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8. E. DKIVER, B. A., 





Printed by Oscar Leiner. 


Mosheh ben Shesheth, the author of the short 
commentary here offered to the public, is one of those 
men who are known to .posterity almost exclusively by 
their own writings. From the extracts given below he ap 
pears to have commented upon other books of the Old 
Testament, or at least upon Isa iah, besides Jeremiah 
and Ezeqiel. But respecting his life the single fact 1 
which seems to be known rests upon the authority 
of Charizi, who in his Tachkemoni (maqam 18, near 
the end) speaks of his having journeyed from Spain 
into Babylonia in the following terms : nw in n&>D "n 
NBT ^>IK wn "pTi mny m 711.1 US-INO not? "j^inn 
:TS hy\ rnxsa fe QHD From the fact that Mosheh 
more than once in his commentary quotes the opinion 
of R. Mosheh Qimchi, but never alludes to his more 
celebrated brother K. David, it may perhaps be inferred 
that he wrote before any of the commentaries of the 
latter were published, and that his date was thus in- 

1 Dukes, in: Der Orient, 1850, p. 174. 


termediate between those of the two brothers Qimchi. 
Inasmuch as the literary activity of the elder Qimchi 
appears to have extended from about 1170 - - 1190, 
while the younger Qimchi was born in 1160 (died 1235) 
we may fix approximately the years 1190 - - 1200 as 
the floruit of our author, or in other words, regard 
him as a slightly older contemporary of David Qimchi. 
This view is confirmed by the circumstance that he is 
referred to in a Lexicon by Joseph b. David ha- Jewani, 
a portion of which (as far as ntpn) exists in manuscript 
in the Bodleian library (Hunt. 161), and which has 
been assigned by Dukes 1 to the beginning of the 
13 th century. The passages which concern us here 
are the following. Under ^DX, in reference to Is. 1, 20: 
v IDD n" 3 ion BIX w fexn mn 2nD rt?&> 
DX yum inn n^Dx foxn pjm (i" 11 x"^ mat?) 

n^Dxn uxon DXI ibxn nxn 

Under two, in reference to Is. 5, 4: nt^D 1 nnm 
:owsn nsn sm CD N"^ 3i\s) nt^xa y wo D^INS n&>K> p 

Under n^j , Is. 57, 8 after citing Rashi s explana 
tion Joseph continues: T,ND ^ nt^ts^ p nt^D y i ; B pi 

ny i^^nt^ ny nnxr^ jnjos n 
nam nuoa icy ast^m pion ^xjot 5 n^yni H 
DHD "j^ 1 n-pni mnx p o D^DI Q^DXJB pinrt^ HD 
n n^Din nnty ^ ^3 D swDn p nnpi^ n"- 

1 Der Orient, 1849, pp. 705. 727. 745, 1850, pp. 
173. 183. 215: see in particular 1849, 707. 727. and 
1850, 174. 

DipD rvaotp Toyn ix rnn&> mpD Dnsy 

x s omD3 -mn rvtpy yni n^ TIKD ^ DIX 
( n j ov) ^Dim rnyin tpyni IBS ^ rrom s nxa 
vx) mrp D^nx rvn "iu DIN s^ s inn \iiDm ^NI n^n ^ 
: I D^DNJD^ 71^ na^D ytDHi ( n n ^i) nnn pp pi O"- 1 n 
Under t^-u, Is. 57 , 20, after Rashi has been quo 
ted: rhyzh nax "]sn vn^ D y^im /<( s y T tttyty p nt^D TI 
D^ UJT rnr ^i roptt" N^ D ^nph pim 
" n^n: ~"iyD tyinnnty nym n^n i^n nyion 
:myon nmn^ noin DWIH lyoi ID^D 
Under on, in reference to Is. 21, 11 after the 
explanation of Rashi: n&n x^o nn3 n^ty p 

nsisn nom r z 

iDisi N-npt^ -pytt> ^10 hp yot^x N^JH osi none 
te no -n HDD ix n^^nb x n ny m ^x iit^n nnx 
in I^ND I^DJ nt^yi ropya xn ^in m mm lain ^SD 
ny xin ax ^xi^i n^^ Tiya Dipt? nxit? non ^:DD 
^no ^-IQ x^nty nsisn n^n ix in^x^^ nxs^ 
ixn nW HDDI ip2 HDD ytsm ni?^ D^I ipn nnx 

DX i^yan DX HDH ^ 4 Dnh 
D ixm DD^HD nya m^n nnsn 

1 Whether the latter part of this extract belongs to 
Mosheh may appear doubtful: but inasmuch as (1) Mosheh 
often quotes other authorities in the same manner as here, 
(2) the reference to Jer. 3, 5 agrees with what he says 
there in his comm. (see below), (3) the remarks on mn are 
out of place here unless they are part of the quotation, it 
is most probable that such is the case. Joseph immediately 
afterwards goes on to discuss the meaning of Nah. 2, 8. 


Under oyt, Num. 23, 7, after citing the opinion of 
Ibn c Ezra that n&yi7 is imp. qal, with qamess (chatuph) 
lengthened to cholem, Joseph proceeds to say that it 
may also be treated as imp. po c el: -- ntpo "i nns pi 

Lastly under r&n, having quoted as an instance 
of nifal Ez. 34, 4, he remarks that some treat rrtmn 
there as sing, comparing Cant. 8, 8 Pr. 9, 1 : here a 
marginal note is added, as follows: ovn 

DI^> ixn 

nt^ i ^s p ,-apj 

These extracts fully justify the opinion expressed 
above that Mosheh must have written a commentary 
upon the prophet Isa iah , characterized, undoubtedly, 
by the same features that distinguish the two which 
we possess in their integrity. 

The explanations given by Mosheh not unfrequently 
agree remarkably with those of David Qimchi, sometimes 
being even expressed in almost the same words : this 
probably indicates the existence of a traditionary inter 
pretation which wa,s followed by both. With Rashi too, 
though he never quotes him, he frequently agrees: to 
these resemblances I have often called attention in the 
notes, as well as to other points in which the language 
of either Qimchi or Rashi elucidated or illustrated his 
meaning. I have also occasionally referred to other 
authorities, in cases where a reference seemed useful, 
but not, in general, to modern commentators, as I felt 


that, instead of discussing the difficulties in the text 
itself, I ought rather to confine myself to what was 
more immediately suggested by the interpretation 
of the text as exhibited in the commentary I was edi 
ting. This will, I hope, account for the uneven and 
fragmentary character ot many of the notes, and at 
the same time explain those omissions for which other 
wise it might have been difficult to discover a satis 
factory reason. 

Of earlier rabbinical grammarians the one whose 
opinion he most frequently cites is R. Jehuda Chajjug 1 : 
he names likewise R. Jonah (Abulwalid or Ibn Gannach) 2 
and R. Mosheh Qimchi 3 : other expositors he refers to 
indefinitely under the expression onDlN tt". He some 
times appeals to the signification of a word in ara- 
maic 4 , or in the language of the talmud 5 : and his 
interpretations will not unfrequently be found to be 
novel or suggestive. Mosheh confines himself almost 
exclusively to the discussion of grammatical and lexical 
difficulties: and it will be found that he is distinguished 
by a remarkable freedom from aggadic interpretations. 

1 See Jer. 25, 12. Ez. 14, 3. 21, 12. 15. 17. 24 ; 12. 
25, 3. 26, 2. 27, 19. 30, 16. 36, 35. * See Jer. 33, 26. 
Ez. 41, 11. 3 See Ez. 21, 15. 4 Comp. on Jer. 13, 17. 
14, 18. 15, 11. 21, 13. 31, 39. 48, 9 Ez. 17, 9. 21, 3. 
24, 6. 26, 9. 27, 25. 33, 30. 41, 7. 17. 46, 22. 5 Comp. 
Jer. 49, 25. 52, 21. Ez. 17, 7. 24, 14. 32, 6. 37, 
6. 42, 12. 


The manuscript (Huntingdon Coll. 567) fills 35 ff. 
8 vo. (85119). It is written in a large and bold character, 
with greater freedom and less polished precision than 
is exhibited in many Mss. It is certainly a transcript 
from another Ms., if only for the reason that some of 
the errata to be found in it can only be explained on 
the hypothesis of the carelessness of the copyist or 
his inability to decypher the Ms. before him. These 
errata are not numerous : they chiefly consist of mis 
quotations in which one synonymous word has been 
substituted for another, or, a case of frequent occur 
rence - - in which a suffix has been wrongly cited. 
The Ms. is in a fair state of preservation, except in 
a few places where it has been injured by damp, and 
where consequently the words are with difficulty legible. 
With one or two exceptions, however (see Ez. 16, 20. 
21, 28. cf. Jer. 8, 18) it has been possible with tolerable 
certainty to ascertain the original text, sometimes from 
the missing words being part of a quotation, sometimes 
from a few traces being still discernible and sometimes 
from the obliterated letters having left an impression on 
the opposite page. Abbreviations are not generally 
employed except in the case of common words, such 
as -n ^y SKDD, uo, on, etc.; mir is consistently written 
T, and DV&X, D^x. The stopping is very rough and 
uncertain: that printed in the text has been added by 
myself. Some words here and there have the vowel - 
points affixed : these have been carefully retained being 

usually of importance. It is worth noticing that pas 
sages are frequently inaccurately cited. The author 
appears to have trusted to his memory, and in one 
place (Jer. 3, 22) wishing to cite an instance of SD 
written defectively, he actually refers to a passage 
where the word is written in the usual manner. 

Some further orthographical peculiarities may with 
advantage be here mentioned. 3 and D, and 1 and i 
is is frequently quite impossible apart from the 
context to distinguish respectively from one another: 
sometimes, for example, the xegaia is strongly marked 
even in D. There is seldom any difficulty about n 
and n : but n and n often resemble each other ; and the 
same is the case with & and n , and, less frequently 
with : and i , D and n , 1 and 3 . - Rarer cases of 
confusion are i with v, ID with ID, y with jj or u, s 
with >:, and p with "p. 1 draw attention to these, 
because they illustrate if illustration were needed - 
the ease with which corruptions can creep into hebrew 
Mss., and strengthen the a priori probability of what 
can indeed be amply shewn from other sources, but 
which hardly, at least in England, seems to be recogni 
zed to its full extent , 1 mean the corrupt condition of 
many portions of the existing Masoretic text of the Old 
Testament, above and beyond those in which the simple 
comparison of parallel passages suffices to detect it. 
I venture to hope that the plain and sensible character 
of the commentary will cause this small contribution to 

the study of hebrew to be favourably received: I 
should be still further rewarded could I hope in ad 
dition that it would attract any fresh labourers to the 
investigation of the Rabbinical writings, a field too little 
known, but one which offers valuable and suggestive 
materials well worthy of research. 

I cannot conclude this preface without expressing 
my deep obligations to M. Neubauer. it was at his 
suggestion that 1 undertook the publication, and he 
has always been ready, with the greatest kindness, 
to aid and advise me whenever any difficulty met 
my path. 

I fear that many points have been inadequately 
treated, and others entirely overlooked, but I trust 
that the inexperience which must necessarily accompany 
a first attempt at literary work will be allowed to 
plead in excuse as well of these as of any other 
inaccuracies which may be detected. 

S. R. D. 

New College, Oxford, 

October 1871. 


I. 3. TVI] The subject is either Jeremiah, or the 
word ofJahveh (v. 2). 

4. "pss*] from T*V- cf. m*- Is. 44, 12: but -pSN Is. 
42, 6 is from .~isj. 

II. $>p&] may be either in the st. abs. as Nu. 22, 27, 
in which case nptj> would be an adjective, or in the 
st. const., as 48, 17, ip^ being then the name of 
the tree. Nouns in which the final syllables follow 
this formation sometimes change the vowel in st. 
const, as -nt?o 2 Ki. 19, 3 Is. 37, 3 Hos. 13, 13 
^p Gn. 30, 37, and sometimes preserve it unaltered, 
as nnBD Is. 22, 22 $>pa c. 48, 17. 

13. nisj] as if nsu: cf. man Is. 26, 3 1 . 

17. nnn] imp. nif al from mm had it been from a verb 

V y, the n would have been pointed with qamess. 
19. -^N k ] equivalent to "joy: ^ nn^j however means to 

fight for some one, as Ex. 14, 14. 

11. 5. hy] formed like niD Pr. 18, 21 -p* Is. 1, 13 -|in 
c. 39, 3. 

8. 1K33] nif al. 

12. nycy] qal: because it is intransitive. 

1 Qimchi treats them both as adjectives : cf. Olshausen 
Lb. & 245 a. 

imper. like mty 49. 28 1 . 

15. iP*j] from r,S Lam. 4, 11: but according to others 
from HSU 2 Ki. 19, 25 Is. 37. 26 c. 4, 7 - the n 
being represented by r - - in the sense of a b o u n d 
in plants or weeds 2 . 

16. -pyT] to break 3 : cf. Ijob 24, 21. 

19. "prrar] to denote the fern. plur. of the imp erf., 
the Hebrew Language employs both a preformative 
and a sufformative as P]x. 2, 16: sometimes however 
the sufformative is dropped as Ezeq. 37. 7. c. 49, 1 1 
and here, sometimes the preformative, as 1 Sam. (>, 
12 Dan. 8, 22 Gn. 30, 28, and sometimes lastly 
both together, as Gn. 30, 35. 20, 17. 

21. pTifc ] in form like ^2in Jon. 1, 6. 

23. rr.M] from the same root as TiD2: cf. Is. 60, 6. 

24. rrjNT] her boundary, cf. Josh. 1 , 0: or accord 
ing to others from ,-: Ex. 21, 13 4 . 

nKnrc] either month, as Ex. 13, 4: or, as others think. 
newness y. 103, 5 5 . 

1 Cf. ^Ett Ez. 32, 20. The masiora says Ppn, and 
for this reason we must not pronounce 121H , as though it 
were imp. pi el: cf. Qimchi s note. The modern edd. point 
iinn etc. as&imilating three words to such cases as Mikli. 
1, 16. - as Joseph Qimchi, ina* i. e. the site of the cities 
will be overgrown with weeds : but D. Qimchi adheres to 
the meaning wasted. 3 so Rashi & Qimchi the latter 
adding Is. 24 19, c. 11, 16 Mikh, 5,5. For the construction 
cf. Gn. 3, 15 and see Ewald, Lb. 28 Ic. 4 i. e. either 
Who can restrain the limits of her coursing? or Who can 
turn her back when she is betaking herself to the place of 
her desire? comp. Ibn Ezra on Ex.: the word means to 
cause or bring forcibly. 5 His meaning is made clearer 
by the words of Qimchi : either in the month when nJV"" D^tWI , 
or, in her freshness --at the time when >\\e first begins 
to run. 

25. rp] a subst. like -pa Num. 23, 20, or it may be 
the iiifin. like rw&s- which immediately follows and 
which is formed like HNT Dt. 6, 24 etc. 

tswj] inf.f: or finite verb -- ^ being understood. 

26. riBr-a] like nsu Pr. 5, 3 etc. 

27. urn$] 2 nd pers. fern.: cf. Josh. 2, 17. 20. 

31. -inn] n is the sign of the vocative: cf. Nu. 15, 15. 
D] rp is added for emphasis, cf. Cant. 8, 6 1 . 
from in Hos. 12,1 we are masters 2 , but others 
think it means to be tossed about, agitated 3 , as 
V- 55, 3. 

33. myi] according to some an adj. signifying the 
wicked women. 

36. ^7n] from *?w Ijob 14, 11 Pr. 20, 14. 

37. -pntDnD] some say this is an adjective. 

III. 5. fein] in place of ^Dirn, like pyir, 30, 15: on the 
contrary in v. 6 ^im for rutni 4 . 

7. mm] masc. nun like imp. The n retains its qarness 
even in the fern.: cf. c v ^ ^tr. 

8. sisi] it is the opinion of some that this is for xini , the 
letters n and N being interchanged : cf. Ku. 4, 4 ^xv 5 . 

9. ^p] formed ilike cm np Gn. 8, 22. The Masorah 
states that this is the only place in which the word 
occurs thus, and that it is written defectively in the 
sense of to be liht 6 . 

1 cf. Qimchi ^SN n b^rf?. 2 cf. LXX. 
3 Tg. hvhv as also Is. 58, 7. See on this root Hupf. on 
Pss. 1. c. 4 cf. Ewald, Lehrb. 224 c. 5 where Ibn c Ezra adds 
Mai. 2, 15, although explaining them otherwise. Cf. R. 
Jonah (Abulwalid) Riqmah, c 28 (p. 191 ed. Goldberg) 
who quotes besides Am. 4, 7 Hab. 1, 12 Neh. 7, 3 Is. 1, 
29 etc. 6 targ. xnnr;*o Nnryu ith^piK cf. 1 K. 16, 31 
(Hitz.j. 7 Cf. Chajjug s. v. nan, and below on 49, 10. 


14. o^mty] like n^hy Lam. 4. 4. 
20. nyiB] as though nyo, like -mpB 6, 1 : and converse 
ly a for n Lev. 8, 32. 

22. nsnx] n instead of , as in ~DJ- Ij. 4, L. This is 
proved by the fact that s and D are pointed with 

qamess, not segol. 

jns] the 3 d - radical s k is wanting, as in TIS& Num. 11, 
11: had the deficient letter been n, the n would have 
ben pointed with chireq. 

23. ann] infin., as is shewn by n in ^en: others however 
explain the words in their ordinary signification, the 
noise of the mountains 1 , cf. Josh. 3, 14. 

IV. 1. awn] (2 d - time) ace. to some == nun 2 ; cf. Is. 
30, 15 where these two roots are coupled together. 

4. itan] nif e al, from ho. 

11. ^2n^] from TD, in the sense of either to make 
clean, purify (cf. -Q t//. 24, 4), or to clear from 
chaff (cf. -n Gn. 41, 4 ( J). 

16. D TiU] desolating, like mvij TV Is. 1, 8: but- 
some see in the word a play on the second half of the 
name Nebukhadnessar 3 . and accordingly refer it to the 
armies of that king. 

30. Tnsy] instead of the fern., for lie addresses the 
people sometimes in the masc., sometimes in the 

1 Others as Qimchi take D ) in as = ,,on the mountains " : 
in either case the sense is that given by the targ, ,,the 
labour and trouble we devoted to our false worship on the 
hills has been in vain: the deliverance we looked for from 
it has not come". 2 as Qimchi. 3 so Qimchi: hut Is. 1, 
8 he has rptWHD roin . The tg. here curiously interprets 
it as though it were cnM : see C 0b. 5 Lev. V 25, 11. 

fern. 1 . According to others, D is omitted, the sense 
being ,,Thou art like one that is desolated". 

-1D3] some regard this as -f^yn TIE comparing 
E^.B> my^n Ps. 80, 6. 

31. nhn] an adj. from ^n, as of a woman in tra 
vail: cf. D Di p 2 K. 16, 1. 

V. 6. mrny] either from nmy desert, 2, 6; or from 
my evening, cf. Ssef. 3, 3 wolves of the 

DTW] regarded by some as the uncontracted imp. 
q a 1 for the more customary D^ the same points 
being retained: but it may likewise be imp. po e el 2 
like -j-nrvn y. 94, 20 inbxn Ij. 20, 26, qamess 
chatuph appearing as the residuum of cholem. 

VI. 9. n^D^D] from the same root as ^D a basket 
Lev. 8, 2: others explain it as = D^i Is. 18, 5 - 
the sibilants ptpDl being interchangeable with one 

1 So Q. almost in the same words. - Lit. a 
quadrate form. i. e. one with four letters in it instead 
of three. There are several passages where we seem 
compelled to adopt a form intermediate between qal and 
po el, the qamess without metheg either indicating 
a shortened 6 or representing the original po c el -vowel 
(Olsh. 254). The form would thus be an intensified 
qal, yet not so strong as the ordinary poel (the 
angriff-stamm, Ew. 125 a). The passages referred to 
are ^. 62, 4 (ace. to the reading of Ben Asher) 94, 20 
(where however it may be qal: see Hupfeld s note) 101, 
5 (Qri) 109, 10 (wnere Qimchi s expl. of itm as imper. 
is very forced) Ijob 1. c (on which compare Dillmann; 
and perhaps., 1 Chr. 23, 6. 24, 3 (cf. Ew. 83 o). 

16. NB>] may be qal: or pfel, cf. *hw> 2 S. 20, 18. 
27. IIPD] a tower, as Is. 23, 13, I^D being- either 

an adj. qualifying it, or a subst. l , with omission of 

the copula. 

29. im] qal, to make a noise, snort, cf. mm 8, 
16: or else nifal from mn 3 Ezeq. 24 ; 11. 
formed like yi3D from nsi 
according- to some, an adjective. 

VII. 18. D JD] from the same root as ",1 D Am. 5, 26, 
the sense of the passage being to worship Khiun. 
Others, guided by the parallel words psa rnt&, 
explain it from najD to pay attention to her, 
honour her: and others think it denotes a kind of 
sweetmeat 4 . 

21. 12D] from HBD as rfiBD Is. 30, 1: but ace. toothers 
from rc s cf. Is. 47, 1. 

24. nisyiD] formed like nnoio 27, 2. 

29. -pu ^] i. e. shave off the hair, as Lain. 2, 10 

,,they bring their head down to the ground", for 

the hair of their head 5 . 

VIII. 5. nwn] formed like n\nn from nD"i: cf. .TSI 

Hos. 7, 16, v/. 78, 57. 
(>. en:] nifal, intrans. 
2tr] either to turn away, cf. nr.^D v. 5: or, as others 

1 as RDQ. 2 Cf^Il. 18, 470 qnoai d^r X oar 0l <nr 
esixoffi naval scpvvuv with 1(). 506 mnovg q>v vi OCOVT a c 
3 Qi TIS1B> ir:v. 4 Explained by Qimchi either as what 
thei prepared DT22 and offered So the goddess, or as 
what they made with care and attention "jnyTl p^ 1 s J ^) s. 
5 similarly Ibn Ezra 1. c. interprets }vtr\ L yw, 

think, in the sense of versari, to turn about, be 
assiduous, as 11, 10. 

13. DD S DX ppox] N of PjiDX is pleonastic, both verbs being 
from the same root ^D : cf. t^ns* Is. 28, 28 *. Others 
derive it from ?ps Num. 20, 24 2 . 

annr] the suffix is thought by some to stand forQ.T.3: 
cf. yixx 10, 20. 

14. niDTj] perf. nif., or ace. to others qal: cf. IBP Dt. 
34, 8 and, without n, Dnn Lam. 2, 18: in the present 
instance, when n was added, the dagesh was still 
retained, although in other verbs y"y it is frequenthy 

15. rVip] inf. pi el; cf. Dan. 9 24 Nu. 22, G 3 . 

18. rvr^s] a mixed form between the masc. and the 
fern., as though it bad been TU^DI T^nB : the verb 
may be either transitive as c Amos 5, 9, or intransitive, 
as Ijob 10. 20. Others consider the second ^ to be 
paragogic, nW3B standing to n,V^D in the same 
relation that ivwao 25, 1 stands to the ordinary 
nr.t&wi: or they regard the word as a subst. formed 
like rrtPiO and rvnnx by the addit-on of the termina 
tion IV. - - The meaning is c h e e r i n g u p. conso 
lation 4 . 

1 Ew. 240 c. - so Qimchi: in this case DS S DN is of 
course from eyio as before. 3 Usually taken as imp. Inf.: 
but the suggestion in the text obviates the abrupt change 
of person , and is better than Ewald s proposal (285 c) to 
read HDJ which is nowhere found: the pu al on the contrary 
occurs fex. 9, 3 If. Cf. Ibn Ezra ad loc. 4 The con 
cluding words are obscure and apparently corrupt, but 
their sense seems to, be the same as that given by R. 
Jonah (Ibn Gannach) in Qimchi, viz. that it is a mixed form 
between the masc. and fern, of the participle : When the 
men and w o m e n come to comfort me, I say to them that 

IX. 2. ism] acc. to some hifil: cf. 1 8. 14, 22. 17, 25. 
4. myn] infin., as Josh. 9, 20, IK. 20, 37. 

7. ttinty (Q ri)] pass, for act. partic, : or it may mean 
polished, sharpened, cf. 1 Ki. 10, 16 f 1 . 

14. cyn nx] added for the sake of clearness: comp. 
Ex. 2, 6. 

16. njijpnj a rare form: see Ezeq. 16, 55 Zekh. 1, 17. 

24. ho] from ho Josh. 5, 5: for the form cf. iio Pr. 14, 14. 

X. 5. NIBT] with N paragogic 2 , as Josh. 10, 24: but 
others 3 account for the form by metathesis from 

8. i^DD? "lyn J from -iyi and hp2 y. 49, 11 or, as others 
think, from T;S to bufn, Ex. 3, 2 etc., and ^DD y. 
78, 7 confidence: so that the meaning will resemble 
that of the words Is. 44, 19, -- ,,of the same piece 
of wood one part is burnt and another part made into 
a god (an object of trust)". 

14. njn] infin. 

15. D^ynyn] formed like D^ B^B- . 

17. ^DDN] with dagesh lene: cf. is. 47, 2 4 . 

I cannot be comforted because my heart is too sad. The other 
interpr. appears to coincide with that of M. Qimchi (^pmnn) 
and Ewald (o was mich erheitern konnte tiber Kiunmer!) 
who treat the first half of the v. as an ejaculation to which 
the second half is the response. l If active he takes it 
as =3= murderous killing: if passive, in the sense of 
rubbed polished sharpened, targ. ?pn. Similarly 
Qimchi interprets the Ktib ^"iin (metaphorically of slander). 
the Qri as meaning ,, drawn over the whetstone" . LXX. 
jiiQUffxovatx Ki. 1. c. AaTM. 2 Ew. 16 c. I94b. 3 as Qimchi. 
who compares y. 139. 20, where Hppfeld says it can only 
be an incorrect orthography, remarking that to consider X as 
paragogic would be to introduce a double anomaly - 
IBM itself being already irregular. 4 Ew. 212 b. 226d. 

ace, to some from y\nn Jud. 4, 23 thy hurai 
1 i a t i o n , oppression: others derive it from \T;:D Is 
23, 8 thy trafficking 1 . 

19. usBWi] i is said by some to stand in place of the 
relative ty. 

20. T,^] = JED iN<r, inasmuch as the verb is in trans- 
XL 15. ^> n] interpreted by some, as in Is. 5, 14. to 

mean tremble 3 . 

19. rp^x] for P]^KI 2 . 

iOni?] Some think the D belongs to the suffix, as Ps. 
11, 7, the sense being in its freshness, others that 
the word is connected with Dnt> Lev. 3, 11 etc. and 
means flesh ,,we will break the yoke of his flesh" : 
or lastly the words may be taken in their ordinary 
sense Jet us put poison into his bread", cf. C 0bad. i 4 . 

XII. 2. iBHtp] Iii pi el and pu al 5 , this verb always 
signifies to root up, except here: in qal on the 
contrary, it always signifies to take root, except 
Jud. 5, 14 6 

1 The first sense is given by Qimchi remove o Babel 
from the land of Israel the humiliation which thou forcest 
upon all the nations of the earth": Jonathan (targ.) adopts 
the second : in either case the second half of the v. is to be 
rendered ,,thou that dwellest in strong fortresses". 2 So 
Qimchi : others however, after the targum (T~2), consider it 
to be an adj. ,,a choice lamb": the moderns render tame. 
3 cf. Ges. s. v. t^j. 4 If ID --be the suffix, we must 
compare the word with r6 Dt. 34, 7 : the 3 d - expl. is that 
of targ. and Qimchi - - the latter remarking that |>y here 
means a deadly tree, as Ex. 15, 25 it means a bitter 
tree. 5 Qimchi treats it as pu e al of the quadrate^ form 
for) comparing Is. 40, 24. 6 The expl. of Jud. 5, 14 
is strange : he seems like the LXX. (E^Qal ^. i&QQt &aev avrovg 
fv jta A -lix to have treated DTZ^l^ as a verb. 

5. mnrn] from mnri like mB> Ijob 26, 13 *. 

6. X^D] ace. to some fanatic, cf. Is. 2, 6: ace. to 
others, cut off, cf. Ij. 15, 32. But the correct ex 
planation is to take it as equivalent to xte, in a 
band, all of them, see Is. 31, 4 2 . 

9. vnn] maybe hifil, the x of the root quiescing, or, 
as others think qal 3 , the x being supplied by n. 

13. it^l] some say this is imperat. for imperf ,,that 
ye may be ashamed", cf. Gn. 42, 18. 

XIII. 10. D JXB] formed like D>syt5> y. 119, 113. 

17. nu] either ssere compensates i or the loss of x 
(nu for -ix^) 4 , or i represents it (m: for rix:), or it 
may be an aramaic word, cf. m; Is. 3, 26 (Targ). 

18. nifc xis] formed like nfeia Ruth 3 5 ff. 

19. rfan] the last radical is dropped: see Lev. 26, 34 
Ez. 24, 12. 

21. rrb] a subst., but in Is. 37, 3 it is infin. So ny~ 
is a subst. c. 3, 15, but with *, Ex. 2, 4 the inf. 

22. ,D&m] are cut off, destroyed, as Lam. 2, 6. 

23. TO!?] an adjective. 

25. -JHS] the regular form would be "Trio, but the 
gender is changed as Zekh. 14, 10. 

XIV. 4. cnux] an adj. formed like zr&r.D Is. 30, 9. 

14. Q\S3.J] a rare form for the more regular D^xSj: so 
Est. 1, 5. 

1 He regards mnn as a quadriliteral form like n^sr 
where the sense demands a masc. verb. It seems however 
rather to be a strong hifil formation: cf. Ew. 122 a. 2 So 
Qimchi (^up) & Rashi : either ,,cry after thee i n a crowd", or 
,,call a crowd after thee". 3 so Qimchi Rashi. 4 so Ew. 
186b. 62 b. 73. n^ from -IN: like -,n^: f 1 S. 1, 27 from 
ibX" , through the intermediate aramaizing form rt^XtP: 
cf. Ez. 25, 6 & 15. 


18. >N^nn] adj., but subst. Dt. 29, 21. So D^ is 

adj. Is. 3, 4 and subst. 66, 4. 
TIHD] |from the aram. to go round: cf. ino ino Nu. 

11, 24 Onq. Ez. 40, 5 etc. 

XV. 4. myt (Q ri)] from yii Est. 5, 9, by metathesis 
from nyvt: cf. ntety and n^ty. 

10. iJl^ptt] with 1 added, or to denote the 3 d pers - 
the sense being* s JiW>p s v^ps 3 . 

11. inntp] = 7nnns, as in aram. 2 : see Dan. 5, 12. 

12. ypn] from yn, v- 2, 9 3 , or as others think from 
yy-i: cf. Dan. 2, 40. 

18. n^j] adj., strong: or subst, the sense being 

an adj. formed from DID by prefixing x. 

XVI. 3. DHlH an adj. like Dnni. 
4. ^moo] subst. like SOSD Ez. 26, 10 4 . 

5. nno] mourning, as is proved by the words imme 
diately following : others render joy (Am. 6, 7) 
comparing the parallel words 8 a: in reality nns 
resembles nn and is applied like it sometimes to 
the cries of mourning sometimes to the shouts 
of delight 5 . 

1 Qimchi regards this word as a mixed form by 
means of which the writer expresses by a single word 
the sense of two, viz. ^p to curse, and n^p to 
make light of: Mosheh on the other hand thinks that 
the apparently incompatible and 1 point to a part, and 
impf. implicitly combined. Cf. Ew. 118d. 250 c. " 2 so 
Diuiash ,,do I not release thee from thy fetters?": but 
targ. Qimchi Raslii take it as = ~]nnx^ ,,will not thy 
end be prosperous"? comparing for the chireq 25, 34, and 
for the omission of N 1C. 12, 38. 3 so Chajjug (p. 56 
ed. Nntt.). 4 so Ew. 17 fie. 5 so Joseph Qimchi T)tt 

16. DOT] piel: when the distinctive dagesh was 1 
dropped, became entirely quiescent on account of the 
chireq which preceded it, as is customary in Hebrew. 
Others say it is hif. for DOTH a comparing nnn Ij. 
33, 13 Turn Dan. 9, 2. 

XVII. 1. ntmri] ace. to some for r,nrn Ex. 32, 16: cf 
D tpra and CTTI-Q. 

3. mn] the adj. of -TO pity 3 . 

nKttm "jTn&n] the sense is as if "jpsann had come first 
sc. ,,Because of sin I will give to be spoiled all the 
high places which are in thy boundaries". 4 

4. npin] imperf. qal. like ^Din. 

6. lyiy] the name of a tree: others interpret desolate, 

cf. Gn. 15, 2 y. 102, 18 . 
13. nio] adj. ,,those who turn aside from me". 
16. nyi] ace. to some inf. po el. 

XVIII. 3. c\j2N] in form like D\3rD, the potter s wheel 
consisting of two stones. Ace. to others the word 
is derived from n:2 , N being prosthetic as in D S DSN 
He/. 47, 3 nznN Is. 25. II 6 . 

^Ip nE"l". In Am. the traditional expl. is banquets: ,,simt 
auteni convivia a laeto clamore dicta" Ges. 1 Chajjug 44. 
2 E\v. l^?7a. 3 His meaning is made clear by Rashi: s ~nr; 
is as adj. meaning ,, one dwelling the mountains" just as 
S 3iy 3, 2 means n2"!V2 2^?^. 4 so Qimchi, who adds Ez. 
39, 11 "Am. 5, 16 as parallel instances of trajection. 5 so 
LXX. cryqionvQlxr) targ. vulg. Rashi (HTP fV) Qimchi Ew. : 
and if the word conveyed the idea of poor raneu>6$ (LXX. 
Y>. 102, 18 j it might very well denote the h u m i 1 e s m y r i c a s 
Verg. Eel. 4, 2: but see Ges. thes. 1073 who pertinently 
compares 48, 6 and Is. 17, 2. In ^. 102, 18 however it 
must in any case bear the meaning desolate. 6 He seems 
to explain this passage in the same way as Abulwalid (quoted 
by Gesen. comm.) ,,in the multitude of his countries". 



11. -)2T] to cut off, determine: cf. *on Nu. 16, 30 1 . 

18. ^J ace. to some instead of n^x, as Ezeq. 24, 19. 
y^n] i. e. with slanderous language: similarly 

the scourge of the tongue, Ij. 5, 21. 

19. -an 1 ] an adj., belonging to the class in which the 
middle letter is -removed to the commencement: or 
it may be a subst., with > prefixed --a view con 
firmed by the b of ^pi> 2 . 

23. Tisn] n of the root replaced by * 3 . The accent is 
changed and thrown back upon the penultima in 
order that the word may not be confused with the 
2 d pers. fern., cf. wi Dt. 32, 18. Others say that 
the > in these instances is paragogic. 

XIX. 2. rPDin] from the same root as tnn Lev. 11, 33: 
But others explain it to mean the east, from Din 
Jud. 14, 18 Ij. 9, 7. 

1 Respecting Kin it is interesting to compare the opinion 
of Ibn c Ezra. On Nu. 1. c. he rejects the supposition that 
it expresses the creation of what was previously non - existent, 
remarking that as the earth had frequently before the time 
of Moses swallowed up men and cities, the destruction of 
Qorach and his company could not be said to be anything 
new. The only sense he will assign to it is that of 
cutting, as Ez. 23, 47. His note on Gn. 1, 1 is to the 
same purpose. Urging, in reply to those who assert it denotes 
1\SD tt" K v :Jin the use of the word in vv. 21. 28. Is. 45, 7, 
and noticing that it is sometimes found with n instead of 
X, as 2 S. 3, 35. 12, 17 he says its signification is Tin? 
"IUJ ^12: Dltz^l, and refers to the passages 1 S. 2. 29 Josh. 
17, 15 Ez. 1. c. 2 Had it been an adj. we should have rather 
expected p ns k than y p^ : Qimchi on Is. 49, 25 similarly says 
11 is added as in Dip" 1 . On the first view given in the text, the 
word must be regarded as of the form ^T ^O Ew. 164 c. 
Riqinah p. 69, with the middle radical prefixed : see below, 
the note on yr- Ez. 44, 1 8. 3 Ew. 224 c. The same 
expl. is given by Qimchi on 3. 6. 


3. ru^n] nit , from fe regularly, the h would have 
dagesh; comp. however Zekh. 14, 12. 

XX. 7. jppin] i. e. S JDD rpm, cf. 10, 20. 

9. fefe] from hD 2 C. 7, 7. the first and third radicals 
being doubled. 

10. >yt>x] ace. to some the inf., as y. 35, 15, from y^x 
Gn. 32, 32. 

17. mn] probably an adj. like r.^p 1 S. 1, 15. 

XXI. 13. prp] qal, from rm to come down as in 

XXII. 3. pityy] an adj. like pim Tup. 

13. ys] a subst. like n Is. 52, 14. In Dt. 32, 4, 
the vowels are changed differently. 

14. ^n] cf. D ,t?n Is. 20, 4. 

15. n^l perf. like -nx Gn. 44, 3. 

17. nxna] some explain it from ]>n 2 K. 4, 26, in the 
sense of running to do violence: others from 
Is. 42, 4 pn here and ^m there having the same 
signification to oppress 1 . 

18. rnriN] treated by some as a subst. = mnx brother 
hood Zekh. 11, 14 2 . 

20. 7ys] for the form cf. Is. 44, 27. 

23. m^v (Q ri)] perf. po c el like ni^? Gn. It), 11 Jud. 
13, 5. 7; or else a mixed form in qal, between the 
perf. and the part. act. 3 . rjj.ptt is similarly a mixed 
form in pu c al between the perf. and the participle. 

1 The *ense oppression is given also by Qim. 
& Rashi, who compare 1 Sam. 12, 3: Is. 42 Mosheh 
understands similarly ,,he \vill not crush the poor": cf. y. 
72. 2 He solves the difficulty here by rendering ririN 
(not \-iinx like ^nx) ,,o brotherhood - - o for the ties 
of near relationship which bound us together! 3 so Qimchi, 
who points out its force ,.thou" who hadst thy seat in 


rum] nifal: cf. Ez. 22, 16. The full form would be 

24. -ppntt] with : paragogic, as 5, 22 Dt. 32, 10 * : but 
possibly the j is occasioned by disintegration from 
the dagesh in D, and the form inns (Dt. 1. c.) presents 
a combination of both the suffixes of the 3 d - person 
1,1 -- and ij . 

28. aay] a vessel, Pr. 5, 10 2 . 

flDJ] part.*pass. from ]>sj 51, 20 23. 

fen] from hr: cf. iioin On. 43, 18. 

XXIII. 6. iK-ip ] the suffix as Qoh. 4, 12. The shwa> 
under i is peculiar: impff. with pathach (ySte 1 ) 
regularly change it to qamess before a suffix, but 
here there is shwa in order that in pronunciation 
the word may not be confounded with }>np\ 

9. ray] the suffix for r^y, as some think, comparing 
10, 20. 

12. IHT] nif. from nni, ace. to some, who explain y. 
36, 13 in the same way comparing it with Gn. 49, 
23 : but it may likewise be q a 1 from rnj, the qamess 
which would appear regularly under i being exchanged 
for pathach on account of the guttural, as in tpnn 
Ij. 31, 5: im however (Ps. 1. c.) with the accent on 
the ultima is pu al from nru, cf. Ij. 33, 21. 

14. mnytp] ,,what is unclean and loathsome", 29, 17 >. 

19. ^inrrj] either as ^. 48, 7 etc. twisting itself 
round 4 , or like hrp which immediately follows, 
resting upon. 

Lebanon of old, and hast it there ;-till". Cf. Ew. 211 b. 
188 b. anm: fln^ p is to rrt?V Gn. 1. c. as Rv to the more 
usual form TN. 1 See Ew. : 250b. c. 2 see on" this root Hupf. 
to i//. 16, 4. 3 LXX. qfJMiu. 4 LXX. ffvffjQecpopwr] , targ. 
Cf. Ijob. 15, 2o. 

22. ly Dt^iJ 1 like (^J> in arabic 1 . 

24. x^Dj a transitive adj. cf. Is. 6, I 2 . 

29. B^S] formed like TS^, ^BO y- 74, 6. 

XXV. 3. D^X] may be inf., n being interchanged with 
x, as is the manner with the letters xirp. 

12. ni*6] cf. Jud. 8 7 1 Ez. 33, 12 (?) Pr. 8, 13; it is pro 
nounced as if it were derived from a verb n"^ , but 
written as if it were a mixed form, at once x" 1 ? and 
r\"b- but K. Jehudah Chajjug explains it in a different 
manner 3 . 

15. i^n] with the art., as Josh. 3, 14. 

21. vp] the last radical quiesces, as in rr.1 On. 42, 18 : 
or it may be from x>p like ix** 1 Josh. 24 ; 14 etc., 
except that here x is dropped in writing, while in 
IXT it is only dropped in pronunciation 4 . 

34. DDTiBiBn] a mixed form - - partly a subst. and 
partly perf. Inf.: or it may be simply a subst. 
with crn - - instead of D^n [from ntf!2fi]. 5 

XXVII. 8. Wi] transitive 6 : the s indicates the subject 
as though the writer had said DftTXB iy. 

18. ixn] inf. as Is. 21, 14, but with i paragogic: or 
it may be pcrf. qal 7 (like nix 1 8. 14, 29 of the 
form hys, ^O" 1 ) instead of the imperf. 

1 Ew. 348 a: see Wright s arab. gr. ii 187. 2 Qimchi 
adds Ex. 40. 34. 3 Nutt s Chajjug p. 84. 4 Cf. Chajjug. 
He means to say it either comes from rrp, or is properly 
IX p (for ^X^p) from x s p just as ixi^ 1 is from XIV only that 
X Has been dropped in writing as well as in pronunciation. 
5 so Qimchi who accounts for the first cliolem by attraction from 
the second: cf. Ex. 15, 4 (shureq): and for the chireq refers 
to his expl. of "jm&? 15, 11. 6 although the root is intrans. : 
because the inf. is like a noun" Qimchi. 7 So Qimchi: cf. 
his note on 23, 14 and Ew. 337 b Corap. also Ez. 13, 
3 and 322 a. 


20. into] inf. hif.: cf. Ex. 13, 21. 

XXIX. 8, q^no] an adj., cf. 2 C. 28, 23, and similarly 
the subst. D rfcns Zekh. 3, 7, cf. Is. 41, 7. Others 
comparing c. 9, 2 take it as part. hif. with deficient. 

23. -iy] an adj. as 1 S. 12,5: it cannot be interpreted as 
in the phrase nyi nhyi>, because it is pointed with 
ssere, not segol. 

XXX. 10. pxt?] a verb, and therefore with pathach: 
but Is. 33, 20 an adj., and consequently with qamess 
like pyi and &DK. Thus ux ^DN y. 6, 3 =r T&J&N: 
cf. jx ixtw Hez. 9, 8 1 . 

12. TDB] *? added as 1 C. 3, 2. 

16. "poxes ] ace. to some from DDB>, x replacing- the 
double letter: cf. Ij. 7, 5 : or it may stand for i of prolon 
gation 2 in the partic. from HDP, cf. 1 Sam. 23, 1. 

23. nun] either to sojourn, as Gn. 26, 3, or to be 
terrible Nu. 22, 3. 

XXXI. 2. -j-fcn] ace. to some, perf. qal (of the form 
?iyB): cf. Is. 37, 19. 

5. -&>n] from y>n 1 Ki. 1, 40, cf. Dt. 20, 6 3 : but others 
think it alludes to their profaning for the sake 

1 The same distinction is drawn by Qimchi : and Ibn 
Ezra on ip. 6, 3 quotes with approbation the opinion of 
Moshel^hakkohen (Geqatilia) that the pathach is a proof 
that this- form is a verb (pulal), comparing for the constr. 
Ez. 9. 8 Lam. 3, 1 Is. 38, 5, to which might be added 
28, 16. 29, 14. 2 as Qimchi: x for i as rjOX" 1 from pp\ 
We may however with Gesenius Lg. p. 373 regard it as an 
aramaic form from DDtt> : the same explanation will then 
suffice for Ij. 7, 5 Ps. 58, 8: see Ew. 114 b. 3 He 
explains ^n as Ibn Ezra on Dt. from the custom of 
singing and playing (cf. Is. 16, 10) during the vintage. 



of making money - - the fruit of the fourth year 
which was sacred to Jahveh Lev. 19, 24. 
7. ytsnn] like ynn Ez. 16, 2: the perf. would have had 
chireq instead of pathach. 

12. rasi] inf. qal, like nun**. 

13. ^ino] root Hi, as is shewn by Jud. 21, 21. 

15. ntro] on the heights 1 ; or it is the name of a 


rons] said by some to be intrans. 2 . 
19. mff] my turning away, like raws, ace. to some. 

22. -ppannn] cf. psn Cant. 5, 6 pisn 7, 2 - - because 
people walk by means of their thighs 3 : cf. pit? with 
the verb in Jo el 2, 9. 

32. pinn] inf., cf. Pr. 19, 11. 

T^SD] some take this as = - Ti^tt: but the ordinary 
meaning of the word is the correct one 4 . 

35. y:n] for the pathach see Is. 42, 5 Ps. 94, 9, and 
without a guttural Dt. 32, 28. Translate, ,,who 
quieteth the sea when its billows rage": but ace. to 
others it is to be explained from y 35, 20 5 . 

39. ::DJi] = np i, which the targ. renders by no:: cf. Ez. 
41, 7 Num. 34, 4: in all these cases the verb is qal. 

XXXII. 2. rroar;] from HLM 3, 5 -- : disappearing. 

23. ,*npni] = mp, both roots having the same signifi 
cation: so 13, 22. 

1 Tg. ysntPK s^y cm N^p. a piel ^3- ni^, Qim. 
3 y\2D ir^y, Qimchi: but another expl. is ,,thou will hide 
thyself from me through shame for thy evil ways": see 
Rashi here and on Cant. 5, 6. 4 cf. Ges. in thes. 223. 
6 where the rabbins interpret yn of the. clefts in the 
earth in which they hide themselves, comparing y:n Ij 7, 5. 
So here Qimchi refers it to the passage of the Red Sea 
when God D^ ypz y. 78, 13. 


30. DDTinyjD] the subst. is nrnyj, like nmnn Qohelet 
11, 9. 12, 1. 

XXXIII. 24. ->Dy nx] ace. to some nx denotes the sub 
ject of the verb. \ as -1 S. 17, 34, -px>o> being for 

26. aipyj Some 2 say Ja aqob stands here for jnnx, as 
1 Ki. 2, 28 oi^3X for n^&>: there are several similar 
cases mentioned in the book Riqmah 3 . 

XXXIV. 14. fpti] i. e. 7 years from the beginning 
of the period, as Dt. 15, 1: for everything has two 
,,ends", one where it begins and one where it breaks off. 

XXXVI. 32. njrvi] the suffix as Gn. 16, 7. 

XXXVII. 10. i^nxn] 3 is perhaps for a as Lev. 8, 32 

XXXVIIL 12. >xb] like "ib v. 11 with x for \ cf. 

Hos. 11, 7. 
rn^BN] as Ez. 41, 8. 

14. N13D] i. e. the middle court: cf. Ez. 47, 16. 
19. nx] == p, as Ex. 9, 29 Gn. 6, 13 4 . 

1 so Q. cf. 2 K. 6, 5 and Ew. 277 d. 2 as all vss. 
except targum. 3 Dt. 33, 7 is added by Qirnchi: min^ 
there does not agree with what follows, and he accordingly 
says that we must read yyftwb. -- The reference to Riqmah 
is to c. 28, which treats of cases where one word is put 
for another: in 2 S. 25, 11 for example R. Jonah thinks 
the writer must have intended vj" although he used the 
-word ^ S D. Other instances are Ex. 21, 8 DJ& for wx 1 ?, 
Zekh. 4, 12 nmn for pt?n Ex. 32, 20 v\w*i for -]n^ 
(because the root ty cannot be used of gold) Zekh. 11, 13 
Wn for isixn etc. 4 where Rashi adds 1 K. 15, 23: but 
Ibn Ezra says it may = DT;, or may be explained thus 
,,I destroy them (and I destroy) the earth", - - which he 



21. }*<&] adj. in lieu of the partic. : cf. Qoh. 4, 2. 

22. -prPDn] there are two roots JVD and no s ; or perhaps 
it is sufficient to assume JTD alone , the dagesh being 
originally added in iiror; to destroy the quiescent 
vowel, and retained even with the suffix 1 cf, rPD s 
Is. 36, 18 D rta Nu. 14, 27. 

XXXIX. 4. DTHBin] with the sign of the dual after m - 

as Ez. 27, 5. 
7. DTitrm] with the sign of the dual after n , as. 

Qoh. 10, 18, 1 C. 15, 19 etc. 
XL. 1. D s pw] the N quiescent in qamess, as v. 4 Jud. 

9, 41 : or it may be pleonastic, cf. */ 149, 8. 
XLI. 17. mu] formed from TU like nny y. 81, 6. 
XLII. 10. mts>] deficient, as in ^ Ij. 42, .2 2 : it is on 

the contrary added in 3it^ 2 S. 15, 8 3 . 
XLIII. 10. nnstr] his tent 4 : the last radical is doubled 

as in TTiD. By means of this word some explain 

Ij. 26, 13. 
XLIV. 16. urx] the suffix of the 1 st pers. pi., as in 

IJB& mi and mV- but except in these three cases 

U -- with dagesh indicates the 3 d pers. sing, and 

only without it, the 1 st pers. plur. 
17. rote! = niD^o 2 , and therefore without x (rb*6a). 

1 i. e. n^CSl became p^DH. and the dagesh was kept 
even when it might have seemed to be no longer neces 
sary: for "pJTpn they wrote ^Dn. 2 so Qimchi. Cf. Nutt s 
Chajjug p. 31. 3 where Qimchi s expl. is very forced: and 
the Ktib n^ suggests naturally the correction IT t;H (Thenius, 
after LXX), especially when the corrupt ancT generally 
untrustworthy character of the masoretic text of the books of 
Samuel is kept in mind. 4 .,so called wrfy Gn. 49, 21". 
Qimchi. 2 he means apparently, the empire of heaven, 
i. e. the stars: the other deriv. is given by Qi., who explains 
it also of the stars, the work of God: cf. Gn. 2. 2. 


18. u&r] J, as Is. 23, 11, represents the dagesh 
forte which properly belongs to -- the word thus 
referring to the men who are already dead: but 
others maintain that it is for Uttttn the double letter 
disappearing, as is frequently the case in verbs y"y 
on account of the two identical sounds coalescing: 
cf. Ij. 29, 21 Ez. 22, 16 Nu. 14, 45: this explanation 
however is far-fetched, because the accent is on 
the penultima in iJDan, and the voice dwells on the 
syllable between the two M e m s. Others think there 
are two roots, DTI as well as Dttn: cf. Is. 33, 1. 

19. nn^yn^] with n paragogic. ,,to provoke, sc. God": 
or with map pi q omitted, ,,to delight the idol" - 
the prophet using nizy to denote joy 1 . Others say 
that it is the name of the idolatrous worship 2 , cf. 
a^y Hos. 8, 4 etc. 

21. -nap] a sub si, cf. 5, 13 Dt. 32, 35. 

23. runp] for n*op, cf. Ex. 5, 16 Is. 60, 18: so Ez. 46, 
17 Lev. 25, 21. 25. 26, 34 Ez. 24, 12, where n of the 
root is dropped [rtyy for rntyy], and n is the sign 
of the fern in., but in nrtyy the n is radical and 
represents n. 

XL VI. 8 rhy*] qal, cf. Ij. 32, 17: but ace. to others 

hifil, with the object ^n left out. 
rTOlx] with i, cf. 1 Sam. 15, 6. 

15. nnoj] sg. with plur. subject: cf. Pr. 28, 1 3 . 

16. ^tfins] ace. to some a subst.: like Jon. 1, 6 Gn. 
23, 16. 

1 Cf. his note on Ez. 8, 14. Qimchi likewise renders 
nnDty 1 ?. 2 targ. NTliytt. 3 LXX. dtu il scpwyev o r Ani?; 
o pocrxog b exAexiog crov ovx fysivev. By the sing., says 
Qimchi, he means to denote "pTax p inNl *;nN k fe. 


that sweepeth away, from nr Lev. 25, 14 1 -. 
but others take the word in its ordinary meaning 
dove, thinking Nebukhadnessar is so addressed be 
cause of the rapidity of his advance. 

17. pxtP] an adj., but in e Am. 2, 2 it is a subst. 

20. rpsns\] fern, from nBns (like rrmi, rpDn) an adj. 
formed by the reduplication of the two last radicals, 
the 2 d - > standing for the original n, and the of 
prolongation being merged in the dagesh 2 . But the 
masc. may also be " BnS 1 , in which case the "> would 
be patronymic, as in mr; msa nn&^ty: cf. rpr; 
from yy Is. 10, 30 etc. 

pp] cutting off, destruction, Ij. 33, 6. 

NH *o] the first is the partic. the second the perf.: but 
others think the second N k n is for ra 3 , cf. Ez. 36, 5. 

23. irro] if 3 be pronounced with metheg it may be 
imp. pi c el: or it may even be perf. qal 4 although the 
words " DNJ follow, for sometimes the perf. is found 
so: see, for example, 48, 15. 

XLYII. 3. nttytp] trampling: or noise clamour, 
in accordance with the context. 

1 so Qimchi. LXX (.m/^tQas Etiynx?,? . targ. 
N V HD. 2 Cf. Riqmah c. 22 pp. 69, 146. where rw; n^Dl" 
are said to arise by compensation out of rppy just like 
r.iSbn from nJ^n the long vowel being swallowed up " in 
dagesh. The meaning above apparently is that the fern. 
from HD-D S (with primitive ) would be n^Sr;S (cf. rPttb): 
as the voice dwelt on the penultimate it would become 
n^ SHD^ , and this in conformity with the general rule would 
be written n;Bns\ Cf. n^S where, as Ibn Ganach says, the 
quiescent vowel which is under s in nlxB is merged in 
dagesh. 3 LXX. rjl&Bv In amyv. Else we may say with 
long Qimchi it is doubled ^jy- pTi^. 4 explained in the 
same way by Qimchi. who likewise refers to 48, 15. 


6. tsiptyn] the must be paragogic as 3, 6. 

XL VIII. 2. wn] hithpo el, with dagesh in . i on 
account of the absorption of p, and in D because of 
the double a in the root: cf. Ez. 10, 15 *: but it is 
better to treat it as nifal with i written full, like 
Is. 24, 3 and in the perf. 34, 4: the latter expla 
nation is the easiest because it is unlikely that 
hithpo el would be written defectively with only a 
single D. 

4. rpTys] = rph-ti as Zekh. 13, 7*. 

7. -jnttn] inf. although pointed with chireq: see 49, 21. 
9. ^s] a wing; cf. Lev. 11, 9 where for TBJD (a fin) 

Onqelos has pS S. 

KXP K2U| both from nsJ Lam. 4, 15: sn without dagesh 
like B?P Dt. 32, 18 in Gn. 25, 29. 

12 . n y a ] -_ p nn to empty 3 from the sense of the 
words which follow: some explain it from Is. 51, 
14, only here it is transitive 4 . 

13. DnL^tt] originally the u was pointed with pathach, 
on account of the guttural, but when n received 
qamess, it was exchanged for segol, as is usual when 
pathach comes to precede qamess : accordingly we 
find Tittfifin flez. 5, 13 nTOm Nu. 8, 7. 

15. rhy] sc. nhyn (as subject), i. e. the enemy. 

1 where cf. his note. 2 where tg. has N\nn, which 
suggests the expl. of s ,,those in the second rank next to 
the princes the inferior nobles" (Rashi): but Qimchi 
thinks they are so called ^^ "jil ^V by way of depre 
ciation. Ew. follows the LXX: el? Zo?oQa. 3 as Rashi. 
4 i. e. as Qimchi to disturb, move with violence from one 
place to another: in Is. 63, 1 DWl Wwi V^D. LXX 
: see Gesen. thes 1177. 

19. neteji] n paragogic, because the word is an adj. 

masc 1 : or it is 3 d S g. fern, perf..- -- J;0 ask of 

him that fleeth Hath the city escaped?" 
29. ,-io] adj., formed like n$n 2 S. 15, 37 etc. from rue. 
31. mrp] sc. ^.- 
34. rfay] st. constr., cf. Is. 14, 7: it means the calves 

of Mo ab 2 . 
37. nnnj] formed like mf>nj Dt. 32, 8: *?y must be 

understood in the first half of the verse. 
39. tcna] may be either perf. qal like *nx Gn. 44, 3, or 

an adj. like nitt, which occurs in the plural Ez. 32, 30. 

XLIX. 3. nJBBiffrn] the only instance of n retaining its 
place- before w in hithpael 3 . 

7. nn-iDJ] ace. to some in the same sense as Ex. 26, 12 
,,is poured away, lost" 4 . 

8. ip Dyn UDH] both perf. for imper. , as in nif. Jo 1 el 
4, 11 c. 50, 5: but some take them as the perf. 5 in 
its ordinary sense, explaining the passage thus: - 
When one says to them Flee, they are turned. &c. 6 . 

10. nam] inf.; cf Zekh. 14, 5 nrDJ 7 . 

11. iHL^n] with one 8 of the marks of the fern, in the 
impf.: cf. Ez. 37, 7 Ij. 19, 15. 

16. -jir^sn] for the form cf. Jud. 4, 9. 

1 Ew. 173 h. 172 c. Ace. to Qimchi it is mil c el and 
perf. nif c al, == ntD?DJ "]B>x. 2 Ace. to Qimchi for 
TOy: he compares Pr. 24, 9 Is. 35, 2 Lam. 2, 18. 
* ,,to avoid the repetition of the T- sound" Ew. 78 b. 
4 Qimchi mcsj i. e. corrupt, fetid. 5 as Qimchi 
following his father. 6 Imp. hof. ace. to Ew. 226 a who 
compares Ez. 32, 19 : in comm. however he suggests UBfi : 
cf. v. 24. 46, 5. 21. 47 ; 3. 7 which, with targ. LXX he 
derives from DnD pointing ctJDS (inf. abs.) Comp above 

19. njmx] ace. to some, a subst., like nzr^x (n. pr.) 

Josh. 19, 29 i. 
yym ] with dagesh added, as Ij. 9, 34. 13, 21. 

24. tttn] ace. to some for nm Hos. 13, 1. 

25. nmy] as Neh. 3, 8 to strengthen, restore, cf. 
in the talmud nmyD pavement or ceiling: ace. to 
others, as Ex. 23, 5, to help: or in its ordinary sense 2 
,,how have they not left her so as not to destroy 

rfrnn] either the st. abs. as Ex. 15, 2 y. 16, 6, or the 

st. c. before >GWD, as 46, 9. 
E>1B>&] the > is paragogic. 

L. 5. n^jij instead of v6m as Jo el 4, II 3 : but others 
say it is impf. qal, for rrta , the second i replacing 
n of the root, as in inrwi. 

11. NBH] i. e. nstn 4 , as some think, comparing Qoh. 
10, 5, - - if it be written with x : but if this be for 
n, such a supposition is not needed, as the word is 
then part. fern, from BTT! C. 21, 20 5 . 

T>T3N] i. e. horses: cf. 8, 16. 

21. n] cf. Josh. 3, 17. 

1 He explains it like y;n 18, 7 (targ. pn LXX. 
%v), cf. Pr. 12, 19 where Rashi has y;n vytj? and 
where the idea of suddenness, quickness is expressed 
by LXX. targ. (reading iy) pd()Tv$ Ta%v$ amnoo Nino, 
Others treat it as verb, either as Qimchi ,,when I give rest 
to Israel, I will &c.", or as the moderns (cf. Ewald to 
Prov. 1. c.) ,,in the twinkling of an eye". 2 as Qimchi and 
targ. 3 as Qimchi : or with Jonathan we may treat the two 
verbs as perff. in fut. sense *pSDWl "pri". 4 ,,feeding always 
on the tender grass", Q. 5 or a stall e d ox (targ.) i. e. 
one that does no work but is fed on r 


from mn 47, 6 and similarly v. 27. 

24. nnjnn] for the form 1 K. 14, 2. 

26. inns] explained by some, slay Mi. 5, 5: rpD 
would then be an adj. stalled (cattle), agreeing 
with D\snn understood 1 . 

rrte] make her level, as in rf?D. 

DWy] n&iy in the sing.-, cf. v. 38 D D N from n& N and 
Zekh. 14, 10. 

29. iy>DB>n] as 1 S. 15, 4 (pi c el) [=== evocare] 2 , o\n 
having the same sense as Gn. 49, 23 3 , or being a 
trans, adj. 

31. in.] adj., as v. 32. 

34. yvnn] inf. like mn, and so frequently. 

37. my] as y- 106, 35, a mixed people [i. e. foreigners] 
or as Ez. 27, 27 i. e. the merchants 4 . 

LI. 3. -p-p] this word must be repeated (as in the k tib) 
in order to give the sense, which is as follows: - 
,,He who used to be drawing his bow - - let others 
now draw their bows upon him" and similarly with 
i?yrp : ,,he that used to Cxalt himself with his breast 
plate - - let others now exalt themselves against him". 
9. iJXDi] N for *, nsi having the same signification as 
N si: or the word is written like a verb x"b and 
pronounced like a verb n"^ 5 . 

11. ran] from TO 6 : others think it stands for roNn 
,,give wings to" Is. 40, 31 cf. Ij. 32, 11. 

] Rashi ,,open her gates (following Jonathan): so in Mi. 
he gives gates for s. Qimchi ,,open her granaries": in Mi. 
her swords, comparing y. 55, 22 (ace, to the older intpp.). 
2 Qimchi = ISDN because the people are assembled 
^p r?Dt?n T ^y". 3 and Ij. 16, 13. . 4 Both explanations 
are also given by Qimchi. 6 Cf. Qimchi xn ^y33 2HDJ 
nn ^> 3D *opJ1. 6 polish, sharpen : targ. I^Jty : so Qimchi Rashi. 


13. nos] i. e. rro l . 

25. rvnty&n] may be either adj. or subst. 

27. -|D] adj. 2 cf. Ij. 4, 15: some say it means black. 

29. ^nn] from ^n. 

30. nntt>:] was dried up, as Is. 19, 5: but others, 
become effeminate 3 , from DTO which immediately 
follows: cf. 50, 37. 

56. nnnn] with chireq for shureq : cf . Is. 48, 8. 
58. nynynn nyiy] either from,-ny y. 137, 7 4 , or from 
Tiy as in n ny. 

LII. 13. rvn] st. abs. for h^n TOPI: cf. Is. 21, 11: or 

it maybe st. c. meaning every house of a great 

21. nnJ] ace. to some, nif e al, from nn, with shureq for 

cholem: cf?Ex. 14, 3, and in the talmud, n^n cloaca, 

fossa 5 . 

1 Explained by Qimchi: .,acc. to the measure of thy 
greed upon Jerusalem will God now repay thee". 2 i. e. 
OQ&O&QI%: cf. Rashi here and on y. 119, 120. Targ. ^has 
in each of the three places jorfrso burnt. 3 t&gavffdi) 
n-onN cf. Ges. 921 b, 4 Qimchi from my. Is. 23, 13 Hab. 
3, 8 to tear or root up. Rashi gives the meaning nTBn 
comparing y. 137 , where however ny rather belongs to 
my (cf. Ibn Ezra s note), although if it were regarded as 
perf. from -fly, the irregularity in the tone would disappear. 
6 So Qimchi: cf. Ges. 840 b. 


1. 1. njcp D^BO] it is not stated from what date the 
years are reckoned, but the Targum gives the cor 
rect explanation ,,from the time when Hilqijah found 
the book of the law". Others think the prophet was 
30 years old when he began to proplresy: cf. 2 S. 
15, 7 where 40 years refers to the age of 3 Ab- 

2. nfa] st. cons tr.: the a bs. state is formed like rvrn 
Is. 21, 2 nm Gn. 35, 8. 

7. D ssu] sparkling, formed like D^XI*? Hos. 7, 5 

from f>i Is. 1, 31. 
hhp] adj. =. BTOB polished, the meaning of the root 

being to rub bright so as to remove the rust. 
14. xvn] the correct explanation is to treat s as para- 

gogic, as Josh. 10, 24 Is. 28, 12 -- i being the third 

radical, and not i of prolongation which is not found 

in the inf. with n quiescent from verbs rrt>: see for 

example 1, 3. 1 Ki. 8, 13 l . 
27. rvn] the st. c. although followed by h: cf. 10, 3, 

and similarly before 3 Jud. 8, 11 and p c. 13, 2. 

1 Qimchi takes it from PIJP) (X for n) in the sense 
of pi comparing y. 50, 18 where TOFfl = V^tjl. (Cf. Ew. 
161 a, and on Jer. 8, 6). 


II. 2. n] = r\*ti some one, as Josh. 2, 4 1 . 

"DTD] hithpa e el. 

6. 3] ace. to some although, as Ex. 34, 9 2 

is similar in meaning to D^D. 
8. ^D] first time adj., second time subst. 
10. D^p] masc. pi. from a fern. sing, as Zekh. 14, 10. 
run] as Is. 38, 14. 

1 where ace. to some the suffix in ussm refers to nx. 
See Ges. thes. 169 b. 2 After negative clauses as Gn. 
8, 21 Ex. 13, 17 (whether expressed or implied) O may be 
rendered either because or although - - the former 
simply stating the reason why the action might have been 
performed, the latter bringing the reason into strong pro 
minence as against its actual non - performance : the former 
is consequently a far weaker expression than the latter 
and not generally employed in English. E. g. ,,I will no 
more destroy them because they are wicked" - - here 
because is to be closely connected with destroy, for 
which it gives the motive : in Greek o\xhi Qolo&Q9\)au 
fxvcavg o;c irovrjQovq oviag (cog = on the ground that 
they are wicked) : if on the other hand D be translated 
although, a contrast is drawn with the whole of the 
preceding clause. I will not destroy: in Greek xaineQ 
novriQovq oving where the emphatic xame^ lays stress on the 
opposition to OIXSTI and indicates that notwithstanding the 
strength of the motives which existed for destruction he 
would nevertheless not destroy. Cf. ip. 140, 9 where the 
same principle holds good: 131T belongs closely to psn , 
and the influence of ^s* extends over both: if in trans 
lating we wish to make 1D1V independent of the negative 
we must render ,,lest they become proud" just as in the 
similar case O is rendered although. Cf. Ew. 351 b. 
In Ex. 34, 9, however, there appears no adequate ground 
to depart from the meaning because: comp. Ibn Ezra, 
and y. 41, 5. Cf. Thuk. 2, 49, 1, where, if this double- 
sideduess of negative clauses be borne in mind, it will be 
seen that there is no reason to alter the Ms. reading 


Yi] from the same root as TPVtf Dan. 8, 27, formed 
like v Is. 3, 24 nn Ij. 37, 11 *. 

III. 6. >p&y] from ptty, like s ptn v. 7: or ptty like H3D 
and t> Is. 24, 7 : sometimes the st. c. of the latter 
form resembles "ten v- 4Q, 15. 70, 3 [and 35, 27]. 

x^ DX] = x^>n : DX must be understood twice, as though 
the writer had said ui Dri^x DX x^n: according to 
another opinion however it = "fcx 2 . 

15. DWftJ adj. cf. Dan. 10, 11. 

IV. 2. D HD] ,,surround her with the likeness of princes 
fighting", like Jer. 1, 15: similarly Is. 16, 1 ID 
is interpreted by some as equivalent in meaning to 
the parallel "px ^D. Others think D "p = rams, 
i. e. figures resembling rams made of iron in order to 
batter down the walls of a city. 

8. -piJZB] with shureq: cf. Gn. 37, 1. 

12. uJViyn] ace. to some dagesh is deficient in j, the 
sense being ,,thou shall turn fciy) it, the cake , before 
their eyes 3 " : while Mi. 7, 10 is an instance of the 
contrary, for there dagesh is added. But perhaps 
it is like Zekh. 1, 17, 3 d pi. fern. 4 , and alludes to 
the women whose duty it was to bake the cakes. 

V. 6. nytn] inf., like ran, HXT, nnot^ (Jud. 16, 23). 

7. DDJDH] [from pn 6 ], cf. Num. 15, 19: or the qamess 

1 Ibn "Ezra on Dan. 2, 1: - - ,,a word indicating 
perplexity BfntP." 2 So Ew. : but it seems best with 
Qimchi & Rashi to take xh DX to denote as elsewhere an 
oath or strong asseveration surely had I sent thee to 
them they would be listening to thee." 3 as Jonathan. 
4 as Qimchi. 5 =to be numerous, Qimchi. With the 
last view in the text comp. Ew. 239 a. esp. Hos. 8, 5. 
In the Ms. part of the note on v. 7. has become misplaced 
and follows the note on v. 16. See Bottcher, Aehrenl. ad loc. 


chatuph may indicate that it is a subst. pDn, with i 
defective , from n&JT or it is an infin. with ] added, 
as many think : cf. 1 K. 6, 19 Est. 8, 6 and from a 
verb n"i? as here t^ 85, 4. 
16. nTOD] a subst., or inf. like 17, 9 Num. 10, 2. 

VI. 3. riVM] from JO: Dt. 3, 29, the being added as Dan. 
8, 22, or to indicate the fern. Others explain the form 
by metathesis from rriiM w^li ssere for shwa : while 
others again say the is for K and the N for >, in 
accordance with the interchange common with these 
letters and with i. 

7. ^DJ] ace. to some nif. from ^s, like ^n ^SJ 28, 23 : 
cf. Ex. 21, 22. 

8. DD nntra] inf. with * added because it resembles a 
fern, pi.: the only other similar instance is 16, 31. 

9. ittlpj] it is plausible that this may be derived from 
ttp 16, 47 little: ,,in consideration of the great 
number of the abominations they have committed, 
it will be said that the evils happening to them are 
but a part", i e. few. 

Tna&w] nif. with transitive force: cf. Nu. 31, 3 Is. 44, 
21 and for the seuse Lev. 26, 41 : or it may be in 
transitive , nJ? nx having the force of onta or on^n *. 

12. -n^y) ace. to some, nifal with shureq for cholem, 
as Ex. 14, 13 Jer. 52, 21 2 . 

1 ,,A11 interpreters as well as the targum regard J as 
= T)"ntP which is impossible because nif c al is never transi 
tive", Qimchi, who proceeds then to adopt the second opinion 
given in the text. 2 He derives it from -]is , as targ. Hyn 
NTS ^"03: Is. 1, 8 may be taken in the same way. Or 
we may derive it from nuj in the sense of TDtP blockaded: 
both explanations are given by Qimchi. 


VII. 6. irpn y pn] Two roots with tlie same meaning 
end: but others take y>pn as 2 K. 4, 31 to awake. 

7. rrr>D*] Is. 28, 5, a crown or chaplet 2 , from IBS 
to turn round Jud. 7. 3 where however others think 
it means to do early in the morning, so that 
PITBS would = morning, cf. DV>n ao v. 7. 10. 12. 
In my opinion a denotes the revolution of a body 
in the heavens, as though he meant to say that when 
the star that consummated their misfortune returned 
to its starting-point, their prosperity would cease 
and give way to humiliation. 

7. in] there will be no strength in them, cf. Tin Zekh. 
10, 3 : but some, comparing TPn , think it to be a word 
of exhortation addressed to a fugitive, urging him to 
flee to the mountains : while I should derive it from Tpn 
interpreting the meaning as follows: - ,,The evil 
which is coming upon you is heavier than if one 
were to take up the weight of mountains 4 : for men 
carrying a burden are accustomed when it is very 
heavy to sing Tpn TPn in order that their mind may 
be occupied with what they are saying, and not feel 
the pain caused by its weight 3 . 

11. DnEnD] The right derivation of this word is from 
nftn, so that it is equivalent to DjiDno. 

1 i. e. yap and yip: Qimchi says yp y:y y*pn. 

e. the kingdom: as Jonathan explains. 3 cf. Jon. 
IXBn JOFTIB"*6 rph: the second view in the text 
is that of Ra. : no herald - shouting "in (cf. Jer. 51, 14). 
will call you to escape to the mountains. Upon the 3<i 
view, we must render ,,the day of trouble, and not (i. e. 
heavier than) the neight of, etc." Qimchi: and not (like) 
an echo among mountains, i. e. more real than a mere 

said by some to be from the same root as D.TJ 
27, 32 : but this is incorrect because ni: is a verb V y 
and the n is sounded in speaking so that it cannot 
again become quiescent: but in D.TJ it does not be 
long to the root but is part of the suffix, as is 
proved by the s ego 1. DPM is from \j like vi 3, 10: but 
m: is formed like rn: . Its meaning is determined by 
the context. 

13. *h (first time)] [the force of xh is continued into 
the next clause. 

Tiyi] another thing is that their soul 1 (i. e. they them 
selves) will not be alive the last half of the verse 
explaining the first. Others interpret 1:11 *nyi thus 
Although they live many years the seller 
will never return to his merchandise, for they are 
in exile and will never come back: nor will any for 
his sin, the sin of his own soul, be able to strengthen 
himself" 2 , or ,,for their sin they will not strengthen 
themselves in their life" - - a in uijn extending its 
force over irvn. 

14. yipn] the name of the trumpet. 

20. xi asi] the sanctuary, which was their glory : see v. 24. 

i>Xl] 1 is redundant. 

22. -OIDS = D trrp tnp, the holy of holies. 

24. m] contracted for i^m nif. from ^n, as frequently 
is the case with this root, cf. 22, 16. 25, 3 like im 
69, 4. Others treat it as nif. from t>m, the dagesh 
which ought properly to be in n being omitted on 
account of its being a guttural. 

1 cf. Ij. 36, 14. 33, 28. 2 So Qimchi, who compares 
Lev. 25, 10: God s anger is upon them and they shall no 
longer as formerly return in the jubilee -year each to his 
own possession: for they shall be in captivity. 

their temples that they have provided for 
themselves : a subst. from tnpD formed like nyntt Is. 
49, 7 mpa Qoh. 10, 18: some think f is without 
dagesh in order to indicate that there will be no 
holiness there, but others consider it to be the partic. 
pi. _ without dagesh like Is. 62, 9 cf. Ij. 13, 9. 
25. msp] cutting off, destruction, Is. 38, 12. 

VIII. 3. mrs] = p Cant 5, 12 long hair, cf. Num. 

15, 38. Some explain similarly Cant. 2, 9 ^xto = 

,,shewing the hairs of his head". 
^ED] figure, likeness: and the reason why he calls 

the idol nx:pn ^DD, is because itmadeGodjealous 

as he further explains, see Dt. 32, 16. 
6. npm] with qamess (a) .under 1 as Am. 2, 4 on 

account of the guttural: else it would be like m^g 

Ex. 36, 2 !. 

10. npriB] from npn as Ij. 13, 27. 

11. my] a thick large cloud of smoke, cf. 35, 13. 
14. nimD] ace. to some trans., Tammuz being the 

same as Mblokh, but ace. to others, intrans. as 
Jer. 31, 15,, Tammuz being derived from the same 
root as wzh Dan. 3, 19, and the meaning being that 
they were weeping for their sons whom they caused 
to pass through the fire to Molokli: but this expla 
nation is incorrect because D in NID is not radical. 
Others think Tammuz to be the name of a month 2 
that namely in which the sun begins to diminish in 
power, or they explain nona as = ninths maki n g 

3 The qamess chateph nxnpn 1SDt5 says Qimchi : else 
it would be shwa Ex. 30, 18. 2 as in aram., corresponding 
to July. Comp. Chwolson s monograph, Ueber Tammuz. 


him glad or ninai^ rejoicing- over Tarn muz 
(cf. m^y$> Jer. 44, 19) supposing the meaning to be 
that a festival was held when the month Tammuz 
came round, for then the sun was at the highest 
point of his course. It ought however to be remem 
bered that it is said in one of the books on philosophy 
that the man who first taught the worship of the sun 
was named Tammuz, that the month in which the 
sun reached the highest point of his course was called 
after him, and that after his death a day was appointed 
to be kept once a year in his honour; cf. Jud. 11, 40. 

16. DmnntPB] a mixed form between the part, and the 
perf. intended to express at once the sense of both 1 . 

17. ^pj] nif. and intrans., cf. DDJ y. 22, 15 and in the 
perf. c. 21, 12. 

miDt] crepitus vent r is: but others compare TT 

a sprig. 
DSX] a tiqqun soferim 2 , or correction for ^DX as 

Ij. 7, 20 Mai. 1, 13, ^y and inix for 7^; and >mx 

IX. 1 . nnps] = D s tWK i. e. the men appointed against 
the city to destroy it. mp is imp. pi. like Is. 41, 21 
(cf. in sing. c. 37, 17) and is addressed to the agents 
of destruction , that they should move on quickly : 
for the same reason he says hu ^ip and each at 
once took his implement of destruction in his hand. 

1 Qimchi: ,,when the prophet saw them bowing down 
to the sun, he asked those that entered in Have ye bowed 
down?" The Jems, talmud and Jonathan explain it curiously 
as a compound of D^THl^D and D inrtPB i. e. Destroying 
the temple & its worship and bowing down to the sun". 
2 On the 18 places where there is a correctio scri- 
barum see Bleek, intr. 359, or the great masorah on 
Num. 1, ] : also Geiger, Urschrift pp. 308 if. 



6. itwn] a rare form with pathach: cf. Jer. 23, 12 l . 

8. -iNtwui] ace. to some by metathesis for IKEONI, with 
: of nif al added; ace. to others, a rare form of 
qal - - the first two letters indicating the impf., 
both sing, and pi. at once: but it is best to look 
upon it as perf. nif. 2 with x inserted, cf. the perf. 
>:*< i&&K y. 6, 3. ->:K is then = ^asy: comp. Nu. 14, 
14 nnx n*m 

9. HBB] i. e. nutt tsst^O: or it may be a subst. formed 
like the partic. pass, as ittpa Mai. 1, 11. 

X. 1. ^N] for ^>y, as 12, 12: and conversely ^y for ^x v. 4. 
9. nnx 2112,1] 1HN without the art. as iff. 57, 3: on the 

contrary the subst is without it 40, 28 ispi: but 

both have it y. 18, 48 Jer. 23, 34 etc. 

15. IBTP] acc. to some, hithpo el for WHIT from on 
or con (for both are found): but it is really nif. from 
DSl of the form hysj, cf. Is. 34, 4. 24, 3 : for hithpoel 
cannot be written defectively with only one a 3 . 

16. niw] so 2 Ki. 12, 9. 

17. DJTiN*] for DPS: as Jer. 35, 2; or it refers to the 
wheels: cf. Lev. 13, 55, where in like manner imx 
denotes the subject. 

XL 3. zrnpn vh] i. e. this prophecy will not shortly 
come to pass. 

7. N^*n] inf. doing duty for the impf.: cf. Jer. 7, 
13. 35, 14. 

XII. 4. NXio] subst. 4 , or part. pass, hof al with shureq 
exchanged for cholem. 

1 Ew. 92 b. 2 so Ibn Ezra on Num.: but cf. Hupf. 
on <//. 6, 3. 3 Cf. note on Jer. 48, 2. 4 as Qimchi 
comparing y. 65, 9. 


10. ami] as if x^:^ : and conversely 10, 6. 

13. nxT xb inixi] he here prophesies against Ssidqijah, 

who was blinded. 
19. DBTI] ssere carries ^ with it, the root being nw 

6, 6 or x, cf. Pr. 8, 17, [i. e. it is from Dtrx]. 
25. *]tt>&n] the subject is "im, which is either masc. or 

fern.: or it ma be nxnjn understood. 

XIII. 6. IT] causative 1 , as y- 119, 49. 
9. nro] with qamess, although in st. c.: cf. Is. 10, 21 
Est. 1, 4. 

18. T] for this form of the pi. cf. Jer. 22, 14. 
ninsoB] He compares the amulets to coverlets because 

there was no use in them 2 . 

nrrmjn] ,,Do ye hunt the souls of my people 
to destroy them with your lies? and do ye keep 
alive for a few handfuls of barley as your reward 
(v. 19) the souls of the wicked?" 

19. mTODn] cf. Zekh. 1, 17. c. 16, 55. 
n:"nn xh IB>N] parallel to n:^nn rmh rwBJi. 

20. nimis^] i. e. B nvr& so that they fly away, 
the sense being that because they are hunted they 
fly away, by which he means to say they die 3 . 
Others explain thus : ,,to kill or keep alive according 
to their prophecy (augury), souls which will not (respec 
tively) die and live, because their prediction will not 

1 making Israel cherish the delusive hope that 
their words would be established 1 . 2 Coverings placed on 
the head at the time of divination (Rashi) : these the proph., 
wishing to speak contemptuously of them, calls by the com 
mon name D (cf. Is. 3, 22) instead of using a title expres 
sive of the value assigned to them by their owners. Comp. 
Ewald s note. 3 - cf. Jon. 


be verified": others think he employs a simile, likening 
the souls to birds flying about, which are hunted 
by the false prophets. 

XIV. 3 trnx] for tmn 1 , as 2 Ki. 6, 21 : but Chajjug 

treats it as impf. hithp. comparing ?]nT Ps. 7, 6 

where in like manner there is cholem. 
4. N3] although he comes with the multitude of his 

idols: or as others think, if or, because he comes 

when his idols are many. 
15. nrfw] cf. 1 S. 1, 6; Ru. 3, 6; Is. 34, 17. 

XVI. 3. ynn OE] =- ynnriD, a being exchanged for 3; 
but others think that a is for j, as Dt. 7, 19. 29, 2. 
or that the root is 2 Ki. 12, 8 Dt. 18, 8: but 
the correct derivation is from the same root as 
D,"\nro Gin. 49, 5: its meaning is clear from the 

4. rrf?r\ 2 ] n added as in qal , although it is h o f a 1 3 : 
the first radical is absorbed in dagesh. 

>ytt>&] the context leads us to the signification washing: 

so in arab. ^X^**o5 j^/cf wash thy cheek 4 . 

5. rton] inf. with shureq, as Hos. 7, 4. 

6. 7DT] the blood of thy birth 5 . 
n] cf. "nn 2 K. 4, 7. 

7. D HV ny] i. e. perfect beauty: or in the time when 
thou wast obliged to conceal thyself. 

1 ,,because it is difficult to pronounce two It s in succes 
sion" (in BHTin). Qimchi. 2 also found Gn. 40. 20. 3 lit. 
,,the conjugation which is never found with an object". 4 see 
t h e s. s. v. 5 Cf. Qimchi vntr ^DHl HT^n 


with pathach although it is of the past: for 

it follows from the sense of what precedes that it 

is so: cf. Is. 63, 3. 51, 2. 2 S. 1, 10. 
10. -jhnx] without suffix ^yjx (cf. Is. 5, 29 f.) as is proved 

by the short pathach under y. 
15. "ptJ> ?y]i. e. for the sake of... : or more than, 

cf. 23, 20 !. 
1^] i. e. "niy^ , thy fornications were for or with any 

that passed by" : others say it is for vh , so that the 

sense is iike that of 16 b ,,such fornications will 2 

never be again". 

18. D D2rn] the suffix refers to IDI nbv 17. 

19. irpnnji] i like O rafa in Arab.: the word itself = 
iniK nrui: the 2 d - pers. fern. sg. ends properly with 
: but in order to distinguish it from the first pers. 
sg. that letter is cut off: arid in this very book there 
are many words written with >, but pronounced 
without it: accordingly the two persons resemble 
one another and it is impossible to distinguish between 

20. uyDn] ft is omitted before uyft while n is added - 
unless the latter be a sign of astonishment 3 . 

29. iyjD "px] i. e. Babel, because it was the home of 
merchants, as 17, 4: cf. Is. 23, 8. 

1 i. e. either, to keep up thy name, or beyond what 
fame said of thee. 2 or rather ,,may such never be": 
with the first view cp. Qimchi s note. 3 ,,Thou hast pro 
voked me in all these ways, adding one sin upon another - 
because thy whoredoms were too few for thee" 
(lit. on account of the fewness of them): or keeping n and 
omitting the ft ,,o the fewness of" &c., or ,,as though thy 
whoredoms were so few!" cf. 1 K. 16, 31. [In the transl. 
the reading on for D1J is followed]. 


30. rfciox] adj., from the root of ^DX y 6, 3: and 
hence he speaks of her heart in the f e m *. 

tftfov] ,,ruling by fornications": or, a sovereign, be 
cause she is able to do what she likes, eren to 
commit fornications. 

31. 7rnJ33] inf. with ^ paragogic, as 6, 8 and (as some 
think) Is. 53, 9. 

33. m:] n is exchanged for j in 7:1: : cf. HJPX and 
and D ny 2 S. 1, 24 for D ny. 

nntpn] with qamess chatuph under n to shew that it 
represents 2 an original cholem: cf. 17, 23 Ezr. 8, 25. 

34. *] sc. nm-i m i&3: so Is. 23 ; J3 rrn *6 i. e. 
,,there was no people like it", and y. 52, 6 TIB nn *6 
i. e. ,,they feared a fear, there was no fear like it, 
i. e. a fear unlike any other fear". 

36. -jnB>m] = anus, as 24, 11. 

B-D] 3 instead of ^, on account of 3 . 

43. ^uin] causative --as though it were TUN* TJim. 

40. 7pro] the meaning is determined by the context 
to be similar to that of inn Gn. 15, 10. 

43. nan] = HOIDH, so that the meaning is ,,Thou hast 
not considered thy end": or mry is past for future. 

45. -,mnx] p 1. , with > dropped (nvnx as 52), and with 
out *, the second sign of the plur. fern., as Dt. 
28, 59. In 7ninx v. 61 it may be that both signs of 
the pi. are present, the form mn without the sufh x 
exhibiting i of the pi., with disappearance of the 

1 Cf. -Qimchi. The heart is called nhotf, weak and 
enfeebled: it is regarded as being diminished in size and 
is consequently spoken of in the fern, in accordance with 
its inferior nature. See Bottcher, Neue kr.-exeg. Aehrenlese. 
ad. loc. 2 utej : see note on Jer. 5, 6. 3 D i. e. thou shalt 
be punished in proportion to they offences. Qimchi. 


third radical >: or, on the other hand, i may be 
radical, and alone indicate the plural (as Is. 47, 13), 
in which case the word would be similar to mnx 
Cant. 8, 8, where n denotes the fern. sg. and i is 
radical. We have the full form v. 52 -jnvrw, where 
replaces n of the root, but the word has only one 
sign of the pi. (viz. m): in Josh. 20, 13 on the 
contrary both are present. The same distinction 
exists between arnnstPB and Dim , Josh. 18, 20 f. 
etc. and in other analogous cases *. 

49 -JIN:] i is deficient before nyuty : or the case resembles 
Josh. 3, 14 

50. nrn^m] like rwym 2 : cf. 43, 11 [where similarly 
a word is altered for the sake of the assonance.] 

52. "irpisn] inf. pi. with n added 3 : a rare form among 
perfect verbs. Is. 30, 19 Lev. 16, 1 etc. are not 
analogous, because in them n was originally n , as 
it is Ex. 36, 2 and is consequently without dagesh, 
but n in nt&nn*, rhw Gn. 8, 7 Nu. 14, 16 Dt. 9, 28 
may perhaps resemble the one before us. 

53. njn^pn] with the sign of the fern, both sg. and pi., 
as 1 K. 1, 37 : or perhaps jn denotes the fern. 
pi., the last n being paragogic : cf. in the masc. 2 S. 
23, 6. 

57. niiDNty] from IDW Ij. 1, 7 ,,who seek after thy 
treasuries 4 ": for s cf. Hos. 10, 14. Others render 
,,who despise" from cNty 25, 15. 

1 On mnx cf. Hupf. to v>- 11, 6. 2 so Rashi, and 
Ewald who compares Cant. 3, 11 (198 b. 118 d). 3 Ew. 
238d. refers to Is. 6, 13 c. 16, 4 also Lev. 26, 18 y. 
147, 1. 4 cf. Nu. 11, 8, where for miP targ. Jer. has 


61. ^N] = ny in addition to, - there are many 
words which can be thus exchanged one with another. 

"jrpiao N^l] i. e. ,,yet not because thou hast observed 
the (old) covenant which I made with thee (but from 
a new covenant of 1 mercy and love)". 

XVII. 3. nsu] formed like r6i; 12, 7, nhy, nyin. 

5. Dp] perf. , the first radical being deficient: cf. Jud. 
19, 11 : and with q am ess, like Hos. 6, 1 Am. 3, 8 2 . 

nsxBS] a species of willow, which grows always by 
water. But it is better to derive it from P^S Dt. 1 1 , 4 
like rhrhn from ^n, in the sense of ,,a place full 
of water so deep that a man could swim in it". 

7. HJB3] explained by some as arising from HDJ3 by 
metathesis Contracted itself*, cf. in talm. N^BUD 
assembly congregation: by others as .,was 
hungry" Ij. 5, 22, figuratively of desire 3 . 

9. Pptt] in targ. for rhv the leaf of a vine, Gn. 8, II 4 . 

niKt^] ace. to some, a subst. 5 instead of inf. with 
ni -- added, as 45, 21. 36, 3: but it is really in fin., 
with D for n, as Num. 10, 2. The & ought to have 
dagesh, only in this form it is commonly dropped, 
when it receives shwa [nixtett for rVitftett]. 
The word displays a mixed form, as though the 

1 Cf. Ra. and Qi. : also targ. rp may *6 nl 
Nnmx. 2 ,,or to distinguish it from the imp." Qimchi: 
in the passages quoted there is a distinctive accent. 
3 Qimchi (compare Ewald) explains ,,gathered its roots 
together towards the king of Egypt": cf. 1OD1J3 Nu. 33, 
25 J. Cant, 8 , 7 ( = ns^DN ) : the second explanation 
is adopted by Rashi and Ges. The targ. has nsD, regard 
ing -JDD as = P]SD to bend: cf. Ij. 40, 17 where pair 
is rendered ^DD (from Levy, Chald. WB.), and comp. pD 
with DDD. 4 so Qimchi. 5 so Qi.: cf. Ew. I60b. 239 a. 


root were at once x" 1 ? (KPB) and rrt (rwa) - - both 
being combined, in writing as well as in pronuncia 
tion: cf. in writing 33, 12 Jud. 8, 1 Pr. 8, 13 Est. 
1, 5 and with shwa 3 Zekh. 13, 4. The sense here 
is to tear up, carry away 1 , for that is the force 
of NtW: and so some explain Hos. 1, 6. 
14. rn&y^>] i. e. po TOy^, because the verb is intrans.: 
cf. 30, 21. 

21. iTniB] from mi Hos. 12, 13: others explain it as 
equivalent to vrp*ii i. e. his nobles Is. 15, 5. 

22. TinJl] as 37, 26 to multiply, increase. 

XVIII. 7. mr] ace. to some, part. qal. 

irfrlin] with i paragogic, as Num. 24, 3 etc. 

10. rw] ace. to some i is deficient, as in nnx for mnK , 
only in nnx its absence is occasioned by the final 
n coalescing with it, as in rbb 1 S. 4, 19, both 
letters being pronounced by the same organ: others 
say it is like Gn. 24, 28 ,,if he has done a brother 
any of these things" - - those viz. which he is about 
to enumerate (v. 11 if., ,,and he hath done none of 
those things which his father did, but" etc.): D in 
irus D is then redundant, and the meaning is the same 
as that of rus ^u t>U v. 18. Others again treat nx 
as an exclamation of delight y. 35, 21 as though 
he took pleasure in all the wicked actions which 
are described: but it is best to take it as = "ntf Hos. 
9, 12 (so c. 21, 20); the sense will then be that he 
mourns over his father s conduct, because he himself 
acts contrary to it and does wickedly. 

18. 5u] st. c.: hu in st. a bs. Lev. 5, 21, like rrt Pr. 

1 Tg. 


24, 31 from Ttt: for other similar cases, cf. Is. 1, 4, 
c. 44, 9. 

= twyj to be punished. 

XIX. 2. NV&] fern, from wJ? with N for n as Ru. 1, 20: 
the x of nwa^ is changed into and , the > compen 
sated for by dagesh. 

3. ^yni] and she brought up, as Gn. 49, 9 except 
that there it is qal, while it is here hifil. The 
1U is Jehoachaz. 

5. n^ni:] the reverse of rfrmn 1 : or , ,,she saw that she 
had hoped and that her hope had perished". 

6. npni] hofal 2 . 

7. yTi] = "ntsn, and brake, cf. Jud. 8, 16, except 
that here it is qal instead of hifil 3 . 

10. ~D"a] i. e. in thy youth and vigour, because the 
blood is the seat of strength. Others take it as equi 
valent to -jrntm. 

12. ntDD] sc. Jehojakhin. 

14. *M nt:D] sc. Ssidqijah. 

XX. 5. nra] with qamess, like Am. 2, 4: without a 
guttural it would have been like Hps Ex. 32, 34. 

9. i>nn] inf. resembling the perf, as Is. 31, 5 ^jn 
and ts^on. 

25. Tin:] past for future: the D^pn are the statutes of 
the heathen newly introduced among the Israelites 
during the captivity: or, ace. to others, the ordinances 
of God which would turn to evil upon them if they 

1 targ. pDS: cf. Qimchi who likewise gives both expla 
nations. 2 Cf. Ew. 131 d. 3 Rashi adds y. 138, 6: 
cf. targ. rpn JTS "SKI: but Qimchi prefers to compare 
Gn. 4, 1. 


were not observed, and which in Dt. 30, 15 are 
called life and good and death and evil. 

29. HDZin] properly two words, as if n *an. 

30. D KBtwJ with shwa, as Est. 1, 5 Jer. 23 16 etc. 

31. nst&a] from xtw as Gn. 43, 34 1 : but others render 
to burn, comparing Jud. 20, 40. 

34. DnisiDj] with c hoi em: cf. v. 43. 36, 31: generally 
the middle radical quiesces in shureq. 

37. miDB] D with qaniess to indicate the absence of 
the first radical N: cf. Qoh. 4, 14. 

39. nny] ironically, as Qoh. 11, 9. 2 

"in*o] understand *cf? ,,and go after your idols"; or 
l is redundant, ,,serve them, after you have ceased 
to listen to me a : others interpret thus: -- After 
wards, although ye do not now hearken to me, 
a season will come when ye shall no more profane 
my holy name - - the season spoken of in the next 

XXI, 2 ppn] prophesy, as Mi. 2, 6. Dim ruB n de 
note Jerusalem, and mcpn "iy, the temple, see 1 Ki. 
7, 2. 10, 17. 

3. miss 3JJ] the desert of the north, so called 
because of its dryness 3 : the meaning is ,,from 
the region of the north", i. e. Babel. 

y Qimchi, and similarly Rashi. 
2 Qimchi: - - This imp. expresses not a command but a 
threat, as Qoh. 11, 9, where the writer means to say 
,,Rejoice -- and thou wilt see what will befal thee in thy 
afterlife", similarly here, ,,It is better for you to serve 
your idols alone than to serve them and at the same time 
being your gifts to me, for this is to profane my name". 
1 in inXT has the same force as Gn. 22, 4 [Ew. 344 b.], 
and DN is equivalent to "IPX as Gn. 24, 33. 3 cf. the 
root in aram. e. g. Gn. 8, 13. 


9. THDH] i- e. because it is my pleasure to cut off 
from thee both* just and unjust alike, my sword shall 
issue forth upon all flesh, because I will lay waste 
the whole world. 1 

12. DBJ] perf. nif. although with ssere, so in the fern. 
26, 2: sometimes cholem is found, Is. 34, 4 Nah^ 
1, 12: there are in fact three different vocalizations ? 
as in qal tyD, tys, ^iys: Chajjug says it is like 
"I3J, 2 8. 1, 23, [and consequently qal.] 

14. nttilB] Lev. 13, 40: tr)D means to rub off the 
rust. 2 

15. rrn] inf., cf. Nu. 11, 2. 

HttTO] with dagesh 3 because of the pause: cf. Is. 
41, 17. 

ix] ace. to some, in place of i conjunctive, as Lev 
4, 28. 

Batp] as Nu. 24, 2, tribe. 

}>y] the idols: the sense being ,,the sword is destined 
to destroy: yet how should we have rejoiced had 
Israel rejected their idols! for then it would have 
consumed their enemies, and they would have es 
caped". In the same way "ijl HDi v. 18 is interpreted : 
- ,,How great will this trial be, if the tribe of my 
people does not reject its idols!" Others explain ix 
as = -px - - ,,how should we rejoice that the sword 
refused to cut down the idols in order to cut down 
the tribe of Israel", as though the meaning were 
that it chose to cut off the latter but refused to do 
anything besides: then v. 18 must mean ,,and what 

1 An explanation of the force of the perfect tense. 
2 cf. Qimchi rrn^nn rraym npn&n }^V 3 Qunchi s remark 

is worth quoting tan nnp pirfr n*npn 


shall we do at that time of trial, when the sword 
will no longer refuse to cut off Israel ?" QX signifying 
really, as y. 63, 7. R. Mosheh Qimchi thinks that 
what the sword nosiD rejects it cuts down, and 
that is presupposes rmj before it corresponding to 
tPTO: the sense is then as follows: - - ,,Shall we 
weep or rejoice that the sword in its eagerness to 
cut down Israel reject eth every idol, cutting all off 
and leaving nothing?" inn is then like Is. 28, 16, as 
though the prophet said ,,For God is pleased to hold 
a trial and to execute vengeance: and what will 
this trial be, if the sword doth not reject (i. e. cut 
down) the tribe of my people?" -- meaning that if 
this is not the fullest vengeance, what other vengeance 
will ever appear equal to it? And Chajjug explains 
tPTO IN as the words of God, like Dt. 28, 63, as 
though God rejoiced when their retribution came 
upon them; or they are the words of the prophet, 
as though h e rejoiced at their punishment because 
the sword rejected Israel, and rejected likewise every 
idol. -- nrvn v. 17 is past for future. 
17. n^D] ,,the terrors of the sword were against my 
people", from ^ y. 31, 14 etc. Nu. 22, 3: in st. c. 
before ^N (which is redundant) as is often the case 
before 3, D, ^j. 1 Others render ,,those that fell into 
the power 2 of the sword were my people", as though 
it were part, from -DD y. 89, 45 -- the nx being 
superfluous. A third opinion is that ^ stands for 3 
(for the reverse change, see 16, 3), the sense being, 

1 Qimchi compares Jud. 5, 10 Is. 8, 6: he adopts 
the first expl. given in the text. Ges. Ew. from I^D. 2 Cf. 
35, 5 Jer. 18, 21 y. 63, 11. 


those sold to the sword": and, lastly, Chaj jug- 
renders ,,my people", are the resting-places for the 
sword for nilEO Gn. 37, 1. 

19. ^B3n] to be twisted and bent in many directions 
as happens when a good sword is moved to and 
fro: or it means that the sword of Nebukhad- 
nessar will come down upon them a second time - 
nrpts^t? signifying either great, as Pr. 22, 20 Ex. 
14, 7, or a third time, so that the meaning is 
,,it will come down upon them time after time, - 
blow after blow will fall on them". 1 

rmn] ,,coming on you 2 in your chambers" 3 : others 
from 1 K. 22, 25 explain ,,so that you will go from 
fear into an inner chamber to hide yourselves": and 
others think it to mean that the sword was kept 
in a secret chamber till the moment when it was to 
burst forth. 

20. xvh lyo^] either JIB ]yf? or wt? alone (for both mean 
the same) would have been sufficient: cf. 40, 15 Nu. 
12, 2 Ssef. 2, 2. 

nnn] inf., as Jer. 9, 4 Josh. 9, 20. 
nnrus] the context demands the meaning terror: some 
exchange x for j, and others n for y 4 , but all such 

1 Cf. Qimchi: ,,It will be doubled three times i. e. 
their troubles mt^sra mw 1TP DH^y. a the printed 
edd. have nrh: but many MSS. read DZ&. 3 Qimchi: 
,,smiting you in your chambers, or because it was nJISS 
nny iy "linn": for the second expl. cf. Rashi ,,whither 
soever you go to escape from it, it will pursue you 
into your inmost chambers". Jon. s rendering NyiDI 
"pr& shews that he either read or conjectured rminn. 
LXX. sttffiriaeig {. e. Fri^nn . 4 Rashi suggests that it may 
signify the shouts of the men using the sword, from PQJ 
Is. 56, 10 -- 2 being replaced by x as in mnx Ij. 13, 17 


explanations the wind may carry away: it is not 
open to any one investigating the true structure of 
the language to interchange letters with the excep 
tion of Yn N and the sibilants D and ty. 
] = IK, as 6, 11. 

rwy] ,,made to be bright": cf. 13, 20 [and v. 15]. 
part. pass, qal with dagesh added: when the 
sword is whetted it is lessened in size upon the 
whetstone: but others regard it as part. pu al fern, 
from ntr; Jer. 43, 12, hidden in a garment, like 
the sword of Goljath, 1 S. 21, 10. * 

21. $ct?n] except here, this root always appears as 
a quadriliteral, cf. Gn. 13, 9. 1 C. 12, 2: the sense 
is ,,unite thyself collect thy three edges -- and 
set thy face either towards the left or the right". 2 

21. njK] ,,Whither is thy edge decreed, appointed to 
go ?" as though it desired to go towards Jerusalem : 
the words are the prophet s. 

24. x*o T] choose thee a p 1 a c e at the head of the 
road leading to the city", i. e. at the bivium, where 
the roads to Jerusalem and to Kabbah begin to 
diverge, as is explained in the following verse. 

pDX 2 K. 4, 2: he rejects the opinion that it is for 
nyUN (from nyn terror) on the ground that there the n 
is radical, while in nroK it is only occasioned by the 
st. c.; niD^x he adds is the interpretation of Menachem. 
1 Ace. to the second opinion (which is shared by Rashi 
and Jos. Qimchi) the sense is that the sword is concealed 
until the moment of slaughter has arrived. The first expl. 
is mentioned by Rashi, but rejected on account of the ab 
sence of } and because of the dagesh in ts. 2 Cf. Qimchi: 
,,unite niKBn nnxn and set thyself either to the right hand 
or to the left, for we do not know to which side thou art 


25. bp*?p] ace. to some, as Qoh. 10, 10, to brighten 1 , 
from y?p- c. 1 ? 6 (brass that has been treated in 
the manner expressed by the root): ace. to others, as 
Lam. 4, 19, to move quickly, because they threw 
the arrows into the air, at the place where two roads 
met, and directed their steps according to the side 
to which the arrow inclined in falling-. Upon this 
occasion, the divination directs the king to the right 
hand road, which led to Jerusalem : that on the left 
was the road to Kabbah. 

27. ona] as 4, 2. 

28. nrb] viz. to the men of Nebukhadnessar , who had 
no conception that the inhabitants of Jerusalem had 
conspired, thinking that they had only recently sworn 
allegiance, and that if they had really done so, they 
would be taken on account of their wickedness in 
having sworn falsely. Others explain the whole verse 
of the people of Jerusalem, who did not believe that 
he would come so soon after they had sworn to him, 
but it was just because he remembered their wicked 
ness that he acted in opposition to the treaty. 

^nty] weeks, as Gn. 29, 27, and rnyntp oaths 2 . Nu. 
30, 3: but there are others who think s yintP is from 

1 The meaning is given by Qimchi: - - The surface 
of the iron in the arrow was rubbed very bright, and 
the diviners then looked to see if there were any specks 
in it, just as they would look at the nail of the thumb 
for the same purpose: the liver was similarly employed. 
The second view is that of Jos. Qim.: the diviner 
threw the arrows up into the air i^D 112 fit ^ niX~)S 
2 weeks of oaths", i. e. they have sworn quite re 
cently. On this view the words must be treated as an 
exclamation of the Chaldees. 


seven, as Dan. 9, 24 (although the week is 
called yat? because it consists of seven days) ,,we 
have made them many oaths". 1 
29. DD"Otn] Jbecause ye are mentioned (before me) 
by the mouths of others on account of the oath 
which ye have broken, ye shall be taken in the 
hand of the king of Babel", or, ,,you shall be seized 
by the hands (have your hands bound) so as to be 
unable to escape". 

31. nxi xh nxt] The sense would have been clear 
without the first nxt, cf. ^. 94, \, and often besides. 
Others explain thus : This will be, s c. the lowliness 
which will be exalted, but this will not be, sc. 
the pride, for it will be made low. The final n in 
JTTDtWI is paragogic, as Hos. 7, 4, and consequently 
as there, the tone is miTel or on the penultima. 2 

32. ui n*tt DJ] i. e. ,,even this desolation that I shall 
cause will not come to pass until Nebukhadnessar 
come, to whom I shall give the right that belongs 
to him". 3 Others explain ns*T like the first nxi v. 
31. -- ,,That which I have said, viz. the exaltation 
of the humble, will not take place until Zerubbabel 

1 Cf. Qimchi (who however treats ^yntP as a part.) ijntW 
mm myUP nrh i. e. the Jews, thinking the Chaldees had 
sworn to them solemnly, and accordingly supposing that the 
divination was fallacious and that their city would be preserved 
intact. 2 so Qimchi. Ew. 173h. (3). 3 So Qimchi. explaining 
that notwithstanding the sins of Jehoahaz Jehojaqim and 
Jebojakhin, it was only Ssidqijah from whom Nebukhadnessar 
took the kingdom. Rashi, following Jonathan, explains that 
the crown passed from Jehojakhin to Ssidqijah, and from 
him to Gedaljah, and was even then not established till 
Ishma e el son of Nethanjah came, to whom God gave the 
right of vengeance. 



comes to whom the right of the kingdom belongs, 
and I give it to him". 

33. onsin] because they reproached Israel with Nebu- 
khadnessar s having passed them by, and having 
gone on and smitten Israel. 

nrnns] = rm^>, whetted, as y. 37, 14: cf. Mi. 5, 5. l 
b^rh] to contain slaughter -- carry slaughter with 

it, as 1 K. 8, 64: or ace. to others for ^Dr, 2 N 

quiescing in q a mess. 

34. -] addressed to "Ammon 3 : The false announcements 
which thy seers made to thee that Nebukhadnessar 
would not come, were (by misleading thee) the cause 
of thy being added to the rest of the wicked who 
were slain by him, and killed likewise. Others refer 
the words to the divination of Nebukhadnessar which 
had spoken in terms that misled them : the oracle had 
not indicated that Nebukhadnessar would never touch 
them, but that he would attack other nations first, 
and then make "Ammou like them. Others think 
the words to be addressed to the sword: - - ,,The 
divinations which announced that thou wouldst not 
come upon the Ammonites are all false : it is against 
their necks that thou art directed". 

34. ntpn] inf. or imp., addressed to the man, who wield 
ed the sword: but the prophet at once returns to 
the latter, prophesying that it too will in the end 
receive retribution for the blood 4 it has shed. 

1 Q,i. having explained 5 in the sense of drawn, 
sc. out of its sheath, observes that others comparing y. 37, 
14 assign it the meaning whetted, but adds that there is 
no need to depart from its usual sense. 2 as Jos. Qimclii. 
Ew. nach fas sen, nach m oglichkeit: cf. 23, 32. 
3 as Qi. Rashi. 4 cf. -jtn v. 37. 

36. Ti"ny two] After I have put the sword to melt 
in the fire of my wrath , I will blow upon thee l to 
kindle the fire". 

D^ya D tWK] the Medes and Persians. 

37. irnn] 2d. ps. sg. fern, without \ as 22, 4 Jer. 
3, 5. 2 

XXII. 7. itpy] as Ssef. 3, 19: or 3 in ptyyn is superfluous. 

9. ^m] subst. as though rn^zn 3 : or adj. as though 
D^Dl D tWK, with K in st c. instead of st. abs. 
as Ex. 23, 8 Di 16, 19. 

12. yxnrfi] ace, to some 4 , thou hast enriched, cf. 
Gn. 37, 26: so v. 13, where rptry = thou hast 
made, accumulated, Gn. 31, 1, or if ysn mean 
extortion, as in the phrase ysn ysin, iwy may 
retain its ordinary meaning, practised. 

16. rfcm] nifal for rfm, for when the two h s coalesce 
one of them disappears here it may be either the 
2 d or the 3 d in the root because this word is not 
accustomed to receive dagesh: in the other verbs 
y"y , which are regular, it is only the middle radical 
which disappears, the third being retained and 
pronounced with dagesh, the influence of which 
extends only backwards. 6 All this root is however 

1 Qi. ITysrt two D nsiJtP 1B3. 2 Qimchi explains 
the frequent interchange of genders in Hebr. by saying 
that when the masc. is employed it is the people that is 
addressed, when the fern, it is the assembly (my or 
PIDJD). Ew. however explains as above: 191 b. (2). 

3 Everywhere else with ->n: cf. Jer. 6, 28 1 WirO- 

4 so targ. "pTn JTJruS and Ew. 5 i. e. where two letters 
coalesce in dagesh forte, it is always the first which 
disappears: e. g. "n^B for ins. Cf. Chajjug, p. 99. 


. anomalous, being pointed with chireq: see 25. 3. 7. 
24, and for the form rm cf. Jer. 22, 23. 

18. imi riffm] i. e. ui ntpro ^03: and so below, ovro 
i. e. DOTD. 

20. nns] formed like nyta, from HD; Is. 54, 16. 

22. -jinn] some regard this as nif., when j of the root 
and j of the conjugation coalesce, one being dropped : 
cf. y. 68, 3 1 : but it is really inf. hi f. like *)nn 
(V- 1. c.) - - the infinitives in all the conjugations 
frequently forming themselves in different ways - 
with shureq for cholem as in t&>nn Is. 25, 10, 
which is from a verb V y. The meaning is ,,as the 
silversmith melts silver", &c. 

24. rw:i] some think that mappiq is superfluous, as 
Is. 28, 4, but that & ought to have dagesh, which 
however was not inserted on account of shwa , as 
is sometimes the case: otherwise, the word may be 
a subst. with TP understood. 

28. intD] from nitt: yet with the tone on the ultima 2 : 

^ cf. Gn. 40, 15, where this is noted by the masorah. 

XXIII. 3. Dyts] po c el, for the following wy shews that 
it must be transitive: from *\y& Lev. 22, 24. 

5. 3r;m] as vv. 7. 9. 12. of the him. 

14. npns ^JN] cf. 22, 9 ,,men delineated on the 
wall" or, ,,of Babel u understood. 

crfnatD^hno] cf. mo, Ex. 26, 12: ,,with large mitres 
or tiaras": u means painted, or dyed. 3 

1 Qi. ,,a subst. as ^. 68, 3". Ew. 156 c. treats it 
like Mosheh as hifil. 2 Kalisch s Heb. Gramm. ii. 233. 
3 His meaning is made clear by Qimchi s words: Their 
tiaras were richly dyed : they also hung down behind (pro- 
fusae) in the manner of a curtain (Ex. 1. c.): such a head 
dress would be unknown to the Israelites. 


16. rajym] a solitary case of n as well as n in the 
imp. of a verb which is not defective: Ex. 2, 3 is 
not parallel, for there it is mappiq which is 
wanting in the n. 

17. yprii] like yini, from yp* 1 to root up, remove: 
but in hif. 2 S. 21, 6 it means the reverse. In fact 
there are two roots yp" 1 and ypj vv. 22. 28: if in 
yprn, p had been without the dagesb which generally 
represents J, whether radical, or (as many think 
who derive it from yyp) the characteristic of nif al, 
the tone would have been on the ult., not as is the 
case on the penultima: see Gn. 16, 4: the root can 
therefore only be yp 11 . 1 

20. by] more than, or: together with. 2 

28. -prn:] a rare form, with qainess for ssere to denote 
the fern. 

24. ixn] the context or the sense of 3D1 shews that it 
must mean something like ^n host 3 : n in ^npn 
extends its influence backwards, so that we must 
regard it as = "pirn. 

32. J-QID] an adj. to DID signifying great: in the 
masc. ,1210 like ru^tt Est. 10, 3 etc. 

34. ^run] Num. 24, 8 ,,thou wilt break them", viz. 
in her eagerness to drink: but ace. to another inter 
pretation ,,thou wilt break the sherds thereof in 
order to tear thy breasts with them": cf. Ij. 2, 8. 

42. ra] the rapheh is strange: cf. y. 68, 18 Is. 34, 11. 

1 He means to say it here = to unfasten, while 
in 2 Sam. it to fasten up: and that it must come 
from yp", for else it would have been yfjm not ypFfl. 

2 Qi. inclines to this latter opinion, quoting Ex. 35. 22. 

3 Targ. s*n ^K3 which Qimchi follows. 


D N20] like D tsnj? (qo ) Ex. 29, 37 etc. Ace. to some, 
it = NSD TON Is. 45, 14 1 , ace. to others, onw as 
Is. 1, 22: the meaning of m DTON ^x is ,,from her 
desire for man, she sent for them" or, ,,she sent for 
them, so as to be able to choose out of a large 

43. i;n -i&Nl] ,,as I looked, I thought Can it be that a 
woman who is old and decrepit will commit adulteries ? 
for see these are coming to commit whoredoms with 
her, and she will do the same with them (NVII)". 
Others interpret thus: - - It is not enough for her to 
have grown old in whoredoms, now therefore even 
these have come to commit them with her. A third 
opinion is that i:r = ITD* and mnutn denotes her 
profits, gain, so that the sense will be ,,and I 
said to the woman decrepit with adulteries, Will not 

these men whom she sent for (v. 40) will they not 
take away all her gains, and herself as well?" or 
the sense of NTH is that they will carry her into exile. 

45. D^pna] he calls them just in comparison with her 
cf. 16, 52 or, as is better, because they execute upon 
her a judgement which is just - - in accordance 
with her deeds. 

47. N"Q] to cut down, as Josh. 17, 18. 

48. noiJ] a mixed form between nifal and hithpa el: 
cf. Pr. 27, 15 Dt. 21, 8. 

49. won] as Is. 1, 18 Qoh. 9, 1: it ought to be like 
ban Josh. 17, 5 Ij. 39, 3 with shwa . 

XXIV. 3. nstp] ,,set it down on the DTisty , i. e. the 
stones placed round the fire in order for the pot to 
rest upon. 

1 so Qim., adding that they were of the sons of Kush. 


5. in] ace. to some, imper.; cf. Is. 30, 33: but it may 
be a subst. signifying a great pile of wood, 
to be put underneath the pot until the bones in it 
were boiled. 

targ. xnoin^ i. e. rust, 
inf. or imp. 

past for future. The sense is ,,Bring them out of 
the pot by pieces so small that not a single limb 
may be recognized, nor lots cast upon them to 
assign them any special destinations". 1 Or, n o 1 o t 
shall fall upon it, cast it out: for the rust that 
is upon it, renders it unfit for any one to cast lots 
for it." Or perhaps rus^in is perf. referring to the 

7. HDI S D] All this comes upon her because of her sins 

- -viz. the shedding of blood which they perpetrated 

openly 2 . This explains isy mori?: cf. Ij. 16, 18: 

though others think the allusion is to their slaying 

the sacrifices away from the altar. 

1 Usually, says Qimchi, men remove the rust from a 
pot before using it, but here it is to remain: it is symbo 
lical faffto) of the iniquities of Jerusalem. The fragments 
came out piecemeal to indicate that the Jews would not 
fall all at once into the hands of the Chaldees, but at 
different times (nvn m TOSp N^iD HDy psnx fa hy fa 
targ.). The lot will not decide how the several pieces are 
to come out (KJT nn: PIPN) : this will be determined by 
previous agreement. 2 He explains D rplT* i. e. on a high 
and sunny rock (Qimchi thinks of Neh. 4, 7) where all 
would see the crime and where there would be no earth 
into which the blood might sink out of sight. The rabbins 
think there is reference to Zechariah son of Jehojada c 2 C. 
24, 20 if. 


10. p^nn mm] must be imp err., as rmr;n v. 11 shews: 
for had this been in fin. it would have been pointed 

HIT] from Tin, cf. Lev. 26, 39, with qamess on 
account of the pause. It cannot come from mn because 
of the accent which is mi Tel, and because the 
signification would then be unsuitable. Similarly in 
v. 11 where i ought to have dagesh, as Jer. 48, 1. 
Some think this is from *nn , like n&p , nzw , but incor 
rectly, because iin is not found with this meaning, 
whereas we meet with omn Jer. 17, 5 (scorched 
places): and since the word admits of two expla 
nations, it is right to adopt the one which will 
account best for the facts before us: such a course 
is the only one consistent with a sound grammatical 
method. Comp. Is. 24, 6. 

11. nnn] with shureq for cholem, as it is pointed Gn. 
47, 18: it is either nif. or qal. 

12. D\3ixn] from -pK (labour). Some say the sg. ispxn, 
like pri Hos. 13, 2: but it is rather HAST,, like 
mun: for there are many substt. which alter their 
gender in the plural. 

In nxbr\ (like nsin Lev. 26, 34 cf. 25, 21) some say 
the 3 d radical is dropped, and that n is the sign of 
the fern, replacing n in order to avoid confusion 
with the rn as c. mnn. But Chajjug maintains that 
the n is radical, thinking that when the final n in 
nnsin was dropped, n was preserved to indicate 
the gender: but c. 46, 17 Is. 60, 18 Ex. 5, 16 he 
considers n to stand for n of the fern. In fact nxnr 
and r\xhn ought to be similarly explained l : for Josh. 

1 Cf. notes on Jer. 13. 19. 44. 23. 


2, 6 Hos. 2, 9 Gn. 31, 32 prove that the fern, is 
denoted by n - - the tone being- in these passages 
for that very reason mi Tel. 

14. jnstf xh] ,,I will not turn back [from what I have 
determined]": cf. in the talm. pysttf? i. e. backwards 
(of a book read backwards) 1 : others explain it as 
Ex. 32, 25 ,,I will not undo rescind the judgement 
decreed upon thee". 

17. pjixn] inf.: instead of groaning be silent"; or ,,do 
not lift up thy voice in thy lamentation" 2 . 

DTIB] i. e. either do not mourn for the dead 3 , or ,,do 
not mourn as men are wont to mourn for the dead 
do not mourn bitterly". 

24. i?NpT!T] He speaks of himself in the 3 d - person, as 
Samuel does 1 S. 12, 11. - - Here the book divides. 

26. my&tpn] verbal noun from hif il, - - n marking 
the conjugation. The meaning of tt^Dn *sn^ is as 
follows : - - At the beginning (3, 26 f) God had said 
to him ,,thou shalt be dumb and not go on reproving 
them, but shalt say to them Let him that willeth 
hear", i. e. ,,now, speak to them thus" adding imme 
diately afterwards ,,but when I speak with thee I 
will open thy mouth", i. e. when the remnant comes. 
The people did not believe that they would go into 
captivity, and consequently did not believe in the 
prophet s consolations and other discourses: God 
therefore told him not to prophesy upon them till 
his words would be believed and trusted: so soon 

1 so Qimchi , who quotes the phrase 
2 Explained by Qimchi ,,be silent from groaning" as though 
pJNHD). Targ. pin^ pJTN ,,groan (and) be still !" i. e. be not 
loud in thy lamentations (as in the text, above). 3 Targ. 


as the city was smitten they would believe him and 
he might speak, -- as is said v. 26 w DV3. From 
this place the prophecies are no longer against Israel, 
but against the nations round about, as c Ammon 
Mo ab P lishtim: but so soon as the remnant came 
saying The city is smitten, he spake and opened 
his mouth (33, 21 f.), and at once (vv. 24 if.) pro 
ceeded again to prophesy against Israel. 
XXV. 3. J>m] for ^ru like im v- 69, 4: or, ace. to 
Chajjug, for ^m: 1 , like rpj. 

6. - ( Nns] v- 98, 8 Is. 55, 12 in qal. The pathach 
under D is to shew it ought properly to have had 
chireq, as Ex. 21, 8 had not the guttural followed, 
"Vp"i is similar: and they are both really like 2 S. 
5, 24. 

"BNtP] must be a subst. from tsxjy v. 15, like t?m with 
the suffix ^ l^i Cant. 5, 1 : then when s was pointed 
with shwa , it became quiescent, and the vowel under 
w was changed to q a m e s s. 2 tPSJ2 means with plea 
sure (heartily). 

7. ;a (k tib)] food 3 , as in ;ans. 

10. ui mt>] i. e. I will command the sons of the east 
(the army of Nebukhadnessar) to fall upon the Am 

1 The sense will then be as Rashi explains 

finiB. 2 Qimchi thinks it is an inf., pointed 
originally like "jSD^n Pr. (5, 22, the vowel becoming broad 
(&) in order that the s might quieFce: the meaning is well 
given by Rashi ypn contempt from a comparison of 
Onqelos Gn. 25, 34, where ttNtt> represents HU. 3 as an 
image of destruction, cf. n^N 15, 4: the 3 for i is by 
some explained in ace. with the interchange known as 
miDN: cf. 47, 13. On pathbag, see Pusey s lectures on 
Daniel p. 569 ed. 2. 

XXVI. 2. raw] 3 sg. fern. perf. nif. with ssere 1 : cf. 
21, 12: but ace. to Chajjug 2 it is impf. hifil. 

nx^&x] I shall be filled now that Jerusalem is laid 
waste: or, I shall he filled from her because she is 
laid waste 3 . 

4. WJTD] cf. Mio Lam. 3, 45. 

9. >n&] from nno Nu. 34, 11. 

fop] formed like ytDp 1 Ki. 12, 10. 2 C. 10, 10. It is 
an aram. word signifying seextendere,opponere, 
so that p D will denote the army that is before him, 
or the blow that is before him. It was a machine 
used in sieges: and the mound v. 8 had to be 
prepared in order that the besiegers might erect it 
in front of the city and discharge their stones 
into it. 

15. :nm] inf. nif. for mm, cf. La. 2, 11 Pr. 24, 17: 
the segol in n is occasioned by the n. It is surpri 
sing that some have thought it inf. pi e el, like *im 
Is. 58, 9, supposing that the segol pointed to the 
absence of the article, as c Ezra 10, 14: but I have found 
no case of the art. coming before a genuine in fin.: 
it is only attached to substt. 

17 rttnn] n = -it?x, as Josh. 10, 24. 

20. ^*] i. e. Ssor, which was the glory of the world: 
he proceeds to explain his meaning in the next verse, 

1 Qi. nan ^ys rmA my ^ysj. 2 Nutt s Chajjug 113. 

3 so Eashi minn "T l^yn p S JX X^nx i. e. Ssor will 
become crowded and wealthy through her depopulation and 
impoverishment. But Qimchi adopts the first expl. ,,I shall 
be filled with merchandise rain nn^nt^ in". 


where -pnx nrfa is the interpretation of vra *. 
Others think an px denotes the land of Israel, 
and render ,,I will put beauty in Israel - - make it 
beautiful and glorious". 

XXVII. 5 DTiirn^] with the characteristics of both the 
masc. and fern, plural (m and ). In like manner 
when the suffixes are appended it is customary to 
insert > after rn, so that you say rprnni^ 7nn: and 
it may be that the writer has done the same here, 
as he was desirous of expressing- the dual (as D^T), 
which he could not do with rn - - alone, so that he 
was compelled to add D^ . Comp. the manner in 
wich it is added to the fern, sg.: as DT^SB DT&B;* 
c s rw etc. 

6. 7ttit?B] from tw. Originally & had qamess, as 
v. 29: then when this received dagesh in order to 
destroy the quiescent latent 2 (in ma) the qamess 
was changed to chireq, as is often the case in 
verbs y"y. 

Dmt?Nra] as one word 3 , from wxn Is. 60, 13. 
1. BHEB] the sail expanded to catch the breeze 4 . 
D: i. e. a mark of recognition. 

1 He considers the last clause of 20 to be completed 
in 21 : ,,I will make the glory of the whole world I will 
make it nir&3l u Cf. for a similar case of suspension 
t/>. 93, 3. The targ. renders n N the land of Israel: 
similarly Qimchi. 2 Cf. on Jer. 46 20, and see Nutt s Chajjug 
p. 9f. (Eng.). 3 ^so Ew. following Targ.: see Qimchi s note. 
LXX. ol xovs cdaudei? thinking of anuDN S n2 . * 4 Qimchi : ,,the 
t^IDD was of Egyptian flax richly worked : DJ is the v e 1 u in 
(Rashi, siegel) which is unfolded on the mast, Is. 33, 23 
". Apparently therefore the triDtt is the sail. 


9. rriyo] commerce carried on with the aid of pledges 
or security *. 

10. "J^nn] ,,with thy forces": or it may mean the 
smaller wall outside the moat, as Lam. 2, 8: but 
in v. 11 it is ,,and thy own forces also". 

11. DHfcMl the name of a people 2 : or as others think 
comparing Jud. 3, 16, a dwarfish people that 
guarded the walls. 

12. pr;] the merchandize which a merchant leaves 
in a country. 

15. D^nn] ace. to some precious stones. 

aw] as 2 Ki. 3, 4 v- 72, 10 (where ww nm& = they 

give dwgov, a present). 
17. n\3D] the name of a place 3 : but others think it 

denotes wheat the grains of which were so large 

that they might be numbered. 
:us] ace. to some, sugar cane 4 . 
"IB] with cholem: sometimes nS as Jer. 8, 22, and 

sometimes ns as Gn. 37, 25. 

not the flag : but being made of richly variegated materials, 
it would serve as a distinctive mark by which the Tyrian 
ships could be recognized. * Similarly Qimclu : because when 
engaged in commerce merchants give security to one ano 
ther ( pmiy). 2 Targ. NpttlBp PjNl i. e. Kannocdoxes LXX. qpvAaxeg. 
The F]Xi shews that Jon. broke it up into DHD D3 : Geiger 
Zsch. 1862, p. 58. 3 viz. Minith Jud. 11, 33 whence, says 
Qimchi, a fine kind of corn was obtained. Targ. tPim ttVD, 
an obscure word: see Rashi, who also quotes another expl. 
from a Jerusalem targum. Rashi mentions the second opinion 
given above, as being that of a ,,midrash aggadah" , the grains, 
it was said, were so fine that they were sold by number: 
but he himself thinks the expression signifies prepared, 
dressed food. 4 most interpreters explain this word as 
denoting some sweet kind of balsam found about Jericho: 
and hence the name of that town, from m. 


18. ya^n] the name of a place 1 : or i is in st. abs. 
as h*h Is. 15. 1 so that the meaning is ./wine white 
like milk" - - as is even indicated by the suc 
ceeding words. 

19. ^IXD] travel come, or are conducted: but 
others prefer spun, woven, comparing Ex. 35, 25 
where for TIB the targ. has N^iN 2 . 

uriJ] with dagesh, as Jud. 5, 7 3 : but Chajjug regards it 
as a contraction from ijjn: - - the subject being God 
who was the cause of what is described. 

rwy] bright, shining: cf. Ij. 12, 5 4 Cant. 5, 14. 

20. nzDi] inf., like nT. ,,None of them have on 
sumptuous garments with the exception of the nobles 
when they ride in state". 

23. i^3] asyndeton, like Adam Sheth, 1 C. 1, 1: 
it is the name of a people : but there are some who 
treat it as an adj. in st. c. with 3 (as Ij. 6, 7) from 
ittb 5 , cf. -OD Ex. 4, 10. 

24. ofe] the upper garment: cf. the denominative. 
2 K. 2, 8. 

25. "prmty] from w Nu. 24, 17 ,,were - what thou looked 
to and hoped for": others from the targ. (v. 11) render 
thy walls : but in my opinion it is a subst. signifying 

1 Aleppo. Xetfuv. 2 Tg. pwn i. e. most probably 
with silk (Rashi pxw ^ mtD) but Qimchi explains it 
in caravans and so accounts for the pu c al ^>r!Nft viz. 
escorted. LXX. e| *Aur t L 3 Qimchi: with dagesh 

pDDnn ^SD HNnpn nixsn^. 4 Compare Schultens version 
,,calamitati vilitas adest apud splendidam prosperitatem securi", 
i. e. the splendour of prosperity despises the calamities 
of the unfortunate. 5 as Jos. Qimchi: Rashi follows targ. 


thy caravans 1 , cf. Gn. 37, 25 where for 

the targ. gives NTB>. 
32. arm] = nrprpn: without the suffix S J cf. 71 2, 10 

an indicating- the 3 d ps. pi. fern. Had the root 

been Wi: 7, 11, the n would have had qamess or 


nonD] cut off, cf. t/>. 94, 17: D is superfluous 2 . 
34. n-ntw] ace. to some = rnsi&j, cf. Gn. 20, 16: ,.at 

the time that thou art broken". 
XX VII I. 3. hwn] named because he was a contem 

"jlBDy] ace. to some, as Lam. 4, 1 ,,were not obscure - 

hidden from thee" 3 : or as others think from Qy, 

,,with thee there was nothing hidden - thou 

knewest all". 
C J. -ji^na] from sbn (to slay) 4 , or as Lev. 22, 32 (to 


12. n^n] like nnsi , Dt. 29, 22, cf. Ex. 5, 18, c. 33, 20 
etc. It means ,,sealing up and perfecting the mea 
sure (of thy wisdom honour etc.)". 5 

13. "jn^Dtt] from the same root as PDHPB Pr. 15, 19 6 . 
"pen] Some explain this to mean "pun , as in the prayer 

where God is said to have created in man cavities 

1 He means to say that the ships came by con 
voys: cf. Qi. N"W "IIT3 nm isfc. For the rendering 
walls, cf. Jer. 5, 10, and see Rod. thes. 1383f. 2 similarly 
Qimchi: or we may treat it as a subst. with D intensivum 
(Gesen.) but Ew. compares 19, 10: cf. targ. n^ ^T7 n^. 
3 as targ. "JOB ^DDP^ $h H ^D: cf. Dan. 4, 6. 4 so 
targ. Ra. Qi. Ew. 6 Qimchi -]3 D^ I^D 3 n^JDPH D^O. 
6 i. e. ,,even the wall round thy garden was of costly 
stones": so Qimchi, who compares also Is. 5, 5. In this 
case its root will be "pip : but others derive it from "pD t o 
cover: see Ew. 


and passages: the sense of the passage is as fol 
lows : - - Do not stand aloof in awe before the king 
of Ssor: he is not God as he imagines: he is a man 
created like other men with a body limited by phy 
sical conditions l . Or the words may refer to musi 
cal instruments - - because people were occupied in 
Ssor with cymbals and the pipe -- as though 
God had first made these for their enjoyment, and 
the use of them had not been known before Ssor 
was built 2 . 

14. nt?B] an adj. in st. c. and therefore with pathach : 
"piD is a subst. like ttBitP Josh. 23, 13 from -po Dan. 
10, 3: the sense is thus anointed with oil. 

1 The allusion is to the daily prayer of the Jews 
(Buxt, lex. TG6): ,,Blessed be thou, o Lord our God king 
of the world, who hast formed man in wisdom and created 
in him cavities and passages innumerable: manifest and 
known is it before the throne of thy glory that if one of 
these be opened or closed , it is impossible for him to 
continue or stand before thee even for a single hour. The 
cavities are organs such as the heart &c. , and the 
passages allude to the nose, mouth &c. : the meaning is 
that the human body is of exceedingly complex structure, 
and that the continuance of life is most precarious, depending 
as it does upon the unimpeded action of such countless 
organs , any one of which if injured might occasion death. 
The words of Ezeqiel were already similarly interpreted 
by the targum: But thou hast not considered thy body 
that is composed of cavities and passages, which are thy 
necessity and without which it were impossible for thee to 
continue : from the day when thou wast first created they 
have been established with thee. 2 ui DV3 will mean then 
,,already when thou wast founded they had been long estab 
lished in use". Cf. Qimchi: as though in the day that 
thou wast created instruments like these were made for thee. 


Others derive -pio from -pc Ex. 25, 20, and do not 
consider nty to be in s t. c. l : but the former 
explanation is the right one. 

-pnrm] ? ,And I made thee (as though) thou hadst been 
in the mountain of God s sanctuary (i. e. either Ssion 
or Sinai), and as though thou hadst walked in the 
midst of fiery stones (like the angels)". 

16. -fnsi] imp. pi el, the N of the tense quiescing in 
the qamess of i which is not here the i conv. impf., 
since the uncontracted form would have been -pn^iO 
with pathach, as 2 S. 1, 10 - - the sense of the 
preceding words shewing when the action is in past 
time. Others think the x which appears belongs to 
the tense and that it is the s % of the root which is 
deficient: they therefore give to the tense-characteristic 
the vowel which belongs properly to the first radical 

- fDNN becoming "]i3N just as ^js^Ntt becomes ^D^D 
Ij. 35, 11. Others again regard it as hi Til, with 
dagesh in n to indicate that the first radical has 
been dropped, cf. Nu. 21, 30: if formed regularly 
from the root it ought to have been SjTiNKj. 

17. rr,N"i] inf. for nn*o -- the final n being paragogic. 
Comp. Nah. 3, 6. 

23. &DJ] from #>D Ex. 21, 22, &n being adj. for subst., 
or a subst. formed like W>p ,,and they will judge 
anticipate slaughter in the midst of her". Others 
treat ^sj as pi c lel from i?D: 2 , like ^DK: cf. 6, 7. 
30, 4. 

1 ,,cf. 12, 24 Is. 10, 6 Dan. 1, 11: the first expl. is also 
that of R. Jonah" (Qimchi). Raschi compares aram. jsnt^ft. 
2 So Qimchi: but Rashi compares Gn. 48, 11 explaining 
thus: -- roira a^n nirt DD^y IJIT i. e. they will con 
fidently expect themselves to be slain inner. 



24. TKBB] cf. Lev. 13, 51 f. 14, 44. 

XXIX. 3. -rn^yj ,J have made myself": or .1 have 
made the river for myself". 

7. |>n.n] nifal from pn Is. 42, 3: for the form cf. Is. 

24, 3. 
mDyn] ace. to some, for rnyor:: or, because they were 

obliged to stand 1 upon their own loins when their 

support was broken. 
18. ui -DBfi] because when the army of Nebukhad- 

nessar had taken Ssor, the sea rose upon the city 

and overwhelmed it. 

XXX. 4. nm] as Lev. 22, 13 with tone on ultima. 
r6rr?n] from hire cf. nsssx 17, 5. 

5. i;n J31] the nations in alliance with Misraim 2 . 

9. DM] great ships, as Nu. 24, 24. 

nun] i. e. Kush which was living- without suspicion 3 : 
or it may refer to the messengers who should alarm 
Kush without trouble or difficulty: in the latter case 
cf. for the sense Is. 30, 32. 

16. DDV ns] i.e. enemies will destroy Noph by day 4 . 
it will not be captured in the night, or through a 
secret conspiracy. But Chajjug explains it from 
is Is. 5, 30. 

1 So Rashi in almost the same words: the targ. ap 
pears to have understood the passage similarly yrh Tin Nft 
inDOID IT:6 i. e. thou shalt no longer be a support to 
them : thou shalt make it necessary for all their own resour 
ces to be utilized (shalt make their own loins stand for 
them). 2 They did not belong to Egypt, but being in alli 
ance with them would fall when they fell. 3 targ. jO")fi5n tt^O 
]Brm^. 4 the force of aoi> seems better expressed by 
Rashi or DT (Jon. or DT 


17. njD^n] alluding either to the maidens, or to her 
daughters v. 18 1 , i. e. the cities of the open 
country around, Est 9, 19. (v. 18, likeNu. 21, 25 etc.) 

21. np.r6] r\2 pirt, the verb being intrans.: cf. 17, 14. 

XXXI. 2. w i& bx] i. e. There is no ground for sur 
prise at what is about to happen to thee: for was 
not Asshur greater than thou art? [yet he fell], and 
thou art like him in his exaltation. 

ann] a wood: see targ. 1 S. 23, 18. ^x is from 

cf. Gn. 19, 8. formed like noa ixa 1 K. 6, 29 Ps. 
118, 5. The meaning is a wood with many trees 
in it, and so shady. Others derive ^xa from the 
other sense of fe 2 , of the rustling of the branches: 
see Zekh. 14, 20. 

4. rpn^yn] with qamess under y unchanged in st. c. 
before a pronominal suffix: so before a following 
subst. Is 7, 3. For the form, cf. nx^n. 

5. xroj] with x for n of the fern.: cf. Ru. 1, 20. 
prnsyiD and 6 vmsyo] two substt. Some explain similarly 

as distinct nntnt? and mint? Ex. 28, 22. 14, although 
the former word must have been formed by a redu 
plication of the middle radical like DSDntt Ex. 16, 14 
with the final radical dropped after it, as in pn }Vp , 
and similarly vpjn 3 V- 5, 2. 39, 4 from run. 

1 where Qimchi explains Q^EO."! S 3E>V 2 The words 
of Eimius (Ann. 196) will explain the sense: omne sonabat 
Arbustum fremitu silvai frondosai. 3 which however ought 
probably to be derived from jjn a collateral form of n;n: 
Ibn c Ezra indeed compares for the reduplication of the 
middle radical D^Ut, but there, as the parallel instances 
shew (Ew. I63e), the second : is a formative letter and 
quite unconnected with the radical j. 


i. e. ,,when it sent out its branches, they reached 
further than the waters which nourished it", or. as 
others prefer connecting irttf with -prfct? Cant. 4, 13 
,,on account of the waters which ran through the 
enclosure in which it grew". 

7. pp] the first ^ with chireq: this verb is weak at 
both ends (ns ) 1 - 

9. imwp i] the suffix for n. When the verb is found 
with *? it means for, as Zekh. 8, 2 Num. 11, 29. 

10. n,i3j] for so God speaks in the 2 d ps.: he then 
immediately afterwards emplqys the 3 d imox, as is 
customary when the person addressed is not present 2 . 
Or perhaps nrn:i is addressed to Egypt, ,,thou art 
tall in stature like one whose heart is high, and 
who has raised his crown to the clouds". 

11. injrs"!] fut. for past, and so ntry. 

14. DH^x] as Is. 1, 29. 

15. Ttoxn] i. e. I have made Lebanon mourn for him. 
and covered 3 the deep with sackcloth that it might 
not be seen, and held back its rivers 4 : or rfaxn 
is to be joined with ainn - - I have made it black 
and covered it because of him 5 . Others render: - 

I have made (people) mourn for him, because of old 

1 Qimchi : ,,The first is servile, the second radical : 
nS X, HD" or, without n, ?]\s % , Fp. Ben-Naftali points 
pp}: Ben Asher P)^I : in some edd. I have found (as Ben 
Asher s reading) r^V which is best, because the word is 
analogous to nBn from nptr ". 2 or as Qimchi explains 
-nxD HDJ s^i r\i& -\yfa xipon i*n p. 3 ace. to Qi.: 
,,made it put on sackcloth lt . 4 so that the tree was 
dried up and withered : cf. v. 4. 5 As though the sea which 
had formerly nourished it v. 4 mourned when it was cut 
down: the hifil implies that its waters (nx W/Tin lOlfe 

Rashi) were forcibly withheld. 


I let the deep cover it: i. e. once I gave it many 
waters, but now I have withheld them: or Dinn is 
used parabolically of the people who came upon 
Egypt and destroyed it (made the deep cover it), 
formed like nnsn Is. 30, 33, from v\*?V e Am. 8, 13. 

17. w] the relative omitted, ,,who dwell". 

XXXII. 5. nitri] from Dn Ex. 16, 20, as is proved by 
the qamess (although it is in st. c.) which points 
to an original i . The termination m - - must not 
mislead us : for it is found with* roots which have no 
weak letter, as 24, 26. 

2. rum] qal: cf. y. 22, 10. Others treat it as intrans. 
(= asm), or as hifil like Ij. 40, 23. The meaning 
is 5) to ebb and flow". 

6. TIBS] from ^is 1 La. 3, 54, 2 K. 6, 6, the i being- 
concealed: but others derive it from nsx, (of the form 
non r&s) ,,the land which thou lookest to in trust 
and confidence", in allusion to its fortified cities : and 
others lastly explain it from the talmudic nss, a 
flat pan. 

7. -jmiiDn] i. e. -jrns Timn. 

10. >DDiyn] as in hif. Pr. 23, 5 from pyiy ,,when I make 
it flash before them 2 ". 

1 i. e. The land which thou swammest upon (when the 
Nile overflows it): or, which the waters of the Nile swim 
upon (Rashi and Jos. Qimchi): this land will now be delu 
ged even as high as the hills, not with fertilizing waters 
but with the blood of its own inhabitants. 2 Qimchi s note 
is worth translating : ,,when I make it glance or flash before 
them in order to terrify them and let them know that by 
it they will be slain: P]iy signifies to be bright or to 
lighten as Ij. 11, 17. Or it may be rendered, ,,when I 
swing it before them", for the idea of rapid motion 
is akin to that of a glancing light nS yn, and 

16. rmipn] with ssere to indicate that the 2 d j of the 
root is deficient being absorbed by the dagesh: cf. 
y. 71, 23 Gn. 4, 23. 

18. irmin] i. e. prophesy that it will be brought down: 
but others explain it as Jud. 11, 37, weep over it. 

19. nsyj] in meaning like r^rr D ks 31, 2 1 i. e. that 
he enjoys but little oyj : - - ,,thou art no more favou 
red than any of those have been". 

mstym] inf. like mi, because there is no instance 
recorded of imper. hofal. Yet it may perhaps 
be imper. doing duty for impf. (as Dt. 32, 50): 
for no one of his own free will without external 
compulsion ,,goes down and dwells in the grave": 
with this explanation therefore, though not otherwise, 
the word will bear to be taken as imper. hofal. 

20. o&ys] imper.: cf. Jer. 2, 12. 

21. ] because of him: inasmuch as 133^ TIT are in 
the 3 d person. 

26. ^IHD] from SSri: for the form, cf. Cant. 3, 8. 

27. i;n x^i] Some interpret D^DU like D^EJ Gn. 6, 4 
Num. 13, 33 and ^su in Ij. 14, 18, as = great and 
tall: the meaning will then be ,,the Egyptians will 
not be on an equality with the heroes who are higher 
than the uncircumcised nations described above 
heroes who had been buried in all their armour (ace. 
to the practice customary in the case of kings, and 

our rabbins of blessed memory say Men do not burn "ia in 
their lamps because it is rjy i. e. emits an unsteady and 
flickering light". l Qimchi ,,Thou thinkest to enjoy hap 
piness and beauty: but did not all these nations expect to 
maintain their power and perfection for ever ? yet they have 
descended from their proud enimence, and dost thou think 
to stand unshaken?" 


intended to denote that they had died in full posses 
sion of their power) and the punishment for whose 
misdeeds (the terror they occasioned during life) had 
not been visited on their heads, but rested upon 
their bones the Egyptians death will not be like 
theirs, they will perish miserably with the uncircum- 
cised at the edge of the sword". Others understand 
D^Btt in its ordinary sense ,,who had fallen so as 
to be no longer reckoned with the uncircumcised " : 
and others refer it the Egyptians themselves who 
would be inferior to the uncircumcised i. e. to the 
heroes who were buried with their swords 1 . 

30. VITTS] = DOTS: cf. y. 144, 2. 

Dmn^D] with omission of the dagesh, which usually 
represents the ] of p: cf. Jud. 8, 2 Jon. 4, 11 c. 33, 2. 

XXXIII. 5. im: N^I] perf. , with qamess on account of 

the pause. 

12. iytyB) must be inf., as Ex. 21, 8. 
n san] in pronunciation s quiesces : as written the word 

exhibits a mixed form (as though the verb were both 

1 Qimchi explains thus: -- They will bo with those 
slain by the sword, not with the heroes who succumbed to 
a peaceful and natural death and who belonged to the number 
of the uncircumcised that died surrounded by all the insignia 
of authority: no, their own bones will be broken in punish 
ment for the violence they have done, and for the terror they 
caused in the world: or j may be regarded as equivalent 
to. DTTins as Ij. 12, 3 : They will not lie with the heroes, 
being inferior to the uneircumcised who etc. This last 
view is identical with the third in the text ; and also with that 
of Rashi, - - j and y denoting the same persons inBtP 
DBBy nrvD: the clause ft vim refers then to the subject 
of "DDt^, not as in the first expl. above to D To:i PK. 


x"i? and n"t>) , or N is in the place of i , or n is 
paragogic 1 , as in nh^ -- the verb being N"b. 

30. in] an aram. word ( heb. inx). 

31. D^y] as v. 32 mockings 2 , from the same root 
as n:r;. Others interpret it as 23, 16 Creating the 
words of God as lovesongs". 

XXXIV. 4. nro] like Jer. 30, 12 of sickness of heart 
as c Am. 6, 6: but nhnn refers to sickness of body. 
Others derive the latter word from ^n, as Jer. 4, 31. 

8. DniN] i. e. themselves. 

12. inrn] to be taken closely with mtnsj ,,iu the day 
when the herd is scattered among his sheep" the 
suffix being sing, on account of nr; preceding. Or 
it may be taken thus: - - ,,in the day when the 
shepherd is in the midst of his sheep that are 

16. TDtrx] i. e. I will reduce the strength of the more 
vigorous sheep, so that they may not feed upon the 
pasture to the disadvantage of the rest. 

20. ,T-n| an adj. like Nnn Jud. 3, 17 3 -- either the 
roots being different [but having the same meaning] 
or > standing in place of N. Others render choice, 
select: cf. 1 S. 17, 8. 

26. Mnji] ,,I will increase them (as 37, 26), and 
bestow a blessing 4 around my hill": or ! will make 
them a blessing, and they shall be round about my hill". 

1 For such a contraction as is involved in the 
transition from r^n to rxttn, we might compare 
for tPNl (a segolate form as the pi. shews) nxi i. e. 
2 so Qi. Ra : cf. Jon. targ. N3> ^n , in 32 ^uiSN 

- by which latter word he usually renders n:ny. 3 so 
Qi., quoting the targ. as giving the sense : vny 12 j ^a 
"pD!3 133 *p31. 4 so Qimchi, who compares Gn. J2. 2. 


29. DIDK] from ?px Gn. 25, 8 etc. Carried off by famine", 
cf. Is. 5, 13. Others think it is an adj. from rpo 
Jer. 8, 13 with N prefixed. 

31. rvyitt] formed like rpDtPD Lev. 26, 1 with > instead 
of n of the root. 

XXXV. 10. irn nw] God heard thy words, or the words 
of Edom, although he dwelt far off in the land of 
Judah and Israel 1 . 

12. "pmxKj] sg. nSfrO like nmn of the foim nn^n n^pis. 
14 HOBO] ,,when the inhabitants of the land of Israel 

rejoice I will make desolation", or ,,in order that 

they may rejoice", etc. 

XXXVI. 3. rpsLn mot?] must be substantives on account 
of the termination m which as y. 77, 10 is appen 
ded to a verb y"y, so that the sense is ,,because ye 
are (in desolation and want 2 ". 

l^yni] nifal, as the ssere shews, but a rare form, 
inasmuch as if it were the regular impf. from a verb 
r"h , the y ought to be pointed with qamess. It may 
however perhaps be qal, with ssere for chireq 
(which is ordinarily found, as in inn etc.), just as 
in Wn we h nd pathach for chireq. It is no ob 
jection against this to urge that he does not say 
&yrn (like r6yN etc.): for the ssere is occasioned 
by the influence of ~ in front of it, whereas in the 
latter case segol appears because of .::. 

1 Qimchi DtPN"D DIO^ rrw Drp"Ol VDl^ cf. targ. 
wsh nu^nrj ]"*?% " DIpT. 2 Qimchi treats mot? as an 
inf., quoting, besides if). 77, 10, y. 77, 11: he also regards 
both verbs as transitive comparing Is. 42, 14 and explaining 
the passage . with the targ. , of the nations round about 
which sought to destroy Israel and swallow it up. Cf. 
his note on Is. 


5. N^D] N for H: some explain in the same way Jer. 
46, 20. At first the mappiq was dropped and r; left 
as Num. 32, 42 Is. 21, 2: then as there was no 
difference in pronunciation between h and quiescent 
x, the latter was substituted for it even in writing as 
is frequently the case with n when it becomes quies 
cent. It is possible however that x may here stand 
for n of the fern.: comp. [Jer. 6, 6] 

11. Tin^m] a mixed form -- partly from atr, partly 
from n v LD. 

C3TfiB>N"iB] in the sg. nt?Ki like n:w ntrp: or as others 
think rvpjo (with chireq for ssere) of the form rvnnn 
The plural ought then to be strictly nwxn (cf. y. 
139, 15 etc.) like nvDy, but as in the masc. the} 7 
sometimes dropped the \ saying onny for D"*ny, so, 
according to this opinion , the same contraction lias 
here taken place in the pi. fern, nwn standing for 
rptPX"), although the word is neither a patronymic 
nor a gentile name. 

35. ii ^n] fern.: in masc. rrhr\ and n Gn. 24, 65 Zekh. 
2, 8 -- the latter also fern. 2 K. 4, 25: all these 
forms with b denote that which is remote from the 
speaker (ille). 

nmnn] with n - - unnecessarily, because it is the fem. 
pi. of an adj. 1 : cf. in a verb Ruth 2, 2. Chajjug 
thinks that it points to an original choleni and that 
the sg. is niin (rnilra ) or raY.n like HDDI^ Is. 54, 1: 
but even then it is anomalous. 

XXXVII. 6. D~p] 2 as in talm. ,,if the skin of the brain 
be punctured". 

1 :nn Jer. 33, 10, fern, na^n Neh. 2, 17. Cf. Ew. 68 b. 
2 so Qimchi. 


7. mpm] properly rumpni: cf. Jer. 49. 11. 
9. TO] from nsj: cf. Gn. 2, 7. 

12. MI run] intended to symbolize the exile, the whole 
being seen by the prophet in a vision by night. 
So in the description of the building of the temple 
he says (40, 1 ,,the hand of Jahveh was upon me", 
which he immediately interprets by adding (v. 2) 
,,he brought me to it in a vision 1 . 

13. T.PM] cf. Lev. 26, 26. 

17. n^p] imp. pi el: cf. y. 55, 10 Ij. 36, 2 and in the 

pi. Is. 41, 21. 
n^nvb ivn] .,take both of them in one of thy hands", 

or as others prefer ,,they shall become in thy hand 

a single stick", -- as a sign. 

XXXVIII. 4. MI 7ra3iB>] i- e. I will put a perverse 
spirit in thy heart 1 . 

7. IDE^] thou shalt become their head so that they 
will guard thee: cf. 1 S. 22, 23 ,,thou art an object 
of jealous care to me". 

8. nuni& B] passive as nxapD shews; but had it been 
the active part., the form would have been the same: 
see Is. 51, 9. 

13. ITTSD] metaphorically of the nobles 2 : or, as I 
should prefer to explain it, her villages, like 
D^iDD Cant. 7, 12: compare TBH Is- 35, 7 [34, 13] 
with nan Jer. 32, 8. 

9. ntfiBO] like the roaring of the sea y. 65, 8, or 
like a whirlwind. 

1 Rashi compares Is. 57, 17: I will make thee obstinate 
and perverse: he says anyone 13^ rflTltSQ "j^in is called 
2al"ttJ. 2 so targ. and Qimchi ,,because the TS j is king 
over all the other animals". 


13. hbukri] The n is answered by ppD nst^, although 
there are others who think its influence extends over 
both nNts^ and nnp^, the sentence being- incomplete: 
- ,,lf it is to acquire great spoil that thou art come 
(then thou mayest get it to thy heart s desire)". 

XXXIX. 2. 7n:mtt>] as above 38, 4 : vnxttw i. e. I will 
make you into six nations, those viz. mentioned at 
the beginning (38, 1. 5f) Persia Kush Phut Gomer 
Togarmah and Gog with his people *. Others explain 
w from D^ntr 2 Hos. 8, 6: I will break thee into 
small pieces, assigning a corresponding meaning to 
"pnNtPtP viz. I will cut thee off, in ace. with the context. 

4. iryj like *]iy, the name of the genus, TISX being 
that of a species, denoting a bird of small size. 

I. bn&] with pathach, because it means to profane: but 
with qamess Josh. 3, 7 in the sense of beginning. 

9. ^p] in st. c. although with ssere: cf. Jer. 48, 17. 

II. room] i. e. ,,men will be stopped from passing by 
on account of the uncleanness" , or ,,because of the 
number of the slain" ; others explain ,,it will stop the 
nostrils of those that pass by, because the stench of 
the dead bodies will come up into their faces 3 ". 

1 Qimchi : It is from ntPtP and means that only the 
sixth part of their host will be left: others from the 
context interpret cut off or devastate. Jos. Qimchi 
explained it ,,I will judge them with six judgements", from 
38, 22 where six are enumerated LXX. xa#o<%7?ao>, 
targ. "jrSDNl (Qi.) "p yas. Rashi says it is equivalent to 
"Dy hy "jTiNtyn comparing y. 89, 23: ,,I will cause thee to 
exact usury from my people to oppress them". 2 Qimchi 
assigns the latter signification in both places ,,I will break 
thy heart so that thou shalt have a keen de^re to come 
out against the land of Israel". 3 Qimchi takes it in a 
causative sense ,,will make them stop their nostrils" ( n 

is whet? N*P hflB). 


14. *iy] D s "Qiy is subject, and n "swx object 
D iDpD is causative and the nx which follows it is 
pleonastic. ,,Those that pass through will hire men 
whose business it shall be to bury the bones of the 
slain, in order that those who are clean may not be 
defiled when they pass through : and they themselves 
too ( yn> if they see a bone will set up a mark by 
it until the men appointed come and bury it". Others 
think Dnniy to be object, -- the mtWN compelling 
them to bury the corpses that were left and to set 
up a mark by a bone till they came to bury it 
themselves. Others again render ^nn" 1 separated 
those that passed through from the unclean ll . 

26. lew] from NB>J: cf. y. 32, 1 Jer. 10, 5. 
XL. 4. rornNTi] cf. Ex. 15, 11. 

15. "prm*!] such was its name: but others explain ,,the 
gate of entrance", from nnx Is. 21, 12. 

^ ^y] with h added, although \3D H or >JD$> alone 

would have been sufficient: cf. 21, 20. 
19. ruinnn] the final n is paragogic, -iyty being masc.: 

the tone is consequently on the penultima 2 . 

1 The passage is thus explained by Qimchi : - - The 
house of Israel (v. 12) will set apart men who will go 
constantly through the land in search of the corpses to 
bury them : these men with the assistance of the travellers 
passing by ( yn nx) will bury those that are left. The 
latter as they go through the land (myi v. 15) will if they 
see a corpse set a mark by it in order that the n s tWN 
may see it, and carry it to the valley of Hamon Gog to 
be buried there with the rest. -- Thus while Mosheh con 
siders Dnniy and x yn rx to refer to the same persons, 
Qimchi taking nN=zwith makes them refer to different 
persons. 2 Comp. what he says on 21 , 31 : the same 
remark is made by Qimchi. 


26. vrnhy w ny&i] as though he had said w 
42. -urn DH^N] the i is added J , but others connect QT^N 
with the preceding words: the first explanation is 
however better because the division made by the 
accents is of importance ; and if we make the sen 
tence begin with irm , it is not stated where they 
place them, for an is closely connected with nhy\ 
and it is on this account that it is placed between 
n and ram. 

XLI. 7. PQDJ] nif al: if regular it would have been 

H30J: cf. Is. 19, 3 Gn. 11, 7 Ij. 10, 1. Others think 

it = nnpi? from 3C3, as in aram. 
8. rr v *s niDX] i. e. cubits reaching in length as far as 

the knuckles 2 . 
7. HJIDT] the middle, from -pn Num. 35, 5 formed 

like njicpin by the addition of nil: this remark I 

have not seen in any previous writer. 
11. n:o] said by R. Jonah to be a subst: cf. Mai. 1, 11. 

16. P]Titr] ace. to some for ?]Wi Is. 52, 10 ,,wood with 
the bark stripped off : or, from the context, ,,planks 3 
of wood". 

17. t>ys] the entrance, as in targ. for xna. 
21. mi O] st. c.; cf. Is. 14, 6. 

25. fy ny] i. e. nny yy: in the same way the adj. is 
put first i//. 89, 51. Or it may be a subst. 4 in st. c. 
although pointed with qamess: it will then mean a 
beam, as v. 26. 

1 Cf. 44, 10 Gn. 22, 4 (Qimchi). 2 cf. 13, 18 Jer. 
38, 12. 3 so Jon. ^ID^ whom Qimchi and Rashi follow. 
4 as 1 Ki. 7, 6 quoted by Qimchi. Similarly targ. Ges. 


XLII. 5. te-p] the 1 arises from cholem : for the word 

is from tea, signifying to take away 1 . 
12. rmn] straight, like pn in the talmud 2 : it is adj. 

to -)TI. 

XLIII. 2. nvxn] intrans.: cf. Ex. 14, 10. 

o. -QTO] with dagesh to indicate the loss of n of hithp. 

17. inny] ordinarily vn : but the is omitted as 
16, 52 Dt. 28, 59. 

20. IDD! to purify cleanse, as Dt. 32 43 3 . 
XLIV. 7. i#>r] the suffix added, as Ex. 2, 6. 

9. Hy] from Hy cf. Is. 1, 4. Another form of the st. c. 
may be seen Ex. 6, 12. 4, 10. 

by?] b as 1 C. 3, 2. 

10. D^n] i. e. priests: but because he removes them 
from serving him in the sanctuary, they are called 
sons of Levi, i. e. of the tribe of Levi, but not 
priests (a term implying actual service): the expres 
sion D^n G jron v. 15 indicates that every priest was 
of the tribe of Levi. 

18. yrn] ,,in the place where they sweat" 4 : or ,,they 
will not gird themselves so as to bring on sweating 

1 i. e. the columns took away from them, occupied 
a portion of the space they would otherwise have filled. 
Targ. p DJ LXX. |e*/8To. Qimchi nt^Bn, comparing for 
the sense of ^N a talmudic expression nfalX nim^ HOD 
HW 111X3 How many tables are there in the ark? Six. 
More may be seen in Buxtorf, lexic. chald. p. 83 who adds 
IBS" n^QN i. e. the space occupied by the vine, -- the 
space over which its tendrils extend. 2 see Levy, s. v. 
3 with an ace. of the thing purified : see Ges. 707 a. The 
targ. alters the const, m^y iBDni. 4 pJTOtf DlpDH 
Sebach. 18 b. i. e. not upon their loins but upon their 
heart (Jon.) 



It is from yp l -- the root of nyjr Gn. 3, 19 (cf. nxx 
c. 4, 12) where ssere is retained in st. c. under i on 
account of the y. Others think the words quoted 
are from yn KIX because they are pointed with ssere, 
and not shwa* as would otherwise be the case: see 
t//. 33, II. Jer. 51, 39 etc.: yp would then be one of 
those forms in which the middle letter* has been 
thrown to the commencement 2 . 

as Dt. 22, 9 3 ; or ,,they will not force the people 
to sanctify themselves on account of their garments: 
for there might chance to be iniquity in them. 

20. DDD] ace. to some, = ODD ,,they will grow hair in 
moderate amount 4 ": but others explain ,,inake their 
hair like now which rises straight out of the 
ground", i. e. cut it straight with razors. 

21. nxm] They will drink no wine because it is 
their duty to enter into the inner court. 

22. njD^x] ,,the widow of a priest", in st. abs. before 
the following pD: others explain ^I-OB partitively 
.,some of the priests may take a widow", as for 
instance an ordinary priest 6 . 

1 like yjj, with qamess on account of the pause 
(Qimchi). 2 Cf. on Jer. 18, 19. 3 where Onq. 3 4 snon 
cf. Is. 65, 5 - their contact with the people would render 
the latter Q- mp 1 S. 21, 6. 4 Apparently his meaning 
is the same as that of Ra. when he says the hair will be 
neither entirely shaved off nor allowed to be too long 
nit? ~SH N rx : cf. Qi. nfe~ rx l^ 1 . 5 Comp. Qimchi : 

If these words are intended to apply to every 
priest, it is in order to increase the holiness in future 
times: they then state that the widow of a high -priest 
or even of an ordinary priest may be taken to wife by 
any other priest. But if they are spoken of the high- 
priest , we must explain ",rQE as = C^ro nxpB s o m e 


24. tDBtPD] acc. to some, inf.: cf. Nu. 10, 2. 

31. nsiBl r&3J] some think the necessity of warning the 
priests against the rfew arose from the fact that the 
np^a (see Lev. 1, 15. 5, 8) was left to them, and 
that they might hence be led to imagine that the 
former was theirs likewise l . Others explain j to 
mean fruit that falls of its own accord, and nsits 
fruit that has been pecked by birds, or flesh torn 
by animals as the dog or the cat : others again think 
this injunction added because if they ate they would 
transgress two prohibitions 2 : but it is best to suppose 
simply that if they ate of such things they could 
not serve in the sanctuary because their body would 
be unclean within. 

XLV. 9. Drrwn:i] subst., alluding to the oppression 
and hard burdens 3 which they thrust upon them: 
but in my opinion it must be explained from the 
phrase "pyn BHJB v. 2 etc. as though he said ,,See I 
have given suburbs to you, ye princes, and the pos. 
session of the city, (as he has explained above v. 7) 
and it is your place to separate them from the posses 
sion of my people/ 

12. man] like p, the amount, which is to be of 
60 sheqels and is handed to them for distribution 
into the 4 parts named, 25, 20, 10 and 5. 

15. np^o] the pasture of Israel. 

of the priests may take a widow", as is done by our teachers 
and Jonathan, pnD 1 * JOJPO IKS^. The latter interpr. is 
also adopted by Rashi and is that which the accents favour. 
1 cf. Lev. 22, 8. The first expl. in the text, acc. to 
Qirachi, was given by the rabbins. 2 Lev. 22, 8. 3 Qimchi -. 
o:nn rm on^y D^WI OWN onx^ D^DDH 



21. niynt?] some think ni -- to be added, as 36, 3. 
but it may be that he uses the pi. in a pregnant 
sense, contemplating the weeks in one year after 
another 1 . Comp. D B an 46, 6 i. e. the heifers on 
the first day of the successive months are to be unble 
mished, and IKS 46, 10 of the successive princes. 
Others however explain 46, 6 as D^BPD one : cf. 
c Ez. 8, 17. 

XL VI. 9. iroj] with chireq, cf. Ij. 20, 29. 15, 33. 

14. D-fr] to mix 2 , cf. Cant 5, 2. 

17. rat?] n for n (Lev. 22, 13 with tone in like manner 

on the ultima): so Is. 60, 18 Lev. 26, 34. 
19. niDB^n] with art. in st. c. cf. Josh. 3, 14: so before 

a pronom. suffix, as Lev. 27, 23 3 . 

22. nnittp] an aram. word = nvwp. 

23. ni^BOO] the name of the pots, a subst. formed like 
the partic. : cf. Is. 23, 18. 4 wy is for rin^y : or it 
is in the place of m^3D >wy (made into boiling 

XL VII. 2. nr:DB] i. e. flowing out by drops, like oil 
out of a flask 5 . 

3. Q DDN] with x prefixed as Ex. 1, 16, from DS Dan. 
5, 5: the meaning is ,,a small quantity of water, as 
much as will fill the palm of one s hand 6 ". 

1 Qirachi says that niyDfi? is equivalent to 
just as nlay ^ 45, 7 is equivalent to nt?y^ 48, 21: and 
so it was understood by the targum. 2 sc. with oil, see 
Lev. 2, 5: so targ. xmyt>: the word properly means to 
drop. 3 Ew. 290 d. 4 Cf. Qimchi , ; a subst denoting 
boiling -places, formed like nnapD 2 Chr. 30, 14": 

targ. T2y xhwA "ir.x. 5 Ra. -]sn ^ 3nn^ o^m. 

6 targ. "j^iDIp "> i. e. reaching up to the ankles: so 


5. inn?] a subst. formed like inx Gn. 41, 2 from 

Is. 25, 11. The sense is ,,water which cannot be 
crossed except by swimming". 

6. ^nitto] like mtso, for the pronoun denotes the sub 
ject: comp. on the contrary Nu. 22, 13 Tirfr where 
it denotes the object. 

7. D^n] i. e. the waters of the sea will be sweetened 
by the stream flowing into., them. 

9. D^n:] either of the two streams - - the dual as 
Pr. 28, 18. nTT means ,,will be 1 healthy and vigo 

11. i\s ^] Is. 30, 14: the marshes and pools will not 
be sweetened because the salt obtained from them 
is indispensable 1 . The i in h as 40, 42 

13. n,i] = N\I Zekli. 14, 4 n representing either the 
1 or the N* of JO} Dt. 3, 29 : when > became quiescent 
as well as x one of these letters was dropped, and 
the other changed into n to correspond with the 
pronunciation. 2 

p]Di s ] imp. hif. .,let the boundary be extended beyond 
its former limits, and divided into portions". 

XL VIII. 11. Enpon] instead of the pi., as often: or 
perhaps it may be taken thus : - - For the priests 

* So Qimchi: -- The water in them will be required 
for the sake of its salt B&HtQfn ny&rt? HD Of. Jon. 
prT> rfen pUBriD^ . - Qimchi explains n,l as standing for 
rtt (targ. IH), in accordance with the At bach (u being 
substituted for x, n for n, and so on: compare the 
Atbash, where n takes the place of N, as Jer 51, 1, 
>Sp ?b .= DH^D): Rashi agrees with him, but mentions in 
addition the expl. given in the text. 


that are of the sons of Ssadoq shall be reserved the 
place of the t&npn nann v. 10. which is consecrated. A 
35. DVB] from that day and onwards its name will be 
,,Jahveh shammah", like the name of the king ,,Jahveh 
ssidqenu", Jer. 23, 6. 

1 Cf. Qimchi: - The priests shall have ran p^nn 
The other view is that of Jon. and Rashi. 


Jer. 18, 19: cf. on Ez. 44, 18. 

23, 6: he apparently means that there would be a danger 

of confusing "ii s Op ) with ^Nip" 1 in pronunciation and that 

this is avoided by the punctuation l N"p . 
31, 19: similarly Hitzig; but there are others, as Qimchi 

and Ew.. who understand *3\w in the opposite sense, cf. 

Jon. XTnwfe V- ir **J n JK *& 

30, IB note: I have quoted Ges.. although his expl. of the 
impff. by means of an extension of the principle of 
the part, in aram. appears very doubtful. There are 
numerous instances in which a weak verb borrows (so to 
speak) some of its forms from an allied root belonging 
to a class other than its own: the cases which perplex 
us are those in which the borrowed form seems to have 
an entirely distinct signification. They may perhaps be 
explained as being cases of accidental coincidences 
(such as are found in other languages), which find their 
real justification in the wider principle alluded to above. 
Others however resort to emendation: comp. Merx Hiob 
p. LIX. 

44, 19: the technical expression employed when a word is 
used in two opposite significations is 133 ~TI ^y: or 
TO IIB^ Ibn Ezra on Ij. 1, 5. 

48, 19: cf. on Ez. 21, Si. 40, 19. 

49, 10: cf. on 2, 25 and Geiger, Urschr. p. 482. 


50, 29: by correcting xim the sense becomes clear: there 

is no antithesis intended: D Q l is a trans, adj. (= shoo 

ters), cf. on 23, 24. 
Ez. 2, 6 note 2: add Precisely the same principle recurs 

in arabic: with y. 140, 9 compare Qor. 7, 71. 8, 48. 

11, 67. 12, 5 etc. where ^__j would in English be rendered 

idiomatically by lest. 
5, 7 Bottcher s ingenious emendation (neue exeg.-kr. Aehren- 

lese, ad loc.) alluded to is DD1DH: he compares v. 6. 

20, 13 Ex. 23, 21 and DDisn^ Lev. 26, 15. 
12, 19: targ. nsn, and so Qim. Ew. 
12, 25: Qimchi mu Ninn -DTI ^ mun ^y rap: "ps^ 

14, 4: Qimchi niD^nntt V n nrmx >D px3 npi KPQ 

20, 5: cf. note on 8, 6. 21, 12: See Nutt s Chaj. p. 104. 

21, 17: p. 48 1. 2, om. ", and place it after sword. 1.3. 
21, 20 note 4: the concluding words of Rashi s note re 

cognize the difficulty, and exemplify the method we have 
often seen Mosheh resort to in order to solve similar 
ones elsewhere: ujy ^ unns N^N ^EH ]W. 
27, 25: lainns the suffix refers to the preceding n: 
,,from the word used in targ. for noin". 

31, 5: he means to derive nnBHtP as well as rwity from 
t^lir, possibly as that which held the breastplate in its 
place as a tree is held by its roots : cf. Rashi s note on 
Ex. 28, 22 -m ^\s ^i^ ]w*?. 

32, 6: for, a flat pan, read ,,flat, of a pan u . 

34, 29: like targ. Ra., he has understood TO Is. 5, 13 as 
though it were T,D. 

35, 14 : cf. Rashi : - - When the land rejoices, in conse 
quence of my having assumed my sovereignty (tp. 97, 1), 
then I will etc. 

36, 5: the concluding words appear to be corrupt: perhaps 
we ought to read nsyi p; cf. Jer. 6, 6 where nsy, 
although a collective, is equivalent to vy. 

41, 17: cf. xj^yo 42, 9 etc. 

The sheets were already printed when M. Neubauer 
pointed out to me a Ms. of Qimchi s commentary on Ezeqiel 
(Bodl. Libr. Hunt. coll. 155) on the margin of which have 


been added several extracts from Ibn Gannach and Ben 
Bil c am, and a few from Chajjug and Sa c adjah. Some of 
those by Chajjug have been published by M. Neubauer 
(Journ. As. 1862 XX p. 211): I here give a couple of the 
glosses as further specimens. 
^V IUDD hp^s sin 1*0 IN h"i j?n .{rtw is (21, 15) 

DJTS Tip 1 SOD S S S< P 

Bip D s^ P] S D^S s^m IDJ *p ^"i Dy^n p 

1DJ *l $> 

yn ^yi ,1270 y yi ns:j p .fy ^yi (41, 25) 

:a^s p TTSJ yt nnyo 


Page n line 19, before nst insert IOD. i, 2 read 
i, 18 Din^. n x 12 way. 16 & 19 n^ & na. 
, 11 ] S JDD. r/ 9 rrpti. 12 i?yDn. 20 ly^t^n. 26n i mi. 
10 y^m. 14 TPVP. its, 11 a^snn. ID, 4 for -j^on 
ni r. irm -jten. t\ 7 DD:Dn. D, 19 inn. ID, 14 nxpi. 
3, ult. DDJi. ID, 1 2 ii^ji hjj. > T3 7 8 mTins. DD, 23 
Nt5/ 4 nat^. 17 svm. n^ 7 2 n s DJDn. 10, 16 
DlpBa. P. 22, line 2 from bottom, omit long and place 
it before dagesh, line 3. P. 32, 6 from b. om.- after 
herald: and 3, read weight. 


Page 2, 4 nmrrrD should precede UD. "T, 11 before 
nW> insert IBS. 14 for nr^IlBI r. n^^3Bl. 22 for vn 
on/ which was perhaps the original reading, and omit nHys. 
1, 9 om. 2 d nnis (which occurs at the beginning of a 
fresh page). ;\ 2 for s^ i?S. 23 for tWT, ^1 N^n. 
IB, 4 for is, sim. n\ 22 cny. B\ 2 for nx x, n^s. 
ID, 19 for : D^ /pjm. ns, 2 for rroTD si^m, TDIB sim. 
b, 13 for yam, VBI. n^ ult. for 7 ytD m, y^m. , 8 D^Djy. 
^, 17 om. mn. B^, 15 nn^. Two or three unimportant 
misquotations remain unconnected. 


-pna ptPD ami 1 * nsu nnx nsu DIJ . D^SD 

Kirn D\nxn ^y ^nwi D y x nDDinn .D^DSX ^D 

& y Dtp .intp o :^n ^te^ D uy& D>D ism 2 T DD 

N^ D S D yom mntp^ nrntpn t^iD^ I^ND UD inx 

^y ^J3n ^ mtpn I^D .^itpn :nmtpn ^n ^in Dray 

: hysn ^y] ^JDH ^ s jnn^ Dip^n DD^y -j^n^ Tirf> ^snm ^yisn 

o^hnm D^SIDH D s Dn nxiDi[n n^nn i^y^ .D^D 

ins yt^ni D s D"n t^yji IDD .o^m Dtp n^ itpx :DM 

myn ipn s N D N^m nisan 

T DJT^N 1X13 FjDIJ N^ 1X1 

xn nnn ix "ivn nnn nm IXD 
osm mnjn nvmn ^ntPD inx I^DH nvn 



:pns >jn& D s :nD? n^n^ tpipon tPipn nann 
otp ^ n^tp n^n 1 n^^i xinn DVPJ .DV 

Ms. on 2 Ms. N^. 3 Ms. om. . 

ns n&nn 

W3 l-ny 1 I^DX 


IBO ix rpyn s mpjn 



xn ns> ID 



nnnyn TDI DDH yt:m 
t^ns n^n* 


t^nn 1 im s Dy minso 
mm VJDH IDD pt^nn 

int^Dpn mt^yi 

nm in BIN 

-annra nm 
vn 1 ! -ID tnrn t^nn 

^i ni nnx ni ^ 
?nx 2 n ^s IDS 



t^om ont^y Dnt 


npa p ID pi 
i?y IN^ anxsm pi 
ans D^D^n ipn p ID 

: iton 


nmi IOD inn . NJP IHD: 

:n^ < >D I DI UD xini iniN my 1 ? .n^on 
n*opi IDD n s 2x nu ^N nnt^i xn Dipan inn 
siDD n^D ^y nn xn .tripn nottwi t?x -.nsnm 
[: -p-yn noD nx] IDS D^J^ nDiaon ^y pi 3 [mnn ^nxn 
:n s Dix ni?o x s m nmt^p .nmtp nmn 
p^ny noDoh IDD ^yiDn o y xa nn^on DB> 


1 Ms. in. 2 Ms. om. n. 3 There are here two blank spaces 
in the Ms. without any traces of erasion : apparently the copy 
which the transcriber had before him was imperfect. 

nnn xvn Dnn nxnp y nn nxn .D7 s nx 

xim IUH D S BDPI p^n pi rnt5 . rmn : inp ^ yum ^>3x 


nyisi 103 noiy >ys .rrrxn pxm 
nus inn^yDi :^ysnn n inon^ in ^i .n^nno 

^?N vn^yoi N^n nyn^n 
inning .inmssi :"jni3 

hy :^n nx inxim 103 .T^n nx 

3 .13J p 
omx pmDt? ^SDI D S JHD oni .i 
D^ro xh >i^ ont^o ytsm ** 

yrm n lyirty ny n^n^ x is nyn 
in mxti^ji xsn ^nj DHI mxn nxu D y xin^ *JDX nyn 
ss i^ty ^ ^yn ^n: orpjtp DIX t^ s< i ^yn 
yrn n^n^ r nsy ohy n:t^ 103 
ID y yt23 .cnnnn Dyn nx i^v N ^ : ori^nni? 
nmn D^DJ tynp^ oyn innw x^ loyw ix yntn 

; 1X ^ .1EDD S D1D3 : ^y DH3 mp ^1X ^ 

n^yn NVW noosn ^s niDi3 DIX t^i DIDD 

inx -jns niDio -jro n:xt^ .p3D 
: tsvin p3 103 nnp^ 
i n^3j ^3 :myn x 
crfr nnmnty s s^ ,1^3:3 

Tann wix ixirrty ny nix^ ivs IBT osy IXT DX 
Tann WK DiiT-w o^iysn on onmyn ^ Dnaix t^i 
"i Dxn iy i^s i^y la^i D^nun nx onniyn nt>x nnp^ 
nx itrji :Dnmy^ nxoitDn p i^nrp ix 


HDD .pn^n iyi^ IH^IDD s IDD 
nsoinn . ys> i?y : rnx mtr 102 nx^n nytr ^w t^^i not^ 

^ ^s^ ix ^JD ^y ^DDO rrm ^ 
p ^y P]DU F]*on nn .njinnnn 
.vm^y nyaty ni^yoi HDI 
pm cn^x aw ty^ ?]DU .xin .m^n DH^K 
n rnn < in <> : <) i I:IDN DKI ^n,i ipy n^y^n posn o 112: inv 


nn npaji imasi nns n 
: nn^i yarn TVDIS nte >m no: it^i^ DIN t^i 

m n:i^x"i pt^a y njD n njm "jiria n^ym UD i s yn 
i ax .man oipa i^anpty s a^ vn^xi xh nn D^SDU 

?y : ^y mip laipa ** I 

iaD .nym nmo :iauinD nnsn xna ^y .nnsn 

^m hi iaD nny yy 

:Duym pi xmp ityns . pap xin DXI "jiao 

1 Ms. na }J>D^ in. 


prp .D3Tin:ip nx nnis >JN run :rsxn ns*) IBS 11 
nrvn ran v^ lax I 31 n ^ n rnx-iBn feni nfein hv 
B y .Tinsn i^nn i^s niNiBn 10x1 tansi ^ 

\r "U^Dl 1^1 "TO 

]>y -jTn mt^ s oix ^i nnxn -JTS onw npn ." 



: ny nnx nirjt^D ^ IDD 

nrvn n^yiD nn s n I^N 

^s^ ^DI t^^in nmoi :^jn rttino 1^2 
n:m ons^n n:^i IDD invnt? 

nnnit^n n n . w ?ur\ : nsio nns ix D^ S 
pjyni nnp^n nxt^^n ytom myn n^t^ia DIN* tr^i P]DD 

nxn ^n.i ^ty bhwb DX ai^ ion 

y Dy ^:.i nDiiini iu BISI t^D DHD n^nn 
ytom inaity ^y n s n s n^nty ^ U 
^ .nss ID^ ;^jyn ^ "j^mDni 7ns^^i pi 
jy sin ^ nnsn . ^HN xh : i^p ^B DLy -nssni ?]iy 

.onmyn nx x^n naDirn :msn p I^D ni 
is nBBn JDB nn 

an n^n ^:xi DnnBn on onmyn . onmy 
niB^y inp 1 ? TBH ipoyn^ D^JN* anmyn 112^^ 
-imy . DrapB : p3 annyn oninton INBB^ x^ HD 
anniyn D^I Dnni:n nx mp^ onn*yn 11^ y^ni PDU nxi 

mm un 

onx ^ yum D^isDn p Dm ^x nun rotrn 
nxn nnyn ^yw "pn ."p^ nD ^ ^ ^V 
Tun D Tnya $>ysn XD ^ I:D^DD ^opn ^yn ^sn n^n S D 
pi isnn i:an IDD pin nnn *sin o ^pn p invn prn y o^n 
?^ ^JDD n.3yts V N1 P in:i QH j^ ]H i^n ntest^ nnsn 
nns rpnn naoa m S D n:yN p&yN 
onx ^yi :^WD DH S JD^ h^o r]^n mon n 

pp imi3D 7 ois t^i p^son n nnn xn .ND 
iN^i rfo nte xn p^sDn i^sn n^nn n:m 
t^isn iw [-"i^]si nn^n^ nnxi ^nn^n hnn:x ^D nn: 
nrsDn p D^ n^sn FI^H rnmD nxnpn 
napjn n nnn 7 nty pn^i mm omvn nm 
n DBVTI " 

M pirn n^Ni -fi^p xinty oi t^ s i nD s pi no^ 7 D y 

}>npn v uS"i n^m n^nnn D y TONI mm ns nnn 
DJHJD N^N mn^ mnay a y fix nvnnn IDD 
D"*oy ^xim nnso onny nxi D s mn y np Dy D^yD^ 
mrx DSI nvi^xi nnn n^xi noi nmn *fapn p DJ 
; nn cyi nnpj ^y nnn .ifen fisn :DipD ix ty s x t^n^ mn 
nn^i ^n J nyjn ^x IDD 121 i^y tSm nn ^ s xn S D IDD 

isn x.n ^ "jis i\ s /nn nnn H 13 

D^?n ^y mv o ox jwni D^avn nBgxi Dysn pi main 

: mi -n xin D^I nooi^ 102 nnnn IN yife n"i. in IJDD 

mpm :m onp npj o^sn pn IBD 
:inttnn ^y pi rnnipni 

1 Ms. 

IDS . arnica : ^Dy mm IDS DOTS IDS 
inx pi p iu "]ii2& nan nnx tw npn rwy DWD 

:iny ?yis xin m posnn nsyn nn \>Dp -inu 
nxnpn .inxun am :nn njnn IDS iipD pn* .ly 
inn IK INI nnn ^xn ix naDn nn s nsm 
.in inn :xn ^yn Nim nt^n s n^ IDD uon 

nnjym IDD nnns 

IDD n^n ^n Kim "jnsD r6m UD .ni^mn nx 
nhnn nxi DIN* t^*i pn ^n n^nm PD 

nrn Dvn y yton .miyisj UNX ^inn inrn D^n 
^y xn x^x nit^iDj ay pm invn n^m uxsn 
"jinn nynn niM mm pm my anpnt^ ^ 
in? nyin N^ iy nnp:n .TDt^x npmn nxi : 
w am IXD xnn 1 t^x UD .nnn n^ p : 
yam t^ DD^ nn y u DIN tt^ PJ^N nnn M ix anpy 
oms nmim D^nnji IDS . <> nyn. < i ninmm onix ^nnji :ninn: 
ix rom ^nyn^ mnmo jnxi o^n^m yiom 
-.nyi ^DIDX :^nynj ninmo Dm rain 
>x nDDinn DD^DX PJIDX IDS DIX t^^i ^inp ix nyi YID 
M nnn M 2 not^D px D y . n^yiD :ixn xim 

^nty D y x DHX nni ix 7ini ysty .n\n cty ^ 

xs .pxn ^s PIIDBO rnt^pn nn^n D y nnin IDS 
yD^ yo ix nDDtp ntryx tx 

1 Ms. ,TH. 2 Ms. nstt o, 3 Ms, siw. 

pi D^D IBS u 
nsis n^nty yeni r 

ni o^yhn DITI UD ."jniDi ni Nun [*nN$>oi 
"JDDJ Nin DNI ftysn] "py *?y nmn^> "in niSDp nt 
:D j*N myqjpr& D^tto IXSDJ [on] ^s nm "in 
^p 5>ys xin njm p3D s nn nnx >s IDS 
n^ s ^ IDD nns ^yiD is Nsni yam 

. inD-i ps : nxsim 
o y i^^n n: 
i on^n^n Dm m nt^ni 
:-jnix Tinsn ."ninDn ^n^DDi :D s ^p n^yoi 
. nnix njjipn : mn nsni>a ytsni in 7J s y f] s ynn 7 uo . 
nm 7 jn ^i.nn ny^3j NM^ n^iBD "p: inon ^y nmn^ 
.i.Tnini :\mDx n-jixn ^nsty n-jJin pi nmn p^o 
:i^y nnji ytsm Dnnn ^ 
rm :Dy:n -wiyo im 
^iis i^yis Dt^ iDiin N^ 
o mn inn nioi IDD Tny nnn 

Dnnsi HIDID s^x nnty 
py nin v j33 ^1* "P^ 
mn IDS ^na .nmx 

nx 133^ xh 
D^ILD ytom ^su in D^DJ IDS 

ay in^n^ xi? Dns[D] "j^ym 
oms^n n^xi Dnrpon ansun 
1 ^ "te :njDi Qnyi 

s s nmpo . 
iis nfrf? m D: pn s i 
v uisnn t^x x 

iTayn . 

t sh 

inx i^y 

onnjn n^xi ininj ^y nix 1 ? itrxi nnn ism 


on D.TVQ 


mn ^n c^iy Dy x^x nbx IDS ansD nn^D n i n < > x^i 
cnvnD onnjn n^x I^D:^ y^ni IVDC^DS D^SI: DIN 
ansD ^y D^SU DIX tr^i D s hy nn^D Dy 


nninnn w& IDI .m^n s nt^n rum -.11x1 

:,TnnuD^ rmisn ny am 
? innn nx IIDB^ IDD IIDDD xin ^ m 

no > 
ivn^yDn v^x nn J^i "OD h^ wx n:n 

^ y ytom mip un UD xim 
nxi :D s siyn ^ip DIDH ni^o MD TJIX t^^i nmn 
mnx nte^ nD^onn pi J usn niD^on mnt^n xh pn 
n nnn xn .inoip xnru :nx^n n^ptfD3i nsinn ni?yn 
.vniDyoi vmsyio :xi ^ ^xip IDS 
invn^ prw D y x nntn^i nit^i^ HDD 
pi i s Jp *pji IDS i^yn inx ^n [ onn] DDDHD 

nnxD in^a isnxn nyt:n 
D^D mD ywm D^IDI DUD 7ri^ X UD in^n six 

oy pm xin it^xsi n ixjp^i .imx:p^ :rmxpn 
:^ nnx xjpDn ]vsh ^nxjp IDD nnyn yt:D xin 
mm n^ Dt^n IDX p ^ IDDD .noipn 
nsD "T^JD nnn; nvn pn^i u:^x ^ JHJDD 
.injnxi :in ta iD52 in:^s inn,n nnt 5 DI it^x IHDD 
ua . 2 DH^x nDy xh :^ ntyy 1 nt^y pi my nnn 

Dinn nnn: ^nyjs 0,11 nxn: x iy oinn nnyn 

t"i nnyn vn^DDi vmn^n ytom Dinn oy pan s n^xn ix 

ytsm Dinn nx i^y T.^DD INDB> D^ Dnnx n^axn DIN 

Dinn IN D^ny:D nnyi D^I D S D 
nihnnn ms^ynn UD nnsn D y y .ns^y 

[in] : 

1 Ms. M* nn. 2 Ms. DH^NO inj) 11 . 3 Ms. nnnw. 


701 u& i^yn >i>y& DB> -pion nins 
pxi D,TDj3 D Dno wo six t5i p&ja n^D yum 
t&np inn 1^x2 .71 . pjn yi^xim v^x 700 
ts>x >.nx 7ra I^XDI TD in IN ^p nu in sim n s [ n 
NT t&nm ^yD 1^20 Tny .712x1 :D^x^n IDD n 
i si TOXNI oipDn xin n:m ism fpn nm 
n^n F^xn pion N^^ o iny^ -pnyn "sn^ p s 
y iytyj xin S 3 innniosi v^y "rioyw "pi ^y nnsn 
mon ^ysn DI Tny^ n^i:n rftxnw DIN ^i iny Ninty yyyn 
nionno i:ste n^D2 i^yt^ IDD Tnyn xn inyun 101^ p ^y 
IDD ^ysn y s inert? nn t^m ^ysn i s :n nox onnxi px 
n nnn in ."p mxi^ rp^NNj. ip^yn ^yi HDJ iy D^JI 
inii UD .^n ^EJI : s xnD "j^nocyi ua "npon fjou nm 
.nn i*T ytsm ^ty D y Dt^ ix DLy nnn ixn 
i^D in:m ^DX IDD yman ^^D ^ys 
nyii: IDD .i^xoo ^D :bbn ^ 

n:p UD oiDsn p xim pun pun D y 

?n ix myDm 72,1 DIX ^ .DH^ mr^ym 
i^ n\n x^ n^tri :njyt^on 
n^y DM nni^y ix i:J rx 

.rhrhn :nux n^n ^x n^tri IDD .ansn mn nxm 
nnn vnty .nnnn px ^m :^yn ^i^y nssss ^ 

nnnn^ D^xr^n ix ntsn nt^vn :^ID nx 

.DC? ns ppi :nn Dn^j nsun 
j?m noiDm i^pn n^t n npi?n xb ^ ovn 

Ms. 3^ -. 

yum iy TIP n iM ni3o |p3] IN Dipo 

.^iNO 1^1 pi inns Moxi m ^y mri 

no mT3 D onnoi moo IN P^I ^310 i>jy ioy& IN ^ 

rraon NIHP [DP]H nm xini ujnj ION jivm i^in 
PDH njnn : IP npy ^NP [mnpy]!? y i;o 7 . nipy 
xh DHMJ on^n ytsm ^r nx 

nP DIN IttD .TD^D 11PX :7I3D^ HITPP 

Kim ^n^ TO irjD D nDDina "JI^D iKn DIN p^i HOIK DP 

7 oix P^I DH^K 2 nE>mi mpo n^np 
nmiK 7 ^nn p o ^nmiK ^^yn 
nm m 3 n:n y S J -riBJm Drwp3 .omjn :DP 
HHM IN* ana nu xh m PIE? n^n I^KI nnno:n p^o 
n^p 103 nnns yam ?JDIJ DH . non3 :nsn IK 
IDS n"i : 3p: ^jy3 DIK P^ .0^0 n^pj ny 

ny yt:m nnsui 

yom ay y uo ^IK P^I -joo IDPH K yum 3m oyv 7 uo 
it^nn Kh p IK D^^n 7 uo ^!?no T3 : o^oino "joy vn 

oi D J3^ prn uo ntei nns^ 7 o 7 y . n s J3n onin : >pnp DP 
no ."jrQiao :nji3nn 4 Dnim ^13 nnK yom s v "JTI prv K^ 
n Kin 7sn enoiK P^ . ^n 73p:i 7sn n3Kte : pin nsipos 

IOK mm a^n D^n D s 3pj D^3p: 13 Ki3i IIDNP 103 73p:i 

DTK p3 K^K 3PnP 103 HI^K U^NP Ip^mn %S .133 

lisa D poyno vnp i^pn ^3 ^y invn pn i 
nyiu nn\n K^I i^2P3 opn Dj:i3 i^K3 5>^n 
Kin p ^y 700 IKH npoo .-pion npoo :nin ay 

1 Ms. ness. 2 Ms. HBISN. 3 Ms. N.VI. * Ms. omo. 


nna :na Dn^ax i^i nnisn i^ IB JW n^icni pin 

pi ^iy ?pya pi .iinna s ixi IMI bys: "paD npft . :nn 

^y nian^ 5 tr^ xnn 

^ IDXI % ( ix ian D J 

xh unya it^x bi 103 nynnn n "jnon by niT> : 

nxn npDn ^y xianir nynnn n 
:inx xiD^nn IBS n%n it^x .n^nr 
xan piDDa nni ohya s a:i nnMt^ iis .Dn y 
n yix D"n yix onoix t^i ^nn:i tsniD xim "j:nx 



m main D S JD S D S J^ na ixa .D^mni? nx 

Dnnnx ID^DV^ in ixi nnx >uan :nu "pin 
naa n^y^ pn^ main n"i inx D^ain iva "pmax 
D^n D^T ia Q^ nJiDna la ixa^ nsity 
p ^?y n i oy iDn ^ 

s n^D D s n:ti> nnxn napin ^y pi 
: xim DI^ ^sm DDD f^pa on nn s n 
D^ysa pi pina DIDH iin njn y^anb i^n 
inin t^na i nnx n^ba .Dm^na 
n IM^ y^i nun ^ap^ t^nsn i^an xin 
."j^na IM :liaiy ^ ^y niinn ."jaiytD aiy^ 
D: isyu "j^m nix ^a ^ax nrjini ^n p loyu ix i,n ay 
oy n^ix 10^ 7 nr> y oix t^i noix D^ . DHDJI 
inion any^ nnnon DIP . 7^iaiy : mo inn 

: s ,nn 

y Dpa cysi Dna . [nsi] : naon jp OIK 
&3 na 1 ? 

1 Ms. rttwnai. 2 Ms. adds sS. 3 Ms. ^n. 4 Ms. na from 
the second half of the verse quoted. 


mow n 310 t^ D.-& mnn x^i no^xji 2 Dt*>n i 1 ? ION r&nm 
naiai nnxi HDD nni> -nox nny yum yEtt" yown 
in x^ on ^D pym ID^DH n^3 xim 72 nx nnsx -j 
?ninjn IJ^DN^ x^ p DN n^n^ rn&r 
7-01 u&N>tp ny on^y xajn !?N ct^n 
xinn ovn xin nn DJT^N mini p I^DN^ p nnx Tyn 
?y DN S D ^otj" ^y xajnna PDDJ nny mm ID^BH ^x 73 
nsn I^N^ tD^en xn it^ioi o^n^ 
rii n^xn nmnn ut^v ?nnxi vs nx 

S^n j 


nnnx 7 nn >i? pnnn nw nn^n S 3 nmn^ 
^p nx ^y^^ D y imv6 iisjm ^ypi pi nn rum 
oyi t^m D y y t^jn Dxsrn t^-isjm DS^ pn^ 
]^n nyun mn xit^n nn^nty ?]^xn in^n^ai 
ytom J2 mns .^ 7nnji i-jm-n mxnn 

x y^n .poy >jn ^y Dip ^ :-,^n ^nnD ISD 

n am Dip 


fe DDJI IEO ^,5rn xm 
.nmnn nx^x 


F]ns x nnoi 7 u 

yam nwx nte x^m nay 

s fe Dm njjat^ n^D ix 

Tny IDX 
nmnnt^ 3 nnx 


y y .fop :nmD D> 
no i^n yto n^ mot^snn 

1 Ms. 

n. 2 Ms. otrn N^. 3 jyf Si anrw> 

xh nips is k TO .nx^in mnn:5> :nn nn&rmD o:nnn 
pr x^tr iy D^ip n s nn:^ nxmn yum Tny nnn my .^s: 
mm ^s nn: -IDX^> Htf nn:n *?y hs *6i ant: -nx ^ 
nsnnn mnyn ^ nirfwn tnu n^y bDJ N^> ayo i 

xim n^m^y nnon m yton . 
IDD isy moD^ ytD mi x^Dms 
nmn tnni^no pn Dn^nnt D^nit^ vntr 
HM npD HM ^xi nT^ym nym 

p Kim ip s onx D y .nrr 
ywn nnya pj urx i^^n s n:p im^i posnn 
^in^ /- in mi*o nnt^n: mm -pi in " 
nap D y ^yn S H:D sint^ ^is *t^i nnni 
omn pt^i KSOJI vjyn nb nn KSDJ x ^ 112 
^y pi KSDJH ^K irmp:tt> p^n D^JBH J^ n^aio mm 
nnn pi^n .ann :pnpin mwn -pin x\n nxn 
:^p H*s ^ H SJ V jn * s n njti;ri Dnni 1 
Djnnn p inn pi pxn IHM oi w ps ua 

$>ysn ^ ^ ^ n^ninnt^ nx n^nm ^ y nx^n 
nsin ay ?]^nn s x^ ny inn nn iD^nm nnp: 2 ? mm 
n x n inn DX ji^ni nxinnn nx nt^yi pi "D& 
nnt^i ^nx p^o nvn^ inn mxt^j nnsin p nnpjn n 
xin IIDJI nnpjn xn nnn innty iox "py nx^ni nyi^ nxipi 
o r;m nnpjn ^xn DHIDD nx^m nuini nrn^ 
ytsn p ^y [Dna]j; an& pai inD in inn^ n::n 
ninx nit^x x^ ,yiDX x^ mnpjn p^o inn S 2 
ytsm nso^i? pnx nyis S D 7 uo ix t^^i yiD 
p:xm an npjx nnn .on pjxn :V"tn 
ix n ^y un .D^D :-]np:xn -jhp n^n x ix 
nxi nnD s nxi ISD .0 


lypj i>N yp r. y p" 1 nnpy w en run ys 
^ysj p IN tnt? p ii ioni* pppn twi 10/1 ypni m 
:nrm:i $>prn nttri? ^UJPI m yyp itntptp D^I TON 
111 ii?D .-pnu mi -.ann^s ny i "irvp . 
^ it^ns .3Di ]sn -.nnp:^ xin -2 ns nnn 

DTP Dn^niDsyi IDD nnt^n . 

o^inn intyn aix ^ <s% i jrnt&6 nis k nnt^ 
iin ^ipi :n -n^nni? tnn ^ np^i 
nnn i ^^D a5 2 ^ix IDD mt ""nn nsn m 

NI yum . 
niiDn nnvi IN 

njpim n^nn n^N^n ^niNin vrox yts 
n:in N\m n^nutn nuit iNn rhx r\r\ 
^ iNn nnyi m:n nnp nNi ^ pso ^ 
yt^m n^nnino n^nuin n^D 11 i:r TIDN annxi ny 
an DH^N nn^ty nt N N^n D^siNJn p 

NMI 7 yts IN ni^D:i 
"jnpisn IDD mm D^pns osnp 

pis ttst^D nn 
:nnn2 i^y inNiai NIH iy 
mntw D^HD nt^Ni IDD ^ysnm ^ysj ^JD 

DD^NtDH 1W DN 11 ^y Nl .DD^I^ ^IDHI :Din 

n in m : D^nD^n y 3^1,1 yon , i^on 
iy nhu niiiD ytsm oty pni nniiiD 7 w ns in DIN 
IDN .nn inN^n it^N :i^nnn rrnn o^Dsyn na 

1 Ms. ^ " . 

n ix "uyo b nx n&ny mn i&3 . pt^yn i&>y 


nm i3 rrao nnn IIBD S LWX pi 13 nxin xim 
. i JTIX nx nn: 3 yun na IDD rwyn DIK % ^ s . 7yi ^ysani 
n nt^y 102 nsap n^x ytsni n^y I^N "jysni? pi 
:iy^D rwy n\T y^n yan no "jysn DNI mn 
nvni nty ynph n^m ipyn ^yi ^ysj vjn .-p 
nxin nte^ yxw ^b ^ysn n^ IN ^ysn ^y pn^i nnxn icnn 
morn "pK mt inn ixn 1 N^ D^IDDH ist^m ^in^ in 
s Ni2 no^n x s n nnsjm ^yisn ^y DN o 
ibmi i?nj pnna mi inn mun nxi b rum 
nt^rn D!?D .-a^nn i^> xna n:n: na rfrm ^ 
.i^y nnD^ .D ron PJDS o s ro pi ^nm ntyru 
^jn DIN ty .f]D3 linns :DHD t^xn HDU 
p]n:nD pi nnxn n^s: ^jnn pji t^i^n "p: v j1J ns 
p]njnn pi iipD [xini] ^ysn i s :n invn^ xin 112:1 P]n:n ^y 
nnn inn piiri o^^nn ^33 D^IB> oonn xn^ onipan i*ni 
i s nn3 yt^ni ^yn TIJO Ninty pn t^nnD IDD D^PI 

pi p]Dij xnn P S DD ix s^ s . 
JHJOD xit^n ^so im^pni ^nn^ n^ixi i 
IDS .^Dn D,n^ into 

"Q3n gis 1^3 xini ninDi 

.n^ym ntry DL^I nmm NST ^yis xin 
o ^:x :$won nt^yon xim 
s nno : ion xini ^an s t^jx ix D 
nn^yni : o^yns D^ntD ywi ni^m nis:s ytom 
pxi n^nyn in ^y nsoun xn nxnt^ D^^n mi 

ypni :xn P^SD non xin o i^nn monrn ni3 


^3t?v y picsn 
DJiy mstD wfem nnpD -fe 
jnt^n IN no niyi3tpi nNi yntp N^D 1D3 
Nipj nt . inystp s ypK] n^ynt^ D s yi3t? pi nyn&y UD 
iwy nm niyinty yt^ni D^D^ nyntp Kin 

^y onnx nrsn onau 
3*B3n DDn i^sn^ IN it^snn 
nvi "jit^Nin nxt x^i .nw N ni 
NM n\nn PNT DIN ty^i nsD D s mi 
^s^n 7 ni ^st^n ^ nmmn nN! n\nn 
^ nxt DJ .-nsiND myin IDD 

my n:D^N&^ m DJ 
ni ytsni pt^xin nNt IOD nt D^ DIN EI I^N vnnji 

iy nny nw xh nn^n n^st^n 
.nrein ^NI iiDy s :n ^N .-I^N rnnji nsi^on 

nsm Nm on^m nn^y 1^ 

a px DNI UD D^y^n innD mn 1D3 n^io^ . nninD 
3 nnan ^no^ .^n^ :myn niN^in IN 
"j^ nnnn .-fDpn nm Nni ^DHPI^ IOD DIN 
7Tin i? D^DIN vnt^3 ytom 

jn^ ny *junjt5> nson 
DIN t5"i DnD nns D nnNi 
miD ,-IM N 1 ? yt:ni ^iDy 
DnnN onpn^ N^N 
yt:ni mnn ii& xin ^ DIN 
N^N nD bn ^iDy ^n ^N 
niyn ^N nt^n :iiy 
NM D^ ^ ninn 


vw H3 7y DDpn 
anD -inss -j^n^ p 



Nnm 1^3 

Ms. om. 

n3pjn ns^ am 

2 Ms. T. ^. 


yum mx nuo ]nx:i ID IDS vm 
nmtsn mnn ^HJDS .nrwh? mn 
T.tnntp iayu ix nznn D^IPDJ 
x^n IDS nh-D nrpt^tp t&msi isronj mn nw ays 
n^^tr ays nn^^ty w ife ^y D^^tn D^ 1 ^ ^ 
i omnn D3^ ns^n .DD^ niTinn -.ays nnx ays 
nnw HDN annxi xnnnt 5 nna mn mnsD ix 
rrm .^itt^ "jy^^ :D2^ 
y VJD m im m 

nnnx :anix rvnm INJ niyn IO 
n wi ]m x D^SHD tr^i * 
^1x1 ^ i s x j^^n nnx nnx tysnom nn Nt^^ 
IDD ^N .pin^ nwy nx :^tyn DI v vn x rrpmx 
sjn nx no^ pi pin n^ nvn^ njpint: . 
tsyon mnn ninnn^i ^DU ^im n^ys . 
xini n^n nx nym nioy^ 1^x2 y w six 

[n^xoj^xi IOD niynno ppnrnn ^ nxi 
. 7:3 n:x : i^^n ix ^x^t^n ^BJ v^^m nixsn nnxnn y ytsm 
:x^:n nni xim D^tyn 1 ns: xim nssn n I^X 
D 3-nn DX xim i^y ^n trxin mpo ^ inn .xin 
p : xnn PIDDQ ^ns s itrxD n:m D^^ 
xim ^p ntynj UD fp^p D^JS vb IDD 
D vnt^ irsin vn D^p UD six t^\ i s :yn nn 
is^ a^Hn vn ns^ niD i ^ nn ^IB I^XDI ""nn Dxn n^yD^ 
an D^IT "]"n xim i^^n t?y DDpn i^ t?su n\n rum xinn 

ant^in vn K 
xin nx DXI Dn^ 5 lyn^j im m x>n Dnoix rm 

1 Ms. p IDIT. 2 Ms. n 11 . 3 Ms. adds o. * Ms. im. 

1BD Dnn DyDl X H2DJ H2pj? pi nS3 Xin DX1 "Dy 

31 hyz ^pn IBD D[ S Bys] J-IB^B> on rum rm 
"UB .ntsriB :ro:i nnxB p "12.1 B y IBX 
nxi IBD npB . . nt> rrn lyB 1 ? : mi^nn m^yn Nirn 
IDD posnn ^JSD xn ^DU ^in .ntsn :n^n mi 

:inxi:n IK y~nn ix 

un HDDI nnsn mnn nuj 122 oy^m nnyinn 
ninn nn^n ix ^ a^jn D^DXIQ vn ^xic^^ DX 
DX n&Di yt^m DD^ DJ DX noi r^is^ pi D^DJ rn cm 
.D^i^n noxiD n\in l xh ^n tsnty DX jnan m 
^y ^ r\~\& noxiD mnn m S 3 twj 7x ty 1 ^: is DIX 
nn^it noxiDi ^n ^nt^ m^ mnn DI^D ^n tonty n-ont? 
nMn x 1 ? mnn o nyn inixn.nt^yj noi wnty. D:I DX nDV 
DX iDD- nftxn DX ^DI nniD^ mnn DX 
n mix noxiD mnnty n ^ IDX ^nopn n^ n . 
^y njn ix nte S 3 t^^: ix HMJ ty tyj ix yts 
aiD mnn m *o ty^j ix ,-n ^y HD^J DIXD y yt:m 
x^ fen m^ni }>y fe noxio x\ 
nityy^ nsn at^n DI^D k |nn px IBS inn ^ oy^i 
xini PDXIB tsnty n 1 ^ x^ DX ^nzn n* n\T ni np:i i 
n nxi n\T xb DX Bife umDm s n tsntyn oxan mn 
ix IDX jrm .mD nh*i:i mnx n^p: n\nn 
.11 v tyty p 

xn:n nm ix nuynsn an^y xm 
o oytoi .-^y fe HDXIBI s n tunty noxiD mnn ."w 
IUD no .mn ^x n^B :Tny nnn nay 
^ 711 ^y nDDin -jnn ^x n ^B^ -JBDJI 

onBix ty^i By ^x vn mn niB s x 
nxi ^By vn mn 
yam 7nm3B *snni niDB y^D ?]D3 ^ pjinn HBX annxi 

1 Ms. adds 


riys DB> "Din x .TS3 ."THuD nnx npni innipn 

man BOX nx Dna snw UD na&^i yon .ITIUD^X 

-jrvnnaa yun .p-n is:o :^>ysn "pa mi ^p rw 

t^x my ntsD :T,niDia DIX t^i DID pnnn S 3 "pirn 



moxn >pn am n^ny DipDn my 
^pn D[H] a s pnn -D oix t 
aitsn nxi D^nn nx asip^ I 

mte s n^ i^n^s .nnnn HD 




ox nrf? 
jnn nxi 




yn ^n: am DD s JDn DmtsipJi 
[ s x\n]^ N in en ^ 
iinn HD^ ytsD ..may ID^ 
?]Dij in ix DS^I^ ins k rah y^ni nya 
pin ni nnxi DIN t^i ^x D s yDW 

i^nn vhw ny Nin^ ^x D^DI^ nny 



.a:n ytoni ]ww is^n k UD .om x 
inx DipDa pi tnpDn n s a mt^n ny^i o^n s on DITTI n:Dni 

s n s a 

yt^n pns pD nnan^ 
.a^ ^D DD:I :nhyn 

y^n . 

nx yeah IDD n n nnn an nx:i -npft xinty p:m 

nxm mm tmn jmsty x^x twvt mixi t^m nunan 
in&y xn ^yna rans n^n mm niaw tpn mm 
Dnpy ^n "inxD n isupji m^^ Nint^ 7 nn 
i^ 1 nixip \n^ ^^ nxtDn nns^n inas 
ytDi inx3:nn xi^n imoDi n^n o^^n nxtem yn 



y^m vnnn 




mn inhnn :^p ^ysa ^yis DIX tr s .mv s 

on DIN w . nx n^yi : nyn i:n ID ?]DIJ in 


nn ppnn^ nonn nnx n^Dn px,mnx 

nnn n mn nn it^y^ IDD 
ytsi ?]DiJ inxD DI nx ^u ^u y^D nx npm^ IDD oix 
nt^y x^ rhx b ns< 3 xim 

E>I^D i^ry nnxi nsn nxn IDD ix nnxi 
nx IED ^ix D^ IDD nx niv6 IDJ D^ n^rt^ n^xn nnx 
inx nt^y^ x^ xin "o vnx nt^y^ nD ^y ^xn s ytDm 
.nx hn :"isn DX 

vjnx TO "jioom i^ o y 122 pi n ix 
pn tyjyj .pn xt^j x^ :n^ hyi Hy 

x nnn m xn ^xip XD n nnn xn . wi px 
.miu nnx ^yni :-)ty xn&y x^ iv 
.^ysn ^:n mi $>p m^ x^x nn^y ^3 r]-ioo 
nnip S D xini ix n^ninn ^sn .n^nu o :inxin^ xin nu 

1 Ms. -pop. 2 Ms. ejaa. 3 Ms. 


n:rx pysn ^i nir in ninx rfcxb ninsjn rnmn rum 
xint? nnx p Dn X2i $>ysn /! ? in nrn^ -pninx rtas pm 
,-utsp 1:6 ninx by "Dns xim 7n^y 2112 nx^ 1^2 12^ n 
ninxi rfes riwi tnty im nnxn ropjn p s o nn 
-nx p>on xim t^i^n n nnn -n>n -jnvnx -,npiiD 
Dnn mi 2s nrnN nxi 2 >ns k nx D^D^D ^jtyrn 
icrnDTT) DrrmriDtPo^ ^21 Dnins^^ p 
: nn^n pix- IGD ix n ; cn nyrty 

:?x2iDi VXSID ,1221 nj^ym *]-n ^; xn 
-ina mi nte [x^n]i upDn ^ TDDU 7 nn 
HJ on ^2 Dmam >v S :D^ Dn2ip2, ^y inyo^2 niD2 VNI 
,02 pr. i nviDi on p ^; n2x^j- ^x nmp^ 3 xin^ nn fc ( D 
}&D 12, ^ .nJH2inn :ni?i2 <i Tfrna D^JH nt^i2 s nn nx. 
I^D ium nn pn^i mnb^ nnx 2-^pj pi nmm rnxn mpjn 
njnnxn nm cnb2 n:u: ^ip2 121^ pi nnpjn amx 
^x2 xm 

rnrs P 

nnari n^7^ TQjn x^ y^n . "nnno xh : PXT 

by np : ,r;in n^r; nh; ^2 rj y .nsun 
n nisspi nx m arm 1^2 ^ysn s on i2y ^ 
.loty nssBS :3ty mix xi nio xin -2 
xim F>2 

-nnix nix :nn 4 ny uin .nnos s sito .-mxnn 

&> niyntr ^n 1^2 r> noi: in n im npo nnn D^ DIX 

1 Ms. HBII-I commencing a fresh line with n^on . 2 Ms. 7 
3 : the word is hardly legible. 4 Ms. ^y. 5 MS. *]DMI. 

^ -ay Ninty s y x * nnsi . pBa "JDIDNT. : "pyn rnn 
: s ron miD IBD -ay xinty "pyn n ^ nn ^ IW 
nnnniDNi i^y mayxi IEOI inmNi_ inroNi pi >s*a 
2 by nzuyni IBS Tpw w IN *pt> myn .-pi? ^y 
nnn in six t^i nutnn n\n -aiy^ .\T ^ imy ^ ^y 
^ vinx pi mjtn n. 1^3 ,T,T xh ytsm K 
in .D.TJD$> in^nnji :i3t ^^ inn .D^DDni ^nDpi 
mix nnji in^nnji mm ^xy^ "ji^n nsi 
t^nsn o^h ^ion /s n mvfc it^ity nnpjn HDJ^ 
nson nn mm innsp nn^ -OTO- nnpjn ^ 
vn s p ^yi iv *?3 niNipji p]ion u n 
^cn^]^ [tnsjn v^ " 
nn IK n nsoinn 3 [Dt^ toyom 
i annion mj ^ ^n .nD 

mil :nn> niD IONJ mm ^jx x ^ uo 
,TSDn mtyy^ nhD* 1 NVT^ HD ^D ix nun 

nn nDnn: .nm un nun ? :vmn i^y nxi DIN 
4 DD^n^n pi pn^i mnx --nn ni ^yi 7Jm n^n *,un oy 
xn .anix nnt^ni :ny y u D"-iy aipon DUT; ay uty 
n^pt^Ni i^nt^x i^^ H3Di o^nn ID^DJ^ nnint PJI 
ayn m in^Di nutn nt IDD yt^ni .mn N^ ^nnxi .: 5 
n\n N^ "ins nns D^ pi inDD n^n xh i^yw n s n 
. 6 nnt^nj mm pi "p^iD n^ 

ys .^ ^nni :^y nnn 
^ anix mm 7 yt2D .anmn 
IN IBID nnt^n x$> y^m noton -non nx n 
^ysn h nm -pt?^ ."jninx mnxi :Tny Dipo 
nx -v 7 xfeni 1^3 nirrfr u^n p^on Nint^ TP N^n xni n 
tDst^DD DUO S D ut^n in ixnt^ IIDN^ pm 7ninx 

1 Ms. .inserts IEO. 2 Ms. s ^D Sy. 3 the reading is extremely 
uncertain. 4 Ms. . 5 Ms. ^. 6 Ms. . 7 Ms. n^sm . 

mtt" ixt? TO:DI -poo xin DXI ppa .?x-it^ n>n nrom 
yipi IBS .*T ^tfx nrfrru mxsn ip^ nxi pi apy> 


sn- rwsjn 

n:^nn x itsw J pnoip mmrn ny nr-iisn &y 
.mms^ mi^sjn nx rru^nn nJ3^ ni^DJi 7 ytD3 
six i im^ D^D im^ ^ntiso nnon y ytsm nimis 
n:"nn xh nj^mon x^ itrx ^nxn: -SD nrnnh 
mis p]iy^ mtrsjn nDity .^ ix t^i *jnxnj o 


jvn* nx POX n^xn IDS n nnn xn .tnnx 
xn :D^nn xn 2 Dxi ^ysnn v^ 2 3ta r^y ^ix 
D s m v ixm DIX t^^i 1^1^ ara xnty s y x . 
nman nnis D^ nma nnoy^i s y .nn^t^ 

DIX t^^i ^a DPI 

nxD x ua ix mupi niDDPi inosi "1: nnn to 

D y xi ^pn "jna i^y nn is^Din ."mx m^n 

ny^nj ^ysn si i^ys oty iDin x^tr ^ys xintr 
yti ox my 11^21 loipo ^ i^pj i^y 
:ins&n T; psn t^i^D ID pit^n xai npo .7 
xin .D^iy nyn :^nn 102 .n :n^n D 

iniDDnn^ 5 nans n^nty nya XD ix 
nns ppn iym Dinn IDD ^yjx I:DD nnsj 

1 Ms. ]n . 2 Ms. wu 3 Ms. *pw and n- ny. 4 Ms. 

mt PB x\m p ;sn xim mimi D s m> 33 Tny 
xintr ^x fenx TODI ^ysj pan [my xim ppu] xn&&> 
: 2v r nnx nxu "pin m $ 

"]snm fiy^ P]TO x inDi y Dipsn . y 7-1,1 x mm 
on .inx nnsn :n>nn insa ^y nn^n ^yD s v 1132 

xm s s Jsn -isn "jsnm s ^y IDU ^N^ ^ nsoinm n 
tr s .Dumn IDII^I :xinn t^xn pjn 
IN an i^it^ ittomn^ ^xi mm ^ysnn i\m 
>yDJ |^n xim DDT itnt^ nvn^ pjm IS^D 

n inn nnn pi D^t^n ISDD i^u:i IDS ^ys: -j-n 
iD ^?ys rwrf? ^ixi i s x >D pnn 

DPX D1pD3 .DniX IDT :P]DD nnp s n^ 1HDD 

nnx inBDi D^JDixn on omx ix onmn fe nx Dmx 

mix o^n nnx yism mix 

nxn nxnn mnn x y^n .a^nn nun nnpn x 1 ? 
pi Tny cipDa trDt^D npD .nsinD x^in 

ix cty . 

-jsnm x^A IDD .mn 
pxn Dt^n :imTiy^ n^pis ^y xrunn .nxv x^ nmxi 
^mx D y 7 x ix njot^n nmm UD ^ X^D nsn 
prm nip:i IDI xin n:m nn-6 inn .my "^Dn vh 

MS. ^JJB3. 2 Ms. 


six BI *pn rvx x by UDDI ^xi n>2ip 

nxns D^inn "JD 

nx:p ixnp no!? B>TBI urn nxjpn mis . mpDn 
pn-fe : onn irwjp* yt::: Dtrn nx N s Jp 
mm nx DDN ^y ID^ y nn \JDD in nns: 
i^D ^n ^m .17,1 ^y npno rnDxten ^N nmp^ D t; 
pnm s Diy ]wh . mt^pn ijy inyi : npnnn 

^ .nonn nx rrona iDDnm ^y omny 
^ys niD3D DIX "nnxi -jhon xin nn i^si 
man vntr 7 ytsm ^Jinx 1 ? XID^ u noni 

nrx XID Dtp ^ IDJ i:rxi *J^D^ 
ix non^ t^D^n ^nn s ix o non BHH "non^ onow 

yum na^y 1 ? 102 nnn ^y nin&tp ix 
yn m^y2 ^Dtrn ix ^ IIDH nsipn t^xin nnt^ or on^ 
r,x *my^ n^nn Tt^tP t^xn niD^nn nsoa inxi IPJ 

nnyi yis 
jinn DDJ HDD ittiy ^ysj 

nn .mirjin nx -.2^ hi DOJI nayn i 

mix Dnnsm xt^D s y n^nxt 


H i s yn nnps s ^:x .n^yn nnps 
D3nn mp 1^3 H*s V- 3 -- "^ ^ip n^o^ jia 
p ^y xn^ nnD^ D^n^n^D 1 ? ^2 xim Dnix mpi 
n xn .i^n ^x nn^nt^D ^3 ^x inp i i?n^ h 
"jisn 7 ix ^ . S JN 3 ixt x:n :nn I^SJT IHT IDD nnsn 
n V n TN D 7 Nm :n DIN "nnxi ^yDJ j nsoinn ixfiy:xi ytsm 

Ms. NTI: ]tns m. 2 Ms. p\o "~D. 3 Ms. 


ma Tisin aitr pi mion xim nn^ ix niuy its>nsi mxsrv 
Tiynh Din xn oytM ipun nvD^n pi ipm DIN t&n ny^n 
mnx mn itrx riD-on -mriBO Dfo ^:o moan rrpssn mm 
in xh :nsB^ orfc -jsnni nn^y n^n :x imp^ cnyi 
^^ nonten mn DIDD pi onn pun 
Tyih onn^ mn^ m\J? nint 
mas inv Dn^y nxnn nyin n s nn DI^D t^isx 
nn3 i?3D Dn^y n^n^D D^non ^HJD p ^D onnn 

nmn onyi 


JVNIJ xni ^yn n: NIHI ni: 

DX ^ ^nt^ nj^x cn^n ntent^ y nni 
msjm h^on mipj x^n 
itsms n:m nu a y nui 
n^nn x inx inn .niyi ;iy IHNI iDi:y 
n vvrh I^D innxn PIDDH ^m 
nim o^ty vn^ s y x Dn^n DPO 
ix ptnnn^ ibv x^ in^n py uiy mya t^^xi imt^ x^i i^^ 
nyn "JBOD i:iyn ni Dn^nn ptnn" 1 xi5 cjiy nnyn DytD. 
px,^ my s a^i :iDitrn atr .yipnn ly pn 
nx :pu ^^i 11 .Diy ix,i rnnt^ 

i^m unon xterrn 
^n: 2s 2 ^ipD ^x pi ";n n^n:i IDS nxin mun ni "jn pi 
rpixi 7 nm ^ysj m ^n: itnty DIX t^^i ^n.i in: IDS 

-.iimn nix x^nty ^ wnrt? 
7 D y t^ipo TIDITI Dtr xim 
n^n 11 x^i v j v ^y rvnin^ nsi in xn S D 
i^nnn t^uxn ^nns DX infox^ VDDXD ^ 102 ty^i on DIX 
7 uo nnnD .xn [msp] :D^I^ ^yis xim in 

1 Ms. ny^. 2 Ms. om. 

r . A 

$>rnB DnraiD nrnx- am D tsaD ons BIX &i 
IBS pitta -TiviB ra s -ni^ ny :nrainn 
nnix nnx 1 ^iyn yt^ni wn ion D^BIX t^ s .Dmry^ nrjiyn 
xinty pn^i ^n nDDinn xint^ nn nrxnn ^y "jsnm 
nipoynBn D S ^:^ n^Bn ran xini ny r 


n on nmop^ pn^i yixn DH^D 0:63*0 o y . 
vn it^x :non i^i^i DIP xim "jran i incn ^y 
nx yooh rrtn^tt nmx mt^^ raa *npo ix oty 
ty inn^ ID^ ^j nsoinn no ix 

.n N^ IIDJHI -psn ix ty^i nnpjn p D ^y mm ix 
2 "n x^n xm xn x s n ^n nx nnxi -J 


^n nxi rasi D s mn ^ "n ^y xn 

xnisnnpx s n^x nnyn ^x D^y mx 
nx niD^j itrx :xnjy xu Dn^y n^nx^x myi 
n TODI Hyn D3n^ y:^ ix ix 
an 1 ? nxi mnn invn^ pm 
nium noix ^ s . nsjm ^"1x^,11 : on^ ay is 
an D^DJ IDD c^n nnn it^m 


DIX ir 1 ! nnx i^V^ anpy s :t^ .7^ ^pn fpn xn 
IDD ,m s B2n nxn 

1 Ms. i^yn ywnD. 2 Ms. ^3. 


ptsnn "JSDJ >B$> T3in xh .rut? D^ 
rt $>nnt&o D>BB> p rvn x^unty DIN tan D^JDJ D:nn&n 
-.D tayax ^ ISDD am rw D^yaix ypa vn 
: nm p^x ntyp mm D hy niDDi ^IDD pn^i . *j 
i>iu s J^ i^ysi UD f^: it^i^ nxn .^p ntrm 
m ni^p i^y fern UTIDD vtsm ixn .^p :D^i> nx 
sn ^ 1 ixim P]DU xnt^ I^JH .ait^i xiai :m^nn 
s n:nt^ nnipaat? *sf? ybw xnx N^I inx ND^H 
onoy xnn x^ ^n s :n nin .TH n*n 102 nm x nn 
- s IOD /; ? vinx t^ty syx "JIDD .a>ao n^ n^n : 
103 DH Dyi D^nxn wwn 102 an- ny pi 

p:a lanoi .D^JXH s Jtr nx IDD ^u .nano nx 
ny ^ IOD s y x oix ^ .D^DI D^aio o : 
rm no \nn ^x .-m ytaa ni D^I^DI D^aioi .?]-ny 
xa 0^ .\m 3 nm &vp :QW ^t^m ixn -p^xin -non 
D >m HJTO mnx uto 3 njm o^sn nyty IDD 
:ay nnts s na ?x S D^ nnn ^ y 

pay ix nao ^ptn s y ^>Dpa pay Tn s n 

nxin n^t^n mun n\nn nyDi a p s nL^ ji^ 1 ? naD D y 

Si ytoa .7nr6tp on^x x^ DX :^nyn ^sn D y 
DIT^X DX x^n IDX 1^x3 DTW nya DX 
y nxn .D3ina 

yti3 D^H^J Dnty rvm n^nia^aD n^y *on3 n^y 

^10 oy^3 ^33 13 inh? i^is^ pi iXD3 ^x i:nji ixai 

1 Ms. Km. 2 Ms. ^. 3 MS. *n. 


mm . 



pi nany TISJH .owy 

pi ixn 
^si : 

ixn IK 

pi np .ynn 
uo IN D^un myn^i 

ins pi 
n s n 


pxn t^yini 
X UD nmn 

^ nyn 

pi i^x onnx 

na nx I:XDI 

inx v j V3 
.onsnn nnn 

"jinn "JUT ^ 
nny -pn n*n 
y i^yrv nny 

: xn 

.-iyiynn nyiy 

ix ixn pn* 1 .n^nt^on in 

7 ix tr^i nt&a myty n^on WD ixn 
:^n wo yn 

i\n UD oix t^i DMD D^ 
nnn pinn 731* nnns x^ IDD 
:nny u& ix ny ny 


no now IBS n-DD 
.nnj niyaiix :^m w s x n^n ^ ix 
pxn on D^HJ pi Di?n nnn pi^ni 


1 Ms. 

yum rap -ay IN -D ixn xin ^ DDDIJ nn 
tnn :TH nyi W ixn . nxj :*ryn ntstajn r&xt?m 
yt:ni mo T&H PDB 102 .iTtp^tp rhw ::6 on .nrr 
nrDy nihn^ y DIP .nnn:i D S T ^ ^y 
o y nny ^ys pn s .t^n nxio :piDsn n^nnn 

mts o y ixn pm nix 

nmo: :^yDnn n naipnn 

.ip^yn usn 1013 :p]myn moi 
Dpji D^n ^D ^ysj V JM l" 1 ^ nt ^1 ^ Dip3 my 
on IDI: on^ iioNn ysm ly^^aD my six t^i rtji 
ID npD .bv N^ 1 nnmi 


: nn ID ppm oix ^ .np^nn tston 
nmya DH iity^m ^npi pun *pjy D^n 1 nx 
7 ytsm ly^t^DD ix ity ^:y lay miyn nity 
n^ moil ny IDS niDD .n^nn Ty 

-. nt^p oin ^sin /- n y ^1^0 n^D^ 700 ix 

"n y xn t^i^n 7 n DipDn x^n n:nnxn mi 
DX nn ts^tpn S JD^D x^^ IDD HNBH oix t^^ .xt^ 
:D^n tn UD xin S D ^ns ^x ,-a xin DXI xn "IPD xin 
:VDID ayton n^nx ni^nso ^po UD .on^ND i^niam 
UD .Dinm mn :nnnn jnxn 102 .o^mo pxn ^y 
x: ^Dip ^ y .nn^nn TO "o :nns b mn pi ^ mn 
nxi "&& inoiN ^^ .n^onx inns : 

1 Ms. N3m . 2 Ms. om. x . 


nmn :non^ -psnn o^pnsi 102 - 
pn mn :inio^ -oiy i>ninn m o y 

noi nxn ." 

sn isa ixn 

^nm $>ysn ^ x^ntr nn oipon 
on^n iv nvn pm n^n n^in -jn ^y nsns^ 

m ^yi \sns s ID^I n^^ty nnso nnny 
NI :^jx D^ ^nsnp u mHj 
onx ^yt 103 H nnn 7 n yt^n DIX tf s i my 

s ns pn n s y^3 sn nnp DN .my 1 ima 
owsi? ^ ^ DXJ mnx xnt^ D y x ^p ^ysn iny ix 
: s r DXJ nzuh m s IDD inyri ^y 

npys ix 


^ysnn i^nn ymo bys , onn "( 
D nron IDITI pi mnx non^ on m^n 7 n 

inyni nnn nnn IBD in noini ^ys: v:n mrh mo 
: on xn^ xin pirn ynno ^yst^ s s^ o^nnp i^xn 
iDnyisn ^y S T ^nin^m IOD n^nj .nn^ys npys 
f>x un :D^DJ ^ipo pi pinn xin DXI iipo ."jntsn 

iyj D^ isj r: ^ 
impnn o^pno .imysi DW 

t^ x^?x nyis ino 7 uo DIX t^n 

on nns ivxnn nn nsopjtrm nn JDD n^nn ton nnnsj 
nntsm ^nonjn p ^y f op ysi> xn s tr nns fe -JH pi 
DJ ^xt^ :nnxn xim n^iyn .n^y nnyi 

1 MS. D. 2 MS. VN1. 

a y ^ysn s on . int^n m&> ox 





HDI "i pjm inojn THM p^o nt^un i 
mD^ .D s ^n n^o^ rot^sj nyn onmon o^ 
mx DipDn i^n .uon nyiai : N N^n NIH p 

^y *mn yum 

pi I:DDH xin I^SD ^SDH nix on 
-p n^mi 

pi ^ani D^P onpy J 
on ix Dtpn D^n^ 5 y^ni y n nsoinn .n 

jnsyn nnDtuci n:n n^i 11 y ^yn n^w 1 ? ytoni n 
.Bmt:p it^x ntspn :D s nuy WD it myn Dtr 
nyin DDHN nsipi :D^i Dp: ^ cnn ^x mini 
ratsn pi nyis^ 11 nxipi py nxtsm ID nxip 
ni nnpjn y n NM nn nxinnn nx nt^yi pi 
nx n^ini omoDi tn^n M DipDn x\n nnt^yi n 


x ?]x n:yx IDD ^p .^ix^noDx rhyx 
:iy -sDix ID ID^ .i^y nTaix :^ s n yum on 

1 Ms. won . 2 Ms. ^:oo . 

103 .71-12 

103 o nnn an rv . 

nnn 7 

xno x : nVxx max tyty uo . 7T 
.DHinM nx ^xi :mwnn nun ID 
nnx ^xo DXI r^ixn nx on^n^D i v ;n nx 
:ts> ."]in^on iD^nDn nx ^:x nat^i IDD ^VIDH 

n^nnn P]DU wnr\i mi? n^o pn 1 ! n^oi n 
xini ^:Dn ay p DJ iniTx^m n:n y 
-pin m ^yi in^ptn DDnx 

nx IDD n i nnx 
nn inx D^L^n n n .D s ntynjn innox^i 



103 D7xn p pi x sn ^nj . 

7 uo nDDu nmn xntr pn s i nonxn 

: x yn ^n: ^oi-^n nny o y .cno3 

1 Ms. in. 

D y. ^iys u *oy ^yD DIN tn .iy>nr6 
pi DPQ D^nD UD .iWrn DWIJ :tp*a o 
: F]D^a rvy^n iw ntmp D^?HD vntp DIN t^i iW>n N^I DID 
pirn ^n HM my n s n 1^1 D^t^n^ nx yTin tD y . 

noin :mhrttJ brf? nyni ^ s n nt^it^ .hrm 
:"nn DIN vr> .,TJI ^y n^no .DiD c^ IN 

ns^nn ^ "pT> 7^n n Dn^t^i my pisn 
.DT3 ^tnn :pT^ UD ipit^ 1 i^yn ^i ^y 
^yj ytw DIX ^ .en ^n^yn nsx 7"isn 
y n n N mx x^m "jtx ytsun fixn ypn a y .D^n y^i 

UtD DIN ^ S 1 ?^ IDH^D DM t^pfiPD ytDHl niS^ 

20:1 naoji nnnn pi np^i uin^ .nnyi no:i 

.n^ Dm 

-nur N UD p nen n^on .mtsan 
ynD pi IHN ^jyn onpy J^ mpo i^^ . aniN Nipni 
D nmnn D y nmy: otpn .Dn <i mi < iyjD 


n D^ :ann HN 

DipDn D^t^2N nnNi pi pnnN mpy DIN 


pi ni nnD . 
nnsp s Jt^ ^ t^ s in 

1 Ms. om. . 


: Wn nvmx -piD ra xn Pjftra npa pn s 
nxnpn yi nxjty ls ^> nxun mxip *rf?J? IBD 

171 n^i :nnnn inxn IDD .nonn 
^yn Kim ^* nx INT y pn^i vni it^y 

7 nn pirn i: cty pn^i ysn "p^n inyn 1^ 

:na nnn 

T; s yiDn p s o /s m nmy xsv .omx 

IDS mpo -Kim ppu in .is*n s n^ :D^r,xt 
xim ^ry m o y hys mu ^p ^ysn my pn^ 

s nrui imoD ot^m oniya y ixn .DHD onx 

^jan ^yis D^^HD DIN t^i an^DDa npim o y D D^no 
nxn .nyi yivn :DJit^^ nx IDITI lm n y xn /s 7 on 
nsn mpj mty ^s5> iyi D^yh IDD IL^ID^ -pi -pxi ^p iy 

: 2 ^on 

ixn psty mj ^nx mns xin p ^y my .pxt^i tsp^i 
nnsn ^x ^DN n:m ^oxi pyi ^nn m ^yi pop xim 

xn ix ty .70x1^ vm 

y u "j^n "i mpDn x xn pn s i DXEPT y^i my pi ^SDH mxn 
nxtn ixn iu uo .nuns iyoi :ni:m nx D^D^ nan 

1 Ms. om. p and ^ which must be supplied: coinp. his 
note on Ezeq. 17, 9. 2 Ms. ^ion. 

yttD [>wx] JID ^ sn 

rp xi? ^ysi :pim nnp a y ixn .pwy TD 
mi mnK "pm mntsoi onx ^na nxim a by 
iti *x :nt? swm 103 .^n ^ yipi 
^ NJ fn us .nirn&n ^yi nix npnn IOD my 
onpy ^ty ^n s x^i nn^ us DIN t^ 

a y . pysi i 
IN yma i?ysn my p 
: t^unn ^ys jnn inyi hys p o^nxn n::ip pi 

hys .]>IDJ :nDj n^nn -psyi IOD ^D 

.ten yno 

nn x D x\m nnxn ispn^ DXT y xn 

njntyji f Dpn im mnD ^D S niu xim xitrn niip: 

imy :D s mn p D n. int^ ixip^ oy nmyn 

a y Dip fo^ xh ini n&x 11 pi 

n:nt>ji ]>pn nvn^ "in n^ixn ^p xim mj itrn^ pn^i mi 
n-io ^y t^nni n n:nt^:^ IDS nnnx nxnn nn 

OKI K^ vrnaxy ist^i D y xini ntDD^ uuj im 

iyoi mysi PJUID vjy onyt^n DUKHS UE . 

ni innx xnn ^m s u ix n^vD ^n UD yn 
nxn .x^a ^x :^y^ "ji^a nsi BD in .nai ly 

: nisbl ^t^D TD^ D y . BBB : b^n.1 nX D^xte pi 
1 Ms. rn^. 


nnn us nnnn t 


ant? 7niB3 nxunn yum 73,1 . 
nmyn nyiy:i :fem IDD ^p !?yDn Tny prv 

^x rus pi nny -jhn 7 w n s n s 7 oiK ^^ j^x ot^ 
nnon ytsm nxn .nw ]n3 moi nyiyn 
^ysn ^ipo oix ^ -7in 


am D s jn D 

.taxn x ^ :>v xin^ nxnn DXI y^D nu .nyi 
.-nt^iy nnx ^ i^ n^x IDD it^x 
:i^ tswn pi m^i 
nsoinn Dtr pn^i &>xn ^?x 

untyji tantpn n nnn -r?n . 
76* iis IOD mnijn nnp^ xin itrx ay 

n^mio DIX t^^i t^in i UD 

n nonnn X 


:^m sn ^122 ni>iyn nx 
mn :IDI> y y^ xim no inty v ;^ 

:nn ntrp o y "ixn 

i Ms. nn. Ms. ^nf?. 

DSP .rrt? ntpx :nx^n D^ixn rrmmtp nx nmm 
7ipD ntpy^ HD nyfri Dtp ^Dtpm nyn pi -npD rrtt px 
.yn HID^ i-p oiam pi irroj -7^py 

IND .onsx 
pi fDpn D 

ixn i^tpo^ o^^ym IDS DIP on^^nn nxi ixn .nyi 
ino inn n^Dix ^D .-x ^x nno 

IDD nyiiD 72,1 yi N^I Dp N^I X WD .my& 
m nnojn ns:^ ix PJDU in .^i^pD rto : 
innns ,2110^ "jnnt 

oynn UD i^yn ^n: .^nn yiM 
pin .nsj ^XD :^x b 1 yyiD n n^Dix iitp^D ^ssn 
nsoij xn .mDX IDD -.nsj nxs ^XD yam DSP ix 



o y nxn 

nnD 101 UD nnDtp DIX tp 
oys hivh ays HJI IDD nnD n^Dtp "jDjni xnn x^ nntPD 
imn i^nn tp^n i^sntpsi ^?ys i^n .DUHI D^ni :nnDtp^> 
on DIX tp^i I ltpi n JHJD pi rws^ xntp pinn myn nD^ ">r\ 
ni onson mm nmm i^x yno IDS ^ysn n 

1 Ms. 

"pen DIX t^i inx xiDnn x IDD nsoinn xn . 
UD DIN ts^i i?>D3i nyn UD .>D3i nyn 
ion Tisitp van Dyttt D^DD av6xn ID S & UD 

IDD p t^:i*n_ . SON :D^yit^y^ o y . 
ix D^X yj^i UD DIX t^^ . *nyjD ]>IXD 
in Dix w . ijxtpxi ^n :px HiDJ n s :y:D 
xtn ^ 

:rm it yi pi ^n^nnn DIX 
ix nty3 ^y int^j y ytsm nt^x on^> UD nt^n DIX t^ 

-inn DD D^DJ yam 

m^py vjy ys v jn 

7x1 :p^Dyi D^it^ p pn ny s tD: ^p ^ys bi nt 
-,nnx : ,TIBB> D^D^ D y mnn inyn . D^oion nx mnnn 
IDD niDj DIX t^i mpD IX^D *D pi y^D DIX ^ . 
pn^ . n^3x^ vnn : D s yn xite yt:D pD:m x^sn IDV 
: x nnn nm ^p ^ys DIX t^i nn: tyit^n XT ^ysn 
:vm it^y nxt it^nm DIX BI . 

D y . i 

:nun i^no ouinn -j-n ^y ix x nnn in ix 
>n ll ? n^sj .mrp n^n :Dni^iD D y . 

Ms. om. Nitw. and for *o reads T n,n. 2 Ms. vsm. 

-pi: u : nitDioi rrnpia D y 

fix 1 ? 2 min ISD "pi: 


.cm ti"x "px :mn n&yp UD rv:nn a y .mnrn 
ix ti^i mitpa UD .at? rfa 

x DH ^njD p]iD onoix BH i:tyn t^nx IDD 
i2 DHD nny^ DIN w .nnny^ on^ :iinx 
ion i p ^p ^ys ix t^^ ^ys: ^:n .D ntn: 
iB Dint^Di 7^y nn 


xini s n^3Di ^rt: xin i XD rmp:n 
^3xi IDS TinnD ins^ DXI ly ^y mty 
pi m^no IDS ^nr^Di nsm: n:nnxn /s 
nnnx IDD y n "ir nsoinn DB> ix n:it^xin 10 
^y npinD 3s nix p s m xin yum Tipmnn 


Dn D^ ipnTi IDD ^ysn i s :n DIX ^ 

nsn Dnix rrnm IDD npD .ix^j myn 
in^ nni pi pno ix ^yis oip^n ^iys 
nx inxini pi -nxa 1 ? nsoin .Dyn nx 

on DID ^ LID 3 ,110 & y 

1 Ms. iat m . 2 Ms. i^sn , 3 Ms. WIN . The words from the 
second yom to ]i;p seem to have been first omitted, and then 
inserted by the same hand as the rest but with contracted 
writing. 4 Ms. nrnonp^; cf. his note on Ez. 13, 19. 

.ten :nroi n3iP3 us nun six t^ . 
1 us $>B3n ^yn .inn 1 ? x^i : yn 
UD D^nriD . D^xn onsu : 11 rpv 

Dtyn ^n ^y i^-on: ^JN ow t^i mis: 
ays ayn ay -m& nTnty Dipan 
:int^D ay^m D on DIX ^i nnp: 

^tr niy^n 103 -j^ryn 712 aix 
^D n y ixn xim n^vn x^m 


s^ my s nw Dy^3 ix nm^i nmy UD .ninny nxi 
D*^; on xtenm ^p ^ys DIX tr^ .DTTI^ npn^ IDI:I 
XDD "J-OHM 103 ymo ^ys inrn^ pn^i DDipDn nnp:n nxtw 

s: x^ fiyx infexn nnn 


D oix t^i nison te wo .nte^o 
ix ^p pn s .^x^i :]wh I Doon Y ^ /D/<f n ^ 
n .-pnnj pnn .-^nxn i^x^ hxt&> p trwnn ^ys 
DP ix ^.nn^ ixn 112301 HJB ytsm vjin 
mm UD pya ytsm ^p i^ys .nisa in: 

.mso :nnrm mm us i?ysj ^33 ix 


muy n it^y^ yum 
IDD :ps3 m^ ytiD an^n s Dy^D I S D ix n 
sn "i^onD DIX P S I nxton n IDD IDS in "nj . DD 

1 Ms. 1:. 

s y . pw : ni vninsxi "jKun im ISD 

:1Hs nsn pi nm us .n^p n*on 
us six tt"i 2 nW ruxn us rrmhru .njnn?> & nruxn 
us six ts^i irnxn trim us .mixus^ nt^nnn :n^ m 

:^ nx nx-i s y nxsiiD ^n^i pi "nps pn^i 
:nsij s y .ntra :^ t^xu i 

inn n^nynt^n itw* pi napjn 
nsoin n^sxs :nnx npn !?npn n pi nxnpn n nn 
ay *n my us yn ^nj .un s sy :n^nnn^ pi pitni> 
:nsns"! s n^n TIN us i^sn sis t^i UD^S oytsm 
ns :niyin D^JH ysm in six ^ .niyin 
11 ^s D^S i^ix us x nsn s m 
:ixn six 

py*n ns ISD ^Dini oipsn .^Dini myin 
]>spn 1x^:1 nnp s y nun -p& .nmnx nnun :D^ 
^y ^ xixi iDns^Bn ^ s ^ pi rapjn n oy isipsn 
DXI ISD n j ^x nvnix rji^nn xini ISD six w .nnix hi 
DPII 3^ i^y miosm DHI ip s y .nni:t ^ps : 

xt^ D^iy s"y .D s nnit^ D^n 
mum "]Dnm d?wrp mps ISD nyin ISD . nyis 
inn nwn n^ ?]i?x Dipsn nn .Drains nsix 
ISD ^ysn h x^n^ x on .^ i:nx :^uon amp: 
mn n xw bn ^n:s n s n i^xi 7^yn ^n 5s nus x^ 
six t&n psn n niiisp nym nips .ann iisn :pinn 
:m:an inxn ISD Dnn iisn iisn ytsni 

1 Ms. YJ?. 2 Ms. i^ti njKn. 3 Ms. n\ Ms. om. m. 
5 Ms. 

p ~ai IN irpBT inn .D^irv ^n vn 
K im2p nnp&ni pi TP HDH >m . 
1 IBD rnrna *prv .npB> ^pD :*p: nsn 
i>pD ID "jioD ^p pn^i ixn nptri 
ays ni ^pt^D ^y D xsvn mt^m 

oysi n 

imxsn ^PD -pin nt yi iD3t^ y in TO 
Tny .nnn *?x :ni^ p ^ pi nsi: 

T tt P 3 lTn ^ n ^ m 1|Tn ^ N1 Q^i 
:DDi? en 1 ? v i&3 -jinya cyt^D m^ 7 ^n nyi py 


mxyi "px Drn nia y .hy 


7 nn 

:mpy nyn 
aysi njHm n:N^m IDD Tnya nnpj^ 

aysi inwnn ^y m^sy mpm m 102 

s uo nnsn 

1 Ms. \n. 2 Ms. -p 

rotr p ne e 

Pruck von Oskar Leiner in Leipzig. 


Acme Library Card Pocket 

Under Pat. "Ref. Index File."