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Full text of "A Comparative dictionary of the Bihārī language"

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\ 



\ 



ly 



F. 



Ti i ^ ^l' 



e(f\, A'A 








V 



v 










••* ••* 



X 



w 



1 



ANCIENT PRAtRTT 
600 B. C— 500 A. D. 




S^W. JJ E = S«»uthW^»teru 
ovv^rlappiug 



Korth-Wftiilem PrjiVnl 
or Ap<iblxniTn«Jb» 

South -XCeiitem Prifcrit 
or Stan 'lard Prak 
3. LJ Eastera i*rakrit or 



MAI> II 

KEDIifiVAL PRAKRIT 
600^1200 A. B. 




1. LZU Apabluramsba. 
1. CZD 8hanra«*ni 
Mahiti-astri 
♦. HD Artlba-Ma^adui 

5. Z:;3 MaAadhi 

6. I 1 Piksinatyi* 



MAT* ITT 

MODERN PRAKRIT 

OB 

GAITDIAN 
from 1200 A. D. 




> ,-' 



DI4LECTS 



K A V I D I AN 



fir =BnJ 
Mr sUarwan 
¥i EsRiMputaoi 
K = Kauaviji 



I, 
J 



\ 



• W«at«n3 Caudlat) 



\ 



■^ 



STu . sJConkan t -M I -aib I 

Bw , Bh . US . if lb Mtt Vap 17 



W 



1. B Sindhi ^ 

a D Panjibi 

ft. □ Hindi 

4 Q GL^arati 

5 d BiLari 
e. Ito BHugali^ Easteru GaodiAii 

/ 7 Cj Uiiya 

/ r--^ *. n llaratbi — South«rD Gaudian 

I ^ 9. O Nvpikli — Nortberu Oaudiai 
i ' 



MAP IV 

BIHARI DIALECTS 
1800 A. D. 




1 n Bainwan = Bw. 

2. Ij Bbqjpur'l = Bh. 

3. G Maftahi sMf. 

4. ZJ MaithllisUtb.. 



^ 



A 



COMPARATIVE DICTIONARY 



OF THE 



BIHARI LANGUAGE 



COMPILED BT 

A. R RUDOLin HOERNLE, 

OF THE BBNOAL BDUCATIOKAL 8BBTICE, 

JLND 

GEORGE A. GRIERSON, 

or HEB HiJBSTT'S BXNaAL CITIL SKBTICB. 



[^bluihtb tmbu the PatcoitAgt of tht (Sobetnnttnt of ^tnijaL] 



CALCUTTA : 
AT THE BENGAL SECRETARIAT PRESS 

SOLD BY 

TRUBNER & CO., 67 AND 69, LUDGATE HILL, LONDON; 
BREITKOPF & H^RTEL, LEIPZIG; 

AKD 

W. NEWMAN & CO., 4>, DALHOUSIE SQUARE, CALCUTTA. 

1885. 



To 



THE HONORABLE SIR ASHLEY EDEN, K.aSJ., CLE, 



Sir, 

When you, being then Lieutenant-Governor of these provinces, consented more 
than three years ago to allow us to dedicate this work to you, we little thought that so great a 
delay would have occurred before this, the first part of it, was published. Nevertheless, 
we cannot altogether regret that delay, which has resulted, we venture to hope, in making 
our Dictionary more worthy of your acceptance. 

There is a peculiar fitness in dedicating the first Dictionary of the Bihar! language 
to you ; for it was you who, when ruling over these provinces, succeeded in making the 
national character of the country current in the law-courts, and who first officially recognised 
the existence of a national language in Bihar. 

To you, Sir, therefore, in grateful remembrance of the beneficent reform which you 
introduced, this work is dedicated by 



THE AUTHORS. 



Calcutta, 

Bankipobe, 

1885. 



r 
I 



I INTRODUCTION. 



CONTENTS. 



Page. 
Chapter 1. — System of txanfiliteratioQ ••• .,. .«« ... 1 



ji 



n 



2. — ^The imperfect vowel •.. ... ... ... 3 

3. — ^AnaswSralmd anunfisika ••• ... ... ,... 5 

... 7 



„ 4. — System of spelling ... ... ... 

5. — ^Alphabetioal order ... ... ... ,.• 11 

6.— Shortening of the antepenultimate rowel ... ... ... 1 3 

7. — ^Equivalent forms of noims ... ... ... ,., 14 

8. — ^Feminine gender of adjectives ••• ••• •.. ... 19 

9. — Gonjugational terms and tables ... ••• ... ... 21 

10. — ^Treatment of the so-called roots in ^rr <l ••* .». ••• 31 

11. — ^The tenns tatsama and tadbhava ... ... ... 32 

12. — Derivations^ affinities, etc. ,.« ••• ... ... 36 

13. — Structure of the articles ... ... ... ... 37 

14. — ^Bihari literature ••• ••• ... ••• ... 38 



9» 



M 



19 



9f 



99 



ff 



fi 



ff 



99 



99 



H 15. — ^JB^«iim^ of instructions for finding words in the Dictionary ... 42 

9, 16. — Lost of abbreviations employed in the Dictionary ... ... 44 



1 



INTRODUCTION. 



(Ad interim,) 






Ibi iflsuing the first part of our Dictionary, it will be convenient briefly to explain the method 
obserred by us in its compilation. 

I.-SYSTEM OF TRANSLITERATION. 

We shall nf ake use of transliteration in the following two cases only : — 

(1) The first word or words of every article («>., up to the term Tbh. or Ts., see Chap. 11) in the 

Dictionary will be transliterated, immediately after its Nagari form : thus ^«nr auty ^nr fi^, 
VtfiiWT autiifa^ Tbh. These transliterations will always be printed in italm. 

(2) Generally in the Introduction, and occasionally in the Dictionary, transliteration will be 

employed where it may serve to elucidate our meaning more clearly. In this case italic or 
roman type will be used according to circumstances. 

The systems of transliteration at present in use unfortunately still differ in several important points. 
It becomes necessary, therefore, to explain clearly the system adopted by ourselves. 

(1) Long vowels are usually indicated in three different ways — thus dor d ov a. We have adopted 

the last sign, the horizontal stroke, because it combines most easily with the sign ( ** ) of 
nasalisation, which so commonly occurs with long vowels : thus ^ 3, V I, ^ A, etc. The 
circumflex we shall only employ in the exceptional case of 4 d^ mentioned in Chapter 4, e. 
The acute accent we shall reserve to indicate, when necessary, the tonic accent or stressed 
syllable of a word : thus vT«wt chhofdkka ^ small.' 

(2) As regards the vowels e, o, a«, au, we shall, in order to preserve uniformity, indicate them 

when they are long, instead of, as it has been usual hitherto, when they are short : thus 
we spell e, e; o, 5; a«, *; au^ m; (not ^, e; o, o ; ckai; du, au); the short vowels being 
the ones without diacritical marks. 

(3) The imperfect vowel (see Chap. 2) we indicate by the apostrophe : thus ^vwi dekKldhU 

* I saw,' ^rft chsA ^ four,' f%f kichkiL * something.' 

(4) The anttfi&tAa ( * ) or nasalisation of a vowel we indicate by the eircumflez {'')i thus ^ a, 

f i. In combination with the sign ( - ) of length, it is placed above the latter : thus wf 9 
\ I, etc. The anuswara ( ^ ) we transcribe by m. 

(5) For the guttural nasal v, we have adopted the * phonetic ' type j, which is coming into 

fashion and has the advantage of getting rid of the inconvenient dots or strokes. 

(6) For the hard palatals we have retained the old-fashioned, though somewhat unscientific, 

signs eh (ti) and chh (w). They are so well known and so generally used, at least in English, 
that the inconvenience of discarding them would have greatly overbalanced any advantage 
that might accrue from the use of a little more scientifically accurate signs, even supposing 
there were any general agreement as to what the latter should be* The palatal nasal ^ is 
indicated by h^ the sign now almost universally adopted. 



(7) The whole of the cerebral series is indicated by a subscribed dot, according to a well-known 
and nearly universal practice. We extend it, however, as some have done before us, to the 
cerebral sibilant ? (^), transcribing the palatal sibilant ic by ah. This for two reasons — ( 1 ) 
because it preserves theoretical uniformity, and ( 2 ) because it conforms to the universal 
usage of using sh to signify the modern sibilant, which is not a cerebral but a palatal 
sound, as in KrisKn finr'w (^i^)> Sham Lai wm iriw, etc. 

For convenient reference we append a table exhibiting our system of transliteration. The 
letters are arranged in the order explained below in Chapter 5. 

Vowels.* 



DeraDagail. 



Initial. 



/ 



'it 



^? 






3 I* 



Medial. 



Transliteration. 



»t. (final) 



I 

T 



f 

T 
f 



f 
f 



a 

d 

S 



3 
% 



i 
f 



9 



u 



u 



u 



fi 



Deyanagari. 



Initial. 



vf 



pf 



^t 



^t 






^ 



^ 



Wit 



^t 



'A 



<f 



Medial. 



-nW 



^O 



y 



Transliteration. 



at 



& 



at 



at 



au 



au 



du 



* The rowel «K and annswSra ( ^ ), when they occnr in Sanskrit words, will be transliterated by ft and ih tespeetiyely. 
t These are new sisms. See Chap. 4, e and /. 



Consonants. 



Devanagaii. 



Trans- 
literation. 



'" " ■ 



' ■ - ■ ' 



Ddranai^ari. 



Trans* 
literation. 



Ddranagaii. 



Trans, 
literation. 






kh 
9 

V 



eh 



ehh 



Jh 






f 



1^ 



4 {K 



I 



DSran&gari. 



Trani- 
literation. 



th 
d 

r 
dh 

* 

rh 

t» 

t 

th 
d 
dh 
n 



r 



5 < 



if 



P 

ph 

b 

bh 

m 



/^ 

K 



6 



r 




8 



i 

9 



As we shall have occasionally to translate Arabic and Persian words, when quoted as such {e.g.^ in 
the comparative portions of our Dictionary), it may be well to state that we follow the system 
adopted in the dictionaries of Shakespear and Forbes ; with one ei^ception, viz. that of using q 
instead of k to indicate ^3. For the sake of convenience we give here a list of the signs appro- 
priated for those consonantal sounds which are peculiar to Arabic and Persian : — 





Ar. Pn. 


Roman. 


Ar. Prs. 


Roomh. 


Ar.Pn, 


Bomas. 

• • 




1 


a 


* 
J 


X 


A 


S 




61 


i 


J 


ih 


t 


9 




c 


h 

• 


SJF 


? 


t 


gh 




t 


M 


• 


f 


« 




9 




• 


t 


!> 


t 


s 


h 

m 



2.-THE IMPERFECT VOWEL. 

The imperfect vowel being a sound frequently met with in the Bihari (and more or less in the 
Gau^ans generally), and its occurrence not having been sufficiently recognised or noticed| 
hitherto, it becomes necessary to explain the subject as fully as possible. 

By the * imperfect vowel ' ve mean what is called the * voice-glide ' by the English phonetists,t that is 
the shortest possible vocal utterance, like in the word Brighton (^Brigbfn) or the obscure vowel 
sound in the final syllable of amiable^ centre {amiaVl^ cenfr). It occurs in a threefold variety, 



* Or V in Sanskrit and Prakrit words. 

t See Mr. Sweet's Handbook pf Phonetios, § 800. 



according as it partakes of the nature of a (guttural), t (palatal), or u (labial). Practically it may 
be said to be a very slightly pronounced sound of a, or t, or y. 

In this Dictionary we shall indicate the transliterated imperfect vowel by the apostrophe, under which 
we shall place the vowels i and u, whenever it is intended to signify the palatal (I) and labial (^) 
variety respectively. In Nagari it is only convenient to indicate the medial imperfect vowel, 
which we do by means of a dot (7), as explained below. In the comparative portion of an article 
we shall not indicate an imperfect vowel in order to avoid any misleading conclusions regarding 
cognate Gaudlian forms of a word. 

An imperfect vowel may occur in the middle of a word, or at the end of a word. In the former case 
it can only occur between two consonants, in the latter case only after a consonant. It can 
' therefore never occur after or before any vowel ; nor does it ever commence a word. 

The guttural imperfect vowel (i) is very often found in the middle of a word, as in ^nwr j^Aar'iera 
' house,' f«*«*Mi mitKkawa * sweet.' The cases when it occurs in this position must be learned by 
practice ; no general workable rules on the subject can be given. At the end of a word it only 
occurs in poetry, where the final sound of every word which according to Sanskrit usage 
would end in a is pronounced as the imperfect v6wel (i). In prose and conversation, with a few 
exceptions, this final sound becomes altogether silent, that is, all words containing it are 
pronounced as if they ended in a consonant ; thus ^t * house ' is pronounced ghar in prose and ghar^ 
in poetry, but never, as in Sanskrit, ghara. There are, however, a few cases in which the final 
a-sound is not silent, but is pronounced either as the full vowel a or as the imperfect vowel (!)• 
thus ^W5^ ♦ * you will see ' is pronounced dehKhd^ terminating with the full vowel, and ^ir « given ' 
is pronounced datt\ terminating with the imperfect vowel (not dehKh and datt respectively). 
These exceptional cases will be found enumerated in the Dictionary article ^ a. Hitherto it 
has not been customary to distinguish between the final a when it is silent and when it is 
pronounced. This practice, however, is rendered all the more inconvenient and misleading by 
the fact that according to the well-known rule of Sanskrit phonetics the final a of every word 
thus spelt should be pronounced ( thus, ^ and t^rw would be pronounced alike ghara and 
dehh^ba). The Sanskrit method of indicating the absence of a from any consonant is to append 
the so-called virama ( ^) to the consonant. This would at first sight have seemed the best plan 
to adopt in writing Bihari, and to spell ghar wr^, but dekVbd twi^.f But there are two great 
objections to it. In the first place, the virama would express too much ; for the final a, though 
silent in all ordinary speech, is not really absent. In poetry it must be always read, and 
must be counted in scanning, if the metre is to be preserved. In the second place, the virama is 
apt to create difficulties in printing. Hence we have thought it better to invent a new sign to 
indicate the final a when it is pronounced, instead of using the virama to indicate a when it is not 
pronounced. We have adopted for this purpose a small circle (y), placed after the consonant, 
below the top line, to indicate the full sound of a, and a dot ( ? ), placed in the same position, to 
indicate its imperfect sound. In this Dictionary, therefore, a final a is never to be pronounced 
except when indicated by » or i : thus ^nc ghar^ but ^v^^ dekKbd and x^ datf. 

The occurrence of the palatal and labial imperfect vowels (I and i) is, in prose, almost entirely limited to 
the Maithili dialect of Bihari. In this dialect, with a few exceptions, the final sound of every word 
ending in » or u is pronounced (in prose and poetry alike) as the imperfect vowel i or ^ 
respectively. J Thus ^fw ^ he is,' ^wi < let him see, ' are pronounced achhl^ dekhathi respectively, 
not achhiy dekhathu. There are to this rule only three exceptions, in which a final 1 is always 

* For an explanation of the sign (i), see Chap. 4, e. 

t This system of spelling is followed in Dr. HoBmle's Oandian Grammar. 

X See Mth. Gr., p. 6, § 7 ; also B. Gr., I (Introd.)> p. 2^, § 43. 



wt^rf^ fo^aw (not ^Aroiti), plural of «>w I5k ' people ;'• (2) the final i of maso. nouns, as in ^nfkpSni 
* water,' mf^ tndni ' proud ' (not pdrd, mSt^) ; f (3) a final » preceded by a vowel, as in ^iwr 
^/tt^dt 'lightness' (not AaluM). In this respect the other Bihar dialects differ from Maithill. 
In them, with a few exceptions, every final t and « become silent, that is, all words containing 
them are pronounced as if they ended in a consonant. Hence in these dialects, in respect to 
their Nagar! spelling no difference is made between such words and those which end in a silent 
a ; that is, both classes of words are spelt alike as ending in silent ^ a. Thus, while Maithill has 
H^ft (fern.) « beautiful,' wift * beating,' pronounced tundaA^ rnat\, the other dialects have vw 
sundar^ mr moTy etc. There are, however, a few isolated cases of the occurrence of these imperfect 
vowels in Bhoj'purf and Magahl, especially in the former, though even in these cases the use of the 
imperfect vowel is always optional and is, in fact, less usual. The more prominent cases are the 
following :— (1) the plural termination of substantives, which in Mth. is ^(^ani, in Bh. ^fir mi, ^fir 
atA or ^w an^ in Mg. ^m an ; e g., Mth. w^f^ lokani, Bh. iH%fk hkani or *Nfi» lokatA or wkw Man, 
Mg. «1ww Mm ; (2) feminine terminations like that of the 3rd pers. sg. pret. ind., which in Mth. 
is ^% all, in Bh. ^fif all or ^w al,X eg., Mth. f^rrfW girali, Bh. fin:!% girall or fiixw giral; (3) 

including 
forms 

jAarl, Bh. '^Tft cAarl or m^ char,\\ but Mg. ^T^ char; (6) the 2nd pers. sg. imp., which in Bh. 
may end in ^; ^ e.g., \% dekhi or fw dekh 'see thou/ but Mg. only fw dekh; (7) the indefinite 
pronoun, which in Mth. is ftrf kichhi, in Bh. f^ kichki or f*wr kichh^ in Mg. if% kachhi.** 
It may be added that in the old Bais'war! poetry of the Ramayan, etc, every final t and ^, if 
preceded by a consonant, is pronounced with the imperfect sound. 

It should be particularly noted, with regard to these imperfect vowels ( 1, i, ^ ) that, on the one hand, 
for the purpose of scanning they are counted as full vowels (a, i, ti,) while, on the other hand, 
for the purpose of shortening the antepenultimate (on which see Chap. 6) a medial one (i) counts, 
but a final one (i and H) does not count. 

3.-ANUSWARA AND ANUNASIKA. 

There is no sign in the treatment of which there prevails greater uncertainty and confusion in the 
existing dictionaries than the symbol ( ^ ) of the so-called anu9wara. It is necessary therefore to 
explain briefly the subject and justify our treatment of it. 

In Sanskrit the sign ( * ) of the anustoara is used for two entirely distinct purposes : — 

(1) It is employed — and this is its proper use — ^to signify a peculiar nasal sound, intermediate 

between a vowel and a consonant, which is not a mere nasalisation of a vowel, but an 
independent sound following a vowel, just as any other sound (vowel or consonant) might 
follow a vowel : thus, ^ hama, ^ vanam. 

(2) It is employed — in an improper fashion — to signify the nasalised consonants i^ y, ^ », w 9, 

w n, ^ f^i when conjunct with a non-nasalised consonant of their own classes : thus, ^^' aijgamy 
n anjanam ( for ^, ^nm). 



• See Mth. Gp., p. 10, § 26. II See Gi. Gp., p. 261, §§ 891, 392. 

t See Mth. Gp., pp. 17, 20, §§ 40. 47. f See G4. Gp., p. 331, § 496. 

J See G4. Gp., p. 360, § 604 ; B. Gp. II ( Bh.). p. 71, § 83. •• See B. Gp.,II (Bh.), pp. 26, 27, S 29. 

§ See B. Gr., U (Bh.), pp 68, 69, §§ 78, 79. 



In addition to these two, the anusioara is used in Rindl dictionaries for a third purpose, viz., to 
indicate the anundsika or the nasalisation of a vowel. This anunasika is the same as the nasal 
sound in the Swabian and other South German dialects, as inHimgUch (for unmiglioh * impossible'), 
iooJA ( for wohin * whereto ') ; it is something like, though not quite the same as, the nasal sound 
of the French, as in hon.* What makes the practice of the Hindi dictionaries still more 
confusing is that the second mode of employing the anuswara is resorted to very capriciously, 
some nasal consonants being represented by the anuswara^ others by their proper symbols. 
All this confusion is avoided by adhering to the simple and obvious principle of rigorously 
limiting each symbol to its own proper use. Accordingly, the system followed in out Dictionary 
is the following :-^ 

(1) As in the BiharJ ( and Qau^ian generally ) the proper anuswara sound does not "exist, its sign 

( ^ ) has been discarded altogether, except in the case of a few words, such as ^ hams 

* goose,' W^ siihk * lion,' the tatsama spelling of which it was thought convenient to give 
in addition to their Bihari spellings ( T^ hans^ ft^ sif)gh ).t 

(2) The nasal consonants, when in conjunction with their class consonants, are always indicated 

by their proper symbols, viz., • 5, ^ ^, ^ », w », i? w, never by the anuswara: thus we 
always spell 'HPT garjgay ^^w chandan, not ^^ gaffiga^ ^^ chamdan^ etc. 

(3) The nasalisation of a vowel is indicated by its proper sign, the anunasika ( ' ) : thus we spell 

^ff% akhl ' eye,' ^ nid ^ sleep ' (npt ^1f^ anikhi^ ^\ nlmd). 

In order to determine whether a word which according to the prevalent practice is spelt with the 
anuswara should in our Dictionary be looked for under a class-nasal or the anunasika^ the following 
rule should be observed : — 

If the nasal occurs in a syllable containing a long vowel, it is the anumsika ; but in a syllable 
with a short vowel, it is the nasal consonant of the class to which the following (mute) 
consonant belongs : eg.y ^TfT Skur * sprout,' '^if^^Hgan ^courtyard,' '^T^ has ^ goose,' 'ff^ nid 

* sleep,' *^ Sch * high,'"^?! bet * rattan,' ^^ bhSs buffalo,' iffw mochh * moustache,' ^f^ m&si 

* maternal aunt ;* but^i^ av)kur ^ sprout/ t*r»^ ninda ^ abuse,' ^^ uhch * high,' etc. 

There is only one important exception to this rule. If the nasal occurs in the antepenultimate 
syllable of a tadbhava word, especially in long and strong forms of nouns, and in causal 
verbs where an original long vowel is made short, :( the nasal always is the anunasika : 
thus, ^B^ftr akani^ * having heard,' ^^^i^ athaye^ * they set,' and '<fiwK adhiyar^ < darkness ;' 
strong form ^ffir^ &kura (or VifiiKT ikura)^ *n^ Ug^na ^ courtyard ' and long forms ^*irxnrr 
Skur^wa (or "^/fjpjrt ikur^wa) < sprout,' H^^wx has^wa (from tadbh. xf^ has) goose, fSi^rn 
nld^wa (from tadbh. ^ ntd) ^ sleep,' 'rTnrr bH^wa ^ rattan,' wn bhais^wa ' buffalo,' ^ffwi^r 
moehKwa ^moustache,' nTftiiT mmsiya * maternal aunt;' causal verbs fvat-nrw bhijaeb^ «to 
cause to be wet ' ( from ^f^n bhtjab)^ vronr phSkaebj * to cause to throw ' (from v^fw pj^kdb). 
But in the antepenultimate of a tatsama word it is the class-nasal ; e.g.^ ^wt aijkurSy *they 
spring up,^ ^w^it ayg^nd * woman,' and 'tRWTT andhakar^ ' darkness,' long forms ^•^•Mi hans^wa 

* goose ' (from tats, v^ hans\ fir«^^Tr nind^wa * abuse ' (from tats. fifi^T ninda). 



• See Mr. Sweet's Handbook of Phonetios, § 22. 

t It should be noted that such tatsama forms are a mere matter of speUing, not of pronunciation ; if^ is never pronounced Aafft#, 
but kans 

X By the peculiar rule of shortening tbe antepenultimate. See below, Chap. 6. 



There are some other isolated exceptions, such as $t mlth ^ face ' and wr^ kanh ^ Krishna/ etc., 
but they are so rare as to render the above given rule a practically safe one. 

4.— SYSTEM OF SPELLING. 

(a) The main principle followed in our Dictionary is to spell every word as nearly as possible as 
it is pronounced. This principle is so obvious, both in regard to its scientific correctness 
and its practical utility, that it needs no defence. Since, however, it has been carried out 
in our Dictionary more rigorously and uniformly than is usually the practice, it may be 
well to observe that customary unphonetic spellings have been discarded in all cases except 
where practical considerations seemed to render that course inexpedient. But even in these 
exceptional cases the words have always been given both in their phonetic and in their 
customary unphonetic shapes, arranged in their respective alphabetical order, and accom- 
panied by cross-references ; the main article being reserved for the word in its phonetic 
spelling. Thus the term for ' flower ' is commonly spelt, in Sanskrit fashion, ^^ pu?p. It is, 
however, pronounced JIH puep or 5^5^ pushp or T^^ puKph. All four spellings have been 
given, the main article being undent jtn^, to which the reader is referred under T^^puVpk^ 
91^ pushp J and 9^ pusp. Again, the usual spelling of Krishna's name is v^ Kriff^^ pronounced 
fmrin KrisKn. The latter forms the main article, to which a cross-reference is given under w^ 
EHiffa* So again irnjF grdjhy\ which represents the pronunciation of what is usually written 
x(t%igrahy^ is the main article, with a' cross-reference to the latter. In the great majority of cases, 
however, where the phonetic spelling adopted by us can cause no practical inconvenience, 
because it is not altogether unknown to already existing practice, the words are only given in 
their phonetic shapes. In order to minimise the risk of inconvenience as far as possible, 
a table of the phonetic spellings adopted by us in this Dictionary is here inserted. 



UDphonetic 


Phonetic. 








Examples. 


^ ri 

• 


f<r% 




mil ritu 


spelt 


• 

fiqr ritu 


^9 


W n 




T^ran 


>f 


CT ran 


1C«A 


^ B 




1C^^ sharan 


»> 


^[K^ Mran 


• 


nkh 




VT^ bhdsd 

• 


» 


%(V^ bhakhdj ^i^nrW diarsan spelt ^irv^ dkarkhan 


^ h 


H chh or w 


kh* 


WRT i§amd 


f> 


inrr chhamd^ or xm^ rdkm n Vtm^ rdkhaa 


% j^ 


^9y 

1 




^mjMn 


» 


wm gydn 


^ ms 


^ m 




^ ham 


w 


X^ hans 


*^ mh 


^ytfh 




f^ %mh 


If 


ftr^ siygh 



It seems hardly necessary to mention, as a practical rule, that if a word is not found under 
one spelling, it should be looked up under the other. 
(6) Sometimes a word is pronounced, at pleasure, in two different ways. Of the two phonetic 
spellings possible in these cases, as a rule only that which expresses the more usual 
pronunciation has been adopted. In order, however, to facilitate the finding of such a word 
by those who may be more accustomed to the rejected spelling, a list of alternative spellings 



* The more treual prontmoiation is V chh. If ^ *A op w chh are medial, they may, after a short rowel, be spelt ^n kkh or 
ehcUi, c.g.f Tftnr dukhin or Tpwn dakkhin for ^f^ dak^i^» xm rachhd or T^tT rachchkd for ^T rakfd. 



8 



is herewith given. Those in the first column have been usually adopted ; but if any word 
is not given in that spelling, it will be found in the other. 



Adopted. 


Rejected. 


Sxamplee. 


Adopted. 


Rejected. 


Examples. 


dy 


de „ di 


HKt^ and •q^TF or ^^rt 
pardy », parde „ pardi 


r 


r 

■ 




or 
9f 




iyd 


do 91 dii 
id 


ckarhdw „ charhdOj^ charhdu 
ft6%(2 „ betid 


r 




/?Aar 


99 
99 


phal 


n^ 


^frr 


wm^ „ w»^ 


19 


if 


mw 


99 


Hwm 


ud 

^or^rnF 


uwd 


^^Ni» or ^iiijii0v and ^whcwy 


gy 


flTtf 


gydn 


99 


gedn 


ai 1, ie 


3't 


aghaild „ aghMd „ aghaild 


Ta 


« 


M1»M 


19 


^ 


^„^Wt 


whi 


■'TTiry „ ^IVl^o ,, "TTW^iy 


oar' 


jt>ra 


j^ar'JAtt 


^ 99 


l^aiAu 


au „ ao 


M 


p(»&/d „ /7do/<2 „ /7di^/d 













(c) There is one case in which there are two graphic ways of expressing the same sound ; viz., 
the nasal consonants v 7, «r ^, ^ 9, ir n, ir f?i, when conjunct with a following consonant of their 
own class, may be either written in full (w, «r, % w, ir), or simply indicated by the anuswara 
( ^ ). In the latter case, accordingly, the anmwara must be understood to have, not its proper 
sound (of the Sanskrit anu8U}ara\ but to be a sort of stenographic representation of the 
nasal sound of the class of consonant which it precedes. As this use of the antiswaraj 
however, is not only unscientific, but also ( as explained in Chap. 8) productive of much 
confusion, it has been altogether discarded by us, and the nasal consonants are always 
represented by their own proper symbols. A list of these is herewith given : — 



R^ected. 


• 


Adopted. 










Examplei 


1. 


**, 


•w, 


*n, 


^, 


▼, 


T. ▼. 


T. 


^, 


«^ 


spelt 


^T 


f%T (forWr) 


mk, 


mkh, 


mg, 


mgh, • 


y*. 


y**i m 


pgh. 


a«ti(, 


«tfh^A 


99 


ayk. 


^V9f^ ( *9 «mHA) 


N. 


*w, 


> 


Hw, 


% 


^, «, 


^x. 


^I'ft, 


^raw 


99 


VSty 


^^w ( for ^'^ir ) 


ineh, 


mchhf 


riy", 


«yA, 


nch, 


0ehh, Hj, 


f^jh, 


kumjt^ 


flanyam 


99 


kuHjij 


mHjam ( „ samyam) 


% 


*», 


^^9 


*», 


^, 


"» "• 


^9 


V^CH 




99 


"^l^ir 




mt, 


mfh. 


m4. 


mdh. 


nt. 


nth, ffd. 


rj^A, 


pamdit 




99 


pandit 




*«, 


*^, 


^, 


X 


^, 


^, •^, 


a*. 


^'^ 




99 


^^ 




mt, 


nUh, 


find, 


mdh 


tit, 


nth, nd, 


ndh. 


chamd 




99 


chand. 




X 


X 


X 


^, 


^, 


^, ^, 


% 


ftw, 


^*i 


99 


f^iil, 


K^ 


wp, 


mph, 


mb. 


MA, 


mp, 


mph, mb. 


mhh. 


irm^y 


c2arvh6A 




bimh, 


dambh. 



{d) There is one case in which there is one graphic way of expressing two distinct sounds, viz., the 
so-called semi- vowels ^ and ▼. The former of these may express the sound of y or of y, the 
latter of to or of h. This practice is both unscientific and confusing, and as there are, in the 
alphabet, already the separate symbols «r and w for the sounds of / and b respectively, we 
shall employ the latter signs, w and w, in every case in which the sounds of/ and b are to be 
pronounced, and reserve the signs of ^ and w for those cases only in which they really 
signify the sounds of y and w respectively. At the same time, it should be carefully noted, 
with regard to the hard sound of w, that it is not exactly a mute sound like our conunon 



h, nor quite so liquid a;s our common v. It is a very peculiar sound, neither distinctly h nor 
V. Of the two it is nearer to b ; but in many cases it is very diflScult, for European ears, to 
say which it is. Biharfs, however, when questioned, in most cases declare it to be i, that 
is, the sound of ^. This being so, we have thought it best to abide by the judgment of the 
native ear ; and accordingly we invariably spell w J, whenever the hard sound of w is 
to be pronounced. It is difficult to give exact rules to distinguish the cases in which the 
two sets of sounds (y, w and/, b respectively) occur; but the following directions, founded on 
the practice of the standard Maithill, will be found to be approximately correct. 

(1) ^ is pronounced as w / whenever it is the initial sound of a simple word, as w^ft 

(unphon. ^irft)* jairi ^ traveller,^ or of the parts of a compound word, as ^niVrfhr 
(unphon. "f^^^ ) manojog^ ^ desire,* ^wAir ( unphon. ^R^ ) ajog^ ^ unsuitable.' There 
is only one exception to this practice; viz., when the initial ^ is inorganic or 
euphonic, t as in ^x yah * he '(not jah)^ for Tr% eh. It is also pronounced « when 
it occurs in the conjuncts^, * *w, as'wnr (unphon. ^i^r) sajya ^bed,' ^^twtw ( unphon. 
^tm^ ) ieharj * preceptor,' ^«t (unphon. ^j^rt) Mnjam ^ continence.' In all other cases it is 
pronounced as y ; e.g.y ^ww samay * season,' ktittw^ ramayan * the Ramayan,' ^wtwK payodhar 
* bosom,' ^^ adya ^ to-day,' wnftw byatit ' passed,' etc. In the case of words compounded 
with prefixes, there is some uncertainty. After ^ sai/h, initial ^ is always /, as in vit^r 
(unphon. ^^) sanjog * jimction,* ^wi^ MnjuVt * joined;' after 'rt* (^r) pat^ itisalwaysy, 
as in ^^^'Vir /?ar'y5^ * application,' ^K^^,%^npaf^yuVt ^ applied ;' after ftr ni it may be y or/, 
as in ftwtn niydg * appointment,' but fir^iwi nijuVt or finiv» niyui^t * appointed.' 

(2) T is pronounced as d as a general rule, of which there are only a few exceptions. Thus 

w is ft in tic (unphon. t^) bed ^ Veda,' ftrft^i' (unphon. fiifiir^ ) nibritff ' ceased,' ^^'ITT 
(unphon. ^fmT%) abagah * ablution,' ^^^ (unphon. ^mw) paban ^wind,' iffrftifV (unphon. 
'BTft'?^) bhabim * wife,' 'iTffw (unphon. ^T^ftr) pabathi * if they obtain,' ^ifir n (unphon, 
^irfw %) dbi-ki ^having come,' VC^ (unphon. ^T^ or l^) darab * substance,' f%w (unphon. 
f%^) sib * Shiva,' ^ (unphon. t^) deb *god,' J^^ (unphon. iV) pHr^b * former,' 
^n^w (unphon. ^'^w) sambat *year.' In wnr, being the final element of a word, 
w may be pronounced b or w ; e.g., ^^^ bhab or ^f^^xw bhato 'condition.' The exceptions 
are : in the termination of the long and redundant forms of nouns, as ^v^ctwt ghat^wa 
^ house,' wrfipi^ mdliyawa * gardener,' in the v/ ^ hdw and its derivatives, and in 
words like i1V gato * village,' ^w bh&war * bumblebee,' 'rr wah *he' (for ^ftr oA). 
Generally speaking ^ is pronounced w when it is an inorganic or euphonic element. 
But even in that case, it may sometimes be pronounced b ; thus in the termination of the 
long and redundant forms (e.g.j ^ft^JWf ghor^ba for ^^tt^iT ghor^toa * horse 'j and in certain 
inflections of such roots as "^ pi^ drink,' T chu * drip,' wY dho * wash ' {e.g.^ Tf^ chUbi for 
'ff^ chdwi * dripping,' B. Gr, I, p. 36, fable 13 ;— M^ pibdh for Mt pitcdh * drink ye,' 
B. Gr. I, p. 38, fable 16 ;— wt^ dhobH for *ri dhowu * wash thou,' Mth. Gr., p. 92). It 
should be noted that this rule in its entirety only holds good in Maithili. In Bhoj'puri 
and Magahi there is a distinct tendency towards pronouncing w as te^ (not b). 

(e) There remains one case to which we must invite special attention, as it is one which has 
hitherto been nearly altogether overlooked. In Bihari ( and, more or less, in all Eastern 
Gaudians ) there are two different a-sounds, — one close, the other open. Each of these may 
be long or short ; so that there are two pairs : ( 1 ) the close a ( short ) and the close A (long) ; 



* The examples are spelt phoneticaUj, their unphonetio forms being added in brackets, 
t Begarding this term see footnote * on page 13. 



— 10 — 

(2) the open d (short) and the open 5 ( long ). The former pair are pronounced something like 
dw ( short ) in the English * hot ' and ato ( long ) in the English * law/ The long sound of the 
latter pair is pronounced like the long a in the English or, nearer still, the Scotch ^ father ;' 
the short sound does not exist in English, but it may be noticed in the Italian halh. The 
present method among natives of expressing the two different sounds is to write ^ for the 
close a-soand, and ^ for the open a-sound ; and when they wish to be accurate and to 
distinguish the quantity of the two sounds, they indicate the long close sound of a by ^ 
( ue.j ^ plus the prosodic mark of length), reserving the simple ^ for its short close sound ; on 
the other hand, they indicate the short open sound of a by ^ (i.e., ^u plus the prosodic mark 
of shortness ), reserving the simple ^rr for its long open sound. This is a point of much 
importance, for it practically amounts to the fact that the two ancient graphic signs ^ and ^rr 
have changed their signification. While originally they indicated different quantities ( d and 
a) of the same sound, they now primarily signify two different sounds {aw and a), and 
secondarily (with the help of prosodic marks) the quantities of those two sounds. In our 
Dictionary we have adopted the native system of spelling in its more accurate form, 
that is, we uniformly spell the close pair of the a-sound by ^ (short) and ^ (long) 
respectively, • and the open pair of it by ^ (short) and ^rr (long) respectively. In 
transliteration we distinguish the former pair by a (short) and d (long), the latter by d 
( short ) and a (long). Accordingly the graphic representation, in our Dictionary, of the 
a-sounds, both in Nagarl and Roman, will stand thus : — 

c Short ^ a ♦( = aw. ) ^ c Short ^T d. 

Long V a. 

The following examples will illustrate this system : ir? na ^ not,^ «c««T mar^^^ ^ I died ^ 
( pronounced something like ndw^ mdwr^U ), and ^w^y dekVbdj ^ you will see,' t^^l dekhdld, 

* you see.' Again wifif^ hdtiya^ ^ word,' irr^iPf mdr*^^ * I beat,' and mr bat^ * word,' ^mw 
maraly ^ beating.' For an enumeration, as far as it is in our power, of the various cases in 
which the two a-sounds ( short or long ) occuf , we must refer the student to the Dictionary 
articles ^ and ^. 

(/) For the medial imperfect vowel (-), the final audible a and the short vowels e, a«, Oj aUj we 
have been obliged to invent special Nagari symbols. These are fully explained in Chapters 
2 and 5. 

(^ ) In spelling Arabic or Persian words incorporated into Bihari, we haye discarded the usual 
practice of employing diacritical marks (dots ) to indicate those sounds which are foreign to the 
Bibarl alphabet. Thus we spell w^x jaruTj * necessary,' ^x^^ ar^ji^ ^ petition,' Jg^t khushj 

* happy,' ^^ ^ani, ^ poor/ not V^ (Ar.jjj;^), ^T?^ ( Ar.-Prs. »^/), ^'C (Prs. \Jty^), 
W^ (Ar. i^^j^)* The reason is that these foreign sounds are never pronounced in Bihaii 
(except by educated Musalmans), the nearest indigenous sound being always substituted. 
And since we give the words in a Bihari Dictionary as integral parts of the Bihar! vocabulary, 
we prefer spelling them in their adopted Bihari garb. To this may be added that the 
usual system is both inaccurate and useless. All the dots in the world will never make a 
Bihari pronounce the foreign sounds, and in some cases the same dotted letter is made to 
do duty for several different sounds, e.ff., ^forj, J, (;>, t, so that it is impossible to know 
which sound it indicates, as well as to which language the word originally beIonged.t 
We supply the latter information, useful for many purposes, by adding ^ Arabic, Persian,* 



( onoru ^ a '( = aw. ; r 

Close a ... j _ , Open a ...s 

C Long ^ d ( — aw.) C 



* It is more conveDient to retain a for the short close a-sonnd, because this soond is the most common one, and its transliteration 
bj a, therefore, least interferes with the already existing practice of using a, as may be seen from the abore given examples. 
t See Du fioemle's Oau^ian Grammar, p. 25, and Mr. Beames' Comparatiye Grammar, vol. I, p. 71. 



11 



etc., as the case may be, together with the original spelling in Arabic characters in the 
comparative portion of the article. As a matter of convenience we here append a list of the 
foreign sounds^ including English, and their Bihar! equivalents. 



Ar., Frs. 


Bih&ri. 


Examples. 




Ar,i Pra. 


Bih&ri. 


Examples. 


t or ^ 


^a 




^y 




A 


4 

W or ^ 

Bh or 6 


</^j^ V^ khusht or H^ AAfwl 


A or u* 


^« 




«,M.U 


Bdhib 


t 


«rsr 


Viy irfk ^aH6 


j^ or » 


ta 


hukum 


j!>* 


hajdr 


Jt 


Wi>A 


y<>^.^ ^X^phaida 


C 


nkh 


khaii 






O 


W* 


j\y\ vn^VX eVrdr 


df or 3 or*^ 




^ wnrw 


u;**3 


WmW 










wy 


kdgaj 


^Ui 


jamin 

wifrt 










hqfir 




fdhir 

1 









Initial t, § final I or «, and medial ^ and tj are represented by wr a; ^.y., ^T wifvc AAr^iV, 
* j^ or l*3i^ w^rr ^an^Si ^y*^ «rrtw malUmy (fH^y^ inrftw maphik. 



Engliih. 


Bib&ri. 


BxamplM. 


English. 


Bihari. 


Examples, 


d, t 

1 




fiord inw ta4 (Mth. Oh. 28,66), 
(.Londou ««nr tandm, ticket f«V3^tila^ 

thin f^ thin, the l(t (fi. 


{ 

qu 
da 


mkw 


office wrfwv dphis. 

queen iPHr A;trln. 

education ^i^|%irw 

IqfukesKan. 



Sometimes, in the process of incorporation into Biharl, foreign words suffer curious and 
apparently arbitrary alterations, especially with regard to vowels; thus f^f^mj^ jimtdar 
for j^^^j eananddr^ ^i^twtw antakal for Jlilil intiqal^ fWV kum^U for committee ( Mth. 
Ch. D. 27, verse 49 \ Tift^^ i^UMn for station f Mth. Ch.. d. 27. verse 65 ^. &c. 



6.-ALPHABETiCAL ORDER. 

It has been usual hitherto, in dictionaries of the modem Indian languages, to follow the order of 
the Sanskrit alpbabet. || This practice has the advantage of observing a well-known system of 
alphabetic arrangement ; we have, therefore, adopted it. But we have been obliged to introduce 
some modifications, necessitated by two most important differences between the phonetic systems 
of the Qau4ian and the Sanskrit.^ These differences are the following : — 

(1) Sanskrit possesses no short sounds of ^, ai, o, aif, nor any imperfect vowel, while Gaudian has 
these sounds. 



* ^ is sotQetimes tamed into 9 jt ; e^,, irk^^^^ hak'ni for lA^ ^ ' gift,' see Mag. 63. 

t 3 is also sonietimes turned into ^^ dor even n ^ ; e.g-, wn^w hdgad or ^UTT kagatd for iHi * paper/ See Mars., ii» 1^ 
J (^ is sometimes tamed into ^p ; e g,, W^^ iupiH for ^f^it^ whiteness ' (in ike BimSyan). 

§ Wh'to t ^ is in the antepenultimatei it is, as ustcal, shortened and represented by ^rr df ; e.g., ^w*rr dganm or ttwr mnd for 
Jli^t, 'iDirror/ 

II Unless when printed in tiie Persian or Arabic eharaeters. 
^ This, of coarse, refers only to the established Pft^iniaa phonetic system. 



— 12 — 

(2) Gau^ian makes a very extensive use of the anunSstAa^ or the nasalisation of vowels, but 
none at all of the proper anwwdraj or pure nasal sound ; while in Sanskrit the opposite 
practice prevails. 
In the existing dictionaries there is nothing to show these differences, the long and the short sounds 

of e^ at, Oj auj and the anunasika and cmmwdraj being respectively represented by the same symbols. 

In this Dictionary an attempt has been made, while interfering as little as possible with the 

accustomed Sanskrit order of letters, to indicate the peculiar Gaudiian sounds by distinctive signs. 

For the anunasika and anuswara (as stated in Chap. 3) we have adopted the symbols * and * respectively, 
both being already used for this purpose in Sanskrit. For the short ^, at, o, au^ as well as for the 
imperfect vowel, it was necessary to invent new symbols ; and in so doing we have endeavoured to 
adhere as closely as possible to the already current forms of the letters that are nearest in sound. 
For the short ai, o, aUj we have adopted the signs ^t, ^, ^, i-c.j the established signs for the long 
A, o, my merely giving the slanting top-strokes a serpentine instead of a straight form. For 
short e we have invented the sign jr, $.«., the sign for long e {^) reversed. For the imperfect vowel 
we have adopted a point ( 7 ) placed in the position of the accustomed stroke (T) of the long a. 
In transliterating it is indicated by the apostrophe : thus ir* A:', ir A:a, wr kd. 

With regard to the alignment of these new symbols into the usual Sanskrit alphabetic order, we have^ 
following out the principle indicated by that order, placed the new short vowels «, a«, o, au^ severally, 
immediately before their corresponding long sounds, while, with regard to the imperfect vowel 
and the nasalisation of vowels, we have, after careful consideration, decided to set them aside 
altogether as principles of arrangement. Accordingly, neither the anunasika nor the imperfect vowel 
is allowed to affect the order of the words in our Dictionary. In other words : each of the sets 
T, % 4, — ^, ^f, — i:, f, ~ t, % — ^, *, — V, *, — Jr, F, — T^y % — % if, — ^, % — ^, ^, — ^, ^, — V^, 
^, — ^T, ^f so far as dictionary order is concerned, constitutes one letter only. Accordingly, 
we shall first give all words containing the sound a, irrespective of that sound being imperfect, or 
short, or nasalised, and simply arrange them according to their consonants; next will come all 
words contedning the sound a, similarly arranged ; next, in similar order, those containing the 
sounds i or i, or u or S, and so forth. 

This method, no doubt, is a considerable innovation on an existing general practice ; but it would 
have been impossible to do justice to the peculiar Gau^ian sounds, on a practical and at the same 
time scientific plan, without resorting to some kind of innovation : and after a full consideration 
of the difficulties surrounding the subject, we have come to the conclusion that the innovation 
adopted in this work is the most advantageous and least inconvenient that could have been selected. 
With any other arrangement any one ignorant of, or unfamiliar with, the peculiar Gau<]lian 
sounds and their symbols would have experienced no little difficulty in identifying the place where 
any particular word containing those sounds might be found. With the plan adopted by us, it is 
hoped no difficulty will be felt in this respect, if only the obvious rule is kept in mind, — ^that if a 
word is not found under long 2, *, 5, (iw, it should be looked up under short ^, ai, o, a«, and that 
words containing a nasalised vowel (^.^., ^ chad) must be looked up under that vowel (viz., ^ I), 
while words containing a nasal consonant (e.^., ^i^ chand) must be found under that consonant 
(viz., HnJ). The observation of the latter distinction is facilitated by our system of discarding 
the equivocal anuswara (*), and using the anunasika (*) and the nasal letters {w 9, ^ ^, ^ n, w n, ir m) 
to indicate a nasalised vowel and a nasal consonant respectively (e.g.^ ^f^ cMd and ^^ cfumd^ not 
^ri^ ckdfhd and ^ chamd). 

As regards the alignment of the peculiar* Gaudian semivowels f T aud f rh, we have thought it best 
to adhere to the customary practice of placing them after w 4 aad ¥ 4h respectively — a practice 

* See, however. Dr. Hoemle's Gd. Gr., §§ 15, 16. v r is a cerebral somivowel, while T r is dental. 



— 13 — 

^hich is recommended by considerations of convenience, though perhaps not absolutely 
defensible scientifically. 

6.-SHORTENING OF THE ANTEPENULTIMATE VOWEL. 

The genius of the Bihari language is adverse to the existence of a long vowel or diphthong in a 
tadbhava word (see Chap. 11), when it would occupy a position removed more than two syllables 
from the end of the word. In counting syllables, it must be clearly understood that neither a 
final silent ^ a nor a final imperfect xl or ^ ^ counts as a syllable, while the medial imperfect a 
(^)does. (See Chap. 2.) Thus^ ffhar^ * a house,' is a word of one syllable; t'w dekhab, *I 
shall see,* ^rr^^ft aoA * and,' wn sfitathi * let him sleep,' are words of two syllables : while ^wtwf 
dekKbdj ' you will see,' and ^^^ dekh^lSy ^ I saw,' are words of three syllables. 

This practice of shortening a vowel or diphthong is subject to the following rules, to which careful 

attention is invited : — 

(a) Wlienever the vowel ^ a finds itself in the antepenultimate syllable, $.«., in the third from the 
end of the word, it is shortened to ^ «(; e.ff.j thf^ nduwa (or, contracted «?Kt naua)y long 
form* of •nrw nafi, * barber ' ; ^rtfiwr dgiya^ long form of ^trfir ayl, * fire ' ; ^^W5 pdiild (or, 
contracted, ^W ptmild)^ 2nd plur. pret. ind. of ^nnr paeb, < to obtain ' ( v/ ^nw pab ). 

(J) Similarly any other vowel or diphthong, finding itself in the antepenultimate, is shortened, 
provided a consonant which is not euphonict ^ ff or ^ to follows it ; thus fi*««^ sikhUSj 
* I learned,' from \/ ^ sikh^ ^TW dekhdit^ * if he saw,' from \/ ^ dekh. On the other 
hand, T^ cMaWi or T^ chUw^lA^ * I dripped,' ^^R% piy*!^^ * I drank,' from \/ T ehu 
and ^'^ pi. 

(c) Any vowel or diphthong whatever, finding itself removed more than three syllables from the 
end of the word, is shortened, whether it is followed by a consonant or not ; thus ^[T'rni 
chtiit^hn, < (if) you dripped,' from v/ T cAfi, Tlr^ AoSaX, ^ (it) he become,' from \/ ^ A5, 
^fiiWt dekhaiitclu or ^^ifii^^ dekhaitiau, * (if) I had seen/ from v/ fw dekh. 

There is an isolated exception in the Bhoj'puri present indicative where the final syllable ( ^ fli, etc.) 
may not be counted for the purposes of these rules. Thus <I see' is in Bhoj'puri t^iff 
dekhdR or ^^Wf dekhaiR ; * we see ' is ^^^i dekhtla. This, however, is merely an apparent 
exception, as the final syllable {^ HjWi la) is really a separate, enclitic word. It may be added 
that the antepenultimate vowel is never shortened in verbs in the Ramayan ; e.ff.y Ut.^ do. 42, 
^l^i^lf^ dekhiahi with long ?, as shown by the metre. 

It should be remarked (though the remark does not apply to the Maithili dialect) that when, accord- 
ing to the rules of optional spelling (see Chap. 4, 4), the number of syllables is lessened by the 
contraction of two adjunct vowels, the long vowel retains its length. Thus Magahi ^^? 
hdidiy * (if) we become,' and ^^npr dekhdit^ * (if) he saw,' may also be spelt Wk^ hoiok and t^ 
dekhcht ; but Maithili ▼tt^ hoich^ %^w dekhcht 

With regard to the pronunciation of the (l^^g open) ^t a when shortened in the antepenultimate, 
it should be observed that it naturally becomes the corresponding(short open) ^ d. (See Chap. 4, e). 
But there is a tendency, (optional in Maithili, Magahi, and Eastern Bhoj'puri, but imperative in 



ea 
P 



* For an explanation of this term, see below, Chap« 7. ' 

t VTlien T « or V « is followed by ^ a or ^rr a, the letters ^ y and ^ to may be inserted respectiFely. These inserted letters are called 
phonic ^ and 7 : thus, irrftr^ mdlid or wrfinrr maHyd, * gardener ;' ^TfjMl itud, or Vf f^ ' dsumd, * tear/ See B. Gr., I, p. 22 ; G^. Gt., 

• M^ mt. — _ ^1_^ ^^ l^^^t^mm^^A A^^AV* ST jm AS ivft S^TTST^WT ^tmJSlm^a»t%^ ^sVsW^T Mmmi ni.nr? 



VTf^^i 



— 14 — 

Western Bhoj'puri and Bais'warl), though in the case of long forms only, to substitute the short 
close ^ a for the short open ^ d. Thus, while the Biharl throughout has *< i i^iBT mdr^U^ * I beat, ' 
(never jcxpif mar^lS), on the other hand, the Maithill, Magahl, and Eastern Bhoj^puri have wifinrr 
bdii^a or wfii^ iatit/a * word,^ but the Western Bhoj'purl and BaisVari have only wfirqr batiya.^ 

Among the Biharis no fixed usage has as yet established itself regarding the graphic representation 
of the shortened antepenultimate. Though it is always pronounced short, it is frequently written 
long. Following our principle of phonetic spelling, we shall uniformly write it short ; and any 
word, found elsewhere spelt wrongly after the uncertain Biharl fashion, should be looked up as 
containing a short vowel. Thus, wrfifWT bdUya or^fl^^ hatiyi * word,' ft^Tr jpaVAt^S * stool,' ^«wt 
burVwa ^ old man ' (long forms of mr bdty "ft^pirhiy W bUrhi) are frequently^ though incorrectly, 
written Trfiiwr batiya^ ^W^tt pirhtySy v<rnrr bUrKwi. 

It will be seen from the examples given in illustration of these rules how intimately the latter 
are connected with many processes of derivation and inflexion. Careful attention to them 
alone will enable the student to determine the dictionary form of many words which in 
literature or conversation may be met with in some derived (see Chap. 7) or inflected form. 

» 

7.-EQUIVALENT FORMS OF NOUNS. 

All nouns, whether substantives or adjectives, admit of various equivalent forms, i.e.^ of various 
forms which do not differ appreciably in meaning. These forms are the short, hna. and 
redundant. ^' 

The short form is the primary form, by which the word is generally known. It is also in most cases 
the only one admissible in good and literary language. Accordingly, as a rule^ the short 
forms only will be given in this Dictionary. We shall occasionally add to them, in brackets, their 
corresponding long and redundant forms ; but we shall not devote separate articles to the 
latter, except in those special cases where they are of equal or even greater currency 
than the short forms, or have acquired any distinct meaning. Hence, whenever they are 
n6t found specially mentioned, they should be looked up under their corresponding short 
forms. The following rough directions will enable the student to do this without any 
difficulty. 

(a) The long forms of substantives are made by adding one of the suffixes ^T a, Wf ya^ or tt wS 
(vulg. sometimes ^ 9^^ yl, ^ we) to the short form, tho vowels of which, if long, are short- 
ened. The short form, therefore, is found by detaching these suffixes, and, if necessary 



IS of mfwHT mdliyS < gardenet,' ^ttrm ghor^wa 
•^Wnrr pothtii * book,^ ^^fwr 



isua * tear,' iare refspectiVely ^^ moR^ iPlrtt ghSr&j ^ ghary ^fp9i potht, ^if^ asU. 

(b) The long forms of adjectives are made similarly by adding th^ suffixes irr ArS or V kia (/em. 
^ ki or ^ kki) to their short forms. Thus the short forms of ^f«WT bafki, ftnrir mifhdkka^ 
WT^*T bkdftkiy t<t»wft chhofki or VWhft chhofdkkij are respectively wf bar or tfx J«r5, ^ Mfh 
ot ^«Wt njifhif Wft bhiri or ^^ bhdriy ^ftw chkof o3p ^hft ckkdp. 



•liUeMytoBeeihat tiiereawmwhy ihei«oBUi»Ai»>n tfitnot extended to other eases is tlie ^voidaiioe of ambiguity. Ifeansal 
▼erbi were immoimced with a, ihej eonld not be distinguiflhed from the corresponding {primary verbs, whieh are rightly prononneed with 
«; e.^.,the causal WTrnfT m Sr'tS 'I beat,' if pimKmneed ^^^T fMr'a, would be indistingidsfaable from the priaary rerb WTTiPf 
m^'O, • I died/ Similarly, if firrr^^'MA 'they fell ' (see Chap. 9. A, 2) were pironoiuiced fntrmw girlak, it might be eoafooiided 
with firr^T gir'lah (or rather frr^T gir'ldh ), • you feU/ 



15 



(c) The redundant forms of substantives and adjectives are formed from their long forms 
precisely as long forms of substantives are formed from their short forms, viz., by adding 
^rr a, ^ya or tt wa to the long form. Thus the long forms of irrft^BPrr mdliyawa or (contracted) 
TTirWr mdUwa^ ^rt^Jhrr ghormwi (contracted for ^ft^nrrr ghor^wawd)^ "^xt^ ghardJuwa^ ^ftfimrr 
pothiyawa or ( contracted ) vt^T potJuwa^ ^Tu^^t isuawaj are irTf^irT mdliya^ ^Itjit ghor^wa^ 
'^^^ ghar^wiy ^tfiwT pothiyaj Vif^Tr isuwa^ and the long forms of Wf^w^ hafkawa * large,' 
firB^P^ mithdkk^wa * sweet,* Trfi:iwr hhdrikawa 'heavy,' whtvftwr chhofkiya or wtifiWT 
chhotdkkiyi * small,' are respectively n^wi bafka^ fir^iT mifhakkiy ^xm\ bhdrika^ yft^n^ 
chhofkt or wtw?t chhQfdkkh 

Of the short form of nouns ending in a silent ^ a there are again two equivalent kinds, viz., a weak 
and a strong form. In Bihari most nouns occur usually in the weak form only ; a few, however, 
occur in the strong form only, and some in both the weak and strong forms. This Dictionary, 
of course, will follow herein the Bihari usages ; but as theoretically all nouns may take both 
forms, and as it can only be learnt by practice which of the two forms is used in the case of 
any particuleur noun, the following easy direction may be given : — 

The strong form is made by substituting ^ir a {fern, t f ) in the place of the final silent ^ a of the 
weak form. The latter form, therefore, is found by detaching the final ^r a or t i of the 
strong form. Thus- — 



Masc. 



Fem.0 



Weak. 




Meaning, 


(^ghor 


... 
••• 


... 'horse' 
,,. Marge' 


f^ ghor 
•^ Utw chhof 




... 'mare' 
... 'small' 



• •• 



• •• 



• •• 



• •• 



• •• 



• •• 



• .« 



.*• 



Strong. 

^ftxT ghora. 
^TT bara. 

wt^t chhofi. 



A similar remark may be made regarding certain nouns ending in an imperfect f i or short f i which 
in the Maithili dialect admit of a weak and a strong form. These are : (1) verbal nouns in t I * 
(2) abstract nouns in ^n; 5*, and (3) nouns of agency in i^ «. The strong form is made by 
substituting t « in the place of the final T I or t » of the weak form. Both forms may be used 
indiflferently, but the weak form is the more usual one. In this Dictionary we shall, as a rule 
give both forms. Thus — 



Verbal Noun 
Abstract „ 
Noun op Agency 



•tt 



... 



••• 



••• 



••• 



••• 



Weak, Meaning, 

'nf^ maA 'beating' 

'tfpnr haluhai 'lightness' 

'nftr mani 'proud' 



Strong. 

inrV mS/ri. 
^l^Tt halukat. 
'nifV manu 



It should be noted here that many speakers nasalise the final syllable of long and redundant forms so 
that we can have ^ftx^ ghor^wH as well as ^IXiwr ghor^wiy ^h^Kf ghormwa as well as ^^^ 
. ghordUtoay and so on. 

In order to make the above perfectly plain, the following tables, which explain themselves, are here 
printed. A reference to them will enable the learner, when any one of the three forms (short, 
long, or redundant) are given, to find the other two. 



ft) 
■s 
.1 






•a ^ 

^ a ri 

3 : J I 



? 3 



I? " r 2 

^ 1 i t 

s = ° ? 

■all" 

- S •= .1 

■o = a. a 

II -I -I ^ M I II 



1 !§ !i. ■§ "i « 
^ s» "S* ^ -^ *. 

S 5 






4 

.'H i3 "S S 

c c ii 



II 



I 



— 17 






5 



o 
PR 

1 









^ 
r 



o 
^ 



•I 



d 

o 

CCS 



o 



.9 



o 



QQ 



r 

.g 

a 

o 

.g 
s 
.s 

1 






8 

J 
3 



a<M 

c •* 



I 

s 



^ 



a 

a 



CO 

a 

a 






Q 



•O 



I 



Q 

U3 



1 






i 

08 

I 



I 

08 



•a 

w 



8 

a 

1 

to 

08 



% 



J 






% 






•a 



I 






8 



I 






% 



o 















• 



•a 



.1^ s 

1 s 



*« 

.^ 



I 



i 



f 
I 






3 



:§ § 2 

««: ^ ^, 







* 
• 



1 






8 



9 



« 









S ^ 



1 



^ 
•^ 



r 






!? 

v 



— 18 



or 



I I I 1 









■3 

I 







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1 


S 


a 


3 


i 


g 


8 


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1 


1 



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— 19 



8.— FEMININE GENDER OF ADJECTIVEa 



Our treatment of the feminine gender of adjectives (including participles used as adjectives) requires a 
word of explanation. The matter is not entirely free from difficulties, and the methods of treat- 
ment hitherto adopted are in some respects calculated to mislead the student 

Adjectives may be used in three different ways : either attributively^ as in ^^^ wt^ sundar nan ^ a fair 
woman ; ' or p'edioaiivelffy as in t tpc^ ^^^ nx l nari sundar ba * this woman is fair ; * or substantively y 
as in % 15^^ hA sundari *oh fair oneM In the two first cases the adjective is used in its proper 
adjectival sense ; in the third case it has become, to all intents and purposes, a substantive^ and it 
should be added that in this substantival sense an adjective is only used when it expresses a 
person. 

Besides this three-fold usage, there is another circumstance which affects the question of the gender 
of adjectives; namely its origin, whether it is a tatsama (i.e. Sanskritic) or a tadbhava (i.e. 

PrSkritic) word (see Chap. 11). 

. • 

For all practical purposes the following five rules will accurately represent the whole state of the 
matter : — 

(1) All adjectives, whether tatsama or tadbhava, when used as substantives, must be inflected in the 
feminine form whenever they refer to a female person or personification. 

Thus, tadbh., %f5rrrft AA piyarl or fWrft piyiA * O beloved one,' ^iwft akali or ^W% akali ' a foolish 
one' {e.g.y Chan, ^iwftwf^^ akalik bipatl *the distress of the foolish woman;' see s.v.), 
^ftfWV parosint or ^iTtMW parosinl * a female neighbour'; tats., ^^ sundari or ^f^ sundaA *a 



fair one' (Bid. 12, 1), ^¥^ sumukhi or ^wfit sumukti ^ a friendly one' (Bid. 7, 1), ^nfk^ manini or 
i?TfwPr manini * a proud one ' (Bid. 60, 1 ), ^fwift budhimati or ^firifir budhimaA * a wise one.' These 
correspond, respectively, to the masculine tadbh. twrr piyara or fWrr jwyar, ^iw akal^ ^nct^ parosi ; 
tats. ••'(^ surdoTy ^i^ mSni or «rrPi manij ^fwrw budhiman. It will be noticed that the feminines 
are most variously formed. We shall therefore add the substantive feminine form (printed 
9ubst. f.) in every case in which the nature of the adjective admits of its being used as a substan- 
tive. At the same time the following broad rules may be given :-— tatsama adjectives form their 
feminine as in Sanskrit; tadbhava adjectives in ^i a and in silent ^ a have a feminine in t?; 
tadbhava adjectives in t i form as a rule their feminine in Tw^ tni ; tadbhava adjectives in v fi^ 
as a rule, remain the same in the feminine ; finally in Maithili, and in poetry generally, any 
feminine may end in T { instead of 1 1. 

(2) All tatsama adjectives, when used as proper adjectives (whether attributively or predicatively), 
are not inflected in the feminine ; but their masculine form is used, whether the noun to which 
they refer be masculine or feminine. 

Thus, attributively, ^5^t v^ sundar chun^rt ^ a beautiful veil' (Hb., 6, 44, masc. V^ sundar)^ t^fw wTift 
ra^may ham * a sweet word' (Bid. 33, 6, masc. ^^[^^ ras^may), ^nr^Pw Tnft Aar'AAtV rani *the happy 
queen' (Hb. 3, 3, masc. ^T^ftnr hat^khit, Skr. ^f*rw harsitok\ ^fmm ^irfinft komal kamint ^a pretty woman' 
(Bid. 22, 8, masc. ^itiw komal) ; predicatively, ^ff-^ ^ ^fw ^rT'^^ rayg-bhUnd bhel ati pat^chanf 
* the arena was very vast' (Hb. 9, 6, masc. ^RTS'f^ paf^chan^)^ ^ftir ^^ mim adhik bhel Iqf * great was 
the shame ' (Bid. 27, 1, masc. ^iftw adhik). Exceptionally (especially in Maithili) instances of the 
use of the feminine form of tatsama adjectives do occur ; e.g.y attributively, fl^i^nfii ^rft gun^maA 
n&A * a virtuous woman ' (Bid. 64, 7), and predicatively, WT«ft ^f ^fft ^fc dhar^nl beakuli bhe& ^ the 
earth was distressed' (Hb. 1, 6). But they are so rare that they may safely be disregarded for 



-. 20 — 

the purposes of the above given practical rule,* In this Dictionary, therefore, we shall mark 
all tatsama adjectives as being of common gender (printed com. gen.\ at the same time noting 
in brackets the occurrence of any exceptional feminine form. 

(3) All tadbhava adjectives ending in ^ a, when used as proper adjectives, (whether attributively or 

predicatively), must form their feminine in 1 1. 

Thus attributively i?l^ «rnft tfAA5/i narf 'a little woman' (masc. w^ cAA3/a), ^niw-vn ^i«^ janak-suta 
aJcelt Hhe daughter of Janak alone' (Ram., Ar., ch. 26, 2 ; masc. ^inrr akela) ; predicatively, t wrir 
w^ irVa\ irr i bat bar mlthl la * this thing is very pleasant ' (masc. ^ffV»T mttha). The following 
passage of the Gitaball (il, 82, I) contains an example of both the second and third rules:— 
Tnr-virfir ^mr tpnr, ^utt ?5V^ fnrfii jRam-bhagad karat sugam (tats.), sunat mifhi (tadbh.) lagaH 'devotion 
to Ram is easy to exercise and pleasant to be told.' It should be added, however, that owing to the 
fact that in the dialects of Bihari (especially in Maithili) these adjectives are more commonly 
used in their weak form terminating in silent ^ a, their feminine (as will be noticed below) usually 
ends in T I. Thus in the place of the strong form masculine ^«T chhota^ ^%w akela, the Bihari 
commonly has 'Pf* chkoty '^nNr akel^ with the feminines wtft chkbti^ '"rtrftr akell {e.g.. Bid. 30, 3, 
fwrfWir w^ft bilasifd chhdti * the little bride,' Ram., Ut., chh. 5, 19, tf% ^%fi? bell akell * a single 
creeper '). 

(4) All tadbhava adjectives ending in T i^* or t *» and in ^ ti or ^ 5, are of common gender. 

Thus^ masc. ^mV ^tto" bkaripathal *a heavy stone,' or fem. vrcV ^^n bhari bat 'an important matter' • 
again masc. fTSfiqc mnjhag^ralU /an 'a quarrelsome person,' or fem. Mnn?fTq[ ^tfcV jhag^ralu narf 
'a quarrelsome woman.' 

(5) The tadbhava adjectives terminating with a silent ^ a are now commonly treated as being of 

common gender. 

Originally they always possessed a feminine form in T t, whether they were used attributively or 
predicatively; and this usage prevails almost uniformly in the older literature of all the Bihari 
dialects; ^.^., in the Bais'wari Ramayan of Tul'sl Das, in the Maithili songs of Bidyapati and 
Haribans of Man'bodh, etc. Indeed in the Maithili dialect the use is exceptionally extended 
even to tatsama adjectives in silent ^ a (see footnote*). Thus, tadbhava, attributively, ^ff ^nrswf^ 
fift bari ag^laJii naA ' a very vicious woman ' (Hb. 2, 30, masc. w^ ^PPRfir bar ag^lah), ^f ^^irfii 
^Jl^ bari anumanl sakJA 'a very melancholy (female) friend' (Bid. 34, 1, masc. Tf ^^inr bar anuman); 
ftidTftfT wVft bilasinl chhdti kittle bride ' (Bid. 30, 3, masc. w>ff chhof)^ tfw ^rtrftr bell akd ' a single 
creeper' (Ram., Ut., chh. 5, 19, masc. ^w akel), ^^Hfw chsatd jhapaf *such a swoop' (Sal. 7, 
masc. ^TO aisan), iff ^rf^ ferhi chall * false step' (B. Gr., I, Introd., fable 11, masc. ij terh); again 
tatsama, ^fi^f wrfir dushiijatl ^ a vile caste' (Hb. 9, 33, masc. T^ dusht) ; and predicatively, ^^ w^ 
sumukfd na hdi * she was not friendly' (Bid. 30, 2, masc. ^^ aumukh), ^iTrnfif ^ftr «nft parapUi 
astinsA * the woman had arrived' (Hb. 10, 1, masc. ^Trnf(parapU).f The practice, however, is not 
uniform ; exceptions of the use of the masculine instead of the feminine occasionally occur ; e^g.. 
jr%m K^ ehan ramani * such a woman ' (Bid. 17, 5), t^w «^^ kehan sur^khi ' what a beauty ! ' (Sal. 7). 
The latter fashion of dropping the use of the feminine form extended more and more in later 

times, till in the present day the feminine form is almost entirely abandoned, the masculine form 

-^^^■^ 11 1 ■ _ 

• A rough calculation of the oocurrenoe of tatsama adjectivee in the songs of Bidyapaia and the Haribans of Man'bodh shows that 
among a total of 46 cases of such adjeclires in constmction with feminine nouns, the feminine form is only used nine times, while the 
masculine oocurs 36 times. 

t It should be noted that some of the feminines of tatsama adjectires are not tatsama feminines, as they should be; thus 
Maithili has f % dushf^ for Skr. ffT dufta. This hybridism of such Maithili forms shows that the Jatter are anomalous formi made 
by a false analogy. 



— 21 — 

being used equally with reference to masculine and feminine nouns.* It is only in the Maithill 
dialect that the feminine is still occasionally used both in prose and poetry^ but in the other Biharl 
dialects it may now be said to be practically xmknown except in poetry. In any case, it should be 
noted that whenever the feminine form is used, its final T has the sound of the imperfect I (see 
Chap. 2, and Mth. Gr. §§7, 43, 44). Under these circumstances, we shall, in this Dictionary, 
describe the tadbhava adjectives which terminate with silent ^ a as being of common gender. 
At the same time we shall note in brackets any feminine in T i which we may have met with 
in literature* 

For convenient reference we here add a list of typical examples illustrating our system of treating 
the feminine gender of adjectives: — 

(1) Tai3. adj.f (rules 1 and 5) ; e.g. — 

^ftni akriiy adj. com. gen.y not done. 

^liW akalarjk^ adj. com. gen.^ {subat. /. ^ww^r akalaffka)^ blameless. 

f^^ himukhj adj. com. gen.j {old Mth. and poet./, fk^n bimukhl^ suhst.f. fir^ himukht or Mth. 
and poet, fw^f^ ^i^tuAr^), unfriendly • 

(2) Tadhh. adj. in ^IT (rules 1 and 3) ; e.g.— 

^VKt aVrSy (/. ^wwcV ak'ri)^ adj.j dear. 

(3) Tadhh. adj. in t or ^ (rules 1 and 4^ ; e.g. — 

^kV bhariy (Mth. and poet, ^fftfic bhaAj^ adj. com. gen.y heavy. 

mC i 4^ parosij adj. com. gen.j {subst. f. vfKtfipfi parosini or Mth. and poet. ^rctftfW pardsinl)^ 
neighbouring. 

(4) Tadbh. adj. in ^ (rules I and 5) ; e.g. — 

^irtr akely adj. com. gen., {old poet. f. ^^fw ahell ), alone. 

^HJV akaly adj. com. gen.^ {eubst. /. 'Wift akali or Mth. and poet. %m^ akall ), foolish. 

9.-CONJUGATIONAL TERMS AND TABLES. 

As there are considerable' differences between the names given to the tenses of verbs by the 
various grammarians, it has been necessary to adopt one system for ourselves. We there- 
fore give below the verb of v^ ^ dekh *see,' conjugated throughout all its various forms 
with the name which we have adopted for each tense prefixed to each. 

The radical tenses are conjugated in full, and after them is given a list of the principal parts of 
all the various auxiliary verbs used in Bihari. Then follow the various periphrastic tenses, the 
first person singular of each being given as sufficient for all practical purposes. 

It will be observed that there are six columns for each tense. The first gives the forms current in 
Maithill, then follow in order Magahl, Eastern Bhoj'puri, Western Bhoj'purl, the old Western 
Bihaii or BaisVari of the Ramayan, and finally the corresponding forms in Hindi for the sake of 
comparison and ready reference. 

There are in all these dialects (especially in Maithill and Magahl) many optional forms, which for 
want of space are not here given. These can all be learned, so far as Western Bhoj'purl is 
concerned, from Dr. Hoemle's Qttu^ian Grammar, and for the other dialects from Mr. Qrierson^s 
Maithill Grammar published by the Asiatic Society of Bengal, and from the same author's Seven 
Grammars of the Bihar Dialects published by the Government of Bengal. 



• Strictly spealong, the process was this : the final ^ t of the fern, form became at first the imperfect sound of i, and lastly it was 
indistingiiishable from a silent ^ a, and thai the feminine of an adjectire became practically identical with its masculine form (see 

Chap. 2). It will thus be seen that though an adjectire ending in silent a, when it qualifies a feminine noun, is in outward appearance 
), yet originally it was, and in intention it still is, feminine. 



u « 



■< s 



I, 


all sis 


a 
2; 


1 1 






1 i 1 13 
lilt 


N 3 s 

nil 


i if . 

1 i 1 1 


I \l 


il i ! 
1 III 


i 1 » 
1 1 1 


ihiih 

t i 1 1 

ill! 


mn 

I I r 

II I 


s s i 1 
I'l 1 1 


p 1 1 

ill 


fill 


■H 1 
11 i 


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sill 


S 1 1 


= % 
1 ^ 
i .9 


1 



23 — 



^ 



^ 
$ 



■s 

s 



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|H Jo jr 

^ ^^ &^ 







* ■ . .il 



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— 31 — 





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— 81 — 

IO.-TREATMENT OF THE SO-CALLED ROOTS IN ^. 

There is a large number of roots* which it has been customary to treat as ending in %t a. By far 
the largest number of these roots belong to causal verbs ; e.ff.f wrr J^^ri ^ cause to do, ' irtt ^^^^ 
' make.' But a few of them are primitive roots ; such zs "^ pA ^ get/ n gi f sing^ ' wt khi 

* eat/ etc. 

These roots are divided into two classes by a very characteristic differencCi namely that, when 
inflectedi some roots insert ^ & ( in MaithilTy or w u' in the other dialects, see Chap. 4, J, 2 ), 
while others interpose w y, between the root and its inflectional termination. The reason of this 
difference is a simple one. The element w & of one class of roots is organic, representing 
an ancient ^ p^ which in the Sanskrit or Pali formed part of the root; on the other hand 
the element ^ y of the other class of roots is inorganic, being a modem — merely euphonic 
-^insertion. The influence of this difference on the inflection of the two classes of roots is 
very important, causing as it does nearly the whole of the inflections of one class to differ 
considerably from those of the other class. It becomes, therefore, very desirable to distinguish the 
two classes by some outward mark. Accordingly we have, in this Dictionary, adopted the 
following system : all roots which take the organic w A we shaU spell with a final w b^ while all 
roots which insert the euphonic w y will be spelt with final ^t a. To the former class belong 
all causal roots and the three primitive roots ^tw ah *come,'t vxn gab ^sing,' and ^rw pab 

* get/ To the latter class belong all other primitive roots, such as ^^ agha * be satiated, * w khd 
' eat, ' "^fw^^ ghabWa * be confused, ' etc. Thus the final w 6 of the >/ ^nw pab ^ get ' corresponds 
to the final radical '^ p oi the Sanskrit \/ in^ prap^ and the final w ft of the causal \/ wkp^ karab 
^ cause to do,' to the suffixal "^ p oi the Pali causal %/ wrof^ karapi. On the other hand the 
v/ w khi * eat ' is not spelt with w J ; for it corresponds to the Sanskrit \/ ^T^ khad^ Prakrit 
^/ WT jfcAs, where the final organic X rf is elided by a Prakrit phonetic law and, for the sake of 
euphony, replaced by the semivowel w y before certain inflexional terminations^ 

It may be here explained that the element w (which, it should be remembered, is a semiconsonant, its 
sound being intermediate between b and v, see Chap. 4, d ), has a tendency to be vocalised into 
^ ar^ u. Similarly the element w y has a tendency to be vocalised into v e ot\ t, or even to 
be elided altogether. It is this circumstance which mainly gives rise to the wide divergence 
between the inflections of the two classes of roots. It may also be added that owing to the 
action of false analogy there is a tendency in certain tenses (notably in the future indicative) to 
assimilate the inflection of the i-class of roots to that of the y-class. This is, however, not the 
place to enter into grammatical details, for a statement of which we must refer the reader to 
Mr. Grierson's Biharl Grammars, especially to Chapters VIII, X, and XI of Part II, Bhoj^purl 
dialect. 



* We have adopted the now not uncommon practice of indicatini; a language root by ih^ mathematical radical symbol ^, We use 
the term * root ' in the sense of the constant element in any series of sense-related words. Thus in the Bihar! words hdUi^ ' speech,' 
ftoUAaf, 'calling/ &d/-a&» 'speaking/ hol-ai, 'speaking/ hoUah 'spoken/ hdhm^ 'he speaks/ etc., the constant element 5oHs the 
root ; the remainder are inffixes, and rary according to the meaning which is to be expressed by the root. (See Dr. Hodmle's H. B., 
p. 33, Beprint, p. 1.) 

t The root ^W ab is peculiar, inasmuch as itf w ft is not Ofgatiic. It probably cotttcs from the Skr. -/ trr + V {«iee Dr. Hosmle's 
H. E, p. 41, Beprint, p. 9). It is eridently formed by Islse analogy with th* y trr^ pdb, the iniection of Which it generally follows, 
etcept in the pftst participle atd in the tenses deriyed therefrom, in which it has VT^ M, thus i^Terting to its original character 
of » y ^ »• The ease of the s/ vm gab is similar. It may correspond to a Skr* denominatiTie (or causal) ^ iTPr g&pu 
but it is more prdbably another instance of false analogy, y »rn| ya» being formed after */ HTW pabt the inflection of Which it f oUowa 
throughout. 




32 



The following examples will illustrate both the radical diflference of the two classes and the importance 
of its bearing on their inflection : — 



Boot Fobx. 


REanzAM IvvLBcnov. 


ISBS&ULAE. 


Modom* 


Andent. 


Srd Pen. Prai. Bins. 


Prat. Put. 


PMt. Part. 


IfltPteB. Pnt 


pdb 


Skr. irr^ 
prap 


pabathi 


pUbdkt 


pdol 


pdeb 


kardb • 


Pa. wmPr 

kdrdpi 


kardbatki 


karckbatt 


iardol 


kardeb 


WT 

kha 


Pr. ^ 

khd 


khathx 


khm 
(ior^m^nkhapat) 


khdel 


wrjr^ or wur 
khdeb or Udi 



ll.-THE TERMS TATSAMA AND TADBHAVA. 

Omitting words of entirely foreign origin which have been adopted into the Gau^ian languages, 
such as the English words ftw» fikat * ticket,' tw rel ^ railway,' or the Arabic ^ww juhm^ %.e. JJi, 
•oppression/ the Persian ^wv^ jaVdi^ i.e. kj^^^ * quickly,' the vocabularies of those languages 
are of Aryan origin.* All foreign words will, in this Dictionary, be indicated by the collective 
term Anyadeshaja. 

The Aryan portion of the vocabulary may be divided into two, on the whole, very clearly distin- 
guishable classes, which are now commonly known by the names of taUama and tadbhavay given to 
them by the native grammarians. Tadbhava words are those which have descended into the 
modem vernaculars from Prakrit sources, while tatsama words are those which have been borrowed 
direct from the Sanskrit to supply real or fancied deficiencies in the vocabulary. 

Tatsama means ^ haying the same form as in Sanskrit,' tadbhava means • being essentially, though 
not in form, the same as in Sanskrit.' These meanings of the two terms afford a rough and 
ready test for distinguishing the two classes of words. Thus KW ray * king,' «»TC bhii ' brother,' 
%ir khet ^ field,' X<^ dahin * right,' 'iTW an * command,' are tadbhavas ; while ^mr raja * king,' 
mxHJ bhrata * brother,* %iF^ khefr * field,' ^finr dakhin * right,' ^rwT agya or ^WT agya * command,' 
are tatsanuu^ the latter set being in Sanskrit tmr r^fa^ ^vrm bhrita^ i^ kshetram^ ^S^: dakshiifahj 
qjna. 



A similar division of words of Latin origin may be made in the English language ; for example, 
honour J ransom^ are tadbhavas derived from Latin through French, while howr^ redemption^ are tatsamas 
borrowed direct from the Latin.*)" 

It should not be thought that a tatsama must be absolutely the same as in Sanskrit. On the contrary, 
tatsamas exhibit the most various grades of divergence from their Sanskrit equivalents, and only 
a small number of them are really absolutely the same as in Sanskrit. To the latter class, ^.y., 

* We loaye aside the qnettaon whether any and what portion of the Aryan element is Aboriginal or Drayidian. 

t See Mr. Grierson's B. Gr., Part I, page 8. The existence of such a division of words is eyen more conspicuous in the £omanoe 
languages. For examples from the French* the student may consult M. Auguste Brachet's EuUnical Orammar of ike Freuek Shn^ue 
(Mr. Kitohin's Translation, p. 82), e.ff., * popular ' (tadbhava) words are— onyd, hldme, porehe, etc., while the corresponding * learned' 
(tatsama) words are— aji^e/ii#, blatphime, poriique^ ate. 



^ 83 - 

belong the above-mentioned TtUT raja and wm hhrata ; while *in^ khePfj k^A dakhin^ and ^t^t agya 
or ^iwrr a^a, as will be noticed, differ, in an increasing scale, from their Sanskrit prototypes* It will 
readily be understood that there may occur cases in which, owing to this circumstance, it may 
be doubtful in which class a particular word should properly be placed. Thus there is the 
word wir jag * sacrifice,' for the Sanskrit wn yajha. The real tadbhava form of the latter is 
jan (Prakrit ww jawia or nw janna)^ which, however, now only occurs in the compound word 
yan<?o (Sanskrit wihrfhr: yajnopavitah), * sacrificial thread.' But the word wn jag is so difEerent 
from its Sanskrit original, that it might be thought to be a tadbhava also ; yet there cannot be 
much doubt that it is more properly classed with the tatsamaSj because it is a (technical) term 
adopted direct into the Gaudian from the Sanskrit in early times. The fact is, the real test of 
classification is a historico-philological one. Tadbhavas are those words which have come to the 
Gaudian through the Prakrit, while tatsamas are those which have been adopted into it from the 
Sanskrit. And according as that adoption occurred at an earlier or later point in the history of 
the Gaudian, the Sanskrit words exhibit greater or smaller changes in their form.* It may be 
well, therefore, in order to elucidate still furtlier the meaning and object of th^ two terms tatsama 
and tadbhava, to add a brief historical sketch of the course of descent of the Gaudians or modern 
vernaculars of North India. 

The earliest glimpse of the Aryan vernacular we obtain in the older hymns of the Rig Veda, 
composed perhaps as early as 2000 B.C. Like every other language, this Vedic language 
changed, or developed, in the course of time ; and another glimpse of it, in a somewhat less 
antique form, we obtain in the hymns of the Atharva Veda, referable perhaps to about 1000 B.U.f 
As the Aryan immigration gradually extended over the north of India, their vernacular, in 
the course of its development, naturally differentiated into several more or less distinct branc];ies. 
From about 600 B.C. we receive, partly from extant literature, partly from inscriptions on 
rocks, pillars, etc., information of the existence of three different languages — one current in the 
north-western, another in the south-western, and the third in the eastern portion of the 
northern half of the Indian peninsula. Their areas may be roughly indicated by -two lines — one 
touching Khal'si, Bairat, Mathura, Nasik, the other joining Mathura, Allahabad, Ram'garh, 
Jauga^a ; the southern boundary of the whole Aryan area being a west-easterly line commencing 
near Goa4 This is shown on the accompanying Map I. 

At this time Buddhism had arisen and spread over the whole of the northern portion of India. 
Everywhere it adopted the vernaculars of India, in order to propagate its doctrines, in speech and 
in writing. Thus these vernaculars rose to the dignity of literary languages, with its attendant 
characteristics of grammatical fixedness and artificialness. Henceforth, therefore, these languages 
co-existed in a twofold form — the vernacular and the literary. Contemporaneously with, and 
perhaps in opposition to, the adoption of the vernaculars by the Buddhists for their heterodox 
compositions, the Brahmanical schools, in which the use and the study of the Vedas and their 
ancient language had been handed down, elaborated and established, § for the purpose of their 
own orthodox compositions, another literary language, drawn on the lines of the ancient Vedic 



• For thia reaion Mr. Beames (Cp. Gr., toL I, p. 13 ff) divides tadbhavas into * early and late tadbhavas, ' and Dr. HcBpnle (G^. Gr.. 
Introd., p. xxrriii ff) divides tattamas into 'tatsamas and semi-tatMmas/ the two terms 'late tadbhavas' and * stmUattamas ' 
being intended to distinguish those tat^mas which, having been early adopted into Gaudian, have more or less widely diverged from their 
Sanskrit prototypes. In this Dictionary we have thought it better to limit ourselves to the simpler ohwsification into tatsama* and 
tadbhavat only. 

t See Professor Whitney's Sanskrit Grammar, pp. xiii, ziy. 

X For the grounds of this determination, see tiie Introduction to Dr. Hoemle's editions of the Prdkrita Laksa^ and of the 
JB4ihhshdl% MantfMcript, 

§ The process culminated in the grammarian Panini, probably in the third or fourth century B.C. 



~ 34 — ^ 

laoguage^ and thus possessing a character at onee archaic and artificial. This language they 
designated the Sanskrit (#«ni samkritaj i.e.j elaborated, perfected),* in opposition to which the 
vernaculars were called by them Prakrit (^TWif prakrita^ t>., natural, unelaborated).t It will be 
understood from this that while the Prakrits existed, as already stated, both in a vernacular 
(or spoken) and a literary form, the Sanskrit was only a literary language, but never a spoken 
one in the sense of a vernacular. 



It has already been mentioned that at this period there existed three Prakrits — a north-western, a 
south-western, and an eastern. The first of these was called the Apabhramsha^ {i.e.^ corrupt) ; the 
second, the Prakrit simply ; and the third was named the Magadhi.} The literary form of the 
first may be seen in the Buddhist works written in the so-called ^ Oatha dialect ' (a sort of 
ApabhramAa Sanskrit, to speak from the Sanskrit point of view) ; that of the second is preserved 
in the Buddhist works written in the so-called * Pali ' ;§ of the third there is no literature extant, 
though some evidence of its literary form is afforded by certain ancient inscriptions ; and this 
last remark applies to the two other Prakrits also.|| 

Some centuries later, perhaps from the fifth century of our era, a new state of things is disclosed to us 
in Prakrit literature.^ The three great Prakrits are now seen to have differentiated into a still 



* Indian grammarians, when speaking of the Vedio language technically, do not call it Sanskrit, but Ckhandas ( V^^J. The former 
is their technical term for the scholastic language elaborated on the lines of the Vedic. The two terms Sanskrit and Prakrit, 
however, are of comparatiyely late origin, the date of which it would be desirable to determine accurately. Lassen (Ind. Ant., 
Vol. II, p. 1161) places it yaguely some time within the first three centuries A.D. .At the time of Pacini the Vedic language was 
called Chhandat, while the yemacular language of his time, which formed the groundwork of what we now call Sanskrit, was 
simply designated by the general term hKd^d (ifTTwr). The latter term, therefore, does not show, as some appear to think, that 
Sanskrit itself was a vwnaevlar language. It may be well perhaps, to preyent any misconception of the theory set forth in this 
Chapter, to state distinctly that we use the term Sanskrit ezolusiyely in its strict and accurate sense, as denoting the scholastic language, 
elaborated (to follow a conyenient tradition) by P&i^ni. We, therefore, neyer understand by that term, or include under it, either the 
Vedic language or the so-called GStha dialect, but only (what is sometimes called the ' classical') Sanskrit. The Vedic is not uncommonly 
said to be 'ancient' Sanskrit, and the Gatha dialect, a 'corrupt' Sanskrit. They may be so designated in a loose way, and by way of 
speaking from the point of view of Sanskrit proper (or 'classical ' Sanskrit). But for the purpose of the present Chapter it appeared 
desirable to ayoid an inaccurate and misleading terminology. To call the SQ-called Gatha dialect a corrupt Sanskrit is as little appropriate 
as it would be to call the Vedic language a corrupt Sanskrit. Both do not conform to f ft^ini's rules, and may be ' corrupt ' as judged by 
that standard ; but intrinsically neither of them is corrupt, as little as any other yemacular language is so. It should be added, howeyer, 
that the so-called Gatha dialect is, strictly speaking, that titerary form of the North- Western yemacular (the Apahhraihska Pr&krit 
of Chand) which the latter receiyed at the hands of Buddhist writers. A purer yemacular form of it is preseryed in the Indo-Scythic 
and other inscriptions of North- Western India and Afghanistan. It is not improbable that it was this same yemacular that was the 
bhdfd of (or spoken by) PSnini, and that, in his hands and with his brahmanic knowledge of the Vedic language (Chhandas), led to the 
creation of that far more thoroughly methodic and antique literary form of it which we now call the Sanskrit. In Panini's age there 
were three great yemaculars in India, — ^the north-western, the south-western, and the eastern. P&^ini himself is said to haye been a 
natiye of the extreme north-west of India. This would tend to show that the north-western yemacular was probably his bkdfd. On 
the other hand, other traditions connect the elaboration of his grammar with Bad'ri Nath, where Shiya is said to haye inspired 
him. This would point to that yemacular as his hkd^d, which was spoken in the oyerlapping portion of the eastern and south-western 
yemaculars (see Map I). It should be also remembered that probably Pauini is only the most prominent representatiye of what 
was really a line of grammarians that gradually accomplished the elaboration of Sanskrit, by eliminating from the yemacular all more 
decayed forms in fayour of less decayed- ones preseryed in the Vedic, by preferring, of two optional forms, that which happened 
to be fayoured by the Vedic, and by other such or similar processes. 

t Best expressed by the German ' naturwiichsig.' 

X Under these names they are treated of by the ancient natiye grammarian Gha^^ (V9) in his Prdkfita Zakfana. See Intro* 
duction to Dr. Hosmle's edition of that work in the Bihlioiheca Indica, 

§ Strictly the Pali represents only the Prakrit of the southern portion of the south-western area. 

II The Ashoka inscriptions, the Nasik inscriptions, etc. See Dr. Hoemle's Introduction to his edition of the BakhskaU Manuseripi, 

% At the commencement of the fifth century Pa Hian, the Chinese trayeller (3&9— 413 A.D.), tells us :—" Crossing the riyerwe 
arriye at the country of Ouchang (or Udydna). This is the most northem part of India. The language of middle India is eyeiywhere 
used. Middle India is that which is called the middle country (madhya desha). The clothes and food of the ordinary people are likewise 
just the same as in the middle country." (See Beales' Translation, ch. VIII, p. 26.) This seems to show that at that time the ancient 
distribution of the Prakrits was still prominent, though possibly the passage means no more than that Fa Hian was struck with 
the wide western extent of the language and manner of life of India proper. 



— 35 — 

larger group. Beginning at the farthest north-west, we have first the Apabhramsha, and next to 
it a Prakrit, called Shmrasent ; these two formiDg the new subdivisions of what was hitherto called 
the Afabhramha or the north-western Prakrit. Going still westwards, comes now a Prakrit 
called Maharasfrty corresponding to the major portion of the old south-western or standard Frairtt ; 
and in the east we find the Magadhi^ having preserved the ancient name of the old eastern or 
MagadJu Prakrit. But between the Mahara^iri and the Magadhi there appears a new Prakrit, called 
the Ardha-Magadht (i.e., half-Magadhi), which consists of the eastern and western portions 
respectively of the old south-western or standard Prakrit and the old eastern or Magadhi 
Prakrit.* This distribution of the mediaeval Prakrits is shown in the accompanying Map II. 

None of these five mediaeval Prakrits received any literary cultivation except the Maharastri.f The 
latter, indeed, as a literary language, soon came to acquire a character fuUy as inflexible .and 
artificial as Sanskrit, if not even more so. There were two varieties of it, however, which may be 
called respectively the Jain and the Brahmanic Maharastn.it: Of these, the former was rather less 
artificial, and more nearly approached the vernacular, or spoken, form of that Prakrit. The other 
four mediaeval Prakrits, so far as known, never rose above the state of a mere vernacular. § 

Again a few centuries later, about 1200 A.D., the process of disintegration is shown a step further 
advanced. The mediaeval Prakrits now already appear in the incipient stage of that division 
into the modern Prakrits or (as we briefly call them) Gaudians, which we see fully developed in 
the present day. In the accompanying Map III this modem distribution is shown. Thus the 
mediaeval ShaurasenI becomes divided into a Qurjarl and SAcmraseni proper^ the modern GujaratI 
and Mar'warl. To the south of the mediaeval Maharastri and Ardha-MagadhI, corresponding 
respectively to the modem Hindi and Bihari, conies into view the DaJcsinatya (i.e.., southern) or 
Vaidarbhij the modem Marathi.|| The mediaeval Magadhi divides into the GottflS^ (or Prachya) 
and Vtkati (or Oj?rl), which are the modern Bangali and Oriya. 

There is yet a fourth step — the modem division of the GaudUan languages into their dialects. For the 
present purpose, however, it will suflBce to refer only to the distribution of the dialects of the 
Bihari (or the mediaeval Ardha-Magadlu), which are the special subject of this Dictionary. In 
the accompanying Map IV this distribution is shown. Proceeding from west to east, the Bihari 
possesses four principal dialects, the Bais'wari, Bhoj'piiri, Magahi (or Magadhi), and Maithili, 
the last named of which, being the most highly developed, and possessing a literature dating 
' from the 14th century, may be considered as the standard.** 



* These are the Prakrit divisions named by the native Prakrit grammarians Hema Chandra and (though less fully) Varamohi. 
t The occasional employment, in a few mediasval Sanskrit dramas, of the other Prakrits does not afiEect this statement. 

X They differ mainly in two points: (1) the use of the euphonic y and w, and (2) the preservation of the dental «, in the Jain 
Mahar&rtri, while the Brahmanic variety carefully avoid? both. See Dr. Hoemle's edition of the Prakfita Lak^a^, Introd., pp. Ix ff ; 
also his Sketch of ike Mietory ofPrdkrit Philology in the Calcutta Beview of October 1880. 

§ This difference between the Maharartri and the other Prakrits is strikingly shown by the fact that in Sanskrit literature the term 
• Prakrita' is commonly used as a synonym of MdhdrdftH when the bitter is contrasted with Sanskrit. The literary cultivation of the 
Maharartri was most probably due to its happening to be the vernacular of the Jain community, who continued to use the vernacular for 
their Hterary compositions when everywhere else it had become customary to use the Sanskrit for this purpose. 

II The leading dialect of Marathi is stiU called Dakhini or Southern. The far extent of the ancient Maharartri, towards the south, 
is StiU shown by the existence of the Eonkatit dialect of the Marathi in the country round Goa. The Zonka^i has strong affinities with the 
Hindi, the direct representative of the ancient Maharastri. (See Bev. P. Maffei's and Mr. Da Cunha's Konka^ Grammars.) This, the 
proper Zonkwi, should not be confounded with the Mar&thi, spoken in the northern part of the coast-lme, which is also, though 

impropOTy,^^ Gai ^Prachya appear to be also sometimes used to denote what we now caU the BaisVaft the westernmost dialect 

•• Fot further informatioii on these dialects, their areas, etc, lee the Introduction to Mr. Giierson'e Bihari Grammars, Part I, 
pp. 14-17 ; also J. A. S. B., voL LU, pt. I, p. IW- 



— 36 — 

It will be seen at once from this historical sketch of the origin of the Gau^ans or modem 
vernaculars of North India that they are not descended from the Sanskrit in any true sense 
whatever* Their line of descent, starting from the Vedic, runs through the Prakrits, and, of 
course, not through the literary, but through the vernacular Prakrits. Hence it will be 
understood that the origin of the whole of their grammatical structure, and the main portion 
of their vocabulary, must be looked for in the successive stages of Prakrit development At 
the same time, it is easy to conceive that the Indian vernaculars must at all times have drawn 
some portion of their vocabulary from the literary Sanskrit, especially whenever they happened 
to be made use of for literary purposes ; for it would have been impossible to find in the 
vernaculars adequate means of expressing many thoughts and things of a higher order. These 
Sanskritic portions constitute now, as they did always, the tatsamas of the vernacular 
'vocabulary, while their tadbhavaSj which are much the most numerous, are made up by 
their Prakritic portions. 

There is, however, notwithstanding, a sense in which Sanskrit may be said to be the source of the 
modern vernaculars, to which their words may be ultimately traced up througji the Prakrits. For 
Sanskrit, though not older than ther oldest known Prakrit, and though not in the direct line of 
descent of the Gau^ans, yet, in the main, conserves a form of the Indian Aryan language which 
is older than the oldest Prakrit and the direct source of the latter, namely the Vedic; and 
for the present purpose Sanskrit thus aflfords a convenient means of carrying up the historical 
investigation of the origin of modern words to its legitimate conclusion. 

With regard to the maps which accompany the foregoing remarks, it is perhaps hardly necessary to 
add that they " pretend to be no more than rough exemplifications, by means of definite lines, 
of our present knowledge regarding a state of affairs essentially indefinite ; for languages are not 
separated by straight lines, but insensibly merge into each other."* 

It should also be noted that the distribution of the aboriginal, or the so-called Kolarian, languages 
in Central India has not been indicated in these maps. For the purpose now in hand it was 
scarcely necessary to do so. Their area is extensively encroached upon by settlers from the 
surrounding tracts occupied by the Gaudian languages, Bangall, Biharl, Marathi, and Uriya the. 
boundaries of which thus become, in a rough way, coterminous. 

I2.-DERIVATI0NS, AFFINITIES, Ac. 

We have attempted, as far as possible, to trace the derivation of every Bihari word to its Prakrit 
and Sanskrit sources. It must be understood, however, that in some cases the derivation 
suggested is merely a tentative one. In order to enable students to judge for themselves the 
accuracy or probability of our derivations, we shall quote, wherever possible, the work in which 
any given Pali or Prakrit form can be verified ; it being understood in the case of Pali that, 
unless otherwise specified, the word is taken from Childers' Dictionary. Any form which we 
are unable to support by a quotation, and which we simply give as a more or less probable 
conjecture, we shall indicate by an asterisk (♦). All forms, however— and they are the 
majority— which, though not at present quotable, have been made by us in strict accordance 
with the rules of derivation firom Sanskrit laid down by Pali and Prakrit grammarians, will be 
given without any special indication. Thus the Prakrit equivalents ^wrr^ amkatvaS,' vmnfkM 
ekkasariam, ^iwft ekaUd or P^tfr ekkalR, of the Bihari words ^^N^tk ^k'war ' embrace,' ^7^ aJ^mr or 
vv^ ek'sar ' alone,' and ^%w akel or vww ekal ' alone,' respectively, are all supported by 

quotations. On the other hand, the Prakrit equivalent of the Bihari ^^rrr akhara < pal»stra ' 

■ ■ ■ ■ - . ■ t — «- " . ,.- — -^ —^ 

• See Mr. Grierson's Bihari GraminarB, Introduction, page 6. 



— 87 — 

being simply cionjectural, is marked with an asterisk. And again the Pali and Prakrit equi- 
valents ^inliinJV akammikSy ^wf^n^ akammid^ of the Biharl iin^ akatni ^ useless/ are given without 
auy special mark or note, because they are perfectly regular and undoubtedly correct forms, 
though at present we are not able to verify them by actual qiiotations. Of some words we 
faaye found ourselves quite unable to o£fer even a tentative derivation, and we shall in such 
cases simply write ^ Der. ? ' (i.e., derivation unknown). 

With regard to the equivalent forms of Biharl words, which we adduce from the other Gaudian 
languages, it should be understood that, unless otherwise mentioned, they are quoted from the 
dictionaries of those languages ; and in all these cases, therefore, it was not thought necessary 
to add any special reference to the respective dictionary. We have always had recourse 
to the best dictionaries available, a list of which will be found in the table of abbreviations. 
In those few cases, however, where the cognate Gaudian word was not taken from a dictionary 
but from some other work, a reference to the latter, to allow of verification, is always added. 

If a word which is inserted in any of the Hindi dictionaries is not found in our Dictionary, it must 
be understood that the word in question, so far as we have been able to ascertain from literature 
or personal intercourse, does not exist in Bihar!. With this view, every word occurring in any 
of the existing Hindi dictionaries has been carefully scrutinised by us. 

We may add that we shall always be glad to receive communications on these and other points, which 
will be duly acknowledged. Such communications will receive our fullest consideration, and, 
if adopted, will be inserted in their proper places, or, if necessary, in a supplement which will 
be published at the conclusion of the work. 

13.— STHOCTURE OF THE ARTICLES. 

First a word, spelt both in Nagari and Roman, is given, with its cognate forms (if any ) in the various 
Bihari dialects. If the word is an adjective, its feminine ( printed /.) form (if different from the 
masculine ), or, if it is a verb, its principal parts * ( printed pr. pU. ) are also noted ; and 
it is further distinguished as tadbhava or tatsama or anyadeihaja ( printed Tbh., Ts., Any. ) : thus 
^rtrtr akel^ (/. ^*w akel or Mth. ^%fti akell ), Tbh. 

This is followed by an enumeration of the different meanings of the word, which are distinguished 
from one another by means of raised numbers and semicolons, while synonyms are merely 
separated by commas : thus under ^iniw akas we have ^sky ; *air ; 'ether ; *cypher ; 'nose. 

Immediately after the meanings are ^ven any compounds (printed Comp.) or peculiar phrases (printed 
Phr.) in which the word may occur. 

The compounds or phrases are next followed by examples ( printed Exam. ) to illustrate the various 
meanings, the object of the compilers being as far as possible to cite one, or several, examples in 
support of each meaning given (especially of tadbhavas) ;t and to facilitate reference, raised numbers 
have been added to the examples, corresponding to the raised numbers of the meanings which 
they are intended to illustrate. Thus under ^nm akSs several examples are cited in illustration 
of the five meanings of the word. In every case an example has been accompanied by a 
translation. Whenever possible, an example has been quoted by us from the Bihari literature 
known to us (see Chap. 14), and in every such case an exact reference has been given to the 
place where the passage may be found and the meaning, in support of which the example is 

• The • principal parti ' of a verb are— present participle, past participle, verbal noun in b, and obliqne verbal noun in at. 

t In the case of examples quoted bj Fallon in his Hindustani Dictionary, as beingf ostensibly in some dialect of Bihar, we have, in 
reproducing them in our Dictionary, sometimes been obliged to alter their spelling or grammar, in order to render them in their real 
Bihari shape. Such cases we specify by adding ' after Fallon.' 



— 38 -^ 

cited, verified. In a few ewes, however, (e.ff.,^n^ aJ^ra * costly^) in which the word also 
occtirs in Hindi with the same meaning, we have quoted examples from Hindi literature. 
When literature failed to supply us with an example, we have given one (distinguished by CoU., 
i.e.j colloquial) from our personal intercourse with the people. This was thought by us better 
than omitting all illustration by example, because examples serve not only to throw further light 
on a given meaning, but also to show the idiomatic way of applying it. In cases in which a 
meaning given by us is not borne out by either existing literature or our personal experience, 
we always quote the source from which it is obtained. 

Sometimes a word is used in two different ^ parts of speech :' thus ^^^ akat occurs both as an adjective 
(adj.) and as an adverb (printed adv.). In such cases the various parts of speech are treated 
separately and consecutively ; each part of speech, with its meanings, examples, and phrases, 
forming a distinct set, and being distinguished in separate paragraphs and by large Roman 
numbers. Thus in the article ^f^f^ akat we have it, first, as an adjective (L adj\)j with its 
meaning, example, and phrases ; then we have it, secondly, as an adverb (H. advn)j with its 
meaning and corresponding example. 

If there is anything peculiar to be remarked regarding a word, it is now given, enclosed within round 
brackets and forming a separate paragraph : thus under ^m ^ akas there is a long note after the 
examples. 

This concludes the first portion of an article, which treats of the word as used in Bihari. The second 
portion, which immediately follows, forming a fresh paragraph, always contains the comparative 
matter of the Dictionary, and not only gives all the cognate forms of the word that occur in the 
various Gau^an languages, but also traces its derivation from its antecedent forms in Prakrit, 
Pali, and Sanskrit. This second, or comparative, portion is distinguished from the first by 
being enclosed in angular brackets. 

It should further be noted as a general rule that with the exception of the meanings and translations, 
which are printed in Roman, the whole of the (English) matter of an article is printed in Italics. 
This shows at a glance what is translation and what is commentary. 

I4.-BIHART LITERATURE, 

The following is a list of all the Bihari literature with which we are acquainted. A large portion of 
it does not yet exist in print, but is only to be met with in manuscript. The two portions are 
indicated in the subjoined list by the addition of PR. and MS. respectively. As some of the 
printed works have been issued firom various presses, we have always added in brackets the needful 
notices to identify the particular edition which has been consulted by us in the preparation of 
this Dictionary. Similar notices, where necessary, have been added to the manuscripts, nearly 
all of which are in our own possession. 

Though the list contains all the existing literature known to us at present, it must not be supposed 
that we have been able to read the whole, or even that we have seen every portion of it. 
Most portions, especially of the larger and more important kind, like the Ramayan and 
Bidyapati's poems, we have worked through carefully ; others we have only been able to go 
over cursorily; others, again, especially of the smaller compositions, we have had no 
opportunity of seeing. The three classes will be indicated in the following list by Read^ Seen^ 
and ZTnAmoim respectively. 

As far as possible within the limited time at our command, we have carefully indexed all those works 
which we have read or seen. This was done, in the first place, for our own convenience in 
preparing the Dictionary, but also with a hope that the indexes when printed may prove 
acceptable to other students of Bihar! literature. They will be found very useful for the purpose 



— 89 — 

of Terifying the numerous statements and quotations in our Dictionary, as well as, generally, 
for any comparative study in the field of North-Indian literature and languages. The word 
^ Index ' has been added to every work to which one has been made ; and when it exists in 
print, the needful reference is given. 

In MaithiU. 

* 

(1) Bidyapati Thakur's Poems, in old Maithill. Text and English translation by G. A. Grierson. 

PR. (J. A. S. B., Extra Number for 1880, Part II, Maithil Chrestomathy.) B^d. 
Index (issued in parts with the Biharl Dictionary). 

(2) Two plays in old Maithill, said to be by the same author, viz. Farijat Haran and RukminI 

Swayambar* They are said still to exist in MS., though we have not succeeded in 
tracing them. Unknown. 

(3) Kabi LaPs Gatiri Parinay, a small play in Sanskrit, Prakrit, and old Maithill. MS. Se&n. 

Index {in MS). 

(4) Man'bodh's Haribans, in old Maithill verse. Text and English translation by G. A. Grierson. 

FB. (J. A. S. B., vol. LI, Part I, for 1882, and vol. LIII, Part I, for 1884.) Bead. 
Index. (J. A. 8. B., vol. LIII, Part I, Special Number for 1884.) 

(6) Song of Bang Salhes, in modem Maithill prose. Text and English translation by G. A. 
Grierson. PB. (J. A. S. B., Extra Number for 1880, Part II, Maithil Chrestomathy.) 
Bead. Index (in MS.) 

(6) Song of the Famine, by Phaturi Lai (a living poet), in modem Maithill verse. Text and 

English translation by G» A. Grierson. PR. (J. A. S. B., Extra Number for 1880, 
Part II, Maithil Chrestomathy.) Bead. Index (in MS.) 

(7) Ukhaharan, a play in modern Maithill, by Harkh Nath (a living poet). JUS. (not in our 

possession . ) Unknown. 

(8) Some poems by the same, in modern Maithill verse. Text and English translation by G. A. 

Grierson. PB. (J. A. S. B., Extra Number for 1880, Part II, Maithil Chrestomathy.) 
Read. Index (in MS.) 

(9) PrabhabatS Haran, a Sanskrit and Prakrit drama interspersed with eighteen Maithill songs, 

by Bhanu Nath Jha (a living poet). Date : beginning of the present century. MS. 
(A copy, corrected by the author himself, in Mr. G. A. Grierson's possession.) Bead. 
Index (in -a/iS^.) 

(10) Bata-hban, a metrical incantation for wind, one verse being devoted to each letter of the 

alphabet ; by the same. (See article W^ mUe in the vocabulary to Maithil Chrestomathy, 
Part II of Extra Number for 1880, J. A. S. B.) MS. Bead. Index ( in MS.) 

(11) Git Nebarak, a song in modern Maithill. Author and date unknown. MS. Seen. Index 

• (in MS.) 

(12) Git Dina Bhadrik, a song in the modern Maithill of the Nepal Tarai, MS. Bead. Index 

(in MS.) 

(13) Git Dina Bhadrl Kawand, a song in the modem Maithill of the Nepal Tarai. MS. Bead. 

Index (inMS.) 

(14) Numerous songs by the following poets : — 

a. Umapati. e. MahTpati. t. Jayadeb. n. Chakrapani. 

h. Nandlpati. /. Jayanand. k. Keshab. o. Lakshmlpati. 

c. Mod Narayan. g. Chaturbhuj. /• Shekhar. p. Chandra Kabi. 

d. Ramapati. h. Saras Ram. m. Bhanjan. 



40 



All in MS. Mostly unknown ; but specunens of lihe songs of most of these poets, with English 
translations^ by 0. A. Grierson, hare been published in J. A. S. B., vol. LI II, Part I, Special 
Number for 1884. Index ( in M8.) Lakshmlpati died about ten years ago ; he was a very 
prolific writer, but wrote mostly in the Bais'warl dialect. Chandra Elabi is a living poet, 
and has supplied us with many examples. Regarding the other poets no information was 
obtainable. 

(15) Miscellaneous writings in modern Maithili; e.g, — 



1) 



2) 



3) 



4) 



6) 



6) 



7) 



8) 



9) 



{0) 



Chaukidarl Niyamaball, by G. A. Grierson and Sri Narayan Siggh. PR. Read. 

Translation of portions of the Bible and some Tracts, by Baptist Missionaries. 
PR. Seen. Index. (English concordance may be used for the purpose.) 

Fables and Dialogues, by Sri Narayan Singh, in modern Northern MaithiU. Text 
and English translation by G. A. Grierson. PR. (J. A. S. B., Extra Number 
for 1880, Part I, Maithil Grammar, Appendix II; and Bihari Grammars, 
Part I, Introduction, Appendix). Read. Index ( in MS.) 



In Bhofpuru 



Song of Alha, in a mixture of Bhoj'puri and Magahi. MS. The relation of this version 
to another in Hindi, usually, though probably erroneously, ascribed to Chand Bar'dai, is 
still uncertain. PR. (ed. G. A. Grierson in Ind. Ant. for 1885). Bead. Index (in MS.) 

Git Bijai Mai, a song in old Bhoj'puri. PB. ( J. A. S. B., vol. LIII, Part I, Special Number 
for 1884). Bead. Index ( in -M^. ) 

Git Raja Gopi Chand, a ballad in old Bhoj'puri (apparently a fragment ). PR. (ed. 
G. A. Grierson in J. A. S. B., vol. LIV, Part I, for 1885). Bead. Index (in MS. ) 

Folklore from Eastern Gorakh'pur, in modern Bhoj'puri verse. Text and English trans- 
lation by Hugh Eraser. PR. (J. A. 8. B., vol. LII, Part I, for 1883.) Read. Index 
( in MS.) 

Folksongs, in modem Bhoj'puri. Text and English translation by G. A. Grierson. PB. 
(J. R. A. S., vol. XVI (N.S.), Part II, 1884.) Bead. Index ( in MS.) 

Bhoj'puri Songs, from the Shahabad district. Text and English translation by G. A. 
Grierson. PB. (Bihari Grammars, Part II, Bhoj'puri, Appendix 11.) Bead. Index 
(mMS.) 

Agricultural Songs, in Western Bhoj'puri. PR. (In detached portions; in Carnegy's 
Kachahri Technicsliiies s.v. NAKHAT^ and in Fallon's Hindustani Dictionary; also 
all in Grierson's Bihar Peasant Life.) Bead. Index ( in MS,) 

Fables and Dialogues, in the Saran Bhoj'puri, by Bisesar Parshad. •Text ftnd English 
translation by G. A. Grierson. PB. (Bihari Grammars, Part II, Bhoj'puri, Appendix I.) 
Bead. Index ( in JUS.) 

A number of miscellaneous songs. MS. ( to be ed. by A. F. Rudolf Hoemie in J. A. S. B.) 
Bead. Index (in MS.) 

10) Sudhabund, a collection of sixty Kajalis by Maharajadhiraj Kumar Lai Kharg Bahadur Mall. 

PB. (1884, by S. P. Sinha, Khadgbilas Press, Bankipore). Seen. Index (in MS.) 

11) Devak?ara Charitra, a serio-comic drama in the vernacular, by Pandit Ravidatta Shukla. 

PB. (Benares, Light Press, 1884). Bead. Index (in MS). The third and fourth scenes 
are in the Bhoj'puri dialect. 



— 41 — 

In MagaJu. 

(1) A few Bongs, in MS. Bead. 

(2) A large collection of songs, in impure Magahi, i.e.^ in the dialect of the borderland between 

Magahi and Bhoj^purl. MS. (Procured from a man who had been one of Fallon's 
assistants.) Read. Index (in MS.) 

(3) Fables and Dialogues, in the dialects of Gaya and South Patna. Text and English trans- 

lation by Gr. A. Grrierson. PR. (Bihar! Grammars, Part III, MagadhI, Appendix I. ) 
Read. Index (in MS.) 

(4) Git Raja GopI Chand, a ballad in Magahi. PR. (ed. G. A. Grierson in J. A. S. B., vol. 

LIV, Part I, for 1885). Read. Index (in MS.) 

In Bats' wart. 

(1) Bamayan (also called the Chanpaa Ramayan), in old BaisVari, by TuPsI Das, PS. 

(Medical Hall Press, Benares, 1869; ed. Ram Jasan). Read. Index (issued in parts 
with the Biharl Dictionary). 

(2) Various smaller works by the same author, the most important of which are the following :— 

(a) Kabit Ramayan or Kabittabali. P2J. (Benares, Light Press, 1879 (S. 1936); 

ed. GopI Nath Pa^hak. Reacl. Index (in il/iS.) 

(b) Sat Sai. PR. (Benares, Light Press ; complete without commentary ; ed. GopI Nath 

Pathak; also selected portions with cQimnentary, ed. the same). Seen. Index 
{in MS.) 

(c) Gitabali. PB; (Benares, Light Press, 1869.) Read. Index (in MS.) 

(d) Janaki Maijgal, Parbati Mangal, Bairagya Sandlpini, Ram Lalakar Nah'chhu, 

Bar'we Ramayan. PR. (All in one volume, ed. by Prayag Datt' Singh, at the Braj 
Chandra Press, Benares.) Read. Index (in MS.) 

(e) Ram Salaka. MS. Unknaum. 

(/) Sri Ram Agya, also called Ram Sagunabali ; PH. (ed. Prayag DatV Singh at the 

Braj Chandra Press). Seen. Index (in MS.) 
(ff) Dohabali. Pi?, (1882, Lucknow, , Nawal Eishor Press ). Seen. Index (in MS.) 
( A ) Chhandabali or Chhand Ramayan. Unknown^ 
(i) Eun^aliya Ramayan. Unknown 
{k) Sagkat Mochan. PR. (1879 or S. 1936 at Lucknow, by Munshi BenI Prasad). Seen. 

Index (in MS.) 
(2)Hanuman Bahuk. PH. (in the same volume with the Kabit Ramayan). Seen. 

Index (in MS.) 
(m) Krishnabali. PR. (1882 or S. 1939, by Braj Chandra, at the Braj Chandra Press, 

Benares). In Braj, not Bais'waiT. Seen» Index (in MS.) 
( n ) Ear'ka Chhand. Unknown. 
( ) Rola Chhand. Unknown. 
(/>) JhuFna Chhand. Unknown, 
{q) Binay Patrika. PR. (ed., with a commentary, by Babu Shiv Prakash of Dum'raS, 

at Lucknow, Nawal Eishor Press, 1878.) Seen. Index (in MS.) 
( r ) Chhappaa Ramayan. PR. (ed. Kashi Nath Siggh, Dinapore, Central Press, 1884). 

Seen. Index (in MS). 
Jf.B. — Extracts from most of the above-named smaller works are contained in Professor 

Bihari Lai Chaube's Anthology, called the Bihari Tul'si Bhushan Bodh ; also in 

Shiv SiggVs Anthology, called Shiva Simha Saroja (2nd ed., Lucknow, Nawal 

Kishor Press, 1881), 



— 42 — 

(3) Sundarl Tilak. PR. (Benares, light Press.) Seen. 

(4) Lai Jha's Battle of Kanarpi Ghat, by a Maithil Brahman at the end of the last century. 

PB. (J. A. 8. B., vol. LIV, Part I, for 1885.) Bead. Index (in MS.) 

(5) Padmawat, by Malik Mohammad Jay's!. PB. (Chandra Prabha Press, Benares, 1884; ed. 

Ram Jasan), Bead. Index (in MS.) 



I6.-RE8UME OF INSTRUCTIONS FOR FINDING WORDS IN THIS DICTIONARY. 

In order to reduce the labour of finding words in this Dictionary to a minimum, the following reaumi 
of the instructions as to the principles to be followed is appended. The want of such instructions 
in other dictionaries has been much felt. 

(1) Neither anunasika nor the imperfect vowel is allowed to influence the alphabetical order. 

(See Chap. 5, p. 12.) 

(2) If a word containing an anuawara has to be looked up in the Dictionary, note that — 

(a) If the nasal occurs in a syllable containing a long vowel, it must be considered as 

anunaaika. Example : for ^9^ amkur, look up ^Tyr Skur. 

(b) If it occurs in a syllable with a short vowel, and is followed by a mute consonant, it 

must be considered as the nasal of the class to which the following consonant 
belongs. Example : for ^«ik amkur look up ^Jr aykur. For isolated exceptions, 
see Chapter 3, page 7. 

(c) When (occurring in a syllable with a short vowel) anusivdra comes before w y, the 

two together must be considered as « nj\ Example : for ^i^^ eamyamy look up 
wHK Bahjam. 

(rf) When (occurring in a syllable with a short vowel) it comes before ^r, the two together 
must be considered as ^ mh. Example : for ^^w samvatj look up n^n sambat. 

[e) When (occurring in a syllable with a short vowel) it comes before ^ ^, it must be 
considered as w n. Example : for ^ hamSj look up T^ hane. 

(/) When (occurring in a syllable with a short vowel) it comes before ▼ A, the two 
together must be considered as j[ jjgh. Example : for ^i% simffh^ look up f^ siyffh. 
( See Chap. 4, pp. 7, 8.) 

(3) Words containing the following letters must be looked up under the spelling shown in the 

following table as the adopted one. (See Chap. 4, pp. 7 — 9.) 



Rejected. 



Adopted. 



W / I When non- 
« ^ j initial. 

n y When organic 
and initial of a 
simple or oom- 
pound word. 

n V When organic. 




Bxamples. 



look up 



If 



For mfi rifUy 

II y/'^P^Ti If 

UpJV yd/rf, 



II 
II 



II 



„ fkW^ nivriU\ 



99 



99 



ftjT ritu. 
VS^ phar, 

v^qr par. 

XnrraT rdmayan. 

♦^ bed. 
ftlfini* nibriif. 



43 



Rejected. 


Adopted. 






Biunplee. 




W 9h 


V « 




For 


HTW sharany 


lookup 


19XW saran. 


w? 


m kh 




» 


W[^ bhasdf 


99 


HT«T bhdkhd. 


r 


W cAA or 




f« 


^mr k^ama^ 


99 


WilT chhamd. 


n k$ 


« ih or (when medial and 
preceded bj a short 
vowel) 


99 


XTW^ rdi^Bf 


99 


XXm^ rdkhas. 


» 


^ cAcAA or 




99 


xm rak0f 


99 


X^U raehchhd. 


k 


^mkiA 




99 


^fff% dak^inf 


99 


Xf^nrw dakkhin. 


Kjn or 
a ffe 


j'^W 




99 
99 


mf jndn or ' 
ifyamgedn, ^ 


M 


mrm gydn. 


H jW 


^%jpar^ 




99 


H^ prabhu. 


99 


v[Ks^ par*bhu. 


^yy 


^J!f 




99 


^m sayydf 


M 


^^W sqfvd. 


^fy 


^ rj or K^m f^j 




99 


^^rru dcharyay 


91 


r '^nnr ccAij:^* or 
\ ^n^irtm dchdr'i 
C '^purb or 
1 1^^ /^flr'i. 


▼ ri> 


'i rb or T»W r*6 




99 


J^pUrOy 


99 


^rf 


^rAA 


• 


99 


^TfV^ 5iflr§a9, 


19 


^r*4i| dkarkhan. 


'^?9 


V «Afi or iciv <A'n 


{ 


99 

99 




fifWlTK krkhnSuidr. 


^«P 


V V 




99 


U^pusp, 


99 


5V />Map. 




W yAy' with shortening of 
preceding long vowel. 


99 


iRT^ grdhya^ 


99 


'rfw^ gr}iihy\ 


^it at 


^ at or WSf ae 




99 


^VWnifo agha'iJdt 


99 


^VWi9o agfURld or 


A 












^tnnjro aghaeld. 


^V flU 


^(SUOT W^ 00 




99 


-v^opaiild 


99 


i^4ro |7(»&/4 or 
S^Mo pad Id. 




|^TW5y 


{ 


99 
99 


SMI l^ardf, J 


99 


^rnr par^y. 


^cnft" <i^' or 





{ 


99 
99 


^^fT^ charhdo or 
^TTTV charhdu, 


]•• 


i^fT^ charhdifl. 


v^ia 


TWT tyd 




99 


wftV fef fil, 


99 


^(f«m 6^«y5. 


^nj uicd 


^r^ ud 




99 


WVWT bahuwdf 


99 


WV^T 6aAtid. 



(4) Long and redundant forms of nouns are not usually given. Their short forms can be found 
on consulting the tables in Chapter 7* As a rule, only these short forms will be found in 
the Dictionary. In looking them up, it must be remembered that short forms containing 
long vowels shorten these vowels in certain cases in long and redundant forms. 
(See Chap. 6, pp. 13, 14.) Hence, if a long or redundant from contains a short 
antepenultimate vowel, its short form may possibly contain a long one. 

(6) Many verbs the roots of which contain long Vowels shorten these vowels when they fall in the 
antepenultimate. (See Chap. 6, pp. 13, 14.) Hence verbal forms containing short radical 
vowels may have to be looked up under the head of a root containing a long vowel, 

(6) Attention is called to the treatment of verbal roots in ^ a, as explained in Chapter 10. 

(7) Verbs are given under their root forms, the radical sign ^ being prefixed in each case, and 

not in the form of the infinitive, as is usual in Hind! dictionaries. 



L 



— 44 — 
16.-LI8T OF ABBREVIATIONS EMPLOYED IN THE DICTIONARY, 



I. — Names of Languages and Titles of Works. 



A. 

A.Dy. 

A. G. 

Ag. 



Any. 

Ap. Pr. 
Ar. 

Ar. Pr. 
Ardh. Mg. Pr. 
Aih. 



ABsamese. 



I 



Ath. 

As. Res. 
Aup. 



Av. 



Az. Gy. 



B. 
B. Or. 



B. Mdm. 



Dictionary in Aesamese and English. 
By M. Bronson. (Sibsagor, 1867.) 

Trumpp's Translation of the Adi Granth. 

Rfim Agys, by Tul'si Das, (ed. Pr^-yfig 
Datt' Bi^gh, Braj Chandra Press). 

Anyadeshaja, i.e.^ foreign (Arabic, Per- 
sian, English, etc.). 

Apabhrainsha Prakrit. 

. Arabic. 

Arsa Prakrit. 

Ardha MagadhI Prakrit. 

Index Verborum to the published Text of 
the Atharva Veda. By W. D. Whitney. 
In the Jonmal of the American 
Oriental Society (Vol XTT.) 

The Alhs Eand, a Bhoj'pSn ballad 
(in Ind. Ant. for 1885). 

The Asiatic Researches. 

Das Aupapstika Sutra (ed. E. Lenmann, 
in Collection of Q. 0. 8., vol. VIII, 
No. 2).. 

Avery's Contributions to the History of 
Verb Inflection in Sanskrit (in 
Journal of the American Oriental 
Society, vol. X). 

Glossaries in Azam'garh Settlement 
Beport, Appendix HE. 



£ai8. 



Bihan. 

Grierson's Seven Grammars of the 
Dialects and Subdialects of the Bihar! 
Language. (Calcutta, Bengal Secre- 
tariat Press, 1883.) 

The Bar'we Ramayan of Tul'si Das (ed. 
Prayag Datt' Si^gh: Braj Chandra 
Press, Benares.) 

Bais'wfin folksongs collected by Bsbu 
J. N. Eae (in J. A. S. B., vol. LIII). 



Bg. 
Bg.Dy. 

Bg. Gr. 

Bh. 
Bh.M&. 

Bhag. 

Bid. 

Bin. 



Bih. 



Bif. 



Br. 
Bw. 



Chan. 
Chh. Rdtn. 

pp. Gr. 

Or. 



Bangali. 

Dictionary of the Bangal! and Sanskrit. 
By Sir G.C. Haughton. (London 1833.) 

Shama Chum Sircar's Bangali Grammar. 
(Calcutta, 1861.) 

Bhoj'puri. 

The Bhakti Mala, (printed by Gan'pat 
Erishnaji in Bombay). 

Bhagavati (ed. Weber). 

Bidyapati. 

Binay Patrikss, by Tul'si Das ; (ed. with 
comm. by Shiv Prashsid, Lucknow, 
Nawal Kishor Press, 1878.) 

Bihiirl Songs (ed. G. A. Grierson, in 
J. E. A. S., vol. XVI, 1884.) 

Git Bija Mai, a Bhoj'puri Song, (ed. 
G. A. Grierson, in J. A. S. B., vol. 
LIII, Part I, Special Number for 
1884). 

Braj. * 

Bais'wSr! (and Bundel'khandi) . 



Chandra Eabi's poems, in MS. 

The Chhappa Bsmfiyan of Tul'si Das ; 
(ed. Eftshi Nsth Siggh, Dinapore, 1884.) 

Beames' Comparative Grammar of the 
Modem Aryan Languages of India. 

Materials for a Bural and Agricultural 
Glossary of the N.-W. P. and Oudh. 
By William Crooke, B.C.8. {N.B.^ 
on p. 4 in the vernacular index the 
word ' glossary ' means the work itself. 
The page numbers after 39, however, 
are all incorrect ; they shoidd be read 
as follows :— 



Pp. 40 or 41 


for pp. 


, 41 


„ 42, 43 


»i 


41, 42 


„ 45—89 


99 


43—87 


„ 91—111 


>J 


88-108 


„ 1)3—116 


99 


109—111 


„ 117— to end 


99 


1 12 to end.) 



45 



Doc. 

Del. 
Lev. 



Dm. 
Din. K. 

Dk. Pr. 

Ddh. 



E. 



Ell. 



Fam. 



G. 

O. Dy. 
G. Gr. 

O. Gr. C. 

Oa. 

Gd. Gr. 

Garh. 
Gd. 
Gd. Gt. 



Konkani Language and Literature. Bj 
J> G^rson Da Gunha. (Bombay, 1881.) 

Delius' Radices PracriticsB. 

DeyakBoxa Charitra, a drama by Pandit 
Bayi Datta Shukla, (light Press, Ben- 
ares). 

» ft 

Git Dioa Bhadnk, a Maithill song of 
the Nepal Tarsi (in MS.) 

Oit Dma Bhadri Eawand, a Maithill' song 
of the Nepal Tarfti (in MS.) 

Daksii^atya Prakrit. 

Dohabali,by Tul'sl Das, (Luoknow Nawal 
Kishor Press, 1882). 



GH. 



English : or, in oonjunotion with language 
initials = Eastern.: e.g.^ E. Gd. = 
Eastern Gau^ian. 

Sir g. Elliot's Races; of the N. W. 
Prbvinoes (ed. .J* Beames, London, 
1869.) . ■ . 



Famine Song (ed. Grierson, in J. A. S: B., 
Extra Number for 1882.) 



Gujarat!. 

Shabpmji Edalji's Gujarat! Diotionary>< 

Shahpurji Edalji's Gujarat! Grammar 
(Bombay, 1867.) 

Grammar of the Gujarat! Language. By 
William Olarkson. (Bombay, 1847.) 

Gatha. 

Der Dialect der Gathas des Lalita Yistara. 
By Eduard Miiller. 

Garhwali. 

Gaudian. 

Hoemle's Comparative Grammar of the 
Gaudian Languages. (London, 1880.) 

Gipsy. 



s • • 



GOfi. 



Gor. 



Gr$. 



H. 



H. Dy. 
n. Gr. 

E.R. 



Sam. 



Han, 



The Gitfftall ot Tul'*i Das (Ben^i^«, 
Light Press, 186*9). (N.B.— The Git. 
is. quoted by the numbers of the verses 
and stanzas of each Eand ; thus,' Git., 
Ba. 6,-2, means the second verse of the 

sixth stanza of the B&la Kand. The 

. . . » • .* • 

pages on which the several E&nds begin 

are the following : Ba. on p. 1, A. on 

p. 170, Ki. on p. 181^ 8u. on p. 182, 

Ln. oni p. 218, Ut. on p. 234. It should 

be noted that the numberiiig of the 

mUl or' text is wrong, being carried from 

' the Arai^ya Ka^d, straight through the 

: Ki., .'Suv, Ln., and'Ut. Ka^ds, to the 

end. The numbering of the Tika or 

• - commentary, . however, is correct, and 

has been followed in all quotations in 

this' .Dictionary. Accordingly to find 

. a reference to the Mul of the Sundar, 

.Lanktia and ■ IJttar Eihands, the num- 

bers 19, 269 (or in the- earlier verses 

70) and 292 respectively must be added 

to those given in this Dictionary.) 

Git Eaja Q5pl Ohand,- a baUad- in Bhoj'- 
pun* and Magahi.(in J.A.S. B., vol. 

LI Vi 1885). 

Folklore from Eastern Gorakh^pur. By 
Hugh Eraser,' C.S., in J. A. S. B., voL 
LIL - _ 

Gxierson's BUiar P^usant Life. (Calqutta, 
Bengal Secretariat Press, 1885.) 



Hindi ; or, in . conjunction with other 
language initials = High: e.g.y H.H. = 
High Hind!; H. Bg. = High Bangali. 

Bate^s Hind! Dictionary. 

EeUogg's Hind! Grammar* 

Hoemle's Collection of Hind! Boots (in • 
J. A. S. B., vol. XLIX). (Those who 
have the separate reprint, in order to 
find a reference, must deduct 32 from 
the figures given in this Dictionazy.) 

Popular Songs of the Hamlr'pur district, 
in Bunda'khand, N.-W.P. (ed. V. A. 
Smith, in J. A. S. B., vols. XLIY and 
XLV.) 

Hanuman Bahuk, by Tul'sl Das (ed. Gopi 
Nath Patbak, Benares, light Press, 
1879). 




4.6 



HdB. 



Eh. 



Ed. 

Ed. Dy. 
Ed, Prov. 



Mem^ 



Eem. Dy, 



En. 



Ind. Ant. 



J. 

•7. A, 8. B, 

J. 0. 0. 8. 

J. E. A. 8. 

Jan. 



Jt. 



jr. 

JST. Rdfn. 



Hasya Eafioh Ratna, an Anthology in 
various languages, by Mahfir&j ji 
Erisna Lslfi, (Benares Anjuman Frees, 
Benares). 

Mau'bodh's Haribans (ed. Grierson, in 
J. A. S. B., Vol. LI, transl. in vol. 
UII). 

HindustaDi. 

Fallon's Hindustani Dictionary. 

A diddonazy of Hindustani Proverbs, by 
the late S. W. Fallon ; (ed. Oapt. E. 0. 
Temple. Benares, 1884.) 

Hema Chandra's Prakrit Grammar (ed. 
Pisohel). 

Hema Chandra's Deshishabdamala (ed. 
Pisohel). 

Harkh Nath's Poems (ed. Grierson, in 
J. A. S. B., Extra Number for 188a). 



Kalp. 



The Indian Antiquary, a Journal of Orien- 
tal Beeearoh, ed. Jas. Burgess. 



JSLpSri. 

Journal, Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

Journal, German Oriental Society. 

Journal, Boyal Asiatic Society. 

The JsnaJd Ma^gal of Tul'si Dfis, (ed. 
Praysg Datt' Siggh: Braj Chandra 
Press, Benares). 

Jstaka (ed. FausboU). 



Eaninji. 

The Eabit Bfimffyan of Tul'si Dss (ed. 
G^pi Nfith Pfithak, Light Press, 
Benares, 1879). (It should be noted 
that the numbering in the Uttar Eha^d 
is incorrect. The numbers up to 100 
are correct, after which they recom- 
mence with 1. Accordingly, to find a 
reference to ihe latter portion of the 
Uttar Eha^d, 100 must be deducted 
from the numbers given in this Dic- 
tionaiy.) 



Kan, 



KdB. 



Kch. 



Kf. - 
Km. 
Kn. 
Kn. Dy. 



Kn. Or. 

Kram. 
Kriah. 



Krishnab. 

Ksh. 
K$h. Vy. 



L.L. 

L. r. 

Ln. 



Ia. 
Li. 



M. 



M. Dy. 
M. Or. 



Ealpasutra (ed. Jacobi ; in Collection of 
German Oriental Society, vol. YII, 
No. 1). 

1^1 Jha's battle of Eanarpi Gh&t (ed. 
Shn Narayan Siijgh, in J. A. 8. B., 
vol. LIV, Part I, for 1885). 

Kasi ke Chhayachitra, a drama by 
Harishohandra, (Hari Prakash Press, 
Benares). 

Eachchay ana's Pali Grammar (ed. Senart ; 
the references are to the separate edi- 
tion, Paris, 1881). 

Kafiri. 

Kumaoni. 

Konka^i. 

English-Eonkai^ and Eonkani-English 
Dictionary, by A. F. X. Mafifei. (Man- 
galore, Basel Sdlssion Press, 1883.) 

Maffei's Eonka^i Ghrammar. (Mangalore, 
1882.) 

Eramadishvara's Prakrit Grammar. 

Shn Ejishnagitfivali, (ed. Munshl Mahft- 
vir PrasSd, Lakhnau, Nawal Eishor 
Press, 1884.) 

Erishnabali of Tul'si Das (Braj Chandra 
Press, Benares, 1882). 

Elashmlrl. 

Elmslie's Kashmiri Vocabulary. 



Borrow's Bomano Lavo Idl (ed. 1874.) 

Lalita Yistara (ed. B. Mitra, in Biblio- 
theca Indica). 

Lanman's Statistical Account of Noun 
Inflection in the Yeda. (In Journal of 
American Oriental Society, vol. X.) 

Lassen's Institutiones Linguae Praoriticee. 
Latin. 



If arathi ; or, in conjunction with other 
language initials = Modem : e.g.^ M. 
04' = Modem Gaudian ; M. M.s^ 
Modem Marathi. 

Molesworth's Marathi Dictionary^ 

Student's Manual of Marathi Grammar 
('2nd ed., 1880). 




47 



Ma. r. 

Mag. 

Mar$. 

Mcch. 
Md. 
Mg. 

Mg. Pr. 
Mh. Pr. 
Miic. 



Mik, 



Ml. 
ML Gy. 



Mr. 
Mth. 
Mih. Ch. 

Mth. Gr. 
Muh. 



N. 



N. AeU. 
N.Or. 

N. L. 
Nag. 

Nah. 



Nam. 



Nay. 



Mahavastu (ed. Senart, in Oriental 
Collection of Sooi^t^ Asiatique). 

A oolleotion of songs in impure Magahl 
(in MS.) 

Marsia (ed. Gbierson, in J. A. S. B.^ Extra 
Number for 1882). 

Mfiohchliakatika (ed. Stenzler). 
MarkaiilLdeya's Prakrit Grammar. 
Magahl (dialect of Biharl). 
Magadhi Prakrit. 
Maharastrl Prakrit. 

A collection of miscellaneous folksongs 

in Bhoj'pun, Bais'wan, and Hi ndi (in 

MS.) 
Ueberdie Mundarten und die Wander- 

ungen der Zigeuner Europa's. By Dr. 

Franz Miklosich (Vienna, 1872-1880.) 

Multani (dialect of Panjabi). 

O'Brien's Glossary of the Multani Lan- 
guage, compared with the FanjabI and 
Sindhi. (Lahore 1881.) 

Mar'wari (and Mewari). 

Maithili. 

(Srierson's Maithil Ghrestomathy (in J. A* 
8. B., Extra Number for 1882). 

Grierson's Maithil Grammar (in J. A. 
S. B., Extra Number for 1880). ' 

Muhammadan. 



NSpali : or, in conjunction with language 
initials == Northern : e.g., N. Od.^ 
Northern Gaudian. 

The Acts of the Apostles in NSLpali. 

(jframmar of the Nepalese Language. By 
Lieut. J. A. Ayton. (Calcutta, 1820.) 

8. Luke's Gospel in NSIpali. 

Nag 8ongs (ed. Grierson, in J. A. 8. B., 
Extra Number for 1882). 

The Bsm Lalfikar Nah'chhC of Tul'siDss 
(ed. Pteysg Datt' Siiggh : Braj Chandra 
Press, Benares). 

The Psiyalachchhl Nftmamfila, a Prskrit 
Kosha by Dhanapala (ed. G. Biihler, 
Gottingen, 1879). 

Specimen of the Naya Dhamma TTuKs 
(ed. Steinthal, Leipzig, 1881). 



Neb. 



Nir. 



0. 



O.Dy, 
0. Or. 

0. Vy. 



Gbt Nebsrak, a modem Maithili song 
(in MS.) 

Nirayavaliya Suttam (ed. Warren). 



0|iya : or, in conjunction with language 
initials = Old : e.g., 0. H. = Old Hindi ; 
0. Bg. = Old Bangali. 

Sutton's English and Oriya Dictionary. 

Sutton's 0|iya (Jrammar. (Outtack, 
1872.) 

Mohunpersaud Takoor's Vocabulary, 
Oriys and English. (Serampore 1811.) 



P. 


Panjabi. 


P.Dy. 


Panjabi Dictionary, printed in Lodiana. 


P. Dy. St. 


Dictionary of English and Panjfibl. By 
Captain Staricey. (Calcutta, 1849.) 


P. Or. 


Panjabi GFrammar, printed in Lodiana. 


Pa. 


PaU. 


Pa. Dy. 


Childers' Pali Dictionary. 


Pa. Or. 


Minayef's Pali Grammar (tr. Guyard). 


Pa. Or. K. 


Beitrage zur Pali Grammatik. By E. 
Kuhn. (Berlin, 1875.) 


Padm. 


Padmawat, by Malik Mohammad Jfty'si 
(ed. Bam Jasan; Chandra Prabha 
Press, Benares, 1884.) 


Parb. 


The Parbati Maggal of Tul'si Das (ed. 
Praysg Datt' Siiggh; Braj Chandra 
Press, Benares.) 


Port. 


Portuguese. 


Pr. 


Prakrit. 


Pr.L. 


Prakrita Laksai^ (ed. Hcemle^ in 
Bibliotheca Indica.) 


Prabh. 


Prabhsbati Haran, a drama byBhftnu 
Nsth Jha, in MS. 


Prop. 


A dissertation on the proper names of 
Panjsbis, by Captain B. C. Temple. 
(Bombay, 1883.) 


Pre. 


Persian. 


P$h. Pr. 


PSDahachi Prakrit. 


P$h. 


Pashtu. 


Pip. 


Paspati's l^tudes sur les Tchingian^. 




48 



Psp. M. 



Mdtn. 



Hdv. 

Rg. 
Rg. Or. 

Rig. 
Rj. 



8. 



S.Dy. 



8. Qr. 

8. Vy. 
Sal. 

San. ' 



Sayk. 



8apt. 



Sat. 

Sgh. 
Shr. Pr. 



Paspati's Memoir on the Language of the 
Gypsies (in Journal of the Amerioan 
Oriental Society, vol. VII, pp. 143— 
270). (Those who have the separate, 
reprint, in orderv to. find a refereno^ 
must deduct 142JErom,th« ^g^iyps^^^ 
in .this^Pictionary:^^^ .. 



Siv. 



The Bamayan of Tul^si Das (ed. Ram 
Jasan: Benares, 1869; transl. F. S. 
Qrowse, C.8., 2nd ed., with illustra- 
tions: Allahabad, 1883). 

Bsvanavaho or Setubandha (ed. S. 
Goldschmidt). 

Ba^g'puri. 

Notes on the Baggpuri Dialect, by G. A. 
Grierson (in J. A. S. B., vol. XLVl). 

Worterbuoh zum Rig-Veda, by H. Grass- 
mann (Leipzig). 

B&j'putani. 



Sindhi : or, in conjunction with language 
initials = Southern : e.g.^ 8. Od. =s 
Southern Gaudian, &o. 

Shirt, Thavurdas, and Mirza's Dic- 
tionary; (Eurrachee, Commissioner's 
Printing Press, 1879.) 

Trumpp's Sindh! Grammar (London and 
Leipzig, 1872). 

Eastwiok's Sindhi Vocabulary. 

Song of Salhgs (ed. Grierson, in J. A.S. 
B., Extra Number for 1882). 

The Bairagya SandTpini of Tul'sl Das 
(ed. PrayagDatt' Siijgh: Braj Chandra 
Press, Benares.) 

Sa^kat Mochan, by Tul's! Dss (Luckaow, 
1879). 

Sapta Shataka (ed. Weber, in Collection 
of German Oriental Society, vol. VII, 
No. 4) 

The Sat'sai of Tul'si Dfis (ed. Gopl 
Nsth Pfithak, Benares^ Light Press). 

Singhalese. 

ShSoraseni Prakrit. 



^r.? 



8h. By: 



Skr. Dy. P. 
Skr. Dy. IF. 
Sudh. 



Sun. 



T. 

Tv. 



Vaish. 



Ved. 
Vr. 



W. 



Wat. 



Wil. 



Z. 

Zach. 



Siva Siijgha Saroja, or Notices of Ver^ 
nacular Poets, by Siv Siggh, Inspector 
of Polic^^. (Luck^oW, ^awal EjiBhor 

. Jres^iJSSa^)' ' • 

Sanskrit. 

Boehtlingk's Sanskrit Dictionary (being 
the smaller edition of the Petersburg 
Dictionary). 

Petersburg Sanskrit Dictionary. 

Monier Williams' Sanskrit Dictionary. 

Sudhfibund, a collection of sixty Eajalis, 
by Eumar LaI Eharg Bahsdur. (Ban- 
kipore, Khadgbilas Press, 1884.) 

Sundari Tilak (Benares, Light Press 
edition). 



Turkl. 

Trivikrama's Prakrit Grammar. 



Twenty one Vaish^ava Hymns ; ed. and 
transl. by G. A. Grierson ( in J. A. S. 
B., vol. LIII, Part I, Special Number 
for 1884). 

Vedic. 

Vararuohi's Prakrit Grammar (ed. 
Cowell). 



In conjunction with other language 
initials = Western : e.g., W. Od. = 

Western Gaudian. 

. 

Watson's Liddx to ^Names of Eastern 
Plants and Products (London, 1868). 

Glossary of Judicial and Bevenue Terms 
and of useful words occurring in Official 
Documents of British India. By 
H, H. Wilson. (London, 1855.) 



Zend. 

Beitraege zur Indischen Lezicographie 
von Theodor Ziacharise (Berlin, 1883). 



49 



n. — Grammatical and other Terms. 



abbr. 

abl. 

aba. 

ace. 

act. 

atif. 

adv. 

aff. 

agric. 

anon. 

art. 

auxil. 

eaus. 

ck. 

chap, 
cl. 

coll. 

com. 

com. gen, 

comm. 

eomp. 

can. 

cond. 

conj. 

cans. 

constr, 

eont. 

contr. 

cor. 

eorr. 

correl 

dat. 

dem, 

den. 

der. 

dim. 

dir. 

do. 

du, 

emph. 

esp. 

euph. 

exam. 

exc. 

/. or fern, 
foe. 

fig* 

Jut. 



abbreviated. 

« 

ablative. 

abstract. 

aoousative. 

active (case or voice or verb). 

adjective. 

adverb. 

affix. 

agricultural. 

anonymous. 

article. 

auxiliarj. 

causal. 

confer, compare. 

chmpai. 

chapter. 

class. 

colloquial. 

commonly. 

common gender. 

commentary. 

compound. 

concrete. 

conditional. 

conjunct or conjugation or conjunctive. 

consonant. 

construction. 

contemptuous. 

contracted or contraction. 

corrupt. 

correct. 

correlative or correlative pronoun. 

dative. 

demonstrative pr o noun. 

denominative. 

derivation or derivative. 

diminutive. 

direct. 

dobs, a Hindu metre. 

dual. 

emphatic. 

especial. 

euphonic. 

example. 

except or eitception. 

feminine, 
facetious, 
figurative, 
future. 



gen. 


genitive or general. 


geog. 


geographical. 


gram. 


grammatical. 


imp. 


imperfect tense. 


imper. 


imperative mood. 


incorr. 


incorrect. 


ind. 


indicative mood. 


indef. 


indefinite or indeflnitive. 


inf. 


infinitive. 


instr. 


instrumental. 


inters. 


intensitive. 


inter. 


interrogative pronoun or interrogative. 


intr. 


intransitive. 


introd. 


introduction. 


I. 


line. 


ig^f* 


long form. 


lit. 


literally. 


loc. 


locative. 


m. or ma%c. 


masculine. 


m.c. 


metri causa, or * for the sake of metre.* 


med. 


medical. 


met. 


metaphorioaL 


myth. 


mythological. 


n. or neut. 


neuter. 


neg. 


negative. 


nom. 


nominative. 


num. 


numeral. 


obi. 


oblique. 


oba. 


obsolete. 


obsc. 


sensu obsccBno. 


opp. 


opposite. 


orig. 


original. 


P- 


page. 


p.p. 


past participle. 


part. 


participle. 


pt. 


particle. 


pass. 


passive. 


pera. 


person or personal. 


phon. 


phonetic. 


phr. 


phrase. 


pi orplur. 


plural. 


pleon. 


pleonastic. 


poet. 


poetical. 


postpoa. 


postposition. 


pphr. 


periphrastic. 


pr. pts. 


principal parts of a verb, t.e. the present 




participle, the past participle, the verbal 




. noun in by and the oblique verbal noun 




m ai. 



— 50 



prec. 

pref. 

prep. 

pres. 

pret. 

prim. 

pron. 

prop. 

p^'ov, 

q.v. 

qual. 

quant. 

red. 
red.f. 

redupl. 
refl. 
rel. 
reap. 



8,V. 

8C. 

8Cl. 

8ec. 

sg. or sing. 

8h./. 



precative. 

prefix. 

preposition. 

present. 

preterite. 

primary. 

pronoun or pronominal. 

properly, 

proverb. 

quod Tide, or * which see.' 
quality or qnalitative. 
quantity or quantitative. 

redundant, 
redundant form, 
reduplication or reduplicated. 

reflexive. 

relative. 

respective. 

sub voce. 

scene (in a drama). 

scilicet or to be understood. 

secondary. 

singular. 

short form. 



it. 


stem* 


str. /. 


strong form. 


8Ub8t. 


substantive. 


8uff. 


suffix. 


tbh. or tadbh. 


tadbhava. 


tech. 


technicaL 


term. 


termination. 


tr. 


transitive. 


transl. 


translated or translation. 


t8. or tat8. 


tatsama. 



unphon. 



unphonetio. 



V. 


verb. 


V. intr. 


verb intransitive. 


V. tr. 


verb transitive. 


roc. 


vocative. 


vr. I. 


varia lectio. 


v$. 


verse. 


vulg. 


vulgar. 


icom. 


used by women. 


ick.f. 


weak form. 



y/ 



root. 



iV.£.— Abbreviations of adjectives may also be used as abbreviations of the corresponding adverbs. 

III. — /» Quotations from the Bamayar^. 



A. 


Jj6dhyd Kand. 


Ln. 


Laykd Ednd. 


ch. 


chSDpai 


Ar. 


Aranya Kdvd. 


Su. 


Sundar Kdnd. 


chh. 


chhand. 


Bd. 


Hdl Kdnd. 


Ut. 


Uttar Ednd. 


do. 


doha. 


Ki. 


Kis'kindd Kdnd. 




■ 


so. 
tot. 


sor'thS. 

* 

totok. 



COMPARATIVE DICTI0N:ARY 



OP THE 



BIHARI LANGUAGE. 



^ 



^ a (1), the first letter of the Bihdri alphabet, represents 
three distinct vowels. First, it indicates *a short 
vowel, which we, for the sake of convenience {see 
Introd.), tramliterate with a, but which really has, as 
a rule, the sound of short aw (or short broad 6), as in 
the English ' hot,^ * not/ though not quUe so deep as the 
corresponding Bam^all fiw. Secondly, it sometimes 
indicates »a long vowel, the sound of which is a long aw 
{or long broad o, see Introd.), as in the English * awe/ 
* law.* In this case it is distinguished in this Diction* 
ary by placing the prosodic ma/rk of length (•) over 
it and transliterating it by ft, thus 4 hd. Thirdly, 
it sometimes indicates *a mere imperfect vowel (see 
Introd.), the sour^ of which is a very short 6, as in 
the English * bigger* (see Sweet's Handbook of 
Phonetics, § 200), In this case it is distinguished, 
in this Dictionary, by a dot {^) placed in line after 
the consonant, and transliterated by the apostrophe; 
thus lit i'^ iq« gy\ 

With regard to ths use of the sign ^ and its new 
substitutes, it should be noted that the former (^) 
is never used except at the beginning of a word or after 
another vowel, as ^rirr agd before, ij^Tr n^awd 
barber. In the middle of a word, after a cons., it is 
always omitted, its absence indicating the presence of 
the vowel it represents, a^ording to the native 
grammarians^ theory that the sound of a inheres in 
every consonant unless otherwise specified ; thus w^ 
halt bud, 4^ h&w% lam, n<.«n ghar^wd house. 
The last two examples illustrate the use of the 
new signs, which practically serve as substitutes 
for the omitted ^ when it is either a long or an 
imperfect vowel M the end of a word, also, it 
has been the common practice hitherto to omit the 
sign ^. This practice has a very serious incon* 
venience. There are but very few cases in which any 



10 



IS 



90 



25 



80 



86 



of the three sounds of^is pronounced at the end of 
a word after a consonant, whereas the omission of the 
sign ^, according to the already-mentioned grammat* 
ical theory, would indicate the necessity of pronounce 
ing an inherent a after every final consonant. For 
this reason the sign s ort (see Introd.) is adopted in 
this Dictionary to replace the sign ^ whenever any of 
its sounds are pronounced ai the end of a word ; the 
sign 5 signifying the full (short or long) sound of % 
and the sign • its imperfect sound. Hence when any 
word is spelt without 9 or ^, it must be read as 
ending in a consonant. The principal cases when 
there is a final audible sound are given below ; and 
it udli be noticed that the short sound a occurs in the 
first case, the long sound ft in the second, and the 
imperfect sound in the two remaining cases. With 
the exertion of these causes, no word is ever 
pronounced with a final a ; thus ^f^ ayg limb, ^ 
ghar house, VW ham^al lotus, etc. It should be 
noted, however, that this rule is only applicable to prose. 
In poetry every final a is pronounced as the imper^ 
feet vowel ; and hence in verse quotations the substi^ 
tutes 5 or » will not be used, the absentee of the vowel 
sign being understood to be, as usual, an indication 
of the vowel pronunciation. 

With regard to the occurrence of the various 
sounds of^, the following rules may be given. ^The 
short ^kW'Sound is the regular and most common one. 
It is not the Sanskrit open a, nor the common Eindi a 
(which sounds less hollow), nor is it like the English 
u in ' nut/ ' 6t^/ It is something between the u in 
^nut* and the (Bangdli) 6 or ttw in *not,' but 
exactly agrees with neither. It may occur in any 
syllable, whether open or closed^ stressed or unstressed, 
whether initial or medial or final; thus w^ ghiwr 
house, ^fR^ dwmiwr immortal, ^mw kdwmSwl lotus, 




^ 



^ a 



Tcdvn^lHwh he did^ ifs naw not. '2%6 
long i,W'B(mnd has been observed by its in the following 
cases : — (1) the auxiliary verb y/ A'^ hdw be {e.g., 
4^ hdwt I am) ; (2) the BhofpUrt pres. ind. {e.g., 
^ijf dekhdlo I see) ; (3) the termination of the 2nd 
pers. plur. of any tense (e.g., %'mv dekhd may ye 
see, Bh. ^mv dikhdld jon see, Bh. ^ifv dekh'bd 
or Mth. ^^T^^ deJeVbdh yon will see ) ; (4) in the 
Maithili abl. postpos. ^ si {e.g., 1^ 9 mukh si 
from the month, Bid. 6, 2) ; (5) in the Magahl 
termination of the obi. form of nouns in silent a {e.g., 
^To ^ ghard kai to a honse, ^o ^ dekhd kai to see, 
J. A. 8. B., vol. LEE, pp. 151, 154). The Bihdrls have 
no special graphic sign for this peculiar long sound, 
but, when necessary, they sometimes indicate it by 
placing the prosodic mark of length (•) ov&i^ ^ 
{thus T^rf) ; or, though incorrectly, write it as ^ {e.g., 
TT?f, or, as in the Azamgafh Settlemetit Report, 
p. 20A, ^?) ; or, still less correctly, they express 
it by adding the visarga {e.g., %w:i0f I see, %vt^ 
yon see, see 04* GT'j P« 26, footnote). It is, however, 
elea/rly nothing else but the long sound corresponding 
to the common short sotmd Hw, these two forming 
an exact pair of short and long vowels. ^The 
imperfect a-sound never occurs in the beginning of 
a word. In the middle of a word it is not un- 
common, though no exact rules as to its occurrence can 
be given, except thai (1) U is usually met with between 
two syllables, the second of which contains a long 
vowel, as in ^Kswj ghar^wd honse, VW^W suflai 
he slept; and (2) it always occurs between or after 
two consonants which originally formed a conjunct 
consonant, as in ^w?i^ sab'd word, mnir jafn 
purpose, fiiT^^T kir^pA grace, q^iirt«lW par^yijjan 
need {from 8kr. wn^, ^m, w^, ^I^twr). At the 
end of a word it never occurs in prase, except in the 
two last cases, mentioned below, of the final audible 
^. In poetry, as already mentioned, every final ^ 
is pronounced as the imperfect voweU 

At the end of a ^ord the vowel ^ is audible in 
the following cases •***(!) in monosyllables^ as^sna 
not ; (2) in the 2nd pers. plur., as %^ dekhd may ye 
see ; (3) after a double consonant, as f^V richchh* 
bear, X^ ^^l^ given ; (4) after ^, or a conjunct 
consonant the latter part of which is ^, as 
^im*^<|4 aJcatVnltf uospeakable, ^vi^ni? iyogy* nn- 
worthyi irhn? grijhy' acceptable. In the case of most 
other conjunct consonants their component parts are 
pronounced separately with the interposition of' the 
imp&rfect vowel, so that the word practically ends in 
a single consonant, without any inherent a ; thus 
juk'tjoiaed {8kr. ^w), vmc saVd word {Sir. 
), mr*^ jan*m birth {Sir. «ra ), -Jim put'r son 



10 



16 



20 



26 



80 



S6 



40 



60 



{Sir. pr), Vf^ ««*i'^ white {Sir. JtM)> filW«w 
KrisVn Krishna (Skr. IW), etc.; but if the cory. 
cons, consists of a nasal or a sibilant followed by a 
mute, it is treated like a single cons., that is, it is 
pronounced without any inherent a ; thus ^tT <^yg limb, 
^^^ am,t end, ^;w da/nd staff, and grins' samast whole, 
f^TV grihast (Mth.) or fiK«^i|y gir'hast {Bh.) honse- 
holder {8kr. it%M),^mpusp or ^rr pushp flower 
{Skr. ^). 

It may be added that in Bais^wdri the letter % 
inherent in a preceding ^yor'^w, is sometimes written 
to express the short vowels V e ai%d ^ii o respectively ; 
thus in the pron. forms ^rf^, iw, and if ^, wi, 
pronounced jehi, jen, and mohi, soi, for m^, «hr, 
and iitf^, ^f , etc. On the same prin^ple the Skr. 
^r% vyakti person becomes in«ir bekat in Bihdri 
{cf. Bid. 8, 2). 

[The ancient Indo^aryan language possessed a 
pair of short and long sounds of a, pronounced dear 
aiid open, like a in the German ' mi&nm, ^ and ' mdhl,^ 
Italian ' b&llo ' and ' bdco.* The short sound of ft 
does not occur in E^igUsh, but the long a is met with in 
words Uke ^far\ ^sta/rJ In Sanskrit these were 
graphically represented by^i at$d ^ a. The sound 
of ^, however, began to undergo changes from very 
early times. These changes took two different directions. 
On the one hamd, the sound a tended to be obscured 
into a short ^, on the other, into a short 6 {compare 
the analogous change of ^in Greek to e and o), by 
which two sounds are not to be understood a efeor 
e and 6, but obscure sounds like Gferman 6 {or ») 
short and English &w short, pronounced something 
like 6 in * error ' and 6 in ' hot.' {Of. Sweet's 
Phonetics, §§ 31, €6, 71-74.) The former sound 
is best represented by the common ^ of the Hindi, 
the latter by the common ^ cf the JBangdli; 
thusWK ghar, pronounced S. gh&r, Bg^ ghdr. The 
tendency of Sk to change to short (S is already 
noticed by the most ancient native grammarians 
{Prdiishdkyas and Pdnini in the 3rd cent. B.C. ; see 
Whitney's Skr. Gr., % 21, p. 9), who call the vowel so 
changed '^hpK sa4ivrita or * dimmed.' The tendency 
of 9k to change to short 6 probably also declared 
itself very early, though no similar testimony on this 
point seems to be available. The evidence of the 
modem Gau^ians, however, shows that the former 
tendency affected more the centre and west of India, 
while the latter was active in the east and eastreme 
souih. Thus ^ is pronxmnced as short S in aU 
Western Gaudians {Hindi, Pamjdbi, Sindhs, Gvja* 
r&ti) and in the Southern Gaudian {or Mardphi) 
with the exception of the Kdnkai^i diaieet qf the 
Mardphi, in the extreme south, near Goa. On the 



^ 



a 



^ 



a 



other handj ^ is pronounced as ahort 5 {or &w) in all 
JSastern Qau4i(XM {Bihdri^ Bangdll, Oriyd) and in 
the KdnJGonh In Bangdll the 6'80und is most clea/rly 
developed {see Bg. Or,, pp. 7, 8), less so in Oriyd 
(0. Or., p. 1., Op. Or., p. 67) and Kdniatj^i {Eh. Or., 
p. 6), and also less so in Bthdri, in the westernmost 
dialects of which (Bais^wdri, Western Bhqfp&ri) the 
^•sound already predominates. In the Gipsy both 
changes, € and 6, are found in different words ; thus 
deah/ ten/ hut ahoy, * six \* see Psp. M., pp. 280^ 231 
{8kr. 1^ and w\). The result of the process thus far 
eatplained was to give to the Oaudian two s^sounds. 
One was short (8 or 6), and was the obscure close 
representative of the ancient short open a, whUe the 
other was long and identical with the ancient long open 
i. But by the side of this process there gradually 
developed in the Eastern OoMdians another, which con- 
sisted in creating on the one hand a long counterpart 
of the short dose a^ and on the other hand a short 
eounterpa/rt of the long open a. Thus the final resuU 
of the two processes was to produce two pairs ofsL" 
sounds, one being open, the other dose, and ea^h pair 
consisting of a short and long sound. Moreover, the 
second process led to a further important result in the 
Eastern Oaudians. The fact that the two initial 
sounds were the short dose a and the long open a, and 
were graphically represented by ^ and ^ respectively, 
had practically the effect of causing these two graphic 
signs to be looked upon as serving to distinguish 
not so much the quantity as the tone of those two a- 
sounds. In other words, ^ became the sign, not of 
the ahort Si^sound, but of the cloae ek-sound, while 
similarly ^ became the sign, not of the long, but 
of the open A^sound. When this result had been 
aitained, it obviously became necessary to devise 
some new marks to distinguish the quantities of 
the new pair of hrsownds, whenever such distinction 
appeared to be desirable. In the ordinary converse of 
life, indeed, this necessity was not much felt ; it is a 
cfmmon observation that people will continue, without 
much practical inconvenience, a system of spelling 
which no longer conforms to the realities of pronun^ 
datum ; and thus at the present day natives as a 
rule use the signs ^ and ^T for the dose and open 
sounds without distindion of quantity. Still occa' 
eionally there is need of defining quantity, and then, as 
already explained, various means are resorted to. One 
of these, the system of using prosodic ma^rks, has been 
adopted in this Dictionary, as being the simplest 
and most consistent. According to this system the 
long close Sk-sound (i.e., aw) is represented by ^ 
{i.e,, ^ plus the prosodic mark of length), and 
ike short open sirsound {i.e., &) is indicated by ^ 



10 



15 



to 



tf 



SO 



8ft 



40 



60 



{i.e., ^^ plus the prosodic mcwk of shortness). The 
system <ff B. Gd. Srsounds and their graphic represent 
tations may then be thus tabularly shown :— 

rij J ( Short, ^ « ( = Sw). 

Ulose a-sound ... i ^ t ^ , \ 

i^Long, ^ a ( = dto), 

^ J ( Short, ^ a. 

Open a^sound .•.•?_ 

(. Long, ^m d. 

The creation of a short counterpart to the long open ft 
in the E. Gd. appears in every case to be d/ue to the 
shortening of an original long open a, and is most 
frequently the result of the law of shortening the 
aniepenulHmaie {see Introd.). Thus, B. wxfk^x 
khatiya bed (Ig. / of ^t» hhdt) ; B. ^f^f 
kh^tl^, Bg. WTTWTW khSildm. 0. nrx^ khStli I ate 
(from ^ ^ Wi&) ; B. iriX«wf mM^% Bg. i7T^[«T«r 
m^rildm, 0. »rTftJ m^lu I beat; Bg. wiiK^ 
mUriyd having beaten, WIT^ khUtyd having eaten, 
^rtft^ isiyd having come, etc. {The short pronun^^ 
dation of ^rr in all these cases is strikingly shown 
by the contradion of ^a + X Si to i in Bangdll 
{colloquially, see Bg. Or., p. 880) and to a% in Bihdri ; 
thus Bg. %rni kheldm, B. w^t khik& I ate ; Bg. 
%9 mire having beaten, etc.) It should be observed, 
however, thai in the case of the shortening the antope^ 
nultimate of long forms {but of no others) there is 
a tendency {imperative in Western Bhoj^puri and 
Bais^wdri, but optional in the other dialects of Bihdrt) 
to substitute the short close a for the short open ft ; 
thus in Bw. and W. Bh. only m^^T khafiyd, but W%^ 
khaUyd or nnf^^T khSfiyd in Mth., Mg., and E. Bh. 
But besides the case of the antepenultimate, the short 
open ft occurs also in other cases ; e.g., in tatsamas 
which originally contained a long open a before a conj. 
cons.; thus, B., Bg., and 0. ^"PUi nySjY juat 
{Skr. mm), nxm^ bihy* aentence {8kr. ^'Xm), 
frKw« grdjhy^ acceptable {Skr. iIT|l)j ^Vm* biijhy* 
exteraal {8kr. ^m ), etc. For some other cases, see 
the Art. ^ d. The existence of the long counterpart 
(aw) of the short dose a in BangdU at$d Ofiyd has 
not as yet been specially noticed by grammarians ; 
but in BangdU it occurs, for example, in the vocative 
term, of such nouns as f^iWT father, irnfT mother 
( eg., % fkitis hi pitd I oh father I ) • It is now usual in 
BangdU to spell these forms udth the visarga (ftin, 
imn), a practice which has led to the mistaken notion 
that they are identical with the Sanskrit vocatives 
thus spelt {see Bg. Or., p. 65)^ but which is none 
else than the erroneous pradstice already noticed as 
bdng also found in Bihdri. writers. The creation of 
this long aw appears in most, if not all, cases to 
be due to the curtailment of a syllable which in the 
preceding stage of the Ap. Pr. contained an ^ u^ 
Thus 2mi peers, plur. B. %4o dekhd =^ Ap. Pr. 



^ a 



^ a 



10 



£0 



26 



; Bh. ^4» dikhm = Ap. Pn ^W» + 
{see Od. Or., §§ 497, 501) J voe.^ Bg. ftwo 
piM = Ap. Pr. f^nnr or fnrfT («ee Grf. Or., § 369) ; 
pre*, ini., Bi. t^wf d^fcM/S = 4P- ''^- ^^''^ + 
^ (we Od. Gr., §§ 497, 501) ; awdl. verb ^ 
%dii^ w contracted from Ap. Pr. ^ftr^ or ^ftr^ (G^. ©r., 
8 514) ; abl postpos. yS si is a contraction of the 
alternative form ^ «lfa; oU. sing, ^o = ilp. Pr. 
gen. sg. WKM (see Od. Or., p. 195, /. A. 8. B., vol 
MI, p. 163). Respecting the Western and Southern 
Oaudiansj it remains to be added that in them the 
ancient short open & has often survivedj in words 
Uken^ gfSn multitude (Skr. iPf), etc., especially in 
onomatopode words Uhe WH ^«W jhUn jhM jiiigling> 
and frequently in stressed syllables, like innr kdmah w 
hut B. Od. hdwmal. 

With regard to the Bais^wdri practice of expressing 
Veby^i it may be noted that the samie use is also sows- 
times observed in Bang&U ; e gr., ^^TT^TT lie is seen, 
pronounced dekhH;di,'9lfm mdmdxiA\,pronounced beiii.'] 

^ a (2), {f.^aor x%; sir. /., m. ^ d,f t i), Ts., a 
prim. der. suff. used to form nouns of action. 
Exam., #' wi., and %W or ^fm /. jilsjifrom v^#W 
play ; sh. f. ^m.,yf^or xfir /., str. f. <^T m., ^^ 
/. laughter, /row ^ ^ laugh ; iTTT or W[fkf. beating, 
from v/'TTC beat; wk. f. WHi /, and str. f. ^fWtf 
language, from y/ ^ speak. See art. ^ a (2) and 

art. T i (2). 

(Jit shovid be remembered that this suff. becomes 
silent in prose, though not in poetry, according to 
the ordinary rule regarding a final ^, as explained 
in art. ^ a {!). The fern, gender is the wore usuai 
<mo in words formed with this suf. The f em. form in 
^ i w c<mmon in the poetry of all dialects, but in 
prose it is almost entirely limited to the Mth. dialect, 
Hhe corresponding fem. form in the other dialects 
ending in eilent ^ a. The complete set, consisting 
of masc. amd fern., short and long forms, does 
not exist in every instance. Practice alone can supply 
the needful information on this point). 

[The original of this suff. is the Skr. suff. % 
which {in the nom. sg.) forms m. V, /• W. iw Pr. 
the fem. suff. t may be substituted for ^ {see Hem. iii, 
32, Vr. V, 24), the Pr. set of the suff. thus becoming 
in, ^, f.^^ or \^ In Od., according to its usual 
phon. laws, this set changes to m. ^, /. ^ orx; eee 
04. Or., p. 155, § 829 ; aUo §§ 41-51. The Ig.f of 
this suff. is made by the addition of the pleim. suf. 
n\uethe art. ^ d (2) and n ka.^ 

^ a (8), JbKf pref. suph., added to words beginning with 
a eonj. cons, the first part of which is W ; thus 



^ 



80 



85 



iO 



46 



60 



bathing {Pdm., Ut., ch. 30, 2; Skr. «TW), ^wfir 
praise {Ram., Bd., ch. 93, 8; Skr, ^^), ^WW 
place {San., vs. 39 ; Skr. mm). Sometimes the cony 
tons, is dissolved ; e.g., ^raWHT Gdp. 13 ; ^^gfii 
Bih. iii, 9. Optionally, and perhaps preferably, Ji is 
prefixed to stLch words, e.g., X^itW school {B. Or. 
II {Bh.), conversation 20), t^T firm {Padm., ch. 
618, 7 ; Skr. ftiT) ; see art. \ i (4). 

[That the euph. use ofthepref. ^ was not entirely 
unknown in medicevalamd ancient India may be conjee^ 
tared from such instcmces as Skr. ffm or ^Ifrar, base 
metal, Skr. ^^V^K^ or V^^, dumb {see OoldstUcier^s 
Skr. Dy., s.v. ^ ) ; and the existence of the Od. x^^ 
xl^nT {L. r.,p. 269, /. 10; Oa. Or., p. 14), Pa. vStf 
Xfkm {Pa.Dy.), Pr. xfii, T^l^ {Hem. ii, 130; 
according to Vr. xii, 22 only Shr. Pr.), for Skr. ^ft, 
seems to point in the same direction. On the other 
hand, instances like the Skr. astronomical terms ^^or 
scorpion {Oreek frieofmUy;), ^ft^, *kronos' {Oreek 
Kpovo^) — see Weber* s History of Indian Literatwre, 
p. 2b^, footnote—indicate an aUemaMve treatment of 
initial conj. cons. In all Qds. the euph. use of the 
pref. ^ prevails.'] 

a (4), TSf pref. neg., added to words {subst., adj., 
part., num., or adv.) *to negative their meamng, 
like the E. in-, un-, dis-, or ^ to depreciate it; thus 
i^mnr ignorance {RSm., B., ch. 64, 1 ; from tvpr 
knowledge), ^q^VW immoveable {Rdm., Ba., ch. 2, 
11 ; from ^w moveable) ; ^f^%% without distinction 
{Bid. 49, 3 ; from fk^^ specially) ; again •^f^ 
an unlucky d^ {Padm., ch. 419, 3; fi'om f)(ir 
day). It becomes ^m an, if the word begins unth 
a vowel; thus ^wnc^ disrespect {Vaish. iv, 2, from 
^n^S respect), ^^f^ improper {Bid. 61, 4, 
from '^$f^ proper), ^5Nr many, lit. not one 
{Bid. 45, 1, from r^ one). Not unfrequently it 
is pleonastically redniplicated ^iw an + ^ a, in 
which form it occurs both before words beginning 
with a consonant and words beginning with a 
vowel; thus, before cons., ^prf^ unnoticed (flat 
18; from f^ mark), ^niiwnf not having become 
{Rdm., Bd., ch. 176, 2, ^^if^V ftlTtWT when 
it had not yet become morning, from wnr 
having become, past part. = Skr. ^) ; again before 
vowels, ^nii^rf^nrncV alCadhikSH uninitiated {Ed$n.^ 
Bd., ch. 118, 1, from ^fw«T^ initiated), ^nmcf^W 
arCichcKhit undesired {Rdm., Ut., ch. 116, 4, from 
^%f^n desired). Jf thus used pleonastiealfyf ^^ is 
practicatty treated as a separate word. 

[% before vowels ^w, is weU known in Skr. 
as a neg. pref. There are even a few, though 
doubtful and mostly vedic cases of its redwfUeation ; 



^ 



5 



^^7T ^< 



* e.g*i ^m%\% famine {%m not + ^im inauspicious 
time^ famine^ there is no real word ^TlTW)f ved. 
^^VWnnf^i^ fearless (wr not + ^pivl^ fearlessj there 
is no real word ^muf^) ; see OoldstueJker^s Sir, Dy.^ 
s. w. In Pr, also it is tcell known^ both in its single 
and reduplicated forms; examples of the latter are 
%Mi^Um unconsidered ( from f^ifinf oonsideredi Hem. 
ii^ 190) 9 ^irtic freedom from oalamity {from tf$r 
calamity, Aup. § 4). The same remark applies to 
all Ods."] 

^ a (5), Tbky prtf. intens., very, exoessively, sometimes 
added to words to emphasise their meaning ; thus ^v^^t^ 
great destruction {Hb. v, 86, /or W^), ^^ff^iw very 
unsteady {for ^^v ), ^rjf very difficult (Az. Qy. for 
^) ; occasionally in compoundSf as ^S(wm or ^nmr very 
great, huge {Hb, iiij 10, lit, having a large body, 
from wm body), 

ISkr. ^, Pr. ^; hence Od. ^ and shortened^] 
see the remarks on derivation under the art. ^niTW « The 
origin of thispref % however^ is now lost sight of and 
it is addedf at pleasure, to tats, as well as tadbh, 
wordsJ] 

^ a (6), Tbh,, pref pleon.^ added to many words without 
modifying their meaning^ as in ^^^9m^ destroyer {Pdrv. 
do. 13), ^11^ happiness {Jan,j ch, 12), ^pJW blessing 
(Jan., eh. 6, Iiah.j w, 17), ^ifiT support, food (San., 
fs. 63), ^TOTW sky {Hb. i, 36), etc, 

[^Skr. ^ ; in Pd. and Pr. general^ ^, but occa- 
sionally shortened to ^ with doubling of the succeeding 
cons.; thus Pr. ^^^^^ {Ndm.^vs. 23) destroyer 
(= Sir. ^w^r^« ), Pr. ^^mPi (Ndm.^ vs. 203) pond 
(=S*r. ^TT^TW), Pd, ^f^lt removed ( = S*r, 
^iiflnn), Pd. ^rtfrtt or Pr. WWt {Hem. iv, 64, 
Ndy. 117) attached (= Skr. ^TlJW ), Pr. ^mrv^ 
(Kalp. § 95) clothes (= iSA^r.^TlT^). In Q4. the 
latter process became much more general^ hence B. 
or ^mj9 = Pr.* ^ITwt, Skr. ^rnnf^n ; B, ^ 
Pr,<i <WMf|t, Skr, im^^9t, etc.'] 



^ a (7)^ T6.| interjection of pity, ah I 

[Skr. ^i so possibly in aU O^,'] 

^ a (8), Tbh., voc. pt., only occurring in the compounds 
^, ^iift, etc. ; a shortened form qf ^ di, j,r, 

^ a (9), T9.» >a name of Yishnn {see ^It^J; *a name 
of Brahma. Only occurring in fanciful usages, 
e.g.^ in riddles, etc. Exam.| Sat^, {with comm.) p.l, 

I 8, «wv-v<rr, ic^viw-Tpr, vtir, t», % w wt, 

Q^rn^lV ^W ^ ^^ ^«W-inii^ ;q^ i(jx$ Having 
put together Bits, B«m^ Lachhman^ Bharat, and 



10 






15 



W 



M 



S5 



Satmgh'nj Tul'si Dfls touching (their) ten feet 
crossed over the sea of existence, {Here wmv-vwr 
daughter of Janak is SUd ; 1[9^HTW or mmn stands 
for ^^iKM, wrw and x^ both meaning vehicle : 
^^wnr-VH son of Das'jsn is JRdm; ^xtt snake 
signifies the Ndg king 8he$, who became incarnate 
as Lo/chhrnan; ^ signifies Vishnu, ip&o became 
incarnate as Bharat; and w signifies Sib, who became 
incarnate as SatrugVn.) 

[«*r. »^: «^j so in an G^s.] 

^T^ at (l),/or words commencing thus and not mentioned 
below, see und^ % ^. It should also be noted that 
certain words, beginning with ^^t aP, ^xjff^ atf, ^if^* 
aiP, ^i?rt dilP, tt «^ or ^o aiP, ^p cUP, ^. atV, 
etc., {e.g., ^^ dXhik he will come, Padm., ch. 176* 
3 ; ^ii:«f ai& I should have come, Misc. 79 ; ^^ 
diS they came, Bais. 7, etc.) are inflections of the 
y/%T^ db com^y and fnust be looked up under that 
root, 

^\ (H (2), a verbal termination, ^%Si, q.v, 

^y^^ f^an = It^w ^san, q.v, Exam.t Bais, 7, if^Vf 
^^^ % ^ftf^ t tXw^f Tmr, I would have got 
such a brother-in-law hanged, Q Bsm ! 

^1^1 «w<»i (/• ^IWV fl'wl) = ^^ ihsd, q.v. Exam., 

Bais. 27, ^fi;^ iftr^ nxm ^^ir nft m* nr tift, 

Working such an {efficacious) magic, I should not let 
mj lover depart. 



^ 



40 



46 



SO 



dl = ^m; di (1), ^rt at (1), a see. der^ suff, used 
to form abstract nouns from adjectives, as X^goi^ 
lightness, from Tf* light; «WTT goodness, from 
HWTgood. 

{Skr. HT, 8hr. Pr. Vi ^ J^*. Pr. ^ (JKm. ii, 164), 
m^& pleon. w ^uperadddcl, t< ig 8hr. flt^, Pr. f^^rr or 
ITiT, or, fwcZttdingr <%6 ^naZ ^ of the base, ^fi:^, a?ui 
Grf. ^t; with pleon. ^ ( =^ if ) added again to the 
base, we have Pr. ^WC^ contracted to Chf. ^ilt. See 
04. Or., § 220.] 



utt (1) \for words commencing thus, and not mentioned 
below, see under ^ A, 

ati (2)^ a verbal termination, a ^ A, q^v. 



ailr != ^m^fK dor, q.v. 



a&t, ^ir ut, ^liHlRvr, aii%d, Tbh., «ttA«fc m. ; 
' a man who dies without leaving issue ; *a biM)helor, 
'a blockhead, fool. 



^F « 



6 •== 



^wi\ 



akathl 



{Properly Evndi^ h'ld occasionally used by 
educated Bihdfis,) 

[S*r. "^^pc: or «^5ir»»; P5. *^T"it, »^f5^n?t; 

5^^^; —IT. >^wir, wr, "^BififiiT; GarA. «^tit;/^. 

'^s "^ (-Sfi. G^.)i '^'^i (/•) '^; -8^^- ^^iW* 
(m.), *^^A (/.); Jf- Aa* ^'iW in the sense of 
plougli^ plough-boy.] 

^yi ac; /or K^orcb commencing thtM, see under ^ ni, 

^^T od' ; /or words corf^mendng thus, see under ^ au. 

^«r amsh, ^ ofids ; for words commencing thuSf see 
under ^^n ans. 



^^ oJb {I), Tbht, a der. euff, occurring in a certain 
number of sec, roots. Sometimes the original root 
{generaily with a slightly different meaning) occurs 
tide by eide with the sec. root thus formed ; but in 
most cases the former is no longer in use. ExaiTlii 
^"ff^m be separated and ^%Z be split ; v^W^* be 
painful and»J^n tighten ; ogam \/'%S^ split, ssjx 



ramble, from the disused ^\ or ifT and ^"mk 
respectively ; similarly ^^i^m gUtter, ^WWW shine, 
and many others^ see H. B.^QS. 

{It may be noted that these sec. rootsy just like 
prim, roots f may be used as nouns of action, which 
are generally femimne in their weak form; while 
their strong forms end in ^WT mase. and ^[ift fem. ; 
e.g., VW/. pain, H^wf. glitter, mw^ /. glance. 
See the art. ^ a (2) and T i (2), both prim. der. suff.) 

[TA6 original of this suffix most probably is 
the 8kr. ^^^ kfi, which in construction with any 
noun {generally in the ace. sing,) may form a sort 
of periphrastic root. Thus Skr. yp[^ + ^^ blow 
{lit. make puflf), in^ + ^/n hinder {lit. make 
hindrance, from w^, 1^ + v W rumble {lit. make 
a rumbling noise), w*^ + ^"9 pain {lit. make tor- 
ment). In Pr. the y/'9i coalesces with the noun^ 
so as to form an indivisible compound root ending 
in Mj which last element is in Qd, further reduced 
to a single M. Thus the abovementioned Skr. peri* 
phrastic roots become in Pr. the compound roots y^Hf 
{pres. part. ac«. ^liifT, Sapt^ vs. 176; pres. part, 
pass, ^ftr^iii Hem. iv, 422), ^w^, x/W^, vAWW, 
and in G^., ^v^, \/ttmy v/^rfw, v/w^^. It wUl 
thus be seen that the initial ^ of the suffix ^m is 
really the termination of what was originally a noun 
while the element M represents what was originally 
the root ». For further information on the nature 
and origin of such comp. roots, see O4. Or., § 363 
p. 173.] 



10 



16 



20 



25 



SO 



85 



40 



46 



60 



^r^ ak (2), (/. J^ ), T«^ a prim. der. suff., used only 
in tats, words to form adjectives and nouns of agency. 
Exam.| WTTH., (/. irrf^), adoer,/row^v^«. 

{^Skr. ^M:,f TVT ; met with in all Ods. In all 
prohaMlUy this suff. is a compound of the prim, 
der. suff. ^ a (2), g.v.y and the pleon. suff. w, 
q,v. ; thusy m. ^w: = ^ + W:,/. T*T= T + ▼T. 
The tadbh. form of the suf. is m. ^r^ d (2), /. 

^SRIT ak (3), Tbh.y a shortened form ofTmek orxmek one, 
occurring only in compounds^ such as ^VWWT ak^ldy 
^fm^Kak^soTy ^m^wnXk ok^haMariy ^wfHK-^akdtar^sd^ 

etc. {q.P.)> 

[skr. Tnt, Ap. Pr. xm {Hem. iv., 371), B. v% 

or WV.] 



T aVtay^ ^trv dktayy Vfs^sw ik^fap, 
iktajff Any., adj. com. gen.^ acting, being temporarily 
in charge of an office in the place of another officer. 

[£. acting, a tech. term of the Indian Adminis^ 
tration.] 



akai^bakatf TbKf subst. m., * trifles, things 
worth nothing ( = ^T^-WPiV) j ^ence ^the mioor 
portions of a composite whole. ExaiTlii ^Chan.^ ^rv«- 

^9s^ 9^ 4t 9^ ^TW, ^«hr wf ftrw ^^w wrrw, To 

speak trifles as they come into the mind, is the 
natural disposition of evil men. *Eb. 2, 59, ^inra 
^9^n(.W^i« ^m ^piir, All the pegs and pins of the 
cart came loose. See ^V^-wir^ agafbagar. 

[Perhaps connected with y[W^ or ^ri^ (1), 
j.f?., Wir» being a reduplication of ^mv; or the latter 
might itself be a reduplication of wil», q.v. Cf, M. 
fn«-f^« rigorously minute, amd ^mv-f^f^s hideously 
large.] 

^^JT iVtd (1), the same as ^Krh iVrd (1), q.v. 




•dT iV^d (2), the same as ^tm^ Sk^fdy q.t. 
^'IT^ ak'^,fem. o/^«r Sk'td (2), q.v. 



ak^tdbar, ^ra^ aktdbar^ the same as 
^^•IMI ak^tUbar, q.v. 

^^RTSl akafhlf Tbh., adj. com. gen.^ mischievous, 
noxious, injurious. Exam.i Chan.y '%ss[rft "^sni 

{ =r^^ + ift ) i5?f, ^rvft mm ^rw^ fV r»» To 

an unreasonable man defects alone are visible: a 
nuBchievous person sees them veiy deftlj. 

[Probably from Skr. ^rfimnr, Pd. ^vf^rai ; with 
the intens. ^ a (6), q.v.l 



j/^?n»f 



aJcar 




j/^RRf 



akafi {jpr4 pUt. ^m^W aWra%tj J5A. 

a*Va6 ; ^m'f aiVai), Tbh., v. intr.y \io become 
hard^ stiff; ^ to writhe^ become distortedi cramped; 
^to strut affectedly, swagger, give oneself aira i^to 
challenge to fight, Phr., ^WS^ ^T^ {lit to become 
fttiffi hence) to come to the end of one's resources 
{as in a lawsuit or struggle.) ExaiTUi ' Coll, f^jR^TT 
^iivff i^y The corpse has got stiff.; Colh (£k,)j 
pinirft II ^RHf iN&o P ^nriTf «rF ht?W5, Have you 
come to the end of your resources already P Now you 
are powerless. * Coll, (Bh,)j ^fhfX ^ ilY^ ^IVfW ^, 
The horse's leg^are distorted or crooked ; CoU. {Bh.)j 

^mK^mf^^^^WW^^^^t^^n^, My arms 
and legSj beiug stiff and distorted, have become like 
efticks. ^B. Gt.j I {Introd.), Fable 11, ifw ^wff ^^^rw 

Swaggering along, I shall show off the finery 
of my ornaments and clothes and the beauty 
of my countenance. *CoU. {Bh,), ^ ^m^ % VfT 
M^8 Wi^, He stands up swaggeiingly, challenging 
to fight. 

[Der. uncertain; but ef. Skr. \/w%^he hard, also 
8kr. W%W amd wftK hard, stiff, which are probably 
prdkritising derivations from Skr. in or w, both 
derivatives of Skr. v/v^- The most comm^on represent^ 
ative of the latter root in Pd, and Pr. is ^y, properly 
a der. root, for Pd. or Pr. ipp: = Skr. mufif (see Hem. 
iv, 187 ; y standing for "^ as in Pr. ^/%y for Skr. 
%«, Bhn. iv, 51, 221). Thence comes Pd. and Pr. 
y/^TRfyi representing Sir. ^^^mK\ [lit. ^irm ) draw 
up, cramp. This might change in 0^. to y/^vn or 
^n[mw or v/^R[W or ^fw^ {forwffw). The process 
of loss or transfer of aspiration is not wiconvmon in 
Od. {see remarks en derivation of ^mw), or even in 
Fr.f see Q4 Cr.f p. 82, and possibly the prdkritising 
Skr. v/wy w dus to it. Or perhaps tiie ^/^n^ may 
be related to the adj. VfT standing, which is a modi' 
fication of Pr. nrf, Skr. ^Rf, p.p.p. of y/mm ( see 
Cp. Or. iii, 60) • In this case the initial ^ of the y/^W^ 
would be the intens. pref. {see art. ^ a (6)). H^y/^^im^ 
{Sd. Dy.) unth adj. ^Hf or^tWf, P. 



or 



y/^i^ or v/^TPirf 9 O. ^niY ^^^ numerous derivatives^ 
S. ^rf^nw {properly a pass, form ^iftrv + w, see 8. 
Qr.y p. 258) ; wanUng, apparently ^ in the other Ods.y 
in which only derivatives of it occur { see art. ^nlf^ 
akan), adopted from the Hindi.] 



akar, also {Mth.) ^Ri^jT agaf (1), the same as 
nmf^ akafiy q.v. 




aiafbdi, ^rar^UTt akar^bdi, Tbh,, subst. 
/., {Bh.) the cramps, rheumatism. Examii Coll. 



10 



15 



90 



86 



90 



86 



40 



i& 



60 



akan 



{Bh.), ^wsxj ^wrf«n« ^ ifT# He has got 
rheumatism. . 

^Properly 1^ verb, noun of the doubh'Causal 
v/^WfWTW, made with the prim. suff. T * (2), g.v. 
This double causal root does not otherwise occur 
in B,, the simple causal y/^%^m {q.v.) being ordi* 
narily used. From this latter root tite corresponding 
words P. n% f 11 or ^il^fHT, <?. ^IWTt, are derived. 
H., like B., has ^^nf^TT^. It should be noted that 
in euch derivatives the causal or double ca/usal root 
has the same meamng as the prim, root, t.6,, it is 
properly a pleon. rootj formed with thepleon. suff. 
^ysee Gd. Or., p. 170, § 849. See art. WV^ di {2), 
^^TT ab^y wnc bdL See also arU ^irff akati. Or the 
word may be explained as a compound of 'l^ {q.v.) 
and tnt wind, the latter word being an usual term 
for rheumatism.] 



Wrd, HNm iVrd (2), Tbh., subst. »., {Bh.) ' a 
calcareous nodular limestone, found in the soil in 
many parts of India, used in making roads, lime, 
etc.; •(& Bh.) ooaxte gravel {Ors., § 794), pebbles. 
See ^hrv^Tfiiew (2), ^ftfsft «*>! (»),^W»» a^iaf. 

{When it appears in large blod:s, it is ^Iwm ; the 
small pieces for road-metal are ^TfPf , or ^9%^, 
or ^Nrv^ ; when used for Ume-bumin^, it is ^W^.) 

[This word does not appear to occur in any of 
the other dialects of B., nor in amy of the other Qds. ; 
U is in att probability msrely a mutilated form of 
IW^, ^S!W^9 J«^» The latter are the forms occurring 
in all other O4. hmgua^es and B. dialects, and also 
occurin Bh. by the side of^tt^f^. Compare, however, 
the first part of^%^in%€, q.v.] 



^^«B*«I«I ai^rdb, {pr. pts. ^W|5^ akar^bait, 
Bh. ^ Mg., ^%^ffi|il ak^rdwat, ^w^^Tf^ir akWdwit, 
^**flfm ak'rdtt ; ^%\if\^i\M aVfdol ; %%^^ \ }^^ 
at^fdeb; ^^ppfTW akffdbai, i|VfT3r ai^rde), Tbh., 
t;. ir., to distress, impede. Exaniii Coll. {Bh.), v 
^ilnnci ^^•f R fic^^WF ? i|T P You have impeded him, 
haven't you P 

[Causal qf y^^^^f , j.r.] 




atari, ^WRf ^ar, Tbh., subet. /., {Bh.) * cramps, 
crookedness, contortedness, stiffness; * pride, swag- 
ger, stmt, airs, conceit; ^parade, pomp, show. 
Comp., ^OTf-nr^, ^w^-^w^, ^Wfw-wir^, m., 
pomp, stateliness, affected airs; ^Wf-wnv, com. 
gen., an affected person, a fop; ^▼f-wiWV, /, 
swaggering, strutting, foppishness, airs. Phr., %n^ 
tmrrpw, to swagger. Exam., 'Coll (Bh.), "^^w^xi 
%t^ IS ^rwf^ WTf* ifW n\, He has got cramps or 
stiffness in the loins. * Coll. {Bh.) , mrTtT n^nlf ^rt ^^w^ 



^SNwV 



4%'ri 



8 



Qk^W>ar 



^WntftX^oy What airs are yon giving yourself before 
me! ^CoU. (Bh.), t ^ ^ n^»aif * wftww ^, 
This is a wedding procession of great pomp. See 

[Properly let verb, noun of ^ ^Wf ( q.v.), 
formed mth prim. euff. \ \ (2), j.v, IT. eame ae B.; 
P» mw^ or ^mf {euhet), ^np^mm {a^.), ^I f ill^ 
{eulet.) ; 8. ^lfif«i1 («tt6«^,, as w ^iPifsTl tw^ to 
walk affectedly^ to stmt) ; G. ^ilff {subet.)^ ^«iryT- 
^m^ {svhstf rivalryi contest, cf 4ath meaning of 
x/^^), ^^f^lfl {a4/0> ^^iVrT^ («t64»<.), probably 
ako ^fhpf («u&8^.| cramps). In the other Ods. 
U ta adopted from H, or B.; thtie Bg, ^fiif^ 
( eubet, a spasm ) ; M. ^m^ or "w^ ( eubst), 
^^^wm or w^[^n\m {adj.), ^^i^^ifWT^ or ^if^iaH 
{avhst.)'] 




at'H (1), ^*N»t^ Sk'rl (1), Tbh., «M&«^. /., 
a ra/rely need Mth. form for ^ffpft akurl, q.v. 

[The eimpleet derivation {suggested already in 
lioleewortVe M. Dy.) is from 8kr. WT took, ivith the 
Ap. Pr. pleon. suff. w {Hem. iy, 429) ; thus Ap. Pr. 
^'inrw w., ^ilffiil /., contracted into "^Nj'WT, ^(NRift. 
Jt may, however, be simply a corruption of ^HffPC^, 
which would explain the appea/rance of ^ uin the 
0. ''iJliyfr and of ^ in the O. ^upKt (<?. ^nPlT = 
^WT ), and on the other hcmd the disappearance of 
w^ m B. ^I[^^ ii'^')} ^* ^fvft shoot. K •*fft, 
O. ^(tWY and ^RpKti M. ^iffwr and -^Jhrwr w., -^vft 
/. {the fem. meaning, as in B., a forked stick for 
pnlling down fruit), 0. ^Tf^ m., ^ffi^ /., Bg. 
^flp^nffx; but 8. ff^^-w., ipft /,] 

•^«R*^ «AVl (2), ^«wr?t a*V5 (2), i«^ri;rt a*'fl, (a/w 
in iftA. and N. Bh. Hif^ i*Vi or X^:^ t*Vl), 
Tbh.f «t*b«<. /., ^ (JBA.) small pieces of limestone, 
used as road-metal { Ors. § 1266 ) ; « ( iS. Bh, ) fine 
gravel {Qrs. § 794). See "^nfT Si'r** and '^Nitdft, 

[Property /ew. of^tn?^ Sk^fd, j.v.] 

ak'raity Tbh., ad;, (^w. ^^n., (JIftA. /. 
^rarf ffr aAVrtiH), swaggering, foppish. Exam.i Chan.^ 

^^^ ^ ^«w ^f i^iT, ^rw ^ t^ w, w^ ''ni^v, 

It causes insufferable pain to good people not to 
think of others and to walk swaggeringly ; CoU. 
{Bh.), ^^ ^W^ WT, The bull is wallowing and 
roaring. 

{The word is princtpaliy used of bulls and the 
Uke,.and thence also applied to men.) 

[Properly {Mth). pres, pa/rt. of ^^/^f^ (q.v.) ; S. 
^|i|^W, P. ^^^^ {or corrupt ^WC^, from P, pres. 
part, in^nd) subst.f, swagger,] 



10 



15 



20 



26 



SJ^r^il, Tbh., a4;\ oom^ gen,, {Bh.) gravelly, 
w^ espee, of certain soils, {Gfrs. § 794). See ^Kkt^ 
Sk^fibr. 

[Der. from ^#irwT by means qf the e$e. der, suff. 
^IseeGd. Or. § 246,] 

il^ribr, a synonym of ^Jh^^ ak\M, q.v. 
{Gfrs. § 794), 

[Ber, from ^^t^JfT by means of the see. der. suff. 
^V; seeOd. (7r. §246.] 




W akantak, Ts., adj. com. gen., Ut. free from 
thorns; hence met. ' free from annoyance, trouble ; 
•free from enemies, Exam., * Bam., Bd., ch. 96, 8, w* 
^^WRr wm W^, Saints and hermits felt relieved 
of an annoyance. *Ib., A., ch. 182, 6, wff ^unffw 
xm ^^iT^, I will reign at ease and free from 
enemies. 

{The word is never used in its literal sense,) 
ISkr. ^mufwr^, Bg. ^^filRi, and so in all Qds,'] 



80 



85 



40 



46 



50 



^IPRTT akat, Ts.,(I) adj. com. gen., thorough, utter, perfect 
( in a bad sense). ExarUi, Mg. ballad, ^f%W ^rWT ^w 
^ncnr wn, ^WW w^ttt «r^ "Winrr, When Bar' wan ate 
the first mouthful, it seemed as it were utter poison 
{after Ihllon) ; Coll (Mth.), ^ft^ ^TW vrft ^WW 
<rrv\ ift, T^e water of that well is thorough poison ; 
Coll. {Mth.) , <: «I^T % ^Vif^ wt9 ^fV, lit. he is a perfect 
knot of poison, i.e,, he is a thoroughly wicked 
person ; similarly Wf9i wt^ a perfect nlm, i.e., as 
bitter as the juice of the nlm-tree. 

(11) adv., thoroughly, intensely (in a bad 
sense), (practically serving as a superlative particle). 

Exam., CoU. {Bh.), t ^^ ^ww iftur rr, This fruit 

is intensely bitter ; so also ^WT ^^^^ thoroughly 
bitter. 

[SAt. WSH: lit. not made, not artificial; hence 
eternal, natural ; hence thorough ; Pd. ^imw the eter- 
nal {an epithet of the Nirvana) ; not met with in 
the other Gds. The tadbh. equivalent is Pr. ^nrv or 
^lfw% {cf ^WtV Sapt, vs. 920, and ^rf%^ Hem. iv, 396, 
meaning, in both instances, thoroughly) ; cf. M. ^filH 
the uncreate {an epithet of God). An analogous case 
is that of "^y^f which also properly m^ans natural, 
and hence thorough, e.g., Jan., ch. 12, ^TW mfWr, 
thoroughly charming. The word might, however, also 
be derived from 8kr. ^^iir, Pr. ^[wn, uncut, unim^ 
paired; hence, entire, whole, thorough; analogously 
to ^^fW, ^W^, ?.<?.] 



ak'tobar. Any., subst. m>, 



^^•f\^K aVtabar, 

the month of October. 
[E. October.] 



H|<Hrft| .aiaUh 



9. 



^1R Mm 



^^3f aJta^eA (oM Pit.) 



o^a^&y J.t^. 



^^1" a%af&9 oW Bu>. ^^gm akatthy Ts., ac^*. com. gen., 
what oannot be spoken or described, unspeakable, 
nnntterable, inexpressible, indescribable* Exaun^i 
Edm., Bd.y ch* 2, 13, ^w^ ^^^f^ iftr^-TW, An 
unspeakable, spiritual chief Tirtha ; tfcid., ch. 26, 7, 
wnr ^•'rfir ^1i| (fim.) nrwl'. The mystery of name 
and form cannot be told ; f . jBdm., UL 145, ^ir 

fwfif ^iW, irfVTT '^**l (/<?»».), J[W^ mj^ W5^ ^fiTT, 

(iSi6) powerful in every way, of unutterable greatness, 
the appeaser of Tul'sl Dss' doubts ; DdA. 199, ^nr-V^ 

IpfTT i^pr, ^'ft^ ^[^"''^» '^rfww, ^m^9 ^f^K ; iffk 

i^fil f^W fipnr «^, ( Wise) like Saraswatl is thy speech, 
incomprehensible, past understanding, indetermin- 
able, unutterable, impenetrable ; the sacred scriptures 
can speak of it only in negatives, (imr or wmx 
is Sarastcati, the goddess of speech and learning; 
%fir is Sir. ^ + xfif ; lit, the scriptures altoays 
say ' no, no!) ; Padm., do. 229, 1, mfw iRVWT f^ranft 
'ITW Tl^ ^ firn W^m, {The tears of her) eyes 
were her ink, and her eyelashes the pen, and bitterly 
weeping she wrote unutterable {words). See ^S[w^ 
akathy* and ^««i«^<|y akatVn\y\ 

[Properly a faU part, pass., Sir. ^mRi, P4.^vm9t 
{cf. pass. ^Juft Pd. Dy.), Pr. ^rvft {of. pass. ViTi 
Hem. iv, 249), Ap. Pr. ^%n -, 8. ^rf» (yr ^nw (S. 
By. ; on the change of'nto ^, cf. Qd. Or,, §§ 116-120, 
145), H. ^raif ; apparently wam,img in the other Gds. 
The form of the word is noteworthy an account of its 
irregulcmty. As a rule the Sir. conj, cons. 19 changes 
to^in Pd. cmd Pr. {Hem. ii, 21 ; e.g. ^^T = Sir. 
wm road, fem.fut. part. pass. of^vM) ; in order to 
avoid this inconvenient change in pose, inflexion, 
it was usual to employ the alternative phon. change 
of dissolving the conj. cons, iir into fr^ or ^fhir {Pd. 
l?t^), tf. Hem. iii, 160; thus Sir. w^, = wf^T {Hem. 
iv, 249) or wfhm, Pd. ^^t^f9 (Pd. Dy.) The change 
of ^ to '99 or % therefore, is quite irregular. The irreg^ 
ularity is clearly a/n old onCf as it is already noticed 
by Pd. and Pr. grammarians {Hem. ii, 174). In 
ail probability the word is really an ancient tatsama, 
being preserved from the 8kr. as a sort of technical 
term, applicahle to * things transcending the human 
mind.* Other similar instances are tm or ^^ dietetic 
food {a medical techn. term^ aho in Pr., see Sapt., vs. 
814, for W^ = Sir. ^, Wi or im poet, within {for 
r, = Sir. wht).] 



^SRW^'uT* aiath*n^y\ Ta., adj. com. gen., { subst. f. 
^^^in^^ft^ akatVn^yd), * unspeakable, unutterable, 
inexpressible, indescribable ; *unsaitable to be spoken 
or described. Exam.f ^Bdm., Bd., ch. 70, 1, ^iw^i^ 



10 



16 



80 



26 



<r^^ ^ "rrft/ A heavy, grievous, and unutterable 

pain. ""Coll. {Bh.), w^rnv^ mx ^wWPt 'tw ^rm %irw 

▼ 'It ^ ^*1»41^ vr, His brother has this time done 
such a thing as is unsuitable to be described. 

IProny ^ +W^^ft^, fat. pass. part, of ^W^^ 
Sir. ^wn^t, a pure tats., which may be used in 
all Ods.^ 



• apathy*, Ts., adj. com. gen., the same as 
• akath*nfy*, q,v. 
^ ^ + ^^,fut. pass. part, of \/^^ Skr. 
:, a pwre tats., which may be used in aM Ods.] 




akad, Any., subst. m., the marriage contraA 
amongst Musahnans (Gh-s. §§ 1273, 1279j. 
lAr. J^, 'aqd.'] 



l/^^R 



ahan = v^'^^fW Uka/n, q.v. 



so 



35 



40 



46 



60 



^"^«nn 8kan, ^vr akan, (pr. pts. '^[vtiiw Wnaxt, 
^•mrwir &ienal, y^^m^ dk'nab, tJijiW Hk'nad), {Bw.), 
Tbh., V. tr., «to give ear, hear, hearken, listen, 
attend; hence «to attend to information, to learn, 
to oome to know; and ^to litteud to music, to 
keep time to music, to march in accordance with 
musical time; also *to attend to the sound of 
money, test Aoney {Ors. § 1489). Exam., 'Bdm., 
Bd., ch. 349, 3, ijxmn wnw ^^wftr wttwt, When 
the citizens heard the marriage procession coming ; 
Rdm., A,, ch. 44, 1, mw ft^ ^^fii rm ^ ¥Tt, 
When the king heard the fall of the footsteps 
of Ram; Git., Bd., 37, 5. §w ^rftofijif w^ wvf 
^^HT ^^fn xm X\^ ^PNw w^rt, Hearing the 
arrangement of excellent words filled with affection 
{the allusion is to a number of songs), Eam opened 
his lotuslike eyes ; K. Rdm., Bd. 19, <V^ i?T% 
WW^^wfir ^^rfhft WT^, Lakhan, hearing these 
unpleasant words (of Farasurdm), felt enraged. 
^Bin. 220, ^nft VT %ini» ^i^cww ^rfinT ^m ^^rm, 
%^ Tft-5T www Vtw MRnmlHr wftirrw. Learning that 
the object of its {i.e., KalikdPs) deceptions was (to do) 
countless (deeds of) injustice and destruction, 
Parichhit, when residing happily in Haripur {i.e. 
Baikunfh or Bishnu's heaven), repented (of hamng 
spared it). ^Bdm., Bd., do., 809, 1, jKiT WwnwHf 
^WT WK, ^^Ui fk^X ftnnw, Noble princes cause 
horses to prance, keeping time to drums and kettle- 
drums. *Coll., <: WTWT'^Nrnio, Sound this rupee. 
See v/^wrrw aidn. 

(The conj. part, ^mfk is the only form in which 
this verb has been met mth by us in B. literature.) 

[S*r. -v/wr^EW, lO^fccZ. ^pswwfir; Pr. 'WTVWT 
or •wwwi: or ^^ITW^T (Rdv. xi, 7, Sapt., vs. 366) ; 





(d^nun 



B. •^nrir or ^Nw or ^^ ; ff. Mome as B. ; 8. 

'^Yim:^ (wif-; peThap$ a pleon, y/^tt^(T%, eontr, 

from ^TW^nr (uri^A atfpfc. w) ^Pn-^^l^ilft, Sfcr, 

-^•^TW^Pr) ; apparently wanting in the other Ode. 

All Ods. also use the equivalent tcUs. ^^IT^.] 



10 






akat^ni 



ai^n^n, Any.v adv.^ now, at present. 
^[Prs. 4s;y^l a*wfln.] 

^«n*MI^ al^phdk, mv^n sak'phak, (-»*.)# '*• •W'w as 

al^sakf q.v. 



^^^^^^ ak'bak, Tbh., subsi 



aVhar^ ^HBTC aJchary {poet. ^^m*n akahhar)^ 
Any.f s\j^8t. m,f a man's name, the emperor Akbar. 
Se was the second emperor of HindHstdn of the 
Mughul house of Tlmur, His full name and title, 
as given on his coinSf was JaldlU'd-din Muhammad 
Akbar Pddshdh Ghdsil,i.s.^ Jaldlu'd'din Muhammad, 
the Great, the Victorious Emperor* He reigned at 
Agra {see art. ^m^m.m\^ ) from AD. 1542—1605. 
See BeaWs Oriental Biographical Didionaay^ s.v. 
Some detached Hindi verses are commonly ascribed to 
him, among which is the folhfcing ddhd. ExaiHii Siv., 

p. 375, WT ^ «w Y •nnrlS, wm ^tty ^n^ \ irr ^ 

rfhw ^nw %5 ^nfif ^WW mf% • Whose fame is 
(spread) in the world, whom the world praises, his 
life is snooessful, (so) says Akbar ShKh. 
[Ar. ytU akbar, lit. the Great.] 



H||l|^«4|i^|4(|^ aVbardbdd, ^^J^WTX akbardbdd, Any., 
^ subst. m., the name of the capital of the emperor 
Akbar, Agra. 

[ilr. A^fj^l akbardbdd, lit the abad or settle- 
ment of Akbar. Be built a fort at Agrd, made it his 
principal residence, and named it Akbardbdd after 
himself] 

^RTTVI ak^barl, ^enf^ akban. Any., (I) adj. com. gen., 
relating to Akbar. Phr., ^fflT^ litfT subst m,, 
foe., a one-eyed man {Hd. Dy.). Exaniii ^ritfir 
^^F^^ the Ain^-Akbari or the Institutes of Akbar, 
the name of the third volume of AbnU FazFs celebrated 
history of the reign of the emperor Akbar, called the 
Akbar^ndmah ; ^wikV ^vwft or ^si\*^ a gold coin 
of Akbar, worth variously, 9, 10, 12, 27, or 30 {but 
not 16) rupees {see Prinsqp^s Useful Tables, p. 6). 

(II) subst. /., a sweetmeat of riee-flonr and sugar 
formed into balls, and, after being fried in ghi or 
oUrified butter, enomsted with olaiified sugar. 
[From Ar, j^\ akbar^ with Pre. suff. </ I.] 



10 



16 



20 



» 



so 



u 



^Wn aVmd, Any^ adj. com. gen., bom blind. 
{Properly Urdu ; used only by educated Muham- 
madans qfBihdr.) 

[Ar. ^\ akmah.'] 

^Wrr^ Sk^mdl, Ihh^subst. /., embrace, hug. Phr., 
^^Nrnnw tw, to embrace. Exam.| H. Rdm., 8u. 29, 

ffir WTW wnrr ^f^-wnrv wni^ ^t^ «n^ wifw* ww 

'^'NiTTV %W W, Lake a company of travellers, escaped 
from a sinking ship and considering themselyes as 
being bom {anew) that day, they all embraced {one 
another) . See ^«vtK ik^wdr. 

[S*r. ^ivwrftrt, Pr. '^Nwrfii {Sapt., vs. 996), 
hence B. ^^•mi^, with the not uncommon change of 
n toT( through an intermediate Ap. Pr. N. See 6d. 
fl^r.,§ 134,1). 74.] 

^nilMRfT akamit, Tbh., adv., suddenly, imezpeotedly. 

Exam.i Vaish^ X, 3, ^nfim, ^ %$ ^itfmm ^vr nm 

^fif, Suddenly, alas 1 (she hears) the song of the 
cuckoo in the fifth scale. 

[Perhaps a corruption of Skr. ^irVTi(, q.v. 
Compare also ^irrl^.] 

^^f^KPI akany^an, Ta«, subst. m., {lit. free from trem« 
bling), name of a rakshasa or demon in the suite of 
Biban, king of Oeylon. Exam.| Itdm., Ln., ch. 45, 

10, ^ifim ^9ii«mr ^'w ^fti*i^i fii^ww %w ^ft^ ij^ 

irnn. When the line began to l»reak, Akampan and 
Atikaya had recourse to jugglery ; Han. 19, mf<^«iii(, 
^Wi^ l^Jiror % |51IK %lf^-«irct, He {HanumOn) is 
the lion's cub {that killed) those elephants Bsrid'nad, 
{i.e. MegVndd), Akampan, and £umbhakaran. 

[Skr. ^litqws, a * bahuvrlhi ' compound qf ^ not 
and w«inr trembling ; Pr. ^|i|««rit {Bdv. ziv, 70).] 



40 



fiO 



akar, Ta^ adj\j com. gen., exempt from taxes, duty- 
free, {tech.) one who does not pay G-ovemment 
revenue. Exaniti Chan., ^snx ^%W wi^ f^irif nxn, 
^^TC vrv ^^ ^>T ^1^ ^>nw. While paying himself 
no revenue, he exacts it from every one; the 
sun« though possessed of rays, does not take any 
payment. 

[Skr. ^n^ ; hence ^nx in all 0^.] 




akaf^nl, Tbh*, adj. com. gen., not to be 
done, wrong, unBuj|tabie. ExaiTlii Chm., v^rl^ ^ 
^^^w1% 'ixi^inf, w ^wr^WW, {The perform- 
ance of) good acts is {a duty) for every one ; it is 
well to die ; it is not good to do wrong {i.e. death is 
preferable to wrong-doing) ; CoU. {Bh.), Ht^t^ WtnfY 
^nrc^ 'Wi What was right in your eyes has 
tamed out to be the reverse. 



^Mki.«*im akat'mai 



11 



al^rdr 






[^Fhm ^ + wrltw,/i#fc pass. part, of ^^/^ do ; 
kenee 8kr. ^mvft^ w.» ^WR^iVwT/, Pr.^^iwvft^ m., 
^ miJ^^ r /. (cf. Hem. i, 248), Ap. Pr. ^mvft^ «»., 
^rfTJSl /, or ^mWW com. gen. {cf. Him. iv, 329 
330) ; hence^ contracted^ Od. ^niT^ or ^w^. J%a 
Jbrm with ^ ?* belongs to W. Qd. In M. it occurs 
shortened to ^SWK^ in the eomp. ^%iM%K lit. doing 
what ifl not to be done, perverse.] 



akar^mal, Tbh., adj. com. gen.^ (Mth.) 
unfortunate. Exaniii Chan. tlTV VT^ WR wii^TV, 

^w^iW irw, K^w ^ww^ ^W ^fl^m R A bald man 
went and sat down under the shade of a b^l-tree, 
being made unoomfortable by the sun shining on 
him. Suddenly a bsi fruit dropped on his head and 
his skull was broken. What an unlucky thing it 
was I Sib, Sib, wherever an unfortunate man 
may go, the fruit of his sins will be preceding 
him. 



[Formed from ^nirni or ^n^ (q.v.) mth the Mth. 
suff. W, iohich is only the past part, term.^ and is ctdded 
in Mth. to make participial ac(f. of real or supposititious 
eerbs.'] 

V*^i V akar^mdrj Tbh., subst. /., ground not 
properly cleaned for receiving seed* 

[-4 comp. of ^♦l'^ (1) and wtXK (?.r.)» ^*^« 
infested with vetch. Qf. H. ^mrniT.] 



akWa (1), (/. ^vx\ aft'H), Tbh., adj.^ dear, 
costly, high-priced (in a bad sense). .ExamM i^J-) 

^j^ iKibj^ iftv, I bought Qt>bind, some said dearly, 
others said cheaply, so I weighed him in the 
balances (said by Mird Bdfy a celebrated poetess^ tcife 
of Rdnd Kumbha <ff Chifor, in the Ibth cent. A.D.^ 
see Calcutta Review j vol. XL VII I, p. 7, and As. 
Bes., vol. XVI, p. 09). See ^im^ ak'rl (3) and 
^S^J^ akdl. 

[Probably derived from 8kr.^%^t (=s ^ + ^rm) 
or ffurimt ( ss ^nnir-W ), lit. unseasonable, hence dear 
(09 in times of scarcity), amd (with pleon. mff. n) 
^WTW; or ^iTVTVnr:, Pr. '^oraRJt or » ^m^^ or 

'"irarWt, Ap. Pr. «^niniw or •*^tiww; 8. «^iTftrT, 

(\ being due to the influence of the lost w ), P. '^ilW^} 
B. and H. > ^ISKT. Apparently wanting in the other 
Ods. This is an instance of the common B. change of 
^tox extended to the W. 04s ; in S.y like B., it is 
usual ; cf. 8. W^n famine ^ 8kr. ^^mwu} 



^TJ ak'rd <2) =. i»i«t Wrd (3), q^. 



10 



16 



25 



Sk'rd (1) or i<Nr««T iO^td, Tbh., subst. /., 
a kind of grass or vetch (vieia sativa, Wat.) ; it is a 
parasitic weed which grows in the wheat-fieUs under 
the spring crop and twines amongst the plants {Ors. 
§ 1075). It is sometimes used as a fodder (Ell., vol. 
II, p. 213) ; oho termed ^*v^ M'rf (1), ^BffT 
fifttfrf, q.v. 

[It may be a corruption of ^tfKK (cf. the fern.), 
derived from Skr. ^TT, which lit. means having a 
hook, hence (with pleon. suff.-m) Pr. ^if^^w., ^fft^ 
/•> Od. ^[jiM m.y •^•jR^/. Or it may be derived from 
8kr. ^^ hook, with the Pr. suff. w, which in Od. may 
change to x; thus Pr. ^^wit or (with pleon. w) '^ifw^, 
04* ^'ITT. In the latter case, however, there should 
be in B, an alternative form ^(NrfT dkWd ; and in the 
absence of it (though there is Mg. '^h$*wt), the former 
derivation is the more probable one. In any case, the 
B. word is undoubtedly connected in one way or the 
other with the 8kr. ^w hook. Generally speaking, 
it may be noted that the derivatives of the Skr. ^r^p 
and ^ly^ have been greatly confused in the modem 
languages, owing to interchanges of ^ u and ^ a anp 
qf ^ r and x r. See also the remarks on the derivation 
of ^(Nnsf^ (1), •^•l^T, and the note on ^*«^ (1). 
H. the same as B. In the other Q4s., apparently, 
it occurs only in the f em. form, q.v."] 



**V<*> i'^* 



•TT Sierd (2) = 



80 



86 



40 



60 



^RR^TT SkWd (3), ^w^tT ak'rd (2), (/. i«*i?r Sk'ri, 
^^kV a**rf), Tbh., ac^., true, genuine^ good. Exam.i 

K. Bam., Tit. 121, ^inr-^ninr n^-Hfrnr ^<M f%5 

^fti-^, wt^-^ wrf". Through the power of his name 
and his great renown, he (Bdm) turned even the bad 
(e.g., Ajdmil, 8fc.) into good, and raised even the 
lowly (e.g., Nikhdds and Bhils ; the encL w m a particle 
qf emphasis). 

(Th^ word is said to be a synonym of ^ITT, q.v., 
and the qpp. of lih or qft^r, q.v.) 

[^Perhaps connected with Skr. ^vnv^, a mine; 
hence best, excellent.] 

^^R^^IV ak'rdr, y^><K ek*rdr, T^mK ik'rdr. Any., 
subst. m., ' an admission, confession (in this sense also 
^XIX kardr) ; * a written bond or agreement. Com p. 
^W^K-TTTT, subst m., a written agreement. Exam.i 
' ColL (Bh.), tm^T^ ^MVfJK %V*<f T l T, ^HTiKT t ^ 
To, I confess tins sin : it has been conmiitted by me. 
*Sal., 16, t ^^ iTK^ ^^'^Tt ^ itm, Thus on both ^ 
aides aH . agreement was made*; B. Or., II (Bh.), 
p. 32, T^fT ^vcr^c i%4o, Write a bond to that 
efiect. 

lAr.j^/\ iqrdr.^ 




akWdxo 



12 



"^Wlf ^ akarmak 



dk^rdWy ^iWs^fT^ aVrdto^ Tbh., BuhBt m., foot 
and mouth disease in cattle, in whkh the feet and face 
swell and the stomach distende ( Indian Cattle-Plague 
Report^ Vomb. s.v. Ukrao). 

[^Derived by means of the prim, der, suf. ^ a (2), 
(g.i?.), from the causal y^Rnp^, itself derived from 
the simple -x/^Wf* y-^- Literally the word means 
sti£Eness, cramps.] 

^*hr<*H Skariyd, Tbh., subst. /., {South Bhagalpur) 
a heifer ready for the bnll ((?r«. § 1118). 

[Prop. Ig. f of ^Ni^ (or -^itf^) a possessive adj. 
derived fr<m '^fK, q.v., by means of the Qd. suff. t i, 
see Qd. Or. § 252.] 

^^■^ ak'rl (1) {Mg.)y also (9. Mth.-Mg.) ^V^ t/*Vl, 
Tbh., subst. f, the funnel or cup at the top of the 
hollow bamboo tube of a seed-drill (Ors., § 24). 

Exam., Coll. {Mg.)j ^v^ ^r^ '^^ ^^ ^> t, 

% mx^ ^rrr^rr ^n: t, Fasten the funnel to the driU- 
plough (*1t) and take it oflf to the field. 

[^ corruption of'^fn^ {^ith ^ reduced to ^, 
see Qd. Gr., § 26 ; the long form ^^t^fPSJ occurs in the 
example of the following article) ^ a fern, diminutive of 
Vt^ or %hw (or ^WT, ^K^9W)y a mortar or pot for 
husking rice, Pr. ^^nw (Hem. ii, 90) or ^^mw 
(Hem. i, 171), Skr. ^T^O 




ak'r% (2), vr^J^ ek'rl, ^^ ik'rly Tbh., 
sub%t. /, unoleaned rice ( Qrs. § 1272 ). Exam.i Coll. 

«ro fiTlfWy I have been three days eating unhusked 
rice, for I could not get a crushing-mortar. 
[Der. ? 8. has ^iftnj^.] 




fl&'rf (3), Tbh., subst.f, high prices, scarcity. 

[Properly Urdu ; only used by tM educated in 
Bihdr.) 

[This word is properly the fem. of w^i^XT (1), q^v.y 
used as a subst. In Sfcr., vrfOTlT, the fem. ofmfmM, 
is used as a subst. in the sense of 'pnoe of a commodity 
payable at a fixed time, credit price. Similarly the 
Skr. %\[m^\yfem. of mw^, might be used. Hence 
^Wtf^m or mwif^Wl would mean want of credit 
prices, a time when no credit is given; hence 
scarcity.] 

flAVl (4),/^i». o/^WTT ak'rd (1) and (2), q.v. 

^*h«0 ^f^rl (1), Tbh., the same as Miw^ Sk'ri (1) 
and "^fjPcV Skurif q.v. ^ 

{It may be noted that with the sense of vetch it 
admits a masc.form '♦t^, ?.t^., while apparently it does 



not admit the forms -^l^rs^ and ^«*f^, spelt with ^ r. 
But though not hitherto noticed^ it is probable, from all 
the circumstances of the case^ that they do exist.) 

[For der. see art. ^Hv^ft (1), ^4tm^KT (1), and 
^f XT.— IT. and M. ^ip^, Bg. ^^.] 



o 



10 



16 



20 





Sk'ri (2) = i«^ $kYt (2), q.v. 



'^^^•1 akarun^ Tbh., adj\ com. gen., {subst. f. ^^r^VT 
akarund), pitiless, merciless, relentless. Exam., Rdm.^ 
Bd.y ch. 283, 6, ^^ f ^k W ^^^ar wWI", Having 
axe in hand, I am pitiless in my wrath. 

(Bdm Jasan's reading ^9X7 is an error. It has 
been adopted into Bate's Hindi Dictionary, where it is 
explained as eqiMl to '%mxM.) 

[Skr. ^[W^m, Pr. ^mvft {see Ndm., vs. 73), all 
Qds. "^I^WT or ^wvf.J 



^qi^'^T flAVfir, ^^V^V ak'riir, 
akruvy q.v. 



aJCrur = 



'v 



25 



ao 



86 



40 



80 



^«n*^id ak'ro^, '^^ akrot = ^wt» akhrof, q.v. 
( Wat. akrot.) 

^«H«OCl ak'rdrlj Tbh., subnt. /, small pebbles. 
Exam., Padm., ch. 137, 3, itT^ ^ff^ %^ ^^ ^^^ «f, 
T ^^, ir »r^ '^ft^, Put slippers on your feet so that 
thorns may not pierce, nor pebbles wound them. 
See -4^?^ Sk'ri (2) and -^^rft ak'rl (2). 

[Derived from ^Nrrr (2) by means of the pleon. 
mff, ^^TT, fern, ^iphft {Qd. Or. § 209). The fem. 
gender indicates diminutiveness.'] 

^^f^^ akarkas,TB.9adj\ com. gen.y very hard, very 
diflBcult, very impleasant. Exam., Coll. {Bh.)y % ^ 
^^riny ^, This is extremely unpleasant. 

IFrom Skr. ^ir^, with the intens. pref. ^ ; see 
art, "^ a (5). The word is not uncommonly used in 
Bihdr, but not in the negative seme, * not hard ' or 
* soft,' given to it in the H. JDy.] 

r» 

^^♦t akarm, Ts., subst. m., » a bad or low action, sin, 
wickedness; *{its result) evil, misfortune, ill fate. 

Exam., ' CoU. {Bh.), t ^^ %wk *^ ^^o, ^iw wo 

^ % ^IT^, What wickedness are you committing P 
You should not act thus. See another example under 
^n^J^m akar*maL *Ibr an example see under ^Rrtw 
ak(^l (3). 

[^Skr. ^^, and so in all Cfds."] 

r 

^5W1 ^ akarmak^ Ts., acy. com. gen., {gram.) 

intransitive. 

[Skr. .^w^: ; hence ^^ww in all Ods.^ 



i WTr i 



^SWWJP akarman^ '^^ 

• akartnant/'y Te., a/fj\ cam. gen.^ {substf. ^^5^T 
akarmany&)y useleBs, good for nothings unprofit- 
able. Exam., Coll. [Bh.), t i?wt ^ ^^%fc^ ^%, 
mnrr % fw^ w^ 'iff fnv^, This is a most 
good-for-nothing fellow; no work can be got 
fromhiDth 

[Skr. ^r^^rat; hence ^n^^ or ^^nr^ in all 
Gds.'] 

^Pirnfl akarmi, (/. ^^f^ akarmint) =^«c?nf akarm% 
q.v. 

IThie /arm is peculiar to the Mlh. dialect and to 
poetry. See Mth. Or., § 47, p. 20.] 



13 



^*4T 



akarmi, Ts., adj. com. gen., (subst. f. ^raifi|«f\ 
akarmxnx), wicked, rasoallj, an evil-doer. Exam., ColL 

«rf P Your brother is a great rascal, you should 
remonstrate with him, won't you P 

\Skr. m. ^Ri^,/. ^^rti?Tl', and so in all Ods."] 



akal (1), Ts,, adj. com. gen.^ * lit. not in parts, not 
divisible, not subject to increase or decrease, used tech. 
as an epithet of Brahma; hence 'immeasurable, 
inconceivable, mysterious. Exam., 'Bdm., Bd.^ 

do. 61, 1, 1^ mt mi^v f^^ ^Ri ^n[iv ^n?tT ^i^c, 

Brahma, who is omnipresent, passionless, unbegotten, 
indivisible, desireless, undifferentiated ; Bin. 49, n^, 

^iff , (Hari is) like Brahma, omnipresent, indivisible, 
transcending all, {the source of) the knowledge of the 
highest good, imperceptible to the senses, exduding 
the existence of any quality. ^Sat. iv, 38, ftfirfx 

i?>w n^ Tw ^ ^T^n K^ ^w '^ 5 ^ ^ir ^lire ^rfinr 

^^ flrf^ ^inw ^TJir. Without seed a tree has been 
produced (t.^. the kalpa-tree), with branches, twigs, 
fruity and flowers. Who can describe it P It is 
thoroughly immeasurable, altogether mysterious and 
incomparable* 

[Skr. ^wr^S Pr. ^WW^, in all Ods ^TOir.] 



^cfl^ akal (2), Tbh., (I) adj. com. gen., {subst.f. ^m^ 
akaU or Mth. %^!fm akaCx)^ lit. 'unskilled in con- 
versation; hence • simple, foolish, silly; •befooled. 
Exam., * Chan., xmTTK'^ ^^V» w%Tm(\ ^, What 
assistance oan one who is unskilled in conversation 
render in (introducing another into) a king's court P 

• Chan., '%wmM ^i^ ^^nn ftT^T^, ^^N* hi€« WK:«ft- 
im; TWIT ^^w ^5RW ^f^ mn\ iro isf ttut tw 

vqi^, The lord of the earth, the protector of all 
{i.e. the king), supplies all the necessities of a 
fool; {but) with a foolish king all goes wrong: 
kings and gods are the refuge of all ; Chan., inr^ 



10 



16 



80 



26 



SO 



86 



* ^*ftt9l|T akalaykd 

'^wf^ (fem.) ft^fir ^wm ^ft W% I ^rnOTTO ^w 

irnn^ tl The sister-in-law sent (to her brother's 
icife) a delicious dish made of rice-milk with water- 
nuts mixed with sugar; all the distress of the 
foolish woman was removed ; she became the mother 
of a fortunate son. ' Chan., f(w Wft wrft^ finnKT^ I 
aHfV WfT ^ xrirm n ^prt ^v mw ^ip innw I 
if^ifirfi^ft^ 55R113 nff ^n^ II 3nir ^ ir^ «hnr ^ i 

inv\ wy^mJk^ ^ w^ W19 m {The bride's people) 
mixed soot with the oil and sent it in large and 
small pots ; all the ( bridegroom's ) people being 
weary rubbed it on their bodies without discovering 
the maid-servant's trick. In the morning they looked 
black like Blnls or Musahars coming away from 
the preparation of indigo. The whole company of 
the befooled wedding party became like blocks of 
wood through shame. {Compare the story in (he Kathd 
Sarit Sdgar, transL, vol. I, p. 19), 

I8kr. ^^my Pd. ^WWt {Pd. Dy.), Pr. ^Wt, 
P. ^ww, 0. ^iRC, M. ^^^nc, &. ^wnc or ^fvw, -B., Bg., 
and H. ^fiRT.] 



^«n^ akal (3), Tbh., prop, tck.f. of ^m^m aVld, q.v., 
occurring in comp. only, e.g., in '^W€^%KJ akaVkhurd, 
if. ^ ri), ac^'., lit. eating alone; A^nce unsociable, 
greedy, selfish, jealous. 



•^ ak^l = ^«f%V akil, q.v. 



50 



akalayk, {poet, ^^niy r akalaykd), TSt adj. 
com. gen., a religious and moral tech. term, 
without spot, stcdn, or defect. Exain«i Bdm., Bd., 
ch. 82, 4, ^w fimft tn' "rf^ ^^ ^f, vwf% ^fir 
^WK ^^t^i'i, Thus do thou think and put away 
all doubt, that Sagkar {%.e., Mahddeb) is in eveiy 
way without stain ; Olt, A., 43, 3, f^Yif ^ftr-inr 
^wlx W fiw ^ WK ^WW ^iWWV ^tiC ^^ 
^f^niV, The Munis sit like ohakors (a kind of 
partridge said to be enamoured of the moon), each 
in his own place, beholding the imperishable 
spotless autumnal moon (i.e., Bdm) and its moon* 
light (i.e., Slid). 

l8kr.%^im^l; in all Ods. wmWW-l 



•TIT ak'/ayk'td,Ts^ substf, absence of spot 
or defect, fair fame. Exam.| Bdm., Bd., ch. 276, 3, 
^<«Hlt*^l fip 'T^ ^9Tt» As a gallant who would 
have no scandal. 

ISkr. %mmjgm, and so possibly in all O^s.} 



^mn^lKT akalaifkd, poet. = 



akakayk, q.v% 



^IRir^Pn aJfaPwa 



u 



"vwsmK tKuttit 



^Plf^rniT akaVwd^ "^W^^ akalud^ Tbh., subst. m., lit, 
f amine^ hence 4>ften wed 09 a personal name for the 
child of a penon whose elder children have all died^ 
the superstition being that calling a child by an 
unpleasant or disgusting object would cause it to live 
lung. See Ind. Ant.^ vol. Vm, p. 821; Prcp.j 
p. 22. 

[Properly the long form of ^ilKTW akdl^ f aminei 
f.v.^ 

lWr*W aVld, the same as jnmn ek'ld^ q.v. 

^^bHsI^I^I dkaUydn^ ^RWrw akalydn^ Te^ (I) adj. com. 
gen.^ {subst.f ^nt i g<I T <ft akaliydnl or Mth. ^^fistnOl 
akatiydni)j ^unpropitioiis, ill-omened, unlucky; 

* unoomf orfcable, disoonsolate, unblessed. ExaiTlii ' Coll. 

{Bh.)y Ti rftrrf, ^^i^ ^*fviiiw Tnr inr wYi?f, 

G-osai! do not say such unpropitious words. 

• Chan.j nfir vf ?ft^ "^^w wnr, ^nffvrm nft wt 

WifT TPr, To whom the (very) name of virtue is an 
aversion, for him every plaoe is unblessed. 

(II) subst. m.| bad luck, misfortune. Exanflu Coll. 

IKf Tttli He has set fire to your house^^ he will 
certainly have bad luck. 

ired.%mm^f (Ath. 20, 128, 8). Skr. ^nr«nr: 



m. ; in all Qds. 



^VnaWdJ akalud = 



or 



.] 



akaPwa, q.v. 



^^^^ akaliSy ^V%iC akaUsh, Tbh., adv. com. gen., lit. 
without trouble; hence ■ (physically) without difficulty , 
easily ; * (mentally) without discomfort, comfortably, 
happily. Exatnii ' J?J« ^h 32, ^fir ^raK%^ ^ "^ •Prf^, 
ff¥ f^irar^nr «^ { Ti Tftft, Most eaaily he strung the 
bow and snapped it like the thread of the inner 
stalk of a lotus. •PraftA., p. 12, /. 20, Tftr-^rfir 

^r"»fJi WW "^^CTW, iif'fw w^w m^ ^w ww%ir, The 

attendants of Cupid entered, through whom the 
whole world lives happily. 

ISkr. W + irtt ; for the cognate forms of 
#it in Pd.j Pr., and Od.^ see that article. On 
the origin of the adv. use, see the remarks under 
wwrc^. The ward appears to be never used as a subst. 
ora^.l 

^^jpfEfPT akalydn^ « w^Gmin akahydn, q.v. 

^^S[^7^PT ak^wan, Tbh., w^^. m,, oorled, flowered, 
gigantic swallowwort, celebrated among native prac^ 
titioners for its many medicinal qualities^ calotropis 
gigantea, also called Mandftr (ir^TT). See wm dk 
(2), of which it is the mare usual Mth. farm. 



10 



16 



M 



* * . 



[Skr. ww^wt, another name of the arka plant (Skr. 
Dy. P.) J Pr. wwWt, B. ^rvnrw. Another name is 
Skr. winnrt, whence probably comes the H. w^fT 
(Hd. Dy.), eantr,fram Pr. WW^l^Y] 




Sk^wariyd (1), Tbh., subst. /., Ig. f of 

^jNnrrft Sk'wdn, q.v. E)«m.| Mag. 18, ^ -^wftwr 
^fSrr % % V^* fti^ '^^ ^WW ^[^iinr. Tightly 
embracing {Ut. taking a fuU hug of) my beloved 
I shall sleep, and my heart goes beating. 




86 



SO 



40 



46 



60 



yil iVwariyd (2), Tbh., subst.f., the rope by 
which the rudder of a country-boat is held up {Qrs. 
§ 236). 

[Skr. WV^I^9 P^' ^NnrrC> or (with pleon. suff. 
n) wwirft^i; hence (with short antepenultimate) B. 



aVwdr (Ors. § 886) =. ^(Nrsn^ U^wdr, q.v. 



W^^TT Sk'wdr, -^twJwrfK Sk^wdn, WVTTT aVwdr, 
^^•4if< aVwdn, Tbh., subet. /., 'grasp, hug, 
embrace; *an armful, as much as can be taken 
between the two arms ( = ^•nrr, q.v., and'^f(K. "^fhfX, Ors. 
§ 886), or as much as can be taken under one arm 
(Cr., p. 51). Oomp., ^NnrRirr, subst. f, (wom.), 
BslQiAiionhymBe8aLge(Az.Oy., where it is erroneously 
said to be masc). Phr., ^iNmr WT^ or ^f« %w to 
embrace, to hug to one's self (=WW '(JKw) ; hence fig., 
to take greedily, to take with all one's heart ( with 
the genitive of the thing desired). Exatn.f Mg. song, 

^N^TK, If I had known the festival of Phagmi 
( the Hol^ ), I would have held my beloved fast 
with many embraces (qfter Fallon); Colk (Bh.), 
WTK ^iNr"iTT-v¥ WT fX^tflf^, She sent an affeo* 
tionate salutation to me, (lit. she sent 'a meeting 
with embraces * or* her embraces ' to me, as in French 
letters, *je vous envoie mille embrassements,* or *je 
vous embrasse miHe fois*); Coll. (Bh.), t WTir%^w 
^"JNttpc %«Y, I took that object with all my heart 
(lit., I took a grasp of that object). See 4f«iinv 
iO^mdl, ^wr aykam,^ftm kdUl, fg^ kdbtt. 

[Skr. ^[W^nfm: fem., Pr. ^susWt (Sapt., vs. 996) : 
hence B. ^**^lfK, turning m into T, as usual ; see Od. 
Chr., § 30, p. 34. In the other Ods. this ward occurs 
only in a mutilated state, with loss of the initials 
and contraction of medial ^iRTT to wt; thus M. wsm 
/., wraSV or %t^ /., ^rxt or ^fhsT w., P. VH?!^ /. 
(also yfhST m. in the sense comer of a room), JET. WWV 
or Ig. f. WtfiiWT /., WWt m., also ^?Nr m., B. ^ftm, 
0. irts. Most of these mutilated forms occur also in 
the sense ofla.^, bosom ; hence comer of a room, a lane 




iVwdn 



15 



•^T aVsar'wd 



cr long passage. With these may be compared the B. 
ifrc, 0. ^ft^, H. istf or ilhfT, lap, bosom, M. ^fts 
inlot, branoh of a creek, and in all Ode. iftn or ^it^ 
oomer ; the com. f , t, W, ^ being easily interchange^ 
able in the Ods. On the other hand, Skr. hoe iftw 
m., lap, bosom, wt?i m., lap, embrace, ^ftir oomer ; 
and there can be little doubt but that in the Otfe. the 
derivatives of the Skr. ^i*mf% and iftw have been 
to a great extent confused. It is^ however, not impose 
sible that some of the Skr. forms, such as ivtw, i^, 
and perhaps also mmm mouthful (M. ^mm or WWTs), 
may themselves be due to mutilations of ^ymfa ; cf. 
the mutilated Skr. form ^^i^tfmmA 




iVwdA, ^V^tR ak^wdn, Tbh., subst.f, the 
same as ^Nr^TT Sk'wdr, q.v. Exam.« JBjrish. 238, lyr 

WTw^ ^v^nft wir ^, ^mc iftft, ^fNft «Rirrt, From 

this desire you ace embracing me, tearing mj nedklaoe 
and disordering my bodice. 



akas, XX^ ikkas, Any., subst. /, ' spite, enmity {Ax. 
Oy.) ; *envy, jealousy. Phr., ^RWTRrwor ^« wxm, 
to bear enmity, to be jealous. ExaiTlii *^« Rdm.^ Ut. 

94, xnt «iT»r ^^ro i?tt ( = ifftt) ^>^mr vf% ( = ^) 

ifV, Who are you that you should act towards me 
with such pride and enmity P CoU. (Bh,), w ^ft^i^ 

tnHrr, He bears you ill-will because you killed his 
son long ago {toith pluperf. in the sense of a very long 
time ago) ; see also under ^Hi^^W. * Oit., Bd., 84, 7, 
Trfir WW ^PRT wf T¥ ^T»-^ wIt wJ^ Wt% flT^ 
^WW ^'TWTT %9 The heralds proclaimed the fame 
( of SUd*s stoayambar ), describing the loss, the gain, 
the rage (at failing), the joy (at succeeding), the 
power of arm (in breaking the bow), {and thus) rousing 
the envy ( of BdnCs co^mitors) . 

[Ar., sjr^ akSf Kt. inversion ; henee, opposition.] 



aVsak, (Bh.) ^rarnqRr ak'phak or 

sak'phak, Tbh., a(fy\ com. gen., gorged so that one 

cannot rise from one^s seat. Exam.i Chan., wm 

^wiT % ^"W^W «K, ^wftir WTW iC^ ^^nc, What I can 
the gorged one turn aside Time's emnity P Time's 
punishment is certain in the world ; ibid., it^t-wNq 

w wwf*9 ^nv, ^WHWT^ vrrhf ^irvrw i ww^it^ ^w 

ftnj ^1t ^ftKt^, ^W^w im ^ i|t w^l'fni IJ Going 
to a great feast he ate, felt drowsy, and slept, well 
satiated: a thief stole away all his things: what 
(remains) for the gorged one but to rave like a tiger. 

( The form. ^w^HW appears to be pure Maithill. 
See Vocabulary in Mth. Ch.) 

IThe foord is evidently an alliterative compound 
connected with the yZ-^Hm { cf. v^wfw, WW, Skr. 5^ 



10 



16 



in H. B., p. 80, or iifV^), to gobble, to toss food into 
the mouth, «n^wwT or WWT or wiWT or wfwr, a 
quantity of food taken to be chucked into the mouth, 
or the act of chucking such a quantity of food 
into the mouth. The alliteration imparts an intensitive 
force, implying one who gobbles up many handfnls. 
M. has ilwww or WWTWW, one who repeatedly throws 
handfuls into the mouth. Possibly the fotm cf the 
B. word may be due to some confusion with wn, a 
glutton, a bye-form ofwn {with ^for w, see 04. Or., 
% II, p. %), Skr. -m^m.-] 



ao 



tf 



30 



S6 



40 



^^•^V ak'sar (1), {Ig. f m%.HKm\ aVsar^wd or 

W^IWT ak*sarud), Tbh., ad;, cam. gen., alone, solitary, 
single. Exam., Bdm., Ar., do. 20, 2, w^rw %TJ ^nr wir 
wfif WW9T » WT$¥ imr, For what reason have you 
come, {my) son, troubled in mind {and) quite alone P 
-By., /. 943, wnf ! ^i^% y <^T|ff ^r^^ ftrWT^, 
father, up to now I have been but a single life 
(».«., I have been alone, see Bij., I. 961). See v^r^x 
eVsar. 

iSkr. xzwwwt, Pr. jrwfftwt ( adv. jnwfic^ in 

Hem. ii, 213, synonymous with wfnfir, ^?«ifir) or 

TW^fW ( Ndm., vs. 17 = wfw WT^ ) ; the Pr. ^ftw 

becomes in 0(f. shortened into nf%, WT, Just as Pr. ^ftw 

becomes Od. wft, WT ; see Gd. Gr., § 271, p. 128. 

Hence B. pww^ or WWWK» H. xjnK or ww^^, 0. 

WW^, M. T^W^x. M. has also a str. f. adj. t^W^XT 

{fem. "^ ), adv. ^W^. Similar formations, common to 

allGtfs., are— with the numeral f% two, B. {wk.f.) ^t^K, 

{str.f) ?cffncT second ; with the num. fk three, B. {wk. 

f) %!HK, or {str.f) ic^rxj third ; with the num. ^jjk four, 

B. ^fh^ a land four times ploughed. Similarly 

Trw^WxV w a land once ploughed ; see s. w. The 

second and third members of this set are now used as 

ordinal numbers, replacing the proper forms •^^TT, 

liWr. The first and fourth members have no such 

tpeciaUsed meaning. But the original equivalence of 

the whole set is strikingly shotcn in such sentences 

as the M. nwT WW %w ficnTr ^w^T, irt^ ^t 

wn?f WW, Tuka Bam says a body he gave me once, 

hence I shall not be bom twice. M. has also a 

eimilar verb w^v^, to perform for a fourth time.1 



46 



so 



ak^sar (2), Any., (I) acf;. com. gen., many, most, 
nearly alL Exam.| Coll. {Bh.), WW^ wfipft w^ 
WTWW, Many people say it. 

(II) adv., ^ often; *for the most part, usually, 
generally. Exaoiif Coll. (Bh.), w^n^ whr w*^^ 
, People often say. 
lAr.j^\ aksar, comparative qf ^ has^r.'] 



•^T aVsar'wd, Ig.f. qf WW^^ ak'sar(l), q.v. 



^W*'^'!^ desarud 



16 



^TTSr fli4;' 



Exam., CoU. {Bh.), i^Nw ^^^ ^ % ^m^M^^r ^> 

Dihal is the only man in his house {Az. C^y.) ; ue. 
he has no relations. 

^^PR^^T aJcaa^tcdj Tbh,, subst m., iJ/./. o^ ^PiTW, q.v. 

Exam., ^y.j '• 818, f%^« ^f^ «T5^ ^w ^ww^, 

Hiohchbal {name of horse) now flew up into the 
air ( see also ibid., II. 551, 973). 

^^•'^Ifl aVsat, ^Mgpr aksdt, Any., subst w., instal- 
ments of the annual revenue. 

{A term only used in the kachah^ries or magisterial 
courts of India.) 

[Jr. l)Ui| aqsdti proper If/ plur. of ^^^ gist, an 
instalment.] 

^Wr»^rTT aVidmy ^vwnr aksdm, Any., acte., of various 
kinds, of every sort. 

{A term only used in the kachaVries or magisterial 
courts of India.) 

\Ar, ^U-i| aqsdm, properly plur. of f^ qism^ 
subst. fern., kind, sort.] 

^^•tJi V ak^szry ^to^t: aksir^ Any., subst. /., 'powder, 
dust, filings ; especially •powder or mixture pretended 
to be capable of converting other metab to gold or 
silver, the philosopher's stone, elixir; hence ^the 
science concerning such powders, alchemy, chemistry ; 
hence also colloquially used in the sense of an ^effica- 
cious or beneficial remedy. Exam., *ColL (-BA.), 

^ ^«iihf ^1 < i*< r Tn^ "mw^^ wrf^ ?r^, That doctor 

became like a philosopher's stone in his hand (said 
of a Baniyd in Patna who prospered through the • 
favour shoum him by a certain native doctor). *ColL 
(Bh.)j f. ^^rrt W^ ^^i^^H Ttt, This medicine will 
do you a great deal of good. 

[-4r. ji!^\ ikslror^s iksir^ also pronounced dksir 
or akf^r. Connected with^ kasar breaking, a fraction.] 

^Sr^WTTfT aiasmdty (poet, ^m^^^m dkas^mdt), Ts,, adv.^ 
lit., 'without a wherefore, (i.^., without the operation 
of any knovcn cause)^ perchance; hence * suddenly, 
abruptly, unexpectedly, unawares, instantaneously, 
immediately. Exam., ' Sat., v, 62, #F v ^TRWHnf ?t 

Although perchance an eminent intellect may be born, 
still the very guileless spend some time in serving 
their spiritual preceptor. ^Dev., sc. 3, if IV TT^ 1r t 
^ftiPT i *KT wm ^^C, ^riT % ^tlPT ^ vfKm ( = 
^nn + f%) ^w «n^i ; ^iTf m^^t, imit^'T-Trirnr 
%«iT ^¥^Tif irr^^-^^ >iT % ^iw ^, Into whatever 
< village the tents and ^measuring) rods of these people 



10 



dome, the souls of (he people of that place dry up ; 
it seems as if the army of Jam'rsj in human form 
had suddenly arrived. Ibr another example, see under 
^nXiSHHS akar^mal. 

[This word is rarely used. A more usual one is 
^9'll^m, q.v.j or ^^•RHi, q.v."] 

ISkr. ^mmt\ ; ^wvnr in all Ods."] 



ak'hattan, .{Mth.) = iJVTfific eVhaUan, 




q.v. 



15 



20 



25 



80 



85 



40 



46 



60 



akahWd = ir^lTy^ ekdhWd^ q.v. 



^WT akd, (fem. ^ aki), str. f. of ^pi ak (1), q.v. 
'^^rrjT akde = ^rat^ akdy, q.v. 

^^TSf akdjy {poet. ^WTPT akdjd or ^^VTij; akdju), Tbh., 
subst. m., lit. what is not to be done ; hence ^wrongt 
sin, crime ; * harm, injury, loss {done to others or 
suffered by one's self); ^evil. Exam., ^Bdm., A., ch. 

203,l,^^-^rirT«r ^w iftr^-TT^^T^^ ^m ^^nr^VRi;, 

In an assembly of saints and in such a holy place, 
an oath, even in {speaking the) truth, is a sin and 
a crime. *Bdm., A., ch. 290, 9, "qr WWTm fiw ^rrTW 
ifT^, Another's loss is dear {to him and) his own 
gain ; ibid., ch. 285, 1, if?Tir TW ^W VW wm^y In 
Bharat's hand is all gain and loss ; ibid., eh. 72, 7, 
T«r B^-W^ V^W ^WTRJ, Under the influence of her 
very love she will do me harm ; ibid.y ch. 23, 8, tIx 
^ vr«r, ^iT^ f«i^ ^y It will be our loss (if) this night 
pass away {unutilised) ; ibid.y JBtf., ch. 66, 8, «rt W 
W^j ^ ^ ^nnarr, If I do not tell it, it will be a 
great loss {(o me) ; ibid., ch. 170, 1, ^ WfU, irw "^T^ 
fiROWT, If you tell your story, then ( you will do 
yourself) exceeding harm ; Bin. 76, (j<6^ ^mim 

M^m vm ^ % ^w lit* ; ^Vfir ^ ^^fir viw ^fiew 

Tnr <¥, Tul'sl Das {says)y {the test of) loss and gain 
is solely the pleasure and displeasure of Ram; 
through the experience of His love I remain happy 
in my heart ; K. Edm., Ut. 49, fwKT wfr V^ m% 

^Jm ^^, T ^ww %« 'itf^ % ^w iftr, %x: fiiw 

*\ ^^rrf^ ^, From whose favour no gain results, 
nor any loss from whose displeasure ( lit. turning 
away of the face), for him who has any respect P 
^Ag. iii, 4, ^iiT^, ^WB^, ^^> ^^n^^y viiTw, ^rfiwr 
^iirnn, Disappointments, inauspicious omens, mishaps, 
misfortunes, bad luck, {and in short) eYery evil ; 
Ddh. 67. jps^ ^ ^^TRTH 9( 1^1 ^vm nwm, 
Tul^si Das {says), from disrespect to Hari comes 

every evil. 

{The forms in ^T tf , ^ ft, are merely due to the 
exigencies of metre and rhyme.) 



j/^Wmr akAj 



ail 048. ^WT^.] 



I (JTcA. 318), Pr. 



ak(^fatj ^v^rrfanr akiffit; ^nfTHW ak^al ; ^WTHW 

ak^'ah ; ^WTW akdjai)^ Tbh., (I) f'. ^r., to render 

u8eleB8| inflict injnry npon, spoil. ExaiTIti ^<0^'- 

(J?A.)> 'f^^^ t ^^^'^ ^'^ ^vninw, I will spoil this 
business of yours. 

(11) V, intr.f lit. to be wasted ; henee to die. 
Exam*! Rdm.<f A.^ ch. 238, 6, inwv TM 

, As if the king bad died that very day. 

[Der. root made from ^Rnw, ?.p.] 



10 



^^1^1 a*4;*a, poet = ^i^rm 0*4^', j'.t?. 

^^klHH flAr4;V, (/. ^inf^ftr a*4/tn{ ), Mth. and poet = 
^«nA ak^\ q.v. 

^nWT'fl a*4;1, Tbh., adj. com. gen., ( «m J«^. / ^iift i ^ 
ak^'inl), bad, injurious. Exam.i Coll. (Bh.)^ m wf 
^vr«i\ ^ftC^ ^^, He is a very bad man. 

IDer. from ^nvfn by the Od. suff. t ; see Od. 
Or., § 252. J%<n«^A no^ no^cf, it probably occurs in alt 
Ods.'] 



^SJHrrSr aA:4/tt, poet = 



ak^\q.v. 



^q|l«l flieWA, Tbh., oefe., unsuooesaf ully, yainly, profit- 
lessly, uselessly. Exam., jBw. 84, iNt ^ tjro wt l?r 
^HT vm Tf ^wfif , ^ vr iftw ^HiTW, Knowing 
that there has been Touohsafed to you a body 
unattainable to the gods (lit immortalfl), why (wnj 
then ( "Sf ) do you lose it profitlessly P 

[SAr. ^««r5, Pr. ^«^m (Sapt, vs. 616), 
B. contr. ^^'Hi; apparently wanting in the other 
Ods.'] 

^^'^I'hW ak&n, {pr. pts. ^wifW akani^^tj Bh. ^W1«nr 
dkanat^ ^Klfiilf akdnit; ^mmw akdnal; ^m^w 
nidnaA ; ^ Wi^ aidnai ) « Bw. y/ ^nm akan or 
^^4hiW 3*an, ^.r. 



^Wrr'nT flitfifr. Any., %ubst. m.y people of rank, 
nobles, grandees, the upper ten. 

{jir.yS^ akdbir^plur. of j^\ atAar great] 

^IfTiT akdm (1), {poeit. ^▼fwr akdmd)^ Te.i (I) acff. 
com. gen.j {subnt. f. ^wmx akdmd)^ without desire, 
without lust ; used technically as one of the epithets of 
the Supreme Being. Com p. {Rdm.^ Ar.^ chh. 9, 8) 
^raivr-f^, The friend of the unsensual, (i.^., Rdm). 
Exaniii Rdm,, Bd., do. 77, 1, liYift 9kfkm ^nnw-inr 
wnw ^ww-vw, A mendicant reduse with matted 
hair, his soul free from lust, naked, with hideous 
aoooutrements ; ibid., ch, 86, 2, m^X^ ^VWTW, ir^f^ 

isni^fTwr im-ftr^w-5w ^[ftnr vimrr. Though himself 

passionless, yet God sympathises (lii. is pained) 
with a pious man's pain of bereavement, knowing it 
well ; K Rdm.^ JJt. 144, ftrw^^wTW, ^"ffiniiif-inir, finr 
nw mw ^f%, Sib {is) devoid of desire, the abode of 
(m<?ra/) beauty, always rejoicing in Bfim's name. 

(II) mbst. m., continence. ExafTlii Rdm.^ TJt^ 
ch. 114, 13, ■qTT woniw ^w iff^, vrt, ^^v ^^rv 
^^mr ^wtI:, After drawing off the milk of sound 
religion, brother, it is set to boil on {fit having 
made) the fire of continence. 

{Ved. ^i^rw: {Ath. 10, 8, 44), 8kr. ^^WTWi, 
Pd. ^^n#t, Pr. ^niCTift {cf. Bhag., p. 200); all 
Ods. ^iWW] 



16 



fo 



90 



85 



l/^ 



T^ Skdb^ (pr. pts. '^tNmr Skabat, Bh. and 
Mg. afco'^Nrpnr Xkdbat^ ^llOlil Skdbit^ ^%\\Jfi Skdit; 
^m^ W ikdol; ^Nnrw ikdeb; "WNt^ Skdbai, '^t^TV 
ikde)f Tbh., caus. r., {Bh.) to cause to be valued or 
prized. Exaniti Cb//. {Bh.), w yi«u % %% ""(Nrwirco, 
How do you get this valued P 

[S*r, y/^n^i caus. ^rv^i Pr. ^wrti: ; hence 
Od. <l^; see Od. Or. § 349.] 



"^^TPT ikdb = ^*IT¥ akdw, q.p. 



^cni4( aifcifm (2), Ta., a(^'. «ofn. ^^., not done with any 
intention of a reward. Examii Coll. {Bh.), t WTW 
'^mw Wff 'This act is done without wish for any 
reward. 

{ITie word is probably a tate^from Skr. ^«Ti^, 
M. ^IW^i^, though theoretically it might be derived as 
a tadbh. through Pr. *^iwh'.] 



40 



46 



60 



^WiTifT akdmd^poet. = ^^th akdm (I), q.v. 

^^im^ akdmikj Ts., (I) a(J^\ com. gen.^ without cause 
or reason. 

(II) adc.<, causelessly. 

\_Apparently a corruption of 8k. ^inrf^if.] 

^IST'fr akdmii Thh^^adj. com. jr^., bad, wrong, useless, 
profitless. Exam.i CoU, {Bh), ^SWl^ waiT % fiirf nw 
«nfw Ttt, From profitless employment there will be 
no fruit. 

[ Skr. ^ + ^f&v:, Pr. ^wrftnit, P., -ET., and 
M. ^ffwxifti wanting apparently in the other Ods. T/ie 
subst ^ITTW uselessness does not exisf] 

^TfiTT akdyj^fWOF akde, Tbh., a^\ com. gen., huge, 
vast, dense. Exam«i Sb., Transl.^ p. 9, ^^rr^^w, a vast 



^WFTC akdr 



18 



^ITT'^CT akdran 



forest, a dense forest ; Sb. iii, 10, wn^ TXSf ^ftf^ 
^WTjr, {It went an to) where two huge trees were 
standing. 

ISkr. 'ifiwsw? lit. having an exoessiTe body, 
Pr. ^T^n^ {Hdv. xii, 59) ; the initial ^m contracts to 
^ or ^ and afterwards shortem into ^ {see Qd. Or. 
§26;; hence Gd. ^nrp? (trt'M «tfp^. ^yfor^^twVH). 
All the steps of this phon, process are still exhibited 
in theAp. Pr. ^vft such {Hem. iv,403), S.^ 
or ^w. Wanting in the other Gds.'] 

^^rrC akdr (1) , Te., subst. w., » the letter ^ a ; « a symbolic 
name qf the Sun and of Brahma. Exam.i Satj ii, 36, 

37, ^Pfw TviT ^wrrc xfk mr^ iniK w v i ^ tvtt 

ft^x: n The letter r you should understand ( to 
represent ) fire ; the letter a, the sun ; and the letter 
m, the moon. Without doubt, the letter r is Hari 
{or Bishnu), the letter a is Bidhi {ie. Brahma)^ and 
m is Mahes (or Sib) ; the letter r is the fierce fire 
which bums the forest of ( man's ) ignorance ; the 
letter a is the sun, which disperses the darkness of 
{man's) infatuation, so Tul'si Das says advisedly. 
[*%r. VfTT: ; all Gds. 'iWK.] 

^qilV akdr {2), {poet. ^mnXT dkdrd), Ts,, subst. m.^ 
*form, shape, figure ; ^likeness, portrait {sculptured or 
paintedy etc.) ; hence derivatively 'appearance, sign, 
token. Exam.i * Padm.j ch. 822, 5, ^fV if^^ wt ftnn 
^UTTT, ^> TT^V fw^ ^nnTT, {At the sight of) her 
eyebrows the bow {of the Zodiac) felt ashamed of {lit. 
oonoealed) its {curved) form, and {at the sight of) 
her braided hair Basuki felt ashamed in the nether 
world ; Prabh., p. 19, /. 2, f^< t^ fq?nc ^ X^, 
^-q^^-q ^vrr, A line of vermilion is in her hair, and 
her figure is matchless. • Sat.^ ii, 42, iini^^i ^w 

traw ^RIK, Bharat, Ram's yoimger brother, virtuous, 
pure, and dark-hued like Eam, he — so Tul'si Das 
gays — ^^as the pleasing likeness of the supporter of 
the world; Coll. {Bh.)^ ^?-?H\^TfW % ^wr^ W^\ 
^n i V H I^l , The Mlya-jl has taken the gentleman's 
portrait exactly. ^ ColL {Bh.)j ^Tjr % t^f^^f^ ^WTT 
irar, He has not the appearance of going, i.^., it does 
not look as if he would go; Coll. {Bh.)y firfi{ % ftf^ 
^r^t ilv, There is no sign of rain. 

[Sir. ^xmKi, Pd. ^i«7iHT>, Pr. ^T^<t or* ^m^, 
hence B. "^RrrK, and so probably in all Gds The form 
"VT^T^ dkdr^ usually given in the dictionaries as the 
^proper ' one, does not exist, and arose in the manner 
eaplaified under the art. ^WW {q>v.). The fact that 
the true Gd. form is ^RTTT <ikar is clearly proved by 



10 



16 



20 



• the existence of the word ftrtWT^ niraykdr, formless {for 
Sir. firrntTx: nirdkSr) with the initial vowel a shortened, 
and the compensatory cor^unct ^ yk {for w **). The 
tadbh. Pr. form ^"TTOfT {Ndm., vs. 249, Aup. %1) has 
not survived in the Ods,^ 

^«mV akdr (3) = ^wrmr akdl, q.v. 

^^TT! &kdr, Tbh., subst. m., {Bh,) sasent {Am. Oy.). 
Exam.f ColL (.BA.), T'TT^TT^iNfn: w%. He objects. 

[S. ^flVrT ; perhaps also in other Gds. It may 
be a contraction of Sir. %^m< {through %V^^ \K, 
^Ifvn:, ^yv^rrr, ^n^, ^iflST^ ; the change ofjftow 
is not uncommon) ; or it may be derived from the phrase 
yrt ^fKM, to say yes, assent, with loss of the initial 
aspirate. Sindhi has both xi and mJKifor yes.] 



S5 



80 



35 



^RnXT akdrath, Tbh., adj. com. gen., lit., not worth 
doing; hence useless, fruitless, aimless. Phr., ^mrw 
1TPW, ^ninrw ^ftv^, to be lost, wasted, destroyed ; 
^WTT^ TC^, to render useless, squander. Examti 

Prov.y ^l\^M iiT€ w^ *^ ^rnr, ^Inr wm ^wtrw 

«IPX, A thief's wealth every one enjoys, {but) e^ 
Chief's li£e is v^asted; Gop., Introd., «nnT ^9^0^ 
wm, w^ H^ ^T^ ^^> Your life will be wasted : 
listen to my advice! 

[SAr. ^ + ^rwHr:, Pd. ^*lfi«lrf1 ; hence Gd., 
with transposition of^y, *xmTK^ ; or with loss of^y, 
«^1W^ ; or with transfer of aspiration, ='^wn3l ; or 
with loss of aspiration, ^^iriTT, All these forms 
. actually occur : S. ( str. /. ) ^^l<«q) or ^%\<*ff\, 
M. [wk. f) ^^nm {Sd. By. icrongly ^nwmxw), B. and 

P. xi^fXK^, H. ^vr^ir or ^wnrw, Br. ^rvror ( Hd. 
By.), G. ^rarwr. Regarding the transposition of 
letters and the transfer or loss of aspiration, see 
Gd. Gr., §§ 130 IE, 145, and H. R., p. 40.] 



40 



46 



00 



akdran, {old obi. ^RTTTTt^ akdranahX), Tbh., 
{Vj iubst. m., ' absence of cause or reason; ^freedom 
from necessity or constraint or bias, disinterested- 
ness. Exam.i *^»>»- 230, ^wtt^^i^ fvr^'H^^. 

"Who else {beside Rdm) is a disinterested friend {Ut. 
friend of disinterestedness ; comm. tw"Ww fWil^ ) ? 

i6. 243, inH w TTtr ^WKf ^ f%^ 3^ ^^nir STTf ^fii 

JH^, Both the Purans and Beds proclaim that ther« 
is no lord and disinterested friend like unto Thee 
{%,e. Rdm; ib., opp. ^nrir-fvr egotistic friendl 
K. Rdm., Ut. 9, 5i^^T;^-fw^T^ fsnTTTf, TTtf-nTTf, 
^\w ^^^nrfr lft> {Rdm) the reliever of Prah'lsd's 
sorrow, the salvation-giver of the elephant, a disin* 
terested friend. 

(EI) adj. com. gen., * causeless, groundless ; •free, 
voluntary, disinterested. Exam«i ^Rdm., Ut., ch. 40, 



6, HY ^nrrxv ^ ^nr| ^, (Entertaining) groundless 
exunity towards every one. *£in. 206, m vt ^^w 
vnw %iw 'W, 1x1^ wn iqi^ iftftr ^mn^w, Who else 
{beMe Udm) shows («fieA) genial disposition towards 
his serrantfil or (st$ch) disinterested loTe towards his 
deyotees f 

(III) adf>.j 'without cause or reason, gronnd- 
lessly, causelessly ; * without necessity or constraint, 
gratuitously, freely, disinterestedly. Exam., Edm.^ 
Bd., ch. 276, 2, f^fir ^Tf If^w ^^ITW l?hft, Just 
as if one who is passionate without cause desires 
peace of mind ; tWrf., Ui,9 eh, 99, 3, ^finnw firttw 
^IKH^ , Self-conceit and wrangling without cause. 

ISkr. ^rarrrr , Pr. ^wr^ ; hence all Ods. n^JK^ 
or ^i|RW. In the inetr. ease it ie used adverbially; 
8kr. ^(inrTT^ii Pd. ^^K^H, Jp. Pr. ^mK^H {see 
Hem., iv, 347, 342, Gd. Or. % 376) ; hence old Bw. 
^imirfi {the final ^ is lengthened in the example 
quoted above for the sake of metre and rhyme ; see 
Bem.y iv, 330), or, with loss of inflexion, ^innw, in 
which latter form it may occur in all OdsJ] 

^SmJ^ akdl, "^nXK akdr (3), Te^ ( I) subst. m., ^unseason. 
ableness; *a famine, scarcity. Comp., ^^vm-^w, 
fruit produced out of season ; ^wnr-^ a kind of 
rice, sown broadcast ( Mth. ) ; ^rarnir-firf)^ untimely 
rain ; ^WTW-^J^ or ^mw-f^ /, premature death, 
sudden or unnatural death. Exam.i ^Rdm,, Ar., 

ch. 20, 8, uny-K^^n ^^ % ftw ^rSt, fitftr ^WTW % 
Jff^i The friendly speech of the wicked is portentous, 
like flowers that blossom out of season. *jFbm., vs. 

1, %V9 vm^^ n\nm vftj ^nfic^ "'Tx:w ^WW, Hear 
the tale of '81 {i.e. Fa^li year 1281 = 1873-74 A.D.), 
on all sides fell a famine. See wn kdh 

(II) a4j\ com, gen., unseasonable, untimely. 

Exatn.i ^9' vi* 30, wTww ^tn ^nn ifem.) m: tm 

Km *1^ ^W, Whose is the guilt, King Ram, of 
the untimely death of the child P 

I8kr. ^wmr, Pd. ^m^, Pr. ^wTiit (^MT«r.^ 
untimely doud, Ndy. § 59), O. and 0. ^WTC, 
Jf.^irrv or ^nrs,.?* andB. ^^«, P. ^«TW orwnf, 
8. wi% ; ifi thetwo laet forms thelossofthe initial ^is 
probably due to a confusion with htw death, destiny. 
8. has also %m% and fin: {Skr. ^WTV). The tadbh. 
Pr.form 'WRBt {Spt.^ vs. 55) has not survived in the 
G4s.'\ 

^«BI*-^frC oidTilr ( Grs. % 966 ), see under ^row 
akdi. 

^^1^1 akdld^ Any., suhst. m., cancelling or revoca- 
tion of a sale {Wil.)i 
lAr. ^^\ aqdlah.-] 



10 



16 



to 



SB 



19 — ^WrnST akde 

^RTOT akdn (1), {fg. f. iv^innT akaliyd), Tbh:, a^f. 
com. gen,, relating to a famine. Sometimes used as 
a personal name, to indicate the time qf birth, in the 
sense qf famine*bom, bom in a famine year {Prop., 
p. 31), Hke 'mm%^ akalud, q.v. Exain.| l^f^ ^iinA, 
The famine song, the name qf Pbti^rl Ldl*s poem 
in Mth. Ch. 

[Skr. ^vwil^Vt, Pr. t|«l(^^« 0(f* Vinft* See 
Od. Or., §§ 262-55.] 

TPRTW akda (2), (fern. ^WtI^^ akdiint), Tbh., subst., 
a believer in the Akal or the Immortal ( Ood), the 
name qf a kind of devotees in the Panjdb. 

[^A Od. derivation from ^miw akdl, either by the 
Prs. suff. K\ or by the Od. suf. % corresponding to 
the Sir. suf. TW. 8 e Od. Or., § 262.] 

"^«IHS Skdw, "^tm^ ikdb, Tbh., subst. m., (Bh.) valu- 
ation, appraisement. ExaiTIi, CoH' {Ph.), Tv9t wri ^m 
% ^tWTV ^^W vnfr xtir, The valuation of an elephant 
is not a matter of pice {tit. is not done by pice ; ^r^w 
is the W. Bh. instr. of ^ ). 

[^First verb, noun, der. from the caus. ^^t^m 
(q.v.), by means qf the prim. der. suff. ^ a (2), 
(y.f?.).] 

^«mV akds, ^irnc akdsh, {poet, ^wrex dkdsd, Ig.f. ^^[^vn 
akoffwd, old. dir. ^mm%akdA orpoet.'^mj^akdsH, old. 
obi. ^ran^ft akdsahi or poet. ^wtWT akdsaht, mod, 
loc. ^nrr% akdfS or ^nirl akd^, Ta., subst. m., ^sky, 
heaven, visible firmament; *air, atmosphere; ^ ether 
or the fifth element of Hindu physics {supposed to 
be one of the five component parts of the human body 
^ and the vehicle of sound ; in this sense V^tK is used 
as a synonym in^Bdm., Ei., oh. 11, 4); ^{poet.) a 
symboKeal name for the cypher ; ' {poet.) a symbolical 
name for the nose ( omng to the fact that Us synonym 
mm has both meanings, sky and nose ; of. Jtdm., Bd., 
ch. 273, 13 ). Comp., ^irr^-frvir m., flowers in the 
sky {used as a synonym for an impossibility) ; ^iivmir 
bird {Ut., going in the air) ; ^nrv-inpT /., the milky 
way {lit., the G-anges of heaven) ; ^v^rm-wrir or 
^nrrw-W^PT m., a vehicle that proceeds through the air, 
balloon; ^WTW-i^^w or ^mM-^t^ or ^iw-iJUt 
m., any elevated lantern, a beacon {esp. 'applied to 
a kind of lamp which the SinMs hang aloft on 
a bamboo in the month qf Kdrtik {October- 
November) in honour of Laehhml or Krish^n) ; ^%i^- 
wnTK m., a visionary town in the sky, fata morgana ; 
^^nw-ilVff m., a certain plant {a kind of epidendron) 
which grows on the nim-tree ( Bignonia suberosa) ; 
^ifT^.^wir m., V. ^vw-^ ; ^irTO-"SB^ m., v. nmH' 
Jff^; ^wrw-^W w., darling child {lit. fruit of heaven); 



00 



40 



46 



00 



^RKT^ akot 



20 






(Adsi 



IWTO-wir or ^nrrv-vr^r, sky-oolottred, o»nilean, 
ftzure ; ^WTO-Tnft /., heayenlj yoioe, a divine voice 
from heaven ; ^^[T9-lh9 /, lit. an air-plant, the 
name of various parasitio plants ( Cuacuta reflexa, 
Ca8Sffta filiformi8f Piatia stratiotesj see Ell^ vol. II, 
p. 213); ^VTV-firf^ or ^^irnsr-fWr /., casual sub- 
sistence, living from hand to mouth {lit. living 
on air) ; ^wrwr-fi^, a^. {/. ^WTO-fiif^), a casual, 
cadger, one who lives from hand to mouth ; ^v^TT^- 
wi^n or ^WTO-w^T m., the atmosphere, the celestial 
sphere, firmament; ^WW-l^ w., a certain kind 
of devotee of the ShMb sect {so called frofn turning 
up the face totcarda the sky in the direction of 
the sunj till they become unable to hold it in its 
proper position) ; ^wr^-^Tli^ m, r. ^wre-^W. ExaiTl.i 
'Rdm., 8u., do. 25, 5i, ^«TW isft nxmj %^ wff 
wm ^V^VT^, The monkey shouted with roars of 
laughter and swelled {so big) that he touched the 
sky ; Bb., i, 36, ^rw^f% ^ ifrt% ITRW ^irro, Thou 
shalt fly away from him to the skies; Padm.j 
do, 266, 2, iwir ^ ncf% kWW, '^mx: t^tit ^WV9, The 
stars all aroimd weep, and darkness covers the sky ; 
Kan. 19, ^ wnm ^W ^ irft ^HfW ^tmxi, Through 
the arrows {shot) from the bows a separation was 
made between heaven and earth (t.^., the arrows 
discharged from the bows were so exceedingly numerous 
that they hid the sky from the sight of men) ; Padm.^ 
ch., 662, 1, ^tV tw ^ ^5mT ^TWTOT, At nightfall 
the moon rose in the sky; ib,, ch.^ 601, 6, «iw 

So long as the sun looks upon (t.^. governs) the 
sky, the moon does not shed any light ; ti., ch. 66*2, 
8, iRfif ^rrwfJ ^t ftcrrt, The stars rise in the 
sky to give light; ib.^ ch. 136, 6, irf'l ^wml ^^^ 
^^, wfwT ^^it .^iTR.^^i On the left, in the sky, 
white quails came, and a fox showed himself in front 
{both are good omens at the commencement of a 
Journey) ; Rdm.^ Bd.^ eh. 177, 6, m; ^vr^-^niV fffr 
imrr, A voice came from heaven at that very time. 
'iJdw., in., ch. 63, 6, w^m ^ww ^^, With a 
shout he ascended into the air; ibid.^ ch. 70, 6, 
iiff ftlft inc ^ITO %f^ ^IT^, {Snatching up) rooks 
and trees the monkeyd sprang into the air ; Bid. 
1, 6, irfPf ^ffic^ ^i%. frpiw ^vr^, Hold them fast, 
{else) they will fly up into the air ; Bih., v, 6, ^^ ^^ 
xm ^TW l[^i?f, icW* ifnff ^^nWf, I would endure 
pain and pleasure with Bam, and would have lit a 
beacon in the air (alluding to the ^*W-\Vxwr, q.v.) ; 

Alh.y I. 380, i?hfT ^rtv %^ ^^ w^w %, iSVfT ^ % 

^lim ^VTVy Bhe unloosened the horse of the tiger- 
like Budal, and the horse flew up into the air. 
^Bw. do.f anon,^ ^trW ftUR-^ % ^pr ^RIT^ irw ^T^, 
VT^-inTVt^ ftir inS\ It ft^.^'^j In the year 



10 



16 



20 



25 



SO 



86 



40 



46 



60 



I 



1902 of Xing . Yikramfiditya's era King Chand, 
the saviour of Esshi, left his body to go to Gkxi, 
{here VT = 2, ^WTO = 0, ^w == 9, ^^ = 1). 
•A Mdm. 28, w^ wRr ^^f^, ^l^fX^ ^f^ ^rtrro, ¥rtt 
flM^^lf^ V^K % ^rar. Mentioning the name of the 
'ear,' and with his fingers {making the sign of) 
cutting ofi his nose, he ( Bdm ) sent Siip'nakha to 
Lakhan ( ^ being a synonym of mf^ signifies the 
ear ; the sentence means that Bdm, in sending Sdp^nakhd 
to Lakhan, teamed her that her ears and nose would 
be cut off ). 

{ Both forms ^;wm akds and '^mn akdsh are met 
withf varyit^ with the circumstances and the speaker. 
On the whole, throughout Bihdr ;^rwT9 is the common, 
everyday pronunciation, while ^imw is considered 
affected and stylish. The forms "nrVTV dkd» or ^fmnc 
dkdsh, generally given in the dictionaries as the 
so-called ' correct * or ^proper * ones, have never been 
met with by us in B. literature except in one place 
though the word itself is of very frequent occurrence. 
That single exception is in Bdm., Bd., ch. 206, 2, 
V^-ftftl W^n w ^ IWf^ 'f'nr ww ^Jtfc Sere 
all copies that we have consulted agree in reading 
^rjWPf , except one which reads ^^f^. But the metre 
shows that here too the correct reading is probably 
^rai7. The fact is that the form ^mint (or^mro), 
so much affected now^a-days, is a falsely restihUed 
unphonetic spelling. The word certainly is never 
pronounced dkds or dkdsh^ but always akds or akdsh. 
. There are two other forms ^mV9 akkds and iniro agds 
{see the respective articles). We have never met wiih 
them in B. literature, but they, are true Oawfian 
forms, and may be met with coUnquiattp.) 

[Ted. WTWTif {8kr. By. P.), 8kr. WTWn^i, Pd. 
^■nnwt, Pr. ^tmv^ or ♦ ^^ir^, Mg. Pr. "^mw or 
*^^WTit {eee art. ^ a {6)) ; hence B. 
or ^^WTit, -ff* as in B., P. %wt9, ^mvre, 

Q. '^fmm, 0. ^iwvti {0. Vy.), ^mw, B. ^innr, 

S. ^WX%f Ksh. ^nwm. The usual tadbh. Pr. 
formis^xnr^ (qf. Bhag.,p. 407, At^. § 22, Ndy. 
§ 66), which has survived in B., E., P., and M. in the 
form ^VTW. The other tadbh* Pr. form ^TWi^ 
or ^Twrfr {Sapt., vs. 671, Bde. xv, 85), however, has 
not sut-vived in the Ods.^ 

^WTm akdsl, ^wvft akdshl, Tbh.» (I) adj. com, gen., 
' appertaining to space, celestial, . aerial, atmospher- 
ical; * suspended in the air. Phr., '^^rr^^x:ir s^ 
blue {v. ^ww-wfr) ; •^nrpft ^^ a raised lantern, 
a beacon ( v. ^^rw-<t^). 

{ll)*subst. ffi., I anything suspended in the air, 
or over one's head ; hence * {Mth.) the upper beam 
of a loom to which the levers ore attaohedj and 



or 




aJMchan 



21 



^r^^ aku^tf^ 



which is above the head of the maver {Ori.^ § 363) ; 

• (S.-JEL Tirhut) a soazeorow puikd by a string and 
hung an a tree {Qrs., § 68) ; y. (m ChdW slang) 
a head-dress {Az. Qy.). Exain.| Coll {Bh., in 
Kahdrs^ slang )^ ^ ^tm^ W^ % ( sel. Wo), Go 
stooping {to avoid) something over-head. Bee also 
^irrft" agdsi. 




•T akifichan (1), TSf ac^j. com. gen.^ {subst /. 
akinehand)y without anything, utterly desti- 
tute, poor, wretched, miserable. {A tech. term of 
Indian asceticism ; seeBhag.^pp. 176,187.) ExaiTlii 
Rdm.f Bd,j ch, 166, 3, ^rTW ^ftniT ftw ^fic %^, 
The destitute is the most beloved of Hari ; tft., 
^r., cA. 40, 7, ^ww ^fliVf ^OPf ^WWHO', {Saints 
are ) imperturbable, have no worldly goods, and live 
a life of chastity and oontentedness. 

ISkr. ^ftn^, Pr. ^rfif>rit {Ndm.^ vs. 36) or 
^rf%^ ( qf. Aup. § 27) ; in aU Qds. ^ftvT.] 




akiRehan (2), Ts., subst. m., want of any 
possession, poverty. {Tech. term for one of the vows 
of Indian asceticism; see Bhag.j pp. 176, 187.) Exaniti 

Coll. {W. Bh.), ^rlv^ rt ^w ^rfii^ir ^f^ i:^ 

ifftsw ¥1^, There is such poverty in his house that 
the very mice are dying. 

[5Ar. ^if^iii, Pr. ^ifl^n*, JET. ^if%>fir or ^ifinw ; 
aU other Ods. ^lT%incO 



^HitJI akilj ^iw a*7, ^mw aJckal, Any., eubst. /., 
sense, common sense, understanding, wisdom. Phr,, 
^iftmr fT^^W, to exercise one's common sense, to 
act wisely ; ^f%m ^^IW, {lit to have one's senses 
congealed), to be astonished ; ^1%w ^Tmr, to have 
one's mind bent, to consider, to think ; {Bh,) ^^fiw % 
H¥ w, perfect fool. Exam-i Misc. 6, JKt ^^rfV^ nWTif^ 
Tm-^:ft^, Thy senses are astray, Efimdarii ; Dev.^ 

% ^nni uf^ ^ir ^w^tt^ wrif ftr irt^ ^ftiw "wr 

9T^ liTW, Since the settlement has been begun in 
this district, we have become so entangled that our 
intollect even can do nothing (f.«, we dwCt know what 
on earth to do) ; B. &r.,.iii {Mg.)^ Fable ]6,«i^ %m 
^^m "* HT ^, ^>^«^ 1W % ill: ^^nnft. That which 
does not agree {Ut. fit into) one's understanding, 
should not be regaided; Mth. Ch,^ p. 2, PT ^yif 
5? ^irf nm ^ ^fiw ^^, When will there be 
good common sense to this fool P Coll. (£A.), rf Ho 
^fiM % i|« ^i« iTo, Tou are a perfect fool I 
[ Ar. cU* 'aql.'\ 



akiFmand, Any., a(^'. com. gen.y sensible, 




10 



16 



wise. 



85 



40 



45 



50 



[Ar. Prs.^iJ^ *aqhnand; derived from Ar. ctf* 
*agl with the Prs. suff. ^ mand.} 

[Ar. J^ 'aqiq.] 

^^'^T aklddr Axiy^f subst. m., ^religious belief, profes- 
Bionoi faith; «confidenoe. ExaiH., ^CoU. {Bh,), 
Xmw^ % ^n^ ^s, Say the Aposflee' Creed; 
•ColL {Bh.), TWfiK jnr ^ WScT 5r%, I have no 
confidence in him, 

{Used among Musalmdns and native Christians.) 
[Ar. JM^ 'aqidah.] 

M^K,f\ aktrat, ^fftr^ftr akir^A, Wtffr akirA, Te^ 
subst. /., disgrace, infamy, ill repute. Exam., Btv. 
do. anon, w^^ ilPlxw lit ^ ^ rfl^w lit wtw, wm 
^^ftxw ^tii ^, mr i(vv li^T w 'ftw. One who wishes 
to gain reputation by destroying the reputo of others 
gains only ill reputo, and no one in the world calls 
. him a good man. 

[Sir. ^^ftfht; JET. the same as in B.; other Cfds. 
frfttw. The tadbh. Pr./orm is ^rfWf {Aiy>. § 117), 
which, however, has not survived in the O^."] 

^nBlTfT aklrd, the same as Whcir aklrat, q.v. 

^IP^rr tkud, {Mg.), Tbh., subst. m^ cor. for ^C^^t 
dkhud, q.v. 




third, = ^Jlim* iiurd in one qf its fourth series 
of meanings, q.v. {Ors. § 600.) 

^^^ ikurhd, Tbh., subst, m., '{If. Bh.) the end of 

the pipe of a blacksmith's bellows which goes into 

the fire ((?r«. § 414) ; « {IT. Bh. and IT. Mth.) ^ ^IffTT 

ikurd, in two of its fourth series qf meanings, q.v. 

{Ors. §§ 876, 412.) 

[Ihis is merely a corruption of '^jEfTt q.v. 
Regarding the aspiration, see Od. Or., % 131, 
p. 72.] 

^^^ <iimth, {poet. ^ffiiT ahmthd), Ta., a4;\ com. gen.^ 
at. not blunted or worn out ; hence met, keen, sharp, 
intense. Exam., Bdm., Ln., ch. 26, 8, wi nfir-in^, 
^t^ ^fT W\^ f% Tl^qfir-ifliiflr ^y^T, Hearken, 
O dull of understanding! is Baikonth {merely) 
a world {Uke other worlds) or intense faifli in 
Ram {merely) a gain {like other gains) ? ib., TTt.^ 
eh. 64, 1, iffir ^tjw {fem.) xft-iftt ^w^rr, A man 
of keen understanding and indestructible faith 
in Hari. 

[8kr. ^^fw: ; as above possibly in all Otf^.'] 




^^^llini akutd^ {pr. ph. ^firm akutdt; ^fii1C« 
akutdtl ; ^^i^m^ akutdb ; ^^:wvf akul&y)^ Tbh., (^A. 
afM? Mg,)^ V. intr.f to be weary, tired, distressed, 
worried. Exam., -B. ©r., II (-BA.), jPaJfe 9, V^nft 
^ ^VyHT % HiT^, The soribe being worried said ; 
ffdp., {Mg.)^ 11, ^rfir ifrft ^^ ^Ifimi Gopi Cband 
having arisen in distress of mind. See ^nw^ 
ukhutd, v/^l^m agutdj and ^^twnn auk' id. 

IDer. root from ^fir + ipr + ^f^r or + ^T^, Ut. 
ptdled down or afflicted with great weariness, Skr* 
* ^vfWVrniraf^ or ^fiiWMi^^fii, Pr. ^ ^iin^ i %f , hence 
contracted^ O^. * whrt or shortened ^f^fw\% Regard- 
ing the shortening Bee CM. Or., §§ 25, 26, afca art. ^ (5). 
8kr. TVR itftfow^« Pr. ^w or fmm^ {Hem. ii, 106). 8kr. 
^V9 becomes Pd. ^^^ {Pd. Or. JT., p. 63) ; Skr. ^n* 
becomes Pr. wn {Aup. § 30, |>. 41) or {more usually) ^ir 
{Aup. § 30, i>. 42, § 56, p, 63 ; iV^dy. § 73, Kalp. § 92) . cf. 
Pr.^mor^n^ Skr. ^m (Hem. ii, 33). The Pr.p.pp. 
^ffif (= 8kr. ^fSir) o/" the den. ^wt^ occurs in Aup. 
§56,i>. 63. The TT. Bh. form o/ the root is 'W^m, 

JUth.. ^rgfT, & Mth. wtmnrx, H. ^r^nrr or ^niTnr, 
P. ^wifTir.] 



22 



'^gi Vi akurdi Tbh., «t<i«<. m., a hooked instniment used 
by the giassmakers for turning the glass in, or for taking 
it out of, the crucible ( Ors. § 564 ). See 4f^ Skurd. 
[This is merely a bye-form o/'-^fRCT, j.r.] 




Skurdf Tbh., subst. m., ' sprout, shoot, plantlet ; 
hence particularly the ^ name of certain sprouting 
plants, aueh as the large millet {holcus sorghum, 
Ors. § 986), the pea {pisum sativum, Ors. % 1001) ; 
'm the various other meanings of ^fgnc ikur, q.v. ; 
4 the name of various implements which have the 
form of a hook or are furnished with a hook ; thus 
{8. Mth.) the iron bands or hooks in a pony-carriage^ 
by which the strengthening spokes ( uw'RT ) outside the 
wheel are fastened to the cross-pieces {^[nand inmfV) 
which run from side to side at the back {Ors. % 222 ; 
also "^fncV, q^v^ ', the hook by which the pitcher is fastened 
to a toddy -seller* s waist as he climbs the palm-tree {Gfrs. 
§ 376 ; also {N.£h.) ^<f^, {Bh.) ^it^, and {S. Mth.- 
Bg.) <^^tT, q-v^) ; {N* Bh.) the hooked iron 
poker by which a blacksmith stirs his fire { Ors. § 412 ; 
also <irft or "^ffWT, q.v, or ( S. Mth.-Bg. ) '^WttT or 
^VV> 9'^' ) ; ( ^* ^^-y "Sf. Mth. ) the hooked 
pivot on which a blacksmith* s bellows work {Ors. 
§ 414 ) ; the iron hook with a ring which goes round 
the toe of a fancy-silk or fringe-maker ( Ors. § 600 ; 
also-^ff^j q-v., or '^i^m or Mtfi^f q-ff.) ; (i\r. Bh.) the 
iron hook /or taking out the glass from the crucible of a 
glassmaker (Ors. § 564 ; also ^^T or "'Bli^, q.v.^ or 
( S. Mth.) wf^ or mviH, q.v.) 



10 



u 



20 



80 



86 



40 



00 



— ^sfinsr akui 

[^Properly the str. f. of "^/i^, (q.v.) = Skr. ^l^ 
The latter word properly means a sprout or shoot, but 
is clearly a derivative a/^tt ft hook. The above given 
meanings, however, are probably due to a eonfUsion qf 
the three chsfly allied words 'ftwnfX {see f. '4%^ (1) 
or -^t^), 4fiKT, and 4)rrr, which are all derivatives 
of^f^ hook. See the remarks on derivation under art. 
<vft{l) and Mt^f^ {!).'] 

j/^^TT ^kurd, {pr. pU. ^ff^Tl?! iOourm, <f^m 
SkurSt; ^fTlTW Skurdel ; -^IfKIPW Skurdeb or 
4jTT^ Skurdb; ^TfKTSr Skurde), Tbh., v. intr., to 
throw out a shoot, to sprout {used esp. of sugar-cane, 
Ore. § 1009.). See y-WhrUT Hkhud. 

\^A der. root derived from ^fhfX or ^TT,. q,v. 
See Od. Or. § 352.] 

^^pnCl akuri, Tbh., subet. f, 'the name of various 
implements which have the form of a hook or are 
furnished with a hook; thus a wooden goad for 
young elephants ( Ors. § 102 ) ; {S. Mth.) the iron 
hook of a glassmaker ( Ors. § 564 ; also "^fTT or 
^WJ^ tt*Vi, q.v.)\ *gram given to eaoh of the 
female members of a household on the seventh day 
after a death in the house {Ors. § 1424). 

[This word is merely a bye-form of^^l;^^, q.v."] 

^gi O ikurl, Tbh., subst. /., »a sprout; hence 
•unripe crop out for food, or the cutting of such 
crop ( Grs. % 877) ; also «a hook, tenter, catch ; hence 
^the name of various implements which haye the 
form of a hook or are furnished with a hook * thus 
the barb of an arrow ; a fish-hook ; a forked stick 
for pulling dawn fruit from trees (Or., also {Mg.) 
4*^) q'^)y ^*^ ♦'» *^*w^ of the fburth series of 
meanings of 4fXT Skurd, q.v. {Ors. §§ 222, 412, 664) ; 
hence also ^a kind of grass or vetch {Wat.), s= 



iOs^rd (1), q.v. Exam.i Coll, {Bh.), ^MK W ^jpc^ ijjc 
\^o, mr^ %%> You have broken its sprout, how 
will it grow P »(7o//. {Bh,), ^^itirt ipr % -^IPct ^z 
«rv» The hook of his mind has broken ( i.e., he has 
failed to succeed). See Mi^rft SkWi (1) and "^i?^ 
iVfi (1). 

[This toord is merely the fern, qf 4ftT, q.v. The 
fern, form in such cases often indicates a diminutive 
sense, or a vulgar use,'] 

^^M akul, Te., (I) adf. com. gen., {subst. f. ^irr 
akuld), lit. of no family; hence ^not bom of 
parents, beginningless, eternal (a synonym qf ^irrf)( 
andiA, q.v.) ; »of bad family, of low pedigree ( the 
same as ^qpnifV dkuU and ^fnr^ akuHn, q.v. ) ; 
'outside of the Hindu social system, out of caste, 



^af^^TTT akulatd 



23 



^ll^fN 



ukuUn 



eto. (a synonym of Skr.^^i^^mwrmi). Exam*t ^'^ B. 
JSdm,y v8, 36, 9^inr-Trar> ^-nftm, ^inUi ^^ii, 
w^, fiWT-ftrftf, KT«x n^ ^-^T^ (Thou who aH) 
the protector of (even) the wioked, devoid of all 
qualities ( = fif^ ), \vithoat a beginuing ( or of 
no good family) and without a Buperior, thou 
treasury of grace {i.e. Rdm)^ how shall I say the 
praises of thy excellencies I ( There is a play 
here on the word ^fiV; the meaning is thai one 
alwaye praises those who protect good people^ who are 
qf good family^ etc,, but how can I praise him who 
is a protector of had people, who is of no good family, 
etc.). *Edm.f Ba.^ ch. 89, 6, ^fw, ^iiT, fki'^* 
^Tii\, Gasteless, houseless, naked, and neckla.oed 
with serpents ( epithets qf Sib). 

(II) subst.f, a prostitute, (lit. not belonging to 
a family). Exam.9 Chan., ^TfWT irrft ^iwr ^nr ^ro, 
^nr nftff ^^iBW %9 wn wn. The woman (who is) a 
prostitute eats up all wealth : where can {one who 
wants to be) an unlucky fellow go but to her P 

[^Sir. Wf9' ; as above in aU Ods,"] 



'^r^r^r^TT akulatdi (««pAof». ^try^rnT dkulatd), mbst.fy 
T6n whst. m.y agitation, distress of mind. 

{^Skr. ^jfWifT ; as above in all other G^s,'] 



^^^^T akuldf wnrr u*7rf, {pr.pts.'^c^w akuldt; 
^fiWMP^ akuldel, Bdm. ^{SfVX^ akuldn ; ^fi igrv i 
akuldeb; ^ffrnr akulde), Tbh., v, intr., 'to be 
agitated (mentally) f confounded, perplexed, distressed, 
alarmed, hurried, anxious, worn out> wearied ; ^ to be 
agitated {physically)^ confused, put out of order, 
tossed, disturbed, worn out, fatig-ued. Exam.i -HJ., iv, 
40, Tirw^ wf ijfir ^ ^ffiTp-if, Hal'dhar's soul 
I>eoame agitated with anguish; ©W., Sd., 61, 1, 
^iPl ^ VJ'f, ^H^T ^f^wxij % ( Janak ) learning his 
^ood fortune, became agitated with affection ; Rdm., 
17, 1, ^ifii twnft ^fti ^9^T«?^, Seeing her 
%^i.e. 8Ud) to be very tender, she {Sitd^s mother) was 
^Sisfaressed ; $6., do. 66, 1, ^TRl^nT iif% ^iRT ^fir ^ ^fk 
At that moment Sita, hearing the news, rose 
agitation ; 16., Ar., ch 7, 19, ffir ^fPm; ^ht ^fir, 
^'he saint thereupon rose in alarm; ib,, Bd., 
ch. 260, 6;i?ft^ iffir ^ ^iwrl;, Girding up their 
\oinsthey arose in haste; »6., A., ch. 117, 7, ^fir 
^^^ ^tff ^II^Tt, When they heard of their beauty, 
they asked anxiously ; ib., Bu., ch. 13, 2, XK^ fwr^ 
fkX^ ^f ^fft, She was confused in her heart by joy 
and sorrow ; K Bam., 8u. 16, ^ XTf^rnt:, ^f^^ 
%pr irrf% t. Confounded by smoke, who indeed can 
recognise whom P ib., 6u. 10, xr*ft, irrft, W^, w Jiipt 
^fWTif^ ^, The queens all cry in dismay, * water, 
water, water* ! tJ., 8u. 8, imr ift^ i?N:, ^lliWTT ^^ 



10 



16 



20 



29 



80 



S6 



40 



K(^9 The great heroes run away, and in dismay 
Bftban arose; ii., Su. 15,^m^ f^nmfk^mxn^lfwm 
irf%, Calling ( Bdban ) by iiame, they are screaming, 
lamenting, and greatiy distressed ; ColL ( W. Bh.) , mnr 
IFTT 9TW f^ ^VIRSTX irir. He got weary as he went 
on doing the work. * Bdm., A., ch. 266, 6, \(wi 
^7x "^V^rfw ^VWrt, As though the ocean had risen 
and become tossed ; ib., Ar., ch. 18, 1, %^^ ^f*lT9iC 
^v ^n^rt. When the assembly heard her word, 
they rose in confusion ; Padm.y ch. 534, 2, ^^ liT^ 

^ f^ xvnrr, wtwr %i[, %v ^yvim, Atthe din {lit. 

running) of the battle Ind'r cowers^ Mem shakes, 
and Sesifi agitated; Bih.i^ ll^wWTW W lftf% unr 
wnnr, IT ircf ^fvn; %, In Baisakh heat oppresses 
me : I die worn out by it. 

[SAr. v/'tTlW (*r. root from a^. ^tTfW), lOthd. 
^Tf Vrtir; Pr. ^Vfmkt {cf Sapt, vs. 383) or ^ww%f;, 
hence Cfd. ^fitil^; it only occurs in B. and H. 
The tadbh. Pr. form %l^KW {<fi Sapt., vs. 25, Aup. 
§ 48, Bhag.fp. 181) does not survive in Gd. An analogon 
of the transposition of the vowels ^ u and ^ a in 
the form "mw^Wl is the -v/wWIW uVtd^ for v/^^VT 
dkutd {q^v.).'] 

^^^IX ahUi^, ^9«lt akuldl, Tbh., subsU /, 

confusion, perplexity, distress, alarm, anxiety, 
weariness. 

[Either verbal noun derived from v^-^VfWi 

or abstr. noun derived from ae(f\ ^Tfnr by means 

of the Od. sec. der. suf. ^itt or vt ; see Od. 
Or., § 220.] 

^^•^ okufi, (/. ^ffiiOl akulint ), Mth. or poet, form 
of ^Tfiir^ akuli, q.v. 

^Sr^fW akuli, Tat adj\ com. gen., {subst. f. 'ifftinft 
akulini), of low origin, mean pedigree, low, mean, base. 

Exam«i -P^<w- Jf^A.> ^ffJiftr fir^iW ypn^ ^^nrw, A 

marriage with a woman of low extraction brings 
ridicule on your own. Bee^f^ akul and ^vywSr 
akulin. 

I8kr. ^^[^pfi ; as above in all Ods.^ 



46 



BO 



[r^lT akulin, ( old obL ^fitf^^lHl akuUnaht ), Ta., 
a^\ com. gen., {subst. /• ^ryinwr akulind), the same 
as "^^Pffft akutl, q.v. Exam.i Sin. 69, 99 ^«Sr 

^ ; XCT^i %, t^ ^rrftr % ; ^rf^ ^'^ Tm-irfw, ^fift 

^ '^fftr ^, {Bdm is) family to those who are of 
no family {i.e. of low family ; comm. wq^) ; this is 
well-known by tradition, and the Beds are witness ; 
he is hand and foot to the paralytic, and eye to the 
blind ; Pdrb., ch. 7, unm HIT ^«r xW^w IT ^A- 
irfff Say, what did you hear to make you so pleased 



1 



^H^p^nn aiteH5yd 



— 24 



^J'a 



akSl 



with a bridegroom of (meh) low pedigree ; Bw. do. 
anon, {song on 8ib*s marriage) ^rfw ^V^F^W W^W 
ftnr, ij^ ^ ^fT% Wrfr, Sib is of meaa pedigree 
and foul, why do you desire him P 

[5*r. ^9^t, Pr. ^9wHY ( qf. Sapt, vs. 253, 
footnote) \ all Oifs. ^ryiAw. The tadbh. Pr. form 
^iWWY {Sapt.^ vs. 263) has not survived in <?rf.] 

^*5^^* fl*ii/5iy<l, Tbh., ad;., Ig. f of ^riwrc a*«/(fif, 

^f • Examti fii;'., 1 851, wjv ! jnri^ ^ inio ^^wt, 

Prinoe I are you distressed at so little as this P 




akusal, T«^ adj. com. gen., {subst. f ^ fH*^ r 
a*t«7el), unlucky, inauspicious. J^y^ajm^t Coll. (BA.), 

wi^^TT %w-irww ^nw ^ttJo, ^rv^fw mr ti^^v, Tell 

me good, and not bad, news about his health and 
well-being. Ibr another example see under 
akul and ^vtir akdl. 

I8kr. ^f[W«: ; as above in other Ods.] 



^l^^TT Skusdf Tbh., subst. w., the name of various 
implements which have the form of a hook or 
are famished with a hook; thus *tn the several 
meanings of ^A^ ikus^ q.v. ; ^(Mg.) in one of the 
fourth series qf meanings of "^fTT ikurd^ q.v. 
(Ors. § 600.) 

[ Properly str.f. of^A^j q.v.^ 

^^^5T 4*w*l, Tbh., subst. /., the name of various 
implements which have the form of a hook or are 
famished with a hook; thus {Mg.) 'a hooked stick 
for pulling doum fruit from a tree {Ors. § 41 ) ; *(JUg.) 
in one of the fourth series of meanings of ^ftyrr Sturdy 
q.v. (Ors. § 600.) 

iThis is merely the fern, of Mif^, q.v.'\ 

'^^^ 5Hr, {old dir.'Hf^ Skaru or poet. 4f^ atflrfi), 
I bh., subst. m., tl^e same as ^^ aykur, q.v. Exam., 
Padnu, ch. 95, 5, f*iTW wf ^ wr ^^ <f%f ^ ^ 
W ^^ VN ^cif, Why should not the germ of my 
love become like sunbeams, on which I, like the sun, 
may ascend to the heaven of my moon {i.e. 
to^ Padmavati) P (t^ « believed that the sun climbs the sky 
by the aid of its rays.) 

ISkr. ^ni^t, Pr. ^fi(t. The Multdnl has -^t^ 
{MLOy.).] 



akePtcd, (/. ^fm^l akeliyd), Ig. f of ^%^ 
akel, q v. Exam., B\j., I. 736, ^ i|^f«iT^ ^Innr, 
You wander about alone from forest to forest. 

^Hf^lHH akelapan, Tbh., subst. w., loneliness, 
solitade; •celibacy. Exam.. 'Coll. (Bh.), ^il^-Rir 1? 



10 



V^ wvw l^l^dur, When a man is alone, he does a 
great deal of work, {lit. in solitude much work is 
produced). ^Coll. (J?A.), ^*wnnr ** ^:^W i?Nr WT W', 
«T^ ftr ^»T WT xlW % ft^iT % i{^, It is not good 
to remain a bachelor {lit. in celibacy), for who will 
offer a pindfi if there is no son P See ^^A^W akelipan 
and mfmivi^ ei^ldpan. 

[ Ver. from ^%WT teith Od. suff. ^w forming 
abstract nouns. See Od. Or., § 228.] 



'-^ •s 



16 



20 



26 



80 



85 



40 



46 



60 



^^^ M •! akelSpan. Tbh., subst. i»., the same as ^ ifsiM^ 
akeldpan, q.v. Exam.. Coll. (Bh), 'mrn^.xtf %» 

wrw ^^^nrw % ^rf^wV «%, ^%%^w "51 finivif^ ^n Kxm 

mftf -What can I do P here I have no acquaintance ; 
I pass my life in loneliness. •Coll. {Bh.), 'ifNst vr 

fww WT 'ftt, ^MK *nc Mr^inr w ^>, He will 

never be married : he will remain a bachelor all 
his life. 

^^^ of^ff Tbh., adj. com. gen., { old Mth. and poet, f 
^%f% aket%), alone, solitary {used of individual beings 
or things, while ^nA^ is used of places). Phr., ^%v 
T^W, to live apart; ^ni* ^prw, to sleep apart from 
one's husband or wife, be deserted or abandoned by 
one's husband ; ^%f% ^i^rrw^, the explanation of one 
party to a case ; ^%% ( loc, used adverbially ), alone ; 
^^^pH^X^w alliterative repetition) entirely alone. 
Exam.| Rdm., Bd., ch. 161, 6, ^fir ^w ^ir ft^w ^r%^, 
w^^ «r wr-ww iw W^, Though quite alone in the 
forest and greatly distressed, yet the king would not 
give up the chase of the deer; Padm., ch. 371, 3, 

rff^rtrtr {fern.) iT% Tw^n«y, wwir^TT w^ fww 

^rft, I remain alone and {from fear of falling out ) 
catch hold of one of the side-planks of the bed 
straining my eyes I die with a broken heart ; ib. 
ch. 63, 8, ftftw ^%% film lrf% %ij^. Why are 
you {Sat%) wandering alone in the forest P Prov. 
^f% liTTift jn 4 ^ffWV, One's own story is sweeter 
than treacle; Rdm., Bd., eh. 163, 3, ^ jw, vw WW 
fr^M ^«%%, Who are you, and why do you roam 
alone in the forest P b. Or., 11 (Bh.), Pbbk 7, WTW 
"^1%% T^ % wrni:ir, The tiger by himself ate up 
the deer. 

{The toord is seldom heard east of Bw.; in the 
other B. dialects the usual word is Trm^^K, q.v.; 
wr%W may be considered as borrowed from IT.) 

IDer. from Skr xm by means of the Pr. pkon. 
suf. w; hence Pr. ximfit or pnwt {Mem. ii, 166), Od. 
xmWi q.^' ; u^hence, by transposition of m a and x^ e 
arises the form Wi%w. Or the latter form might be 
derived from a Pr. form PVTVt, made with the pleon. 
*«/. TV, ft*« -P^- ■WWrrfl" {Bhay., pp. 437, 198 = Skr. 
wrw first) ; but the former derivation is more probable 



^srnr^ aim 



25 



^*ft<i 



Skord 



because the corresponding forms in all other Ods. are 
derivatives of Pr. ^V».] 



akild^ (/.. ^%ift akell ), Tbh., adj.^ str. f of 
akely q.v. ExaiTlii Padm., ch. 139, 4, «T^Pr if^ HW 

^t^ff %rr, Kt^J HPT wrs ^rtvr, AH the pupils 
eleep in every place, the king himself alone wakes ; 
♦ft., ch. 134, 5, vfir^T ^nwT ^ irttw, ^1t T ^^ 
%^ Tt^ %^, The king — ^he alone remembers the 
path on whiohthe pupil is acoustomed to play ; Bdm., 
Ar.j ch. 26, 2, ipr«-^in ^ifTfT^ ^rtrtfV, ^t^» HTW 
^^^ K^ %^, brother, have you left Janak's 
daughter {i.e. Slid) alone and oome here against 
my order P Bih.y i, 6, ^niT^ ^ V% ^ ^K^> ^ 
^«%f^ TiTiir^, In Ag'han there is an empty bed, and 
alone I watch ; Sudh, 42, v^ Tft ^ii%v\ "^ ^W IT 
^%^9 KTirr, In the first place I am alone {without 
my husband) J secondly there is no confidante with 
mOj Itsm. 

[^Der. from Pr. tjifw^ (with pkon. SMJf. nr). 
Bee remarks on der, of ^%fr.] 

akatn ( used in OorakKp^rj Cr,^ p. 6), the same as 
nr akhckn, q.v. 



10 



15 



s^ 




akb% T6.9 subst. m., a kind of war-drum, beaten 
iffith an iron drum-stick. Exam.i Padm.^ ch. 551, 3, 

Tabal and akot {two kinds of drums) sounded the 
attack, fierce passion arose in all the kings and 
princes. 



20 



85 



90 




Skdrdf Tbh., subst., m., {Ph.) a large 

hook, a kind of grapnel. Exam., CoU. ( TT. Ph.), 

^TTTT^rr % ^<N?tfT IJTT ^, The hook of the door is 

fastened. 

[^Apparently a bye-form of "^tfKT or ^3i4fl^ q,v, ; 

the medial ^ ois apparently a modification of ^ u. 

Compare the G. *l?rT and ^It^it^, bye-forms of ^w^ 

and ^IfH. ff. has -^wY^.] , 

^*IUdT!"^nr akdtar^sdf Tbh., nww., one hundred and 
one. Exam., Podm., ch. 299, 4, W^TT ^fw lit ^d 
^^, 1^ ^WHT-^ W ^^, Lumps of sugar which 
were {broken) in pieces {were given) with one 
hundred and one dishes of bari (a kind of dish made 

of pulse)* 

[SJfcr. TliPt^'r^inf, Pr. ^WtuT^, Ap. Pr. 

^flhinr^ akobidj Ts., adf. com. gen., {subst. f ^w\fk^ 
akdbidd)f ignorant, unlearned, unskilled. Exam.i 



85 



40 



46 



60 



Bdm.^ Sd,f ch. 123, I, n^^ ^Hitfir^ ^^ ^Wpft, 
Ignorant, unlearned, and blind reprobates. 

ISkr. wttfk^. ; as above possibly in all Qds."] 

^Bf^FTT akdrj {poet ^^XT akdrd ), Tbh., subst. m., 
^ bribe ; hence •the coaxing of a cow or buffalo, 
which has lost its calf, to eat grain ( Ell. vol. H, 
p. 213); Hhe refreshment which a labourer eats 
in the intervals of work in the open field, {Ell. 
II, 213). Phr.; ^*rT ^arw, to take a bribe. Exam., 
^Oit., m. 3, 2 «r^ ^if^f ^ ^weY^ tt% ^pr ^rf^ 
iPr^ipw, wfir f^rrf^ ^ ^|i^w ^^rPmrrt, The 

thief (i,e. the spreading curls on Rdm^s head which 
approach his face, and which are likened to snakes bent 
on stealing the nectar of his moon-like face) is exceed- 
ingly afraid on seeing the beauty of the pair of 
bright, peacock-like earrings {alluding to the tra^ 
ditional enmity of the peafowl towards a snake) Which 
{the face of Rdm) being as it were afraid, has put 
on {by way of) giving a bribe ; 8udh.j 37, ^ffii^ 

k1^ t ^'^[Tinr, mtiTf Trftw ^irftrH «fK l wr^ t% 
•11^* ^imr^ ^^ % i^t^ ITT ^^ I i[i wnft ^(^ 

"^[^ ^ ^ % ^(Vn ^^, Thy bodice is like a 
court, thy full bosom like a tyrannous magistrate; 
mine eyes, overcome by covetousness, were unjustly 
kept in bonds {before them)^ like a thief; but, 
beloved, they got free by offering the bribe of 
my life to thy soul {which was) the magistrate's 
clerk ; Padm.^ ch. 671, 2, «IT ^«^T if^ ^* T Kiq;, 
in^iT %T ftTT^fr ^iT^, Where bribes {occur) there 
is no good government ; they ruin the actions of the 
king : tJ., ch. 670, 2, ^m ^TW 15^ ^f ^ vtn, ft^r^ 
^^ ^TT ^rf^ ^r, The G^rfi gave ten Iskhs of 
rupees as a bribe, and, falling at his {i.e. Pat^na^s) 
feet, made supplication. 

[^ Perhaps from 8kr. ^wft^:, Pd. ^rwt^, Jp. Pr. 
{ with pleon. suf. V, Hem. iv, 429) *^nKNwt, whence 
{contr. and with change ofwtox and qf ^ to ^) 
Od. ^(^K> H. as B. Apparently wanting in the 
other Qds.1 

%^(\K\ Skdrd, Tbh., subst m., the name of various 
implements which have the form of a hook or are 
furnished with a hook; thus *(5. Mth.-Bg.) the 
hooks of a harrow by which it is attached to the traces 
iOrs. § 32 ) ; * {ib.) the piece of bamboo tied on behind 
the main beam ('imir) »» ^he rear of a country-cart 
and forming its tail ( Ors. § 172 ) ; f ( ib, ) = ^jffXT 
Skurdj in some of its fourth series of meanings ( Ors. 
§§376,412). 

[A bye-form of'^lifKt, q.v.f with the provincialism 
of changing ^ uto^ (cf •^hPtfT for "4^^) ; O. 



^wW 



akdl 



^IRRtW «*5/ (1), {sir. /. w^ftm akdld)^ Tbti., subst m., 
a plant {Alangium hexapetalum or decapetalum^ Wat) 
the oil of the fruit of which is Bupposed to be iiBeful 
in enchajitments. ( The nut^ however ^ is said to be very 
hard^ so hard that oil cannot be e^ressed from it ; 
hence magical properties might solely be ascribed 
to it!). 

[Skr. ^^f^. or wi^ or (prdkritising) ^^ptw^ 
or %^i, Pd. ^^f^fr, Pr. ^nftlft {Sem. i, 200, 
Sapt.f vs. 779, et passim) ; O, and M. ^nPtW. S. ^W?hl, 
Bg. ^Tthl [akalo, Wat). The oil made of the fruit is 
called in Pr. ^Wtwww, Eem. ii, 156.] 

^PRT^ akol (2), {str. /. ^nfrtTT ak6l&)y Tbh., ^ubst. m., 
the top shoot of the sngar-oaue plant {Hd. Dy.)% See 
synonyms under ^^ri^ a0n. 

\^ Probably = '^^PtT = ^*Ax, for ^H^, cf. 
■^WlTr akord.'] 

^^^rr5l akol (8), Tbh., adj. com, gen.j lonely, solitary, 
{used of phces^ syn. T^^rw, while ^ff^ is used of indivi- 
duals) . Exam., Chan., wff^rr ^^^:m ^irr ^, ^t ^jt 
•fiiTT iT^ ^ I 'Hi ^vtir ^^ro 5iWTx:, ^jnw 

(▼ ITT ^^^m The testicles of a bnllook were 
swinging! and a jackal went along with him {hoping 
that they would fallj so that he might eat them); a 
oowherd sat in a lonely place and killed the unlucky 
{jackal) with a stick. In the presence of ill-fate, 
what {advantage is there) in being wise P The world 
says his very {search of) food was {the cause of) hia 
death. 

iPerhcgps from Skr. xcm, Pr. VM uith the pleon. 
suff. ^w ; anahgom to the derivation of ^|%9, q.v,^ 

^R^RT^ akdld (1), Tbh., subst. fw., a tree, Aleuritis 
triloba (Wai.). 

ISkr. ^rwV»^« or ^T^ '^^Hit or ^VTO^Wt or 

^fnftwm or %pft^m:.'] 






T akaUtd^ Tbh., subst. iw., an eruption in the leg. 

{It is popularly supposed to be caused by stepping over a 

place where a dog has been eating and left some refuse^ 

and to be cured by rubbing the place with curds and 

making a dog lick it.) 

IDer. f Connected with ^tw or ^inpr P JGT. 
WW.] 




akkand ^ 



dlandf q.v. 



^BUT^ akkal = ^f%w a**/, q.v. 



28 



^in^ufn^l^linil akramdtishaydkti 



10 



16 



80 



^Wltl akkds {Coll.) 



2S 



akdSj q.v* 



akkhan^ Tbh., a^. com. gen.^ {CoU.^ Jlldhdbdd), 
blind. Exam.9 Coll. gH ^ ^WiW ^, Ton are very 
blind. 

{The meanings * half-blind,* 'one-eyed,' given by 
Fallon do not appear to be correct.) 

{Perhaps connected with Skr. ^r^, one of the 
meanings of which is said to be *bom blind.'] 



akkhar = 'ipjT akhar, q,v. See ^^x aehchhar. 



"WWT aikhd = ^tVt Skhd, q.v. 

^Har akkhly Tbh., «w}«^. /, the act of making water 
{used by pafh^shdld or school boys) = i;;!^ ikkh Cf. 
5^lft dukkhi. 

IDeriv. doubtful. Probably a secondary formation 
from THff one ; ^W^, the act of easing, being sirn^ 
ilarly formed from ^ two. The idea is that the two 
acts consist of a single and a double operation 
respectively. A similar ejppression is in use amongst 
English children,^ 



•\« 



akkhe {Coll.) = nf^ Skhd, q.v. 



akfay, x^^w ikpay =: 



ai^tay, q.v. 



30 



85 



40 



aktabar = ^WPIJJIT akHnbar, q.v. 



^TJT oJ^bar = ^^TTWT aA'Jar, q.v. 



^TIT^ 



akbarl = 



ak^bari, q.v. 



46 



60 



^SBVI^I^ akbardbdd = ^VfXTfK ak'bardbdd, q.v. 

^ffl^RT^7^^'?^^^^^ akramstishayokti, Ta., subst. f J the 
name of a figure of rhetoric in which cause and effect 
are not shown in their natural order of sequence, but 
as occurring simultaneously. Exam., Git.y Bd., 90, 6, 

fW?r.^rfiT ^ ^1^, fir«-iftw ftifN fWr I Seizing 
{the bow) in his hand together with the thrilling of 
the sages {i.e. while the sages thrilled with joy on seeing 
him seize it)^ he {i.e. Bam) sportively raised it; 
stringing it, together with making low the faces of 
the {competing) princes, he gave happiness to all. 
Hari {i.e. Rdm) pulled it, together with Slta's soul 
(t.^. winning her qffection)^ and rejoiced the heart of 
Janak; he broke it together with Bhrig'pati's 
{i.e. Parasurdm^s) pride, and caused delight in the 



^^TnWTT airit 



- 27 



akhc^ 



three worlds. Here th$ mung^ stringing j pulling, and 
breaking of the bow are the causes^ of which the thrilling 
of the sageSf the defeaiing of the princes^ the toinning qf 
Sitdf and the humiliating of Bhrig^pa^ respectively^ are 
the effects. The two sets are mentioned as occurring 
simultaneously* This figure should not be confounded 
with another called sahdkti {^%\fw)t which consists 
in mentioning together a similitude and its real counter' 
part. {See Bihari TuTsl Bh&khan Bddh^ a treatise on 
Hindi Rhetoric and Poetry^ by Pandit Bihari Lai 
Chdlubi^ Nos. 77 and 84.) 

^SrfJiKT dkrit^ Ts., a^f. com. gen.^ lit. not done or 
•wronght ; hence ' unmanufactured, natural ; • unfin- 

iflhed. Exam., * Coll. (£*.), i!TT^%t fW^ ^'ifirw 

ifem,) if^, This image ( lit. cone) of Mahadeb is not 
made with hands {referring to a natural conical lingam 
of stone)'. « Coll. (Bh,), ^ ^K 5w, V^^ vrw "^fwit 
(^fiKif -h "ft) x% J[% He died and his work remained 
imfinished. 

ISkr. ^mvc* f as above in all Gds.^ 




^,, , -, akritrim^ Ts., adj. com. gen.y inartificial, 
unfeigned, natural. Exatllii Coll. {Bh.)y t fsiferiV 
% ^ifilrf^ f^Wfr ^, This is a natural division 
( or continent ) of the earth. 

\_Skr. ^r^fim* ; as above possibly in alt Ods."] 

^|l1im<9 akripdly Ts.* a(i(f. com. gen., pitiless, merciless, 
unkind. Exsun., Bin. 232, 3r^ ^fiRTV, limnv ^WT^w, 
mi W% ItfirfY vwr<iif , Wherever (elscj beside Rdm) 
1 turn my thoughts, (/ see but) a lord {who is) pitiless, 
(or, if he be) pitiful, {he is) powerless. 

[fl*r. ^^nrrQ< , as above possibly in all Ghfs.^ 

^f^Km akribd, Any., subst. com. gen.^ kinsman, rela- 
tions within degrees recognised by law. 

(A word only used in kachah^rts or magisterial 

courts.) 

[Ar, ky\ aqribd^ pi. of vi/ qarib near ; also 

used in M. {Wil.).'] 



dkrnr. '^ti^^ aArVfir, ^IPlff ak^rar, 
ak^rufy Ts., subst. i»., name of a Jddab, the paternal 
uncle and friend of Krish^n. He was the son of Shwa^ 
phaVk and Odndinl. It was he who took Krish*n 
and BaPrdm to Maihurd when the former broke the 
great bow and slew Hans. He is chiefly known as 
being the holder of the Syamantak gem, which yielded 
to its owner daily eight loads qf gold. Man^bddh calls 
him Ddn*pa^ or * master of liberality * on that account y 
e.g., Hb. vi, 41, ^Ififw ^TW-^rflr Vrirf% rwr, ^*firft 
WWf% wsi V^m ^rni , For that day Dfin'pati (Akrar) 



10 



IB 



20 



25 



80 



86 



40 



60 



remained there and agreed to all that Kans said* 
The various forms of the name occur in the following 
passages of Man^bOdh's Haribans, viz. ^W^^T, vi, 43, 
X, 24, 25 ; ^^s*^, vi, 26, 49; vii, 17, 18, 27, 37, 
viii, 7, 36, 36 ; ^v^r^, viii, 38, ix, 21. 
[S*r. ^^njc: ; ^Hjc in all Ods."} 

RT? akrdt, ^Wi'tt? ak^rdp = ^njt^ akhrofy q.v. 
aksar = ^ v^K dk^sar, q.v, 
^TOTtT aksdt = ^^JT^TW dk'sdt, q.v. 
^nHmr aksdm = ^i^E79T<r ah^sdm, q,v. 
^ WPC aksir = ^WTF^ ak^sir, q.v. 

akh ; for words beginning thus and not found below^ 
see under the more proper form commencing with 
aehh or^^ achchh. 



I 



akhaiity ^wr9K akhdiit = ^^^ akaut, q.v. 



^nfTT Skh'gar = ^^f^in: Skhtgar. See under ^Tfw 
ikhi. 



akhaj {1)^ Tbh., adj. com. gen.^ ^whatis not 
to be eaten, indigestible, in excess of one's need of 
food; hence generally "what is not required, super- 
fiuoas, a nuisonoe ; also substantively ^one who will eat 
even what is unwholesome or what is in excess of 
his requirements, a glutton. Exam., * Coll. {Bh.), 
^tiK ^TW % ^nw ^raw ^ ?IW, My dinner has not 
agreed with me. * Coll. {Bh.), vfk ffX% t^, ^^fwm 
nXi I'll give it anyhow, 'tis of no use to me. « Coll. 
(jBA.), ^ ^ ^^F^r 4o, He is a terrible glutton. 

{The first is the usual use of the word. The 
idea is that with the dinner something has been taken 
which ought not to have been eaten, and which caused 
indigestion. The meaning qf * excess in eating,* 
* indigestion,' given in the Jz. Oy., is therefore only 
true in the above sense. The second use may be due to 
some confusion with ^ciw, q.v.) 

[S*r. ^^l;^^i^Pr. ^rw«r, Od. ^i^w.] 

^^^ akhaj{2), Any., subst. f, » {lit:) taking, seizing, 
intercepting ; • objection, cavil ; ^ (usually in this 
sense) aversion {Az. &y.)y hostility, a grudge. Exaniai 
» Coll. (JSA.), ^iT t w 1^ ^^jw XX^mJ, He has a 
great grudge against me ; Coll. {Bh»)y ipr K ^?iw 
^X il9) Hostility came into his mind, 

lAr., A^l fl#f ; — Bg. ^rhr^r ikhq; or nvim 
Skhej.} 



aJcharH 



28 



^^•rTT akVtar 



dkhard, a corruption of the ohhf. ^^rTTfT athdrd^ 
see^mr^ akhdr. Exam., ^^K I' 130, ^TO^ir KtiTW 
^^^11 ^^^ ^[^ %^vj^ mm, Budal planted the 
palms of Ills liands {on the ground) in the atena and 
made nine times ten-thousand dands (a kind of 
athletic exercise). 




akharVwdy Ts., mhat, i»., Ig. f of 
akhdrh (2), q,v. Exam., Prov., *nnc ^i^r ^^i3^^ t, 
ft€T ^T^^ 'iTO, Whose {fields) are prepared in {the 
lAonth of) Akharh, his {fields) are so for all the 
twelve months {Grs. § 1086). 



^Sn^T'^ akhandy {poet mmw[ dkhandd)^ Ts., (I) adj. com. 
gen.y ' unbroken, irrefragable, indivisible, iudestructible 
{used as an epithet of the Supreme Being) ; hence, 
•whole, entire, complete, absolute. Phr., ^^"^ ^f^, 
an integer, a whole number. Exam., ' Ram., Bd., 
ch. 68, 8, ^rrf'T ^Trfir ^R^ ^nrru, commencing an 
unbroken unsurpassed trance ; ib., ch. 149, 4, ^r^f 
%m^ ^ipfr f^iTTf^, {Ood) without qualities or parts, 
without end or beginning. *Rdm , 8u., do. 49, 2, 
•KTT ft^ft^^ Tl^T ^^^ xxm ^^BH¥ (/m.). To the 
burning Vibhisban the king afforded complete pro- 
tection; ib., Ut., ch, 64, 1, iifiT Wf^ ^f^-^%^^^ 
{final ^ d, m.c), {A man of) keen understanding and 
absolute faith in Hari ; id., ch. 115, 1, ^> .TTWf^ 
ifif ftiftf mm^^ {final ^T 5, w.c), The absolute 
persuasion that I am he. 

(II) adv., wholly, entirely, completely, thoroughly. 
Exam.| Bdm., Bd., do. 213, 1, ft[^\T^nT «iTrrf% fir'ar 

^^VT ^^ '•^^i He showed to his mother his 
wondrous body completely. 

( This ujord also occurs in Edm., Ln., chh. 36, 15, 

^nw^, ^v^f, 'riY^X'ft ; ^^ ^^ ^^, ^^ ^^ ^, 
( Ood is ) irreproachable, indivisible, not coming 
within the range of sense ( = ^iPhrr) ; all forms 
(are in him) always, yet no (form) is abiding 
in him {i.e., he is both immanent and transcendent 
in regard to the teorld). In Ram Jasan^s edition the 
words are wrongly divided into ^ v^ir nt^T^. Another 
edition reads the passage thus — ^irw^ ^^^ ^liWr^ft 
^nnpT ^5XT ^n iplT «l ^, tlie meaning being the same.) 
ISkr. ^W^:, Pd. -mm^, Pr. ^^^ {Aup. § 16, 
[m, p. 29) ; as above in all Ods."] 



^^^^ akhandal, {old nom. sg. ^^arw^ akiandaiu), 
Tbh,, subst, m., lit. breaker, destroyer, u^^edas an epithet 
of Sib. Exam., Pdrc, ch. 13, ^T ^rw^ ^T ^Riif^ ^m 
^tmw^, The Destroyer (Sib), the Mountain King, 
rejoiced in his heart at the tumult in the city. 

[S*r. ^n^W**, orig. an epithet of Ind^r { Rig. 
▼ill, 17, 12), in later times also of Sib (see Skr. Dy.), 



Pr. wnr^^ {Ndm., vs. 23), Ap. Pr. ^^W^ {cf, 
Hem. iv, 331) ; the Ap. Pr.form is nearly preserved 
in the old Bw. of TuVsl Dds.] 

^^^1 akhandd, adj., poet, for ^w^ akhand, q.v. 



10 




15 



20 



25 



30 



» 



40 



46 



akhandit, Ts., adj. com. gen., a synonym of 
akhand, q.v. Exam., ^Padm., ch. 80, 1, ^? 

^^ ^*f ^f ^T^, '^^ V'^irnT ^^f^ir mj, The 

parrot gave a blessing with great ceremony, 
{promising) great power and an unbroken rule. 
^Rdm,, Ut., ch. 50, 7, ^ 5^-fnT flmiw ^^«ir. 
He is thoroughly accomplished, {and possessed) of 
absolute knowledge. 

l^Skr. ^^rf^J ; as above possibly in all Ods. The 
tadbh.form ^vf^ occurs in Sapt, vs. 689.]. 



60 



akhat, ^T^nf dkhat, Te., subst. m., lit. uncrushed, 
unbroken, whole ; hence variously employed as a tech. 
term for whole grain ; thus * a portion of the crop 
per plough paid to village artizans, as the smith, 
carpenter, etc. {Hd. Dy.) ; • grain placed on a sieve 
and given to servants, etc., at marriages and other 
ceremonies ( Az. Oy. ) r ' consecrated rice used 
in religious ceremonies {such as the sandhyd and 
dasha-karmdni) ; ^also used figuratively o/ pearls, etc. 
ExaiTlii * Popular song, sung by women at the NaVchha 
ceremony at a marriage, ^n^j % zm ^ n^^ % 

? j1^<iii % wf^i, ^tftror % wnvi Tvcrn^ t, To 

the Brahman I will give coins of gold, to the 
barber's wife whole ( grains of) pearls, to the bard 
a horse, to the goldsmith an armlet, and the tailor 
I will dress in a suit of honour. 

{In the third meaning the more usiml form of 
the word is ^nnr achhat or ^^W achchhat, q.v.) 

[Ted ^TW- {Rig. v, 78, 9 ; x, 166, 2 ; Ath, xii, 
1,11), Skr. ^^ ; Pd. ^PW* ; Pr. {tech. ts.) ^m^if ; 
hence B. and H. ^^•w or ^injw, M. ^Rir, Bg. ^ranw 
{written ^W^), possibly in all Ods. (The Pr. form 
^finr^ which occurs in Kalp. § 16, Ndy. § 8, Aup. 
§ 20, Ndm. vs. 237, Bhag. p. 262, is not a tadbh. of 
Skr. '^^f as explained by the editors of Kalp. and 
Ndm., but a tadbh. of Skr. w^ indestructible, as 
shoum by the context.)'} 

•TIT (ikVtar, Any., eubst. m., »a star; *a kind 
of jewel made in the form of a star. Exain.| 
Bais. 28, mw 1J^ ^f'i'K wficTT m ^, WT ^ 
urcf IRffw, If you do not give me the starry 
bediyfi ( or fikuli ), I will thereupon kill you with a 
dagger. 

[Pre. /^\ (Mtar.'] 



^r^TfTt okhHa 



29 — 



dkhar 



fliA'^a, ^1^ tf*A^<5, Any., mo%U fw., a gelding. 



PTTTBTPC dkhHiydr, T^^fiWR: ikhHiydr, Any., 
mbat.my » choice, option, election; 'will, discretion, 
pleasure ; ^ control, power, authority. ExaiTlii *ColL 
(Bh.)y %nt xr9X ^^i^ftniTT, For the rest, you 
may do as you please. ^ ColL (fiA.), fkKjm wn '^K WT 
^ m *Ui^\K y What power has any one over strange 
property? B. Gr., 11 [Bh), Fable 15, *^^TiTir 
^i^TiH ^rapftr^T^'^S ^T WPT, If your enemy fall into 
your power. 

\_Ar. )W^\ ikhUydry lit. what is chosen, good.] 



akhHij\ the same as ^q^nf^ akhmtij, q.v. 




|«f| akhani, ^W^ akh'ni, Tbh., adv., {Mg.if Bh.) 
'now, just now; *now a-days. Exam,| ""Coll. {Bh,)j 
^^^ tlV^ ^V{ ir%> Now-a-days it is not the 

custom. 

[S*r. ^irw^ at this moment, Pr. tt^i^wv {or 
mimt T, c/" Nam. vs. 175 T^'ojfin: = Skr. UiUHMfn). 
^j!?. Pr. irwr^f^f ((S/". JSn^. iv, 899, transl), hence B. 
^^rrt, the term, \ being a contraction of the Ap. 
Pr. loc. sg. term, ^rfr {see Od, Or,, § 378 and 
§ 367, p. 208) cmd v being shortened to ^ {see Od. 
Cfr. § 26).] 



^^€^1 akhanddy ^trm^y akh^ddyJbh.ySubst. w., {Bh.) a 
hole dug in the bottom of a pond or elsewhere for 
catching fish {Az. Qy., where it is spelt ^^T 

akhando^ • 

[Probably from Skr.^imJfy an artificial or a dug 
pond, through an intermediate form NfHni or WHB'^ 
{icith doubling or nasalising the cons, to compensate for 
the shortened vowel; see also Od. Cfr. § 158), the 
softening of the consonant beipg analogous to that of the 
8hr. Pr. and P. pres, part. suff. '^for Skr. ^ {see Hem. 
iv, 261, Od. Or.y § 301). In the Skr. By. P. the word 
liT^Tir is said to be a mislection for ^^rm, a natural 
pond ; but in Pr. the word really occurs and has its 
proper sense of an artificial pond ; for the Ndm.y vs. 
203 gives its tadbh.form ^nwmf in the sense of a pit 
dug for catching elephants, while the tadbh. of Skr. 
^ranw is given by Ndm.j vs. 130 as ^'•TO.] 



akVbdr, ^rv^ akhbdr, Any., a newspaper. 

Exam^i Fam., vs. 58, nwr iR ^nirn: ^, irf^ % 

The news went into the newspapers that this 
was the condition of Mithila, saying, 'Hear, O 
English I give your ears and remove this net of 
sorrow.' 



10 



15 



ao 



i 

[Ar. jUa.| a^Jdr, properly plur. of j^ ^bar 
news.] 

^^"^^•'^ Skh'mud'niy Tbh., eubst. /, the cloth tied 
over the blinkers for cattle (Ors. § 97). 

[-4 compound of Skr. ^fV and ^-^ closing or 
covering of the eyes ; Pd, and Pr. ^ftw-^X^O 

^ ^"^^ • ^T &kh'm&d'u:Sy Tbh., subst. m., blind manj 
buff {Az. Oy.). Exam., Coll. {Bh,), ^ ^ft W ^ 
^^-*^^T %^?r, XT5r, *i^^ ^ ^V^» He was 
playing blindman's buff with the boys, and ran to 
touch the goal ; {one of the boys, called the ^X chdr, 
has to touch one of the others, before they reach 
the goal.) 

[Comp. of^rtfm {or ^fw) eye and-i^^^^m {Ig f. of 
i?\t) closed, covered ; = Skr. ^ftr-^fkv-] 

^^^ akhay = ^i akhm, q.v. 



26 



80 



35 



40 



45 



akhar, WIWK dkhar, Tbh,, subst. m., ^the same as 
yq,v.; * that which is imperishable (m this sense 
only known to occur in compounds). Comp., ^VUT- 
"firftw or ^^WT-^lftv i^Sf') ^'*<^ ^'Wr^-nllf {S. Bh,), 
st^st. /., the same as ^^^sHl, q.v. {Ors. § 1444). 

Exam.| PCan. 39, ^^K wTnr xm «^w ^^k ^t«r, ftwr 
% ^'^ ^rril wrnm «itpt yt. As in the case of Bam 
and Lakhan ( the latter of whom in his difficuUy called 
on Rdm for help), so there is help in remembering 
those two letters {i.e. Kf rS and^ ma), the joint 
powers of which are active throughout the world. 
See ^wr akhat and Wlfkx dkhir (1). 

I Skr. ^^xi m. or ^nx^ «., Pd. ^'Wtl' or 
, Pr, ''vnx { cf. Mem. iii, 134, nom. pi. n. 
^ ), old Od. ^mw^iX. The forms ^tot or -wmx 
belong to the older usage ; they are now less frequent 
than ^r^^. But in the works of TuPsl Dds, they are 
used almost exclusively, while in Bidydpad the pro* 
portion is equal. {In Bid. 60, //. 2, 6, both occur side 
by side ). In Pd. and Pr. the form ^[^x only occurs 
in the sense of a moment ( ^^TT fem., lit. the time 
occupied in pronouncing a letter, see Aup.%lZQ andPd. 
By., S.V.). The truth is that the modem ^nrr is a tats., 
representing the modern pronunciation of Skr.'^^^x.] 



j/^RfT 



50 



akhar, {pr. pts. ^IVKW dkKrSd, Bh. 
akh^rat, ^r«?f^ akVrit; ^tfwsxm akVral; 
akhWab ; '%m'^ akh^rai), Tbh., v. intr,, " to be dis- 
pleasing, irksome, burdensome, difiScult, insupport- 
able ; *used also impersonally. Exaniii ' Coll. {Bh.), iriw 
^1^7^ wr, The heat is insupportable {Az. Oy). *Ib. 
UTT 5r% ^^o, ^n ^:^P^xn it, Ton have been beateui are 
you sorry now {lit. is it now displeasing) t 



^r^-ffft^'*! \ aihar'tyiyd 



IProbabfythe same at H. ^/^Wf, and another 
form ofy/^m^ akar, q-v."] 



— ' 30 -^ ^raT^ akhar 

^^* Oi akh^rdtj the Mine as %rit9 dkhot^ q.v. 



{Grs. § 1444). 

^^St^[^'''nt^ akhar't\;\ (-Mfir.), see under 
§ 1444). 



ahhar^ 



akhar {Gfra. 



^^V-rTlfl akhar" M^ {8. Bh.)^ see under ^mtC akhar 
(Ore. § 1444). 



akhar^wdrj Tbh., eubat. m., a subdivisioix of 
Kurmis or land oultiyators in the distriots of Gtorakh'- 
pur and Bansras {EIL, vol. Ijp. 156). 



•^Tl akh^rahdf Tbh., subst. m., {8. Mth.), the hut 
of a religious mendicant {Gfrs. § 1234). 

[Probably a bye-form qf ^iTTfr (yr ^niTT?/ the 
str. / of ^WTV (1), q.v. Compare ^nvf^TT as to the 
shortening of the vowel a.] 



10 



u 



"^^•Vl akh^rd (1), Tbh., subst. w., an ear of com or rioe 
which is empty and yields no grain {Hd. Dy.). 

[Probably a negative formed from ?tTT genuine ; 
whence ^ni^tT a spurious ear, an ear but without grain. 
It should not be confused with ^^PXJ^ which is a 
blighted, dried-up ear, while ^^^T is an empty one.] 



akVrd (2)| Tbh., subst. m., {Mg.j Bh.) unhusked 
barley, barley ground without being first cleaned, 
coarse flour {Ors. § 1272 and Az. Oy.). ExaiTlii Prov.^ 
^W^Tvn, ^ ftw^T ( with twomeanings) either one 
should eat coarse flour and remain clean, or one who 
eats coarse flour remains robust. 

[Skr. ^-^ftnr: uncleaned; the opp. TAm*\ l 
represents either 8kr. f^wftnr: deaned, or Skr. 
fip^fliift or fir*^fVil*. not waned, robust.] 



akh'rd (2), 



^^•Cl akh'ri (1), (Mg.), fern, of 
q.v. {Grs. § 1272). 

^^•0 akh'ri (2), Tbh., subst. /., noise, yell, howl, 
scream. {It has only been observed in the following) 
Phr., ^fi»^ ^vnrw, to make a great noise. ExsilTlii 
Coll. {Mg.)j wftT, % ^R^ wrp Tiftw %, Boys, who 
is making such a terrible noise P ( after Fallon.) 

[Perhaps 1st verb, noun of ^^fmK w v^^^, 
q.v.^ meaning properly the noise of wrangling or 
swaggering J but possibly connected with Skr. ^^WT^X.'] 



akh^rdf Tbh., subst. m.y (Mth.'Mg.)y the same as 
akKrd (2), q.v. {Grs. § 1272). 



io 



'^I^^O^ akh'rSutl, Tbh., subst. /, * orthography ; 
* a mode of playing .on a stringed instrument so as 
to express the words of a song. Exain«i * ColL ( Bh.)^ 
^ liY ^w^ ^^*<^J t f^iirT,He is only now learning 
his orthography. 

[Probably Skr. ^f^mfir., Pr. {with pleon. ^ ) 
^PWCnrfCTT; hence Chi. {contracted) ^^ncNft".] 



^R3^ akharby Ts., adj. com. gen.y not short, tall, 
long, large, big. Exam^i Sindl Mahdbhdrat^ Ban 
Parbdj p. 214, /. 6 ( B^'d of Bandras edition, sambat 

1887), j(^ irw ^ wnr i#,«?tw«ftw iff ^, ^^m 

%V^ ^w ^, ^f% ^la ^'^j Thus fish eat fish, 
everything alive eats everything alive, that which has 
breath eats that which is alive, the big always devours 
th9 little. 

[Skr. ^^: ; as above possibly in aU Ods."]. 



26 



so 



88 



40 



^^•^l«n okhHdk, ^TW akhldk. Any., subst. m., 
* disposition; *the good properties of mankind; 
^morals, ethics. 

[Ar. c^\ aMldq, properly plur. ofi}^ ibulq.'] 

"^^F^Wft Skh'hglj—see under ^fftl ikfn. 



46 



ikh^wdy the same as "^^^ ikhud, q.v. {Ors. 
§ 1009). 

{It is properly the Ig. f. of ^f^ or ^fftr, q.v. 
It is now considered incorrect and vulgar as compared 
with the form ^^^, though in reality the latter is the 
less correct form of the Ig.f. o/^^if^.] 

j/^^S*A(l, {pr. i?^. ^^rrir Skh&it, ^qmi Skhdt; 
^Nnnir akhdel; ^JNtitw itkdeb, i([^pi Ukhdb; y^mif 
dkhde)j Tbh., v. intr., to eye, look keenly, be sharp, 
clever, intelligent. Exam«i Coll. { Bh.), ^> % lif 
To vir wiff ^ v^ '^^1^9 No one can swindle him ; 
he is far too sharp. 

( The word has, in Bikdr, not the meaning of 'to 
be angry,' given in the H. Dy.) 

[ A den. root derived from ^^rH^, q.v."]. 

^Pf T^fT akhdut = Whf akhSut, q.v. 



60 




akhdfj {obi. sg. ^^TfT akhdfd or poet, 
akhar d), the same as ^HtTT akhdr, q.v. ExaiTlif 'Din., 

{obi.) IK, Gulami Jat is performing one hundred 
and twenty-one da^d exercises in the palaestra. 
* Padm.y ch. 115, 6, ^ W^ ^Vlf^ 'JT TTWT, V% ^^Tf 
v^^iTWT, Their small bells bewitch kings of man, 



^n^rrr amrs 



31 



'^f^pn Skhiyd 



like the music {of the Apsaras) on entering Ind'r's 
oomt ; ib.f ch. 697, 4, H¥ wr^w lygrfir ^^ ttwt, ^T^ 
^Wr^^^ Wf mnUT, Jugglers, actors, dancing- women, 
and mnsioians came into the arena with all their 
paraphamalia. 



akhardf "^mv^ akhdrd^ str. /. of ^i^Tf akhdr 
or ^WTT akhdr, q.v. Exam.j -4tt., /. 126, %«« ^^0^ 
^^[^'W % ^^ w^ ^Tfm ^ft^ «rni, (When) Eudal saw 
the palffistra of Indar'man, great was his joy. 



akhdrh (1), {str. f ^vrrT akhdrhd)^ the same as 
: akhdr, q.v. Exam,i J?*, ix, 1, ^ft: ^ftm mjr, 
^mv[y For a whole league the palaestra 
ecctended {iU. was made) . 

[2%M form of the word, though less correct than 
^W\^ or ^r»TT, w the more usual one in Bihdri. 
Regarding the inorganic aspiration^ see Od. Or., § 131, 
p. 72. It also occurs in Multdni (ML Oy.,p, 10), ^rarvT 
or^9lf\y with the following additional special meanings : 
'an indigo-ground, consisting of one or more 
sets of indigo- vats ; *the hole into which the water 
from the vats is run off ; « the place where the 
indigo is dried; and khdrhd is also used for a 
cattle-road.] 



^^19 c^hdrh (2), {lg.f'%^^'^xakharh'wd, q,v.), Ts., 
subst. m.y the name of the tenth month of the Hindu 
system of the fasU or agric. year, which commences 
with the month Asin. It corresponds to part of our 
June and July, in which the full moon is near the 
constellation Jkhdrhd, whence the name of the month 
{Ors. § 1082). It is the first month qf the rainy season^ 
and ' consequently of cultivation {Ors. §§ 1083, 1084, 
also 1009, 1039). Exam., Krish. 314, wxm ilW ^Wtt, 
wV ^ ; m^ % iffft 1? ?ITW 'net ^, The month of 
AkhSrh has arrived, friend ; with water have been 
fiUed {all) tanks and rivers. See ^^rf asdrh or 
^nt^ asdrh. 

[Skr. ^TiTTf^. The tats, occurs in all Ods. and 

is in Mth, more usual than the tbh. form ^RTT or 

^ra^nr, q.v. The latter is more used in Bhofpiirl. The 

form ^^ITT dkhafh is merely a modem unphon. 

. spelling ; see the remarks under ^^rnf .] 

^n^TTttl akhdrhiy Ts., a^\ com. gen., relating to the 
month Akhsrh, hence used substantive/y {/em.) as the 
name of various agricultural ^products and * oper- 
ations ; thus 'grass which grows in AkhSfh {see Bih. 
ii, 9) ; 'the chief hoeing {Joor or koran) of sugar-cane 
done in Akhfirh {Ors. §§ 866 and 1009 ), the second 
sowing of indigo {called so in North Bihdr, Ors. 
S 1039). See ^nx^ asdrhl or^^ri^ asdrhi. 



{,Skr. ^nrnft dsddhh The tats, occurs in all Ods. 
A modem unphon. spelling is ^n^mft dkdrhi.'] 




10 



16 



25 



80 



86 



40 



46 



60 



akhddy\ Ts., (I) adj. com. gen., not to be 
eaten. Exam.. Coll. {Bh.), * ^?jt^t ^i^ wt, This 
is a fruit not to be eaten. 

(II) «iJ«^. m., forbidden food. Exam,, ^ ''^ ^rA^ 
Vr, ^iKi* ^laror fk% fk^JK ^ % 5r^, He is an 
Aghor'panthi and takes no thought of forbidden or 
unforbidden food. 

[S*r. ^wnj: ; as abote in all Ods.'] 

^RiTi^ akhdr.^'m:^ akhdr.^^T^ akhdrh, {poet 'twrrr 
akhdr dj mod. obl.f ^vrXT akhdr d, mod. he. sg. ^^tt 
akhdre, old obi. plur. ^WTV% akharenh, str. f ^WTtT 
akhdr d), Tbh,, subst. w., properly 'a place for wrest- 
ling, palaestra; hence •any court or open' space for 
the exhibition of sports or shows or for the holding 
of assemblies, an arena, circus {used as an epithet 
of Ind'r's court). Phr., ^wTtT %irw to perform 
athletic exercises {lit. to play in the arena). Exam.,^ 
^Itdm.y 8u., chh. 1, 8, iTTiTT ^WTCnr fi?Tf* W-ftf^ 
^nr T^^^ ifW^, In diflferent palsestras {wrestlers) 
grapple with one another shouting mutual defiance ; 

i?*»., wifw »r vni ^ ifiT ^^aiTT {obi.) ^^w ^fV, 

In Eanraii he is causing seven hundred wrestlers to 
perform athletic exercises. *Padm., ch. 480, 8, ^ 

nti^ in: «ftfinn%, ^v^ mi^ ^^^iriT {ioc.) Tr€^, The two 
young women with full bosoms scream and fight like 
Apsaras in IndYs court ; Bdm., Ln., ch. 14, 4, m^ 

fkwK'vvni: ^tuttt, h^ ^^w^in: %^ ^wfnr {m.c.), On the 

top of La]jks hill there is a palace where Das'kandhar 
{i.e. Bdban) witnesses the sports of the arena ; rt., 

ch. 11, 7, fnT-f^^BTT ^^r^ ^^nnrrr, ^fir ftftmr irr The 
^wrm {m.c.) ; WE wm ifV iT^^ tnnr, wriJ f^wr iwr^ 
irnw, nmH mm ^mr^m wWr, Htm WKf9 %wwxx 

3i^irT, On the top of Laijka hill, in his palace, there 
was a most handsome courtyard ; in its hall Bfiban 
sat himself down, and kinnars and gandharbs began 
to sing and play on cymbal, drum, and lute, 
while accomplished apsarases danced {before him). 
ISkr. ^Rr^TT?-., Pr. ♦^nw^rnPT; O. ^wprt, 

M. ^wrwT, P. ^^T^, H. wfm-nfx or ^^rm, B. ^wrf 

{q.v.) or ^WTK or ^WMf {q.v.), but Bg. and 0. ^n^rfT, 
A. ^TRW {apparently only in the second meaning).'} 

^Ha^l Skhiyd, ^R^^ akhid, {old obi. pi. ^fwn% 
Skhiyanu), Tbh., subst. /., ig. f. of ^ifftr 4*Ai, q.v., 
^with all the meanings of ^iffm, q.v., e.g. Ors. 
1 1009, ( North Tirhut ) a sprout or the sprouting 
eyes of the sugar*cane ; *a kind of cake made of 
wheat-flour and rice-flour and boiled in water, used 
at Musahndn marriages ; it is shaped like an eye, hence 




^f^^TTT «%<ly 



32 



^^^ .***«* 



•<• 



its name {Ors. § 1376). Exam., ^-BTrwA. 314, m^ k 
^x% nft ^fqraf, ^w Vf ^-nrR wrl^ ^ ^, In {the 
month of) Fhagun the left eye throbs, hence I 
oonolude that something is going to happen ; Oop.y 

19, «nft t ^^n^T , ^Ifwr * ^^ir^ ifrfx ^ftfknj 
^W^^, ^if^ff inrfK^ * t vix, My luck waa burnt 
{i.e.j I had bad luck) : you showed to my eye 
pieces of burnt food, {thereby) the burden (t.^.j the 
beggar)oi your city has been removed ; B, Bdm., re. 
30, f^Rf^fir Trofir ^'ifinrs "^t^^ wW, Warning may 
be seen {lit. lives) in the glances of ( /it. within ) 
his eyes ; Bats. 13, 1 , wijf^ ''Sfiwf «!fl mj^ {sing.) 
T, ^^if^T ^'T ^ ^finif , I have not yet set eye on my 
husband, ( though ) I am constantly remembering 
his promise {of an early return) ; Alh,, L 15,5Ti^ 
ftiT liw ^rNw %, ^fvrr v^ {sing.) KWn % ^tk, The 
pupils of his eyes were turned up, and his eye 
became {red) like a stream of blood. 

{IVom this long form should be carefully distin- 
guished the plural form "^f^^rf or '^fvrr, which 
not unfrequently occurs in poetic literature (e.g.^ B. 
Rdm. 36, "^fiMT ^ two eyes, Mag. 26, ^ '^tf^T 
both eyes). The latter is an older unoontraeted form of 
the modem ^f^^plur. of ^TfW, q.v.) 



^rVl<H^ Skhiydy^ Tbh., subst.fy the sprouting eyes of 
the sugar-cane {South Bhagalpur^ Ors. § 1009). 

\^ Apparently a fern, ^f^mt formed from Mffm^.'] 

^T^^ akhil, Ts^ (1) adj. com. gen., {lit. without a gap ; 
hence) ' whole, entire {used as an epithet of Ood, Rdm, 
etc.) ; •all, every (synonymous with wmff). Comp., 
^fw-^T or ^iftw-ffrtr or ^f^^-^rir or ^»f^-ft^, 
the whole world, the universe; ^f^disi^ (^ftrir 
+ t:^iT ) lord of all, God {used as an epithet of Rdm^ 
8ib,eto). Exam.f 'Rdm., Ut., ch. 87, 7, ^fire f%^ 
i|^ wur ^M«i|iiy, This whole world is my creation ; 
San., vs. 7, WW fkKl^ w^fk^ ^^f^¥ wrrif ii^ vnc, This 
* Encouragement to Asceticism ' {name of one of Tul'sl 
Bds^s smaller works) { contains ) the whole essence of 
saving knowledge ; Rdm., Ut., ch. 72, 4, iiTR^, ^rniy, 
iB^^, ^«Rrr, ^finy, ^^w, ^ftir, n? inju^T, {Rdm is ) the 
Permeator and the Permeated, the Indivisible, the 
Eternal, the Insoluble {lit. the Entire), the Unerring, 
the Primeval Energy, the Godhead. *Ag. m, 4, 

'ViK^, ^^gw, ^i^, ^rv^, ^nnw, ^f%ir ^n:m, 

Disappointments, inauspicious omens, mishaps, 
misfortunes, bad luck, {and in short) every evil* 

mh. 35, i[T^ ^'Tf V ^w ^fvff, fR:ii ^^ wmm, 

Bemoving all ill and evil, and effecting every thing 
good; Bin. 46, irRf ^Trfh 1i|^ ^iRnf^ ^ %^ 
ftnf ^W ftf% ^tftw-urfif iW-^^^, On this Arati 
ceremony deeply intent are Sanak and the rest {i.e. 



10 



16 



20 



26 



ao 



36 



BrahmjoHs four sons, Sanak, SamtkumSr^ Sanandan, 
Sandtan,) the Beds, Ses-nag, Sib, the Gods, the 
Bishis, and all the Munis who philosophise on the 
' substance' ; Rdm., A., do., 253, 1, f)r«f| ^TR 
^fr^ WW, ^ftiw '^'nFW WTT, All sin and delusion, 
and the burden of every ill, are wiped out (i^ the 
invocation of Bharafs name) ; ib , Bd., ch. 59, 2, ^ 
Pcfti ^ns%<9< wn^. The Bikhi, recognising them 
{Sib and Bhawdnl) as the Deity, worshipped them. 

(II) adv., wholly, entirely, completely, {sometimes 
used as a mere superlative particle) most. EXEITIfi Rdm., 
8u., ch. 42, 2, w7^ ^wnjT j^w, vrpft, ^k ^wnr 'iftwr 
% Trft, Disrespect to a saint, BhawaDi, speedily 
causes the destraotion of the most {lit. entirely) 
prosperous {person) ; Sat., iii, 10, ktw fir^fir TT '^- 

w^iT wTr-''?TT WW vnr, wtt wn "swr^ ^rw, wkw ^ifkw 

^fWrw, The remover of the calamity of death {i.e. the 
letter xra or Bishnu), the bearer of a mountain*load 
of virtue (i.e. the letter ^ a or Brahma), and the 
abode of power (t.^. the letter ir ma or Sib) ; Tul'fil 
Dss desires (to seek) his protection {i.e. Rdm*s)y 
the letters {of whose name ; i.e. rpff rdma) are most 
delightful. 

ISkr. ^fii^:, Pd. %fk^, Pr. * ^fWt ; all Ods. 

'^l^^^'^ dkhileswar, — see under wrf%ir dkhih 



40 



40 



60 



Skhud, ^^wr SkVwd, Tbh., subst. m., 'sprout, 
shoot, blade, scion, plantlet, esp. of the sugar-cane 
{Grs. § 1009), aho {in South Bihdr) of the small 
bnllrush millet {holcus spicatus, Ors. § 987), and 
{in Pafnd) of the pea {pisum sativum, Ors. % 1001) ; 
« ( South BhagalpUr) a finger-ring. Exam.| * Pror., 

■^n^ {^i^wf + f%) ww^^ ^K iTv, #r tf wf t 

nhi;, A goat has grazed on the shoot, so how can 
the tree come P 

{_Properly long form of %Ws eye, bud, q.v. In 
its second meaning the word tnay have a diffident 
{unknown) derivation.'] 



V 



^ER^^T akhud, {pr. pts. "'fl^l^Tnr, Skhudit, •*8^rm 
Skhudt; '^t^nvsrm Skhudel; •^^^TUnni Skhudeb or 
■^^l^TW a*Awa6 ; i(^^iiJ Skhude), Tbh., v. intr., to 
throw out shoots ( used in South Bihdr, esp. of the 
small bullrush millet, holcus spicatus, sugar-cane, etc.). 
Exam.| Coii'9 ^rw ^^^liir %, The sugar-cane Ib 
beginning to sprout ; ^w ^g^[i;ti ^^, The sugar- 
cane has sprouted {Ors. §§ 987, 1009). 

[A den. root, derived from '^t^nt or ^Cvtvt 
q.v. In form it resembles a double cans, root 
{ = •^^FTTW ), the simple caus. root being ^ ij[^, 
q.v.] 



%|^dT akhuid -" 

k"^^ a*Atf<J, the W. Bh. form of -^/flfdn ahutd, 
g.v* {Az. Gy.) 

[Perhaps der. from 8hr* ^firvir^, the aspiration 
being tranrferredfrom w to w* See oho the remarks on 
the der. (>/*v^^lfWT.] 

^^ni dkhitdf Tbh«, suhst. m.^ {optionally in Qayd and 
Pat^nd)f the cross-axle of the lever used in raising 
water (0r«.§ 933). 

[^This is merely a hye^form of^rtfCXy f.t^J 

^^nl^ akhit}; = ^Wh» akhait};) q.t. 



33 




akhidf {optionally in Oayd and Pai^nd)^ the same 
as "nf^tKl akhcSutdy in its fourth meaning, q.f>. {Chrs. 
§ 933.) 



akhendj {in Pafnd, Qaydy and South Hunger) = 
akhamdf q.v. {Qrs. § 76.) 



akhai^ ^9^n akhay, Tbh., the same as ^w achhaij 
q.v. {The forms with m kh occur only in compounds). 
Comp., 'i^nft^ or ^«%i?tir or ^pniitw, subst ft 
a Hindu festival, the third of the second or bright 
half {i.e.j the 18th day) of the month BaiBSkh 
{ue,y April^May)y which is the first day of the 
Bat- jug {or golden age) and secures {akhSi or) 
permanent rewards of actions then performed 
{8kr. Dy. P.). On this day the cultivators settle 
their accounts for the expenses of the {rabi or) spring- 
crop and the repayment qf advances {Ell. vol. I, 
pp. 193, 194.) 

{This eocpression is properly Hindi, the more 
usual Bihdrl expresaions will be found under ^inK and 
^TfkT(l). 

I8kr. ^i^i^^ imperishable, Pd. and Pr. ^f^vi ; all 
Ods. ^W^ or ^5r. The comp. ^i^ consists of Skr. 
^^n + wft^i sel. firftr, the third {day) of Aksaya ; 
see der. of'^tm t\j under that article.'^ 



^^rfl«l 



akhmtij, — see under ^w akhiR. 



akh^in, {S. Bh.), if*. / of 
{Qrs. § 76.) 



akhamd, q.v. 



S^ 



akhamd {S. Bh., Mg., S. Mth.), ^ir akham, 
^l%ia dka%nd, ^^T bkhind, ^WT khind, ^^^ 
ukhimo, Tbh., subst. m., a kind of hooked stick 
used for turning up and pushing the com under 
the bullock's feet while it is being trodden out 
{Ors. § 76). 

[Properly str. f of ^w ; perhaps from Skr. 

k\ ; not met with in other Ods.] 



10 



IS 



M 



— 'WIITT akhSut 

'il^'m akhmld {Mg.), Tbh,, the same as ^^it^ akhSitd, 
q.v. {Ors., § 431). 

[Skr. ^rw%«? or {prdkritising) ^^fitwt, Pr. {with 
pleon. suf. w) ^rw5w^> or ^^WiHTOt {cf. Hem. iv, 
168, 222), hence 0(f. {contracted) ^^^.] 

'T^TffT akhdtd, Tbh., subst. m., {South Bhagalpar), the 
cross-axle of, the lever used in raising water (Ors. 
§ 983). 

[This is merely a bye-form o/^i^WT, q.vJ] 

^R^TTT akhor, Any., subst. f, leavings, sweepings, 
rubbish, refuse; {agric.) fodder which cattle leave 
uneaten {Cr., p. 58). Comp., ^^-W^, rubbish 
and refuse, Exanii, Coll. {Muh. fro»t.),ifMT, WT^rfhC 
^nrr ^rnrr, Good gracious ! what rubbish is this you 
have brought ! {Hd. Dy.) Coll. {Bh.), ^ ^ iry ^tt * 
^iftT-liitT irnrer ^n^, His house is full of sweepings 
and rubbish. 

[Prs.jy^'\ akhor, neg. ofj^ khUr, food.'\ 







25 



80 



S5 



40 



46 



00 



I 



akhdh, Tbh., (I) ac^'. com. gen.y inaccessible. 

Exam.i Coll. {Bh.), jrw ^(ift^ Tnn^ iSf m ^inw, He 

found himself on an inaccessible mountain. 

(II) subst. f. * uneven ground {Ai. Oy.)i •an 
inaccessible place ; ^ difficulty, trouble. Exanitf ' ColL 
{Bh.), T^ ^wW yS ^TT mm^j Why do you go 
on uneven ground P *Coll. {Bh.), t ir^fsrr ^'W?!^ 
WT, This cavity is an inaccessible place. ^CoiL 
{Bh.), ^H ^wt^ w ^Kir TpfP, I have fallen into 
difficulties. 

[A compound of ^if% pit, chasm, and the pleon. 
pr^f ^ (6), q.v. The word wtw represents the Skr. 
vnr-^JC a dug out place {see Skr. Dy.) TJhe, 8kr^ ^Wt 
dig has a tendency in Pr. to change to ^^ {as shown 
by Prof. 8. Ghidschmidt, see 8apt., p. 101, footnote). 
Hence Skr. WTW-^or *^I51T-V, Pr. •^^ or *^^, B. 
{contr.) w1ir» Similarly Skr. ^rPBrrw-^ would form Pr. 
^^WT^rj <>^ ^TC^f, B. ^pft%. The meaning of deep 
easily passes into that of steep {cf. M. ^ftes) ; hence 
'^^^t% comes to mean inaccessible in a general way, 
both as regards depths and heights. Compare S. iffit^ 
a pit for a water-wheel, ^f IJL^^ or wrrt a hole or 
ditch, M., H., %tw deep or steep, a cavity ; and M. 
^/^^, H. v^^OT ^ ^ penetrate, etc.'\ 

^^m dkhmt, {Mg. also) ^WTOW akhdut, Jhh., subst. m., 
the name of various instruments having the form 
of an axle ; thus ^ the axle of the apparatus for 
husking grain {Ors. { 611, also "^iwt^, ?««^-)> *^ 
axis on which the pulley of a well-rope turns (Gfrs. 
§ 940, also ^V^^ilT, q-v* ) ; Hhe oross-axle on which 
a well-lever works {Ors. § 933, also ^R^?rr, q.v.) 




'ir^ff 



T .akhcRiiA 



34 



^SnT-^rSTTT ay'karh'nd 



{The Hd. Dy. spelts this tcord %wt^, which is I 
perhaps metely a misspelling for 'iWpn", q>v,) 

[/8*r. ^^T^:, Pr. ^^iTRift; hence Qd. ^VT^m 
and (contr.) %^ft^ ; apparently wanting in the other Ods."] 



^ 



7TT ahhwiitdj Tbh., subst. m., the name of various 
mfitruments having the form of an axle; thus 
^{Mg. and N. Bh,) the axle on which the pestle 
for grinding bricks into powder works {ChrH. § 431, 
also (Mg,) ^:mw^ dkhar,ld or ^R^m ukhdidtd, g.v,) ; 
•the axis-pin on which the lever for orushing tobacco 
works {Grs. § 464); 'the axle of the apparatus 
for husking grain {Ors. § 611 ; also ^W^ akhaut, 
q.v.) ; *the oross-axle on which a well-lever works 

(Ors. § 933 ; also "♦a^irr, ^r^, ^xfhit, ^^m, ^i^, 

q.v.) ; *the axis on which the pulley of a well-rope 
turns {Ors. § 940, also ^n^ir, q,v.) 
^Properly str.f. of'm^t^, q.v.'] 



10 



<^7n 



K 



dkhautdj Tbh., svbst. w., {South Hunger)^ the 
OTOss-axle of the lever used in raising water {Grs. 
% 933). 

[I%w is merely a bye-form of ^^iftm, q.v.] 

^^ akhtd = ^RFITT okhHd^ q.v. 

M^^XK, dkhbdr = ^nrwn: okKbdr, q,v. 

^^I^TfT akhydtj Te., adj. com. gen.y {subst. f ^^rtut 
akhydid ), famous. Exam.| Coll. {Bh.)y ^xyr^ ^W 
irff%y He is not so famous. 

[S*r. ^mwrift ; the spelling ^nPTH is a modern 
unphonetio one. Though a theoretically possible tatsama^ 
the word is not used in the sense of * not famous,' 
' obscure ' ( Skr. ^wm^) as stated in the H. Dy.] 

^T^TI akhydny Ts., subst. masc.y knowledge, under- 
standing. Exam.i Ooli. (Bh. ), imni «ro ^^stth %k 

vi^y Cannot you understand this much ? i6., t niir 
if tVi T ^WV^ V ^T W, Have you imderstood this P 

[^Skr. WlWl^H;, a saying, or story. In B. the 
meaning has been changed as above. In this sense not 
met in other Gds. Possibly there has been a confusion 
with the Ar. jUi. kJkaydl understanding.] 

^■^jJTSr akhrdty ^T^t^ dkhiop, the same as %-mU dkhof, 
q.v. 

[The Oip. has akhor {Mik. vii, p. 6).] 

^^I«ll akhUOc = ^^^fTPi akh^laky q.v. 

^^ETT agy T6., subst. m. {lit. that which does not or cannot 
go; hence) the immoveable^ inanimate creation 



16 



20 



20 



80 



36 



40 



{inel. the vegetable and mineral world). Comp., 
^n-WT {synonymous with wf-^ini) the inanimate 
and animate creation, the universe; ^^Rr^vir-WTV, 
lord of the universe, god; ^ni^ir-ini, present in 
all creation {an epithet of god) or containing all 
creation {i.e.y the universe). ExaiTlii Bam., Ar.y 

chh. 9, 11, ijt 3m« iRin qw ifNx-fii^ ^w «nr wWt 

He, manifesting himself as the all-merciful and 
all-radiant, gives delight to the inanimate and 
animate {i.e , the whole) creation ; ib.j Ln.^ ch. 
54, 2, %wf^ ^ ir: ^w-«nr wrr^, {Bdm) whom 
gods and men and the inanimate and animate 
creation adore ( Jiere vnr includes the animals only) ; 

OU.y A.y 27, 2, unim ^nrv^ ^ f«r^ ^nw % ^ ^T i 

^^ ^ ^Wit^ %ftr ift% ^T-wi ^, On {Bdm's) 
feet are no sandals; his feet are sweeter than 
lotuses ; the beauty of form in them ( lit. being 
added to them) enchants the whole creation; 
Han.y vs. 24, irw, VTir, V^-^TIT, ^^-wr, i?hv-wra, 
TW, TT^ ^^ ; fw^ irf^irr Pr^if^, Causation, time, 
the gods, the emimate {i.e.y animals and men) and 
inanimate creation, {in short) the whole mass of 
living beings, Lord ! are in thy hands ; consider 
thine own glory I Bdm.y Ln.y ch. 101, 13, ^ir^m-irrir 
irv^ wit VRL 7ou took the Lord of the universe 
to be a {mere) man ; ib., Bd., ch. 197, 7, ^nvnr-v^ 
^W-Tf^ ftrnfl', ( Sari is ) present in all creation 
(inanimate and animate) y passionless, and unbiassed ; 

ib.y Ut.y ch. 61, 5, ^inwr-'W ^w inr ^rtwr, The 
whole universe is my creation. 

{This word is cUso said to mean tree and moim- 
tain, but it has never been met with by us except in 
composition with «iir Jag, which latter word means that 
"^ich can go, i.e.y the moveable or animate oreationi 
incl. either animals and meUy or animals only. With 
regard to the probable fictitiousness of those two 
meanings in Sks., see Zach.y p. 24.) 

[Compound of Skr. "^n + wiir, Pr. *^iwit 
{cf. Hem. iv, 404, mrfir in the tcorld). The word is 
alliterative and belongs to poetic usage^ and may 
probably be thusfotmd in all Gds.] 



o o 



60 



^JI^ a^aS, ^rff agmy {Ig.f ^^f^ itgM)y Tbh., 
subst. m.y the first fruits given to Brahmans 
( Ors. § 1203 ). Synonyms are ^iR^T ag^bary ^irTT 
agatrd. 

[Derivationy see under ^J?F.] 

^^7r«^^«Hl ag'karh'ndy Tbh., subst. w., {Mg,) the 
name of the shovel for stoking the fire in a sugar- 
refinery {Ors. § 319, k). 

[Properly a compound of ^flfir fire and ^J^^ 
instrument for pulling, poking, q.v.] 



^»I? agap 



35 



j/'SiirryT a^'rA 



^T J^ agat, Tbh., w6«/. m., a butcher's stall {Sd. Dy.) 
[Der. P] 




ag'th Tbh., «ti6«^. /, (agric.)^ an advance of 
money to buy seeds. ( O., p. 87,) JPbr synonymy 
see under ^^v^K agWdSur. 

lA corruption of the 8kr. compound ^u + ^ftf, 
adyanoe-wagesj Pr. ^rvfft, S. ^^^T* or ^Pjnr. 
This belongs to a very numerous class of words of nearly 
or quite the same meaning. They all imply something 
which is * before' either with regard to time or 
place ; such as first, former ; front of a house ; top of 
sugar-cane, ears of a crop ; first fruits ; advance of 
money, etc. They may^ for practical purposes^ be 
considered as derived from ^^ former, front, by means 
of various pleonastic suffixes. But there is much reason 
to believe that ultimately they all are more or less 
disguised representatives of a Sanskrit compound consist* 
ing of ^n former and ^[ii being. The Skr. WH ( and 
its congeners^ such as Wi, ^, etc.) admit in Prdkrit of 
the alternative forms wi and wn {cf Hem. ii, 29, 30, 
i, 128, 132). The former is the more usual form and 
gives rise to the numerous B. words containing a final 
^ or'^ or '^ or X or ir, all these consonants being 
interchangeable in the order here given^ {see Od. Or. 
§§ 29-31, 103-106). The Pr. form ^ is the less 
usual one and has but few descendants in B.j such as 
^ifVir, ^1^, ^PUTT, ff.r. The full Pr. form ^v^nt 
is best preserved in the 8. ^wgiTVj less so in the 
8. ^^i^TCT, B. ^RB^nr, ^TO^, ^ninr«l. The medial 
dissyllable 'W^ ava is apt to be vocalised to ^^^ (see 
Od. Or. § 122), as in B. ^TOTOT, and to be further 
contracted into ^ or ^ or^ {see Od. Or. % 122), 
as in B, ^wK, ^i?lT {cf Gip. agor, Mik. vii, 5), 
^V^i^^, ^i^, etc. Or by eliding w, the dissyllable may 
be changed to ^^, and contracted to ^, as in B. ^iTTf , 
^^K, etc. ; or an euphonic ^ may be inserted between 
^n {see Od. Or. §§ 68, 69), thus making the dissyl- 
lable ^9 aya, and this may further be contracted to ^ 
or XI or k, {see 04* Or. § 121), as in B. "^iKT, ^iiW. 
Finally the contracted vowel (^ or^ or^ or qj may 
be shortened and reduced to^orx^or'^ see Od. Or. 
§§ 26, 66), as in B. ^r^, ^^m\, ^iWT, WiRT, ^fifHT, 
etc. Other examples qf similar shortenings are M. "^nrr 
and "^iftBT toe-ring, etc. These observations show that 
the so called pleon. suffixes occurring in all these words 
are properly nouns (^[ii, etc.) in a more or less advanced 
state ^f decay. The process of decay^ hotcever, musty 
in the case of some of them {such as ^^, XW, ^'tf , 'iH, 
etc.) be of a very old datCy because in the form of ^w, 
XM9 ^% ^^f e^'i ^^ ^^e already observed to occur in 
meduBval and perhaps even older Prdkrit {see Mem. 
ii, 164-166, iv. 429, 480, qf. Vr. iv, 25, 26).] 



agafy {Mth.)y the same as ^irf akary q.v. Comp., 
^nrf ^^1 «^- <^^^' ff^^^'f 0^ str.f. ^R»Y ^iiT m. (^* ir^ 
/), high, tall, gigantic; ^fiTf fF^ or ^vr^ ^f^f 
adj. com. gen.y ' strong, powerful ; * fleshy, plump, 
corpulent {Hd. Dy.). Exaniii Riddle^ Bh,, x^ ^ ^sr^ 
WWT, «Nkt ^ Wo Tirr P ^ir^ ^, There is a tree very 
tall, which has neither roots nor leaves {what is it) P 
the air-creeper. Coll. {Bh.)y t, ^rf^^ w^ ^11^ vtr 
ifT, This is an exceedingly stout and tall man. 



10 



IS 



io 



f-^TH? agar'bagar, ^ptK-n^ agar'bagary Tbh,, (I) 
subst. m.y ^lit. odds and ends, promiscuous things; 
hence * trifling talk, babble; ^trifles, trumpery, trash. 
Exam.i 9ee ^i\X'^^ agar^bagar and ^Ti^-^n^ 
agaram^bagaram. 

(II) ac^\ com. gen., worthless, useless, good-for- 
nothing. 

{^This is merely another form of ^V7-i^r«, q.r. ; 
H. has ^nrf -WH^, ^iTf-TO^, P. ^^f -Wilf , M. ^IW- 

wiw, wnr-inrw ^^rw-wnw. Note, however, M. 'Tine /. 
refuse or dregs, worthless, which appears to be 
connected with 8kr. ^mm or ^w^T.] 



26 



90 



86 



40 



46 



60 



'^•l^^f-'l^l^^r agaram^bagaram, the same as ^W^- 
^^ agaf'bagafy q.v. Exam.i ^Prov., ^Rlfif-I^^ 'mi9 
^iM^'^X, odds and ends, splinters, and rags {Sd. 
Prov,) ; Coll. {Bh.), ^ipnir^T Hitfl ' «^r(^ ^ W^ift «fSR 
^ftw ^ff%; wn "V^Tfir-Wii^ ^ TT, There is nothing 
good in his garden ; it is all filled with worthless trifles. 



^«l*«l ag'rd (in South Bhaga^r), ^nnirr agUd (1) 
{Mg. and Bh.)y Tbh., subst. m., {agric.) 'the ears of 
a crop; hen^e * the act of cutting the ears without 
the stalks {Ors. S 875). . See ^^wpf^T ag^rd (1). 

[Ber. from Skr. ^ front part, tip, Pr. 
{Ndm.y vs. 235), with the Pr. pleon. suff. 
( = w + nr ) or c^ superaddedy ^tmv^ or ^pnw^' ( cf. 
Hem. iv, 341), contr. Od. ^n^ or ^UfTT. 8ee also 
the remarks under ^ir»it.] 



l/'^Sfll^ 



Sg^rdy {pr. pts. ^il^'fiW Sg^r^it, •^TSfPi 
&g*rdt ; '^u^^fTPW ag'rdei ; '^'^IV^ Sg'fdeb ; ^«^Tir 
Ug'rd^)y Tbh., v. intr., { JF. Bh. and Bw.) * to yawn, 
stretch the limbs ; *to roll about in bed. Exam.i Coll. 
{Bh.)y WT, ij^ ^f ^^^ «^Nf 5a: % ^nw ^T * 
'^^Ffrio; t ^ ^(Vft, What, do you sit in the 
presence of a gentleman, and stretch your arms and 
yawn P This is not proper. 

{^There is a synonymous noun "i^if^y a yawn {B. 
Or.ym {Mg.)yp. 87, where it is explained as ^Tf ^T 
tfB4i, the latter being the 8kr. y/^'At), which points 
to a derivation from a Skr. comp. ^rw + ^, twisting 
or rolling about of the body. The Skr. iiv becomes 




^RF«T 



t 



Sg'rdl 



86 



^mrft 



agati 



Pr. W {Hem. iv, 221), but Od. ^'^ or ^ {see Od. 
Or. § 145, ea:c. 2). Hence toe should have a der. 
y/^V^ffk^y xth. cl 8kr. * ^i^^^wf^, Pr. * ^iirt^T%^ 
or ^>^WT^, Od. * "^iTTfT^ {mth the usual contraction 
of ^^ to Wt, see Gd. Or. § 122) or shortened ^in?fnr. 
There is^ however^ also another si/noni/motM noun ^ t>l«*< wt 
{q,v.)t which might suggest a derivation from the 8kr. 
comp. ^np + ir^ shampooing of the body ; whence might 
come a der. v^^W'^* x^A. cl. Skr. * ^^W^^% Pr. 
•*IH11^1, Od. * -^^i^fT^ (with the contraction of^to 
^j see Od. Or. §§ 122, 127), or shortened •*tt^t^. 
On the other hand, the consonants j( and ^ are liable to 
be interchanged {see Od. Or. §§ 134, 122, note) ; and 
hence '^ly^M^ may stand for -^^^ {cf. P. ^jhi^ ) 
and be also referable to the first-mentioned derivation.'] 

^STTS'^Tt^ Sg'rdi, Tbh., subst. /, (JF. Bh. and Bw.) a 
stretching of the limbs, yawning = ^JK^^ Sgefhi or 
■^nrf^ Sg^marij q.v,, whi^h are the usual words. 

Exam., Coll. (Bh.), n^ ^irw ^i^n^ ^ir* cnw, ^ «jo 

^, While we sat waiting we began to yawn, but he 
did not come. 

IProperly 1st verb, noun of ^ ^Jh^, J.P.] 

^Hn^^Trt ag^rihly Tbh,, s!abst. /, an extensive 
conflagration ( especially of a forest ; see Hth. Ch. 
Vocabulary) . Exam., Chan., ^mrr Klfil mm^i ftfir hs I 
m^ w\^ %p^ ^« ^^ifnp^ mvm ^m-^ftx l mr 

m%P9 ^TTW ^^ if^ n When half the night has passed, 
'a heavy black darkness fell ; conflagration began all 
around, and trees and petu^ocks in the forest burnt 
excessively. 

[Comp. of Skr. ^f%i flre plu9 ^rfWr confla- 
gration, Pr. ^f«Kif^^i or ^ Pnnf ^ ^i ; B. ^jfj^fvH 
for ^ni«l^ ; the change of an initial ▼ d to ^ f 
is rather unusual. The initial Skr. ^ d may optionally 
change in Pr. to ir (Hem. i, 217, Sapt.^ vs* 163, 229, 
536, 730). The H. has ^^Avft.'] 

^^f^^T ngadiyd, •*rfFrr d^gaddiya, Tbh., mbst. m., 
a man who carries money or jewels in his quilted 
doth. 

[Properly a long form of "^inft or "^fir^, formed 
with the Od. mff. % implying possession [see Od. 
Or. § 252), from a stem * ^^mw or -^iTf . The latter is 
probably a corruption of the Skr. compound ^y-%T, 
a body-wrapper or something wrapped or secreted 
about the body, {cf M. -^v or ''^nfV a body-gar- 
ment, ane/ -B. ^mft or JSr. ^^Jfirft armour). Skr. ^ 
becomes Pr. %▼, and Od. 5^ or ^. The junction 
syllables of a comp. word are liable to extreme wear 
and tear. See also the remarks on the derivation of 
v/^*!^ and ^Riiift.] 



^•I*^1T! ag'r^r, Tbh., subst. /, the advance of pay 
to labourers {Ors. § 1186). 5^^ ^mn^ o^war^ 
^TTrar agaur^ ^RIK ag&r^ ^Trr^ a^5r, ^r>ft^ agmtri, 
^Rn^ agmrl^ ^irr^ir ag^y)an^ ^^li^ ag^pij miK 
agaury ^ptIt agorj ^nKT agerd. 

[Derived from ^vn^ or ^fiFrr by means of the 
pleon. mff. ^JH, see 0<f. Or. § 209. See also the 
remarks under ^TRiV.] 



10 



16 



20 



26 



80 



85 



40 



46 



50 



^STTfT agaty the same as ^^rf^ agad^ q.v. 

"^^r^T ag'ta, if. ^unnft ag'ti (2)), Tbh., acfy',, the same 
as ^fim\ agildy q.v. Phr., loc. ^imr a^'^ before 
{of time), {Am. Gy.). Exam., ^Prov. {Mg.), ^mnn 
i^ njit ^wnt, ft^^HT ^^ wfit fftit A field firrt 
{i.e. early pr^ared) yields a future return, the fieM 
last {i.e. too late prepared) is {as regards a return) 
a matter of chance ; {Mg. does not observe gender ; 
for a more correct form of the proverb^ see ^rrPni)- 

[Contracted from Skr. ^nr^ir, Pr. ^UR^; see the 
remarks under ^vil ^^ ; or possibly a corruption of Skr» 
^niW, Pr. "^mifty B. ^mr {with loss of aspiration^ 
iwtn^Rnrt (2), q.v.)y P. (ac^j.) wihrT, {subst. f.) ^^fitn^ 
8. {adv.) ^Jnft or ^finft or w^i^ in future, {subst. 
f) 'Wnfir credit.] 

^TTm agati (1), 'W^agat, T6.| subst. f. 'evil condition, 
misfortune, distress; * disgrace; ^damnation; ^want 
of resource, necessity. ExaiTlii * ^^^-f -Sa., 82, 2, ftfir, 
f%fir, ftftr ^xfk v^, ^■nr fk^ wfti ^Jiflri Success, 
prosperity, and the four kinds of good conditions, 
without which (one^s) condition is an evil condition* 

s-Btn, vs. 112, unv iw irfir ^iprfir wftw^ift ^w, Tft, 

TPi 3^T, Time, fate, salvation, and dam- 
nation of {al!) living beings, all is in thine hand, O 
Hari ! {the comm. explains ?rfir and ^rfir by ^fi^rrfi[ W^ 

inft and i«^*ifie ^rrfir). "• Co//. (-BA.)> ^''^irr ^v irvt 

^nrfif ^fT^ ^, ♦ IW wt V^ TT^nr, He is altogether 
without resource, and stays helplessly at home. 

[Sir. ^rofiT: ; all Ods. ^tirfir or ^^nir, but in M. 
and G. in the sense o/* importance, necessity.] 

^^?ruT agati (2), Mth. and poet — ^irf^ agati (1), j-.u. 

^SmTri agati (1), Ts., «wi«/. m. {lit. unfortunate, hence), 
one whose funeral ceremonies have not been per- 
formed. Exam.i Coll. {Mg.), ibro m^ tw, % imfV 

Tt iiV) He was such a sinner that he got no funeraL 
[Skr. ^nrfiRi**, apparently Pr. tech. tats. ^ ^Jift^^, 

Od. nn^.'i 

^wtoi a^ra/l (2), Tbh., subst. /., the agati-tree 
{^schynomene or Sesbana grandiflora or Agati 



^rn^ 



ogHl 



37 



grandiflorum)^ the kavea and pods of which are eaten as 
tegetables* 

[Skr. '^f^, Pr. ^mTft or {with pkon. %) ^nifSinfl', 
O. ^firftnit, J5r. and B. ^inft {tcith loss of the aspi* 
rationJ] 

^•t*<ll og'ti (1), Tbh., subst. /, the ceremony of 
fumigating with inoense a bridal pair by the officiat- 
ing Brahman, after the oircumambulation of the 
Baorifioial fire (Ors. § 1332). 

[Perhaps derived from a 8kr. comp. ^ftr-^d^ or 
«fir Ut. encircling with fire. See aho the remarks 
under ^iriirr and ^^iirift,! 



10 



^*W'rft 



ag^tl (2), Tbh., adj. fern, of vmrr agHdy q.t. 





agad'bagadt Tbh., subst. !»•, (J9A.) falsehood, 
ftaud {Az. Qy.) 

[Der. f Perhaps connected with 8kr. ''Wir^, what 
is not to be uttered. Mg. pandits identify it with 

m 

WiT^^T|[ ajrVeJl, {Mg.) = ^HT^n?T ag*datn, q.9. {See 
Ors. § 889.) 

^ITJp' ^o'deTtn, {Mg.) ^TW^ ag'dat, ^i^ ag'daX, 
^iP^^ a^'flSltyl, Tbh., subst. w., {agric.)^ the outer 
or fore ox of a team of oxen engaged in treading out 
com {Grs. § 889) • 

[A compound of ^nr and ^TpT ; tfie former is the 
Pr. ^w, 8kr. ^PR, anterior, foremost ; the latter is a 
noun of agency^ meaning one who treads down, 
from the -v/ifm {also ^nr or ^[nr), corresponding to Skr. 
t/^. The latter probably had a Pr. equivalent ^m^ 
{see H. R.f p. 48), which accounts for the long ^rf d in 
the modem derivatives as compared tcith the correspond- 
ing Skr. derivatives. Thus B. i[H?r, etc.^ also ^^ryftr 
{Mth. Ch. Vocabulary), ori^ {Grs. § 887), JBT. ^T^W, 
<niw, {Cr.^p. 61), corresponds to Skr. ^^tniy treading 
out. See the remarks on the derivation of ^r^.] 

# 

^WT^^TJT ag*dd^, {Mth.), the same as ^TO^nCf ag'd^n^ 
q.f>. {See Grs. § 889.) 

II* 4^ I ag^dmyiy {Mg.), the same as ^J|4<t r i^ ag^ddin, 
q.t. {See Grs. S 889.) 

^T^ agadhdf Tbh., adj. com. gen., meek, unresisting, 
inofEensive. Exam., Padm., ch. 619, 1, Tn^ ^'WTitt 
^W-iTTT, JKT ^qj xmj ^"rmn*, To a cruel negro 
jailor he delivered the unresisting king. 

[H-om ^ not and miT ass {q.v.) The ass being an 
animal noted for its obstinacy and troublesomeness, 



15 



26 



86 



40 



46 



60 



— ' ^JPfT Bg'nd 

the word ^TpfT, lit. not having the nature of an ass, 
comes to mean inobstinate, meek, etc. The Skr. 
equivalent would be ^RT^i?:, Pr. {with pleon. ^) 
^^IK^^, Gd. ^n^^ or {contr.) ^iprr.] 

^■•l*! agan, ^f^r dgan = ^irt^ aganx, the same as 
^firfir aginx, q.v. See ^ifrsT agin, ^ifir d^. 

{^Derivation see under ^wftrft". M.^ iT., G., Ksh. 
and P., aho have this form '^vm.'] 

^•in^TT dgan^mi, Tbh., a bye-form of^v:wmx igan'wd 
{q^v.), used by Musalmdn women. ExaiTlii Mars,, 1, 2, 
*r^nr ^iX^rnr ^h^ ^vfm *PPirf, The lady bathed 
and sat in her courtyard, {the printed edition 
unvngly divides -^tp^ i?f.) 

[Regarding the change of ^ to ^, see Cfd. Cbr. 
% 134.] 

^ TT^^ agan'wd, ^ init^ agan'wi, Tbh., Ig. f. of^hm 
igan, q.v. Exam., B. Gr., H (fiA.), xii, 1, »Rf^^irim 
^W^ JfTw Prt^, In my sister-in-law's courtyard there 
is a sandal-tree ; ♦*., 18, 1, m^f^ ^T «^TO^ VWfP 
'^[•i*!*!!. On account of the excess of heat I slept in 
the courtyard; Bais. 7, v^T VT* ^ff"^ % ■^ipirr. 
He took up his lodging in Sundar's courtyard ; Mag. 

% ^(TW, Tightening my bodice, fair {lady), I slept 
in the courtyard, and the heart of my lover is torn, 

TIT^ Sgan^m, Tbh., {Bh.), a bye-form of "^innrsTr 

Ugan'wd, q.v. Exam.i -Prof?. {Bh.), «n^^5 wr^^iripf? 

«T> Not knowing how to dance, {she declares) the 
courtyard {to be) crooked {i.e., she blames others fur 
her own fault) ; Coll. (Bh.),^ ^?R% i?rt ^^iprfif ^i|Tfir, 
O girl I how large is thy courtyard ? 



^1*TT dg^ndf ^nrnx ag^nd, Tbh., subst* m^ str.f of 
^TiT iffan, q.v. In addition to the * meanings of "^hm, 
{see Grs. § 1237), it is used in the following senses : 
I {in N.-E. Tirhut) the women's quarters, which are 
always situated within the inner court of a native house, 
{see Grs. § 1254) ; * {derivatively) a visit of condo- 
lence made by women on the death qf friends, so called 
from the fact of the visitors going to the women^s quarters 
{see Az. Gy.). Phr., ''IMTr HTW to make a visit of 
condolence {the more usual B, phr. is ^wrft ^W). 
Exam.! Coll. {Mg.), ift^K '^(Ni'WT *Tr ll^, Your court- 
yard is uneven. 

{This word is almost entirely limits to the Mg. 
dialect. It should be carefully distinguished from 
another •^irniT, which is an obi. form of ^i^im (fl'.t'.)* 
and which, so far as our knowledge of Bihdri literature 
{esp. Bw. and Mth) extends, never occurs as a direct 




^*i»«iii 



H^nM 



38 



• Si. 



Sg^natyA 



form ; whence it would appear that^ in literature at 
least, it is looked upon as an obi, form o/^ifipr.) 
[Derivation see under ^jpt. M. ^f^n? n.] 



^•I**11S, Sg'ndij ^it^ Sg'nai, {Ig. f -^fiTf^ Sg'nSiyd, 
q.v.), Tbh., subst.fy a sort of str. f of "Vrn^ Sgan, 
9*^* Exaniii -Bam., Ui., ch. 76, 3, ixfir ^ ^mx if^^ 
^^TTt, ^^irf* finr ^rft^ ^rrt, The oharming 
courtyard oannot be desoribed where the four 
brothers are always playing ; Git, Bd,, 30, 4, 

was as if the Oreatcw (ftf*T), on seeing the kalpa-tree 
(lit. tree^ ftv^i , <?/ the gods, ftRW, «.^. i2a»» and his 
ttree brothers) of the good actions of Das'rath 
sporting, had planted a goodly hedge (^Tft), {consist- 
ing of) all their mothers, around its watering-basin 
(^rwwnr), {represented by) the jewelled courtyard. 

[^This form of the W(yrd also occurs in P. and H. 
It is a curious formation, being a fern, abstract noun 
made by means of the sec. der. suff. '%\ or ^Tft: {see 
Qd. Or.f § 220) from ^Km or ^f I'T, but used as a 
concrete."] 

^ f I Wl aganx, Tbh,, subst /., the Mth. and poet form of 
^il'sft ag^nl, the same as ^fh^ aginl, q,v. Exaniii ' B. 
Bam., vs. 33, ^irvrr ^ft '•I' xf% "^ wr wtt, ^vnf^ 
iri^ 9 inr V^ w ^irn ^tt> The coolness of the moon 
has overspread the whole earth, but it comes to me 
like the heat of fire ; Bin. 187, ftrw f<njji OT ^», 
^vrf^ ^^ vrrfr ^^IV f^^ t^. Thou canst make poison 
equal to nectar, and deliver from heat and cold {lit 
fire and snow) without delay ; Chh. Mam,, vs. 3, 
^ im^«r %B-ftfij mm ^[^1^ ^TnH*, Clouds rose up 
at that moment, and the water of the rain extin- 
guished the fire. ^0lt,8u., 10,3 {p. 190), ft^ 

^TTfir mft ^:^ K^ 'ff ftpTT fif& mm ^r^rr^W 

%, Just as the creeper, being consumed in the fire 
{i.e. pain) of separation {from the beloved tree to 
which it used to cling), eagerly longs after the water 
of a gracious sight {of the beloved). See ^r5Tf^ 
aginx and "VT^ d^. 

{The word is not unjrequently spelt unphon. "^fa, 
as in R&m., Bd., ch. 195, 10.) 

[This is prop, the wk.f. of ^iprV, q.v. See the 
remarks under ^nftr and ^wifir.] 

^RITT'ffT aganit, ml^f^ aginit, T«., ac^. com. gen., not 
reckoned or counted, innumerable^ countless. ExaiTlii 
Rdm., Bd., ch. 49, 7, ^ mm'^K ^rI^ ^m vhft, They 
were innumerable, in varied modes, as fishes {in the 
sea) ; ib., A., ch. 7, 3, ^«r-^TJ-*«TJ '"iPifWir {fem.) wrftr. 
Garments of wool and silk {and) other innumerable 



10 



15 



ao 



kinds ; Git, A., 6, 2, ^^ wnr, w^m, fnr, "mtfn ; 
%% ^rfrfF ^Prf^^f f^ wrfiifSrP Painful things, 
rain, snow, heat ; how shall I be able to bear them 
for countless days and nights P Bin. 166, w% qrf>r 

m^ ^«r ^^fiiir, ftmr n\ 3r« fk^m ftirft, How 

can I tell the countless wretches whose miseries thou 
hast relieved P Padm., ch. 462, 2, ^Rrf«lir ^iw 
f^wriT If^TT, Ifiiini XP^ f'l' % xWt, Of innumer- 
able gifts he made offerings, and to beggars he 
gave manifold gifts. 

[Skr. ^fTtfiiir: ; as above in all Ods. The tadbh. 
Pr. ^nrfinvt {cf Sapt., vs. 102) has only survived in 
thepleon. neg. form ^inn^, Oit, Bd. 6.] 

^TT^lT ag^ni, Tbh., subst. /., the same as ^rftift dginl, 

g.t?. Exam., ^CoU. {Mg.), ^fi^nc ^i^iftin^ it iiwr 

^i;, His pangs of hunger {lit. fire) have become 
relaxed. 

[Properly str.f. ofm^, q.v."] 



26 



80 



ag^nii, Tbh., subst. m., a contraction of 
ag'neii, q.v. Exam., Padm., ch. 410, 2, ?iW 3JTr^ 
^iT^ irr^, ^H 5^T^w ^f^ ikV, On the third and 
eleventh {of any month) the south-east is disastrous 
{for making a journey towards it), and on the fourth 
and twelfth the south-west is prohibited. 

[Derivation see under ^nnre.] 



86 



40 



^STTT^ ag^nm, Tbh., subst. m., the south-east. Exatn.. 

Padm., ch. 412, 3, mv^ iRif, ^^ir ^, w% mt^ m^^itm 

^ ^, On the sixth {day of the lunar month, when) 
she {i.e. the moon) is gone to dwell in the south-west, 
on the seventh {when she is) to the south, and on the 
eighth (^hen she is) to the south-east. A synonym of 
^firf^ aginx {q.v.) in its thirteenth sense. 

[Skr. • ^rriw: scl. i|^: the south-east quarter, 
Pr. * ^''liNrt.l 



46 



60 



^^•InT ag^netd, poet foryf^m ag'neii, q.v. Exam.« 
Padm., ch. 411, 6, m?^ (= ^jfir^) m^ nf^K, ^ft irtin, 
^ ^T'^y ^K^^ ^iT^HT, Tuesday is fatal {/or a 
Journey) to the west, Wednesday {/or one) to the 
south-west, Thursday {for one) to the south, and 
Friday {for ofie) to the south-east. 

[This is an imaginary form of the word, being 
simply made to rhyme with «mfT. The latter is a 
corruption of the Skr. ir^.] 

^?F1 Sg'nat {Ors. § 1237) = ij^l^ifrt Sg'ndi, q.v. 

^T*TTr ag'naiyd, ^»*IWT ag'naid, Tbh., subst f, Ig. 

"/ of "^n^irrt ag'ndi, q.v. Exam., Git., Bd. 9. 3, irfSr- 
^r^fiT ^firftw mmv wfw wwfirf% ^ft ^^mwr, The 



ag'bar 



39 



^TIT 



dgam 



courtyard is full to overflowing with the brilliant 
beauty of the figures {of Rdm and his brothers) 
reflected in its jewelled pillars. 

[ Uncmtraeted -^tipjiT^T Sg'na'it/d. The fern, gender 
is shown by iiift, if*. / of i?x^.] 



ag^bar^ Tbh., subst w., ' {Mg.) the gleanings 
and refuse grain on the threshing-floor {Grs, § 901); 
*{Bh.) first fruits given for religious purposes 
{Org. § 1203). 8ynonym» see under ^ii«^TT ag^wdr 
ancf "^a^ SgaS. 

^*I*J agam (1), Tbh., (I) a^\ com. gen,, lit, what 
cannot be walked over (opp, ^ifir) , hence ( physically) 
•inaccessible, unapproachable, impassable, difficult to 
pass or approach ; • ( generally ) inaocomplishable, 
unattainable, difficult to attain, difficult ; ^ (mentally) 
unbearable, unpleasant, miserable, imlucky ; '•incom- 
prehensible, inconceivable. Comp., ^nm-'^i^, [/it. 
inaccessible path,) the next world. Exam.i ' Rdm., A., 

ch. 61, 6, 7, ^TW-^viTw fir^i^ jpfrt, irncn ^nnri:f)nf^ 
in^, w*^ %W fi?t 9R[ iTTt ^^ir ^RiT^, ir «nff fw%t^, 

Tour lotus feet are soft and pretty, {while) the road 
is difficult to pass, and there are huge mountains and 
chasms, precipices, rivers, streams, and torrents 
impassable and unfathomable, such as one dare not 
behold ; Ag. v., 9, m^JT ^^m ^TTW V^ ^f^ Km 
5R1^, The impassable road will become pleasant 
by the favour of Ram; Mdm.y Bd,, do. 47, 2, fiPT 
w9 TTWW ^inr ^rfir, fiiiiff «r fiw ^ir^, For those 
the lake is very difficult to approach who have no 
love for BaghunSth ; ib., A., ch. 102, 5, ini "^n^ ^ 
utTW ^mr, An inaccessible domain and magnificent 
forts; Oit.j Bd., 81, 1, tjirf^ i?l% % fir^ftr, ^it^rY, 

( Wishing) to look well at Rfim, fair-eyed one, why 
are you at this time afraid {to do so), thinking him 
unapproachable in your mind, cuckoo- voiced one ; 
Padm., ch. 435, 4, wif nf ^ in* ^rr^, ^wiw-Ti^ 
¥i: Tt'T ^ft^> Where shall I find so instructive a 
guru who will give me information about the next 
world. * JKdm., Bd., ch. 168, 3,^Fr^ w^iR m ^ ^^wm, 
Nothing in the world is unattainable to penance ; 
OH., Ut, 318, 3, xm ^ ^^ ^x^^ "^im ^wft wnnrpf , 
To describe the love of Bam and Sita is beyond {lit. 
inaocomplishable to) the power of any poet; Pdrv., 
vs. 6, ^ini? f fK^ "^ jpf W^, ^rf% ^^ ^5?VT. Nothing 
in the world is inaccomplishable by you, so it appears 
to me ; ib,, vs. 4, fTTif^ ^iXT ^ftr ^vm Jf^, g^T^ ir% 
f)vf^ KT^ %9 She began to perform penances {stfch as 
are) diffiotdt to do for a Muni, how can Tul'sl Das 
describe them in song f Ott, A., 82, 1, wirft^ i^wr, 

^^vnf , ^^iw, vicn Tm- wrfir ; vtn ^ jw (fern.) , ^n 



10 



IS 



20 



S5 



80 



86 



40 



4ff 



00 



V^if, ^IRir 11^ m^fw, Saijkar, Hanuman, Lakhan 
and Bharatknow {what is) devotion to Bam ; it is 
difficult to describe, {but it is) easy to exercise^ and it 
is sweet to hear ; Man., vs. 15, i?9i iit ^nw, nw ^inr 
fW, vft^. It (the conquest of Laykd) seemed difficult 
to the mind, but in reality it was easy to accomplishy 
lord of monkeys. ^Rdm., A., ch. 76, 5, w^ if 
v«f, ^T ^ ^n^ €TiTT, Neither home seemed happy 
{to Sitd) , nor the woods miserable ; Pdrv., vs. 3, 
^ ^ ^JTiT, ^^ ^5inr ifr^^ ftPi ififtT, Nothing' 
{fell out) unlucky, but all chanced to be lucky 
according to the rule {of omens) of the right side ; 

Git., A., 80, 3, ^HT^ ^^ ftprfir w^ ifK-^rrfir «itir, 

3^^ ^w fwr WW ^^?nr wftriT^qror, (Bharat) himself, 
being in Awadh {while) his brother is in the wood, 
is consumed with the fire of anxiety, but Tul'sl Das 
{says) it cannot be determined whose is the comfort 
and whose the discomfort, or whose the happiness and 
whose the misery {i.e., Bharat, being comfortable at 
Awadh, is miserable through anxiety for his brother 
Rdm, while the latter, though in the discomforts of the 
woods, has no anxieties and is happy). ^Rdm.j A., 
ch. 47, 7, mft «MTV m fff^ ^iiw ^JTHT ^"W, 
A woman's nature is altogether incomprehensible, 
unfathomable, and deceptive ; »6., Bd., 27, 6, ^ifw 
^'Pr, !fir %n THT W, Both {the twofold knowledge of 
Ood, as immanent and transcendent) are incomprehen- 
sible, but both become intelligible by means of the 
name {of Rdm) ; Jan., ch. 32, ^ftr-iTPT ^^m ^HT''? 
fWt^ftf "^TW^, Her eyes enjoy a pleasure inconceiv- 
able to a Muni's mind ; Git., Ar., 17, 1, ^^"^ ^ 

^^'W ▼WTW, Sewari, she stood up, and her left eye 
and arm began to throb, which appeared to her a 
lucky omen of joy inconceivable to a Muni's mind ; 
Misc. 28, ^mim ^vf^T i|^«T-Wl^ ^ KVSU wv f«- 
ftri^, {Sari), the inconceivable and imperceptible, 
he {as Krish^n) indulges in sports and takes his 
pleasure in groves under the influence of Badha. 

(11) adv., extremely, excessively, exceedingly, 
{often practically serving as a superlative particle). 

Exam.i Mb. i, 3, iNr -^ wn imK fitrwr^, innr 

ir?T^fvi ^"iRW ^^iT, How can it be accomplished {by 
me) P it seemeth now extremely difficult ; ^tht \^^ 
in this sense is a common phrase ; so also ^im ^i|t^, 
exceedingly difficult {Az. Oy.), and ^am ^wrw, 
exceedingly difficult to distinguish {G\t, Ut., 317, 4) ; 

Misc. 49, wT-iwr irf^WT ^iRnr w%, ^ ^Kt «r i?k, 

The .river of mundane cares {lit. water of exist- 
ence) flows violently {lit. so as to be impassable), 
the further side of the river is not to be seen ; Din., 
^rr^ ^if ift ^nir ^WT^, To-day I see {the river) 
to be exceedingly deep. 




^^m 



ogam 



40 



^RlTirnft off'mani 



[Skr. ^irn*, Pr. ^nnwV, 5., H.y and O. ^j^m ; in 
the other G^s, apparently only tats, ^m^y q.v.2 

m 

^fPff agam (2), ^TTR dgamj {obi. pi. ^iniw agaman)^ 
T6.9 Bubst. m.j ■ arriyal, oommenoement ; *approaoIiy 
futurity; 'any shast'r or holy eoripture {Smriti) 
as diBtinguished from the Beds ( Shruti^ fm^M ) and 
the PurSns; esp. ^ later works, Tantrik, Bushnab, 
etCj suoh as the N&rada PaDcharStra {comm, WT^- 
N^ii^if<^*). Comp., ^VTir-iirT^, [subst f. -unrfMJ^) 
or ^tnr-wnft, (Bub%t.f. -wrftiift), adj.y knowing the 
ixAxa^f hence aubst.f a prophet; ^nr^-lWT, {subst.f. 
•WV^)> adj.j telling the future or expounding the 
shssfr, hence eubstj a prophet or a religious teacher ; 
^^RT'T-wnf (/.) or ^Jm-m^ (/.), prophecy, predic- 
tion; ^Riil-fw^, the art or science of prophecy; 
^'nr-fii*!!! or ^niir-^VTm the Hindu sacred books, 
the Beds and other shfist'rs. Exam.i ^Bih.^ vii, 3j 
<rn^ ^pni tp^ ^rfr ^:^, w B. Or.^ U {Bh. ), v, 5, 
VT^ ^ini wirfr^ IT ^pSr, On the arrival, or with the 
commencement of Bh&do the paths can no more be 
seen (on account of the floods) ; Krish. 139, ^i^i trIt 

^ftfkWT lV$r "vm vnf •nrr^, The frog, peacock, 
and cuckoo by their cry announce the arrival of 
the rainy season. *Coll. {Bh.)^ ^ mn ^nnr ^rr^ 
"Jfif Wf ^ftfiniK WtJ, That man is very clever at 
telling the future. ^K. Edm., Ut.^ 54, gir^ 1?%^ 
^ ^ntOT-iTTir ^ ^T«r, ^TiT-f5n?w ^ ^ irrfinrt' ^nni %, 
Tul'si Das ( says ) the understandmg of the power of 
Mahes is easy, {buf) it is difficult to know the shsst'rs 
and the Beds; Pdrv.^ chh, 13, t^TW ^f^nn ^^w-i^nnr 
ir wmty He does not know the glory of Sib, nor the 
^ shsst'rs and Beds; Oit, Bd.y 2, 24, ^TT^-^^-sn^- 
fil'^ft^^rft ^inT-ftrwr ^n^ii^. The shsst'rs and Beds are 
the {subjects of) deep study to Ssrad (i.e., Saraswatl ) 
Ses, Ganes, and Oins (t.^., Sib) ; Doh. 80, f^nrvr-^vinr 
^^w fpnr xm ^rrftr^ ^"ni, ^fw '%H^ ^iwtftr ^n 

( = jnv ) ^^iir ^ V wr inr. According to the Beds and 
shsst'rs the Master is easy to approach for those who 
truly wish for Bsm, just as easy as the drinking of 
water may be considered to be for every one in the 
world ; Misc. 27, ^[^-nft, ^i^nr-firjrif wt m^, iiV«r-wW 
^^ IT KT^, The virtuous woman, whom the Beds and 
ehsst'rs declare, conceived (the lord of) the three 
worlds in her womb ; Padm.f ch. 148, 7, w^f ir 
^(tm, ^fi^ f ipir^ "^ ^^ wt ^nnw ^p«T, There 
neither sun nor moon is visible, {there) let him ascend 
who understands it through the shsst'rs. 

(The word is of rather rare occurrence in thisform^ 
the usual and proper spelling being ^TTH. In the third 
and fourth meanings the word^ in thisform^ has {with the 
estcepiion of the example from Padm.^ ch. 148, 7) never 
been met with except in combination with f^nnf, and it 



10 



15 



so 



should be noted thai^ according to the commentators^ this 
compound f^nnr-^VTcr always admits both meanings^ m. 
* the Bids and other shdstWs^ or ' the Bide which are 
difficult to understand.^ That exceptional case^ toOf 
admits of an alternative interpretation^ by reading ^rtv 
and vr as two words, and translating : there let him 
ascend who does not consider {the feat) inacoomplish* 
able. It is probable that the form '^pm w€ls purposely 
used by the poets with a view to the double meaning, this 
being a .favorite conceit with SindU poets. It may be 
added that in the Bdm. it never occurs.) 

[ Skr. ^^nnn, Pd. "^rnnft, Pr. ^rrinft {cf. Sapt.f 

vs. 681, arrival; Bhag. p. 282, shsst'r), Mff. Pr. 
iipr% ( Hem. iv, 302 ) ; H. like B* ; M. and B. ^Tifir^ 
P. ^OTV, 5. ^^ (prophecy), O. ^nw (futurity). 
TAe tadbh. Pr. wr^wt apparently occurs in Sapt., vs. 
476, but it has not survived in the Ods."] 

T*#f^5l dayman, ^lMihf\ dg^marl, Tbh., eubst /., 



80 



88 



'a stretching of the limbs; * yawning. Sc« ^^Rfrfc 
HgWal ; also under Vfir dg. EXEITlif Coll. (BA.)> ^™ % 
wrwfT % ^wr ■♦r^fV ^ ^, From lying awake at 
night, one gets to yawn a great deal. 

[Sir. ^Ifirf^, ( Pd. ynwif%m?)y Pr. ^im^^ 
(cf Hem. iv, 126), -B, "^liRniV, H. ^rFinrfV, A. ^fir^f^, 
or irr^fr, M. -^lilw /. or ^inftwr m., also ^^inRST w., 
P. ^im^. 8ee^ however^ also the remarks on the 
derivation ^^/''''INnjT.] 



40 



46 



60 



^•|««1«1 ag^man^ {poet. ^n^inrT ag*mand)^ {Bw.) a short' 
emdform of ^Rrwnr ag*mdn or ^9\m^\^ ag^wdn, q.v. 

Exam.f * Padm.y ch. 280, 6, Tftr ^fw wt ^innm mt, * 

^riF^ ^IT '^^ f^rrr^9 Aiggad seized the trunks of the five 
elephants which ran in front, and slung them round ; 
ti., ch. 445, 2, Tinr-%w wi% w% trt, ^iPTini ^tm ^tb 
w^ ^VTiTT, On the road by which Batan's^n was to 
come, in that pass she {i.e. Padmdwati), going before, 
sat down {to await his arrival) ; Oit., 8u,y 51, 3, xmm 

HT ^rf^^ VTiiwI' (= ^^nnr+^) ^w't-tc ^nw ^wi 

i7f^ ^, Bsban, placing his retinue in front, is 
greatly ashamed on going towards Jam'pur ; Padm., 

ch. 670, 1, xmx w^ ^tfr % ^ ^nnrT, vrt rftrr in 
iHr wn^nrr. He whose prisoner the Rajs is, is 
Pat'ns ; to him the Gors went first. 

{This word also occurs as a v.l. in Bdm.f A., 
ch. 26, 1, for wr^^, in the edition printed in 
Vtfvft' P. ^niTinr guide.) 

^TT'TTT ag^mand, poet, for ^ics^K^ ag^man q.n. 



^ErT^TTT ag*mdn^ the same as ^iirs^nr ag^wdn, q.v. 
^STT^Tfu ag^mdni, the same as ^it^WPft ag^wdni, q.v. 




' \*' ■ ■'■'*-' 



A. 



COMPARATIVE DICTIONARY 



OF THE 



BIHARI LANGUAGE. 



PART II. 

From ^^»Firrf^Vr Sff'malikd to ^I^ffHl mja^. 



COMPILED BT 

A. R RUDOLF HCERNLE, 

OF THB BENGAL BDUOAnONAL BBBVICB, 

▲KB 

GEORGE A. GRIERSON, 

or HBB majuty's bbroal citil bkbtick. 



[IPttbltBiub tmbet the patronage of the Sobennnent of $en0^.] 



J' 
•I 



CALCUTTA : 
AT THE BENGAL SECRETARIAT PRESS. 

80LD BY 

TRUBNER A CO., 67 AND 69, LUOGAT£ HILL, LONDON; 

BREITKOPF & HiBRTEL, LEIPZIG; 

▲IVD 

W. NEWMAN & CO., 4, DALHOUSIE SQUARE, CALCUTTA. 

1889. 



PREFACE TO PART IL 



The authors feel that they owe to the SubscriberB of their Dictionaiy an apology for the long 
delay in the appearance of the Ilnd Part. 

The difficulties they have met with to a speedy and continuous prosecution of their labours hare 
been beyond their control. Some are inseparable from the conditions of life in India. The latter are 
such as to leave any one but very small and interrupted leisure for the prosecution of work outside the 
round of official duties. Moreover, for about a year and-a-half , at different times, both of the authors 
were compelled, for reasons of health, to be absent from India ; and during this time all work was 
practically discontinued. 

Another circumstance that caused very considerable delay, though it has also its counter- 
balancing advantages, is that from time to time new and important works of Biharl literature are 
discovered by the authors. Some of these are very large and important, such as the Maithill 
Ramayan and the Puruga Parikga. They must be read and carefully indexed, while the preparation 
of the Dictionary progresses, in order to avoid the inconvenient necessity of encumbering the work 
with numerous supplements or appendices. 

There have been also delays at the Printing Office owing to the necessity of procuring fresh or 
new types. 

All these circumstances have co-operated to cause the long delay, which no one can regret more 
than the authors themselves. They will use their best endeavours to render the interval between the 
appearance of the several parts as short as possible. 



.r 



\r 




■^; 



SUPPLEMENTS 

to Chapters 14 and 16 of the Introduction. 



14.— bihArT literature. 

In MaithiU. 

(16) Maithill Ramayan in MS, a yersion of the legend of Ram, in the Maithill dialect, composed 

in various metres for the Maharaja Bahadur of Dar'bhagga by Kabi Chandra Jha. 
Finished in Saka 1808 (1886 A.D.). MS. in Mr. Grierson's possession. An extensive 
work in the modern dialect, which will shortly, we believe, be printed. Read. Index 
(in M8.). 

(17) Puraiga Farlk^a, a Maithill translation of Bidyapati Thakur's Sanskrit work of the same 

name. The translation was prepared by Kabi Chandra Jha and printed in the Maha- 
raja of Dar'bhaijga's Press, in Saka 1810 (1888 A.D.). Read. Index (in MS.). 

(18) Ukha Haran. MS. now in Mr. Grierson's possession. Read. Index (in MS.). 

-^•-8. — (11, 12, 13) Git Nebarak, Git Dina Bhadrik, Git Dina Bhadrl Kawand; text and translation 
now published by Mr. Grierson in J. G. O. S., vol. XXXIX (for 1886). Read. Index 
(in MS.). 

In BhofpUri, 

(12) Folksongs in modern Bhoj'puri, Fart II. Text and English translation by G. A« GriersoUi 

PR. (J. R. A. S., vol. XVIII, N. S., Part 2, 1886). Read. Index (in MS.). 

(13) Git NSka (or Nayaka) Banijara, a Bhoj'puri ballad. Text and translation by G. A. Grierson 

in J. G. O. S., vol. XUII (for 1889). Read. Index (in MS.). 

In Magahi. 
(5) Magahi Bible, translated in 1818 A.D. by the Serampur Missionaries. 




la-LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS EMPLOYED IN THE DICTIONARY. 



Ach, 



Bhof. 



Bih. TuL 



Dutt 



H.LU. 



Ed. Dy. 8h. 



I. — Names of Languages and Titles of Works. 



Aohar&nga Sutra (ed. Jaoobi for FSli Text 
Sooiety, London, 1882). 

Bhoj'puri Folksongs, Part 11, (ed. G. A. 
Qrierson, in Jonmal B. A. 8., vol. 
XYin, Part 2). 

Bihail Tural Bhukhan Bodh, by Bihar! 
Lsl GhSabe. A treatise on Hindi 
Bhetorio. (Bankipur, Eharg Bilas Frees.) 



Materia Medica of the Hindus, oompiled 
from Sanskrit Medical Works by Dr. 
TJday Ohand Dutt, with a Glossary of 
Indian Plants by Dr. G. King and the 
author. (Calcutta: Thaoker, Spink & Go., 
1877.) 



The Modem Vernacular Literature of 
Hindustan, by Gteotge A. Grierson. 
Extra Number to Journal A. 8. B., 
Part I, for 1888. 

Shakespeare's Hindustani Dictionary. 



J. A. 0. 8. Journal, American Oriental Sodety. 



Mg. Bible Magahl Bible, translated 1818 AD. 

Mth. Bdm. Maiihili Bamayan (in MS.). 



NAk. 



Piy. 



Pur. 



ShOsh. 



Ukh. 



Watt 



Git N&ka Banijarft (in MS.). 



Les Inscriptions de Piyadasi, par E. Senart. 
(The Ashoka Insoriptious). YoL I & II 
(Paris, 1881, 1886). 

Furui^ Parlk^a translated into Maithili 
(Maharaja of Dar'bha^ga's Press, 1888). 

Shashvata's Aneksrtha Eosha, ed. Th. 
Zachariae (BerUn, 1882): 



TTkha Haran. 

XJyftsagadas&o or the Seventh Anga of the 

Jains (ed. A. F. Rudolf Hoemle in the 

Bibliotheca Indica). 



Economic Products of India, exhibited in 
the Calcutta International Exhibition, 
1883-84. By George Watt, M.B. 



II. 



alg. 
arith, 

bot. 

def. 

end. 
excl. 

idiom, 
inch 



algebra, 
ariihmetio. 

botanicaL 

definite. 

enditia 

excluding or exclusive of. 

idiomatic 

including or inclusive o& 



Orammaiical and other Terms. 

math. mathematics or mathematical. 



per. 


perfect. 


pluperf. 


pluperfect. 


pot. 


potential. 



relig. 



syn. 



religious, 
synonym. 




• -'wy^-*v- *> 



^iT^^flnrf^^PirT Sg^mama, Ts., mbsi. w., the embrace 
of men after a wedding at the departure ,of the bride- 
grooms party. 

\Pr6bably .a corruption of Skr. mpTrfWfT 
embrace ; the eons. "^ is liable to be softened to ^ and 
afterwards exchanged mth ^ ; see Od. Or.y § 134, It 
is the custofhy however^ en the occasion of the departure 
of guests^ to throw garlands made of flowers or tinsel 
round their necks. This may have led to the corfusion 
of irrftrer and ^ifli^ in the mouth of the people."] 

^SnT^TfTT ag'ydrdy (/ ^nr^ ag'y&ti), Tbh., adj., 
the same as ^B i ^iO agiydrd (1), q^v. Exam.i Padm.y 
ch, 666, 5, ^ %9Tm ^ ^mr ^TPft, ^ ^W t^ 'fTW 
^nmn^y Of side glances she mustered an army^ and 
from her mouth {she shot) flerj-tipped spears, {said 
of a lover* s intercourse). 

^^SUyK^agar (l)f%mKdgar{l)9 the same as ^[mdgalor 
Wrf^ ^gih 9'^' 2%« form VIX, agar has only been 
observed in compounds^ such as ^ir^qr* agar'pdf, 
^furnrrH agar^parwsy q.v. 
[Der. see under ^RinfWT.] 



41 



^TTT <^g<i^ (2), {old form vr^ agaru)^ Tbh., subst w., 
■wood of aloes, agalloobum {aquillaria agailocha)^ 
a fragrant wood used as incense ; *a fragrant powder 
made of aloe wood; 'a certain tree which yields 
bdellium (Amyris agallocha) ; ^ the flsu-tree {Dalbergia 
sisoo). Comp., ^nnc-iTr incense of aloes. Exam,, 
'Padm., ch. 37, 6, ^^^ ^^ If^ ^PW^'IT ^TT 
i?nc i:^. And {the market) was always stocked with 
oamphor, benS {a kind of aromatic grass) ^ musk, sandal 
wood, and aloe wood ; Rdm.f Bd.j ch. 14, 9, fir ^ Tm 
H%m iw^rt, ^Tx vm^ vw ^^rt, Even smoke 
abandons its natural pungency, and in conjunction 
with aloes yields a sweet scent ; Rdm.j Bd.^ ch. 207, 5, 

Incense of aloes rises like the darkness {of night) and 
ablr {a kind of red powder) like the redness {of dawn). 
^Padm., ch. 36,4, J^ ^ ^ ^l'^ T^ ^ W^^ 
%^ ^ irirTj {The people of Ceylon) are always 
preparing and adorning themselves with powder of 
sandal, turmeric, aloes, med {a kind of fragrant root ), 
and camphor ; Oit.y Bd.y 2, 16,- f ^-if ^wnr ^^t(Km 
ftKUft ifncfl iprw ^r. They sprinkle ar'gaja, 
aloes, and kugkum {a red powder), and fill {the air) 
with gulfil and ablr (a red liquid and a red powder, 
see s.w.)\ Krish. 44, ^^^ ^niT if^Tfirr ftrfijir 
^n ?r ^W ^fT? ^j They diligently rub on the 
body {powdered) sandal and aloes, mixecj with 
kum'kum {red powder). 8ee'^su[% agari, n^Kagur, 
^rv^ agurv. 



10 



15 



^H?71§T Sgar'khd 

[Skr. ^pit or ^n^s, Pd. ^^% or ^ir^, Pr. ^^ 
{Hem. i, 177) ; M., (?., JET., B. ^nic or mpc, 8. ^m^, 
Bg. and 0. ^m^; the last also in most other Ods.] 



20 



85 



80 



85 



40 



agar{S), Any., cof^\j 'if; Hhough, although; 
«when. Exam., 'Coll. (J?A.)> ""f^ ^«n^ ii5f«%, 
HF ^^T % % ^^o, If you can't get small silver, then 
bring pice. •Proi?., ^n^ n?t^ »%, ^^ «% ^«ft^, Though 
the mountain move, the faqir won't {Hd. Prov.) 

IPrs. jf\ agar.] 

^T^^y V ^gar (1), {pr. pts. ^<ir^^ HgWait ; "^^IT^^W 
4/rei/; -^blKW ag^rab ; "^iiTc a^rat), Tbh., v.intr., 
to melt, to dissolve, to be eroded, to wear away {Az. 

^y)' Exam., Ooli. {W. Bh.), v^irr^lRf ^*i^^ 

WTT, The lump of sugar is melting in the water ; ColL 
{W. Bh.)y ^'t^nft i[ii*% % ^-^TK ir^ WT, From 
the exudation of salt the wall is wearing away ; Coll. 
{Bh.) '^^:v(J jftf % «rl^ ^HT ^in: fnrji x^, The 
flesh of his leg is melting away. 

\Skr. v^^inwr, Pr. ^^nv (c/. Hem. i, 172, flrwef 
Sflp^., vs. 205, ^^^fa^ = SAr. ^^irftnr), <ff. ^'n?, 
Jl/. .^»nc or ^anc, 5. ^nK (wt^A shortening of -^ to 
^yas in ^T and for w^K, etc., see Od. Or. % 26, the 
nasalisation serving as a compensation),] 

^r^^l K ^gar (2), {pr. pis. see under the preceding roof)^ 
Tbh., V. intr., to ache with a burning sensation {Az. 

Of/')' Exam.. Coll. { w. Bh.), flr^ ^ iiTts^ % ^H 

^^TW WTT> The arm is aching from the sting of a 
scorpion. 

[^Probably a den. root from "^firnc a live-coal, Bg, 
^iTKT, 8. ^V*^ (''S'f^)* ujith the second a shortened, as in 
B. ^^WT or ^Ntk prince {cf Hem, i, 67). Similarly in 
P. the noun '^f'nrT^ means both a coal of fire and a 
painful boil on the palm of the hand ; and in O. 'WT'i^T 
means boils, eruptions caused by heat. For a similar 
reason blight in cereals is M. ^JilKT, B. -^arf^T {with 
the same sfiortening of the vowel a).] 



45 



60 



I 



^TT^'^fT Sgar'khd, {Mth. also) i8fiK5W Sgir'khd, 
Tbh.9 subd. m, a sort of single-breasted frock-coat 
worn by Hindils buttoning doum on the right breast, by 
Musalmdns on the left, by the advanced of either class 
and by Christians in the middle. It is sometimes tied at 
the neck by a string which runs in a hem {see Ors. § 729). 
Phr., ^ftiTT ^t^^ {lit. a sniall coat), a jacket 
{Grs. § 728). Exam., Coll. (Bh.), ^ WT * "^ftmf ^i|i^ 



5i|r ftf *n?«»T % w«^ in» itw, When he heard that, 
he got so happy that the strings of his coat burst. 
ike ^WT afgd. 

I8kr. ^ip:^«t, Pr. ^ir^^w^, Bg. ^irmrr or 
MtsiKt^, M. ^i^^lT or ^ffX^T or ^irtTV or ^Tnt^r, 



w^ijf^ 



igar^khl 



42 



im^^TT dgar'wah 



P. '^iiT'WT or ^*rwT, JT. ^nr^ or -"rnvrnx^ 0. 
^Ji\^, S. ^nrff (5. 2)y.,i?. 64).] 

^*K*^1 Ugar'khl, fefn. of ^nrjmj Sgar'khd {q.v.), 
used in a dim. %eme, a small ooat, a jacket. 

^1T-^T^ Agar'dasy ^n»T-^[T^ Agr'ddSy Tbh., subsi. m., 
the name of a well-known Hindu poet, who flourished 
in the second half of the sixteenth century A.D. He was 
one of the eight famous poets of Brajy known collectively 
as the Ashfa Chhdpy and was a disciple of Krish^n 
Dds, who^ together with the celebrated poet Sur^ddSy was 
a disciple of Ballabhdchdr'J (see Siv.y p. 394^ No. 69 ; 
cf As. Ees.f vol. XVI, pp. 47, 86). Se was himself 
the guru or preceptor of the poet Ndbhd Dds {or 
Ndrdyan Das)^ the famous author of the BhakH Mdld 
{see Bh. Md., vs. 161, 166, and 8iv., p. 379, No. 85). 
Many of his songs are said to have been included in 
Krishndnand's great collection^ called the Bdg'kalpadrum. 
Exam.i -Ztfi«c. 1 {one of his songs) y fk^Yt ^ mmifft WT 

* II iw II ^TO U^ WW f^^ w^ nw, irii? iff ^T<f 
^ifT % I ^^ fkn wtfk i?wt^ii %^, ^^^w ttF ^ir wi^- 
VT 1 1 mnf w ^V ^wrrr rw %, ^ ^ wtft ^r^nr 
^pi^\ ^iT ^TO ^ ^nft fir«iift, TTW mw wfir WTff WW 

% II Preserve my love with Jan'ki's husband {Edm) . 
{This is the) burden {of the song). May the seven 
sidhis {or heavenly powers) and the nine nidhis (or 
heavenly treasures) always be my prize ; I have no 
oonoem with the (so-called) * four prizes ' (viz, dhar'my 
arHhy kdm^ moksh) ; this only is the desire of my heart, 
that I may remain in the presence of the True, the 
Sftragg'dhar ( Vishnu) ; I do not beg at any other's 
door : my affection is set on Das'rath's son. This 
only is the prayer of Agar' das, that Ham's name may 
never be wiped from his mind. 

^f|t^*MO^ agar'par^s, Tbh., subst. m., {Coll.) 
neighbourhood, vicinity {Hd. Dy.). Exam., Coll. {Bh.), 
ii|J|<»M<)<f W Ct^TW % fiW % ^^^ ^^T ^, It is good 
to be on friendly terms with the people of one's 
neighbourhood. 

[Comp. of "^KK in front and xr^ neigh- 
bourhood (j.r.), as it were 8kr. ^^ ^fif^TO:, Pr. ^^ 
wfirwwt.] 

"^^1 V*MI? agar^fdty Tbh., suhst. m., {agric.)y flush 

irrigation, when the water is at a higher level than the 

field and the cultivator has only to cut the bank of the 

water-channel and allow the water to overflow into tfie 

fleld {Ors. § 918). 

IComp. of ^^nK in front and irr» a bed or channel 
of irrigation ; lit. an advanced channel. A Prakrit 
synonym appears to be «naA^ (» 8kr. ^H-ihft an 



10 



15 



ao 



25 



advanced current), mentioned in E[em. Dy., vs. 29, and 
explained by W^:^i flooding of a river.] 

^•i^*mV agar'pdr,lh}\.,suhst, m., name of a Eaj'pBt 
\^hQ, otherwise unknotm. Exam., Padm., ch. 542, 3, 
^ ^ W^^TPT, i|%?^, ^[KK9JKy ^IHtw, ^f^, The 
Khatri and Bach'wan, the Baghel, Agar'par, ChSBhan 
and Chandel {RafpUts assembled at Chitor). 



^W^<nw 




Tbh., subst. m., {agric.) sugar-cane ready for 
cutting {Ors.% 1010). 

IComp. of ■'Wf^ or ^JirP^ sugarcane {q.v.) 
and w^ {from y^s* with Od. suff. ^, see Gd. Or., 
§ 330), lit. that which has formed itself, hence 
what is mature.] 

^•1 Vl^l^ agar'bagar = ^v^T^-^m^ agafbagar, q.v. 

Exam., '-^fiw. 27, ^RT-wJTT WT ^?Tw Tif^, \ir irv 

^^ Tm irxw, What trifles dost thou make me recite 
Pandit ? I shall but recite the name of Ram. 

• 

^flT^^T?;; dgar'wdr, Tbh., subst. m., {agric.), the 
receptacle for sugar-cane ready cut up in pieces for 
the mill {used in Shdhdbdd ; Ors. § 281). 

[Derived from -^ihft or '^nxt {q.v.) by means of 
the Od. sec. der. suff. WXK or irrar, implying possession 
or relation, lit. cane-holder. See Od. Or., § 293.] 

w ^H?7^rCT agar'wdrd, w^it»^7^ agar'wdld, Tbh., 
subst. m., a race of merchants of the BsSs tribe! 
" Thi^ is by far the most important family of the Vatsya 
tribes throughout a large portion of Northern,* North- 
western, and Central India.'' They are descended 
from a person called Agar, aho Agar Sen or Agar 
Ndth, who lived in a place called Agrbhd, now a small 
tmcn on the confines of Haridnd, not far from Delhi. 
See Sherring's Hindu Tribes and Castes, vol. I, p. 283. 
[Derived from ^nix, the founder's name, by means 
of the Od. seo. der. suff. ^TKT or imii, implying 
relation. See Od. Or., % 293.] 



^ilV^W agar'wdh, {Bh.), Tbh., subst. m., {agric), the 
man who cuts the sugar-cane into lengths for the 
mill and boils the juice {Ch-s, § 293). 

[A compound of ^K^ or ^firrft {q.v) and wn, 
lit. a carrier. The man is called so from the fact that 
bringing or taking away the cane in one form or other is 
necessarily connected with his work. Similarly the driver 
of the mill is called VffKrm, lit. the man who sits 
on the ^jnK or driving-board {Ors. § 278) ; see Grs. 
§ 294., also §§ 292, 295. The element rr% practically 
serves as a suff. eapressing a variety of occupations.] 



86 



40 



46 



50 



Sg'raa 



43 



^T 




ag^rSji 



/ 



'^^IJXM Sg^rasy ^ipf^ ag^ras^ T«f subat. m., *the 
native juioe or flimple, produced from any substance ; 
espec. (Bh.) •the solution of saline earth or the mother 
liquid from which saltpetre is extracted {Gfrs. § 366). 

^ERFTT og'ra (1), (/. ^nr^ ag'n (2)),Tb.h., (I) adj\, 
the same as ^nf^WT agUd (1) or ^fintT agild^ q.v. 

(II) subst. fw., 'the top or tip of a thing; esp. 
* {Mg.) the leaves at the top and the upper part of 
sugar-cane which are useless for making sugary as they 
possess no Juicey but which are used for seed or fodder y 
( Grs. §§ 1008, 1010, 1012) ; f&m. (^irr^) »sugar- 
oane leaves or grass collected for thatching purposes 
{this sensey againy being a spec, application of the 
first meaning); ^(Oayd) the eaves of a house {lit. 
projecting parts, see Chrs. § 1252, and synonyms under 
"^^S^^X agudr). lyizm.% ^Coll. {Bh,), WTT V ^ 
^V9T^ ir5tt*% wra?, They have collected leaves for 
thatching ( Az. Gy.). See ^H^ ag'rd. 

[Derivation see under ^n^mx (1). M. ^nxMj or 

^^K (subst.) tip, cf also "^Mxft sprouting ; Ml. ^^^ 

pieces of sugar-cane cut for eating. In the 8rd 

and 4ith meanings the icord is evidently connected with 

8kr. ^ " jnfiifti , the stalk of the sugar-cane, which is 

commonly y though with very little probability y said to be 

the same in ongin as ^VWTK or ^IfKV coal. Similarly 

jGkr. ^IfTficT, another supposed connection of '^VW^Ky is 

-^^lid to mean a bud. There is evidently here some 

'^:^onfusion with ^^^ and ^WX owing to sanskritisation of 

>rdkrit words {such as "mrnVK. and ^t = ^^).] 




^►TT ag'rd {2) = ^W^Wt ag'ld (2), q.v. 




ag^rdy ^^ii^fT ag^rdy (pr.pts. ^JiKliH ag^rdity 
n agWdt; -^Vl^KHm ag^rdel ; "^J^XJinf ag'rdeb ; 
H»lTy agWde)j Tbh., V. intr.y to be in high spirits, 
ive oneself airs, be arrogant {Az, Gy.), Examii Prov, 
K^Grs. § 1089) , TfinrT ^M, f^fiRX ^^x^, ^ 5rt ^»ttt 

ilKl^y If {the asteristn of) Hathiya rains, and the 
louds of Ohit'ra hover about, the paddy-cultivator 
its at home in high spirits; Coll. {Bh.)y t^r irr 

"TwTTf W5T % ^rr^-^mf ^ wf ^OT^trrw wt%, Nowa- 

^iays he is la high spirits on account of the marriage 

^f his son having taken place; Coll. {Bh.), ^rw f* 

XfiWT iiH^ Kw, mi "51 w^ ^KTfT^nr t4%. Since 

lie got employment, he is in high spirits ; Coll. {Bh,)y 

"^rhnrCt ii» iiw ; n^t ^rw ^^miw %« 5iw, His employ. 

ment is gone, and now all his high spirits have 

disappeared. 

[^Apparently connected with \/'%^ ( 9*f .)> ^kich 
would admit of a by&form ^PT^ (^•<'0» and of which it 
would be a pleon. form made after the manner of caus. 



10 



ift 



20 



SB 



80 



35 



40 



SO 



roots ; see Od. Gr., § 849, and compare v/^^^^fl^. It 
mighty howevevy also be identical with v^VP^ {q.v,) ; 
for the meanings of * twisting * and * giving oneself airs * 
are closely connected. 8. has the verbal noun ^?TOt or 
^fkXt^{S.Dy.,p.il).'} 



Sg^rdy Tbh., subst, »., (agric.)y * (JV. Bh.) blight 
in cereals caused by the sharp west wind {Grs. g 1074); 
also *(iV: Bh.) blight in opium {Grs. § 1074). 

[Probably from Skr. WWTKlive coal, the plants 
destroyed by blight looking black and carbonised, M. 
has •^JimcT. See also the remarks under y/^^i^fX (2).] 

^RT*^ agWl (1) {Grs, § 1250) = ^ip^ ag'Uy q.v. 

^IT?^ ag'rl (2) {Grs. § 1262), /m. o/^?n agWd (1), 
q.v. 

^•I*0 ^g^rly l^s usual than "^g^ Hgurl, q.v. Exam.i 

Misc. 26, -^irft ftr* % ^if^ ^rftxT, ^^ir^ir tw ^y 
Taking {the little KrisKn) by the finger Jasodfi went, 
she went to upbraid {Rddhd) ; CoH. {Mg.), ^v^TT 
"^T^ "^HT iftrr-"^ ^45vV ^, He has a ring on every 
joint of his fingers. 

^Snfn5 agai-Uy an older form of -^nx agar (2), q.v. ExarBif 

G'tty Bd.y 1, 8, iftfirr yriw ^W ^TK'n^ ^^ ^'^k 
^^rt, In the streets the mud was {made up of 
trampled) kuijkums {or hollow balls made of lac and 
filled with abir)y and ar'gaja {a certain yellowish 
perfume) and {inceme of) aloes and ablr (a kind 
qf red powder) were wafted about. 

'^ 

^«|*V^ ag'rejy ^i^ Sg'rejy Any., subst. w, »an 

Englishman or woman ; Hhe English nation. Comp., 
^iPt^-^Tir England. Exam., ^Fam.y^ vs. 71, vir ^^ 
^i^t«r w^T^, ^H % gj2w arnr, Twice-blessed be the 
noble English nation, for every one's limb became fat; 
Dev.y p. 23, ^TTs^sTT ^*PTBr iTT^^ * xm Iff nfir-f^n 
iTTll^ ^ftw «IT%, Under the government of the noble 
English nation {every one) is daily becoming more 
prosperous. 

{^^ This word is often confounded with ifn^t^i 
{or T^^arr) ; and injesty or when speaking facetiously, 
tke English in India are called f *Pt«i dyOTS,*' Grs. 
§ 50iy footnote.) 

[E. Englishy through the Portuguese ^ Ingleze.* 
Kn. ^V%^ inglez {Kn. Dy.)'] 

^^^•V^ ag'rejly ^|if^^ ig^f^Ji, Any.r (I) adj. 
Epg Hsh {G rs. § 604). Exam., Coll. {Mg.), ^ f^w 
Trfir ^ir^^f^i^ w^^fr ^^ii«% t^ ^x. Day and 

night ha weazs nothing but "RTiglj^h dothea. 



^rn^^ 



a^vSkt 



44 






aifPi 




(EC) «w4«<. w., > {«<?/. t»i if fl) the English brick 
(a tor^e table-moulded kind^ introduced by the English^ 
Grs. § 1263) ; fern., « (scl. inv M^Ad) the English 
language. Exam., ""Coll. (Mg.), ^ "♦l^t^ ^^ * 
Iw^irnf ^ 5>W, He has turned a Christian through 
readiDg English. 

[Formed from ^m^Km by means of the Od. see. 

der. mff. t ; «^^ G4** Gt^^y § 252.] 

^5RT*\^ ag'rWily Tbh., tmUt. m., a pan with straight 
wd short edges {Ghs. § 679). 

IDerivedfrom ^M edge, by ^neans of the Od. sec. 
der. Buff. ^^. See Od. Gr. § 245.] 

'^l^li'OiT ag'rOufd, a kind of mould or press for 
making cakes (#f^rr or Hf^\ {It is sometimes a 
board carved with patterns on both sides^ and sometimes 
two carved pieces fitting together between which the 
dough is pressed, Ors. § 1272, p. 349.). Exam,. Coll. 
{Bh.)y ^WTK ^K^««rr (Ig. f) ^ 5i^ wt, tJ^ 'iftr 
^rnm^iTT^*?i^H»^¥^'^^T«r%^T^WT, My 
oake-shape is broken, lend me yours for a little, as 
I have to bake cakes to»day. 

[Derivation see under Vl'^tT^O 

^JTTS^M^ ag'rmh ^if^* ^l^f* ag'rcSuti, Tbh., subst. 
/., a box for holding fragrant aloe powder, a 

scent-box. 

[Derived from ^TOT (2), q.v.^ by means of the 
Od. sec. der. suf. ^IT^ or ^^, as if it were 8kr. 
^n%iS[ffi ; see Gd. Gr., § 284. S. ^?n^T.] 

^Sni^ agal, the same as ^jnw dgal, q.v. 

^|7(^. a| «] fji agaUbagalj ^n?»WT-VTRrT ag'la'bay'l&, 
Any., adv., right and left, on this side and that 
side. Phr., ^iW-iRW ^T^W, v. tr., to put aside or 
away, to put on one side. Exaniai Misc. 55, ^[Jm- 
%T[m ^X «IT ^ftf Tt%, IT^ k1% ^f^[irrir, On this side 
and on that gods, men, and munis are stationed, in 
the entrenchment is stationed Hanuman; Song, 
(Mg.)t ^m^^TT-iRI^^ ^V^ toV ^^f^T, Eight and 
left, O friend, were wanton damsels (Hd. Dy.) . 

[Prs. cUt J^' agiiC'i bagJlMl, a repetition of cU| 

^^RI^^Tf ag*lah, Tbh., a^. com. gen., {old poet. f. ^ir^wf^ 
ag'lafix) , wicked, vicious. Exam.i Sb., 2, 30,^ vrirfV 
i»^ 3inrr Trft, There was there the very vicious woman 
Put'na. See ^ifiraT agiya (1) and ^ifWuTT agiydh. 

[The word is said to mean lit. an incendiary, and 
is clearly a comp. of ^rrfir or ^iTT fire (Skr. ^iftr) and 
some other word, the identity of which is not quite 



10 



15 



80 



25 



80 



86 



40 



45 



60 



cerioi^n. The corresponding M. word is ^rnnrW, from 
mVf and WTW(. The latter portion is a regular derivative 
of the M. verb in^ to apply ; tJ^e compound meaning 
lit. one who applies fire, an incendiary. The B. 
equivalent of the M. verb wv^k is ^ivrnnr {see s.v.). In 
that case a change of ^ to^ tvould have to be assumed. 
But the B. word may have an independent, though 
synonymous, origin. Its latter portion may be Skr. ^l 
burning, Pr. w%y whence B. WT ( through the change 
qf^tom, see Od. Or. § 105) ; or it may be Skr. Xn 
a vehicle, Pr. VK or Mg. Pr. WT, whence B. WT 
{with exceptional preservation of M, see Od. Or. 
§ 110, exc). Another Jf. synonym is ^wrwrr.] 

^«|«fdl ag'la (1), {fem. ^u^ agUl or m.c. vMir 
ag^lifOld loc. ^i|»^Pf ag*lahi, mod. loc. ^m^^ ag*&)j 
(I), a(^\, a less usual form of ^filirT agila, q.v. 
Exam., B. Or., II {Bh.), 14, 2, tt-k^ 1 ^f^ THf 
^RT% [fern.) '^%K tnr Wwfir, Hearken, the first half 
of the night {had passed) 9,xxA the {first) quarter of 
the second haU of the night {had commenced) ; Padm. 

eh. 549, 5, ^mx ^zv ^^ ^TfT ^T^, viirHr vnft, 

pnf^f^ ifjtty The army marched to the attack (in) 
such extraordinary {strength) (that while there was) 
drinking-water for the vanguard, ( there was only ) 
dust for the rear-guard, {i.e., the army toas so great 
that the water on the way. was, in the course of the 
march, turned into dust by .being drunk up and tram- 
pled) ; ib., ch. 555, 2, Wil^ ^1f vi^ ^rtf, Pm% 
TTtW ¥t^ X^wflt, In front the vanguard marched 
at double quick, behind the rear-guard extended 
to ten kos. 

(II) subst. m., {Ors. § 875) the same as ^RTfT 

ag^Tdj q-f^' 

[Skr. ^ni', Pr* ^^^ or {^^^ ^he addition of the 
two pkon. suf, mand m, Hem. ii, 164-166) *^inirai[^, 
Ap. Pr. ^iinirv (Hem. iv, 341), hence Gd. ^nfrr. 
The latter form properly belongs to H. and the W. 

m 

G4s. generally, also tOi M., which has ^siTT; while 
B. prefers the form ^ffiiWT. Oip. {adv.) angle {Mik. 
vii, p. 8). See also the remarks on derivation under 

^TT^T agUa (2), ^imcT ag'r& (2), Tbh., subst. m., a 
large bolt or bar. Examn ^oll. {Bh.), vst^m % 
^f^mrr ^Tprir ^rr, The gate is barred. See ^rniw itgal, 
of which it is the str. f 

[Skr. ^i^Wt, Pr. 'HHRr'St, Od. ^tirsKT or ^TfKT.] 

^J|«W ag'ti, ^Wil^ ag'rl (1), the fem. form of the 
preceding word with a diminutive sense, a small bar or 

• bolt. Exam., Coll. {Bh.), %^Tif^ ift ^wi^ wnw 

i(o, Bolt the door. 



^'?F^^ 



Hg'lich 



45 



[Sir. '^ftrnT, Pr. ^vnfinrr, 0. Od. ^irfti^, 
M. Od. ^w€^.] 

^7T«^^ Sp'lichy Tbh., subst. /, physical frame, 
corporeal frame, personal appearance. ExatTlii Cfoll. 
(Bh.), ^frtst ^T't^ WWf ^"^ ^» His general 
appearance is very good. See ^Wl^ dgof* 

[Derivation is doubtful ; the synonym -^iPr*, jET. 
'^Pr^, Jf. *IWVT or -^T^^, »« rf^iVrf /rom tt^ 
fiJtr. comp. "^ffjf + ^W^wr form of the body, Pr. 
^JCT^IT, hence Gd. •iJfiWr or (trtYA hss of aspiration) 
contr. "*rt« ; or, e/irftf»^ ^ flwd inserting euph. ir, Pr. 
t^u^fT, hence contr. H. yt^. Again to ^np ^iy^^ ^^ 
added the Ap. Pr. pUon. suff. V {Bern, iv, 429), which 
may change into Gd. w {Bee Gd. Gr. § 217), whence 
would come, as before^ Ap. Pr. ^'iT^T^iT or ^irWT^IT, 
and contr. Gd. <m^s or -^ilt^, or shortened (M.) 
'4iT99. The difficulty is to account for the substitution 
of the final ^ of *<«%^ in the place of ¥. It may be 
noted, however, that ^ also appears in Pr. f^vnfor Pd. 
fwifk, 8kr. finrfif from ^m. Pr. would admit both 
forms ^wn and ^A'm, and according to Hem. iii, 32, 
ako ^f^ift. The latter would admit a bye-form ^W^, 
(fla tn Pr. tWt/or ft?ft, Skr. ^), hence Jp. Pr. 
*-^ ii\^ m^ or •^BnWT^inft, and thence, contracted 
and with loss of aspiration, old Gd. •^dirif^, P. 
^11%^. Or the form may have arisen through a 
transposition of the cor^. ^ into W, which would 
naturally change into ^ {cf. Hem. ii, 21), as in 

l/^Tf &gaw, {pr. pts. ^JIiT^ir Sg^wdit, Bh. "^^TVir 
ngawat ; ^In^ Sgawal, Bw. ^4i\r^j Sg'wd ; ^tm agawai; 
Bw. noun of agency '^iwftrncr Sgaw^nihdra), Tbh., 
V. tr., to bear, to endure, to bear with. Exaniii 
Padm., do. 542, 2, «i^ ^f% fw^ «tffT in? ^T, ^ 
•^b^ vrx. So long as the sonl is in the body, it 
has to bear its load ; ib., ch. 648, 1, ^mr wl^n ^ 
inrr^, nf^ '^ ^ ^*t% ^n^, At their coming the 
heaven and the nether-world shake, the earth quivers 
and cannot bear the load ; ib., ch. 621, 6, wt ^ 

wftw ^ ^^JT ^r^T^, ^ "^^^ ''^^^ *^ ''^^^ ^^® 
load of severe pain which moimtains cannot 
bear, man has borne on his head; Coll. {Bh,), 
%^ i fl^j rr ^wn '^r^'r wt^, I am bearing with you a 
good deal ; Rdm., A., ch. 26, 4, -^m fftl^ ^fft 

-♦nrftrnT, 5t Tftr-«nn v^^-^ ut^. Those who {are 

able to) endure the trident {of 8ib)^ the thunderbolt 
{of IndW), or the sword {of Jam), are slain by the 
flowery shafts of Eati's spouse {Edm'deb). 

(This is a synonym of y/'^Ptm or ^'^^, q.v., and 
is more common towards the west, while to the east the 
latter roots are more usual.) 



10 



16 



20 



%IHtaiT ag'wd 

[Clearly connected with Skr. ^[ff {cf ^Ipt" t«^* 
^Wl^VIT), from which it is probably formed as a 
den. ^-lilflf^, Pr. *nff, M. "^hnf^, B. *T^ with 
shortening of the suffixal vowel a, as in Pr. ift^rfW 
for ift^ft^ {Hem. iii, 150), »ft^> far BlfWY 
{Hem. i, 67), etc.] 

^*?r^9|T Sg'wachhd, bh. for ^J^ Sgmchhd, q.v. 



25 



SO 



86 



40 



46 



60 



ag'war, ^Tifs^ ag^warh, Tbh., subst. m., (PA.), 
advance wages to labourers {Grs. § 1186), esp. to 
ploughmen {Grs. § 844). Phr., ^Rl^^ WT or 'IW^T 
fK^ one who works on advances {Grs. § 842). Se^ 
synonyms under ^Jl«^T^ ag*rmr. 

[For derivation see the remarks under ^wl^.] 

^Cnri78[^ a^warh, Tbh., «wJ«^. w., fl corruption o/^iH*^ 
ag*war, q.v. 

^l|«PiI fl^^iran, Tbh., «tt6«^. w., (PA-)f '^A« ^^^^ «« 
^RHif a^'«»r, g.c?. ((?r«. § 1186.) ; *{8.Bh.) interest 
in kind paid on seed-grain {Grs. § 1475). 

[With change of^to^; see Gd. Gr., § 106.] 

^JJcprf^^rr^ igaw^nihdrd, {Bw. plur. •^M^Pnrrt 
Sgaw^nihdre), Tbh., subst. m., one who is able to 
bear or endure. A noun of agency, derived from the 
-^"^ijiiw &gaw, q.v. 

^4|»q|r<^l agUcariyd, ^irnrft^TT ag'wariyd, Tbh., 
«»J«^ m., {agric.) a ploughman who has a share in a 
plough and cattle, or who receives the use of a plough 
and cattle for one day in three instead of wages in 
cash or kind {Grs., ^§ 842, 846). See ^Iji^^k ^g'wdr. 
[Formed with the sec. der. suff. t or T^T {see Gd., 
Gr., § 252) from ^n^^TT^T (g.t?.), heru^ "^^fl^, one 
to whom that custom applies.] 

"^fiwqi ag'wd, ^Ni^f ig^wd, Tbh., subst. m, a synonym 
of'miT^T^ag'wdn, q.v. {Cr., p. 105). Exam.i 'Bi;.,vs. 
643, ^n^ % imr x[W^ wir^, She drew back the foot 
which she had put forward (lit. she threw the foot 
of the front towards the back) ; ib., vs. 774, ^^^ 
% ^f% "TTW ^^^, She turned back her face, which had 
been to the front; ^Fadm., ch. 138, l,?Rl Wi ^fTwT^l^T 
^irr, ^ITT ^ftt ^ «rf^ ^^rr. At that moment said 
the cunning parrot, let him be guide who has seen the 
road ; ib., do. 625, 1, ^ ^ ^^rr^ Ttir, ^rf%, ^ff '•T^ 
^H iiff , What guru will be my guide, friend, 
and bring me into the road P See ^^v agud, ^5^ 
aguwd* 

[Prop. Ig.f qf ^fniT, q-v., just as n^^l is Ig.f. 

of ^r^.] 



^^^•311 Sg'wd 



46 



^RTf^ITT ag'tcar 



m ?T*^T a^Vd, Tbh., Ig. /. of ^fn Sgj q.v. Phr., '^irnrr 
% VfTWK, slender of body, thin, lean. Examii ^Mag, 4, 

ftwl ^w, nt^, ■*prT %Trnnc, %ft^ n>t wt? ^f^, 

Whose slender-bodied (tri/fe) thou art called, fair 
one, with thy {long) hair trailing on the ground, 
on which thou treadest as upon a road, how 
canst thou approach his lap P «(., 83, irnl f^» 

Why, fair one, are you slender of body, \?hy 
is your body delicate (^^w^f being the Ig.f. of 
i^ipT, an inversion of W^) ? ^Mag,, 82, ^ff "^JTiTT 
ikTi*^, it rfrfr^, wnf w^ ^irr ^ ^tt, For the 
sake of that person, fair one, why did you leave 
the door of your house P See "^ifinrr agigA (1) and 

^TT^^TX ag^wdiy Mth. and poet for ^nnniTt a^ w?ai (1) 
and (2), j.t?. 

^•I««H* ag^wdl (1), Tbh., suhst, /., ^Ae «awa as 
^rg^rt: a^wdl anrf ^irnrnfV ag*w&M, q,v. 

[An abs. noun dented from ^RP^TT by means of 
the sec, der, mff. ^^t, see Gd. Chr. % 220. See^ however j 
also the remarks under ^y^li.] 

^nry^TfC ag'wdl (2), Tbh., subst /., a conflagration 
{of a city, forest, 8fc.). Exam.| CoU. {Bh.), {k X ^mx^ 
^ 1JT ^Tl" ^nrnrrt: ^Av, There is a conflagration 
in {the town of ) Mirzapur every year. 

[This is apparently an abstract noun, formed like 
onrrt going {from y/'TT go), from an assumed der. 
V VfTW sot fire to something, derived from ^TT or ^rfir 
fire. This root, hoicever, does not appear to be other- 
wise in use ; but cf. v/^fiNTW] 

"^•l^^lH ag'tcdnj ^irnrrf ag'mdn, {poet, ^n ^ m m 
ag'wdnd, Bw.pl. i|4|«4m«I ag'wdnan), Tbh., subst. m., 
properly an absti^act noun meaning 'being in front, 
advance, but now commonly used in a concrete sense, 
a forerunner; hence «a guide, conductor, leader; 
3 herald, harbinger; hence again tech. *the person who 
is deputed to negotiate a marriage, a match-maker, 
or ^the person who is deputed in advance to 
welcome and bring in a marriage procession {in 
this sense, generally, a deputation consisting of a 
number of people). ExaiTlii {for examples of Nos. 1 
and4t see ^iPTT and^^g;m) ; ^Rdm., Bd, ch, 104, 1, 
^ ^^^TT ^TOiifi ^IT%, The deputation brought in the 
marriage procession ; ib., do., 811, 2, ^fm i[m x^ ^r^^r^ 
jpTT, if ^% ^PiTTf, Having prepared elephants, 
chariots, footmen, and horses, the deputation went out 
to bring in {the marriage procession) ; ti., ch. 312, 7, 8, 



10 



15 



20 



26 



When the deputation saw the marriage procession, 
their heart was filled with joy and their bodies with 
excitement {lit. horripilation) ; {while) the marriage 
procession, seeing the deputation {coming) with {so 
much) preparation, joyfully beat their drums. See 
^4im^fi ag^wdni, ^RPTT ag*wd, and ^l^^ agud, 

{This word appears to be only used in the Bw. 
dialect.) 

[The word is an abstract noun formed from ^nr?^ 
(g.f.), by means of the sec. der. suff. ^tw {see Crd. Or. 
§ 224), just as ^c^jm height, /row ^^r or ^nn. Or it 
might be derived from the v/^g^T go forward {q.v.) 
by means of the prim. der. suff. %m {see Gd. Or. § 313). 
The former derivation appears the more probable, but 
either gives the same meaning. The P. has ^^T'T, S. 
^^TTTiT guide.] 



30 



3ft 



40 



46 



50 



^IT^TTT ag'wdnd, poet, {m.c.) for ^viir^rm ag*wdn, q.v. 

^^!^T^T^ ag'wdni (1), Tbh., adj. com. gen., the same 
as ^irnrrir ag*wdn in its concrete sense, q.v. Exsinii 

*c7*dn., chh. 29, f^TTW Kipc irrni, Ttf^ %5t ^v^rrif^ 
in^, On the approach of the marriage procession to the 
town, the deputation rejoicing went forth to bring it 
in ; Coll. {Bh.), ^iftfV %W "S Vl'^l^ HT^T % ^f 
^TO ^T, In that country there is a general custom of 
sending marriage deputations. 

[Derived from the abst. ^Htt^t? by means of the 
Gd. sec. der. suff". t {Gd. Gr. § 262), which forms 
concrete adj. 2 

^•l*m^ ag'wdni (2), Tbh., subst. f, » guidance, 
leadership ; * reception, welcome, the ,going forward 
sending forward a person or a deputation to meet 
a visitor with honour {especially in tJhe case of marriage 
procession, see ^ir^Tnr o^Vdn). Phr,, ^ <iwg| i fl ^rrw 
to advance to meet a bridegroom or visitor on the 
road, to escort to one's house. 

[This is an abstract noun, derived by means of the 
Prs. suff. t, from ^^V^i^i^r in its concrete sense {q.v.). 
The latter noun was itself originally an abstract, but 
having commonly lost its abstract sense and been turned 
into a concrete, it became necessary to form a new 
abstract noun from U by means of the Prs, suff. t, Vke 
«nxnft foolishness, yrow i|i<T«i fooL] 

^STTf^n^ ag^wdr, Tbh,, subst. m., »a portion of com 
set apart on the threshing-floor for village^servants, 
like the customary ^sharping corn ' in England {Ell. vol. 
II, p. 210) ; *the gleanings and refuse grain left 
on the threshing-floor {Grs. §901). ExanUt *CoH. 



{Bh,)y ^^iT^TTT * ^^nr 115 ^JT^ ^PIwt, The gleanings 
are not properly formed grains ('^^▼r is spoken of an 
ear tchich has no grain) ; tJ., ^iT^TT ^wr % "ftif ^o, % 
WiO^ W[^ ^ ^T^, Winnow ofE and throw away the 
refuse grain, so that the com may be clean. See 
synonyms of the first meaning under "^n^ Sgai. 
Synonyms of the second meaning are %Jl^^^ ag^ivdri, 
%in^ agdry ^RT^l^ ag*bar, 

{Derived from W^T = ^H front, by means of the 
■ %ec, der. suff. AXK {Od. Or. % 293), the latter probably 
representing Bkr. ^CT {Skr. wif^fl or perhaps ^inrTrT), 
lit adyanoe quantity of com ; see the remarks under 
^K^, It may be so called because much of the refuse 
consists of the light grain which is carried by the wind 
in the process of winnowing in advance of the heap of 
cleaned grain (Cr,jp, 88) - The ^sharping com* also is 
a quantity of com first set apart, before the bulk is 
removed. The word does not appear to occur in the other 
Ods. The Mr. equivalent is ^^ {Ed. By., p. 119), 
and the Ml. is -^pft {Ml. Gy.).'] 

^ J|'7cl I i^ Sg^wdr, Tbh., subst. m., ithe proprietor of a 
portion of a village, shareholder in a village; ^the 
same as •^tn'^nfkm Sg* warty a, q.v. {Ors. §§ 842). 
See •^ ^•^m Sg^wdrd, ^T^T^ Sg^wdri, ^n^ftfT 
UgauHyd. 

[Derived from ^riP portion, share, unth the Gd. 
sec. der. suf. VfX {Gd. Or. § 293), which, in this case, 
is a modification of the Skr. ^ practice or ^y{\ 
practising. Hence WIFT* ^^ practice or custom of 
going shares, and ^IF?^^* one who follows that 
custom, a shareholder. The word has both an abstract 
• a/nd a concrete sense. The Pr. would be ^iinri or 
^ip[^, which still appears in the M. ^4f»r^faT. In 
the B, form ¥ has become softened to ?f and changed 

to%.'\ 



47 



^T^TTTT Hg^ivdrd, Tbh., subst. m., the custom of sharing 
in or of lending a plough and cattle for one day in 
three. (Gr«. § 846.) 

[Derived by means of the suff. ^T from '♦i^inc 
tg^wdr, q.v.'] 

« 

^RT •TTvl ag^wdrl, Tbh., subst. /., the same as ^v^^XK 
ag'wdr, q.v. {Ors. § 901). 

[Properly a fern. str. form of ^nrniK, made with 
the pleon. suf. t {see Od. Or. § 195).] 

^^l*«HtI ag'wds, Tbh., subst. /., {Bh.) the space in 
front of a house {Grs. § 1237). For synonyms, see 
under ^^TfTiK agudr. 

[Skr. ^vm^i, Pr. ^URTT^. 8. has the adv. 
r, in front, before.] 



10 



— ^•I^^SITT agast^wdr 

^f^t^T ag^wSsl, ^it^to^ ag^wdsi, Tbh., subst. f, the 
wedge which holds the share and sole to the body of 
a plough {Cr., p. 2). 

[Skr. ^^ + ^if^vr, lit. sticking in the body, Pr. 
"^TTift^, B. ^ipif^. Not in the other Ods.] 



15 



20 



S6 



80 



86 



40 



agUcdh, Tbh., adj.. com. gen.,{Mth.fem. ^Tr^nxf^ 
ag*wdh%), first, beforehand. Exam., Coll. {Bh.), vrnrrr 
*rw ^^3, Do not interrupt beforehand; HTWTif^'ff t 
^fpf^T% (^i^rnrr^ + t) ^\wfl rf^ir. In every affair 
he is the very first to speak. 

[For derivation, see under ^Jl^^l^.] 

^•I*^I15 I ag^wdhl, Ihh.^subst. f, guidance, leadership. 

Exam., Coll. (Bh.), T^v^iT ^iTsW *Nrr'5ff ftr^ finft, % 

PWnrr ^ff^^Ct ^t^ 'fTf 7, Shall you get anything in 
being a guide {lit. doing guidance) to him, that you 
make so much haste P Coll. {Bh.), iir Iff ^^;n^^rnf^ vt 
^ «ft^ % W^ WT ^rNrr, It is very dangerous {lit. there 
is great fear of mind) to be a guide in a forest. 

[Perhaps an abs. noun derived from'^Jlr^^\yf guide, 
leader {q-v.), ioith the sec. der. suff. t ; the noun 
^ ^ \iA\% being Skr. "^m^lTt ; the element utt is now not 
uncommonly used as a general sec. der. suff., synonymous 
with irw or irnc, as in ^iwxj^tt, ^tt^s^T^, etc. It is 
possible, however, that ^Pl^pft may be merely another 
form of ^i^Tri; (1), with an interpolated euph. T, see 
Od. Or., § 69.] 

^'•••^lO ag'sdri, Tbh., a(i/. com. gen., {subst. f. 
^J|«urfl^ ag^sdrini, Mth. and poet. ^J|*<j i Mif 
ag^sdrini), going in front, forming the vanguard, also 
substantively the vanguard. Exam., Padm., ch. 281, 4, 

troop of elephants came forming the vanguard, then 
Hanuman spread out his tail {and caught them with it). 
[Skr. comp. ^mi-^rft, Pr. ^IPJTOT^.] 



46 



60 



agast (1), the same as ^Rf% agasti, q.v. Exaniii 
^Prov., ^ ^*IHI ^^ ^ Wl^t ^|W wrff ^xm % ^TTO, 
When the {star) Canopus appears and the kss {grass) 
flowers in the forest, then there is no more any hope 
of rain {Ors. § 1091) | •Pflrfm., ch. 486, 1, TrfWinr mn 

viKf Tfl ^^, vt^ vmr ^% ^f% ^tmr, Pandits 
are never mistaken; who {knows not) Agast that 
dried up the ocean P 

^flfQ agast (2), Any., subst. m., the month of August 
[B. August.] 



^«|fg*c|l V agasfwdr, Tbh., subst. m , the name of a 
small dan of Bftj'puts in Haweli Banaras {Elh, 
vol. I, p. 2). 




^mr^ agasti 



48 



ag^han 



^TPSf agasA^ ^^ agast (1), ifit^» agasty-y Ts., aubat. 

w.^ 'a certain star (Canopm) ; *name of a celebrated 

sage {or rikht). Se was brother of Bamhfh, and both 

were the offspring of Mifr and Barun^ whose seed fell 

from them into a waier^jar at the sight of Urbasi ; 

being born in the water-jar^ he bears the names of 

KaPstsuty EumbVsambhabj and Qhafodbhab ; from his 

parentage he was called Mattrdbarun and Aw^asly^ ; 

and as he was only a span long when born, he was also 

called Man. The above is the Vedic story. According 

to the PurdnSy however, he was son of the saint Pulasty^ ; 

he is regent of the star Canopus ; he swallowed the 

ocean when it had given him offence, and because he wished 

to help the gods in their wars with the Dwttyas, when the 

latter had hid themselves in its waters ; he is hence 

called PUdbdhi or Samudra-chuluk ; at another time 

he commanded the Bindhyd hills to prostrate themselves 

before him, through which they lost their primeval 

altitude; this miracle obtained for him the name 

BindhydkUt; he changed king NahvMh into a serpent 

and aftencards restored him to his proper form ; he 

made his own wife out of the most graceful parts of 

different animals, hence her na^ne of Ldp^mudrd, as she 

subjected each to the loss (Idp) of its distinctive beauty. 

In the 8kr. Rdmdyan, Agasty* dwelt in a hermitage 

on mount Kunjar, south of the Bindhyd hills, and 

was chief of the hermiis of the south; he kept the 

Rdkha£s of the south under control; one of them, 

named Bdtdpi, who had assumed the form of a ram, 

he ate up, and he destroyed by a flash of his eye 

Bdtdpi^s brother Hbal, who had attempted to avenge 

him; he received Rdni, Slid, and Lakhan in his 

hermitage with the greatest kindness, and became 

their friend, adviser, and .protector from the first; 

he gave Ram the bow of Bishnu, and when he 

was restored to his kingdom he accompanied him to 

Ajddhyd. He appears in TuPsi Dds^s Ramdyan most 

prominently in the Aranya kdnd. ^A certain tree 

(JEschyn(miena grandiflora) = ^wrnft ag^ti, q.v. Comp., 

^RTVffir or ^nm^fxfki, the sage Agasti. Exam.i 

'Rdm,, Ki., ch., 16, 3, ^fic^ ^Rrf% ^TW mm ^t^T, The 

rising of Canopus has dried up the water on the roads. 

*Rdm., Ar., ch. 7, 1, ^ffif 'WHfiff 'IT ft^ ^vriT, Tiir 

\pfVwir XH iHi^rrr, The sage Agasti had a learned 

disciple, by name Sutlchhan, devoted to Q-od ; ib., ch. 9, 

9, ^«ni ^mfiir srw ^rfir m^, ^fx Ufo\[^% wWf ww 

WTO, Hearing it Agasti quickly rose and ran, and 
beholding Hari his eyes were dimmed with tears. 
^Mth. Rdm., Bd. 11, 8, ft^ ^Rlfil* Uw9 ^n» ^T, 
ulir 111: iffv ^ VT^, If a man read it near an agasti 
tree, great will be the benefits thereof. 

[iSJfcr. "Wirf^:, ^irw, «« <ibeve possibly in all 
Ods.'] 



10 



16 



20 



2S 



^BRT^" agasty\ the same as ^Rtfiir agasA, q.v. ExaiTltf 
^Padm., ch. 656, 5, 6, ^?f ^RT^, ^f% ^w irWT, ^ w 

^eV, ( When) Agasty' rises, the elephants are pleased, 
the waters abate, and the king retams home ; the 
rains cease at the sight of Agasty', and the saddles 
are placed on the backs of the horses {see also ib., 
ch. 372, 3), *Padm., ch. 348, 7, wir ^ ^^K ftrxw ^ 
^WT, www ^ww ^^f^ TW WK^rr, Woe to him who 
is suffering the pains of bereavement, just as when 
the waters of the ocean were dried up by Agasty'. 

^SrH^ agah, Tbh., adj. com. gen., what cannot be 
comprehended, incomprehensible, mysterious. Exaniii 
Git., Bd., 87, 2, ^ wifw-W^W ^f^ T^-T^W, 

wt fixT-^fif ^nnr {fem.), fwtr w «nfw inft ^, Says 

Gtedhi's son {i.e. Bishwdmifr) to Eaghu's delighted 
descendant {i.e. Rdm), the nature of that king {i.e. 
Janak) is incomprehensible, nor can it be expressed 
in words. See wrwTW agdh, wnnw agddh. 

[^The word is probably a shortened form of wnnw 
{q.v.), of which it is a synonyn, for there w a ^ww = 
^ JHT = \/ TTW. But it might also be derived from Skr. 
w + nw:, adj., without comprehension, Pr. ^nnft.l 



so 



86 



40 



60 



ag^han, Tbh., subst. m., the name of the third 
month of the Hindu system of the Fasll or agric. year, 
which commences with the month isin. It corre- 
sponds to port of our November and December, when 
the fill moon is near the constellation Mir^gasird {8kr. 
Mrigashii*as) or * the head qf the antelope * {in Orion) ^ 
whence the month is aUo called Mdrg^sir. According 
to another Hindu system it is the first month of the 
year, whence comes its name ag^han {see below). It is the 
month of the cold^u^ather rice-crop, which is hence called 
ag'hanl {see Grs. §§ 1082, 1092 ; Bih., introd.). In 
this month, on account of its following the festival of the 
DeVuthdn {11th (flight half of Kdtik), generally takes 
place the first journey {durdgaman, gawan, or gmnd) 
of the Hindis bride to her husband*s house from her 
father^ s house. In this month also the preparation and 
putting (m of the new cold-weather clothes take place ^ 
Both customs are alluded to in the examples below. 
Comp., ^UTiPT-'HW the month of Ag'han, Exam., 
Rdm., Bd., ch. 318, 13, f^-ftjl ^TWW-WTW ^WTW^ 
In the cold season, in the pleasant month of Ag'han ; 
Padm., ch. 364, 1, ^WWftf^K ftj HV ^ ^hw, ^nwif^w 
wiwT ^1^ "M^j No trace of any cold season comes there, 
where the beloved is at home in {the months of) Ag'han 
and Piis ; Bih., v, 6, ^iwfw w, wfii, my^ fRJ %, In 
Ag'han, friend, I feel cold ; . ib., ii, 2, WTlfaw WHTW 
^iw^fw wTW, ^^ ^jf^^'W ftrf% annr % wnr, On Katik 
passing away Ag'han begins, {and) all female friends 



<l^-»rj^ .^•••'^ ■" 



»»»-, 



V- * 







agaKnl 



jointly are esoorfcmg brides {to their hmbanda^ hotises) ; 
£. Gr., II {£h.), V, 7, ^w^w ^ftrw w%^ WR full, 
'nrr ^ ▼•» m^K wrt, In Ag'han without {my 
husband) Syfim great are my troubles ; {hetwe) from 
my parents' {house) I will go to my father-in-law's 
(house) ; JBih., iv, 9, ^^w i{^ w^ f$VTKy ^^fT 
fil^li ^twT % nxKy In Ag'han virgins adorn them- 
selves, embroidering their garments with golden 
threads ; S. Or., II (J9A.), iv, 6, ^jnnr »Tf^ *rim 
^, ^f^<f ^TPrrr % ^t, In Ag'han I put on a cloth 
of Agra and stand in my oourtyard. 

[5*r. ^^T?W^: lit, first {agra) of the year 
{hdyana) ; Pr. *^fv^v^tt or *^iur^ ; the syllable 
^rm dy is omitted, analogous to the omission of the 
syllable ^ va in B. \v9 temple, Pr. \^ {8apt., vs. 
109),/orPr.\rmw{8apt.,vs.6i), 8kr. ^Wfw, etc. 
In all 04^. ^nr^f.] 



49 




agaKnx, Tbh., adj. com. gen., appertaining to 
the month of Ag'han ; hence used substantively as the 
name of various agrie. * operations and * products; 
thus Hhe cold-weather harvest (^iftw), esp. the 
main rice-crop of the year. Examii Coll. {Bh.), 
ifhfi^ wy finrs^ ^inrnft m, How many big'has of 
winter crops have you {i.e. how much land have you 
under winter crops) ? 

[iS*r. ^TUTRfW*. See under ^IT^H.] 

^•|«^«1^T ag'hanud, Tbh., the same as ^nt^^ft agah^nl, 
g.v. ; thus 'the cold-weather harvest of rice {Gh's. 
§§ 965, 971; «the winter rice (^<|>^4^| ypr), some 
kinds of which are sown in the month of Phdgun 
(Fsbruary^March) or Chmt {March^ April), while others 
are sown in the month of Jefh (May^June) and 
transplanted in Sdwan {July-- August), all being cut in 
the month of Ag^han {November-Deeember), {see Grs. 
§§ 965, 971) ; also a kind of pulse {phaseolus Roxburghii 
orphaseolus radiatus), which bears in* Ag'han {Ors. 
§ 996). 

[Properly ^ir;^irn, of which ^ir^TV^ ^ ^ h^' 
form; Ig.f. of ^K^%^ ; it represents 8kr. ^IMIT^I^.] 



agahur, ^wi^ agahur, Tbh., adj. com. gen., 
{old Bw.), ^lit moving forwcoxl ; hence ^ met. eager. 

Exam.i *Bdm., A., ch. 26, 1, ir«r-i^ ^nrif ^^ w 

■qrv. Through fear {of Kaikeyl king DasWatVs) 
feet were not able to move forward. » Qit., A. 69, 2, 

•nr vrm?f , inr ^^rfiir ftf^ir v;^, nfiiir i»^ii ^tt 'fir, 

(Bharat's) mind being eager, his thrilling body 
became languid, and his lotus-eyes filled with tears. 
[Probably from 8kr. ^^-^RW I from ^% go, cf. 
the prdkritic Skr. y/^'W^or \/X^) going forward, Pr^ 
*^«iimwt, B. ^vn^ ; cf the words mnnrl' haste, ff 



10 



15 



so 



20 



so 



86 



40 



60 



— . ^SnnTT agdfd 

wrangling, ^ thrust, push ©K rout, dispersion. A 
v.l. of Rdm., A., ch. 26, 1, gives the synonym ^JPinr, 
see ^iRW^.] 

^TT agd, Tbh., adv., before ; only occurring in the comp. 
^jrr-"'ftwT or ^nrr-TlT before and behind, one behind 
another. ExsUTlii Sal. 14, ^wt-^?Wt ^iftfiWT, ^W *» 
^n$>94 Before and behind went the Banaudhiyfis, in 
their midst went Salh^s ; ib. 17, ^W7-^WT fkKI '^W. 
They went away one behind the other. See mvfT dgd. 
[Derivation, see under ^trarr.] 



^RTT^ agdii, {Bw.) VTT^ agd^, Tbh., (I) adj. com. 
gen,, being before, being in front {also ^nrrft agdrl 
and ^^rVT agild, q.v.). 

(II) subst. m., 'a forerunner, a precursor {aho 
^iI»^Tir ag^wdn, and ^^V agud, q.v.) ; • {military) an 
advance, attack, charge ; ^an advance of money (esp. 
takdwH advances to cultivators for implements, digging 
wells, etc.), pay given in advance {for synonyms, see 
under ^(^r^x agWcMr). *Padm., ch. 668, 1, irr ^l»T«r 
«r irr ^^ WTM, wt% ^ f^^ ^ ^irm, A fight there 
was such as there was never before, with the sword 
on both sides the charge was made. 

[The word is properly W. Qd., whence it is borrowed 
in B. The M., P., E.^ have ^VTTBr, O. ^^mr.] 

^SRTI^T agdUr, Tbh., subst. m., {8. Mth.) the same as 
'Wil'^ ag^war, q.v., {Ors. § 1186). See synonyms 
under ^il^ifK agWdlur. 

^Srm^ agdU, the Bw.form of VTHf agdii, q.v. 



^^\\kiK ^gdkar, wmx gdkar, ^tWK gaykar, Tbh., subst. 
m., bread made of chanS {or gram), rahar and mug 
{two kinds of pulses), {Cr.,p. 72). 

[Perhaps derived from ^VT (or ^ip) share, 
portion, by means of the Qd. sec. der. euff. nx made 
of {see Qd. Qr. % 274) ; Ut. {bread) made of portions. 
In that case wr^x and ^^fK must be looked upon as 
curtailments cf "itnmx-] 



agdr {Mg.)f 'the head-rope for horses (also 
agdr (1), q.v., Ors. §113); ^the same as ^nrf ^5r, 
q.v., {Ors. § 1012) ; Hhe same as ^^m^^IK ag'wdr, 
q.v. {Ors. §§ 901, 914). Exam.i 'Coll. {Bh.), litfx 
%W^V ^rWTf VTT Koy Tie the horse's head and 
heel-ropes. ^Coll. {Bh.), ^i^^'Alr ^TTf %^a ^ir 
mfl %w, I will not take the refuse grain (lit. the 
front grain) of the winnowing heap, 

^«|l^^ agdrd, Tbh., subst. m., a certain plant {Jchy^ 
ranthes aspera), said to cure the bite qf venomous reptiles. 



"IRTT^ 



agdri 



50 



^■*IK agar 



[Skr. ^nrnrrnw: ; from the latter pari vJnrs the 
B. ^iTTfT might be derived by means qf the plean. 
suff. ifi {Od. Or. § 209), through Pr. nm^^ .] 

^•UBI agdri = mtrvCt agdrl, q.v. {Grs. § 113). Exam., 

^Alh., I. 91, %Yi wft, ^ frwrf^, T^?:fiwf tw 

^friW, He unloosens the front-heel ropes, he unloosens 
the hind-heel ropes, he let loose the neok-ropes. 

^•H^ ag&dhy {old dir. m. ^mrg agddhiy old obi, ^nrr^ 
agddhahi; poet. ^m^TiTT agddhdj '^prrf; agddhil)^ Te^ 
ach'. com. gen.^ Hit. bottomless, unfathomable, very 
Ae&^\ heme met. ^ «tn^/fe<j^Ma%, inconceivable, myste- 
rious, very great; and ^morallf/y either most excellent 
or most heinous. ExaiTlat *-K<Sm., Bd.y ch. 171, 8, 
irafcr ^RR^ «i^ 1^ ^» On the surface of the 
unfathomable ocean floats the foam; ib.j A.y ch. 
298, 2, ^msm ^T5 ^f^-ift wTi ^r^if ^ 'arf yr 
^mni, (Bharat) himself -with his yoimger brother 
{Satrugh^n)^ and accompanied by the sage Atri and 
(the other) saints, went where there was the bottom- 
less well ; Git.y Ut., 24, 2, i^ivw ^TTfir Knnft, ^ «r» 
H|j i m(^ ifVir, Every one longs for Efim, just as the fish 
long for very deep water ; Rdm.y Ki.y ch. 17, 1 , ^^i^ 
• iphc ^fnpn ftrfir, Tft-^W 'T tt^ wtijt. Just as the 
fish are happy where the water is very deep, so the 
believers in Hari have not one single trouble. ^Rdm.^ 
Ut., ch. 90, 1, ir^ ^jimf ^w ^tfe ^T?rwr, The Lord is as 
unconceivable as {tfie depth of) seven times ten mil- 
lion hells ; Qity Ln.j 1, 6, T[irf^ WW Trftr inxft 'ifV 
•ft WW ^f^fw WRTT^, With one arrow {Rdm) slew Bali, 
whose strength was as great as {the depth of) the 
ocean ; Rdm.y Bd.j ch. 27, 1, ^jpt 19^ ^ft^ wrwi-ijwT 
WiVr, wnnw, vnlx* ^^t^* Both forms of Brahm, 
the absolute and the conditioned, are indescribable, 
inconceivable, eternal, and incomparable; ib.j Ln.^ 
ch. Ill, 3, w« wiN, 51^ % W^ m^ ^rfir ^mw (/m.), 
WTwff ^ Jin^, Hear, king of birds {Oarur)^ this 
word of the Lord is very mysterious, wise sages {only 
can) comprehend it ; »., A., ch. 197, 7, imr iTOi, g^r 
WW fwtw wrq;, TPff-WXiT w^^nr wwr^, Son Bharat, you 
are altogether upright, your love of Barn's feet is 
very great. »flbn., «?«. 22, gww^ ^ww-K^WTl'nt 
WW ^ ftfipr WPTT^, Tul'si («ayfi) thus are the most 
excellent qualities of a holy preceptor and saint 
related in the Beds ; K. Bdm., Ut, 138, tfwftwwwTTW 
wiTTw, f5wnr wg mnw wwt r. By the sight {of the 
bathing-places of pilgrimage) the most heinous sins 
are wiped away, and {there) companies of saints 

bathe most comfortably. See wmrr agah^ WilW 
agah. 

[flf*r. w + inwt, lit. without bottom ; M. and G. 
r, and so probably in all Ods, The tadbh. Pr, 



form wrr* {Ndm.^ vs. 133, Eem. Dy.^ vs. 54) is reprs" 
sented by Wirri'9 ^.f'.] 



10 



16 



20 



26 



SO 



85 



40 



46 



60 



^Tnn agddhdy poet, for WTPl agddh^ q.v. 

^TTP^ agddhiy old dir. f. of Wfimr agddh, q.v. {Oit., 
Ln. 1, 5.) 

^irnr^ agddhl^, poet, for ^tn^agddhu; see yfitn agddh. 

'^^HV agdr{l)y Tbh., (I) subst. w., »the front or 
foremost place; •anything which occupies that 
place, thus a leader, a headman ( = WJK^l»i , ag^wdn^ 
q.v.) ; {Mg.) advances of pay to labourers {Ors. 
§ 1186) ; the head-rope for horses ( = WTI^ agdr^ q,v.y 
Chrs. § 113) ; a thin piece of wood spliced to the end 
of the beam of a (wfiW or) well-lever {Ors. §931, also 
Wirrft agdH, q.v.) Exam.i ^CoU- {Bh.)y wpnT % W^ 
wlTTWT wnft, The leading bullock {Ut. buUock of 
the front place) should be a stronger one; CoU. {Bh.)y 
w1^ W7 wnnT W WW WTT ^y, Put grass in front of 
the horse ; « Coll. {Bh)y jtTw wk % wpnc wt ^ www, 
He is the headman of the whole village. 

(11) adv.j ^before, previously, formerly ; «prema- 
turely. Exam.| Coll. {Bh.)y wmr ( = WWK + t) ^ 
WW^ ^^> * t ■'Tff wtt, I told you long ago that this 
would haif)en ; CoU. {Bh.), ww www wiWK ^l?p, I 
came long before. 

\I)erivation see under W'l'^. It might also 
be derived from Skr. WW by the combined addition of 
the pleon. suffixes W + W ( i.e. w + w ) ; thus Pr. 
wnwww, Od. WPTT^. But the existence of parallel formsy 
such as W^, wnrt, WWtr, Wi^ ($'*<^-)> f^hes the 
Jirst-mentioned derivation more probable. ] 

^RITT agdr (2), wrmn dgdry {poet, w^mj agdrd)y 
Tbh., subst. m.y lit. any house, whether used for 
purposes of residence or storage; hence ' a dwelling-house, 
home, residence, palace ; * warehouse, store, reservoir ; 
henoCy derivatively y •those who live together in a house, 
the people of a house, household, family, relatives 
{according to the Hind^ joint family system) ; ^fig, {in 
construction with another noun) full of. ExatHai 'iT. 

Rdm.y §u.y 14, WT* WT7 wt«-ift» w^iw wmK wH wprft 

Wtft ^^Pc wHt iJV^ wrfw Wrft ^y Quickly running 
from lane to lane he {Hanumdn) set a great fire to the 
market-places, streets, lean-to sheds against the city 
walls, balconied houses, and gateways ; ib.y Su.y 12, 

i?rfti ^ffw WTW ^ mw ww-wTw fiiw, gww^, fiiwh- 

(= illW-w ) w wwt wrfwT wrttc Wt, Tul'sl {says :) 
wringing violently their hands and beating their heads 
the wives of Das'mfith {i.e. Raban) {lamenty that) not 
so much as a sesame seed has been {saved) out of the 




^VJK Sgdr 



51 



- ^ 



ag&rl 



palaoe ; Padrn., eh. 628, 7, ift iftff ?t ^^ ITC ^aiTTT, 
^ W "^, "RT ^TOTU, What (o^^) residence {can 
anyone find) sofiplendid as mine, whether he penetrate 
up into heaven or descend into the nether world P Sai. 
iii, 24 (a riddh)^ ^WT-^fiR ^T^W WT^ TC^> ^^ 

^»n^, jir^, iw ^T xm ifT-irnw, ^ ^wtt, Tul*sl 

Dfis (My«, let hiniy i.e, Bdm^ whose name consists) of the 
second letter of (the name of) the yehide {i.e, n in 

Airdwat) of the king of the immortals (i.e. IncPr)^ 
and of the last {letter) of {a synonym of) house {i,e. 
i7 in ^rnr,), (ami^ trAo is) the powerful saviour of the 
beings {engrossed ) with {worldly) interests, be thy 
trust. ^Hb, viii, 29, )f|«p!| ^W-V ^i^ ^iTHC, 
They saw the storehouse of the arms of Kans; 
Qit,, JBa.y 64, 3, ^W-«^ % ^mX VWT % ^KT^T, 

^T^n «r v^ TTKf ^ ''l^ft irr% ^, They are 
eagerly engaged, though unsuccessfully, in swim- 
ming across the ocean of bliss, the reservoir of 
nectar-like goodness (referring to people^ s intense 
devotion to Ram). •K. Bdm.^ Ut., 30, %n %(K vriT 
^^T "^ftTTT, Sons, wives, relatives, friends, and 
followers ; DdA., 475, Trft ^iTT-^i^wr ^f^^ %^« ^V 

^TOK ^K^ "^ftr^ TIF-T^ filTW fw^T^ fWfn:, Wives, 
society {lit, eating in town)^ followers, servants, 
friends, family, pleasures and amusements, let {the 
sage) abandon as resulting only in displeasure and 
disappointment. * C^it,y Bd.^ 71, 2, ^:^ % ^ifiJTT, v^ 

% f ini:, tjfinT, ^ * ^nnr nw t'nrrt %, The 

beautiful {lit. abodes of beauty) boys, sons of the 
king, fine princes, the darUngs of their teacher, 
together do. {household) service; K. Rdm.y I7i^., 68, 
"^nnf ^nmc ^m^»K «it ^PIK, The worst of sinners 
and full of shortcomings ; see also ib. 142. 

[iSAr. "^lim: and {prdkrifising) ^irrr, Pd. ^nnr* 
or ^imc, Pr. ^rnriT {Ndy.j vs. 134, vJ.) or ^VUK 
{Ndm., vs. 49, Ndy. §§ 111, 134, Aup. § 57, Kalp. 
§§ 1, 89, 116). The tadbh. ^niK w the usual form ; 
the tats. ^nrPC occurs in the JRdm. only."] 






10 



16 



10 



26 



90 



86 



^B'TTT igdr, (poet. '♦nTT igdrd or ^i^[i% igdrU^ old 
obi. ^*rncri igdrahi in Padm., ch. 379, 3), Tbh., 
subst. w., *live coal, hot embers, (never in the sense 
of dead coal); * sparks, bits of fire; ^fiames, fire, 
firebrand; ^meteor; *jf?^., subst^ anger, wrath, or 
annoyance, nuisance, adj. {only used predicatively)^ 
angry, wrathful, or troublesome, annoying. Comp., 
^Ctt^-^tK hot embers and hot ashes, used in abuse 
by women with ^TW or ^w (Asi. Gy.). Exam.| ^Rdm. 
Bu.j so. 12,2, m^ ^H^m ■*TTt^K, As if the asok-tree 
had dropped a live coal ; Padm., do. 477, 1, ht^ n\ 
^Pr^ ft^, ^ iitf^ f^trcfe *rTT, What shall I 
say to that beloved, who has placed hot embers 
on my head; Coll. (J3A0, JV^ ^ '^Trc-wK 



40 



46 



60 



^, May hot embers and ashes fall on Tul'si, 
^Rdm., 8u.,ch. 12,8, %ftr^ im» jrw "^tnm, ^xfk 
^ ^T^ir izWt 'fTTT, I see the heaven bright with 
sparks, {but) not a single star drops to the earth. 
^Padm., ch. 269, 4, vmv ^^finr % ^wff ^TtT, ^ ^ 
ini^ ^If ^JirCT, iJliike the masses (/i^. mountain) 
of flames that rise (in the mundane conflagration) y so 
fires are burning in all his limbs; tJ., ch. 896, 5, 

**?7Tr, The sighs of bereavement are emitted with 
such ardour as that he becomes like an intensely 
burning mass {lit. moimtain) of fire. Rdm.y 
Ln., ch. 61, 1, iw ^ff ^TiJ ftw *nTT, Moimting 
up into the sky, he rained down a shower of 
firebrands. ^Padm.^ ch. 380, 1, *^ iWT wr, 'TwfT 
^S^TXT, ^^rpf ^FwT, ^fr ^?ikt, In ( the month of ) 
Jeth the world bums (i.^., it is hot) ^ hot winds 
blow, storms arise, and meteors fall. *-4/A., /. 263^ 
«nw ii\«iT % 1^ ^^ir %, J(KW1 1 Wt ^nJK, The heart 
{lit. liver) of the tiger-like Eudal was set on fire and 
his wrath kindled exceedingly (lit. from the soles 
of his feet) ; t'A., /. 235, TnnfV iWV ^prm x^Kfnf Xtmx, 
IT % w^r '^•tK, When Raja Indr'man heard these . 
words, he fired up and became angry; Padm.^ 
eh. 832, 5, ^cr ^<Br if^w ^1t "^T^i The hero uprises 
burning with anger ; Ukh.j Act iv, fk Mlfky^ ww ^fw 

ywK fir^TXT ; TWlwfK ^f% iww '"HsuKy What is the 
good of deliberately considering the matter ; the 
princess has proved a nuisance to her family. See 
'^jftK SgOr and hftK ^gOr; see also ^fJrPr agini and 
its synonyms. 

[Skr. ^^ifTO, Pd. ^Tvr^i Pr. xiirr^ or tirrrt 

(Eem. i, 47, Ndm.y vs. 158); M. ^iHT, 8. ^<ir^ 
(8. By. -VFX) ; Oip. angdr^ Hungarian Oip. dngara^ 
Russian Oip. vangdr^ Italian Oip. iVngar, English 
Oip. wongnry Spanish Oip. hangar, langar (Mik. vii, 
p. 8).] 



'^•n VT agdrdy poet, for ^nnT agdr (2), q.v, 

^nnrr Sgdrd, poet, for -^UK Sgdr, q.v. 

^nrnu agdn, ^frtftagdri, Tbh., (I) subst. f.y » {locally} 
the front or fore part ; hence 'the rope by which a 
horse's head or his fore-hoofs are fastened {Ors. § 113, 
also ^PTK agdr^ q.v.) ; ^a thin piece of wood spliced 
to the end of the beam of a well-lever (Ors. § 931^ a&o 
^RTT agdry q.v.) ; *the top of sugar-cane, out up for 
seed {Ors. § 1008, see synonyms under "^iptm agin, q.v.) ; 
also (temporally) ^ first in point of tune, early time, the 
future; hence ^ money paid in advance (especially to 
field labourers^ in which sense '%>ft^ agdiuri is more 
usual, also wn^4^ ag'fSur, Wi^^ ag^waf, and n[ni^ 




^TPft 



Sgdri 



62 



^nil*K Sgik&i 



agdiif Sfc.j q,v.). Comp., ^irnft-I^TWrft, the ropes 
by whioh a horse's hoofs are tied before and 
behind. Phr., ^iRrnft-fVn^ VTTinr, to tether a 
horse. Exam.| Prov., {Hd. Dy.), i^ l?t ^m^V, 
^tnft ift ftifT^, lit* the army's is the front plaoe, 
the storm's the baok plao^t.^. being between two 
fires). ^Prcw,, {Hd. Dy.)^ ^fUfT^ ^TT^j isvrt: 
l?t IVwttV lit. the greengrocer's is the early time, 
the butcher's the later (i.^., buy first of the green 
grocer y afterwards of the butcher). 

(II) adv.j before, in front, onT?ard, forward. 

Exam.i Coll. (Mth.), ^mrft ^^n^ ^r^, go on in 

front ; ^iTi^ iHTT attack in front ( used of a 
pitched battle) ; Cotl ( Bh. ), ^irrft^ ( = ^PTT^ + 3^) 
^ir i|V% vff, I told you long ago. See ^P> dge. 

[Probably 8kr. %^iff^ or (with pleon. w) ^R- 
^O w t r* See the remarks under ^^iTK flwrf ^n'*^. JET., 
JBg.f P. ^TT^, O. ^m\^i if. ^^TxV {in the seme of 
sprout). ITie adv. is probably a contractian of ^jikI V 
or ^iK^f, an old he. of^wCKi 9-^-^ 

^%lnCt iff^ (1)> Tbh., subst. /., ' {8. Bh.) pieces 
of sugar-cane, cut up ready for the mill {Ors. 
§ 288, Az. Settl. Rep.,, p. 125, also if^ pirl, q.v.) ; 
^e green tops of sugar-cane when chopped up and 
used as cattle-fodder {A%. Settl. Rep.^ p. 101). For 
synonyms of the word in its second sense^ see ^nJVir agin^ 
IThis is merely a bye form of ^firn^, q.v., the 
anundsik being due to the simplification of the original 
Pr. dottle consonant of ^m. The Pr. has ^Jlifig^ , see 
Hem. Dy , vs. 28, where it is explained by 8kr. T^W^i^. 
The 8kr. has ^Uprfrvr, which, however, is a mere 
resuscitation from the vernacular Mtm^, and has no 
connection with the word %w^K: live coal {see next 
word and the remarks under ^nf^).] 

^ilTvt HiSfttri (2), Tbh., subst. f, 'the same as *nT 
Sgdr, q.v.; hence *{8. Bh.) a kind of firework {Ors. 
§ 585/1) ; also ^{amongst ascetics) a ball of dough 
baked in ashes {Az. 6y., No. III). 

[S*r. ^iFl^V,/m. ^uprftwr, a str. f. o/^rTPTO ; 
Pr. ^infCiT, B. ^*rT^, Bg. ^f inft ; M. has the m. 
•WJiTTO = Pr. ^imyft ; P. has -^finf ttt and < f ii< i nO 
a coal of fire ; 6. "^tfrt^ a fryinir-nan.l 



. > 



^RTP^ Sgamt, pc 

•^TTT Sgdr, q.v. 



^Wrni agdw, Tbh., subst. m., the leaves at the top, and 
the upper part of the sugar-cane plant ((7r., p. 76). 
See synonyms under ^nlVir agin. 

[Probably from ^xm front, top, with thepkon. 
suff. ^m {see Od. Or. § 349), which is also used to 



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form pleon. roots. In the W. Qds. the word is still used 
in its proper meaning front, before ; JET., JIf., P. ^^rnt 
before, a forerunner, an advance ; O. ^fnT9 first.] 

^tllt) agds, {Coll.), the same as ^IWTO akds, q.v. 

^mX^rt agdsi, Tbh,9 subst. f, * a turban; *aterraee in 
front of an upper room ; ^ {in the slang of thags or 
robbers) the cry of a kite, which, if heard between 
the first watch qfthe night and daybreak, is unlucky, but 
in the day it is immaterial { Wil.). 8ee ^r«l^ akd^. 

[Skr. ^lll i ftil T, lit. anything raised in the open 
air, such as a turban, terrace, etc. naturally is, Pr. 
*^prrft^T ; B. and O. "m^T^, M. ^m^ or ^ilTlft. 
€f. Ml. ^Tti^, that arrangement of the gear, of a 
Persian wheel by which water is raised to a 
considerable height above the mouth of the well 
{Ml. Gy.) ; 8. '^^T% a flagstafE raised by Musahnans 
during the Muharram ; ^T^ one who raises a flag- 
staff {8.Dy.,p. 54).] • 

^^SRIT^ agdh, {old dir. m. ^CWjmagdhu.poet. ^TTJ agdhu)^ 
Tbh., a4j* com. gen., the same as ^nmt agddh, q.v. 
Exam., 'Hindi song, wrft ^^ ^m %, ^^a Tt^ 

^ir ; lift iT^ ^'rnr iww, inrf ^^nfr, ^i^, A stick 

is such a thing as you should always "keep with 
you ; (if) in river or stream the water is very deep, 
you may there save yourself (by it). *Padm^, ch, 

242, 6, m^ gw WT^ ^ w ^rj, €V^w ^ ?rf 

^^ ^TT^i fi^o^ ft burning {desire) as you have 
made in your body is inconceivable to all the 
gurus; ib., ch. 253, 3, wwfj ^tiw ^ ^rnrr TT^, infr 

^^m fr ^^ ^^TT^j Till Rahu (who is supposed to 
attack the sun in an eclipse) should overcome the sun, 
so long the lotus {representing princess Padmdwati) 
will be a mystery to the mind. ^Padm., ch. 262. 6 
^W IT 1^ t^ ^^ IKtt, ^f% ^ ^nr% {fern.) ftuT jpr 
Tj[^, Now they have taken {your lover) SLwe^y to 
impale him {'^9^ = m^), hence you are full of 
grievous distress ; ib., do. 8l, 1, ^ ifr V^T l^i; f%^ 
xmf% ^fir ^iTTT, As soon as he {the king) hears it 
{i.e., the description of Padmdwati), an intense love 
will distract the mind {lit. beat the head) of the 
king. 8ee ^niT>f agddh, ^(r% agah. 

i8kr. ^HiiTV, Pr. wrvft {Ndm., vs. 133, JKw. 
Dy., vs. 54). This tadbh. form has only been met with 
by us in Padm.^ 



'^•UT agdha, poet, for 
agdh, q.v. 



agdh%, the old dir. f. of 



^t^^nr Sgikdr,{poet 
Hb. vi, 43, % iKfim} 



^tOtt 



agm 



53 



^fnfsT 



Ofitnt 



vv ^, When he {Kans) agreed, Akrur laughed and 
became full of joy at the prospeot of gazing (upon 
Knah^n). 

^ThI^I agin^ ^Rnr agany Tbh., mbst /., the seme as 
^ftrPr aginiy q.v. Comp., ^ifiTT-'^l^TT w., a mountain 
or mass of fire, such as mil be seen in the general 
conflagration at the pralay or end qf the world 
{Padm.yCh, 559, 6); ^ftir-WTt w., a fiery arrow, 
a rocket {Padm.y ch. 108, 5, 112, 5) ; ^ifim-wm /., 
{lit. fiery rheumatism), the farcy in cattle and horses 
( Gfra, § 1170 ) ; also a disecuse of human beings 
accompanied by boils. ExaiTlii '-D^A., 426, iprfir 
^ftnr C5 1'Sr fur, « w wf«rv inr urn. The fire catches 
the houses of the small and lowly, it bums the riches 
and palaces of the rich ; Bais.^ 48, (Pror.), Hit, IT'IT, 
^rfim , «W. J^. 1^*. WmV9, t ^> "l^ ^TT^, WTT, 

^!t, ^\^^K, Prostitute, monkey,, fire, water, buflEoon 
army, Uquor-merchant, {as well as) parrot, needle, and 
goldsmitii, — these ten are never one's friend; 

Ukh., Act, iv v^wK Ttw ^^ ^^ "^f ^ifirw iiinr 

*ft %fm^ V[Kl^9 I have a mind to drink poison, or 
give up life by entering into fire ; Padm.^ ch, 559, 

6, WW iM^ tTnw wt, wfirw-TTPc WW wf w{% 

The army ran quickly forward, very wrathful, 
just as a burning mass of fire comes on. *Padm.y 

ch. 374, 6, ^m wfiiT ftKf^sr fk^ wncT, ^m^ %m^ 

m^ ^ VTTT, The hearts of separated {lovers) 
bum like lightning {lit. fire of the thunderbolt), and 
burning intensely are consumed to ashes ; see also ib.^ 
ch. 564, 1. ^Padm., ch. 211, 2, ftr^ ^iiw IWTTH 
^^:«VT, VT ^^^ ^ ^*>t9 V^f ^^ ^^^^ bums with the 
invisible fire {i.e.^jain) of separation as {if struck by) 
lightning, and does not know how to put it out. 
Bih., ii, 6, ftn wrfiPT^ *§ ^T^lft ( = WTW + ^) 1 
em: The pain {lit. fire) of separation can no longer be 
even endured by me. ' 8an., vs. 53, w^TT^ ^ wftr»r 
{fern.) y 'JW ^^W ^'^T, The whole world is moved 
by the ardour {Ut. bumed with the fire) of self- 



conceit ; i6., vs. 54, ^ wfinr 

are not troubled with the ardour of {seeking) self. 

See^n^ ^' 

[Derivation see under ^mvfk and wfirpT.] 

^rfipj-^rro agiWbay^ Tbh., subst. /., see under 'ilim 
agin{Qrs. §1170). 

{8kr. "^iftl-Tl v- or wftr-wrirt trAfcA is masc. ; but 
the word win and *fe compounds are always fern, in 5.] 



HlDlt^ o^wS ^Prft" ogrant, ^rfim o^w, vm a^raw, Tbh., 
»a6«^. /., *flre, flame ; espec. .*a sacred flame, of which 
there are three kindsy the perpetual household fire 
{caUed inTWI»), the sacrificial or eastern fire {called 



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^^T^Wift^), and the southem {or ^ftiw) ; ^live coal, 
hot embers; ^lightning; ^ fiery missiles of war {as 
shellsy rocketSy etc.) ; ^flg*f burning sensation, pain, 
torment {as of hunger ^ separationy etc.) ; 'heat, ardour 
of any emotion or action, {in this sense usually ^rffif 
dyiy q.v.) ; ^either abs.y any bad passion, such as anger, 
envy, jealousy, etc., or concr. {only used predicative/y)^ 
an angiy, envious, jealous {etc.) person, {in this sense 
usually WXf^ agXy also ^fmT% agiydh or ^rfiniT (1), 
g.v.) ; ''the effect of any bad passion, angry 
disturbance, quarrel, sedition, etc.; i<^ digestion; 
^^phil.y fire as one of the five elements {viz. earth, 
water y fire, windy and ether) \ '^myth.y the god of 
fire {who appears in three formSy as the sun in heaveny 
as lightning in mid^airy and as ordinary fire on earth ; 
fie is described as clothed in blacky having smoke for 
his standard and headpiecCy and carrying a flaming 
javelin ; he has four handsy and ricks in a chariot drawn 
by red horsesy and the seven winds are the wheels of his 
oar ; he is accompanied by a ramy and sometimes he is 
represented as riding on that animal ; heis also the regent 
of the aoufh^eastem quarter); hence "the south-east 
{in this sense a/«o ^nr^^^'wft or ^niTir^ ag^neuy q.v.) ; 
i^med.yHie venereal disease, syphilis; ^a symbolical 
name for the number three {because qf the three sacred 
flresy see above). Comp., ^firfw-^TO^ m. fire-arms, 
rocket, a fabulous weapon so called; ^rfirPf-fi^ w., 
a fire-pit, a hollow for kindling fire in ; ^fftrfif-fw w., 
fire race {a tribe ofBcifpHtSy said to have been produced 
from fire) ; ^lf»if5r-iftT m., the south-eastern quarter; 
^^ftfir-fiir^ /., the same as ^firfir-y*M«*K; ^irfirfif-nft 
m.ythe same as^lfj^-^^'y ^firf5r-<r5 m.y the name 
of a certain demon whose body is of fire ; ^firfir-^ifT 
/., the three sacred fires of the Hindus {see above) ; 
^^I^Tftr-ieT^ m.y ceremony of buming a dead body ; 
^ffirfiT-^^^ii m.y a lamp ; ^Bftl^-^nr^ m.y any vessel 
set apart for holding fire ; ^rfirpT-^^T/, fiery ordeal 
{by a heated iron or boiling oily etc.) ; ^Oifii-^nw m.y 
the name of one of the eighteen great Purans, {which 
was communicated by the god of fire to the saint 
£(MwA*A);^rft15r-S^wm.,thegodoffire; ^fJrfir.i^nf 
m.y a fire-worshipper ; ^W^r-f^TT /, fire-worship ; 
^rfirfSr-^^ a Raj'put of the fire race {see ^fnftr-fiw) ; 
^rfirfSr-'mT m.y a fiery arrow, a rocket; ^ftf^-WTiT 
/. the farcy in horses and cattle, an eruptive 
disease in men and elephants; ^rfiifir-iitlPir com. 
gen.y a fire-eater; ^rfnfr-^tflwr m., the eating of 
fire, fire-eating; ^ftrPr-irfSr m., the sunstone, a 
fabulous gem supposed to contain and impart solar 
heat ; ^ftfir-ft^ /, a flame of fire ; ^fnfsr-^^'ifi^rr^ 
m.y any ceremony in the performance of which 
fire is essential, such as the buming of a dead bodyy 
etc.; ^rfirf«T-TtW5T, w., the ceremony of making 



^rfhf'l 



agttti 



'54 



^iHinid aginit 



oblations to fire ; ^ifirfir-T^ or ^ifnfk "ft^ m.^ one 
who keeps a perpetual saored household fire, one who 
acts as a priest in the agini-hot'r ceremony, one who is 
conversant with the Bigbed ; ^firPr-^'VR m., a sacrifice 
by fire, a burnt offering. Exam^i *i2^w., -4., ch. 
274, 3, ^ftUr 111 ftft ftr fvr ^itfC, Fire carries 
smoke^ and a mountain grass, on its top ; tft., Su.^ ch. 
12, 11, |1V ^ifrPr inr ii^ fir^nrr, Supplying fire, 
do thou oonsimie my body. ^Bdm.^ A., ch., 180, 5, 

The king of sages {Bamhth)^ mounting his chariot, 
first went away with {his ipoiise) Arundhati and (all) 
the materials for (p^'eparing) a sacrificial fire ; Jan.y 
eh. 34, ^firtH ^rPf firfi|%W 9^^^ ^t'i^, 'R'^-V^ 
f^^T^ WV^R i^Pt^, The Lord of Mithila having 
set up the sacrificial fire, took kus {gra%fi) and water, 
and duly performed the ceremony of giving away 
the bride, {the ceremony is performed by the father of 
the bride close to the sacrificial altar ; see J, A. 8. £., 
vol. Un, Pt. I, p. 97). ^ Coll. {Bh.), ^^ftftr tft % 
ftlHT'T ^fWt, Clearing the hot embers {of ashes) 
put them on the tobacco-bowl {of the hukka). *For an 
exampky see under ^rftw agin and ^f^TTT agiyd (2). 
^Bij.y II. 1080, 1081, TiT 1[ % 10X5 f^firfar-iiwT, 
^^ir iTf ^w ^ffirft-vniT, {Sun;^ Mai said,) * slay 
biTn with fiery arrows '; so the servants discharged 
fiery arrows. ^Rdm.^ Su.y ch. 31, 7, ^V% ^firfir 
ifT-UjI wkr-^iTO «iT W^ ilt^ H^t^y My body is 
within a moment burned in the fire {i.e.y by the pain) 
of separation, {which is fanned) by my sighs like wind 
and [in which) my body is like (a heap of) cotton {i.e.y 
lam tormented by the pain of separation). ''Bdm.^ 

Ar.y ch. 6, 1, ^w mf^ mtiT ^firPr iwr wrrr, Having 
thus spoken, the ardour of his devotion consumed 
his body ; San.y vs. 52, WT V iff ir*r XTi: Wtt, ^ 
^rfirfir lf^ ICI^ ^Vt, Therein {i.e. in the exercise 
of quietism ) body and . mind become cooled, nor 
does the ardour of self-consciousness consume them 
(t.^., the sages) any more ; «J., vs. 60, xiv J^ ^ %fitfk 
{fern.) iHTPft. ▼nr ^fhf ^nwi ftmift. The ardour 
of passion {which is one^s) enemy is quenched, and 
the tendency to love and anger has vanished; ib.^ 
vs. 41, IT f^-T1 ^nw TTX, WT f^ ilPT TfJrfV 
V WT, One {the ascetic) repeats the name {of Qod) day 
and night, the other {ttie worldling) bums continually 
with the ardour of self-conceit; J3y., /. 801, ^t^^ 
^rrr wtft ^^f*rfir (/^^.) w^Wv, O husband, to-day 
satisfy my ardent desire {for marital union ; lit. put 
out my fire) ; ib., I. 804, firft^ ^t "Sf ^firfir ^^, 
O wife, how can I satisfy thy ardent desire {Ut. put 
out thy fire) ; Erish. 278, ^rw mw nfk f^, i^t, 
?if irxir ^ffnfk ^ft* % Sur Das (says), I am so 
consumed by the ardour of love that I shall drown 



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myself in the well (which is) dug in my house, 
^Bu.t ch.y modem anon,y ^«nif^ ^PlPl WTT ini ^trrvt. 
As soon as he heard it, fierce rage filled his body ; 
Coll. {Bh)y « vnr ^ Tfirft ^ 5iir, As soon as he 
heard it, he became furious. ^^ Coll. {Bh.)y \«fy^^ 

%¥ll fri'ii ^rtilft ff^%, % ♦ ^TW ■'^[TnW; ^filfii 
WTif fVf X^IT ^> His stomach is not strong enough 
to digest his food ; give him some medicine to 
stimulate (lit. waken) his digestion. ^^ Krish. 34, ^ 

wm ^fM^ vfw iM wnrr, vt m f4rf% •nnr 

T^TTT, {Ood) diffused earth, water, fire, wind, and 
sky, {and thus) having mixed the five elements he 
produced the world. ^R&m.y Bd.y ch. 201, 6, irf* 

Tpiir irPr wrwfk ^t^y wi ^rfirfir t^ hi: ifV^, 

The saint devoutiy offered the oblation, and the 
fire-god appeared (in the form of ordinary fire)y 
holding the offering in his hand. ^For examples^ 
see under ^^T^, etc. ^Bw.y do.y modem anon.y ^Jn 

njf^ iTir ^firPr ^, njM uto, nrrr, ««r fi^y %9f 

UT-innr, v^ Ti^ iJ^ ^RiTTT, In the year 1832, 
in the month of Magh, on a Wednesday^ on a 
lucky day, and under a lucky constellation of 
planets, this book came into the world. 

{This word occurs in a great variety of bye-forms y 
Hiyir, ^Jif5f, ^<i»^, vrnr, ^Rr^<v, wrrihrr, ^fiiT, 

^filPl^T, ^(5|*n, ^HIM, q.v. Synonyms, with all the 
above given meaningSy are wm, ^TTpr, ^fiw (2), q.v. 
Synonymsy with certain of the above given meaningSy are 
^VXK.y ^fllO, ^rft^ (1), ^rfiRTT, q.v» It should be 
added that the word in this and its bye-forms is rarely 
used tcith the seventh and eighth meaningSy the usual 
form being ^nfir.) 

[^Skr. ^fir: m. ; the dissolution of the Skr. conj\ 
V gn occurred already in early times ; thus Pd. ^IWrfw 
{Kaeh.y p. 54, ^ftfir P ) or firiw m. {Pd. Gr. iT., pp. 
35, 45), Pr. ^prnift {Hem. ii, 102) ; both kinds of 
dissohtumy by means of\i and of^ay are preserved in 
the modem Gds. ; thus B. %^^ or ^fiiw and ^iifw 
or ^im {q.v.) ; M. vftw m. or /. ; 0. fSfwT (O. 
Vy.) or fti^T (0. By.). In Skr. and Pd. the word 
is mascy so also usually in Pr. {cf. Sapt.y vs. 770, 
H^^iirT ^wt, empty bums the fire), though an 
optional fern, use would be justified by Hem. i, 35. In 
all Ods. the word is fern, in the form ^rrf» (j^.r.), 
but there appears to be no uniformity in the case of the 
forms ^inff^i wftrftr, etc. In B. and P. the latter are 
fem. {e.g.y San.y vs. 60, rnr ^ ^fi|, the fire of 
passion) ; but in M. and H. they are said to be masc. 
or fern."] 



#U«in aginify T6.| a^'. com. gen.y the same OA^^nf'nr 
aganity q.v. ExaiTIti Bdm.y Su.y ch. 5, 5, f% ^^ inf 
^finr «?Nt, He saw everywhere innumerable 




^HlfH^I aginiyd 



65 — 



^f*nrr 



igiya 



warriors ; iJ., Utj ch. 38, 6,^^«f % tr^T, H^ vnrr, 
^rfirPnr ^fir HTPT ftwnrr, Hear brother, the markfl 
ol the good as told in the Beds and Pnrsns are 
oountleBs; Ag.^ vi, 42, wrfti-^ ^rfMim fwj, f%% 
i^PT ^m ivffw. He performed countless horse sacrifioesi 
and gave gifts of many kinds. See ^rwnrfinr. 

[A corruption of ^^rPnr, analoffous to that of 

^firPr/or ^iinfk fire.] 

^rniT'roT agmif/d, ^ftiftflf aginiyi, Tbh., 6ubU. /., ^. 
/. o/^ifirPr agim or '^fh^ fl^mf, g.v. Exam.| '-Bt;*., 
/L 800, ^^T^J^ ^R^ %% ^vtiT ^rftrftwf, M\wt ^7^ iftft 
^firfw ^^^> husband, in my body a longing desire 
{lit. fire) is rising up ; O husband, to-day satisfy that 
longing of mine, {the princess is re/erring to her 
longing after the conmmmation qf her marriage mth 
her hmhand), 

^Nl^l <V*n*> Tbh., substf.f str.f. 0/ ^(fnf^ aginx^ q.v. 

^m«l^ I igiyawdy Tbh., mbet. /., red. /. of ^[^ aygl^ 
?.«'. Exam., JBih.y XV, 3, ^fii^m i?Nrw TT ^ ^^, 
My bodice became wet, alas ! ; tJ., xv, 4, "^fim^T 
fUmk % My bodice was wet. 

^fiPTT agiyd (1), ^iftl^ agid, Tbh., (I) subst. m., 
^A« fiam^ ^ various diseases or destructive insects 
tchieh attack animals or plants^ and cause burning^ 
blisteringy S^c ; thus of farcy in cattle (Or., p. 60, 
Ors. § 1170) ; of a disease in cattle in which the 
skin becomes covered with pimples {Az. Gfy.) ; of 
a kind of fly that causes blisters {Az. Oy.) ; of a kind 
of grass which blisters {Andropogon schoenanthus, 
agya ghas, Wat., Az. Gy.) ; of a spider which 
attacks the buds of the millet before the flower 
forms {Cr. p. 81) ; of a weed which bums the rice- 
plant {Ors. § 1075) ; of a disease in- rice by which the 
whole plant is burnt up (Or., p. 18.) Exam., Coll. 
(5A.), ^ifiwT ^T¥ "W ^^ % t ^WTT irWv, if» WTiiv 
(7 urt^ Found this medicine with agiyd grass, and 
when you apply it, your itch will be cured. 

(II) acy. com. gen.y fiery, irascible, mischievous, 
violent, very active. {In this form the word has 
been met with in the under^mentioned compound; 
another form of it, in which it is more generally 

usedf is ^[flX'^V^ agiydhj q.v.). Comp., ^fiPTT-vimry 
f»., {Ut. fiery demon) the name of a demon of an 
irasdble and mischievous character, also called 
Ddno or Ddn sdhib, a hideous demon, who lurks in 
trees, lives on dung-beetles, and seizes wayfarers at 
night (Or., p. 110, Ors. § 1468) ; the story of the 
demon is given in the Singhdsan BaftM, according 
to which fing Bikramddity' had two PishdcVs under 



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his command, who were respectively called Agiyd and 
Kdild ; the name agiyd-b^tdl, however, is also used as a 
term of abuse, and figuratively to denote any kind of 
energy. Exam., Clc)//., {Bh.),^ l^ wfiWT-^in^ir IT, 
T^ ft[T ^ ^jw WVff nx wnw it, He is a most active 
fellow : in one day he has finished the whole business ; 
t ?nm: ^fimT-vrw ^, This medicine is very 
efieotive ; t KT^ '^In^-llfTW IT, This wine is very 
strong; t ^w^ ^ftiTT-^WTW ^w^, He is a very 
quick walker. 

{In the subst. sense the word is occasionally con" 
founded with ^KWf agiyd (2), and treated as fem.) 

[Skr. ^fiwt, Pr. ^fftripr (JGftw. Dy., vs. 53). 
Semachandra^s statement is : ^if^init T'WtTir^^, with 

the comment: ^ftwt wrfVr^Wt iP^ftr TWS i»e., 
aggio is used in two ways, either substantively as a 
name of the Indragopa insect, or adjeotively with the 
meaning of ^ mischievous,' ' bad.' This agrees, in a 
general way, with the modem usage of the u>ord, though 
in Bihdr at least the word doe^ not appear to be used a$ 
a name of the Indragdpa, which is a small, harmless 
insect, with a bright red, glossy coat, emerging from the 
soil in the beginning of the rainy season {commonly 
called ftiM^ft, q-v.). This insect has its name ofaggid 
from its red colour, while the modem use of the name 
agiyd is taken from the burning or blistering property 
of the insects and diseases so named. The M. has ^HVT 
or ^etxna. O. has ^finJY in the sense of fire-fly i\ 

^rfiT^ agiyd ( 2 ), ^fir^ agid, Tbh., mbst. f, Ig. / 
of ^Tfir d^, q.v. Exam., ^Bih,, xviii, 5, f^ 1T^ 
ifCTT Wtrft ^nff ^Ifmr {fem.), There is oil in the 
lamp, there is fire in the pan; Chr., v, 9, ^if^r^T 
inrwf, i^ftl, vr^ % ^^nrwr, In the fire I would caat 
your finger-ring, O sister-in-law. ^Misc. 84, ^rfinnr 
Wu, irftwT, ^vn nxt^f ^^'^ y^ ^ftKX ^f%^T} May the 
lightning strike and the thunderbolt fall on thy body, 
MeghiyS, in {the months of) Sfiwan and Bhado. 

^^^^TnTTT agiyd, {pr. pts. ^rfii^TW agiydt, ^IWrw 
agiydit ; ^ft^TPW agiydel ; ^firmnr agiydeb ; ^rPrmrr 
agiyde), Tbh., v. intr. 'to be burning {as of the head 
in headache) ; ^fig. to be very angry. Exam., • Coll. 
(Bh.), lif piHTT ^firirnr ^fc, Why are you in such 
arage P 

[A der. root, formed from ^rfir, q.v. Not noted in 
other Qds. Its tr.form is ^ftwTW, q.v."] 

%lNl<ll iiffiyd(l), Tbh., subst. f, limb, body. Phr„ 
''•fiRT % Ttm a4f., slender of body. Exam.9 B. Or., 
n (BA.), xii, 6, ^^fipRT * wrc ^^ 1% TiCBt, Lo, her 
body is slender and her face is fair. See Mti(7^r 
ig^wd, ^if ayg, and ^fir ig. 



^f»I^ astif/a 



56 



^rf^rar 



aytld 



ISkr. %^: or {with pleon. M) ^W^t, of which a 
fern. dim. may be formed ^ff«fT in an endearing sense^ 
Pr. ^*1^prr> hence Od. ^^ or Iff, /. -^JfiniT.] 

^ni7( Sgiyd {2), Tbh., subst f, 'a bodice, jacket 
( for icomeny short, and only covering the breasta^ Ore. 
§ 744) ; «a sieve with a cloth bottom {for sifting fine, 
flour, Gr«. §607). Exam., ^ Bais., 11, ^4m«m^ 
Tt [fem.)j "^fvi fr^m nt, The bodice has got 
loose, and the bangles have been shivered ; Sudh.j 28, 

■^Pf^T ift W^T finr ^ wrNif^f w frw, The slits 

of {thy) bodice ever suck the wealth of {thy) swelling 
breaste ; Mag. 72, wt^fK ^ftmr, inncTT %d ^m^, 
'^f^m ^^V Tt ^nrapR, In a tightly-fitting bodice, 
slender-waisted one, you are walking in the road 
with palpitating heart. 

\_Properly the Ig. /. of ^(f^ or ^^, q.v. M. has 



1/ 



[T*I<rrW agiydb {pr, pts. i»ftr^nr?r agiyaba^t, Bh. 
and Mg, ^finnwir agiydivat, ^finrrPnf agiydwit, Mg. 
also ^finrr^if agiydU; ^fi[wi\m agiydol; ^fiwrp^ 
agiydeb ; ^fSriHW agiydbai, ^m^VJTJ agiyde), Tbh., 
V, tr.y to bum metallic vessels for the purpose of 
cleaning them, to purify a vessel by passing it 

through fire. Exam., CoU. {Bh,), yifftw ^Hfiimi^, 
Clean the saucepan by fire. 

[-4 der. root formed from ^rfir, q.v. Not noted in 
other Ods.j except H. which has V^T^T. Its intr. 
form is ^ ^ftirr, ^.t?.] 

^flRTO agiydrd (1), (/ ^finrrft agiydn\ Tbh., 
(I),afl[;*. (/eY. fire-making), fiery. See ^ w >< si TiT agiydrd. 

(II) subst /., the kindling of the fire at the time 
of devotion by Hindus {H. Dy.) . 

[S*r. "^ftwncv adj., ^fij * \T\MT subst., Pr. ^rfSir- 
^rrT^>, 'unJl^lR.^I ; S. ^finrr^ or %niv^ {sometimes 
spelt wrongly ^nrrft, ffd. Dy., p. 114), Q. ^rpT^T^.] 

^rf^RrnCT agiydrd (2), Tbh., subst iw., the place of the 
sacrificial fire of the Hindus. 

[Str. ^^R^irnTKS Pr. "m^K^f^v^ or {with pkon. 
suff. w) ^f*JI^^K^>, B» {contr.) ^fii^rTT, M. wflrUT^ 
and ^(^, O. ^fjiiTT^, both esp. in the sense of the 
fire-temple of the Parsis.] 

^Ml^Htn agiydsi, Tbh., subst. /, 'the Hindu cere- 
mony of fumigating with incense a bride and bride- 
groom (=^^^7^51^, Ors. § 1332); nhe fire kept 
burning in a lying-in chamber for ten days after 
delivery ( = -q^, Grs. § 1398 ). See ^nr^ ag'ti (1). 
[5*r. ^ftirr^:, fern. dim. ^ fii^nftq^ i, Pr. ^fiir- 

^rft^, B. ^fimv^.'] 



10 



16 



20 



85 



^Wl^llT agiydh, ^Rl^^TT ag*ydh, {sir. f. ^rfinn^ 
ag%ydhd,f. ^rProrrV agiydhi, Mth. and poet. mT^^\V % 
agiydhi), Tbh., adj. com. gen., fiery {of temper), 
angry, jealous, wicked. Exam., Coll. {Bh.),tjf^% 
^fh^nr V^hw, He quickly turns {lit. rises) angry. 
See ^Of^t agiyd (1) and ^n^m^ ag^lah. 

IThis appears to be merely a pleon. form of 
^(fknT {l)yq.v., made by means of the pleon. suff. y or 
^mr^ {see Gd. Or. § 206). The corresponding Pr. tcord 
is ^fitmt {Eem. Dy., vs. 53), which is a synonym of 
Skr. Jin^ bad, wicked. There may be some bond of 
analogy between the final "% of this word and of VR^^.] 



80 



86 



40 



46 



60 



(/ ^fllT Hgir, {pr. pts. 'itfij^jf dyirmt ; ^<fiiTir dgiral; 
^•ftrw dgirab ; ^*fJT^ dgirai), Tbh., v. intr., to agree, 
admit. Phr., -^iltfirft tw, v. tr., to agree to. Exam., 
Hb.y 6, 41, ^«fiift ^rirf^ ^ vro ^i^w, He agreed 
to all that Kans said ; Prahh., p. 6, /. 8, ^*fH« iRw 
ifwr «TfT ^»^, ^^ir ^ffff w^ ^, Sagkar did not 
abandon the promise of {lit. the agreed to) swallowing 
{the poison), but still bore continually the burning 
{pain of the poison). 

ISkr. v^^l^W, viii^A cl. ^^vctfir; Pr. 
^'jftm^, ^^n^ii; ; hence B. ^ ^ffiir ( shortened for 
ijljftr). Not met with in other Qds.'\ 

Exam., Coll. (5A.),^t5i^>qT ^ 4fy, nTff w my ^Tjft, 

Put on your coat or you will feel cold. 

^Ti|v*^l Sgir'khi, fem. of the preceding, with a 
diminutive seme. 



^rfWai 



•i^* agild, ^PT^WT c^^ld, (/. ^rfJnft agin, VT^ 
oldBw. ^ifiptt a^*7d, m?*. /. ^rfiiv dgil or 
dgal, q.v.), Tbh., (I) a^f., {both in place and time), 
* prior, preceding, former, early ; ^foremost, first, chief, 
best ; 3 immediately in front, next in order, forthcom- 
ing, future. Phr., m^rni H'H? m., a former birth or 
a future birth (tech. term of transmigration of souls) • 
^fjwr imi m., the foremast of a ship; ^rfWr WK'V 
m., the foremost sail of a ship ; ^InvT ^KT^ m. the 
lower pan of a sugar-refinery, {as opposed to the 
vfTwm MXl^ or upper pan) ; ^^rft WTif /, a future 
event, the consequences of any action. Exam., ^Prov. 
^fiWT %^ irfV, t ^fJrirr i?Tfir ^nx, He who has 
no money to pay his fare, asks for the bow seat (lit. 
front seat) ; Bih. xvi, 23, ?itf iPh: wn?tm, wfinrr 
^TtTT, I fell at thy feet, front bearer {of the 
palankeen) ; B, Or., II {Bh.), xxiii, 4, %xf^ xm ^rfirftr 
(m. c. for ^rfir^), ^l^ mr fVwfk f. (.Wh^n\ f.hA 






agitodn 



67 






aguib 



former half of the night {had pasied)^ and the {first) 

quarter of the latter ( half of the ) night ( had 

cammeticed)^ {this is a common phrase in poetry 

for soon after midnight, see the example under 

^T>^ ^TWT, Former benefits {Ut. wipings of the hands 
06 an oblation to ancestors) are gone and have had 
their praise, the turn for {conferring) present benefits 
has come round {Ed. Prov.). *Prov. {Bh.)y ^«fW^ 
SifV^^, ^ift ^ftnnw, The first {mfe) became 
last, and the last {became) foremost. ^PAr., ^v^rv^ 
^rfWV ^nc^y The oonsequwoe of a future and past 
life {i.e. of tranemigrtUion qf souls) ; see also under 
^mfinrt dgilo (Bin., ps» 261). 

(II) subst. m.f ^ancestor, fore&ther, elder, 
predecessor ; ^descendant, successor; 'chief, superior ; 
hence ^(wom.) husband. Exam.i ^Prew., ^rfirvT ^, 
"vflVT ^K ^1^> The superior does it, {the evil conse- 
^tf^nce) falls on the subordinate {ffd. Dy.). ^Coll. 
(5A.)i ^f'WT ^ lSiTf^«iTi My husband is not at 

home. 

{I%is word has many bye-forms and synonyms^ such 

as ^TTir, ^rrfiiw, ^irr^x, w«rs^, ^^KNtt, who, w%ir, etc.) 

[Skr. "WHi, Pr. ^laft and {withpleon. suf. i:w, see 
Hem. ii, 164, Bhag.^p. 437) witiivt, and {with pleon. 
suff.M superadded^ see Hem. ii, 164) wfiufi^, hence B. 
IT*. /. WTplW, and str. f. w^TVT. See also the remarks 
under wir*WT and Wirri\.] 

"^hINIH agiwdny Tbh., subst. m., the same as winwpr 
ag^wdn, q.v. ExSUHti Pdrv.j oh. 13, Mfff^n J^ wfiTWlW 

Joyous the deputation went forth on seeing the 
marriage procession, {but) alarmed {at the sight of the 
spectres) they could neither stand still nor could they 
run away. 

^^nr^Tn tgieVn^ Any., subst. /., {vulg. Mg.) a spark 
(sf^nn^cAf^ari). 

[Apparently connected toith the Pre. ifiJ^I apgisht^ 
though the latter properly means * €kad charcoal/ not 
* live coaVl 

^IflVI Sgishy Any., subst. /., (vu/i^. Mg.), the same as 
"^i Pm^ift agishHl {q.v.), of which U appears to be a 
corruption. 

^QTfj^V agin J Tbh., subst m., the leaves at the top and 
the upper part of sugar-cane {Cr.^p. 75). 

{This word has numerous synonyms, thus Wip^TT (1), 

^nTfT, wirwfT (1), wn^j '^•iiO. ''•TnfV, w^nw, ^rSr^, 
wi^, ''ililx, "^xif ^^tft, '♦ft^, '♦fW^, w^^rtrr, 
W^, ^W (2)» iff, ^ftf^, tffo.) 



I 5 



10 



16 



M 



28 



90 



M 



[Skr. ^fU\ top, Pr. ^uj or {with pleon. suff. X^i, 
Hem. ii, 164) ^r1^ f hence (with change of wto^, see 
Od. Or. % li\) B. "^ifVu. See also the remarks under 



'^^n^t 



agual {Mth. and poet. 



aguai)f the same as 



^TB^tI: agudij q.v. 



40 



^'J^'BfT agud, ^jprf aguwd, Tbh., subst. m., *ire^A aff 
the meanings of VfWT^ ag^wdn, q.v. {Qrs. § 1286) ; 
besides *the opening or slit in a Hindu woman's 
chemise {Hd. Dy)) 'the pommel of a saddle 
( = H. ^1^^) ; ^the highest brass bangle on the 
arm {Ors. § 558). Phr., ^^ ag%i or ^j[S aguwe 
{old loo. used as an adv. and prep.), in front, before, 
used of place and time {A%. Gy.). Exam.| ^Alh., 
I. 38, tBinft ^Tw^ wr jtkit W, ^^^ tft ^l^^n 
in^. When the father-in-law was bound in prison, 
and the matchmaker was made to wear fetters ; Prov. 
{Bh.), %^gmx !p?f ^fK % TTxt ^fTTy The matchmaker 
hears abuse from both parties {both being apt to be 
dissatisfied with his services) ; Coll. {Bh.), yi H^m ^jfi 
^f^, Let us go ahead. See VT^Tr ag*wd. 

[Prop, the Ig. f of%l% {q.v.), the latter being the 
same as ^nn. of which ^RtWT w the Ig.f] 

^^l^llL <^<**> WTTJiTt ag'wdl, ^^o^wal, Tbh., subst. 
/., 'guidance, leadership; *the office or the services 
of a matchmaker. ExatTlii ^Rdm., A., ch. 195, 1, 
tWv flwnc-ifT^ ''it^Tt, He made the lord of the 
Nikhsds lead the van. ^Coll. {Bh.), ^iri^kt ^VQ^rt 
% t fl^l^ 'tW To, The marriage took place through 
his services as matchmaker. See ^vnT^rnrt ag*wdhi. 

[Either an abs. noun derived from ^|[^ mth the 
sec. der. suff. ^trt, see Od. Or. §. 220, or it may be 
a verbal noun derived from ^ ^^^T. H. and S. 
^^Tt ; the pure B.form is ^^l^t.] 

^JT^BTTnt agudnl, Tbh., subst. /, {Mg.) the space in 
front of a house {Ghrs. § 1237) < For synonyms see 



60 



under ^i^[^rfT agudr. 

[This is merely a bye-form qf ^pvs^pft {q,ff,) 
with a special meaning.'] 

^^l^m agudb, { pr.pts. ^V^^ir aguabdit ; ng^ f jiii 
agudel; nU'mil^^ agudeb ; ^^[miTagude), Tbh.,f?. intr., 
*to go before, precede, advance ; *to get in front, 
hurry forward. Exam., *-ff*. ix, 54, imr, ifrftiT ^Tf ^ 
^V^g^rnr, Father, do thou go quickly preceding me ; 
Bid. 21, 8, ^vv^f% ^Q^Hfv %, Yirir^v^x witV, 
My female companions have gone ahead, I am a 
lonely woman.' Mth. Bdm,, Bd. 90, 50, irlr^ i|^[^ ^nr 
ft ^li^^, ^rniT K^Winw ^W«TW, {£achone said to 




^JfHn?; aguHr 



58 






agun 



hifMe^ ^ I will get ia front and break the bow. If 
I remain behind I shall die«<)f regrets/ 

ICampaund rooty formed from %T% and ^ ^TW, j.t?.] 



(kguetry (Mth.-Mg, of South Hunger) ^vs^Tf 
^ogudTf ipbl and sir. f ^u^rra agudrdy Ig. f ^^VPniT 
aguar'wdy loo. sing. WW^lt agudre)y Tbh., subst. 
m,y *the front, -fore part; espec. •the space in front 
of a house, ( opp. to fif^lTT, Qra. § 1237 ). Comp., 
^nr'T^^-f^^T^* ^^ neighbourhood, neighbours. 

Exam., Coll. {Bh.)y •^nirr^i^Ttr {phi) IS ii^ % 

i^T^ IT, In front of his house is a dung-hill ; Coll. 
{Bh.)y ^ ^r^^nt (loc.) i^w ^ilri, He is probably 
sitting in front of his house; ColL (jBA.), ^^ % 
▼C w ^W^nr 3nr i^rc * >f it, There is a 
pipal-tree in front of his house. Synonyim are 
^RT*^ ag'rd (1), ^nrwrw ag^wda, ^^^TTift agudniy 
^g^ aguUly ^%fl agiUy q.v. 

[Derived from ^T^ with Od. «i/f..^K, see Od. Or. 
% 241. See ako the remarks under ^n^. Cf H. and 
P. ^fiRTfT, &* ^lirrrwY. S. has an adv. wa^TT^* {or 
^nj^nr'J) in front, before. Not noted in other G^fife.] 

^•iy, am&y old loc of ^^^ agudy q.v. 

^TS^^TT SgutVwdy Tbh., subst. w., Ig. f of ^^^r 
Sguthdy q.v. ExatTlii ^Nihk.y h 484, ^rr#t| II ?^o ^i^TfT 
^[5?nf, O husband, touoh it (i.^. the door) with your 
thumb* 

IB ^3T «^A<f, jBf«^. anrf ifi/. ^fjrr Sfira^Ad (1), Tbh., «w6«^. 
m.y "the thumb; * the great toe ; • a toe-ring (Qrs. 
§§ 760, 772) {esp. one of braes or other baser metal worn 
hy louheaste women) ; ^ {among Chdls) a syringe {A%. 
Oy.f No. VII). Phr., "^tf!^ ^f^y lit. to kiss the 
great toe, hence to flatter, to fawn ; ^4|[9T %^TFW, lit. 
to show one's thumb, hence to deride, or to defy, 
to brave (in this sense used by womeriy in coquetry, as 
a token of affected unwillingness) y or (obac.) to inirite to 
sexual interoourse; ^qtt iTITW, lit. to snap one's 
fingers, hence to hold very cheap. See ^^f^T agunthd. 
[Skr. ^(iPJi, Pd. %yiit, Pr. ^^ (eee Sapt.y vs. 
946, ¥i^91« great toe of the foot) or {with pleon. suff. 
n) ^t^Wt. A^*M» B. -^liaT or "^[^g^fx (y.t?.), H. -WfjaT 
(yr ifrr, P. •'H? <>*• "^J^T (and *4fV7fT a toe-ring), 
M. "^Ivyr or ^ilw or '*rrr or ^fi|BT, A ^"n^^ {or 
%ff;rftP), JS^«A. vt*, ^«, or vt?, w^ («peft nyofA, 
etc.y in Ksh. Fy.), Jffn. wt?, w^; 6?y?. Aos a^gusht in 
the sense qf finger (Jf*. vii, i?. 9).] 

^f^ iguthiy Mg. and Bw. %«\ igmh Tbh., subst.fy 

^»a finger-ring ((?r«. §§766, 769) ; «a thimble. Exam., 

'a/A., /.199, ^^ ^ikm^ ^^W,m^ tft^* 



10 



15 



ao 



so 



86 



40 



C, On every joint {of her fingers) was a ring, 
and all her armlets {gave forth) a tingling sound ; 
Naxk.y I. 413, TTm, iT t% ^#t iJi^ftwT, O Earn, 
some gave her finger-rings and seal-rings. « Coll.{Bh,)y 
ftfWTT^Twr, ^ui\ ^ i8o, 115 ^rt ^Ifg^ w ht m^, 

Tailor, put the thimble on, and then the needle will 
not pierce your finger. See ^^^ agunfhl and ^^vnrr 
agustdnd. 

ISkr. '^T^miy Pr. ^*fft^iT, hence B. <g^ or 
y^^yA. and^Bg. ^rf^ or ^^fipft, O. SIgft (0. Ty.), 
S. Mt^or%^, S. ^I^bV, p. 'itjjPt; Gip. aygustri, 
a ring {Mik. yuyp. 9). The Pr. has also ^^Blf#, see 
Hem. Dy.y vs. 31.] 

^^^I agunthdy Tbh., subst. m.y {Mth.-Bh.)y a woman's 
toe-ring. See "l^gei dgufhd. 

^^^^ (ninthly Tbh., subst. m.y {Mth.'Bh.)y a woman's 
finger-ring. See "^^BrV Sgufhi. 

[Properly a fern. dim. o/'^fi^T.] 

^^^flT agutdy {pr. pts. ^fprrw a^^^fj^, ^|prTW 
agutdt ; ^^^mvm agutdel ; ^i^nnr^ agutdeby ^r^;^T^ 
agutdb ; ^^imr agutde ), Tbh,, Mth.y v. intr.y « to be 
distressed, worried ; *to be in a flurry or hurry or 
confusion. Exam., ^Mth. Rdm.y A.y 87,14, xx^(^H 
irw ir«i ^v^inf^, Bam'ohandra's heart is filled with 
regrets. *Mth. Rdm.y in., 96, 11, 'ff^ % «^ ^f^ 
«JTT, ^ifi(\ ^rfWir, ^^ ^^TT^, Eetum now, ashamed 
as you are, to Lagka ; come to-morrow morning 
{tofight)y and do not be fiurried. This is the Mth. 
form q^-^^nnrr akutdy q.v. 

[The derivation may be the same as of v^^^nr, 
only st$bstituting Skr. IB^ in the place of isir.] 

^TiTTTT^ agutdu^ Tbh., subst. m.y worry, trouble. 
Exam., Mth. Rdm.y Ln.y 98, 18, f^fk -mm irj^, ir^ 
^W WTV, mf«r-^v iww, fm ^^ ^HBwrw, Brink sweet' 
water and eat sweet fruit ; is it well with the monkey 
army, or is it in trouble ? 

[ Verbal noun derived from v/^^HT, q.v. See Od. 
Or. §§ 326, 339. The term. ^ is a vocalisation of ^. 
See the remarks under art. ^^^^^9^-] 



45 



^Rjrft 



60 



aguttty Tbh., subst. /, a Bh. and Mg. synonym 
'of ^^K aguary q.v. { Ors. § 1237). See %^ agHd. 

\^8kr. ^ni-^rfin, Pr. ^unrift.or ( withpleon. m ) "in^. 
^fflUT ; Od. contr.'^^^tifi.whence B. %^. S. hasaH 
adv. ^VgA in future. See the remarks under ^npiJV.] 

^a^ aguny {old obi. ^fpifi), Te., (I) «fr- «»!. y^., 
(«ttA«^. /. ^^|WT <Vtt»(f), 'without «iy quality, 
unconditioned, transcendent {a tech. term qf SindA 







Offun 



59 



^T^ 



itgur% 



philaophp, used as an . epithet of Oody i^/nonymous 
with fm^f and opp. to w^ oonditioned, immaneiit, 
phenomenal ) ; * incapable of being qualified^ inde- 
fioribably good or great, etc. ; ^without any good 
quality, worthless, bad; ''without any of the three 
tempers (^^ goodnoas, im^ badness, TV9 passion), 
temperless, passionleBS^ indiff exent ; ^ unskilful. 
Comp., ^v^o^v^ transcendent and immanent, 
imoonditioned and conditioned, Exainiij JRdm, Bd,y 

ch. 27 y 1, ^Rjw-^T'f ^ctv v^-fprr ^nw ^fnw "^^ifif 

^nrtrr, Both forms of Bzahm, the absolute and the 
conditioned, are indeeoribable, inconceivable, eternal, 
and incomparable ; ih.^ Bd.^ ch. 123, 9, 10, ^^ff 

^^pv^rw ^m ^>t, ^wn ^n ^€ ^ngw ^ ifrt, There is 
no difierence between {Ood in Hie) transcendent and 
{Hie) immanent {fonn)^ so declare the Munis, Purfins, 
the sages, and the Beds ; {Qod) Who is imconditioned, 
f ormlesB, markless, uncreate, He became conditioned 
{ae a many alluding to the incarnation in Bdm) through 
the iofluenoe of His love to the faithful. * J2(!m., Bd.y 

ch. 46, 2, Tyrftr ^i^irr ^i^ ^ii'miT, w^^w iJH ^x wrft 

^ViRwr, The glory of Baghupati (i.e. Bdm) is inde- 
scribably great and cannot be gainsaid; it may 
be described as the fine unfathomable waters ( o/ 
a lake) ; Bin.^ vs. 240, %ftr ^?tfir infVfir WW ^ 

w^ ween ^iinw, i[w gWt li^w, ^fw-iiw wwfir 

WW WT WTW, Seeing the love and trust {of Bdm) 
in man {to be eo) indesoiibably great, pure, and 
unfailing, Tul'si Das says, the Munis from their 
heart declare its great glory. ^Bdm.^ Bd.^ eh. 77, 7, 8, 

WW, ^wwA ^WT ipwn^, %^9 w WW ww^ ^r 
wt(V; w^, wwtw, WTu-fwff-wWr, wwt^^, ww www 

wWr» Mountain {Himdlaya)y such are the 
merits of your daughter {Pdrvati)y but now listen to 
a few {lit. two or four) drawbacks ; {her bridegroom 
will be a man) without worth and dignity, having no 
father and mother, an ascetic, with no thought for 
anything ; i J., in., do. 31, 1, wgw WWlw WTw w'fw 
^W ftwT WW WTW, Seeing him to be of no worth or 
dignity, his father has banished him (i.^. Bdm) ; 
Bin., V8. 272, W^ WWTWW WTWW> Wlfil WWW W^, 

Gonsideriog them to be bad, worthless, lazy, needy, 
and not fit to be associated with ; ib.y ve. 274, www 

wfw wTwwl^ wV mmi\ wf^ wiwt Tfwrww w^ w^, 

To care for the mean, worthless, and weak is a 
{another) new beauty of Eaghunath {i.e. Bdm) ; 
Pdr^., eh. 7, I^WW, WTW Wf^ %!tfln ^K ^frfNff 
WBW WWTW wwrfir wrjj-ftff wWfff, Say, what have 
you heard to make you rejoice {lit. what having 
heard do you rejoice) at having for your bridegroom 
a man without family, without worth, without 
dignity, without caste, and possessing no father and 



10 



mother {said to Pdrbatl regarding Bib). *Bin., 

tw. 67, wTf^ ftri:^firirw ftncnrw wgw wwic wwrw wrww 

iwt4V {The eddhu or saint is) tranquil, contented, 
disinterested, sound ( morally ), unimpassioned, and a 
proficient in the knowledge of Q-od's word {i.e. the 
Beds) and of the supreme divine nature. 

(11) subst. m.y a defect, a fault, a drawback. 
Exam.| Bdm.y Bd.y ch. 7, 1, WW ^^ W^ WT^ ^ WTWT 
www WWTT wwfw wiWTWrr, Both to deolarf the sins 
anid faults of the bad and the virtues of the good is 
like plunging into a fathomless ocean. 

[S*r. wnjwi ; Od. w^ or wrjw-] 



16 



so 



40 



60 



I 



W|f|*f| agunly Ts., adj. com* gen., {subst. f. w^^wt 
agunvni)y possessing no merits or virtues, worthless, 
bad. Exam.i H. Bdm.y Ut. 11, ft? w^ w% u^rwV 
TTpriwui, wV w^ift ^w ijTw, Tul'si Das describes 
Eaghunay ak {i.e. Bdm) as so incomparable that {even) 
the bad declare his virtues. 

[S*r. wipft ; Od. ^jpft or WV*^.] 

Wi#l V agur, the same as W|[W aguru^ q.v. 

'^'FTT dgurdy str. f. of "^T^T igur.y j.r. It occurs in 
Padm.f ch. 543, 5 {see under '^^ dffuri), and is 
chosen to suit the rhyme with wlgWT kigurd* 

^^fTTT Sguriydy ^*gf^T Hguridy ^*jftwf dgurAy or 
^fS%WT iguliydy etc., Tbh., subst. /., Ig. f, of -^t^ 
iguri, q.v. Exam., '<?^., {Bh.) 19, ifhrcT ^«lftwT 

"f wrfwftW WKWT, Wk % ^^BftWTwfWW % ftwTIF W>1|\ 

Tw % WW t^9 ^Thy finger contains ambrosia'; 
{hearing this) the ascetic split his finger, and having 
giving drink to his sister {and thereby brought her 
to life again)y he went oS on his wanderings ; 
Git.j Bd. 32, 1, ilkwT WW WWW wrfM; ww fwwww 
WWW "^IjftWT wrt, KSUalya, in the beautiful gilt 
oeurtyazd, taught {Bdm) to walk, causing him to 
hold her finger ; ^Olt, Bd. 83, 1, iitft wtft iftf^r, 

"^Ifftwf wti^ wwSfV, wn wMir wVfir wrwt wmw wwtw 

WT, wfww wTww WW, With small small feet and 
beautiful little toes, and white nails (gliHering) like 
pearls on lotus stalks, {Bdm) used to play in the 
charming courtyard. 

^^TT Sgurly iJhpft IfguH, (iljf^ 8guHy m.c.y obi. 
plur. '^tfffw &gurin)f Tbh., subst. /., "a finger; 
*a finger's breadth ; *a toe. Phr., ww ^Ig^ the 
fore-finger {lit., the finger of showing or pointing, 
from wWTSnf to show) ; wwV ^ff^ the middle fiuger 
{fivm MTVf ft witch, owing to the superstition that 
any child or animal touched with it will die within 
sits months; rings arenot worn on tki finger from 







Sgurlwd 



60 



^«i^Hi Sgustdnd 



fear of Bnakes^ and aho from a belief that all the 
blood of oneU brother would dry up, Hd. Dy.)t **^ 
fir^^ ^*r^ ; W^ ^^ or (>ontr. ^^•^Uax {eee 
06p. {Mg.) 19) the little finger (Jrom 8kr. mr 

or irt^ small } it ii reckoned as an djhd or exor^ 
cist, hence women oil the naveh qf children with this 
finger at the feast of the Dasah'rd, Hd. Dy.) ; "jwr 
litQ^^ the ring-fingery {lit. ritual fioger, being the 
finger ^with which sandal ia applied or sprinkled at 
religious ceremonies) ; ^i^^ftv ift^, the tip of the 
finger ; ^f ^*r^, a toe ; ^<hr^ ^i^njf^, v. tr., to 
point the finger at one ; '^1:^^ a^f^i v, tr,, to oraok 
or snap the finger ; ^^ WITJJ^ or ^Jnct^ •wnnr, 
V. tr.^ to jeer one by moving the middle finger 
before him, (regarding a supposed derivation of 
this idiom from the puppet show, see JSd. Dy,, p. 

164). Exam.. ^-Di»-i '• 135, ^rw9 ^*^ ^ * 

%W^ f>K^n?9, Salhes, splitting his finger (and 
extracting ambrosia or ^rftlif from if) brought (the 
jackal PhoiWd) again to life; Mag. 18, -^^^ 

^ irmr. He twists my fingers, he twists (all) 
my ten fingers, O fair lady, and squeezes my 
cheeks like powdered rioe; Prov. (Mth,), ^#B^ 
^R:5?t Jiw%l Mft %ijw, Oatchiug hold of a finger, 
he took hold of the wris* { = R give an inch, 
take an ell; qfter Fallon); Prov, (Mth.) ^tm 
^T> ^ irfl fwwT%, A straight finger will not 
bring up any ghi (from the pot); in a slightly 
different form the latter prov. occurs in the following, 
Padm,, ch. 4^)6, 6, ^ wf^ i?^ H ^ ^ ^%, ^^ 
•45ft (mx.) ir finw iV«r, However long one may 
chum (milk) with all one's heart with a straight 
finger no ghl will be brought up (from (he pot); 
Coll (Mg). iThcr S't'^ * ▼''V ^«5^ ^ » |w*, 
^jtir^ 'Sirnrr ^r^. He has touched my son with 
his middle finger, may his son die (after Fallon) ; 
*Mag. 25, ^ir ^t^ ^ 5^' ^nt^wr, f%frfH5 
r^o % HiTK, He fixes, fair lady, a chain eight 
finger-breadth long and (consisting) of ten links (lit. 
rings) in the window ; Padm., ch. 543, 5, ^ir WT1% 
iji^ wlS^f ^f^ ^ "^trSt '^hsf^ "'•S^j The bowmen 
sat (so closely packed) in all the battlements, that there 
was not even a finger's breadth room available. 

[8kr. ^^^* or (with pleon. w) ^ l ^fai>l , Pr. 
^^f%^T or ^Jl!f<WT (ef Spt. 277) ; hence B. '^fjift 
or -^hB^j Bg. ^sfijpfi or *4g^, H. '^#giiV or ^bnA, 
P. '^^pfi or *B^, M. ^^WV or ^4|lW^, 0. "Wgfk 
(0. Vy.) on "^igisV.] 

^JImTT Sguriwd, ^tir^^ Sgurld, -^gifWr dguUwd, 
^Ij^V^T iguUdy lh}\,^%ubst.fj red.f of-^im;^ dguri, 
J.t?., Exam.f Mars., i, 2, nifT ^<5fNT %iHTr HT!? t 



10 



u 



so 



86 



90 



86 



40 



60 



^^ TPl, She combed her hair with her ten fingers, 
idas, alas ! 

[^This is properly the contracted form of the full 
redundant form "^t^fk^mi; the more usual form is 
that which contains ^ w."] 

^I|^ agurUj Ta.* subst* m., the same as %d[% agaru, q.v. 
(This should not be confused with the tats. ^^ 
not heavyi which is not used.) 

^^i^\ SguU, the same as ^4^ igurt, q.v. Exaniif * Oit.^ 
Ut. 17, 7, ^sn, UTt, ^^iw ^#B^ ^ir, ^;^< ^fw 
irfecTTT^fw, ^#B^-^Tii vrrw ^m wfir ^^^ ^v-^ 
^VV^ ^X ^T^fk, A fine line adorns his thumb joint, 
fine white nails his fingers, and a beautiful seal-ring 
his hand ; the beauty of his finger-guard (or thumbs 
ring) , bow and arrows, causing joy to the gods, pierces 
the heart of the demons ; Doh., vs. 527, w ijin^ir wt^ 

*%, ftww Ttw WM17W, jpirfi 'w* ftiftfW w[^ "^Ig^ 

^nSHTii, Before the Lord the little are great and the 
weak are strong; Tul'sl (says), you may observe 
this clearly from the analogy of the fingers of the 
hand (i.e., though the several fingers are of diff^ent 
sizes and of different usefulness, yet (hey are alike in 
being 'fingers ' of the hand ) . » Olt., Bd. 108, 2, ^iw 
^XW, '^J'A iniW^, '"(^ %^M^ %^ ^RWrt, (Jdnakl's) 
feet are (coloured) red, her toes are charming, and her 
white nails (shtmo) a shade of redness ; ib., Ut. 17, 3, 
Vw ^^W, ^4^^ ^fii^i %^ ^i^T 'W iftfii w*nr¥fii, 
Beautiful was (Bdm^s) great toe, and his toes were 
close, and his slightly reddened nails were of glitter-* 
ing brightness. 

[P. '^V^, M. Shp^ or iRiDdk) or ^ij^.] 

^*f«lT aguwd, Tbh,, the same as ^r^^T agud, q.v. Phr.- 
^1^ aguwe, (old loe, used as an adv. and prep.), 
in front, before, used of place and time (A%. Oy). 

Examif Padm., ch. 20, 2, ^r^^ n^ w^ TJ^'^ ^^ ^^ 
^ff^ ;^^iin1r,8hekh Bur'han became my (spiritual) 
guide, and bringing (me) into the (right) way he 
imparted to me knowledge. 



^ ^IfSll^l dgustdnd, 4[gtill^l Sgushtdnd, Any., subst m., 
^^a thimble ; • a thumb-ring (Ors. § 769). Exam., OU., 
Ut. 17, 7,comm., ' 4u^ v m -^hg^TWr, The finger-guard 
is a thumb-ring (which serves to protect the thumb in 
shooting with a bow) ; Krish. 261, WT^^ ftsiiM 
ftn^ WW wnr ^9^I1T» ^W 'ffft ^TFW, nww wft 
^IWT, % <^^^f WV^ nw w^r^TRT, (Adorned) with 
armlets, wristlets, toe-rings, (plain ) rings, seal-rings, 
and thumb-rings, his mouth filled with pan and 
his eyes with coUyrium, and holding a mirror ( in his 
hand), Eanha (i.e. Erish^n) smiled in his heart 



>w^»»l 



■Pfll 



^^61 SgUthd — 

IPrs. ajli-fci»f afgushtand; also in H. ; P. has 
-^^unv (P. Dj^. Sf.), -By- ^wTm, S. ^«Tw^, 0. 
^«Tirr, Jf. "^^^T^ or -^t^mn or ^iiivr^.] 

^4|3T afjrfl^d (1), -BfT. a«rf jMjf. /or "^gvr S^tiMtf, f •f'. 

^IJ^T ng^tU (2), Tbh., wwm. a^.y (/. '<f?ft a?flrfl*AO> 
(-BA.), ^A^ «aw« ew ^TT Sgirha^ q.v. {see B. Or.y 
II {Bh), § 18). 

[TAw ifftyrd i% simply a corruption of '^^p (?««^0> 

* the soft ems. f having been hardened by false analogy to 

%^ ({.r.)-l 

^ '1^1 igu^hi^ Tbh., suhst. /., /or Pit. and Mg. "^n^ 
il^trfAf, y.r. Examif Padm.f eh. 13, 6, Tm ^%irf %^ 

Solomon's ring, (mth which) he gave gifts to the 
world with a full hand ; Gdp. {Mg), 17, i?r^ ^^^ 
^twwftl^^^nTtvrnt-^v^ ifH^, Gbpi Chand 
said, behold thj father's ring is shining on thy 
finger {lit hand). 

Si#l<2 agH^rhj T6.| a^. com. gen., difficult to understand, 
mysterious {see A%. Oy.). Exam.i Coll. (PA.), ^Mm 
^f^ wni Wtw^W ftl w^H "5? HT WT%, He says 
suoh hard things that they oannot be imderstood ; 
Bw. eh. anon., ^ifir ^f^Jf ifif wx^ w ^^ His very 
mysterious actions oannot be fathomed. 

[From ^if {q.v.) mth intens. w; see art. ^ a (5). 
ITie tats, meaning, ^ not mysterious,' is not known.'] 

^iVliT Sgiirha, Tbh., num. adj., (/. ^Bi^ S^'Sr**)* 
(P^.), three and one half, {see P. Or., II (PA.), 

§ 18). Examti Ooii (PA.), ^[wTt ^Itwt '*jjrTRrr, 

My son is learning the multiplication table for 3^ : 
ib., ^ « * "^WT ^^5 P ^ir ^TK * MtfjfX Vfftm, 
How far have you got in the multiplication table 
for 3i P I have got as far as four times 3^. See 
^ Aii^A^ and ^|f«T SgHthd. 

[^A compound of ^v ^ ^^ ^i?T two and one 
halt, lit* six less two and one half, which is equal 
to three and one half. ^fT Oself is a comp. of 
£0^^ ^ + vif^t, lit. third less one half, ie. 
two and one half {see Od. Or. § 416). Fractionah 
may be formed either by prefixing or by suffixing 
^ one half, in the sense of * lessened by one half.' 
Thus it is suffixed in the fractionals %fr or \^, 
one and a half, = 8kr. ff + ^, lit. two less one 
half ; and in -4JfT three and a half, = 8kr. ^^ 
4- ^i^vif^irx, lit. six less two and a half. It is 
prefixed in ^r?Ti two and a half, =fl*r. ^ + «w^t, 
Ut. three less one half; also in \sj,' three and 
a half, =B 8kr. ^ + ^VQ^s lit. four less one half 



10 



15 



20 



61 — ^IT^ Sgur 

{see Od. Or. § 416). The word should be properly 
^BirhfT, from ^ip + ^rn> (if^ ^he change to ^fT 
is probably due to false analogy with the alternative 
form \wi {q.v.). It is possible, however, that "^fT 
is equivalent to Sir. ^ijf + m^ + ^♦•w^t, six less 
two and a half, = ^VlpNr^VifHt, whicS might contract 
into "4^^. the element ^ftm accounting for the nasalised 
long * in the Bh.form of the word."] 

^p'n' <vut, Tbh., subst. m., (PA.) the front part of a 
house, {Ors. § 1245). Phr., ^Tfir % wt» the front 
thatch of a double thatch-roof house. Ibr synonyms 
see ^;^^[XK agudr. 

[fi*r. ^H-C^t, Pr. ^nannft, whence contr. P. 

^JIT Sgnr, {poet. ^fXT Sgdrd or ^^ dgUrC), (1) 
Any,, subst. m., *a grape {vitis vinifera, Wat.); 
* granulations in a healing sore {being like little grapes 
in reddish colour) ; ^fig. {sweet as grapes) sweetness, 
happiness. Phr., ^4f;^ ztt or 6«*0^ a vinery, a 
vineyard; fireworks in imitation of dusters of 
grapes in a vine ; -^f;^ ^ww or ^ftvw, v. intr., to 
become sound and healthy {of a sore). Exaniti 
•P. O., Fable 13, '^fi^ wm P^w^^ ^«r ^mjw zft 
H W9fm X^W ^rfw, Bunches of grapes were hanging 
ripe on the trellis ; ib., {Prov.) ^mir ^«|^ % irnJt 
Who eats sour grapes P Padm., ch. 69, 3, fkn ^Tirr 
ftnr Ttw 'fl^^l, How should poisonous seed become 
grapes P ib., ch. 84, 3, fin tr^f 'rff ^^ ^<l^> 
Poison, by being kept, does not turn into grapes 
{said with reference to keeping a parrot, a proverbially 
ungrateful bird). ^Padm., do., 596, 1, ift ^ njir 

^c^ TW, f^^ ^ ^^^^^9 He who has the happi- 
ness of love in his heart, shows the passion of 
it in the eyes {i.e., as juiee 'or X9 comes from 
grapes, so if the fruit is in the heart, the Juice 
will be in the eyes) ; ib., ch. 268, 5, f«ir ^nraf^ 
UT 3ii ^ffi^j ^ "T "^^ ^ fl^w ^n^, How can 
the lotus have the happiness of love, seeing that 
it can keep possession of the sun only during the 
day? 

[^Prs., jy^\ ayg^ ; the same in all Ods. ; in the 
second sense perhaps connected with Skr. ^WT- j 



so 



8S 



40 



60 



^^TT ig^r (2), {poet., '4^;if Hg^ira), the same as ^If^ 
Skar, q.v. Exam.i Padm., ch. 656, 7, T^ w ^ i^^ 



^1^ "^t^yf, Neither the roots nor the; shoots of 
grief remain; ib,, ch. 685, 3, www rft ffw^fir iftwr 
'^fi^WI) Her eyes, which were {like) water lilies, took 
{new) shoots. 

[flf. <^ (5. By., p. 55). Compare the P. andMl.^ 
Mi^ {Ml. Oy.).} 




^^IVI Hg^rdj poet/in' ^^f^c SgUr (1), y.r. 

^TCT ^«H, Any.» acy. earn, gen., of or belonging to 
tke grape. Exam.| Prav., {Hd.Dy.)^^^^ ^tt^ 
lT<r, A Tineyard for a donkey I 

ig^m^j poet. for -^j^ Sg9ir (1) and (2), y.t?. 



62 



•\t& 



^m^ 



w 






^RT «ytf, ^+if S^tf, # ^«, wr ^rfJ, Tbh., 9oe, ptc.^ used for 
tie purpose of eatting to, or addressing femaks^ and in 
Mg. also J inferiors of either sex, Ho ! hulloa ! hark ! oh I 
{Mth. Gr. § 24). Comp., ^itwrt or ^ ^, {lit. 
O Mother ! ) oh dear, dear ne, mercy on ub, etc. 

Exaniii Jll^g' 4> ^» vnr ^Wt vrrr irrrV ^ ^wtiwrr 

bTv^ ^anrr w^ "^Hrr V\, Hark, I was sleeping, 
O parrot, on a red oouoh, dear, on which thou, 
panot, waat sitting and tearing my bosom-doth; 
f J., 75, ^, firftr ^raftr ^Tw ^ w, f firf^^T, ^S^rxT 
^RRWT %% vmt, Ho, do not walk about with such 
airs, fine lady, coquetting with your bosom cloth I 

tJ., 78, ^ftiiV isTinf, ir jftfx^, tH? ift* 'wnrf 

1[» ijlx, "Why then, fair lady, do on that 
account tears drop from your eyesP t6., 82, ^i^^ 

"♦rT llT»Rf , ? ntft^, Hrr^ l^f WTTT lit 5^Tt, 
For the sake of that person, fair lady, why did 
you leave the door of your house P Bid. 82, 1, 
^riir inr V%^ ^^ir w^ wwo, O dear, such a 
wilful bridegroom have you brought 1 Hb. ii, 62, 

^rA wK ^rri? WTX ^if^^ ^> Dear me, deaf me, a 
miracle has happened ! 

[Derivation doubtful; perhaps connected mth 8kr. 
W, Pr. ^; cf. English vulgar *get along/ 
Molesworth {M. Dy.) suggests a derivcUion from Skr. 
^MJ mother, Saughton ( Bg. Dy.)^ from Skr. ^pit^ 
voc. o/^ni^Ri sinful ; the latter seems very improbabley 
as the Bg. ^ift or ft is said to be used in respectful 
address. — Bg. and 0. ^wt, i?t (respectful) ; M. ^, 
ir ; M. ^if, ^W>, ^, ^ {plur. ^TOT).] 

^«i%l^l Sgerihd, Tbh., subsf. m., (Bh.), the man 
who is engaged at a sugar-mill to out the standing 
sugar-ccme, {Gfrs. § 292). 

[Probably a contraction of ^4fi>f and the sec. der. 
suf. TTIT, as in "♦ncnm* q.v."} 

'^^BTftW Hg^chh, {Mg.)j { pr. pts. '^dtWK Sgechhait; 
-^iitwm dgechhal ; '^ihiw ig^chhab ; iJ?N? igechhe). 
Tbh., V. tr.j * to accept ; hence 'bear, endure. 
Exam., *^g* eong m ltd. By.) ^iftftnr, f%T:^i»T W 
^JrVT^ T l?!", co-wife, I will not endure my 
husband's absence. See ^'^m ligfj\ -v/^M dgaw, 
V^^finc igir. 



10 



16 



SO 



26 



80 



86 



40 



46 



60 



[The root^ as shown by its synonymic is clearly 
a derivative of Skr. ^v« though the origin of its 
latter portion is obscure. It may perhaps be traced to 
8kr. ftm or ^mfism, placed, abiding in, similarly to 



• ^ 



^^il^ Sg^\ {pr. pts. ^mn ig^mt; ^JiNrw 
Sgej^h "'•'Nt'I Sgejab; "^JiNr Sg^fai)^ Tbh., v. tr., 
'to accept; hence-* to bear, endure. Exaniti ^Bij., II. 

851<-853, jm»^ w irwy ^i^rwr ? wrft wf^ wfiri 

lilTnrr ^j'ltlT, ^^ %% -^tUmmn ? Are you distressed 
at so little as this ? When the hour of fighting 
with weapons comes, then how will you bear 
itP See v/^<i>W Sgechh, v^^hnr Ugaw, .^/4fhx^ 
Sgir. 

[This is clearly a derivative of 8kr. ^^f^ like 
y/^lp^f. It is probably a der. root, from 8kr. ^i^T% 
acceptable, endurable ; hence Bkr. *^/^l?NfTf%, Pr. 
viV^f^, Od. ^^t^. It is usually explained to be a 
hybrid^ Persian^Sindiy root {e.g.y byShake^ear, Fallon) ^ 

and connected uith Pre. cf^«^l aygeU^tan to excite, 
J^i aygez excited. But as the meaning of the Prs. 
and Od. words are so entirely different^ there is probably 
no direct connexion between them. It also occurs in 
P., Jf., and jr.] 

^T| (3T igethd^ Tbh., subst. m., Mg. and Bn. for ^iSm 
igmhd, q.v. {Ore. §§ 629, 667.) 

^'lot Sgethl (1), Tbh^ feminine of the preceding ; Mg. 
and Bh.for -^Sf^^ dgatthi, q.v. {Ors. §§ 667, 1409). 

^7T3T Sgefhl (2), (Mg.), the action of stretching the 
anns, as in yawning {B. Gfr., HI {Mg.% App. II). 

[A comp. of ^ip and v^^ » twisting of the 
limbs ; cf •^upr^.] 



1^ agefy -^Jhr Sger^ (str. f <ih|T Sgerd or M^x^ 
Sgerd)f Tbh., subst. m.^ Mjg. and Bh.^ <the green 
leaves at the top with the upper part of the sugar- 
cane, cut up for seed or fodder ^ {Ors. §§1008, 1010, 
1012, 1144 ; for synonyms^ see ^ifVir agin) ; •the stalk 
of sugar-cane {a synonym of '♦n^ dgdri and '^Bhft 
iyeri^ q.v. ; in this sense the word appears to occur only 
in certain compounds^ such as ^ [iiii^J t iget^bandhSL^ 
•'•jiTfTIT Sgar^wdhy "Sfn^nrrr dgar^wdr). 

[ With the first meaning^ the word is probably a 
corruption of 8kr. ^irTW, as explained under ^viprrt, q.v. 
With the second meaning the word is probably a corrupt 
Hon of Sir. ^1^, having limbs or joints, this being 
a striking feature of the sugar-cane. In Pr. the two 
words would be represent respeciive/y by ^nmr and 
^liiRl, etc. ; and as i»Pr. thejtrst member of a double 



t • 



^TTT?^ igSr'bandMiL — 

e&nsanant has a tendency to change into a naeal (see 
Hem. i, 26), the two words would fiaturallp tend^ in the 
course qf evolution^ to be conjused^ — a state of things 
which now actually obtains in BihArl. It may be added 
that this result would be assisted by the fact thaty both 
in Pr. and in &^., there are identical sets qf pleon. 
(or svSrthe) and sec. der. {or bhave) suffixes {see Hem. 
ii, 163, 164, and Qd. Or. §§ 209, 241, 246, 249), 
which are equally corruptions of the Skr. word w4r or 
^11. Thus in ^BuT^ or '^^ in the sense of t^ie upper 
part of the erigar-oaiie the suff. ^it^ amdTj^ arepleon.^ 
while in the sense qf 0agar*oane, the same suff. are sec. 
der. It may be added that in the form ^^irrtV 
{properly representing 8kr. ^y^f&ttl having joints) 
the word has been reintroduced into Sanskrit and sans* 
kritised into ^yifK^I, in which latter form the word 
is in Skr. dictionaries erroneously connected with Skr. 
^t^fXK. charooal.] 

8ger*b(mM&f Tbh., subst. m., Mg. for 
Pagat^bandhUj q.v. {Ors. %% 1010). 
[A compound of ^BK or ^flil^, y.<>., and^9^ See 
the remarks under ^RHC^ni .] 



68 




• V 



^?rCr ig^A^ Tbh., subst. m., Mg.^ str. f ofyShx 
Sger or ^WT ^9^9 i-^* ( ^^* IS 1008, 1010, 
1012). 

^?| vi ^Hl^h Tbh., subst. /., Mg.yfem. of the preceding 
((?r«. 181010,1012). 

^<l^1 ageldf Tbh., subst. m., > front, foremoflt (a 
synonym of ^ftWT agild, g.v.); 'the gleanings and 
refuse grain on a threshing-floor {Cr. p. 63), see 
synonyms under ^A»mK ag'wdr ; « {sel. ifr^) the^ 
uppermost bangle on the arm {synonym ^v^^T agudj 

q.v.j Grs. § 568). Exam., *^nNrr * ^Vr, ttie front 

peg^ a peg at the extreme end of the horn to which 
the woof is tied by a string (Ors. § 363, 11). 
[Derivation see under ^RPlV.] 

^If^ agihf (poet. ^Sfk%t agihd)^ Tbh., a4f. m&out 
a home or house, a vagabond. ExanUf Bdn^ Bd.^ eh. 
8»,6, ^iwm ^^fi^ fipnwn: vnfty {Sib is) oasteless, 
110118^668, naked, and oovered mth snakes ;, ib., ch. 
166, 4, gif ^K ^Wii i^rwrft ^hNt, A poor, homeless 
beggar such as you. 

[Skr. ^TOT:, Pr* ^ft^ or ^«ihft, B. 'rihf, and 
so possibly in all Ods. The prdkritio form ^ house 
emU^ however^ also in Skr."] 




agehij ( subst. f. ^lirf^fir agehirn)^ Mth. and poet, 
for ^ihft agehlf q.v. 



10 



16 



28 



«— ^STTTC^rr agorStyd 

^RTVl ogehly Tbh., adj. com. gen.y {subst. f. ^f^ft 
agehini) houseless, homeless. Exaniii Bdh. jp^^y ^tf^ 
3nftir ^ tTu mw WW «iTg fW, ^fhi Ww ktN^, %i: 
^Rhf^ «IT1, Tul'sl Das {says)^ if with love aud faith 
Bftm's name be unremittingly {lit. wakefully) 
repeated, the Creator, becoming favorably inclined, 
gives luck to the homeless^ 

[Skr. ^fstfi, Pd. and Pr, wfir^ or w^hft (Bhag.i 
p. 183). Skr. admits also the prdkritic form wil^O 

If V13T Sgmhd, {Mg. and Bh.) ^Itzj Sgefhd, Tbh., subst. 
m., an iron or earthen moveable fireplace or furnace, 
used by Jewellers^ glassmakerSy etc. {Ors. §§ 629, 
1247). 

[Skr. ^rftlV or {with pleon. m) ^rf)m[t, Pr. 
^^s(r^ or ^^^ {cf Hem. i, 85), Ap. Pr. ^fwnr 
{Hem. iv, 429) or ^fW, hence B. '<iNT, {with 
compensatory nasal^ see Hem. i, 26). The change of ^ 
to ^ in the form ^ZT is probably a mere provincialism. 
Bg. has -^Nrn or ^f irar, P. vftvT, Kn. %pfi or 
^irgi^ or ^mS neut."] 



80 



40 



60 



^'nfl igmhl (1), {Mg. andBh.) MfitA igethi, Tbh., the 
feminine qf the preceding ward, * the iron or earthen port- 
able fireplace or ohafiug-dish in a native Indian house 
(Cfrs. § 1247) ; hence tech. *the furoaoe of a jeweller 
or glassmaker, «fo. {ef. Ors. § 567); ^a flower-pot 
{from its resemblance to a portable furnace). 

[M. has ^tTwV or ^[wft^ meaning both a flre- 
pot and a Jsmall flre' {qf M. ^^^TT anrf>4iTW); 
0. •^Tfir ; S. ^TjftJt ; P. ^)rfW^.] 

^11^ ggSithi (2), Tbh., subst. /., the same as ^Rrft 
dgethi (2), q.v. 

^4fi^( aglRrdj Tbh., subst, m., a landlord's due, con- 
sisting of the first sheaves of the tenants crop. 
(Cr. p. 89, and Wils.). See '<if* Sgdi and 
($ffwdr. 

[Derivation see under ^n^.l 




agor^nihdr, Tbh., subst. m., a field 
watchman {(h-s. § 870). See wiftr agdr (2). 
[Prop^ verbal noun of^^siitK» q^v."] 



^iprrtfT^n agoriyd (1), Tbh., subst. f.^ Ig. f of ^R?r^ 
agm (1), q.v. (Ors. S 870). 

^^nr<^T agoriyd (2), Tbh., subst. m^ Ig. f. of vP^ct 
aydrl(2),j.f?. ((?r«. §870). 

>^jf||^l|| agorOiydj Tbh., subst. m, red.f. qf^[^\^ agdri 
(2), q.v. {Or. p. 60, EU. vol UfP. 210). 



^'UTT agGchar 



— 64 



"*i'*ni: 



ag6r 



^*l\^K agochar^ Ts., adj. com. gen., ^ what is Iwyond 
the reach of any human faculty or activity, such as 
sensation^ thought, action^ speech^ etc.j imperceptible, 
incomprehensible, indescribable ; hence *used as an 
epithet of Qod. Exam.| '-DoA. 199, wnr-m^ jp^nc 
^nrw ^Vift^T ^fl ^n;. Like BSm {i.e. Saraswati) is thy 
speech, incomprehensible, past understanding; Bin. 
203, ?h[f% iftft" ^»w^ ww^, im^ iTTRm, jm m^ w^iw 
wft^T, nrr^nr wnai ^^^, Abandon the three states 
{i.e. tcakingy dreaming^ sleeping) of thirteen kinds and 
worship the Most High {who is) beyond the reach 
of thought, act^ and speech, who pervades the whole 
world and is eternal ; Bdm.^ Bd,^ ch. 215, 5, ir^ ivw 
^^H^^^X 'fit, 1^^ ^ft«T ftnrr IRI ^, The 
Lord, who is beyond the reach of thought, act, and 
speech, He plays in Das'rath's courtyard ; ih.y chh. 43, 
4, ini wfi wT-irft viW^ ?ITO wfw %t WT, {The 
mutual love of 8ltd and Bdm ) exceeds sense, thought, 
and speech: how can the poet express itP ib,y A.^ 

ch. 119. 7, icm w^^ ft^ i?tfti vrrt w^m ^iTNx, 

firfir ^rf^ ^Tt, The charm of the {mutuai) love of 
Eam, Lakhan, and Slta is beyond all telling : how 
can it be declared P f6., ch, 105, 4, ^fw TIJ^ ^W^ 
ifTlT, ^^f ^^>^ «^ ^T"^^> The sage {i.e. 
Bharadwdj) and Baghublr {i.e. Bdm) bow to one 
another, and experience pleasure beyond telling. 
^Bdm.y Ar.^ chh. 9, 5, nr^t^ ^ni%^^WTf^^WT 
^l^lirir TTwi'T ^mW^i^^ (5*r,, ace. sing, masc). The 
Mighty,Unmea8urable, Eternal, Unborn, Undivisible, 
One, Incomprehensible {Ood) ; Misc. 28, ^f^nr ^'ft^K 
iJWr-int^ ^ TPrr w^ ^^-ftrrft, {Vishnu) the 
incomprehensible and imperceptible — he, under the 
influence of Bsdha, engages in sports and takes his 
pleasure in bowers. 

(The uHyrd is umally said to mean beyond the 
reach of the senses, but its meaning is far more 
general {see 8kr, Dy.,, d.c), as shown by the 
examples.) 

[^Skr. ^not -^ ift^T accessible, attainable. As 
above in all Ods.'\ 

^'Tt3ET Sgochhdy the same as "^Awx igSbchhd^ q.v. 
{Ors. § 733.) 

^?1TJ Sgdty Tbh., subst.f.y the form, mould, contour of 
the body, personal appearance. See '«t'P%W dg^lich. 

[JFbr derivation see the remarks under ^iiT%^. S. 
has -^ipr*, M. y[iR«T or iJir^^T or ^«T, also ^ifB^W, 
'^tft^^, -^i^^^t^. Not noticed in the other Ods."] 



^STTTtT agotf {poet. ^wt^iT agdtd)^ atff. com. gen.y 
same as ^iftirt agild^ q.v. hismt% ^Padm,^ ch. 696, 5, 
^rxirw ^T«l1^, Tt^ ^liPrtT {/em.) ift^ ^m W TT^ f^y 



10 



16 



80 



85 



80 



85 



The music sounds, and both {the ttto queens Ndg*matt 
and Padmdvatt) stand in front {of the dead king) 
and desire to ta.ke their husband to sleep, {i.e.y to be 
bound with his corpse to be burnt). 

[This word is merely another and mare original 
form of ^fipT or 'iirwV or ^snrr, J.t?., being a contr. of 
Pr. ^f4|e|iit, Skr. ^re^t. See the remarks under 

^RTt'II ag^ (1), {^tr. f. ^ftKJ agdrd)y Tbh., subet. w., 
an advance of pay to labourers (Cr., p. 87). For 
synonyms see ^Rl«Tf ag^toar. 

[For derivation^ see remarks under ^9i7Jt. The CHp* 
has agor in the original sense of in, front.] 

^PuT! ag^ (2), {str.f ^ifmaflrortf), Tbh., subst. m., 
^con.f a watdmian, guard, one who watches over 
crops {Ors. § 870) ; *aft«., watching, keeping 
guard, a watching for, waiting for, expectancy {At. 

Oy.). Exam., ^ Coll., {Bh.), ^rhint%w % ^nTN %ftrf 
VR ^%, WIT ftr wNi?tT IX "S^ 111 T^ ^TWT HT rr, 
There is no use in having a watchman for his field, 
for through fear of him no one dare touch a single 
gram belonging to him. * Coll., (Bh.)^ ifrfTC TifrtT 
T^ ^, lit. there is a watching for you, i.e.j you 
are being waited for. 

[Probably a contraction of the older form ^WVWM, 
q.v.y or it may be identical with Tii^ (1), q.v. In 
any case it cUarly seems to be a derivative of the Skr, 
^nv or ^nit which admits the figurative meaning qf 
being forward, sharp, keen, intent upon or attentive 
to. Accordingly the Skr, original might be ^tm^ or 



V 



40 



45 



50 



\^\TK agnr^ [pr. pts. ^iftni agorcRt, Bh. tjPItw 
agnratj %f(fK9 agOrit; %^V9 agfsral; ^iftK% agorab ; 
^iftK agorai; verbal noun ^ifttH^lTTK agor'nihdr), 
Tbh,t ^' i^^^'f *to watch^ to keep guard ; *to be in 
attendance (as a servant). Phr., TiflT-^»TC, wbst. 
/., a division of the crop on the threshing-floor 
{Ors. §§914, 1470, 2 ; lit. division after having watched, 
vftx being the conj. part.; so called because the 
crop is watched till the division ; see also Wil. s.v.y 
for a different meaning) . Exam.| ^Hb. iii, 16, n^ ipr 
v% 'frfr, PVW Tiftft, What has been the result, after 
my having watched so much P Bid. 87, 4, irreftr 
T^ Tfw ITT, T?rttPt Uif kTh tip* ^Tt, Like a bee 
roaming over the jasmin, he watches in hope of 
{hming) again the jpleasures of love. ^Padm., 

ch. 595, 6, ^^ mm ^x ^Tx ^nfr^, ^ f^ ^ht ^i^ 

WT «JVt, Two thousand maidens were in attendance 
at the door, and on both sides janitors stood with 
joined hands. 




^'ftr 



Sgdr 



IThis is a der. root farmed from ^iftr (2). S. has 

both v/^fii^ and v^Wt^- li *^ ^* «^^^ '^ ^^^ 
in the other Ods^l 

^in'is a^^ (1)» Tbh., ««6«^. /., the leafy top of 
the Bugar-oane (Iz. Oy.) See synonyms under 
'^v^agln. 

[The ioord is probably identical in origin with 
^rflx (l)j «^^ 'A^ remarks under ^nw on^^viif. 
It may^ however^ also be a modification of 8kr. 
^TfKt in which the element fF is in the Ods. apt to 
change to it; see the remarks under •<^hTT and 
^lifKT. In the former case the anundsik would be 
due to compensation for an original conjunct in ; in 
the latter case^ to the original co^j. ▼• Perhaps 
the form of the word has been influenced by both 
possibiUtiesJ] 

^?niC *^5r (2), the same as fu>c fjor, q.v. See ^tiTTK 
Sgdr^ 




-TCTIC ag^r^batdi^ Tbh., subst. /., see under 
^iftK agl^. 

^RuTT agiyrA^ subst. m., str.f. of^P^ agor {\)and (2), 
q.v. {Grs. § 870.) 

"il'UM ^5rl (1), Tbh., subst. /, the watching of 
crops {Grs. § 870). See ^ffftK agor (2). 

[An abs. noun derived from the concrete wftK (2), 
by means of the Prs. suff. t.] 

^I'nvt fl^^rl (2), Tbh., subst. m., a field-watchman. 
See vftx agorj ^iTHX^Il agoriyd. 

[-4 concrete noun derived from the abs. ^nitt 
(2), by means of the O^. suff. t See G^. Or. 
% 252.] 

^#||0 *^5rl, Tbh., subst. /., t?ie same as ^WK ig^ 
(1), q.v. {Cr.j p. 58.) See "♦tT^ Sgdri and ^Hh^ 
dgeH. 

[Prop. str. f. of -^nVfic SgdA, the original form of 
'♦frt (1), g.f?.] 

'^'u l\*l \ Sgauriydy Tbh., «m6«^. m., {TF. Bh.), a 
contraction of ^il*«||\^l dg^wariydj q.v. ( IT*/. «.t?., tfwrf 
Cr., p. 47.) 

'^•U a^<&, Tbh., subst. m., a synonym of ^ritwk 
ag'bar, q.v. (Grs. % 1203.) See iJ|if* a^afi. 

[A derivative of Skr. ^u, Pr. ^ui, probably con^ 
taining thepleon. suff. ^PT CvrtV). 2%6 Ml. equivalent 
is iftR> (m Gy.)-] 



65 — ^'ATT afl'aSrd 

^'fhSTT Sg&d, yaHf^ &gMA, Tbh., subst. w., «^r./. ^ 
^#f agJ^, q.v. {Grs. § 1203.) 

^'mT igJ^, (str. f. -^NPNt Sg&gd)^ Tbh., awft*^. m., 
(IT. J5A,), a synonym of ^^ agmj q.v. {Wil.f and 
Cr., p. 88.) 

[Apparently a reduplication of^^y q.v."] 

m 

^'TTWr Sgdiuchhdj ^jPNT Sgdchhd, {Bh,) ^ni^WT 

iQ Sg^wacAhdf Tbh., subst. m., a cloth worn by the 

Hindus while bathing and used for drying the body 

afterwards, a towel {Grs. § 733). Exam., Coll. (Bh.), 

I have lost my towel, and feel great inoonvenienoe 
16 in drying my body. See uunn' gam^chhd. 

{Musahndns call this bathing»cloth ^;ft or 

[Skr. ^yi i i^V i P^' "^TR^^, Aenc« Bh. "^if^wr 
and cow^n *^hj^ or ^W^. J. and P. have "^ftWT, 

20 S. ^WtiJt, M. ^>rr or -^nrT, afeo tats. ^JiiWt or 

^TiiWr or %W^n or •^iftirf^, -EjA. "^flift^T ; but Bg. 
has JRinrr, 0. UTOWT (0. Fy.) or iir^ifT (0. 2>y.)> 
^. JTTVt^T, K. iffwT, trAicA a^r^e triYA B. iRW, ?.<?. 
jTAa -If. tats, forms seem to suggest that possibly the 

26 tadbh. forms too go back to the Skr. ^lf^V{^ or {with 

pleon. v) "Wlf^^^- In that case the change ofn into 
^or'W is probably to be explained by the transposition 
of M into KTj analogous to the Mg. Pr. transposition 
of ^ into m {Hem. iv, 297). The Pr. has ^^gft a 

80 veil {Hem. 2>y., vs. 6, = Skr. fk^s^^g;^^^J, perhaps 

from Skr. ^iu and ^ftwrr.] 

^'mlT Sg^ehhif Tbh., subst. fern, of the preceding 

wordy with a diminutive sense^ a smaller kind of 

85 bathing-doth, handkerchief {Grs. § 733). Exam., 

Coll. {Bh.), T8f5rqf t mfK^ * ^nV> ^nrrw % ^^ 
^?Sr % ^rnrSf Gto to market and buy some cloth to 
make towels for the children. 

^fil^T agc^rd = VtHt agSura, q.v. 

^^ agSurl ((?r,. § 1186) = ^^ agmn, ,... 

^fn*^ agSur, Tbh., subst. m., ^an advance of rent 
paid by land-cultivators (asdmls) to landowners 
i^amlnddri) in the months of Jeth and Akhafh, 
{Ell., vol. II, p. 3) ; ^the same as ^p?tK agdr (1), q.v. 
For synonyms see ^nT^^ ag^war. 

[Derivation see under ^^vft. H. has VIPC.] 

^SRuTT agOurd, nrft^ agifUrd, Tbh., eubst. m., the 
leaves at the top and upper part of a sugar-cane 
I (CV*., p. 75). See synonyms under ^^fN" agin. 



60 







(igcRtrl 



66 



^'*Hd agydt 



[Derimtion Me under "vn^, H, has ^mTW> 

vftirr, 'iWr, 'wWHnr, ^tfrtrr (««« Hd. Dy.j p. 108).] 

^'mTT agdurij ^Ri^ agSurij Tbh., subat. /., Hhe 
same as ^r^^ agaur, q.v. ; *adyano68 to agrioultural 
labourers {Grs. §§ 844, 1186). See synonyms under 
^n^^ ag^war. 

[Derhation see under ^RpiV.] 
^TT'^ agni^ unphon. tats, form for ^nifir aganty q.v. 

^^M^ agy\ Tc, adj,^ com. gen.^ ( subst. /. ^n«T agya)y 
^unknowing, ignorant; hence * stupid, silly. Exaniii 

^Bin. 112, %^w, inxf ^1^, ift ^ iS t, Brf%, ^^Km ^rrrg 

vrf^, iftfl iniJt ^^ ^ frt, holy Kesab, what is 
the reason that, oonsidering me defiled by sin, you 
abandon me as if you were ignorant {of my supplica^ 
tions). ^Edm.j Bd,, ch. 62, 2, rftWl ^fk^V^ (/?»»•) 
1^ vfT^, He is searching about like a silly woman ; 

ib.j Ln.f do, 81, 2, TW fWhar ^m^ ^rw, ^n ^b"-w^ 

^rf?r ^vnfy In opposition to Bam, the obstinate and 
stupid knave {Le, Rdhan) desires victory. 

{The word is almost exclusively used with the second 
meaning.) 

[SAr. "mJli ; as above in all Gds.j tcith the pronunci- 
ation peculiar to each language ; see art. nr. The tadbh. 
form ^iT occurs in Fadm. ch. 186, 6, {^k^ %j^ foolish 
queen) ; in Pr. its tadbh. form is rare. The long form 
^^ {8kr. ^m^) occurs in Sapt.f vs. 184 ; the short 
form has not been noted hitherto.'] 



^T^ITTT agyatdy TCf subst. /., ignorance, stupidity, folly. 

ExdiTLi Mdm.j Ut.y ch. 35, 6, imq fiinmr ^imrr ^rv^, 

The All-wise, the All-generous, the Destroyer of 
ignorance. 

[^8kr. ^nnrr; as above in all Ods., with the 
pronunciation peculiar to each language; see art. nr.] 

'^•^1 agydy ^ITOT dgyd^ TSf subst. /., * a command, order, 
precept, injunction ; * {in polite language) permission, 
leave. Com p. , ^niT-'»inT, adj.^ performing orders, hence 
a servant ; ^WT-ITOR, adj,y making orders, hence a 
commander, ruler, chief; ^nrT-^nrft or ^lOT-ifiT^, 
adj.<, acting according to orders, hence an obedient 
person ; ^mpjtf (sss^wrr-wnftN'), adj.y submissive to 
orders, hence a manageable person; ^lonwf^ or 
^«il4^<if (= 'V^r-^*), adj.^ attentive to orders, 
obedient ; ^uH^tyi^ ( = ^TOT-^f^©^), acy., following 
orders, obedient ; ^pnrr-'RW, subst. w., written orders ; 
^wr-'^Tii or ^VHT-^lWV, adj.y law-abiding, obedient ; 
^wr-'^THBT, subst. m.f observance of orders, obedience ; 
^WT-fWW, adj.y without orders, without obtaining 
leave ; ^mr-nw^ subst. m., law-breaking, disobedience, 



10 



15 



80 



2S 



SO 



86 



40 



40 



60 



insubordinaiicm ; ^mvT-viF^y ad^\^ law-breaking, dis- 
obedient, insubordinate; ^WT-^Wir, «<&'•> ««♦»<? <'^ 
WBJ-^Bf^; ^imT'W^^i subst. m.9 same as ^mr-^inP; 
VsiT-VfUwr^, flw^*., same as ^mrr-HlP^. Phr., ^nrr 
VTW {lit. to make an order), to rule, hold eway, 
command, ( unth gen. of the thing ordered) to oom- 
moud to do a thing; "V^t %w {with gen. of the 
thing ordered) J to give the order to do a thing; 
^WT "^^w, to obey orders. Exaniii ^Bdm.^ Bd.^ 
ch. 187, 4, TPr ftrfir ^^ ^ ^m i^fr. In this wise 
he gave orders to all; »i., A.^ ch. 290, 4, ^mr 

w^ «r fj^rfrw %^* ^ ^WTX "Hf ^T^, ^WT, There 
is no service equal to ( that of obeying ) the orders 
oi a kiod master, therefore let your servant, 
sire, obtain the favour {of an order from you) ; 
ib., Ki.^ do. 25, 1, wifft WW wi ^ Tfc, 3i^ ^nn 
^»ft ^W, She {i.e. Swayamprabhd) went to the Bad'n 
forest, taking upon her head {i.e. in obedience to) the 
Lord's command ; Cht.j A. 71, 2, ^zm ^m WiWWf 
lil^ir-'^, ^JUT %w ITU vrt^ WW 1?^, Wipe off the stain 
of {our royal) family, O Kosal'pati {i.e. Das^rath), 
and give me orders, sire, {to go) to the forest. *ColL 
{Bh.)f mxv % wpw^ TT, Have I permission to go P 
Padm.y ch. 670, 6, i^ wi^ wtt wiWT -qj*, TWT 0W 
irf^T wi ^rr^, If I obtain leave for but one 
half-hour, I will make {the keys) over to the king 
and come to the temple ; also Padm.^ ch. 672, 1 ; 
Mth. Bdm.y Su.j 65, 2, ^WT-fWhr wm i?rt% wwf 
^^, Without obtaining leave you plucked and ate 
mudi fruit. 

( The form wimx agyd represents the common, every- 
day pronunciation ; the pronunciation wnswT agyd also 
occurs^ but is considered affected and stylish. The spelling 
with a short initial '^ is the usual one in literature^ 
and though the spelling with initial wn does occasionally 
occur {e.g. y in the Rdm.four times^ Bd.^ ch. 87, 4 ; 238, 
6 ; 362, 6 ; A.^ ch. 290, 4), there can be little doubt but 
that it should be uniformly mm. Metrically it makes 
no difference^ because the conj. cons, ni gy causes ^posi- 
tional length' of the preceding vowel. The spelling 
wni or ^"njT, with the conj. %jiij is a mere unphon. 
affectation.) 

\_8kr. wrnfX ; the word occurs in all Ods.^ with the 
pronunciation peculiar to each language^ on which subject 
see the article on nr. The Pr. tadbh. form is ^%i|t (Mg. 
Pr., qf. Sem. iv, 293) or ^WT {Bhag.^p. 379) or ^mrr 
{Hem. ii, 83), which still survives in B. ^mw, q.v. The 
alternative Pr. tadbh. form ^mr {Hem. ii, 83) does 
not 9urinve.'\ 



^•<Hn agydij {poet, ^mnm agydtd), Tfi., (I) adf., com. 
gen., {subst. f. wsmiWf agydtd), unknown, unfamiliar. 
Exaniii ^^A« Bdm., Ei., 14, 23, Km ^W9ir ipttt ^nw 



agydn 



67 



agra 



ftp^r ^wm xrfif Ww irrw, Tou have got undisbarbed 
nile^ and T&rft, days and nights have passed unbe- 
known to you; fft., B&.^ 40, 17, t^ ^t^ «Tpf iff'T 
^sm^r, Not a single branch of soienoe was nnfamjliar 
to them. 

(II) adv.j ignorantly, thoughtlessly. Exam.| 
BdM.y Ba., eh. 293, 6, ^^^Piff wmi vr* ^i^TUT, In 
my igiKoanoe, I have said muoh that was unseemly. 

[5Ar. ^nmft ; as above in all OA.j with the prO' 
nundation peculiar to each ; see art. nr.] 



offydHj (poet. ^PVTWT agydnSj old. dir. V«m| 
agyan&ypoet. ^m^ agy&n^)^ Ta^ (I) eubst. m., ^want 
of knowledge, ignorance ; hence •stupidity, folly ; 
eepec. ^phil. teeh.^ spiritual error, delusion, preventing 
the eoul from realieing its identity with Brahma^ 
causing self to (xppea/r a distinct personaUty, and matter 
to appear a reality {Skr. By. TT.); ^unoonsdous- 
nesB, swooning. Comp., V^inf-^IWW* ^'j subject 
to spiritual error. Exam.| ^Bam.j Bd., ch. 116,2, 

Therefore, O Lord, remove my ignorance, by tell- 
ing me in detail the story of Baghunsth {i.e. 
Mm). ^Bdm., Bd., ch. 64, 1, IT ^^^ WT ^s^ ir 
irmx, f^ ^wrrw xm '^ ^nwT, I would not accept 
the advice of Saijkar, {hut) in my folly went to 
Bam ; Doh. 490, ^M ir^, wm ^fV, w^w m, WW 

Having many faces {i.e. showing favours without 
discrimination) y many desires, much talk, many 
ways and practices ; to consider {all) these to be 
good ; that is unparalleled folly. ^Bin. 48, vm fijfi? 
miw^nwir IW Tlftift, {The worship of Bdm is) a 
remover of the blindness of spiritual error which 
resides in the heart of believers ; ib.j 197, ^firw WRT 

{Though) one may hear many a PurSn, (tfet) his 
spiritual delusion will not vanish, {because) like 
a parrot he redtes but does not understand ; Bdm,^ 
Bd.j ch. 63, 4, !|firCH «iTf^ f^^ ^iUBTWT, ^'^T ^^ 
xm wnnTT, Eam, the omniscient god, is he, by 
the thought of whom spiritual delusion vanishes; 
♦A., Ut., ch. 73, 7, ^ fiwftir wiw ^W ftnpT, 
H^ V ff^ WOTW-^r^npr, In this way {only), 
OaruT) o&n error be ascribed to Hari, never even 
in dream, is he {really) subject to spiritual delusion ; 
fft., do. 108, 3, irtw ftp I'l-lf^ ftW, ITT ftp ft^ 
^pirnr. Can there be anger without a notion of 
duality, or duality without spiritual error P ib.y 
A.f eh. 280, 2, ^Vt ir«iW, nm ^w*^* ^f^ ^ xm 
^ir W^TW, Piety becomes impiety» and spiritual 
knowledge becomes spiritual delusion, where the 
love of Bam is not paramount. *Mth. JRdm.^ A., 18, 3, 



10 



M 



20 



26 



80 



86 



40 



fij^ ^[fhi ^^n ^i'^T'r, %i[flr nfkn xn^ nftr w^. 

The king fell fainting in a swoon, as he heard with 
his ears Kekayi's cruel words ; ffr., Ki., 10, 62, irrfww 
fk^^ ^'W SRT wrw, wnvn wftwr w ^i«aw, The Lord 
struck Bali on the heart with an arrow, and as he 
received {the blow), he became unconscious {lit, un- 
consciousness was to him.) 

(II) a^\yCom. gen.y {subst. f. ^miWT agydnd), 
ignorant, foolish. Exam.| Rdm., Ki.y do. 2, 1, T;[ii V 
iT^, wtr-iw, 9f^-fii|^, mmx^, In the first place 
I was foolish, bewildered, perverse of heart and 
ignorant. 

[fiftr. ^inw^ subst. or ^im: adj. As above in all 
Ods.j with the pronunciation peculiar to each language ; 
see art. 19.] 

^«c||#|¥i|#f agydripany Tbh., mbst. m., a state of 
ignorance or folly. 

[-4 hybrid formation from the tats. ^iHTW with the 
tadbh. sec. der. suff. tth; see Gd. Or. § 228. Similarly 
in aU O^s."] 



60 



^f««nTf agySniy {subst. f. ^m^nfkfk agydnini), Mth. and 
poet, for ^ivmV agydnly q.v. 

^J^nTT agydniy T«., adj. com. gen., {subst. f. ^nnrfii^ 
agydnint), ignorant, stupid, foolish. Exam., Bdm,Ba., 
ch. 124, 1, fkm \m wf^ ^i«iPl ^wnft, v:^ '^x ^ 
HTPI w^-^stthV, Fools do not perceive their own error, 
but perversely ascribe delusion to the Lord. 
\^8kr. ^vpft; occurring in all Gds.'] 

^•<nO agydn, Tbh., subst. /, the act of kindling 
the fire at the time of devotion by Hindus. 

Exam.i Coll. {Bh.), ^ 'jwrx wx ^1 ^ fhn ^wnft 

^irw, He kindles the sacrificial fire daily at the time 
of devotion. 

\_8kr. ^rftwrfxiT ; Pr. ^rftnmf^^ ; hence B. 
and H. ^n^TKt ; not noted in other Ods."] 

o agra, Ta., adj., com. gen., and subst., (/. ^ut agrd), 
the same as ^iftirT agild, q.v. Comp., ^rn-ntift, adj., 
preceding ; subst., a forerunner, predecessor; ^rir-DTV 
i8f«(«^. m., the first mouthful or morsel; ^n-^ {subst. 
f ^H-wr), a(y., of prior birth, first-bom (Sa^. vi, 18), 
subst., an elder brother {or sister) ; ^tu-^w, subst. m., 
the name of a poet, see "^mK-Xl^ ; ^n-^rnr, subst. m., the 
first, chief, front, or foremost part of anything ; ^n-VK 
{subst. f. *^KT or *^^,), adj., preceding; suist., a 
chief, leader, guide ; ^u-^t^, subst. m., foresight, fore- 
thought, providence, precaution ; ^i?-^>ft, adj., pro- 
vident, cautious ; subst., one endued with foresight. 
Phr.| ^m-irnlt ^'IT, the advanced guard of an 




^^I»h4" agr)ijhy' 



68 — 



a§h 



annj; ^ir he. sg,^ before; moreovery further. 
Exam.| {of a^.)^ Bam., Bd., ch. 241, 8, ^^ ^^ wft 
f^ nfm ^tt, She went, making her beloTed friend 
lead the way; Krish. 81, irw-inw ^^[^fif ifftfir 
fir*r ^n ^^l(^ ^T^, After the manner of a child, with 
her eyes full {of tears) , she draws her clothes in front 
of them ; Oti.j Ln. 1, 9, ^ finj ^ft* fPTO ^iPC^ ^m 

^rfrir ^rn ijt i?rf^, gufj-icr^ ^ ^tt ^^^ ^ ^Rii 

'R^ iiH^, (Jfonrfdcfari «oy« ^o R&ban) Come quickly 
and meet him (i.^. JSam) with a request for quarter, 
taking Sltil with you and putting her in front of me, 
{then) — so Tul'ffl Das {says) — the Lord, hearing the 
word * saran ' (i.6. quarter), will put you out of fear. 

{Of subst), Krish, 313, ^iw^ "^n ^^ ^TO W^, ^> 
^fJRT Ti?Kt % «nt. In Ag'han I am under the 
influence of my love to my liusband Syfim ; who will 
take my letter {to him) ? Sat. vi, 18, (jig^ iftir «nft 

^1[ Tpnr vvn iui^TT, imit ft "^svm «^>; ^w fwfw irf^ 

■VK^fTTf Tul'si Das («oy«), without sons l«.^. actions) no 
business can be done ; therefore they are of prior 
birth {or existence) ; this is altogether evident ; {the 
meaning of the riddle is this : %K^9 or the actions of 
men, being produced by them, are, as it tcere, their sons; 
at the same time mevCs present condition is the result of 
their ^karm^ or actions done in a previous existence, 
according to the Hind^ fatalistic doctrine of metem" 
psychosis ; hence * karm * are both before {agrqfa) and 
after {suan),from different points of view). 
[^Skr. ^ii: ; the same in all Ods.'\ 



^UT*Cr* agrijhy', {unphon. ^inniF affrahy"), Ts., a^\, 
com. gen., not to be received, imaoceptable. Exam.i 
Bw., ch. anon., iftf% ^MTm Tf ii^ ft^Kl, I cannot 
accept your decision. 

[SAr. w«»ni: ; possibly occur rinff in all Qds., with 
the pronunciation peculiar to each language. The Pr. 
tadbh. form ^5hwt {see Hem. i, 78) has not survived.'] 

^^"nj*! agrdsan, T6.t subst. m,, food offered {in 
oblations, sacrifices, 8fc.) to the gods. Exam.« Coll. 
{Bh.), ^m^w HIT Ao ^^ ^* Wo, First lay aside 
a portion for the gods, and then eat. 

[SA-r., ^wncifff (^^ + ^riR^) ; not noted in other 
Qds., except H.^ which also has WVR = Skr. ^wnt:.] 

^^SnjT^T* agrdhy\ unphon. for ^f^vm^ agrdjhy^, q.v. 

'^PtlT agrim, Ts., adj.^ com. gen., {subst. f. ^uwf 
agrimd), the sametu^lfimn agild,q.v. ExaiTlii ^Bw., 

vs. anon., ^finr wni i|ii\ ipriim, ^rwf>n^ ^^%^^5icnr, 

Touhave heard the former account, honoured father, 
now hear the latter, noble one. ^Hb. ix, 70, iff^Tinr- 
wtw V^ ^n W%^ ^fw %^ yj m^f nf^, Saith 



10 



15 



20 



26 



80 



96 



40 



46 



50 



Man'bodh, I have related £ans' slaughter: what 
happened subsequently, that remains to be told. 
[B*r. ^fim ; as above possibly in all (Ms.'] 

^'Vm agrej, ^xim agrij= npt^ ag'rej, q.v. 



agh, T6., subst. m., * {moral) sin, crime, guilt, wicked* 
ness {exceedingly common in this sense, synonymous with 
^^flfi Vfmw, etc., unth the former of which it is not 
uncommonly joined in the phrase ^n n[^^^ sins and 
demerits); *{ physical) evil, misfortune, calamity 
{rarely in this sense, synonymous with ^inflT, with 
which it is sometimes joined in th^ phrase ^|tr "^Virifw 
evU and misfortune) ; ^ {ceremonial, or from the 
point of view of Hindu caste) undeanness, pollution, 
degradation. Comp., ^W-^ftw, see ^^ below; 
^^-vr^, acb'y sinful, profligate, criminal ; ^m-^rrfw, 
subst. /., lit. a mine of sin, mass of sin (Sat. iii, 56), 
hence a thoroughly wicked person {Edm., Ln., ch. 31, 
4) ; ^w-'TWr, subst. m., an exterminator of sin {Bdm., 
JJt., ch. 52, 3 ; Sat. iii, 32) ; ^w-«iin;ir, {lit. having 
one's birth in pollution, hence) polluted, undean, 
degraded {Rdm., Ar., do. 31, 1) ; ^w-Wt^if, adj., 
sin-destroying, the redeemer; ^W-5W, subst. m., an 
accumulation of sin, the amount of sin debited to a 
person in God's books {Bam., JJt.y ch. 90, 2) ; ^m-vHir, 
subst. m., sin-removing, the redeemer {Oit.,Bd., 16, 3) ; 
^r^-TTftr, subst m., V. ^w-^Tir {Bdm., Su., ch. 60, 6) ; 
^VH-ipg, adj., lit. having the form of sin, an embodi- 
ment of sin, a thorough sinner {Bdm., Bd., do. 180, 
2) ; ^w-%^, subst., a particle or trace of sin {Bdm., 
Bd., do., 157, 2) ; ^w-^T»T, acfy'. {f. oft or •^), sin- 
removing {Sat. i, 6) ; ^r^-TPft, adj., a remover of sin, 
the redeemer {Bdm., A., ch. 287, 3) ; ^wrft ( 
^rtr), subst, enemy of sin, the redeemer; 
( = ^n-^r^r)* subst. m., name of a demon who was 
a general qf Kans; he assumed the form of a vast 
serpent, into whose mouth Krish^n and his companions 
entered, mistaking it for the cavern of a mountain ; 
but on discovering the truth, Krish^n swelled himself 
to such a degree that the demovCs belly burst and 
he died; w^, subst. m., lit. the sea of sin, hence the 
whole mass <>rbody of sin ( = ^rw-^ft^; cf. Bdm., A., eh. 
240, 3; Git., Ut., 19, 5). Exam„ ^Bdm.,Bd., ch. 235, 5, 

■^^ ^T^ ^-■^TW'' T^> ^^ ^^''T fipir ^1^ ^T^, through 
touching of whose {i.e., Bdm^s) lotus-feet Ahalys 
was delivered from the heinous sin {of adultery with 
Indr') done {by her) ; ib., A., ch. 161, 5, 6,^1* ^WiTTJf 

^Tir-w^«r-nw vw, wfk irvJY , ?f ^mw iitf% ^ft^, finnirr, 
91^ v% ^H ifH «nr, muT, "Whatever crime there 
is in killing father, mother, or spiritual preceptor — in 



^W agh 



69 




agh^wH 



bnmiBg the Btalls of oows or the cities of Brahmans ; 
whatever oriine there is in committiiig murder of wife 
and ohildren«-in giving poison to a friend or a king ; 
whatever sins, great and smally there are» bom of 
thought, word, or deed, as the poets declare,^ma7 
those sins be mine, O Qod, if I give my consent to 
this, mother I (t.«., to Kmk^yfsplot of supplanting 
Bdm) ; ih.j -4., eh. 1 77, 8, ^f^ ^W-^^'H]^ irfw 
wf^ ^Tt, ^ mm, ^ ^rfoc ^irt, The jewel {which 
i% fabled to be found in a serpent^s head) does not 
contract the serpent's sins and demerits, {but used as 
fnedieine) it cures poison and relieves suffering and 
poverty ; tJ., Ut, eh. 123, 3, ifw jiri^t «r^nr*^v •iTt, 
9«rff w qiwr imv «ri| irrl;, His sins, bom of thought, 
word, or deed, pass away, who, with a believing mind, 
hears the recitation of the story {of the Bdmdyan) ; 

Bin. 194, ^ im Tn;^«T!: f%% ^^ ^^^ ^ww ^wr^ft, 

He who, having received such an {excellent) body, 
contracts sins and demerits to his heart's content, is a 
mean and wretched fellow ; ♦&., 92, %t ^1^ ^TX^ ^(^ 
^ ilWir ilK wf^"^^, Ssrad {or Saraswati^ the goddess 
of speech) y counting. my sins for many ages, will not 
reach the end of them ; Sat. iii, 32, ^Tf^ ^n ^^iir 

^^% W^-wni^ Worship jointly the first {syllables) 
of the Moon {i.e. tjwt rdkd) and the fickle {mind, i.e. 
HW man) {ie. rd + iTki = Bdma)^ abandoning evil — 
{saya) Tul'si Das — , for he is the destroyer of sin, the 
rejoicer, the breaker of good men's fears, the abode of 
happiness ; ib., iv, 56, xnr l^ Tt TXW ^^ %ii wnr- 

Joining the excellent letters of Suraj {a synonym of 
et) and Bans {i.e. Suraj-bans, or he who belongs to 
the solar race, i.e.^ Bdm), you may recognise the 
causeway over the sea of existence {lit. world) ; he 
who remembers {this) with {all) his heart, destroys 
his whole mass of sin ; K. Bdm., Ut. 115, f^^ ^v- 

irtii tsW ^9 Contemplating the mass of my own sin 
and the terrible wickedness of Eali-kal {i.e. the fourth 
or iron age of the Hindus) ^ I feel distressed, and can 
think of nothing else. "JBam., A.j ch. 204, 3, jttj 

^pm ift tn-^RiT wff vrrq f^ ii?Sf ^w^i. My 

mother's evil counsel, the root of the {present) 
calamity, like a carpenter, fashioned an adze out of my 
advantage ; Bin. 129, ^t^Tf Vf ^jfilTT ^Tif, ^rw ^iHTV 
V9W, Through hearing {t/te name of Bdm)^ one's 
happiness and merits increase, {uhile) one's evil and 
misfortunes decrease ; Ddh. 85, ^TW ^nrvv ^[B^f^, 

%Tf ^ww n WW, KTW WW Iww ^wn ^^, irnm ^^ 

5K1W, Bam's name, which removes all evil and mis- 
fortune and causes every prosperity, Sib is continually 
repeating, and the Beds and Furftns are extolling. 



10 



^Bdm.^ Ar.j do. 31, 1, vrrfw-wlfii 'Vf-«i»rw wfr-^ 
^% ^tw wift. He gave release from the world to such 
an outcast and polluted woman {as the Sabarl was ; 
the comm. explains frHj^m ^^»lpr ftf ifir wW-^Jtift, 
a low-bom Bhil, given to the sin of killing). 
I8kr. ^rww ; as above in all (?^.] 




15 



20 



ts 



so 



95 



aghap^ Ta.t ae^*., cam, gen.^ the same as ^tiftw 
aghapit (2), q,v. {explained in eomm. to Bin. 25 by 
fff Wf w»^ i»1w, what is not likely to happen). 

Exaniai ^Bin. 25, wn w^tt, w^ fVww, ftw^ ^ifk 

Tprre viW 'T'lW iwrr, {Sanumdn is) the accomplisher 
of what seems impossible, the destroyer of what is 
well established, the awful traveller over earth, nether- 
world, sea, and sky. 

[-4 corruption of 8kr. ^Wlfiws.] 




40 



4S 



60 



aghatit (1), Tat ek^*., com. gen.^ lit. what cannot be 
decreased or fail, hence absolutely certain, unalterable, 
immutable. Exam.| Bdm., -4., ch. 159, 6, wfir liTWW 

fw^ wrPr imii'in, wnr-^r^-iifif ^^f^ifim wtwt. Do not 

think of your (heart's) loss and vexation : remember 
that the course of time and fate is immutable. 

[i8%r. ^irwflWt See the remarks on the derivation 
of v/^»». As above possibly in all Ods."] 

^nrtZTT aghafit (2), Ts., adj.^ com. gen., ^lif. what ia 
not likely to happen, hence improbable, impossible 
{explained in comm. to Bin. 30 by «it W^ ^s^w ofbn;) ; 
*lit. what should not happen, hence unfit, unworthy, 
shocking. Exam.i 'Bin. 30, lir^ftir WW, ^|^ ftirvw, 
^^ ft^^ T ^ff t «lfl ^rtw i»^. The accomplisher of the 
improbable and the preventer of the probable, such 
a contrary experience will not be met with {in the 
case of any one else except Hanumdn). *Bdm., Bd., 

ch. 123, 6, wft-WTwr-w wrw wmrf, ftnrff n^w 

^ ^nwt^ wpiY, Under Hari's delusive influence 
{the heretics) wander about in the world ; nothing 
is {too) shocking for them to say. [^The comm. in 
the Lakh'naU edition interprets: ^that they should 
pay {that there is neither agun nor sagun, 1.7), is 
nothing improbable, or is not to be wondered at,' 
thus giving to ^v^fkw the first meaning."] 

[^Skr. ^wfinr: ; as above possibly in ail 04s.'] 




agKwSi, ^vnnt agh^wdly Tbh., subst. /., 
satiety, fulness. See ^mr aghdt, etc. Exaniii comm. 
to Ldkh^naa edition of Bdm,, A., ch. 289, 5, fiinrr 
^l^nw ^ftif ft ift ift ^t^TTiT kW %, {Bdm^s) mercy 
and grace has satisfied me {lit. has given me satiety) 
with nectar. 

[^First verb, noun in T, derived from y/ WfTW^ q.v. 
See also Qd. Vhr.^ § 308.] 



j/^arr a^ha 



70 



^^WT' Offhd 



Jr TTT aghdy (pr. pis. ^Wttt aghditf^^mtfl aghdt ; 

^^nnir a^Aoe/ ; ^WT3rw aghdeb ; ^r»TF ajrAdif ; Bw. 

forms : 1 sg. pres. warHr ajrAdS (iJef^., i»., cA. 56, 7), 

<>r poet. ^fWr^ ajrAaS (iZd;;»*, Z7Z., ch. 88, 2) ; 3 sg. 

pres. W^XK aghai {Padm., ch. 4, S)^ or poet, ^wrt nfifAdl 

{Bdm., A.f ch. 51, 8) ; 2 /?/. j»r^. ^wm aghdhu or 

poet. ^WVf^ aghdha (Edm.^ A.j ch. 201, 6) ; 3 pi pres.y 

^wrf^ aghdhi {Bdm.^ Ln.^ do. 103, 1), or poet. ^^^ 

aghdht (Bdm^j Ut.j ch. 54, 1) ; 3 sg. past w^rm aghdu 

{Bin. 100) or ^^wx^t {Bdm.y -4., ch. 105, 1) ; pres. part. 

masc. ^qwnr aghdt {Bdm.^ Ln.j do. 108, 2), or poet. 

wmUT aghdtd {Bdm., Ar., ch. 17, 3) ; pres. part. fern. 

^^rfil aghdA {Bin. 233), or ^tr^rrf^ a^Atf^f (JB5w., Bd.j 

eh. 32, 3) ; conj. part. ^^TT <V*^* (-Refm., Zw., 

cA. 85, 9) or ^wnr a^A^e (Zan. 22) ; the pres. and 

conj. part, are commonly used as adverbs^ see ^^TW 

aghdt (2) a/nd ^m^ aghdy) ^ Tbh., t?. «n^r., *to prevail, 

to abound {mth this meaning now only found in the pres* 

and conj. part.j used adverbially ^ '^VX^ (2) and ^r^T^, 

q.v.)\ Ho be full, to be filled, to be replete; 'to 

have enough, to be satisfied, to be satiated, both 

bodily and mentally ; ^to have more than enough, to 

be surfeited, to be sated. {It is constructed either 

with the conj. part, or the pres. part, of a dependent 

verby and with the pos^osition % and instr. case of a 

dependent noun.) Exam.i ^ Olt., Ut. 34, ^r^ir n^ fkfm 

fiirr ^ Wt ^rrf 'nwn. All Rikhis say that to-day 

they have been abundantly rewarded with mercy; 

*Bdm., -4., ch. 201, 6, KW-^frfw ^m ^ifiw ^J^TJ, 

Now you {i.e. Bharat) are full of the neotar-like 

faith in Bsm; tJ., ch. 105, 1, ^fir ift'-w^^ ^m 

^li^^> 'frr^ 'rfw ^mw ^^, On hearing the Muni's 

words Ram was confused, {but yet) filled with delight 

at his display of faith ; «J., ch. 289, 5, 1*Tr ^^^fur ^W 

^iurt, i|?tPl fiinn-firf^ ^w ^rf^wrt, My whole self is 

filled with {Bdm^s) mercy and gra4)e, and his wealth 

of mercy has exceeded everything ; *6., eh. 208, 1, 

In an assembly of saints and in such a holy place, 
an oath, even in {speaking) the truth, is replete 
with sin. ^Lit.^ {of food, ^tc.)y Coll., Mth., xmm^ 
nfj.^irn^j ^^ts^m wV, I will not eat just now, 
I am satiated ; *6., ^ir wt3T fk^ ^ ^^TPW wV, I have 
taken enough of food and drink ; Prov., Bh. {Sd. 

Dy.), ^^^ «f-i^ ^ ^, "^^ * ^rff ^u^nr. Who 

is such a fod that he does not get enough in 
eating (f.^., ^ho does not beware of surfeiting himself) ; 
Bh., song, {ib.) , H^m ^TR f% ^^^ ^^^r, ^To Wo ftpf, 
^^fvirrP, Art thou hungry or art thou full P tell 
me, {and) I will give thee something to eat ; Rdm., 

Ln., ch. 56, 7, iiT^ «W, ilff X^ VWW, UT wftr 
nfj ^m^ ^ WV, (jETarmmdn) asked water, {Kdrnemx) 
gave him (somi?) in a cup, {Jmt) the monkey (i.^. 



10 



IS 



so 



S6 



so 



36 



40 



45 



60 



Banumdn) said, * I am not satisfied with so little 
water * ; ib., ch. 85, 9, Bi^nr-f*r^T VBW mfr, ^iTPr 
w^W, ^^mr ^^«fr, Herds of jaotals snap and bite 
and feed, and, having eaten their full, howl and 
scamper about ; Kan. 22, i^ ^WTP'^rnv ^TO ^^^ !I^ 
^iPtfirift, The Joginis, voraciously feeding on the 
cheeks and heads {of the dead warriors), became 
satiated. Fig., Rdm.^ Bd., ch. 32, 3, «rrv 
film" 'ffr ftRT ^l^nft, "Whose {i,e. Bdm's) mercy 
can never get enough in {showing) mercy ; 6it., 

Ar., 17, 8, ^ ^ sr^N^ «nw ^TW, ^ tir ^^tt, Eagerly 
giving presents and making courtesies, she cannot get 
enotf!gh in (showing) her love ; Rdm., Ut., ch. 88, 2, 
^ns-w^^rfim ^f^ «r 'l^r*, I can never satisfy myself 
with bearing the nectar-like words of the Lord; 
ib., Ln., do. 108, 2, wt^r-f%^ ^wtlW ifWw mjf 
^^nr, {Brahmd^6) eyes oould not satisfy themselves 
in beholding the ocean of beauty ; C^lt., Su., 40, wnr 
Ma i M Mfim TR^ftw,<ry ^ir^^w^, {Rdm's) name, 
by its power has made sinners, who could not get 
enough of sin and injustice, holy; Padm.,xh. 4, 3, 
WHfw W>i, ^WlT «r ifrt:, {God) made {the affect of) 
desire, {hence) no one can be satiated; Bin. 100, 
^ fi(^ ^wrv, Their hearts oould not be satisfied 
{comm. Kir in?f «rt:). *-E<lw., 17?., <?A. 54, 1, xm wf^ 
♦ !Pnr ^»wr?P, t^ fwtftr ^nm finf ht^. They who 
can be surfeited with hearing Rfim's history, have 
no appreciation of its peculiar savour. 

{The word is used in conversation in Bihdri, but 
in literature toe have only met with it in Bw.) 

[The original of this root is the 8kr. ^^n 
{1st el. ^fir), which, however, occurs more commonly 
in 8kr. under the form W {Ist cl. ^^fir). In the 
latter form it has both meanings : (1) to be worth, to 
oost ; (2) to be able, to be equal to,— hence to prevail, 
to abound. In the form ^ the root appears to occur 
in 8kr. only with the first meaning. These remarks 
appear to apply also to Pdli, which has oho both forms 
^V^ (^nd ^^. In Pr. also both forms 4>ccur ^^x 
{Hem. ii, 104) and ^iWT {Sem. iv, 100) ; moreover the 
latter admits a double form fimi; {1st cl.) and *^iiwrfT 
or {shortened by Sim. iii, 150) ^nRT {x.th cl. =JSkr. 
^hifjfim<^). In this double form the verb bears all the 
meanings which it now possesses ; thus in Him. iv, 100, 
and Ndm., vs. 86, ^mi: is said to be a synonym of 
^%^ { = SAr. ^^) he is able, twt ( = Skr. xmfk) 
he prevails, ^JWi; ( = Skr. itt^) or ftxTTO (= Skr. 
OnO^) he is successful, w^nre ( = Skr. ^^, pass, of 
i^WK) be is gratified, pleased, satisfied ; and in Him. 
iv, 169, ^nr^ is said to be a synonym ofjxx { = Skr. 
'^f() he is full, satisfied, sated. In Sindhi this double 
form still survives with the more original meanings to 
oost and to prevail, to be successful {S. Dy.j pp. 48, 



^H\\ aghX 



Tt 



^nrrar agkdnd 




44). In Bihdrl only the longer of the double farms 
survives (with loss of^)^ which still occasionally bears the 
more original meaning of to prevail, to aboundi while 
usually it occurs^ asin Pr,^ only with the secondary mean* 
ingj to be full, satisfied, sated. 8hr. ^ifif, Pd. »^iifil 
or •'^Jurirffr, Pr. '^nri: {Sem. iv, 100) or ♦•^iwt^t 
or •^^niwi: {H&n. ir, 169) ; 8. *^i% or [with M for w, 
see^ Od. Or. § 134) «^^T% ; B. {with loss of w, see Od. 
Or. §§ 33, 123) •^n^TI. Not met with in the other 
Ods.'] 

aghdif (poet, ^rwrt aghdt)^ adv.^ the same as 
aghdy, q.9. Examii Ag. vii, 23 (nee .also Ddh. 

420), ftiTT^T ^T fiifhl ""^f ^'rfVif ^ ^iKiv ; xm 

fwi^, ftfir mr-^ir, ^^l^ ^^T ^f^vn, When {a manU) 
enmity grows towards (Aw own) good and {his) love 
towards (Aw own) evil, then it is a thoroughly unlucky 
omen ; {for) Earn is averse and the Creator disinclined 
{from him) ; Edm., A., ch, 242, 13, mfm f^^ ^f^ 
^XW "d ^Tt, ir^Rl Klfif ^fwc^T ^^t<;» Looking at the 
two noble brothers accompanied by Sita, the wicked 
queen thoroughly repented. {The word is properly 
the oonj. part, of the v^^^ aghdy y.t?., as shown 
by the fuller form ^mi. %, e.g,, Oit, Bd.^ 70, X^H^ 

iftt x\ wn: %, XTT vn wftjr wtT ^ wT wH*r 

WW ^l^«: %, Going to the playground very early 
in the morning, and beholding Ram and Lakhan, 
the people feast their eyes on them to their hearts' 
content.) 

^^11^ agf^^'^i tSA.)> ^^15^ ^^^^ (•^^*- ^^ ^9^), 

Tbh.,. adjn com. gen., ^satiated, satisfied; 'sated, 
surfeited. Exam.| Mth. Prov.y ^THP* WWW ^?t?t wW, 
To a satiated crane even the pothi fish is bitter. Of. 
for another version, 
IP. p. qf s/^^y q^f^'l 




aghdl (1), Tbh., subst.fy satiety^ surfeiting^ etc., 
q.v. ExanUfl Misc. 81, WT f^yf WT^IT W^IT WIWtWT, WWW 
f^ww w^ wnc wrwTt, For many days since I left) the 
city of Ajodhya, I have now {for the first time) had 
my fill {Ut. satiety). 

^Properly str. f. of WWTt which is the first f>erb. 
nam, formed wUh the prim. der. suf. \j from the 
^/WWT, q.f>.'] 




aghdl (2), poet, for WWTT aghSi, the same as 
aghdy, q.v^ Example, see under WWTi: aghdi. 

^nrrXT aghdS, adv., the same as wiWTW aghdy, q.v. . 



4|4lil^ ^hdel, a^\, the Mth. and Mg. form of WWHW 
^ _ aghdtl,q.v. 



10 



u 



26 



80 



8S 



40 



40 



SO 



^"WTfT agRdt (1), {unphon. WTWTW l^/hat), T«., sulst. m., 
'a blow, stroke, knock, kick, shock, gust {of wind) I 

* wounding, a wound ; ^killing,. murder, destruction ; 

* {fiff') ^^ow of fortune, misfortune, trouble. Exaniii 
' JT. Sdm., 8u. 3, wwt wfw wrttl^ w^iw w^ WT« % %, 
WTW % WWTW w%, w^ w W%, ^ w, Thus the cunning 
monkey {ue. Hanumdn, when the rdkhasas of Laykd 
wanted to bind him), causing his body to shrink 
{as it were) with fear, patiently bears the kicks of 
their feet, saying in his heart ^they are bullies.' 

* Coll. (jBA.), wjTw % w^ wiwTW wrnrWy He received a 
great wound. • JETJ. ui, 12, www WWTWW, WWW ITrfV, 
^w WWTW www w^CWlfK, The great trees fell and Murari 
{iiC. KrisVn) laughed, and their destruction made 
{his power) manifest throughout the world; Coll. 

{Bk.), w wftw % ^ww WWTW www w % wT % wrn^ww, 
fw WTwrwwfw^ WWT wrfw wtrw. He took him to such 
a lonely place {lit. place of murder, i,e., so lonely as 
to be fit for the commission of murder) and killed him 
there, that to this day no trace of it has been found. 
*(7o//., (J5A.), t wtw W^ w^ WWTW WT Wf w, This is a 
great misfortune which has befallen him. 

{In the sense of slaughterhouse, place of execution 
{S. J)y)j the ward is not used in Bihdr. Compare, 
however, the second example of the third meaning. The 
unphon. form has not been met with by us in Bihdri 
literature. See the remarks under wwiw and WFWT.) 

[S*r. WTWTWt ; as above possibly in all Ods.] 

^Wld aghdt (2), Tbh., adv., the same as wwtw aghdy, 
q.V* Phr., WWTW '^TW, v. tr., to do anything excessively 
or with a great show. Examii Coll., Ohhattls^garhl 
Tjlf WWTW, W^^WT wIt, WgtT, WWT wrwTw wfe wW % 
KfwWj There was a man, a great heroj intelligent, 
and of an exceedingly tough heart. 

[Properly the pres. part, qf ^/WWT, q.v.'] 

^Wl^ll aghdnd, (f. wwrw^ aghdnl, pi. masc. wwn^ 
aghdn^), Tbh., ai(f., {Bw.), full, filled, replete ; 
^satiated, satisfied ; sated, surfeited ; {subst.) one 
who enjoys a competency, a rich man or woman. 

Exanui ^OH., Bd. 4, ^ iw wfwrw w^i^tww, wwt 3iirt^ 

WWTW^t Giving and receiving, dressing and bestowing 
dresses, the people are full of joy ; ib., 61, fwww 

w^rt ftfw TTw w wTWJX WTW, ^iwrfw Swwtw^wwt^^, 

The xikhi and the king, complimenting and extolling 
each other, were fuU of intense love and joy; see 
also Bdm.f A., ch. 105, 1, under v^wwt. ^Bh., Prov. 
{Sd. Vy.), WWTWT 'TIWT TtftwT iftw, A satiated stork 
considexs the po^hi fish bitter {cf. wvnwr for 
another version). 

£Pr. WfiWrw*^ (Hem. Dy.,%s^ 19, where it is explained 
by 8kr. wwO* ^^ ^ derived from the ^/wwi by means 



^P^T^I aghdy 



— 72 



4i 



of the mff. ^w^ (Hun. iv, 443), Od. ^irT (ff^, 
Chr. §§ 315y 321). Jbr/Ta^ of this kind are med in Bw. 
ae past participles. See under v^VlT.] 
• 
^^nr agh&y^^'mx.aghai^^ii^jsf aghde^ Tbh., arfr., abun- 
dantly, to one's heart's content, fnlly, completely, 
thoroughly. Ejttun., Olt, 8u,, 16, ^ro ^ifii^ ^tv ^ 
'^wnr, (Hanuman) ate nectar-like fruit in abundance ; 
jf2dm., ^., (fo. 62, 1, 2, ^i^«r ^fiiTC isr^ wftr f^ «ft «r 

Whoever does not willingly accept the advice of his 
friend, preceptor, or husband, he will thoroughly 
repent, and his interests are sure to sufier {see Doh. 
421 foi* a less accurate version) ; Bin. 194 j ^ fim 
^X ^mn fii* %^-^^g^, ^rw ^^V?ty When a man, 
having received that body {which is a means of 
salvation to the tmtf), works sin and wickedness {mth it) 
to his heart's content {comm. irfic ^j), he is a wretched 
and miserable fellow ; »6., 41, i^ ^w ^ip ^W wt«r 
ir^^iT^'^ vrnr, I {TuVsl Dds) am thoroughly poor, 
destitute of all means of grace, wretched^ defiled, 
and sinful. 

^Properly the cof\f. part. (% being understood) of 
the ^%^9 q-ff* See also under the art, ^mT.] 

^IpBrnM aghdrlf poet, for ^WTft aghdA. See under ^m 
agh. 

4 

^^ST^T^JT! aghdsur^'^see under ^1^ agh. 

'^I I aghly Ts., adj.f com. gen.^ {subst, f ^rftift aghinl 
Mth. and poet. ^rW^Tfl^Atm), ' sinful, guilty, wicked 
or siibsLj a sinner, a criminal, a wretch. ExarTlai ^. 
Bdm., Ut, 131, TT ?r w% ^^TT^ ^nft ^T 'T ^^* ^^ 
ftf ^ iff , Ht ^, Therefore admitting myself to be 
greatly sinful and wicked, tell me, O mother, that 
I am thine {lit. say ^ thou art mine * to me) ; »6., 5, 

The coward, the base, the unfilial, the wicked, — he 
[i.e. Edm) cleanses every man if only he will pray 
to him ; Bin. 253, wA Tnr^r iftt i?t% ^T^ ^imi> 
^^, irm, 5 ^RTirtii wf ^ i ^ft^r, Nursing, foster- 
ing, comforting the lazy, miserable, and wicked, 
like dear little children, Lord, thou dost not keep 
aloof from those who have no protector ; E. jRdm.y 

Ut. 21, ^rwr^ vri'ft mft wtKn ^m^ inw, nvin n^m 

Tj^ «ft%, ^^ igft $, Considering in my mind, (J 
have heard that Rdm is) the protector of the lazy 
{like Ahalgd)f the miserable {like Ouhj the Nikhdd)^ 
the sinful (like JatdyUj the carnivorous vulture)^ the 
afflicted {like the Sabarl)^ and the helpless {like 
Sugrib)y a master powerful, unique, and good. 
. [^Skr. ^fvw^^ nom. sg. ^i?t.] 



10 



15 



20 



25 



so 



— ^njF ayk 

^^\^ aghdkhy (/ ^^Wr aghdkhd)^ T6-, adj., com. gen.^ 
lit. without noise, without sound; hence *{Gram.) 
the hard (not sonant) consonants; sometimes fig. 
•obstinate {like a mute beast). Exaniii *OoU. {Bh.)^ 

^^^^yftm itt, 1%inift irr^y, 'Hiw^wnfT, He is 
Very obstinate ; however much you may beat him, 
he won't consent. 

ISkr. ^wT^: ; as above possibly in all Ods.} 




86 



40 



45 



60 



ighOr^ Ta., adj.^ cofn. gen. {f ^ftKJ aghdrd)^ «not 
formidablfi, not terrible ; «an euphemistic epithet of 
Sib. Comp. iiTB^TnT^, subst. m.j lit. the path of 
Sib, a certain order of religious mendicants amongst 
Hindiis ; thet/ eat anything, however filthy^ even human 
carcases ; ^ifTK^^ { f -^rf^^), ^ q ^itv^?> (/. -^rP^), 
subst.^ a follower of the above sect; hence met. ^ sxiy 
gross or filthy feeder. 

[S*r. ^^1x: ; as above possibly in all Ods."] 

ayky {poet, ^ti^j aykdy old dir. f. ^ ayku, poet, nw 
ayku)y Ta., subst. m.. 'the curve of the human body 
just above the hip, the hip, the lap {syn. »ftx, in this 
sense esp. found in the phrases mentioned below); hence 
• {lit. any curved line serving as a mark^ hence) a mark, 
sign, token, symbol (syn. f^) ; hence esp. »the numer- 
ical symbol of the units, any unit figure, a cipher 
{from 1 to 9)^ as opposed to ^e?T or the * zero V and ♦the 
graphic symbol of any sound, any {written) letter, as 
opposed toyijm[K or the ^pronounced letter * or * syllable ' 
{thuSy IT as a mere written sign is called an *ayk* but 
it is pronounced ^ka^^ not * ft ' ; and as such^ i.e. as 
affected mth sounds n is called an * dkhar * or * syllable ' ; 
^^ iSf how&ver, not uncommonly used in a loose way as a 
synonym of n^nmK or ^^t ; cf. the example below) ; 
and *a series of numbers or letters, writing, written 
word ; especially the letters which according to Hindu 
superstition are inscribed by the Creator on the skull 
of every person at his birth, and which pre^record the 
course of his life ; hence •fate, destiny, lot, allotted 
course of life ; hence further Hhe fate or necessity of 
reiterated or recurrent embodiment or transmigra* 
tion of the soul ; further ®a sign, signal, hint, nod ; 
'spot, stain ; ^^{math.) a coefficient, the product of the 
principal into the rate and time. Comp. ^V-f^^, 
subst. /., the science of numbers, mathematics. 
Phr., ^W ^Ktiiw, to lift to one's lap, to embrace ; 
^m* WTTP^, to take or place in one's lap; ^np 
iTKW or ^f^ fmnrw, to embrace, to hug {both as a 
salutation and sexually) ; ^^ ivf^lErnr or ^nr ^>ft ^V^Hf 
or ^njp ^TTF WW, to salute by embracing or hugging. 
Exam., 'Mth. Rdm., Bd. 62, 2, fWqr irf* ^f^ % 
«rWT-i»^Taf ^ % 5^ 'rffpPNr ^w *fT tft T^J %f 
The bees, continually humming, wander about blind 






73 



"^ a}ik 



with a great intoxioatioDj and lie asleep in tlie laps 
of the lotoses after kissing them again and again ; 
Mih. Edm.j Ki. 22, 1, ^m ^T f^V ir^T^W ^mnP 

w, 5^fi T^m ^K«rT ^ir w^pm nf nifw, Ljing on 

his bed in Bmna's lap, fearless and like a mad 
elephant, saw he Lachh'man there ; Mth. JRdm.^ Ut 58, 

2, Hfiiif %iir ^» ^rvUfkf ^ f^ ^ ^ipJT ^ftr, 

Baghubar embraced him, and made over to him the 
magic arrow ; Mth. Bdm.^ Ln. 201, 10, in:ir ^zm 
^W ^T^'V, f^ ft'itT 5^WW iw ^, Bharat raised 
and embraced him, and the grief of the long 
separation disappeared ; Itdm», Ln,y ch, 48, 7, ^ifn 

VT-^'^t ^trtt^T ^mrT, ^Vfir ^^ ^w 5«rfT, On hearing 
his son's words, (Bdban^a) confidence retomed, and he 
took him lovingly into his lap ; Glt.y Bd.y 102, lif 
wfr, ftrfiW wihr, W3^ ^ ^1^ ^v vfc WH, Thns 
saying, with great affection, the mother took and 
hngsred the two brothers in her lap ; ti., A • 4, WK 
^n^ ^IV 'fh? W m%^ Wt^ ^ wfVff, To whom 
shall I {be able to) say ^ my darling,' constantly 
huggiog him and taking him into my lap ; 

Sudh. 13, ^nf viTim wn wTw, ^ nx itt ww^rn?, 

On the lover embracing her, that girl again and 
again shrank back ; »6., 20, mp trUT % wn ^ftm^ 
trnrV ^^^t, beloved, embrace me and hide 
me nnder the green sheet; Rdm.f Ln.y ch. 60, 7> 

^R iffft ^rw ^ iitN, vrt, irWw vwr is^ ^r witi 

Now, brother, take leave of me with an embrace, 
(for). I go to feast my eyes (on Bdm) ; Qlt^ 

Ln. 10, miT ^^^^ ^^ ^np vftj ftrn ^^^ ^jw 

f^^ ^, Going up to {Hanumdn)j Bharat saluted 
him with an embrace, and gave him his own life 
(ue. eowed to die unkss Hanumdn^ tchom he had 
icoundedf recovered) ; Bin. 185, ifffic ^W WT> ^J^W 
•rw ^iN f^finff ^kH ^, He (t.^. Bdm) saluted 
him {i.e. the boatman) with an embrace, his eyes 
full of tears and his body transported with love ; 
Misc. 43, ftm rg)m ^ iftfJ %, ^niT, * ^frft ^^ ftiwV, 
Shame on thy conduct, BSdha, that thou salutest 
{KriaVn) with an embrace ; Bdm.y A.j ch. 187, 4, 

wiRr i»ft ^w TT«? w^ WTHT fNm, jirw ^ftifKH mm^ 

Bain's younger brother {i.e. Bharat) saluted him 
(i.e. Guh) with an embrace, and his bpdy thrilled 
all over with delight. ^Bdth., A., ch. 229, 3, ^rtwf^ 
fH^ xm ^-^WT, They rejoice on seeing the foot- 
prints of Bam ; t^., Ut.^ ch. 76, 7, lafim^T fOiflir^^ 
TT^, Decorated with the four marks of the thun- 
derbolt, etc. (».'«.,YA<3/ottr «y*;;6o& ^roya%, viz.y the 
thunderbolt^ lotus^ elephant-goad, and flag) ; Oit.j Ut. 

17,^T^Tqriw« ^W ^w, flffiTt^inHr ifrftr wrofir, 

(Bdm^e) curved eyebrows are beautiful like the {dark) 
marks of the moon, and the red {eectariat) line on 
his forehead shines out finely {see abo ib. 4). ^Sat.^ 



10 



IS 



to 



26 



80 



86 



40 



60 



ii, 24, 26, gw^'V ^1ir xtV ^iv ^^, ^^9 nm^i vr I ^» 

The love of Tul'si's lord {i.e. Bdm) is like a cipher, all 
other resources are like zero ; without a cipher there 
remains nothing, {but) with a cipher the value is ten 
times {greater) ; {there/ore) Tul'si {sat/a) y worship your 
, Bam without fear, {/or) like the ciphers of the nine 
(unitit)^ he will give efficiency {to pour other resources) 
from beginning to end, {i.e. 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 6, 7, 8, 
9 + = 10, aO, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90) {/or a 
slightly different version see Ddh. 10); ib. vi, 54, i^ii^ 

wxl UT, ^Vth^ ^rw ^ncn(T w^, xm, vikWj ^x xx fnr, 

^nw-ii^^ irw, Fate is the chalk in his hand, illusion 
{i.e. the tcorld) is his table, the figures are the mass 
of moveable and immoveable {creatures), and time 
is the universal (lit. world) astrologer who subtracts 
and adds, and, having subtracted and added, multi- 
plies them. ^2>oA. 252. ^ip ^iigir, ^»WT ^^, ^ftnr 

X1W ^^fix, n1^ TT% v^ M^, g^ift ^nr fk^iXt 

The Agun {i.e. the transmuridane god or Brahm) ia 
like a (un-itten) letter, the Sagun {i^e. the incarnate 
god or Bdm) is like its uttered sound ; both (indeed) 
are incomprehensible, {but o/ the two) your true 
interest is rather in letting go {the /ormer) and 
keeping {the latter) ; this is Tul'si Das' well-con- 
sidered opinion ; {as to the simile^ cf. Baghuvamsha^ I, 
ii ^im^lft ^ , etc. ; as to TuVsl Dds* pre/erenee o/ 
practical religion to religious philosophy ^ c/ Bdm.y TIt.y 
ch. 112, 1, ei passim) ; Ddh. 366, m^^ y&ftn tt 

rw fw^ MPi II ^r™T rftf^ finnt it, ^^^ ^» 
f€f^ %^ I «i^inntir^^w^ ITT «ur irfir v^fiift^^ ir, 
Seeing the diverse conditions {o/ men) in the world, 
I came to know the reason of their births (into this or 
that condition)^ {says) Tul'si Das — ^by noticing how 
the words {lit. syllables) differ according to the letters 
you write {lit. you* colour with ink) ; {there/ore) 
thoughtfully join syllables together {i.e. redd words) 
and carefully trace your letters, (/or) you must 
clearly understand that the conditions {o/men) in the 
world are the result of bad and good associations ; 
Bij.y I. 13, VR ^v ^ TftJiT, \9t, ^ ^ ^^y 
lit i?^n:, If any syllables are forgotten, goddess, 
bring them together letter by letter (irr is a mere 
expletive). ^Bdm,y A.j ch. 171, 7, mr^ Tnr tJ wn'% 
%W> ^ITjfx ^W ^tX Nnr xrw, Give me permission that 
I may go to BSm ; in that word {i,e. the namd o/ 
< Bdm ') alone centres all my interest ; Sat. iii, 30, 
^W T^f Tff Trrfic ^w, irsr VT«r ^r tpw. The word 

*ten^ {i.e. ^ das)^ joined to the initial (syllable) 
of love {i.e. xra^o/x^ ras) , together with the final 
(letter) oi {the name of ) the sons of Pa^du' (f.e.'m 



thy of TfiTsw pdrHh^ or JudhUktkir^ BMm^siny and 
Arjun, the three sons of Prithd^ the mfe qf Pa^u) 
(produce the name of BanCs father Das* rath) ; Bdm-^ 
Sd., eh, 105, 8, un ^T fif»fr f% firf^ % ^npr, 
What ! can the writing of the Creator be effaced by 
you P ib.y Ln,^ ch. 29, 1, wwftti^lr^iRfT^mWTftfw 
% %% ^V f^ ^nrrcr» When I saw the Bkull burning 
with the letters traced by the Creator on my forehead. 
^Padm.y eh. 206, 7, «rt^ ^^ ^m ^4t ^iTRW, iTWWT 
^1^ fw^ ^HT^W, As it was the fate of Damayanti that 
Nal should be hid from her {lit. as Nal was in the 
destiny of Damayanti), so FadmSwati hid herself, 
avoiding the sight {of the Rdjd). ''Sat. vi, 71,^ 72, 
^T ^^ ^TH ft\tw ^fir Ttw ^^w ^1?-^^ I Tf% irfif 
mm fii^ ^m w, g^, ^vr 3niW i ^w ^^^^ ^^^ 

f^ fipi ^T iiw^H I Violently and stubbornly 
struggling {man) seeks to become free of the 
necessity of embodiment, {herein) — Tul'sl DSs (says) 
— with all his great oleTerness behaving only like 
a crane or a wolf or a dog ; that his embodiment 
is {the result of) his works {done in a previous 
existence) y and that the remedy {for getting delivered 
from it) is known, — this, in his dementedness, he 
does not see, (M)— Tul'sl Das («ay«) — like a fool, 
under the constraint of his embodiment {or his 
fate) he persists day by day in making himself 
wretched and stained {with sin), ^Ddh. 200, WT^ 

%H ^^ f%V ^IXy ^^ world, life, dispositions,, vir- 
tues, time, works {or fate), they all increase at a 
gign from Qod, the great First {Cause) : without 
God's sign they are annihilated (/t^. are mere air). 
90it.,Bd. 56,%fw^nP wj t5 ^q» fwij ^3wir 'ff^ 
^[^nr. The stains made by the dust and mud on 
their body betrayed the play in which they had, 
as it were, stealthily indulged. Ibr another example 
see under ^ ayki. See m/im 3k (2). 

[Sir. ^rw: (»» the sense of imit figure, see Zach. 
p. 46, mrrficiR^T^W ; in the sense of letter^ see 
the comm. to Sapt. f>s. 191, where Pr. fwcK^mKf is 
explained by Skr. %wX^W^^\') I Pr. wi\ (in the 
sense of lap in Ndm. 237, where it is given as a 
synonym of 'V^KWl' = Skr. ^W^t, also in Hem. By. 
vs. 33 (=S*r. ittv.), «feo in Ach. ii, 15, § 13, li^dy.^ 
§117; in the sense of nearness in Eem. Dy.^ vs. 5, 
where it is explained by Skr. ^m^ {a meaning^ how^ 
every which we have not noted in B.) \ in the seme of 
mark in Ndm.^ vs. 114, where it is given as a 
synonym of f^ == Shr. f^np^, also in Sapt.^ vs. 233) ; 
04^ %W' It is found in all Qds. ; only S. ^i^, with 
the additional meanings of a tear in a doth, a knob on 
a stick, a piece of branch sticking out (S. By., p. 54).] 



74 



^ETlp^I ayJcain 



10 



l/^fw 



IS 



80 



■ ajk, ( pr. pts. ^i^ aykatt ; ^i^rt aykal ; ^r^w ojfkab ; 
^^ aykat)^ Te., (1), v. tr., 'to mark, distinguish a 
thing by some mark; ^to write numbers (as in paging 
a book) or letters (aa in an inseription) ;^ 'to jadge, 
think, consider, appraise, price, value, calculate, 
count ; ^to stain, soil. See ^^Hm ik and v^SNtw 
akdb. 

(II) V. intr.f to be appraised, priced, valued. 

[4 den. root from nw ; Skr. ^^^, 1st. el. ^npJT, 
pari, ^f^, q.v. S. has -v/^W to write numbers, 
(5. Dy.,j?. 55).] 

^^^ aykaiyj%^ subst. m., one who calculates nativities 
or predicts one's fortunes, a soothsayer. 

(Sometimes Msed in Bihdr in this ^enee, but not in 
the sense of an accountant.) 

[Skr. ^iv«: ; P. ^^w.} 



25 



90 



36 



40 



46 



60 



aykat, Tbh., subst. f»., the calcareous nodular 
limestone used for lime-buming. See ^^VTfT Sk'rd. 

^51^1? aykam, Tbh., eubst. m., 'hip, lap, {in this sense 
e^. found in the phrases mentioned below) ; •lAark, 
sign. Phr. ^w« ikxm or wf^ ^rft *w or ^^^^ 
MXM or ^^pH WTilW, lit. to take into one's lap, hence 
to embrace, both as a salutation and sexually. 
Exam.« 'Bid. xxiii, 3, wiT Wir ^W if wwtfil, ^9wfV ^y 
. ^f5^«l ^rWT «rr^, I proceeded (to the bridal chamber) 
in the closest proximity of my husband, friend, 
(but) being a woman my body {liL lap) shrank 
(through shame and fear) ; En>. vii, 28, 29, iift ^rvt ^ft 
^T^^ ITO, ^fif Tf% IWW 5Wir iW-HTir ; ^f9^W^9T 

wfif ^i^pir ^, ^nrn y^% ^ ^rr^^ %^^ Hari embraced 
(Atrmr) with both arms, and with much smiling tlie 
Lord of Braj inquired after his weUj^e ; {jOien) 
Hal'dhar rose and embraced him, and, recognising 
him as his devotee, did honour to bim ; Prdbh., 
p. 19, /. 22, ir^ w^irw, ^^ f qjiw i^T, ^ip«r irft ^ 
^^IT-ftRT^, Catching hold of her hand, he eagerly 
goes to the (bridal) chamber and seizes and embraces 
her in the bed chamber ; Bid. xxix, 4, ^ w^ nf^ irf^ 
^9^^ v^T^HSi, T^€ w^rw ^rt%%%. Embracing her, 
Hari makes her sleep on the bed, having pulled 
off her garments without exception; 16., xxvii,4, 

W9^fK Timir w?T,^ffqt^; ^tw^ Mftinrnwrvf^ 

%W, Gazing on her face, the lover (lit. humble-bee, 
which is said to be enamoured of the lotus ) looked, 
(but) she covered it up again ; (then) he took, the 
lotus-faced one in his embrace. *Padm.y do. 41^, 2, 
^lft[ ^^ f ¥ ^ ^^ ^ «^ %Wi? UTir, According 
as you recognise it to be the initial {unit figure, i.e- 
1) or the last (i.e. 0), consider it {lit. apply it) as the 
mark of good or evil (fortune). 



10 




15 



SO 



IDer. uncertain ; the word is a synonym of MP {pf \ 
its second and fourth meanings), and somehow derived 
from it. Pr. has ^rf^ in the sense of embrace (= 
Sfcr. irft^?w, Sem. Dy., vs. 11).] 

^SrWT ankdf poet, for Mf «y*, J-t^- 

frf^'fT oy^^f Ts., «£&*., com. gen., {suht.f. ^ihem aykitd), 
^marked, distinguished by a mark {syn. firi^) ; 
•numbered {as the pages of a book) or lettered or 
written {as an inscription) ; « engraved, stajnped, 
ooined.; * soiled, stained; * appraised, calculated, 
counted, ExaiTIn ^Bdm., -4., eh. 296, 4, 5i;« ^ nf^W 
!nnf5f fftWV, ^rw iftTi ^ 'iT^ ^> H permission be 
given, I will go to see the spot specially marked 
with the foot-prints of the Jjord {i.e. £dm) ; Oit, 
jl.,46, ^ViiTTT^iw^ ^^l^^wfti ^tmftrirfir 
vr^ni:, The ground marked with the foot-prints 
of Situ, B&m, and Lakhan became {so) beautiful 
(that) it cannot be described ; Bin. 24, %j%T ft^tfif 
Tm ^15 ^»fvw, wn ftitftr T^^ ftxn: ir«, Beholding 
the ground marked with the foot-prints of Bam, 
and the forest which was the place of Raghubar's 
wanderings ; K. Rdm., JJt. 132, wiftST ftEirax ^ 

Between Baripur and Dig'pur lies the spot which 
is marked with the foot-prints. of Sitft as she crossed 
the water. *Padm., ch. 206, 5, ww^ftprwf%i»TirfWt^, 
The lettered path {i.e., the row of tetters qf destiny 
inscribed on a man's skull) causes them separation, 
• ^Mth. Rdm., Ei. 26, 2, 'irfwif XTTTWrf^ IP nm. 
{The ring) on which my name is engraved. 

[P. p. of Bkr. -s/MP ; wied in all Ods. The 
tadbh. Pr. form ^it^ in the sense of embrace is 
mentioned in Sem. Dy., vs. 11, but has not survived in 
the Ods.'] 

^Wff ayki, {poet, wf^ aykn), Ta., subst. w., the old dir. of 
MP «J*> ?-^- E)am.i ^Padm., ch. 642, 5, ^TRT HT w 
1? ii^ ^, ^ ^^ ^^HT iftf^ t^ 'wr^j I^ ^* 
whieh the stains cannot be taken out' of any cloth, 
' OToh ink {i.e. disgraceful suggestions) thou hast brought 
and stained me with it. 

\It is the alder JBw. or S.form o/mp i ^ee Od. 
; Gr. § 46.] 

afkur, Ta., subst. m,, • germ, sprout, shoot, sdon, 
blade, seed-bud, germ {used both literally and figur- 
aticely) ; *bit of plants, herbs (plucked for eating 
or seasoning) ; 'growth, product ; *fate, destiny ; 
*a cattle disease. Exam.i ^8at. vi, 56, {lit.), %^ 

fti^^^r ^ ft3« "^rmr %9 ^K i^, i^ ^«^ ft^ 

^w^W, JP9^ ^^W ^^3 Prom a good root there 



80 



85 



l/^'IfT aykur 

grow thd spiroui, the «aplii]^, the st^m, itnd numer- 
ous branches, (then) flowering it bears fruit accor- 
ding to the seasons ; in the same way, Tul'si D&s 
(says), {it goes) with every thing ; {fig.), Bdm., A., 

ehh. 7, 2, ift^f -^^nx ^^11 ^?Snf fir^^ ^^ ^f ^ ^3 
(Bharaf^s) lotus eye^ flowing with tears watered the 
fresh shoots of desolation in his h9art i BOh. 568, 

^\m Tf^ 5w-?rw WW mm m^ sfiiifii, (= jn^-^rnrfiff) 
11%^ ^im WW WT fir^^w, 5^^, ^Tf%, He who 
listens to the good deeds {of Bdm) is {like) a fine fiq^d — 
{says) Tul'si Das— with a bountiful crop of rice, (/or ) 
Bam's numerous virtuea are the seed, from the eyes 
{comes) the water {of irrigation), and the rows of hair 
standing erect (on the body, from pleasure at hearing 
Bdm*s virtues) are the sprouts. *£dm.. A., ch. 104, 2, 

m^ iC^ mm ^rfr ift% fiit ^rfr irfii ^mi m^ %, 

The Muni brought and presented bulbs, roots, fruits, 
and herbs as delicious as if they were ambrosia ; ib.^ 
ch. 241, 2, nf^ ifft; yfxm ^ \fm ^, n^ ^g?ir ^vw 
^rfX ^j^, They fiUed daintily-made leaf comets 
{or *ddnd') brimfal with bulbs, roots, fruits, and 
herbs ; OU.f Ut. 33, ft^w fc-T^ ^^^ ^ij^nf mmm mffi 
^(5c«Tf , ^'^ %!9 M^W ^ry t fiT^ vn* mmtx^f Tasteless 
(i.e. wild) plauts bear tasteful flowers and fruits 
in great abundance, and the taste of many bulbs 
and roots and herbs puts ambrosia to shame. *^th. 
Chr., p. 4, § 15, ^^ %»w mf% «mr». One's, fate 
cannot be altered. * Co//., {Bh.), mm^ toe fTT iftf ^ 
^1^ ^9 nx, %iff wimi ftt mr^. The a^kur has got 
into the feet of my bullock; X wonder {lit. see) 
whether he will live or not. See -^tfKi Skurd, ^tlf^ 
fifeflr, ^^ Skur. 

[S*r. ^TfT., Pr. Wftt (in the sense of sprout, 
Sapt. 672), all Ods. ^TfT, exc. 8. ^if^. Eh. ^^.] 



j/^iyr 



40 



60 



aykur, {pr. pts. WfTW aykurUM; m^^xm 
aykural; ^fXW aykurab ; m:%K aykurai; Bw. forms, 
8 sg. past wyrw aykureU, p. p. pL m^^ aykure, 

V. n. m^'^ft aykun), Te-t<?. intr., 'to sprout, shoot, 
bud ; *to grow up, rise up ; ^spring up, .to make one's 
appearance. Exam.i ' Oit., Bd. 6, mm. msm mj^ irt 
ini ^l|[f^ ^m^. The root of all happiness had, as it 
were, sprouted. *Bdm., Bd., ch. 136, 4, ^r ^frw 
HTW w^ wr^, irt^r-^ w vifK^^ v^ncV, In his heart 
jpAie has grown up like a big tree, so I will quickly 
root.it up and throw it away. ^Rdm,, Ln., chh. 21,4, 
iiTHfr V^im^ ¥tft iltft^ m^9 ^ vm nr^, flPhey 
{i.e. Manumdn, etc.) crush millions upon millions of 
Dasanans {ie. Bdbans), as they by magic sjprang up 
as warriors on the (ia^^fe-) field- 

[De». verb derived from m^, q.v. The Pr- 
p.p. m^ffvi is given in Ndm., ve. 266. M. inf. 

^TfrS, S. iryrww.] 




^•ypr. 



^W^ ^v^ 



76 



^91P ayg, {poet "^ifT aygd^ obi pk ^^pir aygan or ^iffii 
ayganx), T6.| subst m,y 'a limb, member of the 
body {of which the Sindua reckon eight) ; «a side 
of the body {the throbbing of the left aide is considered 
a good omen) ; ^the body {syn. ir^ or iriw) ; *the 
figure or shape of the body {syn. '%^ or ^misK) ; 
^fig, being, as it were, some one's body or limb, being 
intimately connected with him, his friend, support, 
eeoonder ; ^met, soul, self, person ; 'a part or point, 
particular, point of view, respect, aspect, («yn. ^^rnxx) ; 
* means, expedient, resource, help, assistance, ea^. in the 
religious sense of means of grace, means of salvation, 
service, adoration {syn wm^) ; ^the name of a certain 
division or class of sacred works, (among Brahmans 
the sia Vedaygas or appendixes of the Vedas, see 
l£, Muller^s History of 8kr. Literature^ p. 108 ; among 
the Jainas the twelve AygaSy see Weber^s Indisehe 
Btudien, vol. XVI, p. 211, vol. XVII, p. 1) ; ^Hhe name 
of a certain division or country of North India about 
Bhagal'pur (the ancient capital of which was Champd) ; 
^^a symbolical name for the number Ax [taken from 
the six Viddygas). Comp. ^iT-^T^y 9ubst. w., a cere- 



'^y^ aykus^ T«., subst. m,, *an iron hook with which I 
elephants are driven, a goad {Ors. § 102) ; *the 
mark of an elephant-goad on the soles of the feet, 
(considered to be indicative of future royalty qf an 
infant when occurring together with the marks of a flag y 
a htuSj and a thunderbolt) ; • (agrio.^ in Sdran and 
Hunger) the hook attached to a harrow (tW^) to 
connect it with the chain traces (^f^^X or Wl«i»«^). 

Exam.i Edm.y Bi., do. 266,2 »nnr-ini ^m KTO ^* 

WW lEW WTfW witw, A little goad can control a big 
furious elephant. *Git., Ut. 21, w ff%^ «^ ^T« 

The four beautiful figures of lotus, thunderbolt, 
flag, and elephant-goad on his foot, are like a fishing 
line arranged to catch the fish of our hearts, (the 
comm. of Bi^ndth remarks on this passage as 
follows : a fishing line is composed of four parts, the bait 
(MKT), the hook (^«t), the float (^T^I'Tt*), and the 
line (wtf^). Of these the flrst corresponds to the flag, 
which grants all desires ; the second to the elephant-goad, 
which drags our minds by means of knowledge ; the third 
to the lotuSy which stands out of the water ; and the four fh 
to the thunderbolt, which destroys sin and makes the 
mind pure) ; ib. 17, v:^ TPT-^f^ ftl^ W^-WW «wr 

^Y^ V^^ ''^ ^^ ^K^^> ^^ (Bdm^s) soft soles 
of ruby-like sheen there were those beautiful figures 
of fiag, elephant-goad, thunderbolt, and lotus. See 
yiffnr Skusd, -^Jff^ Skusl, and ^Tfw Skus. 

[Str.^ffii: or ^^irv; Pr. ^f^ (8apt. 999, 
Sem. iv, 383) ; the same in all ff^5.] 



10 



15 



20 



30 



85 



40 



60 



t^ysf 



xnouy belonging to the ' sandhya ' or daily prayer 
of the BrSlhmans, which consists in the toudiing of 
certain parts of the body according to prescribed 
rules (see J. A. 8. B., vol lSIL,for 1884) ; ^»-ftf%x^, 
mbst. /., the ague or shivering fit in fever ; wrif-^ftir, 
eM^'., com. gen.f without resources, helples^ or a 
scapegrace. Phr., ^fip ^i^ or ^ip ^jf^, limb by bmb, 
every limb (Bdm.^ Bd,, do, 232, 2^ et passim)*, ^^ 
Umr^ (May. 34) or ^T * ^Ti»ft (Mag. 54), aify'. /., 
slender, thin (said of women) ; ^ir ^tw, r. tr* (lit. 
to make something one's limb or share, hence) to 
make one's own, appropriate, accept (Bin. 239, syn.^ 
^ U^fl^K WK^) ; ^nr ^W ^ncW) ^* t^-f to mutilate (Rdm., 
Su., ch. 24, 9 ; ch. 52, 3) ; ^W Omn, r. intr., to 
come in contact with the body, hence to be embraced 
(B. Bdm.i vs. 12, 13 ; Bih. V, 8) ; ^ip ftwTJnr, v. tr. 
of the preceding, to embrace ; ^np ^t^ or ^r^p iflxw, 
V. intr., (lit. to turn the body, hence) to shrink from, fiy 
from, avoid, shun, or to be modest, retiring {esp. said 
of women, whom Indian custom requires to turn away 
from any man whom they may meet), or to stretch 
one's self, rest one's self ; ^|p imrni, v, intr., (lit. to be 
applied to the body, (hence) to be embraced, or to be 
assimilated, agree with, nourish (said of food), or to be 
spent, be brought into use, or to be worn, put on 
(Bid. 44, 4) 5 ^ip fRITJr^, v. tr. of the preceding, to 
embrace (Bih. i, 7), or to spend, briug into use, or to 
apply one's self to, give one's attention to, be intent 
upon, or to take into one's heart, take into one's 
affections (Qlt, A. 86) ; ^irv f^f^nff ^fVini, v, intr.^ 
to have one's limbs releixed, be unnerved. Exaniii 
iflaw., A,, ch. 190, 1, vHt ^dhr-^w ^ip fWifW WW, 
Then under the influence of love his limbs became 
relaxed ; ib., ch. 40, 1, «^ ^HTC, «IT WW ^IPT, His 
lips were dry and all his limbs were burning (with 
anxiety) ; ib., Bd., ch. 324, 3, wwrw ^ip» wiW WW!*, 
( The maidens of Ajodhyd) were rendered beautiful in 
every limb ; CUt., Bd. 22, w?!" wrf^ w?t wfw *Rr w% WW 
f%W ^^^ WW ^ip, Who is the poet that can describe 
the beauty of all (Ram's) limbs from the nails (of his 
toes) to the top-knot (on his head) P ib. 73, TTftlW WWW, 

fw3 ww^, wwT^ fwx:, wij ftrwr wipfw wwVt «H «K wT, 

(Bdm's) eyes resemble lotuses, and his face the moon : 
on his head is a fine cap^ and his limbs, from the 
toe-nails to the top- knot, are ravishing in every part ; 

5tA. xii,9, wwwT w%%fww w^ ww^^T^r (=wnr + w) 
wnr www wrrr ^» Having bathed in the Gangee 
and rubbed off the ashes (with which, as an ascetic, he 
had been smeared) , Sib applied sandal-powder to all 
his eight limbs ; Mag. 75, i?hwr W%^ <WW %^ 
yt^^ iJW^T t, ^Sfm^ % ^wt wnp, Tour silken bodice 
is becoming moist from the rain-drop, all your eight 
limbs are wet ; Bid. 82, 4, w«T WW wwwiv, Battle, 



<^V9 



— 77 



"^1 ^V9 



rattle, go (SiVs) {b(my) limbs ; Rdm.^ Su.j ch. 24, 9 {see 
also eh, 62, 3) ^ini f^f% wtwT ^W^Pnc, * ^n ^^ ^1^ 
qvcw ^^^ \ On hearing it, Das'kandhar (t.«. iZaia/t) 
laughed and said : ^ Mutilate and dismiss the monkey 
{ue. Hanumany ; Olt^ B&. 26, ^if ^ip ^t ^TT-ftrwx 
ftf ftr wf% ^TJT w ir «r^ HTF, {It seemed) as if multi- 
tudes of Love-gods had met, and taking a mass of 
beauty spread it over every limb {o/Bdm) ; Bdm., Ut.y 
chh. 4, 7, ^Hf^nP^rfic firf^ VW ^IP ^■▼^ ''^ 
^, Diadem, bracelets, and various other ornaments, 
bedeoked his every limb. ^Bdm.y £d,y so. 24, 2, 
^fr^w www ^jvrrw ^ip ^ix^nr iril, {SUd's) left side, 
which was the seat ( lit. root ) of happiness and 
good luck, began to throb ; ib.j A.^ ch. 8, 4, Tm ^"^W 
n^ ^KW «mTTT, in:nf^ nirw ^np ^rnr. The bodies of 
B&m and Sits showed forth good omens, {/or) their 
lucky sides throbbed pleasantly ; ib., Bd.^ ch. 243, 4, 
^RWfl V^ ^^i ^W ^T^T, listen, brother, my lucky 
side is throbbing ; Ag. v, 12, WK^n ^(Jl% ^JlP ^^> 
W7^ f%«WT ^T«, Sita's lucky side is throbbing, her 
left eye and arm. *iJdw, Bd.^ ch. 314,7, 5^r¥ ^tlP 
vt^rsf^HV WT^, {Viswdmitra^s) body thrilled with joy, 
and his eyes were dinmied with tears {of. ib., so. 29, 
1, j9. 104, ynir im, and do. 821, 2, ijmm wnd) ; iJ., cA. 
322, 1, %fiif-iw-^fir-iiTirfr ^nf r, (Ram's) body was 
of the lustrous darkness of a peacock's neck ; Qit.f Ar. 

4, ^m fnv^y w^i^tn w» ^»t, ^w ^W^ ^^t^ ^t ^np? 

His arms were large, and charming his shoulders and 
chest, and the drops of sweat caused* by exertion 
were glistening on his swarthy body ; K. Bdm.y Ut. 
143, iTO ^V, ^w ^•ilPj ^^^ ^^1* ^T, Har {i.e. Sib) 
has ashes {smeared) on his body, is the crusher of 
the Love-god, and lives perpetually as a recluse ; En. 
4, 5, wft ^^ tRt tW W^ wn W'w ^np, Every 
moment that I remember those love's delights, 

my body thriUs ; Misc. 64, v^riT n^riT ^j^ ^ff tt^> 
irfiiwt (=n1in + ^) «r ^np ^«^t ^>, Though {the 
Kmravas) exhausted the strength of their arms in 
diligently pulling {the clothes of Drdiupadi)^ they 
could not uncover the smallest part of her body ; 
Padm., ch. 676, 2, ^ 'iwf ^sftmrfini: ?PKt, ^ ^ «T^, 
^nP «r ifttT, I Gora shall play the roll of DhSolagir 
( or Devalagiri ) ; on their trying to move me, I 
shall not move, nor turn my body ; H. song^ «iir 

n^, ijT'i^f ^^ ^'^^ ''f^j Since that handsome swain 
has won my heart, my food, friends, no more agrees 
with me ; Coll. {Bh.)y ^nf vrft ?rw, WT^ ^rw wx tItw, 
It is already spent, what would have been the good 
of keeping it {after Fallon) ; Olt.^ A. 86, ^|p ^in\ 
ft* ^ ^ ^Pf «rriW OT ^irt, The dear, kind-hearted 
children {%.€. Bdm and Ldkhan) have taken (the horses) 
into their affections from their childhood ; Bih. i, 7, 



10 



16 



20 



26 



90 



85 



40 



45 



60 



•yw «iTf iJir, % ^f%, n^ urn 'Hf vrrw^. Then tlj^e 
cold will leave me, friend, when my husband 
embraces me; Bid. 44, 4, ^T«nf ^w WT>r^ ^Tf, 
Thou wearest ornaments of another woman; B. 
Bdm., 12, ^[mm ^\Tr 'Hf fiifti 'i^fir^ VTTf:, The 
necklace of champak flowers, as it comes into contact 
with {Sitdh) body, blooms more than ever {for it 
knows that ichen it withers it will die on Sitd's heart) ; 
Bih. V, 8, ^ip "Sf nijf Utwm wf ff w^ ft^^T^^, 
Embracing each other and placing the arm on the 
pillow ; Coll. {Bh,), ^mfv^l ^ ^l^rJo ftr ^ip ift* 
% ^^, Tell the daughter-in-law that she should sit 
modestly ; Mag. 34, ^i^^ t 'f^o % q^, aft^, ^^ 

^?i^ «r% frhr^ ^^ ^Wf wt?:. Whence dost thou 
come, fair lady {who art) as slender as the rope 
{which) I see in the well ; ib. 54, iitf% fiiix'JTr ii^ 
^IP % vfwft, 'kw % f^^ x\ ir^iiT^, Thy wife 
surely is slender {enough) , why then is thy heart 
discontented? *JBdw., Bd., chh. 66, 1, m^ )»Tr- 
iiftr li^^ irfu ^np ^w f^ ^ft^, {Bdm's) comely 
figure, with the large gems knotted in his head- 
dress {see Ore. §. 1326), ravished aU hearts ; Oit., 
Bd. 105, i?ipwii ift^ ^Y i?^^T ufinr ^prft iftw 
ftnft^. Delightful were the figures of the two 
{i.e. Bdm and Sitd, as bridegroom and bride) and 
charming, {as seen) with his yellow shawl tied {with 
the marriage knot, see Ors. § 1331) to her coloured 
veil ; K Bdm., A. 14, «i>r^ ^n^P ^IP ^l^w ^^tt %, 
The transport of youth {i.e. of Bdm, Lakhan, and Sitd) 
is clearly visible in their figures; 5tA. xiii, 4, %ift 
ft^TT, ftw, wf firu %|JY, * 'HP^PTTW ^fiijo t, Thou 
hast married, Sib, thou hast done very right, {but) 
describe {to me) her figure and disposition. '^Bdm., A. 
ch. 274, 5, ^t ^IP m^ mniPr %, Who is there in the 
world worthy of being your seconder P Figuratively 
Bin. 57, ^, ^f^ ^H ^ip finr ^lp, ^-TF, ^^^frf ^JK^ 
^TW ^« TP^, God, Sri-ragg, allow me {to 
live in) the company of good men, {which is) thy 
body, (am?) which causes the severance of {alt) 
earthly attachments and removes {all) the troubles 
of those who have taken refuge within it {comm. 
^V^ ' here = ^T'lT^^i) ; Coll. {Bh.) v ^nrr^ ^^ 
^ ^V ftff ^rfV^> «r ^%, He is my friend, and 
will never do me any {ill turn). ^Bdm., A., ch. 
289, 5, fiiRT ^ijinr ^1P ^^, {Bdm^s) mercy and 
grace has filled mjitchole) soul {or my whole being) ; 
Coll. (Bh.)j %ip wiTO % w, fincrfo irir. Eat carefully 
{lit. applying your mind), don't throw {anything) 
down {Hd. Dy.). ''Bdm., Bd., eh. 12, 6, ^^ «r qir 
^ WW ^^rr^, '"T ^f^ ^W, infKii xi^, I {i.e. TuPsi Dds) 
know no means, of succeeding {in composing the 
Bdmdyan) in any respect, {for) my mind is a beggar, 
{while) my purpose is royal ; ib.. A., ch. 226, 8, 



«w 



78 




aygad 



VTltv, A king perfect at all 
points ; Oit.f JBd. 90, innr mtw f^-^cftf ^iw ^W ^^^^ 
WKW ^ %v^9 O tortoise, boar, and elephants 
of the quarters, being on the alert in every respect, 
do service to the Lord {by holding the earth steady) ; 
Bin. 22, iftxm ^^ %^ ^HT {E^dshl or Bandras is) 
a place of pilgrimage well famished in every 
respect ; Ddh. 313, T;[ii ^f^ ^ H^y ifT fiift fk^ 
^nfvm ^, If one's affection is concentrated on 
one particular, then his affection is fixed on it night 
and day, like that of the chstik bird {which is said to 
live on rain»drops only ; the same idea is expressed in the 
/ollomnff)f Bin, 66, x^ ^np ^^ ^Wf, DiflBlcnlt is tlie 
narrow path {lit. the one-sided road, i.e. the single 

devotion to Ram; comm.^ i3WniK filf^ or ^WJ^ fiffti, 
single way of living, like that of the paplhd bird) ; K. 

B&m.j JJt. 69, ^5rw ^y T^«r, '^^ ^vn ftVW, "fm w^w 
«rA«r, ^Ptir ^^ ^VT)^ i¥, I am destitute in all 
respects, devoid of all resources, defiled in mind and 
speech, and deprived of caste and business ; ib. 155, 

Cupid's foe {i.e. Sib) does not desire to beg one 
particular. ^Bin. 41, ^tn ^^ ^ff ^ ftw inftw ^r^ 
^rarir, I am thoroughly poor, destitute of all grace, 
wretched, defiled, and sinful ; ib. 99, wiJt 'i^^T T^ 
^^ ^ ^¥ iprft W^ wbr wm ^, I Tul'si Das am 
deceitful, defiled, destitute of all grace, and the most 
wretched of the wretched; ib. 170, ^ifir ^Wf "^ 
finn, irni, ^m mn l^ ^^«t %, All other service, 
not directed to thy feet, Lord, is a taking shelter 
in names merely with the mouth ; ib. 225, % %fk 

wtfif vwi «r rd^ f^, ^ f%w ^^ ^w «n%, Or 

though one, hearing of the kindness of the Lord 
{i.e. Bdm)y should not keep in mind him {i.e. Bdm) 
who befriends those that have vainly exhausted all 
{other) means of salvation, {yet will J, TuPsl Dds^ 
remember him). *®-£fS. x, 9, 4Y<* ^ftX9 ^ ilT^T^, 
^F 'fF ^ITPIf^^mr, From Sorath, Bhorath, and 
Garh'pal, fromAgg {or ^tA5r), Bagg (or Bengal)^ 
they came, and from Nepal ; ib. 39, m ^ 

nww, wwir ^ i«ir, ft^^W ^jf WF ?hiir> The 
victory was to the strong, to the wicked was the defeat ; 
scattered were {the men of) Agg, Bagg, and Tailagg, 
\8kr. ^Vf^iMut.i Pd. and Pr. w^ neut. {Sapt^ 
vs. 809, nam. plur. ^Jf\x -H<^- h 93), Ap. Pr. ^^ 
masc. {Him. iv, 332, where it is treated as a neut.f 
but the term. ^ is a mere shortening of the masc. term. 
^, and the change of gender j so common in the Ap. Pr.^ 
is accounted for by Sim. iv, 446) ; most Ods. ^f, 8. 

^Y ^7M»<^-9 ^^ ^' ^^ ^* ^^ neut.f Eh. WIT ^ ^nfT 
neut. (body). In the sense of the Jain Agga or Sacred 
Book it occurs in Uv. § 2, Ndy. §§ 8-10. The Pr.form 
of the phrase WT f^V^ to be embraced occurs in Him. 



10 



16 



so 



26 



iv, 832, ww^ ^T '^ ftrftiwv> not embradag one 
another. 8. has '^t^ endearment, caress, and ^4WV 
one who shows endearment, loving {S. Dy.j p. 65), 
which seems to be connected with the B, phr. WW W^mfW."] 

^r ^IV^f^ ayg^kar^ Tbh., v. tr., to receive, to accept 
Exam., Bin. 239, «IT ^ ▼if^ fkr wft ^T*^, ^ ipiftr 
w^. Whom Hari (t.^. Bdm) has definitely made his 
own, he is full of {alf) virtues, {the comm. has 
W^^ fwftf made his own). See v/'^W^ 3gir. 

{ITie word has only been met with in the above^cited 
passage.) 

ISkr. ^ylii, base ^Ip^K, whence corrupted 

:.] 



80 



86 



40 



« 



60 




apgadf {old obi. MT^f^ aygadahi)^ Ta., subst. i»., ' an 
armlet worn on the upper arm {syn. fiq r ing) ; «the 
name of a monkey who assisted Bfim. He was a son 
of Bdliy the monkey king ofKis'kindd, and a nephew 
of Sugrib {Rdm.y JK., ch. 6), whom Bdli had exiled. 
Bdm, having killed Bdli, placed Sugrib on the throne 
and made Aygad his co-regent {or juVrdJ, B&m., 
Ki.f do. 11, 2, cb. 12, 9). Out of gratitude Aygad 
went with Hanumdn, Nal, Nil, and other monkeys 
{hence called Aygadddi) in search of Sitd {Bdm., 
Hi., ch. 23). Having discovered her in Laykd, Aygad 
was sent by Bdm as ambassador to Bdban, to 
demand the restoration of Sitd (Bdm., Ln., ch. 18). 
In Bdban^s court an angry dialogue ensued, which 
culminated in Aygad's famous wager {Bdm., Ln., 

ch. 33) : xm 'mm ^fnr wft ijt^ i ^iirirfw inr ^f: 

?fti»T »r TT^ H • i.e.. As the monkey thought on 
B&m's power, he waxed wroth ; he planted his foot 
firm in the assembly and offered this wager: ^If 
thou canst stir my foot, thou wretch, Eam will take 
flight and I lose Stta.' This is a very favourite 
incident with the poets {e.g., Ddh. 616, Sat. vii, 76, 
Misc. 64, Padm., ch. 678, 7). After Bdban's 
destruction and Bdm*s return, Aygad went back to 
his own country {Bdm., Tit., do. 19). Comp., 
^nF^rftc (=^¥^-^t1^) Aggad and the other monkey 
heroes {see above ; K. Bdm., Hi. 1, 8u. 31) ; ^v^p^-iiiir 
Aggad's wager {Bdm., Ln., ch. 34, 13). Exam.| 
'Oit., Ba. 43, 2, ^^ ^m^ ^n^ f?j^ Tfipi-Tr^, 
{Bdm wears) a wristlet, an armlet, and a beautiful 
neok-ohain on his heart. ^Misc. 64, TTWW^HTiiTr 

wftnit (= wfirf-^) w ^TW ^* ^, When in Baban's 
great and Yety mighty assembly Aggad put down 
his foot, Megh'nsd and ten millions of powerful 
heroes could not move his foot one whit ; Padm., 
ch. 678, 7, fir* wmf% *Ht ^cw <Wr, ^wvc «tw m* 



'^IT'H aygan 



79 






aygikdr 



^ ^^hlTi Gorft waxed wroth on tke battlefield 
in front of them, and, like Aggad, planted his foot 
firm on the groond ; Sdm.j Ln.^ dh, 37, 3, X^ tnr 
^TRf% i^TT^, ^^rni; ^^t Mif^ f%K wm. Hither Bam 
called Aggad, and he coming bowed his head to 
(Bam^s) lotos-like feet. 

[Sib*. "^VV^* > ^^ f^bove in all Ods,"] 



aygan (1), Ta-t subst m., {poet, '^ht^ igan^ w.c, 
Padm.j ch. 206, 1), the same as ^firn afjran, q.e, 
Exam.| iZdm., Zn., cAA. 13, 4, ^TfTir-^nPT 'KV^ 
i?hrfT, xm HXr^mxH ^, On the field of battle the 
warriors are oonspiouous (through theirnumbers) yslein 
by the mnltitude of Bfim's arrows ; «i., chh. 31, 4, 

wfTir-^W«r Tn? ^WV ^^Ip iTB ^t«fT HT^, On the field 
of battle B&m'sbody displayed the beauties of the 
bodyless one {ue., the hve^god^ a pun) in manifold 
ways ; Padm.^ ch, 206, 1, «wr finftw «nff liVw ^s%wt, 
91^ ^fiT iVTf ^4ii^ ^%^, JuBt as fish are distressed 
through separation from water, (iffhen) being pulled 
out of the water they are brought into the court- 
yard. 

[8kr. ^rinnr, Pr. ^ipw {Sim. i, 30) ; as above 

possibly in all Ods,"] 

aygan (2), obi. plur. o/^nf ayg, q.v. 



ayg^ndy Ts., subst.f.j a woman. ExaiTlii K. Rdm.i 
m. 145, ^ir^^ ^IP ^TTPfT, 1W mtifl^ rfTiprfif, In one 
half of his body {8ib) is a woman (i.e. Pdrbati)^ 
and his name is Jogis, {as being) the lord of the ]5gi 
{or ascetics) ; ib. 154, irw IfTH^i, ^rfWt ^T, ^"TOIP 
tip, ^rr^W ^nP^T, ^pnr ift H^l^ %, (&*i'«) name is 
BSm'deb, he is always gracious, his delight is 
BoUtude, in one half of his body he is a woman, he 
is the destroyer of Anagg {i.e.y the love-god) ; Kan. 

17, iprt m^ «nrf^ % wrfV ^vflT «nft ^uptt, ^ n^ 

ilbr irnT Numerous young women who came there 
to ask alms sang sweet songs. 

\8kr. ^ry^ » ^ above possibly in all Qds!] 



^npf'T aygam^ old obi plur. of ^nP aj^^i y-*'* 

^^RfT ay^d (l),jpo«^./(>r ^TTP ayg, q.v. 

^nPT ay^el (2), Tbh., subst. m., ' the same as '♦iT'V 
dgar'khd, q.v. {Ors. § 729) ; • {If. Bh.) bits of old 
cotton padding in a quilt {6rs. § 731) ; ^(Tirhut) a 
kind of black bearded rice {Ors.%Q72). Exam.| 
*Coll. (JBA.), ^ilPT % ^mi?hfW HTW, Please let me 
hove the price of the old cotton. See '4nrr iga. 

I8kr. fnPWJ:, Pr. 'ill^>, GW. WfT. P. Aa« ^h^t 
coat.] 



iO 



16 



so 



25 



80 



85 



40 



46 



60 



^VnC aygdr^ Ta., subst. w., the same as ^Kirnc igdr^ q.v. 
Exam.| Mth. Bdm.y Ln. 60, 6, «ifV-?cw ^TJ^ ^TUT ^riT, 
fty-^ir qjj-^cif^ ^^TTT, The army of monkeys has 
come across the sea upon the army of its foes, like 
burning coals upon a heap of cotton. 

^"iV aygiy {/. ^i%fir aygini)^ Mth. and poet, for w^^ 

^^lir^tJ aygiras, the same as ^ifjptT aygird^ q.v. 

^T^TT aygirdy ^rf^^ aygiras, Ta., subst. w., the name 
of a saint to whom many of the hymns of the Big- 
bed are attributed. Se teas one of the seven Mahar- 
khis or great Bikhis, and also one of the ten Prajdpatia 
or progenitors of mankind. As an astronomical persofi* 
ification he is Brihaspad, the regent of the planet 
Jupiter^ or the planet itself. According to one aoeount^ 
heicasthe son of Uru byAgniyi^ the daughter of Agni ; 
another account makes him bom out qf the mouth of 
Brahmd. Exam., Mth. Bdm.j Ut. 2, 2, ^rf^ ^f^ 
wnitw ^w f9(KH^ ^^^^ ft**, Atri, A^giraa, and 
Bam'deb, all {of whom were) saints of dear dis- 
crimination. 

[fi*r. ^flPT« or ^^Kir^i ; ae above possibly in all 
Gds.'] 

^^T aygi (1), Ts., adj., com. gen.^ (Mth. and poet, ^rfi^ 
aygif subst. f ^fj^ aygini, Mth. and poet, ^rfipft" 
(iyginx), ^having a limb or Umbs; ^having a body, 
bodily, corporeal. Exam.,^ Coll. {Bh.) , ftrr^-ipg iiitwtw 
^f\ TWii, ^^ ^«fif wi?n(% wif % ^np iT«w, God 
in the form of Birat possesses limbs, and heaven 
earth, sea, etc., are his limbs. 

[Skr. '^[^ ; ae above possibly in all Ods."] 

^^ aygl (2), Tbh., subst. /, a bodice, jacket. The 
word is generally used in its long form ^IfimT dgiyd, 
q.v* 

ISkr. -^fipirr, Pr. ^l%^, G^. ^i^. S. has 
^[ihy both with the meaning of bodice and of an 
aUowanoe of one anna in the rupee {8. JDy.^ p. 55).] 

^Vl^'HC aygikdr, ^f^rvK aygikdr {poet. ^nplwrxT 
aygikdrd)j Ta., eubst. w., 'agreement, acceptance, 
acquiescence, concession, submission ; * avowal, confes- 
sion ; 'promise. Phr„ WlpUr^ ifKW, v. tr.^ to accept, 
receive, agree to, consent, concede, admit, submit, be 
willing. Exam.i Bam.y Bd., ch. 98, 4, TRVffi mr l?h« 
^WTtT, irw mv ^m ^iftwro, Par'bati has performed 
excessive penance ; so do now accept her; K. Bdm.^ 
Ut. 13, mw a^, ^ i?l% HTJi, ft inrnir ^J^ fk^ 
^n^WfK ^ ^% ipi T^rra i»t, My name is {the pure) 




aygur 



80 



achak 



Tul'sl, but my condition is impure, yet calling 
me his servant, he has received me, {who am) such 
a great impostor; Itdm.^ Bd.y do. 193, 1, ^i^f^ 
^Jl^^K wf^ wiT iiT «i?N ftr^rr^, Submitting to 
the curse {Rdban) thought within his heart ; Chan. 

IW-Tm ^^ ^T^-^TT, ^WTP ^K-irx: ft^TK, TfUPfW 

r% m^, ^K^ WT^ ^ W^^ ''ir^WTK, .The king 
tortoise bears the weight of the earth, the deadly 
poison is diffused in Bib's throat, the submarine 
fire floats on the liberal ocean, {thus) good men are 
never willing to desert {their protSyda). 

[S*r. ^i?hrro; «« above in most Ods,^ but 8. 
^i Pl^lK or %T%9\< i both as a subst. and as a verb 
(S,2^.,i?.56).] 




ayguTf ^v^ affgul^ Ts-t subst. tw., a finger's 
breadth, equal to about two-thirds of an inchy or to the 
combined thickness of eight barky-corns; four finger- 
breadths are called a cMSud ; twelve finger-breadths make 
one span {bittd), and two bittds or four chSuds make 
one cubit {hdth), {see Grs. §§ 1489, 1490). See ^4^ 
Sgurh 

[5Ar. ^nfV* ; as above possibly in all Ods.'] 

^Sl^tr aygun^ ^^^ ayguli, Ts., subst. /., the short 
and less commonly used form of "^^^ Sguri, q.v. 
Exam., Ukh., Act. 2, lircfii ^ft^ ^V WT ^, ^ft 
^W ^7^ 'ift, Seeing Anirudh, she thought over his 
form, and pointed him out with her fing^. 

[^Skr. W^jfw* ; as above possibly in all Ods."] 

^^^^ (lyg^h ^f^ same as ^^ aygur, q.v. {Ors % 1489). 
ExeiTIm Bdm.y Ut.y do. 79, 2, ^ ^^ ^T ^ ^^f KTiT 
^5^f^ iftf^ ^TW, Two fingers' breadth, sir, was all the 
distance between me and the arms of Ram ; K. Rdm., 
Ki. 1, ^Tftt ^Tf % ^J ^^ Wqft ifr, ^^ ^^ftr 
^ifV ^W ^if^^ 'fr. Pressed by the pressure of 
{Hanumdn^s) four feet the earth was flattened down 
{to hell), and as he leaped o£E (to Layka) the moun- 
tain sunk {into the earth) four finger-breadths. 

"•UWf^ aygutxy the same as ^ryfl: ayguri, q.v. Exam.| 
Bdm.j Bd.j ch. 124, 3, f^i«^ «rt w^^ ^Tffti m^, vm 
^n ^^ ^^ * ''T^* {Men) who gaze through their 
fingers placed b3fore their eyes, and to whom the 
moon appears to be doubled. 

aygushfh, Tc, subst. m., Hhe thumb ; "the great 
toe. Exam., *Mth. Rdm., Ki. 9, 6, ^fJr ^fif ^w ^i^flU" 
«9iT«r, ^ ^«T ^^^ % W^i ^.8 he heard this, he 
smiled, and . applied his great toe {to the bones, and 
kicked them, so that) they fell down at a distance of 
ten leagues; QU., Ut. 17, 3, ^pnr ^fM, ^<g^ 




flf^rrw, Iff* ^^ wn m^fSf-Bi^nrofir, Beautiful was 
{Rdm^s) great toe, and his toes were dose, and the 
slightly red sheen of his nails was of glittering 
brightness. 

[Skr ^v^t ; as above pombly in all Ods."] 



l/'^k^ 



10 



15 



ao 



86 



80 



85 



40 



45 



60 



8ch, ^rn ach, {pr.pis. "^NHf Schat; '♦q^ Schal; 
^ifn &chab ; ^t^&chat), Tbh., v. intr. and v. tr., {W. 
£h. and Bw.), the same as v^^^^iw dchdb, q.v. Exam.« 
^Rdm., Bd., ch. 361, 2, ^<^ vm ^^ wtwm m^, Having 
rinsed {their mouths) they all and eveiy one received 
pan (^0 chew) ; Git., Ar. 17, 7, K^^ ^(^ ^, ^^ 
lift ^mm WK ^Mkf Eaghubar {i.e. Rdm) having rinsed 
(Aw mouth) arose, {while) the Sewarl paid reverence 
with folded hands. ^Erish. 57, iiift iiiiTi^ ^^ ^ % 
^9, ^n^ ^1t 'f wrwt "^t. As a bee does not wake 
up a little child, {when) it eagerly sips the nectar {from 
itsfhce). M^. iii, 45, %fir f%^ fiiftriTRf^f^, ^^t 
■^nrfir, "qnj ^rrr. Having entered the cavern and met 
with the ascetic {i.e., the holy woman Swayamprabhd, 
see Ram., Ki., do. 24), (ffanumdn) drinks water and 
eats fruit. 

[^This is a secondary derivative root from the Skr. 

^/wn^^{=W^+^^)9 ^^' I> ^T^Tvfif, which in Gd. 
assumes the form i^-^^TW {q.v. ; cf. Hem. iv, 226, 
397, and Gd. Gr. % 351). The latter, happening to 
coincide in form with Gd. causal roots in ^mr {e.g. 
^^^rrw cause to do), is popularly mistaken for a 
causal, and from it, by the rejection of the apparently 
causal suf. ^T^, the new primary root v^^JK is 
derived. On the shortening of the initial ^ir, see the 
remarks under art. ^ a (6), ^fl^^ being changed to 
W^ or <^ (««« Gf4' Gfr^ §§ 143—146). See also the 
remarks on derivation under art. ^^t^n and^yt^fw.—- 
Besides W. Bh. and Bw., this very reduced form of 
the root occurs only in H. ^^^ and Bg. -y/'*^ ; the 
other Gds. have only the longer forms v^iJNr^ or 



achak, {str.f ^I^IT aohdkkd), Tbh., subst. m., 
unexpectedness, iinpreparedness, suddenness, acd- 
dent, chance. It has been only met unth by us in 
the instr. case ^mr ^ achak se, used adverbially, 
nnexpectedly, unawares, suddenly, accidentally, by 
chance {JMth. Gr. § 201). See Wffxmi achdid, 
^^^n achichak, y^Tnm achdnak, ^^^J^v^^ achdn*^ 
chak. 

[Der. ? Apparently a compound of the neg. pref 
^ and ^n. The latter is probably a corruption for 
f^, and apparently derived from a compound root 
{Gd. Gr. § 353) fw, connected with Skr. f^ 
and v^w to make known. G. ^vm or ^i^, ^f. 



^ "Tt •e||«| ach'kan 



81 



dch^pal 



ach^kany Tbh., nuhBt. m., a long loose ooat 
buttoning right down the front {Or8. § 729). It is 
like a dressing gawn^ and is worn over the ehap^kan. 
[Der. f B. and S. '^mmm.'] 




acKhdriy Tbh., suhst. f.j wantonness, lasci- 
viousness, obsoenity, indeoenoy {especially in speech). 
Bee ^^HTK^ acKgarl. 

[Derived from the 8kr. compound 'WTT^ and Wrtt, 
lit. doing that whioh is unspeakable, i.e. obscene ; 

fffith pleon. suff. nr, 8kr. ^rwr^rtk^nij Pr. ^Hm^fi^i 

or {by false analogy) Wt^^Pt^l {see Him. i, 172), 
hence Od. * ^T ^ Hd^ or {shortened) '^n^:^ {CM. Or. 
§ 26) or %^^w^ or B. 'V^%X {Od. Or. § 103). 
The intermediate Od. form icith z is still preserved in 
the M.'adj. ^^W9f obscene, indecent.] 



ach^kd, (/. ^I^^'fft ach^ki), Tbh,, oc(;.y the same 
as ^N% achik, q.v. E)aim., ^Tf^lft ^K^ft % ^o. Give 
a little dry tobacco {Az. Oy.). 

[A corruption for ^f^^, str.f. of ^f^, q.v^ 



^?nnBT achdkkdy Tbh., w6«^. m,yStr.f. of^c^% dchaky q.v. 
Only met with in the instr. or loo. ^^ or ^^^ w 
unexpectedly (^2. Oy.). E)aim., Co//., (5A.),^^rirT w 
^nnc f^^PWy They caught him unawares or unpre- 
paredly. See ^^irr achdkd. 




acVgariy Tbh., subst. /, a modification of 
^iVW^ ach'karl, q.v, Exam., Krish. 235, * mfk Mffir 

^ n:^ ^r^nr^' ^^ ^f^ ^irf% f^nrr^fir, {Jasumttti) 

upbraids her son {Krish'n)^ saying, * What {art thou 
indulging in) wanton speech with {people qf thy oton) 
caste and lineage ' ! 



achdyg&j Tbh., subst. i»., {Mg.) a stage, a shelf 
(-B. Gr.,ni(Jf^.),i?. 87). 

{Der,? Said by Pandits to be a corruption of 
fjrom Skr. ^-ir ] 



achdnchalf Ts., adj.^ com. gen., {subst. f 
aehaHchald), not moving to and fro, immoveable, 
firm, fixed, steady. Exam., Edm,, Bd., ch, 242, 4, iriT 
fWH^ ^»n ^w^ii, 'wraf ^|rf^ fkT^ war^ f^TT^w, His 
beautiful eyes became immoveable, just as if Nimi, 
in confusion, had given up the winking of his 
eyes. 

[Skr. %^m: ; as above in all Ods."] 




acharh, Tbh., adj., com. gen., unridden, hence of a 
horse unbroken. Exam., Anon., {Mth.), ir% *^, n|9 
^rew n «J\i|, tfhfT ^^ utTPT nwtii, A young horse 
which has not been trained {atnt) on whose back a 



10 



15 



ao 



S5 



so 



S5 



4(1 



46 



50 



saddle has never been fastened, is called aoharh; 
Coll., {Mth.), ^ ^im^ m%^ -mx^ ^f He acts like an 
unbroken horse. 

{Derived from \/tnf and neg. suff. ^ a (4). 
It appears to be the seme as the B. ^^^^ ^ett ^^K^ 
in H. Dy,"] 



ich^tahar, Tbh., subst. m., {E. Mg.) the 
man who stokes the fire in a sugar boiling-house 
(<?r«. §303). See^t:^7^xr\Sch'wdhd. 

[Derived from v^^ {i*^*) ^^ ^^ ^9* i^^bal 
termination nxXK {q^v.). See also the remarks under 




achdtur, Ts., adj.^ com. gen.^ {subst. /. ^Wjrr 
achaturd), not dexterous, inapt, inactive, stupid. 

Exam., Colly {Bh.), ^ iTf ^«^gt %fti ^ncnrr^, # %m . ^ 

Xtfk W^ WK^ wiiff. You appear to be very stupid, 
in that you yourself do yourself harm. 

{Skr. ^^QK: ; as above possibly in all 6^.] 



ich^ndy Tbh., subst. m., {E. Bh.) the stick 
used as a poker in a sugar boiling-house {Ors. 
§ 303). 

{Derived from the Skr. v/^T-«^» through a second' 
ary radical form ^Cl-^^ {probably the base of the 
future tense, see H. R.,p. 40), which appears in Pr. in 
the form ^rrtw or %xiM or {contr. and disaspirated) 
"^ (3 pers. sg. ^miWT or ^mcWT 0^ ^^Ti Bern* 
iv, 187). Hence the Skr. word ^rnri^ or {with 
pleon, w) ^nr^wvr, a stick for pulling about or poking, 
would take in Pr. the form ^^i[^, whence comes the 
Od. ^hmr. Similarly the Skr. word ^umi would turn 
into Pr. ^w or ^ and Od. ^N" or ^, which last, 
however, is now only met with in compounds, such as 
y f^^Hl^K and ^^•^ 1^ 1 , one who wields a poker {q.v.). 
Similarly Skr. ^rn^nr: becomes Pr. ^^^, Od. 
^^1, which occurs in the compound ^fKH^l, one who 
pokes the fireplace {q.v.). Comp* the B. v^^ to 
pull, M. -y/^^lH**.] 



dcVpal, Ts., a^., com. gen., 'wayward, 
unruly, obstinate ; * unsteady, restless, inconstant ; 
3 frisky, sprightly, vivacious. Exam., Co//., {Bh.), '^ 
?i^ % ^^ f^ ^ ^*^T^ ^w v[^ K%*9k r. The calf 
of that cow seems to keep obstinate and dumb. * CoU,, 
{Bh,), ^ftK wfp«?^ t«W ^^7^ ^ji ftr Wf bH^^W 
nrf^ rf^WT, My boy is so restless that he won't sit 

still in one place* 

{The word is not edfnmonly used with the second 
and third meanifigs.) 

{From the Skr. ^^^m:9 with the intens. prcf. 
^ a (5), q.v. P. ^r^'^W.] 




'*l^5rU*!lT dcVpald 



82 



Achar 



•H^T dcVpaldj T«^ ac^.^ (/. ^i^fTiRft dch^pdh\ atr. 



^^^M^l^ld ach^paldhat%,TB.,8ub8i.f.f 'restlessneeB, 
inoonfltanoy, unsteadiness ; *unruliness, obBtinaey, 
waywardness ; ^f riskiness, sprightliness, vivacity. 

[Derived from the Ts. ^n^m by the Tbh. %uff. 
^Tlli ; ther^ore a hybrid formation. See 04- Or* 
§ 284.] 



^?ni7ir^ 



ach'pali {l)jfem. of 



ach^paldy q,v. 



^f^i^^W\ ach'pall (2), T«., %uh8t /., the same a% 
^«rrft ach^paldhatij q.v. 

[Derived from ^n^^^f by the Pre. suf. t forming 
abs. nouns.'] 



dcVmany Tbh., 9ub%t w., the act of rinsing the 
mouth before or after a meal, or before a religious 
ceremony (by way of purification). See ^H^^ 
icKwan and the tats, ^rr^im dchaman. 

[8kr. ^T^^Rirw, Pr. ^j%9f^ or ^vnc, Od. ^tmmf. 
See the remarks under art. ^ a <6) ; also those under 

^r^^TJrt dcVmanly Tbh., suhst. /., {Bh.) a spoon 
for throwing water on the lingam, used in worship^ 
ping the idol {Ors.% 774). 

[Skr. ^nufiiVT, Pr. ^f^irfiwfT or ^V^iTf%^, 
Od. ^nn?^. See the remarks under ^ a (6). Cf. 8. 
^l^wns the palm of the hand full of any liquid 
{S.Dy.yp. 15).] 



achambhab^ T^^t subst. m,^ *€oner.j something 
wonderful, a wonder, marvel, miracle, prodigy; 
«aJ«., wonder, astonishment, amazement {in this 
sense only in thephr. ^^mm^ i»TW). Phr. '^r^^nr HTfW 
lit. to consider {something to be) a marvel, to be 
astonished or amazed at something {constructed with 
the ace, of the object of wonder) ; ^^f^rw W^ lit. to 
make a marvel of something {ue, look upon it as a mar^ 
vel)^ to be astonished or amazed at something {construct- 
ed with the abl. of the object of wonder). Exaniii ' Krish. 

70, ^[^^ro, ^ ir| ^nm^ ifftTm fnmw nrf irit, Sur 

Das (says), Lord, this indeed is a wonderful 
thing, whence did you get the three marks {on your 
face) ? Rdm., Ln., ch. 68, 8, urts ?Nr 3Ji| ^^s^ ^m^, 
^K Wf^ w^tx ^nm ^RTiTT, His {i.e. EumbVkaraa's) 
soul entered the Lord's mouth, {and) all the gods 
and sages were amazed at it. • Coll., {Bh.) , ^^ ^^^^^ 
% ^TW ^* w?wYwt t»% ir^w wn*, It is a 
matter of great astonishment that a iBsh gives birth to 
a man. See w^^ achambhd. %^i«V anhoMihA 



10 



16 



20 



{I%e word has not been met with by us as an adj.^ 
though it may occasionally be so used by the vulgar.) 

[Derivation uncertain ; possibly identical with Skr. 
^Hm^\ any extraordinary event, though the change 
of^to^ is quite exceptional. The nearest analogy is 
the change of ^ to w {e.g. Pr. wwnt for Str. wiRW: 

Sem. i, 49, 265, B., Bg. wpniT^ for Skr. wmrnr:)* 
The opposite change of ^ or w to^is commofi enough 
{see Od. Or. % 11). Perhaps the S. and Eh. forms 
point to an influence of the Arabic on the change. — H. 
and P. ^[^WC or ^^^T, O. ^^wft, Jf. ^^ifT, Kn. 

mm-m or ^mqr, S. ^vwi {Ar. v^), N. ^^w {N. 
L. 2, 47).] 

^T^^i^ achdmbhd, a contr. of "m^^n achambhab, q.v. 
Exam,, Padm., do. 280, 1, %W T% ^^^ «iW^ ^ w 
^TW, The Jogi kept looking at the miracle, {but) 
the elephants {which had been whirled up to the sky) did 
not come down again. See ^nrat achamhU. 



25 



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60 




achamhdj a Bh. cor. o/ ^^nit achambhd, q.v. 

Exam., 06p. 11, i^T^lSr ^j^w wrf ^tn^ir % ift^i^T^, 

'^^sm X^rei^ ^ ?r%P The BrShman boy thinks 
in his mind, * what a wonderful thing has come 
to pass!' 



dchar (1), Ts., adj., com. gen., lit. Immoveable, 
devoid of the power of locomotion ; in this sense never 
used, but only in contrast with yrx (see the compounds 
below) in the sense of ^ insentient, unconscious, devoid 
of sensation or consciousness {syn. Wf ) ; hence, *unin- 
telligent, devoid of intelligence or understanding, 
foolish, stupid. Comp., ttt-^^^k (So^. iii, 47) or 
^'VK-^TT {Rdm., Bd.y do. 94, 1 ; Bin. 46) or ^rr^^ 
(=^^-^nnc, Oity Ut. 38, 8), lit. moveable and 
immoveable, h^nce sentient {men, animals, but excl. 
superhuman beings) and insentient {trees, minerals 
etc.) creation {syn. «rf ^nnv, comm. to Bin. 203), or 
wise and foolish people. Phr., ^rx ^r^ ^^^ the 
sentient and insentient creation (Bin. 91 ; Ram., Bd. 
ch. 115, 8). Exam., Rdm., A., ch. 134, 2, wrf^ 
^ni xm ^^^ V^j Touching the dust of (Rdm's) 
feet, insentient creatures were gladdened ; Bin. 203, 
^Vt% ^^T-VW-^'V^-^^ ^ft^B[x^, The fourteenth 
lunar day {reminds us that) Gopal oonstitutea the 
fourteen worlds and the insentient creation ; Bin. 46, 

^mT:-^iT-^'^ ^ ^xw-?rw nx^^ i^w xfk m^mx-j^ 

1^, *Hari, afl constituting the whole insentient 
and sentient creation, is all pervading and existing 
at all times,' such fragrant incense (of praise) you 
should ofier (to him) ; Rdm., Bd., ch. 115, 8, ^^ iinr 

^^rr fT^ 'fT ^IT, w^firiftff ^ WW %«rT, Sentient and 
insentient creatures {i.e., animals as well as trees and 



dchar 



83 



acharqf 



minerals)^ nagas, men, and debs, they all do servioe 
to {Rdm^s) lotufi-like feet ; Git.j Ut. 38, 8, ^f^^T v^w 
^n^T 'TTftnr ^TO TTW KTH-Tnfl', {All) the sentient 
and insentient oreatures of {all) the fourteen worlds 
rejoice that Bam has come to liis capital. *Ram,j 
A.y ch. 229, 8, ^nf^vcwvrm iror wX, ^^(K w^t ^i^ 
^^ wnr ^, There is not to be found in the {whole) 
world a disposition like Bharat's^ who makes the 
foolish wise and the wise foolish, {the comm. of the 
lidkKnaU edition^ however, interprets who causes the 
solid to dissolve (icfw ^) and the dissolving to 
become solid (^^|^)) ; Bdm.^ £d.j do. 94, 1, 2, # 

nx^T^ irf«i ^ ^^ W 'W WTW, Whatever living creatures 
are in the world, whether fools or wise, whether men 
or women, or whatever else they may be called, tiiiey 
all, abandoning their own natures, came under the 
influence of love ; Sat. iii, 47, «r^|, g^^, ^iftwrft[ ut 

^f%ir v^-^:ir ^mr, «nr tt^^ ^rr% nm ^fm ^k ^^k 

liX^, Do thou worship — {says) Tul'sl Das— (iieSm 
whose name consists of) the initial {letter XT i^ of 
Tift mass, a syn.) of {the word) *ogh* together with 
the final {letter ir ma of^St^ ether) which belongs to 
the five elements, whose power renders Bhava {8ib) 
immortal, and the unintelligent mind, intelligent. 

See ^TfT oehaL 

ISkr. ^nn? ; « above in all Gds.'] 



dchar (2), Te., a((/., com. gen.^ the same as 

achalf q.v. 

ISkr. ^^Tir: ; the difference between ^^^ (1) and 
(2) is that the former is derived from the 8kr. 
, but the latter from the 8kr. \/^; the x of the 
former is original, while that of the latter is a mere 
B. provincialism for m ; the former occurs only with a 
q)eeialised technical meaning, but the latter is used with 
its original and more general meaning. It may be 
added that the two Skr. ^/^ ^^ n/^' ^^^ themselves 
ultimately identical."] 

acharaj, WX^X^ dchar^, Ts., (I) ad., com. gen., 
marvellous, astonishing, wonderful, extraordinary* 

Exam., Sat. iv, 45, ^iT-vnr ^^iw ^w '^nnr ^^^^ 

{fem.) wnr, Oh marvellous thing ! the fool wants to 
obtain an ornament made of the flowers of heaven 
{see also Bdm., Bd., ch. 168, 6 ^WTwi ^m^^ marvel- 
loua accounts). 

(EL) sub%t. m., ^con., a wonderful thing, a wonder, 
marvel, mirade, prodigy ; *abs., wonder, astonish- 
ment, surprise. Phr., *^lT^iw ^rnw {San. 65), v. 
tr., lit. to consider {something to be) a wonder, to 
wonder at, to be astonished at; *^TTW ^nnr 
{Bdm., Bd.y ch. 184, 4) or ^n^m mm {Bdm.,, 



10 



IB 



to 



SS 



80 



85 



40 



46 



50 



A., ch. 38, 1), or ^^f^xm iftjnr {Padm. 4i9), v. 
intr., {lit. the coming or being of astonishment, 
hence) to be astonished, to be surprised, to wonder 
{with the dat. or obi. f. of the person affected with 
the feeling). Exam,, Misc. 14, m^m * ^ ift* 
vy ^in%, 1^ Iflf yw ^i^T«f vik, On the banks 
of Jamuna's stream thou tendest thy cattle and 
playest something wonderful on thy flute; Padm., 

ch. 68, 3, ^f^ ^[^ ^i^T^ ^i^nwr, iHCTT P"* ^n^if % 
^W(, He saw something marvellous and portentous, 
a large tree was coming along walking ; Bdm., Bd., 
ch. 131, 8, w^ 3W1F ^^ ^f!^^ jj^iO, ^fir-ii'r iftr 
^ ^r^T«i vrr^j Tell me the whole story, Purfiri, for 
it is a marvel that a saint's mind should be filled 
with passion ; ib.^ A., ch. 188, 1, irff ^T^TV ^pr ^ 
^«^ wrt, %f^ 'r ^\^ Tf^ ^Trt, It is no wonder, 
it has been so for ages, who is there whom Baghubir 
{i.e. Bdm) did not exalt P ib.. A., ch. 200, 2, ir^ 

?n«nx ^^^::«r fff , ihitt, It is not wonderful that 
thou shouldst act thus, son, {lit. this action is no 
miracle of thine) ; Misc. 28, ^^^^ jr* ^WT ^ irrtj 
fkxg^ ir^ ^H^ ^. wrt. One miracle I have seen, 
O brother, the transmundane god has become incar- 
nate ; Sat. ii, 50, wrrv-^irr ftir irr n^, ^^ ^^^w 
wf ^T^i uir^i %f% ^n^t^ ^^ «nrfir ftirr ^ «rrw, 

This is a great marvel, the cuckoo makes no nest 
{in which to lay his eggs) — {says) Tul'sl Das — ; by 
{lit. hearing) whose advice, then, does he {when 
hatched) go to the abode of his father and mother P 

K. Bdm., 8u. 20, g^^, ^^ w ^rnf %ftre ^xtV ^wtw, 
^rft" ^nn:«i ftw^ tw^ w^dx yt, Tul'sl {says), we have 
never heard with our ears {that) water {can be as injlam* 
mable) as clarified butter; Eesaxi's son {ie. Hanumdn) 
has done a great miracle ; ih., Ut. 72, ^tlfH ^ "^psrA 

^i^rripr ^ Km ^, w ^ ^ ^^f^Rv %^ ^ ^, 

The fool who, hearing or seeing so great a miracle, 
does not conceive a love for BSm's feet, is utterly 
wretched ; Bdm., Bd., do. 118, 1, wsf^ WT9, ^nwT- 
inni, wt«I «it ^l^^iw Xt^, Tell me again, gracious 
Lord, what miracles Bsm performed; Bdm., Bd., 

ch. 176, 2, tmifv fii^ winRH^ ftTTin, %fti «wr ^riir, 
^ra^iW ^RTPTTy The king awoke when the morning 
had not yet broke, and, seeing himself at home, 
was much astonished ; San. 65, %m ^jlw Wir ifxfH 

ii^, ^n^?H^ inwif frti:> jiw^i ^ ^ri'ft' «r^\ w«t «f 

x[x^m ^tT) When' the fire of the sun '\i.e. passion) gets 
into the body {of a saint), people axe astonished {for, 
says) Tul'si Dss, that which has become {cool like) 
water cannot again become {hot like) fire P *Bdm., 

A., ch. 216, 8, ^^ ^iw^ ^^Kn ^-vnrr, m^ ^% ^ 

iiw-m WTHTy There was the same delight and 
astonishment in every village, as though the tree of 
paradise had sprung up in the desert ; Padm., do. 449, 




dehar^dhuruA 



84 — 



aehal 



2, ^i^T^ ifift' ^THT w%, HT ^ftr ^^ffifr if», All were 
amazed (on seeing that) a meeting of the moon witli 
the lotus was taking place ; Bdm.j Bd.^ eh. 134, 4, vf"^ 
^W % im ^^tw ^(TTT, On hearing it, every one's mind 
was astonished ; »*•, -4., eh. 38, 1, ^rm vrpi w^f 
WTi:«l UTTifT, To-day we are greatly surprised {at 
seeing Das' rath not rise at the usual huur), 

[Sfcr. ^rw:, mth an inorganic sibilant^ {from WT 
and^^lK)^ tchich perhaps accotmts for the loss of it in the 
modern tats. The Pr. forms are ^^fW or ^^^cW or 
^^f^ or ^H^^, {Hem, i, 58), none of tchich has survived 
inOd. AsaboceinallGds.^butS.'^^K^; G.also 
one who is astonished, and ^in^fH astonishment.] 




achar^dhdrudy ■ «i>*W*t^l Uchar^dharaudf 
see under "ih^^ ichar. 



acJmran^icQj the same as "^^^^ &char*wdy 
Ig* /. ((f *^ dchar, qx. Exam,, B. Gr., II {Bh.) , 

iy, 11, nrPfw^^Tr^ wm^HT^, ^^^^wf ^7^» 

In it {i.e.y my bungalow) my husband would have 
slept, {while) I fanned him with the skirt of my 
body-oloth. 

[^This is a very vulgar form derived from "itX^^ 

by means of the pieon. mff. ^, identical with the Pr. 
suff. V {Hem. ii, 165). This makes "^^TWI, of which 
^^flTT w the long form."] 



[^ ^•^ I dchar'wdy ^^K*m achar^wd^ Tbh., 9ubst. iw., 
Ig. f of ^iHt ichar, q.v. Exam., Bais. 7, "^mx wtTTTH 
«YxT ^W '^^X^f Tnrr, While sweeping in the yard 
{of my house) the skirts of my doth flew away, 
OBaml 



10 



10 



Sch^rdf ^I^ncT ach^rdj Tbh., mbst. w., «^r. /. o/ 
^T^^ ichar J q.v, {Ors. § 741). See also Index to 
Mth. Ch., S.V. Exam., Mag. 23, ^7T ft^ ^n ^T%, 
^^TfiwT, wri fwm -^n^ ^^, Why is thy bosom- 
oloth so loose, fair lady, why is thy body so thin P 

ib. 29, ^Ntt WW i?r^ '^^■1^ ^ ^ i^, Kf%vr % Wo 
^ ^^, Loosening her bosom-oloth, the fair lady 
sleeps in the eourtyard, and the heart of her lover 
{dat. ethicus) is torn; B. Gr., II (5A.), xxiv, 8, 
^i^KT ^f^JX ift^XT'iH ^n, Raising my bosom-doth 
he bawls {at me) ; Sal 2, ^nRqn ^^rrr ^inrfw, 
From childhood I tied on a bosom-doth. 

[^Ihis word is almost entirely limited to the Mg. 
dialect. It should be carefully distinguished from 
another ^4^f^Klf which is an obi. form of ^VX {qv.), 
used with or without a postposition ; e.g.. '^ihnTT T, 
On my bosom-oloth {B. Gr. II, Bh.y zxiii, 6) ; 
iW ^n:T %, With my bosom-doth {Sudh. 15) ; 
^^T^ft^iff, I would have hid under my bosom- 



so 



25 



so 



35 



40 



45 



■^ 



60 



doth {Bih. xvii, 1) ; ^f^'^ ^Tffttff, I would have 
swept with the skirts of my bosom-oloth (6^dr. zii, 
3). See the remarks under "^t^Tm ag'nd.'] 

[^Skr. ^^v: or (with pleon. nr) ^^^wt, Pr. 
^V^^, B. yitnxi {with X for w, see Gd. Gr. § 30). 
H. MtnKtj P. ^4nwJj M. ^^wi (a handkerchief), 8. 
"^f^ (a piece of doth for straining with).] 

ifX^T ichdriydy ^^t\«*l achdriydy Tbh., subst. /, 
Ig ffefn. in a dim. or endearing sense of "^Nttt dcKrd^ 
qr). Exam,, B, Gr., II {Bh), vii, 8, iiffr t ^% 
^ri^rr ^ift^ ^^wr ^JNft^T, Between the two {i.e., Gan- 
ges and Jamund) KSdba (i.e. Krish^n) seizes hold of 
my dear little bosom-cloth ; ib. vii, 4, wTfo WT^ 
T»1^ Tifft '<^tw, Let go, let go, KSdha, my 
dear little bosom-cloth ! 




ffcA'rl, ^^^ ach^rl, 'Xhh.fSubst.fem. of 
acVrdj with the force of a diminutive or of endearment. 
{Grs. § 766). Phr. "<^t^ ^tt^ or y^^^t Wtor 
sometimes {elliptically) only ^iNrcl", an ornament tied 
to the border of the bride's body-doth {Grs. §§ 
766, 1331). 



achal, {old dir. f. ^^% achali), Ta., (I) acf;,, 
com. gen., {subst. f ^%^wrt achHd), lit. not moving, 

immoveable ; ^met. immoveable by opposition, i.e. 
unconquerable ; or unremovable by death, i.e. alive ; or 
unshaken by vicisMudes, i.e. firm, confirmed, estab- 
lished, enduring; or imchangeable, unalterable by 
fate, and with many other varieties of meaning ; 
^mentally or morally, imperturbable, constant, {syn. 
ftlT, opp. ft^w) . Exam., ' Edm., Ut. , ch. 73, 5, il^Ti^f 
^^11 •T \^i ^PWf iit^-^W ^rr^fr %«t, People on 
board a ship see the world moving, and in their 
delusion suppose themselves to be not moving ; 
ib., Ar., ch. 7, 15, ^fir ii^ ^fif %^^ tIt WW, The 
sage, becoming immoveable, sat down in the middle 
of the road ; ib., Bd., ch. 30, 5, '}j^ ^ireifir 

wi*?* ^ft-THC ^« ^^fl ^^n? «T^, Dhruva in 
his trouble called upon the name of Hari, and 
{thus) obtained an immoveable, incomparable station 
{in the heavens). *Itdm., Bd., ch. 157, 6, ^{W-^w ^J[9 
^"^W ^r|T<iT, Unequalled in strength of arm, and 
unconquerable in battle ; ib., Ki.,ch. 10, i, ^[%% IP^, 
a^ X\Mm siT«iT, I allow thee {i.e. Bdli) to live, keep 
the breath of your body ; ib., Ut., do. 85, 4, wrn 
^^^ liW inr ^ iricv ^^rw ^T^nr, In deed, word, and 
thought, exercise an imshaken devotion to my feet; 
similarly Git., Ut. 35, 2, ^%^ ^nftfir unshaken faith ; 
JSat. iii, 96, ^r^v w^>r unshaken word ; Bam., A., 
ch. 68, 8, ^^fw ^ff^TW unshaken or enduring happy 
married life ; ib., A., ch. 29, 9, ^^V ftrrfif enduring 



^^^ achalu 



86 ~ 



j/^^^T dchau? 



calamity ; ib,^ Bd.y do, 95, 2, ^r^wf ^irrfV enduring 
trance ; Git^ Su. 6, 4, ^i^rw ^wW enduring blessing ; 
Sb. viii, 6, ^l^w f^tftK fiim opinion; Edm.f Su,y 
ch. 23, 1, ^i^w xm firmly establiahed rule ; Gl^., 
Bd. 2, If ^^w v3v 9W rr^ the family and the 
kingdom have been secured; Bdm^, A., eh. 271, 6, 

ftf*r ^nrt ^^ ^^W ^^r^, The illusion of the Creator 
is thus unalterable and eternal ; Chan,, ^r^wf KW ^^ 
irf^ii ^Tf% ^ ^«ftmr ^Wrff ^ffti, Observe with 
your own eyes what lasting and inartificial colours 
are in birds' wings. ^Bdm., Ar., ch. 40, 7, ^m- 

Saints are victors over the six disturbing influences, 
sinless, passionless, imperturbable, poor, chaste, and 
contented ; i6., Xn., ch. 77, 9, %^m ^nrw irw ^itw 
wm^. His pure and constant soul stands for a quiver; 
Sat. i, 5, ^ t^tw HV^ ^^^ wnf ^-^V^v v^^, 
TTim (i.e. Bdm) Tul'sl perceives clearly as the pure, 
all- constant, and mighty; 8ai. iii, 96, irCT incnsT ^^ 
%^m9 ^I^W ^ f^l^V 9-^9 {Bdm) is firm like the earth 
and the mountains^ — ^not changeable, but constant in 
his promises. 

(II) 9ubst. tn.i 'a mountain ; *a name of Sib ; 
>a symbolical name of tke number seven. Examif 
*K. Bdm.^ Ln. 55, ^xA ^!t fww ^^^ WW^ 
^% %, {Hanumdn) has gone and brought back with 
him good news from Bharat and the mountain {on 
which the curing herb grew) ; Pdrb. 8, 4, ^WV-VWT 
iiV ^r^Vir ^rrrf^ f% vt«T» The daughter of the 
mountain {Simdlaya) remained {firm) like a 
mountain, for can a wind shake it P Similarly ^ Hb, v, 
28, 46, ifhn?^ ^^W the mountain Gobar'dhan; 
jr. Bdm.y Ut. 136, f^mi» 'l^iw the mountain 
Ohitrakut. • Pdrb.^ chh. 13, 1, li^ ^t^irr ^iK TTW^ 
^^V ^Pi^^y Sib, the Destroyer, rejoiced in his heart 
at the tumult in the city. See ^nK achar (2). 

[TAis word is also said to have the meaning of * an 
old man* {Sd. Dy).y lit. decrepit, unable to walk ; 
but this is doubtful; we have not met with it in that 
sense.'\ 

[^Skr. ^^W:; P. ^^W, O. ^tnrs or ^i^^K, M. ^m 
or ^nKi B. ^^w, 8. ^r^i H. ^i^ir or 



or 



.] 



^r^^ achaliy old dir. f. of ^rtw achal, g.v. Exam., JT. 
Bdm.i Ki. 1, ^^rft^ ^TW % ^1^ ^f% i^ftrfi ift", 
v^ ^^ftf TtPc ^nr^ ^^ 'ft, Pressed by the pressure 
of {Hanumdn^s) four feet, the earth was flattened 
down {to hell)f and as he leaped off (to Laykd) 
the mountain sunk {into the earth) four finger- 
breadths. 

[S*r. ^RW: Pr. ^miPr; Ap, Pr. in^ {Hem. 
iv, 331).] 



^^•^T dch'ld, ^^7«T acVld, Tbh., subnt. w., str. f of 
ichaly the same as ^^ic dchar, q.v. 



1/^"^^ 



10 



16 



90 



86 



80 



86 



40 



45 



60 



Schaw, ^^^ai^Aatr, {pr. pts. Mtn^n Sch'tvat ; 

dcKwal; -^^rww icVwab; -^^ dchaai; prec. 
imper. ^m^ ichatya {Bdm.^ A., ch. Ill, 1) ; Bw. 
pret. i}^^ achayd), Tbh., v. ir., {Bw. and W. Bh.), 
the same as ^/^^KTw iehdb, g.v. E}^m.f • ColL^ ( W. 
Bh.y Az.) VS "^^W ^9 He is sipping the juice ; 
Bdm., A. 222, 7, ift ^nwn wiUfi fiiir ^ mjfrff 
^T^-wr fi|«i %t, Those kings who merely sip 
{kingly power) are maddened by it, unless {they 
be guided) by a council of good men. ^Bdm., A., 

eh. Ill, 1, T3[^ w^n ^fidTfW^rm^, *^(hVT^ wm,' 

nr^ff 1W5 wnfV, One brought a pitcher full of 
water, and with tender voice said {to Bdm), * Drink, 
my Lord' ; Ddh. 306, «ito ^^f% Su ifT TPI t ff^ 
K^f 'it "^1^^ WW fnfir <t "qf^c^ ^rft v irw. Listen 
ye, {says) Tul'si Das, to the infatuated thirst of the 
papiha bird, which, abstaining for four months, 
drinks only of the rain-water {that falls) in Swfiti, 
{the rainy season lasts four months and stops in Swdtt, 
or the latter half of October ; see Qrs. § 1084 ; the 
rain of Swdtt is considered most precious, and fabled to 
be the only sustenance of the papiha or chdtik or the 
sparrow hawk ; see another reading of this verse in Sat. 
i, 96) ; Oit., Ln. 11, 4, ^^ «iw-6rftr ^5?^ Wt w^^ 
^sd^ ^^N^ %, This ocean {the sons of Sagar) 
have dug out, {the divas and daxtyas) have churned, 
{Hanumdn) has leaped over, {Bdm) has bridged over, 
{and Agasty*) has drunk up ; Krish. 74, ♦ ^^ ^^ ^^rr 
^K^nnr V, ft fW ^ ^firvi^t, Those who continuously 
drink nectar with their mouths, how should they 
carry {lit. be possessors qf) poison P ^CoU., {W. Bh., 
j4». Oy.) irPc^ "^I^IIT, He is smoking his water-pipe 
{made of the shell of a cocoanut). See x/^ dch. 

[2%i8 is deterioration of the fuller form ^"^tni^ 
{q.v.), produced by a confusion similar to that in 
the case of ^/^"^ l^ee the remarks s.v. The form 
'^tvm being looked upon as a causal, has been treated 
as such, and subjected to the shortening process of 
the element wm to which the causal suff. wvf is liable in 
Prdkrit {see Hem. iii, 150, also i, 67). Thus, just as 
Pr. admits both vrft^ and BfHTt set up {Skr. wfxnvs, 
caus. of\/wn),^^f^ ««rf illlilft^' gratified {caus. of 
\/TI^9 rfc, sojrom Pr. wrmfi^ or Ap. Pr. WJ^(ffk< 
{Him. iv, 397) is formed, by false analogy, the form 
Ap. Pf' ^ l ^ft ^ sipped, whence comes Ap. Pr. 
x/WiX^ or Od. v/"^^^ (*^^ tfie remarks under art. 
^ a (6)). See also the remarks on derivation under 
art. s/^ and ^^nV^.—This form of the root also 
occurs in H. and M., vi%. H. ^^fW, if. ^nW or ^^M. 
The proper B. {Mth.) form is 4r^m.'] 




Sch^wan 



86 



achdr 



^^ icKwan^ Tbh., mh%U m.^ the same as 
dch^maHy q.v. See ^rT^W^ dchaman. 

[Skr. ^KT^[m^J Pr. WT^^f Ap. Pr. ^[ximw 
{9ee Hem. iv, 397) or ^nrwf {see art. ^ a (6)), 
Qd. ij^ir.] 

^/^^•c|l«l Heh^wdb, {pr. pis. "^^T^ir acA'«?fl6<w^, 5A. 
and Mg. ^^;^t«(<i &cVtoawaty '^^^wTftw ScVtodwit; 
^•^V^m ScVwdol; ^4^TTO^ Sch^ivdeb ; "^JN^f^r^ 
Seh^fodbaij "^hf^TOT ScVwde)^ Tbh,, (Wtw. r. o/ v^-^Nmr 
Schdbjq.v. Exam.i ^Edm.,Sd.f chh. 13, 4, ■'iK^TT 
icl^^rnr, ir^wro ^ ^it^'V ^'fi^, Having helped 
them (tri^A M?a^er) to rinse (M^tr mouths) ^ they gave 
them betel, (^^ «>A*cA) they went each to where 
his dwelling was. ^Pdrb. 15, 2, ^ ^^H, 'i^-'TTV 
^rf^ ^[^^iy ^> {Eimdwant) paid his respects (^o ^A« 
guests) and gave them nectar to drink as the honey- 
ofifering. 



10 



16 



ScVwdhd, Tbh., subst. m., Mg.f the same as 
^J^HTTC Sch'tdhar, q.v. {Qrs. § 803.) 

[Derived from ^y^ and the suff. TTf . The latter 
M the 8kr. ^m: one who carries, Pr. Tf^^, (7fl?. 

^T^TITT achdkdi the same as ^WWT achakkdj q,v. It is 
used adverbially^ suddenly, unexpectedly. Exam., 
Padm,f ch. 549, 1, ft^rf^ ^^Tff ^ff ^ ^i^WT, UTT xf^r 
^9 «i|^ T^ xiwXj {Omng to the dust) on that day 
night fell so suddenly that the sun set and the moon 
hastened on her chariot. 

^^ l^lf achSchakf Tbh., flrfr., suddenly, unexpectedly, 
unawares. See ^^rwi achdnaky ^^^ achak, 

[Apparently a reduplication of ^^*. 5. A^w 

ii^T^fii, Ml. ^rin^ or ^t^^^, O. ^r^S\ 

^^fK achdndk (1), Tbh., flrft?., suddenly, unexpectedly, 
unawares. Exani.i B. Or.y I {Intr.)y Fable 1, ^(Tprv 
'irtf^ ^ Wf^vr litjfW ^nrr ^vrn^^, Suddenly a large 
pearl {lit. seed of pearl) came forth from it ; En. 12, 4, 
irfic ^innT ^r^riinf ^f^, Drawing {the bow of thy 
eyehrofcs) strike me unexpectedly. See ^^m*'^m 
achdn^chakf ^^H^machSchak, ^mVT achdkdj ^V^n aehak. 
[Derivation doubtful; probably a eomp. of the 
neg. pr^. ^ and ^"PWr, and the latter apparently some 
derivative from the Skr. v^fVni or <^/Pf or ^^fm, such 
as %««r or M^qw or ^T^W, which in Pr. would be %^w, 
in^, ^X^^f and in O^. might contract to wiw. The 
final w might be a pleon. suff. As above in all Gda."] 



so 



26 



80 



86 



40 



46 



achdnak (2)| Tbht, subst. m«, the name of a 
place in Tirhut Exam.| Kan. 18, XTfnvSt iT f^ ^ft 



60 



TT^ ^^mm WR, Marching away from Bam'pati 
they anived at Achanak. 



^ achdn^chakf Tbh., adv.^ the same as 
achdnak or ii^T^n achSchakf q.v. 

[Probably produced by a confkmon of the two 
anonymous forms ^i^iinr and^c^lt^m.'l 



j/^i^T^ 



ichdb^ ^TTW achdb {pr. pts. '♦^iwir Sch^bait, 
Bh. and Mg. "^hmnr ichdwat or ^H iftn ichdwit ; 
iBn^ftW dchddl ; "itnw^ Schdeb; tJwTW dchdbai or 
■^TIP" dchd€)y Tbh., t?. ^r., "to cleanse or rinse the 
mouth before eating or after eating, or before a 
religious ceremony {by way of purification) ; it is done 
by sipping a little water from the palm of the hand and 
spitting it 0ut again; {in this sense the verb is used 
absolutely f ^ water ^ to be understood) ; *to sip ; 'to drink ; 
^ idiom, {with ^fk^Kf innu, ^^O ^ smoke. Ibr 
examples see under the W. Bh. and Bw. forms ^yf^ 
Sch and v^'^N^ Schrno. 

[Skr. v/^n^ ( = WT'^^)^ I. cl. ^T^Rfir, whence 
Pr. v^^T^TH, Ap. Pr. v^^T^ {see JEim. iv, 397) 
or v/^T^T^ {^^ B[^^' iv, 226), whence Qd ^^^T^ 
{see art. w a (6) ) . From ^/^i^rw are formed by fake 
analogy the two der. forms ^yf^ and v/^Jf^^, see s.w. 
H. has v^^^ and Bg. v/^vNt.] 



achdr (1), ^miT dchdr, {poet. ^^IKT achdrd, old 
dir. m%X% achdru, poet. W^r% achdrd), Ts^ subst. m., 
* deed, action, act {opp. w^w word and fknrx thought, 
see Doh. 411) ; * practice, usage, custom, manner of 
life, occupation ; 'conduct, morals ; * religious practice 
or ceremony ; ( from the Hindu point of view there is 
no essential difference between practices , social, moral, or 
religious ; all being equally regulated by the shdsfrs 
or sacred books). Examii ^Ddh. 411, ^^w ftwiT 

^rn^ nw i^r ^frfiw w^ ilw, j[w^ ^ %m mi^. If 

what is to be done with the body or the mind be 
defiled with deceit, in word, thought, or deed, 
what peace — ^Tul'ifl Das {says) — can you {expect to) 
find P "Sat. vii, 84, ww vr, wv nfw, n^m ir», nm 

^TTR, Having many children, many desires, much 
talk, many usages and practices, — to consider {all) 
these to be good, that is unparalleled foUy, {see 
a slightly different version in Dgh. 490) ; JRdm., Ui., 

eh. 87, 1, mr Pnrr % ftrjw IWttt, ^ftfr f^w mr 
liW ^nrCT, One father has many children, and, 
theirs are difierent characters, tempers, and occupa- 
tions. ^Bdm., Bd., ckh. 18, 3, ^i^ ni^ ^ir^TOT wr 
^'^ro, ¥^ !|fiw TfV ^rnn. So corrupt had 
morals become in the worid, and righteousness 
was no {longer) heard of with the ears; JT. Mdm. 



achdr 



87 



^pftr 



acfdr 



Tit 97, 9ftr-wnv ft^TK ^^^TTx: tc^, wftf ^ ^» 

vpfi''%^ let, The Eali age has destroyed {ait) good 
thoughts and good oondnot, the {pecph being) blatant 
fools do not mind anything. *JSdm.^ Ui.y ch. 114, 10, 

Those grand duties of prayer, penanoe, fasting, and 
self-restraiist, the Sruti {i.e. the Bids) teaohes as 
mentorious religious praotioes ; Rdm.y Bd,^ eh, 329, 8, 
^ lilf-1^ ^w iftnr ^l^n?, The two family priests 
performed all the ritual ceremonies, 

[iSkr. ^T^fTT* ; 08 above in all Ode. On the 
shortening of the initial ^ see art. ^ a (6). The 
tadbh. Pr. ^TirKt {Atyp. § 78) has not survived in Od.'] 



^ aehdr (2), Tbh., subst m., pickles. Phr., 
qsw or ^ir^TK ft^irrew, fig. to beat to a pioUe, to beat 
severely, beat to a jelly {Ed. Dy.). Exam., B. Or., I. 
{Introd.)y Conversation 18y {p. 31), ^itf% ^^f.^i'^'qi^ 
w tw. Give me a few {young green mangos) for 

pickling. 

^Probably from Skr. T' hot, pungent, tvith the 
intern, pre/. ^ {see under art. ^ a (5)). Skr. ^fii^K:, 
Pr. ^IT^'it, Od. *^^|f^ or *^rTr^, whence ^^^IK. 
Or it may be connected with B. ^rrf or ^t» desire, 
relish.— 0., P., JGT., ^^fTT, 8. "V^V^, 8gh. ^^m%.] 



10 



•^ achdr^j\ ^nx9r achdrj\ ^irT^TT«m dchar^j\ ^imrw 
dcharj, T«-, subst. w., 'a spiritual guide, a religious 
leader ; «a family priest {syn. 5^f^, Ors. § 1347) ; 
«one learned in sacred lore, a learned pandit. Exanriii 
' Coll, {Bh.), %^X^ X^^ * ^I^TT^W W, Sukr' is 
-ttie spiritual guide of the Datyas. ®Cb//., (5*.), 
^TWXt'mT*^, ^^TKn^^w^trlo, To-day I have 
to perform the homa {sacrifice) , call the priest. 
^Das Kumar Charitr^ {by Bihnrl Ldt) ^tmK^ aPT ftwt 
ftntTRT, fSfTfii fii^fir HIT ^fw«w ^rm, The learned 
pandits together taught the son^ and the king 
observing him was greatly pleased. 

\^8kr. ^Tirra* ; as above possibly in all Ods."] 

achdr d, poet for ^n^K ocAtfr (1), q.v. 

^^TVI achdrij Tbh., a^n com. gen.^ fit for pickles ; 
hence, subst. {scl. i«ff), a pickle- jar {Cr.,p. 32) • 

[^Derived from ^WTT (2) by means of the sec. der. 
suff. t {see Od. Or. § 256) ; P. ^^^rft.] 



aehdrH^ poet, for ^^K acAtff (1)> ?.t?. 



16 




dchih, {str.f. ^^sf^^iWT dehikd or^nrTW dcVkd {q.v.), 
fern. *ift), Tbh#, o^",, eow. ^:e»., very little, inoonrider- 
able (of quantity) ; see A%. Oy. For an example see 
under ^i^ninr ach'kd. 



ao 



26 



[ This word has a strange derivation. Its original 

form is xf^ or ^fnuT, whence by the elision of the 

initial x t it becomes ^f^« or ^rf^T, and may still 

further be changed to Tf^ or tftWT, To these forms 

jrw one may be added idiomatically ; similarly nr or in 

may be omitted ; so that we have the following series 

of forms :— ^ Jf%, Kf^T mt , li^^ or tf^^T ; ^^ 

F¥, wf^ ^ jrir, ^if^n or ^rPiWT ; if^ pit, T:f^^ 3^ 

ff^ or li'^WT. The original form Tfir or 'ifir % is the 

conj. part, of the ^^/K^ to contrive, and means having 

contrived, having made a shift. It is commonly used 

in precative sentences, and thus assumes the meaning of 

a little,— «?AtV?A meaning is emphasised by the addition of 

-jrm. Thm we have the word used in Bhqf. 46, 3, Tf^ VW 

^m^ WIT %^[ «iint, lit. contriving a little wake up your 

brother ; or in Bhoj. 45, 20, tPt vm ^itfk^J ^T^«, 

lit. contriving a little show me his body. Similarly 

Bh. Coll. ^rf^r^ VC^ % ^o means lit. contriving a 

little give me dry tobacco, hence kindly give me a 

little dry tobacco. The conj. part. xfM * appears to 

have been gradually turned into an adj. xT^m with a 

regular Ig. f. xS^m, f xf^, meaning a little. With 

regard to the loss of the initial x r, which is uncommon in 

Bihdri, the Rang'pUrl dialect may be compared, in which 

it is almost always elided, e.g., "^t^f^for xt^ to cook. 

See By. Or,, p. 189. See also Bhoj., Addenda, p. 61. ] 



^rf^ 



so 



85 



achint, Ts., adj., com. gen., what cannot be 
thought, inconceivable, past comprehension. Exam.f 
Coll., {Bh.), v[^^NX % ^rwfk ^f^ifT IT, The power 
of God is past comprehension. 

{This word does not occur with the meaning 
thoughtless, heedless, given to it in the S. Dy.) 

[Skr. ^-f^PHTo ; as above possibly in all Ods.} 



40 




46 



60 



dchir, {old obi. ^f^K^ achirahi), Ts., adv., not 
long, before long, soon. Exam.i Sn. 7, VT«r i|^ Xm, 
^if^T fWww ^9, Have patience, before long the Lord 
will meet thee; Vaish. xviii, 6, fw^ fx^^ '%m Ak 
«rff , ^f^ f^^H ^ ^T^, Misfortune and wealth 
are both not enduring, soon the essence of all good 
{i.e., the summum bonttm, or KrisKn) will meet thee ; 
Mth. Rdm., Ba. 119, 4, ^f^tfl 5*^ ^v % irf^^rnr. 
But soon> O king, there will be happiness. 

[Skr. ^-f^r^ ; as above in all Ods.^ 

^T^^ ^Air, T«., adj., com. gen.^ without dothee, 
unclothed, undressed, naked. Exam.| Padm., ch. 30, 5, 
^ ^ ft?r«K ^^ 'J^y Some again are Digambars 
(a kind of naked Jain monks), unclothed and naked. 

{The Benares edition of the Padm. has the false 
reading ^f^<*i. ) 

[Sir. ^-^^» ; as above possibly in all Ods.^ . 




achat 



88 — 



achitu 



aehutf ^r^rr achput^ T%^ subsi. f»., lie wlio cannot 
fail, the nnf ailing, imperifihable, eternal. {The tcordis 
properly a general adj., but is now used only as an epU 
thet of Kri^Vn or Bish'n or Ood) Comp., ^^jum^ 
( = w^-^TW^), the Etemally-happy-one, an epithet 
of Bish'n or Krish'n, bsm.f Misc. 28, 5, ^^ IS^ 
•qiRrlSrr%, ^^irnn^ ^ew % iWi^, (Krish'n) over- 
tamed the fourteen worlds in the twinkling of an 
eye, the Etemally-happy-one is removed far above 
aU. 

I8kr. ^-^m ; as above possibly in all OdsJ] 

'^^^ achfikf Tbh., fl^*., com. grcfi., unfailing, nnerring, 
sure. Examif Chan. ^^^ ^nw, ^T^-^ftr, fkm 'wr 
WT^r nrn^j Close fast, lotus-faced one, the unfailing 
arrows of thy eyes ; ti., *qTf% €in^ ^ ^T^ ^s^iPm, 
f^f% ft^ir \% ^T^, The natural disposition {of 
a person) and ' bemay * {a kind of foot disease) never 
disappear ; created as they are by the Cresitor, you see, 
they are unerring {in producing their effects). 

[Comp. of the neg. pref. ^ and ^yn a failing, error. 
The latter is derived from a compound root ^ys^ corre- 
sponding to Skr. Vt« > «^^ ^^« ^' § 3^3. The word 
'%^f^ therrfore is ultimately identical with ^^if, q.v. 
O. and M. ^I^ ; not noticed in other Ods."] 



acheti {poet. "^l^ifT achetd, old dir. ^^ achslu), 
Ts^ (I) ad;., com. gen.^ * {naturally and permanently) 
devoid of sensation or consciousness, insentient, 
inanimate {syn. «rf or ^^< or wvn, opp. ^inr, ^t, 
^ijf^) ; * {accidentally and temporarily) unconscious, 
senseless, fainting, swooning; ^ {morbidly or ecstatically) 
deprived of one's proper senses, out of one's senses, 
beside one's self, at one's wit's end, bewildered, 
confused {syn. ftvWi see Padm., ch, 457, 2, or nrr^w) ; 
^ devoid of intelligence or experience or design, foolish, 
ignorant, artless, simple {syn. ^mr^) ; ^wanting in 
attention, unmindful, forgetful, thoughtless, heedless, 

careless. Exam.t ' San. 32, ^ ^ ?(v«r J(^m ^^ 
ftif irnr, wt^ ^% ^^ ^, %inr ^^ 'V, Goddesses, 
gods, demons, men, sages, saints, and nsgs, whatever 
beings there are, great or small, sentient or insentient ; 
Ag. V, 84, fjiTT-fti^ 3J1I f^i^ ^w iff ir^ xr^, ir ^w ; 
ft«n ^ fiT«f1% ^^ m^y WT* *^rf% ^%ir, The Lord 
{who is) the ocean of mercy, asked the ocean to make 
a way for him, but it refused ; {for) inanimate 
creatures pay no heed to prayers, — the insentient 
only submit to threats. *Ram.y Bd.^ do. 187, 1, mjt 
mrnv ''^^ ir, wr i wsr ^wt^ Senseless {Migh^ndd) 
sunk down into the nether world, {though) he was 
flill alive by the Br&hman's blessing; ib.^ Bd.^ do. 

161, 2, iflwir ^m^ ^fvK ^x,m9fk^ «njv ^^, They 
kept searching in distress for a stream or pond, and 



10 



16 



80 



85 



80 



30 



40 



60 



were fainting for want of water. ^Rdm.j A.^ do, 

77 y 2, ^fK fw5r-^-^^ 31^ ^ir ^rfr ^^fr ^^, Having 
reverenced the feet of the Brah'mans and Gurus, 
the Lord departed, they all being beside themselves 
(with grief) ; *., ch. 308, 7, ^ wrfi n^ irtif ^%wr, 
All the people went away beside themselves {with 
grief) ; ib.j Ln.y chh. 26, 10, wf^nw mfW ^J^ yi^ 
^^nnPtT^^ir, All the warriors, including Lachhi- 
man and the monkey chief {nanumdn)j were at their 
wits' end ; K. Bdm.y Ln. 36, QW^, ^iw wfw ^^^;^ 
|ir, ^%if VI wK, ^ i?k ^, Tul'si Das {says), there 
Dasanan {i.e. Edban) gave a shout, {tphereupon) all 
the warriors grew bewildered, none {lit. who) could 
maintain his courage ; Ag. iii, 18, kth W^T? ^W v>r 

ftf^ir ftf^w, ^^ ^ftr %w, nr^n ^9^^ fkwr^ w^ ^^w 

^f^m '^^Aw, Bam and Trfikhan in bewilderment 
wander from wood to wood, making search for Sits, 
and, beside themselves with grief, by reason of the 
great misfortune and calamity, they seek for some 
good omen. ^Rdm.^ Bd.f do. 37, 2, ^^m ir^ w^, 

^"Wnrf W ^fJr rW ^l^, I had no understanding of it 
{i.e. of the story ofRdm), {as) I was then in my child- 
hood, and was quite unintelligent ; Bin. 83, ^i^ivrt 
wWt ^^ {fem.)y {My) childhood passed in simpli- 
city. ^Padm.y ch. 346, 5, ftni ^%ir ^% ^vit li^, Her 
heart was careless as that of an artless girl ; Ag. v 
43, TTWir VT1J WTTt ir^, *irrf iro^ ^r%ir,' Eaban 
then waked up his brother {KumbVkaran), {saying :) 
* Where is your devotion {tome)^ you foolP' Coll, 
{Bh.), '^Aw «TTf%ir ^^ ^r^o, ^o m wW, Why are 
you acting like a fool ; can't you see properly P {Hd. 
By.) ; Coll., {Mg.), t If^fw ^ikn, ♦ ^ ^ ^njrw, t 
W^i7iii|r, The heedless fool babbles away just what 
comes into his head {Sd. By.). 

(11) adv., with similar meanings to the above^ 
unconsciously, confusedly, foolishly, heedlessly. Exanit 

Colly (BA.), ^^^ ^%ir wVfT xw^mn fk mfkm f^m 

itWi He drove the horse so heedlessly that the child 
was run over. 

[S*n ^-^ir^ {nom. sg. ^^irr) ; as above probably 
in all Gtf«.] 



acKetan, Te^ acy., cam. gen., a synonym of ^%v 
achat, q.v. 

ISkr. ^-%ir^ ; as above probably in all O^s.'} 




achetu, old dir. f. of ^^ achit, q.v. Exaniif * Sai. 
ii, 99, ^mrsf^ '^ ^ "^TiT nrft ^is(^ V^ ^^, QvSV, 
l^rfiw 3fWK lit ^ ^mrfir w^ %5, Having himself 
taken a draught of wine, {man) himself becomes 
deprived of his senses ; this — ^Tul's! Das {says) — ^is the 
cause of the rise of manifold kinds of trouble. ^ JT. 
Rdm., Ut. 82, ^rVt ir^ irn'ft, ^Tsit flSTfir fiwific wf , 



acheid 



— 89 



achchhat 



ftl^ft t^ i?hl VW, ^TT^Tt ^l%ff %, Intoxicated with 
the liquor of worldly enjoyment, and strongly 
attached to the vile women of my wicked intellect, 
in disregard of the {dictates of the) Beds and the 
reproach of men, I have become an exceeding fool 
{like Jjdtnit). 



^H^fTT 



acKeshtf T€«, acff., com. gen.^ motionless, paralysed. 
Exam.| Mth. Edm.f A.f ch. 24, 21, fiw ^l^w ^ 
ipnf^ ^>^ v^ «nw vrw ^r ^t. The king, 
paralysed {tcith itorraw)^ did not hear the cries (ofjof/jf 
but tears flowed from his two closed eyes. 

[Sir. ^^: ; as above possibly in all OdsJ] 



10 



^^WfTf achStanj a corruption of ^i^trto achaitanya, q,v. 



u 



o achaUant/a, Ts., adj\j com. gen.^ a synonym of 
^^if achHj q.v. 

[fi*r. ^-^np^: ; as aboce probably in all Ods."] 



80 



^ 



acA^n^ Tbh., a(f;\, com. gen.^ restless, uncomfort- 
able, ill at ease {used principally in W. Bihdr.) . Exanisf 
Mth. Bdm.t Ar. 50, 1, iftiflW'^ fc^ ^^, The |tt 
Supremely-happy-one {God) is inconsolable through 
separation {from Sttd). 

[^ comp. of the neg.pref. ^ and ^w ease, comfort, 
q.v.'] 

^1^1 •IT ichSund^ Tbh., mbst i»., {Mg.)y the masc./orm 
of "^twt^ dchiunl (j.r.)> ^ ^t^'nfft achdmanl^ q.v. 
{Ors. § 774). 

[Sir. ^rmwi^mij Pr. ^i^nn^, -4p- -P^- ^i^^ ^^> 

whence contr. and shortened Od. "^t^ft^x. See Od. Or. 
§ 122. Bee also the remarks un(fer^9w^if.] 



^ST^ff SchSunij Tbh., subst.f, the eontr. N. Bh,form 
for ^ns^ifi acV manly q.v. {Ors. § 774). 



85 



achchhj for words commencing thus and not men" 
turned belowy see under ^n achh. Occasionally these 
two forms are interchanged with ^RW akkhj ^fw akh^ 
^sm dkhy or '^trm ikh. Accordingly certain words 
not found below should be looked up unden the latter 
forms. 

{It may be noted as apractical^ though not absolute 
rule, that tats, words are spelt with w chchhy while 
tadbh. wordsy such as derivatives from the j^/^^ achh^ 
are spelt with w chh,) 

[The Skr. cor\f. % h^ is pronounced w chh or 
^ chchhy the latter only in the medial position {see 0^, 
Or. % 36 ; also Introd., chap, 4, a). Hence tats, words^ 



40 



SO 



unphon. spelt with initial ^W aArs, must be looked up 
under ^^ achchh or "^m achh. In Pr. both forms 
^m kkh and ^ chh^ or n kh and W cAA, occur for Skr. 
W Af, {see Hem. ii, 8, 17). But it is probable that the 
form ^m kkh {or ^ kh) was the proper prdkritic form, 
while ^ chchh {or w cAA) always was a sanskritic form, 
i.e., an attempt (^ tatsama pronunciation^ 



o achchha, Te., subst. m., name of a son of Itaban 
who was killed by Hanumdn. Comp., ^^^-liinT m., 
the prince Achchha. Exam., K. Ram., Ln. 22, ^mw 
^inft ^m mfi: nxh xfK ^?HrV, After devastating 
the grove and killing Achchha, he {i.e. Hanumdn) 
reduced the army {of Rdban) to dust {see also ib., Ln. 
24, 8u. 28) ; Han. 19, ^^- Amt^^ 'm^^ «Tftr ^^nww 
^■pnr ^TPlfiPfrct, He ( ue., Hanumdn ) who, by 
destroying the grove in order to slay Achchha, became 
the destroyer of the pride {lit. the face) of DasSnan 
{i.e,, of Rdban) ; JSdm., Su., ch. 18, 7, "sfir ^jr9 iff^ 
^^-VmTT, Again (Rdban) sent the young prince 
Achchha. 

{In the compound ^V^7-f[Wix the word is occasion^ 
ally found corrupted into ^nw^ q.v.) 

[Skr. ^w: ; as above probably in all Ods."} 



achchhat, {poet, ^iwif achhat, instr. sg* 

achhate, Bij. I. 80), Ts., subst. m., whole grain of 
rice, {it is always used of the best fresh rice grain or 
^rnrr af^wd, Ors. § 963, and it is never used except in 
connection with religious or semi-religious ceremonies, 
such as those of sacrifice, marriage, etc. ; see Ors., divi- 
sion xii, chap. 1 — 3, spec. §§ 1319, 1329). Exaniii Rdm., 
Bd., ch. 308, 16, 16, iHT ^iTRf-'w ^T^n: ^mf, WT^ 

^ ^fw ^^w ^dwi, Banners, silken flags, and beau- 
tiful 'ohibris' covered the very gay bazar, and 
golden vases, arches, networks of jewels, {he(q}s of) 
turmeric, dub grass, curds and rice, and garlands 
{said of the street decorations on the occasion of Rdm*s 
marriage) ; ib., Bd., ch., 361, 4, 5, TT^ ^ ^f^ ^wn 

vfmr vtTw -^Ipn^^m ^iW^'WWT \ ^i^ir ^rfr ^dvr wiwr 
ir^^ wmfK iptftr flmwr. Turmeric, 'dub' grass, curds, 
sprigs {of the mango-tree), flowers, *p5n,' betelnut 
{all of which are) pledges of good luck, rice, blades of 
barley, 'gQ-r5chan' (a yellow pigment for marking 
the * tilak *), parched grain, decorated with graceful 
bunches of the tul'sl flower {said qf Sumitrd^s compli* 
mentary gift presented in golden vases on the occasion 
of Rdm's marriage) ; B. Or. EC, {Bh.), 3, 3, p. 114, 
^^^11^ ^ViTT %^fnnr, Taking curds and rice 
we apply them to SitS's {forehead), {said qf a marriage 
ceremony, see Ors. § 1304); Bif. I. SO, ^wl? iiWT^ 
f i^i|f:^( . With rice I honour the village god {said 



aehekham 



90 



achchhar ananya 



of an offering) ; Mg.^ prov.t ^rf^ ^ ^^'''^ ^> "^^ 
Hiwift if %, In the pot there is not rioe {enough for 
an offering)^ {and lie says) : ' Come, my Sam'dhi, let 
us feast I' {Hd.Dy.) 

[8kT. ^^n'* ; as above poesibly in all QdeJ} 



achchham, Ts., adj\ or mbstf com. gen.^ powerless, 
helpless, a powerless one, helpless one. Exavn«i -DdA. 

74, ^ fr i^n^ijfT ^^^ f*w, ^^nr fw f^ninft, All 

things to the powerful are pleasant and dear : to the 
powerless he is dear who helps him. 

ISkr. ^iVi5 ; 08 above possibly in all ff^«.] 



achchhar (1), ^TWK dchharypoet. "^nTC achhar, {nom. 
pi ^WKochhare, Padm. 350, 8), Ts., subst. m., i a letter, 
a syllable, *a graphic sign, a character. {According to 
the Indian theory the consonantal signs of the alphabet 
always canry the inherent sound of the vowel * a,' hence 
the sign M does not signify '*,' *«^ '*«*; *^^^ %^ha^ is 
called an achchhar or * syllablCj* while the mere sign w * * ' 
is called an ayk or ^mark^ ; see the remarks under art. 
finr ayk. From this point of view the letters of the 
alphabet are called achchhar^ while mere signs qf the 
alphabet^ such as the anuswdra or the visarga, are not 
called achchhar. Strictly speaking an achchhar is a 
eyllablcy ».«., a consonant joined with any vowel, such as 
W^ka\fk^ki\or any vowel by itself, such as^^a% 
X^i^ ; but it is now often used in a looser way to denote 
a graphic sign or character.) ExatTlii ^Bid. 59, 5, Virf^ 
f^Krnf'i ^^^iTC %99 Bidylpati saith, ' Write the letters 
{in proper order)' ; Bdm., Bd.^ dd. 148, 1, f I^^-^^^T- 
^(m ^'K «nrf^ ^f^ ^I^tnr, They repeat the excellent 
twelve-lettered charm with {gireat) devotion, {the 
charm referred to are the Skr. words ^ «n?t wr^ 
TT^^'H^i ♦•^•> 0^» salutation to the blessed Vasudeva ; 
cf. similarly Bid. 60, 2 ^fti ^TBT^fTir ^Tur^ mw, 
I have written down the seven letters, {referring to the 
words ^s^ir 1T»nT, i-e., a grove full of flowers, ib. 
60, 1) ; Sat. vi, 6, ^g^T ^^rc-^fnr ^Tim % w 
if^^, Every one knows that the anuswSr is not 
counted as a letter. *5. ffr.ii, (5A.), 31, 3,%ift^^^ 
^i&o v^Tf^T, Write the Eaithi characters in 
Kachah'ri ; Dec., p. 22, w^?^^ ^ wnr^ ^^kH 
^>iw i ^TlT^ ^"^ ^iTt w\ «fir % t?, lit w^ 
^^zmK "^^9 If the Government would give an 
order to fill up dearly all columns ( in settlement- 
statements, from Prs. Ail**) in the Nagari characters, 
it would be of great benefit. See W9X akhar, ^^w^ 
akkhar, %TmK dkhar, ^INx Skhar. 

[/Sir. ^WTir . See the remarks under ^^K. As 
atove in most Ods. ; 8, has ^rw^.] 



10 



16 



20 



achchhar (2)^ Tbh., subst. /., an Apsaras or 



S6 



30 



86 



40 



46 



60 



courtesan of IndVs heaven. They are the wives of the 
Oandharbsy and occupy themselves with singing ^ dancing , 
and gambling. According to the Skr. Rdmdyan and 
the Purdns, they were produced from the churning qf the 
ocean. They have the power of changing their forms 
and imparting good luck. Sometimes they were deS' 
patched by Indr' to the earth for the purpose of leading 
astray some distinguished ascetic. In the ancient and 
modem Indian epics and ballads it is their duty to 
carry fallen warriors to heaven and live with them ; 
thus, e.g., in the Skr. Mahdbhdrata zii, 8657, it is 
said : " thotisands of handsome Apsarases run up in haste 
to the hero who has been slain in battle, exclaiming 
^be my husband.' '' The most beautiful among them is 
Hambhd. {SeeDowson's Class, Dy. of Hindu Mythology^ 
s.v.fOnd J. Muir, Skr. Texts, vols, iv and v, passim). 

Exam., Padm., ch. 602, 1, ^ mxPi xr^ ^w ^mr, 

^^T 'ffTV T^ %iirT^, Maid-servants {stand) round 
him {and) do him service, as Apsarases attend 
Indr' in heaven; ib., ch. 557, 7, q;Hr ^, f%^ 
^T m% % ^^rc %WTO ftvrt, The heroes fought {in 
battle) ; how far shall I describe it ; {and as they fell,) 
Apsarases took them straight to heaven ; ib., ch. 102, 7, 

^>fT 'JNfT ^^ wti: ^ rflm, ^wf firJY, ftrff ifhftur. 

No one could surpass her with {the bows of) the 
eyebrows, the Apsarases hide themselves* there hide 
themselves the Gopis {abashed at seeing the superiority 
of their rival in their own special art of fascination ; 
^^irr stands for i?t^ for the sake of the rhyme). 
See ^inWT ap^chhar. 

[Sir. ^va*- or ^^m". Pa. ^^TT, Pr. ^^XVT or 
^^^; as above possibly in all Qds.'\ 



^«|«qo achchhar ananya, T«., eubst. m ., said to 
be the name of a poet {8iv., pp. 26, 378). He is said 
to have lived about Samvat 1710 or A.D. 1654, and to 
have written in the quietistic style {shdnti-ras). Exanfln 
Siv.,p. 26, ift^ir <V ^P9T ^'^ UTir ^"^ fiifti^ iff ^ fiw 
iift-iff% Biim «JT iTir ift «iV^ % I ^^^ ^ip^ ^ift 

^11^ % n So long as there is the desire of life and 
the fear of death in the little mind of him who in this 
world is without the faith in Hari, — ^Achchhar Ananya 
{says)^'BO long as those cares do not cease {lit. break 
away), so long, sir, disgrace flourishes, nor is there 
any quietism. {The language of this poetry is a species 
qf vernacular Urdu ; W^f^ or ftff%T is Ar. j^fikr; 
Jifnr%^ is Ar.^^^ fa%ihat; vp^ is Ar.-Prs. 
i^ji^ faqlri, the life or state of a darwesh ; ^^ is 
the same as ^ or yf^ ; ^^ fern, of ^tt, lit. a cum- 
min seed, hence anything smalL) 

\SkT. ^WT and ^TTRT, two epithets of Vimu or 
Shiva."] 




achchhd 



achehhdf poet ^Tirr dchhd, (/. ^nft achchhl^ poet, 
wrtV dchhi)^ Tbh., good, excellent, pleasant, proper. 
Exam.f Ors. § 1454, ^^T ^^ a good omen ; Bhdj. 
3, 1, ^»^T ^mr HT^ %q;, v %^, A good deed hast 
thou not done, O Kekal ; Lev. p. 24, m^ ^T^iiTT ^iwnn 
^^ VRTf ^9Tmi;w, If the Government will admonish 
them in a proper manner. 

{This word belongs rather to H. usage ; the usual 
B. word is iJWt nlman or i^m niA, q.v. The form 
has only been met mth in old Bais*wdri.) 
[SAt. ^^J clear, transparent, or mth pleon. *, 
:, Pr. ^^^ {Aup. § 166 ^^T dear, nom, plur.) ; 
B., P., and H. ^rw, 0. wr^, O. ^Pitt, 8. ^ white, 
dear, but ^^ good, M. and Bg. deestJ] 



91 



achchhdnsy Ts., %ubst. w., {geog.)j a degree of 
latitude or longitude. Exam.i ColL^ {Mg.)j %J{ ^^(^ 
% fk Vf\^ ^^1^ *lo %) I have heard that Laijka 
does not fall under any degree of longitude (t.e., 
Layka is beyond the world of the Bindns). 

[8kr, ^wN- . This is the only survival in B. and 
H. of either the primary word '%^ (^^) in its various 
meanings of 'axle\ 'cube\ 'die\ etc.j or of any qf its 
derivatives,"] 




achchhty Ts., subst. w,, the eye. Comp. ^f^-ifT^ 
/., the pupil of the eye ; ^^-^Wf w., a sign or 
wink of the eye. See ^ffti 3khi. 

[5ftr. ^f>9 n., Pr. ^f^ n. or ^^ m. or ^iftf. 
{Hem. i, 38, 35) ; as above possibly in all Ods,] 




achehhty Tbh., subst. /,, a sneeze. See i?f n c/Mk. 

Examii ColLy {Mg.)y mn ^x^xjm wif %wr> ww ^w %v 

^iniVw in7^<» When the king sneezed, every one said 
* May you live long.' 

^Cf i?fw for der. and cognate words in other 
languages ; the word is probably an onomatop. ; compare 
the Skr. fkv.'] 



achyuty Te., the same as ^V^ achuty q.v. ExaiTlai 
Bin. 10, im w^ «i^ ^^11 fwY fiw "v^w^ H^am 
jtlX^, Hail, Purari, who knowest truth, who knowest 
all things, master of saorifices, imperishable, the Lord, 
from thy body is the whole universe bom. 

[Skr. ^r^\ ; as above possibly in all (7^«.] 



achhy f&r words commeneing thus and not mentioned 
beloWy see under ^^ achchh. It should be notedy houh 
every that certain words commencing with "^w aohh {e.g.y 
^WJr achhae he is. Bid. 46, 1 ; ^lW13f aehhait being. 
Bid. 8, 4, ^WV achhat being, Bdm.y A.y dd. 26S, 2, etc.) 
mre inflections of the ^^W aohh be, and must be looked 
up under that root. See the remarks under ^^ achchh. 



l/^ra? 



achh 



10 



16 



20 



25 



30 



35 



40 



45 



60 



l/^ra? 



achhy {pr. pts. ; the verb being defectivCy only the 
foUotcing forms existy some qf which are used in a 
honorific and others in a non-honorifie sensCy and 
regarding which B. Or. and Mth, Gr. should be further 
consulted: the pres. exists complete; sing., 1. pers.y 
Mth.'Bhq;. ^ chhm or fwif chhikakk or fWf chhikt 
or wSf chhatMk or wifP chhato ; 2. pers.y Mth. w chhai 
{Dln.y I. 357) or If <?AAl, Mth.-Bh: w chhe or fw% chhiki 
orwfichhate; ^.pers.y Mth. ^fti achfi% {Bid. 79,13) or 
poet, ^nh achhl {Mth. Rdm.y Su. 63, 10) or WW chhahu 
{8al. 19) or wt chhc^ [Din.y I. 150) or ^ chhSuk 
{Dln.y L 110) or fww chhik {Din., I. 285) or ^ chhik 
{Din., I. 284), Mth. and Mth.'Bh. w chhdt {Din., 
I. 343) or w^ chh^ik {Din., I. 835), Mth.-Bh. fk% 
chhikaiorU^chhike or fiA[W chhikaik; plur,, 1. pers., 
Mth. and Mth.-Bh. and Bh. ^ chhi (Din., I. 286), 
Mth. fww[ chhia {Hb. ix, 66) or fi^v chhiahu or 
f^^ chhiwu {B. Or. I, fable 14, p. 37) or fw^ 
chhidluk {Din. , I. 359), or * fkr^f% chhiahi or fl^ 
chhiat or f^m chhimk or ftn^l^ chhidunhi or fWr*! 
ehhiamhiy Mth.'Bh. f^^ty%, chhiamh or fWV chhiki 
or fi?f%^^ chhikiatnh or nift chhati or wfif^^ 
chhatiatnh ; 2. pers.y Mth. fwm chhia {Hb. v, 22) 
or ^ chhi {Dln.y I. 289) or f^H chhiamhi {Mth. 
ch.y p. 2) or ftrt chhiiTi or ft ^ chhimk or w%m chhahak 
or Wtn chhahik or w^[Pt chhahunhiy Mth. andMth.'Bh. 
ix chh&h {Din.y 1. 127 y Sal. 14), Mth.-Bh. w^ chhau 
or fWo chhikd or fw4\ chhik&h or fti^ chhikc^ or 
WTTo chhatd or WTT^ chhat&hy Mth.^Bh. and Bh. ^y 
chhdy Mth. fern, lifr chhahl ; 3. pers.y Mth. wf% chhSxnhi 
{Din.y I. 282) or wPsf chhatht {Bh. iv, 35, Din., /. 202) 
or w^Pf chhathinhi {Neb., I. 36) or wq;fni chhathunhx, 
Mth.'Bh. w^ chhatnh or wfti'f chhathinh or fk[\% 
chhikaxnh or ^WW chhikath or fwvftr^ chhikHhinh or 
WiHf chhatanhy Mth.^Bh. and Bh. WW chhathy Bh. fem. 
^^"^ chhatinh. The past tense also exists complete; 
sing.y 1. pers., Mth. w«* chhalahu {Sal. 19), Mth.-Bh. 
Wi?P chhab^ or w^chhalo; 2. pers., Mth. WWTW 
chhaldh or wV chhalat or WY chhaSy Mth.'Bh. wt 
chhale;S. pers.y Mth.w^ chhaldu or wwrv chhalahu 
(Din., /. 138) or W^ chhalcR4k, Mth. and Mth.-Bh. 
W^ chhal {Hb. ii, 63, 2>rn., /. 229) or w^ chhal^ 
(B. Or., I, fable 12, p. 36) or w^ chhalaik {Din.y 

1. 358), Mth.'Bh. w% chhale or wmm chhalaky Mth. 
fern, wft- chhali (Hb. vii, 33, Bid. 48, 1) ; ptur., 1. 
pers.y Mth. and Mth^-Bh. m^ chhaU {Din., I. 236), 
Mth. wftiWim chhaliahu {B. Or. I, fable 18) or 
W^^ chhaliau or wftrVN ehhaliduk or wf%^ 
chhali^ or w1%^ chhalidkk or wflpi^f^ chhaliiSiinhs 
or wfn^Pf ehhaliOinhi, Mth.'Bh. Wpi^ chhali4.nh ; 

2. pers., Mth. wwv chhalahi or W9WW ehhakihak 
or WWlW chhalahik or WWl[ff chhahh^M or 
wflrtPf chkaUSinki^ Mih.'Bh. w#9 chhatd or w%w 




achh — 

ehhaldh or iW^ chhalm or W^rftW ehhalahdk or w«\ 
chAali^ Mth. fern, l^^ chhalih or w^rVN chhaSihi; 
3. pers.^ Mth. W^l^ chhalatnhi or W^ilf ehhaldh 
{Din., L 175) or W?r^f^ chhalathinh, or V^rqjpf 
chAalatMnhi, Mth.-Bh. wir^ ehhalanh or 
chhaWtnh or ^^ chhati or 1^ chhalm or 
ehhalath or W^rfil^ chhalathinh or wwi*f chhalathunh^ 
Mth. fern. wft% chhalih. There exists also the pres. 
jpart., Mth. and Bh. ^w^if achhdit {Bid. 3, 4^ jB. Or. 
II, J?. 42) or ^wir achhait {Sal. 16), /ci». '"fwtir 
ocA^li^i (fitV?. 51, 6), Bh. and Bw. ^nnr (jBdm., A., 
dd. 263, 2), generally used as a part, absolute. The 
follomng old forms have also been noted, pres.y 3. sg., 
^fWjraehhae {Hb. viii, 18, Bid. 45, 1), l.plur. ^achhi 
{Din., I. 85), 8. plur. ^iff achhahi {Padm., ch. 515, 
2); pret., 3. plur. ^rwWTf achhalHh {Hb. x, 50)), 
Tbh.p (I.) V. intr.^ used as a substantive verby 'to be; 

•to exist. Exam., 'Hb. ix, 66, x^T ^w^ir^^^X ft^ 
wmKf {He) whose servants Hal'dhax and myself are ; 
Bid. 12, 3, ^ir wfw tfTj How much is the time P 
Padm., ch. 515, 2, ^wfi fVfW iWW ^> XV^, {Her 
lips) when she smiles are red {i.e. beautiful) like betel ; 
Din.y I. 285, WT^ W^ wm i^, (-%) name is Kflu 
Sadfi ; fi., I. 150, % W^ w^l?, He is dose {to you) ; 
f J., /, 289, %iff: t^T wV, Whose sons are you P ib., 
I. 235, irrPf^ wrV, I was very young ; Hb. x, 50, 
^n^OTPf ^tv W^ €t ^, Those who had been so stout 
and were {now) become small. *Bid. 45, 1, WHW 
^WK Wff ^JUJ^ W^N, Lotus {loving) bees exist many 
in the world ; Bid. 35, 2, iTTir w^n wm ^rt ^iimr 
irary The stars {which) existed in the sky, they 
have become invisible; in this sense it is in common 
idiomatic use to express the idea of possession, in con- 
struction with the personal pronoun or the dative of the 
person. Bid. 79, 13, ^ irlTT »vr ^fw i|f^ $ii iiiti I 
have neither money nor a miloh-cow {Ut. ior me money 
exists not) ; Hb. vi, 35, ^ft w^ ^rfSf litff , I have 
a fine elephant {lit. a fine elephant exists for me) ; 
in this sense it is also used idiomatically in ^participle 
absolute ' constructions. Bid. 3, 4, ^WT^ ^rq ^ mTk!^ 
f^r^T^, While anything remains {to thee) {lit. any- 
thing existing), do not disappoint {him) ; Sal. 15, 
iftVKT ^Wir ^k'S^^ vim, In your presence {lit. you 
existing) a theft occurred in the house; Bdm., Vt., ch. 
88, 17, W\^ ^M^ %9 ^i » nWt, While desire 
exists there is no peace even in dreams ; ib.. A., ch. 
5, 3, ifrfl ^nni ^^ ^iVv ^wrt* Li my life-time {lit. 
myself existing) let this happy event take place; 
Oit.j 8u. 5, 2, «fti wur ^T%^ ^KTurv ^ww tT% lih;, 
Though wisdom, power, courage, and might were 
present (lit. existed) in him {Hanumdn), he kept 
them concealed; Bin. 238, irw viK %fm ^ iiftr, 
Imagining that its head still sits upon its body. 



92 



10 



15 



SO 



u 



80 



86 



40 



45 



50 



achh 

(II) V. intr., used as an auxiliary verb, to form 
periphrastic tenses, active, medial and passive; vi%. 
^personally, (a) with the dir. form of the pres. pari, 
{with or without the final K t), to form the def. pres. 
and the imp. tenses of the active voice {see Mth. Or. 
§§ 136, 137, 154, 155, Introd., chap. 9), (6) with the 
instr. case qf the past pari, in ij I, to form the perf. 
and pluperf'. tenses of the act. voice of trans, verbs, and 
sometimes {in N. Mth. only) of intrans. verbs {see Mth. 
Or. §§ 141, 142, 157, 158, Introd., chap. 9), and 
(c) with the dir. form of the past participle, to 
form the pres. and pret. tenses of the pass, or medial 
voices {see Mth. Or. § 170, Introd., chap. 9) ; 
^impersonally, in the forms of the 8. sg. pres. ^rf^ 
achhi and the 3. sg. pret. nw chhal, with the inflected 
forms of the pret., to form respectively the petf. and 
(•n some of the sulhdialects of Mth. only) the pluperf. 
qf the active voice {see Mth. Or. §§ 139, 157, 
Introd., chap. 9). Exam.i ' («) pres.. 1. pers., Din.; 
I. 317, %^ wxx^ wt ^K^ wm, I am going to Dmti 
village ; B. Or. I, fable 9, ifrr f^ f^^ift. Brother, 
I am writing a letter ; 2. pers.. Din., 1 289, ^n/f mxKM 
yft, Where are you going ? ib., I. 127, %irr % nfrir 
WT, How are you hitting {him) ; B. Or. 1, fable 8, ft;^ 
nfV iww% Why are you not singing P 3. pers., 
Sal. 16, mm rfrft f^w^ H^r {/em.) ^rfw. With 
joined hands she is saying her request; Sal. 1, 
%X «Wt ftrn^ ^TWfil, With joined hands she is 
making her prayer ; similarly, imp., 8. pers.. Din. 

1. 229, ^WT ^ fti^ir wir, vv ?i^ir t^ ( When) Dina 
and Bhadri were alive, they used to sing that {air) ; 
B. Or. I, fable 4, TTW ftlfW wm^ He was wringing 
his hands ; ib., fable 9, vm irNr^ f^rft ftr$w«, A 
scribe was writing a letter ; ib., fable 11, sm WWrf^ 
^f% irrwftf (/^Of ^ milkmaid was walking along. 
1(6) trans., perf, I. pers., B. Or. I, fable 7, wn ^ 
<fiT %^ W^i I have done much running and exertion ; 

2. pers., B. Oi\ 1, fable 3, iff t irf^ nft ^if?^ 4^, 
Have you not heard this saying P and plupetf. 
2. pers., B. Or. I, fable 15, vn § %^ ww, When 
you had caught me ; 3 pers., Bid. 10, 2, mnrt nftr 
liTiSr {for %"€) wftr {fem.) v^. % ^i» ^timur 
HT^, Whatever the beautiful one had taken from 
any, all that she made over again to them ; similarly, 
but in N. Mth. only, perf., 2. pers., Mth. Or., p. 85, 
note 2, ^in^ w^, You have slept ; and pluperf, 
1. pers., Mth. Or., p. 86, ^nnil wwi, I had 
slept {etc.). '(c) pres., pass., 3. pers., Hb., i, 37, 
% mw^Wf ^fw TT\w 'JtPli He is bom who shall slay 
thee; ib., iv, 59, mfH mH^^ wftr ^^J^ ijTrfK, As 
if Murari is born to-day; or medial {i.e., act. verb, 
intr., with pass, form), 1 .pers., Sal. 12, ^ftft %^7Pir W^, 
I have committed a theft {lit. I am come from 



achh 



93 



achh 



oommitting a theft) ; 3. pers.^ Sal. 14, ^[^ f«ra^ 
^ ^fr. What fault has happened {lit is beoome) P 
Bid. 77, 2, ^Tif ^mr wfti ^7W, As if the moon is 
half risen ; similarlf/f pret. pass.^ 3. per8.j Sid, 79, 4, 
5TW ftrn^ nw ^nl^ vrrr, In my former (/f/'e), it 
was written {that he should be) mj husband ; or 
medial^ 1. pers., Sal. 19, ^fir T«l ^PfW W^V ^^^W 
f^rW^ Iq^ At night I was asleep in my tent ; 2. 
pers., B. Qr.f I, p. 30, im^ WW ^«W iNr Wfr», 
Why were you gone there P 3. pers.y Hb. ii, 53, 
9WV ^^'g^T^ €t Wfr ^TTW, All who were awake 
saw J Din., /. 353, ^ii wT^ Wftf (/?»».) Wfrw Wiw\, 
iif% 1^^ ^virv f%^W, Phekunl was asleep in a 
sound {lit. seven) sleep, (put) in drowsiness (lit, 
slight sleep) she rose up with a start ; B, Or. I, 
fable 16, iw ^rrc, * ftfirrft w iNr WW, W wnrw. The 
elder brother, who had (lit. was) beoome beggared, 
began to say. ^Peff.y 1. pern . B. Or,, I, p. 31, 
yf^T'C W itM^iirf ^fw, I have indeed planted 
sugar-oane ; JIJ. i, 2, inr « %w ^rfw ww ^ afW, I 
also have made my mind a great one ; Mth. Ch,j /?. 1, 
vm w^i^ ^TBKtv ^fw, I have sent a box ; Sal. 17, 
iranr wnf w ^fn^"^ tA»»-) ^rf^> Then I have 
got thee freed ; 2. pen.^ Sal. 14, ^imcT ^ni %« ^rf^, 
You have bound me ; B. Or.j I, p, 81, 3jf% wft 
ff^WTT ^^^mi ^ifv, Have you planted any sugar- 
oane this year P 3. pers.j Bid. 34, 8, wmnr Tftr ^fm 
wfinr fimfv {/em.) ^fw, This day's {i.e. last) night, 
O friend, has passed in sufiering. {It should be 
particularly noted that in the vulgar language of the 
lower castes the term. Tie of the instr. case of the past 
part. (No. ' 6) , and in the older poetry the term, nr * 
or^kdi of the 3. sg. of the pret. (No. •), are not 
nnfrequently dropped in the formation of the personal 
and impersonal forms of the periphrafttic tenses. Thus, 
' A, Sal. 8, ^iiT w^^ t« {for %^) wrfw, The .parrot 
has given {her) the * bedub ' ; ib. 8, xtwr irr%f«r 
fwW^ |f% {fem.y for ^) ^tw, Dauna Milin has 
lain despairing {lit has given herself a spread of 
'kusa' grass) ; again^ ^Bid. 34, 2, ir^ W^n flM% % 
n ^;%^ (for v^wv) ^if^, Has any one said reproachful 
words to thee P Sb. vi, 48, nfir wnw (for rnp^m) 
mm xm^ iPCT, He had brought low the pride of 
Bfiban.) 

{This rerb, both in its subst. and auxil. uses, is the 
usual one throughout the Madhil tract. To a limited 
extent it occurs in the Ma.thi/'BhofpQrl bortier-lands 
In Magaht it is almost totally supplauUdby the ^%^ 
ah (see ^^ hd), and in bhqfpUrl by ^^m^ bdf, q.v. 
With regard to this subject as uell as the relative fre^ 
quencg of the various forms of the periphrastic tenseSj 
and other grammar ica I points^ the Mth. Or. and B. Or. 
shwdd be considted. On the point, more especially 



10 



16 



10 



S6 



30 



36 



40 



46 



60 



<lf the relative frequency J only practical experience in 
the various Bihdr dialects can afford a safe guide.) 

[Regarding the origin of this root, there has been 
much discussion. Its existence both in Pd. (sees.v. W^rfil 
in Childer*s Dictionary) and Pr. (^^rx Sem. iv, 
215) is an undoubted fact. In Pr. the root carries 
the following meanings : 1, to exist, e.g.. Hem, i, 
888, m ^^rx if mfii^T, Whatever exists that 
should be appreciated! Spt., v. 83, yri ^ififmi;, 
Pain there will exist ; 2, to be ; e.g., Spt., v. 2(89, 
JI'^'reTr ftnft ^^fw. Why hast thou smeared thy 
face with *ghi' mt. why art thou greasy-faoed) ? 
Ndy. § 96, ^fc^^ fk^ ^^Tf%, Do thou rest {lit. 
be) satisfied. 3, sometimes it means to stand still 
{expressing apparently the bare fad of existence, without 
any specific action) ; e.g,, Ndy. § 104, ^ilXT%Q ^ 

^W-^Kir ^rf^fwx. She roams about at the foot of 
the Vebh&ra Mountain^ standing still and looking 
about in gardens, or bathing in tanks, or plucking 
leaves or twigs and scattering them about. 4, 
sometimes, only in the 2. sg. imper. ^^w, it has the 
idiomatic meaning of let alone, not to speak of; e.g., 
Hem. iv, 406, dn., «iTirP4 ftwV^»^irT •^r^ iwit qr I 
WTTpf ^^^ T^^ w, ^w fk vw^ ^ II As long as 
a bad condition of affairs goes on among the living, 
so long — let alone the other {i.e., evil) people-^ 
the good at least keep aloof {i.e., whatever the evil 
may do, ff^ good keep aloof) ; Spt., v. iOl, ^^^ ht 

n^il^, f^'^ f^T* ^m^ 5^ ^in^. Let alcme the 
. talk of men, thy own heart alone be thy guide (i.e., 
whatever the people may say, do thou follow thy own 
heart). In the Skr. commentaries the Pr, root ^^ is 
rendered ad libitum by the Skr. roots ^7^ or ^^ or ^T, 
all which mean to be, to exist ; in the vernacular para* 
phrases it is rendered by the Od. root K^ to remain. 
Hem. iv, 215 makes it an equivalent of the Skr. \/^^\ 
to exist ; Vr. w., 19, of the Skr. ^^^^ to be, so also Ls., 
p. 346. On the other hand Bs. iii, 183 suggests the Skr. 
w^^mv with the meaning to appear, given to it ad hoc, 
while Weber {Spt., p. 41, \st ed.), Leumann {Aup., 
Index), andE. Muller {Beitrdge,p. 36) propose the Skr., 
.^w to go. Neither of these two latter Skr. roots will 
do; their meanings make them impossible. Most scholars 
now declare for the Skr. v/'iTOJ 90 Childers {Pd. By. 
S.V.), Pischel {Transl. of Hem. iv, 215), Steinthal {Ndy., 
p. 45), see also Od. Or., p. 366. Only Pott {Zig. i, 459> 
adopts the Skr. ^^-mi to exist, to stand by. The 
difficulty is the exact connection of the Pr. x/^f^ «^»^A ^^ 
Skr. \/^rw ; it is usually explained as an inchottive form 
{orig. ^m, ^^) of the latter {see Pischel in Oottingische 
Oelehrte Anzeigen,p. 628, qf 1875, and Beitrdge zur 




achhdit 



94. 



^fVF9 achhay 



vergl Sprachf., fH>l viii, p. 144) ; AacoK makes it the 
future of -v/^^, and E. Kuhn the inchoative of v/^ 
(«e6 Nay., p. 45; aho Qd. Gr., p. 366). On the 
whole PoU'e suggestion of the v^-^fT offers the fewest 
difficulties, phonetically as well as with regard to the 
meaning. In Pr. the y/W, when Compounded with 
prep. J is apt to become shortened to '^ or 9 {cf. Hem. 
iv, 16, 17) ,• moreover the conj. cons, itfand^ are apt 
to be interchanged in Pr. (cf. the remarks under art. 
'^n^^)f probably through the metathesis of ^ ths 
for ^ sth. Thus the 3. sg. pres. of the ^/nr-^KX would 
be Pr. ^rwT or ^^^ {Skr. '^rrfiiBftl), both which 
spellings are found in Prakrit manuscripts. This 
tiew is supported by the fact that the modem verna- 
culars have an alternative auxiliary verb, the forms 
of which commence with H th, and which is un- 
doubtedly a derivative of ^/W {see Gd. Gr., p. 367, 
Bs. iii, 208). Thus Mth. has the two synonymous 
compound roots fkw and ftv, both meaning to exist, 
to be {see Mth. Gr. § 112 ; regarding the final % 
see Gd. Gr. § 353). Pdli has the compound ^^^^ to 
at together, which suits the 8kr. -^^iiTWr as well as 
the 8kr. v/OTT^* It may be worth noting that while in 
Pa, and Pr. the root is spelt m^, in the G(fs. it is uni- 
formly spelt ^rw, with a single cons. The y/'^M has 
survived in nearly all modem vernaculars with a more or 
less complete set of inflections. It appears to be entirely 
lost only in Br. and Mg. In M. and Gyp. it possesses 
a complete corrugation {Man. §§ 222/., Mik. idi, 4) ; 
in A.y Bg.j Mth.^ Mr., P., Ksh., Km., and Garh. it 
exists in the pres. and pret. tenses and the pres. part., 
while in (?., N.y O. it occurs only in the pres. tense and 
pres. part. In 8. even the pres. is fragmentary, and in 
Bh. and Bw. there is only the pres. part. In M.,P., and 
8. the cons, n chh is changed to^s; in A. and Bg,, 
though ^ ch and w chh respectively are toritten, ^ s is 
commonly pronounced ; while in Ksh. and Gyp. ^chis 
both written and pronounced. For further particulars 
the comparative grammars {Gd. Gr,, Bs.) and the 
special grammars of the various languages should be 
consulted. Thefollowing are simply given as specimens 
of the various forms in existence : 1. sg. pres., A. ^vft, 
Bg. ^fw or fw, 0. ^rfJr or U, Mth. fn?f or wt {pi. 
ift), Mr. y, Km. ^ or ^ Garh. ^, G. and If. iF, 
P. ^T, S. fe, M. ^, Ksh. ^ {J. A. 8. B., vol. xiii, 
p. 415) ; again 1. sg. pret., Bg. ^rrfiwriw or fvwn?, 
Mth. nwm or w«T or wf, M. ^^^, Km. fWt, 
Mr. wt, P. ^- The corresponding root in Gyp. is aoh 
to remain, past part, adhilo {Mik. vii, 4), which becomes 
ash in Rumanian Gyp., and aoh or haoh in EngUsh 

OyP-'] 



achhait, pres. part, of the V^W achh, q.v. 



10 



IB 



so 



achhae, old 8. sg. p-es. of the v/'iW achh, q.v. 
achhat {1), poet, for wvf achchat, q.v. 
aohhat (2), pres. part, (ff the ^^^w achh, q.v. 



achhat (3), Tbh., subst. or atff., com. gen., being 
without an umbrella, one who has no umbrella. 
E)aim., Padm., ch. 6, 8, w^ ^TWir, fSrwufr wm, {God 
makes) those who carry umbrellas {i.e. kings) to be 
without umbrellas {comm. ftf^r war), {and) gives 
shade to those who are without umbrellas {i.e. 
the poor). 

[Skr. w-W^*, Pr. w^nrti being without an 
umbrella {see ^^^ Aup. § 116), cpp. Skr. wm', 
Pr. Wfft one who has an umbrella. As above possibly 
in all Gds). 



l/^sra? 



u 



so 



85 



40 



46 



60 




?n^ achh^tab, sometimes incorrectly ^tt 
acKtdb, {pr. pis. ^i^mur achViabc^t, etc). Only used 
in phrases such as ^VWthtw-YW^^VTW achh' tab-pachh' tab ; 
see ^/^w^fcnf pachViab. 

lA rhyming repetition qf -vAWflW, qiV.'] 



^^^•I4«| achh^pan, Tbh., subst. m., the same as 

achh'wai. Exam., Coll., (Mg.) , wl^ "if ^fir^ irrw %, 
It is full of beauty. 

\From ^^, sh. f. of "wmJ, q.v., and sec. der. suf. 
^. 8ee Gd. Gr. § 228.] 



achhay (1) ^w achhai, Ts., adj\, com. gen,, undeoay- 
ing, imperishable, permanent, durable. Comp., ^nw- 
^9 {Bam., Ba., eh. 65, 5) or ^w^-nK or ^W^-fir^, 
subst. m., the undeoaying tree^ a mutilated banian* 
tree situated in the underground remains of an ancient 
temple inside the fort of Allahabad; it was already knoicn 
to Hwen Thsang in the seventh century, being then above 
ground a tree with widespreading branches {see Gen. 
Cunningham^s ArchcBohg. 8urvey Reports, vol. I, 
pp. 297, 298) ; ^ww-^v, subst. m., the imperishable 
world, heaven; ^tr-fiirrfif^, {scl. firfir), subst. f., the 
imperishable third {day) {Grs. § 1444). 8ee ^-?Aw 
under ^m. Exam., Bam., A., ch. 102, 7, ^TfiT ftyiun 
^jft- ^Wt, w^ ^•ir-'r» ^-inr ifWr, The junotion of 
the rivers {Ganges, JanCna,and Saraswati) is the most 
glorious throne {of Prayag or Allahabad), and the 
^ Imperishable Tree,' the joy of Munis' souls, is its 
umbrella. For another example see under ^^IWT 
akalayk. 8ee ^rer akh^ and ^^nr akhay. 

{In literature the word is always spelt ^W^. It 
has never been found by t$s spelt with ^.) 

l^Skr. -mr^x. Pa. ^^wwt, Pr. ^niw^ {Bhag.,p. 262, 
Aup. § 20) ; a« above in all G^.] 



aehhay 



95 



aehhdr 



aehhay (2), a corruption for wmss aehohha lq,v.)j 
which is occasionally met with in the comp. ^^ir-fnrrr 
achhay-kumdr for ^^-fsirrt achehha-kumdr. ExaiTlii 
Mth. Bdm.f Su. 28, 6, www-fnnT ^ ^»f% ^jf mr^RT, 
The fool has dashed down and killed Aohohha- 
kmnftr ; ib. 50, 9, ^tWT ^TW WWW-fiiiTK, Aohohha- 
kumftr is dead, is dead* It occurs also in the LdkhnaU 
edition of TuVsi Dds^ Rdmdyan^ Su.^ ch. 18, 7. 



achhar^ poet, for %^k achehhar (1), q.e. 



achVrayQf Tbh., suhst. m., a false aoousation, 
oalumny. Phr, ^HF^ €Tnrf , f>. tr,y to bring a false 
aooosation, oalimmiate. ExaiTlij B. Or. II, Bh. song 
24, 4, ITT ^ir ^ftftfii, IT mr ^»wV, ^ » ^i^ftw wtt^tt 
m^ I am not a thief, nor a glutton, still he reproaches 

ime) falsely. 

[Apparently a corruption of 8kr, ^uwix + ^if. 
mark of oalumny P Not met with elsewhere."] 

^RFTln aehh'raygl, {Ig. f. ^^•Kfit^ J aehh'raygiyd). 
Tbh., fern, of the preceding^ q.v. b(Bm.t Sd. -Py., 
{Mg.), ^ ijrff mft iftiE ^'Wff^T t ^\ Now, don't 
make up false oharges> eh I 

!• O^ aehh^riufi, Tbh., subst. /., the same as 
^^•\\Si akh'rd^pi, q.v. 




achhaly Te., acb'.y eom. gen.^ without guile, smoere. 
Exaniii Coll., {Mg.)^ t: xiir ^'WW^nwr %, My words are 
true. 



achh^Uhy old 3. plur. pret. qf v^W achh, q.v. 



achVwdiy Tbh., euhst. /., goodness, excel- 
lenoe, elegance. Exam«, Padm.^ ch. 503, 2, ^^ 9^9 
fhiJK W^rt, ^^T irf% K^ ^wrrt, Her appearance 
IB beautiful, her dress is one (dress) and a quarter {i.e. 
best of its kind) J and her elegance is like that of a 
heavenly nymph. 

[Abs. noun derived from ^^t [q-v.) orpleon. ^w*^ 
by means of the sec. der. suff. ^rrt. See Od. Or. § 220.] 



^•qi«|| achh^wdni^ ^%H\f[ achhumdnl^ ^nCTTI^ 
uchh^wdnif ^v^^1^ wachh^wdnif Tbh., subst. /, a 
strengthening mixture, a caudle, especially given to 
women after childbirth {Ors. $ 1399, 1409). It is an 
aromatic decoctionprepared of long pepper {and sometimes 
the roots of the same plant) ^ *q/^wdn* seeds^ cloves^ cinna* 
inoH, and some grains of old or last yearns rice, boiled 
down in water till the whole is qf the consistence of thin 
grueL A dose of this medicine is usually administered 
in t/ie fnorning to the lying-in woman on the second or 



10 



u 



so 



16 



90 



85 



40 



45 



third day after the confinement and continued for two 
or three days successively {Harris Manuscripts, in 
Shakenpeare^s Sd. By.). The number of ingredients, 
however, varies ; sometifnes there are twenty-two {when 
it is calledw^tWf battisd^ q.v.), sometimes even thirty-six 
{palled KiTt^T chhattisd, q.v.). The form in which it is 
administered also differs ; sometimes it is given as a 
draught, sometimes as pills {or ladda), sometimes as a 
paste {pr haPwd). See ^vttrV c^^wdnl. 

[Probably Skr. ^^nnft (or J^^^) or w^(w^ 
strengthening (from ^^s\or v^^-^), Pr. ^ ^ r ^^^ 
{with pleon. suff. ^fq) or shortened w^mfW^ (see Hem. 
iii, 150) or v^^^WI, whence contr. B. ^^^pft, or 
(with metathesis ,of vowels) ^npTR^ (for %%m^) or 
^pnvft. If this derivation is correct the true B.form is 
nw^T^. Natives derive it from ^UTR. H. ^TWrPf , 
or ipTR.] 




aehhahi, old 3. plur. pres. of -^/Sni achh, q,v. 



j/^rajT^ 



achhdb, (pr. pts. ^md^ achh^b^^t, Bh. and 
Mg. ^Vnir achhdwat, ^Wlf^H achhdwit, ^nmnv 
achhsiit ; ^^WT^\w achhdol ; "nwiv^ aehhdeb ; ^WT^ 
achhdbai, ^W17 achhde), Tbh., v. tr., to spread. 
Exam., Mth. Bdm., Ln. 28, 23, t wfr nrPr fW %il 
'^WR, ^TWT wif 5rwiir ^HiTR, With these words, 
spreading seats of 'kus' grass, the monkeys sat 
down lamenting. See -^^ftwrw ochhdb. 

ISkr. v/WT-W^, xth el., 3. sg. ^trwT^^fir, Pr. 
^V^iVJX or ^rwqr (<^ ort. "^ a (6) ), or {with 
pleon. ^iTfV, see O4. Or. % 349) ^^in^rP^T or 
hence contr. B. ifWTw. Possibly the form 
is a mere corruption of the form ^itwm, in which 
case the correynmding Skr. root would be ^V-W^.] 



aehhdr (1), Tbh., subst. m., an enhancement, 
increase, rise, addition (Az. Oy.). 

[The M. has ^9^TW> which would seem to show that 
the initial a of the B. ^VWJX is a corruption of u, and 
that the original is Skr. v^pf.] 



60 



aehhdr (2), Tbh., subst. m., a hea^y shower of 
rain, driving rain (Hd. By., s.v. J^y bSuchhdr). 

[Probably Skr. ^rrWTT:, as a synonym of ^TOTTt a 
heavy shower ; Pr. ^rnrrct or ^^tk^ (see art. ^ a 
(6) ), B. ^WTT- In classical Skr. the word ^T^TK does 
not appear to have borne that meaning ; but the latter 
is intrinsically probable, as the causal qf x/^mK^ 
means to cause to flow (see shorter Skr. By. P.), and 
it may have been in use in the Prdkrits. If the word 
is identified with Skr. ^xmx, a change of ^ to 'm must 
be assumed, as in y/\WX to whitewash, from Skr. 
«WT (see Hem. L 265). The H. has iVrrf , which would 





achhi 



96 






achhohini 




seem to point to 8kr. ^r^^TK or rather W^rWTT ; hence 
possibly the B. ^WK fnay he a mere corruption of 
^iVlK for Skr. ^t^wn:; see the remarks on 
The word has not been observed elsewhere.'] 



achhi, 3. sg. pres. of the v^^W achh, q.v* 




ichhiyd. If qf<{^ ichhl, q.v, (Ors. § 1248). 

^ift achhi (1), old 1. plur. pres. qf the -^/^W achh, q.v. 

^Sf^fl achhi (2), poet for ^fw achhi, 3. sg. pres. of the 
^^W achh, q.v. Exam.f Mth. Rdm., 8u. 53, 10, ^ 
wrsfm ^rfir, ^tift ^ wtw, Why is he oome P What 
is his business P 

^^flT achhuttd, Mg.form of ^npT acKhUt, q.v. 

^^'RT^Tl acAAwmdwl, <A^ «am^ a« ^w^mft achh^wdni^ q.v. 

^^7T flcAAfi^, Tbh., ew&*., com. jr^., (po^<. /. ^ifif 
achhUti, str. f. ^HfilT flcAAd^d, /. ^fift aoAAdtt), 
^untouched ; hence •fresh ; ^holy (or what may not be 
touohed, used of offerings to idols) ; hence ^fig. (used 
of a woman) undeflowered, unbroaohed. Phr., ^"^fW^ 
^XsjfM^ lit. an untouched vessel ; hence a virgin. 

Exam.i ^Padm.y eh. 634, 1, ifw ^^^Ml^ ^^rft \9t, ^Tirmr 

«rfT ^ ^Vf^9 Then the female messenger uncovered 
the food, {but) Padm&wat did not touch it {but left it) 
untouched ; tJ., ch. 667, 3, i?f€t TTt ^^ f^ ^WV, 
vi^ ^riw {fem.)y w^ mfi ^ft^. Her neoklace, doths, 
and the bodice on her breast became wet {with tears), 
but it {i.e. the bodice) was untouched, {for) her lover 
had not opened it; tJ., ch. 105, 5, ^^tfr % ^w^ ^»iJV 
'fnc TT%, ^wfr ^ifir, ^ iitt[ ^t%. Her lips were full 
of nectar {lit. kept nectar brimful), as yet untouched, 
{for) no one had tasted {it). *Padm., eh. 630, S. 
ir T^ ilT wm ^^fjfty fw^TK ^irV ^W % ^pfV, Taking 
a basket full of fresh * puns' {a kind qf fritters) y the 
female messenger went inside ChitSUr. » Coll., {Bh.), 
t WfiTT ^%,3Twrr vft W^, This is holy, touch it not. 
[^Skr. ^-^s, Pr. ^^ifl" •, as above possibly in all 
Ods.] 

^S^TTT achhUttd, str.f. of^^ffjn achhUt, q.v. 

^r^Tfl aMati, poet. fern, of ^fir achhtU, q.v 

W^^fft achhnti, str. f. fern of -^ifyi achhUt, q.v. 



^9^ achhid, T6.« subnt. m., absence of differences or of 
secrets, at-oneness, intimacy. Exain.| Pfidm., dd. 263, 



10 



16 



SO 



f%ft^y W^T w) %irr i^ic R That disciple obtains 
perfection {who) is absolutely one with his religiouB 
preceptor ; if the religious preceptor show favour the 
disciple can tell his secrets. 

\_Skr. ^ and #^, the latter of which is here used 
as a synonym qf 9t^ difference, secret.] 

achhai, T6.| the same as ^VWW achhay, q.v. See ^v (Mm. 

'^Hi W achhditiyfem. qf the pres^part. of y/^m, achh, q.v. 

^Srifrfl achhoni, contr. from ^wtfVft achhdhini, q.v. 



16 



SO 



86 



40 



45 




achhop, T«^ subst, com. gen.^ (Mth., f ^wtfiT 
achhopi), a person of very low caste. ( Water touched 
by him may not be drunk by higher caste Hindits.) 

Exam., Coll, {Bh.), t ^wW mm 4%, This is a man 
of low caste, 

\8kr. ^ and w^: Not met with in other Ods."] 




60 



achhdbh, {poet. ^rwYwT achhdbhd), T6*, adj., com. 
gen., {subst. f. ^irvWro^A^iA^), imperturbable, daunt- 
less. Exam., Rdm., Bd., ch. 282, 8, wtr wih Ji^ t?K 
^wt«iT, irrtV ^11 ^ ^iwm ^hiT, If you {i.e. Parasurdm) 
are really a heroic ascetic and a resolute and daimtless 
warrior, you will gain no honour by dealing abuse. 

I8kr. "m-^W ; as above possibly in all Ods.^ 

^SSllMl achhobhd, poet, for ^it^^ aehhbbh, q.v. 

^T^^SiA V achhdr, {pr. pts. W^n achhordit ; m^ffXm 
aehhoral ; ^itw achhdrab ; ^wt^ achhdrai), Tblv, 
V. tr., to snatch. Phr., '"wtfK mn, to snatch away. 

Exam., -B*^. 3 1 , 1, «i<i^f^ 19111 ^ff^ 411 ^iili\j^ n\^flfii 

IfW ^if «fr(T, When Hari snatched away my bodice, 
how many struggles did I make, twisting my limbs P 
[S*r. v/^>» wUh V, xtt cl. ^Twtwfir, Pr. 
^rn?r%f or cl. vi ^mftwi or "vit^tt B. ^Wt^ <>r 
^Wt^ ; not met with in other Ods. The ^/^ft^^ mean 
to throw away, the addition qf the prep. %t reverses the 
meaning, hence to snatch towards one's self ; cf. ^/^ to 
give and x/^VT-^ to take, Regarding the shortening 
of'm, see art ^ a (6).] 

^l^r^^li ochhohani, ^nW^t acihtkhanl^ Ta^ the same 
as ^«^f%^ achhohiniy q.v. 

^5Rf Tnl'll achhohini, mi^fWV achMR$hin\, Ts^ subst. 
f., a complete anny. Such an army consists of 10 ani- 
kini or corps, each of these again consists of 27 vdhinl 
or divisions, and each division contains 81 elephants, 
81 chariots, 243 horse, and 405 foot ; thus the whole 
afjny consists of 21,870 elephants^ 21,870 ckmiotSy 





achhUtr 



65,61« hone, and 109,850 foot. Exam.« Comm. to 
Rdm., Bd.f 8, ^ wwtf^^ ^wtf^'fV wwfw ^^ V* 
nt TWT ftftr % «f»r W 'HTW wr. They arrived in 
king Nimi's ooantryy each proyided with an * aohho- 
hini,' that is, a oomplete army. See ^wtrf^ iKJAAdnl 
and v^in ehhOnh 

[S*r. ^^HW^, probably derived from ^n cube 
aiuf ^ifWt a diTision, 27 ieui; ^A^ cui^ of 3. £e^ Jf. 




aehhibry Ts., «iJrf. m., ceremonial impnrity, wp. 
^ow a death in the family and the Hke, {lit. which 
stops shaving). ExaiTIti ColLy {Mg.)^ XH^KT wC^ WK 
ihj ^, My house is impure, {Ut. impurity is in my 
house, i.e.y a death has recently occurred in my house) ; 
Prov., {Mg.), ^^ W ww\, W\ firVKT nv wm^, 
A death has ooourred {in) my house ; what is pure, 
what is impure ? {lit. what is ontouehed food, and 
what is touched food^ t.^., there is no difference 
between them). 

I8kr. ^tVB{, with neg. ^.} 

^^V^nt achhSuhinl, "^^t^ achh^hanl^ T6.| the 
same as ^nftfW^ achhdhinU q.v. 



qf (1), (Jem. ^HT ^Vl), Tc, subst. m., a he-goat, 
Com p., ^n-^fSf^, subst. /., {astr.)y the goat's path, 
being the name of one of the three divisions of the southern 
portion of the path of the sun and planets among the 
lunar asterisms^ of which it comprises the three called 
*mald,* * pQrvakhdrhd,* and * uttardkhdrhd.' Exam.f 
Mth, Edm.y Bd., 121, 8, ^m% iftw m% ^n v^rf , 
As a wolf watohes a herd of goats ; Pdrb., 12, umlV 

nTwr ^-WTW ^TTTiff, ^r^-w^-firti-inx ^ftw tt 

mif^. The gans {attendants of Sib) dance and carry 
on all sorts of merry sports, and sing songs in the 
Yoioes of goats, owls, and wolves ; Mth, Mdm.f 

Ut. 61, 6, ^nrr ^^K if^ TWTT, wm mx nf nlH 

^^TFC, The she-goat sounds the {third note of the 
scale, called ) * Gfindhftr,' and the heron sounds the 
* Madhyam ' {ix. middle, or fourth) note ; K. Rdm.^ 
A., 6, wt ^ftrt i:«i ihf ft^ vr Ttir, ^m ^ 

irf^ WV^, Through remembering which {ie. the 
name of Rdm) the rocks of Mount Meru became as 
grains of sand, and the she-goat's hoofs grew as big 
as the ocean. 

[5Ar. ^nt ; Pr.fem. ^WT {Hem. iii, 32). This 
tadbh.form has not survived in the Gds.^ 



(V (2), if em. xmr ajd^ old obi. nmfx qfahty Skr. 
ace, sg. m. ^wr ajam or "vi qfath in Rdm., Ar., chh. 
9, 6 ; ib., Ln.y chh. 36, 9), T6.| (I) acff. m., unborn, 
uncreated, who exists from eternal, everlasting (jtyn. 



97 



10 



u 



so 



M 



w 



80 



40 



45 



60 



V 

^inf^ and(j&), only used a4 a religious term, applied to 
the Supreme Spirit or Impersonal Ood (Brahm or 
'Bhagawdn), or to the Personal Oods {Brahmd, 6ib, 
Bish'n, and their consorts Pdrbatl and Lachhml, etc.), 
or to the Incarnate Oods {e.g. Rdm). ExaiHifl Rdm., Bd., 

eh* 18, 3, T^ ^pphr ^r^^ ^^fnrr, ^^n ^rf^ppf^ ^K- 

The BhagawSn {who is) one, passionless, formless, 
nameless, uncreated, a blissful spiritual essence, 
dwelling in the highest heaven, omnipresent, all-perva- 
ding, — he taking a body performed all manner of acts ; 
ib., Ut., ch. 108, 8, WT^^ HTW 1^ ^nt^, ^w ^iw ^^w 
fiw[%^, ^niw ^wW ^nmr ^m^, ^^inr-^w ^w^ 

^^VT, He began to deliver a sermon on Brahm, 
{who is) uncreated, indivisible, inmiaterial, sovereign 
of the heart, partless, passionless, nameless, formless, 
incomprehensible, indestructible, incomparable; {see 
also Mth. Rdm., A., 82, 1); Bin. 49, M^-t^^ 

Hara {i.e. Sib), who bears the moon on his head 
and holds the trident in his hand, is sinless, 
uncreated, immeasurable, indivisible, and rides upon 
the great bull {see also Rdm., Bd., ch. 99, 3) ; Ram,, 
Ut., ch. 35, 4, «r^ Tl^^nCT-\«fir, «iw ^-^^, ^r^^ni ^n 
^wrf^ ^«rTV^, Hail to Indira's {i.e. LachhmVs) spouse 
{i.e. BisVn), hail to the earth's support, (who is) 
incomparable, uncreated, beginningless, full of splen- 
dour ; ib., Ln., chh. 36, 7, ^W ivmi^fiiTWrf^ ^ncif 
«^«I11< TTH 'Wrftr ^^, I always joyfully worship 
Bam, {who is) uncreated, omnipresent, one, beginning- 
less; ib., Bd,, ch. 106, 3, iRWT W<«r 1JW» iriT ^T^, 

^KT ^-^^WTf fimfsfll, MlSna, hear my true 
words: thy daughter BhavSnl {i.e. Pdrbatl) is the 
mother of the world, the uncreated, beginningless 
Sakti {or female energy), always dwelling in mystic 
corporeal unity with Sambhu {referring to Sib^s half 
male and ha(f female form). 

(II) subst. m., a name of the Supreme Spirits 
or God ; *a name of BrahmS. Comp., ^VTfi( 
(s=^V9r-^T^), subst. m,, BrahmS and the other gods 
{i.e. Bish'n and Sib, etc., Rdm., Bd., dd. 64, 2) ; ^m- 
vnr, {poet. ^«-WTwr), subst. m., the abode of BrahmS 
{Rdm., Ln., ch. 16*1). Exam.i 'Rdm,, Ut, dd. 28, 1, 
{alsoDoh. ll4),«BT^-firtT-#t-i^Vir^wirRT-iffw-^ ttt, 
ifh: ^ rim*lH ^"W ¥^ «f^-^f^ ^^^nr. The Supreme 
Spirit {who) transcends knowledge, speech, and under- 
standing and is unaffected by material phenomena, 
the workings of the mind, and the properties of 
things : he, the absolutely blissful spiritual essence, 
performs the actions of exalted humanity. > Rdm.^ 
Ki., dd. 26, 2, wr ^f^ tTH-vcw-^ipr, ♦ mw %«i \m, 
{Swayamprabhd went away) cherishing i:i her heart 




aja 



98 



^*l*yH afgut 



BSm's two feet, which BrahmS and Li {i.e. Bib) 
adore ; Bin. 64, %f^n ^-^V^ ^m «i%w> {Rdm's) 
lotus-like feet are worshipped bj Brahmft and Ifah^s 
(i.e. Sib) ; Rdm., St*., ch. 23, 8, ^w^ ^W^ ^^ ^W 
W^ ^^/fi ^ KTf^ ^cnr Wf^ ?ft^, Sagkar (i.e. Sib)y 
Sahas (t.^. Sis'nag), Bish'n, and Brahmft cannot 
protect you {ifpou are) BSm's enemy ; similar Ip OiL^ 
Su. 11, 3, Tfx-ftw-^W-T^ adored by Hari, Sib, and 
A] ; Bdm., Bd., dd. 197, 2, ^^^;fir iir ^Ri 'Stft ^T 
^T^nnir «rfir-^i^ Aj (i.e. Brahmft) clasping his hands 
composedly and deliberately chanted {Rdm^a) praises. 
[/S^. m: with neg. ^ ; as above in all Ode."] 



o qfa,poeLy a shortened form of ^TW dj {q.v,)y which 
occurs only in combination with the enoL pt. i h& or 
\ Afi, expressing emphasis. Exani<i Bdm.^ Bd.y ch. 61, 

8, vA ipw wftr irre ft^^^ ^^w w ^fw ^x x%fH ^ 

ftijV, (StJ) became {so) enraptured on seeing (Rdm^s) 
beauty, {that it was) only on that day {that) love 
unhindered arose in his mind ; ib , Bd.^ ch. 117, 6, 
ii|f« ^ ^ tqriqfiT inr «ftt, On this day, too, there is 
some doubt in my mind ; Bats. 30, %T^^ ivf^ i|T?, 
^w w «r ^TTT, He went away promising to return, 
(but) up to this very day he has not returned* Qften 
the emphasis is very slight ^ when practically ^w W is 
equivalent to ^rrv. ExsUTlif fidm., Bd.^ ch. 72, 3, 

ir^Wi?T v« ^^ ^^ iTPiT, yxfi w ^1^ V ^fT% ^^nrnrr. 
In BrahmS's court he took offence at me, for this 
{reason) he shows disrespect {to me) this day. 



^^nV^ aja^Si^the same as'^mi, ajc 

m 

^ITT ^ffw»j Skr, ace. sg. m. of 
occurs in the ''Rdm. 



qjdhu. 



^ (2), q.v. It only 



qfgar, the same as ^m^nx, afgar^ q.v. Exain.| 
Mth. *Bdm.j Ar., 4, 32, ^ W^4r ^K% ^»ir^ ^, 
He opened his mouth wide like a python. 

^BI^|T?p| of gaby T«.| subst. w., '(ew^r.) the southern 
portion of the path of the sun and planets among 
the lunar asterisms ; * the name of Sib's bow, which was 
hrdkenby Bdm. Exam.f ^Mth. Bdm., Ln.y 62, 1, 
^«^iinr-w^9«r ^ra-^vf^-'^^^w, {Bdm) the breaker of the 
bow and the builder of the causeway on the sea; 
Bdm., Bd.y dd. 283, 2, ^wrw ^i^ ^iw ftiftr ^w 
il «r ^ ^T^ Though {Bdm) has broken Bib's bow 
like a piece of sugarcane, still even now the foolish 
{Parasurdm) does not understand. 

[iSSfcr. ^wnw: and ^mw^t ; as above in all Ods.'} 

^^ff|^ qf^gary wimr^ ^f^gtn'f TCi subst m.y a kind 
of huge serpent, a python. {It is wpposed to be too 



10 



16 



10 



80 



86 



40 



46 



80 



unwieldy to movey and to devour only such animals as 
themselves fall into its mouth; see Orowse^s Tramlatian 
of Bdm.y rev. ed.yp. 651.) Exam«i Bdm.y Ut.y ch. 104, 
7, ^fk Ttft^«nr^T¥ ^nft, ^rCT^f% wm ww-irfir 
wrft, Thou remainest sitting {immoveable) like a 
python, thou sinner ; {therefore) thou shalt become 
a serpent, O thou wretch, {who art) full of impure 
thoughts ; Padm.y ch. 421, 2, wvnirt %^ ^W ^w-frf^. 
He has got enough food to satisfy the hunger of a 
python ; Maluk JDds {in Orowse, Bdm. tran8.)y n^WK 

▼FK^WT XT^y The python does no service, the birds do 
no work, {yet)y thus says Maluk Dfts, B&m is the 
supporter of all ; Bw.y ch., anon.y «nr nw ^X ^[^mx WW 
^iVf , nwr^ wYf^ WHM wfr •n^. In the world 
many men are unwieldy like pythons ; they never 
leave their throne or go anywhere. See ^w*^ 
qfdahdy ^WF^TH qf'ddh. 

{This serpent is usually said to be the boa con- 
strictory but the distribution of the latter animal is 
confined to South America. Of the pythonidwy however, 
one species occurs throughout Peninsular India, and 
is very common in North^Eastem Bengal.) 

\Skr. ^nr + J(X:, lit. swallowing a goat ; see art. 
r. But compare Prs. ^<>J| azhdar and ^^J\ azhdahd."] 



^W^[?T cfg^^i "^f^f^V^ V^giltty Ta., (I) adj., com. gen., 
untisual, uncommon, strange, surprising, wonderfuL 
Exam.. B. Or.y n (JBA.), song 13, 4, fMr Tff, wmx 
^^^^ wDi^, I ask thee, crow, a strange matter. 

(H) subst. m., ^concr., something unusual or 
strange or wonderful, a marvel, a miracle {in a phy* 
sical sense, but sometimes also in n moral sense) ; * some- 
thing improper, unfit; ^abs., wonder, astonishment, 
amazement. Phr., '^rwrjii wnm, v, intr.y lit. to 
attain to {the nature of) a wonder, hence to appear 
wonderful ; ^fv»gw ▼^, v. tr.y to consider wonder- 
ful ; to perform a wonder ; ^Htjit % %irw, v. tr.y 
Kt. to write {something down) as a wonder, to mark 
{it) as a wonder, hence to consider wonderful, to be 
struck with wonder; ^ht^ ^ftw* ^^ intr., Kt. 
amazement to happen {to some on^), tience to be 
amazed. Exstin.f ^Mth. Bdm., Su. 40, S4, ^v«^ 
l^rfifir f% ^fil ^-irrv. For a wonder, Das'mfttb {i,e. 
Bdban) is still alive ; Bw.y songy anon.y ^ongii iJt^, t 
XTWT, wn5 ^W 'sWir iT^ ^rr-^^f , I considered it a 
wonder, BSm, that tiiou didst arovse my young love 
and then didst depart to a far country ; Mb. iv, 
27, '^^i^if %V», Wire kTw, (fAdwiyw^Jfa/i) per- 
formed wondrous actions, and seized {Krish^n) with 
her teeth ; ib., ii, 62, ^rj WTf wnif WTTi wm^ WW, 
mother, mother, a miracle has happened ; Bin., 
1. 119, twwm WWJW, • Wf ^wiBW i>W, Sal'hcs thftught 






^npf^fTfTT afgut^wd 



99 



^^Wf d^/ab 



{iU. saw) that something very wonderfal had happened 
(eee abo I 124) ; Sb. v, 56, inr txwF^ ^ ^HBHHiHl, 
These {things occurring) in so few days appear very 
wonderful {lit attain to a great wonder) ; so abo 
Mih. Ram., Bd. 31, 2, ^f w ^W^-^TT w«nr-5T, FW 
%ir ^Hlpl wnr, The breaking of Saijkar's {is% BiVs) 
bow in Janak^pur after so many days appears 
wonderful ; Hb.j viii, 2, ifft inr vw ^ ^fWT 
^W %^ ?rffw, ^WIH % irww, As {MWiir) dived he 
saw Hari and Hal'dliar {ue. Krish^n and BoTrdm) 
in the water together witii the {serpent) Sfis, and 
was struok with awe. • Co//., {Mg.) , ^ Wf ^«i^ %^ o, 
ft[ ^tiPtT w mr^o. Ton did a very improper thing 
thai^ you beat him {after Ed. Dy.) ; Sahhd Bilds 
(in Ed. Dy.)j mn ^f ^^ipr «X HT ^ ^STT ^^TXlf, If 
one do improper things deliberately, what is one to 
do with him P 'Din., /. 378, trl»TT % tf^ ^l^rgw 
v^, {Ouldmi said to himself) " on seeing Phot'ra 

you are amazed.'' 

(This word is more commonly used as a subst^ and 
with the first meaning of it. Compare the word ^^nrr 
achambhd.) 

{8kr. -sTi: with neg. % Pd. ^f^, not connected 
or not in conformity mth correct principles or analogy ^ 
either of nature or moraby hence either unusual, 
wonderful, or improper. In the latter sense the word is 
more usual in Skr. and Pd. ; the former is the more 
common one in the Ods. A synonym is ^W»W, lit, not 
going together or agreeing with law or analogy. Not 
met within other Ods.^ exc O. ^wm accidental, unex- 
pected. 2%« word M a tats., formed like wtnfrom Skr 
%m {see 04. Or. §§102, 141) ; hence Skr. n^ becomes 
^^inr, and, with transfer of the vowel w, ^iwg^ ; in O. 
the i>owel u is dropped."] 




[T (^'gut'wd, Ig. f. of ^^mppi qj'gut, q.v. 

«^..... Bif.f 1. 577, vw^ ^^^J'^ Pm-^f^wT, xtfn % 

^^mf ^wfiRT, I was asleep in my painted room, 
{and) in the night {there came to me) a strange dream. 

^nr^^JfT afgUti Tbh., acb\i com. gen., the same as 
^BTiQir afgut, q,v. Exam.. Bh., song, anon., WTf% 
rv^w ^ TW'HrfiniT w^m %«r ^^^f, I was sleep- 
ing in the women's apartments and saw a wondrous 
dream* 



o qfagyaj T8.t aeff^i 00m. gen.. Hi. not a sacrifice, 
A«n<^ not destined for sacrifice. Exam.f Eb. viii, 81, 
^imo w^ inc liirf^ ^nrsf. The bow {which was) 
destined never to become a subject for sacrifice, he 
lifted up in his hands. 

[Skr. ^H* with neg. ^ ; as above possibly in all 

Ods.-] 



10 



15 



90 



is 



90 



qfant, Any.* subst. m., an agent. 
[^A corruption of the English word.] 



^RR^ 



cffonfi, Any.f subst. /., ^ agency ; *the ofBce 
of a Political Agent or Resident in a native state 
{a term, techn. of the English administration) ; 'the 
Besidency (t.^. the house and court of a political resident) . 
{A corruption of the English toord, made analog^ 
ically; as \f ^IW9 with O4. suff. % see 04* Or. 
§ 252.] 




afdahd, ^nv^ qfdd, Any-i subst. m., a large 
serpent, a python ; hence adj., met., very large, very 
gross, said of animab and things, and facetiously qf 
me$i. It is not used cottoquiaUy as a subst., except 
facetiously. Exam.f Coll., (Bh.), ^ ww^^ ^^in^TT 
¥^W ^ ^ftr fwirw «rrt:, What python is sitting there, 
will it swallow you P CoU., {Mg.), ^f ^HK TT <g^r%, 
It is a very large and thick snake ; ib., ^rtWT ^;<Jf 
"^9 ^IWT^TT T^, qtw wtT ^nt» Both his bullocks are 
fine big fellows ; they are very fat. 
IPrs. UaJi, aihdahd.] 




afdd, the same as ^siv^ifi qfdahd, q.v. ExaiTlif 
eubst., {fac.), Coll.^ {Mg.), ^wncT ^^w ^^^W %, He 
has fallen down {lying helpless) like a python 
{gorged with food) ; adj.. Coll., {Jtfg.), t.'^mr^j ^^^ 
^, This is a great thick piece of wood. 

[^Prs. <«>J| azhda ; final Prs. inaudibb ^h becomes 
in Od. 'WJ d,as in x>M w^^ bandd, servant. J 



ss 



40 



60 



c^nab, Atiy^aif/. and subst., com. gen., foreign, 
strange, unknown ; a foreigner, a stranger. EXEITlti 
ChcSuMddri NiyamdbaH, 4, if? w ^v^prw ^ 9^9 ^nwfw 

^sfWt irw ^rotr WV^^i iffiniTr ^i^^ 'ir^^ ttw* 

If a strange comes into the village at any time, 
{j/ou must tell) all his real circumstances, and any other 
important information {in UrdUized police jargon). 
[Ar. *-*^l qjnab.] 



^nrRnft«' 



nabl, the same as 



qfnab, q.v. 



qfant, T619 adj., com. gen., (gram.), ending in a^ 
vowel. 

{Skr. comp. ^^+ ^^ ; as above in all Ode.], 



qfab, Any., (I) adj., com. gen., ^ strange, wonderful ; 
* exceptionally fine or charming. Phr., ^nw fww, 
V. tr.. Hi. to look upon as strange, hence to appear 
strange (to some one) ; ^m^ W%n, v. tr., lit to call 
{something) strange, hence to appear strange {to- some 

one)' Exarriii ^Prov., E, ^irw itft y^c^y ^mw ?tt 

%W, If^^ % ^^ ^^^^ '•T ?Nr, (0 God,) wondrous 



/ 



lAr. 



* * 



• • 



ajub. ] 



^^"T-^rn^rrT^ ajah-Bdlar, Any., %uhst. m., lit. a won- 
derful oommandery the name of a certain saint, 
icarshipped by Musalmdn drummers^ who during an 
outbreak of cholera act as village Mu%ahn&n priests. 
They go about beating drums with an iron bar wrapped 
in red cloth and adorned with flowers^ which represents 
the saint O&ji Mlyi. They are paid in kind by the 
people at whose doors they stop and drum. Ors, § 1456, 

p. 406. 

[Ar. y^^ «-*^ ^ajab sdldr; see art, ^irw.] 



f|^ qfblthl^ T«., subat.f. ; see under ^m (y (1). 



afbes, Tbh., subsi. m , the name of two Hindi 
poets, viz., "the elder (^1^1 prachin), who lived, 
apparently as a bard, at the court of R^'d Bir'bhdn 
Singh of Bdndhdgarh in Riwi, born 1513 -4.2)., {see 
Oen. Cunningham^ s Archml. Survey Rep., vol. xvii, 
p. 69) ; *the yonnger, who, according to Siv., ib., lived at 
the court of Uahdrdja Bisva Ndth Siygh of Bdndhdgarh, 
born 1833 A.D. ; he is quoted in the Sundari Tilak. 

Exam.i ^Siv., p. 14, ^^^nr ^f^m iww it ^ 



10 



^SPT-^T^TR; qjaUdldr ~ 100 

thy power, and wondrous are thy illusions. Lo, 
on a muskrat's head is found the oil of the {fragrant) 
jasmin {said of a good point found in a churl). ; Fam. 
53, ^«nr ^t iiTMmc % firoi'i ^i^m tir, Wonderful 
are the actions of Government, {for thm) a raUway 
came to Tirhut; Misc. 85, %^ it^ Wi l^fwT 
fk%^n tun; ^ww ^ ^Wrf, With a *selhi' {or 
mendicant's head-dress consisting of ticists of black 
rope) ior a cap, with knowledge for a {mendicant^s) 
pallet, and applying ashes of cowdung {to my body), 
I put on a strange appearance ; Mag. 28, ift^ fHWTT 
ift ^i«nr |Wf, Tfirfij^, ^U^J ^^ ^ i(K^rsf, Thy 
brillianoe appears to me wonderful, O fair lady, {as) 
thou art ooquettishly walking in the way, {see also ib. 
38). « Mag. 64, ^ft€t ^firuf ^«i^ ^^Tr, i^fkm, ^1T 
ift t"^ ^^^ {vulg- cor. for ^m^fi), Thine embracings 
I call very charming, fair lady, and thine eyes I see 
to be powerful; ib, 38, iftTV ^^f«T^ ^«iw ^, 
Kflfvrr, «^ wiftmT t i?r^ Thy limbs appear {to 
me) most charming, O fair lady, and very beautiful 

thy breasts. 

(II) adv., strangely, wonderfully, extravagantly. 

Exam.i ^(^ff' 68, Tt^ i?r ^ft^"H ^r^rw^Kirf ^^ ^nmiH 

^^z 1% mnyf. Here in the road I am praising {thee) 
extravagantly, dear, {as) thou art going along hiding 
thy eyes with thy veil. 

{This foreign word is in very common une.) 



16 



a* 



25 



80 



85 



Shfih rose like the waters of the great flood — {says) 
Ayh^'^{andf) for the drowning HumSyun it was a 
great calamity; {then) to save the powerless child 
Akbnr, Bir'bh&n, the chief, became like the leaves of 
the AkhS Bar {or the tree of immortality at AUaha- 
bsd); the reference is to the tradition, related in 
Oen. Cunningham^ s ArchaoL Survey Reports, vol. xxi, 
p. 109, of the family of SumdyUn, when he was chased 
out of India, after the disastrous battle at KanSuj, in 
1540 A.D., finding asylum in the fort of Bdndhdgarh, 
where Akbar is said {though falsely) to have been bom ; 
there is a pun on the words * Akbar' and ^Akhaibar.' 

*Siv.,p. 14, ii^^T'rRnft%, yn^^ jikw, ^mftw, ift 

^> ^^ <W ^9 "^ ^'Nl KW HtV %, Hari is of one 
colour, yet full of many pleasures, filled with rapture 
as with a spirituous wave ; he is the well-known root 
of 'siddhi,' the giver of life— («ay«) -4/Je«— the 
supreme purifier, the increaser of happiness, {there is 
a play on the words ^hari^ and Uiddhi/ the former 
means both BisVn and bhang, and the latter, both 
perfection and a preparation of bhang,) 



«y(2), J.r. It only 



ajam, Skr. aec. sg. m. of 
occurs in the Rdm. 



40 



45 



50 



^^••(fl a/mat, Any., subst. f., testing, temptation 
(only used with reference to the deity as an object) . ExaiHti 

Coll., {Mg.), nif ^» iff ^rm«ww % ij^ ftrnT ^tt 

^r^Pfinft wff, If you desire, you may test TTim, but. 
except He will it, no one can be His tester {i.e. 
have full experience of Sis power). 
[^Corruption of Prs. triUjt ] 

TTlf^f^RTT afmatiyd. Any., {Mg.), subst. /., Ig. f of 
the preceding. Exam.| Mg. Bible, Mth. iv, 7, ftu i> 

iffr ^n7«a t^i^ f^my %t ^^wftroi w^ ^^^vw, Jesus 
said unto him, it is written again, thou shalt not 
tempt the Lord (t/Auh = Jehovah) thy Qod. 

[The word occurs in the old Mg. Bible of 1818.] 

'^^•JTni afmatl, Any^t subst, com. gen., one who tests, 
hence, one who has tested and knows the power of 
Qod by experience. For an example, see ^ffmnm 
afmat. 

[From ^innr ; by the see. der. suff. % see Crd. 
Or. § 262.] 

'^^•Hlf^^ afmdis, Any., subst. /., < examination, 
proving, testing, trying ; * {in revenue language) the 
testing of a portion of a crop in estimating ita 
produce. Phr., ^^•wiiif %w^ r. tr., to examine or 



test, e9p. to test a crop ; ^im^ ^nV or iniTj ^h%U /. 
or «n., a survey statement (7Ft7., ^. 570). Exaniif 
^ CoU.^ {Mg.)^ ^«Y«T ^^•mw ^ ^^9 Examine him. 

«09«., (Jfflr.), lit ^^T f^llW ifo T^, 1?r TT % 1?KT VT^ 

% ^irnvn^ % 4?» If you don't trust me^ then cut a 
portion of it {the crop) and test it. 
\PrH. cri^J^ dzmaUh.'] 



101 



qfmih^ {pr. pts.^ ^«smif qfmahiRt^ Bh. and 
Mg. ^nvnTUr qf^rndbat, ^vi^ifiiV qfmdbUy Mg. also 
^wmnrw aftndit; wmwfpftm qf^mddl; iranTTPW 
a/mSeb ; ^tm^iwA qfmdbaiy ^wnrnr c^mde)^ Any.y 
<^. ^r.y *to ezamine, prove, test; esp. *(tn recently 
language) to test a portion of a orop in estimating its 
produce. It is synonymous with ^m^MXKH %w, the 
examples of which may be consulted. 



qpmUddf a corruption 




eff^mUdy str. /. 
of iwwtv afmlkldy q.f>. 



^^•^11^ offif^i Te.i %v^t, m., fnora commonly used 
in its str.f. ^WiiYv aj'mOddy q.v. 

I8kr. ^w+ifr^:, W. goat's delight.] 



^l^fein^T qfmoddj Te-t «t(i«^. m., /A« nam^ o/ «er^a/ 
herbSf 'the oommon parsley (Apium graveolens); 
*the caraway (Carum Eoxburghianum or Apium 
involucratum) ; > tlie lovage or Bishop's weed, also 
called qjowan or ajawa seeds {Carum copticum; see 
^Vm^Tfir qf'wdn)n See Qrs. § 1073, p. 252. These 
herbs are extensively cultivated throughout India ; the 
seeds are used in diet and medicine ; the root is regarded 
as medicinal. The seeds of caraway are used in 
flavouring curry ^ and those qf lovage form an ingredient 
of the preparation known as *pdn.* See Watt, voL V, 
pp. 87, 76, and vol VI, pp. 16, 46. 

[This word is a masc. str. f. of ^WiIY^ and 
should not be cortfounded with the Skr. fern, form 
% m ^V^ In the second sense the Bg. name is ^ii\; 
see Dutt, pp. 173, 289.] 

^WT ajay, ^ eyd?, '^ qfiy T«.p adj., com. gen., {subst. 
/. ^i«|irr ^Viytf)» one over whom victory cannot be 
obtained, unvauquished, invincible. Exam.i Bdm., 
8u.j ch. 13, 3, 1^ ^'^ Wf ^Wir TH-TTt, Who is able 
to defeat the invincible Baghu-rSi {i.e. Edm) ; iJ., 
Xn., ch. 109, 3, mW^ ^HW ftWTWKTT^, The invin- 
cible demon-king {i.e. Bdban) has been conquered ; 
Mth. Bdm.y Ln. 116, 8, wirx-^^^ r^-n'W ircirr 
f|f^-lW ^I^W, Eaghu's son {ie. Bam), (who is) 
unconquerable in the fight, will destroy the enemy's 
forces ; Mth. Bdm., Ln., 123, ^IXTW WWB ^«W ^nr 
WIT, {Migh^ndd said :) * I was performing the sacri- 



10 



IS 



10 



S5 



so 



86 



fice which was to confer invincibility on me' {lit. 
the invincible sacrifice) ; Bdm., Ln., ch. 72, 2, * vHr, 
^«iw-ww' ^W «fW "^ITT, 'I will perform a sacrifice 
conferring invincibility/ thus {Migh'ndd) settled in 
his mind. 

{The meanings subst. defeat, acff. not victorious, 
unsuccessful (H. By.) are possible; but they have never 
been met with by us either in literature or intercourse.) 

[Skr. m^« with neg. ^ ; as above in all Ods."] 



ajar (1), Ts., adj., com. gen., {subst f. ^mxi (^ara), 
not subject to decay or old age, undecaying, ever- 
young {in literature always found in combination with 
^[^(K amar, ^.r.). ExaiTlif Bdm., Bd., cK 92, 7, ^mr ^TRT 
^ «JHil lo utI:, Being subject to neither decay nor 
death, he could not be vanquished; K. Bdm., Ut., 
152, ^pfr vrfr-i»,if^^«iT-^iwK-iR, w^ir mmm, iiw 

nfv^ iTT^ ift. He ate {the poison called) * kftl'kut,' 
ij^et) he became of a body free from decay or death ; 
bis dwelling is the cemetery, and his possesisions are 
a bundle of ashes of cowdung {see also Bin. 24). 
[Skr. «rc* with neg. % ; as above in all Ods."} 



ajar (2), Tbh., adj., com. gen., unbumt, incom- 
bustible. Exam.| Padm., do., 564, 2, TPnr WW lit WT 
fw^i wv f«w ^««r^ ^ t1^, On B&ban's forehead {i.e. 
fate) when ' fire ' was written, say how could he 
remain xmbuznt P 

[Skr. •w. with neg. "m, Pr. ^iBiwt, B. %mK, 
S. ^««i% incombustible, indigestible.] 




40 



45 



iifrd, Tbh., subst, mase. of'^im^ iif^ri, see 
<w^mi qfid. 



Iffri, Tbh., subat. /., see "^tm^ 4/'ft. 



^Hff^^a/ (1), {str. /., m. ^WTWT qfld, f. ^Wift afli), 
Ts.t a^\, com. gen., free from water, dry. ExsUTlif Bw., 
song, anon., ^nwT ^'Wtt ^ftfuw wm ^^rry fi rnn. 
In the month of AsSrh {June- July) dry places will 
become covered with water. 
[Skr. mm^, mth neg, ^.] 



60 



^b|^ ajal (2), Any., subst. /., death. Exam.f H. song, 
anon., W^tWf HW ^TPI IK jpiln, fWi 'ii W^ 1^ ^^fA, 

w% ^n TrSt y^ ^ ^ww ^f^ ^w wkA %, When 
death approaches, naught is of avail to any one, 
so all depart when death shows favour to (t.^. visits) 
them. See also under ^rarrvn qf^lat. 
[Ar. cU«] 

^f||(»^7T uj^bit. Any., subst. /., vileness, baseness. 
Exstmii Mg.^ song, anon., ^MWW 'Wft ^iTT, 'PT t ^'W 



^«l*<iirH*ri aflatiyA 



102 — 



^'HBT vc^ 



JKV i?tfy nnft ^$ My darling, be not vUe, death 
is hastening towards thee. 

lAr. ^^} atallat, fem.f. Jil attUl; a$e Ed. Dy. 

^^H^^Td^l aftatipd, Any., subst. /., a vile, rascally 
woman; aometimM used as a term of endearment, 
even tcith regard to men. Exam.| Mag. 17, "^WiT* ^«»^T 
t^, ^^l^fiwrr, ^rw ft^ injWT ^pirw, Even if you 
kiss (me) without touching {me), you (dear) rascal, 
(my) cheek smarts for nine days; ib. 19, wt^ 

Who is the {dear) rascal that throws a potsherd {at 
me, as a sign qf solicitation), so that a wound is 
caused in my heart P 

^Probably a Iff. /. of ^twinft, vhich, however, m 
haw not met with. The latter is derived from ^^mwn, 
q.v., toith the 04. see. der. suff. % see Od. Or. § 262.] 

^BT^I^T Hfld {Bw.), iJuT^ ifrd {Bh.), Tbh., subst. 
masc. of ^<mnft 4/**> ^•<'- / used in a magnifying sense, 
a large double*handful {Ett.^ vol. I, p. 196). 

^apf^^'^W, str.f. o/^HW d^al (1), q.v. 

^Ife^ Hj'n (Bw.), ^Ni^ Sfri {Bh.), Tbh., subst. /., 
the same as ^11% af^fali, q.v. 

[Begarding derivation see the remarks under ^V%.] 

^^•q^l Iff team, Tbh., subst. /, collyrium or lampblack 
for application to the eyes. ExaiTlii Bais. 1, 2, wfs^ 
nKipft^ ifv^ Wf, ^fl^ '^Nniwl' wt^, As a present 
for the Ohbatthi ceremony, I shall take {to my sister' 
in-law) a plate, {and) a cup for {holding) lampblack for 
the eyes. Bee ^mw afy'an. 

[^The word is properly^ verbal noun derived from 
the pleonastic ^^tmtw to anoint, or derived from the 
^^i^ to anoint by the suff. ^TW^. See O4. Or. 
§ 315.] 



afwar^wdb, Tbh., v. tr., a causal of 
^%wsT[x, afwAr, q.v.. See Hd. By. under art. ^w- 
WUTT ufwdnd, p. 40. 

^^'*Ht,^l ^wdin, Tbh., eubst. f, » {8. Mth,), the 
thick rope at the foot of a native bed, to which its 
netting is tied {Chrs. § 639); ^{Mg.), the same as 
^mm^f^m qfwdn or mwtV^ jawdin, q.v. {Ors. § 1073, 
p. 252). 

[Derivation see under ^iivr^rw.] 



10 



u 



so 



86 



80 



85 



40 



afwdn, ^wnwn:w afwiRn, Tbh., %ubst. /., the 
true Bishop's weed or lovage {Carum ccpticum or 



45 



60 



Ptych^is aioyca/n or. Ptpehotis copUea or Ammhccpticum) 
cultivated in many parts of India for Us seeds, which 
are used both as a condiment and as a medicine ; the$ 
also farm one of the ingredients qf *pan^ and of a 
caudle {see ^t«4i^ achh^wdni) ; on distUiation with 
water they yield an oil, which is used medicinally in 
cholera, colic, and indigestion {see Watt, vol. TV, p. 15 ; 
V, p. 76 ; VI, p. 45). See wm^ jawdin. 

\_Skr. W^T'ft, Br. ^wpft, whence {with metaihesis 
of ^m aj for m ja) B. ^mrnw qfwdn { for Wnw 
.jawdn). The form ^^ez^jf^ is made by the false 
analogy {for ^nnrn>fV) of the feminines in ^TTTW, like 
Mftmii;*! the wife of a pandit; see Od. Or. §§ 256, 
260.] 

J/^^I^^TTT afwdr, ^ifm^imK Sfwdr, {pr.pts.'^mnixn 
afwiiraity Bh. and Mg. also ^m*^\Kik afwdrdt, ^ur. 
Tiftir q;*wdrit; %m^WtKm afwdral; ^9i.^\\^ (^'*wd* 
rah; ^irwTT afwdrai), Tbh., v. tr., to empty {a 
vessel, house, etc.), to pour {from one vessel ifUo another), 
see Hd. By., s.v. ^^mnrtm ufwdnd. ExaiTliff {Sd. By,), 
Mag. song, ^^ j[^, ^itfnwj w^irwf ^iwrrt t ^, 
Lo, quickly he began to empty the bam. 

IThe H. haf^mwmr, or cor. w^^irr {Hd. By.), 
which shows that the verb is in the double causal form. 
On the double causal termination WIT {or ^nr) see 
04. Or. §§ 354, 2, 475, 476. The primary root, 
therefore, is ^&m, of which the B. form ^fm appears to 
be a corruption; see the remarks on ^rwwpfV, ^twm, 
and ^WTT. The root wn m probably to ie identified 
with the Skr. v/^, fdth a change of^to w, as in Pr. 
"mn for Skr. ?rra {see Hem. i, 131). The M. has the 
same verb in the form wmWf with the meaning of 
to conclude, to close. This points also to the Skr. 
\/^E^^ from which both meanings— rto empty, to pour 
out, and to conclude, to close — can be derived without 
d\fflculty.'\ 

^^^ ajas, Ta., subst. m., disrepute, infamy, disgrace, 
{opp. '^m^ sujas or simply, iw jas ; often combined with 
^^ agh sin). Comp., 'ir^ro-fraT^, subst. f, fig,, a 
basket of disrepute {Bdm., A,, dd. 13, 2), or ^nrv- 
«)T«iir, subst. m.,fig., a vessel of disrepute {Bam., A., 
eh. 139, 5), hence a disreputable or infamous person. 
Phr., ^v^ %w, f. tr., Ut., to take disgrace {to one^s 
self), hence to disgrace one's self. Examif Bdm., A., 
ch., 45, 1, ^mn ^ft^, Wff ^^m WWl^, May disrepute 
ensue, may {my) good reputation perish in the world ! 
Sat. ii, 65, iftfii ^\ftr fro-'uro-irfir ^^ i'i ^ ^rf%wTf«r, 
Justice, love, and the state of repute or disrepute, 
(these) are well known to all ; Earn., A., ch. 168, 8, 
flf||.^i9T ^^ ^iw^ W vJfW, {Obeying) Sk father's 
, order cannot be sin or disgrace ; ib., Bd.^ck. 267, 3, 




^wr^ 



qfasi 



lF-^f*i iwn: "im^ wt %li By description {at the 
hands) of a bad poet she {i.e. 8Ud) will only take 
disgrace {to herself). 

( This word never aoeurs m literature tcith the adj. 
meaning of diareputable ; in thai sense ^^fm^ is usedy 
q.v.) 

[^8kr. WW} toith the neg. % neut. ; Pr. tadbh. wtw^ 
or {with euph. w) "wn^ mase. {8pt. v. 178, Aup. § 117) 
or tats, wmwi {8pt.j v. 626, Bhag.j p. 235) ; the tadbh. 
has not survived in the Ods» As above in all Gfds,'] 

"^^^1 ajaslj Te.f o^rV, eom. gen.^ disreputable, infamous, 
disgraoefuL Exani.| £4m., Zn., ch. 31, 2, ^rf^-^1^ 
^r«v^ ^rfw-fTr> {those who are) "vetj destitute, disreput- 
able, y^ry old {etc.^ even while living are like corpses). 

[Derived from ^wwn with O^. -suf. t. See Od, 
Or. § 263.] 



103 — ^PTRT ajdnd 

^^TfT qfat, the same as %wn^ qfati, q.v.. 

^SWrTfT ajdti^ Tc, substy oom. gen., 'one who has lost 
his oaste, an outcast ; * one who has no oaste. ExaiTlii 
^Pdrb.y ch. 7, wirv^iT^^ ^^fiwiT^irfMf , ^r^ 
"WWTW ^wrfir wrjj-ftjr-^ftwff , Say, what did you hear 
to make you so pleased with a hidegroom who has 
no pedigree, no worth, no dignity, no caste, and no 
father and mother. 

[5*r. wtfm frith neg. W[. As above possibly in 
all Qds.'] 



10 



16 



ajahu, ^mwqfah&y ^m% ajahU, "Wm^ q/ahi^ poet.^ 
more^ properly spelt ^irs w qfa hu^ etc.^ bring two I ^ 
separate words. See under art. wms qfa. Eustic also 
4/^8 {Hd. Dy.). 



^SnrT qjdyfem. of WW (y (1) and (2), q.v. 



qfdchak^ Ts.| subst. w., (/. ^nrf^WT d^'dchikd), 
one who is not a beggar, one who does not solicit. 
Phr. ^wr^ra W^f v. tr.^ to make one satisfied, to 
satisfy. Exam., Edm., Ut., ch. 13, 7, f%3if wyw f^fkw 
ftffif ifh»i, wrwwi wwm^^wnww^wi. To the Brahmans 
all sorts of presents were given, and all the beggars 
were satisfied. 

[8kr. wfj^w with neg. "W. As above possibly in 
all Gds."] 

^rfT^T qjichd, Tbh., ac^.y com. gen.y untried, untested, 
unexamined. ExaniM Coll.y {Mg.)^ t f^^TW ^W^TT ^, 
This account has not been tested. 

[Brom wlfwTpp^ of^^/mfwy q.v., with neg. Wf (4).] 

^TUTP^fT qjdchity Ta^ fl<(^'., com. pen., what is not 
begged^ unsolicited, unasked. Exam.| Pur.^ p. 241, 
^ m f^ t l {fern.) fwwx ^ IT^-Pirfir KTf%, He nourish- 
ed his body with unsolicited alms. 

^^(^ ajdchl, T%H subst. m., (/. ^«llf^41 (ydchini)^ the 
same as wmtWW tydchaky q.v. Phr., wurft irrw, v. tr., 
to make satisfied, to satisfy. Exam^i Bin. 163, ^fir 
^1^ ^W f'l^f^tw> 'iPt 'ft W fWt ^W^, The monkey, 
the Saban, Bugnb, Bibhikhan, yea, whom did 
{Bdm) not satisfy P 

[^Skr. wt^ with neg. w. As above possibly in 
all Qds.'] 



u 



90 



85 



40 



^WT<ft 



cydtl, the same as 



ejdAy q.v. 



^Wf^q/dn (1), {poet.^mvWT ajdnd), Tbh., ac^., com. gen., 
{subst. f'wwmi ajdnd), *not knowing, ignorant; 
• simple, foolish {from mere look cf knowledge) ; 
3 without or deprived of right or sound knowledge, 
demented, infatuated; * unknown.* Exam.| ^ Rdm., 
Bd., do. 277, 2, TW wrftr ^wrir ftrfir, wrv« ^t^ w^, 

Though knowing it, he asked as if not knowing, {and) 
wrath pervaded his {whole) body ; Sat. ii, 23, Jiw^ 
TTW-^wrw WK ftrfir ^t^ ^ wrw, Tul'si (says) bow 
can a man who is ignorant of BSm obtain heaven. 
• Sat. i, 9, imfif mww wfw fiiftr irw gw^ ^^ w«rrw. 
How should a mother and father forsake one {who is a 
child) simple like Tul'si Dfts. ^ See an example under 
art inrnrr qjdnd (2). * Padm., ch. 194, 7, ii^ w^W 

^jirfr m% ^fTiV, nitf: ^wrm frorr wx ic^, Some 

are blooming like the flowers of the sandal-tree, 
others are straying under {other) unknown trees {so 
according to the Urdu commentary of the Kdnh^pUr 
edition; but see under wmiw cydn (2) ). See wmxwi 
ejdnd. 

{The act. meaning not knowing is the usual one; 
according to some pandits, the pass, meamn^ unknown, 
though used, is incorrect. In the Bdm. the word is 
generally spelled WIWTW, ^WlifT, for which ^mw, ^WITW 
is frequently given as a false reading, as in Bd., ch. 286^ 
2; cf.W[mw\{2)). 

[S*r. HTWiT with neg. % Pr. wimrrit 



or 



60 



^SWTT cjdn (2), Tbh., mibst. m., ^8. Mth.^Hg.), a 
white variety of rice, which is sown broadcast {Ors. 

§ 969) ; • a kind of tree {not identified). Exam.« 
* Padm., ch. 194, 7 {according to the gloss of the 
Laih^nan edition), ^hx ^IWW fwKWT WK <:tfr, Some are 
straying under ajan-trees. 
IDer. f] 

^tnTITT (v'dnd (1), poet, for ^niTW (f^'dn (1), q.v. 




^^TTT qjdnd 



104 



^rf«pr 



e^in 



^nrRT ajdna (2), (/. ^mx^ qfdni), 9tr. / of ^«irm 
ajdn (1), q.v. Exam.| « JJdm., Bd-^ ch. 127, 4, ^IW ^\f^ 

^rrftr f^rf^ wnii^, wicPr ^^^ if iift ^RinJt, Now 
regarding me as your own servant, tboagh I am by 
nature a foolish and simple woman, {reply to me). 
^Bdm.j A., ch. 199, 6, ^ irrJ^-l^ trfw ^i^T^, ^fic 
V-wrf% ^wi Mftii f lift, But the queen was demented 
by the power of fate, and in the end she has repented 
of the evil she has done. 

(In the best manuaeripts the word U spelled ^wntT, 
^WT^ in the above and other passages ; but ^si^ys^ is 
still commonly used colloquially in Bihdr.) 

[^Prom 8kr. ^KTW: with pleon. suff. « ; see Od, 
Or. § 196.] 

^^Il«1 ajdmy Tbh.p arfp., unknowingly, unwittingly, 
unintentionally {opp. qitIw jdnt), ExaiTlff Bin. 160, 

1 1^ ^pn ^%ir irrt ww ^ t ^ ; wrftr irnr ^•iiftr 
fft^, IT^ in?-S^ T^, And as to the many wretches 
that were saved, how oan they be counted ; whether 

m 

{Rdm's or Ndrdyan^s) name be taken intentionally or 
unintentionally {by any one), the hells of Jam's 
abode are propitiated {for him) ; {the reference is to 
the story o/^wrf*Rf qfdmilf q.v.) 



^m^ 



ajdni {l)yfem. of 



of and (2), q.v. 



^B[Wf^ qfdni (2), Tbh., subst.f, « want of knowledge ; 
* simplicity, innocence ; " heedlessness. 

[Abs. noun^ from ^Wpr (1), formed with the Pre. 

9Vlf. t] 

41^ Imtg ajdmilf T6.| subst. f»., the name of a BiAh- 
man of EanSBj, of a most dissolute and abandoned 
* life. He had ten sonsj the youngest of whom, by a 
prostitute^ was named Ndrdyan. When at the point 
of deathy he happened to summon this son by his name. 
Thereupon the Ood Ndrdyan {i.e. BisVn)^ thm casually 
invoked^ himself came in answer to his cally and rescued 
him from the demons that were about to carry him off to 
hell. In TuFal Dd^s works this story and the mystic 
power of the *Ifame ' is generally ascribed to Bdm, he 
being the incarnation of Bish^n or Ndrdyan. Exain.| Bin. 
239, fini ^«ifi<fi ^^ ^-^rfif , it irtr ^ wff ftn^N^, 
As for the BrShman Ajamil and the lord of the gods 
(t.^. Ind^r)y what {law) is there that they have not 
broken P Oit.y Sw., 42, %n fxn UTir iir ii^-fiifir frix ^^ 
^HT^W ^ vvt, Taking the friendly name of his 
son, Aj&mil, that sinner, passed out of existence 
{see also Bin. 97) ; Rdm.y Bd., eh. 30, 7, ^irc ^wrfiW 
nw TftniT 1, wj ^vn ^ft-wrw ottw, Further Aj&mil, 
the elephant, and also the harlot {t.e. Piygald), were 
saved through the power of Hari's (t^. Ndrdyan^s) 



10 



16 



VO 



25 



80 



86 



40 



46 



60 



name ; K. Bdm.y Ut.y 89, *tnf ' ftrTTW *iT^' «w^ fifrc^ 

fkm wV ^ftr ^ ^IW T^> By repeating * Marft' {the 
reversed form of Bdm) instead of ^Bftma' the sinful 
state of the sweet poet {i.e. BdFmlk) was made holy, 
and through the same name the cessation of the 
depravity of the elephant, of the harlot, and of 
Aj&mil, was brought about. 
I8kr. ^wrrftw:] 

^Erf^n^TT ajiiurdy Tbh., subst. m., {N.B.) the pater- 
nal grandfather's house {Qrs. § 1301). 

[Probably a comp. of ^f^rqrTf Ig* f of ^iuft, pater- 
nal grandfather^s wife or paternal grandmother, and 
^TT, Ig.f of^9K {for 5t), place; properly ^ftii||«<i, 
contr. to ^fW^fKr. if. has ^smtWT or ^wtST. All 
words of this kind take their designation from the wife ; 
e.g. irfir^TTT^ow «mft.] 

^rnifT ajity Ta., adj,y com. gen., {subst. f ^fwrr qfitd), 
lit. unconquored; hence unconquerable, invincible, 
irresistible Examii Bdm.^ Ln.y ch. 54, 5, mr^rv W^ 

^fwir fi^^iHV ^fw«iw iri^ ^if *^wwT, {Bdm 

though being) the omnipresent Supreme Spirit and 
the invincible lord of the world, {ye{) out of his fulness 
of mercy he asks after Lachhiman {comm. to Lakh' 
nan erf., ^ftlW wi^ • <^t nVw wfr ^4f ' ) ; Bin. 

Jl\m ^T^> {Sib) the unconquerable {and) tender- 
hearted, moved with pity with the suffering gods, 
demons and men, drank off the poison {comm. ^rfinr 

( With the literal meaning, though admissible^ the 
word has never been met with by us in literature.) 

\8kr. ^mn: ; as above in all Ods. The tadbh. form 
^l^K^, as in K<tlp. %\l^yhasnot survived.^ 

^Wl^ (yin, Ta., subst. m., the hairy skin of an ante- 
lope {esp. the black antelope), tiger, elephant, etc., 
which serves a religious student for a couch, seat, or 
covering {for an illustration see the photograph, 
from a native painting qf " Siva's Wrath,'^ opp. 
p. 46 of Gfrowse's Translation of the Bdmdyan, 2nd 
erf.) \ also in South India at weddings {WU.,p. 14). 
Exam.i Bdm., A., do. 203, 1, ^rfinr-w^w W9-^i^w nf%- 
^m^ WTf% l^-vPTf {Bdm, 8%td, and Lachhiman are 
wandering in the forest) having skins for dothes, {wild) 
fruits for food, and the earth spread with kus-grass 
or leaves for a bed ; Mth. Bdm., Ar., 10, 23, '^firw 
^ftm-inr ^w ^ip, i»^«m <&ft twif XWf {Udm) with 
Sits clothed in pure garment of antelope skin and 
Lachhuman like a loving servant ; Pdrb., chh. 7, irw- 
^fw fK^ ^1^ wt ^n, WV r^ %m ^fk % {Your) 



^rf'WT-IBTO 



qfiyd'Sdsu 



106 



^^sPk 



cjflr 



companions tuming away their faces will laugh {ai 
him) whose delight is in his handsome garment 
(made) of an elephant's skin, (on the riory alluded to, 
we Skr. By. W.) 

[8kr. ^irf^^ir ; as above in all Odfi.'l 

^rftRTT-^rS qfifdrsdei, (BA.), Tbh., subsL f., the 
mother-in*law of the wife's or husband's mother-in- 
law {a eomp. of^x^ ^% q.v.) 




qfir, T%t eubst. m , ^ any open ground, arena ; 
hence e9p. « the court-yard of a house («y/i. ^fifw igan). 
Comp., wPftrftiT ('ff^-^f^), eubsL m^ the court- 
yard of a palace (GiL, Ut., 19, 1). Exam., ' Bin., 

89, *' vrwftr tw-^vftrr '' ^pA^im n*-^, *ft f%t ^Tir-^pr- 

ifiw mirr, '' Hail {to Ram) on the battle-field," thus 
the host of the Gandharbs, whose pride has been hum- 
bled, again and again sing the praises of Barn's valour ; 
fig., Sdm.y Ba., eh. 113, 6, ^ft-w^-^ftiT nWT^fr ^T?r, 
He sets Saraswati to dance {like a puppet) in the arena 
of the poet's heart, *Edm., Bd., eh. 216, 6, «i| nrn 
inm mfWx «iH:, ^^Tff-^fiiT finix iin ^^ The Lord, 
who is incomprehensible in thoughts, acts, and words, 
he plays in Das'rath's court-yard ; Oit., Bd., 6, 1, ftn- 
^ftK-wrfi| WWTK iftftpf ^?l ^ft^ fWw Wift, In the 
court-yards and on the terraced roofs of the houses^ 
in the bazars (and) the lanes, {they prepare) many 
kinds of beautiful ceremonial squares. 
[8kr. ^fir^; as above in all Odn.'] 






qfi (1), the same as %vft 4;'}, q.v. 



afi (2), piA ^l, Tbh., interj., ^ an interjection used 
for the purpose of calling attention, usually addressed to 
an inferior, hallo you I I say I Look here I * {Ed. 
Dy.) a form of address used by a mfe in addressing 
her husband, whose name it is considered disrespectful 
to take, and vice versd. 

{The usage of this inierj., as to its honorific 
character or otherwise, varies in different localities^ 

[Probably a comp. of V or "m and ift, the former 
being the 8kr. interj. ^f%, Pr, ^f%,or^ {Hem. i, 169, 
ii, 206), the ktter, the form of address mPt, qv. H., 

ajiilL, the same as wW^ <nfib, q.v. 

^WfrT ajy, Anyt, o^;., com. gen., * dear, beloved; 
• esteemed, excellent. Phr., ^tSlw wrwi or^^ irrw, 
V. tr., to cfiteem highly, love, respect. Examii Bw., 
do., anon. , m^ ^m^C^Vf ^ffif f^H-^f ^ m^m, ^^ 
wA ^ ^r^or, ^T fi[W Wt ^^iWtn, Accompanied by 
sweetness, truth, aod elegance, friendly and very 




piquant — ^he who uttereth such words, is dear to every 
heart. 



lAr.,yy 'azizJ] 



10 



^^i^T 



ajitan, Any*, subst. m., an adjutant. 



[Corruption of the English word.'] 



^"sft?! 



16 



10 



as 



so 



qftt, {poet. ^nThrr qfitd), the same as ^f«ni qfit, 
q.v. Exam.| Bdm., Ut., ch. 72, 6, ^f|pr ^^w fim-wt- 
wlwr ^^Kif> ^rw^r^ ^f'Stwr, {Bam is) unconditioned, 
unfathomable, beyond the range of speech and per- 
ception, all-seeing, irreproachable, unconquerable. 

[It is a popular form, apparently made from neg 
^ with «ftif, sh. f. of^tWT, the p. p.p. of the y/^S\^ to 
conquer ; ^. the similar formation of w^hn or ^vtirw 
{q.v.). It has only been met with in literature in the 
single pas'sage above quoted, where its use seems simply 
to be due to rhyme. As a name, however^ the fot-m is 
common, e.g. ^stwftff fkrjf Afi^ Siffgh, H- Lit. § 195, 
370, 647, 731. It also occurs in M. ^ii^ir and in 8. 
^ {8. By., p. IV). ] 



ss 



40 



46 



60 



^«n^' qftb (1), ^«iYir qjlw, ^iftw ajiii, T«., (I) adj., 
com. gen., ' lifeless, inorganic; * dead. Exsun.f ' Bw., 
do., anon., Jjirft, rPi W^HT IS i»f fw i»f ftf % 'ri^w, K\m 
wm wlx wt ^, liW^ ifoc.) ^w« ^rwW, Tul'si, 
in this world there are many kinds of life, but he 
who repeateth not the name of BSm, even while his 
life exists, is dead. 

(II) subst. m., {f. ^tJftWT qfibd), a lifeless thing, 
{used by the Jains as a relig. tech. term, opp. «7W jib, 
collectively for) the inanimate part of the universe. 
[Skr. % and ijft^< ; as above in all Gds.] 

%^fl\^ qflb (2), Any., adj., eom. gen., wonderful, 
surprising. Exam.i W. Bh., Bir^hd, anon,, «\w »Vx\ 

^f^ % <ifti^, T'WT ^^T^\ i;>«, Thy figure is won- 
derful, fair one, like the light of the sun ; thy. 
two breasts glow with his splendour, {and thy) 
face is the moon. 

[Ar. v^^ 'ojib.-] 



iUVpl^rl ajlyat, Any,, subst. /., wanton injury, oppres- 
sion. Phr., ^«ft^w t"^, ^^ '^-^ *<> oppress, harass. 

Exam., Coll, (Bh.), w^h^ % srw^^ ^rf>w «if ^u 

%K9j Do not harass the poor so much. 
[Ar. ki\ aiiiyyat.] 

^C^K ^fir, Any., subst. m., ^ a hired servant or labour- 
er, a bondsman, a bond-slave {one who has entered 
into an engagement for a stipulated sum tij serve another 



^'ftr 



Hfir 



— 106 



^^T^ Hfurd 



for a fpeeifie term or until he repay the sum advanced) ; 
* a hirer^ a lessee ( WU*, p. 14). 
[Ar. >^1 (yir.'\ 



^iftr **fr, {poet. '♦ikT iffird)^ Any., eubat. m., the 
same as ^^ anjiry q.v. Examn JPadm.^ ch. 84, 2, 
'^*'?ff 5KW iWhrr, ^ ^V^ W %^ ^^'CT, There 
are the orange, the lemon, the oitron, the limoi and 
almonds {and) figs of many kinds. 

"^^ JV*r qftran^ Ta-i (I), adj.^ com, gen.j * undeeayed, 
unimpaired, imdestroyed; hence * indestractible^ 
unremitting^ persistent, {of a disease) incurable^ {of a 
person) invinoible, exceedingly strong ; or ^{of food) 
undigested; hence * indigestible, unwholesome; or 
* {generally) tiresome, burdensome, disagreeable. 

Exam., " Jffd. Dy.y ^c% ^mK ^ ^n*\w ifr v^, This 

fever has become inourable ; ibid.^ ^[^rw ^5 ^W^KH 
^ t^, mfi n^ f^x ^i %%, Let the strong contend 
with the strong, otherwise thy head will be played 
with at cross-roads. * Oft., A. 33, 1, ^^i| ^iSIt^ ih" 
^9^ f^niir invtf Considering it like indigestible 
food, he abandoned his tilak {or mark of royalty)^ 
'Hd.Dy.,^(m^^ywift%^)jM^^{To eat) dSl 
every day is become tiresome. 

(II) subst, m.f indigestion. 

(III) adv.y too much, excessively. Exam.| Ed, 

Dy^i XP9^ ^* ^^fK«l %> There is too much salt in 
thed&L 

[8hr. ^P9f\A: ; as above in all OdSy exc, Q. ^li?txw, 

'^^ 1^ ajiWf the same as ^naftw qfib^ q.v. 

^W^T q;udy ^^T q/ttwtf, {obi. w^ (yui or ^%^ 
qjuwe), Ig. f. of ^^ dju, q,v. Exam., Bij., l. 487, 
^^^^ ^1^ % ^^ VT^ifft^T, sister-in-law, from this 
day you have become {to me) as a mother. 



tyul^ty {unphon, ^^^ ayukt)y Ts., (I), ady., 
com. gen., ^not yoked, not joined ; * unfit, unsuitable, 
improper ; • tcith the meanings of ^rvi^ (y^gui, q.v. 

Exam., * Coll.y {Bh.), ^'IvTT ^T^mir {or ^wpm) •^nr % 

w f^ TTTV^^ He was vexed at his unsuitable lan- 
guage ; ib.f ^ W^ ^^VH (or W^pifi) WV9^9 ftr ^"^iiTT 
irrnT f^nrr % ^nx Ifv^w, He acted most improperly 
in that he beat his father and mother. 8ee 
(V^gut, ^^»ni qfugatf ^^I^W qfugut. 



(II) subst. m., violence, oppression, compul- 



sion. 



[/Sir. ^ and ^wt ; as above in all Ods. See also 
the remarks under "mm^fpi aj'gut.'] 



10 




qfukahi, old Uth. gen. obi of ^[t^ djUj q.v. 
Exam., Sb. viii, 40, "V^wff f^ WF ifw 3ifii^TW, 
T7p to this very day have I cherished you. 



16 



so 



16 



^BT^TfT qiugat, ^V^nfif qjuguty Ts^ acff., com. gen., the 
same as ^rfKvir ajul^ty q.v. Exam., ' Bw. do., anon., 

^^Tir WT?r w wt»r • Ttw ^rrf^. Conjuncture, ascen- 
sion, planet, solar and lunar day may all be auspi- 
cious, but, Tul'sl, by a wonderfdl fate even that 
' which is auspicious becomes inauspicious. 

[Regarding the formation, see Od. Or. § 102. It 
is an older tats, form, which has come partially under 
the operation of Prdkrit phonetic laws. O. ^H^pnr.] 

« 

^STBTSIT aiudhyd, coll. for 'ifm^mJ qfddhyd, q.v. 




^ - ^ V'ur'dd, Any., adj., com. gen., afficted, sad, 
weary. Exam., H., Ldoni, anon., x^ w^ ^^f%^V 

?t^ ftw^ % ^"rt, HIT ^^ w^m MX TR % ^rr^, I am 

afflicted when I think of thee ; rising and sitting, 
I sigh from grief. 

IPrs. tdjj\ dzurda.'] 



80 




86 



40 



46 



qjur^mdd, ^TV^nrrw qfur^mdl, Any., ew^\, 
com. gen., 'destitute, poor ; * unprocurable {Ab. Oy.), 
[Der. doubtful; it looks like a corruption, perhaps 
of Prs. d\yf)\ aramzdd {see Shakespear^s Hd. Dy.). 
If so, the second form ^ViTf^ may be founded on a 
popular etymology, ^^ being the B. ^swftK (^wt^) 
not joined and wn the much^used Prs. word for pro- 
perty, as it were without property. The Prs. aramzdd 
is said to mean both destitute and longing ; and perhaps 
instead of unprocurable the second meaning should rather 
be given as longing without being able to procure.] 



c^'ur^mdl, the same as 



qjur^mdd. 



q.v. 



5 TT ^furd {Bh,), ^h^iTT Hjuld {Bw.), vulg. *wtn ij'rd, 
^^T ij^ld, Tbh., subst. m., the same as '^4^(^ 
i{juri, q.v,, used in a magnifying sense, a big handfuL 
See ■'ibi'^ dfrd, "^hfi^ 4/7^> "^WHt djturd, "^tJltm 
djSula, ^T a^jur, W^ ahjul, ^<TV 4^'i/r, <r(ir 
djul, ^"^ uf^jar, ^fgm ufLjah 



60 



[This is a secondary masc. fonn made from the 
fern. '4^^, and may be considered as a str. f. corre- 
spending to the wk. f. W^* Ibr further remarks on 
the derivation, see under '4h(^ and ^n^f^. All the 
forms with V are more peculiar to the West, Baiswdrd 
and BundeVkhand. As to the transposition of the 
voxels ^ and ^ in the vulg. form, see Od. Or. % 56.] 



'- 






djufi 



107 



^JW 



'^'Td 



I bh., subaLf.f ' a doable handful, as much as oan be 
held in the oayity formed by joining the two hands 
together in the shape of a bowl (Ell., vol. /, p. 
196) ; hence * a sort of indefinite measnre for various 
kinds of dues, allowances, or perquisites ; thus ^ dues 
of grain received in i^udh by Br&hman landlords 
{Oudh Gazetteer^ vol I, p; 188, Cr.yp, 88) ; * perquisites 
of grain claimed by Brfthmans as religious dues 
(Cr., p. 88) ; ^allowance in grain of one or two sers 
per plough taken by the tenant in SSran and Pat'nS 
{Ore. § 912) ; ^allowance in grain of two to ten sers 
per plough made to the cultivator {Oudh Gazetteer ^ 
vol n, p. 160, Cr.j p. 64) ; ^ perquisites of village 
artisans {carpenters^ blackemithe^ etc.) received at 
the time of sowing in Gay5 {Or%. § 1194) and 
Bunda'khai^4 (CV., p. 88, aha called ^«f^«> ajcRiU, 
q.v. ) ; f perquisites of a midwife in grain ( Ors. § 1401V 

Exam., ' Kruh. 172, tc^-^ro m^-^ *fVi?t " % fiiw 

^8%^ «7^," Sur Das {enye)^ tell {thy) husband to give 
(thee) a heaped-up double handful of sesame seed. 
8ee^4%^ njura.'^ti^^ ^jula, ^hft^T ^/'i&ra, ^*siWr 
V^ldj ^TfT afLjur^^-^ afijul,w^afijun,^f^l^ 
a^juU, '^TV ijur, yfti^s^ Sjul, ^^h^ ijun {Pur., p. 
193), ^rKgfw ijuli. Cf. also "^uncT Hfrd, "^htwt 
Hf'ld, ^pft afri, ^^^ dfli, ^^ anjar, w^W 
anjal, ^nftx an/ori, %ygfm anjaA. 

{The forms frith w throughout this series of words are 
more peculiar to the West, Baiswdra and BundePkhand.) 

[There can be no doubt but that this word is a 
modification of the original form '^tw^ or ^Jinrf^, by 
the substitution of the vowel ^fpr the medial^ ; though 
the cause of it is somewhat obscurCy there being no 
mere transposition as in ^n^ for ^4g^ {Qd. Or. 
§ 56) or in vulg. ^trnxtfor^lt^ {q.v). It may be 
noted that this curious 'substitution is practically con* 
fined to the ease when the word has the meaning of the 
indefinite measure of a double handful, esp. in its 
more tech. uses for dues, allowances, and perquisites. 
Possibly the form may be due to false analogy with 
"^flf^fl" finger {q.v.), which is also used as a standard of 
measure, or with ^i^ {q.v.), which has the somewhat 
similar meaning of wages, toward. The substitution 
is carried on a further step in the forms <^ft^ or 
'^Imvfti inhere the inorganic v has been further raised 
to ^, possibly by the false analogy of ^irVV {q.v.), 
which has the somewhat similar meaning of advances 
to labourers {see under WK^). The original is Skr. 
^Hf^ : m. ; Pr. "^iJinft is both m. andf (Sim. i, 86) 
B. -^tm^ or "^nft M onlyf, though the B. tats. W^fk 
^ '^^lff< M fn. From the fern, ^ihnft or ^N^ has 
been formed a secondary masc. ^mwx of* ^hiKT {as if 
there were a Skr. m. form WJgw:). Finally the forms 



eye 



10 



15 



so 



26 



so 



85 



^•wJY or '^tm^, '^ftmwi or ^V«ncr, are modified prima- 
rily to ^^i^ifit or "^H^, "^f^WT or "^P^^, and secondanly 
to '"ifwtwft or '♦ift^, "^hftvr or "^NiKt, and tertiarily 
to vulg. ^wft or ^mO, ^'NrCT or ^rwrr. Corresponding 
forms have only been observed in P. ^f^gm, and M. vulg. 
^jfus (n* ^jfiix, which is both m. and f, and ^iTFvi^ 
or ^ifiRr^ /. See also the remarks on derivation under 

'^^^T iffuld, Tbh., subst. m., see ^f^n Hfurd. Exam.| 
Coll., {Mth.), wnr **^"§ ^TT ^<^wt t tv%, They 
gave away four big double handfuls from the heap of 
rice. 

{The word is rare.) 
^^^ ^*t#fl, Tbh„«tf6«<. f, wa^hl^ l^furl. 




qfuwi, see under 



qjud. 



40 



45 



60 



^^ aju, Tbh., eubet. m., {North B.) unripe com 
{Ors. % 984). 

\Skr. ^nw, from ^ and w^, Pr. ^mft or ^•niV, 
Ut. not barley.] 

^^TT <yilrd. Any,, subst. m., *hire, wages, pay of a 
labourer {Qrs. % 1185), esp. of one employed by the 
job { Wil:, i>. 16) ; • the fee or percentage charged on 
a dishonoured bill, for the expense of returning it to 
the drawer when residing at a distance {Wil., ibid.). 
Comp«, ^^njrr-KlT, eubst. m., a hired labourer 
{whether paid by the day or by the job). 

[Corruption of Ar. ^y^\ ujur, pL of j^\ ajr, 
through the Pre. %jy^\ ff/fira.] 
^ 

^W^T ajed, Tbh„ subst. m., a he-goat. Exaniii Bid. 

xviii, 6, ^9iHrT-Vf*fc9-Yr¥iT iTTT, WT ^ir ^ fwft? 
KTf^, The beautiful lady walked exactly like him 
{a lion), who is the vehicle of the enemy of the son 

of the he^oat {is. qf JDurgd, to whom goats are 
sacrificed). 

[The word has been met with by us onfy in the 
above passage. According to the pandits it tneans he- 
goat, in which case it might be a contraction of^m^ 
the Ig.f. of^m {q.v.). But it may be suggested that 
it rather means she-goat, and %mw('%^ the son of a 
she-goat, i.e. a he-goat, in which case ^inrT would be 
a Mth. bye-form of ^mnx, Ig. f. of ^mx (q.v.) ; the 
substitution of v for \ being common in Mth., e.g., 
m%Vf for mn: he says, iwri^ for fWrV a garden- 
plot] . 



aje, the same as ^n ajm or ^fiw ajay, q.v. Exanifi 
BOm.^ Ut:^ toti 1, 17, i:ij-^ iiTT-^-iftK ^*, Eaghu- 
bir, tke^invindble m^hty warrior. 



f 



» . 



ajey 



— 108 



^BWt^lT 



qfddhyd 



^^T q/cy, Ts^ adj.y com. gen.^ imoonqueraWe, invin- 
cible. Exam.f -*RA- ^dm.^ Ln. 40, 4, KW If ^i^T 
^*W -^m fiww lf% i|T€V, In battle tbey are always 
unconquerable, they bave no fear of death ; tJirf., 
149, 25, «?f ^ TTT^f 'ttw ^VTTW, ^ ^•w ^Cnm T^ ^RHf, 
If Raban's Bacriflce is completed, he will be invincible 
in battle. 8e^ ^iw eyViy, ^f^ o/t^, ^l^Vif afU, 
Mt o;^, ^iw oy<ff . 

[Skr. ^ and iN: ; as above in all Gds.'] 

Exam., 5m. 89, ^ ^rort ^fic wnr ftftw ftfw, ^firo^ 

mnr ^ii^ ( TuPsl Dds says :) I have been unsuccess- 
ful {though) trying in every possible way {to over- 
come my senses) f {/or) they are exceedingly strong 
{and) invincible. 

^^t^RTT ajodhayd, coll. for ^H^PThtt, q.v. Exam-, Neb. 
10, ^«?hriiT w \ww wmXKf In Ajodhaya he gave a 
caste feast. 

^bfl^T qfodhyd, coll. for ^^mX^, q.v. Exam.f Bhq;. 
ii, 2, irriiiwT ^«ftw "^ wl^, The drums are being 
beaten in Ajodhyft. 

^5Rft*QT tCT?^!^ qfodhyd par'sdd, Ts„ subst. w., 
the name of two BQndu poets, ^ surnamed Sukal 
{H. Lit. § 622), «rAo flourished in the early pari 
of the present century ; • surnamed Bfij'peyi {H. Lit. 
§ 693, 674), who was alive in 1883, and was the 
author of a prosody entitled Ckhanddnand^ a work 
on rhetoric entitled Sdhitya Sudhd-edgara, and of a 
Bdm-kabittdbali. The following are specimens of their 

poetry. Exam., ' {8iv., p. 19), ift T^ % ^T^ 

^^if^cTW ^ ^Wt 'NY tPi vm v^tw fro^ i ^ wssft^ 

<t ^T«l ^W WW if-fWTW ^ ^fpf fr KtS" I {The fair 
one) is full of charming coquetry, {and) in every 
way shineth in her pleasing beauty ; {compared mth 
her graceful) eyes, the nimble fish appears insipid, and 
what are the wagtail's movements that they should 
chann {like hers) ; Jodhi {i.e. Ajodhyd) {says : ) the 
crimson of her fine lips is glorious like the glow of 
the rising sun ; then at midday she adorns herself 
with {alt) her adornments, and in the trysting place 
(in the evening) she shines by her very laughter. 
*(SiV., p. 14, 16, from Sdhitya Sudhd-sdgara) ^ il* 

^ftif , ^tftr ^T^ ^tn^Tfwr ^Tw ^fiT ^Tw ^rrw i ir^n^wif 



10 



IS 



20 



25 



{On seeing thy eyes) the partridge, peacock, wagtail, 
and bee quickly depart {in confusion) ; into the jan* 
gal depart the snake, the horse, the deer and their 
lord {i.e. the lion) to . hide themselves ; in grief and 
distress the lotus, black {with melancholy), sinks 
imder in the water ; {and) do not from the fairest of 
fairies drop sighs (of envy) P Andh {i.e. Ajodhyd) 
Par^sdd) {says :) in my opinion, darling, my con- 
dition is as happy as that of Hari (on seeing Bddhd) ; 
thy co-wife, in chagrin, continually cries out in 
wonder and grief, when she beholds thy indelible 
{lit. hard) signature (t.^. the amatory marks of 
her finger nails) on this throne {i.e. my body), {/or 
my) condition {and) luck are exalted, {and) thy 
eyes, beloved, are {my) king. 

^WtT^T ^for'wd, Ig. f. of ^WKT 9jbrd, q.v. 
Exam.f ^{W. jBA.), AV'Ad, awm.^ wtwuT ^ir^ ^ 
iiflfr % ^li H ^T , ( Thy) two breasts are aglow with 
lus {}.e. the suv^i) splendour, {see under ^^f^ajlbi^)). 

^nflnr fly§, ^V?F ^*<ft, a contr. form of the emph. 
ajahh, q.v. See under ^mi3 qf'a. 



so 



S5 



40 



46 



50 



^TTTT ajdg, Tbh», (I) adj\, com. gen., unsuitable, 
unbefitting, improper, unworthy. .Exaniii Coll., {Bh,), 
^tt^rn^j ^rr t ^wW wri. That is unworthy of him. 

(II) subst. m., *an improper or unseasonable 
occasion ; * ill-luck, misfortune. 

{This word is rare; the more usual one is fifV^ 
kujdg.) 

ISkr. iftmt with neg. ^, Pr. ^vft^ ; as aboce 
in att Ods.] 

^^T?T q;6t^ ^ijtirw q;dtal, a€(f.f com. gen., untilled 
or waste {of land). 

[^Properly neg. ^ with the p.p.p. iflw or whnm 
of the root ^^ to harness, to plough {q.v., also H. 
jB., p. 68); qf. the similar formation of ^rwhl. 
Not observed in other Ods."] 

^?WT7T^ ajotal, Tbh., acf;'., com. gen., the same as 

^fftn ajot, q.v. Exam.| Coll., {Bh.), t %ir wii^wv 

4^, This field is untilled. 

^nn^T ajddhyd, ^aftHrr ajodhyd, ^•i^lWT ajodhayd, 
"W^Hm qjudhyd, Ts^, subst. f., the name of a town, 
now commonly called Awadh {Oudh), on the river 
Sar^Ja or OhdgWd {Chgrd), close to the town of 
Faizdbdd, with which together it occupies the site of 
the original city of Ajbdhyd, the ancient capital of 
DasWath and Rdm ; it is still one of Indians sacred 
cities and a famous place of pilgrimage ; it was anciently 



^»*« 



!■■' ' 



"^^trr^^mwws^tm 



"wn 



w^mt^ 



I/^irh: 



djSr 



109 



^ 



wA 



q^cfurt 



abo knotcn by the name of Sdkeia^ and is generally 
identified with the toufnof^Oyu^o {or Ayuto)y tiaited by 
Hiuen Teiang {see BeaVs Buddhist Records of the West- 
ern Wbrldj vol I, p. 224) ; on its archwology and tradi- 
tions see Oen. Sir A. Cunningham^ s Survey Beports^vol. 
J, pp. 317—327. Comp.y ^^^^ iirv q/ddhyd-kdndy 
the name of the seoond seotion of the BftmSyan 
{both 8kr. and TuPsi Dds's) ; ^ift^-y^ ajddhyd- 
puriy the town of Ajodhya. Exatn.| -Jfi^c. 21, ^^ 

WV ^^Tf-S^ ^f% ^Tt, On Sar'ju*8 banks {Dae'rath) 
built the city of A]5dhyft with his own hands, all 
the wealth of the three worlds aooumulated in 
Avadh town ; Bh. iv, 1, ^w ^«i^ «nni% vr^, In 
{the month of) OhSKt in Ajodhyft Bftm was bom ; f(. 

ix, 17,jniic W5 WT % ^'i'PNrr, ^ivr ^ ^^r^ t, My 

boose is in AjodhyS, my name is Das'rath ; Pur. 

p. 187, WWTX ^ifrniT-5f^ "* w^-irnnf ^nr , There was 
a merchant called Basu in Ajodhyft town. 

{The name Jjddhyd is never applied^ either in B. 
or Skr.y to the country of Kdsala^ of which the city of 
Jjddhyd was the capital^ though its modem equivalent 
'Avadh ' has, in comparatively modem times, come to be 
applied in that way, as in the modern kingdom or 
province of * OudhJ In a verse of the BhUta- 
shuddhi Tantra {quoted in the new edition of the Shabda 
Kalpa-druma), Jjddhyd is enumerated as one of the 
follotving seven * salvation-giving ' {rndkio-ddyikd) cities : 
Ajddhydf Mathurd, Mdyd {or Oayd), Edshi {or 
Bandras), Kdnchl {or Kdnchlpura, modern Coiye" 
veram)f Avantikd {or Uj'ain), and Dwdrawati {or 
Dwdrakd).) 

[8kr. ^^i^Hrr ; <m above in all Gds. ] 

l/^WtX Sjdr, ^(m\X ajdr, Tbh., v. tr., to illumi- 
nate, light up. Phr„ "^litf^ %^, v. tr.y the same ; hence 
fig.y to throw light upon, to make oonspiouous, to 
manifest, or to search out, to find. Exani.i ^i^- 158, 

WT-iro, KWT-firfti, i[^ %ir ^*tft {vr.l ^^f^), What- 
ever good deeds I do, if, gathering them up like 
the gleanings of harvest, I carefully put them 
away (in my heart), pride entering {my) heart 
forcibly, merciful Lord, searches them out {to show 
them to the people). 

{We have only met with this word in the ahove^ 
quoted passage, where the comm. explains it by S, Wtf^ 
%ir % it searches out.) 

[S*r. -v/^^, (^+^^) ; caus. ^ m v m^ il, Pr. 
€aus» v^^rwr% or ^n^n (^WI%T or^sjunf), htnce Od. 
^/€ww or ^fwrw, whence by transposition of vowels 
and concurrent interchange of w and t, '^WH or %whK, 
which latter forms appear to be peculiar to Bihdr. For 



10 



16 



20 



26 



80 



86 



40 



46 



60 



another instance of the same changes see under v/^^T 
H, and P. ^i^TW ir. or ^WW tn/r., M. ^m^ (r. and 
intr., S. ^ftiT tn^r.] 

^^V ajQr, ^«?lT qfdr, Tbh., subst. m., wk. f. of 
^I'iHt fijbrd, q.v. In addition to the meanings there 
mentioned, it is aho used in the sense of *the light half 
of the month, both with and without the word J^n 
pdkh {Az. Oy.). 

'^'RTTT djik'd, ^«?rtT ajdrd, Mg. x^tXt tjdrd {prop. str. 
f of ^ifwftx ^V>r, q.v., obL "mm^^; Ig.f. '^^X^ni 
Sj'or'wd, q.v.), Tbh„ subst, m., ' con , light, flame, 
blaze; * abs., splendour, brightness, brilliancy. Es^UTI.i 
^Padm., ch. 441, 1, WT W^^ Trtr ^« -^ift^ 
The sea smiled {and) up rosea {flash of) light; ib., 

ch. 575, 5, ^tt^ ^ra ^^nc %* kVti ^t ^rfc 

W^ it^ ^9^^, Sixteen hundred thousand {warrior) 
princes are with me, {into whose power) they {i.e. 
the enemy) will fall like moths into the flame of a 
lamp. « Padm., ch, 685, 5, T^r irt: f^ ift^ ''fltyrtT, 
The night had gone, {and) the day had brought the 
light. See WITT t^'drd, *«rrtT Hifdrd, wrwT ujd/d, 
^flTWT ^'dld, ^rfti'mcr &chiydrd, ^f^mK\ uchiydrd, 
^f^ mm y tichiydld, ^f^^mWT uchiydld. 

[8kr. ViBTV or {with pleon. m) ^^xmm, Pr. 
^*l> m ift. Ibr further dttails see under -^/<«f1x. In 
\^KJ there is a secondary change of^toXy for a 
similar instance of which see under \/^Pf^.] 

^^rnCl 3j6ri, ^[wh^ ajdri, Tbh„ subst. /., the same as 
"imlXT djbrd, q.v., of which it is the feminine. Exam.f 
'Padm., ch. 492, 2, ^TJT ^ frf^ ^[^ ^^jitt^, wff W 
^fifV t* %fT 'ft^, {As) in the heavens the sun 
and moon give light, (so shone she)^ more than that 
what comparison can I giveP ib., ch. 72, 5, wir 

A ruby (padum=Padmdwat) and a jewel (t.^. Maian 
Sin) have been written {by fate) as an excellent match, 
like the {joined) light of the moon and the sun, 
{referring to the astrologer's prophecy regarding the 
marriage of Padmdwat and Ratan Sen). 

"^^TT Sjdurd, ^m\Kt vSurd, MbitwiV^ld, ^wJWr 
ajSuld, Tbh», subst. m., used in a magnifying sense for 
^^^ ^wrl, q.v. ; the same as '•^T l^urd, q.v. 
\For derivation, see under "4^^^. j 

^Wl^ Sjmr^, ^f«?ha q;'i&H {Bh.), ^(WWV l^jibU, 
^whJV (ydiUn {Bw.), Tbh„ subst. /., « the same as 
yf^ Hfurl, q.v. ; • {East. Audh) the same as Vf^ 
agdluri in its second sense, q.v., {Ell. vol. II, p. 8, Wil 
p. 14.) 




j/^^wr nj^id 



110 




\For derivation Bee under ^(^^. In its second 
eenee the word is probably a corruption of ^i^tV, fnade 
ly false analogy to ^«i^ in its first sense.'] 

a 

^WT^T mSula, ^ifSffT qi^ld {Bw.), see ^iWKr, 
Iffdurd. 

^Sfl^wt Sjc^H, ^^^qf^li (Bw.), the same as ^JN^tV 
^'duri and -^^ ajuriy q.f>. It has been esp. observed 
in Banaras in the fifth of the second set of meanings of 
^^ Sjurl, {Ell., vol. I, p. 193, Cr. p. 88, Wil. p. 14). 



qifu, a dialectic and vulgar form for ^TT^ ajUy q.v. 



^T?r d^n ; for teords commencing ihuSj see under ^ii9 agy. 
See General Introd., chap. 4, 

tr ^EWTC ajhury ^^r ajhurd {pr. pts ^i^fTif ajhurait; 
^ifKm ajhural ; ^^x^ ajhurab ; ^[^fr: njhur(ii)y Tbh., 
V. intr.y {Mg. and Bh.) * to be entangled, entwisted {as 
thread or hair^ Az. Oy.) ; hence met. • to be oompli- 
oated, perplexing ; ^ to be ensnared, to be oaught in 
a snare or net, etc. ; hence fig* * to be entangled in a 
quarrel, to quarrel ; or * to be inveigled or entangled 
in an unlawful oonneotion, to be seduoed, to live 
in illicit intercourse ; ® to be engaged in, to be 
occupied with {some business) ; hence met. ^ to be 
locked up, invested {used of capital). Phr.j ^H^T 
miSf^ or ^nfmr «rnrw, v. intr.^ with the same mean- 
ings. Exam., ' Coll., (Bh), ^ ^^ -^^1 ^fif^ ttw. 

All that thread is entangled. •76., ^nprjjrw TTif 
inr Wv, Do not talk about complicated subjects. 
»ift., f^n?f IT^^ ^njT 'HRT^^ The bird has been 
oaught in the net. */6., ^"tiTJ^T %inr ^^TT, Do 
not quarrel with him. *iJ., iftvi % K^-f^l^ fft 
(5^tT+fVr) f ^V^W tlTir x%, Mohan's wife was 
seduced in her very father's house. '/A., T^r n\^^M 
^'^XIVM WT^, I am busily occupied with work. 
' JJ., ViTT ^M fjSV Vf% ^ ^K^KVSf ?fTV WT*, All my 
capital has been locked up in this. See ^nrnr art^'h 
{Mg. and Bh.), ^HK t{jhar (Mth.), ^arxHr urajh {Bw.). 

{Tie word is the opposite ofi^^sKK sujhar, q.v. With 
regard to the tneanings, compare the nearly synonymous 
^/W^m atak,) 

I8kr. -^Miirtrttt^, ^mi«firhe entangles, Pr. 
y/^9HW, ^vmrr ; hence Mth. ^^w: and, with trans- 
position of consonants, Bw. and Br. n%M, or, with 
transposition of vowels, Bh. and Mg. ^^ and ^^9| ; 
Hindi has ^fV^ or usually, with farther change of k to 
M, ^i^W> Br. iTf or V9f% with the rare change to 
X, probably through the intermediate change of ^ to'm, 
as in ^mrm, "^t^ftKl, fm\Kl, q.v. {see 0<f. Or. § 61) ; 
P. has ^W».] 



10 



15 



20 



26 



SO 



S5 



40 



46 



60 



^^ ,. adchat 

^^ST'JTT €0hurd, {pr. pts. ^i^jTTTir vhur&U ; W^tnrw 
ajhurdel; ^^xrv^ afhurdeb; ^V^fKW Ofhurde), Tbh., 
r. ihtr., {Mg. and Bh,), the same as v/^^ (^'hur, 
under which see for examples. See ^^mr drt^'hd {Mg. 
and Bh.)^ wa^xi ujKrd {Mth.)^ ^rx*m ur^jhd {Bw.). 

\^8ee remarks under \/^r^ ; derived from Pr. 
pleon. by-form mwn^y^ or v s ^nwi^ T {withpleon. suf. 
^fir, see 64. Gfr.% 349) ; S. ^xm or ^w^, Br. 

xvm or w«»T, P. winr] 

l/WCR ajhurab, {pr. pU., Mg. and Bh. ^^^« 
qfhurdwat or ^^friftni ajhurdwit, Mg. also ^^p^TW 
ajhurSit; ^^^T^^tW ajhurdbl; "iV^KTinr qfhurdeb, 
^W^ ojhurdbai or ^^fTTT^ ajhurde), Tbh., v. tr., 
(Mg. and Bh.), causal of^w^x ajhur, under which 
see for meanings and examples. See ^mmjn arujhdb 
{Mg. and Bh), ^n^xm ujVrdb {Mth.), 
ui'jhdb{Bw.). 

[See remarks under v/^^ ; Skr. caus. 
Pr. ^9wwrkx or ^v«K«T^i:, Od. ^s^K^. The opp. of 
this word is ^/Vi^iw, q.v."] 



aUchar {Bh.), see 
and Mtx^K Schar. 



afichal. See 



ScVrd 



afichal, {Bh.) ^i[%x aAchar, Te., subst. m., Hhe 
hem or border of a garment, esp. of a woman's upper 
garment or veil; hence esp. « {common in erotic poetry) 
the border of the veil or the cloth with which 
a woman covers her bosom ; hence transferred to 'the 
bosom, breasts; *a symbol of humble supplication 
or adoration {used by women only, and consisting in 
taking up the border of the veil and holding it out so as 
to be slightly hollowed in the shape of a pan or bowl in 
which the expected favours may, as it were, be received) » 
Comp., ^li^-^Tw, aubst. m., the wind caused by the 
borders of one's garment, an accidental or side puffi 
Phr., W^ir wtTW, V. tr., to join {the borders of the veil 
so as to make) an anohal, to form an anchal ; ^^|W 
^^XT^, V. tr., to hold out (the border of the veil in the 
form of) an afichal ; ^n^ir xtinr, v. tr., to set up or 
make an anchal; {these three phrases are synonymous; 
an equivalent gesture, for both men and women, is ^^ff^ 
•ftrWj q^^' ; ) ^^W vw, V. tr., to take to one's bosom, 
to embrace, syn. ^n^ v\x, q.v. Exam., *^HJ. iii, 19, 
^^ir Mirfir ii?^ir -m i^, Covering (the infant Krish'n) 
vsith the border of her veil, {his mother Jasddd) 
carried him into the house. * Ukh. 3, 12, f:^*irf xm 
^f(%W Tf^ w«T, ^rm xxjf ^K wwww vtrr, My amor- 
ous bridegroom seized my bosom-doth {to remove ii)^ 
in modesty I bent my face; Padm., ch. 3^ 6, qrt 
^^^ ^iwHr ^^ ^, 'w^w ^^f ^m^Pr »i^. Their 
breasts under their bodice {the courtesans) treated {Jit* 



anchd 



111 




a0jan 



oonrndered) as {two) counters of the game of ohHlsar, 
as in their {wanton) nature they drew aside their 
bosom-oloth. ^Edm., Bd., eh. 357, 3, ^^ irrj ^^W 
irfi: w^. The matrons in their joy took {the infant 
Rdm and his brothers) to their bosom. *2J«w,, -4., 
ch. 268, 6, f^iRff ^Tfff^ ^^^ ^WV, {The people 
ofAwadK^ humbly supplicated {the men) "with folded 
hands, {tJie women) with folded veil; fJ., Bd.^chh. 
34, 3, 5T-infc ^irw ^mft ^r^w fiiftrf% i^w ^TTwifT , 
All the women of the city, holding out the borders 
of their veils {in supplication) ^ made prayer to the 
Creator ; Git., Ut. 18, 4, fWlW ^Tir f^wftftf ^w ^m 
^^tTt ^mrfr mUf ^4)n^ TTO-^nfJ ^^-^nrrs f^rrft. 

Seeing the swinging-room and observing all its 
comforts, all {the women) holding out the borders of 
their veils {in adoration), began to bless Earn and 
Sita ; Rdm,, Ln., ch. 7, 4, ^^if ^rx ftr W^W X^^ 
" ^mil^Tfiw ^rfcfft ifhn *' {Mandodari) bowing her 
head (to Bdban^s) feet, put up the border of her 
veil {thus humbly supplicating :) " hear my word, 
beloved, {and) desist from your wrath' {against 
Bdm).'* {Cf. JT. Bdm., Ln. 27, where ^^m ^TOTft: 
is used in relating the tame incident.) 
ISkr. "^^m* I as above in all Ods.'] 



a^chd, Tbh., subst. m. {Mg.), one who stirs a fire, 
only used in the Com p. ^[^-^^ chulh^afichd, the 
man who stokes the fire in a sugarboiliog house 
{Qrs. § 303), *See ^^i^rn deVwdhd. 

[For der, see under ^^|wrT dcVnd. Perhaps a 
more probable der. is from 8kr. ^rnr^w<, one who 
throws in {fuel into the stove), from v^'W-ini, Pr. 
', Od.* ^^, whence shortened ^V ; similarly 
^inti^m^, instrument f or tl 
r, Pr. ^^Winfor^|iitl'^J<, Go 

See the remarks under n^ afU)hi.] 



-s!» 




aHehit, T%h o4fn <^^* 9^^* distinguished, 
adorned. Exaniii Mth, Bdm., Ln. 162, 8, ^s%ii ^ffn 

The Lord^took away the power of the Sakti {arrow) 
in its course, and with {his own) arrow cut off {one 
ijfBdban^s) heads which was adorned with goId« 
[Sir. ^f^:, «yfi. ifinr: or ^wi:] 



"Wafif^ 



Jain works; see translation of the Uvdsagadasdd 
in Bibliotheca Indica, note 238, p. 92.] 



10 



aUchhar, Tbh., subst. m., a vulg. form for 
achchhar, q.v. It is sometimes also pronounced 
an^chhar, and used in the sense of a magical word, 
a mysterious or cabbalistic saying {Sd. By.). 



l/^i^ 



16 



aHehi, x^ iiichli'vih aichi {Mth.^Mg.), v^ insi 
(Mg.), Tblu^ subst. m., the sediment which accumu- 
lates in the stem of an opium pipe, and which is 
mixed with the smoking opium or chandu, when it is 
intended to mike the latter extra strong {Grs. § 1034). 
[Skr.* ^mnwr: or • ^rmfflirt, Pr. ^TOfWr, Gd. 
*%:9t or B. ^"^i, shortened ^^ and x^. The cognate 
Pr, word ^im%^ {Skr. ^TiHR) occurs repeatedly in 



20 



86 



80 



86 



40 



46 



ftO 



afij {Bw.), {pr. pts. ^'^ aiyat ; ^r^m af^fal ; 
^"^ af^ab ; ^ifr afijat), Tbh., v. tr., the same as 

^Hm Sj\ q,v. Exam.! Krish. 47, mrO wffir iPr ^i^pr 

V ^V^ ivWw ^'^ ^1 He takes the collyriimi from 
his darling's eyes, and anoints his own with it. 

[Skr. v/^* Ynth cl. vrftf, but Pd. 1st cl. 
^r^fil, Pr. ^r^, Bw. ^if ; H. the same.'] 




anjan (1), Ts., subst. m., * abs. application of any 
ointment {e^. to eyes) ; hence * con., any ointment, ««p. 
for the eyes ; ' a collyrium or ointment applied to the 
eyelashes or inner coat of the eyelids to darken and 
improve them, such as antimony, lampblack; hence ^fig, 
dark eyes ; ' the elephant of the west or south-'West 
quarter. Comp,, w^-%v, a^\, com. gen,, having 
hair black as collyrium, hence subst. m., fire. Exaniii 
* Pur. 11, 13, (p. 77), fi?ft^ ^rc ^rew ^ ihr yfiVt 
H%, At the second application of the ointment 
there appeared the pupil of the eye. ^Bin. 265, 

wfir ^Pf ^ng^ ir% ww-irftrfir ^ vt, {The world) 

thinking me blind prescribes an ointment {made) cf 
tigress' butter {i.e., an impossibility) ; Padm., do., 

549, 2, f^^ %i^H ^fHy ^f% ^ipr irir wtT, If I 

applied that {dust) to my eyes as an ointment, I 
would get a sight of my beloved {cf tie following) ; 
Bam., Bd., eh. 2, 1, i^-^-TW f*i5 w^m ^Ipr, irw- 
^fiTW f?CT-^t^f^lw^, The dust of one's teacher's feet 
is a soft and charming ointment, {as) ambrosia to the 
eyes, removing eveiy defect of vision. ^8udh. 25, 
mvn fftf mw WIW^ ^, ^"^ ^'TT www, With the 
traces of red lac on his cheeks, and with colly- 
rium marking the lips {the belated gallant returns 
home) ; see also under ^/^H «^'; Bin. 142, w^%v. 
fwT ^i^ift inr wt^T %'W^ tot5t. If there is a young 
girl (dangerous) like the flame of fire, I (only t.o) 
easily cast my eyes there ; ^ En. 5, 7 {also Ukh. m, 1) 
ftnr^nj'r ^IF '^ '^'V^ "^ft^^ wir fkm irfift. Her 
eyes, equal in their own brilliancy, destroy the pride 
of the khanjan {or wagtail) and of the dark eye 
{lit. the collyrium) of the deer. See -^tmm ^'an. 
ISkr. ^r^^; as above in all G^s.] 




afijan (2), W^l^ af^jant, nW ii^'an^ T^jl^ %tfm, 
Any., subst. f. (P), an engine. 
[Con of the English word."] 




aiijand 



— 112 




adjatx 




anjandy Ts,, 9ubd. /., a kind of domestic lizard 

{the Jethi). Exam., Coll., (JftA.), ^^K ^ ^Wi^ 
)k ^^, See the lizard on the wall. 

[S*n ^inirr {noted in the shorter 8kr. Dy. P.) ; 

B. ^vwT ; B. ^^^T or ^^rNnrrt.] 



aHjanij th$ same as nw^ anjani (2), q.v. 





aHjanikdy T«.f subst. /., ^A^ «a/it« as ^^^ 
a4;'ani(l)i S'.f. 




anjanI (1), T«,| subst./., > ^A« ««w« (w ^na^ri 
aSjand, q.v.; * a certain medioinal plant used as a 
sedative and laxative. 

[Skr. ^wl^W, Pr. ^r^^, Gd ^m^.] 

'^ •It fl^/anJ (2), Ts., subst /., a name of the mother 
of HanumSDy the wife of the monkey Kesarl. 
Hanumdn washer son by Parana {or the Wind). Exaniii 

Saw., 40, ffri ^Bpr^ ^■nnc'r ^mm ^^tttt^ ^"^-vwn:, 

^T^, Tm-vrfir mm ^, When I was living in very 
base ways, the son of Anjani {i.e., Hanumdn) claim- 
ed me as his own ; he set me on the right way, and 
by {the touch of) ESm's hand I am become pure. 

lA prdkritizing modification {see Hem. iii, 34) 
of the Skr. ^"^TT. The latter has not been met with in 
the vernacular^ but only ^^^.] 





%njabdr, ^»lf^^ anjubdr, THblTT xnjioar, Mny^ 
mbst. m., the name of a creeping plant {Polygonum 
bistorta), introduced from Persia/ now growing in 
the Panjdb Himdhya^ from the pulverised rind of 
which astringent medicaments are prepared for external 
and internal use {for particulars see Watts, Y,p. 224; 
also Shakespeare^s Hd. By., s.v )• 
IPrs. jk^^\ anjabdf.'] 



aHjar {Bh.), ^"^ anjal {Bw.), see ^«ft afifan. 




«• •_ 



anjar%f 
^raf% afijafx. 



aHjar (J?A.)> "^^'^ «^**^« ''*•> *^^ 




afijal {Bw.), ^f^jT afyar {Bh.), see ^Tflf^ afijali. 



^^r^ afijali, ^T^ afijal {Bw.), n^ anjnn, ^i^ 
anjar {Bh.), {tadbh. str. f, ^^5^4;'^, ^^W'TT ^if'rd, 
m.,^^im7^ &j%''9m^ ^'ri, f., q.v.), Ts., subst. m., 
^ the two opisn hands placed side by side {of which there 
are two modes, consisting {a) in placing them edge by 
edge, palms turned up and hollowed slightly in the shape 
of a pan, or {b) in placing them palm to palm) ; « a 
symbol of benediction or blessing {the first of the 



10 



16 



20 



25 



SO 



S6 



40 



46 



60 



above-mentioned Uco modes being used, unfh the hands 
held in front of the breast, only by brdhman gurus 
towards their disciples or devotees) ; ' a symbol of 
reverential supplication or worship {the same mode 
being u^d and in the same way as in No. 2, only by 
suppliants or worshippers) ; ^ a symbol of respectful 
salutation^ {also the first mode being used, but with the 
hands carried up to the forehead, only by inferiors to- 
wards superiors, or between equals) ; * a symbol of 
respectful attention or contemplation {the second of the 
two modes being used, with the hands either held in front 
of the breast or raised to the forehead, only by inferiors 
towards superiors or by devotees towards objects of 
devotion) ; « a libation ; ' a double handful or as much 
as can be held in the cavity formed by joining the 
hands together in the shape of a bowl {EIL, vol. I, 
p. 196). Comp., ^(i5<%-iTir, ac(j., com. gen., pla.ced 
in the two hands (shaped like a pan or bowl) ; W^glfk- 
^, adj., com. gen., having the two hands joined 
{palm to palm) ; w^j-^[fk (^^+^r^%), ^A« same as 
^njfil-Tl, q.v. Phr. 'H^fw «fl^ or ^* WtfW, v. tr. 
to join {the two hands so as to make) an anjali, to 
• form an anjali ; ^TJf f% ^, v. tr., lit. to give a double* 
handful {of water) , hence to make a libation. Exaniii 
' Rdm., Bd., do. 3, 2, ^^t%-^if V^ %^^ f«ft» ^^ 
VPV 9T X^> ^'^^ ^ ^ fragrant flower, placed in the 
joined hands, {communicates) its sweet scent equally 
to both hands. ^JRdm., A., ch. 263, 5, l*iH^*l-'^ 
^m W^ ftiRff ^"^^^ ^^W 'W^, Worshipping the 
feet of Bamfi's {i.e., LakmVs) lord they humbly 
prayed, {the men) with folded hands, {the women) 
with folded veil (i.e., the end of the veil folded into the 
shape of a bowl to receive, as it were, the god's favours 
into it). ^Mth. Rdm., 8u. 82, 15, ^[^ ^ Tff %W 
vmj^ ^vvf%-wi «T? 5N ^w, From a distance I 
made obeisance, standing in that pl8U)e with folded 
hands; ibid., Ln. 149, 3, wniq% Tjm^-^s-'^tm, 
With joined hands and devoid of any feeling of 
passion ; Hb. i, 10, ^«l|%-ill ^WW "^ w% With 
joined hands they assumed the attitude of contem- 
plation {before BisVn, whom Brahmd and the other debs 
had gone to interview). ^ Pur., iv, 36, {p. 194), mw 

TV-ixTiT imr, Then from the excess of his greed- 
iness he put both his hands ( 8kr. ^wt* ftrf^rft ) in 
the very midst of the vessel in order to take out 
the eighth double-handful of gold. See for syn- 
onyms under ^fl^T ijurd and ^^ qjuri. 

{The afijali with its fifth meaning is very fre- 
quently mentioned in Jain Prdirit works, where the 
gesture is thus minutely described ipee Kalp. § 5, 12, 16, 
etc., Bhag. p. 298, Ndy. 823), iTT-iW-'Rft^T^ x^-inf 
f%^m-XJ^ i?«^ "^^W^nr, t.^., making the anjali 




INDEX TO THE RAMAYAN. 



Preliminary Note. 



Tms Index is founded on the text of Ram Jasan's Banaras edition (1869),* as corrected by the 
emendations given at its close. We believe that it gives a reference to every occurrence of every 
word in the text thus emended. Every appearance of even such words as ^fir or ^^ has been 
noted and registered. We hope that the number of mistakes is few ; and in order to render them 
as few as possible, we have tested the majority of entries after they have been set up in type.^ 
Any mistakes which do occur will not, we believe, cause serious inconvenience, as there is a 
double reference to each word — one to the page on which it is found, and the other to its situation 
according to chapter and verse of the poem. 

Any purely Sanskrit passages in the Ramayan, such as the invocation at. the commencement 
of Book I, are omitted from the Index ; but passages partly Sanskrit and partly Hindi, several 
instances of which occur in the Araifya Kan4 and elsewhere, have been included. 

In Ram Jasan's edition all doJias^ sor^fhas^ and chhanda are numbered, each class consecutively 
in its own series. The chmpaia have not been numbered. In referring, therefore, to chqs^pais in 
this Index, we have considered each as bearing the number of the set of ddha8 immediately 
following it. Sometimes a set of dohas is preceded by two or more sets of chqupoHs separated by, 
a set of sof^fhds or by a set of chhands. In this case, the same system is adhered to, both sets of 
ifhqstpSia bearing the same number — that of the set of following dohas^ and the numbering of the 
lines of the two sets of chqs^paia running on as if it was only one set. Thus on page 8 of Bam! 
Jasan's edition there is a set of 8 chqsspata followed by a set of sor^fJm No. 3, consisting of two 
lines, and again by a set of 10 chqa^paia ; then follows a set of aor^thaa No. 4, consisting of two 
lines ; then again another set of 10 ebwpSis^ and finally a set of dohas No. 22. All these three 
sets of chmpSis are considered for the purposes of this Index to consist of one set of ehqsspSia 
No. 22, consisting of 8 + 10 + I^ = 23 lines. The first set commences with line 1, the second 
with line 0, and the third with line 19. 

In the Index is given, after the word itself, first the book or kaif^ in which it occurs. The 
Ramayan consists of seven books, for which the following contractions are used : — 

Book I ... ... Bdl Kdnd ... contraction BAT. 

Book II ... ... Ajddhyd Kdnd ... ,, A. 



Book in ... ... Aranyd Kdnd 

Book IV ... ... Kis'kindd Kdnd 

Book V ... ... Sundar Kdnd 

Book YI ... ... Laykd Kdnd 

Book VII ... ... Uttar Kdnd 



AR. 

Kl. 

SU. 

LN. 

UT. 



• Since the above was written, Pandit Bftm Jasan has broui^ht out a new edition (Chandra Prabhft Press, Banftras, 1883), 
which is much better printed than the first. The text is practicaUy the same in both cases, except that in the second some 
misprints hare been corrected and a return has been made to the old Sanskrit system of spelling. The paging differs slightly ia 

the two editions, but the numbering of the yerses is the same except in the Ajddhyd Kd^. In the Jjodhyd Kd^ after ekmpdi ^^ 

No. 107, an extra set of dohdi and ch(i»pdU has been inserted. Hence when referring to the second edition, from and after dohd J^ 

17o. 107, the numbers of the dohd9 and chq»pdU given in the index must be increased by one. In this way no difficulty will be 
experienced in using this index with it also. 



u 



The references are given in order, boolf by book. Thus taking the word ^iTi;, first are given 
in order all the instances in which it occurs in the Bal Kan^; then all in which it occurs in the 
Ajodhya Ean^y and so on. 

Each reference consists of four parts. First a number (in sanserif type), showing the page 
in Ram Jasan's edition in which the word occurs : thus, 1 6. 

Then is recorded the fact whether the word occurs in a set of chqsitpaiSy dohas^ sar^thaSy ehhands^ 
or tofaksj explained by the contractions oh., do.^ so.> chh.^ or tot-9 respectively. 

Then follows the number of the ehqs^pai or dohciy &c., in ordinary Arabic numerals : thus, 
ch.t 47. 

Then follows the number of the line in the set in which it occurs : thus, 6. The entry 
concludes with a colon. 

Taking, therefore, the first entry under ^iwirt, after noticing that it is one of those which belong 
to the Bal Kan4j we find it to be 31, oh. 96, 8 : which means that it occurs on page 31, in chqy,pSi 
No. 96, line 8. If the word occurs more than once on the same page, the page number is not 
repeated ; if it occurs not only in the same page, but also in the same set of chqs^pSis or dohas^ &c., 
the chmpSi (or dohSj &c., as the case may bej number is not repeated. Thus among the Sundar 
Kafpi entries for ^n we have 265, oh. 29, 2, 3, which means that the word occurs on page 265, in 
ehqsjkpSi No. 29, in lines 2 and 3. If the word occurs in two different sets of cAqupSis in the same 
page, the word ch. is omitted the second time^ and the entries are separated by a semicolon. 
Thus under ^ww we have the entries 10, ch. 26, 7 ; 26, 2 ; 27, 1 -.— which mean that the word occurs 
on page 10, in chmpSi No. 25, line 7, and in chqs^pai No. 26, line 2, and in chqs^pdl No. 27, line I. 

It is hoped that with the aid of the above instructions no difficulty will be felt in using 
the index. 



^ 



INDEX 



TO THS 



Ei-MAYAN OF TTJLSI DAS 



U V II 



for woitU oommenang thus, see under 

^nn^) B^., 31, ch. 96, 8; chh. 6, 1: A., 179. 
ch. 182, 5 : 191, ch. 219, 5 : 193, do. 226, 2. 

^raiW, Bfi(., 2,ch.2, 13: 9, ch.26, 2:10, ch.25, 
7;26, 2; 27,1: A., 161, 80.4,2:194, ch. 229, 5 ; 

218, ch. 306, 3 : UT., 373, ch. 114, 1. 
^rai^T^? B/K., 23, ch. 70, 1. 

j/ ^«Rl '^'RT?— ^*i*r, B/>f., 117, ch. 349, 3: 
A.. 1 36, ch. 44, 1. 

^4«fir, B^.,101,do.309, 1. 

^ninnr, B^., 60, do.l85, l : LN., 293, ch. 45, 10 : 
298, ch. 59, 29. 

'^«h^«1, BfiC., 93, ch. 283, 6. 

^iR^, BfiC, 20, do. 61, 1 : 71, do. 217, 1 : LN., 320, 
ch. 107, 6 : UT., 370, ch. 108, 4. 

^<k^ f ^ U B/V., 90, ch. 275, 3. 

^raRT^^ B^., 26, ch. 82, 4.: UT., 370, ch. 109, 2. 

'^Wl^^ AR., 233, do. 20, 3. 

^Wini? Bfit., 3,ch.5, 7: A., 127, ch. 14,3; 129, 
ch. 23, 8 : 211, do. 283, 2:213, ch. 290, 9. 

nmm, BfiC., 18, ch. 56, 8: 66. ch. 168, 10: 56, 
ch. 170, 1. 

^«T«j;, BAf.. 66, ch. 171, 5: A., 146. ch. 72, 7: 
1 86. ch. 203, 1 : 202, ch. 255, 1 : 21 1 , ch. 286, 1. 

^ *^^W')— ^Wiwv, A., 196, ch. 238, 6. 



^RRTJ?, BA., 25, do. 77, 1 : 27, ch. 86, 2 : 32, 
ch. 99, 3: AR., 224, ch. 3, 25: LN., 277, 
ch. 4, 3 : UT.. 340, ch. 31, 5 : 373, ch. 114, 13 : 
380, chh. 12, 10. ^ AR., 237. chh. 9, 8. 
^mim, AR., 242, ch. 40, 7. 

^ncrfii'ni ar., 222. chh. 1, 2. 

^^I\n, B/>f.,90, ch. 275,2: A., 174, ch. 167,2: 
UT., 343, ch. 40, 6. 
^wrrWf, UT., 365, ch. 99, 3. 

^WiT^9 AR., 233, ch. 20, 8. 

^Wnj, 8U., 264, do. 25, 2 : LN., 300, ch. 63, 6 : 
302, do. 69, 1 ; ch. 70, 5 : 313, ch. 92, 6 : 316. 
do. 98, 2. Siift, BA., 68, ch. 177, 5. 
^Wmn, BA., 58, ch. 178, 4 : A., 220, ch. 313, 4 : 
Kl., 249, ch. 16, 9 : 8U.. 274, ch.57, 2 : UT.. 356, 
ch. 79, 8. 

^Iqi»q|«l» BfiC, 54, ch. 166, 3 : AR., 242, ch. 40, 7. 

^TfTO* UT.. 350, ch. 64, 1. 
^1i^, LN., 286, ch. 26, 8. 

^TfT^, BA:, 28. ch. 89, 6. 

^ ^li^(^)i— ^IWTT, A., 140, do. 56, 1 : 144. 
do. 70, 1 : 146, do. 74, 1 : AR., 226, ch. 7, 19. 

^fWrti BA., 58, ch. 178, 8 : 85, ch. 260, 6 ; 
A., 153, ch. 99, 4: 159, ch. 117, 7: 205, 
ch. 266, 6 : 213. ch. 290, 6 : AR., 232. ch. 18, 1 : 
Kl.. 244. ch. 3, 5 : LN., 305, ch. 76, 7. 

^irarm, LN., 296, do. 56, 1. 

^IfWWT, A., 152, ch. 97, 4 : Kl., 250. ch. 20- 2 : 
LN., 278. ch. 6, 10. 



r- 



w^mifk, A.. 146, do. 76, 2. 

%lfmif{, BfiC, 22, ch. 68, 3 : 64, ch. 197, 12 : 70, 

ch. 213, 8 : 87, ch. 267, 6 : A., 135, ch. 41, 1 : 

138, ch. 60, 14: 140, ch. 67, 1 : 144, ch. 68,6: 

8U.. 260, ch. 13, 2 : 267, ch. 36, 4. 
%W^(xit, B/V., 79, ch. 241, 7 : 86, ch. 261, 6 : 

Kl., 261, ch. 24, 3 : 8U., 276, ch. 58, 7 : LN., 296, 

ch. 61, 6. 
^fwrfr, BfiC., 47, ch.142,2: A., 146, ch.74, 13: 

165, ch. 137, 8. 

^NK'^Tj BA., 63, Ch. 161, 6: 67, do. 174, 1: 
AR., 230, to. 6, 2 : 233, ch. 19, 7 : 239, do. 32, 1 : 
LN., 292, do. 42, 1 : 310, do. 86, 2. 
^A%, BA., 21, ch. 63, 8 : UT.. 333, chh. 5, 19. 
^i%ift, AR., 236, ch. 26, 2. 
W, BA..54,ch.l63,3. 




^nSr^^ BA.,41, ch. 123, 1. 

, BA., 22, ch. 68, 8 : 49, ch. 149, 4 : 70, 
do. 213, 1 : AR„ 227, ch. 10, 12 : SU., 272, 
do. 49, 2: LN., 298, ch.69, 18: 321, chh. 36, 
15 : UT., 354, ch. 72, 4 : 356, ch. 78, 4 : 370, 
ch. 108, 4. 

, UT.. 368, chh. 11, 9. 
, UT.i 360. ch. 64, 1 : 374, ch. 116, 1. 



, UT., 346, ch. 60, 7. 



^r^Ui LN., 279, ch. 11, 7 : 280, ch. 14, 4. 
^«tt<«,SUm 266, chh. 1, 8. 

^f^f^i BA., 67, do. 203, 2: 69, ch.209, 6: 72, 
so. 23, S : 8U.. 269, ch. 42, 2 : 274, ch. 67, 5 : 
LN., 308, ch. 83,9: 319, chh. 34,3: UT.. 340. 
ch. 30, 8: 354, ch. 72, 4 : 359, ch. 87,7: 361, 
ch. 90, 2. Sinirw, A., 20 1 , do. 258, 1. ^VHRfir, 
Kl.. 243, do. 1, 2. ^f%%^, BA., 19, ch. 69, 2. 

^r%#, AR., 226, ch. 8, 12. 

^RT, AR., 237, chh. 9, 11 : LN.. 296, ch. 64, 2 : 
UT.. 333, chh. 6, 6 : 362, ch. 92, 7. ^mwim 
LN.. 289, ch. 36, 8 : 318, ch. 101, 13: UT., 328, 
chh. 1, 3. Svnn^ BA^ 66, ch. 197, 7 : UT., 349, 
ch. 61, 6. 

^PnW'» BA., 10, ch. 27, 1 : 66, ch. 171, 8 : A., 137, 

ch. 47, 7 : 142, ch. 61, 7 : AR., 240, do. 34, 3 : 

SU., 272, ch. 60, 6 : LN., 322, ch. 111, 3 : 

UT., 334, tOff. 1, 10 : 361, ch. 90, 1. 

^irrwr, BA., 15, ch. 46, 2 : 22, ch. 68, 2: KL, 249, 

ch. 17, 1. 
^iitv,BAm 3, ch. 6, 6 : 16, ch. 46, 3 : A.. 136. ch. 42, 
7 : 184, ch. 197, 7 : 203, ch. 269, 6 : 215, ch. 298, 2. 



^^I^ll,) UT., 366, ch.76, 3. 

^RTf^9 BA., 16, ch. 49, 7: 33, chh. 7, 3: 40, 
ch. 122, 3 : 42, so. 13, 1 : 45, ch. 137, 2, 6 : 61, 
Ch. 153, 3 : 70, ch. 214, 1 : 100, ch. 306, 6 ; 
307, 6 : 112, ch. 336, 6 : 118, ch. 354, 2 : A., 188. 
ch.213, 2: 197,ch.240, 7 : LN., 286, ch. 26, 3 : 
289, ch. 35, 10 : UT., 357, ch. 80, 6, 6: do. 81, 2. 
Snflr, A., 126, ch. 7, 8. See ^finr. 

^RIH, BA., 10, ch. 27, 5 : 16, do. 47, 2 : 51, ch. 164 
3, 4 : 63, ch. 161, 8 : 55, ch. 168, 3 : 66, ch. 168 
16 : 60, ch. 184, 6 : 116, ch. 348, 3 : A.. 137 
ch. 47, 7: 141, ch. 61, 6: 142, ch. 61, 7 
144, ch. 71, 1 : 146, ch. 76,5 : 162, ch. 96, 7 : 154 
ch. 102, 6 : 166, ch. 108, 6 : 159, do. 116, 2 : 160 
do. 119, 2 : 163, do. 131, 1 : 190, do. 217, 2 
192, ch. 224, 2 : 194, ch. 232, 1 : 195, ch. 232, 5 
197, ch. 241, 7 : 209, ch. 278, 1 : 210, ch. 283 
2 : 215, ch. 298, 6 : 220, chh. 13, 2 : AR., 237 
chh. 9, 13 : 240, ch. 37, 1 : 8U.. 266, do. 33, 1 
UT., 345, ch. 46, 3 : 364, do. 73, 4. 

^PTT,— ^, BA., 68, ch. 207, 6. ^viw, BA., 6. 
ch. 14, 9. 

j/ ^W'Ri— ""JhwfiiTi^, A., 130, eh. 26, 4. 

^^niff^ BA., 34, ch. 104, 1 : 102, do. 311, 2. 

^ipnwn, BA., 1 02, ch. 312, 7. 
^«m«rT, BA., 34, ch. 103, 2: 102, ch. 312, 8 : 103, 
ch. 316, 6. 

^RT%, AR., 225, ch. 7, 1 : 227, ch. 9, 9 : Kl., 249. 
ch. 16, 3 : 8U.. 274, ch. 57, 11 : UT., 351, 
do. 66, 2. 

^PITf,— ^»nv, BA., 104, ch. 318, 13. 



t A.. 130,ch. 26, 2. 



^•HM 8U., 260, do. 12, 2 : LN., 295, do. 52, 2. 
"*IKT, A., 171, Ch. 166, 6: 8U., 269, eh. 12, 8: 
LN., 295, ch. 51, 1. 

^rfM^Ti BA., 66, ch. 201, 6 : A., 208, ch. 274, 3 : 
AR., 226, ch. 6, 1 : 8U.. 269. ch. 12, 11 : 266. 
ch. 31, 7. ^^unj^, A., 179, ch. 180, 6. See ^fw. 

^rf'T^RT, AR., 231 , chh. 7, 10 : SUm 257, ch. 6, 6 : 
UT., 330, chh. 3, 4 : 342, ch. 38, 6. See ^nfinr. 

^ *l -ilTf , A., 183, ch. 196, 1. 

'^I^JT') BA., 3, ch. 7, 1 : 9, ch. 23,2 : 10, ch. 25, 8 ; 
27, 1 : 16, ch. 46, 2 : 26, ch. 77, 8 : 39. ch. 116, 
8:41, ch. 123, 6, 10 : 48, ch. 147, 10 : 49, ch. 149, 
4 : 60, Ch. 161, 6 : A., 181, ch. 211, 6 : AR.. 226, 




8 



v- -i 




ch. 8, 19 : LN.. 287, do. 31, 1 ! 320, Gh. 107, 6 : 
323. chh. 39, 3 : UT.. 354, ch. 72, 6 : 369 do. 85, 
2 : 370. ch. 108, 3, 12. 
^ipifr, BA., 41, ch. 123,9. 

^PTT') B/)^. 28, ch. 89, 6. 
^ii^VT, BAf.. 54, ch. 166, 4. 

^SIlfH^^ ^fiL, 70, ch. 216, 6 : 108, chh. 43, 4 : 
A., 155, ch. 105, 4 : 159. ch. 119, 7. 
^wHt, AR„237, chh. 9, 5. 

f) BA:. 63, ch. 195, 10. See ^vflifw. 

^R7? BiV.. 20, ch. 62, 2 : 22, do. 67, 2 : 39, ch.ll7, 
2:41, ch. 123, 1 : LN., 308, do. 81, 2. 

^inpi'ra^^') UT., 341, ch. 35, 6. 

^H^, BA., 61, ch. 187, 4 : Kl., 262, do. 25, 1. 

^Bl^TfTT, BK., 96, ch. 293, 6. 

^WTTT^ BA., 21, ch. 64, 1 : 72, do. 219, 1 : Kl., 244, 
do. 2, 1 : UT.. 354. ch. 73, 9 : 370, do. 108, 3. 
Tr«WT, UT.. 354, ch. 73, 7. 
^iVTWT, B/y., 20, ch. 63, 4: 38, ch. 116, 2: 41, 
ch. 123, 15. 

-, B/V., 88, ch. 270, 4 : A., ch. 209, Ch. 280, 2. 



^rH^rft? BA., 41, ch. 124, 1. 
^RT) BA., 79, ch. 241, 8. 



t BA:, 3.ch. 5, 9 ; 7, 1 : 12, ch. 34, 1 : 17, do. 50, 
2 : 37, Ch. 112, 7 : 42, ch. 126, 3 : 77, ch. 236, 5 
A., 129, do. 21, 2 : 1 36, ch. 48, 5 : 166, ch. 139, 5 
173, ch. 161, 5, 6 : 175,ch. 168, 8: 178,ch.l77, 8 
186, ch. 203, 2: 192, do. 224,2: 197, ch. 239, 
2 : 3U., 268, ch. 39, 7 : LN., 320, ch. 107, 4 : 
325. ch. 117, 7: UT.. 337. ch. 22, 3 : 340, oh. 30, 
8; 32, 4 : 341, ch. 34, 7 : 343, ch. 42, 4: 367, 
do. 103, 4: 370, ch. 109, 6, 7, 10: 376, 
ch. 118, 6, 22 : 379, ch. 123, 3. "i^ji^ nmtDii , 
BAf., 3, ch. 5, 6. ^^Kf^, A., 183, ch. 194, 6. 
S^, A., 197, ch. 240, 3. °^<un^ft^f, AR., 241, 
ch. 37, 8. ^mr^fk%, Kl., 254, so. 1, 2. ^n?h, 
LN., 285, ch. 31, 4. Sriw, UT., 346, ch. 52, 3. 
Twr, AR., 238, do. 31, 1. Sf<^, A., 201, 
ch. 261, 6. ^, UT., 361, ch. 90, 2. Sj^t, 
A.. 186, Ch. 204, 8. ^^o^, 8U., 275, ch. 60, 5: 
UT.. 378, ch. 121, 8. ^, BA., 59, do. 180, 2 : 
UT., 380, chh. 12, 3. ^ BA., 52, do. 157, 
2. *^Tftw^, Kl.. 243, so. 1, 1, Ht^,A.,212, 
ch. 287, 3. siwrft, BA;, 65, chh. 22, 2 : AR., 227, 
ch. 10, 5 : 238, ch. 30, 3. 

^nrfeTi BA., 41 , ch. 123, 6 : A.. 1 72, ch. 159. 6. 



l/'^(r^(^)?— ^WTt, A., 142, do. 62, 2 : 186, Ch.203, 

1 : LN., 309, Ch. 85, 9. 
^^, A., 176,ch.l73, 1. 
^VTt, A., 139, Ch. 51, 8: 198, ch. 242, 18: 200, 

ch.260, 1: 212, ch.289,6. 
^nrl, LN., 296, ch. 56, 7. 
^n\^, UT.. 359, ch. 88, 2. 
*<miilT, BA., 1 1 , ch. 32, 3. 
^«VT%, A.,155,ch.l06, 1. 
^vra A., 185, do. 201, 2. 
^vrff, LN.,319,do. 103, 1. 
^iWf, A.. 198, ch. 242, 5 : UT.. 347, ch. 54, 1. 
^WTf, A., 185, ch. 201, 6. 

"^r^lTT, SU., 271, ch. 49, 3 : LN., 321, do. 108, 2 : 
UT..347,do. 53,4. 
^BrtT, AR., 232, ch. 17, 3. 

S A., 176, ch. 171, 7 : 181, ch.l87, 4 : LN., 286, 
ch. 29, 1 : 294, ch. 48, 7 : 299, ch. 60, 7 : UT., 365, 
ch. 76, 7. 
r, BA., 36, ch. 105, 8 : A., 194, ch. 229, 3 : 196, 

ch. 236, 3. 
^trfW^, A., 216, ch. 296, 4. 

^HF?:, BA., 117, ch. 351, 5 : A.. 130, ch. 24, 6 : 165, 
^ch. 104, 2: 176, chh. 7, 2: 197, do. 241,2. 
%^, A., 197, ch. 241, 2. 

j/ ^srfTi ^rwr?--^!^, ba., 45, ch. i36, 4. 

^, LN., 313, chh. 21,4. 
^^, UT.. 377, ch. 119, 4. 

^VW, BA.. 69, ch. 211, 3 : 87, do. 266, 2 : AR., 
"^233, ch. 20, 7 : UT., 333, chh. 6, 16. 



<) BA., 4, ch. 12, 6 : 76, do. 232, 2 : 79, ch. 243, 
4 : 81 , so. 24, 2 : 84, ch. 258, 3 : 89, do. 272, 2 : 
102, ch. 314, 7: 104, ch. 318, 4, 7: 106, 
ch. 324, 3: 111. chh. 56, 1: A., 125, ch. 8, 
4: 166, ch. 108, 4: 168, ch. 114, 6; 181, 
Ch. 190, 1 : 190, ch. 217, 4 : 193, ch.226, 8 : 208, 
Ch.274,6: 212, ch. 289,5: 217, do. 303, 2: 
AR., 234, ch. 23, 3 : 237, chh. 9, 12 : SU., 263, 
ch. 24, 9 : 267, ch.35, 6 : 272, ch. 62, 3 : LN., 281. 
do.l5, 2 ; ch. 16, 1 : 317, chh. 31, 4 : UT.. 332, 
ch. 12, 8 ; do. 12, 2 : 333, chh. 4, 7 : 365, 
ch. 76, 6. Svcnft, BA., 84, ch. 267, 2. ' 
^yr, BA.. 96, ch. 293, 4 : 106, ch. 322, 1 : A., 136. 
ch. 40, 1 : SU.. 262, ch. 19, 6. 




, Kl., 247, do. 11, 2 ; chh. 1, 8 : 248, ch. 12, 9 : 
261, do. 22,2 ; ch.23, 1: 262, ch.26, 3, 6, 7: 
263, ch. 27, 8 : 254, ch. SO, 1 : SU.. 265, ch. 28, 
7 : 270. do. 44, 2 : 273, do. 54, 1 : LN., 230, 




Ch. 12, 7 : 282. ch. 18, 5, 9, 13 ;'«o. 3, 1 : 283, ch. 19, 
4 ; 21, 3, 4, 6, 7 : 284, ch. 23, 1 : 285, ch. 24, 3 
26, 1 : 286, ch. 29, 6 : 287, ch. 32, 6 : 288. do. 32 
4 : 290, ch. 36, 4 : 292, ch. 42, 2 ; do. 42, 1 : 293 
ch. 44, 7 ; 45, 3 j 46, 1, 6 : 294, ch. 49, 2 : 302, 
ch.70,8: 303, do. 72, 2: 304, ch. 73, 6 ; do. 73 

2 : 306, do. 77, 5 ; ch. 79, 6 : 308, ch. 82, 4, 8 
313, ch. 94,8; chh. 21, 3: 318, ch. 103, 2 
324, do. 115, 3 : 325, ch. 116, 10 : UT., 329 
Ch. 5, 2 : 331 , ch. 9, 1 : 335, ch. 18, 8 ; do. 18 

3 : 336, ch. 20,2, 10. nj«, Kl., 252, ch. 26, 11 
^, LN., 289, ch. 34, 13. Vw, UT- 336 
do. 19, i. ^nr^rf^, BA., 8, ch. 22,,19 : Kl., 260 
do. 20, 1 : LN., 295, do. 51, 1 : 299. do. 62, 1 
303, ch. 72, 6. 

^T<fT, LN.. 290, oh. 37, 3. . 

^!RF1i LN., 309, chh. 13, 4 : 317, chh. 31, 4 : UT., 
333, chh. 4, 7. 

^WtsRI^i BA., 63, do. 193, 1. 
^^fWn, B^., 32, ch. 98, 4 : AR., 240, ch. 36, 6. 

^^T^, UT., 356, do. 79, 2. 
inrf%i BfiC., 41 , ch. 124, 3. 
j/^^,-H BfiC., 120, ch. 361, 2. 
r, Bfi(., 79, ch. 242, 4. 



^^TinTi LN., 301 , ch. 68, 8. 



[^ Bfi(., 30. do. 94, 1 : 38. ch. 115, 8 : 66, 
do. 202, 2 : A., 164, ch. 134, 2 : 194, ch. 229, 8 : 
219, ch. 309, 6. 



•) BfK., 39, do. 118, 1 : 43, ch. 131, 8 : 44. 
ch. 134, 4 : 58, ch. 176, 2 : A., 1 34, ch. 38, 1:181, 
ch. 188, 1 : 185, ch. 200, 2 : 189, ch. 215, 8. 

, BA., 2, ch. 2, 11 : 1 1, ch. 30, 5 : 13, ch. 39, 
10 : 26, ch. 77, 4 : 31, do. 95, 2 : 52, ch. 157, 6 ; 
A., 132, ch. 29, 9 :. 144, ch. 68, 8 : 162, ch. 128, 4 : 
207, ch. 271, 6 : 208, ch. 274, 6 : 220, ch. 313, 
6 : AR., 225, ch. 7, 15 : 242, ch. 40, 7 : Kl., 247, 
ch. 10, 2 : 248, ch. 14, 8 : 8U.« 263, ch. 23, 1 : 
LN., 279, do. 8, 2 : 306, ch. 77, 9 ; ch. 79, 4 : 
UT., 330, ch. 8, 2 : 354, ch. 73, 5 : 359, do. 85, 
4:361,ch.90, 3. 



j/^t^ 



y 



^—^^nm A., 157, ch. Ill, 1. 

, A., 192. ch. 222, 7. 
^ff"tRT^,— ^^^it, BAf., 35. CM 



, BA., 64. Chh. 18, 3 : UT., 359, ch. 87, 1 : 
364. ch. 97, 10 : 373. ch. 114, 10. Cf. 
, BAC 108, ch. 329, 8. 



-, BfiL, 13. do. 37, 2: 53. do. 161,2: 61, 
do. 187,1: A., 147, do.77,2: LN.,316,chh. 26, 10. 
^1^, A., 218, ch. 308, 7. 



, LN., 289. ch. 35, 5. -fwm, SU., 262, 
Ch. 18, 7. 



'.) BA., 99, Ch. 303, 16 : 1 17. ch. 351, 5. Cf. 



) BA.. 49. do. 148, 1. 



) BA., 2. do. 2, 2 : 10, ch. 27, 7 : 92,ch.282, 5 : 
94, do. 287, 2 : A., 123, do. 2, 2 : 124, ch. 5, 3 : 
204, do. 263, 2 : UT., 360. ch. 88, 17. Cf. 



t BA., 18, ch.55, 5. '^, A., 154, ch.102, 7 : 
^IPTHT? BA., 93. ch. 282, 8. 



9 BA., 6, ch. 18, 3 : 20 do. 61, 1 : 32, ch. 99, 3 
100, 7: 39, ch. 116, 8: 41, ch. 123, 10: 48 
ch. 147, 10 : 65, do. 197, 2: 69, do. 210,2: 71 
do. 217, 1:73, clih. 31, 2 : AR., 224, ch.3, 24 : 236 
ch. 62, 17 : 237, chh. 9, 9 : Kl., 252, do. 25, 2 
ch. 26, 12 : 8U.. 263, ch. 23, 8 : 268, ch. 36, 10 
89, 2 : LN.. 281, do. 16, 1 : 318, ch. 102, 2 : 320 
ch. 107, 6 : 321, chh. 36, 7 : UT., 329, ch. 6, 6 
333, chh. 5, 13 : 335, ch. 16, 9 : 338, do. 26, 1 
340, ch. 31,9: 341, ch. 35, 4 : 342, ch. 36, 7 
364, ch. 72, 3 : 359, do. 85, 2 : 366, ch. 103, 4 
367, ch. 104, 7 : 370, ch. 108, 3 : 377 ch. 119, 
12. Sti»T,LN., 281, ch. 16, l.^wnfk. BA:,21, 
do. 64, 2. ^vif^^wtftir AR., 222, chh. 1, 9. 
f. AR., 237, chh. 9, 5 : LN.. 321, chh. 36, 9 : 
UT., 368, chh. 11, 9. ^^wiww^w^im , UT., 334, 
chh. 5, 21. 
^vUfi, UT., 377, dp. 119,3. 
, BA.. 35, ch. 106, 3. 



^T^RTT) BA., 93, do. 283, 2. 



;, UT., 367, ch. 104, 7. 



) BA.. 57, ch. 174, 5 : 62, ch. 191, 2 : 76. 
ch. 233, 4 : 8U., 260, ch. 13, 3 : LN., 303, ch. 72, 
2 : 304, ch. 73, 14 : 306, do. 77, 1 : 321, ch. 109, 3. 
^, UT., 334, tot 1, 17. 



•) BA., 29, ch. 92, 7 : 8U.. 261, ch. 17, 3 : LN., 
310, ch.86, 4. 



t BA., 84, ch. 257, 3: A., 133, ch. 33, 6; 
do. S3, 2 : 136, ch. 43, 5 ; 45, 1 : 188, do. 210, 2 : 
175, ch. 168, 8 : UT., 370, ch. 109, 7. Spmra^ 
A.. 166, ch. 139, 5. ^fqsrd, An 127, do. 13, 2. 



^n^^, LNm 287. ch. 81, 2. 




) see 



^(9(^, ^wni, ^ni^ 1 »« 'IT*. 

^g^ir^f^) UT., 332, ch. 13, 7. 

^WTST^ BA.. 91, do. 277, 2 : A., 186. ch. 199, 7. 
^WTT, B^M 93. ch. 285, 2 : UT., 369, ch. 87, 6. 

^nrrft, BK, 42, ch. 127, 4 : A., 185, ch. 199, 6. 
^nrrfTOi BA., n. ch. 30, 7 : UT., 380. chh. 12, 2. 

^iri^OT, Kl., 252, ch. 26, 12 : 8U.. 268, ch. 39, 2 : 
LN., 296. ch. 54, 6 : 320. ch. 107, 6. 

'Wflpr,— 2,vr, A., 186, do. 203, 1. 

^I^, BA.. 38. ch. 113, 6 : 70, ch.215, 5 : UT.. 339, 
chh. 6, 3 : 366, do. 75, 2 ; ch. 76, 4. 

^H^fhUT.) UT., 364, ch. 72, 5. 



) see 
^n^V^, UT., 339. Ch. 28, 2. 

^ for worda oommenoing thuB, see under 



^ J, BA., 104. chh. 34, 3 : 119. Ch. 357, 3 : 
A.. 204. ch. 263, 5 : LN., 278, ch. 7, 4. ^*Tir, 
UT., 374. ch. 115, 8. 

<4|V>g|H^ BA., 2. Ch. 2, 1. 

^r^rf%, BA.,110. Chh. 62, 4 : A., 204. ch. 263, 5. 
-^w, BA., 3. do. 3, 2. 

]/f!|2S||,-^,7f)v, A., 166, ch. 138, 6. 

^rZT, A., 206, ch. 269, 7 : 21 6. ch. 299, 3. 

'Vli^f set ^fsx. 

^IZqZ,— ^flnrf^, BA:, 46, ch. 141, 6. 
^«^, A., 163,90.4,1. 

fSTT)— ^n, BA., 117, ch. 352, 4. 

^IZrft, BA., 74, ch. 225, 2 : UT., 339. ch. 28, 3. 

^zrfkM, BA., 101. ch. 308, 4. 

^r«TfW, UT.. 329, do. 4, 3 : 331, do. 9, 4. 

^rSTTOi 8U., 264. do. 25, 2 : LN., 291 . ch. 39, 4 : 
302, do. 69, 2. 

^l^lt? A., 206, Ch. 267, « : 216, ch. 300, 8. 

u, 169, ch. 150, 1 : 208, ch. 276, 3. httrw, 
UT.. 357. do. 80. 4 : 362. ch. 92, 8. VTv. 



8U., 262, ch. 21, 6 : UT.. 357, ch. 81, 5. 
UT., 356, ch. 80, 3. 
, A., 125, ch.8, 8. 



t BA., 84, ch. 257, 5. 



^SnWlT^ BA., 42, ch. 128, 3. 

^5f?r, BA., 2, do. 2, 1 : 3, ch. 6, 2 : 4, ch. 12, 7 : 6, 
ch. 12, 11 ; 14, 1 : 6, do. 14, 1 ; 16, 1 ; 16, 2 ; 
Ch. 17, 6, 12 : 7, do. 18, 1 ; 19, 8 : 8. ch. 22, 1:12, 
ch.34, 1: 13, do. 37, 2: 14, ch. 44, 2: 16. 
ch. 47, 8,6,8; do. 47.2: 17, ch. 65, 1: 18, 
ch. 55, 6 ; 56, 5, 6 ; 58, 4 : 19, do. 60, 1 ; ch. 61, 
1 ; so. 5, 1 : 20. ch. 62, 9 ; 63, 2 : 21. do. 63, 1 ; 
Ch. 64, 2 ; 65, 5 : 23. ch. 70, 7 : 24, ch. 73, 8 : 27, 
ch. 84, 2 ; 86, 8 : 28, ch. 88, 6 ; ch. 90, 2 : 30, 
ch. 93, 7, 8: 31, ch. 96, 2^ chh. 6, 3: 32. 
ch. 98, 2 : 33, ch. 102, 4, 8, 10 ; chh. 7, 1 ; 
so. 9, 2 : 34, ch. 103, 3 ; 104, 5 : 36, ch. 107, 
2 ; chh. 13, 2 : 36. ch. 108, 3 : 37, ch. 110, 6 ; 
do. 110, 1 : 111, 2 ; ch. 112, 1 : 38, ch. 118, 3 ; 
114, 4 ; 116. 3 : 39, do. 116, 2 ; ch. 117, 8 ; 
118, 3 ; 119, 8 : 40, ch. 122, 5 : 42. ch. 126, 
6 : 44, ch. 132, 1, 2 7 ; 133, 1 j 184, 6 : 
45, ch. 135, 8 : 46. ch. 139, 1, 5 ; 140, 6 ; 141, 5 : 
47. ch. 142, 5, 8; 143, 6 ; 144, 3 : 48. ch. 145, 
2; 146. 2: 49, ch. 148, 10; do. 148, 2:51, 
do. 153, 1 ; ch. 154, 4 ; 155, 4 : 52, ch. 156, 
1; do. 157, 2; 63, ch. 161, 6, 8; 162, 3; 
64, ch. 163, 4: 55. ch. 167, 4, 8;. 168, 4; 
•o. 20, 2 : 66, ch. 170, 8 ; ch. 171, 2 : 57. 
ch. 173, 1 ; ch. 174, 2, 4, 5 : 68, ch. 175, 6 ; 
176, 2 ; 178, 4 : 59, do. 178, 2 : 60, ch. 182, 5, 
8 ; do. 182, 1 : 61. do. 188, 1 : 62. do. 191, 
2 ; ch. 192, 1 : 63, ch. 193, 9 : 64, so. 21, 2 : 65, 
chh. 21, 3 : 66, ch. 201, 7 ; 203, 2 : 67, chh. 27. 

2 :68, ch. 207, 7; 208, 3: 69. ch. 211, 6, 7, 9 : 
70, ch. 214, 8; 215,1: 71, ch. 216, 1,7; 218, 

3 : 72, ch. 219, 3. 4 ; do. 219, 2 ; ch. 220, 1, 6, 
9: 73, chh. 28, 3; 29,2; 30,1 ; 31, 4: 74. 
ch. 225, 7 : 75, ch. 228, 6 : 76, ch. 231, 2, 5 : 
77, ch. 234, 8 ; 235, 1 ; 286, 2 j do. 286, 2 : 78, 
do. 237, 1 : 79, ch. 241, 3, 7 : 80, ch. 246, 4: 84, 
ch. 257, 5 : 86, do. 261, 1 ; c^. 264, 5 : 87. 
ch. 267, 3, 8 : 88, ch. 268, 8, 271, 5 : 89, ch. 272, 
3 : 90, ch. 273, 8 : 91, do. 277, 1 ; ch. 278, 8, 
5 : 92, ch. 280, 6 ; do. 280, 2 : 94, ch. 286, 8, 5 ; 
287, 1 : 95, ch. 291, 2, 7 : 96, ch. 298, 8 ; 294, 
1 : 97, do. 295, 2 ; ch. 298, 8 : 98, ch. 302, 1 : 
99, ch. 303, 4, 5; 304,8: 101, ch. 808,6,8: 
102, ch. 318, 2, 7; 814, 4: 104. ch. 819, 6 : 105, 
ch. 828, 2 ; chh. 85, 1 : 106, chh. 36, 1 : 107, 
ch. 3i6, 1 ; 327, 7 : 108, do. 329, 1:111, chh. 57, 



/ 



h 



2 : 112, Ch. 835, 1: 114, ch. 842, 1, 8, 8 : U6, 
do. 346, 2: 117, ch. 361, 2: llfl, eh. 869, 1: 
A., 124, do. 3, 2; oh. 6, 6: 125, ch. 8,6; 
9, 3: 127, ch. 16, 3: 130, ch. 26, 7: 132, 
do. 30, 2} ch. 30, 8: 133, eh. 83, 4: 136, 
ch. 41, 1 : 136, ch. 46, 7 : 138, ch. 60, 16 : 139, 
do. 61, 1 ; 62, 3, 6 : 140, ch. 67, 1, 8 : 142, 
ch. 62, 2 : 144, do. 68, 2 ; ch. 69, 2 : 146, ch. 76, 

2 ; do. 76, 2 ; ch. 76, 3 : 147, eh. 79, 3, 4 : 148, 
do. 80, 1: 149, eh. 84,1: 160,ch.88, 3: 161, 
ch. 93, 6 ; 97, 4 : 153, ch. 98, 16 : 164, ch. 102 : 
4 : 165, ch. 103, 4 ; do. 103, 1 ; ch. 104, 3 : 166, 
Ch. 107, 8 : 167, ch. 110, 4 ; 111, 2 ; 112, 4 : 168, 
ch. 113, 6 ; do. 113, 1 ; ch. 116, 1 : 169, ch. 118, 

3 : 163, ch. 30, 6 ; 166, ch. 136, 2 : 167, ch. 143, 
1 : 169, do. 147, 1 : 171, ch. 153, 7 : 172, ch. 169, 
1 : 180, ch. 184, 6 ; 187, 1 : 182, do. 191, 2 ; 193, 
2 : 185, do. 199, 1 ; ch. 200, 4 ; 201, 3 : 190, 
ch. 218, 11 : 191, do. 221, 1 : 192, ch. 224, 3 : 
193, do. 227, 1 : 196, ch. 236, 3, 6 ; do. 237, 1 ; 
ch. 238, 4, 6: 197, ch. 241, 7; 242, 3: 
1 98, ch. 242, 9 : 201 , ch. 263, 1 : 202, do. 266, 1 : 
206, ch. 268, 3 : 207, ch. 271, 1 : 208, do. 274, 1 : 
209, ch. 279, 7 : 210, ch. 283, 2 : 211, ch. 286, 6 ; 
212, ch. 289, 8 : 214, ch. 294, 6 : 216, ch. 297, 4 : 
298, 6, 7 : 217, ch. 302, 6 : AR., 221, do. 1, 1 ; 
ch. 1, 2 : 222, ch. 2, 14 : 223. ch. 3, 8 : 224, ch. 4, 
2 ; do. 4, 2 : 226, ch. 6, 6 : 226, ch. 8, 14 : 227; 
Ch. 9, 10 : 228, ch. 11, 2, 6 ; ch. 13, 6 : 229, 
ch. 13, 8, 9 ; ch. 14, 1 ; do. 14, 1 : 230, ch. 16, 
8, 23 : 231 , chh. 7, 13, 16 : 232, do. 18, 2 : 233, 
Ch. 20, 6 ; do. 20, 2 ; ch. 21, 8 ; 22, 8 : 234, 
ch.23,2,4; 24,3: 236, ch. 25, 17 : 236, ch. 26, 
16 ; 27, 2 : 237, ch. 28, 1 : 238, do. 29, 1 ; ch. 30, 
1, 3 : 239, do. 33, 1 : 240, do. 34, 3 ; ch. 36, 1 : 
241, do. 37, 4 ; ch. 38, 1 ; do. 38, 2 : Kl., 243, 
ch. 1, 3 : 246, ch. 5, 6 ; 6, 11 : 246, ch. 8, 2 : 247, 
ch. 10, 1 ; 11, 4 ; ch. 1, 3 : 248, ch. 12, 4 ; 13, 1, 
6 : 249, ch. 17, 5 : 260, ch. 20, 2 ; 21, 3 : 262, 
ch. 16, 13 : 263, ch. 28, 4 ; 29, 3, 5 : 8U.. 266, 
ch. 1, 1 : 266, ch. 2, 10 ; 3, 10, 11 ; chh. 1, 1, 7 : 
267, do. 3, 2 ; ch. 5, 4, 6 : 268, ch. 6, 7 : 269, 
do. 9, 2 : 260, ch. 13, 1 ; 14, 1 : 261, ch. 16, 6, 8 : 
262, ch. 19, 6 ; 20, 6 ; 21, 2 : 263, ch. 22, 9 ; 24, 
1 : 266, ch. 28, 6 ; 29, 3 ; 30, 7 : 266, ch. 31, 
9; 32,8; 33,3, 6; 34,3: 267, ch. 36, 6 : 268, 
ch. 37, 2 : 269, ch. 40, 1 : 270, ch. 46, 6 : 271, 
ch. 47, 7 ; do. 47, 1 : 272, ch. 60, 6 ; 61, 2 ; 
62, 1 : 273, ch. 53, 4, 8 : 274, ch. 67, 6 ; ch. 68, 
3 : 276, do. 59, 1 : LN., 276, ch. 1, 4 : 277, do. 2, 
1 ; ch. 3, 2 ; ch. 6, 1 : 278, do. 6, 1 ; ch. 7, 3 : 
279, do. 9, 2 ; ch. 10, 7 : 280, ch. 12, 1, 2 ; 13, 9 : 
281 , ch. 17, 4 : 282, ch. 18, 9 : 283, ch. 19, 7 : 284, 
ch. 23, 3, 4, 9 : 286, do. 24, 1 : 286. ch. 27, 6 ; 



do. 28, 2 : 287, ch. 31, 2 ; 32, 6, 8 : 289. ^h. 84, 
3 : 290, ch. 36, 4 ; 37, 2, 4, 6 : 291, ch. 38, 9 ; 39, 
1 ; 40, 4,6 ; chh. 1, 3 : 292, ch. 42, 6 : 293, ch. 45, 
11 ; 47, 6, 6 : 294, ch. 49, 6 ; 60, 2 : 295, eh. 63, 

2 : 296, ch. 54, 6 ; do. 65, 1 : 297, do. 67, 1 ; 
ch. 68, 2 : 298, ch. 59, 9, 19, 26 : 299, ch. 62, 10 : 
300, ch.63, 7; 66,2, 6: 301, do.67, 1: 302. 
oh. 69, 2, 10 : 303, ch. 71, 4 ; 72, 1, 8 : 305. oh. 76, 
5 ; chh. 4, 3 : 306, ch. 79, 4, 6 : 307, ch. 81, 
8 : 308, do. 81, 2 ; ch. 83, 1 : 309, ch. 84, 1 : 310, 
ch. 86, 1 ; do. 86, 2 ; chh. 14, 1 : 311, ch. 89, 
2, 13 ; chh. 16, 2 : 312, ch. 91, 1 ; chh. 19, 3:313, 
chh. 21, 3 : 314, do. 95, 2 : 315. eh. 97, 2, 6 ; 
chh. 24, 3 ; 25, 2 : 316. Ch. 99, 9 ; chh. 28, 1, 
2: 317, Chh. 31,5, 7: 319, chh. 34, 1 : 320, 
ch. 107,9; chh. 35, 2, 7: 321, do. 108, 1: 
ch. 109, 1, 4 : 322, ch. Ill, 3 ; chh. 37, 9, 11 : 
324, ch. 116, 4, 6 : 325, ch. 117, 9 : UT., 327, 
do. 1, 1, 8 ; ch. 2, 6 : 328, ch. 3, 1 ; chh. 1, 2 : 
329, do. 4, 2 ; ch. 4, 9 ; do. 6, 4; ch.5, 7 ; ch. 6; 

3 : 330, ch. 8, 1 ; chh. 2, 2 ; 3, 3 : 331, ch. 8, 8 ; 
9, 3 : 332, ch. 11, 6 ; 12, 1 : 333, do. 13, 5 : 334, 
tot. 1, 11 : 335, ch. 17, 2, 4, 6 ; 18, 2 ; do. 18, 4 ; 
336, ch. 20, 6 ; do. 20, 5 : 338, ch. 24, 10 ; 26, 17 ; 
27, 6 : 339, ch. 28, 4 : 340, ch. 32, 1 : 341, ch. 35, 

3 ; 36, 1 : 342, do. 36, 2 : 343, ch. 40, 3 ; 41, 4 : 
344, ch. 43, 2 : 345, ch. 49, 2 : 346, ch. 49, 6 ; 51, 
1 : 347, ch. 53, 8 ; do. 54, 1 : 348, ch. 56, 2 ; 
eh. 67, 3, 5 : 349, ch. 60, 4 : 360, ch. 62, 
8: 361, ch. 64, 7; 65, 3, 17: 352, ch. 69, 
9 ; so. 2, 3 : 353, ch. 69, 11, 12, 13 ; do. 69, 2, 

4 : 364, do. 73, 3 ; ch. 74, 7 : 367, ch. 80, 4 ; 
do. 81, 1 : 358, ch. 83, 6 ; do. 83, 3 ; ch. 85, 6 : 
369, ch. 86, 10 ; 88, 2 : 360, ch. 88, 6 : 361, do. 89, 
3 ; ch. 91, 2 ; chh. 9, 2 : 362, ch. 93, 2 ; 
90.8, 1; 9,2: 366, ch. 101, 7 ; so. 11, 2 : 367. 

•ch. 103, 8 ; do. 103, 4 ; 104, 2 : 369, ch. 107, 13; 
do. 107, 4 : 370, ch. 108, 16 : 371, ch. 110, 6, 8 : 
372, ch. Ill, 16 : 373, ch. 113, 6 : 374, do. 115, 2 ; 
Ch. 116, 3 : 376, ch. 118, 8 ; ch. 118, 36, 36 : 377. 
ch. 120, 4 : 378, ch. 120, 5 ; do. 120, 1 : 379. 
ch. 126, 6 : 380, ch. 126, 7 ; chh. 12, 6. S^tp^, 
A., 149, ch. 86, 3. "^fwummi, LN., 312, ch. 92, 
8. Srr^, LN., 281, ch. 14, 6. %r(^, UT., 361, 
chh. 9, 4 : 367, ch. 104, 2. ^ LN., 305, chh. 4, 
1. ^wVtt, LN.. 279, ch. 11, 4. *5^, UT., 377, 
slo. 5, 2. ^iral^r^, 8U.. 271, ch. 46, 6. ^firatv. 
fim^, UT., 348, ch. 56, 3. niftfirtMniT, UT., 366, 
Ch. 102, 6. ^ywr, UT., 339, ch. 29, 5. ^jtxwW' 
Tmrw. A., 164, ch. 134, 3. ^, UT., 359. ch. 86, 
6. ^Iftift, LN., 279. ch. 10, 10. V, SU.. 257'. 
ch.4, 8. ^w, BK., 60, ch. 185, 3: 8U.. 256« 
chh.l, 4, LN., 278, ch.'7, 7: 322. chh. 37,7. 
2ftf^, LN., 279 ch. 11.7. ^^«jt^ Kl., 245. 



ch. 7, 11. ^^rtv, LN., 320, do. 107, 2. ^H^hn^, 
BAL, 114, eh. 340, 6. Srftw^, we ^ f ii^ MiiMi. 
Stftfiim, UT., 380 ch. 126, 4. 
^rf)rf%. A., 123, ch. 3, 2. 

^fd^N) BK, 60, do. 185, 1 : LN., 298, ch. 59, 29. 
^firar^, LN., 293, oh. 45, 10. 

^rf?Tft"i Bfit., 13. ch. 40, 8 : A., 160, ch. 121, 8 : 
A., 186, ch. 206, 2 : 186, do. 204, 1 : 206. do. 268, 
2. ^f%'f»iw,A.,174,ch.l66,5. 

^rf?!^Pr, BfiC.,9,Gh.22, 26: 64, ch. 197, 12: 73. 
chh. 28, 4 : 79, ch. 243, 6 : 85, ch. 260, 5 : A., 213. 
ch. 290, 12: AR., 224, ch. 3, 27: 226. ch. 7, 
14: 228, ch. 12, 5: 238, civ 31, 7: Kl., 244, 
ch. 4, 6: 247, ch. 9, 9: 250, ch. 21, 2: 261, 
ch. 24, 3: SU.. 261, ch.l7, 7: 271, ch.49, 1: 
LN^ 294. ch. 49, 4 : 303, ch. 72, 6 : 308, ch. 83, 6 : 
324, ch. 116, 1: UT., 344, ch. 43, 6: 356, 
do. 75, 3. 

^ra^l A., 194. ch. 229, 5. 

^r<T^9 Bfi(., 52. ch. 157, 6 : Kl., 289, ch. 35, 10 : 
290, ch. 87, 6: UT., 341. ch. 34, 2. ^, 
Bfit., 60 do. 183, 2 : 98, ch. 301, 3 : 8U.. 267. 
do. 34, 2 : Kl., 282. ch. 18, 4 : LN., 289. ch. 35, 
8: 301. chh. 3, 1: 307. chh. 8, 2. nrv4W, 
Kl., 243. ch, 1, 2. 

^rindd? Bfit., 84, ch. 258, 2 : A., 186. ch. 206, 2 : 
^8U.. 262, ch. 19, 3 : LN., 322, chh. 38, 3. ^, 
Bfit., 66, ch. 200, 3 : 72, ch. 227, 8 : AR., 222, 
ch. 2, 12 : 239, ch. 32, 1 : 8U.. 273, ch. 55, 2. 
^, LN.. 322, chh. 38, 3. ^iwnrr^, AR., 232. 
ch. 18, 7 : UT., 378. ch. 121, 8. ^^^mWV, SU., 262. 
Ch. 21,9. ^^, LN., 304,ch.75, 8. -igtnwni, 
AR., 226, ch. 8, 15. 




r, A., 162, ch. 127, 7 : 216, do. 297, 1 j ch. 298, 
3 ; do. 298, 2 : AR., 222, ch. 2, 18, 19 : UT., 361. 
ch. 66. 8. ^^K^TOir, A., 21 5, ch. 298, 1. ^^fn%, 
A., 216, ch.296, 5. *f^^rr»^. A., 216, ch. 299, 
2. ^iftw, A., 162, ch. 127, 6. ^, A., 215, 
ch. 298,2. 

|/ ^ir^,-.^wcf%, A., 185, Ch. 201, 2. 

^4Nwv, A., 169, ch. 150, 6. 
•^Nt, A., 169, ch. 148, 8. 
r. A.. 214. ch. 293, 7. 



^Rrar^ Bfit^ 5. ch. 12, 11 : 56. ch. 170, 3 : UT.. 379, 
do. 125, 1. 

^nni;^ a., i26, ch. 12, 3. 

^T^^) LN., 293. ch. 46, 7. See ^fw. 



^I^ UT., 354, ch. 72, 5. 

'*l<^l*H, LN., 281 , ch. 17, 8. 

^r^fn, Bfit„n, ch. 39, 14: 43, ch. J30,3: 65. 
ch. 199, 3. 



,A., 177. ch. 174,7. 




"*l^^^ eee ^fiw. 




) Bfit., 51, ch. 154, 8 : AR., 241, ch. 37, 5. 
^<0^l? A., 220, ch. 313, 6. 

^T^) Bfit., 17, ch. 62, 2 : 67, chh. 20, 3 : 70, do. 213, 

1 : A.. 210, ch. 283, 3 : AR., 235, ch. 25, 22 : 
UT., 357, do. 80, 2. ^^^ft, Bfit., 66, chh. 20, 
3. ^, BA., 67, chh. 24, 2. See^n^^. 






Vfj^t Bfit., 66, do. 201, 1. 

^^, UT., 334, chh. 5, 21 : 370, ch. 108, 3. 

,— Si>, LN., 281, ch. 16, 8. ^fir, UT., 367, 
ch. 104, 8. 

^r^) BAl, 54, ch. 166, 4. 

^HM^ Bfit., 9, ch.22, 20 : 40, do. 122, 1 : 43, ch. 128, 
6: A., 166, ch. 139, 4: 176, do, 171, 2: 185, 
ch. 199, 7: 191, do. 219, 2: AR., 223, ch. 3, 
16 : 235, ch. 25, 8 : 237, ch. 28, 2 : 238, ch. 30, 2, 

3 : Kl., 247, ch. 9, 10 : 11, 4 : SU.. 258, do. 7, 1: 
ch. 9, 9 : 263, ch. 24, 8 : LN., 285, ch. 24, 11 : 26, 
1 : 287, ch. 30, 6 : 31, 7 : 288, so. 4, 4 : 302, 
do. 68, 1 : 303, ch. 71, 6 : 315, ch. 97,8 : 320. 
ch. 107, 10 : 326, chh. 40, 6 : UT., 327, ch. 2, 8 : 
343, do. 41, 1 : 366, ch. 103, 6 : 367, Ch. 103, 13 : 
104, 1 : 376, ch. 118, 20. ^vim, SU., 271, ch. 47. 
7. ^^nmnr, UT.. 367, ch. 104, 8. 

Vl99?ti;, A., 186, ch. 203, 2 : UT., 343, ch. 42, 1. 

^^^HK, SU., 261 , ch. 18, 6. 

W^nn, AR., 236, oh. 27, 8. 

^TSI^^ BA..47, ch.143, 2 : 60, ch. 152, 2 : 69, ch.211, 
8 : 83, ch. 264, 4 : A., 136, ch. 40, 1 : 166, ch. 140, 

4 : LN.. 261. ch. 16, 6 : 287, ch. 81, 6 : UT., 366, 
ch.77,3. Sfir, A., 128, do. 17, 1. 

1|>Jt9)) AR., 238, chh. 10, 3 : UTn 366. ch. 101, 6, 
\it, UT., 363, do. 93, 4. 

^rWC, A., 167, ch. 144, 1 : 217, ch. 804.2 : LN, 326, 
do. 118, 4 : UTn 365, ch. 100, 5 : 373. ch. 114« 15. 



/- 



26, 7 ; A., 130, oh. 21, 2 : 
: LN., at, ch. 59, U : UT., 321, 



ir, 8 : 12, do. 66, 2 ; 68, 1 : 34, 
I. 115, 5 : 45, do. 136, 2 : 66, 
182, 8 ; do. 184, 2 ; ch. 185, 
; 75, ch. 8I!9, 6 : 78, ch. 240, 
: 85, do. 261), i : 95, ch. 292, 
: 98, ch. 302, 6; 121, ch. 365, 
v., 127, oh.ie, 8; 141, ch. 60, 
8 : 1»5, ch. 200, 7 ; 201, 8 
199, ch. 245, 5 i 246,8:200, 
ch.254, 7: 206, ch. 268, 4 
tl, 3 ; 241, ch. 37, 7 ; 242, 
, so. 1, 1 : SU., 2S7, ch. 36, 4 
, 2 : UT.. 331, ch. 9, 8 : 335, 
h. 80, 4 : 36S, ch. 84, 3 : 
14, 6 : 376, ch. 117, 16. 

37,8. 
10. 102, 2. 

I. 16, 2 : 22, ch. 68, 4 : 34, 
,h. 136, 7 : 46, oh. 141, 1 : 53, 
t,. 174, 2 : SO, ch. 185, 2 : 100, 
:h. 338, 3: A., 182, oh. 192, 2 : 
12, ch. 289, 5: 213, oh. 291, 8 : 
SU, 256, ch. 3, 9 ; 208, ch. 37, 
6 ; UT., 338, ch. 26, 1 : 341, 
I. 38, 3 : 362, ch. 93, 7 : 366, 
1. 107, 16 ; 379, oh. 125, 2. 

Ifll, B«., 121, do. 363, 2. 

60,2. 

ih. 70, 7. 

ch. 37, 4 : 16, ch. 47, 2 : 19, 
. 118, 1,2; 83, Ch.l95, 10: 
A., 144, ch.70, 6; 71,2: 161, 
sh. 134, t : SU., 276, ch. 59, 6 : 
11 : UT., 337, ch. 22, 4 : 344, 
108, 2 : 379, ch. 125, 6, 7. 

130, 7. 

a, AR.,241,ch.39, 7. 
142,5. 
ih. 163, 8 : LN., 293, ch. 45, 

h. 207, 5 : A, 148, ch. 81, 5 : 



153, 6. CI. < 



wflwT, B/K, 62, ch. 156, 6. 
»fhft, B«., 96, ch. 294, 7. 

^nJK, A, 180, do. 184, 2 : UT, 356, do. 74, 1. 
viW, B/t, 73, chh. 28, 3 : A, 144, oh. 69, 2 : 
194, ch. 231, 8 : LN., 306, oh. 77, 1. 

■«I«1^IV*I^» B*, 39, ch. 118, 1. 

■'H'1-tlf^llril A, 130, ch. 26, 7. 

^RKf^aErf, UT, 374, ch. 116, 4. 

^•n;^1 A, 171, ch. 157, 6. 



B«., U, ch. 38,1: 
AR., 236, ch. 26, 15. 



61, ch. 187, 11: 



^PT?, BU., 10, ch 26, 6 : 42, >o. 12, 2 : AR., 242, 
ch. 40, 7 : LN., 320, ch. 107, 6 : UT., 341 , ch. 35, 
2 : 346, ch. 47, 6. 

'l BH., 31, do. 96, 1 : AR.,237, chh. 9, 12 : 
LN., 317, chh. 31, 4: UT., 332, ch. 12, 8. 
Vcrft, BA., 39, ch. 116, 7. 



^ITSIITff, BA., 95, oh. 290, 4. 

'V^il A, 203, do. 259, 2. 

^HfT, BA., 6, oh. 16, 3:91, oh. 278, 2: A, 192, 
ch. 224, 8 : UT., 360, ch. 61, 7. Snnninpl', 
AR.,237, chh. 9,7. 

^Rfr, BAL, 14, do. 42, 1 : 40, ch. 122, 4 : 48, 
ch. 147, 6 : 49, ch. 149, 4 : LN., 302, ch. 70, 11 : 
303, do. 72, I; 304, ch. !3, 7j 74, 4 : 319, 
do. 104, 8 : UT., 334, tol. 1, 12 : 34"l, ch 35, 2 : 
347, ch 53,3: 361, ch. 89,3. H^, LN., 307, 
chh 8,1. 
wm, BA., 48, oh. 147, 6 ; 67 chh. 26, 1 : 
AR., 227, ch. 10, 12 : SU., 268, ch. 39, 2 : 
LN., 295, oh.;53, 4 : UT., 354, oh. 72, 4. 



IPP^, BA., 35, chh. 13, 3 : 70, ch. 215, 1 ; 101, 
ch. 308, 5;, 113, ch. 338, 4: 118, do. 355, 1: 
A, 131, ch. 27, 2 : 165, do. 108, 1 : 160, do. 119. 
2: 189, oh. 816, 8: UT, 327, do. 1, 6. 'vm, 
B«., 16, ch.49, 8. S^, BA., 119, oh. 357, 6. 
VeV, BA., 73, chh. 31, 4. Cf. «nT». 

vn^, BA., 18, ch. 56, 2: 113, ch. 337, 6: 
LN., 296, ch. 68, 8 : UT., 337, oh. 24, 3. 

^nns, A. 159, oh. 118, 1. 

w»*, BA., 36, ch. 107, 1 : 74, ch 227, 2 : A., 195, 
oh. 233, 2. 

■«(«ir«4(1) AR., 228, ch. 11, 3. 

■^I'RI, KL, 244, do. 8, 1, ^fir, Kl., 244, ch. 3, 8. 



9 



^IRflTRRl) UT.t 334, do. 15, 2 : 341, do. 35, 2 : 
347, Oh. 53, 5. 

^pnnf^r^t) KI., 252, ch. 25, S : SU., 366, 
eh. 34, 3. 



^PPr^) BAf., 32, ch. 99, 3 : 
UT..354.ch.72,5. 
T, AR., 226, ch. 8, 12. 



LN..321,chh.36, 15: 



•) BAl, 58, ch. 176, 2. 

^R*l^9 BfiC., 3, ch. 6, 7 : A., 128, ch. 17, 7 : 129, 
do. 21, 1; ch. 22,5: 177, ch. 176,3,6:202, 
ch. 257, 7. 

^fi^Ti— ^W^» A., 127, ch. 14, 5. 
"^RfVIQ) BfiC., 8, ch. 21, 6. 



'^ BfiC., 79. ch. 241, 2. 
^PTiiWr? BfiC, 10, ch. 28, 2 : 52, ch. 166, 16. Gf. 



t A., 145, ch.72,7: 170. ch. 151, 5: 172, 
Ch.l58, 7: 176, ch. 172, 5: 201, ch. 252, 3. 
, A., 186, ch. 199, 5. 



%l«lf<'*Ml LN.. 278, ch. 6, 5. 
^B^I^Tf, Bfil., 6, ch. 17, 9. 

^TTW^ BfiC., 3, ch. 6, 8 : 4 ch. 8, 12 : 14, do. 40, 
-2 ; ch. 44, 8 : 32, ch. 99, 7 : 54, Ch. 165, 7 : 56, 
do. 166, 2 : 66, ch. 201, 7 : 108, do. 329, 1 
A.. 133, ch. 33, 4: 171, ch. 157, 3: 217. ch. 305, 7 
AR., 222, ch. 2, 8 : 233, ch. 20, 3 : 241, ch. 38, 6 
8U., 257, ch. 5, 2 : 259, ch. 10, 5 ; 12, 3. 6, 11 
264, ch. 26, 7 : 272. do. 49, 1 : 275, ch. 59, 2 
LN.. 281 , Ch. 16, 6 : 283, ch. 21, 5 : 285. ch. 26, 2 
286, do. 28, 2 : 308, ch. 83, 4 : 319, ch. 105, 14 ; 
323, chh. 39, 2 : UT.« 342, do. 38, 2 : 370. ch. 108, 
16: 373. ch. 114, 13 : 377. ch. 119,19. ^, 
A., 137, do. 48, 1. ^^WT, BfiC., 31, chh. 5, 2. 
<qw,UT.,367,ch.l03,10. 

^RfTTT) BA:, 3, do. 3, 1 : A., 128, eh. 20, 2 : 131, 
ch. 26, 9 : 150, ch. 90, 5 : 201, do. 252, 1 : 
ch. 254, 4 : 214, ch. 203, 2 : KI., 245, ch..7, 7 : 
8U..269. Ch. 40, 7: 270, do. 43, 1 : UT., 343, 
eh. 40, 6 : 374, ch. 115, 9. 

^1R1^9 A., 206, ch. 267, 7. 

^IRT7) A., 140. eh. 56, 4: 151. ch. 93,1: 203, 
do. 260,2: SU.. 264, eh. 26,5: LN., 317. ch. 
101, 8 : UT.* 380, ehh. 12, 9. ^f^, BA^. 50. 
ch. 151, 3. 



Vm^, UT.. 334, tot. 1, 8. 
^imrr. A., 144, eh. 70, 3 : 148,>h. 81, 3: SU.. 258, 
eh. 7, 2. 




■-i BfiC, 9. ch. 25, 2 : 10. eh. 27, 1 : 35. 

ch. 106, 3 : 36. do. 108, 2 : 41. ch. 124, 6 : A*. 151 . 

ch. 91, 7 : 215, ch. 298, 4 : SUh 268, ch. 39, 2 : 

UT., 341, ch. 35, 4 : 359, do. 85, 2 : 361, ch. 91, 3. 
mnfi(, AR., 237. chh. 9, 5. 
^iTT^, BAT., 39, ch. 116, 5 : 49, eh. 149, 4 : 

A., 207, ch. 271, 6. 

^RTR) UT., 341, ch. 35, 6 : 370, eh. 108, 4. 
^V^nitT, BA., 6, ch. 18, 3. 



^nrra^) BA., 10, ch. 26, 2 : LN., 320, ch. 107, 6 : 
UT., 341, Ch. 35, 2. 

^RTTT^? A., 21 1 , ch. 286, 4 : UT.. 369, do. 106, 5. 
Of. 



'^'IT?:^, UT.. 345, ch. 47, 6. 
'NHI^H^ UT., 346, ch. 47, 6. 
^Vrf^? LN.. 293, ch. 45, 10. 

^f^nrr^-'^iftnTTf^, BA., 10, ch. 28, 4 : A., 186. 
ch. 205, 8 : UT.. 340, do. 30, 2 : 358, do. 83, 4. 

^ Hi 41^ ^4, SU., 258, eh. 8, 2. 
^rf^r^l BA., 4, ch. 8, 12. 

^trft^ A.. 189, ch. 214, 3 : LN., 290. ch. 38, 4 : 293 ; 
ch. 47, 1 : 296, ch. 54, 4 : 302. eh. 69, 1 : 305, 
eh.76, 1: 309. ch. 81,1: 310 chh. 14, 4 : UT.. 
334, tot. 1> 3- 

flnl^h^ BA., 66, eh. 200, 5 : LN., 300, ch. 64, 8 : 
UT.. 339, ch. 28. 5. Sc«w, A., 1 54, ch. 102, 6. 

^r€tf<T^ BA., 43. eh. 128, 7 : 64. sa 21, 1 : 98, 
ch. 301, 8 : UT., 344. ch. 44, 4, 6 : 364. eh. 97, 10. 
'Vft^t BfiC., 21. ch. 66, 8 : SU.. 271, ch. 46, 6 : 
LN.. 295. eh. 53, 3. 

^nro^— ^'fW*, BA;, 26, ch. 80, 2, 

^PoTi BA.. 6. eh. 18, 3 : 20. do. 61, 1 : 39, eh. 117, 
1 : 71. do. 217, 1 : AR., 242. eh. 40, 8 : UT.. 370, 
eh. 108, 4. . 

^WfT^ see ^W. 
"^TflWri BA., 17. Ch. 50, 3. 

^^^^^t BfiC, 66, do. 200, 2 ; 202, 1 : 81. m. 24, 
1 : 104. do. 818, 2 : 116. do. 346, 2 : A., 142, 



ID 



do. 61, 2 : m, dtf, 197, 1 ; 200, mt^ m,'l : 
AIL, 2S4, do. 3, 2 : SU„ m, tfo. 33, ) : UT<r |38, 
eh. 25, 8 : 378, do. 121, 2. 
V«f«T,.BAr., 8. ch. 21, 7 : 50. ch. 153, 2 : 94, 
ch.288;4: 102, ch. 811, 8: 108, ch. 325, 6: 
A.. 133, ch. 82, 8; H4: 139, ch. 52,8: 164. 
ch. 101, 1 : 197, oh. 240, 2 : 200, ch. 249, 8 : 202. 
ch. 257, 2: 206, ch. 268, 8: 212, ch. 289, 3: 
AR.. 228. ch. 13,,4 : 239, eh. 34, 4 : Kl., 244, ch. 4, 
1 : SUm 268, ch. 34, 2 : 271 , ph. 47, 6 : |.N.. 297. 
ch. 58, 7. 

^IRTw, B^., 9, ch. 86, 1 : 96, eh. 289, 8 : 116, 
"ch. 348, 6 : A..191. ch. 318, 10 : 210. 6h.2&?» 4 : 
217, ch. 302, 7. 

^R^^ Bfit:, 1, 80. 1, 2 : 7, ch. 19, 12 : 48, 
ch. 146, 4 : 51. ch. 156, 3 : 65, chh. 20, 4 : 73, 
chh. 30, 1 : A., 124, Oh. 4, 7 : 189, ch. 52, 8 : 1(4. 
ch. 99, 7 : 168, ch. 146, 8 ; chh. 5, 1 : 18], ch. 188, 
8 : 184, ch. 197, 2 : 202, do. 256, 1 : 212, ch. 289, 
5 : SU.. 258, ch. 7, 5 : UT^ 844, ch. 45, 7 : 352, 
ch. 69, 10 :368, do. 105, 8 ; ch. 106, 10. 



:? BA.. 94, ch. 286, 1 : A.. 198, ch. 243, 5 : 
^AR., 232, ch. 19, 1 : LN., 290, ch. 86, 4. 
^VI|^T««, UT., 348, ch. 57, 4. 

^Pr^, SU., 268, ch. 9, 5. 

^^r^d, BA.. 23, ch. 72, | : 81, cl».a49, 8 : 86, 

^ch. 263, 2 : 87, ch. 268, 3 : 92, do. 281, 1 : 93, 

ch. 284, 8 ; 285, 3 : 94, do. 285, 2 ; eh. 286, 4 : 

96. ch. 293, 6 : A., 126, ch. 11, 7 : 136, ch. 45, 6 : 

152, ch. 94, 4 ; 95, 8 ; 175, do. 168. 1 : ch. 169, 

5 : 176, ch. 170, 12 : 177, ch. 173, 7 : 191. ch. 220. 
7 : 192, ch. 222, 8 : 207, ch. 272, 7 : 211, ch. 286, 

6 : 214, ch. 294, 7 : LN., 318, ch. 101, 12. 

I, 0A., 71, ch. 217,4: 72, ch. 219, 10: 73, 
'ch. i22, 5 : 74, ch. 224, 2, 6 : 79, do. 242, 2; 243, 
1 : 94. ch. 287, 7 : A.. 161. ch. 92, 4 : 164, do. 101, 
2: 219, ch. 809,4: AR., 224, ch. 4, S, 8: 226, 
do. 5, 1 ; ch. 7, 5 : 226, ch. 7, 20 ; 8, 18 : 227, 
do. 8, 1 ; ch. 9, 8 ; 10, 10 : 229, ch. 14, SO : 230, 
ch. 15, 10 : 232. ch. 18, 10 : 234. chh. 8, 2:236. 
ch. 26, 4, 5 : 240, ch. 36, 2, i : Kl., 244, el). 4, 7 : 
2481 ch. 13, 8, 7 : 8U.. 260 ch. 14, S, 9 : 265, ch. 31, 

3 : 269, «h. 40, 2 ; 41, 6 : 270, ch. 46, 8 : 273, 
ch. 54, 2 : J2U, do. 56, 8 : LNh 284.«h.e8, 2, 8 : 
296, ch. 54, 6 : 297, ch. 58, 9 ; 69, 2 : 299. ch. 61, 

4 : 300, do. 64, 1 : 310,ch.86;8 : 318, ch. 103, 1, 
4 : 319. ch. 104, 6 : 321, chJlOO, 2 ; do. 100, 1 : 
322. chh. 37, 15 : 323. Chh. 89, B : 324, ch. IM, 
8 : UT., 328. ch. 3, 5 : 329. do. 4, 1 ; ch. 6, 3 : 330, 
oh. 7, 1, 2 : 333. Chh. 4, 8 : 3.36, ch. 17, 6 : 386, 
ch. 20, 1 : 366. ch. 79, 5. %IT, Kl., 253,. ch. 28 






1. V, UT., 327, do. 1, 6. *!pH|f, Ui, 323, 

do. 118, 6. ^,KI.,247,ch.9,7. Snr,BA.,75, 

ch. 230, 3. 
^^Wf , UT., 338. ch. 27, 8> . 
^«nftr, BA., 71. ch. 217, 6: 77. ch. 237, 3: 

A., 149. ch. 85,6: 166, ch. 137, 1: Kl., 260, 

do. 18, 1 : UT., 330, chh. 2, 3. 
^^^ff. A., 155, ch. 103, 8 : AR., 236. ch. 26, 1 : 

Kl., 247. ch. 11, 9 : LN.i 318. ch. 102, 5 ; UT., 330. 

chh. 2, 2. 

:, UT., 365, 99, 5. 



^flf^H^ A., 184, e^. 197, 2. 

^I^^, BA., 16, do. 48, 2 : 62, do. 192, 1 : 67 
ch. 205, 8 { 122, chh. 62, 2 : AR., 224, chh. 2, 
3 : 228, ch. 13, 4 : UT., 341 , ch. 36, 4. gee «i{^. 

^15^^ A., 239, ch. 84^ 6 : UT., 360, ch. 88, 18. 
^, AR., 227, ch. 10, 12 : UT., 334, chh. 6,21: 
370, 9h. 108, 4. 

K ^^'W')— ^i^*"^* BA.. 83, ch. 253, 7. 
'Wrnrfif, SAL, 10, ch. 26, 2. 
^V^rff, A., 156, ch. 105, 4. 

^I^prR, BA., 22, do. 67, 1 : KJ., 246. dj. 7, 6 : 
UT., 368, ch. 84, 3 : 370, do. 108, 2. 
^nrmrr, BA., 43, ch. 128, 4 : AR., 286, ch.25, 12 • 
Kl.,251, ch.24,4. 



V 



^f^Wnft^^i^mwt. BA., 20, eh. 62, 13: 64, 
chh. 19, 8: A., 149, ch.87, 4 : 202, ch. 256, 6 : 
AR.. 222, ch. 2, 16 : 233, ch. 22, 3 : LN., 283, 
oh. 19, 6 : 294, ch. 48, 4 : 296, ch. 58, 6. 

'tfmftr, BP(,, 61, do. 153, 2: A., 171, ch. 155, 
4 : T76, ch. 171, ? ; 8U., 270. do. 43, 1 : 
LN., 297, do. 57, 1. 

mwfrfty BA., 38, ch. 115, 5 : 63, ch. 162, 3 : 58. 
ch. 176, 8 : 60, ch. 184, 6 : 68, ch. 207, 4 : 116, 
ch.346, 7: 121, ch. 365,2: A., 136, P|l45,4: 
186,ch.206, 1. 

mw^, BA:. 26, ch. 79, 3. . 

^H'A^Hi UT., 380, ch. 126, 6i 

^fj^rrtr^ BA„ 2, do. 2, 1 : 4, cfi. 7, 9 : $, do. 16, 2 
49, do. 148, 1 : 63, do- )59, 2 : 122, chh. 62, 8 
so. 31, 1 : A., 183, do. 195, 2 : 184, ch. m, 7 
187, ch. 208, 7 : 196. ch. 236, 6 ; do, 237, 1 : 199 
do. 245, 2 : 200. ch. 249, 1 : 202. do. 256, 2 
206, do. 269, 2 : LN., 298, ch. 69, 6 : UTn 360 
do. 62, 2 : 861, ch. 66, 7 : 353, do. 69, 1 
369, do. 85, 4 : 362. do. 92, 2 : 369, do. 107, 2. 
A., 198, Chh. 10, 1. 



II 



c^. 



^^Jtwr, ek., I Oh. 1, 1 : S. oH. 6, 2 i 17, *h. 65, 
1 : 24. oh. 76, 6 : U, «K* 76, 3: 27, oh. 84, » : 31. 
Oh. 95, 16 : 44, Ohi 132, 3 : 66. ch. 168^ 4 : 73. 
^h. 90, 4 .' 76, Oh. 228, 6 : 78, «h. 340, 6 : 87. 
eh: 366, 4 : Uh oh. 838, 2 : A.* 148, th. 76, 2 : 
76,6: 161, oh. 91, 6: 16 J. cH. 98, 16: 166, 
ih. 103, 4 : 168, CH. 116^ 6 : 184, ch. 186, *: 180, 
ch. 186, 7 : Ufr, ch. 200, 6 : 262, 8 J 1 W, ch. 238, 
8 : 286, 6: 206, Ch. 268, 2 : 217, ch. 806, 6 : 
AR., 226, oh. 7, 7 : 228, oh. 18, 7 : tIT.. 332, 
ch. 13, 1 : 348, ch. 68, 4 ; 360, ch. 68,1 f Wl, 
ch. 64, 8 : 362, ch. 93, 1. 

^1^5, BA., 69, dd. 181, 2 : UT., 388 d6. 105, 1. 

^f^, A.. 181, ch. 190, 2 : 187, ch. 208^ 6 : 200, 
ch. 249, 6 : 208, ch. 275, 6 : 2l2, ch. 289, 4. 

^^, B^., 84, ch. . 266, 7 : 98, ch. 301, 7 : 99, 
ch, 303, 4 : 102. ch. 313, 2 : 106, ch. 320, 4 } 323. 
2 : 107. ch. 326, 4 : 109, ch. 330, 8 : 112, ch. 336, 
1 : 118, ch. 358, 3 : 119, ch. 359, 1 : 121, oh. 366, 
4 ; 366, 6 : A., 167, ch. 110, 7 : 163, ch. 130, 6 : 
17*3, oh. 162, 6 : 176, ch. 173, 1 : lt9, ch. 181, 8 ; 
194, ch. 229, 7 i 230,4: 196. ch. 234, 3 : 198, 
Oh. 242, 8 : 204. ch. 264, 7 : 208. eh. 265, 6 : 206, 
ch. 268,7: 210. ch.281, 1: 21 6, ch. 297,6; 
UT.( 336, to. 18, 2. 

^IKTirff, UT., 334, chh. 6, 24. 

^^[nuT, AR., 238, chh. 10, 4. 

^^^T, Bfi{., 117, ch. 351, 2 : A., 1^8. Ch. 9 , 2. 

^^trq^, Ut'i 368, ch. 84, 3. Ot ^kVtu*. 

^ipnCnfVi M.. i. ch. 21, 11 : 40, ch. 120, S : 4i, 
"'oh. 130, 2 : 65, chh. 21, 3 : 76, ch. 232, 4: 84, 
ch. 257, 2: 114, ch.342, 1: 118, ch. 854, 8: 
A., 200, ch. 249, 5 : 220. ch. 312, 8 : AR., 237. 
ch. 28, 3 : Kl., 281. oh. 23, 7 : 252. ch, 26, 13 : 
SOm 288, Ch. 6, 8 : UT., 327, ch. 2, »: 346, 
ch. 51, 8 : 366, ch. 103, 4. 

^pn^-) BA., 21, do. 64, a : 78, ch. 240, 6 : 83, 
do. 252, 1 : 110, chh. 61, 1 : 119. ch. 369,6 ; 
AR,, 221. ch.l, 1 : 229. ch. 14, 9 : SU., 268, 
oh. 88, 4 : LN., 816, do. 98, 2 5 UT.* 364, do. 72, 2. 
^V^KT, BM., 26, Ch. 81, 3: 33, ch.101, 8: 68, 
ch. 209, 4 : UT., 377, ch. 120, 1. 

^R'^V^— ^^^, A., 139, ch. 64, 4. 

1/ ^ffT^,-^»itt, A*. 166, ch. 136, 6. 
^It^'J BA., 67, ch. 172, 6 : A., 174, ch. 166, 

8 : 195. Ch. 232, 3 : UT.. 338, Ch. 26, 6. 
^v««T«, UT.. 369, ch. 107, 1. 
^f«riT, BK, 3, ch. 3, 10 : 71. 6h. 217, 4. 
^«Tf, A., 175, ch. 170, 6. 



^(1«^, BA., 1 14i ch. 340, ,6 : Hi;, .336. eh. 31, 3< 
^1«^, LN., 320, ch. 107, 12. 



< • 



^PJ^nr^ BAi, lOj do. 27, 3: 42. to. 13, «: 

A., 216. ch. 297, 6. 
^rprm, BMii \h «h. : 89/ 1 ; 49) oki UT, U: 
A.f 188, ch. 211, 5: 214< 6h. 393^ 4f LK; 282. 
«h.8,4 

^1^'^? ^* ^^^> ^^ ^^* ^: l$8i eh. 4$, 6: 
198, Ch. 244, 4 : LN„ 297, Ch. 69, 1 : 318. 
eh. i03, 6 i in*., 341 . ch. 3^, 1 : 362, ch. 69, 9 : 
!f9, Ch.86,6. 

^HA| (4|«l9 BtL, ih eh.- 102, 6 : 62, oh. 166, 8 : 
77, oh.,237» 4: 86. oh.263, 4 : 109. oh. 831, 10 : 
119» Ch. 368, It A.. 182, do. 180^ 1 : 199. 
ch. 247, »f 2}ii do. 296, 1; oh. 298, 1: 
8U., 268. ch, 88r 3 : LN.^ 303, eh. 72, 11 : 320. 
oh. 107, 1 : UT., 332, oh. 11, 6 > 12, 7 ; 344. 
Oh. 44,5. 

Hf^^l^'^lf AR., 223. ch. 8, i. 

j/'ipprCj-^N^, A.,196ieh.ife2,4. 

^niTTt, BA., 7, ch. 19, 12. 
^rv«^, BA., 76. olu 23i, 4 : A.. 14), do. S6, 2 : 
176. ch. 170, 15. 

^1|«J^ I <5.^^, B/t, 3). eh. 102, 1. 

'tVtit^. BA., 19. do. 68, 1 : 79, do. 242, 2 : 82. 

do. 251, 2. 
«r«T^. BA., 16. eh. 45,2: 77, eh. 236, 7: 104. 

ch.3i8, 6: A., 146, ch.75, 7: 169, ch. 148,4: 

190, ch. 218, 6: 193, eh. 226, 4: 199, eh. 247, 7: 

204 eh. 264, 3. 

^nXT) BA., 16, eh, 46, 6 : 21. do. 64, } ; 48. 
^h, 147, 4 : 59. do. 180, 1 : 71. do, 2lf, 2 : 74. 
oh, 225,7; 326,6: 83. do. 262, 2 : 84, ch. 266, 
16 : A;, 187. oh. Ill, 4 : 216. do. 297, 2 : 218, 
do. 305,}; AR.,221, chil,l; 237,chh.9,l: 
LN., 321. ohh. 86, 3 : UTn 333. chh. 6, 1 : 336. 
eh; 18, 6 1 340. chh. 8, U S?m^$ Afl.« 223. 
chh. 1, 21. 
WS^, BA.i 10, eh. 26, 3: 37,1: 26, ch. . 81,^ 3 : 
33. ch. 101, 8 : 48, ch. 147, 10 : 49, oh. 148, 1 : 
149, 5: 51. oh. 163,6: 68, eh. 176, I: 67. 
chh. 27, 2 : 68, ch. 209, 4 ; Y04r eh. 818, 7 » 109. 
ch. 331, 4 : 1 12. ch. 334, 2 : A., 161. eh. 91, 7 : 
185, ch. 2iD2,l: AR.,227,^9, 6: 230.ch.15, 
18 i 236, th. 27a, 1 : 238, oh. 3I>, 9 : Kli, 248. 
eh. 18, 3: 249, ch. 17, 3: LN., 2#I, <Jh. 14, 7 : 
)10, eh. 86, 8 : UT., 361. ch, 67, 3 : 35f, ch. 81, 
6 : 370. ch, 108, 4, 12 : 373, oh. 113, 2 : 377, 
ch.120, 1; 



12 



^R<l^) BA., 9,ch:28, 2 : 11. ch. 30, 5 : It. ch. 51, 
7: UT..3ei.ch.91,8. 8ee 

^^MH) UT.. 377. ch. IW, 7. 



9 BAf.. 6. eh. 13, d ; 11. ch. 29, 2 : 14. eh. 42, 
7: 15. eh. 46,15: 21. eh. 66,2: 23. eh. 72,7: 
26. ch. 80, 6 : 27. eh. 86, 1 : 29, ch. 91, 4 : 35, 
ch. 107, 4 : 42, ch. 126. 8 : 52. ch. 168, 6 : 68, 
ch. 209, 4 : 92, ch. 282, 6 : 97, ch. 296, 7 ; 297, 2 : 
100, ch. 307, 3 : 102, ch. 312, 1, 3 : 106, do. 323, 
1 : 110, ch; 332, 5 : 112, ch. 335, 2 : 113, ch. 389. 
5 : 118, ch. 855, 6 : 120, do. 360, 2 ; ch. 363, 1 : 
A., 144, do. 68, 1 : 161, ch. 91, H : 152, ch. 97, 9 : 
156, do. 107, 1 ; ch. 108, 8 : 169. ch. 150, 1, 4 : 
do. 150, 1 : 172, ch. 161, 2 : 174, ch. 164, 3 : 201. 
ch. 253, 3 : 206, do. 267, 1 : AR., 227, ch. 10, 6 : 
231, Ghh. 6, 1 : 237, chh. 9, 10 : 239, ch. 32, 2 : 
LN., 284, do. 23, 12 : 286, ch. 28, 2 : 287, do. 81, 
3 : 299, do. 60, 2 : 311, chh. 17, 1 '. 315, chh. 24, 
2:316, chh. 27, 2,7: 321, chh. 86, 8: 322, 
chh. 38. 2 : 324. do. 114, 8 : UT.. 332, do. 11, 2 : 
333, chh. 6, 18 : 337, ch. 28, 2 : 338. ch. 25, 1 : 
339, chh. 7, 8 : 340, chh. 8, 8 : 341, ch. 85, 2, 6: 
344, do. 42, 1 : 349, ch. 58, 7 : 354, do. 72, 3 : 
356, ch. 78, 7 : 357, do. 80, 4 ; ch. 81, 5 : 364. 
do. 97, 4 : 374, ch. 115, 6 : do. 115, 4. 
MiNrT,:Btf.. 17,ch.50,2: 21.ch.64, 7: 39,ch.ll9, 
8 : 41 . ch. 123, 5 : 43, ch. 129, 2 : 55, ch. ite, 6 : 
59, ch. 180. 7 : 98, ch. 800, 4 : A., 125, ch. 7, 
4 : 206, ch. 267, 8 : AR., 241 ,ch. 37, 7 : KL, 248, 
ch. 18, 7 : 15, 2 : LN., 313, ch. 93, 1 : UT., 332. 
ch. 11, 7 : 340, ch. 32, 8 : 345, ch. 46, 3 : 346. 
ch. 50, 8 : 348, ch. 58, 2 : 352, ch. 69, 6 : 357, 
ch. 80, 4 : 82, 1 : 876, ch. 118, 87. 



"fSV^^ B^., 94, ch. 287, 7. 

^SPff, BA., 4, eh. 8, 6 : 41, ch. 126, 4 : 71, ch.215, 
8: A., 129, ch. 23, 3: 134, ch. 36, 8: 171, 
ch. 156, 3: Kl., 247, do. 9, 2: ch. 10, 3: 
LN., 293, do. 44. 1 : 302, ch. 69, 1 1 UT.. 330, 
chh. 3. 2 : 344, eh. 46, 1. ^«iw, UT.. 335! 
ch. 16, 4. 

't'lW, BAl, 85, ch. 259, 5 : A., 133, ch. 36,' 4 : 
140, ch. 66, 4: 166, ch. 139, 4. 

^mi. A., 177, ch. 175^ 4 : 185, ch. 199, 6. 

m^r UT., 345, ch. 46, 6 : 361 , ch. 89, 5. 

^RH^i BA., 26, eh. 80, 2 : 51, ch. 155, 6 : A., 199, 
do. 247, 1 : AR., 234, ch. 28, 17 : 8U., 274, ch. 68, 
6 : LN., 278, ch. 7, 6 : 292, ch. 43, 1 : 3-1. ch. 89, 
2 : 315, do. 97, 2 : 319, ch. 105, 14 : 323, chh. 89, 
8 : UT., 342, ch. 87,7: .346, ch. 50, 6: 372,ch. 112, 
li, 4 : 375, ch. 117. 2. ^ini?l. BA.. 20. ch. 62. 6 .- 



63, 8 : 31, Ch. 97, 8 : 38, eh. 113, 6 : 42, eh. 126» 
2 : 51 , eh. 154, 7 : A., 143, ch. 65, 8 : 144, ch. 71, 
6 : 183, so. 7, 1 : 186, ch. 203, 3 : 199, do. 246, 1 : 
202, eh. 256, 6 : 257, 1 : 212, ch. 287, 1 : ARh 224, 
ch. 3, 28 : 225, eh. 6, 7 : 226, ch. 8, 19 : 239, ch. 34. 
l:240,ch.37,2: 8U., 271, eh. 49, 5: UT..342, 
ch. 37, 4 : 358, ch. 84, 8. *MTWT. LN., 304, ch. 73, 12. 
*wnr, LN., 31 3, eh. 93, 1 : UT., 332, do. 14, 2. ^f%w. 
BA.. 46. ch. 140, 2 : 119, ch. 367, 3. nm^, 
BfiC,2t, eh. 87, 7 : 48, do. 145, 1 : 52, ch. 166. 14. 

^SPfmi^, LN., 306, chh. 6, 6. 

^IT^WT^, Aa, 231, Chh. 7, 5. 

') BA., 7, ch. 19, 10. 

\ BA., 30, ch. 96, 6 : 41, eh. 123, 1 : 84, ch. 256, 
5 : A., 145, eh. 72, 3 : 210, ch. 282, 8 : AR., 223, 
ch. 3, 8 : LN., 288, so. 4, 2 : UT., 353, ch. 70, 7 : 
364, ch. 96, 6. ^wiK, UT., 377, ch. 119, 18. 

Waif^, BA.. 118,ch.d66,7. 

^, LN., 283 do. 21, 2. 

^^^'^ BA., 36, ch. 109, 8 : 57, ch. 172, 6: 58. ch. 177, 
6 : A., 174, do. 164, 1 : AR., 234, eh. 24, 8 : 
UT.. 365, chh. 10, 10. Vw, LN., 285, ch. 26, 6. 

/iRWT, BA"., 26, eh. 81, 8 : 31. eh. 97, 2 : 45. 
eh. 136, 1 : 59, do. 178, 2 : UT., 377, 8%: 6, 1."* 

^^^ (^^)l BA.. 49, eh. 149, 6 : 51. eh. 163, 3 • 
UT., 373, ch. 114, 2. 
VVi. {^^), BfiC, 52, ch. 166, 10: 65, ch. 199, 2. 

^rf»9^ (^f^l LN., 322, ch. Ill, 8. 

1/ ^I^"R,-^r«^TT, BA:, 17, do. 62, 1. 

'Tf^Tt.A., 151,ch. 92, 7. 
'if^TP, UT., 332, ch. 12, 3, 5. 

T«^. BA.. 70, ch. 213, 1 : 114, ch. 342, 3 : 11 9, 
ch. 368, 3 : A., 1 96, ch. 236, 5 : AR., 222, ch. 2, 20. 
^<rrf9, BA^ 6, ch. 16, 6. 
^t^TT^, A., 173, ch. 164, 1. 
^lTtw». UT., 332, eh. 12, 2. 

^Z ^WWi— VfTT, A., 155, eh. 103, 6 : do. 105, 
. 1 : 160, ch. 120,4 : 189, ch. 218, 4: 198, ch. 243, 8. 
r. A., 185,. ch. 200, 6. 
r, A., 204, ch. 263, 3. 
nixA, BA., 82, ch.260, 7 : A., 156, do. 106. 2 : 162, 

do. 127, 2 : 184, eh. 196, 4 : 190, ch. 218, 8. 
^Pllt, BA., 74, ch. 224, 4 : A., 151, bh. 92, 3 : 184. 
ch. 186, 8 : 192, ch. 224, .4 : 196, ch. 238, 7 : 205. 
ch.266, 14. 
<niiT,A., 197,ch.240, 3. 
^rvTf, .A., 139, ch. 62, 1. 



18 



^VqiKK, BA.. 47. Ch. 144, 8. 
^i^«m, LN., 285, ch. 24, 6. 

^M*lij^— Nk, UT.,363, m. 10, 1. 
^M^^Pfi^ BAf., 92, Ch. 281, 7. 

^TWf^i LN., 280, ch. 11, 9 : 297, ch. 67, 3. *fii^ 
UT.. 333, chh. 4, 2. Cf.^«^^. 

^Vnnr99 bat., 4, do. 9, 2: 34, chh. 10,4: a., 132, 
ch. 30,6: 142, ch. 62, 6: 161, ch. 93,6: 174, 
do. 165, 2: 177, ch. 173, 4. LN., 298, ch.69, 
12. ^wTnw, A., 172, ch. 158, 6. ^nf, A., 151, 
ch. 93, 7. 



[t BfiC,, 12, ch. 34, 2 : A., 195, ch. 233, 6 : 202, 
ch.257, 3. 

^/^nr^Ti— '^^w?, LN.. 310, chh. 14, 1. 

^t^^^ ^RTT, ^nrff^ ^^niT, sm^t^. 

jAnRT(T),-^^nrTT, BfiC., 61, do. 186, 2. 

^[^mtV> LN., 323, ch. 113, 7. 

^ipiTt, BfiC., 55, ch. 166, 7 : 1 16, ch. 347, 1 : A., 128. 

ch.19, 6. 
^i^fwrfT, UT.. 360, ch. 88, 11. 

^^uri. A., 212, ch. 288, 3. 
. ^imm, SU.. 272, ch. 50, 2. 

^fftRtft", B^., 64, Chi 166, 2 : 80, ch. 246, 8. 

^MMI^9 UT., 343, do. 40, 1. 
^tjwnCT, BfiC., 24, ch. 74, 3. 
^^irTf:, A., 146, ch. 75, 4. 

^rqiT^^ B/V., 106, ch. 321, 6: A.. 162, ch. 126, 7: 
UT.. 341, do. 34, 1 : 376. ch. 118, 10. ^, SU.. 
257. do. 4. 1. 
n^ifvi, UT., 346. ch. 47, 7. 

^nTiT7) BAT., 96, ch. 293, 8. 

^U4|l«l) BfiC., 24, ch. 73, 6 ; do. 78, 1. 

'mnirPr, LN., 287. ch. 30, 8. 

Wlfmx, B^., 22' ch. 69, 2 : 23, ch. 72, 3 : 24. 

ch. 73, 7 : 61, ch. 188, 2 : AR., 223, ch. 3, 9 : SUm 

259, ch. 10, 1 : UT., 348. ch. 57, 3. 
^%m^, BfiC., 92, ch. 279, 6. 

im<, BK., 1 1 , ch. 80, 7 : 18, do. 67, 1 : 31 , ch. 97, 
3 : 48, ch. 147, 9 : 52, do. 156, 2 ; ch. 167, 6 : 
76, Ch. 232, 8: 77, ch. 235, 1, 8; ch. 236, 4: 
84,ch.256, 6, 8: 99. ch. 803, 2: 100, ch.307, 
3: AR.. 227, ch. 9, 13: 228, ch. 12, 4: 241, 
do. 37, 2 : Kl., 264. ch. 30, 7 : LN.. 278, do. 6, 2 : 
281 , ch. 16, 1 : 298, ch. 69, 80: 310. chh. 16, 4: 



317, ch. 100, 1 : 324, do. 116, 4 : UT.. 353, ch. 71, 
8 : 358, do. 83, 4. 

^nrCT^T-) BfiC, 23, ch. 71, 7 : 36, chh. 12, 1 : 36, 
do. 109, 2 : 43, ch. 131, 7 : 48, ch. 146, 3 : 58, 
ch. 178, 5: 95. ch. 290, 8: 111, chh. 64. 2: 
A., 136, ch. 43, 3 : 138, ch. 49, 6 : 146. do. 76, 1 : 
188. ch. 210, 6, 6 : AR., 235. ch. 25, 1 : SUh 263. 
do. 22, 2 : 266. ch. 31, 4 : 274. ch. 67, 6 : 
LN., 283. ch. 20, 6. 

wrvn, BfiC, 22, ch. 68, 2: A., 139, ch. 63, 7: 
SU., 262, ch. 21, 3 : 266, ch. 31, 6. 

^^^ B^., 9, ch.25, 3: 93, ch.283,6:A., 136, 
ch. 42, 7 : 176, ch. 170, 16 : 185, ch. 199, 7. 

^iqrjllt, BfiC., 93, ch. 283, 6 : 94, ch. 287, 4 : 
A., 177, Ch. 176, 8. 
5^nf^, A., 200. ch. 260, 6. 

^Ttnrti BfiC., 27. ch. 84, 7. 

^9^^Nr<) BA., 3. ch. 6, 7 : LN., 298. ch. 69, 13. 

j/^n^TC^— ^^^^ Kl., 249. ch. 17, 6 : UT., 349. 
ch. 60, 6. 
w^TOr, A., 206. ch. 268, 1 : 220. chh. 13, 3. 
^^^rff, BAl, 100. ch. 306, 4. 

^VqT«T9 BfiC, 90, do. 245,2: 107. chh. 40, 1: 109, 
ch. 331, 6 : A., 194, do. 231, 2. 

"KtrnC) BA:. 3, ch. 7, 1 : 7, do. 18, 1 : 10, do. 27, 1 : 
13,ch.40,6:42, so. 13, 1: 89, do. 272, 2: 91, 

. ch. 277, 8 : 1 1 3, ch. 389, 6 : 122, chh. 61, 2 : A., 161 , 
to. 4, 2: 218, do. 306, 1: Kl.. 253, do. 28, 1; 
ch. 29, 3 : SUm 262, do. 19, 2 : LN., 297, do. 68, 3 : 
309, do. 83, 1 : 310, do. 85, 2: 311, do. 89, 1 : 318, 
chh. 33, 4 : 320, do. 106, 3 : 322. chh. 37, 5. ^, 
LN., 321. chh. 36, 6. 

^^, AR., 226, ch. 8, 12. 

^vm, BfiC, 6, ch. 13, 10 : 6, ch. 17, 10 : 14, ch. 42, 
6 : 14, ch. 44, 4 : 18, ch. 57, 8 : 20, ch. 62, 4 : 22, 
ch.68, 8: 32, ch. 98, 4 : 39, ch. 118, 7 : 43, ch. 130, 
6 : 50, ch. 150, 2 : 52, ch. 158, 3 : 58, ch. 178, 7 : 
60,ch. 182, 6: 63, ch. 193, 7: 70. ch. 215,4: 
87, ch. 266,7: 88,ch.270, 8: 102, cji. 312,6: 
A., 146. ch. 74, 14: 152. ch. 96, 7: 163, ch. 98, 
11: 155, ch. 106, 4: 205, ch. 266, 8: AR., 229, 
ch. 15, 6 : Kl., 263, ch. 28, 4 : SU., 262, ch. 18, 7 : 
267, ch. 85,8: 271, ch. 49, 4: 272, ch. 49, 10: 
LN., 281 , ch. 16, 3 : 286, ch. 26, 2 : 286, ch. 28, 4 : 
291, ch. 40, 3 : 305. ch. 76, 1 : 308, ch. 83, 3 : 309, 
ch. 84, 6 : UT., 327, ch. 2, 1 : 344, ch. 43, 2 : 346. 
ch.49, 4: 347. ch. 63, 2: 351. ch. 65, 8: 362, 
Ch. 68, 3 : 357. ch. 80, 7 ; 81, 8 : 364, Ch. 97, 10 : 
878, ch. 114, 10 : 374. ch. 116, 3 : 376, chr 118, 30. 



u 



^vn^ A., 169, ch.-148^5. - : 

^mW^, BfiC., 26, ch. 79, 7 : 33, thh. 7, i : ti 6Hh. 29, 
*: LN., 303, eh.. 72, 4 : UT.# 862j ta »^ 4 f 111, 
ch. 120, 8. 
^n^, AR., 224, so. 4, 1. 
^wr^, LN., 309. chh. 12^ 1. 

^rfir^ BA., 67, do. 174, 1 : OT., ^66, do. 78, 2. 
i«^, UT.i 366. chh. 10, 7. 

^% SU., 2t5, Ch. 69, i ; UTi. 377, d6, IW, «. 

^nrf<Tt«Ti UT.. 369, Oh. loe, 16. 

inr^^) AR^ 237. Chh. d, 5. 

^rfjl^) BfiC., 72. ch. 220, 1. 

^T^TTT) BfiC, 3}, chh. 6, 4: i2, dO. 100, 2: 86, 
ch. 258, 5 : 1 16, do. 344, 1. GIL ^^r^. 

9 Bfi(., 4, do. 11, 2 : 12, eh. 34, 6 : 14. <h. 43, 3 
16, do. 44, 2: 17, do. 64,1: 19, do. 68, 1: 21 
ch: 64, 2; 66,8: 22, ch. 68,4; 69, 4, f: 25 
ch. 77, 7 : 26, do. 80, 2; ch. 82, 1 : 27, Oh. 86, 2 
do. 84, 2 : 28/ do. 86, 1 ; ch. 87, 6 ; 2t, dd. 89 
1: 29, ch. 91,2; 31. do. 98, 1; eh. 97,3: 32 
ch. 98, 4 ; do. 98, 2 ; ch. 99, 2 : 36, chh< 19i 3 
36. do. 100, 2 : 38, ch. 113, 1 : 42, ch. 127, 3, 4 
47, ch. 144,4, 6: 48, ch. 145,8: 61, ch. 154 
3: 62, ch. 166, 3: 54. do. 166, 2; ch. 166 
5 : 65. do. 166, i ; Oh. 167, 4 ; Ch. 168, 13 
66, Oh. 169, 7 : 67, ch. 173, 7 ; ch. 176, 3 : 60 
ch. 184, 2 : «1, ch. 186, 7: 66, ch. 200, 6 : 70 
do. 214, 2 : 86, ch. 262, 3 : 68, Ch. 268, 6 : 90 
ch. 274, 8 : 93, ch. 283, 3, 4 ; 93, ch. 284, 4 
94, ch. 286 1: 96, eh. 294, 6; do. 294, If 101 
ch. 311, 3 : 104. ch. 319, 1 : 108. ch. 328, 2:110 
Chh. 53, 3: 112. ch. 336, 7: 113, ch. 338,7 
A., 124, Ch. 4, 7 : 127, ch. 15, 7 ; 17, 1 : f28 
Ch.17, 4, 6; 18, 6: 132, Ch. 30, 6; eh. 32 
8: 133, Oh. 32, 7; do. 32, 2: 134, eh. 36 
6: 138, ch.49, 8: 164. eh. 99, 7:165,ch.l04 
8: 169. ch.- 117, 7: 160. eh. 122, 2: A., 161 
ch. 1^, 3: 162. ch. 128, 1: 163. do. 130,1 
166, Oh. 138, 1 : 166, eh. 141, 5 : 167. do. 144 
2 : 174. ch. 167, 6 : 176, ch. 170, 4 : 176, ch. 170 
16; oh. 173, 2: 177. eh. 173,6: 179. ch. 182 
6 : 181 , ch. 188, 8 : 183, ch. 194, 3 : 186, do. 199 
1; Ch. 201,. 6: 188, eh. 210, 4: 198. oh. 242 
14: 243, 2: 199. do. 244,2; eh. 246,1: 201 
ch. 262, 7: 202. oh, 266, 6 ; 267, 1 ; 268, 2 ^ 203 
eh. 269, 7: 208. do. 273, 2: 210, eh. 280, 8 
281, 4: 212, do. 289, 2: 216, ch. 296, 7 ; 298 
7 : 216. Oh. 301, 8 : Aa, 221. 1, 2 : 222, ch.3, 13 



224. ch. 3, 26 : 226. Oh. 5, 3 : 227. ch^, 97 ; 9, 3 ; 
10, 3: 229. ch. 14, 10 : 236, ch. 27, 4: Kl., 246. 
ch. 7, 21 : 247. chh. 1, 6 : 260. Oh. 19, 4 : f61 , 
eh. 21, 8 : '262. oh. 29, 4 f 263. oN. 27, 2 f 99, 7 : 
8U.. 268. ch. 7, 4 : 269, ch. 12, 2 : 260. dor 14, 1« 
8: 261,eh.l7,6: i64,eh.27,7; 266, do. 29,2: 
267r oh. 34, 8, 9 : 269, oh. 41, 2 ; do. 41, 2 ^ 4% 
2 : 271 , eh. 46, 8 ; 47, 6^ 49, 7 : LN., 276. oo. 1, 2 : 
282, eh. 17, 5 : 283, ch. 20, 3 ; do. 20, 1 ; oh. 21« 
7 : 2S4, Oti. 23^ 4 : 285, d«t. 2d, 2 : 286, eh. 29, 
287. Oh. 90, 1; 31, 6, 7 : 289. oh. 35, 7: 292, 
eh. 43, 4 : 294. ch. 48, 9: 296. oh. 55, 6: 298. 
eh. 59, 6, 13 ; do. 69, 2 ; oh. 60, 1 : 299. ch. 60, 
7; 61, 7: 301. oh. 67, 3: 308. oh. 83, 6: 310. 
do. 87, 2 : 312. ch. 91, 7 } do. 91, 3 : 31 3. oh. 93, 
6, 7 : 316. ch. 97, 6 ; chh. 24, 4 : 318, Oh. 101, 14, 
319. oh. 106, 1 : 320. 107, 12 : 321. chh. 36, 19: 
322. do. 110, 1 ; chh. 37, 10, 12 : 323. oh. 113, 6 : 
324. oh. 116, : 326. chh. 40, 3 : UT., 327. do. I, 
6 : 328, ch. 3, 14 : 330. chh. 2, 7 : 332. ch. 11, 8 : 
336, do. 17, 1 : 336, oh. 19, 8: 347, oh. 53, %; 
do. 63, 1 : 349, ch. 59, 2 : 361, do. 64, 2 ; OK. 65, 
3 : 362, OH. 69, 10 : 388, oh. 86, 6 : 369, d«. 86, 1 ; 
ch. 86, 1: 360. oh. 88, 13: 363. do. 93, 1; 
ch.94, 5: 368. do. 106, 7; Oh. 106, 1, II, 12 : 
371. oh. 110, 16 : 376, oh. 118, 2 : 380. do. 126, 1 : 
^, LN., 282, ch. 18, 17. ^, B*f., 90. ch. 276, 7. 
^nfl BAT.. 60. oh. 150, 8: A., 167, do. 110, 2r 
8U..261. ch.l6, 3: LN.. ^89. oh. 34, 11: 302. 
oh. 69, 7 : UT.i 363. eh. 93, 17. 
^v^. A., 133. eh. 34, 7 : LN., 279. oh. 11, 3 : 285. 
ch.24, 10: 304. ch. 75, 6. 

^Rnn^) UT.. 360. oh. 88, 19. 
^^«m, UT., 361. oh. 89, 8. 

^nPTTT, BfiC, 89. ch. 271, 2. 

^WHTVT, BfiC, 3. ch. 7, 1 : 4. eh. 12, 5 : 84, eh. 256, 

6 : UT., 338, eh. 27, 5 : 361 , ch. 89, 6. 
^l«T(, A.. 131, ch. 27, 7 : 201, ch. 261, 6. 

^^WTTTi— ^inrnfl. A., 166, ch. 109, 6, 

^mtft, A., 206, chh. 11, 1. 
^WVT^, BfiC, 16, eh. 48, 9. 

^^ 411^9 A.. 206, ch. 266, 8. 

^BT^J^^ Bfil., 3, oh. 6,6; 6,9 r 6, Oh: 17, 6: 26. 
Ch. 77, 7 : 81 . Oh. 249, 2 : A., }S2, ch. 126, 1:178, 
ch. 177, 8 : 1 92, oh. 223, 6, 7 ; do. 224, 2 : 212. 
oh. 287, 3 ; AR., 241. dtf. 39, 1 : Kl., 244. oh.3, 1 : 
246. ch. 9, 6 : dU.. 266. Oh. 81, 5 : 276. oh. 69, 1 : 
LN.,281.ch. 17, »: UTn 327, Oh. 2, 6. S^^ 
A., 203.ch. 269, 6. Vmi, 8^1,17, do. 60, 2. W 



'-" 



IS - 



AR.,221. do. 1, 9. ^mim, BJX,, 29, dp. 90,1. 
*^— . UT., 343, «h. 41, 7. 



^^9«f«, Kl.. 24S, ch. 7, .4. 
^TfVqT) UT^ 370, ch. 108; }5. 



r, AR., 224, «h. 4, 4 : LM., 291,ch. 40, G : 302, 
ch. 70, 6. 

^nnCm<> tPT., 373, do. 118, 4. 
p^^^PfiS'T-^, UT.. 373. ch. 114, 13. 

^^nrWlCr-^*fr, P^.,2«. ch.99, 8. 
^WfTP^ffT, BAl, 31 , ch. 97, 6. 

j/ ^R?fT,-^i|ifTT, Kl., 262, do. 26, 1. 

ntnmfif, BAT., 52, ch. 156, 12, 
^VlWT, BfiC., 48, ch. 147, 2 : UT., 376, ch. 118, 27. 
^wilft^, BAf., 66. ch. 1 99. 6, 6. 
^W(. BA:. 34. do. 102, 1. 
I ^wi^, BfiC., 8. ch. 22, 16: 19, do. 69, 2: 20, 
chh. 2, 4 : 71 , ch. 218, 6 : LN., 278, ch. 7, 8 : 294. 

do. 47, 2. 
^^ircv, Kl.,246,ch.9,6. 

^IPITrnt:, BA., 42, m. 12, 2: 43,ch.l31, 4: 48, 
do. 146, 1 : 49, ch. 147, 16 : 99, do. 304, 2 : 
LN.,321, Chh. 36, 6: UT.. 333, chh. 5, 3 : 149, 

ch. 69, 8. 
^mm, BfiC., 14. ch. 42, 6 : 19, ch. 69, 7:31, ch. 97, 
1: 43, ch. 130, 4} 131, 6: 49, ph. \i7, 14: 
AR., 232,ch.l9, 8: Kl., 264,ch.30, 6: 348, 
Ch. 57, 2 : UT., 861, ch. 66, 8. 

^9T9) BA., 1 1, ch. 29, 6 : 14. ch. 44, 4 : 16, do, 48, 
2 : 96, ch. 295, 2 : 99, ch. 303, 18 : 1 12, ch. 834, 4 : 
116, do. 348, 2 : 121, do. 366, 2 : 122, ch. 867, 6 : 
A., 123, ch. 2, 3 : 126, ch. 8, 8 : 126, ch. 12, 7 ; 13, 
4:]28,ch.l8, 4: 132,ch.J»,9: 134, »h. 36, 3} 
87, 3 : 137, dp, ^6, 2 : 138, chh. 2, 4 : 139, c|i. 61, 
8: i40.ch.55,2, 6: 143,ch.66,3; do. 66, 1 : 
144, Ch. 70, 8 : 146, ch. 78, 8, 4 : 147, oh. 70, 4 : 
148, ch. 81, 8, 6 ; 82, 6 : 149, ch. 84, 7 : 161 , ch. 93, 
1 : 162, ch. 94, 7 : 164, ch. 134, 6 ; 186, 4 : 186, 
ch. 136, 3 ; 187, 4 : 166, ch. 189, 2; 140, 7 ; 141, 
6t 1«J. 9!», 142, 5 : 169. do. 147, 1 ; c^. \4», Qf 
170, ch. 151, 6 : 182, ch. 192, 5 : 1KB, ch. 204, 6 : 
190, ch. 217, 8 : 198. ch. 242, 16 : 199, ch. 245, 2 : 
203, do. 260, 2 : 204. oh. 261, 6, 7; do. 261, 1 ; 

. ch.268, 6; do. 268, 2: 216. ch. 301, 8: 217, 
oti. 808, 6 : Kl., 262^ ch. 26, 1 : LN., 298, ch. 69, 11 : 
326, do. 117, 1 : UT^ 329, ch. 6, 4, 8 : 831 , do. 10, 
1* 840. do. 30, 2: 362, ch. 69, 4: 36T, «h.82, 
3: 860, oh. 88, 9 ! 868, oh. 94, .6 : 866, do, 101, 3. 
^^,BAh121.cIi.366,2. Mt, ARn2S{.ol)h.7, 



14. -wm,BA.. 118, do, 838,1, ^Mrft. A-. ;oi; 

ch.260,2. *|ini!^ A., 162. ch. 96, 6. ^ftirfir, 
(awfir), BA:, 39, ch. 116, 8 : AR., 282. ch. 18, 3. 
*wfir, BAl, 41 . eh. 124, « : 1 10, do. 381, 1 ; ch. 332, 
6 : 1 1 3, ch. 338, 2 : 1 1 6, do. 344, 2 : A., 1 84. do. 37, 
2 ; 168, ta 6, 2 : LN., 319. oh- 106, 8, ^vfii^, 
A., 207, ch. 271, 8. ^^, Sg,. 258, ch. 9, 6. 
V> BA.,96, ch.296, 1: 113, ch. 840, 1: 114. 
Ch.342, 6:11i,do.344, 2: A.. 208, ch. 274, 6: 
218. ch. 310, 6 : LN., 323, ch. 113, 7 : 326, ch. 118, 
1 i 351, ch. 66, 7. MV, BA.. 8, eh. 22, 1 : 14, 
eh. 48, 6 : 66, oh. 200, 7 : 68i ch. 207, 3 : LN., 297, 
ch. 57, 8 ( 325, eh. 117, 9: UT.. 329. eh. 4, 9 : 332. 
ch. 12, 1 1 366, eh. 76, 8 : 867, ch. 81, 6 1 360, so. 4, 
2 : 372, ch. Ill, 12. ^^flm^ii, UTh 336, do. 27, 
1. ^vnn, UT.. 363. ch. 9^ 7. V'f'. MT'. 363, 
ch. 94, 6. ^WT^, UTn 346, do. 48, 1, tj^tw, 
BA., 8, so. 3, 1 : 52, so. 18, 2. hm, Af. 219' 
ch.312, 6. Vtir, A.. 18], ch. 188. 2. %9m, 
A., 204, do. 262, 1. ^^, BA., 1 04, do. 819, 1 ; 
UT.. 334, tot. 834, 1, 2. ^^, LN., 293. ch. 44, 
7 : UT.. 370, ch. 106, 11. ^ ^ i T^ftlKl, BA:. 18, 
ch. 67, 7. 
^^ra^. A., 148. ch. 81, 2. 

mf^? BA., 109. ebb. 46, 2: A.. 131, ch. 28, 7 : IM, 
cb.87, 4: 14Q,ch.66, 2: 143, do. 66, 1: 155. 
filfi. 104, 7 : 166. ch. 1^, 4 : 1 Wi <*r 204, 4 ; . 204, 
ch, 263, 6 : ^Of, ph. Ji71, 8 : ?00, ptl, 278, 6 : 214, 
cb. 294, 9; 216. cb- 801,8; do. 8pl,2; 217, 
ch. 308, 6: 219, do. 810, 2: 220, c^. 313, 6: 

Kl.. 2i\ «b. Sl^. 8; t-N, m, (»o, 118, P : VTfr P^' 

do. 1, 1 ; ch. 2, 1, 8. St«, A., I49, iph. 8^, 8 : 
21 7 , Ch. 306, 1. *n^ A., ?1.6, Ah, ^5, p, 

^ff^f^^ BA., 63, ch. 196, 6 : 98, ch. 801, 5 : A.* 1^1' 
ch.68, 6: 142. eh. 68, 4: 172. eh. 168, 1* 208, 

eb. «76, 4: 214, dh. 2^, 4? ?l*i ^ ^h 8 J 

SUn 269, cb. 1% 8; iH^ m> Sik §?> 9im>^' 78. 
6 : 326. ch. 11«, Ih »#f., ?4, 40, 8?7, ;, «ir«w, 
BiL, W. Ob. m |. W^t W» f «*• 7, ? : M. 

m^. Bit. i». rti. J78, §t f 1, $b. 187, §. 
^ 1 M t? B^* 1^' ^^ ^> ^* ' 'f • ^ ^^' ^' 

1/ ^nTiTi»-r««rat» ««;. m» **». §17, 2. 

1/ ^9^lbf r-^W1^ P^. M, 9|>. 27», 4. 



Cf ^ BA„ 16, ch. 4«. 8 : A., 203, do. 269, 2t 217. 



ch. 306, 8. 



m[^'i A.. 206 ch.968,8ilJi.aCI9,«ldi.ll2,9. 



16 



^Rira, UT., 372, ch. 112, 16. 



•) A.. 21 6. ch. 295, 8 : 21 7 . ch. 304, 8 : AR., 228, 
ch. 13, 3: UT., 334, tof. 1, 12. ^fWhrr, A.^ 152, 
ch. 94, 8. 

^ST^IiSR, BfiC., 11, ch. 31, 7 : A., 178, do. 177, 2. 
^^««RY, A., 208t ch. 275, 7. 

^Er^^9 BfiL, 30, chh. 4, 3 : 31 , chh. 6, 4 : 34. do. 104, 
1 : 35, chh. 11, 3 : A., 133, ch. 35, 7 : 137. do. 47, 
2: 169, do. 117, 1: 199, ch.247, 2: UT., 372, 

, UT., 365, ch. 99, 1. 



ch. 112, 16. 
^iwnnr, UT., 364, chh. 10, 4. ^fNw, A., 137, 
ch.48, 3. ^, BAl, 30, chh. 4, 3 . 
^^^ f « l^ ^ BAT., 34, ch. 104, 4. 

^Wf^, BfiC., 83, ch. 264, 6: 117, ch. 352, 2. 
^praPt, A., 195, ch. 235, 6. 

^r^W^T^ BfiC., 87, ch. 266, 1. 

j/ ^nraWi—^^Nn, BAf., 113, do. 339, 2: 
A., 155. ch. 104,6 : 206, ch. 268, 1. 

^%fm^, UT., 346, ch. 52, 1. 

^n^tftfi, B/tr., 30, ch. 95, 6 : 83, ch. 253, 2. 

^vWNtv, bat., 82, ch. 249, 7. 

^W«tf%, BfK., 12, ch. 34, S: 22, ch. 68, 3: 33, 
ch. 102, 16 ; chh. 8, 1 : 36, chh. 14, 4 ; 48, 
ch. 147, 12: 90. ch. 273, 8 : 107. chh. 88, 4; 40, 
4: 110. ch. 832, 6: A.. 127. ch. 16, 4: 190. 
chh. 9, 3 : AR., 231, chh. 5, 8 : 7, 8 : LN., 280. 
do. 13, 4. 

^^^fhc^, BA:, 42, ch. 126, 1 : 88, ch. 269, 1 : A., 216, 

ch. 301, 3. 
^1^)%%, BAT., 62, ch. 190, 4. 

^«*[^t%, BAT.. 21, ch. 65, 4. 

fnT^liTl BfiC., 108. chh. 48, 3. 
^nwtvfw, BfiC, 17. do. 61, 1. 



!) BA:, 19, ch.59, 7 : 30, chh. 3, 2 : 32, ch. 98, 
7 : 35, do. 105, 1 : 35, chh. 11, 1 : 38, ch. 115, 2 : 
46, do. 138, 1 ; ch. 139, 2 : 64, ch. 197, 20 : 66, 
ch. 202, 8 : 67, ch. 203, 6 : 68, ch. 208, 7 ; 209, 2 : 
71,do.215, 1:75, ch. 227, 4:78, ch. 240, 2: 80, 
do. 244, 1 : 82, ch. 262, 1 : 91 , Ch. 276, 2 : 104. 
ch. 320, 1 : 108, ch. 329, 8 : 109, ch. 330, 7 : 1 14, 
do. 340,1: 117,ch.350,l:A.,125,do.8,l: 126, 
do.ll, 1: 132, do. 39, 1: 136. ch. 45, 5: 143. 
ch.67,4: 147. ch.80,3: 159. ch. 117, 6: 166. 
Ch.l39, 6 : 167. ch. 142, 4 : 168, ch. 147, 1 : 171. 
ch.157, 2: 173, do. 163, 1 : 190,chh.9,4: 193. 
ch. 225, 7 : 1 95. ch. 233. 8 : 196. ch. 236, 6 ; 237, 
8 : 199. ch. 247, 7 : 203. ch. 260, 4 : 206. do. 267, 
I i ch. 268, 4 : 207. ch. 273, 1 : 210. ch. 281, 7 : 



. 21 7, do. 302, 2 : 219, ch. 309, 6 : 214, ch. 293, 4, 
7 : AR., 223, ch. 3, 15 : 230, chh. 4, 4 : 240, ch. 36, 
7 : Kl., 260, ch. 19, 8 : 8U., 268, ch. 9, 2 : 264, 
do. 25, 1 ; ch. 26, 3 : 268, ch. 38, 2 : LN., 294, 
ch.49, 6: 297, ch.58, 12: 302, ch. 69,6: 321, 
ch. 109, 1 : 323, do. Ill, 2 : UT.. 346, do. 61, 1. 

"*I*I^WU BA:. 81 , ch. 247, 7 : UT., 350, ch. 62, 6. 

^SRf5|, BA., 28, ch. 89, 3 : 32, ch. 99, 8 : 45, ch. 136, 
6 : 57. ch. 172, 3 : 79, ch. 241, 6 : A., 1 32, ch. 31, 
7 : 138, ch. 50, 2 : 142, do. 62, 2 : 144, ch. 70, 6 : 
153. ch. 98, 8: 175. ch. 169, 1; do. 169,1: 176. 
ch. 170, 10 : 178, do. 177, 1 : 198, ch. 243, 3: 201. 
ch. 254, 8: 215, ch. 296, 5: 220, sa 12, 2: 
UT.t 368, ch. 106, 6. 

^R^^T) LN., 295, Ch. 53, 5. 



^nrWl'. 



125, Ch. 8, 6. 



^RT^i BA., 110, chh. 51, 
do. 114, 6. 



UT., 374, 



see 



^nrr, BA.,64,ch.l66,7. 
^^f, BA., 22, ch. 68, 4. 

^TTPCT, BA., 16. ch. 46, 2. 
^RT^^ UT., 373. ch. 113, 6. 
^r«l*KU BA., 28. ch. 88, 8. 

^rf^RTT^l BA., 10, ch. 27, 7:LN.. 302, ch. 70, 11. 

^rf^fT, A., 161.80.4,2. 

^rf^TTfrr, A., 1 51 . ch. 91, 7. 




I, BA., 27. ch. 86, 4 : A., 193, ch. 228, 4 : 
SU., 267, chh. 2, 8 : LN., 319, ch. 104, 8. 

yff ^1 AR., 228, ch. 12, 4 : UT., 340, ch. 32, 3 : 
356, ch. 79, 2: 371, do. 110, 4: 374, ch. 115, 3: 
376, ch. 116, 8; 117,5: 380, chh. 12,8. ^ww^ 
A., 132, do. 29, 2. 

^iffirsr, A., 142, ch. 63, 6; 167, clr.112, 7:212, 
ch. 289, 8. 

^jftrarm, BA.. 10, ch. 27, e : 1 1, ch. 30, 1 : 18. 
Ch. 57, 3 : 19. ch. 69, 8 : 23. ch. 70, 2 : 42. ch. 127, 
6 : 64, Chh. 19, 4 : 65, chh. 21, 1 : 116, ch.346, 6: 
AR., 226, ch. 8, 17 : 236, ch. 26i 17 : KL, 24T, 
Ch. 10, 4 : LN., 320, ch. 107, 5 : UT., 344, ch. 46^ 
4 : 364, ch. 72, 7 : 370, ch. 108, 5 : 373, ch. II4) 
2: 378, ch. 121, 8. 



17 







It BfiC., 28, ch. 88, 8 : 32, ch. 99, 6 : 84, 
ch. 256, 5 : UN., 281 , ch. 17, 3 : UT., 344, do. 42, 
2 : 362, do. 91, 3. 

^f^^fr, B/V..77,ch.234,4. 

^ft^, BfiC., 8, ch. 21, 2 : UT., 348, ch. 58, 2 : 376, 
ch. 118, 37. 

^rft^^i A., 165, ch. 137, 2. 




, ^ J, A., 145, chh. 3, 4 : AR., 225, ch. 7, 13 : 
227, ch. 8, 26 ; 10, 11 : 237, do. 27, 1 : UT., 368, 
do. 84, 1 : 366, ch. 103, 2. 
^1%t%, UT.,371,ch.llO, 16. 

r falO 'yf-) A., 21 1 , Ch. 285, 3. 




f, B/^., 42, ch. 126. 5. 
^rftr, BfiC., 68, ch. 207, 5. 

, BfiC., 92, ch. 282, 2 : Kl., 249, ch. 16, 8 : 



UT.,337,ch.22,6. 

-^(iriV^ BA.. 93, do. 283, 2. 
*^ r, LN.,291,ch.39, 10. 



^mW? LN.. 322, chh. 37, 
^iS*, AB., 237, chh. 9, 5. 

^raTTfTi-Tifir, UT., 369, 



', AR., 227, ch. 10, 11 : LN., 326, ch. 118, 9 : 
UT., 379, ch. 124, 8. 
^vip, BA., 4, ch. 8, 4. 

^^SVm^ BfiC., 66, ch. 199, 9 : 95, ch. 292, 5 : A.. 163, 
do. 129, 1 : AR., 232, ch. 18, 5 : Kl., 244, ch. 4, 3 : 
250, Ch. 20, 1 : 253, ch. 27, 11 : LN., 283, do. 20, 2 : 
317, do. 100, 1 : UT., 337, ch. 24, 3. 

"^nTRT-) A., 199, do. 245,1: 201, ch.251, 5 : 202, 

ch. 257, 4. 
^vmr, BA., 16, ch. 47, 3; 48, 2 : A., 128, ch. 17, 

2 : 8U., 269, Ch. 42, 3 : LN., 286, ch. 26, 4 : 308, 

ch. 82, 2. 
^«Ti^, BA., 90, ch. 274, 2 : A., 147, ch. 77, 6 : 172, 

ch.l60, 6: 173, ch. 162, 5: 176, ch. 173,1: 

AR., 233, ch. 21, 1 ; 22, 6 : LN., 294, ch. 48, 2. 

^Wpfl", BA.,41,ch.l26. 1: A., 134, ch. 36, 8: 137, 
ch.47, 4: 138,ch.50, 10; 140, ch. 55, 5: 143, 
ch.68, 3; 172, ch. 158, 6: 177, ch. 175, 8 : 183, 
ch. 194, 5 : AR., 237, ch.58, 3 : 241, ch. 40, 3 : 
SU.. 273, ch. 53, 5 : LN., 293, ch. 44, 6 : UT., 364, 
ch. 73, 8 : 364, ch. 96, 4 : 366, ch. 103, 4 ; 369, 
ch. 107, 7 : 376, ch. 118, 15. 



^^TfJift, A., 140, Ch. 66, 6. 
^RTPJH^ LN., 314, ch. 96, 6. 




'•) UT., 346, ch. 60, 6. 

^rfj?*Tffr,— Sfti?hiT, BA., 65, ch 
^rftlftr?Tn BA.. 66. ch. 203. 1. - 




b A., 175, ch. 170, 7. 

^rfiWfT, BA., 101, do. 310, 1: 109, chh. 45, 3: 
A., 195, ch. 233, 2 : 199, ch. 246, 7 : 202, do. 267, 
2: 218, ch, 308,8. ■^enrr, BA., 11, ch. 81, 6. 
Vnrt, A., 124, do. 4, 1. ^Ktf^, BA., 13, ch. 40, 
11. *fw^, A., 124, ch. 6, 5. 

^irfiWR", BA., 23, ch. 70, 7 : 26, do. 79. 1 ; 
AR., 226, ch. 8, 21 : 233,ch.21. 1 : Kl.,253, ch. 28, 
6 : SU.. 263, do. 23, 1 : LN., 283, ch. 20, 6 : 
290, ch. 37, 2 : 322, chh. 37, 11 : UT., 354, 
ch. 74, 6 : 365, ch. 99, 3 : 367, do. 103, 2. ^, 
Kl., 247, chh. 1, 3. 

'•firm^rr, BA.. 16, ch. 48, 3: 41,ch.l23, 16: 45. 
ch. 136, 3: 61, ch. 187, 2: 92, ch. 281, 4: 95, 
ch. 291, 8 : Kl., 247, ch. 9, 9 : SU., 266, ch. 33, 6 : 
LN., 279, ch. 9, 6 : 281, ch. 14, 8 : 291, ch. 39, 6 : 
297. ch. 58, 16 : 298, ch. 60, 2 : UT., 350, ch, 63, 
8 : 354, ch. 74, 6. 

^flmpr BA., 86, ch. 263, 3 : 88, ch. 270, 4. 

^rf*nrRi', BA., 43, ch. 128, 6 : 54, ch. I62, 4 : 60, 
ch. 186. 4 : 84, ch, 256, 5 : Kl., 246, ch. 8, 1 : 247, 
ch. 9, 10: 253, ch. 28,3: SU.. 263, ch. 24.2: 
268, ch, 37, 1 : LN., 285, ch. 24, 11 ; 26, 1 : 288, 
ch. 33, 8: 298, ch. 69, 27: 312, ch. 90, 2: 
UT., 356, ch. 78, 6 : 363, ch. 94, 2 : 367, ch. 104, 
1 : 376, ch. 118, 26. 

l/ -*! r*i <*«*.,— ^iflfrtx«r, LN., 323, chh. 39, 1. 

^rf«rCTf 1 BA.. 27, do. 85, 2 : UT., 332, ch. 11, 7. 

'iftnuT, A., 216, ch.300, 6: LN„ 308, ch. 83, 9 ; 
UT., 347, ch. 64, 4. 

^^(fil^rrW (^), BA.. 6. do. 12, 1 : 49, ch. 149, 3 : 
52, ch. 166, 13 : A., 123, do. 2, 1 : 124, ch. 4, 7 ; 
do. 4,2: 126, ch. 12, 4: 130, ch. 25,7: Ml] 
ch. 207, 6. 

^fMrwiT, BA., 30, ch. 96, 1 : 49, ch. 149, 8. 
^fii^T%, BA., 86, ch. 260, 6 : 90, ch. 274, 1 : A., 123, 
ch. 3, 3 : 161, ch. 123, 6 : 187, ch. 206, 6. 

^tfWnW, A., 196, ch. 236, 2. 

^rfH^^ (^)l A.. 125, ch. 8, 3 : 216, do. 296, 1. 
SrnT^ A., 126, ch. 11, 2. 



•^•■■■B 



18 



\f»it^, A., 126, ch. 7, 4: 126. ch. 11, 7: 

UT., 332, ch. 11, 7 : 335, ch. 16, 2. 
^rf«(9f , A., 198, ch. 243, 2 : 199, ch. 245. 1. 

^rf^g, UT., 342, do. 36, 2. 

"IWfT, UT., 342, ch. 39, 2. 

''W^, BfiC., 20, do. 61, 1 : LN., 306, ch.. 77, 10. 
Vn^, UT., 364, ch. 97, 2. 

^WWl", BA., 32, ch. 99, 3. 

^•*T^l Bif^., 11,ch. 30, 1: A., 201, do. 253, 1. 
ScH^, A., 126, ch. 10, 6. ^^ (^), BA., 25, do. 77, 
1. Sjw, BA., 105, ch. 321, 1. ^WT, A., 183, 
ch. 194, 4. ^rft, BA., 6, ch. 14, 2: 40, 
ch. 120, 4. 



!■) BA., 29, ch. 92, 7: 31, ch. 97, 7: 37, 
chh. 16, 4: 45, ch. 138, 3 : A., 163, ch. 129, 1 : 
187, ch. 206, 6 : 208, ch. 274, 7 : SU., 261, ch. 17, 
3 : LN., 310, ch. 86. 4. *^fir. A., 188, do. 210, 1 : 
217, do. 304, 2. ^firftir, A., 176, do. 168, 2. 
2»rfimcir, A.. 171, ch. 155, 3. ^ BA., 4, ch. 7, 
6 : A., 212, ch. 287, 6. V, A., 165, do. 136, 2 : 
176, ch. 172, 4 : 177, ch. 173, 3 : 206, Ch. 269, 3. 
', A., 131, ch. 26, 11. 



^HRTTT, BA.. 3, do. 6, 2. 

^SRWri, UT., 346, ch. 51, 5. 

^'H<Nr?r<» BA., 52, ch. 166, 16 : 60, ch. 182, 7 : 
A., 156, ch. 109,3: 197, ch. 239, 7: UT., 339, 
ch. 28, 5. ^iTT^, A., 1 82, ch. 192, 7. 

^M^^ BA., ll,ch.51,7:69, do. 180, 1;181, 2: 
A., 145, chh. 3, 4: 169, ch.l50, 1: 216, do. 297, 
2:AR., 223, ch..3, 3: 226, ch.8il2: LN.,306, 
ch.77, 9:UT., 337, ch. 24,8: 348, do. 67, 1 : 
370, ch. 108, 6 : 373, ch. 114, 2. 

^41H, BA., 26, ch. 77,8: A., 188, ch. 211, 6: 
AR., 238, do. 30, 1: LN.,287, do. 31,1: 321, 
chh. 36, 9 : UT., 341, ch. 35, 6 : 371, do. 110, 1. 
^RiTirT, BA.,67,chh^25,2. 

^41l«ft^ AR., 241, ch. 38, 8 : UT., 342, ch. 39, 4 : 
346, ch. 47, 6. 

'^RTT'I^^^),— TW BA.. 120, ch. 363, 6. 



^9?rnrT9 a., 187, ch.208 5: AR., 242, ch. 41,4: 
LN., 297, ch. 68, 6 : UT., 342, ch. 39, 8. 

^rftnr, BA., 6, ch. 17, 12 : 10. ch. 28, 7 : 1 1 , do. 28, 
2: 14, do. 42, 1; ch. 44, 2: 17, do. 60, 1:18, 
ch. 67, 2 : 21 , ch. 64, 7 ; do. 64, 1 : 22, ch. 68, 
1 : 38, ch. 113, 3 : 40, ch. 119, 8 : 42, so. 13, 1 : 62, 



ch. 168, 3 : 55, ch. 168, 6 : 60, ch. 186, 2 : 69, 
ch.211, 7: 81, ch. 247, 7 : do. 247, 2: 113, 
do. 339, 1: A., 153, ch.99, 6: 1 57, ch. 112, 1 : 
162, do. 127, 1 : 174, ch. 164, 3 : 187, ch. 207, 5 : 
202, do. 266, 1 : 205, so. 10, 1 : 209, ch. 278, 2 : 
210, ch. 283, 2 : AR., 226, ch. 8, 2 : 230, ch. 15, 
7 : Kl., 246, ch. 7, 13 : 8U., 270, ch. 45, 6 : 271. 
do. 47, 1: 273, ch. 54, 8: LN., 277, ch. 3,3: 
285, ch. 26, 3: 304, ch. 76, 9: 311, ch. 89, 
14 : 313, ch. 93, 3 : 317, chh. 30, 3 : 320, do. 106, 
3 : UT., 330, ch. 7, 5 : 346, ch. 49, 6 : 347, ch. 64, 
7: 349,ch.61, 4: 353,ch.71, 7: 361, ch. 89, 3, 
7, 8 ; 90, 2, 6 : 362, ch. 92, 8. ^^w^mrT, UT., 361 , 
do. 90, 1. ^KTftr. AR„ 223, ch. 3, 6. ^wWW, 
LN„ 299, do. 62, 2. Vm, AR., 242, ch. 40, 8, 

^l^dH) UT., 370, ch. 109, 11. 




Fi BA.,2, ch. 2,1: 4, ch. 7, 6; 12,7: 112, 
Ch. 336, 5 : A., 136, ch. 42, 3: 143, ch. 65, 8: 
165, ch. 135, 6: 186, ch. 201,6: 187, ch.207, 
4: 194,do.229,l: 206,ch.269, 7: 214,ch.296,l. 
^jn, A., 179, ch. 182, 8. "if^W, BA., 2, ch. 1, 
2. - < < i<t< ^. A., 161, Ch. 123, 2. \hm, A., 167. 
ch. 143, 4. 
^"\, BA.,9,ch. 23,8: 109, ch. 331, 9: A., 155, 
ch. 104, 2 : 187, ch. 207, 6 : 207, ch. 271, 6 : 212, 
ch. 287, 6. 

^4||H , 8U., 255, ch. 1, 8 : 261, ch. 17, 6 : 272, ch. 49, 
9 : LN., 320, ch. 107, 6 : UT., 364, ch. 72, 4. 

^nfy^, A., 123, ch. 2, 4. 
^ifj*, BA..61,ch.l66, 1. 

, BA., 13, ch. 39, 14: A., 136. ch. 42, 6: 196, 
do. 235, 2 ; ch. 236, 6. 

't BA., 106, chh. 37, 4. Tiftr, BA., 60, 
ch. 162, 3. 

S LN., 324, ch. 114, 6 : UT., 333, chh. 4, 6. 

\(^)^) A., 202, ch. 256, 4. 
"ITi^, A., 141, ch. 69, 7 : 175, ch. 170, 4, 
, BA., 26, Ch. 77, 2. 

<, BA., 106, chh. 37, 4 : A., 140, ch.66, 2 : 19?, 
th.239, 5: 202, ch. 257, 1: 210, ch. 282. S- 
^^t^tmir, UT., 333, chh. 4, 6. ^^, LN., 281, 
ch. 16, 6. 

^(W^, BA., 38, ch. 114, 7 : 60, ch. 162, 8 : A., 200, 
ch. 249, 5 : SU., 271. oh. 49, 4. 





^^^^mmmmmmm 



~ 19 




f BA., 30. ch. 95, 2 : A., 123, ch. 2, 3 : 205, 



ch. 266, 6 : 208, ch. 275, 5. 

^nwY^, Bfit., 106, chh. 37, 4. ^«rw, UT., 333, 
chh. 4, 8. 

^Ifcld, BfiC; 118, ch. 366, 6. Sto, BfiC, 66, 
ch. 203, 4. 

t BA., 1 00, ch. 306, 6. 

', BAT.. 30, chh. 4, 4 ; LN., 318, chh. 32, 3. 

t AR., 226, ch. 8, 20. 

^RT^l see ^iw. 

^PTTTn UT.. 367, ch. 104, 6. 

^MI^U BA., 1 17, ch. 349, 5. 

j/ ^R7IT(T)^— ^^:mt, A., 200, ch. 249, 8. 
^^sirwV, A., 127, ch. 15, 7. 

y/ '^MH*!?— ^ant, AB.. 241, ch. 38, 6. 
f, BA., 118, do. 354,1. Cf.^. 



\ A.. 135, ch. 42, 3. 
'in^ffTi A., 211, do. 284, 2, 

-i BA.. 8, ch. 21, 6: 15, ch. 46, 6: A.. 203, 
ch. 268, 5,6. Of. 





, A., 199, ch. 246, 2. Of. ^. 



, BA„ 13, ch. 39, 6 : UT., 341, ch. 33, 8. 



\ UT.. 338, do. 25, 2. 



'<) UT.. 350, ch. 64, 5. 
^TW, BA.. 14, ch. 44, 6 : 96, ch. 296, 8 : LN., 292, 
ch. 43, 6. 

J/^R:^,— '^Hw, A., 170, ch. 151, 6. 

-iKIrfl, BA., 39, ch. 116, 7 : 64, ch. 165, 7. Of. 




^ BA.. 3, do. 5,1: 109, chh. 44, 3: A.. 124, 
ch^ 4- 2: 131, ch. 26, 11: 180, do. 185, 2: 
UT., 346, ch. 52, 2 : 372, ch. 112, 12 : 375, 
do. 116, 1; ch. 117, 7. ^v^, BfiC., 91, ch.279, 3. 
^^V^VW, LN., 300, ch. 65, 1. ^, A., 129, ch. 22, 
2. ^, BAT., 52, ch. 157, 6 : 69, ch. 180, 3 : 
UT.,361,ch.89,7. 

^tfKW, A., 133, ch. 32, 8. 

'•fTBW, A., 177, ch. 176, 6. 

^, BU,, 20, ch. 62, 2 : 63, ch. ]95, 6 : 65, chh. 20, 
2 ; 22, 2 : AR^ 227, ch. 10, 6 : 229, ch. 14, 5 : 238, 



ch. 30, 3 : LN., 288, ch. 33, 23 : UT., 334, tof. 1, 
18: 345. ch. 48, 5: 355, ch. 75, 6: 356, 
ch. 79, 7 : 362, ch. 93, 2 : 363, ch. 94, 8 : 366, 
ch. 102, 1: 375, ch. 117, 14: 376, ch. 118,18: 
377, ch. 120, 2. 

^^t BA., 4, ch. 7, 6 : 6, ch. 12, 9 : 7, ch. 18, 6 : 9 

ch. 25, 1 : 14, ch. 44, 1 : 26, ch. 79, 7 : 27, ch. 83 

8 : 33, ch. 101, 5 : 38, ch. 116, 8 : 41, ch..l23, 4 

43, ch. 129, 4 : 49, ch. 148, 1 : 52, ch. 168, 4 : 56 

ch. 171, 4 : 57 ch. 174, 6 : 66, do. 202, 2 : 68 

ch.209, 1: 71, do. 216, 1: 85, ch. 259, 1: 88 

ch. 270, 4 : 90, ch. 273, 1 : 92, ch. 281, 6 ; 99 

ch. 304, 7 : 101, ch. 310, 8 : 103, ch. 316, 5 : lOfi 

ch. 324, 6 ; 325, 2, 7 : 1 09, ch. 330, 6; 1 10, ch. 332 

4: 111, chh. 55, 2: 1 12, ch. 335, 6 ; do. 336, 1 

1 13, ch. 339, 6 : A., 124, ch. 4, 6 : 133, ch. 35,' 6 

139, ch. 54, 4 : 142, ch. 64, 3 : 146, ch. 76, 7 : 150 

ch. 89, 4; 90, 6 : 164, ch. 133, 6 : 166, ch. 136, 8 

169, ch. 150, 6 : 172, ch. 160, 4: 173, chh. 6,' 2 

179, ch. 180, 5 : 186, ch. 203, 1 : 201, ch. 252* 6 

212, ch. 287, 6 : AR., 223, ch. 3, 7 : 225, ch. 7 *11 

228, ch. 11, 8 ; 12, 2 : 232, ch. 17, 9 : 236, do 25 

1 : 239, do. 33, 1 : 241, ch.40, 2 : KI., 245, ch. 6, 1 

11 : 250, ch. 19, 7: 261, ch. 22, 6 : 254, do. 30, 1 

8U., 260, ch. 15, 6 : 261, ch. 18, 4 : 262, ch. 19,' 4 

21,9: LN.,281, ch.l6, 3: 283, ch. 19, 6: 286 

ch. 26, 6 : 286, ch. 29, 7 : 287, do. 31, 2 : 290 

ch. 37, 9 : 293, ch. 44, 7 ; 45, 10: 297, ch. 68, 6 

9 : 299, do. 60, 2 ; ch. 62, 4 : 302, ch. 69, 3 : 303 

ch. 73, 1 : 31 1, ch. 88, 2j 89, 14 : 313, ch. 93, 3 

315, ch. 97, 5 : 320, chh. 36, 3 : 322, ch. Ill' 8 

325, do. 116, 1 : UT., 328, ch. 4, 4: 330, chh. 2 

4 : 331, do. 8, 1 : 336, ch. 16, 6: 337, ch.22, 4, 7 

338, ch. 26, 2 ; 27, 8 : 343, ch. 41, 6 ; 42, 5 : '344 

do. 42, 1 : 347, ch. 54, 4; 65, 6 : 351, ch. 66, 8 

352, do. 67, 4: 368. ch. 84, 7: 359, ch. 87, 8 ; 88 

3 : 363, do. 93, 4 ; ch. 94, 2 ; ch. 06, 8 : '354 

ch. 97, 3 : 366, do. 99, 8 : 369, do. 106,7; 372 

ch., HI, 10. 

^fj*irri, UT., 373, ch. 114. 6. 



j/'^^'irr,-^t»fniiv. 





t see ^T^. 



t BfiC., ch. 38, 114, 7 : 50, ch. 162, 2 : 69, 
ch. 211, 2 : 72, ch. 221, 1): 82, ch. 249, 7 ; 90,' 
do. 276, 1: 91, ch. 276, 5: 109, ch. 331, 9.' 
KI., 246, ch. 9, 2 : SU., 269, ch. 42, 6: LN., 308 
ch. 83, 9 : UT., 355, ch. 76, 6 ; 77, 1 : 356, ch. 79 
6. Sif, BA.. 121, ch. 364, 6. ^iR»rn«ftw[ 
AR., 226, ch. 8, 7. Snimft, A., 193, ch. 228, 5' 
^f^rorgf^, BA.. 7 8, do. 238, 1. ^^irt^, ba.. '82, 
do. 249, 1. ^M>H«Ol«<. LN.. 291. ch. RQ a 



r 



20 



'^^TKT<>-'«^PJTd, BAf., 68, ch. 207, 5. 

-^^irr^. BfiC., 69, ch. 211, 8: 159, ch. 117, 3: 
UT.I 356, ch. 77, 3. 

^r^^?^, A., 179, ch. 180, 5. 



', BfiC., 6, ch. 18, 3 : 41, ch, 123, 10. 
^ip»T, UT., 370, ch. 108, i. 

^r^^(^), UT., 345. ch. 47, 6. 

1, Kl., 248. ch. 15, 3. ^^Pifir, LN., 299, ch. 62, 6. 

U BfiC., 106, ch. 325, 4, 8: 107, ch. 326, 8: 
A., 125, ch. 10, 3. Cf. 'ftw. 

IT^, BfiC., 6, ch. 13, 9 : 9, do. 22, 1 : 65, ch. 167, 8 : 
A., 184, do. 196, 1: 210, ch. 283, 2. ^^^T^XW"?, 
A., 196, ch. 232, 4. ^ii^-niTfiE, BfiC., 53, do. 158, 
2. Mwmf^. BfiC., 16, ch. 46, 9. Cf . ^(^. 



', B;^., 91, ch. 278, 8 : LN., 316, ch. 97, 7. -»rpT, 
BfiC., 66, ch. 202, 2. ^mw, LN., 309, ch. 85, 4. 
^TTfir, Kl., 246, ch. 6, 3: LN., 297, ch. 59, 2. 
^ff^TO»r (f^) A., 162, ch. 96, 4. Cf. ^TW. 

^^ 1—^, LN., 300, ch. 64, 5. 
^ fSff , BfiC., 53, ch. 160, 2. 
^f^ ^9— ^^«*r, BfiC., 92, do. 280, 2. 
^r^I!fl,_^OTfr, BfiC., 63, ch. 193, 6. 



r, B/^.,41, ch.123,10 : 116, ch. 346, 6 : A., 151, 
ch, 91, 7. Tifir, BA.. 39, ch. 116, 8. 

^^T^rfirT^ BfiC., 6,ch.l3,9: 100, ch. 306,6: 110. 
ch?332,4:n3,ch.337,3. 

^^T^^ BA., 4, ch. 7, 7. 

^r^nr, BA., 6, ch. 17, 6: 71, ch.216,4: A., 185, 
ch.199,7: LN.,284, ch. 23,8. *wt»t, SU., 268, 
ch.88, 8. Cf. ^w. 

^T^P^R, UT., 342, ch. 39, 1. 

^<!lH^ A., 138, do. 60, 1. 

^f^. A., 193, ch. 225, 7: UT., 337, ch. 24, 4. 
£^^f%, BA., 83, ch. 254, 6. ^«fn A.. 1 93, ch. 225, 
7, ^,A., 193, ch. 227, 7. ^mm, BfiC., 16, 
ch. 46, 7. 
^f^lir, BA.. 88, ch. 269, 1. 

^H^, BA., 81 , chh. 32, 3. Cf . ^rrftr. 
^^, BA.,lll.chh.68,3. 

^r^SR, LN., 285, ch. 25, 8. 
^i^Wt, BA.. 76, ch. 228, 6. 



^TWn^ A.. 137, ch. 48, 7. 

l/ ^^,-^^, LN, 309, chh. 13, 2. 

'^%^, A., 188, ch. 211, 6 : 21 1, ch. 283, 8. 
^rat^l Kl., 246, ch. 7, 15. 

^r^f^RSR, BA., 2, ch. 2, 13 : 14, ch. 42, 4 : 42, 
ch.l25, 8: 61, ch. 156, 3: 79. ch. 243,8: 90, 
do. 273, 2 : 1 05, ch. 320, 5 ; 822, 4 : 1 07 , Ch. 326, 7. 

^pq,_-2f^, UT., 337, ch. 22, 6. Cf. 
'^«3T^(^), LN., 281, ch. 16, 7. 

!) BA.,51,ch.l56,4. 
BA.. 100, ch. 307, 1. 



'^^rrd 



9 BA., 4. ch. 8, 1 : 6, ch. 16, 6 ; 18, 2:7, ch. 18, 
8; 19, 10, 12: 10, ch. 27,7: 14, ch. 42, 4, 5, 
8: 16, ch. 48, 9: 18, do. 56, 1,2; 57, 1: 19 
ch. 61, 3: 20. ch. 62, 4, 6, 13, 16: 22, ch. 67, 1 
3, 5 ; 69, 4 : 23. ch. 70, 8 : 24. ch. 73, 6 ; 74, 8 : 25 
do. 77, 2 ; 79, 1 : 26, do. 80, 1 ; ch. 81, 1, 7 
do. 82, 1, 2 ; ch. 82, 1 , 4 : 27. ch. 83, 5 ; 85, 1 
86, 6 : 28, ch. 87, 1, 7; 88, 2 : 28, ch. 87, 8 ; 89, 7 
29, ch. 90, 4: 30, ch. 94, 3,9: 30, do. 93, 2 
Ch. 94, 4 ; do. 94, 1 : 32, do. 97, 1 ; 99, 4 
33, do. 101, 1 : 34, ch. 104, 8; 105, 2, 6 : 35 
Chh. 12, 4: 36, ch. 108, 6: 39. ch. 116, 4 
117,7: 40, do. 121,2; 122,1: 41,ch, 124, 4 
125, 8, 4; so. 10,1: 42, ch. 125,8; 126, 6 
128, 3 : 45, ch. 135, 1, 8 : 46, ch. 140, 2 : 47 
ch. 142, 7: 48, ch. 145, 6,8; so, 15, 2: 61 
ch. 165, 7: 62, ch. 156, 7, 14; 157, 6: 64 
do. 163, 2: 66, do. 171, 1; ch. 171, 6: 59 
ch. 179, 1: 60, ch. 185,3: 64, chh. 18, 3: 68 
ch. 209, 3 : 69, ch. 209, 6, 7 : 70, ch. 212, 5 : 72 
ch. 219, 7 : 73, do. 223, 1 : 76, ch. 232, 8 ; 233 
1: 77, ch. 234,7; 235,4: 79, ch.242, 3: 80 
ch. 246,6: 81, ch. 248,4: 82, ch. 249,6: 84 
ch. 256, 4, 7; 257, 4: 85, ch. 259, 3: 86 
ch. 263, 1, 7 : 87, ch. 267, 2 : 88, ch. 271, 4 : 90 
ch. 274, 8 : 95, do. 291, 2 : 100, ch, 305, 7 : 101 
ch. 311, 3: 103, do. 316, 2; 318, 1: 114 
ch.342, 9: 120, do. 361, 2: 121, ch. 366, 8 
A., 123, do. 2, 1; 124, ch. 3, 7; do. 3, 1 
ch.5, 3: 126, ch. 102, 6; do. 10, 2; ch. 11 
4; 127. ch. 14, 7 J 15, 8: 129, ch. 22, 4, 5 
130, 25, 7: 132, ch. 30, 1, 4: 133, ch. 84 
1 ; ch. 35, 4 : 136, ch. 42, 4 : 136. ch. 45, 3 : 137 
ch.46, 6; 48, 8: 138, ch. 50, 1, 4, 11: 140 



^*NV 



iJBi 



mm 



MM* 



vaaetwrn 



ssssssssxn 



21 



ch. 56, 3: 141, ch. 69,6: 142, ch.62, 8: 143, 
ch.65, 7; 67,1: 144, ch. 70, 1: 146, cH. 73, 
8: 146. ch. 75, 8: 147. ch. 77, 6; 79, 5; 
80, 4: 148. ch. 80, 8; 82, 7: 161, ch. 91,1; 
92, 1, 6 ; do. 92, 1 : 165, ch. 103, 2 ; do. 103, 
1; 168, ch. 116, 4; 159, ch. 118, 1: 160, 
ch. 121, 8; do. 121, 1; ch. 122, 5, 8: 162, 
ch. 128, 5 : 164, do. 133, 2 : 168, ch. 147, 4 : 170, 
ch. 151, 1 ; 162, 2 : 171, ch. 166, 4; 166, 6: 173, 
ch. 163, 4, 6; chh. 6,3: 174, ch. 166,1: 178, 
ch. 177, 6 ; 179, 6 : 179, ch. 182, 8 ; do. 182, 1 : 
180,ch. 186, 6; 186, 2: 182, ch. 193, 1: 183, 
ch. 196, 7: 184, ch. 196, 8: 185, ch. 200, 6; 
202, 6 : 186, ch. 206, 4 : 187, do. 206, 1 ; ch, 209, 
6: 188, ch. 211, 8: 189, ch. 215, 2, 8: 190, 
ch.217, 8; 218,3,8, 10: 192, ch. 226, 4: 197, 
ch. 239, 3 ; do. 239 1 : 200, ch. 249, 6, 8 ; 261, 
3 : 203, ch. 259, 6 ; 261, 2 : 204, ch. 262, 7 ; 263, 
2: 206, ch. 269, 2: 207, ch. 271, 6; 272, 7: 
208, do. 274, 1, 2 : 209, ch. 279, 7 : 210, ch. 283, 
3: 211,ch.284, 8; 213, ch. 290, 6 : 215, ch. 298, 
3: 217, ch. 302,6; 303, 6; 304, 8: AR., 222, 
ch. 2, 16 : 223, ch. 3, 12, 14, 27 : 224, ch. 3, 29 : 
225, ch. 6, 1: 226, ch.8, 21: 227,ch.9, 6; 10, 
13 : 232, 80. 7, 2 : 233, do. 21, 2 ; ch. 22, 7 : 234, 
ch. 18, 8: 236, ch. 25, 16: 237, ch. 29, 1: 241, 
ch. 37, 5, 6; 40, 3: 242, chh. 11,2: Kl., 243, 
ch. 1, 6 : 244, ch. 3, 5 : 245, ch.7, 8 : 246, ch. 7, 
24; 8, 1: 247, ch. 10, 5: 247, chh. 1, 4: 248, 
ch. 12, 6 : 261, ch. 22, 3 : 262, ch. 26, 8, 10 : 263, 
ch. 29, 6 : 8U.. 265, ch. 1, 4 : 258, do. 7, 1 : 
ch. 8, 1; 9, 8: 259, ch. 10, 4; 12, 6 : 260, 
do. 14,2: 261, ch.l7, 4: 264, ch. 27, 3: 268, 
ch. 37, 5 : 269, ch. 40, 6 ; 41, 4, 6, 9 ; 42, 1 : 270, 
ch. 46, 1, 7 : 27 1, ch. 48, 7 : 272, ch. 49, 10 ; 50, 1 ; 
51, 6 : 273, ch. 56, 3 : 274, ch. 68, 6 : LN., 276, 
ch. 2,1 ; »o. 1, 1 : 278, ch.6, 1 ; 8, 3 : 279, ch. 9, 
6; 10, 4 ; 11, 2 : 281, do. 14, 3; ch. 16, 3 : 282, 
ch. 17, 8 ; so. 3, 4 : 283, do. 21, 2 : 284, ch. 23, 8 ; 
do. 23, 4 : 286, ch. 24, 9 : 286, ch. 27, 3, 7 ; do. 27, 
1 ; ch. 28, 4 : 287, ch. 30, 2, 3, 8 ; 31, 1, 6 : 288, 
ch. 33, 8, 16 : 290, ch. 37, 10 : 291, ch. 39, 4,6: 
292, ch. 44, 5 : 293, ch. 44, 6, 7 : 294, ch. 48, 
4 ; do. 48, 1 ; ch. 49, 4 : 296, ch. 56, 1 : 297, 
ch. 57, 3 ; do. 68, 2 : 298, ch. 69, 8, 10 : 302, 
ch. 71, 2 : 303, ch. 71, 6 ; 72, 2 : 304, ch. 73, 10 ; 
do. 73, 1 ; ch. 76,7 : 306, ch.76, 13 : 306,ch.77, 11 ; 
do. 77, 2:307,ch. 80, 3 ; 81, 5 : 308, ch. 82,8 : 310, 
ch. 87, 1 : 312,ch. 91,8 : 313,ch. 94,6: 316, ch. 97, 
1 : 31 8, ch. 101, 10 : UT.. 327, do.l, 5 : 336, ch. 19, 
8 ; ch. 20, 3, 10 i do. 20, 3, 6 : 337, do. 23, 2 : 343, 
ch. 42, 6: 344. do. 45, 1 : 346, ch. 61, 1 : 347, 
ch. 54, 6 : 349, do. 60, 1 : 360. do. 63, 4 ; ch. 63, 



10 : 363, do. 70, 4; ch. 71, 5 : 354, ch. 73, 7 : 368, 
ch. 84, 6; 86, 2 : 359, do. 86, 3 ; ch. 86, 10 ; 
80. 3,2: 360, so. 6,1: 362, ch. 92, 6: 363, 
ch.94, 5:366,do. I01,2:367,ch.l03, 13: 369. 
Ch. 106, 15 ; 107, 7, 16 : 373, ch. 113, 8 j 114, 8 : 
374, ch. 116, 7 : 376, ch. 116, 10; do. 116, 2, 4; 
ch. 117, 16, 19 : 377, do. 119, 4: 378i ch. 121, 4: 
380, do. 127, 2. 

^rar, UT., 365, ch. 99, 4. 

^f%, B;V.,21,ch.66,3: 24,ch.74, 3: 25, do. 77, 
2 : 30, ch. 96, 3 : 34, chh. 9, 4 ; 37, ch. 112, 7 : 
56, so. 20, 1 : 60, ch. 184, 3 : 76, ch. 232, 6 : 82. 
ch. 261, 6:84, ch. 266, 2: 87, ch. 266,2: 92. 
ch. 279, 7 : 95, ch. 292, 6 : 97, ch. 297, 4 : A., 144, 
ch.70,7: 168,ch.ll6,4: 171, ch. 156,7: 172. 
ch. 158, 6 ; 169, 3 : 179, ch. 183, 4 : 199, ch. 245, 
7 : 206, do. 269, 1 : AR., 230, ch. 15, 17 : 232, 
ch. 17, 11 ; do. 17, 2 : 238, do. 31, 1 : 240. ch. 36, 
7 ; 37, 4 : 241 , ch. 40. 2 : Kl., 244, do. 3, 1 : 246. 
ch. 7, 3 : 249, ch. 16, 7 : SU., 260, ch. 13, 3 : 
268, ch. 37, 7 : 272, ch. 60, 8 : 274, ch. 66, 4 : 
LN., 284, do. 23, 6 : 285, ch. 24, 9 : 288, ch. 33, 
11 : 289, ch. 35, 2 : 296, ch. 62, 7 : UT., 342, ch. 38, 
7 : 346, ch. 48, 4 : 354, ch. 73, 1 : 359, do. 86, 2 : 
362, so. 9, 1 : 367, ch. 103, 14: 372, ch. 112, 1 : 
375. ch. 116, 10. 

^T^nj'f^ A., 170 ch. 152, 4: AR,, 230, ch. 15, 7: 
8U., 267, ch. 36, 7 : LN., 281, ch. 15, 2, 4 : 294, 
ch. 47, 7 : 304, ch. 75, 9 : 306, chh. 4, 1. 



f BAT., 47, ch. 144, 3 : 62, ch. 191, 7: SU., 262, 
ch. 21, 2 : LN., 280, do. 12, 4 : 282, do. 17, 2. 

n^WT, BAT., 40, ch, 121, 1 : Kl., 253, ch. 28, 11 
SU., 267, ch.4, 5 : 262, ch. 20, 8 : 273, ch. 66, 8 
LN„ 282, ch. 18, 10 : 288, ch. 33, 12 : 289, ch. 35, 4 
291, ch. 38, 9 : 308, ch. 82, 5. 

^^ BfiC., 92, ch. 282, 2. 

^4j^«l, BAf„ 3, ch. 6, 3. 

^T^TQ, A., 128, ch. 20, 5 : 131, ch. 28, 5. 



<) BX., 66, so. 19, 2 : 58, ch. 178, 7 : 1 01 , ch. 311, 
7 : 114, ch. 342, 3 : A., 142, do. 61, 1 : 158, ch.ll6, 
1 : 165, ch. 136, 6 : 167, ch. 143, 5 : 179, do. 181, 
1 : 186, do. 203, 1 : 187, ch. 207, 5 : 206, ch. 267, 
7 ; 269, 7 : 219, ch. 312, 4 : UT., 375, ch. 116, 9. 

., LN.,287,ch.32,9. 

^^'^^ UT., 342, ch. 38, 6 : 376, ch, 118, 15. 

^^nw, UT., 343, ch. 42, 8. 
^UPV, UT,. 343, ch. 40, 1. 
^^HTPV, UT.. 342, ch. 38, 7. 




/- 



22 



^ITOTi AR., 237, chh.9, 13. °<iiO<im^ <rT, B4f., 44, 
ch. 133, 4. 

^TO^HTi B^., 63, ch. 162, 8. 

^RR^^, BfiC., 7, ch. 19,10: 29, ch. 93,4:66, 
ch. 171, 5 : 77, ch. 235, 3 : A., 132, ch. 32, 4 : 201, 
ch. 264. 6 : 203, ch. 260, 2 : 204, ch. 261, 6. ^, 
A., 148, oh. 83, 5. ^^mn. A., 210. do. 280, 2. 

^TOHPr, Bfil., 12, ch. 32, 8. 

^r^mrn'n, ba., 42, ch. 126, 8. 

^ra^ffT, B^., 41, ch. 123, 3. 

,— s^tw, UT., 336, ch. 19, 3 : 346, ch. 62, 4. 



., A., 100, do. 306, 2. 
^v^rn, B/V.. 34, ch.l03, 8 : 106,ch. 323, 1 : A., 183, 
ch. 196, 5 : LN., 308, ch. 83, 3. 

^reTT^l A., 191, ch. 220, 3. 

^ret^T^ BfiC., 69, ch. 179, 7. 
^ref^, LN., 286, ch. 29, 2. 

^irerf^, A., 138, ch. 60, 10 : UT., 377, do. 118, 1. 

^r^rP5, BA:, 4, ch. 7, 6 ; 8, 10. 
^RT^, BA., 3, ch. 6, 6 : A., 185, ch. 199, 7. 

''Q'^rr'^, 133, do. 34,1. 

^rf% (1), »ee ^v. 

^Erf% (2) (a sword), BA., 25, ch. 77, 6 : A., 1 30, ch. 26, 
4:8U.259, do. 9, 2; ch. 10, 4, 6: UT.. 333, 
Chh. 4, 4: 375, do. 117, 3. ^wm BfiC,, 100, 
do. 206, 2. 
^fi^, A., 214, ch. 294, 8. 

:.) BA., 33, ch. 101, 4 : UT.. 360, so. 4, 1 . 

^nfl^i BA,, 26, do. 80, 1 : 37, chh. 16, 1 : 68 
do< 208, 1 : 72, do, 220, 1 : 74, ch. 227, 1:81 
Ch. 248,7, 11; chh. 32, 3: 82, ch. 251,3: 91 
ch. 877, 7: 99, ch. 303,4: 103, ch. 316, 2,6 
107, do. 326, 2 : 108, ch. 329, 6; chh. 42, 2 
111, chh. 69, 1: 113, ch. 337, 6; 340, 3,4: 114 
Ch. 342,12: 116, do. 347, 1: 119, do. 367,1 
ch. 368, 4 ; do. 368, 2 : 121, ch. 364, 7 ; 366, 9 
A., 138, ch. 51, 2 : 140, ch. 67, 1 : 144, do. 68, 1 
146, ch. 76, 3: 147, ch. 79, 2: 165, do. 103, 1 
ch. 105, 8: 158, do. 113, 1: 184, ch. 198, 5: 187 
ch. 208, 2 : 195. ch. 233, 6 : 196, ch, 236, 2 ; 237, 1 
199, ch. 246, 7: 207, ch. 272, 1 : 216. ch. 300, 7 
218. do. 306, 2 : 219, do. 811, 1 : LN., 326, ch. 118, 




9: UT., 330, ch. 8, 2 : 331, ch. 10, 5. ^, 
BA., 108, ch. 329,6. Of.^rftw, ^ixf^. 
^^kr, BA., 89, ch. 271, 5: 90. ch. 273, 2: 116, 
ch. 844, 7: A., 164, ch. 100, 8: 180. ch. 18&, 
6: 181. ch. 189, 5: 218, ch. 307, 3: LN.. 326, 
ch. 117, 3. 

j/^n|Nri-^^4W*, BA., 107, do. 325, 2 : A., 196, 
do. 237, 2. 

^r^K, BA., 26, ch. 79, 7 : A., 134. ch. 38, 8: 146, 
ch. 75, 7 : 207. ch. 271, 4 : LN., 308. ch. 83, 1 : 
316, ch. 99, 7 ; chh. 28, 2: UT., 343, ch.42,5. 
^^, UT., 363 . do. 96, 1. ^ AR,, 229. ch. 16, 6. 



^ .9 BA., 9. ch.22, 21 : 13. ch.39, 9 : 14. ch.43, 7 : 
29,ch.92, 6: 31,ch.96, 7: 37, ch. Ill, 7: 43, 
ch. 128, 6 : do. 128, 1 : 47, do. 143, 1 : 59, 
ch.l79, 3: 73, ch. 222,6: 75, do. 228, 2: 76. 
ch. 232, 6 : 82, ch. 252, 7 : 89 , chh. 33, 3 : AR., 224. 
ch. 4, 6 : 230. ch. 15, 16 : 232. ch. 19, 1 : 234, 
do. 23, 2 ; ch. 24, 8 : SU., 263, ch. 22, 9 : LN., 278, 
ch.8, 2: UT., 359, ch. 87, 6. ^, BA., 43. 
ch.l29, 5. -fiwwT, BA., 64, ch. 197, 4. ^i[t, 
BA., 72, ch. 219, 9. ^«^t1^^, BA., 43. ch. 130, 
7. ^retrcV, BA.. 20. ch. 62, 2 ; 65. chh. 20, 2 : 
UT., 346, ch. 48, 5. 

'^^^('^), BA,. 42, ch. 126, 7 : 66. chh. 23, 1. 

^IP^TO, Kl., 253. ch. 28, 12 : SU., 268. ch. 8, 6 : 260, 
do. 12, 2. ^im[^, AR., 236, do. 25, 2. Slfev, 
SU.,261,ch. 18, 3. 

t^>«T, SU., 269, ch. 12, 10 : UT., 362, ch. 69, 2. 
^IT^rt'Bl', BA., 66. ch. 168. 8. 




1 A., 195, ch. 233, 6 : Kl., 244, ch. 3, 4. 

^nfi^, LN.,281.ch,17,3. 

f BfiC., 54. ch. 163, 2: A., 164. ch. 133, 6: 
UT., 331. do. 10,2. 

^r^, BA., 61. ch. 156, 1; 52, ch, 166, 7: 56, 
do. 169, 1 : 59, ch. 181, 5 : AR., 227, ch. 9, 1 : 
241, do. 37, 3 : SU., 2(j6> -ch. 84, 4 : 272, ch.49, 8 : 
UT, 368, ch. 86, 1 : 368, ch. 106, 2 : 369, do. 106, 
1 : 372, ch. Ill, 6. 

^r^f?r^ BA., 30. ch.93,8: 66. do. 197, 2: 67, 
ch. 203, 8; chh. 25, 1: 70. ch. 214, 7: 73. 
ch. 222, 6:73. chh. 29, 2 : AR., 222, sa 3, 2 : 
226.ch.6, 4: 226. ch. 8,1: 231.do. 16, 4: 236. 
ch. 27a, 2 : 238. ch. 30, 2 : 240. ch. 36, 3 : Kl., 244. 
ch. 2, 7 : SU., 268. ch. 38, 1 : LN., 301. ch. 68, 9 : 
304. ch. 74, 5 : 308, ch. 83, 6:313. ch. 94, 5 : 318, 
ch.103, 6: 320. do. 107, 2: 321. do. 109, 2: 



23 



326, ch. 118, 4 : UT.. 333. do. 13, 3: 341, civ 85, 
1 : 342, ch. 36, 1 : 343, do. 39, 1 : 351, do. 64, 
4 : 352, ch. 69, 3. 



f^ BfiC., 100, ch. 306,8: AR., 230, do. 15,2: 
LN.,281,ch.l5, 1: 296, ch.60, 6; 52,2: 302, 
Ch.70, l:311,ch.89, 3. 

^r^THi LN., 325, ch. 117, 2. 

^ri^, A., 176, do. 172,2 : LN., 281, ch. 16,7. tttw, 
Kl., 246, ch. 7, 12. tttw, Bfit., 50, ch. 160, 4. 
r, AR,, 226, ch. 6, 6. 

4|^|«11, BM., 70, ch. 213, 2 : Ut., 339, ch. 30, 2. 



A.. 183, Ch. 195, 5. 
^l^T^,— HwKT> LN., 281, ch. 16, 3. 
, A., 190, do. 217, 2. 





:, LN., 281, do. 16, 1: 296, ch. 65, 7: 
UT., 376, ch. 118, 36. 

^<ftl^? LN., 291, ch. 39, 1. 
^ir^f5(t%, UT.. 338, ch. 26, 5. 




^ 8/V., 41 , ch. 123, 15 : 44, ch. 134, 6 : 46, 
ch. 136, 7 ; 46, ch. 141, 1 : 95, ch. 291, 6: A., 194, 
ch. 232, 2 : UT., 366, ch. 102, 8. 



:, BfiC., 49, ch. 149, 1 : 60, ch. 186, 5 : A., 179. 
do. 181, 1 : Kl., 252, ch. 27, 2, 3 : 8U„ 257, ch. 4, 
,3 : LN., 279, ch. 9, 9 : 291. ch. 39, 4. Cf. njyjf:. 
^^m, BfiC., 59, ch. 181, 7: A.. 205, ch. 266, 16: 
Kl., 262, ch. 27, 4 : 263, ch.27, 5 : 8U., 256, ch. 2, 
3 : 258, ch. 7, 8. 
t«rYT% A., 143, ch. 65, 3, 

^nrr^'» a., 183, ch. 194, 3 : 197. ch. 239, 5. 
, BA.. 77, ch. 235, 6. 



^Tf^* ^nrfi ^iirfTi ^nnff^ ^i^^» 

see ^X^. 




^ BfiC., 6, ch. 16, 1 : 32, ch. 101, 1 : 55, sa 19, 
2: 89. chh. 33, 2: 109. Ch. 331, 9: A., 163. 
Ch.l31, 6: 178. ch. 177,8: AR,232, so. 7, 1: 
241. ch. 38, 6 : LN.. 286, ch. 26, 7 : 308, chh. 11, 
4 : UT.. 343, ch. 40, 8 : 366, ch. 103, 6 : 376. 
Ch. 118, 18. ^i^^TOT, BfiC.. 60, ch. 182, 7. Tifir, 
Kl., 246, ch. 7, 8. ^m, SU.. 262. ch. 20, 8 : 268. 
do. 36, 1: LN., 299. ch.63, 1. ^xjxx, BfiC,, 122. 
ch.367,6. ^,A.,199.ch.244.7. ^rfiT, A., 209, 
ch. 277, 6 : 8U., 267. chh. 2, 6. *%fV, BA., 97, 
ch.296,2. ^»wir, BfiC., 40. ch. 121, 2. - wifijii), 
AR., 236. ch. 26, 11. ^tmr, BA., 68, ch. 207, 2 : 
AR., 228, ch. 11, 4. *^, A., 158, do. 113, 2. 
^, BA., 25, ch. 79, 5. ^'^, A., 160, chh. 4, 3. 
WNt, BA., 38, ch. 113, 3 : LN., 304, ch. 73, 14 : 
UT., 361,ch.90, 8. 
^riVft, AR., 229, ch. 14, 3. 

■^n^tjli see ^if%^T. 





T^ UT., 376, ch. 118, 22. 

'.) A., 171, ch. 166, 7 : SU., 269, do. 40, 2. 

^rPrTRT? BA., 113, ch. 340, 4: A-. 130, ch. 26, 7 : 
144, ch. 68, 8 : LN., 279. do. 8, 2 : 281, do. 16, 4 : 
325, ch. 118, 9. 
^fnniT, BA., 25. ch. 77, 4 : UT.. 330. ch. 8, 2. 

•) UT.. 373. ch. 114, 12. 

:^ A., 163, ch. 131, 7 : 164, ch. 133, 2. 
^%Kfr, BA.. 64, ch. 163, 6. 

"^n vl'i A., 162, ch. 128, 4. 




^QTV) BA., 37, ch. 112. 4 : 92. ch. 281, 1 : SU.. 269. 
Ch. 42, 8 : 271, do. 47, 1 : LN., 281, ch. 17, 1. 



n ^ 



^^rW, UT« 372, ch. 112, 2. 
"^T^j A..117,ch.l76,2. 



"^n^fS^t BfiC, 4, ch. 12, 1 : 18, ch. 67, 4: UT.. 344. 
ch.46, 4. 

^rP6I^) BA., 68, ch. 206, 2. 
^nftQf?T) BA., 47, ch. 144, 7. 




24 



'm^, Bfit., 5, ch. 13, 9 : 8, ch. 21, 6 : 9, ch. 24, 1 : 
A., 210, ch. 283, 2 : 217, ch. 304, 6. ^, A., 196, 
ch.232,4. 

^Tf?f , BfiC., 94, ch. 288, 8 : 98, ch. 301, 1, 5 : 
A., 129, ch. 21, 6 : 169, do. 148, 1 : 171, ch. 156, 
8 : LN., 289, Ch. 35, 12 : UT., 364, do. 96, 4. 

^ff^, BfiC., 94. Ch. 288, 7 : A., 159, ch. 117, 6. 

^fft% A., 172, Ch. 160, 6: 182, ch. 192, 2: 201, 
ch. 262, 7. 

^W^, A., 132,ch.31,5. 

^IIW?, BA., 6, do. 17, 1 : 20, chh. 2, 2 : 37, ch. Ill, 
8 : A., 161, ch.93, 5 : 194, do. 228, 2: 210, ch.282, 
7 : UT., 346, ch. 60, 3 : 374, ch. 116, 3. 

^HIA«<<) BA., 72, ch. 219, 8 : 82, do. 249, 2 : 
A.. 163, do. 130, 2 : 204, do. 262, 1 : AR., 226, 
ch. 7, 3 : LN., 315, ch. 97, 10 : UT., 327, do. 1, 4. 

^1?1T, BA., 96, ch. 293, 3 : Kl., 263, ch. 29, 1. 
^TRf^, A., 180, ch. 184, 5. 

^*TO, BA., 110, chh. 50, 3. 

^RK, BA., 8, so. 4, 2 : UT.. 334, do. 14, 2. 

^HITTT, LN., 279, ch. 11, 7 : 280, ch, 14, 4 : UT., 336, 
ch. 20, 9. 

^nf'Ti BA., 64, ch. 197, 6 : LN., 316, chh. 26, 7. 

^TU>, BA., 65, ch. 197, 7: A., 137, ch. 47, 4 : 172, 
ch. 168, 8:173, ch. 163, 2 : Kl., 251, ch. 23, 4 : 
SU.. 269, ch. 12, 9. 

^nf^T^, BA., 26, ch. 81, 1 : A., 126, ch. 13, 7. 
^rfilfv, BA., 71, ch. 218, 1 : A., 128, ch. 19, 8. 

'^Srnr, BA., 7, ch. 19, 6 : 20, do. 62, 2 : 21, ch. 64, 4 : 
42, so. 12, 1 : 63. ch.193, 9 : 93, ch. 283, 6 ; 95, 
ch. 289, 7 : 98, ch. 300, 2 : 102, ch. 313, 2 : 105, 
ch. 321, 3 : 109, ch. 330, 6 : 1 19, ch. 359, 1 : 121, 
ch. 366, 6 : A., 132, ch. 31, 1 : 146, ch. 77, 2 : 149, 
ch.86, 3 : 162, ch. 96, 4 : 169, ch. 119, 1 ; 160, 
do. 120, 2: 163, ch. 130, 6: 1 72, ch. 160, 6 : 
176, ch. 173, 2 : 183, do. 194, 2 : 189, ch. 213, 
6 ; ch. 214, 3 : 194, ch. 230, 4 : 206, ch. 265, 1 : 
210, ch. 281,7: AR., 224, ch. 4,2: 225, ch.6; 
5: 226, eh. 7, 20: 229, ch. 15, 6: 233, 
ch. 21, 1: 236, ch. 26,18; 27, 7: 238, 
ch. 30, 1 : Kl., 243, ch. 1, 1 : 246, ch. 7, 7 ; 246, 
ch. 9, 1 : 247, ch. 11, 5 : 260, do. 20, 2 : 262, 
ch. 24, 8 : SU., 256, ch. 3, 8 : 264, do. 26, 2 : 270, 
ch. 45, 1 : LN., 279, ch. 10, 4 : 283, ch. 20, 8 : 286! 
ch. 27, 4 ; 29, 4 : 288, ch. 33, 7 : 292, ch. 42, 1 : 
do. 43, 2: 299, ch. 61, 3: 301. ch. 68, 6: 303, 



ch. 73, 4 : 313, ch. 94, 7 : 317, ch. 100, 7 : 324, 
ch. 114. 4 : UT., 330, ch. 7, 8 : 335, ch. 18, 2 : 
346, ch. 49, 7, 

^rri^n, BA., 28, ch. 87, 4 : 78, ch. 238, 6 : 120, 
ch. 362, 6 : A., 21 3, ch, 290, 4. Of. ^WT. 



^ BA.. 1l2,ch.335, 8. 

J/^ETT^T')— ^rror. A., 176, ch. 170, 
chh. 13, 2. 

^m^, LN., 304, ch.*7^, 2. 
^rt^T^— "«Ht^, BA., 1 1 1 , ch. 333, 7. 



13: 220, 



t BA., 2, ch. 3, 2 : 14, ch. 42, 3, 4 ; 
do, 42, 2 : 48, ch. 147, 4 : 56, ch. 168, 1, 6 : 62, 
ch. 192, 3 : 105, ch. 320, 8 ; do. 320, 1 : A., 166, 
do. 135, 2 : UT., 349, ch. 61, 6 : 353, ch. 70, 5. 
Cf. 



, BA., 49, ch. 148, 2 : 62, ch. 190, 2 : 64, 
ch. 197, 7, 11 : 66, do. 200, 1 : SU., 271, ch. 47, 7 : 
UT., 346, ch. 47, 4 : 346, ch. 49, 4 : 366, so. 11, 1. 
^T^»l^, A., 189, ch. 215, 1 : 220, ch. 314, 6. 

^rr^^? UT., 342, ch. 38, 7. 
r^A., 179,ch.l82,8. Of. 
^TTr,A., 132,ch.32, 6. 



'^TT^TT;^ BA., 30, ch. 94, 8 : 96, do. 294, 2 : 108, 
chh. 42, 1 : UT., 377, do. 118, 3. Cf. ^nrxT. 

^n^T^, UT., 363, ch. 95, 5. 

^T^l-^nft, BA., 4, ch. 12, 7 : 63, ch. 194, 6. 
nt^, A., 1 89, ch. 213, 5. 

^srrar,— ^ai», a., 128, ch. 20, 2. 

^w», BA„ 20, ch. 61, 8 : 23, ch. 72, 3 : 49, ch. 147, 
13; 148,2: 67, do. 174, 2: 93, do. 283. 2: 94, 
ch.287, 7: A., 134, do. 37, 2: 160, ch. 120, 1 : 
166, ch.l39, 6: 172, ch. 169, 5, 8: AR., 224, 
sa 4, 2 : LN., 290, do. 36, 1 : 314, ch. 96, 7. 

^«i\^, BA. 28, ch. 90, 1 : 39, ch. 117, 6 : A., 132, 
ch. 32, 6 : Kl., 247, do. 9, 2 : LN„ 286, ch. 26, 4 : 
298, ch. 60, 2. 

^TW, BA., 62, do. 191, 2: 1 89, do. 214, 2 : 202, 
do. 254, 1 : Kl., 252, ch. 27, 3 : LNm 310. 
ch. 87,7. 

^tnj, BA., 38, ch. 113, 2 : 54, do. 163, 2 : 56, ch. 171, 
4: 72, ch.219, 3 : 220, 3 : 84, ch. 256, 6 : 85. ch.260, 
3 : 87, ch. 267, 7 : 94, ch. 288, 3 : 98, ch. 299, 7 : 
104, ch. 318, 5 : 106, ch. 323, 7 : 112, ch. 336, 6 : 
1 13,ch. 337,4 : 121, ch. 363, 7 : A., 126, ch. 10, 7 ; 
do. 12, 1 : 129, do. 21, 1 ; oh.23, 5 : 134, ch. 38, 
1 : 138, ch. 49, 6 : 140, ch, 66, 6 : 163, ch. 99, 6 ; 



^ 



^^^mmmfmmmmmmmmmmButae 



99arv9wmil^m^. 



26 



6 : 155, ch. 104, 5 : 169, eh. 150, 6 : 173. do. 163, 
1: 180, do. 184,1: 191, eh. 219, 3 ; 220,4; 
221, 3 : 200, do. 250, 2 ; eh. 251, 2 : 204, ch. 262, 
6:207, eh. 272. 7 : 21 l.ch. 286, 6: 216, eh. 301, 
2 : AR., 225, eh. 7, 9 : 233, oh. 22, 8 : 238. eh. 31, 
8 : Ki., 252, eh. 27, 4 : 263, eh. 27, 5 : 8U., 256. 
eh.2, 3 : 266. oh. 34, 2 : 269, do. 42, 2 : LN., 294, 
eh. '49, 3: 303, eh. 72, 13: 307, eh. 80, 2: 310. 
eh. 87, R : 317, ch. 101, 8 : 319, chh. 34, 8 : 
UT., 328, ch. 3, 11 : 332, eh. 11, 4 : 341 , eh. 34, 7 : 
358, ch. 84, 2 : 378, do. 120, 1. %v, A.. 129. 
ch. 23, 8. 
^1^, BfiC., 56, eh.l71, 5 : 91. ch. 278, 4 : 107. eh. 326, 
6:114,eh.341,2:A., 124.eh.6, 3: 126. ch. 11, 
3: 127. eh. 15, 2: 128, eh. 20, 3: 135. 
ch. 42, 1: 143. ch. 67, 4: 145. ch. 72, 
7 : 155. eh. 104, 6 : 163, ch. 129. 3 : 184, eh. 196, 
2: 186, ch. 206, 3: 191. ch. 221, 5: 196. 
ch.238, 6: 203. eh. 261,5: 210, ch. 282, 3: 
AR., 236. ch. 26, 14 : KI., 253, ch. 28, 10 : 
SU.. 265. ch. 30, 4. 



|/^T9,-^tfr, BA., 2. do. 1, 1. 
"irrSRIi LN., 318. chh. 32, 3. 



7 LN.,281,ch.l7,2. 
^s, Bfi(., 106. eh. 323, 4- 

AR., 238. eh. 31, 4. 

^T?T? LN., 309. eh. 85, 5. 

'^[V^') BfiL, 17, ch. 51, 4 : KI., 243. ch. 1, 9 : LN.. 
298, ch. 59, 4: 321, chh. 36, 16. Vtt, A.. 167, 
ch. 142. 7. ^^Tim, UT.. 353, ch. 69. 11. 

^HTfrVT)— N««w. UT., 374. ch. 115, 2. Snf^, 
UT.. 353. ch. 70, 6. 

^BX^y AR., 222, ch. 2, 11, 19 : 225. ch. 7, 3 : 230, 
eh. 15, 20: 235, do. 24, 2: LN., 296, eh. 56, 8 : 
297, ch. 58, 2 : 307, ch. 81, 8 ; chh. 9, 1 : 324. 
ch. 116, 6 : UT., 360, ch. 88, 7. 

^rni|Tv-*fW^, UT.. 344, do. 45, 2. 

^^-i Bfi(., 24, ch. 76. 6 : 37. eh. 111. 2 : 38, ch. 115, 
8 : 72, ch. 220, 9 : 110. chh. 52. 1 : 1 12, eh. 335. 
8: 1 1 3, ch. 838, 3 : 119, ch. 358, 4: A., 130,eh.24, 
4 : 135, ch. 39, 6 : 147, ch. 78, 3 : 155, ch. 105^ 
3 : 205, ch. 266, 12 : LN^ 279, ch. 10, 7 : 282, 
so. 3, 3 : 290, ch. 37, 4 : UT.. 333, do. 13, 6 : 336, 
eh. 20, 6 : 345. eh. 49, 2 : 351. eh. 64, 7. 
^mcrft, UT.. 334, tot- h 18' 



l/^n^,-^hCKfi, BAf.. 7, do. 19, 1 : A., 130. 
eh. 25, 2: 192. do. 224, 2. 
^T^Wf, BA:, 7, eh. 19, 8 : 208, A., eh. 274, 8. 
^nrf^, A., 176, eh. 170. 2. 
^nx^, UT.. 333, chh. 5, 9. 
^me^, UT., 372, ch. 112, 10. 

^rrf^i BfiC., 7. ch. 19, 2 : 8, ch. 22, 19 : 9, ch. 22, 
23 : 23, 5 : , 33. ch. 101. 7 : 41, ch. 125, 4 : 49. 
eh. 148, 6 : 65, do. 167, 1 : 81, eh.247, 7: A., 162, 
ch. 127, 7 : AR.. 229, eh. 13, 12 : KI., 250, do. 20, 
1 : SU.. 268, ch. 9, 4 : LN., 295, do. 61, 1 : 299, 
do, 62, 1: 303, eh. 72, 6: 318, do. 102, 1: 
UT.. 342. ch. 86, 5 : 348. ch. 58, 2 : 350, ch. 62, 
6 : 361. eh. 89, 5. ^rf^, BfiL, 60. ch. 153, 2 : 62, 
eh. 156, 12. 

<«Tfkf%, A.. 171.ch.l54.8. 

^Tf^, 8U., 260. eh. 13. 6. 

Vrf^l BfiL, 10, eh. 26, 4 : 107. do. 328, 1 : A., 164, 
eh. 133, 7 : 186, ch. 205, 8 : AR., 223, chh. 1, 16 : 
229, ch. 13, 8 : LN., 288. ch. 33, 20 : 298, 
ch. 59, 30 : UT., 340, do. 80, 2 : 368, do. 83, 4. 

^T^, LN., 293, ch. 47, 4. 
^Tt, B/V.. 66, eh. 202, 2.' 

Vrft, LN., 304, ch. 75, 8. 

^rrf^Ti BfiC., 56. eh, 171, 3 : A., 196, do. 286, 2 : 
AR., 228, eh. 13. 3. Gf. ^iJW. 
^rfhJ, BfiC, 10. eh. 25, 4 : 67, eh. 172, 1 : A., 212, 
ch. 288, 8. 

*M\^t tee %m, 

^nT^ BAl. 2, eh. 8, 6 : 10, ch. 26, 8:19, do. 60, 2 
26, ch. 82, 2 : 39, eh. 119, 5 : 46, eh. 139, 6 
do. 139, 2 ; eh. 140, 6 : 66, eh. 170, 4 : 62 
do. 191, 2 ; 70, ch. 213, 7 : 72, ch. 220, 10 : A. 
129, ch. 20, 8 : 141, ch. 60, 2 : 148, ch. 83, 8 
176, ch. 171. 2 : 177, ch. 176, 1 : 184, do. 196, 2 
186, ch. 204, 6 : 190. ch. 218, 5 : 202. ch. 255, 7. 
AR.. 223, ch. 3, 12 : 225, ch. 7. 2. 8 : 234, do. 22 
2:8U..263,eh.24.8:271,ch.48, 8: LN., 277 
do. 4, 2 : 286, ch. 29, 4 : 311. ch. 89, 8 : 318 
do. 101, 1 : 320. eh. 106, 7 : 326. do. 118, 4 
UT., 346, do. 49, 2 : 350, do. 63, 3 : 356, ch. 78 
2 : 357, do. 81} 2 : 361. chh. 9, 1 : 363, eh. 94, 2 
365, do. 100, 1 : 372, ch. 112, 3 : 379, do. 122, 3 
380, chh. 12. 10. 

^nvi:, UT>. 367, ch. 81, 4. 

^nf;, A., 157. ch. Ill, 1: LN., 277. ch. 4, 8: 

UT.. 343. eh. 41, 5 : 367, ch. 81, 8. 
^I«T, BA:, 21. ch. 64, 1 : 22, ch. 67, 6 : 40, 

eh. 122, 8 : 73, chh. 80, di A., 136. eh. 48, 2 : 




06 



n9i bh. 86j 8: 155, oh. 98-, St 203jOll.»8^, 8 : 
AR., 224, ch. 3, 21 1 22?i ch. ie< 7 : 22ii th. l8, 

3 : 8U.. 266r otr; 34^ S : £72i oh. 59) 1 : 272. 
ch. 62, 6 : LN., 292, ch. 42, 8 : 306, ch. 77, 

4 : 318, ch. 96, 10 ! UT., 366i ch. 78, 3 : 367, 
ch. 81, 4 : 361, ch» 91< 2 : 370; ch. 109, 10. 

|/'<nWi— ^f<r*> KL« 264, 8h. SOj 9. 

^nnr, B^V., 42, ch, 126, 6 : A., 200, 251, 3 : 201, 

ch. 253, 7. 
^v^, BA., 67, ch. 173, 4. 
^Tuft, BX^., 61 , ch. 187, 3 : Ut., 370, ch. 109, 13. 

^nwfj, B^*, 66, ch. 168j 10 : UT., 364, chh. 10, 3. 

^lii#, BA.. 108, dh. 338, 2 : A.. 126, ch. 7, 1 : 134, 
ch. 39, 1 : 186, ch. 205, 5 : AR., 234, ch. 23, 5 : 
Kl., 246, ch. 5, 7 : SU., 261 , Ch. 15, 10 : kN., 277, 
ch. 2, 9 : 283, ch. 19) 2 : 319, oh. 106, 11. 

^inv, 8Ui.270,tto. 44,1. 

^^tfili BA.» 45, ao. 137, 1 : 13, do. 221, 1 : 86, 
d6. 258, 2i 107,6hh.8O,2 : A., 124, do. 3j 1 : 128, 
do. 17, 2: 148, Ch. 80, 8 : 163, oh. 98, 10 ; chh. 4, 

2 : 166, do. 103, 2 ; Ch. 104, 2 ; 159, ch. 116, 6 : 
166, ch. 138, 5 : 183, do. ^ 2 : 204, ch. 263, 2 : 
AR., 226, do. 7, 2 : ^38, do. 2§, 1 : SU., 259, 
ch. 12, 3 : LN., 277, do. 2* 2 : ch. 3, 1 : 4, 4 : 28«, 
do. 32, 1 : 298, do. 69, 2 : 320, chh. 35, 6. 

^i^, SD.. 26*6, bh. 32, 4. 

^ifiw, BA.,93, l>h. 284, 4 : A., 188, d6. BIO, 1. 

^Tfii^, A.. 183. chh. 8, 4 : SO, 2166, do. 31, §. 

^ifli^, Kl., 264, chh. 2, 1. 

^TT^, BA., 14. ch. 42, 8 : 29, ch. 90, 4 : 40, oh. 121, 

5 : 60, ch. 182, 3 : 71, ch. 217, 2 : 72, ch. 219, 2 : 
80. ch.244, y i 246, 8 i 88, ch. 269, 8 : T07, eh. 826, 

3 : 109, ck 330, 6 : 114, ch. 341, 4 : 116, th. 342, 
13 '. A., 146, ch.77, 2 : 150, ch. 87, 8 : 167, ch. 110, 

6 : T62, ch. 127, 5 : 165, Ch. 138, 8 : 178. ch. 182, 
6 : 186, Ch. 201, 7 : 207, oh. 2^70, 4 ; 271, 7 : 
AR., 227, ch. 9, 11 : 3U„ 260, ch. 13, 10 : LN., 278, 
ch, 7, 3 : 294, ch. 47, 7 : 298, ch. 69, 27 : UT- 344, 
ch. 44, 3. 

^nr , ^U., 274. ch. 58, 1. 

^Tif^, LM., '296. ch. 54, k 

^^, A.. 216. d6. 295, 2. 

<qn«rfT, SU., 2bi, ch. 9, 9 : Lfil., 287, ch. 30, ^. 

^Tira, A., 1^2, ch. 80, 2 : 151, ch. 92, 7, 8 : 167, 

ch. 144, 4 : SU.. 263, do. 21, 2 : LN., 283, 

ch. 20, 5. 
^tk, B«., 101 , ch. 308, Y : 1 1 1 , XJhh. 57> -1 : ^ 425, 

ch. 10, 8: 16b, ch. l21, 2: 180, %h. 186, 3: 

212, eh. 288,4: Aift., ii2, oh.2,?a : SUk,272, 

ch. 62, '2. 
^, BA.. 96, Sh. 295, 1. 



4|t^«SM..71, «H. bis, 7: AR., 218, Ch. 81,2: 
Rl., 249, «h. 18, 2 i 260, cH. 18, 8. 

^rnpTt BA., 18, ch. 114, 8 : 69, ch. 211, 7 : 

SO. 266i 6h. 8, 10i 270, oh 48,6: LN., 281, 
oh. 18, 0i 802. «hh. 3, 4i 317, ch. 100,9: 
UT', 366, 6h. 77, 2 : 364, chh. 10, 4. ^f%ir, B^ 42. 
oh> 188, & 

^ (n^t BfiC, 16, oh. 48, la : 19, ch. 61, 3 : 99, 
ch. 303» 8 : 102, ch. 312, 7t do. 318, 8; ch. 314, 
4 : 104, ch. 318, 9 : 108, ch. 329, 4 : 109. chh. 46, 
2:111, chh. 60, 1 : 120, ch. 360, 5 : 121, ch. 365, 
8 ; do. 365, 8 : 122. ch. 367, 5 : A., 126, do. 11, 
1 : 138, do. 50, 2 : 139, ch. 62, 8 : 163, ch. 98, 
16 : 165, ch. 106, 1 : 160, ch. I2l,5 : 194, do. 230, 
2 : 200, ch. 24d, 1 : 206, ch. 268, 2 : AR., 239, 
Ch. 32, 6 : UT., 349, ch. 58, 8. Ww, A., 204. 
ch. 263, 6. V^, BA„ 106, chh. 37, 3: 107, 
chh. 40, 2. Vwr, BA., 76, ch. 229, 2. ^, 
BA., 106. chh. 37,1. M, BA., 107, chh. 40, 
2. ^w, BA., 67, ch. 206, 2 : 99, ch. 303, 4: 
A., 126, ch. d, 4. ^tnft, 6A., 10, ch. 37, 6. 
^f^ BA.. 69, ch. 209, 6. Of. 
r, BA., 76, ch. 229, 2. 



1 



^m^ BA.. 28, ch. 89, 4 : 51, ch. 16S, 2: 65, ch. 166, 
6 : 97, ch. 298, 3 : UT., 342, ch. 39, 4. 
^^, A., 171, do. 154, 2. 

"V^WT, A.. 129. ch. 21, 7 : AR.i 239, ch. 84, 6 : 80., 
259, ch. 11, 2 : LN., 296, ch.66, 6. 

^^, A., 144,ch.71, 1. 

^^lir, BA., 6, ch. 17, 6: 11, ch. i29, 8; 30, €: 
12, ch. 34,2: 20, chh. 2, 4: 59. ch.l82, 1: 87, 
oh. 267, 1 : 92, ch. 282, 6:110, chh. 48, 2 : A., 129, 
do. 21, 1 : 183, chh. 8, 4 : 200, ch. 260, 2 : 208. 
ch. 274, 3, 7 : 212. ch. 288, 6 ; 289, 6 ; 290, 2 : 
AR., 242, chh. 11, 2 : LN., 294, Ch. 48, 4 : UT., 362, 
do. 91, 3: 370, do. 108, 2. 

-^TW, BAL, 22, ch. 68, 7 : 30, ch.94, 5: 46, oh. 189, 
« : 47, ch. 144, 6 : 53, ch. 162, 3 : 65, ch. 167, 8 ; 
168, 7 : 67, ch. 172, 1 : 60, oh. 186, 2 : 95, ch. 289, 
8 : 106, ch. 325, 7: }22, oh. 367, 2 : A., 141, eh. 60, 
3 : 168. ch. 147, 3 : 176, do. 170, 2: 176, ch. 171, 
8: 178, do. 176, 2: 181, ch. 189, 2: 200, ch.248, 
1 : 202, ch. 256, 7; 267, 5 : 213, ch. 290, 9l^ 214, 
ch.293, 3: Kl., 244, ch. 2, 4: 247, chh. 1, 8: 
SU.. 268, ch. 38, 6 : LN., 286, ch. 29, 2 : 296, 
eh. 6^1, 4 :4JTn 350, ch. 62, 1. 

■yinfv, BAL, 3, ch. 6, 1 : 42, ch. 127, 4 : 44, ch. 134, 
3 : 79. do. 242, 1 : 87, ch. 267, 6 : 92, eh. 282, 6: 
A., 171, oh. 164, 8: 177,clo. 176, 1 : 178, eh. 177, 
6 : 191 , ch. 218, 16 : 200. ch. 861, 8 : 207, ch. 273, 



vr 



SUm 273,ch.63, 3: 274,9h.j»7, |0: MTit 355, 
ch. 76, 1. 

\, A.. IM, do. £24, 3: 212. do. fiST, 1: 
Mf^ 858. ch. 84, 4. 

^n#, BA:, 105, €«ih. 85, « : Lli, 117, ohh. 81, 8. 

^nr, BA:. t, ch. St, is : 10. eh. 28, « < 12, do. 34, 
1 { 28, «h. 01, « t 47, do. 143, 1 : 62< eh. 197, 8 ; 
158, 2 : M, do. 164, 2 : 17, eh. 173, 6 < 58, 
oh. 176,1: 70, ch. 313,3: 71, ch. 317, 6 e 73, 
ch. 223, 2 { 98, do. 2»3, 1 1 141. do. J06, 2 : A., 
128, do. 2, 2 : 149. eh. 84, 5 : 460, eh. 86, 4 : 153. 
ch. 98, 13 ; do. 98, 1 : 1(8, oh. 116, 3 : 1£4, do. 134, 
1 : 1M, ch. 146, 4 : 182, eh. 191, 4 : 143, ch. 194, 
14^ 195, 3 : 191, do. 218, 2 : 197, eh. 230, 7'. 210, 
oh. 280, 5 { ^1, 8 : 212, eh. 288, 5 : 218, oh. 291, 
7 : 21«, ch. 308, 2 : AR., 228, do. 13, 1 : LN^ 289. 
ch. 34, 1 : 291 ,do.40, 3{ 318, ch. 103, 4: UT., 343, 
ch. 41, 5 : 849, oh. 69, 4 : 864, oh. 97, 3. 

^T^, BA.. 61, oh. 187, 4: 64, chh.18,2: 210. 
ch. 282, 3 : 211 , ch.'286, 7 : LN., -304, ch. 76, 1 : 
UT.. 364, do. 72, 4. 

^t^, BA..06, ch. 293, «: A.. 140, ch. 66, 6 : 186, 
Ch. 206, 1 : 6U., 269, do.0, 1 : 864, ch. 73^ 6. 

^n, SA.,11, oh. 30, 8: 177, ch. 178, 4: A., 210. 
Ch. 282, 2 : 216, ch. 301, 7. 



^rm^r-Snv, AB., i23, eh. 3, 7. 
^iq^4j|l4) ^> UTv 36H, *hji. ai, 16. 
'irTT^-'^wnr, UT., 349, ch. 68, 6. 
mWl^-lj A., .197. ch. 239, 3. 

^l*Ui(, UT« 380, chh. 12, 8. 
^TW^rtr, BA„ 12, ch. 87, r 

^WfiTO(*l), BA., 68, eh. 177, 8. ^tBWft, AR., 237, 
ch.28, 2. 

8fe., tee ^ 



^TRrfT) BA., 111, eh. 333, 6: AR., 237, ohh.t9, 3: 
SU..'270, ch. 45, 5 : UT..'385, do. 76, 2. 

^ ItHfl^) A., 183.00. r, 1. 

Wir^ A. 186,:eh. 80$, 8. 

BAL, 20, oh. 62, 12 : 23,«h.71, 6 ; do.'71, 1 : 
18, oh. 87, 2 : 44, ch. 134, 2 : 64, ch. 165, 1 : 67, 
ch; 173, 6 ; eh. 174, 1 : 63, eh. 196, 13 : 64, ch. 197, 
2 : 66, oh. 200, 2 : 71, oh. 217, -8 : 75, eh. 280, 6: 
78, do. £37, 2 ; eh. 238, 1 : 8^1 , ch.'248, 6 ; 240, 6 : 



86, ch. 263, 7 : 87, ch. 266, 4: 88, eh. 270, p : 89, 
eh. 272, 8: 91, ch. 279,2: 100, ch.306, 3: 101, 
el). 309,3: 103. eh, 316, 6: 108, ch. 328, 2 : 110. 
m^ \% 1 : 1 13, eh, 338, 7 : 1 14. oh. 340, 5 ; 342, 
6 ; 1 1 8, etv 862, 7:11 9, eh. 9^7, 6 ; lj?1 , eh. 366, 
10: A., 126, dQ,6, l;p.h.8, 1 : 126, ch, 10, 8 : 
135, ^tf, 40, 2 : 136, ^oi 45, g : 13J, eh. 46, 3 : 139, 
ch. 62, 7: 141, ch. 68, 7; 69, 6; 60, 4: 145, 
chh. 8,3: 146,ch.75, 3: 149,ch. 86, 8: 166, 
ch.l08,f : 160, eh. 122, 3 : 168. eh. 1^,6: 1/S8, 
Chh. «, 2 i 1 74. «h. 164, 7 : 1 76, ,ch. m, y^ ; ^71. 
7 : 1 78, ch. 176. 7 : 1 82, ch. 191, % i }^< jBfv 205, 
8 : 187, do. 206, 1 : 196. do. ^38, 1 : 198, ejn. 2|3, 
3; do. 243, 1: 200, ch. 248, 3, 4 ; 249,3: 201, 
ch. 254, j8 : 20.3. dp, 250, 1 .: 2p6/ ch.. ^; ^i 208, 
eh. 275, 3 : 210, ch. 280, 4 ; do. 281, 2 ; ch. 282, 
4 : 21 1 , eh. 285, 5 : 212, do. -260, a : 216, oh. 495, 7 ; 
296, 2, 4, .6, 7 : 21 6, ph. ?9?, 2 ; 300, 6:217, ch. 303, 
4 : 219, ch. 311, 4, 7 : 220, do. 313, 2 : AR., 224, 
ch. 3, 21 : 228, ch. 10, 18 : Kl., 247, eh. 11, 8 : 251, 
' ch. 22, 5 ; 23, 8 : 8U., 267, civ U, 9i .273, ch. ,66, 
6 : LN., 278, eh. 5, 9 ; ,6, .8 : /83, ch. J9, 3 : 284. 
do. 23, 1 : 288, ch. 33, 10, 13 : 291 , ch. 39, 7 : 295, 
do. 61,1: 297, do. 68,2: 316, ch. 102, 6, 8: 
322, do. 110, 1: 326,,cl?.118, 7:jLrr„ 332,^,^8, 
5 : 338, ch. 25, 6 : 345, ch. 48, 8 : 351, do. 64, 2. 

^n^, BA., 91, ch. 277, 3. ^^, ^l, 269. 
ch. 42, 1. 

^fn^nr^ BA., 66, ch. 200, 4 : 67, chhi 24, 3 : 73, 
do.221, 371:AR., 231, do. 15, .3;«bh. 6, 1: 
8tW., 267, pt». 35, 9: U^.. .29;. <lo. ^, 1:.2^6, 
ch. 50, 6; 306, phh. 4, 1 : 30,7, ch. 80, 4. 

^ { K^y -\m\nH9 , A. 162,,dp.95, 2. 

inrWi BA., 10, ch. 26, 6 : 39, ch. 118, 2 : 44, 
do.l33, 2 : 46, ch. 189, 6 : 48, ch. 146, 2 : A., 133, 
do. 34, 2: 139, do. 51,1: 147, ch. 79, 3: 167, 
Ch.l43, 1 : 178, do. 179,1 : 183, eh. 194, 10: 184. 
ch. 196, 7 : 196, ch. 235, 1 : 200, ch. 248, 1 : 203, 
ch.259, 4: 212, ch.289, 8: LN.,292, ch. 41,4: 
UT., 327, do. 1, 1 : 330, chh. 2, 7. -^fiRT, AR., 234, 
ch. 24, 2 : LN., 283, do. 20, 2. ^vwvurr, UT.. 358, 
ch. 83, 2. H^, UT., 336, ch. 19, 1, *wv, A.i 162, 
do. 95, 1. ^^rft, AR., 222, ch. 2, 14 : 236, ch. 26, 
7:LN.,3.01,ch. 67,2. 
^Kf)r(l) (distressed), BA., 3j|, eh. ^8, 3. 

^nTf?T(2) (diBtwB8),BA.,W,oh.62,i: ?7, oh. 234, 
8 : A., 136, oh.44,.d: 152, oh. ^5, 1 : 178, oh. 180, 
1 : 201, ch. 253, 1 : 217, ch. 302, 6. ■^, UT.. 331, 
ch. 10, 7. ^^nn, BA.. 22, -ch. 69, 6: AB., ^5. 
ch. 25,2: SU..27Q,do.45,<2. 



28 



^ETTTITTCS) (the Itistralrite), BA., 11 1 , chh.66, 3 : 1 1 8. 
ch. 363, 7. 
^Txft, BAT., 34, ch. 104, 2: 68, eh. 206, 5: 90. 
oh. 273, 14: 101, oh. 308, 4: 106, do. 323, 1 
Ch. 325,4: 107, chh. 38, 1: 114, do. 341, 2 
1 17, ch. 350, 6 ; 351, 8 : 1 18, ch. 354, 1 ; 355, 4 
A.. 170, ch. 153, 3 lUT.. 330, ch. 8, 4 : 331, ch. 10, 
6, 7 : 332, ch. 13, 6. 

IIKird? AR.,230, do. 15, 1, Oi^mfir. 

^Tnii\, B/C, 22, ch. 67, 8 : AR., 232, ch. 17, 7 : 
UTh 349, ch. 59, 6, 

^BTCTBIj— ^mw, BAf., 26, ch. 80, 8. 
j/^n^CWi-^^mw*, BAf.. 28, ch. 88, 3. 
^ITO«I, BA., 26, ch. 80, 4. 

^SrrCTiT) BA., 78, do. 239, 2 : UT.. 340, chh. 8, 4. 
^rn«, AR., 226, ch. 8, 13. 

^TT^^^i 8U.. 269, ch. 11, 4. 
^^fT, LN., 284, ch. 23, 4. 

^rranrra? ba., i n, ch. 349, 8. 

^JT^W, UT.t 341, ch. 35, 7. 

^STT^^ BA.. 29. ch. 91, 4. 
%XV9^ BA., 11, ch. 32, 1. 

^srr^rft) su.. 272, ch. 51, 4. 

^rrf^) BA., 77, ch. 234, 6. Of. W^. 

^fnjV, BA.,79, ch.241,4: 80, ch.246,6: A., 127, 
ch. 16, 4: 130, ch. 24, 3 : 189, ch. 214, 2. 

'^^[T^<t~.'^^itmt BA:, 97, ch. 290, 3. 

m^ a/C, 16, ch. 47, 6 : 27, do. 83, 1 : 36, do. 107, 
1 : 56, ch* 171, 5 : 61, do. 186, 1 : 62, ch. 192, 
5, 8 : 63, ch. 193, 9 ; 195, 7, 13 : 70, ch. 213, 6 : 
96. ch. 295, 8 : A., 125, ch. 10, 2 : 1 35, do. 39, 1 : 
154, ch. 100, 3 ; do. 100, 1 : 155, ch. 103, 5 : 162. 
do. 127, 2 : 164. ch. 132, 5 : 190, ch. 218, 10 ; 
chh. 9, 4: 191, ch. 221, 5: 1 96, ch. 237, 1 : 198, 
do. 243, 2 : 204, ch. 262, 1 : AR., 221 , do. 1, 2 : 
230, so. 6. 1 : 235, ch. 24, 14 : 236, do. 26a, 2 : 
Kl., 248, do. 12, 2 : 251. ch. 22, 2 : 8U.. 256, 
oh. 2, 2 : 265, eh. 29, 2, 3 : LN.. 281. do. 14, 3 : 
285. ch. 24. 8 : 290, eh. 37, 3 : 291, do. 40, 2 : 
294, do. 48, 1 : 296, do. 54, 1 : 298, ch. 60, 1 ; 
«o.6,2: 308, eh. 82, 7: 318, ch. 103, 1: 325. 
do. 117, 3 : UT., 328, do. 2, 2 : 332. do. 11, 
4 : 335. oh. 17, 2. 

i«i^, BA.. 75. eh. 230, 1. 

unr^, BA:.103.de.817,2. 



^iTf%, A.. 166, eh. 141, 3 : AR., 233. eh. 21, 8 s 

8U., 264, ch. 25, 1. 
^[Tt€P, A., 168.chh.5, 2. 
%r% BA., 24, eh. 75, 7 : 28, ch. 89, 1 : 34, eh. 103, 

1 : 36, ch. 108, 5 : 38, ch. 115, 4 : 50, ch. 150, 

7 : 51, ch. 155, 2 : 54, ch. 163, 6 : 57, eh. 174, 
2 : 58, eh. 175, 5 ; 61, eh. 188, 5 : 63, ch. 193, 
4, 6, 8 ; 194, 5 : 68, ch. 207, 3 : 70, eh. 213, 4 ; 
216, 3 : 73, chh. 29, 4 : 74, ch. 224, 3 : 77. 
eh. 236, 5 : 78. ch. 240, 2, 8 : 79, ch. 243, 2 : 
91, ch. 277, 6 : 95, ch. 291, 3 : 97, ch. 298, 4, 
8: 101, ch. 310, 6: 1 02, ch. 313, 8 : 103, ch. 316, 
7: 106, ch. 324, 7: 108, ch. 329, 7 : A., 
123, eh. 2, 3: 127, ch. 13, 8: 128, ch. 20, 
1 : 131, ch. 28, 4, 7 : 134, ch. 39, 1 : 140. 
ch.56, 3: 143, eh. 67, 6 : 163. ch. 130, 1: 164, 
ch. 134, 5 : 165, eh. 137, 6 : 169, eh. 149, 4 : 
170, ch. 153, 3 : 171, ch. 157, 2 : 172, ch. 168, 1 : 
181, ch. 188, 1 : 186, ch. 206, 8 : 191, eh. 221, 8 : 
196, eh. 236, 1 : 201, ch. 252, 7 : 202, ch. 266, 2 : 
206, eh. 270, 2 : 207, ch. 270, 3 : 208, ch. 275, 

8 : 211, eh. 286,7 : 216, ch. 300, 8 : AR.,229. 
Ch. 14, 17 : 239, ch. 33, 9 : 240. eh. 36, 7 : 
Kl., 245, ch. 5, 8 ; 6, 8 ; 7, 3 : 248, eh. 12, 8 : 
249, eh. 16, 1 ; 18, 1 : 254, ch. 30, 11 : 8U.. 266. 
ch. 2, 5 : 262, ch. 19, 8 : 263, ch. 24, 3 : 268, 
ch. 37, 7 : 268, ch. 36, 9 : 269, ch. 41, 2 : 273. 
ch. 53, 4, 6 : LN., 282, ch. 18, 12 : 299, Ch. 60, 
4 : 300, ch. 64, 8 : 309, ch. 84, 1 : UT.. 339. 
ch. 28, 5 : 343, ch. 41, 2 : 352, ch. 68, 8 : 
362, ch. 93, 3: 371, ch. 109, 16: 373, ch. 114, 

9 : 374, ch. 115, 7. 

^lt, BA., 66, ch. 202, 1 : 67. ch. 205, 1 : 120. 

ch. 361, 8 : A., 188, ch. 21, 3, 2 : 317, ch. 101, 2. 
mnn, BA., 57, ch. 173, 3 ; do. 173, 1 : 80, ch. 246, 

6 : LN.. 323, do. 112, 2. 
^nr*, BA., 75, ch. 230, 6. 
^nrv, UT.. 336, do. 20, 3: 360. do. 61, 1 : 367. 

do. 103,2. 

^TV«,UT..349,do. 58, 2 : 351, ch.66, 1 : 357, eh. 82, 
2 ; do. 82, 2 : 360, ch. 88, 10 : 362, do. 92, 1. 

nnri, UT.. 372, ch. Ill, 9. 

^jrw, UT.. 351, do. 64, 2 : 369, do. 107, 6. 

^mt, BA., 79, ch. 241, 4 : 8U., 257. eh. 6, 5 : 272, 
ch. 61, 7 : UT., 332, do. 12, 6 : 333, do. 13, 4 
334, do. 14, 3 : 336, ch. 20, 6: 341. eh. 33, 3 
344, ch. 44, 1 : 345, ch. 49, 1 : 346. ch. 51, 1 
do. 51, 1 : 360. ch. 64, 4 : 351, ch. 66, 7 ; 352. 
eh. 68, 6 ; 69, 5. 

^n, BA., 14, ch. 43, 7: 82, eh. 250, 10 : 91, eh. 277, 
4: 116, do. 348, 2: A.. 139, do. 52, 2: 163. 
ch. 130, 4 : 185, do. 201, 1 : 210. eh. 281, 7. 

^nv, BA., 101. ch. 310, 8 : LN., 289. oh. 85, 4. 



29 



mn%, BfiC, 62. ch. 190, 7 : A., 212. Ch. 287, 6 ; 289, 

1 : AR^ 233, ch. 21, 6. 
^awm, LN., 299, ch. 61, 3. 
mwx, 8U.. 270, ch. 43, 6. 
^n^9, Kl., 250, do. 19. 2 : SU.. 270, ch. 43, 1 : 

LN„ 287, ch. 30, 2 : 296, ch. 54, 6 : 299, ch. 62, 1 : 

300, ch. 63, 8 : UT., 327, do. 1, 6 ; ch. 2, 2 : 328. 

ch. 3, 4. 
^ni*, B/V.. 72, ch. 219, 9 : A., 166,.ch. 141, 7 : 222, 

eh. 2, 13 : AR., 227 . ch. 10, 2 : 8U., 270, do. 46, 

1 : LN., 283, ch. 20, 2 : 297, ch. 58, 11. 
^TW^. LN.,299,ch.6l,6. 

^iw«, BfiL, 31, ch. 97, 7 : A., 204, ch. 261, 8 : 218, 
ch. 307, 2 : AB., 233, do. 20, 2 : 236, ch. 26, 2 : 
W., 261 , oh. 22, 7 ; 23, 11 : SU.. 268. ch. 6, 8 : 
LN.,278,ch.8, 7: 326, ch. 118, 2. 

^ BM,, 19, ch. 60, 6 : 24, ch. 76, 3 : 28, Ch. 87. 8 : 
32, Ch. 98, 7 : 33, ch. 102, 6, 14 : 34, ch. 104, 1 : 
37, ch. Ill, 1, 3 : 39, ch. 119, 7 : 46, ch. 137, 6, 8 : 
48, ch. 146, 2 : 49, ch. 148, 14 s 60, ch. 150, 2, 8 : 
69, ch. 179, 4 r 182, 1 : 61, ch. 188, 4 : 63, ch. 196, 
8 : 66, ch. 202, 6:67. oh. 206, 7 : 7 1 , ch. 215, 9 s 74, 
ch.226, 8: 76,ch.227, 4, 6: 76, ch. 232, 1; 
do. 233, 2 : 79. ch. 241, 1 : 82, ch. 260, 8 ; 251, 6 ; 
262, 1 : 86, ch. 269, 7 ; 261, 7 : 86, ch. 261, 8 : 88, 
eh. 270, 3 : 91, ch.276, 2 ; do.276, 2 : 91, ch. 278, 
1 : 96, ch. 296, 6 : 97, ch. 298, 7 : 98. ch. 301, 1 : 
104. ch. 318, 10 : 106. ch. 826, 8 : 108, ch. 328, 
1: 112, do. 333, 1; 336, 2: 116, ch. 343, 4; 
ch. 346, 5 : 1 17, ch. 360, 3 : 1 18, do. 863, 1 ; 865, 
2 : 120, ch. 363, 5 : 121 , ch. 364, 6 ; do. 364, 2 ; 
oh. 366, 3 : 122, ch. 367, 6 : A., 123, ch. 2, 1 : 124, 
fth. 6, 1 : 126. do. 11, 1 : 142. ch. 62, 4 : 148, 
oh. 72,3: 146, ch. 74,10: 149, ch. 84, 7: 160, 
ch. 87, 6 : 153, ch. 98, 2 ; 165, ch. 103, 7 ; 106, 6 ; 
106,3: 169, ch. 116, 6; 117,6; 118, 6: 160, 
ch. 120, 5 ; do. 120, 2 : 163, ch. 128, 7; 129, 1, 
6 :164, ch. 132, 3, 7 : 167, ch. 142, 6 : 168, ch. 146, 
11 : 169, ch. 160, 8 : 172, ch. 159, 1 : 173. ch. 163, 
7. 174, ch. 164, 3; 165,2: 176. ch. 169, 8; 
do. 169, 2: 184, ch. 196,2, 3; 198, 3: 186, 
eh. 204, 6 : 188, ch. 212, 8 : 190, ch. 218, 4 : 191, 
ch.219, 6,6: 196, do. 283, 2: 199, ch. 247, 5: 
203, ch. 260, 4 : 206, ch. 266. 6 : 206, do. 267, 2 : 
210! ch. 281,2: 212, ch. 288, 8: 218, do. 308, 
2: 219, Ch. 810, 6: AR^ 222, ch. 2, 19: 224, 
ch! 4, 8: 226, ch. 7, 16: 227, ch. 9,2,7: 232. 
ch.17, 2; 18,3: 237, ch. 29,6: 239, c^ 82, 6; 
240, ch. 36, 3 : 241 , ch. 40, 1: Kl., 244, ch. 2, 1 : 
248, ch. 12, 10; 13,2: 249, ch. 16, 6: 260, 
Ch.l9,8;ch. 20, 6; do. 20, 2: 261, do. 21, 
1 : 252. Ch. 62, 3 : 8U., 262, ch. 20, 6 : 263, ch. 24, 



6 : 264, ch. 25, 6 : 266, ch. 28, 7 ; do. 28, 2 : 266 
eh. 32, 1 : 267, do. 34, 1 ; ch. 86, 8: 270, eh. 43, 
3 ; 44, 1 : 273, eh. 53, 2 : 275. eh. 58, 8 : LN., 277. 
eh. 3, 5 ; 4, 5 : 283, ch. 19, 3 : 290, ch. 37, 10 ; 
do. 37, 2: 291, ch. 39. 3: 292, eh. 43, 4: 293. 
do.44,2;ch.47, l:297.ch.68,2: 801.ch.66,8; 
68,10: 303, ch. 73,4: 304, oh. 74, 2,6: 307, 
do. 81, 8: 308, do. 82,1: 313, Ch. 94, 4: 314 
do. 95, 1 : 318, chtlOS, 7 : 319, oh. 104, 3; 106, 
10 : 320. ch. 107, 2 : 322. ch. Ill, 6 : 323. do. Ill, 
2 ; ch. 113, 1 : 324, ch. 116, 1 : 326, ch. 118, 
6, 10 : UT., 328, ch. 3, 7 ; 4, 1 : 329, Ch. 6, 1. 
^, LN., 325, ch. 117, 3. 

^1<t, LN., 297, ch. 69, 2: 302, ch. 69, 6: 303, 
ch. 71, 10 : 304, ch. 74, 1 : 318, ch. 102, 6: 325. 
eh. 118, 7. 

^TqV, LN., 272, Ch. 7, 2. 

^rm, BAT., 18, ch. 66, 3 : 27, eh. 83, 8 : 37, eh. 112, 
3:58,ch. 177,8: 60, do. 182,1: 61. eh. 187, 
13:62,ch. 191,7: 98, ch. 301, 6: 101, eh. 310, 
4 : 121. eh. 366, 8 : A., 133, ch. 36, 2 : 142, oh. 63, 
3 : 143, Ch. 68, 1 : 162,ch.94, 7: 166, ch. 140, 7 : 
167, ch. 143, 1 : 199, eh. 245, 4 : Kl., 244, ch. 2i 
6 : 250, Ch. 19, 5 : SU., 260, ch. 14, 7 : 270, ch. 44, 
4 : LN., 279, ch. 10, 1 : 295, ch. 60, 4 : 308. ch. 82, 
3 : UT., 358, ch. 83, 2. 

^iTn;, Kl., 251,ch.22,8. 

^nvt, UT.. 330, Chh. 2, 5. 

%n*, SU., 255, Ch. 1, 3. 

%tn, BAf., 10, ch. 26, 6: 16, ch. 47, 5, 6: 20. 
do. 62, 2 : 53, ch. 161, 1 : 61, ch. 187, 6; 188, 2 : 
101, Ch. 311, 5: 102, do. 811, Ij 314,1: 106, 
chh. 36,3: 1 08, ch. 329, 2 : 113, ch. 839,3: 117, 
eh. 349, 8 : A., 135, ch. 39, 6 : 144. do. 70, 1 : 163. 
eh. 129,6: 170, ch.l63, 2: 205, do. 264, 1; 
ch. 266, 6 : AR., 235, ch. 26, 12 : 236, ch. 26, 1 : 
237, ch. 28, 6 : Kl.. 243, oh. 1, 2 : 245, ch. d, 13 : 
247,ch.lO, 3: 8U.,265,eh.29,7:LN., 287,ch. 32, 
7, 8, 10 : 290, ch. 36, 8 : 295, ch. 60, 8 : 299. 
eh. 62, 2 : 300, ch. 66, 4 : 304, ch. 73, 11, 12 : 307. 
do.80, 2 : 312, ch; 91, 1 : UT.. 328, eh. 3, 6 ; 4, 2 : 
329, eh. 4, 9^; do. 6, 1 : 336, ch. 21, 3: 341. 
do. 33, 1:361. ch.64, 6:356, do. 77, 1: 374. 
eh. 116, 12. 

^mr9t, AR., 224, eh. 4, 6. 

^tnvfH, BiK., 6, ch. 16, 4 : 35, eh. 106, 7. 

^nfv, B/K., 2, eh. 1, 6 : 14, eh. 43, 6 : 70. eh. 216. 

6:77,ch.234,8: A., 126, ch. 12, 2: 148. eh. 81, 

4 : 178, eh. 176, 8 : LN., 302. ch. 70, 6 : UT.. 339. 

eh. 28, 2 : 344. ch. 43, 4 : 349, ch. 68, 7. 
^T^, BiK., 76. do. 230, 1 : A., 145. ch. 72, 1 ; 

AR., 230, eh. 16, 20 : Kl., 250. do. 18, 2 : LN., 296. 

eh. 66, 8 : 319. ch. 104, 2 : 106, 4. 



— 30 



<«m,filV^6>fih.l4,8:1«,etk48»4t 22,Cti.67, 1: 
i8« oh. 70, 7$ 72, 7 : 3fli oh. 117, 4 : 40; oh^ 119, 
SiU, eh. 134, 4 1 47. ch. 143, 1 i 67, ch. 174, 3 : 
5«,oh. 17^6i8« 60, ich. 184, « - 62, eh. 100, 3 ; 
181, 8 1 65. «h. 199, 9 : 67, oh. ^205, 6 : 66, Oh. 208, 
7:?0,^ 214k5t 76, ch. 226, 2 i 79. «h. 2^, 5 : 
66. oh. 0^, 7 : 91, Oh. 276, 5: 104, oh. 318, 13 : 
110, Ch. 832, 7t A, 132, ch. 28, 5: 163,ch.88, 
14 : 165, ch. 187, 4 : 166, ch. 142, 1 : 206. oh. 266, 
4:Aa,230.Ch. 1$, U, 13: 234. ch. 34, 7 : 236, 
Ch. 27^ 6 : 238. ch. 29, 8 : Kl., 246, ch. 6, 2, 10 : 
247, ch. 10, 6: 246, ch. 14^ 7 : 262, oh. 24, 7 : 
253. ch. 27, 10; 28, 3 : aU.. 266, ch. 2, 11: 268, 
ch.9, 2: 261. Ch. 18, 3: 262, ch. 19, 4; 20, 
. 4^264, ch. 27, 6: 266,ch.28, 2: 266, ch.34, 
6: 268. ch. 38, 2: 270, Ch. 43, 4, 7; 44,8: 
27 1 , oh. 47, 8 : 273, do. 52, 2 : LN., 279. ch. 10, 2 : 
282. ch. 18, 16 : 284, oh. 23, 6 : 285, ch. 24, 16 : 
292, ch. 42, 6 : 294, ch. 48, 7 : 296, ch. 55, 2 : 298, 
ch.56, 22, 24: 301, ch. 68,3: 303, ch.73, 5: 
304. ch. 75, 6 : 308, ch. 82, 7 k 310, ch. S6, 2 : 320. 
ch. 107, 10 : 32%, ch. 117, 1 : UT., 336. ch.21, 5 : 
370, ch. 108, 7 : 376, ch. 117, 4. 

%A, BfiC., 64. do. 164, 2. 

^ BM., 16, ch.48i,^: 27, ch. 85, «: 7^chh.28, 

3 : SU.. 268, ch. 37, 3 : 271:, ch. -48, 2^ LN« 302, 
do. 70, 2 : UT.. 360, ch.«8j 19 : 374, oh. 11^ 4. 

^T^, A., 137,ch.46, 4:: .211, ch. 296, 4s ML, #46, 
ch. 6, 6: LN.,303. oh. 72, 18 : 3 1 8, fih. ItSS, 4 : 
4IT., 372, ch.111, 14. 

it^, AR., 224.ch. 5, 2. 

1b««,.BHr.,:20,bh.62,10. 

^, A., 132,«h. 31, 7 : 8U.,i61, «h. 16, 4. 

:tt<T, 'A.,(18i7,(<ih.4S,«. 

^TO, BAf„17.ch.62,2: 86, oh. 262, 4: A^^ 127, 

- ch. I'^l: 149. ch.S4, 8: 165, ch. 104, 7: 217. 

. oh. 305, 1 : 219, do. 310, 2 : AR^ 242, chh. 11, 4: 
9U.. 268, do. 37, 1:275, cMv 3,4: LN, 308, 
do. 82, 2: 313, ch. 93,6: UT.. 333, chh.^ 11: 
342, ch. 36, 5.: 345, oh. 47, 5 : 369, 90. 3, 2. . 

^ireT(l) (hope), BAC„ 87.ch.265, 1: A., 138, oh. 60, 13 : 
169, ch. 149^ 5 :KI., 249,ch. 16;.9 : UT.,341, ch. 33, 

" 6 : 346, ch. 47, 3, 5 : 369, oh. 86, 7: .377. oh. 119, 6. 

^10^(2) (region), LN., 280, oh. 14,1 : 328, oh.116, 8. 

^H^Rl BAf., 18. oh. 56, 6 : 28,.ch. 70,4.: 24,'Ch.76, 
. 6 : 36. Ch. 108, 1 : 38, eh. 115,^: 45. dh. 135, 6 : 
: 46, Ch. 140, i> : 54, oh. .163, 2 : 57. ch. 174, 1 : 72. 
Ch. 219, 2: 82. oh. 251, 8: 106. ch. 325, 8: 
m, do. 826, 2; ch. 327, 4; chh. 38, 1; 40, 
8.: 109, Ch. ^31, 10 : 112, eh. 234, 7 : A., 152. 
ch; 96, iv 166, ch. .104, 1: 160, ch. 121, 8: 



164.dk 198, 6: 187. Ch. 207, 3: 207. elk 270. 
4: 219. ch. 312, 4: AR., i22, «>. 3, 1: 227. 
oh. 9, 11: 238, ch. 29, 10 : 8U, 268, eh.a8,8: 
LN., 280, oh. 12, 4. 
^T««i% BA; 121, ch. 365, 3. 

irrf^('^)i B*., 9 1 , ch. 377, 6t 09, ch. 808, 8 : 
107. chh. 89,3: 116. ch. 347, 8; 348, 6: 119, 
ch.357, 3: A., 143, ch. 67, 5: 144. ch.«6, 7: 
M«. Chh. 3, S : 168, ch. 129, 7i 17t, ch. 176, 
7: 196, Ch. 233, 2: 198. eh. 242, 12: 201. 
ch. 276, 6: 218. ch. 307, 5; 308, 3: AR, 223, 
oh. 3. 2: 8U.. 256. do. 2, 2 s 261, oh. 17, 2,6: 
LN„325, oh. 118, 4: UT, 330, do. 7, 3: 331, 
do. 9, 2 : 371 , ch. 110, 16. QL ^^, ^if^. 
^T^IVT, UT.. 369, oh. 106, 16. 

^iPijK,— S^,A., 196. ch. 237,8. **t^, B«„ 116, 
eh.346, 1: 119, eh. %9, 2: A., 160, Ch. 121, 1 : 
LN., 321, oh. 109, 2. Of. ^«W, ^thm. 

^imnt AR, 222, CO. 3, 1 : Kl, 248. eh. 18, 6 : 
LN.. 280. oh. 12, 4; do. 1!^ 1: UT^ 369. 
do. 107, 3. 
^fvAwT, BA:.21. ch. 64,6: A&, 228. oh. 11,6: 
240. ch. 36, 8. 

^mr'5?ft^^5 BAf.,26. ch. 80, 4:11, chh. 6, 4: 
136, ch. 44, 8. 



^Tf^, LN.. 296, Ch. 54, 1 : J06, Ch. 79, 8. 

^^ff. A., 127, ch. 14, 6: 172,^. 169,4. 

in^nr, BU., 18,ch.«6,6;.66,i,8: ]9.tih.«0, 6: 
44, ch. 132,^2 : 62, ch. 156, SB : S3, ch. 162, 1 : 54, 
ch. 163, 1 : i63, ch. 194, 1 : 7;1. ch. 2^8, 2 : 73. 
do. 221, 1 ; ch. 222, 11 : A, 16Q,<do. ISO, 1 : 162. 
oh. 127,:2 : 187. do. 207^ 2 : .193, «h. 226, .1 : 194. 
ch.23D, 2: 196, do. 236^ ;2: iQ5, do. 265,1; 
ch. 266, 6,1 AR., 222. eh. 2. 18, J21 : i26,do. 7, 2 : 
227, ch. 9, 2, 5 : 236, ch. 2^, 3, 6, 6; J37. ch. 29, 
6 : 8U.. 274. ch. 57, 12i LM.,.277.. oh. 4, 6 : 296. 
oh. 56, 2 : UT,. 351, ch. 65,j2 : 357-, oh. 82, 2 : 362, 
do. 92, 1 : 363, oh. 95, 1 : 36S,ch. 107, 10 : 371. 
do. U0,.8 : 372, ch. Ill, % .14. 

«iwi%, A.,21Q,ch.280,6. 

mxmH, B/^. 44. ch. 133, 1 : A.. 160. ch. 121, 2. 

.^T!ii)f)«, ARH225.do.6,2. 

-^STOnH', KI.,'249',do.l6,2: 

^irf^l BAT.. 41, ch. 126, 1 : A^ »a. tOh. .226, 8 : 
UT.,333,Chh. 5, 19. 



I) BA(, 60, do. 149, 1. Of.^:m. 



— 81 — 



f(2), A., 171, eh. 167, 6. 



I.SI1 Me v%. 

C^ET, BA(., Jl.oh. M, : 38, ell. IM, 4 : 48, ch. U6, 
3 ; 87, do. 204, 8 : A., 174, oh. 16«, 7 : AR., 239, 
do. SS, S : Kl, 2B2, do. 26, 1 : 8U., 267, oh. S5, 
» : 27 1 , ch. 48, e : 272, ch. 49, » ! LN., 296, oh. 62, 
4:UT.,362, ch.93,lS: 371, oh.!!!, 4. Of. tn. 
V*, A., 174, oh. 168, 7 : SU, 267, ch. 36, 
9. S™, BAC, 82, oh. 166, 9. V«, UT., 371, 
do. 110, 3. 

tP*.d, SAC, 26, ch. 80, 8 : 374, oh. 116, 4. 

X^l B«.,7l,do. 216, 1: 90, ch. 276,8: A., 138, 
do. 40, 1 : 148, do. 83, 2 H90, ch. 218, 11 : AR., 
234, oh. 24, 9 : LN., 262, do. 18, 2 : 291, oh. 40, 7 : 
296,ch.62, 4: 302, ch. 69, 10 : 306, do. 76,2: 
306, do. 77, 6; ch. 79, 6. 

t<HTi Xs^i T<T^» trt'ir^i tfWtti 

see jnfWT. 
iri<li, Kl., 248, ch. 14, B. 

!%> LN., 321, chh. 36, 1« : UT.. 36B, oh. 106, 2 : 
369, do. 106, 1 : 374, ch. 116, 1. Hn, BAT, 4, 
ch.7, 4 : 24, ch. 76, 4 : 62, do. 166, 1 : 86, ch. 168, 
6: 78, ch. 238,2: A., 169, do. 160, 1: 194, 
do. 228, 2: 216, ch. 299,1: irr.,371,cb. Ill, 
2. ^vni BA., 22, oh. 63,6: 121, oh. 366, 6: 
A., 169, ch. 149, 6 : 188. ch. 210, 7 : SU., 266, 
oh. 28, 6 : UT., 348, ch. 66, 8 : 349, ch. 69, 1 : 379, 
ch. 123, 1. 

XIBt B«., 42,ch.l28,«. 

1[^, AR., 223, chh.l, 23: LN, 321, chh. 86,22. 
CKfin<, BA., 42, oh. 128, 2. 

S^fi^M, B«., 21, do. 64, 1: IN., 320, chh. 36, 
«. V» AR.,222, ohh.1, 11. hm, UT., 341, 
ch. 35, 4. , 

X^ BA.,3<. oh. 114, 6: 61, ch.207, 6: A^227, 
do. 8, 2 : KI., 249, ch. 17, 7 : UT, 376, oh. 118, 21. 
'tmv\, BA, 69, ch. 210, 7. "vn, LN, 280, 
ell 13, 8. 

5^,— «jSre, UT, >68, oh. 106, IS. •wnw, AR, 239, 
ell.34, 4. Vrfv, LN., 286, ch. 29, 10. fm, 



^ISOf, BA, 66, ch. 201, 6: 93, do. 28, 
Ch291, 2: 101, do. 829,1: A, 133, c 
LN., 303, ch. 73, 1. 



II X II 



SU,262, oh. 19, 3. ^sW, BA, 64, ch 
LN, 288, eh. 83, 20. VhtT, LN., 326, ol 
**W-«T, UT, 349, ch, 69, 4. tij. L 
oh. 84, 6. H^, LN, 316, chh. 27, 2. 



SSf^v 



h— "im, irr, 374, oh. ii6, ii. 

«P«^. UT, 374, ch. 116, 16. 
tP«w, a, 169, ch. 148, 2. Nm, Kl, 249, ol 
ifiWTfit*, AR, 223, chh, 1, 16. 

X?Wl BA, 14, do. 40,8. Stt *n. 

51^1 BA., 8, oh. 22, 12 : to. 3, 2 : 19, ch. 6C 
oh. 62, 2; 22, ch. 68, 4: 41, oh. 124 
eh. 126, 4:44, oh. 132, 8:61, oh. 16! 
oh. 166, 7: 76, oh. 229, 4: 79, do. 24: 
ch. 263, 5 : 86, ch. 263, 4, 6 : A., 133, c 
140, ch. 68, 2: 166, oh. 141,8: 178, ch. 
194, ch. 229, 6 : AR, 226, ch. 7, 21 : 227, i 
239, ch. 32, 2 : Kl, 246, ch. 7, 24 : 249, c 
8U, 274, do. 66, 3 : LN, 277, ch. 3, 1 : 2& 
4:288,ch. 26, «: 301, do. 66, 2 : 303, ch 
310,ch. 87,6; UT, 340, oh. 31, 8: 38, 
2: 366, do. 77, 3; ch. 78, 2: 367, ch 
370, ch. 108, 6: 371, ch. 109, 14: 376, 
17, 18 : 380, ch. 126, 6. 

', BK, 14, do. 40, 2 : 42, do. 126, 1: 
do. 117, 2; AR, 226, oh. 7, 23: 23( 
10 : LN, 288, eh. 26, 7 : 3 1 1 , chh. 17, 8 : 
ch. 7S, 2. 

li.m (t), BA, 90, do. 274, 1: A., 148 
6 : 189, ch. 116, 6 : UT, 366, ch. 99, 
eh. 104, 6. w»ift-6mw, UT„ 342, oh, 

tlHIllLl UT, 376, eh. 118, 83. 

X^t 8«,20,oh.«2,8. "t^, BA,20,ch.( 
oh. 268, 6 : LN, 302, ch, 69, 8 : UT, 381 
6. ■^, BA, 86, ch. 260, 6. 

TJl^ XfVi jfii T^i V^i « 

X^t BA,16,eh.t7,t:33,eh.l03, 10:88, 
8.' 87, oh. 178,6: It, eh. 218, 7: 74, ch. 
77, ok. 234, 6 : 92, eh. 281, 3 : A., 133, cl 
It], ch. 131, 4 : 118, di. 210,3: 1 92, eh 
I97,eh.23»,7: 206, ch. 267, 7 : ^08,«h 
209,ch.277,4:210,,oh.281,2: 212,ch. 



xf^. 



u 



f\ 



■'•It 



1 



— 32 



AR., 233, Ch. 19, 8 : KL, 244, oh. 2, S ; 5, 3 : 245, 
ch.' 6, IS : 250, oh. 19, 1 ; 252, oh. 26, 1, 4 : 254, 
ch. 30, 9 : SU., 257. oh. 6, 1 : 269, do. 10, 1 : 269, 
eh. 40, 8 : LN^ 277, oh. S, 4 : 280. ch. 12, 1 : 282, 
Ch. 18,1: 290, Oh. 37, 3: 296, oh. 56, 6: 297, 



fc-W, BAf., 30, Ch. 95, 7 : 68, ch. 209, 4 : 71, oh. 
216, 2 : 72, do. 219, 2 : 76, ch. 229, 3 : 76, ch. 232, 
5: 77, ch. 235, 4 : 92, ch. 281, 6: 103, Ch. 317, 
2 : 1 04, Chh. 34, 2 : 1 06, ch. 317, 2 : 1 07. ch. 326, 
»: 1 14, oh. 341, 6 : A., 137, ch. 47, 5 : 146. ch. 72, 
T; 74, 5 ; 167, ch. 112, 8 : SU, 269, do. 42, 2 : 
LN., 285, do. 24, 2. Sm fif. 

<C«f%, BAT., 76, ch. 228, 5. 8m T<«^. 

^nff, BA., 46, ch. 141, 4 : 77, ch. 284, 2 : 94, 
ch. 287, 8 : A., 168, oh. 115, 5, 8 ; 116, 5 : 169, 
oh. 117, 4. 

n, BAT., 77, oh. 234, 8; do. 234, 1 : 103. Ch. 317, 
8 : A., 159, Ch. 117, 5 : 172, ch. 160, 6 : KI., 246, 
Ch. 7, 18: 247, oh. 9, 8: SU, 257, chh. 1, 11: 
273, ch. 65, 1 : 278, ch. 69, 2 : LN., 293. ch. 45, 
10: 313, ch.94,5: 322, ch. HI, 2: UT., 331. 
Ch.9, 6,8: 340, ch.32,6: 353, Ch. 71, 6: 368, 
Oh. 106, 14. Bee tff. 

rt^Tr AB., 241 , 39, 3. 8ee Xfi^. 

TXT, 8U., 269, Oh. 41, 8. See T^. 

Tf%, B/^M 10, do. 27, 1 : 14, ch. 48, 1 : 16, ch. 47, 6 ; 
ch. 48, 8: 19, ch. 60, 8: 22^ Ch. 67, 2: 23, 
ch.70,l:25,ch.77,4,5,6: 27, Ch. 86, 3: 29, 
do. 92, 2: 41, Ch.125, 1: 43, oh. 130, 4: 45, 
ch. 137, 2 ; 138, 3 : 46, ch. 138, 8 ; do. 138, 1 ; 
Ch.l39, 2; 140,2: 48, do. 146,1; ch. 147,1: 
50ido. 149, 1: 57, oh. 173, 1: 61, ch. 187,4: 
62, ch. 190, 2 ; 191, 3, 5 : 66, ch. 202, 5 : 68. 
ch. 207, 3 ; 209, 1 : 69, ch. 212, 1 : 70. ch. 212, 7 : 
71, ch. 218, 7 : 73, chh. 81, 8 : 74. do. 226, 2 : 
76. ch. 232, 8 : 77, ch. 234, 8 ; do. 236, 1 : 80, 
Ch.246, 6: 81, chh. 32, 3: 83, ch. 253, 8: 84, 
do. 257, 1 : 92. ch. 279, 8 : 93, Ch. 288, 8 : 94, 
ch. 287, 8 : 95, oh. 291, 4: 101, ch. 811, 4: 104, 
Ch. 818, 9, 12; 819, 5: 105, ch. 321, 8: 106, 
ch. 325, 8; Ohh. 36, 3: 112, ch. 386, 8: 113, 
Ch. 337, 8 ; 838, 5 ; 340, 1 : 114, ch. 341, 8:115, 
Ch. 848, 8: 118, do. 358, 1; do. 866, 1: 121, 
do. 865, 1: A., 128, ch. 19, 7: 132. ch. 30,1: 
137. ch. 47, 2, 6: 138, ch. 60, 11, 12: 139, 
do. 51, 1: 141, ch. 60,6: 147, ch. 79, 1, 7; 
80, 6: 149. ch. 84, 7: 161, ch. 91, 3: 153, 
ch. 98, 16 ; 99, 2: 165, oh. 108, 6 : 166, do. 108, 
1 : 158, Ch. 114, 2 : 159, do. 116, 1 ; 118, 1 : 
162, ch. 127, 1 : 164, oh. 182, 4: 165, oh. 137, 



Ch. 59, 1 : 303, ch. 71, 10 ; ch. 72, 3 : 30t. 
ch. 82, 1, 7 ; 88, 5 : 315, ch. 97, 7 : 326, ch. 116, 9, 
11 ; do. 116, 1 ; ch. 118, 6 : UT.. 329, Ch. 6, 1, 7 : 
346, oh. 46, 1 : 354, ch. 72, 8 : 356, ch. 78, 8 : 372. 
Ch. Ill, 10 : 373, Ch. 118, 1. 



II t II 



8: 166, ch. 142, 1: 167, oh. 148, 6: 16t. 
Ch.147, 2: 169, ch. 150,8: 170, do. 151, 1; 
Ch.l&2, 8; 168, 6: 173, ch. 168, 6: 174. Ch. 164, 
5 :'175. ch. 170, 3 : 176. do. 170, 2 : 177, ch. 173, 
6 : 181, ch. 187, 6 ; 190, 8 : 182, do. 190, 1 : 183, 
Ch. 194, 16 : 186, ch. 203, 2 : 188, ch. 212, 5 : 189. 
Ch.214, 4: 190. ch. 216, 8: 1 94, ch. 231, 4 : 196. 
ch. 234, 8 : 199. Ch. 246, 8 : 200, ch. 250, 4: 201. 
Ch.252, 5 : 204, ch. 263, 3, 8; 264, 2 : 205. ch. 266, 
5 : 206, ch. 269, 1 ; do. 269, 1 ; oh. 270, 1 : 208. 
Ch.276, 4: 210, do. 280, 2; oh. 282, 5: 216, 
ch. 800, 1 : AR., 226, ch. 6, 8 : 227, Oh. 9, 2 : 
LN., 315, ch. 96, 13: UT^ 368, ch. 106, l,-8. 
Seei^. 

Tf(, BiV., 6, oh. 14, 1, 7 : 12, do. 86, 1 : 14, oh. 44, 
8:16, ch. 47, 3 : 18, ch. 66, 1 : 26, do. 77, 2 : 26. 
Ch. 80, 8, 6 : 30. ch. 98, 7 : 37. ch. Ill, 6 : 104. 
Chh. 84, 4 : A., 137, ch. 47, 5. 

T%, B/V., 65, Ch. 199, 1 : A., 138, ch. 60, 16 : 146, 
ch. 74, 8:177, ch. 176,2: LN., 286. ch. 28, 1 : 
UT., 340, ch. 81, 1 : 377, ch. 120, 2. Bee r«T. 

rJt, A., 184, ch. 199, 1 : 200, ch. 261, 2. 

Tfr, BA.. 7, ch. 19, 1 : 15, ch. 47, 1 : 26. ch. 77, 4 : 
AR., 229. ch. 14, 2 : 234, ch. 23, 4, 13 : 235, ch.26, 
26 : 236, ch. 26, 16 : 239, ch. 83, 12 : la^ 244, 
ch.4, 6: 246, ch. 7, 21: 261, do. 21, 1: 262, 
ch. 27, 1 : SU., 266, ch. 3, 3: 257, ch. 6, 4; chh. 1, 
ll:258,ch.8, 2: 259. ch. 11, 6: 264, ch.26, 8: 
265, ch. 28, 2 ; 29, 2 : 267, do. 86, 1 : SU., 270. 
oh. 43, 1 : 276, ch. 60, 4, 5 : LN., 279, ch. 10, 1 : 
280, do. 12, 1 : 282, do. 17, 1 : 283, ch. 20, 8 : 285, 
oh. 24, 3 : 288, ch. 33, 1, 22 : 294, oh. 48, 4 : 295, 
Ch. 61, 6: 300, ch. 64,6: 302, oh. 69,9: 304. 
Oh. 78, 10 : 306, ch. 77, 10 ; do. 77, 4 : 308, oh. 83, 
5 ;chh. 10,4 : 315, chh. 24, 1, 4: 316. chh. 26, 12 : 
UT., 330. ch. 7, 8 : 334, tot- 1, 14: 337, ch. 28, 4: 
340, do. 81, 1 : 344, oh. 43, 3 ; 46, 1 : 346, do. 49, 
2 : 353, do. 70, 2 : 357, do. 80, 4 : 359, ch. 87, 6 : 
361, chh. 9,3: 362, ch. 93, 7, 12: 368, do. 105, 
7 ; ch. 106, 4, 7 : 369, do. 106, 8 : 370, oh« 109, 9, 
11 : 372. ch. Ill, 9 : 374, to. 13, 1 : 377. eh. 119, 
1, 5, 8 : 380, ch. 126, 3, 4. Bee iif^. 

tr, UT., 331, ch. 9, 7. Bee t. 

q^, BA., 29, ch. 90, 5 : 43, oh. 131, 3 : AR., 2S2. 
oh. 19, 5 : 236, Ch. 26, 14 : KL, 246. 6h. 7, < : 






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COMPARATIVE DICTIONARY 



OF THB 



BIHARI LANGUAGE. 



PART 11. 

From ^^^Firrf^Wrr &g*rmlim to ^^f% anjall 



: • >( 



COMPILED BY 

A. F. RUDOLF HCERNLE, 

OF THE BENGAL EDnCATIONAL SEBVICB, 

AND 

GEORGE A. GRIERSON, 

OF HEB majesty's BENGAL CIVIL 8EBTICE. 



[jpublisheb wnbtx the patronage of the (Sotjernmcnt of ^Bengal] 



CALCUTTA: 
AT THE BENGAL SECRETARIAT PRESS. 

SOLO BY 

TUiJBNER & CO.. 67 AND 69, LUDGATE HILL, LONDOXj 

BEEITKOPP & H^KTEL. LEIFZIC; 

AND 
W. NEWMAN & CO., 4, DALHOUSIE SQUARE, CALCUTTA. 

1889. 



r 



Frlce B^. 2 or 4 shUlings to original subscribers; Rs. 2-8 or 5 sMUings to non'Suiseribers, 



Ittbian |.txstitttt£. 4Morb.