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Full text of "A collection of archaeological pamphlets on Roman remains formed ..., Volume 1"

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A collection of archaeological 
pamphlets on Roman remains ... 

Sir Bertram Coghill Alan Windle 




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o 

4 



THE TEMPLE 



GODDESS COVENTINA 



PROCOLITIA, NORTHUMBERLAND. 



Reprinted from the " Aroh^ologia ^Jliana" of the Society 
OF Antiquaries of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 



Bewcastle-upon-Tijnp : 
A. KEID, PRINTING COURT BUILDINGS, AKENSIDE HILL. 

1878. 



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DEC 201919' 



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ARCH^OLOGIA ^LIANA. 



DBSCMPTION OF ROMAN REMAINS DISOOVBKED NEAR 
TO PROCOLITIA, A STATION ON THE WALL OP 
HADRLAlN. 



Read 2nd Deoehbeb^ 1876, by John Clatton, Esq. 



The discovery in the month of October last, on the line of the Roman 
Wall not far from Chollerford, of an nndergronnd structure, contain- 
ing an enormous quantity of Roman copper coins, twenty-four Roman 
altars, a massive votive tablet, with vases, rings, beads, brooches, and 
other objects, has excited much interest in the neighbourhood. 

The inscriptions are numerous, but some of them much worn and 
obliterated. The writer, with the eflBcient aid of Prof. Hiibner of 
Berlin, and Dr. Bruce, and with the benefit of the friendly suggestions 
of Mr. Charles Roach Smith and Mr. Carr-EUison, is now able to give a 
satisfactory reading of these inscriptions, so far as they are legible, and 
to lay before this Society a statement, which is made somewhat in 
detail, from a conviction that, since the publication of the '^ Lapi- 
darium Septentrionale," the antiquaries throughout the world rely on 
this Society for an authentic record of the Roman remains discovered 
in the four northern counties of England. 

The traveller from ChoUerford, seeking the site of the discovery, 
will proceed westward along the Military Road (so caUed from its 
having been made for military purposes after the rebellion of 1745) 
and, leaving the station of Cilumum on the left, will, at the foot of the 
first ascent, come upon the Roman Wall, on the site of which the Road 
has been made ; the foundation stones of the Wall are seen in the bed 
of the road, which is continued westward for several miles, either 
on the site of the Wall, or on the Vallum, which runs parallel with 
it. Passing Walwick and proceeding westward for about a mile, the 



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2 DBSCBIPTION OF BOMAN BEMAINB 

traveller reaches the sammit of the hill beyond Tower-Tay, from which 
a striking yiew of the Roman works ahead is obtained. On the right 
the traveller will observe some portions of the Soman Wall stand- 
ing to the height of six or seven feet, and the remains of one of the 
turrets, which it is said were placed along the Wall at the distance 
of 800 yards from each other, and which, with this exception, have 
been annihilated through the whole length of the Wall Within the 
distance of a mile from the Tower-Tay Hill is reached the summit of 
the Limestone Bank, on which will be found the remains of gigantic 
Roman works, and from which there open two most magnificent views, 
one on the right hand looking upon the valley of the North Tyne, 
and closed on the north-east by the Cheviot Hills, and the other on 
the left hand looking upon the valley of the South Tyne, and closed 
on the south-west by Cross Fell and the mountains of Cumberland, 
Westmoreland, and Yorkshire. From this point the Military Road is 
on the site of the Roman Wall, and in about a mUe passes the station 
of Procolitia, of which the Roman Wall formed the northern rampart; 
and, in the lowest part of the valley, about 150 yards distant from the 
western rampart of Procolitia, and about 100 yards within (on the 
south side of) the Roman Wall, is the site of the recent discovery. 

The structure, which has been now explored, did not escape the 
attention of that sagacious aud diligent Northumbrian, John Horsley, 
who in his great standard work, the ** Britannia Romana," published 
in 1732, after referring to the remains of buildings to the west of 
Procolitia, adds the following passage : — '' About a year ago they dis- 
covered a well; it is a good spring, and the receptacle for the water is 
about seven feet square within, and built on all sides with hewn stones. 
The depth could not be ascertained, because, when I saw it, it was 
ahnost filled with rubbish. There had also been a wall about it, or a 
house built over it, and some of the great stones belonging to it were 
yet lying there. The people called it a cold bath, and rightly judged 
it to be Roman."! 

The Rev. John Hodgson, the able historian of Northumberland, in 

the part of his book published in 1840, after quoting the passage from 

Horsley, describes as then existing on the west side of Procolitia ^* a 

small stream, and by the side of it a very copious spring of pure water/* 

' See Horsley's *' Britannia Romana/' p. 145. 



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DISCOVEfiED NEAR TO PEOCOLITIA. 8 

• 

and adds, " in the year 1817 the shaft of a column was lying near the 
spring, bat some years before that time most of the works about it bad 
been removed for building purposes by the tenants of the lands." 

Dr. Bruce, in his complete and exhaustive work on the Roman 
Wall (the third edition of which was published in 1867), after referring 
to the passage in Horsley, tells us that no remains of the bath or well 
then existed. 

From oral testimony it appears that subsequent to the year 1817, 
and within the last forty years, those parts of the walls of the 
surrounding buildings mentioned by Horsley which remained undis- 
turbed by being underground, were partly dug up and used by the 
tenant of the lands. The copious spring of pure water mentioned 
by the historians was the source of a brook which flowed down 
the valley towards the river South Tyne ; and the well minutely 
described by Horsley being filled to its brim with solid substances, 
formed part of the bed of the stream, until a very recent period, when 
the spring and the rivulet flowing from it suddenly disappeared, and 
the disappearance was ascribed to underground operations in a lead 
mine nearly two miles distant. 

In the course of last summer, attention was drawn to this spot, 
which had always been looked upon as the site of a Roman bath; 
and in the month of October the excavation was commenced, which 
has disclosed an underground structure of massive masonry, measuring 
in the inside 8 feet 6 inches by 7 feet 9 inches, and a little exceeding 
7 feet in depth, and within it a most miscellaneous collection of objects. 
Within a foot of the surface the excavator in digging down came 
upon a mass of copper coins, many of them of the debased metal 
of the lower Empire, and a human skuU, the concave part up- 
wards, filled with coins. He then began to meet with altars, and 
fragments of bowls of Samian ware, and glass, and bones of animals, 
and at the depth of about three feet found two elaborate vases 
of earthenware, both bearing inscriptions, and a sculptured stone re- 
presenting three Naiads, or water-nymphs. He had then come upon 
copper coins, of superior metal, of the higher Empire, which continued, 
mth an admixture of the inferior coins of the lower Empire; to the 
bottom. He met with the head of a statue, represented at the 
end of this paper, and with other vases without inscriptions, and 
with brooches, rings, beads, dice, and other objects ; some of these. 



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4 DESCRIPTION OF ROMAN REMAINS 

viz., three bronze heads, one of a female and two of males, apparently 
representing Mirth and Melancholy, an ivory stylns, with a female 
head carved at its top, three brooches, and a dice, are shown on 
the adjoining Plate. Going still lower, the excavator continued to 
find altars, and nearly at the bottom he met with a massive votive 
tablet, dedicated to the goddess Coventina, by Titns Domitius 
Cosoonianus, a Roman military Prefect, in command of the First 
Cohort of Batavian Auxiliaries. The lettering of this tablet is of 
the best character, and Professor Hiibner, who from his learning and 
experience is entitled to decide, whilst others hesitate, pronounces this 
tablet to be of the date of Antoninus Pius, a.d. 140. 

It is possible, and indeed probable, that the First Batavian Cohort 
should have been at Prooolitia in the reign of Antoninus Pius. This 
cohort was doubtless one of the three Batavian cohorts, which, with 
two Tungrian cohorts, under Julius Agrioola, fought and won the 
battle of the Grampian Hills, a.d. 84.^ We next hear of this cohort 
as one of the cohorts in the army of Aulus Platorius Nepos (the 
general employed in building the wall), to which Hadrian, in the 
fourth year of his reign, a.d. 124, granted the right of Roman citi- 
zenship and liberty to marry.* It is probable that the First Batavian 
cohort was placed about this period in garrison at Procolitia; and ex- 
perience of the Roman practice in other stations has shown us that the 
Romans treated the troops at the stations on the Wall as the basis of 
military colonies ; and we find, from an inscription found within the 
walls of Procolitia, that the First Cohort of Batavians was there in 
the reign of Maximinus, A.D. 283,' and that the same cohort was in 
the same place at the date of the Notitia Imperii, a.d. 400. 

This tablet is inscribed to a goddess whose name is unrecorded on 
the roll of Roman divinities. On it the goddess is represented as 
floating on the leaf of a gigantic water lily, and waving in her right 
hand a branch of palm or of some other tree. On one of the altars, 
described below, she is called Dea Nympha, and it is therefore clear 
that this goddess was a water deity, which is confirmed by the repre- 
sentation of her attendants on the sculpture here shown of the three 
Naiads^ each of them raising in one hand a goblet, and in the other hand 

» See Tacitns* "Life of Agricola," cap. xxxvi. 

* See " Lapidarium Septentrionale," p. 7. 
• See " Lapidarium Septentrionale," No. 157. 



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DISCOVERED NEAR TO PROOOLITIA. 5 

holding a flagon from which is poured a stream of water, and by the 
existence of a well or reservoir for water within the walls of her temple. 
Whether the goddess Coventina was a British goddess, or a goddess 




imported by the Roman soldier^ is a question not easily decided, noi' 
can any satisfactory derivation be found for her name. She was pro- 
bably a local deity to whose name a Roman termination has been 
given, as in the case of the god of the Brigantes Cocidius, for whose 
name we do not attempt to find a derivation. It has been suggested, 
from a quarter entitled to weight, that the name of the goddess 



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6 DBSCRIPTION OF ROMAN REMAINS 

Ooventina may be derived from OonvenflB, a people of Aquitania, 
inhabiting a country of springs^ and addicted to the worship of water 
deities. A cohort of Aquitani has left a record of its presence at Pro- 
oolitia, in the reign of Hadrian.^ 

Some antiquarians are of opinion that, at least to some extent, the 
coins have been thrown into the well as oflPerings to the goddess, but 
this theory is open to the objection that an accumulation of copper, in 
so limited a space, must have spoiled the water; moreover, it does not 
seem to be within the range of probability that the votive tablet, bearing 
the image and superscription of the goddess, aiid the altars dedicated 
to her should have been thrown into the well in compliment to her, 
and least of all the ugly head, broken oflp from the bust, which forms 
the tail-piece on page 19. The position in which the several objects 
were found does not seem to throw any Ught on the order of deposit, 
the heavy votive tablet and two of the very small altars were found 
at the bottom of the well. 

Another theory is that the Romans, weary of the new goddess, and 
convinced that her worship was a superstition derogatory to their 
ancient gods — 

** Vana rapentitio, vetenimqne ignara Deoram/^ 

shut ofP the water, and appUed to utilitarian purposes the reservoir 
which had contained it. The position of this structure outside the 
walls of the Fortress of Procolitia, the accumulation of coins of an early 
period, as well as those of later dates of Roman occupation, would seem 
to be inconsistent with this theory, unless it can be accounted for by 
the state of disquietude in which the garrison of this line of fortification 
must have lived, attended with occasional abandonment of their quar- 
ters, and occasional concealment of valuables which could not be easily 
removed. 

Of this vast collection of copper, or in the language of numismatists, 
brass coins, a few dozens have lain in clay and been preserved ; many of 
the rest are so much worn or corroded as to render it very difficult to 
identify them. Amongst those of the earlier period the coins of Trajan, 
Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius, and of the wives of the two 
latter emperors greatly preponderate, and there is an unusual number of 

* See ** Lapidarium Septentrionale," No. 188, p. 83. 
•See " VirgU iEneid," Lib. VIII., 187. 



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DISOOYEBED NEAR TO PROCOLITIA. 



the ooins of Antomnns Pius, which have Britannia on the reverse. The 
coina of Trajan, Hadrian, and Antoninus Pius are chiefly of first and 
second brass ; the building of the Walls of Hadrian and Antoninus Pius 
would necessarily occasion a large influx of such coins into Britain. The 
earliest coin which has been as yet identified is of the reign of Claudius, 
A.D. 41, and it is expected that the series will end, as has happened in the 
stations of Cilumum and Borcovicus, with Gratian, a.d. 888, though in 
the vast quantity as yet undeciphered there may be found both earlier 
and later coins. Four gold coins and some silver coins have been met 
with, which can scarcely have been part of the deposit ; they have 
probably been accidentally lost by the curators of the copper treasury. 

Let us now proceed to the examination of the inscriptions, which 
indicate various degrees of skill 
and education in the sculptors.^ 

We will begin with the in- 
scriptions on two very curious 
vases or cups of earthenware, 
which appear to have been oflPer- 
ings of Satuminus Gabinius to 
the goddess Coventina. The let- 
ters are distributed over the 
panels of each vase. From the 
letters on one of them (No. 1) we 
collect the following words: — 

OOVETINA AGVSTA VOTV 

MANIBVS SVI8 SATVRNINVS 

FECIT GABUfflVS. 




Expanded reading. — Coven- 
tiuBB August® votum manibus 
suis Satuminus fedt Gabinius. 



icove 






■n\ 



^ In the original paper the readings of the inscriptions are not in general expanded. 
It is now thought desirable, acting on the precedent of the *'Lapidariam Septen- 
trionale," to add an expanded reading of each inscription. Engravings of each of 
the objects are also now given. — Ed. 



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8 



DESCRIPTION OF BOMAN REMAINS 



It would appear from this inscription that the dedicator made the vase 
with his own hands. Whatever may be thought of the skill of Satur- 
ninus Gabinius as a manufacturer, his orthography is palpably defective. 
He gives to the goddess the title of Augusta, for which several prece- 
dents exist in the Nympheum, or Temple of the Water Deities at 
NismeS, the goddess addressed being styled Nympha Augusta. 

The inscription on the vase No. 2 is a barbarous abbreviation of 
the inscription on vase No. 1 ; and, as Professor Hiibner observes, 

the dedicator, Satuminus Ga- 
binius, must have been con- 
tent to explain his intentions 
by the inscription on vase No. 
1, or he must have placed 
unlimited faith in the intelli- 
gence of the goddess; and 
at any rate if No. 1 had 
been destroyed, No. 2 would 
have been utterly unintelli- 
gible. 

The letters in the several 
compartments seem to be the 
following : — 




cv? 



SA TV 



GST? 

nI ga Iiv 

I BIN S 



giving us the name of Satur- 
ninus Gabinius,^ preceded by 
the principal characters in the words c[o]v[entina] [av]g[v]st[a]. 
The last (or first ?) compartment of the inscription seems to be occu- 
pied with the letter " v" or a leaf stop, and the reading may be — 

VOTUM COVENTIN^ AUGUSTS 
SATUBNINUS GABINIUS. 

* The **b" makes an approach in both the inscriptions on the vases (to use the 
language of printers) to the lower case *'b.*'— Ed. 



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DISCOYEBED NEAR TO PBOCOLITIA. 



9 



The lettering and the expanded reading of the votive tablet and of 
the several altars bearing inscriptions, so far as thej are legible, remain 
to be dealt with. More than one-half of the whole number of twenty- 
fonr altars found have either had no inscription, or the inscriptions 
have been wholly worn out, and some of these are unfinished as if in 
a course of preparation for an inscription. 

The votive tablet on which the goddess is represented as floating 
on the leaf of a water lily, and holding a branch, has the following in- 
scription : — 



DEAE 

COWENTINAB 

T • D • OOSCONIA 

NVS . PB • COH. 

I • BAT • L-M- 

ETpanded reading. — De® 

CoventinsB Titus Domitius 

Cosoonianus PraBfectus Co- 

hortis primae Batavorum 

libensmerito. 







\ - 



The lettering is perfect. The use of a double '^v" in the name of 
Coventina is a peculiarity, and may be accidental, or an example of 
the practice of doubling the consonant, in order to give greater 
emphasis to the syllable; this peculiarity also occurs on the altar No. 10. 



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10 



DESCRIPTION OF ROKAN REMAINS 



ALTAR No. 1. 

This is the largest altar of the group. Its base is adorned with 
a conple of dolphins — symbols of a water deity. 



\\covoNTm:f:\l 

|AyiMCEKlT.IV5'.^ 
|»<'05ALVTESVA- 

Lit. _ ^ , f 



^ !^ 



f^ ^S'J"', 







On this altar 
alone is the epi- 
thet Sanctse, ap- 
plied to the god- 
dess, and the letter 
"o" is used in the 
second syllable of 
her name. 

DBAE SANCT 

COVONTINE 

VINpENTIVS 

PRO SALVTB SVA 

V-L-L-M-D 

Expanded read- 
ing, — Deae Sanc- 
t» Ooventinee Vin- 
centius pro salute 
sua Yotum libens 
Istus merito di- 
cavit. 



This is the only example of the use of "o" as the vowel in the 
second syllable of Coventina. The use of "e" instead of "^" in the 
dative case of the name of the goddess^ which we find on this altar, 
frequently occurs in aU these inscriptions. 



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DISCOVEEBD NEAB TO PROCOLITIA. 
ALTAR No. 2. 



DEAE NIM 

FAE (X)VEN 

TINE MA-D 

VHVS • GEEM • 

P08 • PRO • SE ET SV 

V-SL-M 



11 




Expanded reading, — De® 
Nymphae Coventinae Manlius 
Diihus Germaims posnit pro se 
et snis votam solvens libens 
merito. 



The spelling of the Bcnlptor of this altar is barbarous. The addition 
of nympha to the title of goddess is evidence of her aquatic attributes. 

ALTAR No. 3. 



mmmMmmmi 



'imm\\\\>; 



DIE COVE 
NTINAE A 

VRELIVS 

GROTVS 

GERMAN 

Expanded reading, — Dea3 Co- 
ventinse Aurelius Qrotus 6er- 
manus. 

The use of "i" inplaceof "b," 
and of " E " instead of " m " in the 
word Deas is a barbarism. 



These two altars are dedicated by recruits to the Batavian Cohort 
from the adjoining country of Qermania. 




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18 



DBSCBIFTION OF ROKAN BEXAIKB 



ALTAR No. 4. 

This altar is plain in its general character, and the name of the 
goddess is spelt Conventinad. 

The dedicator is probably a recroit who takes, or makes^ for him- 
self a Roman name of warlike sound. 




DIIAII 

CONVENTI 

KAE BELLIOYS 

V-S'L-M.P 



Expanded reading. — 



Coventi- 

n® Bellicus 

Yotum soly ens libens merito 

posuit. 



The letters "b " in the word Deae on this altar are each represented 
by two down strokes or letters (ii), a singularity which sometimes occurs 
in Roman inscriptions, and on this altar and also on No. 7 the goddess 
is called Conventina, a peculiarity which is probably due to the 
ignorance of the sculptor. 



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DI800YSRED NEAB TO PKOOOUTIA. 18 

ALTAB No. 5. 

This altar brings under our notice a cohort not previously met 
with on Hadrian's Wall. 



DEAE 00 
VENTINB 
OOH I CVBE 
RNORVM 
AVB CAMP 
EST EE (?) 
V . . . . 



Expanded reading. — Dese 
CoventinsB Cohors prima Cuber- 
norum Aurelius Campestris (?) 



The lettering of the first four 
lines of this inscription is good; 
that of the three last confused. 






QtAECO, 



.MittiS 



J r 



The First Cohort of the Cugemi, or Cubemi, a people of Belgic 
Gaul, was one of the auxiliary cohorts serving in Britain in the 
Roman army. It was in Britain in the times of Trajan and Hadrian, 
and is included in the diplomas of citizenship granted by these 
emperors ; it was in Scotland at the time of the building of the 
Antonine wall there, as appears from an inscription given by Horsley 
(Scot., XXV.) ; in all these instances it is called Cugerni. Tacitus, 
speaking of this people (Hist., V., 16, 18), calls them Gugemi; PUny, 
in his Natural History (IV., 81), denominates them Ouhemi, There 
are some more letters on the altar, bearing probably the rank of the 
commanding officer of the cohort, but the letters are too indistinct 
to admit of a satisfactory reading. 



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u 



DESOBIFTION OF BOMAN REMAINS 




ALTAR No. 6. 

DAK (X)VEN 

VI ? • NOMATI 

VS V«8-L-M 

Expanded reading. — De® 
CoventinsB ... Nomatius votum 
solvit libens merito. 

This altar has on its front a 
female face, and also the peca- 
liaritj of a square foons, a pe- 
culiarity which is not confined 
to this altar. The &ce is with- 
out doubt meant to represent 
the features of the goddess. 

ALTAR No. 7. 

DB CONVE 
NT 



OPTIC CH 
GERMAN? 



The letters on this altar 
are very much defaced, and 
nothing can be collected 
from them except that it 
was dedicated to the god- 
dess Coventina by an officer 
of the rank of optio, or 
lieutenant; the name of 
the goddess appears to 
have the letter "n" in the 
first syllable^ as on altar 
No. 4. 



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DiaCOVEBED NEAB TO PBOCOLITIA. 



15 



ALTAB No. 8. 



The focos of this altar is more than usaallj elaborate ; the stone 
has been discoloured by contact with copper. 



DEAE CO 

VBTNE GB 

0TV8 VTIB 

£8 S L Y PRO 

&A 



Expanded reading. — Dese 
CoTentin» Grotus Utibes solvit 
libens yotnm pro salute.^ 




The letters on this altar have been very unskilftiUy executed by 
the sculptor, and there must be considerable uncertainty as to the 
reading of the inscription. 

There are two more inscribed altars dedicated to the goddess 
Goventina, but they are so much defaced that the inscriptions^ beyond 

' ThiB expansion of the inscription was given in the original paper as ifiieertain. 
In the first place it is not clear whether the name of the dedicator is Grotus or 
Crotns ; the six letters which f oUow are distinct, hut their meaning is not clear. 
The dedicator was doubtless a recruit from one of the barbarous nations, and, 
probably, the letters which follow Qrotus or Crotus may indicate his connection 
with the Utus, a river which falls into the Danube ; or the town of Utum, situate 
upon that river. It has also been suggested that the first letter of Utibes may be 
*• t" the initial letter of Votum, one ofthe words of dedication with which inscrip- 
tions on altars generally conclude, but we find that letter in the last line, which is 
its proper place. 



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16 



DEBORIFTION OF ROKAN REMAINS 



the name of the goddess, cannot be satisfactorily read. They are 
represented in the next two wood cuts, from a desire that every object 
on which there are the slightest remains of an inscription should be 
brought before the Society. 



ALTAR No. 9. 




This altar is unusually ornate. It bears on the face of its capital 
a series of pointed arches. On one of its sides is sculptured a branch, 
and on the other a genius haying a comucopiad in the left hand and a 
coronal wreath in the other. 



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DISCOVERED NEAE TO PEOCOLITIA. 



17 



ALTAR No. 10. 

This altar has the peculiarity noticed on the votive tablet, viz., 
the use of a double " v " in the name of the goddess. The title of Dea is 
not given to her ; probably the title Augusta followed the name and 
has been obliterated. 



C50VVEN 



V . S • L . M 




This altar, like an altar to Fortune found at Procolitia some time 
since, has an iron ring fastened into its focus by means of lead. This 
has probably been for the purpose of carrying or suspending the altar. 
Most of the remaining altars appear to have never had any inscription, 
and some of them are only partly finished in workmanship. 

The only remaining inscribed altar found in this reservoir is a 
small altar dedicated to Minerva, by a Roman soldier, bearing the 





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18 



DESCBIPTIOK OF ROMAN REMAINS 



name of Venico; the lettering of which is evidently not the work of 
a man of letters. 



■NE R 
. S VE 

H r e . 

P R 5^ 



ALTAR No. 11. 




■ DIE M 




■ INER 




■ VE VE 




1 Nice 




[ PR s 




POS 8 V 




Expanded reading. - 
Minervse Venico pro salute 
solvens votum. 


-DeaB 

posuit 



An altar to Minerva conld not 
have been placed in the well in 
compliment to Coventina, what- 
ever may have been the object of 
placing in the well the altars dedi- 
cated to Coventina herself. 



Tlis seems to be a fit opportunity for bringing before this Society 
another altar dedicated to Minerva, which, since the publication of the 
** Lapidarium Septentrionale," has been found in the Station of Pro- 
colitia. It is a large well-shaped altar, and the lettering is good. The 
letters are— minervae q vnias pr coh. ci vslm. The following 
reading is suggested for consideration — ^Minervae Quintus Unias Prae- 
fectus Cohortis Civium votum solvit libens merito. 

The auxiliary cohorts in the Eoman service frequently add to their 
title that of Gives Romani, hanng received from the Emperor the 
grant of citizenship; but there is no example found in Britain of a 



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DI8(X)yEBED KEAB TO PBOOOLITIA. 



19 



cohort styled Cohors Civium Bomanorum. Several examples have 
been foond on the continent. In the present case we have, apparently, 
a cohort styled simply Cohors Ciyimn. Perhaps this may be regarded 
as an example of the cohors Urbana holding an intermediate position 
between regular troops and an armed police. 

The writer has thus laid before the Society an inadequate descrip- 
tion of this extraordinary deposit of Boman objects. To examine 
efFectnally many thousand coins, nearly all more or less defaced, is a 
work of years rather than of days. The great variety of the objects 
deposited, and their singular intermixture, seem to deiy any certainty 
of conjecture as to the past history or use of the well or reservoir in 
which they were found. We find coins, extending over more than 
three hundred years, twenty-four altars uninjured (except by wear), 
many unbroken vases, and a vast quantity of fragments of Samian 
ware of ornate character; we find enamelled brooches, and gilded beads, 
and mixed with these the tusks of wild boars, the horns of deer, and 
the bones of oxen and sheep. AU that is attempted at present is to 
submit the &ctB to the consideration of antiquaries. 




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20 DE80BIFTI0N OF BOJklAN BEaiAmS 



CONTIinJATION OF DESCRIPTION OF, AND REMARKS ON, 
THE TEMPLE OF COVENTINA AND ITS CONTENTS. 



Read 2nd August, 1877, by John Clayton, Esq. 



At the monthly meeting of this Society, held on the 2nd December last, 
a paper was read descriptive of a well or receptacle for water, and its 
multifarious contents, which had been discovered in the month of 
October preceding, near to the station of Procolitia, on the Roman 
Wall, and which well or reservoir was, from its contents, supposed to 
have been within a temple of a water goddess bearing the name of 
COVENTINA, a divinity which had not previously been known or heard 
of. 

The object of that paper was to present to this Society an accurate 
statement of facts, and to invite the expression of the. views and 
opinions of antiquarians and scholars on the subject. 

The invitation so given has been largely accepted, and during the 
present summer the remains of the temple in which the well is placed 
have been exhumed, so that we now have before us the materials neces- 
sary for arriving at our own conclusions, which it is proposed that we 
should now endeavour to do, with due respect to the opinions of others, 
without assuming to ourselves infallibility. 

The wetness of the spring and early summer has delayed till this 
month the completion of the excavation around the well ; the result of 
that excavation is to confirm the conjecture that the well had stood 
within a temple. The outer: walls of the temple have been found 
standing to some extent, which put us in possession of a perfect outline 
of the building. A ground plan is now laid before the Society. 

The question which presents itself for our consideration, in the 
first instance, would seem to be : By whom was this temple of the 
goddess Coventina founded? 



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GROUND PLAN OFTHETEMPLEOFCONVENTINA, ATPROCOUTIA 



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DISOOTEBED NEAfi TO PBOCX)LinA. 21 

It oertainly was not founded by the native Britons^ for at the time 
of its foundation (which will be found to be tolerably certain), a few 
years only had elapsed since "Wild in woods the noble savage ran." 
The views and appetites of the Ancient Britons at that time would be 
altogether mundane, and they would be most unlikely to give any of 
their attention to an invisible goddess. 

So euphonious a name as Coventina would scarcely occur to the 
gallant Dutchmen, of whom were composed the rank and file of the 
First Batavian cohort which formed the garrison of Procolitia, and 
moreover, being troubled at home with a superfluity of water, they 
would have no predilection for a water deity. 

The founding of the temple of Coventina must be ascribed to the 
Roman officers of the Batavian cohort, who had left a country where 
"the sun shines every day," and where, in Pagan times, springs and 
running waters were objects of adoration. 

So fer there can be little diflference of opinion. The next question 
which arises, viz., the derivation of the name of the goddess Coventina, 
admits of a variety of opinions. 

The goddess was a local goddess, and her worship has been con- 
fined to the locality ; no altar has been raised to her divinity elsewhere 
than at Procolitia ; the root of the name might therefore be expected 
to be found in some local object, or event, and in the Celtic language. 

Dr. Wake Smart, of Cranboume, suggests a Celtic (or Keltic) deri- 
vation fi-om "Gover," in the Celtic language "a rivulet or head of a 
rivulet ;" he adds that the initial letters "a" and "o" are often inter- 
changeably used, and that Roman ingenuity has supplied the rest of 
the name. 

Our colleague. Dr. Hooppell (strong in Celtic lore), takes a diflFerent 
view of a Celtic derivation. "Cof," pronounced "Gov" in the Celtic 
language, means memory ; and " Cofen," in that language pronounced 
** Coven," means a memorial. The temple might have^ been reared in 
memory of some event. 

Our colleague, Mr. Carr-Ellison, in a very learned paper read at a 
meeting of our Society, held on the 6th February last, which will be 
recorded in our proceedings, and therefore need not be repeated, sug- 
gested a Greek derivation for the goddess. 

Mr. Roach Smith, the distinguished antiquarian, contributes a 



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22 DBSCRIPTION OF BOMAN REMAINS 

suggestion that the goddess derived her name from the Conyenae^ a 
people of Aqoitania^ in Oanl, inhabiting a conntry abounding in 
springs and in rivnlets. The first cohort of Aqoitani was part of the 
forces employed in building the Soman Wall^ and has left in the 
station of Procolitia a record of its presence there.^ 

From another source we receive a suggestion that the Soman officer 
who took the lead in the creation of the goddess and her temple, might 
possibly have named the goddess after some divine creature, the object 
of his adoration in Italy, who had declined to share his lot amongst the 
barbarians, "div%80S db orbe Britannos" but to whom he continued 
to be devoted. 

None of these suggested derivations can be considered as condu- 
sive, and the derivation of the name of the goddess may, without 
inconvenience, remain an open question ; but from whatever source 
derived, the name of Coventina must be admitted to be a female name 
of harmonious sound. Mr. Frank Buckland recommends its adoption 
as the Christian name of in&mt beauties hereafter bom on the banks 
of the Tyne.* The only objection to the name is its length, but as the 
Roman practice no longer exists which required the admirer of a lady 
to drink to her in a bumper for every letter in her name — 

"Naevia sex cyathis, aeptem Jnstina bibator." 
the length of the name is less objectionable than it was in Roman times. 

We have not yet heard of an instance of the adoption of the recom- 
mendation of Mr. Frank Buckland in the case of a young lady bom 
on the banks of the Tyne, but we have heard of its adoption in 
christening a yacht. 

The history of the temple of the goddess Coventina, from its opening 
to its close, is connected with the historical events of the period, in re- 
ferring to which we may safely rely upon the authority of our great 
Roman historians, Gibbon and Merivale, who make no statement for 
which there are not sufficient grounds ; with their aid, and with the 
information which we have obtained, and the light which is thrown on 
the subject by antiquarians and scholars, we will endeavour to trace 
that history. 

■ Vid. ** Laindarimn Septentrionale," No. 158. 
• See « Land and Water," No. 670, 28rd October, 1876. 



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DISCOVERED NEAB TO PBOOOUTIA* 28 

The &ci]itie6 for similar establiflhments afforded by the Polytheism 
of the Pagaa reKgion, on which the French writer, Bossuet, tersely 
observes, ^^ Taut etait Dim exeepte Dieu M meme,*^ have afforded ns 
means of learning much by comparison. 

At the meeting in December last, onr friend and distinguished 
fellow-labourer in the field of antiquities, Canon Greenwell, called our 
attention to the discovery of the temple of the water goddess SEQUAif a 
at one of the sources of the Biver Seine. 

We have now before us an able and fall report of the discovery and 
excavation of the remains of that temple, by Monsieur Henri Baudot, 
President of the Commission of Antiquities of the Department de la 
Cote d'Or. 

We collect from this report that, during the period of the Roman 
occupation in Gaul, at one of the sources of the river Sequana (now 
the Seine), there was reared a temple to a water goddess, to whom the 
name of Sequana was given. 

We have lately found that, during the period of Eoman role in 
Britain, at one of the sources of a rivulet flowing into the Eiver South 
Tyne, was reared a temple to a water goddess, to whom the name of 
Coventina was given. 

So far the cases of the two goddesses are alike. We must pursue 
their subsequent histories separately, and we shall find that they throw 
light on each other. 

In the month of May, 1886, the excavation of the temple of the 
goddess Sequana was commenced. The outline of the edifice was dis- 
tinctly traced, and within the exterior walls were found cells or small 
rooms, which the French antiquarian terms *^cellae oupetites chapelUa.^ 

Altars and objects of sculpture were found scattered about the 
ruins of the building, and beneath the floor of one of the cells or little 
chapels was found a large earthenware vessel, bearing on its neck the 
inscription, ^^ Deae Sequanae Bufiis donavit." This vessel is of the 
shape and size of those vessels which were used amongst the Bomans 
for containing oil or wine, and with its then contents had doubtless 
been at some period presented to the goddess by an individual bearing 
the name of Kufds. This vessel, when found in 1886, was empty, 
save in respect of a small earthenware vase ; and scattered around it were 
120 thin plates of bronze and silver, chiefly representing parts of the 



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24 DESOfilFTION OF ROMAN REMAINS 

human body, and that dass of objects to which antiquarians apply 
the term •* ex voto." In the small vase were found 886 coins, of which 
285 were illegible, leaving 551 which were deciphered, of which more 
than one half were coins of Tetricus and his son,^ and the rest extended 
over the period from Augustus down to Gratian, both inclusive, with the 
addition of a sin^e coin of Magnus Maximus, the assassin of Oratian, 
and the usurper who took possession of and held Gaul, Spain, and Britain 
for about three years. These coins are supposed to represent the state 
of the treasury of the priests of the temple at the time of its destruction. 
The Pagan priests, who looked upon religion as a trade by which they 
must live, were always ready to promote the erection of temples to 
popular deities, and to attract offerings to them. 

No coins or other objects were found in the sacred weU or in the 
running waters inclosed within t)ie walls of the temple. 

The French antiquaries do not hesitate to impute to the Christians 
the destruction of the temple of the goddess Sequana, and they seem 
to have sufficient grounds for that conclusion. They find in the ruins 
of the temple uimiistakeable marks of destruction by fire, and they find 
the altars and objects of sculpture purposely mutilated ; and they give the 
date of the destruction as shortly before the close of the fourth century. 

A reference to the events of history will assist us in forming a 
judgment of the correctness of the assumptions of the French anti- 
quarians. 

The Emperor Gratian was a sincere Christian, but being a man of 
inactive mind, and, devoting all his energies to hunting and shooting, 
he made no effort to advance the Christian, or repress the Pagan 
religion. In his lifetime he gave up the Eastern Empire to Theodosius, 
a zealous Christian, who deemed it to be his mission on earth to exter- 
minate the Pagan superstition, which he did very effectually in the 
Eastern Empire. On the murder of Gratian, in the year 888, 
his assassm, Magnus Maximus, took possession of Gaul, Spain, and 
Britain, and held them for three years, when, ambitious of wider 
dominions, he invaded Italy with a view to dethrone Valentinianus, the 
youthful brother of Gratian, and his successor as Emperor of the West. 

* The xwurpation of Tetricus and his eon continued from the year 268 to 273, 
when they suirendered themselves and their usurped dominions to Aurelius. — Vid. 
Gibbon's ** Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire,*' Vol. 11^ cap. xL 



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DISOOVERBD NEAR TO PBOCOLITIA. 25 

Valentmianus invoked the aid of TheodosiuB, who came to his aid with 
the legions of the East ; and after the destruction of Magnns Maximus 
and his army in the year 886^ became, in ^t^ the master of the Western 
as well as the Eastern Empire. Theodosius lost no time in applying to 
the Western Empire the system which he had successfully pursued 
in the Empire of the East, and the historian Gibbon thus speaks of the 
result: — "The ruin of Paganism in the age of Theodosius is perhaps 
the only example of the total extinction of an ancient and popular 
superstition, and may, therefore, deserve to be considered as a singular 
event in the history of the human mind." * 

In Gaul, the edicts of Theodosius seem to have been promptly acted 
upon. It is recorded in history, that " The holy Martin, Bishop of 
Tours, marched at the head of his faithful monks to destroy the idols, 
temples, and the consecrated trees of his extensive diocese." 

The same process was adopted by the Bishops of other dioceses, as 
well as by the holy Martin, and the temple of the goddess Sequana was 
demolished. 

In the temple of Sequana nothing escaped destruction but the 
large earthenware vessel and its contents, including the vase con- 
taming the coins, which had been, doubtless, placed by the priests of 
the temple in a place of conceahnent when they heard of the fate of 
Magnus Maximus, and the termination of his Italian expedition, by 
means of the intervention of Theodosius. 

We are indebted to more than one correspondent for reference to 
(and we were ourselves aware of it) a recent discovery in France, at the 
town of Bourbonne les Bains, in the department of the Haute Mame. 
We have before us a ftdl account of the discovery, from the pen of 
Mons. L'Abbi Auguste Doby. The learned writer tells us that the 
name of the place was at one time Aquae Borvonis, and afterwards 
successively Borvona, Borbona, Borbone, and at length Bourbonne. 

It appears that at various times, in the town of Bourbonne les 
Bains, and in the vicinity of the baths, there have been found altars 
and votive tablets to a God called Borvonis, and a female Deity called 
Damona ; they are sometimes joined in the same dedication, and are 
sometimes the objects of separate dedications. The joint dedications 

• See Gibbon's ** Decline and Pall of the Roman Empire," Vol. V., cap. xxvii. 

I) 



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26 DESCBIFTION OF ROMAN REMAINS 

are expressed deo boryoni et damonae ; in the separate dedication to 
Damona, she is styled Augusta. 

The waters being thermal, the two Celtic words hor hot, and tvona 
a fountain, are suggested as forming the root of the names of the god 
and the town. 

In the month of January, 1876, in the course of some structural 
alterations connected with the thermal waters, there were found in a 
part of the structure which had been used by the Romans, 4,512 Roman 
coins, of which 4,214 were of bronze, 294 were of silver, and four of 
gold. No catalogue of the coins is given, but we collect that they 
commence with Augustus, and end with Honorius, the son of 
Theodosius. At the bottom of this deserted space were found 
votive tablets to Borvonis and Damona. The Pagan establishment at 
Bourbonne les Bains, seems to have escaped destruction for a few 
years beyond that of the goddess Sequana, a circumstance which might 
be due to respect for the sanitary qualities of the waters, and the absence 
of any temple to excite the passions of the destroyers of Paganism. 

We now turn to Italy for precedents. 

A correspondent of the " Newcastle Chronicle," who takes for his 
signature the initial letters of the formal words of dedication, v • s • L • m, 
and whose suggestions are those of a scholar and a gentleman, calls 
our attention to the Ode of Horace addressed to the Fountain of Ban- 
dusia» one of those terse and sparkling odes of the great Roman lyrio 
poet, which, from youth to age, remain impressed on the memory :— 

O f ons Bandusiffi, splendidior vitrOi 
Dulci digne mero, non sine floribus, 
Cras donaberis haedo, 
Cui frons torgida comibuB 

Primis et Venerem et proelia deslinat, 
Fmstra; nam gelidos inficiet tiln 

Rubro sanguine rivos 

Lascivi suboles gregis. 

—Ode 13th, Srd Book of Horace's Odes. 

In the first stanza the poet addresses the fountain as brighter than 
glass, and worthy of offerings of sweet wine and flowers. 

The second stanza is happily rendered in English by an acoom- 



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DISOOVEBED KEAB TO PEOOOLITIA, 27 

plished classical scholar, our noble President, the Earl of Eavensworth . — 

** A wanton kid with crested head. 

For love or war prepared in yain. 
Shall, with his lif e-hlood newly shed, 

Thy pure and sparkling cnrrent stain." 

— Vide translation of the Odes of Horace hy Lord Ravensworth. 

The poet would seem to have contemplated the deposit in the 
stream of the blood only of the victim, which would soon be washed 
away, otherwise the fountain would soon have ceased to be brighter 
than glass. The priests or other curators of the fountain would 
doubtless utilize the flesh of the kid. 

We are indebted to the same gentleman for a reference to the case 
of the river Clitumnus and its temple, and for an accurate translation of 
the descriptive passage in the Epistles of the younger Pliny, from 
which we l^on that offerings of coins were seen glittering in the bed of 
the river Clitumnus, rendered distinctly visible by the purity and 
brightness of its waters, and this is the first example which has been 
brought to our notice of the deposit of money as an offering in the bed 
of the stream. 

Yii^ also speaks of the sacred waters of the Clitumnus, not as 
receiving the offering, but as used to sprinkle the victim for sacrifice. 

" Hinc alhi Clitmnne greges, et maxima tanros 
Victima, ssepe tno perfosi flumine sacro, 
Bomanos ad templa Deom duxere triumphos." 
« VirgU Georg," Lih IL, 146. 

Many a traveller is drawn to the Umbria of the ancients by the 
attractions of its capital Perugia, and few of them have not seen and 
admired the glassy purity of its river Clitumnus, which still deserves 
the epithets "purus et vitreus" applied to it by Pliny, and continues 
** a mirror and a bath for beauty's youngest daughters,'' as described by 
Byron. 

Our attention has been also drawn to a discovery which was made 
in the year 1852, at the Acque Apollinari, a watering place about 
thirty miles distant from Bome. 

We have now before us a dear and minute description of that 
discovery, and its attendant circumstances, written by an able but 
modest Italian, who gives us only his initials, which appears to have been 
printed at Rome at the Tipografia delle belle Arti, in 1852, under the 



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28 DE8CBIPTI0N OF ROMAN BEKAINS 

title of '^La Stipe Tribntata alle Diviniti delle Aoqne ApoIlinarL" 
" The money paid in homage to the Divinities of the Acque ApoUinarL** 

These waters are thermal waters, having medicinal properties, and are 
distant according to the Itinerary of Antoninus, thirty-fonr Roman miles 
from Rome, on the road to Cosa, in Etroria. They are still in repute for 
their medicinal virtues, and in the course of some alterations made in the 
modem building in the b^inning of the year 1852, was discovered an 
abandoned receptacle of the thermal waters which was strewed with 
metallic objects, of copper or brass, apparently representing monies of 
very rude character. On the 22nd January, 1852, the Italian Savant 
from whom we quote, inq)ected them personally, and came to the 
conclusion that they were the tribute paid by the Pagans frequenting 
the baths to the Divinities, Guardians of the Fountain; and in support 
of that conclusion refers to the practice of the Roman citizens to pay 
tribute to the Lake Curzio for the safety of Octavius Caesar, recorded 
by Suetonius, to the practice of the Egyptians (according to Seneca), 
to pay tribute to the Nile, and that of the Etruscans, to the Lake of 
Falterona, as well as of the Umbrians to the river Olitunmus, as 
described by Pliny. The Italian writer then proceeds to give us a 
general description of the " monies discovered," to the greater part of 
which he ascribes a prehistoric date, " ad una Eta anteriore alia nostra 
istoria," for the most part without inscription, and passing by weight ; 
and he brings them down no lower than the fourth century after the 
foundation of the city of Rome. Whether the deposits were made before 
or after this abandoned reservoir ceased to be used for its original 
purposes cannot now be ascertained, but it seems improbable in this case, 
as well as in the case of Borvona, that waters, having medicinal pro- 
perties, should have been polluted by enormous deposits of copper. 

In this abandoned reservoir were also found a quantity of cups 
and other vessels of bronze, and some of silver ; a correspondent of the 
newspapers describes them as vessels of gold and silver. Visions of 
Dr. Schliemann and Mycenae have disturbed our notions of metals. 

Having thus investigated the several cases which have occurred 
abroad which can be considered in any degree analogous to the present 
case, finally we must consider discoveries in Britain where the worship 
of water deities, and of springs and running waters seems to have 
been less popular than in warmer climates. 

In the month of June, 1875, in a meadow near the village of 



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DISOOYEBED NEAB TO PKOOOLITIA. 29 

Horton, in the comity of Dorset, on a gravel bed, over part of which 
flowed a streamlet, were fonnd some perfect fictile yases, and a quantity 
of fragments of similar vases ; and lying in the gravel amongst other 
objects 189 Roman coins, of which sixty-four were incapable of 
identification, and seventy-five were deciphered, the earliest being a coin 
of Augustus, and the latest a coin of Yalens, A.D. 864, more than half 
of the whole number being of the Constantine femily. The coins 
are described as first, second, and third brass and minimi, and as 
being generally in the worst possible condition, and many of them 
hopelessly illegible ; we are indebted to the unerring eye and perfect 
knowledge of Mr. Boach Smith tor the identification which has been 
effected. 

Dr. Wake Smart suggests that "the objects so found are the 
remains of offerings to the Numen, Nymph, or Genius Lod, who was 
imagined to preside over the water of that spring." 

But there are no remains of buildings indicating the existence in 
times past of any temple or other structure for the purposes of the 
worship of the divinity of the stream, or the receipt of offerings. 

One of the correspondents of the newspapers refers to the excavation 
of the bridge of Cilumum as productive of the discovery of a deposit 
of coins. This is altogether a mistake. The &ct is that the eastern 
land abutment of the bridge of Cilumum was discovered in 1860, and 
was excavated in that and the following year. No deposit of coins was 
discovered, but amongst the ruins of the fortifications and buildings 
connected with the bridge were picked up in different places some 
scattered coins not exceeding the average number produced by exca- 
vations on Boman ground. The excavation is recorded in the 
" Archseologia -Sliana."i 

The last case in England to which our attention has been called is 
the discovery of Boman coins in October, 1878, on Lord Selbome's 
estate of Blackmoor Park, in Hampshire; a paper descriptive of which 
was read by his lordship in the Town Hall of Alton, in February, 1877. 
We have before us a copy of that paper from which we learn how ably 
an able man can deal with any subject, however new to him. 

On the 80th October, 1878, were found at a depth of two feet 
below the present surface, on Lord Selbome's estate, two earthenware 

* See Vol. VI., p. 80, New Series of *« ArchsDologia iEaiana." 

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30 DESOBIPnON OF BO]£AN BEKAINS 

vases or pots, contaming 29,802 Boman coins, all of the lower empire. 
Of these coins 24,985 have been identified, extending over a period of 
about fifty years, viz., from Qordian III., A.D. 288, to Constans, aj). 
292. About 5,000 of the coins were laid aside as incapable of identi- 
fication. 

It is a singular feature in this hoard of coins, that of the 24,985 
coins which have been identified no less than 14,254 are coins of Tetricus 
and his son. 

It is not stated that these coins were near any spring or rivulet, or 
the remains of any temple or other building, and it seems probable 
that they constituted the hoard of some provident individual, who did 
not contemplate their passing into any other hands than his own. 

Having thus before us all the information we can obtain, either at 
home or abroad, bearing on the subject, and likely to afford precedents 
for our guidance, we must now trace the history of the goddess Coven- 
tina and her temple, and its contents, and consider the peculiar 
circumstances of the present case, and how far the precedents referred 
to are applicable to it. 

The date of the foundation of the temple may, with tolerable 
certainty, be assumed to be the reign of Antoninus Pius; that 
emperor, though he protected from persecution both the Christians 
and the Jews, was himself devotedly attached to the ancient religion 
established in his country^ and was in &ct a sincere and devout Pagan.^ 
It is natural that the spirit of the emperor should be infused into his 
subjects, and that the military prefect in command of the garrison of 
Procolitia, should be aminded to erect a Pagan temple. In the selection 
of a divinity and a site for the temple, he probably had the assistance of 
the Pagan priests. The site fixed on was at that time a wooded glade^ 
through which flowed a copious stream of pure water, and the divinity 
selected was a water deity. Thus rose firom earth the temple of the 
goddess Coventina ; it was built of stone, and by inside measurement^ 
was 40 feet by 88 feet ; the recent excavation has unearthed the lower 
courses of the outer walls of the temple, which are 8 feet in thickness. 
In the middle of the space inclosed by these walls was placed a well 
encased with substantial masonry. The dimensions of the well, since it 

* See Merivale's ''Romans under the Empire," Vol. VIII., cap. Ixvii. 



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DISCOVERED NEAR TO PROCOLITU. 81 

was first opened, are diminished to a trifling extent since the well was 
emptied, in consequence of the walk having bulged inwards. The inside 
of the well now measures 8 feet 4 inches by 7 feet 2 inches, its depth is 
at present 7 feet ; but it has originally been deeper, as a higher course 
of stones has evidently been removed, and the floor of the temple has 
evidently been higher than the present level of the ground. This must 
be ascribed to the wearing away of the soil by a constant stream of 
water flowing down the valley. The well, outside the masonry, is cased 
with clay of the thickness of about 2 feet, the effect of which would be to 
render it watertight. The depth of the well, as weU as its structure, 
would seem un&vourable to the supposition that it was intended for 
or used as a bath. Inside the walls of the temple would be placed the 
votive tablet to the goddess, recording the name and rank of the dedi- 
cator, Titus Domitius Oosconianus. Around the temple and within 
its walls, no doubt, were ranged, as in the case of the goddess Sequana, 
the altars and vases inscribed to the goddess by individual worshippers; 
and the priests seem to have kept in store in the temple a collection of 
blank altars, some whoUy and others partially finished, ready to receive 
the dedication of devotees. The temple having been thus established, 
together with its priests, seems to have prospered. Offerings came 
in, altars were inscribed and dedicated, and love-sick damsels cast 
into the well their spare trinkets in the hope of obtaining the counte- 
nance of the goddess in their views. To these interesting ladies we 
are doubtless indebted for the brooches, rings, and beads, found in 
the weU. The waste of current money, if thrown to any extent into the 
water by way of offering, must have been most unsatisfactory to the 
Pagan priests, and is the most difficult feature with which we have to 
deal. Such a waste of current money did not take place in the case of 
the goddess Sequana, where the coins of three centuries, evidently the 
firuits of innumerable offerings, were found collected in a vase ; and it 
is impossible to say that such a waste did take place in the fountain of 
Bandusia, in the thermal waters of Borvona, or in the Acque Appol- 
linari, but it did take place, to some extent, in rivers and lakes, in the 
Glitumnus, the Nile, and in the lakes Oirzio and Faltirona, which would 
be firee fix)m the inspection or control of the Pagan priests. 

The opening of the temple of the goddess Coventina, in the reign 
of Antoninus Pius, would, no doubt, attract devotional offerings of 
money, which might possibly escape the grasp of the Pagan priests, and 



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82 DESCRIPTION OF ROMAN REMAINS 

I* 

be tirown into the welL To this circmnfitance may probably be 
ascribed the deposit in the well of some portion of coins found in it, 
and this notion is &Yonred by the drcomstance of there being fonnd 
amongst the coins taken out of the well, coins of the third consnlate 
(a.d. 140), and of the fourth consulate (a.d. 145), of Antoninus Pius, 
which have never been in circulation. Some of these are shown in the 
Plate which is here introduced. 

The temple and the worship of the goddess Coventina would seem 
to have been maintained for more than two centuries and a half. In 
the reign of Constantine the Great, the Pagan religion received its first 
heavy blow. But Constantine was no theologian, and introduced the 
Christian religion into the Roman army, solely from motives of policy, 
as he found his Christian more reliable than his Pagan soldiers. 

The temple stood and the priests flourished during the reigns of 
the succeeding emperors, including that of Gratian, with whom the 
collection of coins found in the well terminates. There are found none of 
the coins of Magnus Maximus, issued during his usurpation for three 
years of Britain, Gaul, and Spain. In the year 886 the edicts of 
Theodosius for the extermination of the Pagan superstition, which had 
been enforced in the Eastern Empire were extended to the Western 
Empire. The temple of the goddess Sequana, in Gaul, was sacked and 
burnt, and the altars and objects of sculpture in it were broken and 
defaced. The priests of the goddess Coventina seem to have foreseen 
the approaching storm, and to have saved from plunder the contents 
of their treasury, and from desecration the votive tablet and altars and 
other objects then in the temple, including a dozen blank altars prepared 
for the purpose of receiving inscriptions, by depositing them for con- 
cealment in the weU; there is not a fracture or a scratch on any of 
them, and amongst the altars so deposited were carefully placed two 
votive vases of fragile material and delicate workmanship, which are 
quite undamaged. The priests of the temple were probably glad 
to escape with their lives from the danger of the persecution of Theo- 
dosius. The fluid state of the interior of the weU would naturally lead 
to mixture and confusion in the objects deposited. 

In the absence of positive proof the date and circumstances of the 
fate of the Temple of Coventina can only be matter of conjecture. So 
fer our conjecture has been founded on the precedent of the fate of the 
Temple of the goddess Sequana. The peculiar position of the Temple of 



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DISOOYEBED NSAB TO PfiOOOLITU. SS 

Coventina, under shelter of the fortress of Procolitia, on the line of 
defence against an aggressiye foe^ renders it not improbable that the 
deposition in the well as a place of safety may have been occasioned 
by a successM inroad of the Caledonians ; or it may be supposed to 
be possible that in this remote part of the Roman Empire the worship 
of the goddess Coventina might possibly survive the edicts of Theodosius 
for a few years, and her temple might be preserved until the Romans 
abandoned Britain, and the brave Batavian cohort, after holding a post 
of danger in the feoe of the Caledonians for more than two centuries 
and a half, marched with the Sixth Legion^ to con&ont on the soil of 
Italy the invading hordes of Attila. 

In either of the latter cases the contents of the military chest might 
be added to the contents of the treasury of the temple, and swell the 
number of the coins. 

The value of coins is due to the light they throw upon history, and 
it will be obvious that they have not been useless in the present investi- 
gation. In the paper read in December last it was stated that the 
series of coins taken from the well of Coventina commenced with 
Claudius and ended with Gratian, but that probably earlier and later 
coins might be found on further examination. No later coins than 
those of Gr^an have been identified, but earlier coins have been found, 
viz., coins of Augustus, Agrippa, Tiberius, Drusus, and Germanicus, and 
three silver coins of a stiU earlier period, viz., three of the coins of Marcus 
Antonius the Triumvir, which were coined by Mark Antony in honour of 
the legions which adhered to his cause, very shortly before the fatal battle 
of Actium, from which, " yielding to the timid tear in Cleopatra's eye,'*^ 
Mark Antony (a brave man) fled before the fortunes of Octavius. The 
battle of Actium dates thirty years before the Christian era, and Gratian, 
with whose coins the collection ends, became emperor aj). 367, and 
was assassinated a.d. 883, so that the coins in Coventina's well may 
be considered as extending over 400 years. Many of the emperors 
during that period will be found represented in the series. That re- 

* The Sixth Legion, having its head-qnarters at York, unquestionably remained' 
in the North of England tiU the final departure of the Romans from Britain, and 
was the leg^n to which Claudian refers : — 

" Venlt et extramifl Leglo pnetenta Britamxls, 
Qua Sooto d»t frana truof, teiroqae noftatM 
Perlegii exMnfues Ptcto moriente UgaitB," 



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84 DESCRIPTION OF ROMAN REMAINS 

presentation, however, would have been more complete, but for an 
untoward circumstance. For a whole Sunday during the time occupied 
in emptying the well, a party of thirty or forty men, chiefly miners 
from the lead districts, were in full possession of it, and carried 
away two or three thousands of the coins. In the peaceful and 
well ordered county of Northumberland, where all classes are united 
in respect for, and in support of, the laws of their country, such a 
raid could not have been anticipated, and the presence of a single 
policeman would have prevented it. The perpetrators, it is be- 
lieved, were under the impression that "the coins belonged to the 
Ancient Romans," and that there could be no harm in taking them. 
On account of numismatists, this interruption to the series is much 
to be regretted, but we may console ourselves by the reflection, that 
the coins which remain are sufficient for the purposes of history, and 
that to the world at large it is a matter of indifference whether xjoins 
are rare or common, or even whethex LaUii bronze coins of Otho have 
been found elsewhere than at Birmingham, in which seat of manufac- 
turing industry they have been occasionally produced. 

Considerable progress has been made by Dr. Bruce, Canon Green- 
well, and our colleague Mr. Blair (a skilled numismatist), in the 
identification of the coins, and an early visit to them of Mr. Soach 
Smith, the most accomplished numismatist of the age, is expected.* 

Amongst the numerous individuals who have given us the benefit 
of their views and opinions, one individual only has entered upon a 
criticism of the readings of the inscriptions presented to the Society in 
the paper of December last, and we gratefully receive criticism as a 
test of truth. 

The readings in question, it will be remembered, were sanctioned 
by Professor Hiibner, of the University of Berlin, one of the learned 
men selected for the compilation of that great German work, the 
"Latin Inscriptions of the World," and by our colleague. Dr. Bruce, of 
whose high qualification and eminent fitness to deal with the subject, the 
fruits of a whole life devoted to it, we are every one of us fiilly sensible. 

The critic referred to is a gentleman of Liverpool, who addresses 

* Mr. Roach Smith has since, with the assistance of Mr. Blair and Dr. Brace, 
made a thorough examination of the coins, and the result of that eminent anti- 
quarian and nnmismatisfs examination is now appended to this paper. 



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DISCX)yEBED NEAB TO PBOOOLITU. 85 

a letter to the editor of the "Newcastle Daily Chronicle," which appears 
in the publication of that newspaper of the 27th December, 1876. 
The critic begfais with the announcement of the grave fact, that " with the 
readings and expansions of the inscriptions he is by no means satisfied." 

The gravity of the situation thus produced is, however, much miti- 
gated by the statement which follows of the grounds of dissatisfaction, 
which we will proceed to examine. 

The first in order of the objects of criticism are the inscriptions on 
the two unique fictile vases presented to the goddess as offerings by 
Satuminus Gabinius ; these inscriptions have been incised by some 
sharp pointed instrument on the clay of which the vase is composed 
whilst stiD wet, and the letters of the inscriptions are divided amongst 
the panels of the vases. 

We must not forget that in reading these inscriptions we are 
reading the manuscript of a potter and not of a scholar. 

The critic deals first with the vase No. 1, and asks " what meaning 
does Mr. Clayton put upon votv maitibvs svis?i It is obvious 
that the potter has omitted the final letter of Votum for want of room 
on the panel of the vase on which the syllable is written, and it surely 
cannot be necessary to remind this gentleman that the Latin word 
Votum is used to express the object offered to the deity, as well as the 
vow to offer it, or to ask him to open his Virgil for an example. 

" Lustramnrque Jovi, Totisque inoendimus aras." 

Vide " Vir^ JJndd," Lib. III., 279. 

With this knowledge no one can have any difficulty in reading, and 
understanding this inscription. 

The critic takes exception to the form of some of the potter's letters, 
which we need not notice, and then gives us his own construction of 
the inscription as "a dedication to the goddess by a vow to her shades 1 1 ! 
This is " what the critic makes" of VoTV Maiubvs Svis.' The^ is not, 

* The precise language of the critic, transcribed from his letter appearing in the 
"Newcastle DaUy Chronicle" of the 27th December, 1876, is this, *• What meaning 
does Mr. Clayton put upon votv manibvs stis, especially when it follows a 
dedication to the goddess! * To Coventina Augusta, by a vow to her shades, is, to 
say the least of it, very singular. ..." 

* If the critic had been a grammarian, he would have known that Manibts Svis 
belonged not to the goddess, but to the dedicator the potter, and then it might have 
occnrred to him that the potter would have more occasion for his hands than for his 
shades in manufacturing his pots. 



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S6 DBSCBIPTION OF ROMAN BEMAINS 

and there cannot be the slightest diflBculty or doubt as to any part of 
this inscription, as will be made apparent by a repetition of its letters 
and of the reading:— 

COVBNTINA AGVSTA VOTV 
MANIBVS 8VI8 SATVENINVS FECIT GABINIVS. 

The reading — 

COVENTINAB AVGVSTAB VOTVM MANIBVS 8VIB SATVENINVS FECIT 

GABINIVS. 

The translation is obvious to the meanest capacity — '* Satuminus 
(Jabinius with his own hands made [this] offering to Coventina 
Augusta." 

This is "the meaning which Mr. Clayton puts on VoTV Manibvs 
Svis." 

The peculiarity of the separation of the first from the second name 
of the dedicator by the interposition of the verb fecit confounds the 
critic. 

This peculiarity, however, may be easily and satisfactorily accounted 
for. From the skill displayed in the construction of the vase, the dedi- 
cator must have been a skilled artist, and must have acquired some 
celebrity in the exercise of his craft; he would probably be known in 
the Roman camp as " Satuminus Fictor," Satuminus the potter, and 
his second name would be little used and b'ttle known. The dedicator, 
writing on the soft day, probably in the first instance concluded the 
sentence with "Satuminus fecit," but it then occurred to him that he 
was not sufficiently identified, and that his second name must be added. 
He was unwilling to attempt to erase what he had inscribed on the 
clay and felt that he answered Us purpose by placing it after the 
verb. 

The vase No. 2 next passes through the process of criticism. The 
critic says " Mr. Clayton does not give the inscription on this vase." 
What Mr. Clayton says of this inscription is that " it was a barbarous 
abbreviation of the inscription on vase No. 1." The critic persists in 
his objection to the form of the potter's letters, but he tells us that he 
collects from this inscription that Satuminus was the donor, and 
Gabinius the maker of the vase, which he says "accounts for the 



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DISCOVERED NEAR TO PROCOLTTIA. 87 

position of the verb * fecit' on the inscription on vaae No. 1 between 
the two names of Satuminus and Gabinius" ! ! I ^ 

By means of a transcript of the letters taken from the vase itself 
and a proper reading and expansion of those letters we shall be able to 
ascertain whether this inscription was rightly treated by Mr. Clayton 
as an abbreviation of the inscription on vase No. 1, or whether the 
light thrown npon it by the critic is a true light. 

The letters are somewhat barbarous in shape and much inferior in 
distinctness to those which we find in the inscription on vase No. 1 ; 
but, substantially, there is no doubt about theii* meaning and effect, 
nor can there be substantially any doubt about the reading and expan- 
sion. 

The letters are — 

V CV GST SATVRNI GABINIVS. 

The reading — 

VOTVM COVENTINAB AVGVSTAE SATVRNINUS GABINIVS. 

Translation — 
An offering to Coventina Augusta — Satuminus Gabinius.' 

It is but an act of justice to the literary reputation of the potter 
to say that though he omits several letters in both inscriptions he intro- 
duces into neither of these a single wrong letter. 

The critic next takes in hand the votive tablet. 

The votive table is dedicated to the goddess Coventina by t. d. 
C08C0NIANVS, the Prefect in command of the First Cohort of Batavians. 
As the inscription given supplies only the initial letters of the two first 
names of the Prefect they can only be expanded by reference to the 
names occurring elsewhere. We are indebted to the world-wide ex- 
perience of Professor Hiibner for the expansion of Titus Domitius. 
With this, however, our critical Mend *^ is not by any means satisfied." 
In the first place, he insists upon the Prefect having four names in- 
stead of three, which addition he effects by converting a full stop, which 
follows the first initial letter " t " into one of the horizontal strokes of the 

' If the critic had heen a scholar, he woald have known that the interposition 
of words hetween the two names of the same individual not unfreqnently occurs in 
the classics, and an example will he found in the first Ode in the Fourth Book of 
the Odes of Horace. The poet interposes several words hetween the two names of 
his friend, Paulus Maximus, without disturbing the sense. 

' There is some doubt whether what appears to be the letter ** v** may not be 
what is called a leaf -stop. This is, however, quite immaterial, as, if totvm is not 
expressed, it must be understood. 



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88 DESCRIPTION OF BOMAN REMAINS 

letter **f," he thus interpolates FfiAViUB, he converts Professor Hiibner's 
Domitins into Decimus,* and, in happy self-confidence, gives us as the 
Prefect's names, "titvs flavivs decimvs oosconianvs." 

The inscription on altar No. 1 is aUowed to pass without comment. 
The altar No 2, which is dedicated by a German recruit, is not so 
fortunate as to escape criticism; but the only question seems to 
be whether the name of the dedicator, which on the stone is 
MA DVHVS, is to be read manlivs dvhvs, as expanded by Professor 
Hubner, or madvnvs, as expanded by the Liverpool critic. If 
the recruit had been ifrom Lancashire or Cheshire, the Liverpool 
authority would have been property resorted to ; but as the recruit 
was from Germany, a reference to an authority at Berlin would seem 
on this occasion to be more to the pm^pose ; and whether the recruit 
used either one or the other name seems to be an immaterial feet. 

No objection is offered to the readings of the inscriptions on the 
remaining altars, save to that on altar No. 8, which was offered with 
diffidence in consequence of the unskilfiilness of the sculptor. 

Whatever doubt may exist as to the right reading of this inscrip- 
tion, it is quite clear that the reading of the critic is wrong. His 
amendment consists in reading the first letter of what appears to be a 
proper name as the first letter of the initials v s l m, with which the 
dedication of altars almost uniformly concludes, overlooking the cir- 
cumstance that the letter " v " occurs in a subsequent part of the inscrip- 
tion which is properly its place. 

Having thus gone through the several objections taken to the read- 
ings of the several inscriptions sanctioned by Professor Hiibner and Dr. 
Bruce, and placed before the Society on the 2nd of December last, we 
arrive at the conclusion that none of these objections are tenable. 

The owner of the well of Coventina and its contents presents to the 
Society engravings of the principal objects described, from which the 
accuracy of the description may be tested, and also of some minor ob- 
jects found in the well (already referred to, page 4), particularly a 
miniature bust in bronze of the goddess, which does justice to her 
features, which are somewhat fiattened in the stone representation of 
them on the Votive Tablet. This bust is accompanied by two other 

* The critic, if he be at aU versed in Roman nomenclature, must know that 
Decimus like Titus is a praenomen, and therefore, here entirely out of place. 



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DISCOVERED NBAS TO PROCOLITIA. 89 

bronze busts found with it> busts personifying mirth and melancholj^ 
L'AUegro, and H Penseroso, the broad grin on the fiice of the one, and 
the length of visage of the other, are highly comic. 



At our meeting of the 2nd December last the attention of the 
Society was drawn to an altar to Minerva, which had been found at 
Procolitia since the publication of the " Lapidarium Septentrionale ; " 
this altar is dedicated by the prefect of a cohort, indicated by the letters 
COH. CI. The same critic in his letter to the press of the 20th of 
December last refers to a suggestion which he had made sometime 
previously to the effect that the letters "c i" must be expanded either 
** Celtiberorum" or " Cugemorum." However valuable may be this 
suggestion, we must be excused if we hesitate to accept it as conclusive. 
The First Cohort of the Celtiberi was in Britain in the reign of Trajan, 
A.D. 106, as is evidenced by the diploma of thatemperor, of that date 
(vide " Lapidarium Septentrionale, page 6"), but it has left no other 
record of its presence in Britain, and at the date of the **Notitia Im- 
perii" this cohort was in Italy stationed in the province of Venetia 
inferior. 

The First Cohort of the Cugemi, who are sometimes called Cubemi, 
is named in the diploma of Trajan, and is also named in the diploma 
of Hadrian, a.d. 124 (vide "Lapidarium Septentrionale," p. 7), as one 
of the cohorts of the army serving in Britain under Aulus Platorius 
Nepos, and doubtless employed in building the Roman Wall. On an 
altar found in the well, the First Cohort of the Cugemi have inscribed 
on the face of the altar their national name at full length. In cases 
where the nationality of a cohort or an ala is expressed by a contrac- 
tion it almost uniformly consists of three letters, as bat. for Batavi and 
AST. for Astures; and it. seems probable that if either of these two 
cohorts had been the cohort dedicating this altar, and had adopted the 
unusual course of expressing its nationality by two letters, those letters 
would have been either c e. or o u. and not o i. as on the stone. 

Antiquarians in general are of opinion that two letters do not afford 
sufficient grounds for any conclusion, and we must hope that a stone 
may be found on which the cohort may give us more letters of its 
name. 



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40 DBSCRIPTION OF BOMAN REMAINS 



OBSERVATIONS OP DE. BEUCE IN PRESENTING THE 
SUBSEQUENT PAPER TO THE SOCIETY. 

I HAVE to submit to the Society a paper prepared by Mr. C. Roach 
Smith upon the coins fomid in Coventina's Fountain at Procolitia. 
Those who looked upon the enormous mass of coin (for the most part 
in a highly corroded condition) when it was first brought to Mr. Clay- 
ton's residence, at Chesters, were disposed to despair of ever being 
able to give an intelligent account of it. By persevering dihgence and 
hard work, the task has at last been accomplished. Canon Greenwell, 
Mr. Blair, of South Shields, and myself did a good deal (Mr. Blair 
especially) to reduce the heap to order and to arrange the several coins 
under the heads of the different emperors. Mr. C. Roach Smith, 
whose skill as a numismatist and extensive archaeological knowledge, 
especially in the Roman field, are well known, then examined the 
whole, and has embodied his views in a paper which will be printed in 
the "Archaeologia -Slliana." This paper I now submit to the 
meeting. 

The first part of it contains a tabular view of the coins, showing 
the number of gold, silver, and first, second, and third brass pieces 
belonging to each emperor. As this is scarcely adapted for reading 
aloud, I will here give a brief summary of it. 

The number of coins resulting jfrom this "find" in Mr. Clayton's 
possession is 13,487 ; of these about two thousand are unrecognisable 
in consequence of wear and corrosion. In addition to these, at least 
three thousand came into the hands of other parties. The whole 
amount of treasure in the well must have been at least fifteen or six- 
teen thousand. 

Four gold coins are amongst the number— -one of Nero, one of 
Sabina, the wife of Hadrian, one of Antoninus Pius, and one of Julia 
Domna, the wife of Severus. 

One hundred and eighty-four denarii (silver coins) have come into 
Mr. Clayton's possession. The rest are bronze and copper coins. The 
series begins with three silver coins of the time of Marc Antony, 
about 30 years before Christ, and it ends with Gratian, who was kiUed 



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mSOOYEBED NEAR TO PROCOUTIA. 41 

A.D. 888. The nnmber of emperors and imperial personages repre- 
sented is not less than 90. 

Of the early emperors, Augustus and Tiberius are scantily repre- 
sented. There are 20 coins of Claudius, and more than 60 of Nero. 
There are six of (Jalba and one of Otho. Of the coins of Vespasian 
and Titus there are 650. Domitian has 485 and Nerva 82. After 
this the coins become still more numerous. Of Trajan there are 
1,772, of Hadrian and his wife Sabina 2,431, of Antoninus Pius and 
his wife Faustina 2,829, of Marcus Aurelius and his wife Faustina, 
the younger, there are 1,855. After this the coins decrease in number, 
Lucius Verus and his wife Lucilla have 170, Commodus and his wife 
246. Up to this point the bronze coinage greatly preponderates, the 
silver coins being very few in number comparatively. About the 
time of Severus the silver preponderates. Of Septimius Severus and 
his wife, Julia Domna, there are only 64 pieces, but of these 36 are 
silver. Caracalla has 10 denarii, but only three of bronze. Of the 
later emperors, Constantine the Great is most largely represented, 
there being 200 of his coins. The Constantine family are also largely 
represented. 

Another important section of Mr. C. Roach Smith's paper consists 
of his remarks upon the rarer reverses found amongst the large mass of 
coins. He did not meet with any that are absolutely new to numis- 
matists, but with several that are rare, and many that are highly 
interesting. Amongst the rare coins may be mentioned a first brass 
of Didius Julianus, a denarius of Didia Clara, a second brass of Julia, 
the daughter of Titus, a denarius of Clodius Albinus, and a coin of 
Julia Aquilia. There is also a specimen of the DiscipUna type of 
Hadrian, which is rare, and one of the consecration type of Antoninus 
Pius. In the list the reader will find others which need not be enu- 
merated here. 

Amongst the coins of great interest, though not ranking amongst 
those of great rarity, are specimens of a second brass Britannia of 
Hadrian, of a large brass Britannia of Antoninus Pius, and a large 
brass Britannia of Commodus. But the most remarkable fact respect- 
ing this class of coins is that in Mr. Clayton's possession there are not 
less than 827 of the second brass coin struck in the reign of Anto- 
ninus Pius to commemorate the complete subjugation of Britain and 

F 



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42 DESCBIPTION OF ROMAN REMAINS 

the building of the Scottish WalL It was too bad to innndate the 
country with coin reminding the poor BritouB of their humiliation 
and defeat. We have also in the "find" specimens of theJttdaa 
Capta of Vespasian and Titus, the Fisci Judaici type of Nerva, several 
of the Adventus coins of Hadrian such as Achaia, Africa, Bithyma, 
Bispania; and the Christian monogram on the coins of Magnentius. 
There are many coins of the British Emperors Garausius and Allectus^ 
but none of the rare type. 



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SISOOTBBED inSAB TO PBOCOLITIA. 



48 



NUMERICAL VIEW OF THE COINS. 



Bead 4tu Febbuabt, 1878. 



Smpxror. 


Gk>LD. 


BlLYXB. 


In Brass. 


2in>BEAS8. 


TOTAL. 


Mabc Antony 




8 






8 


Augustus 


... 


••• 


2 


1 


8 


M. Aqbippa 




... 


••• 


... 


1 


1 


TlBEKTUS 




• •• 


•• • 


... 


1 


1 


Drusus 




.•• 


... 


••• 


1 


1 


Germanicus 




... 


... 


«•• 


2 


2 


Claudius 




... 


••■ 


2 


18 


20 


Nero... 




1 


1 


• •• 


50 


52 


Galea 




• •• 


... 


6 


... 


6 


Otho ... 




• •• 


I 


• •• 


••• 


1 


Vespasiaii 
Titus 




... 


I] 


65 


476 


5501 


JULL/l TiTI 




• •• 




.•• 


1 


1 


DOMITIAN 




••• 


8 


189 


338 


485 


Nbrva 




... 


1 


43 


88 


82 


Trajan 




• •. 


18 


980 


779 


1,772 


Hadrian 




• •• 


8 


1,404 


918 


2,880 


Sabina 




1 


1 


58 . 


41 


101 


L. Aelius 


•• ... 


..• 


• •• 


16 


14 


80 


Antoninus Pius ... 


1 


12 


910 


891) 
827 


2,141 


Do. Britannia type 


... 


••• 


••• 


Faustina I 


• •• 


6 


275 


407 


688 


M. AURELTUS 


• •• 


8 


845 


814 


667 


Faustina II. 


• •• 


12 


259 


895 


666 


L. Verus '. 


.. 


• •• 


1 


56 


24 


81 


LUCILLA , 


•• •.. 


.>. 


2 


74 


18 


89 


COMMODUS . 


.. ••• 


• •• 


5 


189 


18 


207 


Crispina 


•• •.• 


... 


1 


86 


2 


89 


DiDIUS JULIANUS . . . 




• •• 


1 


• •• 


1 


DiDiA Clara 


... 


1 


a*. 


• •• 


1 


Clodius Albinus ... 


... 


2 


• •• 


... 


2 


Sept. Severus 


... 


22 


20 


... 


42 


JUTJA DOMNA 


1 


17 


4 


... 


22 


Carried foi 


rward ... 


10,087 



* Owing to the corroded state of most of the pieces, and the resemblance 
between the coins of Vespasian and Titus, it has not been found practicable to give 
tbem separately. 



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44 



DESCRIPTION OF BOHAH REMAINS 
NUMERICAL VIEW OP THE COINS.— CoNmrnw). 



Emfxbob. 


SiLYSB. 


UifBaABB. 


IndBbabs. 


SboBb 


Aas. TOTAL 


Brought forward ... 






... 


• . 


. 10,087 


Caracalla 


10 


8 


... 


.. 


18 


PLAurn.LA 


2 


... 


• •• 


«« 


2 


Gbta 


1 


.•• 


• •• 


• • 


1 


Elagabalus 


8 


... 


... 


,, 


8 


JuTJA Paula 


1 


... 


... 


.. 


1 


Aquilia Sbvera ... 


1 


... 


• •• 


.. 


1 


Julia Soaemias 


1 


... 


... 


.. 


1 


JuLLi Maesa 


2 


... 


... 


.. 


2 


Sev. Alexander ... 


4 


4 


... 


i 


! 10 


Julia Mamaea 


6 


1 


1 


,, 


8 


Maxtmtnus I. 


... 


1 


... 


• a 


I 


MAxmus 


... 


1 


... 


.. 


1 


GoRDiANUS Pius ... 


2 


1 


1 


.. 


4 


Philippus I 


2 


2 


... 


a. 


4 


Philippus II. 


1 


... 


1 


«« 


2 


Etbuscilla 


1 


... 


••• 


,, 


1 


Trebonianus Gatj.us 


1 


• a. 


... 


.•4 


1 


Valerian 


2 


... 


• •• 


] 


8 


Gallienus 


8 


... 


... 


8( 


> 88 


Salonina 


2 


... 


... 


2 


1 4 


Claudius Gothicus... 




• •• 


• «. 


72 


! 72 


QUINTILLUS 




... 


... 


« 


1 8 


AURELTAN 




... 


• •• 


IC 


» 10 


POSTUMUS 




1 


... 


2S 


) 85 


ViCTORINUS 




• •. 


... 


71 


71 


Marius 




• • 


... 


•1 


1 


TheTETRioi 




... 


«•. 


81 


81 


Tacitus 




... 


... 


li 


• 15 


Probus 




... 


«•• 


IS 


) 19 


Carinus 




... 


... 


1 


1 


Diocletian 




... 


18 


• ai 


18 


Maximian 




... 


39 


7 


46 


Carausius 




... 


... 


25 


. 25 


Allectus 




... 


... 


16 


16 


CONSTANTIUS 




... 


18 


12 


' . 27 


Helena 




... 


... 


11 


11 


Theodora 




... 


• a. 


1 


1 


Severus II 




... 


2 


..• 


2 


Maximinus IL 




• •• 


2 


7 


9 


Maxentius 

Carried forward ... 


... 


• •. 


2 


••■ 


2 


10,708 



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DISOOYEBED NSAB TO PBOCOLITIA. 



45 



NUMERICAL VIEW OP THE COINS.— CoKTiinJBD. 



Empbkob. 


SILVX&. 




2KDBBA88. 




TOTAI.. 


Brought forward... 




.• 


• .• 


• •* 


10,708 


LiCINIUS 




... 


1 


14 


15 


CONSTANTINB 




• «. 


8 


197 


200 


Fausta 




• •• 


..• 


8 


8 


Cbispus 




• >. 


• •. 


21 


21 


CONSTANTINE 11. 




• •• 


• ** 


66 


66 


CONSTANS 




... 


... 


25 


25 


Magnentius 




• •. 


... 


80 


80 


Decentius 




... 


• •■ 


8 


8 


CONSTANTIUS II. 






• •• 


12 


12 


Constantine Famtt.yi 




... 




... 


280 


Urbs Roma 




... 




• •• 


67 


CONSTANTINOPOLIS ... 




... 


... 


• •• 


62 


Valentinian 




• •• 


... 


1 


1 


Valens 




• •• 


... 


• •• 


6 


Gbatian 




• •• 


... 


.•• 


15 


Small Brass, illegible 




• •• 


..« 


• •• 


27 


Illegible— chiefly Ist 










2,000 


and 2nd Brass, about 


•• * 


• a. 


..• 


Gbebk of Neapolis, 


• •• 






1 


1 


much worn 

Total 


... 


... 


18,487 



The preyailing state of this large accumulation of coins is dedsiye 
evidence of long circulation as a medium of traffic. By far the larger 
number is identified from the outlines only of portraits and reverses; 
and more than two thousand have been laid on one side as not to be 
identified, so detrited are they from the wear and tear of commerce. 
The latest in point of date are not exempt from this peculiar general 
condition. This fact must weigh materially in forming a verdict on 
the cause of the deposit of the coins ; on the time when they were 
deposited ; and also in considering whether they were thrown into the 
fountain from time to time as votive offerings ; or whether they were 
hastily buried in mass for concealment. To the former supposition 
the unusually large number is not favourable. On the contrary, so 
lavish an investment for the favours of a local divinity who, as other 

* In consequence of the corroded state of most of these coins it has been 
found impracticable to assign many to the proper individuals. 



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46 DESOBIFTION OF ROMAN REMAINS 

altars testiiy^ did not monopolise the worship of the garrisons of Pro- 
colitia, is beyond all reasonable belief in the extent of the wealth or 
the piety of the neighbourhood. That coins were offered at shrines 
is well known ; and those discovered at the sources of the Seine^ given 
to the Dea SequUna, are an interesting example. But they do not 
support a votive offering theory applied to the coins in the fountain 
of the Dea GovmUna, 

The money offerings to Sequana had been carefully placed in a small 
earthen vessel, inclosed in a large urn, upon the neck of which was an 
inscription testifying that it had been the gift of one Bufus. These coins, 
886 in number, range from Augustus to Magnus Maximus ; and they 
were mostly in a perfect state of preservation, indicating that they had 
been deposited at different epochs and by different individuals, who 
appear to have selected the freshest and least worn coins. It is pro- 
bable they had been preserved in the temple until the period when 
danger was at hand ; and that then one of the priests placed them in 
the vase, which he buried. It will be seen that the circumstances under 
which the two deposits are presented to our criticism are widely dif- 
ferent. Deposited in the large urn, and surrounding the small one, 
were 120 «c votos cut from thin plates of bronze and silver ; and scat- 
tered amongst the ruins of the temple were a great number of objects 
of marble, stone, bronze, and terra cotta, the offerings, doubtless, of 
persons who had benefitted by a resort to the shrine of the nymph, 
and which had originally been hung up in her temple.* 

Whatever may have been the exact positions of the coins in the 
fountain, they do not indicate a careful and gradual deposit ; but on 
the contrary, a sudden and hurried concealment. The altars especially 
confirm this conclusioa. They were intended for the eye, not for 
burial; but, as at Axelodunum, the altars when some great disaster 
was imminent, were carefully buried ; so at Procolitia, those in or 
aroimd the temple of Coventina, were taken to what was properly 
considered a place of safety ; but while their guardians found for them 
a secure sanctuary, they never returned to reclaim their treasure or 
to record their last vows. 

The time when the coins were entrusted to the fountain could not 
have been before the latter part of the reign of Gratian ; and it may 

* Rapport sor lee B^uvertes Arch^logiqaes faites anz purees de la Behie, 
par M. Henri Baudot. Dijon and Fans, 4to. 1846. 



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DISOOVBRBD NEAE TO PBOCOLITIA. 47 

have been somewhat^ but probably not mnch, later. The rebellion of 
Magnus Maximus and the withdrawal of many of the garrisons from 
Britain may be suggested. The casira on the line of the Wall most, 
at this period, have been left in an almost defenceless state; and 
although Britain and Gaul, by the defeat of Maximus, were recovered 
to the Empire, the military hold of the long line of fortresses of the 
Wall, must have been relaxed ; and probably never after effectually 
resisted the attacks of the Picts and Scots. 

Accepting this theory, that some panic was the caus6 of the con- 
cealment of the coins in mass, we may look upon the treasure as a fair 
representation of the money circulating at Procolitia at the close of 
the reign of Gratian. It is very obvious that in the times of Trajan, 
Hadrian, and the Antonines, an enormous amount of the larger copper 
coinage was sent into Britain, as well as into the other provinces ; 
for it is everywhere found in abundance, and prevailing over similar 
coinages in subsequent reigns. In the reign of Severus, silver pre- 
dominated ; and the imperial mint not only issued good silver, but 
also vast quantities of debased metal. In earlier times plated denarii 
were 6ent to the provinces ; but from Nero to Severus the practice 
seems to have been abolished. In the reign of Gk)rdian the Third, 
and subsequently, a larger kind of silver coinage was struck. This 
also is of inferior metal, degenerating into billon, or a metal merely 
washed with silver. In the time of Gonstantine small copper coins 
of all sizes were issued by the imperial mints in the provinces ; and 
these coins formed much of the currency to the fell of the western 
empire. The earlier coinages circulated simultaneously ; and must 
have been used commercially for centuries, accepted probably by 
weight only. In the fall of the Roman Empire the coinage bears a 
corresponding decline until it at last becomes extinguished in what are 
called, and not improperly, the dark ages. 



REVERSES. 

The rarer reverses only are given; and most of these are so 
detrited from circulation as only to be recognized from femiliarity with 
the types. 

Claudius.— Ob Gives Servatos, S.G. 
Vespasian and Titus. — Judaea Gapta. — Titles : an elephant. 



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48 DESCRIPTION OF BOKAK REMAINS 

DoMTTiAN. — ^Victory crowning the Emperor. 

Nerva. — ^A palm tree ; the " Fisci Judaici " type. — ^Two mules un- 
yoked ; " Vehiculatione Italic Eemissa." 

Trajan. — ^Via Trajana. — Trophies. — A recumbent female (Tellus) 
extending her hand to a large globe at her feet. — Emperor on 
horseback. — Victory crowning the Emperor. — Arabia Adquisita. 
— Dacia Capta. — ^A temple. — A bridge. — ^The Emperor standing 
upon a pediment ; on either side two small eagles. 

Hadrian. — Britannia (in middle brass). — Adventus Aug. — Adventui 
Aug. BithynisB. — ^Adventui Aug. Italiae. — Others of the Adveri- 
tus type. — ^Adlocutio. — Discipulina. — ^Varieties of the Galley type. 
— Temple of twelve columns. — Restitutori types. — Emperor on 
horseback. — Neptune. — Dada. — ^A river god.— Hispania. 

Lucius Aelius. — Pannonia. A personification of the Province, 
standing. 

Antoninus Pius. — Britannia. — Rex Armenis Datus. — Rex Parthis 
Datus. — Victory upon a globe (" Britannia " type). — Opi Aug. — 
Recumbent river god. — ^Aurelius Csesar. — Munificentia Aug. — 
Wolf and Twins. — ^Adventus. — Temple. — Bono Eventui. — Genio 
Senatus. — Emperor in Quadriga. — Junoni Sispitae. — Liberalitaa 
Aug. — ConoordisB ; four figures. — Primi Deoennales. — Divo Pio, 
Consecratio. — Mi. Divi Aug. Rest. ; a temple. 

Faustina the Elder. — ^Veneri Augustae. — Cybele. — Consecratio. 

Marcus Aurelius. — Primi Deoennales. — Juventas.— Consecratio. 

Faustina the Younger. — Temporum Felicit. ; a woman with six 
infents. — Fecunditas ; with four infents. — Saeculi Felicitaa ; two 
children in a light ornamented bed. — Moon and seven stars. — 
Sideribus Recepta. — Consecratio. 

Lucius Verus. — Liberalitas Augg. — Concordia Augg. — Consecratio. 

CoMMODUS. — ^Vict. Brit.— Serapidi Conservat. Aug.— Hercules by a 
Trophy. — Lib. Aug. HIT. The Emperor on an estrade and four 
figures. 

CiiODius Albinus. — Cos. IL -^sculapius. 

Severus. — VictoriaB Parthicae.— Cereri Frug. 

Julia Domna. — The Empress before four standards, as Mater Cas- 
trorum. 

Caracalla. — ^Vota Suscepta X. — a galley. — ^Vota Publica. — 

Profectio Aug. 



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DISCOVERED NBAB TO PROOOLITIA. 49 

ELAGABULUS.-Sacerd. Dei Solis Elagab. 

Aquilia Severa.— Concordia. 

Julia Mamaea. — Pietas Augusta. — Juno Gonflervatrix. 

Phileppus. — ^^temitas ; an elephant. 

PosTUMUS. — Eestit. Galliarum.— Serapidi Comiti Aug. 

Of the remainder it may be sufficient to remark that the coins of 
Carausius and Allectus, all of common types, have for mint marks M.L. 
and 0. (believed to be struck at Londinium and Camulodunum); and 
that the mint mark p.lon. occurs in coins of Crispus and the younger 
Constantine, the chief places of mintage being represented by the 
letters ptb., Treves ; plo., Lyons ; and const., Aries. 

C ROACH SMITH. 



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ROMAN MONUMENTAL 8T0NF— BATH 



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148 ROMAN INSCRIBED ALTARS, ETC., AT HOUSESTEADS. 



XVI.— ON THE DISCOVERY OF ROMAN INSCRIBED 
ALTARS, &c., AT HOUSESTEADS, NOVEMBER, 1883. 



(As the following five Papers and Appendix all relate to the same subject they 
are arranged continuously.) 



(1.) — By Mr. John Clayton, F,S.A., Vice President. 



Read 27th December, 1883. 



The interest of antiquarian discoveries depends much upon the localities 
in which they are made, and upon the circumstances by which they are 
attended. For the last seventy years our Society has done much for 
securing and recording these particulars. 

In the month of November last at the station of Borcovicus, a 
discovery was made of Roman objects of antiquity. Although the 
extent of the discovery and its final results have not yet been ascer- 
tained, it yet seems desirable that a record of what has been discovered 
should appear in the transactions of this Society, and by that means 
be correctly communicated to the antiquaries of the world. 

The contour of the station of Borcovicus with its environs is 
familiai'ly known to antiquaries in general. The fortress itself stands 
upon a basaltic precipice facing the north, and towards the south the 
ground descends gently, and both above and below the surface of the 
slope may be traced the massive remains of a large Romano-British 
town, which grew up under the protection of the fortress. At a dis- 
tance of more than a quarter of a mile south of the station, but within 
the limits of the town, there is a conical hill or knoll which is known 
amongst the inhabitants of the country as the Chapel Hill. Through 
the middle ages this name seems to have descended by tradition. In 
the beginning of the last century Borcovicus was visited by the cele- 
brated antiquary, Dr. Stukeley, accompanied by Mr. Roger Gale of 



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SCULPTUEBD StONB I 



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PLATE I. 




BOM HOU8ESTEAD8. 



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ROMAN INSCRIBED ALTARS, ETC., AT HOUSESTEADS. 149 

Scrafcon in Torkshire, much distinguished ns an amateur antiquary, 
and we find the particulars of that visit described in a publication of 
Dr. Stukelej's, styled "Iter Boreale." Dr. Stukeley and his companion 
were much struck by the quantity and quality of the Roman remains 
in and about this station, and he says that "The farmer carried us up 
to a knoll in the middle of the meadow called Chapel Stead, where 
undoubtedly was a Roman Temple." 

On its crest may be traced the foundations of a building, which 
have been assumed to have been a temple of the Persian sun-god 
Mithras. At the base of the western slope of this hill there runs a 
crystal stream, and by its side, in the year 1821, was discoTered a cave 
containing altars to Mithras, and other emblems of the worship of that 
god. At the base of the northern slope of the Chapel Hill, in the 
month of November last, the shepherd employed on the Housesteads 
Farm was attracted by a carved stone which reached the surface of 
the ground, and he communicated with an experienced excavator at 
the station of Cilumum, who, on the 17th November, dug up a 
sculptured stone and two altars to Mars, of which drawings from the 
pencil of our intelligent colleague, Mr. Blair, are now laid before the 
Society (see Plates I., II., and III.) ; and although the inscriptions on 
these altars have been somewhat damaged by time and exposure, yet 
every letter of them has, by means of the enlightened industry of 
Dr. Bruce and Mr. Blair, been ascertained to a certainty. 

The climate of this lofty region prevents the prosecution of works 
of excavation till the summer months, when it is probable some other 
objects which adorned the temple of Mars will be found, of which 
a description will be laid before the Society. In the meantime, the 
study of the inscriptions upon the two altars which have been found 
may well employ the minds of antiquaries. 

The first cohort of the Tungri garrisoned the station of Borcovicus 
during at least 200 years of the Roman occupation of Britain. The 
first cohort of the Batavi occupied the adjoining station of Procolitia 
for about the same period. 

The inscriptions on these altars indicate the presence at Borcovicus 
of a Cuneus of Frisians ;^ but it must not be inferred that those troops 

^ The word cunetu in its common acceptation means a wedge; but it was 
adopted in the Boman military vocabuhiry as meaning a body of troops, which may 
perhaps be translated a " battalion." 



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150 ROMAN INSCRIBED ALTARS, KTO., AT H0USESTEAD8. 

were sent to supersede the Tungrian garrison. Thej were, no donbt, 
sent to Borcovicus to reinforce or strengthen the existing garrison on 
some occasion of emergency. 

The country of the Frisians on the coast of Holland, is presumed 
to have comprised the modem Friesland, and on the map of Ancient 
Europe appears to have on the one side the country of the Batavi, and 
on the other that of the Tungri, and the position of the Frisian troops 
on the Wall of Hadrian by a singular coincidence was between the 
station of Procolitia garrisoned by the Batavi, and the station of 
Borcovicus garrisoned by the Tungri. 



(2a.)— By Me. W. Thompson Watkin. 



Read 30th January, 1884. 



From the photographs of these two altars, kindly sent to me by Mr. 
Clayton, and from other copies of the inscriptions, it seems certain 
that the latter should be thus read, divested of ligatures or tied 
letters : — 

No. 1. (Plate II.) 

DEO 

MARTI 

THINCSO 

ET • DVABVS 

ALAESIAGIS 

BEDE- ET • FI 

MMILENE 

BT • N • AVG • GBR 

M • GIVES • TV 

IHANTI 

VSLM 

No. 2. (Plate III.) 

DEO 

MARTI • ET . DVABVS 

ALAISIAGIS • ET • N • AVG 

GER • GIVES • TVIHANTI 

GVNEI • FRISIORVM 

VER • SER • ALEXAND 

RIANI . VOTVM 

SOLVERV . . . 

LIBENT .... 



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ROMAK INSSCRIBEH ALTARS, ETC., AT HOUSESTEADy. 151 

The only letters about which any doubt may exist are in the first 
inscription. In the seventh line, the letters resembling two Ms con- 
joined, at the commencement, may possibly be meant for nm or min. 

Before proceeding to read the inscriptions on the altars, I think 
we should go into the questions of the Roman name of the station, 
and the nationality of its garrison, as they may throw some light on 
the subject. In the Notitia the castnim is plainly called Borcovicua. 
No other work of the Roman period names it, with the exception of 
the anonymous Chorographer Ravennas, and no inscription has been 
found on which its name occurs. Ravennas, however, tracing the 
stations on the Wall from East to West, names as the next station 
west of Procolitia a place which he calls Velvriion? His orthography 
concerning the other stations on the Wall is so incorrect, that I have 
little doubt he has wrongly spelt the name of this one also. For 
instance, for Segeduno we have Serduno; for Hunno we have Onno; 
and for Cilumo we have Celunno. Judging by one of the inscriptions 
before us, instead of Velurlion{e)y I opine Ravennas should have 
written Verlutione (vel Verlticiam.) The name of Verlmio occurs as 
that of a station in Wiltshire on the line of the 14th Iter of Antoninus, 
but we have numerous examples of two places bearing the same name 
— e,g,y there are three Ventas, two Iscas, two Durobrivaes, and, finally, 
whilst there is a Magna in Herefordshire, there is another on the Wall, 
within a few miles of Borcovicus, It seems probable that the House- 
steads station has been known by the two appellations of Verludo and 
Borcotncus, As to the garrison, both inscriptions and the Notitia 
agree in proving that the 1st cohort of the Tungri occupied the 
eastrum for several centuries. It is necessary to keep this in mind, 
as, though the altars under notice do not bear the name of the cohort, 
the Tungrian element is clearly visible. 

Both inscriptions are dedicated in the first place to Mars ; in No. 1 
he is called " Mars Thincsus." Into the appellation ** Thincsus ** we X5an 
hardly at present enter. It is evidently derived from some locality, 
and, unless my memory deceives me, has been found on another altar 
to Mars, discovered in Holland, though at the moment I cannot recall 
it. In the next place, each altar is dedicated " to the two Alaisiagae, 

^ Piader and Parthej's Edition, p. 482. 

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152 ROMAN INSCRIBED ALTARS, BTC, AT HOUSESTEADS. 

or AlaesiagoBy Who were they ? No. 1 gives us their names, Beda 
and Fiminilena. The orthography of the last-named, owing to the 
ligulate form like two Ms, may not be quite correct ; but that may 
ultimately be put beyond dispute by the recovery of other inscriptions. 

The next point is, were these goddesses, mothers, nymphs, or local 
deities ? The Tuugrians seem to have been especially devoted to the 
worship of a large number of goddesses. At Cramond in Scotland we 
find the first cohort erecting an altar, '^Matribus Alatervis" a name 
somewhat approaching that before us; whilst at Middleby we find 
dedications by the second cohort to Harimella^ Viradesthis, and Ricagma, 
names equally as barbarous as Fiminilena, &c. The '^ mothers,'' under 
whatever name they occur, are generally represented as a trinity; 
hence 1 infer that we must simply look upon Beda and Fiminilena as 
local goddesses of Continental j[?a^». In the Itinerary of Antoninus a 
vicus named Beda is placed upon the road from Treves to Cologne, at 
twelve miles from the first-named town. It appears to be now repre- 
sented by the modern Bidburg or Bitburg, but when, in a.d. 870, the 
territories of Lothaire were divided between Charles the Bald and 
Louis the German, the neighbourhood was called " Pagus Bedensis,** 
Cologne {Colonia Agrippina) was a well-known city of the Tungri, and 
indeed it is probable that the greatest portion of the road named was 
in their territory. D'Anville tells us that several other tribes were 
compreheuded under the name of Tungri, whilst Tacitus, in his Oer- 
mania (c. 2), says : "Those who first crossed the Rhine and expelled 
the Galli are now called Tungri, but were then named Germani." He 
also tells us that the neighbouring tribes of the Nervii and Treveri 
were proud of their descent from the Germans. It has been thought 
by Mr. Roach Smith and others that the words bedae paqvs, which 
form the second line of the above-named inscription to Ricagma (or 
Ricagmaheda) referred to this Pagus Bedensis; but it is more probable 
that Dr. Hiibner's reading, Ricagmabedae, is the correct one. Fimin* 
ilena was doubtless so named from another portion of neighbouring 
Tungrian territory. 

Both altars are next dedicated ** to the divinity of the Emperor" — 
BT ^umini AVQusti. Then follow the words GEBMam gives tuihanti. 
By this I understand that the dedicators were Germans, but Gives 
Tuihanii is introduced to express the particular branch of that nation 



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ROMAN INSCRIBED ALTARB, ETC., AT H0URE8TBADS. 153 

to which they belonged. I am not aware that there is any other 
reference, lapidary or otherwise, to the Tmhanti, The narae, though 
barbarous, is not more so than that of other German tribes. If Tun- 
grians, proud of German descent, they may haVe preferred to call 
themselves Oermank It has been suggested to me that ger may 
refen to one of the titles of the Emperor, and be read aERmanicf. 
This, however, I think most unlikely, if not unprecedented. 

Before reaching the concluding/<?rmwZrt, the smaller altar has several 
words and abbreviations which I would expand as f ollows :— cunei 
FRisiORiTM ymihttionensium HEveuiam alexandriani. This is 
another proof of the esteem in which the Frisii were held by the 
Roman Emperors from the time of Nero downwards, for at Papcastle 
(Ahallava) we find a Gunetis Frisionum Ahallavmsium, with an epithet 
derived from an Emperor following, but which is obliterated, though 
singularly enough (fbr the inscription is of the reign of Gordian) Dr. 
Hiibner suggests for it Severianus Alexandriafius, and again at Bin- 
chester ( Vtiiovium) we have, as I pointed out in the Archceologicul 
Journal (Vol. XXVI II., p. 131), a Cutieus Frisionum Vtnoviensium, 
In fact, wherever a specially faithful garrison was required Frisians 
seem to have been selected. Hence the occurrence of three Cunei of 
that people in the neighbourhood of the Wall. The Noiitia plades the 
first cohort of the Frisii at Vindohala ( Rutchester), but no trace of 
them has been found there, and the first lapidary evidence of their 
presence in Northumberland is on the altar I am at present describing. 
I at first thought that the R in ver, at the commencement of the 
sixth line, might be tr ligulate, and, therefore, that the Cuneus was 
styled YEfenanortim^ but examination disproves the idea, consequently 
an ethnic adjective must be meant, and Verlvfionensium is apparently 
the only one which will suit. I think, also, that I can detect a small v 
between the e and r in the next abbreviated word, ser, but whether 
it is there or not is immaterial. 

The dedicators of No. 1 inscription may possibly have not belonged 
to the Cuneus (as it is not named) but to the 1st cohort of the Tungri, 
which formed the regular garrison. From the Frisian corps, bearing 
the name of Severus Alexander, we probably obtain an approximate 
date as to when the altars were erected, that Emperor reigning 
between a.d. 222-285. The female figure with outstretched arm on 
the side of No. 1 altar is probably intended for one of the goddesses, 



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154 ROMAN INSCRIBED ALTARS, ETC., AT H0U8ESTBADS. 

to whom, in conjunction with another female deity, whose name com- 
mences NEH .... we have, I think, a third dedication, on a small 
altar, preserved in the Museum of the Society, and which also came 
from Borcovicus. It is pot given in the Lapidarium SeptmtrionaUy 
but is No. 654 in Dr. Hiibner's work. 

It is necessary to say, also, that in Orelli 1,964, and Henzen 5,614, 
we have dedications to a male deity named Bedaim; but this was pro- 
bably derived from Bedaium, a town of Noricum. 

From the foregoing remarks it will be seen that my expansions and 
translations of the inscriptions are as follows : — 

No, 1. (Plate II.) 

Deo MARTI THINCSO ET DVABVS ALAESIAGI8 BBDflB ET FDIINILENaB 

ET Nummi AY(^usii QERtnani cives tvihanti Yoium solvenmt hibmtfis 
meritis, 

" To the god Mars Thincsus and the two Alaesiagae, Beda and 
Fiminilena, and to the divinity of the Augustus, the Germans (who 
are), Tuihantian citizens, perform their vow willingly to deserving 
objects." 

No. 2. (Plate III.) 
Deo MARTI ET DVABU8 ALAisiAGis ET jsumint AYQusH QERmani 

GIVES TVIHANTI CVNEI FRISIORVM YERlutionenstum SEVeRtaui ALEX- 
ANDRIANI VOTVM SOLVERVNT LIBENTES meriftS, 

"To the god Mars, and the two Alaisiagae, and to the divinity of 
the Augustus, the Germans (who are), Tuihantian citizens, of the 
Cuneus of Frisians, (styled) the Verlutionensian (and) Severianus 
Alexandrianus, perform their vow willingly to deserving objects." 

A few words regarding the portion of the semi-circular stone found 
with the altars: The central figure at first sight seems that of a 
Roman soldier, standing with spear and shield, &c., apparently flanked 
by Victories, each bearing a laurel wreath and pahn branch. But may 
not the military figure be that of Mars himself in soldier's attire ? 
One thing strikes me as singular ; it is the figure of a bird, resembling 
a goose, at his feet. A similar bird appeal's at the foot of a figure of 
Mars on a tablet erected by the 4th cohort of the Gauls at Risingham 
(see Plate IV.); and again on the umbo of a shield found near 
Kirkham, Lancashire (Roman Lancashire, p. 207), Mars is seated with 
a similar bird in his front 



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ROMAN INSCRIBED ALTARS. £TC., AT HOUSESTEADS. 155 

I assume, of conrse, the Society is aware that thoagh a cuneua, 
cohort, or ala, may be described as of a certain nationality in inscrip- 
tions, persons of other nationalities often served in them. Hence the 
reason for Germani being present in a Frisian cuneiis. Another 
example is at Middleby where 100 Raeti (or Rhaeft) are named as 
serving in the 2nd Cohort of the Tungrians. 



(2b.)— By Mr. W. Thompson Watein, 



Bead 26th March, 1884. 



There is a possibility that the Tuihanti may be the same people as the 
Tuhantii or Tubantes, a tribe which we first find traces of as inhabiting 
part of Gelderland in Holland. Early in the first century they appear 
to have moved rather more to the South, as Tacitus (Annals I., c. 51) 
places them about the Southern part of the modem Westphalia, 
whilst in the time of Ptolemy they would seem to have proceeded still 
further to the South East, for he names them as inhabiting the Eastern 
part of the Electorate of Hesse Cassel. They are apparently named 
by Strabo as Subailii, but this name has generally been considered 
erroneous and altered to Tubaltii by German writers. 

The smaller altar, in giving us an example of the word Cuneus, is 
very valuable. It is the earliest notice of a cuneus extant. 



(3.) — By Professor Emil Hubner, LL.D., Honorary Member. 



Read 26th March, 1884, and revised and extended to 
80th July, 1884. 



When at the end of November, last year, the first notice (and, as it 
proved afterwards, a very coiTect and complete one) of the discoveries 
made at Houscsteads reached me through the kindness of our distin- 
guished friend Dr. Bruce, I instantly perceived that once more the 
zeal of that gentleman and of the venerable patron of all the antiquities 

u 



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156 ROMAN INSOBIBED ALTARS^ ETO.^ AT HOUSBSTSADS. 

connected with the Wall, Mr. John Clayton, whose fine moseom 
at Chesters now contains the new find, had been rewarded by a really 
important discovery. Still, it was not quite easy to get at its true 
value; the text of the two inscriptions being so much effaced and so 
difficult to read, that it yielded only to the combined and reiterated 
endeavours of Dr. Bruce and Mr. Blair, who by force of many copies 
made in different lights, by paper impressions, and photographs, at last 
succeeded in establishing a text which we may safely consider as correct 
in the main, though there remain yet some doubtful points. It is due 
to the keen eyes and long experience of these two gentlemen that we 
may take as granted the following reading of the two inscriptions: — 

DEO 

MABTI 

THINGSO 

ET DVABVS 

ALAESIAGIS 

BSDE ET FI- 

HMILENE 

ET NWmtni AYQUSti GBB- 

Mani GIVES tv- 

raANTI 

Yotum solverunt hibmtes iiLBriio. 
Which may be thus translated : — " To the god Mars Thingsus, and 
the two Alaesiagae Beda and Fimmilena, and the deity of Augustus, 
the Tuihanti, German citizens, dedicate this altar, in discharge of a 
vow, willingly, as they deserved." 

DEO 

MARTI ET DVABVS 

ALAISIAGIS ET Numini AYQfiSti 

QERtnani gives tvihanti 

CVNEI FRISIONVM 

VER. . . SER. . . ALEXAND- 

RIANI VOTVM 

SOLVBRVn/ hlBESTBS 

jnerito. 

"To the god Mars and the two Alaisiagae and the deity of 
Augustus, the Tuihanti, (xcrman citizens serving in the Frisian 
troop, styled the Ver . . . Ser . . . Alexandrian, erect this altar in 
discharge of a vow, willingly, as they deserved." 

The dots following the two words ver ser in the second in- 
scription indicate the only doubtful passage yet remaining ; the rest 



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ROMAN INSORipiKD ALTARS, ETC., AT HOUSESTEADS, 157 

iR snfBciently clear, and the expansions of abbreviated words need no 
excuse or further explanation, as the abbreviations are of common 
occurrence and of established value. We have, therefore, two nearly 
identical dedications made to the same divinities bj the same persons ; 
there is only some slight difference in the designation of the two 
essential parts, viz., the divinities and the dedicants. The divinities 
are Mars Thingsus and the two Alaesiagae (or Alaisiagae, which is a 
difference of spelling rather than of pronunciation), styled, in the 
first text, by their proper names, Beda and Fimmilena. Who is 
Mars Thingsus, whose name occurs here for the first time, as well 
as that of his two companion divinities ? Mars with the Teutonic 
nations (and Germans the dedicators, most luckily for us, call them- 
selves) is the Roman expression of their highest divinity, the god Tin ; 
Jupiter, the Teutonic Donor, the northern Thorr seems not to have 
found peculiar worship by Teutonic tribes. Hence the frequent 
occurrence of dedications to Mars found in Germany, in the adjacent 
r^ions of Gaul and Britain ; hence, too, the frequent epithets given 
to Mars in those countries, derived from the names of native divinities, 
or of localities, or of some prominent quality of the god. Thingsus 
seems to be a name of Teutonic origin. I mentioned the matter to 
my colleague in this University — Professor Wilhelm Scherer — who, 
after the deeply lamented death of Karl Miillenhoff, which occurred a 
few days ago, is at the head of German antiquarian, linguistic, and 
literary science. He writes to me thus about Mars Thingsus : — 

"Thingsus is the Latinised form of a German adjective, which does 
not now really exist in any of the Teutonic languages, but whose former 
existence may be traced without any difficulty. This adjective would 
be derived from a substantive which occurs in all Teutonic languages 
under the form of thing or ding, in the old Langobardic tongue under 
the form of thinx, and which is the Teutonic technical t«rm for the old 
Teutonic concilium mentioned by Tacitus in the Oermania, c. xi. and 
xii." Thus the adjective transformed in < Latin into Thingsus, must 
have signified " belonging to the assembly of the people — connected 
with the assembly of the people ;" and we may call Mars Thingsus the 
assembly god, or Mars comilialis. But what is the relation which sub- 
sists between the god of war and the assembly of the people ? We know 
that the old Teutonic concilium and exercitus are identical. Tacitus 



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168 ROMAN INSCRIBBD ALTARS, ETC., AT H0USE8TEADS. 

(Oerm. c. vii.) says, "Ceternm, neqae animadvertere, neqae vincire, ne 
verberare quidem, nisi sacerdotibus pennissum ; non quasi in poenam, 
nee ducis jussu, sed velut deo imperante, quern adesse bellantibus 
credunt." Jurisdiction is vested in the priests. It is theirs to sit in 
judgment on all offences. By them delinquents are put in irons and 
chastised with stripes. The power of punishing is in no other hands. 
When exerted by the priests it has neither the air of vindictive justice 
nor of military execution ; it is rather a religious sentence, inflicted 
with the sanction of the god, who, according to the German creed, 
attends their armies on the day of battle. And also, speaking of the 
concilium, Tacitus c. xi. says, "Silentium per saoerdotes, quibus tum et 
coercendi jus est, imperatur." Silence is commended by the priests, 
who still retain their coercive authority. Therefore the priests punish- 
ing in the assembly of the people do so as authorised by a god ("velut 
deo imperante"). And this god, as we learn from our inscription, is the 
Teutonic Mars, that is to say Tiu or Tins, the direct descendant of the 
old Aryan Dy&us, the Zeus of the Greeks, who is also the assembly god, 
Zeus Agoraios, We first translated Thingsus by "belonging to the 
assembly of the people — related to the assembly of the people " ; now we 
would say more exactly, Mars is probably called Thingsus as the 
president of the concilium in whose name the priests bade silence and 
punished. Thus, he is in near relationship with the Scandinavian 
Forseii (signifying president), the god of judgment. See Tacitus, 
Oerm, c. xii., "Licet apud concilium accusare quoque, et discrimen 
capitis intendere." In this council of the State accusations are ex- 
hibited, and capital offences prosecuted." 

So far Professor Scherer. I adjoin a few words about the represent- 
ation of Mars Thingsus on the third of the monuments discovered at 
Housesteads, a non-lettered one. The semi-circular sculptured stone, 
which may have formed an ornamental entrance into a small cediculay 
shows in the middle a standing warrior, whom we may take for 
Mars Thingsus as already pointed out very judiciously in Mr. Watkin's 
paper. He seems to bear (the photograph before me is not very clear) 
the usual Soman armour : lorica, helmet, shield, spear. Curious are 
the ornaments depending, so far as I can see, from the sides of his 
helmet ; are they the crest of it ? A careful examination of the 
original will explain, I am sure, the detail. Curious also is the 



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ROMAN INSCRIBED ALTARS, ETC., AT H0USBSTEAD8. 169 

bird sitting at the foot of the god on the right hand side. 
Mr Watkin, also very judiciously, has paid attention to the Qarstang 
umbo, now preserved in the British Museum, on which Mars, sitting 
on his throne, holds in the left hand a standard, on (or near to) which 
a similar bird is figured sitting. Whitaker, who fii-st edited that 
curious monument, calls it " a bird which has more of the character of 
a goose than might have been expected in so dignified a situation." 
Mr. A. S, Murray of the British Museum, however, who was kind 
enough to examine the original for a paper of mine on "Roman Shields 
and their Umbones" (in Archaeologisch-Epigraphische Mittheilungen 
aus Oesterreich, vol. ii., 1878, p. 112), calls it confidently a swan. The 
swan, especially the singing black swan, has many relations to old 
northern mythology. But I shall not enter into the details of them 
here. To form a correct judgment about the other two divinities the 
female figure on the left hand side of the larger altar may be examined, 
and the third of the monuments found at Housesteads — the semicircular 
bas-relief— may again be taken into consideration. The female figure 
on one side of the altar (there is none on the other side, though we 
might expect one), fully clothed in the Roman way, with a diadem on 
her head (so far as I can judge from the photograph), stands upon a 
pedestal, stretches out the right hand and has the left depending by 
her side, holding no emblem or symbol ; she has no wings. The bas- 
relief shows, beside the Mars Thingsus, two figures in a state of suspen- 
sion, but with no wings, each holding in the elevated hand what may 
have been intended for a sword, or a stick, or even a branch (it is rudely 
cut and only sketched), and in the depending hand a wreath. The 
figure on the right hand side, of which there is only remaining the right 
hand with the branch, was most likely intended to correspond exactly 
with that on the left, which is preserved in. full .^ I think it strange 
that it is represented entirely naked; or was it intended by the 
unskilful provincial sculptor to indicate in this way a thin, tight fitting, 
short garment ? 

* I take from a kind letter of Mr. Clayton, dated June 26th, 1884, the foUowinff 
note: — "The work of excavation in the locality [of the Housesteads find] 
was resumed last week. The missing portion of the sculptured stone was re- 
covered in somewhat superior condition. The nude figure does not appear to he 
8nppoi:ted, hut rather to he floating * in the azure field of air/ and the garland or 
chaplet held in one hand is more distinctly shown than in the other part of the 
stone first discovered. The two portions have heen re-united by a skilful artisan, 
and the whole is now satisfactory." 



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160 



ROMAN INSCBIBED ALTARS, ETC., AT H0U8E8TEADS. 



But who were the two Alaesiagae ? There is a difficulty, in 
the first place, in the fact that besides the more general name of 
Alaesiagae they bore an individual name each. Instances of such a 
combination of a general with an individual name may perhaps 
exist, though up to the present time I am not aware of any. But there 
is no want of names of divinities, male and female, which have a very 
individual aspect. I quote a few females from British inscriptions, 
viz., the dea Ancasta of Clausentum, Bittern (C.I.L. VII, 4), the 
Setloeenia of Uxellodunum, Maryport (C.I.L. VII, 393 ; Lapidarium, 
No. 875 ; and see woodcut below), and especially the dea ffartmellOf 



xf 






cS>- 



':-9F-'J,Lai 

GENIA" 

EVS'GE. 
IV-S-Livi 



*>va 7*^ 



at the same Caledonian station of Birrens, where the dea Rtcagan^ 
bedawBA worshipped by the pagus Vellaus mtlitans cohor tell Tungronim 
(C.I.L. VII, 1072), and the dm Viradesthis by the pagva Condrmiis 
milUans cohorle II Tungrorum (C.I.L. VII, 1073). It is highly 
probable that the two Alaesiagae were quite similar divinities. Their 



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ROMAN INSCRIBED ALTARS^ ETO., AT HOUSESTEADB. 161 

names Beda and Fimmilena (the datives in e for a are instances of a 
rastic spelling of the Latin declension not unfrequent, especially in 
provincial inscriptions, from the end of the second century downwards), 
together with Harimella, Ricagambeda, and Viradestkis, must remain 
for the moment unexplained. But it is by no means improbable, that 
further inquiry will succeed to explain the true meaning of their 
peculiar names and their original relation to Mars Thingsus. With 
Beda Mr. Watkin has compared the pagus Bedce in Lower Germany. 

Thus far the three divinities of the recently discovered monu- 
ments can be explained; there remain the dedicatora. The Ger- 
mani civea Tuthanti are to be reckoned amongst the not very large 
stock of ancient German tribes whose names survive in a slightly 
altered form. Professor Scherer, in writing to me about them, says: — 
^'Tuthanti (pronounced Tun-anii), the h inserted as in Baduhenna (see 
MiiUenhoff in the *Zeitschrift fiir deutsches Alterthum,' 9, 241), is the 
name of a territory in the Netherlands, now called Twente or Twenthe 
(south-western part of the Dutch province of Over-Yssel, close to the 
Prussian frontier, with the towns Oldenzaal and Enschede)." This is 
a highly interesting addition to our knowledge of ancient Germany, 
for which we are indebted to Professor Scherer's happy perspicacity. 

As the Vellavi and the Condrustes, also Batavian tribes, serving 
as soldiers in the Tungrian cohorts, as a pagus, who worshipped their 
respective divinities, and as the Texandri et Sunici vexillarii cohortis II 
Nervionitn of an altar of Procolitia (Ephem. Epigr. Ill, p. 134, 
n. 103), so the cives Tuthanti served in a corps of Soman soldiers, styled 
eimeus Frisiarum Ver . . . Ser . . . Alexandrianus. About the 
middle of the third century the great change in the organization of 
the Roman army, afterwards completed by Diocletian, begins just at 
this period to show itself in the names of some of the auxiliary 
troops. Instead of cohortea and alae, we find numeri and cunei. I 
shall not enter on this occasion into a discussion of the real meaning 
of this change of names, for the question has not yet been 
entered upon, and can be solved only after collecting the materials 
from all the provinces of the Roman empire. In Britain we 
have, for instance, a cunpiis Frisiorum Aballavensium at Papcastle 
(C.I.L. VII, 415, 416, Lapidarium Nos. 906, 907 ; and see wood- 
cuts, pp. 162 and 164) in the time of Gordianus (a.d. 242), which 



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162 



ROMAN INSCRIBED ALTARS, ETC., AT HOUSESTBADS. 






V^ 



■■<^. 



IFTXOIKALM^ 

V S L Ml 



assumed afterwards the surname of PhtUppianus (Ephem. Epigr. 
III. p. 180), Quite in the same way our cuneus Frisiorum assumed 
the honorary name Alexandrtanus, which is written in full and 
admits of no doubt. But this name which supplies us with the 
date of our inscription — viz., the reipfn of Severus Alexander (a.d. 
222-235) — is hardly ever given alone, but nearly always combined 
with the other surname of that Emperor, Severus. Therefore there 
can scarcely be any doubt that an abbreviation of this second name 
has been given, or at least was intended to be given, in the inscription 
before that of Alexandrianus. If there is really ser on the stone, as 
there seems to be, two ways of explanation for that unusual form are 
open. It may be considered either as a mere blunder of the stone- 
cutter for BW^erianiy or rather for SBB^«in^a rustic spelling not 
altogether unusual, or Seriarma may also be taken as a rustic 
contraction from Severianus, to be compared with consuerunt for can- 
sueverunty and detnus for dtvmus; e:. v between two vowels in Latin 
of the early and late epoch is often left out in pronouncing and 
spelling. Which of the two ways of explanation may be considered 
the safer must be left to grammarians for final decision. Now 
there remains the word ver. Mr. Watkin takes it for an abbre- 
viation of a name which in the list of stations on Hadrian's Wall 



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ROMAN INSCRIBED ALTARS, ETC., AT H0UBESTBAD8. 168 

is given by the anonymous geographer of Ravenna. This list of 
routes, taken from a Roman map of about the third century, similar 
to the Tabula Peutingeriana, but translated first into Greek, and 
afterwards, about the end of the seventh century, retranslated into 
Latin by an utterly ignorant writer, contains indeed an abbreviated 
list of the stations 2}er lineam ValU^ similar to that of the Notitia 
LHgnUatum. In the Sotitia (Occid. XL, p. 211, 39-41 in Seeck's 
edition) we have an index of the tioops stationed there in this order: — 

ProcolUia 

Borcovido^ 

Vindolana. 
The RavennasJ gives 

Brocoliti 

Velvrtion 

Vindolande. 
There can be no doubt, therefore, that by his corrupt Velurtion he 
meant Borcovtcium. That there was iji the south of England, near 
Aqius Suits, Bath, a mansion named Verlucione in the Antoninian 
Itinerary, is of no consequence at all; for that a military corps, 
garrisoned at Borcovkium^ should have assumed a local surname from 
a distant place, is quite inadmissible: if the cuneus Frisiorum stationed 
at BoRCOviciUM had such a name at all it must have been Borcovict'en" 
siumy as another numerus of the same tribe stationed at Aballava, 
Papcastle, bore rightly the name of Aballavensium. Mr. Watkin's 
explanation of the ver cannot be accepted (unless we suppose that an 
older form of the name of the station, Vercovicium, may have existed) ; 
it may be added that local names, generally, according to a very 
true feeling of convenience, are not abbreviated in epigraphical texts, 
except in the non-essential parts of the word. But I do not hesitate 
to confess that I do not know what it is. I thought of a blunder of 
the stone-cutter, who may have given ver.see instead of sever; 
stone-cutters have occasionally strangely misinterpreted the texts 



^ This is, as I observed twelve years ago in the Corpus, the spcHing of the best 
manuscript.8. The inferior ones only give Boreovitio and Borcovitio; none Borco- 
vico (familiar now to English antiquaries as the form given by the Italian editor of 
the Notitia^ Pancirolus), as may be seen from Seeck's edition, the most recent and 
most correct, Berlin. 1876, p. 211. 



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164 



B0])1AN INSOBIBSD ALTABS, ETC., AT HOUSESTEADS. 



given to tbem for incision; But I prefer, instead of indulging in still 
wilder fiincies, to exercise the more difficult ars nesciendi. This is 
what I can say for the present about the new epigraphicat texts, which 
are certainly highly important ones. 

POSTSCRIPT. 

A short time later, when this paper was only printed in the news- 
papers, I gave its substance for the first publication of the newly- 
discovered monuments in Germany to the Wesfdeufsche Zeiischrift fiir 
Oeschtchte und Kunst (Vol. Ill, 1884, p. 120, under the title of 




Altgermanisches aus England), and Professor Scherer explained his 
grammatical and historical opinions about the Tuihanti and the 
Thingsus and the Alaesiagae in a paper read before the Royal Academy 
of Sciences of Berlin {Sitzungsbmchte der Berliner Akademie, 1884, 



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ROMAN INSCRIBED ALTARS, ETC., AT HOUSESTBADS. 165 

p. 571), in which he pointed out that Beda and Fimmilena had to 
be considered most probably as personifications of some of the 
prominent tasks imposed by Mars Thingsus, and therefore as his com- 
panions, the one signifying the bidding or command, the other the 
qnick and clever achievement of the command. At the same time 
Professor Mommsen proposed the text of the two inscriptions^ taken 
from the newspapers and from Mr. Watkin's article, in the philological 
journal Hermes (Vol. XIX., p. 281), in order to show that the name 
of cuneua given in these inscriptions and in that of Papcastle, which 
is only a few years younger (C.I.L. VII, n. 415 — Ephem. Epigr. Ill, 
p. 130, and Lapidarium, p. 456, n. 907; and see woodcut, p. 164), to 
the number of Frisian horsemen, occurs here for the first time in Boman 
epigraphical and antiquarian tradition, long before the Constantinian 
reform of the Roman army. It seemed not accidental that Tacitus in 
his Oermania (cap. VI.) says of the- (Jermans : acies per cuneos com- 
poniiur. To which Professor Scherer has added some more indica- 
tions about the cunet, a designation of smaller numbers of cavalry not 
unfrequent in the NoHtia Dignilahtm. All these curious observations, 
together with some further explanations of the numen AugusH 
worshipped in Britain at the side of other, especially local, divinities, 
on the other names of the cuneus Frisiorumy which seem to have been 
only Severianvs AUxandrianus (an explanation approved also by 
Professor Mommsen), and on the name of the station {Borcovicinmy 
to be compared to Langavicium, not Vercovicium), are exposed in a 
second article of mine in the above-named periodical, the Westdetiische 
Zetischriftfilr OeschicJUe und Kunst (Vol. Ill, 1884, p. 287), to which 
Professor Scherer has contributed a new and very interesting note, 
which I think proper to adjoin in his own words :— 

''I am indebted to Professor Heimel in Vienna for having shown 
me the right way to explain the names Beda and Fimmilena. Beda 
has to be referred to the Bodthing, Fimmilena to the Ftmelthing of the 
Frisians. Bodthing is the general court of justice, to which there 
was given, with the Frisians, a bidding (fieda, bith, aflierwards bod^ 
the (Jerman Oebot). Fimelthing is the * movable' judgment, which 
did not take place regularly, but only when there was a special want 
for. It was also styled Nacfigertcht, or A/ierding, and had some other 
names besides, as Springding (see Thudichum, OaU" und Mark- 



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166 ROMAN IN60RIBED ALTARS, ETC., AT HOU8ESTBAD8. 

v&rfastungj p. 62, and, respecting a possible relation of the Fimel- 
thing to- the well-known German Vehmey Jac, OrimnCs JRseJUs- 
Alterthiimer, p. 888). The two Alaeaiagae, therefore, are representants 
of the reverence due to Tins Things in the national assembly ; they 
are the divinities of the peace of the ' thing,' Beda for the Bodthing, 
Fimmilena (or rather Fimilena) for the Fimelthing. I gave a fuller 
explanation of this interpretation in a paper read before the Academy 
of Berlin, on May 29th, but this paper will not be printed ; I think 
to give it a still fuller development and to publish it in the 'Zeitaehrift 
fur deutschea Altertkum* " 

English readers will, I think, be thankful to Professor Scherer for the 
curious information about the unexpected iUustration of old Teutonic 
institutions to be derived from the recently discovered Housesteads 
monuments. 

E. HxmNEB. 



(4).— By Professor George Stephens, of Copenhagen, 

(Honorary Member.) 
F.S»A. London and Edinburgh ; Hon. Dr. of Letters (Cambridge). 



My dear Me. Blaib, 

Many thanks for the revise (*'Boman Monuments at House- 
steads ") you so kindly sent me. It strikes me — thanks to Mr. John 
Clayton, Dr. Bruce, and yourself on the one hand, and to Professors 
Hiibner and Scherer on the other — that these two costly stones are 
now understood, and will be greeted as of special interest in illus- 
trating the god-lore of our Scando-Gothic forefathers. 

Possibly I may be allowed to draw yet another little straw to the 
stack. 

Besides a tiny nibble at GBEMam, which I think more likely to be 
GEBManf^, I would wish to say some words on thingso and the 
Nymphs. 

In my late paper, " Scholia to Prof. Joh. Steenstrup's * Danelag,* " 
(in Part 8 of ' Blandinger,' published here by the Universiteta- 



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f 
BOHAN INSCRIBED ALTARS, ETC., AT H0U8B8TEADS. 167 

Jnbiteets Danske Samfund) I have collected ancient Runic examples 
of the word ))IN0 (thing) osed in the same sense as at Honsesteads, 
namely, for battle. 

As the valuable lingaistic publications of this Society are rare in 
England, I beg to extract the ^bstance of these remarks. 

''The Scando-Oothic word )>iNO had many meanings, always 
fluctuating, as usual, in the different folk-lands. Among these in 
Scandinavia was the particular sense of moot, keetino, in a 
friendly or unfriendly sense. Thus, on one side a /(we-meeting, lovers^ 
interview ; on the other a /^-meeting, battle-moot, combat. This 
latter signification is frequent in Icelandic, both singly and in com- 
pounds, but it has also been found on Swedish rune-stones. The first 
of these is the E&lstad stone in Upland, and it is one of the best 
preserved and most authentic in all the North. The inscription as 
given by me in the ArchcBohgia (London, Vol. XLIII, p. 117) in 1871 
was excellent. So good were my materials, among them B. Dy beck's 
Folio, No. 21, it has only one error. It has since been foand that the 
B in ])IKA-u))IE was a mistake, the last mark being a final stop (-f-)^ 
not a stung b ( + )• The whole rendering therefore is : — 

"*BTBBKAR AUK HIORUABfR liETU BBISA fESA STEIN AT PA)>UR 
SIN KBIRA, SUM UBSTR SAT I )>IKA-LlJ)I. KUj) HIALBI 8ALU.' 

"*STBRKAR BKB HIORUARTH LET RAISE THIS STONE AT [/<?] 

FATHER SIN [their'] KEiRi, SUM [who'] (?w/-WEST [= in England] 
SAT IN /A«-THiNG-LiTH [t?ie lody-guard], god help Am -soul.' 

"Again on the Hasle block, W. Gotland, Sweden [Lilj. 1827, 
Baut, 979) :— 

'^ ' BBANTR RIS|)I STIN |)INSI IFTIR AOSMU, BRU|)UR SIN. 

SAR UAR^ |)REBIN 

TUSTI TKI [= tiki].' 
"* BRANT RAISED 6T0NB THIS AFTER AOSMU [? = ANSMUND, 
OSMUND], BROTHBR SIN [his]. 

SA [he] WORTH DREPEN [wos slatn] 
ON [in] ^-TUSTi-TiNG [fight]' 
''The broken and defective Aska stone, Sodermanland, Sweden 
(Dybeck, 8vo 17) ends : — 

" * [han ainda]\i% 

AUKTR [at J)IKUM].' 

" * [hs (m^ONDED = died, fell] 

out-ZA&T AT [in] the^Rmas [baUlesy 



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f 
168 ROMAN INSCRIBED ALTARS, ETC., AT H0U6ESTEADB. 

*^ ThiB is exactly parallelled by the Fredriksdal stone, Soderman- 
land (Dybeck, 8vo No. 1) :— 

'^'EAKUBHA 1A\ RAISA STAIN ))INSA HIBTIB EULAIF, BRn|)UB BIN. 
HAN ANTA)>IS 
AUSTB AT flKUM.' 

** In the same way on the monolith at Husby, in Sddermanland 
(Lilj. 935, amended by later drawings), we have : — 

" * I AUSJ)IKI 

IN EAST-THING [campaigns in Russiay 
"We have also the Runish names Jjikbubn [Breda, Upland], 
piKFABTB [Orsurtda^ Upland], Jjigsla [Arhus, Denmark], as well as 
the parchment names thyqhulfus (Dipl. Svec. 2, 602) thingolfus 
(Dipl. Svec. 1, 700], undoubtedly, as I think, battlb-bbar, fight- 
fast, war-slay [hoU\ COMBAT-WOLF. 

** But this fiNGA-uJ) [hattle'troop] can of course be shortened into 
u)), or 1A\ can be used for the fuller |)I1^ga-u|). This we can see 
from the Tackhammar grave-pillar. Sddermanland (Liljegren, No. 
892, corrected by later transcripts) : — 

"'AUBIRN RAIS|)I STAIN ])ANSI AT EARI. HAN UAR)) TAU|)R 
OBIiATI I LTJ)I.' 

" * AUBIRN RAISED STONE THIS AT [in minne of] E:ARI. HE WORTH 

DEAD [diedjfeir] tw-ENGLAND, IN ike-UTE. [the household troopy 

"Add a costly formula on the broken Yaksala stone, Upland (Lilj. 
194, Bant. No. 394), it ends :— 

" * NIR [ha;*] I L[i|)I] STfOR.' 

"*WHEN-AS HE IN the-hiTH. [woT-levy] STEBG8 [steps, treods = 
tphen he joins the militia called out for foreign service.y 

" This last stone tells us that it was raised by the soldier to him- 
self QUICK, as was often done. Living folk raised their own minne- 
stone, when they were not sure it would be done by other people — 
as when they had no near kin, etc." 

Thus, in my eyes, deo marti thin€H30 is more fully and exactly 
TO THE GOD Tiw THE WARRIOR. K SO, it coufirms and clenches from 
Bunic-Scandinavia the happy and masterly identification of Professor 
Wilhelm Scherer. 

Perhaps I may also throw some light on the two AlsBsian heroineSy 
BBDE and FDOiiLENE, both in the dative, the one a noun, the other 
formed as a Latin adjective. 



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ROMAN INSOBIBED ALTABS, ETO., AT HOUSES^EABS. 169 

Bede, whose Latin nominatiTe would be beda, I look upon as a 
feminine personification, and >n fact the well known antique Scando- 
Gothic word, Ohg. batu, badu, patu, pata ; O.-Engl. beadu, beado 
(gen. beadwe), Norse-Icelandic, bod (gen. bodvae), hattley strife. We 
have a crowd of such names in the Eddas; &c., as borne by goddesses 
or nymphs of war, and some of them, such as hild, gunk, dis, &c.; 
are common in other Seando-Oothic dialects. This beda will there- 
fore quite simply be another synonym for Bellona, 

As I think we may safely handle the -ene in fimmilekb as a 
mere Latin adjective ending, the word itself is fihmil. I take this 
to be another well-known olden Scando-Gothic vocable, the extinct 
N.-Icel. nMBUL, strong, mighty. See the word in Cleasby-Vigfusson's 
Icel.-Engl. Dictionary, and compare the modem German fdocel, an 
iron hoTy the modem Swedish fimmel, a sledge-hammer, &c. Con- 
sequently FDOOLENA would mean the heavy spear wielder, the mighty 
mace-bearer. 

If this be right, both these njrmphs were Old-Frisian or Old- 
Northern Walkyries, choosers of the slain, messengers of the war-god 
to and from Walhall. 

In any case we here get fresh helps to understanding the Scando- 
Gothic mythology, and these two Romano-British altars thus become 
doubly valuable to ourselves, as well as to our Scando-Gothic kinsmen. 

Geobge Stephens. 
Cheajmghaveny Denmark, 

ApiH SO/A, 1884. 



(5).— By Mr. John Clayton, V.P., F.S.A. 



Read on Wednesday, July 30th, 1884. 

At the monthly Meeting, held in December last, the writer of this 
paper brought under the consideration of this Society three objects of 
Roman antiquity then lately dug up at the station of Borcovicus. The 
first, a statuary groiip, of which, however, a considerable portion had 
been detached, the main feature being a statue in the garb of a Roman 
legionary soldier, and two altara apparently dedicated to Mars by 



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170 ROMAN IlSrSORIBBD ALTARS, ETC., AT HOUSESTBADS. 

(German soldiers serving in the Boman armj in a Frisian battalion ; 
and inasmuch as a Teatonic epithet is applied to the god, and two 
Teutonic divinities are coupled with him, it seemed expedient to the 
Society to submit these objects to the consideration of the authorities 
of the University of Berlin. In the meantime, Mr. Thompson Watkin, 
of Liverpool, the author of Raman Lancashire, a diligent and persever- 
ing antiquary, favoured us with a paper on the subject, which was read 
at our monthly Meeting in January last. We subsequently received 
an exhaustive paper from Professor Hiibner of Berlin, one of the 
learned men selected for the compilation of the great work the Corpus 
Inscripiionum Latinarum, who writes English correctly, and speaks it 
fluently. His paper was read at our monthly Meeting in March last, 
and has since been revised by him and extended up to the present time. 

In the month of June last the resumption took place of the work 
of excavation at Borcovicus, which was promised at our meeting in 
December last, when the first object discovered was the missing por- 
tion of the sculptured stone, being one side of it, which was found 
to be less injured hj time and exposure than the other side, and it is 
now clear that the martial figure in the centre had on each side of him 
a nude figure apparently floating in air, holding in one hand a palm 
branch, and in the other a garland or chaplet. The pencil of our 
colleague and secretary, Mr. Blair, has supplied us with an accurate 
drawing of this portion of the group.* 

The excavators next came upon a Roman well filled to the brim 
and to an extent of more than three feet above it, with accumulated 
earth, in which was found a copious spring of pui-e water, afibrding 
one of many examples of the appreciation by the Romans of the 
numerous springs which gush from every hill and flow through every 
valley of western Northumberland. The excavators then exhumed 
two altars of hewn stone very carefully finished, and ready to receive 
inscriptions. It seems to have been the practice of the priests of the 
Pagan temples to keep in store blank altars till they met with a 
customer who would pay for the privilege of inscribing them. It 
will be remembered that in the Well of the Temple of the goddess 
Coventina there were found a dozen blank altars. 

' This fragment has been replaced and successfullj rennited with that portion 
of the statuary group which was originaUy found, and which has enabled the 
engraver to complete the Ulustration. 



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ROMAN INSCmiBBD ALTARS FROM HOUSBSTBADB. 171 

On opening out the grass-grown ruins of the Temple of Mars, it 
was found that our utilitarian predecessors of the middle ages had re- 
moved for building purposes a large proportion of the building stones, 
leaving behind them some of the latter and a large heap of rubbish. 
The remaining stones have been removed and the rubbish examined, 
without meeting with other objects. 

Several exploratory trenches were cut in various parts of the Chapel 
Hill, but no buildings could be foand in sUUy and the very foundation 
stones had been taken up and removed. After four weeks of labour, 
the excavators took a final leave of the Chapel Hill of Boroovicus. 



APPENDIX. 



Thb f oUowing is an abstract by Dr. Hodgkin, of Professor Scherer's paper referred 
to by Professor Hiibner (p. 157) : — 

The paper, which is an important one, was contribated nnder the title of ** Mars 
Thingsos" to the Royal Prussian Academy of Science at Berlin (8th May, 1884.) 

The title of the paper is suggested by the two altars recently discovered at 
Borcovicns, and dedicated (1) " To the god Mars Thingsus, and the two Alaesiagae» 
Beda and FimmUena, and the Nnmen of Angnstns, by the German citizens, the 
Tnihanti." (2) ** To the god Mars, and the two Alaesiagae, and the Numen of 
Ang^tos, by the Gorman citizens, the Tnihanti, the Cunens of the Frisians, named 
after Sevems (?) Alexander." 

Almost every word in these inscriptions is an enigma, bat it is the opinion of 
several German experts that the solution of these enigmas is not hopeless, and may 
throw an interesting light on some questions of Teutonic Archseology. 

1. — The CcmBUS of the Frisians. Scherer appears to agree with Hiibner that the 
adoption of the term c%neu9 into the Roman army marks the influence of German 
miUtary usages brought in by i\iQfederai%t and in this i>oint of view it is interest- 
ing that the first Cuneus that we read of in the Imperial army should be a Cuneu$ 
Frisiomm, For the employment of the Cuneus among the Germans, see Tacitus, 
Qerwtania, VI. VII. Scherer thinks that in the barbarian armies each nationaUty 
(Civitat) furnished one Cuneus, larger or smaUer of course, according to the size of 
the political unit which equipped it. 

2. — The TviHANTi, according to Scherer, occupied the district now known as 
Twenthe in the Netherlands. Tui^Tvfo; jS" is a mere Roman corruption; AnH 
is as yet an unexplained termination, but is found also in the name Thriaat% 
which appears to be compounded with Three as Tuihanti with Two. 

W 



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172 ROMAN INSCRIBED ALTARS FROM HOUSESTBADS. 

3. — The most interesting name in the inscriptions is that of Mass Thikgbub. 
Of this second word Scherer considers the root to he thxngia, a similar form to the 
Langohardic thinx^ hat hest known under the form thing^ the ahnost nniTersal 
Teutonic word for a public meeting. What our Saxon ancestors called a Folc-mote, 
was hj most of the German trihes called a FolksMtn^. We know from Tacitus 
(Oermania, c. VII.) that the puhlic meeting of the trihe was placed nnder the 
special protection of the gods, and that the priests had a great share in conducting 
its deliherations. [This was prohably done for the preservation of order, and to 
prevent the blood-feuds from leading to a " free fight " on such occasions.] 

After a discussion, too long to be here reproduced, Scherer decides that Thingsus 
is not the name of a separate god, but an epithet of Tins, who, as is well-known, is 
the Teutonic equivalent of Mars (whence our Tuetd&j is the translation of Dies 
Mariu), It is singular, however, to find the war-god made the custodian of the 
peaceable public meeting. This and other considerations lead Scherer to the con- 
clusion that we have here the effects of a great religious revolution in the dawn of 
Teutonic history. In later times Odin is the All-father, the Supreme Ruler of gods 
and men, holding the place of the Greek Zeus. But in earlier times, as he con- 
tends, the Supreme Ruler was Tins, whose very name is connected iiiHth Zeus [and 
Deus ?] ; and it was in this capacity that he was probably made the president, of 
the rude Parliament of his worshippers. When, afterwards, Odin (whom Tacitus 
looked upon as the German equivalent of Mercury) was elevated to the supreme 
place in the Teutonic Pantheon, and Tins was degraded to the secondary rank of a 
mere war-god, he still, as Mars, retained his connection with the popular assembly. 
Thus we'get Mart Thingsus. 

4. — As for the AxAisiAaAE, Scherer is not able to ofTer any very definite con- 
clusion. Philologically, the name may mean ** the all-honoured ones." Bbda may 
be the personification of prayer [compare the German words hitte and beieuy and 
our own bedesman.] Fimhilkna, for grammatical reasons, is very puzzling. 
He suggests, but with much hesitation, that it may be connected with an Old Norse 
word FIHB, " clever, skilful." 

He looks ui>on the Alaisiagae, not as Valkyr-maidens, handmaids of slaughter, 
but as the all-honoured goddesses of order and eloquence, who ensure that the thing 
shall* be held in a proper manner, and enforce the execution of its decrees [in facta 
kind of deified ** Usages of Parliament."] 

He then discusses the effigies on the altars, which, he thinks, at least do not con- 
tradict his hypothesis. Of the two figures on either side of Mars Thingsus, one, 
according to HUbner, holds a wreath*; this is the honour -which the goddesses can 
bestow : the other a staff or sword; this represents the discipline which they enforce. 

The writer modestly puts these conjectures forward for what they may be worth. 
He is assured by a Celtic scholar, Mr. Zimmcr, that at least no safer footing for the 
interpretation of the names can be obtained from Celtic etymologies. Meanwhile. 
" Stubborn doubt is in such matters better than over hasty belief." 

* Both figures hold wreftths. 



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*Pli!r •-'■• '-^^ '^ 



-^Si-fZ^-^^ 






'ri^:. 



MAR'CV 5' 
V'5-[-|-M 



'SI 



W0'PROi5Av| 
|iM[-SWi\- ET' ' 
■iteRVM-CARi 

iivs-DdMiti 

'ANyS5LEGXX,:i 
V-V-V-S-L- L-Mi-i 



•-r^ ^jfif^-* 



N?2 









ROMAN ALTARS. ROXBURGHSHIRE. 



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(317) 



Art. XXXI. — On (i) a Roman Altar y and (2) a Roman 
Sepulchral Slab recently found at Carlisle : with some Notes 
on (3) the Roman Bagpiper, and on (4) a figure found at 
Bewcastle in 1765 and now at Netherby, In various 
Letters, with Notes by The Editor. 

Read at Carlisle July zyd, 1885. 

Town Hall, Carlisle, Dec. 1st, 1884. 
(I) To H. A. McKiE, Esq. 

DEAR Sir, — On Wednesday last as the men at the 
gravel pit were dredging for gravel they came across 
a heavy stone about twelve feet deep from the surface, 
and in a position one hundred yards north-west of the 
Castle at Windy Corner. On the stone being brought to 
the bank, I discovered it to be curiously marked with an 
urn. Unfortunately, part of the stone was broken off. 
I have given instructions to the men to try and recover 
the piece that is missing ; as yet they have not been suc- 
cessful. I had the stone brought to the Town Hall, where 
it can now be seen at any time. 

I am, dear Sir, 

Yours truly, 

Thomas Ormiston. 

This altar is now in the Carlisle Museum : unfortunately the missing 
portion is the front of the altar, whereon would be the inscription. 
Windy Comer is the north-west angle of the bluff on which the 
Castle of Carlisle stands, where a steep path descends to the Castle 
Sauceries. 



Lowther Street, Carlisle, 24th March, 1885. 
(2) My dear Dr. Bruce, — For some time past excava- 
tions for building purposes have been in progress in 

Carlisle 



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3l8 RECENT ROMAN FINDS. 

Carlisle on a site known as the Spring Garden Bowling 
Green, and situate on the east side of Lowther Street, at 
its northern end. It therefore lies immediately outside 
the north-east angle of the Roman or mediaeval city. 
With the exception of a small public house and some sheds 
this site has never been built upon. It was a garden and 
bowling green in 1745, when its hedges were cut down for 
fear they might give shelter to the Highlanders. 

I have watched the excavations with interest. Over 
most of the area there was a thin stratum of garden soil, 
while the earth below had never been disturbed. Close to 
Lowther Street a trench, filled up with mud and mis- 
cellaneous matter, marked the city ditch, which was open 
in the memory of many now living.'^ On the north side of 
the garden was found a deep pocket of made soil, in which 
was the slab I am about to describe. Many animal bones, 
including, it is said, the skeleton of a donkey, were found 
here ; and also two skulls, which I did not see, but which 
are said to be human. The slab was in this pocket : it was 
in an inclining position, face upwards, at an angle of about 
45^ with the horizon. Most unfortunately, before its 
nature was suspected, a cart passed over it and broke oflF 
the top of the stoite, which was at once knocked into frag- 
ments, and either built into foundations or pitched away — 
at any rate, it cannot be found. 

The extreme height of the slab is now four feet eight 
inches, and breadth three feet two inches. It is of con- 
siderable thickness and weight, and is of the local soft red 
sandstone. A deep alcove is cut in the upper part, in 
which is a figure — now headless, the head and the top of 
the alcove having been destroyed by the cart. The height 
of the figure is two feet two inches. It represents a child 
in upper and under tunic. The under tunic reaches to the 

• Among the mud in the city ditch several broken wine bottles were found, of a 
shape in vogue from mediaeval times to beginning of the last century. Owing to 
decay of the surface, the glass of which they were made displayed most beautiful 
irridescent colours. 

little 



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RECENT ROMAN FINDS. 



319 



little feet, which peep out beneath it, and its tight sleeves 
come down to the wrists ; the upper tunic comes to the 




knees, 



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320 RECENT ROMAN FINDS. 

knees, and has large sleeves reaching to the elbows. A 
girdle is round the waist, and a large scarf or comforter 
has been wrapt round the child's throat and chest to pro- 
tect it from the cold. The child probably died of bron- 
chitis. The costume, if in woollen material, would be at 
once, warm, sensible, and convenient. The left hand is 
raised to the breast, the right, extending downwards, 
holds a fir-cone. 

Below the figure a panel is cut in the stone, two feet 
two inches broad, by one foot high, and having oh each 
side the well-known dovetail projections. On this is 

D I S 
V A C I A I N F 
A N S A N I I I 

The letters are unusually distinct, though before the 
stone was washed I had some doubt as to the final i i i, as 
a flaw in the stone made it look like ui (not vi) ; but after 
the stone was washed and placed in the museum, under 
strong light, both sun and gas, the i 1 1 came out clear. 

I venture to read this — 

VACIA INFANS AN [NORUM] III. 
" Vacia, an Infant of three years ;*' 

** Vacia " occurs on a slab found at Great Chesters 
(Lap. Sep.j 282), which is expanded as — 

D Tiis] M [anibus"! 
iE[io] Mercu- 

RIALI CORNICUL[aRIo] 

Vacia soror 

FECIT. 

(3) You will be glad to hear that the Roman Bagpiper 
has made his appearance in the Museum. I had him 
brought from Stanwix in October last ; but, owing to his 
weight — over half a ton — we dare not take him up stairs 

and 



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RECENT ROMAN PlNDS. 



321 




and over the floor. However, a few days ago, we opened 
a back entry, and the Corporation workmen hauled the 
piper up with tackle to a safe place, with a cross wall 

under 



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322 



RBCENT ROMAN FINDS. 



under him. He is much disfigured with tar from the 
water butt, which he latterly supported. — I remain, yours 
truly, 

Rich. S. Ferguson. 



(4) At Netherby is a stone on which is represented a 
seated figure. We reproduce the engraving from the Lap, 
Sep., No 785, where the stone is stated to have been found 




h 



at Netherby; but in an album belonging to Society of 
Antiquaries is a drawing of this stone and under it the 
following note. " Drawing of a stone found recently at 
Bewcastle and removed to^Netherby, 1765." 



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CATALOGUE OF THE INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED ROMAN 
STONES IN THB Possession op the SociEir of AwTiauABiEs op 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

No Museum is so rich iu the memorials of the dominiou of the Romans 
in Britain as that in the Castle of Newcastle. The material employed 
in the formation of these statues and slabs and altars — sandstone — ^is 
unquestionably inferior to that of which the lapidarian treasures of the 
Vatican consist ; and they are, for the most part, immeasurably below 
them in artistic design and skilful execution. To Englishmen, however, 
they have an interest which all the glories of the Vatican and the Capi- 
tol can never surpass. They fill up a gap in our history. They give us 
the names and they reveal the movements and the feelings of the men 
who first taught the inhabitants of Britain the arts of civilized life, 
and gave them their earliest lessons in the equally difficult tasks of obey- 
ing and commanding. If we bear in mind, that in Italy the statues 
which adorned their cities were the result of the highest genius which 
wealth could command, and that in Britain — the furthest verge of the 
empire — ^the sculptures and ins'^jiptions were, necessarily, often the result 
of unprofessional effort — ^the work of legionary soldiers— our surprise 
will be, that they are so good as they are. Do modem English soldiers 
leave behind them in the countries which they visit relics of taste and 
skill so creditable as those which the troops of Hadrian and Antonine 
did ? Even the most shapeless of the sculptures in our Museum have 
their value ; they speak more powerfully than historians can of the 
state of the Roman empire in Britain. 

The wood-cuts which illustrate this Catalogue are for the most part 
executed in outline. They have been prepared by Mr. Utting, from 
drawings carefully made by Mr. John Storey, jun., the draftsman of the 
Society, who has, in this instance, with great generosity, given his valu- 
able services gratuitously. When the size of the object is not specially 
mentioned, it is to be understood that the wood-cut is drawn to the 
scale of three-quarters of an inch to the foot. In *most instances the 
descriptions have been taken from the originals ; hence occasional dis- 
crepancies with the cuts will appear, for each new light brings out, 
in weather-beatei^ stones, new features. Eor the convenience of the 
student, reference is made, in the case of those stQues which were known 
to our great authorities, Horsley and Hodgson, to the numbers which 
they occupy on their listi^. As the Catalogue is intended for the casual 



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2 INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED ROMAN STONES. 

visitor to the Museum, as well as for the antiquary, some passages are 
inserted which the scholar may deem superfluous. 



UPOX THE STAIRS OF ENTRANCE, 

1. A Figure of Hercules. It probably at 
one time adorned some temple in Pons 
jElu, or its vicinity, though the precise 
spot where it was originally exhumed is 
not known. It was standing in the garden 
of Mr. Peareth's house, in Pilgrim Street, 
Newcastle (now occupied by the Poor-Law 
Guardians), when the premises *were pur- 
chased by the Newcastle and North Shields 
Railway Company, and was presented to 
the Society by the Directors of th«t Com- 
pany May 7th, 1839. As is the case with 
most of the figures found upon the line of 
the Eoman Wall, the head and every part 
of the statue which could easily be de- 
tached have been struck off. The lion's 
skin, the apples of the garden of the Hes- 
perides, and the club, the usual emblems of 
the deity, will be observed. 

2. An elegantly-shaped Altar. Described by 
Horsley ; Northumberland, cv., and by Hodg- 
son, ccxvn. It has had an inscription, which is 
now illegible. On one side is a soldier holding 
a bow; on the other is a figure dragging some- 
thing resembling an amphora. This altar for- 
merly formed the base of the market cross at 
Corbridge, the ancient Corstopitum. The focus 
of it has been enlarged into a square hole, six 
inches deep, to admit the shaft. The altar is 
4 ft. 4 in. high. 

3. The Capital of a Column of the composite 
order, from Housesteads, the ancient Boacovi- 
cus; the mutilated figure of a warrior; and 
several miUstones, some of which are composed 
of the volcanic grit peculiar to Andemach, on jtlie Rhine 




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INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED ROMAN STONES. 



mm 



^ 



4. Two squared Stones, resembling those of which the gateways of 
the milc-castles on the Wall were built. 
Hodgson, ccxcvi. 5. Presented to the 
Society by the late Sir Matthew White 
Ridley, Bart. When first noticed, they 
were in a garden wall at Heaton Flint 
MiJl. Have they been originally de- 
rived from the mile-castle which com- 
manded the passage of the Wall over 

the defile of the Ousebum ? One of 

them bears the rude and hitherto undeciphered inscription shown in 
the cut. 

5. An Altar, without an inscription, from Borcovicus. Horsley, N. 
XXXVII f. ; Hodgson, :ljlu. On one side it contains a patera encircled by 
a garland. 

6. Fragment of a Lion, reddened by the action of fire. Probably 
one of those represented by Horsley, N. crv. It is from Coestopitum. 



AV THE ORATORY. 



7. A Roman Soldier from Bobcovicus. 
Lxu. He holds u bow in his left 
hand; the object in his right Hors- 
ley describes as a poniard; it more 
nearly resembles a rude key or small 
axe. A belt, crossing his body di- 
agoqally, suspends a quiver from the 
right shoulder. The folds of the 
Bogum, or military cloak, are gathered 
upon his chest. His sword, which 
is attached to a belt that girds his 
loins, is on his right side ; the handle 
of it terminates in a bird-headed 
ornament. The head is bare. A 
portion of the stone lias been left to 
secure the head to the upper part of 
the niche, giting the appearance of a 
helmet. There is a band on the left 
arm probably to protect it from the 
action of the arrows in their flight 
from the bow. 



Horsley, N. xlvi.; Hodgson, 




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INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED ROMAN STONES. 



8. A Figure of Victory, careeriDg, with outstretched wings, over 
the round earth. From Boacovicus. Horslej-, N., xlv. ; Hodgson, l. 
Her face is mutilated, and her arms knocked off, but tlie figure is other- 
wise in good condition. 




Victory, as might be expected,- was a favourite goddess with the 
Komans, and statues similar to the present are not of uncommon occur- 
rence in stationary camps. The treatment of the figure in this instance 
resembles that upon a rare coin of Antoninus Pius commemorative of 
his successes in Britain. The peculiar curl of the lower portions of the 
drapery has many examples in the sculptures which encircle the 
columns of Trajan and Antonine at Home. 



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INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED ROMAN STONES. 



9. A Eoman Soldier. Borcovicus. 
Horsley, N., xLvn. Hodgson, Lxin. The 
figure has lost its head and right arm. 
His shield is gently upheld by the fingers 
of the left hand. Horsley remarks, 
" His two belts are visible crossing each 
other, agreeable to the description of 
Ajax's armour in Homer.*' 

" But there no pass the croseing belts afford, 
One braced his shield, and one sustained his 
sword." — P&pe. 

His sword is on his left side, which judg- 
ing from the examples in Trajan's co- 
lumn, shows that he was a person of 
some rank. 




IN THE WELL ROOM. 



10. This Group of objects is from Borcovicus. The upper slab has 
apparently been used as a drain in one of the narrow streets of this 




militar}' city. Two of the pedestals have probably been used in sup- 
porting the floor of a hypocaust. The third is a pilaster that has been 
used in a building of some pretensions. 



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6 INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED ROMAN STONES. 

11. This Slab, which commemorates the re-erection, in the time of 
Alexander Severus (a.d. 222-235), of a granary which had become di- 
lapidated through age, was found at the Station of JEsica, the modem 



HlVP-aSMAVRSEVE 

^RVSALEXANDERFIE 

^/WCHORREVMVETV, 
iSTATECONlABSVMMf 

COHIIASTVRVMS^A 
ASOLORESTJ.TVERV] 

PROVMCCAR 

AXIMOIEO ' 



Great Chesters. One peculiarity of this inscription is, that it bears the 
name of the ** coh. n. astvktm*' ; whereas the Notitia places at this 
Station ** Tribunus cohortis ^^«wp Asturum." A fragment of a tile re- 
cently found at -^sica, having stamped upon it the legend n astvb 
confirms the testimony of the slab, that at one period at least the 
Second Cohort of the Astures were settled here. At the time when 
the Notitia was written it may have been replaced by the Pirst. 
The tablet was presented to the Society by the late Rev. Henry Wastal, 
of Newbrough. It is figured in Brand's Newcastle, vol. i., p. 611; 
Hodgson, Lxxxvii. (See also p. 292.) It may be read thus : — 

IMPERATOK CESAR MABCV8 AVBELITS SEVE- 

RV8 ALEXANDER PIVS FELIX 

AVOV8TV8. HORREVM VETV- 

8TATE CONLAB8VM M (?) 

COHORS 8ECVNDA A8TVRVM 8ECVNDVM ARTEM 

A 80L0 RE8TITVERVNT 

PROVINCIA REONANTE 

MAXIMO LEGATO 

KALEXDI8 MARTU 

The Emperor Ctesar Marcus Aurelius Seyerus Alexander, the pious, happy, and 
august. — The Second Cohort of the Astures restored from the ground, in a workman- 
like maimer, this granary which had fallen down through age, in the kalends of 
March , Maximus governing the province as (Augustal) Legate. 



J{a^- 



I 






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INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED ROMAN STONES. 



12. Inscribed Slab found at Brr&ienitth, High Rochester, in Redesdale. 
Presented to the Society by Sir Walter C. Trevelyan, Bart. Described 
in Hodgson's Northumberland, Pt. II., vol. i., p. 139. 



S 



■^^■^=1111 



1 Mi i S r ^ 



r-rr,^ . / IT" -n *-^ a iv t '-T^^-^ iv t r tv t >^ r 



SEirERO-ANTON IN Of 
PI5'FEL1CI)0(CPARTHIC" 
M AX'BRITMAX-GERIVI^^ 
"dAX'^ONTlFia-MAXINf: 
JR [ BPOT.E S7:XVilH';i!VP.IJg, 
IbSIIIIPROCdSPPCCHK, 
FlDANARDVLi'CREQOOAmii 
NsJ AN AFECITSVBCV R AS*4 



IMPERATORI CJE3ARI XARCO A\'KELIO 

SEVEBO ANTONINO 

PIO FELICI AV0V8T0 PARTHIOO 

MAXIMO BRrTANNICO MAXIMO GFRMANICO 

MAXIMO PONTIPICI MAXIMO 

TRIBVNITIAE POTESTATIS VNDEVIGESIMVM IMPERATORIAE 8ECVNOVM 

CONSVLARI8 QVARTVM, PR0C0N8VLI, PATRl PATRI^ COHORS PRIMA 

FIDA VARDVLORVM, CTVIVM ROMANORVM EQVITATA ANTO- 

NINIANA FECIT 8VB CVRA ...... 

LEOATI AVGV8TALIS PBOPRiKTORIS 

To the Emperor CeD8ar Marcus Aurelius Severus Antoninus, pious, happy, august, 
«^y^Parthicus Maximus, Britannicus Maximus, Germanicus Maximus,* cliief priest, 
possessed of the tribunitian power for the nineteenth time, of the imperial for the 
second time, the consular for the fourth time, the father of his coimtry ; — ^The First 
Cohort of the Varduli, surnanied the faithful, composed of Roman citizens, a miliary 
cohort, with its due proportion of cavalry attached, and honoured with the name of 

Antonine, erected this under the superintendence of an augustal 

legate and propnetor. 

The Antonine here referred to is the eldest son of Severus, com- 
monly known as Caracalla; he was Consul for the fourth time a.d. 213. 

• It is difficult to translate Maximus in these instances. Probably it was intended 
to intensify the epithet to which it is joined. 



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INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED ROMAN STONES. 



IN THE GREAT HALL. 

18. A Boman Soldier, much mutilated. Borcovicus. HodgsoD, lxv. 
He wears a tunic, over which is thrown the usual military cloak. 
The tunic is bound round the waist by a thin sash, the end of which 
hangs down. The cloak is fastened near the right shoulder by a circular 
fibula. The figure was found " lying on the ridge in the hollow of the 
field west of the Mithraic cave." Hodgson conjectures that this and 
several similar sculptures found in this locality were sepulchral monu- 
ments. 




14. Figure of Victory, holding in her hands an ornament 
what resembling a pelta or light 
shield. From Corstopitum. Hors- 
Icy, N. cm. ; Hodgson, ccxxv. 
Another figure probably occupied 
the right extremity of the slab, and 
an inscription inclosed in a circular 
garland was placed in the centre. ' 

15. A Eoman Soldier in his civic 
dress ; the head and feet broken off. 
From BoRcovK vs. He is clad in a 
tunic and mantle. The left hand 
gracefully suspends a portion of the 
mail tie, which has a fringe at the 
bottom three inches deep. The fringe 
is common to Romauo-Gaulish cos- 
tume. (See Collectanea AnUqtM, 
V. iii., p. 81. 




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INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED ROMAN STONES. 9 

Kos. 16, 17, 18, 19, and 21, consist of female figures seated in chairs. 
Each figure forms a separate statue, though they have no douht heen 
arranged in groups of three. From BoBcovrcus. Horsley, N. xltx. ; 
Hodgson, XLViir. Three of these, Horsley tells us, were found near the 
side of a hrook (prohahly tho Knag-hum), on the east of the station. 





There can be little douht that these figures were intended to represent 
I)e<B Matres — deities extensively worshipped in the northern prp- 
vinces of the Koman empire. The deities are for the most part re- 
presented as triple, seated, an(t having baskets of fruit on their laps. 
The heads and hands of all the figures before us have been knocked 
off. Fig. 16 is very rough, bearing distinct marks of the pick-axe; 
probably it has never been finished. All the figures are clothed in 
an under garment, which falls in plaits to the feet ; and an over robe, 
which, in most of them, after being gathered into a drooping fold upon 
the lap, falls about half way down the legs. A band encircles the body 
a little below the swell of the bosom. The peculiar arrangement of the 
drapery in fig. 21, which is characteristic of the Imperial period, led 
Horsley' s correspondent, Mr. Ward, to suppose that the deity was tied 
to her chair to prevent her departure. There can be no doubt, from 
the instances which Mr. "Ward cites, that such a practice was occasion- 
ally resorted to, but the figure before us is certainly not a case in point. 



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10 



INSCRIBED AXD SCULPTURED ROMAX STOXES. 



20. From Habitancum, the modern Bisin^jliam. Presented by ¥r. 
Richard Shanks, and described by Mr. Tlios. Hodgson in the Arch- 
irologia ^liana (0. S.) toL It., p. 20. It was found among the 



V- 



_ =!triWA/HANfNIN9Po^ 

g PoJiM CM M^I VSTATDI 

llA'.SblVSSVMNS-^^EClMS^ 
^(§SCV?Al^(DiANADV3^Ko^ 

VCVMMs^VIAN°B/• 



n 



# 



V 



f.^ 



V 



^ 



J> 



debris ot* the South gateway of the station. The upper portion of the 
slab which is now lost, has probably contained the name and titles of 
Scverus. From the centre of the stone the name of Geta has been pur- 
posely erased ; probably, after being murdered by his brother. The 
slab was probably placed upon the front of the south gateway of 
Habitancum, a.d. 207. Mr. Thomas Hodgson thus restores the inscrip- 
tion ; the portions wanting being printed in a different character. 

Imperatoribi'8 Casaribvn, 

Ja^cw Septimio Severo Pio Fertinaci Faniijlci Maximo Arabico Parthieo adiabenico 

MAXIMO. 
C0N8VLI TERTIVM, ET MARCO AVRELIO ANTONINO PIG 

C0N8VLI 8EC\'^NDO AVOVSTI8 ft PvbUo Sfptimt'o Geta ftobilissimo Casari ContvH 

PORTAM CVM MVRI8 VET\'8TATE DI- 
LAP8I8 IV88V ALFENI 8EKECINIS VIRI 
0ON8yLARI8 CVRANTE ANTI8TIO ADVENTO PRO . . 
AVOV8TI8 N08TRI8 COUOItS PRIMA VANOIONVM EQ. . 
CVM JKMILIO 8ALVIAN0 TRIBVNO 
8V0 A 80L0 RE8TITVIT. 

To the Emperors, the Csesars — ^to Lucius Septimius Sftvems Pius, chief priest, 8tyle(t 
Arabicus, Parthicus, Adiabenicus Maximus, consul for the third time; (and) to 
Marcus AureUus Antoninus *Piu8, consul for the second time — ^both styled August — 
and to Publiua Septimius Geta, the most noble Copsar. The First Cohort of the Van- 
giones, with AemHiua Salvianus their tribune, at the command of Alfenus Senccinis, 
a man of consular rank, under the care of Antistius Advcntus, restored from the 
ground this gate with the contiguous walls, which had become dilapidated through age. 



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INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED ROMAN STONES. 



11 




22. From BoBcovicus. Borsley, N". l. ; Hodgson, xlix. Three female 
figures, partially clothed and 
standing. Are they nymphs 
at their ablutions, or dea ma- 
ires? The upper portion of 
the stone, which is now lost, 
contained the figures of two 
fish and a sea goat — intended, 
probably, as the emblems of 
the second legion. The lower 
part appears to have contained 
a recumbent figure, probably 
a river-god. 



23. An inscription in Iambic verse, in praise of Ceres, the mother of 
the gods. From the Eoman station of Magna, the modern Carvoran. 
Presented by Col. Coulson. Hodgson, Pt. II., vol. iii., p. 138.; 
Archeeologia ^liana, vol. i, p. 107. The inscription is unusually 
long, and is without ligatures or contractions. It is here arranged as 
the scansion requires. 



IMMINET LEONI VIRGO C.KLESTI 81TV 
8PICIFERA J^STI INVKNTRIX VllBlVM CON- 

DrrKix 

EX QVI8 MVNEKIBV8 N088E OONTIOIT DEOS 
EHOO EAUEH MATER DIWM PAX VIRTVS 

CERES 
DEA SYRIA LANXE VITAM ET JTRA PEN8ITAN8 
IN C-ELO VI8VM SYRIA 8IDV8 EDIDIT 
LYBIiE COLENDVM INDE CVNCTI DIDiaMVS 
ITA INTELLEXIT NVMINE INDVCT\'8 TVO 
MARCY8 C-ECILrVS DONATINV8 MILITANS 
TR1BVNV8 VS PR-SSFECTO DONG PRINaPIS 




The Virgin in her celestial seat overhangs the Lion, 
Producer of com, Inventress of right, Foundress of cities, 



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12 



IN8CE1BED AND SCULPTURED ROMAN STONES. 



By which functionfl it has been our good fortune to know the deities. 

Therefore the same Virgin is the Mother of the gods, m Peace, w Virtue, is Ceres, 

Js the Syrian goddess, poising life and laws in a balance. 

The constellation beheld in the sky hath Syria sent forth 

To Lybia to be worshipped, thence have all of us Icamt it ; 

Thus hath understood, overspread by thy protecting influence, 

Marcus Csecilius Donatinus, a war-faring 

Tribune in the office of prefect, by the bounty of the emperor. 

24. The fragment of a stone inscribed on both sides. From Bokco- 
vicus. Hodgson, lvii. The inscriptions arc evidently of different 
dates. The form of the letters and the absence of ligatures in a, show 




it to have been the eariier. It has also been of larger size than the 
other. It contains the name of an officer, Paulinus,* who would 
appear to have been engaged in the construction of the Prjetentuile. 
The slab, after having suffered from the mischances of war, has supplied 
the material for a second inscription, 5, of a smaller size. The lines 
of the second inscription which remain read — 

imperat0ribv8 

cjs8ahibv8 

[m.] aurelio an[tonino.] 

To the Emperors, the Csesars, Marcus Aurelius Antoninus '. 



The emperor here named is Caracalla ; the other emperor referred to 
must have been his brother Geta. As Geta was slain in the first year 
of their united reign, the date of the inscription will be a.d. 211. 

25. A Slab, inscribed fvlgvr 
DivoBi — the lightning of the gods — 
from the western approach to Hun- 
NUM, the modem Halton Chcsters. 
Presented by Rowland Errington, 
Esq. It no doubt marked the spot 
where some Roman soldier was 
struck down by lightning. 

1 The final letters of the procnomen seem to be ntio, which would give some us 
such word as Potttio^ Qnintio^ Trrentio, &c. 




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i:^SCRIBED AND SCULPTURED ROMAN STONES. 



13 



26. The upper part of the figure 
of a Eoman soldier in low relief, 
and much weathered. He rests 
upon his spear, and has his sword 
at his right side. It somewhat 
resemhles a more perfect figure 
given in Horsley, N. u. 




27. A mutilated figure of Neptune in bas-relief, from the station 
Procolitia, tlio modern Carrawburgh. Presented by Sir Walter 
Trevelyan, Bart. Hodgson, 
XXXVI. ; Archffiologia uEliana 
(Old Sories), Vol. I., p. 203. 
The Romans were not a mari- 
time people; and we find but 
few traces of their chief marine 
deity in the north of England. 
The Batavi, who garrisoned 
the Station where this figure 
was found, may have brought 
with them from their own 
island' home to that of their 
adoption those predilictions 
which have in modem times 
characterized the inhabitants of the Delta of the Rhine. 



28. The upper portion of a hu- 
man figure set in a niche. From 
BoBcovicus. It is probably part of 
a ftmereal monument. 



of 
C. 





2 lasula Batavonim.— Cttmr. 



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14 



INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED ROMAN STONES. 



IN THE WINDOWS OF THE LONGITUDINAL STAIRCASE. 

29. A Slab discovered, in excavating one of the gateways of Ajcbog- 
LANNA, by H. Glasford Potter, Esq., to whom the Society is indebted, 




2^ 



mimM 



DLEGAVCPR^ 

COHIAEL^ 

PRAEEST 

MENANDEl 

TRIB-.-'":J 



i^iifiitmmmmmmmmmmmm 




not only for the stone itself, but the cut representing it. The reading 
seems to be — 

8vb modio iv- 

lio legato avgu8tali pro- 

piw-:tore cx)hohs prima ^:lia dacohvm 

cvi praeest marcv8 

clavdivs menander 

TR1BVNV8. 

The First Cohurt of the Daciana (styled the ^lian), commanded by Marcus Clau- 
dius Menander, the Tribune, (erected this) by direction of Modius Julius, Augustal 
Legate and Propnetor. 

Mr. Potter gives a slightly different reading, for which, and particu- 
lars of the discovery of the stone, see Arch. uEliana, vol. iv. p. 141. 

30. From ICabitancum, Kisingham. Presented by Mr. William 
Shanks. Part of an altar inscribed — 



PRO 8ALVTE 

ARRII PAVLINl 

THEODOTV8 

LIBENS MERITO POSVIT 



ALVTE 
[ARR^PAVL'NI 
TFfO DOTV^/ 



For the safety of 
Arrius Paulinus, 
Theodotus dedicated 
(this altar) willingly 
and deservedly. 



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INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED ROMAN STONES. 



15 




31. From Habitancum. Presented by Mr. "Wm. 
Shanks. The fragment of a slab bearing the 
words — 

VAVTMT BRFTANNICI 
HADUIANI ABNEPOTI. 



which doubtless referred to M. Anrelius Antoninus (Caracalla), the son of 
Septimius Severus, (styled) Parthicus Maximus and Britannicus Max- 
imusy and the great grandson of Hadrian. 

32. From Habitancum. Presented by Mr. Wm. Shanks. These 
are fragments of a large inscriptioD, evidently dedicated to Caracalla. 



Imperatori Casari 

vm SEPTiMn Severijilio 

Marei antonini pii sarmatici 

fifpoti 
Marco Aurelio antonino 

PROCONSVLI 

To the Emperor Csesar Marcus 
Aurelius Antoninus, proconsul, the 
son of the deified Septimius Severus, 
the grandson of Marcus Antoninus 
Pius, (styled) Sannaticus 



'ise; 

/I SARMA1 
SENAT 



•SHA( 
lONVMjR'ElVIj 



Ur^0>^^ 



The latter part of the inscription is too incomplete to admit of even 
a conjectural interpretation ; the words decretum senatus and legionum 
are, however, distinct. 



IN THE SOUTH GALLEItY OF THE GREAT HALL. 

33. From Habitancitm. The gift of Mr. "Wm. Shanks. This fi-ag- 

y^ «^^ ^ ment of an inscription olso, 

iVT^-pX TT /^C probably, refers to Cara- 



HIPIIPRC 



calla, the son of Severus, 
one of whose titles was 
Adiabenicus. 



34. Habitancum. Mr. 
33 William Shanks. A frag- 

ment also probably belonging to the age of Caracalla. 




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INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED ROMAN STONES. 



isi}. Habitancum. Mr. Wm. Shanks. A fragment of an inscribed 
Tablet. Some of the letters arc worn out as if by the treading of feet 
upon it ; those which remain seem to be the following : — 



. . CX)N . . . 
ETATI .... 
. TI ET EX PI. 



36. Habitancum. Mr. Wm. Shanks. A fragment of an inscription. 



PATRIE 
RAETICAR 



37. llABiTANcnM. Mr. Wm. Shanks. 

Tmperatori drsari divi Scpfimii Sa^eri Britan- 
nici MAXiMi FiLio Divi Autonini Pit parthici 

f^/J KT firpoii Pontifici maximo tri- 

nVNITIA potestate Et matri avgvsti 

posvkrvxt. 

(The army) erected (this building and dedi- 
cated it) to the Emperor Coesar the son of the 
deified Septimius Severns (surnamed) Britanni- 
c-^is Maximus and grandson of Antoninus Pius 
(surnamed) Parthicus and to the Mother of the 
emperor (Julia Domna). 






WQ- 



^} 



WRIAVGVSI 



^o;sy£T?Vi 



1^ — I w i^ .^ 



IN THE VESTIBULE OF THE LIBRARY. 



38. A small rude figure of Silvanus (?). It was found in digging the 
Carlisle canal, at Burgh - on - the - 
Sands, and was presented by the 
engineer, the late Wm Chapman, Esq. 
Several figures similar to this have 
been found in the Roman stations in 
the north of England. 




39. From Habitancxtm. The mu- 
tilated figure of a Roman soldier. 




39 



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INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED ROMAN STONES. 



17 



40. Fragment of a Monumental Stone fix)m Borcovicus. It consists 
of a figure in a niche — a comueopise is at its left side ; something like 




a quiver appears on the right shoulder. This cut, and the two preceding 
ones, are drawn to the scale of an inch and a half to the foot. 

Nos. 41 to 49 consist of Heads which have been severed by the violence 
of the enemies of Borne, or some casualty, from thei trunks of the 
statues which once adorned the stations. 

41. A laureated Head of larger size than is usual, from Blake- 
Chesters, North Shields, the gift of Cuthbert Eippon, Esq. 

42. A male Head, bearded ; the locality not known. 



43. The Hea I of a female, with 
the hair turned back, probably be- 
longing to one of the deat matre^ 
found at Borcovicus, where this 
was obtained. 6'm Nos. liJ, &c. 

44 . A rude colossal Head of Pan^ ,A ' ^f » i , 
found at Magna. Presented by the •^^-^^^ 
late Mr. Geo. Armstrong Dickson 





AS 



44 




45. A mdu Head of Hercules, 
from Borcovicus. 

46. Head of a female figure, 
BoKcovicus, probably belonging to 
otic of the Dea Matres already de- 
scribed. 

47. Head bearing a crown. 




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INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED ROMAN STONES. 





48. Head of a female, found at Amboglanna, the modem Birdoswald. 
Presented by H. Glaaford Potter, Esq. This head belongs to the statue 

of a Dea Mater ^ discovered by Mr. Potter several years after 
the head had been disinterred. Archwlo- 
gia ^liana, vol. iv., p. 68. The hair 
of the head is turned back, much in the 
way it is worn at present (1856). A foli- 
*° ated band of some elegance, tied behind, 

keeps it back.® 

49. Head of a male figure; the hair short and curly. 

Nos. 50/j to 50y consist of Roman Tiles or Bricks, for the most part 
10 inches long by 9j broad, and \\ thick. The one marked a has 
been impressed while soft by the foot of a dog, or, more probably, 
judging from the length of the claws, a wolf, running over it ; 3 is 
wedge-shaped, and has been used in forming a barrel drain ; it is from 
Bremexittm. Those marked <?, rf, and e have impressed on them the 
legend leg. vr. v. — The Sixth Legion, (sumamed) the Victorious ; one 
of them (d) is from Corstopitum, and was presented by the late Sir 
David Smith, Bart. . The specimen / has had the word tiprinvs scratched 
upon it with a stick or some 
rough instrument ; g, which 
is thicker than the others 
(about 2 inchdl), is from Ha- 
DiTANCUM, and is the gift of 
Mr. W. Shanks. 

51. An important Sculp- 
ture, from a Mithraic cave in 
the vicinity of BoRcovicus. 
Hodgson, Liv. ; ArchsBologia 
^liana, vol. i., p. 283. Tlie 
god Mithras is in the centre, 
holding a sword (?) in his 
right hand, a torch in his 
left. Surrounding him, in an 
egg-shaped border, are the 
signs of the' zodiac. " The 
signs commence, after the 
Roman manner, at Aquarius 
or January, and end with Cap- 

3 Fig. 48 is dra-WTi to the scale of three quarters of an inch to the fdWt, the other 
heads to the scale of an inch and a half. 




X tl-JL. 



lM.s%ydA JZ (/^vi.-**/v^„ 



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INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED ROMAN STONES. 



19 



ricom, or December." The upper part of the stone, which contained 
Cancer and part of Leo, has been lost. The fracture between Yirgo 
and Scorpio has probably obliterated Libra. ** Mithraism was a species 
of Sabaism, which in old times prevailed from China, through Asia and 
Europe, as far as Britain. During the reign of Commodus the former 
had become common among the Eomans ; and in the time of Severus 
had extended over all the western part of the empire. It was imported 
from Svria, and wa^ Rvnonvmous with tho woi'sln'p of Bml ruv} Ji(A in 




that country ; for in it, as in the mysteries of Osiris in Egjrpt, and 
of Apollo in Greece and Borne, the sun was the immediate object of 
adoration. ' ' — Hodgson. 



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INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED ROMAN STONES. 



52. Several fragments of a large Tablet found in the Mithraic cave 
at BoRCovicus. The tablet unfortunately was 
broken up for draining-stones, and to a great 
extent irrecoverably lost, before its value was 
known. The wood-cut on the preceding page 
exhibits the usual form of these Mithraic sculp- 
tures. The parts of the Boboovicus tablet which 
remain ai*e a fragment of the bull's head, the dog 
jumping up to lick the blood, a hand grasping a 
sword, and two figures of Mithras with an up- 
lifted torch, one of which had stood on the right 
side of the tablet, the other on the left. One 
of them is shown in the accompanying cut. 
Hodgson, Lv. ; Archaeologia JBliana, vol. i.^ 
p. 283. 



53. A mutilated and much weathered figure of a 
Iloman Soldier in liis coat of mail. From CoHsion- 
'IU.M ; presented by Mr. Spoor. 

54. The lower part of a figure of ^sculapius, rudely 
carved. From Amboqlanna. 






55. A carved Stone, probably the base of an altar, representing a 
wild bull in the woods. Habitancuh ; presented by Mr. Shanks. 



56 



A Centurial Stone, from Walbottle, presented by the 
Literary and Philosophical Society of Newcastle -upon- ^^PP* 
Tyue. 



..•'•■• 



57. A Centurial Stone, from Magna. Some of the letters are indis- 
tinct, but the inscription seems to intimate that the Century* tinder 

* A century was a body of troops consisting, vhen complete, of a hundred men, 
and commanded by a Centurion. A (C) reversed, or an angular figure like a (V) laid 
upon its side, is the usual contraction for the word Centuria. 



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I^^SCRIBED AND SrULPTURF.D ROMAN STONES. 21 

Valerius Oassianus executed work to the extent of nineteeu paces, 
^^_^_^^^^ Several slabs of large size and ornate character have 
jr>\^MrS^T^l been found on the Antonine Wall, in Scotland, record- 
\^VC \APXDC t^ ^^ ^^® execution, by various bodies of troops, of por- 
z:^ tions of the Vallum, amounting usually to one or two 



thousand paces. The absence of similar inscriptions on the Wall of 
Hadrian is remarkable. The only approaches to them are stones such 
as that under notice, that below. No. 67, and one in the museum of 
Alnwick Castle, which bears the inscription — 



FLOBINI 

p xxii 



€enturia Flormi, passus viginti duo. — ^The Century of Florinus (erected) twenty • 

- two paces. 

We may perhaps account for the smallness of the numbers on these 
stones by supposing that they related to the walls of the stations, and 
included not only the walls themselves, but the garrison buildings 
within them. 

58. A Centurial Stone, bearing the inscription — 

OOH Yin 

' CAECni 

CLEM 

Cohortis octavee Centuria CcDcilii Clementis. — (This work was performed by) a Cen- 
tury of the Eighth Cohort under the command of Cacilius Clemens. 

69. Fragment of a Stone, rudely sculptured. From BREMEirnjM. 
Part of the figure of a dog, or other quadruped, appeaiB. 

* 60. A Centurial Stone ; the inscription, which is much weathered, 
seems to be this — co iv pe. 



6 1 . A round Globe, of large size, with the foot of Victory firmly planted 
on it ; the rest of the statue is wanting. From the Eoman Station of 
Stanwix ; presented by J. D. Carr, Esq., Carlisle. 

62. The leg (wanting the foot) of a Statne. The fix>nt of the shin is 
unusually sharp ; the upper fastenings of the cothurnus appear. From 
Stanwix ; presented by J. D. Carr, Esq., Carlisle. 



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22 



IXSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED ROMAN STONES. 



con 
at 




63. A square Slab, ornamented on the sides with circles containing a 
cross within each. The inscription, which has consisted of at least six 

lines, is nearly effaced. The fiwt line has began thus, > par a ; the 

last line consists of the letters p . b . £ . f. 

64. Part of the shoulder of a large mailed 
statue. From Blake-chesters ; presented by- 
George Rippon, Esq. 

65. A figure of Victory, with outstretched 
wings. The peculiar curl of the lower part 
of the drapery will be noticed. From the 
Roman Station of Stanwix. It had been 
used in the building of the old church at 
Stanwix, and was rescued when that build- 
ing was pulled down to be replaced by the 
present church.. Presented* by the Rev. 
Thomas Wilkinson. 

66. A Centurial Stone, from Chester-le-Street ; broken through the 
middle; inscription illegible. Presented by the Rev. W. Featherston- 
haugh. 

67. A Centurial Stone ; illegible. 

68. A Walling Stone, inscribed — 

LEO u 
AVG 

Legio Sccunda Augusta. — The Second Legion, the August (erected this). 

69. A fragment of a Sculptured Stone, having on one side a bird 
pecking at a string of foliage, and on the other an object or ornament 
resembling a sacrificing knife. 

70. Part of a Slab, from Vindolana, the modern Chesterholm, pre- 
sented by the late Rev. Anthony Hedley. Its 
right bears a Roman vexillum, or standard ; the 
left is gone. The inscription is very imperfect. . 
The first line has the letters con., the second 

PEOBI. y- ' ■ -^ /^ '- "^ : J ''' ^. 

71. A Centurial Stone, bearing the inscription — 

COH V 

> CAECILI 

PROCLI 

Cohortis quintee centuria Ceecilii Prodi. —The Century of Ciecilius Proclus, of the 

Fifth Cohort. 




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INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED ROMAN STONES. 
72 A Ccnturial Stone, bearing, the letters elix. Qu, Felix ? 



23 



73. A Centurial Stone, containing the ijiscription — ' frrrTTJTol 

Ccnturia Claudii passus triginta — ^The Century of Claudius '/i |v«yw.Q f 
(erected) thirty paces. i LJ- LJ 



74. The figure of a Roman Soldier ; the head 
and shoulders are knocked off. From Borco- 
vicus. The lower part of his tunic consists of 
** scales, composed of horn or metal, sowed on 
to a basis of leather or quilted linen, and formed 
to imitate* the scales of a fish."* 

75. Three Flue Tiles, for carrying the hot air 
from the hypocaust up into the walld of the 
building. Probably from Corstopitum ; pre- 
sented by the late Rev. 8. Clarke, Hexham. 




76. Part of a small, rudely executed female figure. 

77. A rude figure of Silvanus(?) resembling No. 38. In his left 
hand he holds the head of some animal, probably a goat. 




78. A small Stone Mortar or crucible, with a spout. 

79. Fmgments of roofing tiles : on one of them ia stamped leg. vi. v. 

80. A squared Stone, with a moulding, bearing the inscription — 

LEOIO.VI 

PI.E.P.VEX • 

&EFR 

Legionis sextsD pi® et fidelis vexillatio refecit ; a yexillation of the Sixth Legion pious 
and faithful restored (this). 

From the vicinity of Corstopitum ; presented by John Grey, Esq., 

Dilston House. 

' See Rich's Companion to the Latin Dictionary, p. 193. 



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INSCRIBED AXD SCULPTURED ROMAN STONES. 



81. Part of an Altar, which has been split down the middle to form 
a gate-post. From Habitancum ; presented by Mr. James Forster. 
Hodgson, who describes the altar (Hist. Nor., Pt. II., vol, i., p. 186)^ 




|(MH?r 

IPERCEI 
tPCRV/Nf 
( IN 
D 

EFIQ NE 

^yEFPAC 

IIBFPRO 

pvCEPRS, 

|EMINI\/a\ 

:profv/vp\ 



. . .IN 

ED . . 



BOEL 
.VINB 



lEPROFV/VP- 

Vgemvoev 

)fREVITAE 



FICIN 

EP PAO 

IBIPRO 

LVCB PPO 

. . . FLAMINIVS 
.ET PRO FVNB 

CEMVOLV 

. DE BE VITAE 



suspects the inscription was in hexameter verse. Mr. Hodgson's copy of 
the inscription is here placed side by side with the engraving ; a compari- 
son of the two will enable the reader to ascertain on which of the let- 
ters he may rely. 

82. Part of an Inscribed Stone, having on 

the right a banner, upheld by the arm of a 
soldier. From Bokcovicus. 

83. The upper part of a Slab, apparently 
monumental. On it is a carving of the cres- 
cent moon, embracing in its horns the fir-cone 
ornament. 

84. An Altar to Fortune. .From Habitancum. Presented by Mr. 
Shanks. Described in the ArchsBologia .^liana, vol. iii., p. 150. 
When discovered, the altar, as represented in the cut, stood upon a 




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INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED ROMAN STONES. 



25 



mass of masonry about three feet high. The great peculiarity of this 
altar is that the inscription is repeated on the basement slab, which is 
also provided with a focus. 




Caiua Valerius the Tribune dedicated 
(thifl altar) to Fortune. 

The altar bears no indications of having been exposed to the weather. 
The patera on one of its sides bears distinct marks of the chisel. The 
rest of the surface is dotted over by the indentations of a fine pivk-axo or 
similar tool. The head of the altar has at souiC time been forcibly 
separated from the body. 

85. A Stone, from Corstopitum, in- 
scribed Legio Sexta victrix, pia, fidclis. — 
The Sixth Legion (styled) the victoriiis, 
the affectionate, and faithful. The marks 
of the mason's chisel are distinct. Presented by Mr. I^ewcastle, of 
Gateshead. 




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26 INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED ROMAN STONES. 

86. Part, of an Altar, from Habitanctm ; apparently rNTOT^ 
inscribed Jovi Optimo Maximo et Imperatoribns. — To JJ-^ 
Jupiter the best and greatest, and to the Emperors, fff l^JPP 
The Emperors in question are probably, Severus and 
his sons. Presented by Mr. Eicbard Shanks. 

87. A Stone from the Roman Wall near Walbottle. 
Presented by Mr. "Wilson. 

CENTUBiA PEBEGRiNi. — The Century of Peregrijius. 




\>pere1 

LcRwy 



88. A Slab, containing an inscription, which, in the opinion of Hodg- 
son, is " of all the inscriptions discovered in Britain of the greatest his- 



IMPCAESTCAIAN 
V HADRIANIAVGJ! 
' LECH AVC^^l 
APLMORlONEPOTELECFKPRl 






torical importance." Hodgson, cccvii. It reads — Imperatoris CiBsaris 
Trajani Hadriani Legio Secunda Augusta Aulo Platorio Nepote 
Legato Proprietore. — The second Legion (styled) the August ferccted 
this building in honour) of the Emperor Caesar Trajanus Hadrianus 
Augustus, Aulus Platorius Nepos, being Legate and Proprietor. Wallis, 
in his History of Northumberland, is the first to mention this stone, vol. 
ii., p. 27, and he says it was found *' in digging up the foundations of 
a castellum or miliary turret, in the "Wtl!, in an opening of the preci- 
pice by Crag-Lake, called Lough-End-Crag or Milking-Gap, for stones 
for building a farm-house belonging to William Lowes, of Newcastle, 
Esq." He was probably misinformed as to the precise locality. The 
Milking-Gap Mile-Castle did not belong to Mr. Lowes; the Castle- 
Nick Mile-Castle did belong to him, and is placed in an opening in the 
precipice west of what is now called the Milking-Gap. Half of an 
inscription, precisely similar to this, was found built up in the farm- 
house of Bradley,® which is in the immediate vicinity of Milking-Gap. 

« This moiety of the stone is now at Matfen ; another fractured stone, now in the 
Library of the Dean and Chapter of Durham, exactly fits it, and completes the 
inscription. 



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INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED ROMAN STONES. 27 

This, probably, is the one which was derived from the Milking-Gap 
castellum. In the Housesteads Mile-Castle, which is the next to the 
east of the Castle-Nick Castle, the fragment of a similar inscription was 
found in 1851, when it was excavated by its owner, John Clayton, 
Esq. Mr« Clayton also found a portion of a similar inscription in the 
Cawfields eastellum, which is about three miles to the West of the Milk- 
ing-Gap. But, although he excavated the imposing remains of the 
Castle-Nick eastellum in 1852, no inscribed stone was found ; hence he 
has come to the very probable conclusion that the slab before us was 
obtained by Mr. Lowes from the Castle -Nick. The importance of the 
stone consists in its giving us the true reading of the fragments already 
referred to, as well as of some others; and in proving that thes^ mile- 
castles were built (and hence the Wall also) in the time of Hadrian. 
The stone was presented to the Society by the late John Davidson, Esq. 

89. The part of a Stone, containing the inscription, separated from 
the rest, probably for the convenience of carriage. It reads — 

C FAVI 
8EBANI 

Centuria Favi Sebani. —The Century of Favus Scbanus. 



90. A Centurial Stone, much weathered; the inscription is very 
obscure. 

con 

k VAL 8 VEL 



*' 91. A Centurial Stone, much . weathered, and the inscription very 
obscure. 

comu X 

> SINUION (?) 
VALEK (?) 

92. Part of a large but severely fractured Slab, from -.Esica ; pre- 
sented by Capt. Coulson. The portion of the inscription remaining is 
as follows : — 

V8 ANTONINO ET 

THICIS MEDICIU 
M ♦ IHAETOKV 
TAT . . CIT El'. 

♦ A hole has been bored through the atone at the place marked by the aatcrisk. 



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28 



INSCRIBED AXD SCULPTURED ROMAN STONES. 



93. From Jarrow; presented by Cuthbert Ellison, Esq. This stone 
is, probably, the base of an altar, or it may 
have been part of the decorations of a sepul- 
chral monument. The much - weathei-ed 
sculpture represents an archer shooting at 
a stag. See Brand's Newcastle, vol. ii. 
p. 62. 

94. A Stone, which, subsequently to its use by the Romans, has been 
employed in the construction of the Saxon Church at Jarrow. On 




^•K-^M-SiW^vvv: 




the edge of this slab is a portion of a cross in relievo, with a central 
boss, and similar in design to the cross occurring on some*of the Hartle- 
pool head-stones, and to that on the Durham Priory seal, known as St. 
Cuthbert's cross. The cross must have been wrought upon many stones, 
most probably after they had been placed in situ. It was surrounded 
by the cable moulding so frequent in Saxon work. The Roman inscrip- 
tion is much effaced, but, as suggested by Brand, it seems to have been 
erected in honour of the adopted sons of Hadrian, of whom Antoninus 
Pius, his successor, was one. Presented by Cuthbert Ellison, Esq. 
Brand, ii., 63 ; Hodgson, clxxi. 



DEO MAR 
MILVM 
8ENrV8 
VBLM 





DEO VE 
TERINE 
CALAM 
E.SV8L 



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INSCRIBED AND SCULPTUaED ROMAN STONES. 



29 



95. A small Altar, from Magna ; kindly deposited in the Museum by 
Col. Coulson. The inscription is obscnre, but the reading may be — 
Deo Marti Militari Valerius Marcus Senius^ vslm — To the martial god 
Mars this altar is dedicated, in discharge of a vow willingly and de- 
servedly made. 

96. A small Altar, from Magna ; deposited by Col. Coulson. The 
letters are tolerably distinct, but the reading is doubtful. It may be — 
Deo Veteri Nepos Calames (?) votum solvit libens. — Willingly dedicated 
to the ancient god, in discharge of a vow. In every age there have 
been setters forth and denouncers of ** strange gods'* — advocates and 
opponents of the ** new" and the " old learning." Hodgson reads 
it — "To the veterinary god." Hist. Nor., Part II., vol. iii., p. 141. 
It must also be borne in mind, in judging of this and a class of similar 
altars, that there seems to have been a local god named Vitris or 
Veteres. 



97. From ^sica; presented by Capt. Coul- 
son. An altar was found at Magna, which 
Horsley (N. lxix) reads — ^Dirus Vitiribus Dec- 
ciuS votum solvit libens merito ; understanding 
the first three words to be the name of the dedi- 
cator. The discovery of the altar, figured in 
the margin, which has the letter b of dib[v8], 
quite plain, makes it probable that Horsley should 
have read Dibvs, not Dievs. the inscription 
may be translated — ^Bomana erected this altar to the ancient gods. 




DIBVS 
VETEm 
BV8 P08 
VIT BOM A 
NA 



98. The head of a small Altar, from Chester-le-street ; presented by 
the Rev. W. Featherstonhaugh. The inscription is — 

DEO APOLI ' 

NI LEO II A 

To the god Apollo, by the second legion the August. 

99 . From Magna ; deposited by Colonel Coulson. The inscription may 
be translated — Titus Flavins Socundus, Prefect of the First Cohort of the 
Hamian Archers, according to a vision, in the due and voluntary per- 
formance of a vow, (erected this altar) to Fortune the August, for the 
safety of Lucius JElius Ciesar. Fortune was solicited on this occasion 

' This word may he Biniih or IIinu's. ". *^ 



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INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED ROMAN STONES. 



in vain. Lucius -^lius CsBsar, who was the adopted son of Hadrian, 
died in the lifetime of that Emperor^ a.d. 137. 




J 



FORTVNAE AVOV8TVAJS 
PRO 8ALVTE AELII 
CAE8ARIS EX VISV 
TITV8 FLAVrVS 8ECVNDVS 
PBAEFECTVS CX)H0RTI8 I HAM 
lORYM 8AOITTARIORYM 
VOTVM BOLTIT LIBEXS MERITO. 



When the Notitia was written the Dalmatians occupied the garrison at 
Magna. Three other inscriptions, besides this, found here, mention the 
Hamii. The Hamii, as Hodgson shrewdly conjectures, were from Hamah, 
the Hamath of Scripture, a city of Syria. Hodgson, Hist. Nor., II. iii., 
p. 139 and p. 205. 



100. A small headless figure of Fortune, from 
Magna ; deposited by Colonel Coulson, She has the 
wheel in her right hand, the Comucopiae in her 
left. 

101. Fragment of an Inscription, from Magna; de- 
posited by Col. Coulson. The name of Calpurnius 
Agricola occurs upon two or three inscriptions in 
connection with the Hamii at Magna. There can 
be no doubt that we have before us frag- 
ments of the words — 

CALPVRNIV8 AGRICOLA 
UAMIORVM 

The date of these inscriptions is not known. 




102. A Funereal Inscription, from Magna; deposited by Col. Coul- 
on. Hodgson, Hist. North., II. iii., p. 142. The inscription may pro- 
bably be read thus— Caius Valerius Caii (filius) Voltinia (tribu) Tullus 



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INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED ROMAN STONES. 



31 



vixit annos quinquaginta miles Legionis Vicesimse Valentis Victricis. — 
(In memory of) Caius Valerius Tullus the son of Caius, of the Voltinian 
tribe, a soldier of the Twentieth 
Legion (styled) V aliant and Vic- 
torious (who) lived fifty years. 
Hodgson's reading is — Caius 
Valerius Caius Voltinius Julius 
vixit annos &c. The palm branch, 
the type of victory, will be no- 
ticed in the triangular head of 
the stone, and at the commence- 
ment and close of the last line. 
The age of the soldier has been 
cut upon a nodule of ferruginous 



<.- 



IVLLyS^lAW^Ml 



matter which has fallen out; there is not space for two letters so that 
there is little doubt that the inscription originally had l. 

103. A headless figure of Mercury, from Cokstopitum ; presented 
by the Rev. W. Featherstonhaugh. A purse is on the ground, near hia 
left foot ; a cock adorns the pedestal. 





''-' m 

104. A figure of Mercury, found in digging the foundations of the 
High Level Bridge, in the immediate vicinity of the Castle of Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne-one of the few relics of Pons ^ui. Presented by George 
Hudson, Esq. He has the money bag in his right hand, the caduceus 
in his left ; a ram kneels at his feet. 



^ 



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32 



INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED ROMAN STONES. 



105. A plaister cast of a large Altar, found in the station near Mary- 
port, and now in the grounds of Government House, Castletown, Isle of 
Man. Presented by Dr. Bruce. Horsley, Cumberland, lxiii ; Hodgson, 
cxcY. The first account of this altar appears in the Appendix to Gor- 
don's Itinerarium Septentrionale, and from this source most writers have 
drawn their information respecting it Some important parts of the 
inscription are obliterated. The following is the reading given by 
Gordon's correspondent : — Jovi Augusto Marcus Censorius Marci filius, 
Voltinia [tribu] Cornelianus, Centurio Legionis DecimsB Fretensis, 
Preefectus Cohortis Primee Hispanorum, ex provincia Karbonensi, domo 
Nemausensis, votum solvit laetus lubens merito. — ^To Jupiter the August, 
Marcus Censorius Cornelianus, son of Marcus, of the Voltinian tribe. 
Centurion of the Tenth Legion (styled) Fretensian (and) prefect of the 
First Cohort of Spaniards of the province of Narbonne of the city of 
Nemausus (Nismes) willingly and deservedly performs a vow. 



IX THE MURAL CHAMBER COMMrNICATING WITH THE LtBRARY, 



106. A Eoman Tombstone, 
found in cutting down Gallow- 
Hill, near Carlisle. Arch, ^li- 
ana, vol. ii., p. 419. The in- 
scription runs — 

DII8 MANIBYS AVBELIA AVRELIA VIXSIT 
ANNOa QUADRA OINTA VNVM VLPIVS 
APOLINARIS CON I vol CARIS8IMB 
P08VIT. 

To the Divine Manes. Aurelia Aure- 
liana(r) lived forty-one years. Ulpius 
Apolinaris erected this to his beloved 
wife. 



The character of the carving 
and the orthography of the in- 
scription render it probable that 
this slab belongs to a late pe- 
riod of the Eoman occupation of 
Britain. 




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INSCRIBED AND SCITLPTITRED ROMAN STONES. 



33 



107. Prom Habitancitk ; presented by Mr. Shanks. Arch, -ffiliana, 
vol. iii., p. 155. It was not usual with 
the Komans to mention death upon a tomb- 
stone, though the length of the life of the 
deceased is gonerally mentioned with great 
particularity. 



DIIS MANIBYS 

SAT&iyS 

HONORATV8 

VDCIT AN- 

N18 QYINQYE 1CE[nJ 

8IBTB OCTO. 



To the Divine 
Manee. Satrius 
Honoratiu lived 
five yean and five 
months. 



108. A Fragment of a Funereal Inscrip- 
tion. On the right of the slab is a floral 
border, resembling in character that which 
adorns the sides of the capital of the altar 
to Fortune found at Habitancxtm (No. 84). From Habitancuk (?) The 
orthography of the wordri!r»^ is the only 
remarkable feature in this fragment. 




AV 

MEM 

FILIAB 

NICONI 

M . AV&ELIO . . 
VICXTTA 

rxxvii 



109. A Funereal Monument, from 
^siCA. Horsley, N. lxiy. 7 ; Hodgson, 
xci. The earring is very rude, and is 
probably of the latest period of the 
empire. The inscription is not clear, 
and has been yariously given ; it seems 
to be— 

D 1 8 M 
PEBVICAE FILIAE 

To the divine Manes of the daughter of 
Pervica. 

On the line of the Roman Wall many 
cases occur of the dead having been 
buried instead of being subjected to 
the process of cremation. Judging 
from the excellent preservation in 




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34 



INSCRIBED A^^D SCULPTURED ROMAN STONES. 



which many of the funereal* inscriptions are, the occasional mdeness of 
the sculptures, and from the circumstance that the hacks of the stones 
are often entirely undressed, it would seem as if the tombstones had 
been used to cover the cist in which the body was placed (with their faces 
downwards), and that a heap of earth was then thrown over the whole. 
In the cut the rudiments of the " chevron'* and the "cable-pattern" of 
the Norman style of omataent will be observed. 



110. An Inscribed Stone, which was first noticed at Walltown, but 
is supposed to have come from JEsicjl. Presented by the late Rev. 
Henry Wastal, Newbrough. Hodgson, Lxxxviir. It reads — ^Victorire 
Augusti Cohors Sexta Nerviorum cui 
preeest Caius Julius Barbarus prafectus 
votum solvit libens merito. — To the vic- 
torious Genius of the Emperor. The Sixth (IVl: BARBAW.S^RAEFKrVSi 
Cohort of the Nervii, commanded by 
Caius Julius Barbaras the Prefect, (erected this) in discharge of a vow 
freely and deservedly made. 



a V I C T ORl-AE//eCoH- Vf . { 
'^ r£RV I-O-t^M-CVl.^AEE^rCI 



1 1 1. A Monumental Stone, from Habitancum; presented by Mr. Shanks. 
Arch. JEliuna, vol. iii. p. 153. This stone is remarkably fresli, and 




\ 



DM5 

AVR^LVPY 

LEMATRI 

PIISSIME 

DIONYSlvs 

FORTY N'A 

TVS PILIVS 



DIW MANIBV8 8ACRVM** 

AVRKLI^. LVPV- 

L«. MATRl 

PIISSIME 

DIONY8IV8 

FORTVNA- 

TV8 FILIVS. 

SIT TIBI TEUUA LEVIS.' 

Sacred to the divine Manes of Aurelia 
Lupida. Dionysius Fortunatus 
elected this to the memory of his 
most loving mother. May the 
earth lie Ught upon you. 



has the appearance of having but just left the hands of the' sculptor. 

8 As an authority for expanding 8 into sacrvm the following inscription in Grutxir 
may be cited — 

DI8 infi:ri8 sacrvm 

* Careful examination reveals a small l in. the upper limb of the s. 



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INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED ROMAN STONES. 



35 



112. A Tomb-stoue, from Borcovicus 
cated to the Divine Manes on 
behalf of Anicius Icgenuus, 
physician in ordinary to the 
First Cohort of the Tun- 
grians, who lived twenty-five 
years. The figure in the up- 
per part of the stone is a hare. 



DIIS MANIBVA 

▲Niao 

INOENVO • 
MEDICO 

ORDTNARIO C?OHORTI8 
PKIMAF. TVNGRORVM 
Vixrr ANN08 XXV. 



113. Another fragment of 
a Monumental Stone ; it seems 
to have been erected to the 
memory of a person named 
Heres, who lived thirty years. 



Hodgson, Lxi. Itisdedi- 



V8 URRE8 VrX 
ANN08 XXX. 




114. A Tombstone, 
Arch, -^liana, vol 



HI. 



w^^^^^v ^^ ^gg^^^v: 






' / 



M '^ 

/yR" avARTE 

LA^VIXAN 
NISXIIIWV 

QVARTINVS 

PO^IT'FILI 

AESVAE^ ■ 



from Risingham; presented by Mr. JShanks. 
p. 153. The inscription is to the following 
effect — Sacred to the Divine Shades. 
Aurelia Quartela lived thirteen years 
five months and twenty-two days. 
Aurelius Quartinus erected this to the 
memory of his daughter. 




\ 



J 



DIIS MANIBVS SACRVM. 

AVRBLIA QVARTE- 

LA VIXIT AN- 

NI8 XIII MEN8IRV8 V 

DIEBV8 XXII. AVRELnrS 

QVARTINV8 

P08VIT PILI- 

AE 8VAE. 



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36 INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED ROMAN STONES. 

115. A Monnmental Stone, found in or near Magna. Hodgson, occrni. 
Presented by Col. Coulson. 




DIIB MANIBTS 
AYRELIAE FAIAB 
DOMO 8ALONA8. 
AYBELIT8 MARCVB 
CKNTVRIO OmEQIO CON- 
ITOIS 8AMCTI8- 
SDfAB QVAE VI- 
ZIT AMNIB XXXni 
BDfB TLLA MACVLA. 



To the diyine Manes of 

Aurelia Faia, 

Of a houiie of Salona. 

Aureliufl Marcua 

A centurion, ont of affection 

For his moat holy wife 

Who lived 

Thirty three years, 

Without any 8tain,frff/«</ this. 



j.STorgr.ogL 



116. Part of a Monumental Stone in- 
scribed — 

IVLIV8 VICTOB 

8IGNIFER VlXrr ANNOS 

QVINQVAGnn'A QVINQVE,*<> 

Julius Victor, the standard bearer, lived 
fifty-five years. 



^- SIC-VIX'AN ^ 




From HABiTANcnx ; presented by Mr. Shanks. Arch, ^liana, iv., 153. 

^^ The lower limb of the l is ver^ feebly developed, so that the numeral will at first 
sight be mistaken for iv,; the office of the person (signifer) to whom the stone is 
d^cated renders it necessary that the higher niunber snould ho understood. 



y 



i/ 



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L^iSCRiBED AND SCULPTXTEED ROMAN STONES. 37 

117. Fragment of a IConumental Stone, bearing the inscription — 



. . . .7RA. VEO 

BI.COMMYin.. 

CELERITBRLTC. 

VIXSIT. AN. . . 



The letters are well cut, but the stone is somewhat weathered. The 
last letter of the first line and the last three of the third (as here set 
down) are doubtful. 

118. An Inscribed Stone, from Magna; presented by Col. Coulson, 
Hodgson, Part U., vol. iii., p. 141. It reads — 



coHOBS pbuca bat- 

ATOBTM FECIT 



^^^^ 



The first Cohort of the 
Batavians erected this. 



The First Cohort of the Batavians were, when the Notitia list was 
compiled, garrisoned at Progolitia, the third station to the east of 
Haona. It is most probable that when this stone was carved the 
Batavians had been rendering temporary assistance to their fellow- 
soldiers at Magna. The stone is much worn by exposure to the weather. 

119. Fragmejit of a Monumental Stone, from fi*-^ 
ITTiimm: pirn^-tri by Mr. Shanks. The cutting 
of the letters is clean and good. The stone has 
suffered from violence, but not from exposure. 

120. An Inscribed Stone, from Habitan- 
GUK. In the process of adapting it to its 
petition in some modem building, a . large 
part of the inscription of the fragment has 
been effaced. The words casteoktm and 
SBHATVS are distinct in the last line. The re- 
ference may be to Julia, wife of Severus, as MaUr Castrorum. 




121. Fragment of a rudely carved 
Monumental Stone, from Habi- 
TANCUM. The letters placed beside 
the cut are those which appeared 
most probable when the stone was 
placed under a strong light. 




SDECBF 
ANNXXII 

FAI*IVN 
BBHrriA 
ITC08C 
T 
VPFFTVICT 
VINCVLV 



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38 



INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED ROMAN STONES. 



122. Fragment of a Slab, from Habitancum, con- 
taining a dedication to Marcus Antoninus (Caracalla), 
.the' son of Severus who was styled Adiabenicus. 
Presented by Mr. Shanks. Archeeologia ^liaca, vol. 
vi., p. 165. 




IX THE GUABD CHAMBER. 

123. A defaced and much injured Altar, from Wark, on the North 
Tyne, presented by Jojin Fenwick, Esq. For a long time it was used 
as a step in the stile at the foot of the Moot Hill. It may perhaps be 
regarded as a proof that the Romans had a post at "Wark, which is 
about eight miles to the north of the Wall. One of the sides of the 
altar is adorned with a pater a, the other with a prmfericulum, 

124. A defaced Altar, four feet high ; traces of letters may be noticed, 
but nothing satisfactory can be made out. 125 

125. A broken and defaced Altar. The greater part 
of the face of the capital on which the name of the 
deity to whom it was dedicated was inscribed, has 
scaled off; some traces of letters however remain, 
which render it probable that the dedication was — 

MATRIBVS 
DOMESTICIS. 

/ 

V 

126. An Altar to Fortune, from HABiTAisrcuM ; pre- 
sented by Mr. Shanks. The inscription has been 
clearly cut, but the letters are a good deal blurred by 
having been struck by a picke-axe at some period 
subsequent to their original formation. The inscrip- 
tion is — 

FortunaB Reduci Julius Severinus 
Tribunus explicito balineo votum solvit 
libens merito. 




FORTUNE REDVCI 
IVLIUS 8BVERINVS 
TRIB. EXPLICITO 
BALINEO 



To Fortune the Restorer, Julius Severinus the Tribune, the Bath being opened, 
erected this altar in discharge of a vow freely and deservedly made. 



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INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED ROMAN STONES. 



39 



The focus on the top is very roughly tooled. Near to it is another 
and smaller cavity ; perhaps a second focus. On the roll forming the 
right side of the capital is a carving, probably a mason* s mark, closely 
resembling the gammadion or gamma-formed cross. On the right side 
of the altar are the securis and cultery on the left the patera and 
prcBfericulum. 

127. An Altar to the Sun, under the character of Mithras, from the 
famous Mithraic cave at Boecovicus (See Nos. 51, 52). Hodgson, lii. ; 




Archttologia -ZEliana, vol. i., p. 302. The inscription may be read thus- 

To the god 
The Sun the in- 
vincible Mithras 
The Lord of ages 
Litorius 
Pacatianus 
A consular beneficiary ; for 
himself and family discharges a tow 
Willingly and deservedly. 



DEO 
SOLI INVI- 
CTO MYTHJE 
6AECYLARI 
L1T0R1V8 
PACATIANV8 
BENEFICLARIVS C0NSVLARI8 PRO 
BE ET SVIS VOTVM SOLVIT 
LIBEN8 MERITO. 



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40 



INSCRIBED AND SCULMURED ROMAN STONES. 



128. An Inscribed Altar; the tool-marks upon it are rough and dis- 
tinct. To all appearance the altar has never been finished. 

129. An Altar, 2 feet 4 inches high, with the following inscription 
clearly cut upon it : — 



DI8 CVLTO- 
RIBTS HV1V8 
LOCI IVL 
TICTOE TBIB. 



To the gods the 
fosterers of this 
place, Julius 
Victor a tribune. 



From Habitancum. Ses Hodgson, Pt. II., vol. iii., p. 439. 



130. Thb Altar also was 
found *in the Mithraic cave at 
BoRCovicus. It bears upon 
its capital a rude effigy of the 
sun, and is dedicated to that 
luminary by Herionus (?) 
Hodgson, LIU. Arch. jEliana, 
vol. i, p. 291. 



131. From the Mithraic cave, Borcovicus. 
p. 299. 




SOLI 

RBJUONYB 

YOTYM SOLYrr LIBENS MBKITO. 

To the sun 
Herionus (Hieronymus ?) 
in discbarge of avow willing- 
ly and deservedly made. 



Hodgson, u. ; Arch. JEli. 




DEO OPTIMO MAXIMO 

INVICTO MTT- 

RAE SJECVULBl 

PVBLIVS PROCVLI- 

NTS PBO SB 

ET PBOCVLO PILIO 

STO TOTYM SOLVIT LIBBNS MEBITO. 

DOMINIS NOSTHI8 OALLO ET 
V0LV8IN0 CONSVLIBVB 

To the god the best and greatest, 
Mithras, the unconquered and the 
eternal ; FnbHus Proculinus a Cen- 
turion dedicates this, for himself 
and Proculus his son, in discharge 
of a vow freely and deservedly 
made. 

In the year that our lords Ckdlus 
and Yolusinus'were consuls (a.d- 
252). 



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IXSCHTBED AND SCUTiPTUBED ROMAN STONES. 



41 



132. An Altar to the Sun, under the 
character of Apollo. From Yiia>OBALA, the 
modem Kutchester, where it was found toge- 
ther with three others of Mithraic character. 
Presented by Thomas James, Esq., Otterbum 
Castle. The third line is somewhat obscure, 
and the subsequent lines are nearly oblitera- 
ted by the action of the weather. Mr. 
Thomas Hodgson has described this and 
the other altars found on the same occa- 
sion in the Arch. JBliana, vol. iv., p. 6. 



133. An Altar, 2 feet 2 inches high and 
7 inches wide, very roughly tooled, and 
having no trace of an inscription. From 
Vnf DOBALA ; presented by T. James, Esq. 




132 



134. A Slab from Borcovictts. Hodgson, xlv. 
without any contractions or com- 
pound letters. 



DIIS OEABY8QVB SE- 
CVNDVM INTEBPBE- 
TATIONEM ORACV- 
LI CLARI APOLLINIS 
C0R0B8 PRIMA TVNORORYM. 

It may be thus translated: — 
The First Cohort of the Tungri- 
ians (dedicated this structure) to 
the gods and the goddesses, accord- . 
ing to the direction of the oracle of 
the illustrious Apollo. — Like most of 
the other inscribed stones found up- 
on the Wall, it bears marks of hav- 
ing been purposely broken. 



The inscription is 




DllSDEABVSQVESE 

a^mVMINTERPRE 

TATIONEMOKACV. 

IlClARlAPC^tlfis 

CO HJTVr#ROR/M 







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42 



INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED ROMAN STONES. 



136. This Altar was dug up at Chapel HiD, in the immediate vicinity 
of the station of Bobcovicus. Horsley, N. ixxvi. ; Hodgson, xxxix. 
The inscription may he translated — The first Cohort of the Tungrians, 




JOVI OPTIMO MAXIMO 

FT NVMIlflBVS 

AVOV8TI COUOR8 1. TVNORORVM 

MILLIA&IA CVI PiLKB 

8T QTINTVB VERIV8 

RYPBHSTIS 

PBjBFECTVS. 



a milliary one, commanded by Qnintus Verius Superstis, Prefect, (dedi- 
cated this altar) to Jupiter the best and greatest, and to the Deities of 
the Emperor. — ^The scrolls on the top of the altar are bound down by 
transverpie cords. 



136. The upper half of a large Altar; the inscription is almost en- 
tirely obliterated. The letters of the first line may be i o m, and on 
the second are some traces of the letters coh ni ae ; in which case it 
has been dedicated to Jupiter by the Fourth Cohort of the Dacians 
(styled the ^lian) which was in garrison at Auboolaitna. On the 
side of it is carved a figure applying a long straight trumpet (tuba) to 
its mouth ; it supports the trumpet with both hands. 



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INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED ROMAN STONESi 



4^ 



137. Found together with the altar No. 135, and some others, at the 
foot of the hill on which Borcovicus 
stood. Horsley, N., xxxix.; Hodgson, 
xLi. The inscription is nearly effaced. 
Horsley discerned on the first line (left 
hlank in the cut) the words i o x, and they 
may yet be traced upon careful examina- 
tion. 




FT>IVN1]NIBVSAVq 

COHtTVNCRORl 

CV!PPAGHSTQl\riV!S 

SVS* PR/VIFi 




JOVI OPTDfO MAXIMO 
ST NYMIXIByS AYOySTI 
COHOBS PBIMA TYNORORTM 

cvi PBJBEST Qvnrrvs iylivs pajBFScrvs. 

To Jupiter the best and greatest and to 
the deities of Augustus, the First Cohort 
of the Tungri commanded by Quintos 
Julius Majdmus (?) the Prefect dedicated 
this. 



138. Probahly from Bobcoticus. The altar appears never to have 
heen finished; for the focus, though roughly 
formed, has not heen hollowed out. On the 
face of the capital is inscribed the word deo ; 
the deity hero^referred to is probably Mithras. 

139. A small uninscribed and much injured 
Altar, 1 foot 10 inches high. 

140. From VnraoBiXA; presented by the 
Bev. John CoUinson. Hodgson, xv. This altar 
was long built up in the garden wall of the 
parsonage house of Gateshead. Brand, who en- 
graves and describes it (vol. i. p. 608), says 
that on it is *' plainly inscribed the monogram 
of Christ," Brand's opinion can hardly be sup- 
ported. The monogram is anything but plain. 
The altar has been sadly tampered with ; can 
we be sure that what is supposed to be the 
monogram is not of the same age as the let- 
ters which have been rudely cut upon the face 




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44 



INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED ROMAN STONES. 



140 



W^Wl 







of the stone, and which are evidently ino- 
dem.^^ OrsupposiDg the monogram to be 
of the same age as the altar, Low do we know 
that it was intended to symbolize the Re- 
deemer? "The sign called the Christian 
monogram is yery ancient ; it was the mono- 
gram of Osliis and Jupiter Ammon ; it de- 
corated the hands of the sculptured images 
of Egypt; and in India stamped its form 
upon the most majestic of the shrines of the 
deities."" Unless this be one, no Christian 
inscription belonging to the Roman era has 
been found upon the line of the Roman Wall. 
This altar has an unusually high capital, but 
is destitute of a focus. 



141. An unin- 
scribed Altar; the 
upper part of it has 
been much injured. 
It is 2 feet 10 
inches high. 




142. From Borcottcus. 
Hodgson run. But for 



Horsley, N. xl. 
the assistance of 



MARTIQVIN 
riORIVSMA 
TERNVSPRAH 
COHITVNC 



DEO 
MARTI QYUm'S 
FL0RIV8 HA- 
TERNV8 PRAEFECTV8 
COUORTIS I TTNORORVM 
VOTVM SOLVIT LIBEM8 XERITO. 

To the god Mars 
Quintus Florius Matemus Prefect of the First 
Cohort of Tungrians (dedicates this altar) in 
discharge of a vow willingly and deservedly 
made. 



Horsley, who saw the altar when it was in a less 

weathered state than at present, the inscription 142 

would be nearly illegible. The focus is unusually capacious, being ten 

inches in diameter. 1 he globe on the base of the altar will be noticed. 

^1 Hodgson says ^* Eutchester, for a long time, was the estate and residence of a 
family of gentry called Buthcrford. Could r. h. and A. h. he two sisters to whom 
w. B. and I. B., two young men of this family were attached :'* 

» Hodgson's Nor., II., iii., p. 178." 




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INSCRIBED AND SCULPTUBBD ROMAN STONES. 45 

143. From Bobcoyicus. Horsley, N., :cli. ; Hodgson, xut. The 



HEBOfVIJ 

00H0B8 PRIMA TyNOROBYM 

MILLIABIA 

CVI P&ASB8T PYBLIY8 AELTYB 

MODE8TT8 P&ASFECTY8. 

Dedicated to Herctdes by the First Cohort of the 
Tungrians, (consistiiig of one thousand men), of which 
Publius JElius Modestus is Prefect. 




- HERCVLI 
COH'I'TVNGRpTJ 
MIL 

i^QD£STVSPRf£ 




inscription could not easily be deciphered without the aid of Horslej's 
reading. 

144. The inscription on the body of 
the Altar has all the appearance of hay- 
ing been purposely erased ; on the capital 
are the letters d.o.h. — ^deo optimo majomo 
— ^The god the greatest and best. It has 
probably been dedicated to Mithras. 

H**). The lower part of a Statue of Her- 
cules, from BoRcoYicus. The figure is 
muscular, and holds a club in the right 
hand; traces of the lion's skin are seen 
hanging down on the left side. 

146. A large uninscribed Altar (8 
feet 9 inches high), from Chester-le- 
Street; presented by the Rev. Walker 
Featherstonhaugh. 

147. A rude uninscribed Altar, 1 foot 
3 inches in height. * ^^^ 

148. A small neatly carved Altar, without inscription. On onefo'^e, 
in a slightly recessed niche, is a figure of a woman or a robed priest ; 




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46 



INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED ROMAN STONES. 



it is 9 inches high. From Chester-le-Street; presented by the Eor. 
Walker Featherstonhaugh. 



149. A small Altar, from Chester-le-Street ; pre- 
sented by the Rev. Walker Featherstonhaugh. Being 
formed of a coarse-grained sandstone, and much 
weathered, the inscription is indistinct; the en. 
graving accurately represents it. 

150. A neatly formed Altar, 9 inches high, from 
€hester-le-Street ; presented by the Eev. Walker 
Featherstonhaugh. Its inscription is obliterated by 
exposure. 

161. An Altar, from, Chester-le-8treet ; presented 
by the Rev. Walker Featherstonhaugh. The inscrip- 
tion is indistinct. It has probably been addressed — 

DBABV8 

VET[ltRl]BV» 

V.8.L.M. 

152. A rudely formed uninscribed Altar. 



153. A rudely formed Altar, from Brougham Castle, Westmoreland ; 




DEO 

k[e]latvcadro 

AVDACV8 

VOTVM SOLVIT PEO 8ALTTE 
8VA. 






To the God 

Belatucader. 

Audacus 

discharges his vow for his 

well-being. 



presented by Mr. George Armstrong Dickson. It is made of red sand- 
stone. 

154. The lower fragment of a small Altar, baving on it apparently 
the following letters : — 

VTTRI 
VOTVM 



The second line is very doubtful. 



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INSCEIBED AND SCULPTURED ROMAN STONES. 



4i 



155. A Bmall Altar, from BoRCOvicirs. The inscription is very faint, 
but it appears to be — 



OOCXDl[o et] 
OEKl[o] p[bJB] 
SIDl 




To Gocidios 
and the Genius 
of the garrison 



The letters on the left side are more obliterated than those on the right. 
On the base' of the altar are figured two dolphins. 

156. The lower portion of a small Altar, having the inscription — 



Hvrra 

BIBVB 



,^ 



157. Anuninscribedsquare-built Altar, 14 inches high. Uninscribed 
altars would be convenient vehicles on which to offer incense to any 
deity whom fashion or caprice might recommend to the worshipper. 

158. A small Altar, 11 inches high ; it has never had an inscription. 

159. An Altar, formed of very rough coarse-grained sandstone. The 
inscription is very obscure. The last line seems to be bannae. From 
PfiocoLiTiA ; discovered and presented by the pilgrim band of 1849. 

160. From Bbehenith. — 



DIS 

MOVNTl- 

BVS IVLIV8 

FIBMIN- 

TB DEO. FECIT. 




To the gods of 

the mountains 

Julius 

Firminus 

a Decurion dedicates 

this. 



The cut is drawn to twice the usual scale. 



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48 INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED ROMAN STOI^ES. 

161. A rudely foriiiiBd Altar, from Po58 ^Ln. The inscription, if 
it ever had any, is entirely ohliterated. 

162. A rude Altar, from Pons ^lii. The face of the lower portion 
has been broken off. The letters . . kano are tolerably distinct. It 
has been conjectured that the dedication has been siltako. There is, 
however, scarcely room for the first three letters. — Arch. JEI., vol. iii., 
p. 148. 



Some general observations may not be out of place in reviewing the 
collection of antiquities described in this Catalogue. 

1. The extent and the duration of the Roman occupation of Britain 
is made strikingly apparent by it. Though the lettered memorials of 
the empire were assiduously destroyed on the departure of the Romans 
by the barbarian tribes which succeeded them, and though in after 
ages — almost to the present day — ^ignorance and superstition carried on 
the work of destniction which commenced in passion and excitement — 
it is gratifying to see so many stones, sculptured by Roman hands, 
from every part of the North of England, and of every age — from that 
of Hadrian to a very late period of the Roman occupation — collected in 
one place, and to know that, besides this collection, there are several 
others of great value in this district of the country. 

2. The amount of religious feeling among the Romans is strongly 
brought out. However corrupt and impure their religion was, they 
carried it with them wherever they went, and boldly professed it. 

3. The ijature of their religion is set impressively before ns. They 
had " gods many and lords many." Jupiter, Mars, Hercules, Apollo, 
and Mercury are invoked. The Cajsars themselves are worshipped, 
as well as Victory and Fortune, and the Ancient gods, and the 
Unnamed or " Unknown" gods, to whom the dedicators were referred 
by the oracle of Apollo, and the gods of the Mountains, and the 
gods of the Shades below. We see also the tendency of polytheism to 
multiply itself, for here are deities evidently local, such as Belatucader 
and Cocidius, deities that the Romans found were worshipped by the 
tribes they had subjugated, and whom accordingly they felt it prudent 
to propitiate. 



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ARCH^OLOGIA ^LIANA. 



CATALOGUE OP THE INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED 
STONES OP THE Roman Era in Possession op the Sooibtt 
OP Antiquabies op Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 



No Musemn is so rich in the memorials of the dominion of the Romans 
in Britain as that belonging to the Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle. 
The material employed in the formation of these statnes and slabs and 
altars — sandstone — is unquestionably inferior to that of which the 
lapidarian treasures of the Vatican consist ; and they are^ for the most 
part, immeasurably below them in artistic design and skilful execution. 
To Englishmen, however, they have an interest which all the glories 
of the Vatican and the Capitol can never surpass. They fill up a gap 
in our history. They give us the names and they reveal the move- 
ments and the feelings of the men who first taught the inhabitants of 
Britain the arts of civilized life, and gave them their earliest lessons in 
the equally difficult tasks of obeying and commanding. If we bear in 
mind that in Italy the statues which adorned their cities were the 
result of the highest genius which wealth could command, and that in 
Britain — the furthest verge of the empire — the sculptures and inscrip- 
tions were, necessarily, often the result of unprofessional effort — the 
work of legionary soldiers — our surprise will be, that they are so good 
as they are. Do modem English soldiers leave behind them in the 
countries which they visit relics of taste and skill so creditable as those 
which the troops of Hadrian and Antonine did ? Even the most 
shapeless of the sculptures in our Museum have their value ; they 
speak more powerfully than the pen of the historian can^ of the state 
of the Roman empire in Britain. 

The woodcuts originally used in the illustration of this Catalogue 
^ere drawn in outline to the scale of three-quarters of an inch to the 
foot. Some of these are still retained ; but for the most part cuts of 

A 



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2 



CATALOGUE OF ROMAN INSCRIBKO AND SCULPTUIIBD STONES. 



a higher character, and drawn to the scale of an inch and a half to the 
foot, have in this edition been introduced. To avoid mistake, the size 
of each stone is given. A reference is in each case made to the Lapid- 
arium Septentrionals of the Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle, where 
the stones are more fully discussed, and where the authors who have 
previously treated of them are named. Reference is also made to the 
seventh volimie of the Corpus Inscripiionum Latinarum ((7. /. L. in 
the following pages) of the Royal Academy of Berlin, in cases where 
the views of the able author of that volume — Professor Hiibner — are 
referred to or adopted. 

Letters between parentheses ( ) repi*esent the expansion of an 

abridged word, thus 
i(ovi) ; those be- 
tween brackets [ ] 
represent the re- 
storation of de- 
stroyed letters, thus 
dea[bvs]; while/;/ 
represent destroyed 
letters which can- 
not be restored. 

1. — A Stone, 
which, subsequent- 
ly to its use by the 
Romans, has been 
employed in the 
construction of the 
Saxon Church at 
Jarrow. On the 
edge of this slab 
is a portion of a 
I cross in relief, and 
similar in design to 
the cross occur- 
ring on some of the Hartlepool headstones, and to that on the Durham 
Priory seal, known as St. Cuthbert's cross. The cross must have been 




1 ft 11 in. by 1 ft 10 in. 




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CATALOGUE OF ROMAN IN8CRTBKD AND SCULFfURED STONES. 3 

wrought upon several stones, most probably after they had been placed 
in 9iiu, It was surrounded by the cable moulding so frequent in 
Roman and Saxon work. The inscription is much effaced, but, as 
suggested by Brand, it seems to have been conceived in honour of 
the adopted sons of Hadrian, of whom Antoninus Pius, his successor, 
was one. Presented by Cuthbert Ellison, Esq. Lap, Spp,y No. 589 ; 
(7. /. Z., VIT., No. 498, where the Editor shews that it is in fact one 
of the most important epigraphical monuments found along the line 
of the Wall, because it is to be referred to the very foundation, or 
the inauguration, of the great fortification destined to unite the two 
parts of the sea by murus and vallum, and the fortresses placed upon 
them. An inscribed stone from Jarrow, similar to this, and which 
may have been a portion of it, is in possession of the Society of 
Antiquaries of London. 

2. — This Stone was found built into the wall formerly occupied by 
the Messrs. Mitchell, printers of the Tyne Mercury, in St. Nicholas's 
Church-yard, Newcastle. It may have been brought by the elder 
Mr. Mitchell from Cumberland, of which county he was a native. 




2 ft. 1 In. by 1 ft 6 in. 



A 



matribvk tramarinis [bv 

patu[i]fs avuklivs ivvenalis s] 



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4 CATAIX)GUB OF ROMAN INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED STONES. 

" Aurelius Juvenalis dedicates this to the transmarine Mother god- 
desses of his fatherland." The Mother goddesses were generally 
represented in triplets, and seated. They were known as the " good 
mothers," but no special name was given to them. They were 
chiefly worshipped by the Germanic branch of the Roman family. — 
Lap, Sep.y No. 12. 

8. — A defiaced Altar, 4 feet high. There are traces of letters upon 
it, but nothing of a satisfactory nature can be made out. 




4. — This Stone was found 
lying on the ground in the 
station of Segedunum, Walls- 
end. It was surrounded by 
twelve stones lying in a circle. 
This circumstance, together with 
the fact that rudely formed rays 
project from a perforation ex- 
tending through it, renders it 
probable that the altar had been 
dedicated to the Persian Sun- 
god, Mithras. — Lap, Sep., 
No. 3. 

5. — The upper half of a 
large Altar ; the inscription is 
almost entirely obliterated. The 
letters of the first line may be 
lOM, and on the second are 
some traces of the letters COH iii 
AE; in which case it has pro- 
bably been dedicated to Jupiter 
by the Fourth Cohort of the Dacians (styled the ^lian) which was 
in garrison at Amboglanna. On the side of it is carved a figure 
applying a long straight trumpet {tuba) to its mouth ; it supports the 
trumpet with both hands. 



2 ft. 8 in. by 1 ft 4 n. 



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CATALOGUE OF ROMAN IXKCRIBED AND SCULPTURED STONES. 5 

6. — A small Altar, found upon the line of the Roman Wall to the 
south of the Byker Bridge. Owing to the altar having been made 
use of as a sharpening stone, a great 
part of the inscription is obliterated. 
Usuallj an inscription upon an altar 
begins with the name or names of the 
god or gods to whom it is dedicated ; 
here the inscription begins with the 
name of the dedicator. The inscrip- 
tion may have been as follows: — 

ivl(ivs) max 

IMVS SACfERDOS) 

d(eo) i[nvict] 
[mithrae] ? 

PE / / / / 
ov / / / / 

/ / / V.S.L.M. 

1 ft. »l In. b J 10 in. 

" Julius Maximus, a priest, to the unconquered god Mithras, dedicates 
this altar willingly, in discharging a vow, to a most worthy object." 



7. — A Roman Soldier. BoRCOVicua. 
— Horsley, N., 47 ; Hodgson, 63. The 
figure has lost its head and right arm. 
His shield is gently upheld by the fingers 
of the left hand. Horsley remarks: — 
" His two belts are visible crossing each 
other, agreeable to the description of 
Ajax's armour in Homer." 

" Bat there no pass the crossing belts afford. 
One braced his shield, and one sustained his 
sword." — Fope, 




His sword is on his left side, similar to 
other examples on Trajan's column. 




3 ft 4 in. bj 2 ft. 



8.— A large but much damaged Altar. Its locality is unknown ; posr 



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CATALOGUE OF ROMAN IXSrRIBED AND SCULPTURED STOXES. 



8fblyBoRCOVicuR,Hon8e8tead8. On the npper portion of its face letters 
may be traced ; the lower part of the inscription is completely effiksed. 



9. — A figure of Mercury, found in 
digging the foundations of the High 
lievel Bridge, in the immediate vicinity 
of the Castle of Newcastle-upon-Tyne 
— one of the few relics of Pons 2Eui. 
Presented by George Hudson, Esq. 
He has the money bag in his right 
hand, the caduceus in his left ; a ram 
kneels at his feet. In the upper part 
of the stone a cock, the emblem of 
vigilance, has been introduced. — Lap, 
Sep,, No. 15. 




1 ft 5 In. by 9 In. 



10. — A small Figure, dredged out of 
the Tyne at Newcastle. It probably re- 
presents Fortune. She holds a cornuco- 
piee in her left hand, and with her right 
she places some object in a basket — a 
modius (?) 

11. — An Altar from BoRCOVicus, 
Housesteads (?) On the upper part we 
have lines of the cable pattern, and on 
its face and sides are festoons in relief. 
It has not been inscribed. 




1 ft. 5 in. by 10 in. 




1 ft. 9 in. by 1 in 



12. — From Jarrow ; presented by 
Cuthbert Fillisou, Esq. This Stone is 
probably the base of an altar, or it may 
have l)een part of the decorations of 
a sepulchral monument. The much- 
weathered sculpture represents an archer 
shooting at a stng. — Lap, Sep,, 540. 



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CATA1/)GUK OF ROMAN INSCRIBKD AND SCULPTURKD STONES. 7 

18. — A carefully carved Altar, dedicated to Neptune by the Sixth 




4 ft. by 1 rt. 6 in. 



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8 CATALOGUE OF ROMAN INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED STOKES. 

Legion. It was dredged up from the bottom of the Tyne at Newcastle^ 
in three several pieces, and at diflFerent times, when the works of the 
Swing Bridge were in progress. The inscription reads : — 

NEPTVNO LE(GIO) 
VI Vl(CTRIX) 

p(ia; p(idelis). 

" To Neptune, the Sixth Legion, sumamed the victorious, pious, and 
faithful, [erects this altar]." The Sixth Legion, or some important 
detachment of it, having crossed the North Sea from Germany, were 
right thankful at once more setting foot on solid land, and so reared 
this altar to the god of the Seas. The trident and the dolphin are 
emblematic of the marine deity. 

14. — This fragmentary inscription is supposed to have been found 




1 ft. 1 in. by 7 in. 

in the vicinity of Condercum, Benwell. Little can be made of it ; 
the last line may be Riv ? p(ede8) xxx, the latter characters repre- 
senting the number of feet erected in some building by a body of 
troops. — Lap, Sep., No. 42. 

15. — From the Roman station of Condercum, Benwell. It is the 
base of a large and apparently ornate Altar. The remaining portion 
of the inscription is : — Centurio Legionis vicmmae Valeriae Viciricis 
volum solvit libens merito, ... "A centurion of the Twentieth 
I^egion, styled the Valerian and victorious, erects this altar in dis- 
charge of a vow, willingly, and to a most worthy object." The 
angular mark > represents the word centurio, the commander of a 
troop of a hundred men, or ceniuria, the troop itself. It is wrongly 
supposed to represent a vine twig, and to indicate that the officer 
had the power to inflict corporal punishment on his men. The mark 



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CATALOGUE OF ROMAN INSCRIBED AND SCri.rriTUED STONES. 9 

is, in reality, the initial letter c, inverted, thus o. — Lap. Sep.^ 
No. 16. 




2 ft. 2 in. by 2 ft. 

16. — Two squared Stones, resembling those of which the gateways 
of the mile-castles on the Wall were built; Presented to the Society 
by Sir Matthew White Ridley, Ikrt. When first noticed, they were 
in a garden wall at Heaton Flint Mill. Have they been originally 
derived from the mile-castle which commanded the passage of the Wall 
over the defile of the Ousebum ? One of them bears the rude inscrip- 
tion shown in the cut. It is read with diflSculty, but it may be — 

C(ENTVRIA) IVIil(l) NVMISIA- 
NI VLPIV8 CAN- 
ALIVft (or SANNIVS) 

et l(iciniv8) govtivs {or 0. soTT / / / / rvs. 
" The century of Julius Numisianus, XJlpius Canalius, and Licinius 



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10 CATALOGUE OF ROMAN INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED STONES. 



Qoutius [have superintended this part of the work.]" — (7. /. L,^ 
VII., No. 502 ; Lap, Sep., No. 14. 





1 ft. 2 In. by 9 ft. 




2 ft. by U ft. 

17. — A Centurial Stone found at 

Magna, Caervoran. The second line 

of the inscription is indistinct: — 

o(entvria) clavdi(i) 
p[e]d(es) xxxs. 

"The century of Claudius (erected) 

thirty and a half feet." — Lap. Sap,, 

No. 844 ; a /. L,, VIL, No. 782. 

18. — Probably from Condercum, Ben- 
well Hill. Part of a monumental stone. 
[siJT tib[i] 

[terra] ^ LEVIS. 

" May the earth lie light upon you." — Lap. 
Sep., No. 32. 



11 in. by 10 in. 



0U8, 

may 



19. — The frag- 
ment of a Slab, per- 
haps from BoRCOYi- 

Housesteads. It has on it letters which 

be DCAB, or [im]p. cae(sar). 




9 iiL by 7 in. 



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CATALOGUE OF ROMAN INSC5RIBBD AND SCtJLPTDRElD STONES. 11 



20. — A Centurial Stone, much wea- 
thered. Its inscription is somewhat 
obscure ; it seems to read — 

coh(ortis) VII 
o(entvria) val(erii) veri. 

" The century of Valerius Verus of the 
Seventh Cohort." 




11 in. by 7 in. 



21. — Part of an Altar, from Habitancum, Risingham ; apparently 

inscribed— i(ovi) o(ptimo) m(aximo) 
[et] imp(eratoribvs). 

" To Jupiter the best and greatest, and to the Em- 
perors." The Emperors in question are, probably, 

Severus and his sons. Presented by Mr. Richard 

Shanks. — Lap, Sep,, No. 575. 



Olvt-i 
TVIPP 




11 in. by 7i In. 



22. — A broken Slab without inscription. 

28.— A Centurial Stone found at Con- 
DBRCUM, Benwell. The inscription is 
o(entvria) arri(i). "The century of 
Arrius." The tail of the first r has been 
removed by a fracture in the stone — a trace 
of it is left. — Lap. Sep,, No. 44. 







104 iu- by 6 in. 




11 iu. by 6 in. 



24. — This Stone is from the same 
locality as the last, and bears the same in- 
scription. The one stone was probably 
affixed to one extremity of the portion of 
the Wall that was built by this body of 
troops, the other at the other. — Lap, Sep,y 
No. 44. 



25. — A Centurial Stone from Vin- 
DOBALA, Rutchester. It reads — 

o(entvria) arri(i). 
"The century of Arrius." — Lap. Sep.^ 
No. 92(K 




11 iu. by 4 m. 



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12 CATALOGUE OF ROMAN INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED STONKS. 



26. — The fragment of an inscription found at Vindobala, Rut- 
K R\7^<s^ Chester. Professor Hiibner suggests the 
f""F*^ri^ reading:-[;i>. ^i 

^ C I .M ^ J1% rM]VBTV[RIll 

tlTFELiCi [di]0GENI8 |>A 

^ TRIS] vet(vria) fblic[la PECITJ. 

—Lap. Sep., No. 921. 



11 in. by 6 in. 




27. — ^A roughly-carved Figure (Mars ?), holding 
in his right hand a spear, in his left a patera, on a 
building stone of the size used in the stations. It 
is not known where it was found. 



lOi in. by 6 In. 



28. — A Centurial 
Stone from Walbottle, 
bearing the letters — 

[p]blix (?) 
— Lap. Sep., No. 60. 






'^, 



^V^^ 




10 in. by 6 in. 



lSin.by8ia. 

29.— A Stone from the Roman Wall 
near Walbottle. Presented by Mr. Wilson. 

o(entvria) peregrini. 
" The century of Peregrinus." — Lap. Sep., 
No. 49. 



80. — A small flat Stone, from an un 
known quarter, bearing an inscription some- 
thing like the following : — 

c(entvru) g(ai) pa VI ? 

SEBANI (or SILBANI). 




^OHW 




lft.llii.bf lOln. 



10 in. by 6 in. 

;31. — This stone was found in 
Clavering Place, Newcastle, the Pons 
-^Lii of the Romans. It reads — 

COH(ORS) I. THRACVM. 

" The first cohort of the Thracians." 
There are traces of the palm branch 
at the lower right-hand corner of the 
stone. This regiment was not per- 
manently located in Newcastle. — Lap. 
Sf^p., No. 1;^. 



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CATATiOGUE OF ROMAN INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED STONES. 18 

82. — An Altar from Condercum, Benwell Hill. 




3 ft. 1 ill. by 2 ft. 1 in. 

I(OVI) 0[lTIMO MAXIMO DOLICJHE- 

KO KT XVMINIHVS 

AVG(VSTI) PRO SAIiVTK IMP(ERATORIS) 

CAESARIS T(ITI) AKLIt'l) HAF)R(IAXI) 

ANTONINI AVG(VSTI) PII P(ATRIS) P(ATRIAE) 

ET LEG(IOXIS) IT AVG(VSTAE) 

MA(RCTS) LIBVRNIVS FRON- 

TO O(ENTVRIO) LEGdONIS) EIVSDEM 

v(otvm) sColvit') l(ibens) m(erito). 



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14 CATALOGUE OF ROMAN INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED STONES. 

" To Jupiter Dolichenus the best and greatest, and to the guardian 
divinities of Augustus, for the safety of the Emperor Caesar Titus 
^lius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius, the father of his country, 
and for that of the Second Legion sumamed the Imperial, Marcus 
Liburnius Fronto, a centurion of this legion, dedicates this altar in 
discharge of a vow, willingly and to most worthy objects." Jupiter 
obtained the epithet Dolichenus firom Doliche, a town in Macedonia, 
which abounded in iron. The Romans wrought coal at Benwell ; 
they may have smelted iron here also. According to Horace (Ep. II., 
2, 187, &c.), each person has a presiding genius : — 

" That mystic genias, which our actions guides, 
Attends our stars, and o'er our lives presides.'* — Francis. 

This altar was probably reared before Lollius Urbicus advanced into 
Caledonia, where he built the Antonine Wall. — Lap. Sep., No. 16 ; 
G. I. L., VII., 506. 

83. — The head of Pan, from Magna, Caervoran. 

84. — A Stone of the Centurial kind. The inscription is illegible. 
Its locality is unknown. 

35. — A defaced and much injured Altar, from Wark, on the 
North Tyne. Presented by John Fenwick, Esq. For a long time 
it was used as a step in the stile at the foot of the Moot Hill. It 
may perhaps be regarded as a proof that the Romans had a post at 
Wark, which is about eight miles to the north of the Wall. One of 
the sides of the altar is adorned with a patera, the other with a 
prcBfericulum. 

86. — An Inscribed Stone, from Magna, Caervoran. Presented 

by Colonel Coulson. — 
^ ^P!^ Xop. Sep., No. 881 ; 







[a]vorvm f(boit). 



1 ft. 8 in. by 6 In " The First Cohort of 

^Google 



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CATAIX>GUE OF ROMAN INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED STONES. 



15 



the Batavians erected this." The First Cohort of the Batavians was, 
when the Notitia list was compiled, in garrison at Procolitia, the 
third station to the east of Magna. It is most probable that when 
this stone was carved the Batavians had been rendering temporary 
assistance to their fellow-soldiers at Magna. The stone is mnch worn 
by exposure to the weather. 

87. — Pound at Hatheridge, near Cilurnum, Chesters. Professor 




]C\i^.HJiM'^^l^i 



1 ft. 1 in. by 6 in 

Hiibner reads the inscription thus : — 

coh(ortis) I o(bntvbia) na(bvii) (?) 

BASSI HA8(TATI) P(RIMI). 

" The century of Naevius Bassus, of the first rank, belonging to the 
First Cohort." — Brand's History of Newcastls, Vol. I., p. 609n ; Lap. 
Sep., No. 127 ; G. L i., VII., 597. 



38. — A Centurial Stone, from Walbottle. 
Presented by the Literary and Philosophical 
Society of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
o(entvria) p. p. 
These letters may signify such names as 
Fompeius, Pnmus, or the like. — Lap, Sep,, 
No. 51. 



.S9.— Probably from the vicinity of 
Condebcum, Benwell Hill. It formerly 
belonged to Archdeacon Thorp. 

COH(ORS) VIII. 

" The Eighth Cohort." The upper part 
of the stone is broken o£P, and may have 
contained the name of the legion to which 
the cohort belonged. — Lap. Sep., No. 41. 




9 in. by 9 in. 




1 ft. by 5 in. 



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1(5 CATALOGUK OF ROMAN IN8CRIBKD AND SC'ULPTURKD STOXES. 



40. — Found at Risingham (?) On inscriptions found at Brem 
BNIUM, High Rochester, and at Lau- 
chester, the name of Egnatins Lucilianus, 
an imperial legate, occurs; we perhaps 
have a trace of the same individual here 
— EQNATivs. The last line is optandvs, 
which may be the name of a soldier of 
inferior position. — La'p. Sep,, No. 681. 



'mmM.\y.^ 



1 ft. by 6 In. 



41. — A small Tablet ; the inscription is defaced. Its locality is 
unknown. 



42.— Found at Wallsend. /^ 

C(0)][(0RTIS) I 

o(entvru) flori. 
" The century of Florus of the First 
Cohort."— ifljt?. Sep., No. 5. 

43. — A small broken Tablet, with 
an unknown object in relief carved 
upon it. 




1 ft. 1 in. by 9 In. 



44. — Found, together with the altar, No. 124, and some others, 
at the foot of the hill on which BoRCOVicus, Housesteads, stood. — 
Horsley, N., 89. The inscription is nearly effaced : — 

l(OVl) O(PTIMO) M(AXIMO) 
ET NVMINIBVS AVG(VSTIj 
COH(ORS) PRIMA TVNGROR(VM) 
CVI PRAEST Q(VINTVS) IVLIVS 

[maxi]mvs ^ praef(ectvs; 

V. ' ' / . 

'* To Jupiter the best and greatest, and to the deities of Augustus, 
the First Cohort of the Tungri, commanded by Quintus Julius 
Maximus (?) the Prefect, dedicated this." In the words Numinibus 
Augusti, the emperor himself is probably hailed as a god. — Lap. Sep.^ 
No. 176 ; C. I. L., G89. 



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CATALOGUE OF ROMAN INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED STONES. 17 




1 iJ /V 




)tt.l01i>.b7l(t.lla. 



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®@E) 



WRAHa 



,^S7W 



18 CATAIiOGUE OF ROMAN INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED STONES. 

46. — A large nninscribed Altar (3 ft. 9 in. high), from Chester-le- 
Street. Presented by the Rev. Walker Featherstonhaugh. 

46. — From ViNDOBAiJk, Rutcbester. Presented by the Rev. John 
Coilinson. This Altar was long built up in the garden wall of the 
parsonage house of Gateshead. Brand, who 
engraves and describes it (Vol. I., p. 608), 
says that on it is "plainly inscribed the 
monogram of Christ." Brand's opinion can 
hardly be supported ; the monogram is any- 
thing but plain. The altar has been sadly 
tampered with. Can we be sure that what 
is supposed to be the monogram is not of 
the same age as the letters which have been 
rudely cut upon the face of the stone, and 
which are evidently modem ? Or, suppos- 
ing the monogram to be of the same age as 
the altar, how do we know that it was in- 
tended to symbolize the Redeemer ? " The 
sign called the Christian monogram is very 
ancient ; it was the monogram of Osiris and 
Jupiter Ammon ; it decorated the hands of 
the sculptured images of Egypt; and in 
India stamped its form upon the most ma- 
jestic of the shrines of the deities." * In 
all probability the altar, as represented in 
the woodcut, is standing upside down, and 
was so when the modem young gentlemen whose initials appear upon 
it carved the letters. — Lap, Sep,, No. 61. 




4 ft 1 in. by 1 ft. 4 in. 



47. — Part of an Altar, which has been split down the middle to 
form a gate-post. From Habitancum, Risingham. Presented by 
Mr. James Forster. Hodgson, who describes the altar {Hist, Nar,j 
Part IL, Vol. I., p. 186), suspects the inscription was in hexameter 
verse. Mr. Hodgson's copy of the inscription, together with Dr. 
Htibner's, are here placed side by side with the engraving ; a compari- 

* Hodgson'g Eitt. of Northumberland. Part XL. Vol. III., p. 178. 



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CATALOGUE OF ROMAN INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED STONES, 19 

son of these with the stone itself will enable the reader to ascertain 



Hodgson. 

/ ;' ED ^ / / 

/ / / ' RGEL 
/ ; ,■ / VINE 

' '/ ' / / 
/ i I 

I I I i FICIN 
II! EF PAG 

/ / / IBI PRO 

/ / / LVCE PPO 

/ / FLAMINIVS 

/ ET PRO FVNE 

/ / / CEMVOLV 

/ DE RE VITAE 



INHC 

E / 
/ M 
T / 



/ ;' 

/ / 

/ I 

I I 

I I 

I I 

/ / 

/ / 



Hahner. 

I ! I I AE 

/ OIT IMP 

/ PERGEL 

RVINI 

/ / IS ; , 

/ / / FICIX 
/ / C EF PAG 
/ I TTBI PRO 
/ / RCE PKC 
/ FLAMINIVS C 
/ ET PROFVND 
/ GEM VOLV 
/ DERE VITAE 



^m 



;\i 



<. 



a: 



"'■is 

j/n!3iMR'( ^ 









~y\u 



4 ft. by 10 In. 

on which of the letters he may rely. Dr. Hiibner is of the opinion 



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20 CATALOGUE OF ROMAN INSCRIBED AND SCULITURED STONES. 




3 ft. 9 in. by 1 ft. 10 in. 




1ft. 3 in. by 11 in. 



that we have here a sepulchral ode in 
heroic verse. — T^jt?. Sep.^ No. 609 ; G. L i., 
VII., No. 1020. 

48. — From BoRCOVicus, Housesteads. 
The iDScription on the body of the Altar 
has all the appearance of having been 
purposely erased. On the capital are the 
letters — 

i(ovi) o(PTmo) m(aximo). 

"To Jupiter, the greatest and best." — 
Lap. Sep,, No. 175. 

49. — A small uninscribed Altar, of 
which no account exists. 



50. — A headless Figure of Mercury, 
from OoRSTOPiTUM, Corbridge. Presented 
by the Rev. Walker Featherstonhaugh. A 
purse is on the ground, near his left foot ; a 
goat is on his right ; a cock adorns the pedestal. 
—Lap. Sep.y No. 649. 

51.-rAn Altar, 2 ft. 2 in. high and 7 in. 
wide, very roughly tooled, and having no trace 
of an inscription, from Vindobala, Eutchester. 
Presented by Thos. James, Esq. 



52. — A small uninscribed 
and much injured Altar, 1 ft. 
10 in. high. 



58. — Another small Altar, in a much injured con- 
dition. 

54. — A mutilated and much weathered Figure of 
a Roman Soldier in his leathern corslet. From CoR- 
STOPITUM, Corbridge. Presented by Mr. Spoor. 




1 ft 11 in. higli. 



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CATALOGUi: OF ROMAN INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED STONES. 21 

55. — A small headless Figure of Fortune sitting in an arm chair, 
from Magna, Caervoran. She has the wheel in 
her right hand, and the comucopiaB in her left. 



56. — A Figure of Victory, with outstretched 
wings. The peculiar 
curl of the lower part 
of the drapery will be 
noticed. From the 
Roman station at 
Stanwix. It had been 





l.ft. 9 in. by 1 ft. S in 



used in the building of the old church 
there, and was rescued when that build- 
ing was pulled down to be replaced by 
the present structure. Presented by the 
Eev. Thomas Wilkinson. — Lap. Sep., 
No. 482. 



2 ft. 3 in. by 1 ft. 3 in. 



57. — A small rude Figure of SilYanus(?) It was 
found in digging the Carlisle canal, at Burgh-on-the- 
Sands, and was presented by the engineer, the late Wm. 
Chapman, Esq. Several figures similar to this have 
been found in the Roman stations in the North of 
England. 

58. — The lower portion of an ornamental Column. 

59. — The lower portion of a Slab, on which the 
figure of a man has been engraved. 



60. — A Centurial Stone from 
the Wall, west of Sewingshields. 
The inscription is obscure ; it seems 
to be this — 

COH V PRI- 

manv (?) 
" The century of Primanus of the 




1 ft Jf in. by 7 in. 




1 ft. by 9 In. 



Fifth Cohort."— Irflrp. /Sfe/?., No. 163 ; C. I. Z., 626. 



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22 CATALOGUE OF ROMAN INSCRIBED AND. SCULPTURED STONES. 



61. — Part of a Slab from Vindolana, the modern Chesterholm. 

Presented by the late Rev. Anthony Hedley. Its right bears a 

Roman vexiUum, or standard ; the left is gone. 

The inscription is very imperfect. Professor 

Hiibner gives the reading of it, conjectnrally, 

as— COH(ORS) / / 

PROCI- 

LI / / / / 

mvc[lani]. 
—Lap. Sep., No. 267; C. L L., 719. 




IftaiiLbySiiL 



62. — A Centurial Stone from Magna, Caervoran. Some of the 

letters are indistinct; bnt the in- 
scription seems to be — 

VALERl(l) 

cassia- 

I NI R(ETRO)? V(ER8VM)? p(eDES) XIX. 

' The century of Valerius Cassianus 
(erected) 19 feet backwards." — See 
Hiibner, C. L Z., No. 789 ; Lap, 
Sep., No. 840. 



f{CAS5IA f 



1 ft. 3 in. by 8 In. 




68.— From Habitancum, Risingham. The 
mutilated figure of Mars, or of a Roman Soldier. 

64. — A Centurial Stone, with a nearly ob- 
literated inscriptioj;!. 



1 ft. bj 11 in. 



65. — A Centurial Stone from the Wall, at 
Sewingshields, bearing the inscription — 

I C Oil ^'>>f "V^ C0H(0BTI8) V 

>CAECli\ I OCAECILI(I) 

PROCt '"^^^^"^' 

J I VVr > ft ft I "The century of Csecilius Proculus, of 
, ^ , . , ., , the Fifth Cohort."— Zap. Sep., No. 162. 

1 ft. 1 in. by 61 in. r r •> 

66. — Fnigment of a Monumental Stone from Borcovicuh. It 



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CATAIiOQUE OF ROMAN INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED STONES. 



23 



consists of a figure in a niche — a 
cornucopiaB is at its left side ; some- 
thing like a quiver appears on the 
right shoulder. 

67.— A Centurial Stone from Vin- 

DOLANA, Chesterholm, bearing the 

inscription : — 

COH(ORTXS) VIII ^ 

CAECILl(l) 

CLEMEN(TI8). 

" (This work was performed by) 
a Century of the Eighth Cohort 
under the command of Caecilius 
Clemens."— Xap. Sep,, No. 266. {^ 




10 in. by 1 ft 1 in. 







N 






.f-?fi '^^ 



1 ft. 3 in. by 8 in. 



This Slab has probably been 



68. — From Magna, Caervoran 
inserted in a temple dedicated to 
the worship of the gods men- 
tioned on it. The inscription is 
obscure, and the right-hand por- 
tion of it is wanting — 

DEO MARTI (?) 

BT NVMINIB[VS AVGVSTI] 

IVL / / / / / / 

I j A SOLO / / / 
ER(EXERVNT) V(OTVM) S(OIiVENS). 

*' To the god Mars and the August 

deities, Julius .... erected (this 

temple) from the ground in discharge of a vow." — Brand's JItsL of 

Newcastle, I., 618 ; Lap. Sep., No. 300; C. /. X., VII., No. 765. 

69. — ^This is probably a funereal inscription. It comes from 
Magna, Caervoran. Dr. Hiibner reads the inscription thus : — 
c(aivs) valerivs* c(aii) [filivs] * vol(tinia tribv) 

TVLLVS * VIAN(NA) iflL(ES) 

LEG(I0NI8) * XX v(aleriae) v(ictriois). 




1 ft. 3 in. by 1 ft. 2 in. 



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24 CATALOGUE OF ROMAN INSCRIBED AND SCULHTUfiBD STONES. 

"Cains Valerius Tallus, the son of Caiiis of the Voltinian tribe, a 
native of Vienne (S. of France), a soldier of the Twentieth Legion, 
Burnamed the Valerian and Victorious." The pahn branch, the type 




2 ft 10 in. by 2 ft. 6 in. 

of victory, will be noticed in the triangular head of the stone, and at 
the commencement and close of the last line. — G, I, L,, VII., 794 ; 
Lap. Sep,, No. 322. 

70. — An important Sculpture, from a Mithraic cave in the vicinity 
of BoRCOVicus, Housesteads. The cave was partly sunk in the 
ground ; the sides of it faced the four cardinal points of the compass. 
The god Mithras, coming out of an ^gg^ is in the centre of the slab 
holding a sword (?) in his right hand, a torch in his left. Surround- 
ing him, in an oval-shaped border, are the signs of the zodiac, "The 



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CATALOGUE OF ROMAN INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED STONES. 26 

signs commence, after the Roman manner, at Aquarius or January, 
and end with Capricorn, or December." The upper part of the stone, 




4 ft. 7 in b7 3 ft. 6 in. 



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26 CATALOGUE OP ROMAN INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED STONES. 

which contained Cancer and part of Leo, has been lost. The fracture 
between Virgo and Scorpio has probably obliterated Libra. " Mith- 
raism was a species of Sabaisin which in old times prevailed from 
China, through Asia^ and Europe, as far as Britain. During the reign 
of Commodus the former had become common among the Romans, 




and in the time of Severus had extended over all the western part of} 
the empire. It was imported from Syria, and was synonymous with 
the worship of Baal and Bel in that country ; for in it, as in the 
mysteries of Osiris in Egypt, and of Apollo in Greece and Rome, the 
sun was the immediate object of adoration." — Arclusologia jE/iana, 
O.8., Vol. I., p. 288 ; Lap. Sep., No. 188. 

71 and 72. — Several fragments of a large tablet found in the 
Mithraic cave at BoRCOVicus, Housesteads. The tablet, unfortun-' 



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CATALOGUE OF ROMAN INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED STONES. 27 



ately, was broken up for draining-stones, and to a great extent irre- 
coverably lost, before its value was known. 
The woodcut on the previous page exhibits the 
usual form of these Mithraic sculptures. The 
parts of the BoRCOVicus tablet which remain 
are — a fragment of the bull's head, the dog 
jumping up to lick the blood, a hand gi'asping 





2 ft. 10 iiL by 1 ft. 2 hi. 

1 ft. 10 in. by 8 in. 

a sword, and two figures of Mithras with an 
uplifted torch, one of which had stood on the 
right side of the tablet, the other on the left. 
-Lap. Sep.. 1(0.192. ,«.,.. .,,^,u. 

73. — ^This Stone was found at jEsioa, Great Ohesters. It is but 
a fragment of the original inscription, and in its 
present state nothing can be made of it. — Lap, 
Sep., No. 287 ; C. L Z., VII., No. 742. 



74. — A Slab, inscribed — 

FVLGVR 
DIVOM. 

" The lightning of the gods." 



Avon 



Found in a field L 



about a mile west of Hunnum, the modern Halton 



11 in. by 7 in. 



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28 CATALOGUE OF EOMAN INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED STONES. 

Cheaters. Presented by Rowland Errington, Esq. These stones, which 

are frequent in every part of the 
Roman world, mark the so-called 
** tombs of lightning." Where any 
lightning went to the earth, the 
Romans placed such a stone on the 
■ spot. Professor Hiibner says that the 
I lettering seemed to him to belong to 
the end of the second or the beginning 
of the third century. — Lap. Sep., 




3 ft 3 in. b7 1 ft. 7 in. 




1 ft. b7 9 in. 



No. 104 ; C. I. L., VII., No. 561. 

75. — Fragment of an Inscription from Magna, Carvoran. 

^^ >^Ha^ [CALPVRNJIVS AGRI[C0LA] 

j^-. i^rTk [COHORS l] HAMIORV(m) 

"Calpumius Agricola [imperial legate] 
—the First Cohort of the Hamians." 
About the year a.d. 163, when Marcus 
Aurelius and Lucius Verus were em- 
perors, there was a rising in Britain, 
and Calpumius Agricola was sent to 
repress it. The Hamians are supposed to have come from Hamah, in 
Syria. They were in Britain as early as the time of Hadrian. — See 
Hodgson's Hi8t Nor., Part II., Vol. III., p. 205 ; Lap. Sep.y No. 
828 ; G. L L., VII., No. 774. 

76. — ^An Inscription in iambic verse, in praise of Ceres, the mother 
of the gods. From the station of Magna, the modem Caervoran. 
Presented by Col. Ooulson. Lap. Sep., No. 806 ; G. L Z., VII., No. 
759. The inscription, which is in iambic verse, is unusually long, and 
without ligatures or contractions. It is here arranged as the scansion 
requires : — imminet leoni virqo caelesti sitv 

SPICIFERA IVSTI INVENTRIX VRBIVM CONDITRIX 
EX QVI8 MVNERIBVS NOSSE CONTIGIT DEOS 
ERGO EADEM MATER DIVVM PAX VIRTVS CERES 
DBA SYRIA LANCE VITAM BT IVRA PENBITAN8 
IN CAELO VISVM SYRIA SIDV8 EDIDIT 
LIBYAE COLENDVM INDE CVNCTI DIDICIMVS 
ITA INTELLEXIT NVMINE INDVCTV8 TVO 
MARCV8 CAECILIV8 D0NATIANV8 MILITAN8 
TRIBVNVS IN PRAEFEOTO DONO PRINCIPI8 



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CATALOGUE OF &0VU1I INSCBIBED AMD 8CU1.PTUBE1) STONES. 29 



c^'^ff^^ 



LVIMMTLEOF 



f U 'r^r^ 



V 



\ 



DI 



■[K/\iV: 



Ey/.VlLMVNEi'Jfy/^M'J^^! 
' trims ERCOFADfMA/l 

■L\hfCEV|TAAAEriVRAr't/MML 



]\\\h^ 



m 



la 



(mmm\miKsms^i^ 



;DlT LlBYAECOLENDYMiNDE 



Ita 



n/nrTiDiDici/vws 



ilNIFLLEyfO/VMiNEINDYCTVil 
IVO yMAHrvSC'AECILIV^DO 
.'.NATlANVS-MlIirAMV TKIBVNV^ 
INPRAEEF(70L)0NcA'!NCiPIJ 



iii.,*;»Vi«''il 



3 f k 4 in. bjr S ft. 3 in. 

" The Virgin in her celestial seat overhangs the Lion, 
Producer of com, Invedtress of right. Foundress of cities. 
By which gifts it has hecn our good fortune to know the deities. 
Therefore the same Virgin it the Mother of the gods, it Peace, it Virtue, it Ceres, 
It the Syrian goddess, poising life and laws in a balance. 
The constellation beheld in the sky hath Syria sent forth 
To Libya to be worshipped, thence have all of us learnt it; 
Thus hath understood, overspread by thy protecting influence, 
Marcus Ci9cilius Donatianus, a war-faring 
Tribune in tie office ofpietect, by the bounty of the Emperor." 



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30 CATALOGUE OF ROMAN INSCRIBED AND 8CULPTURED STONES. 

77.— This Slab was found at Condercum, Benwell Hill. It was 
probably originally placed in front of a temple dedicated to the good 
mothers. As already stated, they were worshipped in triplets. 




2 ft 8 in. by 2 ft. 

MATR(IBV8) tribvs oampes(tribvs) 
et genio alab pri(maej hispano- 
rvm a8tvrvm / / / / / 
I I I I gordianae t(erentivs?) 

AGRIPPA PRAE(FECTVS) TEMPLVM A SO(LO) 

[res]titvit 
" To the three Campestrian Mothers, and to the Genius of the first Ala 

of Spanish Asturians (styled the) and Gordian, Terentius 

Agrippa, the prefect, restored this temple from the ground." The 
horse regiments in the Roman army were called alae, or wings, as in 
early times they formed the wings of the force. The latter part of 
the third line and the beginning of the fourth line of this inscription 
has been purposely erased. The vacant space has, no doubt, con- 
tained an epithet derived from the name of some emperor who had 
fallen into disgrace ; what that epithet was cannot with certainty 
be ascertained — antoninianae (with reference to Elagabalus), 



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CATALOGUE OF ROMAN INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED STONES. 81 

SEYERIANAE ALEXANDRiANAE, and MAxiMiANAE, have severallj been 
saggested.— Zap. Sep., No. 22 ; C. L L,, VII., No. 510. 



78. — From the Wall, west of Sew- 

ingshields : — I 

leg(io) II 
avg(vsta) 

"The Second Legion, the imperial." — 

Lap. Sep., No. 161. 




1 ft. 1 in. by 7 in. 



79. — This Slab, which commemorates the re-erection, in the time 
of Severus Alexander (a.d. 222-285), of a granary which had become 
dilapidated through age, was found at the station of -fflsiCA, the 
modern Great Chesters. One peculiarity of this inscription is, that it 



iNiiS'i'i' 



■.CA57M-.^\ 



LCt)N.LAB5VlVJ]\| 



AT 



4 ft. 1 in. by 3 ft. 4 in. 

bears the name of the-" coh. ii. astvrvm," whereas the NotUia places 
at this station " Tribunus cohortis primae Asturum." A fragment of 
a tile recently found at -SlsiCA, having stamped upon it the legend 
II ASTVR., confinns the testimony of the slab : that at one period, at 
least, the Second Cohort of the Astures was settled here. The tablet 
was presented to the Society by the late Rev. Henry Wastal, of New- 
brough. It may be read thus : — 



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82 CATALOGUE OF ROMAN INSCBtBEO AND 80ULPTUBED STOKES. 



IMP(BRATOR) CABS(AR) M(ARCV8) avr(elivs) SBVE- 

BV8 ALEXANDER P(^IV8) PB(LIX) 

avg(vstvs) HORRBVM VBTV- 

8TATB 00NLAB8VM M(ILITES) 

OOH(ORTIS) SEOVNDAB A8T7RVM 8(BVBBTANAE) A(LBXANDRLANAB) 

A SOLO RBSTITVBRVNT 

PROvmciA rbg[bntb] 

MAXIMO LEG(ATO) [CVRANTE] 

val(erio) martia[no] / / / 

/ / / FVS[CO II et dextro consvlibvs] 

"The Emperor Cassar Marcus Aurelias Severus Alexander, pious, 
happy, Augustus. The soldiers of the Second Cohort of the Asturians, 
(suraamed) the Sev^rian Alexandrian, restored from the ground this 
granary, which had fallen down through age, Maximus being the 
legate of the province, under the charge of Valerius Martianus ; 
Fuscus, for the second time, and Dexter being consuls." This cor- 
responds with the year a.d. 225. — Lap. Sep., No. 286 ; C. L i., VII., 
No. 732. 

80. — Fragment of a Monumental Stone from 
Habitanoum. Presented by Mr. Shanks. ITie 
cutting of the letters is clean and good. The stone 

has suffered from 

violence, but not 

from exposure. 

The reading of the inscription is 

doubtful— Z/jp. Sep., No. 624. 

81. — A Roman in his civic 
dress, the head and feet broken 
oflF. From BoRCOVicus, House- 
steads. He is clad in a tunic and 
mantle; the left hand gracefully 
supports a portion of the mantle, 
which has a fringe at the bottom 
three inches deep. The fringe is 
common to Bomano- (Gaulish cos- 
tume. This has probably been part 
of a sepulchral stone ; the inscription 
would be beneath. — Lap. Sep., No. 
241. 





1 ft. 1 in. by 11 in. 



3 ft 6 in. by 2 ft. 4 in. 



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CATALOGUE OF ROMAN INSOBIBED AND SCULPTURED STONES. 88 

82. — A square Slab, ornamented on the sides, with circles contain- 
ing a cross within each. The inscription, which has consisted of at 
least six lines, is nearly effaced. Dr. Hubner (C. /. X., VII., No. 
602) reads it : — o PRIM / / / vi 

/ / / / VIT 
lY I I I I 
sv / / / / 
FL. 8ECVND / 
PREF. 



C(ENTyRIA) PRIM[1TI]VI . . . 

8v[b cvra?] pl(avii) secvnd[i] 
prep(bcti). 



*The century of Primitivus (erect- 
ed this) under the superintend- 
ence of Flavins Secundus the 
prefect." 



88. — ^A Monumental Stone, found in or near Magna, Caervoran. 
Presented by Col. Coulson. 



Dfiis) m(anibvs) 
avr(eliae) faiae 
d(omo) salonas 
avr(elivs) marcvs 
c(entvrla) obsbq(ventis) con- 
ivgi 8anctis- 
8imae qvae vi- 

XIT ANNIS XXXIII 
SINE VLLA MACVLA. 



" To the divine Manes of Aurelia 
Faia, a native of Salona. Aurelius 
Marcus, of the century of Obse- 
quens, to his mott holy wife, who 
lived thirty-three years, without 
any stain, erected this.'* — Lap. 
Sep.y No. 821; Hubner reads the 
second line, ayr. italae ((7. /. 
i.,VIL, 798). 




5 ft. S in. by 2 ft. 9 in 



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84 CATALOGUE OF ROMAN INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED STONES. 



84. — A Figure, much mutilated, i'rom Borcovjcus, Housesteads. 
He wears a tunic, over which is thrown 
a cloak. The tunic is bound round 
the waist by a thin sash, the end of 
which hangs down ; the cloak is fastened 
near the right shoulder by a circular 
fibula. The figure was found " lying on 
the ridge in the hollow of -the field west 
of the Mithraic cave." Hodgson con- 
jectures that this and several similar 
sculptures found in this locality were 
sepulchral monuments. — Lap. Sep,, No. 




2ft.6iiLbylft.8ui. 



242. 



85. — Figure of Victory, holding in her hands an ornament some- 
what resembling a pelta, or light 
shield, which probably ornamented 
the left-hand side of an inscribed 
slab. From Corstopitum, Cor- 
bridge. A similar figure probably 
occupied the other extremity of the 
same slab, and the inscription, in- 
closed in a circular garland, was 
placed in the centre. — Lap, Sep., 
No. 660. 



86. — A Figure of Hercules. 

From ViNDOBALA, Rutchester. He 

3 ft. bj 2 ft 6 In, holds a ponderous club in his right 

hand, the apples of the garden of 

the Hesperides are in his left, and the skin of the Nemean lion is 

thrown over his shoulders. — Lap. Sep., No. 82. 




87.— The leg (wanting the foot) of a Statue. The front of the 
shin is unusually sharp ; the upper fastenings of the cothiirnm appear. 
Prom Stanwix. Presented by J. D. Carr, Esq., Carlisle. 



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CATALOGUE OP ROMAN INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED STONES. 35 




4 ft. by 2 ft. 



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8*> CATALOGUE OF UOMAN INSCRIBED AND SClTLPTURED STONES. 



88.— A Roman Soldier, from BoRCOVicus, Housesteads. He holds 

a bow in his left hand ; the object in 
his right Horsley describes as a poniard 
— it more nearly resembles a rude key 
or small axe. A belt, crossing his body 
diagonally, suspends a quiver from the 
right shoulder. The folds of the sflr^/wwi, 
or military cloak, are gathered upon 
his chest. His sword, which is attached 
to a belt that girds his loins, is on his 
right side ; the handle of it terminates 
in a bird-headed ornament. The head 
is bare ; a portion of the stone has been 
left to secure the head to the upper 
part of the niche, giving the appear- 
ance of a helmet. There is a band on 
the left arm, probably to protect it 
from the action of the arrows in their 
3ft. Sin. by 1 ft. 11 in. flight from the bow ; this, in the Middle 

Ages, was called " a bracer." Professor Hiibner thinks that this " is 
veiy likely a man of the Cohors prima Hamiorum Sagitiartorum, in 
garrison at Magna, as no other archers are known in Britain." — Lap, 
Sep., No. 240. 




89. — A plaster cast of a large Altar, found in the station near 
Maryport, and now in the grounds of Government House, Castletown, 
Isle of Man. The first account of this altar appears in the Appendix to 
Gordon's Itinerarium Septenirhnale, Some portions of the inscription 
are obliterated, but the following is probably the correct reading : — 

lovi avg(vsto) 

m(arcvs) censorivs 

m(arci) fil(ivs) voltinia (tribv) 

"COJRNELIANVS CENTVRIO LEG(I0NI8) 

'decimae fr]etensi8 prae- 
Vec]tvs coh(ortis) primae 
*h]isp(anorvm) ex provincia 

NARBONfENSl] DOMO 

NEMAV8[0] (VOTVM) S(OLVIT) L(IBENS) M(ERITO). 



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CATALOGUE OF ROMAN INSCRIBED AND SCIJLPTITRBD STONES. 87 

"To Jupiter the August, Marcus Ceusonus Cornel ianns, son of 
Marcus, of the Voltinian 
tribe, centurion of the 
Tenth Legion, (styled) 
Fretensian, (and) prefect 
of the First Cohort of 
Spaniards, of the city of 
Nemausus (Nimes), in the 
province of Narbonne, 
erects this altar in dis- 
charge of a vow, willingly, 
to a most deserving ob- 
ject." — Zap. Sep., No. 
860;C./.Z.,VII.,.871. 

90. — An uninscribed 
Slab. 

91. — • A Sculptured 
Stone, which has the ap- 
pearance of being the 
upper part of an altar, 
but has been used as a 
building stone. 

92.— An Altar, which 
has been put to some h 
secondary use. The lower 
part is uninjured. 

93.— A Figure of Vic- 'ij 
tory, careering with out- 
stretched wings over the 
round Earth. Prom Bor- 
covious, Housesteads. Her face is mutilated, and her arms knocked 
off, but the figure is otherwise in good condition. When entire, she 
would hold a palm branch in her left hand, and a coronal wreath, 
wherewith to deck the victor^s brow, in her right. Victory, as might 




3 ft. 5 in. by 1 ft. 5 In. 



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88 CATALOGUE OF ROMAN INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED RTOKES. 




4 ft. 3 in. by 2 ft. 3 in. 



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CATALOGUE OF ROMAN INSCEIBBD AND SCULPTURED STONES. 89 

be expected, was a fevourite goddess with the Romans, and statnes, 
or portions of them, similar to the present, all imitations of some 
renowned Greek model, are not of uncommon occurrence in the camps 
on the Wall.— Zajt?. Sep,, No. 285. 

94. — A fragment of a Funereal Inscription, from Habitancum, 
Risingham. On the right of the slab is a floral border resembling in 
character that which adorns the sides of the capital of the altar to 




3 ft. 3 in. by 3 ft. 

Fortune found at this Station (No. 102). Unfortunately the inscrip- 
tion is incomplete, the names of the lady, her father, and husband, 

being deficient: — [d m] 

av[rbliae] I'll 

MENI / I ! i I I 
PILUE I I ' I I i I 
NI C0Nl[7GIS] / / / 
m(arci) AVREL(II) / / / 
vioxit a[nnis] 

XXXVII / / / 

** To the Divine Shades of Aurelia .... the daughter of .... the 



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40 CATALOGUE OF ROMAN INSCRIBED AND SCUI^PTURED BTTONKS, 




2 ft. 1 In, by 1 ft. 2 In. 



wife of Marcus Aurelius C .... she lived thirty- 
seven years." — Lap. Sep., No. 618. 

95. — The fragment of a Monumental Stone 
found at Habitancum, Bisingham. The letters 
are badly made, and a good deal abraded. Nothing- 
satisfactory can be made out of the inscription. 
The last line in it seems to be awncvlvs, an uncle 
of the deceased having probably erected the monu- 
ment.— Zap. /Sfep.,No 623 ; a/.i.,VII.,No. 1021. 




s 



96. — A Slab discovered, in excavating one of the gateways of 

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CATALOGUE OF ROMAN IN60BIBBD AND SCULPTUBED STONES. 41 

Amboglanna, BirdoBwald, by H. Olasford Potter, Esq., to whom the 
Society is indebted, not only for the stone itself, bnt for the cut 
representing it. The reading seems to be— 

SVB MODIO IV- 

LIO leg(ato) avg(vsti) pr(o)- 
pr(abtore) coh(ors) prima aelia d(a)c(orvm) 
CVI praeest m(arcvs) 
cl(avdivs; menander 
trib(vnvs) 

"The First Cohort of the Dacians (styled -ZBlia), commanded by 
Marcus Claudius Menander, the Tribune, (erected this) by direction 
of Modius Julius, Imperial Legate and Proprfletor." Mr. Potter and 
Dr. McCaul give slightly different readings, for which see Arch. 
Juliana, O.S., Vol. IV., p. 141; and Briianno-Roman InscriptionSy 
p. 2^.— Lap. Sep., No. 389 ; C. L L., VII., 838. 

97. — The fragment of a Stone, inscribed on both sides. From 
BoRCOVious, Housesteads. The inscriptions are evidently of different 
dates. The form of the letters and the absence of ligatures in the 




2 ft. 5 in. by U in. 

iace here shown prove the inscription upon it to have been the earlier. 
It is probably of the second century. It reads — 

/ / / /_ 

/ / / NTIO PA7LIN[o] 

qen(io) praeten(tvrae) 

but no definite information can be derived from it. — Lap. Sep., No. 
203a ; C. 7. Z., VII., 684. 

F 



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42 CATALOGUE OP ROMAN INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED STONES. 

97a. — The other side of the stone has an inscription of a some- 
what smaller size than the former. The letters are — 

IMPERAT0RIB(V8) 

CAESARIBVS 

[MAROO AJVRELIO AN[tONINO] 




S ft 5 in. by 11 in. 

" To the Emperors, the Caesars, Marcns Aurelius Antoninus . . . ." 
The emperors here referred to were probably either Marcus Aurelius 
Antoninus and Verus, or Marcus Aurelius Antoninus and Commodus, 
or Caracalla and QetA.—Lap. Sep., No. 208^^ ; C. I. L., VII., 664. 

98. — A Slab containing an inscription, which, in the opinion of 
Hodgson, is "of all the inscriptions discovered in Britain of the 
greatest historical interest." The reading of it is — 
imp(eratoris) CAES(ARI8) traian(i) 

HADRIANI AVG(V8TI) 
LEG(IO) II AVG(V8TA) 

a(vlo) platorio nepote leg(ato) pr(o)pr(aetore) 
"(For the safety of) the Emperor Caesar Trajanus Hadrianus, the 
Second Legion, sumamed the Imperial, (erects this by authority of) 
Aulus Platorius Nepos, Legate and Propraetor." The stone is believed 
to have been found in the Castle-nick Mile Castle, which is to the 
west of BoRCOVious.* Fragments of stones, bearing an inscription 
identical with this, have been found in three other neighbouring mile- 
castles. The conclusion is not unnatural, that they were originally 
to be found in all the mile-castles along the Wall. Now, if the 
mile-castles, which are essential parts of the Wall, were built by 

* See a paper, by Mr. Clayton, in the Archaoloffia Mliana^ Vol. IV., O.S., 
p. 273. 



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CATALOGtm OF ROMAN INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED STONES. 48 

Hadrian, the whole Wall must have been built by him ; hence the 
historical importance of the inscription before ns. The stone was 




presented to the Society by John Davidson, Esq. — Lap, Sep., No. 199 ; 
C. I. L., VIL, 660. 

98a. — Four Roman Tiles. Two of them bear the stamp of the 
Sixth Legion, surnamed the Victorious — leg. vi. v. Another, found 



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44 OATALOGUB OF ROMAN INSCBIBET) AND SOULPTUUED STONRS. 




at Cramlington, has the name t(itiy8) 
PEiMVS scratched upon it. The craftsman 
may have taken this method of immortalis- 
ing himself. The fourth has the impression 
on it of the feet of a dog or wolf. 

99. — Inscribed Slab, found at Bremen- 
lUM, High Rochester, in Eedesdale. Pre- 
10 In. by 10 In scutcd to the Socicty by Sir Walter C. 

Trevelyan, Bart. 

imp(eratori) caes(ari) m(aroo) avrblio 

SEVERO ANTONINO 

PIO FBLICI AVG(vSTO) PARTHIC(O) 

MAX(IMO) BRIT(ANNICO) MAX(IMO) GERM(ANIOO) 

MAX(IMO) PONTIFICI MAXIM(o) 

trib(vnicia) potest(ate) vndevicesimvm imp(eratori) ITBRVM 
oo(n)s(vli) qvartvh PRO00(N)s(viii) p(atri) p(atriae) ooh(ors) prima 

FIDA VARDVL(liORVM) C(rVIVM) r(OMANORVM) EQ(VITATA MILLIARIA) ANTO- 
NINIANA FECIT SVB CVRA / / / / 

I I I I I I leg(ati) avg(vsti) pr(o)pr(aetore) 



»l!,:;,. 



m 



SP^ERO ANTON IN # 
PID'FEL1CI)0(C-PARTHIG 
VTAX^RlTMAX^GERMf.^ 
JMX^ONTIFIQ'MAXINI 

fosniiPt^ccisppccK^ 

NM AN ArrGUSVBCVR A®ii*' 



3ftlin.b7Sft. lOin. 



" To the Emperor Csesar Marcus Aurelius Severus Antoninus, pious, 
happy, august, styled Parthicus Maximus, Britannicus Mazimus, 



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CATALOGUE OF ROMAN INSCRIBED AND SCULPrURED STONES. 45 

Germanicns Maximos,* chief priest, possessed of the tribunicial 
power for the nineteenth time, proclaimed Imperator for the second 
time, consul for the fourth time, the father of his country; — The 
First Cohort of the Varduli, surnamed the Faithful, composed of 
Roman citizens, having a due proportion of cavalry, consisting of a 
thousand men, and honoured with the name of Antoninian, erected 

this under the superintendence of imperial legate and pro- 

prsBtor." The Antonine here referred to is probably the eldest son of 
Severus, commonly known as Caracalla ; he was Consul for the fourth 
time A.D. 213,— Lap. Sep., No. 568 ; C. I. L., VII., 1,048. 

100. — ^A round Globe of large size, with 
the foot of Victory firmly planted on it. 
The rest of the statue, which, judging from 
this fragment, must have been a very fine 
one, is wanting. From the Roman station 
of Stanwix. Presented by J. D. Carr, Esq., 
Carlisle.— Zap. Sep., No. 483. 

101. — ^A Roman Tombstone, found in 
cutting down Gallowhill, near Carlisle. The 
inscription runs : — 

d(iis) m(anibvs) avr(eua) avrelia(na)? vixsit 
annos qvadraginta vnvm vlpfvs 
ap0linar18 col^ivgi carissime 

POSVIT 

" To the Divine Manes. Aurelia Aureliana (?) lived forty-one years. 
Ulpius Apolinaris erected this to his beloved wife." The figure is 
probably a representation of the deceased. She holds a bunch of 
flowers in her left hand— in token, probably, of the hope of a blooming 
futurity. The fir-cone ornaments which surmount the pilaster on 
each side are also supposed to point to the life to come. — Lap. Sep.^ 
No. 497; a /. i., VII., 931. 

* It is difficult to translate Maximus in these instances. Probably it was 
intended to intensify the epithet to which it is joined, that he was the greatest 
Parthicus — the greatest vanquisher of the Parthians, &c. 




1 ft 2 in. by 11 iiL 



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46 OATAIiOdUE OF ROMAN INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED STONES. 




5ft. 4 iu. by 2 ft. 9 in. 



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CATALOGUE OF ROMAN INSCRIBED AND SCULPTUEBD STONES. 47 

102. — An Altar to Fortune. From Habitancum, Risingham. 
Presented by Mr. Shanks. When discovered, the altar stood upon a 
mass of masonry about thi-ee feet high. The great peculiarity of this 
altar is, that the inscription is repeated on the basement slab, which 
is also provided with a focus. 




Altar, 3 ft. 4 in. by 1 ft. 8 In. ; bane. 8 In. by 3 ft. 1 i«. 

FORTVNAE 
SACRVM C(AIVS) 
VALERIV8 
LONGINVS 
TRIB(VNV8) 

" Sacred to Fortune. Gains Valerius Longinus, the Tribune." The 
altar bears no indications of having been exposed to the weather. 
The patera on one of its sides bears distinct marks of the chisel ; the 
rest of the surface is dotted over by the indentations of a fine pick- 



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48 CATALOGITB OF ROMAN INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED STONES. 

axe or similar tool. The head of the altar has at some time been 
forcibly separated from the body. — Lap, Sep.^ No. 600 ; C. L i., 
VII., 986. 

103. — ^An Altar to Fortune. From Habitancum, Risingham. 
Presented by Mr. Shanks. The inscription has been clearly cut, but 
the letters are a good deal blurred by having been struck by a pick- 
axe at some period subsequent to their original formation. The 
inscription is — 




fortvnae redvci 
ivlivs severinvs 
trib(vnvs) explicito 
balineo v • s • l • m 

" To Fortune the Re- 
storer, Julius Severi- 
nus the Tribune, the 
Bath being finished, 
'\ (erected this altar) in 
discharge of a vow 
freely made, and to a 
deserving object." — 
Lap. Sf^.y No. 602 ; 
C. L £., VII., 984. 



3 ft. by I ft 5 In. 

104. — As most of the Altars in this collection have been derived 



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CATALOGUE OF ROMAN INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED STONES. 49 

from Housesteads, it is 
presumed that this altar 
is from that locality. The 
inscription on it is so de- 
&ced that it is vain to 
attempt a reading. — Lap. 
Sep., No. 181; a I. L., 
VII., 655. 

105. — An uninscribed 
square-built Altar, 14 in. 
high. Uninscribed altars 
would be convenient ve- 
hicles on which to offer 
incense to any deity whom 
fashion or caprice might 
recommend to the wor- 
shipper. 

J 06. — A Centurial 
Stone from Chester - le - 
Street. Broken through 
the middle ; inscription 
illegible. Presented by the 
Rev. Walker Featherston- 

2 ft. 8 in. by I'ft. 2 in. 




107. — Found on taking down the White- 
Mars Tower, Newcastle-upon-Tyne — the Pons 
Mlu oftheNotitia. 

d(e)o 

SILVANO 

/ / / 
"To the god Silvanus."— Z^ajt?. Sep., No. 11 ; 

a I. X., VII., 500. 

108. — The capital of a column. 

109. — This Stone was found in the ruins of 
a mile-castle near Chapel House, which is to 




16 In by9|{n. 



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50 OATALOGUE OF ROMAN INSCRIBED AND SOULFTURED STONES. 



the west of Birdoswald. Public attention was first called to it 
by the Pilgrim Band of 1849. The portions of the inscription 
which are wanting are easily supplied from others of a kindred 
character. 

[imperatori cae8ari divi traiani parthioi filioj 

[divi] nervab n[bpoti] 

[trai]ano hadria[no] 

AVG[V8T0] 

leg(io) vicEsiliA v(aleria) v(ictrix) 



■irtKv/q 




8 ft. S in. by 1 ft. 

" To the Emperor Caesar Trajanus Hadrianns Augustus, of the deified 
Trajan sumamed Parthicus, son, of the deified Nerva, grandson, the 
Twentieth Legion, sumamed the "Valerian and victorious (dedicates 
this)."— Zap. %'., No. 825 ; C. I. L., VII., No. 886. 

110.— From Magna, Caervoran. 
c(bntvria) mar[ci] 

ANT0[Nn] 

viato(ris) 

G (?) S (?) F(ECIT) 

"The century of Marcus Antonius 
Viator .... made this." Professor 
Hiibner says, respecting the first two 
letters in the last line : — " Quid g s 
litera^ quae vidmtur certae esse, signi- 
ficent ignoroy—Lap. Sep., No. 338 ; 
a 7. X, VII., 781. 




1 ft. 1 ia sqaare. 



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CATALOGUE OF ROMAN INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED STONES. 51 



111. — ^The fragment of a Funereal Stone, derived probably from 
Habitancum, Risingham. The letters of the inscription are well 
cnt^ bnt the stone is a good 
deal weathered. Nothing 
can be made of the first 
line, and the reading of 
the whole is uncertain. 

/ / / / 

RI COMMVNI 
CELERITER / 
VIX8IT AN[nIS] 

— Lap. Sep., No. 621 ; 
C. I. i., VII., 1022. 




1 ft 6 in. by 1 ft. 






112. — An Inscribed Stone from Brbmenium, High Rochester. 
In the process of adapting it to its position in ^^ 
some modem building, a large part of the 
inscription of the fragment has been efbced. 
Major Mowat reads " [roR]TiS8iMi avg[vsti] Irr* . 
in the second line^ with reference to Caracalla. 
The letters ss twine round each other in the 
shape of 8 ; the letters av are interwoven in 
the shape of xx." The words castror(vm) and sena[tvs] are distinct 
in the last line. The reference may be to Julia, wife of Severus, 
Mater Casfraruniy Senatus ac Patriae. — Lap. Sep., No. 579 ; C. I. L., 
VII., 1047. 



iL-Ji£fc;:jr:j 



1 ft. 6 in. by 11 in. 



113. — Fragment of a Slab, from Habitanuum, Risingham. Pre- 
sented by Mr. Shanks. 

imp(brator) caes(ar) m[arcv8] 
antoninvs [pivs] I I I I 
adlabeniov[s] I I I I I 

" The Emperor Oaesar Marcus (Aurelius) Antoninus, 

pious, [happy, the Augustus], (sumamed). Adiabeni- 

cus." This is an inscription to Caracalla, the son of 

Sevems.'* Adiabenicus" was a title which Septimius Severus received 



[IMP^CAEM 

10 in. by 10 in. 



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52 CATALOGUE OF ROMAN INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED STONES. 

in the third year of his reign, in consequence of his reduction of 
Adiabene, a province of Assyria. The title was occasionally, as 
in this instance, given to his son Caracalla. — Lap. Sep., No. 629 ; 
G. L L., VII., 1004. 

114. — From Habitancum, Risingham. Presented by Mr. William 
Shanks. This is, apparently, part of an altar which has been broken 
up for building purposes. 

PRO SALVTE 

--r^]^;^^^ arr(ii) pavlini 

THEODOTVS 

XRR^PAVL'NiII ''^"^'"^ "^"^"^^ ''^'''"'^ 

Tl-FO nrrrv/ ^/ W " ^^^ ^^® safety of Arrius Paulinus ; Theo- 

L ^ I V ...n J M dotus dedicated (this altar) willipgly and 

deservedly." Professor Hiibner reads the 

1 ft 6 In. by 1 ft, 1 In. lagt line lib(ertvs). — Lap. Sep., No. 610 ; 

C. L Z., VIL, 1000. 

116. — The fragment of an Inscription, giving us the letters 
mil (?) of a very large size. The magnitude of the letters suggests 
the probabihty that the inscription was an important one, and of an 
early date. 

116. — The lower portion of a small Altar, having the inscription — 
, r^-^ ^ hvitb 

; BJ ByS"! It is not known from what locality it has been de- 
C-^^ r A rived. The inscription is puzzling. Several altars 
rjii^iiiil • '^'^ exist, which are dedicated dibvs vetbeibvs — "To 
6 in. by 6 in. ^^xe ancicut gods ;" but, besides these, there are dedi- 
cations to a god veteris, vitiris, or vttris.— i^/?. Sep., Nos. 116, 
24, 109, 110. Professor Hubner (C. L L., VII., 502fl, 502&) seems 
to read correctly, n(vminibv8) vitbribvs. 

117. — An Altar, first, observed in Beltingham Churchyard, 
about a mile and a half to the south of the Roman Station of 
ViNDOLANA, Chesterholm, and on the south side of the Tyne. The 



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CATAIXX5UB OF ROMAN INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED STONES. 53 

inscription is a diflScnlt one. Major Mowat suggests the following 

reading : — 

deaFe] 
minda[e] 
cvria (?) tex- 
toverdorvm 

V(OTVM) S(OLVIT) lCIBENS) M(ERITO) 



(iH ' 






■ 'Ml 



2 ft. 8in. b]flft. 6in. 



Major Mowat remarks that **in provincial towns citizens were divided 
into Curiae, or electoral colleges." On the sides of the altar the 
instruments of sacrifice are carved, and on the back is a wreath. — 
Laj). Sep., No. 117; C. L L., VII., 712. 



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54 CATALOGUE OF ROMAN INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED STONES. 

118. — From Habitanoum, Risingham. Presented by Mr. Shanks. 




3 ft 4 in. by 1 ft. Win. 

d(iis) m(anibvs) 

SATRIVS 
HONORATVS 
VIXTT AN- 
NIS V ME(n) 
SIBVS VIII 

" To the Divine Manes. Satrius Honoratus lived five years and five 
months." It was not usual with the Romans to mention death upon 



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C5ATAL0GUE OP ROMAN IN80RIBBD AND SCULPTTTBBD STONES. 



55 



a tombstone, though the length of the life of the deceased is generally 
mentioned with great particularity. — Lap. Sep., No. 617; CI. L.y 
VIL, No. 1019. 



119. — ^A Tombstone from Habi- 
TANOUM, Risingham. Presented by 
Mr. Shanks. 



D(ns) m(anibv8) s(acevm) 
avr(elia) qvabtil- 

LA VIX(IT) AN- 

NIS nil M(BNSIBVS) V 

D(IEBVS) XXII avr(elivs) 

QVAETINV8 

POSVIT FILI- 

A£ SYAE 

" Sacred to the Divine Shades. Au- 

relia Quartilla lived thirteen years, five 

months, and twenty-two days. Aurelius Quartinus erected this to 

the memory of his daughter."— Zap. Sep., No. 620 ; 0. I. L., VII., 

1015. 



y^R^ aVARTi 
LA^VIXAN 
NISXIIIWV 

QVARTINVS 
PO^IT^FILI 
AFSVAE- < 




Sft.b73n.2in. 



120. — A Monumental Stone from Habitancum, Risingham. 
Presented by Mr. Shanks. 

D(n8) m(anibvs) s(acbvm) 

AVR(BIiIAB) lvpv- 

l(a)b matri 

PnSSIM(A)B 
DIONTSrVS 
PORTVNA- 
TVS FILIVS 

s(i)t t(ibi) t(bhea) l(evis) 

" Sacred to the divine Manes of Aurelia Lupula. Dionysius Fortun- 
atus erected this to the memory of his most affectionate mother. 
May the earth lie light upon thee I ** This stone is remarkably frcsh. 



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56 CATAT^GUB OF ROMAX INSCRIBRD AND SCULPTURED STONES. 

and has the ap- 
pearance of hav- 
ing but just left 
the hands of the 
sculptor. — Lap, 
Sep., No. 616 ; 

a I. L,, VII., 

1014. 





D M 
LEMATR' 



c 



_S 



'^^ RTVNA 




W 



I 



C^ 



rC 



I 




\2 ft. 6 in. by 1 ft. 9 in. 
DEO 

SOLI INVI- 
OTO MTTRffi 

saecvlabi 

litorivs 

pacatianvs 

b(ene)f(iciarivs) oo(n)s(vlaris) pro 

SE et svis v(otvm) s(olvit) 

l(ibens) m(erito) 



121.— AnAltar 
to the Sun (see 
woodcut on next 
page), under the 
character of Mith- 
ras, from the 
famous Mithraic 
cave at BoRCOVi- 
cus. (See Xos. 
70, 71, 72, and 
140). The in- 
scription may be 
read thus : — 

"To the god the Sun, the 
invincible Mithras, the 
Lord of Ages,* Litorius 
Pacatianus, a beneficiary 
of the Consularis (that 
is, the Imperial legate), 



for himself and family, dis- 
charges a vow willingly 
and deservedly."— Zfljt?. Sep., No. 182 ; G. I. L., VII., 645. 

♦ The Rev. John Hodgson translates the word saecvlaeis, as here given, 
" Lord of Ages." Dr. McCaul thinks that the god was so caUed in reference to 
the ludi taeculdres, which were celebrated, in honour of the thousandth year of the 
city, in a.d. 248, just four years before the consulship of Gallus and Volusianua 
(see Nos. 70, 71, 72, and 140). The worshippers of Mithras might wish him to be 
regarded- as the true Saecular deity. 



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^^^■-'"^I'-^Lii^ ^ _ /^_^vt?| 



< i-.j. .-m 1 (.' 1 '* ^H lu »**. 






ISOLMJ^VI 
tTOMTRAi! 
"'AtXVLARI 
•LITORIVS , 
IPArATIANvl 

fSE3"£:VJ.W 



.:-C^S£fcU 



4 n. 7 In. by 1 ft. 9 In. 



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58 OATAIiOGTJE OP ROMAN INSCRIBED AND SCULHTUBED STONES. 

122. — F^m BoRCOVicus, Housesteads. 




3 ft. 7 in. by 1 ft 8 in. 



"(Dedicated) to Hercules by the 
First Cohort of the Tungrians (con- 



HBRCVLI 

OOH(ORB) PRIMA TVNGROR(VM) 

mil(liaria) 

ovi PRABBST p(VBLivs) ael(ivs) 8^^*^"^^^^^ ^^'lo^sand men),of which 

modestvb prae(fegtvs) Publius Aelius Modestus is Prefect." 



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CATALOGUE OF ROMAN INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED STONES. 



59 



The Tnngnans were a Germanic tribe who, having crossed the 
Khine, took np a position in Belgic Gaul. The present town of 
Tongres is a relic of their residence here. The first cohort of Tun- 
grians is named in the Malpas diploma (see Lap, Sep.^ p. 4), and in 
this case the word milliaria is given in full. — Lap. Sep.<t No. 179 ; 
C. L i., VII., 685. 



128. — ^A Slab from Boecovicus, Housesteads. 
without any contractions or compound letters. 

DnS DEABVSQVE SE- 
CVNDVM INTERPRE- 
TATIONEM ORACV- 
LI CLARI APOLLINIS 
C0H0R8 PRIMA TVNGRORVM 

It may be thus translated : — 
"The First Cohort of the 
Tungrians (dedicated thisstruc- 
ture) to the gods and the god- 
desses, according to the direc- 
tion of the oracle of the Glarian 
Apollo." There was a femous 
oracle at Clams, a city of Ionia, 
whence Apollo is occasionally 
called the Clarian god. Like 
most of the other inscribed 
stones found upon the Wall, it 
bears marks of having been 
purposely broken.— Lop. Sep,, No. 95 ; C. /. Zr., VII., 688. 



The inscription is 




S ft 7 in. by 3 ft 7 in. 



124. — This Altar was dug up at Chapel Hill, in the immediate 
vicinity of the station of Borcovicus, Housesteads. 

l(OVl) O(PTIMO) M(AXIMO) 
ET NVMINIBVS 
AVG(VSTI) C0H(0R8) I TV- 
NGRORVM 

MIL(LIARIA) CVl PRffiE 
8T Q(VINTVS) VERIVS 
SVPERSTI8 
PRABFECTVS 



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60 CATALOOUK OF ROMAN IKSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED STONES. 

The inscription may be translated: — "The First Cohort of the Tun- 



■:-^ 



..•^: 



/ 



^ Ki 



fllM^^V^^")~l- "~'|li'i'l*J;lNt'i)li|.'"!i'«Bl'i«'i' ■' ^ 



ii l^n I:\KB\o 
iAyOCOHiTV 

|l-QVEPxl.Vr 
JVPER-STIS 



iffiiiifliilirii 



^ ? ^- ^?!gWWMWfe 



^ 



3 ft. 10 in. by 1 ft. 10 in. 

grians, a milliary one, commanded bv Quintui Venus Superstis, 



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CATALOGtTB OF ROMAN INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED STONES. 



61 



Prefect, (dedicated this altar) to Jupiter the best and greatest, and to 
the Deities of the Emperor." * The volutes on the top of the altar 
are bound down by transverse cords. These volutes may represent 
the faggots used in burning the offering. — Lap. Sep.^ No. 172 ; 
C. L i., VIL, 640. 

125. — From ^siCA, Great Chesters. Presented by Capt. Coulson. 

DIB(V8) 
VETERI 
BVS POS 
VIT ROMA 

NA 

"To the ancient gods (?) Romana erected 
(this altar)." (See No. 116). As in the Re- 
formation times, there were the advocates of 
the Old Learning and of the New; so when 
Christianity began to spread over heathen 
lands, there were those who received the glad 
tidings and those who adhered to the gods 
whom they had been taught to venerate from 
their youth.— Zap. Sep,, No. 277; C. L Z., 
VIL, 728. 

126. — An inscribed Stone, which was first 
noticed at Walltown, but is supposed to have 
come from -ffisiCA, Great Chesters. Pre- 
sented by the late Rev. Henry Wastal, Newbrough. 

mnmmm 




5 In. by lOi in. 






'-vieTQ-Ri-AE#c:BH<vril 

lyi-eAR-B/vR./i-.'RAEfhtvyLi/. 



, I,, ^iiirttf TTi-iMniTir 



a ft. 3 In. by 7i in. 

VICTORIAE AVG(VSTAE) C0H(0R8) VI 
NERVIORVM CVI PRABBST C(AIVS) 
IVL(rVS) BARBARVS PRAEPEC(TVS) V'S-L«M 

"To Imperial Victory, the Sixth Cohort of Nervii, commanded by 

* Or, more probably, the Emperor himself was addressed as a deity. 



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CATALOGUE OF BOMAN INSCttlBBD AND SOULPTUEBD STONES. 




Cains Julius Barbaras, the prefect, erects this in discharge of a vow, 
willingly, to a most deserving object." This stone was probably 
inserted in the front wall of some small chapel dedicated to the deity. 
The Nervii were a people of Belgic Gaul. — Lap. Sep., No. 275 ; 
C. L i., VIL, 726. 

127. — From Brbmbnium, High Rochester. 

Dl(l)8 

MOVNTI- 

BVS IVL(IV8) 

FIRMIN- 

V8 DEC(VRIO) FB(CIT) 

" To the gods of the mountains Julius Firminus, 
a Decurion, dedicates this." — Lap. Sep,, No. 
654 ; G. L i., VII., 1036. 

128. — A small, neatly carved Altar, without 

inscription. On one face, in a slightly re- 

1 ft. by 8 in. ccsscd nichc, is the figure of a woman, or a 

robed priest; it is 9 inches high. From Chester-le-Street. Presented 

by the Rev. Walker Featherstonhaugh. 

129. — A small Altar, found at Peooo- 
LiTiA, Carrawburgh, by the Pilgrim Band of 
1849. The inscription is very rude, and 
scarcely decipherable. It may be — 

DEO 

ONIIBL 

CAVBO 

/ / / AM 

„ , ^,, 130. — From Magna, Caervora^. 

11 In. by 7 in. ' 

FORTVNAB AVG(VSTVAE) 
PRO SALVTE L(VCII) AELI(t) 
CABBARI8 EX VI8V 
T(ITV8) FLA(vrV8) SECVNDVS 
PRAEF(BCTVS) COH(OBTIS) I HAM- 
lORVM SAGITTAE(IORVM) 
v(otvm) 8(0LVIT) Ii(IBBNS) m(brito) 

" To Fortune, the August, for the safety of Lucius ^lias Caesar, 
Titus Flavins Secundus, prefect of the First Cohort of Hamian archers, 





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CATALOGUE OP ROMAN INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED STONES. 68 



warned in a vision, and in discharge of a vow, (erected this altar) 
willingly to a most worthy 
object." Fortune was soli- 
cited on this occasion in vain. 
Lucins ^lins CaBsar, who 
was the adopted son of 
Hadrian, died in the life- 
time of that Emperor, a.d- 
137. When the Notitta was 
written, the Dalmatians oc- 
cupied the garrison at Magna. 
Three other inscriptions, 
however, besides this, have 
been found here, which men- 
tion the Hamii. The Hamii, 
as Hodgson shrewdly con- 
jectures, were from Hamah, 
the Hamath of Scripture, a 
city of Syria. — Hodgson, 
Hist Nor., II., iii., pp. 189 
and 205; Lap: Sep., No. 801. 

2 ft. 1 in. by 1 ft 2 in. 

181. — A small Altar from Magna, Caervoran. The letters of 
this inscription are feebly traced upon a hard and 
crystalline block of millstone grit, and are conse- 
quently indistinct ; they are also rude in form. 
Probably no two persons would read them alike. — 
See Lap. Sep., No. 298, and C. L L., VII., 748. 





182. — ^A rudely formed Altar 
from Brougham Castle, West- 
moreland. Presented by Mr. 
George Armstrong Dickson. It 
1 ffe. by 7 in. jg made of red sandstone. 

DEO 

B(e)LATVCA(D)RO 1 ft. 3 In. by 1 ft. 

AVDAGV8 

v(otvm) s(olvit) p(ro) 8(alvte) s(va) ? 




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H4 CATAIiOGUE OF ROMAN rNRCRIBKD AND SCULPTURED STONES. 

"To the god Belatucadrns, Audagiis discharges his vow for his well- 
being." The god Belatucadrns, or Belatucader, is a local deity, his 
altars being only found in Cumberland and the western border of 
Northumberland. It has been thought, but certainly without the 
slightest probability, that his name is a compound of Baal or Bel, 
and the Arabic epithet, du cader, the powerful. — Lap. Sep,, No. 808 ; 
C. I. i., VII., 295. 

133. — A small Altar from Chester-le-Street. Presented by the 
Rev. Walker Featherstonhaugh. Being formed of 
a coarse-grained sandstone, and much weathered, the 
inscription is indistinct. The engraving accurately 
represents it. Professor Hiibner, writing upon it, 
says : — " Goniuli, sed de lectione desperavt.^* — C. L i., 
VII., 453 ; Lap, Sep,, No. 543. 




10 in. by 6 In. 




134. — This Altar was found in the Mithraic 
cave at BoROOVicus, Housesteads. It bears upon 
its capital a rude effigy of the Sun, and is dedicated 
to that luminary by Herionus (?) 

SOLI 
HERION(lfl) 

v(otvm) l(ibens) m(brito) 

"To the Sun, Herionis in discharge of a vow 
willingly and deservedly made." — Lap. Sep., No. 
191: C.L Z., VIL, 647. 

135. — An uninscJribed Altar, locality un- 
known. 



1 ft 10 In. by 10 in. 



136. — A Funereal Stone found on the line of the Vallum at Low 
Benwell, a village a little to the west of Newcastle. 

46 d(iis) ^ m(aijibvs) ^ 

P(VBLIO) SERMVL- 
LIO MARTI 

46 ALI <?> 

"To the Divine Shades. To PubUus SermuUius Martialis." 



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CATALOGUE OF ROHAN INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED STONKS. f)5 





''^'t vj^.»-(r J 




1 MMII 




J 



V-^ pj»>^i*^ -Ais^ 




2 ft 9 in. by 1 ft. 10 in. 

187._A Walling Stone, found at Brunton, west of Hunnum, 

Halton Chesters. It is inscribed — 

leg(io) 

II 

avg(vsta). 

"The Second Legion, the Imperial 

(erected this)."— Zap. Sep., No. 93 ; 

a I. Z., VIL, 562rt. 




a ft. 1 in. by 1 ft. 7 in. 



138. — From Habitancum, the 
modern Risinghara. Presented by Mr. 
Richard Shanks. It was found among the debris of the south gateway 
of the Station. The upper portion of the slab, which is now lost, 
has doubtless contained the name and titles of Septimius Sevei'us. 
From the centre of the stone the name of Geta has been purposely 
erased, after having been murdered by his brother. The slab was pro- 
bably placed upon the front of the south gateway of the Station, a.d. 
207. A close examination of the stone shows that its surface has 
been worn away by the action of the weather to the depth of nearly 
one-eighth of an inch. In consequence of this some of the letters are 



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66 CATALOGUE OF ROMAN IN80RIBBD AND SCULPTURED STONES. 

80 obscure tbey can only be made out by the help of contemporary 
documents. On the right of the stone is a figure of Victory, and on 
the left of Mars. 




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CATAliOOUE OP ROMAN INSCRIBED AND SCULPTrRED STONFA 67 



/////// 

I ! I I ADIABKNICO MAXl(aro) 

C0(l«j8(TLI> III BT m(aBCO) AVRBL(io) ANTONINO PIO 

co(y)s(vLi) II Aro(vsTi!*) I I I I ! 

POBTAM CVM MTBIS TETV>TATK di- 

LAP8I8 ITS8T ALFBVl(j)8EyECl(o)NI8 V(lBl) c(LABI88IMT) 

CO(>'^8(VLABI8) CVBANTE OCLATINl(o) ADTBNTO PBO(CTRATOEB) 

AT0(T8T0BVM) n(OSTBOBVM) COH(oB8) I VANOIOlf(VM) M(ILIABIA) B(QTITATA) 

CTM ABM(ILIO) SALVIANO TRIB(vNO) 

eVO A SOLO BB8T(ITVIt) 

*' (To the honour of Septimius Severns) 

Adiabenicns Maximns, Consul for the third 

time, and Marcus Aureh'us Antoninus Pins, Consul for the second time, 

the AugusLi 

the ^te, with the adjacent walls, which had become dilapidated 
through age, was, by command of Alfenius Senecio, an illustrious man 
and of consular rank, and under the care of Oclatinins Adventus 
the procurator of our emperors, by the First Cohort of Vangionea a 
thousand strong, and provided with cavalry, together with ^milius 
Salvianus their tribune, raised from the gronnd." The Vangiones 
occupied the most eastern part of Belgic Gaul. — Lrrp. Sep., No. 626 ; 
a L Z.., VII., 1003. 

189. — From Habitancum, Risinghara. 

Dl(l)S CVLTO- 
RIBVS HVIVS 

IX)CI ivl(ivs) 

VICTOR TRIB(VNVS) 

"To the gods the fosterers of this place, Julius 
Victor a tribune." Julius Victor was tribune of 
the First Cohort of Vangiones, as we learn from 
another inscription which was found at this staticn, 
1 ut is now lost. — Lap, Sep., No. 605 ; 0, /. L.^ 
VII., 980. 

140. — From the Mithraic cave, BoRCOVicus. a ft 4 in. by i ft. 2 in. 
Hodgson, Li. ; Arch, AtJl, p. 299. Dr. Hubner 
conjectures that this Altar has been originally dedicated to Jupiter, 
and that the marks on the capital are the remains of the first inscrip- 
tion, i.o.M. The rest (»f the inscription had been entirely erased, and 
the new one carved upon its tute. The stone beara marks of having 
undergone this process. When the spread (»f Christianity had exposed 




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B8 CATALOGUE O^ HOKAN IKSCHIBED AND SCULPttJRED STONES. 

the absurdities of the mythology of Greece and Rome, those who 



^ 




jiNVlCTcj;/!!) 
iSVOVSfivf 




pMNGAlLOF 
'(HV.SINbCoS 



d(eo) o(ptimo) / / / k(aximo) 
invicto mit- 
bab 8actlabi 
pvbliv8 pbocvu- 
nys c pbo 8b 

ET PBOCTLO PIL(IO) 

8V0 t(OTVM) 8(oLVIT) l(IBEN8) 

m(bbito) 

DOMIlfIS K08TBI8 GALLO BT 
T0LV8I(a)N0 CONSTXIBYS 



"'lo the god the best and 
greatest, Mithras, the uneon- 
quered and the enduring for 
ages, Publius Procuhnus, a 
Centurion, dedicates this, for 
himself and Procnlus his son, 
in discharge of a vow freely 
made to a deserving object, 
our lords Gallus and Volusi- 
anus being consuls." 



3 ft. 8 in. by 1 ft. 4 in. 

would not submit to the humbling doctrines of the Cross, betook them- 



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CATAIX>GUE OF ROMAN INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED STONES. 69 



selves to the worship of that vague and indefinite thing called Nature. 
As the sun is the chief agent in the hand of God of producing light 
and warmth, and without which neither animal nor vegetable life could 
exist, it became the prime object of their worship. The Abbe Bauier, 
in his Mythology of the Ancients (English translation: London, 1740), 
at the close of an article upon Mithras (Vol. II., Book VII., p. 126), 
has the following passage : — " We may remark, before we have done 
with this article, that the principal feast of Mithras was that of his 
nativity, which a Roman kalendar placed on the 8th of the kalends of 
January : that is, the 25th of December, a day on which, besides the 
Mysteries that were celebrated with the greatest solemnity, were like- 
wise exhibited the games of the Circus that were consecrated to the 
Sun, or to Mithras. 'Tis true, the kalendar does not name this god, 
but only says, ' 8 Kal. Jan. n. Invicti :' that is to say, the day of the 
nativity of the Invincible ; but the learned have very well judged from 
the epithet of Invicti, so often applied to him in inscriptions, that 
Mithras is here intended." When the shortest day of a year is passed, 
the new year may be said to have its birth. — Lap, Sep., No. 190 ; 
G. I. L., VII., 646. 



141. — Found at Shotton, County of Durham, sup- 
posed to have come from Magna, Caervoran. It was 
once in the jwssession of Horsley. Presented by the 
Eev. R. Taylor, of Monk Hesleden. 

DEO 

VITIRI 

MENI(VS) 

DADA 

V • S • L • M 

"To the god Vitiris, Menius Dada dedicates this 
altar, in discharge of a vow." 

142. — An Altar from Chester-le-Street. Pre- 
sented by the Rev. Walker Featherstonhaugh. The 
inscription is indistinct ; it has probably been 

addressed — dbab(v)s 

vit(eri)bvs 

VIAS (?) 
VADRI (?) 

"To the ancient gods . . . ." — Lap. Sep., No. 542. 



DECV 
MENI: 

91n.b75in. 




1 ft. 2 in. by 7 In. 



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70 CATALOGUE OF ROMAN INSCBIBED AND 8CULPTUUKD Sl\)NKS. 



14;^. — The upper portiou of a small Altar, from Chester-le-Street. 
Presented by the Rev. W. Featherstonhaogh. The 
inscription is — 

DKO ai»ol[l] 

INl LKG(IO) II AVG[V8TA] 
V . S • L • M 

" To the god Apollo (this altar is dedicated), bjr 
the Second Legion, sumamed the August, in dis- 
charge of a vow." — Lap. Sep,, No. 541 ; G. /. L,, 

o: u o: Vni., 452. 

9 ia. by 8 in. ' 

144. — Tl e lower portiou of an Altar from Condkbcum, Benweil. 
We know not to what god it has been 
dedicated, and the remaining letters can 
— p-N y ^ 7 r" ^ ^^^^ ^ ^^^^ conjecturally. Perhaps the 
r\^-^ 1 \/ i\ m expansion of them may be — 




i(" 



IVS. 




9 in. by 6 iu. 




11 in. by 7 in. 



(1»)K0 ivs(to) 

c(bntvbio) bt s(vi8) v(otvm) s(oltit) 

L(lBENTId6TME) m(eBITO) 

*•( Erected) for (the welfare (tf) Justus, a 
centurion, and his family, in discharge of a 
\ow most willingly made, and for a most 
deserving object.*' — Lap. Stp.y No. 26; 
C. L L,, Vir., 516. 



145. — A small Altar from Magna, Caer- 
voran. No certain reading of the inscrip- 
tion has been hit upon. It may be — 

DEO VE- 

TIRI ne(pos; 

CALAM- 

E8 • V • S • L 

" To the ancient god ( ?), Nepos Calames dedicates 
this altar, in discharge of a vow willingly.*' Even 
if this reading is right, who is this ancient god ? 
M. Mowat considers vetiris to be the name of 
the god ; NECAIMES that of the dedicator. — Txtp. 
Spp., No. 820 ; r. L L„ VTI . 761. 



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CATALO«IUE OF ROMAN INSCBIBBD AND SCULPTURED STONES. 71 



146.— A neatly formed Altar, 9 inches high, from Chester-le-Street. 
Presented by the Rev. Walker Featherstonhangh. Its inscription is 
obliterated by exposure. 

147. — A Stone from Coiistopitum, Corchester, inscribed — 

LEG(IO) VI VIC(TBIX) P(IA) F(IDELIS) 

" The Sixth Legion, (styled) the victori- 
ous, the affectionate, and the faithful." 
Presented by Mr. Rewcastle, of Gates- 
head. — Lap, Sep., No. 647. 



ra 



» 

1 ft. 11 in. by 7 in. 



148.— Part of a Monumental Stone from Ooistopitum, Corchester. 



d(iis) m(anibvs) 

BflLES 

leg[ionis vj (?)] 

** To the divine shades. A soldier of 
the Sixth Legion." Professor Hiibner 
remarks that in some elder Republican 
inscriptions we have the word miles 
preceding the name, but in Britanno- 
Homan inscriptions it usually follows it. 
Vol. I. (N.S.), p. 45. 




1 ft. 1 in. by 10 in. 

-See Proc, Soc. Antiq., Newc, 



149. — From Corstopitum, Corchester. Presented by Mr. Robert 
Harle, of Corbridge. 

LEG(I0NI8) II AVG(V8TAK) 
COH(ORS) [ill] 

" The Third Cohort of the 
Second Legion, surnamed 
Augusta." This Stone was 
probably placed in the front 
of some building reared 
by this regiment. In the 
upper part of the stone 
we have a carving of the 
sea-goat and Pegasus, the 
badges of the Second 
Legion, and the crescent 
moon. 




1 ft. 2 in. by 1 ft. 



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72 CATAr/XJUE OF ROMAN INSCRIBED AND SCUIiPTURED STONEft. 




1 ft. 7 in. by 1 ft. 5J !ri. 




150. — Prom COR- 
STOPITUM, Corchester. 
^\i^ This 18 part of a Fune- 
real Monument. We 
have a representation on 
it of two invalids upon 
a bed. Presented by the 
late Captain Walker, of 
Corbridge. 

151. — From CoR- 
r \i| STOPiTUM, Corchester. 
Presented by Mr. Joseph 
Cousins, of Corbridge. 

leg(ionis) II 
avg(vstae) 

COHfORS) III f(bCIT) 

" The Third Cohort of the Second 
Legion, surnamed Augusta, 
erected (this)." 

152. — A squared Stone from 
the vicinity of Corstopitum, 
Corchester (presented by John 
Grey, Esq., Dilston House), with 
a moulding, bearing the inscrip- 
tion — 



1 ft. 2 in. by 1 ft. i in. 



LEGIO(NIS) VI 

pi(a)e f(idelis) vex(illarii) 
refec(ervnt) 

"The Vexillarii of the Sixth Legion, 
the pious and faithful, restored (this ' 
building)." By a careful examina- 1 
tion of the various passages in 
Tacitus where vexillarii are men- 
tioned, it will be seen that he . 






' 1 I 



I f^ 



I.EGIOV] 
0. EFF ■ 



■*! *i 





1 ft. 6 in. by 1 ft. 1 in. 



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CATALOGUE OP ROMAN TNSCRTBBD AND ROUIiPTURKD STONES. 78 

designates by this appellation any body of soldiers serving apart from 
the legion nnder a separate 
ensign. — Smith's Diet, of 
Antiquities; Lap. Sep., No. 
646 ; a I. Z., VIL, 476. 

152a. — A much muti- 
lated Altar from Corsto- 
PiTUM, Corbridge. Pre- 
sented by Messrs. Lawson 
& Tumbull, of Corbridge. 

l(OVl) O(PTIMO) m(AXIMO) 

(p)R'O 8ALVT[b] 

VEXIIiLATl[0- 

N]VM LEG(I0NI8) [xxii] 

[pr]imi[geniae] 

/ / / / / 

" To Jupiter, the best and 
greatest, for the welfare of 
Vexillations of the Twenty- 
Becond Legion, sumamed 
Primigenia." The occur- 
rence of something like 
the letters mi in the fifth 
line suggested to Professor 
Hiibner the idea that the 
legion in question was the 
twenty-second, which took 
the epithet of primigenia. 
An inscription, mentioning 
a vezillation of this legion, 
has been found at Plump- 
ton. — See Lap. Sep,, No. 
804, and G. L L., VII., 
846, for other inscription& of the Twenty-Second Legion. 




3 ft 6 in. by 1 ft. 6 in. 



158. — A small Altar from BoRCOVious. The inscription is very 
faint, and the reading of some parts of it very doubtftil : — 

J 



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74 CATAIX)GUK OP ROMAN INSCRIBED AND 8CULPTURBD STONES. 



COCIDIO 

GENIO PR(AE)- 

8JDI(I) YJlL I I I 

I I MILES LE- 

Q(iONIS) VI p. F. V(OTVM) P(08VIT) 

" To Cocidius, the genius of the garrison ; Val- 
erius a soldier of the Sixth Legion, 

the pious and faithful, has erected this altar in 
discharge of a vow." Cocidius is a local deity: 
his attributes seem to have resembled those of 
Mars. On the base of the altar are figured two 
dolphins.— LfljD. Sep., No. 188 ; C. I. L., VII., 
644. 




1 ft. 5 in. by 8 in. 



154. — A carved Stone, probably the base of an altar, representing 
a wild bull in the woods. From Habitancum, Risingham. Pre- 
sented by Mr. Shanks. The bull may have some reference to Mithraic 
worship. 

155. — Fragments of an elongated Slab from Habitancum, Rising- 
ham, the gift of Mr. Wm. Shanks. Professor Hiibner first saw that the 
fragments were pieces of one stone, and with his aid they were put into 
juxtaposition. The reading here given is his. Some of the missing 
portions, included within brackets, are supplied from contemporary 
documents : — " To the Emperor Caesar, of the deified Septimius 
Severus (styled) Pius, Arabicus, Adiabenicus, Parthicus - maximus, 
Britannicus-maximus, son ; of the deified Marcus Antom'nus (styled) 
Pius, Germanicus, Sarmaticus, grandson; of the deified Antoninus 
Pius, great grandson ; of the deified Hadrian, great-great grandson ; 
of the deified Trajan (styled) Parthicus, and of the deified Nerva, a 
descendant ; Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Pius, happy, the Augustus, 
(styled) Parthicus - maximus, Britannicus - maximus, Germanicus- 
maximus, possessed of the tribunicial power, imperator, consul, the 

extender of the Empire, proconsul, and to Julia 

Domna, styled Augusta, the mother of our Augustus, of the camp, 

of the senate, and so of our country the First Cohort 

of the VangioneS; also the Raetians armed with the spear, and the 



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CATALOGUE OF ROMAN INSCBIBBD AND SCULPTURED STONES. 75 

Scouts erected —Lap. Sep.^ No. «28 ; C. I. L., VII., 

No. 1002. 




H 

■< 



§ 



H 



s 

A 

-< 
r— I 

R 

s 












o 



M 
A 

O 

a § 



1^ 



2 K 






Is 






s 



r-» C S flu 






s 

o 

s s 






= £1 

g i! I 



m 

► 
00 

O 
flu 

r—i 

s 

P4 



flu 

H 

M 



m ^ 






• s 

« H 
-< O 



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76 CATALOGUB OF EOICAN INSCRIBBD AND SCULPTURED STONES. 




156.— The fignre of a Eoman Soldier, from 
BoKOOVious, Housesteads. The head and 
shoulders are knocked off. The lower part of 
the tunic consists of scales composed of horn or 
metal, sewed on to a basis of leather or quilted 
linen, and formed to imitate the scales of a fisL 

157.— A mutilated Figure of Neptune, in 
bas-relief, from the station of Prooolitia, the 
modern Carrawburgh. Presented by SirWalter 0. 
Trevelyan, Bart. The 



3 ft. 5 in. by 1 ft. 4 in. 



Romans were not a 
maritime people, and 

we find but few traces of their 

chief marine deity in the North 

of England. The Batavi, who 

garrisoned the Station where 

this figure was found, may 

have carved it in token of 

their thankfulness at being 

safely carried across the Ger- 
man Ocean. The Batavi oc- 





3 ft. 10 In. by 3 ft. 8 in. 



cupied that part of the country 
which lies to the south of the 
Rhine, near its confluence 
with the sea. — Lap. Sep.^ No. 
170. 

168. — From BoROOVicus, 
Housesteads. Three Female 
Figures, partially clothed, and 
standing. The Deae Matrea, 
like these, are usually repre- 
sented in triplets ; but they 
3ft.8in.by3ft.ioin. appear scatcd. Thesearepro- 

bably an inferior class of beings called Matronas, to whom the word 



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OATALOGUB OF ROMAN INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED STONES. 77 



deaeia not given. (See 
Lap. Sep., No. 234. 



Proceedings Sac. Ant., April 15th, 1869.) — 



159. — ^The lower part of a Statue of Hercules, from BoRCOVicus, 
Housesteads. The figure is muscular, and holds a club in the right 
hand. Traces of the lion's skin are seen hanging down on the left 
side. 

160.— The fragment 
of a Sculptured Lion, 
probably one of those 
represented by Horsley, 
N., CIV. A lion over- 
powering a man, or some 
animal, is a common 
Mithraic emblem repre- 
sentative of the extreme 
force of the rays of the 
sun when in Leo. It is 
fromCoRSTOPiTUM, Cor- 
bridge. A similar figure 
is built into the stable wall of the Parsonage at Corbridge. 

161. — A small Altar, bearing traces of an inscription ; but any 
attempt to read it must be in a high degree conjectural. The 
following may be some of the letters which appear upon it : — 

DEAE 

NEM / / / 

APOLLON 

IV8 

RV0TI8 

162. — ^A small Altar, 11 inches high. It has never had an in- 
scription. Uninscribed altars would probably be kept in stock by 
the dealers of such articles, ready to receive any inscription which a 
purchaser might wish. 




1 ft. 10 in. by 1 ft. 10 in. 



163.— A rude and diminutive Altar, 
tion, it is now quite illegible. 



If it has ever had an inscrip- 



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78 CATALOGUE OF ROMAN INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED STONES. 

164. — ^An uninschbed square-boilt Altar, 14 incheB high. It bears 
upon its face an ansated tablet. 

16r). — The lower portion of a small Altar. It is not known where 
^— ^ it was found. The second line of the inscription is 
indistinct : — 



VITR 11 



VITRIB- 
VS 8V 
S L M 



[Is *.£' Mi] "'^^ ^^® ancient (gods) in discharge of 



8 in. by 7 in. 




1 ft. 3 in. by 81 in. 




a vow."— Zap. Sep., No. 279. 

166. — A fragment of a small uninscribed Altar, 
having a zig-zag ornament on its base. 



167. — A small and much damaged Female 
Figure. It has probably been intended for 
Victory. 

168. — Fragment of a Figure found at Bre- 
MBNIUM, High Rochester.— Zap. Sep., No. 586. 

169. — The lower part of the figure of a 
Roman Soldier. He is dad in a tunic, and stands 
boldly. 

170. — Part of an Inscribed Stone, having 
on the right a banner upheld by the arm of a 
soldier. From Borcovicus. 



170a. — Three small fragments of Inscribed 
Stones, which, as they are, yield us no infor- 

1 ft. 61 in. by 1 ft. 1 in. matioU. 

171. — The upper part of a Slab, apparently monumental. On it 
is a carving of a crescent-like object, forming a canopy to something 
like a human head beneath it. 



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CATALOGUE OF ROMAN INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED STONES. 

172. — The upper portion of a 
Human Figure, set in a niche. From 
BoROOVicus, Housesteads. It is pro- 
bably part of a funereal monument, 
giving a representation of the de- 
ceased. 

178. — ^The upper part of the figure 
of a Roman Soldier in low relief, and a fi a in. bji ft lo in. 

much weathered. He rests upon 
his spear, and has his sword at his 
right side. It somewhat resembles 
a more per- 
fect figure 
given in 
Horsley, 
Narth,,LI. 
Probably 




3 ft 4 in. bfl ft 7 in. 

from BoRCOVicus, Housesteads. 




DEO 
MARTIQVIN 
PLDRIVSMA 
TERNVSPRAEI 
COmTVNC 

V S L IVl 



174. — From BoRCOVicus, Housesteads. 

DEO 

MARTI QVIN(TVS) 

FLORIVS MA- 

TERNVS PRABF(BCTVS) 

coh(ortis) I tvng(rorvm) 
v(otvm) s(olvit) l(ibens) m(erito) 

" To the god Mars, Quintus Florins Matemus, 

Prefect of the First Cohort of Tungrians, 

(dedicates this altar) in discharge of a vow 

willingly and deservedly made." But for the 

assistance of Horsley, who saw the altar when 

it was in a less weathered state than at present, 

the inscription would be nearly illegible. The 

focus is nnusually capacious, being 10 inches in diameter. The globe 

on the base of the altar will be noticed ; the equinoctial and solsticial 

lines are shown upon it. — Lap. Sep.y No. 180 ; G. I. X., VII., 651. 




?.. 



4 ft 2 in. by 1 ft. 8 in. 



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80 CATALOGUE OF ROMAN INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED STONES. 



175, 176, 177, 178, and 179, consist of Female Figures seated in 



chairs. Figures are 
here given of three 
of them. Each fig- 
ure forms a separate 
statue, though they 
have, no doubt, been 
arranged in groups 
of three. FromBoR- 
covicus. House- 
steads. Three of 
these, Horsley tells 
us, were found near 
the side of a brook 
(probably the Bjiag- 
bum) on the east of 
the Station. There 




can be little doubt 
that these figures 
were intended to re- 
present Deae Moires 
— deities extensively 
worshipped in the 
northern provinces 
of theBoman empire. 
It was not usual to 
give them personal 
names : they were just 
the "good mothers." 
The deities are for 
the most part re- 
presented as triple, 
seated, and having 



3 ft. 5 in. by 1 ft 5 in. 

baskets of 

fruit on their 

laps. The 

heads and 

hands of all 

the figures 

before us 

have been 

knocked off. 

AU the fig- 
ures are 

clothed in an 

under gar- 
ment, which 

falls in plaits 

to the feet; 

and an over robe, which, in most of them, 
after being gathered into a drooping fold upon the lap, &ll8 about 
half way down the legs. A band encircles the body of some of them, 
a little below the swell of the bosom. The peculiar arrangement of 





3 ft. by 1 ft 6 in. 



3 ft 1 in. by 1 ft. 5 in. 



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CATALOGUE OF ROMAN INSORIBKI) AND KCULPTUIlEl) STONES. 81 

the drapery in the third figure, which is characteristic of the Imperial 
period, led Horsley's correspondent, Mr. Ward, to suppose that the 
deity was tied to her chair to prevent her departure. There can be 
no doubt that such a practice was occasionally resorted to to prevent 
the gods, in a time of calamity, deserting a city. — Lap. Sep,, No. 
281, &c. 



180.— This Group of 
Objects is from BoRCO- 
vicus,Housesteads. The 
upper slab has appar- 
ently been used as a 
drain in one of the nar- 
row streets of this mili- 
tary city. Two of the «!, 
pedestals are pilae, which 



3A 9 in. by 3 ft 6 in. 

have been used in supporting the floor of a 
hypocaust. The third is a pilaster that has 
been used in a building of some pretensions. 

181. — An Altar to the Sun, under the 
character of Apollo. From Vindobala, Rut- 
chester, where it was found, together with 
three others of Mithraic character. Presented 
by Thomas James, Esq., Otterbum Castle. 

SOLI 

APOLLINI 

ANICETO 

/ / / / 

"To the Sun, Apollo the unconquered." — 
Lap. Sep., No. 64. 





SQLI 

apoElin; 

ANlfERO 




3 ft. 7 In. by 1ft. 6 In. 



182. — Part of a Funereal Tablet from Condercum, Benwell. 
d(iis) [manibvs] 
avre / ' / (?) 

///'/// K 



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CATALOGUE OF BOKAN INSCBIBED AMD SCULPTUESD STOMBS. 




2ft.bjlft6ln. 




2 ft. by 1 ft. 



Hordey thought he saw in the last line a refer- 
ence to the first Ala of Astorians, who were in 
garrison here. Msgor Mowat suggests the 

words — 

[ma] 
rcbll(a)b / / / 

ACCEPT[V8] 

to complete the reading. — Lap. Sep.y No. 80. 

183. — Part of a Funereal Slab, probably 
from CoNDEBOUM, Benwell. 

d(ii8) [manibvs] 

DEC / / / 
DIEB[V8] / / / 
ET BLAB[SV8 VIX] 

[i]t a(nnis) X e[t mensibvs] 

" To the Divine Shades. Dec .... who lived . . . 

days, and Blaesus who lived ten years, and " 

The stone seems to record the death of two persons, 
both of whom died early, one of them having breathed 
the air of Condeecum only for a few days. — Lap, 
Sep., No. 31. 



184. — This Monumental Stone was first noticed by Dr. Hunter, 
who published an account of it in the Philosophical Transactions. It 
was then lying against a hedge about a quarter of a mile from 
BoBCOYicus, Housesteads. Horsley saw it in this position ; but he 
declares there was not one letter visible upon it. It is nothing sur- 
prising, therefore, if no satisfactory reading can be given of it. The 
following letters are the result of a comparison of our own reading 
of it with that of Dr. Hiibner, who personally inspected the stone : — 



d(iis) m(anibvs) 
/ / / s / / / 
I u I I I I I 
[pro]ntoni svenocabi 
/ / kid febsi0ni8 
bomvlo alihahi 



8ikili dalli 
mansvetio senicionCis) 
pebvince qvabtion(is) 
hebes pboovbavit delf- 
inys eaytiokis ex g. 8. 



It is not possible to translate this. The last two lines, however, state 



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I 



CATALOGUE OF BOMAN INSCRIBED AND SCULFTUBED STONES. 88 

that the monament has been reared by *' the heir Delfinns, the son 




3 ft b7 2 ft 6 in. 

of Rautio from Upper Germany"— ex a(EBMANiA) b(vpbbiobe).— 
Lap. Sep., No. 197; C. I. L., VII., 693. 

185. — A Funereal Stone from Corbridge. 
IVLIA mat[bb]- 

NA AN(NOBVlf) VI IVL(IVB) 

MARCELLINV8 

FILIAE CABIRSIM(a)E 



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84 CATALOGUE OF ROMAN INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED STONES. 

" Julia Materna, nine years of age. Julius Marcellinus reared this 
to his very dear daughter." — Lap, Sep,, No. 640. 




2 ft by 1 ft. U in. 



.,SIC-VIX'AN 

'"" LV 



^Hf 



2 ft. 1 In. by 1ft. 7 in. 



186. — Part of a Monumental Stone, 
inscribed — 

ivl(ivs) victor 

8IQ(NIFER) VIX(IT) AN(NI8) 
QVINQVAGINTA QVINQVE 

" Julius Victor, the standard bearer, lived 
fifty-five years." From Habitancum, 
Risingham. Presented by Mr. Shanks. 
—Lap. Sep., No. 622. 



187. — ^A broken and defaced Altar, from, it is believed, BoRCO- 
VICUB, Housesteads. The greater part of the face of the capital on 
which the name of the deity to whom it was dedicated was inscribed, 



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CATALOGUE OF ROMAN INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED STONES. 85 



has scaled off. It may have been de- 
dicated to Mars, or to the Deae Matres, 
by some one whose name was Marcns 
Senec[io]nius ; bat all is uncertain. — 
Lap. Sep., No. 186. 

188. — ^A Tombstone from BoRCO- 
vicus, Housesteads. It is dedicated 
to the Divine Manes on behalf of 
Anicius Ingenuus, physician in ordi- 
nary to the First Cohort of the Tun- 
grians, who lived twenty-five years. 





5 ftlby 3 n. 6 in. 



2 ft. 11 in. bj 1 ft. 

d(iib) m(anibv8) 

ANICIO 

INQENVO 

MEDICO 

ord(inario) coh(ortis) 
pAimae tvngr(orvm) 
vix(it) an(nis) ixv 

The figure on the upper part of 

the slab appears to be a hare, the 

meaning of which it is difficult 

to ascertain. A rabbit was the 



badge of Spain. — Lap. Sep., No. 196. 



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86 CATALOGUE OF ROHAN INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED STONES. 

189. — A rudely formed Stone Mortar. 

190. — An npright Stone, with a slight scnipturing on its face. 

191. — A Centurial Stone from 
Seqbdunum, Wallsendv The letter- 
ing is obscure, and cannot be read 
with certainty. 

coh(ortib) / / / 
sbntii 
prisci 

" The century of Sentius Priscus of 

the Cohort (built this). — 

12 In. bj 9 in. J^P* Sep., No. 6. 

192. — Found at Pierse Bridge. 





2 ft 6 in. by 1 ft. 
BELLINV(8) 

In its fragmentary state we learn nothing from this Stone. — Lap, 
Sep., No. 726. 

193. — The Capital of a Column of the composite order, from 
BoRCOVicuB, Housesteads. 

194. — Part of a large but severely fractured Slab, from -ffisiCA, 
Great Chesters. Presented by Captain Coulson. The portion of the 
inscription remaining appears to be as follows : — 

[IMPP. caesarib]vs antonino e[t vero] 
[avqvstis par]thicis medicis I I I I 

I I I I raetorv[m] I I I I I I 

I I I I I I I I I 

This stone has probably been placed in a building dedicated to Marcus 



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CATALOGUE OF ROMAN iNS6»fBffi) AK» SCULPTURED STONES. 87 

Aurelius and his young colleague Lucius Verua, both of whom took 
the epithets of Parthicus and Medicos. The building had probably 




1 ft 9 in. by 1 ft. 7 in. 

been reared, or reconstructed, by some one holding a command in 
the First Cohort of Baetians. We have a trace of the Raetians in a 
slab found at Bisingham 
(see No. 155), on an altar 
built into Jedburgh Abbey, 
and on one found in Man- 
chester.— C. /. i., VII., 
781. 

195.— Part of a Fune- 
real Slab, which is sup- t. 
posed to have come from \ j 
Habitancum, Risingham. 
It seems to have contained 
the names of two persons, 
one of whom lived seven 

years (?), the other thirty. i ft. 5 in. by i ft. s m. 

The names of the individuals have perished. 




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88 CATALOGUE OP ROMAN INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED STONES. 

196.— Part of the shoulder of a large mailed Statue, from Blake- 
chesters, North Shields. Presented by George Rippon, Esq. 



197. — Another fragment 
of a Monumental Stone, be- 
lieved to have come from 
Habitancum, Bisingham. It 
seems to have been erected to 
the memory of a person named 
Heres, who lived thirty years. 

/ / I 1 ! I I 

VS HERES VIXI(t) 
AN(N)0S XXX 




'Lap. Sep,, No. 625. 



1 ft. 6 in. by 1 ft. 3 in. 



198.— A fragment of a Sculptured Stone. On one part of it is 
^ -p — . seen a bird picking at a piece of foliage. 

\ 



\m\iim 

1^ 



199.— Probably from BoRCOVicus, H(3U8e- 



illlll '1111111 



j^ "P >->. T steads. The Altar appears never to have been 

I J L< \^ ^ finished ; for the focus, though roughly formed, 

•^ has not been hollowed out. On the face of the 

^ capital is inscribed the word deo. The deity 

here referred to is probably Mithras. — Lap. 

Sep., No. 185. 

200. — A Funereal Monument from the 
grave-yard of -ffisiOA, Great Chesters, nearly a 
mile south of the station. The inscription has 
been variously given. On rudely carved stones 
it is often difficult to distinguish letters from 
chance strokes : — 

D(iis) m(anibvs) 

PBRVICAE FILIAE 

Major Mowat reads the word after d.m., salvias 
" To the Divine Shades of Salvia, the daughter 
of Pervica." On the line of the Roman Wall 
many cases occur of the dead having been buried without being 



am 



o 



iwfc^tf^'^a 



|«y» * ^T--^ 



r^^d 



4 ft. 5 in. bfl ft. 5 in. 



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CATALOGUE OF ROMAN DTSCRIBSD AKD 80ULPTXTBSD STOKES. 89 



subjected to the process of crema- 
tion. Jadging from the excellent 
preservation in which many of the 
funereal inscriptions are, the occa- 
sional rudeness of the sculptures, and 
from the circumstance that the backs 
of the stones are often entirely un- 
dressed, it would seem as if the 
tombstones (with their faces down- 
wards) had been used to cover the 
cist in which the body was placed, 
and that a heap of earth, or stones, 
was then thrown over the whole. In 
the slab the rudiments of the "chev- 
ron," and the " cable-pattern" of the 





4fk.7in.b73ft. 



5 A. bj 2 ft 2 in. 

Norman style of ornament, will be 
ol)served. — Lap. Sep., No. 281. 

201.— In the Guard-room of the 
Black 6ate. An elegantly-shaped Altar. 
It has had an inscription, which is 
now illegible. On Qoe side is a soldier 
holding a bow, on the other is a figure 
dragging something resembling an 
amphora. This altar formerly formed 
the base of the market cro^^s at Cor- 
bridge, the ancient CoRSTOPiTUM. The 

L 



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90 CAIALOOUB OF BOKAN INSCRIBED AND fiCULPTURED STONES. 



focus of it has been enlarged into a square hole to admit the shaft. 
— Xap. Sep., No. 689. 

202. — In the Guard-room. An uninscribed Altar from BoRCX)vi- 
cus, Housesteads. On one side of it is carved a patera, surrounded 




IfkbySA. 

by a wreath. The patera was a dish that was used in putting the 
offering on the altar. — Lap. Sep., No. 174. 

208. — A Roman Centnrial Stone, 
found on the Roman Wall as it passes 
over Walltown Crags, near their west- 
em extremity. Presented by the 
Greenhead Quarry Company, through 
Dr. Barkus. 

coh(ortib) V 

o(ENTVRU) rvu(i) vale(riani) 

" The century of Julius Valerianus of 
the Fifth Cohort." It is a little un- 
certain whether the contraction vale is intended for Yalens, Valen- 
tinus, or Valerianus. 




1 ft. li in. b7 81 in. 



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CATALOGUE OF ROMAN INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED STONES. 91 



204.— A fragment of a Funereal Stone from Habitancum, Rising- 
ham. Presented by Robert Blair, one of the Secretaries of the Society. 
The inscription is evidently a peculiar one ; and as so large a portion 
of it is wanting, the correct reading of it is necessarily a task of great 
difficulty. Professor Hiibner suggests the following ez|)ansion : — 

I I I I I I I 

I I I ! I DYL 

JCISSIMIS PAREN]tIBV8 8VI8 

[qvi ovm pee val]etvdinem bit 

[iHPEDITYS NATVRAE] OED(INE) FILIO 
NEPOS est] SyB8TITV(TV)S 

The meaning seems to be, that 
whereas some one, whose name 
has been broken off, intended to 
erect a monument " to his very 
dear parents, but who being 
hindered by weakness in the 
ordinary conrse of nature, a 
grandson being substituted for 
a son (did the work).** Here 
SVBSTITVB is written for svb- 

8T1TVTVB, just 88 RESTVTV8 is 

not unfrequently put for besti- 

TVTVS. Mr. Watkin has some 

remarks on this stone in the ift.4in.i)7ift.2iiL 

Archaeological Journal^ Vol. XXXV., p. 65. 




205. — On a shelf at the south end of the room are placed a 
number of heads which have probably been knocked off their respec- 
tive statues when the Roman forces withdrew from the Wall : — 

a. A Male Hea^l, bearded; the locality not known. 

b. The Head of a Female figure, probably a Dei 
Mater, found at Amboglanna, Birdoswald. The hew] 
was found about thirty years before the body, and w as 
brought away by the farmer who then occupied the 
farm. The body is still at Birdoswald. — L^/p, Sep,, 
No. 418. 




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CATALOGUE OF ROMAN IH8CRIBED AND SCULPTUBED STONES. 




e. The Head of a Male figure ; the hair short and 
curly. 

d The Head of a Female figure, 
from BoBOOYious, Housesteads ; pro- 
bably belonging to one of the Deae 
Mains already described. 



#. A mde Head of Hercules, 
from BoBOOYious, Housesteads. 

/. A rude Head of Pan. 





g. The Head of a Female, 
with the hair turned back ; pro- 
bably belonging to another of the 
Deae Malres from Bobooyious, Housesteads, where 
this was obtained. 

206. — Shelf at the north end of the room, on 
which are placed some miscellaneous objects : — 

0, (, c, d. Flue tiles, or fragments of them. These 
were used in carrying the hot air up the sides of rooms from the 
hypocaust beneath. 

e. A Draining Pipe. 

/. The Neck of an Amphora. 

g, A, «. Semi-circular Roofing Tiles. These were used for covering 
the flanges of the flat roofing tiles. 

kf I. Two Fir-cone Omameuts. These are usually found in Boman 
burying grounds. They are supposed to be 
emblematic of animal life — a life beyond the 
grave. 

m. A small Stone Mortar, or Crucible, 
with a spout. 




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CATALOGUE OF ROMAN INSCRIBBD AND 8CULPTURBD 8T0NB8. 98 

n. An Amphora Handle from Binchester, inscribed vr <{* Fi. 




IN TEE WALL OF THE STAIRCASE. 

207. — A cast, in Portland cement, of a Slab found in 1865 on the 
Antonine Wall (North Britain), near Castlehill. It was bought from 
a dealer in Glasgow by Professor McChesnej, at that time American 
Consul in Newcastle, before the Antiquaries of Scotland were aware of 
its existence, and by him sent to Chicago, U.S., where it perished in 
the great fire which took place shortly after its arrival. This copy of 
it, happily, was made by the Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle 
before the slab left Newcastle :— 

imp(eratori) o(aesari) t(ito) 
ael(io) hadr- 

lANO AN- 

TONINO AVG(VSTO) 

pio p(atri) p(atriab) vbx(illatio) 

LBG(IONIB) XX V(ALERIAB) V(I0TRICI8) fbo(it) 

p(er) [millia J p(asswm) ni 
** (In honour of) the Emperor, Caesar, Titus Aelius Hadrianus Anto- 
ninus, Augustus, Pius, the Father of his country ; a Yexillation of 
the Twentieth Legion, (styled) the Valerian and Victorious, reared 
three miles (of this Wall)." On each side of the inscription is a 
winged genius, having in. its hand a bunch of grapes ; and below it is 
a boar, the badge of the Twentieth Legion ; and a tree, the represen- 
tative, probably, of a forest— (7, /• L., VII., 1188, 

208. — ^A cast, in plaster of Paris, of a Roman Inscription built into 
a staircase in Jedburgh Abbey, Presented by the Marquis of Lothian. 
This has evidently been a Roman altar, which has been cut down by 



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94 CATALOGUK OF BOHA>' IN'SCKIBED AND SOULPTUBED 8T0XSS. 



the masons of the Abbey, and fitted for use as a common building 
stone. The inscription may be read : — 

ifOVl) O(PTJMO) M(aXIMO) VE[xi]- 

1.LATIO BBTO- 

RVM GAK8A(T0BVBr) 

q(vorvm) ♦ c(vram) ^a(qit) ♦ ivl(ivs) 
sevkr(rnvh) trib(vnvs) 

**ToJui)it'^r,thebe6t 
and greatest, the vex- 
illation of Raetian 
spearmen, under the 
command of Julius 
Se verinus the tribune 
(reared this altar)." 
The Oaesati were 
a body of soldiers 
armed with a pecu- 
liar spear named ^o^ 
iftsutbiiftiiin. ,j^^, Thisbodyof 

men are named in the slab No. 155 in this Museum. The name 
Julius Severinus has already occurred in an altar to Fortuna Bedux, 
found at Habitanoum, No. 103 in this Catalogue. 




Some general observations may not be out of place in reviewing 
the collection of antiquities described in this Catalogue. 

1. — ^The number of the sculptured and inscribed stones of the 
Roman era contained in this collection will strike most observers ; 
and besides this collection, ther6 are several others in the North of 
England of considerable extent, particularly those at Chesters, Carlisle, 
Netherby, and Maryport. The number of these lettered memorials of 
the great Empire is the more remarkable when we coilisider that, on 
the departure of the Romans, the barbarous tribes who took possession 
of the settlements of this great people on their departure made havoo 
of the monuments of their artistic skill, and that the work of destruc- 
tion which was then commenced, through the ignorance and supersti- 
tion of the people, has been continued ahnost to the present day. 



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CATALOGUE OF ROMAN INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED STONES. 95 

In the midland and southern conntics of England comparatively few 
Roman inscriptions are met with. The reason of this probably is, 
that though these districts were under Roman rule, the people were 
contented with their position, and did not require the presence of 
Roman armies to keep them in subjection. Their towns and cities 
were governed by native oflBcers, and they would consequently be but 
rarely visited by men having the culture of the superior citizens of 
Rome. The troops that for three centuries had their quarters in the 
North of England were commanded by officers from Rome, bringing 
with them the knowledge and refinement of the Eternal City. To 
this source, probably, is to be ascribed the comparative abundance of 
lettered memorials in the North of England. 

2. — It is well that these memorials are so numerous ; for, in con- 
sequence of the scantiness of the notices which, after the days of 
Tacitus, the Roman historians have left us of Britain, it is to them 
that we are chiefly indebted for the history of our country for more 
than three centuries. 

It is interesting, whilst looking upon the inscriptions in our 
museums, to notice that the letters used by the Romans — those im- 
portant mediums of the communication of thought — are precisely 
those which we, and all the English-speaking people throughout the 
world, employ at present, and that there are signs that ere long they 
will be generally adopted by all civilized nations, even by the Arabs, 
the Chinese, and the inhabitants of Japan ; indeed, they are ah:eady 
being partially used by these people. 

8. — ^The Romans were the means of conferring many blessings 
upon us. They brought the conflicting tribes of the greater part of 
Britain into unity, they taught us the art of government, they made 
us acquainted with letters, and there cannot be a doubt that thej 
brought with them the blessings of Christianity. As there were 
Christians in Nero's household (PkH. iv. 22), there would be many 
disciples of the persecuted Nazarene in Hadrian's army. *^ We are 
but of yesterday/' says Tertullian, ^* and have filled all places belong- 
ing to yon ; your cities, islands, castles, towns, connoilB ; your very 
eampSf wards, companies, the palace, senate, and forum— we have left 
yon only your tmnple$!* 

4. — ^The amount of religious feeling among the Romans is impres- 



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96 OATALOGUB OF B01£AR IRSCBIBSD AlTD BOULPTUttBD STONES. 

sively brought before ns in the altars they have left behind them. 
However corrupt and impnre the religion of the majority was, they 
carried it with them wherever they went, and boldly professed it. 
The four letters at the oondnsion of the dedication of their altars, 
V • 8 • L • M« convey a ledson to Christians. If, as heathens, they pre- 
sented their offerings willingly to the gods whom they worshipped, 
and whom they connted worthy of all honour, how much more 
willingly should we serve our Ood and Redeemer ? 

5. — The nature of their religion is set impressively before ns. 
They had '* gods many and lords many.'' Jupiter, Mars, Hercules, 
Neptune, Minerva, Mithras, Apollo, Mercury, and others, are invoked ; 
the Caesars themselves are worshipped ; as well as Victory and Fortune, 
and the Ancient gods, and the Unnamed or ^' Unknown" gods, to 
whom the dedicators were referred by the oracle of Apollo, the nymphs 
of the Springs, the gods of the Mountains, and the deities of the 
Shades below. We see also the tendency of polytheism to multiply 
itself. Besides the gods of the Roman mythology, we find many altars 
dedicated to deities of a local origin, such as Cocidius, Belatucader, 
Mogon, Coventina, and others. The soldiers of the yarious garrisons 
would necessarily contract alliances with the daughters of the soil, and 
would thus be induced to pay r^ard to the deities whom their loved 
ones held dear. The altars to these local deities are, for the most 
part, of late date. 

6.— At first sight we may be surprised that, amongst the lettered 
remains of the Roman age, there are no stony records of the faith of 
Christianity. Some reasons may, perhaps, be assigned for this ; but 
this is not the place for entering upon the discussion. Let us hope 
that the Christians of that early day, by their life and conversation, if 
not by records in stone, gave evidence of the reality of their faith. 
If so, they would be epistles ''known and read of all men" (2 Gw. 
iii. 2). 

7. — ^But there are some negative proofs of the influence of Christ- 
ianity in our collection. The worship of the om god Mithras shows 
that the folly of polytheism had been found out ; and the altars dedi- 
cated to the ''ancient gods" show that a system of beh'ef different 
from that in which the mass of the people had been educated (let ns 
hope that it was Christianity) was at the time prevalent. In other 



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CATALOGUE OF ROMAN INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED STONES. 97 

collections besides this there are examples of altars inscribed dibvs 

VETERIBVS. / 

In one of the guard chambers of Housesteads a part of an altar 
to Jupiter, with the letters I. o. M. carved upon it, had been used as 
a common building stone ; and in the Station of Caerleon an alt^r 
to the goddess Fortuna had been converted in Roman times into a 
common gutter-stone. These facts seem to lead to the conclusion 
that a change had come over the people. 

8. — There is one important lesson which Englishmen may learn 
from these monuments. So large an amount of blessing has been 
allowed to rest upon us as a nation for centuries past, that we are 
disposed to reckon that the present state of things is to be perpetual. 
When we visit foreign nations, our national pride is apt to assert itself. 
We think that we are to be always the rulers of the world. When we 
look at our lettered stones we find a different state of things from the 
present : we find that, in addition to native Bomans, Gauls, Spaniards, 
Batavians, Tungrians, Dacians, and other auxiliary troops were settled 
in our land to hold us in subjection. At the time when the figures 
of Victory— which our Museum oontains— were carved, Rome had its 
heel upon the neck of Britain. Wliat has been may yet be. It 
becomes us, therefore, to be humble, and to take heed to our ways, 
lest we be again visited with a season of rebuke and calamity. 



INDEX. 



I.— PLACES WHERE THE INSCRIPTIONS, Ac., IN THE FOREGOING 
CATALOGUE HAVE BEEN FOUND. 



Aebica (see Great Cbesters). 
Ambogla>tta (see Birdoswald). 
Beltiugham, No. 117. 
BenweU, Nos. 14, 15, 18, 23, 24, 32, 89, 

77, 136, 144, 182, 183. 
Bincbester, No. 206ji. 
Birdoswald, Nos. 6, 96, 205&. 
BoBCOTious (see Housesteads). 
BBBMBITIT7M (see High Rochester). 
Brougham Castle, No. 132. 
Brunton, No. 137. 



Burgh-on-Sands, No. 67. 

Caenroran, Nos. 17, 83, 36, ^, 62, 68, 

69, 76, 76, 83, 110, 130, 131, 141, 145. 
Carlisle, No. 101. 
Carrawburgh, No. 167. 
Ca8UeHm,N.B.,No.207. 
Chapel House, No. 109. 
Cbesterbolm, Nos. 61, 67, 117. 
Cbester.le-Street, Nos. 45,106, 128, 133, 

142, 143, 146. 
CovDBBCUM (see Benwell). 



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98 CATALOGUE OF ROMAN INSCEIBBD AND SCULPTimED STONES. 



Corbridge (Corchester), Nos. 60, 54, 85, 
147, 148, 149, 150, 151, 152, 152a, 160, 
201. 

CoHSTOprnm (see Corbridge). 

Cramlington, No. 98a. 

Great Chesten, Nos. 73, 79, 125, 126, 194, 
200. 

Habitakcum (see Risingham). 

Halton Chesters, Nos. 74, 187. 

Hatheridge, No. 87. 

Heaton, No. 16. 

High Rochester, Nos. 99, 112, 127, 168. 

Hoasesteads, Nos. 7, 8, 11, 19, 44, 48, 66, 
70, 71, 72, 81, 84, 88, 93, 97, 97a, 98, 
104, 121, 122, 123, 124, 134, 140, 153, 
156, 158, 159, 170, 172, 173, 174. 175, 
176, 177, 178, 179, 180, 184, 187, 188, 
193, 199, 202, 205rf, 205^ 205y. 

HuKNUM (see Halton Chesters). 

Jarrow, Nos. 1, 12. 

Jedburgh Abbey, No. 208. 



Maryport, No. 89. 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Nos. 2, 6, 9, 10, 

18, 16. 31, 107. 
North Shields, No. 196. 
Pierse Bridge, No. 192. 
Pons Aelii (see Newcastle). 
Pbocoutia (see Carrawburgh). 
RUingham, Nos. 21, 40, 47, 68, 80, 94, 

95, 102. 103, 111, 113, 114, 118, 119, 

120, 138, 139, 154, 155, 186, 195, 197, 

204. 
Rntchester, Nos. 25, 26, 46, 51, 86, 181. 
Sewingshields, Nos. 60, 65, 78. 
Shotton (Co. Durham), No. 141. 
Stanwix, Nos. 66, 87, 100. 
ViNDOBALA (see Rutchester). 
VrNDOLANA (see Chesterholm). 
Wallbottle, Nos. 28, 29. 38. 
Wallsend, Nos. 4, 42, 191. 
WaUtown Crags, No, 203. 
Wark-on-Tyne, No. 35. 



2.— STONES FROM UNKNOWN LOCALITIES. 



Nos. 3, 8, 20, 22, 27, 30, 34, 41, 43, 49, 
62, 53, 68, 69, 64, 82, 90, 91, 92, 105, 
108, 115, 116, 135, 161, 162, 163, 164, 



165, 166. 167, 169, 170a, 171, 189, 190, 
198, 205a, 205c, 205/, 206a-m. 



. 8. -DEITIES. 



ApoUo, Nos. 143, 161, 181. 

Belatucader, No. 132. 

Ceres, No. 2a 

Cocidins, No. 163. 

Deae Matres, Nos. 2, 77, 158, 176, 176, 

177, 178, 179, 187, 206b, 206(f, 205^. 
Dens Veteris, Nos. 116, 126, 141, 142, 

145, 165. 
Fortune, Nos. 10, 55, 102, 108, 118. 
Hercules, Nos. 86, 122, 159, 2050. 



Jupiter, Nos. 5, 21, 82, 44, 48, 89, 124, 

162a, 208. 
Mars, Nos. 27, 68, 68, 174^ 187. 
Mercury, Nos. 9, 60. 
Mithras, Nos. 4, 6, 70, 71, 72, 121, 14a 

199. 
Neptune, Nos. 18, 167. 
Pan, Nos. 88, 205/. 
Silvanus, Nos. 67, 107. 
Sun, Nos. 184, 181. 
riotory, Nos. 66, 86, 93, 100, 126. 



I 



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CATALOGUE OF BOHAN IKSOBIBED Aim SCULPTUBED 8T0HES. 



99 



4.-^LEGI0NS, COHORTS, &o. 



Legio II. Nos. 82, 78, 137, 148, 149, 
152. 
VX Nob. 18, 147, 148, 162. 
„ XX. No«. 15, 69, 109, 207. 
„ XXII. No. 152a. 
Cohors I. Nos. 87, 42. 
„ III. No. 140. 

V. Nos. 60, 66, 208. 
.. VII. No. 20. 
,. VIII. Nos. 39, 67. 
„ I. Aelia Dacoram, No. 96. 



Cohors L Batavornm, Na 86. 

„ I. Hamiomm, Nos. 76, 180. 

„ I. Baetora]n,Nos.l66,194,20a 

„ 1. Thzacmn, No. 81. 

„ I. ToDgroram, Nos. 44|, 122, 

128, 124, 174^ 18& 

„ I. VaQgioniim, Nos. 188, 166. 

„ I. Vardalomm, No* 99. 

„ II. Astnmm, No. 79. 

„ VI. NervionuD. 
Ala I. Hispanonun Astorom, No. 77. 



6.--CENTUBIAL STONES. 

Nos. 6, 14, 16, 16, 17, 20, 28, 24, 26, 28, 29, 80, 84, 87, 88, 42, 60> 62, 64^ 66, 
67, 82, 10^ 110, 191. 



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XIX.— ON SOME RECENTLY DISCOVERED INSCRIPTIONS 
OF THE ROMAN PERIOD. 



1.— By the Rev. J. C. Bruce, D.C.L., LL.D., F.S.A., &o. 



[Read on the 28th April, 1886.] 

I NOW proceed to ^ve an account of the Roman altars of which men- 
tion is made in the programme of this meeting. None of them are 
important; but our Society may congratulate itself that ac nearly 
ev^ry meeting we have a new Roman inscription to discuss, and that 
since our last meeting no less than four have to be added to the 
catalogue of our acquisitions. 

The most important of these is an altar discovered in the vicinity 

of the Roman Station of Chest^r-le- 
Street to which my attention was 
called l)y our fellow-member, Mr. 
Oswald, in whose possession it now 
is. It was found on a spot about 
.50 or (>0 yards to the west of the 
street which passes the Roman 
Station there, and about 800 yards 
to the north of it. At this point 
(and this is a thing of importance) 
a brook — the Chester Bum — 
iTins in its course to join the river 
Wear. 

The altar was found, with its 
face uppermost, buried about 6 feet 
deep in a mass of soil, chiefly of an 
alluvial character. 

The altar is a well formed one, 
and is perfect in all its parts. The letters of the inscription are 
formed by a series of puncturings, a mode of sculpturing which is 
not unfrequently adopted. Dr. Hiibner, to whom I sent a paper 




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IXSCRIPTIONS OF THE IIOMAIJ PBfilOD. 



285 



DEO MABTI 
CONDATI V[al] 
PROBINVS PRO 
SB BT 8VIS V.B.L.M 



impression of the inficription, thinks that it belongs to a period near 
the end of the second or the beginning of the third centnrj. The 
reading seems to be — 

" To the god Mars Condates, Valerius 
Probinus, for himself and his family, 
erects this altar, in discharge of a vow, 
willingly, to a most deserving object." 

The P, at the beginning of the third line, is scarcely visible ; but 
there is room for it, and Professor Hiibner says that probinvs is not an 
uncommon name. We may therefore adopt it. It is a pity that the 
dedicator docs not tell us what rank he held in the Roman army ; 
perhaps, however, he had none, in which case we can excuse him. 
The epithet condates here given to Mars, calls for remark. There 
is an altar found at Piercebridge (recorded in the Lapiclarium^ No. 
725, and in the C. I. Z., VII., 420) which has a similai* dedication. 
Dr. Hiibner informs me that Celtic scholars consider that the word 
condates is equivalent to the Latin confluens^ and that Mars Condates 
was a god who was worshipped at the confluence of two streams. The 
locality in which this altar was found seems to be confirmatory of 
this theory ; and I may mention that, on examining the Ordnance 
map of Yorkshire, I find that in the immediate vicinity of Pierce 
Bridge, where the altar was found, two streams, the Dyance Beck and 
the Summerhouse Beck, after uniting together, run into the Tees. 

The next two altars to which I have to call 
your attention have been derived from the 
mural Station of Magna, Caervoran. They 
are not of recent discovery, but having been 
built into the walls of the dwelling house 
there, have been inaccessible to antiquaries. 
Both of them are small, and do not supply us 
with anything new. 

On the face of one of them we have carved 
a female figure, sacrificing ; an altar stands by 
her side. The lower part of the stone has 
been broken off, leaving the inscription im- 
perfect. On the first line we have clearly carved the word matribvs — 
" To the Mothers." We have only the upper half of the last four lettere 

KK 




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286 



IN80BIFTI0K8 OF THE ROMAN PERIOD. 



of the second line, which makes the reading of it uncertain ; yet it is 
possible that the name of the dedicator may have been [iweJntivs, or 
something like it. Dedications to the "good mothers," the weird 
triplets to whom it was unlucky to give a name, are not uncommon 
on the line of the Wall. 

The other altar ii'om Caervoran is a smaller one, and 
such of the letters as are still decipherable are very feebly 
.traced. The inscription, as far as it can be made out, is — 

DIBVS VITB[RIBVS] 




v.s. 



L.M. 



** To the ancient gods dedicates this altar, in 

discharge of a vow, willingly, to a most deserving object." 

The name of the dedicator is, I fear, lost to us for ever. We have 
several dedications to the " ancient gods" similar to this, and also some 
altars inscribed deo vitiri. This latter dedication may be intended 
in honour of some local deity of the name of vitiris, but where a 
plurality of deities is named we cannot but regard the inscription as a 
dedication to "the ancient deities." We have here negative evidence 
of ideas antagonistic to the faith of the Greek and Eoman mythology 
having been widely promulgated in Britain at an early period. In 
the Reformation period we have frequent reference to the advocates of 
"the new learning" and "the old learning;" and so in still earlier 
times, when many people had found out that an idol was nothing, 
there were still some who stuck up for Jupiter and Juno, and Neptune 
and Minerva, and a host of other gods, whom in their ignorance they 
supposed to have swayed the universe before Him who is from ever- 
lasting to everlasting. 

The last altar to which I have this month to call your attention is 
one which was found at Corbridge, on removing the foundations of a 
cottage there. The inscription on it seems to be — 

I(OVI) O(PTIMO) M(AXIMO) 



(p)R0 8ALVT[b] 

vbxillati[0- 

n]vm lbq(ionis) [xxii] 

[pk]imi [gbniab] 

I I I I I I I 



"To Jupiter, the best and 
greatest, for the welfare of 
Vexillations of the Twenty- 
second Legion surnamed 
Primigenia." 



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IXSORTFnOXS OP THE ROMAN PERIOD. 287 

For this reading I am largely indebted to Professor Hiibner, who 
writes : — ^* This is an inscription of no small historical importance. 
We know already from an inscription at Fbrentikum, in Italy 
(Henzen^ 5456), that a ' vexillation/ that is to say a detached number 
of a thousand men, of the Twenty-Second Legion named Primigmiay 
took part in Hadrian's expedition carried out in order to build the 
Wall He ordered it for this war from its quarters in Germany at 
MoGONTiAOUM (Mentz), together with a similar number from its 
sister l^on, the Eighth Augiista, An inscription from Amiens, in 
France (in the Bevue Archiologiquey VoL XL., 1880, p. 826), and a 
fragment at Old Penrith (C. I. L., VIL 846) proved this to be right. 
To this evidence comes the new Corbridge altar as a dedsive addition." 
A woodcut of this stone is given at page 73 of this volume. 



2 —By the Rev. J. C. Bruce, D.C.L., LL.D., F.S.A., &c. 



[Read on the 28th July, 1886.] 

SmOB our last ordinary meeting my attention has been called to two 
new Roman inscriptions. Oar associate, Dr. Hooppell, writing to me 
under the date of 28th May last, says : — " A short time ago I paid a 
brief visit to West Cumberland, and was so fortunate, among other 
things, as to fall in with a hitherto unpublished fragment of a Roman 
inscription. It is on the lower half of an altar which was taken out 
of the inside of the wall of the church at Harrington, a few miles north 
of Moresby, last year, and is now in the Rectory grounds at Harring- 
ton."* Only the last two lines of the inscription are legible ; they 
are — 

I I I I I I "The Prefect of the Second 

I I i I praep Cohort of Lingones." 

COH II LING The name of the Prefect is illegible. 

At Moresby, which is a little to the north of Whitehaven, there 
are the well-defined remains of a Roman Station. Camden describes 

* Now (March, 1887) deposited with the .upper right hand comer of a 
altar in the Black Gkitc Museum. 



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2X8 



INSCRIPTIONS OF THE ROMAN PERIOD. 



an altar, now lost, which was found there, and which was erected by 
this same cohort, the Second Cohort of Lingones, to Silvanns. The 
Notitia places the Second Cohort of Lingones at Congavata. The 
occurrence of a second altar here by this cohort increases the proba- 
bility that Moresby is the Congavata of the Romans. At Ilkley, in 
Yorkshire, is an altar inscribed by this cohort. At Tynemouth an 
altar was found bearing the name of the Fourth Cohort of Lingones. 
(See Arch. Ael, Vol. X., p. 224.) 

The Lingones occupied that part of Oallia CeUica in which the 
rivers Seine and Mame take their rise. Their chief town was the 
modem Langres. 

It was the singular good fortune of the Pilgrim Band, who traversed 
the Wall from end to end a month ago, to view a fine altar which, 
after having been buried for probably fourteen centuries, had just 
been brought from its obscurity. 

A countryman named Boger Smith had 
noticed on the front of the bank on which 
the Station of Amboglanna stands, an an- 
gular stone slightly protruding above the 
surface. It occurred to him that the stone 
had an artificial appearance, and he at length 
resolved to examine it fully. Using his spade 
and pickaxe, he brought to light a tine altar, 
4 feet 2 inches high and 1 foot 9J inches 
broad. The inscription on it is deeply cut, 
and the letters are well formed, indicating an 
early date. The inscription is — 
I o M 
COH • I • ael da- 
OOR • • C • A IVL . 
MARCELLI- 
NVS LEG. n 
AVG. 

The inscription is easily read, with the exception of the three 
letters o • c • a in the middle of the third line ; they are evidently the 
initial letters of three words. Not having met with them before, I 
appealed to my friend, the learned and experienced epigraphist. Dr. 




mfmm 








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INSCRIPTIONS OF THE ROMAN PERIOD. 



289 



Hubiier of Berlin. In writing to me he says : — ** The c • c • A of the 
Birdoswald inscription is a great puzzle. I propose, but only as a 
guess, c(vivs) c(vRAM) a(git)." With this suggestion, and with the 
addition of miles before leg. ii., the inscription may be thus ex- 
panded : — 

" Jovi Optimo maximo CoJwrs L Aelia Dacorum cvjus curam agii 
Julius Marcellinus miles Legianis II. Augustae'' 

" To Jupiter the best and greatest, the First Cohort of Dacians, 
styled the Aehan, (erect this altar) under the care of Julius Marcel- 
linus, a soldier of the Second Legion styled the Imperial." 

I need not remark that many other inscriptions found at Birdos- 
wald bear testimony to the fact that a body of Dacians was in garri- 
son here during the period of the Roman occupation of Britain. 



3.— -On a Roman Inscription discovered at Cliburn. 

(/t)— By R. S. Ferguson. 

[Read on the 28th July, 1886.] 

" Lowther Street, Cariisle, July 28th, 1886. 
My dear Blair, 

I enclose the Cliburn rubbing, which is only just received, 

80 that I have had no time to look at it, but it seems to read — 



balnevm , / 
/ / vetero 



/ / 



XDLABSVM 



BLIS^ERCLLA 
AI.B / / ;' 



/ / 



Yours truly. 

Rich. S. Ferguson." 








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290 INSCRIPTIONS OP THE ROMAN PERIOD. 



(J)— By W. Thompson Watkin. 



[Read on the 80th March, 1887.] 

This inscription appears to be very erroneously engraved in the wood- 
cut at page 289. From a good photograph* of it I make the letters, 
divested of ligatures, to be : — 

BALNEVM 

/ / / VETERIOP 
NDLABSVM 
BILIS PETROPLA 
SEBVSII 

In the second line the i is formed by a prolongation of the upright of 
the R, and of the last letter (which is reversed and may be either p or 
r) only the upper loop remains. In the fourth line the first i is formed 
by the prolongation of the upright of the letter l, the t is ligulate with 
the R, the letter after c may be either p or r, and the s at the com- 
mencement of the last line has its upper portion somewhat erased, 
whilst a portion of a stroke on its left hand side (whether accidental 
or part of a ligulate letter) makes it resemble the head of an A. 

We cannot with certainty restore the whole of the inscription, nor 
shall I try to do so. Enough remains to show that the stone was 
erected on the restoration of a bath by the two alae^ the Ala Fetrtana, 
and the Ala Sehusiana. The letters at the beginning of the second line 
(purposely erased) can, I think, still faintly be traced as ana somewhat 
ligulate, and have no doubt been the termination of some such word as 
antoniniana. But it is singular to find such a word in this position. 
In the second line we have either veterior (the comparative of vetvs) 
or veteri, followed by a word like op(eri). In the third line we have 
part of (oo)ndlabsvm, a mis-spelling of which other instances occur in 
epigraphy. In the fourth line, I take bilis to be part of nobilis, the 
abbreviation for Nobilissima, applied to the Ala Petriana as a prefix, 
in the same manner as it is elsewhere styled Augusta, After petr, 
come either o. R. for Givium Romanorum, another well known title of 

* From a copy of this very photograph the woodcut was prepared by Utting, and 
in both the letters of the Ust line seem to be albvsii. 



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INSCRIPTIONS OF THE ROMAN PBRIOD. 291 

the Ala, or c. p. for Out Fraeest. If the latter, the two last letters 
will be the commencement of the name of the commander, possibly 
L(ncius) A(lfenius) Patemns, an oflScer whose name occurs in an 
inscription at the adjoining Station of Kirkby Thore, and in the last 
line we have part of the title of 'the Second Ala of the Gauls {Seine- 
sfana), which for a long time formed the garrison of Lancaster. The 
upper parts of one or two letters of a line beneath, are visible, but not 
so as to be intelligible. 

The Ala FetrtanawB,^ a most remarkable corps. It was the only 
one stationed in Britain which was decorated with the torques (bearing 
the epithet torquata). From Orelli, No. 516, we learn that it was Us 
t&rquata, a fact unique in the Soman world, unless recent discoveries, 
of which I am unaware, have shown that some other corps was so 
honoured. As the inscription came from (in all probability) Kirkby 
Thore, it follows that the ala must have been stationed there. That 
the garrison of this castrum was cavalry has been abundantly proved 
both by tombstones bearing the representations of horsemen upon 
them and the inscriptions from the Machell MSS. where (in two in- 
stances) a Decurio aloe is named. 

No fresh light seems to be thrown upon the question of the site of 
Pbtrianab by this discovery. My idea that it was at Hexham remains, 
so far, unaffected. The only other alternative seems to be that Dr. 
McOaul (Canadian Journal, Vol. xii. pp. 120-121) might possibly be 
correct when he assumes that the Ala Augusta (ob virtutem appellaia) 
of which BO many inscriptions occur at Old Carlisle, was the same as the 
Ala Augusta Fetriana, the title Petriana being dropped as unnecessary, 
through the corps having such distinguished prominence. In that 
case Old Carlisle would be Petrianae, and the allocation would harmo- 
nise with the sites of Aballava, Congavata, and Axeloduntjm, being 
respectively at Papcastle, Moresby, and Maryport, as I first pointed 
out in 1870. But at present we can say nothing on the particular 
question as to Pbtrianae. Its site must still remain in abeyance. 



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292 



INSCRIPTIONS OP THE ROMAN PERIOD. 



4.— By W. Thompson Watkin. 



[Bead on the 29th September, 1886.] 

At the commencement of last month (August), I had sent to me the 
photograph of a Roman altar, discovered on the 28th July, at Chester- 
le-Street. It bore the inscription— 

DEO 
VITI 

rid 

VIH 
NOVS 

For many years it was supposed that the dedi- 
cation Beo Vitiri, of which there are numerous 
examples, was to a god named Vitiris, and 
totally different from the dedications to the 
Deu8 Vetus (Deo Veteri)^ which are also 
frequent. But later discoveries prove that 
Vitiri is only a variation of Vete7% for we 
have also Fe/tri and Viteri^ whilst in the plural 
we have Dibus Veieribus^ Dibus Vitiribus, and 
Dibits Viteribm, There is one instance, also 
from Chester-le-Street, of Deabus Viteribus, 
but none to a siugle goddess. It is plain, therefore, that these dedi- 
cations ai'e, respectively, " to the ancient god," " to the ancient gods," 
and " to the ancient goddesses," which is more than ever confirmed 
by the application of the term to Mogon, in an inscription at Netherby, 
where we have Deo Mogonti Vitire, " To the ancient god Mogon." 

An interesting question now arises, at what period were these altars 
erected ? This one is the thirty-third recorded as found in Britain. 
Were they erected as a protest against Mithraism or Christianity ? 
One feature in them is singular. They were, with one or two excep- 
tions, erected by persons who had only one name, and i/iat a barbarous 
one, as in the example before us. It would appear that whilst the 
genuine, or naturalised, Boman citizen, willingly gave way to the 
current phase of religious opinion, amongst the auxiliary troops and 
native Britons there were a large number who sturdily resisted all 




'^ ' ifri i iT ' _': i H i f'tmik 



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INSCRIPTIONS OF THE ROMAN PERIOD. 29S 

innovations. At the same time, these facts, ie., the name of a bar- 
barian god and the barbarons names of the dedicators, may point to 
the hypothesis that the auxih'aries, etc., preferred their own native 
deities, rather than adopt those of the Roman Pantheon. 

In 1870, in Vol. XXVIII. of the ArchaeologicalJournal p. 129, 1 
expressed the opinion that west of Lanercost, the great Wall had been 
abandoned by the Romans, for a considerable time previous to their 
departure from Britain, basing that opinion upon the absence of 
necessary inscriptions to prove their presence upon the evidence of 
the Ravennate, and the state of the Wall in its western portion. 
Singularly enough, none of these altars to the ancient god, have been 
found on the western half of the Wall, an indication, as I think, that 
after the introduction of Christianity at least, there were no Roman 
troops there to erect them, and that the Stations named in the Notitia 
after Amboglanna, were, with the exception of Petriana, on the 
Cumberland coast, as I stated sixteen years since. 

None of these inscriptions have been found in Scotland, for much 
the same reason — i.e., the fact that after the insurrection in the reign 
of Commodus, the Scotch Wall was abandoned. North of the Wall of 
Hadrian, the only Station at which such inscriptions have occurred is 
Netherby. This place, evidently in the hands of the Romans till the 
last, I have a strong suspicion (which I have before published), is the 
TuNNOCELUM of the Notitia^ though at the time of the compilation of 
the Antonine Itinerary, it bore the name of Castra Exploratorvm, 
It would not, however, bear this name, after the Roman boundary 
was advanced to the Scotch Wall. The occurrence of a stone naming 
the Pedaiura of the British marines (or sailors) is very strong evidence. 
At the same time, I will not yet absolutely assert that Netherby was 
TuNNOCELUM, as wc may at any moment have the question solved by 
an inscription. 

Until the year 1880, none of these inscriptions to the ancient god 
had been found further south than Lanchester, but in that year one 
was found at York which I have embodied in my annual list. Caer- 
voran (Magna) would seem to have contained the greatest number of 
devotees of the old system, as no less than ten of these altars have 
been found there, including one erected by the standard bearer of the 
second cohort of the Dalmatians, which is the sole instance of a 
member of a cohort, or of any other military force, being the dedicator. 

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294 



INSCRIPTIONS OF THE ROMAN PERIOD. 



In the altar at present being described, the name of the dedicator 
is puzzling, though the lettering is plain. As it at present stands, 
DViHNO would seem to be the reading, followed by v • s for V(otum) 
S{olv%t). I am not satisfied with it, however, but the name is certainly 
a barbarous one. 

Another stone, in Corbridge Church, 
of which I have received an account 
from Mr. Blair, bears the following 
fragment of an inscription : — erit | 
OALAE I / AE / /. It is manifestly 
impossible to speak with any certainty 
as to this, witht he exception of the 
word ALAE. I opine, however, that 
in the two last lines we have part of the 

words [eq]q. Al^B [PBTRIANAE AVGVSTJAE. 

by 10 inches. 

A few words as to one of the inscriptions communicated to the 
July meeting of the Society. That from Moresby (preserved at Har- 
rington),* and inscribed— • /////// I / / / / PRAEF I OOH-ilLING 
which I included in my list for 1885, read to the Royal Archaeological 
Institute in March last (though not yet published), I then considered 
as further strongly confirming my opinion of 1870, that Moresby was 
the CoNGAVATA of the NotiHa, an opinion that has not yet, at least as 
far as my knowledge goes, been endorsed by any English or Continental 
archaeologist, though every day the allocation is becoming more 
manifest. 




The stone is 11^ inches 



6.— By E. C. Clark, LL.D., F.8.A., Professor of Civil Law 
IN THE University of Cambridge (Hon. Member). 



[Read on the 28rd February, 1887.] 



Bisingham, generally identified with the Roman Habitancum, was 
evidently an important outpost on the north of Hadrian's "Wall. 
Hence came the most important part of Sir Robert Cotton's collection 
of Roman sculptured stones, now at Trinity College, Cambridge ; and 

* Now in the Black Gate Museum. 



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INSCRIPTIONS OF THE ROMAN PERIOD. 295 

here was found, about thirty years ago, the subject of the present paper 
— a small piece of coarse earthenware, obviously Koman. It cannot 
boast much artistic beauty, but it is interesting as bearing one of the 
few Greek inscriptions in Roman England, and as testifying (if my 
interpretation be correct) to a form of sepulture of which we have but 
one or two other instances extant. The inscription is in bold and well 
formed characters, probably made by a stamp : — 
The words are enclosed in a 
frame^ showing that the legend 
is complete ; and there is a leaf- 
stop after the second word. 

My first impression, on being 
favoured with a "squeeze" by 
Mr. Blair, was that the word 
EYTYXI might possibly be short 
for EYTYXIA, and EIPHNAI a 
Doric dative, the whole signi- 
fying ** Happiness to Irene ! " The Doric form, however, appeared 
somewhat unlikely to occur under the circumstances ; and, when I saw 
the original, I considered the leaf-stop fatal to the idea of an abbreviation, 
as the space occupied by it would have been quite suflScient for an A. 
Coming, then, to interpret the strange last word by parallels in the 
Gorjrus Inscriptwnum Graecarum^ I find EYTYXI used for the impera- 
tive EYTYXEI, with a vocative, in places so widely separate as France, 
Sicily, Greece, and Palestine (0. /. 0., 6,794, 5,498, 9,299, 4,564). 
Generally the vocative follows, but in the first of these instances, and 
in one or two others, it precedes the word of benediction. The in- 
scriptions are all sepulchral, and in some of them the benediction, or 
valediction, is addressed to the dead under a second pet name, like the 
pathetic parentheses in some of our own obituary notices. Latinus 
Pyramus is bid farewell as Hyacynihius, Felicia Minna as Pentadis, 
and a Victorina as Nicam (C. I. (?., 6,794-5-6). In the last case the 
pet name is a translation, which may be the case here. I take EIPHNAI 
to be a vocative from the female name Irenais — a name actuaUy occur- 
ring in an Attic inscription. Her Latin name may have been Pacata, 
the letters pao (indicating Pacatus) being in fact in an inscrip- 
tion found at Elsdon, and probably taken from Risingham {Lap. 



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290 INSCRIPTIONS OF THB ROMAN PERIOD. 

Sep., No. 658 ; C. I. Z., VII., 995). " Irenais, mayst thou be 
happy!" is all that we are told. There is no decisive indication 
as to date. The leaf-stop does not, I believe, occur in England much 
before the third century of our era ; but beyond this neither the 
lettering nor the spelling gives any certain clue. 

The foftn of the fragment puzzled me a good deal. It is obviously 
no part of a vase or urn, but rather the small section of a sort of 
ridge, semicylindrical underneath.* In the British Museum, however, 
though I could see no sepulchral pottery with any portion Uke this, I 
found a drawing which gave me the key. This was the representation 
of a tomb discovered at York in 1768, and described by Dr. Burton 
iu Archaeologia, II., 177. Unfortunately, that tomb has disappeared ; 
but it is figured in Wellbeloved's Eburacum, pp. 104-5, with another, 
of more recent discovery, now in the Museum of the Yorkshire Philo- 
sophical Society. The latter was formed of two rows of roof tiles, in- 
clined to one another, so as to leave a drain-like space between them, 
and one tile at each end« Ridge-tiles were placed along the top, and 
also over the joinings of the side and end tiles. All bore the impress 
LEG. VI. VI. (lkgio sexta victrix). Siucc Mr. WeUbeloved's time 
two other tombs of the same kind, and also belonging to the Sixth 
Legion, have been discovered at York (see Handbook to the York 
Museum, p. 61 of 7th edition). 

The fragment from Risingham has evidently belonged to a similar 
tomb. It is a portion of one of the ridge-tiles, and it bears the name 
of the private person to whose sepulture it was dedicated, instead of 
that of a legion. What remains, if any, were found near it, it is I 
suppose impossible, after the lapse of thirty years, to discover. 

Tombs of this kind are apparently rare. Mr. Wellbeloved quotes 
the description, by Schopflin, of another, also legionary, discovered at 
Strasburg. Mr. Watkin (Roman Clieshire, p. 213) speaks of a number 
of such tombs being found at Chester in 1858. I do not remember 
noticing any tiles like this in the Grosvenor Museum. If they are to 
be found there, it would be worth while to compare a sketch of them 
and of the specimens in the York Museum, with the present fragment. 

* It seems to some to be a fragment of a large ftiartarium. 



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INSCRIPTIONS OP THE ROMAN PERIOD. 



297 



6.— -On a Roman Tombstone op the Christian Period recently 
Discovered at Mertola, in Portugal ; By Dr. Bruce. 



[Read on the 23rd February, 1887.] 



Mr. Thomas M. Warden has been kind enough to send me a rubbing 
of a Latin inscription which has been recently found in Portugal. As 
this inscription is of a Christian character, and is different from those 
with which we in the North of England are familiar, and as I have 
reason to beUeve, it has not been put upon record in any work on 
Roman mscriptions, I venture to bring it under the notice of thip 
Society. I'he stone was found at Mertola, a town which is situated 
upon the Quadiana, at about 40 miles irom its mouth. It is the 
MYRTiLis IVLIA of the Romaus, and here a great variety of the relics 
of bygone times have been found. 

The inscription has at 
its top a cross patee, and 
its sides are bounded by 
two architectural columns 
slightly ornamented. The 
first line of the inscription 
begins with the Christian 
monogram in its simplest 
form. It is just the Greek 
letter P (rho) with a hori- 
zontal stroke across it. The 
inscription is as follows: — 

p simplicivs 

prbs • famv- 

lvs dei vixit 

an • lviiii • 

reqvievit in 

pace dni d 

viii kal septem- 

BRES • ERA 
DLXXV • 

And may be thus expanded:— "p Simplicius presbyterus famulus 
Dei vixit annos quinquaginta novem ; requievit in pace Domini die 




L. 






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298 INSCRIPTIONS OF THE ROMAN PERIOD. 

octavo Ealendas Septembres era quinqoies centesima quintaque 
septnagesima ; " and thus translated : — '^ Simplicius an elder, a servant 
of God ; he lived fifty-nine years ; he rested in the peace of the Lord 
on the eighth day of the Kalends of September^ in the five hundred 
and seventy-fifth year of the aera." 

There is little to remark on the form of the inscription. "We have 
presbyterusy the Greek form of the word, instead of presbyter, the 
Latin. We have in the vtxit annos the form that we meet with so 
frequently in the inscriptions found upon the Roman Wall. The 
eighth day of the kalends of September answers to the 25th of August. 
There is some diflSoulty in explaining what is meant by the era at the 
close of the inscription. In the second volume of OreUi's Latin 
Inscriptions we are told that the Spanish aera corresponds with the 
88th year before the Christian era ; the year, therefore, on our tomb- 
stone is A.D. 637. What event occurred in the year b.o. 88 to induce 
the Spanish authorities to make it the starting point of their chrono- 
logical reckoning we do not as yet know. Professor Hiibner, in 
writing to me, says it is yet a great question with chronologists. 



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pt.ate :v 







Font 1 Ti Staunton Church 

Gloucestershire. 



LAv»»t, Lirite tturot 



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//•/ 



REMARKS ON THE ANCIENT BAPTISMAL FONT 

IN STAUNTON CHURCH, GLOUCESTERSHIRE. 

By The Rev. CANON SCARTH, MA. 

Re-printed from the Transactions of tlie Bristol and Oloucestershiit 
ArchoRological Society, Vol. V. 

The Stone Font in Staunton Church, which has been thought to 
be a Roman altar adapted to Christian uses, is of very rude and 
primitive form. 

It is almost a solid cube, being hewn out of a single block of 
stone and very slightly ornamented on the exterior. 

The height is 28 J inches 
The length 23 „ 
And breadth 22 „ 
and it is hollowed with a square basin, nearly 1 3 inches deep. 

The upper portion of the surface is divided into four bands, 
each about 2 inches broad, and the third of these is ornamented 
with circular pellets, which i*un round the faces. The lower 
portion has lines converging to a point, but which do not meet. 
The tooling is rude, and gi^es the impression of a very early 
date (see Plate IV.) 

Having carefully examined this Font, I am inclined to think 
it has no characteristics of a Roman altar, but is a very early 
Christian Baptismal Font. The cubical form is totally different 
from the ordinary form of a Roman altar, which is usually about 4fb. 
in height, and about 1 ft. 4 in. in width, and consists of a plain 
squared shaft, with base and capital, like a short stunted column. 
On the top is the Focus, usually with a round scroll on each side — 
forming the side ornaments of a projecting capital. 

On the Front Face is the dedicatory inscription, and often on 
the sides are cai'ved, in relief, the sacrificial instalments, and 
sometimes a figure of the victim. Many instances of this may be 



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2 Stauntjn Font 

seen in the engravings of the " Lapidariam Septentrionale," by Dr. 
Collingwood Brace, and in his work on the Roman Wall ; other 
instances may be given^ as the Roman altars found in BatL The 
form sometimes varies^ and takes a more elongated figure, but 
is never cubical. It is sometimes circular, but this form, as far as 
I am aware, has not been found in Britain. All these forms vary 
essentially from the cubical form of the Staunton font. 

The Norman Fonts are often cubical in shape. These are 
represented in Mr. Paley's work on Baptismal Fonts (London: 
John Van Voorst, 1844), which will help to shew that the plain 
cubical form of the Staunton Font is much more in keeping with 
the early Norman font than with the supposed Roman altar. 
Two may be particularly mentioned, one at Aston-le- Walls, North- 
ham ptonshire, another at Fincham, Norfolk. When the height 
is sufficient these cubical fonts stand on the floor, being raised 
upon a single step ; in other cases they are placed upon stone 
pillars, or on a single massive short column. 

There is every reason to believe that the Stone Font in Staunton 
Chuixjh is of very early date, and of very primitive workmanship. 
There is no reason why it may not be pre-Norman; and as it 
bears no distinctive Saxon characteristics it might even go back 
to a still earlier peiiod. 

Mr. Paley remarks that *' a rude block of stone hollowed out 
at the top, with scarcely a moulding or a particle of sculpture upon 
it, requires a practical eye to guess at its probable antiquity. For 
it is manifest that the date of the church in which it may be placed 
is the most unsafe and unconvincing evidence that can be followed 
in deciding that of the font. The sanctity rightly and reasonably 
attached to the consecrated instrument of a Holy Sacrament, 
caused the careful preservation of fonts unchanged by centuries 
of rebuilding and alteration. Thus we cannot doubt that a con- 
siderable number of fonts now exist in England wherein the 
Saxon infant received the waters of salvation from the hand of 
that ancient priest whose bones, for aught we know, may moulder 
under the pavement of a church re-constructed on its original 

^ See Aqase Solis, p. 48 and p. 52. 



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Staunton Font. 3 

foundations six centuries after his deatL'*^ I am not acquainted 
with the early Ecclesiastical History of Staunton Parish, and 
perhaps little is known of it ; the font, however, proves it of very 
early date.* 

Some few fonts in England lay claim to be British-Saxon, though 
if we may rely upon Mr. Paley's assertion that ** we know from 
Bede that stone fonts were not used in his time,"' we must not 
expect to find many of them. 

For this assertion, attributed to Bede^ he gives no reference, 
nor have I been able to find it in his writings.^ 

The font at Deerhurst, in Gloucestershire, has been supposed to 
be Saxon,' but some of the ornamentation leads us to believe it is 
of later date. 

The carious sculptures on the font in Kirkbum Church, near 
Driffield, Yorkshire^ have been thought to be Saxon, but this is 
very uncertain, as it may be also regarded as very early Norman. 
The frmt, also, in Winston Church, County of Durham, has been 
considered to be Saxon, and remains of undoubted Saxon date 
have been dug up in the churchward, but no tsertain date can be 
ascribed to this font. The font in Penmon Church, Anglesey, is 
also very ancient. Here we might expect to find very early fonts. 
The form is cubical, and tapers upward, having a panelled orna- 
ment somewhat of a classical character, but certainly not mediteval, 
and more probably of pre-Norman date.^ 

It will probably be most safe to regard the Staunton Font as of 
uncertain date, but certainly not later than early Norman times. 

^ See Illnstration of Bap. Fonts. Introduction pp. 9-10. 

> I am informed that Roman remaina have been found iu Staunton 
parish, which probably gave rise to the idea that the Church Font was 
Roman. 

» See Note, Paley's B. F., p. 10. 

^ In Bede's EcoL Hist. : C. xiv., speaking of Paulinus and his work 
among the Bemicians, Bede observes "for as yei Oratories, or Fonts, could 
not be made in the early infancy of the Church in those parts ; " but this 
does not shew that they were not general afterwards. 

^ See Journal of British Arclueol. Association, Vol. I., pp. 65 and 250. 

^ See Journal of British ArchffioL Association, Vol. VII., p. 38. 

' See Archseol. Journal, Vol. I., p. 122. 



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r.P.AWRErrxsUe.lith. 



GALLO-ROMAN VOTIVE ALTAR, 

AFTERWARDS USED AS A BAPTISMAL PONT 

IN THE Church or H alinqh en , Pas oe Calais, 

now preserved in the Museum at Boulogne 



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NOTES ON A GALLO-ROMAN ALTAR IN THE 
MUSEUM AT BOULOGNE. 



The annexed illustration has been prepared from a rubbing taken a 
few years since from an inscription on a Gallo-Roman Altar now in 
the Museum at Boulogne, but which for centuries had been used as 
a font in the church of Halinghen, Pas de Calais. The altar is 
formed from a cube of stone of about two feet, and upon one side the 
following inscription has been cut in well>formed letters: 

DI DEO lOVl 

vicvs 

DOLVCENS 

C V VITAUS 

PRISC. 

This stone with its inscription has been written upon by many 
French antiquaries, and also by our friend Mr. G. Roach Smith, F.S.A. 
In his Collectanea Antiqua* this gentleman has written an ingenious 
paper concerning it, in which he endeavours to show that the stone 
was an altar, or portion of an altar, erected to the Idsean Jupiter, and 
goes into a train of arguments to prove that it is so, and that 
throughout the Iliad Jupiter is alluded to in connection with Mount 
Ida as frequently as he is with Olympus. In this he is supported by 
many of the antiquaries in France, and to such an extent that the 
stone is now labelled "Autel de Jupiter Eideo.'* Another writer, 
M. Millin, is of opinion that the upper portion of the altar has been 
separated, and that the inscription is consequently incomplete. He 
reads the first two letters as et, believing that something had preceded 
the first line, and that this in reality is et deo iovi. The whole gist 
of these arguments depends on what the first letter really is, and I 

♦ Vol. i. p. 13—16. * 



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venture to think that it is a d, from the fact that 1 have recently taken 
a most careful rubbing from the stone itself; and from this the 
accompanying lithograph has been prepared. 

My friend Mr. H. C. Coote, F.S.A., to whom I sent a copy of the 
inscription, agrees in the opinion that di deo is the correct reading, 
and he considers the phrase to be one of more than ordinary interest. 
He observes that the re-duplication di deo, i. e, dio deo, is an in- 
tensitive. The same expression is applied to the unnamed goddess 
specially worshiped by the Fratres Arvales. Though unnamed, this 
goddess was of the highest rank, for the priests who conducted her 
worship were the most distinguished citizens of Rome, and the insti- 
tution was of extreme antiquity. She had a temple and grove in the 
neighbourhood of Rome, and in the interesting records of the pro- 
ceedings of this priesthood which have come down to us the goddess is 
invariably called dea dia. Mr. Coote's interpretation therefore would 
be, " To the great god Jupiter, the township called Dolucensis has 
erected this altar; Vitafis Prisons superintended the erection." 

Of the vieuH Dolucensis we know nothing from any other source. 
As a Roman settlement in Gaul the name was probably derived from 
the Grecian colonists ; Crete in mythology is known as the birth-place 
of Jupiter; it was sometimes called Doltche, Aeria, or Idaea. In the 
centre of the island was the lofty Mount Ida with which the name of 
this deity has been associated, and there was also a town of the 
same name in Macedonia. It may be thus connected with many 
examples in Roman epigraphy ; we find lovi . dolc . i.o.m dol . i.o.m.d. 
lovi oM DOLICHV, and other variations, but there does not appear in 
any published lists an inscription commencing £ideo iovt, or one that 
can be quoted with certainty as a distinct dedication to the Idasan 
Jupiter. 

Mr. Thomas Wright, F.SA., records the discovery in Britain of 
three altars dedicated to Jupiter Dolichenus. One found in the middle 
of the seventeenth century in the neighbourhood of Caerleon, at a 
place named St. Julian's, was read as follows : — 

lOVI. O.M. DOUCHV 
I. ON®. AEMILIANVS 
CALPVRNIVS 
RVFILIANVS ... EC 
AVGVSTORVM 
MONITV 



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7b fact page 3. 




ROMANO-BRITISH ALTAR, TRETIRE, HEREFORDSHIRE. 



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" To Jupiter the best and greatest, the Dolichene, ^milianus 
Calpurnius Rufilianus (dedicates this) by the Emperors' direction."* 

The others are published by Horsley, one from the neighbour- 
hood of Newcastle, in the midst of the coal district, where remains of 
ancient coal-mines have been found, the other at Risingham (Habi- 
tancum).t 

The altar at Haliughen has in more recent times been appropriated 
to Christian purposes and has been hollowed internally, and for cen- 
turies served as the baptismal font in the village church at Halinghen. 
In the upper part of each side a square notch may be seen. This was 
evidently for the purpose of attaching a wooden cover to the font. A 
drain was provided at the lower part of the cavity. 

The adaptation of a Roman altar to such a purpose is a matter of 
considerable interest, and I am here reminded of an illustration in our 
own country, which was brought under my notice nearly forty years 
ago while accompanying my friend Mr. A. White, F.S.A, on an 
excursion to South Wales. We observed in the small village church 
of Tretire, near Ross, a font of very early character, and noticed 
that upon the side of it there were indications of an inscription in 
Roman characters. We made a sketch of it at the time, but were 
unable to obtain any facts relating to its history. Our Secretary, 
Mr. John E. Price, F.S.A., has recently instituted inquiries respecting 
it, and been in frequent communication with the Rev. E. F. Owen, 
the present rector, who kindly gave every assistance, and at length 
succeeded in. finding the font among other relics which modern 
requirements had consigned to the vestry. It has thus been rescued 
from oblivion, and is, I am pleased to say, to find a permanent 
home in the museum at Hereford. The annexed illustration is from 
a photograph taken under the superintendence of Mr. Owen. It 

♦ Oar learned friend Mr. H. C. Coote, F.S.A., remarks that there mast be 
some error in the reading of this inscription. He observes that " the letters of 
the second line * lONO ' are to be read with the word preceding, making together 
Dolichniono (for Dolicheno). The fourth line is manifestly imperfect; whatever 
the missing word was, it must have expressed the condition of the dedicator, 
that he was a public servant or official of the Emperors (Augusti), whichever 
they were. The fifth line must have contained * ex * to agree with the word 
' monitu * following in the last line. The phrase * ex monitu * — a very frequent 
one — refers to the god who directed the dedication. Such words are never 
applied to the command of an earthly potentate.*' 

t See Celt, Roman, and Saxon, p. 259. 



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shows the form of the font, which has been in no way changed by 
the fracture across the pedestal; this was merely the result of accident. 
It measures twenty-nine inches high ; the circumference of the pedestal 
is thirty-one inches ; there is a deep hollow in the top to form the 
basin, which is sixteen inches outside measurement; inside it is nine 
inches and the width seven inches. The inscription, so far as we can 
ascertain from the rubbing which has been provided, reads — 

DEO TRIUU 
BSCCICVS DON 
AVIT ARAM. 

This may be rendered as an offering by Beccicus * to the " Grod of 
the Three Ways,'' but the letters at the end of the first and third 
lines are rather defaced, and the inscription may be so far incorrectly 
given. 

In Mr. Roach Smith's account of the inscriptions preserved in the 
museum at Mayence he mentions a dedication to the Bivii, Trivii, and 
Quadrivii by a Centurion of the twenty-second legion, and one to the 
Genius of the Devii. These were deities, he writes, which presided 
over the roads and streets, their altars being set up respectively where 
two, three, or four roads converged. The Genius of the Devii presided 
over the bye- ways, or such as swerved from the right line.f 

The discovery of this curious relic at Tretire was rather singular. 
The base, we are informed by the Rev. T. W. Webb, vicar of Hardwick, 
Hay, was found by his father in a dark comer of an empty space at the 
west end of the church of Michael Church, about a mile from Tretire ; 
the upper half it was ascertained had been removed to the cottage of 
I village doctress, who pounded herbs in it, and it was recovered upon 
nquiry, and the whole was removed to the vestry at Tretire. Where it 
actually came from is unknown ; it is said that at Gaen Copp, a camp 
about two miles distant, a stone with letters upon it was once dis- 
covered, but the informant was deranged in mind and nothing authentic 
can be learned. 

* Mr. Roach Smith, after seeiDg a photograph and nibbing, decides on 
reading the name as JBellicus, 
f Collectanea Antiqna, yol. ii. p. 124. 



Front, the EVENING Meetings of the London and Middlesex 

Abch^ological Society. , ^^^a^^^^ul, /^/^A6 Aicj'- //f. % 



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S\Wns ET CAMPESrWBVS- s^rvmI i 
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VOTVM: 501VIT LAETV5 LIBENS ^ 
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DISCOVERY OF ALTARS, COINS, ETC., NEAR THE 
SITE OF PROCOLITIA, ON THE LINE OF THE 
ROMAN WALL. 



By C. Roach Smith, F.S.A. 



The discovery of upwards of 400 lbs. of Roman coins 
in a well near Prbcolitia, on the great Roman Wall, is an 
event too remarkable to be passed over in silence by the 
Numismatic Society, although the particulars have been 
published by the Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne,* and recently by myself in the " Collectanea 
Antiqua," vol. vii., both of which works are in the library 
of the Society. 

The coins probably numbered upwards of 15,000, as 
many were stolen during the excavation of the well. Mr. 
Clayton, to whom we are indebted for the discovery and 
the preservation and publication of the miscellaneous 
contents, secured 13,487, which have been carefully 
examined and catalogued.^ 

The following list shows the various emperors and 
empresses represented in the hoard, and the number of 
coins of each. 

* Part I. vol. viii., New Series, ** Description of Roman 
Remains discovered near to Procolitia, a Station on the Wall of 
Hadrian/* by John Clayton, Esq. 

2 Dr. Brace and Mr. Robert Blair were associated with me 
at the Chesters in the examination. 



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DISCOVERY OF ALTARS, COINS, ETC. 

NUMERICAL VIEW OF THE COINS. 



EvPBBOft. 


Gold. 


SiLTBE. 


Fl«8T 

Bkus. 


Sboovd 
Bbass. 


TOTAL. 


Marc Antony 




8 






8 


Augustus 






2 


"i 


8 


M. AORIPPA .. 










1 


1 


TiBERros 








... 


1 


1 


Drusus 








... 


1 


1 


Germanicus .. 








... 


2 


2 


Claudius 








2 


18 


20 


Nero 






i 


... 


50 


52 


Galea 








6 


... 


6 


Otho 






1 


... 


... 


1 


Vespasian 
Titus 






i\ 


65 


476 


550» 


Julia Titi .. 










1 


1 


DOMITIAN 






s 


189 


838 


486 


Nerva 






1 


48 


88 


82 


Trajan 






18 


980 


779 


1,772 


Hadrian 






8 


1,404 


918 


2,880 


Sarina 






1 


58 


41 


101 


L. Aelius 






• . . 


16 


14 


80 


Antoninus Plus ... 




12 


910 


891) 
827 


2,141 


Do. Britannia type 




... 


... 


Faustina I 




6 


275 


407 


688 


M. AURELIUS.. 






8 


845 


814 


667 


Faustina II. .. 






12 


259 


895 


666 


-X. Verus 






1 


56 


24 


81 


LUCILLA 






2 


74 


18 


89 


COMMODUS 






5 


189 


18 


207 


Crispin a 






1 


86 


2 


89 


DiDIUS JULIANUS ... 




. . . 


1 




1 


DiDiA Clara 




1 






1 


Clodius Albinus ... 




2 


. . . 




2 


Sept. Severus 




22 


20 




42 


Julia Domna 


i 


17 


4 


... 


22 


Carried forw 


Md... 


10,087 



' Owing to the corroded state of most of the pieces, and the 
resemblance between the coins of Vespnsian and Titus, it has 
not been found practicable to give them separately. 



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DISCOVERY OF ALTARS, COINS, ETC. 3 

NUMERICAL VIEW OF THE COINS.— Continubd. 



Empxbob. 


SiLVBB. II 


1B8T 

ftA88. 


Sboovd 

BbA88. 


B&AOB. 


TOTAL. 


Brought forward . . . 










10,087 


Cabaoalla 


10 


8 






18 


Plautilla 


2 


, . 






2 


Geta 


1 


, . 






1 


Elaoabalus 


3 








8 


Julia Paula 


1 


,, 






1 


Aquilia Seveba ... 


1 








1 


Julia Soabmias ... 


1 








1 


Julia Maesa 


2 


, . 






2 


Sev. Alexander ... 


4 






"2 


10 


Julia Mamaea 


6 








8 


Maximinus I. 








... 


1 


Maximus 










1 


Gobdianus Pius ... 


"2 








4 


Philippus I 


2 


2 






i 


Philippus II. 


1 








2 


Etbuscilla 


1 








1 


Tbebonianus Gallub 


1 








1 


Valebian 


2 






"i 


8 


Gallienus 


3 






80 


83 


Salonina 


2 






2 


4 


Claudius Gothious 








72 


72 


QUINTILLUS 








8 


8 


Aubelian 






... 


10 


10 


PosTuanjs 








29 


86 


ViOTOBINUS 








71 


71 


Mabius 








1 


1 


TheTETRioi 








81 


81 


Tacitus 








15 


15 


Pbobus 








19 


19 


Cabinus 








1 


1 


Diocletian 






18 


... 


18 


Maximian 






89 


7 


46 


Cabausius .. \.. 






. . • 


25 


25 


Allectus 






... 


16 


16 


CONSTANTIUS 






16 


12 


27 


Helena 

Carried forward... 




• • 


... 


11 


11 


10,6ft9 



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DISOOVBRY OF AXTARS, C50IN8, ETC. 



NUMERICAL VIEW OF THE COINS.— Continxjbd. 



EiiFBaoa. 


SiLVSE. 


FnuT 
Brass. 


SlOOMD 

Brass. 


Taxmo 

BSASS. 


TOTAL. 


Brought forward... 

Theodora 

Severus II 

Maximinus II. 

Maxentius 

Lioinius 

Constantine I. 

Fausta 

Crispus 

Constantine II. ... 

CoNSTANS 

Maonentius 

Decentius 

CONSTANTIUS II. ... 

Constantine Family* 

Urbs Roma 

Constantinopolis ... 

Valentinian 

Valens 

Gratian 

Small Brass, illegible 
Illegible— chiefly 1st 
and2ndBrass,about 
Greek of Neapolis, 
3uch worn 

Total 


... 


... 


2 
2 
2 

1 
8 


"i 

"i 

14 

197 

8 

21 

66 

25 

80 

8 

12 

i 


10,689 

1 

2 

9 

2 

15 

200 

8 

21 

66 

25 

80 

8 

12 

230 

67 

62 

1 

6 

16 

27 

2,000 
1 


18,487 



To the exclusive numismatist they are disappointing, 
for in no one instance do they present us with a new 
tjrpe ; and those with scarce reverses are generally so worn 
by long circulation as to be barely recognisable ; a few 

^ In coosequence of the corroded state of most of these coins 
it has beou found impracticable to assign many to the proper 
individuals. 



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DISCOVERY OF ALTARS, COINS, ETC. 5 

only are in what may be called good preservation. The 
large number of the " Britannia " type, in second brass, 
of Antoninus Pius, not fewer than 327, shows that this 
record of triumph of the Roman arms must have been 
minted copiously, and probably sent exclusively to the 
troops in the north of Britain. I closely examined about 
a dozen, and found that no two of the reverses were from 
the same die. Mr. Blair has continued the examination 
to about one hundred, with the same result. 

The numerical preponderance of the coins extends from 
Vespasian to Commodus in large and middle brass, and of 
these the most numerous are of Hadrian and Antoninus 
Pius, there being 2,330 of the former, and 2,141 of the 
latter. There are also 2,000 which may be mostly re- 
ferred to this period utterly defaced and illegible from 
long circulation. Nearly the entire imperial series is 
represented from Marc Antony to Gratian, of the latter 
of whom there are fifteen. 

The well, as it is called, in which these coins were dis- 
covered, is a small square-walled cistern or fountain, 
adapted for the entrance and exit of running water from 
a stream which flows down a valley adjoining the station 
Procolitia into the Tyne. This reservoir occupied the 
centre of what was unquestionably a temple, dedicated to 
a water deity called Coven tina, or Conventina. This we 
infer as a matter of certainty from several inscriptions on 
altars, and on votive fictile ware, concealed in the well, 
with the coins, a few personal ornaments, and other small 
objects. On a votive tablet dedicated by a Prefect of the 
First Cohort of the Batavi, the goddess is represented in 
a reclining position, her left arm on an urn, from which 
flows water, and a branch in her left hand. I see that 
Mr, Clayton describes her floating on a gigantic leaf of the 



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b DISCOVERY OF ALTARS, COINS, ETC. 

water-lily, but the engraving suggests the traditionary 
urn. All of the insoriptions are highly interesting as 
revealing the particular military bodies stationed at some 
special periods in the adjoining castrum. Altogether the 
altars amount to twenty-four, including one dedicated to 
Minerva. 

The fact that these altars must have been placed in the 
well for concealment, and not from any feeling of devotion 
towards the goddess, is important evidence in considering 
the motive of those who placed them and the coins where 
they have reposed so long without being discovered. The 
seventeen altars carefully buried with their faces down- 
wards at Maryport, on the site of another station on the 
Great Wall,'^ indicate an object precisely similar to that 
which suggested the obscurity of the well, at some moment 
of danger, for the hallowed offerings intended for the open 
daylight as visible memorials of devotion. 

In the vicissitudes of the great northern barrier there 
are several periods of adversity to which such concealment 
coidd be referred ; but here, at Procolitia, the coins seem 
decisive evidence of the exact time of deposit ; and they 
point either to the reign of Gratian or not long subse- 
quent, the latest of the hoard being of that emperor. 

I believe that at that period the entire mass constituted 
part of the contents of the military chest of the adjoining 
garrison, which, from the weight (full 4 cwt.), could not 
be conveniently removed in some sudden retreat occa- 
sioned by an invasion of the northern barbarians. If this 
view be allowed, and I see no alternative, we gain an 
insight into the character of the current coinage in the 
north of Britain at this late period of imperial rule. The 



" Lapidarium Septontrionalc," pp. 129 to 438. 



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DISCOVERY OF ALTARS, COINS, ETC. 7 

great proportion of the large and middle Brass coins shows 
very long circulation ; and, indeed, nearly the whole bear 
the unmistakable impress of wear and traffic. 

Such is not the usual state of coins deposited in streams, 
rivers, and fountains as votive offerings, which these have 
been by some supposed to be, I think from not having 
considered the full evidence. In the numerous recorded 
instances of deposits of coins as votive offerings there is 
nothing at all analogous to this at Procolitia. Supposing 
the garrison and the surrounding population to have been 
from two to three thousand, we can conceive no stretch of 
exuberant piety equal to such a sacrifice of material and 
present good for an imaginary and future blessing. In 
the important establishment at the source of the Seine 
the coins amounted only to 850, carefully enclosed in an 
urn, and all in the highest state of preservation ; ^ and 
this is usually the condition of coins selected for votive 
offerings. 

* See ** Collectanea Antiqua," vol. vii. p. 68. 



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X.— NEWLY DISCOVERED ROMAN INSCRIPTIONS. 



1.— On an Altar to Fortuna Gonservatrix, from 

ClLTTBNUM, BY JOHN ClAYTON, F.S.A., V.P. 



[Read on the 29th October, 1884.] 



The Roman buildings recently discovered between the eastern rampart 
of the station of Cilurnum and the river North Tyne have been already 
partially excavated, and the farther excavation is in progress ; but the 
buildings are found to be more extensive and more important than 
was expected, and it is probable that the excavation taay not be com- 
pleted till the spring of next year, when a full description of the 
structures by an abler hand than mine, with an accurate plan of the 
whole, will be laid before the Society. In the meantime, detached 
objects will necessarily be met with, 
which ought at once to be brought 
before the Society. One of such 
objects^ being an altar inscribed to 
the goddess Fortune, of which a 
woodcut from a drawing from the 
pencil of Mr. Blair, our colleague, 
and one of our secretaries, is 
here annexed. The figure of the 
goddess is sculptured on the face 
of the altar. In one hand she 
holds a cornucopia, in the other a 
wheel — both of them appeudages 
of the goddess, and generally found 
upon her statues. The following 
is an expanded reading of the in- 
scription : — 

D[b]ae 

Fort[vnae] Co- 

nservatr- 

ici • Venenv- 

8 Gbrm[anvs] 

L[ibenter] M[brito]. ^ 




L^QERLN 



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118 



KBWLT DiaCOVEBKD BOltAN INSCRIPTIONS. 



The ravages of time, on the features and dress of the goddess, are 
apparent, but every letter is legible. The use of tied letters in this 
inscription indicates that its date was not earlier than the reign of 

Antoninus Pius, when the 
use of ligatures, or tied 
letters, was first introdnoed. 
Boman altars to Fortune 
are very frequently foond, 
but the application to her 
of the epithet Conservatrix 
is almost unique. Only 
two more examples are in 
existence in Britain, one* 
was found in the year 1 740 
(andremains)atNetherby, 
in Cumberland, the seat 
of Sir Frederick XJlric 
Graham, Bart., and we 
will now endeavour to 
trace the history of the 
third. In Orellins a 
similar altar is described 
as having been found at 
Bath ; but in the seventh 
volume of the Corpus In- 
scrip. Lalin., No. 211, we 
are informed that the men- 
tion by Orellius, of Bath 
as the place where this 
altar was found, is a mis- 
take^ and that, in fact, it 
was found at or near Man- 
chester, and was either 
lost or concealed. Mr. W. 




Thompson Watkin of Liverpool, in going systematically through (on 
the 80th of May, 1884) the collection of Roman inscriptions and 
sculptures preserved in the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford, came upon 

• See Woodcut above. 



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NEWLY DISOOYERBD ROMAN INSCRIPTIONS. 119 

this identical altar. It seems that in 1875 it was presented to the 
museum by the Rev. J. W. Burgon, M.A., now Dean of Chichester, 
and from him we learn that it was purchased early in this century at 
a sale, by his father, a distinguished official in the British Museum, 
who gave it to a relation of the name of Johnson resident at Cheshunt 
in Hertfordshire, at whose death it came to his nephew, the £ev. J. 
W. Burgon. Horsley, in his Britannia Romana,* describes this Altar, 
and gives us the inscription as follows : — 

FORTVNAB 

CoNSBRVA- (v and a hgulate) 

TRIOI 

L.Sbneoia- 
Nivst Mar- 
Tivs D Leg 
VI Vict. 

Though he refers us to Camden's Britannia as his authority, we 
can find there no mention of the altar; but we find it described in 
one of Bishop Gibson's interpolations in his translation of Camden,| 
in which he speaks of it in the following terms : — " Another inscrip- 
tion was dug up at the same plaoe,§ by the Biver Medlock, in the 
year 1616. The stone is three quarters long, fifteen inches broad, 
and eleven thick, and is preserved entire in the garden at Hulme, the 
seat of the Blands, lords of the town of Manchester, by marriage with 
the heiress of the Moseleys. It seems to be an altar dedicated to 
Fortune by L. Senedanust Martins, the third governor or commander 
of the Sixth Legion." The dedicator of the Cilurnum altar, like the 
dedicators of the two altars found last year at Borcovicus, is a German 
serving in the Roman army ; but the particular branch of the service 
to which he belonged is not stated, as is done in the case of the dedi- 
cators of the two altars at Borcovicus. 

• P. 801 and plate N. 61 (Laneankire I). 

t By the copirtesy pf ^r. Aithar J. Evans, the curator of the Ashmolean 
Museum, we are able to state that Horsley's readinfi^ of the name of the dedicator 
of the altar— SEN £CI AN lYS — is correct, and that Bishop Gibson is wrong. 

t Page 966. 

§ Alparc or Aldport 



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120 



NEWLY DISCOVERED ROMAN INSCRIPTIONS. 



2. — On a Roman Altar from Btker, by J. Collinowood 
Bruce, LL.D., D.C.L., V.P. 



[Bead on the 26th November, 1884.] 



In making the cutting for a road at the east end of Byker Bridge, a 
Boman altar was found about three weeks ago. As the inscription on 
it is nearly effaced, its value consists simply in its indicating the course 
of the Wall in its passage to the station of Pons j^lii, 

The altar is a small one, but it is well formed. It is 1 foot 
10 inches high and 11 inches broad. It has the usual capital and 
projecting base. The capital is ornamented by two Unes of the cable 
pattern moulding. On its top is the focus, as usual, on which the 
offering was burnt, and on each side of it are indications of the volutes 
which are supposed to symbolize the faggots used in burning the sacri- 
fice. At some late period a hole has been bored through the upper 
angle of the stone at its right hand side. 

Unfortunately, owing to the altar having been made use of as a 
sharpening stone, the greater part of the inscription, which it once no 

doubt bore, has been worn off. Usually 
inscriptions on Boman altars begin with 
the name of the gods to whom they are 
dedicated, put in the dative case. Here 
the inscription begins with the name 
of a man, probably the dedicator, in the 
nominative case. The inscription has 
consisted of seven lines. The first and 
second lines are complete, they are : — 

IVL • MAX 
IMVS • SAO 
D . I , . . 
Q • . • • 
PB . . . . 
OV • . . . 

Of the other lines we have only the initial letter or letters ; they 
seem to be (3rd line) D.I, (4th) or Q, (5th) P E. Any attempt to 
draw any meaning out of this inscription beyond the name of the 




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NEWLY DISCOVERED BOMAX INSCRIPTIONS. 121 

dedicator, if such it be, can only be guess work. Yet I will ven- 
ture upon an expansion of the third line, in the full expectation 
that it will be objected to by more able epigraphists than myself. I 
would venture to read : — lYldus MAXIMVS SKCerdos T^ei Intncti 
Mithrce, " Julius Maximus, priest of the unconquered god Mithras." 
Mithras, the Persian sun god, was extensively worshipped along the 
line of the Roman Wall. As the sun is the chief agent in the hands 
of the living God in promoting light and warmth and growth, it was 
natural that those who could not or would not rise up to the conception 
and worship of the first Great Cause, should be satisfied with the 
adoration of this work of His hands. 



8. — On Centurul Stones near Gilsland, by Dr. Bruce. 



[Bead on the 28th January, 1885.] 

The Rev. A. Wright, Vicar of Over-Denton, has recently called my 
attention to three unrecorded centurial stones found in the neighbour- 
hood of Gilsland. Two of these I have examined along with him ; 
the third has been discovered since I was last in the west. 

In the garden wall at Willowford farm house, close to the front 
door, is a stone which bears the inscription — 

coccei 

REGVLr 

" The Century of (>occeiu8 Eegulus." 

A stone, which is now in the possession of Mr. John Armstrong, 

of the Crooks, and was found by him in a field-wall between Gap and 

Chapel House a few years ago, bears the S^jag^^^^^^p^^'^ ■ T- "A 

following inscription : — WKr S^a^i ^*>j ^/ « ' 1 

coH VI llf'"\ /TA.l f fTT^iwJ 

► CALEDO 
Nil SECVND 

Some of the letters are very obscure. The last two letters of the 
second line and the last three of the third are in ligature. After 
considerable trouble, Mr. Wright and I came to the conclusion that 
the reading of it was probably as follows : — (Johorlis sextae, cmturia 
Caledmii Secundi, "The century of Caledonius Secundus (or 
Secundinus) of the sixth Cohort." 



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122 



NEWLY DISCOVERED ROMAN INSCRIPTIONS. 



The third skone* was found at Newhall, which, is to the north-west 
of Wallend. The inscription seems to read : — 

COH II 
LAETIN 

"The century of Laetinus (or Laetianus) of the second Cohort.** The 
only letter about which there seems to be any doubt is the last letter 
of the laat line, it may be an n, or we may have Li. 

The stone has seemingly been cut down for building purposes since 
being taken out of the Roman Wall. 



4. — On two UNPUBLISHED ROMAN INSCRIPTIONS, BY Dr. BrUOE ; 
IN A LETTER TO ROBERT BlAIR, SECRETARY. 



[Read on the 29th April, 1885.] • 



I HAVE had an opportunity of examining the centurial stone which 
you informed me had been discovered at Hexham lately, and is now in 
the possession of Mr. Gibson. It seems that it was taken out of the 
wall of a house which had been built in the seventeenth century — say 
about 1640. 

The stone bears all the characteristics of a Roman walling stone. 
It is sixteen inches long, tapering, as is usual, from its outer to its 
inner extremity. Its fece is 1 foot in width, and 8i inches in height, 
and is, as almost universally is the case, cut across the lines of strati- 
fication. The inscription is as yon 
represented it to be, thus :— 

CH VIIII> MA 
RCI CoMA 

The only point on which there can 
be any doubt is, as you are aware, the 
last two letters of the second line. You 
were disposed to regard them as two m's in ligature. I saw the inscrip- 
tion in a particularly good b'ght, ^d I thought I saw in the last 
character a horizontal stroke, giving it the appearance of ma in ligature. 
I may mention that the letters have been formed by a series of punctu- 
rings, a mode which we have frequently noticed. 

* This and the stone from VVillowford farm-hoase are now in the possession of 
Mr. George Howard, M.P., at Naworth Castle. 




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KBWLY DISCOVERED ROMAN INSCRIPTIONS. 123 

Now, as to the reading of the inscription. If I am right as to the 
last character being ma, it probably is : — 

Cohortis nonee, centuria Ma 
rci Comati 
If the last letter be an m, the reading may be : — 
Cohortis nonae, centoria Ma 
rci Communis. 
Both of these names, Dr. Htibner (from whom I have heard since 
he got your squeeze of the stone) suggests as likely ones, though 
neither of them have previously occurred in British inscriptions. 

This stone forms another link in the chain of reasoning which 
would rank Hexham among the posts occupied by the Romans. 

The woodcut on the preceding page, from a photograph which Mr. 
Gibson has prepared with his usual skill, gives a perfect representation 
of this interesting relic. 



Several days ago there was sent to me, by direction of the Marquis 
of Lothian, a plaster of Paris cast of a Roman inscription found upon 
a stone that is built into the north turret stair of Jedburgh Abbey. 
I was asked to give his lordship my views respecting it. As the stone 







1 o 

iLATiOKEtD' 

rwMGM.SA- 



I m vexi- 

LLATIO RETO- 
RYM QAESA . 
q^Q ^A^IVL . 
SEVE 4R TRIB 



has to a large extent escaped the notice of WTiters upon Scottish 
archaeology,* and as the troops and their tribune, who inscribed it, seem 
to have hailed from Habitancum, the modern Risingham, a station on 
the Watling Street, on our side of the Border, it may be agreeable to 
this society to have a brief account of it. 

* It 18 described in Jeffrey's Hhtoiy of RoxhurgJuhire, and a figure of it 
given, bat the inscription is not fully represented. 




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124 



NEWLY DIRCOVERED ROMAN INSCRIPTIONS. 



Most of the letters of the inscription are distinct ; one or two are 
partially obliterated, and one or two have been purposely effaced. 
Notwithstanding this circumstance I have no doubt that it is to be 

read as already given. The expansion 
of it will necessarily be Jovi optimo 
maximo vexillatio ReUtrvm Oaesaiorum 
quorum curam agit Julius Severinus 
tribunus, "To Jupiter the best and 
greatest, the vexillation of Baetian 
spearmen under the command of Julius 
Severinus (dedicates this)." 

The word Retorum is manifestly a 
rustic spelling of the word Raetorum. 
We have only once before, in our 
British antiquities, met with the word 
Gaesati, It occurs on the fine large 
slab in our own museum, which came 
from Eisingham, and is here shown. 
It is No. 628 in our Lapidarium Septen- 
trionaky and No. 1,002 in the seventh 
volume of the Corpus Inscriptionum 
Latinarum (vol. vii). The last line 
of the inscription reads Cohors prima 
Vangionum, item Raeti gaesati et ex- 
ploratores .... posuerunt. 

The term gaesati has been derived 
from the word gaesum or gaesa, signi- 
fying a spear or javelin. The weapon 
in question was one which, at first, was 
only used by barbaric tribes; but it 
was eventually adopted by some of the 
Roman forces. These Raetians were 
evidently armed with it. 

Two altars found at Eisingham, 
but now lost, have probably been dedi- 
cated by the Raeti. The reading on them is vexii g • R, which 
Professor Hiibner expands thus: — Vexillarii Germani Raeti, See 
Lapid,, Nos. 391, and 892, and C./.i., Nos. 987, 988. 




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NEWLY DISCOVERED ROMAN INSCRIPTIONS. 



126 



There is another stone in our museum, also from Risingham, which 
sheds light upon the Jedburgh inscription. It is an altar to Fortune, 
being No. 602 of the Lapidarium Septentrionale and No. 984 of the 
Corpus Inscripttoniim Latinarum (vol. vii). The insci'iption reads : — 




■RflMfl 



:*^%^? 




PORTVNAE • REDVCI 
IVLIVS SEVRRINVS 
TRIB • EXPLICITO ^ 
BALINBO • VSLM 



" To Fortune, that brings back in safety, Julius Severinus, the tribune, 
on the completion of the bath, erects this altar in discharge of a vow, 
willingly and to a most deserving object." There can be little doubt 
that the iVLivs severinvs of this altar is the ivl sever of the 



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126 



NEWLY DISCOVERED EOMAN INSCRI1»TI0NS. 



Jedburgh inscription. Hence we may conclude that the body of 
Raetians whom we find at Risingham is the same force which have 
left their mark on the stone in Jedburgh Abbey. Risingham is quite 
in the north of Northumberland, and, as we have stated, is situated on 
the Watling Street ; Jedburgh is but a short way within the Scottish 
border, and is within two miles of the Watling Street. The one place 
would be but an easy march from the other. 

Professor Hiibner, I may mention, agrees with me in the reading 
which I have given of the inscription. 



Note. — A VexiUation of Raeti and Norici is mentioned on an altar 
found at Manchester, which is represented in the woodcut (kindly lent 
by Mr. W. T. Watkin):— 




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newly discovered roman inscriptions. 127 

5.— On a Roman Inscribed Tombstone found in Caruslb, &c., 
BY R. S. Ferguson, F.S.A., in a letter to Dr. Bruce, V.P. 



[Read on the 25th Maroh, 1885.] 



Lowther Street, Carlisle, 24th March, 1885. 

My dear Dr. Bruce, — For some time past excavations for build- 
ing purposes have been in progress in Carlisle on a site known as the 
Spring Garden Bowling Green, and situate on the east side of Lowther 
Street, at its northern end. It therefore lies immediately outside of 
the north-east angle of the Roman and medieval city. With the 
exception of a small public house and some sheds this site has never 
been built upon. It was a garden and bowling green in 1745, when 
its hedges were cut down for fear they might give shelter to the 
Highlanders. 

I have watched the excavations with interest. Over most of the 
area there was a thin stratum of garden soil, while the earth below 
had never been disturbed. Close to Lowther Street a trench, filled up 
with mud and miscellaneous matter, marked the city ditch, which was 
open in the memory of many now living. On the north side of the 
garden was found a deep pocket of made soil, in which was the slab I 
am about to describe. Many animal bones, including, it is said, the 
skeleton of a donkey, were found here ; and also two skulls, which I 
did not see, but which are said to be human. The slab was in this 
pocket ; it was in an inclining position, face upwards, at an angle of 
about 45® with the horizon. Most unfortunately, before its nature was 
suspected, a cart passed over it and broke off the top of the stone, 
which was at once knocked into fragments, and either built into foun- 
dations or pitched away — at any rate, it cannot be found. 

The extreme height of the slab is now 4 feet 8 inches, and breadth 
8 feet 2 inches. It is of considerable thickness and weight, and is of 
the local soft red sandstone. A deep alcove is cut in the upper part, 
in which is a figure — now headless, the head and the top of the alcove 
having been dcstnjyed by the cart. The height of the figure is 2 feet 
2 inches. It represents a child in upper and under tunic. The under 
tunic reaches to the little feet, which peep out beneath it, and its tight 
sleeves come down to the wrists ; the upper tunic comes to the knees, 
and has large sleeves reaching to the elbows. A girdle is round the 



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128 



NEWLY DESCOVERRD ROMAN IXSCRIPTIOXS. 



waist, and a large Bcarf or comforter has been wrapped round the 
child's throat and chest to protect it from the cold. The child probably 

died of bronchitis. 
The costume, if in 
woollen material, 
would be at once 
warm, sensible, and 
convenient. The 
left hand is raised to 
the breast, the right, 
extended down- 
wards, holds a fir- 
cone. 

Below the figure 
a panel is cut in the 
stone, 2 feet 2 inches 
broad by 1 foot high, 
and having on each 
side the well-known 
dovetail projections. 
D I s 

VACIAINP 
ANSANIII 

The letters are 
unusually distinct, 
though before the 
stone was washed I 
had some doubt as 
to the final* 1 1 1, as 
a flaw in the stone 
made it look like ui 
(not VI) ; but after 
the stone was washed 

and placed in the Museum, under strong light, both sun and gas, the 

III came out clear. 

I venture to read this — 

VACIA INFANS AN[N0RUM] III. 

" Vacia, an infant of three years ; " 




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S*EWLY l)ISCOVRtlF.D ttOMAN TNSCRIPTIOKS. 



129 



and Professor Clark and Mr. Watkin agree ; as I also gather from your 
card, does Professor Hiibner. 

" Vacia" occurs on a slab found at Great Chesters {Lap. Sep., 282), 

which is expanded as — 

1)[II8] M[anibus] 
-^l[io] Mercu- 

RIALI C0EN1CUL[aRI0] 

Vacia soror 

FECIT. 




Yon will be glad to hear tliat the Roman bagpiper has at last made 
his appearance in the Museum. I had him brought from Stanwix in 

H 



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180 NEWLY DISCOVERED EOMAN INSCRIPTIOKS. 

October last; but, owing to his weight— over half a ton — ^we dare not 
take him up the stairs and over the floor. However, a few days ago, 
we opened a back entry, and the Corporation workmen hauled the 
piper up with tackle to a safe place, with a cross wall under him. He 
is much disfigured with tar from the water butt, which he latterly 
supported. — I remain, yours truly, 

Rich. S. Ferguson. 



6. — On the Discovery of Five Roman Milestones. 
By Dr. Bruce, Vice-President. 



[Read on the 29tii July, 1885.] 



At one of our recent meetings I ventured to remark that our Society 
was more fortunate than most of those in the South of England, for 
whereas they were very rarely able to boast of a new inscription of the 
Roman era, we had a fresh one to discuss nearly every month. In 
quick succession we have had laid before us, in papers by Mr. Clayton, 
Mr. R. S. Ferguson, and myself : — An account of two milestones found 
at Cawfields ; two very important altars, found at Housesteads, dedi- 
cated to Mars Thingsus and two German divinities by Germans 
serving in the Roman army in a Dutch (Cohort ; an altar found at 
Chesters, dedicated to Fortuna Conservatrix ; a funereal stone found 
at South Shields, and another discovered at Carlisle. To-night I have 
the happiness to describe, under the auspices of our senior Vice- 
President, on whose estate they have been found, no less than five mile- 
stones, all of them having inscriptions. It may be well first of all to 
describe the place in which they were found. The farm of Crindle 
Dykes lies to the south of the Housesteads farm, and of the public 
road extending from Newcastle to Carlisle called the Military Road 
in consequence of its having been formed for military purposes afber 
the rebellion of 1745. Passing over the crown of the hill, which is 
here a striking object in the landscape, it extends down its southern 
slope towards the river South Tyne. But there is another and a more 
ancient road which traverses the Crindle Dykes farm from east to west, 
and which has been used from time immemorial as a township highway. 
It was known in the Middle Ages as the Stanegate, or the Stone Road, 
being so called in contradistinction to the unpaved roads which 



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^EWLY DISCOVERED KOMAN INSCUIFTIONS. 131 

nsuallj prevailed in earlier times. This road is in reality a Roman 
one. As such it is laid down in the Survey of the Roman Wall by 
Mr. MacLauehlan — a survey most accurately executed, and for which 
we are indebted to the sound judgment and generous spirit of Algernon, 
the fourth Duke of Northumberland. In this survey the road is laid 
down as proceeding from Walwick Grange, a hamlet adjacent to the 
station of Cilurnum, passing Fourstones, Newbrough, and Chester- 
holm (the Boman Yindolana), and coming to Carvoran (the Roman 
Magna). Here it meets the Maiden Way, the great Roman road on 
which the traffic between the south and the north was carried on, and 
then proceeds westward to Birdoswald (the Roman AmboglannaJ. 
Mr. MacLauehlan professes only to trace the Stanegate from Walwick 
Grange to Birdoswald, but he indicates the possibility of its extension 
to Cilurnum. In order to test this matter, a cutting was made by 
Mr. Clayton two or three years ago, on the presumed line of its course 
between the southern gateway of Cilurnum and Walwick Grange, 
when a nearly perfect Roman road was discovered about two feet 
beneath the surface. It was twenty-seven feet in width, and had 
kerb-stones on each side of it. It may also be stated that traces of 
this road have been found westward of Birdoswald, and are laid 
down on Mr. MacLauchlan's survey, thus leading to the opinion 
that it extended from Birdoswald in the direction of Carlisle. 

The five milestones that I am now to describe, have been found on 
the north side of the Stanegate, on the Crindle Dykes farm. The 
stones were all found in near contiguity with each other. In the 
course of the excavations which were made, the Oi'iginal Roman road 
was exposed at about two feet below the existing highway, with 
its accustomed kerb-stones. These milliaries were found exactly 
one Roman mile to the east of one which is still standing on the 
Stanegate, in the immediate vicinity of Vindolana, on the spot where, 
doubtless, Roman hands placed it, sixteen or seventeen centuries ago. 
In consequence of its long exposure to the elements, the inscription 
which it once bore is now nearly obliterated ; some strokes which may 
be portions of letters can be discerned, but nothing can be made of 
them. Horsley seems to have read the inscription. He says, "The 
military way that passes directly from Walwick Chesters to Carvoran 
is here [Chesterholm] very visible, and close by the side of it stands a 
piece of a large rude pillar with a remarkable inscription upon it in 



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182 



NEWLY DISCOVERED ROMAN tXSCRlPTIOXS. 



larj^e letters, but very coarse. Bono Reipyblioab Nato. No doabi 
this was a oompliuient to the reigning emperor."* A generation or 
so ago another stone was standing a Boman mile to the west of this 
one, but it was split in two bj the ocoupant of the farm and the 
severed parts made use of as gate-poste. The firagments of this stone 
at present lie by the side of the road. 

Now it was at the distance of a Roman mfle from the milestone 
which is still standing, that the five milestones I am now to describe 
were found. The circumstance of this part of the farm having been 
subjected to the modem process of tile draining, was the cause of their 
being brought to light. The stones have all been carefully photo- 
graphed by our skilled associate, Mr. Gibson, and copies of his work 
are, by Mr. Clayton's desire, laid upon our table. From the photo- 
graphs it will be observed that the stones are very rudely dressed, and 
that the task of deciphering the inscriptions is not an easy one. I 
shall not be at all surprised if some of mj 
present readings should eventually be found 
to need revision. 

The earliest of the stones belongs to the 
time of Severus Alexander. It is a nioelj 
rounded pillar, four feet six inches high, and 
seven inches in diameter. The inscnption 
on it seems to be this : — 

IMP ca[es] 

SEVER [ALBI] 

PIO [fbl. avq. p. m.] 
COS rp cvR 

L[e]G AVG. [PR. PR.] 

MP xiin 









Imperatori Caesari 
Severe [Alexandre] 
Pio [felici Augusto pontifici maximoj 
consuli, patri patriae, curante 
legato Augusti propraetore 
millia passuum quatuordecim. 
"To the Emperor, Caesar, Severus [Alexander, happy, august, chief 

♦ Britannia Montana, p. 228. 



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NEWLY DISCOVERED ROMAN IXSCRIPTIONB. 



134 



priest] Pius, consul, father of his country, (this stone was erected) by 

order of Imperial legate (and propraetor). Fourteen miles." I 

may remark that the a and the v at the end of the 5th line are 
ligulate, and have the appearance of two xs. The Severas to whom 
this stone is dedicated, is probably Severus Alexander ; the character 
of the lettering upon it being precisely similar to that on another 
milestone found at Cawfields, which was brought under the notice of 
this Society a short time ago,* and which undoubtedly belongs to this 
emperor. An important inscription found at Chesters, and bearing 
the name of Elagabalusf as Augustus, and of Severus Alexander 
as Caesar, bears the date of a.d. 221. In this inscription Marius 
Valerianus is represented as being the Imperial Legate at the time. 

The next stone seems to bear the name of 
Maximinus, but which of the Emperors of that 
name it is difficult to say, though, judging from 
the coarseness both of the stone and of the 
lettering, it is probably of the later Emperor, 
Maximinus Daza, who reigned from a.d. 805 
to a.d. 314. The stone is precisely similar in 
character to another milliary of Maximinus, 
which was discovered at Corbridge, and is now 
in the Museum of the Duke of Northumber- 
land, at Alnwick Castle. See Lapitlarium Sep' 
trntrionahy No. ,643. The newly discovered 
pillar is five feet two inches high, and has a 
diameter at top of one foot two inches, and at 
bottom of one foot eight inches. The inscrip- 
tion is : — 

IMP Imperatori 

cab Caesari 

HAXi Maxi 

MINO Mino 

AVQ Augusto 

NOB Nobilissimo 

CAES Caesari. 

"To the Emperor Caesar Maximinus Augustus (and) the most noble 
Caesar." 

• drchaeologia Aeliana, IX. 211. f Lapidarxum Septentrionale, No. 121. 




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lU 



NEWLY DISCOVERED HOMAN Df^SCEIPTIOXS. 




The stone which comes next in chronological order has not the 
usual form of a milestone, but is a flat slab measuring two feet four 
inches in length, by one foot four inches in breadth; the lower end bears 
marks of recent fracture. Its inscription presents no diflSculties; it is — 

M AYR Marcus Aurelius 

PROBVS Probus 

p F iNVic Pius, felix, invictus 

AYG Augustus. 

" Marcus Aurelius Probus Pius, happy, uncon- 
quered, Augustus." Probus reigned from A.D. 
276 to 282. He was a most successful warrior 
and a wise governor. " History," says the late 
Professor Ramsay, in Smith's Dictionary of 
Oreek and Roman Biography^ "has unhesi- 
tatingly pronounced that the character of Pro- 
bus stands without a rival in the annals of 
imperial Rome, combining all the best features 
of the best princes who adorned the purple." He was murdered by 
his soldiers in consequence of his employing them in laborious works of 

public utility. It is interesting to find in 
our immediate neighbourhood so distinct a 
notice of so remarkable a man. No other 
stone found in Britain bears his name. 

We now come to the period of the 
Constantines. On a rounded column of 
very coarse millstone grit, three feet seven 
inches high and eleven inches in diameter, 
is the annexed inscription : — " To the Em- 
peror Flavins Valerius Constantinus Pius, 
happy, unconquered, Augustus, the son of 
the deified (Augustus Constantius)." This 
inscription strongly resembles one which 
was discovered some years ago on the side 
of the road leading into the Roman station 
of Ancaster in the county of Lincoln, 
which is figured in Mr. C. Roach Smith's 
Collectanea Antiqua, Vol. V. p. 149, and which forms No. 1170 in the 
Corpus Inscriptionum LatinariuHy Vol. VII. The second line of the 



IMP 
FL(?) 
VAL 
CONSTANTIN 
P. P 
INV 
AVG 
DIVI 

Imperatori 

Flavio 

Valeric 

Constantino 

pio felici 

invicto 

Augusto 

Divi 

[ Augusti filio] 



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KEWLY DISCOVRRED ROMAN INSCRIPTIONS. 



135 



inscription has here been tx) some extent conjecturally restored; a flaw 
in the stone partially interfering with it. The pillar was found in two 
pieces, but the parts fib accurately together. 

The fifth stone is dedicated to Constantine the Oreat and to his son 
Flavins Julius Oonstans. The stone is peculiar in its form; for the most 
part it is cylindrical, but the portion on which the inscription is carved 



forms a flat moulded tablet. 
The height of it is three feet 
two inches, and the width 
about one foot two inches. 
The following is the inscrip- 
tion : — " To the Emperor 
Flavins Valerius Constantinus 
Pius Augustus, and to the 
Caesar Flavins Julius Con- 
stans the son of the Au- 
gustus " The latter 

part of the fourth line of 
the inscription is somewhat 




IMP OAES 

FLAT VAL 

CONSTANTINO 

PIO AVG ET (?) 

CAESARI 

FL IVL 

CONSTAXTI 

FIL AVG 

• • B • LLO • 

Imperatori Caesari 
Flavio Valeric 
Constantino 
pio Augusto et 
Caesari 
Flavio Julio 
Constanti 
filio Augusti 




bleared; some read nob, in- " 

stead of the reading I have given. The last line is so obscure as to 

have as yet resisted all attempts to unravel it. 

Besides these five stones, which are nearly entire, 
fragments of two others have been found in the 
same place. One of these has inscribed on it, of 
a large size, the well-formed letters IM, forming 
probably part of the word Imperator. The mile- 
stone, of which this fragment formed a part, has, it 
is feared, been destroyed long ago. Another frag- 
ment, forming apparently the bottom of a pedestal, 
has on it the letters L. I. Can these be intended 
for Leuga una, one league. On many French 
milestones leagues are given instead of miles. 

Now it wiU naturally cause surprise that so many 
milestones should have been found in one spot. 
If used for the ordinary purpose of informing a 
traveller as to his progress on his journey, they would not require re- 
newal at such short intervals as the inscriptions on these seem to indicate. 




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136 XEWLY DISCOVKHED ftOMAN iNSCRimONrt. 

Besides, they do not, for the most part, give the distance from any 
place, bat simply give the name of an emperor ; and this is the case 
generally with milestones from the fourth century downwards. Mr. W. 
Thompson Wabkin, in a paper which appears in the last volume of our 
Transactions,* states that it is a common thing, especially on the con- 
tinent, to find milestones in groups, and that it was the custom to 
renew these milliary columns in the reigns of successive emperors. 

The Romans attached great importance to the construction of 
roads. It was only by having the means of easy access to the most 
distant of her possessions that Rome could hold the supremacy of 
empire which she did for so long a period. The charge of constructing 
or renewing her roads was committed to her greatest men, and they 
not only saw that they were constructed and kept in order, but 
they themselves laid out large sums upon them. Julius Caesar wag 
at one time Curator of the Appian Way, and he laid out great sums of 
his own money upon it. During the first years of Augustus, Agrippa 
repaired various roads at his own expense.! The office of Curator viae 
was always considered a high dignity, and seems eventually to have been 
generally assumed by the emperors themselves. In the best ages of 
the republic and of the empire, the inspectors of the ways sought to 
benefit the state by making and maintaining its roads ; in the decline 
of the empire, they sought to get benefit to themselves out of the roads. 
When each claimant of the purple had to assert his rights in the fece 
of many rivals, the assuming the charge of the roads throughout the 
world was one mode of gazetting his pretensions. Hence the mile- 
stones seem to have been renewed as regularly as emperor after 
emperor met the usual fate of such functionaries, assassination, in the 
latter days of the empire. 

In concluding this paper, may I express the hope that ere long I 
may have the privilege of bringing other milliaries before the notice of 
this Society, which, as yet, lie under the sod. 

* Arehcieologia Aeliana^ X. 130. 

• Article Viae, in Smith's Dictionary of Antiquities. 



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VOTIVL /^ITAR 

Jlsconr^d in fikld^ IfiO^'^yJrJjnri ffoaJ ,Chr$frY\ 



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THE BOUANO^BEEE: IN8CBIFTI0NS IN ENQLADD- 

Reprinted from the iroAowfoytco^ Journal, vol xUi, page 124. 



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THE ROMANO-GREEK INSCRIPTIONS IN ENGLAND. 
By Profeasor E. C. CLARK.* 

Some months ago I endeavoured to give a rendering of 
a remarkable Greek inscription, on what is known as 
" the Brough stone," from Brough-under-Stainmore, now 
in the FitzwiUiam museum at Cambridge. In the 
course of my investigations I had to consider the other 
Greek inscriptions found in England. They are few in 
number, and I was struck by some common features 
which I thought I could discern in them, besides their 
common language. This is the subject which I have 
briefly treated in the following paper, asking myself the 
questions : when and by whom were these inscriptions 
made, why in Greek, and in what sort of Greek? I 
will proceed at once to enumerate the five or six Greek 
inscriptions which appear in the 7th volume of the 
Prussian Corpus Tnscriptionum, edited by Professor 
Hubner. I have added, in each instance, what indications 
of the nationality of the settlers I can gather from the 
local names of the auxiliary forces stationed in the place. 
The legionary soldiers, though of course more important 
in their time, do not give us this kind of information, 
except in one or two instances. 

In Chester {Deva\ where we can trace cohorts of 
Aquitani and Frisiavones, was found in 1856, an altar 
bearing, in neat or elegant letters,'^ an inscription of which 
this is the legible part : — 

HPCIN 

EPMENEOIN 

EPMOFENHC 

lATPOCBQMON 

TONA ANEeHKA 

* Read at the Derby meeting of the Institute, July Slst^ 188[>. - Hiibner, p. 48. 

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BOilAiJO-GRBliK INSCRIFtlOKS. 3 

The lacuna is supplied by Hflbner [©eoic <Tayr] ijpaiv [vir] 

A slightly different emendation may perhaps be sug- 
gested. The last three Unes of the inscription fonn a 
hexameter. If we can believe the reading intended by 
the composer, in the previous word, to have been the 
Homeric virep^cvlcwiv, we may infer the loss of an inscribed 
line above the fragmentary H P C I N which would give us 
another hexameter. I cannot however advance this theory 
with any confidence, as I have been unable to procure a 
fac-simile of the inscription.' 

Hflbner notes a suggestion that the dedicator of this 
altar may have been the Hermogenes whom Dion Cassius 
mentions in his last chapter on that emperor's life as 
Hadrian's physician. Hadrian's partiality to the profession 
is otherwise on record : witness the epigram on MarceUus, 
of Side in Pamphylia, for whose works, or library, a special 
repository was erected by this prince, or his successor, at 
Eome.* Hubner, however, drUy adds that there were a 
good many doctors called Hermogenes. The form of the 
letters in the inscription he admits to suit the time of 
Hadrian. 

In the Museum at York [Eburacum) are two tablets of 
bronze, found in the excavation for the railway station, 
about 1840. On each is a Greek inscription, in punctured 
letters : — 

(I) 

eEoic 

TOIC TOY HTE 
MONIKOY nPAI 
TQPIOY CKPIB- 
AHM HTPIOC 

(H.) 
I2KEANQ 
KAI THGYI 
AHMHTPP 

The ninth or Spanish legion was quartered at York, and 
this is the' only locally named force of which I have 

' See final note. from the latest edition of the handbook 

' Anthologia Oraeca, 7. 158 _ to the museum, with which CafuM 

' See final note. These inscriptions Raine kindly furnished me. 
are not taken from Hubner, (p. 62), but 



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4 llOkAKO-GitEBk tNS0BI1^0K6. 

evidence there. A Greek was obviously the author of 
the two inscriptions, which speak for themselves. The 
one is to the household gods of the governor's residence. 
This fact I take to indicate that Demetrius was a de- 
pendent of the governor/ though it does not throw much 
light on the occasion of dedication. The other inscription 
shews, I think, that Demetrius was d person of some 
culture, perhaps of some consequence, and that he wished 
to indicate his arrival in the island. Oceanus and Tethys 
were rather creatures of literary fancy than objects of 
real worship, even in the times of Domitian. Whether 
Demetrius was a scribonius or a scriha does not appear. 
I should prefer the latter suggestion, which, as well as 
the probable date, is Mr. C. W. King's. 

All the other Greek inscriptions come from the Boman 
wall or near it. At Ellenborough {UxeUodunum\ near 
Maryport, south west of the wall, was found a intone tablet, 
now at NetherhaU, bearing the dedication, to .^culapius, 

ACKAHniQ 
AErNATIOC 
riACTOP EGHKEN 

On a squeeze of this inscription (exhibited) I think a sort 
of stop is perceptible after the first letter of the second 
line. The whole is obviously a hexameter, the final s of 
Egnatius being, as is often the case in provincial and late 
Latinity, not sounded, and the a before this word repre- 
senting a spondee. A succession of antiquaries has 
" restored " this A as the praenomen Aulus, which restora- - 
tion is accepted by Hubner. This old praenomen occurs 
once elsewhere in British inscriptions. I doubt it here, 
and am ahnost inclined, in spite of the mixture of 
languages, to suggest an abbreviation for aram. ar 
for ARAM has been found, at Lincoln last year.^ The 
cognomen, if it be one. Pastor^ does not occur elsewhere 
in Hiibner's book. The local auxiliaries at Ellenborough 
were Baetasii (a German race), Dalmatians-and Spaniards. 
Making my way north-east to the Eoman waU, by the 



^ For this general sense of*^/w5i' see our Residence. 
Matthew xxvii, 2 ; Luke iii, 2, andAlford's ' ArchcEdogicalJoMmal^ vol. adi, p. 217, 

note on the latter. Tpair^ptri is exactly and p. 150 of this volume. 



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ROMANO-GRBEKINSOBIFTIONS. 5 

route through the head of the Lake country, I must men- 
tion, as connecting links, one or two Latin inscriptions. 

At Old Carlide (Eoman name uncertain) I find an 
Egnatius Verecundus erecting a votive tablet for the 
welfare of the emperor Septimus Severus, who spent the 
failing years of his life (208-211 a.d.) in Britain.* At the 
same station was also found an interesting Latin inscription 
of the time of Gordian (a.d. 242) now in the library of 
Trinity College, Cambridge. I cannot be sure about 
the local auxiliaries here* 

I now proceed eastward to where the great north road, 
the Watling street, crosses the wall. On Watling street, 
north of the wall, I find a Greek inscription,* of which 
the letters 9E0I2 are all that can be read with certainty, 
on a small altar at High Eochester (Bremenium). Prom 
other inscriptions we learn that a cohort of VarduUi 
was stationed here, in the times of the emperor 
whom we call Elagabalus (218-222 a.d.), and Gordian 
(238-243 A.D.). An altar was raised Deo invicto soliiov the 
welfare of Elagabalus, under his proper name of M. Aure- 
lius Antoninus Pius, by a tribune of these VarduUi ; and 
another, to the genius of their standards, by an Egnatius 
Lucilianus, legate of Gordian. 

A votive tablet from Lanchester, on Watling street, 
south of the wall, is preserved in the library of the 
palace at Durham. The identification of Lanchester with 
its true Eoman original is not certain. The inscription 
is bilingual — Greek and Latin — and appears, by a pro- 
bable restoration, to be a dedication to .^culapius. 
The dedicator is T. Plavus Titianus, tribune, as we learn 
from another inscription, of a cohort of VarduUi^ There 
is nothing else remarkable about the inscription and I have 
not got a facsimile of it. It may be observed, however, that 
at this station a bath and basilica were erected for the 
emperor Gordian by the same Egnatius Lucilianus just 
mentioned. TinaUy, at Corbridge {Corstopitum\ on 
Watling street, south of the wall, I find, besides the altars 
next noticed, a monument erected by another Egnatius, 
sumamed {sic) Dyonisius^ together with his coheir Surius^ 
to the memory of a Eoman soldier their testator.* The 

1 Hubner. p. 82, No. 382. * Ibid., pp. 93, 94, Nob. 431, 440. 

« n)id, p. 178. * IWd, p. 98, No. 477. 



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6 BOMANO-GBEEK INSCEIFTIONS. 

inscription is in Latin, but the names of the two coheirs 
are Greek and Oriental, with a mis-spelling which may 
perhaps indicate that Latin was not the language of the 
author or inscriber. 

I have put together these two or three last inscriptions, 
because they possibly shew a thread of connection in the 
family of the Egnatii or the corps of the VarduUi. Of 
the former I shall speak presently. The latter are 
believed, on the authority of Ptolemy and Strabo, to have 
come from Celtiberia, in the north-east of Spain. 

At Corbridge were found two most interesting altars 
dedicated, in beautiful Greek inscriptions, to Astarte by 
one PtUcher^ and to the Tynan Hercules by a high- 
priestess Diodora} 

(L) 
ACTAPTHO 

B^MONM 

BOOPAO 
nOYAXEPM 
ANEGHKE 

(11.) 
HPAKABI 

TYPIft 

AIOAQPA 

APXIEPEIA 

These inscriptions are alike in caligraphy. 

Not much light is thrown on them by the names 
of the dedicators, which do not occur again in our 
British inscriptions. Pulcher is the well-known cognomen 
of a family of the patrician Olaudii, some of whose 
members we learn from coins to have held office under 
the earlier emperors. But I find no Eoman Pulcher in 
our island. Diodora is obviously Greek. 

These are the only Greek records in Hubner's British 
Inscriptions upon which we can rely. Beside potters' 
marks, the sole succession of words amounting to an 
inscription is a fragment said to have been found in 
London, now lost, probably a modern importation from 
Italy, and possibly not genuine to begin with.^ 



I Hiibner, p. 97. * IbicL, p. 21. 

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ROMANO-GREEK INSCRIPTIONS. 7 

Since the publication of Htibner's Inscriptiones Britan- 
niae two important records have been discovered, bearing . 
on the connexion of Eoman settlers with the east. One 
is the grave-stone of Regina at South Shields, with its 
bilingual inscription in Latin and Aramaic. The other is 
the Brough stone. The former scarcely touches my 
present subject, except as shewing the settlement of a 
native of Palmyra, at the east end oi the Eoman wall. The 
second bears the most important Greek inscription in this 
country. It is an epitaph written in Greek hexameters, on a 
youth of 16, named Hermes, from C!ommagene,the northern 
part of Syria. I cannot take up your time at present with 
the difficulties of interpretation in this inscription, which 
are considerable. My own view as to that matter is fully 
stated in the Cambridge University Eeporter for March 3 
of this year, and in the transactions of the Cumberland 
and Westmorland Antiquarian Society, pp 205-219, 
and briefly epitomized by Mr. Watkin in his paper 
on Eoman inscriptions recently found in Britain. 
(See above, pp. 146-7). You will there find the original 
reading of the stone, so far as it has been made 
out, a reading with the lacunae supplied and the errors 
corrected according to my view, and an English metrical 
version. The points which bear on my present enquiry 
are, not so much the exact interpretation of the inscription, 
as its general character, style and form. 

Eeverting, then, to the questions with which we began, 
I ask myself, when and by whom were these Greek 
inscriptions made, and why in Greek? These three 
questions go together — the other, in what sort of Greek, 
is a rather different matter. 

The when I have to some extent answered by anticipation, 
in calling the inscriptions Romano-Greek. I have no 
hesitation in dating them all during the Eoman occupation, 
not later, that is, than the beginning of the 5th century a.d. 

All are from known Eoman stations; the York and 
Lanchester inscriptions are connected with Eoman officers; 
and the documents generally denote a degree of settled 
life and tranquillity which can scarcely have existed for a 
long time after the departure of the Eomans. On the 
last ground, too, I should be disposed to put these 
inscriptions certainly not earlier than the construction of 

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8 romano-oreek: inscriptions. 

the wall by Hadrian (about 121 a.d.) ; probably not 
earlier then the time of Septimus Severus^ who more 
securely established the peace of the North at the begin- 
ning of the third century. You will have observed that 
they all come from the northern part of England. 

The only approximation to a more exact date at which 
I can aiTive is on the supposition of some connexion 
between the Egnatius of the Ellenborough inscription, and 
the Egnatius of the times of Severus, or of "Elagabalus" 
and Gordian, more probably the latter. This would 
place the Ellenborough inscription about the middle of 
the third century, a.d. 

Upon the question by whom were these inscriptions 
made, certain scattered facts about this family of Egnatii 
have some bearing — at least as to one possible source. 
I will give the upshot, not to weary you with detail.* 

There is some reason to connect the origin of these 
Egnatii with Spain, the country of the Vardulli, whom 
they and the Greek inscriptions appear in two or three 
cases curiously to accompany. There is also reason to 
connect the subsequent fortunes of one Egnatius, at least, 
with Tarsus in Cilicia and the learning of Tarsus Greek 
or Oriental or both. There is nothing special to be 
made out of the VanhiUi themselves, as bearing directly 
on the Greek inscriptions. I have given the local names 
of the auxiliaries when I could find any in proximity to 
the Greek inscriptions. But they afford us Httle or no 
clue. The soldiers of the cohorts were mostly occidentals, 
coming, with the exception of the Ilamii^ whom I shall 
mention directly, almost exclusively from Europe. There 
is nothing in the nationality of Spaniards, or Germans, or 
Gauls, which would lead one to expect any special leaning 
to Greek literature or Oriental worship. I think then 



' Catullus (37. 19) Rpeaks of an Eg- whom he had himself irtstructed in the 

natius. a complaisant Koman busybody, magic art for which she was condemned 

as coming from Celtiljeria, which was (Juvenal, iii 116-119, and SchoL on vi. 

the home of the Vardulli A descendant 552). This Kgnatius was rewarded by 

or connexion of this man may have been Nero with riches and honour, but after- 

the Egnatius who adopted the* Stoic wards condemned and exiled (Tacitus 

philosojihy at Tarsus in Cilicia, and ob- Ann. 16. 32 ; Hist i. 10, 40. Dion 

tiinerl an infamous notoriety at Rome Cassi'is, 62. 26). Was his place of exile 

under Nero in 06 a.d. He was the Britain, and were the Egnatii whom we 

betrayer of his friend Barea Sonmus, and find in office imder Severus and Qordian 

the infoiTuer against Soranus' daughter, liis descendants ? 

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ROMANO-GREEK INSCRIPTIONS. H 

that, if there is any common element in the three or four 
inscriptions to which I am now referring, it is the 
influence of the Egnatii, of the times of Elagabalus and 
Gordian, or that of their friends and dependents. I take 
T. Flavus Titianus, of the bilingual inscription to 
-^culapius at Lanchester, to have been connected with 
Egnatius Lucilianus, possibly availing himself of the same 
medical services, and no doubt using Egnatius* baths. I 
take Pastor^ of the Greek inscription to be jEsculapius at 
Ellenborough, Dyonisvas and his co-heir Surius of the 
Latin monumental tablet at Corbridge, to be Oriental 
Greek freedmen of the same family. Pastor is not a 
cognomen likely to belong to an imperial Koman family ; 
Dionysius and Surius speak for themselves. 

To a similar source I am inclined to attribute other 
inscriptions, besides those connected with the Egnatii, 
viz. to Greek dependents upon Eoman patrons. In this 
class I should place Hermogenes of Chester and Demetrius 
of York. 

Most of the cases hitherto treated are evidently votive 
offerings by, or prompted by, medical men. I do not 
quite take the cynical view that they were mere adver- 
tisements. I rather think that a real gratitude may 
have been felt, to some power of lieahng, by the doctor 
who had brought his dangerous patient safe through, or 
by the patient who had come safe out the hands of his 
doctor. So much then for Asclepius, and his votaries, 
who were undoubtedly Greeks, and apparently often 
Oriental Greeks. 

Another class of deities is connected with two of our 
Greek inscriptions (and with many Latin ones), of a more 
definitely oriental character. I mean the Sun, Mithras ; 
the Moon, Astarte^ or Dea Syria ; and the mysterious 
Hercules of Tyre. The introduction of such worship into 
the far provinces of the West, from Syria, is sometimes 
connected with the accesion of Elagabalus to power in 
218 A.D. But it possibly preceded, as it certainly sur- 
vived, the priest of the Sun; and, as it has, except 
perhaps in the one case of the ITnmii^ nothing to do with 
the nationality of the auxiliaries, I am disposed to 
attribute it to a general demand, and a consequent su])ph\ 
The demand was, a craving which the Komau settlers 

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10 BOMANO-GRBEK INBCRIFTIONB. 

seem to have felt for some more spiritual or mystical 
religion than the old effete worship ; the supply was due 
to the influx of dependents and traders from the East. 
These adventurers, whether Greek Asiatics, or Asiatic 
Greeks, brought over the religious ideas of Syria and 
Cilicia, which were sometimes translated int6 uncouth 
Latin, and sometimes remained in their Greek form. 
Pvlcher may have been a Eoman patron, but I shotdd 
rather incline to consider both him and his highly titled 
colleague, the chief-priestess Diodora^ as foreign setters 
forth of strange gods. 

To the Greek trader^ pure and simple, belongs, I think, 
the touching epitaph of Brough, in memory of son or 
friend. In writing on this inscription, I endeavoured, I 
hope with some success, to shew the presence of a corps 
of Ilamii near Brough, who have, with some probability, 
been referred to Hamath on the Orontes, and whose prox- 
imity might give a special reason for the occurrence of a 
Syrian at Brough. I referred also to the curious leaden, 
seals found at the same place (Brough) some years ago, 
as another connecting link with the l^t. I have vainly 
endeavoured to get possession of one of these seals, and 
can only shew you Mr. Eoach Smith's carefully engraved 
sheet of some of them.^ I adhere to the opinion which 
I have previously expressed, that these were the fastenings 
or seals of traders' bsJes. They bear, in general, on the one 
side, a sort of address to the legion or cohort for which 
they were intended ; on the other side, less intelligible 
inscriptions and emblems, which I think may have been 
the trader's private mark. Some of these last are what 
we should generally call Oriental in their character ; though 
I am not good enough scholar in Oriental languages to 
speak very definitely ; some few are Greek. 

The question, by whom were these inscriptions made, 
and why in Greek, I have tried to answer : the question, 
in what kind of Greek, is not perhaps quite intelligible, 
nor can I give it a very satisfactory reply. Grammatically 
all the inscriptions are well enough — certainly no laxer 
than the later epigrams in the Greek Anthology. They 
are, I think, by people writing their own language and 
fairly versed in its literature. The author, for instance, 

^ Collectanea Antiqua, vol. ill PL xxxii. 

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BOMAlfO-GRBEK tBTBOltlPTIOIffir. 11 

of the Brough epitaph was certainly acquainted with 
Homer and the tragedians. In type, this last-named 
inscription and that by Egnatius Pastor resemble one 
another and differ from the rest, the difference being 
most marked in the Brough stone. You know, of 
course, that this inscription presented at first so much 
difficulty as to be taken and read for Eunic. I think 
you will see the reason if you look at the autotype. 
While the letters of most of the other inscriptions are 
bold and round, these are cramped and elongated 
almost beyond recognition. I have heard it suggested 
that the peculiarities of these inscriptions may be due 
to local stone cutters. This I cannot believe. Local 
stone cutters might account for blunders — for omis- 
sions and transpositions — but their forms would 
almost inevitably approximate to the normal Roman type. 
So, the British coins, although derived originally from old 
Greek models, when they begin to bear letters, bear Eoman 
ones. I have been driven, then, to look in other quarters 
for the solution of this curious question. I have tried the 
coins of the time of Elagabalus and thereabouts, from Tarsus 
and Syria, as well as from other Eoman provinces, but not 
with much success. Some of the letters, it is true, approxi- 
mate to the peculiar forms on the Brough stone. Some of 
the ligatures or abbreviated representations of one or 
two letters together, which we find elsewhere in inscriptions 
and coins, appear both in the Oorbridge and in the 
Brough inscriptions. But in both we have ligatures 
which cannot be thus accounted for, which would be per- 
fectly gratuitous in working at first hand on a hard 
surface — and in the latter case (Brough) we have the 
unmistakeable resemblance to a cramped handwriting. 
I have therefore ultimately come round to a very 
ingenious suggestion of Dr. Taylor, that the peculiarity 
of such inscriptions as these may be due to their 
being copied somewhat servilely from manuscript^ as 
would not be improbable if a language foreign to the 
stone-cutter had to be inscribed. This theory accounts, 
to my mind, for the occurrence of junctions or ligatures 
which would naturally be made in writing with a reed 
upon papyrus, as well as for the difference in type between 
the Corbridge, Ellenborough and Brough inscriptions. 

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12 BOMANO-GREBK INSORIPTIONS. 

The Corbridge lettering appears to me to be copied 
from a MS. of what we call the uncial type, though we 
have no uncial MS. actually in existence so old as this 
must have been. The Brough, and possibly the Ellen- 
borough, inscription has had for its model an early Greek 
cursive handwriting, the existence of which we learn from 
papyri discovered in E^ypt. It is in a fourth or fifth century 
papyrus from Thebes* that I have found the nearest 
approach to the peculiarities of the Brough stone. Egypt 
is the source of our knowledge on the subject, because in 
Egypt alone has this early cursive hand been preserved. 
But the copy for the Brough inscription was probably 
a Syrian Greek MS. furnished, by the mourner for the 
Syrian boy, to his British or Koman stonecutter. • 



FINAL NOTE. 

Since writing the above paper, I have inspected the Chester inscription 
and decided that there is room on the altar for Hiibner's suggested 
additions, but not for my own. In printing the inscriptions generally, 
I have been imable to give exact fac-similes, particularly in the case of 
the ligatures and of certain leaf stops on the Corbridge altars, 
which also occur on the Brough stone. The very peculiar types of the 
last named monument can only be represented by photography. 



^ Paleeographioal Sodet j, Series i pL 38. 

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294 



ON A FUNEREAL STONE 
INSCRIBED WITH GREEK HEXAMETERS, 

DISCOYBBED AT 

BROUGH-UNDER-STANEMGRE, WESTMGRELAND, 

IN BE8T0KING THE CHUBCH, A.D. 1879. 
BT THB RBT. PBBBBNDABT 80ABTH, Y.P., M.A., F.S.A. 

(Read 2 December 1885.) 

No inscription has excited more interest among scholars 
in this country, or received more careful examination, 
than the stone found at Brough, the ancient Roman sta- 
tion of VertercB, in Westmoreland. It forms the seventh 
Greek inscription recorded to have been discovered in 
this island. The six preceding inscribed stones are, — 
the altars found at Lanchester, co. Durham, and at Mary- 
port, Westmoreland, inscribed to ASKAHIIIOS, the Ro- 
man JEsculapius.^ The two found at Corchester, in 
Northumberland ; the one an altar to A2TAPTH2,* As- 
tarte or Luna; the other to HPAKAHlS, Hercules,^ now in 
the British Museum. The two metal tablets found at 
York ; one inscribed eEOIS TOT HFEMONIKOT DPAI- 
TilPIOT ; the other, flKEANIlI KAI THeTI. And the 
altar found at Chester, inscribed [©eot? a-oDTJrjpa^tp virepiAev- 

The Brough inscription is monumental. An impression 
or a cast was sent at first into Germany and Denmark, 
where it was thought to be Runic, and a reading pro- 
pounded ; but on a careful examination, in England, by 
Prof. Sayce, he perceived that the letters were Greek. 
Accordingly, in a communication addressed to The Aca- 
demy (14 June 1884, No. 632), he gave a reading of the 

^ See Hubner, C. /. X., vol. vii, p. 85 ; also Lajpid. Septentrionale, 
No. 878. 

2 See Lapid, Sept., No. 637. 

8 See Hiibnor, C. I, L., vol. vii, p. 07 ; also Lapid. Sept., No. 636. 

* See Hubner, 0, L Z., vol. vii, p. 48. 

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STONE WITH GREEK HEXAMETERS. 295 

twelve lines of which the inscription on the stone con- 
sists, with a conjectural rendering into English. The 
Rev. G. F. Browne had written out the first two lines as 
Greek, in August 1883, after seeing the engraving of the 
inscription 83 Runic. 

Further and more minute examination discovered that 
the stone contained five hexameter lines, each of which 
was marked by a stop (s?) at the end. This was pointed 
out by Professor Ridgeway in a letter addressed to The 
Academy (June 21st, 1884, No. 633), and his opinion was 
confirmed by that of other scholars. Many opinions were 
elicited respecting the reading, and Professor Ridgeway 
having maae a journey to Brough, examined the stone, 
and ODtained impressions. This further facilitated the 
work of interpretation.^ 

An explanation of the inscription, by Mr. Arthur J. 
Evans of the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, appeared in 
The Academy (Aug. 30, 1884). 

Happily, with the concurrence of the Vicar and church- 
wardens of Brough, the stone has been placed in the 
Fitzwilliam Museum at Cambridge, where it is accessible 
to epigraphists and scholars from all parts. A plate from 
a photograph, and a description of it, appeared in The 
AthencBum of Nov. 22, 1884 (No. 2978).^ The length of 
the stone is 23 ins., and the width 12^. The inscribed 
portion has a border round it ; the sides having branches 
with leaves resembling palms ; the top an oblong, divided 
into two portions or panels, with lines forming crosses. 
The lettermg of the stone, put into Greek as now writ- 
ten,' is : — 

EKKAIAEXETH TI2 

lAilN TTMBfl 2KE*0ENT 

TnO MOIPH2 ft EPMH* 

KOMMAFHNON EHOS 

*PA2ATfl TOA OAEITH2 » 

XAIPE $T EAI HAP EMOT 

KHNHEP eNHTON BIO* 

^ See his letter to The Academy y 9 July 1884>. 

^ An autotype can, I understand, only be obtained by applying to 
the Rev. G. F. Browne, St. Catharine's College, Cambridge. ' 
^ See Cambridge University Beporter, March 3, 1885. 
^ Supply N, as read by Prof. Clark and others. 

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296 FUNEREAL STONE 

EPHHS « ilKTTAT EH 

TUt TAP MEPOnilN EHI 

KIMMEPIflN rm ^ KOT >PET 

2EI APAeOS PAP O HAIS EPMHS* 
* * * * 

The translation of which is literally, or nearly so, as ren- 
dered by Professor Clark : 

" Hermes of Gommagene here, — 
Young Hermes, in his sixteenth year, — 
Entombed by fate before his day 
Beholding, let the traveller say : — 
* Fair youth, my greeting to thy shrine ; . 
Though but a mortal course be thine, 
Since all too soon thou wing'st thy flight 
From realms of speech to realms of night, 
Yet no misnomer art thou shown, 
Who with thy namesake god art flown.' " 

The first point to be noted is that the Greek word 
beginning the first line (EKKAIAEXETH) must be read 
EKAEXETH, or the line would be a syllable too long. 
There is authority for this; and otherwise the line would 
not scan.^ The next is the word o'K€<f>04in', which must be 
rendered covered or hidden, from o-Kiiro). The words xa?/>€ 
iral Trap efiov must be regarded as a greeting to young 
Hermes jfrom his friend, or a traveller. The words fc^virep 
OvrjTov pio{v) efmri^ are more difficult of explanation. 

One writer supposes that Hermes had been lost or made 
captive; but it may relate to his past condition contrasted 
with that of the god Hermes, after whom he was named. 
Authority for this is given by Professor Clark.* The {v) is 
omitted in the word fiiovf written fiio\ as also in 7^1;, which 
is written 7^. 

The question arises, who are the KififiipLot ? It has been 
conjectured that the Caledonii are so termed, and that 
Hermes may have been taken captive or perished in the 
campaign of Se verus against the Caledonians ; but Homer 
places their abode at the entrance to Hades, and the flit- 
ting of the shade of Hermes to their abode is contrasted 

^ Snpply N, as read by Prof. Clark and others. 

2 Here a verb must be supplied, which is apparently eflaccd. Prof. 
Clark would read AKOAOVGEl. 

3 See Kaibol, No. 718. 

* Cambridfjc University Reporter j 3 March 1855, p. 406. 



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INSCRIBED WITH GREEK HEXAMETERS. 297 

with the condition of the god Hermes, whose name the 
youth had borne. 

The last line is defaced. In the last line but one some 
of the lettering is left to conjecture; but the damaged 
letters near the beginning of the line seem to make the 
word ArA0O2. This reading was announced by Mr. 
Browne at a meeting of the Cambridge Antiquarian 
Society, 23 Feb. 1885, and independently at Berlin two or 
three months later. 

The peculiar form of many of the letters has led to 
conjectures regarding the date of the inscription. The 
stone is inscribed in uncial Greek characters. Uncial 
Greek writing, according to Canon Taylor, has hitherto 
been found exclusively in codices, other Greek inscriptions 
being written in capitals, the forms of which differed 
from those of the uncial letters. " Thus this inscription 
is of peculiar interest, being the only lapidary record in 
uncial characters hitherto discovered, and supplying, in 
the case of several letters, transitional forms which had 
hitherto been sought in vain."^ 

With respect to the date and the pldce where the in- 
scription was discovered, it was most probabljr erected 
after the expedition of Severus into Scotland, i.e., some 
time after a.d. 209. At Brough-under-Stanemore were 
found the leaden signacula recorded in the ArchcBological 
Journal, and exhibited at one of the meetings* of the 
Institute. These had come into the possession of Miss 
Hill, who resided at Castle Bank, near Appleby, and were 
shown by her to the writer of this account, who made 
drawings of them, and sent them to Mr. Albert Way, 
who at once discovered their interest. At his request 
they were exhibited to the Archaeological Institute, and 
a record preserved, which has led to further discoveries 
of a similar kind. These signacula have letters or marks 
impressed on them, and one has the words ala sab (a/a 
Sabiniana), a Syrian body of cavalry. Two altars have 
been discovered at Magna (Carvoran), on the line of the 
Roman Wall ; one dedicated by a cohort of Hamii, and 
the others by an ala with the epithet Sid)iniana. These 

^ Soo Cambridge University Reporter, March 3rd, 1885, p. 497. 
^ Vol. XX, p. 181 ; also Collectanea A7itiqua, vol. vii, pp. 32, 197, and 
vol. vi. 



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298 FUNEREAL STONE 

were Syrian soldiers, the name Hamii being from the 
Latinised form of the town or province whence the cohort 
had been enrolled, — Ilamath on the Orontes, also called 
Epiphaneia. 

Commagene, the country whence the youth commemo- 
rated on the inscribed stone came, was a district of Syria, 
and formed part of the Greek kingdom of Syria until it 
became incorporated in the Roman empire in the time of 
Vespasian. It is not improbable that in this Emperor's 
time the Syrian cohort was enrolled, and sent into Britain 
at a later period. The mention of Commagene, and the 
fact of a youth of that nation having died in Britain 
while attached to one of the bodies of Roman soldiers 
quartered in this island, is a very curious and interesting 
instance of the distant parts of the world being brought 
togeither under the Roman rule. The inscription being 
composed in Greek hexameters, and the style being 
Homeric Greek, is a still more interesting instance of the 
cultivation of that language, and the use of it among the 
educated classes. 

The other Greek inscribed altars also run in hexameter 
lines, as, for instance, those found at Corchester, — 

ASTAPTHS^ BflMON M'ESOPAS HOTAXEP M'ANE- 

0HKEN ; 
and 

HPAKAEI TTPm AIOAflPA APXIEPEIA ; 

and that found at Chester. In this northern and incle- 
ment clime were to be found, among the Roman armies, 
cultivated men who had brought witn them the language 
and literature of Eastern civilisation. 

The stone itself is a very hard sandy grit, and has 
been cut with some diflSculty, and the letters are not 
always easy to trace. The lower part of the last line has 
been injured, and the reading of one word must of neces- 
sity be conjectural. The stone has been placed in the 
masonry of the tomb probably on the front face. The 
palm-tree was sacred to Hermes, which accounts for the 
ornamentation on the -sides of the stone; also the number 
four, which accounts for the devices at the top of the 
stone, composed o£fotcr lines. Each panel, composed of 

^ Astarte was a Syrian goddess. 

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INSCRIBED WITH GREEK HEXAMETERS. 299 

four lines, has four cross-lines within it. Also the whole 
panel is contained within four lines. For an account of 
the god Hei^mes and his attributes, see Smith s Classical 
Dictionary of Mythology, etc. 

Some words used in the epigraph are probably aUusive 
to Hermes. Thus, OAEITH2, — He^ines being the god of 
travellers; flKTTAT' EIITHS, allusive to swiftness, an attri- 
bute of Hermes ; MEPOIIflN, articulate speaking, — to 
eloquence, another attribute ; KIMMEPIHN, the land of 
the shades, — Hermes conducting souls thither; >PET2EI, 
allusive to the ability of Hermes in deceit. 

After carefiil examination I think that there is no 
doubt of the correct reading of the stone. The following 
epitaph inscribed upon a marble now in the Fitzwilliam 
Museum, Cambridge (No. 27 in the Sculpture Room),* but 
apparently of a date considerably anterior to the Brough 
Stone, gives a good idea of the inscriptions on Greek 
funereal monuments, and has certain features in common 
with the epitaph to Hermes : — 

TeifioOeof; Aaaclo^; ^^atpe. 

TeifioOeo^^, 6 Tldrpa^ oau)^ <f>ok, iraU Se Aaaeh^, 

Tpt9 Se/cara? iretov repfiarlaa^ eOave^* 
a rdXap, oi/creipto ae iroXvkkavaTtp iirl rvfi/Stpy 

vvv hk (Tifv Tfpdwv %a>/t)oi/ e^^ot? (f>0ifi€vo^. 

In this epitaph, as well as in the Brough Stone, there 
are errors in the cutting. Thus, in line 2, S€KdTa<; is writ- 
ten for S€/cd£a<; ; in line 4, rjDv is written for vvv. 

A fragment of sculpture above the epitaph shows a 
bas-relief of a figure on horseback, supposed to have some 
peculiar reference to the ancient Cimmerian Bosphorus ; 
but to me it seems more probable that the stone was the 
monument of a horse-soldier or officer of cavalry. 

1 See C, I. Or,, 2127; Kaibel, Epigr. Grcec, 539. 



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, : I iARVARD • G 0LLEGE-U5RARy : : 

?' * 'PRPMtw^ BEQUE5T of * 

.•EDWARD-HENRy-HALL-- 
,^— CLA55 OF 1851 -^TT 



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