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Full text of "A classical tour through Italy. From the 6th Lond. ed"

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i 



A CLASSICAL TOUR 



THROUGB 



ITALY. 



BT TBI 



REV. JOHN CHETWODE EUSTACE. 



FROM THB SIXTH LONDON EDITION. 



B«c ert Italia dlla sacra, to gentea €||aa, bnc opplda popolomm. 

P/to. Not. But, lii. ao. 



VOL. I. 



PARIS: 
BAUDRT'S EUROPEAN LIBRARY^ 

Wn DV COQ, RBAB fil LOVTIB. 

SOLD ALSO BT AITOT, BUB DB LA PAIX; TBUCBT, BOULBYARD DBS ITALIBB8; 

TBBOPmLB BABBOI89 JDII.9 BOB BIGBBLIED; LIBRAIBIB DBS ETBAII€BBS, 

BUB RBUYB-SAIRT-AIIGDSTIR; and BT ALL THB PBIRGIPAL 

BOOISKLLBBS OR TAB CORTIRBHT. 



1837. 

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totn 

RIGHT HONOaiJIUB 

JOHN LORD BROWnLoW, 

LORD I.IBCTBNANT OF THE COUNTY OF LINCOLN, 



BTC. BtC. BTC. 



THIS WORK 

IS INSCidBED, 

AS A TRIBUTE TO HIS MANY TIRTUES^ 

AND At tttB SAHB TIMB 

AS A MOmjMEirr OF AN INSTRUCTITE APO) PLEASANT TOUK, 
BY HIS LORMHIP'd 

FELLOW-TRAVELLER 

ANR 

MOST SINCERE FRIEND, 

JOHN CHETWODE EUSTACE. 



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l^aSFACfi. 



The 4^^^or pvmritfi the following p^gej? to the public vitfed^fi-?. 
ifcrice. jde IS aware tliat the very tiue of **a Tour through Itftiy " 
w'iMfficient in itself iq rai^e expectation, which, a^ he has ^rnied 
froiq m^ f^te 9/ similar cqmpositioi^s, is onore (requenljly di^pDCihii^d 
t&aD ^^,s|^ed, Ifi?, ^yoid a^ mu^h as pp's^JiQ tlfi? incc^^YieRicyft^, h<l 
thinks it necessary to st^te preci,sely ihje ;^?itare 9ff,d{ ^hji^ct ^ Ih©.. 
PFJ^m w^tjjp., that t^0, Be^cJe^* iiiay ent^ upp^ i^ p^r^^^l with wne 
pjfpyipu| Knpwteciijp of i|ts' copt,et)ts, 

t^e PrelUnjpary piscpqrse is, intendej5\ ^lye^y fpr ^, iQfo^nmltoii 
ojFy6up|[and inexperiencjcd travellerij, ap4 ppinip 9|J| the qualijUe^ 
and ?pcom^l.ishn^e]^f§ Tequfsite to epablp ihei^'lQ 4^k^ fi"Qm W(k 
M'^i tQ»V \^s j[ul| ^^v^mage^. sThe |^ad|^ t^e^ fpmes |<^the 
'^omjifeelf. 

^. ^fj-M (^ml sufficieprty poi^^s ou^ i>>5«Rllw.c)hw»cter» 
i^hicn is to trace the resemblaace beiwepn Moderjji aa^ ^^ii^l Ualy, 
s^d to tak^ ^or guides and companions in the £)j^g^lnfli^ of tba qiiii- 
leenlh cej^tury, the writers tl/^t preceded or a<jk>rnj?c| tA^fif^t CJon- 
formably to that character, the Author ros^y bjB ^IJAlveKi tq dwoU 
Mfith co'ii)pIacency on thp incidents c^ aflpient history, tp 9(j^,U ^#ry: 
poetical repollectipn^ and. to clajnoi i^i^Igence, if ig ^i^^mbii^ qU^M 
so; oftft^ ^njided to by \%e ^Un;%lifiI>^ he'^o^W kfm^^ bc>fffl» 
tneir ^^tjjression^ : , * 

Otiitions, in faqj, w^ich, nqtwij^t^d^g thp exaj»pj§ pfi Cwffimt, ^di 
iBe precept qf Quintilian »', son? ^ seyjEir^ 9j:it;c3 af;^ dispo^ !«t pm? : 
s^irihe, njay h^rp be ii^trpducecl o? l?yen ^Vjsheii W>h^w^«^ttP<«; 
*^i ^%^ spoRi^oepM^ly fronn t^^so^ v^e treacjl* mtl oqn^tiii^ OBd. 
ofjtsfflstm^ 

J(W - '- His%x/]^e may p^rhaps^ b? coflsW^peda* aonetiom 
too siiort; but ft must be remembered that Modern History i$.ih»t': 
Classical, and can claim admission only as an illustration. As for the 
%aP?> Vl/S^oTK'^fl^Wi ^S#«Sh?^ W W?By frmnm by Hie pvesent 



» Their expressions being appropriate to his subject. 
».^IMI|I.1b:i». oati.T.BdH.RoIIiti; - * ' 



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Frencti rulers, they are generally passed over in silence and coH-* 
tempt, as shifting scenes or rather mere figurantt in the political 
drama, destined to occdpy the attention for a time, and to disappear 
v^hen the principal character shows himself upon the stage. 

Of the state of painting and sculpture, though these arts reflect so 
much lustre on Italy, little is said * ; an acknowledgment which may 
surprise and disappoint many readers. But, on the one hand, to 
give a long catalogue of pictures and statues, without explanatory 
observations, appeared absurd ; and on the other, to execute such a 
work in a becoming manner requires leisure, technical information, 
and the pen of a professed artist, perhaps of a Reynolds. The sub- 
ject is therefore touched incidentally only ; but as it is extensive and 
amusing, and affords scope to the display of skill, taste and erudi- 
tion united, it will, it is to be hoped, ere long attract the attention of 
some writer capable 0/ doing it justice. 

As to the Style — ^in the first place some, perhaps many expres- 
sions, and occasionally whole sentences, may have been inadvertently 
repeated ; a fault great without doubt, but pardonable because al- 
most unavoidable in descriptive composition. Who, indeed, can 
paint like Nature, or who vary his cobrtng with all the tints of Italian' 
scenery, lighted by an Italian sky? If Lucretius has repeated at. 
length two of the most beautiful passages in his poem ', the Author 
may claim indulgence, if in describing the perpetual recurrence of 
similar objects he has been betrayed into similar language. 

In Proper Names, he has ventured frequently to use the ancient 
appellation if not irrecoverably lost in the modern. Thus, he some- ' 
times introduces the Benacus, lim^ and Aihesis, instead of the Lagio 
di Garda, Garigliano and Adige, because the former names are still 
fomiliar to the learned ear and by no means unknown even to the pea- 
santry. The same may be said of the Amo, the Tiber, and several 
other rivers, and may be extended to many cities and mountains. 
He has, as much as possible, attempted to discard the French termi- 
nation in Italian names, and laments that he cannot carry consistency 
so far as to apply it to antiquity, and, rejecting the semi-barbarous 
appellations vnth which the French have misnamed some of the 
most iltustrious ancients, restore to Horace, and Virgil, all their Ro- 
man majesty ^. But this general reformation must be left to more 
able and more popular writers, or rather, perhaps, recommended to . 
the learned gentlemen who preside over the Universitfes and the 
great Schools, and to the Critics who direct the public taste in Re- 
views, and have of late exercised no smaU influence over custom 
itself. ; 

« IdttU is said of the arts, when the extent and Importance of the subject are ^ 
considered; but much is said in comparison of other Tours and similar compositions. 
Lib. i. V. 9»5,— Lib. iv. V. , : • ' 

* Titus Livius'owes the 'recovery of fais.Rpnuua, appcMatlMtMtp the Bishop of 
Landaff, who introduces it into his Apology for the Bible. 



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PREFACE. V 

We now come to objeots of greater moment, and here the Author 
must, however reluctantly, obtrude himself on the attention of the 
Reader. Religion, Politics, and Literature, are the three great ob- 
jects that employ every mind raised by education above the level of 
the laborer or of the mechanic ; upon them every thinking man must 
have a decided opinion, and that opinion must occasionally influence 
his conduct, conversation, and writings. Sincere and undisguised 
in the belief and profession of the Roman Catholic Religion, the 
Author affects not to conceal, because he is not ashamed of its in- 
fluence. However unpopular it may be, he is convinced that its evil 
report is not the result of any inherent defect, but the natural con- 
sequence of polemic animosity, of the exaggerations of friends, of 
the misconceptions of enemies. Yes ! he must acknowledge that the 
affecting lessons, the holy examples, and the majestic rites of the 
Catholic Church, made an early impression on his mind ; and neither 
time nor experience, neither reading nor conversation, nor much 
travelling, have weakened that impression, or diminished his venera- 
tion. Yet with this affectionate attachment to the anient Faith, he 
presumes not to arraign those who support other systems. Per- 
suaded that their claims to mercy, as well as his own, depend i^pon 
Sincerity and Charity, he leaves them and himself to the disposal of 
the common Father of all, who, we may humbly hope, will treat 
our errors and our defects with more indulgence than mortals usually 
shew to each other. In truths Reconciliation and Union are the ob- 
jects of his warmest wishes, of his most fervent prayers : they occupy 
his thoughts, they employ his pen; and if a stone shall happen to 
mark the spot where his remains are to repose, that stone shall 
speak of Pea<^ and Reconciliation. 

• We come next to Politics, a subject of a very delicate nature, 
where difference of opinion, like disagreement in Religion, has given 
occasion to many rancorous and interminable contests : and here ex- 
pressions apparently favourable to republicanism, or perhaps the 
general tendency of his principles to the cause of freedom, may in- 
cline some of his readers to suspect him of an excessive and unoon* 
stitutional attachment to that form of government. Without doubt, 
Liberty, the source of so many virtues, the mother of so many arts, 
the spring of public and private happiness, of the glory and the 
greatness of nations, is and ever will be the idol of liberal and manly 
minds, and that system which is most favourable to its development 
must necessarily obtain their approbation. But fortunately they 
Heed not have recourse to fine-spun theories for the principles, or 
look to past ages or to distant countries for the practice of a free, 
and, what may justly be called, a republican government. The 
Constitution of England actually comprises the excellencies of all the 
ancient commonwealths, together with the advantages of the best 
f#rms of monarchy : though liable, as all human institutions are, to 
abuse and decay^ yet, like the works of Providence, it contaifis in 



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Vi ' , PREFACE. 

itset^ the ineaos of correction and the seeds ci renovfitiGi^ Sue|^ ji 
system w^s considered as phe pf unattainable perfecticin by Gfoprqfy 
and wa^ pronounced by/Tacitfis a vision faif but transient, A 
scheme ot policy that en^^hanted the sages of antiquity may sfir^y 
content the patriot and the phiiosopher ot modein day^i and thp 
only \Vish of Doth must be, that, in spite of royal encroachment and 
of popuW frensy. itm^y last for ever. ...... 

In Liiertit^re; ir the 4t>thor differs froq those w^o have preeedipd 
him in the saiqe Tquj* ; if he censures the opinions of any other Ir^ 
velier or w/;iter ; he hopes he has e^prpssed the reascm^ ef his jdisr 
sent with th^ tenderiiessand with the attention due to their feelings 
and reputaijop. , , 

Oik the merits j^i the French language and literi^ture he differs 
from piany ; b^t he is open to conviction even on this spbject^ and 
only requests the Reader to. v^eigh wiih impartiality the reasooB 
which he produces against both, and the more so, as the qUbstioi 
is Of greater ijiy^ t)ian rpay perhaps be.in^pginod ; for, to the 

vtride circulatioin , of French authors may b^ attributed many of ibf 
eviig tt^der which Europe now labors. Thiis observation naturally 
leads to the following. If ever he ip^ulgps in harsh and acrim^r 
nious language, it is when speaking of the French, their principtetii^ 
and measures ; and on this subject he acknowledges that his exprasr 
iions, if ttiey correspond with his feeljng^, must be strong, because 
his abhqr^f^e of t(ial governoient and of its whple sys^m, ii^ dec^ 
knd unqqaljfiod. j^f^itber the patriot who recollects t^ie yindicliVe 

gdrit \vith which^the Ruler ^^ >^^4^^ carries on hostilities ajpiiM 
reat Britain, the only bulwark of E^^rope, and the asyjum pf.thi^ 
Indcypiendencf of Natiops; because he knows where Fre^m oil&es 
W last stan(l» 

Liberia oHinuL mandl 
Quo steterit ferieoda loco ; ' 

tmah, vii. 



iLt 



Dor the philosopher who considers the widd wasting war, yirhic^ tq<^ 
French governioenl has Been so long carrying 9n against the libera 
^iiessana tne happiness of mankind, Will probably condemn the a|i«<- 
tbor's leilingJs as intemperate, or require an apology for the harsjir 
ne^ 6^ his expressions. As long as religion and literatMre, ciivi^zfjf 
jion and. indenendence, are objects of estiipation aniiong mep, jbo l^qg 
tqust tevQiuiwnary France be remembered with horror and detesta** 

If. noyf only remains to inform the Reader, that the Tour sketched 
/fjol ifi th^ following pages was undertaken in compai^^ with Philiv 
Rof tt^^ Esq, a youi^ gentleman of fortune, who, while he spai^ed 
so expense tp render it instructive, contributed much to its pleasui|» 

) The spot where the liberty of the world must reoeive her last blow, 

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PREFACE. vii 

by hi9 gentle manners, and by his many mild and benevolent virtues; 
virtues which, it was hoped, would have expended their influence 
through a long and prosperous life, and contributed tb the happiness^ 
not of his family only, but of an extensive circle of friends ahd ac- 
quaintance. But these hopes were vain, and the Author is destined 
to pay this unavailing tribute to the memory of his friend and com- 
panion. 

The two gentlemen who, with the Author and his fellow-traveller, 
formed the party often alluded to in the following pages, were the 
Honourable Mr. Gust, now Lord Brownlow, and Robert Rusn- 
BROKE, Esq. of Rushbroke Park. The information, the politepess, 
and the gCKxi humor of the former, with the liveliness, the mirth, 
and the accomplishments of the latter, heightened the pleasures of 
the journey, and, by supplying a continual fund of incident and 
conversation, rendered even Italy itself more delightful. To Lord 
Brownlow, the Author must acknowledge another obligation, as he 
is indebted to his Lordship for several useful observations during the 
course of this work, atid particularly for the details of the excursion 
to the island of Ischia, and the account of the solitudes of Camaidoli 
and of Alvemia. 

The publication of these volumes has been delayed by frequent 
avocations, and particularly by a more extensive and scarcely less 
interesting excursion to parts of Dalmatia, the Western Coasts of 
Greece, the Ionian hlandi, to Sicily, Malta, etc. ^ etc. The details 
of this latter Tour may, perhaps, be presented to the public if the 
following pages meet its approbation. 



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r. .. 



EDITOR'S PREFACE 

SIXTH EDITION- 



Tbb Editor of the sixth edition of Mr. Eustace's work might have sabmitted 
it to the public with no other preface than that addition to its title-page* 
With a testimonial so unequivocal of public opinion, he might have consi- 
dered the Classical Tour as placed above the influence of those aniqnadver- 
sions which are said invariably to pursue success. But he would ill discharge 
his duty, did he not guide himself by the remembrance of the amiable qua- 
lities and unassuming Christian virtues of that individual, who, firm in his 
attachment to the '^ ancient faith/' pleaded its cause with humility ; and 
who, secure of applause in his opinions, never offered them in private life 
without diffidence, and almost timidity. Who certainly, had Providence 
been pleased to allow him to have penned this preface, would have composed 
in in apology for those errors which had escaped his notice, rather than in 
triumph for the discomfiture of those opinions, the prevalence of which it 
was perhaps too great an object with him to combat< 
.. The most direct attacks upon the writings of Mr, Eustace have been put 
forward as notes to a cantoof one of the poems of perhaps the first poet of the 
day; whose works are receivied with avidity, and circulated so extensively, 
that any observatjons attached to them must necessarily be known to, and 
read by, the great mass of the educated community. This criticism is too 
long for repetition; but a single paragraph may suffice to give an idea of its 
purport, as well as to present a slight specimen of its composition and candor*; 
After expressing disappointment at having chosen the Classical Tour as ** 
a guide-hook in Italy, and asserting that this disappointment is shared by !'- 
every one who has followed the example, the style is condenmed, notwith- 
standing it is allowed to be ^' to the taste of others, who experience some sa- 
lutary excitement in ploughing periods.'' But it is elegantly apd classically 
added, that ^' it must be said that polish and weight are apt to beget expec- 
tation of value. It is amongst the pains of the damned to toil up a climax 
with a huge stone.** Why the word stone should be printed in Italics 
would be difficult to imagine, nor do we believe it would be of much conse- 
quence to inquire, since the pretensions of the critic to direct our judgment 
with reference to style cannot be considered as well established by this 
example of his own. 

. But those who look into the Classical Tour for the detail dfa road-book^ 
search for that which the author never intended, since he expressly declares, 
that his guides in the nineteenth century were the writers who preceded or 
adorned the first; that his allusions to modern liistory are short, and his re- 
fer^m^to the afts slight; though very much otherwise compared with those 



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X £BITOR*B PREFACE. 

of preceding travellers — these objects being secondary, while his principal 
views are directed to the greater questions of Fcligiou, politics, and literature. 
" Upon the first object of Mr. Eustace's inquiry it is hardly necessary to en- 
large; but we thi^i (i{att]iis[la|t i^di^entl migfit ^avebe^ir consoled with the 
reflection, thatliis work had had its full share in dispelling the mist of pre- 
judice and bigotry which. now appears to be fast passing from amongst as, 
and' he might reasonably have enterta&ed the conviction, that his name 
would consequently be not thought unworthy the grateful recollection of a 
considerable portion of hi$/6oMti:ybiig[ti . , .. . 
. Upon the question of politics his ieelings are even less equivocal ; he pro- 
fesses the prejudices of an Englishman; but with an admiration of liberty de- 
clares,' that no harshness of expression can equal his abhorrence of French 
principles and forms of government.— Now all this we are told was a mere 




joiite^ its. (riuiiiph for ^ver in th6 iC^ bo.sohi (tff wintef? Wa^ m^ ffebnsCer 
oinly aj^ ^^'9|)pressive nightmare wttft \\^hich we have sthig^fed? ^^s it atf 
|^ut^frigli(tuldream?" were the dag^erg bu( dijr drawn vi^ioh'i ? ^^as* th^ri^ 
^or^li^tv 6f biood or ^biiliscation, pr o'^ atheism di^solvlA'^ tA'e flf^kirtet tlesf 
and forbidding even feligiojii Co strengthen or hoj|)e to.const>1e? ' 

Tije scene is now changed, ind the actors a(re replaced by a more irc«i'i4b-: 
j^ipioi^.. pui.the admissiou of that f^ct throws no ^^im^u'faiion p^oti <hj^ 
competency of our author;" for it is, oh trie eonti^afy, Ae pl-eclse eAH^-' 
cmenq^^J)^ foresaw in the hatioiis of the jierilnsulai not ^o-ooeraifin^' a^Siftiisf 
fpe common eriemy.. There is liitte doubt thalt k great poiftiori o^ ihk pexjlpl^ 
of Italy idesire.ihe retarh of French dominion ; and it nfa j bp pri^Afeid witlf 
^giiai cp^fidenccj, that ifeVer the modern G^eek^ are pla'^^d undef the' wS^ 
of^^ Holy A:iliancev ahd recmve ah emperoi- from the Pforth,' ttot thei -im 
very soon groan f6r dii retiird of thleir Turtisli oppi^sors. Mt'\Wrt)^ 8 
thjEire who does not siee that in th^se case^ the Frehcll (it tiie Torfes are ^tfiraflfr 
tooked ti as.insiriirnentsf , ^aiscfiriicfi ^ill sifurfd as bWbarous ter tie e^p 
of the ihoflerii Atheniari^ k it does to those of the tobdern Mediplii^as, iA^ 
^ifee eqiially difficult to jtheTr ulteraiici; ^hfl whfeti', hte thie miit, lh# 
fiilirat^^ Qr^s sMli hav^^ arcjibishi'j/ of S(](qB ri^^iifeiiihpo^u^fl.ipg^ 
6^ their neW protectors^ th^ir compjaiiriis \<ritt not bef the les^ fiWd IHAkltii 
th^irrevereM pastor may not understahfd ifceit lafn^iiag^. ^ / /. j . ^ ^ 
, pin ail this bijiv proves, accordirig to a hpniely sajin^, tliat i&im1(f^ 
of Italy have, got out of the frying-paA inib^thjb fire} to jlii agcli«fe?of de^fe^ 
Uiey i^4f. prefer i return to simply tohuW, but ^e berime ihe^if s&rckf 

S" ists an ijli^ividual iii that penifisula wlid dbe6 iiot 4^lh6 frieedort frorti bdtfi 
e one ahd th^ pthei:, ^ .','.' 

th contemplating the spf^'ndidf exhtbiiioi of the virtiies Sid powei^of fl* 
human mind^ as, displayed by the Italians ()f all ages, par ^utfidr JiKtljf'f^ 
gt'efs the irfipossibility or tlieiir biroktri ma^se^'affermig ahy effectual r^smce 
ti th^ impetus iff the overgrown po^^ers whoi dictate to the fest of Edf6|]fe| 
But hfe looUd forward with confidence to' the day when general o|)presl!on 
v^biild concehtrate their interests, and prompHhem, li^ i siirttiHaneoW* feier^ 
iib% to exp^l every transalpine iiitrudef ; wttlie their vsimi^ h^mid 

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£BnOR*S PREFACE. ki 

sufficiept for this coosmnmation, if their eaergiea eodd be luffidaiiyf 
^roa^ht ipto co-operation. That time ^eerii^d Utdy to hire irriTiidy lit 
they failed) a^ gce^ter nations have also done tii thie boar of trial; and now 
united iq subjugation, bat discordant for every, better pDr^to, wd im 
^carfelj permified to hppe, that they can ever agaiil be combined under one 
^ea^ or afford more effectual exertion in the cause of uldepeBdenb^ aiid4ii- 
][)erty. The glory of Rome G^en^s destined qevef to tevivey noc ^^the valbir 
^)id p^r^everanp^ ^hich subdued the Q^U and TeaHin^ to. b^ u§kik diV^ 
played |n^h9»tising the insolence of the French^ of in checking the ihcurv 
8ion§ j:^ th^ G^C^^ans." 

With reff^^noe to literature, the claibi of Italy is aildwed to be ^Bl^ tfit>- 
Seated by Mr. Epstace^ who, whil^ he HdniitB and eveh ionises Booedd^ 
jipiongst th^ great n^en in that path, has however excited strong^ariinkatfvliilf- 
fipuj and.giyen rise tp many pages of panegyric in thfe ^' IUkJiMfrkHonij*\ Vf 
ranking that author with Petronius and Pifetrp Aretioo, aind ezf^dssing iifi- 
difference to the spot where the impure remains' of a ^eDtibuB^mhoir are 
consigned to their kindred dust. ; 

. We mo$t, willingly ceUnquish thedefentse of thes^ two vlrtoeiis cbaracttiii 
lo Mr. Hot)house : and to that enlightened philo^pher ti\f tadf M^gaif, 
the difficult research for any memorials marking the depository of their r^ 
mains; but we really qannot silently suffer either one or the mhev te niisr^ 
prescient the meaning of Mr. Iluslace, in accid^ng him of stating thkt whidi 
lie does not say^ and of canfoun^ing the identity of two indlvidhals wtmn 
he distincUy recognizes, in their respectiYie characters^ as pi^aiseworthy or 
malignant^ . The p^issage in the Classical Tour is upon the chdn^btis erFlo- 
rence, which, al though In external appearance talBrior to maity, are repre^ 
aented as containing a eharm peculiar to themselves, in.ttieir intimate eon- 
nection.with tjie great men who in the (bili>leetith and fifttenth eei^tarltt 
diffuse^ fram Florence the light of literature dver the wl^stern. ^orld; ani 
^us tiie phurch of Santa Ooce may be said to have a sapener dlaim upea 
<^r attention, fromits containing the remains of the. gireateist lulbinariea df 
^dr age iq e^very branch of science or of art. There retio^^ the greiN; 
Dainter,. sculptor, an<] architet^t^Miebei Angela: Tiie profiddild lawyer^ 
Leonardo 9ruBi Arettno. The illnstrions astronomet* and philosophcf^ 
fealileo. Tiie Florentine Livy.— Guieciardini. The Tdscan Tacitn8.-r^Macf«- 
(Qhiavell|,--iand possessing these it imported little fo out atuthor to iiitqmit 
frbere their fej^low-coiintrymen the licenttoua nfiveUist Boccado^ or. malign 
aapti^^ipo fi^<:ei, weire consigned to their kindred dust. > 

^^ Boccacio may have allured the poetry of. Greece to the b65om of Itdly^ 
but it was only what Petronius had done before him, and in language quite 
IS beautifnl, while there are other bosoms wbieh it becomes ^e duty of Ae 
iirvihe to guard against the poisdii of those writtiiij^ df i^bkh iMj^ ^Atb^ 
H )i^ ^i>t:e SdV^hbed years deprecated the read^iig toi iH^ ^ie of d^tie^cy; 
and for the. prqdMCtion of which he apologized, as from tlie eemmand <tf 
thiMe he eould not disobey. We must, therefore, stalte our peHlect toncdr- 
rtdce \«rHh Mr. Edstace, that the church of Santa Crbce contains all \^i 
<^an excite our admiration<or awaken our f nUiusiasni;) aj^d would not posseaf 
a greater dharm, at least to the moralist, had he tliece found the sepokhres 
of Bacci,' Boecacio, or Petronin$ Arbiter, who, eqiialty phre ilitheit* fianignag^^ 
arei iqtiMlfy to hfe dfepl-ecated with reference to the impurity whidh that lai- 
g[iag« is prostituted by them to convey. 

'yol.U.Gh.K 



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ktt EDITORS PREFAGE. 

^ ^^Mr. Eustace should not have stack. his cross on the Glitomniis/' We 
appose the gentleman means the temple upon the ban'ks of that riyer. 
That the chapel now seen upon the Spoleto road is not the temple of Pliny, 
may be inferred from the patchwork of the columns and their dissimilar 
capitals, while ft more minute inspection of the blocks composing the edifice 
will serve to shew that inscriptions of no very ancient date have been used, 
not onAy in its repairs, but original construction ' ; of which the form of the 
p1an> a cross, may give rise to well-grounded suspicions with reference to 
^e date^f the whole structure, though that form can hardly be said to be 
lieculiar to churches of the earliest period. The temple is about a mile 
from the fountain, and the post-house is equidistant between the two. In 
the ** Illustraiums," we find quoted from Yenuti an account of some spo- 
liations committed upon the edifice : four columns are said to have been 
^Id; but even admitting this as fact, we should not forget the previous 
state of dilapidation into which the whole had fallen, and allow that the 
principal object, however ill-judged, was to repair it. 

Before we, form injurious conclusions upon such spoliations, it would be 
but just even to ourselves to make some inquiry iqto the precise state of 
Impair in which the edifice existed, or rather of dilapidation into which it 
.liad previously feUen. The 'robbery of the Pantheon by Pope Urban VIII. 
is execrated, and- the execration is repeated by each succeeding tourist; 
^hile in the enthusiasm of the moment there are few who do not wish St. 
Peter's deprived of the apostle's chair, cleared of the Baldacchino, and un- 
defended by the cannon of l^t. Angelo, if those objects could be recast, and 
refixed upon the mouldering beams of the portico of Agrippa. 

Now it ill becomes us Englishmen to t^lk of neglect or spoliation of sacred 
edifices, at all, whether/ancient or modern, whether pagan or Christian ; 
^and the real sla^e of the case is this : — ^The Pantheon had stood a neglected, 
•iinapproi^riatdd, desecrated building, falling into s^ more or less rapid state of 
ruin for a lapse of time nearly equal to that which intervened from the sup- 
pression of monasteriesby our Henry YIII, to the, accession of his late majesty 
George III. ; after this interval it was consecrated to the purposes of Chris- 
tianity, and hallowed according to the custom of the day by the introduction 
of an incredible quantity of relics, by the baptism of a hundred Jews, and by 
4he operation of a miracle. 'But even all this could not protect the building 
from the spoliation of its bronze covering in the same century by Constans, 
the grandson of Heraclius ; -and that the mere act of consecration did not 
protect a building hardly applicable iiroin its form to the purposes of Chris- 
tian worship, may be inferred from the repeated renewal of that ceremony 
in the year 850 % and again by Urban VIII. 

k It would be difBpatt to dWine what Mr. Forsythcan mean, when be says that *' instead 
of columns bescratcbed with the nonsense of an album, here are columns coupled in the 
middle of the front, to correspond with those on the antes, a thing not to he found in any 
classical antiquity.** We do not pretend to expound, this very scientific piece of criticism, 
«s we confess its meaning to l>e totaliy beyond our powers of comprehension. 
. « Mr. Forsyth erroneously remarlcs, that the Catholics let the temples stand, and gloried in 
their conversion to Christianity. There is no instance whatever of such conversion ; and the 
horror against the impiety of such a profanation had worn out two centuries before Boni- 
face [V. obtained permission from the Emperor Phocas to appropriate, not convert this. 
The pnly churches pretended to have been converted are, the Pantheon; Remus into St. 
Cosmo and DamianoL 527 ; Romulus to St. Tfaleodore, 774 ; Fortuna virilis to Sta. Maria Egiz- 
ziaca, 872 ; Yeiik in Madomia del Sole, the Basilica of iEmilius, to St. Hadrian ; and that of 
St Stefano Rotonda, which was In ail probability entirely rebuilt by St. Sunplicius. We of 
course take no account of those built upon ancient sites, aaSta. Maria in Cosmedin; St. Lo*- 



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J^DITOH'S PEEFACi. iiu 

tn the mean time we find it used as a strong hold j and it can fiardly be 
expected, when we recollect the centaries of anarchy and pillage throu^ 
which the city had dragged a precarioas existence^ that the contending pari- 
ties woaid have refrained from seizing upon a bailding so weUb adapted ta 
their purpose. There is every reason, at least it is fair, to presume, that the 
feehle protection which consecration had afforded the'_Rotanda was never 
extended to the Portico ; that when the whole was used for defence, the- 
spaces between the columns of the latter were partly, if not wholly walled- 
up ; while in the vicissitudes it underwent, jthe three columns, namely, onei 
at the angle and two at the side, of which we find it deprived at the, be- 
ginning of the seventeenth century, were thrown down and carried away. 

At this period, and in this state. Urban VIII. found and put up the angular 
column ; when the whole building underwent something like a general re-' 
pair, and received the addition of two belfries, which if they are not beaulifol* 
objects, were designed bj the fiirst architect, and were in conformity with< 
the taste, of the day. 

It is not necessary to have studied the science of ardiitecture to enable te- 
to imagine the sta(e in which this part of the edifice must.haKVe existed, 
without three of the twelve columns of its circuit. If the bolumns were 
removed the architraves could not have upheld themselves in the aur, and' 
the roof could scarcely have existed at all : consequently the wooden beams: 
of the ceiling after fifteen centuries must have been utterly decayed, and the* 
bronze plates with which they were covered could hardly have admitted of 
replacing and repair under an expense totally impossible to the exhausted, 
treasury of the pointiff, when we consider that its whole energies for more^ 
than a century before had, been applied to one great object, St. Peter's :: 
while within that time Rome had been sacked by Charles, and never was^ 
secure from foreign irruption or domestic treason, qntil these very spoils 
were converted into cannon for the defence of the new glory of the GhristiaCk 
world '. 



renio in Miranda, etc. Mr. Forsyth, in St. Stefano, speaks of tlie beauty of its two cireto of 
coiamos, and the Uiird, lost in the wall; and remarks ''jipw immoderateiy nneqoat fb» 
intercoluniDiations, if all the columns radiated from a common centre t ** What beoomes,of 
the criticism, ^hen we find they do not so radiate, and that moreover, except those lost la 
the wall,'there is but one qrcle ? In the same way he describes a fourth order at the Cott« 
seom, surmounted by a heavy attic. The fourth is the attic ! 

> Mr. HobhOQse errs in calling the Pantheon^he Sta* Maria in Turribus, defended by the 
a&tipope Cleihens Hi. in 4087. In tronl of the old St. Peter's was an atrium or tfuam 
court surrounded by a portico. At the entrance to the latter was the chapel of Sta. Maria ad. 
torres, so called from (he tewer or towers which rose over it It is curious to remark the state, 
of Rome at this period. The archbishop of Jtavenna was supported in his pretensions to the 
papacy by the emperor; but the more powerOil arm of the Countess Matilda protected tbe- 
abbot of Monte Gassino ; the latter took the portico alluded to, and in the evenlns of the same ' 
day his enemies evacuated tlie church : but, insecure in its vicinity, the victor retired to 1}ip, 
Island in the Tiber, while the more popular antipope occupied the Rotunda. The day of ^ 
the aposUes was consumed in a struggle at St. Peter's betweei^ the parUes, to prevent the* 
latter iirom saying mass in the church ; and as he could not get possession dt it until night- 
fall, the sepulchre of (he apostles rematlied, fbr the first time> nnhonored by the religiops <)b-;i 
aenranoe of that anniversary, thodgh Clement having expelled his adversaries from the 
portico, and smoked them out of the towers, had been enabled to celebrate mass at the altar 
of Sta. Maria ad turres. But the Gronico Cassinense tells us that St. Peter, in disgust at th& 
profanatiqn of thje liereticS) left his shrine^ and was met apd accosted upon the road to St. tie^l^ 
nedict at Monte, Casiiino by some pilgrims. Fieory, Hist. Eccl., aliTo fdllows Baronins'tdr 
thhiking Leo Ostiensis alluded to the Pantheon, and explains that it' was so called frdih^ 
Bernini's turrets— built six centuries after ! .^. ' 

• we have good evidence of the state ot the roof from the inseripti«ns fixed by Urban, 



I: 

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jAy EDITOR'S rREFAGC. 

The aathor of the Illiistrations will rejoice to hear, that ^'the ill-as^rted 
BUkleni cinteoiporar jr hea^ which glared in all the nrlches of the Kotanda; 
tbe little white hermaean busts ranged on leches side by side, and giving 
Ihbten^le of immortality the. air of a sculptor's study;" and even tho$(^ 
which at tiie period of his visit, were still under the chisel of the *^ mo- 
i0^ Gleomenes/' were in the latter part of the year 1849 all cleared away: 
tlii^ either promnted by his remarks or more probably the opinion that ther 
iolerCered irith the religious character of the structure, they have been all 
mdlbaci; to their maker, and that eveh the .sacred image of the diviiiie 
Baifi^elltt has not escaped the general proscription. 

The observattoa of another journalist is so complete a specimen of his 
mapner, that weeannol refrain from quoting it. 

^. Wh^ bat^arfams could have white-washed so grand a canopy ? If their 
rapacity tofe off its ancient covering, they might have bronzed the ^nrfact^ 
^s^oted^ sM toll tfs ^t- least the coIo^ of their plunder behind." 

'tMpwwkoWotild^nol suppose that the same barbarous pope who white- 
wifihed, had plundered it? or who would suppose from this, that the bronze 
aneting waA friiiiidered firom the outside of the portico about eleven ceniurfes . 
htiorolhe wki^^sh of the itiside of the cupola ? 

'As the imeRtioii of Mr. Eustace was to make 6n1y general remart:s upon 




Iilaoe in tiM. qoarter as explanatory < 
iWezes yet lemiaiiiiii^. It never was his object to enter into any grammatical 
diaitDVitBon npon -thie letters estiiuet of one, upoti the resHiuit of the secodd^ 
car tiM details ol the^ ftve inscriptions found upbri the site of the real i^taj^U 
ofiCkmowd, close to the Qiree columns and behmd the arch of Sevfsrus, aii^d 
'oli>whichrkiBoriptioiis<Myi)iie appears to have \ken knciwn to our <i(ilig.ent 
mtkfiaTf4 Mr. fiustac^ <Vsaw no difficulties/' because it was not his 
Iii»pe6e:lbdisoiissithem> the term ^^r^sfored" was all his cursory remark 
fequired, and of that he availed himself. 

And here it may be observed, that it is not for the editor of Mr. Eustace's 
To|sr to vindicate its aqtbor'sknowl^e of the Latin language by enlanging 
^goti t^e ij^a^qi^acy ofibtbers ; but it would be difficult to imagine a more 
lfi($G)robs.DJveraightthao that of this indefatigable antiquary, where he asserts 
that fte afehes (^:Tr£(jan were deposited in ifie head ofijU spear wbida tih^i 
statue of that emperor, placed upon tlie column called b^ his name in Kome^ • 
hff)A.in ^ baivL in may be useful to inform him, that the word ^^ pHa*" 
iwia^» aglobe> a symbol, so held bv the statue, and the size of wi^cb^a§ 
Ally a^eguate (pQie purpose^ and aitbe same tlipe presented aa appropriate, 
^positqry for tpe remains ot him who had ruled the destinies <^ the B^ 
ipii< woiid.; for as the column was never intended to be a sepnlchr^ mo- 
mment to Tr^Jari tiirHadjrian made it so, we may faurly presume the t^i^, 
didf tU)t Qir coUljj' apt (ullj m^HJie fouudfttioii^ to deposit his' p];edeceasor's rflh 
npjups benie^h theip. 

Xhereis one mi|Make has hitherto escaped. Mr. Eustace * calls the ^)fil^^ 
fhwi the Piazza di Sjagaa to thp church ol Trinitji di Mpnte \t manbW'' wey 

n^lipli ny that tbO'r^inaiqB of bronze ytere hardljr knowo to exist, and tikat havfag rAnoTedf' 
l^m^ lie repaired.d^ Wbole bona corUignalion&, Alexander YII/ restored th6*two otb^ 

>Vol.J. Ch.x. ' »jbid.Ch,ji\U 



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EDITOR'^ PREFACE. xf 



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are of travertine ; and he also speaks of the copper the French contemplated 
lti\^i% h<Mi ihe^dMs^ tf St. Peter's, %llioh is cot«rid^ with tMMl. Tf«ir, 
we lieli^Ti^, iherernrefew indmdctals whbiwate seen Ihe magoiiloent slairedbe 
jiht alinded to^ who tliink of the materiar at aU. Tfaey are pbrbapsthQ 
Arm fli§^ of 'ste{>s: in Boropef, and as fittih ear aothor qaoted them. Ab td 
whether the whole covering of the dome of St. Peter's is of oopper or no, 
ftrsomepiBrrdfitls of thai tiaietal/is do refutation of the main cl)j^t of th^ 
^acge ^ for iead^emdd have been deshnbte to French rapacity in a preelsd 
|Nrapoii|p<iikwi|lrilivald«r^ though it mig6t not be quite worth the tvooMt 
^d expeO^ el ^taking down. And W6i)iay ask,- witl any one who hai 
enlered fiie ^igenep dRices at Tours or Rouen, or the coachmaker's 8hc|^ 
at liie lalter 'i^ki^ or ttte'lampmagasiiie at Venice, vindicate FrenA 
intKarantc^ to^l^i^ioos edifices'? who has^een the Abbe Feijirmont's nav^ 
talive upon Greelan antiquities, adVoDsate Uieir respect ifor aatronal momi^ 
iMts ^ or read tha ittudtmi^r's aceoun.t of the an^phtatidn of tfcfe arm of the 
«atiie of P^ompey, contend that their taste or love for ancient arthasany 
teaJitf?-'- ■' • - ^ :.; » • T 

Oafra«ther,apeai(ingofU)epartici:riar traei of country between Tiveii^ 
u^ the Bsmdasian fount, says It corre^ftdB "With its general feitares of t:we 
timisand yean ago as described by Horace ; and amongst a dteen olfMRr 
points of identity, conUins tfiesameAttle i^Ife, and eveki an ^' oebaiiciM 
pine," ^^ imminens villa plnns." 

We are told that ^^ we shall not be SQ jtuicky: as ,fi |f\tje traveller in finding 
the occasional pine still pendant on the poetic villa. There is not a pine in 
m^ wh(4e valley, toii iwo impresses wh^l} he tnutt or joieifeaok for.lbal itrfsei 
PAcace pr(|rhaldy hadepe in Uie wckwrd close ta his lu-m, nol otf Ibe jmfiky 
heights a^ some distance from his ftbode. The tbudfi may ^w emiy J«pt 
faaed hknaril to haiie aeeh this pine figured in the bboVe eypriOBtes ; for the 
4»nge and hsnea trees whieh tiuofr subh a irioom xwrer liis^ de^vriptikui of 
iiie royal gardens al Naples, imfear ^feeff hmt hem siifeea iisj^kieed, wei^ 
assuredly only acacias and other garden alinibs.? r, 

Ifr. Eastace knew aad iias" qo^ei liie lad, tliat lioraee had ft ^^^ 
idft villa, th^vgh ia aM pprebairiliiy net mhis orchai'd^ and if hehad meamia 
fttode to that particular tree, wtMrid nc^ iia.ve iiied Oae word oceasi^^, 
£uies aie to be found in qaantlty i^hffitient ui the neighbonrhood of T«yofi» 
by those who will or wiU not take jtUe trouble takiok i)r them. A9 io the 
^atuitous lemon trees we sav nothing; but it should be recollected that 
the Yilla Refile at Napl>^, tbr So the 'r6yi^'^:aMclibf iii (juestion are called, 
were doubled in extent, and totally altered anci replanted during the French 
9m^^on :, fnd we oan assure lOur jreadf^s.)v|io h^ye a \oyt,taf ^e blqom 
siim^i^n^^ that in the garden of the Ferran,4i^ J^^f^ >M^ W%^ .9I¥r 
iiithe^a^f|(;k wbdows opep^d, a foli acre of the treep, jjiji f^^^ )s y^^ iff 
f& f(^4}i9^ Uioom in the (wo(^er se^syn. • 

Tbf fqt^^in near the yiUacrf^porace rjf^p fif^f^ftq i'.^p^l/'.?|n(41^s,^ 
'^ ploughed land in its immediate vicinity." It is of very di£Gicul/t a^ej|k 
^ongj^ O^pf/Qommon beauty ^^^^n^llmcp.ijfrjity- Jtfcigr^l^^rth a f IfiaFind 
(coplpi^stpi^am Iromthe <ya^y fiece^^sftf ^e^V^ntf j^ wl^i\qeit falls Ira;^ 
jrpcit Ip ro<^ uniU ijt readies Uie^qrel of jUbe yalji^y ]!?|ei9T^j ?l^ ^l^>Vftter^ ^ 
l^eugfe^lfpdallWedtbi^^^ Wi^tbergor^cpi'Js^tjs JjwBatus unic^ 

Sabiniis,'" called this Bandusiaii or Blaudusiaii, we think hardly worth contro- 
yer^y ? Wf i^e content wilh ^e.old re^dingr ^<^. ^¥^. W ^^ .tf?^:^^ ^ 
leai fountain ]exi$ted^t Yeiui£|idVbut> slow dn^ up^ confess to have jeeedtmi 



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M EDITOR'S PREFACE. 

some'pleasare iii^finding this felse 096, with every feaiMire recorded to the 
ode. And may we liot be permitted to coojectare the poesibility that Ihe 
poet might have chosen to caU the fountaiti at his form after one at his birth? 
place ? lor this at least seems to have been the taste of Hadrian in, snbse** 
quent times. 

We must allow that we feel eminently indebted to the author of the Iiiii9*> 
trations for much valuable research 4ipon thfe subject of Roman antiquity; 
we only wtsh he had felt his admission ^< that jthe. liafveof liberty distinguidied 
' the character as it adorned the pages of Mr., Eustace,, whose gentlemanly 
spirit, so recommendatory either in an author or-tus productions, is oott^ 
spicuous throughout the Classical T^ur :" that **:genileriianly** feeling might 
Imve softened some expressions and omitted others ; or It ought at least havte 
spared Itself the trouble of imputation. It is, we confess, somewhat against 
dur own iiiterest, but notwithstanding his assertion we can assure hira that 
there is to be found an Italian edition of Mr. Eustace's Tour : and while we 
are upon the subject of information, we may recommend him to make a 
personal inspection of the bronze wolf in the Palazzx) dei Gonservatori, for 
we were not successful in discoveriii^ any real traces upon it of gilding.or 
marks whatever of the fusion attending metal struck by lightning^ and eaii!- 
sequeoltlf cannot imi^ine it to be the statue, 

Qua tarn cum paeris flammato fulminis icttt 
' ' Goncidi^atqueavolsapedam vestigia liquit. 

' Cicero tells his audience that they recollect it, because two years before h^ 
speaks, it was fhsed and became like all objects struck down by lightning 
too sacred to i^place upon its feet apd repair.' . ^ 

' A miore recent writer has resolved to have his share in, expoising the inte^ 
euracies of our aqthor; and accordii^y says, that the tomb of Yiagil con- 
tains a certain inscription, whidi he is surprised Mr. Eustace did not give 
|{i^dof'one which does not exist. ' .. 

The inside of the tomb contains no inscriptions except the name of Miss 
Eliza Johnson and John Oliver of liis Majesty's Sh^ Andacious', with some 
other modem worthies of similar pretensions ; but on the cliff inamediatdy 
opposite' thie entrance is a marble slab with the following, though not quite 
accordant with Mr. Malthews's '^ tough jpiece of laUnity." 

Qae cineris tumulo hec Testigia oonditur olim ' i 

liie hoc qdi cecinit pascua, rura, duces. Can. reg. BIdLIII. ^ 

' The modem date annexed ta this inscription, and its had constt^ociion, 
may account for its omission by Mr. Eu^ace, who has given that of D(!ma- 
tiis, which Mr. Forsyth remarks, was in his time "rejected oh the cliff aS'a 
forgery;" \^e cdn therefore only presume that either these two authors 
erred, or that it was removed in the interim between their visit and that of 
Mr.Manbews. ' 

As^ it was an object with "Mr, Eustaise Xfi support the Cause of ihe Itali«hfi 
dei^y, it may be worth while to notice an assertion in the same journal 
which seems to have bepn imagined with a contrary view.- i'he author 
lodged at Naples " in the house of a IllUe dirty chocolate-faced bishop^ who 

' • 1 in-Cat'ili S.-^The follies of ihi antiquaries upon llils statue are too absurd ;— some go 
kKk^XurMta-^Mm IftSt It is at ooice the wolf of Kjjnysius and Cicero.' It may be the former, 
but will hai^ly be admitted to be so by Uiose who have seen Uie Perugiaa statues at Florence, 



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chattel^ two hoars to be repaid by a few d^rlines, who exhibited bis epis- 
copal trappings with fiddle-faddle vanity, aud who giggled and skif^ed at 
the joke of his gaesl's trying on his mitres; '' in short, that he was a tfaie^, 
and stole twenty dollars out of a former lodger's cash-hag, the disgrace of 
which felony woold fall of course upon the servant who was eiHruste^l with 
the money. Now from all this his readers would conclude, that al) the 
bishops- and perhaps archbishops in Naples deserve to be hung ; and that the 
hierarchy in that kingdom are quite equal in wickedness to all that is de- 
picted in the author's travelling guide, Mrs. Radcliffe ; but he will be apr- 
prised after these entertaining conclusions to be told Uie indisputable fact^ 
that the la wsof the Neapolitans, are so uqlik^ our English liberal regulations, 
as to impose forfeiture of his sqe upon the, bishop who shall not constantly 
reside within his diocese; ^hat moreover even sickness is not admitted an 
excuse for non-residence, and that consequently no bishop except the car- 
dinal archbishop^ who we hope is not here alluded tO| can live in^ Naples or 
letlodgiQgs. ' . 

In the same volume, we have a comparison of the dintensions of 'St. Pe- 
tefs, as given by Mr. Eustace, with what the author of Course .considers 
more correct admeasurements. These however are exceedingly difficult to 
ascertain ( but from a careful revisal of fionanni and other authorities, we 
see no reason to altei- those jgiven, vol. I. bhi ^YI. The height being taken 
from the pavement of the church, which inside the dome is 530 feet. Those 
assigned to St. Paul's are within a few; feet except the two last. It may suf- 
fice to remark that the latter covers twO' acres, the former mon^ than five * 
that cutting off the bdll and cross, the whole dome of one hifght be inclu^eJ 
within that of the other, and thsit thS vestibule of the Roman is wider than 
the nave of the London Cathedral, of which the three aisles, that is, the 
building within the walls is precisely the width of the nave of St. Peter's, 
this (by actual admeasurement) is 90 feet; the width of the nave of St. Paul's 
is 40, in height we believe about 90. The accounts of St. Peter's, its archi- 
tects, and even dimensions are so various and contradictory^ that we have 
thought proper to make a few cursory observations; not so much with the 
intention of adding to, as to dear the subject from unreal critidsro, 

While Julius II. was yet a cardinal, he appears to have had a strict inti- 
macy with and friendship for Juliano'Giamberti, a Florentine architect pa- ' 
trmized by the Medici, and who received from a monastery he erected. at 
Florence the surname of San Gallo. 

Soon after the elevation of Julius to the pontificate, he resolved to rebuild 
St. Peter's upon a scale surpassing all other earthly edifices; and to the end 
that the beauty of the structure should equal the vastness of his Ideas, he 
received Tarions designs for the projected building. He preferred the plan 
of Bramante, whil6 his old friendship itcliued him to assodate the two 
architects in carrying that design into execution; but San Gallain disgust 
retired to Florence* 

The latter had prev!6usiy recommended his firiend and countrymaYi M. An- 
gdo Bonaroti to the pontifif; he was now employed upon the tomb of Julius. 
He passed the most severe censures upon the saccessful plan, of which the 
author had strengthened hi^ interests by the assistanee of a' young country- 
man and relation, whose talents justified his presentatioi^ to Julius. This 
was Raphael; Bramante and Raphael on the one hand; Julia^ San Gallo 



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ivltt £DITO«l*S PBWAGE. 

and Michel Aagelo on the olher, beheld eadh;other witii riviiiy^ not tritb 
natH»al enmity.* " \ , ^ ' 

With the death.of Bramante'tbe asare of St, Peter's derolved upon Raf- 
. ftello; bat the new pope, Leo X. obliged his countryman San GaHo to re- 
torn, and with a third to form a commission of architects. San Gallo^ioo 
eld for active* exertion, recommended his nephew Antonio, with whom, 
upon the early death of Raphael, Leo placed Peruzzi as a more ei^perienced 
colleague; but the ensuing tronbles^aUowed no funds for execution though 
they afforded leisure for design, and this was principally directed to &e 
saving of expense. With this view Peruzzi recommended the Gi^k cross. 
His death left uncontrolled San Galk), who with returning tranquillity 
swells the projected church to nearly its original extent as deigned by his 
master firamante ; adheriog to the Greek crosa he added a proi^aos nearly 
as-lai^ iit our church of jSt. Paul's; two towers of equal height with the 
central cupola flanked the entrance, and the whole exhibited a stupendous 
pile of pillaredbut almost gothic magnificence. Since Bramante, who had 
completed the fear great arches to support the dome, thirty-two years had 
elapsed, and the building had made scarcely perceptible progress; for the 
interim had been principally employed in strengthening his masses. The 
death of San Gallo now Teft the superintendance to Michel Angelo, who 
at seventy-two unwillingly entered upon restricted functions which perhaps 
a conciliatory cUsposij;ioa would have jsecured to his extraordinary talents 
longbefpre. 

The extent of the cupola could not be altered, and the ground plan was 
fx> jar chalked out as to leave little to be departed from. The new architect 
had always censured all the preceding designs as visionary, and his views 
were principally directed to form ohe of which the execution would employ 

^ ^ I The cobtrtst or character between lUpbaet and Michel An^o, presents one of the most 
striUng features ip the biography of art. The former, bom in 14S3, was nine years younger 
than (he latter. His Entombment of Christ, at twenty', had surpassed the most successful 
efforts of his master, the greatest pahiter of the day, and placed h(m upon a height fh>m 
which be seems dertiDed never to descend: The life of Michel Angelo has been detailed by a 
friend, he has found an eulogist in the parUalities of a countryman. The amiable-qnallties 
of Raphaer are so unequivocalty stamped upon all his works, that we need no other biogra- 
pher. He was the numen which inspired every youth placed under its inOueaoe, and 
enabled the artist to leave Cor our admfration more than the shortness of his career would seem 
to permit. Surrounded by bis pupfls he painted in the face of day ; his study was open to all 
eomecs, while the presence and approving smile of woman seems to hare been almost necet^ 
aary to his exertions and existence. , 

The first great work of Michel Angelo was the celling of the Sixtine chapel : his resolution 
WM'to surpass his cotemporaries ; lie jilsmissed his pupils, and for twenty m^ttn suffered no 
human being to approach Ms labors. ^He hardly escaped blindness. The recorded conver- 
sation of Haphael is distinguished, like his manner^ by a gentlemanlike feeling, which seems 
the birth of a later age; his observations were of kindness to bis friends. The replies of 
Micbel Afigelo are vituperative of his rivals. The latter may be compared (o the Old Tes- 
tament ; the former seems io have sought a model hi Uie New. The one condemned hit 
enemies to the society of ihe damned ; the other exalted bis friends to the company of (he 
philosophers and sages of antiquity. 

The women of Michel Angelo may be '* moulds of generation ; ** but those' of Baphad are 
jhe mistresses of onr affections, and exalt our nature even to idolatry. The children of 
the former may *< teem with the man,** but who shall describe the intelligence beaming io 
the conntefaances of the boys of PoKgao. The Transflgnratron of Raphael displays the 
divinity of Christ, . and teaches the lesson of fklth. It was reserved to the perverse geniw 
of l|is rival to depict tbe Sbn of God m the act of cursing man, and the Saviour of the 
himian race reels from his hands thelerribie minister of divine vengeance.— He sits^ ac- 
cording to Vasarl ; but stands, according to others, ii wiU be difficult for the unlearned 
spectator to agree wltti either one or the other. 



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BDITORS PREFACE. x\x 

less tiooe, and entail more reasonable expense. The original design of Bra- 
mante would have covered 350,000 square feet, or about eight and a half 
Eoglish acres ; it was reduced by Pernzzi to 280,000, swelled again l)y San 
Gallo to 320,000, curtailed by Midiel Angelo to 480,000, and finished ti^y 
Mademi at 240,000. Oui" own St. Paul's covers about 80,600 feet. 

The great alteration made by Midiel Angelo was in curtailing a series of 
aisles behind the ends of the transepts and choir, and in cutting off eight 
chapels opening under the present four smaller cupolas, each of which 
chapels would have been more than fifty feet square. It is a common 
error to suppose that he designed a portico like the Pantheon, which had 
not been yet weeded and brought into notice. The front of that architect 
scarcely differed in geometrical elevation from that now executed.* A gal- 
lery for papal benediction was required, and the columns now stick to the 
wall; whereas Michel Angelo's design brought them out in ^a tetrastyle por- 
tico,. surmounted by the sanlie hideous attic, and forming a tottering mass^ 
of which the elevation was double the width of the portico ; supposed^ be^ 
cause the columns were insulated, to imitate the glorious architecture of 
Agrippa.' 

The design of Michel Angelo being perfected by his successors, Yignola 
and jacopo della Porta, with the exception of the front, Paul Y . on his ele«- 
vation resolved to extend the plan more upon the principle of the original 
deagn of Bramante. 

For the more clearly understanding the intention of Bramante's plan, re- 
ference may be made to that of St. Paul fuori le mnra, which the ancient 
St. Peter's very much resembled. The centre of the ancient aHom was fixed 
upon as the centre of the projected dopae; a great portion of the new build- 
ing was consequently erected upon new ground, but the long arm of the 
Latin cross included the whole of the sacred precincts. The plan of Michel 
Angelo in shrinkii^ to the Greek cross had excluded nearly one-third of the 
length of the nave, and had shut out many sites ranked amongst the moist 
holy of the ancient edifice, and with them the Sixtine chapel, as well as 
the shrine of the Sudario^ perhaps the relic most revered of the catholic 
cfanrch.* 

For the purpose of including these, a competition of architects was esta- 
blished. The design of Mademi, nephew to Fontana, who assisted Jacopo 
della Porta in raising the dome, was chosen.' 



> Had the design of Michel Aogelo for the portico been followed, we should havQ had in 
the two great cathedrals of Christendom two memorable monuments in defiance of the 
dictates of common sense. The gallery, an absolute necessity for the imposing ceremony 
of papal benediction at St. Peter% would have been omitted ; while St. Paul's exhibits to 
this day that conyeniency useless to a protestant church. The image of the Virgin, put up 
at Oxford in a repair by Laud, formed an article in his impeachment : we are only sur- 
prised this feature in the church of London was not turned against Charles and* James, as 
indicatiye of Uieir intention to restore catholic superstition. 

« The ceremony of exhibiting this relic to the congregation at Easter has giren occasion 
to one of Mr. Forsyth's most admired turns. ' ** The priest on the balcony unfolded the real 
handkerchief impressed, as he said, with the original features of Christ ; but (he abdicated ' 
king of Sardinia, who was then kneeling below, seemed to think his own sndarium the 
genuine relic of the two." We by no means wish to dispute the profundity of the author's 
penetration, but we cannot imagine that his majesty had any such thoughts : (br he must 
have known that his relic, the sindone, or supposed winding-sheet, was much too large to 
have ever been carried about by St. Veronica as a pocket handkerchief. 

3 Hela "hit off as a wretched plasterer by Mr. Forsyth; who Uius blindly copying 
Fontana, seems totally unconscious of haying begun the page by deciding his vestibule to be 



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kx EDITOR'S PREFACE. 

The^reai objecdon urged to Mademi's prolonged naye, and conseqaently 
applying also to that of Bramante, is that it breaks the unity of tbe p\9fk* 
The cupola, which before canopied the whole, now crowns only a part, and 
the effect is too gradual, with the approach of the spectator; but this is easily 
remedied by passing round to the entrance m the side of the sacristy which 
affords the means of access immediately under the glories of the dome, 
while the grand vestibule may be resorted to by those who admire the 
lengthened approach of the first architect. It may admit of a doubt whether 
the plan of Antonio San Gallo did not combine both these objects with su- 
perior skill and effect.' 

Maderni was succeeded by Bernini, under whom the relation of the for- 
mer, Borromini, acted ; but this success superinduced the enmity of the Ga- 
Yaliere, who charged him with corrupting the taste of the day ; while the 
ingenuity of the archite<;tural deception in the Palazzo Spada vindicates the 
skill of Borromini, and excited his rival to attempt a similar effect with less 
success but more magnificence, in the Scala Regia. 

Having enlarged to perhaps an unnecessary extent upon the alleged de- 
fects of the Classical Tour, as advanced by those who have allowed them- 
selves to impute even unwor.thy motives to its author, we now proceed to 
correct, and observe upon, those which have escaped general notice. 

We believe that freedom from error falls to the lot of few ; and although 
jsome more recent works profess to contain nothing more than the observa- 
tions made upon the spot, we know of no book of travels, however much it 
may insist upon this as a merit, that does not bear strong internal evidence 
in contradiction to such pretensions. We pronounce it to be the duty of an 
author to avail himself <^ former notices; and the man who, living next door 
to information, sits down to discuss the merits of the Athenian sculpture, 
and calmly declares that he does not know whether Lord Elgin's collection 
contained any part of the Parthenon frieze, should at any rate apologize to 
his country readers for not giving himself the trouble to inquire. 

It may possibly be the good fortune of some future traveller to supply the 
world with more information than Mr. Eustace has done; but until that in- 
dividual comes forward, we must beg to vindicate to our author his station 
as a traveller; we most beg to declare, that until' that day arrives he must 
stand second to no one. 

The magnificent tazza alluded to vol. I. ch. XI. and XIY. in the Gampo 
Taccino, has been removed to the Monte Cavallo, and there forms the basin 
of the fountain at the feet of the celebrated statiies brought from Alexandria 
by Gonstantine. They are well known to be inscribed with the names of 
Phidias and Praxiteles, and were removed from the baths of Gonstantine to 

ap arehltectfiral picture which no engraving can flatter, and who proceeds to finish U by 
eulogiziniC his nave as infinitely grand and sublime wiihout the aid of obscnrity ! 

it is not generally remarked, that the first ebarch of the Christian world fronts the east ; 
the pope consequently faces the door of the church when he celebrates mass. 

' The elliptical cupolettas are said by Bfr. Forsyth '*to be mere expedients to palliate the 
defect of Maderni's aisles, which depend on them for light ; " but all the light is received 
from the six windows in the nave, assisted by others^in (he aii«les. He also ^ys, that the 
roses of the ceiling have fallen in ruins from the deeper lacunaria, apd remain only where 
the relief is low: this, as well as the remainder of the paragraph including the puff of Braschi, 
is. totally mistaken ; the lacnnaria without roses bare never yet contained ihat ornament. 
We hardly know, what he can mean by the middle orb of the vault; but the arms of the 
respective popes have been invariably placed to mark the works done under their poffti- 
ficate. Piu» gilded the vault. » . 



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EDITOrS PREFACE. af 

their present sitaalions by the command of that extraordinary Pontiff Six- 
tuB y. Pins VI. turned them at right angles to each other, and placed be- 
tween t|iem an obelisk nearly 30 feet high of red granite.' The angle formed 
by the three pedestals was adorned by the present Pope with the 4azza in 
qaestion ; it is of Oriental granite, and measures 26 feet across the rim. 

The propriety of the appellation of the grotto of the nymph Egeria is 
doubted. Livy, as quoted, vol. I. ch. XYIII. says, ^* ex opaco specu fons :" 
surely this is authority sufiicient for a cave whence the water flowed. 
Mr. Eustace has mistaken the mutilated statue for a female ; it is evidently 
male, and it is singular that any doubt could ever have existed. Yet La-> 
lande also remarks^ ^^paroiiplutdt une figure d'hohime que celle de fa 
nymphe ;" and Forsyth says, ** it passes for Egeria." There remaining only 
six niches does not prove there never were nine. 

The temple of Vesta at Tivoli, vol. I. ch. XIX. is a specimen of the Co- 
rinthian, which was singular in its detail until the discovery of Poippeii/ 
where the-same character is given to.that order, constructed of & similar po- 
rous material, and made out in like manner by means of stucco, which seems 
to have been composed by the same hand; Mr. Forsyth's criticism upon 
this temple turns upon the niche, which is a mere scoop ip the wall, painted 
with saints, and so evidently barbarous as to have nearly caused the ruin of 
the whole edifice ! 

With reference to the vase in the cathedral of Gaieta,* mentioned vol. I. 
ch. XXI. considerable ridicule has been thrown upon our author by some 
who have represented that he overlooked the anchor of Hope in the hand of 
Athamas, and the cross held by Faith; while Charity with the child he wa^r 
supposed to have mistaken for Ino, and the Saviour kneeling to be baptized 
with John, for Bacchanals. The vase described by Mr. Eustace had been 
removed m the interim between his visit and that of this inquiring observer 
to the Museum at Naples, and its place supplied by a more appropriate font 
seulptared for the purpose. 

The hall wherein is the painting of Leonardo da Vinci representing the 
Last Supper, at the period of Mr. Eustace's visit was used as a store-room 
for artillery, and he probably had not access to view the picture. Mr. For- 
syth also says, ^Mt was shot at wantonly by the Sclavonians, who were lately 
quartered tiriere." The Viceroy Eugene raised the floor three feet, the room 
being very damp, replaced the roof, and repaired the whole, as an inscrip- 
tion still allowed to remain over the entrance records ; and the lovers of art 
will rejoice to hear that the picture has received no more inquiry tlian time 
and the nature of the materials employed have caused. 



To th« second and sub^nent Editions of the Classical Tour is subjoined 
a Postscript, furnished to Mr. Eustace by a friend ; it comprises a short ac- 
count of the excavations made by the French around the ancient monum^ts, 

> Thif obelisk is of the same dimensions with that near the chnrch of Santa Mari^ Mag- 
alore. They were brought to Borne by Claudius to adorn the niaus«)leam of Augnstos, 
near which they were boUi found. The length of the stone is as stated above. Mr. Eostaoe, 
vqI. I. ch. XV. says 60 feet, which includes the cross^ etc. 

• The governor of this fortress could not feel much indebted to Mr« Forsyth, who goes 
oqi of his way no less than three times to record that his brother, Sir John Acton, rosQ 
Irom a barber. llSs EngUsh baronetcy dates from f644. 



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x^U EDITOR'S PREFACE. 

and the conseqa^t discoveries ; subsequent research by the ambassador of 
France and lier grace the Duchess of Devonshire has added to this infor- 
mation, as well as confirmed or negatived the conjectures of the writer. 
We shall shortly pass them in review. 

THE COLUMN IN THE FORUM. 

This colnnm rises from a pedestal which is pla.ced upon a pyramidal 
basement of steps. Upon the pedestal is an inscription which informs 
us that it was erected by the Exarch Smaragdus 608, and sustained a gilded 
statue of the Emperor Phocas whose name had been erased, it is imagined, 
by his successor Heraclius.-^The repaired inscription reads : 

OPTIHO' CLBMENTIS PIISSIHOQVE 

PRINCIPI DOMINO IH . PHOCAE IHPERATOR 

PEBPETVO ADO CORONATO TRTVlfPHATOR 

SEMPER AVfiYSTO 

SMARAADYS EX PRASPOS 8ACRI PALATII 

AC PATRICrVS ET EXARGHV8 ITALIAB 

^ DEYOTVS BIVS CLEMBHTIAE 

, PRO INNVMERABItlBVS PIETAHS BIVS 

BEllEFICnS ET PRO QVIETE 

PROCVRATA ITAL. AC CONSEBVATA LIBERTATE 

BANC STATVAM HAJESTAtIS BIVS 

AVRI SPLElfDOBE FVLGENTEM HVIC 

SVBLIMI COLVMNAB AD PERENNEM 

IPSIVS GLOBIAM IMPOSVIT AC DEDICAVIT 

DIB_PBIMA MENSIS AVGVST INDICT. VND 

PC PIETATI8 EFVS ANNO QVINTO. 

It is placed at the foot of the declivity from the Capitol, below the arch of 
Severus. The Frendi were contented to dig to the base of the pedestal, 
and then speculated upon its high and inexplicable level. Thc^ Duchess of 
DevonsMre excavated to the ancient pavement, laid open the steps, and 
shewed that it was seven feet lower than the triumphal arch alluded to. 

THE TEMPLE OF PEACE. 

The excavations here are highly curious. The building is evidently 
placed tipon the site of some more ancient edifice, of which the better exe- 
cuted brickwork may be observed m the foundations running obliquely 
across the line of its walls, while a portion of the ancient way of ba- 
saltic pavement still remains, pursuing the same direction. This vast hall 
measures about two hundred and seventy by eighty-two feet. It was 
almost precisely similar in dimensions and decoration with the great saloon 
in tlie baths of Dioclesian, and like it the ceiling was supported by eight 
gigantic columns, except that the material was here of white marble in- 
stead of granite. This hall opened by three arches on each side into two 
aisles. The entrance to the building was by means of a low vestibulum at ' 
one end of the saloon, towards the (!]olisenm, or east ; at the other end is a 
semicircular recess or tribunal. The external wall of the north aisle was 
pierced by six arches in two ti^rs under eadi of the three great openings 
connecting it with tlie nave; but the centre of these three divisions had* 
undergone an alteration apparently in the progress of the work, and its 



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EDITOR'S PREFACE. xiiH 

strai^t wall wa^ thrown out into a semicircolar tribane, with a half <mpola 
• ceiliDgy like that before alluded to at the west end, opposite the. original 
entrance : and this change seems to have been made in consequence of an 
alteration in the approach; for although the south aisle no longer remains, 
yet the excavations have laid open a flight of steps and fonndations of a 
portico of entrance in the centre of this sontli side of the building. 

We presume not to speculate upon the original destination of this edifice ; 
it has been called the Temple of Peace; it is now by sdme considered to be 
the Basilica o( Gonstantine. ' We can only say, that it is very unlike our 
ideas of the form of either of these species of building. We have before 
stated its similarity to the great hall of the baths of Diodesian. it was en- 
tered from the Sacred Wiay which ran close to it; but could have had no 
subordinate apartments by reason of its confined situation. 

THE GOLISEUlIf . 

The vaults and passages under the arena bear out Mr. Eustace's conjec- 
ture : we can only add, that they appear to have been used prindpally for 
the introduction oif the wild Jbeasts; the cages containing them were raised 
through a trap-door, and a sunple process turned the beast out upon the 
arena. In the excavations wiere found various fragments and inscriptions 
recording repairs to the arena, the podium, and the seats; but the la^ 
alludes to the partial reinstatement of the building after the dilapidation of 
a tremendous earthquake in the sixth century, by the Prefect Basilins^^ per- 
haps its last repair. The present Pope has built an inumense buttress to 
the top of the buildmg, to uphold the tottering exUremity of the outer 
circle; and the convicts were still employed in a woirk of driiining for its 
security in I82D. 

The temple of Fortuna Yirilis has been simply cleared of the rul^sh 
Which had accumulated about the podium. 

THE TEMPLE OF CONCORD. 

This appellatioii was attached to the e^ht patchwoit granite columns of 
a strange species of Ionic order at the foot of the Giivus Gapitolinus; but 
the late excavations have laid open the foundations of the cell of the real 
temple behind the arch of Septimins Severus, and adjoinmg the temple of 
Jupiter Tonans. The site had been occupied by a church dedicated to 
Sts. Seigio and BaciDO, which was thrown down to open the way to the 
GapiCol for the l^mperor Gharles Y . 

' A great haU of tbU precise shape and even dimenaioos seema to bate been, repeated la 
all the baths, and ivas probably the pinacotheca for the reception of works of art, or perhaps 
also included the library. In the baths of Garacalla is a second hall of equal size, which- 
from the different construction of its ceiling is presumed to be the Gella Solearis, mentioned 
l>y Spartianus, who states that the architecu of his time were unable to explain the scientific 
contrivance of its arched ceiling, of which the firaming of brass lattice vtdrK we coi^eo^ 
ture^ may have resembled the interlacing of a sandal latchet, and thus have suggested the 
name given to the hall, which appellation is absurdly imagined by one author to have 
arisen from its lieing the room for the slippft^s of baUiers, and by another to have contained 
a throne for the Emperor. But it is useless to enlarge upon the obscure architectural cri« 
Ucisms of ancient writers in a barbarous age, when we l|nd even those of our own time am) 
language so far from intelligible. There is another room (circular) in these baths 412 feet 
in diameter, which might have been covered with a dome upon the principle of the Balk- 
an Bled at Paris, and been the Gdla solearis alluded to. 



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zxiT EDITOB'S PREFACE. 

The eight columns are now assigned to thje temple of Fortnne, restored 
by Gonstantine, after being bamtnnder Maxentius; they are an e^traor- ' 
dinary example of patchwork, with different unfinished bases and capitals 
eked oat with stucco, while the portions composing the granite shafts are 
placed sometimes with their diminished ends downwards, and what origi« 
nally was the moulding immediately above the base, now forms that directly 
/under the capital. Between this and the three columns of Jupiter Tonans, 
nms the ancient paving of the GliYus Gapitolinus or large blocks otlaya. 
The latter temple was placed upon an elevated podium, and a narrow terrace 
or platfoVm ran along its front. 

Little more has been done to the triumphal arches than laying them 
X)pen^ to the ancient basaltic pavement, and building dwarf walls around 
them to prevent the earth again falling in. This is also done at the temple 
of Antoninus and Faustina. 

The arch of Titus, which required no excavation, exists in a most melan- 
eholy state of dilapidation, and is only upheld by timber supports. It is 
placed at one corner of the oblong plot of ground selected by the Emperor 
Hadrian for the site of his magnificent double temple to Venus and Rome. 
This area was about five hundred and thirty-five feet by three hundred and 
twenty. It was enclosed by a wall, around the inside of which was a por- 
tico of granite columns about three feet diameter, and consequently thirty 
high. ^ In the midst of this area arose the peripteral temple of white marble 
fluted columns of the Corinthian order, designed by the emperor } and if we 
may jddge from the waste of white marble to be observed in its walls, not 
without some mistakes in the execution, arising In all probability from his 
want of professional practice. The double temple was enlevated upon se ve^ 
steps, and columns of porphyry adonied the interior of both portions. The 
vaulted roof of stucco was gilded^ and the pavement shone in compartments 
of serpentine and giallo antico. Some remains of steps adjoining the arch 
of Titus shew that in all probability a propylea gave entrance to the peribo- 
1ns on that side. 

The excavations at the three columns in the forum have only shewn that 
the buildihg to which they belonged was elevated upon a lofty podium with 
a platform, and approached by a magnificent flight of steps. It is pre- 
suined to have been the Gomitium. 

FbaUM OF TRAJAN. 

The column of Trajan is now placed at one end of an oblong sank area, 
surrounded by a [Ibst and chain, of which the line runs not parallel but ob- 
liquely to that of the surrounding building; as unfortunately for the excava- 
tors, the form of the modem piazza does not follow that of the ancient city. 
Two double rows of columns run across this area j; but those now seen are 
only fjragments of the ancient granite shafts raised upon bases which have 
been placed in the positions of the original columns, as marked by the foun- 
dations. , Some portion of the ancient marble paving remains, and is per- 
fect in the immediate vicinity of the great column. It is to be regretted 
that the researches were necessarily impeded in the direction of the line of 
these porticos by the adjoining houses, and on the other side of the columa 
byxthe Palazzo Imperiale and two churches ; as some interesting traces of 
the Ulpian library and basilica^ or of the triumphal arch and temple of 
Trajan might have been discovered. 



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EDITORS PREFACE. xxy 

The temple of Mars and the peribolus of the foroin of Pallas, we believe, 
remain unexcavated. 

We conclude that the water alluded to by Mr. Eustace as ricmaining stag- 
nant in these hollows is of little consequence, and but seldom rises inU) 
them; but with the exception of those walled round, the excavations will 
gradually be refilled. 

The abandonment of the church of St. Paulo fuori le mura we believe to 
be unavoidable, 'the Benedictine monks are now in possession, but the 
malaria expels them at an unusually early period of the year. It is to be 
regretted that the columns of its aisles are not employed in a building where 
their magnificent shafts could be better appreciated.' The cloister is a 
most curious specimen of architecture in twisted columns and mosaic. 

The church and cloister of the Carthusians is also now in the possession 
of the Order. This church is perhaps the most magnificent space in Rome, 
with tHe exception of St. Peter's; and if it had been restored more judi- 
ciously, and with reference to the original design, would have been hardly 
inferior to that structure. But the shutting up the side aisles has totally 
perverted the effect of the columns, now placed at rambling uitervals, and 
supporting the ponderous pendentives of the groins originall]^Iieved by 
tliree gigantic vaults like those of the Temple of Peace. What lirchitect in 
restoring the latter structure would think of shutting out those magnificent 
coffered arches, and seeking our admiration by the substitution of tlie tor- 
tnreci pediments and angels which straggle upon their broken slopes in the 
church of the Madonna e sette Angioli? Would it not have been: better to 
have raised instead of burying the columns six feet, and omitted or shor- 
tened the high attic over them ? 

Mr. Lalaade cites a mistake mentioned by Boscovich, with reference to 
the scale of the meridian of Bianchini : he errs, there is no mistake. 

The columns were originally forty-six feet six inches high ; the ancient 
dimensions of the whole hall were 495 feet long, and 450 broad; the iur 
closed space at present |s reduced in v*udth to 80 feet. Mr. Eustace's di- 
mension, vol. I. ch. XI. which gives 550 feet to the length, is taken the 
other way. 

> They have been sapposed by most antiquaries to have belonged originally to the mau- 
soleum of Hadrian, see yol. I. ch. XUt. and XY.; but it is doubtful whether that building 
ever had columns. This error seems to hare arisen from their having been really removed 
from the church of St. Hadrian, the presumed Basilica of Paulus MnuUxu, 



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PRELIMINARY DISCOURSE. 



Hm meac pratrcpldtofl avet TSflart : 
Jam l«etl stadlo pedes vlgescant. 
O dolces comltiini ^alete coetus, 
L6o8»i|ao« Jimal a domo profectof, 
Plverae Taria vUe reportant." 

' Cainl. xuf . 



1 



Tub d^!gree of preparation necessary tdv travellii^ depends ttpon the 
motives wfaicli induce- us to travel. He who ^oes from home merely to 
change the ac^ne^and to seek for novelly ; who makies amnsement bis.sole 
object, and has no other view bnl to fill np a few months that must other- 
wise remain miemployed,. has no need of mental preparation Ibr his ^xoor- 
sion. Alifitbat such a loiterer <^n possibly want, are a oohvenknt pMU 
diaise, a letterof (7edlt>.anda wen*farnished irjiik ; fclr occupation he will 
have recourse tolnns^ to c6ffee-l;iouses, and to theatres, with then* appur- 
lenanceij, wliic}i cannot fei^ to supply htm with inddents, anecdote, and 
pastime in ahundance, But he who believes with Cicero, that it becomes a 
map of a liberal and active mind to visit countries ennobled byih^ birth 
and the residence of the great; who, with the salne Roman, finds himself 
disposed by the coritemplatidn of such scenes to virtuous and honourable 
pursuits; he who^ like Titus QuiiHius devoting the first days of leisure after 
his gk>rious achievements, to the celebpated monuments of Greece^ embraces 
the earliest opportunity of Visiting the classic regions of Italy; such a tra- 
veile^will easily comprehend the necessity of providing before^iand the 
information require to enable him to traverse the country without constant 
difficulty, doubt, and iqclutry. 'And, indeed, if there be a tour in which 
sqch preparation ift move particularly wanting than in any other, it is th^t 
to which i allude : as Italy owes more to history than even to nature ; and 
he who goes over it merely with his eyes open to its embellishments, and 
his mind intent on observation, jfhough he may see much and learn much 
also, will yet, wUh all his curiosily and diligence, discover one-half only 
of its beauties. Even those travel](ers who have made some efforts to qua- 
lify themselves by previous application,' will on many o(;casion8 regret that 
they have not extended their researches still farther, and that they have 
not by a longer course of preparation, added to ti)eir means )M>t^ of amuse- 
ment and of instruction. ■ It piay, therefore, be considered as an appro- 

' HowkwRsmy flatrriogbearttoroTe; 

JHy feel with llyellar ardoar inoTe* ' ' 

TlMSP fare fe well, my comrades gay-f 
From home at once we take oar way, 
^ Bott far through dlitant dlmatetf borae^ . • ■ 
l|qa<«U hy sep'rata^tlu Ktum. 

; 

• Tods ne satirtez croire, says th$ Ahbi BartMtefni to the conOe de Cayha, cambien. 
nioQ yoyage (ea Italle) m'a hamUi^; j*ai ra tant de choses que jlgaorafts, ei qoe J'ignore 

I. 



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2 PREtpflNAHir Discotmsfi. 

priate introdptption to aq account of Italy, to pomt oat. to the reader sach 
branches of information as are either indispensable or highly advantageoas 
la an excursion to that country ; after which I mean to add a few reflecti<»is 
and cautions, \Hlha^^ew either to rempy^ prejqdipe^ o^ tptpreVent incon- 
. vehiencies. "' ^ /' ' ' ' ' > 

CLASSICAL KNOWLEDGE. ' 

I. , As these page? are addressed solely to persons of a liberal education, 
|tis almost needless to recomniend the L^dn ppete^and historians. ' Yirgil 
aud Horace, Cicero and Livy, 6tigl)t,to bVilie inseparable companions of all 
travellers ; they should oeeupy a corner in every 'carriage, and he called 
ibrth in every interval of lejs^re, to relieve tile faUgue and to heighten the 
pleasure of the journeyi Familiar acquaintance or"^ rather bosom intimacy 
with the ancients is evidently the first and most essential accomplislunent of 
a classical traveller. 

BafL Ujece^is^Ma^ of nioets ^^o, tlwjp^ n^lyi.^i«4 m 
ifjenfs^ ap(^ cqqntey, to the anpienis, arp, yetiage^wsra}! UHiie fcn^wn,: I 
mean thejij^^r^ Lalin poets, Yida^ Sani^a<lu^ .^'raci^dq^^ fil^nj^^i 
PojiiiaA, etc.- Wjhpil^boure/d sq successfully t^^re^tprfi th^wpiOT t^sl^. of aiij 
ticj'uity. Bp^leap-aad.thip French qrilies af%;U|fi to (|^pis^ ibepp^awU^ow*^ 
Micl^^ for wha; reason it is difOcult to difcijv^^ un|dQfvita§<ictMl<^a^^^^ 
Bujt men of equal <iiscerHment', Atterbufy, Pop^, a§(l Jpbu^OA* en^i;:^^ 
Ojvby different opinion of their m^rit; and not oi^y I^^^) bu^scpj^iofjim^ btHh 
rpwed fipm^them, fjyery body is acquainCed^^t^ tji^ li^Uf^l^cpmpMinfVil 
which the British poet p^ys to Vida, and throughhim indirecsUj; uibis f^iit 
I^b^ds„ whose united ra»ys lighted up the glorias qf tti^.s^ndiAiigii»(i» 
age;.and.ey^ry,rt;aafr not blinded by prejudice must ado^l the pr<4>rietr 
ofthisi iweti^^ and acki^wledge, ihat.not Vida only hot several cjl 

ijjis cQJntemporaries tr^a.in the fdotstep^ of their iUustrioiis oopntrytneiii 
ytr^l and Horace; noi.unfreqviently^catch a spark of their in^isyUon^ tandn 
often speak their language with tlie grace and the facility \i{hjieli cMstingpiiidii 
pative Romans. Upon the present occasi^ I mean, to recoQimend^ ia>paivr 
ticulaf, only^such passages in (heir works as baye ax^io^niQ^tQ^AiMliteii 
jp^h itajy, a^^diire; calci^la^ed to give anAaddiiionaiiiwj^.i^,to ;any,pwlo6 
its hiisfory, scene^-y^ or antiquities. la these passage?*, wh(ese, the^si^lteeiK 
G^s fprtti their enejcgiesi, fhey glo w with native fire.,ap4ia wwihers. nal un*^ 

QR^CHret-qn!!! m> para fon de se savQlp'grd dequel^ues ponnaiftailces snperficiellcs *.^hgUre 
]df^ Tet ttiOi'ai^fapr of Atiachar#is vrai^ om oit^ most leijriiedandji«ticjdiur ak^ojffias* 
in France. ' ^ , 

"i Fode printed, or rather, I believe, reprinted, with addition?,, a oolliection of poof^i 
from tnese audioes in two rolmnes duodecfmo. : The Clarendon prefis gaye (he pi^lio a, 
i«perl>8^diD«nor typographical elegance ,,in an edition ottida, in Onree vDlnmes octavo,' 
iBLltieyjfac8 2?^23^a4;ofthelastcenlury. • . , »- ' • t 

< #e contempt which the French critjics generally shew for npipd^rp. J^atin pQetrr^.jmin 
perf^jtf arise from a consciousness of their own deficiency in this respecL cardinal Poli- 
gnae, Faniere, Rajtin >ind Sanleuil** are the only Latin poets, if I recollect well, of anv 
consideration (hat France has produced, and although they ar«* not without merit, yet th^ 
betray inibe effort with which they advance and in the very art which they display^ some- 

e ■ • 

* Toa cannot beliere how much my Johrney ( in Iftaly ) -tes hpoabled me. I saw so many things of 
wbicb I was before ignorant, and of wltleh I Milt ttntMh ignorant, (bat it appearedte QJemadDeat for 
a man to prijde bimseir on a little superUclal knowledge. 

«* Tliis last author if inferior to ttie ottiefs, because mora fiffected. Bis by^ufs^ tbougl^ iMeftod JB Uie 
rvrfsiM IH'ei^'ti'y; ataa mubb. ad mired h^ Frencb critics', are quite dl^gorod bj.foi^««^ fi^d aiiti||i^|f^n - 



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^ gr^iuloiiry dMcrilkK tiu? be^iHieB^' or laneni the miBfocltna M UHiJi 

• * . • '. . . ^ - • 

ITALIAN lANSUAfi-B. ' ^ -^ ' 

' ' » "' 

ft. It is evfiient that fie \^ho wLsbes tb become acc[tiaiQ(ed wfCh thje^ inaii-. 
fler?, oc tiJenioy llie soelety of the inliabitanfs of any eoqniry, joinatpre^, 
T^BDsly team their Ianjg;uage; ft is jbot therefore nty inteotioB, a? pres^iit^ 
jpi^relf ro recommend, what (ndeed no traveller eulirely neglects^ (1ieV^iM% 
ofttabati, but (0 enforce the necessity of commenciAg it at a mnch earli^f 
period, and of continuing it for a much longer space of time than is now 
customary. H^ who eflters Italy witt^ an intention of applying to its Ian* 
goage particularry , must make a longer residence there tiian our cpantry- 
Hloi moaflf d9, or he wtlt find t^o. utany «xff«rMl tittllsf iipoi^lito tftumloii 
And curiosity to olhyw him to derote Ms tine to eabMt suidfes. . Ifll(bM» 
Iteiljlvr^ iB to be gadiered, not from sedoniary appllcaliimy but Iwn 
fim w ta oMvA ami o^mvvuiot^ One day i» dtvotec^ tu Ulie i»iitM|Ailiba of 
chorches or ruins, the next ia pasMl in the ^i^hnMiUi^ of pKiant^ 'd tMM 
is dedicated to a groupe of ancient statues, and a. fourth and a fifth are' 
agreeably spent in the galleries or the gardens of a vlffo ^^ then excursions are 
to be made to spots edhsecrated' by history or by song^ to flprace's Sftbine 
farm or to' Virgil's tomta^ to TihvJt or T^scukmi U>JE'i^f^h^ior Yalhmhrosd, 
Iq these delightfurand instructive occupations^ days, weeks, and months 
gidm ftwjiy 1^'itb jmperceplible rapidity> and lU« .fei^ jajf|«^ b^iafisi^ViVNr 
IpJIQce to occur at intervals ace aearcely suCdcj^^ tP-givq lf» diii^nt )^ 
VellAf; time to collect his renikrl^ ai^d to eml)ady his feoolle^tiofl/s* }4l i^qi^ 
tberefox(§, who wishes to yisTt tlaly with full satisfaoliou ^)^d §^yaiA^i^ W- 
^ire> if possible, such an a^H^ijitaaoe with it§ ks|i|gi^9|B|^ fi9(^^ifl|>« ^ bif 
jpurney, that nothing may be wautio^ to complete hjs^ coi^ima^,Qf>i^jbi|$ 
practice and conversation. He that iraveUith kito.^ ffim^l^ t^|^ 4f 
hath some entrance into the language, goeth to school and not to travel^ 
says Bacon. 

ITALIAN HISTORY. 

iR ae. iiei&o1»fe6t^hieh otoiniB afrftMM j» t^ mmr^t»film9lffmm 
J t ow s leiMms ^fi^s tioton^belM, b^ 4lw^iSk&^il^B^ISmf^^ 
idl of <h# HdRiHii Einpfre. 

The republican part of Roman history is considered' (sis {Mfel^ elftflsIM, 
«ri as soeli ft'pre«snppoeed in tiie first porligrapii. Tlie|^e$<0» the teigns 
•futile first empfVM'B ai'e eootained in Sbdlonias^ T^i^^ miBmdlM^ 

* ' . . ' • • . " . 

v^x drthelMcfttbartfirian. Eren in tatHiproiaEf thclfrthc^ db v^ttMn lafraye snc^ei^eiji 
BwteP. ^h«r04» fl!»«vafs ftf> 9f»peaMd€e^r studf aB«iBoattraial4n tlk^ siyln very cHlfsMit 
iNfR HwaeWr iuMffeoKlovr. ^ ^ Jlal^an a^lMiv. The Mtteinviiy liflAro «illiw;piiMNl9«f| 
0|4;;MQ,t«rieaihe ctfrjt^«g«; JBooi^ni ^eii#rt4» urbisque. propria^ Uifqt^ nihil off^niH^»mi 
mspltcere, nihil ammadheHi postU, nihil tonare, atit dlere peregrinum^*^—{Cfcero di 
Or.) ■''"••-' 

^^n^^\liilv^9^^fKfu»:\ ... / ^ 

* That c^rftin style, pecbliar fo ttif Roman race, and tp tb« city of Bome, tn i^Meli notliiiis csn to 
MIflcted to, nothing can )diipl6Me, wMMr to aUtmai^erlii v^n, notbtof mate • forclsai««d/o( 
fl It w«re,a fmlgi^ llaToor, * 



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r cortiHli <^ aiyiasiiiS To]Qiae& mast of c^ 
llqhy vbile the Seriptires^ ^isioriw AmqwM \fill not be neglectied. i The 
Abpte UenkMfs History of the Resolutions of Italy., a work in great estima- 
tion, gives a very satisfactory view of the whote subject, including both an- 
cient and modem times. The two Sister Histories of Lorenzo and of Leo, 
hj Mr. Rosooe, contain a fhU jaud interesting account of one of the most im- 
portabt epochs that dccur in the annals of Italy ^' they .have long since at- 
tradied the attention of -every candid an^. reflecting mind, andneed^^not b^ 
reconunended to persons who {nean to visit the country which has been the 
lhjea6«ofthe events, anci the abode of the great men so^loquently recorded 
.In them. ' ; . 

BtEDALS. 

IV. Thooi^^ donpt mean to torn yoting travellers into profound anid* 
qa^urifesy yet I would have them at least skim over all the regions' of ancient 
levningk No spot in this extensive territory is 'either dreary or unproduc- 
llive.' HMals are intimiitely* connected with the history and the manners, 
trilbAe arts «nd even the taste.of the aodents. . 

• * . . And faithfid to ttieir charge of fame 
Throngli climes and agea bear eadi form and name. 
^ , InoneataortTiewysnbjectecrtooiir eye, 

Gods, eiiip*ror^ heroes, ^gea, beauties; li&. 

They'merittherefOMeonsiderable attention. Addison's Dialdgues, :mitten 
with the iBualfBlicity ofthatgraceftil author, deserve to' be recommended 
as a very proper introduction to' this amusing branch of knowledge. These 
dialogues have also, indepen;dently of their scientific merit, a very strong 
daimto the attention of the classical traveller, firom the numberless extracts 
from the ancients, and particularly the poets, introduced with art, and fre- 
qnentlf tUostratedwith degatnce. 

ARCHITECTURE. 

y. As Italy possesses some of the most perfect monuments of antiquity 
now remaining, res anfigiior lauAiret artts/ as wella^ the most splendid 
fppdnctions of modern genius in Architecture, Sculpture, and Pamtjuig, it 
is ahsolntely necessary to acquhre a general knowledge of the principles of 
^ese three ^Tjeat arts.' 

ISrith regard to Al>chitecture, Dean Aidrich's EUmUnU^ translated by Mr» 
Smyth of New GoUege, is a very clear and concise ti'eatise on the genefral 
principles, proportions, and terms of this art, and toi^y be recommended as 
a good work of the kind for the use of beginners. The five oid^s, a^ijcord- 
In^ fb Palladia's system, are explained in a little treatise, and illustrated ia 
a set of neat engravings by Ctfpriani. * StamozzVs Lives of the principal 
Architects; preceded by a dissertation on the art in general, is an useful and 
Very entertaining work. 

' But theman who wisW to have «ocnra(te idea^ and con4>rehaBsiTe notions 
on this subject, must not content himself with these nor indeed withany mo^ 

* ^ The glories of a^icient art . 

•■ nomalSOI. 



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dem CQflAposftions. He must haye rec^turse t6 the «9cient§-^fiv«nfa^ ^^ 
tom:ea7«o2tt«re|>ef artes*— Qiidin their writing and moiianienlBstadythelMSt 
models and thefairestspecimeas of architectaral beauty. RoUin's shprt trea- 
tise, in hi5 Appendix to his Ancient* History, enrich^ vAth tereral citations 
and dassical references, may serve as ^n introduction. I( is not, p|£rhaps, aU 
ways accurate, because written before an exactsurveydfseTeral ancient mona* 
ments had be^n made, bat it is perspicuous and interesting, and like aH th6 
vforks of that excellent author, admirably calculatedto awaken curiosity in the 
youthful mind; Stuart's Athens, a work of surpiri$|ng' exactness, presents to 
the eye, in onq groope, a collection of the noblest specimens Of Grecian ar^ 
and of Attic taste now existing.* In these matchless edifices, erected dtniiig' 
the most flourishing period pf Grecian architecture, the reader will discover 
thegenuineproportionsof the original Doric, the first and fevorite order of the 
Grecian architects; an order either siighjtly mentioned or totally omitted by 
modern artists, though it is supposed, dt least as employed in the Parthenon 
and the.t€fmple of Theseus, to unite al)ove all others, ornament with simpli* 
dty and beauty with solidity. Y^truirius must be perused or at least con- 
sulted, with the assistance of the Italian translation ^ad notes, to remove 
such difficulties as must invariably occur without some e^lanatioo.' 

Many works of greateK length and more detail might be recommended, 
but the fevif alluded to are sufficient, not indeed to perf^ an architect, but 
to form the taste of a young traveller. Besides, when the first principles 
are once known and the origiiial proportions well iinderstopd, ^ attentivti 
observer may improve h^ taste by comparing the best models of Greek antt 
Roman, of ancient and modem, architecture.* 

YI. We come in the next place io Sculptikre. Someacqlidntaiioe witb 
anatomy is a desirable preliminary to the kpowle^ of this art ; therefDve, 
be who wishes to form <»rrect notions of the statues, which he must neces- 
sarily exannne during his travels, woold do well tp attend a fiBw.aaaUMiiieal 
lectures previous io his departure from the Univei^ity. The best method of, 
acquiring a oor^eict and natural taste in scQljpiture is, vdthout doubt, to'iii* 
spect frequently the masterpieces of the art, to compare them with each 
other^ and to converse occasionally with the best in^med artiats* 

1 PAmTINa. 

yn. Du t^resnog's Art of Painting, and Sir Josbqa ReynoMsTs wdi 
known discourses, together vrith much observatiom and frequent conversa- 
tion with persons well versed in this ei^chanting art, may enabte attentive 
observers tp distmguish.the different schools, <U> observe the eharacteristic 
excellence of each great master, the* pf»culiar be<^uty of every celebrated 

« Who srac'd their age witti new-iavented arte.— i>ry(l0n. 

• Ifr. Wtlkins'f'magniAeent work, eatiUed, Ha^na Greeia, U, in «xecbtioi», aeouraej^ «4 
Interest, equal to any of the kind,' and cannot he too strongly recommended. 

^ VUruvio del GaUaiH.; Napoli, 

4 No art deaerres more aUentioa Aan architecture, hecanae do art ii ao ofteii called into 
tctioii, (ends so jnuch to tfae.6mbellUhment or contrihutes taore Io the repnUtioB of a oomi* 
try. It ought, therefore, at all eTcnta to occupy some portion of lin^e in a libettil educatto* 
Had such a method of inatroction as ttiat which is here recommended been aoi^tad a oetttarf 
ago, the atreeto of London, Oxford, and Cakahridgc, ifouid Bot preaeat so laaay thipalw 



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fWOBf nni^is^thm, VwAlhe m^milU9$ eeuhs^ Hie .dscrMJiiHiii; eye dl 

MUSIC. ; " " . ' . ' 

Viit. J^ Italr is a6lmowled|^e4 to be the first coontry in the world Cmp 
Music/ botb with regard to composition and.ii^cution, sometlung jperhapg 
oiay bt ^;i^cted on tb^t subject also. But, much as we may vakie umsk^ 
yet I Ihi^k that youog. travellers ought rather io be cautioned agaimt itf 
i^Uar^mi^di tban e:{{W)sed by [preparatory lessens to their (laf^erous ian 
Silence. ^ . . , 

Muiicln Jtaly ba^ lost itsstrenglb and its dignity ; it is Kule* oalcuiat^ 

. Mother to kindle ptriotisnror to inspire devotion; it doi^ nol^eall forlb i^ 

ebergieaofthe mindi nor aven touch tlie strings bf melanchofy. It tei^ 

•^kther by its effeminacy to bring dangerous passions into action, and iili^ 

Uie allegorical sfxeam pf antiquity, to onoian those who allow themselres to 

be bUrrieddowfi its tjceacherous current, piato would have forbidden such 

mosip, and hapisbed its jprpfessors from his republic ; at all events it neiljber 

V wants nor deserves xmm encoaragement, and we may at lea^t be allowed 

to caution the yodilikful traveller agaitist a taste that to(^ often leads to tow 

ind disbopour^ieconiiexions, 

" ^J3L I have pow^ pointed out the pre^ratory knowledge which. I tbiniii 
i^esitsry to all travellers who wish to derive ft om their lulian tour their 
filli diare of information and amusement. . I will next proceed, accordi^ 
to my plan, to point out such dispositions, is will xon tribute very matenallf 
to* this object, by removing prejudices, and leavulg the mind fully open to 
the impressions of experience and obftT^ftiofi- 

All the dispositions alluded to, are included in one shprt butcoippre- 
bcnnive wKfmmsif .aa unprjjiuiUBd ^mm4. ^fhts exedllent fuaMiy is the 
hbmU ef tiipfe and •bBerydtioB, of docttaiy and 'bea^volenee. II dd« IIOI 
Nipiire Uuufc «^ sfaanld be indiffek«tit to iW prosperity ef our ova ommtf 
^UM4d ittpre-remlnence; bnt, that we should sh^w some inckilgeBCtt t0 
tM «ribrar and some compaswui for the suffenngs of lass €iiFOored tut^km* 
Fir be H fram me^- to wish to repress that spirit of patriotism wliich ^itM 
iiM of4b4neiilest featares qf the national cbaracter, and st^l totber etvif 
idea of enoodntgiiig tbe tmleeliog sect, who conceal general indilfecdno^ 
under the- affectation of philanthropy, and sacrifice the feelings of the 
patriot,Ho the pretended benevolence of the philosopher. 

But attachment to our own country, and^ partiality to its reputation^ do 
iiMbbiige tt^ to (le^^ these iiatidns, 'which hating been ^6S tuniMed 
IHrIi the ptnhd^e of Glory^ are 'held by a series of dbastroHs i^volntklllil 
and inresistfble cicemnstances In a state of dependence and of iXHiseqaeni 
degrad(rtion, - On this contrary, tbe numberless evils and abuses vHiieil 
fesoit item davery and oppression, isaflnet but excite setiUments of eOMtiMi^ 
sion and .of Sympathy. ^ Scipio, when he beheld the flames 0/ Carthage 

Mi<)kis^ciited at mi esorrooqs expenoe, a» if desiened Ibr elenttl moiiiinitiitoot lh« epo- 
lence and of the bad taste Qf the British natioo. We should not se^ such a maitltiide of a hiiw i l 
edifices under the Dames of temples, ruins, etc. disgrace tb^ seeflery of Englaiid 89 -aucli 
MfislmfO ha^ foMlsaeis. ln,sbort, instead of allowingarcbHefsts to pursue novelly at tli< OK- 
p ss ia g 0t'i9iit^^9ud seak'fbr reptit^itloD by adaplatMis aodpreteDded inprovemeiila o| thate 
^fMi^um^'f.u meOiod wbicltbas oevec yet aucceeded^ their employers iKOuldtiUi^a them 
|s.adl«re tkmtir io tb« aadexua, and by adoptiog their ftuma and pnpootlona Io adotn fiaf* 
iMdiiilliaMlioUea^di^^fifaiaacQapdQfJldy..^ * ^ . 



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#en farhinii^iaii^ ' > . ^^ 

'• ^ - '- .■ .' 

Tet come it will, the day decreed by Fates, ; . 

^6w my heart trembles. \vhi!em^ tongue relates { 
^lie day when Thou, imperial Troy! irmst bend 
amd Me thr vaniora fall^ tiiy gtorio» ettd,-^/toi ti. 

BiBifli%tftfrMtTvM6i'0!!edV^st\¥ard : ^hen We'cotttemplifte the,dpiiA^ 
Mofts 6f Great Bk^ilgSii, and its wfde-eitemied ^wer, we itody withotft 

eesamptioto fmiiginfe that it now feoVefrs bvtr Great Britain ;lraf it is still (A. 
e wif]^; •i&^ whetlteir It be destined to retrace its steps to the East, or*t6' 
ooiltiniie its ISig'ht !6 '^aitsatlantic regiohsv (he days of England's glory hav^ 
their .number, and tft* period of her decHnfe vr'A at' length arrire. Tlfe 
iikhAliaMs of these islandi^ may, fike the sons of Gre^cte and 'BiilyV He 
|ArO!itr^ At the fofet of a victorious enemy, and dainl his cotoifeassioh as k. 
tribute dilite lo ifeegreathefes orf their ancesiors. Let rtis therefore ej[lend ottr 
llytiipathy to the nw enslaved olT^prin^ of iburj^redecessor^ in thecareelr 
^ glory, iof the forih^r lords of hdmiik Kir^j^-^ — -ierrce dolninttnrt^ 

'III fihe, lei hs <mt,enip1ate ^ tliffeVeht forms of woi^ij^ whieti ^re^M 
%l different parts of Ght*i$tenddtn, hoi with Hie acrimonious cohfenipt of k 
TMttto^4Wrti^d Sectary, but Tirith the compassionate ittdulgence of a mild 
ibd hmiible Ghti^iiaii. Let it be remembered that Englishmen are ir6- 
frtlbft^toed by forfei^rters with ihtoleranee, and ihat it biw$omes ihem to kbet> 
ti^ ^e tiamnal feplitaiioh i)P candor and good sehse, by eohciHaiory ^Hd 
Ibrbteftrikig €6ndtlcl. I do riot mean to recommtend either bompliahce wtllt 
jji^^etteeft Which they condemn, or indifference v6 ^ihal form dfChrlftiafiit)' 
Irhidi they havfeHdopled; but stil^ly every candid and consistertl Prdtiestaift 
^11 actmit, thattllfrisii^hiiy is excellent in all her fbrms ; that dl Cht'l^aia 
^tdblishiiiehts tetd^t the ^ame prhiirtivie IH*eeds', aiid aldiiiit th^ ^tiie inortll 
VMig^iHOiis; that H beciihiesra betoeVorent ^nd ch^iritable ihitid to eoiiskter 
^MitttlHr M %hat Ihey agfee, than in what they dfltdr; espeeiaiiy as the ferm^ 
iftsdtaii#6h, andtheiititercoihp^ratively so little; that while tife ^(HHt^^f 
€hHil|anity is like {Is divine author, immutable, its external 4bnh thay 
^Ahge -ii^ith the age and the climate, and, as public ot)iriioh atld author^jr 
^U difeet^ asmnhe oi* resign the pohip and the ciireimmtanbe of worfehij^ : 
th^i b^ettionies, in themselves imnieaning, signify juM a« ihnch as ihim 
Who ^ffi^loy xhehi' attach to th^m, and that Catholic as w^ll as Prot^stam; 
naiiodir niay be allowed to adopt in rdigioh a^ M^tll i^ Hi ci^ii Hfe, sheh 
IHi^itit aiid Hies as inay ^eem calculated to enstthEierd^i' tftid^st]iect;,lhiit 
%b€lli€fr (he Gospel be read itl the language atid acc<$^dirig to the ^mplb 
ftriM of the Church of England, under the Gothic vaults of Tork ait ttf 
ChtnterbtH-y ; or whether' it be chanted in Greek a'nd LaiFri^ ^ith kl\ ttie 
afHendot of the Roman riUial under the goldefi dome of the Tsfticaft ; it k 
alwayi JMd every ^^hetp, the same voice of tmih, the same Hdhigsi of salVll^ 
tion : in fine, ihat all Christians are marked on their entrance into life, with 

, ^ I Tk^ sodB of 4^at Iwd w^icli vm Ike «wr^<rf tlM worldf /: -. 

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4(. PWBUMIlfAaT DlflCOUBSBk 

IkeAnie teal of 9alyBtion;that all hope toreceiveaifthe^ncfaaristictalde 
the same pledge, of redem|>tion, and that all resign their souls in death to 
the same merciful Father/ with humble hopes of forgiveness through the 
tame gracious Redeemer. That there should be such an pniversaf. agree- 
ment in these great and mteresUng articles must be a subject of consolation, 
aond of pious sldmo wledgment to every benevolent mind. 

But I fear thdt Charity itself can, scarce look for a greater nnani^iity/ 
An agreement in all the details and consequences drawn by arguments 
IhKn first principles, is not ta be' expected in our present state, so chequered 
with light and.^hade, where knowledge is dealt oQt so unequally, ' and 
-where the opinions of even good and wise mcQ are so biassed by education, 
hj habit, and by prejudice. But if we have not knowledge enough to 
CQiocide in peculation, we may at least have charity enough to agree in 
practice, byireatjing each other's* opinions with tenderness | and, ia all, our 
differenciies and (Iscnssions, keeping in view that beautiful maxim inpulcated 
ij avjery learned, a very jealous, and a very benevolent father, Iniieees* 
$9ariis lenito^, iH dubiis liberiasi, in omnibiis chariias., * 

X. It is usual to take with us as guides on our journey certain works 
written for the purpo^,.and Addison's.Travels are generally recommended; 
and indeed his known taste and cliaracter, together with the avowed pur- 
pose of his journey, might have jui^ified the etpectation of a finished per- 
formance. But tt^ugb Addison had naturally an enlarged mind, humane 
feelings'; and a fancy teeming with imagery, yet prejudice had narrowed his 
extensive views,, religious acrimony had soured his temper, and. party spirit 
had repres^d his imagikiation. He gave tWefore to bn^ half of the nation 
what he owed te the whole; he considered principally how faa. might sup- 
port one party and* annoy the other; and he ran over, great part of Europe, 
particularly Italy, not to much a classic as a Whig traveller. In his eyes 
countries appeared fertile and happy, or barren and ihiserable, ''not as natiir^ 
iformed them, but as tJ[iey were connected with Prance or with England, as 
their religion was Protestant or Catholic- Hence, he dwells with ^ at least 
as mnqb complacency on the little miserable details of German and Italian 
SopersUtion, as on the interesting .remahis of Roman grandeur^ and fills with . 
the dreams of bigotry and the censures of intolerance, those pages ^hich 
ofight to have been devoted to the efliisions of classical enthusiasm, and 
shewed with the flowers of ancient poesy* * Prejudice or malevolence^ in 
ordinary writers, excites qeither surprise nor regret; the ignorance or the 
iollf of npediocrity can claim nothing more than contempt ; but the errors 
and the diefects of the wise and of the^ood awaken mori^ serious emotions; 
and while we justly lament the weakness of human najture, we are cautidned 
by soeb examples agamst the. indulgence/ of passions, which could imbitt^r 
the beneyolence and pervert the good sense of . the mild, the jijidiciods 
Addison, ^ticceeding. traviellers have improved on this author's delects, and 
loaded their pag^ with misrepresentation and invective : while, within the 
last ten years, some tourists have employed their journals as vehicles of 
revolutionary madn^, and instead of the laudfs Italia (the praises of 
ItalyJ, and the f<ortia facta pairum (the illustrious deeds of the ancients), 
have, given the public elabbr^te panegyrics on the French generals^ and 
acconnts of their achieven^ents as exaggerated as tkek own dispatches.*, 

I Id aU necessary things unity, in doti|>tfiil matters liberty, in ev^ thing charily. 
• Vide seven pages devoted to 3t Anthony's Sermon to the Fish, in Italian and EngHsbw 
» Tbebest gnidoor mlher conptalQil whicUthe travioltor can take widi him, Is corUme 



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PJitELIHINARY DUSbOtTRSE. ft 

Tq conclade this tof>ic^--an attentive traveller -adler hsmag ^nired tl^ 
ppcpfuratory knowledge recommended in the preceding pages, may safely 
PiBly on his own diligence, aided by the observations of ^e intelligent inha- 
bitants^ and by the maps and guides to be procured in every great town* 
Books, thoagh necessary, are an incumbrance which never fails to increase as 
we advance ; we ought therefore J« confine ourselves to the classics, if possible, 
and even then we shall find piir library sufficiently nilmprous and balky.' 

' XI. Maps form an indispensable part of a traveller's furnilure. At set- 
ting out^ two will be sufficient : one of Ancient, on? of Modern Italy, Of 
the former D'AnviUe's is the best; of the latter, an excellent one, extremely 
beautiful in the execution, and upon a scale large enough for information, 
without being burthensome, has be^n published by'Zonnoiii. As the tra- 
veller advances, he must enrich his collection, attd procure in its principal 
town the map of «ach province or division. At Milan, he will find sepa- 
rate maps of Ihe^ lakes and the various regions^ of the Milanese. At Mantua^ 
a beautiful, correct, but! believe scarce map* of tiiat city and its vicinity, 
should be enijuired for. At Bplogm may be had the exceUent maps of the 
Roman, territory by Fatiier BoscirHch. . At Rome may be purchased a map 
of the patrimony of St. Peter, ai^ one of Latium. . These I recommend, as 
they give thct ancient and inodern names of each town and territory, ^^^^ 
the game lime mark' the ancient roads, aqueducts, and ruins. 'The great a^ 
beautiful map of Rome must not be neglected, though if it should be deemed 
loo expensive and bulky, there are two others of a smallerandmore convenient 
size. The be8t,mapof thekfngdom of Naples is in foiir sheets, weU prin^, 
and S9id to be very accurate, by Zmnmii. There are moreover, three 
maps of Naples and its neighborhood, of the bay and its islands, of exqui- 
site beauty in execution and ornament. Th^se of coiirse cverr traveller 
will pnrchase.' 

/ ROUTE. 

XII. We are now to speak of- the time requisite to make a foil and <?ora- 
pfcte tour of Italy, as well as of the seasop best adapted to the con^nence- 
ment of such a tour. A year, I thmk, is the shortest spAce that ought to 
be allotted, and a yea^ and a half or even twp years might be well devoted , 
to this useful and amusing part of our travels. The want ^f leisure is the 
wly objection that can be made to this arrangement, but it is an obj^iqn 
seldom well grounded, as youth in general from pineteen to three or four- 
and-^weniy, have more time than business, and seem much more frequeiltl}' 
at a losis for ocfcupatton than fqr felsure. ^Occupation, necesisary i^tjAl sea- 
sons, but particularly in youth, should be fiirnished, and no Occupation can 
suit that age when the mii^d is restless and the l^ody active, better than trar 
vdling. Moreover, every man of observation who has made a iJursory visit 

fiu t'ltaHe, a work of singnlar iogennity and «loqiiente. In it Madame # Staililots ample 
}astice to the Italiaa character ; though a Protestant she speaks of the rdlgion.'of Ualy, with 
reyerence, and treaty even superstition Iteelf wiih indulgence. §he descrilMBS the climate, 
the beauties, the monuments of that pririleged cenntfy with glowing animation, Musaio 
eonUngen* cunjcfa lepore (ornanienting erery thing wjtb a pdetic graced *he raised the 
reader abore the common level of thought, and inspires him with that lofty temper oLmind, 
wHbouC which we can neither discover nor relish the great and the beautify hi art or Ui 
nature. , / 

I Maps on the siime scale, andef the same beauty, of all the provinces of the Neapolitaii 
territory, have, I believe, been ihMiepnblfsfai^. > 



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lalttfy^ viV.ftid'tetJi «rst>!i«ir of tet oecutr^ baswerdlf jplalified Um 
Id ttuit Vieoond yi^ "witfa Hiore.advaiiUge, and will perhaps Ibof the ^mr«* 
ings «f jmsatisfied (xiriosity, Ihe vts^ndi stvcfivm/ at a time when traTelliog 
may beisconsiateDiwith the^ares and the duties of life. It is more pro^ 
4«i^ ttoreforeytosei^e tiKi&stopportamty, and by then allotting asnfficieqf 
poMienof tee to the tour, gratify bWelf with a full and, perCeot view 1^ 
ever, fitalppoaing therefore that a year and a half is to be devoted to tUi 
paitnf the joomef , I advise the traveller to pass the Aips early in the an- 
tfetin,4kiis tf> avoM the Inconvenienee of travelling- in wmter or c(rfd wW 
tfaer^ «■ inobiivieniieiiee always, felt oi^ the jContinent^ where ready 4iret| 
wann looms, ^ooffs and windows that exclude the air, are aeldpm founds 
His route to ihit jLips may be «s follows. He may first proceed to j^rvf- 
$el^, tiJiBnee W Lkiffe^ Sp^i, AiX'ta-Chapelle, Cologne, Bonn, and iUmg th^ 
hanka of the JUtoie to vitienHy Mwti, and Str0slmr^; there cross, ii^Rhing 
to JlftuiKeim, iniyene the Palatinate, the territories of WMmlnti^ Bt^ 
vwrm^ luld iSa2to6«fl9(, eiAer tKe defiles of the T^rol or RheUm 4^$^ an4 
ftoitig through fn^iMft and Treiit iwn to Bc^sikm and to Maestife^ wheaea 
hie may 'Settd his earrii^ by land toPodiMi^. and embark fi^r Vem^^ from 
Wevktt he may go Iqr ^ater up the Bret^ta to Padua.* wtiei«.ii^ ^y estath 
Kfih hia head luarten, and visit Arqwky the Monti Eugniui, and thenee paai 
Onwarda ta Fermra and iro%na;,then follow the Fta EmiUa to. ForH» 
IhcfiUM proceed to Ravtmukwid Bin^mi,, make aii excursion to Sm Marine 
^4 advmuce inrvrard la Ancona^ whence he may visit (kma^ He wiU tfaeii 
obtftinne Us journey by Ijotelto and Maceraia to TolenUM^i thence over the 
il^ninat by foligka, ^oleto, md Ternk ^d so foUow the direct r^ 
^ogh Cirilfi CJosti^nmia to Rome. 

I auppoaa that a traveller passes ihd Alps }rk September; of course ^ 
should reach Rome by the end of November, l calculate .ten or fi(te^ 
days delay on account of Uie autumnal rains ; for it is advisable by all meana 
to slop at som^ large town during that period of \nundation. These au- 
tumnal rains take place sometimes in September, though they frequently fall 
at a latcf period. At any rate, I would by no means Advise a traveler to 
pa^ the Apennines J or visit any territory supposed to Ue npder the MuenMI 
df the maldria, till these salubrious showers have purified the air and (tir 
(ayecl thenoi^tons vapours that ho\er over the Pomptim marshes^ tfefc CaMA- 
pa^na di R6ma^ and some other low tracts, cluring the latter wefeks «f 
tmojttnefand tiie beginning x>t autumn i ih^ air of Venice itself id aappoMll 
pf many pertohs not to b^ quite exempt fh)m this ihconvtoience. 

iThe traveller will devGfte the month of December to the (irst l9ont«ib^ 
Qoti of Roilie, and the corisideratWn of its most striking tieautiea. H^ will 
tticn do well to proceed' to Naples, where the months of Jatinary, Febmarf!^ 
laid (If Easter be In April) of March, will be delightfully employed in ife- 
Aing Ibe'ifombeifess beauties that lie in that neighborhood^ and alqng Um 
aforted shores of Magna Grecia. At all events, the traveller must so time 
bfa r^oni aa to be at Rome the week before Easter, in order to be piresent 
at the oeremotties that are performed in the Sixtine Chapel^ and m St^ Po^ 
t^r's, before aitd during that festival. • 

lihe months of April, May, and Jnne will not .ap>)ear long, wheti passed 
in a leisnrely snrvey of (he remains of ancient magnificence and the study 
Of Ihe greatmodelfl of modern art, and when enliyened by frequeptexGW*' 
fi(m to Tibur^ OsHtty Antium, Mount Soraete, PrmiesUf wndihp^SdMm^ 

' The desire orcfipeatiaa bit vjaifc. 



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Tbe 4fti|» M<mi. wkltftU ^4ummH (WHif) apd 4iid (gnlfm^ 
BUy Jte ceseTYed for 4he hoi in^Uis of July and Augtisl; Uiere be may mUf 
eMdiak ittQiself in some ^in, whose co<»l.reirei|tfl win affimod him shiMh 
«m1 refrmhBKsnt diuriiis ib<t oppress^Ye heato of. the season* 

In ihie ooBTse of September, or ralfaer when the tulumnal raias have fidi« 
fMi k wil he iwm to turn towards Ftoreiies. The first oliieet which shgaU 
daioLtibe attention of the travBller in the neighborhood oflhir city is VmA^ 
lom^r«s«u beeause Hs eioYated situatldnr renders k diffioult of access at m 
early period of aaiiunn. The first opportoniiy thereforepaust berakhraOMt, 
9Qd (he ext^qrsion, if the weather be favoarahle, ^ntinued to CamaUMi and 
Xm F^ia, IWQ other oelebrated and highly romantic solitiMkn» The witt|a» 
may ibe diYided very agreeably beiwean F/oran^eand the other Juasms 
aiiies. 

In ^ banning tf February the trJireUer may passihe j^innutinat 4n 
JMeiia^'Parma» Pkufevtia, Ledi, €n$mimu, H^niua* and Verona, aUowing 
foor days or a week to eacli town and its neigi>borhood. From*Farona.te 
win visit Pes^hkra and the Lago di Gurtkt {Bemrnksl; thesee direct hii 
coarse by Brescia and Bergamo to Milan. From MOan^ bo wtU make thi 
eelebrated lakes Coaio and Magtfiore objects of attention^ and thenoe shape 
his course hyfercelU, and Jor^a, to Qemm. He wiUthen tak€| the roatt 
of the maritime A^$ by Suvoiia to iVica, after which he wili torn inlaml i0 
TvriH. Mount C^is, the tenmnation of his Italian toor/iben fiiaeft hefovn 
him in distant perspective. . ^ . 

If, while at Napies, he find it safe or practieable to |>enetrate' into thn 
aontherii provinces of Cala^ia and A^ia, be will ooi neglect the oppor«* 
tHfiiiy ; and, withthe addittoo of that eicurston, by lollowihg the road whicb 
I have traoed^ out,' be will l^ve seen ^very town ^ note^ and indeed every 
remarkable ^ilain, bill, or mounuia in Italy, and become mtimately ae*^ 
qnainted with the nnmberleas beaut«8a and potioaities ol that most intaaaiW 
mf country. But tf he should not have so much time at hts disposal^ he may 
retrench the first pari olf the tour, proceed direct, to SwiUterlaiii, pass tbi 
Alps by ld(oimt^^ Goihatd ^r. Setnpiwie, and d'esoending directly to i>omo 
I^Ouola visit thelakeSf and proceed firom Como to Milm, Brestiat Vetmik 
Ykenm, Padua, Yemee, and -returning agaia by Padua ^nd Fli^aa torn to 
MoHiuaf^.Pkuienza, Parma, Modena, BoJogna, along the Adriatic as above^ 
He-will moreover abridge the time deyoled to Naples and Rome, pkhk thA 
aHmmer in TuMany, go by sea from ieqkam m* Carrwr^ to Geti^a^ and pam 
titenee hy the Bo€cMi^ direct to Turin. The visit to the ^kes ought U^ ho 
so timed as lo avoid the equinoctial isinnda^ extremely dangorons^ beisaiiai 
very sodden and very boisterous; so that it is not Uncommou in these seasons 
to see the lakes pass, in the sl^rt i|)a^ of iwlf an hour, from a state of perfect 
calm to the most tremendous agitation. 

Xllt The great roads in Italy are good, the t»eiU veU fhinifhed ^th 
hmaws,. and cobbi^iei not oomtnon; travelling is therefoife, in geBeittl4 sak 
And expeditions. The principal, and indeed almost th&<mly bicon^f nieiaetoa» 
ariae from the equinoctial rains and the summer beats* The influenoenf 
hoih is Itit over all Italy ^ that oT the former is pariicnlarly ineodvenienit asi 
even sometimes dangerous, espedaily in ihe northern provijaees^nd aloof 
the eastem<oo«st« - The istmi^se number of considerable rivers, suoh «a Iha 
rofiaro, the Tmm. the BwrnMii the ^ddo. etc. that pour their tribtttarf 
waters into.thePo, whiio with it they contribute so larg^ to the luiuffiaiua| 
«idJ)e«ilv ^ the plaiaa through which they.^^^ yei^ nrhem swelled widt 



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It imBSyiklNAKV <>ISGO(JRdE. 

ooiitiiitied rains, Iflue it they overflow, tiieir banks and inundate die levd 
surface^^of the siirr(tancling country. On the^ occasions the roads are co- 
vered, with mad, the ford^ rendered impas^ame, bridges not unfrequently 
^wept away, and the<;ommunicatio!h between different towns and provinces 
entirely suspended, r^or do these inundations always subside as s6on as 
Blight be expected fhonii the general heat and dryness of the cjitnate; their 
pernicious effects are ^metimes felt for months afterwards, and I recollect 
to havie myself observed in March 4802,. in the neighborhood of Mantu^, or. 
/r^their abopt ten mile^ lower down, between the Jfincto and the Po, Vast 
sheets of water, and whole fields ihimerged, the 'effects of an inundation 
some months before. Yirgii, whose farm bordered upon the Minciiis, 
seems to have had a particular apprehtosion of the consequences of inunda- 
tion^,. if ^e may judge fron^ the accurate details which he gives of the signs 
•f-approaching ram, and the picture which he draws of their disastrous con(- 
sequences. The traveller therefore, \fho'may be surprised by these perio- 
dical showers, if in compliance with the advice given above, he establish 
^imself in the first' commodious inn, will not find such accidental delays 
either useless or unpleasant. 

But to return to the principal object of thi^ paragraph. ' Though the sun 
in Italy has, even in the cooler seasons, a sufficient degree of Warmth to in- 
commode a foreigner, yetthe heat can scarceFy be considered as an obstacle 
to travelling, except in the months of July and^ August; then indeed it is in- 
tense, and it is imprudent in the traveller to expose himself to^the beamls of 
the sun for any time ; though Englishmen frequently seem insensible of the 
danger,' and brave alike the rigours of a Russian winter and the heats of an 
Italian or even of an Egyptian summer. Fevers and untipiely deaths are 
sometimes the consequences of this rashness, and more than One traveler 
has had re^n to regret his imprudence. To avoid' these dangers, persons 
who are obliged to travel during the hot months generally prdceed by nigh t, 
atfd repose during the sultry hours of the day. By th|s method, withoul: 
doubt, they guard sufQciently against theinconveniei^cies and dangers of the 
weather, but at the same tiine they sacrifice one of the principal objects, tbe 
scenery of the country ; and this sacrifice in Italy can, in my-opinion, be 
ooftipensated by no advantages. , The best method, therefore, is to set out a 
fhll hour before sun-rise, to stop at ten, and repose till five^.then travel as 
d^y light will permit : by this arrangement of time the traveller will enjoy 
the prospect of the country, the freshness of the morning, and the coolness 
of the evening, aund devote to rest those hours only which heat renders unfit 
for any purpose of excursion or of ehjoyment. - 

AGCOBOfODA'nONS. 

A few words npotL the inns and accommodations in Italy will be sufficient! 
An English traveller must, the very instant he embarks for the Gontineqt, 
resign many of the comforts and conveniencies which he enjoys at home, and 
which he does not sufficiently prize, because he is seldom ih the way of learn- 
ing^ their value by privation. Great will be his' disappointment if, on his 
arrival, he expects a warm room, a newspaper, and a well stored larder. 
These advantages are common enough at home, but they are not to be found 
in any inn 'on the Continent, not even Dessennes at Calais or the Maison 
Rouge at Frankfort. But tliKe prineipal and most offensive defect abroad is 
the want of deaiUiaess, % defect in a greater or lesser degree eoounoa to All 



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IMTte of theComia^t. InZtaly, to'wlHch tbese obsemtiMi .Ikre cenfiii^; 
the little country inns are dirty, l)ut>the greater inns, ptirticalarly in Rtme^ 
Naples, Florence, and Vtmeej 9j[t good, and in genleral the \m\k is clean, 
and the beds are excellent. As for diet^ in country towns^the travelled 
will find plenty of provisions, ihotigh sddom prepared accordihg to his taste. 
But, ^Ml faut hied/*, says Mr. d^ la Lande, ^^rhchei^'pat ^Ique 6hme 
ties agrimens de V Unite" ' ' 

TlUs rej^resentation of Italian accommodations^ which, it is. hoped, will be 
found on experience tolerably Accurate, is not On the wh<^e discouraging, 
and oo^ traveller may commence his joiimey witliOut the apprehension of an^ 
viqff ^ipus' or distressing inconvei^ence; He who can content himself 
with plain Tood and a,. good bed, lyill'find abundant con^p^isation fo^ th^ 
ahs^ioe of thie supernumerary pl^snres of accommbdatipn, in tJiiLe iQdnl- 
genpe of rational curiosity^ and the aequisitioa of knowledge*. Hie-dassicai 
reader will console himself in the assurance that aceommodatipns'iif the 
worst Italian inos at present, are far better than what they seem to have beeo 
in Horace's time^ at least,!if we may« be allowed to form conjectures about 
the state of inns in general from that of Beueteniwn in particular. 
• The<inconvenienoe| of which the poet complains at Trevieus is at present 
v^iy general alt the inns botl^ of Frai^ce find Italy, where the shivering tr»» 
vdler finds himself^ if he happens to .travel in cold weather, like Horace, often 
aAered into a, damp rbom^ and placed before a newly lighted fire, diffusing 
a half smothered flamej, lacf^moso non sine /vnio. > 

OBJECTS OF ATTENTION. 

. XIV. It may not bc^ deemed superfluous to enumerate t\^e principal objects 
which deserve a traveller's attention^ and to point out, at the same time, the 
best method of satisfying his cariosity. The n^anne.rs, customs, and opinions^ 
together with the different lights which religion, government, and cliomte, 
throw upon the characters of nations and individuals, without doubt, date 
our first attention. To converse with the natives of the, country,' to fi'e^ 
quent publid assemblies and , courts, and, on the other hand, to t^kes^Ar ocetto' 
sional range through the humble walks of life, is the proper method of aer 
quirtng this useful ijtiformation. Introduction to the higher class in Itlily is 
not very difficult ; they meet in evening parties, either' at^particuLar houses^ 
whece such assemblies, are called cornier sazumi;ot at the costiio, a sortpf 
Ikshionable club ^tablished in most towns iii Italy. A letter of introduQr 
tion to any person, of rank will open all such £»sembUes to a stranger. Bu|' 
the traveller, who Really wishes to kno^if the manners of the itidian geotry^ 
must endeavour to penetrate into the interior of society, ai^d form aqqu^oiit 
tance with Some, of the principal characters in each ^own, particulady if 
there be any among them of literary reputation. Nor would this be, a 
difficult, taak, if we went to Italy better versed in its languid ; and if we 
devoted more time to the cultivation of oUr acquaintspee there. This f^ri^ ^ 
Tate sodcHy, if it be select, and I recommend no other, is, I tititnk for very 
obvious reasons, far preferable to larger ckeles. 'it 

But^ while speaking of society, I tlnnk i t necessary to make an observatiopi 
thie propriety of which must strike every reader, because it is feuoded jxgt^ 

•> done pttee mast be paid for the pleasures aod advantages of Italf . j ' * 

• Which with a smoky sorrow fills the eyes.->J^a4Mt4^ . . /,(;| 

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^'HlMlg* wUrii hit takeiri»l«ce iaHie (li^er elaMB^ oi^tiie^dMlMtf 
dariiig the h»t ten years. The cdq^t of VersmlUs waft formerly ipoMideMd 
91 the most peKshed court in the vorld, aadihe state of s(^ietjr at Park^as 
ifiA as at Rome and TwHn, was supiposeii to have reached a Tevy bi^ 
dtiga^ ef refinement. Tbe priticipal object of trvrettin^ then wa» to ac^ 
qmsBj In so^fe aeepmpHshed soeiety^ that ease and those graces nrhklh eon- 
.stitote the perfection of good breedinjg, and which w^re seldom^ i^waa Hien 
teioied^ 10 h9 (Msaeycoed in the mMitiers of a hom^-breilEiif Mshniatf: How 
flr. tMs <^ion was true il is notmy intemiQii to examine, \Mt it was.v^ 
)(eiieiatl(f aitettted, Md wL oon^aeneb no- yoaiig man of rank was iieimisi 
^nafified to make an advanlageoaff erilranee ih^ t^e xi^cirid^ till, hr^ tmi^ 
aidemhift imdiBiw in the capitals mentioned ^bove, he- hid worn off 
860K(whai e# the native rasf^^^ of the Briton. fiiHtthe caise^ k vei>y dif> 
feMHitat pt^isept The FfemHk Herniation baa beea as fatal to tlie manMtfl 
aa*to<lh8 morals ^ nations $ it has eorrapted the one and ^^ruiktiieA th'e 
dllher. It i»nofr to soeiety in saei^'a state thai h0 1t$ to look for knpFO^e^ 
Itnat^ tt^indeedls siMlh improTement dlher the sole^r the priQdpbt raeti^ 
of travenin^ Ht ppegsat, nor i^ it necessary tc^ wander over the Cbntinent hi 
^diest df 'SfC^mpti8hRieAt&. London, that has loag been the fir^t eSkf in Ehi- 
TO[ie for popnkrtion, ^extent, and'Opcd#neey ia now also.cQiifti»sedly fte KM 
li» point ^ society, and the capital fit the petite and^ feshienable^ aa H ha6 . 
ti^ been of the eonmief^iai world. Ttie first eiaas ef ita-soeiety^ the moA 
numerous of that descriptid».|hat' has ever been imilfid ki mf pmt eity^^ 
confipreliends all the advantages of title, of fortune, and oMnfohnation. I 
doiiot. hereby mean to depreciate ccmiinental aaciety or represent it as 
useless, but I wish to point out to the reader the change .th^t ha^ taken 
flifip, anil to gandon him a^nst esxpeetii^g t)rom*ll»retgn soeihty/ In^ its 
^iesent sCatBy Ml theadi^tnUiges whick wers fovme'riy supposed t^ he dv- 
lived fnomiti 

TfaiieahifBcl natmidty leads to a qn^stiqp which^ I believe,Jft generaHt 
■alTied father Irom habMand prejudice than reasxHi. Are we, as Baiaon sivya, 
'^to se^e^ter ourselves- ft-om the company of oof coantrymen ''* white 
li^nMidi^ ep may we be allowed sometimes to associate- with them? Tlie 
answer-t^thtoqaqstion skoaldbe drawn from principtei^ of^neralov rartSia* 
Airable QtiMty. The okg^et of ^tl otur ivavels, studies, &aii pnvaoft$^ is, or 
09^ to hO) penn^aneni advantage. We dd not, dotibtleas, tiravel te Fraaee 
jSt t% Italy f&see EnffHshmen, but yet. we^'trave) for' impmfement and f&t 
itmnsemei^: (md whatever soeiety contributes to eitlier,onghtta be Oiilti«»- 
led with air assiduity proportionate) its advantages. The trateMnr, Hheie- 
fiire^ nighlhy all means to proeo^ef an introduction to the best company of 
the 0fetii towhs thr^ngh which ti^ may pasa^ and at the same timeHtf nia)r 
Ifeeeme aoqavinted wiih such English gentleiiien ^s may chanee to^he hith^ 
lame pAace* Such an ae^aimaiiee snp^r<4ndirc»8 no oMIgntioia^ ia may ie 
Mtivated erdrepl^aft pleasure | hut the tnal ought to be hiade^ lindif ex^ 
polenee maf be> credited^ thereader may be assured, that ^oaaual aefaaift^ 
Inee not miwequemty ripens into setited and perAianeitt Ii»lend4iif|u €tmh 
tinental connexions in general are of- a very diffiereni nattnref Imwikini 
i l g t cea bte, they arecenlr9eted'only<for the occasion, andc»ui9t beeesppaned, 
ftrgeneri^, strong enough to resist the influence el absenee. itonriiBV ^ahy 
should we voluntarily r^ect one of the greatest advantages of travelling, an 
q>portunity of seleeting/riepids, andformtngsincere and dnrahta aMJXfbiwanta? 
fOFf as Ovid obsemsiir Bome beantiftil Noes, tiiere is^f)etiratronger.bond tbaii 



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itaiti^Wft.ift ftnnec(4>y a particifiatimi eil^ sciiOtitit&Biitid^e^itm'f^^ 

Thft^m^raliftce of the <sdantry^ so^conspicaoDsly l^ntiAil «tt onerttidy^ 
]Mflt&fn()m,thi& curcarastanceaUnie pebnliar aueiijdon,^ and vfbm to iUftot 
inmeae feainrai we.add tho^ chanuft, less* real Init .moee •yhyi*jyig^ 
which. Fancy .ahedft over iU soeaory, ^Yt& giT«.il aa imautible.inlttlieafr th^l 
m^ffflf alt' tiue (Mings of ti»^ doMieymth. 6nr earif stodii^ aa.GaWlon 
jually oliaepm^ allow, as to ^jopatbize in the. feeliag^ oC a IUwmil; . and <hm| 
ipiigiilidiBOBtaay QCevecy'^oolihoy nolLin8eiKihletothesweilM)thi»fiitt 
g|idfe8» Ibatf he becomes in feeling! and* septiments, peshaps eMs iyi laiit> 
fiage^ a Roman* It i^jiotthen wdnderfol, that when in a riper-«g» hf 
lints tha^jQomitry aid.hefaokds those^wtiy scenes which he kp inoagined t# 
UmseKsOi'loiigtbjefiDre, heshouhi feeli an uncommon gH>w off enlhnsiasrip^ 
md uft the moment of endbantment^ should add some imagiiiery luhthelr 
mtBf real ohanii& Besides, theseenfMsy ofltaly is trply itelsyal ; Inepi^ 
it is such as deknbed by po6te and histaiians* Eaiihquidcei^ tl|e oblf 
speeies of revoldtion that can permanently alter the great features of nature, 

> ' « Te dace, nia^ifiea8A3iaipQr«^ximn8 Drills.:, 

Trinacris est oculis.^te duce, nota njeis. 
Tldlmus jfitnsa cGBluin splebdescere fldmma 
;&ip|MMita8 iHontl (|utDi.ftMnit.ottfgfgtfL: 
H^noaeosque lacua, et olentia sfay^na P/Kiie^ 

Quaque suisCyanen mlscet Anapus a(|^iSt •....• «' 
* 'lif quota pars'hxc sunt rerum.quasvjfdimusamlX)^ 

XemthljacDnfUaeCBcieDte viaa! *^ 
^ . S<aiiratecaBrul<»8,plc(a6nica«inimQ«dM.< 

^Esseda'nos agili sive tBlere rota. 
Sspe brevis nobis Ticibus Tia visa loquendi ;, 

Pluraque, si nnmeres^ verba fnei-e grada. ' ' ' . • 

affip&dje$ sermone mino^ fait; Inqne loqoen^m '^ 
. Tarda per actstivos defait bora d^. 
Est aliquid jQasus padter timuisse maiinos ; 

' Junciaque ad xquoreos vota Itulisse ikos : 
'BBC tibi 8i aobeant (absira liaet) omnihiVboria 
i^le tnetioculoft nt m^dp.vjam. ero. 

With thee, tlie iplendld to^na on Asla'astrand, 
w:ith thee I Yiew^d l$iciHa*s bftoomiA^ land I 
. We saw the skies iiluiu'd with jvolum'd firea, . 
Which from his mouth Bncelac^us expires; 
!nie doll Palician lake, the'streams iltat lave 
Fair Henna's fieildfl, and wfaere^Aoapot' waid 
Joins thy puro.^fyaterst Ciyaof ....«..; 
More scenes than the^e together we snrveyM^ 
And light by thee was ev'ry journey n^ade, 

Whretberhy ieaweurgtdtbepaiatcfdkeel. ' ' . ' 

.Or prest by land the toUing cbaciot 8 wieai; 
S{)ort'seeni.*d the way, a? friendly talk, we hel^;, 
dta swiftecwbrds our rapid steps excell'd. 
Too shorbtlu! IdnRestdays of ^Rfmer pford. 

Time flew so Quickly in thy converse loy'di: . ' > ' 

Jointly the dangers of, old 0^9li'8 reign 
We brav*d, and to the Gods that rule the main. 

Paid ou^Joini vovvff ^h«ii,'8af^q9 land afttiiVf ' ' \ 
Think but of these, and abseo^ though faie bc^ . 
Thy fricndlvminhlea lire with thee. ■ 



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lipvever oommcm they laiiy be' thfeflre, have, if ve.eiceept a few .places in the 
neighborhood of Naples, and some distant part^ of the coasts of- Caldbtiaf 
made ui the whole bat little alteration. Even wars, invasions, ai|d the c|e- 
va^tation of eighteen dentaries have not jet eradicated those local ornaments 
that arise either from t^ie tendency of the soil or frotn the persevering at- 
tention of the infaabitadts. The Sylaris is ^till shaded vrith. groi^^ and 
thickets ; the' rose of Fce,rtum^ thoogh neglected, still blieoma twice, a jeatj 
id ^oiteiU sweetness on the desert air ; whiles Mount AlbehMti stiU glinries 
in the il^x.an^ in the never-dding verdure of his lofty forests. 

Btft'ndt to anticipate various observs^ons that willoccnr, each in its pro^ 
per plstce^ one advantage^ at all events, the face of nature jK^ssesses in Italy,, 
which is, that it seldopn or neyer disappoints the traveller, or falls shoh of 
his expectations, hqhvever high they may ha^re been previoosly raised; <^ 
the boRtrary, if I may form any opinion of the i^entiments of foreigners in 
general' by.my.own and by thbfiie^of my fellow travellers, the lakes,, the vale 
of the Clitwnnus, the fell'of the AniOj the shanks of the Nnr, the waters 
oT Tibwr, the groves of AlbanOy and Iji^ plains, the hills, the Roasts,* the 
bays of Campima Eeiix^ not only equal bat even surpass the descriptions 
of the poets, and the bright pictures of youthful imagination. 

RUINS. 

The same observation cannot be applied to niins, which, however inte- 
resting they may be, seldom answer expectation. When we read or hear 
of Roman ruins we figure to oursdlve^ a vast scene of broken columns, shat* 
tered cornices, Qiutilated statues, han^hg arches, and interrupted colon- ' 
nades. > Such a ntiagnificent scene of desolation may indeed be seen atPc?^- 
iwn, Agriqentuna, and Seiinus ; and such also is occasionally presented on the 
Seven Hills, in the majestic remains of the ancie)it City.* But these grand 
objects are rare; for, if to the exceptions just mentioned, we add the temple 
of Twoli, the amphitheatre Jand gates of Verma, and two or three triumphal 
ar6hes, we shall find little more than tottering walls and maslses of brick. 
KuiBs, till the revival of taste in the fifteenth century, were considered as 
quarries furnishing materials tp those who chose to ebiploy them; and un- 
fortunately many did employ them with little or no regard to their ancient 
fame, their costly Workmanship, or their fair proportions. When Belisarius 
turned the tottih of Adrian intoa fortress, he paid little attention to the mas- 
terpieces of sculpture that adorned its. circumference, and it is said that on 
that occasion the sleeping Faun pleaded in vain the beliilty of his limbs and 
the grace of his altitude. Whatever obstructed (he machinery was tumbled 
to the ground; whatever was fit for defence was worked, into the rampart. 
In short, first war, then convenience, and lastly, taste itself directed by self- 
love, destroyed or defaced the works of andient art, and either left no marks 
of their existence behind, or reduced them to -a mere dislocated skeleton. 
The traveller therefore must not be sanguine in his expectations of satisfac- 
tion from thfs first appearance of ruins in general, but content himself with 
the certainty of finding, amid numberless uninteresting masses that bear 
that name, some few beautiful specimens, as well as some grand monuments 
of Roman magnificence. ' 

CHURCHES. 

Modern edifices next claim our attention, and among them the pijncipal 
are chnrches, particularly cathedrals. Many ol the latter are indeed very 



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l^feELlMlNARV DiaCOtJASE. it 

noble piles, and either ext^rnaltyor internally present striking instances of 
archiieetaral beauty. Even where therje is no xJi^lay of arckitect^re, thend i$ 
generally a riciiness of matierials,aprofusion of marble, and notanfrequenlly,. 
a loxuriancy of sculpture and painting that dellglits and surprises. \,\ie trans- 
alpine spectator. There is also in every catiiedral a chapel, of the Hjjfly Sa«' 
cpamcnt, which is Almost universally of ^exquisite workmanship and Df splen- 
did derations. Some indeed are perfect masterpieces of proportion, sym*-' 
metry, and elegance. ] .... : ^ * 

I have hinted above, that few churches present a^i exterior and interior 
equally finished ; in reality one-half of the great churches in Itafy are left iif* 
a very imperfect state with regard to the outside ; the fact is singular, ))iij^ 
the reason, obvious. At the testoration oC the arts, a suddea enthusiasm' 
seized all Italy ; princes, bishops, noblemen, entered the'lists of taste with> 
ardor ; each longed lo signalize himself and immortalize. his n^fne by some^ 
superb fabric, and rival cathedrals, palaces, and villas rose on alludes, .^jof^ 
their means were not always adequate to their grand uftdertaki^igW , Some 
edifices were finished, some entirely neglected, ajid.many havt^l^eeo.. conti- 
nued with- slow, parsimonious patience down to the preseiat jp^ri^d. The 
nobility of Vtcenza are said to feel even at present the conse^tiences of their 
forefathers' magnificence, and the Paflodiau decorations of theii;cit|y,are£tj^^ 
supposed to prey on their finances. - , .^ 

However, thfe, propensity of ihci natiofi is uncontrolable ; for though public 
and private property has been exhausted by the Frencli uivaslon, yet tjhfij 
enemy were scarcely' withdrawn when, with laudable spirit, exertioi||S werj^ 
instantly made in n^any places to repair some of the edi[ices .Whiqh -^OSQ 
modern Vandals had idamaged^^nd to supply the place of some of ,tbe. mas^^ 
terpieces which Uiey had carried away. Churches, on the whole, ayoTeriy^ 
mleresting, as th^re are few that do not present some object worl(iy the ?U-^' 
tention of the traveller. , ; • ....'•' 

With respect to palaces, 1 must venture to say that, in general, they iff^ 
deficient in strict architectural beauty, as few, I /ear, are to befoundeveii 
in Italy, where, in some point or otlier, the architect hais not gacrifice^ 
symmetry and proportic^ lo caprice and vanity. . 'But if ik hi- po^^sihle 16^ 
overlook a defect so material, it must be acknowledged, that tlie marbles^ 
statues, and paintings that generally adorn t|ia ^pacipus aparimepts, often- 
times compen^te the caprice that deforms the exterior of these edifices. Ill 
fine, with regard to buildiags, w« may generalize and* «ppiy tty. tlaifi^tiita^ 
observation which W4» originally made mi >Rdme, that no cottnirji piiMOAti 
so many.speciniens both of good and of bad arcfai^^^^^ 'P ^ ^' ^^*^^ ^ ^^*'* 

Of museums, galleries of paintings and 8tatii€S).pu4>li^1il|pHitii^ietoJi^ii 
need only say that they exist in almost eVery town in Italy, and open an 
ample field for the exercise of observation and curiosity. And here let me 
recommend to the traveller, with due attention to his healUi and fortuHje, 
to spare neither pains nor expense, in order to acquire eveiy previous in- 
formation ; and to explore, when travellings every recess and visit every OlJjecC, 
without relying too much on the representations of others : as the common 
guides are lazy and' interested, Cicerones are often ignorant, and writers as . 
often wrong, through want of opportunity, of knowledge, or of exertjon, and 
not nnfrequenlly firoottoo great an attachment to then: own systems. 



2 

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tg PR^LQONAAY DISqOtRS^. 

, CONCXUSION. 

But on^ (inal observation I wish to impress strgnglj on the mind of the 
youthful traveller,, as .its object is iniiitiiilely: connected with his present 
repose, an^ with his future happiness. Moral improvement is or ought to be, 
the en() Qf all our pursuits and of all our exertions, itnowledge, withont 
it^ is the amuseiiient of an idle moment, ^nd the great and splendid ex-^ 
limfiioif Whick nature and genius present to our contemplation are mer,ely 
the shifting scepery of an evening drama — delightful but momentary. Let 
£im therefore look continually to this most important attainipent, and while 
Ite endeavours every day to increase his store of knowledge, let him exert 
J&itiMtelf tvith still ^eater assiduity to add to the nqmber of his virtues. 

Nations, like individuals, have their characteristic qualities, and preseill 
to the eye of a cindid observer, each in its turn, much to be imitated; and 

$' mething to be avoided. , These qualities of the mind, like the features of 
e fao^, are mote prominent and conspicuops in southern countries, and ia 
Aiese countries ^rhaps the traveller may stand in more need of vigilance 
and circumspection to guard him against tlie treachery of his own passions, 
und the snares of external seduction. Miserable indeed will lie be, if he 
^11 use the liberty of a traveller as the means of vicious indulgence, 
abandon hims^elf to the delicious immorality ( for so it has been termed ) of 
some luxurious Capital, and forgetful of what he; owes to himself, to hid 
lrien&/and to bis country, dropdne by one as he advances, the virtues of 
iAs education aiid of his native land-, and pick up in their stead the follies and 
Vices of every climate which he may^ traverse. When such a wanderer has 
lelt his innocence and perhaps his heaUh at Naples; when he has resigned 
^Taith and his principles at Paris: he will find the loss of such inesti- 
mable bles^ngs |>oorly repaid, by the languages which he may have learned, 
(be antiques which he may have pnirchased, and the accoqiplishments 
"Which he may have acquired m his journey. Such acquirements may 
{brnish a pteasiiig pastime ; they may fill the vacant intervals of an useful 
fife; they may even set off to advantage nobler endowments and higher qua- 
Ii0cation6 t but they can never give the credit and the confidence that ac- 
^mpatiy sound principles, nor can they bestow, or replace 

- *" * ''Hie miiid*B calm maiBhine and the heartlisitjor,*' 

>i. .. . • . . • • ' 

al0im tbaetto^ and i^e reward of vlrtoe. Thea» are ttie reaU the per* 
nanaiit^ I Alight 'altfywt . add,, the Mily blessings .of life. He who possesses 
lliem ean want but UtUe .nore f and he who has forfeited them, whatever 
Itis fMlQM flttdiy l»e, is '^ poor indeed.'^ 



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A CLASSICAL TOUR 



THROUGH 



ITALY. 



CHAPTER I. 

, . ' ^ I > . ..... 

S^Muriiire firom Yieraia— Munich—Salttburg^Salt Mines— Defile of the Alps— 
ii«|irackr--'A6O0ni of the Brenner— Summit, of Chie AI|tt<~I>eMedt--Brli«n—- 
Bolsano— Trent. . ; 

Some trayellers, buying set out from England daring th^ snminer 
of 180i, met at Vienna the follawing autumn ; a^d finding that their 
l^iews and tastes coincided, agreed tamake the tpur of Itaty toigether. 
Although eager to comn^ence ^heir journey, and rieach its confineflir; 
they were detained by the .charms of the Austrilkn Capital; whibh) 
siopQ jthe manners. of Paris have, been barbarized by tbo Rot olution] 
Va^ .become the seat of politeness, and the school -of * reftnettiem; 
4n,^Qum of. the state of society, as well .ais a descriptibri bfialm 
4^y^ ijself, w^utd *.be botl^. entertaining and jiistructivB; foutas tta^ 
W ^b^ gr^nd object .of. these yolumes, the reader will probably bfi 
as u^j^patient as the travellers themselves, i(pd disjiense wi^ details^ 
which, however amusing elsewhere^ would h^e only i^etardhim in 
h|S progress. We shall , therefore, reserve the description of fliis 
^VS» ^ v^U ^ that.of Munich and the intermediate cotintry, {for our 
G^f mantour, and only inform the reader, that onrThur^d^f > lanoarf 
tli0 .twenty-^^eighth, 1802; we withdrew from the attractions «f 
Yipjana, and coipmenced our journey, which we continued thtoug^ 
^Q0p,^njOw» ,with. little interruption, till we reached Munich, wherd 
W^, arrivpd late at night on the following Mondiaiy. W9 devoted 
fi^ .days to the inspection of this Capital, and the usual cere^* 
i&b/iies of presentation at court; and in justice to the Elector I 
i(inst^;8id4,,thatj)y his. affabilUy and condescension, he converted 
diis foirmality, in general dull and tiresome, into a yery pleasing 
interview* 



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n CLASSICAL TOUR Chap. 1 . 

On Friday, the fifHi of February, wie set out frOm Munich at eleven 
o'clock at nighty At break of day, the Alps, just reddened by the 
beams of the morning, and mingling wiih the clouds, presented to 
our eyed a n6w and inierescing object, apd continue to attract our 
attention during the day, by shifting their situation with the windings 
of the road^ aiid changing theii* tints with every shadow that, flitted 
over th^m. We entered Saltzburg late in the evening. 

We are now at the foot of the Alps; and considering ourselves 
as treading classical ground, we may be allowed to expatiate more 
at Ikrge on the surrounding scenery. The mountains no^w rising 
immediately before us, were represented by the ancients as an in- 
superable rampart raised by nature to separate Italy froqo th&less 
favoijired regions of the north, and to protect her beauties and her 
treasures from the assault of barbarian -invaders.^ Though this 
natural barrier has Jong ceased to answer that end, because one or 
other of the petty pow^s possessing the defilesjias Nsually been in 
the interests of the common enemies^ yet it is well calculated for 
such a purpose ; and may, in times' more favourable to Italy, be 
rendered a frontier far more impenetrable than the triple range of 
fortresses, which guarded. the northern boundaries of France, and 
on A late occasion saved that co^intry from invasion and ruin, these 
defiles, according to the same authors, were opened wrth incredible 
labor by the early inhabitants of Italy, and may be regarded as so 
many avenues leading to the garden of Eiirope. 

Saltzburg, a subalpiae city, is placed, as if to guard the^ entrance 
into the grand defile, which traverses ibe Rhetian Alps ; and it may 
be considered, for ^h^t reason, as fbritiing one of the outposts of 
Italy* The cathedral is built pf fine stone, and has two towers m 
front. It is said to beono of the earliest specimens of Italian archi- 
(eeture ia Germany, and is. fashioned internally on the Roman 
model; that Is,, with the choir behind the altar, and a canopy over 
the latter,, supported by four marble pillars^ an exact copy, as our 
guide pretended, of a similar ornament in Sit. Peter's; yet, withal! 
ibesjB supposed advantages, this church is neither Idrge nor beauti- 
ful, aiid has^little to boast of besides its solidity. 

There are two palaces belonging to the Prince Bishop. In one 
there lire several very fine rooms, in the other a spacious and most 
magnificent gallery. But the most striking objedt that Saltzburg 
presents, is a very noble gateway cut through the solid rock, which 
rises perpendicularly to a consideraUe elevation, i^ crowned with 
tali and spjceading elms, and forms a natural rampart equally strong 
and beautiAil. Through this mass of stone a passage has been 
opened, three hundred'feet in length, thirty iir height, and twenty- 
four in breadth. The inscription, in honor of the bishop who exe- 
cuted this noble work, is neat and appropriaie*-^7e moai loquuntur 

> HerodUa, 11/39, ?iU. f . . ^ 



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.€hap. I. THBOUCiH ITALY. ft 

f the rocks speak thy ][yrai;e). > This grotto opens on a little square, 
the principal orn^mdnt of which is an equestrian sti&tueof St. Sigia- 
raund, in dress, attitude, and form, extremely elegant. . 
'The situation of (his city is, however, its principal beauty apd 
advantage; in a talFey watered by the Salza^ open only to the 
north, and enclosed on the other sides by hills and mountaina of 
various forms and magnitude. Upon Qne of these hills, immediately, 
contiguous, to the town,, stanits the citadel, an edifice large, ^nd 
ro'ooiy, but ill supplied, ill furnished, and ill supported. The 
bishops of Saltzburg indeed, like all the petty princes of iGermany, 
rely more upon the watchfulness and jealousy of the^greater pawers, 
than, upon their own strength, for defence and independence. But 
however neglected the citadel may be, its situation is very bold and 
commanding. Behind it, on the emfnence, is a beautiful walk ^and 
from an oak near this walk, expands a romantic views extending 
over fertile vales, deep xlells, rocks and crags, hills and mountains. 
Jhe descent from this lofty site is worked in the rock, and fprmed 
into regular flights of steps. It brought us under the wall to the 
gate which I have already described. 

Among the mountains in the immediate neighborhood of the 
town, the Unterberg is the most conspicuous. Rough, craggy, and 
wooded, it seems to frown upon the city and the vale below ; and 
by its shaggy ma^s, tind dark sullen appearance, forcibly attracts 
the attention. Pbpula'r tradition, which seldom fails to select ap-^ 
propriate scenery for its wayward, tales, has converted the Unterberg 
into a placeof confi'ienHsnt for certain perturbed spirits, or rather 
made it the haunt of a- club of infernal sportsmen. Confined to the 
bowels of the mountain during the day, and, pi^rhaps, doomed there 
■to undergo certain unknown chastisements, these hapless spirits 
are said to fill the cavern with groans and shrieks, and yi^^ so 
loud, as to pierced the surface of the earth, and not unfrequently to 
reach the ear of the lonely woodman. But at night the dungeon is 
opened, > the spirits are at liberty, and the Woods, thi|t overhang 
the steep j}rows of the mountain, echo with the sound of an infernal 
trumpet, with the barking o^ h^lish dogs, and with shouts too 
deep and loud to proceed from mortal organs. Tradition 4oes not 
say, that the sportsmen have ever condescended to shew themselves 
to any human bein^; but it is reported, that at midnight/James of 
a^ blneish tint and of various sizes have been seen trave^^sing the 
forosts of the Unterberg with the velocity of lightning ; and these 
flames the people have turned into hounds and horses, huntsmen and 
beasts, an of fire^ Some conjecture, that the chief of^ these restless 
sportsmen is one of the former bishops, who, likeroaify of bis 
German brethren, in ages not very remote, was accustomed to pass 
in the cbace the hours and days which he ought to have devoted 
4o the duties of his station. Others pretend, that it was 4 Count, 
or, what was nearly the same thing in certaiipt periodb of G^imii 



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^ €LASSICAL T017& CnkP. t 

histd^, a robber, %bo bad built a castle amid these fastnesses, and 
ilsM'tb eibploj^bi^ days in pursuing and arresting travellers, in 
ravaging the fields and Tallies below, and compelling atl the country 
tbhi^ to pay him tribute. It woiild be difffcult to deddd'the ques- 
tion, as (he bi^6p and the Count seenf botlfi to have a fan* elaith 
to the mano/ia) honours of the Unterberg : we shatf thei*efore wavfe 
tto^ discusiion of this knotty point; and the more readity^ as'this 
invisible horn has now cfe'ased to sound ; the infernal pack ho longed 
W^turbs the Sil^nee of the woods, and the spirits of thi3 chace M^ 
•either fulfillerf the days of their punishto^ril, or are sent to s$po^t 
lii Solitudes less liable to observation. The Unterberg ^ hbW^veftr, Is 
itbt ihe only mountain in Qermany supposed to b^ the hauiit df 
tit^ternatiiral hunters. . * ^ ^ 4 

^ * The sa^ltihiiiesaVjBa/fefow, about ;fQur miles from Saltzburg, are 
desei*vedly celebrated. The entrance ii near the sutnmit of ia 
taountain, and Ihe assent, though over a good road, long and 
t(ddious. Near the ^mmit is a village with a handsome churcK. 
Seeing a croWd* assembled foUnd the door of a public housd^ we 
were inforihed, that they were celebrating a jubilee, on the fiftieth 
jiriniyersary of the marriage of an old couple, 'and, at the same 
time, the i^eddin^ of a erandson^ 'We were invited in as soon as 
bbs^rved, apd treated'with cake, wine, and beer. * The dance wis 

?' bijpg on merrily, aid sOme of tor partj joined in it, con spirUd; 
circum^tan(ie which seemed to give much satftfaction. Theper- 
^»ons of the yoiiffger danisels were nt)t uncohjely, nor were thisjr 
tiduhtenan6es ^iAout dxpression iMbiit their drtess waS isdch'as 
^ould'faave dlsfij{iii*etffar.4npre perfect forWs;' and turned beai#y 
fts^lf -Jnto flefcrrifity.- to enliven the dance, they now Antt (hen 
flapped thdir h^nds, and uttcnred a shi^iek vel^y grating ifo e^rs 
tAoaccustotttied to the tones of Alpine merriment"; We departed, 
, pleased wkh th^ no^ehy of the scehe, and still miore with the ho^ 
^ittlll^ oiP the good people. * \ ^ ^^ , w 

' At fengifi we resiched the summit, and entered tlie mines by a 
long sufttefranean gallery, wftich terminated in th6 mouth of the 
"first deSdenit. "V(r6 there accoutred ourselves in miners* dress|^S, 
and lilld down Ave hundred feet, in a mann^ perft'ctly safe and 
crimftiodioiis. It Is managed thus; The shaft may be abotlit four 
ffeet broad, and* about five high, worked above into the form of an 
arc^. The Mne itfay diterge about thirty feet in the hundred frojii 
.the'|)ei^ridicular. The space in the mJddle is hollowed and workexl 
lfito'^tfe]is:' '€fn^ach side df these steps, at about a foot difeiSiide, ratls 
S ^M^'lfke the side pf a ladder. On these poles a miner reclin'As 
W?th^hfe feet extended, so that the poles pass und^r his knees and 
fifrtlet' Atii Arms. A travellfer places himself behind him in the sam/e 

E»6^tlire,^i so cloSe, as to rest the in$ide of his knees oii the miner's 
hduifidersi llie bihers followthe example, aud forin alin^, in sdch 
la Wanier;that the-one hbove always i^eisti geiitljr on theiihoaldks M 



/ 

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Chap. I. THBOt^Gfr ITALT. il 

the ane below. Another ininer generally goes in t^e middle^ ai^ 
a third closes the rear. The first ininer regulated the motion^ itil 
if he find itnecefssary to check or stop it entirety, he need only to Hmt 
jbis foot backward, and touch one of the steps behind. The n^ineril 
carry torches made of the fir tree. \^heh the line i^ formed, updtl 
a signal given, the miner undermost lets the rpp^s lodse (for tw6 
ropes rnn parallel with the.poles.and nearly touch them) and glides 
(|own with great rapidity^ We suddenly.found ourselves in an jm*^ 
mense hall^lighted up with a pirodigious number of candles. ' Tb'tf 
hall was yery long and Eroad^ but extremely low, and as thecielibg 
was flat, unsupported either by pillars or props, aqd apparently of 
very crumblmg materials^ it was natural to feel' some appreheiisibH 
of its giving way. The miners, however, tranquillized us, by assur- 
ing us that such accidents never happened, however prob^able they 
might appear. The sides were adorned here and there with basso 
relievos of different bishops, rudely worked in the' earth or roclU 
The lights, as I said above, were numerous; but instead o^ being' 
reflected from a great variety of spars and sKining'mineralS, which 
a traveller might naturally expect to find in ji salt mine, the blaze 
falls sullen and dead from the walls, and serves only C6 s^ew the 
thickness of the surrounding gloom. From this hall we passed 
into a gallery, and thence descended, in the $ame manner as before, 
into a second, a third, and a fourth, of pearly the sanie form kUd 
dimensions. These halls are used for the following purpose c tte 
salt js worked from the. sides andcieling; then water is let !ll, and 
keptcoqfined till ifr is impregnated with salt, after which it is flrkihed 
away into the salt works, and the earthly particles remain deposited 
oil the floor. / 

We quitted ,the mine with as much faei}j{y as we entered. Ife 
were p)ac^d astride a long bench ; [ one miner moved before tb 
guide, two others were placed behind tb push this b^iich dowtta 
gently inclined plane.' After some minutes qf rapid motidn, w^ 
peredved thb appearance of a star, which gradually increased upAii 
us, till we were launched once more into full day. The exit is as , 
picturesque as the entrance is gloomy. It opens under ^ cliff,' d^d 
with brambles growing out of its crevices, and overhung with pines 
a^d firs, clinging to the sides, and bending from 'the brows of the 
precipice. On one side, a torrent bursting from the crag, tumbles 
from^teep to steep, till it engulphsitselfih a deep Shaded dell;and 
on the other, far below, stretches the town of Ealletmj with* its 
white houses and spire. On our exit, the miners presented eiaith of 
us with a little box^ containing specimens of salt. They were Very 
beautiful in color and shape, but are not easily preiserved,' )as they 
crumble into dust by the motion of th^ carriage, and are 'dissolved 
by the. least Jinnoiidity. . On the whole our visit to the mines of 
BaUem.f was a very pleasant, and not an linimprovin^ excursion.; 

Oiir stay at Saitzburg was much enlivened by the hospitality of 



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f^ CLASSICAL TOU^ , Chap. I. 

Prince /• Schwartzenburgf a cinon of the cathedral, to whom the 
-Srinciiss of Schwarizenburg had obligingly rec6niinended us. This 
young nobleman entertained iis with great sptendor, pointed out to 
.US the most interesting objects^ introduced us to the best company 
Bjt. bis diiQjiers/qoncerts, and' supper^, and rendered the place so. 
;agreeable9 .that we fixed the day of our departure Vith no small 
reluctance. We must evdr retain a grateful recollection of his at-^ 
tention and kindness. 

.. ' February the 10th. About nine jn the morningj we set off from 
SaitAburg. . A thick fog hqog over the surrounding scenery. ~We 
could only perpeive that the road ran oycr^ plain, naked in ge- 
neral, .bu( occasionally ornamented with yillages, whose graceful 
spires at intervals' attracted our attention. After having crossed 
(he plain, we reached the skirts of, a vast mountain, presenting at 
first a black indistinct inass, which cast a dark shadeon the fog that 
enveloped it, and then just displayed its fir-clad. sumniit so far 
a^ove the mist, that it appeared to h^Qg in theair„and.to belong 
tp some other region. 

JHewhenliall is a well-built little town, orrathefr village, rcinark- 
^hle fdr its saltworks, and in a prosperous condition. We were 
DOW ^t the very foot of the- Alps, and entered their defiles at a 
place called Unkirif about 6ne mile from ReichenhalL The road 
'first sweeps along the base of a noble eminence covered with firs; 
,a icburch spire rises on the side of a hill ; ancl^on tfic summit of 
the same hill stands a castle in ruins. ^Proceeding onwardif we. 
€dme 10 the foot of the precipice, yhich, with its castle, overhangs 
t)|e road in trq^endotis majesty. ' We then enter a dell, a sudden 
turn of which presents on one side a vast mountain clad with firs ; 
.Wfhile.on/the. other the precipice, girded with a zone of forest trees» 
^increases in height and grandeur, and, surmounted with the old 
.rampart waDs^ looks like the battlemented *d welling 6f a race of 
giants. In front an immense mass, covered with a hundred woods, 
,and half wrapped in fogs and cloud«, obstructs the viewi ^nd forms 
^ an aw fill foreground, to the picture. Stiji continuing to ascend, 
we wind along the deU, with a torrent murmuring by the road side, 
and all around mountains in various grotesque forms, increasing 
in height, in shagginess, and in horror, • ; 

^. .The scene was here truly tr^emendoiis. The defile is very narrow, 
leading spa^e only for the road and fbr th'e torrent. The moun- 
tains rise 6fi each side so nearly perpendicular, that the vast forests 
growing on their sides cast a dismal shade over the road, and 
loaded as they werie with a weight of snow, seemed ready to fall, 
and bury the traveller as he passed below. Now and then, a chasm 
. broke the uniformity of this gloomy scenery, and presented an ob- 
ject less dark, but equally terrific— a torrent iarrested it\ its fall by 
the frost, hanging from the brow of a crag in solid masses, and ter- 
miniating io hnmense pointed icicles. The least of these icicIeS) if 



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q^AP. I. THROUGH ITALY. » 

detached from the sheet above, woald have crushed the whole 
partj^;^and, when coptemplafed thus suspended over oiar' heads/ 
jamjain lapsurd cadentique ndsimHis^ ' coutd not fail to excite some, 
emotions of terror. Whenever the mountains receded and sl6p^d 
backwards, they only enabled us to discover forests rising aboye 
each other, and swelling int6 new regions, till they concealed their 
extent and elevation in the clouds. The snow lay deep on the road, 
and onthe approach of night began to fall again in great quantities. 
We moved slowly on ; and when iiight set in with aU the dark-n 
ness of the season, our situation appeared such as might have dis- 
couraged even experienced travellers. After some hours* exertion, 
and very little progress, our drivers were .seriously alarmed, and 
entreated us to allow them to return with their horses, before the 
depth of the snow, which was ^very moment increasing,' should 
render the i*oad9 impassab^e. They promijsed to come to our as- 
sistance early in the morning, with a sufficient nOniber of persons 
to remove the snow, and enable us to proceed. This proposal, as 
may be supposed, was rejected, and the drivers were; partly by 
representations, and partly by threats, induced to remain. - All the 
horses were put alternately to each carriage, whilst we proceeded 
on foot, and with no smalf difficulty at length reached the post 
house, where we look sledges, and continued our journey ^tthe 
rale of ten miles an* hour. We reached St. John at a Tate hour. A 
neat collegiate church is. the only remarkable object in this little 
town. 

February. 11th. The scenery; this day did «ot appear so grand 
and awful as on the preceding ; whether this partjDf the defile bis 
more open, or whether our eyes were more accustomed to its 
gloomy magnificence I know not ; but I believe the former to be 
the case, as the road gradually ascends, and consequently the elevsf- 
tion iif the mountains apparently diminishes; wherea^^ while a]t the 
bottom of thjB defil6, we beheld the whole mass of the Alps in full 
elevation above us. 

I need not, I suppose, caution even the untravelted reader against 
a mistake, into which some have fallen, that a&y of the passages 
through the Alps crosses the ridges', or even approaches the sum- 
mits of these mountains. The various roads traversing the Alps 
are conducted' through as many defiles, and were prqbably traced 
out by the paths, that have served from time immemorial asmeahs 
of communication between the fertile valleys that lie interspersed 
up and down the. windings of this immense chain. These defiles 
are always watered, and were perhaps formed, by streams inces- 
santly ghding down from the eternal snows that mantle the highest 
regions: these streams, increasing as they descend, work their 
way between the rocks, and continue for ever opening, and enlarging 



*Ttia( pr9mi0et a fall, and abakas at vr'rj l>laat;*-JHY<Ian. 



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fi^ CLASSICAL TOUR Chajp« X 

• V- -^ ' • . '" . ■ >- ' ?. 

th^ir channels. Such is the Inn that now bordered oufroad, an4 ' 
^uch IS the Salzasiiil nearer the plains of Bavaria. ^Yhen there- 
fore it is asked, who first crossed the Alps, or opened such a'par- 
ticu]ar passage over th^se mounti^ns, the question means only, 
what general or wha( army first forced a way through this immense 
barrier, or made such a particular track or path practicable? Of 
t|iese tracks, that which we are now pursuing seems to have been 
one of the most ancient and most frequented. The first people who 
passed it in a body were probably the Gauls ; that race ever rest- 
less, wandering, and ferocious, who have so often since forced the 
inighty rampart, which nature raised to protect the fertile provinces 
of Italy from th^ rapacity of northern invaders. Of a tribe of this 
people, Livy says, < that in the consulship of Spiirius Posthumius 
^Ibinus and ' Quintus Marcus Philippus, that is, iii the year of 
Botne 566, they passed the Alps by r5ads till then undiscovered, 
and entering Italy, turned toward? Aquileia. Upon this occasion, 
contrary to their usual practice, thej came in small numbers, and 
rdther in the character of suppliants than ^of enemies. But the 
piost remarkable army that ever crossed these mountains was that 
of the Cimbri, who in less than a century after the above-mentioned 
period, climbed the Rhetian Alps, and rushed like a torrent dbwB 
the Tridentina defile. The ^rst successes and final destruction of 
this horde of salvages are well known. At length Augustus, irri- 
tated by the lawless and plundering spirit of ^ome of the Rhe'tian 
trif}es, sent a Roman army into their territory under Drusus, who 
in a yetj short space of time entirely broke the spirit of the moun- 
taineers, brought their country into perfect subjection, and opened 
a commodious communication through the whole range of Alps 
that bears, their name. ^This expedition is celebrated by Horace, 
and forms the (Subject of one. of his mpst spirited productions.* 
Ever since this event,^ thi$ road has been frequented, and always 
considered as the best and safest passage from the transalpine 
regions to Italy. 

4s we bad set out late, darkness fell upoti us before we had piade 
any very considera'ble progress, and deprlved'us of the view of thie 
celebrated vale of Inspruck. We travelled, nearly the whole nighty 
and entered that city about four o'clock in the morning* 

. Inspruck is the capital of the Tyrol, a large Alpine province of 
the Austrian empire, and as it was onc0 the residence, of a sove- 
reign, prince, is stUl the seat of gojvernment, and has frequently 
been visited by the emperors. It possesses some noble edifices, 
more remarkable however, as is usual in Germany, for magnitude 
t)\an for beauty, Xhe style, of architecture,' therefore, both of tte 
palace and the churches, is, as may be expected, below criticism; 
and when l' mention the great hall in the palace, I point out to the 



' L. xxxU. 22. * L. iv. 4. 



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Chap, t THROUGKriTALT. tjf 

trayeller almost the only building that deserves his notice. Td 
this I will adc| an^their object, t?iat has a claim upon Ws'atteotioA 
for' superior to any that can be derived frorti mere hrchliectiiral ' 
beauty. It is a little chapel, erected upon a veKy ihelaniihbiy and 
inieresling occasion. It is weH known that the fem'poror'FraocSlB 
the First, hiisband to the celebrated Maria tcre'^a', med'suddenlV 
at Inspruck. He was going to the Opera, and wliile walking through 
the "passage froni the palace to the theatre, he ' fell i(6Vn and m^ 
stantly expired^ He was conveyed to the nearest robrir, V^iih 
happened to be that of a servant,, and ihdre laid upori a mfserabfe 
bed. Atteinpts wer0 made to bleed him, but to no purpose; antt 
It is stated, that for a considerable time the body reniairied with 
tbe bibod trickling slowly from the arnft, unnoticed, and* unattended, 
by a servant of any description. Ttie Empress', who loved him 
with unusual tenderness, shortly after raised an altar o^i the very 
spot where he fell^ and, clearing the space around, erected ovfer it 
a cTiapel. fioth the chapel and the altar are, t*|iougK pDain,* ex- 
tremely beautiful, and a pleasing monument both of. the afFectioa 
and of thiB taste of the illustrious Widow. This princess, then ii) 
the full bloom of youth and beauty, and the first soVfereign in Ifiu- 
rope In tftle and in territorial possessions, continued ever aftef to 
wear mourning ; and to some subsequent matrimonial Ove^rtures, 
is said to have replied in the animated lines of yirgil, - 

IHe, meos primal qui me sibi janiH amores, 
Atsiulit, iHe habeat secam servetque sepnlcro ." 

The inscription runs as follows^ and breatties more g<:ief than 
el^ance. 

D:0:M. 

Memoriae eternae fbti, quo 
Princeps optimus 
Tbfotri decus 
^ Populi . deliciae 

Franciscus D : (J : Rom : Imp : Aug ; 
' Germ : et Jerus, Rex 
M : D fHet : Loth et Bur : D; 
> XVIIl Aug : MDCCLXV. 
, ' Vit® hie loci et nobfe ereptug 

Monumenlum. posterita:^i positum— " . 

I shall say nothing of the magnificent cenotaph of the Emperor 
Maximilian in the church of the Franciscans, Nvith its* sculpturett 
pannds and bronze statue^; nor of the humble'cells 6f the Atct- 

* "Nor; be who had my tows, shall ever have ; 

Par whom I lo^d on earth, I ivorsbip la the grave."- I^ryden. 

^ Tto monument is epected to remind posterity for ever of ^fa^ uoba^py jdestiiqr 
by which that exce|1er)t prince, llie ornament of the tbrone, and the delight of big 

Seople, Francis, by the grace of God, Emperor of the Romans^ etc. etc« etc. wu 
iti tfate ^t snatched away from life aUd firom me» on the 18th Of A^igHiK, lt«5.' 



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S8 GLA^SIGAX. TOUR Gq^P, I. 

4uke of the same name in the convent of the Gapachins, but- pro- 
ceed, to a much nbbler object than either, to the vale of In^pruck. 
This vale is perhaps the most extensive and most beautiful of all 
that lie in the Northern recesses of the Alps. It is about thirty miles 
in lengthy and; where widest, as in the neighborhood of Inspruck, 
about six in breadth. It is watered by the Inn, anciently the 
OEnus, which glides through it, intersecting it nearly in the middle, 
and bestowing freshness and fertility as it winds along.. The fields 
that border it are in high cultivation, finely adorned with every 
species of forest^trees, enlivened with towns and villages,' and oc- 
casionally graced with the riiins of a castle, ff^wnipg in shattered 
majesty from the summit of a precipice. Large woods line the 
skirts and clothe the sidQS of )he neighboring mountains, and, with 
the ragged misshappen rocks that swell above them, form a frame 
Worthy of a picture so extensive and so beautiful. In the southern 
extremity x)f this vale, stands Inspruck; and behind it rises a long 
ridge, forming part of the craggy pinnacles of the Brenner, one of 
.the loftest mountains of the Tyrolian Alps. 

About, five miles north of Inspruck is the town of Hall, famous 
for its^saH works; and about four utiles on the opposite side, on 
a bold eminence, stands embosomed in trees,^the castle of Ambrai. 
This edifice is of very ancient date, and its size, form,, and furni- 
ture are well adapted to its antiquity. Its exterior is dignifiecl with 
turrets, spjfes, and battlements; and its large halls are bung with 
spears, shields, and helmets, and lined with the forms of hostile 
knights mounted upon their palfreys, with visors down and spears 
couched, as if ready to rush forward in battle. The smaller apart- 
ments are fitted 1ip with less attention to Gothic propriety than to 
utility, and contain various natural curiosities, intermingled with 
gems, medals, and pictured. 

Though at Irjtspruck we bad made a considerable progress in the 
defile, yet we had not risen in elevation so much as might be inaa- 
gified; for that city is said to be jio more thati fifjLeen hundred 
feet above the level of the sea. But, about three miles farther, 
the road suddenly turns, and the traveller begins in reality to work 
up the steep. The road is well contrived to lessen the labor of 
ascent, ii^inding gently up the mountains, and affording every where 
perfect security, though generally skirtihg the edge of a precipice.^ 
It presents some striking objects, such as the Abbey^of Willtean* 
anciently Villiienum, the castle of Sonenberg, and, through a break 
to the west, a' transient view of a most majestic mountain, rising 
from the midst of the surrounding glaciers, and lifting its pointed 
summit to the skies. Its craggy sides are sheathed in ice, and its 
brow is whitened with eternal snows** Its height is supposed to 
be nearly equal to that of Mom BUinc, tbough in grandeur, the 

> This mQuntain bears, I believe^^e very barMroas appellation of B(feh Kog^L 

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cha^. I. tttRouca Italy: ^ ^ 

mountain of* Savoy yields.to thatof the Tyrol ; because the former, 
heaves itself gradually frorn the plain^ and conducts the eye^ by 
three differppt stages to its summit, whilst the latter shoots up at 
once vntHbut support or gradation, iand termi/iat.es in a point thialt 
seems to pierce the heaven)?. 

The ascenf, still continued steep and i^itbout iqtermission to Stdn^ 
ach; and the- cold, which hitherto had not, much incommoded us, 
except at night, became more intense. The scenery grew more 
dreary^ gradually assuming all the bleak appearances of Alpine 
Vmter. The last mentioned place, though situated amidst the pin^ 
nades of the Rhaetian Alps, is yet not the highest point ofeleva?- 
tion.; and the traveller has still to labor up the tremendous steeps 
of the Brenner.^ As he advances, piercing blasts blpwing arofund 
the bare ridges and summits that gleam with ice, stunted halfrfrozeii ' 
firs Appearing here and there along the road, cottages alDiost bu- 
ried under a weight of snow, all annbunce the region^* Where win- 
ter reigns undisturbed, and where the Alps display all their ancient 
and unchangeable horrors.-^** iVim ccelo prope immistasjiecta m^ , 
" formia imposila rupibm, pecora, jumentaque torrida frigore, ho^ 
** mines inionsi et incUUi, aninialia, indnimaque Cfinnyi rigentia gelu,** ■ 
— (Liv.xxi.) 

The si^i^mit, or rather the highest region, of the mountain whieh 
the road traverses, is crowned with immense ^rags and precipices 
enclosing a sort^of plain or valley. This plairi was bleak and dreary 
when we passed* through it, because buried in deep Snow, and 
darkened by fogs and mists, and ihe shades of the approaching; 
evening : yet it possesses one feature,, which in summer must give 
it some degree 'of animation, of beanty, and even of fertility; I 
mean the source of the river Atagis, which, bursting from tfee side 
of a shattered rock, tumbles in a noMe cascade to the plain. W6 
had just before passed the fountain head of the river 5?//^^ which 
takes a northward course, and runs down the define that leads td 
Inspruck, so^that we now stood oh the confines of the norih, our 
feces being turned towards Italy, and the genial regions^ of the 
south. At the post we once more entered sledges, ai^d with great 
satisfaction began to descend, a vast mass of mountain hanging 
over us on the left, and the Atagis^ now called the Adige, timibling 
froiti steep to steep 6n our right. Night soon enveloped us, and 
we pursued oUr way with great rapidity down the declivity through 
Marck and Itfuidlewaldf and at length entei'ed the' epiisccrpal city of 
Brtixen, or Bremnone. 

We had now passed the wildest retreats and most savage sceAerjf 
of the Alps, oiice' the impenetrable abode of fierce tribes of barba*^ 

> Sqows that seem to mingle with Ihe sky, shapeless dwelllDgs perched upon the 
rocks, flocks and herds benumbed with cold, human beings savage alikean appear- 
a^ee and In dress, and every thing animate and inanimate bound up in fro«(. '^'-^ 



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so GLASl^lCAL TQUR Chap. I. 

rjia)}S« «pd the haunt of asspciated robbers, wlio plundered with 
tbenumbers, the spirit^ and th6 discipline of armies. The Roman 
legions were not unfre<)uentlj^ impedpd in their progress, and more 
than opce 3ti;ipped of their baggage by these desperate mojun- 
taineers. "the expedition of Drusus^ before alluded to, seems to 
hayereduc^ the Alpine tribes, at least theVindelici and tfie Rhoeti, 

Jo.far i,o5ubjection, as to ensure a safe and .easy passage jthrough 
ip^ territories for many succeeding ages. The incursions, inva- 
^qas.' and .consequent anarchy, that preceded and followed th^ 
dissplution of the Roman empire^ naturally reviveil the fierceness 
pr t^ inoif nt^ih tribes^ and renewed the disorders of earliier pe- 
ripds* ^ut thes^ disorders yielded in their turn to the increasing 
influepCQ.p>,Gnristianity and. to the authority of the clergy : 'two 
fiaus^K which, fortunately for Europe, worked witji increasing ex- 
cept and energy^ and successfully counteracted the prodigious efforts 
oFferocity, of barbarism, and of ignorance^ during the middle ages, 
^q effective yas their operation, that the Rhetians, from t^he most 
faVage,^ became the most gentle of mountain tribes, and nave for ^ 
long su,ccession of ages continued to distinguish themselves by their 
innocence, simplicity, .and benevolence; apd few travellers have, I 
i>elieve, traversed ihp Rhetian Alps, without having witn^s^ed some 
m^inces of these amiable virtues. 

,' tt is indeed i^ortunate, that religion has penetrated the^e fast^ 
idesses impervious to human power, and spread her inQuence oyer 
Splitu4.es wKere human lajvs are of no avail ; that where j)recautioja 
is im'^oissible, and resistance useless, she spreads her invisible aegis 
pv^r jthe traveller, and conducts him secure under her protection, 
ihrougn all the dangers of the^way. While rapidly skimming the 
^dge. of a precipice,, oi* winding cautiously along under the loose 
fp^l^se^^pf an. impending cliff, he trembles to think that a single 
tav^ch might ^ury him under a crag precipitated from above, ojr 
j^a( tneist.^rt of a horse, p.urposely alarmed, mi^ht.hurl him into the 
,^byss belpw,^.^nd give the ruffian a safe opportunity of preying 
gppn hi^ plupider, Wh^n in such situations the traveller reflects 
^On hi9 .security, and recollects that these mountains^ ^o savage, 
l^id S9,,well adapted to the purposes of murderers. and of )}andiiti^ 
iiaye not in the ipemory of jnan, been stained by human blood, he 
bi]^ght to do justice to the gaui^e, and gratefully acknoY^i^flge (he, 
))en6fiGent infldence of religion. Impressed with these reflection^ 
be wiU behoU wi^h indulgence, perhaps even with interest,, the 
drosses which frequetitly mark the brow of a precipice, and ^^e little 
^ap^ls. hollowed out of the rock wjier« the road^ is narrowest : he 
iriU consider them as so many pledges of security, and rest assurei^^ 
diat as long as the pious mountaineer continues to ador^ the ' Good 

„ i Paitar bp$iiu$. Mater dolorosa; such are the titles oftea inscribed over \ho§s^ 
fwtto tQDiple8^490metime9 a wbole sentence is /sul^joined, as, Paitorhoni^ ysi 



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Chap, t THROUGH ITAIT. jlf 

Shepherd, and, to beg the pv^y^TS ,ot the afflicted Mother, he will 
never cease to befriend the traveller, nor to discharge the ddties of 
hospitality/ If French ' principles should unfortunately pass fron^ 
the courts and thecities in the plains, to the recesses of these moun- 
tains, thQ murderer mafy shortly aim hi^ rifle from behind the ruins 
of the cross, and the ni(];h'tty banditti lurk, in expectation of their 
prey, undpr tlie roof of the forsaken chapeL 

Bresslnone, ip German Bria^n, presents nothing very remarkable 
to the attention of the traveller. Its cathedral is neithisr lat'ge nor 
beautiful, and its claiqn to antiquity is rather^ dubious, as the name 
of ^rixentes in ancient authors, belongs not so much to the town^ 
as to the inhabitants of the surrounding country^ , I need scan?ely 
inform the reader, that the Brixia, alluded, to by Catullus, is now 
Brescia, a w^tl known ^and flourishing city in the plain below^ be- 
tween the lake Benacns and Cremona. 

Briiia Ghiniea sup^sita specula; . ' 

iQayiisqaain oiolU pereurritflttmine.Mela. 
'Brixla/ Verona mater amata ine«. ' 

CatuL LXV. 32. 34. . 

The river Mela; described m these verses as a yellow and smooth 
flowing streanb, and represented by Virgil as meandering through 
cultivated valleys, still retains its^^nciem n^me and character,. and 
runs n^ar the last mentioned town. ^ ' ' 

The descent from the little plain of Bressinone is not so steep a^ 
the road which leads to it. On a hill not far from Chiusa stands the 
abbey of Sabiona the only remains of the ancient Sabina: thus bear^ 

atUmam suam dai prootibus suis (He is a gooc^ shepherd, Vho lays (down bia 
life for his sheep). St. Johii, x. 11. Under i crucifii oa the brow o^ a tremendoiui 
crag, I observed some lines taken from the Dies Jrce (ihe Day of Wrath), 9. funeral 
hymn, which, though disfigured by rhyme, was justly admired by Johnson and by 
Lord Roscommon for its pathos and sublimity.— -The lines were, ' 

Recbrdare, Jeraplef ^ 
' Quod cam caoaa tac tto^ 

Quflerens me sedbii lassos, 

Bedemlsli cruce^ passiu; 

XAattts labor non-sit cassns. 
Rememtier, Jesos I that for me 
The paths of woe were trod by tbM : - 
In search of me, with tolls opprest, 
thy weary head was laid to rest : 

5r thee was borne deatt^'s bitter pato» 
raise me lip^to life again : *' 
Be not such mighty mercies vain I 
I . The yellow Mela parts the'Biizlan town, 

Brlxia, o'ei: which the Chlaean hill lookf down« 
Brliia; loT'd parent of Terooa fair.. 

» , ••,..,.. tonsls in valllhas illom (Borem \ 

f aftores, el cunra legunt prope flamina Mellak 

« ** by shepherds near the stream 

Of MeUa found.'' i»1fdiii» 

It is remarkable, that while Yirgil calls this river Mella, GatuUasi. a citiien of 
Terona, gives it the exact appellation which It »till retaUu^ and vrlucli probably 
irai tben oirreut la Its nelgbbosliood* 



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3i CLASSICAL TOUtt Chap.!. 

in§ its forn)6r name, with Utile variation. ,Chtusa^v Clausen, once 
Clusium, takes its name, as other towns of sioiilar appellations^ 
firom its situation; as the plain, in which it stands, is terminated by- 
a tremcundous defile, whose rocky sides jut out so far and rise so ^ 
high, as almost to hide the 'face of heaven : while the river^ con- 
tracted into a torrent, or rather a continual cascade, rpHs in thunder 
firom steep to steep,. hurrying shattered fragments of rock down its . 
0ddy, and filling the dell with uproar. The numberless chapels 
hewn out of the rock ontbe road, answer the double purposes of 
devotion and of Security, protecting the traveller against the sudden 
bursts of storm in summer, and against the still more sudden and 
destructive^niasses of snow that roll from the mountains towards 
the termination of winter. The road' which leads to this dell, runs- 
alpng the edge of a most tremendous pre<^ipice> and i$ so near ti, 
ihatfroni the carriage, the eye, without perceiving the parapet, looks^ 
all at once into lh6 abyss below, and it is scarcely possibly not to 
draw back with involuntary terror. ^ The defile to which the road 
leads,' s^ems yawning as if ready to shallow up the traveller, and 
dosing over liim as he advances, has less the appearance pf a road 
ip the land of the living, than* of a des(;ent to the infernal r^ions. 
A^ heavy snow, falling ^s we passed^ added to the natural glopm of 
the scene, and made it truly terrific. 

We entered Bolsano late^ The name, of this town is converted 
by the Germans into the barbarous appellation oiBptzm. .It is a 
commercial and busy place. Its situatioti, a( the opening of several 
valleys,. and near the cbnfluence of three rivers, is siclvantageous ; 
its neighborhood well cultivated and romantic. It contains, hpw-« 
ever, no remarkable object. A little below Bolsano, the* Atagis flows 
into the Athesis ; rjvers, which From the resemblance of their names 
are frequently confounded ; especially as they now go under' the 
same appellation, and ^re called the i4d?.gr'e, sometimes the ildese. 
The former name may be derived from either t)f (he ancient titles ; 
the latter can come from the Athesis bnjy. This river takes its rise 
near A little town called Bafgy not far from C/uro* and Tiroii^ an- 
ciently Tirioli, whence th.e territory takes its modern name^ and 
after traversing the valley of Fe»o«fa, joins the Atagis at Bolsano. 

From Bolsano tlie road presents nothing peculiarly interesting as 
Alpine scenery. iSome castles, however, finely' situated, project 
into the valleysofSo/e and Anania; Monte Cemo and Mon^e Mendaia 
are objects grand and beautiful. We left the village o{Me%%o Tt- 
desco, and entered that oii' the opposite side, of the river called 
Me:CAo Lombardo, with pleasure. Salumo- interested us by its anti- 
quity, of which' its name is a memorial.. Night had already closed 
upon us, when we entered Trent, . 

L • ■' ■ -../,/ 



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Chap. II. THROUl^rH ITALY. 3$ 



CHAPTER U. 

Tren^— Council of Trent— (]a8t6lIo della Bietra— Rotreredo— ^laTini di Marco-^ 
Ala-^hiusa— Yerona, its Antiquities and History. 

Trent is the seat of aa archbishop. Its ancient name was Tri^ 
dentam, and the tribes and Alps in its vicinity were not unfrequently 
called Tridentini. It is seated in a small but beautiful yalley, ex- 
posedy however, from its elevation, to intense cold in winter, and 
from the reflection of the surrounding mountains, to heat as in- 
tense in summerf When we passed (February the sixteenth) the 
ground was still covered with snow, and the frost, notwithstanding 
the influence of the sun, very severe. The town' is well built, and 
boasts some palaces. That of the prince bishop contains some very 
noble apartments, but it had been plundered and disfigured by the 
French in their late invasion. The Cathedral is Goth ic, and not 
remarkable either for its beauty qr magnitude. Its organ is ad<^ 
mired, though supposed t6 be inferior to that of the church Santa 
Maria Maggiore, in the same city. 

But Tr^nt owes its fame neither to its situation nor to its edifices, 
but to the celebrated Council held within its walls about the middle, 
of the sixteenth century*' It w^s opened in the cathedral, but 
generally held its sessions in the church oi Santa Maria MaggwrCy 
where apicture still exists, representing the Council sitting in fulr 
Synod* The most conspicuous figures are supposed to be portraits 
taken from the life. This assembly sat, with various interruptions, 
under three successive pontiffs^ during the space of eighteen years: 
It was convoked^ by Paul the Third, and consisted of cardinals, 
archbishops, bishops, abbots, chiefs of religious orders, represen- 
tatives of the universities, and ambassadors from the Emperor, 
Kings of France, Spain, Portugal, ere. from the republics of Venice, 
of Genoa, and from the cantons of Switzerland, from the German 
Electors, etc. These ambassadors were called Oratores, and were 
accompanied each by a certain number of lawyers and divines, 
selected by their respective sovereigns. The whole number of 
persons composing the general isissemblies amounted to one thou- 
sand.' 

The subjects of discussion were prepared in committees, and 

s One thousand fire hundred and forty-two. 

* Gibbon says of the council of Constance, ihat the number and weight of ciytl 
and ecclesiastical members might seem to constitute tlie States^genentl of Europe; 
9t Temttfc eqsfirily applicible to^e council of Trent. . 

5 



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U CLASSKAL lOM €ma9. ft. 

definitiyelf settled in the genei^al assemblies. The bull of codyo- 
cation issued by Paul the Third, is a masterpiece of its kind. The 
style of the Acts is pure and dignified, and the dissertations knd 
observations that precede the canons, cannot be perused, even by 
an impartial and pious pro|estan|, wvtkovt instruction and edifica- 
tion. One of the great objects of the Council was the restoration 
ofj^e^if^e, aQ4. unity among Qhristia^s. In this resipect it failed; 
animosity prey^ilel over cbarity ; conscious authority on one side, 
rage of innovation on the other, would submit to no concession. 
The other object was the, reformation of the church. Here its, ef- 
^rts were attended', if not with total, at least with yery general} 
success, and must receive the approbation of every impa^Us^ 
reader. Many of its regulations have been adopted by the civil 
authority^ even in Protestant countries ; such, for instaqjce, ai) 
those relating to m.atriitiony ; and where admittedly t^ieir utility has 
been felt and adkno't^ledged. Intrigue, without doubt, was not 
inactive at Trent : and where so many persons pf such rank an<| 
weight,, so many diplomatic agents from almost all the countries 
t^ all the corporate bodies in Christendom,- were brought to- 
^etbor, it must have been frequently mid strongly ei^erted. Yet 
with such an obstacle in its way, the Council drew up a set of 
articles clear and concise, comprehending all the principal points 
then in debate,, and fixing the faith of the Catholic with logical 
precision. 

After haying thus represented the Council in a favorable light, X 
must now> reluctantly I confess, turn to the charges advanced against 
it; the first of which is, the influence supposed to have been exer- 
<^i^d over it by the Roman court ; an influence which, after all, 
seems to have been confined to subjects connected with the tern- 
I^oral interests and With the interior concerns of that Court, and 
never extended either to the deliberations or to the final decrees 
of the Council. In the second place,, many a benevolent man,^ 
many a true friend of (he peace and union of the Christian body, 
has deplored the degree of precision, with which the articles in 
debate were d^fined^ and a line was drawn between the contending 
iprties, — 1» separate them perhaps for ever ! Real union, indeed, 
' sntr diat time of delirious contest^ was not to be hoped for ; but some 
latitude allowed to the wanderings of the human mind, a greater 
scope given to interpretation, and a respectful silence recommended 
to the disputants on subject^ too mysterious to be explained, and 
too awful to be baifdied about in scholastic disputation, mighty 
gerhaps, at a more favorable season, have soothed animosity, and 
aisposed ali temperate persons to terms of accommodation. Re- 
mote, however, as we now are from that sera of discord, and stran- 
Hfey^s to. the pai^sions which then influenced mankind, it might seem 
tp^^korder iipQn, temerity aioid ipjustice, were we to censure the pro« 
ceedings of an assembly^ whidi ooiiibiiiedtba benfivcdevfie^ thssMMK 



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CliA». II. _, THROUGH kTALT. M 

tity and tfie moderation of th6 Qdrdinals PoU and Sadoleti, Canta-^ 
r$ni and Seripando. ' 

February 18th. ^ From Trent tfae ro«d continues to run through 
a narrow valley, watered by ihA Mi^ (or Athesis) and covered with 
vines conducted over treiliii wdfk, oi^ wMding from tree to tree in 
garlands. High mountains rise oil each i^Tde^ and the snow, though 
occasionally deep, was yet sensibly diminished. After the first Ittfige, 
(Ke snoM appeared only on the motrntairis, wliile ill the vaflej^e 
(Mjot^ed sorbe share of the genial influence of ^ Ttatian sun. Th4 
Attittbef of neat villages seemed to increase on both batiks of th6 
fttef ; thongti in all, the ravages of lirar ^nd tfa^T canton fdge fof 
infedllef which/ upon all occasions, distingnlsties an invading 
»ifi^, were |)ui too discernible. Cotiagfes destiroyetf, lixmm bii(Wit 
6t damaged, and churches disfigured forded themselves' totK W^ 
qntently npon the attentTon of the traveller. A forfre^ covevingftflil^ 
hw4 of a i^eep hill, rises on the left at some tflst^nee frbtti iii^ 
road, and forms too conspicuous &n objedt to pasii unnotitefd. ftii 
tthdenx name ^v^as, siccording to Dtfverlus, Verrntsca Castdluih'^ it 
i» HW called Castettb delta Pietfa (the Castle of the Rtfcks), fi^diAiti 
Stte. It wa^ taken and re-taken t^ite by the French and ^tiiMriatis 
^rlhg the Ikst ^ar, though its situation might induce a travdfleir 
16 consider it impte^nable. 

Roveredoy Anciently Roboretum, tJie Second ^age from Trent, tt 
a neat little town in the defiles of the Alpif), situated, geograpMt^H^ 
speaking, in the German territory, but in language/ matttter8i,ntw 
appearance, Italian. The entrance on the side of Trent Jjooks well, 
though the main street is narrow. An fnscrlptioU over the gate^ 
relative to the marriage and passage of the Princess ^f P^m^f^ 
yteased me mwdi, as itafitards a specinen ^ liiegMd iailB4if this 
Mh t6im. 

• Vi^a has made a beautiful allasiou |k>Ui to the €ity and the Coimcil of ^rehV 
la llie form of a devout prayer, at the end of one of hb hymns. . 

^aiB uU deprtBMOiD toadunt pr«rapt« ttl^nliim ) 
moc, alQue hlac, TarU« acchl e sedibas erbts, 
tl stndiit JiinctU atqae animis coocbrdlb'ud una / ' 

' t«ndMatt,4tteefe'fr«i,iM«cfiitereitfpflli 
Legibus, et versos revocare in pristina mores. 
Teqae Ideo costa cetabramw. et ore ciemjq^, 
Sancte, TenUMnllns te mendbus insere nostrt^ 
Anra 'p«t^s, amor omnipoieas. ccell aarea aait>tii& ! 

M»m, Spir : San : 

And first on us dtfeeDd/aswIbbtea Hero, 
Where roondlVenrs Tito'lbe eteelng ai wnHa hii rear 
Their ragged bstds : Prom ««rl<M^ tan^Bweeaaw, 
IniealuDlted, andwIthiMaAthisaiaev . 
That by thy gat8Mo«v la 'BelH1ott*s cms*, - 
* Onr efforts nay support the sinking Jaws, 

And morals, \t(^d and anriernria'd, restore 
To the bright purity they knew before. 
Then coioM, Almighty Lovei thine aid atfordt 
Thee we Inroka, w»((rai«e with one accord. 
Pure spark of flame dirine, our sou|s Inspiie, ; 
ABd wwn Iby f «t*riw With «si«itUl flr« I 



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96 CLASSICAL TQUR Chap. IL 

Isabella • 
Philippi Borb. Parme ducis 
Josepho AustriiB daci naptft 
^ Ylennam proficiscenti 

Felix sU Iter , 

Faustnsqae thalamus 
Roboretanis gaudentibiis. ■ 

la fiEicty as you approach Italy, you may perceive a visible tm'- 
pirovement QOC only id the climate of the country, but also in the 
ideas of its inhabitants ; the churches and public buildings assume 
a better form ; the shape and ornaments of their portals, doors, 
and windows are more graceful, and their epitaphs and inscrip- 
tions, vhich, as Addison justly observes, are a certain criterion of 
public taste, breathe a more classical spirit. Roveredo is situated 
in the beautiful valley of Lagarina, has distinguished itself in the 
literary world, and has long possessed an acadeiny, whose mem- 
bers have been neither inaaive nor inglorious. 

I'he descent (for from Sieinaeh, or rather a few miles south of 
that village, three stages before Brixeti^ we had begun to descend) 
becomes more rapid between Roveredo apd Ala; the river which 
glided gently through the valley of Trent,' assumes the roughness 
of a torrent; the defiles become narrower; jnd the taiountains 
break into rocks and precipices, which occasionally approach the 
road« sometimes rise perpendicular from it, and now and then hang 
0yfir it in tefrible majesty.* Ala is an insignificant. little town, in 

■ By the Njolcing inhabitants of Roveredo, to Isabella, daughter or Philip of 
Bourbon, Doke of Parma, bride of Joseph, Duke of Austria, or her way to Vienna. 
May hicr Journey be prosperous, and her nuptials happy. 

* Amid these wilds Ihe traveller cannot fail to notice a vast tract called ihe 
Slavini di Mareo, covered with fragments of rock torn from the sides of the 
neighboring mountains by an earthquake, or perhaps by their own unsupported 
weight, and hurled down into the plains below. They spread over the whole 
valley, and in some places contract ihe road to a very narrow space. A few firs 
and cypresses scattered in the Intervals, or sometimes rising out of the crevices of 
the rocks, cast a partial and melancholy shade amid the surrounding nakedness^ind 
desolation. This scene of ruin seepis to have made. a deep impression upon the 
wild ImaginaUon of Dante, as he has introduced it Into the tweiah canto of the 
Inferno, in order to give the reader an adequate idea of one of his infernal ram- 
partB. 

Era lo loco ove, ii soender la rlra 

Venlmmo, Alpestro e per quel ch* ir" er' anco, 

Tal, cb* ogDi f ista ne aarebbe acblva. 

Qaare qnelia rnlna cbe nel flanoo 

De qaa da Treota TAdice perooaae, 

per tremuoto o per/aoategno maooo ; 

Cbe da clma del moate oode ai moaae, 

Al piano e A la rpccia dlacoaceaa, 

Cb' alcana via darebbe a cbi «a foaie. 

: Tbe place wbere to descend tbe precipice 
We came, was roogb as Alp, and there bedde 
Sacb oblect Ut* as ev'ry eye would sban. " 

As is that mlo, which Adioe's stream 
On this aide Trento struck, should ring the ware. 
Or lo^a'd by earthq«alie, or for lack of prop ; 
- rinmV - - 



t For from tbe mountain's anmmlt, whence It mov'tf 



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Cbap.il THROVOH ITALYw 17 

po respect remarkable, except as forming the geograpbieal bom^^ 
dary of Italy. 

The same appearances continue for some time, till at length the 
mountains gradoally sink into hills ; the hiiis diminish in height and 
number, and at last leave an, open space beyond the river on the 
right. In front, however, a round hill presents itself at a little dis- 
tance, which, as you approach, swells in bulk, and opening jusl 
leaves room sufficient for the road, and for the r^ver on the right, 
between two vast perpendicular walls of' solid rock, that tower to 
a prodigious height, and cast a most terrific gloom over the narrow 
strait that divides* them. As the road leads afong a precipice, hang- 
ing over the river, without any parapet, the peasants, who live at 
the entrance of the defile, crowd round| the.carriage to support it 
in the most dangerous parts of the ascent and descejit. A fortifr- 
Nation,' ruined by the French in the late war, formerly defended 
this dreadful pass, and must have rendered it impregnable. But . 
French gold 

Perrumpere amat saxa» potentias 

Ictu AilmiDeo. > 

In the middle of the defile a cleft in the rock on the left gives rem 
to a torrent that rushes down the crag, and sometimes sweeps.away 
a part of the road in its passage. After winding through the defile 
for about half an hour, we turned, and suddenly found ourselTea 
on the plains of Italy» 

A traveller, upon his entrance into Italy, Ibngs impatiently to dis- 
eopet some remains of ancient magnificence, or some specimen of 
modern- taste, and fortunately finds much to gratify his curiosity 
in Yerona, the first town that receives brm upon his descedi from 
the Rhetian Alps. 

Verona is beautifully situated on the Adige, partly on tlie d^di- 
vity of a bill, which forms the last swe^l of the Alps, and partly on' 
the skirts of an immense plain extending from these mounttiins 
to the Apennines, The hills behind are adorned with yilbis apd 
gardens, where the graceful cypress and tali poplar predominate' 
over the bushy ilex and spreading laurel. The plains before the 
city are streaked with rows of mulberry trees, and shaded with 

' TO tbe low lotel, to tfae bosdlong rock 
U thiver'd, that aome passage li oilgbt^Te 
To bim who from abore woaid pasa-Carsf. 

* Tbe fortress alluded to is caU^d CMusa, and is said to have been originally 
ballt by tbe Romans; and thougb frequently destroyed during the wars and Va- 
rious invasions of Italy, yet it was as consUntly repaired in morepeaoMble tims. 
Jt mjut be aplLnaiviedged iha( Nature coujd not have erected a mor.e injipregnable 
rampi^ to Italy than the Alps, nor opened a more magnificent avenue than tbe 
long defile of the Tyrol. 
* MroDftertbaii^tbniider'swtogod force, 

' Ail-poH'rftil gold can speod liMQvr^r. 

6old tOTW tbro<uh ^U<1 ^aU* ^ brtak.HPr«fic/«. 



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cBttbios kom htaooh to branoh Md i^Mdiag in giflio^f 
from tree to tree. The devastation of war had not a fiMfe disft** 
gBVed^thifl •eoaerj, by Jtrippiag geTWtl villas, Iwdliiig BMiif a 
gr»v«9 and rootiag op whole rows of tiMS attd mBlfcerry ^nem. 
Bui the band of iMoalry had already begim to repair thefta vih 
¥•^^9 and to pfsloffe to the neighboring ItiUa aBdi idls difir 
hMDty and^^rtility. 

The interior of thn towm ia worthy of ita aitoation. It ia ^im 
Tided into two awqnal paits by the Adige» whieh sweefM t hgo n gh 
ilio a bold enrve^aod forma a pemasala, wilbin which lk» whol* 
«if ihe aneiam, and fhe greaier part of the modara city, is andoaMl^ 
Tba river is wide and p^uI ; the streets, aa m almosl all SMta* 
neolal lowna, are nar]K)war tkan ours, but long, sit atgfat,. wdl buil^ 
aid frequentfy praaenting in the forai of tha doora^ and wtnittwt^ 
anA iiBi the omamants of iheir cases, fine proportiona, and beami^ 
. M wo;rkaiai|9hif . 

But besides these advantages which Verona enjoys in cqqnrM 
with many other towns; it can boast of possessing ode of the no- 
blest monaments of Roman magnificence now axisting; I mean 
its amphitheatre, inferior in size, but equal in materials and in 
nnlidily to llte Golisnum. Afanost unmediataly upon our arrival^ 
ire hakfmed ta tbia eelehrated monument, and passad^ tha graatar 
part of the morning in dimhtng its seats and ranging over its apn* 
otmai arena. The external cirecnnference, fSormiHg the om»«^ 
ipental part, has been destroyed long ago; with the mcnptioQ of 
one pieoe of watt cnyKaining twee sturins.oiF fomr avcbea, rtsiog to 
itie heigbi of more than eighty feec The pihiaters and deoar^* 
t^ns of tkhs omatftp were Tuscan, an order w<A s^dapted by !!» 
simfAcHj to soeh rm fabrics. Forty-five ranges of seais^ rising 
from the arena to the top of the second story of ontward archsn^ 
r^iMip nutire, with tbt^ differant vomHoria, and their raspaoWe 
siair«aai».and galleries oi ocMnmunication. The whole k formal 
of bfeaka nf aMrbla» and presents such a mass of c<wpact $oiiditys 
ai niigkl havft dsfind.tbe inBoence of time, had not its poiirerg 
bMs Mid by Ike aaore active operations of barbarlaa destrttelioii% 
The aiJMa is iio(, as^ in Addison'a tiini^, filled up and leva) wiMi 
th« frit^ f«w of sea^a» bu^ aiew feet tower i thovfib stsU soite^ 
what higher than it was in its original slate. As it is not my 
intention to give an archit6q|;ardl account of this celebrated edifice^ 
I shall merely inform the reader, in order to giv0 him a general 
ic^^of Us v^tjneijs^ that the outward circumference is 1290 fee^ 
the l9Ag4 ^ tbe ar^nsi 218, and its breadth 1SS9 : the seats- are c%. 
pabin ol Mmaining 31^,000 spectators. 

^t^eacb endoPthe amphitheatre is a great gate, and over eneh 
a modern balustrade ^i(h an inscriptioti, informing the travefler, 
that two exhibitions of a very different nat^re took place in it 
some years ago. The one waa a buljkfaaitkie eihibited in honor 



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tf ihe BiBptior JoMph Uien at Ydrona, by the ciay«niolr tad ikM 
p6opIe^ The seats were crowded, as may be imagiDedt on AM 
Qocasion ; wnd a Romaa Emperofr was once more hailed ia • 
Roman amphitheatre with the titles n of Cesar and Augustus^ by 
spectators who pretend and almost deserve to be Romans* The 
other exhibition, though of a rery different naia)^, was perhapft 
equally interesting : the late Pope in his German exoarsion passed 
throng Verona, and was requested by the magistrates to give th« 
peofde a public opportunity of testifying their yeneratioii^ . He 
accordfaigly appeared in. the amphitheatre selected on aqcouot of 
i|s capacity as the properest place, and wken the shoets of acclaiitt 
bed aubsided, poured forth his benediction oii the proitrate multf* 
tud^ collected fiKMU all the. neighboring proTitices to reeeiye iL 
The thoughtful spectator might haye amused hijnsdf iv^ith A4 
smgular contrast, which this ceremony must have presented^ S0 
the riiows and the pomps exhibited in the same place in ancient tiiM^ 
A multitude in both cases equally numerous, then assembled foi^ 
purposes of cruel and bloody amusements, now collected by motiTei 
of piety and brotherhood : then all noise, agitation, and nproar 3 
sow all silence and tranquil expectation : then all eyes filed on tht 
arena, or perhaps ou the Emperor, an arena crowded with human 
Tfettms, an Emperor, Gallienus for instance^ frowning on his trenoH 
bling siares : now a)l looks rivetted on the yenerabie person of a 
Christian Pontiff; who, with eyes and fainds uplifted to heavmi, im~ 
plqred'ftir die prostrate crowd peace and happiness. 

The French applied the ainphitbeatre to a very diifereBt p«H 
pose^ Shortly after iheir entrance into Verona, they efeotela 
wooden theatre near one of the grand portals, and caused several 
farces and pantomimes to be acted in il for the amusement of the 
amy. The sheds and scaffolding that composed this iiiiserabW 
ediice were standing In the year 1809, aAd looked as if intMdei 
by the buUder for a ^Itre u|M)flitbe taste of the Oreca NoAan^ ilwC 
ootfd disltfore so noble an srrena. The Veronese beheld thia 
diatacterisiie absurdity with indignatton ; andcomparedthe Freadh, 
Mt ^diout reason, to the Huns and the Lombard^. In realityi 
tlM inhabftamts of Verona have always distinguished tbeasselvei 
by an unusual attaclmeni' to their ancient motfumeots, aard hatd 
endeaTowred/ as well as the misery of the timesi and the geMral 
kfipoverisbment of Italy would allow Ihem, to (^reserve and repslf 
ibeir pabliebviidings. From an early period in the thirteeifib ctmi 
tury (ISI8) ire Sad tbat there were sums appreprMted 10 the 
f^ptfration of the amphkheaire ; and Aat afterwards public ofdevi 
were iiatted for ils preservation* and ornament, and respt^taMi 
citizens appointed to enforce them. This latter custom continued 
till the French invasiQU, and twx> persons entitled Presidentt alia 
arma (presidents of tbe amphitbeatreji, were mtrnstfd with its 
inspectiou and guardianship. Such zeal and attentioii, lo^wbich 



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40 CXASSIGAL TOUR Gbap. H. 

the wotI^ owes, one of the noblest monuments of antiquity , are 
highly creditable to the taste and rbe public spirit of the Veronese^ 
and afford an honorable proof that they not only boast of Roman 
extraction, but retain some features of the Roman character. 

But the amphitheatre is not the only monument of antiquity that 
distinguishes Verbna. In the middle of a street, called the Carso^ 
stands a gate inscribed with the name of Gallienus, on account of 
his having rebuilt the city walls. It consists of two gateways, ac- 
cording to the ancient custom, one for those who enter, the other 
For those who go Out : each gateway is ornamented with Corinthian 
half pillars, supporting a light pedimeht ; above are two stories 
with six small arched windows each.' The whole is of marble, and 
does not seem to have suffered any detriment from time or vio- 
lence. The gate, though not without beauty in its size, propor- 
tions, and materials, yet, by its supernumerary ornaments proves, 
that at its erection the taste for pure simple architecture was on 
the decline. The remains of another gate, of a similar though* 
chaster form, may be seen in the Via Leont, where it stands as a 
front to an insignificant house ; and within that house, in the upper 
story, a few feet behind the first gate, there esist some beautifial 
rcfmn^nts of the Doric ornaments of t)ie inner front of the gate ; 
remnants much admired by modern architects, and said to present 
one of the best specimens of that order to be found in Italy. This 
double gate is supposed to have been the entrance into the Forum 
Judiciale, and ought to be cleared, if possible, of the miserable pila 
that encumbers it, and buries its beauty. 

From the 'first-mentioned gate, which farmed the principal en- 
trance into the town, as appears from some remains of the wail or 
rampart, which ran on ^ach side of it,, and 'was repaired by Gal- 
Uenus, we may conclude that Verona was anciently of no great 
extent, as it was confined to the space, that lies between this wall 
and the river. This observation, apparently improbable, consider- 
ing that Yerona was an ancient Roman colony, the native country 
or the residence of many illustrious persons mentioned by histo- 
rians and celebrated by poets, is founded on the authority of 
Siliusand of Servius; if indeed the descriptions of the former can, 
like Homer's^ be .considered as geographical authority;* However, 
it may be presumed that the suburbs of the town eitetaded inta 
(he neighboring plain; a conjecture favored, by the situation of the 
amphitheatre, which, though standing at some distance from the 
ancient gate, was probably erected in or near some populous 
quarter. At all events, the. modern Verona is of much greater 
magnitude, and spreading into the plain to a considerable distance 



t Atbesis Yerons clrcumflaa (Fair Athesis, which girds Verona's town). Sil.YIII. 
Alhesis Venetian fiuviifs est Yeronum civitatem ambiens. (TheAthesfs is a riyer 
of Yeoetia, surrounding the city of the Yerones). Berviiis in Y>rgt Ylil; 



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Chaf. n. THBOUOa ITALY. it 

beyond thb old wall on the one side, ^d on the other coTering 
the opposite banks of the ri^er, encloses the ancient town as its 
centre, and occupies a spacious area of about five miles in circum- 
ference. Many parts of it, particularly the square called Piazid 
delta Brtty near the amphitheatre, are airy and splendid^ Some of 
its palaces, and seyei^al of its churches, merit particular attention : 
among the latter, the beautiful chapel of S. Bernardino, in the church 
of the Franciscan Friars, and S. Zeno^^ with its painted cloister 
and vast vase of porphyry, may perhaps claim the precedency. 

Among public edifices, the Gran-Guardia and the Museo Jjapi-- 
dario are the most conspicuous : the portico of the latti^r is Ionic : 
its court, surrounded with a galjery of light Doric, contains a vast 
collection of antiquities ' of various kinds, such as altars, tombs, 
sepulchral vases, inscriptions, etc'., formed and arranged princi- 
pally by the celebrated Maffei, a nobleman whose learning and 
taste (two qualities not always united) reflect great honor on Italy, 
and particularly on Verona, the place of his birlh and his usual 
residence. 

The garden of the GttUii family, alluded to by Addison, is still 
shewn to travellers, thpugh it has little to recommend it to atten- 
tion except its former celebrity, and some wild walks winding 
along the side of a declivity remarkable as being the last steep in 
the immense descent from the Alps to ihe plain. From the highest 
terrs^^e of this garden, there is a beautiful and extensive prospect 
of the town, the hills and the Alps on one side; and on the dther, 
of .plaids spreading wide, and losing their fading tints in the 
soDthern horizon. This is, in reality, one of the best spots for 
viewing Verona, and as such it may be cpiisidered worthy of the 
attention of travellers, together with the hills that rise behind the 
town, particqlariy that on which formerly stood the Castello di San 
Pieiro, now in ruins. 

Few towns have contributed more largely to the reputation oF 
Roman literature, or have been more fertile in the production of 
genius, taste^ and knowledge, than Verona. Catullus, and Macer 
(supposed to be introduced by Virgil into hh Eclogues under the 
pastoral name of Mopsus) ; Cornelius Nepos and Pomponius Se- 
cundas; Vitruvius, and Pliny the Elder, form a constellation of 
luminaries of the first magnitude, and shed a distinguishing lustre 
on the place of their birth and early education. A successioii of 
writers followed ; and though feeble tapers in comparison of theiF 
predecessors, yet they cast a trsmsient gleam as they passed on, 

I This eliiurch raflfered considerably from the brutality of the French soMiery, 
some of whom amused themseflves, as might have done the Huns of Attila, or the 
Goths of Radagaifius, in br^ing porphyry pillars and vases, ransacking tombs* 
and disfiguring paintings. 

' * The French visited this coTIection, and (harried' off some of the most valuably 
articles. 



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4a ctAsenokJurnMh Okah-H. 

a^ not only preserTed tbe light of mAenoe from Mag ott^ 
extinguished daring the middle centuries, but contributed to revivn 
its glories at a later and more fortunate period, in this rerival^ 
at die commencement of the fifteenth century, Verona had soma 
share : ISuartnt, a Veronese, returning from Constantinople, rfh* 
st^Mred die study of Greek some time before 4he arrival of Chryto^ 
IwM^ and of the other learned Constantinppolitan fugitives. H# 
was succeeded by a long line of eminent men, among iirhom we 
may distinguish Domktm Caidermi (who,. with Laurenliut Vallm and 
Polittan, r^eiyed the honorable appellation of Triumvirs of Li- * 
leMiore) ScaUger and Pwvinim; and in fine, Fracastmna the poel^ 
the naturalist, and tbe astronomer. In modern times^ Verona still 

Eesoryes her reputation in taste and science ; and the names of 
anchini and &ipio Maffei may. be considered as. proofs of her 
present, and pledges of her future literary glory. 

Tbe history of Verona is various and interesting. Situated as ift v 
is at the foot of the Alps, and at the southern opening of the grand 
defile through Rhetia, forming the most ancient and regular con** 
munication between Italy ^and Germany, it is exposed to ihe.lfst 
fury of the northern invaders, and has cdways been the first objedt 
of their attacks. It resisted with various suocess ; so,metim'es it vtA 
treated ?9^ith lenity, and sometimes with cruelty. Like the other 
Italian towns> it submitted sooner or later to die prevailing power, 
and bore successively the yoke of the Heruli, of the Qotfai, of tlui 
Greeks, of the Lombards, and of the Italian and German empcH 
rors. Daring this long period of invasion,^ of anarchy, and of 
devastation^ Verona seems to have eiijoyed a better ftite, or, to 
speali more correcdy, to have suffered less than most other Italian 
cities. Many of the sovereigns, who reigned daring this interval 
from Theodoric to Frederic the Second^ either allured by the 
beauty, or struck by tbe importance of its situjation, made VeroM 
their occasional resid^ce; and frequendy paid much attention to 
its accomn)odation, strength, and ornament. 

In tb^ twelfth century, Verona, to([ether with many othear Ita- 
lian citieS) sbook off tile yoke of foreign barbarians; erected ilseU 
into an independent repubUc; and^ as conquest frequently attenda 
liberty, became the Capital of a very considerable territory. la 
this state of freedom aqd of consequence Verona remained till tbsi 
comDjiencement of the fifteenth century ; when, seduced by tbe inn 
fluenoe, allured by the glory, or awed, by the greatness xtf Veoioe^ 
she sfibmitted to the genius of her powerful neighbor. However.! 
this voluntary dependence was rather a state of tranquillity than 
of servitude or de^j^radation. The Venetiaaa respeeted the laws 
and customs of the Veronese, and consnlted the beauty and pro»*« 
pertty of their city; so that ihe change tnlght be considered as 
the union of borderiag- territories, not the subjection of a sepa- 
rate state; and the' sway of the Venetians was regarded raAor 



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u ibe flopirioritf oC oontr^mea, ib9fk as th^ unvqatiw of S^ 

At lengthy itaring ibe r evoIutioQarj war» ihe^Frnp^h iQYad^ iOdy | 
Ii94> «ftef a Iwf md bloody contest, remaiaing s^a^tare oitiik^y^ 
aetifta(^rrit#ry> raiployed it to purchase peace, and loada ^artto 

fra^tast ptrt lo tbe eiftperor. Upon this occasion^ iik» iarrjtarj of 
arona waa dividad^andthe city itself torn asunder^ tbeAdigew«a 
dadared to batba boandary of the two statea, tbe nerritory auid pari 
itf the town OB tb6 left bank was cdnaigaed to the Afiati-iaaa, wbi}a 
the ffSM^f pain, which lies on the rigbt, waa annexed to the piw^ 
ci>eated Italian republic. This disiaembi^fli€»t (if the expra^WMi 
9af be allowed) ia considered by the Veronese as the graateat disa^T 
ler ihear ipwo Im ever auffered^ and the French are detained ai 
iba moai ciniel of the aiaay barbarous tribes that faave iovad^ fjimt 
devoted conntry. They look upon themselYes a$ victinui qS a par-^ 
tition treety^betweao two rival powers, agreeing only in one poiiK 
<-«diQ subjugation and oppression of Italy; but these powers tbeiy 
hate as transalpines and barbarians (for the latt^ term is ^>plie4 
by tbe laodern aa well as tbe aacient Italians, to aH foreign or 
hostile nations),. but the French most, as aggressors, who baiF<^ 
added treachery v^i insult to invasion and plunder. Tbe ItaHan. 
fepoblic tbey regard as the bandmaid and creature of Fr^noe^ 
with a pompous naitae to dupe the populace, and ta palliate the 
edium of tyrannioij measures end of oppressive teiattoa. Tb^ 
eonaider its dur^tipn as uncertain as tbe existence, and its adminis- 
tration as irregular aa the caprice of its founds \ like the French 
rep«blic, it is ia their eyes a phantom; .^tuch appeared yesterday, 
wi mny vanish to^oiorrow : doubtful therefore of its permanency, 
bqi contiaced tbet while it exists, it will be a mere instrument of 
opi^ef sion in the bands of an enemy, they behold iu operatioiMi 
with distrust, and hear its name with contempt and indignatioa* 
Hence the inactivity and solitude that pervade the streets of the 
Italian, or rather French part of the town, and announce the ap* 
prehension and the despair of its inhabitants, their attachment to 
their old, and their hatred to their new government. 

The Ausl;ri£^ns tb^ do not at^d cannot love : they are barbarians 
and invaders ; and though tbe emperor be a just and even beuieiYoleQlt 
floviwreign, yet his right over them is that of the sword only ; an4 
though he may be tyramorum mith^inms (the mildest of tyrants), 
;ef 19 4^e eyoa of every Italian patriot, still he is, as well as ^vor 
nopofi^, ^ tyrant^ and an usurper : since, hoyever<, they are doomed 
to be slaves, of tbe two they prefer the former. Tbe Austriaa 
govetoment i$ mild and equitable ; it proceeds on fixed nrinciplea, 
and moves on in tbe straight and beat^en track ; it is, and so is th^ 
French republic, liable to ^ reverses of war; but it is exempt^ 
and so is aot the. French republic, from intcurni^i change and uoex* 
p^tcte^ revolution. Hence they subpiit with somQtbing Uk^ resignu* 



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4$ CLASSICAL TOUR GoAP. U. 

tion, to the imperial sway; and hence some life and actiTity, some 
share of confidence, and^sonoe appearance of business, enliven the 
Austrian quarter of Vevona. It is indeed highly probable, that if 
the present precarious state of things lasts for aAy time, the ancient 
city will be atmost deserted, and all the populatioti of Verona pass^ 
to the Austrian territory. Not to speak therefore of the money 
raised, of the pictures, statues, and antiquities, carried off by the 
French, Verona has suffered more, in a. political sense, in the last 
convulsive war, than perhaps any city, Venice excepted, that lay 
withjn its range of devastation. Not content with dividing and 
enslaving it for the present, the French seem determined to pre- 
Tent it from ever again becoming a place of irtiportance ; "and have 
accordingly levelled its fortifications, and destroyed the walls ^of its 
castle formerly a fortress of some strength from its ramparts and 
commanding position. The top and sides of the hill are now covered 
with its ruins ; and the emperor is, I belieye, obliged by an article 
in the treaty, not to rebuild them at any future period. Such was 
the state of Verona in the year 1802. 

Our last visit, as our first, was to the amphitheatre rwe passed 
some hours, as before, in a \ery delightful manner^ sometimes 
' reclining on the middle seats, and admiring the capitciousness, the 
ntagnitude, and the durability of the vast edifice ; at other times 
seated on the upper range, contemplating the noble prospect 
expanded before us, the town under our eyes, verdant plains 
spreading on one side, and on the other, the Alps rising in craggy 
majesty, and bearing on their ridges the united snows of four 
thousand winters; while a^tih Hesperian sun shone in full brightness 
over our heads, and southern gales breathed all the warmth and all 
the fragrance of spring around us. Prospects so grand and beauti- 
ful must excite very pleasii^g ^motions at all times, and such vernal 
breezes may well be supposed to inspire 



--delight and joy able to drive 



All sadness.' 

But the pleasure which we felt on the occasion, was not a little 
enhanced by the contrast between our present and late situation. 
W^ bad just descended from the mountains of the Tyrol, where 
our view had long been confined to a deep and narrow defile ; our 
eye now ranged at liberty over an immense extent of scenery, rich, 
magnificent and sublime. We had just escaped from the rigors of 
winter and we were now basking in the beams of a summer sun. 
We still stood on the very verge of frost, and beheld whole ipcgions 
of snow rising full before us ; but vernal warmth, vegetation, and' 
verdure, enveloped us on all sides, tn Such circumstances, when 
for the first time the traveller beholds the beauties of an Italian pros- 
pect expanded before him, and feels the genial influence of anltaliai| 



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Chap. It. • TdHOUGH ITALY. 4S 

son around him, he jnay be allowed to indalge a momeolary en- 
thusiasm, and hail Italy in the language of Virgil. 

Sedneque Medoram sylyas, ditlssiina terra. 
Nee pulcher Ganges, atque aaro iarbius H^rmos 
Laudibus Italls certent; non Bactra neqoe Indi, 

Totaqae thuriferis Panehala ptDguisarento 

Hie gravidas fruges et Baccbi Massicus bamor 
Implevere ; tenent olea armentaque l»ta.... 
Hie ver assiduum, atque alieois mensibas estas.*. ' 
Adde tot egregias urbes operamqae laborem 
Tot congesta maoa prsruptis opplda sails 
Fluminaque aDtiqttos subterlabentia maros.... 
Salve magoa parens rrugum, Saturnia tellus 
Magna virumi' Georg,n, 

On the whole, we visited few places with more satisfaction, and left 
few with Aiore regret, than Verona ; whether as the first Italian 
city on our road it happened,, by its appearance and monumenltf 
yery novel to a transalpine traveller, particularly to engage our 
attention ; or whether it really possesses many means of exciting 
interest, I know not; but as we departed, we felt ourselves inclined 
to address it in the words of one of its poets. 

"Verona) qui te viderit, 
£t non amarit protinus, 

Amore perditissimo,. 
Is, credo, se ipsuip non amat, « > 

Garetque amandi scnsibus, 

£t odlt omnes gratlas.** ■ Gotta. 

if a traveller have any time to spare (and he whoyishes to travel 

' Bot nettber. Median woods, a plenteoas land. 

Fair Ganges, lierniua rolHug golden aand, 
Nor Bactrta, nor tbe richer Indian tlelds, ^ 

Mor all tbe gummy stores Arabia fields, ^ 

Nor ai:y foreign earth.uf greater name. 
Can with sweet Italy contend in fame. .... 
But rraitful vine«, and tbe fat olive's freight. 
And harvests heavy with their fraitful weight. 
Adorn Onr fields ; and on the cbeerfol greea 
The graiing flocks and lowing herds are seen. . . , 
Perpetual spring our happy climate sees. 
And summer suns recede by slow degrees. ... 
Next add our iliiesof illa:itrlous name, 

Their costly labour and stupendous frame : *• 

Qur forts on steepy hills, that far below 
See wanton streams in winding vallief flow. . . . 
Ball I aweet Saturnian soil I of fruitful grain 
Great Parent, greater of illustrious men l-Dryden. 
• Whoe'er has seen Verona fair, - 

nor plac'd bis whole afliBClloa there, 

Metbioks the cold and senseless elf 

Bas scarce the heart to love himself: 

Sure churlish Mature bas supprest 

The pow'r of loving in bis breast. 

And curs'd bim with tb unetaTled fate 

Wbate'er is bw eet and, fair, to bate. 

Tbe best guide Is tbe Compendia della Verona, in four very thin, or two ordf- 
nary small octavo volumes, witb prints. It is an iibridgmoot of a larger woik» 
entitled ** Verona ffluttra^a," by tbe celebrated MaffH. 



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U CLASSICAL tOCn 6suti Ml. 

iKHi hmfSBti <mgbt rfwfiys to have aome days at kni df8|»pstf) N 
may spend it with adTantage aft Verona, as liia head-'q^ariers, attd 
take an oppo ftunity of visiting Monte Bolca about eighteen, and Valle 
Ronca about fifteen miles distant;. where the lovers of the pictu- 
resque will find some beawiiAil scenery, and the mineralogist some 
remarkable specimens of variovs^ svoaes, eartba, petrifactions, 
incrustations, basattic pfflars, etc. Among shnfl^ furiosities, we 
may. rank the Ponu Veia, a natural arch of considerable sweep and 
boldness. 

The wines of Verom were formerly famooa, ai appear from Yir- 
gil^s apostrophe. 

"£t quo te carmine dicam 
EluBtlca? nee cellis Ideo oontende Falernis." ' 

Biit flkeit repotatton at present is yery low, as is that ef almost 9M 
Ae irines ptodttced on the northierD side •f tke Apemiines* 



CHAPTERin. 

Yicentia— BoUdings--Ol7mpic Ao»dte»y avd Tteatf&-~Sty]e of Palladio— Church 
of Monte Berico— Gimbrt Sette GoamuBi-^aduft— Its Antiquity, EUstory, 
Literature, and University. 

The distance from Yerona to Vicentia is three posts and a half; the 
road runs over a plain highly cultivated, and beautifully shaded 
with vines and mulb^ries. When I say 4 plain, I do not mean 
that the foce of the country is a dead insipid flat, but only that it 
is not hlRy. However, n^r Monu BeUo, bold hills rise on each 
side, and present in their windings, or on their summits, villages, 
towns, and castle's. 

Yicentia (Yicetia) Yiaensba is a town as ancient as Yerona, large 
and populous ; its circumference is of three miles, and the number 
of its inhabitants is said to amount to 30,000. It has passed through 
the same revolutions as its neighbor Yerona^ but it seems to have 
suffered more from their Qonsequences. It was indeed burnt by 
the Emperor Frederic the Second, while at war with the Pope, on 
account of its attathment to the latter, and cannot consequently be 
supposed to exhibit any remnants of its Roman glory. 

But the want of ancient monuments is supplied in a great degree 
by numberless masterpieces of modem genius. Palladio was a 
native of this city, and seems to have employed with complacency 
idl the power of his art in the embellishment of his country. Hence 

*/ fl^ flMtt I ptalie tbe flIuBtian grape dlflfte, ' 

Wliiayeiii u » Hil iwtirtdir<liMfaiwia»>':>lh><<<»^ 

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die taste apd magmUcence that reign in most oPtlie pnblie baild- 
itog9, »hi in many of the prrrate honses. Amoirg^ the former we 
aiay distingaish the Town Honse, called yery significantly Palazzo 
delta ragione, that is, the Palace of Public Reason^ or Qpinipn, where 
jastice is administered, and the business of the city transacted; the 
Palazzo del Capikmio, the residence oF the Podesth, or principal 
magistrate, so called from potestas, ■ a title sometimes given by the 
Romans'to persons charged with the highest functions in provincial 
towns; the gate of the Campus Martius,a triumphal arch, solid and 
w«lt protportioiietf; and, abo^e alt, die celebrated Olympic Tbeeire 
•reeled^ at the expense of a Welt known academy bearfag thai pom^ 
pMS title. This edifice is raif^ed upon -the plan of ancient theatrea, 
aBA b€iars a great resemblance \o those of Herculanenm and Poaa^ 
peii. The permanenl and immoTea6le scenery, die ranges of seata 
nsfng above eachf other, the silaation of the orchestra in the po- 
4mii»> and the colonnade that crowns the upper range, are all 
futhftd representations of antiquity. The scene consi^s of a mag- 
aifieent gate supported by a dovble row ef pillars^ with nicheil and 
atataes: it has one large and two knaller entrances opening kkU^ 
as manyprincipal streets, deeoratekl with temples, palaces, and pub^ 
Kc ecKfitees of various descriptions, floimed of solid materiab, and 
disposed according to the mle$ of perspectiTe, so as to assume* 
somewhat more than the mere theatrical appettrance of reaJtty. Thpe 
sides are a continuation of the same plan, and have also each one 
Mitrance giving into its respective street; thus there are five ett^ 
tran5:ies, through which the actors pass and repass to and firom the 
aiage. The orchestra occupies the centre, or that ^art which we 
call the pit ; ihence rise- the seats forming the side of an ellipsis, and 
ibo!^ them die gAlery composed of a range of Corinthian pillars 
vrMi. Aeir foil entaMatare surmountad by a balustrade and adorned 
with statues of marble. An air of simplicity, lightness, and beauty 
Migns over the whole edifice, and deligfaits the ordinary observer; 
while in the opinion of connoissenrs is entitles the Tea$ro Olimpko 
to the appellation of the Masterpiece of Palladio. 

But honorable as it is to tbe taste and to the talents of its arch^> 
teet, it refiects equal, perhaps greater lustre on the Society, at whose 
cnrpense, and for whose purposes it was erected. The CMympie 
Academy was institoted at Vtcenza so early as the year 1565, by a 
set of gendemen, for the ^couragemerit and propagation of ^ofitO' 
literature. Public exhibitions were among the means employed by 
die Society to at^in that object ; and several attempts were mado' 
to aocommodate various buildings to iheir purpose; but fiddling: 
none perf^iy suitable, they at tengtb oame to the publioHipiriied 
resolution of efiecting a theatre; and that its farm might correspond 

' Ab UdOMfwa CialilQnumiiia eMpotestM.-^nv. wf »»• 



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is CLASSICAL TOUR Chap, m^* 

with its dBsfmation, np ]e8S than with the classic spirit o{the ac- 
tors that were 16 tread its stage, they commissioned Palladio Co 
raise it on, the ancient model. The inscription over the^ stage 
points out its object. 

YIBtUTI AC OENIO, OLYimCORUM ACADEMIA 
THEATBUW HOC A FUJIDAMSNTIS EB]BIIT 
AlllfO 1584. PALLADIO AKCmiECTQ. ' 

The spirit of ancient genius seemed to revive, and the spectator 
noight have imagined himself at Athens, when the members'^of the 
Society acted the tragedies of Sophocles and of Euripides, with all 
possible attention to the dresses and to the manner^ of the age and 
of the country, surrounded with the scenery and amidst the statues 
of the gods and the heroes of antiquity. $uch an institution was 
^ighly honorable no Italy in general, and to Vtcenza in particular, 
at a period whqn transalpine nations were just emerging from igno-' 
ranee, and opening their eyes tQ the rising brightness of taste and 
of science. The Olympic Academy still exists,, and is composed 
now, as it was formerly, of the mo^t respectable citizens, and df 
many learned foreigners ; though I am sorry to add, that the Thea- 
tre has long lamented the absence of the tragic muse, having been 
devoted for many years, solely to the assemblies of the Academy, 
or perhaps enlivened with the occasional merriment of a ball or a 
masquerade. Moreover, since the French invasion, it seems to 
have suffered from the negligence or from the poverty of the pro- 
prietors, owing partly to the heavy contributions ^id on the town, 
and partly to that listlessness and depression of spirits which ge-. 
nerally accompany national disasters. But when this storm shall 
have blown over, the national genius will probably revive and re* 
turn with redoubled ardor to its favorite pursuits. 

There are said to be about twenty palaces, i^hich were erected, 
by Palladio, some of which are of unusual magnificence, and con*t 
tribute in the whole to give Vtcenza an appearance of splendor and. 
beauty npt common even in Italy. In materials and magnitade 
they are inferior perhaps to the palaces, of Genpa, but in style of 
architecture and in external beauty far superior. Palladio in fact 
had a particular talent in applying the orders and the opnameDts 
of architecture to the decorations of private edifices. Unlike the 
ancients, who seem to have contented themselves with employing* 
lis grandeur in temples, porticos, and public buildings, he intro- 
duced it into common life, and communicated its elegant forms to. 
private edifices and to ordinary dwellings. I do not mean to as- 
sert that the houses and the villas of the ancients vere entirely de*' 

' To Virtue and Centos, -the Academy of the OIympti» in the year 158i rtised 
from Its foundation this theatre, of which PaUadio w^s the arcjiitect. 



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C^lII; <CpipH6R ITALY; W 

Yoid of ardiH^ral ornaments^ Horace sj^aks ofthe cohiinnBlliat 
decorated thB pidaces of the rich Romaiis of his time; 

iHempek inter yarias nutrijiiir syrva columnas.!— f'pM. lib. 1..10. >,• 

- Nod trabes Hymettis 
Premaot columnas aUim& recisas 
AfrlcA ' . 

. Tti sedioda marnnora, et6^'-— Hor. ^i. 18, 

Pillars h9d been iotrodaced long befQre> as Crassus, the orator^ 
was humbroasLy styled Venus Palatina, oa account or. six. pillars of 
Hymettian marble, which ornamented his. house on (he pilatioe 
Hoiint. . We learn also, from the same author,^ that Mamurra, .a 
l^oman knight, who had acquired, great riches in the service of 
Julius Gffisar, pntirely intrusted his house on Mount Celins with 
marble, and adorned it with columns of the richest species df the 
same materials. Cicer-o speaks of a Greek architect whom he em~ 
ployed, and. complains of his ignc^ance or inattention in- raising 
his pillars, as be.* had placed them neither perpendfcujar^. nor op^ 
pesite to each other .« Aliquando^ says Cicero, perpendiculo et Imeit' 
di9cet uti^ (Some time or other be will learn to use the perpendica- 
lar and the line). Thi^ surely is a strange compliment to a Greek 
artist. The pillars befe alluded to seem to have supported the por-^ 
tico oF his villa at Arpinum. Suetonius also, to give his readers an 
idea of the moderation of Augustus^ observe^, that the )>illars of 
his bouse on the Palatine Mount were of Alban stone, not marbl^. 
But I am inclined to bf lieve that such ornaments were confined to 
the most celebrated palaces, or perhaps employed only in the inte* 
rior courts and surrounding portiqos : if they had been commori on 
the exterior we should have discovered some traces of them in the 
ruins of different villas, or at least in th^ fronts of the houses of 
Pompeii : and yet though I cannotj&ssert that there are none^ I dp 
not recollect to have observed in the streets 5F the latter city thc» 
slightest Vestige of architectural ornaments on private edificiss. To 
these external decorations of architecture^ the cities of Italy, and 
indeed most modern towns of any consideration^ owea great^part 
of their beauty ; -and .may glory, not perhaps without reason, in 
surpassing the towns of antiquity ^in general appearance. 

I feel some regi:et in being obliged to acknowledge, that the 
metropolis of the British empire^i though- the first city of Europe, 
for neatne$s, convenience, aiKl cleanliness, is yet inferior.to mos$ 
capitals in architectural embellishment. This defect is owtt%» in ^■^ 

' .... - Among yoorc^kimiM, rich wWiTariopid|«i,' i .- : ,.^ , ', « 

Vaoat'fal woods Ivltbaukward Aft arise. -Frolicf*. - 
. '- ' . • • • — Noc<^onnade - * ' \" . i ' •" • '« 

Proudly supports my clironl>eaiiM..~F/attcir. ' ^ '.. V. '.....'. ., 
* But' you-*— ' ; ' 

Command thie plUar'd dome to rise.— Francis . 



» Plin.xxxYi. c4p.3» - .. »• Ad. Quint » ^Mrem. lil. y. , 
J. 4 



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m CLAflnCAijraaa oiuf^ iol 

pat>*ipi<^ to tht iiilwei»f dMi matBrialt of irhidi>il it formed, 
«8 bridt is ill-ci^alaited to r^eetve ^he griceCpl tjm^s of an' lonje 
Tolate/or of a Corinthian aeasthus; while the dampness of the 
climate seaam to pMctu^e ihe possibiliif of apply iftg^ sioceo to the 
external parts with perms^qent advantage. Besides, some blame 
may justly be attributed to. architects, who either know not, or 
negieu the raloik of proportion and the models of antiquity ; and in 
edifices, where no expense has been spared, often display splendid 
iyianffts oC tafteiess contrivance and of grbtescpe ingenuity. Bqt, 
il'ia to he hopM, that ^he industry and the ta^ of the British na* 
ljM>a wiB,,ere long, triumph over this double obetacle, infifrire 
airti^ wiikceniu6, toach even brick to emulato marble, and givea^ 
ItoCMiiog beauty and ikiagnifitience to the seat of govemawiit and t^ 
the cafiial of so mighty an- empire* Augustas found Rome #f 
brick, and in liis last moments boasted that he left it of marble.^ 
May not London hope at length to see its Augustus ? 

Aft PiMadio was a native of- Vieenxa, it may be proper, to say^ 
flootfaibiag of that celebrated arckitea, while we are employed m- 
adtoiriiig the many superb., structures,, with which he ornamented 
1km country. Of all modern architects, PaUadio seema to have had 
tltobest taale, the most correct ideas, and the greatost Jnfluebeo> 
aver his cotttemporanes and posterity. S4Mne' may have hhd mord^ 
favorable opportuailies of displaying their talents ; and such, ia- 
llotb re^peota, was the felicity of the two grand architects of St. 
j^eier's, MranumU and lUichi^d Angtolo : but PaUadio haa the exclvK 
8i«e glory of having first collected, irom the writings and noiMi^ 
m^nts of the ancients,, a canon of symmetry and proportion, and 
ot having reduced architecture under aU its forms, to a regular and 
Qompleto system. 1 am aware that many parts of that system have 
beeasevefeiycriiiiciaed.; ihjii his pedestals, for instance, are bymany 
ciwaidei^ ae heavy, his half pillars as Ituie, and his decorations ae< 
luiuriaiit :, yet it must be remembered, that' these real or merely no«- 
ijlHBa} defects ar^ authorised by the practice of the ancients ; and 
thAt it iS: qot fair to blam^ in a modern edifice, thafe which is ed^ 
oMfed ia the Temple of Fortuna Yirilis, or on the Triumphal Arch 
oi Tr^i^n. But supposing this criticism well founded, every candid 
ilpectator will admit, that there are in all the edifices erected under 
the direction, or on the immediate plans QfPalladio, a simplicity and 
kiMttty, a symmetry and majesty, that abundantly compensate petty 
dffiSsfit^ and fulfil all the ends ot architecture, by jproducing grea^ 
ness of manner and unity of design* -. 

1 know not whether my opinion, in this respect, may agree witli 
that of professed artists; but of all the grand liabrics,. which 1 have 
baid an ppportunity of contemplating alter St. Peter's and the Pan- 
theon, the two masterpieces, one of lUioie^t/ the other of modero 

« Met t D. Oct ; Cite t Augtittt 

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WPtbWtMH, I own I was most Aeljghteid witW fli(^ al)bey efam^Mff 
St. George at Venice, and th^tof St. lustinaal l^dnii. AiM!)sbti 
i^jpreieiits the latter as the most latnSnotiB ^(f diseiietimbeiretf 
tnitMingHhat he had ever seen Vthoagh^ for itry part, I should be^ 
littlined to give the preference to the former^ whkh h^' passes 'ovtff 
ill siienee : bat be thie superiority where it may, both these 8icrperti»' 
edifices display th^ charatteristic features of PalladiaYi arcfaitectlire^ 
to the highest advantage ; and in a manner notoften 1v;itnessed/ 
«Mn in Italy, bierid sfrnpliGiiy with.ornament, extent withpropor- 
liM, and combination with unity. St. Jfustin^was,if Ibe notmis-' 
tikikn,' erected on the plan of Pafladio, though aifter his death ;' 
some defeets cons^qaently occur in the e&ecution, which ought not^ 
to be attritated to that illustrious architect, particularly as these' 
dtfects are I<»st in the admirable symmetry and proportion of A& 
Whotie; fverfectiohs owing exchisiv^y to the genius that conceived 
and arranged the original model. On the whole, 'Palladio may-b^ 
ooiisidered as the Vttruvius of moilern architecture; and, It has 
been very properly recomoiended to jpersons who wish to make jat 
proficiency in that art, to pass sometime at Vicenza, Pafdna, and 
Yenice, in order to study the many monuments of Palladian skili 
that al>rai)d in these cities. 

The splendor of Yicenza is not cdhfined to its walls, but extends 
to the country for ^ome distance ronnd, whete private or public. 
nHinificence has erected several villas and magoificent edifices; Among 
the former, we may rank the. villa of theJIfarcfecsi, called the Ro^' 
fttfuia, an exquisite fabric of Palladio's, and among the latter ^the 
triumphal arch, and the portico which Iea<|S'to the Chm^ch ontlini^ 
Berico. The arch is said by some to be the work of Ffldtedio/ ist 
'imitation of that of Trajan at Ancona ; and is,^ tike it^ ligfcfmd airy; 
The portico is a noble gallery leading from the town to the cjiacch,^ 
tad intended to shade and shelter the per^ns who visit the saiijQr- 
teary Jn which it termina'tes ; and jis its li»|igth is^-more than aiBiie^ 
ilft'niaiterials stone, and its form tiot inelegant, it strikes ^the spei^ 
tator as a very magnificent instance of public taste. The cUurph tt* 
seen to most advantage at a distance : as, on % nearer ajiproach^ ifc 
appears overloaded with ornaments. It is pf fine stone^ ot ib# 
Goriothiaa order, in the form of a Greek cr6ss, with a dome in llle^ 
centre ; but wants in aN hs decorations, both internal and extemjtT^. 
file proportions ^nd the simplicity of PaHadio^ The view from the 
windows of the convent annexed to the church, is extensive ani: 
kea«tifiil. 
• It oMfy 1» here the proper place to mention a politick! pheno- 
menon, of a very extraordmary nature, which few travellers bave,^ 
I believe^ noticed. The ^Gimbri and lei^topes, two tribea firon thd 

*1lie«rel«6ctorst.€»atti]ia witfi a PaOioiuv Aadni^ firiom. A iaiM|i» 
IM^ MM19 was iMni 16lf< 

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M GLAJISICAL TOIDII: Ghi»/ m- 

Bf^rrtierfi Gharsopesiis, in^ded jtaly^ 4s1t is ii^l' known; in the 
year of Roma 640^ and wWe defeated, and 'almosl^extirpitied* by 
Ifarius, in the iieigfabophood 'of Yenonai, Tlie few who escaped: 
' from jtbe yengei^Dce of the conqq^rpr^ took refuge mjhe neighbor^ 
iog moontains, aqd formed a little colony, which either^ ftom its 
, fayetiy, its insignificance, or its. retired position, has escaped the 
notice,, or perhaps excited the contempts of the various parties, 
t^t hate disputed the possession of Italy for nearly 'two thousand 
y^arSt^They occupy altogether reven parishes, aaid aire therefore 
i^Hed- ihe SeHe camrmine (the seven com&mues) ; they retain the 
tradition of their origin, and though surrounded by Italians still 
preserve their Teutonic language. The Jate king of Denmark vi^ 
ntedthis singular colony, discoursed with them in Banidi, and 
fpand theiir idiom perfectly intelligible. Though we felt no inclina- 
tion to visit theia.(for a classic traveJler cannot b^ supposed ta be 
TQrf partial to barbarian establishments, in Italy however ancient 
their datej, yet we were, struck with the circumstance, anrf b^eld 
t^eu* distaht yillages nested in the Alps, as they were pointed out 
to us from Vkensa, with some interest. The reader will hear with 
mpre satisfaction that a. Roman colony Still remains on ihe borders 
of Transylvania, and^hat it retains the Latin language hearly un- 
mixed, and gtorjes in its illustrious Qrigia. Henpe, when any of 
its members enlists in the imperial service, and according to cus- 
tom is asked his couiilry and origin, hi^ answer is always, ''Ro- 
maaus sum ** (4 am a Roman). \ 

' Id idqzzo alls 4;oHa Europiu says Lansi, vivon tuttdra popolazioni di linguaggi 
noB estesi; nelto montagne di^icenza v\ve il Cellico dl'Barbari chi vi si anDida- 
ntK) ai teaifii di Mario; neUa Viilaltia il Latino di presidi che vi mlse Trajano^* TH 
qaalche pajrte di El vezia il Romans di Framesl anticbi. Sdggiodi lingua Strufha ^ 
EpilogOf etc, Vpl. i. • . , ' ^ 

"In the midst of congregated li^uropQ there continue to exist populations, whose 
IniglAges extend no farther than themselves ; in this* mountains oTYicenza 1^ stiU 
fowM^-the <ieitic of theiMTbarians, vho established themselves Jthere in the time of 
Ularius ; in Wallachia. the Latin of the garrisons vl|o were pJaced there by Trajan; 
III some paits of Switzerland, the Bomonce of the ancient French." 

.N<ui ^ stato fuor di proposUo il distendersi alquanto nel racconto della spedizione 
da*^B|brf si p€1* dIstHigiferne i tempi ed I fatti, $i perch^ oUreiill^essere di quella 
lusosa guerra il paese nostrp stato teatro, un avanzo di quella gente rima'se per 
asmpre nelle montagiie del-Veroufsse, del YlceiMtinb, e dtel Trentino, mantenend^ 
aacora in quest! territorj la discendetiza ed^una lingua differente da tutti i circo- 
Aanti paesi. ' SI ^ trovato Tedesco veraqnente essere il linguagglo, e simile pure la 
- pronunzia, non per6 a quella de~' tedeschi piu llmitrofi delP ]taUa> ma a quella de* 
Saasoni e de* popoli situUti Verso il mar Baltlco : il che fti studiosamente ricono-* 
aciuto da Frederico lY. Re di DanimaKca, che onord con sua dfmora di dieei giorni 
la cUtii di Yerona nel 170S. Non s* idgannrdunque il nostro pp^o; qnando p<^r 
fmmeAiorabn uso Cimbri chiaiba gli abitktori di que* boschi e di-quelW montagte« 
^JUtiffei; Verona Ulustrata,lAh/in. 

( Vlt^jhas nal been ibreign to the purpose tp discuss at^meiengtfa the account *of 
the expedition of ihe Gimbri/ as welCtor t^ sake of distinguishing the period at 
wl4ch.it tjQok place, and the transactions cpnnected YfUh it, as ^oaosa, hatfdea 
iBkt imrteii^ry was the theatte of thaitfttfofll %<». a r»pjiiqiV#^fl^t if/tipirthaa 



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Tfaelkilb, c^Rdrl tbe CaUes Berkii th the ffeigliborhood opyitenzn, 
present some ri^tufal grottos/ of |[reat extent, and of surprising 
tSiriety. Momibur de la Lnnde speaks of a littfe temple of the form 
of the Mhtheoh, which hp represents ad a masterpiece of the kind; 
if it be^such, t regret that we'had'not an opportHtiHy of visiting it^ 
though iiot above twenty mi]es from Vicenzd. Bassano, seven 
leagoes to the north, merits a yisit withoat dodbt/lf the travelKr 
has tim^ at his disposal. 

From ^Ficen^a to Padua it is eighteelh miles. About tlireeipiles 
from the former is a bridge oyer a stream, a branch of the Medila- 
cos, now Bacchigtione, erectedVby PaHadio, which will not hA to 
attract the attenti(Hi of the carious traveller. 

Late in the evening weentered Padna, * ~ 

Urbem Patavi se^esque TeaGromm, " 

and reflected with some exultalfion that we stood, a& it were, on the 
confines of Greek (ind' Latin Jiterature, in a city that derives its. 
origin from a catastrophe celebrated* in itself, or in its coitse-; 
quences, by. the two greatest poets of antiquijiy. Few cities can 
boast of ansOrigin'so ancient and so honorable, and not^many can 
pretend to have enjoyed foi^ so long a period so much ^glory and* 
prosperity as Padua.' Wq Iparq from Tacitus* thiat it wjis* ac- 
customed to celebrate the antiquity of its origin and the name of its^ 
founder in antiuat gjadfies said to Have been instituted by that hero. 
Livy informs us that a Naumachia exhibited annually on one of the 
rivers :vy;hich water the town, perpetuated, the memory of a ^nal 
victory obtained by the.Paduans, long before their union with Aome, 
over a Lacedemonian fleet commanded by Oeonymus. ' They are 
also.^aid to have i^ot unfrequently assisted the Romahs, and cbn^ 
tributed in no small degr^ to .their victories, pu'ticularly over the 
Gaols, the cotftmon en^my of both states ; while an immense popcH 

always cpotioaed'in^empantatns In the oeighborbood of Terona, yieenza^ and 
Trent, still keeping up id^ those territories an ^unmixed descent, and a langiuga^ 
different from all the surrounding ceuntrles. The language has. been discovered' 
to heactuaHy Tentonic, and the prdnonciatlon nioretver similar, aot to Uiat of the 
Teatoalc tribes whd border upon Ital]r» but to that of the Saxons, and oT the mh* 
ttOQfl Situated near the BalUc; which was diUgepiIy ascertained by Fredeiic ly, 
king or Denmark, who honored the city of Verona with a stay of ten days in ITOSi^ 
Onr people therefore are* not deceived; wherr, frdtn immemorial usage; they call 
Ike Inhabliants ^T these woods and iriountoins. Gimbflans." 

With two. |1M>^ vQucbers, the author thinks hioipelf justiaed In prettmrlat t|pi. 
opinion eiprMsed in the teit to that of some writers of Inferior reputation. ^ 

There are several wprks for the informatldn of travellers with regard to the 
enrMtk^of this town, among others I recomnwd *'Dt$criii4m$ MA» Ar^hU 
liMwra," av<)Jf. wlthnrtatB, 
'i^becttyflrPadoa, andthesetttemeatrofthe^Trojanf* 7 

• TacK : Aimal. \% xsvl, e. II, » Uh,y. bfMi x, d 



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liti^ AmMed Item ^h ih^ metm ^of gi^iiig ^^eci'lo^ tteir 
BMasoritfi^ by sending powef fol armies injto the Sdi"., 

Padua %fterwarda* aubmiued to the genius of ^Rofldd^ bm tubf 
ttitted irith. digiuty, ancl was accor<}ii)g<y tFed|<ed act as a eMqwusi 
bat an allied pepHJ^lic She w^s admiued at aa ^arly pm6A to aB 
tbe privileges and honors of t^hd great Capiiad, and ^ba^ed, it ief j I » 
m»t only tM fipaJiehifle&bat eveatbe rieheci of Romej ^ sfae.ittaU 
count at one period five hundred Roman kifights aiBOttg bar c^ia4D% 
fu;i4 dc^if by bar manufftctuffeiBc, &om tbe emporium of Ihe^ir^iid, 
HO small pori^iQB of dte tribote of -the provinces. 

AUet having sfa^r^d the glory 6t Rome, P^tdSK piarti^Qk nf hm 
disasters; wsis, like her^ ^ia»ked and plundered by Abrio ami 
Attila; like her, was half linipeopled fay tbe flighl of h^ (fismayed 
inhabitants, and obliged to bend under the yoke of a succession of 
barbarian invaders. After tihe expulsion of the Goths, Rome re- 
covered her independence; not so Padua, which was subject success 
sively to the Lombards,, to the Franks, and to tbe Germans. Dqrine 
^is long p^iod of dieastrOas vicissitude, Padua sometimes enjoyeq 
the favor and sometimes felt the fury oF it$ wayward tyrants* At 
fength it shook off the yoke, and with its / sister stfites, Yeronat, 
ficenza, Ferrara^ ind Mantua, experienced the advantages and 
'disadvantages of republicanism, occasionally blessed with the full 
enjoyment of freedpin, and occasionally, with .all its forms, smart;-? 
ing undefr the rod of a powerful usurper./ At, length, in tboBf?- 
ieenth <5entury, padud dnited itself to the Venetrjsm territory,, aii4 
dndar the fnfliience of Jls own laws ackTnowIedged the supreme 
authority of that republic;,, The consideration that Venice Wmi 
^ fbundeid by citizens of,Padua^ who flying from the ravaging a^rwev 
itf* aWig^ and Attila took refuge in the solitary ist^a of the A4riatii$| 
miglit perhaps have lightened the yoke of aubmission, or f^iLii#t^ 
the strrangeinents of union* V : 

As fire and swor(ji> aided by earthquakies and pestilence, I^t^ 
been. employed more than once, during so many. ages of convulsion, 
in tbe destruction of Padua, we are not to expect many monuments 
Of fh^ IftOinan colonJr^' within it^ walls, or to wonder so mu<^ 4t 
l^dedine as; $t its existence'. Efowever it is .atil\ ^ great, an^ i^ 
many r^peeta a beautiful city, as its circumfe^Aee is neat aevea 
miles, it» population about fifty thousand persons, and notwitb'^ 
r staadtft-g^tbe general narrowness of its streets, many of its boiMh 
iijfes both/public and private are truly magnificent. 

The abbey of St. Giuuim deserves particular attmitioii^ Ml 
chiarA wa9 plimied and >uiit by Andtea Brhico ; ita library, 

'■ . , • • , ^ * - • ' ' • ^ 

« la'Uia fiHUtMiiib eeolary P«4aa own^d the sway of the Carrarar familj; ^ann 
aolfo di Carrara was the friend of Petrarca. This family ami tMr r.vali lo p&wvt 
^d pbte. tbe Scaglien, wmanli^q§^ tht man? pab^CMia aad sa##rtM of mriittfra 
l&atgiao^It^l:Ji]|ti|^ ^ tli«0U(»e6dlag ceatiuto 



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m 1100161260 mLT. m 

iuilM re^tdi7» tild deistet' are all in >th6 Jiigheit.styte Man9ffi^ 
leetore^' Tlie piazza before it» called Profo delta VaUe^ \i parliapf 
ofte of the target ai^d noblest in Europe. The cathedral, though 
lH>treiBarfcabIe» for its. architecture, still deserves to be nmkld 
aiQopg baildings of eminence, and contalhikseTedd objects wortte^ 
jof B0iim> The church denooiiaated II Sawifo (IM Holy), a titte 
eiyeii hf waif lE^f eminenoe to St. Antimony of Padoa^ thoa^ tjbk 
jBOst frequented, is not by any means the most b^autifoli ft 
ii of Gothic architecture^ of great magnitude, and iras^ befdri tiMl 
)|iie f ren^ih invasion, enriched with a TaUiable ti^eashry^ that 
treltfury^ consisting of church plate, geld and silrer candies|j(dci 
to a vast amount, was seized and carried off by the French ; but 
the most remarkable (Object still remains — ^^tiie tomb of the saint, 
^dornnd with tee macbles and most exqiiisite sttApibl^e. In Ad- 
disOB'S days, oimraeitts, it ieehis, diatilled from the bhdj^, jb^^M 
|i0rfuines brn^athed around die shrine, and a thottlMind d^voft^t cil* 
tholioa were seeo^pressing their lips against the cold WdrMe, ilrhiM 
▼oUTetabMts hong orer and disfigured the alta#. WhM W« ViaM^d 
A*e S«teto^ the sourceof ointment had long been dri«d, the per^ 
foihes were evaporated, the crowds of votaries had disappeared, 
and nothing remained to certify the veracitjjr of onr illoitrfoui tra^ 
Teller bnt a few petty pictures hanging on one side of the mdho^ 
ment. Dut the excellency of the sculpture makes amends for ih4 
trretehedness of the painting, and small must the taste of that irtad 
be, who derives no satisfaction from the examination of (he marbia 
ptnnd^ that hne the chapel. Es^ch pannel represe^s ^me miracu- 
leosaTetft of the Saint> life; arid however strange CT chittferical 
tb4 sufajeet may be, yet the skill of the artist finds meana to mnH 
il inteheiting. The rich materials and ornaments of the aharand 
6f the shrine^ thp bronze candelabra apd lamps, witt not e^capd 
tili^atteiitiv9 observer. On^he whole, though th« styld oiarchMM^ 
lave is bad, jatlhto cfanfeh, jfrom its size and furiiiifire, ddm¥4i 
atteniiiba. * \ 

II Sabne, or the town-hall, remarkable for its v^t magnitude,' 
eMfeioi a'moMdflfiedt is hondr of Tims Civhis, ifi^ ^ tacmthmu 

' Dimensions of the diarch of SU Cfiatttaa. 

The length. . . ^ ; ^ . . . MOfcci 
Breadlh .......... t^O 

The Transept .....'..., aSQ 

Height -. . . . laa 

The ceqtral dptae (there are several') *65 
The navement lb. laid oat In ^mpartraents of white and fed marble, !U yariooil 
altars with their deeorationsare^ of heautiful marble. The whole Is kept ip a style 
of neatness and repair, thai gttes it the apj^earance of a <jhiirch just finished. The 
outside wAs never completed. .... 

• It is thr^ hundred and twelve feat in lenitb, ans hundred and eight In 
breadth, and one hondredand eighi in heiflit,' awV eoiMN^^lQtltly the largest baH In 
SSnrope.' 



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Tbisautho]:, as J5 veil kno^rn, was a na^tra of Fadoa, and is «iip- 
posed^to have retaiired iq his style soiiie of the provincial peculia- 
rities, of, his coontry/ perceptible iD,d«ed oni;f to the refined Critics 
of the Augustan «ra« The Italian towns in general are not apt to 
forget such of their natives as have, distinguished thenisely^ m 
ancient or inodern^ story ; and Padu^, amongst others, ishot want- 
ing in the. honors which she^pays to the memory of her ilMstrions 
citizens. The inscription under the^bust of the historian i^ not re- 
markable for its beauty. The last line expresses at least the gene- 
rosity of the Paduaiis, who, if tKeir means were adequate to their 
zeal, would have converted the marble statue* into one of gold. 

Hoic totos stares aureus ipse loco ! *. 

They shew a bouse which; as they pretend, belonged to .him, and, 
whether it was built upon the spot which traditionary, report repre* 
senied as the site of the historian's dwelling; or whether it was 
erected on the rain oif some ancient edifice that i)ora a name re- 
sembling his; or whether, in sh6rt, sojpe inscription fovorableto 
such auvopinion, may.have been found in pr n^ar it, I could ncft 
discover; but every object connected ia the most distant manner 
with so eminent an author, inspires interest and claims some atten- 
tion. ^ I need not observe, that the pretended tomb ctf Aptenor; 
tboc^h it recals to mind the antiquity of the city, and at the same 
time- some jery beautiful verses,^ is {imonument of someprincextf 
the.middfe ages, discovered in 1274. . 

Padua was famous in ancient times for its woollen' manofectures 
celebrated in prose by Strabo and in verse by Martial. It still re- 
tains much of its reputation in this respect, and its wool and woollen 
ai^^icles are considered as the bestin Italy. But the principal glory 
of Padua arises from its literary pursuits, and from an ancientand 
yreW direaecf propensity to jiberal science. The prince of Romaii 
history (perhaps, if we consider the extent of his plan, and ^the 
masterly manner in which he has executed it, .we may add^ the 

. .M .PofliQ, says QufidtUiao, reprehendii in Upio paHvinitaiem, L. i.— PolUo 
censures Livy for his Padaau style. 

* Thou should'st stand here in solid gold.* 

' ^ • ., An|enor potuit» mediis elapsos AchivU, 

Ulyrices penetrare slnuSf atque Intima iatus . 
^ RegjDaLlbttmoram'etfontein'aaperareTiaiavfi; ^ -^ 

Uade'per ora novem magno cum marmure moDlifl 
It mare proiUptam el pelago premlt arra aonaittl. 
Hie ^men ille nrbem l>atavi« aedesqiie locaTlt ^ 

TeucroriAri,'et genii nomen dadit armaque flzit 
Troia ; nunc placidS compoatus pace §nleKir.~iExBlB..i. ' 

Antenor from tbe mldal of Grecian lioata 
> , CooJd pass secare, and pierce th' U<y rlan Qoaaia, 

Where rolling down tbe ateep, Timarus raTcs, 
And thro' nine channels disembogues bis narea. 
At length he founded Padua's happy seat, . 

. And ga?e bis Trojans a secure retreat, > 

There flx'd their arms, and there renewed their name. 
And there iq quiet rules, ai^d erown'd with ltnM.-prycf«ii. 



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iuaf. m. imovGia rrAiy. S7 

first <rf hfstofiBns) was not only born j but, as we may ftWy conjec- 
ture from the local peculiarities of language, which adhered to him 
during life, was educated at Padua. SHius Italicus, among the va- 
i-ious chieftains whom he introduces, represents Pedianus the 
leader of the Euganeans and Paduans (Apono ^atuiens populus]' as 
equally excelling in the arts oF war and of peace, arid dear alike t6 
Mars and to the Muses. As the Verses are co'mposed te the best 
style ofSilins, and likely to please the reader, I insert them. 

. Polydamanteis Javenls PediaDus iq acmls 
Belfa agitabat atroi. Trojanaque semina et ortu8« 
Atque Antenorea sese de stirpe ferebat : * ' 
jdaud levior geoeri» fama, sacroque Tlmaro . * ^ 

Gloria et Eugaoeis dilectam nomen in oris. 

. JHoi<i pater £ridanu8, Venetcque ei ordlne gentes» 
Atqne Apono gaudens populiia, feiTbella cieret, 
SedBfu^asplacidas, doctiequesilentiavits ^ ' 

. Matlet, et Aooio plectromulcerelabores. 
Nod ullum dixere parem ; nee Dotior alter . 
Gradlvo jaT^nls, pec Pbiebo notUa alter . •-r-xii. MS. 

The love of knowJedge, the partiality to. learned ease here allqded 
to, was probably attributed to the Chief, because in some degree 
characteristic' o^ ihe people; so much at least we should infer from 
a similar passage in Homer or in Virgil. 

Inuring the vai[i6us revolutions that followed the fall and dis- 
memberokent of the Roinan empire, Padua, in'the intervals of re- 
pose that followed each successive shock, endeavored to repair 
the shattered temple of th^ Muses, and to revive the $acred fire pf 
knowledge. Some .success always attended these laudable exertions^ 
And a beam of science occasionally broke through, the gloom of war 
and of barblirism. At length, the University was founded about 
the end of the eleventh century, and its foundation was to Padua 
the commencement of an era of glory and of prosperity. Its fajoie 
soon spread ov^r Europe, and attracted to its schools prodigious 
numbers of students from all, even the. most remote countries j 
while the reputation of its professors was so great, and their sta- 
tioa so hoqorable^ that even nobles; at a tim^ when nobles were 

' The tribes that boast the possession of Aponds. 

* loang rodlaoiu grasp'd bis shinihg'aniiff. 

And wttVA t6e war, exaltiniT in alarnu : 
From old AQtenor be n>U4c'd to trate. 
And great Polydaaiaii, hU Troinn race. 
Nor lea lila (Ma : lb' Eonnean monataina o*«r 
Bla pralsea sang, and on TltaaaTas' sbore. 
Tbe warlike tenanU of Venetian coa»t 
And Fo 8 proud rfrer, and tbe tribes tbal boast 
Tbelr healing Aponoa, no cbieflaln pwn'd 
' llite Pedlanaa bonor'dand reoimrn'd, - 
^Wbetber.to war, ibe science br tbe J>rave, . 
or to tbi modest BIpse bis tbonghts be^te, r 

'Mid learned ease pdrsaed Ms sHenl way, 
V litems labors SQo||llngwltbtbAonl«o lay; 

Ai^ke to bim did ettber crown belong, 
f be baMe'ff laarel, and Ibe wraaib of Mag. 



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COBSJderml m heinqji of a more dtvated nature^ veroambitioDis i^ 
be enrolled in their number. Eighteen thousand stadeau are^ «akl 
tp have crowc|ed the schools during ages ;iind ^idst the maltiiade 
yf^G ^een, not Italians aiad Dalmatians, Qreek and Latin Christiana 
pnly ; but eyep TiirliSy Persians, ^nd Arabians are said to have tr^r 
if^Uad from the distant regions of the East to improve their kaowr 
If4f^ qf inedicine and botany/ by the lectures of* the learned Pa«- 
duana. H^ape fhe catalogue of the students of this University if 
rich in numbers and in illustrious names. Petrarca, Galileo, and 
Christopher Columbus applied here, each* lo fais favorite art, and 
in classics, astronomy, and navigation, collected th^ materials that 
were to form their f;iiture fame and fortjine. 

But Universities, Hke empirea, have the^r eraa of prosperity, 
4ind their periods of decline; sctence, aa oommeroe, often abandons 
its favorite seat; and those very a^s of medicine and anatomy 
which flourished for so many centuries in Salerno and in Padua, 
have Jong since migrated to the North, and seem lo have fixed 
their temporary residem^ at Hotdngen and Edinburgh. Of eigh- 
teen thousand students six hundred only remain, a number, whicb 
thinly Scattered over the benches, is barely* sufficient to shew the 
deserted state of the once crowded schools of Padua. This dimi- 
Dutron of numbers is not to be attributed either to the ignorance of 
to the negligencef of the professors; to the defects of the system of 
instruction, or to the want of means of improvement. The lec- 
turers are men of zeal and abilities; the plan of studies is the re- 
sult of long and successful experience] and libraries, collections, 
and cablnet$ of every kind are numerous and magni^cent. ftlore- 
over, encouragement is not wanting, as the places of professors ar^ 
both lucrative and honorable, and the directors, till the late di^ 
astroqs revohition, were three Venetian senators. The decrease 
of nunibers, therefor^, at Padua, and in other ancient Universitie£(,» 
fa to be attributed to the establishment of similar institutions ill 
other countries, lind to the general multiplication of the means (it 
inowledge, over the Christian world. Knowledge is now forta- 
iiately pfetced within die reach of almmst every village;^ the md^ 
abstruse science may be learned in the most remote corners ; col- 
leges and seminaries have been planted and flourish^even ib the 
polar circles; and yomh, in almost every country, may enjoy that 
which an eloquent ancient justly considers as one of iie greatest 
blessings of early life— fcome education.^ 

The architecture of the schools or University is admired, and, I 
believe, said to be of PalUdio; th^ observatory, the botanical gar- 

' Ubl enim aut Jttcandliu roorarentur cfu^nt in patrlit aut pu<nda8 contlne- 
rentur qaam sab oculto pareotuia? wi iDinoce siimptu qii^m domi? !▼. £p. lUi. 

For where coald they dwell mclre pleaMDlly than in ibeiv own coootry ? where 
more eooflnedwlthio the boande of temperaoeeMd necleftyv than noder the eyes 
ofthehrpareiiliTwherewith.|q|f«v^ili9», then 0, hornet 



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y' 



dien in particular, the eakinat 6f naloral fililhMopliy. containing; a 
pecoliarlf covioas coQectpn of fossils; the AaH of midwifery^ and 
indeed most of the dependleacies of the UniY^rsttyy are grand in 
their kind, well famished and weU supported. An agricultaralleo- 
tore is, I belieyey^ peculiar to Padua, and eoniequently yery ho- 
norable to it; especially as so large a space as fifteen acres is 
allotted to the professor for -experintiQnts. It is singular that no 
jmch lecture exists in any British University, when we consider fjne 
bent of the national character to a rural life, and the great encou- 
ragement ^nd countenance given by the higher classes, a|d indeed 
by the Nalfon ^t largei to every species of agricultural improf emeilt.* 
Besides, the University, t|»ere are in Falua, ^r the^ prqp^gatWP 
qf i^e and of literatiice, several aeadeimieSj; soiiaeel mmdk were 
opened so early aa iha beginmng 06 the siiteeiitb oentoryu At that 
time, the love of knowledge and of classical distinction seems to 
Inve been the predominam passion of the Maliana, who were dien 
Kke' the ancient 6reeks-;^«rer tawdeni nuUmi avairi^ Oibera kavi 
been estaMished in the h^ eentdry, part^icalarfytne Academy ^ 
Sciences founded by the senate of Ventce. Most irf tbese in sfey ' 
liona are supported with spirit, not only byHhe dei'gy, but moNK 
#Te^ by the gentry of Padua, ^bo seem to take an honorable p#idl 
in the literary I'eputalloA of their oily. 

The foHowing bea«itiful lines of iVau^mut, a poet of Lae^il jeAfaH 
dfl^s, contain a fine, thoiigb concise encomimn on Padaa^ and n^t 
be considered as an abridi>ment of itahMtorf, even to titopreseni 
period, wbeniritr has; again ravaged its^ vicinity, and dii%arediM 
es^Bccv* 

ITrlw, quam yetnsto yectas ab Kio 

Post flita Troiiin tristia. pp»t^l\yi» 

To^ patris ex(iaus|os iDiQiao 

TempiMre, tel pelago latorM, 
Docente demipa PaUade^, ^4 rafi^ 

GultosjMr agro5^od<MM:uftfli^ - 

Dlis mtQg Antenor KeQBdis 

Gondicftt. Eoganeis In orU. 
Tu naper et ^os, et dacua urbiuuu - - 

Quascuraqie tellvs Itala coaliiiats 

Magnas tot Artcis, tot viroriioi 

logeni^ et sMidia iwa.al^|NUU 
4 Te, septicornis B^niri^H aceola, 

Te fUlva pQt,ant flumtna qiit T^p^^ 

Longeque setDOAV Britannl 

CultuiQ aetint a4 captendum adtbial. 
At-hunc^aferiM beu s;iev^ n^cesstt^m <* 

FalC fm^Mm ut Raierif yim I 

* *• There has Iteen such a lecture for many yev* tii'tte IJnIyerilty of Edinburgh ; 
and to those vrho know villi yi\^ cU^Unguished success and ability the duties of 
that offli» are discharged, no apfl^ mH afHpaw neoeMarf for haTlag stopped to 
notice tUamliUke/'-wrdMurtfaj^ * 

•Onljrfiyvetoiii of praise.- ^ -^-' 



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CLASSICAL tarn, Ckh». ir. 

Uttc iftih vwlatain*vcHiortl ^ '..-., -^ ^ . . ' '\ 

.. . Con$piciQ Diid^raDdam iniquo I 
Quid eulta tot pomariaconqaerar? 
Tot pulchra flammis h^sU^sobUrMat ' 
Qiiidglandedeiurbataahena' ' 
Ifcenia.?*' 



CfaAPTEft IV. 

Tbe Brenta— Yeoice; ItsMagDiflfceoce; Power; Degeneraqr* and Fall-^Bptorn to 
' Padua—the Environs of that City— tbe Fom Aponut— Golles Eugaaei— Arquato 
**YUla apd Tomb of Petrarca; ObserTations olrlMs eharacter^ - 

We ^efttrred the consideration of the neighborhood of Padna, 
til] our return from Venice, whither ve hastened in order to enjoy 
4he few remaiiflng days of the expiring carniyaK We accordingly 
emharMd on the Brenta about ten o'clock in the mornibg, February 
tbe twenty-first, in a convenient barge drawn by^rses^ and glided 
father slowly down the riven The country through which it flows 
is a dead fiat, bijt highly cultivated; well wooded, and. extreoiely 
populou^s/ Tbebpks are lined with village^, or rather little tpwus^ 
and^^ecorfited with several handsome palaces and gardens. Among 
(hese, that of Gtovane//e at NoUnta, two n)iles fromi^adu«i; that 
vt Pmni Ai Stra ; of Tronck at Dalo; that of Bembo at JUira; and 
about ten miles farther, thatbf Fo^art of the-architeeture of Pal- 

' Fair 7oifn I wbtclr OD th' Eoganeaa shore , 

3eiiown*d Xfteoor ballt of yore, 
^here swift MediHicus Is seen \ 

Burryiog through Jbe meadows green. 
He. after llfum's fatal day. 
Took pPom hts native ridiih his way; 
'Tboufrh tDany a woe severe he knew, 
> ^ WI^enhisJoTd Troy the fates overthrew, / 
And many a toil was doom'd to briTe, 
Tost on the angry ocean's wave, 
^Is steps at length Minerva led^ 
^ And faT'ring Gods his labours sped. . ^ 

Padoa L 'twas late thy boast to stand 
X The glory of Ausoniajs land. 

And Hwas thinj» envied, bonorVl pari. 
To foster genius, learnings art. ^ 

Tbe tribes that dwell by.Danab^s waves, . 
And those wliich golden Tagos laves. 
The hardy Britons, fdr remote, 
Thee, Yavor'd norse of science, aovgbit < 
^ Attracted by thy matchless Xame, 

- To drink at learnlog's foant, they came. 
But now what change lias fallen on thae I - 
Ah ! unrelenting destiny I 
1 see thee ravag"*! and laid I9W,. 
Tbe TicUm of aemel foe. • 

Why shall I mourn thy groves consom'di ' 

T^y gardens 'where Fomona bloomed ! 
Or, why thy beauteous suburbs oaiM, 
!«i *• Petote to ruin, wrf pt in Same) 

Thy walls, edorn'd with ouhy a toirV, ^ 

The^4o the^btii«dYlng«|onm fow'r? 



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CsAi!. lY. XBROUGH ITAXYi Cl 

ladia, m^ri^ pai^iealat aftoiitioo. tli^se celebrated banks hairev 
without doubly a rich', a lively, and sometimes a inagi^ificent ap*^ 
p^rance; btti their splendor ^nd beauty have be^en mach exag- 
ger'ated, or are nfuch fad^ed; and an Englishntaa accvstomed to 
the Thames, and to the villas^ which grace its banks, will dWcover little 
to exoite his admiration, as he descends the canal of tbe Breiaa. 

Aboitt five o'clpck we arrived at Fuma, on th^ shore of. the 
Lagune, " opposite Venice. This city instantly fixed all our atlen- 
tioo. It was faintly illuminated by the rays of the setting sun, and 
rising from the. waters with its nuniberless domes and towers, 
attended, iif I may be allowed the expression, by several lesser 
islands, each crowned with spires and pinnat^les, it presented the 
appearani^e of a vast city floating on the l^osom of the ocean. Wo 
embarked, aiid gliding over the Lagune, whose surface, unruffled 
by the slightest bree;iie, was as snaooth as the most ^ohshed glaiBs, 
we touched at the island of S. Geargio half way, that is tV6 mile9 
firoia the main land on one side, and from Venice on the other; 
and then enfterijng the tity, passed under the RiaUo, and rowed up 
the grand * cana], admiring, as we advanced, the various architec- 
ture and the vast edifices that line its sides. ' « 

Venice cannot boast of ,a Very ancient origin, nor has it any 
direct connei^ion with Roman story and with classical recollections; 
yet I doubt mbeh^ whether any city in Italy, not even etcepting 
Rome itself, contain? so much genuine Roman blood; as none 
has,^ certainly, {)reserved so long.^he spirit of Ihe ancient Ro^ians. 
Founded by the inhabitants of Aquileia, of Padua, and other Ro- 
man colonies bordering on the Adriatic, joined probably by several 
froin the interior provin6es, it escaped ihe all-wasting sword of 
Alaric and of Attila.; first eluded, then defied the power of suc- 
ceeding invaders, and never saw a . barbarian army within its walls 
till the fatal epoch of i797.. Its foundation dates from the year 
42i; the succession of Dog6s or Dukes from the y^ar 697. Its 
name is derived from the Veneti, a people that inhabited, 'jiU the 
neighboring coasts, and appropriated, as it has been^ from a very 

' The LagwM are the shallows that border the whbl^ coast, and extend round 
Venice; their depth, between the'ctty and the main tand. Is from three to six feet 
In general. These shallows are occasioned by the va^ quantities of sand carried 
down by the many rivers that descend fropi the Alps and fall into the Adriatic, all 
along its western shores. Ravenna, which Hes much lower down, anciently stood 
like Venice in the midst or waters; it is now. surrounded with sand, as Venice will 
probably he ere long, if it should cobtiuue subject to tjie Austrian government. 
The republic expended considerable suras in cl^nsinglhe canals that intersect and 
mrronnd the city, in removing obstacles, and keeping up tbe depth of wdters.so 
necessary for (he security of the Capital. The interest of a foreign sovereign is to 
lay H-npen to attack. 

• Canal grands (so called because the widest of the canals of Venice.) Is more 
tlian three hundred feet wide, and intersects the city neariy in the middle. The 
HfnlfQ cronei l^ind forms <^ jof its xom conspicuous ornaments. 



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earlf p«#Mv tfr !il» li atoMeitet rnMam^M of tto oi<igi« ami of ito 
BWilMni of its foQQderi. lis gb^ernmeiii was at irit popular ftfs 
thf ipever and riehas of ibe State mmased, the influence of the 
iBobles aopieiitei^) ac iD(ei^als,the Do^ti accpiiiM and abused the 
sov^Areign^ till at iengch, after six 'centimes of 9t#ii9gle, the ^kh- 
toarttk partj prevailed, Hnited the pOwer of the Oo^e; Sftdodei 
ihb poof^» and confided to their own body all the «Miloritf and 
•xefeiseof ^(overmneht. 

As Venice nay jnstly be considered a Roman ci»lonf , so It bom 
Car anny eeniiBries ^ strffciog resembhnee to the great parent Re^ 
p«Uii. ^ The san^ spirit of liberty, the same patriot |«ssion» tte 
aatie firmicfs, and the same wisdom that characteriied and mw 
acibled iheiinoi^nt. Romans, seemed to ret ive in the Venetians, and 
as t^iH^^o every .member of the risihig State. That profonnd rs^ 
apeet fdr religfbn also, which formed so distingnished, a ftainre fti 
Ae oharactar of the former, * was equally conspicuo^os inthe latt^, 
but Ipore permanent and effectual, beteanse directed to a belter 
spbjeet, and rejQ;uta(ted -by superior infoi'mation: . The asme soeoeis 
inn jdst proportion acciympanied the same yinoes^^and We beli6M 
Venice, from i^trr and Be^hweed, rise into magnificence and faMOy 
mtlend ica sway oyer the neighboring coasts, wrest towns, Mantis^ 
and whole proviaees from mighty potentates, carry Its arms into 
Asia and 'Africa, and cope successfully with the conected foree of 
tast empires. As its greatness Tested on solid foundations, so was 
it permanent; and Venice may boast of a duration seMom allowod 
to hiiman nssoeiatioris, whether kingdoms, or commonwealths, 
thirteen complete centuries of feme, of prosperity, and of inde^- 
fSndencA). It is not wondei^fol therefore that this Republic should 
have been honored with the Appellation of another Rome, 6on^i^ 
Ibrdd is the bnhRrark and pride of Italy, and celebrated by orators 
ttd poeis as tfie second fsted seat of independence and empire. 

'Una Italam ngtaa, alt« pidolienrlma Roai4 
^niiil^, qu» iterils, quft dominaris aqaUI 
*tn tibi vel reges cives fads; O decusi O lax ^ 

Ausonle, per quam libera tni-ba' samus; 
Per quam barbaries nobis non imperai, et Sol 
ISxortensaostro iciarius orbe iQicat! • 

' Ac^'5yn.5aniuix.lU>.i(i. £ks.l,as. 

The literai*y Ifkme of Venice was unequal, it must be confessed^ 

■ iEt 8l conferre yolamus nostra cum extemis. ceteris rebus ant pares ant etiam 
fiiferiores reperiemur; Eeligione^ id est, cultu Deorom^ malt6 superiofsi. ^Mh 
ifcU. Beor. ii. 3. >. 

*' And if we yrUik to compare our adyantages with those oCforeiaeen* hi other 
l^pecU we shall be found only equal, or even inferior : but in AsUgloiV th«t li^ 
^1 the hononpsM to the Gods, much superior/' 

I naI|B>fl«prM>(quM of liiidaii4 SHI 

lUnlofaom e. andBo man Ba)«Mrl 

^Pi nsMM Wi MPS') w am ws 019% 



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to fts' iiilitai7 renown : perhaps because! the governmeiii, iasis 
nmwsiny the casein free countries, Mt talents and genius to their 
owttfielivily and mtrmsic powers ;. yet the ardor of indWidtiaTS who 
either dt4 not, or could not take a share in public administration. 
ktf many-tasdek distint^tion in Xhe new career which ihe revivia^l or 
MBtlers opened^ to their ambition. Many eminent scholat's had tI- 
AwAy and some had settled in the Republic, and to their labors we 
owe maby an interesting publication on some or other branch of 
otassie erudition. But it would be difficult to say whether the e^er^ 
tibm ^ any individual, however aplendid his tafents, or even the 
Mors ofany particular association or academy, however celebrated, 
ei^er shed so 'niu«h lustre on the place of their residence as that 
which Venice derived from the reputation of a stranger, Who vo- 
iMtarHy selected it for hii^ abode, t alliide to Aldus Mahutiiis, 
This extraordinary person combined the lights of the scholar, with 
the indnkry of the mecTianic : and to his labors carried oil without 
imemiption till the conclusion of a long life, the world owes the 
first or prittcipes edition'eSy of twenty-eight Greek Classics. Among 
these we find Pindar, iEschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, Herodotus, 
Vbacydtdes, Demosthenes, Pllito, and Aristotle. Besides these, there 
are few ancient authors of any note, of whom this indefatigable 
eikot has not published editions of acknowledged accnracy, and 
a^ &r a» the means of tho Art then in its infancy permitted, of great 
beaoty. In order to appreciate the merit of Aldus, we must con- 
sider the difficulties under which he must have labored at a time 
when there were few public libraries ; when there was no regular 
comnanicatkin between distant cities; when the p^ice of manu- 
scripts put them out of the reach of persons of ordinary incomes ; 
asdivliea the extsience of mahy since discovered, was utterly nn- 
kaown. The man who could surmount these, obstacles, and publish 
S0 many authors till' then inedtted ; who could find means and tinie 
tm ^ve new and naore accurate editions of so many others already 
pi^lisbedy and accompany them all with prefaces mostly of his own 
composiiion ; who CQuld extend his attention still farther, and by his 
labors secure the fame, by immortalizing the compositions, of the most 
distinguished scholars of his own age and country, ^ must have been 
endowed in a very high degree, not only with industry and perseve- 
rance, but with judgment, learning, and discrimination. One virtue 
more Aldus possessed in common with many of the great literary 
chiyracters of tliat period, I mean, a sincere and manly piety ; a virtue 
which gives consistency, vigor, and permanency to every good qua- 
lity, and never fails to communicate a certain grace and dignity to 
lh« whole'cbaracter. 

Vretdom, tke ekotcwt gift of Hmt*ii belinr. 
By t|iee btrbafic gtoon wa« cbWd twaf , 
And dawa'4 OR oU oar tend! • Mfblir day« 

thafsli|Mlli«uiii 

1 JU 






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64 GLASSiGAL TOUR Gbaf* IVi 

The appearance of Venice is not unwoigthy of its glorious^desti- 
nies. Its churches, palaees, and public buildings of. every descrip- 
tion, and sofnetimos even its private edifices, have in their §ize, 
materials, and decorations, a certain «ir of magnificence truly Ro- 
man. The style of architecture is not always either pure or pleas- 
ing, butjconformable to the taste that prevailed in the different ages 
when each edifice was erected. Hence, the attentive observer may 
discover the -history of architecture in the streets of Venice, and 
may trace its gradation from the solid masses and the round arches, 
the only remains of the ancient grand style in the sixth, seventh, 
eighth, and Tiinth centuries, through the fanqiful forms and gror 
t6sque embellishments of the middle, ages, to, its revival and re-es- 
tablishment in these latter times. 

The church of St. Mark with its accompaniments, its tower, its 
square, its library, and its palace, from its celebrity alone deserves 
the traveller's first visit. The tower has neither grace ia its form, 
nor beauty in its materials. Its only merit is its height, . which, 
though not extraordinary in itself, yet from the flatness of the sur- 
rounding scenery gives die spectator a very clear and advantageous 
viewx)f the city and its port and shipping, with the neighboring 
coasts, and all their windings- The famouis Piazzk di SI Marco^ 
surrounded with arcades, is more remarkable for its being the 
well known .scene of Venetian mirth, conversation, and intrigue, 
than for its size or its symmetry. It is inferior, in both r^espects, 
to many squares in mayy great cities ; yet as one side is the work 
of Palladio, and the whole of fine ston^ or Istrian marble, its ap- 
pearance is grand and striking. The church of St. Mark, the ^eat 
patron of the city and of the republic,> occupies one end. of this 
square, and terminates it with a sort of gloomy barbaric magnifi- 
cence. In fact, the five domes which swell from its roof, and the 
paltry decorations which cover and encumber its porticos, give it 
externally the aj^pearance of an eastern pagoda; while formed within 
on the plan of the Greek churches, and adorned with clum&y mosaics, 
it is dark, heavy, and sepulchral. This church is extremely ancient, 
it was begun in the ye£(r 829, and after a fire, rebuilt in the year 976. 
It was ornamented with mosaics and marble in 1071. Tlie form of 
this ancient fabric, evidently of eastern origin, may perhaps throw 
some Itgiit on the rise of the s?yle called Gothic. Its architects, it 
is related, were ordered by the Republic to spare no expense, 
and to erect. an edifice superior in size and splendor to any then 
existing. They took Santa Sophia for their model, and seeor te 
have imitated its form, its dome$, and its bad taste. 

But if riches can compensate the absence of beauty, the church of 
St. Mark possesses a sufficient share to supply th^ deficiency, as it 
is ornamented with the spoils of Constantinople, and displays a 
-profusion of the finest marbles, of alabaster, onyx, emerald, and 
of all the splendid jewellery of the East The celebrated bronze 



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Chap. tV, THftOUGH JfAtY. 65 

horses stood on the portico facing the Piaxza. These horses are 
supposed to be the work of Lysippus; they ornamented succes- 
sii^ely different trit^miihal ardies at Rome, were transported by 
CoDStantine to his new oity, apd conveyed thence by the VenetianiSy 
wh^fi. they took and plundered it in the year J206. They were 
erected on marbFe pedeiStals over the portico of St. Mark, where 
they stood nearly six handred- years, a trophy of the power of the 
Republic, till they were removed to Paris in the year 1797, and 
placed on stone pedestals behind the palace of the Tuileries,* 
where they remain a monument of the treachery of French friend^ 
ship.* 

As it is not my intention t^ give a minute description of the oma* 
ments <»r riches of the church of St. Mark, I shall only observe, 
that they merit tnacfa attention; and that to discover the value of 
the internal decorations/ a very minute inspection is often rendered 
necessary by tbd. gloominess of the place. 

the reader may perhaps wish to kpow how and when St. Mark, 
whose life and evangelical writings seem to have no connexion with 
the Yenetian history;^ acquired such consideration in the city of Ye* 
nice, as to become its patron saint, and to give his. name to the 
most splendid and celebrated of its churches. The following ac- 
count may possibly Satisfy ^his curiosity. 

In the year eight hundred and twenty-nine, two Yenetian cner- 
chants of the names of ,J^ono eindRustieo, then at Alexandria, Con- 
trived, either by bribery or by stratagem, to purlom the body of 
St. Mark at that time in the possessioi^ of the IHussulme^, and to 
convey it to Yenice. On its arrival, it was transported to. the Ducal 
palace, and deposited by the then Doge in hiis own chapel. St; 
Mark was shortly after declared the patron and protector ef the Re- 
public ; apd the lion which, in the mystic vision of Ezekiel, is sup- 
posed to represent this evangelist, -was emblazoned on its stan- 
dards, and elevated on its towers. The church of St. Mark was 
erected immediately after this events and the saint has ever since 
retained his honors. Rut the reader will learHfi with surprise, that 
notwithstanding these hpnors, the body of the evangelist was in a 
very short space of tinxe either lost, pr privcaely sold by a tribune 
of the name of Carozo, who had usurped the duked6m; and to 
support himself against the legitimate Doge, is suppo;sed to have 
plundered the treasury, and to have alienated some. of the most 
valuable articles. Since that period,, the existence of the body of 
St. Mark has neyer been publicly ascertained, though the Yeiie- 
tians firmly maintain that it is still in then* possession. The place, 

' The statiies are now restored to their place upon the portico. 

« The French, entered Yenice as friends, and were ferried oyer the Lagune in 
Venetian boats. The Venetians enierjed Constantinople as enemies, sword.in hand; 
and no reslraint$'f says Gibbon, except thoH ofreligtana^humanity^ were <m- 
poeedonthe conquerors by the lawe^of war. 

I. . n 



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66 CLASSICAL TO^ Chap, IV. 

. ' ■ * » 

however, where the sacred deposit lies^ is acknowledged to b^ an 

undivulged secret^ or perhaps, in less c^utibus' language/ to be ut* 
terly unkpown. 

Tbe Piazetta,^ opening from St. Mark's to the sea in frpn^ ahd 
lined on one sid'0 with the ducal palace, on the other with the pnblie 
library y with its two superb pillars of granite, standing insulated in 
the centre, is a scene at once grand, airy, and from the Qoncourse 
of people which frequents it, animated. . Close to St. Mark's stanAs 
tbe ducal palace,, the sea^ of the Venetian government, where -the 
senate and the different councils of state used to assemble each in 
their respective halls. This antique fabric is in tbe Gothic or 
rather Saracenic style, of vast extent, of great solidity, and of ve- 
nerable appearance. Some of its apartmentij are spacious and lofly; 
and some of its halls .of a magnitude truly noble. They are alt 
adiorned with paintings by the first masters of the Yenei^ian school ; 
and Thian, Paoto F^onese^ and Ttntoretio, have exerted all their 
powers, ai^d displayed ^U.the diarms of their art to adorn tho'Se- 
na^house, and to perpetuate the glories of /the repubUc. Tbe 
subjects of the pictures, are taken either from the Scriptures or 
from the history of Venice : so that the nobl6s, when assembled, 
had always before their eyes incentives to virtue and examples of 
patriotism. Tablets with inscriptions were suspended over the 
tribunals of the magistra,te5, pointing out eitjier the duties attached 
10 th^ir offices in p£H*ticillar, ,or those of the nobility in 'general. 
The style is often diffusive, but Che sentiments are always just« The 
following, which is inserted in a picture over the Doges jseat m one 
of the council chambers, may serve as specimen. 

Qui patris pericola suo perkulo expeHunt, hi sapientes pntandi soot, cam et 
eiim quern deb^Dt bonorem reipub. reddunt, et pro multis.perire maluot quam 
cum multis. Etenim, vehemenler est iniquum vitam, quam a natura acceptaiiii 
plater patriara conservayerimtts, naturae, cum cogat, Teddere, patris, cum 
rog(»t» non dffret ^apl^n^es tgitur asstUnandi sunt, qui nullum pro salute patrla 
periculum/Yitant. Hoc vinculum ek hujus dignitatis qua jnruimur in repub. hoc 
ftindamentmn libertatis. Hie fons equitatis ; mens £t animus et consilium et sen- 
lentia civitalis positia est in legibus. Ut corpora nostra sine mente, sic civitas sine 
fege. Legum ihinistri magistratus. Legum inter pretes judices. Legum deniq. id- 
dcco omneff servi sumus, ut lii)eri esse possimus. > 

ft would have been happy for the State, if the nobles bad been 
aniinated by these principles previous to the French invasion. 
Thd eoUrts and staircases are decorated with antique statues ; 

•They are to be accounted wise, -who at their own risk ward off danger from their 
country, since they both render to the state the honor which is> due to it, and choose 
lath^r to perish ip behalf of, than in conjunction with their fellow-citizens. For it 
is sorely the height of injustice to resign to nature that life which from nature we 
Deceit, And which we preserved for our eouatry's use, but to refuse it to our 
country when she demands it. They llierefO>ne must be esteemed wise, who rimi» 
no danger for the iMke of their country's safety. This is the yery bond of tbo 



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CbJ^.PT. through ITALY. ,eT 

marble and bronze shine on every side, and the whole edifice cor- 
tei^ondd in every resp^t with the dignity of Its destination. 

The celebrated Rialto is a single but very bofd arch thrown over 
(he Gran-Canate ; and though striking frdhi it^ elevation, span, and 
aelMiiy, yet it sinks alihost into insignificance wheti compared with 
the beautiful bridge Delia Trinita^ at Florence, or with the Superb, 
and for more extensive structures of Blackfriars and. Westminster. 

The arsenal occupying <an entire island^ and fortified not only by 
its ramparts, but by the surrounding sea, is spacious, commodious, 
atnd even magnificent. Before the gate stand two vast pillars, one 
on each side, and two immense lions of marble^ which formerly 
adorned the Pir^us'of Athens. They are attended by two others 
of a smaller size, all, as the inscription informs us, '*Triumphh& 
manu e Pirceo direpta.'** The staircase in the principal building is 
of white marble. The halls are large, lofty, and commodious ; one 
cff the principal is decorated with a beautifUI statue by Canova^ rer 
presenting Fam6 crowning the late Admiral J^mo, the Pompey of 
Tenice, the last of her heroes. In short, nothing is wdnting to 
make this celebrated arsenal perhaps the first in Europe ; bxcept-* 
ififg that for which all arsenals are built,, stores and shipping ; aiid 
thefSfe the French inthelr Iat(? invasion eithier plundered or destroyed. 
So far their rapacity, however odious, had an object and a pretext; 
but it is difficult to conceive any motive, except an innate propen- 
stty to mischief, which could have pronipted them to disfigure the 
buildings and statues, to break the marble stairs^ by rolling cannon 
balls down them, and to dismantle the Bucentauf, the famous i^ate 
galley of the republic. Highwaymen have been known to spare or 
to restore a seal, a ring, a trinket, to indulge the whim or the feel- 
ings of the owner; and robbers and housebreakers refrain from 
damaging furniture which they cannot carry a^ay; iot tke same 
maniVer the French might have respected the above-mentioned ifao-^ 
lAnnent Of a gallant inan, and hot disfigured- it by forcing a paltry 
gold pencil from the hand of a figure of Fame : they might have 
aplared a gaudy State pageant, whose antique magnificence had for 
ages delighted the eyes, and soothed the pride of the Venetian cdm<^ 
monalty. Yet such is the peculiar cast of this people, whose armies 
ift Venice, in every town in Italy, and indeed in almost every coun- 
try they have over-run, have uniformly added insidt to rapacity, 
afad have wounded the feelings, while theyplandered the property^ 
of the miserable inhabitants, 

diliilty which iire eiljoy in the republte, this the Toundatlon of liberty. This is the 
fountain, of equity ; the soul, the spirit, the sentiments and determinations of the 
state centre in the lavs. As the human body without the mind, so is a state 
without laws, the magistrates are the ministers of the laws. The judges are th^ 
Interpreters of the law^. It results therefore that we are all slaves to the laws, iA ^ 
order that we may be free. ^ 

' Tom from the Pirsos by the hand of Yictory, 



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68 CLASSICAL TOUR ^ Chap. IV. 

But no public edifice does so much credit to the state, as the 
fioble rampart erected on the Lido di Palesirina, to protect the city 
and port against the swell and the stornis of ihe Adriatic. This 
Tast pile, fornjed. of bjocks of Istrian stone resembling marble, 
runs along the shore for the space of nineteen mites, connects va-^ 
rious little islands and towns with each other, and if completed, 
would excel, in utility, in solidity, in extent, and perhaps in beauty, 
the Piraeus, the mole of Antiuni and of Ancona, and all other si-, 
milar works of either Greeks or Romans. 

Of the churches in Venice, it may be observed in general, that, 
as some of them have been built by Palladio, and many raised oa 
models designed by him, they are of a better- style in architecture : 
and also, that on account of the riches ^ni the religious temper 
of the Republic, they ^e adorned with mpre magnificence than 
those of any other town in Italy, if we except the matchless splen- 
dors of Home. I need not add, that the talents of ihe first Ve-' 
netian artists have been exerted to adorn them with sculptures and 
with paintings: Of these, churches that De, SalujLe (of Salvation), 
thatDe Redemptore (of .the Redeemer), two votive temples, ^rQCtef) 
by the Republic on thid cessation of two dreadful pestilences, and 
that of S. Georgia Maggiore, are very noble; thfi latter in particular, 
an exquisite wort of Palladio,. with some few defects, has num- 
berless beauties. The church of the Dominican friars, SS. Gto^ 
vanni e Padlo,, is gothic, and remarkable for a chapel of the Blessed 
Virgin lined with marble divided into pannels, containing each a 
piece of gospel history reiresented in beauti(ul basso relievo. But. 
the peculiar and- characteristic ornamenis of this chur'ch are the 
statues erected by the Senate^ to many of its Worih'es, and the su- 
perb mausoleums of several heroes and Doges. The materials are 
alwayjs the JSnest inarbles, and ihe ornamenis frequently of the best 
taste. The descriptions, as pompous as the tombs themselves, carry 
us back to the heroic ages, of the republic; and in lofty and clas- 
sical language, relate the . glbrious^ achievements of the doges and 
warriors of l^ncient^times. The appellations of Creticus, Africanus, 
Asiaticus, grace many of. the tombs, and seem. to revive and emu- 
late the triumphs. and the titles of consular Rome. The conclusion 
oTF one of- these epitaphs deserves to be recorded; it is the last ad- 
monition which the dying hero ajjdresses to his countrymen, " Vos., 
r^ ' * Justkiam et concoxdiam, quo sempiternum hoc sit imperiuniy conservate. ' " 
^^ *• jy^xt td'^the churches we^.maj^ank the Scuole, or the chapels and 
halls of certain cdnffateroities, such as that of St. Roch, St. Mark, 
and that of the Mercatanti; all of noble proportions ^nd rich fur- 
niture, and all adorned with paintings relative to their respective 
denominations, by the best masters. 

t Be ye mtndftil to preserve justice and unanimity, that Hiig our empire may be 
•ItmaU 



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Chap. lY. THROtGH ITALY, 6fl^ 

Bat/why. enlarge on the, beauty, on the magnificence, on the 
glories of Venice? or, why describe its palacefs, its churches, ltd 
monuments T That Liberty which raised these pomj^us edifices in 
a swampy jnarsh, and opened such' scenes of grandeur in the middKi 
of a pool, is now no more I That bold independence which filled^ 
a few lonely islands, the abode of sea-mews and of cormorants, 
with population and with commerce, is bowed into slavery ; apd 
the republic of Yenice, with all its bright series of triumphs, is 
now an empty name^ The city, with its walls and. towers, and 
streets, still remains; but the spirit that animated tEe mass is fled. 
Jacet ingens littore truncus,' 

It is, unnecessary, ihierefote, at present, to enlarge upon the for- 
mer government of Venice ; suffice it to say, that it is now a petty 
province of the Ac^strian empire, and that of all its former terri-^ 
tories, the'Seven Ionian Islands only, once considered as a very 
insignificant. part of the Venetian dominions, enjoy a nominal and 
precarious independence. The unjust and cruel deed of destroying 
a republic, weak, inoffensive, and respeciabte from its former fame, 
belongs to Bonaparte; but the causes that led to it must be sought 
for in the bo^om df the republic itself. Had the same virtues which 
fostered the infant 'commonwealth still flourished ; hail the courage 
which -urged it so often to unequal contest with the mighty power 
of the Ottomans, continued to inspire its sons; bad the spirit and 
the wisdom that directed its councils during the fe^mous league of 
Gambray, influenced its decisions in 1797, it might stilt have stood; 
and in defiance of the' treachery, and of the power of France, it 
might have preserved, if not all its territories, at least its honor 
and independence. < 

But those virtues, that spirit, that wisdom, were now no more ; they 
blazed out for the last time in the war of tlie Morea,^ and even the 
last spark died away with the gallant Emo, . Lukury had corrupted 
every mind, and unbraced every sinew. Pleasure had long been 
the only object 6f pursuit; the idol to which the indolent Vene- 
tians sacrificed their time, their fortune, their talents. To attend 
the Doge^ on days of ceremoiiy, and act their part in public pa- 
geantry ; or, perhaps, to point out in the senate the best mode of 
cothpHmenting some powerful court, or of keeping or patching up 
an inglorious peace with the giratical powers of Africa, was the 
only business of the nobility. To accompany jtheir chosen ladies, 
to while-away the night at their casinos, and to slumber away Aij 
day in their palaces, was their usual, their favorite employment. 
Hence Venice, for so many ages the seat of independence, of com- 
merce, of Wisdom^ and of enterprise, gradually sunk from her 

/ • • .» 

* on the bleak shore it lies — - ' "^^ ' ' •• til'.*** 
A)ieftUle08Gar«(u»,oiulQuam«l«wtliiog.'^iDrytf«R. , t 

• A, 1). 1718. 



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W CLASSICAL TOUR " Cbap. IV. 

eminence^ and at length became the foul abode of effeminacy, of 
wantonness, and of debauchery. .Her arsenal, where so many 
storms onee fermented, and whence so inany thunderbolts ha4 
been levelled ai the aspiring' head 6f the Turk, resigning its war« 
Hke furniture, became a scene of banquetting ; and instep of re<* 
sounding to the stroke of the anvil, re-echoed to the dance and the 
concert.' In short, this once proud and potent republic, like some 
of. the degenerate emperors of Rome, seemed to prefer th0 glo-^ 
ries of the theatre tp thoise of the field, and wilnngly rested its 
modern claim to consideration, on the pre-eminent exhibitions of 
its well-known carnival.' 

From a people so degraded^ so lost to bold and manly senti* 
ments, no generous exertions, no daring enterprise is to be ex- 
pected in the hour of .danger. It is their policy to temporize, to 
weigh chances, to flatter (he great contending powers, and it must 
be their fate to sink under the weight of the rictorious. Such was 
the destiny of Venice. After having first insuked, and then courted 
the French republic, it at length, with all the means of defence in 
its hands, resigned itself to hollow friendship; and sent a thousand 
boats to transport the armies of France frpm the main land over 
the Lagune into the very heart of the city. The English commo-* 
dore in the Adriatic, protested against such madness, and offered 
to cover the city with his own ships — in yain ! The people^ who 

I Several Qoble balls in the arsenal had been for a leng time appropriated to tb* 
entertainment of royal guests, and of strangers of very great distinction. 

* " In fatti, un certo egoismo sempre fatale alle repubbliche, «n reflessibile raf- , 
freddamento di quel zelo patrio ctie tanto distinse gli aristqcratici dei passati ^cofi, 
una falsa clemenza nei tribunal!, onde'rimanevano i delitti senza il castigo dalle 
leggi prescritto, una certa facilita di propalare i secret! del Senato, sorpassata coii 
indolenza dagl' inqui^itori dello stato, una non curanza delle cose sacre e religiose^ 
un immoderato spirito di p^ssatemp!^ una scandalosa impudenza nelle donne> an 
libertinaggio posato pet* cosi dire intrionfo negl! uomini, erano fra gli altri disordim 
c!he dominavano in una parte di patrizi, e di clltadini d'ogni condizione si in Ve-^ 
nezia, che nelloStato. Ne fanno fede gl foterni sconvolgimenti degli anni 1769 
e 17S0, e la £oggia de Liber! Muratori scoperta nel 1785. in che alcunl rispettabUi 
soggetti avevano ingr^sso : Qiiestefurono te cagioni estrfnseche, che disponeyaoQ 
Tediflcio ad uri Imminente piricolo ii crollare."— Such is the acknowledgment ol 
a Venetian author. Raccolta, voh i. p. iS. 

" In their transactions, a. certain selfishness always fatal to republics, a coolness, 
"whose effects were always reflected back up^on themselves, in that patriotic zeal 
"Which so much distinguished, the aristocracy of past ages, a false clemency in the 
tribunals, which suffered offences to pass without the punishment prescribed by tha 
laws, a certain facility in divulging the secrets of the Senate, which was again 
fiiifpassed by the indolence of the inquisitors of the state, a disregard of the sacrecj 
concerns of religion, an immoderate spirit of amusement, a scandalous impuden<^ 
in the women, a libertinism of which the men seemed to be prond— these were th# 
disiitfders which reigned amongst a great part of the patricians^ and of the (^ItiiseBS 
of every rank, both in the city and territory of Venice. This is sufficiently proved 
by Ihe internal disturbances of 1762 and 1780, and by the Lodge of Free Miasons 
discovered, in 1785, Into which several respectable subjects had entered : Theae 
were the external causes which brought the fabric into imminent danger of fallin^.^' 



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Cbap. IV. THROUGH ITALY. 71 

are 9] ways the last to lose a sense of national honor, expressed their 
mtdiness tq stand forth and to defend their country— in vain! The 
nobles trembled for their Italian estates ; an(| in the empty hope of 
saying their income, they betrayed their country, and submitted to 
plander, to slavery, and to indelible disgrace. Not one arm was 
raised, riot one swor-d was drawn, apd Venice fell, self-betrayed, 
and tinpitied. Her enemies punished her pusillanimity, by pillaging 
her pubHp and her private treasures, by defacing her edifices, by 
stripping her arsenal, by carrying away her trophies ; and then they 
handed her over as a contemptible prize, to a foreign despot. A 
tremendous lesson to rich and effeminate nations to r6use them to 
exertion, and to prove, if such proof were wanting, that inde- 
pendence must be preserved, as it can only be obtained, by the 
sword; that money may purchase arms, biit not freedom: that 
submission excites contempt; and that determined heroic resistance, 
even should it fail, challenges and obtains consideration and honor. 

Non tamen ignav® 
Percipient gentes quam sit ndn ardna yirtns 

Servitium Tagisse manu .....'. 

Ig&orantque datos, ne quisquam ^erviat, enges '.— £iMjan. 

The population of Venice,, previous to the late revolution, 
amounted to about one hundred and fifty thousand souls; it is 
supposed to have decreased considerably since that event, and if 
the present order of things should unfortunately continue, it will 
diminish, t!i11, deserted like Sienna and Pisa, this city shall become 
a superb solitude, whose lonely grandeur will, remind the traveller, 
that Venice was once great and independent. 

The state of society in Venice seems to be upon a more en- 
larged scale than formerly ; the casinos indeed continue still to b^ 
the places of resort, of card-parties and' of suppers ; but various 
houses are open to strangers; and balls and concerts, and club 
dinaers are given frequently ; to all which, introductiojQ is not di^ 
ficult. The carnival was distinguished by plays in the day, and by 
masked balls at night; the illumination of the theatre on such nights 
is very beautiful. One species of theatrical amiisement at this sea- 
son is singular. It is a regular fs^rce' carried on at all hours; so 
that the idle part of the community may, if they please, pass all 
the twenty-four hours in the play-house, fall asleep, and awake, go 
out and come in, and still find the play goipg on with its usual 
spirit. In suCh pieces, the actors seem to be pbli^d to have re- 

' Tbe dastard nattonfrfet, shall fail td know. 

That valour's 81*10 may ward the sbanofkil Mow, 

And stop the march ot star ry 

And shall th' important truth be ^ill onknowa, 
That swords were glT'o for this great UM Bione, 
That inefi. might not teilawe? . ^ - ' 



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7i CLASSICAL TOUR Ghap. IV. 

' <' ' ^ • ' 

course to their own ingenuity, for the dialogue, which, however, 
seldom flags for want of materials ; such is their natural talent for 
repartee and buffoonery. 

A person accustomed to the rides, the walks, . the activity of or- 
dinary towns, soon grows tired of the confinement of yenice,.and 
of the dull, indolent, see-saw motion of Gondolas. He longs to 
ei^patiate in fields, and to range at large through the streets, withr 
out the encumbrance of a boat and a retinue of Gondoliert* We 
therefore left Venice on the sixth of March, without much regret, 
and embarking at the inn door, proceeded towards Fusina. As 
we rowed over the Lagune, we prevailed upon our Gondolieri to 
sing, according to an ancient custom, mentioned I think by Addison, 
some stanzas of Tasso *, but however beautiful the poetry might be, 
we thought the tune and execution no ways superior to that of a 
common ballad-singer in the streets of London. This classical 
mode of singing verses €ilternate]y, a remnant of the ancient pas- 
toral ' so long preserved in Italy, has been much on the decline in 
Venice since the French invasion, which has damped the ardor of 
the people, and almost extinguished their natural mirth and vivacity. 
From Fusina we ascended the Brenta in the s^e manner as we had 
descended it, and arrived late at Padua. 

The next morning, after a second visit to the most reniarkable 
edifices, such as St. Gtustina, the Santo, the Cathedral, the SaUme^ 
we turned our thoughts to the neighboring country, and considered 
what objects, it presented to our curiosity. The warm fountains and 
baths of Aponus, now called Abano, lie about four miles from Padua. 
They were frequented by the ancient Romans under the emrperors, 
and have been celebrated by Claudian, and by the Gothic king Theo- 
doric, in long and elaborate descriptions in veriiie and prose.*. These 

' AlternIfidleeU«,ama^taitflrn«Camena.-f<r9</. u 

Each.in your turn your tuneftii numbers bring ; , 
By tarns Ibe tanefal masea Iotb to Blag.- Dry den. 

» Tbe principal effects are described in the following verses. Claudian addresses 
himself to the fountain : 

Felices, propriuao qui te meruere coloni, 

Fas qulbus est Apoiion Juris habere sui; 
' Non Ulis (errena lues, corrupta nee Austri 

Flamlnai nee sasvo Slrius igne nocet 

Quod si forte malus membrls exuberat humor 

Languida Vei nimio viscera Mle virent ; 
Iton venas reserant, nee TQlnere TUlQera sanant, , 

Pocnla nee tristi gramlne mista bibunt : 
Amlssum lymphis reparant impune Tigorem, • 

Pacaturque, ssgro luxuriante, dolor.— £idy/. ipoil. 

Thrice happy are tbe swaias, a faTor'd throng. 
Tow hom thy treasures, Aponus, belong ; 
No felt disease they fear, nor Auster's breath, 
Nor Sirius, charged with pestilence and death ; 
But if distemper fills the languid veins, 
Or bile, malignant In th* intestiifes reigns, 
. ■- No blood they draw^ nor trenchant knife apply, 

Nor goblet drugged with nauseous med'clnes try ; 
Thy waves alone their wasted strenght restore; < 
u'rhe grat«ftd draught \» dr luki vtA paia exi9t« no norf* 



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Chap. IV. THAOUCiH ITALY. 78 

writer^ attribute to them many strange and wonderful effects; how-* 
eyer^ making all due allowances for poetical exaggeration, the waters 
are in many cases of great advantage. 

Aboiit seren miles southward of Padua, rises the ridge of hills 
called the Colli Euganei, still retaining the name of one of the ear* 
liest tribes that peopled the Paduan territory. These mountains^ 
for so they might justly be termed, if the enormous swell of the 
neighboring Alps did not in appearance diminish their eleyatiof!, were 
formerly, it seems, inhabited by a race of soothsayers) who vied^ 
with th^ Tuscans in the art of looking into futurity. O^e of these 
seers, according to Lucan, behejd the battle of Pharsalia while seated 
on his native hill, and described to his astonished auditors all the 
Ticissitodes of that bloody contest, ' on the very morning on which 
it took place. Aulus Gellius relates the same story, but attributes 
it to a priest of the name of Cornelius, a citizen of Padua, without , 
mentioning, . as he frequently does, the author from whom ifb de- ' 
rived the.tale. But, whether it was a Paduan priest or an £uga- 
nean soothsayer, who was gifted with this extraordinary power of 
Tision, it proves at least that claims to the faculty termed second 
nghty are not confined to modern times, or to the northern regions 
of Great Britain. * 

Ifi one of the recesses of the Colli fluganei stands the village of 
ilr^tio/p, distinguished by the residence of Petrarca during the latter 
years of his life, and by his death, which took place in 1374. He 
was buried in the churgh-yard of the same village, and a monument 
was erected to his honor. This monument and his villa have been 
preserved by the people with religious care^ and continue even now 
to attract a number of literary visitants of all countries, who, as 
they pass through Padua, fail not to pay their respects to the manes 
of Petrarca. . 

The road to Arquato, as far as Monte Selicey runs along a canal|^ 
over a very flat and very fertile country bearing a strong resem- 
blance to some of the finest parts of the Netherlands. Villas and 
large villages lie thick around, and the scene on every side gives 
the traveller an idea of plenty and of population. To relieve the 
flatness of the adjacent country, mountains ri^e in various forms in 

* EaganeOf 8l vera fides memorantlbas, aagur 

Colle aededs, ApODoc terris obi famffer exit, « 

Atqoe Aotenorei dJspergitur anda Timavl, 

Vebit siimma dies, geritur res maxima, dixit, 

Impia concorront -Fompeii et CflBMris anna.^fM. vU* 188. i 

( The poet's geography is not very <tccurate. ) 

Where Aponus first springs in smoky steam, 
And ftill TittiaTns rolls his iiobler stream, I 

- Upon a hill that daf, if fame be.troe, 
A learned angar sate, the skies to view : - 

*' *Tts come, the great event is cofaie," he cried ; 
**Oar^impfoas«ia6b tlM wlcksd war decide.*'— Aowe, 



« Aol. GelL Uh. xv. 18. 



L 



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%i cixssicijutojm. cm^'TT. 

front, S^nd Mor^ Selke (or Silicjs] in parttenlar, Strilcos the eye by 
its lofty conical form. About eight iniles from Padua> on the banks 
of the canal, stands the castle of the 06i22it, an ancient and illus- 
trious family of Padpa. This edifice is much in the style of the old 
Castres of romance. Lofty I'ooms, long galleries, winding stair- 
cases, and dark passages, fit it admirably for the purposes of a no- 
Telist, and render it equally proper for the abode of a great barop, 
for the receptacle of a band of robbers, for the scene of nightljr 
murders, or for the solitary walk of ghosts and of spectres. But 
"the predominant taste of the country has fitted it up in a style weH 
calculated to dispel these gloomy transalpine illusions, and to cure 
the spectator's mind of its Gothic terrors. The apartments are 
adorned with paintings, some of which are in fresco, on the walls^ 
representing the glories and the achievements of the Obizzlan 
heroes in jdays of old, and others are on canvas, being originals or 
)copie| of great masters. The galleries, and, one in particular of 
very considerable length, are filled with Roman aatiquities, altar^^ 
vases, armour, inscriptions, pillars, etc. On the whole, the castj^ 
is very curious, and ought to be made the object of a particular 
visit, as an accidental hour Is not sufficient for an examination ia 
detail of the various curiosities which it contains, 'r^ , / 

A little beyond the village of Catato, we turned off from the high 
road, and alighting from the carriage on account of the swampi- 
Kiess of the country, we walked and rowed occasionally thr6ugh 
lines of willows, or over tracts of marshy liSind, for two or three 
miles, till we began to ascend the mountain, ^rquato is prettily si- 
tuated on the northern side of a high hill, with a valley below it 
vy^inding through the fugapean ridge. It is not a very I^rge, but a 
neat village. 

Petrarca's villa is at the extremity farthest from Padua. I( con- 
sists of two floors. The first is used for farming purposes, as it 
ii annexe^ to a farmer's Jiouse. The second story contains five 
rpoms, three of wfaiic^ are large, and two closets; the middle room 
seev^ to I)aye been used %s^ reception room or hall; that qn the 
right is a kitchen; that on the left has two closets, one of whicli 
nofight have been ^ study, the other a bed-chamber. Its fire-place 
is high, and its postes fuligine nigri (beams black with soot). To the 
chief window is a balcony 5 the view thence towards the opening 
of the valley on the side, aod in front towards two lofty conical 
hills, one of which is topped with a convent, is calm and pleasing. 
The only decorttion of the apartments is a deep border of gro- 
tesque painting running as a cornice under the ceiling ; an old smoky 

* When we visited it, the proprietor was wajkiog up ai)d dlQwn the great gallery, 
aBd giving directions to his servants to dear and arrange some new acquisitions. 
He seemed to eontempiate his collection with great complacency; and it must be 
owned that the niimjbier and arrangement of the articles whiph compose it give a 
favorable opidion both of his diligence and his j udgment. 



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GsA». FIT. THROUCrH TTALT* JJK 

nictere over llie fire-place in the kitc|ien, g^id by tlye jgpod peopte 
to be an original t>y ificfyiet Angela, and a table and chaff, allappa^ 
rentif 9 the picture not expected, as old as the house itself. On the 
taMe i^ a large book, afk album, containing the parpes, and^ome^ 
tiities the sentiments, of various visitants. The following versei 
are inscribed in the first page; they are addre9sed to the travf^lier. 

Ta ch6 devotaal sagroalbergo arrivl, 

?ve 8'aggirt ancor r ombri iannortah) 
1 chi an-di vi depose il corpo frale. 
La Patria, il Dome, il seosi taoi quUeriye. 

7he wallf are covered with names, compliments, and verses. 
Behind the house js a garden, with a small lodge for the gaMener 
and the ruins of a tower covered with ivy. A narrow walk leads 
through it, and continues along the side of the hill, under the shade 
of olive trees; a»solitary laurel * still lingers beside the path, and 
recalls to mind both the poet and the lover. ^ The t^ill ascends steep 
from the garden, and finding round, closef the vale and* the pro- 
spect. Its broken sicje^ ^re well cultivated, and interspersed with 
olivea and with cottages. It was already evening when we arrived. 
AJfter having examined the house, we walked for some time in the 
garden ; a ibonsand violets perfumed the air ; the nightingale wa§ 
occasionally heard, as if making its first essay; and, excepting his 
evebing song, ''most musical, most melancholy,'* at! was still and 
silent around. The pkrce^and the scenery seemed so w^l described 
in the following beaqtifiil lines, that'it was impossible not'to recol- 
lect and apply theni, though probably intended by the poet for 
another region. 

8ai Bpn palaol, non teatr(i, o loggia, 
a*p ior vece un abete, uo Taggio, un plQ<^ 
Tra V erba verde, e'l belmonte vlcino, 
Onde se scende poetando e poggia, 
Levan di terra al del nosiro intelletto : 
£ 1 rpsigDuoi ohe dolcemente all* ombra i 
tutte le ^otti 8i lamenta e piaffoe. ■ 99*^' x. 

s ThOQ, who with ptoiu fooUt«p6 loVst to trace 

Tbe boDor'd preclucts of tbis aacred plaoe, 
^here stiil lb' imiuortal spirit bovers near 
or blm, wbo lefl bis Beshly burden bere, 
Inscribe lb; name, tby conulry, and imoacl 
Tbe new emotioos ibat expau<| tby beart. ' ^ 

• It is necessary to remaik 'here, once for all, that the lUUan \m^] Is the hq^ 
frea, the launis of the ancients. ..■*.■ 

$ • Hq tbjBftirw, nor proud baicontea taw. 

Nor lony domes their pompous tabriei rear; 

But in their place the spreading beech is seen, ^- 

Tbe flr, Um piof o'ershade tlie vetvet greeu ; * 

These scenes- tbe bill along wbote slope I firw* 

And tune, ascendlnf , my poetic lay- 

And the sweet oigbtingaie, that all oig^t loq( 

TrUis in the sbat^ hej^ mejl<|ncboly song^ 

These bi4 the baoyaot spbrU upwanla Kia* , 

And litt a raptocd moriai W^he^kl^ 



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re CLASSICAL TOUR Chaf. IV^ 

The gardextis eatirely neglected, but the hou^e is kept in ^ood 
repair; a circiiWiistaoce whieh cannot, bul reflect ioMich hoftor on the 
spirit of the proprietor and on the inhabitants of the village, ytb^a 
it is considered that more than four hundred years hare now 
elapsed since xhe death of Petrarca, and that many a destructive 
war has raged in the country, and many a wasting army paissed 
over it since that event. His body lies interred in the church-yard 
of the village, in a largo stone sarcophagus raised on four low 
pillars, and surmounted with a bust. As we stood and contem- 
plated the tomb by the pale light of the moon, we indulged the ca- 
price of the moment, and twining a branch of laurel into the form 
of a orown, placed it #n thehead of the bust, and bailed the manes 
of the Tuscan poet in the words of his admirer. 

Deh pioggia, vento rio non feccia scofDO 
. . Air osstf'pie; sol porti grati odori 

L *aura die 4 ciel suol far pui'O e sereno. 

LasciQ le ninfe ogoi lor antro adieno : 

i) raccolte in corona al sasso intomo, 

Liete ti cantin lodi e spargan fiori ! ^ Aless, Pieeolimini. 

Several of the inhabitants who had gathered round us during 
this singular ceremony, seemed not a little pleased with the whim, 
and cheered us with repeated viva» as we passed through the vil- 
lage, and descended the hill. Though overturned by a blonder 
of the drivers, and for some time suspended over the canal with 
^pmin^ danger of being precfpitated into it, yet as the night was 
bright and warm, and all the party in high spirits, the excursion 
was extremely pleasant. ^^ 

Few names seem to have been so fondly cherished by contempo- 
raries, or treated with so muqh partiality by posterity, as that of 
Petrarca. This distinction he owes not so much to his talents, oi* 
even to his virtues, as to the many amiable and engaging qualities 
which accompanied them, and set them off to the greatest ad- 
vantage. As an orator, an historian, and a poet, he had even in 
his own time many rivals, perhaps in Boccaccio an equal, and in 
Dante undoubtedly a superior. But in pleasing manners, in gene- 
rous feelings, in warm attachment, and iji all the graceful, ail the 
attractive accomplishments of life, he seems to have surpassed 
every public character of his time, and to h^ve engaged universal 
and tmqualified admiration. 

Gibbon asserts that the literary reputation of Petrarca must rest 

^ Let no rude show'n, nor bolsf rdus winds that rave. 

Insult the Tusean poet*s honored grave : 
Let those soft airs, th%t smooth Hear n's acure brow. 
Prom their light wings ambrosial sweets J)e8tow ; ^ ' ^ 

Let ey>y nymptit her verdaat grotto kBave, 
The mystic danee with joyous footsteps weave 
Around thy tomb, thy praises \here resound, 
7aiM her velodloas voice, and soalter flowerets rooiyl* 



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CbaP. IV. TflROUGH ITALY. 7t 

entirely on hisL Latin works^ and insinnates that hiis sonnets are * 
trifles; that his psTssion was, in h\s own opinion, land in that of hid 
contemporaries, criminal ; and that Uiura, the mother of ten diil- 
dren, could have possessed few of the charms ascribed to her by 
the. poet. Though I have no particular inclination to enter the 
lists as champion, of the lady's charms, yet I may vebture to ob-* 
serve, that a matron who died at the age of forty or fc^y-two, 
may possibly have been very beautiful at the age of nineteen or 
twentjr^ v^hen the poet first- behold her ; that. female beauty some^ 
times sanKves forty, however fatal the age may be to it in general ; 
that it is less liable to fade when it consists more in expression 
than in color and freshness ; and in fine, that though Laura, if we 
may believe her lover, possessed both species of beauty, -yet shd 
excelled in the former. , , ' 

Leefespe'chiomed>rpcirolu€ente i_^ 

E *llampeggiardeHangeIicofiso....« II Parfe(5on». SI,. 

Leperleinch; [amor] frange eikafflrena ^ 

. Dolci parole^ * * I Parte S^n, iU,i^ 

aire perishable charms -without doubt, and liable to very rapid, 
decay. But, . . T 

Eeggiftdrit singotera e pellegrina; i 

£ '1 cAntar che nell aninia si sente : '^ \ 

,V and^r -^geteste, e'l vago spirito ardente r 

Begli occhi che i cor fanoo smalti : 

Coi dir'pien dMntenelti, dold ed^alti ; 

E '1 bel tacere, e quel santl costuroi 1 3 1 Pdrte tSonn,.tTti 

lliese are charms which emanate directly from the mind^ antf seem' 
alaiost to enjoy son^e portion of its pure and imperishable naturel 
Laura, therefore, may still be allowed to retain her honors, and 
continue, to rank among the celebrated beauties of ancient times* 
oUra le heile bella* * 

As to Pel;rarca's passion, it was undoubtedly inisplaced, exces* 
^ive, and highly reprehensible; but his contemporaries do not 
seem to have considered it. in that light, especially as it never 
broke out in any guilty deed, or even indecorous expression. The 
author of his life, Beccadelli, a man of unblemished morals^ and 
reputation, .and an archbishop, declares that Petrarca's attachment 

■ Her curling lockA, like purest gold that shine. 

And the bright flashes of her smile divine. 

• The jpearls, vlthio which Love confines and breaks short her dulcet words. 

^ Tbat^race and elegance^ so rare],; seen, - - 

That voice, which in the inmost soul is felt. 
That air iBSi4r'd,.thelheaT:nl; gait and mien,:. . ' * - ' 

^hose eyes, whose glance the proudest heart can melt,' 
ner words, where oUndrand thought, and genioa shine, 
Il^r silence sweet, her manners all divine. ^ «, . t 

v/ Fwr beyond all the fair.— Vol. ii. Son. Mi. 

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r^ 



78 GUSSIGAL TOt& Cbap. IV. 

was innocent m itself^ andl)eneficia] in its pQDseqnences, ad it dSl^ 
a forth the powers of his genius, and edntribmed in a^ high d^ 

See to the^ perfection of his langaage, and to the honor of bis 
antry.! The poet himself condemns; apd sTppIauds his passion 
^jiternately ; representing it sometimes as having preserved hint 
fronx.tbe indulgence of low. grovellingappetites, and urged him 16 
the .pursuit of honorable fame; ' apd at other times lamenting t( 
^ a guilty weakness, to Yfhkh he had sacrificed his time, and bad 
devoted talents destined for nobler objects. ' But; notwtthstand- 
^ the severity of this self-censure, hjB continoed either td composd 
or to correct the strains that love inspired, not only for several 
|ears after the death df its object; but even to the near aflproach 
o^ his own : a circumstance which, considering the religtojtis ttfrii 
of his^mind, particularly ia his latter days, proves that he attached 
no criminality to the passion itself, since he could indulge himself 
B& fi'eely itf its recollection. 

As to the sonnto Of Petrarca, in the eyes of a moralist (hey are 
triftes, ifhd so are the elegies of PropertiuS and of Tibullus, and * 
tfl the numerous poems both ancient and • modern, that^treat the 
ifaitae airy and unsubstantial subject ; but trinkets may derive valpe 
from their materials and workmanship, and, even love songs may 
acquire both importance and interest from their language and their 
sentiments. Genius communicates its Own dignity Ip every subject 
that it chooses to handle ; it can give i^eight.to insignificance, and 
make even an amorous (litty, the vefiicle of awful truths and of 
dseful lessons. This observation is more applicable perhaps to 
]petrarca than to any other poet. Equal, I had almost said snperidr 
infelicity of expression, and in harmony of language, to hisRemm 

fed€^S8or9, he rises far above them in delicacy of thought, and 
dignity^ of sentiment. He borrows, no embellishments from the 
tions of mythology, and indulges himself in no pastoral taleis, no 
&r-fetche^ allusions. The spirit of religion, which strongly kn 
fluencejd his mind in all the vicissitudes of life, not u^frequently 
gives his passion something of the solemnity of devoiiotf, and 
inspires Ite hfoly strains that chant 

Qaanto piuVale 
Sempiteraa bellezza clie mortale. ' 

This peculiar turn of thought, that pervades the poems of Pe^ 
trarca, and.rdises them so much above all similar coniipositio^s, if 
noticed by his biographer as a distinction highly t^ohorable to the 
Tuscan muses, k quali, ha mosiro, came aUamente e MxOfxmente possono 

> Parte II. Ganz. vil. 

• Son. IxxxYi. * 

' Bow greatly mortal beauty i» excelled by that which is eternal. 



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Chap. IV. !f ttRdUGtt iTAiY. li 

^antair $ amote*^ It is not wonderful therefore, that the poet 
himself should have rested his hopes of fame x>n hi^ Italian poems^ 
and have persisted in correcting and in repolishing them with so 
much assiduity; or that posterity should have confirmed the au-* 
(hor/s judgment, and continued ever since to set a high value on 
these short,, but highly la.b6red productions. While his Latin 

8 perns (histories and moral dissertations) slumber undisturbed on 
iie shelf, his Bime will sometimes amuse the leisure of the youth- 
ful reader, and now and then, perhaps, attract the attention ojf the 
philosopher, who will oipten find in them, intermingled with the 
frivolous graces of the subject, sobliiyke sea.timeats expressed- ia 
lang^uage the most harmonious. 



CHAPtER V. 

Visit to the Lago dl Gkfd^, 6r Benacus— the River Mincius— Ihe Promontory of 
Sirmio— Desensmo-^Storm on the Lake-nParadisinO'^Banks of the Mincio&— • 
AUntua— Pietole-^ExcarsiOB ^q the^Po— flbnors paid to Yirgil— Virgiliano. 

Next, day we look leave of Padua, returned thrdugh Yicenzal 16 
Verona, and bavikig passed the following day there, On the ensuin^f 
morning (Bfordi 13) we 56t out for the Lago di Garda (the BenacuS) 
eelebrated by Yirgil as' one of the noblest ornaments of Italy. Iti$ 
principal promontory^ Srrmh, has been commemorated by Ga-^ 
tallus, as his fovorite residence. We reached Peschierd, a fortress 
on the southern extremity of the lake, at about half past two. The 
distance is about eighteen miles, the road is excellent, genetMf 
descending, and always passing through corn fields striped with 
Tines, with some swells at a distance crowned with villages, and 
churches, and seats; while the Alps formed a vast line to the north; 
Traces of hostility, as I before observed, are indeed too visible iQ 
the neighborhood of Verona, > where several severe skirmishes, 
and one decisive battle, took place during the late war. The vine- 
yards and mulberry trees, of course, were torn up or ciit down bjr 
the armies as they passed along. However, I observed with sa- 
tisfaction, that ^e peasants wer6 busily employed in replanting 
them. 

At Peschiera, the lake terminates in the river Mmcio, which flows 
through the town, broad, deep, and clear as crystal, thdugbalmost 
as rapid as a mountain torrent. The traveller, l^rhen he beholds 
this river, the name of which is so familiar and so pleasing to ft 

' Which he has demonstrated «9 tt cUpiiMei trr stttglng of love in lofty and In 
holy strains. . 



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do CLASSICAL TOim • CHAP.tV. 

classic e^t, will recal to mind the passages in'wbich Virgit describes 
its banks and appearances. We contemplated it for ^ome time 
from the bridge, and then went out of the town, and embarking 
without the gate, glided over the surface of the lake so smooth dnd 
clear, that we could distinguish the bottom at the depth [of twenty 
or fiTe-and-twenty feet. The weather,.' though only the thirteenth 
of March, was as warm, and thestin as bright, as onaspmmer's 
day in England ; yet some clouds hung on the summits of the 
mountains, and a certain haziness dimmed their sides. The borders 
of the lake towards the south, though rather flat, rise sufficiently 
to display to advantage the towns, villages, and seats, with the 
olives, corn fields, and vineyards >that adorn them; and whea 
lighted up by a bright sunshine,. they present a very exhilarating 
prospect. The shores, as they advance northwaixl, assume a 
bolder aspect, and exhibit all the varieties of Alpine scenery. 
Rocky promontories, precipices, lofty hills, and towering moun- 
tains, in all their grotesque, broken, and shapeless appearances, 
rise in succession* one above another; while the declining sua, 
playing upon the snow that capped their sumouts, tinged them with 
Tayious hues, and at length spread over them a thin veil of purple. 
The peninsula of Sirmtone, and the bolder promontory of M* 
nerbo, the former about seven, the latter abbbt fourteen miles 
distant, appeared to great advantage from P£8chiera, -and grew 
upon the sight as we advanced. Sirmtone appears "as an island ; so 
low. and so narrow is the bank that unites *it to the^ main landv tIM 
entrance is defended, and indeed totally covered by aa old castle^ 
^ith its battlements and high* antique tower, in the centre, in the 
form <^ a Gothic fortification. The promontory spreads behind 
the* town, and rises into a hill entirely covered with olives ; this 
hill may be said to have two summits, as there is a gentle descent 
between them. On the nearest is a church and hermitage;, plun- 
dered by the French, and now uninhabited and neglected. On. the 
farthest, in the midst of an olive grove, stand, tl>e walls of an old 
buildings said to be a Roman bath, and near it ^s a vault, called the 
grotto of Catullus. The extremity of this pron^onlOiry is covered 
with arched ways, toilers, and subterranean passages, suppoasd 
by the inhabitants to be Roman, but. apparently of. no very distant 
m*a. At all events, Catullus undoubtedly inhabited this spot, and 
preferred it, at a certain period, to every other r^ion. Be has 
expressed his attachment to it in some beautiful lines. . 

Peninsularum Sirmi9, insularumque 
> Ooell^, qaascuDqueiDliquentlbus 8t«gitis 

., Marique vaflto ferruterque NeptOQHS : . 

Quam te libeDtef^ qtiamque Iietus invfeo. ' Catull, 3S« .; 



fitrmiosweet I all isles «toellJjig I 
Neptune Orom ^is wafry dwelliiig 
Not oii«'lM» woiMl'roas foir cao'tee : 
Wttb vluil tfaUgbt I ftotUMwe I 



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Chap. V» . THBOUGH ITALY. H 

He could iiot>aye el^os^ a more delightful i^treat. Iq the cen- 
tre of a magoiBcept lale, 8u;*reun^ed with $cea^ry of the greatest 
variety and majesty^ secluded from the world^ yet beholding from 
h& garden the villas of hi$ Yeroiiese friends, he mi^ht have enjoyed 
akeriiately the pleasures of retirement apd of society; and daily, 
without the sacrifice of his^ connexions, which Horace^ seemed in- 
dinecl to m^ike in a moment of despondency^ he might have coit- . 
templated the grandeur and the agitation of the ocean, without its 
terrors and immensity. Besides, the soil is 'fertile and its surface 
varied; sometimes shelving in a gentle declivity, at other timet" 
breaking^ in craggy magnificences aqd thus furnishing every requi- 
site for delightful walks and for luxurious baths ; while the views 
vary at every step, .presenting rich coasts or barren mountains, 
Bometimesconfined to the cultivated scenes of the neighboring shore,^ 
and at other times bewildered and lost in the windinga^f the lake, 
and in the recesses of the Alps. In short, more convenience audi 
more beauty are seldom united; and such a peninsula is, asCatu}?- 
lus enthusiastically observes, scarcely to be matched in all the wide ^ 
range of the world (ff waters. 

We leh Shnnione after Sunset; and,, lighted by the moon, glided 
smoothly over the lake W Desensano, four miles distant, where, 
about eight,' we stepped^from the boat into a very good inn. So , 
lar the appearance of the Benacus was very different from the de^^ 
scriptioa which Virgil has given of its stormy ehardcter. Before we 
retired to rest, about midnight, from our windows, we observed ,it 
still calm and unruffle<|. Al)out tjiree in the mbrnihg I was roused 
from sleep by the door and windows bursting open at once, and . 
tiie wind roaring round the room. I started up, and looking out, 
observed by the light of the moon, the lake in the most dreadful 
agitation, and the waves dashing against tf]i^ walls of the inn, and v 
resembling the sv^ellings of the ocean,, more than the petty agitation 
of inland waters. Shortly after, the landlord entered with a lan- 
tern, closed the outward shutters, expressed some apprehensiom;, ' 
but at the same time assured me, that their houses Were built to 
resist such sudden teinpests, and that I might repose with confi- . 
dence under a roof, which had withstood full many a stoi^mas ter- 
rible as that which occasioned our present alarm. Next, morning, 
the lake so tranquil and serene the evening before, presented a 
surface covered with foam, afid swelling into mountain billows, , 
that burst in breakers every instant ^t the very door of the inn, and 
covered the whole house with spray. Virgil's description now seem- . 
ed nature itself, and, taken from the very scene actually under our ' 

eyes, it was impossible not to exclaim, 

Teq<ie 
Fluctibus et fremitu ^sargeiui» Benace^ marino. » 

. V Geor. U. 160. 

' Lib. I. Ep, xi. , . . X ,.. 

* . Benacof, ivitb tempestoons billows rei'd.— IMrycf^n. 

I. « 



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Alter tMakiMt(Hareh ik, Sanday) I weMS vp tlie road to 
Bfesota, and ft^rH a high kill vflewed the I)llt6^it» eoasfs^ pevifp9«dai^ 
flM pii^ifMttlOPidsr. The peiifn^«la ef Sfrmfone fehki^ Ike moMr 
alrltiog olqjM, ati rliiiAin^ between Peschiera and' Ae^en^otie; rC dl^ 
-vMes tl^firtiraivd Widesi pan of the lake fnto two nearly eqaif 
9paoes, and ot^ aeoount of the Mwness and ^e narrowoefss ef the* 
paHMige fo H, appeans like a beaatifol and well wooded hrhrnd. The* 
Mxfiilrikhrg'fefttHAreof the lake is the boM promontory pfifmaith0, 
<^ rather of Son Pietro, arid the Isolu del Venti\ls\2tn& of the- 
Wm&s ]. BtBhind thkr promontory and island, Kes the river ofSalo, 
SDpposed to be one of the most pictnresqae parts- of the lake, 
n^ly opposite to San Pietro, stands theto^n of Garda (foortdeif 
m the middle age»}, which now gives its name'iBo the lak«, while an- 
ciemfy the lake ga^e its name to the snrroundtng^^ territory calleif 
Ager Benaeenfifite ' .(the district of Benacns )^ whose ihhabitants as- 
sembled for pnftRc purposes at Toscnlanum. This tOwii still exists, 
under its' ancient appellation, near Sah.^ 'the remaining part of 
the lake h concealed among the moantirins, and placed beyond the 
observation of one who stands in the neighborhood of Besensano. 
'ihe waters of the bke are of the finest sea-green; its depth is un- 
equal; in the narrow parts, from ten to forty, in the* wider, from 
otte hmidred to three hundred feet. The Benacus is fed by severaf 
Alphi'e streams, affd particularly by the5arca> a river that still bears 
its IRoman name: its only otitlet is the Mbuto. Hence this stream is 
soppKed with^ perp^taal flow of waters, and ne^er rises or falls 
more than a few inches, while other rivers are oPcentitfies almost 
dried up ill urarm sfeasoris, and swelled in wet months into an ju- 
uvdatioii. 

On the fifteenth we htt Besensano, and passing through Hlgottela, 
aKgbted at the turn towards 'the peninsula, and visited Sirmione 
once,inbrek We ranged, as' before, over the whole prombnlory, 
and efamined itsT coasts, its productions,. and its ruins more mi- 
niftely. The eastern and' western sides are formed principally of 
steib^i crs^ggy rocks, that sometimes rise fnto a wall, arid at other 
tlinefs descend in regular gradations to the water. The northern 
eitremilj is a grassy declivity. A vast mass df solid rock seems to 
fqnx^ the basis of the promontory, h borders it on all sides, and 
slifelving by degrees,' extends to a considerable distance visible 
though under water, and losing itself almost imperceptibly in the 
d^ep. The vidwson all sides, excepting the south, are such an iii- 
tef mixture of level and mountainous, of diltivated and barren coun- 

> Many geograpfaers suppose, and pretend to ground (heir suppositions upon an*-! 
etent monuments; that the name of Benacus belonged not to a town, but to the 
lalLO itseiroBly, and (tetlftie surroundiiigt^uniry was called'^gr«r BenaeeMis, and 
the inhabitahti, B^ntteflnset . The lake is now known among the people of the 
coootry, ag much by the- iappellatioa of Lago de JBenaeo, as that of Mofo di 



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trf, k9 eannot ftB to mterest even by M concrasi } flKto tma Htm 
ikftth&fn fK>{m youiliscorer the utmost betders of tlNtlitke, tboQgk 
their A*laoee, which is about forty-five rsAhn, aM dke dark tfhad^ 
dr tke Mfp^iriiKitiflibeat noiiiitains, iovdtf e tfiMiiil^ Ia AudoAM MriF 

The produce ^f the hili consists principan^f ot OliVd tfi^es, phtitf 
^il^rcie^ indeed, b«l neither lofty nor hnifriant M ft^llafge, and 
dMW^^tf^^ A0< wett calculated to answer the pnrposes of oma-^ 
fMnt, Made, or ahelter. They are, howeyei*, product^re, and th^ 
]ih«Mtants are so sensible of their yalne, that they contrite to'pladi' 
A€tA M tie sides, and even in the ctefts of the rocks, andf som^ 
titties raise watls to ^rop them when hi a situation toot perpeildK- 
diffar, or ef d forntK^a spreading and eitef^sive for tike ernnlf. tt^ 
illfl«Mice of eisertTon, and indeed many others, which I nmf fntro^ 
Mee^ oe^sersionartly hereafter, together wichthe highly cdfhivat^ ^ 
pMrMctt of the eomicry, have efrectually rennoved somer of oul^ 
iveftttftees, and'continced us, notwithsr^mding the partial and hastf 
Mpresentati^nfr of certain travellers, that the Italians are a( rery" 
]libori6tf 9 people, and that if they do not enjoy ail the ardvantageif 
MefOieihf Pro!ffdieflce to industry, tihe fanftfis to b^ attributed^ 
AM i^ them, but to their fendiords Md gofemofff. Btkt though 
olives be the principal prodMe of the peninsnfe, yiet Vines anidf dornr 
are by no means excluded : on the contrary, vineyards^ occupy a 
considerable part of the first hill, (^afticufarly towards the west» 
where, bordering on the town and lake ^ a' beautifol vineyard rises, . 
enclosed with large bmreh; and Cornells (he fpaoev between the 
olive rows, and covers the pemnstda with Verdure from shore to 
shore. A large garden occupies' the first hill immedij^lely over the 
town, and contains, among other plants, soine beautiful cypress^ 
favorite trees in ail halian gardens both ancient and madam. 

Having wandered up and down these poetical retreats,, and rea4; 
CikiuITus on the ruins of His residence ; having observed again and' 
i^ain aff the beautiful points ef view thai roseatoi^'nd us, we weip^ 
reminded by the setting sun of the necessity of retiring ; and^with- 
Areyt, reluctantly indeed, but wkh the satisfaction of havini^ &eeo« 
t6e Benacus under all its forms of calmness, of agitation, ai^d of r»* 
turning tranquillity. We walked along its banks by the light of lii% 
moon, to PeBchiera, six miles, and theAce once more to Fara4kku^ 
a' country seat, belonging to Sig. AHferto.Albertini, osr banker ^• 
^erona. The house is in a lovely country, yet so situated as to en- 
joy none of its advantages ; fbr though it stands on the banks of 
the Mincio, and within a mil^ of the lake, it commands a vie^ of 
neither. Its furniture is very indifferent, and ihe walks around, the 
principal of which opposite the house, eonsiSXs of a double row of 
cypresses, seem to promise neither shade nor shelter. To account 
for this deficiency, it would perhaps be ijuffieient to observe, that 
the Italians in general' hate very ftttte tiSiste tfl fttrnishing «i bouse, 



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84 dlASStCAL TMa CttAF. V. 

or in hying ont grounds to advantage ; but in jastite to the pro* 
prietor otParadisifio, I must ^dd, that the French had plundered 
the bouse, and cut down the greatiest part of the wood that sur- 
rounded it, so that its nakedness must in some degree be ascribed 
to the general cause of all the miseries of Italy, to the destroying 
qiurit of the French army. 

Before we take a last leave of the Benacus and of its borders, of 
Yeronaand of its vicinity, I mdst inform the reader that the lake, with 
all its streams and surrounding hills, and indeed the whole circumja^' 
cent country, has been rendered truly classical by having been made 
the scene or the subject of many beautiful compositions in the second 
Augustan age of It^ly. FracastoriuSf Naugerius, Ccutilio, have in-^ 
Yoked the Nymphas Benaddes; and Blembo ^as given the appellation 
of Benaeu9 to one of his most corrept and most pleasing Latin 
poems. The mountains and hills on its borders have been con- 
verted in.to the Arcadia of Italy, and peopled with a race of shep- 
herds, who almost rival in'song the Grecian swains on<5e solicantare 
pcrtti [who alone knew how to sing), and who far surpass them in 
inlnocence ^nd in piety. But of all the strains in which these scenes 
aro celebrated, the most affecting are those addressed by Fracmio- 
rms to his departed friend Flaminius, who was himself one of the 
most tuneful natives of this happy region. 

Te miseruml ante diem, cnideli funere, Marce 

Antoni I statis primo sub flore cadeDtem 

yidlmus extremA posituni Benacide'ripA 

Quam media. ftitersaxasoDansSarcarabluUundd. , 

Te ripffi flevere Athesis, te yoce yocare 

Audit® per noctem umbrie manesque Gatulli/ 

£C patrios mulcere novA duicedine lucbs. *^Syph, lib. i. 

Next morning we sent our carriages towards Mantua, and de- 
termined to proceed on foot in order to explore the secret beauties 
of the Mincius^ and to trace its pastoral banks,, hitherto iintrodden 
by the foot of any British traveller. We took one of Sig. Albertmi*9 
men, an honest looking peasant, for our guide, and descending the 
Utile bill on which Paradmno stands, advanced towards the banks ' 
of the rivdr. These banks conisist of fine little broken hills covered ' 
with vineyards and mulberry trees, interspersed with corn fields 
and downs, with a rill occasionally tumbling through a ch^sm. On 
the left, on the highest part of the bank, stands the village of Sa-' 
lionche, and on leaving this village you have a fine view over the 

'^ ' ' Tbee, haplos friend, it^ yoQtb's aspiring morn, 

Froib an life s opening Joys 'iintiin^lr torn. 
We «aw Inlerr d, wliere sounding Sairca lafes 
""^ TJbe fretted cocks, and Joins Benaco's iravei. 

Tiieeple^MiLt Adige wept; CatuilQS'slMMls ^ 

Invoked thy name, and mourufiri wallin^s made» 

JUbd in bis native wofiiOaiids all nigbt Jong ' 

8«>tb;d e? 'ry well-kiHrtiiA ecbo yim bit •oof. ; . ' . ^ i 



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•Chap. V. THROUGtt ITALIT. $5 

TiveTjf bet^en two swells, 6f the fortresd of P<m«c, at about ',t1^ 
miles distanoe, backed by the Alps. Before yoo^ rises on a hill the 
old castle of Mosembano, with its two towers and long boitlemenied 
ramparts. Beyond it a fine swell crowned with a few solitary cj^ 
presses, attracts the attention, merely by its apparent loneliness* 
Uosemband stands high on the right bank, and as you ^ppfoacb^ 
increases to yoar yiew, presenting a handsome church, and a fine 
old castle. Opposite Mosembano on the left, a fertile plain extends 
for Uie space of a mile, to a range of well wooded hills, adorned 
with a tower on the middle eminence called Monte Velto^ and termi- 
nating in the very picturesque hill and castle 6i Valeggio. 

A little beyond Mosembano^ the scenery improves considerabTy; 
broken hill», increasing in magnitude, approach the river : tr^es, 
more frequent and more majestic, adorn their sides ; the Hincio, 
spreading as it winds along, assumes the appearance of a magnifir- 
cent river, while the castle of Valeggio on the hill, and the fortified 
bridge of borgheito in the valley, form a very singular and striking 
termination. The side of a high bill, on the left, is crowned with 
the house and garden of the Marquis Maffei, a name well vnowil 
in literature. Borghetto is situated in a very beautiful valley :\ a 
high road runs across and is flanked with a wall o;i each ^lid^, 
strengthened with towers, and defended by three castles, one at 
each end, and one in the middle, forming a bridge over the river. 
On the top of a steep hill, rising immediately from- the bridge or 
fortified road, stan<i|s the romantic castle of Valeggio. In it& centre 
rises a lofty tower, which the Austrians were employed in repairing 
and raisings till the momeAt of their final retreat. The whole is now 
neglected, and will undoubtedly, if the present system remains in^ 
force much longer^ become a heap of riiins. 

A. little beyond the castle of Valeggio from its highest rampart, 
we enjoyed one of the most delicious views imaginable. To the 
south extended a plain almost interminable watered by the itftncto, 
covered with corn-fields, divided by mulberry trees and vines , in* 
tersected by various roads, and dotted Vith vHlas, villages, and 
towns. Among the latter, Mantua, at the distance of about fifteen 
miles, made the most conspicuous figure. To the east, rose the 
hills of Vicenza, and the more distant mountains of Arqua^ amongst, 
which the peaked forms of Monte Selice, and Monte Ferro, were> 
though so remote, very remarkable. Westward, and immediate- 
ly under the eye, lay the delightful valley of Borghetto, with its 
little town, its castle, its fortified bridge, and all its towers and 
battlements. An amphitheatre of hills partly encloses the valley 
with a rampart of woods and villages^ and through its mjddle rolls 
the sea-green Mincio, tumbling in foam over two or three slight 
rocky layeus. To the north, the churches and castles of Mo^embanp 
and Ponte crown their respective hills, while the Alps, forming a 
yast semicircular sweep from east to west>^ close the prospect with a 



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tmkm l(094>f bliia rocks, iRO^ pafwes, and ^Md-capl pinnfMslff. 
W^ btprecavel^t^ Cor iha first liai^, an iqdi^^itict view (^ tfaQ ¥«rf 
distant Apeopines, ranoiog from w^st lo south, aidd oh^erviBd wi^ 
jprpri^e, that lh«y wjere still, libe the neighboring ^Ips^ €0¥efad 
ifitb snow. W^ descend^ fro^n the rampart, and foUpwing the hdl 
^ iu aontbern extreinity, saw the Mineio rushing jFroip the defile 
Wtveen two ^oiiBenoe^ (one of which on the right ia (salM fb» VoU^t 
Jll09Uwam) <Hi ^hen sweeping along a wood, till it los^ iiy^lf jp 
the distant Inrel. Aa the day advanced » and the riy^ did niK 
ffOBHSu aqy |ik;twrw|u0ap^nery daring its progrf^fP pvat tb^jiK 
eoantry, wa wowted ow carriages in th# town, of ^arpA#f(e, i^ 
fhriHre oyer a most fefiile, well wodded, highly-caltivafed,anil weU 
M0pled plai*. Al^^t six o'clock on ik^ 47th of Murch, wa antor^ 

. Jlf^Qtaf iDUJieniiii domus, atque ad sider(^ cantu 
^vedta Aonlo, et Sm^r^ais emula plearis. '—Sil. tU|. 

The day after etor arrival we crossed the loVer lake, attd Tisited 
Ih6 yfllage of Pletole^ anciently supposed by some to be Andes^ 
%here Virgil is mid to have been born. It is about three miiea 
distant frc^m Mantua, on the banks ^^'ttmiisingens ubi flexibus errtk 
Iftn^tu," * and coni^ists of several neat cottages, go6d faroi houses, 
(Ad a handsome ohurch. About half a mile southward 6n the road, 
and near the rirer, 'stands a large form, with two extensiVe gar^ 
dens, and pffices well walled in, formerly belonging to tfie Imperiid 
gOTerhmeut, whiob granted it to a Man(uan ckiEcn, Count Gibefli, 
io defray the interest of the money which tie had advanced for 

Eblic purposes, ^hi^ form is called Virgiliana, and is said ie havb 
longed to the poet himself. The country Ground it and Pletote, 
to extremely flat, but fertile, well wooded, and highly cnltivatcd. 
' On the 19th (Friday) we took a boat and descended the Minde, 
to the place where it falls'^intb the Po, about twelve mll^s below 
^antua. The country through which it flows is so low, that tVe 
river Is generally embanked like a canal ,^and cannot be supposed to 
exhibit any picturesque views; especially as the Melds around werb 
still, tn consequence of the late irrundation, in many places coyere^ 
with water. However, many trees, great fertility, and high cultl- 
fatlon, give it all the beauty it is capable of receiving ; while several 
neat cottages adorn the banks, and as the weather was cxtremelV 
fine, appeared^ when we passed, to much advantage. f 

^t the beautiful yillage of Govemolo, the Mineio makes a suddefi. 
Itpnd, and shortly after loses itself in the Po. The breadth of this 
latter riyer, and the yast mass of waters which it rolls along, gnfe 

f lb«tin,tlM mqse^'Matl Ao^Uiinng, 

Sc9rc« rivaird by tbe fam'd Homeric lyre, 
inltstbeetothesUeftl 

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k a Tei^ magnificjMit app^araac^^ aad estate ^ic Do the jyapif^y 
ai^llati^ of f liivion*» .&«; (the King of Rirers ) ; if, a^i Add^ipfi 
jaHly 4i))ser ves^r its pre-eaHftono^. be coiiaDed ta tb^ riv^i^ <>jp {ui%. 
'^ffaoo^ ii|%ifiir 4o .the Rbieci or Daniibe io thefaxtenit of cg^aiUrf it 
ifrateca^ koertainlf ^urpasaes the former, iad ecpiels tb6^att#r> Mt 
least at Vienna, in its immense surfac^. Its .water«^ yj&t^^\Vi^if^ 
from the sea-green colour of the Wmm^ were thick and yellow 
with mud ; its banks ai*e low, aod.tbe <;o«ir>try around flat ; hence itg. 
frequent and extensive inundaiions. ^ Its tiordeffe are iined with 
trees and Tillages, and pleasing, though by no means picturesque. 
As the Pois a i^uty trfiiMfe rit^r, lire walkM for somfe tMe oh its 
banks with^great satisfeclion, am! recalled lo mitid various paesajgi&s 
in Virgil, Ovid, Vida, etc., In Which its name oeeurts. W^ lh«ki 
returned to Governcrto, and. as we passed through, tiisitfed ^nH ati^ 
mred its beaut»fiil dMrrch,' whi(^, unfortunately, ^wln^ to tile 
poverty of the inhabitants, occasioned by the Freinfft^inv&»i)il>4ilis 
never been, fitted up. and. furnished for divine service. We were 
then dra^n up the riyer by out boatmen, aQ4.drfived at Mantua 
about five ^ 

The reader will naturally suppose, that while we rangi^d along 
Ae baalKS of the Mucta, olr glided doinra it$ Utreaim, wt) fminently 
cecarred to Virgil, andenjoyedhifi desbriptionspBibefoordfrfof has 
iiivorite,riTery apd amid the soenfery of his nativieifelds. Wep^nsMl 
Ilia Sclogoes and' Geopgics dnrihg ear toi|r» andaltf^baviiigiMth- 
Mineidand applied chetn to ^ face of^the cioiMltry» as itjM#«p|uMif » 
-baire t)een )ed to the feUowiiig concluflioas» ^ :.' 

Virgil .eoteiposed- his Eclogues, in order te> enrteh hii. Jingroiys 
with a ipecies of poetry till then unknown in Latin, «ld that h/^ t^ifl^t 
4saoceed the bottM*, he took Theocriu^, the Frirfcbiof Peatimlitanis, 
jfor >ia podei; 1i$^Mi little regard to oiig|iipCdil7, he pntoniid.lo 
«e mol*e thae the. henor of being the'ftf st ftomcm who ifaij^atafl Ibe 
JioOiaiiidiifdi-- ^ : '^ 

Frhtta %r^cMio dlgntta ftfll IttdeMe y^^n ' • . '^^ 
Nostra, nee erubuit sylvas babittre, Tbalia.* — jIM^rtjl^ ^ 

and made no difficulty of borrowing the sentiments, images, and 
eTeH d^oriptiotts of bisinaster. We ar« not tilemfa#a^ ogen^Hly 
ifeakhig; to look int9^ Virgirs Paatqrals for deHnrattionaKif ^IMMlHj|a 
scenery, nor expect to find in them many unmixt and peculiar allu-- 
sions to the Minpius and its borders. His ol>ifet^asto copy the 
original, not to give a nev picture of ,^iis own composition. I have 
said generally^ because in it^fvo pa^tfOi'aUi^ the &:^t and the ninth, ihe 

* I thought it necej^iy to enter iptp yj^tj wjinute 4^^ '» describing the banks 
of the MiDcio^ as they are Very Mttle known, notwithstanding the poetical fame of 
'tn&river: 

* lllrtl(itotf*rVt«tMiftfWmiilti«Ulit 
I(orJ|jbMf!4«i|«|k|D||i;«pi<fitlie4«»miMl^ / 



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U CLASSICAL TOtA GltAF. Y; 

|K)6t treats priSfessecHy <>f that riVer; of Mantua, and oftlf^'tieigli-* 
boring country ; and in the seventh, ihough the names are Greek, 
the two contending^she^herds Arbadians, and the scene, we mas| 
suppose, Grecian litso, yet, by an inaccuracy, not unusual in pastoral 
compositions^ he Inlrdduces the Mincius, with its characteristic 
reeds^ and its verdant banks. 

\ ' ..." ■ , 

Hlc virides tenera prajteiitaruhdlne ripM 
JUincios.' . 

f • • ' ■ 

In the two former the poet certainly means to describe some of 
the features of his own little possession, and by these featifres 
it n evident, that it lay at thefool;^ or in the immediate neighbor- 
hopA of the hills, not far from Valeggio^ near which town they 
tiegiQ to subside, and gradually lose themselves jn thQ immense 
plliiniof Jhfantua-^ 

•^ » 

Qua se siibducere colles 
Inctpiant, moUiqde jugam demittere cliyo. > 

^ci. U..7— 15. 
;/...-.■* • , 

On DO other part of the banks of the Mincius, are to be discovered 

either i the ^'bare rocks," that disfigured the farm of Tityras, or 

4he f^ towering crag" that shaded the prunes, as he sung, or the 

-^f vine-^lad tgrotte,*' where the shepherd recVned, or the "bushy 

,(diff,7wlieaQe *^ the browsing gbats seemed as if suspended," or 

"the lofty mountains," which, in jhe evening, cast theic "pro-^ 

^tnctod windows" over the plain. The " Spreading beech," indeed, 

: and ^* aerial eln," still delight ia the soil, dnd adorn the banks of 

the Mincius, in all its windings. From these obswvations we may 

' venture to infer, in Opposition to great authority, the impropriety 

of fixing Tirgil's farm at Pktole^ ^ or Yirgiliana, in the immediate 

vicinity of Mantua, while the poet represent!; it as at the distance of 

at least some miles, or n walk; deemed long even for active young 

shepherds: 

Gantantes, Hcet u^ae, minus via ladet^ eamns>— ix. 

1' * . . . • • . ' 

Of the tomb of Bianor we at present know nothing; but as se^ 
pulebral monuments unless formed of valuable materials, orstand- 

> '• () fi^re wanton Mlndnswinitoaiong the meadfl, 

^. ; And fbades bis hap^bAQks with bending re«id9.^Dra(te». 

.» '.. FromKtbe sloping monntain to the tale.— /M«. 

S EqoeirombragfltatllpA' col 8i noma 

Pietola pin cbe TlUa llantoVatia.-Pttr0aforto« xriir. 

That clear spirit* 

Who ralsetb Andes aboTo Hantua's naiiie.-Cary. 

From these verses we mny \ntet that it was not only the opinion ef Dante, bqt 
the tradition of his times, that Pietole occupied the site of Andes. 
4 Let us sing as we go, and the wallc ijlU appear less tedious. 



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4rHAV. t. THROtnm ITALY. m 

ing ip the' imoiedHate' neij^iiorkood of chies, have generrily been 
resfected/oraf least negfectedy I have no doabt but that seme ves- 
tiges of it might l^e discoTei'ed bf a diligent jftvestigatery on or 
near some of the roads leading from the hiils to Mantua. 

The observation l^hieh I have jast made; that Virgirs Paatorali 
ought, in genera), to be considered, not a9 picttireft of real aceneiyy 
or as conyeying his own feelinge and sentiments, but as mere <iina 
poeiid (poetic fancies) composed in imitation of Theocritus, leads 
me to another, which, though unconnected with theMincio, will» 
I hope, recommend itself by its object, which is to rescue the nie- 
mory of theftrst and purest of poets, from a very odious and ill-* 
founded suspicion. Kvl^ry critical readerknows, that the subject 
of the second Pastoral; though it has exposed Yirgilto the charge 
alluded to^ is taken from Theocritus, and that many images, senti- 
mema, and eveii expressions are copied literally, and almost ver- 
batim from the Sicilian poet. This circumstance alone is sufficient < 
to dear the writer from the suspicion of any personal application; 
especially when we recollect the contempt with which he elsewhere 
speaks of a character to whom he attributes such a propensity, and 
whon^ he seems to h^ve introduced for the express purpose of 
bl*anding him with'^iiifamy.' ^ The truth is, that he who judges of 
the morality of the Latin poets from a few detached passages in 
their woi^ks; must form a very qnfair estimate of their character ; 
and impute to then) criminal habits, from which they were most 
probably exempt. Plipy the younger, to excuse himself for having 
.composed soipe sportive verses, pleads ,the example of Cicero,* 
and cites a passage from Catullus^ ' importing, that however blame- 
less the manners of the poet should be, his verses may be play, 
fhl, and even lascivious. Ovid adopts the same idea, and holdf^ it 
forth as a justification of his own wanton compositions. 4 

The modetn Italians have imitated the ancients in this respect^ 
and some of the most classical writers of the i^ixteenth century, 

' Ta qaoque, L. x. SSS. 
>Plin. Lib. V. Ep.3; 

3 Scimus alioiqtti hqjiu opusGull llJam esse verisslmam legem quam Cattilliis 
expressU. 

Ram castom fl«e deoet plam poSiam 
Ipflum, renlcnkis nihil necesse est :, ' 
' ' ' Qal tunc denlqae babent salem et leporem* 

SI aoAt molllcali et parom podkL-Pitn. Lib. It. Ep. 44. 

We know, moreovefp that the regulation which Catnlliui has laid down, la IIib 
proper one for this little prQdacUon. 

< let bat the poet'a Hfe be pare; 
No qeed bU mose be totf demure; 
Tb^ praise of wit be beat malntataiev 
Wbea l^oae and wanton are bU afralns. 

4 Crede mlbl moiet distant i^carmlne nostrf « 

Tlta Terecuoda est, Musa JocOsa fait. 

^ Hy Mose and my mabners are widely at strife ; 
Tbcmglh sporttve my fenea, yet ehaate ir my llfii. 



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HMMtgli MTifieofibr -tbe miMmifliMid wmo^moBut their ^iwm, hvfg^ 
fitt noments tif aoetical pbyMsess, ea|>loy^.eK>re8Siei0» wbkk^ 
ff Iheralif understood, may be cenbored a^liceaiioQS. I admic ciMt 
the reasoimg of Pliny 4s by do means satitfactory^ ai^d that^ie r^le 
laid doirn by CataHas is both absaiU aod iasmoffal, and I most 
ivadiiy pass condennation ion etery loose and indeoeot expre8$iei% 
in whataoever oodiposiiiaii it oiay be foaad. But fui ihe andenta 
Mam lo haT« adop^d lias rule, and aeted upon k, I eoaleod 0^9ti(, 
anihoriaes as to acquit Yir^ of the odioos dbarge brengbt a^iiHIt 
him by sooae systematical gramniariansy and ign^Mnt ^ammenmi^n, 
eapeeJallt as '^ ><> anpparied .by sMre traditional tales and <x>iQeeiwill 
nneodotes.* 

Abore and beia^ Manma, the Mmio spreads Into two Iplk^i^ 
^Hed the Ijago di Sopra (Upper L6^e),.and th^I^gQ 4i fn/ra i(JUymr 
Lake) \ the space between^ the breadth of which eatttJos it to « |i- 
iaitar appellaiiM, is aaHed the Logo M<mo. .Yit%i\ aUvdes. t^ ibm 
.vast expanse, vhen iaihe tlifird Georgia lia premiaep to^act n 
^anqde to Angnattts. 

£t Tiridi ia campo tenpIOBi de bitraiore poQiai 

SORter pfVLiaxi, tarjeUs tosenis obi JdejJbuserrat 
Incias». '...'...,. — ^^eor.kOI. 

The banks of the Wncio, above Mantua, are rather higher than 
"befow the towd, and a little more picturesque, ][)artTCiilarI^ on the 
right side of the river^ near the Cremona road ; sevei^al large larma 
ri^e on its border3, and its reedsi waye Over them as nsual^ in fo- 
rests. ' * ' 

|la^ua is a large city. with, spacious streets, and some fitie edi- 
fices. Its cathe(iral, built nearly upon the same plan as Santa Maria 
Maggiore in Rome, is a very regnlar and beautiful edifice. ^ The nave 
c6nsist8 of iwQ rows of Corinthian pillars, supporting, not arches, 
but an architrave and cornice, witb a range of windows above, and 
niches in the intervals between them. Another row of pillars of the 
same order, on botfi sides, forms a double aisle. The choir C6n- 
j^s of i^ f^enMci^ci^Iar recess behind ike altar. Betwteen the choir 
apd the nave rises a very noble dome, decorated with pOasiers ap^ 
fine paintings. The transept on tbe left terminates in the chapd 
of the Holy Sacrament, an hexagon, with a recess for the altar, sur- 
mounted with a dome, adorned ng^h paintings and arabesques in 
Ae best scyie, prasenting, on the whole^ an exquisite speoijneB of 
Mantuan taste. ^ 

The d^y after our arriysd happened to be the festival of St. An^ 
selma, patron of Mantua. Ate¥ening service, about six o'clock, 

' See Pope*8 Letter to 8wl& on13rai'9 death; letter Ixr. 



* OfParlttHMtaiimptewUInH 

W|i«4lbaiiv iaB8i«itts(Maaiiii9 itftir «inii.«^tfM. 



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dto.cMbedi:?^ W4i il]iniiiiat«d in the fiaest^iam^f iai«fl(i}9U|^* 
PoxiJMe. r(>Wi9 of kisftrei lighted up the oav^ :4l)6 {lialctfi aotf urcadaf 
liad fu» i»9D]r cluMer^ of torches, as there wece arxlief and pilbr^i 
IKJMif ^ ibon^d chaodeliers suspended fro^i 4hp 4oiiie» if^ed f 
Uaii9 of ligbt on the choir istpd the aUar* Tl}^ ouififi plight bavf 
p^fin Ap^i heavfinlf, had' it not been r^tfcf|r u^ ^ef^t^ic^I^ aod^ 
Ub» liiV Il^lii^^ 4^yrch miisic, perforoied with yv^\m * hp^i^var, t^ 
organ sometimes interposed with all its solemnity, and somf jl^s(p 
^ choTfji wQr/Q>jtn))y celi99tial. The iren^abl? pM ^Af^^ BfiWMfed 
IP lull pontific JR^tf ; the crowded qow*9eMiP«^^9>l^'« #il#<% M^rr 
4«|rljr, and pioff(, and ttl^ sceoe^ thougb per^pi^ .too gt^rMyg ao^ 
atog^^ke for Engfifh lutep was splendid; an4 f^ym f^¥^^ Tl^ 
fSlj9tiie i^ )be Saj0 wfip as Ij^ge as life, and ^xvm^H ^ WPiMTf 
l^irer, but tba Francii conceiving lihat oa^ ^ wooi ^f^ syfJScie4 
for /ftU the pttTfKMyea of e^cJMbiiiop^ copyertad ^^ f^^nf >o pjAer 
lUiief* 

Tjie oexl, <iii4, 1 belj^e, the only remaining c^prpb IH^ f»Hir 
/(soiar attantipo, i# tbaf of Bt Andrw* It j^ a iaUa oross^ Wfitbmt 
^p^s, ^]^ a dpa^e m» the seai<m« It <:ontaiqa mm^ pictare«« 
ipid is painie^ it'' Q^®^ ip t ^ery beauUfji^ iwanperf Severid p/y|M4r 
i^arcbes, und ip^j pi^^lic buildings, such ai$i the Cor^f m\k ^9 
balls ; 4be P^wao dfiUa^iiustiUa (Palace of Justice) ; th|t /^ Goimb^ ; 
iim m the B^b^b$> Cjilled the Pala^aa deiT^fm ^^pwm 9f \t$ forj|l» . 
mitb it^ aparimentfi toj[eth^ with ^evaral private mufw^^t 4&fiJt 
attention. Infact^ Giu/io Romano, an architect and j^aiAt^.of di0 
first eminence, s^d 9 disciple of Raphael, devoted bis time and su- 
perior talents to th^ f^pbellusbment.of Maotua» and adorned it with 
many a magnificent p^, and many a noble paint|ng^. ^ The house of 
this celebrated artist is shown to strangers, and as it was erected by 
himself, it certainly deserves to be yisiced. The taste of Giu/io ia 
architecture, seems ^oiiave been manly and bold; he was fond of 
strength and majesty ; but sometimes inclined to encumber his edi- 
fices with too much mass, and with too many ornaments. 

^^iMKt ciia b^gpt ^a antiquity ^aperior eyep tp tl^t f^ Appie, 
4f)4 i$ repre«epl^d by hi^r active poet, npt without fonp^ bifMrMf^ 
HWb> W (W*U«g ^ f ^rfer as tba t«ie of Ew^^, 

l|le f^Mam patrUs ngiQea ciet <)(ipup ^ (^ 
F£|tid.ic«^ Manliis ,et Xusci flius arnnis : 
bi|l muros,, i^iitrisque dedit (ibi, Mantaii, notnen, 
fitatfia d^ves avis. > -^^n0ld;ii.ioa. 

MafBtiia Miat M the J^rosp^rity of Rome, underwent her ^i^M*- 

t Oenni was next, wbo led hU nattre train 

TM sua ot Manto, by (ttf Tascan stream, 
Mot ^haiite tlbe M•B|6«Il^owtt dtflMii «to 



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iM CLASSICAL TOUR HaiP. V. 

4^9, feR all )he Tioissitudes of the middleagres, and ^emerged 
thence^ lijce (he other gre^t ^Italian cities^ into Itfoertj" and indef- 
penience. At length, it became subject to' one of its own power- 
foi famiites, and adknowledged the Gonzagas as Dakes and Sove- 
reigns.. Thisformof government rein^ined for near two hundri^d 
years> whien the last Duke, taking up arms against the Anstriati inte- 
test, was driven from his estates, and died an exfle at Padna, 
in 1TO8. ' 

Ibmtua, while free, and even under the dominion of her own 
dukes, ei^oyed no small share of riches and of j|)rosperity. Her wialis 
were supposed to contain about fifty thousand inhabitants. She was 
toften engaged in wars with the neighboring states, and had her fall 
proportion of victory and of honor. The arts ^nd sciences flourished 
in her territories, and numberless palacl^s adorned hei^ streets, her 
squares, and her suburbs. But this golden age closed at the Austrian 
invasion. The city .was ^plundered, several of its antiquities carried 
T)ff or deiaced, and its independence finally sacrificed to Austrian 
Ambition. In the late war^ it bad the misfortune of undergQing 
4wice the horrors 6f a siege, and is now annexed to the Italian 
republic, to share its nominal independence and real slavery. It 
imust injustice be owned, that the arts and sciences bad not been 
neglected by the Austrian government. An Imperial academy was 
erected, a noMe pa}ace devoted to itd meetings, and a fine assem-^ 
Mage of antiquities collected in its galleries. The inscription over 
Its entrance is as follows : 

INft^JEDVRIS. HOSPES. ET. itflBABE. 

QVM, GBAEGpRITM. ET. BOMANOAUSfw 

AHTIQCI. AEVI. MONUMENtA. 

J cm. PRINCIPIS> TUM. CIVIVH. UUNEBE. 

IN. HOC. HUSEO. CONLECTA. 

SQPBCTANDA.' TIBI. EXHIBET. 

VUtfilLII. PATBlA. « L 

i ' , . 

The most interesting object in this ccfllection was the well- 
^ktiown bust of Yirgil, which, as m^ be easily supposed, the Man- 
tuans always pointed out to strangers, with peculiar complacency. 
It seems, that at the end of the fourteenth century, a statue of 
Virgil stood on an elevated pedestal, in the Piazza del Erbe (Herb- 
market), when Carb Malatesta, one of the brutal chieftains of the 
times, ignorant of every art but that.of war, and knowing, proba- 
bly, nothing of Virgil but his name, in one of his triumphal pro- 
cessions, ordered ^it to be thrown down, and cast into the lake. 
The retson for this act of sacrilegious violence, is characteristic 

> Bnter, stranger, and admire . the monaments of Greek and Roman antitiuity 
whidh the country of YirgH exhibits to thee# coltected in this Mnseam by the mu- 
nlfioence both of Uie Prince and of (he citizens. 



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CsAP.V. TfiDBlOUGfi ITALY. fOv 

both of the h^o and of the times. *' The honor of a statiie. be- 
longs," said he, ** to Saints only, and ought not, to be(f^o{aiie4lhf' 
being communicated to scribblers, and buffoons.'* "The bust ia^ 
question is supposed to be the head of this very statue, and> a», 
such^ it was crowned with ivy by the Duke Vespasian, and ereaed. 
in the principal hall of his palac'e, about the year 1580. The ivy,, 
which was real, and only covered with a fine varnish to preserve, 
it the longer, oil being touched, many years after, fell into dust ; 
but the bust survived the plunder of the ducal palace on the en- 
trance of the Austrtans, and was placed^ in the academical gallery, 
where it remained tiU the year 1797. The French no sopner be* 
came masters of Mantua, than they began to pillage its gallery, and 
to pOfer its most valuable articles. Among them was ^bb iHist of 
Virgil, which they carried off, notwithstanding the intreaties of the* 
Mantnana, while with O'uel tnoickery they celebrated civic feasts in 
honor of the poet, and erected piaster busts in the place 6f hto 
marble statues. Such is the taste of this nation, such the- faonoct 
it pays to the ancients I » ' * 

The circumstances which I have just related prove, at least, that 
the Mantuans have never been indifferent to the memory 6f thetr 
celebrated jcountryman, as some travellers have pretended; add 
that they have not been wanting in the erection of becoming mo« 
niimeiits |o his hodor, as ofiten,'and in as*raagnificent a manner, its 
the vicissitudes of the times would allow. Even durmg alF the 
rage and tempest of the late, war^ while contending armies hovered 
round their w^lls, and the roar of artillery resounded in their ears, 
they had planned a pub1i)c garden at Pieiole, and laid out a conside- 
rable piece of ground in vValks and groves, in the centre of which 
a temple was to rise, and a statue ^to be erected, in honor of th# 
immortal poet. Thus they would have accomplished '&e grand 
design so finely unfolded i(i the third Georgic, adorned the classic 
Mmmo with a fabric becoming its fame, amd' bestowed, with more 
propriety, on the acknowledged virtues of their countryman, the 
honors which he intended, wi^h a flattery pardonable because the 
result of gr^ititude^ for the very equivocal merit of Augustus. But 
thd second siege of Mantua put an^end*to this project; the gates 
were thrown down, the enclosures torn up, the plantations de«- 
stroyed, and^the whole scetie of rural beauty and poetical illusion 
was stained with blood, and abandoned to devastation. 

' We were present at one of these exliibiti6ns. In the middle of the great square 
was erected an ill-proportioned pillar, about' ten feet high. On II was placed a 
plaster bust of Virgil. Four lesser pillars supporting four other plaster busts, 
joined by garlands, formed a sort of Square enclosure. Tirgirs bust was crowned 
with laurel, and from it hung garlands, extending to the other four. These garlandr 
or festoons, instead of hanging loose, and waviog gracefully in the air, were drawn 
tight, and were consequently as motionless as ropes. Around this ridiculous pa- 
geant, the French troops drew up, aad 'paraded. The inhabitants seemed pui^ • 
posely to keep aloof » ' 



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# CtASSICAt totiS dLi.f. 

da Ae tWeniy-fbird of March, we took leafre 0^ fiitntM, ei- 
tre|De^f welf (Teased Vitb the general Appearance of (he tdwif, Knd 
ecintiAced that it is far. more flourishing at present than ft seemi^ 
to fadve beefn id ancient days. In extent iV is considetabte, tfot iii* 
s^gnifie^jot id popafation, and in magnificence equaf to most titles; 
oirCumstanceSy which place it for above the epithet otparva flppHed 
iSfliitblrirartfa]. 

¥iiatii» iMgna siio debet Terona Gatfrilor 
Qauit«fDi»irtMr fuo Maiitia Ylrgillo. > 

f h^ road 10 Gremoba^ for some miles, borders qd the liiieiai^ 

$fA riMS dose to its teed^ banks,, as kmg as il forpM die Ldj^ di 
iSifrm, UiiK is, IHI il tarns northward, as il eomes dowtf Frodi t&d 
\ii\i of Bmrffhatid. As the road is forned oa tbe aoesMt Yia Peet* 
kiMDla» il isetrait and even, reus tbrmlgh several large viliegea^.or 
Tariiiit little lowaSf and traverses a traei of oawiiry iMSiaeaidd bf 
Tarioas streams afkid luxuriantly fertile. 

« lrDO«ofhtr?irs|lfhOMt*dndH» 

Though little Munlu^ b^ 
Af Aueb or^rcal VcMoa'» ftllM, 



to tf<iitiia,lBtlMdt7Sftti|i<vy#«« 
IIMtlil te iW^YSii la tt» present httmiU|itioB and diHreaa : . . 



Quam ttars Paliadi cerlat usque et uaqu9 
tienm reddera geiuH^ii, ^robtoqde' 
Ornare logeoiU vlrorum, el «rml8 1 
1% frugam DidJis, potensque ranml ' 
TeHus, te ci l e bwB IMt *ireata 
Qui rlpa, calaiDlBque flexuosiu 
Ileal lumlne Mlucius raaurrat, 
£t qui te lacus intrat, adveuisque 
lyilto fl^erclbns InvebK cartnat. 
fiitU paiiUa colta, qoM dvorjim 
TemjjMa, quid memorem vias, et nrbl« ., 

Molea'mibibiis ardais proptriqaasF 
PfiK (wcttra loco, quiesqae oallii 
Tnrbata essilils, (y^qnens/gue rerum 
Uniyar oopla, dXtiam tkmtrum* 
Felix IRantua, centiesque fcJlx« 
Tantlit Mantiia dplibas beaia.-IT. i»<. f«Mifii;cl»*. Bll^. f. I 

ItoirY of tftlts ! Mantua JUrl 
Pallas, Man, a rlfal P4lr, 
6M«d fondly to exalt tby name 
4nd ^jtlw florid tby praiae preeiilai, 
AJiIre fur arts and arms reaown'd, 
rdr«tl(HirfaaiHl,wiA.wifd»nioNfm*4. i 
Fam'd is tby soli for golden grain, 
Vor wealth and pow'r iby rlcir domain- 1~ 
j^nd faro d Is Minclus, that proceeds 
00ft whlsp'rlD^ (brougb bis banks of reMtf,* 
^ winding through ih enameU'd groand : 
jfend ram'd the la|(e that girds ihee round, 
ifiA, borne in many a bark, supplies 
Ittcb atores of foreign merchandise. * 

Need I tbegorgeoos fabrics tell, > 

. In which Ihy high-bom nobles dwell? 
Tby apaclous roads? thy fanes that rise 
Wlthrtow'rr that seenajo to^ch the skier. 
Peace is thy guest ; no civil war, 
Y» 4an, aw hroUa, thy hleMlo^i ii»r« 



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<^Uf. n< WKKWitAiX. 



€HAFfE» VI. 

JUlMil^ and tsdebMed Librarian^ KMpBrtDri, TtralKMMdit, «1^. 

CuraitoA' 4emes smne degf m of ftdfCfftsoob from tbt ir«ft- 
MmywA TefW of Tirgff, 



T« nfeeM nlnkmYiblni Cvemoiw. ^^EeUtf. if. 99. 

ipd li^ofli Ihe^ aeci«|rat« obienrati^n of Taci€i»». Ain^ entMum Cre- 
n9Ha habmi ;...".... («//» eaJl^rma tnfttefa, dt^li^to kifelix:'' 
fei fiKt, tb<e8e few words oomani' the^ whole bistory of tki^ eicy/' 
irtiicby beiAg foQDdeA bf one of rilre-Clehic tribes that occapiM the 
Donbero parts of ftaly, was cotonized and fonifcd by ibe Romans^^ 
about the eemnenceinent of the second Panie war^ aa a raidparf 
againfit tbo approaching attack of Anvfbah The strength of iVH 
Walte, or tbe^ courage of ita inftaMtantSv preserved il from tito 
ibry <tf tbii^'AMroHdable kinader, tlnd it went on inereasing' in niHi»- 
bergy'sise, and opulence, titt by its atta^hnieiH; to die cause of fbe 
8«HM», and of tiberty, it drew down upon itself Ae rengeance of 
the Trianrrirs*^ and incurred forfeiture and confiscation. ^ Its 8d(9- 
lity toT)tellRi&, or its mislakcni prudtoce calculating on the supposed 
aftpervarily of hia intepest, expoaMI it to tho rage of YespsEstjMi'a 
parti8«Sy who besi^etf^ fodk, plundered, and reduced it to a heap 
<rf aahea. Shortly after ^ rose from' its rainy; but rose to expe^ 
rience the disasters of war and of revohiifow; and to share Che long^ 
and painftil agonies of tfte expiring- empire. HoweTer, it surtited 
all its poverses, and after having been tbe prey of Gotba and of 
Lombarda, of French ami of Germans ; aft^r liaiing enjoyed a 
preearioua liberty, and then bcNrn the light yoke of the aovereigns' 
of Milan^ it is, for the prei^ent, annexed to that sickly abortion of 
French inBuence misnamed the Italian Hepublic. 
Cremontt ia^a large and well-builft city, adorned vitb many noMe\ 

Bat gen'roaf arte, and Tfrtoes rare. 

And wealth and ptentySoorisbtlian. ' 

Tenfold, Mantua, art ibou blest, 

or aucli mighty goods poaMtt I 

r ■ - ' ' ^*-tlte JiAnluan tow^w^ 

Qlmoiioiif by Cremona'a taelgbb'f ing crtoia.-a^dm. 

•^jBfu^ VA9 te einl af GfeauAia,, unlqiimdiby foreiaii,: lilit trer pdMd bf ^cMl 
MQ19 coDseqaences* of this confiscation reached the Jimuil^i teiyttgrXa aocl 



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Mr CLASSICAL TOUR Cvap. YL 

edifices, and advantageously situated on the northern bank of the 
Po. Its cathedral, of Gothic, o^r rather mixed architecture, wias, 
begun in the year 1107, and continued at different periods, but not 
completely finished till the fourteenth century. It is faced with 
white and red marble, and highly ornamented though in a singular 
and fanciful style. It contains several beautiful altars and fine 
paintings. One chapel in particular merits attention* It is that 
which is set apart tor the preservatioti of the relics of the primitive 
martyrs. Its decorations are simple and chaste, its Colons «oft and 
pleasing. The ashes of the ^'sainted dead'* repose in urns and 
sarcophagi placed in niches in the wall regularly disposed ou each 
side of the chapel, after the manner of the ancient Roman sepul- 
chres. It is small, but its proportion^, form, and furniture are so 
appropriate and so well combined, that they produce a very beau- 
t&l and perfect Whole. The Baptistery, which, according to the. 
anbient manner still pre^rvedin many of ,th^ great towns of Italy, , 
is a sep^irate building near the cathedral , contains in the •centre a 
font of curious form and worluoaanship, cut out of- one immense 
block of par|y--colored marble. . The tower is of great height and 
of singular architecture. T^e view froip it is extensive, taking in 
the to:wn with ks streets ; ihe roads that cross the country in strait, 
lines in various directions ; the Po win4|^g alon^ almost close to 
the, walls, and inters^ctmg the ioimense plain of the Milanese ; the 
Alps to the no^th, and the Apennines to the south-west, both, 
covered wit;h snow, and Qccasionally half veiled with passing, 
clouds. Such was the prospect w.e beheld from the top of the Jo- 
razso. The public palace, for so the town-rhal} is not improperly 
called in Italy, and most qf the churches, but particularly that of 
St. Pieiro al JPo, are worthy the attention of the traveller ; since, 
with several objects which correct taste must Blame^ they contain 
many which it will admire. 

Cremona has produced her propY)rtion of genius and of talent, 
bpth in ancieut and modern times ; but among all her ^ons,. none 
have contributed more to her reputation th^n Marcus Hieronymos 
Yida, the first poet of the second Augustan age^f Ron^an literature, 
and sometimes not undeservedly styled by his ^mirers, the 
Christian Virgil. Every reader is acquainted with the poetical tri-: 
bote which Pope has paid to bis memory, in his Essay on Criticism; 
and all, who peruse Yida^s works, will acknowledge that the com- 
pliment is npt misplaced. But literary excellence was neither the 
sole, fkOT the principal merit of Yida : piety and purity of morals, 
unsullied even by suspicion, graced his early years, and a zealous 
discharge of every episcopal duty .employed him from the middle 
to the close of life. He was buried in his cathedral at Alba^ and a 
ctebtaph iS'Said to have been erected to his honor in the Duotoo at 
Cremona; though i^fi endeavored in vain to discover it. I sh^lf 
conclude this siccount^ith dbm^ verses taken from a hypiu of this , 



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Gbaf. VI. THBOUCHa ITALt. W 

poet, yfhvcb, with the passage of Tacitus inserted aboye, will suf- 
fice to give the reader some potion both of the history and of the 
territory of Cremona. The verses are addressed to our Blessed Sa- 
Tiour, and express a Christian isentiment in the purest language of 
Heathen poetry. 

Turn Yeri» (xraimn obliti raendacta, va^ 
-Fanera per gentes referent tua, carmine verto 
Aiqne tuis ornnes resonabunt laodilms ttrbea. 
Presertim Istam Italis felicis ad Oram, 
. A(^ua ubi vagus, et muscoso Serins amne 
Purior electro -torto^ue simtllimus angui ; 
Qna rex fluvioram Eridanns se turbidus inferl, 
Mcenia tUrrigers stringens male tuta'Cremone, 
Ut'Sibi'jam tectis vix temperet nnda caducts > 

C^ristiodo* Yl. 8S5— 800. 

If the reader wishes to see the history of Cremona, the beauties 
of its disti^icty and the achievements and talents of its inhabitants, 
set off in the most splendid colors of partial eloquence, he may 
read the pleadings or Actiones tres attributed jlo this author, and 
supposed to have been pronounced before competent judges at Milan, 
OD a question of precedency between Cremona aAd Pavia. 

From Cremona^ to the fortress of Pizzighitone, are two short 
stages. We thc^re passed the Addua, on a flying bridge. This ri- 
ver is represented, by Claudiao, as rentorkable for the cerulean 
tints of its waves, and i» united to the Tesino, in a very pretty 
verse. > - 

Colla lavant palcher Ticinus-et Addua visa 
Coerulus.* 

The country continues populous and fertile, but displays niore 
forest wood. CasiiffHone^ with various little towns and villages, 
appears rich, and beautiful. . Thence the roads were deep and bad, 
owing to the late Inundations. Towards- sunset we arrived at the 
Po, and passing it on a flying bridge, entered Placentia, March 23d. 

Placentia was built and colonized by the Romans, about two 
hundred and eighteen years before Christ, and, not long after, 
served as an asylum to the Roman army wheii defeated by Annibal, 
at the Trebia. It was afterwards assaulted by that Carthaginian, 

' Tbenfirecian fable sbtll delight oo0i<fre, 

Bnt sacred bards'tbeir after'd norabars pour ^ 

To tbee, wVtt rlral zeal tby praise proclaim, 
Tlil ev'ry realm is vocal with thy name. 
' Bat moat- or ali on Cair Kalia's sthaod. 
Where Addua waodera through the smiling land, 
Where Serins in his mossy channel straysf 
As amber pore, through many a sinuouiB mala; 
Wherto Po, the king of streams, in turbid pride. 
Bolls ao by tall Cremoua^a tow'r-erown'dside, 
Cremoha fair I whose time-enfeebled Wail 
Dreads the rough ware, and totters to ita falJ. 



Ttflno fair, and Addaa*8 asate stream. 



J- 



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IS CLASSICAL fOUR C&AV. TI. 

Iwl in Tain ; ttid like Cremooa, ^as defined to sofFerimore from 
Ihe madness of citizens, than from the fury of invaders. Bfore for- 
tuoaie however than the latter, though attacked by a party oF.Vttel- 
lians it resisted with succesis; and in the bloody contest, bad <uily 
to lament the loss of its amphitheatre, remarkable (ft seems) for its 
capaciousness and architecture.. This edifice, iike that of Verona, 
stood without the walls, and was of course exposed to the fury of 
the assailants. It seems to haV^e been principally of wood, as it 
was consumed by fipe, a circumstance wliich, in our ideas, must 
take away much of its pretended splendor : but, whatever were its 
materials, its extent was at that trtne unequalled; and it stood the 
pride of Placentia, and the envy of the neighboring cities. It was 
set on fire when Caecina assaulted the town^. either by chance, 
which is. nipre probable, or perhaps, as the Placentians suspected, 
by the malice of some incendiaries, who took advantage. of ahe 
cdnfusion of the, contest, and was reduced to ashes. It perished, 
iMOweVer, at a fortunate period, and with all its glory around it; 
lor, had it survived only a few years, its fame would have been 
€clipsed by the splendor and by the magnificence of the gigantic 
Coliseum. 

Placeniia, after having frequently changed masters, was annexed 
to Parma, and remained so till the expulsion of the late duke, wben^ 
witb the whole of its territory it was occupied by the French; It 
k a large and ^ell-built city. Its cathedral is Saxon : the town 
kome,^ with «omQ other public buildings in the great square, are Go- 
thic. Several churches, particularly that of St, Agostino^ are of 
fine Roman architecture, and some adorned with paintings of great 
ceteibrity. The square is ornamenied with' two brass equestrian 
Statues ; one Of the celebrated Alexander Farnese, iM other, of his 
brother Jtanuccw ; they are much admired, particularly the former, 
for attitude, animation, and drapery. Many of the convents, some 
of which are now suppressed, seem to have been magnificent. 

The neighborhood of Placentia is, perhaps, more interesting than 
the town itself, as it has be^n the theatre of mafny bloody engage- 
ments. The first, and most remarkable, occurred shortly after the 
foundation of the city, about {hree miles from it, and ks scene lies 
dn the banks of the Trebia. We visiitedthe spot, with Livy as our 
guide, and I need not add, that we found his description extremely 
accurate. It must indeed be observed, in justice to the great wri- 
ters ^f antiquity, that their pictures so resemble the objects which 
they are intended to represent, that* a traveller might imagine they 
had always been sketched on the spot itself, and in the very heat . 
of action. The bariks, though 16w, are yet sufficiently elevated, in 
a military sense, not indeed at the very confluence of the two ri- 
vers, the Po and the Trebia ; but a little higher up the latter, where 
the battle took place, the stream Is wide enough tp form a line of 
defence, and yet shallow enough to b^in ja^fjMay places fordablOt 



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Its sided, particularly <>ii the right as ypu* ascend the stteaqt, wbere 
Mago lay in ambqsh, are still covered with reeds aod brush-wood* 
After these observations, merely applying the present scenery to 
Ij^e historian's description^ the reader need but open Liyy, and }ie 
will becoKne a spectator of the action sobloody and disastrous to the 
Ronians. . 

^ut the banks of the Trebia have been thexheatrid of more cpii- 
lesis than one, nor is the l^st-mentioned, though,, without doubt, 
the most illustrious, either, the most bloody or the most decisive* 
|t is well known that a memorable battle between ,ihe French and 
the Russians, under^the command of Marshal Suwarrow, wa9 foogi^t 
on the samespot, and wa$ attended with more important cons^ 
quences. It is said to have lasted two days, and to have been sup- 
pprtejd with the utmost obstinacy on both sides. The Russiaiici» 
w|)0 ^vanced with their usual firmness and impetuosity; were thrice 
driven back in dismay: at length, the Marshal, with 4tie look;s and 
Ae Toice of a Fury, led them on to a fourth attack, when thcyr 
rushed into the bed Of the river, and with horrible shouts and 
fcreams, feH once more upon the enemy. Resistance was no^^ 
f^verpowered ; the French fled in confusion; the bankj^ were sl;r.0W6d 
withi)odies^and.the field;3 (^overed with fugitives. The consequence 
of this victory was the immediate deliverance of Jtaly from 
the insolence and rapacity of the French ajrmi^s ; a deliveraape 
ivhicfa, instead of being a mere interval of repose', would perhs||»a 
have been the commencement of a long era -of tranquillity, had tjbe 
same spirit continued to animate the armie^^ and the same unic^a 
prevailed in the cabinets of the confederates. Qut thiis battle, ho^- 
jever bloody and important, will pass unnoticed, in Ae long re- 
jgjster of contests between different tribes of invadiAg barbariang; 
perhaps the very nadies of the generals n^ay sink into obJivioo , 
with tjie leaders of the Goths and of the Vandals, of the Hun^ and 
ftf, the Lombards : while the ^^ Battle of Trebia '* will live for evfur 
in the pages of Li vy, Ui6 names of Annibal and of Mago, of Soir 
pio and of Sempronius, recorded both. by the hiiitorian and by t^e 
poet, will continue tode1ig.ht the youthful reader, and a iWusaod 
generations will contemplate with, emotion, 

. Gannas et Trebi^mi ante oculos, Thrasimenaque busta.' 

SiLiUil. Ub.xi.345. 

From Placentia we proceeded to<Parn[ia, on the Tia Emflia. 
m^ road was made by Marcus Fmilius Lepidus,' about one hun- 
dred and eighiy^seven years befote the Chcistiah era; It has be^ 
l:ept in good repair, and is Still exceUent. We crossed ovei seve- 
Tal rivers, and passed through some pretty towns. These river^ 

' CaniMB,tiiid Trebia, flindtti'alrandaiitgraTii 



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i(Ki Classical tocA ^oap. \t 

generally retain their ancient name with littfe variatien, and de- 
sceiidini; from the Apenpines, fall info the neighboring Po. ^The 
pripcipfd ar-e the Chiavennay the Ongina, the Stivonay and the Taro, 
Among the towns Fiorenztmla^ anciently Ffor^ntiala, andiS. Den- 
Minq, deserve most attention. At or near the latter (once Fideil-' 
tiola) Sylia^efeated the Marian general Carbo, and dispersed or 
utterly destroyed his army. About twelve miles to ihe south of 
Fiorenzuala, once stood the tt^wn of Yelleiay ruined by the sudden 
fall of part of thejneighboring mountain^ about the end of the fourth 
century. Several exoavationi/ were made amongst the ruins, in 
1760, and the four following years; but the difficulty of penetrating 
through the' vast masses of rock that cover the town, was so great, 
that the work was suspended, and 1 believe never since renewed. 
This want of spirit^ or of perseverance, is much to be regretted^ 
as few enterprises promise so fairly, or seem so likely to reward 
the labor. The dreadftil catastrophe is supposed to haveleen sud- 
den, and the inhabitants, with their furniture and property, were 
•buried in one tremendous crash ; it is therefore highly probable, 
that more, medals, coins, and books, may be found here than in 
Herculaneum, where gradual ruin gave time to remove the m6st 
preeions and portable effects. Be3ides the latter town, with Pom- ^^ 
peii, and the various cities that studded the Neapolitan..€oast, were^;^^^ 
Greek colonies,, and appear to have paid but little attention to Latin^(^ 
literature; while Velleia was entirely Roman, and some of its citi->^^' 
zens must have possessed toTerable collections of Latin authors. It ^"^ 
would -not, therefore, be unreasonable to expect, if the excavations 
were pushed on i^ith. vigor and with discernment, the discovery 
of some, if not of several Latin manuscripts. But such under- 
takings require opulence and- leisure, and are not to be expeaed 
in the present impoverished and distracted state of Jtaly. 

The country, as the traveller advances, improves in beauty, and, 
if not in fertility (for that seems scarcely po^ssible), at least in the 
^ neatness and in the order of cultivatipn. The Apennines advancing 
at every step present their bold forms to vary the dullness of the 
plain ; hedges and neat enclosures mark the different &rms ; elms 
in long rows garlanded with vines sepak*ate the fields^ and villages, 
each with a magniticent church, enliven the road at every mile. 

Parma stands on a river of the same name: it was founded by the 
Etrurians, taken by the Boii, a tribe of Gauls, and, at length, colo- 
nized by the Romans. It is said to have suffered much from the 
licentious cruelty of Antony, and its suffering on. this occasion 
are pathetically deplored and immortalized by Cicero ia his four- 
teentji Philippic, the last trjbute which he paid to Rome and to li- 
berty. During the disastrous-period that elapsed between the reigns 
of Theodosius and of Charlemagne, it was taken and retaken by the 
Goths and by the Romans, by the Lombsurds and' by the Greek 
Etmbs, till it was given by Charlemagne \o th^ Holy See; and. 

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CirA]».,yi. THROUGd ITALY. Ml 

after a saccessipn of ages and of changes , it wasat length b^timed 
by Paol in. on his son Ouavio Farriese. Qp the extinction of this 
family in the middle. of the. last century, it i)assed tp a prijK» of 
Spain; and, on the death of the last Duke, it Vas taken possession 
of by the French, and is now pining away under the influence of 
their iron domination. 

Parma is large, populous, airy, and clean, though it cannot boast 
of any very striking or regular building. The cathedral is Saxon, 
but lined in the interior wKh Roman architecture ; its dome is -much 
admired for the beautiful painting with which it was adorned by 
Gbrreggio. The baptistery is an octagon, in the same style as the- 
cathedral, cased with marble and ornamented with various archea. 
and galleries. The Steecaia is the most regular church in Parma; 
it is in the form of a Greek cross, and^not without beauty. The, 
church of the Capuchins is remarkable only for being tfa^ buria|. 

I lace of'tbe celebrated Atexander Fdmese, who, in conseqnen^^.ofi 
is own directions^, lies interred,, distinguished froip the yuigardeai 
only by-the foUawing epitaph : 

. • ur. o. M. ♦ 

ALEXANbEB FARNESIU^ 

BELGIS DEVICTIS 

FRAN<!lSQUE OBSIDIONE LEVATIS 

UT HCHILI HOC LOGO EJtS CADAVER DEPOmSBBTIfBl 

liANDAVIT. i 50N : DECEMB : MDXCII.' 

The palace is large, but irregular ; the library is well furnished: 
it contains the Academia de BeHe Arti (Academy p| Fine Arts), ik^ 
which there is a noble ha)l adorned with excellent paintings, and^ 
with several ancient statues found in the ruins of Yalieia. In thii. 
ball, during the happier era of Parma, the prince used to preside 
over. the assenibled academicians, and to distribute prizes io the 
Tarious.artS;' In the same palace is the celebrated theatre, roagni- 
ficent in its size, its proportions, its form,* and Its decorations^ K> 
is modelled, on the ancient .plan, like the Olympic theatre at Vieenza, 
and like it, but on a greater scale, adorned with pillars, colotmades^ 
and statues. Unfortunately, either in consequence of the many re- 
Yolutions of late years, or on account of the difficulty of fillings 
and the expense of repairing, furnishing,. and ligbtfaig up audi 9,. 
tast edifice, this theatre, perhaps the noblest in the world, has been, 
se.Iong and so much pegtected, that it will probably soon sink into 
a heap of ruins, and remain only in the plans of artists, and iniba 
descriptions of tray^IIers•* , ^ 

' Aleunder parnese, having coBqoered the BelgiaM, and delivered the Fri^c^ 
from blockade* ordered that his ho<(y should be deposited in this hnmblj^ ^pei, on 
the 8d of December, 1592. 

^ This theatre was made out of a 1arg» gallery as a t^porary eipedtenl, ai^ if 
piln^pally remarkable for iu size. 



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1«* CLASSICAL t6M CiiP tl; 

Bpt lh% principal orn9inent of Jparmet, and its pride sind gldrj^*, 
yere the numberless tnsisterpieoes 6f Correggio, with which it$ 
cKutt^esV P^IaceSy and public halls were once adorned. This celcf- 
]|^rated artist, born in a vinap,e near Modena, and of course not far 
from Parma, Has spread the enchantments of his pencil over all the 
great towns that bordered on the place Of his natrvity, and seenrs 
to have exerted bis wonderful powers, in a particular nianner, for 
the decoration of ihi^ city, Parmeggiano and Lanfranco, two other 
I^aiaiers of high repblation, were natfves of Parma, ^nd contributed 
not a Nttle to the embellishment of its churches ahd palaces'; so 
Aat no city In Italy, if we except Rome, presented more attrac-' 
tft)n9 to th^ artist, or furnished mbre delightful entertainment to the^ 
Craveiler' of taste. But, alas ! such were the decorations and the 
dory of Parma. The French, though in peace with the sovereign 
of this unfortunate city, in their late wide-vasting progress, en- 
ured its walls, raised heavy contributions on its inhabitants, and 
filripped it of its best anb mqst valuable ornament^-^iis unrivalled 
paintings. Many, Without doubt, still remain, because painted on 
waljs and ceilings, and therefore attached to the spot ; but the mas- 
terpieces are gone, and the indignant Parmensians can only show 
the traveller the place where they once were. 

The arts and sciences were by no mean's neglected in Parma. 
An university, two academies, schools of painting, etc. announce 
the application, and a long catalogue of great names might be pro- 
dfuced to p^ove the success, of the Parmensians ^ every literary 
plirsttit. The dukes hijve, for many years paSt^ been the active pa- 
tN)B9 of literature, and by their judicious encouragement attracted 
{Nrftngers of talents t6 their territories. Among these we may rank 
*e Abbate FrugonU a Genoese, and the Abbe Condlllac, a French- 
ihan ; the former a poet of great reputation, and hext in fame to 
Meta9tagto:i\ie latter preceptor to the prince, and author of a well- 
knoWH'* Course of Education." I'he royal press oP Parma was 
<jiitablished in the year 1765 : it is cbnducted by Bcfioni, and lia^ 
produced several beautiful editions, Greek, Latin, and Italian, 
together with various works in the Oriental languages. 

The public walk on the ramparts' is eittremely pleasing. The 
country round is well wooded, and the town and territory of Parma 
itemed to have been in a flourishing state till the entrance of the 
Fi^encb artny. Since that fatal period, its prosperity has been on 
tft^ decline, its government unsettled, its inhabitants impoverished 
iml discontented. The contributions raised by the French amounted 
to five millions of French livres < a sum enormous for so' sihaH i 
territory, and equalling two years of its regular income. > 

' Petrarcia resided some ^ears at Parma, or in its neighborhood, 
ithd s^ins to have been delighted with the beauty of the country, 
ynii^ ^h0. generous spirit of its princes, and with the open manly 
flllM^ners ofits inhabitants* To the honor of their de^eendani^i it 



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CUMSf. TI. THROUGH ITALY. IM 

may Jbe added^ tliat notwithstanding, the lapse of ages^ the 6hatig0 
of goveftinient, and the gallinf; pressare of recent reyoIOtioiUy 
these qus&lities are said to be still perceptible. 

TwQ' stages from Parma the traveller arrived M Fornm LepUi 
Regium,no\ir called Reggio, an ancient RomHn colody, de8tro|ed 
by AlariCy and rebuilt by Charlemagne. The cathedral, the chareb 
of S. Prospero, and that of the Augustin^friars, together irith Ae 
Tofirn-honse, and the Por/a iVwova, are considered as deserving 
some attention. It possesses no antiqaitiefii. However, thj9 Ira^**. 
Tiller will visit.it with some respect, as the country of AnoHa-^ 
the copious, the fantastic i4riosto / 

Two more stages brought ud to Modena (Mutina), lately the ca^^ 
pHal of a dukedom, now^ a, dependence on the Will of ^onaparfe*^ 
Though an ancient Roman colony, called by Cicero ^^jirmMma €t 
spiendtdissma Coloniayy ' it presents no traces of antiquity ; it iM 
been th6 scene of so many bloody contests, has been so often de«» 
siroyed and has so 6ften risen from its ruins, that not only nor 
Vestige of its former- splendor reni\^ins kt present, but it is even nn-*^ 
certain whether vit occupies the «ame site as the ancieiit city. But 
whatever might have 'been its strength and magnificence in ancient 
times, they have been probably, far surpassed by its present (I 
sb0uld rather have said its late) /prosperity. It is a well bnilt 
town, its streets are wide, and several of its^publie edifices have ar 
noble appe£^rahce. Its Cathedral is Gothic, and like most of its 
churches, rather inferior to the expectation naturally excited by 
the geiieral feattiries of the town. The ducal palace is of vast size; 
and though built in a German, that is, in a h^vy and fanciful style 
of architecture, is On the whole ratherf magnificent. It Coutaina 
several handsome apartments, and, what still more merits the at*- 
terition of travellers, a gallery of ))aintingSy a noh)e libritry, and a 
numerous and curious collection of sketches, by the first masters; 
of prints, of medals, ^nd Qf Cameos. » 

The arts and sciences, particularly the latter, have long flourished 
at Modena^ under the fostering cape of its prlrices of the honse of 
EstCy a faniily somuch and so justly celebrated by tasso.and Artosto, 
tbr its generous feelings^ and its noble munificent^. ^*tn Magiia- 
nimo Alfonso," says the former to a prince of thisline^ his patron^ 

. Tu Magnanimb Alfonso, il qaal riiogli 
A I furor di forturta, e guidi in porio 
Me peregrino erfante, e fra gli scogft 
^ Cfra roodeagiuioequasia&sonol 
Queste mie carle io lieta frooie accogli 
Che quasi in yoto a te sacrate i* porto. ^ 

, * Gierus, Lib. Cmtei. A. 

' I ■■ . ^ ' •'■ 

» A colony Otf j|;reat strength and splendor.; " . 

' Xiils lattei^ edflettion has either heen removed or plundered by the Fr^^o^llt 
* Au|Q8tAlphoosptwliawl>«iii8Dantfian4 



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n 



3M . CLASSICAL TOUR Chap. VI. ^ 

The^atter, ki a lesa poetical, but equally grateftil style, expresses 
his obltgdtiQns te the $ame family, and enlarges upon its heroicar 
qualities and its prospects of glory. ' Under such encouragement,, 
it is not wonderful that genius should flourish, and that men of 
learning should flock from all quarters, to enjoy the advantages of 
such. Hberal patronage. 

Among the illustrious personages who hare done honor to Mo- 
dem by their virtues and . talents, one of the earliest; and if the 
good qualities of the heart givB double lustre to the brilliant en- 
dow^ments of the head^ one jof the greatest is Cardinal Sadoletu 
This eminent prelate rose to notice in the fostering era of Leo the" 
Tenth, beicame intims^tely eonnected with the most conspicuous 
characters of that period, and shone' himself, with no snfiall lustre, 
in the midst of its brightest luminaries. In the turbulent pontifi* 
cates 4bat succeeded the era of Leo, ^hen the animosities kindled 
by the Reformation blazed out with unquenchable ftiry, and ererf 
bosom glowed with rage almost infernal against, the opponents of 
his own creed, this- worthy bishop preserved the native candor.qf 
his soul, and the characteristic mildness of his,sacred office. Above 
passion and resentment, he treated the supporters of the new opi- 
nions with paternal tenderness, and while he condemned their 
creed, he cherished, and whenever an opportunity occurred, he pro-^ 
tected their persons. ^'Fond to spread friendships, and. to cover 
hates,'' he made it the business of his life to diffuse his. o^n spirit, 
a spirit of charity, peace, and indulgence, into all around him; 
land^ while he zealously endeavored to clear up the subjects in' de- 
bate, and to aremove misapprehensions, he still more strenuously 
exerted himself to calm the rage of contest, and to infuse a milder 
temper into the disputants. Even in these days of tranquil dis- 
cussion, when a general spirit of toleration seems to have gradually 
diffused itself over the Christian world; such a. concilkiting cha- 
racter, if placed in an elevated station, woiild engage our esteem 
and reverence; but at th'e era of the Reformation, that age of 
division and madness, such gentleness", moderation, and candor, 
were godlike qualities indeed. 

Thewbrksof iSac(o/eti, consisting principally of letters, addressed 
to the most conspicuous persohs of the age, ^e still extant : and 
as they are drawn up in a pure and elegant istyle, and frequently 
jtreat of subjects of great interest and importance, they are equally 
amusing and instructive,* and are calculated to give a very fa- 
vorable idea 6f the taste, the knowledge, and the piety of the 
author. ' 

^ > Weloom'd a nancTriog straDger in thy lan^. 

And guided safe, mid rocks and biilows tost, 
My sinking bark ; to thoe, much honored fatMt, 
Tbe grateful orrrings of my MDse belong ; 
Nor tboo disdain tbe dedicated song.— i7tiiif« TfafM/ad'ofi. 

" 5ei Orlando FuHoso, Canto i. 3. ♦. 



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&uu^. Ti. THROUGH italt; m- 

From the lime of Sadoleii, that is from the middle of the sixteenth 
century, down to the present period, a regular succession of men 
eminent for their talents and learning, eHber natives of its ter- 
ritory, or attracted to its walls by the liberal patronage of its 
princes, has continued to adorn Modena, and to support its literary 
reputation. Instead of giving a long and dry catalogue of names, 
I will mention only two authors ; but these of a repiltation so 
splendid as to throw a lustre on any city. One is the AbbateMlt- 
ratoriy an Ex-Jesuit, the Duke's librarian, perhaps the most learned 
antiquary, the inost inquisitive^ and at the same time, the most 
impartial historian, that the last century has produced. His 
w.orks consist of nearly fifty- volumes in folio ; of these, his AnnaU 
d'ltalia are perhaps the most instructive and the most entertain-, 
log. The other is the Abbate Tiraboschi, Ex*Jesuit and librarian 
as his predecessor Muraiori, and like him eminent for his profound 
knowledge of history and of antiquities. His p/incipal worlcas a 
history of Italian ritej*ature, entitled Italia Literaria, in nxieen yx)' 
In^es, a work rqplete with erudition, seasoned with curiotis aneo^ 
dotes, and enriched with much judicious and amusing Criticism. 

In justice to tbe Muses of Mpdena, J mtist add the name of the 
playful Tassoni^ who, in his Secchia Rapita (Rape of the Bucket), ^ 
gave Boileau and Fope the hint and the model of the Ltilrtn 
and of the Rape of the Lock; taught them* to trifle with the splen- 
dor of {poetry without degrading it, and enabled them, even on. 
frivolous subjects, to display the ease, the pliancy, and the'perfection 
of their respective languages. The important '' Bucket," celebrated 
in this poem, wsus carried off from a well in one of the stfeets of 
Bologna, by a party pf MQdenese troops^ during apetty war*be-? 
tween these neighboring cities, and has ever since' been most care* 
fully preseryed as an invaluable trophy, in a vault under the great 
tower. 

The naturalist may find some occupation in the territory of Mo- 
dena, by investigating the nature of its wells supplied by perennial: 
sources, and uninfluenced by the state of* tbe atmosphere, as well 
as by inspecting its petrifactions ahd its mineral fountains. 

The Campi Macri [the lean plains], celebrated, in opposition to 
their name, for their fertility, and the excellent pasturage which they, 
afforded to a famous breed of cattle, were the plains which lie 
between Parina and Modena, ajid extend beyond the latter dty 
towards Bologna. 



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m C34MICAL IQnm Cs4#. TII« 



CHAPXKR Vn- 

]l9logitt» Itf UnivenUy* Academies >~Imola—Fayentia-nFafrlf—Foril«i|iopoil— 
• , Gesana-T-Ruticqii— St. Marino— Eimioi. 

^HB trayeller, as he rolls along the Via Emilia^ from Modena to 
Bologna, amidst scenes of the neatest cultivalion and of the nfio^C 
Iiixurilint fertility, will recollect, that the verjr fields which spread 
around him, the very country which he is traversing, was tbei 
Uoodyiheatre of the last unavailing efforts of Roman liberty. !Ih€i 
iaterview of the Trimnvirs took place in an islatid formed by the 
Rhehus, at a little distance from Bologna. ■ As the river is small, 
and the island observable only on examination, the traveller gene- 
rally passes without being aware of the circnmstance. The stream 
still retains its ancient name, and is called the Rheno. ^ 

Frdm Modena to Bologna, the distance is three stages, about 
tw6niy-foQr miles : about> six* miles from the former town is Fort 
Urbano, erected by Urban Yill. to mark and def^md the entr^no^ 
into the Ecclesiastical State. Bologna (Bononia Felsinia] Vras ft 
Roman colony, though it retains few or no traces of its antiquity, 
atkd is a rich, poj^ulous, extensive, and most flourishing city. ltd 
history, like that of the preceding towns, is contained in a fe^ 
^ords. First, great and prosperous under its founders, then in 
the succeeding revolutions of the empire, pillaged, destroyed, and 
rebuilt ; sometimes enslaved, and sometimes free, it underwent and 
aurviyed all the vicissitudes ^ the barbarous ages. At last, aftet* 
various contests with the neighboring states, and with their owri 
tyrants, the 'inhabitants; of Bologna made a voluntary submission to 
Rope Nicolas tlL in 1278, and afterwards to John XX,IL in 1327, 
vthtch they have frequently rienewed sinc6, at different periods. 

But, in this vohiiitary submissfon^ the Rolognese did not meail 
so moeh to acknowledge the Pope as their direct sovweign, as to 
put their city unde^ his protection as liege- lord : hence, they cau- 
tiously retained the management of their finances, the, election of 
tbehr magistrates, and the administration of their laws; that is io 
say, the essential forms of a republic, and only employed the naili^ 
and. authority of the Pontiff to repress the ambition of powerful 
and factious citizens, or to awe the hostility of their neighbors the 
Dukes of Modena, and of their rivals the Venetians. Hence, they 
always resisted every encroachment on theirprivileges, and not un- 

r 

' This island ts t^o mUes from Bologna, three miles long, and one broad; 1% 
^talQS two vfllages, St. VioUh to Ui« soath; St Gtovumi, to Oie noriii. 



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fretiaently exjpelled the 'papal legates '^h^n ifidinM to eiverstr^ 
the prerogatives of their office. This guarded afid condHionai de- 
pendence produced at Bologita all the advantages that accompany 
liberty; industry, cOininerce, plenty, population^ knowledge, and 
refinement. 

The French, in their late invasion, found, but did tiot ledte; the^ 
Solognese in possession of thes6 blessing^. They deprived their 
dty of its freedom and independence, separated it from the Roman 
state, and artnexed ii to the Italian Republic, to share with it th^ 
name of a Commonwealth, And to bear, in reality, the opptessi^e 
yoke of an avaricious and insulting tyrant. MV. Burice, speaking of 
diis event says, ^The Porrtiff has'se^n hid free, fertile and happy 
dty and stare of Bologna, the cradle of regenerated Idw, the seat 
of scienceiS and of arts, the chosen spot of plenty and (lel^ht-i- 
converted into a'lacobtn ferocious republic, dependent pri the hcp 
micides t)f France.*' » 

The streets in Bologna are narrow, and the exteribr of the ][)<il)- 
lic buildings by ^6 ilieans proportioned to the fame and tb the 
opulence of the city. The cathedral Is a modern edifice, of Roman) 
lirchitectnre, but in a bad style ; the inside Is light, and though it 
did not appear so to me, is considered by several conhoissedrs ai§ 
beautifdi. One altar, erected by the late bishop, of the finest maf- 
Ues, chastest decorations; and best propbrtions, cannot fail to 
attract the eyl^ of the observer-; it is exquisite in ?t^ kind, and wisl^, 
in our opinion, almost the only object in the cathedral worthy 6t 
jlittention. 

The fchurch of St.' Petrohius is considered as this prhicipat 
ehtii^ch. It is Gothic, of great* extent and antiquity, and though not 
beautiful, is celebrated as well for several grand ceremonies, which 
have been performed in it, such as the eoronation of Charles V. by 
Clement VII., as for the meridian of the famous asf ronomer Ca*smi,' 
traced on its pavement, tt was Ifuilt about the years 44.0 of 4S0; but 
rebuilt in a very different style in 1390, and seems still to remain, hr 
a greftt degree, unfinished. The prelate, its' founder first, and now 
kg patron, flourished iii the reign of Theodosius, and was aiiiian of 
great activity and.general benevolence. He enlarged the extent o( 
Ae city, adorned it with several public buildings, procured it the 
ftvour and largesses of the Emperor, and by his long and unre- 
ibitting exertiotis'to promote4is welfare, seems to have a just claiiti 
lb the gratitude and vendration of its inhabitants. S. iSalmdm, S^ 
PablOj and above all, Lti Madonna di S. Lilca, deserve a partfcciUr' 
li^it. This tetter church stands on a high hill, about fife miles ttoti 
bologna. It is in the form of a Greek tross, of the Corinthian ordef,' 
and is crowned with a dome. 

As the people of Bobgna have a peculiar devotion to the Bfessed 
Ybgiit, and crowds flock frofai idl quarters to vi^it this her sane-> 
foiury, for tbeir accommodation, in all aeaisons and in all wettbi^i 



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las * ChASSKAL TOUR Chap. YD. 

a portico jhasH3aen' carried from the gates of the city ap tbehiU to 
Ihe very enlranceof the teinple, or rather to the square before it. 
This immense building vas raised^ by the voluntary contributions 
of persons of every class in Bologna; the richer erected one or 
more arches, according to their means; the middling classes gave 
their pecuniary aid ip proportion ; and the pobrest insisted on con- 
tributing their labor to the grand undertaking. It is in reality a 
most noble monument of public piety, and alohe sufficient to prove 
that the spirit and magnificeoce of the ancient Romans still aniniaie 
the modem Italians, and may, in a fortunate combination of circum- 
stances, once more blaze out in * all their pristine glory. 

The diurch is of a fine and yreW* prdportioned- form, rich in mar- 
bles, but overloaded, as we imagined, with ornaments. It is need- 
less to add, that from such an elevation the view is beatutiful^ lost^on 
one^ide in the windings of the neighboring Apennines, and ei^tend- 
ing on the other over a plain of immense extent, aild unparalleled 
population and fertility. One circumstance, Struck us particularly 
while on the hilL It; was the end of March, the sky was cVear, andl 
the weather warni, nearly as it may be on a bright day in England 
in the month of May, so warm in short, as to render the shade not 
only pleasing, but desirable ; yet, in various parts of the hill, and 
near the church, the snow lay deep, and in vast masses likely to 
resist for. some time the increasing warmth of the season. So 
great is the influence of such mountains as the Alps and Apennines, 
on the climate of the adjacent countries. 

' The two brick towers, Degli Asinelliwi Dei Garisendty are de^ 
fopned monuments of a barbarous age, and remarkable only for 
their, unmeaning elevation and dangerous deviation from the per- 
pendicular. 

Bologna is decorated with many palaces of vastiextent, and some 
few of noble architecture. Among the latter is the Palaxxo Ra- 
ntuzt, said to be of Palladio ; also those of Lambertinij Or$i, Ben-- 
tivoffli, Malvezzi, Campeggi,. Pepoiiy Legnani, etc. These palaces, 
and indeed almost all the churches and public buddings in Bologna, 
are. ornamented with a profusion of paintings, by the first masters^ 
Guido, GuercinOf the Careu^ci^ Cdravdggia, GiardanQ^ and particu- 
larly Albano. Of the latter artist it has been said, ^at the Loves 
seem, to have mixed his colors, and the Graces to have fashioned his 
forms ; such is the soft glow of his tints, such, the ease and the 
beauty of his groups and figures I Th^ greater number, and tbe 
best of thi& celebrated artist's compositions, are to be seen at JSo- 
logna, and may fornish the admirer of painting with many an hour's, 
or rather, jnany a day's entertainment. No city has given more 
^couragement to painting, or contributed more to its perfection, 
than Bologna ; no one has produ<;?ed a greater number of illustrious 
painterS) oi enjoyed a higher reputation in the art thanits well knowQ 
schpol. 



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tHAP.-Vli triROUGII ITALY. m 

To perpetuate theiskiiriiDd the honors of this school, an aca-^ 
demy has been established, under the title of the Crementii^e Aca-^ 
demy, with a sufficient number of emibent professors tftdirect^ and 
of medals and premiums to animate arid reward ttee zeal of the 
young artists. Public instructions are given gratis, models ftir-* 
nished, accommodations supplied, and every possible encourage* 
ment afforded to attract scholars, and enable them to develop and 
pierfect their talents. 

This .{excellent institution, so well calculated to preserve the re- 
potation of the school of Bologna, originated in the beginning of 
the last century, and has already produced several artists of repu- 
tation; among whom we may rank its first president, Carlo Ct- 
gnanu The halls, and apartments of this academy are very spa- 
cious, and form part of the palace belonging to the Instituto di 
Bologna. This latter establishment, one of the most magnificent of 
the kind in Italy, or perhaps in the lyorld, occupies an immense 
and very noble edifice, where the various. arts and sciences have 
their respective halls decorated in: a grand style, a^nd furnished 
with appropriate apparatus. In this palace sits the Academy of 
Sciences, a singular monument of that enthusiasm for knowledge, 
which has always formed a distinctive feature in the Italian cha- 
racter. 

This Academy, of high reputation in the republic of letters, owes 
its origin in the seventeenth century to a noble youth of the name 
of Eusiachio Manfredi, who, at the early age of sixteen, formed a 
literary society, and collected at certain stated assemblies in his own 
house, all the men of taste and talents in Bolagna. The spirit ofihe 
founder has never abandoned the academy, which still continues to 
enrich the learned world with its productions, and to support the 
fame and the glory of its origin. 

In the ^me palace, are a. library containing at least dne bun-^ 
dred and fifty thousand volumes, open to the public six days in the 
week ; an observatory furnished with an excellent astronomical 
apparatus ; a vast chemical laboratory ; a cabinet of natural history; 
an experimental cabinet with all kinds of instruments for physical 
operations ; two hiallsof architecture, one for thecivif, the other 
for the military branches^f this art ; a marine hall ; a gallery of an- 
tiquities ; another of statues, and a third of paintings ; a hall of 
anatomy and midwifery, celebrated for a remarkable collection of 
wax figures, representing the female form in all the stages, and in 
all the incidents of parturition. In fine, a chapel for.the use of the 
united members of the Insiitute, Almost all these halls atid apart- 
ments are adorned with pictures and paintings in fresco on thd 
walls and ceilings, and form one of the most magnificent abodes 
ever consecrated to the arts and sciences. I have already observed, 
that regular instructions'are given to young pamters in the hall of 
the academy ; I must here add, that professors attend and deliver 



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lectures m-otif , rat stated periods, to all^udents, on the different 
arts, in their respective halls. - r 

.Bologba t^wes this superb estabnshment to one of its citizens, 
^eneralCount Sfarsigli^ who, after having passed many years in 
the imperial service, returned to bis native country, and devoted 
the remainder of bis* days, his talents, and his fortune, to the pro- 
l^agaiion oC the arts and sciences, in its bosom. He bestowed 
upon the city bis valuable collections of every kind, and by his 
pxeriions formed a society of inen of the first talents and reputa- 
f^OQ, in each art atid science, which assumed the name of the In-^ 
9tkutq di, Bologna. ^To lodge^this society, and receive the above- 
jQsehtioned collections, the city purchased the Palazzo Cellm, and 
had it fitted up in its present style, ^mbining jgrandeur and conve- 
nience. This arrangement took place in the year 1714. Since that 
period the InstUuto haS been enriched by the donations of several 
^lustfiops persons, and particularly of. Benedict XIV., a pontiff of 
fux enlightened and jcap^cious mind, who encourageid the sciences, 
^h all parts of t^e Romi^n state, but particularly in Bologna, his 
native city.' An Englishman, accustomed to the rich endowments 
oiF Ms own country, will hear- with astonishment .that this grand 
establishment, so well furnishe\i. with all the materials of science, 
and so well supplied with professors of the first abilities and. re- 
putation, does not possess an annual income of seven hundred 
pounds a year; and his surprise will increase, when it is added, that 
the want of a larger income has hitherto been abundantly supplied 
Dy tijie zeal and the indi^fatigable assiduity of the governors and 
professors. . . 

From l\^f Instttiao we naturally pass to ihe University, the glorj 
pf B,oIogna, i^^ equal, if not, as the Bolognese pretend, superior 
in antiquity, and once in reputation, to the most x^eJebrated acade- 
paies in^urope. The honors, titles, and -privileges conferred upon 
it by kings and emperors, by synods and pontiffs, the deference 
paid, to its opinions, and the reverence that wailed upon iis gca- 
lliiates, prove the high estimation in which it was once held ; and 
ibe names of Gratian and Aldrovandus, of Mdlpiyhi and Gugliel" 
intni, pf Ferres an^ Cassini, are alone sufficient to she;^ that this 
j^igh estimation wa$ not unmerited. The Scv,ole publiche (public 
fchools), or halls of the university, form a very noble building; 
ieventy professors are employed, and the endowments are very 
considerable. The number of students, however, is not adequate 
||>o the fame and splendor of such an establishment, as it scarce 
amounts to five hundred, while anciently it exceeded twice as many 
thousands. The decrease here, as at Padua, is to be ascribed to 
H^Q D^uUiplication of similar establishments in all Christian cpunlries. 

besides the InsiUuio and the University, 4wo Academies of infe- 
jfjior ^stre ^nd oeHebrity^ watch over the interest^ of literature, an^ 
(jn4da^or to extend ^he empire of the ilvises^ They are ^ntitle^. 



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ttiSAJf, til. tflUdUi&H <TALT. tit 

by a playfcl 'Opposition, the Inquieti (Restless) and the Ostost (Idle), 
and abandoning the Higher regions of science to the speculations 
of theif brethren of the two grejit seminaries of learning,' they 
range at large through the fields of fancy, and amuse fhemselres 
in eoliecting its flowers. The youth, whom I mentioned above as 
founder of the Academy of Sciences, Etisme/ito Manfredi, did honor 
to these societies, by his poetical effusions, and is ranked for ten- 
derness and delicacy among the first Italian poets, in light airy 
compositions. Zanonij. Scarselli, RobMi, and San$evtrtno^ have ac- 
quired considerable reputation in the Sam6 line. In short, thd two 
grand fea(ui*es of the Bolognese character are formed by th6 two 
most honorable passions that can animateethe hdman soul — the 
love of Knowledge, and the love of Liberty ; passions which pre- 
dominate through the whole series of their history, and are justly 
expressed on their standard, where ''Libertas" (Liberty) biases 
in golden letters In the centre, while **Bononia docet" (Bologna 
distributes knowledge) waves in embroidery down the borders. 

The fountaii^ in the great square is much celebrated, but more, 
I thinly, ths^n it deserves. The statues are good, particularly that 
Of Neptune; but the figures are crowded into a space tpo small for 
such a grpup, ahd Neptune, '' the earth-shaking god/' armed with 
that' trident which controls the ocean, 

"£t vastas apterit ^rtes et temperat squor/* '. 

seems eihployed to little purpose, in superintending} a few nynophs 
and dolphins squirting inero threads of water from their breasts 
and nostrils. The' god should have stood qpon a rock, a river 
should have burst from under his feet, and the mermaids and dol- 
phins, instead of being perched on the narrow cornice of his pe- 
destal, should have appeared sporting in the waves. Such should 
be the attitude, and such the accompaniments of the God of the 
Ocean; and such is the Fonlana di Trevi, iii Rome. 

On the' 30th of March, we set out from Bologna, and still rolling 
along the Via Emilia, through a beautiful country, arrived about 
two o'clock at Imola^ twenty miles from Bologna^ l*his neat little 
town stands on or near the site of Forum Cornelii, ruined in the 
wars between the Greek emperors and the Longobardi. It was the 
see of the present Pope, before his elevation to the pontifical 
throne. It contains little worth notice: its Corinthian cathedral 
;v^as never finished without, nor completely furnished within, and 
of course scarce deserves a visit. Imolu has its academy called the 
Indusiriosi, and can boast of several men of eminence in bHerature, 

Crticulatly poets; ^mong these Zappi diiid Zampteri are much es- 
^med for a certain graceful refinement, and delicacy of sentiment 

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and expression, /moia, >hoDgh situated la the commeaceitieat'of 
(lie great pfain of Milan, derives from the heighboring Apenaines 
a considerable portion of the beauty of mountainous landscape^ of 
which Monie BalaiUa, seen from the ramparts, westward, presents 
^ striking instance. The river that bathes its walls has ^Hanged 
its Roman name Yatrenus into the more sonorous appellation of 
SatiWmo/ 

From Itnola to Faenxa (Faventia) is about ten miles^ This an- 
cient town is spacious and we\l built: its great square^ with a fine 
range of porticos on either side, and a Corinthian church be- 
longing to the Dominicans, deserve attention. Its cathedral is 
Gothic^ and not remarkable. We could diseoyer within the vici- 
luty of this city few traces Of the pine groves, which seem an- 
ciently to have formed one of the most conspicuous features of its 

territory. 

Undique solers . 
Arva coronaotem outrire Faventia pinum.>— iS>U. viii. 

Nine miles from Faenza, beyond the river Montone^ anciisntly 
the Ufens, stands Forli (Forum Livii), a long well-built town, with 
a very spacious.and handsome square. The cathedral, qot remark- 
able in itself, contains a very beautiful chapel lined with the finest 
marble, adorned with paintings, and surmounted with a well-propor- 
tioned dome. This chapel bears the title of Vergine del Fuoco. 
The tabernacle in the chapel of the sacrament is the work of Mi- 
chael Angelo^ The Benedictine Abbey of St. Meixuriale is a grand 
edifice, and deserves attention on account of. its antiquity. Forli 
lias an academy under the title of Filargyri, and has produced se- 
veral men of literary merit, among others, the Abbate Pelegriip 
Haudenu, who might be styled the Italian Khpstocky if the laws of 
euphony would allow namds of such opposite sound, to be brought 
into contact. 

From Forli to Forlimpopoli is four miles.. This latter town, an- 
ciently Forqm Popilii^ is small bui iieat. Hence to Cesena is a 
distance of seven miles. We arrived there late in the evening. 

In leaving Bologna we turned pur backs upon the fertile ai\,d 
most extensive plains of Milan, and began gradually to approach 
the Adriatic, on one side, and th^ Apennines oh the other. The 
road, however, still continues to give the traveller all the advantages 
of the plain, as scarce an eminence rises to retard his course, be- 
fore he reaches Ancona; while he enjoys all the beauties of a 
mountainous country, in the hills on the right, that sometimes 
advance, and sometimes retire, varying their forms and landscape 
almost at every step^ Mountains crowned with towers, castles, or 
towns, a striking feature of Italian, and particularly of Apenhine 

* y. FareDlla, that with care 

^re|i» tin toll pine, that cro^itt lier spaoifNu Addt. 



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Geap. yil. * I'HlMHaQ lOCAIiY. 113 

scen^^had often attraded oqf attention during on^ progress, and 
increasing upon us from Faenza/in number/ boldness, and beauty, 
repeatedly forced on our recollection Virgil's dei^criptiYe rerse, 

* ■ * 

Totcongestamanu^rieruptisoppidasaxis. ' x 

. Cifeo. Lib. ii. 156. 

I may add, that numberless rivers pushing firom the mountains, 
intersect t^e plain, and batbing^the time-worn walls of many >an 
ancient town, seemed cb exhibit the original of the next line, 

Fluminaque antiquos^uBtetlabentia maros.*— ItiT. 

These streams, it is true, are mere rills, as most rivers, are in 
• southern countries .during thef heats of summer, and may easily 
deceive the superficial traveller, who passing their dry channels in 
that season, may very natilrally sjippose that their sources have 
failed, and that the streams themselves exist only in description* 
To this mistaken notion we perhaps owe the poetical fiction of 
Lucan when he represents. Cffisar as stepping over the unnoticed 
Xanthus, . " 

Insdus in sicco serpentem pulvere Tivum 
Traosierat, qui Xanthus erat; ) • Ltd, ix. 274-5. 

as well as Addison's pleasing lines. ^ 

Sometimes misguided by the tuneful throng, 
I lool£ for streams immortalized in song. 
That lost in silence and obttvicin lie, 
(Dumb are their fountains, and their channels iiry) 
Yet ran for eveir by the muses' skill, 
. And In the smooth description murmur still. 

But when swelled by the rains in autumn, or by the melting snciws 
in spring, these apparently petty riils cover their broad channels, 
fill their banks, and swell into considerable rivers. 

Ceseno^retains its ancient name unaltered by time or by barbarism. 
It isaiittleclean town, beautifully situate at the fo6t of a ridge of 
fine bills covered with villas and convents ; the eminence imme- 
diately over the town is crowned with a romantic old castle. Its ca- 
thedral scarcely deserves notice, but its ancient bridge of three 
Tast arches merits attention. The late Pope PiusYI. was born at. 
Cesena, and with all. the partiality of a native, adorned it with va^ 

' ' Castles iiudtowiu,«n8teep7 rocks that stand. (] 

* . And rivers, gliding under ancient walls. 

^ He stepped, anconscioas, o'er a narrow irodk, 

' " that erept.tlODgiliesaiid:-HWasXaiitIvis once, >■ . 

4 Letter to Lord HaliCuL. 



I. 



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lu glai^sigac toifft Ga4P. fh. 

Iriovsf ((iScefi, and dignified it viih several privileges. His conntrv- 
men, in gratfefaracknawledghienl, erected a bronzestatue over iHe 
gate of the "Town-hall, representing him in the usual ^attitude of 
Popes, that is; as giving his benediaion. The inscription is, ** Civi 
optimq," ' a 'Style perfectly Roman, when applied to the sovereign, 
) and lised only in the early periods of the monarchy, while the 
bold spirit of reput)lican equality^ still breathed in a few surviving 
komans.' j\^e poii around the town is fertile, atid was ancientjy 
remarkable, as the hilly regions of Italy {[enerally were, for excel- 
lent ^ines; such, at least, was the opinion of Pliny. Whether the 
vines h^ve degenerated, or their culture is neglected; or whether 
the defect was in our palates, I know not; but we thought the 
wines of Cesena indifferent. 

About two miles from Cesena flows a stream, called ihePisatetb, 
9uppo^ed to be the ancient Rubicon. There stood on its northe)ra 
])aiik an^ obelisk, with the decree of the senate and Roman people 
inscribed on its pedestal, and' two other inscriptionjs on its' sides. 
The Frencb destroyed this obelisk* The slabs that iformed the 
pedestal la^ half-biiried in a farm-yard, about a hundred paces 
from the road, where we dug them up, and placed them againsc the 
trunk of a tree. 

The PiiaieUo^Wke most other mountain streams, is very shallow 
in dry weather; but its banks are high in some places, and in others 
its channel is wide; so that it might occasionally present a mass ef 
waters considerable enough to embari'ass an army in its passage. 
Its sides are shaded with poplars, and present a solitary scene. 
Bat it must be observiBd, that notwithslanding the above-mentioned 
inscriptions, which are generally acknowledged to bet spurious, the 
name and honors of this streamlet are disputed, and that the inha- 
bitants of both Saiiignano istnd Bxmini, boldly nriajntain that their 
respective rivers have a better title than the Pisatello to the clas- 
sical appellation of the Rubicon, and to the veneration of the (ra- 
yetler. I must add, what the reader will be not a little surprized to 
hear, that the learned ar^ nearly as much divided about the mo- 
dern as about the ancient name of this rivulet. 

To dnderstand the difficulties of this question, he must be in- 
formed, that between Cesena and Savignano^ the Via, Em ilia is in- 
iersected by three streams ; the first is about twa miles from Ce^ 
Sena; the second^five; andthe third, eight. The first iscommohly^ 
1 believe, called, and certainly marked in. the most correct maps, 
i^ch as that of the learned Jesu&s Marre and Boscovick^ PisateUo; 
the second Rugone, Rugosa, Rigosa, or (Jrgohe; the third is called 
JBorco, and bathes the walls bf Sayignanol These three rills, before 
they fall into the neighboring Adriatic^ unite and form a consi- 
derable river called the Fiumedno. la oppbsiiioa to most Italiaa 

I Tot|pmoftexc^9ntcl6xeDf, 

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teiB.' «DL TSROUGH IIAIT. S» 

writers, GItiYerins manftajns (and it is difBcah to question tb6 ac-* 
cnracy of so atteative and' indefatigable an investigator) that the 
former is called Rugohe, that this appellation is evidently a corrup- 
tion of ^iibicone, and that the second is^ properly speaking, .tbd 
]|'''isatello. however we must assert upon the authority, not of maps 
or pf boolts only, but of the innkeeper and the drivers, an authority 
perhaps more decisive on such a qu^stioii,. that '.the common name 
of the first stream, is now the Pisatelb, and that of the, secon4 tho 
Mugone: ^ .. 

* But notwithstanding the difference of names, it is siilT evident, 
that the stream nou; called Pisatelb is a branch only of th6 Rubicon; 
and equally sq, (hat the river which Caisar passed, was npjt tbo 
Pisatello, or the Rugone, but that which is formed by the thrco 
^treams unjted, and is now called the Fiumecino. To provei thif 
circumstance, it is only necessary to observe, that Caesar marched 
froffi Ravenna to Rimini by the direct road, (for as he was in haste 
vfe cannot suppose that he deviated from it] that is, not by the Via 
£mi1ia (Emiliatt Way), but by th£(t which rUns along the sea shorcl, 
and is calle^d the Lower Road ; to this we may add, that the distance 
6i^ Ihe Fiumecino at present, from Ravenna on one side, and from 
'Rtmird on the other, agrees with the disi?ince ascribed' to the Rtf* 
bicoii, from the same. towns in the ancient itineraries. Moreover^ 
it is highly probable, or as the above-mentioned learned geographer 
maintains, nearly certaip, that the ancient Via Emilia, instead of 
passing the threer streams, turned to the sea, ^nd Crosse^ the Rubi- 
con over a bridge, at the point where the'rivers unite, and whidi 
& therefore called, in the itineraries, '^ ad Cohfjuenteis/' (at the 
confluence). Rimini^ by ihe present road, is 6n/y .eight.eeh'very 
short, that is, sixteen ancient miles, while it,va§ Ibipperly twenty, 
ifrpm Cessna; the ^'^^rence evidently implies a turn m the road, 
which could be no oiher than that leading from pesena tP t||e 
bridgp, ''adXJbnduonteis." 

''There we^, therefore, two passages over the Rubicon anciently, 
the' one by the Via Emilia, over a brtdge, "ai Cqnfluenteis;'* the 
other, about a mile lower down, or nearer the sea, on the direct 
I'oad from Ravenna to Rimini. ..This latter then was the passagi, 
an(| here was the celebrated spot where'Cesar stood, and absorbed. 
in thought suspended for a moment his own fortunes, the fate pf 
j^ome, and the destinies of mankfnd^ here appeare(| tb^ warfike 

f'ihantom, commissioned by the furie$, to steel (he bosom of the re- 
enting chief, and to hurry him on to the work of destruction; and 
here too, arose the Genius of Rome, the awfiil form of the oiigbty 
Parent, to restrain the fury of her rebel son, and to arrest the bldw 
levelled at justice and at liberty. 

» 

B| yentam est panrl |l\ibtCQnl8 ad undas 



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<f O CLASSI6AL TOITR (Map. VII. 

Gm per obscurain yuhti nuestidsima noctem ^ . 
Turrigero canos effUadeBsyertice crines.* 
'* . ' Lucan, lib. i. 

Here Csesar passed, and cast the die^ that decided the hie, not of 
&Qnie only, of her cpnsuls^ of her senates^ and of her armies, bjit 
of nations and empire^, of kingdoms and republics, that then slept 
in embrjo in the bosom of futurity. 

In criQssing the Rubicon^ the traveller passes from Cisalpine GajA 
into Italy properly so called, and enters the territory of the Umbri, 
that is Umbria. This province, though it retains its geners^ name. 
Is divided into various arbitrary departments, such as the Jjegasuohe 
d' Urbino, MarcatfAncona, etc. of which, as of most similar parti- 
tiops, I shall take little, or no notice ; because they are. mere tran- 

^sient. distinctions, adapted to the particular administration of each 
district/ and varying with every accidental change in the system of 
g&Vernment. A few miles fron) Cesena we came, within sight of 
ih^ Adriatic on the left,, while on the right, the mountains increase 

;ifi lieight and in ^lagnificence. On the summit of one that rose in 
fdll view before ns, covered with snow and shining with ice, rose 
the town of S. Marino, bosomed in the regions of winter, and half 
lost in the clouds. The genius of Liberty alone could have founded, 
aQd supported a Republic) in such a situation ! 

Savignano on.the Sofco is a large handsome town, but, I believe, 
contains nothing, remarkable. Thence to Rimini, and, indeed, to 
Ancona, the road runs along ^e coast of the Adriatic, presenting 
such scenery as the sea on one side, and on the other the Apen^- 
nines, or ^rather their attendant mountains must naturally furnish. 
About four idiles from Savignano, we pasised the Luso (anciently 

' Plosa)' and six miles further, crossing the ancient Ariminus, now 

'the Marecchia, entered Rimini (Ariminum). The bridge over which 
ire passed, Js of marble, and in the best style of I^oman architec- 
ture; it was ereaed in the times of Augustus and Tiberius Caesar, 
and is inscribed' with their names. Its consists of five arches with 
niches for statues betwe^i, and a regular cornice surmounting both 
arches apd niches. Its solidity, boldnefss, and beauty, as well as 

' the date of its erection, have led many connoisseurs to conclude 

,,.that it is the work of Vitruvius. The^gaie on the opposite ^ide, 
under which the traveller passes^ on his way to Pesaro, is sL triqm- 
phsdarch of Augustus, of the best . materials and noblest form. 

' The .order is Corinthian^ but in $ome respects peculiar. The bar- 

«' ^ Now near the bflnks of Rubtcoa lie flood; 

Wbea lo I as he sarteyM tbe narrow 0ood/ , 

.'Amidst tbedpttkyborrors of ibeaigbt, . ^ .> . ., 

A wondrous vision stood cDnfesi, to sigbt. 
Her awful bedd Rome's r^'rend image rear'd ; 
Trembling and sad tbe matron form Appoar'd ; 
A tow'ry crown lier boary temples bonnd^ - 

'«iiiMi-<M»e. 



And litr torn trasaai rodflf iiang>tr«ii 



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Chap. Tlf: XHliOtJGft ItALT.' i» 

; baroor faste of the mi^iile a{{ies crowned this monumefntt)! RoaolaHf 
grandeo^vith a' Gothic battlement, a <eforfnity which is still aliawed' 
to exist, **in media luce' Itdlice," ' in sadi air age and in sodi a 
eoontry. ^ 

iliiRtm is large and well bqiTt/ In the principal square is a Con- 
tain, and a statue of Paul T. changed mto that of St. Gaudencias-bjr 
the French, who, upon this occasion, seem, I know not how, to 
ha^e forgotten their usual propehsity to instruction; The cathedral 
had been turned by them into amilitary. hospital,. and so much dis- 
figured as to be rendered unfit ipor pliblic worship. Jhe church of 
the Doininican Friars was, therefore, used for the'pnrposesof ca-* 
thedral service. That of St. FVancis; adorned 'wfth a profusion of 
marble, deserves notice, particularly as it is supposed to be the 
last in Italy, if we except however the cathedral of Milan, into which 
Gothic forms and ornament^ have been admitted. It was built in 
the year f 450,- a period when the latter style began to give way to 
the restored, proportions of Roman architiercture. However, this 
attempt to resufniB the graces of antiquity does not seem to have- 
succeeded, a» the orders are ill proportioned, and the whole edifice 
is clumsy and whimsical. Several other churches and some palaces 
are worthy ^he attention of the traveller. 

The port oFHimini fs much obstructed by the sandS^i^ept^^tt^ 
by the river in its descent from lhe neighboring ix^ant^ins r and 
though much labor has been employed, arid money expenideill, m 
order to keep it clear, yet at. present it admits small vessels only; 
an inconvenience incidental to all ports formed by nioi]Ailitn'^tor- 
rents, when^they fell into the sea neair their sources, and b^efofti 
they have time fo deposit the gravelly particles with which they'are 
necessarily encumbered. Some fragments Of marble linings ahdf 
piers remain to attest the ancient magnificence of this port. " "■ * 

Of the history of Rifnini it can only be said, that after hatift^ snf^ 
fered in common with all the other cities! 'm Italy, the' ravageir of 
ifbe first barbarian invaders, and bowed fts neci forsome years mr^ 
der the Gothic sceptre, it was restored to the! eippire by Bislisa-* 
rias, and at the fall o^ the Exarchate was annexed once more ito th^ 
Qloman tertitory in the eighth century. Since that period, though 
occasionally distracted by factions, and sometimes enslaved* jby iti 
own citizens, it Ba5' never entirely dissolved the tie that binds it t6 
the parent city, Tior refused to pay legal submission to itspbritiflU; 
But the most Remarkable event in the records pfittmtni is, without 
doubt, that which first r^lisitered its name ia the page of history, 
and still gives it a claim npon t}ie attention 6f the tiraveller. itimini 
was the first town that beheld Cmsar in arm» against his country. 
After having harangued his troops on the banks of the Rubicon, and 
made the- last appeal froip the laws tO the swocd, lie rushed ft>rrf 

' In the yerjmm of M^ Ushf (fWh '» ' . 

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IM CLA88IGia,10V& CaAK 

• 

10114 irfQi Us wnal rapidity, and Mi dif *break'$pp«ared» svrroMM^ 
0d wkh bia eoborla, in ^^^ forufil^ at Rimini. The aDtimejiy aoaod. 
ff the trufnpeti the alarmand confusion of the inhabitants, theihreat«- 
ening aspect of Caesar, are circumstances which the historian dia^ 
eteecliy. leaves to the imagination tf his readers; wbfla ifae pl>eC 
finds in them the materials of sublime description, r 

/ CoBfti^t at ctpto jQssns deponere inile8 
8i^a Ipro, stridor lituiim, clango/que tubMiim 

^ ]^oa pU conctnait bum rauco classiea coma. 
Rqpta ^Dles populis, stratisque eUcita jnventm 
Dlrlptimtsacrtaallixapenatibai.aniii . • . . • 
Vi wHf ft^lsere aquils, Romtanaqiie aigqt^t . , 

£t celstts medio, coDspectiK in agmioe Cssar« 
DirigU^en^etUygelidos payor oceupat jirttis. ■ 

* Xiie. i.— 2M/et(. 



: .CHAPTteR vm. 

fyfMc^r^^f&^Vam^'tbA Ifetaams and Monte ABdnibale-:8eBeg|iglfa^ 
. Anobna, n$ JBtarbor and Triumphal Arch— Loretu>,. and the Santa Gasa^Tol^ 
* feitln9— Pome Delia trave. 

. tiLOSB to Rimini we passed the river Ansa or. Aprusa. Thence 
to Ancona, the sceinery continues the same; tb^ A()riatic ,ou the 
left; oil the right/ffne fertile hills covered ^ith buildings, and rir 
[|ing gradually in hei^^.till they sweliJnto the ridge pf t^e Apeor 
nines about fifteen miles southwest. Among the hills, 5. Marino 
presents to the ^y^ a perpendicular precipice of tremendous 
^^igbt, and qf craggy' .aspect, and lotig^cpntinues to fprpn a mos^ 
mnjestic and ;Con^icuous feature of the landscape. The first sta^ 
is Colfo^^ca, a title given to this place, because it became the 2i$Yy 
hm jof the prttiodox prates, who receded frpm the council belif 
^t Riimnh when they found that the Arian faction seemed likeLy tfb 
preyaiK Such at least is the import.of an inscriptipn in the prtncip^} 
gt^nrcH, a neat edifice, with, a high GotKic tqwier ppp^site. J\^ 
mer Condtfi, which flows a few miles from Cimo/i^a, on the road 



To ibe natd forbdi dn itie soldier p^it^ 
lbe/eha\tf0, ana bU ilcior eiulgns piap'^; 
Wltb.dtre alarmii fl-om baDd to bqod arottira, 
fh» (Ifevbotrae horn, mud raiding tratnpeta tvd^i 
. Tbe starliug cUlxens oprear Ibelr beads* 
The- loailer youlb al oiice forbake llieir bedt; 
^^«ty thej snatch their weapotas, wblcb-aajpong 
tMi^ bottselidhf godR in peace bhd rested long; . . . 

Soon as their crests the Aoman eagiae rtar'd. 
And CoBtar liigh above tbe rest apyenr/d, 
Each trambiUig hapt wtA imt ftbrror *o«k. 



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C^tf. TBI. THROUGH ITALT. 119 

to RimiQi, \9 supposed, bj Cl^yerias^ to be the ** GraiStamiiim ra- 
pax " * of Lucah. 

About icxi miles From Cattolica, is Pesdro (Pesaorus), a large, 
dean, airy town, with a handsome square ornamented by a noble 
fountain, and formerly by a marble statue of Urban YIII. lately 
destroyed by the jfrencn* Most of the churches are remarkable 
for their paintings, and some for their architecture. Among th^ 
latter are 5. Giovanni, La Miscricordia and S. Carolo. Several pia- 
laces have the sanie claim to attention. On the whole, few towns 
have a handsomer or more prepossessing appearance than PesatO. 
The bridge over the Fo^r/ia, ancienijy the Pesauriis, is a very noble 
edifice, and though not^^ncicnt, worthy of being so. 

About seven miles furihef is Fano (Fanum Fortunse), ^ well- 
hifiit ^nd very handspme town. One of the gates of Fano . is a 
triumphal arch of Aug4jstus ; a gallery or portico of five arcaded 
W9S built over it^ at a later period, that is, under ConstantineVthe 
whole is, "or was, Cormthiap. It was considerably defaced, and 
tbe^ upper story desirpyed, by the artillery,. in a contest betweeh' 
this town and Julius if. Seversll pillars stilt lie, as they seem to 
have fallen, on the platform above the arch. On the three diffe- 
rent cornices, there are three inscriptions. The cl^urches at Fano 
are not inferior^to those at Pesaro. The theatre was a noble and 
commodious edifice, but has been so long neglected, that it has at 
present mui;h the appearance of a ruin. ' 

T^e Via Flaminia here turns from the sea towards the Apen* 
Dines, and runs aiong the banks oftheMetaurus, now called the Ifte- 
^iro^ or shorter, the Metro. This river, a streamlet in dry weather^ 
mu^, if we may judge by its wide-extended bed, ^nd b]' iheiong 
bridge thrown over it, form in rainy, seasons a vast sheet of water. 
Its western^ banks are covered with wood, and increase iti height 
and. declivity as they retire from the sea. To the east, Opens a plain, " 
bounded by gentle eminences, and contracting in breadth as it i*tin$ 
southward, where th^e hills line tbQ banks of the river. The Adriatic 
occupies the north, and to the south rise the Apennines in irre* 
giilar forms, interrupted only by the steep dell, through which the 
river forces its passage. The character of boisterous rapidit j^, 
(iven by the poets ko this stream, ^agrees with it dniy while rush* 
pig from the Apennines, or confined within the defiles that line tfae^ 
base of these mountains. 

Veloxque Metaurus. ) Lucan U. 495. 

• _^ ' ' > 

' T^ tMrtil Cnislumittm. \ t 

> The Basilica aDDexed to the forum of Fanum was planned atid btiflt la 

Yitrnvlus. Would it be impossible to discover s6me traces of an edifice, whfclr, 

fnmi ibe «eooiinl ^hkh be gives of it& form and proportions, seems to ^aV6 Men of 

eoDsiderabki nmgnitiidQ and beauty ? None are now observable, fit. lib. v* c. |. 

' And the swift MeUnrv. 



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ISO GLASSIGAL TOUR €ha». Vm. 

Cayis yenientes montibas Umbri, • ■ ^ ■, 

Hos JEsis, Sapisque layant, rapldasque sonanti 
Vertice contorqueas uhdaft per saxa Metaurus. > 

. The banks of this river were, as is well known, the theatre of one 
of the most glorious and most decisive victopiesever obtained by 
the Romans, a victory which saved Rome, by deprivinj^ Annibal 
of his loog expectecl reinfbrcements, and anticipated the foil of Car- 
thage, by cutting off at one stroke the strength of her armies and 
the flower of her fising generation. 

The description which Livius has given of the battle of H^tau- 
rus is aaiihated and circumstantial; and though the learneld seem 
to doubt whether it be possible to ascertaih the spot on which it 
took place, may, I thin)^, enable us, to guess at it, with some proba- 
bility. According to the historian, both armies were encamped 
oaor near the Sena, about four^iles westward of Senegaglia, or 
to use his words, ^'Ad Senam castra consults erant, et quingentos inde 
passus. Asdrubal aberat* Asdrubal began his retreat, *^ prima vt- 
gilid " ^.that is, about an hour after sunset; and after having wan- 
dered in the dark for some time, reached the Metaurus, about 
eight miles from the Sena, and there hulted till break of day, when 
foQowing the banks from the isea towards the mountain, in Order 
to discover some place fordable, he was overtaken and attacked 
by theRomaos. The battle commeo(?cd at an early hour, for after 
various manoeuvres and a most bloody contest, it was only mid- 
day whea victory decided in favor of th^ Romans. **Et jam diet 
medium ercAy sttisque et calor hiantes, casdefidos. capiundosque {hostes} 
affaAm prasbebat.^ Now when we consider- these circumstances 
united, that is that the nights were short, as it was summer, tbat^ 
after having marched eightmiles, the Carthaginian army bewildered 
themselves in the ^findings of the banks, ** per tortuosi amnis sinus 
fiexusque errbrem vplvens, ? that they halted ' and were overtaken 
early in the morning, we shall conclude, 4h^t they had not marched 
more than eighteen miles from Sena, or, in other words, that they 
Iiad not reached the mountain^, and, of course, that the battle 
took place in the plain, but nearer the mountains than the sea. 
Moreover the left win^ of the Carthaginian army, formed chiefly of 
Gauls, waa covered by a hill. Round this hill, when the Consul 

* Tbe Umbrtaiu left tbelr moaRtains and their datflt ; 

TbeM driak of Jiaa\ and of Sapfs' wares. 
And swlK Metaurus' stream, Who rolls along, \» 

Koaring amid tfye rocks, bis eddies strong. 

■Tk^owp of the consul was on tbe Sena, and Asdrubal was five hundred paces 
distant thence. ,. * 

3 At the first watch. 

4 And now It was the middle of the day, and abundance of the enemy, paming 
with thirst and heat, were slain and taken. T. Liy. lib. xxvii. 48, ' 

^ I^t among the tortuotis mazes 4>f the winding riyer. 



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GAAP. Viri. THROUGH ITALY. lit , 

Gandios bad attacked the enemy in the rear,, yas the principal < 
slaygbter, 'und it is highly probable that the fall of the Carthalgi- 
nian general ennobled this spot, and dignified it with the appella- 
tion of Monie Asdrubale, We may'therefore I think conclade, with^ 
out much danger of wandering widely, from the truth, that the 
round hiH which still bears that name, and rises south of the Ma- 
tautus, about three miles f ram Fossomb/me on the'r,oad to ForK, 
was the scene of this memoi^able action. It is about eighteen miles 
by the Via Flaminia from Fano, and about fourteen from the Senaj. 
on w4iich both armies were; encamped the- tlay before. In fine, a 
battle in which a hundred thousand combatants are engaged, co- 
yers a great extent of country, and spreads over all the.neighbor- 
ing' region, so thett the banks of the river, for many a mile, wit- 
nessed the roul of the Carthaginians ; and the poetical prediction 
was fully accomplished, ^ 

Malta quoqne Asdnibalis fulgebit strage Metaurus. > 

Two hours brought us to the river iVeflfoia(Misus), 

Quo Seoa.relictupi 
. G^Ilprum a popalis traxit per saeciila i^omen ! > 

for, on^ its banks stand Senegaglia,, which took its name fromthe 
Galli Senones, though colonized. by thq Romans after the destruc- 
tion of that race. , . * 

SenegagUa is a very wellbuilt, airy, and apparently flourishing 
town. The cathedral of the Corinthian order was lately rebuilt, 
and its high altar adorned with a most beautiful tabernacle, by 
the present bishdp. Cardinal Onorati, who has the reputation of 
being a man of taste and public spirit. Unfortunately for the town, 
his means of indulging the useful propensities which naturally fol- 
low such Endowments, have been completely annihilated by the 
rapacity of the French^ and all improvements, since the fatal 
period of their arrival, have been tgtally suspended. The distance 
from tfais^ town to Anc^na is twenty-four computed, twenty rea|l 
miles. A little beyoiid Casa Frascata, at the Bocca de Fiumecino, 
(month of the rivulet) ^ we passed the Esinoy the Roman Aesis, en- 
tered Picenum and arrived late at Ancona. 

^nconaTetains its ancient name, supposed to be derived from its 
reclining posture, and no small share of itS' ancient prosperity, asf, 
Venice excepted, it is stilt the o^ost populous and the most trading 
city on the shores of the Adriatic. Most of the towns we have 

' And Mdtaoriu' stream 

Cor Asdrubars defeats -be faif renowned. 
* Whdre Sena tbroagb annnmber*d yean has borne ' 

A iiame, hy GfiiUsb tribes bfqaeatti'dv . 



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i^ GLA^BtC AL tOUil Gbay. VaL 

bftlierto mBhtioned w6f6 founded bfTarious GaRic Iribds.. Atioona 
boasts a' nobler brigiiu It was bbilr by a band of Syracnsan pa^, 
triots who, to avoid the insolence aild lawless sway of Oioqysias 
tfie tyrant, abandpned their country , and settled on this coast, about 
fotir Hundred years before Christ. It was anciently remarkable for 
a celet)rated temple of Yentis, and, like Paphos and Cythera, was 
8ii|[)posed to be ohe of the favorite resorts of the Goddess of Love 
and finality. ' tii reality, it wovld be difScnlt to find a, situation 
mbt^ conformable to the tempen of the *' Queen oi smiles and 
s^orts/^ or better adapted to health and enjoyment than AnconaL 
Seated oi(^ the side of a hill forming a semicircular bay, shelter«d 
by (ts summit from the exhalations of the south, covered by a 
bdld promontory from the blasts of the north, open only to the 
Ijt^eezes of the west, that wanton on the bosom ^f the waters wMca 
bathe its feet^ and surrounded by fields of inexhaustible futility, 
Ancona seeips formed foi^ the abode of mirth and luxury. H«nce 
it has been remarked by tratelters, that the inhabitants' of Ancona, 
and its territory, are of a more beautiful form and fairer color than 
their countrymen in general ; and though several invidious reasopis 
have been given to account for this flattering distinction, 1 must add; 
that their morals are acknowledged to be pure, and the conduct of 
the females unimpeachable. « 

The Romans, aware of the advantages of this port, made it their 
principal naval statfon in the Adriatic, built a maguificenl mo^ to 
cover the harbor, and adorned it with a triumphal arch. This u^e- 
fyl and splendid w;ork was undertaken and finished by Trajan, and 
to hini the triumphal arch is dedicated. It is stilt entire, though 
Stripped of its metal ornaments ; the order is Corimhiam ; the male^ 
rials, Parian marble ; the form light, and 4he Whole is considered 
as the best, though not the most splendid, nor the moist 'maasiv^ 
ihodel, that remlains of similar edifices. It was ornamented wilh* 
Qjtatues, busts, and probably inferior decorations of bronze ; but of 
^hese, as I hinted above^ it has been long since stripped by the ava- 
pce of barbarian invaders, of perha)ps of ignorant and degenerate 
Italians. From the fif st taking of Roihe by Alarie, that is, froai 
the total fall 6f the arts to tK^ir restoration, it wits o^ain rum t^ 
kn ancient edifice to retain, or to foe supposed to retain, any orna-^ 
ment, or even any stay of metal. Not the internal decorationd 
^nly wer^ torn off, but the very nails pulled out, and not unfre- 
quenily stones displaced, and columns overturned, to seek fqr 
bronze or iron. Of thiis species of sacrilegibuB plunder we Sod 
numberless insiancesi, not only in the edifice now under our coosi^ 
deratioii, bul in various remains of totiquity, add l^artieularly in 
the Pantheon and Coliseum. 

^ Aat» 4oi|Him Vjn«if qnam Doriea tusUacit Aaooa.— iiw. if .^W. . 

Wlm ToMii' Hirtiie 4d6 ftir iJaumti #raCi.^HDryMiii. 



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Gidur. Tm. rmwimfiTALt. m 

Nor irill thfa toodiiet uppear wonderhl in nuni eiffidr bf. birib «r 
bybabits, and groyelling passions^ barbarians; wh6n in Qur owa 
tim^^ iHiad almost before our own eyos» persons of rank and educA- 
tion ha.ve not hesitated to disfigure the D)ost ancient^ and the inosf 
Ten^rable monunnents of Crfecian architecture^ Co tear, the works ^ 
Phidias ^nd Praxiteles from their original position, and lo demolish 
fabrics, which time^ war, and barbarism, had i;espected during 
twenty centuries. The F rench, whose rapacity the yc^ of Europe 
bas so loudly and so justly censured, did not incur the guilt el 
4isiaamling ancient edifices; they spared the .walls, and (^9tcpie4 
AemMves with istatues and paintifigs, and even these, they hiiyil 
collected and arTa»g.ed in halls and galleHes, for the inspection o( 
Irayeil^rs of all nalioos ; while, if report does not deceive tts» otff 
piqnderers have ransacked the temples of Greece , to sell the^ boor 
tfto the highest bidder,, or, at best, to piece the walls < of i6|M 
obscure old manUon^ widi fragmeota of Parian mkrble, and of Atfio 
acalpture. • . j. 

The triumphal arch has only one gateway, is orQameDted tldth 
four half colummts on eath front, one at eadbi. side of the gatewiqp^ 
and ope at each angfe. The marble, particularly hi the front' to? 
wards the, sea, retains its shining white; the capitals <>f the piilam 
hayo suffered much, and lost ihe proihinent parts of the acanthuai 
however, on the .whole, fhii arch may be considered in hif^h pre^ 
tfervation. 

The greatest part of thd mole still remains, a Solid compi|Ct walH 
formed of huge stoiies bound together by Iron, and rising to a coar 
aiderabte height above the level of the sea.. Close to it, but mtuch 
lower, is the modern mole, adorned in like n^anner with a triuoh- 
phal arch of the Tuscan order, in iuetf not beautiful, and when 
compared with the Corinthian arch that stands almost immedi^teljf 
over it, extremely cumbersome. The architect was Vanvitelli, Jk 
aame of considerable repots in the architectural annals of the last 
bentbrv; and if we may judge iProm the solidity of the new moje; 
ftom the eieyatjon of the hght-honse that terminates jt, andfrota 
the admirable arrangement of the LasuirpHa^ he seems to have me^ 
rited the celebrity which he enjoyed. It Is difficult, however, t^- 
conceive what motiyes could have induced him to place an arch, of 
so mixed a composition, and so heavy a fprm^ so.near to the sim- 
ple and airy edifice of Trajan, unless it were to display their op- 
posite qualities by the contrast, and oF course to itegrade and vi- 
lily his own workmanship. But all modern architects, not except- 
ing the great names olMickael Angela^ Bramante^iu^ Palladio, have 
had the fever of iftnotmiori, and more than ten centuries of unsuc- 
cessful experimehts have not been siifficient to awaken a spirit of 
diffidence, and to induce them to suspect that, in deviating from the 
models of antiquity^ they have abandoned the rules of symmetry; 
and that in erecting edifices on their owii peculiax plans, they have' 



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Ifel GL4fiSIGAL TOm. Gsip. TIB: 

only tranamitfed their bad taste, i^ stone and* mait^le ttieniimeats^ 
to posterity. 

The ^thedral of Ancoiia is a very ancient, hot a low, dark edifice. . 
It contains nothinjg; within, and exhibits nothing without, to fix at- 
tention. Its situation, however, compensates in a great degree, Us 
architectural defects. Placed near' th^ point of the Cumerian pro-^ 
montory, elevated far above the. town and the harbor, it Commands 
a most magnificent view, extending along the sea coast to Pesaro 
and Fano on the fiorth, bounded on the west by the snow-crowned 
Apennines, while on the east it wanders over the Adriatic, ^md, in 
dear weather, rests on the distant hilis of Dalmatia. We lingered 
on this delightful spot' with much satisfection, and while our eyes 
feasted on the varied prospect expanded- before us,, ire enjoyed, 
though it Was^ only the second of April, the freshness of the gale 
that sprang occasionally from the sea, and ianned Us as we ascend* 
ed the summit of the promontory and the tops pf the neighboring 
mountains. >- 

,There are^ however, several churches that merit observation ; 
partfctilarly the Agosiiniani, and the Giesu (of VanmteUi)^ as also the 
Palazzo delta CoimmmUa, or Town-hall, and the Poia^^o del Mer- 
cantiyOT Merchants'-hall. The Bopes have ncftbeen wanting in 
their attention' to the prosperity of Aneona. They have made it a 
free port, allowed liberty of conscience to persons of all rellgiosSy 
improved the harbor^ and opened a new and very noble approach 
on the laiXd side. However, in commerce,>activity, and population, 
Aneona is still, inferior to Leghorn, owing probably to the situation 
of the latter on the western coast of Italy, in the 'heart of the Medi- 
terranean, and open, oC course, to the con^mefce of France, Spain, 
Africa, and the Mediterranean islands ; while the former, on the 
Adriatic, a sea comparatively unfrequented, f^ces Dalmatia, a country 
iittle^tventomercantilerspeculation^nd activity. 

The general appearance of Aneona, though beautiful at.a distance, 
is, within, dark and gloomy, in consequence of; the narroiprne^s of 
the streets, and the wapt of squares and of great public, buildings. 
Aneona and its neighbor tog towns and coasts, are celebrated in the 

following lines of Siliiis Italicus : 

"-- , "• •■ • ' . 

Hie et quo8 pascunt scopnlos® rura Nainan«, 
£t quts iitoreie fumant altaria Gnprs/ 
Qulque TruentiDas servant cum flumine tarres 
Cernere eirat : clypeata procul sub sole corusco 
Agmina, sanguiu^a vibrant in nybila luce. 
* . Stait Focare colus nee Sidone vilior Aneon, 

M urtoe nee Lit^yco. Statque humectate Yomaoa . 
Adria/et inclemens hirsuti signifer Asclil i 

, \ Sa. Ital viii. *30, 43f 

, . And bere vrere they, wbo reap tbe scanty grain 

' QowUdnpmaQatdifft^aroQglidoimUi} i ■ 



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Chap. Via 1PIIE0I50H ITAL¥w m 

Numana is now Humana; Copra^ Le Groiu. Tr.oentittin on the 
banks of the Troraoy unknown at present. The jriver still bears i\» 
ancient name Vomano and Ascli A&coli. 

. The distance from Ancona to Lorettp, is about fourteen miles ; the 
road bilty, the cotintry in the highest degree fertile, and the views on 
eyery side extremely beautiful. Cdmurano, the ij^termediate stage, 
stands on a high hill, and has a small but handsome chni;ch. Loretto 
also is situate on a very bold and commanding eminence. This 
town is, modern, and owes its existence to the Santissima Casa (the 
holy house) y and its splendor to the zeal or to the policy of Sixtus 
Qnintus. It is large, well built> populous, and notwithstanding its 
elevated site well supplied by an aqueduct with water. It is sur- 
rounded with a rampart, and from that rampart commands a varied 
and most delightfuF prospect on all sides. To the north rise Odmo 
the Auximuin of the ancients, and Camurano, each on a lofty hill ; 
also close to the sea, an abbey perched.on the summit of Monte Go- 
mero ( Cumerium promontorium, the Cumerium promontory ] ; on 
the soiith, Morae Sanio (the hoTy mountain), anciently Sacrata, and 
Macerala;, to the west, Recanati, and Monte Fiore; with the Apen- 
nines rising, broken, white and craggy behind; while to the east^ 
between two hills, the Adriatic spreads its blue expanse, and brigh- 
tening as it retires from the shore, vanishes grailually in the white 
fleecy clouds that border the horizon. 

Every reader is acquainted with th6 legendary history of the 
Sanimima Casa, or most holy house; that it was .th^ very house 
which the Virgin Mother, with the infant Saviour and ^t. Joseph, 
inhabited at Nazareth ; that it was tran&pQrted by angels from Pales- 
tine, when that country was totally abandoned to the infidels, and 
was placed, first in Dalmatia, and afterwardis on the opposite shore 
in Italy, close to the sea side, whence, in consequence of a quarrel 
betweien two brothers, the proprietors of the ground, it w^ s re- 
moved, and finally fixed on its present site. This wonderful event 
is said to have taken place in the year 1^94, and is attested by 

; the' ocular evidence of some Dalmatian peasants, the testimony 
of the two quarrelsome brothers., and, I believe, the declaration of 
a^^ood old lady of the name of Laureta. Some had seen it in Dal- 
matian others beheld it hovering in the air, and many had found it 
in the morning on a spot, which they knew to have been vacant the 

' evening before. . Such is, at least in general, the account giv^ jit 

And ttioYf whose altars smoke upon the strand 
Of sea>wash'd Copra V and the neighbor band. 
That till the fletdi,whicb deep Trnentium lafes. 
His name-sake tow*rs reflecting iikhLs waves ; 
TBeIr bucklers, flashlngto the solar rays, ' ^ 

Shaot far Into the clouds a saogvlne bliMk 
, -• ' There too was Ancon, whose bright purple vl^s 

Or with the Libyan or SIdqntan dy^; 

And AdrIa through whose plain Yonumiisraiw, . 

ABdtheftorceflagof>8oUa^iiaeiiaoii«« ..«,. 



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LoretCo, circntated jill oyer Italy, pionaly admitted by many bofy 
jiersoBSy and not a little encouraged by the Popes: 

I need not say, however, that many men of reflection in Italy, and 
indeed within the precincts of Loretto itself, (Consider thi^ wonderful 
story as an idle tale, or at best a pious dream, conceived by a heated 
imagmation, and circulated among an ignorailt race of peasants and 
{[shermen. ' They suppose the holy house to have been a cottage or 
building long buried in a pathless forest, and unnoticed in a codritry 
turned almost into a desert by a succession of civil wars, invasions, 
and r^volutionis, during the space of ten or twelve Cj^nturies. A 
dr^m> an accidental coincidence of circumstances might have leil 
one or nwre pdrsons to the discovery of this long forgotten edified, 
^nd such ^n incident working on minds heated by solitude and 
eptbu^iasm, might easily have produced the conviction, andpropa- 
ga(ed( the belief of the wonderfurtalei ' ' ' 

But be the origin of the holy house what it may, the effect of artifioe 
or of credi^ity, it gradually attracted the attention first of the country 
fouiid, then of Italy at large, and at length of the whole Christian 
Vorid. The miracle was every wbere heard with Joy and admira- 
tion, 2|nd every wherd welcomed with implicit unsuspecting feitb. 
Ihrihces sind prelates, rich and poor; hastened with piOus alacrity to 
venerate the terrestrial abode of the incarnate Word, and to imploi^e 
t|ie present a jd and influence of his Y irgiii Mother. Gift? and votive 
offerings accumulated ; a magnificent church was erected ; gold, 
silver and diamonds blazed round every altar, and heaps of 
treasures Joaded the shelves of the sacristy; various edifices rose 
around the new temple, and Loretto became, as it still remains, a 
large and populous city. • . v 

'The church is a very noble striicture, in the form of a cross, 
with a dom^ over the poiiit of intersection, planned by Bramante. 
iJndei[ this dome; and dlesigned by the same architect, is the Sania 
tasa, a building about thirty fbet long and fourteen high, vautteid, 
of stone rough and rather uneven. It is difficult to discover the 
original colpr of the stone, as it is blackened by the smoke of the 
tiurnberless lamps continually burning, but it is said to be of a red- 
dish grey; the interior is divided by a silver rail into two parts of 
upequal dimensions. In the largest is an altar ; in the le^s, which 
1^ considered as peculiarly holy, is a cedar imager of the btos^ed 
Virgin placed over the chimney-piece. The exterior is coVeired 
with a niarble casing, ornamented with Corinthian pilasters and 
sculptured pannels representing various incidents of Gospel His- 
tory. The font, the Mosaics over several altars, the bronze gates 
both of the chi^rch and ^ the Sanla Ca^a, kn.d several paintings in 
the chapels are admired by conQoisseurs, and deserve a minute exa- 
mination. The sqiiare before the church, formed principally of 
the apostolicai palace, the residence of ttie bishop and of the car* 
pons and the penitentiaries, 10 in a very grand s^le of architecture. 



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Th^ treasury vas formerly a siibj^t of adttiiratioh and asto- 
nishment to all travellers, who seefned to attempt but in v^in \q 
describe, not the gold and silver only, but the gems and tb.e.dia- 
mbnd's that glittered on every vase, and dazzled the eyes with tb^r 
splendor. Long catalogues were produced of the names 0F£qi- 
piBrors, Kings, Potentates, and Republics, who had contributed 
to augment this immense accumulation of wealth with additional 
offerings, and some surprise was expressed^ that the Turk or some 
liardy pirate tempted by the greatness of the booty, and by thefaciifty 
of the conquest, did not assault the town, and endeavor to enrich 
himself with the plunder.. But Bucb was the supposed sanctity of 
the pipce, such the Teligious awe that suri'onnded it^ that even the 
I'urks themselves beheld it with veneration, and the inhabitants 
reposed with confidence under l;he tutelar care of th^ Virgin Pa- 
troness. Once, indee'd, the infidels made.a bold attempt co assault 
the sanctuary of Loretto; bat^ like the Gauls under fireniius pre- 
suming to attack the temple of J)elphi, they were repulsed by tre- 
mendoqs storms, and struck with supernatural blindness. L6reUp, 
indeed, in later times, as Delphi ita days of>old, was surrounded 
with Qn invisible rampart^ which no mortal ^rm could force, and no 
malignant demon even ventuir^ to. atssail^ repressed b6th by supe- 
rior power, 

motique verendA • * 

ll^'estate loci 'r 

But Loretto has now shared the fate of Delphi; its sacred boun(|s 
have been violated , its sanauary forced, and its stores of treasure 
mtedy and dispersed by the daring hands of its late invader^. 
No vestige now remains of this celebrated cotlection of every thing 
that was valuable; rows pf empty shelves, and numberless caseis, 
only afford the treasurer an opportunity pf enlarging on it^ ii^- 
meosity, and a tolerable pretext for cursing the bandi^i that plun- 
dered it. ** Gallic** said he, ** semper rapacesy crudeles, barbarorwp, 
aamium Italis infestis»lmi :'* ^ he added, in a style of compliment, 
** Angliy justly mbderati, cantinentes.'' ^ I hope our countrymen 
vill endeavour to verify the compliment, by their C4»nduct towards 
ik^ degrade Greeks, and the oppressed Italians! < 

iBut though we condemned the sacrilegious rapine of the French, 
'We could not share the deep regret of the good father. Treai- 
cnres buried in the sacristies of the cbMrches, are as usele$^, 
as if st3I slumbering in their native if^ines; and though th^ 
may contribute to the splendor of an altar, or tathe celebrity pf 
€ conyont, ijiey can be considered 0% as withheld from the 

'And awe-struck by the venetable majesty of the place: 
. f Xl^ French are alwuys capacioas a^d cr^el, 4)f aU the har^^^riaivi t^ ij^ost 
tiostile to the Italians, * . ' \ "^ 

'Tbefingiisha^e just, moderate, and continent.' ^ 



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IftS CLASSICAL TpUR CA^. Tllf. 

parposes for wbidi Proyidence designed them, and a^ drawbacks 
upon that industry which tbey are madig. to encourage. The altar 
ought c*ertainly to be provided with a sufficient quantity of plate 
for the decency, and even for the splendor of divine service : such 
was the opinion of the Christian church even in the second cen- 
tury-; but it js the dtlty of government hot to allow it to accumu^ 
late^^ and it is much to be lamented, that the immense wealth depo- 
sited in the churches in Italy, bad not been employed, as anciently 
was the custom in times of public distress, for public relief. **A(l 
divQS adeunto casli : pielatem (idhibento':ope$ canovento'' ' 

The church of Loretto is a magnificent establishment. ' It con- 
sists of twenty prebendaries or resident canons : twenty chaplains 
or minor canons ; and twenty penitentiaries, to hear the confes- 
sions of the pilgrims, and to administer to them advice and spiri- 
tual consolation. These penitentiaries are selected from various 
countries, that every pilgrim may find a director, who caA dis- 
course^ with him, in his own language* The number of pilgrims 
seems at present to be very small ; indeed they have long c^a^ed 
to be of any ^dv^ntage to the town, as they are. generally of the 
lowest class, beg their bread on the road, and are supported at the 
expense of the church while >at Loretto. We visited the jRathers, 
and .were treated by them with much 'kindness and cordiality. 

The traveller would do well, while his head-quarters are at Lo- 
retto, to visit Osimo^ Humana, Monte Santo, and as much of the coast 
and^coantry soufhwatd as possible. Thejse places are all of ancient 
fame, and the whdle region aroi/pd is both beautiful and classical. 

Froin. Loretto the road turns ^directly to Rome, passes under a 
noble gateway, descends the hill of Loretto, with an aqueduct run- 
ning on the left, and then rising traverses Recanati, a neat but de- 
.serted jepiscopal town. Agaiif descending, it winds thr6pgh a 
delicious plain watered by the Potenfia, adorned with all the beauty 
of cultivation, and* with all the exuberance of fertility, producing 
corn and beans, clover and flax, vines and mulberries, in profu- 
sion ; and when we passed through it, all Ughted up and exhilarated 
by the beams of a vernal evening sun. - , 

« ' A fittle beyond the post Sambucheto, and on the banks of the 
river lie the ruins* of an amphitheatre, or rather of a town, sap- 
posed by some antiquaries to have been Hecina; though others 
conclude, from the distance of fourteeii miles marked by the Iti- 
neraries, between Auximum and flecina, that the latter stood on or 
near the site of the modern Maceraia, that is, about two miles 9sA 
a half farther on. 

Maceraia is an episcopal see, a town of some population, acti^ 
vity, and even magnificence. It is situated on a high hill, and com- 

' Let them af^proach tiie god$ With purity; let them carry pi^ty with them to 
(he altar, hut let them raaiove spperfluoUs riches. Gic. de tegihuS;; ii. S, -^ 



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buAP: Vtll. ^HROtJCrH I'FALlr. it9 ^ 

inands an extensiye yiew of the layoly coantry which "me had tra- 
yersed; terminating in the distant Adriatic, The gate is a sort of 
modern triumphal arch not remarkable either for materials or for 
proportion. The same beautiful sceifery continues to delight the 
traveller tiirhe reaches To/ewrfno, 

Tolentino^ an episcopal see and ver^ ancient, Contains nothing 
remarkable. Its principal church is dedicated to St. Nicolas, a na- 
tiye saint, and of course in high yeneration. The bust of a cele- 
brated philosopher of the fifteenth century/ Philelphus, is placed 
oyer the entrance of the TOwn-hall ; a drcumstance which Lmen*' 
tion merely as an instance of the respect which the Ii;^Iians are 
wont to shew to the memory of their great men of eyery descrip- 
tion. The gate towards Loretto is double, of G6thic architeqture, 
and of a sjnguHr form. ' Tjie situation of thetown is extremely 
pleasing, on a gentle eminence on the banks of the Chienti, in a 
fertile plain lined on either side with wooded hill3. 

A little beyond Tolentino we began to enter, the defiles of the 
Apennines; the hills closing and swelling into mountains, the riyer 
roughening into a torrent, and th^ rocks breaking here and there 
into huge precipices. The road runs along the side^ of the hills, 
with the CAienii rolling below on the left". A little beyond Belforte, 
a yiew opens oyer the precipice towards a bridge, and presents a 
landscape of very bold features! Beiforte i$ an old fortress petched 
on the sidex)f a rock in a very menacing situation, and well calcu- 
lated to command the defil^. A yiliage on the opposite side of the 
riyer adds not a little to its pict,uresque appearance. 

The grandeur of the scenery increased as wet adyanc^d ; beyond 
the stage Valcimara, the mountains are paked, rocky ^ and wild for 
some miles; on a sudden they assume a milder aspect, sink in 
height, clothe their sides with Sylvan scenery, and present on their 
wooded sunamits, chnrches, castles, and ruins, the usual ornaments 
of Italian mountains. The landscape continued to improve in soft- 
ness and in milder beauty till we arrived ^xPonie delta Trave, so 
called from a bridge over the Chientu Here, though we had tra- 
yelled two stages or eighteen miles only, and 'it was still early^ we 

I As we sat on a heap of stones contemplating the Gothic structure of the gat|i, 
and its antique accompaniments, a pilgrii^ made his appearance mider the areliH 
way. He was dressed in a russet cloali/his beads hung from his girdle,vhte hat 
was turned up'with a^coUop shell in front, his beard played on his breast, and he 
bore in his hand a staff with a gourd suspended. Never did pilgrim appear in 
costume more accurate; oir In more appropriate scenery. TVith the Gothic gate 
tlurough which lie was slowly moviiig, he formed a prcture of the thirteenth eea- 
tnry. yye entered into eonversation with hini, and found that he was a GemMb, 
and bad. beeta, as Kings and Princes were wont to. go in ancient times, to the 
Threshold of the Apostles ( ad limina Apostolorum ) and had offered up his 
orisbns at the sfirlne of St. Peter. He did not ask for ^Ims, but accepte^l a trile 
'With gratitude; and ifithau huniblebow promised to remember ttS ift hSspi^eiv, 
«iid proceeded on his journey. ./ n 

I. 9 



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ffO CLASSICAL TO^ <^. IX. 

de^iltffne^ ^i«|bain daring the n%ht; partly from a jost appre- 
beosidn of dangerin passing the steep and lonely fastnesses of Serq-- 
vfille in the dark, and partly, from an unwillingness to traverse the 
Qiajestic solitudes of the Apennines, when incapable of enjoying 
the pi'ospect. The inn, it is true, was indifferent, but the surroua^- 
jjDg scenery extremely pleasing. The .river rolling rapidly along 
dose to the road; a convent seated in the middle of a vineyarif; 
g'oves waving, on the $i(j[.es of 'the hills; the fields painted ^itb the 
lively green of vernal vegetation ; fruit-trees in full ()lossom on all 
sides'; farm-houses interspersed in the groves and incadowsi aod 
broken' crags surmounted with churches and towers in distant 
perspectiye, formed on the whole a scene/^'rich, varied, tranquil 
and exhilarating. One^ould imagine that Addison^ who traveled 
this Foady had tbis delicious valley in view, whep in imitatioo of 
Vkgi|; be ^claiinSy . " 

Be^r me, some God, to BaijB*8 gentle seats, 
4>T cover me in Umbrf a^s* green retreats ; ' 
Wbcue western gales eternally reside. 
And all the seasons iavlsb all their pride : 
Blossoms and fruits and flowers together rise, 
And the whole year in gay confusion lies. 

^ Ijetter from Italy. 



CHAPTER IX. 

^Hissage of the Apennines— FoIigno<-ImproYi8a'tore— The Glitamnns, its Temple 
. aii4 ^ale-itSpelBto^Monte Somraa^Temi— Falls of the Yelioo. Addisoq's 
oiOnion refuted— <The Nar, Narni— The* Tiber-^|ricoli— Civita Gastellkna— 
Monte8'Cim!ni--Nepi—Campagna~First View of Koine. .• 

Fboh Ponte delta Trape^ the road runs for some {time over a 
country enclosed,' cultivated y and wooded, with much variety; bat 
tt^^ scenery gradually roughens ^s you ascend the. Apennines.; ttie 

Sbuntains swelKand close upon you, assume a savage aspect, and 
dixgh on the banks of the river^ which still attends you and winds 
through the defile, yet the scenery is rocky, naked, ^nd barren. 
Sera Voile is in a deep dell, where the river rolls tumbling along 
Aatfed by oaks, poplars, and vines. A rocky mouhtatn rises iihh 
llhediately to the west of the town. From its foot close' t6the 
roa4i^firough various crevices gushes a vast source of the purest 
water, iirjiich may justly be considered as one of the heads of the 
Poteiitia. On the st«ep side of the hill stands an old ruined Gothic 
^stle; ^bose fortifications' run in different compartments, down to 
^f^^ road side. In the nearest is ah aperture in a vault formed 
•y«r ^krgeand deep spring. Thi$ rocky mountain appears tP be 
a yast reservour of yfexers, as a little higher up iovsmU ilio 



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SDmmit, aboat one bmdrjed yards from thdiral tonvee of the 
river Potentia, another barsts oat at the bottom of a cavera finely 
shaded with bashes, shrubs, and, fruit trees. 

A little farther on, you enter a plain spre9(|^i^({ iP ^^^ midst of 
the Apennines, whose summits rise 4D various shapes aroand, and 
form a majestic amphitheatre. It is not however to be understood, 
that the summits lo whith I allade, are the (lighest points of the 
whole ridge : this is not true, as the pinnacles of the ^P^nnines are 
covered with snow almost all the year, white the iMmitains which 
we passed over, only exhibited a few detached sheets of snow, and, 
were in general green. I mean therefore that above SeravaUcy you 
reach the highest point of the mountains 4hat intersect the Via Fla* 
minia, and the road from Ancona to Ro.me. On the sides of the 
mountains you see vittages and<X)ttages, the. greatest part of which 
look bleak and miserable, and in the mids( of the plain, graze nu- 
merous flocks of sheep, and herds of catt)^. There is, however, 
an appearance of loneliness about tbeplace^ that -excites m die 
traveller's mind ideas of danger, which ara coiisiderably increased 
by. accounts of murders and robberies, said to have been Commit^ 
tii in thie' remojre region. 

While we were gliding over this e1evat6dp1ain,'wtlh silence and 
dreariness around os, I began io reflect on the descriptions >HfC& 
the ancient poetd bare left as of the Apennines, a ridge of motln^ 
taina^ which the Ro^ians beheld y^ith fondness and veAerationj aH 
contributing so much both to the beauty and to the security of Yhefr 
country. In reality, they had reason to thank Providence for 
having placed such a tremendeigs barriei: between them and their 
yictorious enemy > after the disastrous engagement on th.e banks of 
the Trebia. The attempt of Annibal to pass, ibc; Apennines, is elo* 
quently described by Titus Livius : ' upon that oc^sion one would 
suppose that the Genius of Rome,, enveloped in tempests, and 
armed with thunder, had ^tood oa th^ summit H) arrest the i^-^ 
vader : — " Turn verb ingentt sbno coelum s(tep&re e^t inter -horrendos 
fragores mkare ignes,'' » After repeated , Jwit useless exe]:tions, Anni- 
bal returned to the plaiq^ and {lom^ had time to arm her youth and 
to call forth all her energies, to meet the approaching tempest. 
. Lucan, in his description of the Apennines, indulges as usual hi3 
vein of hyperbolical exaggeraiioa ; but as he i^ accurate in his re- 
presentation of the bearing of this immense ridge, and of the 
rivers that roll from its sides, it may not be amiss to insert his 
lines. 

Mods later ^eminag miJditis se pprrigH andas 

InflBrnl, superique maris : collesqae coercent 

flinc Tyrriieua Tado frangentes aMinora Pl&flSk^ 

» L!v. xxi. 5d. ^ ^ 

* Then the heavens thundered with a niiglAy nol^, and tlghtnings flashed amM 
the tremendoaii peals. ' \' ^ 



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lit ctASSlCAl XoUk twit. lie. 

< IWdc Dalmtticls obnoxla, fkictibiis Ai^cdn. 

Fontlbus hie vastis immensos C4)ncipU amnes, 
Fliuninaqae in gemiDi spargit divortia pQoU. 
In IvYum cecidere latus veloxciue Metaunis, 
Crastumiumque Tapax, et junctas Isapis Isauro, 
Semnaqne, et Adriacas qui verberat Aufidus andas : 
Qaoqoe mAgii nullum tellus se solvit in j^mnem, 
Eridanus, fractasqae evoJvit in squora silvaa.... 
Dexteriora petebs monlis declivia Tybrim 
Unde facit, Rutubamque cavum ; delabiiur inde 
ynUarnusque celer, nocturofleque editor aurjB 
i Sarnns, ei umbross Liris per regna Maries 

V^lUnifi impulsua aqiMs, radensque Salemi 
Culta Siler, nullasque vado qui Macra moratus 
AInos, Yicins procnrrit in squora Lunie. 
Longior educto qua surgtt in a€ra dorso, 
Galllca rura videt, deyexasque excit)it Aipes. 

Yomere, piniferis amplexus rupibus omnes 
'\ Indigent Latil populos, nondeserit ante 

Hesperiam, quam cum Scyllsis clauditur undis, 
Extenditqoe suaA in templa Laelnia rupes.v lift. U. 

This poet delighted in details, and loved to display his knowledge^ 
whether cmmected with his subject or not. Others have been 
more correct, and haVe selected such particolar features only as 
joited the circomstance. Thas^ Petronius Arbiter alhides merefy 
46 height, as an extensive view only was requisite for thi) Fury, 
whom he represents as perdied upon its summit. 

« 'Between tbc bigber and Inferior sea, 

T|»e long attended mountaki takes blsway ; 
Pita and Anoonboaiid bis stoplag sides, 
Wasb'4 by tbe Tyrrbene and Dalmatic tides ; 
( Etcb io tlM treasure of bis wat'inr stores; 

A thousand lifini^ springs and streams be pours« 

And seeks the difTrent seas by difTrent shores. ( 

From>bl8left,-raIlsCrustumium's rapid flood, * 

And swirt Metaonu, red with Punic blood; 
There genUe $api8 wlHi laanrus Joins, 
•And Sena (here (he Seuones^cooflnes; ' 
* * EoDgh Anfldns tbe meeting Oceah brares, , 

And lashes dn the lazy Adrians waves ; 

Hence Test Eridanus, with matcbf^s force. 
Prince of the streams, directs bis regai course ; 
Proud with the spoils of fields and woods he flows, 

And drains Hesperia's rlTera as be goes .... 
These from the left; wUle .from the right thel« come 

Tbe Khtuba, and Tiber dear to Eome; 
' Tbence slides Vulturnus' swill descending flood, ^ 

And Samns, hid beneath a misty cloud : 

Tbence LIrls, whom the Vestln fountains aid 

Witods to tbe fee through close Marlca's shade ; 

Tbence Slier through Salernlan pastures falls. 

And shallow Macra creeps by Luna's walls. 

BordYi Af oil' Oaul tbe loftiest ridges rise. 

And the low Alps froor cloudy heights despise; 

Thence his long back the rraitful mountain bows. 

Beneath the Umbrlan and tbe Sabine ploughs; 

The race pi^lmieval, natires all of old. 

Bis wood^ rocks within tbeir circuU bold ; 

Far as Beiperia's utmost limits pass, 

Tbe hiily faper runs his mighty maas, 

Where Juno rears her high UciniaH fade, . • j ' 

Aad8cylli*8 raging dogSHmolest the math j^Aoi0«> ''' 



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Gbap. ir. THROUj&H itAL^Y. 08^ 

Hj»c at Gocjtl tenebf as, et Tartara li<[ii!t, 
Alta petit gradiens ioganobilis i^pennini, 
Unde oiqnes terilig, atque omnia littora posse^ 
Adsplcere, ac toto fluitantes orbe catervas*' 

Sitius Italicus enlarges upon the deep expanse of driyensnowy and 
the vast Sheets of solid ice, which, when Anniba] attempted the pas- 
sage, buried the forests, and wrapped up the piiHiacles of Iho 
Apennines in impenetrable winter. 

Horrebat glacie saxa inter lubrlca, summo 
Piniferam coelo miscens caput Apeoninos; 
Gondlderat'iilx alta trabes, et vertice celso 
€anus apex structA surgebat ad astra pruinA.* 

Sil.IM.lx.m. 

In fine, Virgil, whose masterly hand generally gives a perfect picr 
ture in a single line, to close OQ,e of his noblest comparisons- with ^ 
the grandest image, presents the Apeniiine in al] its glory, with its 
evergreen forests waving on its isides,. and a veil of snow thrown 
6ver its.majestic.summit. 

' Quantps Atbos aut quantiis Eryx, aut ipse, coniscis 
Gam fremit ilicibus, quantus, gaudetque ifivali 
Yertiee se attollens pater Apenninus ad aaras.^ 
» . Fir. xii.7ei. 

On quitting the plain you wind along the mountain with a lake, 
on your right, and passing an eminence, begin to descend the de-* 
diyity of ColfioriiOf represented 'more dangerous than it really to, 
b^ause, though the precipice besteep and abrupt, the road is gi0Dd> 
aind winding along the side of the hill descends on ^n easy slo^^^ 
Jhrough the deep dell that borders the road, a streamlet n^rmurs 
along, and gradually increasing becomes a river, which, in the plain 
below» falls into the Clitumnus. The little post of C(Ue nouve fotms 
the first stage of the descent, which continqes with little. or no 
intermission 10 the neighborhood of Foligno. About three miles 
from this town, the mountains open and give the traveller a do- 
lightful view ^rough the deep wooded defile into the a^joihipig 
vale; a view, which, when we passed, was condidend^ly improv^ 
by the splendid coloring of the evening sun. 

> Sbe left the darkDess or tbe realms bdow, , 

ADdlsoagbt great ApenoiDe's aspiring brow. 
Whence er'ry reahn was seeDf^ and er'ry abor«. 

And ev'ry tribe, dlspers'd Earth'a surface o'er. , 

* TbierglakM with solid ice, and shegg'dMth pine. 

Beared his tall currs the lort^ A Pennine: > .:.v 

Deep saow (he forests bid, and rising high. 
His cloud-envelop^d 8animiti>iekt;'d the skf. 
^ Like Eryz, or like Atbos, great he shews, * 

Or father Apennlne, when white with snows. 
Bis head divine, obscnre in clouds be hides, 
And fbakes the sounding forest on |i^fi^lfMw>Mtfcfl, , > . « * 



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iUf GLASSteiL TOtR eiip.tt: 

At the Tillage situate in the dell belo^ amidst woods and rocks^ 
the riYor pent ap between the closing crag, works its way throogh 
several little chasms,^ and tumbles in seven or eight cascades down 
the steep through tufts of box and ilex, anoridst houses and frag--^ 
niems erf rocks intermingled, into th.e plain below, where tiirhmg 
twaor three mills as it passes, it hurries diong to join the Mighr- 
bwing Clitumnus, ^ - 

I should advise the traveller to flight, order hi^ carriagef to w'att^ 
for him at the foot of the hill, and going down to the village, visit 
a very curious grotto formed by the waters while confined within 
the caverns of the mountain. It is entirely under ground, may be 
about five-and-twenty feet high, is hollowed into several little 
niches supported by stsllactite pillars, and ornamented on s^ll sides 
with natural fretwQrk. He may then pass throiigh the rows of oUve 
tfe^s that cover -the opposite rocks, observe the singular sitbatioii 
of the village between two mountains, one of naked rock, the other 
cOVcfred with brush-wood; examine as he descends; the picturesqn^ 
effect erf the several hiliS bursting through masses of wall and^ 
verdure, and then he may follow the ro^d that ruiis along the 
Ibot of the hill, and nfiount his carriage within a mile of Foligna. 

While at supper^. vi& were amused by the appearance of an Imr 
provuatore^ ' who, after having sung an ode of his owA composi- 
tion, in honM»r of England, poured forth his unpremeditated verse 
with great harmony of tones, strength of voice, and rapidity of 
Qtttekfice. He a^edfbr a subject, and ^e gsfve th6 pronpen^ity 6f 
Itiilf, wkich'he enMrgetf upon with some enthusiasm, •askihjf etaoM 
plmieaHyat dve co^olu^lon of each siariza; bow Italy, opi^n as it 
wiii; ID VWObMttrovSA nations, such as ihb French stmf the QetHM^; 
coM ev«^ exf^ect pros()erity ? His exiei^porary effusiotyri k^^, 
rMy «ii^M hr tiH^ f»raises of England : and' after ^ome Ymitipiift 
artif^tf citable piresent, he retired with much apparent sati^faciioh. 
ThMs characters, iil their wandering habits,' precaTriou* mo*? of 
litiiig; afnd interested exertion^, so much like tbe bards of ^cienl 
dnys, hate,* it is said, decreased in number since the Freifch in- 
ya^on^, dwfn^ l^a»*tly to tfie depression of the naitonat JK^^^^i^^a^ 
plirtty to thefioverty of their former patrons, and to the absidno^ 
of Viiaiaiy tor^'gners. The exhibition was perfectly ne^ tfeM 
and while we enjoyed it, we could not but agree that stith «d cf^si' 
and versatility of talent, might if properly managed be directed to 
▼epy great and very useful purposes. 

Foligno, the ancieift Fulginia, though a large, is yet a very in- 
different town; Its cathedral unfinished without is neat within^ of 
haodsome Ionic, and contains two pretty side) dftars. In reality^ 
there aire few Italian churched which do not present something inte- 
resting to an attentive traTeHer, so generalT}^ is taste diffdsed ove/ 

>> ipk«r 9f ext<itibjpdrQ verses. 

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Cdi^.tSL. TBtftOV&H ITALT. iH 

this cTkssic coahtry. Bat the situation of Foligno CQ$i^nSki^fl tOl 
its internal defects. At the foot of the Apennines, in a delightful 
plain that ^inds between the mountains, extending leu m^lQS:i% 
bre^fdth and about forty in length, adorned with raws of vines, «on» . 
fields, and vfllages, 4t enjoys the breezes and the wild scenery of the 
mountains with the luxuriance and warmth of the valley. This 
its site, is alluded to by Silius. ' 



. patuloque Jacens sine moenibus arvo 

ru»glnia.« SiL vlil. 459. 

About tbteeniles distaflt rfs^s Bevagna, tlie ancient M«ifiinia$ 
aafd through the same valley the^GlitumritHs rolls his ^^^sacred. 
stream/' and gloried in the beauty and fertility of Uis bstnks. ■ At* 
Foft^o, the travjeller Jrdm Loretto again re-enters the Via F&^ 
mioia. 

The first stage from Fnligna termii^tes at a place called Le Yehe/ 
Almost close to the post-house on the northern side, rises on a steep 
bank an ancieot tomple ; and a little to the south of it; from yftf focra 
narvow vents or vems^ gushes out a most plentiful streaoi of pfear/ 
limpid water, forming one of the sources of the Clitumnus, From 
these sources the place takes its name, and the lempfle on the bank 
w^^s once sacred to the rjyer-god, under the appellation of JfiiiJi-^ 
ter.Clituinnqs. The youi^gei: Pliny has given C) livejy and ^c(^u^^te^ 
deseription of this fountain, which the reader will prefer, no dout^t^ 
to the best mt)dern picture; 

C. PLimUS ROHAICO 8U0. 9. 

Yii&tfne aliqtiando Glitumnnm fontem? Si nondum (et pjato iiO- 
q/di Aarrasses mitii) vtdei : quern e^, pceiiltet tardiutis^, prOxime vidl. 
collU assurglt, antjqiia cupressu nemorosus et opa(^us : huiic subl^r fons H\i, iMl^ 
eiprimitur pturibas venis, sed imparibus, eluctatvsque facit' i^rgltem, -fp$i Uti 
gremio patescit jmrtts er vitreus, ut numerare jactas st(|k;d et iH^lUtenta^ didium' 
possls. mde, ooo loci deyexitate, sed ip^d sui copU et q'liasi poiidere iffl^lHtiffl' 
Fqds adhuc, €;t l^rti amplissimuoi (lumen atqite etiam naYiuni'^atlem, ii^fLs ^SlMiM 
quoque et coMrario nisu in di versa tendetites, transmittit et pMert : adi^ TalfdiV' 
ut ilia' qua properat, ipse tanq nam per solum planum remfsnon adjitTetar: td^$ai> 
ai^crrirae ri^mis contisque superelur.adVersus. Jucuiidum uirumc^e pdi^focMn' 
Ii^diimque fluitantlbus, ut flexerint cursum, iaborem ocio, ocfnm Ikbme^iiitlkmJ* 
B(ip» fraiin6 daUKa, mufla populo vestiuntur : quqis perspituus amhiS;^ veliA; ni€lMllt' 
yfridi fmagin^ anniiinerat. Rigor aquae certaverlt nivibus', ne6 cdfor ce^itr JUi^> 
Jacet templum priscum et religiosum. Stiit Cllturanus ipse amictiis, oriiiittittqiR^ 
prieiex^K. Prssens numen atque- etiam fatidicum, indicant sdrtea. 9ptk»titBi^ ' 
circa sacetla complura, totidemque Dei simulacra : sua cuique yeneratloi MiMf 
numen : quibusdam vero eUam fontes; Nam pi%Her illiim, quasi paren^op limi^' 

Srum, sunt tnjnores capiie discreli; sed flumini miscenfur, quod ^ontetratasmli^ 
ur. ^s termlbus sapri proPanique. In superiore parte itarvigare tantdtt/fitfhC 
etiam natare concessum* Balineum Hispellates> quibus ilium locum lAyiiA At^ 

I AndrifilQgtaafpactoaspIain ' 

Tha anwairdtFulglaU. 

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IM CLASSIC^ TOUR CflAP. IX. 

gmtatf dona dedtt^^pnbliCje prsbent et hospttinin. Nee desoni y\l\m, que secaUs 
llnmini^ amenitatera, margini insisiunt. In summd, nihil erlt, ex qoo non capias 
Toluptatem. Nam studebis qiloqae.et leges niuHa mnltordm omnibus columnis, 
oi&nibtts parietibus inscripia, quibus fons Ille Deusque celebratur. Plura laudabU, 
fi^nnoUa ridebis, quanquam tu yero, qu« tua hqinaniias, nulla ridebis. Yale. ' 

C. Plin. Lib. vUl. EplsiL 8. 

Some changes have however taken place, not indeed in the great 
features of nature, but in thoi^e ornamental parts which are und^er 
the influence of cultivation. The ancient cypresses that sha^^d the 
hill, the ash and the poplar that hung over the river, have fallen 
long since, arid have been replaced by mulberries, vines, and 
olives, less beautiful but more productive. The sacred grove has 
not beta spared ; the litilQ chapels have disappeared, and the statue 
of the god has yielded his place to the triumphant cross. This 

*s > . ' c. puan TO HIS fbibnd roiuiius. 

Have you eyer seen the sources of the GlUumnus? Knot, (and I think, if you 
bad, you would have mentioned it to me) go and see them. I saw tbem not long 
since, and I regret that i did not see them sooner. There is a. rising grouod'of 
moderate eleyiitlbn, thickly shaded with aged cypresses. At the Ibot of this, a 
fOQotain gushes out in several unequal veins, and having made its escape, forms a 
PqqI, Yihos^ broad bosom expands; so pure and crystal-like, that you may count 
sVpusiII pieces of money that you throw in, and the shining pebbles. Thence it is 
iiht)ened forward, ndt by the declivity of the ground, but as it were, by its own 
abundance and weight. Though yet at itr source, it is already a spacious riveri 
capable of bearing vessels, which it transports in every direction, even such |A 
come upwards^ and strive against the stream; it is so powerful that oars give no 
assistafnce* downwards, but upwards, oars and poles can scarce get the better of the 
current. It is a delightrui recreation to those who amuse themselves with floating 
ni^m i^ si^ftfce, to exchange alternately, as they- alter their direction, labor for 
ease* ^V4 ease for labor. Some parts of the banks are clothed with the wild ash, 
some with f^plars^ and the transparent river gives back the image of every one of 
them distinctly, as if they were submerged beneath its waters. The coldness of the 
water is equal to that of snow, and its color nearly so. Hard by, is an ancient 
and venerable temple. There stands the god Clitnmnus himself, ^not naked, liut 
a4onied wHb the pratexta, * The oracles wblcb are delivered th^re, indicate, 
not only the presence, but the prophetic power of the deity. Several chapels are 
scattered about the neighborhood, each containing an image of the god ; each has 
a sanctity, and each & divinity peculiar to itself: some also contain fountains. For 
hasides the Glitumnus, who is as it were the father of all toe rest, there are some 
smalle^ streams, distinct at the source, but which mingle with the river as soon as 
it passes the bridge. There ends every thing sacred and profane. Above the 
bridge* navigation only is allowed ; below it, swimming is permitted. The inhabl- 
taolSjQf Hispella, to whom Augustus made a present of the plade, supply a bath 
,awian inn Tor the accomnu)dation of the public. Along the banks are a number 
of viUas, to which the beauty of the, strcdm has given birth. In a word, there is 
nothing with which you will not be delighted. For you may even indulge your 
propensity for study,' and may read many inscriptions written by diflHerent persons 
on every pillar and every wall, in honor of the fountain and the god. Bfany you 
Will applaud, some you will laugh at, though in fact, such is your good-nature, 
Ihat you will laugh at none. Farewell. - . 

« The dreM worn by tbe Roman youth, before Uiey c^e to jBlfta*« eaUte, 



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HtUa.H. . THkOUGH ITALT. 1|I . 

circomslaiioe is rather fortanate^ as to it the temple owes its pre- . 
servation. 

This temple consists of tbe cella and a Oorinthiaa portico, snp- 
poned by four pillars and two pilasters ; the pilasters are fluted ;. two 
of the pillars are indented with two spiral lines, winding raund^and 
two ornamented with a light sculpture representing the scales offish. 
Tbe inscription on the freize is singular, ** Deus angeiorum, qui fedt 
re^urrectionem.^ Underneath is a vault oir crypta: the entrance is . 
on the side as the portico hangs over the river; the walls are solids 
the proportions beautiful, and the whole worthy of the Romans^, 
to whom it is ascribed. I am however inclined to think, that the 
portico has been altered or repaired since the construction of toe . 
temple, as it is more ornamented than the general form of the edi- 
fice would induce us to expect. Besides, thid capitals of the pilasters 
differ from those of the pillars, a circuAstance yery unusual in Ro- 
man architectur^e. It is not improbable, that tljiis temple suffered 
considerably before it was converted into a Christian church,, and 
that when repaired for that purpose, the ancient pillars, perhaps 
thrown into the river, might have been replaced by columns from 
tbe ruins of the various other fanes,, which, as Pliny informs us^ . 
were interspersed up and down the.sacred grove, around the re* 
sidence of the principal divinity. ^ 

The Clitumnus still retains its ancient name, and rel^lls to the 
tdiveller's recollection many a pleasing. passage in the poets, con- 
necting the beauty of the scenery about him with the pomps of a 
tl4umph, and transporting him from the tranquil banks of the rural 
stream to the crowds of the Forum, and to the majestic temples of 
the Capitol. 

Hinc albi, ClHuiQiie, greges et maxima taurus 
^ Ytetima, sffipe tuo perfusi fliunine sacro,. . 

Romanos ad templa DeClm duxere triiimpboSi* 

F<r. Gee. ti. IM. 

. i 
Propertius confines bis softer mtise to the beauty of the scenery, 
and seems to repose with complacency on the shaded bank, 

Qui formosa suo CIHomDUS flumina luco -. 

Integit et niveos ablutt uoda boves. ' Zi&. ii. 17. . 

Though white herds are still seen wandering over tbe rich plaiii ' 
watered by this river, yet a very small portion of it is employed ih ' 
pasturage. Its exuherant fertility is better calculated for tillage^ and - 

I The god of the aageto, who made the resarrectionr. 

* Tkere flows Clltammu ttarongb the flow'ry plain : 

Whose waves, for triumphs after prosp'rous war, 
tlieTicUmdt and snowy sheep prepare.r->-Afy4M. .'•.«•. 

4 Where Ihir Clitpmnos bids his waters flow 

TJtfongh arctitDg gro^Tes, aqd bat&ai |ilt htrdttf «Mr« i k. . . i^ ' 



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t^ CLASSICAL TOUa Ci^. XC. 

eterjf year sees it successively coyered with wheats grains, Bitfl- 
berries^ and olives. ' 

*¥rora Le/Vene to Spoleto is aboat nine miles. The ancient to^n 
of Sipoletum is situated oh the side and summit of a hill. It is well 
kA'oWn that Annibal attacked this town immediately aFter the defeat 
of the ftomaris at Thfasimemis, and the inhabitants still glory itt 
fa^it)^ repulsed the Carthaginian general, flushed a^ he was wit6 
cSpcjtiest, and confident of success. An inscription over the great 
arfcli off atf ancient garte commemorates this event so honorable tO 
llr^, people ctf Spoleto, t have observed, as I have already hhiterf; 
w?ftr great salisfdctibn, not only in Spoleto, but in manf Italian toi^rfsf 
p^iiScofarlj^ such as Were founded by Roman colonies, a Vfvid re- 
coJfcctiofl of the glory of their ancestors. Notwithstanding the lap^ 
of so mahy ages, no'twithstarMJfing so maqy criTel and desti'ucti'^e ifi- 
vasTfOris, though fasulted and pliindered, and ahno^ e^isldv^d, 'tSe- 
Italians remember with gfenerous pride,'that the RoAans Wef^ their 
aAcest6r^, and cherish the ifecof ds of theh* glorious achi^v^meifls;) 
al an jhheritance of honor, a birth*ri^ht to ftahe. Unhapf^y fid^l 
it is the only possessions which their invaders cannot- wrest Irdmi 
therii— -^'jjfflneam meliora nepotes T ' Two other gates s^em ISf 
iheit form and materials, to have some claim to antiquity. Sodie 
vast massed of stone, forming the piers of a bridge, theruhid^^ilf aj 
tHeatre, and of a temple, said to be dedicated to ConcoM (ihOuj^li 
the latter Scarce exhibit enough to constitute even ai ruin) as bein^ 
R!(t>ihan, deserve a passing look. 

, Th'e cathedral, in a commandin'g situation, presents a front Ht 
five (jOthic^ai^Dhes, supported by Grecian pillars, and within, eoo^ 
sists of a Latin cross, with a double range of pillars, of neat iorit 
pleasing architecture. The order is Corinthian. The two side 
altars are nncoinmonly beautiful. Two vast candelabra, near the 
high altar,. deserve attention. The view from the terrace of the 
cathedral is very extensive and beautiful. Near it, a very fine 
foftntai&of an etegant form pours out, though near the summit ,5)^ 
a high bffl>tj torrei[it of the purest water., ^he Roip^ pontiff^y^ 
it must be acknowledged, have, in this respect, retained the sound 
maxim of antiquity ,> and endeavored to mtite the useful and the 
agreeable. I^ever have I seen water employed to more advantage, 
PjT.pojjre^ fQfi}^ in greater abundance, than in the Roman terri-^ 
iQries;. It is sometimes drawn from distarit sources, sometimes 
collected from various springs gathered into one channel, ancf 
alwayfe devoted to public purposes. 

The castle is a monument of barbarous antiquity, buih by Theo- 
doric, destroyed during the Gothic War, and repaired ^by/NafiG»es, 
the riva} and successor of Mt^farius. h is a v«8t>stone building, 
surrounded by a stone ramparV. standing'' on a high hill that over-f 

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cSb. ni. tfittOftJQfl ttAtt. "^"^ tH 

HOiOfkiii the toi^if, bat as it is commanded by slnlotber bilf ifffl bigfiW/ 
it loses at present much of its utility in t'ase ot an attack. BebiAA 
tb« Castle, a celebrated aqueduct, supported by arches of auf i§^ 
tJbnishii^ elevation, runs across a deep dell, arid unites the m#tf 
By a bridge, to the noble hill that rises behitid it; called Moiiig 
Lucd. Thi^ bill is covered with eTergreeh c^ak^, and ddorh^d bf 
Ibef white cells bf a tribe of hermits established on its Miadecl titles. 
These hetmits are of a very different descrfj>tidti frdfti ditifdf olh^if 
v^be bear ihe ndm^. They are not bound by vOWS 1i6t i^itO^ 
vHth Httle jtetty 'observances; and notvrithstatfdirig tbis Mfltf dJf 
ibdependerfce, th^^ ard said id lead very f^re anit exfem^fafy. Kf^gJ 
the aqCieduct i« Roman, but said to have been fepatiSNi by thtf 
Goths. The town of Spbleto is ifi general weli-bdih, flndihOt^gft 
o^asfcmally dainsfged by earthquakes; as we ^i^ere infofuvetf by 
v^iotis inscfiptions on the public buildings, ye^ ft ^osses^ef ^ti)" 
noble ediicesand beafutiful palaces^ 

The road from Spoleto is bordered by a sfredirt oif (h^ I^, afid 
by wooded hills on the right. About two ttrif^ froid th« t6#tf 
we began to asfCend the Somma. The f*oad is exc^fetKt, and inddi 
vtp the steep wiihooft presenting any thing |>aHteulariy inWetifttti^,^ 
l9f you reach the summit, whence yob enjoy ai detiglkfiijrl'atfd etti^n^' 
sive view over Spohio,- and the vale of Glitumnus on one side, m4 
on the other towards jTernt,, and the plains of the Mar. M&nic 
Somma is liup^osed to have taken its n^m6' froth a eeifiple Of 9ii« 
piter Snmmanus placed on its somihit, is ne^r Ave thotrsand fe<dl 
Mgh, fertile, shaded with Ihe olive, the ilex, and various forest 
trees, well cultivated, and enlivened with s^veralWlle tOWhs. Thi^ 
ijfescent is long and rapid, and extends to th6 stage next to Term. 

This ancient town, the tnteramna of the Romans, retains ift>* 
traces of its former splendor, if it ever was splendid, tbo^iSCgfa IV 
may bdast of some loterable palaces, .and, what is superior 40 Hll 
{Mtace^; ai charming situation. -The ruins of the amphitheatre A 
the episcopal garden consist of one deep dark vanh, aiid ScarcHly 
rterita visit., Over the gate is an inscription^ mforniiing the l#4- 
vfetler that this colony gave birth to Tacitus the histotian,^ and td 
the ^m^erors Tacitus and Florian ; few country towns can boast ot 
tftree siich natives. 

The principal glory of terni, and indeed one Of the ntobteit <A>^ 
jetliSOi^the kind hi thew^orld, is the celebrated (iiscadA'W mUbi^ 
btifliood, called the " Cadnta deUeMarmorer ' TO' 4b/0J^ rflf iftW 
beddties of thrs magniftfcent fall, it vfrfll be plrO^r Brk to iAl ^^ 
vfeS* df it froiA the sWe of the hill beyond the' Naf. tM iay ttf fr . 
ruiis ihrodghf the vadtey^ rilonJJ the Nar, sotoetinw* O^ershadetf t^ ' 
tbe- siipefiricnmbent nioumain with Its groves of pSnH, itesf, aftff 
beich, m^tlln^ afaov^, and at every ttiTn exhibiting riiiv rtjefterf of 

ThOBiarli^tocucade. 

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H§ CLASSICAL TOUR Chap« IX. 

r^cks^ woods, and waters. At length you climb the steep shaggy 
;fl^des of the hill, and, from a natural platform, behold the cascade 
tipposite. This point enables you to see, ^\h much advantage, the 
second fall, when the river bursting from the basin into which it 
was first precipitated, tumbles over a ridge of broken rocks in 
"various sheets half veiled in spray and foam. Hence are taken 
most of the views hitherto published, and when we visited it, we 
found two Roman artists employed on the spot. If the contempla- 
tion of this scene for ever shifting to the eye, should be found 
Mresome, the remainder of the day may be spent very agreeably 
in traversing the ^siorrounding woods, and exploring the vale of the 
Nar apd its enclosing mountains. The second day must be devoted 
to the examination of the cascade frpm ^bove, and the excursion 
commenced from the earfiest dawn. , Mules, .or one horse chairs^ 
are. commonly hired, though, if the weather be cool,, and the tra- 
veller a good walker, it niiay easily be performed on foot. ' 

Thet upper road to the Caduta crosses a plain varied with olives^ 
vines, and corn fields, and climbs the mountain through a defile, 
whose sides are clad with vines below, and with box and ilex above. 
Through the dell, the Nar, " mlfurea Mils aqua,** ' of a wheyish 
color, tumbles foaming along bis rocky channel. In the centre of 
the defile rises an inisrulated eminence, topped with the ruins.of the^ 
village of Papignia destroyed by the French. 

Ascending still higher, you come to an angle, where the road is 
worked through the rock, and forming a very elevated terrace, 
gives you a view of Terni and. its plain; of the dell below with the 
Nar; of the mountains around with their woods; and of the Velino 
itseif, at a considerable.distance, just bursting from the shade, and 
throwing itself down the st^ep» The road still continues along the 
precipice, then crosses a small plain bounded by high mountains, 
when you quit it, and follow a pathway that, brings you to a shed, 
placed en the point of a hill just opposite to the cascade, and so 
near to it, that you are occasionally covered with its spray. 

Here we sat down, and observed the magnificent phenomenon 
at leisure. At a little distance beyond the cascade, fise two hills 
of a; fine swelling form, covered with groves of ilex. The VeUno 
passes near one of these hills, and suddenly tumbling over a ridge 
of' broken rock, rushes headlong down in ene vast sheet, and in 
three streamlets. The precipice is of brown rock ; its sides are 
smooth and naked ; it forms a semicircle, crowned with wood on 
the right, and on the left it rises steep, and feathered with ever- 
greens. On the one side it ascends in broken ridges, and on the 
other, sinks gradually away, and subsides in a narrow valley, 
through which the Nar glides gently along till its junction with the 
y^&no, after which it rolls through the dell in boisterous agitation, 

' With bis white, sttlphureoQs waters, 

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liiflA^. li. tHROllGld ITAL^. Hi 

The artificial bed of the Yelino is straight, but before it reaches it, 
it wanders through a fdf tile plain spread between the mountains, 
and extending to the lake Pie de Luco. 

This beautiful expanse of water, about a mile in breadth, fills the 
defile, and meanders between the mountains for some, miles. The 
way to it from the fall, is by a path winding along the foot of the 
mountain, and leading to a cottage, where you may take a boat, 
and cross to a bold promontory opposite. There, seated in the 
shade, you may enjoy the view of the ^waters, of the bordering 
mountains, of the towns perched on their sides, the villagaPtede 
LucOf and rising behind it the old castle of LabrOf whose dis- 
mantled towers crown a regular hill, while its shattered walls run 
in long lines down the decliyity. We were here entertained with 
an echo the most articulate, the most retentive, and the most mu«i 
sical I ever heard, repeating even a whole verse of a song, in a 
softer and more plaintive tone indeed, but with surprising precision 
and distinctness. We sat for Sotne time on the point of the pro- 
montory, partly to enjoy the view, and partly to listen to the strains 
of this*invisible songstress, and then crossed the lake to the village 
now called Pie de LucOy or '^ad Pedes Luci." ' This name is pro- 
bably derived from a grove which' formerly covered the hill, and 
was sacred to Yelinia, the goddess who presided over the ''Lacus 
Yelinus.^ Around and above the lake are the ''Roscida rura Ye- 
lini," 3 so celebrated for their dews and fertility, and always so in« 
teresting for their variety and beauty. 

We would willingly have followed the banks of the Velino up to 
its source, and visited Reate, now Rietiy with its vale of Tempe, 
alluded to by Cicero; but the day was on the decline, and it would 
have been imprudent to have allowed ourselves to be benighted^ 
either amid the solitudes of the mountain, or on its declivity. We 
therefore returned, again visited the cascade, ranged through a va- 
riety of natural grottos and caverns, formed in its neighborhood 
by the water, before the present spacious bed was opened to re- 
ceive it; and then descending the hill we hastened to Jemt.4 

After having minutely examined the scenery of this superb wa-- 
terfall, I cannot but wonder that Addison should have selected it 
as a proper gulph to receive the Fury Alecto, and transmit her to 
the infernal regions. The wood-crowned basin of rock that re- 
ceives the Yelinus ; the silver sheet of war descending from above ; 

' The foot of the grove. * The Velinian lake. 

3 The dewy fields of the Yelinus. 

4 The first artificial vent of the Velinus on record was made by the consul Curius 
Dentatus, but it did not fully answer the purpose. The Yelinus still continued U> 
iDimdate the vale of Reate, and occasioned, in 'Cicero's time, several legal contests 
between the inhabitants of that cily (|nd those of Interamna, who opposed its AUI 
discharge into ttie Nar. The present bed was opened,' or at least Enlarged, by the 
late Pope Pins the Sixth, and gives the river a free passage down the steep, • 



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t4d <a,i5?iCAI- TOtJl .CfAP.JlU 

the i^lute ipf ay tbiit rises tielow, aod conceals tbe secrets of tlie 
i^j^ss; the Iris that plays oyer the watery cavern, aod covers it with 
a party-colored blaze, are all features of uncommon beauty, and 
h^tm adapted to the watery palaces of the Naiads of the neigh- 
boring rivers, 

Gentam qq^ sylvas, centum qne flumina servant. * 

Ftr. Geo. iv. 383. 

Addison^s conjecture is founded upon one particular expression, 
^Esf I6c65lta1t85 medio,*'* and Iwo verses in Virgirs descriptioa: 

Urget atrlmqne latus nen^oris, medioqne Aragosns 
JM sonitfim mxJs et torto vertice torreos, \ 

-JS:n.liVvii.'5ee. 

^u{ tfi^ %st expression may merely imply that Amss^nctuii YH^ 
a disitance from the coasts and extremities of Italy ;an(j the de- 
i^crjfption contiaiined. in the verses may be applied to any wood, ^nd 
i^p'pae roaf and agitiation Of any torrent; while, if intended to re^ 
j^resentthe thunder of the falling Velinus, they convey, what YiTr 
gii^i descriptions are seldom supposed to do, a very faint idea c^f 
Hlieir object. \Qesides, in opposition to these critical coi\jectures, 
T^e liave the positiV^e authority of the aftcients, and particularly of 
Qc^ro and Titus Livius, ^ho inform us in plain terms, that tHe 
vale or ^lake of Amsanctus was in the territories of the Hirpini^ 
^hiph lay pn and along the Apennines, to the south of Beneventum, 
{|h(| fibbut twei)ty-five or thirty mile's east of Naples.^ In that ter- 
ritory, not far from Friento, a lake even now bears the name of 
J^P3antQ^ai)(| emits a vapor, or rather throws up in the middle a 
t^j'reni o^ ^ulp^ur, '*• torto vertices* » and if we may credit travel- 
le^s,.agrees in every respect with Virgil's description.^ Hovevgr^ 
1 5?|nnot closf these remarks better, thaq by inserting the verses of 
Yirgijl, which actually allude to the river in question, ^nd tp the 
neighl^ofing Nar," as they give the characteristic features in t&a 
^^ i^ftjial granc^ manner of the poet. The Fury, says ^irgil, 

Tartarean! intendit voceih: qua protinus omne 
6onttemuit hemus, et sylvs iutonuete profunda. 

I Wbo role tbe wafry plains, and hold the woodland s^ade.— i»ryc(«n. 

• There is a place in the centre of Italy. 

^ Oo either side 

Thick forests the forblddeo entrance hide. 

Fall in the centre of the sacred wood . 

' All cnn arises of the Stygian flood. 

Which, breaking from beneath with bellowiog soUnd, . 

Whirls the black waTes and rattling stones around.^Dry((M. 

* qiC.l!teBlY.i,36.' 

« Si a whirling; ysftjBx. *♦ Whirlii the black waveSt" 



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A«dlU et TriTiffi lonjge lacas, aodiit «mnif| 
Sulfdreli Nar albiis'^quli^ f6iit6s(iue TeflDi. > 

^ JSn. vll. 5«. 

The Nar, naw called the iVcra, is the southern boundary of Um- 
brid, iEind traverses, in its way to iVamt, about nine miles distant/a 

' Vale oT tnost delightful appearance. The Apennine, in ita mildest 
totm, 'Uoruscis ilicibus fremenSf*** bounds this plain ; the imUs^ IMr 
intersects it, and fertility equal to that of the neighboring tale df 
CRtnmhus, comjf^ressed into a smaller space^ and of course placed 
moi^e'ihlfaiediately within the teach of observation, adorns it on all 
rtde^ with Vegetation and beauty; so that it resembles a noble and 
extensive park, the appendage of somb princely palace, laid ottt 
ikid cultivated to please the eye, and to amuse the fancy. 

The ancient Roman colony of Nami stands on the summit of a 
very high and steep hill, whose sides are clothed with olives, and 
whose base is washed by the Nerar At the fbot of the hill we 
alighted, in order to visit the celebrated bridge of Augustus. 
This noble row of arches thrown over the stream and the defile in 
which it rolls, to open a communicatioja between the two moun- 
tainil^, and to fociiitate the approach to the town, was formed of 
vast blocks of white stone fitted together without cement. AH the 
piers and on^ arch still remain; the other arches are fall^, and 
their faH seems to have been occasioned by ihe sinking 6i Ae 
middle pier : otherwise a fabric of so much solidity and strength 
nust have been capable of resisting the influence qf time and «f 
WiesPther. The views towards the bridge on the high road and the 
plain on one side, and on the other through the remaining arch 

, aik>ng the river, are tinusiially jpieturesque and pleasing. We prd- 
ci^eded through this ddl, along the Nar tui(nbling and murinurhaig 
ot'^ its. rocky channel, and then, with some dirficulty, worked odr 
way through the olives and evergreens that line the ^eep, up Co 
dietdwn. 

'We were particularly struck with the romantic appearance of 
Nami. Its walls and towers spread along the uneven summit, 
sometimes concealed in groves^of cypress, ilex, and laurel, and 
sometimes emerging from the shade, and rising above their 
waving tops ; delightful views of the vales, towns, rivers, and 
mountains, opening here and there, unexpectedly on the eye; a 
certain loneliness and silence, even in the streets ; the consequence 
and sad memorial of ages of revolution, disaster^ and sufferings 
are all features pleasing and impressive. 

s I ■ t o her crooked horn. 

Adds all her breath; the roclm aod woods around. 
And moaotaiiifi tremble at ih^'inrernal sound. 
The aacred Lake of Trivia from afar. 
The Veline foudtain^, and sulphureous Nar, 
Shake iU Uw halef al Mast, the signal of the war.-^ 



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lu IcLassi<:al Touft &u». A. 

Few towns hftte tiiifA^red more than Nami, hut its greatest 
wounds were inflicted by the hands, not of Goths or Vandals, of 
barbarians and foreigners, but of Italians, or at least of an army 
in the pay of an Italian government, of Venice itself, which at that 
time gloried in the title of the secand Rome, the bulwark and pillar 
of Italian liberty an/d security. It is probable that this army was 
iHnnpDsed of mercenaries, banditti, and foreigners, and, like that 
of Charles V. which they were hastening to join, fit solely for the 
purposes of plunder, sacrilege, and devastation, fiut, of what- 
lever description of men these troops were composed, they acted 
under the authority of the Venetians, when they destroyed iVamt, 
and butchered its defenceless inhabitants. 

The site of this town, its extensive views, its dell, and the 
jrirer^ are happily described in the following lines of Gaudian : 

Celsa dehinc patulam prospecUms Naroia campum 
^ Aegali calcatar equo, rarique coloris 
, Jicia procal amnis adest urbi, qui nominis auctor, 
nice «ab densa sylvis arctatus opacis 
loteriilramque Jugum; tortis aofractibus albei. ' 

De Sexi. Con$. flofi; 51^. 

,;Trom Nami the road runs through the defile along the middle of 
the declivity, till suddenly, the opposite mountain seems to burst 
asunder, and opens through its shaggy sides an extensive view 
over the plain of the Tiber, terminating in the mountains of Ft- 
4erbo. Here we left the defile and the Nar, but continued to enjoy 
inoilntain and forest scenery for some mHles, till descending the 
last declivity, a few miles from Otricoliy for the first time in the 
midst of a spacious and yerdant plain, we beheld clear and dis- 
tinct, glittering ip the beams of the sun, and winding along in silent 
dignity — the Tiber.* 

Oirkoli stands on the side of a hill, about two miles' from the 
ancient Ocriculi, whence it takes its name. The remains of the 

' Tben Narnta, flini*d for spreading prospects, feelf 

The IrampllDg ofth' imperi&l courser's beels. 
Bard by, a riTer of unwonted bae, 
from wblcb ber name tb' adjadent city drew, 
Beneatb a abady forest flowtf ; confln'd 
By wood-crownM btlls, Its wbit'alag waters wind. 

« ^v/AGfitf ih9G6/i9V0i xdOafibv ^6ov tit &Xa /a(xX>,u 

^Vfi^fiti i^j^purm KOTotfiwv fionnhuT^ijeoi a^icav, 

Pditfi^v TifiiiaaKV, ifiStv fuyxv ofxcv ocydcxtxav 
M-qrifict KMoxitv «oXict)v» ifvtiw iMXw, 

Dionys., UBPlUTBlll, x 

Tbe loTely Tiber tbroagb tbe spacious plain 
Bolls bis pure wares, and burrics to tbe main ; 
flreat Prince of streams, ibrougfa mighty Rome tbat flOws» 
And parts ibe SoT'reign OUy as be goes, 
Kome, wealth's abode, and empire*8 bonor*d net, 
Tb«ftaMiiofcllMa,«iulUi«.WorM*tff8trMt. 



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latter K^ spread ia ^e plain t>elDW> along tbe banki^ tbe Tiber » 
and preseik a considerable heapof frajgments, ih ^hteh the yestigetr 
of a theatre perhaps, and a few porticos may be perceived, while 
the principal features of the town kre lost, and buried in a confused 
mass of ruins. We had now not only traversed the Apenninesf^ 
biit extricated ourselves from tbe vsirious labyrinths and didfiles 
which border the immense base of theiSe mountains. 

The Windings of the Tiber below Dtricoli have been alluded to by 
Ariosto, who seems to have beheld one particular spot, a S6rt o( 
peninsula formed by the meanderings of the Sttreamj^ with partiality ; 
but either his muse has shed supernumerary beauties around it,, or 
the shades that adorned tbe banks in his time havB disappeared ; as 
it noif presents ^ green but naked surface almost encircled by the 
waves. 

Ecc6 vede un pratel d' ombre ooperto ' * 

Che si d* UD altp fiiime si ghirlanda , 

. Chelascia a peBA ua brey^ Spazio aperto, 
-; Dove 1* apqua » torce adaltra banda, 

Un stmil luogo con girevol onda ^ ' ' 

BoU* Otrlcoiri Teyerecirconda.^-^anro tlv. 88. 

\Ve crossed the Tiber by the Ponte Felice^ changed horses dt 

BorghettOf and arrived, when dark, at Gvita Casl^eUana. 
From Civitd Castellma we passed over a tract of forest country, 

enjoying beautifol views of the Montes Cimini, with their towns, 
^yilljas, and villages to the right, and an occasional glimpse of So- 

racte to the left,, and having passed the river Fa/wco,. whtokan- 
. dently gav.e its name to the people and territory of the Faliisci, came 

to Nepi, a small but very ancient episcopal town, whose cathe* 
] dral^ built on the site of a temple, was consecrated, if we may be- 
[ lieve an inscription bver one ,of the doors, by the blood of thB 

townsmen, in the early period of the year 150. Another faiscrip- 

tion m$y record, with more certainty, thouigh perhaps posterity 
" may be as little inclined to credit it, that the same pile was deluged 

with the blood of its clergy, and almost en^r^y destroyed by the 

French army in the year 1798^. 
From iVepi we proceeded to Monfe Rosu The inhabit^mts of all 

this territory, who derived their names from its town^, some of 

which still remam, are enumerated in the following lines of Si- 

lius : - 

His mixti Nepe^ina cohors, leqaique FaliscI, 
Quique tuoSf Flavjtna, iiD6os; Sabatia quique 

* A mead he spies, with tnek o'erarrUoK eeum'd, 

80 girded by a circlijig liTec roond. 

That scarce a narrow Isthmus may remain, > . 

Ere the broad waters downward tprn agdin : 
8ach spot below OtrlcoU we find, 
• WlNNtTUWr^ffloitiioiiswuwsiamamwlBd, . 

I. 10 

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.«4!t GUJBSnBAt VGOa Qiitfw>X 

i 

VlagBt teBeii^*€iiBlii!«p^ctim ; ^SptrtileBfta ' 

. . liaad poculr et fiacrum PbotfK) Sor^cte Xreq«eiit|iiit.' . . ^ 

/ Many apthprs suppose that the road hence, or rather from Ponis 
F^icey was lioed by a succession of magnificent ^i^ces^ob^i^k^^ 
and palaces, adorned with^ siatijesy and conducted undor triumphal 
.;if<^^^i9ithagate&of the/imperial city/ Claudian indeed seems to 
ienc(Hir^9 tius ^upsosttian, in the w^IHnown lioes, 

. ' Inde salutato libalis TH)ri(Je nymphi^t . 

ExcipiuDt arcus, operosaque semiU vastis , / 
Moiibas, et quidquld tantaif premittitnr tirM> 

.' » " Be ^t, C6n», ttim,^^. / 

If this description be aceoratd, it is skignlar thaLno trace should 
now remain of all these st>lendid moMments.* No founds nor rem- 
nants of walls, no mouldering heaps of rijiM, soJirc^ even a soli- 
tary tomb, has survived the general wrqck. .Ctn the contrary, 
beyond iVe^^.Qr. jratber. hef^ovk^ xMonte \Rm tlufe next stage, the 
Campctgria diRoma begins to expand its dreary solitudes; and naked 
t^BMB'^ WjWPJpl^ins rise «n4 sink by tjirnsL Xii^qot ^Tejei^ijfQ 
a single object ,worlft. aUeniion. \\ njusf ngil, aowever, hi^ff^J^V^ 
^^ti^Um yegetatio/i decorates tbes.Q (Irea^y wflcfe. . On flji^ jconi- 
Jrarj, jfi^pdure out seldom interrupted, opcasional corn %idia, aqd 
^inerqus betels and flecks^ coinmOnicate some degree of 9nim^- 
|jp(( ji^ ihese regions otherwise so desolate; jiut descend^in'g frojn 
j^untalod th^ natural seat of barrenness, where still we w|^tnessed 
riiral beauty and hig^h.cultiv.atip^n, to apl^in ifi j^H^ neighborhood 
X)f a populous city, where we tnight naturally expect the p^rfej^ 
lioiai of gar<feoiing £|od all ihe bustle of Ufa, we w^re struck wjt^ tjie 
. jifide wa^sijetbat spreads around, ^nd pondered wfiat might be ttie 
iause tjiat deprived so extensive a traci of its inhabitants.. Iftot 

• Qeatnessand population announce the neighborhood of eveij c.om- 
jfVOa. town^; th^e^ are the usual accompaniments of capitals^ and 
"excite no interest. The solitude that encircles. the fallen Metrppo- 

• U^ pf the, world, is- singular .and grand j^ jx be^com^s ats maj>stj: ; it 
^wak^ns a seniirapntof ^we and B>elancHolj., and may jxerbaps aftpr 

. j^i^ b^'W'je.*^^*^"^'!** ^^^^ lathe characie^ of tlie pify/,an';^^^ 
the feelingil of the traveller, than more lively and exhilarating 
scenery. . . 

> VimUMiettMjtNMP9HiH4w>oNb«U>ns,,' 

Jhe Nepesinian and Flavinian throng ; 

And^ tbey who round the decf^ Sabalian iake, 
, >0d CioaLsiu' wldj} pool, th«ir dwelUngii tfx^k9 ; 
' Who ienanl Suirlurn 8 town, not flar remoT'd, 

iDd high Soract0's hlU. by Ph<pbii8 lov'd. ' ' 

• ^ At lerigtb in vlew'the Tiber* cnrrent catne > 

Th^Brtfaes sacred fo.'irtumpbaut Pame; 
ltteCiiM>licM' 



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i on the lieightl ab«TiB Baccano. the pottilioin stoipj^ed, in^ pitiiil- 
ingtoa pjonacle that appeared between tvo hills, exdaiiBeil,'^ 
1' ftomai " — That pinnacle vas the <toia of St. Peter's. ~^h» 
« ETERNAL CITY " rose before w ! 



CHAPTER X. 

Hefleetfons^-Eome— St. Peter's^The GapKctt. 

.A$ ihetr^veller advances oyer the. dreafjr wilds of theCampagi^i^, 
i^liere not one object occur^ to awaken bis attentiony/A^bas luog^ 
t8 r^oveir From ine surprise ^n^ 9gjtatiQn^ which the.fir^t \ieF^ 
]Roine seldom fails to excite in liberal ^nd ingenuous, ipipi^s. s Bq 
^ay naturaHy be j»upposed to inquire into the cause of thesio emor 
hons, and at first he may be inclined, to attribute them. soIe)y to ^ 
influence of earjy habits, and ascribe th^ feeling ofihei^aQ, tQlha 
.warm imagination of (he schoolboy. WijJio.ut doubt the i)9ga|e .^ 
IjiOmk echoes In our ears from our infancy ;. pur lisping toiiguetai(d 
turned: to her language ; and cmr first and mpsi (le%htful je^r^ 4rP 
'&|ssed among her orators, poets, and historiani. We are taiigl{t 
D^tiiries to. take '^ deep interest in her fortunes^ and to ftdopthiir 
ckus^, as .that of our own country, with spirit and with pBsaioii* 
S^ich imiir^^siohs made at such ad age are iddelibte, and it fuu^t ))e 
^iquted, are hkely to influence our feelings and opioious ^nrUi^ 

But Che prejiidices instilled into the niind of the boy, and streogtj^- 
^ned i)y the studies of the youth, are qeiiher iHe.soIe nor eveat)^ 
principal qauses of our veneration f(Mr B6me* The Mistx;w ^^ 
l^orld claims ojir respect and affectioa, onxjgrounils which t^ 
tlhristian and the philosopher must admit with grAt^ftd a^np^ 
ledgiqent. In addition to her ancient origin aiid yeneVable laine, 
to her jmighty actu^?^m6n(s and vast epipire,, j^ h^^k^roes and her 
safnts, to the majesif of her language, and tlw^hfltl^ms of her lite- 
rature ; ** liabe ante oeuhs hanc esse terram qucet^^ mUerkjura, qtue 

s We may apply to every youth of liberal edQcatioii« tb^ beanCifUl linfis ad^ 
MmmHit Ctoidlair to Hbiiorltts ! ^ / \^ ' ' , 

Bloc tibi concrete radice Wtoadm hoslf, *"' * . 

BtpealtiaattittmfiilfevUaoait a«4&illi, . . i »• 

, ptleottpt^ueurbUteoeroconcepUniab.uQfue » * 

- T^um«re>U'amor, D« Cons, Bon. yUTI, . . 

\ ■* " ' 

Vh«Ji Rfine'i flnn roots, npon tby bosom &i% . . 

* . laitiireas'd Itf d«ptb, and wlib tbe vitals mlx'di 
flietily, 4o tliI>liU»D4 nfer^ s 
Tq that, m ynih adTwic'J, moge diar •pfttffk ■ ' MM w mf TttmM^ '-' 



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. / 



,l^ei 4$itfri^^ " ■ Roiii^ has be^D in the hnm&B .af Providence, the 
instrmiiant of commimioating to Earope^ and to a considerable 
.portion of the globe/ the three greatest blessings of Which hamali 
nature is sasceptibte---CiyiIizationy Science, and ReligTon. ; 

The system of Roman governinent was peculiarly adapted to the 
attainment of this great end, and the extension of its empire seems 
to have been ordained by Heaven for its full accomplishment. The 
despoUsm of the Eastern inOnarchies, kept all prostrate ion the 
ground in abject slavery^* the narrow policy of the Greek republics 
confined the blessings of liberty within their own precincts : Rome, 
with more enlarged and more generous sentiments, considefidg 
the conqilered countries as so many nurseries of citizens, graduaUy 
extended her rights and privileges to their capitals, enrolled their 
natives in. her.M^ions, and admitted their nobles int6 her senate. 
Thuslier subjects, as they!improved:inciviIizatian, advanced also 
.m honors, aiid approached every day nearer to tl^e manners and 
^th^- virtues of their masters, till every province became another 
Italy", every city another Rome. With her laws and franchises she 
icommunicated'to them her arts and sciences ; wherever the Roman 
eagles penetrated schools were opened, and public teachers' were 
pensioned* Aqueducts, and bridges, temples and theatres were 
raised in almost every town ; and all the powers of architeicture, of 
sculptu^i9, aud of painting^ were employed to decorate the capitals 
of the mpst distant provmoes. Roads, jhdremaiifs of which asto* 
nish us even at thi^ day, were carried from the Roman Forum, the 
' centre of .this vast empire, to iti^ utmost extremities ; and all the 
' tribes and nation^ that composed it were linked together, not only 
by the same laws and by the same government, but by alt the facili-^ 
ties of commodious intercourse, and of Arequent communication** 
Compare the stale of Gaul, of Spain, and of Britain, when x^overed 
with numberless cities, and flourishing in all the arts of peace under 
file protection of Rome, with their forests, their swamps, and 
the sordid huts* of half-naked savages scattered thinly over thefr 
'wastes, previous to their subjugation; and you will be enaM^d to 
npjpreciate the blessings which thciy owed to Rome. 

Bmt est, in gremium victos qa» solii recepit, 

Hnmanuaique genus commuDi Don^tne fbrlt, 

Ma|ris non domins ritu ; civesque vocayit . : 

Qttos domuit, nexuque pio longinciua rerinxit.... 

''i iKeep ia mind that this is the country which famiftbed us with JoriipradsncfW 
Which gave n§ laws.— Plin. Epist, lib. yiii. 34. 

* ''Lieeatdicere/ says Lipsins, with great truth, '^divino miinere Eomanos 
datof ad qoidquid rude eipoliendutn; ad quidquid infeclnni fodiendum, et loca 
hoiniiiesqne eleganUa ei artibus. passim exornandos.*' ' ^ 

''Be it permitted to say, that the Romans were giyenby the lH)unty of Heaven, 
to polish whatever was rude, to do whatever was undone, and to adorn places and 
nm, in every pvt of the world, hy their elegaace and by their artis," 



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(Armornmlegamquapar9iis^qu»ftiBditiaoiDnes: ,.' 
Imperium, et pcimi dedit idicanabula jwttj.,.. 
Htfjug pacifici8 debemui^ nloribus omses ^ 
Quod veluti pisitriis regionibus utitur hos^Mss 
Qaod sedera ihutare licet; <)uod cernere Tbulen 
LuBus, et borrendos quondam penetrarereeessus.... 
Quod cuiicti gens una sumqs. > - ' 

. , ClaadianD$S€o.Coni.Stil%eh,'no. 

Rome, tn thus ciyilizing and polishing mankind, had prepared 
them for the reception of that divine religion, which alone can give 
to human nature its full and adequate perfection; and sh6 .comple- 
te her godlike work, when influenced by her.instructions aiidexam* 
pie Europe embraced Christianity. Thus shebecame the Metropo- 
lis of the world, by a new and mote venerable title, and assumed, ' 
in a moT^ august sense^ the appellation of the "Holy City," the 
*' light of Nations, " tfie " Parent of Mankin^. '"• When in the 
course of the two succeeding ages, she was stripf of her imperial 
honors; when her provinces were invaded, and 9II the glorious 
scene of cultivation, peace, and improvement^ was ravaged by sac-' 

' ^ TIsJflM alone, wbo to her bOBom iakM 

^be dlTTreot nations tlut 9he captives makes; 

In lier no bangl^tr sway ^he captiTcs And, 
V Bat all ber actions sbew a parent kind; 

Tbe name of dtixens theconqaer'd bear. 

And distant people easy Tetters wear ... . . - 

, , like bigh Olympas' sones, seT'n bills sbe shows ; 

To arms and la'ws eitensive empire owes; 7 

With ber a cradle Jastice first obtained ; . . . . 

In pHce ber fsTors fully, we obtain ; 

like fields paternal view each foreign plain ; 

Bemore at will ; see Tbale*s distant shore; 

Becesses, horrid thought of old, eiplore . . . • 

And thus, in union, one grmt nation seem.— JTotti^iis' TramUMmt, 

* A classical bishop of the fifth century, who endeavored to coinmaaieaU» the 
chirms of poetry to the metaphysical discussions of a refined theology, saw tUs 
new empire then gradually rising on the increasing ruins of tbe old, 4nd eipresied 
Its extent and greatness in language not inelegant. 

Sedes Bonn Petri, qase Pastoraliis honoris ^ 

Facte caput Mondo, qnioqnld Aon posstdet armla. 
Beligione tenet. SI. Prosper. 

Bome, Peter's pastoral seat ; 
O'er all tb' obedient world her mitred lord 
Boles by religion now, and not tbd sword. 

Leo the Great, standing over the tomb of St. Peter and St. F«al, on their feilival» 
addresses the Roman people in language equally elevated : 

"I^i sunt Yiri per quos tibi eyangelium Ghristi, Roma I resplendnltl , 

Isti sant qui te ad banc gloriam provexerunt ut gens sancta, populus electos, tivUas 
sacerdotalis ac regia per sacram beati Petri sedem caput orbis effecta, iatlos pffesft- 
deres religione divina, quam dominatldne terrena.*' • 

Serm. in Nat. App. PetH at PatUi. 

''These, O Rome; are the men, through whose means thon wert irradiated by 
the light of the gospel!.... These are they who raised thee lo this height of glory, 
that having become a holy people, an elect nation, a sacerdotal and a regal city, 
and finally baying been made by the apostolic see of St. Peter, the head of tbe 
world, thou mightest extend thy dominion more widely through tbe medium 9f 
the heavenly i^fio^i^ than tbroogh that of eaiihly 4omiolan/* 



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^ 



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cessiye bordes of barbarians ; she agaiir renewed fieir benevoleat 
exertions, and seftt'<[>ut, not consuls and armies to conquer, but 
-apostles and teachers to reclaim/ the savage bribes which had 
wasted her empire. By them, ishe bore the light of heaven into 
the dark recesses of idolati^y ; and dispfayih^ in this better 
cause all the magn^nin^ity, the wisdom, the perseverance, which 
marked her former career, she triumphed, and in spite of ignorance 
apd^f barbarism againL^iffused the blessings of Cbristiimity ot^r 
ti>e >f estern world. 

JHqt i^ it to be objected, that the religion of Rome was erroneoits, 
or4|rat sfaa blinded and enslaved hor converts. The religion whidi 
RoQie taught was Gtirisiianity. With it (he convert received ill 
(^B Scriptures, the records of truth; and in the sabramehts, the 
nieans of sanctifioation ; in the cceeds, the rule of faith ; and iti the 
commandmems, the .code of morality, . In these are comprised 
al tbe.betief and all the practices of a Christian, and to coraniu^^ 
nicate these to a nation ts to open to it the sources of life and 
happiness. ,2ut whatever may be the opiniQn^ of^iny reader ia 
this respect, he must admit, that the Latin muses, ^hicb had fol* 
lowed the Ronian eagles ia their victorious flight, now acconi^ 
panied her humble missiohati^s iti t^eir expeditions of charity ; and 
with them penetrated the swamps of Bala via, the forests of tJfer- 
many, and the mountains' of Caledonia. Schools, that vied in 
learning and celebrity Wiih the seminaries of the souths rose in 
these benighted regions^ and diffused the beams of science over 
the vast tracts of the north^ even toJhe polar circles. Thus the 
predictions of the Roman poets were folfllled, though in a manner 
Tery different from their conceptions ; and their immortal compo- 
sitions were rehearsed iil the, remote. is^lands of the Hebi^idei^ And 
ill the once impenetrable forests of Scandinavia: » ' ' 

At the san^e time, the art? followed the traceis of the muse, and 
the untutored savages saw with surprise temples of stone rise in 
their sacred groves, and arches of rock spread into a roof over 
their heads. The figure of the Redeemer tilf then unknown, 
seemed to breathe on canvass to their eyes ; the venerable forms 
of the apostles in Parian marble replaced the grim uncouth statues 
of Ihnr id6lB; anS music surpassing in sweetness the straxna of 
their bards, announced to them the mercieS of that God whom 
they were summoned to adore. It was not wonderftil that th^j 

w^ " Ylwra BritaniHM haqriiiboa tent, 

* Et IfBHim aqttioo Mngoliie ConcanaiD, 

Visam pharetratos Gelonos, . 

•«1lt ScytblcDm InttdlaHif amnem.**— fftr. UK HI. Od*<* 

' IT by Oie muse'6 fahbful gnidaoce led, 
' ' «iiOifkathlr«tt«aiidirilllBaii««ti)M-* 

Horlh-ttoos of inliospUabto itrfliln, 
Hor q«lvflr'd Sqrlbian^, nor the Caapian main, 
Tf^ be, who J(iy<m$liuaf(B ttte thirsty bOvrl 
jMiwttlttg ftUh fame^ WMd, aMI mim «r 



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OiU.X. tpOOUCa ITAjLT. lit 

iStm^ m^7 ^rolH!iie« H re^toa adoro^ wttH i|t> miuyf fftsi^^ 
ami ftccompafiled • by so ttfaay, blessings ; ao^ Ip^urofe feally $e(tle4[ 
in fbd jpf:ofeasioa of G))risiiarKty., and oQ€€hWre enlightenecl by. 4^ 
beams of science/ was indebted tp the exertions of Rome ^r bolb 
thf»9e b}es»ngs. : . ^ 

9u<( ilh^ obligation did not end here, ^s the wociJLofciviHzatiM, 
W9$ vol y^. finished. The northern tribes long esi^bli^heck in :(|mi 
iDvade«| provinces 4iad indeed becoine Christians, but they stii] r«r; 
mainetd ipmaay resets barbaciaos. Hasty and. ioiesvfterate ^i^ 
indulge the caprice or the vengeanqe of the s^oment; 4b6y im^. 
no lambut that of the sword, and would, submit to no d^sioii b«t 
tb that of Brms. Here again we behold the genius of Romet in*- 
terposiag hf r aathority as a shield between ferocity and weakness^ 
app^ling 6*00$ the sword to reason,, from private combai ^ 
pilblie justice, frojn. th^ will of the j^dge and the unQeptatB pides of 
custom, to the clear prescriptions of her own written code,' This 
grand ^lan of civilization, though impeded and delayed by ^he 
brutality and the obstinacy of the barbarouiS' ages, Vas at Ie9Stlt(,^ 
canrM urto l9ffeot, and the Roman law was aKlopteii by €OBsefitiiiB 
nations as \he general code of the civilized world. . \ - ^ 

'!^6mB. thefcJbre may ^till be saM to^ rnle patibns, H^rt indeedj 
with t^e.rod of power, bu( witi) the.sceptire of justipe,^iui may, 
still be supfNTsed to exercise the high cemmission of pr^tsidifiKOv^r 
tke world, '^lid of regulating the destinies of mankicid.* l%tts tMf 
sbe has re(aine4 by her wisdom and benevolen'ce, that ascend^iMcy 
wiiich she firit acquired by her \alor and magnanimity : and tty 
the pre-eminence which she has enjoyed in every period of her 
history, she seeqns to have realized the ^ittou^ declaration of her 
founder, '* AbU nuncia Romanise Codlestes ita velle^ vt mea Rotna 
caput orbis terrarurn diC ' **Urb8 urbium — temptumcequitatis — partus 
omnium jrentium," 4 are titles fondly bestowed upon her in the days 
of her* imperial .glory; and she mery assume them without arro- 
gance even in her decline. Her mateblftss magnrftcencp, so far su- 
perior to that of every other capital; tlie lawsVbich have ema- 

» On the effects produced hj the discovery of the Pandects of Jnslinian, at Am^ljl/^ 
in the twelfth century, see Bume's Theory of England, chapter xxili. • * " 

On the general etfects of Roman domination on the proivincials, see Cot^efA. 
Expostulation, 

* , Ta regefelmperio popalos, Roraane, memento ; 

Hse Ubt erunt artes I pedsqne imponere morem^ 
I Batoere saMectls et debdlare su perbos.-^f trgti. jEn» tL 851. 

Baty BoDiie, 'tis thine alone, ^illi a wfal away, ^ . - ^ 

To rule dianblod, and make ll^e world obe;, 

Df^oslDg peace and \Var, thy own majestic way, - ' 

T« (aoSBtte prtad, the feti^r'd slave to Alee; ' '- ^ 

Thefie «re Imperial arts, «ad wortby tbee^-^DrfUkiu 

3 Tell the Romans, that it is the vill of the gods that my Rome should he tfte- 
capitar of the world.— JtMtt). i. W, 

4 The city of cities^-the tc^mple of justicd-rtibe refuge of all nations. 



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luted froin her atf front their source ; and tbe oncoari^emfenf ivftich'^ 
she has at all times gWen to men of talents and of virtae from 
etery country^ still give her an unqoestiQnaMe right to these l<>fty 
appellations. ' 

To conclude, in the whole Univ^se, there are only two cities in- 
lerestibg alike to every member of the great Christian common-^ 

^ wealth, to every cifizen of the civilized world, what&rer may be 
his tribe or nation-^Rome and Jerusalem. The former calls up 
every classic recollection, the latter awakens every sentiment of de- 
votion;'the one brings before our eyes all the splendors of the 
present world ; the other, aH the glories of the world to come. By 
asiogutar dispensation of Providence, the names and influence of 

. these two illustrious capitals are combined in the same grand dispe^-^ 
sation • and as Jerusalem was ordained to receive, Rome wals des- 
tined to propagate ^'the light that leads t,6 heaven." The cross 

. 1 "Nulli sit iligrata Roina," says Cassiodorus, in the^slx^h century, "Mia elo- 
qaentifi facutula inater, illud virtutum omnium latissimnm teinplam.*' 

l«et none be displeased with Rome, the mother of eloquence, the [uncoDfined 
temple of all the'virtnes. 

. " AJiis alia patriA est; Roma copamunis omnium literatorum et patria, et altrix, 
et eyectrix/* (Dilferent men have different countries; but of all learned men, 
Rome is the codimon parent, and nurse, and patroness.) says the Gardinall of St. 
George to Erasmus, in the sHxteenth century. " Quid loquor,"^ says the latter, " de 
R^mA, cokhpiuni omnium geptium parente." (Why do I speak of ,Rome, tte 
common p/ifent ef all nations?) . 

The benefits derived from the Roman government are tolerably well expressed 
IQ' the followtDg lines of Rutilius : 

Feelstt patriam.dlTersis genttbotfaoam ; 

Prorait injustis te domlijante capi ; 
Damque often <ftctls pfopril consortia Jaris' - 
' Urbem feclsU qaod piiiu brbis erat.^Llb. i). 

She for tbe nations, Tarlooa and dl^oln'd, 
A oomiboD country made ; th' oQnily tribes 
Were glad to be redat'd beneatb ber sway; 
To cooquer'd realms her oirn wise laws sbe gave, 
>Dd made one mighty City of the World. 

''Nnmlae Deftm electa/' says Pliny, "qun caelum ipsum elarlus faceret, sparsa 
congregaret imperia, ritusque moNlret, et tot populorum discordes ferasqne lin- 
guas, sermonis commercio contraheret ad colloquia, et humanitatem homini daret; 
breyiterque ima cunctarum gentium in toto orbe, patria fieret." ^at. tiist. iii. 
cap. V. 

At te, qno domitis leges, ac Jnra dedisti 

GeatlJ^Qs, iaatitnens magnns qua tenditnr orbts ^ , 

Armornm, moramque feros mansoefcere ritus. 

■ frMdenU contra Sym : 

Chosen by the gods to mal^e Heaven itself more clejotn to collect scattered em- 
pires into one, and to soften tbdr manners, and to unite by the iatercourse of one 
common speech, the discprdant and savage languages of s<yinany nations, and to 
hnmanfase mankind, and in a Vord to be the universal country 9t all the nations of 
tht^ world. . 

The nations that tby conqn'ring arms oonrest, 
By*thee with wisdom and with laws were blest ; 
In war« in peace, where'er Aran's race is found, 
Tbey grew less sarage, as thy^way they own'd. 

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Whiek Tmi9rieiii erected on Moant GalTary^ Ro*ie'find.OD Ihe 
diadem of emperors; and the proj^hetic songs of Mount Sioh have' 
resounded from the seve^ hills^ to the exiriemities of the eorth:^^ 
Hownataral then'is the emotion .pf the tri^yeiler, when he first b^-; 
holds the distant dom*es of a city pf such figure in the history of 
the UniTers<3, of such weightio the destinies of mankind, so familiar 
to. the imagination of the boy, so interesting to the feelings of the 
mani * 

While occupied in these Reflections, we passed Monte MariOf and 
beheld the dty gradually opening to oar Tiew: turrets and cupolas 
succeeded each other, with long lines of palaces between, (ill the 
dome of the Vatican Jifting its majestic form far ab6ve the reit, 
fixed the eye, and closed the scene with becoming grandeur. We : 
crossed the Tiber by the Monte Moileo (Pons Milyins, the Milyian 
bridge), and proceeding on the Via Flaminia (the Flaminian Way), 
through the suburb, entered the Porta deLPopolo, admired the* 
beautiful square that receives the traveller on his entrance, and 
drove to the Piaxza (T Espagna. Alighting, we instantly hastened ' 
to St. Peter's, traversed its superb court, contemplated in silence ' 
its obelisk, its fountains, its colonnade, walked up its lengthening f 
nave, and before its altar, offered up our grateful acknowledgments 
in ''the noblest temple that human skilt-ever raised'to tlie honor of 
the Creator." 

*Next morning we renewed our visit to $t. Peter^s, and' examined 
it more in detail : the preceding day it had been somewhat veiled 
by the dimness of the evening; it was now lighted up by the' 
splendors of the morning sun. The rich marbles that compose its 
pavement and line its walls, the paintings that adorn its capolas, the 
bronze that enriches its altars and railings, the gilding that lines 
the pannels of its vault, the mosaics that ri^e one above the other- 
in brilliant succession up its dome, shone forth in all their varied 
colors. Its tiave, its aisles, its transepts, expanded their vistas, and 
hailed the spectator, wherever he tqrned, with a long succession: 
of splendid objects, and beautiful arrangement; in short, the 
whole of this mo^t majestic fabric opened itself at once to the sight, 
and filled the eye and the imagination with magnitude, proportion, 
riches, and grandeur. 

From St. Peter's we hastened to the Capitol, and ascending the 
tower, seated ourselves' under the shade of its pinnacle, and fixed 
our. eyes on the view beneath and aroujad us. TJhat view was no 
other than ancient and modern Rome. Behind us, the modern 
town lay extended over the Campus Martins, and spreading along 
the banks of the Tiber formed a curve round the base of the Ca- 
pitol. Before us, scattered in vast black isbapeless masses over the 
seven hills, and through the intervening vallies, arose the ruiqs of 
the ancient city. They stood desolate, amidst solitude and silence, 
with groves of funereal cypress waving over them ; the a^ul mo-- 



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n« ciiiMCALTObR Cdir. x.^ 



I, BOi<of WHTM!«ab, bat ofgbmr0fm ; iioi of neo^ tun 

-Attisian^ view of JBgtna and of ^egdivsk^ pf the Pirceus anc) of 
GodrtChlbMi in tmnSy mehed tfce ^pul of [m ancient Boman, for % 
^bihr aoffiiended bis private s6rrows, and AMiorbed bi$ ^rutf) of 
perjonal affliccion, in )a awre expansive aAd generous compassioif. 
for the fate of diies and pf states. ' What tben odus^ be ibe eoioiioQA 
of the man who beholds extended in disordered heaps before bii% 
the disjointed i' carcase of faihm Rooie/^oiiee the abode of ihd 
sods, the grand receptacle of oattoas» ''the oomoioa acfyliim of 
mankind r' ' 

Iminediately under our eyea^ and^t the foot of the Capitol, lay 
the Forum lined with solitary columns^ and ierminated at each endh 
bjr a triumphal arch. Beyokid and just before us, rose the Palatini 
Mount eneumrbered wjib the 8ift>siroction8 of the Imperial Palaos^ 
and of the Temple of Apollo ; and farther on, ascended the Celian 
M^nnt wttb tfae Temple of Faunus on its summit. On the right wiui 
tHe-Avendae spotted witli heaps of stone swelling amidst its lonely 
Tineyardsl To the left the Esquiltne with its scattered tomtw and| 
tottering aqiieduaar and in the same Une, the Vimina^and thd 
Qanrinal supporting the once ^magnificent Baths of Diocletian. The^ 
Baths of Antoainiis, the Temple of Minerva, and maay a venerable 
fabric bearing on its shattered form the traces of destruction, as 
well as the f^ro^ of age, lay scattered up and down the vast 
fiiidr wiiile ihe superb temples of Su John Lateran. Santa Maria 
Mofgwire^ and SMia Croee, arose with their pointed obelisks, m%r 
jestic biat solitai^ aaOfiwyienu, amidst the extensive waste of tioie 
and of ^esolattoa. The ancient walls, a vast circumference, formei^ 
a frame of venei^a|)1e aspect, well adapted to t^ picture* of ruii^ 
this cemetery of ages, ** Hmiani buiium popuU:** 

Beyond the walte the eye ranged over the storied^plain of Latiam, 
now the desefted Can»paMa, and rested on tfae ji|ban Mount, wbic^ 
rose before us 10 tbe soutp shelving downwards on the west towards 

> ^'Ex Asia rediefis, earn ab ^glna Megaram venus navigarem, coepi regfones 
dccttvcirca prospioena. ^ost me erat iE^gina, ante Megara, deitra'Pirsus, sinis-' 
tra GoriDihQS ; qiis oppida quodam tempore florcntissima TQenmt, mine prostrate 
kc diruta ante oculos Jacent. C«pi egomet mecum sic cogltere. Hem 1 dos ho* 
muncttli iMlgnaiiiut, fl qirts nostrum interUl, aut occtsus est» quorum vita lurevior 
etM debe^ «um udo loco tot oppidum cadavera projecia jaceant?"— Ctc. dd Fam. 
lib. iv.Ep«&l ' 

"Oq my return fr6m Asia, as I sailed from £gina towards Megart, I began la 
eiaiDine the nfgioDB arbandme. Behind me was iBgina. before neJ^egaim, tui 
ny right hand tbe ^irspa, on my left Gorintb, aU which towns were formerly ii| 
tli9 highest degree flourisblog, but now lie before my eyes pr^^strate'and in ruins. 
I began thus to commune with myself. How? shall we, poor mortals, be indli(- 
nant if pue of us dies, or fs )slaiD, when our lives ought ratherlo be shorter ihio 
they are, sintd the ekeleioM eif so nany towns Ite prostrate and MgljortNi' oa^aap^ 
spotr . . ^' -: . ' f 

• ^ lbs «9P«1<^ 9^^ Eoman people* 



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Giiiuir. X. ffittO Wfi iTAiir. mi 

Antium and thd Tyrrhene sea, knd^on tbe ea^t tows^rdd the Latiii 
Tale. Here, it presents Tuscalum in white lines on its decli?ity ; 
there, it exhibits the long ridge that overhangs its lake once the site 
of Alba Longa, and towering boldly in the centre with a hundred 
towns and villas on its sides, it ternHnates in a point once CfQWff^d 
with the triumphal tempfe of Jupiter Latialis. Xurn^ng ejistwarcl yf% 
behold, the Tiburtine hills, with Tibur reclining on ^heir s'i^e; ai|4 
behind, still more to theeast, the Sab}qe mountains enclo9ed |;>; t1fm 
Apennines, which at the varying ilis42|nce of froip forty to six^ 
miles swept round to the east aind north, forming an inimense afi4 
bold boundary of snow. The Montes Cimini (the Qiinihian Moud-^ 
tains), and several lesser (lUls, diverging from the great pai'eni 
ridge the Pater Apenninus (Father Apennine), continue the chaibpi/ 
till it nearly reaches the sea and forms a perfect theatre. Motmt 
Sora(;te thirty miles to the norths lifts htSrhead, an in$i|1ated and 
striking feature. While the Tiber enriched'bynumbtrless rivers 
and streamlets, intersects the Immense plafn; and biithing the 
temples and palaces of Rome, foils like tlrc po a current unex- 
hausted even during the scorching heats ofsummer. 

The tract now expanded before us was the country of the Etru^ 
rians, Veientes, Rutuli, FalisOt, Lathis, Sabtees, Volsci, iEqui, and 
Hernici, and of Course the scene of the wars and the exertions, of 
the victories and the triumphs of infant Rome, during a period of 
nearty four hundred years qf her history ; an intei^estin^ period, 
when she possessed an^ exercised every generous virtue, and estrf- 
Mished on the basis of justice, wisdom, and fortitude, the foundi^ 
tions of her future empire. As the traveller looks towards the rt^' 
gions once inhabited by these well-known tribes, many an iHustriow 
namje, and many a noble achievement, must rise in his memory, 
reviving at the sai&e time the recoHection of early stddiei f '^^^f 
boyish amusements, and blending the friendships of youtkwitft |n0 
mmioriais of ancient greatness. 

• The day was cloudless, the beams of the sun played over tlNT 
landscape ; hues of light bine intermingled with dark shades deepen* 
io^ as they retired, chequered the mountains. A Hne of shining 
snow marked the distant Apennines, and a vault of the purest ^a4 
brightest azure covered the glorious scene ! We passed a long 
and delightful morning in its contemplation. 

Th* following day was employed in wandering over the city at 
Iftrge, and taking a cursory view of some of its principal streets^ 

squares, buikKngs and monuments. This we did to satisfy tii# 
first cravings of curiosity, intending to proceed at our leBure m 
the examination of each object in detail.* 

» I think it necessary to repeat liere, what I declared to fte preliminary dis- 
course, tliat it is not my intention to give a particular account, of ruins, churebes, 
buildings, statues, or pictures, etc. This belongs rather to snides and Cieerom, 
and may be found in iH|mb«r»s8 irorks written f rofessedl^ tor the tofonasttwi flf 



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ANCIENT ROME, 

' • THE CAPITOL. 

After having thus gratified ourselves with a general and some ;se- 
l^t Tiews, and formed a tolerably accurate idea of the mpst striking 
features of Rome, we proceeded on the fourth day, through the 
"Via Lata (the^ Broad Way), now // Cor^, through "streets of pa- 
lafces and w^lks of state/' io the Capitoline Hill. Every school- 
boy has read with delight Virgil's short, but splendid description of 
this hill, then a silvan scene of dark forest and craggy rock, though 
destined one day to become the seat of regal opulence and of uni- 
versal empire. 

' Hiric ad Tarpeiam sedem, et Gapitofia dticit, 

Aarea none, olim sylvestribus horrida damts. 
Jam tain religiD pavidos teirr ei>at ^grestes 
Bira loci : jam turn sylvam saxumque tcf mebant. ' , 
Hoc nemus, tiuoc, inquit.n-ondoso vertlce coItBm, 
(Quis Deas, incertcim est) habitat Beus. Arcades ipsum 
GreduDt 86 Yidlsse Jovem^ cum Effipe Digfantem 
JEgida cDBcuteret d^xtra, nimbosgoe cieret.t 

• - jSSneid. viii. 347. ^ 

J^very circumstance tliat could dignify ^nd consecrate the spot, 
and prepare it for its grand destiny, is here collected and gradually 
ejipanded; while a certain awful obscurity hangs over the whole, 
and augments the magnitude of the object thus dimly presented to 
the fancy. The traveller, however sensible he may suppose bim^. 

travellers on sach heads. My vish is to lay before the reader i^n aceonnt of the 
qb^ervations which We made, and ^f the classical recollectionis *which occurred to 
US, while we traced the remains of ancient grandeur, We began this examination 
by visiting in order the seven hills. \ye then proceeded to tfa^ Vatican and Pin- 
daik m^nts, ranged over the Campus Martins, iind along the baokaof the Tiber; 
tlieii Vandered through the villas, both within and without the city; and finally 
explored the churches, monuments, tombs, hills, and fields, in its immediate^oeigh- 
borhood. l^his method I recommend as being more easy and more natural than 
the usual mode of yisiting the city, according to its **RiQm'* (regiones) or allotting 
a cei^ain.^rtion of it to each day ; by which mode the traveller is obliged to pasa 
rapidly from ancient monuments to modern edifices; from palaces to «hurcbes; 
from galleries to gardens; and. thus to load his mind with a heap of unconnected 
ideas And crude observations, By the former process werkeep each object dllitinct, 
and, take it in a separate view ; we first contemplate ancient then visl» nK>der« 
fL9tnt, and pass from the palacas of the profane, to the temples of (he sacred city« 

*' ~ • Tbence (o tbJe sfeeptarpeUn rocfc he leads, 

Movr roord with gold ; then thatch'd with homely reeds. . 
^A reT'rent fear (such superstition reigns 
Among the rude ) ev'n then possesi the swains. 
Some God, they knew, what God, they coald not teil, 
, Bid tbe^ amidst the sacred horror dwell. 
Th' Arcadians thought him Jove, and said they saw 
' ' The mighty^Tband'rer with majestic awe, 

f* 4. . I'^botfhookbM Shield, and^ealt his bolts aroaad, , , (^ 

And scattered tempests on tb« f^emiiiilt grouQd.*-0rir^, 



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OUT.X. tTHKOUOH AALY. m 

9^ to fattre leea of th^ beMties ot ttite deHcti^ttf! before, iM^ 
giries that he feels its foil forc^e for the first tki(ie as Ixe asci^ffd» the 
acc]itity of the Gapitoline Mount. • ;: 

The Capitol was anciently both a fortress and a sandtaary^ A 
fortress snrroonded with precipices, bMdiDg defiance to M tide 
meftns of attack eoplpyed in ancient times ; a sanetnary, crowded 
with altars and temples, the repository of the faial oracles, tife 
fies^t of the tutelar deities of the empire. Romulus began the gr^M 
work, by erecting the' temple of Jupiter feretrids 5 Tarqainias Prii- 
cus, Servius Tullios, and TarquibiuS Superbus continued, and'tlie 
Consul Horatius PulvJllus, a few years after the expulsion of tHe 
kings, eomi^eted it, w^ith a solidity and magnificence, says Tacitus^ 
which the riches of succeeding ages might adorn, but coiiM not 
increase. . K was burnt dut^dg the ciTil wars between Harins aflfl 
Sylla, and tdbUiU'Shortly after; but again destroyed by fire in the 
drdaidfol cdniest that tpo^k place in the very forum itself, and 6n 
the sides of die GapffTDUne Mount, between the partisans of Yitelliiiff 
and Vespasian.' This event Tacitus laments, with the spirit and 
indignatiotf of a Roman, as the greatest disaster that, had e^erbe^ 
fiill6H the city.> And, indeed, if We consider that the pubfic ai^ 
dUves, and of course the most valuable records' of its histerjr' wero 
dcfposited th^e, we must allow that the catastrophe was peotfiariy 
.onfortunate, not to Rome ^nly, but to (he world at large* i^ 

•' However^ thb Capitol rose oftce more from its ashes, with riff- 
-doubleld splendor, and received from the munificence Of Yesfp^^ 
sian, and of Domitian his son, its last and most glorious embellisfr- 
m^nts. The edifices were probably in site and destination nearly , 
the^^ame^aii before the confiagratipn ; but more attention was paid 
to symmetry, to costHness, and above iall, to grandedr and Dla^'tkY- 
ifceqce. The northerh mfance led under a tri^i^aphal arcirto 
nbe centre of Ihe hiir, and to the saici^ed grove tihe asylum opened 
'by Romulus, and almost the cradle of Roman pow^. On the right 
on the eastern summit stood the temple of Jupiter Feretrius. On 
the left on the western summit, was that of Jupiter'*Giist03 (Jupiter 

■*'A. D.SS. '■ • ' 

« Id facinus post conditam Ufbem labtuosissimcnn foKdissimumqae populp R(h 
mano acddit : nullo eiterno lioste, propitiis, g^ per rapres nostros liceret, dUf » 
sedem Joyis, Jovis optimi maxiibi, auspicato a majcMribu^ pignus imperii, conditanir 
qaam noh Porsena deditii Urbe, neqae Galll eapta, tamerare potuissent* ftirore 
PiiDcipum exscindi ! 

^'Ttiat was the mest lamentable and most disgraceftil disaster tbat ever hap« 
pened tp the Roman people since the t^uilding of the city : that the temple of 
Jupiter, the Great and Good, that pledge of oar empire, which was built by our 
'tnceMors ander the happiest auspices;, which neither Porsena^ad bean able to. 
•violate wlien the city was surrendered, nor the Gauls when itwa^t^eoi >shl»tilU 
he destroyed, not by a foreign enemy, but by the fury of out own diiefa, whlU^M 
•enjoyed, if indeeid our cornipt mannerf would permitaa<to^eii|oy»'4lwf«iroir ttod 
protecttoBoftheGods." ^ .....:, m..«»h> 



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4w ajMiciLtmm a^miL 



}riorPivini(i«9> ihaio^FortuDe,.aDd that of Fides (Fidelity) aIliKk# 
to bj Cicero. Id the midst, to crown the pyramid foroied by iQ$^ 
fn p^Si^oiblage of majestic edific^ rose the residence Of the gqar- . 
dlijaa pf the empire, the temple of Jupiter .Capitolinns, oaa liuadreft 
f)epa^ supported by a hundred pillars, adorned with ail the refioer- 
pents of art, ^jad blazing with ihe plunder of the world. In Ihe . 
fj^tre of the lemple, with Juno on his left, and. Minerra on his 
|i^t side^ the Thunderer sat on a throbe of gold, grasping thte 
^ghtning id one band, and in the other wielding the sceptre of die 

^, Qither the consuls. were cond^icted by the sepate, to aflapipe^tbe 
,9)ili(airy dress, a^d to implpra the fayor of ih^ god» before idief 
m^rcbed to battle. Hither tfae,Tictoqoi^*gep6ra)fi.u9ed to repur 
IfftriitMnph, ia order to suspend the sipolls of eQnqujdved nationft* 
:» ,pre»Bn^,capfi4ve monarclis, aqd to offer up h?Q9tMibs ta tae^ 
f/tim Joy0* Here, in cases of daoe^r aud qistro^s, (be aetoate wte 
f})l^fi4>)^d| fp4 ^ magistra^iS' convened to ,deliberftfiQ jn the ^r%- 
4|ft9«KV ^nd pnder the iainiediate influence, qf tbe^ t^eiar godft^iif 
J^mKii^H^P the lavs >6ra exhibited to public ii)ifp«piiw,.,^|ifi.:if 
Had^c {}^ san9^0R.of the, Divinity^ and here also 4iey ^er^ d^^ 

fHe^uM, ifLiP^f^Wted t^'bis gciardi^n €are. Hither Cioero tttxpOi 
lis hands ^d eyes^ wh^Q he closed his first oi^^tiqa^gainat €aMllil(l» 
w^h t;^t A9ble address to. Jupit^c, presiding in ih^ Capitol e^er 
ime d^tiiiie^ o^ the empii^, apd dooming its enemies ^ dcfi^tmer 

iWfr. .1.: i." '; • u ., ■ . i ... '. ■ ; ' 

,i,|[atb^ midst of.thes^ posignificenf ptructareft, pf thii9 ^^omierffll 
S^jflpipK of ^rt find (^pi^ence, j^tpodjlbr ages the huml^le str^wr 
^pof^tp^ldce of Bomujus^ a jmonufpent of primitive ^wpjicity d^r 
|^4i yen^ra^ iaihe eyes of ,th^ Romans. ^^ Xht^c^tf9Se,:it v^ 
if»fui\|;,be sii£pQsp4, .yanishedJn the first: conflagratfon. jJBiitjiiit 
fl^eeptt^gpionly^^he temples, the tower;s/tb&palacea i^l^ that onm 

.J. ^JUro pranks tD'.QvId, aff^foliows : 

Qned f&erlt noetrt si qjumttls regla naCi ; 
Adsptce de canna stramlQibiuqtte domom. 

lo stipaM piacldi carpeiMt mauera wmnl : ..' ' ' 

^ _ ,^ . a>taiQm>^Ub>TeAUIiiaairatoro.--^t;<tfrFafi«Iib.Ui^,T.I8;^ 

, ..;•.!• $fl[^'at UapHlbepafaMeormyoobitf-borl 

.Lot b|iiU ot reeds and straw hb low abode ; 

^ ■ ' * ' • OtfsiraW b&lay, sleep's bfcfislogs 16 enjoy: 

' ,..:..' .Jalibalil«miisdrdtoBwT*Bliia8UlMolifrMd. 
Bomatooqae rdcens borrebat regia caimo. 
^ F/r.^rtetd.Lib.TiU,?.e54. 

. , V J. .. 1 ! I J. • • ' - 

t. Tbea.Rome was poor, and there yoamigbtbebold 
' ^be palace, thatch'd witb straw* Bryi^i, 

. 3 irttruvtw flpetftsof ibe cattage of Boiaa}a8 as «Ki8tin#^in his time, ttet to, la tin 
INigll,ori4xi0Q«Mls. Id CapHpllo eommune faeere potest et slgoificare boras y^ 
rtiia|ftll9.'il9iKiuti casa te arce sautorum.— tt^. U. - 

iij}*Vte>iC«ltaaao^ AcmuawlQ tbe Gapifot poinU out to us, and nakat viae* 

futUited witb tbe manoers of antiquity." 



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MftiMuijed irliaT#^}l^«ppeare4* OF all th« diiGieiHt«lQr)r, of ^i» 
Ctpitoi,<fM)ihiB9nowreiiiaii\& bat the solid fouadatiooi itad > Taj^ 
jtahsimotioos raised ob the rock, 

CapHoi immobile laxam,* 

Not only is the Capitol fallen, but its very name^ exprej^fsiveof do*» 

mpi<^t and once fopdly .^qnsidere^ as an omen of empire, is how 

idnipst lost in the semi^baj^barqus, appellation of Campidoglio. 

y'M present the Capitoline Moont is covered with :buiidings> far 

^$rjor» wiUioi^t doubt, ^o the imperial edifices above described, 

IPM. Jf^ gra^d both in their prctportions and in their niagnitude. 

tFb9 QP^iJhera, still theprinqipal entrance^ is an easy ascent adorned 

wA.^ qyarble balustrade, which commepces bebw. ,yith two cq- 

]|li#«al,^on€y»se6 qi Egypijao porphyry, ponriqg a torrebf of ^atcor 

>teto^#paciouii^ basins of. iD^rble, and is teroiinated ab0X9 uysta- 

iQf«,.crf£asti^ja|i|^ Toliui:, each holdini; h\s liorseu^. Ber^, ypu 

:Mtfr;tfa0.SQ»9r9^ inl.ijhe.ceiirt'^ of which si{to(Mi ihe ,wefi,-Tlnpwn 

.jl^^iriafii i^ti^ti^e of Marcus A\irelius. ja, front, aod.dp.eac]^ iid^, 

wefilirp^ .P!«^laQe^ fleeted by Michael Ang^lo. ;i^he edifiqe befpre 

•ilM^ ^f Md el^v^tJOA» adorned with Corintlfian jpilaster^ an4,wi^h 

aJafW Miw^vip Abe residence of tije ;sepat<ir. A.<ipuble fii^l^9f 

»Arbl^ s^ep^lpa^s to i^s porta). la the frofj^ of thi3-|^i|;c4£^e ^ifs 

«h9ii||€inius Of Monie, like ^(ijervaaritted -wj^b tbe-Jlg^^^ 

jug qn h^r sp^ar. The dra^pery is porphyry, the ft^s^ warble. 

A foiiQtain bursts forth at her feet. On h^r right the Ti|)e^^,Cin H^r 

MPt thQ Nile lay reclined, each on its.uro.; Tb^ Frejlchl^ye.car- 

fied off the two latter statues,^ with spo^e Other brnaments of tbe 

fi^fpitvOlioe square. In the |p;alace of the ^enatof^ and ^^t^t^of t^e 

/^afia^rtMit^i, af e seyeral halls and apartments, magQij^p^nt m th^pr 

aiz^and deooratU^ns. . . , ,,; ..!J, .. \j j 

' The Capital is the nominal palaQe pj^ the Eomah.ped^, the sielat 

f^ thfir pow^, ^ the residence of their magj^^raioff^ .^Jlies^- 

laes and other fntiques placed hpre by the, p<^es«. are (dedicated 

in the names of the donors to the Roman people,. an4. the inacrip- 

jtions in pei\efal ruojn the ai)^eut style* One in %\m palace of the 

-:C<>l^rvateri pl^ascjd me «aucb, : '\S. P. Q. JSL nfjfmim ««wruf« 

' §f(/sstmiimn tu^mma m re,^^a1^vm licuit, mUaiiis^ dfformatum m-* 

. ^ Tbese vd« mztmb Ade fpi nt the sublea U the ,Scguit«i!w «id mi t}ierft^r. a 
dark gloomy cbapol, f»ld to Ivays beei) origloaUy the TuUiannm, in ivbiph <^ati- 
llne's associates vere eHt to death. The criminal was letdown into this dppgfon 
By a hole In the vaalt, as there was anciently no other entrance; the modern door 
was openM through the side wall, when the place was converted into a chapel, in 
ho^ftf of St» PetfM;. who is apposed tq have k)een confined in )t. J(pt\ritb«Un(lin9 
the change, it lias still a most appalling appearaacev . . , 

' These two statues are now restored to tliehr place, 



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4* Classical T*wi Caa^iL*. 

'jlUn&tenipof%ni 6apitoliumreitHt6t; ttnnojMsiurbim condHw/k SSSfk^hf 
Nbr is itumrortby' of its Bestkiationr; as the besiutjr of itfe arehi^ 
tecture^ the magnitade of its apartments, the exCeAlettce oiF its paitif^ 
iDgs, aind the prodigious number of statues and antiques with 
which it is decorated, give it ^ splendot* unequalled in any other 
city, and only eclipsed even in Rome itsdf^by the recollectiod of 
its former greatness. 

• The Museum Capitolinutn contains in several large rooms a most 
splendid collection of bu§ts, statues; sarcophagi, etc. bestowed by 
(different pope^ and illustrious personages on this magnificent ca- 
^binet devoted to the use of the Roman people, or ratheir of the 
literary and curioilS of all nations. One of the most interesting 
objects ia this collection i^ &n ancient plan cIlF Rome cut inittarble, 
oncethe pavendent ora temple in the Fonim, and: thence trans- 
ferred to the Capitol, wfaeire it lines the, w^lls of one of the graad 
staircases of. the Museum. Btit unforfimatelyit is not entire; if it 
w^re, ^e should have had a' most perfect *p!an of ancient' Rome, 
tie streets; Vfortuns^, temples, etc.. being fnai4^ed ont in themfost 
• distidt^ manner. There are, moreover, in the' palace of t&e Ceh- 
gervatori, galleries of paintings, and halls appropriated to Ibe me 
. of yoiing artists, where lectures are given, and drawingjr tdken 
from life; premiums^ are also bestowed publicly in the grand bldl 
in ibe Senator's palace. In short, the Capitol is now coiisecratet, 
^tiot tb the tutelar gods of itome, but to her arts, to the remaittil ^f 
'iier grahdeur, to the mohumentii of her genius, and, I may add, 
't6 tier titles, now the mere sembfance of her ancient liberty. - 
;i(t4s to be regretted that the highest and most conspicuous ptkt 
of .,tiie (lapitoline Mount should be occupied by a building so* tasce- 
^lei5?f^and d^^ as the church and convcfnf t:>f ^rft Ccelu The 

' ascent trbtii the plain below, by an hundred abd'^ twenty-four miur- 
ble steps, deserves a ))etter termination thanf its miserable portal ; 
^ftiA th^'^aricius ancient pillars of Egyptian granite; that^dorn the 
' mve of the dliurtih and the 'portico of the cloister^, fhrnisfa a snf- 
^ ficietit (iu'antity^ dF;the'best mateirials fbr the erectron and decoratton 
" of a Very no We edifice. 

Anciently there were two ways from the Capitollotbe F6rum; 
' both parted from the neighborhood^ of the Tabulariuin,' and di- 
' Verging as they descended, terminated^ each in a trium^al arck; 
that of Tiberius to the west, that of Severus to the east. Of these 
2 arches^ the latter only remains. The two des^eoto "are 8to6p;and 
' at present without any regular terminations. ' The trftV^teir' as fce 
.^descends, litops tp poniemplata the thre^ Cdrii^ihian pillars, \^iUi 
-'« ' • -.',.. "... '■ ' . ."." '.. . '. '" 

^ > The senate and people of Rome, imitating the virtues oT ttfeir.aticestors, dot 
only in spirit, but as far as ctrcumstaBces peritiitted, in their actions; restored the 
Capitol, defaoed by HievJi^iiries of time, in tbe itSH^lOk^yut of the buildiDg of the 



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Cgt$». XL TBROUaH ITALY. i6f 

their frieze and comice^ tbat rise ^bve the mini, and preserve 
the mettiory of the temple of Japiter Tonans, * erected by; Augus- 
tus, as a monument of his preservation from a thunderbolt that 
fell near hini« A little lower down 6n the right, stands the portico 
of the temple of Concord, built by Camillus, consisting of eight 
granite pillars, with capitals and enfabtdtufe of irregtitar Ionic. • 
To account for this irregularity, it is to be' remembered, that the 
edifices on the sides of the bill shared ^he fate of the Capitol, in the 
contest which took place between the parties of Vespasian and Yir 
telliujft, and were rebuilt shortly after by Titus and ^Domitian, and 
afterwards by Constantine. Hence. the word *^ regtituium'^ (re-' 
stbred) in the inscription, and henee die want of regularity in some 
parts of such buildings as were monuments of republican Ronie,* 
and did hot, perhaps, enjoy the JFavor of the emperors. The trium* 
phal arch of Sej^timos Severus is nearly half i)uried in the ground. 



, CHAPTER XL 

The Roman Forum— Coliseum— Palatioe Moont-^AYentine— Tomb <Qt G. €eitliMi 
— Goelian— Saburra— Es^uiline— Batbs of Titus—Minerja Biedica^-Palaoe of 
Maecenas— Yiminal—Quirinal— Baths of Dioclesian. ' 

The Roman Forum now lay extended before us, a scene in tlie 
ages of Roman greatness of unparalleled splendor and magnificence. 
It was bordered on both sides with temples, and lined with statues. 
It terminated in triumphal arqhes, and was bounded here by the Pa-, 
latino hill, with the Imperial residence glittering on its summit, and 
there by the Capitol, with its ascending ranges of porlicbl^ and of 
temples. Thus it presented one of the richest exhibitions that eyes 
could behold, or human ingenuity invent. In the mids^t of these su-[ 
perb mon,umcnts, the memorials of their greatness, and the trophies , 
of their fathers, the Roman people assembled to exercise their sove- ' 
reign power, and to decide the fates ofEeroes, of Kings, and of nations. ' 

Nor did the contemplation of such glorious objects fail to pro- * 
doee a corresponding effect. Manlius, as long as he could extend 
his arm, and fix the attention of the people on the Capitol which ;he 
had saved, suspended his fatal seiitence. ' Caius Gracchus mdieiii' 
the hearts of his audience,, when in the moment of distress he 
pointed to the Capitol, and asked with all the en^hasis of despair, 
whether he could expect to find an asylum in that sanctuary whose 

* Jupiter the Thunderer. , ,..>,»•, ...... i 

' The cella of the real temple of Goncocd has beep «Uice excarated. 
^ Liy. Yi. 20. 

I. U 



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VH^ CLASSICAL tODR CHA».|tt 

ypQCHEl^ ll'fl ^treain^d. with the Uood of his brother. « Scipio 
A|ri(^Qu^t( whea ^ccuse4 bj an envious (actton^ and obliged to 
WfjB£^r befotre ^e people ^ a criminal , instead of answering the 
^fSap ^r^^4 ^ ^,^^ Capi^Ql, and invited ihe assemblf to accotn- 

Siny him to the temple of JiifMter, and give thanks to the gods for 
c; ^fj|fej)t 0/ Annilpiai and the Carthaginians. > Sach, in fact, was the 
ipQuenqe of locality, and such the awe» interest, anil even emoMo^; 
inspire^ )fjf tj^e surrounding edifices. Hence the frequent re£e^ 
C^cea t^%t we ^d in t)i^ Roman historians arid orators to tho 
f^P^tolft ^.9 fotna^, th^ temples of the gods ; and henee tho^e no- 
bMl.sd^rj^j^QS to the deities themselves, as present in their rcH 
fj^ec^ive s^nctoaries, and watching over the interests of their favored 
citj ; *^ if^prasserUes. kii temptmbus opem el a^xHiunl nabii tulerunt^ 
ta.^,p^e oculikvuter^ po$$mm,'' ^ 

^ the gjori^ of th^ V6vim are new Sed for .ever; its iemt>Ie4 
are fellen; its sanctuaries have crumbled into dust; its colonnades 
encumber its parements now buried under their remains. The 
w^Us of the Rostra stripped of their ornaments and doomed to 
eternd silence, a few shattered porticos, and here and there an 
insulated column standing in the midst of broken shafts. Vast frag- 
ments of marble capitals and cornices heaped together in masses^ 
remind the traveller, that the field which he now traverses, was 
onoe the lotean Forum. 

' A fbuntalh fi^Is a marble basin in the middle, th^ same possibjiy' 
to which PropQi'tius alludes when speaking of the Forum in the 
tune of Tatiua he says,^ 

Jfnnis erant montes, abi Dunc est Curia septa, 
Bellipus.ez iilo f«iite bibebat equiis.4— Xib. iv. i. 

Xl|tUe( farther^ on commences a double ra^ge of u*ee& that leads 
ajph^ff the Tiabacrii (the Saci;ecl Way) by the teinples/of Antoninus 
ajicl of J^eace to the arch of Titus. A heiid^wn sej^ted oii a pe- 
destal while his. oxen were di:ipkiQg at fhe fountain, and a few pas- 
S|.nger$. mpviiig at a distance in different directipns, were tl^e onlj 
hYip^ beings tnat disturli^ed the silence and solitude which rc^gn^d 
arouQ(Cl» Thus the place, seemed restored to its original wildness 
described by Virgil,^ and abandoned once nibre to flocks and, herds 

t-'dic. be Orat. lib. ili. cap. 56. •» Liv. xxxviii. 51. 

9 lo tlwse times they have been so manifestly present, affording as succour ■ 
aoil. attiftancs, that we can almost see them with oar eyes. Cic. in Cat. Or. iii. S. 

4 ITIMM now tbe Caria U eoclos'd,^ 

The hills a Batlie fi^Ui composed : 
And there a gashing foantdin burst, 
, ^ j^whichthewar.iiqr64{<i«efipIijll4«>||^U. ^ 

Aatbis fountain is near the three pillars, which have opclisioned so much discos- 
0IOI1, we^niaydraw a presumptive argument from these ver«es, that they forme4 
part af the Curia. k 

9 11 ■ pagrimqne armento Ttaebant 

Jtomanoqoe foco et lanUs muglre carluUrf-nAi. Till. 30f • 



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163 



1^ 



€hap. XI. THROUGH rrALY. 

of cattfe. So^fiur have i^e modern Romans forgotten the tbeatrp 
of the glory and of the imperial power of ihefr ancestors, as to 
degrade it into a common market for cattle, and siqk its name il- 
lustrated by every page of Roman hisiory into the con^emptibJo 
appellation of Campo Vaccino (the Cbif Market)', 

Proceeding along the Via Sacra artd passirtg under the. arch of' 
Titus, on turning a little to the left, we beheld the amphitheatre of 
f espasian and Titus, now called the Colisfeum. Never di^ human, 
art present to the eye a fabric so well calculated, by its size and 
form, to surprise and delight. Let the spectator first place himself 
fo-the north and contemplate that side which denredatioh, bar- 
barism, and ages have spared ; he will behold with admiration, itn 
wonderful extent, well-proportioned stories and flying liiieft^^ tbtt 
retire and' vanish without break or interruption, ' Next let him 
turn to the south, and examine those stupendous archs, whiQh^ 
stripped as they are of their external decorations, still astopisb ag 
by their solidity and duration. Then let him enter, range tfer^ugt 
the lofty arcad.es, and ascending the- vaulted seat?, cbnsid^r the 
vast mass of ruin that surrounds him ; insulated walls, imBciense 
stonies suspended in the air, arches covered with weeds and shrubs 
v^olts opening upon other ruins; in short, above, below,' arid 
around, one vast collectfen of magnfficence and devastation, of 
grandeur and of decay.' ' ' " . 

Need I inform the reader that this stupendous ferric,. 

«' Which on itft pubtk; shows unpeopled Rome," ' 
And held uncrowded nations in its womh," 

f » * ■ 

was erected by the abovcrmentioned e^mperor^, outtof ffiin,mU. 
of the ipaterials, and on a portion of the i|ite of NefO'^ eoldm 
lu)use^ which bad been demolished by order of Vespasi^iiy-as too 
sumptuous even for a Roman emperor. 

They Tiew'd (he ground oMlome'8 litipioustwH; 
Once oxen low'd, where now the lawyers bawl, 

.1 Martial prefers, perhaps with justice, this amphitheatre to all the prodigies of 
arcliitecture khown in bis time. ' . . .. 

Barbara PyramkkiiD sileal; mtriicala MetnpUi : . * • 

Assiduus jactet nee Babylona labor ; . . . . 
Nee Trtriffi tetnpio mdlles laudentur lonts>; ... 

>I>is6imuleU)4ie deumcfrnibusarafrequeos ^ 
Aere nee vacuo peudehtia Mausolea 

Laudibva Immodicis Qares in astrajeraot. ' .-^ ' 

OmoirCffl«areo cedat labor amphitbeatro 
Dnam pro cnnctis fama lo^aatur opU8.<^l>e iBpeeU EpYg. ft 
Wtayahig the wonder; oTtb* Egyptian 8ttor«i . * 

Let far-fam'd Babylon be praised no more . / . . 
^ I,et not Ionia yannt Diana's fane ; « 

. v " f 

Kor Itl the Carian town extol so high 

Its MadSoIenm,'hangtng in the flky, 

Ip Caesar's amphitheatre are sliown 

' l^ese rlVs^ glories all combinM In one ; 

Let Fame lieBcefoiJlli her clamrooH tongotcooOae. * ^, > ' 
70 cloflftbe bMttties Of tbat dome divine. 



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iU . CLASSICAL tOtR Ciup. %h 

The Golifieom owing to the solidity of its materiak, siirTived the 
era of barbkrisioKi, 9nd was so perfect in the thirteenth century,. that 
games were exhibited in it, not for the amusement of the Romans 
©hly , but of all the nobility of Italy. The destruction of this won- 
derful fabric is to be ascribed to causes more active in general in 
the erection than in the demolition 6l magnificent buildings — to 
Taste and Vanity. 

When Rome began to revive, and architecture arose from ita, 
niins, every rich arid powerful citizen wished to have, not a com- 
modious dwelling merely, but a palace. The Coliseum was an im* 
mense quarty at hand ; the common people stole, the grandees ob- 
tained permission to carry off its materials, till the interior waa 
dismantled, and the extiBrior half stripped of its ornaments. It is 
difficult to say where this system of depredation so sacrilegious in 
th^opinion of the antiquary, would have stopped,, had not Bene- 
dict XIV, a pontiff of great judgment, erected a cross in the centre 
of the arena, and declared the place Sacred,, out of respect to the 
blooi of the many marXyrs who were butchered there during the 
persecutions. This declaration, if issued two or three centuries 
agd, would have preserved the Coliseum entire ; it can now oi|ly 
protect i^s remains, anjd transmit them in their present state to pos- 
terity. . / 

VK^e next returned to the Meta Sudans and passed under the 
aroh of Constantine. I need, not give a description of this species 
of edifice so well known to the reader; it will suffice to say, that 
the arch of Constantine is the only onq that remains entire, with its 
pillars, statues, and basso relietos, all of the most beautiful mar- 
ble, and some of exquisite workmanship. They wore taken from 
the arch of Trajan, which, it seems, was stripped, or probably de- 
molished, by order of the senate, for that purpose. It did not 
occur to them, it seems, that the achievements of Trajan and his 
conquests in Dacia, could have no coniiexion with the exertions of 
Constantine in Britain, or with his victory over the tyrant Maxen- 
tius.. But taste was then o<i the decline, and propriety of ornament 
not alway^s consulted. 

We then as^oended the Palatine Mount, after having walked round 
its base in order to e;Kamine its bearings. This hill, the nursery of 
infant Rome, and finally the residence of imperial grandeur, pre- 
sents BOW two solitary villas and a convent, with their deserted 
gardens and vineyards. ^Its numerous temples, its palaces, its por- 
ticps and its libraries, once the glory of Rome, and the admiration 
of the universe, are how mere heaps of ruins, so shapeless and 
scattered, that the^antiquary and architect are. at a loss to discover 
th^ir site, their plans, arid their elevation. Of that wing of the im- 
perial palace,. which looked to the west, and on'the Circus Maximus, 
Bome apartments remain Taulted and of fine proportions^ but so 
deeply buried in ruins, ais to be now subterrauean,^ 



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Chap. XI. THROUGH ITALY. 165 

A hall of immense size was disc^^Tered about the beginning of 
the last century, concealed under t)ie ruins of its own massive 
roof. The pillars of verc/e andco (antique green) that supported its 
vaults; the statues that ornamented its niches, and the rich marbles 
that formed its pavement, were found buried in rubbish ; and were 
immediately carried away by the Famesian family, the proprietors 
of the soil, to adorn their palaces, and furnish their galleries. This 
hall is now cleared of its encumbrances, and presents to the eye a 
vast length of naked wall, and an area covejred with weeds. As 
we stood contemplating its extent and proportions a fpx started 
from an aperture, once a window, at oiie end, and crossing the* 
open sp£|ce scrambled up, the ruins at the other^ and disappeared 
in the rubbish. This scene of desolation reminded me of Ossian's 
beautiful description, ** the thistle shook there its lonely head ;t|ie 
moss whistled to the gate ; the fox looked out from the windows ; 
the rank grass waved round his head,*' and alofiost seeiped t^ 
accomplishment of that awful prediction, ^* There the wild beasts 
of the desert shall lodge, and howling monsters shaft fill the houses ; 
and wolves shall howl to one another in their palaces^and dragons 
in their voluptuous pavilions.'* ■ 

The classic traveller as he ranges through the proves, which 
now shade the Palatine Mount, "^ will recollect the various passages 

> Lowtbe*s Isaiah, xiii. V. 21. 22. 

.' Let the. reader now constrast this mass of ruin, with the splepdors of the 
Palatine in Claudian*s time. 

Ecce Paladoo crerlt reverentta niontl 

Non aliam certe decuit ^ectoribiis o^bls 

Esse larem. nulloque magis se colle potestas 

^(iroat, et aommi seniit faftlgia Juris. 

Attollens apicem sabjectjs regia roslris. 

Tot ctrcum delabra videt, tautisqae Deoram - . 

CiDgitur ejcrabiis. JjiTal iarra tecta Tonantis 

Ceroere TarpeiA pen^leDfes rupe ^igaotes, 

Celatasque fore%, medilsque Tolanlla slgniC 

Nnbihus. et densam stpantibus aihein teroplte, 

^raque VesHtls numerosA puppe columnlsl 

Co/ifilta, subnlxaaqabjugls ImmaDtbua, axl^, 

Naturam eumolante roaDQ ; s^^oliisque mtcantea 

InDatneros arena. A^ted stupetigne metalll, 

Et drcumruso trepldaos obtqndltor auro.— I>e Con«. tt. ITottor. 35. 
To Palatine's high moant see homage floifsl .... 
No other residence was erer made ^ 
For those whose pow^ra the Uiiiverse perrade; 
Such noble dignttf no hill displays 
Nor equal magntuide of empire sways. 
The lofty palace towering to the sky. 
Beholds below the courts of Justice lie : 
The Dum'rous temples round, and ramparts stirong. 
That to th' immortal Tietites belong; 
The ThuodVer's domes ; suspended giant rvk 
Upon the summit of Tarpelan space ; 

The iculplur*d doors, tn air the banners sprwd : - . 

The nnra'rbus tow rs ttiat bide in clouds their head ; 
The columns girt with naral prows of brass ; 
The various building^ rais*d on terreous inaai ; 
The works of Nature Joining human tolls, " ■ 

And ans of triumph d«ck'd with splendid fpolte. 
The glare of metal strttes upon the cf||it, 
li dattuBj 



And sptrUiog edd o'trpow'rs wiita dwMlac iigbC. 



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^ 



m CLASSICAL TOUR Cbap. -JLt. 

in .which Yirgil alludes to thi^. hill, a scene of ^omach splendor 
in his days/ but now nearly reduced to its original simplicity and 
loneliness. Like £neas he wiJl contemplate the interesting spot 
with delight, and review like him, though with very different feel* 
tags, the vestiges of heroes of old, *^ vimm nionumenta pri<muni7* ■ 

Gam muros arcemqueprocul, ac rara domorum 
Tecta vident, qo» nunc Rornana poteptia coelo 
JEquavtt : lam res looped Evandru^ habebat* * 

. JFn. viU«9S. 

Miratnr, Tacilesque oculas fert omnia circiun 
. ^neas, capituique locis, et singula l«tus 
Exquiritque auditque virfiim moaumenta priorum. 
Turn Rex Evandrus, Romans conditor arcis, 
Httc nemora indlgeott FauDi nymphsque tenebant.3--3ie. 

, Fr<M»lhe Palaliine we passed to th^ Aventine Mount well known 
for die unpropitioHS augury of Remus, and at an earlier period Usm 
fbe residence t>f Gaeas, and the victory of Hercules, both so weH 
deseribed by VirgiU ' 



-Ter totum fervidas \xk 



Xustrat Aventini montem; ter saxea tentat 
Limioa nequicqiiam ; ter fessus valle resedit. 
Stabat acuta «tlix, praecisis undique saxis, 
Speluncs dorso ipsurgens, altisslma Yisu, 
Dirarum nidis domus opportuna voiucrum.4 

Mn. viil. 230. 

Here also stood the temple of Diana, erected in the joint names. of 
all the Latin tribes, in imitation of the celebrated temple of that 
goddess at Ephesus built at' the common expense of the cities of 
Asia. The erection of the temple of Diana at Rome by the Latins 
in the reign of Servius Tullius, that is, at a time when the Latins 

' The memorials of former heroes. 

* When tbcy from far. beheld the rising towYs, , 

The tops of sheds, and shepherds' lowly bow'ra, 

Thin as tbey stood, vvhicb, then of homely clay, 

Notv risAin marble, from the Roman sway. 

These cots, Evaoder^s kingdom, mean and pdof.— DrydM. 
^ ^ The stranger cast around his rurious eyes. 

New objects viewing still v\itb new surprise, 
\Vi(b greedy Joy enquires of various things 
And acts and monuments of ancient kings; 
T^u thus the founder of the Roman towr's : 
*' These woods were lirst the seat of sylvan pow'rf^ 
'^ Of iNympbs and Fauns." X)ry4«n. 

4 And here and there his raging eyes be roird, 

He gnash d bif teeth, and thrioe be oompass'd rouiid 
With winged speed the circuit of the ground. 
Thrice at the cavern's mouth he puli'd In vain; 
And papliflg, thrice de6isted from his paiu. 
A pointed, i^ntV rock, all bare and black, 
Grejv Rlbbous from behind the mountain's back. 
r; Owls, rnveus^ all ill omens of the night, 

Qec« built their nests, and b^Uier wlng'<l thetr fli0lU.~^4«ii* 



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ifrere Mepeodoot and bad freqiiemly dtsfrnted witll ^ Eotaf^ 
ibr pre-emiiaenoey was considered as a tacU renundaticM Of ibigir 
pretensions, and an acknowledgment that Bome wiis the centre Md 
Ihe capital of the t<atin nation at large. Itie sacrifice of a e^le* 
brated ox in this temple by a Roman, inslead of a Sabine, was 9«t^ 
posed to have decided the destiny of Roine; and to have ixed iKf 
aeat of uniyersa) empire on Us hills.' Of this temple, otioe so mafr 
nificent and so celebrated, no traces remain, not evjen a base, # 
fallen pillar, a shattered wall, to ascertain its situation, or fiirnill 
the ^anfiquary with grounds for probable conjecture. T^ H^§ 
inay be said of the temple of Juno, of that of the J)ea Bona, and ^ 
the numberless other stately ediBces that rose on this hill. Sonif 
parts indeed are so deserted and so encumbered irith nw, as 19 
answer the description Virgil giyes of it when pointed 00$ by 
£van4er to his Trojan guest. 

^ Jam primum sa^is suspensam hanc aspice nipein z . 
Di8Jec(iB procul ut moles, desertaque montis 
Stat domas, et scepuli ing^nlem traxere mlbaiQ.* 

The west side of the Aventine looka down on the Jiber 'aiid mi 
the fields called Pratt del Popolo Romano. * These ine»ioW9 ai^ 
planted with mulberry trees, and adorned by the pyramid^ tomb 
ef Gains Cestius. This ancient monument remains entire, an ikI* 
yantage which it owes partly to its form well talcuiated to rent 
t)ie influence of weather, and partly to its situation, as it is joined 
|o tfie watts of the city, and forms part of the fortificatiDn* If 
jianda on a basis about ninety feet square, and rises abottt a hsOb*' 
dred and twenty in height. . It is formed, at least extai-Aai^^ 41 
large blocks of white marble .: a door in the pasis epDos iato 4 
gallery terminating in a sfnall room ornamented with paintings^of 
Ibe stucco, in regular compartments. - in diis cfaaidber'oC tbeifead 
once stood a sarcophagus, that contained therenikihs ofGeifiMl 
At each comer on the outside therd was a plHar onoe stimKMHfted 
with a statue : two of these remain, or rather i^re restored^ k«a 
Ttrbhout th^ ornametit that erdwned tbem anciently. Ir i^ prdbakM 
that this edifice stands on an elevation of some steps, but theearti 
is too much raised to allow us' to discoyer them at present. Us 
form is graceful, afid its appearance very picturesque : siippdrtad 
OD either side by the ancient walls of Rome with theif lowers Ml 
gsdteries iFenerabk in decay, half shaded by a few scattered Irte^ , 

s TH. lit. i. 4& Valerias Maiimns^ Ttk 3. 

^ '^ jSce kma aCaf yon rodi that malM tlM sky. ^ - 

About whose feet sacb heaps of rubbish lie, 
Sbcb indigested miti ; bleak and bare^ 
How desert new it stands, eipos'd in air.-^JDfyden. 

* The meadows of the Roman ^ple. 

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tm [CLASSICAL TOUR Chap. SJt. 

^nd lobkifig down nppti a hundred hambler tombs interspersed in 
tbe neighboring grove, it rises in lonely pomp, and sterns .to pre- 
side over these fields of silence and -of mortality. • f 

When we first visited this solitary spot a flock pf sheep w^s . 
dispersed through the grove, nibbling the grass over the graves p 
the tombs rose around in various forms of sepulchral stones, urn«, 
and sar(iophagi, some standing in good repair, others fallen and 
mouldering half buried in the high grass that waved over them ; 
the monument of Gestius stood on the back gi'ouuci in perspectiye, 
and formed the principal feature of the picture; and a painter 
seated on a tomb-stone, was employed in taking a view of the 
scene. None but foreigners excluded by their religion from the 
cemeteries of the dotmiryi are deposited here, and of these 'fo- 
r^igner^; several were English. The far greater part had been 
cut off in their prime, by unexpected ()isjBase or by fatal accident' 
What a scene for a ^traveller far remote from home and liable to 
similar disasters I , 

TQrning from these fields of death, . these ** lugentes campi/' * 
and repassinjg the Aventine hill, we came to the baths of Antoninus 
Caracalla, that occupy part of its declivity and a considerable por-i 
lidn of the plain between it, Mons CcBliolus, and Mons Coelius. 
No monument of ancient ari^hitecture is calculated to inspire such 
an; exalted idea of Roman magnificence, as the ruins of their 
tHermffi 6r baths. Many remain in a greater or less degree of 
predervation ; such as those of Titus, Diocletian, and Caracalla. 
3*0 give the untraveiled reader some notion of these prodigious 
pUeSy I will confine my observations to the latter, as the greatest 
in extent, and as the best preserved ; for, though it be entirelji 
stript of its pillars, statues, and ornaments, both intc^rnai and ex- 
ternal, yet its walls still stand, and its constituent parts and princi- 
pal apartments are evidently distinguishabld. 

The length of the Therm® of CaraCalia was one thousand eight 
hmidFed and forty feet, its breadth one thousand four hundred 
and seventy-six. At each end were two temples, one to Apollo^ 
mi another to iGsculapius, as the ^-^ Genii mfetares,"! of a place 
sacred to the in^provementbfthemind, apfl to the care of the bod]f. 
The two other temples were dedicated to the two' protecting divi- 
nities of the An tonino family, Hercules and Bacchus.* In fhe prmci- 
pal building were, in the, first place, a grand circular vestibule 
with four halls on eStch side, for cold, tepid, warm, and steam 
iMitbs ; in the centre was an immense square, for ex^cise when 
the weather was unfavorable to it in the^open air; beyond it a 
gi^at hall» whero sixteen hundred. marble seats were placed for 
the convenience of the bathers; at each end of this h&U were 
libraries, This building terminated on both sides in a court sur* 

' t The mournCal fields.— jOryelen/ 

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CuJLt. XI. THEOUOH ITALY. |6» 

rounded with porticos, with an odeum for music, and in the middle 
a capacious' basin for swimming. Round this edifice were walks 
shaded by rows of trees, particularly the plane; and in its front 
extended a {gymnasium for running, wrestling, etc. in fine weather. 
The whole was bounded by a vast portico opening into exedrai 
or spacious halls, where poets declaimed and philosophers gave 
lectuves. 

This immense fabric was adorned within and without with 
pillars, stucco-work, paiAtings, and statues. The stucco arid 
painting, though faintly indeted, are yet in many places per- 
ceptible. Pillars have been dug up, and some still remain amidst 
the rtiinS^ while the Farnesian bull, and the famous Hercules found 
in &ne of these halls, announce the multiplicity and beauty of the 
statues wiiidh onc6 adorned the thermae (Baths) of Caracalla. The 
fues and reservoirs for water still remain. The height of ihe pile 
was proportioned to its extent, and still appears very considerable, 
even though the ground be raised at least twelve feet above its 
ancient level. It is now changed into gardens and vineyards : its 
high massiver walls forni separations, and its limy rains spread over 
the surface, burn the soil, and chefck its natural fertility. 

From these Thermae we crossed the Vallis Coelimontana and as- 
cended the Coelran Mount. Many shapeless ruins that bewilder 
antiquaries in a maze of conjectures, are strewed over the surface 
of this hill. One object only merits particular attention, and that 
is the church of S. Stephana m totondo, so Cafled from its circular 
form, admitted by all to be an aincicnt temple, though there is miich 
doubt as to the name of its tutelar god. Some suppose \t to 
have been dedicate(l 16 the emperor Claudius, a leaden divinity not 
likely either to awe or to delight his votaries ; while others con- 
ceive it to have been the sanctuary of the most sportive of the 
rural powers, of Faunus, ** Nympharum fugienlum amator'* * On 
this conjecture the imagination reposes 'with complacency; Its 
circular walls are supported by a double range of Ionic pillars of 
granite, to the number of sixty, and it derives frori such an as- 
semblage of columns, a fcertain air of grandeur, though in other 
respects it is much disfigured, and at present mudi neglected. This 
latter eifcumstance seems -extraordinary, as it is one of the most 
ancient churches in Kome, having been consecrated as such by 
Pope Simplicins in the year 468 ; and as it gives title to a Cardinal 
deacon,, a privilege which generally secures to a church endowed 
with it, the attention and munificent partiality of the titular prelate. 

Descending the Coelian hill, we crossed the^ Subnrra once the 
abode of the great and opulent Romans, now two lopg streets 
lined with dead Walls, and covered with a few straggling houses and 



w — ....Wtto wftli eager Huob 
fvmm Ibe nymplis, bis flriag gaiiM.-rrww<f. 



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golitary convent^, proceeding o^er the Esqoiline Mpnnt we stoppe4 
at. the baths aJFTitus/an edifice once of uoasual extent and magnifi- 
cence, though on a sihaller scale than the Thermffi of Caracalla. Par( 
of die theatre of one of the temples $U)d of one of the great halls stil) 
remains above) and many vaults, long galleries, and spacions ruins 
underground. Spme of these subterraneous apartments wjBre curi^ 
Qusly painted, and such is the firmness and consistency of the colors 
t^tf notwithstanding the dampness of the place, the lapse of so many 
ag^s, and the earth which has filled the vaults for so long a time, tbe^ 
still retain mi|ch of their original freshness. Many of the iSgurof 
are scratched oa the plaster^ and supposed to have been so ori^ 
ginaJly to imitate basso relievo; but upon a (^ose examination ib^ 
little nails which fastened the gold, silver, or bronze, that covere4 
these figures are perceptible, and seein to prove that they were 
all originally coated over in a similar manner. Many 6t the painl^ 
ings are arabesques ; a fanciful style of ornament observed and 
reprobated as unnatural and ill-proportioned by Yitruvius, ■ |)ut 
revived and imitated by Raffael. x 

Titus's baths are^ as I have observed before, inferior in extenf 
to those of Caracalla and Diocletian r but erected at a period when 
the arts still preserved their primeval perfection, they imust have 
surpassed all later edifices of the kind in symmetry, decoration^ an^ 
furniture. Every person of taste must therefore lament that the^ 
ate not cleared and opened ; the famous groupe of Laocoon wa| 
found in an excavation » made there not many years i^o, and se* 
v^ral pillars of granite, alabaster, and porphyry have since beeij 
discovered in various partial researches. What precious remnants 
of ancient art and magnificence might we find, if all the streets of 
this subterraneous city (foj* so these thermce md^Y be called) were 
opened^ and its recesses explored ! At present the curibus visitoir 
walks over heaps of rubbish so high as almost to toiich the vault, 
so uneven as to require all his attention at every step ; and whilst 
he examines the painted walls by the faint glare of a taper, he is 
soon obliged by the clpseness of the air to retire contented with ^ 
fevv^ tcursory obser.vations. To these baths i^hxigiheSetteSalei 
seven Mis, or vast vaulted roonis of one bundredi feet in length by^ 
fifteen in breadth and twenty in depth, intended originally as reser^ 
Yoirs to supply the baths, and occasionally the Coliseum with wat^r 
when naval engagements were represented. . 

Besides the baths of Titus several other vaulte4 subterraneous 
apartments, halls, and galleries, ornamented in the same style .an(( 
with the same magni^cence, have been discovered at different times 
on the same hilL They are supposed to have been parts of th^ 
same Thermae, or perhaps belonging to some of this many palacesj 
that were once crowded together in this neighborl^ood. 

» Lib. ytt. cap. 5. 



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^9AP. ». TBROH&ll ITALY. jlH 

T^ards the. extremity of t)ie Esqailtne and not £Eir from ijjhp 
Porta itagglore, in a yineyardy stands a ruined edifice called th^ 
Temple of Slinerva Medica (the healing Minerva), though it ig sop 
posed by some to have been a bath. Its form circular without, p« 
ik polygon within ; its arched roof swells into a bold dome; ip iti 
sides are nine niches for so many statties ; the entrance occupiei 
the place of the tenth* Many beautiful statues were foiiii4 in ^^ 
grounds that border it, among others that of Minerva with a ser*- 
|>ent, an emblem of JEsculapius, twined nound her legs, a drcoip*- 
stance which occasioned the conjecture that this structure was f 
temple of that goddess. It seems to have been surrounded with 4 
portico, cased ^ith marble, and highly decorated. Nothing now 
remains but the walls, the vaulted roof in soipe places shattered , 
and on the whole a mass tbat^ daily threatens ruin. 

In the same vineyard are various subterralnean vaulte4 apart-* 
ments, some more some less^ ornamented, the receptad^is of th^ 
dead' of various Kamilies, whose ashes consigned to little earthen?* 
ware urns remain in their places, inscribed witha^aine and anex<- 
clamation of sorrow. Anciently indeed, a considerable, part of the 
Esquiline was devoted to the plebeian dead whos^ bodies weire 
sometimes biirnt here, and sometimes I believe thrown into djtches 
or graves uncovered : a circumstance to which Horace seems to 
allude when he represents it as the resort of beasts and birds of 
prey. 

In sepultara membra differant Iqpi ^ 
EtEsquilins^ant^s.i 

Bor. Epod. Od, v. 101. 

To remrova such funereal objects, and to purify the air, Augustus 
made a present of the ground so employed to M^ceni^^, whb 
covered it with gardens and groves and erected on its summit ^ 
patace. The elevation of this edifice arid its Extensive view^ ari 
alluded to by the same poet, when pressing his friend to descen(| 
from his pompous residence and visit his humble roof, he i^ays. 



-Eripe temora; 



Ne semper udam Tibar et Mmka 
Declive contempleris^ aryura, et 
""Telegoni jaga parricids. 
^astidiosam desere cot)lam, et 
If olem propinquam liuMbus arduis : ' 
OmUte mirari beatae 
Fumam ^t opes strepitumque Rome. • 

Carm. lif. 2S. 



Then beasts of prey, and birds of air 

Sbail your aoburled paembers tMr.~frMcii« 



From ibe delights, ob ! break away, 
Whicb Tibur's marsby prospect yields, 

Mor with 41110088109 joy survey* •* 

fair i£sula's decUoiug fields ; 



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:«ri CLASSICAL TOUR! Chap.OCI. 

From the top of , this palace, or from a tower in a garden, Nero 
contemplated and enjoyed the dreadful spectacle of Rome in flames.' 
. The precise site of this palace and its towers, and of the gardens 
surrounding, has never be^n ascertained in a satisfactory manner ; 
statues and painting^ have been discovered in profusion in Various 
parts of this hill ; but numberless were the tempies and palaces that 
rose on all sides, and to' which such brnaments belonged, it would 
be difficult to determine. Near the (^atece of hfs patron Msecenas, 
Yirgil is said to have had a house ; bbt the retired temper of this 
poet, and ^ his fondness fur a country life, seem to render et- 
tremely improbable a report, which I believe rests Solely on the 
authority of Donatas. 

From the EsquiKne hill we passed to that elevated site, which as 
it advances westward branches into the Vitninal and Quirinal hills. 
On it stands one of the grandest remains of ancient splendor, a 
considerable portion of the baths of Djocletian, now converted 
into a convent of (^arthlisrans. The principal hall is the church, 
and though four of the side recesses are filled up, and the two middle 
ones somewhat altered ; though itd pavement has been raised about 
six feet' to remove the dampness, and of course its proportions have 
been changed, yet it retains its length, its pillars, its cross-ribbed 
vauh, and much of its original grandeur. It was paved and in- 
crusted with the finest marble by Benedict XIY. who carried into 
execution the plan drawn up originally by Michael Angelo, when 
it was first changed into a church. It is supported by eight pillars 
forty feet in height and five in diameter, each of one vast piece of 
granite. The raising of the pavement, by taking six feet firoin the 
height of these pillar^, has destroyed their proportion, and given 
them a very massive appiearance. The length of the ha)l is three 
hundred and fifty feet, Jts breadth eighty, and its height ninety-six. 
Notwithstanding its magnificence, the mixtiire 6f Corinthian and 
composite capitals shews how much the genuine ta^te of architec- 
ture was on the decline in the time of Diocletian. The vestibulum 
or entrance into this church, is a beautiful tptunda, consecrated, by 
the monuments of Carlo Maraai and SalvcUor Rosa. The cloister 
deserves attention : it forms a large square supported by a hundred 
pillars. In the centre, four towering cypresses shade a fountain 
that pours a perpetual supply of the purest water into an immense 
marble basin, and forms a scene ot delicious* freshness and antique 
rural Ipxury. 

No more the Tordant hlllf admire 
or TelegoQ who Uil'd bts aged sire. 

Instant forsake the Jorleca feast, 

vrbere appetite In surfeit dies, ^ 

AM from the iower'd stmctnre haste. 

That proudly tbreatens to the skies ; 
From ^ome and Its tumollaoas Joys, 
Its crowdsi and stttoke, and opuleaoe, and nolfe.w«FraiM/f* 

I Suetonlas, NeTo> as. 



1 



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Chap. XI. , THROUGfi ItAI^Y. 1^ 

The VImmal hill has no reiqnant of laricient magnificence^o arrest 
the traveller in his progress to the QuiriAal ortce adorned with the 
temple of Quirinus, whence it derived its name. Titus Livius and 
Ovid both relate the Apotheosis of Romulus ; the historian in bis 
Stabltoie manner — the poet in his usual easy graceful style. ^' Ro- 
mulus, " says Proculus in the former, " parens urbis hujus, prima 
hodiei'na luce coelo repente delapsus;, semihi obvium dedit. Quum 
perfusus horrore venerabiindusque astilissem petens precibus ut 
contra intueri fas esset. Abi, inquit, nuncia Ron|anis, coelestes ita 
Telle ut me^ Roma caput orbis tWrarum sit; proinde rem militarem 
colaat, sciaurque, et ita posteris tradunt, nulI^s opes humanas armis 
Romanis resistere posse. Hsec, inqtiit, locpius, subl^ibis abiit."^ 

PuJcher et humano major, trabeAque decorus 
Romulas ia media visus adesse vid 

Thura-'ferant, placenique novum pia turba Quirinum , 
£t patrias artes, militiamque colant ...... 

l^eropla Deo fioiit. ColUs qiioque dietus ab Ulo : 
Et referunt certi sacra paterna dies. » 

Qvii, Fast. m,ii. SOB. 

We may easily suppose that a temple dedicated to the founder 
and tutelar divinity of Rome, must havebeei^.a structure ofuno^u^l* 
magnificence, and we find acpordingly thsrt, a noble flight of marble 
steps inducted to its portal, and that it was supported by seventy^ 
six lofty columns. It stood on the brow of the hill that looks 
towards the Yiminal, and in such a site, and with such a colonnade,' 
it must have made a most majestic anjd splendid appearance, dn 
the opposite side and commanding the Qanipus Martins, rose the 
temple' of the Sun erected by AureKan, and ahndst equal in grin*- 
deur and decorations to the. palace of this deity described by Ovid, 
**sublimibu» alta columnisJ'^ In fact the pillars that supported its 
portal must have b^eti, if we may judge by a fragment remaining in 
the Colonna garden, near seventy feet in height;; and as they were 

' R6miiTus, the founder of this city, this morning at dawn of day suddenly de-' 
scended from heaven, and stood before mJe. ',' Go/* said he, " teH th^ Romans 
that It ts ihe wilf of the gods that my Rome should be the capital 6f the world : 
Let them therefore cultivate the art of war, and Jet them know, and transmit the 
knowledge to their posterity, that no human power shall be able to resist the 
Roman arms." Having thus spoken, he mounted into the skies, and disappeared. 
— Liv. i. 16. 
* Surpasslag banutiP'beaaty, hnman siae, 

clotb'd In his klogly garb, be^re my cyc^ 

* Rome's awful founder stood 

** Haste, btd my sooa tbeir duteous' inclose bring; ' . r 

**iud own tbeir beav'niy patron, once tbejf fclngv 

*' Be war tbeIr uaiive art«'' ' • 

To great Quirlnus then a temple fam'd 
Itear'd its higb bead ; from him a bill was nam'd, ' 

And fesUi dAys, prescribed for rites subUme, , 
Transriiit bis mem'ry to facceedlof time. 

3 Sublime with lofty columns. , 



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ni ' CLASSICAL TOUa CftAP. *ll. 



A 



iiritfc the whole of their entablature of the whitest ifiarble and of the 
Mchest order ( the Corintliian ) they riinst have exbib/ted a naosi 
dazzlrag spectacle worthy of itje glory of ^'th^ far beajning god o^ 
day." But not a trace of either of these edifices remains ; their 
massive pillars have long since fallen, and the only remnant of the. 
latter is a block of white UMirblQ, and a part of the entablature^ and 
of the former, the ffight of marble steps that now leads to the 
church of Ava Ccefi iii the Capitol. " 

From the Quirinal we pSissed to the Mmte Ftncio anciently witK- 
out the city, akitl called, **Coilts hortuiorum;**^ because covered 
iftieii asnow!^ with villas and suburban gardens. PT)mpey, Salkist^ 
and at a later perfod the £mperors> delighted in the rural airy re- 
treat of this hill, high and commanding extensive views on all 
sides. "" . . 



CHAPTER XIL 

Ckmfim UftrtfiM^ it$ Bdiftces— Maiisoleaih ^f Augustas— PAQtheoii--Co)QinDa 
IVitj^uia— BridgM-^t/eus^ouses of the Destnictioh pf ancieatEdifices^ 

/ Vwki tlie hillswie descended to the Campus Martins^ iathei early 
^gfi^ of t^e J^Qpublie ap open field devoted tp military exercif^s^ 
aii4 w.eli oalcvlated for that purpose l)y its level grassy surface^. 
aii4. the neighborhood of the rivejr winding along its border. ^ 
fircK^c^StOf time some edifices of public utility were erected upon it; 
t]|.ut;their^ iHKuber was ismall diKing the Republic; while un<ler the. 
l^peji^riS tb^y w^e increased to >ucb a degree^ that the Camp^us 
SJ^riim^ ]^ecameaQOthef*city, comppsejd of theatres, porticoS) baths^ 
aiHl temples. These edi^es were not oaly juagaificent, in them- 
selves, but surrounded with groves and walks, and arranged with a 
dt^e regard to perspective beauty. 3uch is the idea which we must 
p^rally for^ of buildings erected by Cotisuls and JQmperors, each 
emteavoring to rival or surpass his predecessor in magnificence; 
atid siich is the description which Strabo gives of the Cam{)us in his 
time^lthat is, nearly in the lime of its greatest glory. T?his sujpferb 
theatre of glorious edifices, when beheld from the Janiculuoi^ borr 
dered in front by the Tiber, and closed behind by the Capitol, the 
Viminal, the^ Quirinal, and the Pihcian hilis^ w;th temples, palaces, 
and gardens lining their ^ides, and swelling frotn their summits, must 
haye formed a picture of astonishing beauty, splendor, and variety, 
and have justified the pi-oud appellation so oftexi bestowed on Rome 
*' of the temple and abode of the gods," But of all the pompous 



Tbe bill of gardens. 

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£bap. Sif. ffiROUGH ITALY« ^ 175 

fibVics tliat formed this Sfssembkge of wonders how few rem&in! 
and of the remaining few' how smalt the number of those which' 
retain any features of their ancient majesty ! Among these latter 
ean hardly be reckoned Augustus's tomb, the vast vaults and subr- 
Structions ofwhich indeed exist, but its pyramidal form and pillars 
are no more ; of Marcellus's theatre half buried under the super- 
atmclure raised upon its vaulted galleries; or the portico of Octavia 
lost with its surviving arch and a few shattered prilars in the Pes^ 
ekerifu Of such surviving edifices the principal indeed is the Pan- 
theon Itself. 

The Pantheon, it is true, retains its majestic portico, and pre- 
sents its graceful dome uninjured: the pavement laid byAgrippa, 
and trodden by Augustus, still forms its floor; the compartments 
and -fluted pillars of the richest marble that originally lined its walls, 
still a^orn it's inward circumference ; the deep tints that age has 
thrown over it only^contribute to raise its dignity, and augment onr 
veneration; and the traveller enters its portal, through which twice 
twenty generations have flowed in succession, with a mixture of 
awe and religions veneration. Yet the. Pantheon itself. has been 
'' shorn of its beams, " and looks eclipsed through the ^'disastrous 
twfligbl*' of eighteen centuries. Where is now its proud elevatidn^ 
mid the flight of steps that coujducted to its threshold T Where the 
nibbles that clothed, or the handmaidedifices that concealed its brick 
exterior ? W^e the statues Ithat graced its cornice? The bronzd 
that blazed onitsdome, that vaulted its portico, and formed its sculp<^ 
tured doors ; and wh^re the silver that lined the compartments of its 
roof within, and dazzled the spectator with its brightness ? The.ra- 
Itacity of Genseric began, the avarice of succeeding barbarians 
continued, to strip it of thesp splendid decorations ; and time, by 
levelling many a noble structure in its neighborhood, has raised 
the pavement, and deprived it of all theadvantliges of situation. 

The two celebrated pillars of Antoninuls and Trajan stanci each 
in its square; but they also have lost several feet ofilieir original 
efevation; and the colonnade or portico that enclosed the latter, 
supposed tcr be the noblest structgre of the kind ^ver erected^ has 
long since sunk in the dust, and its ruins probably lie buried under 
the foundations of the neighboring houses. 

Seven bridges formerly conducted over the Tiber to the Janic,u- 
Inm and the Vatican Mount : of these the most remarkable were the 
first, the Pons Elius; and the hst, the Pons Sublicius : the former 
erected by Adrian^ opened a grand communication from the Cam^- 
pus Martras to his mausoleum. It remains under the appellation of 
Ponte S. Angelo; the statues that adorned its balustrade, disappeared 
at an early period, and have since been replaced by statues of St. 
Peter and St.P9ul^and of several angefs executed by eminent mas- 
ters, and considered b^autiftil. The ancient statues were probably 
tiirown into ibe'Tiber, andmay at some ftitcire period emerge from v 



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176 [CLASSICAL TOm QbAp. XDt* 

il3 channel, !Fhe Pons Siiblicitis. lay much lower, and formed a 
passage from the Aventhne Mount to the Janicuium* Though conse- 
crated by Its antiquity, for it was the first bridge built at^ JRome, 
and still more by the heroic exeJr.tions of Horatius Codes, it has 
long since fallen^ and only some slight traces of foundations or abut- 
menits remain on the Ripa Grand'e^ to mark the spot where it once 
stood. Two oth^s, the Pons Triumphalis and Pons Senatorins, 
have shared th^ same f^te. . 

The reader will probably expect an account of the various 
theatres and circusses that rose in every quarter of the city, and 
fiirnished perpetual occupation to the degenerate Romans of later 
times, t^ho confined their ambition to the pittance of bread and the 
public amusement pf the day : and jhe will feel some disappolntm'eiit 
when he learns, that scarce a trace remains of such immense struc- 
tures, t!}at in general their very foundations havjB vanished, and 
that the Circus Maximus itself, though, capable of containing half 
the population of Rome wiihin its vast embrace, is erased from the 
surface of the earth, and has left no vestige of its existence, except- 
ing the hollow scooped out in the Aventine Valley, for its foun- 
dations. ' . 

' It may be asked how the edifices just alluded to, and a thousand 
others equally calculated to resist the depredations Of time and the 
usual means of artificial destruction, should have thus sunk in|o. 
utter annihilation? May we not adopt the language of poetry? 

Sonje feU the sflent stroke- of mouldering age,. 
Some faostite fury, some religious rage. 
Barbarian bliudoess, .Christian zeal conspire. 
And Papal piety, and Gothic Are. 

' Pope*i Epistle to Addison. 

• ■ '. ' .' • ' • 

Thefie verses contain a very comprehensive scale of destruction ; 
fife causes sufficient to. compass and explain the widest range of 
devastation, and annihilate the most solid fabrics that human skill > 
can erect, ev^n the pyramids (themselves. Yet upon impartial exa- -. 
mination >we ^all find that the fury of enemies and the zeal of.; 
Christians, the pieiii of popQS, and ihQ fires kindled ,bjr the Goths, : 
have not been the sole or e^en the priocipal agents in the work of 
devastation ; and that other causes less .observable because slower, . 
but equally effectual in their operations, have produced the wide . 
extended sceneof ruin which^e have just traversed. , » 

To begih therefore with the first cause, hostile fury : it is to be/ 
recollected that the barbarians who took and sacked Ror)ie, such as 
Alaric.and Gehseric, had plunder and profit, not destruction, in . 
Tiew ; and that they warred with the power and the opulence, not * 
with the taste and the edifices of the Romany. 6oId and silver, ; 
brass and precioiis ^(pfies, cloth ,and artiel,es of apparel^ H^itfa fur-.; 



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CteAt. xii. itiRotaai'TAtlL art 

iiiture of every sort/were the objects of theli* rapacjt;; the peri^ons 
also of the unfortanate Romans, whom they could either sdl of 
employ as slaves, were considered a valuable palrt of iheir booty; 
in collecting the former, and securing the latter, their attention was 
fully occupied, nor had they^ lieisure, supposing' that they had the 
inclination, during the short space of timQ they occupied the ci^ 
(confined to six days the first and fourteen the second time the city 
was taken] to demolish, or even very materially to disfigure the 
solidity of the public edifices. The massive roof of the Capitol 
formed of brass, and it seems lined with gold, and the bronze cover* 
ing and sculptured portals of the Pantheon, ^ere torn from theif 
respective temples by Genseric; but the edifices themselves we're 
spared, and the latter still remains to shew tow little dama|;e its 
essential form suffered in the disaster. 

As for the destructive effects of Gothic fire> they seem tp have 
been confined to a few palaces and private houses;; and so partiaT 
was the mischief, that only one edifice of any note, the paliace of 
S^Ilust, is mentioned as* having been consumed on this occasion. 

Religious rage, or Christian zeal, two expressions meaning the 
same thing, ^re frequently introduced by authors of a certain mode 
of thinking, as agents unusually active in the work of destruction / 
while PapaT piety is represented as the presiding demon who directed 
their operations, and quickened their natural activity. The fact, 
however, is otherwise; we da not find that any one temple in Homei 
was destroyed by the Christians, either tumultuously^ or legally; 
that is, by imperial orders ; on the contrary, such ^was the respect 
which the Christian emperors' paid even to the prejudices of the 
Romans, that idols proscrib/Bd in the provinces, were ^till tolerated 
in the capital, and allowed to occupy their rich shrines^ and sit 
enthroned in ^heir deserted temples. In the pillage of Rome by the 
Goths arid Vandals, these statues, when of preciqus jnaterials, such 
as gold, silver^ or brass, were not spared ; but the shrine only, gr 
perhaps the furniture and decorations of the temple of similar ma- 
terials, and of course equally calculated to attract the hand of ra- 
pacity, were violated; while the edifices themselves, without, X 
beiiere, one exception, were respected. The infliience of pfipal 
piety was employed to preserve these buildings, and if possible, to 
consecrate them to the pure mysteries of Christian ^adoration; an^ 
to it we owe the few temples that have survived the general ruin^ 
such as the temple of Vesta, that of Faunas, thatof Fortuiia yhrilis; 
and last^ thdugh first in estimation and grandeur, the Pantheon itsielf!: 

'Having thus rejected as fabulous or inefficient the causes pfo-^ 
diiced by the poet, and admitted by ignorance and prejudice witU 
little or no examfnation^ it is necessary, and not difficult to siibr 
stitu^ih their place, the i^eal agents that effected the degradation^ 
atitd nnally, the desiruction of the noblest city that the world Bad 
ivier beheld. 

I. 12 



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m CXASSICAL TQUft Chap. XIJ. 

ITjder (to ai^spiciou^ government of Jrajfifn, t|ie fni||ir9 of Roidq. 
had feache^ the utmost extent of its destined limits; an^ fiom^ 
herself had atlainecl the fuH perfection ofher beauty, and the highest 
d^ree ft^her magnificence.' During the virtuous administration of 
t!ip '^ntobinejs/that is, during the space of nearly a century, this 
8t?ite ojj pfOSperity and glory continued unalterefi tiil the tyranny of 
fiornmodUs'rtivrved^tThe niemory apd the disasters of the reigii^ of 
(iaiigula, If ero /and Domitian, and ended, like them, in assasi^itia-^ 
^Jon, civil lyar, and reyolulion. From the portentous aera of the 
dleath Ofl^ertWi, Rome ceased' to be the fixed and habitus^I resi- 
dence pjf h^r empierbrs, who were generally employed in tH^ field, 
^ither in Repressing rebellious trsurpers, or in repelling for^igii 
miemiesi §tilt they occasionally returned to celebrate f^stiv^ games, 
to receive tlie homage of the Senate and Roman people, or perhaps 
mph to the Capitol, and to worsnip the tutelar 
[pire. From the accession of Eiiocletian,' thesQ 
s frequent, arid while the Mistress of the w^brld 
her half-barbarian emperors, the handmaid cities 
, Thessalonicaj Nicomedia/Aiitioch, Milan, and 
I the liohor ^nd the advantages of theiip resi- 

was still the acknowledged capital of the world, 

)pulation and her riches were unbounded, yet the 

ncouraged , Or employed by the sovereign, Ian- 

m^ on the decline, and the great masterpieces 

pointing)' that adorned the city, monuments of 

agnificence of happier periods, were passed by 

ynnoticea, ana gradually, neglected. We cannot stippose that a 

' ' ' lost their taste and spirit, or t|jat Eiqperors oc- 

e provinces with the intrigues of competition, or 

sof war^'were disposed to furnish thie' sums requi- 

d to maintain buildings, which^ tffey scarcely knew, 

held with indifPerertcel 'yfe may therefore fairl^' 

It the beginning of the reign of Cotistantine, some, 

, public Edifices must have sijfered from neglect ( 

)3ehol(|, the triumphafarch of Trajan destroyed^ 

senate, to furnish niiatefials for the erectibn of a 

in honojc of the former Emperor, we may fairlj; 

adific^S were, considered as scarcely Vorth preser-. 

tliey were'indebt5d tot tlleii;. duration to their qwu 

iiises of ruin we may therefore sav'ely rank the iii- 
be neglect of government^ n|iy, we have^even some 
bt tha^ the TEmperors not onty neglected the repa- 
3times hasteni^ the fait of public structures. JSach 
Ipxereiign' was ambitious of distinguishing his reign by someVag- 
iiificdnt fabriid, by erecting baths or a circus, a portico Qit a fomiti: 



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l)at it is xe be feared that they were not idwayp d^Hoit^ m to thQ 
p]ace8 whence the materials were taken, apd sometimes Itmppett 
die fDOQuments of their predece^gors of their p};oamen(S|/in order 
%pi finploy them io the decoration of their new edipcesi. Certftiil 
it h that some emperors, while they were adding to the spl^idob 
4f the city on one side, made no difficulty of plundering it oa th^ 
other* Moreover, as th^ number of Christians increased, Hm. 
temples became deserted ; and Christian princes, though not obliged 
liy their religion to destroy, did odt, perhaps, consider tbemseWes 
as authorized in conscience to repair the siinotu^ri^s of idolatrous v 
worship.' « , . . 

^ Whep Rome ceased to be free, and lost even the fprois nf y^^ 
publican liberty, the forum' (the seat of popular deliberatiaa») ]^ 
came useless, and the^ve or six superb squares that bore thatHf-y 
pellation, were turned into so many lone)y walk^. Tjie varioua 
curies (the superb palaces of the senate) so necessary in tl|e dayi* 
of Roman freedom, when almost the whole of the cfviiized wortt^ 
w^s governed by the wisdom of that vei^erable body, stood .sil0at> 
and unfrequented under the later i^^mperorj^, whea public delibferft* 
tioB w£|S a mere form, anfl the senate itself ap empfy sh^t^w. Th»: 
bmliccs, indeed (the halls where (he magistrates ^a( ^o^admioister 
justice) mi^ht still collect a crowd,, and challenge ^teiqiioQ ; butaftf 
the. population of the 9ity decreased, tlieir i)llivibers appe9r^ to0i> 
great, and the emperors seemed to embi^ace with readiness evlpry^. 
opportunity of tui^ning them to other purposest. These three sorts 
of edifices may be $upposed, therefore, tq have faU^n iiiio.4eoa]n 
at an early period, and to have mouldered iibperceplibly Into dn^ . 
even though no active power was employed to ba^lm iMr di^sola- 
tipn. pf the aever^l cmie, not one has escaped ^lr«clioi, ^ 
t^e reader VilJ learn ^ijb regret, that time, baa swei4 away ^% 
v^ri yestiges ^f these celebJE^ed sea|ts.o{ liberty » i^iSdoM^ waii.af 
public dignity. 

^m few teinples reipaain, which, after they b^ longboetli^hai^ 
4pned ibpth by their deities and their notaries, are initebtefl fth^* 
their existence to ** Christian /zeal and ^apa! piety,** which saved "^ 
them from coihplete ruin by tujr»jiflg them iBto ehaffches. We may 
lament that more of thei^e beautiful edifices were not destined to 
partake of this advantage; and parttcularly that the magnificent 
temple of Jupiter Capitoifinus was not of the number ; especially as 

' We may coDjectare from 4a ancient ioscriptioji^ how mtich Rome was^en^ 
cnmbered-withruinseyen in.the age of Honoriu^. s. p. q. r. impp. caess. od. 
UN. iifvicTissnns. pringipuos. abcadio. et. HcftroRo; vi£toribus. ag. tridh^ 

FHATORIBUS. SEMPER. JLVGCt. OB. INSTAURATOBOlS. QRBl. AETERNiE. MGROS. POR- 
TAS. AG. TURRES E6ESTIS. IMMEJVSIS. RUDERIBVS, ete.> etC«, Apud. Grut. 

The Senate and People of Rotaier to tlie Emperors Arcadius and Honorins, 
( here foUaw their titles ) for reneyriftg tbe walls; gate^, 'and toneirs of tbt BtiimI 
t^j, front which immense heaps of rubbish were remayed, etc., etc. 



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m GLA^dtCAL TOUR CflAP. Xlf . 

jtsocrived the takings of thex^ity, and stood, as to \ts walls, uaim- 
pafared id the time of Theodoric. Bat in thetirst place, tKe Chfis- 
tiaqs 4o not seeb to have taken possession of any temple, at least 
kk RoiQQ, where the Emperors .^reated the ancient religion df the 
Bm^e with peculiar delicaby, till the total downfal of idolatry, 
add the complete chan|[e of public opinion; thisit is, till "many of 
these fabrics 1>ad falfen into irreparable decay, and become in- 
caqpable of restoration./ 

Is the next ptaee, the forms of pagan temples in general, and 
partiealarty oiFsach as were built (and these formed thb far greater 
BUfflber) on a smaller scale, were extremely ill adapted to the pur- 
pose of Christian worship. ' Narrow oblong edifices, frequefUty 
imrk and lighted only from the teptranee, they seem to have been' 
eonstpocted merely as sanctuaries lo receive the statues of their 
pespective gods, while the multitude of adorers filled the porticos, 
or crowded the colonnades without, and waited t.iH the trumpets 
annOtinced the moment, of sacrifice, or the priest proclaimed the 
oracles of the god. I^he external ornaments, and the vast extent of 
porticos 2(nd galleries that surrounded the principal temples, and 
not the capacity of the interior, constituted their magnificence. The 
Adyta or' Penetralia, seem mostly to have been on a contracted 
geale, and' though well calculated for a chapel or oratory for a small 
astembly, are too confined for a parish church, and for the accom- 
niodatidii of a large congregation. ' 

The BaszHceey on the contrary, presented every convenience, and 
neemed as if expressty erected for the purpose of s^ Christian as- 
sembly. The aisles on either side seemed formed to receive and 
aereeo the ^omen^ the 'vast ^ea ii^ the middle furnished a spacious 
range for the men*; the apsis or semicircular retreat raised on a 
flight of fitepS) at ihe- end, gave the bishop and his presbyters an 
elevaled and honorable station ; while the^sacred table surrounded 

« Tbe opinion of the Christians relative toth6 i^ols themselres, appears from the 
foQowiag lines, whteh .prove satisTactorilf, Ixonteive, that they had no desire to* 
inplroy th^m. The Poet addresses himself to* Home. 

Dai^iiMjtm rests iBliin iMieritta«'t'ihi8 

Bldlcalos, tanloqae iodlgn? «pcrarla regno. 

Marmora tabenti respergtne tincta larate, 

proe^res, lioeat «UtQas eensbtere parw. ^ ^ 

Artiflcata magnorom opera, bee palcjierriiiMt OMtro 

OniaiBenta cloant patrl®, nee decolor usos 

In Tltlam venne munumenta coinqaipet ai-tlf.>?ni4enl. 

«. ' Thy childish festiTals'fO Rome I disclaim, 

^ . • - ■ The riles, unworthy of so great a name. 

Bui wesh, ye Nobies^'Witb respbclftal hand, 

Eaih statue ;uopoiluted let them stand; •• , 

Let these, the ^(itka of names of high renown, 

Remain our ceiinli^'s glory, and our own; 

Let no discoloration, spot, nor stain. 

The honored monnmenls oS ail proflane. 

U tber spared even the Idols, It is diffleiUt to conceire why they should destroy 
thetenplM* "" _ ■ ^ 



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GakP. Xa. THROUGH ITALY. IM 

wii^ yonth and innocence, stood betweea the clergy ^ndtbe peb- 
pie, a splendid and conspicuous object. Hence ^ever^I of ihese 
edifices, which depended entirely on the will of thesovereign, and 
toiight wiihoat offence oi* injustice be doToted to such.purpoaag af 
he judged most expedient^ were at an esirif period opened for the 
reception^ of the Christians, and consecrated to the celebration of 
the holy mysteries. Thus in the time of Canstantine, the BasUica 
L'ateranensis was converted into a church and dedicated to the Sa- 
viour; while the Basilica Yatioana became another Christian temple 
under the well-known appellation of St. Peter^s. It follows of 
coarse, that the temples would in general.be permitted to crumble 
away insensibly into ruin, as useless and unappropriated edificed, 
while many :^of the Basilic® would be repaired with diligence, and 
not unfrequently enriched, with the pillars and marbles pf thefaUen 
iian^ in their neighborhood. . ^ , 

The neglect of the Emperors was followed by indifference in the 
city magistrates, an^ contempt among the people, who n»ade no dif- 
ficulty of stealing from the ^public edifices the materials requisite 
for the erection, or ornament of their private houses; a disorder 
which rose to such a pitch as to require the interfereiice of public 
authority more than once, in order to prevent the total dilapidation 
of some of the^ finest monuments, of Roman greatness. This inter-* 
ference, however, only took place during the short reign o| 
one* Emperor, whose virtues struggled in vain against the misforr 
tjanes of the time ai^d the destinies of the falling empire. I allude 
to Majorian„ whose patriotic edict on this subject is Qited ^k 
bec^min|[ applause by Gibbon, and proves that the magistratjes 
themselves connived at the abuse, and were .perhaps too fre* 
quently the transgressors. To the neglect of the sovereign there- 
fore we may add the indifference of the magistrates, and the in- 
terested pilferings of th^ people, a secqnd and powerful agent of 
destruction. 

However, ' notwithstanding these disadvantages Rome retained 
much of her imperial grandeur, after the nominal fall of her em- 
pire, and still challenged the respect and admiration of nations, eyea 
when subjected to the sway :of barbarian princes. Odoacer for 
instance and his victorious^ rival Theodoric,^ during^ a long and 
prosperous reign watched with jealous care over the beauty of the 
ciity, and not only endeavored to preserve what it retained, but to 
restore what it had lost of its ancient splendor. Their aflempts 
merited praise and adknowledgment, but the effect was temporary, 
and withheld but could not avert the stroke which &te already le- 
velled at the monuments of Rome. 

When the evil genius of Italy prompted Justinian to re-annex it 
as a province to the empire of which it had formerly been .the bead; 
and when Belisarius took possession of the capital with a force SQJPB* 
cient to garrison^ but not to protect it fully ajgainst the enemy, IRom^ 



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M CLASSICAL tOtiR CkiF. ttt. 

y^ns ttiraed into sf fortress, tier aibphithedtreS, maasoleains^ anfl 
tarvivteg tetnptes were converted into strong holds, and their spleh* 
did ftirhitare and costly decorations were employed as thejj^ |ire-^ 
kented themselves/for means of defence or pf annoyance. In th< 
tonrse of this most dei^trcictiye war, Rome was fiye times taken I 
many of her edifices were demolished not by the hostile rage oHM 
QrOtbs, bnt by the miKtary prudence of Belisarius ; her streets weh^ 
Unpeopled by the sword and by pestilence; the titles of het* Magis- 
trates were suppressed ^ her senate was dispersed ; and her HoDOri 
Hrere finally levelled with the dust. The Exarchs^ who SucceedeA 
NJirses in the govethinent of Italy, were more attentive td tllei# 
owh interests than to the prosperity of the country ; dnd residing tA 
ftavenha, then an almostJint^regnable fortress, abandoned Rome tti 
lier Own resources, and her edifices to the care of the citizens, ot 
rather to their own solidity. The misery and humiliatioh of Romf) 
lasted near three hondred years; thai is, from ih(N» jnvasionl of 
Raly; ot- rather from the taking of Rottic^ by Belisarius in the year 586, 
to the coronation of Charlemagne in 800. ' 

f During the disastrous interval which elapsed betiTeeii these erics^ 
Rotne was oppressed by the Exarchs, threatened by tlie Lombards, 
ttrasted by pestilence, and visited at' once by all the plagues* ein-^ 
filoyed to chasti^^ ^illy nations, The"f(dw surviving Romans who 
remained to lament the ruin of their country, Snd to glidd like 
Spectres about its abandoned streets now turn^ into the i^epuIcHreii 
of the inhabitants, had too much employment in supporting their 
iniserabie existence 'to think of repairing Or maintaining the v^t 
Mifices raised in prosperous tiihes. Bufing so many ages of w^ 
and despair, of puhlit and private dej^tioh, how extensive tiinst 
liave, been the ravaged of desolation! how many pillars must have 
fiaTlen froM their basesi! liow many temples suiik under their o#n 
Weight I Aow many lofty fabrics subsided in the dust ! Even kttet 
these ages of war, when Rome became the head of a new empire, 
and the kiAgs and princes of the westerhworld listened witfi respect 
to the oracles of her pontiff; \^hen some share of opulence pro- 
bably accompanied her reviving dignity, and emperorS imd sove- 
reignjsl hastened to enrich her sanctuaries with their gifts — ^yet no 
I'e-animating ray visited the pompous ruins spread over her hills, 
tehere the taste and spirit of her ancestors still slumber^ ondiS'- 
turbed, and temples, curisB,'and forums, whose names and desri- 
nation had long been forgotten, were left tottering in decay, o* 
tdxtended fn heaps on th6 earth. 

A transient gleam of prosperity is not sufficient; a long seaSoA 
of tranquillity and encouragementis requisite td call forth and tna- 
tt^re the varied powers of the mind that produce taste and enter- 
prise. But Rome was far from enjoying this tranquillity ; threatened 
sonietiml^ bv tb'6 tireeks, and sometimes by the Saracens ; alter- 
itkiif oppresi^d by her barbarian empetors, and disMurbed by hef 



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tHAp. irf. imoTOH itALY. % 

lactioui^ iiobiei^; knil Ai last convulsecl i)y tfie unnaturslt MRt^^ BS- 
tween her emperors and her pontiffSy she assumeci b^ tiirn^Jtfii 
appearance of d fortress besieged or taken; her edifeces, ^acWd 
and profane, ancient and modern, were demolished without distliiB- 
tion, and her streets and cliurches "^ere strewed witli tnfe bbdii^ 
of her inhabitants. 

I'o these blood^ divisions succeeded the Absence of th6 |)bj)^^ 
^nd their very impolitic residence at Avignon,. at A distance from 
the sieat of their spiritual authority and of theit temporJii domififofl, 
^hick in the mean time was ababdoned to the intri^uei^ 6i ^ dd- 
min&^ring nobility, and to the insurrections of a factious ^'ppiitsicl^ 
liurihg this period, the reign of anarchy, /the few moiiumefai^ <k 
antiquity that remained, were turned into fort§ ahd 6as{ie$j^ and dis- 
figured with towers and Gothic battlements ; the ebuiitry wa^ overr- 
ruii ^ith banditti, and the city itself convulsed and defiled wiin 
perpetual ^l^nes of yiol^enc^ and bloodshed. 

At length the Ppmiff returned to his See ; and after gome striiggles 
a reguiaf government was estabKshed : Juliii^ trie Second, a ster|i 
and arbitrary priqce suppressed anarchy : thb ^vik began to rfeyive, 
architecture was restored, a Leo rose, and Rome, e^en ancient 
Rome, might have expected the return of her Augustan glory. But 
^uch an expectation would have been jll-foyrided : the vety resto- 
ration of the arts, while it contributed to the splendor oi modern 
Rome, was the last blow that fate gave to the magnificence of the 
ancient city. While hew temples and new palaces arOs^, thfe re- 
mains of £ihcient, edifices disappeared ; and posterity I9till Is^iheTits 
that tbe pefizonium was demolished, the Coliseum defarmed>. a^d 
th^ Pantheon t)lundered, to supply materials or ornapieots fof tte 
Farn^sian and Barbarini palacfes, and for the nei^ Basiliesi '5f St, 
i*eter. With regard to the latter, the man of taste and the lovA* 
of antiquity^ ad Gibbon justly observes, wOJ perhaps, parddfi^tne 
<lieft;.as it cotitribmed to the trijiimph of modern genias^ and to 
ihe decofatiori bf the iibbleist edifice that fat^man art has ev^ erected. 
But to plunder the venerable monuments of imperial ^fifeaithesl, fh 
prder to deck the mansion^ of two imstart families, "^as ^a sacri- 
lege justly reprobated by the satirical lampoons oi the indigniMt 
fionnians. 

W^liaye nbV^, 1 tfeiiik, enumerated the priricfjpal catii^ tit t^ 
destruction of Rome, very different from those assigned tyjike.. 
poet; and if to the neglect. of emperprs, the. indifference of inagiflh 
trates, the rapacity of individuals, the rage of contetstitig f^€ticmlL 
and the liripoverisfhdient of the city, we a(dd itit MlkM sifoUm 
mouldering. ,Time^\\\e shall ha^^ the list of de^striiclioa/comjpleie. 
The few edifices that still survive, owe their existenqe. .eitt^er tQ the 
protecting hand of religion that warded, or to their oWii soUdity 
virhicli defied, the blowievelted at their ma|^ifefbM*bVig*6t' 
by malevolence. Sonie instances ol^ the iormei hisieiiiSi^m^ 



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GLASSlCAL^TOim 



€hap. XII. 



given; of ihe latter^ besides the tombs of Cestins and Metella, the 
coIumnS^f Trajan. and An^ininus stand most magnificent examples* 
Tbese superb columns are of the same materials, the finest 'w);iite 
Wtble^of nearly the same height, about one hundred artd twenty 
feet; and of the same decorations, as a series of sculpture winds in 
a spiral line frbm the base to the eapital'of each, representing the 
irars and triumphs of the respective emperors/ They formerly 
9upported each a colossal statue of Trajan and Atitoninus; these 
have long since disappeared, whjle St. JPeter and iSt. Paul have Been 
substituted in their stead, (hough very improperly, as the bloody 
scenes^ and profane sacrifices portrayed on Ae shafts beneath, are 
.31 adapted to the character and pacific virtues of apostles. How^ 
ever, notwithstanding the impropriety of th# situation, the pictu- 
resque effect is the^sam,e, esj[>ecially as the modet*n statues are pro- 
babjy of the same size^ and if w6 may judge by inedats, placed in 
the sa^ie attitude as the ancient. ' , 

To the question which I have here attempted to answer, one more 
may be added. It may be asked, what is now become of the rich 
materials., the bronze, the marbles employed in the statues, pillars, 
and decorations of this vast scene of grandeur? The bronze has 

' The Columoa Trajana is formed ofthirty-fonr blocks of white marble/ eight of 
which are employed in the pedestal, one in the base (or tonu ) twenty-three in the 
•halt, one in the capital* and one* m the summit that supports the statue. This 
celebrated column yields to the monument of London |n elevation, but it surpasses 
that and all similar pillars in the admirable sculptures that adorn all its members. 
There are tw«t thousand five hundred human figures, of twb feet average height; 
besides the scenes in which they ar^ engaged/ and the horses, standards, machi- 
nery, etc. with whicb they are accompanied. It is a, complete representation of 
Rogian. military dresses,, evolutions, standards, and edifices, and it has supplied all 
the most eminent artists, whether painters or sculptors, with most of their attitudes 
and graces. This column, one of the most ancient and most perfect monuments 
of Roman art and power united, has been exposed twice to the probable danger of 
destructipn;'once when a Dutch artist proposed to the Roman government at an 
expense not exceeding fiftedn hundred pounds, to take it down in order to raise its 
pedestal, which Is now near twenty feet under the hiodern level of thejcity, and 
again re^rect it In a mor^ conspicuous situation. Even though such precautions 
wfere to be taken, as to preclude the possibility of accident, yet the very removal of 
'such massed of marble could not be eCTected without detriment to the Sculpture. 
'Tie secoAd -daibger was of a far mo>e alfirming nature, and occurred while the . 
French were masters of Rome during the late invasion. The Directory, it seems, 
liid copceived the project of transporting both the Golumna Trajana and Anionina 
to Paris, and measures were taken to ascertain the possibility of realizing this project 
of .robbery and devastation. Fortunately their expulsion from Rome prevented 
the execution of this and some^ other enterprises equally just, and himorable. 
.Francis the First, in the Appier days of France, conceived the nobler and more 
honorable design of Adorning the French capital with a copy of this noble monn- 
mehl in bronze, and the present ruler of France, has, it is said, raised in the Place 
yendom$;9X Paris, a rivdi. column, representing his German victories in brass. 
"This latter design is ifeither unjust nor unimperial. 

The Golumna Antonini is inferior in the beauty and perfection of sculpture to 
that of Trajjan : it is also formed of blocks of n^arble, twenty^eight to number, and 
^ everj^ respect an imita^Uon of the latter. ^ 



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Chap. xn. * ^TIIROUGB ITALY. 185 

always been an object of plunder oir of theft, and of course equally 
coveted by the rapacious barbarians and the impoverished Ro-^ 
mans. Jt was therefore diligently sought Yor, and consequei^tly 
soon 4i^($peared. B^side^, thotig)i employed with profusion, and 
even with prodigalilyj yet its 50m total was definite, and easily ex- 
haustible, particularly when every research was made to discover, 
and every method used to obtain it. The quantity of granite and 
marble that decorated ancient 'Ronie is almost incalculable. If we 
, may be allowed to judge tKy the marble plan which t have alluded 
to more than once, we should be inclined to imagine that its streets 
were lined with porticos, and fofmed an endless succession of co- 
lonnades. The shafts of the pillars were generally formed of one 
single piece or blociC whatsoever their height might have been, an 
advantage equally calculated to secure theni against the influence qf 
tin^, and the attacks of wanton destruction. 

Of statues, if we may believe the elder Pliny, the number was 
equal to that of inhabitants, and seems hi fact, to have been suffi- 
cient not only to fill the temples, basilic®, and curiae, but to trowd 
the street^, and almost people the p6rticos and public wallm. 
These statues wten of marble, fortunately for their duration/ were 
beheld by all parties with indifference; and when not imn^ediately 
within the verge of warlike operations, allowed te^ stand undis- 
turbed on their pedestals, or fall unsupported and forgotten into 
the mass of rubbish around them. That this, was the ca^e we may 
conclude, from the places where several beautiful statues were 
found, such as the baths of Titus and Caracalla, where they stood 
forlfrges exposed to depredation, and were only concealed in latter . 
times by the fair of ihe buildings around them. The pillars met ]! 
with a different fate ; some were conveyed by the Exarchs to Ra- '/ 
venna, others transported ^by Charlemagne beyond the Alps, and |; 
thousands have been employed in the churches and palaces of tfie 
modern city, tn reality ancient Rome has been for twelve centuries 
a quarry ever open and never exhausted ; and the stranger, as- he 
wandprs through the Streets of *the modern city, is astonished to 
see, sometimes thrown neglected into corners, and often collected 
round the shops^ or in the yards of stone-cutters, shafts, capitals, 
parts of broken cornices, and in short, blocks of the finest marbles, 
a^ dug out of the ruins in the neighborhood. 

Yet, notwithstanding the waste and havoc of these materials, 
made 10 the manner I have described, and by the causes I have 
enumerated, I am inclined to think that the far greater portion 
still remains buried amidst the ruinii, or entombed under tlie edi- 
fices of the modern city. The columns carried away to ornament 
otHer cities, bear a small proportion to the numbers left behind, 
and of these latter, the number employed injhe decoratfons of 
buildings now existing, will appear a very slight deduction from 
the remains of ancient n&agnificenqp, when we consider that the 



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ite CLASSICAL tOtk * tHAP. Si.. 

fere^l charches at febme,« that is all the fcuildings where there |( 
any display of pillars or marbles, wer« erected in the d^ys or tlch- 
man glory, before the invasion of Italy aind the wars of the (jbth^. 
Their ornaments therefore with a few exceptions, were not dra^^ 
from the ruins of ancient Rome : tfiey are monuments of its glory, 
biit have not shared its plundcir. ' 

The eliBvation of the ground over the whole extent of the city, 
amounting in general to the height of from fourteen to twenty 
feet, and the many little hills which have risen in yarioui parts of 
Mie Campus lif artius, especially on the sites o^ theatres^ aiid bdtUsL 
and other extensive biiildings, sufficiently she^ what a mass of ruin 
lies extended belo^. ]tew excavations have been made in thiis ir- 
iiBbiai soil, without terminating in some interesting discdv^y; ^ni 
it has frequently happened that in sinl^ing a well, or id o()ening th^ 
foundations of a private house, the mason^ have been stop|>ea bjr 
the interposing bulk of a pillar or ah obelisk. One^of the latter 
was discovered thrii^e, and as often buried again inirubbish, beforb 
it was raised by Benedict XtV. The payement of the Foruin jk 
well known to exist about fourteen feet under the present level, 
and sfeveral ot the thermae remain still unopened. The portico df 
Trajan lies near twenty feet under thb foundations of churches anA 
convents. 'What treasures of art may not be contained in these 
mines; hitherto unexplored! A^hat beautiful forms of sculpturi^ 
and architecture, may still slumber in this immense cemetery of an- 
cient magnificence I 

Shonia the Roman government, when the present convulsion^ 
shall have subsided iqto tranquillity,, acquire energy and ioean^ 
adec|uate to such an undertaking, it jnay perhaps turn its attentioh 
to an otyect so worthy of it, and the dassic traveller may entertaiii 
the fond hope, that the veil'which has so long concealed the beauti^ 
of the ancient city, may be in part removed, and some grand fea- 
tures of Roman magnificence once more exposed to view. At least, 
^he materials of many a noble structure may rcrappeat, mahy a long 
fallen column be taught again to seek the Mes^ and many a god^ and 
many a hero, emerge frona darkness, once more ascend their loftt 
pedestals, and chailenge the admiration of future generations. But 
when these pleasing hopes may be realized it id difficult t6 detej>- 
mine. Rome and all Italy crouch under the iron sway of the Firi^ 
Consul; how he intends to model her various governments, and on 
whom he may hereafter bestoW her coroneis, crowns, anfl tiarasL 
is si secret con^ned t6 his owa bosom: in the mein time, pdbUc 
confidence lamjuishes, every grand undertaking is suspended, and 
it woald ^e absurd to S(|uander away expense and labor in recd-- 
vering itatue^ and marbles, whiqh may be instantly ord^rc^d t6 
j^aris, to grace the pal^fCe Or the Tuileries, or to enricit the ga{=> 

' St. I^r*ft exe«9led[. 

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du».^. iskoUGa ITALY. ifti 

llries of the Louvre, th^ genius of the m&^hi cit; inuil siifi 
brood in darkness over her ruins, and wait the hdpjiy d^y, if sucfc 
a day be ever destined to shine on Italy, when the invaders may be 
once more driven beyond th© Alps, all tjarbarikn influ^ihce be re- 
lAoved, and the talents and libility of the ebuntry left t6 act Viiii all 
thelf native energy.' 



CHAPTER XIIL 



JtfObEKNRO]^. 

Its Population— Streets— Squ^re8^]foantain8-~tombs— Palaces. 

The modern city, as the reader must have already observed^ 
possesses many features of ancient llome. the same roads lead to 
her gates from the extremities of Italy— the same aqueducts pour 
the same streams into her fountains — the same great churches that 
receivied the masters of the world under the Flavian and Theodosiah 
lines, are still opeato their descendants — and the same venerable 
walls that enclosed so many temples aiid palaces in tl^e reign or 
Aurelian, still lift, their antique towers around the same circum^ 
ference. Within this ciFCumference, ** Modern Rome!' lies extended 
principally on the plain, and scattered tbmly over the hills, bordered 
by villas, gardens, and vineyards. Its population amounted to on€) 
pundred and eighty, or perhsy^s two hundred thousand souls pre- 
yiqusto the French invasion, which, hj empoverishing the country| 
and severing from the capital one of its richest provinces^ is saiq 
to have dimmished the number of inhabitants by twenty, or even 
thirty thousand. The streets are ,well built aad lirell. paved, nar- 
rower in general thaquhose in Loladon, and wider than those id 
l^aris ; but (as the houses are not too high) they ar^ light and airy, 
pftenyerylong and straight, and not unfrequently terminated bf 
an obelisk, a fountain, or a Church. Such are the three streets 
which diverge from the jRor/a, or rather PUuza del Popofo ^' the 
Carso^ anciently the Vi^ Lata, terminatinf ^t the foot of the iGapitol{ 
the Strada del Babutno, ending in the Piaxza de Spagna, ana the 

» A medal yrm t^md not long ago. I tbluk nftar the tipmi, wiOi Ihe fbtmt^i 
liero crowned with laurel, extending a sword, with the inscription, AflMrtorl 
]Lihertatts, ( To the champion et liberty, ) on one side, and Bopie sealed, witli the 
inscriptioDy Ronia resurfi;6s, '( ttome, (hou shalt rise again, ) on th^ reverse, ittay iUlj 
ere lon^ h«fve tiint ib stHie a sf i^iil^r Daedal . 



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m GLASSICAl TOUA Cbaf. Xm. 

Strada de jRipeWa, ancTenffy. the Via Populi, leading to the Tiber; 
ndt to speak of the 5^rada GiuLia, Strada deilu Longara^ and many 
pthers. . 

The liooses^are of stone, but plastered as at Vienna^ Berlin^ and- 
other transalpine cities ; the piaster, -or stucco, is extremely hard, 
and in a climatd so dry may equal stone in solidity and duration. 
Hence it^ general use in -Italy, and its reputation even amon^ the 
ancients, who employed it not only in ordinary buildings, but even 
(Sometimes in porticos and temples; as we find in the temple of 
Fortuna Virllis at Rome supposed by many to be a remnant df the 
Republican era, though more probably erected, or rather rebuilt, 
in the Augustan age. To lis^ stucco, however excellent in its kind, 
seems only a bad imitation of stone, and conveys an idea of poverty 
incompatible with grandeur or beauty. Before I enter into details, 
I shall premise, in order to give the reader a general idea of Mo- 
dern Rome, 'that it contains, forty-six Isquares, .five monumental 
pillars, ten obelisks, > thirteen fojintai^s, twenty-two mausoleums, 
one hundred and fifty palaces, and three hundred and forty-six. 
churches ! Of these objects most have some peculiar feature, some 
appropriate beauty, to attract the attention of the traveller. 

SQUARES. ' 

Of the s.quares, the most remarkable for its extent is the PiazzA 
NQvona, which gradually rose on the ruins of tjie Circus A^onalis. 
It is adorned' by the handsome church of St. Agnes and refreshed 
by three foOntains decorated with statues. One of these fountains 
(that in then\idd1e of the square) is much admired*: it was designed 
atJd etected by Bernini. Four figures, representfng four rivers, re- 
cline on a craggy rock : on its top stands an Egyptian Obelisk ; 
from its hollow sides rushes a perpetual stream. These three foun- 
tains are so managed during the heats of Aiigust, as to inundate 
the whole square on Saturdays and Sundays, and afford a new 
and refreshing exhibition to the Roman gentry, who parade along 
in their carriages, and to the common people, who collect around 
in crowds; to behold the brilliant and enlivening scene. 

The Piazza de Spagna^ so called from the palace of the Spanish 
embassy, is large, supplied by a fountain, and adorned with several 
han'dsome buildings, but particularly by the noble flight of traver- 
tine steps that ascends fron^ it to the obelisk, church, and square, 
Delia Trinila dt Motitt. From the balustrade that terminates this 
Staircase above and borders the latter square, ^ and liideed from 
the square itself which runs along the brow of the Pincian hill, 
there opens a delightful view of Rome, Monte Mario, and the lani- 
cukim. 

Of the' Pi(Viza Cobnna I have, already spoken ; that of Monie 
Citorio commlinicates with it. This Sjquare h extremely beautiful. 



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Chap. X^. ttfttOUfiH ItAlY,^ 18Ci 

Its principal ornament is the Curia InnQedn^ima^ a pjilace erected 
Iff Innocent ^11. for the accoromodation of thie coairts of jusiice 
and for t^he officers belonging to them. Its ms^gnitude, materials, 
and architecture, are equally admired. ^ 

OBEUSKSi - 

Opposite the grand entrance of the Curia, jstan^ls an Egyp^iair 
obelisk, remarkable for its antiquity, its workmanship, and itscles- 
tinatidfT.^ It is said to have been erected by Sespstris at He^iopolis; 
it' is covered where not damaged, with hieroglyphics executed with 
uncommon neatness, and was empTpyed by Augustus as a gnOmbtk 
to an immense dial formed by his direction, (n the Campus Martius. 
Aftei' havinjg been overturned, shattered, arid buried in the ruins/ 
it was discovered repeatedly, and as often neglected and forgotten )[' 
till Benedict XIV. rescDed it from oblivion, and the late Pope,^ 
Pius YI: repaii'ed and placed, it in: its present situation^ It is the- 
third obelisk ?^hich that pontiff iiad the i^ati&faction of re-erecting/ 
to the great ornament and glory, of ilje city. ^ ^ 

Thesa obelisks are particular to Ronie^ and seem to (orm orna-, 
ments singularly appropriate, as. they connect its present beauty 
with its ancient power and tsagnificenpe. When we recoUepttbat 
their antiquity precedes the origin of regular history,, and disappearft» 
in the obscurity of the fabulous ages ; that they are of Egj^ptiaa. 
workmanship, the trophies, and perbaps'the records of lier aiicicat^ 
monarchs ; we cannot but look upon them as so many acknowledg-; 
menis of homage^ so many testimooial^ oF submission to tbe<mis4. 
tress of the Universe. " When we ar^ informed that whatever iheii?:. 
elevation or magnitude may be, they are of one solid block of gr>r'; 
nite, and yet that. tl>ey have been transported oyer many hundred* 
miles of land and of sea, we are astonished at the combination, of* 
skill and boldness that mark's such an undertaking, and sorpassei^' 
the powers pf modern art, though apparently so .much improve^ i 
in ifaechahi^cal operations* It is then parti(:ularly incumbent o^) rtl^ov 
sovereign to preserve and to.recpyer as many as possible of. th^s^/ 
Uluslrions monunrents of Egyptian skill and of Romaa majesty.. (. 
^How many obelisks adorned the,* city in the ancient tioiies, it- 
i^Ould bedfifficult to determine. Some confine, the number, to siicr. 
teen ; I should be inclined to enlarge it. however if there wereonl^i 
sixteen, nnTre than ^ne-'balf have been restored, ]x$ ten now standii 
in different squares of the city. . Another, which has bee» too..« 
much shattered for re-erection^ was employed in the reparation of 
that which stand's in the Picus^ del Monte Citdrio.. It is probable * 
that others may herea^er be discovered in the neighborhood of aa* 
Imperial sepulchre, Or amidst the'^riyns or acircus: in the dec^ira'Tj- 
tion of which edifices they seem ta have b^^o BriociimUy esfflih', 
ployed. 



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* The inost remarkable of the obelisks are^ Ihat in the Piazza de^ 
Popoio, that in tlie centre of tl^e colonnade df S. P6ter*S, and fhat 
%bich stands in the sqaare of St John. ,The one before S. Peter'^ 
stood in thecircus 6f Ner6, that is *a few hundred paces frpro ilJf 
present site, and wa» removed from the side to the front df the 
church by Sixtu»>Quintus. ^ It is a sipgle piece of granite, about 
eighty feet in lengjth, and with its pedestal and the cross that tops 
i^, ri^es to tjie bbight of an. hundred and thirty-six feet. The tT<> 
others ancienily adorned the Cirpos Maximus, ^nd were tlieqofi 
U'j^nsppftefl by t|ie above-mentioned spirited poqtiff to tl^eir preseol 
gf^u^tions* Thai ia the Piaza^ del Popoh is one 6un4re4 ai;4 ^^sH 
j^t ip height, including its cross and pedestal. That ereqted peH^ 
l|t. ^obii pueran is the highest df the obelisks^ and inQlu4ing (i^$ 
ornaipents 6i the fountain oa which it jrepbses, it ha9 an elevati6)| 
4^1 ^\ le^st ope hundred and fiftv feet above .the level of fbe paver. 
Aent The monument in London surpasses the obelisks in el^vfi- 
^pa ; l)^t its sh^t is no) a single piece| nor |s it of Egyjptiafli. gr«- 
iELfte, por i| it inscribed with t^ieroglypmcs- * • 

yotWTAiNs: 

Fy'<>fl»the obelisks we pa^ to ihe-fountains, because they are ge- 
^ei^lf^ employed m th6 decbratjop of the same squares, and some- 
ddies mited, as in it^e Piazza Navona and at 3t. John Lateran, to 
^ etjA other off to mo^'e advantage* Three only of the ^ancient 
a^6ducts ndw remain to supply modern Rome, and yet such is the 
q)B^tity they donvey, and so pure the sources' whence they derive 
it, that no citycsm boast of such a profusion of clear and salubrious 
i^e^t. Artificial fountains in general are little better than orna- 
minted pumpk, which Sometimes squirt out a scan^ thread of wa- 
t^, and'^sOtrietimes distil only^ a few drops into a ihuddy basin. 
IfeoS^ on a greater scale now and* theji throw up a coliunn, or 
fNMirlk'torrenras bccasron m'a^ require, on qertaip state days, or for 
tl«$ inmsemem of some distinguished personage ; and tb^n subside 
tW^a frelih supply enables them to renew tlita exhibition.'^ iSttch are 
ii gtoeral the fountains and cascades that adorn public walks and 
palace gat*dfehs ; and such the so much celefbrated waiter-works of 
SL GMtdt^ |fcrH, and V^safHe*; inventions which c^ be cpnsi- 
deh!Kl^6nty as pretty pfey -things calculated^, like a theatrical deco- 
rition, to act an occasional part and to furnish a nvomentary amuse- 
ntent; but too insignificant' to be introduced into the resort of the 
p6Mio, or into the walks of princes, where we have reason to ex- 
pect soKd' magnificence founded on nature ahd reality. 

How far the aPcient Romans carried this species of magnificence 
iM»fns^ vastly judge, whei^ we consider that they had undoubtedly 
l)a^lfi<i'tasie aiid the materials requisite for it. Their aqueducts 
irytihSBppKM tbemirith ifater evenrta prodigdity^ stairemaiii 



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^dingacrpss rallieff, peaetcatiag mountaidd^ and swe^ing over* 
imm^iise plains, liH they naeet m the hearfof ' the city* The edifice) 
Where they united, and yhence they sepjirated toj water their des- 
tjhed quiart^rs, was called Castellum, and if we may judge by that 
Yhicb remain^ {the J^orta Maggiore) was generally a fabric of great 
solidity and magnificence, and, as appears from the ruins of one (flscor 
^'reii near the church of St. Ignatius, sometimes ca^ed with inarble 
^nd 4(^orned i^ith marble pillars. . the number of these towers an- 
c[eD^y, 4S well as^ of the fquiitains sprmging irom them, ipust haye 
bpeq prodigious, asf Agrippa alOpe, if wemay believdPliny/ erecjed 
<^ ]|iundred and thirty df the former, and opened one hundred 
^^a^ five of the latter, and adorned them with three hundred 
D^ass or marble statues. Strabo says that such a quantity of wate^ 
^a\j introduced into the city, that whole rivers seemed to ffqw 
through the streets and down the sewefs, so that every house had 
1$^ pipes and cisterns ;suf$c1ent to furnish a copious and perpetual' 
qupply. The modern jpiomans though inferior in numbers and 
9puleace to their ancestors, have she^n equal taste and spirit in this 
respect, and deserve a-just eulpgium, not only for having procured 
^i^undance of water, but for the splendid and truly imperial 
style lu which it is poured forth for public use in the dt^erent 
^^rters. of the city. Almost every square has its fountains, and 
^most every fountain has some particularity in its size^ form, or 
i|)tuat/oq, to attract attention. The three principal however- wilt 
s^iiffice to give the reader an ide^ of the yai'iety and of (he beauty: 
<|f such edifices, especisOly as I have already described one or two^ 
4|iid may hereafter calli his attention to others which are too Inti-' 
mate|y connected with the' objects around them to be talj^en as de- 
tached pieces. 

"'Tlie Fmtana Felice in the Piazza del ^Termini on the Viminaf 
Mount, deserv^^ to be ibentioiied first, because first erected, (t 
s ^ofiplied by tj^e Aqiiia Claudia drawn from th^e Alban or rather 
ftisculaipr hills, and conveyed to lipme by channels under, and 
taiieducts above ground ; some of which are ancient, some modern^' 
.^dischar^eX. itself through a rock under anionic arcade ' ibuilt 
of white stone, and faced with tnVrble. It i^ adorned by* seyerai 
fflgantic'Slatues,. the principal of which represents Wfbses s\riktng^' 
me ro'c|c whence* the water issues. On the one siae, ^suron cop-*' 
du'cCB the Israelites ; on the other) Gideon leads his chosen soldiers' 
to the Wink of the torrent : below, four/ lions, two of marble s^nct 
tjfO i[>f basaltes ornamented. with hieroglyphics, ^ng oyer theyastj 
l^asia asif in hststeto slake their thirst. 'Thp restoration o^thisj 
^f)Ie fountain arid the ornaments which grace it, are owing to tho^ 
in)iirit of ISixtus Quintus, and it bears the na^ of 49^,^ Felice'^ 
fflappy wafer) and is supposed to be now, as anciently, peculiarly^ 
wholesome. '^ - ' 

]ai». xxivi. i>. ^ . 



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Nearly ppp6site, but beyond the Tiber and qd the br ov oF the 
Janicurum, rises an arcacle .supported by six pillars of granite. 
Three torrents rushing from the summit of the hill tumble tbroueh 
the three principal arches of this. arcade, and fill an immense 
marble basin with the purest water. They then rolf do^n the.^ide 
of the mountain, turn several miJIs as they descend; and supply 
numberless reservoirs in the plain along the sides of the r^ver^ ana 
evep beyond it in the Campuii H^artius. The lofty situation of this 
fountain renders it a conspicuous object to all the opposite hills. 
The trees that line its sides and wave to the eye through its arbhes, 
shed an unusual beauty around it; and the immense basin which it 
replenishes gives it the appearance, not. of t^ie contrivance of 
human ingenuity, but almost the creation of enchantment; 

In the Piazza diTrevi (in Triviis) on a rough" and broken rock^^ 
risQs a palace adoriied with Corinthian pilasters, and supported in 
the centre by Corinthian pillars.. It is ornamented with statues 
representing the salubrity and fertilizing powersT of the waters; the 
beneficent Naid hers.elf holds acopspicuous place among theni, and 
seems to behold with com{)1acency .'tlie profusion of her^springs. 
In the iniddle of the edifice between the columns, under^a rich 
arch stands Neptune on his car^ in a majestic attitude as if com- 
manding the rocks to open before and th^ waters to swell around 
him. Two sea-horses conducted by two Tritons drag the chariot' 
of the god, s^nd emerging from the caverns of the rock, shake the 
brine from their paanes ; while tH^ obedient waves burst forth in 
torrents on all sides, roiar down the cleftS of the crag, and form a 
sea around its base.- In the heats of sunjimer they. overflow their 
usual limits, fill the whble marble concaVijy round the fountain, 
and i:ise ta a level with the square, .where after sunset the inhabit' 
tants of the neighboring street assemble, to enjoy the united fresh; 
ness of the waters apd of the evening. \ 

.Such is the celebrated Fontona dt Trevi, the noblest work of the', 
kind' in Rome, and ^probably the naost inagnificent fountain in the 
world. The basin itself is of white marble, and t^he vast enclosure' 
alround it, is flagged and lin^ With marble of tlie same color.' A- 
ifiigfat of jsteps^ot white marWe leads down to this basin; and to' 
{ire vent accidents/ g chain supported by large' hlbcks pf granite' 
encloses the fxtei^ior border. I k,now that the arcbitjectural part* 
1^ the Montana di trevi, and indeed of the 4(im Poo/a'and Aqua 
Felice^ has been severely criticize ;^4Qd in cand6r I must acknow- 
ledge that the criticism is in many 'respects well founded; for in-! 
stance, it must he allowed thjgu the elegance tgfid lightness of the' 
Corinthian or Ionic 19 ill adaptjed tp the simplicity of a fountaitt 
where Doric would bemore appropriate, because plainer' and more 
solid. It wiH be admitted also that these edifices are broken ani 
subdivided into too many little p^rts^a process ip architectiire, as 
in painting and in poetry, diametrically opposite to greatness and 



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tiBAP. Xlii. tllROUGH ITALY. m 

to sablimityv In fine, it cannot be denied^ that the saperstrdcture 
is in all three too massiye for the ord^r, and too much encum- 
bered with coats of arms and other supernumerary decorations* 
Yet liotvithstanding these faults, and they are not inconsiderable, 
while the spectator sits on the marble border of the basing and con- 
templates the elevation of the columns, the magnitude of the edifices, 
the richness' of the materials^ the workmanship of the statues, and 
aboye all, the deluge of waters poured round htm, tlie defects are 
lost in the beauties and criticism subsides in admiration. 

TQBfBS. 

/ 

In ancient times the bodies of the deceased were deposited 
without the walls, generally along the most frequented roads, 
where their tombs arose at intervals and under various fonns^ 
shaded by cypresses and other, funereal plants, and exhibited on 
botli sides a long and melancholy border of sorrow an^ morta- 
lity. Few persons were allowed the honor of being buried in the 
city or in the Campus Martius,'and of the few tombs raised within 
its space during the republic. One only remains in a narrow street, 
the Macello di Corvi (the Crows' Shambles), near the Capitoline hill. 
It is of a solid but simple form, and inscribed with the name of 
Caius Publicius Bibulus; and as the only one of that name men- 
tioned in history is distinguished by no brilliant achievement, but 
only represented as a popular tribune, it is difficult to discover the 
reason'bf.ihe honorable exception. 

Under the emperors, certain illustrious persons were allowed 
toiiiibs in the Campus^ Martins, or in its neighborhood ; and these 
monumental edifices at length swelled into superb mausoleums, 
and became some of the most majestic ornaments of the city. Of 
these the' two principal were the sepulchres of Augustus and of 
Adrian, and although both belong to the riiins of ancient Rome 
and have already been alluded to, yet as they still form, even though 
shattered and disfigured, two very conspicuous features in the mo- 
dern city, the reader may expect a more detailed description of theoi. 

The best and indeed, the only ancient account of the former mo- 
nument denominated by way of eminence the Mau^kum, is gtven 
by Strabo, who represents it as a pendent garden raised on lofty 
. Arches of white stone, planted with evergreen shrubs, and' termi- 
nating in a point crowned with the statue of Augustus^. In the 
vault beneath lay the remains of the Emperor and of his family; 
at the entrance stood two Egyptian obelisks; round, aroseahext^ii- 
sive grove cut into walks and. alleys. Of this monument, the two 
inner walls which supported the whole mass, and the spacious vaults 
under' which reposed the imperial ashes, i^ill remain ; a work of 
igreat solidity >and elevation. Hence it is se^n at a considerable 
distance, and continues still a grand and striking object The plat- 
1. 48 



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tH CLASSICAL TOUK Chap. XlII. 



f ( t 



form on the top was foe a considerable time employed as a garden, 
"arid fcoT^red. as originally with shrubs and flowers. It is now eon* 
Verted into a sort of amphitheatre and surrounded with seats and 
benches^ where the spectators may enjoy in safety the faVorki 
emb^ment of bull-'baittng. We attended at this eiliH^ittoo, iA mhkh 
not dogs only but men act as assailants; and we thotigfht it^ although 
conducted With as mi^ch precaution, and even' humanity as it is 
inisccf{pt|ble of, too dangerous to amuse persons not aceustoioaed to 
{contemplate hair-breadth escape^;. This edifice owes its preser'^ 
yation to its solidity. It hast)een stripped of its marble, of il^ 
pilasters, and of its internal and external decorations; it has be- 
longed successively to numberiess individuals, and is still I believe 
Srivate property. Such a monument, after having escaped so 
lany chances of ruin, ought not to be neglected. 6oyerna»eDt 
.ishonld purchtoe it, should disengage it from thie petty buildings 
•Aat crowd around it and cotaceal its form and magnitude ; shoM 
case it anew with Tiburtine stone and devote it under some fCftm 
or oflier f O pnblic utility. Thus some portion of \iB former spleadolr 
ibight jbe restored, and its future existence secured as far as human 
'foresight cain extend its influence. ^ ' 

the Emperor Hadrian who delighted in architecture and mag^ 

toi^cence, determined to rival, or more probably to surpsss, t&e 

'splendor of Adgiistus*s tomb, and erected a mausoleum which froiti 

lits size and solidity was called Moles Hadriani (Hadrian's Ifole). 

'As the Campus Martins was alreacly crowned with tombs, temples, 

^^nd theatres, tie selected for its site a spot on thei opposite bai|k^<rf 

the river, at the foot of the Vatican Mount ; where on a vast qua- 

-drangular platfoi^m bf solid stone he raised a lofty circular edifice 

'surrouhdea by ^ Gorjmhian portico, supported by twenty-four 

pillars of a beautiful kind oF white marble tinged with purple. The 

Hholus ot 'contihhatiOn of the inner wall fopmed a second story 

'Mbmed with Ionic pilasters; a dome sunqounied by a cone of 

^iMss erowtied the whole fabric and gave to it the appearance of 

4 iiibsl majestic tetnp)^. To ipcreaso' its splendor, four statues 

-tMJieiilpibd the four comers of the platform, iweuty-fpur adorned the 

yprtieo'lifKl ockMipied'the'iAcerivais b^we^n ihe oolumbs; an^qual 

Hunfl)^ rose above the entablature *, aUd a proportional series 

^W&ajfied ihe niches of the second story between the pilasters. It 

els superfluous lo observe «bat the whole fabric wais cased wilii 

-taarble) or tb«» ihe statues were the work3 of'the best maalera; 

Imd it is almost unnecessary to add that this monument was cotiai- 

rl^red iBis thie nc^lest sepulchral edifice ever ereeted, and one of 

-%^ proudest ornaments of Rome, (even when she shone in all her 

^perial magnificence. \. 

'' Yet4he glo(y of this mausoleudi was transitory; its matdiless 

fMiautj daimed in vain 4he attention of afosentiBcnperord ; the g»- 

^a8 of Hiidrian, die manes of the virtuous Antoninii naoies «o 



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Cmw. tm, xttaoDcM rtALit. m 

deair tp tfiQ Roman world, pleaded io T^io top jits fireserviiti^m 
fhe hapd of time daily defaced, its prnameiitSy l^e zeiil of Hooitfii^p 
i|tripp0d it of its pillars, and the military skill .,af BeUsarins tujrae4 
^jDto a temporary fortress. The necessity of such (^.proiGKrtiOi^. 
J^cama fr.pm this period daily more visibly, ^tl^ ^^^ ^1^ W 
the Lombards, then by the Geriuan Emperors, ai\d ii| the V^off^ 
i^\m^ by its own lawless nobles, the governm^t saw the necQB- 
^ qf fecjuring a permanent post, and found none more (tefciufdl)]^ 
^ ^itu^tion and by structure fhan the Moles JEfodriaitt, which opin^ 
m^nds.the tiyer, and from its internal solidity might defy all ibn 
ij^iei^t flpeaps bf assault. The parts therefore that remaiQ,>|i^ 
mic^\iVS were adapted to this purpose; that ip part of its baftsment 
Qf platform and almost the whole of the central eircular buj^^iAgA 
t)ioiig^ stripped of its marbles, its pillajrs, its statues, ^d its eOiPfiv 
the marbles disappeared at an early era, haYing be§n employeA 
in other buildings, or coqyerted into lime and used w B^qtinit^ 
^e pijlars w.ere transpqrted to St. Paui;s iuori dellemura (witbool 
^e walls] and still adorn its n^ye; the statues despised in ^, |mr. 
ofrous age were tumbled to the ground, wedged into the wall, on 
liurled as missile weapons against the assai/ants. Spnie few hwft 
l^en di$coTereid in the neighborhopd; the greater p^rft miQf .p0S4 
i|[bly still lip buried amidi^t the ruins. The brazen cq^ or phi^ 
^pple staiuls in a garden enclosed in one of the squ^r^'of Ih^Yft:^ 
^can pidaoe; and the sfircopbagas, in which tb^ asbes of HadriaA 
wore deposited, is said to be one of the two vowiillKiffd in Um 
Coriini chapel of St. Jol^n Lateran. Inthet conrc^e of time variou 
bastions, ramparts, and outworks have been added to ^# origifiil 
bnildinj^; several houses for soldiers, proYisioos^ ,9a0UliQel^ (Mi 
ire raised around,* ^nid som^ vciry consi(ierable edfila^fl.cD«tmioj| 
^^cipus apartments, liave been erected on tbp soUd maasoTltif 
sepulchre itself. It takes its present nam^ Ctml Si jk^fih^ h^m 
i^ j^^i^ation (it i^ the pifadel of ^ome) ^nd ko».^ bronze sMM 
W If ^8^' standing with extepded wings QH its snmmit. * f i 

Wt^ile speaking of th^e^o mQp«m6nt.9 of ancient magnificaiif^^ it 
^ iinp<^ible pot t^ mentiop the Septizonjuw of SeY«rvs» and Ml 
to regret its destruction; as it b^d surviyed the disasteifS^ftOtiiby 
and suffered less during the barbarous ages than most other public 
edifices. It stood at the foot of tho Palatine Mouiit near the Gliyus 
Scauri, that is opposite Mount Celius, and the spot where now 
ff^nfls the convent of St. Gregory. It was built in the lonta df a 
gyraqaid, and consisted of seven porticos or templas^Ji^ported bf 
pillars of the finest marbles rising above one Another and tower- 

e 8 ^P a, prodigious elevfttion. Three stories remained enl^ei'at so 
ie> period as the reign of SixtusQuintus^whoorderedtfetepiHafii 
to hTe conveyed to St. Peter's, which he was then building, and. th^ 
i^aining part of the structure. to be demolished^. It would bf 
trnjuji t and dng^atefol to accuse a pope, toidioni. th* iworid { 



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m GLASdlCAL TOUA CllAf. Xtih 

Ae daine of St Peitfn, of want of taste ; or to suspect a sovereiga, 
to whom modeffi Rome is indebted for half her beaaty, of indif- 
tertince to her antiquities ; yet we cannot but lament the loss of the 
Sej[>tizonionj^, which had resisted the agency of so many destructive 
cause9,-and which whether entire or in ruins must have presented a 
fliidrst astonishing display of architectural grandeur. , 
' But, alas I all the monuments of Roman magnificence, all the 
remains of Grecian taste, so dear to the artists, to the historian, to 
the a&t{()nary, all depend on the will of an arbitrary sovereign, and 
that will is influenced too often by interest or vanity, by a nephew, 
et a sycophant. Is a new palace to be erected Tor the reception of 
an upstart family? The Coliseum is stripped to furnish materials. 
i>oe9 a foreign minister wish to adorn the bleak walls of a northern 
eastie with antiques? The temples of Theseus or Minerva must be, 
diamantled, and the works of Phidias or of Praxiteles torn from 
ihe shattered frieze. That a decrepit uncle absorbed in the religious 
dtities'of bis age and station, should lisr^ to the suggestions of an 
interested nephew is natural, and that an oriental despot should 
tindervalu6 the masterpieces of Grecian art is to be expected; 
tbdugh in both casea the consequences of such weaknes^'are much to 
be lamented ; but that the minister of a nation famed for its knowledge 
of the language and its veneration for the. monuments of ancient 
Greece, should have been the proimpter and the instructor is almost 
kcrediMe. Such rapacity is a crime against all ages and all gene- 
ntions; it deprives the past of the trophies of their genius and the 
tide^deeda.of their fame ; thci present of the strongest inducements 
io etertioOy the noblest exhibitions that curiosrity ^n contempiata : 
Itiid the fiiUire of the masterpieces of art, the models of imitation. 
To g«ard against the repetition of such depredations is the wish of 
. ei^ry man of genius, the duty of every man in power, and the com- 
noA interest of every civilized nation. * 

1 Of the tomb ef Cestius 1 have already spoken, and of some without 
the walls I may s|>eak hereafter. At present we shall pass from 
the UHBb$ of the ancient herpes of Rome to the palaces of her mo- 
4ern nobles, which now rise thick around them on -all sides, and 
idmost^Kpse their faded ^lendor. 

PALACES. 

In the first place the reader must obserye, that tbe appellation of 
falace in Rome, and indeed in^ all the towns in Italy, is taken in a 

'« How moch more bonor^le would it hayjB been to the English nation, if its 
miiilster at ConAanUnople bad employed the tDflaence which he Uien enjoyed In 
protecting the Athenian remains against the ignorance and the avai^ of the 
Ti^rklsh troofis in the citadel, by procuring an ocder. to enclose and preserve these 
admired monuments : an order which might have been procured with as much 
mm^r dMl enfMKed ilth^as JIttk &peim as ihe pehnisslon to deflide them. ' 



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Cw.XUl. THROUGH ITAJLT^ m 

jmochiQore extensive s^se Aan that in 3f^hich we are accouftmied 
to employ it, and is applied not only to the residence of thf 
^bv^reign but to thjB mansions of the rich .and the noble of ^very 
description. It follows that many edifices bear this name^ wipich 
in tbe eyes of an Englishman would $oari^I^ s^em to des^jnife ik 
and of course we may infer that many among these palaces (^ 
Rome do not perhaps merit the trouble of a yisit, and much Je^ 
the honoui- of a description. I will venture to add that t^e hur 
greatest part of these mansions are less remarkable for their externol 
architecture, than for their size and interior decorations ; a remark 
which I think applicable in particular to the pontifical palaces o| 
(he Quiriual (Monte Cavalla) and the Vatican, the exterj^ial w;allf 
of these palaces are pliastered, while the window and doorcasei 
with the angles and cornices only appear to be of stone. Even the 
ornaments of the most splendid, such as the Barbernii Odetoakf^ 
and F(irnen, are confined to pilasters or half pillars; a:nio^e of 
decoration rich indeed and pleasing {o th^ eye, bi^t inferior i^ 
l^randeur to the de^ched column and the pillared porticQ.. •Qi'aar 
xnent it is tru^ must be subservient to utility, andiristneeti Wher^ 
space is wanting, the open -gallery and spacious coto^nade ^$^ b^ 
resigned, and tt^eir place supplied by decon^roas m^re./c^inpaQf 
although Ies9 stately. However tlie extent and elevs^iij^,;^ t]]|e 
principal palaces, may perhaps be considered a compensg^i^ fof 
.the absence of grand architectural ornaments, as they uudpj^^^if 
give them a most princely and magnificent appearance. At^^U e^n|f 
the spacious courts ^d porticos within^ the vast halls. a^dloftj 
apartments with the pillars, the tnarbles, the statues, and the pAipW 
ings that furnish and adorn them in such profusion, place many of 
the Roman palaces on a level or rather raise thiem far above ti^e 
royal residences of the most powerful princes beyond the Al|i$. * 
^ Some of our En^^lish travellers complain of a y^ant of fj^inesi 
and general cleanliness iii these palaces. This complaint ' 13^ 
probably he well founded, but jt is applicable to most of. lbe.|^ 
laces on the continent, as well a^ to those in Italy; and wemaj^ 
range far and wide I believe, before we discover Uiat miiiiitfi^.ai^ 
perpetual attention to cleanlinesis in every apartment^ and. in eyilry! 
article of furniture, which prevails in every mansion iu ^f^9Ji4l 
from the palace to the cottage, and forms such a .distin|^ifi;bi|j^ 
feature of the national character. In this respect, however^ tb^ 
]^omans are not inferior to the inhabitants of Paris qr of l^Jienoa|;| 
nor can a traveller without fastidious delicacjf find any very jnst 
cause of complaint. / - n* 

It has been again objected to Roman palaces, that their m^goiffA. 
cence.is confined to tbe^ atate apartments, while ibe. reme.ining 
rooms^ even those inhabited by the family itself, remaih unfurnished,, 
neglected, and comfortless. To this it mjiy be answered that j^ 
yfptis fumU^i'^ and comfort qopvey a very different mooing ^n, 



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HI iXkssLCMLiiom Cfl!^. 111?* 

Sk!6rA6ra siii4 flotktheni cfimates ; in tfie former the object {f^ to r€U 
jMi i^t i in the latter Id exclude it : the precaatioD9 taken for tfie 

J lie are dkmetrica}ty contrary to those employed for th^ other; 
M ike carpeted floor, the soft sOfe, the well closed doer, and 
g^Bladng Are, all sO «bsential to the comfort of an £n^hxnan^ 
cite ideas of hiat and oppression in the mind of an ftatian, lA^ho 
Aeligfats itk brick or marble floors, in' cold seats, in whdows an4 
A^ors thai admit i cii^ciilatton of air, and in chimnies formed rat&e^ 
Sj T6titilate than- Watm thfe apartment. Damask tapestry, hatiging^ 
pointings, and stataei^ ate, it is true, confitred in Italy, as ih' mdift 
^^heir countries, to th^ state rooms ; bat the othet parts of their 
booiie$ did not appear to me neglected ; aAt) t think I haye seen in 
%(& third or fomiih stories of the Braschi and Borghese palait^es, 
^(phiKntient» fitl^d up in a manner which eyen an Englishmaii wouM 
cafr neat and AiHosi iMegAnt. taoreoyer, seteral palaces are in- 
il^bft^d by ftiiisAife onc6 opulent, but now reduced, and consen- 
lUaeDtly une^dal t)t>' i^^ expense of keeping such vaist edificeii M 
miiU', atid oFs^^6tt^' the magnificence of many princely afpaff^ 
iilentt. Th^ French invasion has considerably idcreasied the 
iltnkW Of such disti^essed families ; and occasioned the degrada-^ 
itof to^iiy a tf^le mansion. The neglected and minOus ap- 
kraiices occasiohbd bV such causes we may lament l^ut cannot 
,,^8Qre. • ^ 

'"' ¥d the ctlusi^ 6f dihrpidation just mentiopetf, we niay add ao^ 
ti^^* pert(apf( moM effectual, and that is ttie absence krii ft)'c^ 
^dirfor^c^ Of the proprietors. li is a itesfdrtune that ^otne 6t 
iiWrnoiit noVh palacei and villas fn Rome 1!)elofn^ to fafnHies no^ 
meifgM in i^ose poysessing sovereigri power. Thus tfi^ PAla±^ 
FUrn^'T^i t}i4 property of the King of Naples, that of MedRd of A6 
Gradd hHk^ iof Tuscany. Both these edifices, after having beed 
Itri^pecf Qp atll their valuable ornamentsr, their jmarbles, their sta- 
im, tt^iif iaintings, were abandoned to the care of a fjw haff- 
ififtvOT sei-vants, And are now scarcely preserved from feWng hito 
#tffll. Irlid fuirAiture of the Medicean palace or villa ^as conveyed 
& '^offence; that; of the Farnesiian to Naj^lei; and they toMA 
I^ffi btt[ces.ihe principal ornaYnerits ot the respective coliectionk 
T^^4HI bittejr were taiken the Herc^uTes and the celebrated groii^l^ 
Mled'%W T(^6 Fafne&e;. -from the fortoer the Venus 6t ]{le*- 
2l^t9-^[ need ^trieiAtvon no iporcl. It irf not my tetbnfidh, mi 
ft* 9! c(/nfbrrii^le, to' toy geWi-al plan, to diSscriBe ih ;d^taSl the 
feib(!i4i' c* kyefj falace. To point otkt the ptinci^f feailqi^eA 
of a few of t^e most celebrated edifices of this iind will be faBy 
rattoi^ht. 

'^tH&'tPJtid klace in the Cm^so pres^jits thre6 vast iVdntS; con- 
vJSiikii'^&md eaiirf adorned vith a public portfeo all around 
ftt ^iaircasfe is sui^pprtedi by eight pillars of oriental granite, and 
^ndlltit^ ti? a ttagrtlBfeoht galtery ihai* occupies the foWr sM^ dt^i 



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Il Chap. Xin. THROUGH ITAJLT« iSf 

i conrC^ and with several adioiaing apartments is filied( vit& |Si<Wes 
I of the higliest estimatiQik .''[^ 

t, The, PalcuM RmpoU is remarkable for its staircase, supposiBd* W 

i be ^'noblest iBRo|ne.-^It consists of four flights oi thirtj' ste^f^ 

•aeh^ ea^h step ponsists of a single piece of marb^ near tett fi&^' 
kmgy and more than two broad r it is adorned witk antiqa^ sti^ 
laes; and the walls of two no|)le galleries, to whicli H conducts^' 
iorecoYwed withf pictures, ; 

The Orrini palace owes the elevation w&ic^ renders il rem'arkabtef 
to the theatre of Marcellus, on who^e foundation^, vaults/ a^d c6K-' 
tecred ruins, il rises on a lofty eoiinepce* ^ . 

3h^ P(da%9o Giuuimani stands on Nero's, battjs^ and isado^n%d 
with a profusion of statues and colunms extracted from their riiinsi 
Thiflr eollectioQ, once reported to contain a^ove fifteen £urij(red' 
antique figures, has, I fear, bj^n much diminished since the coin- 
meilietaent of the revolutionai^y war. . ; i 

Jhe Pata»io AUteriis a df^tached edifice fori^ing a square, ma^ 
representing four fronts, all set off with arc^tectural decoration^. 
Two cdurts, a handsome portico, and several no^l^ ap^rtmenti!;^ 
glo#ing with the rich tints of Claude Lorrain, embellish the in- 
tbtm. ; 

The fcatastic. ardiitectjore of the palace of ^tcftfpcr^, in which' 
iulio Momand teems to have allowed his talent to amuse itself in 
singularity, may deserve a transient vi^lt* . 

The residence ot-Chti^na Queen of Sweden has gi ven an addV 
(ienal lustre ta the Cor^iti palace, remarkable in itself for iC^ mag* 
nftude; fomitiire, gaTdens^ and superb library, the library ^^witfi 
die oolieotian of prints annexed to it, .is said to have orkie cohV 
tanned near four' hundred tJ^oiismd votum^. The gardjeifi runs along, 
and aifl^oS^^eaeheiF the summit pf theJanicuIumv poth (he.libraW 
and the garden are open to the public, wTib may range throng^ iuS 
aparMenfts dPtlie o^e; and as^ they wander over t^e otlier niay ett- 
jejf a conqplete view of Rome extended over iiie ppposite hiilS.; a 
view^ as elsfslieal as it is bBautiful, be^ai^se reitaarked kni tielebrate^ 

iofclassioiimiBS. . / 

Jiilt Jagera pauca Martialis, 

JEtortis Hesperictum beatiora, > • - 

I'ongo Janlcull jugo r^ciimMiit. . . > '*. 

Lati collibus imminent recessus ; 

£t planus modico tnmore vertei 

Ccelo pert^uitur seii^Dior^ : 

Et, curvas nebuU i^genta Y^lle$, 

Soils luce nitet pecuHaii i , 

Puris leniter admoventur a^trfiii 

Celsa cnlmhiAdellcata vills.-' 

Hinc septem-dominosTid^remoDtea^ > 

Et totam Ucet (festlraare Romitit. ^ ' 

Martiiil lib. ly, 6p.J](if • 

' |kTlirArtfidrincbiin,lnit1tfiN»lTtoM<, 

On tht giwa dope, tbat wld* eipuidf, >• 



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^ CLASSICAL TOUR Chap. XIII. 

Opposite is one of the Farpesian palaces, vhich, Ihorigh in the 
middle of the Sfradbi Lunjmra/is sometimes called Villa FarHeriana. 
j^t^has in. reality something of the appearance of a villa, as its gar- 
dens are extensive^ and border the banks of the Tiber. The in- 
terior, though unfurirished and neglected (it belongs to the King of 
Naples) yet still interests and will continue to attract the curious 
traveller 9 till the splendid scenes whi(^ the genius of RaffaeUo has 
shed on the walls and <^ilings shall vanish, and the Loves and 
GtSic^s that now sport and smile on all sides, shall melt away, and 
Ipse their airy forms in the .damp vapors, that too often brood 
around them. 

From the villa we naturally pass to the PaUuizo Famese. This 
Edifice occupies one side of a handsome square adorned i^ith two 
fountains. It was planned and its construction directed by the bM 
architects, and principally by Michael* Angelo : its apartments were 
painted by the first artists, and diiefly by Domenicktno and Atmibal 
Carracct. It is of imm^se size and elevation, and on the whole is 
considered as the noblest palace in Rome. Twelve massive piHars* 
^of Egyptian granite support the vestibule ; three ranges of arcades 
rise one above the other round a spacious coiirt, and iuUei of noble 
apartments open at every door, and follow each other in endless 
succession. The traveller contemplates so much magnificence with 
surprise and delight, but hefearns with regret that it is founded 
upon wanton depredation : the Far nesian palace shines with the 
plundered fragments of the Coliseum. 

The Palazzo Costaguti indifferent in every other respect, has the 
waHs ojF its apartments adorned by the hands of the first masters ; 
Albano, Domefikhino, Guercino, etc. have all displayed their matcii- 
fess powers in its decorations, and thus given it a reputation to 
which its size and architecture could never have raised it. Some 
tfhare in a similar advantage added to great magnitude, distinguishes 
ilhe Palazzo MaUei, 

The Palazzo Borghese is hsufeth edifice, remarkable for its ex*- 
ipiiy its porticos, its granite columns, its loiig $uite of apartments, 
its paintings and antiques'; and still m^re distinguished by a certain 
well supported magnificence that pervades every part, and gives the 
whole mansion from the ground floor to the attic, an appearance 
of neatness, order, and opulence. It may be lidded with justice, 

.or fair lanicnliim Mciine ; 
Tb' Hesperian gardens less divUie. 
There many a eool retreat Is found 
Far rals'd o'er all the bills around ; 
The tovel sommlt, niounUng high, 
BQJoys an erer tiraQqpll sty : 
With Sana their own those regions glow, 
Thoagb «loads may hide the Ta)es bdow. 
Thy beadteoQS TilTaa towVd the sfclea 
, , .' . Wiibgenile eleration riser ' 

Bence the sef*a UIIs, and hence Is seeo 

Wh^te*er great Roiiie Can hpaat, the world"! IriUBplmit QaeeB, 




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GiUP, Xin^ THSOUGH ITALT. Ml 

that the fllustrious fiimily to which the palace belongs, has beea 
long and deseryedly celebrated for taste, and for magnificence di- 
rected by order and regQlarity.<*r' ' Maneant ea fata nepotes I " ' 

In an antichamber of the Pa/oiM Spada, stands the celebrated 
9tatue of Pompey ; at the foot of which Ciesar is supposed to have 
fallen. The history of this statue deserres to be inserted. It was 
first placed during Pompey's life, in the senate house which he bad 
erected ; and when that edifice was shut up, it was raised by order 
of Augustus on a double ardi or gateway of marfafle, opposite t|ie 
grand entrance of Pompey*s theatre. It was thrown down, or fell, 
during the convulsion of the Gothic wars, and for many ager it lay 
buried in the ruins. It was at length discovered, I believe about 
the beginning of the seventeenth century, in a partition wall between 
two houses^ After some altercation, the proprietors of die two 
houses agreed to cut the statue asunder, and to divide the marble; 
when fortunately the Cardinal de Spada heard the circumstance, and 
by a timely purchase prevented the accomplishment of the barba- 
rous agreement, and the destruction of one of the most interesting 
remfndnts of Roman antiquity. 

Another danger awaited Pompey's statue at a much later period, 
and from an unexpected quarter. While the French occupied Rome 
in the years 1798-99, etc. they erected in the centre of the Coliseum 
a temporary theatre, where they acted various Vepoblican pieces 
for the amusement of the, army, and for the improvement of such 
Romans as might be disposed to fraternize with them, and adopl 
their principles. YoUaire's Brutus was a favorite tragedy, as may 
easily be imagined ; and in order to give jt more effect, k was re-^ 
solved to transport the very statue of Pompey^ at theieet Qf which 
the dictator had fallen, to the Coliseum, and to erect it on the stage. . 
The colossal size of the statue, and its extended arm, rendered it 
difficult to displace it ; the arm was therefore sawed off for the 
oonveyan^^ and put. on again at the Coliseum ; and on the second 
removal of the statue, it was again taken off, and again replaced at 
tbe Palazzo Spada. So Iriendly to Pompey y^in the republican en^* 
thusiasm of the French I So ravorable to the arts and antiquities 
of Rome is their Love of Liberty ! 

The Palaxxo Barberini^ besides its paintings, its statues, and its 
vast extent, possesses a nOMe library, which, on certain days in 
every week, IS open to the public; a species of patriotic magnifi^ 
cenoe whidi compensates whatsoever architectural defects critics 
may discover in the exterior of this palace. 

I shall conclude this enumeration of palaces with the Palazzo Co^ 
lonna, the residence of one of the most ancient and most distin- 
guished fiimilies in Rome, ennobled bf its heroic achievements, and 
immortalized by the firiepdship and the verses of Petrarca. 



'May the same kU attend their posterity. 

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SM ' CLASSICAL TOllE GHir. tm.^ 

GloriosaCoIonna, Id cui 8'appoggia 
H(»tni speranza, e '1 gran nome Latino^ 
, Ch' anoor dod torte dal Teracamino 
' ' L' ira di Glove per Tootosa pioggia. > ^^onetto x. 

Tha exierier of this apansH>n is indifferent ; but its extent, its yasli 
iantt, itH gardens, and its farditore^ are worthy the rank and dig- 
flitl^ oif iis. pr<^ri€itQn 1(9 library is spacious and ^ell fiHea ; it^ 
atdtreafta if Kn(dd witb status; and its apartments are filfed witl^ 
pHiiltiog§.hf.tbe first nia^tefs ; but its principal and cl^aracteristiq 
t^j^9 is it» hall^ 6r Fath^ gallery, a m6st magni^cent apartment)^ 
of nfore thin tW9 hundred and twenty feet in length, and forty in 
iOMdlb* Buppotted by (Corinthian, pillats, and pilasters of beaat^j 
f»lyelk>w marUe {giallo atkim, antique yellow), and adorned on 
tM sides tad ^ultad ceilings with paintings and gildings inier-j 
4iQg^; so thai it presents^ on thewhole> a scqne of splendor ana 
beHaijf s^OB ecpu^tod even in Italy*' 

' Glorious Colonna, ptUar of the ftate. 

The prop,, on which oar hope, oiir name renes, 
Wlilch, etendlng flrm, maieitie, and elate, 
' IrareealltheeogiTfiiryof t|ie>Ue8. 

The i>r£lei|iPflfice, Cokmfia merits the title,, and supports the character of an 
OldRoinaD ^na^r. Qe raised and maintained a regiment agaidst iHe ktyiien 
of his counjLry; and when obliged to |j6ld, he submitted with digiAty, wl(&0i4 
^^c^dlhg'to any* mean compiianee. Though aftnbst ruined hf the exaetibtaffol 
AiB Frenift; antf by the sabseqiieiit injuistioe of tlie NefpoUUri G<»rernmoqi, ^ 
^Mgfii to jseB not. only hH plQiui;es, hut evei^ the utensils of his kitchen, he yet Im 
W public spirii' to^ i^re^nt the Pope with a state -coach and six horses, to enabte 
i|im to cipter Kome with becomii^g ^tgnity. 

' iOlfih)i Roman palaces, maiiy* 6f ^ht6h have been eriected by fher t^himim 
ij^lMfonitf of dtfferenv popes, 6lbteir speaks with adralr/Mioii, but ^Hh seyere oeat 
1111%; " Hie; are/' aa js he,, (eh* 7| )' '* the mo^t costly monumepts of elej^anc^^api 
fOhitiMle; the perfect arts of architecture, painting,, and sculpture, have ij^n 

So^tituted in their service, and their galleries and gardens are decorated wltlt'^tM 
o]^ preciods'^orks cT antiquity vHiUch taste or vanity has ifrom|Aed them t90il» 
Kct.*^ The Ju4snient*of the historian seenu, on thi& occasion, as Indeed ob a |Nf 
odftns/tD'he bfaased by 4he imiii^ices of the i^^sophfst.. Tq raise (Mid odM 
fil^jfrtmi whatever 1^ ^e tb^ recommendation to t)ie notice ot^he sovereign, tt 
the expense of the country is criminal, but unfortun^teiy too' QOnifnbn in all iprStm 
meqts ; in ours, free and republican as it is, as Wdl ^ tii cfUh^ri cdhdudted'otf tkot^ 
kikifbnrf «h(f ^Mh principles. Whether tbiea^ tavorltes be tie hastihr<IS( of ItUlgi, 
or tba iie^i0>^<of pQpes,,^^ a flatter of |itt]e consequence to the public ; for ^oi 
iHlihe l|(tof ii^B, ^eand^l ^ less* yet the inconvenience and the exl;>ense are 
Moa^i ip. point of < dlgnlt;!^^ the former, have no ^ui^erlority to' daitiif, ^nd A kw 
tirdntj, the^^^^W^df different pontlfft may, fl)elieve, enter th« lifts agtinflCMM 
royal favorites, without having any r^aon to blush at the oompariasn: 



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i^. jt^. THUdUGH iTAlT. SUl 

CHAPTER inr. 

Pootifieai VaisLtes: the Laterai^the QMirinal— th^ Y^i^<^°« 

' Wb^VOw proq^d^ thetbsee pontiifi^al p^aiQes. Tb9 i^toi?«ii 
maiMl^ close, to ^ ^«eriarchal church of jtiiai namei ciod if^t afft 
Jointed foe die rw<i#aee. of the Bishops of Rome, at the ^oi^: tint 
as the adjoining BasUiqa was cooterted into a church by Qof^s^r 
tine*' It had fallea into; ruin, and was reboiU by SUmh$: ^uintus. 
A part only is now reserved for tb^ aooomfnodation of the ipoy^dl^ 
fFb^ be comes, to perform service at St. John's,. , th® ipain po^ 
of tbe building was ti|rpi$d into aji hospital for the reoeptioo <tf ,iff p 
bandred ^nd 6fiy orpbaot^ by Ipnocent XI.,Jt presents' tMa<» 
ttwum, of great eaileQl .apd simplicity, and strike«^ tbe eye by its 
«itgtttiide and eleirattoB*. 

TheQuirinidpafaicfi {tfqnte CwmUo}is become, from the loftiiwsp 
fsd sidfiNrlty of its situation^ thq ordinary,, or at least/tl^snipm^ 
residence of th^ RomM poMiff* Jts ex|er9>r pce^eots \wq tfi^fifrenUi 
plain and unadorned; the court within is about three hundred' and 
fifty feet long, and i«ter ^wo^ fa«Hi4red wide. A broad and lofty 
portico runs along it oin ^very side, antl terminates in a grand 
staircase^ copductiog to the"^ papal apartmentid, to the gallery, and 
the chapel, all on a grand scate, and adorned with fine paintings. 
fii the ^oU^ve and other deeor^ons, the style i« siipple and* uui^ 
ferm,^ and such as seen^ to. becpme the grave imostematioiw <^lr 
Tdetor of a christiw prelate. The a4Joifiii]g, gardens are spa^eioit^^ 
l^freshed by severi^ fountains, and shaded by proves of Imur^h 
{line^ flex, and poplar. In the recesses, arbors, %ni alleys^ «ri 
itaiitea, umn, and other anticpiei ornaments^^placed with miicbt judg*- 
qeac^.aod pPiiiMU^.9^ tery picturesque effect. Ia.othefr,^fls|)i^nii 
the gardens are in the same style as the edifice, and exhibit magni- 
ficence only in their extent'. 

The square before this palace is remarkable for an Egyptian 
m\Mt ejected jA it 6y Oie late Pope. Two iltMttiy^, V^MmihUi 
^^i^i'hbi^fiMbf ^yo^iig intffi, St^nd, 6ilel od e^i(»«^'iar'fM 
obelisk, and give the hill the appellation of Monte CavaUbi Th&f 
if^ of clbfossM liiie^dn'd etq^iilltiEi beaoty; dre 6u|^pOl^iI ii te^e^ 

Wiii:mbr and P6\M, dltboagh ther inscription i$^, AMihm 

» 
" ■ "< • t 

t Juvenal menttons egregioi LatemiwnmiadBi (the magnificent templet of the 
Lateran), as sur^oiupded h^ the hlcyo^^ cohbHs of N^ro, ^ho put the proprietor to 
death, confiscated his estates, pod seized tits palace.. U conlinued at the dtspoisl 
of the Emperors tUl the reign of Gonstantine. 



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Jim CjUssjCAL TQm ciuf.xnr- 

luid BaoephalaSy and are acknowledged to be the works of some 
greaC Grecian master. They were transported by Gonstantine from 
Alexandria, and erected in his baths which stood in the neighbor- 
hood*; and from thence they were conveyed, by order of Sixtas 
Qaintus, to their present situation. . The erection of the obelisk be- 
tween these groups has been eensiir^d by some, as taking from 
their effect, and oppressing them by its mass : but, as it is ad- 
mitted that they were ma'de not to stand Insulated, but probably to 
adoru the side or angle of some edifice, perhaps a mausoleum, and 
even, as appears from the roug[hness. of their back parts, to touch 
Ae wall, and^seem as if springing from it, their connexion with the 
obelisk must be considered as an improvement and an approxima- 
tion to their original attitudes and accompaniments. 

The Vatican hill retains its ancient appellation, and give^ it to the 
palace and church which adorn iis summit and declivity. WbeUier 
this appellation took it& origin from the influenise of some local di- 
tinity, which was supposed to manifest itself in omens and pre* 
dictions, more frequently on this spot tKan elsewhere, as Aulus 
G^llius imagines; or whether, as Yarro asserts, the god himsdf 
takes his title from the first efforts of thc^ inftint voice at articu* 
lation, over which it seems he presided, is a matter of little im- 
portance; from whfch we pass to the recollection of the pl&stng 
imagery of Hdrace, so well known to otir early years : v . 

v. — < ^UtpatcnU 

FlumUiis rip», simul et iocosa 
' Bedderet laudes tibi Yaticani 

^ . MdBtis imago. > — Od. n.lib. 1. 

But I know not whether these sportive ideas have not, in the minds 
of most of my readers, given way to impressions less pleasing; and 
whethef the accents, of the echo have not been drowned in the 
thunders of the Vatican, that have rolled through so many ages, 
andVesounded so long and so tremendously ila every English ear. 
But' be that as it may, the Vatican has long ceased to be the forge 
(tf spiritual lightnings, the grand arsenal of ecclesiastical weapons, 

" Annamentaria coeli,"* , 

9nd ages have now elapsed since the roar of its thunders has dis- 
turbed die repose of the universe, or with fear of change perplexed 
inonarchS'^ ^ 

^ Thje Vatican is now the peaceful theatre of some of the most 
V^ajestic (ceremonies of the pontifical court ; it is the repositojry of the 

* Wben Id applausive fhoutetby name 
. . Spread, from the theatre arMBd, 

FlMtlng on thy own Tjrber'fl strtem, 

And EcbOt playtal nymph, returned the foaDd.-Franetiw 

* AH the magazine of wrath aboTe.-J^ry((eii, « ; 



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Clup. ICl V. TfiROtJefl, ITALY. ioS 

riecords of ancient science, and the temple of the aftis of Greece, an4 
Rome. Under these three heads it.commands the attention^of etery 
traveller of curiosity, taste, and information. The exterior, as i 
hare alceady hinted when speaking of palaces in general, does nol; 
present any grand display of architeiitural magnificence, nor eveii 
of uniformity and symmetrical arrangement ; a circumstance easily 
accounted for, when we consider that the Yatican was erected by 
different , architects at different aeras, anii for very different pur- 
poses ; and tharit is rather an assemblage of palaces than one regular 
palace. It was begun about the end of the fifth, or the beginning; 
of the sixth century, and rebuilt, increased, repaired, and altered 
by various pontiffs, from that period down to the latter years of 
the reign of the late Pope, when the French invasion put an end, 
for some time at least, to all improvements. 

AH the great architects whom Rome has produced were in their 
days employed, in some part or other of this edifice, and Brdmante, 
RaffaellOf Foniana, Madema, and Bernini, successively displayed 
their talents in its augmentation or improvement. Its . extent is im- 
mense, and covers a space of twelve hundred feet in length and a 
thousand in breadth. Its elevation is proportionate, and the num*^ 
ber of apartments it contains almost incredible. Galleries and por-^ 
ticos sweep around and through it in all directions, and open M 
easy access to every quarter. Its halls and saloons are all on a 
great scale, and by their multitude and loftiness alone give an idea 
of magnificence truly Roman. The walls are neither wainscotted 
nor hung with tapestry; they are adorned or rather animated by the 
genius of Raffaellp and Michael Angelo. The furniture is plain and 
ought to be so : finery would be misplaced in the Vatican, and would 
sink into insignificance in the midst of the great, the vast, the su'b^ 
lime, which are the predominating features or rather the very 
genii of the place/ The grand entrance is from the portico of St. 
Peter's by the Sca/a Regta (the royal staircase), the most superb 
staircase perhaps in the world, consisting of four flights of marbl0 
steps adorned with a double row of marble Ionic pillars. This 
staircase springs from the equestrian statue of Constantino which 
terminates the portico <jn one jside; and whether seen thence, or 
viewed from the gallery leading on the same side to the colonnade^ 
forms a perspective of singular beauty and grandeur. ; 

The Scala Regia conducts to the Saia Regia or regal Hall, a roooi 
of great letnglb and elevation which communicates by six large fold* 
ing> doors with as many other apartments. The space over and the 
intervals between the doors are occupied by pictures in fresco re^ 
presenting various events, considered as honorable or advantageous 
to the Roman Sefe. Though all these pieces are the works of great 
masters, yet one only is pectiliarly beautjful ; and that is the trium- 
phal entrance of Gfogory XI. into Rome, after the long absence 
of the pontiffs from the capital daring their residence at Avignon. 



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i06 CXJkSSlGAL TOUR Gn^. y^, 

?bi8 composition is by Vasari^ and is perhaps jtiis ipasfer^jM^, 
hebattle of I/^ani^p^ in which the united fleet of the Italian powerf 
j^nder the command of Don John of Austria und under the ^uspiqe^ 
^ Pius y. defeated theiTurks^ and utterly broke their payal po^i^er 
m then so terrible to £urope, is justly ranked: amongst the mos^ 
£Wious achieved of the Roman pontiffs, an4 forms a most 
»ppf opriate ornament to the Sala Regia. Upfprtunately the skill of 
tibe art^ist was not equal to the subject^ and the grandeurinfilifi^ Q^ 
2be action is lost in (indistinguishable confusion^eloij^y and abovje )f)i 
wiiii aiitegpri'^^^ representations, the massacre of St. 9arthoI6n^ew, 
■ itie memory of 'such an atrocious and horrible event musjfc li^ 
JreViBrVed, ^piild be bett^ placed at Paris, whejre ij y^^ perp^ 
toted, t^an at JRonie; and in t|ie ^lace of t)ie Lp,uyire ^^aeiiDe il 
Vas planiaeA,^ than in the Vatican. 

Occidat ilia dies «eyo, nee postera credant ' 

9»tn\i : nos eertte taceaknus, et obrata mulUk 

Nq^ l»gi jk9^9 patifewiar erlmina gentii.-*iSla(iiM. ■ / 

^bi^ F^P thif patriotip and bea«yo)eii^ wifih of a worAy Frendi: 
S)j|gi^tfi|t9.(t^e (^lance^lor UHapkqi) aad in thi9 wish etery liamaiii 
Ilf^4 y/i)^ reia^dily joip. the humiliation of the Emperors Henry EV* 
(^ F^fid^Y:/c B^baro^a, ought jiqft to be ranked anato^ the tKH 
^fl^ 9f tb9 ^y 3pe. U relepts fiore disgrace on the iittolflal: uA 
^Qfliio^ri^ f^o^fb, wk9 ^9^^te4 such marks of fiubni^rion, muf 
% i^ 4(^^i^A s(^ypr«iJfiP9 wHio fouad themselves obliged to 
l^ye theifk. ^ all even^, it di^^s not become the coottDOo Mhm 
#f $^hri^tians t^ rejqtee ii| the humiliation of his sons^ or to blazo^ 
fi^ wf lis of i^ p^hq^ with the moauments of their weakoeas or 

«fiUE^€|SG9n^iO^ 

^1^ Qfl^ ei^ ^ thp S^ S^ is the CappfUa Pmlmsk (the Pa^me 
V^^VpI^f M ^^^ I^ec£^se t^^mk by Paul IIL The ^v^v i$ supportr 
frt^ Pf^pbyry pillars an4 be^^s a i^bemade oi rodi crystri :,tbcl 
f!^^ ^1^ a^^ned with various paintings filling the spaofif^ balween 
^ (Corjothisfu p^a^|era^ i:he whQle howevor, Ihdif gli rwh atid m^ 
Hi^^t, looks .4ark and cuqibieirspoiie* 

., «T9^ar<is i|he o^her end ^ the ball, on the left, a ^oot apmis wnm 
ti^fi!iQmr$^<» ^isiina buUt by Si^tus IV. and eelelirated toiH/i p«Dt^ 
mgsin fresco \^y Mi^bael i^n^lo anibis 9(4ioHirs. IM^erpMit* 
IHgii^gf hipti qoyc^r the walls apd vaukei ceilings^ are its'ta)^ oiia- 
i^^f&i^ The f^ous '' L^Sit Jfuclgment '' of^Midhael ^ngelo occil^ 
jff^ QA^.^4 entirely. It&^eauties and defeats ar^ well kaawii wbA 
may ii^ c^Oiprisecl i^ one $hoirt observation ; that its merit Consists 

' - 3e that foul day, pollated by our crime, 

< ' ^ Efa«UforeT«rf^ the book or Time; 

Thai 4M )«t future agea dUbelieve ; 
let u» at least iu contrite silence grieie, 
M pfty that <|eep and endless night aw liMfc 
.^. Ili«l»rTOWQftli'8CC»r««n»«»k!l<W; , ., .,^ 



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4^. tVtf XHROn^H ilAlY. lOT 

ji^aire ip the separate figures than in .the arrangement or effect of 
j^e yipple. The upper part glows with brightness, angels, and 
^ory .: on the^right ascend the elect ; on the left, the wicked blasted 
.witb lightning tumble in confused groups into the flatoiing abysf. 
The Judge stands in the upp<er part^ supported oh the douds and 
iarrayed yn the splendor of heaven : he is in the act of uttering tlve 
^drefi^ful sentence. Go, ye cursed, into everlasting fire; his arms Ati 
uplifteid^ his countenance burns with indignation, and his eyes (las& 
]b|jghtnin^« Such is the Messiah in Hilton, when he puts fortli hiji 
,terror9,and burls his boltd against the rebel angels; and so is ^hfc 
des<;ribedby an eloquent French orator, when he exercises hia 
JudQI^.ents on sinners at the last tremendous day. 

Sijcpilar representations either in prose or verse, in languageor m 

{ajnting, are sublime and affecting ; but I know not whether tbe)r 
e suitaoTe to tbe calm, the tranquil, the majestic Character of thh 
awfu} person who is to judge the world ir^ truth and in jtuticei 
Nothing indeed is so difficult as to 'portray the features^ the atti^ 
tudes, and the gestures of tbe Word mcarnate. He was not wkhoot 
feeling, but. he was above passion. Joy and sorrow, pain and 
pleasure^ could reach his soul, for be was a man ; but they co^ld 
not cloud its serenity, for he was God. Benevolence brought hW 
irom heaven; it was therefore his prevaSing sentiment, and may 
be supposed to influence his countenance, and to shed over M 
featureis a perpetual expression of benignity. , To obey 'of 'to ste^ 
,pend the laws of nature was to hioi e<)ua% easy ; a miracle coil 
^nim no effort and excited in him no surprise. To sul)mit or te 
.command, to suffer or to triumph, to live or to die, were alikb 
welcome in their turns as the result of reason and obedience. To 
do the will of his Father was the object of his mission, and every 
ptep that led to its accomplishment, whether easy or arduous, was 
, to him the same. What poet shall dare to describe such a character? 
What painter presume to trace its divine semblance? No wondelir 
then that the greatest masters should have failed in the bold attempt; 
and that even Michael Angelo by transferring, like 'Homer, the pas- 
sions of the man to the divinity, should have degraded the awfUl 
,object> and presented to the spectator the form, not of a God, but 
of an irritated and vindictive roonardi! If Michael Angelo hais 
jfailed we can scarcely hope that other painters can succeed;- and 
ve find few> very few representations of Ihe Saviour, on which ibe 
eye or the imagination can rest withr satis&ctfon. The divine inCiHila 
of Carh Dolce are, it must be acknowledged, beings of a superMr 
pature that seem to breathe the aii*s and to enjoy at once the itf« 
^nocence and the bloom of paradise; and his Savtotur of the Werklia 
ithe act of consecrating the bread and wine is a most divine figure, 
^very feature of whbse seraphic face speaks compassion and mefcy ; 

Love without end, and without measure, grace. 



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904 CLASSldAL TOUtt tidAF. XW: 

ftui loVd and mercy are not (he only attributes of this sacred Per* 
sonage ; justice and holiness accompany his steps, and cast an awfiil 
majesty as a yeil around him, and these grand accompaniments of 
jthe Godhead are sought .for in rain in the mild, the soft, I had al- 
most said the effeminate figures of Carlo Dolce. Four, I think, I 
have seen of a happier touch and more elevated description. Otie 
is in the King of Prussia's gallery in Sans Souci and riepresents Christ 
in^ the act of raising Lazarus ; and three were in the Palazzo Ju»^ 
4tmani at Rome. In one Christ restores life to the son of the widow 
at Nain; in another he muhiplies thejoaves in the desert; in the 
third he gives sight to a blind man. The three last, I think, by An- 
mibal Carracci. In all these noble paintings, beneyolence, compas- 
sion, and power unconscious of exertion, mark the features and at- 
titudes of the incarnate God, and give at least a distaqt and feeble 
glimpse of his majestic demeanor. 

Opposite the Cappella SUtina folding doors open into .the 3ala 
JDueaie remarkable only for its size and simplicity. Hence we pass 
to the Loggie di Raffaelb, a series of open galleries in three stories, 
iining the three sides of the court of St. Damasus. These are call- 
^ the galleries of Raffaelb, because painted by that great master, 
•or by his scholars. The first gallery in the middle story is the only 
^ne executed by RaffaeUo himself, or to speak more correctly, partly 
i)y1iim, and partly by his scholars under his inspection, and not 
unfrequently retouched and corrected by his hand. In the thirteen 
arcades that compose- this wing of the gallery is represented the 
History of the Old and part of the New Testament; beginning with 
4he Creation and concluding with the Last Supper. The plan, the 
arrangement, the ornaments of these' Celebrated pieces, are in ge- 
neral great and beautiful ; the fancy and expression oftentimes rise 
tp the grand and even to the sublime. Soine critics have ventured 
10 find fault with the execution in detail, and the coloring has been 
e^nsured frequently. 

The first compartment represenu the Eternal Father with arms 
and feet expanded darting Into chaos, and reducing its distracted 
elements into order merely by his motion. This representation is 
much admired, particularly by French connoisseurs, and if we may 
credit tradition; astonished Michael Angelo himself, who is said to 
have accused Raffaelb of having; borrowed the figure of the Eternal 
fkom the Sistine chapel ; from this chapel the latter artist was then 
excluded by the express direction of the former, who it seems fear- 
ed either his criticism. or genius. The figure of the Eternal thus 
represented may be poetical and sublime, even as the Jupiter of 
Homer, but (<t verbo audada detur^) it excites no admiration and 
. deserves liulepraise. If it be difficult to represent the son of God, 
who '' became man'' and '' dwelt amongst us," without impairing 

« If I nay be^bbM enough so to speak. 



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Aei^vity of his ^acr^d persOn, and ile^fading bis majestifs for^i^* 
iKbat tb^itt can the pafnt^r employ^ what art c^^ he call into play, 
to portray with Jl^ecpmlng jooajgnificence thd Eternal himself, tbQ 
ipoddl of beauty^ tbe'grand archetype of jierfectiop '' wh^^w^Heih 
^ ii| light ipaccessibie; whom no porcaihath' ^en or can see ? *' 

It is true that the prophet SaoieLhas introduced ^ Almighty ia 
,a visible form, and under the eifipbatical appellatioii of the'* An- 
diei^ of days " ^^nti^red, with the guidanee of theheftvenly spirit, 
to trace a mj^terious aod obscure skeitcb' of the Eternall'' V Wlifle 
Ibeherd/' say$ the prophet, ^Uhrones were ala^^j : then the An- 
cient of days took his seat : his garnient wai shining as snow : the 
hair Qf bis head as the punst wool. iSis throne was ragingflamei: 
hts> wheek consuming fire. . A torr^t blazing and impetuouis. rptled 
before him: thousands of thousands Ainist^red. unto him, and ten 
thousand times ten thousand waited in his presente. 0e sat as 
ludge and the books were opened." In this description one only 
circumstance j^onnected with the person of the divincty ts'menUoned. 
The prophet seems ju> re^rafauwith reverential aw.efroin such a. sub- 
ject, and expatiating pn the garments, the throne^ the ministerilig 
spirits, he leaves the ijideacnbahle form to the imagination, or rather^ 
to the religious terror of the reader. Paintef s and poets would do 
well to imitate this holy discretion,^nd:torefraifci from all attempts 
to einbody th£r Eternal rnind^ which by (pojafining the energies of 
pure spirit within a human form, degrade omnipotence; anddisfi-r 
gure the original of all that islovcdy ih the heavens and on|be eartt^ 
by marking it with the peHsha^le features of hun^an decrepitudd. 
Besides^ in the. picture now before us, it is' not the JFer^f of the 
Creator that composes the disorder of chaos. Mo^ his bandit and 
jfeet are employed to separate the warring 'elements aind confine 
them within their respective bfoundaries. This is an idea .bQi:de]h- 
ing upon the burTesque and perfectly unworthy the lo^y conception!^ 
of Raffaello. How different^the i^entiment conveyed in the sublime 
language.of tha Scripture. No efifbrt, no action even, was requisite* 
Chaos vStood ready to 'obey his will» and nature aros^ at hjs word. 
''8e said, let.Light Be, |indLig;ht Was I-7-lle spake and they were 
Q^ade : he commanded and they were created."' 

To the encomiums passed in gen^aLon the decoraliokis of ibese 
galleries, I need not add that the inte.rm«diate oi:nameQ|s, sudh ^s 
Uie basso relievos, which are supposed jto be antiques taken Irom 
die halls of the different iherm8B> and the arabesques which sepa- ^ 
rate and grace the different compartments,.are mUch aiM) justly ad- 
mired. From one of the galleries a door opeds inip die Camere 
de Raffaello. , [ ' , 

The Ccmiere i^ RaffaeUo are a range of halls totally un/urnished ' 

and uAinfaabited. As the walls from the floor are .covered with 

figures, furniture could only conceal their beanties ; and the busy 

bands of inhabitants, it is feared, might damage thedeli(rate.ti||i,p or 

I. H 



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ltd GLAltelOtL TOtft C&AP. tlV. 

nieer features of some of these laTaluaMe compositions, ^bey are 
tberiefore accessibta only to the yisils of the traveller apd to the 
hbors. of 'the artist, and are thus consecrated as a^ temple to tho 
genios of painting;, and to the spirit of 'Raffaello^ Jhej hav6 not 
howeyer passed over thre^ centuries without losing some pofij/on' 
of their origmal lustre, anfl p^iyingj tribute to the supreme decree 
that dooms man and his works to decay and to death. But their 
dl^gradatfbnf Is nqt to be attribuled to their innate frailty, or to the 
linavoidable depredations of time ; but to folly ^d perversity, or 
rather fo ignorance and stupidity. When the arnay of the Empe- 
ror Charles Y. took and plundered Rome/ a guard was established 
IB these very hall^,' and fires were Ugbted in the middle of each 
room for their accommodation. The consequences of this deed, so 
dharacteristic of the barbarian, horde of the German Emperor, are 
saflldentto account for the faded tints and obscure shades of ipanj 
bJF these celebrated pieces, without the influence of dampness, which 
cannot be supposed tp exist on a site So elevated, and in so dry 
IT cKmate; or to the gtjilt of negligence, s6 incompatible with that 
love of the arts, 'and that princply encourageipent of genhi^ whicK 
has so ]apQ been the predominant spirit of the Koman government. 
. Two antichambets large and paiated by great masters, lead to 
Ae first hall, called the^Sato di Constantino, becsmse adorned with 
Ae grand achievements of thatfchristiaa^herO; and thence to the 
second Camera, where the story of Heliodorus firom the MaCtabees, 
Ae' interview of Pop0 L6o and Attila, the miracle of Boisena, and 
above aH, the dieliverarice of St. Peter from prison^ attract and 
fharm the eye. Xhen^follow the third Camera with the School of 
Ae Philosophers, the Debate on tlje Holy Sacrament^ the Judgment 
of Solomon, and Piirnassus with its groves of bays, Apollo, the 
Ifuses, and the poets whom they inspired : and the fourth with the 
/wccnefio deiBchrgo, the victory^of Pop<5Leojc>ver the Saracens at 
Ostia, and th^ Cof'oh^tffn of Charlemagne. Art these are the works 
6f Raffiatellp ; alt masterpieces m their respectivje kinds ; standards of 
good tallfte and grand* execution, and considered as the models of 
perflSclion. They present all the different species^ of painting, all 
Ae varied combinations of light and shade, all the singularities of 
alftitude, alt the secrets of anatomy ; in short all the difficulties and 
aR the triumphs of the art. Hence these apartnients are considered 
as Ae great SchooV of painters, who flock from all parts to con- 
template and to imitate the wonders of the pencil of Raflaello, and 
X6 catch, if possible, in this i^anctuary of his genius, some spark of 
Bis creative soul, some portion of his magic: taftnt. 

It may perhaps be. asked, to which of these celebrated per- 
ibrmances Ae preference is given. The answer is difficult : for al- 
Aough these paintings have been so long the subject of considera- 
tion, and their merits so fully and so accurately understood and 
defined, yet Ae masters of the art' have not beej^ able to fix Aeir 



•i. 



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Cmmk lOV. TttR0tl6fi ItALt. At' 

rMatiT^ etoMleiioe, or pronounce oi^tb^iAr^st^ective Bifj^ierfCf. 
Cach ifi fe(t^^ha3 some peculiar beauty^ /some ^^haracteristlc^cbartif 
^bieh gives it a partial advantage bnt cannot entitle it to a gcfneraJL 
preference. Besides^ 'each nation has its propensities Sfod. every 
profe^km its bias^ which imperceptibly inflaence the taste, eyen in 
the arts, and decide th^ opinion perhaps in painting itsell^ - * '^ 

Tfceise who love. to contemplate a cr<owdof ^gifres, all anjmatefl 
by strong emotions anci engaged In the tonuik iirithout being lost in 
the confusion of some grand event; and those who delfght in formi 
alraineiji by some unexpected, exertiitfei and features distorted' bv 
some sudden and i^pierious passiop, wiU dwelt with complacency; 
Vke the Clerman^ onthe victory of Gonsti^itine, or like ihe French- 
warn, on the eonflagreition of the Borgo. 
, The En^^shman who delights in the calmer expression, and die 
tranquil scenes of still life^ stands in silence- before the school of 
^ihens ; enjoys the easy an,d dignified attitudes and the expressive' 
bat i^rene conntenainces of the different philosophers, ^^e Ita- 
lian, accustomed to the wonders of art, and habitnated fron) his 
iniMiey to early dMcrimioation, admires the two aerial youths (hat 
pursue Heliod^rus^^ and glide over the pavement without seeming 
tO'toudi its surftice^ dwells nith rapture on the ang^Hc lorn^ ^a,t 
waters 8t. Feter and shidd's a celestial. light, a' beam of paradise,' 
over the gloom of the dmageon-^ut like the EnglisHman he resti^ 
tnally oil the architectural perspective, the Varied but orderly 
Sroups,'the majestic figures, and all the comlnned exc^^ncies of 
die matchless School^ "" . * ' * 

Yel votwithstanding the acknowledged superiority of this piece. 
Ihe theologiah will turn with reverence to the awfcd assemblage of 
divine apdh^man beings; the union of holin^sif and leahltng id 
Ae saints of the (Hdand in th^ doctors of the New testament; ti 
flliort^ of glory above and dignity J}el5V that fiH the pj(^9 oppo- 
iite, and give a just representation «f the sublime objeetfl or hfa 
professfon. The poet, on ibe otheir hand, led by classical i9<M:inct^ 
fix^ his looks on the haunts of his ifoncy, feeds his eyes with the 
beauties of Barnassus, contenyplates the immorjtat bloom of ApoHo 
n4 the Muses, and *^ hol4s faighxonverse with the {flu^trioib dead." 
^^ Pkjxbo digiia beiOi.^* ' 

The traveHer^ while oteupied in;etaimining the tran$oen0e|it 
beauties of the grand con^positions of which I have been speaking^ 
is apt to pass over unnoticed the minor ornaments that pov<Br the 
vaults and*' fill up the intervals, bejlweenf the greater pieces apd ch^ 
fioor or arch, tei many of these, and particularly the ))asso re^ 
lievos and medaHions of thd three first apartn^ents by Caramggio', 
repr^enting rural scenes and historical subjects, are of exquisite 
beauty, and daim d&e the'^attention of the artist and of the speo^ 

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tli CLASSICAL TQUA CdiJ». UV.. 

tator. To conclade iKi^emarks^ tbe Cam&te di RaffjoeUo, like ail 
work« of sopc^rior ex^tlence, display their beauties gradually, and 
imprOT^ on examioatioD, ih proportion to the frequency of Tisits 
Md the fl^nuteness of inspeotion. ' ^ ' < 

After having traversed the court of St Dstaiasus and its adjoin- 
ing hafls and chapels,, which may be coDsideredas the ^itate apart- 
oients of the Yaticad, thp traveller passes to that pan' of the palace 
v6ich is called the BelvidiBre from its elevation and pfTospect; and 
frocieeding along an immeasurable gallery comes to an iron door 
on the left that opens into the library of the Vaticatu A large apart- 
ment for the two kee^rs, the secretaries; or rather the interpre- 
ters seven in nuipl^er, who can speak the principal languages of 
Europe, and who attend for the convenience of learned foreigners; 
a do!!d>le gaHery of two hundred ^nd twenty fee^ loqg opening into 
another of eight hundred, with various rooms, cabinets, andapart- 
Qients annexed, form the receptacfe of this nobW collection. These 
galleries' itnd apartments are all vaulted and aU painted with differ 
rent eff^t, by painters of different eras and talents. The paint- 
ings have all fome reference to liter^^r^ sacred or profane, and 
take in a-, vast scope of history and of mythc^logy. The books are 
kept ii^ cases;. and hi the Vatican the traveller seeks in vain for 
that pompous display of volumes, which he tnay have seen and ad- 
ipired in other libraries. Theit duinber has never been accurately 
stated, sottie confine it to two hundred thousand, others raise it tb 
fi^nr i)tt)i|lred thousfand, and many swelUt toa million. . The mean 
i^ pfobaibV the most accurate.- 

But the ^sopet^ibrity of this Jibrary arisH9S not from^ the quantity 
of printfsd books, but the multitude of its manuscripts, which are 
aaid to amount to more than fifty thousand. Some of these ma- 
nmscripu of the highest antiquity, siicfa as that ofVirgil of the fifth 
eentury, a Greek Bible of the s&th^ i^Terepce of the same date, etc. etc. 
n^ere takeq by the French -and sent to Paris. The drigin of this 
library is attributed by som^ to Pope Hilariu» in the fifth century; 
lAit although it is 'prol)able, that long before that perio3y^the Ro- 
man churd) 'must have pross^ssed a cpnsiders^ble, stock of jK>oks 
for the us^ of its -dergy, yet tfa^ Popes may be supposed to have 
been too much occhpied with the dangers and the diffiqilries ofthe 
tipies, ^ have had leisure or means necessary for tte formation 
M the libraries. However, that several, volupdes had been col- 
-iacted at an early period seems certain; as it 4s ecpially so that 
Pope Zacharias aogniented their nurab^- very considerably about 
the middle of the eighth century. Nksholas Y. established the li- 
brary in the Vaticatf and enlarged the, collection; while Calixlus III. 
is said to have enriched it with^many volumes sav^d from the li- 
braries, of Constantinople at the taking of that city. From this 
period it continued in a regular progression, receiving almost every 
year vast additions^ sometiflies even of whole libranes (as those of 



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4lHA». ilV< TfiROU€(H ItALY. WU 

ftie* Elector Palatine, pf the Dukes of Urbina, qf Qiieen CbrisiHiiO 
owing not oiily to the favor of tl^ pontiff and Tarions princes^ bat 
to the yell directed zeal of its Mbrarians; many of wbojB have 
beeo men both of eminent talents and of high rank and extendiTe 
jnfinepce. The French invasion which brought with, it so many 
evirs^ and like a Host from hell cheekiad the prosperity of Italy in 
every branch and in^eyery. province/ not only^pat a stop to the 
increase of the Vatican library, but by plundering it of s6me of its 
most valuable manuscripts, Ipw^ed its reputation, and undid It 
once the labor and exertion of ages. ^ 

The galleries of the library open into various apartments filled 
with antiques, medals^ cat|(ieos, ^c. Qne in particular is consecrated 
to the monun^i^ts of christian antiquity^ and contains a singular and 
and unparalleled collection of instrpments olF torture employed in 
the first persecutions ; as also the dyptics or registers of commu- 
nion of the great ehwpches, ibqnumental inscriptions, etc. a eolleo* 
tion highly interesting to^ the ecclesiastical historian ^nd the en- 
lightened christian. . 

' The grand gallery which leads to the library terminates iowtbja 
Museum Pio-Clementinum. Clement XYI. has the m^it of hfaraig 
first conceived the idea of this museum and begaijL to pol it in exe* 
cution. The late Pope Pius YL c6ntinued ii <m ^ mtich larger 
scale, and gave it its present extent and magnificence^ It consists 
Of several apartments, galleries, halfs, and temples, some lined 
with marble, others paved with ancient mosaics, ^d all filed T^ith 
statues; vases, candelabra^ tombs, and altars. The size and pro- 
portion of these apartments, their rich materials and fiumiture, iM 
well nckanaged light poured in qpon them, and the nraltiplidty of 
admirable articles collected in them and disposed in the most judi- 
cious and striking arrangement, fiH the mind of th6 spectator w<tii 
astonishment and delight, and form the most magnificent lind gran4 
combination that, perhaps has been ever beheld or* can almost- Im 
imagined. Never were the divinities of Greece and Rome honored 
with tfobler temples; never did they stand on.rit^er pedestals^ 
never werf^ more ^orious dome^ spread over their hcad^; or 
brighter pavements extended at their feet. Seated each in a ffbrme 
of bronze or marble, they seemed to look down on a crowd ^f vck 
taries and once more to chaUeng^Tthe homage of mankind ;w4iiie^ 
kings and emperors, heroes and philosophers, drawn up in ranka 
before^orairound them, increased their statOrand formed! a msgesdc 
and becoming retinue. To aij^gmeqt their number, excarviflijnikt 
were daily made ^nd getierally attended with success; and many 
a statue buriecjl for ages under heaps of ruins,; or lost in this ob- 
scurity of some unfrequented desert, was rescued from the gloom 
of oblivion and restored to the curiosity and admiration of the 
public. 

But the joy of discovery was abort, and the triumpli^f 



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traniiloryl Th^ Freueli; who ii^very kivasiohhave been tli# 
flcourge of Italy and hare riyalled or n%het surpassed tbe rapacilf 
of theGothft ancfVandab^ laid t}ieif sacrOe^^na hattds on ^hi 
imparallelad coltoctioa of the Yaticaa, tore jis nadtorpieces frcral 
tl^eir pedestals, 9pd dragging them firom their temples of marbl^^ 
transported them to ^ari3/ and consigned thein to th^ dnll stfReft 
tails, or rather stables, , of the Lowfre* But on this ivk^ I xwj 
perhaps enlarge hereaffker. At present I. shafi proceed ib poini out 
mme of the moft remarkable among the various apiirtmtols .d|it 
constitate the Maseam Pio-dlemenftinum. 

Three uiti^shamlM^s called, frdi;a theiirvfotnis or Fronil the lEita- 
tnes that ocenpy them, li Vesdbolo Qv^rato (the* Square Yestt^ 
bule), II Vesiiboh Botendo {\he Round Yestibnle), and La Camert 4i 
Bdecho (the Chamber oC«BacdiuS), conduct Ae traveller \o a court 
of more *than a, hundred feet square^ inth a portico supported bj 
jrtaite pillars. and decorated by, pni^berless pieoes| pFantiquflyk 
Nfsed I c^erre thai ike principal among these w^e on6e the Appilfl 
bf Belyidere, the Laocoon, and the Antinous; or that the cele<< 
iwrated Torpo once adorned one of the 'anti-chambers f They are 
mow at Paris, and iSieir absence is not. so much supplied as UK^ 
dered remarkable by the easts that now ocoiipy their places. 

^Naxt to this court is the Zala degR Animali {(he Hall of Ani«als)> 
a noble gnllery so called because furnished with ancient statues of 
j^ariOus animals* This hall.opetis at one end into xheGalU^ia deUt 
Sumt (die ^Gallery of Statues),: Imed en both sides with mqnlslie 
aaaluea both of Greek and Roman se^lj^tfire^ aiid termhiated by dma 
i^Uneila caB^ |he Aanze deile Bittte{the ApartnrantB of Su6ta)t 
The -busts '«re placed on tables or stands of ancient wortanaiish^ 
and generally of. Ae most beamilul and curious jooiarble. Towards 
Ae opposite end of the gallery is an apartment <;^Ied II Gubinm&t 
iidomcjd witl^ aii the charms that the united arts of painting, sculps 
Mre,i and; ardiitiscture could bestow upon, it^ Eight pillat>s .of a)^ 
batter Alport its roof; it's floor is formed of an ancient mosaic olF 
Ibavbrightest tolors, representing theatrical exhibftlons and r«iral 
aeenery; its ceiliiig is painted and displays alternately historkd 
OT^s 4ih1 iiytfaftri^ical ftbles. ^The spaces between the coluoittt 
are Ued eaob wilb a statue,, and the walls are incrnsted with aan 
dent baiso teliefvos formed into pannels and placed in symmetrical 
arhmgement.. i)iffieEta( antique seats, some of wfoich are formeril 
of Moekf bf por^^hyry and supported' by feet of glit bMsa, are 
nmg^d along the Jides. 

<■ An* opei^ gattery forms i^ commnnication between this oabfn^ 
add tii§ Stafiiie* dtiUe BvMe on one side, while on the other a snmH 
anti^fttauber optehs into the Galleria dette Smue which is connected 
b^ ai(ix>ppbsite d^br with the Sala degii Ahmalu ffence through 
a noble pillared vestibule you enter the hall, or rather the TUnpte 
af ate 9lmk9.; an octagon «up^orted by'soveen pilars of^Garrara 



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inarble yntb mideut capitals, payed with ancient mosaiQ^^ ^^^ 
seating in various compartments actors and theatrical exhibitions 
sepsibrated and bordered by mosaic. The vault iabove and the great 
divisions of the sides, are Udorned with paintings of Apollo^ the 
Muses, Homer, and various Poets ; of Minerva, Genii^ and otber 
figures adapted to the general destination of the place. In ^e cir- 
cumference l)elQw r.os^ Apollo, Mnemosyne, and the Mii^es in the 
most conspicuous stations,, and on elevated and highly wrought 
ancient pedestals. The most celebrated sag,es, poets, and orators 
oif Greece stood in order around, as waiting on the divinities which 
bad inspired their immortal strains^ : — a noble assembly that might 
have honored the 7aure/{ecf pinnacles of Parnassus and not disgraced 
even the cbud capt summits of Olympus. But this assembly is now 
dispersed. The Muses have been dragged from the light an4 
Splendor of the Vatican, and are now immured in a sepulchral 
hall, where a single window sheds through a massive wall a few 
scanty beams on their gloomy niches. 

Next to the Stanxe delieMus^ is the Sala Bqtmda, a lofty dom^ 
Isopported by ten columns of C^rara marble, lighted from abovdt 
paved with the Iarg;e£;t piece of ancient mosaic yet discovered. la 
the middle is a vase of porphyry of more than fifty feet in circunir 
ference; around are colossal statues, and busts resting on half pil- 
lars of porphyry of great ma^nitude^ This hall indeed is appro- 
priated to CQlossal statues ; all its 'forms an4 ornameifts partake Uk 
some degree of tWr gigantic proportions. 

From this Rotonda^ which is considered as t^e noblest haTT in t1)e 
museum, a rich portal conducts into the Sala a Croce Gtepa (Hall 
of the Greek Cross,) supported by columns; paved yrxik stncient 
mosaic, famished with statues and lined with Glasso irc^ieyos. One 
otyect here naturally attracts attention. It is a vast sarcophagus 
formed with its lid of one block of red porphyry, beftiutifully ortia- 
ment^ in basso relieVp with' little infant Cupids employed in tK<^ 
vintage, and bordered with tendrils an() arabesq;^es. ^ It once cod^ 
tained the ashes Of Constantia, the daughter of Constantine the Great, 
and stood for ages in her matisoleum tiear the church of St. Agnes 
without the Porta Pia Noinentanit At length Alexander IV. con- 
verted the mausoleum into a church, and ordered the body pf the 
' Princess to be deposited, as that of a saint^ under the altar ; a mo- 
tive whiqh removes all imputation of giiilt from the deecl, thoi^gh it 
would have, been moire prudent^ as well ai^ more respet:tful^ to al- 
low the body to remain undisturbed in the, tomb, to which it had 
been consigned by the hands of a fiather. The sarcophagus Jon^ 
remained a useless ornament^ and was lately transported to thf 
Museum. . \ 

The Sala a Croce Greca opens on a double staircase^ raised! on 
twentyrtwo pillars of ted and white granite: its steps are marble^ 
its balustrade brdnze. The middleweight con4ucts (io^^ii to the 



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SiC CLAiSSIGAL TOUR Chap. XiV. 

Yatican library :;tbe two other lead to iheGatleriade* Candelabri^ 
along gallery divided into six compartments, separated ft*om each 
othier by columns of rich inarbles. 1*he farniture of this gallery 
consists in candelabra of different kinds, all of exquisite work- 
manship and of ^he finest barbies, so numerous as to have given 
to the place its peculiar denomination. With these are intermingled 
tases, columns, Egyptian figured, tablets, tombs, 4f ipods, and sta- 
Ities, which may have been discovered ijtnce the other apartnaents 
were filled, or could* not perhaps be< placed tp advantage in any of 
the oXher classes. - 

At the end of this long suite of vapartments a d.opr opens into 
the Gallerta de Quadri {Gallery of Pictures), containing a collection 
of pictures by the principal masters of th^ different Italian schools. 
Though several of these p^feces have a considerable degree of merit, 
yet they are inferior to a thousand others in Rome, and can excite 
little or no interest in the mind of a spectator who has just passed 
throujgh such a series of temples, and has beei;i feasting his ey^s 
with the mQ3t perfect specimens of ancient sculpture. To this dis* 
advantage another may be added, arising from the immediate neigh'^ 
borhoQd of the unequalled performadces of Raffeello, before which 
most other compositions, hpweyer great their nierit or extensive - 
their fame, lose their splendor and sink int6 obscurity. HoVeyer 
a gallery of pictures, though, certainly not necessaryin the Vatican, 
may yet prepuce a good effect j as under the patronage and active 
encouragement of government, it ms^y gradually unite on ono spot 
die fine specimens now dispersed over Italy, and by bringing the 
rival powers of the two sister arts of painting and sculpture into 
contact, it may concentrate their influence, and eventually promote 
their perfection* ' 

, As the traveller returns from these galleries he finds on the left, 
before lie descends the aboye-mentiobed staircase, a circular tem- 
ple of marble supported by Corinthian pillars and covered with a 
dome. In the centre, on<a large pedestal, stands an antique^chariot 
with two horses in marble. This temple, though on a smaller 
scale, yet from its materials, form^ and proporiioiis, appeared to 
me one of the most beautiful apartments of the Museum and cannot 
&il to excite admiration. 

Such is in part the celebrated Museum Pio^Clementinum, which in 
the extent, multiplicity, and beautiful di'spositiop of its apartments, 
fyiT surpasses every edifice ofjthe kind, eclipses the splendor of the 
gallery of Florence once its rival, and 'scorns a comparison with 
the Parisiaii Museuni whose gloomy recesses have been decorated 
with its plunder. The design of this Museum wad first formed (as 
i have already observed, and the court, pOrtico, lind gallery allot- 
ted to it] and fitted up, in part by Clement XIV. (Ganganelli) ; bat 
the plan was ehDarged and all the other halls and apartments were 
erected and fqrnished by f iua YL the late pontiff. Il wocild there** 



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CBAr^X% XB&0UGU ITALY. tiy 

fore be nQbecoming,! and indeed ungrateM, to tnrfi firom the 
Vatican M^ithout.payii)g;a just tribute of praise to the memory oC 
these princes, wh6Jn the times of disCress,- when their income was 
gradually diminishing, found means to erect such a magnificent 
temple to taste^ to the genius of antiquity, audio the loveliest and 
most engaging of the arts. They'deserye tohave their statues 
erected at the grand cintrstnceof the Museum, and the lovers of the 
Arts would readily agree in the propriety of inscribing- on the 

pedestal, 

" Quiqae sui mevores, alios fecere merendo. ** > 

In this account of the Vatican Lhave purposely avoided details^ 
and confined my observations to a few of tbb principal ^nd most 
prominent features,., as my intention is not to give a fiill description 
of this celebrated palace, which would form a separate volume; 
but merely to awaken the curiosity and attentibn of the traveller. 
Of the pictures and statues I pay perhaps speak hereafter. At 
present I shall content iqyself with referring to the weH-known, 
work of the Abate Wincketman, who speaks on the subject of sta- 
tues ifith the learning of an antiquary, the penetration of an artist, 
and the raptore of a poet. 



CHAPTER XV. 

Cburebes— General ObMnrationg— St. C!lenient*»--St. Pet^dn yinc«U9--St. Mar- 
tin and St. S7lvester--St. Laurence— St. John Lateran-^t. Paul and other Pa- 
triarchal Ghnrches. ^ . • . 

From the palaces we. naturally pass to the churches which form 
the peculiar glory of Modern Rome, as the temples seem to have 
been the prin(;ipat ornatbents of the $ncientcity. On this subject, 
as on the preceding article, I think it best to begin by a few general 
observations, the more necessary as' the topic is of great Extent 
and much interes^; for while the palaces of Venice and Genoa have 
been compared,^nd the latter not unfrequently preferred, to those 
of Rome, the superior spfendor and miagnificence of her churches 
stand unrivalled and undisputed; and in this respect, it is acknow- 
ledged that still, ' 

H«c tantjim alias inter e^pot extulit orbefl, 
* Qnantiun lenta solent inter vibuma cqpressl. ' 



They who made their memories immortal by their merits. 

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# other towm, compared irith'ber, ippetr 

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Ad^bon obferred, ^^Umt the christian antic^itied are so em-« 
broiled in ftible and legeipd, that one reoeiyes but little satisfactio* 
iron searchiag info them." The portionof satisfaction to bederiy«d 
from sach researcibes^ depends iipon the ta^te and yiews of the 
person who inakes them ; for as to fable and legend, I fancy there 
is a sufficient stqdL in heaths as well as in ehirisiian antiqi^ty,, U» 
pilztleand embroil an CHrdioarf inquirer. jp[oweirer, notwithstaad- 
»$ the olMemr^ty ^^ida ages and revolutions; ignorance or foUj^ 
may have thrown over both these sl[)ecieS of antiquity , thetrav^ller^ 
as he wanders oyer the yenctraUe r€fton« of this wonderful city 
so long the seat of Empire and Religion, will find a jsufficient num- 
ber of moiMtinents, both saicred and profane, to edify as well as to 
Might an anprejudielsd ipind. Among A^ former the charchas 
ifWbiont doubt occupy the first rank, as some few of them were 
eMtited in the ti^ra of Constantine, and many may asciifoe their 
<Hrigiti to the zeal of Ihei Empefor himself, or 10 that of his soaa 
Mid their immediate sucbessors. ^ 

Ittthei^e edifioeiit the constituent and essential parts reiaain die 
same as they were at the period of erection^ and eyen the more 
s^Hd aind permanent omam^ts stiM stand unaltered tn ikenr re* 
spective places. . Fropi them therefore we may learn with Bcdoe 
certainty, the form of Christian churches in the early ages, the po- 
sition of the altar, of the episcopal chair, and of the seats of the 
clergy, together with the arrangement and furniture of the chancel 
and the choir. Moreover some of these churches had been tem- 
ples, and many* were basiliei» or eoixrts destined to public meetings, 
and may therefore contribute not a little to give us clearer ideas 
of die size md |iirppoi;tions of such buildings, partieularly of thf 
latter, and of the order observed in the assemblies held in them. 
We may perhaps from them be able to make some conjectures re- 
lative, to the forms early established in Christian churches, and 
to Judge how far the ancients may have thought proper to 
tratij^fer the fulpi^ observed in civil assembfies to religiduls congre-^ 
gationS. 

In the next plape, in the churches principally we may traqe the 
decline and restoration of architecture, and discover thence whicJk 
branches of the art were neglected, and which cultivated during the 
barbarous agefs. These edifices, were almost the only objects At- 
tended to and respiBCted during that long period, and a^ most of the 
hew wete efected Ort the plians of the old, they became the vebfcliSsi> 
if l4nay be allowed the expression, by which some of the best prin* 
ciples of Roman architecture weiie transmitted to us. Is has been 
justly observed, thai while the symmetry, the proportion, the very 
constituent fcftns of the Greek and Roman orders were abandoned 
and apparently forgotten, the solidity, the magnitude, and what is 
more remarkable, the greatness of maiiner So mtich Jlidkiitred in Ae 
interior of ainciwt buildings, were retaihed afndfiDtill appear in mahy 



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ebwrcbaieteeted ki the darkest jauirvals of the ijiid^e ^ei* Froifi 
soehfabrM we may therefore infer , that magnifieeiiee and ^andettr 
totg sarVifed the fillof taste^and that some features of theflomaa 
^SHracCer still continued io vfiBnitesi themselTes in the worka iff 
their deseendants, in spite of the prevalence of foireign ignorante 
aieid of transieilpine barbarism. 

Thid obseryation relative to internal magniificeiice leads to aaotlnr 
which mast htive strnck every traveller ; tBat in maty chardiei 
the ontward form abd embelHshmeiits are far tnferiot to the imrari 
apf>earanees. Whether th^ sncfeiits thetnselTei) did iSot always pay 
equal attc^ation to the outside; or whether like the modem Italian^ 
they soHietimes deferred the execution of the w^ole plan for want 
of money or natei^iA ;,or whether the hand of time or the mona 
desfenictive hand -of war has torn away the marble that covered 
theise edifices ; but it must be oi^ned thaM; t&e outside of the Fantheott 
mid ot Diocletkiis> baths by no means correspoiids with thefir inters, 
hal magnificenQp. In succeeding ages the mproportionbecaaiid 
moT^ striking^ ami nothuog can be more contemptible than the 
exterkml show of some of this noblest basilicm :as tb^t of $t. Paul'a Ut 
faMtance, of St* Laui^ence, and ^so that of St. Sebastian, which ez«^ 
httiits more the appearance of a neglected barn than ^ of a patriaiv* 
ehal churdv. The same remark mi^ have been applied to Skmm 
Maria Maggiere till the reign of Bei^dict XYI. who cased it with 
TOrartine atone, adorned it with a portico or a cokmDade in frcmt^ 
and gave it an exterior of some dignity, though hot perfect nor 
altogether worlJhy of its grand' ami splendid iaterior. 

Moreover, while the traveller expects, and not lirithout reuso^^ 
to find some qpectmiM^ of the best taste an^ purest style of arcUt* 
tectnre among the Roman churches, he must vot be jiurpriseii if he 
should frequently, meejt with instapces of the very reverse iik bcrtll 
respects, and have reason too often to lament that the finest maso^ 
rials have. been thrown away in the constructioil of shapeless a<i4 
deformed edifices. To explain this singular combination of good 
and bad taste, the rea^der Ims. odly to recollect, that in Rome, as at 
oAer great dlies, differepit ftishiafen have prevailed at different pe^ 
rfods^ and that architects, even when above ibe ignormice or tk^ 
prejiniices of their kge, have yet been obliged to tabmit to thrnn^ 
and coilfo(rm to the caprice of their employers. Besides, ardiileecii 
hi modem times have been too pro^ie to jndulge the fend hope of 
^sceltfRg the ancients, by deiFiatihg from thtir footsteps^ ahd .«f 
discovering some new proportion, some form of beauty mAnowy 
to them, by varying the outlined, and by trying the effects of emHsss 
eombination^. 

Nov in no city have arcbiteots been more eneem^aged and employeA 
than in Rome^and in tio dty bavethey indulged their fondness for ori« 
ginaditf wit|i more (reedom and more effect, to the great depravatioi of 
taste, and inversion of the sound praM»|des of ancient a^ehitecM^ 



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n 



«D ca^A$aiCAL TOUH Gha»/xV. 

FewJifiy^ been entirely exempt from this weaknefls, bat none have 
al)andoned themselves to its influeqce more entirely than i^orromtni, 
vtrOy although a man of ^enius^ talent, and information, has vet filled 
Rome with some of the mo9t deformed buildings that ever disgraced 
the streets of a capital. Such deviations from the principles qf the 
ancients must appear extraordinary every where, and particularly 
at Rome, where so many superb monuments rediain to attract the 
attention of the artist, and form his taste^^ w^iile chey excite his 
admiration. In truth, while the portico 6f the Pantheon stands 
preserved, it woiild seem by the genius of architecture, as a model 
for the imitation of future generations ; while it meets the architect 
in every morniag|walk, and challenges his homage as he passes, it 
must appear extraordinary indeed that he should abandon its simple 
yet majestic style, to substitute in its stead a confuted and heavy 
mass of rich materials, w¥ch may astonish but can never please even 
the rudest observer. Surely the double or triple range of columns, 
the uninterrupted entablature, theregular pediment unbroken- and 
unenciimbered, delight the eye^more by their onifohn.grandeur, 
than pillars crowded into groups, cornices sharpened into angles, 
and pediments twisted into curves and flourishes which break one 
grand into rn^ny petty objects, and can neither fix tbe sight, nor 
arrest' the attention. Yet, while the former, exemplified in the 
Pantheon, i& coldly admir|ed and neglected, the latter is become the 
prevailing style in ecclesiastical af cbit^cture at Rome, an4 of conse- 
quence over all Italy. ' ^ 

Again/churches, like mqst places of public, resort, have their day 
of favor and of fashion when they are much firequented, and of 
course repaired and decqrated with care and magnificence. . Not 
ttnfrequently some cardinal or rich prelate, or perhaps the reigning 
pontiff himself, may conceive a particular attachment to some 
church or other, and in that case we may conclude, that all the 
ppwers'of art will be. employed in repairing, adorning, and fur- 
nishing the favored edifice.. But this sunshine of popularity may 
pa^ away, and many a noble pile has been abandoned' for ages to 
the care of an impoverished chapter, of a needy incumbent, or of a 
parish thinned by emigration. In such circumstances, only so much 
attention is paid, to the edifice as^ is necessarv to protect it agaiqst 
the indeinency of the weather or tl\e injuries of time, and this care 
is generally confined t6 the ejttesior, while the interioV is abandoned 
to sollade, dampness, and decay.r-*Unfortnnatelys6meof thejnost 
ancient^and veneraljle churdies in Rome are in this latter situation ; 
whether it be that ihey stand in quarters onee popidoos bnt now 
deserted, or that churches er^ted in modern times, or dedicated to 
modern saints, engross 'a greater share of public attention, I know 
not ; but those of St. Paul,. St. Laurence, St. Stephen, St. Agnes, 
4lnd even die Pantheon itself, theglocy of Rome, and the boast of 
architecture, owe iitde or nothing to modern munificence. 



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C9AK XV, THRdUGBl itALt. $fi^ 

Bat nbtwitlistandiog these diladyantjageg and defects, there are, 
fe^t Tery few eharfejbes in Rome^ which do not preseDt; either ik 
their size x>r their proportioiis, in their architecture or their mtete- 
rials, io their external or internal decoration, something that de- 
serveil^the attention of the trayeller and ^cites is just admiration. 
He therefore who delights in h^Us of an immense* size and exact 
proportion, ih lenjg[thening colonnades and vast pillai^s of one solid 
bldck of porphyry^, of granite, of Parian or Egyptian n(iarble ; (in 
payementB that glow With all the tints of the rlriqbow, and roofe 
that blaze with brass or gold ; \n cant ass warm as life itself, and 
statues ready to descend from the tonibs on which they recline; 
will range Tound the churches of Rome, and find in them an inex-r 
hau^tible source of itistructiYe api rationaf amusement, such as no; 
m^odern capital'ain furnish^ and such as might be equalled or sur-* 
passed by the gloried of ancient ^ome alone. - 

I shall, now ^proceed tor some, particular churches, and without 
pretending to enter into very minute details, mention only such c^r- 
cumstanoes asieem calculated to excite peculiar interest. 

The church of St. Clement, in the great street that leads to % 
John Lateran, is the^ most ancient church in Borne. , It was built on 
the site, and W0S probably at first one of the £reat apartments of 
the house of the holy bishop whose name it bears. It is mentioned 
as ancient by authors of f)ie fourth century (St, Jerome,, Pope Zp-^ 
zimus, etc.) and is justly bonsiidered as. one of the best models thav 
now exist of the original form of Christian churches. It has fre-: 
quently been r^epaised and deccMrated, but always with a religious 
respect for its primitive Ishape and fashion. In^front of it is a court 
with gj^l^ries, supported by eighteen granite piHar^ and |»ayed with 
pieces of shattered marbles, among which I observed several frag- 
ments' of beautlM Vsrde aniico. the portico of the church is formed 
of four columns of the same jnaterials as the pillars of the gaUery, 
apd its interior is divided into anave and aisles by twenty pillars o(. 
Tarious marbles. The choir commences about the centre of the * 
nave, and extends to the steps of the sanctuary | there are two 
pulpits, called anciently Ambones, one on^aoh side of the ch6ir* 
A flight of steps leads to the sanctuary or chancel, whidi is teVmi- 
natedby a semicircle, in the middle of which stands the episcopal 
cArair^ and on each side of it two marble ranges of seats border the 
^ walk for the accommodation of the priests; the inferior clergy 
with the dingers Occupied th& choin- In front of the ^piscopaf 
throne, and between it and the choir, just above the steps of th^ 
sanctuary, risii the altarunencumbered % screens and conspicuous 
on all sides. I'^e aisles 'tei:minated in two recesses, now used as 
chapels.catled anciendy Exedra^ o^ Cells, and appropriated to pri« 
yate devotion in prayer or meditation. Such is the form of St; 
Clement's, which though not originally a basilica, is evidently mo- 
delled upon such buildings ; as may be seen not only by the do? 



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Mriptio& gifao of them by Yitrayios, but al«e by s^Teral Mfa^r 
Aareiieis te Rome, i^bich faavHij; actaalljr been basiliea^'Stai retaia 
Aeif /original form witbaUgfat mOdifiealions.' The isame form hat. 
been iretained or tmiuced in afl the great Roman churches, and 
iaieed in almost all the oatVedrai and abbey churches in Italy ; a 
|prm ^thout' doubt for petter calculated both for the beauty of 
fersipecttve and for the convenience of public worship than As 
arrangement of Gothic fabrics, divided by iicret^ds^ insulated by 
partitions, and terminating in gloomy chapels^ ^ 

S. Puifo \n Ktncoit, so called from the chains with which St. Peler 
was booQd both isf Rome and at Jtehisalem, now preserved,^ asis 
Mieved, under the altar, was erected about the year 490, and af- 
tar frequent reparations preseatfi^^ now to the eye a noble hsill, sup- 
ported by tweaiy ^ric pilars of Parian marble, open on all sides, 
adorned with some beautifol tombs, and terminating !n a somicirde 
Whind.the altar. It is pity that the taste of the age in which this 
edifice wa^ erected should have been perpemated through so many 
snccessive reparatiQas, and the arises carried froth pillar to pillar 
siai suflbred to appiBar ; whMe an entablature,. like that of ^. Maria 
Ifajgfj^iare^ would have concealed tb6 defect and rendered the ord^ 
perfect. The pillars are too thin for Doric proportion^, and too for 
ftroM %9/dk other ; very diff^ent in this respect from the Doric mo- 
deff irtin reniaMiing at Alhens. liM the proportions applied by the 
i^^n€ Remans to this oi^dbr, rendered it m feet a distinct order, 
and made It ahnost an' invention of tbetr oi^n. Among' the monu- 
MSHts 4ie traveller wHl not fail to observe a saif^xyphagns of Mack 
marble' and of exquisite form^ oii the left hand ; and on the rij^t, 
the tomb of luUiis ILmdifferent'ip iti^elf, but eniiobled by the ceie- 
braled figure of Moses, supposed to be the masterpieee of Mictiael 
Angelo, and one of |he most beautiful' statues^in the world. * 

JNot Car Arenb iS. Pieiro in Ftneofiis the church of JS. Marino and 
S. Sihrnto, formed out of a part of the ruins of the neighboring 
baAs of Titus, and, as far as regards the Grypta or subterraneous 
slitHrGh, aier ancient as the times of St. Sylvester and Goastantine the 
Great. It has, as win easily be imagined, undek'gone varicms re; 
patrs, aiid is at present one of (he most beautiful edifices In Rome. 
It ts fioppoited by Corinthian columns of the fineist tearbteii; bear- 
mg not ardiesbnt fin eittablature nrfegular indeed as to ornament, 

«i DMMfnmswl to ny t«aden ithe acommt of aadeut cbarohM fnS tMr oimk 
«)Mts^¥«B2)ir tli9 j^#iM>us and teara^d Fleur^. The woft wJbich (eotitfim H, 
with many cutioas details and uUerestjnK observations, is entitle Iss Mmur4 d^ 
Chritiens, The perusal of it will give the traveller a very accfttate notion of the 
iiAijeet at large, and enable him not only to comprehend what he finds written 
npon it, bait aHo to prpawinoe with some precision on the form and oritaments of 
sseh churc2ies as Jbe may hereafter visit. ( Se^ chapters $^ et ^q. ) 

» The ode or soxinet of Zappi inspired by the conteniiplation of this wonderftii 
Hatue, is well known, and may be found in Roscoe*s late eice^^lA yfQA» ttl9 i^fi^ 
ffj^fftaJiMfrflrttb a very accHrate translation, ' 



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kot <tf grefti and plcasii^g effect The ^iralie of the aiste are adom^ 
•d wUb paiBttegs by. the two Potasins and ii)u(^ admired by coft^ 
Bbiised^s. The iri^Kna or sancloary isf raised B^Veral steps abovo 
the bod]r of the church ; th^ hig|i attar, which stmdv immediateiy 
above the steps, is of th^, most, beautiful form and of the ri<Ae^ 
materials/ tbe p^iutings on the waits aud &e roof are colored in 
the brightest yet softest tints imaginabJI^, and seem to shed over the 
whole chuf'ch a celestial lustre. Under the ahar a door open0 
vpon a mai^ble staircase leading to a subterraneous chapel lined 
fith stucco, nearly resembling marble, and a^Cimed with numerooi 
l^lars u^ a very pleasing style of archiiectufe. Thence you pass 
lito the ancient church, which, from the increase of the ruins around, 
is now beeoiQe ahnost subterran^n : it is'a large vaulted hall, once 
paved with mosaic, and se^ms ft^om the remains, tb have been wpll 
Itarhished with marble and paintings ; it is now the receptacle of 
dump unwholesome vapors, that tinge thewaUs, and hover round 
die aolitary tombs. A few purple hats with their rich tadsela, Ae 
insignia of the dignity of Cardinat, suspended from the vauks, and 
tarnished with time )and humidity, east a feeble unavailing ray of 
aplendor on the monuments of their departed po^sseasors.. The spao» 
tator, cautioned by Ihe chilness of the place not to prolong his stay^ 
contents hitosdf with* easting a tnmsieni glance on the sullen, seo<f 
aery; and Returns to the splendid exhibition of the temple above. - 

The obwrcb of St. Andrea in Monte Camllo, by Bernini, thougfil 
so small as to des^ve the name of bhapel only, is so highly Aiial^ 
and so richly decorated that I should recommend it to the attention 
of the traveller as peculiarly beautiftil. It was tonnerly, with the 
annexed convent, the propeHy of the Jesuits, who jsieMom. wanted 
either the meisins or theindinationto impart splendor and magiii-« 
icence to' their establishments. Unfortunately they have <^n disr 
played more riches than taste, and giren their ehurdies the deto^ 
rations and glare of a theatre, instead of adhering to the golde« 
mdo in religious architecture, that of disposing the best mi^ialt 
in the simplest order. The neglect of this maxim renders the greaf 
church of the Jesuits (the Ge^) though confessedly one cf the 
richest,, yet in my opinion one of the ugHest, because one of the 
aM>9t gaudy in Rome. 

St. Cecilia in Trast^vere has great antiquity an^mueh inagnificett<^ 
to recommend it Tt is supposed to have been' the house. Of that 
virgin martyr, ^nd they show a bath annexed to it m which they 
protend that she was beheaded. Over tb^ lomb is a ine statue, 
exactly representing the attitude and the drapery of the body as it 
was discovered in the tomb in the year 821 ; such at least is the^ 
purport of the inscription. The saint is represented as reclining am 
her side, her garments spread in easy folds around her, and hen 
aeck and head covered with a veil of so delicate a 4exture^ as to 
allow tbe spectator alm(tet to di3covet the ottUmea of the comH 



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fiti GLAS9I€AL TOUR Quk^. XY* 

tQDMOie. Therpostar^ and drapery are natiira] as veil aa gmeefid,; 
and the whole form wrought with such exquii|Ue art, jthait we aeeni 
to behold $he martyred Tirgio, not locked in the slumbers^ of <leatb> 
b^it in the repose of innocenee, awaiting the pall of die morning. 
A court and portico; according to. the ancient cnstomV 1^<1 to ^is 
churchy and pillars of fine marble divide and adorn it;. but it labors 
under the defect alluded to above, and. lil^e many other chqrches, 
is encumbered with ^s own magnificence. 

S. Pietra m MotUorio, or Uotue Aureo, a very ancient dinrch, 
was once remarkable for its spplptnte and paintings, furnished by 
the first masters in these two branches; but many of the former 
have been broken or displaced, and - some pf the latter carried off 
by the French daring the l^te predatory iniraision. Among these 
is the famous transfiguration, generally supposfed to be the first 
painting in the world. It was said to have been in a bad light, in 
its original situation ; but it mustbe recollected, that Baffaello dor 
signed it for. that very .light; besides, I do not believe that the 
French are lil^ly to place it in a bettei::.' \ 

In the middle of4he litUe square, formed by the cloisters of the 
epnvent belonging to the church of St. Keiro in Momorio,HS a chapel 
in the form of an ancient temple ; round, supported by sixieen 
pillars, and crowned with a dome. It is the work ptBramante, 
and much lidmired* It . would," methlnks, have been more beauti- 
fal if'the architect had copied the Creek models, or adopted the 

EfOpoPtions of the temple ot-Twott of a $iinilar form. Besides,nhe 
lOieirpi that crowns the dome, ofrather terminates the eelh^, is by 
much too large for the edifice, and seems to, crush it by its weight. 
Yet the colonnade, such is the effect of pillars, gives this little 
temple, with all it^ defects, an antique and noble appearance.^ 
• ■ Sanaa MariaAn Trdstevere or Baalica Calixti^ is a very ancient 
dmrdi, supposed to Jiav^ been originally. built by Pope Calixtus, 
about the year 220. : It was rebuilt by Juliys I. in the year 340/ 
and has since undergone various reps^irs, and received of- coarse 
Biany improvements. Its bold portico and its nave are supported 
by ancient pillarsi, some or red, some of black granite, all of dif- 
ferent orders and different dimensions^ the entablatiire^idso is 
composed of the shattered remainsT of various ancient dornMses; 
and indeed the whole ^difice seems an«^xtraordinary assemblage of 
orders^ proportions^ and materials. However^ it exhibits a-certain 

« > When 1 1R»8 at Paris in theyear 1S02, it had been Withdrawn froip the galleij, 
aiid Was intended for the chapel of one of the first consnl's palaces. If In that of 
Versailles the light be not too stro^, the Transfiguration may appear to ad?an- 
tage, as the archltectare andxlecorations of the chapel, the best I have seen beyond 
the Alps, are not perhaps altogether unworthy of contributing to display the 
beauties of such a masterpiece. 

> This edifiae is iptroduced into the Cartoon that represents St. Paul preaching 
%\ Athens, and is S^Yeii with c^siderable accuracy. , 



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£mA»* XT- TBftOVOit ItA&T- H& 

greatness of .manner in th.e v^hole,* that neTer fiiiii to: cover defeeta 
ih the detail, aiMl its general appearance is bold and knajestic Its 
Taalt and chapels are adorned with seyeral beautifdl paintings by 
LomenichmOf and oth^ great masters. The sqpare before this 
.church is watered by a handsome. foilntainv perhaps the most an- . 
cient in. Rome, as it was opened by Adrian I., about the year 790^ 
and restored and ornamented by Clement XIL 

S. GrisogiiM, a very ancient church, ascribed originally to C!on- 
stadtine, is remarkable for the dumeroas columns of granite, por- 
phyry, and alabaster, that support its nave and choii^J 

S. Giovanni e Paolo is equally ancient, and still more splendidly 
famished with pillarid and antique.omaments. 

5. Gregorio Jjlagno is remarkable because erected by the cele- 
brated pontiff, whose nam^ it bea^s, on jthe very site of his own 
house, the residence of the Anician family. The church, with the 
convent adjoining, was by its founder dedicated under the title of 
St. Andrew, a title which was gradually lo^t, and replaced'by that of 
St. Gregory. This fabric has undergone several changes, and though 
rich in materials, has, from the bad taste with which those changes 
have been conducted, but little claim to our admiration. There 
are three chapels within the precincts of the copvent, or rather an- 
nexed ^> the church, on6 of which is ennobled by the rival exer- 
tions of GiMo and Dortieniclnno^ who have here brought their 
productionsjnto co](itact,-and left the delighted counoisseor to 
admire, and if he dare, to decide the point of pre-eminence. As 
these paintings are on the walls of the chapel, they remain ; bot 
every article that coAld possibly be renioved from the church, and 
its dej^endent chapels, wa^ carried off by the Polish legion, which, 
during the French invasion, was stationed in the convent*- So £ur 
indeed did this regular banditti carry their love of plunder, as to 
tear away the iron bars inserted in the walls of the chureb and 
cloisters, in Order to- strengthen them and to counteract the action 
pf the i^aults ; so that it was ccmsidered as dangerous to walk in 
them, as their fall was expected every hour. 

The classical reader would not pardon a traveller -who shbnld 
pass over in silence the church where the ashes of Tasso jepose. 
This poet, the next in rank and in^iame to Virgil, died in the con- 
vent of St. OnofrtOj was buried without pomp, and lay for many 
years among tfre vulvar dead, without a monument^ or even ati^ m- 
seription over his remains. Few poets have received monumental 
honors immediately on their demise. Their fame-has seldo^i taken 
its full range, or suimotinted the difficulties which envy throws in 
its way during their lifetime^; to pay due homage to their geniusi, 
and give to memory all that man can give to the illustrious dead, 
sepulchral distinction, is generally the task of an impartial and 
grateful posterity. Upon this occasion however it was neither envy 
nor indifference^ but friendship alone d)at deprived the Raliao 
I. 15 



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ymi eUmCAfiOtfk Chap. Itt. 

; |fpdt i^f the liataors dne to his merit Immedtdttiy * tlfter his Aeaiih, 
the Others of the oooTent of St^Oriofrio, and many persons t)f tKs- 
lincfioa^ particularly the celebrated illanso/the frieiid'and pan^^- 

•gyristol HHton, pressed forward |with geaerdus ethulatiop to exe- 

:€ate the honourable work ; bat the cardii^al Ctnlkio Medidy the 
pii^on of the poet in bialatter d^ys, coiilidered the erection of a be- 
coming monument aisaddty and an honor pecoUarly appropriated to 

^ hiiBaelfy aod.^honghhefbnndhimself obliged to defer the discbarge 
0f jibe friendly office year after ^ear, yet heconld never be induced 
to allow any other person to fulfil it in his stead. Death' however 
ileprivi^d hbn of the honor of erecting a tomb to Tasso; and to the 
cardinal Bevilacqua idone^ is the public indebted for the present 

. itHMiwlie&t rather decent than^ magnificent, with a short inscription. 
Every En^ish uraveller who feels the' sublimit;y of Mfkon, and 

I knows how orach the British bard owes to the Tuscan poet^ will 
haatw to tfae .church' of. St. Oito/Ho, and at the tomb of Torquato 
Tasso, bail the musct that inspired their rival strains. 

Che di cadaehi ajlorl' ^ 

y Non cireooda la fronte In UeUcona : . ' 

Ma su ne Cielo infra i beati chori 
Ha di 8teII<$ immorlaliaurea coronal^ 

1^. Sebasfiano, a ch&rch erected by Constantine in memory of the 
celebrated martyr whose name its bears, has a handsome portiqo 
and contains some good pictures and paintings. It is however 
more remarkable £or being the principal entrance into the cata- 
comi)^ vrfaich fie in itsneighborhood. 

/ ' The catacombs are subterranean streets ot galleries fromfour to 
eight fsei in height, from two to 'five in breadth, extending to an 
Immenseadd almost unknown length, and branching out iiito va- 
. rioas walks. The confusion occasioned by the intersection of these 
'galleries resembles that of a labyrinth, and renders it difficulty and, 
without great precaution; dangerous to penetrate far into their re- 
cesses. The catacombs were originally^excavated in order to find 
' that earth lOr sand called at present puzTionala, and supposed to 
form the best and most lasting cement. They followed the direction 
- of the vein of sand, and were abandoned when that was exhausted, 
' atfS oftentimes totally forgotten. Such lone; unfrequented caverns 
afforded a Aiost commodious retreat to the christians, during the 
' persecutions of the .three first centuries. In them therefore they 
held their assemblies, celebrated the holy mysteries, and deposited 
^' the remains ot their martyred brethren. For the latter purpose 



t Ihdli'wboae lir«wi a#e crpwn'd 
With laurels pluck'd on Heliconiaj) ground, / 

^ut (boiir who dwell'Bt the heavenly trU)ed atnong, 
froiopliw t^ an^el i^otr^ jeraphto loiig^ >. 
Wl^le hrigblesf stars their go^en radiance shed 
Iki tneilloipflstf a glories, 'rottAd tby ikmi^Btmr9 TnmiaUoiu 



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•CiiA^. XT. ^HtL0U6H itA£¥; ^ift 

•they employed niches hi the sides bf the wUl; placed tlieire the 
body ^th li yial filled "vrhh the blood ^f the martyr, or perhapis 
-some of the instnimeiits of his execution, and closed op the mouth 
of the niche wfth thin bricks or tiles.- Sometimes the name iras 
•insciibed ^th ^a word oV two Importing the belief and hopes of 
-the deceased ; at other times a cross or the initials cf the titles of 
our Saviour interwoven, were the only marks employed to certify 
'that the^ body enclosed belonged to a christian. Several bodies 
have been found without apy Inscription, mark, or indication of 
■name or profession. Such may have belonged to Pagans, as it is 
highly probable that thelse cavities were used as burial places^ be- 
fore as well as during the age of persecutions. It 4s impossible lo 
range over these vast repositories of the dead, these walks of hcjr^ 
fOT and desolation, without sentiments of awe^ veneration, add 
almost of terror. We seemed on entering to descend into the r«^ 
gions of the departed, wrapped up in the impenetrable gloom of 
Uie grave. 

•— — MaroeatM totod tenebras, pallensqae sidi ^tils, 

Longi^ nocte situ*—; ; — — ^ — qao 

Hon metuunt emittere maoes^* ^ 

Independent of these iinaginary terrors, the damp air and fetid 
. exhalations warn the curious traveller to abridge his stay and hasten 
to the precincts of day. ' 

I A Jewidi cemetery was discovered on the Viar Portuepsls; It was ornamented 
with yarioQs paintings, tn one of which ^was seen the goM^ candlestick eiactif in 
the same form as that in the Arch of Titus. An imcripUon coj^tainliNMha wOrd 

;zrNArfir . . . (SYNAGOG . . .) seems to show that it liad be^'tm^ojed m 

*a place of worship. • 

« — ^ — ^Within is dampness fooU ' . • , • 

/ And darkness, by ibe day-beam aadl£peird—— 

Tbe ebeerleM dwd's ab(^«. 

» Thf itrmaritP ^xtra 'Portrnn Esquilinam (Sand-pUs without the Esqidlide 
-^te) are mentioned by Cicero ( l^ro Claentio 13} as the scene of a horrible 
flMirder, the-circbmstances of which he relates; and Nero it seenlis was advised to 
conceal himself for a time ip one of the arenarice^ but refused to gaunder gro^nd 
while alive, ( Snetotitais : Nero^iS ) Ensebins^epresents the Emperor Gonstantine 
as alluding to them, and f^iiient mention is made of them in the writers of the 
-feiirth and- fifth oentucy. Pnidentlus desortbeii them with great accuracy APd 

> 
• Baod|»ioettl«EtMiBonltaadpomcrtafallo 
Mena lal«bro8U crypta palet fbTola 
HMos in oocaltajD gradlbos tU prona refleiit 
, Ire per aofractua lace latodtedocet; 
Fvfanaf maanfom ftires Miamo tenu intrat bieta, 

UloatralqiM dies Uoina fecttboJi. ^ -. 

Inde ubi progrmn fedli-olgreflcere tIm est 
. Noxobflcuralodperspecusamblgaam, ' 

' Oeanmmt eelristkiiqMia IbrciBtna tettia, ^y./ 

Qom Jadunt daroa antra super radioa. 
42iiamlibet andpitea tezant hlnc iode reoemn, 
Arda aok umbroala atria portldbua : 
. Attamen e»dd anbter caisa Tiacera meotlt 
t . Gnbntarebritofwrikleeluxi^flQetAU;' ^' 



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i^ €LA8nGAta TOUE GHap. XV. 

The dirircli ot Madonna del Sole is the uncient temple of. Vesta, 
strapped jQf its whole entablature, curtailed of its foil height hj the 
wising of the ground which covers^ the Jower part of the pillars, 
and disfigured Lj a most preposterous roof. The cell and pillar^i 
of ttrhite marble remain, but the latter are almost lost in a wall 
drawn from, column to coli^mh, and filling up the whole inter- 
mediate space. It is iquch- to l)e lamented that when this edifice 
was fitted up for a church, it was not restored t<^ its original form 
and beauty ; which might ha^^ been* done with less ex;pense aod 
difficulty, than were necessary to erect the wall and raise the roof 
which 1 haye just censured* It is fndeed highly probable that the 
Qiaterials requisite for such a restoration, ths^t is, the fragments of 
the frieze, architrave, ai}d cornice, might be found, round the bases 
of the pillars, as they may form part of the mass of ruins which 

"*' 'Sic datarabseotis per rabterranea soils 

Cernere falgoreoa lamioibivque fral. 

In tba fair sDbnrbs, ftir beneath (he ground. 
Hard by the walls, a spadoos vault their Ites, 
. To whose deep womb a passage 8te«p, «nppl|ed . 
^ith winding steps, the darkling Tlsiior . 

Through doobtrtiV ways conducts ; Yor at the doo^ 
Day finds admission vend the entrance cheers ; 
Bot when at length the faint and fading light 
Ih the dim caye abs<{rb'd, Kf pight gives way, 
. ' • The lofty roof huge apertures displays 

W^h cast amid ihe gloom a scanty beftm. 
:- Although beneath thjB high and arching vaults 

In mases blind the dark recesses wind, . ' ' 

let far witbfn the hollow mountain's womb. 
Through the piere'd roof the penetrating light 
finds an^le way. : thus, in earth s entrails de^p, 
' ) Altiiough the solar orb be far removed, 

JQls influence stiU i^ felt, hi^ light endofd. 

- Tbc lively account vhlchS. Jerome gives of these cemeteries i^ not less minute. 
^'^^efemiiiHom^paer et HberaTibus stadifserudlrer, solebam cam ct^teris ejusdem 
fttatis et propositi, diebus dominicis sepalcra apostoloram et maflyrum circumire, 
crebroque crjptas ingredi, qaa in ierrarum 4)rofQDdo defosss, ex utraque part6 
iQgrediebtium per parietes habent corpora s^pultorum; et itaobscura sjant opimit 
nt prop^modnm illud propheticum compleatur : descendant ininfemui(n vivmies : 
et raro desuper lumen admissam horrorem .temperat tenebr^rum, ot noQ tarn fe^ 
nestram quam foramen demissi luminis putes; rarsumque pe^etfentim acce^iitar. 
at cava nocte circumdatis illud YirgUianum propouitur, 

.'^ , Horeor obiqne anim<M simulipsa aUentla terreoL** - ' 

.8. kieron* in Ezech, 

<' While 1 ^as pursuing my studies at Rotate as a youth, I ^as accustomed tn- 
^liently on Sundays, in company with others of the same age and disposition, to 
traverse the tombs of the apostles and martyrs^ and frciqaently entef'ed the yauUs 
. vhlc6 are dug deep in the earthy and have the bodies of the buried ranged along 
^ the walls on either hand as you enter :> every thing is there sodarlt, that the saying 
of the prophet is almost fulfilled : '.The living go, down into Hell ^ * and a scanty 
light admitted from above, so moderates the gtoonry horror, that you would think 
It admitted by a hole rather than a window : aftd as you again advance step by 
step, and are involved in darlcness, you are reminded of the words of Virgil^ 

All things were full of horror and affright, 

And dreadful ey'n the silence of the night.!*— Diytfeti. 

The number of the cemeteries oir catacofpl)!? Is yejfy gr^, as ikerc are more 

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CflAV.XY. THROUGH ITALY* tt9 

has raised the present so much abbvefbe level of the ahdent' 
pavement. But this singular want bf tast^ a{ii|>ears, if possible, 
more conspicuous m two o^ther instances. 

The temt)le of Forttina Virilis' (the Fortune of Men), now the 
church of Santd Maria Egiziaca, [Si. Mary of Clgypt), is one of the 
few monuments that ^till remain of the sera of the Roman Republic. • 
It is of the Ionic order, and its proportions^ and form are justly 
admired. Its portico was originally supported by four piDars, and 
its sides adorned with twice, as many half columns. |t was converted 
into a church in the ninth century, and long retained a considerable 
share of its primitive beauty. When it was reduced to its present 
degraded state I <^nnot precisely determine, *but I believe ^bout 

than thirty known and distinguished by particular appellations, such Cemeteriam 
Galixti— Lucins— Felicis et Adaucti, etc. (the cemetery of Galixtus, oTLticiQa. of 
Felix and Adauctus, etc. )-~In several, the halls or opener spai»es are. painted. 
Daniel in the Irion's Den— Jonas emerging from the Jaws of the Whale— land the . 
Good Shepherd, bearing a Lamb on his shoul<^ers, seem to have been the favorite 
subjects. The latter recurs oflener than any other, and generally occupied the ikiQSt ' 
conspicuous place. Some of these decorations are idteresting tuid givo a pleasing 
picture of the manners of the times, while others occasionally ex|iibit as, aflfectlng . 
repres^ntati n of the sufferings of the Christians. Of the former kind is a painting 
on a vaulted ceiling in the cemetery of Pontianils; ioa circle in the centre appears 
the Good Shepherd^in the corners four figures of Angels— on the sides tlie (bur 
Seasons. Winter is represented by a youth holding some sticks in^his right hand ' 
and extending it towards a vase with a flame risidg from it : in hi,s left heh^ws n^: 
lighted torch; a withered tree istands in the back ground. Spring is si^ni^ed by 
a boy on one knee, as if be had 'just taken up a lamb which he supports with one 
band ; fn the other he holds a lily : the scene is a garden laid out in regular walks : 
near the border of one of these valks stands a tree in mil foliage.^ Summer ajp*- 
tiiears as a man in a tunic, with a round hat on his head in the act of reaping; tlm « 
sickle is of the same form as that used in England. Autumn is depicted as a youth . 
applying a ladder to a tree, round which twines a luxuriant vine. AU these com-; 
partments are divided by garlands and arabesques, df the latter specie^ of repre- 
sentation, we have an ihstance in a paintinjg whictr presents a hqman figure- 
immersed up to the middle^ in a boiling caldron, with his hands Joined before Ills* 
breast, and his eyes raised to heaven as if in ardent supplication. The three ohit- 
dr^ in the flames occur frequently, and probatily allude to the same subject* . Aji 
inscription pfaced over one of these scenes of martyrdom is affecting. O tempora 
infausta, quibus inter sacra et vota ne in cavernis quidem salvari possumus . . « - 

Quid miserUis vita . . . quid morte cum ab aifiicis et parentibus sepeliri 

nequeant. >— ^veral words are obliterated. Besides thesd representations thi^Ed; 
are many detached figures, all alluding to religious and Christian feelings, such a[s. 
anchors> palmS, vases exhaling iacense, ships, and portraits of different' aposlle^ 
The dresses are often curious, and border upon some ornaments still in use in 
Italy, such as the cap of the Doge of Tenice; tlie tunica and trowsirs so common 
in the south, ete., etc. The language of the inscriptions is probably the coUoquiaA , 
l>tin of the times, at least in many instances, and sometimes approaches very^car 
to modern Italian. • , 

> There are doubts as to the real appellation of this temple/ but all agree tn \U 
antiquity. 

* anbappy UmM, wheD we caanot worslilp witb safety, even ij» caveriM . . . Tfliat can be anire 

wretcbed ttian life wbat tban deatb , • . wli«a mea paoaot be l)oried J);r their ftiends and tbei^ 

p«reola. - ' ' i 



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I|ie nMbUe of tbe iereBleenA oentory. ' it is «iid to lui?re beert, 
whoa repaired^ in a niiiiois state : thought that were' the ease, it 
was less difficult to presenre than to alter its principal features. 
The latter however has been dotie. The wall that separated tbe 
Cella from the Vestibole ifas removed, and tebnih between the 
pillars of the portico, and windpws were >opened between the half 
coJomns on one of the sides. By these means a small space was 
added and more light was giyen to the interior, bat the propor- 
tions and beaoty were not a little impaired* 

Si. Laremto in Miranda^ The name of this chnrch/ placed as it is 
in the Fomm, and sitoated amidst a most wotfderAiI' display of 
Boman grandeut, is alone a suffidi^nt rec<^mendation lo the at-« • 
tention of the traveller ; bat this recommendation acqaires doable 
weight when we learn that it stands on the ruins of the temple of 
Antoninus and Faustina. Tfae.poctico of the temple, excepting the 
pediment and part of the walls, remsrins. The order is Corinthian: 
aiid the i^hole might have been restored without difficulty to its 
OjTigtaal form.^ But instead of following this process which the state 
of Uie rain almost forced upon the architect, he has erected a 
fibbntispiece Behind the pillars, of proportions, size, and order to- 
tally diffidfent ; of two st6ries so contrived, that the cornice of the 
first does not reach even the capitals of the pillars before it, while 
the second risea far above them, and exhibits on, high,^as if in 
-tripmph over good taste, its barbarous twisted pediment 

Such instances of ignorance or stnpidity, 'such preposterous and 
misshapen edifices, would surprise us even at Constantinople where 
almost every monntoent of ancient magnificence has Ibog since 
perished, and every recoHection of ancient t^ste is obliterated ; bat 
in Rope, where so many superb models still present themselves to 
oar consideration, where all the arts and particularly architecture 
are honored and cultivated with so much success, we behold them 
with astonishment and with horror. Bat neither censure, nor ex^ 
perieiQce, nor disappointment can deter vain and inconsiderate ar- 
chitects ^6m fruitless attempts to improve upon the works of the 
anpients, or cure them of their partiality to capricious combinations 
that have hitherto invariably terminated in deformity^ Tmriam, for 
he I bdieye was the mcuon who biiilt the i^nodem part of the church of 
Su Lorenzo in Miranda, probably iniagined that his new frontispiece, 
with its two contracted stories, its petty pilasters, and its grotesque 
entabliftttre, would fix the attention of the public at once, and totally 
ddipse the simple majesty of the colonnade before it. Vain hopes 1 
The stately portico of Antoninus stilt attracts every eye and challenges 
anjvevsal admiration ; while the modera addition is condemned ais 
often as noticed and ranked among the monuments- of a tasteless* 
and semi-barbarous age. 

« It is not ijiy intention at present tp describe the churches beyond 
the]walls : and of several within, which bear the names or aresup* 



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posed to be formed of the ruins' of atigient temples^ I shall say but > 
little, as they do not exhibit the least vestige of antiquity. Soeh ' 
is Ava Ccelil on the Gapitoline hill, supposed by inany authors to 6c- ' 
cupy the site of the temple of Jgtpitqr Capitoliqus : such also is Sania. 
Maria, sajira Mmerva, reported to haye been formerly the temple of 
that goddess ; neither of ^hichhaye a particdlar claim, unless their 
titles be considered as such, to our attention. ' We shall H(Hr cbere- 
fore^ proceed to the greater churches, under which appellation I in- 
clude the Pantheon and S^ten Patriarchal JSo^iltcce, so called because 
they are the. cathedrals of the sovereign pontiff^ who officiates in 
them on certain festivals, and reserves the high altar entirely to 
himself. These seven churches are^ St. Laurence (fuori delleynura, 
without the walls), SU Sebastiati, Santa^Croce, Santa Maria Maggiwe 
or the Basilica Liberiana, Su^Paik [fuori deUe mura), Su John Laleran 
or the JSfisilica Laterdnensis, St. Peter or the Basilica Vaticana, 
T'hese temples ar^ all of great antiquity, and if we excepc St. Se- 
bastian, of great magnificence. But to begin with the Pantheon. 

.The square of the Pantheon, ot Piazza della Rotonda, is adomeri 
with a fountain and an obelisk, and terminated by the porticb 6f 
A^ippa. This noble colonnade consists of a double range of Co-^ 
rinthian pillars of red granite. Between the middle-columns, which 
are a Uttie farther removed from each other than the others, a « 
pass^e opens to the brazen portals which, as they unfold, expose 
to view a drcular hall -of immense extent, :crowned with i lofiy 
dome-, and lighted solely from aboye. It is paved and lined with 
marble. Its cornice of white marble is supported by sixteen co-^ 
lumns and as many pilasters of Gifdh ontico (antique y^lc^Rr); iii 
the circumference theje^are eight nicheis, and between' these niches 
are eight altars adorned each with two ptilars of les9 si^e btit of 
the same materiaJs. The niches were anciently, occupied by statues; 
of the gre«t deities ; the intermediate altars served as |)edestals for 
the inferior powers. The proportions of this temple are admirable 
for the effect intended to be produced; its height bein^ ^«^l to 
its diameter, and its dome not an oval b^ut aiv e;^act hemisphere. 

Such is the Pantheon, the most iioble and perfect iq)ecimen of 
Boman art anil magnificence that time has spared, or ijie ancients . 
could hfty^ wished to transmit to posterity. It has served in IsJBt 
a&a IcISson and a model to succeeding generation;!; and to It Con- 
stantinople is indebted for Santa Sttphia, and to it Rome or ratter, 
the World owes the' unrivalled dome of the Vaii<:an. f need not' 

I T^a travfller should visH the churehee that behwg to partiicDlaT Qatiom aiiil- 
orders, and are considered as their tfe^pective mother churches; because Ao| on^ 
French, Spaniards, Gern^ans/ but Greel^s, Armenians, Gophts or Egyptiass, and 
even East Indians and Chinesehave their colleges and churches. The same may 
be said of all the religious orders. Several interesting ^aiticularities (h at indicate ' 
the character /Qf thepe natiop^ and^ hodiesy may be observed w tMf? MfpacUie 
establishments. . .v - 



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sat CLASSICAL TOUR Cbj^^XST. 

iiANrni my reader that the bod^ of the Pantheon is supposed, by 
niany antiquaries to be of repuUican architecture, and of course 
more ancient than the |k>rtico which, as its inscription imports, 
was erected hf Agrippa about thirty years before the Christian 
sera. But whether the temple was built at the same time, or per- 
haps one hundred years before its portico; is a matter o^ little 
consequence, as it is on the whole the most ancient edifice that 
now remains in a state of full and almost perfect preseryation. It 
has, it is true, undergone various changes from pillage and repa* 
rations ; but these changes haye been confined entirely to the de- 
corations. It was first altered by Domitian and afterwards repaired 
by Severus. The pillars, pilasters, and marble lining remain 
nearly as they were placed by the latter. It was plundered 'of part 
of its bronze ornaments, among which some authors rank its brazen 
doors, by Genseric, theyandal monarch ofAfrica^and afterwards 
more completely stripped of all its ibetal decojrations by Con- 
stantine, the grandsou of Heraclius, in the seventh century^ This 
semi-barbarian Empecor is represented by indignant antiquaries as 
the greatest scourge that ever visited" iRome, and is said to have 
committed more excesses, and done more nbisohief to the city 
during a short stay of s^ven days, than the Goths or Vandals during 
their repeated hostile approaches or long established dominion* 

The Pantheon was converted into a church by Pope Baniface IV. 
about the year 609, and has since that period attracted the atten- 
tion and enjoyed the patronage of various pontiffs. But though 
mudb has been done for the support and embellishment of this 
edifice, yet much is still wanting in .order to i^estore to it all its 
gioryl The pavement should be repaired, the marble lining of the 
attic replaced, and above all, the pannels of the dome gilt or edged 
with bronze. The v^ant of some such decoration gives it a white, 
naked .^appearance, yery opposite to' the mellow tints of the yarious 
ma[rbles that cast so rich a glow oyer the lower part. Yet let not 
the traveller complain, if even in this magnificent monument he 
shall 9nd that hfs expectiatio;is surpass the reality, and that his foncy 
has thrown around the Pantheon aja imaginary splendor. He must 
moit expect to find in it the freshness of youth. Yeai:s pass not in 
tain over man or his works; they may sometimes spare propor- 
tion and symmetry, but. beauty and grace, whether in the marble 
portico or in the human form, soon *yield to their touch and va- 
nish. Twenty ages have npw rolled over the Pantheon, and if 
they have not crushed its dome in their passage, they have at least 
imprinted their traces in sullen grandeur on its walls ; they have 
left 10 it all its primeval proportions, but they have gradually stript 
it of its ornaments, its leaves of acanthus and its glossy colors. 
Perhaps these marks of antiquity and this venerable tint which 
time alone can shed over edifices, rather increase than dinuntsh its 
majesty by adding to its justly admired form, that whiOh no ar- 



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CBAJf. XV. THROUGQ ITAIY4 9^ 

cbkect c^ bestow, the charms of recollection, and the united 
intei^est of age and disaster. 

ThoDgh the Pantheon probably owes its preservation to the cir-. 
cumstance of its havipg been converted into a churclr, yet I know 
not whether it be> altogether well calculated for.that purpose. A 
circular hall, if consecrated to the offices of religion, requires^Aat 
t^e altar should be in the centre, a position which it cannot occupy, 
in the Pantheon, owing, to the aperture perpendicularly over it. A 
round temple is not, «ven when arranged to the best advantagOi^ 
nearly so suitable or commodious for a christian assembly as the 
Basilica, with it3 corresponding aisles', elevated chancel, and semi- 
circular termination. Leiaving therefore to the Pantheon its prin- 
cipal character of a temple, I would set if, apart as a mausoleum 
sacred to the memory and remains of persons eminently distin- 
guished by great talents and splendid public virtues ; of that class 
of worthies whom Yir^gil places in Elysium and ranks among demi- 
gods and heroes. In the Centre might arise, on a lofty pedestal of 
steps, an altar of black marble destined solely for the service of the 
dead, supporting across of alabaster half vejied in l^razen drapery. 
At the corners of the altar four antique candeflabra might pour^ a 
stream of solemn light on the funereal scene around. The monu* 
ments might occupy the niches, line the wall, and when numerous^ 
rise in circles round the centre. However as the number of per- 
sonages who deserve the honor of a pjiblic funeral is small, a length 
of time would elapse, perhiips many centuries, before the niches 
would be filled, or the pavement encumbered with sarcophagi. 
The arrangement here described is only an extension of th^t which 
has actually taken place, as the Pantheon contains at present the 
tombs or rather the busts of several distinguished charSictefs, 
among which are the celebrated antiquary Winckelman, Metastasio, 
Mengs, Poussin, Cannibal Carracci, and Raffaellb himself. Two 
musicians also, Corelli and Swchini, have been admitted -to the 
honors of the Pantheon. ^ 

On the Via Tiburtina, at a small distance from the gate once of the 
same name, nqw more frequently called Porta di S« Lorenzo, stands 
the Basilic^ of that martyr, erected over his tomb by Gonstantine. 
Though frequently repaired and altered, yet its original form and most 
of its originsti deeoraiions Still remain. A portico, as is tisual ip all the 
ancient BasilicSB, leads to its entrance; it is supported and divided by 
four-and-twenty pillars of granite ; the choir occupes the upper j^art 
of the nave in the ancient manner, as in St. Clement's. The ambones, 
or two pulpits, stand on either j»ide of the entrance to the choir, 
close to the pillars ; t^ey are very large and all inlaid withivarble. 
From the choir a flight of. steps leads to the sanctuary paved with 

I The dedication of this church on the first of November, In the ye^ 990$ CEtve 
occasion to the Instttution of the festival of All Saints. 



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IM. CLASSICAL T0U1( CsfV. XV» 

mosaic wd adorned by a doable story, each of ^elye pillara of 
rich marble and of Corinthian form. Of tho lower range'of pi{j||tr9 
part only appears abo^e, as it descends through an open space loft 
for- that purpose far below the payement. Four other columns 
adorn the wall thatirun^ some feet behind the sanctuary as four more 
of porphyry support the canopy over the altar. The seats of the. 
sanctuary are ofmarble^asis the chair of the pontiff, a Tery ancient 
episcopal throne. Under 4he altar is the Confemon or tomb»f 
St. Laurence, wher^ his bo4y reposes, as is related, with that «| 
St. Stephen the first martyr; it is beautifully inlaid and incrusted 
with the most precious marble. 

This church, though unfrequented on account of its situation, is 
yet rendered highly interesting by its antiquity, its form, and 4ts 
mater iaisy and by a certain lonely majesty which seems < to brood 
over it^ and fills the mind with awe and reverenqe; Prudeatios has 
descrft).ed the martyrdom of St. Laurence in a long hymil, in which 
among many negligences there are several beauties ;* and the cele- 
brated Vida has treated the same subject with the devotion of a 
bishop and with the enthusiasm of a poet. Several of his^ images, 
sentiments, and allusions as well as his language throughout, are 
truly cl$issical ; and while L recommend the two hymns of thisa«llior 
to 4he perusal of the reader^ I cannot refqse myself the pleasure of 
inserting one .passage from the iSrst, not only on ^account of its 
esKjuisite beauty, but on account of its connexion. with the scenery 
o^.Rome, and with the ground which we are now. treading. In it 
the saint, when sensible or rather certain of his approaching fate, 
is represented as hanging occasionally over the Tiber, and turning 
with melancholy recollection towards his native land ^d the haunts 
of his youth. 

Si quaodo tamen in rip& subsistit amaeni • 
' ' Tlbridis, aspectaDS aaras, (^oelique profunda. 

Soils tid occasum yersas, Non teainplius, inquit« 
Aspiciam, dives regnis, ' Hispania opiinis, 
I^ec Yos, O patri^iiuvii, cariqae parentes, 
Qui spem forte mei reditCls agUatis inanem. . 
Tuque, O Tibfi] vale! colles salvete Latini I 
Quos colui heroum tuntiuli/sacrataque busta! "^ 

In another pasi^ge the last sensations and {tilings of the mar^tyr are 
> St. Laiifenoe was a natiye of Spain. 

*> Then stopping on fair Tiber'f banks, bis ey«9' 

He rais'dv and gazing on the Western skies, 

Eieiaim'd : No more, my dear and native Spaio, 
• Mast these sad eyes beboid tby sboceti again, 

nor yon, ye well-known streams, and parents 16vM, 
.f' . i ; Who now perchance, by nature's year«)ings.Qj6T'dt 

Hope soon agaia your murh-Iov'd child to view: 

Tiber,' farewelfl ye Latin bills, adieu I 
^ • Ye tombs, where many a bero's asbes lie, « 

Add inany a sainted tedant or the sky, 

Where oft my TQfi* Wore paid 1 ' • ., 



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C^M^. XV. THROUGH ITAIT.' jJMr' 

described in a style highly animated and affecting. Thd condloditig 
versed of the same hymn express at once the piety and the patrio-^ 
tism of its author. » 

From t(e Porta Tiburtma a. long and straight street, or rather 
road, leads almost in a direct line to the Btmtkfi Liberiana, * or 
chnrch of Smt€^ Maria Muggiore, which derives its former appella* 
tion from Pope Liber ius, in whose time it was erected, its latter, 
from its size and magnificeace, as being the first that bears the a|^ 
pellation of the Blessed Virgin. It is ^id to have been founded 
abbm the year 350 and has undergone many repairs and alterations 
since that period. It is oi^e of the noblest churches in the world 
and well deserves an epithet of distinction. It stands by itself on 
the highest swell oP the Esqniline hill, an the ihidst of two great 
squares which terminate two streets^ of near two miles iii length. 
To these squares the Basilica presents two fronts Of modern archi- 
tiBCtnre and of, different decorations. The principal front consists 
of a double colonnade, one over the other, the lower iodic, thn 
upper Corinthian ; ^ before it on a lofty pedestal rises a Coriifthian 
pillar supporting a brazen image of the Blessed Virgin: On the other 
side, a bold semicircular front adorned with pilasters and crowned' 
with two domes, filltf the eye and * raises the expectation. Before 
it, 01^ a pedestal of more than twenty feet in height, stands an 
Egyptian obelisk of i€i single piece of granite of fifty, terminating 
in a cross of bronze. These accompaniments on each side, give 
the Basilica an air of unusual grandeur, and it must be allowed that' 
the interior is by no means unworthy of this externar magnifi- 
cence. 

The principal entrance is, as usual in all. the ancient churches, 
through a portico ; this portico is supported by eight pillars of gra- 
nite, and adorned with corresponding marble pilasters. Hie tra- 
veller on his entrance is instantly struck with the two magnificent 
colonnades tl^at line the nave and separate it from the aisles. They 
are supported each by more than twenty pillars, of which eighteen 
on each side are of white marble. The order irlortic with its re^ 
gular entablature, the elevation of the pillars is thirty-eight feet, 
Ae length of the colonnade about two hundred and fifty. The 
sanctuary forms a semicircle behind the altar. The altar is alarg#^ 
dab of marble covering an ancienj sarcophagus of pbrphyry, in 
which the body of the founder formerfy reposed. It is oversha- 
dowed by ia canopy of bronze, supported by four lofty Corinthian ' 

» v. 245. ' 

• In the portico of this church there is a large antique sarcophagus, on |vh)ch Is. 
scQlptured an ancient marriage ; on another nhich stands behind the sanctuary is a 
vintage. They are both admired for the beauty of the vorlimanship. The field* 
around SL Lorenzo were called anciently the Campas Veranns. 

3 This front,; notwithstanding the noble pillars of granite that support \i,H* 
JuiUy censured for want of simpUcity. 



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tt6 CUSSICiX TOUR Qua. XY. 

pillars of. porphyry. This canopy, though perhaps of too great a 
magnitude fpr its situation^ as it nearly touches the roof, is the most 
t)eaatiful atid best-proportioned ornament of the kind which I ever 
beheld. The side walls suppprt^ by the pillars are divided by 
pilasters, between which are alternately windows and mosaic ; the 
pavement is (variegated, and the ceilings divided into square pad- 
nels, double gilt and rich in the extreme. There is no transept, 
bat instead of it two noble cha|>els open on either side. The one 
on the righ^ as you advance from the great entrance towards the 
altar, was built by Sixtas Quin^us, and contains bis tomb : it would 
be considered as rich and beautiful, were it nolt infinitely surpassed 
in both these^respects by the opposite chapel belonging to the Bor- 
ghese family, erecM by Paul Y. Both these chapels^are adorned 
with domes and de<!;orated with nearly the same architectural or- 
naments. But in the latter, the spectator is astoniished at the pro- 
fusion with which not bronze and poai^Me only, but lapis lazuli, 
jasper, and the more precious stones are employed on all sides, so 
that the walls seem to blaze around, and almost dazzle the eyes 
with their lustre. He may perhaps feel himself inclined to wish that 
those splendid materials had been en^ployed with more economy, 
and conceive that a' judicious arrangement might have produced a 
better effect with less prodigality. These two chapels, whatever 
their magnificence or peculiar beauty may be, have prejudiced the 
internal appearance of the church, and occasioned the only material 
deformity which even the, eye of a critic can discover: I mean the 
break occasioned by the arcades formeii on both sides, to serve 
as entrance to these oratories. The colonnade so beautiful even in 
its present state,( would have been matchless were it not interrupted 
by these misplaced arches, which after all do not produce the effect 
intended by giving a grand entrance inta these cliapels, as the 
view is obstructed by the arch of the aisles, and by the interven- 
tion of the. brazen portals. But be the defects what they may, 
I know not whether any architectural exhibition surpasses or 
even equals the BasiUca Liberiana. The simplicity of the plan, 
the correctness of the execution, the richness of the materials 
and the decorations, of the parts, the length of the colonnades 
and the^evation of the canopy, form altogether one of the no- 
blest and most pleasing exhibitions that the eye can behold. 
As yi^e advance alq^g the ample ^nave, we are rather pleased 
than ^stonishe<i( with the scenery around us; we easily famiUarize 
ourselves with the 'Calm grandeur of the place, and at the end 
retire with an impression, not of awe, but of delight and tran- 
quillity. 

From the Basilicd Liberiana a long and wide street leads to the. 
Basilica taierafienm. This church is the regular cathedral of the 
bishop of Rome, and as such assumes the priority of all .others, 
and the pompous title of the Parent and Motb^ of all Churches, 



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** Ecckmrum Vtb^ ei Orbis M^er et (fiapta. " » ItKrds foQiided 1^ 
Gonstantine^^ bat it bas beea barnt, ruined, reibuih, and frequentfy « 
repaired since that period. Its magnitnde'corresponds Fith its rank 
and antiqaity/ and the richness 0f its- decorations is eqoaF to both. 
The Basilica, like tha^ of Santo if aria Maggiare, ha&^ two porticos. 
That which presents itself to the traveller coijaing from the latter 
church, consists pf a double gallery one above the other, adorned 
with pilasters; the lower range Doric, tfa^ higher Corinthian* On 
tbe square before this ponico rises a noble obelisk, the. most ele^- 
vated of its kifid. From its pedestal burets an abundant stream 
that supplies all the neighbaring streets with water. ^ The principal 
portico faces the isdnth; it consists, of fouf lofty columns and six 
pilasters. The order is Composite; the attic is adorned with a ba* 
lustrade, and that balustrade with statues.' A double order is intro- 
duced in the intervals and .behind this frontispiece,- 16 support the 
gallery destined to receive tbe pontiff when he gives his i^oiemn 
benedictibn; though it is formed of very beautiful pillars, yet %% 
breaks the symmetry and weakens the effect of the whole. Other 
defects have been observed in this front, and the height of thepe- 
destals, the heavy s^Uic with its balust^ikle, and the'coloskal sta- 
tues that eneuniber it, have beeii. frequently and justly €ritici$'ed. 
Yet with an these aefects it presents a very noble and majestic ap^ 
pearance. 

The vestibulum is a long and lofty gallery. It. is pitted und 
adoriied with various marbles. Five doors open from it into the 
church, the body of which is divided into a nave, and two aisles 
on each side. The nave is intersected by a transept, atid termi- 
nated as is usual by^ a semicircular sanctuary. There are no rails 
nor partitions; all is open, and a few steps form the only divisi^on 
between the clergy and the peoplq : thus tbe size and proportions 
of tbis noble hall appear. to the best advantage. Its decorations 
are rich in the extreme, and scatteYed with profusion, but unfoi^ 
tvinately with little taste. The nave was renewed or repiaired by 
Borromini, and is disfigured by endless breaks and curves^ as well 
as overloaded with cumbersome masses. 

,The church was anciently supported by more than three hundred 
antique pillars, and had the same plan of decoration bcien aflopted 
in its reparation as was afterwards employ^ at San^a Mdria Ma^ 
gipre, k^ would probably have ex^hibited the grandest display of 
pillared scenery now in existence. But the architect it seems liad' 
an antipathy to pillars ; he walled them up in the buttresses, and 
adorned the buttresses with groups of pilasters : he raised the win- 
dows, and in 0];der to crown them with pediments, broke the ar- 
chitrave and frieze, and even removed the cornice : he made oiiches 
for statues and topped them with crowns and pediments of every 

> The Mother and Bead otihd Chnrches of the City andofthe Werld. ' 

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coDtocted f^m; ia sfaqn he bas ]^roken eva7 straight ^^ ui die 
6difipeM&>i4 ^"®^ ^^ wiib'SepiicircIes, spirlds^ and triangles. The 
roof formed of wood» thougb adorned with gilding in prefbsion, 
jet from too many and dissimilar compartinebts appears heavy and 
cpnfMsed* The altar' is smaU and covered with a Gothic sort of 
tower^ said -to be very rich, and certainly very ugly.. The statues 
of the ti^elve.apostleSy that occupy the niches on each sidQ of the 
nave with their graceful pillars of Verde antico (antique green), are 
. much admired. There. are several columns also that merit partr- 
wlar attention ; among these we may rank the antique bronze fluted 
pillars that support the canopy over the altar in' the eh^pel of the 
^nti$simo. SacmmeniOi Some suppose (hat th^se pillars belonged 
^to the .temple of Jupiter GapitoUnus; others fency that they irere 
brought from the temple of Jerusalem : be these conjeetures as they 
. may the columas are extremely beautiful. 

The various dikipels of this church deserve attention^ either for 
their form or for their embellishments; but theCorftnl chapel is^en- 
litled to particular consideration, and may be regarded as one of 
the most perfea boildmgs of the kind existing.. ' Inferior perhaps in 
•iae, and-more so m splendor to the Barghese chapel, it has more 
. simplicity in its form and more purity in its clecor^tion. This 
4B|iapel is in;;the4orm of a GrjBdL cross.. The entrance occapies 
the lower ,^ the altar the upper part; a superb mausoleum termi- 
. nates each end of the transept; the rail that Separates the thapel 
£rom.the ats^ of the dmrch isgiltbrass ; the pavement is the finest 
marble; the wails are incrasted with alabaster and j^per, and 
adorned with basso relievos; six pillara adorn, the recesses, the 
two 6n each side Of the altar are Verde onftco; the four others are 
porphyry, their bases and capitals are buirnisbed bronze/ The;pio- 
tare over the attar is a mosaid, the ori(;inal by GtUdo. The tombs 
with their.statuesarenmch admired, particularly that of ClemefatXII. 
the Cocsini pontiff, whose hody repdses in.a large and. finely pro- 
piortiooed antique sarcophagus of porphyry, ' Four correspond- 
ipg niches ar,e occupied by as many statues, represei^tii^g the Car^ 
dinal virtues, and over each niche is an appropriate tmso relievo. 
The dome thai ^canopies this chapel, in itself airy and weU lighted, 
receives an additional lustre from its goIdeilpanfnels,.andshedsa 
sof^ but rich glow oh ihe marble scenery beneath it. On the Vhole, 
though the Ccirmi chapel has )90t escaped erkicism, yet it struck 
me as die most beautiful edifice. of the kind ; spleildid without gan- 
dmess; the valuable materials that form its pavement, line its walk, 
and adosn its vaults, are i^o disposed as to mix together their va- 
ried huea into soft and delicate tints; while the si^e and symmetry 
fit its form enable the eye to contain it with ease, and contemplate 

> This Mtroophagos was taken from the portico of the Pantheon, and U suppowd 
^ soms fumqaailes tp Hj^ oonlained the iishe» of Agfippa. 



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iBwAP. X1^. ¥hR0U4h ITALt, . 'SI3^ 

4ts unity, its proportions, and its prnainentd without effort. « 
. Th^ Baptistery. 6f St. John Lateran, which , according to the cus- 
tom of the early ages stiH observed in almost all the cathedrals of 

/Italy, though near is yet detached from the church, is called S. Gio^ 
vanni inFonte, and is the most^ancient of the kind in the Christian 

^orld. It was erected -by Constantine, and is at the same time a 
monument of the magni^cence of that ilmperor and the bad taste 
ofthe age. A small portico. leads into*an octagonal edifice, in the 
centre of which there is a large basin about three feet deep, lined 

' and paved with marble. This basfn is of the same form as the build- 

'ing itself; at its corners stand eight beautiful pillars, which support 
eipit others of white marble, and theije latter bear an attic crowned 
with a dome. These pillars, with their entablature, were probably 
taken from various buil'dings as they differ in order, size, and pro- 
portion, the attic is painted in- fresco, as in the gallery around 
the pillars below; the former rept^esehts several Gospel histories^ 
the latter some of*the principal events of the retgn of Constantine; 
The modern font, a^large vase of green basal tes, stands in the centre 
of the basin iraised on ^pme steps of n)arb}e. Anciently the ^asia 
itself was the font into which the catechumen descended by the four 
steps which .StiH remain for that purpose. There are two.chapels, 
one on each side of the Baptistery, formerly destined for the in- 
struction. and accommodation of the catechumens.^ In this chapel 
only, and only upon the'eves of Easter and Peiitecost, was public 
baptism administered anciently iii Rome ; many magnificent ceremo- 
nies which occupied the whole night accompanied this solemnity, 
aiid rendered It mote delightful to the fervent christians of that 
period than the most brilliant exhibitions of the day. 

The view, from the;steps of the. principal portico of St, John La- 
teran is extensive and interesting. It presents a grove before ; on 
one side the venerable w^^H/s of the city ; the lofty arches of an aque- 
duct on the other ; the ehurch of Santa Croce in front, and beyond 
it the desolate Campagna bounded by the Albaii Mount, tinged 
with blue and purple, and checkered witii woods, towns, andVil- 



A wide and straight road leads through th6 solitary grove which 
I have just mentioned, .to the Basilica di Santa Croce in berusor 
femmg, 'another patriarchal church erected by Constantine on the 
ruins of a temple of Venus destroyed by his orders. This churcb 
derives its name from some pieces of the holy cross,- and from a 
quantity of earth taken from Mount Calvary and deposited in it^by 
St. Helena, Constantine's mother. It is remarkable only for its ah- 

> This edifice might be recommended as an excellent model Tor a domestic or 
coliegp chaiiel, or ti maasoleum. ^ Some critics have ventured* td 6ensnf« ils ar- 
chitecture as too tame,lmd deficient in boldness and relievo. Its size is oot» I 
helieve, susceptible of m^re; the defect, if U exist, U scarcely perceptible. 

• Xbe Gbarch cffthe Holj Gross at Jerusalem, 



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tiqna Aape^and lor the eight noble colamns of granite that sap- 
port Its nave / lis front is mpifitn^ of rich .materials, bnt of yery 
indifferent architecture. , .The semicfrcular vault of the sanctuary is 
adorned with paintings infresbOy which , though very defective in the 
essential parts, yet charm, the eye by the beauty of some. of the 
figures and the exquisite freshness o^ the cqloriqg. The lopely si- 
tuation of this antique basilica amidst grpveSy-gardeniT, and vineyards, 
and the number of mouldering Monuments and totterfng arches that 
surround it, give it a solemn and fiffecting appearance. 

The patriarchal Basilica of St. Paul, called & Paolo fuori deUe 
mtara, at some distance from th^ Porta Qstiensis^. is on^e of the grand- 
est temples erected by the first Christian Emperor. It ^was finished 
by Theodosius and his son Honorius, and afterwards, when shat- 
tered by earthquakes and time, it was' repaired first by Lto III. 
and again after a long interval by SixtUs Quintus. Such was the 
respect which the public entertained for this cbutcb,, and ^o great 
the crowds that flocked to it, that the Emperors above-mentioned 
thought it necessary ( if we may believe Prooopius). to build a por* 
tico from the gate to the Basilica, a distance of near a mile. The 
magnificence of this portico seems to have equalled the n^ost cele- 
brated works of the ancient Romans, as.it was supported by marble 
pillars and covered with gilt copper. But whatsoever may have 
been its former glory, it has long since yielded to the depredations 
oiF^gedr barbarism, and jsunk into dust without leaving even a 
trace tb ascertain its former existence. .The rOad is now unfre- 
quented, and the church itself, with the adjoining abbey belonging 
to the Benedictine monks, is almost abandoned during the summer 
months on account of the rea) or imaginary unwholesomeness of 
the air: 

The exterior of this edifice, like that of the Pantheon, being of 
ancient brick looks .dismal and ruinoqs. The portico is supported 
by twelve pillars, and forms a gallery or restibulum loftyand spa- 
cionSf The principal door is of oronee ; the nave and double disles 
are supported by four rows of Corinthian pillars;, amounting in 
all to the number of eighty. Of tiiese columns, fqur-and-twenty of 
that beautiful marble called pavonazzo (because white tinged with 
'a delicate purple] and the most exquisite workmanship and pro- 
portion; were taken from the topab of Adriain [CasteiS. Angelo). 
'The transept ot rather the walls and arches of the sanctuary rest 
upon teti other columns, and thirty more are employed in the de- 
coration of the tomb of the Apostle and of the altars, The^e pillars 
are in general of porphyry, and the four that support the central 
arches are of vast magnitude. Two flights of marble steps lead 
from the nlave to the sanctuary : the pavement of this latter part is 
of fine marble; that of the former of shattered fragments of ancient 

* Xbe colttinns are buried in the modem work. 

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€hap. Vf. THROtGll ITALY. tH 

tli>iiibs marked yith toscripfiofas. The altaritaadil under. a canofj 
terminated by an awkward Gothic pyramid ; iBecirciimferenQe df 
the sanctuary lb adorned with some, very ancient mosaics. Ti» 
walls of the nave and centre restH>n arches carried from piBar to 
fHUar ; those of the nave are high ^nd tovwed with fiided paiotinga; 
The* length of the church is about three (londred feet, its breadtk 
about one hundred and i&j, ^nd fram Us magnitude, proportions, 
and^ materials, it undoubtedly furnishes all the means requisite, i 
property managed^ of rendering it.onepf theuibst noble, and perhaps 
one of the mostWiutiful churches in the world. As it.is, it presents 
A very; exadt ^opy of its ancient st|\te, for it. seems to have sufiered 
cottsiderablerdamage alAio'st assoon as finished^.from the wars, 
alarms, and devastations that commeneed^n the reign of Bono-* 
rius, and continued during several successive^ centuries. 

Although many popes/ and particularly. Srxtus Quintus and JBe^ 
nediciXlv. have repaired .or ornamented tbts venejfabie fabric, yet 
iit still retains an unfinished, forlorn, and almost ruinous appear* 
ance. The pavement is, as has been observed above, made up' of 
broken remnants ; the.ancient pictures^ that adorned the walls are 
nearly eflaced by damp vapors ; the beams and rafters of -the roof 
form thaonly covering of the' body of the church ; and the whoje 
Basilica, excepting the sanctuary, presents the aspect of a neglected 
and melancholy monument. The Benedictine moiiiks are, in ail 
countries where the Order exists, but particularly in Italy, both 
rich and public-spirited, that it is a Subject of surpri3ei and just 
reproach, that while sQ.many superb edifices have been erected by 
them in different towns and x^ountries, one of the most ancient and 
celebrated temples in the Christian world sEoul(f even in the ca- 
pital itself, and Under the eye of the pontiff, be allowed to moulder 
away and sink almost unnoticed into ruin. ^The expenses requisite 
for the reparation and embellishmeat of such an ediftoe would be 
great without doubt ; but to an opulent' and religious society; 
money yrben employed for such a purpose cannot be an oBjeqt of 
conrsideration, especially as the work might be carried on gradually, 
and witti all due regard to . economy.' The arches from pillar to 

^ This roof is miKih adipired for its. raedianlsm and; revered ft>r its ant!(|aity; 
but however <;urkMi8 or venerable it may be ill these respects, it forms, as^all mere 
carpentry iqust fomr. a very diill an^ unepfiropriate ceiling to a marble temple.. 
The beams were Originally lin^d with gold, and Indeed the whole edifice was most 
splendidly decorate4 as we are assured by Prudenttos who visiteU It In Its first 

glory. , 

Keifta pompt lod est, prioceps boniu ba« sacrafU tnw 

Liuitque magnis ambltam talentU. 
BnictcolM trablbu subleflt; ut oanKa aoroleala , 
' XaxeMet.tQlu,ceuJabai^8abortis. r 

Sab^ldit et l^arlas fulTis laqnearibus coluoauas, 
■ Dlsilogntt IHlc qaas qnateroua ordo : * . 

Tom Camyrof byalo insigol Taiie caairrit areqa, ^ ' ,- 

Sic iMla venits floribosiVBldeQU-^aWfo JBe«<. ipoi/. 

IiiipMrtal/plaid9raUtbtdMMadOTi|»;' - , . ' 

I. " 46 



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CLAsmiikVtimi cHjLP.xrh 

hUriMiHeid by the l)srd taste of ^the ag^ of Dldd^tiaii, might 
ire to^eted Mm Sania Marki Meujgiore b^ a rejgular ^ritabfatur.^ ; 
•Hi as in rf( fhef mh0rB8^fca^ (he ffoor might be fl^^^$«fd and th% 
«aHs Ifoed wAh iriarMe. The paintifigs itf tght thei< be rife^orM with 
fietktiispbnfkf^ and the work of reparation finished by removit^ 
Ae firdBCRtt Gotftia-flrboML ^t enmlyb^s cb^^otirti df the Aposife, 
9BHt by ^Bf^iftg Ifce herioUiiil' cohmns ibM nfo^w ^ein to ^r^ik 
iiMtoir iHf irei^i Mr s«fif»iHifig a light ahd well-^pordoa^ <»Ri(iy^. 
i Ut0 iitre«dy Mid tHtt S. Paolo mi^t be made oise of tke «Kifi|( 
tieMiiff IctotMhi^ in the w6rtd, afrd the ehaA^ here p^fivvMr otrc 
hrooW I iMnt ntoontphsfi ihbt ol^ct, aitod ^y^ it aM th^ ^leMTot 
0f wfaiail it is sus(^iMe. R atr^dy mdeed ertfifeifis^ lA^ itobite)^ 
tMifStcm of pMars now HXtetJAg; and if Otm ##^e del off 16' Hd^ 
vantage ^j ah apprepfi^e oorniee aiM eott«rs^itM(fiii($ ddicoi^atiicytill 
«pbuDd^ iCGi«bKA)fta^s wdtiMform'a dt^netvufei^idr MextetfC indciied, 
ImeqtHiii ittfacsaperfer iii re^Iat architektfral bi^ut^ ev^^n t6 
the iMgnMMii ai^ea^ea oiF the TatiCidn. 



The BasiKcaC "'^iiticana, or St. Peter*s. 

• • . .." .' ■ . . ■ ■> 

'Jq tBVVaUcan we shall no>v turn, ahd, close our account of Ro- 
man churcte^V l^y f '^^'J^t sjna imperfect description of some qf the 
glorieis of' this unriTalled faferiCj^Uie boast of modern skill anrftro- 

E^ y of tjie united arts oF painlingi sculpiurQ, and Architecture. Tfii 
silica of St. I^etpr was ^he first and noblest religious edifice erected 
^ QonStaptii^^ jft stood oa'part of the circus ol^JVero, a'ndf ^as 
^i!lpp.ose,d tp opcupyii spot CQri§e,er£i ted by the^lood bTriumterleSS 
martyr43 exposed'or slaughtered ii) that place of public amusement 
1^ order of the .tyrant. * JBut its j)rinci|3al larid exclusive advantage 
was tli^ possession oftte body o/St/ Peter ;* a circunistancfe which 

Tbose towTs « Mdnarch birflt to God, nfifl gwic'd ^ ' 

^|tli|riWUieb«»imlM«tY«trtbdl^|ihA|' .-• 
The ligjbt might ehiuIMe ^be beams of ipofn^ 
/ Biofl^tb tbe giitfrtifff'bdtlffg^ j^rtart stood* " 

0»iriari»iUNie, in »Br-MU raiildi dlltidiU: . 
Eacb cunriDg arch with glass of various 'dye, 
Was deck'd ; so sbioes with flowYs the pati/ted^iuead, 
Ih Spring sprollflc day. ' ' 

r This supposition is fiir^finom being grouodlessv/ as aitpeftn from the words of 
Tacitus spetJiing of the persecutions of Nefo. Ergp ^botendb rumori ( jussum in-^ 
cendiuia Ronis) Nero subdidit reos et qusesitissimis iv^iils ^dl^ecft, quos per flagi- 
tia invisos, yulgus ChriMianbt* appeUabat. . . . £t pereimlibu^ addita ludibria, ut 
feraram tergiscoDt^f latllatu catiam tnterirant aot erucibtis affixl, aut flammandi, 
atque aid defedsset dies, in utfoffi nd(^tMi hnukiis 'Uftreatlir. 'Hortus suos el 



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Cup. Xtt. TfiROUGtt TTALY. m 

tmstd it in credit and consideration abore the Bmittca Deiteranek^t 
dignified Its threshold ^ith ttie honorable appellation of the LmmkL 
ApoMhlcrum (the Threshold of the Apostles), and sheared to it the 
first place in the affection an(| reverence of the Chri^ian #^M. 
Not. only monks and. bishops but princes kn6 eavperors Tkifed its 
aamctijMrf yfk\k devotion^ and even kissed as they Itpproaehed tbb 
naTbie steps that led to its portal. . Nor was this reveitenee c6nfi* 
ned to the orthodox monarchs who sat oi| the throne of thefonbder ; 
it extended to barbarians and more* than once converted a cruel inf^ 
leader it^to a suppliant votary, the^ vandal Genseric, whose heart 
seldom felt emotions of mercy, while he plundered every house and 
lempte with unrelenting fury, spared th6 treasures deposited under 
the roof of the Vatican Basilica, and even allon^ the plate of the 
churches to be carried in solemn pomp to its Inviolable altars. 
Totila, who in a moment of vengeance ba4 sworn that' he would 
bury the glory, and the memory of Ronto in its ashes, listened M> 
Ibe admonitiotns of the pontiff, 4nd resignM his fory at the toipb 
of the Apostles, 

£^17 ^S^^ SIS it passed oyer the Vatican, se^ed to add to its 
holiness and ki. dignify ; and the coronation Ofan Etnperor, or the 
installation of a' Pope, the deposition of tl^e remains of a prince, 
or the eiishrinement of the reh^nes of a sainf, appeared a^ so' many 
tribmes piid to its supereptinence, and gave it so, many new Claims 
to the veneration of the Christian world/ At length, however, after 
eleveb centuries of glory, -the walls lof the ancient Basilica began to 
^ve way,^n<i symptoms pf approaching ruin wer^ J^ecoilEieso visibfe 
about the year 1450, that Nicolas T. cgioceived the prOjectof tak- 
ing down the old church, and* erecting in its stead a new and rriere 
extensive structure. ' However, tho»gh the work yr^t fe^««i, yet ft 
was carried on, with feebleness and uncertainty doling mote than 
half A century, till Julius II. ascended the papal throne, >a4)dre$u^ 
med the great undertaking with that spirit and decisioti which dis* 
tJnguisbQd aU the measures of his active pomittcate. Great j>f inoes 
generaBy find or create tl|e talents reouisitei'or their pur^ses, and 
JoIMs disooveredm£ram.iiitie, an architect capably of compfehend** 
iag and executing his grandest ^conceptions* A plan was p^estented 
and approved.. The walls of the anciebt Basffica were take« dawfi> 

snoetaculo Jferc dmulerat et' ciretme Isdlcnim edefipt habiCB aurigie f^ermiihus 
plel^ Ye| ciirrleQlo infistens. Tacit, An»* Vf. ^^y ,^ t 

•'Therefore iir order to do away the reportX^f ^b® ^^^^ having beea set firc.to bx 
his orders], N^ro accused, and inflicted the most exquisite punishments upon a ^1 
V^ett^lcf/ odflimis on account of thehr crintes, Whom the vulgar palled Christian^.... 
lacker; was added to the torments of iYk ^ying, for they werd covered with the 
sldns of wtid i>ea^ th^ th^ n^gbt he, torn in piei^ by 4og8» or wera jiailed tQ 
grosses, or set on fir^ that when day-light disappeared, they migjitt serve insteailof 
lamps. Nerd lent his gardens for the spectacle, and gave a show of Circensiaa 
g«med, mixing with: the mob» or standing on \As chariot/ in the habit of a cha- 



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SU CLASSICAL TOCOa CflA^. XVL 

and- on the eighteenth.of Aprils 1508/ the foundation stone of <9ie 
of the Vast/piiiars that support the dome, was laid by Julias with 
^1 the pomp and ceremony that i>ecame sfich an interesting occurs 
jedce. From that period the work, though carried on with ardor 
and perseverance, yet contioned during the space of one hundred 
years, to occupy the, attention and absorb the income of eighteen 
pontiffs* I might haVe aiigm^nted this number by the addition of 
the namesi of Urban Y IIL Alelander YIL and their successors down 
to Benedict XIIL who all contributed \6 the erection, embellish- 
ment, and completion, of the superb colonnade that opens before 
the churdi,' and adds so much tp its majesty, 'f he popes who have 
since followed have not beej(i entirely inactive, but have endeavour- 
ed, each according to bis, ability, to acquire a siiar0 in the glory 
and duration of this edifice by some decoration or improvement. 
in fine, the late Pius YI. built the sacristy, anil by this necessary 
appendage, 'l^hich had^till tb^n been^ wanting, may be considered 
as having accomplished th^ grand undertaking, andigiven theBasi- 
licsl Yaticana its full perfection. 

On the whole, it would not.be exaggeration to assi^rt, thatnem*ly 
three hundred years /elapsed and five and thirty pontiffs reigned, 
from^the period of the commenceme/kt to that of the termination of 
this stupendous fabric* The most celebrated architects' of modern 
times had an opportunity, of dispAaying , their talents and immorta- 
lizing their nameS) in the prosecution of the work, and Braman^y 
Rafjaelhf San GoUq, Shchaei Angeldi, Vignola, Karlo Mademo^ and 
Bernini, not to speak of others of less reputation, labored succes- 
atyeiy in its promotion or consummation. 

To calculate the expense with ^ny great precision would be diffi- 
cult, bii^t from the best ipformation that has been collected on the 
subject, we may venture tQ state, that however enormous the sum 
may appear, the expenditure must have amounted to at least twelve 
ipillions sterling; and w,hen we consider that thQ marbles, J)ronze, 
and other valuable materials employed in its decoration, are not 
only tfnconnnon, but scarcely known out of Rome, we piay add 
tbat it would require three tunes as much to raise a similar edifice 
in any other capital. From the latter observation we may inf^r, 
that If 4 convulsion of natur^'or what is still more to be dreaded, 
an explosion of human malignity, should shatter or destroy this 
ari^lible fabric^ many ages must elapse, and nnnfberless genera- 
tions pa3S away^ before means could be collected, or talents found 
to restore it, pr to erect another of e^ual magnificence. 

What then will be. the astonishment, or rather the horror of my 
reader, when J iiiform ^im that this unrivalled temple, the triumph 
and master-i^iece of modern.skill, the noblest s^eoiinen of' tfie ge- 
liias and the powers of man, was, during the late French invasion^ 
taside an object of rapacioiis speculation, and. doomed to ruin. 
Yet such is the fact» When the exhausted income of the state, and 



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€Hi*. XVI,. THROUGH ITALY. * * u$ 

the Inlander of all the pablic estabh'shmenis were ioand ihieqiial t^ 
the avarice of the g^nerajs, and to the increasing wants of thewl- 
diers, the French codmittee turned its attention to St. Peter's and. 
employed a company of Jews to estimate and purchase the gold, 
silver, and bronze, that adorn the inside of the edifice, as well as 
the tsopper that covers the vaults and dome on the outside. Thte 
interior ornaments might perhaps have been remove without any- 
essential or irreparable damage to the body of the febric; but to 
strip It of its external covering was to expose it to the injuries of 
the weather, and to devote it to certain destruction; especially as 
the papaT government^ when restored, had not the means of repairing 
the mischief. Bat Providence interposed, ismd the hand of the Otxh 
nipotem was extended to- protect his temple, before the work of 
sacrilege and barbarism could be commenced, the French' army, 
alarmed by the approach of the allies, retired with prQcipitatioD-' 
and St. Peter's stands I ' 

Frbm the bridge and Casieide Su Angela, a wide.street conducts 
in a direct line to a square, and that square presents at once the 
court or portico, and part of the Basilica. « When the spectator 
Approaches the entranceof this court, he views four rowl^ of lofty 
pillars, sweeping off to the right and left in a bold semicircFe., In 
the centre of the area formed by this^ immense colonnade; ^ an 
Egyptian obelisk, of one solid pieceof granite, asi^nds to the height 
of one hundred and thirty fe^t; two perpetual fountains, one on 
each side, pfay jn the air, and fall in sheets round the basins of 
porphyry that receive them. Before him, raised on three succesr- 
Sive flights of steps, partly of iparble, extending four hundred feet 
in length, arid towering to the elevation of one hundred and eighty, 
he beholds the mafesiic front of the Basilica itself. This front is 
supported by a jingle row Of Corinthian pillars and piasters, and 
adorned with an attic; a balustrade, and thirteen colossal statues* 
Far behind and above it rijses the matChless Dome, the justly cele^ 
brated wonder ofRomfi and of the world* The colonnade of coupled 
pillars that surround- and strengthen its vast base, the graceful attic 
that surmounts this colonnade, the bold and expansive swell of the 
domre itself, and the pyramid seated on a cluster of columns^ and. 
bearing the ball and cross to the skies, all perfect in their kind, 
form the most magnificent and singular exhibition that the human 

> The late pope had some thoaghts of wldeniag this street; and giving It 
thpughout an eipansion equal to llheentranciB.or' the portloo, to that the colon- 
hade, fountains, obelisk, and church, would thus burst at once upon the eye of the 
spectator, when he turned from the bridge. Though the approach to St. lPeter*s 
is already sufficiently noble^ yet this alteration would, without doubt, have added 
muchio its magnificence. The invasion of the French, and the iMhsequeDt di»« 
tressiiig events, sospended the execution of ^is and many simflar plana of Vat* 
provement. 

> This coionnade, With iUi entablature, iNdustrade, and stulqes* Is aeventl M 
la ha]|(ht. 



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y» GLASSIGAi. forti CBA>. XKL 

eye perhaps ever contemplated. .Two' Fess cufiolaay ooe oq ^acb 
$ide^ partake of the state, and add not a Efttl&tp the majesty of the 
principal dome. 

The interior conresponds perfectly with the grandeur of the ex- 
terior, and fully answers the expectations, however gteat, which 
such an appr^i^ach mast naturally have^sised.' Five lofiy portals 
open into tfere portico or vestibolum, a gallery in dimensioQS and de* 
corations equal to the most spacious cathedrals. It iS' four hundred 
fbet in length, seventy in height, and forty-^two in breadth^ paved 
with variegated marble, covered with a gilt vaiiU, adorned witil 
pillars, pilasters, mosaic, ahd basso feHeivos, and terminated al 
both ends by equestrian statues, one of Constantino^ the odier of 
Charlemagne. A fountain at each extremity supplies a stream su^ 
ficierni ro keep a reservoir always flill, in order to carry off every 
uniseemly object, and perpetually refresh and purify the air and 
the pavement. Opposite the five portals of the vestibule afe thtf 
^ve doors of the ehorch ; three are adorned wWi piHars of (he 
finest inarble ,« th^t.in the middle has valves of bronze* 

As. you ^ter, you behold the most extensive hall ever con-- 
structed by human aft, expanded jn magnificent perspective before 
you ^ advancing up the nave, you are delighted with the beauty of 
the variegated marble under your fee^t, and with the splendor of the 
golden ^vault over your head. The lofty Corinthian pilasters witB 
their bold ekitablkufe, the intermediate nfiches with thefar statne^y 
the arcades with th6 graceful figures that recliiie on the curves oS 
their arches, charm y6ur eye in Succession as yow pass alpng. Bii| 
how great yoiir^astonishment when you reach the foot of the ahar, 
and standing in the centre of the church, contemplate the fpur sa-< 
perb vistas tnat ^pen arbun^d you ; and then raise your ey^ to the 
dome, at ttie prodigious elevatiorr of four hundred foet^ extended 
like a firmament over your head, and j)resenting, in glowing mosafe, 
the (jompanies of the just, the choirs of celestial spirits, and the 
whole hierarchy of heaven arrayed in the presence of the Ecernai, 
whose ** tljronehigh raised above all height '^ crowns theawftil scene* 

When you have feasted your eye with the graddenr of this^nn-- 
paralleled exhilfitron in the whole, yoii will turn to the parts, the 
ornaments, iind the fiirniture which you will find perfectly corres-^ 
ponding with the magnificent form of the temple itself* Aroamt ' 
the dome rise four other cupolas, small indeed when compared to 

*» ■ . . 

> Ad BasilicnYaticaiis TeaUbuluni siibsistimus; neque, audemus tam diving 
ftibriee majestalem rudi ea]afno violar^. Sunt «nim nouDulIa, qo» nuUa meliuk 
DMMto quaih stupore, et silentio laudantur, sajjs the learned Mahillon ': Iter 
iidlitum, -1. • ' 

- '* We stopped at the vestitmle of St. Peter^s Church; nor 4«e we with unhal- 
lowed pen violate the majesty of so divine a structure : for there are soma thiag^ 
irMolt'^ene^cer mo^ adeqitately praised. Uiaahy aq|^zQfaiMit«Qd silence." , 

••I saw St. Peter's," says Gray, *'and was strucit dumb with astonishment." 



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Qaim. Vft: TmOUGfi ITALTi «t 

its stnpendoiis magnitode, bat of great b^dneM vhe^ ooaridered ' 
separaoely : sh more, three on either side; cover Ihe'dtfiMreBi d^ 
TOjpas of the atgies, and six more of gre£^ dimeiisioBa caoonr v 
ttiany chapels, or, to speak morq properly, m many ehurcbes. Afl 
these inferior cu|^o)as lire tike the {frand dotaeiitsetf^ lined with mdT 
saios, Biany indeed of; the masterpieces of pajiitm|; which {[raced 
this edifice, have been removed and repIaoeA tiy mosaics whieb'iie-r 
iem att the tinta and hi^aatiei of the originals, impresleil'on a more 
MM lind durable substance. ¥he aufest fiod> attars are aAomed 
with nomberleds aatiqqe pUiars, that borcber the ckmNdi ali aMund^ 
and form a secondary and subserrient^rdep. The variegated wall* 
are, in many ptaoes, ornamented; wi||j feskoooa, wnenths, angels, 
tiaras, crosaes, and medallions, represeniiiig the ef^gies ofdtfiUraiit 
pontiffs. These decorations are of the^most beautifnl a^^ rarest 
species of marble, and often of excellent workmanship. ' VariQiM 
Rfoiiumentartseindiflrerent parts of thechurob i bat, in dwr aiisr 
add aceoinpanimentb, so much attention has been paid la fteeral 
as well as local effect, tl^at tl^ey appear rather as parts of tbeori*- 
^inalpian, than posterior additions* Some of t|\ebe are much ad-* 
mired for their groups and exquisite sculpture, aiid form Tierf 
COii^iouous features in the ornaments^I part of this nobb temple^ 

The high altar stands under the dome, and. thua s^-it is the most 
important so it becomes the most striking object, in ordtDr- toadd^ 
fd'itS'PelieF and give it all its majesty, according to th^ aaoieiii.cus- 
i^m stffl ifetMnedjiu t^e patriarchal ehorchi^ at ^om^ aad ^ moat 
of Ibe oatbedFals in Italy, a lofly canopy ris^ above it, amdl fonat 
ail ii»leemedlam br^ik or repose fbr the eye between il mwl the 
laiifheii^ity of the dome' above. The forin^ materials, and my^gfii*- 
inde 69 thia debora^oi^ are equally astonishing. Beliow the dfBfi el 
file aHar ^ud of bouree some distance from it^^^at* the coinerii oai 
fl^r massive pedestals, rise four twii^ted pijttars fifty feet to he%btv 
and svpport ant entablature which bears the canopy itsetf topped 
with a ctosisi. The whole soars to the elevation ofl ene hundred 
and tlrirty-twof^t from the pavement, and exic^piing the pedeataia 
IS of Corinthian brass; the nlost lofty massive work of that or of 
»Y other mefal now know*- But iii\s brazen edifice, for ao it may 
be oaUed, notwithstanding its magnitude, is sq diapoaed aa eotto 
obsfrubt- the view by cohceabng the chancel and^. vetifng the Carte* 
draper Cftair of St. Peter. This ornament is also ofr broxixe, and 
consists of a gro«p of four gigantic figures; representing tljei four 
jpriifd^al doctors of the Greek and Latjn Ghwrchea^ aupponing the 
patriarchal chair of Sl» Beter. The chair ifi a k)fty throne eiavaied 
10 the bright of seventy feet firom the pavement ; a circular wfaidow 
tinised wUh yellow throws from above a miWer q^endor arimad 
It, so that Ae whole not unfitly represents. the^rereoMnenoeof the 
hpostolic See, and is acknowhrd«0d to fan»ii most beohming and 
majestic termination to the firstiio£ Chnamn temples. 



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M« CLASSICAL TOUE' , CilA». XVL 

M^ol hava added that every part and evi^iy ornament is ke|iit 
ia- tfae-mest perfect repair ; that the most eiact Yieatpess and cli^aii- 
I^ness is obseryable on all sides ; that the windows are so managed 
^s to throw o?er. the whale a light, clear andxtistjnct, yet sofrand 
gentle, I shall leave the reader to imagine what an impression the 
contemplation of an edifice so glorious innst make on the mind of 
a yoothfiil qr enthusiastic traveller* 

Under the high altar of St^ Peter's is4he tomb of that apostle^ 
formerly called the Confesnonof St. Peier, an appellation whi(ih it 
has communicated to the altar and its canopy. The descent to it is 
before, that is to the west of the altar, where a large open space 
leaves room for a double flight of. steps, and for an area before 
imo brass folding doors that admit into a vault, whose grated floor 
isdirecdy over the tomb. The rails that surround this space above 
are adorned with one hundred and twelve bronze cornucopiffi^ 
whfch serve as supporters to as many silver lamps that.btirn per- 
petually 4n honor of ^e Apostle. The staircase with its balustrade^ 
the pavement of the little area, and the walls around, are all lined 
with alabaster,, lapk .Utxuli, verde atUko, and other kinds of the 
most beautiful marble. The pavement of the area is upon a le^el 
with the Sacregfoue (sacred grottofT^ or caves,) though the regular 
entrance into those subterranean recesses is under one of the great 
jiiilars that surround the dome. 

The Socre groue ^re ihe^remains of the ancient church built by 
Gonstantine^ the pavement of which' was respected and preserved 
with ail possible care during the dendolition of the old and the con^ 
stfuctton of the new Basilica. They consist of several long wind-, 
ing galleries extending in various directions under the present 
boiMing. They are venerable for their antiquity and contents ; and 
' if Addison never visited Westminster Abbey, or trod its gloomy 
cloistei's witho.ut strong impressions of reRgious awe, I mayjbe 
pardoned when I acknowledge (hat I felt myself penetrated "^with 
holy terror, while conducted by a priest in his surplice with a lighted 
torch in his hand, I ranged through these dormitories of the dead, 
iined with the urns of emperors and pontiffs, and almost paved witn 
the remains of saints and martyrs. The intrepid Otbo,. the turbulent 
Alexander, and. the polished Christiana, tie mouldering near the al- 
lowed ^shesof the apostles Peter and Paul, of the holy pontiffs, Linds^ 
Silvester,: and Adrian. The low vault closes over their porphyry 
tombs, and silence and daitkness brood uninterrupted around them* 

My awe increased as I approached the monument of the apostles 
tfaemlieives. Others may behold the mausoleum of an emperor or 
of a consul, of a poet, or of an orator, with enthusiasm ; for my 
]iart, I contemplated the sepulchre of these Christian heroes with 
heart»felt veneration. What, if a bold achievement, a useful in- 
yeBtion|.ii well-fought battle> or a welUoId tale, can entitle a man 
to the admiration of piiialeritjr^ and shed a blaze of glory oy^r bi^ 



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CaJiP. XYI. THROUGH ITALT. U9 

remaibs; sorely the coarage, the constancy; the crn^I S!i(ferings> the 
trkimphant death of these holy champions; must ^exeite our 'adiQirar 
tion and our gratitude, ennoble the spot where their reUcs repose^ 
and sanctify the very dust that imbibed their sacred Blood. By 
sacrificing their lives to the propagation of truth, and to the reiFor* 
mation of matikiod, they are become the patriots of the world at 
hrge/the common benefactors of their species, and in the truest - 
and noblest sense, lieroes and conquerors. How natural then for 
a Christian not only to cherish their names but4o extend bis grat^ 
fid attelition to their ashes and his yeoerafion even* to their tombs. 

Superba 8ord§nt Cesares cad^vera 

Queift- urbis litabat impU paHCls ferax ; 

Apostolorum gloriatur osstt)us ^ \ 

Ffiamque adorat coHfbus suis^cijiceni. 

Nunc, O crqore purpurata nobili 

Novisque telix Eama coDditoribus \ ' 

HoniiQ tropeis aucla qaanto verius 

Heginii fulg^s prbe tolo civitas ! ! »— l?rei;. p€ar. 

The vestry or sacristy of St. Peter's is a most magnificent edifice, 
connected with the church by k long gallery and adorned with num«- 
berless pillars, statues, paintings, and mosaics. It is in reality a 
large and spacious church, covered with a dome in the centre, and' 
surroudded with various chapels, recesses, and"^ apartments-adapted 
to the devotion and the accommodation of .the pohtiff, the dean of 
St. i^eter's^ and the members of its chapter, it was erected by the 

' Unnotlc'd dost, the C«tars dow are laid, ' 

To wbom fiome's impious bomage ooce was paid ; 
But of th' Apostles' tombs sbe proudly boasts, 
Aod Taunts tbe Cross, that tow*rs thro* all her eo9flM- 
Now. Rome, of many a martyr's bfood poasot. 
And in thy second foanders dooMy blest, 
lEnricb'd, ennobled by such spoils diTlne, 
The sceptre of the world is truly thlnab 

St. John Ghr^sostom makes an eloquent allusion to this tomb.^when speaking of 

the last day he exclaims - Exeedcv otpieaiynatTOii •n«u>o«f <x<(9cv IUt/SOC. Ewoiivocre, xeu 
ffli^ottt, oeov o^ixou 0(«/Me Vwfi^ rov Uetv^ov a^ac^vit^ etvevroc/bicvoy mko nt$«-^xii$ <xccyi|S 

And again, Eyu x«e t^vFu/kiiv i*iet rout-o fiku*' xou roe yt mut^v xoee flrf/9Ci>dev ex^av 
cirxevciv, xae eeico rou /uicy«9ov$, x*t ecvo tm upx^^Q^'^Oit xect «iro rov xo(^)ou(, xott ouro nff 
^voiireUKi, xeu ufco rov ic>6vtow, x«« ««o twv xaro/^dw/utocrwv r&iv ev iro>c/x<f ttXlot wtevtet 
TfleuT« «fs««, ^Mt TOUTO «uTnv pMxuft^ta, OTi ( II«uXoj) "x«« ^^v pcvTUs tyfiotfs^ xou otmus 
mtrovi tfiXtt^ ntti fceipttiv ocuroc; <rtf><x0i|C x« rov ^lov exst xxvfhtvt' ^lo xm e^im^fioi )| 
KoXtf fvrcp^fv ftouXov..^ ttwo twf oe^wy otmcvTuv — Ase rsevfoe 5«v/(i«^bi .n|V «oXcy» ou JUt 
rbv xpy^o^t rov xo^vv, ou dVoe rou$ xtovoe;, ov (Teet Ti|y ct)\y^ (ptfyrsctfcav.— "Tic /uoe-vvy cdWs 
iCC^Q(v9]1vott Tia m^fiMXi n«v>6u, xoee icy9Otfi|>oi»0i}Vfle< ry reef a», xsee n|v xQycy cJlKi*TOU:o«i^oero$ 
cxacvov ;— ri)v xovcv tow aTO/*«T0$,T-d*t,' ow c>a>sc cvotvreov /Socffc^mM;, xtu ovk iifljjwvwoi-^ 

cv^oevvov« «ic«ffro/t»e«,— niv otxowyMVT«v t» 0EO xpdrf^tefr ti|V xovev rij^ xup^tu^ ^ 

oyrw cXarceoe ijv ca« xoee iro>ee$ oloxXupovi hx*a9on^ xoce ^[lov^ xm tBv% — n|v xae/^av 
excevi|y cuyfloy/aisvTiv x«d* axajrov .twv «iroA>u/A«vwv,-^v xoeevitv ^igvaevav ^cuiiv, ou T«ewTiiii 
fi|y i/Mttt/wv. 7m yap ouxetc tyu, ^i| H av e/toe, ^ifvey, o^XPIZTOZ.'-E^ou^o/Aiiy fi|V xovcv 
irfkfv Tbiv X^'P^^* *^** •* seJiUffte,*— eTe' o*v TfltuToe Tae. yfiXfifiotxtt, «y^«f t to*— ^V» «•»«» «*v 
iFOdW fwy M/c^^ee/tfovTMV fi|Vt-0«0Vficvi|V, xoei fii^ xoe/»yovrov. 

JETom; tft £;piil«* oiMem; . 



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n$ CLASSICAL TO&a GbL4». 

orders of the fate fiope Pivs VL at an iou^Mose expense : »i4 tiUNq^ 
ID many respects liable. to criticism, yet it is on the v^ole entitled 
to admiration. 

From tfte lower part of the Basiiica, we pass to the roof by & 
weti lighted staircase, windiog roui^d with an. ascent so gentle di«t 
beasts of bartl^en^go up wiUiout inconvenience. When you reacb 
thepiatforiR of the roof you ^re astonished with 1^ nualber c£ 
cupolas and domes ind pibnao)ss'i%at rise aromtd you; with the 
galleries tliat spread on 'ail sictes, and the many apartmaitts and 
siaitcases that appeal in erery quarter. Crowds 'x>f workmen ar4 
to be seen passing and repassing in every direction, and the whole 
has rather the form of a toWn flian that of (he roof of an edifice. 

Here the traveller has an op^orcunity of e xarpining^. closely and 
minutely the wonderful co»structi6ft of the dome, and of discover- 
ing the skill and precision with which every part has been planned 
and executed. The vast platform of stone on which it reposes as 
oii a solid rock ; the lofty colonnade that rises on this platform, 
aiid by its resistance counteracts, as a continued buttress, the hori- 
zontal pn^sstttii of the dome« all of stone of snch pfodif^oiis siifell 
ai)4 circumference ; the lantern which like a Ipfiy temple sits op it^ 
toeing m^m\n^; the^e are objects whicU must excke t^js asuini^li- 
i^PDt«o6 every spectator*, but can be perfectly underwood ^x^i pro- 
f(^\jf described by hone but by »a skilful Architect thoi^oiighly s^ 
quauited Wit^ die (Mfficulties and the resources of hi|s art. * The 
9cpe^ to ev^y piUFt^ and the ascefilt even to the inside ii) the tx!tUi, is. 
perfectly safe and commodious. Those who wish'to reach the cros9 

*'From this place Paul, firom this place Peter sball be snatched away. , Consider 
jind shudder, what a spectacle Eome will heboid^ Paul suddenly rising with Peter 
n*om that sepulchre, and carried up into the. air to meet the Lord. 

"t honor Rome also for this reason; for though I could celebrate her praises on 
many other accounts— for her greatness, for her heauty, foic her power, for her 
i^^^ti^ and for her exploits in war Ayet passing over all these things, I giqrify 
^er on this account, that Paul in bis Iifertime wrote t6'thei)i, and |ovQd thein,. a^d 
'<9(^ pre5Si^jpiVy|Lith;.and conversed' w^^ them, and endqd bis life amongst them, 
"Wherefore the city is on jthis account renowiieji more than on allolhers— :0p iwi 
accoiint I admire i^er, not on account of her gold, li6r columns, or h^ro^ber splpndidT 
4ecorati9ns.-^;y^hQ hasnow empowered meto emhra^ce the body of Paul, ^(\4 tj 
r jv^^ myself to % \pii(fj^, and to see the dust of his mouth ? the dust of that mout£ 
Witl^ wWch he spol^^ before i^ngs, and was not ash/^ed, with ifW^ hesilLw^ 
ifryrai[ita^ and made t^ whole world approach to Uod? the dust of bi« heart, wht<^ 
was sojBapftGietasaB to embrace entire cities, and peoples, and nations; thai ^eart 
whkhilved ft npw life, not this which we Hve ; ' for I no longer li?e/ saytf be, ' but 
CbrtBt Uy(^ In rmJ I wished to see the du^t of his bands, ot those, hands which 
-WfffB In bonds, and with which he wrote these epistles; the dust ofthose feet wlM 
traversed the i^ers^and>ere not weary/' ^ 

'. . ' ' ' Homily on the lSpistl§ to the Romans. 

* The ddina of St.Kaursisnot€alculated to givea just idea of tt)at of St. Peler'fc 
The innerdofHO Qf.:ihf^ former is of brick, and in shape not very unhk/^ihe conical 
form of a' glass house ; the dome to ^hich the cdiOceowies aU^its^enpal ^(faiideiiy 
is a um^^ioodm^f raised oirer the other al a considerable distance, and coversd 



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Q^f.Xn. XtlROUGH IT^T: m 

on the oatside, ds some bold adventurers are siiMlo hme 4me, 
are exposed to considerable danger Vithout attaiomg any adranta^ 
to.jusiily their rashness: ' 

After faaTing thus examined the upper iparts, tbe interior abd' the 
subterraneotis apartments of this edifice, the iravetler will range 
round the outsidie an$i take a \iew of (he external walls and termina* 
Sion. A large open space surrounds it, and affor^l^ room enough 
even for perspective. The order of the porrtico wilh its attic ii 
carriedUo pilasters round the oulside'of the dmrch, and gives it di 
th« greatness 'and majesty that result ftom unbroken unity. The 
only defect is the clusters of half or quarter pilasters, with, their 
imperfect capitsfls and angular entablature crowded together in the 
corners. There are arehitects I know who consider these groaps as 
ornamental or at least as necessary, and of course as not incurting 
the appellation of defects. But, without discussing the principles, 
of the art, they certainly offer too many angles, and conf^qn^ly 
too many breaks to the sight, and may justly be termed^ if not'de* 
feas, at least defovmities. ' 

I'have thus pr^ented a general picture 'of this celebrated edifi^». 
and dwelt with complacency on its unrivaHed beauties. I may now 
be kltowed to examine it with the eye of a critic,, and Ywitmre to 
point out those parts which may be deemed liable to censaiie or ca- 
pable of improvement, to begin with the ce^Ionnade. Every spec- 
tator of taste while he contemplates and admires this most ettfensive 
add magnificent scene of piUftrs, regrets that Benwii, influenced 
without doubt by the love of novelty so fatal to the beauty of edifices 
and to the reputation of architects, ifistead of a sinipie and perfect 
order, shoald have employed a coniposite of fats own ijQv^nfiiQn. 
8are)y the pure Dorie of the Parthenon, the Ionic of the temple of 
Fortona Yirilis, and the Corinthidit of the Pantheon might have beeoL 
adopted' with more propriety-and.effect, than a fanciful ^ombinalionr 
of irregular Doi;ic pillars and an Ionic, entablature? To this defect 
ferntni has added another, by introducing too many pilasters, or to. 

with, copper, which conceals the poverty of lis materials. Both the domes ;of the 
bttcr are of stone; they run 't\S a coDsiderabl» way together^ and wheathey Hi|M* 
saM^, ifiief merely ^eay^ room 'enough for a Dacvowtstair^;^ hetwe^ tl^, so ttm| 
^ie traveler as he asc^ds touches bot,h the domes with (is elhew&* T^h^Jl unHf^^ 
again at the, lop and conjointly support the weight of the lanlern.* * . • * 

■ '^ Some of the midsbipmcti of the Medusa frigate performed this feat with ^b«lt* 
usual spirit and agility. But this is not surprising in young tars, ' • ' 

** Pr<Mllga gens altro lads aalinsqao capates ' 

MorUsI." . ^ . • 

0eroe8 prodigal or brealb, ' 
A (hirst for glory, ucid despisibg death. 

Mr. de Ip, £and0. talks df ft French lady who some years before scrambled up 
the inclined ladSer, moiifaied ihe balk' and leaned oa the cross, and <Ad'air this 
«*<it;«c imt $Qupiks»9 et ime grace 4nc6neBvafple (within ineoncelvable agility 
and grace)." 1 hope no English lady will ever emulate sacb inconceivable ghfi^ 



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^ GLASSldAt TOUR Chap. XTI. 

speak more properly ip»ssiTe pites that break the line unnecessarily, 
and increase' the apparent weight without augmenting the solidity of 
the building. 

The front of St. Peter's has been censured as tiaving more of the 
appearance of a: palace than of a church; it is pferccd with so many 
windows, divided into so many, parts, and supported by so many 
half pillars and -pilasters. This deformity which is common to all 
the patriarchal churches in Rome, is in a great degree owing to the 
necessity which architects are ^nder of providing a gallery for the 
ceremony of papal benediction, and thus of diTiding the intercolum- 
niation into arches and apartments. W|;ata pity that such an ex- 
tensive and magnificent front should be sacrificed to such an insig- 
nificant motive; especially as the ceremony in question might be 
performed with equal if nolt more effect from the grand entrance 
of the church itself. It is indeed much to be lamented that the ori- 
ginal designs of Br amante and Michael Angelo were not exck^uted, 
and the portico of St. Peter's built on tlie plan of that of the Pan- 
theon^ a plan that united simplicity with grandbur tod would have 
given' to the Vatican a beauty and a majesty unblemished and un- 
pi^ralleled. But it is the fate of great- architects to be counteracted 
by ignorant employers, and not unfrequently obliged to. sacrifice 
t^eir sttbiime conceptions to the bad ^taste,. to the prejudice, or to 
the obstinacy of their, contemporaries. The architect of St. Paul's 
shared the fette of that of St. Peter's, and had the mortification to 
see his bold and masterly designs tamed and disfigured by duliiess 
and parsimony. The inscription on thie frieze ought I think to be 
corrected as below the dignity and destination of such a temple 
erected by the common father of alt christians, in their name and 
at their expense. Thus instead of ** In honorem prindpis Aposto^ 
lorum Pauluis Borgkesius RomanuSy'' ' it should read, '^ Deo optima 
maximo in honorem prindpis Apostohrum Eccksia Catholica ; > an 
inscription, more worthy a temple which, may - justly be doosidered 
as the common property of the christian world. 

In traversing the nave one is tempted to wish, notwithstanding 
the beauty of the arcades, that pillars had been employed in their 
steady a support tnore gracefqV as well as more majestic, ^hat a 
superb colonnade would two such long and lofty rows of pillars 
have formed I. how much above all modern magnificence ! and even 
bow superior to the prou4est monument that remains of ancient 
grandeur! 

It has been justly ^observed, that no statues ought to have been 
admitted into St. Peter's but^such as represent the most distin- 
guished benefactors of the christian church, whose services haye 

I Paul EorghesQr A Romao, id hopor of t||e Prioee.of the Apostles. 
' To tbe Supreme Being, the Catholic Church, io honor of the Prince of the 
ikjNiftles*. ^ 



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been gdnerdll; folt; .and whose ioanies are. h«ld in nnita^al^Tene^ 
ration ; siich as tlie. gpo^ile^^ .the principle martyrs, the doctors of 
the first ages, and the most celebrated bishops. The forms of 
these ancient worthies, -these ** our fathers and masters in the 
faith*' so well entitled to the most honorable places in every^ chris- 
tian temple,^ might have occupied the niches of the naVe apd the 
transept with much dignity, and would have been contemplated 
by every spectator with interest and reverence. But though these 
holy personages are not excluded^ yet nu^ny a conspicuous niche 
is occupied by a saint of dubipus origin or Obscure name, whose 
existence ^inay be - questjooed by many, and is unknown to most, 
and whose virtues at the best had but a local i^d temporary, that 
is a very confined and very transient, influence. Thus of the fomr 
most remarkable niches iq. the whole- church, of those which are 
formed in the piles that support the dome and which of tourse face 
die. altar, two are filled bysaints whose very names exist only In a 
legendary tale, I mean St. Veronica and St. Longinus; and a thh*d 
IS appropriaxeil to St. Helen, the mother ff Constantine the Great, 
who, thoiigh a princess of great virtue and eminent piet;, might 
stand with -more propriety in the porch near the statue of hec son. 

As for the founders of religious orders, such as St.Dominiq, 
St. Franeis, St. Ignatius, St. Bruno, etc. iqy. different readers will 
entertain very different opinions, according -as they may approve 
or disapprove of such institutions^ Some, will think them worthy 
of every honor, even of a statue in the Vatican.; others will con? 
«eive that tjoey might be stationed without disrespect in the porch 
or colonnade ; and without pretending to derogate from the merit 
of these extraordinary parsonages I am inclined to fovor this 
opinion. In reality the statues of men:of tried and acknowledged 
virtue and learning might guard the approaches and grace the poih 
ticos of the august temple ;. but patriarchs, prophets, apostles, and » 
martyrs alone should be admitted into the interior ; they should 
line the sanctuary, and fovm an aw^l assembly round the tbr^one 
of (he victim Lamb. Statqes so placed might edify the catholic^ 
and could not displease the sensible protestant. ^ 

The doves, tiatas,n me^dallions, etc. with which the ^des of the 
arcades are incrusted, have be^n censured by many as ornaments 
too insignificant for the magnitude, andtpo gaudy for the solem- ^ 
nity of the place. This criticism may be well founded ; yet they give 
a variety and richness to the picture, so that the eye excuses while 
the judgment points out the defect. * , - / 

The pi^ures may be objected to on the same ground as the sta-^ 
lues, as ihany of them represent persons and events totally uncon- 
nected with the sacred records, and sometimes not to be met 
witkeven in the annals of authentic history. The candid and judi- 
cious Erasmus would haveahe subjects of all the pictures exhibited 
in churches taken exclusively from^ the holy scriptlures, while the 



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ttf CUMfStCML TOtJft -OHi^. Itft. 

.faislories of. smt», ithen antfaoitio', be tkinks ipiglit fdrnish deiiord- 
tions for porticos, halls, &nd cloisters^ It is a pity* that ibis optnion, 
•80 coBforinable to good taste and to sound piety, has not been 
adopted and followed sts a general role In the eaibellishment of 
dmriDhes ; as it woiibld have banished from the sacred plaoe many 
UBeless, some absord, and a f^w prolane representations. I do not 
]^6tend to faint, that any 6f the mosaics aboye aliirded Co merit sobh 
MTer/) epitiiets, bnt.the cKrikian when he ent^ts St. Peter's the 
moU magmficent edifice ever devoted jto the purposes of religum, may 
justly e^^pect to find delineated on its,wall$/the whole /bisttiry'ef 
hisfeidi from the opening to the dosing of the inspired yolames; 
to see portrayed in saccessioo, as he actvances, 4he mysterious 
IraAsilstionSy the figm^s, the predictions^ the allusions of tfaeXNd 
with th^ corri^'onding events/ the realities, the accomplishments 
die coinoideoceft of the New Testameat^ to discover the threats 
and promises, the dkooarses anid paorables of his dirine. master 
embodied inUyiag colors before hio}, and thus as he c«stshis eyeis 
arouSQd to ecmieaiplatfi 19 this noble temple! a fiaithfiil traqscr^ of 
tbe Half fipok^ Ispeakio^ to his eyes in die miost brilknt and imr 
pressiy^ characters, comb^ing Wd displaying in one f{loriou8 
l^osped; before %itni the past .and the fafore, the dispensations and 
the itesigtis of Providipnce;. id shc^nr all that is grand ^lid terrible, 
and-aH that is^.mild and engaging- in his rehipon. 

TIrese or. similar exp'eetatDons ^^ill not certaicily b^ entirely di»- 
sppo&Mcd; as/lhejtiosafo decorations of the numiserlesS'CupohB 
imd phi^c^ Mre in gen^tfl selected and applied withwonderM 
jadgmebt aard felicity : but I regret that sueh excellent ^oice and 
art anfienftent do not prevail throughout the whole &brie ; that an 
intermorture qt representations, if not fabulous ^t least control 
iMPtiblo^ shoqld break the succession of scripture evtots ; and while 
ibey.»dbl nothing to ti^e incomparable beauty of the edifice, should 
t^kia mmcfa'dwdylrom the purii^ and correctness of its decorations. 
Such are the defects, real or imaginary, which/crltical observers 
tttim-ijaemeted in tbis^wonderful pile; defeats which confined to 
ornamental or accessary parts leave the grandeur andmagnificcwoe 
«f the whole undimhiisbed, and only prove. that the j^ojidest 
iTOtks of man are itanaped with fiis characteristic imperfection. / 

.ff 6. conclude — ^In magnitude, elevation, opulence, and beauty, 
the.d^prch <^ JSt. Petier hasno^rival, andf bearsf no comparison : ia 
BMness^. deaaliness, auad convenience, so needssary to the. ad* 
vantageous display of magnificence, if any where ecpialled, it oib 
no where be surpai^sed. It is cool .in summer^ and in vrinter dry 
a&d^arm'C its portals are. /ever .open, and ev^ry visitant whether 
attracted by devotion or by curiosity may range over it at leismre, 
a:nd witfaoikt being molested or even noticed, eitho' eontemplale its 
beauties or pour out.his prayeri^ before its altars. Thus the Basi* 
Jiea \Umm unites die perfectioo of art with the beanOjf ofkoHnetu 



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Cxrii^. <VL THROUGH' It ALT. tM 

^4 nsay Jfettlf jdaim the affeciion and reverence of the traveller 
.4>olh as the temple of taste and the sanctuary of religioo. 

' ^ OBSERVATIONS. 

^ The QAly church which ha» been compared with St* Peter's is 
$(. PaaFs in Loodon. If the latter be, as in many respect^ it 
is, the second charch in the world* yet it is far inferior tQ the fo'r- 
iner, anci cannol without absurdity be put upon a palrallel with ft, 
as the impaitial trayeller wlio has examined both will readily acknow- 
/edge. In fact^ the size, proportyons, and materials of the two 
edifice^ when put in opposition,. shew at one view how ill-founded 
such' a con)parisofi ipust be. ^ 

ST, eiSTEE^S. ST. P^VL^S. ' 

> iengtb ... 700fe!Bt. . • • • • 500 feet 

Traiisept .,...:,. 50a '.....'. ^50 

ficfght. ...;.. 440 ...... »W < 

Breaidtti of the nave . . 90 ...... ^90 ' 

Height of ibentYe. . . tH . , . . ,^. liO . 

The Portland stone of which St. fauVs is built ihbu|;1i in itself of 
a yery beautiful color, is yet inferior in app^arajpce to the Trqver^ 
$mo of St;JPeiev's: especially ^s the latter retains its rich yellow 
glow unrnjure^, while the id^licate^, white of the former is, in n^ost 
parts of ^h6 fiatbedral tun{ied into a SQpty black. The cold dar£: sio^e 
walls, the qaked TBults, the faded paintings of the dome of St. Pa\ifs 
chQl tb^ sp^G^tor, an4 ain^p^t extinguish all sense o.f beauty atid altl 
emotions qf admiration* Tb^ marble linings, the gilded arches, t^'e 
Offl^did monies that emblazon ^t. Petejr's naturally dilate tlie 
mind, and awaJken i^entiments of winder and delight. 

Th^ fronts of Wth these churches are disfigured b^ tpQ many 
<^yisioqs, which by breiakiqK one la^ge mass into many small parts 
4^9tr0y all ^Keatnesi of rnaiji^fler, and impair in no smalLdegree tl^e 
f/Nx^^l i^aodeur and effeipt. Which of the two fronts is most defi- 
cioat in this respect it is difficult to determine; on the defects of the 
Yntiaaa I have expatiated aboy^ ; those of St. Paul's are the double 
f^Uc^ry, ihe^ou^^ :pillars, and the copaposite cornice. ,The cp- 
^made, that surrounds the dome of St* Paur9> though liable in its > 
fortttf proportions, capitals', etc. to much critipism, is yet the no- 
'blBst ornament of die edifice, and considered by many as superior 
^ appearaac^ to the coupled columns thatocc^upy a siipilajr situa- 
lioa in St. Peter's. It happens however unfortunately, that ih^ 
il^gratioa whiQh'Contribtttef so much to the m^ty of tjiie exte- 
i;ai0r.irhoa]d take away from the beauty of the ip^ierior, apd by mqsk- 
m§ the wiodo^ws ^gf'^^ the, dome of the lig^t requisite to shew 
off ijts concavity to advantage, Yet, be the defects of St.Taurs 
even«greater and ntore ouitieroas than I haye .stated, is it on t(ie 
whole a most extensive ahd stately edifice; it fix^ tho eye of ihe 



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M OLASSIGAl TOUR CjU^ XH. 

spectator as he passe? by, and challenges his adinh*^ioa' : and even 
as next to the Vatican, though fongo proximumintervaUo^ ' kclaims 
superiority over all the transalpine churches, and furrfishes a jjist 
subject of national pride and exultation. I take this opportunity 
of expressing the public indignation at the mahner in which this 
'cathedral is kept, the dirt collected on the pavement and. on the 
statues, the penurious spirit, that while it leaves the decoration of 
the dome to rot and peel off through damp and negligence^ stations 
guards at the doors to tax the curiosity of strangers. 

The church of' Su Genevieve at Paris was expected to surpass 
St. PauFs and rival St. Peter's, as the best trench archit^ts 
were employed, and many years were Consumed in forming 
the plan and preparing the materials. But the expectations of the 
Parisian public had been raised too high, and were totally disap- 
pointed,^ when this edifice which was to have eclipsed the' most 
splendid fabrics ^of modern times, .and put French architecture 
upon a level with that of Greece and Rome, was cleared of the scaf- 
folding and exhibited to public view. Some of the defects attri- 
buted to the two great chtirches above-mentioned have been 
avoided, particularly in the portico which is'biiilt upon the model 
of that of the Pantheon, butvery different fr6m k in effect, as it 
wants boldness, mass, and elevation. The inside is 'in the shape 
of a Greek cross crowned. with a dome in the centre. This figure 
)$ by many deemed the most, petfeclt, because it expands better to 
the eye, and enables the spectator to take in its different parts at one 
view. However this advantage is wanting in Su Genevieve owing 
to the protrusion of the walls that support' the dome,; which pro'-^ 
trusion, by deuching the parts from the centre, breaks the unity 
of the design, and gives the nkye, choir, and transept, 4le appear- 
ance of so many great halls opening into a commoir'area, rather 
than thai of the component members of one great edifice. Beisiides, 
there snre too many Subdivisions, especially over the cornice, where 
apparently to support tb<) great ^ault numberless little ardies arise 
in forms so aify and unsubstantiat as almost to border on ara- 
besque To these and other minute defects 'wtuch we pass over, 
v^e must add one of a much more important description^ that is 
want of solidity ; a defect sb extensively felt in the year 180Si,.«is to 
etcite serious ^prehensions, and suspend, at least for a time, th6 
works tecess^ry for completing the building. ' When the traveller 
peruses' the inscription that still remains on the frieze, Aux grandi 
Jiommes la Patrie reconiiamante, ' and* recollects that Xhe-conntrg 
here meant was the bloody fectfon of the jacobins, and the Greta 
men alluded to were the writers who prepared, or the assa^sms 
who accpmplished the revolutiojo, Voltaire and Rousnau, Mirabeau 

t ^----.Tboiigli the next, yet fur dMI>i»laU-->lhytf«i. * " 

^ To great men, their gratefU coantry. 



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€hA^. XVL , THROUaB IXALlPv ^ 

and Marat, be will nor regret that a- cbiircb thus tyroftAted- and 
tamed into a PandoBmontirai ishould - tumble to the' ground/ anc( 
crush in its fa]] the ionpure careases that are stiH' allowed to pu<^ 
trefy in its vaults. 

After all, in inaterials, in 'bptdneiss^i>f conception and in skffl of 
execution, the cathedral of Florence is perhaps tiie edifice tbatrt^or- 
ders nearest upon St. Peter's. -It is also cased with marbte, it id of 
the same form, apd covered with a tofty dome, of solid, scone; 
and of such' admirable constrnctioii, as to have furnished, if we 
may believe some ajithors^the td<$a aifd model of that of the Vati- 
can. It was indeed finished Jong, before the latter was begun, and 
was justly considered during the^^fifteenth century as tl^e noblest 
edifice of the kind in the world. But in beauty, in. syjmmetry, and 
in graceful architecture, it is far inferior not to St7 Peter'sonly, but 
to numberless' churches in Italy, and gariicularly in Rome, Yenice, 
and. Padua. 

Santa Sophia of Constantinople may^be considered as forining a , 
link between ardent an4^modem architecture. It is true that ia 
pore and correct taste, the boast of the eastern capital has little, in 
common with either; yet it was erected by a Roman iemper^r, and 
may be considered as the last effort of the ari exerted under the 
infloence of Roman ^greatness. Justinian, the founder of this chqreh, 
is said to have been so proud of his work, that he tbankM God in 
the exultation K)f bis heart, for having enabled him to raise a teoiple 
more magnificent than that ofvSplomon, and for transcendiog^ ia^ 
splendor all Che fanes of the :GentiIe divinities.' This celebrated 
edifice, although stripped of its christian prnatnents and degraded 
into a Turkish mosque, still retains its. original form and ^essential 
an;httectural' features. Tbe^elevation of the dome .is one bundaed 
and eighty -feet, the tengtii of the church is two hundred and>eixty- 
nirie, and its breadth two hundred and forty-three. These dimeo^ 
slons bear no proportion, I wiH not ^a^to the Vatican, but to se*- 
reral other churches. The materials and ornaments seem indeed 
to have been splendid, but the want of taste in their application 
andarrangement, mast have considerably diminished their effedL 
Before we'leave Constantinople, whither we have been transport^ 
fcyoUr subject, ^e may « be allowed to express a wish and even a 
hope, that the present generation aiay behold ibe cross restored 
to its. ancient pre-eminence, the savage ssuperstition of Mahomet 
iMiHished from theTerge^ofCbristendom, and Santa, Sophia restored 
to the pure worship of the Eternal Wisdom to whom it was origi- 
nally dedicated. 

The temple of Jerusalem as rebuilt by Herod, was withdtit doubt 
one of the most noble edifices which the world has eyer beheld. 
The Romans themselves, though accustonied to^the wonders of 

' (Bibbon, xl. - • . , 

I. n 



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SM CMMBSCAL Tdllft Cliif . XTt. 

tlie inlpAvM mtji^ ^wed i| with aitomlmteBi^ dfid Tiluft r6«>Ive4 
to nelkf/i il9 surtel j faisfrio froM ibcfceae^ft) MirtbiM^ of der fsMkm. 
Bnt mait em«»t fiiite when €k>d deyetea icr ritin ) add Tit«M and Jur 
lian Viere the reluctant instruments employed^ by Providentey iff 
iWfiBiiig^ to thc( letlar, Ih^t dceadftil jtediclfOiii a i«(m^ Dfcs/^ lidl be 
leftup&riatlMet < . . - 

. Al^begb Uie at)eolml givefi by losa(rhos ' hn ob8e«r»f add atH 
da^Uy ififloatitod by the ttalioifal and professidiial feeilnga of tha 
writeTy yel we may learn from it a saffioietft ^mmber of clreite* 
alaai^ to noertato, riot indaed the preoise Form bot the f^Hierat 
frandevr ctf iha edifide^ AocOrding to tbH? Mthor^ ihb ^atf^rm on 
vhldi it alood ,waf a sqottraef a suidianiy dr *boai sn ImiidFetf and 
twenty fee^ieayery dtreefkxh r this p»iSmm^9jA tri^td ta nuai^ikse 
aijbstrtiaiiena aaNcIoaing Mount Mot^ia bn allaidoa i tte t<Mri whidi 

* safrouddad tb^ t^nfple wat adorned Irith a (ripla pdrtioo^ eaob pdr-* 
tico six hundred and. twenty feet long, thirty feet wide, JHntf SAy 
Wgb, «i€«plin|( (bd iaiddie fiortieo, wbiob H^ilir tifer satte, ^pgtb bad 
dOttbie tha brdadth and etevation of iW ptbar two : in fiao,^ the frMf 
of tfens teirifAe iiaalf reaaaoMad a BMgtiiilieait p alaoe» F^oai tkm 
Italemanl wa mliy oandn^i that iho aubstraottoH and eolonimdaa 
w(re tha ptiaBafioi afid ibcfat atrfting ftacdrea of thii iibf ia^ Tha 
formflft* wer^of gjreat feieVatio*' aa they rose froot Ihef bottom of 
did tbllay^ and of prodigiDaa aridity aaihey ware ftHrawd of btocki 
of iloaa aiity feel lOiig^ miia Omi, aftd tea VbM. ^ Tbe ktier 
were a app or i ed tf 6iia bmctred^ aild^si;ily^WO piUKrs, forty^fiva 
leeifai ba^bti^ ttietweea foinr and fire ia diaoielery flotad Corimbiaa^ 
bad a^sh of one aingie Motk df whtiiB mi^bie? Ql the riMi fii^ai* 
tore of ibe teaipte, of its gat^^^ softie of wb|ab wa^e breiiza aod 
ieasa covered wkb ^at^s Of fold, aM of its ornaawltli io neiitta)^ 
I amka bo «Rllilioli as ilf arobitieaiaTiil beavlt abd. ailgaiMlo ^a 
tha oriy obf^is laf lify predehM OhfR^vatiomu ^ow ibo wbole ad^ 
taat of the piasfofm oh wMeb the temple ataod^ wi^b alV its mu"- 
i^OllkiAtqi portiooa^ ia sctireeif equal to the spaco <tb¥ered bf the 
eborcb of 6t^ Peter itseff , and inferior to th^ ^reMar' pari alofta of 
Ibe poriMy befbre it^ wbitir ife .seven fumidriMl ai)d aarea^ fiael ia 
ta (praatM^ mtA six bimdred » its ImM diaanai g. it it awpfoMl 
by two bMd^edaadraiglMy piits^a/ forty-fivelset bigb, abd with Hi 

. aanaMaturo and ttatoaa it naaa to^die eiv? aiaoa of satenty. l^btol 
Itf efeMf/taeigbti and inmitor of oribamf it aorpa^sea dpe JowiA 
jpoiiiao^ wlMeh aoaia««d tha tein^ ahd ail to Now Sir* 

> Ant. Jud. lib. xv. cap. 14.— De Bello Judaico, lib. Yii. cap. ft. 

• Focrtrhus^d and dty feet. - * 

3 fo tbeie astosHhiD^ masM^Swalhtfton's^iDig t»Jbe made in tlie, two irei Tert« 
<or tlie thirteenth chapter ^f St. Marie. *<And as be was going. out oftbe temple,, one 
0^ his disciples said unto him, M4sier, lobl what stoh'ei^. and Vhtft biiildldgs ! And 
Jesusansweringsaid^Beholdeiit thou these great buildings? there shaU not be left 
stonb upon atone that ahalh not be didstrbyed.'* « 



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Otti^. l^VL tmotlfta ITALY. M 

consider that this colonnade is a part only of the portico of St. Pew- 
ter's, and if we add to it the galleries that coniiect it with the church, 
and enclose a space of three hundred and thirty feet by three hun- 
dred and eighty, and if to this vast field of architectora] grandeur 
we superadd the fo^ntain$ and the pyramids, we shall find that the 

Speiidages to the temple of Jerusalem must yield in greatness to 
t)si6 of (he Roman Basilica. As to the front of the temple itself, 
and itp similitude to that of a palace; ia this respect St. Peter's 
unfortunately resembles it too much; but in extent it for exceeds 
k, as the former was scarcely otie hundred and sixty feet in lengthy 
whtl6 the fatter is four hiindred. < 

Amotfg pagan temples not one can be put in competitioq witt^ 
the Vattcan for grandeuf and inagnitude. The (wo. most famous 
Hrete the temple of Diana at Ephesus, and that bf Jupiter Capitb- 
Knus. Pliny the Elder has given u^ the dimensions of the former. " 
Accdt^g to him it was four hundred and twenty-five feet in length 
lintl two hundred and twenty in breadth ; It was Supported by one 
htindfed and twenty-seven pillars, sixty feet hi^h ; the etevation of 
Ae edifice to th$ top* of the pediment, was of course eighty feet. 
The number oF columns, without doubt of the richest materials, as 
isach wa^ the present of a king, and also disposed in the best of- 
ttety mtist have produced a very noble elPfect, but this edifice was 
fn «dl its dimensions far inferior to the Roman Basilica. 

The temple o( Jupiter Capitolinus was nearly a square of two 
hundred feet, with a triple row of pillars in front, that is toward^ 
the Forum, and a double tow on the sides. Here again, notwith- 
iKanding the splendor of such an assemblage of columns rising on 
such a site, the difn^nsions wilt admit of no comparison. ^ la factt^ 
every edifice, whether in existence or on record, of whatsoeyef 
4«nomfhation^ fells far short, iaiome respect or other, of tjje Ba^ 
MKca Vaticana, the grand temple of tRe Christian church ; to render 
lirhich as worthy as possible of its high destination, human ihge- 
mitf Seems to have iMraiued Its powers, and art to liave exhausted 
lis resoxrrces. 

» The leafqed fbader wHl perceive that in the eVvation of the pillars, I hive fp>- 
fswM 0ot perhaps the Very words of Josephus, which are evic^eritly incocrftct, but 
Urn re0«i|[r proporHcn of the Gfrtnthiafl ikdhr, which wft« a cons^ane and almost 
ifivariable standard, at least in the reign of Bertid, wbem it. was ttie'^prevaifNiig aw 
livorite order. , . - > 

k lirat. Hist. lib. xxxvi. cap. 14. ' . 

a The tetnple o^Olynrirfc Jupfter, at Agrlgentutn, the ruins of which slift remain^ 
was cenaitil^ on a gfgaotfc staler hut infftrtor' in dtmeaslons to the tetnple of 
£pbeui8» 4»d cop6e(|uemly not comparable to l^ie Vatican. (See Stoinlmrni oh 
tHtt rempZe.f-I ({uote this traveller witti pleasire, because my own otbserviiiiotie 
enibfi^ tn^ to bear testimony of hia accuracy. ' 



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CLASSICAL torn CIUp. XTIL 



CHAPTER XVn, 



Pontifical Serrlce— Papal Bienedictlon—Geremonies in the Holy Wfek—Obsenra- 
' tioii5-<^Orlginal, form of Churches. 

• ' ' ' •' • .* ' 

After having thus given a general accouat of St. Peter's, and 
endeavored to sketch outfits extent and beauty, I may be expected 
to describe the magnificent ceremonies ofwhich it is the theatre^^and 
picture to the reader the pomp and circumstance of pubtif worship^ 
grand in all Cathedrals, but pecqiiarly majestic in this first and no- 
blest of christian temples. In fact, the same unwearied. attention 
-which has regulated the most minute details of the architecture ajid 
decorations, extends itself 19 every'part of divine service, and-takes 
in even air the miautise of ritual observance. The ancient Romanis 
loved parade and public shews, and introduced processions, rich ha- 
bits, and stately ceremonies ipto all the branches of public adminis- 
tration, whether civil, military, or religious. This taste so natural 
and so useful, because calculated, while it feasts the eye and the ima- 
ginatfon, to cov^r the nakedness arid littleness of man, and to clothe 
the individnal wiUi the dignity and the grandeur of the aggregate body, 
was infused into Christianity as soon as Christianity became the reli- ' 
gionof the empire^ and with it has been transmitted unaltered to the 
moderns. When therefore a traveller entersa Roman church he must 
consider himself as transported back tQ^ ancient times, and expect 
to hear the language, and see the habits^ and the stately manners 
of the Romans of the four £rst ce .turies. Some may find fault 
with the cetemonies, and others may feel some surprise at thQ 
dresses ; but not to speak of the' claim whicli their anticjuity has to 
veneration, they both possess a; grace and dignity that not unfre- 
quently command the respect and admiration even of thQ most in- 
different. * , - 

The daily service of St. Peter's is performed in a large and noble 
chapel, that might without impropriety be. dignified with the 
appeHation. of a church, by a • choir consisting o{ an archpriest, 
Airty-eight prebendaries, fifty jninor canons^of chaplains, besides 
clerk^, choristers, and beadies. The grand 'aU^ar under the donie is 
reserved ior the use of ^he pontiff, who on such occasions^is always 
attended by the college of cardinals with their dhaplain^i, the pre- 
lates attached to the court, and the papal choir or musicians, 
who form what is called the pontiffs chapel, or capflla papfile. 
As there is no regular chancel in St. Peter's, a temporary one 
is fitted up for such occasions behind the altar, of a semicircular 
form, covered with purple and adorned with rich drapery. In the 



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GAAP. XTII. THROUGH ITALY. . Ml 

Dfii^dle raised on seveFal steps stands the pontifical chair. The 
seats'^of the cardinars and prelates form a carve on each side. 

1 mosjt here observe, that the seat of the bishop in the aticient 
and patriarchal chiirches at Rome is raised very liTtie above those 
of the elergy. That the bishops sometimes sat on a mote elevated 
chair evep at a very early period is clear from a canon of the fourth 
council ofCarthage/\yhich expressly ol*ders that bishops in the church 
and in the assemblies of the clergy should enjoy that distinction; bat 
that it was not a genera) custom is eqdaftly evident irom the practice 
of St. Martin, and. the offenee which the introdiiction of it into Gaul 
gave to Sulpicius Seyerus: *' In ecclesia/' says this historiaa 
speaking of St. Martin, ** n'ema unquam ilium sedere conspexit ; 
sicut quemdam nuper (testor Dominum] non sine.-meo pudore yidi, 
sublinii solio quasi regio tribunali, celsa sedo residentem*."' How 
ever in spite of the example of St. Martin and the censure of hiB 
disciple, the episcopal xhah* still continued ^to rise till it acquired 
the name, the. elevation, Md more ti;ian the usual i^plendor of a 
throne. It does not indeed seem to have reached its fulliiiagni- 
ficence till the niiddle of the last century, when it appears to' have 
arrived at its acme, not in Rome, as the reader may naturally Ima* 
gine, but in. the cathedral of Durham, where the lord bishop tits 
enthroned in far more than papal eminence, and looks down upoli 
the choir, the congregation, the attar, and t^e pulpit. - 

When the pope <^eiebrates diyine service, as on Easter Sunday, 
Christmas Day, Whit Sunday, St. Peter, and St. Paul, etc. the 
'great ^or middle door^ of the church ^re thrown open at ten, atad 
the procession formed of all the persons mentioned above, prece* 
ded by a beadle carrying the^ papal icross, and two others bearing 
iligbted torches, enters and advances slowly inlwoJonig lines be- 
tween two rankSi. of soldiers up the nave. This majestic processioa 
is closed by the pontiff himself seated in a chair of state supported 
by twenty valets half concealed. in the drapei^y^that falls in loose 
folds from the throne ; he is crowned with his tiara, and bestows 
his. J>enediction on the crowds that kfieel on all sides as he is borne 
.along. When- arrived at tfie foot of the altar he descends, resigns 
his tiara, kneels, and assuming the common mitre seats himself in 
the episcopal ^tair on the right side qf the altar, andjoins iii the 
psalms and prayers that precede the solemn service^ Towards the 
conclusion of these preparatory devotions his immediate attendants 
form a circle around him, jBloihe him in his pontifical robes,, and 
place the tiara on bis head : after which, accompatiied by two Sea^* 
c^ns dnd two sab-beacons, he advances to the foot of the altar, 



I An.SdO. ' . . 

• De Virt. B.Martini Dial, IL-^''No one ever saw Wm ritlnlphurch; at I lately 
(I call tbe Lord to ^Hnesf) saw, and was a^bamed tas^, a.QerMia persofi flltMnf 
%l0a 00 an etaHed tbroa«* lib^ tbe trilmaal of 41 kiag/' 



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imi bowiitg reyerwill; nlak^il the ilfnal oonliMsion. Ae then |Nra« 
ceeds ivf groat ponp through the dianoel and ascenjb the poattfi* 
cU throne* while the choir sing the IfUrdkus or psalm of entrance, 
the ICi^rte ElAon (Lord, )iaTe mercy upon us), and Gtoria m ex^ 
€el^ (Glory hi the highest), when the pontiffs lays asiite his tiara 
and itfter having saluted thef congregation in the nsual fomiy the 
Lard be wUk yau^ teads the cpUect in an eleVated tidne df voke, 
with a degree of inflexion jnst. sufficient to disttnguirii it from. an 
ordinary lectare. The eptdtle is then read, ^ttt in Latin, then in 
Greeks and after it some select verses from the psalms, intermiD^^od 
'with Alielnias, apa sun|[ to elevHitethe min^and prepare it for tkt 
gospel. '., ' • 

The pontiff then rises, gives his Mnedietioa t0 the twa deaooM 
that kneel at his tiset with the bbok of the gospels, and ^e^niibg 
his tiara, stands while the gospel ift sung in Latin and In Ckeek-i 
ifter t^hich he commences the Nicene creed which is continued in 
music by the choir. When the ereed and the psalm ihat follo^ 
it pfeover, he descends from his throne, and approaching the altar 
with the ^aene iiltendants and the same pomp as in the commence- 
ment 0f the service; he receives and offers up the nsuai oblationa, 
fames the altar with fraricin^ense''from a golden censer, and thet 
wafhes his hands ; a ceremony implying purity of mind and bodr. 
He then turns to the peo][ilief, and in ai\ humble and'affeetidnate aa- 
dress begs their prayers ; and shortly after commeecesthat sublime 
'farm of adoration and praise called ^Uhe preface," because kSi 
an introdnction to the most solemn pa'r| of the titlN'gy, and te 
chantr it in a tone tofiposed to be Dorrowed fkxxm the ancieni 
Iragic dedtaihation and very noble and impressive. The last wdrds^ 
^* Holy, Htfly^ flrfy, Lord God of armi^fs," etc. ^^e uttered in, a 
j^omure ef profound adoration, and sung by the choir in viotes of 
deep and solemn intonation. All music then ceases, ^11 sounds are 
fiui4ed, and an awfisl silence reigns around,, while ih a. low tone 
the pontiff recites itiat most ancient and yeneraUe invocation Which 
'prei^edes, accompanies, and follows the consecration, andeondudes 
'With greirt propriety in the Lord's prayer chanted wfth a few em*- 
phati^t infleetions. . . 

Shortly jafit^ the conclusion «f this prayer, the poiiltff eataiea the 
people in ^e aR<^nt^fbrm, ** May the peace of the Lord be always 
with you," and tfeturns to his thrope, while the choir sing thriee 
thcdevont Address to the Saviour, taken' from the gospel, ^^Lamh 
tif God Who ^ak^ m»f (he sins of the world, have me^y upon 
OS/- Wl^lie'is si^ated, the iVo deaicotis triaig the h(rfy sacra- 
ment, which he first reveres humbly on his knees, and then rej^ieives 
iii a sitting posture: ■ the^deacons and sub-dl^aoons then fepejive^e 

< fbis istko^ only insUnce that ensCs, f MieVe, in the.whole eathoHc diitrch of 
receiving the holy sacrament f^Mitig; ii is « ivmdant of fbe priarime iS^mfto, Mt 



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mffg, ^ ^11^ follow*, w4 the. dea(i^ di^^jssiSB tfjNd nMdwbJjTf 

TbQ pope {tfoeB QfT^r^ up his d&votiom 90 ^ i^OiMS ^t tb^ foot 
pf fbid i|lmr, ;»^4 b9^q0 jitong |n t^e »^ «M^^ whw W Wtgred, 

ffii^ tf} li^e gFiW4 gallery 19 the ffiid(}i^of ike ftlW^pf gt, Pfi^'l^ 
^ jm^l^^ia^ a^tend^iM^ .^^rrofind hi» m^^W^ ^^ J^^^t of ^? pr^r 
aes^§ii frWR^? w W . WIPb sid^, f h^ ]i«pff^«^ V«4 >l»4 cpIpiw^ 
^^i9tbpphfM;^^#)pe4^<riiJi i^nm W4 cr<?w4e4 f»rHb|hMftwdi 

jff fip^pHttorff. Att ^^s^aFiB p^^ 09 ih^ fmlh^f i lim mm i^f 
ib^ 4><>iF t« h^AFri »P a 4«^t«mv9 ; tb^ j^ai^ f>(fmilm]m toripliia^ 
p]9y« rp»n^ <b.e (^ffi^»f &«4 Mw P^Miff 9PM8r& p)o¥Med im JM^ 
i^ir 4^f f4M» w4er ^e fii4die iKf^i). Jft^tM^ly |j|l# wb^9 W^iU^ 
i^ffii^ fyU m Ibeir 4f>e^ ; tb^ ^a««iftn#x)f ^(^ ^0f^ WFti f .8^ 
liaFfil di$^b#^W» ^irhite ri^ng sj^^ly fr^gi his ^^p^ bl^ ^i(M b^ 

PfijiBe fQ})<^l» »n^MF dispbarge i9 i^AayiJf iJM pr|^4 fis^ ai»l 
l*eppnipf?p^du^j dis^fip^sf, ' >^ 

Tim pi^eno^r.il wil^out^dQubf ypry gFW4, »»d i^cmi^eihj 
fHpflt t^aypti^^f a^ i» ooW^ «ixd >^QpiWM ^:pipiwi<W ftt tbe mjefHic 
iiervice that precedes it. Every t)^f|g cppciirp M /aim}^ it/j^Qre#t- 
fPgl ^ y«<^Ht^ f4PFiMt9r of |il^ ppptiff bimaetf^ the $r«t hiabop 

<0«pi# .ii» tM wof}iyi^^'m tbf^ MimK^ pr »^ pajriitin*^^ wbidi 

J|K ha; jfiystpitfti^)^^, ^ri{ita4 m IUl» P9W)teoifm Q^ri^g 

hl^ p^low f^^fimimh Uf tb^ ^ftbPi: of ^{i^ fblrp^eb )b# S^yipur 
^d j^^if^Qf pf /rfl. #|ffely f»uch % #cff)e ji$ J^t^ l?<Mfyipg ^ 

7^§ cb^ PT «PW 4«»^ by |tbP P»P^1 chQJJT* Aftd |p4ei^ ^ 
ji9^|2flfbpl^ Gji4^ ^4 ^bbey <5bwr<5bfi#, i^, expepiipj » aoine 
Ipptan^.. ^ifpi^. fiir^'9ry Ib^ ftrft^t, rt«><?8b W* ibe aiitbor ^f 
Ht "po^^^M >I^P a bo^y ^4 gave 4 tb^ forip ifi ^biph it m^ 
^Jim^ ^ TbP phwt.of A? m\q^^ i» ^wl^ WiJ 2lffepM?lg, 4(ippi- 
p49e4 j^f ^ydiaf), Phrygi>9tOx an^ o^er (jrf§0ic ^ ' Bffjw^ im^, 
jfitiifi^ gpa^ ^qU^f put with a f^ffipi«pt ipQ^^on f o rfv#^ ^efn 
AQfjf iW^ Plr^i>ti¥e or bold and anupjatipg* $(. >u^mi^p, wbo 9^8 
H«W>4ii^g« vO^ »u<«P# fepr^eat^ biws^If <?« Wfilt«4 i«tP t^sw^lf by 
!*g BWJffi? ¥ *bw WW W *e pbtfr4 Ufj^il^ HfldW Abe ^irectipn 
^f ^t. , Afibips^, ^i)d ^p^ >o ^(4pir^b^4 tk^i ^\^ emptiws jj^rp- 
di|<ii^ hff fppb b^rvciiHOHSJMr^ Wigbt b« top .^^!i«^jFpr ib^ VigOF- 

as that cii^om Was supprf|ssed at a very ^arly period, pertia|^3 evea In the apostellc 
age ttseU;i we ao'reMon te^eutfniiigtt in ooe^soittaKy aofasi<tfi. Ifineifict XUI. 
could never i)e prevaileil- up6ii to conlbrtn tOvit, but always remained staluliag at 
ilw ^Itar, according to the usual |tHP^P^^ . . ^ * 



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M CLASSICAL TOUft Coap. XYO. 

ouft and .manly spi^i^ of Christian devotion. ^ As tlie transition 
from song to ordinary reading is flat apd insipid, it<^nnot bat fake 
off niaeh of th« effect of the lecture ; and moreover, as the cqmmon 
^one of toice id inadequate to the purposes of divine, service in a 
4arge church, the ancients introduced a few modlilations into the 
prayers and lectnres ju3t sufficient to raise and support the voice, 
to extend its reach, and to Soften/its caderices. These vere taken 
from the different species^ of Roman declamations, and vary m 
number aiid solemnity according to the nature and the impor- 
tance of the lecture. 1A the lesions and epist)es,«lhe inter roga- 
trons, exclamations, and periods only are marked by a corres- 
ponding ri^e or fall: the gospel has its. variations more numeroos 
and- more dignified : the preface is rich in full melodious and so- 
lemn swells borrowed, as it i^ si^pposed, from the stately accents 
^of Rpihan tragedy. The psalms, o^ to tise an expression mpre 
appiroptiate, the anthems that coi^mence the service, precede the 
gospel,, usher in the offertory and follow the communion, together 
#ith the G/orTa in[ea^celm (Glory in the highest) and crded, were 
set i6 xnotM eom'plicated and more labored notes, but yet with all 
"^dtie regard to the sanctity of the place, the import of Hhe words, 
and'thiB capacity of the hearers who were accustoioed to join the 
srong and to accooftpanythe choir. ^ 

This ancient music, which has lon^ been ktlown by the name of 
the Gregorian chant; so well adapted to the gravity of divine ser- 
vice, has^ been much disfigured in process of time by the bad taste 
of the middle, and the false refinements of th6 latter ages. - The 
'jSr3t encumbered it with an endless succession of dull unmeannig 
notes,' dragging their slow length nlong^ and bvirthening thft ear 
with a dead weight of sound; th^ other infected rt with the 
mejting an*s, the labored execution; ,the, effeminate graces of the 
orchestra, useless, to say thp least, even in 'the theaf^e^ but pro*^ 
ftlne and almost sacrilegious in the church.- Some cafe seems to. 
have been taken to avoid these defects in the papal* cbtrir. The 
general styte and spirit of the ancient .and priinitive music haye 
' been retahied, and some modera compositions of kilown and ac- 
'khowledged' merit, introduced on stated days and in Certain cir- 
cumstances. Of musical insV*uments, the organ only is admitted 
into St. Peter's, or rather into the papa) Chapel, and even that not 
always; voices alOneare employed in general, and as those voices 
are numerous, perfect in their kind, and in thorough unison- with 
each other, and as the singers themselves are concealed from^ieWy 
the effect fe, enchanting, and brings t6 mind The celestial vdices in 
full harmonic number joined, that sometimes reached the ears oip ouf 
" first par^i^nts in Paradise, and lifted their thougl^ts. to heaven. 

Of aW the Roman cereinonies the pontifical service ai Su Peter's 

» Cciifess Jft>, ix. cag. 6. 7. Litj. x. ca^ 33. ' / 

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CtUP. Tm. THROUGB JtALT. M5 

.Ja witbdpt dopbt die most majestie; and .if ye adbl te it the pro- 
cession 6n£^pu8 Christi, in which the pope bears' the holy sacra- 
ment in solemn pomp along the colonnad^e then hung according to 
the ^nciem fashion with tapestry and graced with garlands, we shall 
have mentioned 'ihe two most splendid exhibitions perhaps to be^ 
seen in the universe. But besides these there are others, partica- 
lady during the last week of Lent, which cannot fail to excite atten- 
tion and ' interest. The procession with .palms, and the affecting 
.chant of the Passiofi on Sunday; th^ evening service ^called Te^ 
neBrce (Darkness) in the Sixtine Chapel ,on Wednesday^ ThUi'sday, 
and Friday; >themorning^ervice on the two latter days, particularly 
ibeUantUuutn, so called firom the fi(!st word of the anthem sung while 
the pope washes the feet of thirteen pilgrim^^ etc. are all rites which 
it is difficult to behold without edification and'perfaaps emotion. 
,, I must not. pass Over the we.ll known exhibitionthat takes place 
in St. Peter'£KOn the night of Good Fridi»y, when the hundred lamps 
that burn over the tomb of the aposCle are extinguished, and a 
stupendous cross of light iippears suspended from the dome, be- 
tween the altar and the nave, shedding over the whole edifice a 
soft lustre delightful to the eye and highly favorable to picturesque 
' representations. This exhibition is supposed to have originated in 
the sublime imagination of Michael Angelo, aind -he who beholds it 
. will acknowledge that it is not unworthy Qf the inventor. The mag- 
nitude 4>f. the cross hanging^as if self-supported, epd Tike a meteor 
streaming m the air; thehlaze that it pours forth; the mixture of 
Jight and shade cast on 'the pillars, arches, statues, and altars; 
die crowd of spectators placed in all the different attitudes of 
cpriosity, wonder, and devotion ; the processions iF^ith their ban»- 
ners and crosses gliding successively in -silence along the nave and 
kneeling aroimd the alt^r; the penitents^of all nations ai^d dresses 
collected in igroups near the confessionals of their respective Ian- 
. fpiages; a cardinal occasionally advancing through the* crowd, and 
jas he kneels humbly bending, his head to the pavement; in &ie, 
the pontiff himself, without pomp or pageantry^ prostrate before 
the altar, offering up his adorations in silence^ form a scene sior 
^ularly striking by a happy mixture of tranquillity and animation, 
of darkness and light, of simplicity and majesty. 
' AlUhese ceremonies of the. Roman church are set off by every 
concomitant cir<^umstance that can contribute to their splendor or 
magnificence. As indeed.no people are better acquainted ;nriih the 
mode, of eondncting and managing puUic exhibitions* than the Bo- 
mans, they are performed with the utmost precision and dignity, 
-with every attention to the effects of perspective, and to all 
' the graces of drapery. Every person knows his place and tfee part 
he has to act in the solemnity : the dresses. are adapted to the situa- 
^tion as well as to the rank of the wearers, who, whether they be 
Vittiiig, fltaadiBg, oi moving, contrive thw they should fall into 



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m cDL46siaAL TOUR €bab. vm. 

easy and majeslfe fdlds. The perBMs. theniMlvea are <ha p9|M, 
the cardiDate, the chief magistrates ofthecity^ the princ^I offioea 
of state, and various prelates, presid^ts, and judgeis of the prin^ 
cipal trlbunab, all men either of high birth or great talents, att4 
venelraMe for their age, their Ttrtxies, or their dignity. The tbeatm 
moreover [^ such an expression may be applied to snch an Object^ 
1n vhich tliese saered pomps are exhibited^ are eithBP tlie vase 
ai)d lofty balls of the Vatican palace adorned with all the wondMS 
of pait^ting; or else'tb^ chdrch of St. Peter, whose immense area, 
ifjrhiie it affords ample room for the eeremony itself, can contaiii 
copntless inuititndes idthont press or disorder. If th0reforey as 
W^rbnrton observes, 't ij^ be diffipnlt to attend at a high maaa per- 
formed by a good <^oir in any great church witliont s^ntim^iits of 
fi^p; if not of devotion f it is not snrprisifig that the same aacrad 
service performed by such persons, with such aecoropantaieDts, 
and amid such scenes of grandeur and holiness, should koprefli 
the same sentiments with double force and effect. \ 

These pompous offices at the Vittican only takeplaiM on tiw 
great festivals of Easter, Whitsuntide,, and Chrijrtmas, to whieh we 
may add St. Peter's day, and perhaps 6ne or two iikore oeoftsional 
9oIepinities. On the other Snndays^^and during the far greater part 
of the year, itie altar stands a grand but neglected object, and the 
dome rises in silent, majesty, unaccnstomed to re-ecbo wkh ike voice 
of exultation and with the notes ofprme. The service of the caihjH 
dral is performed in a distant chapel, and private masses, jl talma, 
^re said at the difl^rent altars around, rat the great body of the 
church aeequs deserted by its ministers, andtte iSion of oU, Co 
.complain that none cometh io the solemnity. 

It qna^r pertlaps^ be a matter of just surprise to avery tbiflknag ofc- 
server, that in the three noblest cathedrals existing, Iha s^viae 
of the church should be performed, not in tlie tegdar' choir, bat 
in 9 side chapel^ and that the pope shonld prefer «be seoreey 0t %js 
0^ oratory to the grand and! migestie scenery -of saah iioUe 
teinples.: The pious Christian, as he ranges ^ver these gt^rimi s 
fcbrics, loiigs to see Aie gennme forma of tha p)ri«itive chocdi ro- 
TTved,, and the spadou^ area filled with a orow^ied but prd«c|y 
congregation; the men on tbe.right, the women on tbe left, the 
youth «rawn up on each side of tbe altar ; the choir in doi^le^ws 
before it, with a pulpit for the readers on eadi aida : behind it, Ae 
pontiff .surrounded by his clergy, performing himself every Sqpday 
' the solemn duties of his station^ presiding ih person ovel? tbe aar 
sembly, instructing his flock, like- the Leos and tb« Qr^orysaf 
ancient; times, ^witb his owh voice, and with bis own iiands adat- 
nistering to them ihe bread of^tife and die cup vf salvaium. Sudi 
^as a Christian congregation during ihe early ages, and .such tbe 
regularity of anaient* times.. How grand worid •cuch an aaaeodiiy 
now tie its a temf^e 4ike the Yatican ! How ^yM ^ bMr ; ^ 



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«¥l^h ^ 9peeliMd« j How like an aggeta^y qf tto'bletnd, . anA how 
#iHiforia«ble tt) ibft sublime desf^ription <rf t^o Revelations !— Bar* 
liarigin, ignorasce^ 9Bi iDdifference hava'to^g sinoe diMnrbed thii 
•diairable p]rder, and in most places nearif erased ;ta recotlectioni 
iMii ihe Romap fiontiff, and he only, possessee iafiuenee iBofScient 
to restore it^ and to spread it over the Christian urol^ld* If |a re* 
vt'^iog this part» of primitive discipline^ he would also eker<^ Iha , 
fOW0c wkich the oooncii of Trent has Wrasted to tiiai> and would 
1|4mHy as I faav^ hinted above, the hity to the tup (so spiemn and 
iqapressiv^ a pait of the |»cnsd Ttte); and if at the aame timeh^ 
would conmutaicate (o every nation tlie comfort of sinffing th$ 
INraises of God ft their own language, fte would render to din 
choreh of Christ a most important and ever memorable service. > 

I would not be understood as meaning hj ^^^ ^^^^ (^servation 
le ceiisare the use of ancient idioms iti^ the Ktnrgy ,, or to recommend 
in teto (entirdy) the intrpdudioa of mpdeni' 'dieleets. The two 
{great anoieht Iflngoage&^which contain not only the principles and 
nsodels of aeiisncei and lueratare, but what is sM more valuable, 
the very titfe-deecle and proofs of divkie revelation, owe thei^ 
axistence to the litargies of 4h0 Greek and Latin didrdi^Sy and 
kowever widely di^seil they may appear to be at present, it is dif- 
fienk to say whether in th§ course of countless ages perhaps still to 
come, they may not smi^ be indebted to the same means for their 
continuatioo. A deadly Mow* is iiow actuaKy aimed at €hett by the 
f ride or the policy of the French government f and exten^ye as th^ 
faluenCe of that government /is, it may socoeod in'fte barbarie 
attempt, mdess eoimteraoted by the still more ^iteosiv^ and'almost 
. uniY^sal iaduenoe of the Catliolie church, it in not my intention 
to interfidni with fte controversial part of litis question. *^ D'A 
mdma flm ;'- 1 ]|at I own I should .be sorrjr to see Uii& <]livHie dia- 
lect of Plato and of jh. iNiul, the full, the majestic tones of Cieeara 
and of St. Leo entirely baniidied Irom Che idtal^s, and r^aeed bf 
the meaner sounds of Romaic or even by the more musical accenti 
of Italian: ' Nothing can. be more delightful to the ear, and iff 
may fudge Aronr my own feelings, more impressive, than the LatiH 
aervieo whep chanted in a full choir, suf^rted, not by the organ 
lOnly, Imt by the united voiices of a crowded eongroj^ation, raised 
9fMk every ^meir and i-e^eehoed from every vaiflt of -an immense 
cathedral. - 

BM; with all the respect due to t>he prescriptive pi^-emfneuee of 
ehe two ffiHMd dialects, haHowed by the writings Of the Apostlea^ 
felheps, and pcunJitive martyrs, I may Vepture to reeommend the 

. (;k)iw, Trld. 9«5S. ;f^tf. 

f s y94tP^it«iliMerlM»«aM«iMidlaiipMl^|MiF<Clii. 

> IC ag a welikiiowniHwerb says, Spanish Is fnatSk Hs ^rttviCy Veil adapted 4d 
. pi»y«P)lioupNiafa Mler w4ia4igatt7 «r Latin caMlatad Amt iMt «ol<mini>d«lyV 



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MS CLASSICAL TOlTR Ciiip. XYTL 

r 

Qge'cf modern languages 9t' certain parts ofihe «ervicey>and the 
introdoctioh of lectures a|od hymns adapted to th^ pariiccriar objects 
6f the htucgy^Vhen lijlie officiating priest is oc^pied in siTcnt ado- 
ration, and the ordinary, iehant of the ehoir is syspended. Such is 
the-practice all o,ver Catholic Gerai^anyy and throughout the vast 
extent of the Atistrian dominions, where if the traveller enters into 
any parochial church durinig seryice, he finds it filled with a bn- 
mefous congregation all joining in> chorus with a zeal >and. ardor 
truly^jedifyjng. I wais peculiarly struck with the good effects of 
this custom in the ^churches of Bohemia, where ^e. people are re- 
mi|rkable for^ a just and musical ear, and sing with admirable pre*- 
cision; but still more «o in the cathedral of Vftnna, inhere the 
voices of ftom'e thousands chanting in' full unison im celebrated 
hymn,. «'^Holyy holy, holy,'* cannot fatl.to.el)^vate the mind, and 
inflame the coldest heart with devotion. This practice, sanctioned 
by the authority of «o considerable a portion of the catholic church, 
has niany ,gOQd effect^^ as, it contributes to the^^corafort and edifi- 
cation of the people, who always delight in hymns ^nd -spiritual 
songs; as it amuses- the ear with melody and attaches the. hearers 
to the holy sentiments and doctrines which it conyeys, and as it 
xnay thus act as.a preservative from the infidelity of the times, not 
only by securing the assent, but by engaging the affections, en the 

' ^ide of religion. In fine, it tender to consecrate all languages. to 
the praijs^ of- the leather Almighty, and to the propagatiori of the 
gospel of his adorable Son. /'Nihil sublimius,*\ says- Leo the 
Great, in an ancrent prefacefor Whit Sunday^ ^collatuni Ecclesiae 
tu8^ exoriiiis,'quam utjevangeliituirpraeconialinguis omnium^ ere- 
dentium ora 'loquerentur,«...et vocum varietas sedificatipni Eccle-^ 
fiiasticae non difficultateui faceret, sed augeret potius unitatem." ' 
. Before! close this chapter, I think it necessary to make a few 
additional remarks for the Infarmation of my readers in' general, 
httle accustomed to the scenes described, and perhaps totally un- 
^cqiiainted with many of the subjects alluded to. To auch the 

" following particulars may not be unacceptable. The mass is the 
^mmunloa service, or consecration and administration of the 
boly sacrament. High inas&i is the sam.e service, accompanied by 
«all the ceremonies which custom |ind>aathority have annexed tojts 
^6bration.\These ceremonies are in general very ancient, and may 
be traced as far hack as the second or third century; The language 
is that which prevailed at the period of the introduction ^of Chris- 
tianiji^y; the dresses are nearly of the same era. The surpUce,. called 
in Latin (Ubay was probably borrowed from the linen ephod worn by 



' Nothing is^more sublhne^ when considered in reference to tiie principles of 
thy Ch6rch, t^an' that all the faitbftil shouM express^witji their tongues the pro- 
mul^Uon of thy Gospel. ^^ tfh^ the variety of voices, safar flroro hetog airimpedi- 
meal to eccl^iasUcal edification, would rather tcndio the adYaseeiB^iii of oni|y« 



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the Levites in. their fuDctions lUidCi- the^ old law. The other yest-* 
lAentil^are Roman. The Su)ta,<sA\^ ortginii)|]( Oranum or SudanUm^ 
was a long ^tri|[>e of lioen'worn rotind tbe/neck by j^rson$ q( dls^-*' 
iinction, and particularly by magistrate^ 9r public $peakers ; it ii^as 
intendedfiis its primitive name imports, foirthe same pprposes as 
a- handkerchief. The Mampulus- or Mappula' was a bah^]Bro|iief to 
replace the Stota, when the latter in process of time h^ bftcoipe Ml 
ornament only. The upper vestment, ca\\eiCa8ibulumar'Pldn^la^ 
was Ori^ally a garment of a circular form, with an opening in the 
centre forthe head, so that, when put on it, hung down to th^ ground 
on all sides, and entirely covered the body. It was raised when the 
action of the arms was neoessary, end sootetimes tied up witb-,ri« 
bands and tassels; it is particularly appropriated to the bishop of 
priest who officiates at the altar, and is used at mass only. On 
other occasions, the bishop or priest who presides wears the Cope, 

^ the ancient Toga, bordered on each side by the Lotus Clayus. This 
robe is the ordinary dress of the Pope in church, and on occasions^ 
of ceremony. The Dalniatica anckTtcntca are the distinctive dresses 
of the deacon land sub-deacon. These garm/ents, which naturally 
derive grace and beauty from their fordo and drapery, are eaivo-^ 
bled by their antiquity, and sailctified by their 'appropriation to the 
altar. They combine decency and majesty; they distinguish the 
public man from the individual: and like the robes of kings and of 
magistrates they garnish the exercise of office, and teach the mi- 
nister to respect himself,, and both the minister and the people to 
Reverence the sacred xharge of public function. 

The use of torches and bf incense is supposed to have been in-* 
troducedintd the church in the third century ; it originated in the 
East, but Boon became general ; it was founded on^figurative raa- 
sons. The former were borne before the Book of the Gospels,* and 
reminded (be faithful of the light diffused over the universe by the 
promulgation of the sacred volume, and of thot true light that en^ 
Ughteneth every man that cometh into tUls world. ' The latter had 
been ei^pressly commatided in the Old Law, and was considered in 
the New aS a fit accompaniment to be offered with the pragers of the 
saints upon the.gokkjit. altar before the throne. ' 

' The most soleOln part of the service is recited in a low tojie, au- 
dible only to those who sut*round the altar : a circumstance which 
surprises Protestants, and has frequently;been censured with seve« 
rity. However^ this custom is almost coeval with the liturgy itself, ' 
and seems to have commenced almost immediately after the apos- 
toliQ age. It was in all probability a measjire of precaution. One 

. of the most sacred rites of Christianity, that of baptism, had been^ 
exposed to public ridioale on the stage, and to prevent (herecur-f 
rence of a siiniiar profanation, in a more awful institution, it was 

» 8t.Joiui,l. ^RftV.vitt. - 



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«r0 GLASsnuLiom cm^.iiTfi. 

tlioaghl pradefif' to cooftile the kaowledfps of the EiiBhar0tit|ir*7elr 
to tbe clerical order. ^Wh^ a ^stom is once established reasons 
.are nev^r wanting t(||iiitti% its coiitinuaoce ; and the secrecy mhik 
tbe fear of profenatiQti^ rendered necessary in ttmes of persecotion 
was ^ntinued fronf ni<$tives of respect in the days of christmn 
fOrosperity* .£? ery persori acauaintM with ecdesia^stical aQtionlty 
. knows V^th Y^^^ extreme delicaVy tbe Fathers of the fourth oeiiniry 
speak oF the inysteries, and of course will net wonder that, the 
Raman church, which glories \fi its adherence to antiquity^ shooH 
fontinhe the same practice. Besides, it is consider^ ai more coii*> 
lormabie to the natere of the oaysterioas institution, and more 
filYOlrable to the indulgence of deyotion, both in die priest and m 
die coi^pregation, than the most emphatic and solemn reeitatioii. 
Iibpressed with this idea, the Qreeks have from time immemoriai 
drfiwn curtains^ and ip later ages raised a screen before the altar^ 
diet conceals the priest from public view, and environs htm as the 
ffigb Priest of old when he entered Ae Holy of HoKeSi with ttn 
awN Bolitnde of the sanctuary. >^ 

The rites which I have described are pure and holy; they iit-^ 
spire sentiments of olrder and decekicy ; they detadi the mind from 
tlie ordinary pursuits of life, aM by raising it abovd/it^ ordinary 
leVel^ they qoaliiy it to appejsr with due humility and retX)llectiM 
bjpfore the Throne of the LomA,— the Merc^ Seat of lehomhl 

The Roman Bmikae'^ eltoepting St. Piter's, are Che most fttftaeift 
BOW e^^istingy And erected as rfiey were in the eariiestagesof iSini»> 
tianity, give us a clear and precise idea of die notions of the ohris^ 
tians of that period with reglird to the form and tbe Arrangement 
of chufches. in the first place, as not one of these cAurches fceafrs 
a^ resemblance to a cross, we may conclude that Mr. Gibbon wai^ 
mistake, when be^.atiribBfed to the first christians a partialis f^ 
that figure- in the conMruction of their orlitories, and an onwiHiBg- 
Bess io convert ppgae temples into chiikrches, because not erected 
In Ihst fofrm. Many temples from their narrow liorits .were, as t 
htve already remarked, totally kieapabre of holding a ehrisi^ 
eongregalMiii« Sevival of greater Brngoitade were aettialiy con- 
verted into churches^ and are to this day used a£( such ; and if 
GsBStantine coald in prodeece, at a time when die ftotndn senkie 
WM still pagan, have offers the 'sptelnNd seat of p^igan wora^^ 
to the bifiiiop of Rome, the offer wduid^h&ve been rehdtfy dccepte4, 
and the temple of Jopiier Capitolinus, though not in the firnn of a 
cross, would like the Pantheon have been sanctified by Christian 
(rites^ a,nd might probably still have remained a noble montmlent 
e;f aapienl magnificence. It is difficult to determine at what precise • 
period the 6ffvte of die oross was' introduced, but it seems to hafve 

t The laity at present lose nothing by Uiis sileoce, as they have theiorpn of con- 
fScratlOD, sad indeed die whole service inunliled in their prayer4KHte' 



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Qrap. XyiL TOHOHOH ITALY. 971 

bden about (beead of the fifth centupf ».as the charch of St. SopbiSi 
0reeted in the^ glxtb^ is in that iDrni ; but, whenever introdHceJ, 
ks aitoplioa ne^d Dor be >regretted» as it yerj happily combines 
variety with unity, and beauty with convenience. 

We cannot pass' the same encoipium upon those partitions,, called 
sereeaSi wbith divide the chancel from the nave, and by concealing 
lb# most ornamented part pf the charcb from the view, and veil- 
ing the priocipfil objoct, the .altar, break the perspective, deprive 
tbe Mifice of a proper teroHnation, and apparently reduce its di- 
nensiohs to balf its real magnitude: Whep and why'these screens 
iv«re introduced it may be difficult to determine, but as they are 
only fottrid in Saxon and Gothic churches we may suppose that they 
' mte coeval with those buildings, and were from the beginning con- 
sidered as c^slituent pjarts of them. Their utility ^s not yery per- 
ceptible. Some, suppose them necessary in nocthern climates, ia 
ctrder to slieker th6 cOngregatiop fjrom the cold winds that pene* 
trkte and chill the, open parts of such vast edifices as cathedrals ; 
but this reason, Which may appear satisfactory when confined to 
countries in li^ich the congregation is seldom so numerous as to 
fill the choir of a cathedral, is totally inapplicable to places where 
service is attended by the populace, and where the congregations are 
regularly sufficients crowd evQry part ofthe church, not excepting 
even the aisles and transepts* I am thei^efore inclined to suspect^ 
that the propensity of the northern nationss to mystic allusions, 
and perhaps a wish to increase. the reverence due to the altar,, by 
removing it to a greater distance from the laity, might fiave Stig-* 
gested theidea of a screen to the architects of the middle ages. 

There is,ft piust be admitted^ something very impressive in the 
distant view of a Gothic altar, seen fro^m the arched entrance of the 
clioir, through a long and double line of clergy in surplice, faintly 
lighted by;the beams that djrop from tbe painted windows above, 
or by the lamps stad tapers that gleam aroqnd, encircled, by rnioi^- 
termg priests, and half lojst in cloudy of incense ; there is, I say, 
spmetfaing in such solenm scenery that seizes the imagination, and 
excites emotions of awe and religious melancholy, v But although 



^ lf6lf f«r the altar onglit to be ornamented is a qnestimi wMbh hasbeiw < 
IfUr mtKh^warmtlk sinoe the reformatioti. ^The Latipt, Greeks, and eveh t^ 
Ibdtberam are accustomed to adorn it with loore or less splendor or gaudioess^ 
d^ccordiDg to their taste and opulence. The chUrch of England, ^ben not ot^rawed' 
by the clamors of the sectaries that assail her on all sides, is inclined to tav6T this 
practice; ^faHe the Cttlvlnlslic school of Geneva, bostlkft to every tMog that' deHght# 
the eye or flatters the feeliiigs of a polished mind, have either itast the table of tb^ 
Lord out.ot the church/ or stripped It of all its decent aceompaniiilents, and abair-' 
dohed It in a corner i& dust and cobwebs. But Vhatever a man's opiMon may be' 
tpoh (his subject, he must bie^ very morbse indeed if be fiikt itm^.te blame in the- 
Boman altars; I mean those ofthe Bcisilica; which unencumbered widi tabei^ 
nacles, reliquaries, statues, or flower-pots, support a cross and.sU eandleitlclu; 
lumiture, which is sufficient withoiiit dpubt/o^ aU the parpoaea of SQlemnttyv and 



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aYH * dAlSStCilL torn GKAf. XTUt 

these dispoftllions are good and suitable to the plaoe^and oceasioiiy 
yet cfae giearts employed to prodnce them, the dhn perspective, and 
the artificial gloom border upon theatrical illusioD, and seem4)etter 
adapted to the sullen superstition of the Druids than to the plaio' 
and majestic forms of Christfah worship: How different th^ -ef-* 
fects of arrangement in a Roman Bcuilicq^ wh'ere, in a semicircle be- 
hind the altar, the bishop and his clergy form a yenerabie tribunal; 
where the people before, ranged according to sexand age; ei^hibit 
an orderly multitude; and the^Itar itself in the middle displays in 
ftilNIigbt*(he sacred volume and the emblems of redemption? An 
assembly thus combining simplicity, order, and dignity, natutally 
elevates the soul, and inspires sentiments not of terror bui of ad- 
miration, not of fictitiousness but of real solid devotion. . It recalls 
fo mind the glorious vision lof the Revelations, ■ and almost brings 
before bur eyes the elders ^ting clothed in whtte^ the lamps burning 
before the throne^ the lamb standing as if slain; and the muUiiudes 
which m> mart could number;. of all noHonsand kihdreds, and people 
and tongues-. ' ^ * 



CHAPTER XVIH. 

Tillas-^he Tiber— the Maiisoleum of Geciliallleiella—Bgeriaii Grotto and i;oon* 
tain-— Ghttrch of St. Goiistaiitia«-]lloDs Sacer. 

The varions villas that encircle Modern Rome fords one of its 
characteristic beauties, ^s wel) as one of the prmcipal features of 
its resemblance to the ancient isity, w^ich seems to have been en-- 
vironed with gardens, and almost studded with groves and' shady 
retirements. X^us Julius* Caesar had a spacious garden^ on the 
banks of the Tiber, at the foot of th^ Janiculnm, which he bequeathed 
to the Roman people : Maecenas enclosed «nd converted into a. plea- 
sure groun<j[ a considerable part of the EsquiUne Hill, which before' 
had been the common burial place of the lower classes, and the 
resort of thieves and vagabonds.; an alteration which Horace 
mentions with complacency in bis eighth satire^ To these we may 
add the Horli Lucullani and Seruiliani^ * incidently mentioned by 

yet may be' endured even by a puritan. The other brnaments, or rather super- 
fluities which are too often observed to load theakars of catholic churches, owe 
their introduction to Jhe fond devotion of nuns or nun-hl^'e friars, and may be to- 
lerated- in their cenvejitual oratories, as the toys and playthings of that harmless 
race, hut ought never to'be allowed to disfigure the simplicity of parochiid churches 
and cathedrals. * 

' Chap. iy. Y. 7. 

* Thegar4eBU9ofLucuIlu8andtho8eofSerYlUQi. ' . 



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Tacitus, and particularly the celebrated retreat of the bistorian Sal- 
lost, adorned with so much magnificence and luxury that it became 
the favorite resort of successive Emperors. This garden occupied 
the extremities of the Viminaland Pincian EGlls and enclosed in its 
precincts, a palace, a temple, and a circus. The palace was con*- 
iumed by fire on the fatal night when Alaric entered the city: the 
temple of singular beauty, sacred to Venus (Veneri FeUci Scururn) 
was 4liscoYered about the middle of the sixteenth century, and de- 
stroyed for the sale of the materials ; of the circus little remains 
but m;aisses of walls that merely indicate its site, while statute and 
marbles found occasionally eontinue to furnish proofs of its mag- 
nificence. 

The gardens of Lucullus are supposed to have bordered on those 
of Sallust, and with several other 'delicious retreats, which covered 
the summit and brow of the Pincian Mount, gave it its ancient ap- 
pellation of Collis Horiuhrum (the hill of gardens). To the inter- 
mingled graces of town and country that adorned these fashionable 
mansions of the rich ^nd luxurious Romans, Horace alludes when 
addressing Fuscus Aristius, he says 

Mempe inter varlas nutritor syWa coliumas— ' 

as in the tefse immediately following^ 

lattdatarqtle donms lobgos qo« pirospidt agrOM 

he evidently hints at the extensive views which mij[ht be enjoyed 
from the lofty apartments, erected expressly for the purpose of 
commanding a wide range of country; . - 

The villas of Modern Rome often occupy the same ground, share 
some portion oFthe splendor, andenj.oy all the picturesque advan- 
tages of the gardens of the ancient city. In point of perspective 
beauty, Rome has, indeed, at all times possessed peculiar felicities. It 
covers a considerable extent of country, encloses several hills within 
its ramparts, and affords a great variety of views, sometimes con- 
fined to its interior, and sometimes extending to the surrounding 
country and the distant mountains. It is true that the ancient Ro- 
man might contemplate from his garden, towering in near or dis- 
tant perspective, one or more of those stupendous edifices which 
then adorned the city, and were deservedly ranked among the won- 
ders of the world ; but I know not whether, in the melancholy 
spectacle of the same majestic edifices now scattered on the ground 
and overgrown with cypresses, the modern villa does not exhibit 

' Among yonr oolomm, rkfh wlib Tarloas dyes, 

' 1JDliat*rfll woods wUb awkward art nix.— Frauds, 

* Toa praise tbe boose, it bose ^taatlon yields 

An open piwpect t9 MM distant fields.— frondi. 

I. 49 



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m CLASSICAL TOUR €iUF. XVHI. 

a sigbt more aiBfful apd more afFecting. If the traTeller wishes to 
be copvinced of the truth of this remark, let him from tl)e terrace 
of theyiUaBor^hese, fix bis eyes oa the don^e of St. Petpr s, ex^ 
panded in all its splendor and all its perfection before him ; aod 
then let him s^scend the Palatine Mount, and from the cypress 
groves of tfaq VU^aFamesiana look dowp upon the shattered mas^ 
of the Coliseuna spread beneath him in broken pomp, half covered 
with weed? ^od i:^rambles. 

O champs de ritalie , 6 campagnes de Rome , 
d{i dans tout son prgueU gtt le n^ant de Thomme ! 
Cest la que des aspects fameiiK par de grands noms, 
Pleins de grands souvenirs et de hantes legons, 
Yous ofllreDt ces objets> tr^sors des paysages. ^ 
Ybyez de toutes parts comment le cours des dges 
Dispersant, d^chiraqt de pr^cieui lambeaux, 
Jetant temple snr temple , et tombeaui sur tombeaux 
lie Home ^tale au loin la ruine immortelle;.'.. 
Ces portiqu^^, Ces arcs , oil la pierre fiddle 
Oarde du peuple roi les exploits i^clatants : 
Lear masse iDdestractible a faCigu^ le temps. 
Des fleuves suspendus icl mugissait Tonde ; 
Sous ces portes passaient les d^pouilles du monde ; 
Partoui confiis^ment dads la poussidre ^pars, 
Les tiiermes, les palais, les tombeaux des GtSsarsI > 

4hbe DeUUe , JanUns. Cbant iv. ^ 

No villa presents a greater number of the local feliaties, immortal 
rmrw, iUume rer(iaim, big with grand recollections and awful inUruc- 
tion, so well described in these verses as the Orti Famesi. The 
gardens cover the greater part of the Palatine Mount, and spreaji 
over the vast substruction^ and scattered vestiges <)f the imperial 
palace. They front the Capitol, command the Forum, and look 
down upon the neighboring Coliseum ; thus exhibiting in different 
points dt view, and successively, the noblest remains of Roman 
tiiagnificetice Pow existing. They were formerly cultivated with 
care> and adorned with a great variety of antique vases, busts, and 
statues ;\but having unfortunately fallen by inheritance to the royal 

' fields of Italy I Roman plains I 

Waere Ilea man's nothiogness in aU its pr|de! 
Tbere tfte Mch landscape offers to tbe View 
Soenee iDade ilinsti^ous Ify great names ofoHl 
Big with great, recollections, lessons deep. 
See how on er'ry side tbe lapse of time, 
* ft. Seatf rins^ tl^ readed fragments, glorloas atUl, 

Temple on temple barling, tomb on tomb, 
Makes great dl«t»lay of Bome's immortal rains {^ 
These pompous porticos, these arcbes tall, 
Whefie still the marble, falthrnl io Its trq^t, 
Prcsertei the ioT'relgn people's great exploits— 
Their mfeiss, that' bids defiance to destraction,' 
Has wearied Time and mockHl his blunted scythe. 
Here roar'd^ the watera of the pendent Oood ; 
Beneath these gatCN the world's rich plunder passed ; . 
Scattered confns'dly in the dust around, 
paths, princely domes^ and tombs of Emp'roiv U«, 



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Cbav.XTIH. TBaOUGH ITALY; S7S 

ftoHlyctf Naples, tho mcient ornaments have beod transported ta 
that €apital> and the place, notwithstanding \ta ex(|iiisite beaaties, 
has been entirely neglected. 

The Villa Spdda, ofBrunait (for these villas change their names 
with their proprietors) occupies, on a much smaller scale, a part of 
tha Palktioe Hill and of the imperial palace, ^d ^enjoys some of 
the advantages ^f the Orti Farmesianu The ruins of the palacd: 
cpver ti9!e ^greater part of it, and on one side lookdowii on the 
^Uey that separates the Palatine from the Aventine Mounts from ,a 
gallery in a recess still remaining, the emperor might behold the 
games of the Cvrctijt Maximus, which Occupied the greater ,part of 
that valley. 

Op the $umpiijt of Jlfounf^e/ttis stands the Villa Matthei, once fa- 
mous JFor the beauty and number of its antiques, and though now. 
like the Orti Famesi, forsaken and neglected, it is still interesting 
for its groves, its verdure, fts.prospects, and its solitudes. 
. yt/ZaJVe^rpni, pnce the favorite retreat of Sixtus Quintus, en- 
closes an immense space of ground on the Esquiline and Viminal 
Hills, covered with groves, and opening upon various beautiful 
prospects. It contains two handsome and spacious buildings. Its 
numerous antiquities h^ve been removed. The celebrated Agger 
Tfxrquimf or rampart, raised by Tarquinius Priscus, intersects this 
garden, apd claims the attention due to its age and origin. 

The Villa Aldobrandini is small and ill furnished, but celebrated 
for one remarkable olyect, the Nozze Aldobrandine, an ancient 
pj^inting, which represents, as every reader knows, the nuptial ce- 
rempny in graceful figures, easy drapery, and charming groups. 

The Villa Ludovi^ft is a part only of the gardens of Salljast, and 
as it stands on the summit of the Pincian Hill, it nepessarily com- 
iD<|nds some very beautiful prospects* Its delicious walks are shaded 
with ilex, cypress, and bay, of th^ noblest growth, and of ^he most 
Iiixpriant foliage ; and it has the singular advantage of being en- 
dowed in a great degree by the venerable walls of the city, The 
elevated Ca^no, or summer-house in the centre, affords from its 
battlements an extensive view of the Campagnay and the mountains 
that form its boundaries, particularly of those of Albano and Sabina*! 
On a ceiling in this Casino i$ the Aurora of Guerdno, much ad— 
mirj^d by 1^1 connoisseurs, and by those of the French school pre- 
ferred to Ijiat of Gttido. - It certainly has more contrast, and more 
bps^)^ ; but what can pqnal the grace, the freshness, ihB celestial 
glory of that matchless performance, which combines in one splendid 
Vision all the beautiful features and accompaniments ascribed to the 
iporningby the poets ; Homer and Virgil seem to have presided 
over the work, and Ovid and Tasso given the picture its finishing 
touches. 

The Sirada Pineiana separates this villairpm the gardemr of the 
. TtUaM9dmf4mi»i!b^t%MeQe^^ the cardinal ^f that familyi and' 



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m Classical TotJii caap. xviiti 

from its lofty sitaation, superb collection of statues, pillars, and' 
marbles, as well as from the beauty of its gardens, veil entitled to 
the attention and favor of those patrons of the arts. But it has the 
misfortune to belong now to a soverei^^n ; its antiquities have there- 
fore been transported to bis capital, Florence ; its noblest apart-- 
ments'are neglected, and its gardens alone remain the resort and 
the delight of every serious traveller. ' 

The Orii Barberini rises to the south of the court of St. Peter's, 
and while it commands from its terrace a full view of one side of 
tbe^ colonnade, it presents to the eye. of those who are coming 
towards the Vatican 9 beautiful back ground for the other side, 
and spreads its pinesf and cypresses in such a manner as to form 
in appearance an aerial garden suspended OTer the pillarSj^ and 
shading the statues. 

~ The gardens belonging )o the Corsini palace have accpiired some 
celebrity from the m^etipgs of the Academy of the Quvrinu, A si-^ 
milar circumstance throws a still greater lustre over the Bosco Par* 
rhano, a rUral theatre where the Arcadiahs meet to hear and ex- 
amine the poetical effusions of their associates. The Arcadian Aca- 
demy is known to be one of the principal literary societies in Rome, 
instituted towards the end of the seventeenth century, for the pro- 
motion of classical knowledge, and compcrsed of some of the first 
scholars in that capital, and indeed in all Europe. ■ ^ One of its 
principal objects was to correct the bad taste then prevalent, and 
to turn the attention of youth from the glare, conceit, and over 
refinements of false, to the ease,, and unaffected graces of true wit. 
They took their, name from a people celebrated for the simplicity 
of their manners; and as the love of rural scenery is inseparable 
from true taste, they chose a grov^ for the place of their assembly, . 
and gave it the name of Parrhasian. The Boico Parrham is si- 
tuated on the side of the Janiculum. 

All the gardens and villas hitherto mentioned, are within the 
ancient walls of the^city^^and may be considered as constituent parts 
of it, contributing mudn to its beauty, its coofness, and its magni- 
ficence : but besides these, many others lie in the suburbs and 
neighborhood, and give the immediate environs of Rome an un-* 
common share of amenity and interclst. 

To begin by the Porto S. Psmram, that nearest the Janiculum, 
anciently the Porta Aurelia ; proceeding along the Via Aurelia 
about a mile from the gate, we arrive at the Villa Pamfili of Belres-^ 
piro. This country seat, which now belongs-to the Prince Doria, 
is sujpposed to occupy the same ground as the gardens of the Eni* 
l^eror Galba, and is remarkable for its edifices, its waters, its woods, 
ita antiqaities of every description, its great extent, and its general 

■ The French have degraded this academy by the Absurd appeRttion ofth^ 



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Chap. XYIII, THROUGH TFALT. 97Y 

iiiagnifi(S6noe. It m9 moreover well supported both with ^regard to 
the house, tha ornamental buildings, and the gardehs. The dispo- 
sition and arrangement of the ptantatiohsi, as wellas the, form and 
destination of the water^-are stiff and formal, according to the ob^ 
soleie mode of French gardening ;* yet the growth *and luxuriapcy 
of the one, and the.extent and profusion of theother, almost hide 
the defect and catch and delight the eyOj, in spite of unnatural art 
and misplaced symmetry>. ' 

One of the most conspicuous objects in the immediate neigh- 
borhood of Rome is the. Monu Mario, anciently Clivus Cinn$, ^ 
bold eminence lying about a mile north-west from the Porta Ange- 
lica, plothcd with vineyards and crowned with groves of cypness 
and poplar. On its summit rises the Villa Mellini, remarkable for 
the noble iview that lies expanded under its terrace. * The Tiber in- 
tersecting the city and winding though rich meadows ; the Prata 
Quintia and ""Prata Mutia, fields still bearing in their names the tro- 
phies of Roman virtue and Roman hejroism : the PonsMilvim with 
its tower, and the plains consecrated by the victory ■4)f Cbnstantine ; 
the Vatican palace with its courts and gardens ; the Basilica of St. 
Peter with its portico, its bbelisk, and its fountains; the Campus 
Martins covered with the churches, squares, and palaces, of the 
modern city ; the seven hills strewed with the ruins of the ancient ; 
Ae walls with their tower's and galleries ; the desert (lavrpagna, 
vrith Mount Soracte rising apparently in the centre ; and the semi- 
circular sweep of mountains tinged with blue or purple, now bright 
with the sun, now dark in the shade, and generally gleaming with 
snow — ^such-is the varied and magnificent scene spread before the 
traveller, while reposing on the shaded terrace of the Villa 
MeUtni. 

The same prospect may be enjoyed, but with less advantage, 
from the Villa Madama, which lies further on the side of the hill 
towards PomeMilvio. In the gardens oJP this villa is a rural theatre 
formed by the natural winding of a little dell, and shaded by a 
whole forest of beautiful evergreens. Iii the golden days of the 
Medici (for this villa wds erected and its gardens Were laid out by 
a cardinal of that family] this sylvan scene was crowded by thepo^ 
lisbed Romans of the times, assembled to listen to the composi- 
tions of rival poets, and to decide the priority of contesting orators. 
After this literary exhibition^ the spectators were regaled in lofty 
h^\\s planned by Raffaella and painted by Giulio Romano, with all 
the delicacies of the orchard, and with aU the charms of music andl 
conversation. But these days are now no more; the Medicean 

1 1 migbt witb^reater propriety bave said Italian gar^eniog, as the French, in 
this respect as in most others, only copied the ItaliaDS. The latter again imitated 
their ancestors.— -Sea Pliny's ioell^nown Description of his Loiur^ntin and 
Tuscan villas. l4bt\uep.iffy^Epr»* 



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\VB .tXASSHIAL TOCIE foAPv ^tnO. 

JiQe 18 extinbt; ind'ahcient hme and surymog beauty, and the ar- 
chitecture of Raffaello and the pencil of QmHo plead in yain ife 
behiiliFof this superb villa. It belongs to the king of Naples and is, 
as it has long been, entirely neglected. 

,0a the opposite side of the city, a little way from thei P<nrta Sor- 
ieira islands the Villa Albdni, till lately one of the best supported 
iand best furnished seats in the neighborhood of Rotne, or Indeed 
in Europe. The palace is magnificent; and was adorned, as were 
the gardens, with a considerable and chosen collection df anti^i- 
ties, to the number nearly it is said of eight handred. To thesb 
may be added two handred and sixty pillars of granite, porphyry, 
and marble, which supported and adorned th^ villa and the galle^ 
ries ; a species of gratideurtbat exists only in Rome and its. vicinity^ 
But the Alban villa has been stript of all its ornaments. The car- 
dinal Albani} its ^proprietor, bad the misfortune to incur the dis^ 
pleasure of the French, by the zeal and activity with which he op- 
po3ed the intrigues of their agents previous to the invasion of the 
ecclesiastical state, and was punished on their entrance into die 
city by the pillage and devastation of his palaces and gardens. 

We shall now proceed to the Villa Borghese^ or Villa Pkidana^ 
(so called from the proximity of the Porta Pindana ' now shat op) 
which, frotja the space it occupies, (supposed to be about fonr miles 
jn circumference) its noble vistas, frequent fountains, Ornamental 
buildings, superb palace, and almost iniitimerable antiquities, is 
justly considered as the first of the Roman villas, and worthy of , 
being put into competition with the splendid retreats of Sallnsi or 
LucuUus. It st9nds upon a continuation oFthe Pincian Hill, 'at a 
little distance from the walls of the.city, about half a mile from 
the Porta Flaminia ov.del Popolo. » It covers the brow of the hiD, 
and from the terrace has a noble view of the qity, and of the Ta- 
tican. The gardens are laid out with sonie regard both for %h& 
new and for the old system ; for though symmetry prevails in ge- 
neral, and Jong alleys appear interi^GCting each other, lined with 
statues and refreshed by cascades, yet here and there a winding 
path allui'es you int6 a wilderness formed of plants -abandoned to 
their native luxuriancy, and watered by streamlets ..murmuring 
through their own artless channels. The ornamental buildings are, 
aS' usually happens to such edifices, deficient in correctnessr and 
purity of architecture.^ the temple of Piana is encumbered with 
too many ornaments. The Ionic temple in the little island is indeed 
graceful, but rather too narrow for its eleVation, a defect increased 
by the statues placed upon the pediment, pne of theae ornamental 
buildings contains a considerable collection of statues, etc. found 
on the site of Gabii, (for ruins there are none) the territory of whidi 
iciow belongs to this family. 

< The Pincian Gate. > The FlamHaia]^ Gm, or the COM of tHe Pe^le. 

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eiiP.XJ^nl: . THROVGrt itAlt. «» 

The Cmno or palace itself Is of great iexteiit, bat thoogh erected 
on the phins and under the inspection of the principal architects of 
the ape. and though biiilt of the flhSst storte, vfit it neither as- 
tonishes- nor pleases. The reason of this faildrfe »f effect is evi- 
dent; the briiameiits are so numerous and the parts SQ subdivided 
a^ to distract the eye, and to leave no ^oonl for any one predoj- 
Airiant impression. The basso relievos, and statues scattered with 
siich prodigality over the exterior of this Ca»ino are rofHcientil 
disposed with judgment and effect, to adoi-n the three largest pa- 
laces in Europe. The ititerior consists of several large saloon* 
lind apartments, and a gallfery ; all of which, particularly the lattery 
are lined and inlaid with the richisSt inarbles, and supportetl t)y the 
noblest billars, intermingled with bronze &nd gilding, aiid adorne4 
with the best specimens of ancient art Ih scdlpture and in painung.. 
Such indeed is the value "of this collection, and such the splendor 
of the apartments in which it is displayed, that no sovereign in 
Europe can boast of so rich S gallery or Of a residence so truly 
imperial. This villa wiih its valuable collection and furniture es- 
caped undamaged during the French invasion, owing to the ap- 
parent partiality whieh one of the princes of the family is supposed 
to have manifested towards the republican systeip. ' ^ ^ 

Its gardens are always op^n to the public who, in » >»»'« '«- 
spription by no means inelegant, are welcomed or ra*er invited to 
the free enjoyment of all the beauties of the place and at the same 
tiine intreated to spare the shrubs and flowers,,and to rejfpect tne 
more valuable ornaments, the urns/ statues, and tnarbles. IM 
fiomans accordingly profit by the invitation, and resort i'^fowdMO 
the VUlaBorghJ, Jarticularly on Sundays ; when th? wa«« Pre?ent 
averylively and varied scene. coriHiosed of p^sonspfalldescn^ 

and ranks; moving in all directions through the groves and alleys 
iir reposing in groups in the temples or near the fo""^^'"*' /•»? 
liberal mode of indulging the public in free access to palaces ami 
gardens, and thus sharSig with them, in some degree, the ad- 
vantages and pleasures of luxury, a mode so common in Italy, 
merits much praise, and may be recommended'as an examp^^^^^^^^ 
deserves to be imitated by jhe proprietors off^!j^,^J^^,^S 
grounds particularly Ia the neighborhood of great toWds and 



cities. 



The reader will perceive that; out of the^mahy, ^'"laf .'*^* J*'™ 
Ronie and its vicinity, I have ^^Y^^'^J'^'ifh^lZlcL 
fecient to give him a satisfectory idea of^the ^^'^'jj'''\}^^^„ 
rations of these celebrated suburban ^^.^^^'^'^ ?°SS 
indeed they may differ in extent and "^gmficence Je ^prin^^^^ 
features are nearly the same; the same with regard to artihciai 

. This prince has since married a .IsUsr otBo-^r'JIIIieZr """ *" '""*" 
unparalleled coUecflwiJ hehM,lu r^wn, oMained mi coqieippt. 



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9ga « CXASSlGAL TQTJR] Chaf. XVm. 

ornamenUiiis well as natural graces. Some ancient remains are to 
be found in all, and several in most, and iheyar^ all adorned 
with the same evergreens^ and present upon a greater or less 
scale the same Italian and ancient- scenery. They are in general, 
it is true; buch neglected, but for that reasop the more rural* 
The'jplants now abandoned to -their native forms cover the walks 
with a lirxuriant shade, break the long straight vistas by their 
fantoMic bratiches, and turn the alleys and quincunxes into devloug 
paths and tangled thickets. They famish a delightful varj:etf of 
rides and walks;' and as they are interspersed throughout the aii» 
cient city and rouiid its suburbs, they give the traveller fatigued with 
liis resiBarches, or oppressed with the summer heats, a frequent 
opportunity of reposing himself on the margin of a fountain under 
the classical shade of the ilex, the pine, and the poplar. 

Qua pinntf iqgens, Albaqae popalus 
^ Dmbram hospitalem consociare amant 

Ramis, et obllquo laborat 

Lympba fugax trepidare rivo.' 

. Hor. Carm: lib. U. Od. 3. 

Jrem the villas we pass by ^ very nattkfal transition to the 
grand or beautiful pbjects that lie in the neighborhood' of the 
city, and within the compasis of a walk from its gates. To specify all 
these objects would be an undertaking too extensive for tlie bounds 
of the present work; I shall therefore confine myself to 'a few 
only, and j)oint out to the reader such excursions as appear most 
interesting. 

The banks of the Tiber cannot fail to attract the frequent steps of 
the classic traveller; the'Tiber, Deograimimus atnnis,* a river more 
distinguished in the history of mankind than the Nile or the Thames, 
the Rhine or the Danube. Hence some travellers measuring its 
mass of waters by its bulk of &me, and finding its appearance in- 
ferior to theirCpreconCeptions, have represented it as a mere rill, a 
Eetty and insignificant streamlet. However, though far inferior in 
readth to all the great rivers, yet, as it is generally from -a few 
miles above Rome to the sea about three hundred fe^t Vide upon 
an average, it cannot with justice be considered as a contemptible 
rilL . Above and a little below the city it runs through groves and 
gardens, and waters the villas |ind retreats of the richer Romans ; 
but beyond' Ponte Molle it rolls through a long tract of plains and 
hills, fertile and green, but uncultivated and deserted. Tet' these 

t ' . . Where the pale ftoplar and the pine 

Eipel the miii'tfintemp'rate bean;. 
la boipitable ahades*thelr branches twine, 
Aad wiDde with toil, tboqgh swift, the trem'loiu •treun.^Fi'an«/«# 



ng the rolliogHoodf 



Xteown d «B eertlH eHoa&'d wm% the4{Qd«.«-0ryKfeii. 



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€flAF. XTIH. THROUOH ITALY. aH 

very banks* now all silence and solitude, were once, like those of 
the Thames, coTercd with life, activity, and rural beauty, ),ined with 
Tillages, and not unfrequently decorated with palaces. ^'PJuribtii 
prope solus/' says Pliny, '' quam ceteri in omnibus term amnes^ ac" 
coiaur, aspidturque villis''^ Such was the glory of the Tiber ,^ not 
only in the golden days of Augustus and Trajan, but even in the 
iron age of Yalentinian and Honorius, after Italy had long been the 
seat of civil war, and more than once the theatre of barbarian 
fury, and of Gothic devastation.* Below ^e city, when it has 
passed .the Villa Malliana^ once the seat of Leo and of the Latiq 
QauseSj^ it falls again into a wilderness, and 



-through the desert plain 



Winds its waste stores, and sullen sweeps alopg. 
* Thomson's Liberty, p. 1. 

The traveller may commence his next excursion from the Capitol, 
and crossing part of the Forum^ turn towards the Palatine Mount. 
On his left he will notice the solid wall of the Rostra; the ^temple 
of Romulus raised oathe spot where the twin brothers were ex- 
posed ; land a spring, called by some antiquaries the fountain of 
Jutuma, bursting from a deep, cleft in the rock. On his right he 
will observe the Cloaca Maxima with its solid arches, a stupendous 
work of Tarqufnius Priscus. He will next pass under the arch^of 
Janus, cross a corner of the Forum Boarium, and turning to the 
left advance along the Palatine on one side, and the Circus Maxlmus 
on the other. He then enters the street that leads with a gentle 
sweep between die CKvus Scauri and Mount Celius on the left, and 
on the right the ThermsB Antonini and Mount Aventine, to the Porta 
CapeiTa. As he proceeds on the Via Appia he will pass the ancient 
Basilica of St; Sebastian, and shortly after come to the Circus of 
Caracalla; 

This circus, about two miles from the gates of bome, presents 
such remnants of its ancient walls as enable us to form a clear no- 
tion of th^ different parts and arrangements of a circus. A consi- 
derable portion of the exterior, and in many places the vault that 

■ It is alone adorned by, and serves as a prospect to, mere villas, than idmost 
all the other rivers in the world— Lib', iii. 5. - 

> "The Gaul" says Glaudian, <*may erect new mansions ontbe banks of the 
Rhine/* 

■ et laBTain gentibns amnem 

IlbtW9 in moTiin dotailbQs praranet amoenb. 

J>e Con$. SUtich, LU>. U. 488. 

And savage Rbine, wUb Tlllaa fair adora'd, 
le taogbt tQ riTal Tlber^a claislc stream. 

» Stradar lays at this villa the scene of the beantifbl allegory In which he design 
nates the char Aer of the difl^rent Latin poets by t^ir occupation in the machi- 
nery of an artificy mountain. An allegory introduced by Addison Into the 
Guardian. 



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Sta * CLASSICAL TOUR Chap. XVIIt. 

supported th$ seats, remain. The foundation of the ti;^o obelisk^ 
that terminated the spina (a sort of separation that ran lengthways 
through the circus] and formed th^ goals, still exi^s. Near the 
principal goal on one side, behind the benches, stands a sort of 
tower where the judges sat. One of the extremities supported a 
gallery which contained a band of musicians, and is flanked by two 
towers, whenpethe signal for starting was given. Its length is one 
thousand six hundred and two feet, its breadth two hundired and 
sixty : the length of the spina is nine hundred and twenty-two. The 
distance firom the career or end whence they started to the first meta 
or goal was fire hundred and fifty feet. There wer^ seven rangel 
of seats, which contained about twenty-seven thousand spectators.. 
As jostling and every exertion of skill, strength, or cunning were 
allowed, the chariots were occasionally overturned, and as the 
drivers had the reins tied round their bodies, several melancholy 
abcidents took place. To remove the bodies of charioteers bruised 
or killed in siich exertions, a large gate was open in th^ side of the 
eit^eus near the first meta, where such accidents were likeliest to 
take place on account of the narrowness of the space; an^ this prer 
caution was necessary, as the ainci^nts deemed it a most portetftoos 
omen to go through a gate defiled by the passage of a dead. body. 
On the end opposite the career was a triumphal arch, or grand gate, 
through which tho victortoua charioteer drove amidst the shouts 
and acclamations of the spectators. There were originally four sets 
off drivers, named from the colors which they wore,ili6ati (White), 
jRtttMft (Red), Prostnt (Green), and Veneti (Blue). To these four 
Domitian added two more, Aurei (Yellow), and Purpurei (Purple).' 
Each color drote five rounds with fresh horses. There ate stables^ 
therefore^ close to the circus ; and in the centre of these stables a 
eircnlar fobric of at least seventy-two feet diameter^ with an opeo 
space around enelosed by a high wall. This building was probably a 
riding school, and is supposed to have been crowned with a temple. 
Ind^d, such is the solidity of the walls and vault that they, seism 
calculated to support a higher edifice than the mere roof; and such, 
at the same time, was the magnificence of the Romans, tl^t they 
seldom left a public edifice without a becoming termination ; be- 
sides, some very beautiful blocks of marble, formipg part of a Co- 
rinthian cornice with other fragmentjs found on the spot, authorise 
this conjectdre, and give it a great degree of probability. 

A little beyond the circus of Caracalla, and in full view frota it, 
rises the mausoleum of Cecilia Metella, a beautiful circular edifice, 
built by Ctassus, ii^ hohor of, that Roman matron his wife, and 
daughter to Quintus Metellus CreticusJ It is df considerable height 
and great thickness i in the centre is a hoNow space reach^ from 
the pavement to^ the top of the building. In thi«%)ncaTity wss 

■ ; 'S ' ^• 

' Suet. Domlt. 7. 



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iSB&. XVm IBBOUGff UMLf. Mil 

deposited. tKe bddy hi a marbte sarcopfaago§, irhteh te tte Une nft 
Paul in. wasremoyed to the c^ort of the FarnetriiTa pala<^. Thb 
solidity and simplicity of this mohument ai*e worthy of the r epiitM> 
lican era in which it was erected, and hate e^abJ^ if 16 resist 
the iDddents add survive the lapse of two thousand years. 

A celebrated antiqaary attribates to the afchitectufla^l formatioh 
of this edifice, the singular effect of re-echoing clearly and dis^ 
tinctly such words as were nttered within a certain distance 6t ttl 
circumference ; so that kt the funeral of Meidfla dfo cries and l|H- 
nfentations of the attendants were i;epeated so often, and in Such 
soft and plamtive accents, that the spirits of the dead, and eten 
the infernal divinities themselves, seemed to partake the generlfli 
aorrowt ^^ ^o nmrfflur back the sighs and groans of the motfrfi^ 
6^. As this fiction is poetical, and does some credit td the ao- 
thor, it is but £sir to present it to the reader in iris 6wn words, 
** Quodque in eo maxima mirandum est, artrficio tarn iKiigtdari 
composita est ea moles, ut Echo toqueiitiam voces septie^et octiet 
distincte et articulate referat ; ut in exequiis et funere (piod 6raiMf 
uxori solemniter celebrabat, ejulatus plorantium multiplicaretur in 
immensum, non secus ac si^Dii Manes et omnes inferorum anime 
fatum Csecili® illius commiserati ex imo ter^se continuis plangerent 
ploratibus, suumque dolorem testarentur obmmunem, quern lar 
chrymis viventium conjunctum esse vellent.'* ' — Contiguous to this 
mausoleum' rise the remains of ramparts, houses, and churches 
erected in the middle ages, and presenting in their actual state a 
melancholy scene of- utter desolatioui ^ 

The traveller on.hiis return may traverse the circus of Caracalla^ 
jfiow a luxuriant kneadow, pass under its time-worn gate, and cross- 
ing the road, descend into a pleasant dell, where he will find a 
grotto and a fountain- with a few trees scatteired around them. The 
grotto is covered with a sdlid arch and lined with walls. Th^ 
niches on both sides were probably occupied in ancient times by 
the divinities of the place; over the fountain a statue rather disfi- 
gured by time appears in a reclining posture. Various evergreen 
shrubs hang. over the fountain, pidy around the statue, and wind 
and flourish through the grotto and over its entrance. The statue 

> The most wondenftil tiding H, that the bandlQg is constnicted with such singular 
artifice, that Echo gives back seven or eight times, distinctly and articulately, the 
voices of those v*^ho spealt; so that at tfie funeral solemnities which Grassus cele- 
iM'ated in honor df his wife, th'e wailings of the ihonrners were infinitely njul- 
tiplied, just as if the infernal gods, and all the souls that inhabit the sha<^es below/ 
had, in commiseration qf the fate of the deceased Gaecilia, bewailed her flrom 
beneath the earth with continiied lamentations, and te^ti^ed their common grief, 
which they were desirous to combine with the tears of the Uvln^.—Boissard, 

* At the lawless period when the Roman nobles defied the feeble authority of 
the Popes, and the shadowy privileges of the people and passed their days in per- 
petual warfare with, each other, the family of the Qaietani turned this sepulchre 
into a^ fortress^ and erected the battlements Qai stiU disfigure its summit. 



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iU tUASBiQAL TOBR Chap. XYin. 

represents the Nymph Egeriaf and the grotto, the fonntahi, and 
the {][roTe that onpe shaded it, were-coosex^rated by ffinna ta the 
same pyoipb and to the muses. ^' Lucus erat," says Titas Livius, 
** quern mediom et opaco specu fons perenni rigabat aqu&, quo 
quia se persspe Numa sine arbitris, T^Iut ad eongressum de», in- 
ferebaty Camoenis^eum lucani'Sacravit;quod earum ibi consilia cam 
conjuge sua Egeria essent." ' A streamlet, pure, limpid, an<)^ whole- 
some, flows from the fountain and waters the little Talley. Juyenal 
complains of the marble ornaments and artificial decorations of 
this fountain, and wishes that it had been- abandoned to its ancient 
siinplicity, to its grassy margin and to its native rock. > His wishes 
are now nearly accomplistied; the vault indeed remains, but the 
marble lining; the pillars, the statues have disappeared and pro- 
bably lie. buried under the mud that covers the pavement of the 
iprotto. The mendicant crowd that frequented the grove in that 
I^oet's day are also vanished, and the solitude of the place is as 
deep.and undisturbed as when it was (he nightly resort of the Ro« 
man legislator. i 

CoDjoge (Jul fe)ix aymplia dacibnsqae Gameifls 
Sacrificos docait ritus; genteroque ferocl 
Assuetam bello, pads tradiuit ad artes.^ 

Ovid. Met \Y.i%3. 

On the brow of the hill that borders the Egerian valley on the 
south stlands the little ch«rch of St. Urban, formerly a temple of 
Bacchus, or, as it is with more appearance of truth denominated 
by others^ the temple of the Huses, looking down upon the valley 

/- 
> There iiras A grove, through the midst of which flowed a perennial fountain. 
Issuing from a shady grotto; this grove, because he Often resorted thither without 
witnesses, as to a conference with a goddess, Numa consecrated to the mnses^ 
(hat tl^ey might there hold counsei with his wife Egeria.—!. 91. 

* lo vallem Egerieo desceadlmns et spelaiieas 

Disslmlles verls. Qtuinto iiraQstanpas esuet 
Ifamen aquiB« vit-idt st iDargbie<clauderet undas 
Berba, nee Logenumn vlolarent marmora tophaoi ? 
' . /«v. Ub. i. Sat. IIU If. 

Down to Egerla^s Tale wo took our way, 
Where spoU'd by art lier formal groCtoea lay, - 
How much more honored had the goddess been, 
. V Were the clear fountaiq edg'd with living green ; 

Through no vain marble ^id the waters run. 
But oiily murmur o'er a bed of stoMj^HodgunCi TrMiUUi^nl 

The metamorphosis of Egeria into « fbontaio, so prettily related by Ovid, took 
place intbe vale of Aricia. 

Nam conjnz nrbe relida 
ValUi Arlclow densls latet abdtta sylTl8.-^<dL Mtt, <t. WT. 

Blfl wife the town forsook, 
Ahd in the woodi that clothe Aricla^a Tale 
liee hid. 

' Sage^umy, happy in his mystic bride, 

The muse his ftv'rite, and the muse bis guide, 

Taught sacred Tiles, a safage race reclaimed - . i • 

And firom war's bloody trade to -gentle peace reclaim'd. 



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Cea*<XVUL • TflttatdH ITALY. m 

and the groves sacred to these goddesses. As the portico was 
taken in to^ntarge the cdia, and adapt it better for the purposes of 
a church, the four marble pillars of fluted Corinthian are now in-- 
cased in the wall. 

A little farther on is a brick temple^ soiall indeed, but well- 
proportioned and adorned with pilasters and a regular cornice. 
Antiquarians differ with regard to ite appellation. Some suppose 
it to be sacred. to the God Rediculus, who prompted Annibal, when 
enpamped there, to return and withdraw from the city. But a9 
Annibal was encamped, not on this but on the opposite side of the 
city, beyond the Aniaand three miles from the Porta Gollina, and 
as Livius makes no mention of any such temple, this opinion seems 
to be ill-grounded. Others suppose it to be the temple erected icf 
Fortuna Muliebris on the retreat of Coriolanus. Such a temple was 
indeed erected andr perhaps on this spot, though Coriolanus was 
not encamped here, but three or four miles further from the city 
at the Fossse Cluilise. At all eyents, a temple erected by public 
authority, even in that age of simplicity, would probably have been 
built not of brick, but of stone, so that after all it may possibly 
have been one of the many sepulchres which bordered the Via La- 
tina, and almost covered the space between it and the Via Appia. « 
The traveller then turns again towards the Via Appid, re-crosses 
the-Ti^erAlmoiLupricusAlmo*) and re-enters by the Porta Gapena«. 

Upon another day the traveller may go out by the Porta Nomen- 
tana (now Pui) and proceeding about a mile, visit the church of 
St* Agnes remarkable for its antiquity, (having been erected by 
GoDStaiitine) for the ."double row of marbl^ pillars one above the 
other thdt support its roof, and for the porphyry and alabaster 
columns which adorn its altar and its tabernacle. Its form is the 
same as that of other churches of the same era. 

Near this edifice stands the church of St. Constantia (the daughter 
of Gonstantine] formerly her mausoleum, and supposed to have 
been at a still earlier period, a temple of Bacchus. It is of a circular 
form, supported by a row of coupled columns and crowned with a 
doihe. Behind the pillars runs a gallery, the vaulted roof o^whicli 
is incrusted with ancient mosaics, representing little ^genii playing 
with clusters of grapes' amidst the curling tendrils of the vine. I 
have spoken elsewhere of the saint^ a vast porphyry vase orna-« 

^ • * 

' ' ^xpertiir<{Qi(lto]ieeda(itrJn1U<M 

Qnoram FlamipiA tegltar ciois atqae Latind.-/fiv. Sat 1. 470* 

I'll point my satire at the Doxloua clay 

Beneath tbe u'Ua and FJamlDlan way.-Horf^Mft'a msittAilioil. 

Col per mediam noHs occttrrdre nocteiB 
CUvoaea veheria dum per monamenta LatinaB.-'Saf. t.54. 
Wbom sboQld St tboa meet where sleep the slteot dead. 
On the lone bills w ith midnight clouds overspread. 
Gold through thf yeias would creep a gdiy'rlng dread.«*Jfrfif« 

* The swUUj-sUding Almo. 

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pented wik vivioq9 figares, and^ observed that as tbe body had 
been deposited many years ago under tbe akar, the sarcophagas 
yas transported to the museum of the Vatican. 

About two miles farther the traveller will find the Ponie Lament 
tana, anpiei|tly Poi^s Nomentanus, a bridge over the Anio ; and a 
little beyond b» he may ascend the Mons Sacer, twfce dignified by 
die retreat, and by the temperate but determined resistance, of an 
oppriessed ^d generous people. This hill although of no great 
elevation is steep and in the form of a rampart * towards the 
river, and ft runs along decreasing as it advances towardls the 
Ponte Salaro. It is now a lonely eminence/covered with luxuriant 
grass, but destitute of sbade^ curnament, or memorial. Yet few 
places seem better entitled to distinction, as few incidents are re- 
corded in history more honorable to the Roman people than the 
transactions which took place on the ilfoi» Sacer, where they dis- 
played in such a conspicuous manner the three grand virtues that 
constitute die&oman character — firmness, moderation^ and magna- 
nimity. 

About two miles northward of the Pons Nomentanus is tbe Pons 
Salarius (Ponte Salaro) remarkable for the well known combat 
betj^Qui Manlius Torquatus and the gigantic 6aid ; as also for the 
neighboring encampment of Anntbal, when he approached the city, 
%oii IfS tbri^a^ping Romfi itself hoped to terrify the Consols and 
induce them to raise the ai^e of Capua. The traveller may then 
return by the Via Salaria and te-entar the ciqr by the gate of the 
sainename. 

Besides these walks, as it is not my intention to specify all, it wiH 
be sufficient to observe that every gate possesses it^ attractions, 
presenting on the roads and paths which it opens to the steps of 
the traveller, its views of rural beauty or its remains of ancient 
gnndeur ; its churches sanaifiedi)]^ the memory of the Good, its 
ields consecrated by the struggles of the Brave, and its sepulchres 
conpbled by the ashes of the Great. Wheresoever he directs his 
observation he finds himself sorrounded by the wonders of modem 
art, and by the monun^ents of ancient splendor; so that his eye is 
g^atjfied by noble exhibitions^ and his mind elevated by grand and 
iwf^ recollections. A c^tain inexpressible solemnity peculiar to 
the plaoereign^ alliiround : the genius of Rome and the spirits of 
the illustrious dead still seem to hover over the ruins, to guard the 
walls, and superintend the destinies of the '' Eternal City." 

s This PmtmM^ptob^k^j fiv^s to tbe occasion :^YaUo, Iqasmu^ communitis cas- 
Irliir-" Havins fortified the eamp wUh a rampart and a dltctu**— Lit;, lib. ii. 32. 



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egU9. XIS:», THBOUGB rXALT. m 



CHAPTER XIX. 

Tibar— Horace*s YillA. 

Afte]( haying passed five delightful weeks ip a first and rapid 
turyey of the ancient ruias an^of the modern magnificences of 
Ropoe, w9 tamed our attention to the neighboring country, and 
liast^ned to yisit some of the classical r>etreats of the Sabine an<) 
Albaii mouptaiins. Accordingly on Thursday the thirteenth of l^^y, 
we. made an excursion to Tivoli, the ancient Tibur, and proceedin([ 
along the Via Jiburtjna, again- visited the ancient patriarchal Basi- 
lica pf St. Laurence, about one pile from the gate. This is not 
Ibe Qply church that bears the title of St. Laurenc^> as there are 
three oOiers at least in' Rome that enjoy it also ; but i^ is the most 
imcient, and at the same time it has the. honor of posses^g tho 
martyr's remains... As I approached his shrine with reverence ) 
recollected the beautiful lines of Yida. 

Adyeniet Iqstris mundo labentibas (etas 
Qaam domus Mnen prestans Romana propago 
losodti juyeni extrema seqauto 
. , Centum aras, centum magnis penetralia tempUa 
Eriget, et tumolo dlvinum Imponet honorem.* 

About two miles further on we passed the Pojtte Mamolo over the 
Anio or Teverone. This bridge is said to have been built by Mam- 
mea, mother of Alexander Severus. The Campagmf extending 
thence to the mountains of Sabina, is flat but fertile and covered 
either with rich grass or promising corn. Woods surrounding 
distant villds or farms appeared here and there covering the sunmiits 
of little hills. - 

About eight miles from the above-mentioned bridge we crossed 
the little green streamlet, called from its sulphureous ^xhafatiodDys 
the Solfatara. The lake or pool from which it rises is about a 
short mile from the road, som ewhat less than a mile in circumfo* 
re^ce^ and near two hundred feet deep. Its waters are of aa iron 
grey, audits surface is frequently spotted with a bituminous matter, 
which mixmg with weeds qind vegetable substances gradually coii- 
gulates, and forms what n^ay be called a floating island. There 

t As ctrcling years rcrrolye; ttte day aball t»9if , 

Wben Troy's great progeny. Imperial Bome^ 
To tbe blest yoatb , wbo, flird wUb boiy pri^e, 
Tyrants, and flames, and bitter deatb defied, 
Sbail build fall many 'an altar, many a flbrlne, 
^d grace bis aepvlcbre wltb rites dlf toe,. 



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m CLASSICAL toua cha^. xhL 

were ten or twelve of these little green masses when we visited the 
lake, and being carried by the wiqd to the side, they remained 
united and motionless till we separated and set some oF them afloat. 
As they continually increase in number, sothey gradually diminish 
the surface of the lake^ and will probably in time cover it over 
entirely. It was formerly much larger than it is at present, and 
used occasionally to overflow the neighboring plains ; to prevent 
this inconveitience the little canal which intersects the road was 
cut by the orders of the Cardinal dEste^ to give an outlet ta- the 
increasing waters and carry^ them to the Anio. This lake was in 
high repute among the ancients, and much frequented op account 
of the oracle of Fauous, whose temple surrounded h^ a sacred 
grove stood on its bank. Hence Virgil, who consecrates the usages 
established in his time by referring them to remote antiquity, 
or by ascribing their origin to the interference of the gods, repre* 
sents Latinus as consulting the oracle of Faunus on this spot, and 
as receiving during the night a mysterious answer. The sulphu- 
reous exhalations of the lake, the celebrity of the temple, andthe 
singular method of consulting the oracle, are all finely described 
in these lines. 

At rex solllcitus monstrifl, oracula Fauni 

Fatidici genitoris adit, lucosqiie sab alta 

Gonsullt Albanea» nemorum que maxima 6aci*a 

Fonte sonata sevumque exhalatopaca mephlUm. 

HId'c ItalflB gentes, omnisque OEDOtria tellu9» 

In dubiis riespo^sa petunt. Hue dona saeerdog' 

Qanm tulit, et cssanim oviom sub nocte silehtl 

Pellibas incubuit stratis, somnosque petlvit; 

Miilta modis simulacra yidet voiitantia miris, 

Et varias audit voces, frulturque Deorum 

Golioqulo, atqae Imis Acheronta adfatar Ayernis.i-^^n. vii. 8I4 

. At present the oivide is forgotten; ihe sacred grove whence the 
Toices issued has been long rooted up; and the very Situation of 
the temple itself is ^ matter of mere conjecture. Bituminous exha- 
htions indeed still impregnate the air to a considerable distance, 
and the lake exists, though its extent is much diminished. The sur* 
ftice of the surrounding fields is an incrustation gradually fornaed 
over the water, and the hollow sound which it yields to ttk; tread 
of ^rses evidently betrays the existence of an abyss beneath. 

* Xitlniit^fHglitod with this dire portent. 

For coDDMl to his fatber Faunus Went, 
And sought tbe shades renown'd for propbecf. 
Which' near Albonea's sblpblrous fountaiu li«^ 
To those t^ Latian lind tbe Sabine land 
Fly when distreas'd, and tbence rejief demands 
The priest en skins of off rings takes bis tpase 
And nightly visions in bb slumbers sees; 
A swanp or thin atrial sliapes appears. 
And fluttering round bis temples, deafs bis e^r 
These be consults, tbe future lates to know, 
Froib powers aboTe, vmI firom tife fleada bdoir«— Ihy tfcji . 



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CriAP. tit. ttbBlOOGIi itAtt. M9 

The Ppnte Lugano, a bridge oyfif the Anio, presentir itself^aboat 
a mile and a half farther on. Thisk bridge is said to have taken' its 
name.froni the Lucanians, who were here defeated by the Roinan3 ; 
it is remarkable for^'a tomb of the Plautiaq family, around tower 
built of large blocks ofTiburtine slone, resembling the sepulchre of 
Cecilia Metella, both in its original form and its subsequent appro- 
priation. It was epiployed as a military station during ^the middle 
ages, and surmounjied by a battleinent ; a circumstance barbarqusiii 
point of taatCy yet not to be regretted in the present inst^mce^ as it 
preserved the. remains of these two monuments. ' ' 

About two miles farther a rdad turns off to the villa of Adrian* 
This imperial residence stood on a hill, with the extensive' vale of 
Latium on one side, and alittle deep glade called Tempe on theother. 
It commanded a delightful view of the Sabine mountakis with Tibur 
here, and thefe a prospect of the Alban hHls with their towers and 
forests; behind, the vale lost itself in distant mountains; in froht, 
appeared Rome *itself extended over its seven hills, and reflecting 
from all its palaces' the b^ams of ah evening sun. The sides of the 
hill are every where rather steep, and the rock itself arded alittle by 
art forms an excellent barrier, enclosing a long narrow space of at 
least seven miles in circumference; As we are assured by au an- 
cient author that Adrian, after having travelled over the whole em- 
pire, determined to collect around him on this spot thp most remark- 
able edifices that lay dispersed over the Roman world, the reader 
will no longer wonder at (he number' of buildings constituUng this 
. villa, nor feel any unusual astonishment 4n perusing a catalogue em- 
bracing^he following objects : the imperial palace ; quarters for the 
legionary soldiers, cavalry and infantry, and others for the invalids; 
three theatres; a ^aumachia; a hippodrome; temples of ApoDo and the 
Muses^ of Diana, of yenus,of Serapis ; halls and habitations for the 
different sects of philosophers ; a library ; a Psecile, resembling that 
at Athens ; and porticos almost without number, together wit^ va- 
rious edifices, the naihes and objects of which are now undiscover- 
able. Statues^ columns, and marbles of the rarest kinds, have been^ 
and are continually discovered when excavations are ipade amidst 
the ^ruins' of these amazing, fabrics^ while briars and brambles fill 
the halls and stuccoed apartments, and a mixed confusion of or- 
chards and gardens, forest and fruit trees, vineyards and corn 
waving over them, present a strange and melancholy contrast. 

Returning. to the road, we began and continued for some time 
to ascend the high hill on^ which Tivoli stands, passing through 
groves of olives till we reached the summit; when after haviqg exa- 
- mined the noble site of the bouse of the Jesuits, and the Yi\h de 
Santa C^oce, we entered Tivolu This, town, the Tibur of the^an- 
cients, boasts afbigh antiquity, and what is much better, still pos- 
sesses a considerable population, amounting, it is said, to ten thou- 
sand inhabitants* ThQ town itself is not handsopae^ though it contains 
J. \^ 



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•90 CLASSICAL TOjDft Crap. IQl. 

"some very fine^lrCHisesanid stands iniideli^htful situation, shehered 
*on on6 ^ide by Mont^ Cattli, and a seihicircolar range oT SaWne mouh- 
tains, and commanding on the other an exte^hsive view bvenlie 
Campagna htmniedhj the sea, Rome, Mounts Soracte, and thepy- 
iraibfdal hills of .MoniiceUi and Monte Rotondp, the ancient feretam. 
But the {tride and ornament of Tivoli are still, as anciently, the iWlI 
and the windings of the.'Anio, now Teverone. This tiy^ hayfi% 
ineandei^ed from its source through the vSiles of Sabfha, glides 
gWtly tbt'ocrgh Tivoli till coming to the brink Of a rock it precipitates 
itself in one mass down the steep, and then boiling for dn instatll ii 
• its narrow chamfel rushes headlong through a ohasm ni 'the rock 
mto the cafvwns below,. * 

The first fall may be seen fr^m the windows of the inn or froi^ 
the temple; but it appears to the greatest advantage from the-bridge 
thrown 6v6r the narrow channel a little belowit. From this bridge 
also you tnay look down into the shattered rock, and observe fer 
beneath the Vrithings>and agitation of^h^ stream struggling through 
its rocky prison. To view the second ftll, or deseent into the ca- 
Tem, we went down through a garden by a winding patli into the 
narrow dell, through which the river flows after the cascade, and 
placing oursdves in front of the cavern beheld the Anio in two 
immense sheets tumbling through two different apertiflpes, shMcing 
Ihre mountain in its fall; and filling all the cavities around with ^tbIj 
and uproar. Though the rock rises to the height of two hundred 
feet in a narrow -semicircular form, clothed on one side with shrubs 
And foliage, yet a sufficient light brealis upon the cavern to shew i^s 
"petifdent rocks^ agitated waters, ^nd craggy borders. Sucb is the 
residence of die Naiad : Domus Albunece resonantis; ..••••. 
pendentiq pumice teeta. « . 

About a hundred paces from the grotto, a natural bridge, form- 
ed by the water working through the rock, enables the spectator 
to pass the river, and to take another yiew of the cascade, less dis- 
.tinct with refgard to the cavern, but more enlarged, as it includes a 
greater portion of the superincumbent rock in front, with the 
shagged banks on both sides. The rock immediately above and on 
the left is perpendicular and crowned with houses,.while from an 
aperture in its side at a considerable height gushes a rill, too small 
to add either by its sound or size to the magnificence of the sce- 
nery. 

.The bank -on the opposite side is ste^p and shaggy, but leaves 
room fop little gardens and vineyards. On it^ summit stands the 
celebrated temple commonly called of the Sybil, though by many 
anliqiiarians su^osed to belpng to Yesia. this beautiful pile is so 
well knows that it is almost unnecessary to inform the reader that 

' ^ ' Pare Albunea's far resounding source.— Frane/f. 

flMTaiilt«liro(rfliorpory9toBe.-^«teit -* 



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CnM».X)nL. , -tfeROtiaH italt. sm 

it is cirentor ( as all the temples of Vesta ) of tbe Goribtbiaa. orie^^ 
bnilt in the reign of Augustus, and admired not for it^ size, but for 
its proportibns and situation. It stands in the court of the inn^ 
exposed to the weather without any roof or covering ; but its own 
Hoiiditj seems to be a sufficient protection. Of its eii^te^n pillars 
•ten only remain with their entablature. An English noblieman, well 
known in Italy for his numberless purchases; is reported to have 
olf^ced a considerable sum for this ruin, with an intention of tran^ 
porting it to England , and re-erecting it in his park. The propO^ 
sal, it is said y was accepted by the innkeeper, on^ whose property it 
stands ; but fortunately, before the work of devastation was begun, 
a prohibition was issued by government, grounded upon a decia- 
ration that ruins are public property, and of eoursd not to be de- 
faced or rempved without etpress permission, which as it tended 
to strip tiie country of the monuments of its' ancient >gloFy, and 
consequently of its most vahiable ornaments, the government could 
not and would not give. This attempt tt) transplant the temple of 
Testa from Italy tO England m^y perhaps do honour to the late 
Lord BristoVs patriotism or to his magnificence ; but it cannot be 
considered as an indication of either taste or judgment.^ 

' The temple of Tivoli derjves, it is true, much intrinsic-merit from 
its size and proportibns, but it is not architectural merit afone which 
'gives it its principal interest. Placed on the verge of a rocky baak^ 
it is suspended over the prceceps Anioy ■ and the echoing aSo^e of 
the Naiads; it has^ beheld Augdstus and, Maecenas, Tirgil and Ho- 
race, repose under it^ columns ; it has survived the empire and even 
the language of its founders; and after eighteen hundred years of 
storms aiid tempests, of revolutions and barbarism, it still exhibits 
its fair prop6rtioned form to the eye of the traveler, and claims at 
V>nce his applause and his veneratioif. 

' Near the temple of Vesta, stand the remains of another temple 
supposed to be that of the Sybil, consisting of four pillars, and now 
forming a Jiart of the wall M the parish church of St. Geoi'ge. Be- 
sides these, scarce an J other vestige -remains of ancient Tibur, 
though considering its antiqtkity^, its population, and its salubrity, 
it must have possessed a considerable share of magnificence. Bpt 
if its artificial ornaments havQ perished, and if ..its temples and its 
villaiSi have long since crumbled into dust, the unalterable grads 
which nature has conferred upon it still remain, *and its orchards, 
its gardens, and its cooL recesses bloom and flourish in unfading 
beauty. If Horaoe,' who so often and so fondly celebrates the 
charms of Tibur, Were to revive, he would still find the grove, the 
irriguous garden^ the ever-vnrying n/(, the genial, soil; in short, all 
the well-known features of his beloved retreat^ To enjoy this de- 
licious scenery to^^dvantage, the traveller must cross the bridge 



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Ml CLASSICAL TOOE Chap. XDC. 

9nd follow the toad which runs at the foot of the classic Monte 
GaiiUo, and iTtods along the banks of the Anio, rolling afier its fall 
through the valley ,in a deep delL As he advances, he will have 
on his left the steep banks covered witti trees, shrubs, and .gar- 
dens; and on his right, the bold but varying swells of the bills 
shaded with groves of olives. These sdnny declivities were an- 
ciently interspersed with splendid villas, the favorite abodes of the 
most luxurious and the most refined Romans. They are now re- 
placed by two solitary convents, lifting each its white tower, above 
the dark green mass of olives. Their site, often conjectural or 
traditionary, is sometimes marked by some scanty vestiges of rain, 
and how and then by the more probable resemblance pf a name. 
Thus several subterraneous apartments, and galleries near San An- 
loitio are supposed to be the remains of the seat of Yopiscns, cele- 
brated by Statius. That of Propertius, 

Candida qna geminas ostendan^ cnhnbia turret 
£t cadit in patulos lymplia AnieDa lacus^ ■ 

is supposed to have stood on the site of the other convent St. Angela; 
while the villa of Quintilius Varus, or rather its foundations still 
retain the kindred appellation of Quiruiliolo. But t^e house of Vo- 
piscus, as must appear evident to any reader who thinks proper to 
consult the poet alluded to, must have been in the dell, and have 
actually hung over the river, as it occupied both the banks and saw 
its surrounding shades reflected from the surface of the water.* 

The fon4 attachment of Horace to Tibur, united to the tesiinaony 
of Suetonius, hajs induced many antiquaries to imagine, that at 
some period or other of his life he possessed a little villa in jts 
neighborhood, and tradition accordingly ennoblies a few scattered 
fragments of walls s^id arches, with the interesting appellation of 
Horace's villa. The site is^ indeed worthy the poet, where, de- 
fended by a semicircular range of wooded mountains from evefy 
cold blustering wind, he might iQok down on the playful windings 
of the Anio beloyf, discover numerous rills gleaming through the 

* W^e two wblte turrets rear their lofty Jieftds, 
And 4nio lb a lake-li^e sarface spreads. 

* ' . — "-Nemoraaltacitalls" 

laqnbaere Tadis, faUaz res|jM>as«t imago 
Froiidiba^, et ioogas eadem fugii uiida per umbras 

r Llttas otrnmque domi : nee te millssimus amnis* 

DiVIdit, atteroas servant prsBtorla rlpas, « 

Kon jeziern^ feibi, attTynDTO ofettlare qaeroQiQr. -0<a»|it OVM^. / 
O'er ibe BMtt tide 4be nodding groves impend, •, 

And er'ry leaf Is seen reflated there, 

Ai througb conUouoas shade the waters glide ,. < . , 

To ibee eaeb shore belongs ; nor does the stream 
I (A tofely stream) divide tbee from thyself; - 

Oj either bank thy well-wiougbi mansions stand, 
kad each with each donaesiic union owns, 



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GCAf^Xn:. . THROUGH ITALY. M^ 

thickets as they glided down the opposite bank, enjoy a AiII view 
of ihe splendid mansion of his friend Maecenas rising direoily before 
him^ and catch a distant perspec^tive.of^urea lioma (Golden Rome), 
of the golden towers of the Capitol soaring majestic on its distant 
mount. *^ Bat whatever his wishes might be, itts not probable that 
his moderate income permitted him to enjoy such a liixurions resi- 
dence in a place so much frequented, and consequently so very 
expensive ; and indeed the very manner in which those wishes are 
expressed seems to- imply but slight hopes of ever being able to 
realize them. ** Tiimr, etc. nt — uttnam — ^Unde «t-^Parcse prohibent 
ihiquas" ' If Horace actually possessed a villa there, the -wish was 
unneeessary, as the event lay in his own pOwe^. The authority of 
Suetonius seems indeed positive, but it is possible that the sa||6 
place' may be alluded to under the double appellation of his Sabine 
or Tibifrtine seat.> The poet, it is true, often represents himself 
SiSfkediiaimg his compositions while he wandered along the 'plains 
and through the groves of Tibur : 

Circa aemos, Hvtdiqiie . 
Tiburis ripas operosa parvus V « ^ 

Garmina fingo.) • 

But as he was pfobably a frequent compatiioi) of Msecena^ in his 
efx^ursions to his villa at Ji^ur, he may in those lines allude to his 
solitary rambles and poetical ^reveries. Catullus, a Roman -knight^ 
hkd fortune sufficient to indulge himself in such an expensive resi- 
dence, and accordingly speaks with mucb complacency of his Ti- 
burtine retreat, which, on accoiint of its proximity to the town, he 
caDs suburbana. Munatins Plancus also possessed a villa at Tibur, 
apparently of great beauty. To this the poet alludes in that ode 4 
where, in enlarging on the charms of the place, he recommends in- 
directly and with much delicacy to his friend, who in a momeitt of 
despondency liad resolved upon a voluntary exile, his delightful 

» O (bat Tlbar ..... 

Bat iihould the partial fates reftase.— Franeir. ^ 

• Thai villas in tbe vicinity of Tibar sometimes tooli their nadie (t(m tbe town, 
and sometimes (torn the territory, is evident Arom Catullus : 

Fnode Hosle^, sea Sabiae/sea'TUrars,. 
Nam te esse Tlbartcm aatamant quibos non eat , 

Cordi Cdtallom ledere : at qolbus cordt est 
QttoTla Sabloiiin plgnoreessffcootenduot. 

"O my Farm, whether Sabine, or TQ>Drtiae (for those who do not wish to annoy 
Catullus call yoa S«t)ipe ; bat those who do wish it, Insist at all hazards that yo^ 
are Tiburtinc.) 

"* ' So T, week bard, roai^Tibor^fliield spring. 

Of bttubler strain laborioas Terses &iug, -Franeft* 

^ Sea te Ailgeotia signis 

Ca^tra (eneot, sea iknsa teoebit 
Ttburia mnbra^ul. Ckrm, Ub I. Od. T. 

Whether tbe caibp wifb banners brtghf di8plty*d, 

Or Tibur bold tbee ia Ita tlifck-wrongbt 8hade.«Fr«Rci>. 



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seat at IRbur iidf a retirepient far preferable to Rhodes-and Mitf tone, 
places in those times much frequented by disaffected or baniabed 
Romatts. . • 

^ But to abandon these aerial charms/ spread indeed like fiittifig 
shades oter every groye and every ineadQW, but perceptible only 
to the eye pf imagination^ let > us turn to the visible beauties that 
line our walk and appear, in new> forms at e^very tttrnipgr As the 
traveller, following the bend of the hill, cornea to the side of tber 
road opposite to* the town, be catches first a side glimpse, and 
shortly after a full yiew of the CascauUi, or lesser cascades, iafe- 
rior in mass and grandeur, but equal in-beapty to the great (Mia 
the town. They are forngied by a branch of the Amo turned 6fl^ 
fr^ the main body, of the river, before it peaches the precipice, 
for t(ie uses of the inbiibitants, and after it has crossed ibe towa 
bursiiif^g-from a wood on the summit of the hQI, and then tuiiibling 
firomits brow in one great and several lesser streams, first do;wa 
one and then another declivity, througb thickets and bnooibles, 
spangled with dew drops or lighted up with a rainbow, llie eleva- 
tion and mass of tlyese cascades ; the colors and broken masses of 
the rocks down which they tumble ; the shrubs, plants, and brambles 
that hang over the channel and sometimes bathe themselves in tlie 
current ; the river below fretting through a narrow pass under a 
natural arcji; tha olives that shade thavai*ch, and. the , vines that 
wave around it ; the bold bendings and eas^ aw^eps of the sur- 
rounding mountaiiis ; and the towels of t^e town rising pn the top 
pf the hifl beyond the cascade, wjtt) the ruins of Maacel^a'^s villa pit 
its shelving sid^, fqrm one of th^ mpst delicious pictures for iioft- 
ness ^nd beauty, wildness and aniinatiou, that can be imiigin^. 
The traveller is usually condjucted by his guide to a sqft ofpatora} 
Stage, formed by ^he rock projecting boldy over the river, just op- 
posite the cascade. Here he may seat himself on the gr^ass upder 
th^ shade of a tufte^ olive-tree^ pnjoy at leisure the delightful sight, 
nor wonder that Horace, when surrounded by such scenery, should 
feel the full influence of inspiration. . 

-^JusTibnraqaife fertile pTffiflount ? 



£t spfssae neraoinin comae 

FiDgent MsMo cannine nobUem*i^-lv. Od. 3, 

However, a side view is considered as the best, because it augments 
the apparent m0ss of waters, and this we;^eiajoyed as we continued 
our walk along the road ; while before us the opening valley exhi-^ 

bited a distant perspective over the Cmwpagtuc to the seven hills 

.» ' ■ « 

' But him^lw itrMiBs which warhlln^ flow 

' • lllG!»Tlhdr*8feriSft1nl«ictioiig, "' 

AQd shady grores, his haunts, shall, know 
"^^9 master •! th' JtolUp s^ngv-H^onc/i^ 



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and tbe towera of Rome, and tbe Mediterrao(Ban cIosin(r or r^(bar 
bordering^ the picture with a gleam of purple. ' ^ 

We passed Quintiliolo^ and the pond once probably, the recep*- 
tacle o( tho;3e fav6rite fisb^ wbicb, as Cicei::o sarcastically ob$;erves,. 
s^em to ^Te occupied so muc'h o^ the .iime and' \hougbta of their, 
indolent. proprietors. At the foo( of the hill in a n^eadow called 
Canipo Limpicio, near the road, springs a. fountain which sometra- 
yeliers have thought proper to Signify with th^ appellation of Ban" 
cti^ia / biit t.hough its source be a^imdant, its waters pure, and its 
appearance picturesque, ye( it is far remote from the classical foun- 
tain of that denominatiQB. Aft6r having passed t^e i^^ridge, and 
ascended part of the declivity towards the tbwn^ we 6[nterod a 
field, in order to visit a circulair, edifice of brick with a Taulted 
roof, resembling, though of a smaller si^e, the temple of J^Iinerya 
Medica, > supposed by some to be the Fanum tussijs, * by others a 
sepulchi^e; the situation seems more appropriate^ to the latter^ Jthe. 
form better calculated for. the former^ It has several niches fpr 
statues, is of excellent proportions^ and thoujgh stripped long sinoe 
o¥ all its ornaments, is yet in good preservation. ^ . , 

Msecenas's villa stands at t^e e}i;tremity of the tqwn.on the brow of 
tlie hill, and hangs over severalstreamleiis whicli fall down the steep. 
It commands a noble view of the Anio and its vale beneath, the 
h|Ils of 4^afto and Manfifielli, the CampOgiM, and Home itselfrifiiDg 
OR i^e |[)ordiQrs of the horizon. Ii; stUl presents isavaifd traees ikt 
its former magnificence, such a^a triple row of.arc|i€iiSi, seventeen b6-. 
low and fourteen above, forming a suite of apartments spacious 
enough for all the purposes of private tux:ury> The actiye cardinal 
Ruffo during the reign of the lati^ pontiff, turned it into a fouhdery, 
after having stripped the walls and tbe roof of the ivy, and effaced 
tbe venerable marl^, of ruin ^bieh the hand of time had shed over 
them. A branch of the river pours through the arched gallery and 
vaulted Cellars, and shakjnft the edifice as ii passes istfong^ nishes'in 
several sheets down tbe declivity;. The ancient mjagnificence of thitf . 
vUlais probably equalled by tJbat b( tbe modern Vilta El$teme, ^eded 
by a cardinal of tbatjaame in tbe sixteenth century, iji a lofty situa" 
tion, surrounded with tecraces, water-falls, graves of cedars, cy- 
presses, ^nd orange trees, and adpmed wi^ slatiiea, vas^ and 
mart>les. The gardens are laid out io'th^ old; style, ^oA not eoiK 
formabje to our ideas of rural beauty, and (be whole isin^^most 
lamentable state of decdy. Very different was its condition when 
described by Strada,,who lays tbe scene of tif9 p^.^isPfolasiiEms 
in lis gardens. 

' The Healing Minerva. , / ^ 

* The Temple of the Goddess of CougbiBg. 

3 Some antiquaries are of opinionfthat iT ^as a baj£ ; but its situation on a de- 
clivity and at a di^tanc^ from tbe town, seama-wfaYorable io such a destination. 



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$90 GLASSIGAl. TCypE GtfJlP, XIX. 

There are in the towa pr immediate* neighborhood oT Tivoli^ 
other villas of gr^at extent and some magnificence, enjoying in pro- 
portion similar advantages of sitaation and of prospecty and perhaps 
no. spot in the universe affords more of -either ; but anfortunately 
the modern Romans/like the Italians and the continental nations in 
general, are/not partial to country residence. They may enjoy the 
description, or commend the representation of rural scenes, and 
occupations in books and pictures, but they feel not the beauties of 
nature, and pannot relish the calm, the solitary charms of a country 
life. Hence the delicious retreats of Tibur,.and the rival beauties of 
the Alban > Mount, scenes that delighted the phitosqpher and eu- 
chanted the poet in ancient days^ are now beheld with indifference, 
and perhaps honored once a year, during the VilleggiatUra, 'with , 
a short and impatient visit. . , 

Englishmen who are generally educated in the country, and 
are attached by. all the ties of custom and Of inclination to rural 
scenery, may appreciate the beauties of Tibu'r, and do justice to. the 
description of the poet. While they behold the hills, the woods^ 
the streams^ 

Et preceps Anio, et Tibnrni lacus, et uda 

MobiUbas pomaria Hvis«*--Lib. i. Od. 7, 

which B^ often inspired the. Roman Lyrist ; they may conceive, and 
even share his enthusiasm; and did not a better sentiment suppress 
the wish; they might exclaim with him, 

TU)ur Argeo positmn colODo, 
Sit 0169 sedes utlnam senecto 
Sit iDodas lasso maris et yiaram 
MiltU»que.3 

Hor. Cahn. Lib. ii. Od. 6. > 

May iStb. We rose about three in the morning, and although' 
the weather appeared rather lowering, we mounted at four, and 
forming a party of nine, proceeded on our road towards the Sa- 
bine mountains, in order to vi^it Horace's villa. 

Bie Via Valeria (the Valerian Way), ia without doubt, the short- 
est road to FicO Varo, but we took one which, though Very bad 
and sdOMwhat longer^ gave us s^ opportunity of seefing more of 
the oountry^i^ As y^e were finding along the hills, we saw the 

' The season ofcountry diversions. 

And rapid Anio, beadlong In bis coone. 

Or Tlbar, TeQc'd by gropes li-om sular beamf« 

And ftniifU orchards batb d by duclito streaiii8.-Frffiicf«, 

Hay' Tibar to my latest honrs 
Afford « kind and calm rolreaC ; . 
„ . . Tibur, benesth whose lolly tow1> 

' The Grecians fix'd tbeir bllssfhl seat ; 

There may my labors «nd^ my wanderings cease, 
There all my ioUs of wartace resi In peace.*firanc<i. 



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CtfAP. XIX. . THROU^a HALT. ^ W ; 

rivef ijieandering beneath us through a beautlfcrt dell, and forming 
a variety of pleasing scenes, especially near a spot where the ruins 
of two aqueducts throw their arches over the road, and form ft 
sort of frjame fqr the towers of Tivoli and its neighboring moun-. 
tains. An artist who was in eoqapany with usi took a sketch on.tKe , 
spot, and Jiad since made a very fine drawing of it. The aqueducts 
frequently re-appeared during the Course of-the ds^y, sometimes 
rising like masses of brown rock on the hills, and sometimes sweep- 
ing in a succession of lofty arches over the plains, the face of the 
country was here wooded and there naked, but always bold, and 
in general very fertile. Its most striking features were, a ruined 
castle oathe bank of the river, distant towns lodged in the high 
reicesses of the mpuntains, particularly S.Polo far on the left, and 
Castel Madama just opposite. The latter is said to be extreoiely 
healthy on account of its airy situation; it afffords a fine view of 
the valley, of the river, and of the mountains, with their various 
hamlets. From the side of the hill we looked down upon Vico 
Varo, whose churches and walls of white stone appeared to much 
advantage. This town nearly retains its ancient name, and is the 
Yarise mentioned by Horace, as the principal municipality wh^re, 
it seems, representativea from the circumjaceat villages used to 
meet. / ; 

QiilQ<me lK>no8 siditumyariam demittere patres. , 

V Lib. 1. Epist. 14, • 

It Stands on a hill close to .the Anio, has considerable .r.emains; 
of its wall, coGoposed of vast stones, like those employed in the. 
Coliseum, and though not large, must h^ve been opulent, if W0 
may judge from such a magnificeiit rampart. , 

From ^Fico Faro we proceeded alpng the river about two miles, ^ 
to a bridge remarkable for the remaips of a lofty arch, formed to. 
conduct the Claudian aqueduct over the Anio. Only a.sni^ll part, 
of th^ arch is standing, while the channel opened through the ^ock; 
on ttie opposite side, near a mill; is still perfect. The banks here,! 
are extremely bold, particularly on the northern side of the riveiv 
where they rise to a great elevation, and seem to hang over the , 
mill and the stream. The rock is hollowed out by .nature into. a. 
variety of grottos, said to have been for. some tiiqe the retreat of, 
St. Benedict, the patriarch of the western monks. On the top of 
the rock stands the Franciscan convent of &'* Cotimato, a neat and 
convenient building, with a very clean church. Hither werepairefii 
in order to take shelter from a very heavy shower, and were re- 
ceived by the good fathers with cordiality, and treated in a very 
hospitable and polite manner. About one o'clock' we sallied forth^ 
and retttrning back some little way, took a path leading directly 



Fire worthy fatbers sent, 
One from eacb boase^to Yaria^s parli«aieDt.-FraRc/f. 



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ii|0;^wv<L I mon observe^ that 4rom tbe Gonyenl; andiiaci^iBed 
sojne little time before you reach it^ you discover to.watds thenortb 
tyo yiUages beautifully situated on thesuiUHiit of a woody and weU 
cultivated hill supported by a raoge of mountaios behi^; one o£ 
'these villages is called CaniaLvJboy tbeotheKfiarcfe/o. Th<B latter 
ijf Bfflndela, which, on account of its high situation, ^orac^ repre- 
sents as su/fering much from the effects of the cold. 

Eogosos frigore pagns.! 

Lib. i. Epist. xviii.405. 

As we advanced, we found ourselves in a fine valley, with beau* 
1^ hiRs rising close on, our left, while on our right, in th'e midst 
of fertile meadows bounded on the opposite side by the hill of 
IShndela, and a ridge of successive ifiountains, glided the Licenza, 
anciently the Bigentia, the favorite stream of Horace. 

Me qcioties refecit gelidm DIgentia rivns;* ' 

Epi8t.XYUI.iO4;. 

Its bed is wide, stony^ ana shallow io sominer. We had not 
procieededfius when to the left, on the brow of« crag^ s^^ep^ we' 
perceived die Fanum Yacunee (Temple of Yacuna) % whence the 
poet dated ope of hid philosophic epistles; it wais almost in ruins 
ih his time; and probably sunk under the pressure of age not long ' 
after : a vil^a^e has risen upon its site^ and assumed the name of 
R6eca Giovane. . Near, the path which leads up to this^yilfoge issues 
a spring, called by some writers, the fountain of Bapdusia. 
'' The road then ran at the foot of Mount I^ncretilis^ and a. more 
beautiful inountain has rarely been discovered by a traveHer or 
celebrated by a poet, it rises in a gentle but irregular swell, TorA- 
iAg several hills of different shapes as it ascends, and leadiVlg the 
e^ through several easy gradations t^o its summit. Rocks' and 
precipices frequently break its fe^s, and open various caverns 
and grottoi^ in its sides and on its decfivities. Its lower regions 
ar^ divided into corn fields and vineyards; groves of olives and of 
chesnuts interspersed with forest trees thrown negligently about, 
sometimes single sometimes in clumps^ and now and then m woods 
wave round its middle : its upper (>arts are heathy pasture, and ift 

> A district conl^a^iecl with cold. . 
• As oft jBs the cool stream of Digentia refreshes me. 
^ Biw llbi dictabam po9t temploin putre .YacanflB.<— iTor. LU>. i. Epist. z. 49. 

These lines behind Vacona's fane 1 ppnn'd.— Francf*. 

Vicuna was the Minerva, or perhaj)s tbe Victory of the Sabines. The temple 
here aHndfed id, or bhe to Victory Oathe same site, was repaiired by TespastaD; TWt 
goddess had another temple or at l^ast a grove, near Reate and the Velinus. Kin. 
(ib. m. cap. X^. 



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i^any places. ^Tf red i^ith brambleci^ shrabs,, and I^CfSM; Her4» 
may t^ ^eea* ranging throagh the i^^dowSy and fl^^of jgoatf 
spread over ^be wilds and browsing on the precip^^^s. 4T^di£^ 
itself could scarcely ha¥e exhibited more beautiful eocenes, qi; 
opene4nT9re delightfiif recesses; so tjiat LvK^^etilif^ T^^9^i toeing 
indebted to poetical exaggeratioti for the conapliD(||p^/n)ig^^ 
be sopposed, to have attracted the attention of therural dlYinities, 
and ailnred them to.its delicioas wilderness. > ^ , 

About a mile arid a half b^ond the road wfiiok lead|^to Bocea 
GiovaneVe turned up a pathway^ and crossing a yineyard found 
opf selves op the spNot where Horace's yilla is. ^n^nioiie^ to ^ayo 
stood. A part of ^ wall rising in the middle of W^ip^es, an^ SppiQ 
mosaic payementf, a^e the only i^races that now ^foopai^ otth,9i 
poet's mansion. It was probably repatriable nei^ier (pr i^. sizQ 
nor its decorations ; "> neatness aoid convenience it fn.ust ^y^ pos- 
sessed. MuncUeque parvb n^b tare Qcmce.^ .Its sit\iatioii ^ ex-^ 
trembly beautiful. Placed ^^ & ^^^ V^^^ ^^ ^^^ey. }fi the V^od- 
ipgs of Mount ^ucretiliSy it is sheltered oil tj^^ f^ortn side^y hil^ 
rising gradually but yery bq\^ly ; while towa^df the sputb a lonj^ 
l^iUodk covered wi^b a grove, protects it frooj tbe si^orcbing b^sta 
of tl^at quarter. Qeing opened to the east apd west it gives i foil 
view of Rocca Giovane, formerly Fanum Yacunas, qr qnfi side: oa, 
the other, two towns, the nearest of which is JOlgentia the farthest 
CiviteUa, perched each on the pointed summit of a hill present 
themselves to view ; vbelow, and forming a sof't of basis 'to these 
eminences, Usiica, speckled with olive's and sipangled with little 
shining rocks, stretches iu recumbetu fotm. 4 , 

Behind the hous^ is a path leading ihrongh a grove of olives and 
rows of vin^s, conducts to an abundant rill descending from FotUe 
BeUo (perhaps anciently ^e Bandusia) a fountain in the higher i»- 



Ydoz «aMBDQm mpe Locratilem 
Motat I.7«M> F«aavfl;M igBaam 

IMtikdU tesUtem ospbllto 

Dsqae wx\a pluvfoeque ?ent(Mi. 

ITor. carm. Lib. L Od. IT. 



Pwfrom Araidta*8 hU|s i 

Vo YiMt oinny Sabine sett,' 
And here my teuder gooti defends , 

From rainy winds, and stimmer's llery b^t.^Frw<t. 

Hfo ebar, neqoe aaream 

Mea leoVletlJi domo lacnnar.— 16. lib. It 18. 

No walls with lYqry Inlaid, 
Adorn my bouse; 



. Nor^ rlcb wltb Kold my deling llamtt.— ^anc<«. 

^ And a cleanly sapper ^ an uaambitiou» bou^. 

^ ' Utcuoqne dolci, Tyndafl, llstQla 

Yalles ei UtHifa evhanttt 

Iffvia penonnere alua.— Ub. I. ed. IT. 

Wbeae'er Ibe val^ wlderspreaSri^Tound, 

Tbe sloplug bills an^ poHsh'd robbi 
Wltlk bit liirmonUMiay^ m wia d t ;^ fwi#<» 



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M O^ASSICAL TOUR CrtAP. SIX. 

gibtis of the motintaiii. It is collected in its fall firbtt an artificial 
cascade into a sort of basin whence it escapes/ poars down the hill 
and glides throngh the yalley, under the name pf Digentia, now 
Licema. This rill, if I may judge by its freshness; still possesses 
the good 'qualities Horace <^ ascribed to it and still seems to flow so 
cool and so cleai'. 



-utnec 



' Fri^i^r Xhracam nee pariMr ambUt Hebras.' ^ 

Lib.i.Epi8l.^Ti.l3. . 

I must indeed here observe, that the whole tract of country 
which we haye just traversed corresponds in every particular -with 
the description which Hdracd gave of it two thousand years ago. 
Not only the grand and characteristic features • — ^the continued chain 
of mounKum — the shady valley — the winding dell — the abundant 
fonniakn — the savage rocks features which a general convulsion of 
nattire only can totally efface, not these alone remain, but the less 
and more perishable beauties — the liule rills — the moss4ined stones 
— :the frequent flro?;c«— the arbutus half concealed in the thickets — 
the 6cc2lsiorial pme^— the oak and the ilex suspended over the grotto 
-^these meet the tfavellef at^ every turn, and rise around him 
as so many monuments of the judgment and of the accuracy Of the 
poet.' 

■» r ' . » ■ ' * 

* Cooler and p«rer Uian t Tbradan iCraam.— Fraiiei*. 

* > Conlinai mootes ni»l diMOclOnlor opaca 
Yalle . . .~Lib.LEplft.s?l.«. 

A €|iala or moontaina with a Tale dlTUe^-AM.. 

Blc In redacta ▼aUecantciiIv 

TitaMs flBstos :' . .«— Cam. Lib. i. Od. nU. T. 

Beneath a sbady nQoantain's brow . * 
. Far from the burdlng Dog^atar's rage^r-ftcneta. 

"Fona eliam n?o dare nomen Idoneos - . . • 

Inboapita tesqaa . . . 

Lib.l.Epiat.iiT.i9. 

A foDDtaln to a rlvQlel glvei Its name. 
Inhoepitable and ancnlUvaied gronnds^— Froneif. 

Hnrls amceol 
BlTos et mnaco circomllta saza, Demaaqne. 
Impane tutum per nemaa arbntoa 
Qasrunt latente^- Lib. i.'Od. itII. 8. 

The rnral mead 
The bitok, the moasy rock, and woody glade.— Frmioil. 

In safety, through the woody brake '' 

The hiteot shrubs and thyme explore.— /Md. 

. Quid si rnblcnnda beoigne 
Coma Topres et prnna ferunt, si quercus et' ilex 
Multa ft^ige pecos, multli domlnum Jovat umbrft^ 

LIh.i.Epl8t. ZTU8. 

How mild the climes, where sloes Inznrlooa grow. 

And biosbiog cornela on the hawthorn glow f 

My cattle are with pienieons acorns fed^ 

Which varkKis oaks areund . their maater spread.— FV-me/s. 

Imminens tIU« piaut . • ^— Oirm. Ub. iU. Od. ^U. 5. 

- ' ' The pine, 
tfiat 'D'oddlog wares niy Tilli round.-'FraiM/if . 




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€bap. ;1X, XHROUGtl HALT* 301 

, We were less fortunate in tiiis .oii|r (koetical pilgrjAiage than usind; 
as, a iieav.y rain l)egan about twelve o'clock in the day, and accom* 
.panied by strong, gusts of wind continued pouring in an incessant 
torrent till twelve at night. It soon penetrated our eIothea;.the 
tardiness of our mules gave it full time to operate ; so that not- 
withstanding our enthusiasm and a few occasional bursts of mer- 
riment we paced slowly along the Via Valeria (the Valerian Way), 
wet and benighted till we reacbted Tivoli about ten o'clock. Thus 
we learned by experience, that Horace had some reason to thank 
the rural divinities for protecting his flocks from the inclemencies 
of the mountains, and from the rainy minds, whose effects he seems 
to have felt and dreaded. The wind continued high and chill 
during t)ie whole of the following day (Sunday). On Monday tlie 
weather resumed its usual serenity, and we returned to Rome. 



CHAPTER XX. 

The AttMn Hoont and Lake— Tuscultim and Cicero's Villa —Alicia, and the 
Crrove and Temple of Diana—The Lake of Nemi, and Palace of Trajan— AnUnift 
—Forests and Plains ot J^aurenlum— Ostia— Moutb of the Tiber^ 

T^E Alban Mount, which forms such a conspicuous and majestic 
feature of Romap landscape, and presents itself so often to the 
reader's notice in Roman history and literature, next, attracted our 
attention and furnished an object for a second ej^cursion. The Foad 

Cavls impositam ilLcem 

Sails ... .^Llb. Ui. Od. xili. 14. 

The oak, that spreadi Ihy rocks aronftd— Frasic/^ 

Gioverius concludes that Horace had a view of Moont Soracte firom his Safrfoe 
villa, because he commences an ode with the words^ > 

VIdfls at alts stct nire cfendidaqn 
Sordcte. Lib. i. Od. Ix. 

Behold Soracte's airy height, 

Se« how It stands a heap of snow.— FM}|«/«. 

But this la not the case, as Mount Luprettlis interposes in*that direction and otw 
atructs^all yiew, excepting that of its own varied ridge*. The ode alluded to ^was 
probably composed at Rome, as the amusements which Horace recoinmends'in the 
last sUnza but one, were peculiar to the city, nunc et camptu et area, eta.* The 
learned geographer also inskts i^pon UsUca's being a' ?altey, on account of the 
epithet eubantis, which he maintains could not be as<iribed to a hill. Most of mj 
readers will probably thinlc otherwise, and conceive that such an epithet is appli- 
cable to hills only, and this opinion is confirmed by the name which a hill in the 
neighborhood of Mount Lucretilis still bears. Its form is long and rises gradually, 
as that of a person leaning on hit elbow : its surface is marked by a number of 
, white smooth stones; and it is always* pointed oat ^ ihe Ustica alluded to by 
Horace. 
! TlMpaUl€wailV|t)iepahlicp«rl.'--'frpr«^f • ; « 



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in fCLASKGAL r6Cik -Cbap: XT. 

fto ills the Tla Appia (MieAppidn Way), which begins attlie Porta 
'Gapena fthe Gapenian Gate), crosses the. Alnwne flowing near the 
walls; and as it traverses the Camp(tgna presents aqueducts antl< 
fiepalchres that border its sides with rains. 

Qiiaiid<Miaidem d«ta mni ipsis quoqse fata aepnlclirte." ^ 

The Fossa Cluillia, 

Horatfomm cpu Tiret saeer campus : « 

Mart. Lib. iO. Epist. 4T. 

the theatre of the combat between the fioratii and Curiatii lies be- 
tween five and six miles from the gate on the right. Several tombs 
Stand dti the side of the hillock that borders these fields, but no 
one in partfcular is pointed out as belonging to the unhappy 
champions. Their monuments however existed in the time of Titus 
Livius,^ and as their forms and materials were probably very plain 
and very soii^, they must have remained for many ages after^.and 
may be some of the many mounds that still stand in clusters about 
the very place where they fell. The multiplicity of the tombs that 
line the road is so great, that when entire, and surrounded, as se- 
veral of t>em anciently were, with cypresses and ornamental en- 
Uosnres, diey must have almost touched each other, and fol-med a 
funereal street. This circumstance affords a strong argument, that 
the environs of the city, at least on this side, could not have been 
%6 thinly inhabited as ir usually iniiagined. Besides Cicero, in one 
of hisEQistles, alhides to the danger of being robbed in broad day 
bn the toad to Atbano,^ a circiunistance which implies solitude, and 
^ves the plain extending at the foot of the Alban Mount, a reputa- 
tion similar ^ that attached not long ago to the predatory districts 
of Blackheath or Houi^slow* 

On tU6 side of^e hill, on or near the site of the ancient Bovillae, 
•Illil4s « UtTern/ the very same if we may credit tradition into 
which Glodius retired when wounded, and from which he was after- 
wards dragged by Milo's attendants. Near the gate of Albano on 
the side of the road rises an ancient tomb^the sepulchre (as it is 
called by the people) of Asc^nius ; but in the opinion of antiqua- 
iri08 that of Glodius h|m8elf. It is entirely stripped of its droa- 
ttents and external coating, and has no other claim to the tt'aveller'S 
httention than its antiquity, 

^^ The town of Albano consists almost totally of one long sitreet, in 
general well built and airy ; but its chief advantage is its lo% situa- 
tion ; and its ornaments are the beautiful cbuntry houses and walks 
Yhat surround it on all sides. The principal villa belongs to a Roman 

> For evena^pideliriSithfimiBlYea have th^r &ted hour. 
' Where Ues ibe sacred field of tbe Horatii. 
9m.U9», 4Ad, Atl».vli.t» 



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>% 



'Boke, dhd(>ccQpies part of the 9%e oFPom^ey's ATb'^titfm, WSl it^ 
Wdens laid oat in the best lifiodera style, wind delightfally amidst 
%e ruiil^is. Its Tiews open on the sea coast, and command the whole 
of that classic ground which Virgil has made4he scene of the last 
Mx bookiB of the Eneid ; the seven hills and the humble capital oif 
Erahder ; the month of the Tiber where Eneas landed ; Lanrenti- 
nom with its surrounding forests ; the Lake of Turnus ; the Yada 
Saera Nurmd^^ and all the Rutilian territory. 

A fine road shaded with double rows of ilex leads fcomAlbanoto 
Castel iSandolfo and the Alban Lake. This well-known lake is seven 
mites locircCimference, and surrounded with ahigh^he1vin|[ shore, 
which is covered with ^rdens and orchards. J The immediate bor- y. 
ders oTthe lake are lineJwitBTrees Ihl[ri5at|ie* their branches in its 
waters. It is clear as crystal^ is said to be almost unfethomable in 
some places, and is supposed to be contained in the crater 6f ah 
extinguished volcano. An- emtssarius or outlet was formed at so 
early a period as the year of Rome 358, to prevent the sudden and 
n&ischievous swells of the lake which had then recently occasioned 
considerable alarm. The immediate occasion of this undertaking 
was a command of the Delphic oracl^. The work still remains a 
singular instance of th'e industry and superstition of the Romans. 
It is bored through th^ body of the mountain or rather through 
the solid rock, and runs somewhat more than a mile under ground ; 
going out of the lake it first passes through a court or apartment 
farmed of huge masses of Tiburtine stone, shaded above bj a lar^ 
and spreading ilex: it then enters the narrow channerwhjch dimp- 
nishes in height as it advances, but in aH places leaves room for 
Ihe.pnrposes of repairing and cleansing. ' 

Onth^ highest, that is, the southern bank of the lake, stood AH)a 
Longa, a city known only in Roman story, for not a vestige of ft 
remains ; dignified while it stood by its contest with infttnt Rome, 
and when it fell, by the short but eloquent description which Titus 
Livius gives of its destruction.' Nothing can be more delightftil 
than the walks around the lake, sometimes approaching the edge of 
the steep banks and looking down upon the glassy surface extended 
below, and at other times traversing the thickets and woods that 
rise all around, and refresh the traveller as he passes under their 
van cotuiguUy of shade. Another umbrageous alley^ partly through 
woods, leads to Marinoj a very pretty town t the approach to it 
with the rocky dell, the fountain in the midst, the town on the 

* Where Nomiciu opei hW holy maroe.— Dfyimi. . 

• Vide Liv. 1. v. c. 16. Cic. Be XHy. lib. I. U. Val.' Max. lib. 1. cap. ▼!. 8. 
TbU work was finished In less than a year. The Emperor Glaadias began a 
iMIar emissariiis to let oat the waters of the LacufFaclniu, and iipployed in It 
thirty thoqsand men for e^Ten years, 

»|4b,).a9» 



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eminence aboye, the woods below and on tbe side^ of the road, 
might furnish an excellent sabject for a landscape/ 

The same alley continues to Groita F^rraia, once the favorite yilla 
of Cicero, and now ah abbey of Greek monks. It stands on one of 
the Tumuli or beautiful hills ^grouped together jn the Alban Mount 
Jt is bounded on the south by a deep dell, with a streamlet that falls 
from the rock, and having turned a mill meanders through the re- 
cess and disappears in its windings : this stream, now the Marana, 
was anciently called Aqua Crabra, and is alluded to by Cicero. 
Eastward rises a lofty eminence once crowned with Tnsculam ; 
westward the yiew descends, and passing over the Campagna, fixes 
on Rome and the distant mountains beyond it : on the south, ^ 
gentle swell presents a succession of vineyards and orchards, and 
behind it, towers the summit of the Alban Mount once crowned ' 
with the temple of Jupiter Latiaris. Thus Cicero, from his portico, 
enjoyed the noblest and most interesting view that could be ima- 
gined to a Roman and a Consul ; the temple of the tutelary divinity 
of ^he empire, the seat of victory and of triumph, and the theatre 
of his glorious labors, the capital of the world, 

R^runi palcherrlma Roma 1 • 

Tir. Qeorg. ii. 634. 

That Gicero*s Tusculam was extensive, highly finished, and rich- 
ly adorned with colunins, marbles, and statues, there can be no 
dottbt, as he had both the desire and the means of fitting it up ac- 
cording to his own taste and the luxury of the times. That all his 
villas were remarkable for their beauty we may learn from one of 
his epistles, where he calls them the brightest orpaments or rather 
tbe very eyes of Italy, and it is highly probable that Tusculum sur- 
passed them all in magnificence, as it w^s his favorite retreat, owing 
to its proximity to Rome, which enabled him to enjoy the leisure 
and liberty of solitude without removing to too great a distance 
from the business and engagements of the city. Moreover, this 
villa had belonged to Sylla the Dictator who was not inclined to 
spare any expense in its embellishoients, and it had been purchased 
by Cicero at an enormous price, and by him enlarged and furnished 
with additional ornaments^ Among the statues we find^ that his li- 
brary was adorned with those of the muses, and his academy with 
an hermathena; as he expresses a particular partiality for ptctjures 
WQ may conclude that such decorations were not wanting. Annexed 
to it were alyceum, a portito, a gymnasium, a palsBStra, a library, 
and ah aoademy for literary dispourses and philosophic declama- 

* The fouDtain is supposed to be the sourer of the Aqna Ferentina, and itfortno 
the Caput Aqas FerenUD®, so often mentioned in Roman history. 

• Rome, the fairest and the noblest object that the world can boast. 



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ticMis during the winter ; the diick groves VWch iiarroiihdeil ity aP^ 
forded the orator and his Iearne*d friends a cooler and more rahil 
retreat during the heats ofsuminer. ' The scenes of several of his 
philosophical dialogues, as for instance, Of that De Divihatione, and 
of his Tusciilan Questions^ are laid, as every reader knows, on this 
classic 'Spot, and their recollection connected with the menlory of 
our early years naturally increases the interest and revereflce wHI? 
which we tread this sacred ground : * ' • 

Rara nerausque sacrum dilectaque jugeramusis/ 

The reader will probably expect a descripttop of the ruittsoj^ thto. 
Tilla, which Dr. Middleton and Mr. Melmoit^ represent^! stHI exist* 
ing ; but in- opposition to such respectable authbritiesy I am sorvy 
to observe, that not even a trace of rutns is now dfikovelTibte. 
The prmcipal, t)erhaps, the whole of the bikildings,' 8tll^ stopd at 
the end of the tenth century, when St. Nilus, a' Greek monk from 
Calabria, fixed himself on the spot, and after having .demolished 
what remained of the villa, erected on its sitjB, aiid probably with 
lis materials, his monastery, which in process of time became a'rioh 
abbey, and as it was first founded, so it is sUU inhabited by (^reek 
monks of the order of St. Basil. At each end of the (iortico is fix^ 
in the wall a/ fragn^ent of basso relievo; one represents a philoscM 
pher sitting with a scroll in his band, in a thinking posture ; in the^ 
other, are four figures suppoi^ting the feet of a fifth of ar colosssd 
size suppos(^d to represent Ajax. These, Vith the bea^ittful pillars 
that s^opport the ^church, are the only remnants of the decoratioils 
iBid furniture of the ancient viUa. Conjicimt^ says an inscription, 
quce et quanta fuerint.^ ' /" ' 

' I am well aware that some antiquaries of reputation maintain that Gtcero*^ 
yilla was seated on tiie very ridge of the mountain, and ground their opinion not 
only on some- Roman briclLs inscribed With his name, found in that s|te» but en the 
positive statement of an old commentator on Horace. Biit ia the first place, iii 
the plunder of Cicero's villa, which t<y)l4 place in consequeitce of his exile, the 
bricks and materials might have been carried off 4s well as the trees aad pjanls 
thems^ves; and (n the second place the name and a^e.of the commentator.. 48 weH 
as the sources of his information, are all unknown, and cpnse^iuently his authority 
cannot be very great. The statues which 1 have mentioned above, of the mu^^ 
and the hermathena, were found at Grot^a Ferrata, though the ^iscpve'ry of those 
statues, or of any others, can atTord but little strength to an opinion,.as auchaiv 
tides seldom remain verf \f}Bg io the same plapej and are so easily transferable. 
The principal argument in favor ol the common opinioAis the constant tradition of 
the country down to the beginning of the eleventh century, when, as It is related by. • 
eonteafpprary writers, St. Nltua erected his monastery, on the roins of Cictto's 

Tu9€Ul€fflUm. 
a Tbe sacred grove, 

Tbe fleldn and mefdowa |ll8t the mittes lore. 

3 It may be guested what they formerly were. 

The church contains little remarkable exisepting the chapel of St. Nilus, painted 
by D^fMnietUno in a masterly style. The wall isvii^araleA into compartment^) and 



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HM - GUMiCAiL TOCfR Gifikp. XSL, 

The pl|i» tTf ft^ wbich Cieefa in thei person of Sciievola notices 
iritb'SO amchcoipplaicenjsy in the iDtrodootioa to the first book De 
Oratore, ftt|U /s^eniato love tbQ soH» aiad blooms and floMrisbes in 
peculiar f#rfecilion sill around* ' t)ne in particular, bending over 
fii ^bundf^ot fopm^in, sprcfads aoch a luxiif iaecy oi foliage, and 
hriM'B sbade so ^^ic4t and impenetrabre^aswould^have justified 
piAto'Sipartiali>y«uad SciBTola's encomiums. 

Firom Grotta Ferrata we proceeded to t^e hills that haotg over 
fra^oAf the summit of which was once crowned with Tusculum, 
wbose elevation^ aiid.«difees of white stone made it a beautiful and 
Striking olyect in Roman landscape/ and communicated its name 
tf^ ^H tbfi i^al reirdata (apd (bare w^re many ) in its neighborhood. 
This town survived the hostiliites of the barbarians, and wds doom- 
^10 &II in a civil icomeat by the hands of ihe ftomaas them- . 
.settes> ahofit the year 1X00. Its rnijas remain scattered in long 
I|n4ofwdU»a.Dd4if shattered arches intermiogled with fihrubs and 
hash^s^ ^J:er j(be swumit and along the sides of the mountain. The 
view IB extenaiT5» in every direction, but particularly interestfaigto- 
Yfards the noptbreast, whe^e immediately under: the eye appear 
ffinae Came (the hill of Cato) and Ihe PraiftPorda (the Portian 
shadows ) oqce^lbe property dP Cato, whose family name they still 
bea^; fartbj^r on, Ihe La|(e Regitlus well kuown for the apparition 
of Gi^r aad'PoUttx; a little towards the south, Mo^nt^lgidus, 
a^ the whole Latin vale extended below; Prene&te sefited .on a 
lofty eQ|iii^0(^;af|4 Tib ur embosomed in the distant mountains. 

;rb« OMNdern toir^of Fr4uatti stands on the side.of the hill much 
V>w^ ftown than the aooient city,, but yet in an ejeyated and airy 
fUoaiioa. -.it is savfoi^nded with villas^ maHy of which are of great 
beauty and magnificence, hs interior contains nothing remarkable. 

The next day wel)ent our course southward. The first object 
tbat'ntcnck |is out ojT^e.gate was the ancient tomb, caUed by the 

tar «ieh'0»BqittlneDl to' reprssenled- one' of ihe priacipal .^leUons of the patrra 
,ailiil. V^ l>enoafao bey HMf the alUr, and St. Niluft praying near the end of 
. tke ilMpel are supposed to lie the two best. 

' If » aase tot platauos admonuit, qntf non minus ad opacandnm faana- locam 
pit«lire0l dttRisa ramto, qmai flhi cujifs uinbiilin seentiis est Secrates, qa» niihi 
iiiMar iMHi'tliin IpMa atftttdA^uft deserifoitor, qqam Platonto oratione creyisse.— 
JJsOra#»I.T. 

Af«^l h|ye been put to mtod of these matters by your plane-tree, which OYersha- 
dei^s Hrfs jpotv with ita spreading bonghs, in the same manner as that, of whose 
dMttte fiders^ wa» so food, which seems to me to have been so very floarishiAg 
tathw iu^ooHMiroetioe of the disclaiBattoii of Plato, than' of the little brook, of 
>plteh a deacrtpjtott to flveii." 

■Slie sceneal thesoDMIosues 4» laid to Grassns's Ttfscnlan Yilla, the same, if I 
inistake not, whiah was afterwards Sylla's and then Cicero's. 

The while ?illa of the elevated TuseiiU«l(t*l . 

0O9M^,bere app^r^itos 4a;tlie rillft^^T^lito friend a qqaHly»>hich it possessed 
i» i^ainiDQo with thr towp, aal all tba^ siMt baiUiioga is the same siiuatien. 



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Chap. XX. THROUGH ITALY. . Wt 

people the sepalchre of the HoFatii and Curiatii. This liionumenit 
is of great magnitude, and of a bold and striking form. It w$st>ri-' 
ginally. adorned with five obelisks ; of which two only remain. A 
variety of shrubs grow from its crevices, wave in garlands round 
its shattered pyi:amids, and hang in long wreaths to the ground. 
The melancholy interest which such an ap'pearance awaken^ will be 
increased, when the traveller learns that^the venerable pile before 
hini may poisibly cover the remains of Cneius Pompeios, nobik nee 
victum fatis caput.' I say possibly^ and am willing, to adopt- this 
opinion, which is not without authority ; yet if it really ^ere tme, 
as Plutarch relates, that Cor^ielia had her husband*s ashes conveyed 
to Italy,, and deposited in. his Alban villa (which it is tob^ recol- 
lected had been seized by Antony ] how are we to explain the in-^ 
dignant complaint o( Lucan : 

Tu qaoquecam sadvo' dederas jam templa tyranno, 
Nondiiii^ Pompeii cineres, O Roma, petisti 
E;iiil adhuc jacet umbra dacis 1 '—Lib. viii. S35. 

We may at lea^t infer that no such event had takeji place before 
Lucan's time, or that it. was then unkoown, and of course tha[t no 
mausoleum had beeii raised on the occasion. If therefore-this ino* 
nument be in honor of that celebrated Roman, it must have been a 
mere cenotaph eic^cted at a later period . 

About a mile- farther on at the end of a finely shaded iventicr 
stands Aricia, where Horace passed the' first ni^tiif his journey 
to Brundusiiim. 

Egcessnm magnft me excepit Aricta Romft 
Hospitio modico ^— Ub. i. Sat. y. 1. 

Whatever mode of travelling the poet employed, whether - he 
W2tlked, rode, or drove, he could not have fatigued hifnsolf with 
the length of his .stages, as that of the first day was onfy fdur|fi^n 
miles, and those of the followipg days very nearly in the same 
proportion. He has/ reason ^therefore to use the word repimus 
(we grept). But of this, classic .tour more perhaps hereafter. 

The application of the modern article^ and a consequent tnistake 
in the spelling very common ia.the beginning of Italian naipes, has 
cha^nged the ancient appellation of this little town into La Rwda. 
It is extremely well built and pretty, particularly about the square, 
which is adorned with a handsome chui:ch on one side, aQd on the 

> A hero whom even the fates could not subdue.— Lu^^an, viL 7i3. 

■* * And tboa, Jtoms, )b7 whose forgetfij} h^d 

Altars and temples, rear'd to tyrants, stand, 

Canst tbou n^lect to call ibytiero home. 

And leare his ghost in b^isbmeni to roam?-j£oife. 
' LeaTing imperial fiome^ my course i steer' 

To poor ArlcU, and its mo^'rato clwer«-^l>tpi«^ 



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308 CLASSICAL TOUK CHAP. Xt. 

Other, with a pdlace or rather a Villa. It stands on tha summit of 
ahiil and is surrounded with gropes and gardens. Of the ancient 
town situated at the foot of the same hill in the valley, there re- 
main only some arches, a circular cdifiae once perhaps^a temple, 
and a few scattered substr actions. The immense, foundations of 
the Via Appia formed of blocks 'of stone, rising from the old town 
up the side of the hill, in general about twenty -four feet in breadth 
and sometimes almost sixty feet in elevation, are perhaps one Of 
tho most striking monuments that now remain of Roman enter- 
prise and workmanship. This ascent was called Clivu^ Virbii ^ 
from Hippolytns, who assumed that name when restored to life by 
Diana. 

At Trivia Hipp61ytiim secretls alma recondit 
Sedibus et nympb® Egeriae, nemorique reJegat ; 
Solus ubi in sylvis Italis ignobijjs svum 
E&igeret, versoque ubi nomine Yirbius esset.* 

Virgil, ^n. vii. 774. 

Ablaut a ntile farther, on an eminence stands a church called 
MjEidonna di Galloro, a very picturesque object at a'little distance; 
and two miles thence rises the' town of Gensano, beautiful in its 
regular streets, in its woody environs, and inf the neighboring lake 
of Nemi. 

This lake derives its modern name from the Nemu$ Diance (the 
grove of Diana), the sacred groves that shaded its banks : like that 
of i^i^ano it- occupies a deep hollow in the mountain, but it is much 
inferior to it in extent,, and fills only a part of the amphitheatre 
formed by the crater. The rems^ining part with the high banks is 
covered with gardens and orchards well fenced and thickly planted, 
forming an enchanting scene of fertility and cultivation. The castle 
and the town of Nemi stand on the eastern side, on a high rock 
hanging over the water. The upper terrace of the Capucins gives 
the best view. ' Opposite to it lies Gemano stretched along a wooded 
bank> shelving gently to the verge of the lake; behind rises Monte 
Giove {Mons Jovis, the hill of Jupiter) and beyond extend the plains 
and woods that border the sea shore : towards the south-east rises 
the Monte Artenitsio (the hill of Diana), derived as every reader 
knows from Di^na, whose temple anciently formed a conspicuous 
feature in the scenery and the history of this territory. Diana 
was a divinity of mixed character, more inclined however to cruelty 
than to tiEsn^lerness; and though she delighted 'principally in the 
slaughter of wild beasts, yet she now and then b'etrayed a latent 

' This place is alfuded to by Juvenal and Persius as famous fot beggars, fuU as 
common and as troublesome in ancient a3 in modem Italy. — Pers, ScU, vi. 55. 

% Rot TrWIo ket>t in secret shades alone 

Her care, Hlppdlylus, to fate unknowD, 
And caird Mm Yirbius in tb' Egerian grove, 
Yfhen tliere be liT'd obscare, but safe ttwa. lore.— Hiytf^* 



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Gjup. XX. THROUI^H ITALY. 300 

partiality for huooan victims. Hence, (hough Romaa manners 
would not allow the goddess to indulge her taste freely, yet sbre 
contrived by the mode established in the appointment of her 
priests to catch an occasional repast. That mode was singular. 
The priest was always a fugitive, perhaps an outlaw or a criminal; 
he obtained the honor by attacking and slaying his predecessor, 
and kept it by the same tenure, that is, till another ruffian stronger' 
or more active dispossessed him in the same manner. 

Regna tenent manibus fortes, pedibusque fagaces 
£t perit exemplo postmodo quisque suo.' 
I Ovid. Fast, in. OTt. 

• 
This priest enjoyed the title of Rex Nemoi:ensis and always appeared 
in public brandishing a drawn sword, in order to repel a sudden 
attack. Yet such a cruel goddess and such a bloody priest seem . 
ill placed in a scene so spft and so lovely, destined by nature for 
the abode of health and pleasure. Tor the haunt of Fauns and 
Dryads, with all the sportive band of rural divinities. 

The fable of the restoration of Hippolytus and his concealment 
in this forest is much better adapted to its scenery : 

Yallis Aricinae sylvA procinctus' opacA 

Est lacus antiqua religione gacer. 
Hie latet Hippolytus, furiis direptus equo^m.* 

Ovid. Fait. iii. S6df. 

From the base of the roek on which the town of iVemi stands, 
gushes the fountain of Egeria^ (for this nymph had aNfoqntain and 
a grove here as well as at Rome) alluded to by Ovid in the fol- 
lowing verses : • 

Defluii incerto lapidosus murmure rivus 
S^pe sed exiguis haustibus iode bibes : 

f The Tallant by tbeir courage reign , 

The fttgitires by swiFloess gain 
Their honors brief: by lurns they die, 
Each by tb^ precedent themsetves supply. ) ' 

* Deep in Arlcia's vale, and girt around 

With shady wooda, a sacred lake is found ; 
Here Theseus' son in safe conceaUnent lay, 
When hurried by the madd'ning steeds away ... 

3 I need not remind thQ reader of the transformation of the nymph into this 
very fountaiD, and Ovid's pretty account of it. ^ 

Montlsque jacens radlcibus Imls 
Liqnitur In lacruma^- donee pietale dolentis 
Mola soror Pboebi, gelidnm de corpore fontem 
Fecit et sternas anus tenudtil in und'as.— Ot;t<f. Mtt. xt. 548. 

There at the mountain's base, all drovrhd In tears 
She lay— (ill chaste Diana on-ber woe 
Compassion took ; her altered form became , 
A limpid fount ; her beauteoi^s I|mbs dissolT'd, 
And in pereqnlaj waters i^elt away. 



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•W CLASStCAL TOijR Chap. Xi. 

Egeriaest qns pr«bei aquas, Dea grata Gamcnii 
' Ule Num»€ODjax» coasiliuiBqiie fait.' 

Ovid. Fast iii. 273. 

The foantaliii is abmndant and is one of the soarces of the lake. 
The woods $ii]I remain and give the whole scene an inexpressible 
freshness and beauty in the eye of a traveller fainting under the 
heat of July, and panting for the coolness of the forest. 

The Roman emperors delighted as may naturally be supposed in 
this delicious spot/ and Trajan in particular, who erected in the 
centre of the lake a palace (for it can scarce be called a ship) of 
very singular form and construction. This edifice was more than 
five hundred feet in length, about two hundred and seventy in 
breadth, and sixty in height, or perhaps more correctly in depth. 
It was built of the most s