 
An-anga = Kama. 
Ananta-sayana = Vishmi. 
Anauta = 6 Irsha <Scslia . 

2 B 

3 86 


An -any a- j a = Kama. 

Anara/iya, 313. 

A n arta Kusa-sthali. 

Anavaratha, 69. 

Andhaka-ripu Andhaka. 

Andhaka- vn shm Andhaka. 

Andha-tamisra Naraka. 

Anenas Ayus. 

Anenas (two), 313. 

Anga Anu, Champa, Dlrgha- 

tamas, Kama, PrithL 
Angadi Angada. 
Anga-raja= Kama. 
Angaraka = Mangala. 
Angirasa = Brihaspati. 
Anila, 69. 

Anila Vasu, Vayu. 
Anili = Hanumat. 
Animishacharya Brihaspati. 
An j an a, 313. 
An j an a Loka-pala. 
An janey a = Hanumat. 
Ansa Aditya. 
Amu, 70. 

Anupama Loka-pala. 
Anuratha, 69. 
An-uru = Aruwa. 
Anusaras = Rakshasaa. 
Anusasana-parva, 190. 
Anuvaka Veda 346, 348. 
Apa Vasu. 
Aparita Aparanta. 
Aptyas Trita. 
A ra/iy a -ka nda, Ramay a wa. 
Ara = <S ani. 
Aravin, 69. 

Archananas /S yavaswa. 
Ardra Sandhya, 313. 
Arha = Indra. 
Arha-pati = Surya. 
Arish^a Gandharva 106. 
Arisha-nemi = Saha-deva, 187, 

_ 313. 

Arjikiya Sapta-sindhava. 

Arka-sodara Loka-pala. 

Aruwa Jalayu, Sampati, Surya. 

Aru?ti Nachiketas. 

A ruwoda Manasa. 

Arushi Aurva, Chyavana, 75. 
Arvarivat Pulaha. 
Ary aman Aditya. 
AsamSiva* 296, Vajra. 
Asaras = Rakshasas. 
Ash^adhyayi = Pa^z-ini. 
Ash^aka Galava, Veda 346. 
Ash^a-karwa= Brahma 57. 
Asiknl Sapta-sindhava. 
Asi-patra-vana Naraka. 

Asita-danshif ra = Makara. 
Asitanga Bhairava. 
Aslesha-bhava = Ketu. 
Asmaka, 313. 

Asphujit = $ukra. 

Asrama-parva, 190. 

Asra-pas = Ztekinls. 

Asra-pas = Rakshakas. 

Asrik-pas = Rakshakas. 

Amta Tri-murti. 

Asruvindumati Yayati. 

Asuras Dadhyanch. 

Aswa, 77. 

A^walayana Brahmawa Brah- 

Aswamedhadatta, 70. 
Aswa-medhika-parva, 190. 
Aswa-pati Savitrl. 
Aswinl Asvvins. 
As wins 73, 75, Sarawyu. 
Atala Patala. 
Atikaya = Rava?ia. 
Atithi, 313. 

Atithi-gwa = Divo-dasa. 
Atma-bhu= Kama. 
Auchathya = Dlrgha-tamas. 
Audumbara = Yama. 
Aurnavabha Avatara 34. 
Aurvasiya Agastya. 
Auttanapadi Dhruva. 
Avantis Haihaya. 
Avara = Devi. 
Avastha Vishwu 360. 
Ayana-ghosha Radha. 
Ayana Narayawa. 



Ayodhya-kancfa Ramayana. 
Ayoni-ja = Sita. 
Ayushman Uttana-pada. 
Ayutayus 70, 313. 


Babbru = iva. 

Barfava-mukha Aurva. 

Baefavanala Aurva. 

Bahikas Sakala. 

Bahu Aurva. 

Babu-dara = Vajra. 

Bahugava, 69. 

Bahuka, 313. 

Bahulaswa, 313. 

Bahu-salin = Bhima. 

Bahvrzchas Veda 350. 

Balaja river, 62. 

Bala-kawda Ramayawa. 

Bal aki Gargy a. 

Balandhara Bhima. 

Ballala Bhoja-prabandha. 

Ballava= Bhima, 187. 

Bawa-bha^a Kadambarl. 

Bana Tripura. 

Banga Dlrgha-tamas. 

Bashkali Yajnawalkya. 

Bhadra Utathya. 

Bhadra-soma = Ganga. 

Bhadraswa Dwlpa, Jambu-d. 

Bhaga Aditya, Daksha, 77, 

Bhagavad-gita, 82. 

Bhagavat = Siva.. 

Bhagavati = Devi. 

Bhagnatina = Soma. 

BliaimI = Damay aiiti. 

Bluijamana, 70. 

Bliajeratha Ikshwaku. 

Bhakti Narada Pura/ia. 

Bhanu Satya-bliama. 

Bhanumat Satya-bliama, 313. 

Bharadwaja, 69. 

Bharajti llahu. 

Bhararal-bhu = Rahu. 

Bharata, 69. 

Bharata-varsha Dwlpa, Jam 

BharatI = Saraswatl. 

Bharga, 70. 

Bharga-bhumi, 70. 

Bhargava = ukra. 

Bhaskara = Surya. 

Bhaswatl Surya. 

Bha^a Narayana Ve?ii Sanhara. 

Bha^ojl Dlkshita Siddhanla- 


Bhauma = Mangala. 
Bhava-ja = Kama. 
Bhavanl = Devi. 
Bhavanmanyu, 69. 
Bhela Dhainvantari. 
Bheruwda Yoginl. 
Bhidira = Vajra. 
Bhimaratha (two), 69. 
Bhima-sasana = Yama. 
Bhisha?ia Bhairava. 
Bhishma-parva, 191. 
Bhoja Krita-varman. 
Bhoja-ka^a Rukmiu. 
Bhramari = Devi. 
Bhri gu Aurva, Twash^n, Khy- 

ati, Prithivl, Pratardaua, <Su- 


Bhrigus Kn ta-virya. 
Bhumi, 34. 
Bhumi-ja = Sita. 
Bhumi-putra = Mangala. 
Bhuta-nayakI = Devi. 
Bhuvana Viswa-karma. 
Bindu-sara Maurya. 
Brahma Blmgu. 
Brabma = Narada. 
Brahma-datta Ghritaclri, Ni- 


Brabmadikas Su-parnas. 
Brabmanaspati Twash^r/. 
Brabmani Main s. 
Brahman- veda Veda 351. 
Brahmastra Aswatthaman. 
Brabma- varaba Brabma- vai- 


Brahma- vidya Atharvan. 
Brahma-vn nda, 57. 
Brahmi 57, Saraswati. 
Brt hadaA wa, 313. 



BnTiadbala, 313. 
Brihad-bhanu Satya-bMma. 
Bnihadratha 70, Jara-sandha, 


Brihaduktha, 313. 
Bn haj - j ata ka Varaha Mihira. 
Br/han-Manu Manu. 
Bn han-nala = Arjuna, 187. 
Bn han Naradlya Parana Nil- 

rada Purawa. 
Bnhaspati Prithl. 
B/v hat Dharma-sastra. 
Brahatkshatra, 69. 
Buddha, 26, 38, 68. 

Chakora Chandra-ketu. 
Chakra Chakra-vartl. 
Chakra-vac^a. ) _ 
Chakra-vala, / Lokaloka - 
Chakshas = Bn haspati. 
Chakshu Sapta-sindhava. 
Champadhipa = Kama. 
Chanchala = Laksliml. 

Chanda, Chanluwc?a, Devi. 

Chanda Yama. 

Chandeswara Vivada Ratna- 

Chandra-bhaga amba, Sapta- 


Chandrabhanu Satya-bhama. 
Chandra-chuc^a = Bhairava. 
Chandramas Chandra- gupta. 
Chandra-sekhara = Siva. 
Chara = Mangala. 
Charak-puja Devi. 
Charvl, 174. 

Chatur-anana = Brahma, 57. 
Chatur-bhuja = Vishmi. 
Chatur-mukha = Brahma, 5 7. 
Chatur-vama Varna. 
Chaturvedas Pitre s. 
Chhaga-ratha Agni. 
Chhala, 313. 
Chhidaka = Vajra. 
Chhinna-mastaka = Devi. 
Chirfid = Garurfa. 
Chitra-ratha, 65, 69, 70, 138. 

Chitra-sikha>idinas Jfo shia. 
Chitra-vahana Chitrangada. 
Chola Pawc?ya. 
Chunchu, 313. 
Chy avana Mada. 

Dadhi Dwipa. 

Dahanopala = Surya-kanta. 

Daitya Asura. 

Daitya-guru = /S ukra. 

D aivata Nirukta. 

Daksha Aditya, Viswa-devas. 


Dakshaya = Garu^a. 

Daksheya = Pawini. 

Dakshi Pamni. 

Dakshina Akuti, Arjuna 23. 

Dakshiwa = Devi Yaj na. 

Dakshinasa-pati Yama. 

Dala, 313. 

Dama, 77. 

Damaru /Siva. 

Dambholi Vaj ra. 

Damodara Mi^ra Hanumaii- 

Danava Asura. 
Dawc?a-dhara = Yama. 
Dandasukas Rakshakas. 
Dantakura, 162. 
Darpaka Kama. 
Daruka = ^atyaki. 
Dasa Arya. 
Dasa-bhu j a = Devi. 
Dasa-kandia = Ravawa. 
Dasa-nandini= Satya-vati. 
Da^a-ratha Jaayu, Maurya, 

Dasarha, 69. 
Daseyi = Satya-vati. 
Dasma ) 

Dasma-varchas f = Pushan - 
Dasra = Pushan. 
Dasyu Arya. 
Dattaka Magha. 
Datteya= Indra. 
Deva-bhuti= Ganga. 
Deva-brahma= Narada. 



Dcva-giri Bhagavata 45, Maya, 


Dcvaka Yudhi-shtfhira. 
Deva-kshattra, 69. 
Devamirfhusha, 70. 
Deva mitra = akalya. 
Dcvana BhaWa Dattaka Chan- 

drika, Snm ti Chandrika. 
Dcva-nagarl Saraswatl. 
Devauam-piya = Asoka. 
Devaiiika, 313. 
Devantaka Kavawa. 
Dcva-parvata= Meru. 
Deva-rata 69, 313. 
Deva-sena = Jayanti. 
Deva-sravas Ekalavya. 
Devatithi 70. 

Deva-vardhaka Viswa-karma, 
Devika Nidagha,Yudhi-shhira. 
Dhanaka Krzta-vlrya. 
Dhanus 36. 
Dhanwantari 69. 
Dhara Vasu. 
Dharawi Lakshmi. 
Dharma Nara Narayana, Haris- 


Dharma- j na = Tri-ja^a. 
Dhaumya Dharma-^astra. 
Dhishana Bn haspati. 
Dhn sh^a-ketu 69, 313. 
Dhrishta, Manu. 
Dhriti 313, Visvva-devas. 
Dhruva Vasu. 
Dhruvasandhi, 313. 
Dhuma-ketu = Agni. 
Dhuri Viswa-devas. 
Dlnvani Viswa-devas. 
Dhy ushitaswa 3 1 3. 
Dull vis = Briliaspati. 
Dilipa, 70: 
Dimbhaka Hansa. 
Dina-kara = Surya. 
Dirgha-klhu, 313. 
Dirgha-tamas 13haraclwaja,Usij. 


Dirgliayus = Markanc?ej T a. 
Divod&nt, 69, 104. 
Divya-ratna Chinta-mam. 

DrtdhatwB, 313. 

Drisana = Virochana. 
Dri slnulwatl river Bralima- 


Drona Jarita. 
Drona-parva, 191. 
Dru-ghana = Brahmri, 59. 
Druhina = Brahma, 59. 
Druhyu Vaibboj as. 
Dugdha Dwipa. 
Du^-saha Narmada. 
Dundu = Vasu-deva. 
Durga-puja Devi. 
Dur-vasas Mudgala. 
Dushyanta, 69. 
Dwadasa-kara ) 
Dwadasaksha | =Karttikcya. 
D wai-matura = Ganesa. 
Dwaita Madhava. 
Dwaraka = Kusa-stliall. 
D wi-deha = Gawesa. 
Dwi-ja Vara. 
Dwita Trita. 
Dwivida Bala-rfima 41. 
Dya Dwiveda Niti-manjari. 
Dyaus = Ushas. 
Dyava-p7 tthivi Dyaus. 
Dyotana = Ushas. 
Dyumat, 69. 
Dy umay 1 = San j na. 

Ekasrmgas Titris. 
Ekata Trita. 

Ga bhastiman = Surya. 
Gabhastimat Bharata- varslia, 

Dwlpa, Patala. 
Gada Angada. 
Gada Vislutu 361. 
Gadagadau = Asvrina. 
(;;ula-yitmi = Kainu. 
G adhi Kusaiabha. 
Gfulhi nandana 




Gaganeswara= Garuc?a. 
Gaganolmuka = Mangala. 
Gana-nayaki = Devi. 
Gawa-parvata = Kailasa. 
Ganda- vaha = Vayu. 
Gandha-kali ) 
Gandha-vati } = Satya-vati. 

Gandha - madana Kula - parva- 

Gandharva Bharata - varsha, 


Gandharvas, 99. 
Gandharvi Sornada Urmila. 
Ganga-ja = Karttikeya. 
Ganga-putra = Karttikeya. 
Ganga Sapta-sindhava. 
Gardhabila Vikramaditya. 
Garga Kala-yavana. 
Gargya-balaki Ajata-satrn, 
Gargya Dharma-^astra, /S yala, 


Garhapatyas Pitrzs. 
Garutman= Garu^a. 
Gatu = Gandharva. 
Gauri Mandhatrc*. 
Gautama Kr^ pa. 
Gavalgana ) 
Gavalgani } =Sanjaya. 

Gaya iva 299. 
Gha^odbhava = Agastya. 
Ghalotkacha Alambusha. 
Ghnta D wipa. 

Glsh-pati= Br^haspati. 
Go-karwa Aparanta. 
Gomati Sapta-sindhava. 
Go-meda Nava-ratna. 
Go-medaka Dwipa Dwipa. 
Gonardlya = Patanjali. 
Go/iikaputra = Patanjali. 
Gopa Gaupayanas. 
Gopl-natha Kautuka-sarvaswa. 
Gotama K^ pa. 
Grahadhara = Dhruva. 
Graha-raja = Surya. 
Granthika=Nakula, 187. 

Guhya Tri-murti. 
Gupta-chara= Bala-rama. 

Haihayas Bahu. 

Haimavati = Devi. 

Hala, 41. 

Hala= Bala-rama. 

Halayudha Bha^a Abhidhana. 

Hansa-vahana= Brahma 57. 

Hanushas =: Rakshasas. 

Hara-5ekhara= Ganga. 

Hari-chandana Pancha-vnTcsha. 

Harita, 313. 

Harita Chyavana, 75. 

Hari-varsha Dwipa, Jambu-d. 

Haryaswa Galava, (three) 313. 

Harsha Vikramaditya Kali- 

dasa, Nava-ratna. 
Hastina-pura Bala-rama, tfarn- 


Hatake^wara Patala. 
Havishmats Angiras. 
Haya-griva, 36. 
Hayas, 162. 
Haya-siras Aurva. 
Haya-vahana Revanta. 
Hema Chandra Abhidhana. 
Hemadri Bhagavata Purawa, 


Hema-mala Yam a. 
Heramba= Ganesa. 
Hima-pa/if/ara Loka-palas. 
Hira = Lakshmi. 

Hiraw-maya Dwipa, Jambu-d. 
Hirawya-kasipu, 37, ^isu-pala. 
Hirawyaksha, 37. 
Hirawyanabha, 313. 
Hladini Sapta-sindhava. 
Hradin = Va j ra. 
Hraswaroma, 313. 
Hr^dika, 70, Sata-dhanvan. 
Huta-bhuj = Agni. 

Ichchha-vasu = Kuvera. 
Iddumati Aja. 



I jya = Brihaspati. 

Ikshu Dwlpa. 

Ikshwakus Tryaruwa. 

Ila Su-dyumua. 

Ilavila, 313. 

Ila-vrtta Dwipa, Gandha-mfi- 

daua, Jambu-dwlpa. 
Ilusha Kavasha. 
Indira = Lakshmi. 
Iiulra 64, 74, 75, Dur-vasas, 

T washer? , Krauncha. 
Indra-dwlpa Bhiirata - varsha. 
Indra-pramati Mawe?ukeya. 
Indra-prastha, 186. 
Indrawi Matrt s. 
Indrasena ( sena) Nala. 
Indrejya= Bn haspati. 
Ira- j a = Kama. 

Ira vat Airavata, Arjuna, Ulupi. 
Iravatl Pri thi, Sapta-sindhava. 
Isa-sakhi= Kuvera. 
IsMpachas = Rakshasas. 
Iswara Krishna Sankliya-kari- 

Iswaii = Devi. 

Jaad-dhatr = Devi. 
Jagad-gauii= Devi. 
Jagad-gauii = Manasa. 
Jagad-isa Hiisyar;iava. 
Jagan-miita = Devi. 
Jagan-natha, 62. 
Jagan-natha Tarkalankara Vi- 

vada Bhangiirwava. 
Jahanaka = Maha-pralaya. 
Jahnu, 69. 
Jala Dwlpa. 
Jaladhi-ja Lakshmi. 
Jala-kan tara = Vfiyu. 
Jala-murtti = Siva,. 
Jala-pati=Varuna, 338. 

Jambha-bhedin Jamltha. 
Jambhala-datta Vetala Pancha- 

Jambu-nadI Sapta-sindliava. 
Janaka Yajiiawalkya. 
Janaka-pura = M it hila. 
Jarfi Jara-sandha. 
Jaras /S amba. 
Jarasandha-jit = Bhinia. 
Janit-karu Astika. 
Jaritari Jarita. 
Jasuri = Vajra. 
Jata Haihava. 

Jata-vedas = Agni. 
Jaya, 313. 

Jaya-deva Prasanna-Ra^hava. 
Jaya-dhwaja Talajangluu 
Jay a Yog in I. 
Jaya = Yudhi-sl^hira, 187. 
Jayad-bala = Saha-deva, 187. 
Jay anl = Jayantl. 
Jayanta = Bhima, 1 87. 
Jayantl /Sukra. 
Jayasena, 69. 
Jaya-sena = Nakula, 187. 
Jhajhodaii = Satya-vatl. 
Jliash;"inka=: Aniruddha. 
Jihma-yodhin = Bliima. 
Jinmta, 69. 
Jishnu Indra. 
Jiva Br/haspati. 
Jnana-kawf/a Veda 345. 
Jwala-mukhi Pldia-sthana. 
Jyamagha, 69. 
Jyotir-lingam Lingam. 
Jyotir Iswara Dhiu ta-samaga- 

Kabandha Rfihu. 

Kachchhapa Nidhi. 

Kadraveya Kadru. 

Kadvat Ka. 

Kaka-dhwaja = Aurva. 

Kakudmatl Pradvunma. 

Kala = 5iva, Bhairava, \ iiadha, 

N i^wa-dcvas, Vania. 
Kalakeli Kama. 
Kalanganl = Satya-vatl. 




Kalankura = Kansa. 
Kala-purusha Yama. 
Kalas Pitns. 
Kalasi-suta = Agastya. 
Kala-sutra Naraka. 
Kala-yavana 167, /Syala. 
Kalichi Yama. 
Kall-gha Prtha-sthana. 
Kali- karaka Narada. 
Kalinda Kalindi, Yamuna. 
Kalindl-karshawa = Bala-rama. 
Kalinga Aim, Dirgha- tamas. 
Kalpa-vHksha Pancha-vn ksha. 
Kalya/ia Kalanas. 
Kama Vach, Viswa-devas. 
Kama-charin = Garuda. 
Kama-duh = Kama-dhenu. 
Kama-kala } 
Kama-patni j =Rati. 
Kama-priya * 
Kamakhya = Devi, Kalika Pu- 


Kamala = Lakshmi. 
KamaLakara Nirnaya - sindhu. 
Kamala-yoni Brahma. 
Kamana = Kama. 
Kamarupa Tlrtha Kalika Pu- 


Kama-rupin Vidya-dhara. 
Kama-sutras Vatsyayana. 
Kamayus = Garu^a. 
Kam-pala = Bala-rama. 
Kamya Priya-vrata. 
Kawcfa Veda 348. 
Kandasara Indra. 
Kanrfika Veda 348. 
Kanina = Karwa, al so = Vyasa. 

Kan j ana = Kama. 

Kanka^Yudhi-sh^hira, 187. 

Kantaka = Makara. 

Kantu = Kama. 

Kanwa - sakha /^atapatha - brali- 


Kapala Bhairava. 
Kapala-malin = ^iva. 

Kapila Loka-palas. 



Kapiseya Kapi^a. 

Kapi-vaktra = Narada. 

Karambhad = Pushan. 

Karambhi, 69. 

Karbmi rr Devi. 

Karburas = Rakshasas. 

Kardama Angiras, Daksha 77. 

Karewu-mati Nakula. 

Kari-mukha= Ganesa,. 

Karma-kawrfa Veda 345. 

Karma-sakshi =. Surya. 

Kama-moil = Devi. 

Kama-par va, 191. 

Kar/ii Ugrasen a. 

Karnikachala = Mem. 

Karpura-manjari Raja ekhara 

Karpura-tilaka Yoginl. 

Karshwi Kama. 

Karttikeya Kraun cha. 

Karu Viswa-karma. 

Karur ^alivahana. 

Karusha Danta-vakra, Manu. 

Kasa, 69. 

Ka^erumat Bharata - varsha, 

Kasi Amba. 
Kasiraja, 69. 
Ka^yapa Gandharva. 
Katyayani = Devi, Yajnawalkya. 
Kaumarl Karttikeya. 
Kaumudika Yoginl. 
Kaunapas = Rakshakas. 
Kausalya Dasaratha. 
Kaushitaki ) Agastya, Lopamud- 
Kausitaki ) ra. 
Kausikl = Devi, Satya- vatl. 
Kauftlya Chawakya. 
Kauveri, 174. 
Kavi - karwa - pura Chaitanya, 

Kavi^/Sukra, Swadha. 
Kavy a = 5ukra. 



Pitn s. 




KelikiIa = Rati. 

KesanVariuai 338. 

Kesari Hanumat. 

Kesini Sagara, Asamnnjas. 

Ketu-mala Dwlpa, Jambu-dwi- 


Ketu-mati Kaikasi. 
Ketumat, 69. 
Khageswara = Garucfo. 
Khanrfa Veda 346. 
Khandapfini, 70. 
Khan^a-parasu = Parasu-rama. 
Khfuif/ava Agni. 
Kha-pura = Saublia. 
Kharba Nidhi. 
Kharwas Valakhilyas. 
Khasatmajas Khasas. 
Khechara Vidya-dhara. 
Khetaka Bala-rama 41. 
Khinkira Khatfwanga. 
Khyati Lakshmi. 
Kilala-pas = Rakshasas. 
Kim-purusha-dwipa Dwlpa, 

Kinkira = Kama. 
Kin-nara-dwipa Dwlpa. 
Kirati Devi = Gariga. 
Kirltin = Vishnu. 
Kirtiman Uttana-pada. 
Kishkindhya-k<a/i^a Ramayawa. 
Kitava Uluka. 
Kona = >S ani. 
Konkana Rewuka. 
Kratha, 69. 
Kratu Viswa-devas. 
Kratu-dwishas = Daityas, 
Krauncha-dwlpa Dwlpa. 
Kravyad Agni, Rakshasas. 
Kmaswa, 313. 
Krishna Draupadi. 
Kftshna-kavi Kan^a-badha. 
Kr/shwa-misra Prabodha Chan- 

Krita, 313. 
Kri ta-dlnvaja Ke^i dhwaja. 

Kn tanta^Yama. 

Krttaratha, 313. 

Kr/ti, 313. 

Kn tirata, 313. 

Kntti-vasas = iva. 

Kroda = &ani. 

Krodha Bhairava, Daksha 77. 

Krosh^ri Angada. 

Kroshtfu, 69. 

Krumu Sapta-siiidhava. 

Krura-dris ) 

Krura-lochana \ ~ 

Ksliama Pulaha. 

Kshapa^as = Rakshasas. 

Kshattra-vn ddhi Ayus, 69. 

Kshema-dhanwan, 313. 

Kshemaka, 70. 

Kshemari, 313. 

Kshira D wlpa. 

Kshlrabdhi-tauaya= Lakshmi. 

Kshiti = Maha-pralaya. 

Kubha Sapta-sindhava. 

Kubja, 1 66. 

K udm al a Naraka. 

Ku-ja = DevI. 

Kumara = Karttikcya. 
Kumaraka D wlpa. 
Kumara-su = Ganga. 
Kumbha-sambhava Agastya. 
Kumbhinasi Lava;/ a. 
Kumuda Dig-gaja, Loka-pala. 
Kumuda-pati Soma. 
Kunda Nidhi. 
Kuni, 313. 
Kun jara = Agastya. 
Kunjararati arabha. 
Kunti, 69. 
Ku-pati Bhairava. 
K uru Viswa- d e vas. 
Kuru-vatsa, 69. 
Kusa Dharmara;; ya . 
Kiwa-dhwaja Vcdavatl. 
Ku^a-dwipa Dwlpa. 
Kusamba Gad hi. 
Kusa-nablia Ghn tachi, K;uiy;1- 

kubja, Vayu. 
Kusa-rava Maitrcya. 



Kusika, 74. 


Ku-tanu = Kuvera. 
Kuthumi Dharma-sastras. 
Kuvalayaswa, 69. 

Laghu Dharma-sastra. 
Lakhima-devi Vivada Chandra. 
Lakshmawa (author) $arada- 


Lakshmi-pati = Vishwu. 
Lalita-vistara Gathas. 
Lamba-kama= Gawesa. 
Lambodara = Gawesa. 
Lanka-dahi= Hanumat. 
Lavawa D wipa. 
Likhita Dharma-sastra, S&n- 


Linga Blmgu. 
Lochana Vmva-devas. 
Lohita = Mangala. 
Loka-chakshuh = Surya. 
Lokakshi Dharma-sastra. 
Loka-mata = Lakshml. 
Lola = Lakshml. 
Lopa-mudra Agastya. 

Mada = Varuwani. 
Madambara Loka-palas. 
Madhava Jaiminiya. 
Madhavacharya Sarva-darsana- 

Madhavi Galava. 
Madhu Lavawa. 
Madhu Mathura, 69. 
Madlm-dipa= Kama. 
Madhu-priya = Bala-rama. 
Madhu-sudana Kai^abha. 
Madhu-vana Mathura. 
Madhyandina-sakha /^atapatha- 


Madira Kadambari. 
Madravas Viswa-devas. 
Magha-bhava - ^ukra. 
]Maha-bhadra Manasa. 
Mah a Bhaira va. 

Maha-chanda Yama. 
Mahadhnti, 313. 
Mahamari = Devi. 
Maha-maya = Devi. 
Maha- maya Patala. 
Maha-naraka Naraka. 
Mahandeva Siva, 296. 
Maha-padma Loka-palas, Nid- 

Maha-padma Nanda Chandra- 


Maha-prasthanika Parva, 192. 
Maharajika Ga??a. 
Maha-raurava Naraka. 
Maharoman, 313. 
Mahasuri = Devl. 
Mahaswat, 313. 
Mahatala Patala. 
Maha-vlchi Naraka. 
Maha-vlrya = Sanjna. 
Maha- virya = Surya 313. 

Maheswaii =. Devi. 
Maheswari Matr^ s . 
Mahisha-mardinlrr Devi. 
Mahishmatl Rava?ia. 
Mahi-suta= Mangala. 
Maitra-varuwi= Agastya. 
Makara Nidhi. 
Makara-ketu = Kama. 
Malaya-gandhini Yogini. 
Mai in! Vi^ra vas. 
Malla-naga = Vatsy ayana. 
Mamata Braliaspati. 
Mamata Dirgha-tamas. 
Mamateya = Dirgha-tamas. 
Mammaa Bha^a Kavya Pra- 


Mana= Agastya. 
Manasas Pitn s. 
Manasyu, 69. 
Manavas Manu-sanhita. 
Mandakini = Ganga. 
Manda-pala Jarita. 
Mandara, 36. 
Mandara Pancha-vn ksha. 



i, 47. 

Mani-bhitti esha. 
Mani-chaka Chanclra-kanta. 
M awi-dwlpa esha. 
Mani-giiva = Ku vera. 
Mam-mandapa esha. 
Mam-pura Arjuna 23, Babhru- 


Maim Savarni Chhaya. 
Mara =; Kama. 
Marlchi Agnishwattas. 
Mar jam Yogim. 
Markanc?eya Angiras. 
Marttawrfa Aditi. 
Maru (two), 313. 
Marud-vmlha Sapta-sindhava. 
Manila ISTaruts. 
Maruti = Hanumat. 
Marut-putra = Hanumat. 
Maruts Diti. 
Mar ut wan = Indra. 
Matali Yayati. 
Mfi tall Yoginl 
Matsya Uparichara. 
TNTatsyodari = Satya-vati. 
Matangi = Devi. 
Maudgalya Mudgala. 
Mauryas Asoka, Chandra-gup- 


Mausala-parva, 191. 
Maya Pfttala. 
Maya, 189. 
Maya-suta = Kama. 
Mayus = Kin-naras. 
Medas Kai^abha. 
Medhatithi Asanga. 
Mcdhtivin, 70. 
Megha-vahana Indra. 
Mohatnu Sapta-sindhava. 
Mcna Aparna. 
Mcru Jftshabha. 
Minakshl Knvcra. 
Mlnaratha, 313. 



Misraka-vana - Swarga. 

Mitakshara Su-bo<lliinl. 

Mitra Aditya, Daksha 78, Va- 


Mitra-misra Vira Mitrodaya. 
Mithila Nirai. 
Mitrasaha Kalmasha-pfula. 
Mr-id u, 70. 
Mrtgftnka -- Soma. 
Mrt ga-siras Sandhya, Yajna. 
Mnkawc/a Mftrkam^eya. 
Mri ttikavati Bhoja. 
Mr/ty tin jaya = iva. 
Muhira = Kuma. 
Mukta-kesi = Devi. 
Mukunda = Vishwu Nidhi. 
Mulaka, 313. 

Muflffa = Ketu Chamuwc/a. 
Mur?f7a-mala, 299. 
Muni, 106. 

Mura Chandra-gupta. 
Murari Misra, ) Anargha Rfig- 
Murari NaYaka, \ hava. 
Mtirmura = Kfim a . 
Muni, 163, 167, 174. 
Mu sal a, 41. 
Mu sail = Bala-rama. 

Nabhaga, 313. 

Nabhaga Manu. 

Nabhas, 313. 

Nabhas-chara = Vidya-dhara. 

Nsttii ^shabha. 

Nabhi-ja=Brahmi, 58. 

Nadi-deha Nandi. 


Naga-dwlpa Bharata-va^ha, 


Naga-kuwrfala, 299. 
Naga-malla Loka-pala. 
Nagantaka = Gariufa. 
Naga-pa.?a \ aru;/a. 
Nagas Gandharvas, Janainc- 




Nagnajit, 162. 

Naigama Nirukta- 

Naighanuka Nirukta. 

Nakshatra-natha = Soma. 

Nakshatras Daksha 77. 

Naktancharas = Rakshasas. 

Nala, 313. 

Nalini Sapta-sindhava. 

Nanda Nidhi. 

Nanda Panrfita Dattaka Ml- 
mansa, Vaijayanti. 

Nandaka Vishnu, 361. 

Nandana Indra 127, Kama. 

NandinI Dillpa, Vasish^ha. 

Nandivardhana, 313. 

Narada Utathya. 

Naradlya Dharma-sastra Na 

Nara-Narayawa Badari, Dam- 

Narantaka Havana. 

Nara-raja = Kuvera. 

Nava-ratha, 69. 

Narayana, 78. 

Nari-kavacha, 313. 

Narishyanta Manu. 

Nasatyas = A^wins. 

Navarchi = Mangala. 

N ay aki Yogi ni . 

Netra-yoni = India. 

Nichakru, 70. 

Nidhana Nidhi. 

Nidhi, 174. 

Nighna Prasena. 

Nikara Nidhi. 

N ikash a Pisitasan as. 

Nikash atma j as. 

Nikumbha Bhanumati, 313. - 

Nilakantfia Bha^a Vyavahara 

Nila Nidhi. 

Nila-vastra = Bala-rama. 

Nimi Janaka, Kshemaka. 

Nimisha Nimi. 

Niramitra, 70, Kshemaka, Na- 

N i r- j ara Amn ta. 

Nir-rtti Loka-palas. 

Nir-vreti, 69. 


Nisa^ha Bala-rama, 41. 

Nishada Pn thi. 

Nishadha (King) 313. 

Nisumbha Devi. 

Nitala Patala. 

Niti-ghosha Brihaspati. 

Niti-sataka Bhartri-hari. 

Nitya = Devi. 

Nitya = Manasa. 

Nitya-yauvani = Draupadi. 

Nri-chakshas = Rakshakas. 

Nri chakshush, 70. 

Nr^ga Dh?^ shta-ketn, Manu. 

Nrt-jagdhas = Rakshakas. 

Nr^ panjaya, 70. 

Nyaksha = Parasu-rama. 

Nyaya-bhasha Vatsyayana. 

Ogha, 163. 
Oshadhi-pati = Soma. 

Padma Nidhi. 
Padma-lanchhana = Devi. 
Padma-nabha = Vishwu. 
Padma vati = Manasa. 
Pahnava Pahlava. 
Paila Indra-pramati. 
Pai^hmasi D harm a-sast ra. 
Pa j ra Kak sh I vat . 
Pajriya Kakshlvat. 
Paladas = Rakshakas. 
Palalas = Rakshakas. 
Palankashas = Rakshakas. 
Panchali = Draupadi. 
Panchami = Draupadi. 
Pancha-vinsa Prauc^ha Brfih- 


Panchayudha = Vishwu. 
Pawrfya, 162. 
Pangu = >S ani. 
Pankti-grlva = Ravawa. 
Pannaga-nasana = Garu^?a. 
Pansula Khaiwanga. 
Panthana Naraka. 
Parania Tri-murti. 
Paramesh^a = Brahma. 



Parangada = Ardha-naii. 

Paran-ja Indra 127. 

I uravani Karttikeya. 

Paravrit, 69. 

P&rij&taka Paucha-vn ksha. 

Paripatra Kula-parvatas, 313. 

Pariplava, 70. 

Parivlta, 57. 

Pariyatra Kula-parvatas. 

Par n^sa, B h o j a. 

Parshati= Draupadi. 

Parsh nl = Kunti. 

Parushm Sapta-sindhava. 

Parushya Indra 127. 

Parvan Rahu. 

Pasa Siva, 299. 

Pasa-bhrit = Varuwa. 

Pimipata Arjuna 22. pati = >S iva. 
Patala, 37. 
Paulastya = Kuvera. 
Pauloma Kalaka. 
Pauloml = Indram. 
Paunrfraka, 168. 
Pavaka Agni. 
Pavamana Agni. 
Pavamanya Veda 351. 
Pavana-vyadhi Uddhava. 
Pavani Sapta-sindhava. 
Pavi = Vajra. 
Phala = Bala-rama. 
Phenapas Pitris. 
Plieiia-valiin = Vajra. 
Pi j a vana Pai j avana. 
Pinaka Siva. 
Pingala Loka-pala. 
Pisuna = Narada. 
Pitha 162. 

Pldia-sthana Kalika Pura?m. 
Pitri-pati = Yama. 
Ply usha = Am/ tta. 
Piy adasi = Asoka. 
Plaksha-dwipa Dwipa. 
Plakshagii Sapta-sindhava. 
Playoga Asanga. 

Prahhlkani Soma 302. 

I rablifiiiu Satya-bhani;i. 
Prabhasa Vasu. 
Prachetas Varuna. 
Prachiiuibarhis Prachetas, Sa- 


Prachinvat 69. 
Prachyas Chaudra-gupta. 
Praghasas = Kakshakas. 
Prag-jyotisha Aditi. 
Praharshana = Budha. 
Prahlada Ni vata-kavacha. 
Prausu Manu. 
Prasena Jambavat. 
Prasenajit Jamad-agni, 313. 
Prasna Veda 348. 
Prasusruta, 313. 
Prasuti Swadha, Swiilia. 
Pratibandhaka, 313. 
Pratibhanu Satya-bhama. 
Pratikshattra, 70. 
Prati-margaka = Saubha. 
Pratipa antanu. 
Prati-shdiana Purii-ravas. 
Prati-vindliya, 96, 188. 
Pratyusha Vasu, Vuwa-kanna. 
Pravlra, 69. 
Preta-raja = Yama 
Pnshadaswa, 313. 
Pn thu-laksha Champa. 
Pn thu-sravas, 69. 

Prlti-j usha = Usha. 
Priya-madhu = Bala-rania. 
Priyam-vada = Vidya-dhara. 
Priya-vrata Daksha 76, Dhru- 


Pulaha Kardama. 
Pulaka= Gandharva. 
Pulakanga Varuwa 338. 
Pulastya Dharnia-sastra. 
Puloma 74, Kalaka. 
Puloman 74, Indra 126. 
Puw/arika Dig-gaja, Loka-pfi- 

las, 313. 

Puwt/ra Dirglia-taina^. 
PuNya-janas Kiua-^thalL 



Punya- janas = Yakshas. 
P ura- j y otis Agni. 
Purandara Indra. 
Puruhotra, 69. 
Purukutsa, 106, 313. 
Purumilha Syavaswa. 
Puru-ravas Viswa-devas. 
Purva-ganga = Narmada. 
Pushan- As wins. 
Pushan, 77. 
Pushkara, 57. 
Pushkara-dwipa Dwipa. 
Pushkara-srajau = As wins. 
Pushkara Varuwa, 337. 
Pushpa-danta Dig-gaja, Katy 

ayana, Loka-pala. 
Pushpa-dhanus Kama. 
Pushpa-giri Varuwa, 338. 
Pushpa-ketana Kama. 
Pushpa-mitra Yavanas. 
Pushpa-sara Kama. 
Pushpotka^a Kutsa, Visravas. 
Pushy a, 313. 

Put Manda-pala, Prt thi. 
Puti-mrt ttika Naraka. 
Put-kari Bhogavatl. 
Put-kari SaraswatL 

liaga-vrmta = Kama. 
Raghunandaiia Bha^acharya. 

Daya Tatwa, Vyavahara Tat- 


Raghu-pati Raghu. 
Rai vata Kusa- s thali. 
Raja India 126. 
Raja-raja = Kuvera. 
Raj arshis Yayati. 
Rajas Purima 246. 
Raja-^ekhara Bala Ramayawa 

Prachanda Pawc?ava. 
Raj asi= Devi. 
Raja-suya, 186. 
Raj atadri = Kailasa. 
Rajata-dyuti Hanumat. 
Raji Ay us. 
Rajo-gnna Tri-murtL 
Raka Vi^ravas. 

= Kama. 

Rakshaka Asura. 

Rakshasendra = Kuvera. 


Rakta-paksha = Game/a 

Rakta-pas = Rakshasas. 

Rakta-vlja Devi 87. 



Rama-deva Vidvan-Moda. 

Rambha Ayus. 

Ramyaka D \vlpa, Jambu- dwl- 


Rantinara, 69. 
Rasa Sapta-sindhava. 
Rasatala Patala. 
Rasayana = Garuc/a. 
Rasmipas Pitrz s. 
Rata-naricha = Kama. 
Rathantara-kalpa Brahma Vai- 


Rathastha Sapta-sindhava. 
Rathaviti /S yavaswa. 
Ratha-yatra Jagan-natha. 
Rathl-tara Angi ras. 
Ratna-garbha = Kuvera. 
Ratnakara Vivada Ta>ic?ava. 
Ratna-sanu = Meru. 
Ratna-varshuka Pushpaka. 
Ratri-charas Rakshasas. 
Raudraswa 69, Glm tachl. 
Rauhineya Budha. 
Raurava Naraka. 
Ra vawa Ve da vati. 
Ravawa-hrada Manasa, 
Ravawi Ravawa. 
Ravi-nandana Su-griva. 

ReZ ka, | Jamad-agni. 



Reva Kama, Rati, Narmada. 

Jfo bhu Kuniaras. 

^ibhuksha Indra. 

Ribhus As wins, Twash^n . 

Eicha, 70. 

Jfo chas Angiras, Viddha-^a- 

.K/chlka Galava. 





J?;ju-kaya = Karttikeya. 

Jj/ijisha Naraka. 

.Kiks Veda 346. 

J?mantaka = Mangala. 

.Riksha 69, 70, Kula-parvatas, 

Samvararai, -K/shi. 
.Rita, 313. 
.K/tadhwaja, 69. 
72/teyu 69. 
A itujit, 313. 
Rochana Visvva-devas. 
Rodhana = Budha. 
Rohml Budha. 
Rohit, 57. 
Rohitaswa Agni, Haris-chan- 

dra, 313. 
Ruchaka, 69. 
Ruchi Akuti, Yajna. 
Rudra Bhairava, Daksha. 
Rudra Bha^a Sr^ngara Tilaka. 
Rudra-deva Yayati-charitra. 

Rula-parvatas, Samvarana, Rislii. 
Rukmakavacha, 69. 
Rukmi?ii Lakshmi. 
Rumanvat Jamad-agnijRe/mka. 
Rupastra = Kama. 
Rumra = Aruwa. 
Rupa Vidagdha Madhava. 
Ruru Bhairava. 
Ruruka, 313. 
Rushadgu, 69. 

Sabha-parva, 191. 
achl Kutsa. 
Sada-dana Loka-pala. 
Sada-gata = Vayu. 
Sadhya Sadhyas. 
Sahasra-kirawa = Surya. 
Sahasraksha Indra. 
Sahasra-nama Vishnu 361. 
Sahasranika Udayana. 
Sahish?m Pulaha. 
Saliva Kula-parvatas. 
Saindhavas Jayad -ratha. 

Sainhikeya = Rahu. 
/Sainyas Garga. 
Sairibha = Swarga. 
Sairindhrl = Draupadi. 
tfaka-dwipa Dwipu. 
Sakakola Naraka. 
*Sakala Madra. 
5akam-bhari = Devi. 
Sakari = SiiYi vfihana. 
jSakhalu-sakha Pratwakhya. 
/STikini Lanka. 
5akra-dhanus Indra 127. 
/Sakra-dhwajotthuna Indra 127. 
5akta Kalika Purawa. 
^akti-dhara = Karttikeya. 
^aktri Para^ara. 
<Sakuni Dur-yodhana, 69, 186. 
Sakyas Chandr.i-gupta. 
5alaiikayana = Nandi. 
Salatura Pawini. 
>Sali-5uka Maurya. 
<Salmala-d\vipa D>vl]>a. 
>Salmali Naraka. 
<Salmalin = Garuda.. 
Salottarlya = Panini. 
^alya-parva, 191. 
amana = Yama. 
^amanl-shadas = Rakshasas. 
Samanga Ash^avakra. 
/S amruitaka = Kama. 
Samanta-panchaka Parasu- 

Sama Raja Diksliita Dlnlrta- 

nartaka, ri Dama Charita. 
/Sambha Vajra. 
Sambhuta, 313. 
^amblm Vedavati. 
^ami-garbha /Saml. 
Sfunin, 70. 
Samnati Kratu. 
Sampratfipana Naraka. 
Samudra-chuluka = A^Mstya. 
Samudraru Sotu-bandlia. 
Samudraru = Tiinin. 
Samvaraa, 69 
Samvarana Kuril. 
Sainvarta Dlianna-sastra, Ma- 

rutta, Avatara, 36. 



Samvarttaka Aurva, Bala-ra- 


Samyati, 69. 
Sanaka Loka. 
Sananda Loka. 
Sanat = Brahma. 
Sanat-kumara Loka. 
Sandhya-balas = Rakshasas. 
Sandhya Kalika Purawa. 
Sandhya, ) 
Sandhyansa, J Yuga " 
Sandipam, 166 Panchajana. 
San gata Maury a. 
Sanhara Bhairava. 
Sanhara = Maha-pralaya. 
Sanhata Naraka. 
Sanhatimva, 313. 
Sani Ganesa, Jaayu. 
/Sani-prasu = Clihaya. 
San jay a, 313. 
San j Ivana Naraka. 
ankara Dlkshita Pradyumna- 


Sankasya "Ku^a-dhwaja. 
( Dharma-^astra. 
*bankha, | y ishnu> 36l> Nidhi. 

/S anklianabha, 313. 
/Sankhayana Brahmana Brah- 

Sankshepa /S ankara-vijaya 

/S ankara V. 
/Sanku Nava-ratna. 
Sannati, 69. 
Sansara-guru. = Kama. 
/Santa ^tshya-5rmga. 
Santan a Pan cha-vrik sha. 
/Santanava Bhishma. 
Santati, 69. 
/Santi-parva, 191. 
Sapta-jihva = Agni. 
Saptarchi = ^ani. 
5ara-bhti = Karttikeya. 
/Sarada = Saras wati. 
/Saradwata = Kn pa. 
Saraswati Kavasha. 
Saraswatl (river) Brahmavartta. 
^ara- vana Nan disa . 
Sarayu, Saryu Sapta-sindliava. 

Sarisr/kta Jarita. 
/Sarkara-bhumi Patala. 
^arngi-deva Sanglta-ratnakara. 
/Sarngi ka Jarita. 
Saroj in = Brahma. 
Sarparati = Garuc?a. 
Sarpa-sattrin = Janamejaya. 
Sarpis Dwlpa. 
Sarvabhauma, 69. 
Sarva-bhauma Dig-gaja, Loka- 


Sarvaga Bhlma. 
Sarvakama, 313. 
Sarva-kama JSitu-parwa. 
Sarva-mangala = Devi. 
Sarva-medha Viswa-karma. 
^arvawl = Devi. 
Sar vatma Tr i -m urti. 
Sarvatraga Bhlma. 
Sarva-varman Ka-tantra. 
Saryata Chyavana. 
/S aryati Haihaya. 
/Saryati = Manu. 
/S asabindu, 69. 
S asa-dharman Maurya. 
Sasartu Sapta-sindhava. 
Saslyasl Syavaswa. 
aswata, 313. 
^aswatas = Vyasa. 
atadyumna, 313. 
/Satahrada Viradha. 
/S ata-kratu = Indra. 
>Satananda = Gotama. 
Satamka, 96. 
/Satanika (two), 70, 188. 
/Sata-parwa /Sukra. 
>Satarudriya iva. 

^atatapa Dharma-6rastra. 
SatI Angiras, Daksha. 

Satra-jit, ) Jambavat, Pra- 
Sattrajita, j seiia, 167. 
/?atru-ghna Madhu. 
5atrujit, 69. 
Sattwa Parana. 




Satwa- Purana Tri-m Qrti. 

Satwata, 70. 

Satya-dhn ti Kripfi, 313. 

Satyadlmti Dlm shta-ketu. 

Satyadhwaja, 313. 

Satyaketu, 69. 

Satya Viswa- devas. 

Satyaratha, 313. 

Satyarathi, 313. 


Saubali = Gandhari. 

Saubaleyi = Gandhari. 

Saubha, 162. 

Saubhadra = Abhimanyn. 

Saudasa = Kalmasha-pada. 

aunaka Aswalayana, Brihad- 
devata, Gr/tsa-mada, Prati- 

Saumanasa Loka-pala. 

Saumya Bharata-varsha, Bud- 

ha, Dwlpa. 
Saumyas Pitn s. 
<Saunakiya Chaturadhyayika 

Saunanda Bala-rama, 41, Mu- 


Sauptika-parva, 191. 
Saura-Purawa = Brahma Purawa. 
Sauti Naimisha. 
Sauviras Jayad-ratha. 
<Savala = Kama-dhenu. 
Savarwa Meru. 
Savarna Saranyu. 
>Sayaui Chandra ^ekhara, Ma- 

Sa-yoni Indra. 
Bokhara Dhurta-samagama. 
Sena = Karttikeya. 
Scna-pati = Karttikeya. 
Setu-kavya Setu-bandha. 
AS evadhi Nidhi. 
Shac?-angas = Vedangas. 
Sha^-kona = Vajra. 
!Slia^-pura Nikumbha. 
Shodasansu = ^>ukra. 
Siddhas Anm ta. 
Siddha-seua = Karttikeya. 

Slghra, 313. 

*S"ikhawc?inI Sthuwa. 

^ina Garga.